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^F^VtOvemb'er 1983 $3.95 u.k. £2.55 

THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

Great Simulations . . . Announcing the Winners 




STORE A YEl 
APPOINTMENTS 



PLUS . . . 



AN AUTOMATIC 
PHONE DIALER 



Two 



c OMMUN 



COMPOSE 
OFFLINE MESSAGES 

BULLETIN BOARDS 
ACROSS AMERICA 





l 44Z54"00001 1 



AND MORE TH 
30ipRlll#T«R#V 2 if^ 



Under the Rainbow 





COVER art © 1983 by Fred Crawford 



Feature Articles 

You Are The SYSOP/ Lane Lester, Ph. D 20 

Data Communications Operate your own BBS with RainBoard 
Remember Those Dates/ Program by Bill Bruck 33 

Utility Store your appointments for a whole year 
Message Master/ A lan Davenport 42 

Data Communications Write messages offline and 

reduce connect time 
CoCo Caller/ Jorge Mir 53 

Data Communications Here's an automatic phone 

dialer for the Modem II 
The Vote Is In/ Charles Springer 68 

Simulation Contest Report Announcing the results of 

our Simulation Contest 
And The Winner Is/ Bob Tyson, PhD 74 

Game Election $4 is one heck of a campaign and our 

Grand Prize Winner 
Game Without Winners/ Thomas G. Weber 90 

Game WarGame receives our Graphics Best of Show award 
Long Distance Operator/ Dan Downard 118 

Utility Remote operation of your Color Computer 
Bulletin Boards Are For Calling/ Ric Manning 122 

Data Communications A sampling of BBS's from 

around the country 
Printer Mysteries/ Michael Himowitz 126 

Graphics Upgrading a popular old typewriter game 
Johann Sebastian CoCo/ Tommy and Gail Pollock 152 

Music A digitized ditty by Christian's daddy 
Color Your Text Screen/ Rich Dersheimer 158 

Graphics A colorful graphics utility 
E-Z Graphics/ Fred B. Scerbo 160 

Graphics An easy-to-use graphic screen DATA compiler 
A Million Bits Per Second?/ Harry Hardy 173 

DataCommunications An introduction to synchronous 

data transmission 

Fast Talker/ Richard A. White 186 

Tutorial "C" may become the language of the *80s 
CoCoCommunicating/Ztob Rosen 192 

Data Communications Expanding the horizons of your CoCo 
Interfacing the Gemini- 1 0/ William R. Hall 202 

Utility Interfacing CoCo to the Gemini-10 and -15 
How? That's How!/ Henry Portela 204 

Graphics Good graphics, good for kids 
A Glowing Tail Of Batt\e/ Joseph A. Laake 220 

Game A warring worm bent on insecticide 
MegaBoard/ Alexander B. Trevor 288 

Data Communications An inside look at CompuServe 
A Computometer?//WS. Hoffman 292 

Utility Measure your vacation route with X-Pad 
Is It Off?/ Richard S. Ellis 296 

Project An on/ off indicator for your disk drives 
Dry-Clean Your Disks/ David and Thomas Szlucha 308 

Disk Utility No more diskpan hands 
A Buncha BBSs I Staff 325 

Data Communications A state-by-state list 
Love At First Byte / Charlotte Bish 328 

Commentary A computer widow's lament 



Departments 

Letters To Rainbow/Owr Readers 6 

PRINT ti-2 ,/ Lawrence C Folk 13 

Editor's Notes 

Building November's Rainbow/7/w Reed 16 

A many-hued preview to this month's issue 
KISSable OS-9/ Dale L. Puckett 58 

Looking into the heart of OS-9 operation 
Education Overview/ Dr. Michael Plog 115 

Phasing in the computer revolution 
Game Master's Apprentice/ Bob Albrecht 140 

A champion-building program 

The Pipeline/ Staff 156 

The Dragon's Byte/ Bill Nolan 168 

A grand system for fantasy gamers 

About Your Subscription 196 

Bits And Bytes Of Basic/ Richard White 198 

Stringing along with Dick and the BASlCs 
CoCo Counsel/ Tom Nelson 212 

Steps to copyrighting your software 

Rainbow Scoreboard 226 

Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano 230 

Building a speaker/ amplifier 
Reviewing Reviews 237 

Readers' comments on Rainbow reviews 

Back Issue Information 276 

Submitting Material To Rainbow 285 

Assem bly Corner/ Dennis Lewando wski 298 

A couple of quickies save the day 
Greetings From Uncle Bert/ Dale Peterson 300 

Some state-of-the-art art 
Basic Training/ Joseph Kolar 306 

Waste not, and other tips on frugality 
Education Notes/ Steve Blyn 314 

Educational possibilities of synthesized speech 

Corrections 319 

RAINBOW Info 320 

Received And Certified 322 

CoCo Clubs 330 

Advertiser Index 338 

Don Inman's Using Graphics will return in December. 



Product Reviews 

Amortization 274 

Arex 244 

Atari Joysticks 270 

Blackjaq 250 

C.C. Dialer 254 

Color Finance 238 

Color Ink Jet Printer 242 

Color Term+Plus+ 246 

Color Zap 286 

The Companion 273 

Cosmic Clones 286 

Deprec 272 

Derby 285 

Disasm 248 

Disk Manager 275 

Elcircan 280 

Flexi Filer 282 



Fundfile 262 

Gorilla Monitor 284 

Grand Slam 260 

Guardian 277 

Label III 255 

Line Cross Reference 256 

Pigskin Predictions 258 

Quicksort 283 

Reactoid 282 

Remote Reset 268 

Sonar Search 281 

Super Color Speller 266 

That's INTERESTing 264 

3-D Tic-Tac-Toe 272 

Voicepak 278 

Video Plus 284 



NEXT MONTH: December is our holiday issue month, with a special sackful of stocking stuff ers that includes 
Christmas graphics, Christmas carols, cards and more. 

We will also be featuring articles and programs by some of our best-known and most-ealled-for contributors, 
including Jorge Mir, Roger Schrag, Larry Konecky and others, as well as our regular cluster of informative 
tutorials by Rainbow's contributing editors. 

Plus . . . well over 300 pages of articles, program listings, software and hardware reviews and advertising of 
products just for C oC o more information on your Color Computer than is available anywhere else. Happy 
Holidays? 



The Rainbow 

November 1983 Vol. Ill No. 4 

Editor and Publisher 

Lawrence C. Falk 



Managing Editor James E. Reed 

Senior Editor Courtney Noe 

Technical Editor Dan Downard 

Copy Editor Susan Rem in! 

Submissions Editor Jutta Kapf hammer 

Editorial Assistants Valarie Edwards, 
Wendy Falk, Suzanne Kurowsky, 
Noreen Morrison, Joyce Palgy 

Contributing Editors Bob Albrecht, Steve 
Blyn, Tony DiStefano, Don Inman, Joseph 
Kolar. Dennis Lewandowski, Bill Nolan, 
Dale Peterson, Michael Plog, Ph.D., 
Charles Roslund, Dick White 



Art Director Sally Nichols 

Assistant Art Director Jerry McKiernan 

Designers Peggy Henry, Neal C. Lauron 



Advertising Manager Charlotte Ford 
Advertising Assistant Lynda Wilson 
(502) 228-4492 



General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 

Assistant General Manager for Finance 

Donna Shuck 
Billing Cleric Monica Wheat 

Administrative Assistant to the Publisher 

Marianne Booth 

Customer Service Manager Ivanka Kleier 

Research Assistants Laurie Falk, 

Deidra Henry, Tanya Holder, Wanda Perry 
Dispatch Mark Herndon 



Garland Associates, Inc., Is the advertising 
representative for the RAINBOW In the east- 
em United States. Advertisers east off the Mis- 
sissippi may contact them ffor further Infor- 
mation. Garland Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 
314, S.H.S., Duxbury, MA 02331, (617) 934- 
6464 or 934-6546. 



The Rainbow is published every month of the year by 
FALSOFT, INC. 9529 U S Highway 42. P O. Box 209. 
Prospect, KV. 40059. Phone (502) 228-4492. The RAIN- 
BOW and the Rainbow logotypes are • Trademarks of 
FALSOFT. Inc. 

Second class postage pending at Louisville. KY. 
POSTMASTER: Send! address changes to Rainbow, 
P.O. Box 209. Prospect, KY 40059. Fowarding Postage 
Guaranteed. 

Entire contents * by FALSOFT, Inc., 1 983. The HAIN- 
BOW is intended for the private use and pleasure Of its 
subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any 
means is prohibited Use of information herein is for the 
single end use of purchasers and any other use Is 
expressly prohibited. All programs herein are distrib- 
uted in an "as is" basis, without warranly of any kind 
whatsoever. 

TRS-80, Color Basic. Extended Color Basic. S< 
and Program Pak are • trademarks of the Tandy Corp 
CompuServe- is a * Trademark of CompuServe- Inc. 

Subscriptions to lha RAINBOW are $22 per year i rune 
United States. Canadian and Mexican rates are US. $29. 
Surface mail to other countries is U.S. $57, air mail U.S. 
$85. All subscriptions begin with next available Issue. 

Limited back issues are available. Please see notice 
for issues which are »n print and costs. Payment 
accepted by VISA. MasterCard. American Express, 
Cash, Check or Money Order in U.S currency only. 



letters to 

RAINBOW 



RO COCO TO GO 




I P. O. Bo- 209 

Prospect, KY 40059 



WHICH WAY TO SPEED? 

Editor: 

In your September 1983 issueonpage 234 
you stated that POKE 65495,0 can speed 
things up but the operator cannot use I/O 
operations (CLOAD, CSAVE, etc.). 

However, on page 6 in the same issue you 
printed a letter from Anthony Graves, with 
good instructions for using various POKEs 
to accomplish the cooperations while in 
the high speed mode. 

Who is correct? 

Max M. James 
Lebanon, 1L 

Editor's Note: POKE 65495,0 can be 
used to speed up the CPU before tape 
I/O but the tapes will not be at a 
standard Baud rate. 



IT'S TERMINAL 

Editor: 

Is there any way to hook a Color Compu- 
ter directly to a R.S. Model III? (For things 
like common programs loading and down- 
loading, etc.?) 

Mark Rogstad 
Yakima, WA 

Editor's Note: One method of com- 
munication is by use of a terminal 
program in both computers using the 
RS-232 ports. Another method is by 
using Oil by Computer Shack to 
directly transfer disk files. 



HINTS N'TIPS 

Editor: 

In the September issue of the Rainbow, 
you published a program entitled Biblio- 
graphy File. I typed in the program, but was 
unable to get the title search routine to print 
to the screen or my printer. I added the 
following line, and the routine functioned 
perfectly: 

3445 IFLEN(TE$)<32 THENTE$=TE$+ 
STRING$(32-LEN(TE$),32) 

The problem occurred because the pro- 
gram stores the book lilies in left justified, 



blank filled, 80-character strings. Unless; the 
search string is also blank filled, the program 
won't be able to locate any titles. 

I love your magazine. It is the only one I 
buy for the CoCo, and it is more than 
enough. Keep up the good work 1 . 

Howard Harts fie 
Tallahassee, FL 

Editor: 

In the June 1983 issue of Rainbow on page 
68 there is a small program called Disk Dis- 
play. I found one very good use for it; I 
examined the sectors of Adventure games 
such as Sands of Egypt by Radio Shack, 
which as you know, does not contain the 
commands you need to use. By searching 
through the sectors, the commands will 
become present. This program gave me 
some help in finishing Sands of Egypt. 

Mike Shor 
Morganville, NJ 



ADVENTURE WIZ 

Editor: 

I have answers to the following adventure 
games: Calixto Island, Black Sanctum, 
Raakatu, Pyramid, Bedlam, Madness And 
The Minotaur. 

Anyone needing help can send me a 
S.A.S.E. with their questions and I'll send 
them the solution: Rt 2, Box 28 EF, 32536. 

Joseph D. Fabian 
Crest view, FL 



HIDDEN HINTS 

Editor: 

Reading Tom Szlucha's article on the 
hidden commands of the MC- 10 (September 
1983), I thought it might be of interest to 
your readers to have the following infor- 
mation: 

USR vector: Store 16-bitaddressat $4216 
(16918) Keyboard input character: use 
JSR SF865 (returns in ACCA) Output 
character to screen: Load ACCA with 
ASCII, use JSR SF9C6 

I have not figured out the parameter pass- 
ing for USR yet, but this works well to 
transfer control to an assembly language 
routine. There is a J M P instruction at $42 15, 
followed by a 16-bit address that is the user 
vector. This points to an error message dur- 
ing system initialization. Incidentally, in- 
spection of the ROM at address SE000 
(57344) will reveal a list of 16-bit addresses, 
followed by the actual commands (ASCII), 
followed by moreaddrcsses. The USR func- 
tion is the third entry in the vector table 
(SE006). 



There is a jump table in RAM around 
$4215 that has the user adjustable vectors for 
all the interrupts in the system, including 
SWI. These can be very useful for figuring 
out how the MC-I0 works. 

A coupie more key add resses: the M C6K47 
video controller is located at SA000 (40960). 
You can make all kinds of neat sounds by 
flipping bit 7 of SA000 up and down (this is 
"connected w to the speaker). Be careful not 
to change the other 7 bits of SA000 as these 
are the control bits for the 6847! Also, the 
"powered! up" byte in the MC-I0 is located at 
location SEA (234). On reset, the MC-I0 
looksin SEA to see if it contains a $55 (85). If 
not, it reloads all defaults and clears any 
program that might have been in the unit. If 
S55 is found there, it does a"warm"start and 
simply clears the screen and prints OK. Pm 
IUCC it also reinitializes the system I/O on 
either type of reset. 

Hope this information is helpful. 

Bruce R. Knox 
Presiden t , Microdimensions 
WUIoughby, OH 

Editor: 

I have found out how to start on higher 
levels in Donkev King. To do this you must 
POKE 12889,10 to start on the rivets level, 
POKE 12889,2 to start on the elevator level, 
or POKE 12889, 18 to start on the conveyor 
belts. All of these are on a high skill level. If 
you would like to experiment with this you 
can also change 12889 to other numbers 
each of which will have some effect on the 
game. I would also like to say that I believe 
the Rainbow is the best magazine for the 
CoCo. Keep up the good work. 

Robert Williams 
Moore, OK 

Editor: 

In the August Stained Glass article, Wes 
Fauske asked why his 4t SG24" mode used 
only 3K instead of 6K of memory. 

When he set up his graphics he got into the 
GIC mode instead of the SC24 mode. SC24 
uses 6K and GIC uses I K of memory. 

By not setting the "Video Control Regis- 
ter," Wcs did not get a true GIC but got 
caught between GIC and the"TEXT"mode. 

Change the last number in line 25 of his 
program from 128 to anything between 65 
and 90. The screen will be filled with 512 
TEXT letters between A and Z. You may 
poke address 13019 with these values if you 
saved the program in machine code. 

Michael B. Kromeke 
Albuquerque, NM 



6 the RAINBOW November 1983 



WHY NOT SAVE/ LOAD? 

Editor: 

I am writing about Dan Downard's Rain- 
bug Monitor. I have a suggestion for him. I 
would like to SEC disk save/ load machine 
language programs. There is disk memory 
examine/ change, so why not save/ load? 
How about a disassembler, too? 

Andy Janjigian 
Editor's Note: Westwood, MA 

Disk BASIC stores programs at a 
higher location in memory than 
Extended BASIC. Sometimes 
memory conflicts occur. A solution 
is to make the machine language 
program reside at the top of 
memory. Software author's for 
Rainbow are encouraged to write 
the ML portion of the program in 
PIC (position independent code) 
and also locate the program near 
the top of memory so that it can be 
protected by a CLEAR command. 



MULTILINGUAL COCO? 

Editor: 

When I was reading the September 1 98 ^ 
Rainbow edition, 1 saw one article that 
really made me wonder. The article was 
about the new CoCo and its special OS-9. 

I was wondering if I could get the OS-9 
and the thing that lets me use different lan- 
guages for my old CoCo. My computer sys- 
tem consists of a 64K CoCo, one DOS 1,0, 
one cassette, and an Okidata 82A printer. 

Denny Reinhardt 
Orofino, ID 
Editor's Note: OS-9 will operate on 
any 64K CoCo and it is the system 
that allows higher level languages. 



FELLOW NEWSLETTER 

Editor: 

As 1 read through your magazine, which I 
happen to enjoy very much, I often stumble 
onto the fact that the Rainbow magazine 
started as a two-paged photocopied newslet- 
ter. I am sure that a few years ago you never 
dreamt of a three-hundred page fully public- 
ized major magazine. I commend and com- 
pliment your magazine but I also would like 
toask for help. I amstartinga newsletterand 
I have not had much luck in syndicating it. I 
feel it is a good little newsletter (only a few 
pages) and I think it could do well for other 
people such as column writers, unsung game 
programmers and columnists. I ask you to 
print this letter so people will send in their 
contributions of these items. If successful, I 
would like these people to write for my new- 
sletter permanently and maybe someday it 
will turn into a real magazine. If you would 
ju;t send a self-addressed envelope (to 8 
Paprota Cu Parlin, NJ 08859), you will 
receive our first newsletter with your articles 
and submissions. I love to write and I love 
my Color Computer and wish you people 
would send your submissions. The small 
businessman is welcomed and for you who 
would like to advertise and have a program 



to sell, please write me. I can't describe the 
willpower and earnest of our staff (only 12) 
but we have had no luck reaching people 
who would like to contribute. 

Matthew Kurzawa 
Parlin, NJ 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

I just received my September issue of 
Rainbow in the mail. I'm just "itching" to 
read the darn thine: but, I had to write this 
Thank You note, first. 

After my notification that I had not 
received the issue, you sent the issue priority 
mail to me! Fantastic! 

This example of customer interest is exact- 
ly why the Rainbow is the number one CoCo 
magazine! 

Ronald E. Beall 
Ozona, TX 

Editor: 

I have really learned a lot through the 
pages of the Rainbow, especially the "BASIC 
Training"and "Bits and Bytes of BASiC"ser- 
ies, as well as typing in the programs. I am 
another subscriber who reads each issue 
from cover to cover. 

Keep up the good work! 

Lee Deuell 
Shell Rock, I A 



THE BEST DOWN UNDER 

Editor: 

I suppose there can never be such a thing 
as an overload of genuine praise. Therefore, 
I send my compliments to both you and 
our magazine. Today, out of curiosity, I 
purchased some other Color Computer mag- 
azines from a Sydney newsstand . . . there is 
no comparison with the Rainbow! 

Rob Walls 
Sydney, Australia 



Editor: 

Well, it has been two great years since I 
bought my CoCo, and with the great articles 
in your magazine I have improved my origi- 
nal 4K to 32K and have a new keyboard. 

I think you have the best magazine in the 
world, without a doubt. 

George Kaakee 
Royal Oak, MI 

Editor: 

I would like to comment on your maga- 
zine. It is the best magazine for the CoCo 
around. No other magazine has the great 
graphic programs that you do. Since lVe 
been buying your magazine, I feel the pro- 
gram called Roach is my favorite. Whenever 
people come over, they ask to play the game. 
Sometimes I wonder if they come over to see 
me, or to play the game. Keep up the fantas- 
tic job, and Vm looking forward to more 
great programs! 

Dale Westmoreland 
Lannon, Wisconsin 



LEARNING BY R.O.T. 

Editor: 

Rainbow On Tape is a "good buy," but the 
teaching advantage is what I find to be the 
most advantageous. 1 read almost all the 
articles in all of the computer magazines. Or 
that is, the CoCo computer magazines. In 
doing this, I have not had a lot of time left 
over to type in printed programs espe- 
cially the ones that are more in the "learn- 
ing" category. However, as I have all of the 
Rainbow programs on tape, I can RUM 
every program. That way I can learn the 
lesson that is presented and also see the pro- 
gram in operation. 

Please do make every effort that you can 
to get the most — no all of your readers 
subscribing to Rainbow On Tape. 

Russel M. Hokanson 



Tandy CoCo Plant Tours 
at RAINBOWfest 



Friday & Saturday 
Oct. 14 & 15 



See CoCo's place of birth! Tickets only $3 per person. 
Tours begin at 8:30 a.m. at the Hyatt-Regency-Fort 
Worth. 

Space is limited, so we strongly suggest advance regis- 
tration by contacting us at: 

The Rainbow 
P.O. Box 209 
Prospect, Ky 40059 
(502) 228-4492 



November 1983 theRAINBOW 7 



PEN PAL SERVICES 



Editor: 

I am starting a service for CoCo owners who 
want a pen pal. You can send some informa- 
tion about yourself and what your uses are 
for your computer. Please include a 20 cent 
stamp and 20 cents to cover costs. Wc will 
send youtheaddressof someone compatible 
with yourself. Mail it to Lee Ave,, 32312. 

Scott Santarone 
Tallahassee, FL 



A COCO MATE 

Editor: 

In response to William Burns'query in the 
September Rainbow, the Mannesmann Tal- 
ly M T160 printer is an excellent mate for the 
CoCo. It interfaces directly (I run at 2400 
Baud). With its multitude of features, includ- 
ing graphics, EPSON and Daisy Wheel code 
support, large buffer, proportional spacing, 
etc., it sa dream. Any CoCo owner needing 
cable fabrication or setup information can 
sendaS.A.S.E. to: Hollow Tree Soft., Rt. 10 
Box 388, 29640. 

Kevin Davidson 
Easley, SC 



MODEM TALK 

Editor: 

I have just purchased a Modem I from 
Radio Shack. 

Now I am interested in learning from oth- 
ers about the modem and sharing informa- 
tion and conversation with other modem 
owners. 1 can be reached at (512) 442-63 1 7. 

David Karam 
Austin, TX 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

My husband and I think your magazine is 
the greatest! There arc just so many helpful 
articles in it. 

We have a Radio Shack TRS-80 CoCo 
Extended BASIC and have been having trou- 
ble with the Raaka- Tu game. We can get all 
of the way through up until we get to the 
rectangular room with the carpet over the 
pit. You cannot jump over it and there is no 
room to go around but you need to get to the 
door on the other side. We would appreciate 
it very much if any of your readers have a 
solution. Please send answers to: 4 1 4 1 Ham- 
ilton-Eaton Rd. #57, 4501 I 

Mrs. J. L. Whitaker 
Hamilton, OH 



Editor: 

I need help solving Sands of Egypt and 
Pyramid, 1 can't get past the great hall in 
Pyramid. Also, I can't find the pool, camel. 



and pyramid scene in Sands of Egypt, If 
anyone can help me, please contact me at 
2225 Hanley,Odessa, TX 79762. 

Paul Pet tit 
Odessa, TX 



Editor: 

I purchased the C. Itok Prowriter 8510 
printer a couple of months ago. It's a great 
printer when interfaced to the Color Com- 
puter with the BOTEK Parallel Printer 
Interface. I just POKE 150,1 toset the com- 
puter Baud rate to 9600 and set t 
switch to the same setting. This combination 
works like a charm. This great printer should 
be looked at by anyone in the market for a 
new printer. I highly recommend it. 

I would like to know if anyone knows of a 
screen dump program that works with this 
printer the 85 10 uses different control codes 
than the Radio Shack printers, so the screen 
dump that they use doesn't work at all. 

I've been withyousince Feb. '82, and have 
watched you grow from 31 pages to over 
300. I look forward to each exciting issue in 
my mailbox each month. Keep up the good 
work. 

Charles M. Thonen 
Ft. Greely, Alaska 

Editor: 

I have a TRS-80 Color Computer, 32K, 
which I use a tape recorder with. I just pur- 
chased a D MP- 1 20 printer from Radio 
Shack. I would like to know how I can print 
a certain number of lines so when I use fan 
fold paper and come to the end of the paper, 
I can't have half a line on one sheet and the 
other half on the next sheet? Is there a state- 
ment I can type in that skips so many lines 
and types so many and so forth? Thank you. 

Sam Gurrera 
Parma, Ohio 



WHICH WAY TO BASIC? 

Editor: 

I have been using my EDTAS M-\- car- 
tridge to disassemble the CLOAD com- 
mand. I have found everything I need for my 
program but the simplest thing . . . where it 
returns to basi . Will someone please help!? 
My phone number, for those of you who live 
in Austin, is 442-6317. My address is 1809 
Dexter, 78701. 

Thank you. 

David Karam 
Austin, TX 



LET'S BOGEY 

Editor: 

I have only been a subscriber for about 6 
months, but really enjoy your magazine. 

Since golfing season started I've been 
looking for a program to handle our clubs' 
golf handicapping on my CoCo. 

Any help in linding. this program would be 
a big help for next season. Thank you. 

F. Warren Crowley 
Whiting. NJ 



Editor: 

I have Telewriter-64and get tired of enter- 
ing the same formatting information each 
time I want to print something, I have added 
the needed POKE 1 50 J to line 0 and the 
appropriate POKE from page 33 of the 
Te lew rite r-64 Reference Manual to line 210 
of *U"to eliminate the sparkle but this is as 
far as I have been able to get. 

A letter to Cognitec was of no help. Is 
there anyone out there who can figure out 
how to change the other default format 
numbers? As I told Cognitec, "I don't wish 
to meddle with a well-programmed piece of 
software but not having to do an operation 
(the same way) every time I wish to print 
something seems a legitimate reason to 
change." 

"Spike" Worden 
Memphis, TH 



MINOTAUR MADNESS 

Editor: 

I have the game Madness and the Mino- 
taur and need lots of help. If anybody can 
give some tips or the solution, send it to: 1 1 
Page Drive, 7 1203. 

Also, you have a great magazine. Keep up 
the good work! 

Edwin Bruce 
Monroe, LA 

Editor: 

I need some help solving Madness and the 
Minotaur. My problems are getting out, 
obtaining spells and killing monsters. If you 
have any information on my problems, send 
it to me at 139 Park Street. 

Tom Spinoro 
Savanna, GA 

Editor: 

I am interested in obtaining new lan- 
guages for my 64K CoCo with disk drive. I 
would like to get Pascal, Cobol, and For- 
tran. What would my best bet be? Radio 
Shack's new OS-9 or maybe a FLEX? Also, 
where could 1 get quality software for it? 

It anyone hasany suggestions, please con- 
tact me. My address is: 19 Magnolia Ave, 
07834. 

Mark Charney 
Denville, NJ 



POSTAL POKE 

Editor? 

We have recently learned that several 
people who ordered SpectroSystems' Fas- 
tape program for high-speed cassette opera- 
tions following the review in you i July issue 
had their orders erroneously returned by the 
post office. The problem with the postal ser- 
\ice has, we hope, been straightened out, 
and we'd like to reassure Rainbow readers 
that wc arc indeed at the address that was 
given: I I II I N. Kendall Drive, Suite A108, 
33176. 

Arthur J. Flexser 
Spectra Systems 
M kit ni. FL 



8 the RAINBOW 



November 1983 



PRINT #-2, 




r 

As 



'admit I realize that some of you will be reading this somewhat 
late to do much about it, but just in case you are not, there is 
.still time to make RAlNBOWfest in Fort Worth Oct. 14-16. 
I think that this is going to be one truly great show! And, perhaps 
more important, we have gotten the word that there will be tours of 
the Tandy CoCo manufacturing plant during the RAlNBOWfest. If 
you want to see how, and where, CoCo is "born," so to speak, 
RAlNBOWfest in Fort Worth is the place to be! 

The tour will be at "cost" — just what it will cost to rent the buses 
to take us from the Hyatt-Regency Fort Worth to the plant, a total of 
$3 per person. But the space is limited. So, if you wanted to make it to 
RAlNBOWfest but needed a reason until now — this is a great one. 

I'm pleased, too, that wehave what I consider to be an outstanding 
lineup of people for seminars at RAlNBOWfest. Tops on the list is 
Mark Yamagata, the new Director for Computer Merchandising 
— Personal Computer Products at Radio Shack. Mark has just been 
appointed to his new post and this will be one of the first public 
t appearances he will be making. We feel especially honored that he is 
J choosing to keynote our "CoCo Community" Breakfast. Be sure to 
put the breakfast Saturday morning on your RAlNBOWfest agenda. 

Mark is not the only "name" we will be having. Some of the CoCo world's most popular programmers will 
be on hand; as will a number of our Rainbow columnists. We think that RAlNBOWfest will be not only an 
excellent exposition, but an outstanding opportunity to learn, too. With people like Don Inman, John 
Gabbard and Steve Blyn there, how can you miss out? 

And, in case you missed the notice in the advertisement, we've been fortunate enough to set our keynote 
speaker for the second RAlNBOWfest of the season, at Long Beach, Calif., in February. Bob Albrecht, the 
reknowned columnist and author, will keynote that "CoCo Community" Breakfast. 

By the way, someone asked me the other day why we're having four R AINBOWfests this year. The answer 
is a simple one: We'd like to havethe shows in locations that will be relatively easy for you to travel to. One 
of the things which impressed meabout the first show last year in Chicago was the longdistancessomeof the 
RAlNBOWfest-goers came to attend. Thus, I suppose, was born the concept of "regional shows." Make no 
mistake about it, having four R AINBOWfests is far more costly, in terms of both time and money, than just 
one or two. But ouraim, overall, is to make itaseasyas possible for the most number of people to participate 
as possible. 

No, I'm not saying we're doing this just out of the goodness of our hearts. But 1 am saying that, frankly, we 
will make less money by doing four shows than by doingjust one or two. Still, we should do better than break- 
even, and we do want to "spread the word"about CoCo as widely as we can; making it possible for as many to 
attend as inexpensively as they can. Thus, regional RAlNBOWfests. 

I'm especially pleased with some of the longer programs in this month's issue and, although 1 usually let 
Managing Editor Jim Reed write about the contents of a particular issue, I'd like to "brag" on these special 
ones. 

As most followers of the Rainbow probably know by now, one of the abiding interests we have had has 
been in da communications. And so, this is our Data Communications Issue. That, in and of itself, is 
something important, but what's more important is the fact that we wanted to do something special for this 
special subject. 

Rainboard was the answer to this special need. It comes from the talented Dr. Lane Lester who has, over 
the past couple of years, made a number of significant contributions to the Rainbow. None of them is more 
significant than is this program, which, 1 feel sure, will open up a whole range of communications possibilities 
to thousands of you. 

While expensive from the standpoint of telephone calls over long distances, communicating with local 
bulletin boards is a way for CoCoists to easily ban together. Imagine! Now, in any local telephone calling area 
where there is more one Color Computer, a person has the means to communicate without missing messages 
and through the ease that a computer can bring. Maybe, just maybe, we should have saved Lane's program 
until the January issue, called that one the "George Orwell 1 ssue" and presented Rainboard — something that 
is truly 1984-ish. 

If data communications bore you, though, just consider this one: You can easily run Rainboard in your 
own home and use it as a means to leave messages and the like with other members of your family. You don't 
even need a modem to do that. Lane, thanks for a fine program that 1 am sure will have many singing your 
praises. 

The other two special programs are our two Simulation Contest winners. What could be more appropriate 
heading into a presidential election year than Election '841 And, although the judging was completed before 
K orean Air Lines Flight 007 was shot down by the Russians, what could be more timely than WarGamel It is, 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 13 



indeed, sad that we must live in a time when a nation can so 
calmly slaughter innocent men, women and children as the 
Russians did last month. 

Specialbest wishes to our two winners. One will receive an 
Epson FX-80 printer and 4K buffer from JARB Software 
and the other, a Disk Drive 0 and controller from us. Other 
winners get prizes from Spectrum Projects, Custom Soft- 
ware Engineering, Computer Island, Tom Mix Software 
and Classical Computing. 

And, our thanks to the many who contributed to our 
Simulation Contest. There will be another, after the second 
running of our Adventure Contest, which begins with this 
issue. 

And, on to the rules of the Adventure Contest itself. You 
must submit an original Adventure program and certify to 
us that it is your own, original work. The program should be 
on tape or disk and can be either a graphics or a non- 
graphics game. 

All entries become the property of Falsof t, Inc., and none 
can be returned. Deadline for submissions to the contest is 
March 1, 1984. Winners will be announced in our special 
Adventure issue. As usual, there will be a list of top prizes. 
Duplicate prizes to be awarded in case of ties. 

Please include full documentation, along with the solu- 
tion to the Adventure. Entries should be addressed to 
Adventure Contest Editor, Rainbow Magazine, P.O. Box 
209, Prospect, KY 40059. Last year's contest was just super 
and we expect this year's to be even bigger and better. Watch 
future issues of the Rainbow for a full list of prizes. 

I received a letter from one of our readers the other day, 
asking whether we could show photographs of our office. 
The writer expressed interest in seeing what our "office" 
looked like. 

Td like to know what it looks like, too. As many of you are 
probably aware, we have been expanding rapidly for some 
time. So, the reason / wonder what things look like is 
because between the people, furniture and computers, it is 
almost impossible to see the "office" itself. We began on 
our kitchen table, moved to 1200 square feet of renovated 
basement and then to 2000 square feet of office space in the 
Prospect Point Shopping Center nine months ago. We 
choose the particular location that we are now in because it 
was right next door to the Post Office and because of an 
interest in helping us on the part of both the real estate 
manager for the complex and the people who own it. When 
things began to get crowded (about the day after we moved 



in, it seemed), we wondered where we might grow into next. 

Happily, as you read this, the problem has been solved. 
We now occupy both sides of the Post Office and have an 
additional 2850 square feet from which to continue to bring 
you the Rainbow (and PCM — The Portable Computing 
Magazine) each month. 

Splitting up means we had to split something up, of 
course. So, we "left" our editorial and design staffs in the old 
space and moved Customer Service, Accounting, Rainbow 
On Tape, Advertising, Shipping and our other "business" 
departments to the new location. For the first time, editorial 
and design finally have room to do all the things they need 
to, and the business side has enough space to really operate 
and file things. 

One of the things which has made this all possible is, as 
usual, Radio Shack. Basing things on the excellent success 
we've had with their computers (the "business" part of the 
business is all on Radio Shack computers, too, and yes, we 
do all the subscription servicing and so on ourselves), we 
opted for a Radio Shack telephone system. Thanks to the 
expertise of a great many people, we may be in two separate 
offices, but we're tied together by one phone system where 
— if necessary everyone can talk to everyone else. We can 
conference calls, use speed dialing and so many other things 
this column might begin to sound like an ad written in 
Tandy Center if we kept on. We won't. But, if you do have 
occasion to call us, you'll be in good hands! 

No, our telephone number will not change, nor, for all 
practical purposes will our address. An added convenience 
for callers is that we have almost doubled the number of 
telephone lines we had previously, so there won't beas many 
busy signals. 

If you get the idea we're proud of our new offices, you're 
right. And, by the way, we welcome visitors. So, if you are 
ever in the Louisville area, please stop by. We'd like to see 
you in person. 

As you know, we're about a month ahead on these 
columns and each issue of the Rainbow. So, we have not put 
it all together yet, but please be aware that, as I mentioned 
last month, we will have a subscription price increase. It will 
most likely be effective January 1 , 1984. As we did so a year 
ago, we offer all present subscribers an opportunity to 
extend their subscriptions at the present rate ($22 in the 
United States, U.S. $29 in Canada and Mexico, and U.S. 
$57 surface to other countries, U.S. $85 air mail to other 
countries). Right now, we're working with our printer to see 
what it will cost to publish next year and expect to formally 
announce our rate increase next month. Meantime, if you 
would like to extend your subscription by one year at the old 
rate, now is the time to do so. 

While on the subject of subscriptions, let me point out 
that we do have some very nice gift certificates available for 
holiday giving. Just ask that a gift subscription be sent when 
you write. 

And, this was mentioned to me some time ago as a sugges- 
tion: A really nice gift you can give for all of the next year is a 
subscription to the Rainbow to your local school or library. 
Not only is it a way to help your school or library, but the 
subscription cost is tax deductable as a charitable contribu- 
tion. It would be a nice present, and may help someone get 
started in computers the right way — with a CoCo! 

— Lonnie Falk 



DRAWSTRING $25°° 
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1 4 the RAINBOW November 1983 




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BUILDING NOVEMBER'S RAINBOW 

Our Data Communications issue . . . 
Introducing the Rainboard BBS . . . 
And y our Simulation Contest Winners . 



We get far more mail here at the Rainbow than at any other publication I've 
been associated with. And, while only a small portion makes it into the Letters to 
the Editor, or the new letters sections in both the CoCo Clubs section and the 
new Reviews section, we do take our readers' criticisms, suggestions and obser- 
vations to heart. One reader from North Carolina recently sent in his personal 
list of concerns, closing with: "Keep On Keepin' On, But Do It Better! And 
Hurry The Process!!" 

Well, W.J.F., we're tryingtodojust thai and, yes, we have modified Rainbow 
On Tape so that you no longer have to turn off the machine after running the 
menu. That was an oversight on our part and we appreciate your calling it to our 
attention. Similarly, your other concerns and those expressed by other readers 
are being attended to as quickly as we can do so, but do have patience because we 
have a long lead time and thoughts expressed today may require months to 
implement. 

This month we focus on data communication, computer-to-computer com- 
munication, a concept that sounds speedy, but can be painfully slow at 300 
Baud. Still, the mostly untapped potential of data communication is fascinating. 
For instance, with Rainbow Technical Editor Dan Downard's Remote, a 
machine language driver program, you'll be able to run your CoCo by remote 
control. With our list of computer Bulletin Board Systems, you'll be able to 
"talk" to other computer users anytime night or day. With Alan Davenport's 
Master Messenger, you'll be able to format "E-Mail" before you even log on 
services such as The Source and CompuServe. And, as our special feature this 
month, we have Rainboard! 

Rainboard is a complete BBS, or Bulletin Board System, that our favorite 
biologist, Dr. Lane Lester, has designed to work on a single disk drive with an 
"intelligent" modem. And it's yours to have and to use forthe price of this issue. 
Now, the chance to be a "SYSOP"is within range of thousands of us. Just boot it 
up and wait for the calls to come in. Ma Bell should pay us a royalty for the 
increased business we predict this will generate. Rainboard isn't The Source, but 
it is user modifiable and can be your source for lots of fun and new-found 
friends. Enjoy! 

As always, we have a diverse mix of articles and programs in addition to our 
data communications theme. These range from a lesson in "disk washing" — 
don't take that too literally — and disk calibration to the "glowing" love story of 
"The Laserworm and The Firefly." Paul Hoffman has another X-Pad feature 
and Tommy and Gail Pollock offer a musical "Bach to BASIC." 

Finally, of the several prize-winning entries in our Simulation Contest, our 
two top awards go to Bob Tyson for Election '84 and to Tom Weber for 
WarGame. Both Simulations are exceptional, in length and in reward, as well as 
in timeliness and playability, so don't miss them. No, you don't have to run for 
President before playing WarGame. Simulation Contest Chief Judge Charles 
Springer of fers an overview of the contest and reveals all the other winners, too, 
in his judges' report. 

So, we keep on keeping on, with an eye to doing it better and a pledge to hurry 
the process. You keep the letters coming and we'll respond monthly with a 
Rainbow that weighs well over a pound. A full year's subscription is still just $22, 
less than half the cover price. We do get a lot of mail, but we want even more. 
That's why we, having just expanded again, now occupy office space on both 
sides of the local post office. 

—Jim Reed 



1 6 the RAINBOW November 1 983 







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RAJNBOW 









Have you bought your CoCo a modem yet? Have you 
sampled the joys (and the telephone bills) of roam- 
ing through the Network Nation? All over the coun- 
try there are BBS's (bulletin board systems), computers 
waiting to take your call, systems dedicated to the interests 
of Color Computer owners. Here in the small town of 
Lynchburg, Va., there are very few Color users as dedicated 
(euphemism for "freaked out") as 1, and communications 
capability allows me to reach out with telephone tentacles to 
like-minded individuals around the country. Some of my 
most valuable exchanges of information have come from 
Kent Meyers in LeRoy, Minn., by way of the Color Connec- 
tion in Elgin, Texas. (By the way, Kent has supplied much of 
the information appearing in the Rainbows listing of BBS's 
elsewhere in this issue.) In addition to your modem, you'll 
also need a terminal program, several of which have been 
reviewed in the Rainbow. 

But this article is really aimed at those who have already 
come to appreciate both the enjoyment and edification that 
comes from communicating with other Color users via the 
bulletin board systems supporting our machine. To many of 
us, the SYSOP (System Operator, manager of the bulletin 
board) is a godlike creature, sitting like a spider in the 
middle of its web. The mighty SYSOP receives our trans- 
missions from everywhere, answering our questions, and 
controlling what messages, files, and programs are available 
to us lower sorts. The aspiration to be like God led to Satan's 
downfall and many of us have lusted in our hearts to be a 
SYSOP, with all the adoration and power that accompanies 
that position. 

I must confess to you that I have long had a secret desire to 
operate my own BBS. Of course, one very serious hindrance 
to such a project is that while the computer is running the 
board it can't do anything else. For the most part, only those 
who have an extra computer to spare can be a SYSOP. One 
day it occurred to me that since the CoCo in my office at 
school is alone all night long, it could run a BBS at night! 
Then I looked at the prices of bulletin board software, 
almost all in the neighborhood of $ lOOan up. Another blow 
to my ambition. One day 1 purchased for $19.95 a very 
interesting machine language program, RemoTerm by Star- 
Kits. I could load and execute this program in my office 
CoCo, go home and use my home CoCo by telephone to 
load and run programs in my office. It occurred to me that I 
could use Remo Term to run a BBS; all I had to do was write 
a BASIC program to manage the system. 

RainBoard, "With a Rainbow of Color and a Pot of Gold 
in Good Times," is now a reality, and I'm having a great 
time. Perhaps you would enjoy operating your own board; 
the following programs will allow you to find out without a 
great expenditure in cash, only in time. As far as hardware is 
concerned you'll need a 32K CoCo with Disk BASIC, one 
disk drive, and an auto-answer modem. A price break- 
through for this last item came with the development of the 
Novation J-CA T, which is discounted for a little over $ 1 00. 
But as important as is the right hardware, it's the software 
that makes a BBS the special thing it is, so the rest of this 

(Lane Lester is professor of biology at Liberty Baptist 
College and holds the M. S. in ecology and the Ph. D. in 
genetics.) 



article will be devoted to describing the use of the programs 
that follow. 

There are four programs accompanying this article which 
are included on Rainbow on Tape. Remote is the BASIC 
program that 1 run just before I go home each evening. It 
first loads RemoTerm, and then changes it to disable the 
callers' [BREAK] key. The modified RemoTerm is exe- 
cuted, and finally RAINBORD the BBS program, is run. 
This version of REMOTE also sets some parameters on my 
Hayes Smart Modem, and would have to be changed if you 
have a different unit. A timer turns off the system at mid- 
night and then turns it on at 7:30 a.m., so that it's warm and 
waiting when I get to the office. S YSOP is the first program 1 
run, displaying the activity on the RainBoard the previous 
night. It has some other functions that are self-explanatory 
and aid in the maintenance of the board. GRAFMESS, 
which 1 downloaded from the Color Connection and modi- 
fied considerably, allows me to create the color graphics 
screens that 1 believe add a nice touch to the Rainboard. 
RAINBORD supports the following BBS functions: 

Help with BBS functions, 

Bulletins of interest to callers, 

Scan message subjects for possible retrieval, 

Read messages, 

Leave messages, 

Programs available for downloading, 
Text files on various subjects, 
Art gallery of graphics 
Member list 

Goodbye — leaves the RainBoard ready for the next 
caller. 

Perhaps the most logical way to describe the use of 
RAINBORD is to relate my comments to particular sec- 
tions of the program. Line numbers will be shown in paren- 
theses. This should both help you see what's going on and 
aid you in customizing it for your own use. An immediate 
jump (20) to the bottom of the program avoids the notorious 
PC LEA R bug. The Lower/ Upper Case I nput Routine (3) is 
called at various times in the program and allows the caller 
to use either lower or upper case responses to prompts. 
Single letter responses produce a colored stripe across the 
screen which provides part of the RainBoard s promise of "a 
rainbow of color." Three arrays are dimensioned (70), DIS- 
PLAYS (for graphics, 15/picture), NAMES (BBS mem- 
bers), and TEXTS (for message entry). Next (80) I load the 
three graphic screens that I'm currently using which were 
created with the graphics message program GRAFM ESS. 
The first two are displayed in lines 150 and 390, respectively, 
and the third is in the Art Gallery ( 1220). If you add pictures 
to the Art Gallery, you'll need to change in line 1240 the 
number 45 to 15 more for each picture. The list of current 
members of the BBS is then loaded ( 100). Because the gra- 
phics and member list are displayed often, they are kept in 
RAM to minimize disk use. The disk file of members is, 
however, updated whenever a new member joins the board. 

RAINBORD refers to disk drives either by default or as 
DL By making all of them0(l 10) only one drive is required, 
and the only limitation is on the number of text, program, 
and message files that can be online. Once way to maximize 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 21 



space is to keep the four BBS programs RAINBORD, 
REMOTE, SYS OP, and GRAFMESS plus the graphics 
files WELCOME, HELP, and those in the Art Gallery on 
one disk which is only used at the time the RainBoard is 
started. All other files can be on a second disk which stays in 
the drive as long as the BBS is online. Text files always go on 
the default drive (0), but because I am blessed with a Radio 
Shack drive 0 and a double-sided MPI drive wired as drives 
I and 2, my own version of line 110 reads: Dl = l: 
l$="r:D2=2:D2$="2." 

When someone calls the RainBoard, program line 130 is 
waiting for a carriage return [ENTER]. The caller is given a 
chance (140) to request 7 or 8 bits , which will determine at 
various places in the program whether text or graphics will 
be displayed. For callers who are using the smart terminal 
program ColorCom/ £the C H R$(27)"G4 "sets the program 
to 8 bits. To speed logging on, the caller is asked for initials 
only (170) which are checked against the member list (190) 
and if a match is found, the caller is asked for verification 
(200). November callers go through the "New Member Sig- 
nup" section (220-340), while for members the message files 
are checked and any new messages addressed to the caller 
displayed. 

You'll notice throughout the program that a string, 
ACTS, is constantly growing. This is the record of the 
caller's ACTivity which is recorded when the caller logs off. 
FL is another variable whose purpose may not be imme- 
diately obvious. It serves as a FLag to allow the program to 
hangup on atleastsome mischief-makers. CHR$(13)is used 
where commas would ordinarily do so that callers with other 



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than 32-character displays will see a decent screen. The last 
step in new member signup is the display of the text file 
"NEWMEMBER" (340) which provides information for 
beginners. 

The Main Menu (350) consists of only a single line to 
speed communication. If a person responds with an invalid 
character, an "H," or simply a carriage return [ENTER], an 
expanded menu is displayed (380-440). After they are 
selected, most of the individual functions have available 
complete help files on the disk. As each function is selected, 
the GOSUB1300 keeps track of both the type and amount of 
the caller's activity. 

The "Scan Messages" function (480-560) next needs 
comment. Each message occupies a separate granule on the 
disk, and the scan function displays both the filename and 
extension. Filenames indicate the subject of the message and 
extensions the initials of the intended recepient. Messages to 
"A 1 1 * have extensions such as "A09" to indicate the month 
entered. The caller can request Help, a Complete scan, 
Initials to scan, or Return to Main Menu. 

The "Read Messages" function (570-720) offers similar 
options with the ability to retrieve selected Subjects or 
Initials. A directory search subroutine (640-710) serves all 
options as well as the initial message search when a member 
first calls the Rainboard. The ability to create private mes- 
sages is provided when the subject specified is "PER- 
SONAL" so that only the intended recipient can retrieve 
them (670). When a caller reads one of his or her messages, 
an asterisk replaces the middle initial in the file extension 
(690), making possible the display of only new message 
while leaving old ones for others to read. An opportunity to 
reply is immediately provided the recipient (700). 

The caller's options in the "Leave Messages" function are 
different in that three letters are expected (740). A lengthy 
series of checks and prompts insure that only valid disk file 
specifications are given by the caller, and that duplicate 
filenames do not erase other messages. Because most CoCo 
terminal programs have word-wrap prevention, a 63-charac- 
ter line length for those who print their messages after going 
offline. A "." printed above each line helps the caller keep 
track of the line length, but if he or she exceeds 63 cha racters 
an error message is displayed and the line truncated to the 
proper length (900-910). 

The remaining functions do not require much comment. 
For both BASIC programs to download and text files to read, 
the caller can get a List or Descriptions (950 and 1090). The 
Art Gallery ( 1 220) is a nice idea that 1 lack the artistic talent 
to fully exploit. The Goodbye function writes the caller's 
activity to a file ( 1 280), says a personal goodbye ( 1 290), and 
hangs up the Smart Mod em (1300-1320) before jumping 
back to the beginning for the next caller. If you use the 
Novation J— CAT, you can delete lines 1300-1301; it will 
hang up after the caller. 

The Display File routine (1330) is called whenever an 
ASCII file of any type is to be transmitted to the caller. This 
includes messages, text files, and programs. The Activity 
Length Test (1360) keeps track of each caller's use of the 
Rainboard and helps to prevent someone's monopolizing 
the system. If a caller is having trouble using the BBS, you 
can usually see what's wrong when you display the activity 
file using the program SYSOP. Several places in RAIN- 
BORD the membership list is checked (1400), and each 
graphic screen created by GRAFMESSis loaded by the last 
routine (1420). In line 80, the values of Y and Z determine 
the location of each graphic in the single array. 



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Free catalogue an request 



22 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Rainboard Procedures 

The following is a step-by-step list of things to do to get 
the Rainboard up and running: 

1. Use DSKINIO to erase and format two disks. We'll call 
them Disk 1 and Disk 2 in the following steps. 

2. Put on Disk 1 the four basic programs REMOTE, 
RAINBORD, SYS OP, andGRA FMESS. You can either 
type them in from the magazine, get them on Rainbow on 
Tape, or best of all, send me $20 for a disk also containing 
supporting text and graphics files. Also SA VEM to this d isk 
either Remo Term or the machine language program written 
by Rainbow Technical Editor Dan Downardand appearing 
elsewhere in this issue. Edit REMOTEto contain the name 
of the program you decide to use. 

3. Run GR A FMESS (described below) and create the gra- 
phic files WELCOME, HELP, and any that you would like 
to display in the Art Gallery. Save these to Disk I. 

4. Run S YSOP (described below) and select menu option 6 
to create the MEMBERS file. Save this to Disk 2. 

5. On Disk 2 place the text files (described below) TEXT- 
DESC, PROGDESC, BULLETIN, NEWMEMBR, 
SCAN, READ, LEAVE, PROGRAMS, and TEXT. Also 
add any text files that you want callers to be able to read with 
the Text option of RAINBORD. 

6. Save on Disk 2 the BASIC programs you want callers to be 
able to download to their computers. These must be in 
ASCII f ormat and should be given extensions as f ollows f or 
lines 980-990 of RAINBORD 

POU-Utility 

POA-Application 

POG-Game 

POO-Other types of programs. 

Example command: SAVE"MILE MON/POA",A 

7. Now you're ready to go! Turn on the modem, and be sure 
that it, rather than your printer, is hooked to the RS-232 
outlet. Place Disk 1 in your drive and REMOTE." 
After the fileson Disk 1 are loaded, you will be prompted to 
remove it and insert Disk 2. Pressing [ENTER] will load the 
MEMBERS file, and you will receive the message, "RAIN- 
BOARD IS READY TO RECEIVE!" 

8. The Rainboardis now waiting for callers, and requires no 
further attention from you. 

9. Each day at a time convenient to you, you should first 
"call" the Rainboard yourself, either from another compu- 
ter or directly by pressing [ENTER] on the Rainboard key- 
board. This will allow you to read messages addressed to 
you and to reply to them. Then, turn the computer off and 
back on, insert Disk I, and run SYSOP. Use either menu 
options 1 or 2 to view the activity file. If a caller seems to 
have had trouble, you may want to leave him or her a 
message about it. 

10. Use STSOP MENU option 3 to kill the old activity file. 
Periodically, you will also want to use option 8 to remove 
messages that have been read by their recipients. 

1 1 . Return to step 7. 
Text Files 

The subject of text files deserves further comment. There 



are two types of text files used by the Rainboard, one of 
which provides information to the caller on the use of the 
BBS and the other type on various topics of interest which 
can be read through the Text function of RAINBORD In 
this latter category, I currently have the following: DSK- 
BASIC /073, a memory map of the new 1.1 Disk basic ROM; 
COCO BBS/083, a list of CoCo boards; PROGTIPS/053, 
programming tips; and FOR SALE/073, sources of good 
buys. The extension gives the date of entry, e.g. 093 —Sep- 
tember, 1983. When a caller requests a list of text files, 
RAINBORD ( 1 080) displays only the filenames that have 
numerical extensions. The following text tiles, all of which 
have the extension "DAT," are displayed at different times 
in the use of the BBS: 

TEXTDESC — descriptions of the text files that can be 
read by the caller; 

PROG DESC — descriptions of the programs available to 
callers; 

BULLETIN — news of meetings, etc. Note that line 460 
of RAINBORD has to be edited whenever you update this 
file. 

NEWMEMBR — explains use of the bulletin board; 
automatically displayed when a caller first joins the 
RainBoard\ 

SCAN, READ, LEAVE, PROGRAMS, TEXT — help 
filesfor each function of the BBS. Just as the Help func- 
tion explains each of the Main Menu choices, these files 
contain descriptions of submenus and other aid in the use 
of the particular function. As an example, the SCAN file 
is listed below. 

Text files can be created most conveniently with any word 
processor program that is capable of producing ASCII disk 
files. Several of these are advertised in the Rainbow. If you > 
don't already have one, the cheapest way to produce your 
text files is to tfLWRAINBORD" and use the Leave mes- 
sage function to create the files as messages. You'll have to 
enter your own initials as the recipient, but they can be 
REN AM EDed later with the date extension needed for 
RAINBORD's text file function. The example file SCAN 
will indicate the necessary characteristics of Rain Board text 
files. The line length should be set to 31 characters/ line, and 
only capital letters whould be used. It is best not to use 
hyphens to divide words. Some callers will have other com- 
puters and will want to later print what they receive with a 
longer line length. 

Disk File SCAN 

THIS FUNCTION LISTS THE 
SUBJECTS AND RECIPIENTS OF 
MESSAGES ON FILE. YOU CAN THEN 
READ ANY THAT INTEREST YOU. THE 
MENU OPTIONS ALLOW YOU TO SCAN 
ALL OF THE MESSAGE HEADINGS OR 
THOSE ADDRESSED TO SELECTED 
INITIALS. 

MESSAGES DIRECTED TO 'ALL' MUST 
BE SPECIFIED AS 'A' PLUS TWO 
DIGITS FOR THE MONTH DESIRED, 
E.G, 'A08'. 

OPTIONS AT THE PROMPT ARE: 

H (THIS SCREEN 

C (COMPLETE SCAN) 

I (SCAN FOR INITIALS) 

R (RETURN TO MAIN MENU) 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 23 



GRAFMESS 

The GRA Fic MESSage generator program is used for the 
creation of the graphic screens displayed by the RainBoard. 
Instructions for the use of GRAFMESSare displayed when 
the program is run. The user is prompted to select the 
creation of a new graphic or the editing of one already in a 
file. After indicating either d isk or tape storage, a filename is 
requested. If one is editing an existing graphic, it is then 
loaded from the disk or tape. There is a delay while the 
graphic array is processed for editing, and then a blinking 
cursor indicates that the program is ready for keyboard 
input. If a new graphic is being created, the user is asked for 
a CLS value which clears the screen to that color. 

The arrow keys are used to move the cursor to desired 
locations. To select a particular graphic character, the 
[CLEAR] key is pressed. Then two key presses are used to 
enter the hexadecimal value of the desired character. These 
values are listed on page 14 of the Nanos reference card. 
Each time the "@" key is presed, the selected character will 
be displayed. Pressing the back arrow also displays the 
character, and this allows rapid erasing of areas. Text char- 
acters are simply typed as usual. When the graphic is com- 
plete, pressing[SHIFT][CLEAR] will store boththe ASCII 
file for RAINBORD and the binary file for later editing. 

NOTE 

The four programs, RAINBORD, REMOTE, SYSTO- 
P.and GRAFMESS, and the supporting text and graphics 
files are available oil disk for $20 from the author, 413 
Woodland Circle, Lynchburg, Va. 24502. 



KEYBOARD 1 BEEPER 1 1 CARTRIDGE 

1> ON BOARD SPEAKER 

produces feedback, reducing entry errors 

0' IN-LINE" TRANSPARENT 

operation does not n use up" expansion capability 

l>N0 MODIFICATIONS 

(hardware or software) to install or use 

l> SWITCHED INTERRUPT LINE 

allows power up into BASIC or game pack 

0 POWER INDICATORS 

monitor 5V, 12V and - 12V supplies 

1> ACCESSIBLE RESET SWITCH 

ends 1 'feeling around 11 behind computer 



ENG SYSTEMS 
LABORATORIES 

8203 SPRINGFIELD 
VILLAGE DRIVE 
SPRINGFIELD, VA 

22152 



Listing 1 




$59.95 

pkis postage a nd handling 



(703) 569 8660 



SATISFACTION 
GUARANTEED 



10 
20 
M" 
30 
40 



' REMOTE 

CLEAR800, MH7F00 : LOADM" REMOTER 

'Di »abl« Break (Control -C) 
P0KEScH7F50, ScH86: P0KEScH7F51 , *H 
2A: P0KEScH7F32, «cH12: EXEC 
50 'Enable SmartModem 
60 PR I NT "AT EO MO 01 SO-1 85-130 

810-20" 
70 RUN 11 RAINBORD 



100. . 
280. , 
430. . 
END. 



.0205 
03B6 
.0739 
.0921 



Graphic Message Ed 



Co 
ad 



Listing 2 

10 'GRAFMESS: 
itor 

20 'Original vara! on from Tha 
lor Connaction (512)285-5028, 
it ad by Lana Laatar 

30 CLE AR5000 : D I MLL* ( 1 5 , 32 ) : G08UB 
370: AD-&H400: KEY*— CHR* (8) +CHR* (9 
) +CHR* (10) +CHR* (12) +CHR* (64) +CHR 
* ( 92) +CHR* (94) : LS-&H80 
40 ST-PEEK(AD) : POKE AD , &H2E : J-l 
50 K*- 1 NKEY* : I FK*< > " " THENPOKEAD , 
8T : 8-ST: GO SUBS 20: 80T090ELSEJ-J+1 
: IFJ<5THEN50 

60 P0KEAD v ST:S-8T:80SUB520: J-l 
70 K*- 1 NKEY* : I FK*- " " THEN J -J+l: IF 
J< 25THEN70ELSEG0T040 
80 ' Decipher Kay a 
90 K— INSTR (KEY*, K*) : ONK GOTO 170, 
140, 230 , 260 , 300 , 320 , 200 
1 00 A-ASC ( K* ) : I F A< 64ANDPEEK ( fcH 1 1 
A ) THEN A- A+64ELSE I FA< 64ANDN0TPEEK 
(ScHl 1A) THENA-LS ELSE IFA>96THENA- 
A-96 

110 POKEAD , A : S-A : G0SUB520 : I F AD< Sc 

H5FF THENAD-AD+1 

120 G0T040 

130 ' Right Arrow 

140 IFAD<*H5FF THENAD-AD+1 ELSEAD 

-WH400 

150 G0T040 

160 ' Left Arrow 

170 IFAD>«cH400 THENAD- AD- 1 ELSEAD 
-«cH5FF 

180 ST-LS:G0T060 
Up Arrow 
I FAD >ScH4 1 F THEN AD- AD-&H20 
G0T040 
' DoWn Arrow 

IFAD«cH5E0 THENAD-AD+&H20 
G0T040 

' Enter New Shape Value 



190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 



L*- I NKEY* : I FL*- " " THEN260ELSE 



L-ASC ( L* ) : I FL >96THENL*— CHR* ( L-32 
) 



24 the RAINBOW November 1983 



270 S«-INKEY«:IFS*- n,, THEN270EL8E 
S-ASC<S«) : IFS>96THEN8«-CHR« (9-32 

) 

280 LS-VAL < "&H " +L*+S* ) : Q0T040 

290 * Dimplay 8hap« in Maoory 

300 9T-LS: 0OTOAO 

310 'Writ* to Tranmmit Fll« 

320 OPEN "0 " f DV f F* : LL<- " " : LL-VARP 

TR<LL*) :pokell,32:fori-otois:lo- 

&H0E00+ I #32 : MSB- I NT ( L0/2S6 ) : POKE 

LL+2, MSB: POKELL+3, L0-MSB*256 

330 WRITE«DV,LL«: NEXT: CLOSE 

340 'Writs to Edit Fil« 

350 I FDV- 1 THENSAVEMF* , &H400, &H60 

0, &H400: S0UND200, 2: GOT040ELSECSA 

VEMF* , &H400 , &H600 , &H400: S0UND200 

V 2:G0T040 

370 'Instruction* 

360 CLS:PRINT"**«QRAPHIC MESSAGE 
GENERATOR*** 8 KEY DISPLAYS GRA 
PHIC SHAPE. CLEAR KEY TRIGGERS 

NEW SHAPE:" 
390 PRINT" ENTER HEX VALUE FRO 
M NANOS CARD WITH TWO KEY P 

RESSES.", "ARROW KEYS MOVE CURSOR 
f LEFT AR-"| 

400 PR I NT "ROW DISPLAYS SHAPE SET 
BY CLEAR. SHIFT CLEAR STARTS SAV 
E OF ASCIIAND BINARY FILES. USE 
ASCII TO TRANSMIT, BINARY T0"| 
410 PRINT" EDIT WITH THIS PROG 
RAM.", ," CHARACTERS ARE TYPED AS 
USUAL, EXCEPT THAT INVERTED SYM 
BOLS DO NOT PRINT." 
420 PR I NT "PRESS 1 TO START NEW G 
RAPHIC OR O TO LOAD EX I ST I 

NG FILE."! 

430 K*-INKEY«: IFK*< "CORK* >" 1 "TH 
EN430ELSES0UND200 , 2 : ERt-STR I NG* < 
63 , 32 ) : PR I NTC448 , ER* I 
440 PRINT«448,"PRESS 1 FOR TAPE" 
," O FOR DISK "| 

450 L*-INKEY*: IFL«<"0"ORL*>" 1"TH 
EN450ELSEPR INT«44G , ER* I : PRI NT948 
O, "ENTER FILE NAME (8 CHAR. MAX.) 
" | : PRINTG448 , " " I : L I NEI NPUTF* 
460 IFL*-"1"THENDV— 1ELSEDV-1 
470 I FKt- " 1 " THENPR I NT9448 , " PRESS 
CLS VALUE " : G0T0490ELSECLS0 : I FDV 
- 1 THENLOADMF*ELSECLOADMF* 
480 F0RAD-&H400 TOJcHSFF: S-PEEK <A 
D> :G0SUB520: NEXT: S0UND200, 2: RETU 
RN 

490 K«- 1 NKEY* : I FK«< " O " ORK* > " 8 " TH 

EN490ELSE I FK«- " O" THENS-fcHGO ELSE 

S-&H70+VAL ( K« > **H 1 0+*HF 

500 F0RI-«cH400 T0&H5FF:P0KEI,S:P 

OKE I +«cH AOO , S : NE X T : RETURN 

510 'Tranmfwr Edit Array to Tran 

sinlt Array 



520 IF S<27THENS-S+96ELSEIFS>95A 

NDS< 128THENS-S-64 

530 POKE AD+«cH AOO , S : RETURN 




Listing 3 

10 'SYSOP PROGRAM 
20 CLEAR5000: DIMNAME* (50) : P0KE15 
0,1 

30 CLS: PR I NT "ENTER NUMBER OF FUN 
CTION: ", "1. DISPLAY ACTIVITY FIL 
E","2. PRINT ACTIVITY FILE","3. 
INITIATE ACTIVITY FILE" 
40 PRINT"4. DISPLAY MEMBER FILE" 
,"5. PRINT MEMBER FILE", "6. STAR 
T MEMBER FILE", "7. REMOVE MEMBER 
S","8. KILL OLD MESSAGES" , "9. EN 
D 

50 I NPUTK : I FK< 1 ORK >9THEN30ELSE0N 

K G0SUB60,60, 100, 110, 110, 140, 160 

,210,250: G0T030 

60 I FK= 1 THENDV=OELSEDV— 2 

70 OPEN"D" , 1 , "ACTIVITY" : L-LOF ( 1 ) 

: PR I NT#D V , " CALLERS - " L 

80 F0RI»1T0L:GET*1, I: INPUT* 1, ACT 

*: F0RJ-255T00STEP-1 : IFMID* (ACT*, 

J,l)=" "THENNEXTJ ELSEACT*-LEFT« 

(ACT*, J) 



THE FATE OF THE 
FREE WORLD IS 
IN YOUR HANDS! 



There's a double-agent 
in The Organization 
code named... 

your job — 
identify Ockywoky 
.but it won't be easy! You 
^don't have much time and it can 
be any one of 32 suspects! Travel to 
""exotic capitals, contact informants, scrutinize 
^^^dossiers ...all in your quest to indentify Ockywoky! 



32 K EXTENDED COLOR BASIC cas*tte $22.95 

disk $24.95 

OCKYWOKY 100% COTTON T-SHIRTS^ 0 A . 

WHITE ON NAVY BLUE • SPECIFY S, M, L, XL i>0.90 

PRICES INCLUDE HANDLING AND SHIPPING (WITHIN THE U S AND CANADA) 
Oulside Ihe U S and Canada add $7 50 per order • All p rices in U S. funds 
California residents add 6% sales lax • Sorry ntCOO'sor credit cards 
Orders paid by cashier's check (or m«ney order purchased from a bank or post office) are shipped 
within 2 days Allow 2-4 weeks delivery on all other forms ol payment 




SHOOING STA C 
SCfTWABE 

PCST Crf ICE CCX 24 1 
CMCC, CA. 95327 



November 1 963 the RAINBOW 25 



90 PRINT#DV, ACT*: NEXTI: CLOSE: LIN 
E INPUT "PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE "I 
K* : RETURN 

100 K I LL " ACT I V I T Y / DAT " : RETURN 

110 I FK=4THENDV=0ELSEDV=-2 

120 OPEN " I " , 1 , "MEMBERS" : INPUT#1 , 

NUM : FOR 1=1 TONUM : I NPUT# 1 , NAME* ( I ) 

: PR I NT#DV , LEFT* < NAME* < I ) ,3) " "RI 

QHT* ( NAME* ( I ) ,LEN (NAME* ( I ) ) -3) : N 

EXT 

130 CLOSE: LINE INPUT "PRESS ENTER 

TO CONTINUE "IK*: RETURN 

140 CLS: PR I NT "ENTER SYSOP INITIA 

LS AND NAME, FOR INSTANCE: LPLL 

ANE LESTER" : LINEINPUTSYSOP* 

1 50 OPEN " O " , 1 , " MEMBERS " : WR I TE# 1 , 

1 : WRI TE# 1 , SYSOP* : CLOSE : RETURN 

160 K«4:G0SUB110 

170 INPUT" INITIALS OF MEMBER TO 
REMOVE, X TO RETURN" I I NITS*: IF 
INITS*<>"X" THEN 1 90ELSE0PEN " O " , 1 , 
"MEMBERS" 

180 WRITE#1, NUM: F0RI-1T0NUM: WRIT 
E#l , NAME* ( I ) : NEXT: CLOSE: RETURN 
190 J = 1 : FOR I - 1 TONUM : I FLEFT* < NAME 
* < I ) , 3 > =1 NI TS*THEN 1 = 1 + 1: NUM-NUM- 
1 

200 NAME*<J)=NAME*(I> : J-J+l:NEXT 
:Q0T0170 

210 'Kill Old Messages 
220 F0RI=3T01 1 : DSKI*1 , 17,1, A*, B* 
: A*=A*+LEFT* (B*, 120) :F0RJ*0T07:S 
BJECT*=MID* (A*, J*32+l , 8) : EXT*-MI 
D*(A«, J*32+9,3) 

230 A=ASC(SBJECT*) : IFA=255THENJ= 
7: 1=1 1ELSEIFA< >OTHEN I FM ID* (EXT*, 
2 , 1 ) » " * "THENK I LLSBJ ECT*+ " / " +E X T* 
+" : 1 " 

240 NEXTJ, I : RETURN 
250 END 




r 100 039C 790 . . 

200 0655 900.. 

260 080A 1010. 

380 0B1C 1130.. 

520 0E20 1280.. 



153B 
18A1 
1B89 
1E63 
216F 



680 1277 END...23CE 



Listing 4 

10 ' RA INBOARD - Copyright 1983 b 
y Lane Lester, 413 Woodland Circ 
le, Lynchburg, VA 24502 
20 60T01450 

30 'Lower /Upper Case Input Routi 
ne 

40 PR I NTMSG* ; : L I NE I NPUTC* : LN=LEN 

( C* > : I FLN > 1 THEND*=C* : E*= " " : FOR I = 

1T0LN:C*=MID* (D*, I , 1 ) : G0SUB50:E* 

=E*+C* : NEXT : C*=E* : RETURN 

50 IFC*>"@"THENC*=CHR* ( <ASC <C*>0 

R32)-32) 



60 IFLN-1ANDBITS-8THENPRINTSTRIN 
G*(32,RND(7)*16+143) ; : RETURNELSE 
RETURN 

70 CLEAR5000 : D I MD I SPL A Y* ( 4 6 ) , NAM 
E* (20) , TEXT* (70) 

80 F I LE*= " WELCOME ":Y=1:Z=15: GOSU 
B 1 440 : FI LE*= " HELP " : Y= 1 6 : Z=30 : GOS 
UB1 440: F I LE*= "COLDSTRT " : Y=31 : Z=4 
6:G0SUB1440 

90 CLS:LINEINPUT"IF A SINGLE-DRI 
VE SYSTEM, REMOVESTARTUP DISK AN 
D INSERT ONLINE DISK. PRESS ENT 
ER TO CONTINUE. " ; C* 
100 OPEN"I", 1, "MEMBERS": INPUT#1, 
NUM : FOR I = 1 TONUM : I NPUT# 1 , NAME* ( I ) 
: NE X T : CLOSE : CLS : PR I NT " R A I NBOARD 
IS READY TO RECEIVE! 

no di=o:di*="0":D2-o:D2**"0" *m 

essage (Dl) and Program (D2) Dri 
ve Numbers 

120 'Logon Procedure 

130 LINEINPUTSTART*:F0RI=1T0100: 

NEXT 

140 LINEINPUT"DO YOU WANT 7 BITS 
FOR TEXT ONLY OR 8 BITS FOR COL 
OR, TOO? ";BITS«: IFBITS*<"7"0RBI 
TS* > " 8 " THEN 1 40ELSEB I TS=VAL (BITS* 
> 

1 50 FL=0 : I FB I TS=8THENPR I NTCHR* ( 2 
7) "G4" : F0RI=1T015: PR I NTD I SPLAY* ( 
I) ;: NEXT: GOTO 170 

160 PR I NT "WELCOME TO THE RAINBOA 
RD. . . "CHR*(13)CHR* (13) "WITH A RA 
INBOW OF COLOR AND A"CHR* (13) "PO 
T OF GOLD IN GOOD TIMES. "CHR* ( 13 

) 

170 MSG*="YOUR THREE INITIALS, P 
LEASE : " : G0SUB40 : I *=C* : ACT*= " * " + 
I*+" " 

180 FL=FL+l: IFLENd*) 03THENIFFL 
=3THENN AME*= " FR I END " : GOTO 1 280ELS 
E170 

190 G0SUB1410: IFMBR THENN*=NAME* 
( I ) : S= I NSTR ( N* , " ")-4:NAME*=MID* 
(N*,4,S) : INITS*=LEFT*(N*,3)ELSE2 

30 

200 MSQ*=RIGHT* (N*, LEN (N*) -3) +" , 
"+CHR* (13) +"RIGHT ( Y/N) ? " : G0SUB4 
O: IFC*< >"Y"ANDC*< >"N"THEN200 
210 I FC*= " Y " THENPR I NT " CHECK I NG F 
OR MESSAGES . " : C= 1 : G0SUB650 : G0T03 
60 

220 'New Member Signup 
230 LINE INPUT "PLEASE TELL ME YOU 
R FIRST NAME: "; NAME*: LINE INPUT" 
AND NOW YOUR LAST NAME: " ; LAST*: A 
CT*=ACT*+" "+NAME*+" "+LAST*+" " 
240 IFLEN (ACT*) < 13THEN1280ELSEMS 
G*="YOU ARE NOT YET A MEMBER OF 
THE RA I NBOARD . " +CHR* (13)+" WOULD 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 



YOU LIKE TO BELONG? <Y/N> " 

230 00SUB40 : I FLEFT* < C* i 1 ) <> " Y " TH 

EN360 

260 pr i nt "great ! to what three i 

nitials"chr* < 13) "should your mes 

sages be"chr*< 13) "addressed? hi 

line input i nits*: fl=0 

270 fl-fl+ 1 : i ffl-&then 1 2s0elsef0 

ri-1t0num: i fleft* (name* < i ) , 3) <>i 

ni ts*thennext : g0t0300 

2g0 print "i'm sorry, "name*", an 

other "chr*< 13) "member has the sa 

me initials. "chr*< 13) "please mak 

e up three others 

290 line input "for the ra inboard: 

"; inits*:goto270 
300 iflen<inits*)=3thenf0ri=1t03 
: a=asc (mid* < inits*, i) ) : ifa>64and 
a<91thennext: g0t0330 
310 act*=act*+" "+inits*:fl=fl+1 
: i ffl=6then 1 2s0elsepr i nt " we need 

three initials. "chr*( 13) "for in 
stance, mine are *lpl» . 
320 line input "what are yours? "; 

INITS*:G0T0270 

330 PR I NT "JUST A MOMENT WHILE I 
ADD YOU" CHR* ( 1 3 ) " TO THE MEMBERSH 
IP L I ST . " : NUM=NUM+ 1 : NAME* ( NUM ) = I 
NI TS*+NAME*+ ■ " +LAST* 



340 OPEN " O " , 1 , " MEMBERS : O " : WR I TE# 

1 , NUM : FOR 1=1 TONUM : WR I TEtt 1 , NAME* ( 

I ) : NEXT : CLOSE : F I LE*» " NEWMEMBR" : G 

0SUB1340 

350 'Main Menu 

360 MSG*= " ENTER H, B,S, R, L , P, T, A, 

M, N, G: " : G0SUB40: G0SUB1370 

370 C= I NSTR < " HBSRLPT AMNG" , C* ) + 1 : 

ONC G0SUB390 , 390 , 460 , 490 , 5QO , 740 

,950, 1090, 1230, 1260, 1280, 1280: GO 

T0360 

380 'Help 

390 I FB I TS=8THENF0R 1=1 6T030 : PR I N 

TDI SPLAY* ( I ) ; I NEXT: RETURN 

400 PRINT" (H)ELP-THIS SCREEN "CHR 

* ( 13) " (B) ULLET I N-LATEST NEWS M CHR 

*(13)"(S)CAN MESSAGE TITLES "CHR* 

(13)"(R)EAD MESSAGES FROM MEMBER 

S" 

410 PRINT" (L)EAVE MESSAGES TO ME 
MBERS"CHR* (13)" (P) ROGRAMS TO DOW 
NLOAD"CHR* ( 13) " (T)EXT FILES TO R 
EAD" 

420 PRINT" (A)RT GALLERY-VIEW THE 
GRAPH ICS" CHR* (13) " (M) EMBER LIST 
-SEE WHO'S ON" 

430 PRINT" (N)AME ENTRY -IF YOU CA 
ME ON IN"CHR*(13)" THE MIDDLE 
OF THE PROGRAM "CHR* (1 3) " (G)OODBY 
E-BEFORE HANGING UP 
440 RETURN 
450 'Bulletin 

460 MSG*= "THE CURRENT BULLETIN I 
S DATED" +CHR* ( 1 3 ) + " 9 / 1 /83 . " +CHR* 
(13)+"D0 YOU WANT TO READ IT (Y/ 
N) ?" : G0SUB40: I FC*< > " Y " THENRETURN 
470 F I LE*= " BULLET IN": GOSUB 1 340 : R 
ETURN 

480 'Scan Messages 

490 MSG*=" ENTER H, C, I , R: " : G0SUB4 

O: G0SUB1370: C=INSTR ( "HCIR" , C*) +1 

: I FC=5THENRETURNELSE0NC G0T0490, 

500,510,530 

500 F I LE*= " SCAN " : GOSUB 1 340: G0T04 
90 

510 I*="XXX":G0T0540 

520 I*=INITS*:G0T0540 

530 MSG*="FOR WHICH 3 INITIALS W 

OULD Y0U"+CHR*(13)+"LIKE TO SCAN 

, "+NAME*+"? ": G0SUB40: I*=C*: IFL 

EN ( I*) O3THEN530 

540 CK=0:F0RI=3T01 1 : DSKI*D1 , 17, I 
, A* , B* : A*= A*+LEFT* ( B* , 120) :FORJ= 
0T07 : SB JECT*=M ID* (A*, J *32+ 1 , 8 ) : E 
XT*=MID*(A*, J*32+9,3) :A=ASC(SBJE 
CT*) 

550 IFA=255THENJ=7: 1=1 1 ELSE IF (EX 
T*= I *0R I *= " X X X " ) ANDE XT* > " AOO " AND 
E XT*<> " DAT " ANDLEFT* ( E X T* , 2 ) <> " PO 
" ANDA< >OTHENPR I NTSBJECT* "/"EXT*: 



V ADVANCED MATH PROGRAMS 



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FUNCTION GRAPHING MODULE 16K EXT-$19.95 

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■ AUTO-SCALING OPTIMIZES GRAPH SIZE 

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ZEROS 

• INTERSECTION OF FUNCTIONS 

* COMPLETE MANUAL — PROGRAM ON TAPE 




CALCULUS MATH MODULE 32K EXT-$34.95 

' STARTS WITH THE GRAPHING MODULE 

* LOAD UP 9 FUNCTIONS AT ONCE 

* FIND AND COMPUTE MAXIMA & MINIMA 

• NUMERIC INTEGRATION & DIFFERENTIATION 

* COMPOSITE AREAS 

' HANDLES PIECEWISE CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 

• HARD COPIES OF DATA AND/OR GRAPH 

• COMPLETE MANUAL — PROGRAM ON TAPE 

/ CALCSOFT 

A / P.O. BOX 401 
V ST. ANN, MO 63074 

CHECK OR MONEY ORDER — $1.00 for 
shipping 



30 the RAINBOW November 1963 



CK=1 

560 NEXTJ,I:IFCK THEN490ELSEPRIN 

T" SORRY, "NAME*" , "CHR* (13) "NO ME 

SSAGES FOUND. " : G0T0490 

570 'Read Messages 

580 MSG*- "ENTER H, S, I , R: " : Q0SUB4 

o:gosubi370:c=instr("HSIR",cs) : I 

FC-4THENRETURNELSE0NC+1 Q0T0580, 
590,610,630 

590 FI LE*=" READ" : BOSUB 1 340 : G0T05 
80 

600 G0SUB650:G0T0580 
610 PR I NT "WHICH SUBJECT WOULD YO 
U LIKE TO READ, "NAMES "?"| : LINE I 
NPUTS*:L-LEN(S*) : IFL>8THEN720 
620 S*-S«+STR I NQS ( 8-LEN < SS ) , " " ) 
: G0SUB650: Q0T0580 

630 PRINT "FOR WHICH 3 INITIALS W 
OULD Y0U"CHR*(13) "LIKE TO READ M 
ESSAGES? "J :LINEINPUTI*:IFLEN<I* 
) < >3THEN630ELSEQ0SUB650: G0T0580 
640 'Directory Search 

650 cd-o: f0rk-3t01 1 : d8kisd1 , 17, k 
, ads , bds : ads=ads+lefts ( bds , 1 20 ) : 
f0rl-0t07: sbject*— mid* (ads , l*32+ 
1,8) :exts=mids(ads,l*32+9,3) 
660 ac-asc ( sbject* ) : i fac-255then 
l=7:k=ii:goto71o 
670 ifac=oor(c-1andext*oinits*) 
or (c-2andsbjects< >ss) or (c-3andex 
ts< > i s ) or ( sbjects- "personal " ande 
xts< >ini ts« ) then7 1 0 
680 cd-i : file«-sbject*+"/ "+ext«: 
pr i ntchrs ( 1 3 ) f i les : f i les-f i les+ " 

: "+D1*: GOSUB 1340 

690 IFEXTSOINI TSSTHEN7 1 OELSEF*- 

LEFT* (FILES, 10) +"*"+RIGHT« (FILE* 

, 3 ) : RENAMEF I LESTOFS 

700 MSGS=NAMES+" , WOULD YOU LIKE 

"+CHRS(13)+"T0 REPLY TO THIS (Y/ 

N ) ? " : G0SUB40 : I FCS- " Y " THENG0SUB7 

40 

710 nextl,k:ifcd THENRETURNELSEP 
R I NT "SORRY, "NAMES" , "CHR* ( 13) "NO 

MESSAGES FOUND. ": RETURN 
720 F I LES- " READ " : GOSUB 1 340 : G0T05 
80 

730 'Leave Messages 
740 MSGS- "ENTER 3 LETTERS: "+CHRS 
(13)+"INlTlALS OF RECIPIENT, "+CH 
RS ( 13) +"MEM-BER LIST, "+CHR* ( 13) + 
" I NS-TRUCT I ONS , OR " +CHRS (13) 
750 MSGS-MSGS+"RET-URN TO MAIN M 
ENU : " : G0SUB40 : I *-C* 
760 IFLEN (IS) -3THENF0R I - 1 T03 : A-A 
SC(MIDS(IS, 1,1) ) : IF(A>64ANDA<91) 
OR ( A>47ANDA< 58) THENNEXT: G0T0780 
770 PRINT"WE NEED 3 LETTERS. ": RE 
TURN 

780 IFI*="MEM"G0SUB1260: 80T0740E 



LSE I F I *« " I NS " THENF I LES- " LEAVE " : 8 
OSUB 1 340 : Q0T0740ELSE I F I S- " RET " TH 
ENRETURN 

790 IFRIGHTSdS, 1) >"9"THENQ0SUB1 
410: IFNOTMBR THENPR I NT " SORRY , "N 
AMES", ONLY MEMBERS "CHR* ( 13) "CAN 

RECE I VE MESSAGES . " : G0T0740 
800 PRINT "WHAT IS THE MESSAGE '8 
SUBJECT?" : LI NEINPUT" (8 LETTERS M 
AX I MUM) : "|SS 

810 IFLEN(SS) >8THENPRINT"8 LETTE 
R MAXIMUM, "NAMES: RETURN 

820 IFINSTR(S*, )ORINSTR (S«, "O 

" ) OR I NSTR (8*, "/") ORI N8TR ( 8* , " . M ) 
THENPR I NT "PLEASE DO NOT USE: O . 

: /": RETURN 
830 PR I NT "CHECKING FOR DUPLICATE 

FILE. "CHR* (13) "ONE MOMENT, PLEA 
SE. ":FILE*-S*+STRING* (8-LEN(S*) , 

32)+"/"+I*+ +Dl*:CS-0 

840 F0RI-3T011:DSKI*D1, 17,I,A*,B 
S: AS-AS+LEFTS (BS, 120) : F0RJ-0T07: 
PRINT". " | : SBJECT*— M I D* ( A* , J »32+ 1 
, 8) : EXT*-MID* (A*, J#32+9, 3) 
850 I F ASC ( SBJECT* ) -255THENJ-7 : I - 
1 1 : G0T0870 

860 F*-8BJECT*+"/"+EXT*+ +D1*: 

I FF*-F I LE*ORF*— LEFT* (FILE*, 10) +" 
# " +R I QHT* (FILE*, 3) THENC8- 1 : J-7 : I 
-11 

870 NEXT J, I: PRINT: IFCS THENPRINT 
"SORRY, "NAME*", THAT FILE"CHR*( 
13) "NAME 18 ALREADY IN USE. "CHR* 
(13) "PLEASE TRY AGAIN. ":G0T0800 
880 PR I NT "BEG IN MESSAGE ENTRY. "C 
HR*( 13) "PRESS 'ENTER' BY ITSELF 
TO END. ": I— -1:C*— FILE*: GOSUB 1370 
890 I-I+l : PRINT" . " : LINEINPUTTEXT 
*(I):IFTEXT*(I)-""ORI -70THEN920E 
LSELT-LEN (TEXT* (I) > J I FLT< 64THEN8 
90 

900 PRINTCHR* (7) CHR* (7)CHR* (7) "T 
HAT LINE'S TOO LONG, "NAME*". "CH 
R*(13)"IT NOW READS:" 
910 FORJ-LT T01STEP-1: IFMID*(TEX 
T* ( I ) , J , 1 X >" " OR J >65THENNEX TELS 
ETEXT* ( I ) -LEFT* (TEXT* ( I ) , J-l ) : PR 
INTTEXT* ( I ) : G0T0890 
920 MSG*- "ENTER 'S' TO SAVE I 'R' 
FOR" +CHR* (13)-*-" ANOTHER REQUEST : 
" : G0SUB40: IFC*< "R"0RC*>"S ,, THEN9 
20 

930 I FC*- " R " THENRETURNELSEOPEN " O 
" , 1 , FILE*: FORJ— OTOI-1: PRINT#1 , TE 
XT*(J):NEXT:CL08E:PRINT"Y0UR MES 
SAGE IS SAVED, "NAME*" . " : RETURN 
940 'Programs 

950 MSG*— "ENTER H, L,D, P, R: " : G08U 
B40 : GOSUB 1 370 : C- I NSTR ( " HLDPR " , C* 
) +1 : I FC— 6THENRETURNEL8E0NC GOT09 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 31 



50, 960, 970, 1010, 1020 

960 F I LE*- "PROGRAMS" : BOSUB 1 340 : Q 

0T0950 

970 F0RI-3T011:DSKI*D2,17, I,A*,B 
*: A*-A*+LEFT*(B*, 120) :F0RJ-0T07: 
SBJECT*-MID* (A*, J#32+l , 8) : EXT*-M 
ID* (At, J#32+9,3) 

980 A-A3C OBJECT*) : I FA-255THEN J- 
7: 1-1 1 : Q0T01000EL8EIFA< >0ANDLEFT 
*<EXT*, 1)-"P"ANDMID*(EXT*,2, 1)-" 
0 " THENPR INTSBJECT* " " I ELSE 1 000 
990 T*-R I BHT* (EXT* , 1 ) : I FT*- " U " TH 
ENPR I NT " UT I L I T Y " ELSE I FT*- " A " THEN 
PR I NT " APPL I CAT I ON " ELSE I FT*- " 8 " TH 
ENPR I NT " SAME " ELSEPR I NT " OTHER " 
1 000 NEXT J , I : 80T0990 
1010 FILE*-"PROGDESC" : 80SUB1340: 
G0T0950 

1020 I*-INITS*:80SUB1410: IFNOTMB 
R THENPR I NT "SORRY, "NAME*", ONLY 
MEMBERS "CHR* (13) "CAN DOWNLOAD P 
ROGRAMS. ": RETURN 

1030 PR I NT "WHICH PROGRAM WOULD Y 
OU LIKE TO GET?" : L I NE I NPUTF I LE* 
1040 F0RI-3T011:DSKI*D2, 17, I, A*, 
B*: A*-A*+LEFT* (B*, 120) : F0RJ-0T07 
: SBJECT*-MID« (A*, J*32+l , 8) : EXT«- 
MID* (A*, J#32+9, 3) 

1 050 I FASC ( SBJECT* ) -255THEN J-7 : I 
- 1 1 ELSE I FSB J ECT*-F I LE*THEN 1 070 
1060 NEXTJ, I: PR I NT "SORRY, "NAME* 
", "CHR* (13) "I CAN'T FIND THAT FI 
LE. ":B0T0950 

1070 FILE*-SBJECT*+"/"+EXT*+": "+ 
D2* : 80SUB 1 340 : 80T0950 
1080 'Text File* 

1090 MSG*- "ENTER H, L, D, T,R: " : GOS 

UB40 : GOSUB 1 370 : C- I NSTR ( " HLDTR " , C 

* ) + 1 : I FC— 6THENRET URNELSEONC GOTO 

1090, 1100, 11 10, 1 140, 1 150 

11 00 FILE*- "TEXT": GOSUB 1340: GOTO 

1090 

1110 f0ri-3t011:dski*0, 17, i,a*,b 
*:a*-a*+left*(B*, 120) :forj-oto7: 
sbject*-mid* (a*, j#32+l , g) : ext*-m 

ID*(A*,J#32+9,3) 

1 1 20 A-ASC OBJECT*) : I FA— 255THENJ 

-7: 1-1 1ELSEIFEXT*< "AAA"ANDA< >OTH 

ENPR I NTSB JECT*+ " / " +EXT* 

1130 NEXTJ, I:G0T01090 

1 1 40 F I LE*- " TEXTDESC " : GOSUB 1 340 : 

G0T01090 

1150 I*-INITS*:G0SUB1410: IFNOTMB 
R THENPR I NT "SORRY, "NAME*", ONLY 
MEMBERS "CHR* (13) "CAN RECEIVE TE 
XT FILES.": RETURN 
1160 PRINT"WHICH FILE WOULD YOU 
LIKE TO READ (DO NOT INCLUDE 
EX TENS ION) ?"> : LINEI NPUTF I LE* 
1170 F0RI«3T011:DSKI*0, 17, I,A*,B 



*: A*— A*+LEFT* ( B* , 120) : F0RJ-0T07: 
SBJECT*-MID* (A*, J #32+1 , 8) : EXT*-M 
ID* (A*, J #32+9, 3) 

1 180 IFASC OBJECT*) -255THENJ-7: 1 
- 1 1 ELSE I FSB JECT*-F I LE*ANDEXT*< " 9 
99 "THEN 1200 

1190 NEXTJ, I: PR I NT "SORRY, "NAME* 
", "CHR* (13) "CAN'T FIND THAT FILE 
. ": GOTO 1090 

1200 FILE*-FILE*+"/"+EXT*:GOSUBl 
340: GOTO 1090 

1210 F I LE*- "TEXT": GOSUB 1 340 : GOTO 
1090 

1220 'Art Gallery 

1230 I FB I TS-7THENPR I NT " SORRY , YO 
U MUST RECEIVE 8 BITS"CHR* ( 13) "T 
O VIEW GRAPHICS. ": RETURN 
1240 F0RI-31T045:PRINTDISPLAY*(I 

) * : next: close: G0T0360 

1250 'Member List 

1 260 FOR I - 1 TONUM : PR I NTLEFT* ( NAME 
*(I),3)" "RI QHT* ( NAME* ( I ) , LEN (NA 
ME* (I) )-3) : NEXT: RETURN 
1270 'Goodbye 

1280 OPEN"D", 1, "ACTIVITY": WRITE* 
1 , ACT*: PUTttl , LOF ( 1 ) +1 : CLOSE: IFC* 
-"N" THEN 140 

1290 PR I NT "GOODBYE, "NAME*"!":TI 
MER-0 

1300 I FT I MER< 200THEN 1 300ELSEPR I N 
T"+++"|:TIMER-0 

1310 i ft i mer< 200then 131 oelsepr i n 
t m ath":timer-o 

1320 i ft i mer< 200then 1 320elsefl— 0 

: GOTO 130 

1330 'Display File 

1340 C*-FILE«: G0SUB1370: OPEN" I " , 

1 , FILE* 

1 350 I FNOTEOF ( 1 ) THENL I NE I NPUTtt 1 , 
TEXT*: PRINTTEXT*: G0T01350ELSECL0 
SE: RETURN 

1360 'Activity Length Teat 
1370 LA=LEN(ACT*)+LEN(C*> : IFLA>2 
55THENACT*=LEFT* (ACT*, 253) +" *" : 
GOTO 1 280 

1380 I FLA >230THENPR I NT " PLEASE FI 
NISH UP SOON SO THAT "CHR* (13) "OT 
HERS CAN CALL THE RA INBOARD. "CHR 
*( 13) "THANKS, "NAME*"." 
1390 ACT*-ACT*+C*+" ": RETURN 
1400 'Member ship Search 
1410 MBR-0 : FOR J- 1 TONUM : I F I *-LEFT 
* (NAME* ( J ) , 3) THENMBR— 1 : 1 -J: J-NU 
M 

1420 NEXT: RETURN 

1430 'Load Graphic Screens 

1440 OPEN"I", 1,FILE*:F0RX-Y TOZ: 

INPUT#1 , DISPLAY* ( X) : NEXT: CLOSE: R 

ETURN 

1450 PCLEARl:G0T070 m, 



32 the RAINBOW November 1983 




I tend to forget dates and, subsequently, find myself in 
"hot water" at least once a month for forgetting a loved 
one's birthday, anniversary or even a lunch date. I'm 
lucky if I remember my own birthday. And yes, I bought a 
pocket calendar . . . but ] forgot where I put it. Luckily, I 
found a program that solves this embarrassing problem. 

Bill Bruck's Appointment Book, requiring 32K Extended 
Color BASIC and a printer, handily stores your appoint- 
ments for any day within one year. It will print a calendar 
with any number of memos per day, though each must be 16 
characters, or less. 

Type in the program and RUN it. The first time you run 
the program you must create a datafile, which is a storage 
space on the cassette or disk where data is kept (that cannot 
be run). If no file is present, the program will look for one 
and bomb. The program will check for the presence of the 
disk ROM pack, and if it is there, data will be saved from the 
disk, otherwise, the cassette will be used. 

The default for the datafile names is "DIARY." By using 
this name, you can press ENTER when asked for a datafile 
name. Occasionally, the program will not run the first time 



because of the PCLEAR1 command. Stay calm and keep 
trying, it will work. 

First, the program will ask you to input a month, day and 
reminder, and end month, end date. Four options are given 
after the item is entered: 

(Y) — Put in a different item for a different day. 

(N) — Return to main menu. 

(S) — Put in another item for that same day. 

(D) — Put in that same item again on a different day. 
To delete an item, press D. 

It is necessary to input the beginning month, date and day 
of the week (this is only crucial in the printout command), 
and ending month and date, so all days and dates will 
correspond correctly. Leap year is a special situation. As the 
program is presented, February 29 can exist only if you 
make it the beginning or end of a given display or printout. 
Otherwise, every fourth year will have the wrong day of the 
week identified for quite a few dates in succeeding months. 
So, to modify leap years, change line 788 by removing 
"VB=60 OR" and change line 2030 by removing "D=60 
OR." 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 33 



If you wish to move your data from cassette to disk, 
follow these directions: 

• Put in disk controller, CLOAD program, SAVE it to 
disk. 

•Add lines 1 18 DC=-1 and 1045 DC=1. 

• RUN program, but don't save this version. 
Immediately save data. Type NEW and run program as 
saved on disk. It is a good idea to save your data before 
exiting or printing . . . just in case of a mistake. 

After entering the appropriate data, your printer will 
begin. At your command, the printer will provide you with 
data between one week to a full year in a standard calendar 
format. As you will see, this program utilizes your printer's 
capabilities by taking advantage of expanded and con- 
densed fonts, tab controls, etc. It is suggested that you print 
two months at a time because the program does not skip 
perforations, unfortunately. 

Appointment Book is written specifically for the Epson 
MX-80 and MX-100 printers. Since different printers use 
different control commands, modifications will be necessary 
if you do not have these printers. In this program, the 
following control codes are used: 

Emphasized mode: CHR$(27)"E" (And cancel emphasized 
mode — CHR$(27)"F") in lines 680 and 700. If your printer 
doesn't havethese, eliminate them from the program includ- 
ing the semicolon after them. 

Double wide mode: CHR$(27)"S" — line 680 (My printer 
stops printing double wide at the end of the line. If yours 
keeps printing double wide, put the stop code at the end of 
line 680). If your printer does not have this, eliminate it, 
(including the semicolon) and adjust the space between the 
days of the week to get them to line up properly. 

Compressed mode: CH R$( 1 5) — line 700. This is necessary 
for the printout to make sense. Otherwise, you need a major 
rewrite of this whole section and rethinking of how many 
spaces are available. Substitute your code for this one. 

An important note: LPVI1 and DMP-100 printers — This 
program will not run because these printers do not have 
compressed characters. 

LPV11I and DMP-200: Use the following lines: 
680 PR1NT#-2, CHR$(27);CHR$(19);CHR$(27);CHR$ 

(14);" S M (the rest as in current line 680) 
700PRINT#-2,CHR$(27);CHR$(20);CHR$(27);CHR$(15) 

Bill Bruck's Appointment Book has been a real life — and 
love — saver for me. I no longer get dirty looks and the silent 
treatment for forgetting important dates. Now, all I need to 
do is find a solution to that darned name forgetting problem. 

—Susan Remini 





... 01 AO 


1210 


. 0CCG 


340 


03E5 


1410 


0E8B 


490 


. 0582 


1610 


10BE 


755 


07C2 


1810 


1277 


1030 


0A83 


END 


... 1544 



The listing: 

10 * DIARY 3.4 2/12/83 
20 GOTO 9999 
30 CLEAR 10000 
40 DIM* (372) 




WLS NEST 

SOFTWARE 



WE GIVE A HOOT 
ATLANTIS ADVENTURE 

This one is tough! We challenge you to complete this in 30 
days. If you can we will send you any cassette program we 
sell at no charge. (We will even pay the postage.) You start 
on a disabled sub, near the lost city of Atlantis. Your ob- 
ject is to get the sub and yourself safely to thesurface. Your 
text adventure tape will have a 16K EXT version on one side 
and a 32K EXT version on the other. 
ATLANTIS Cassette - Postpaid $ 2T.95 



ADVENTURE STARTER PACKAGE 

Learn how to play those adventures the painless way. You 
start with a simple adventure and then move into an inter- 
mediate. We also include hints and tips on adventuring. Your 
16K EXT cassette includes both "MYHOUSE" & "PIRATES" 
adventures. Finish this and you are ready for "ATLANTIS " 
Cassette 16 K EXT - Postpaid $ 17.95 



FOUR MILE ISLAND ADVENTURE 

You are trapped inside a runaway nuclear power plant. Your 
object is to bring the reactor to a cold shutdown and prevent 
the "China Syndrome." 

FOUR MILE ISLAND 16K EXT ■ Postpaid $ 17.95 



PROGRAM FILE 

Organize your cassette programs. Let your computer find 
that program for you. Create and maintain a four field file. 
You can search, sort, modify, delete and display on screen 
or printer. Sorting may be done by name, type, or location. 
Cassette 16K EXT ■ Postpaid $ 14.95 



LABEL III 

Develop and maintain a mailing list. Print lists or labels in 
your choice of 1, 2, or 3 wide. Supports 3 or 4 line address- 
es with phone optional. Fast machine language sort on last 
name, first name, or zip code. 

Cassette 16 K EXT Postpaid $ 19.95 



DISASSEMBLER - ASSEMBLER 

(by Dynamic Electronics) Designed for the beginner who 

wants to learn to write machine language programs. 

16K NON EXT Cassette - Postpaid $ 19.95 



OWLS EYE INDICATOR LIGHT 

^ Don't leave your coco on and fry your chips! The OWLS 
EYE plugs into either joystick port and may be mounted 
beside the keyboard where it is easily visible. Simple 10 
second installation! We pay first class postage in the USA, 
and Canada. 

"OWLS EYE" - Postpaid $ 8.95 

CASSETTE TAPES C-05 
$7.50 - dozen / $9.50 dozen with hard boxes. Please add $1.50 
per dozen shipping and handling. 

C.O.D. orders please add $1 .50 
No delay for personal checks. ( 



VtSA' 




OWLS NEST SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 579 
Ooltewah, TN 37363 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 35 



50 DIM B*(40,2) 

60 DIM M*(12) 

70 DIM L*(14) 

60 CL-3 * CALENDAR LENGTH 

81 ' INITIALIZE 

85 CL8 ( 3 ) : PR I NT032*8+8 , " APPO I NTM 
ENT BOOK" l 

86 PRINT032*10+8, "BRUCK A8SOCIAT 
E8"| 

87 PRINT032*ll+8," <301) 270-982 
2 " | 

90 ' CHECK FOR DISK BA8IC 

91 DC-PEEK (188) 

92 IF DC- 14 THEN DC-1 ELSE DC— 1 

96 PRINTS32* 15, "FILENAME <N> NEW 
FILE" | 

97 INPUT F« 

98 IF F«-"N" THEN INPUT"NEW FILE 
NAME" I F«: GOTO 210 

99 IF LEN(F*)>G THEN PRINT" INVA 
LID FILE NAME": SOTO 97 

104 IF F«-"" THEN Ff— "DIARY" 
110 IF DC— 1 THEN PRINT"POSITION 
CASSETTE" 



117 


GET DATA 


120 


OPEN"I",#DC,F* 


130 


INPUT #DC,HF 




140 


I NPUT#DC , DATE 




150 


FOR N-l TO 372 


160 


LINE INPUT«DC 


,If (N) 


170 


NEXT N 




180 


CL08E«DC 




210 


CLS<3) 




220 


PRINT 




230 


PRINT" 


CALANDAR PROGR 


AM 






240 

H 


PRINTG224, " 


INPUT 


250 


PRINT" 


PRINTOUT" 


260 


PRINT" 


DISPLAY" 


270 


PRINT" 


SAVE" 


280 


PRINT0416," 


< CHOOSE ONE 


PLEA8E>" 




290 


I«-INKEY«: IF 


If*** THEN 290 


300 


IF If-" I" OR 


I*— "i " THEN 350 


310 


IF If-"D" OR 


If-"d" THEN 480 


320 


IF If-"P" OR 


If-"p" THEN 650 


330 


IF If-"B" OR 


!•-"•" THEN 104 



0 

340 PR I NTG448, "INVALID COMMAND": 
GOTO 290 

350 ' INPUT NEW DATA 
360 CL8 

370 Q08UB 1550 

380 PRINT"What? (16 characters m 
ax) " 

390 LINE INPUT "?"|Jf 

400 J-(A-1)#31+B 

410 IF LEN(Jf)>16 THEN 380 



420 If (J)-If (J)+Jf«-"G" 
430 PRINT"ANOTHER?":PRINT"<Y> YE 
8":PRINT"<N> N0":PRINT"<8> SAME 
DAY ANOTHER ITEM": PRINT "<D> SAME 

ITEM ANOTHER DAY" 
440 If— I NKE Yf : I F I f - " " THEN440 
450 IF If-"Y" OR If-"y" THEN 350 
460 IF If«*S" OR If«"«" THEN 380 
465 IF If-"D" OR If-"d" THEN G08 
UB 1550: GOTO 400 
470 GOTO 210 
480 * DISPLAY 
485 Z-0 

490 GOSUB 1140 
500 CLS 

510 FOR N-DATE TO Q 
520 D-N: GOSUB 1920 ' GET DATE 
530 Kf-If (N) 
540 IF Kf-"" THEN 620 
550 J-IN8TR(Kf, "•") 
560 D*-LEFT*(K* f J-l) 
570 IF J-LEN(Kt) THEN Kf-"":GOTO 
590 

580 K*-RIGHT«(K*,LEN(K«)-J) 
590 PR I NTDT* I TAB ( 9 ) D* 
600 Z-Z+l:IFZ/12-INT(Z/12) THEN 
GOSUB 1480 

610 IF J<>LEN(I*(N)) THEN 540 
620 NEXT N 
630 GOSUB 1480 
640 SOTO 210 

650 ' TICKLER PRINTOUT 

655 EOY-0 
660 D-DATE 
670 GOSUB 1140 

680 PRINT«-2 P CHR«(27) "E"|CHR«(27 
)"8"»" S M T W T 

F S"| 
690 PB-DATE-MF+1 : PE-Q 
695 IF PB>PE THEN 210 
700 PRINT#-2, CHR* (27) "F" I CHR« ( 15 
) 

710 PRINTO-2, STRING* ( 132, "-" ) 
720 LN-0 

730 ' END ROUTINE 
740 IF PB>PE THEN 210 
750 IF EOY-1 THEN 210 
755 VB-PB 

760 GOSUB 1980 'DATE ON LINE 1 
770 ' BUFFER 1 - ALL WEEK ITEM8 
780 FOR N-l T07 

785 IF VB<1 THEN WR-372 .'GOTO 79 
0 

7G7 IF VB>372 THEN WR— 372 ELSE 
WR-0 

788 IF VB-279 OR VB-124 OR VB-15 
5 OR VB-341 OR VB-60 OR VB-61 OR 

VB-62 THEN VB-VB+l:GOTO 788 
790 Pt(N)-I*(VB+WR) :VB-VB+1 



36 the RAINBOW November 1983 



800 NEXT N 

610 ' BUFFER 2-1 LINE OF ITEMS 
820 FOR N-l TO 7 

830 IF P*<N>- ,,M THEN PL«(N)- H,, :G 
OTO 870 

840 J<N>-IN8TR<P*<N), H 0"> 

890 PL«(N>-LEFT«<P*<N>,J<N>-1> 

860 P*(N) -RIGHT* (P*<N),LEN(P*(N) 

)-J(N)> 

870 NEXT N 

880 ' PRINT ONE LINE 

890 LN-LN+1 

900 FOR N-l TO 7 

910 PRINT#— 2 f TAB ( <N— 1 ) *19) "+" I PL 
*<N> | 

920 NEXT N 

930 PRINT«-2,TAB(131> M +" 
940 IF LN>CL THEN 1430 
950 GOTO 820 

960 " CAPITALIZE ENTRY 

970 B*-"":FORN-l TO LEN(BD*> 

980 A-A8C<MID*(BD»,N, 1) ) 

990 IF A>96 AND A<123 THEN A-A-3 

2 

1000 B«-B*+CHR«<A> 
1010 NEXT N 
1020 BD*-B* 
1030 RETURN 

1040 ' SAVE TICKLER 

1042 INPUT"SAVE AS FILE M |Y*I IFY* 

<>"- THEN F»«Y» 

1045 IFDC— 1 THEN PR I NT "READY CA 
9SETTE, PRESS < ENTER > M I MOTOR ON 
1047 IF DC— 1 THEN Y*« I NKE Y* : I F Y 
THEN 1047 

1049 MOTOR OFF 

1050 OPEN M 0",#DC,F* 
1060 PRINT* DC, MF 
1070 PRINT#DC P DATE 
1080 FORN-1TO 372 
1090 PRlNTttDC, I*<N) 
1100 NEXT N 

1110 CLOSEttDC 
1120 CLS(3> 

1130 PR I NT "DATA SAVED": GOTO 240 
1140 ' B/E DATE SUBROUTINE 
1150 * DATE-B DATE, Q-E DATE 
1160 INPUT "BEGINNING MONTH <1-12 
>"|BM 

1170 INPUT "BEG INNING DATE <1-31 
>"|BD 

1180 INPUT "BEGINNING DAY"|BD* 
1190 INPUT "ENDING MONTH <1-12 
>"|EM 

1200 I NPUT " END I NG DATE <1-31 
>"|ED 

1210 IF BM<1 OR BM>12 OR BD<1 OR 

BD>31 OR EM<1 OR EM>12 OR ED< 1 
OR ED>31 THEN PR I NT "REDO DATES": 
GOTO 1160 



HARMOIMYCS 

PO. BOX 1573 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84110 




Arcade games putting your kids In a tallspln? 
HARMONYCS educational software ends the 
arcade game dizzys. 

««««««««««««««««« EDUCATIONAL ***************** 

MATCH & SPELL turns spelling drudgery into spelling fun. 

16K Extended Basic . $11.95 

MATHWAR is a 1st and 2nd grade math drill game. 

16K Extended Basic .. $11.95 

FLASHCARDS assists in studying anything from Mythology 
to Medicine. 16K Extended Basic $11.95 

TIC-TAC-TOE MATH. Plenty of color and sound. Different 
age players can compete against each other with their 
own skill level. 16K Extended Basic . $1195 

PRE-SCHOOL PAK. Alphabet recognition and counting 
drills. Hi-res graphics and sound. 

16K Extended Basic $8.95 

000000000000000 HOME & PERSONAL *************** 

DISK MONEY MINDER. A home budget tool. Allows print- 
out of category balances Up to 56 user defined cate- 
gories. Helps you watch those dollars and cents. 

32K and Disk Basic $19.95 

MONEY MINDER II. Cassette tape version of our popular 
DISK MONEY MINDER. 

16K Color Basic . . $14.95 



GAMES 



>oooooooo«ooooooooo 



SEVEN-ELEVEN. It's a card game, it's a dice game. It's 
skill and luck for 1 to 6 players. Uses machine language 
subroutines. 

16K Extended Basic .. $12.95 

MAZE RUNNER. The Ytirrods have invaded! Can you 
penetrate their fortress? Joysticks required. 

16K Extended Basic $14.95 

Gift certificates available. We pay shipping on all orders. 

We ship next day... period! ■ ^ 
Write for free catalog. ^T3f* j 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SI At 



HARMONYCS 

P"5 66x liJS 

SALT LAKE CITY. UTAH S4110 



November 1963 the RAINBOW 39 



1220 608UB 1770 

1230 RETURN 

1240 FORN-1 TO BCT 

12S0 IF VAL (BD* (N, 2) XDATE THEN 

1290 

1260 IF VAL (BD* (N y 2) ) >0 THEN 129 
0 

1270 M-VAL <BD* (N, 2) ) -DATE+MF 
1280 L*(M)-BD*(N f 1)+" B/D0"-H-*(M 

) 

1290 NEXT N 

1300 FORN-1 TO TCT 

1310 IF VAL(I*(N, 1) XDATE THEN 1 

3S0 

1320 IF VAL(I*(N, 1))>Q THEN 1390 
1330 H-VAL < I* < N, 1 ) ) -DATE+MF 
1340 L*(M)-I*(N f 2)+"0"+L*(M) 
1350 NEXT N 
1360 RETURN 

1370 ' GET TICKLER ITEM FROM 
STRING 

1380 A- IN8TR(L*(PD ),"•") 

1390 L*-LEFT* (L* (PD) , A-l ) 

1400 IF A-LEN(L*(PD) > THEN L* (PD 

>-"•• EL8E L*(PD) -RIGHT* (L*(PD),L 

EN(L*(PD) )-A) 

1410 RETURN 

1420 * PRINTOUT OVER 6 ITEMS I 
N A DAY 

1430 FOR Z-l TO 7 

1440 IF P*(Z)-"" THEN 1430 ELSE 

820 
14S0 NEXT Z 
1455 PB-PB+7 
1460 GOTO 710 

1470 ' WAIT FOR KEY SUBROUTINE 

1480 Y*-INKEY*: I FY*-" "THEN 1480 

1490 IF Y*-"0" THEN 210 

1500 IF Y*«"D" OR Y*-"d" THEN 15 

20 

1510 RETURN 

1520 * DELETE ITEM SUBROUTINE 
1530 GOSUB 1550 
1540 GOTO 1610 

1550 INPUT "DATE <MONTH>/<DATE>" 
I DDT* 

1560 j-in8tr (ddt*, "/") 

1570 if j-0 then print "invalid d 

ate h :forj-ito300: next: goto 210 

15G0 A-VAL (LEFT* (DDT*, J-l ) ) : B-VA 
L ( R I QHT* ( DDT* , LEN ( DDT* ) - J ) ) : D- ( A 
-1)»31+B 

1590 IF A<1 OR A>12 OR B< 1 OR B> 
31 THEN PRINT" INVALID DATE" : FOR J 
-1 TO 300: NEXT: GOTO 210 
1600 RETURN 

1610 IF IN8TR(I*(D) f "•" ) -LEN ( I * ( 
D>> THEN 1620 ELSE 1630 
1620 I* (D)-"": PRINT" ITEM DELETED 
":GOTO 500 



1630 PRINT0481 , "DELETE NUMBER"; 

1640 INPUT X 

1650 IF X-l THEN 1740 

1660 FOR N-l TOX 

1670 J-INSTR(J+l f I*(D),"«") 

1680 IF J-0 THEN PRINT" INVALID N 

UMBER" :FORJ-1TO300: NEXT: GOTO 500 

1690 IF N-X-l THEN A-J 

1700 NEXT 

1710 I*(D)-LEFT*(I*(D),A)+RI8HT* 

(I*(D) ,LEN(I*(D) >-J> 

1730 GOTO 500 

1740 J-IN8TR(I*(D), "•") 

1750 I*(D)-RIGHT*(I*(D) f LEN(I*(D 

>)-J) 

1760 GOTO 500 

1770 * CONVERT BEGIN/END DATES 

1780 DATE-31#(BM-1)+BD 

1790 Q-31#(EM-1)+ED 

1800 IF Q< —DATE THEN PRINT "INVAL 

ID DATE8": GOTO 1160 

1810 G08UB 960 

1820 C*-LEFT*(BD*,2) 

1830 IF C*-"SU" THEN MF-1 

1840 IF C*-"MO" THEN MF-2 

1850 IF C*-"TU" THEN MF-3 

1860 IF C*-"WE" THEN MF-4 

1870 IF C*-"TH" THEN MF-5 

1880 IF C*-"FR" THEN MF-6 

1890 IF C*-"SA" THEN MF-7 

1900 IF MF-0 THEN PRINT "INVALID 

DAY": GOTO 1180 

1910 RETURN 

1920 * CONVERT DATE SUBROUTINE 
1930 IF INT(D/31)-D/31 THEN MONT 
H-INT(D/31) :DY-31:G0T0 1960 
1940 MONTH- INT (D/3D+1 
1950 DY-D- ( MONTH- 1) #31 
1960 DT*-STR* (MONTH) +" / "+RI8HT* ( 
STR* (DY) f LEN ( STR* ( D Y > ) - 1 ) 
1970 RETURN 

1980 ' PRINT DATE ON FIRST LINE 
1990 FOR N-l TO 7 
2000 D-PB+N-1 

2005 IF D>372 THEN D-D-372 
2010 IF D<0 THEN D-D+372 
2015 IF D-0 THEN D-372 
2020 IF D-279 OR D-124 OR D-155 
OR D-341 THEN PB-PB+l:GOTO 2000 
2030 IF D-60 OR D-61 OR D-62 THE 
N PB-PB+l:QOTO 2000 
2040 GOSUB 1920 

2050 PRINT#-2,TAB( (N-l) #19) "+"|D 
T*| 

2060 NEXT N 

2070 PRINT#-2,TAB(131) "+" 
2080 RETURN 

2999 ' NEW DATA FILE SUB 

9998 PCLEAR 1 

9999 GOTO 30 



40 the RAINBOW November 1983 



COMMUNICATIONS 



I6K 

DISK 



I 



Master Messenger 



By Alan Davenport 




M' aster Messenger is a program for network ad- 
dicts, like myself. It allows the user to write 
messages for bulletin boards off line and reduce 
connect time, phone bills and most important, save money. 
Master Messenger was specifically designed to be compati- 
ble with CompuServe's Special Interest Group (S1G) mes- 
sage boards. It also can be used to write letters to be sent by 
electronic mail (EMAIL) on the CompuServe system. Using 
this program, a network addict no longer need be afraid to 
spend too much time and money answering messages. 
Answers can be typed at leisure off line and uploaded any- 
time. The only danger is to the person that you are writing 
to — the danger of having to read a long message! Your 
answers to messages will be better, less hurried, and more of 
a joy because you will no longer be rushing to answer with 
one eye on the all-terrible clock. 

Master Messenger is user-friendly. There are error traps 
so that you will not have to worry about typing a long 
message and then lose it. 
The program has these features: 

Allows typing of uploadable text compatible with 
smart terminal programs. 



Automatic line numbering of message. 
Listing of the text to the screen or to your printer. 
Edit a line by replacing an error in it rather than re- 
typing the whole line. 

Insert lines in the middle of the body of the text. 
Storing of text to disk or loading of an old file from disk 
to be re-sent, finished, or edited. 
List your disk's directory on your printer. 



Program Use 

Master Messenger has been designed for ease of use; it has 
been thoroughly tested in actual use for several months and 
has been steadily revised. This is the 10th version. Although 
it is easy to use, it is important that you read these instruc- 
tions. When you first type RUN,you will get a syntax error. 1 
Just type RUN again. This is not a bug in the program, it is 
caused by Extended Color Basic's handling of the PCLEAR 
command. After typing RUN the second time, you will be 
greeted by the main menu. To start entering text, select [ 1]. 
Just type until you have typed about two lines worth of text ] 
onto thescreen then press[ENTER]. Your line is now stored 



in memory. If you type more than two lines, you may exceed 
the maximum line length of 79 characters (two lines is 64 
characters) allowable by CompuServe's SIG message 
boards. If you exceed the maximum length, you will be 
informed, the line will not be entered into memory, and the 
line will be listed so that you can break it into smaller pieces. 
Continue entering text this way until done. 

At the bottom of the screen is a display showing how 
many characters long your message is. CompuServe docu- 
mentation says that you can enter a message up to 2,500 
characters long. It is actually only possible to store a mes- 
sage about 2K (2048) characters long. There will be an 
audible and printed warning when you are have only 200 
characters left. If you excede the maximum allowable mes- 
sage length, Master Mesenger not store the line and you 
will be given the choice of editing the message or saving the 
first part and finishing your message as a separate file and 
uploading it as a separate message. 

At any time, you can return to the main menu by typing 
three Ms [MMM] on a blank line or at the end of a line of 
text. If you do, however, that line will not be entered into 
memory. You can also delete the current line being typed by 
entering three Ds [DDD] at the end of the line. 

Editing 

When you are finished typing your message, you can then 
list, print or edit it. Select [2]from the main menu. You will 
thenseeanother menu. Pressing[l] on thenewmenu will list 
the message to the screen. If, when you list your text, you see 
a line with an error, note the line number so you can edit it 
later. Press [2] to print the message. You will be asked if your 
printer is ready. If your printer is not ready press [N], 
otherwise press [Y], To edit, press [3]. When you select 
editing, you will be asked for a line number. If you just hit 
[ENTER], Master Messenger will start at the first line. If 
you continue hitting [ENTER], the next lines will come up 
in sequence one at a time. If youdecide to edit a line, entera 
replacement string. Here is how it works. Those familiar 
with CompuServe's SIG editor will find that Master Mes- 
senger works in the same way; say that you mistyped the 
word "THE" as "HTE." When asked for the "string to 
replace," type "HTE." You will then be asked for a replace- 
ment string. Simply type "TH E"correctly and hit [ENTER]. 
The line will then be fixed, printed and you will beasked if it 
is OK. If it is not OK press [N] and the line will not be 
changed. You will then be given the chance to correct the 
line again. When done press [Y] and the next line will 
appear. At any time, you can enter three other functions 
when asked forthe"stringto replace." As mentioned before, 
entering [MMM] will return you to the main menu. [BBB] 
will move you back a line. Entering [DDD] will cause the 
current line to be deleted from the memory. 

Other Functions 

From the main menu you can also perform other func- 
tions. To load a file from disk, select [3]. Just enter a valid 
filename and it will be loaded into memory. The file must be 
stored in the ASCII format. Any old message will be 
scratched (erased) and the new file from the disk will take its 
place. You can clear memory by selecting menu item 
number [4]. To store your text, press [5]. You will be asked 
for a filename. Enter any valid filename with extention and 
disk drive number (FILENAME. EXT: I). If you type a file- 
name that is too long, you will be asked for another. 

Master Messenger also checks to see if the disk that you 
are trying to store your text on is full. If it is, you will be 



asked to substitute another. When you have inserted a dif- 
ferent disk, just press [ENTER] and your text will be stored 
or enter an [M] to return to the menu. Entering [6] from the 
menu will end the program. You will be asked if you really 
want to (so you do not accidentally lose your message!). 
Press [E] and Master Messenger will end, delete itself from 
memory, and reset BASIC. Use care here! When you first type 
it in, SA VEa copy before trying this or you will have to do it 
again! Selecting menu item [7] will allow you to insert a line 
in the middle of your message. You will be asked for a line 
number. Enter the number of the line that you want to insert 
the new line before. If your text is long, it may take a few 
seconds to open up a space for your new line. Menu item [8] 
will list the directory of any of your disks on your printer. It 
is useful to have a copy of your disk's directory handy when 
on-line, especially if you are sending multiple messages and 
cannot remember a filename! 

I have been using this program without problems for 
several months now using Eigen System's Colorcom/ E 
smart terminal program. To send a message using Color- 
com/ E select [R] from the menu. To leave a message on a 
CompServe SIG, select transmit option 1, "NONE." Enter 
[L] at the SIG's function prompt, then enter who you want 
to send your message to. When you see the first line number, 
(1:), press the down arrow on your keyboard and the 
number [2]. Your message will then be uploaded (transmit- 
ted) to the SIG message board. It will appear that the 
message is not being received properly, line numbers will 
appear in odd places, but when the message is completely 
uploaded, press [ENTER], type [P], then press [ENTER] 
again and you will see that your message is stored on the 
board. After you see that it is okay, type [S] and a section 
number (SO) and you will receive the message "Message 
#12345 stored." 

Tosend EMAIL (electronic mail), first load yourtext into 
Colorcom / E by selecting transmit option [2], "ADD 
HEADER." Then to go to CompuServe's EMAIL section, 
type [GO EMA]. On the menu that you see, press [22], "To 
send mail." On the next menu, select item [1], "FILGE 
Editor." When you see "ready." press 1 and the number [2] 
and your message will be sent. When it is all sent, type [/ EX] 
and you will return to the menu. Select [6] and answer the 
questions as to who you want to send your message to. 

For other terminal programs, refer to their instructions 
for how to upload a file. 

There are many error traps built in Master Messenger; 
however, it may still be possible to crash the program. (I/O 
ERROR on a disk, etc.) Many times, it is possible to recover 
from an error by typing GOTO 480. (The start of the main 
manu.) In many cases, your message will still be there. 

That is it! This program has saved me hundreds of dollars 
in connect time. I hope that you find it as useful as I have. If 
you have questions, you can reach me at CompuServe 
Number [72215,743] or write me at 31 Madison Drive, 
Ogdensburg, N.J., 07439. ^ 

The listing: 



350. 
460 
690. 
960. 
1170 
1360. 
END. 



01BC 
.0596 
08FF 
. 0C0A 
100E 
12AC 
1554 
17E9 



10 * MASTER MESSENGER #10-7/20/83 

20 'BY ALAN DAVENPORT 

30 '31 MADISON DRIVE 

40 * OGDENSBURG , NJ 07439 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 43 



50 'COMPUSERVE tt 72213,743 

60 PCLEAR 1 : CLEAR2500 : D I MA* ( ISO) : 

G0T0480 

70 ' *###*****####*****####*** 

eo cls 

90 IFA-0THENPRINT9192, "THERE IS 
NO MESSA8E TO EDIT ! ! • " : PLAVTICP 
1 " : RETURN 

100 PR I NT "ENTER "999" TO RETURN 
TO MENU. PRESS < ENTER > FOR LINE 
#1.":IF EL-998 THEN EL*0: RETURN 
HO INPUT"EDIT WHICH LINE" I EL 
120 EL-EL-l: IFEL>A THENSO ELSE I 
F EL<0 THEN EL-0 

130 CLS:PRINT"LINE #"EL+1:PRINTA 
* (EL) : PRINT 

140 PR I NT "ENTER <DDD> TO DELETE 
THIS LINE. ENTER <MMM> TO RETURN 
TO MENU. ENTER <BBB> TO BO BACK 

A LINE. PRESS < ENTER > TO SKIP 
THIS LINE. " 

ISO PRINT"STRIN6 TO REPLACE?": LI 
NE INPUT" "|RP* 

160 IF RPt-"DDD" THENPR I NT " ARE Y 
OU SURE YOU WANT TO DELETE THIS 
LINE? PRESS <Y> OR <N>. "ELSE180 
1 70 Z t- 1 NKEY t : I F Z t- " Y " THEN 1 80ELS 
EIF Z t- " N " THEN 130ELSE 170 
1 80 I FRP*- " " THENEL-EL+ 1 : 80T0340 

Plug Yourself 

Into Your Color 
Computer!!! 

Now you can actually monitor your own pulse or 
blood pressure. These non restricting, state-of-the-art, 
monitors allow you freedom while giving you reading 
of vital information immediately. If you have your health 
you have everything. This new system can help you 
monitor your heart, and your health — or your money 
back. Our thirty day money back guarantee insures 
it and we'll pay the shipping. Order today! 

Pulse System $69. 95 
Blood Pressure System $175. 00 

Send Check or Money Order to: 

3ciipLiarEL%iia%s?iijrii3iiriJirs. 

167 Moore Road • Weymouth Industrial Park 
Weymouth, MA 02189 



Yes. I want systems 

And I realize I have a 30 Day Money Back Guarantee 
Name , 

Address 

City State Zip 

Mass residents add 5% sales tax 



44 the RAINBOW November 1983 



190 IF RPt-"MMM" THENRETURN ELSE 
IF RPt- " DDD " THEN CC-CC-LEN (A* <E 

L) ) :CLS:NLt- PR I NT© 1 96 , "<«<« 

L I NE DELETED> » > »" : PLAY " T2AP2 " : 
G0T0320ELSE IF RPt-"BBB"THENEL-E 
L-l:G0T0340 

200 F0RR-1T0 LEN (At (EL) ) -LEN (RPt 
)+l 

210 IF RPt-MIDt(At(EL) ,R, LEN (RPt 
)) THEN 240 
220 NEXT 

230 CLS: PRINT996, "STRING TO REPL 
ACE NOT FOUND ! " : PLAY " T22CDCDT 1 PI 
": GOTO 130 

240 CC-CC-LEN (RPt) 

250 Lt-LEFTt ( At ( EL ) , R- 1 ) 

260 Rt— RIGHTt (At (EL) , LEN (At (EL) ) 

-R-LEN(RPt)+l) 

270 PR I NT: PR I NT "REPLACEMENT STRI 
NG? "ILINEI NPUT " " I RPt 
280 NLt-Lt+RPt+Rt : CC-CC+LEN ( RPt ) 
290 CLS 

300 PRINT: PRINTNLt: PRINT: PRINT" I 
S THIS OK? PRESS <Y> OR <N>." 
310 Zt-INKEYt:IF Zt-"Y"THEN 320 
ELSE IF Zt-"N" THEN 130 ELSE310 
320 CLS 

330 At (EL)-NLt:EL-EL+l 
340 IFEL<OTHENEL-0 ELSE IFEL>-A 
THEN CLS: PRINTS 129, "<<END OF FIL 
E. DONE EDITING?» PRESS 

<Y> OR <N>. ":G0T0360 
350 GOTO 130 

360 Zt-INKEYt:IF Zt-"Y"THEN RETU 
RN ELSE IFZt-"N" THENEL-O: G0T013 
O ELSE360 

370 ' #**##**##**##**##**##**##*# 

3B0 At- PRINT90, "ENTER <MMM> F 

OR MENU OR", "ENTER <DDD> AT THE 
END OF A LINE TO DELETE THAT 

LINE. ", "PRESS enter TO STORE TH 
E LINE." 

390 PRINT8485, "CHARACTER COUNT-" 
CC".";:IF C01848 THENPR I NT84 16, 
"♦WARNING* ! RUNNING OUT OF ROOM. 

FINISH MESSAGE! ";: PLAY" 

T2C" 

400 PRINT9160, "":LINEINPUT""? At 
410 IF RIGHTt (At, 3) ="DDD"THEN At 
« " " : SOUND 1 , 6 : PR I NTS 1 92 , STR I NGt ( 2 

55 " " ) 

420 IF At-"" THEN400 

430 IF R I GHTt ( At , 3 ) — " MMM " THEN480 

440 IF LEN(At)>78 THEN CLS:PRINT 

9320, "LINE TOO LONG! 79 CHARACTE 

RS MAXIMUM. DO AGAIN. ", At : SOU 

ND1,9:G0T0380 

450 CC-CC+LEN (At) : IF CO2048 THE 
N PRINT* 193, "LINE NOT ENTERED. M 
ESSAGE TOO LONG FOR MESSAGE BO 



ARD! ENTER <MMM> FOR MENU. EDI 
T MESSAGE OR CONTINUE WITH A NEW 
FILENAME. STORE NEW FILE AS A 
SEPERATE MESSAGE ON THE BOAR 
D ! ! " : SOUND 1 ,19: G0T0400 
460 A* ( A ) -A* : A- A+ 1 : S0UND200 , 1 : A* 

- PRINTS 192, STRING* (255, " "):P 

RINT:G0T0390 

470 ' #*#######*******#######** 
480 CLS 

490 PRINT M <<««<<<«<MAIN MENU> 

»»>»»>" 

500 PRINT" 1. CREATE TEXT OR CONT 
INUE. " 

510 PRINT"2. LIST OR EDIT MESSAG 
E. " 

520 PRINT"3. LOAD FILE FROM DISK 

II 

■ 

530 PR I NT "4. SCRATCH MESSAGE OR 
OLD FILE." 

540 PR I NT "5. STORE MESSAGE TO DI 
SK. " 

550 PR I NT "6. EXIT PROGRAM." 

560 PRINT"7. INSERT A LINE BETWE 

EN OTHERS. "f 

570 PRINT-8. PRINT DISK DIRECTOR 
Y. 

580 PRINT:PRINT"<<pr«ss numbar o 
•f your choice. >>" 



590 PRINT"<<«<«<MASTER MESSENG 
ER»»»>> BY ALAN DAVENPO 

RT" 

600 CH-VAL(INKEY») : IF CH-0 OR CH 
>8 THEN600 
610 CLS 

620 ON CH GOSUB 380,1260,1450,65 
0,700,860,980, 1170 
630 G0T0480 

640 ' #*##**##**##**##**###*#* 
650 CLS 

660 PR I NT "ARE YOU SURE YOU WANT 
TO SCRATCHYOUR MESSAGE?" : PRINT: P 
RINT" PRESS <Y> OR <N>. 

670 Z4-INKEY*: IF Z*-"Y" THEN 680 

ELSE IF Z*-"N" THEN RETURN ELSE 

670 

680 FORR-OTOA : A* < R ) - " " : NE X T : CC-0 
:A-0:PRINT«229, "OLD MESSAGE SCRA 
TCHED" i : PLAY"T1L2C" : RETURN 
690 ' *♦**♦♦**♦**♦♦**♦♦**♦♦** 
700 CLS: IF A*<0)«"" AND A=0 THEN 
PRINT9230, "NO MESSAGE TO STORE! 
" : SOUND 1 , 19: RETURN 
710 PRINTS 192, "PRESS enter TO AB 
ORT OPERATION. ENTER <FILE 

NAME/EXT: 0>. " 

720 LINE INPUT "OUTPUT FILE NAME? 
" ; NM* 



PAL CREATIONS 



SPECIALIZING IN 32K ECB TEXT ADVENTURES AND SIMULATIONS ON CASSETTE. 



STALAG 

Escape the German prison camp before ifs bombed. 
$14.95 

★ EVASION 

Sequel toSTALAGJ Get out of Germany alive. 
... > $19.95 

MANSION OF DOOM 

Destroy the Vampire, rescue Princess Marlena. 
$14.95 

BEACON 

Can you signal the ship before it runs aground'? 
, $14.95 

SCAVENGE HUNT 

Ever been on a scavenge hunt? You've never been on 
one like this before. 

, , $15.95 



ISLE OF FORTUNE 

You are a fisherman in a waterfront bar. The old salt 
just told you a tale of treasureon an island, before the 
poison dart struck. ..Sail your ship to dangerous 
adventure awaiting you on the Isle of Fortune. 
. , $19.95 

★ WITCHES' KNIGHT 

Backto thedaysof old where knightswere boldand 
magic ruled the land. Many enchanted surprises 
await you on your quest to free Sir Noble from the 
witches evil spell. 
$15.95 

★ BOMB SCARE 

8 bombs in a city. Your mission: locate and disarm all 
8 before time runs out. 1 is The Big One. 

$1495 



★ DARK CASTLE 

magic - myths. An evil castle awaits 

$14.95 

Buy any 1 of the programs above and get any 1 of the bonus programs below FREE. 



Monsters 
your exploration. 



★ SKI LODGE 

Times are tough, weather is bad. Manage a Vermont 
ski lodge successfully to win this 1-4 player simu- 
lation. 

MATCH-IT 

A challenging word game in which you identify 
your opponent's 5-letter word using deduction. 1-4 
players. 

* Different Every Time 



BETTER 

Abetterbettinggamefor 1-4 players. You choose the 
winning criteria. 

ENO 

You inherited a million dollars. Just one catch - first 
you have to find it' 

MOTHER LODE 

You just inherited your great-grandfather's goldmine. 
Did he die penniless? 



★ SAC 

Forthose against nuclear disarmament - pilot a B52 
to any one of 36 Soviet cities, destroy it with a nuclear 
bomb, and makeitbackto the base. 9 difficulty levels. 
You can use keyboard or joystickorboth. Thissimula- 
tion takes a lot of pre-planning and fast thinking. 
$19.95 

★ SPACE ESCAPE 

Escape from a death-ridden alien spacecraft and 
return to earth. 
$14.95 

★ PRIVATE INVESTIGATOR 

Murder! Could Sherlock Holmes have solved this 
whodunit adventure simulation'? 
$14.95 



Send check or money order to: 




1 0456 Amantha Ave. , 
San Diego, CA92126 

Calif, residents add 6% sales tax 



46 the RAINBOW November 1983 



730 IF NM*-"" THEN RETURN 
740 IF MID* <NM*, LEN <NM*> -1 , 1)"": 
"THEN D-VAL (RIGHT* <NM*, 1) > 
750 DF-FREE(D) : IF DF<1 THENCLS:S 
0UND1, 19: PRINT: PRINT"DISK IS FUL 
L! ! SWITCH DISKS, PRESS ENTER 
TO STORE. ENTER <m> TO RETURM T 
0 MENU." : LINE INPUT" Z*: IF Z*-"rt 
"THEN RETURNELSE750 
760 IF LEN(NM*>>14 THEN CLS:PRIN 
T" INVALID FILENAME ! " : SOUN 

Dl, l:Q0T0710 
770 OPEN "0",#1,NM* 
780 FORR-0 TO A 
790 IFA*(R)-"" THEN810 
800 PRINTttl, A*(R) 
810 NEXT 
820 CLOSE 

830 PRINT:PRINTNM«" SAVED TO DIS 
K. " 

840 PLAY " T22CF A " : FORD- 1 T02000 : NE 
XT 

850 RETURN 

860 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT"PRESS 
<E> TO END OR ANY OTHER KEY TO 

RETURN TO MAIN MENU." 
870 Z*=INKEY*: IFZ*=" "THEN870 ELS 
E IF Z*<>"E" THEN 480 ELSE CLS 
880 PRINT* 22 4, "<««<<«<<END OF 

RUN>»»»»»" : PLAY"T1P1 " : CLS: 



EXEC«eH8000 

890 * ######################### 

900 CLS 

910 FORR-OTOA-1 

920 PRINTR+1": "A*(R) 

930 SF-SF+LEN<A*<R) > : IF SF<200TH 

EN 950 

940 SF-0:PRINT«484, "PRESS SPACEB 
AR FOR MORE"| : IFINKEY*<>" "THEN9 
40 ELSE CLS 
950 NEXT 

960 PRINTH482, "PRESS SPACEBAR TO 
CONT I NUE . " | : I F I NKE Y*- " " THEN SF 

-0:A«- CLS: RETURN ELSE 960 

970 * ######################### 
980 CLS 

990 IF A*<0)-"" AND A-0 THENPRIN 
T" THERE ARE NO LINES IN MEMORY ! " 
: SOUND 1,9: FORD- 1 T0999 : NEX T : RETUR 
N 

1000 INPUT "INSERT NEW LINE BEFOR 
E WHICH LINE. HIT ENTER TO AB 
ORT INSERT. " % NL 

1010 IF NL>A THENPR INT "LINE NUMB 
ER OUT OF RANGE ! " : PLAY " T2C " : GOTO 
1000 

1020 PRINT9224, "STAND BY, OPEN IN 
G SPACE FOR NEW LINE." 
1030 IF NL-0 THEN RETURN 
1040 A-A+l 



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Mo adult supervision required. The Picture Menu 
gives children control. They can: 



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• Learn the Alphabet 

• 5pell their Names 

• Compare Shapes 




November 1983 the RAINBOW 



47 



1050 FORR-A TO NL STEP-1 
1060 A*<R)«A*<R-1> :A*<R-1>-"" 
1070 NEXT 
1080 CLS 

1090 PRINT" CHARACTER COUNT- 

"CC". " 

1100 PRINT«192, "LINE TO INSERT:" 
1110 LINEINPUT""|NL* 
1120 IF LEN(NL*> >78 THEN CLS:PRI 
NT "LINE TOO LONG. 79 CHARACTERS 
MAXIMUM! DO AGAIN. " : SOUND1 , 9: 
PRINT&320, NL*: G0T01 100 
1130 CLS : PR I NTNL* 

1140 PRINT: PRINT "IS THIS OK? PRE 
SS <Y> OR <N>." 

1150 Z*-INKEY*:IF Z*-"Y" THEN A* 
( R ) -NL* : CC-CC+LEN ( NL* ) : RETURN EL 
SE IF X*-"N" THEN 1080 ELSE 11 50 
1160 '»#««»»«»«»#######»«»««««## 

1170 CLS 

1180 PR I NT" LISTING DIRECTORY TO 
PRINTER. ENTER <9> TO RETURN T 
O MENU. " 

1190 PRINT«192: INPUT"WHICH DRIVE 
"JDR 

1200 IF DR-9 THEN RETURN 
1210 REM* CHANGE "ND" IN LINE ** 
1220 TO EQUAL THE HIGHEST DRIVE 
**** NUMBER IN YOUR SYSTEM.***** 



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♦ft****************************** 

1220 ND-1MF DR<0 OR DR>ND THEN 

PRINTHO, "<<<<< INVALID DEVICE NUM 

BER > » » " : SOUND 1,5: GOTO 1 1 90 

1230 P0KEU1,254:DIRDR 

1240 PRINT#-2:RETURN 

1250 '»#»»**♦»***♦»**»»**»♦**»»* 

1260 CLS 

1270 PRINT: PRINT"<<<<<<<<MASTER 
MESSENGER >»»»>" : PRINTSTRING* < 
32, "*") 

12B0 PRINT" 1. LIST MESSAGE TO SC 
REEN. " 

1290 PR I NT "2. LIST MESSAGE TO PR 
INTER. " 

1300 PRINT"3. EDIT MESSAGE. " 
1310 PRINT"4. RETURN TO MAIN MEN 
U. " 

1320 PRINT:PRINTSTRING*<32, "»") 
1330 PRINT"<<pr«mm number of you 
r choic»»" 

1340 CH-VAL<INKEY*> : IF CH>4 OR C 
H=0 THEN 1340 

1350 ON CH GOSUB 900, 1380, SO 
1360 RETURN 

1370 '»#««##««##««###««##««##««# 

1380 CLS 

1390 PR I NT9224, "PRINTER READY? P 
RESS <Y> OR <N>." 

1400 Z*=INKEY*:IF Z*«"Y" THEN 14 
10 ELSE IF Z*-"N" THEN RETURN EL 
SE 1400 

1410 F0RR-0T0A-1 

1420 PRINT#-2,R+1 A*<R) 

1430 NEXT: RETURN 

1440 '»*»»»***»»***»»***»»****** 
1450 CLS 

1460 PRINT" INPUTTING OLD FILE 
FROM DISK", STRING* (32, 239) 
1470 PR I NT "ENTER <D> FOR DISK DI 
RECTORY. ENTER <M> TO RETURN T 
0 MENU OR TYPE <FILENAME. EXT: 0> 
14G0 LINE INPUT "INPUT FILE NAME?" 
I NM* 

1490 IF NM*-"" THEN 1450 ELSE IF N 

M*-"M"THEN RETURN ELSE IF NM*-"D 

" THEN DIR: GOTO 1480 

1500 IF LEN(NM*>>14 THEN CLS:PRI 

NT8232 , " F I LENAME I NV AL ID": SOUND 1 

, 19:G0T014G0 

1510 CLS4:G0SUB6S0 

1520 OPEN "I",#1,NM* 

1530 IF EOF < 1 ) — — 1 THEN 1560 

1540 LINEINPUT#1,A«<A> 

1 550 CC-CC+LEN (A* (A) > : A= A+ 1 : GOTO 

1530 

1560 CLOSE: CLS 

1570 PRINT«224,NM»" LOADED FROM 
D I SK . " : PLAY " T22CBAT 1 P 1 " : RETURN 



48 the RAINBOW November 1983 



DATA COMMUNICATIONS 





1 




ECB 




RAINBOW 







An Automatic Phone Dialer 
For Radio Shack's Modem II 



By Jorge Mir 



A few months ago, 1 decided to "byte" the bullet and 
purchase a Radio Shack Modem 11 to replace my 
old one. The ability to dial a phone number from the 
keyboard, as well as the auto-answer capability of such a 
modem, attracted me to my new acquisition. 

I am constantly using several favorite bulletin board ser- 
vices (some are long distance calls, such as Connection-80) 
as well as CompuServe and The Source. Keeping track of all 
these different phone numbers while having a computer at 
my fingertips did not make any sense at all. So, Telecom was 
"born" to make things easier for me. 

Telecom will automatically dial any telephone number 
included in the data statements. It will identify it as a local or 
long distance phone number and it will determine if it is a 
voice or data phone call. If it is a data type phone call, it will 
load your terminal program and EXECute it after which 
you can press BREAK and type in an "X" to activate the 
modem for dialing the phone number. If it is a voice type 
phone call, the modem will dial the phone and ask you to 
pick up the handset after it starts ringing. 

The program has sufficient prompting throughout its vari- 
ous subroutines, so detailed instructions are not necessary. 
Also, 1 have added sufficient REM statements to explain 
what each section of the program is to accomplish. 

Please note that the phone numbers are entered as data 
statements which contain the name of the person or service, 
the phone number and an identification code to determine 
whether the number is a computer service (a number I), or a 
phone number for voice communications (a number 2). 

Step650 checks to see if the number is longer than seven 
digits. If it's longer than seven digits, it recognizes it as a long 
distance phone number and adds additional digits for dial- 
ing through phone services such as MCI. In this case, I have 
used the phone number 222-3333 and account number 
1 2345 for illustration purposes and you will have to change 
the program step to your own number and account. Note the 
two "ps" added for pausing approximately four seconds to 
wait for the tone on these services before you can enter the 
account code followed by the phone number to be called. If 
you are not using this type of service, just replace these 
numbers with a " 1" to enter the direct dialing long distance 
network. 

A few data statements have been added to illustrate the 
format required. 

(Jorge Mir, a Certified Public Accountant, is currently 
controller of a Fortune 500 Corporation. Personal 
computing is his main hobby and he publishes most of 
his original work through the Rainbow.) 



Please note that step 290 loads a disk version of Videotex. 
You will have to change this step according to the type of 
terminal program you have. 

As a final point, if the telephone number you are search- 
ing for is not included in the data statements, you will have a 
chance to enter it from the keyboard. Of course, you can also 
stop the program at that point and add it to the data state- 
ments after which you should save the program so that it 
would contain that phone number next time you call for it. 

Although the program is designed for a Radio Shack 
Modem 11, it can be changed to work with other types of 
programmable modems, 



The listing: 



^40 


013E 


280. . . 


. 03F9 


520 


0758 


END. . 


. 0A35 



0 ' *♦********♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦********♦♦ 

1 ' TELECOM — R.S. MODEM II 

2 ' AUTOMATIC PHONE DIALER 

3 ' BY: JORGE MIR 

4 » #*###****###****####***####* 
10 G0SUB610 ' print heading 

20 PRINT 8448, STRING* < 32, 140) I :P 
RINT8480, " PRESS antar TO END 
PROGRAM" | 

30 PRINTS 164, "WHO DO YOU WISH TO 
CALL?" 

40 PRINTTABO) I : LINE INPUT ID* : IF 

ID*=""THEN CLS:END 

50 ' *♦*****♦♦♦♦♦*****♦♦♦♦♦*****♦ 

60 * FIND TELEPHONE NUMBER 

70 * **************************** 

80 RESTORE 

90 READ NAME*: IF NAME*- "END" THE 
N 390 

100 READ PHONE*, TYPE 

110 IF I NSTR ( NAME* , I D* > «0 THEN 9 

O 

120 GOSUB 610: PR I NTS 1 64 , "CALL "N 

AME* " ? " : SOUND 1 00 , 1 

130 I*=INKEY*:IF I*- ""THEN 130 

140 IF I*="N" THEN 90 

150 * *************************** 

160 ' PROGRAM R.S. MODEM II 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 53 



170 '*************************** 

180 G0SUB610:G0SUB650 
190 PRINT* 165, "PROGRAMMING MODEM 
FOR" 

200 IF RIGHT* (NAME*, 1)-"S"THEN N 

AME*«NAME*+"'" ELSE NAME*-NAME*+ 

■i » 3 ■• 

210 PRINT TAB <<32-LEN< NAME*) > /2) 
NAME* 

220 PRINT TAB (10) "PHONE NUMBER" 

230 G0SUB540 

240 IF TYPE-2 THEN 330 

250 * ###»#########»##»########## 

260 ' LOAD TERMINAL PROGRAM 

270 ' *************************** 

280 PRINT84B0, "LOADING COMMUNICA 

TIONS PROGRAM" % 

290 ! M" VIDEOTEX ": P0KE*HFF40, O: EX 
EC 

300 ' *************************** 
310 ' DIAL PHONE NUMBER (VOICE) 
320 ' *************************** 
330 PR I NT: PR I NT "PHONE NUMBER IS 
NOW BEING DIALED": PRINT#-2, " X " » 
340 PRINT9480, " (GET PHONE AND DI 
SCONNECT MODEM " ; : P0KE&H5FF , 1 05 
350 FOR D=1T02000:NEXTD:CLS:END 
360 ' *************************** 
370 'ENTER NUMBER FROM KEYBOARD 
380 '*************************** 
390 G0SUB610 

400 PRINT8161, "SORRY, I DON'T RE 
COGNIZE THAT NAME." 
410 PRINT: PRINT" DO YOU WANT TO 
INPUT TELEPHONE NUMBER FROM THE 
KEYBOARD FOR " : PR I NT " " \ ID*" ( Y / 
N)?" 

420 I*=INKEY*:IF I*-" "THEN420 

430 IF I*-"N" THEN 10 

440 IF I*<>"Y" THEN S0UND100,2:G 

0T0420 

450 PRINT: INPUT" PHONE NUMBER" % N 
* 

452 PHONE*- FOR N-l TO LEN (N*) 

454 X*=MID* (N*,N,1):IF INSTRC - 
() ",X*) >0 THEN 458 
456 PHONE*-PHONE*+X* 
458 NEXT N 

460 INPUT" TYPE (1-BBS, 2- VOICE) 
" | TYPE 

470 IF TYPE<1 OR TYPE >2THEN460 
480 NAME*- ID* 
490 GOTO 180 
500 END 

510 '*************************** 

520 ' SEND DIGITS TO MODEM II 

530 '*************************** 

540 P0KEScH96, ScHBE 

550 FOR X-1T0LEN(N*) 

560 I*-MID*(N*,X, 1) : IF INSTR(" - 



()",I*)>0 THEN 600 

570 PRINT*367,MID*(N*,X,1)|:80UN 
D150, 1 

580 PRINT#-2,MID*(N*,X,1)| 

590 FOR D-1T0200:NEXTD 

600 NEXTX:PRINT«367, M " I : RETURN 

610 CLS: PRINT TAB (5) "AUTOMATIC P 

HONE DIALER": PRINT STRING* (32, 13 

1 ) | : RETURN 

620 ' ########################### 
630 ' LONG DISTANCE OR LOCAL? 
640 ' ########################### 
650 IF LEN (PHONE*) >7 THEN N*-"*D 
T2223333PP 1 2345 " +PHONE* : ELSE N*- 
"*DT"+PHONE* 
660 RETURN 

670 '»**** PHONE NUMBERS ****** 
680 'DATA: NAME, PHONE, TYPE 
690 ' (ENTER NO SPACES OR DASHES) 
700 'TYPE: 1-DATA, 2-VOICE 
710 '************************** 
720 DATA COMPUSERVE, 4756935, 1 
730 DATA CONNECTION 80,212441375 
5,1 

740 DATA SOURCE, 7851614, 1 
750 DATA RAINBOW, 5022284492, 2 
760 DATA MOM AND DAD, 1 112223333, 
2 

770 DATA END _ 



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November 1983 the RAINBOW 55 



KISSable OS-9 



The Shell Game 



By Dale L Puckett 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Welcome to KISSable OS-9, Month Two. In our 
first column we talked about OS-9 in general and 
tried to get you excited about the prospect of 
being able to do more than one thing at a time — or even let 
more than one person work on your CoCo at the same time. 

We told you that OS-9 works because it is made up of a 
number of small modules that can be tailored to fit any 
hardware you want to run it on and introduced you to a few 
modules which are common to all versions of OS-9. This 
month we'll move on to take a look at the SHELL — the 
heart of OS-9 operation. 

An Invitation 

As the newly elected president of the OS-9 User's Group, 1 
would like to invite you and your local CoCo club tojoin us. 
One of the goals of our group is education. We want to help 
others learn OS-9. By the time you read this our officers will 
have held their first organizational meeting on Compu- 
Serve. We'll pass along the details and our new address as 
soon as we have it. We're hoping that Color Computer clubs 
around the country will become the heart of our OS-9 users 
group. 

What Do You Want To Know About OS-9? 

As we mentioned during our first column last month, this 
is your column. We will attempt to give you the coverage 
you want about CoCo's new OS-9 operating system. We'll 
try very hard to find answers to your technical questions 
about OS-9. 1 plan to reserve a portion of the column each 
month for these answers. This is where you come in. If you 
have questions or are just a little confused about this 
complex operating system — jot them down and mail them 
to me at Rainbow. We'll be using your letters to keep the 
column on track. 

Again, Why OS-9 

I looked back over last month's column and noticed 
something which told me I should give you a recap. Last 

( Dale L. Puckett is a freelance writer and programmer 
who has worked with the Motorola family of microp- 
rocessors since 1976. He just completed his first book, 
"A Complete Tour Guide to BASIC09, " thissummer. It 
is being published by Microware and will be available 
this fall. He is the author of DynaSpell, Readiest, 
Esther and Help, which are available from Frank 
Hogg Laboratories. He serves on the Info World 
Software Review Board and is a Chief Warrant Officer 
in the U.S. Coast Guard.) 



month, we only gave you technical reasons why you should 
learn and use OS-9. I sort of got the cart before the horse. 
Let's try again. 

The most important reason is the fact that OS-9 is on its 
way to becoming the standard operating system for 6809 
based micros. I didn't realize how many people were using 
OS-9 until I attended the seminar in Des Moines. More than 
50 different microcomputers run OS-9 now. These compu- 
ters are alive and well on the SS-50 buss, the Motorola 
Exorbus, the STD buss and yes, even the S-100 buss. OS-9 is 
also running on several of Europe's major computers and 
several systems in Japan. 

Nowthat Tandy has made it the Color Computer operat- 
ing system, there will be tens of thousands of OS-9 users in 
the United States within a year. Also, the Tano Corpora- 
tion, who bought the licensed OS-9 and plans to make it the 
standard operating system on those computers. 

If you're looking for more hardware reasons to consider 
OS-9, think about the future. What happens when you f all in 
love with OS-9 and decide to put everyone in the office on 
your system. While there's not enough memory in your 
Color Computer to do the job, you won't need to look far to 
fill your expansion itch. For example, theGIMIX Level III 
machines access a million bytes of memory and run a half 
dozen terminals at the same time and do it very effectively. 
The direct memory access disk controllers and intelligent 
input/ output cards make it all possible. 

Yet, hardware that runs OS-9 is only half the story. How 
about software? Why should you buy OS-9? It's new so 
there's probably no software support for it, right? 

Wrong! Just about every major language and other type 
of system software that is available on the IBM and clones, 
and the Apple, et al, is running today on OS-9 computers. 
And, most of these programs run faster on our 6809s. The 
applications software you need to run your business is run- 
ning right now, too. And most of it is superior to similar 
programs running on those Z-80 and 8088 machines. 

DynaCalc for example, is superior to VisiCalc. DynaStar 
does everything WordStar does — besides, it's easier to use. 
OK, I realise not everyone likes WordStar . In that case, try 
Stylo. It also beats the pants off anything the IBM clan can 
offer. All the utilities you need are running right now too. 
There's DynaSpell, DynaMail and Dynamite to name just 
three. Would you believe they all come from different com- 
panies? And don't forget: Computerware's Inventory Con- 
trol and Order Entry System, or the RMS record manage- 
ment system to name just a few applications packages. 



58 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



If you don't believe there's a lot of software out there for 
OS-9, ask Dan Downard, our Technical Editor at Rainbow. 
I understand that Frank Hogg buried him in OS-9 software 
that is ready to be set up to run on CoCo. Speaking of 
Frank, we got a positive progress report on O-PAK from 
him just as we went to press. They've done their homework 
and should be shipping the 5 1 x 24 character high resolution 
screen by the time you read this. It looks now like you'll even 
be able to escape from the text mode and use the graphics 
commands already in CoCo's memory. This means you'll 
even be able to mix graphics and text on O-PAfCs screen. 
The copy routines are coming along fine also and will prob- 
ably have a command something like: 

OS9:XCOPY FLEX %/dO/ flexnameOS9 %/dl /OS9path 

Of course you'll be able to read and write Radio Shack 
Extended Disk BASIC disks from OS9 as well as FLEX 
disks. 

Those Special Keys, Revisited 

We picked up some new information in Des Moines about 
those special keys we told you about last month. "Control 
Q,"for Quit has been changed. It is now "Control E." Now 
instead of "Quitting" a process, you can "End" it. This 
change was necessary because OS-9 Level II systems recog- 
nize the standard X-On and X-Off characters used by many 
terminals to tell the computer to stop sending. X-On is 
norma lly "Control Q" on these terminals so there would be a 
natural conflict. 

And we forgot to tell you something really special about 
the "Control C" key. You can generate it by holding down 
the "Shift" key while you strike the "Break" key or, you can 
hold down the "Clear" key while you strike the "C." 
Remember when you are running OS-9 "Clear" means 
"Control." When you type this command you will imme- 
diately see the OS-9 prompt on CoCo's screen. But, that's 
only half the magic. Try this: 

OS9:list filename >/ p 

As soon as you see that your file is being listed to your 
printer, type the "Control C" command. Watch what 
happens. 

You'll notice the "OS9" prompt reappear on CoCo's 
screen. But isn't there something strange going on? Why is 
your printer still printing? You have just told OS9 to run the 
printing job as a background task. To prove it type the list 
command again but leave off the ">/p." CoCo's screen 
should start to fill with the listing while the printercontinues 
to print. 

Last month we said that an operating system is nothing 
more than a piece of software that lets you communicate 
— talk if you please — to many different types of hardware. 
It lets your printer or disk file understand what you are 
saying on the keyboard. It gives you a way to hook CoCo to 
another computer through a telephone line and modem. 

Meet the OS-9 SHELL. When you talk to OS-9 by typing 
a command on CoCos keyboard, you are talking to the 
SHELL. The SHELL is a command interpreter that trans- 
lates the words you type into an action by the computer. 
You'll know when you're talking to the SHELL because 
you'll see this. 

OS9: 

When you see this prompt, you'll know that SHELL is 
waitingforyou to enter a command. To do this, you simply 



type a command line followed by a carriage return. You can 
use lowercase letters, uppercase letters or a combination 
— the SHELL doesn't care. 

Let's take a closer look at an OS-9 command line. The 
first thing following the prompt should be the name of a 
program. It can be the name of a program located in a 
module in your computer's memory or the name of a file that 
stores your program on a floppy disk. 

It can be 6809 machine code that executes directly, a 
module containing compiled intermediate code from a 
higher level language like BAS1C09, Pascal and Cobol or, a 
procedure file. Here's what happens when you give the 
SHELL a program name. 

If it finds a module in memory with the name you have 
typed, it will run the program. If it doesn't find the program 
in memory, it looks for a disk file with that name in the 
current execution directory. If it finds the file, it loads it into 
memory and runs it. 

If the name you typed is not the name of a module in 
memory or a file stored in the correct execution directory 
you still have another chance — it may be a procedure file. 
The SHELL knows this, and searches your working data 
directory for a file with the same name. 



"The SHELL is a command 
interpreter that translates 
the words you type into an 
action by the computer." 



If the SHELL finds a file in the data directory, it assumes 
it is a procedure file and runs it. A procedure file is a special 
case. Instead of holding object code that runs on your com- 
puter, or I-code that is executed by a high level language, it 
contains a text file that looks just like one or more command 
lines you could have typed from CoCo's keyboard. When 
the SHELL executes a procedure file, it reads text one line at 
atime — as if it werereading data from the keyboard. It then 
executes the commands in that line. 

The program named the SHELL reads from your key- 
board or a procedure file is usually followed by one or more 
parameters. A parameter gives directions to the program. It 
is separated from the program name by a space or spaces. 
For example, if you want to list a file called "Rainbow" to 
your terminal you must type: 

OS9:list Rainbow<R ETU RN> 

If you want a "hardcopy" of the same file you can type: 

OS9:list Rainbow >/p <RETURN> 

In fact, you can even send the listing to another file: 

OS9:list Rainbow >CloneOfRainbow <RETURN> 

Just like we've been saying, OS-9 is a very versatile operat- 
ing system. 

November 1983 the RAINBOW 59 



Sometimes the parameters in your command line will be 
options or mod ifiers. For example, when you want to list the 
names of the files in your working data directory to CoCo's 
screen, you type: 

OS9:dir <RETURN> 

Here's a way to get more information about the files. Try: 

OS9:dir e <RETURN> 

This command lists all available statistics about each file 
in the working data directory. The "e" is an option that 
means list the "entire"directory record. Speaking of directo- 
ries and options. If you would rather see the names of the 
files stored in your current execution directory, type this: 

OS9:dir x <RETURN> 

Or, if you want to see all available information about the 
files stored in your current execution directory, type: 

OS9:dir x e <RETURN> 

Pathlists And Device Names 

When you used the LIST command above, you were 
using a filename as a parameter. In this case the parameter 
was an abbreviated pathlist. Since you didn't pass any 
information about a device or directory, LASTassumed that 
the file was located in your current data directory. But, what 
do you do when you want toaccessa file that is not stored in 
your current data directory? 

No problem, it is easy to enter a complete pathlist. A 
pathlist is just a description of the complete route your data 



must take before it arrives at its destination. It may hold the 
name of a mass storage file, a directory file or an Input/ Out- 
put device. Microware chose the term "pathlist" instead of 
"filename" because you must often give the SHELL a list 
that contains more than one name. 

For example, many "pathlists" contain a device name, 
and one or more directory names as well as the name of a 
data file. Each name in the pathlist is separated by a slash 
"/." 

Follow these rules when you work with pathlists. Pathlists 
should contain names that describe three things. 

1 . Names of physical 1/ O devices 

2. Names of directories 

3. Names of regular files 

Each of these names may be made up of as many as 29 
characters or as few as one character. They must begin with 
an uppercase or a lowercase letter. After that they may be 
made up of any combination of the following characters. 

1. All uppercase letter: (A — Z) 

2. All lowercase letters (a — z) 

3. The ten decimal digits: (0 — 9) 

4. The underscore: ( ) 

5. The period: (.) 

Here are some legal names: 

KISSable OS9 

Rainbow 

Chapter. one and. two 

ABC123 




P. O. Box 14806 
Jacksonville, FL 32238 
904 777-1543 

Prices on All games 
include shipping. Florida 
Resident add 5% tax. 
All Programs require Color 
ComPuter™ (Tandy Corp) or 
TDP System 100 ComPuter™ 
(RCA) 



WE CHALLENGE YOU! 

ACROSS THE RUBICON 16K EXT or NON EXT — The popular WWII 
wargame. Break thru the Huertgen Forrest using infantry, tanks, 
paratroops, air and artillery strikes and destroy Hitler's plans for the Battle 
of the Bulge. CASSETTE. . .$19.95. 

RUBICON II 32K EXT The wargamer's choice! Everything ATR has and mor- 
tar units, patrols, German artillery, platoon movement, supply, intelligence, 
spotting rounds, unit merge, game save and much more! 
CASSETTE. . .$24.95. 

GALACTIC TAIPAN 32K EXT Battle storms, pirates and high taxes In hopes 
of making a profit in the galaxy. CASSETTE. . .$19.95. 

MISSION EMPIRE 32K EXT cass or disk. Starting with one planet, in- 
complete intelligence and limited resources, you must form alliances, build 
armies and conquer the galaxy. Game save. Cass or Disk version on 
Cassette. . .$19.95. 

MISSION EMPIRE 16K EXT or NON EXT. With all of the above except ad- 
vanced play levels. CASSETTE. . .$19.95. 

BOMBER COMMAND 16K EXT The air war over Germany, 1941-45. Player 
must destroy German industry while fighting off flak, the Luftwaffe and bad 
navigation. CASSETTE ... $1 9.95. 

STARBLAZER 32K EXT During your absence, the SPECTRUM galaxy has 
been overrun by the draconic xyclons. Now you command the only Starship 
left to retaliate. CASSETTE. . .$19.95. 

MATH SKI-RACE 16K For elementary grades K-6. Remediation. Teacher sets 
parameters and students polish arithmetic skills a fun way. 
CASSETTE. . .$19.95. 

ROMPAC BACKUP 64K Can't run your ROMPACS with your disk in or just 
want backups? R.B. makes It easy. CASSETTE ONLY. . .$15.95 % 

All games strategy oriented, graphically portrayed and guaranteed from 
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sonal checks. State system with order. 



60 the RAINBOW November 1983 



If you're wondering how OS-9 can tell the difference 
between a filename and a device name, here's the secret. 

A device name always starts with a slash. If the device can 
hold multiple files — a disk drive for example — another 
slash followed by a directory or a filename usually follows 
the device name. If however the device cannot handle multi- 
ple files — a terminal or printer for example — nothing 
follows the device name. 

Here are a few standard OS-9 device names: 



Group 2: 



/DO /dO/cmds 
/dl / RAINBOW/First. Month 



Name 


Device 


TERM 


Primary system terminal 


T1.T2 


Additional terminals 


P 


Parallel printer 


PI 


Serial printer 


DO 


Disk drive zero 


Dl 


Disk drive one 



You probably noticed these names in the list of modules 
we gave you last month. That's because the names above are 
the names of modules that hold "device descriptors." The 
device descriptor "TERM" for example, tells SCF, the 
sequential file manager, that CoCo's screen is 16 lines deep, 
etc. It also points SCF to the driver module CCIO so that it 
knows where to go togetcharacters from CoCo's keyboard. 

Remember, if you want to name thesedevices in a pathlist 
you must type a slash before their name. Here are some 
common pathlists. 



Group 1: 



/TERM 

IP 



/Tl 
/Pi 



The pathlists in Group 1 refer to devices that cannot 
handle multiple files. 

The pathlist "/ dO" refers to disk drive number zero. If you 
needed to know the names of the files stored on this drive, 
you would use this command line: 

OS9:dir /dO <RETURN> 

After you hit the <RETURN> key, the names of all 
directories and files that you have previously saved on the 
disk installed in drive "dO" will be listed on CoCo's screen. 
Let's try another command line: 

OS9:dir /dO/CM DS<RETURN> 

This command lists the names of all files stored in a 
directory named "CMDS" located on the disk installed in 
drive "/dO." 

Let's take it one more step: 

OS9:list /dl/ RAINBOW/The. Article <RETURN> 

This command prints a listing of a file named "The. Arti- 
cle. "The file is located in a directory named "RAINBOW" 
on the disk you have installed in device "/dl." 

Advanced OS-9 Features 

OS-9 has many advanced features and well introduce you 
to a few this month. 

1 . I/O redirection 

2. Memory Allocation 

3. Multitasking 



Talk is Cheap! 



You want your color computer to talk, 
but how much will it cost? 
$50 . . . $100 . . . $200 ... NO! 

HOW ABOUT $29"? 



SPEAK UP!™ is a machine language 
Voice Synthesizer program for your 
TRS-80 Color Computer/ It is 
100% software. Nothing else to buy. 
Best of all, YOU can make 
basic programs talk! 

16K and 32K versions on one cassette. 
Has text to speech capability. 



It's easy to use, and will say 
virtually anything! 



Talk really is cheap! 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Reviewed in the April issue of Rainbow. 

COD orders, checks accepted - NO DELAY 
WE PAY POSTAGE 

1-800-334-0854, ext. 890 
Except North Carolina 




*T.M. Tandy Corp. 



16k minimum 




P.O. Box 3318 
Chapel Hill, NC 27515 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 61 



During normal operation all input for your programs will 
come from OS-9's standard input path. Likewise all output 
either goes to the standard output path or the standard error 
output path. 

Reports, listings and other data generated by your pro- 
grams are usually sent to the standard output path. Error 
messages and various prompts are routinely sent to the 
standard output path. Both output paths normally send 
characters CoCo's screen. 

When you redirect the input you tell OS-9 to get its input 
somewhere else. Likewise, when you redirect the output you 
tell OS-9 to send its data somewhere other than the screen. 
For example, when you sent the directory listing to the 
printer earlier in this chapter, you were redirecting the out- 
put to the printer. 

There are three redirection operators that you will use 
when you give commands to the SHELL: 

< means redirect the standard input path 
> means redirect the standart output path 
» means redirect the standard error output path 
There are many ways to use these operators. You may 
redirect the input to your program from another terminal 
plugged into CoCo's RS-232 jack or from a modem. Or, you 
may send output to a disk file for later printing. There is no 
end to the possibilites. 

About Memory 

Some OS-9 programs need very little memory to run. 
Others require thousands of bytes. This is not a problem 
however because the header of each program module tells 
OS-9 the minimum amount of memory needed to run a 
program. However, when you need more memory, it is an 
easy matter to request more with OS-9's memory size modi- 
fier. There are two ways to do this. 

OS9:copy #8 myfile yourfile 
OS9:copy ff2K hisfile herfile 

The first command above tells OS-9's copy utility to use 
eight 256-byte pages of memory — a total of 2048 bytes. And 
believe it or not, the second example also gives the copy 
command 2048 bytes to use. It is requesting two "k" or two 
thousand bytes of memory. 

There are also several ways to run a series of OS-9 pro- 
grams. You can run them sequentially — one after the other; 
you can run them concurrently — all at the same time; or, 
you can synchronize them so that the output of one feeds the 
input of another using OS-9's pipes. 

There are two ways to run programs sequentially. You 
may type one command line followed by a carriage return, 
wait for the program to finish and then type the next com- 
mand line — or, you may type more than one command on a 
line. You must use a semi-colon to separate the commands if 
you chose the second method. Here's an example: 

OS9: copy hisfile herfile ; dir >/ p <RETURN> 

This command will copy the file named "hisfile" from the 
current data directory to a file named "herfile" in the same 
directory. It will then immediately print a listing of the 
current data directory on your printer. 

If you want to run more than one program at the same 
time you must ask OS-9 to execute the programs concur- 
rently by using an ampersand, 

You may run any number of programs at the same time. 
The CoCo's memory will be the only limiting factor. 



Pretend for a moment that you have just finished an 
assignment in school. You need to print it so you may turn it 
in to your instructor, but at the same time you need to be 
working on another term paper. To do both jobs at the same 
time, try this! 

OS9:list EnglishI I. Assignment >/p&&004 

OS9:edit Term. Paper Hisiory 

Just like magic, the printer will start right after you hit the 
[ENTER] key. Yet, the familiar OS-9 prompt will pop on 
CoCo's screen almost immediately. As soon as it appears 
you can type the next command line and start the editor. The 
printer will run as long as it needs to print the English 
assignment. It won't bother your editing at all. 

Logging On a Timesharing Terminal 

With OS-9 you can do more than just print one file while 
you are editing another. One of the major uses for concur- 
rent execution is terminal timesharing. For example, you 
could use your editor to write a news release about a new 
product using CoCo's keyboard and screen while someone 
else in the family runs a BAS1C09 program to balance the 
check book. First, plug a terminal into CoCo's RS-232 jack, 
then type the following: 

ON COCO: 

OS9:tsmon / H&&005 

OS9: 

YOU'LL SEE THIS ON THE OTHER TERMINAL 

OS-9 Level I Version 1.0 Timesharing System 8/19/83 
21:30:35 

Use name? esther 
Password: 

Process U5 logged 8/ 19/83 21:31:36 

Shell 

OS9: 

CoCo has prompted you to go back to work. But, while 
you're writing that news release, your wife can probably 
finish the checkbook. CoCo will pay for itself in no time. 

When you first run the timesharing monitor program, 
TSMON, nothing happens. The terminal remains idle until 
someone hits its return key. 

Also, when using a terminal with CoCo, you must log on. 
To do this you enter your name and the proper password. 
You will need to give everyone in the family passwords 
before they try to log on the first time. If they don't know the 
magic word, OS-9 won't allow them to compute. 

To log off a CoCo timesharingterminal, you need only hit 
the ESCAPE key. This represents an end-of-file signal and 
returns your terminal to an idle state. 

You Can Feel Secure 

While timesharing CoCo with OS-9 you won't need to 
worry about someone else writing in your data files. The 
system protects you with its file security system. 

Each OS-9 directory and file has several attributes that 
tell the system who owns the file and who may use it. They 
are: 

1. Write permission for owner. 

2. Read permission for owner. 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 65 



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3. Execute permission for owner. 

4. Write permission for public. 

5. Read permission for public. 

6. Execute permission for public. 

7. A "sharable" attribute. 

8. A directory attribute. 

Lets explain the special cases first. If the "sharable" 
attribute is turned on, OS-9 will not let two users use a file at 
the same time. 

The directory attribute tells OS-9 that a file is a directory 
file. A directory file is special because it cannot be changed 
by the user. To change a directory or delete it during an 
operation would create total havoc with the file system. In 
fact, there would no longer be a system. 

The other file security attributs almost explain them- 
selves. They work because OS-9's file system automatically 
stores the user number associated with a process when it 
writes a file. If you are the owner of a process, you will own 
any files it creates. 

If you CREATE a file with none of the public attributes 
set, you will be the only person that can READ, WRITE or 
execute that file. You may even ask the system to protect a 
file from you. For example, after getting a mailing list in 
final form, you may clear both the public and owner 
WR 1TE permission attributes to prevent accidental deletion 
or modification. 

Summary 

By now you should be fired up and ready to go. Run 
through the SHELL command lines we used this month and 
practice with your own. Don't be afraid to make a mistake. 
The worst thing that can happen is an ERROR #XXX 
message. 

Next month, thanks to Rich Hogg, we'll show you how to 
change a byte in memory here and there to speed up your 
disk drives and if you are using double sided drives, we'll 
show you how to make the opposite side of drive/ d0,/d2, 
etc. We'll also introduce you to pipes and show you how to 
copy and entire directory with one swift command, via a 
"pipe. " We would pass along the information now but we're 
not sure the advance version of OS-9 that Tandy provided 
the Rainbow is the same as the Production version. As soon 
as we can test our changes on a production version, we'll 
print this information. 

^ 



Ham And Cheese 
(On Rye?) 



Our technical "big cheese," Dan Downard, who is a pretty 
hot ham radio operator, as well, provides us with this list of 
radio nets devoted to the Color Computer. 



Time 

1930Z 

2000Z 

2100Z 

0300Z 



Frequency 

7.228MHz 

14.275MHz 

7.260MHz 

7.230MHz 



Days 

Sunday 

Sunday 

Sunday 

Monday* 



*-Sunday Night 



Net Control 
AF4K-Brian 
WB3EBA-A 1 
WB3EBA-A1 
W8UNB-Mel 

— Dan Downard 



PERRY COMPUTERS 

Dept No C-3 137 NORTH MAIN ST PFRHY Ml 48872 

FOR ORDERS CALL 1 -800-248-3823 

FOR INFORMATION CALL (517) 625 4161 



66 the RAINBOW November 1983 



The Results Are lit . . . 

v /// deciding (he u -inner v^^U^RainhVin \ Ximutati<hi G<rn^e$ii 
one judge finds U all tdnw. t very^^1mikl doling experience. 




frSpringer 




Someday soon a bleary-eyed iodi-l 
vidual may sit down and write a I 
simulation program about what it 
was like to be chief judge of the Rain- 
bow's first annual Simulation Contest.] 
It should be a good one because it will 
include a dazzling array of graphics, 1 
super sound effects and dozens of mind- 
bending options. 

Other special effects will include gel- 
ting buried under stacks of cassette 
tapes and disks and dozens of pages of 
instructions. Hell be forced to purchase 
a new color TV set when his old one 
suddenly loses the ability to distinguish 
green from red and/ or blue. There'll be 
visits to a friend's house to have a disk 
program converted to cassette. There 
will, of course, be more I/O errors and 
seemingly dozens of PCLEAR1 state- 
ments. And, if he's as fortunate as I am, ] 
has a very understanding wife! PlusJ 
friends who, when asked for their opin-J 
ion, will not keep changing their minds. 




the RAINBOW 



But the real joy will be in sampling a wide variety of 
simulation programs, the quality of which leaves him in awe, 
anticipating what kind of programming developments must 
surely lie ahead forCoCo lovers in the very near future. Via 
his dream machine, he will: battle the Civil War and see the 
world destroyed during World War III, travel to the Moon, 
to Mars and beyond, conducting experiments along the 
way; go bankrupt running a restaurant, make a million as a 
manufacturer, and break even as a clothing store proprietor; 
run for President of the United States; take responsibility 
for mid-air collisions as an air-traffic controller; drown 
while learning to sail or taking part in a colonial sea battle; 
and experience the thrill of victory in the seventh game of 
baseball's World Series. 

He will, at times, experience exhaustion. He will be per- 
sistent, however, playing the programs over and over, mak- 
ing notes of the fine points, the strong points and the weak- 
nesses. And in the end, like they say, the cream will rise to the 
top, the judges will reach consensus, and the winners will be 
rewarded. 

Entries were received from readers across the country, 
from such places as Solana Beach, California; Jupiter, Flor- 
ida; Crivitz, Wisconsin; Downers Grove, Illinois; and Mt. 
Pleasant, Pennsylvania. With seven entries, Illinois cap- 
tured state honors f or the most submissions. There were five 
each from New York and Iowa, four from Pennsylvania, 
and three each from California and Wisconsin. 

The Rainbow's desire for fairness mandated that we 
establish beforehand a uniform set of guidelines by which 
each category would be judged. They included: 1) clarity of 
instructions, 2) ease of loading, 3) format, 4) vocabulary, 5) 
grammar, 6) creativity, 7) enjoyment, 8) realism, 9) resolu- 
tion, 10) use of color, 1 1) responsiveness, 12) use of sound, 
13) level of challenge, and surprises. 

Tough? They are meant to be because if you ever attempt 
to market one of those gems youVe created on your kitchen 
table, you'll find that the general buying public's demands 
will be even harder to satisfy. Plus, if CoCo programs are 
going to be used to help educate our youngsters, we as 
creators must pay careful attention to such things as vocabu- 
lary, grammar and spelling — not listed among the criteria 
but most definitely a consideration. We also took note of 
historical accuracy where appropriate, the overall educa- 
tional value of an entry, and the degree of interaction that a 
program allowed between the computer and its user. 

Then, of course, there are the built-in prejudices that a 
judge has no matter how objective he or she attempts to be in 
such a situation. And there are those oh-so-subtle little 
things that can make a difference in the quality of a pro- 
gram, particularly in a simulation program. 

Okay, enough sermonizing. There's no getting around the 
fact that not everybody can win in a competitive situation. 
So, here goes . . . 

Through a grueling process, which involved many reload- 
ings and endless comparisons, we determined that the fol- 
lowing 15 entries, which are listed in alphabetical order, are 
the very best in a very healthy field. We have singled out the 
best of show, the runners-up and a number of honorable 
mentions: 

BRADD BALASCO of Mansfield, Massachusetts, 
for Sailing. 

DON BRADFORD of Solano Beach, California, 
for Civil War. 

RICHARD BROWN of Lorain, Ohio, for Ship of 
the Line. 



GREGORY CLARK of Syracuse, New York, for 
Flood. 

MARTIN LEE of Overland Park, Kansas, for 
Baseball. 

DAVID MANN of North Syracuse, New York, for 
Restaurant. 

GEORGE MAREK of Glastenburg, Connecticut, 
for Air Traffic Controller. 

F. W. McKENZIE of Saugerties, New York, for 
Flight. 

GILBERT S. MURRAY of Columbus, Ohio, for 
Big Business. 

PAT PUGLIANO of Baden, Pennsylvania, for 
Street Racer. 

DAVID ROSICKY of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
f or Street Racer. 

GEOFF STARK of Winnepeg, Manitoba, Can- 
ada, for Mars Sim. 

JEFF STEVENS of Columbus, Ohio, for Con- 
gress. 

ROBERT K. TYSON of Jupiter, Florida, for Elec- 
tion '84. 

TOM WEBER of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, for War 
Games. 

For their efforts all of these folks will receive prizes from 
the Rainbow s generous advertisers, and each of them can 
expect to see their entries published in book form in the near 
future. 

In keeping with a Rainbow tradition that started with the 
Adventure Contest winners announcement in January — 
and a format that is followed in the Miss America competi- 
tion — the grand finale will come later. But first some special 
awards and honorable mentions, then the runners-up, fol- 
lowed by the top two winners whose programs are listed in 
this month's issue. 

The Up, Up And Away Award goes to F.W. (Skip) 
McKenzie for Flight, a delightful program that provides a 
panorama of mountains, trees and city skylines for you to 
negotiate, using the arrow keys on your keyboard. Skip's 
entry was fun to play and there was minimum use of confus- 
ing indicators on what are usually difficult-to-read instru- 
ment panels. The view from the cockpit separated this one 
from the average flight simulation. 

The WaterOverThe Bridge Award to Gregory Clark for 
Flood. Due to heavy rain, Rainbow River overflows its 
banks. Greg provided us with a very detailed and colorful 
map in high resolution to track the river's progress, along 
with timely weather forecasts and gauge readings of the 
water level. The challenge was to use the floodgates, the 
heavyequipment (trucks and bulldozers), thesandbags, fuel 
supplies and manpower available to us to quell the ever- 
constant threat. 

The John Paul Jones Award goes to Richard Brown, a 
freshman at Dartmouth College, for his Ship O' Line, feat- 
uring sea battles as the one between the U . S. Frigate Consti- 
tution and the British ship Guerrier, which almost ended the 
War of 1 812. A 17-page set of instructions, complete with 
bibliography, will prepare you f or the stiffest foe on the seas. 
Separate screens allow you to keep track of your maneuvers, 
and there are dozens of options available that have ob- 
viously been carefully researched, lending a great deal of 
authenticity to this sterling effort. 

The Union Label Award to Gilbert S. Murray for Big 
Business, in which you are the manufacturer of Enertabs, a 



November 1963 the RAINBOW 69 



new system of energy storage. Your contract is for between 
six and 10 years, which are divided into quarters. You're in 
competition with nine other companies, which can be 
represented by CoCo or, believe it or not, nine other players 
of your choosing. The program establishes a business cycle, 
includes predictions about the economy and determines the 
demand for your product. A good program for teaching 
economics to would-be entrepreneurs. 

The Sound Of Music Award goes to David Rosicky, a 
young high school student, for the funeral music following 
the demise of "A 1 E. Katt" who is wasted on his way home 
with his paycheck. David also receives the Best Use Of 
Special Effects for his title page, which features the name of 
the program (Street Races) racing across the screen to put- 
tering sound, and intermittent use of checkerboard pattern 
that can only be described as hypnotic. 

The Chapter Eleven Award goes to David Mann for 
Restaurant, a simulation that has you inheriting the family 
business. Your job is to run it and turn it into one of the 
largest chains in the country. Hiring, firing, buying, selling 
and advertising are all your responsibility. The problem 1 
had was that 1 didn't know the first thing about buying food 
by the pound and setting an appropriate price — so the first 
10 times through 1 went bankrupt. You also have to pay 
your employees a decent wage or they'll leave. You have a 
choice of three levels of competition — corporate, partner- 
ship, or entrepreneur. The opening graphic of a table set for 
two was nicely done, creating the appropriate atmosphere. 

The Golden Glove Award goes to Martin Lee for Base- 
ball, a simulation of the seventh game of last year's World 
Series between the Milwaukee Brewers and the St. Louis 
Cardinals. A good baseball game for CoCo is long overdue 
(so isa good basketball game forthat matter)and thisone is 
a good start. Featuring the starting lineups in that game and 
basing their hittingand pitching probabilities on their actual 
averages, the game is uncannily consistent with what you 
mightexpect in actual competition. Betweeneach batteryou 
are given offensive and defensive option — and you can bet 
that the Cards' Willie McGee will usually be successful in 
stealing second base. 1 was a little suspicious when Milwau- 
kee won the first five games, but then St. Louis got hot and 
won the next three. There are high-scoring affairs and there 
are pitchers' duels. The old favorite, "Take Me Out To The 
Ballgame," is a nice touch between innings, as is the score- 
board. If you like baseball, you'll enjoy this one. 

The If You Walk, You're Fired Award goes to George K. 
Marek for Air Traffic Control, in which you are responsible 
for the safety of hundreds of air passengers. The display 
provides information from radar and the ground computers 
about aircraft location, speed and status. This one requires a 
lot of concentration, as well as attention to the instructions, 
because you can't leave anything to chance in the role you 
are playing. Mid-air collisions and crash landings are com- 
mon occurrences at first, but as you become accustomed to 
the pace the odds improve significantly. This is a well- 
conceived simulation, nicely packaged and with a lot of 
potential. 

Fifth Runner-Up is Bradd Belasco for Sailing, a must for 
those of us who have the urge to head for the lake over the 
weekend. Dividing the screen into three sections — the top 
left for a side view of sail status, the top right an overhead 
view of the board to show direction of the board, the boom 
and the rudder, and bottom half of the screen to display the 
navigational course. Using your joystick to determine the 
proper setting, you must make it to the other side of the lake 
and dock safely. If you make a mistake, the graphic changes 

70 the RAINBOW November 1983 



to a sinking sailboat and a man treading water. You are 
given a danger signal if you place the boom in such a 
position that the wind will cause to quickly swing around 
and send you sailing like an opening kickoff, but you're also 
given time to respond. Bradd kept this simple and easy to 
understand, with exceptional graphics. A fun learning 
experience. 

Fourth Runner-Up is Pat Pugliano for Life With CoCo, a 
simulation with which many Rainbow readers can readily 
identify. It's about a computer programmer who is trying to 
make it big by creatinggames and writing articles for com- 
puter magazines. But first he has to learn assembly language 
and build up his inventory of equipment. Like many of us he 
reads the ads to keep up with sales on software. He visits a 
computer store and, if he has used his money wisely, he 
purchases a utility program. The real problem for our hero is 
that there are only so many hours in the day for him todo his 
regular job, read computer magazines, work on his pro- 
grams and articles. Sometimes he neglects his diet and his 
sleep because he is so attached to CoCo. If he manages his 
time, health and money wisely, he is a tremendous success 
and all of us are buying his programs. 

Third Runner-Up is Don Bradford for Civil War, a situa- 
tion in which you are commander of the entire Southern 
Army, reportingdirectly to Jefferson Davis, President of the 
Confederacy. This game is loaded with options, multiple 
choices and a nice map of the North and South pinpointing 
the battle in which you are currently engaged. You receive 
your instructions from the President via telegram which is 
transmitted staccato style across the screen, telling you 
where to do battle next. Before the battle, however, you are 
required to submit a formal budget to the President. Unless 
you go in the red, he will usually approve it. You are given 
six options for the battle plan (including the ability to sur- 
render the battle or to give up the war). Just before entering 
the skirmish, you will usually receive a report from your 
spies, unless they have been captured. After the battle, you 
are given a report of casualties, desertions, prisoners-of-war 
and whether you won or lost. You also can see a record of all 
battles. After 13 battles, a winner is declared (usually the 
North since CoCo is its commander). If you lose, you must 
unconditionally surrender all of your territories, admit your 
guilt and wrong-doing, be tried as a war criminal, and 
hanged ! Great fun and a good review of this historic period. 

Second Runner-Up is Geoff Stark for Mmrs Sim. Geoff, a 
15-year-old student, has done a tremendous job of creating 
an action-packed simulation that allows you to do a visual 
scan of the planet's surface, unless you land at night, at the 
beginning. There are different directions and entirely differ- 
ent views. Next, you are able to maneuver a robotic arm that 
enables you to scoop up samples and return them to the lab 
for examination. In the lab, expose the sample to oxygen, 
Earth light, heat, and water to determine whether life exists. 
A diagnostic function lets you check all of the systems 
aboard the ship. Another option allows you to drill up to 1 .5 
meters testing the planet's interior. Geoff's documentation is 
extensive and indicates just how rapidly some students have 
advanced in programming. Take a bow, Geoff, and stay 
with CoCo because we're expecting even better things from 
you. 

First Runner-Up is Jeff Stevens for Congress. A high 
school social studies teacher, Jeff uses this program in a 
government course to show how a bill passes through Con- 
gress and becomes law. It opens with a Presidential Applica- 
tion, complete with dotted lines, which you must complete 
to assume the office. Your object is to go down in history as a 



great President (sound familiar?) and your ability to get 
your programs passed through Congress with a minimum 
number of amendments and special favors will determine 
how effective you will be. You are given two options for 
major programs, which are strikingly similar to the ap- 
proaches taken by recent Democratic and Republican can- 
didates. The song, "Hail to the Chief," opens the game and 
you're treated to other patriotic tunes when a bill passes 
both houses. The visualeffectsare enhanced by digital coun- 
ters which keep track of "yes"and "no" votes. When the bill 
reaches your desk, Mr. President, you have the option of 
veto (because of undesirable amendments), signing it into 
law, or letting it take effect without your signature. Then, 
you go on to another major priority of your administration, 
following the same steps. You have only a limited time, of 
course, to get your program through Congress and your 
eventual stature depends upon your ability to get all your 
programs passed during one term. A warning to Republi- 
cans: both the House and Senate are usually heavily loaded 
with Democrats, so you will experience a lot of problems. A 
Gallup Poll is taken after your term and, if you do poorly, 
you will probably be as popular as Herbert Hoover after the 
stock market crash. On the other hand, you may be com- 
pared to Franklin D. Roosevelt. This one was among the 
most fun to play, while beingvery educational. Jeff Stevens' 
government classes must be in great demand! 

And now for the Best of Show, the Grand Prize winners in 
the Graphic and Non-Graphic categories! 

Graphics Best Of Show goes to Tom Weber, a freshman at 
Marquette University, for War Game, a totally involving 
simulation, which makes the movie by a similar name seen 
rather tame. Tom plans to major in computer science at 



Marquette and, judging from his entry, will put the school 
on the map for something other than its basketball team 
(sorry Marquette, but beinga Louisville fan, 1 couldn't resist 
the dig). 

Tom says he is self-taught in many aspects of computer 
programming. He is quite active in CoCo-MUG — the 
Color Computer Milwaukee Users' Group — in which he 
serves as a member of the Executive Committee. 

He obviously knows what he is doing when he sits down in 
front of his CoCo because War Game is a highly sophisti- 
cated undertaking, which has been assembled in a relatively 
short period of time since the smash-hit movie started mak- 
ing its rounds. 

While the subject of his simulation is rather gruesome, it's 
no secret that computer war games hold immense fascina- 
tion for the majority of us whether we want to admit it or 
not. Tom's program, which loads in four parts, is, as far as 
the judges can tell, a realistic version of what can happen 
when and if some misguided power monger gives the com- 
mand to start pushing buttons. It ranks high as an educa- 
tional tool in that respect, as well as in loading complicated 
programs — so please pay close attention to the loading 
instructions after you have typed in the program. He says 
that it will not run on disk because of memory requirements 
— but that's never discouraged some CoCo users we all 
know. Tom, you're a winner. Good luck at Marquette, and 
keep those contributions coming to the Rainbow. 

Non-Graphics Best of Show And Grand Prize goes to Dr. 
Bob Tyson for Election 84, a simulation depicting the last 
100 days of next year's presidential campaign. If the name 
Bob Tyson rings a bell, it's because he's the same person who 
created Strategy Football, which appeared in the Rainbow's 
August issue. Bob is a Senior Systems Engineer at United 
Technologies Research Center in West Palm Beach, Flor- 
ida, where he works on high energy laser beam control 
system development for use in defense and communication 
systems by our country's armed forces. 

He started doing the winning program featured in this 
issue "because 1 wanted to do something that was relevant 
and timely, and because I have always had a fascination for 
politics." Bob also says he developed a hurricane tracking 
system a few years back for his CoCo, a program which 
undoubtedly would have great utility in Florida. 

He's a graduate of Penn State University, where he prob- 
ably picked up some of the finer points of the game of 
football that were used in his August simulation. He also 
learned Fortran at Penn State, a skill that he says served him 
well in the Navy, and in development of theobviously strong 
skills demonstrated in his latest effort. Bob says his wife Sue 
was a great help in Election 84, although she was never able 
to sit down in front of the computer. "She has her hands full 
taking care of our five-year-old daughter Kia and two-year- 
old son Andy," he notes. 

Bob says he has been playing around with the idea of 
doing a simulation on the 1984 Olympics. We hope he does 
such a program because Bob obviously knows what he's 
doing and we'd like to be able to share another of his 
programs with our readers. 

You will enjoy Election 84 because it includes all of the 
aspects that make Presidential campaigns so fascinating. 
And the suspense as the popular and electoral votes are 
being tabulated will make all of the time that you have spent 
typing in this great simulation well worth every minute. We 
think you'll agree that Election 84 is among the best in the 
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72 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Simulation^on^ 



And the winner is .. . 



W llection '84 is a simulation of the 
1984 presidential election cam- 
m J paign. 7he simulation is per- 
formed (played) by one or two persons 
representing the Democratic and Re- 
publican parties. In the one-player sim- 
ulation, the computer will handle the 
affairs of the opposition party. 

Election 84 allows each player (the 
campaign manager) to handle his or her 
candidate's affairs during the campaign. 
The campaign begins with 100 days left 
before the election. A candidate can 
travel to different states and campaign; 
he can advertise in any of the states; he 
can challenge his opponent to a debate; 
he can raise funds for further campaign- 
ing; or he can yield his position(and just 
rest where he is). At any period where 
the above options are presented, a cam- 
paign manager can check his "intelli- 
gence" and find the latest Gallup Poll 
readings, the latest news reports, and 
information about travel history of all 
of the candidates. Each campaign man- 
ager controls both his presidential and 
vice-presidential candidates separately. 
At the end of the campaign, on election 
day, the campaign managers just sit 
back and watch the election returns roll 
in from all across the country. A tally of 
popular and electoral votes is kept, and 
before long, there is a new man in the 
White House. Then you can figure out 
where you went wrong, or pack your 
bagsforthe staff job you earned. Maybe 
President Reagan is reelected; it's up to 
you. 

Simulation: The campaign begins with 

( Robert Tyson holds a doctorate 
in physics and designs and ana- 
lyzes high energy laser beam con- 
trol systems using com puier simu- 
lations. He and his family live in 
Jupiter, Florida.) 




your choice of a long or short campaign 
and then the selection of the candidates. 
Choose the short campaign for the first 
time through, the longer one for more 
realism. Even if only one player is 
involved, all four candidates (two presi- 
dential and two vice-presidential) must 
be chosen. The program gives six possi- 
ble candidates for the positions on the 
ticket from each party. These are the 
most likely candidates from events this 
summer (1983). Points for financial 
strength, experience, and charisma are 
assigned. Changes can be made if events 
change between now and the summer of 
*84. (See below for program descrip- 



tion). Aftercandidate selection, the cam- 
paign begins with alternating turns from 
the four candidates. If the computer is 
handling the affairs of one party, deci- 
sions will be made very quickly, but 
some require your reply, so watch care- 
fully. 

If you haveto make the decisions, just 
follow the menu. This is where the fun 
comes in. If you want to find out where 
everybody has been, just hit "I"for intel- 
ligence. You will see a screen display 
with the two letter identification for 
each of the 50 states and Washington, 
D.C. (yes, Washington D.C. has three 
electoral votes). Beside the state i.d. is 



74 



ttw RAINBOW November 1 963 



32 K 
ECB 





its electoral votes. Also alongside, you 
may see either blue or red graphics 
characters. If the upper red is colored in, 
then the Democratic presidential can- 
didate has been there; if the color ap- 
pears in the lower red block, then the 
Democratic vice-presidential candidate 
has been there. If the upper block is 
blue, the Republican presidential can- 
didate has visited, and if the lower block 
is blue the visit was by the Republican 
Vice-Presidential candidate. Get it? 
Democratic party is red; Republicans 
are blue. Upper is Presidential; lower is 
Vice-Presidential. 

If you continue, you will get the cur- 



rent Gallup Poll for the election. Re- 
member, the Poll only tells popular vote 
count; it takes electoral votes to win the 
election, so use the "intelligence" fea- 
ture whenever necessary (or just to find 
out a state's identification). Oh yes, the 
latest news report may be of interest. 
Read it carefully and act accordingly. 

You can also campaign in any state. 
Just press TH for travel and follow the 
prompts. Travel costs money, so be 
thrifty unless you're on an all-out blitz 
near the finish. You do not need to 
travel to pick up votes. You can press 
'A' and advertise in any state. This costs 
a lot of money, but it's well worth it. 




By Bob Tyson 



Many votes can be had for a few TV 
commercials. When your total cam- 
paign treasury total is below zero, you 
will be forced to raise money. This may 
be at an inopportune time, so you may 
want to raise money early in the cam- 
paign. If your total goes negative near 
the end of the campaign, that's okay, 
since everybody goes into debt running 
for the Presidency. You and your credi- 
tors will hope that you can pay it back. 

If you press 4 Y' and yield, you will 
pick up more votes wherever you are. 
It's a good rest. A high risk, but high 
payoff, option is the debate, k D.' You 
can pick up thousands or millions of 
votes across the country by just this one 
event. But be careful, a debate must be 
accepted by youropponent and one slip 
of the tongue could ruin your chances. 

When election day arrives, just sit 
back and watch. You may be sorely dis- 
appointed as your candidate loses tough 
states by a few votes. But then again you 
may be overjoyed when he wins by a 
landslide. 

How the program works: Setup takes 
place in lines 5 — 102 with calls to sub- 
routines to run the logo, the candidate 
selections, etc. A large iterative loop 
extends from 200 — 340 where the bulk 
of the simulation is run. Subroutine 
7800 creates the displays for the option 
selections. The arrays dimensioned in 
lines 10 and 1 1 hold the state identifiers 
(S$), the votes cast, VT, the visits, VS, 
the candidate strengths, SR, and the 
money, MY. The other variables are 
flags and codes to keep track of where 
the simulation is and where it hasn't 
been. 

Changes can be made to update the 
simulation. 4500 — 460 1 contain the news 
stories. 8010 — 801 1 contain the Demo- 
cratic candidates and 8050 — 8052 con- 
tain the Republicans. If you change the 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 75 



names, strengths, or homestates be sure to keep the charac- 
ters and strengths aligned. The SR matrix 'reads' the 
strengths from the character strings. Lines 90 1 0 and 90 1 1 are 
the time delays. If they are too short or too long Just change 
the length of the FOR/ NEXT loop. Lines 8959—9003 con- 
tain statistical data on historical voting patterns, advertising 
costs, and total popular votes cast. Don't alter these if you 
don't want to change the history of the world! 

Well, that's it. If you want to be a power politician, this 
simulation will let you. "Happy days are here again. . . " 




60 . 


,0340 


5130. 


. 22EF 


310. 


. .0554 


6521 . 


. .2717 


584 .. . 


. 0B28 


7500. 


. 2BAD 


822 . . . 


. 0FC2 


7809. 


. 2EF7 


2000. . 


. .1413 


8017. 


. 34E0 


4561 . . 


. 1D24 


8095. 


..3956 






END. 


.3DC3 



The listing 



5 GOTOIOOOO 

10 DIMS*<51> , VT<51,2) ,VS<51) , SR ( 
2,2,3) ,MY(2) 

11 DIMC*<6) ,CS*<6> ,PC*<2,2) , HS* < 
2, 2) ,CC(2,2) ,FG(15) 

12 HS="###, ###,###" 

15 F0RI=0T050: VS ( I ) =0: F0RJ=1T02: 
VT(I, J)=0:NEXTJ, I 

20 FV=0:F0RI=1T015:FG(I)=0:NEXT: 
G0SUB2000 

25 REST0RE:F0RI=1T0255:READX:NEX 
T: F0RI=0T050: READS* ( I ) : NEXT 

28 CLS: PRINTQ128, "ARE YOU READY 
FOR A SHORT OR A REGULAR CAMP A I 
GN? . . . TYPE AN 

<S> OR AN <R>" 

29 K*=INKEY*: I FK$= " S 11 THENST= 1 OEL 
SE I FKS= n R M THENST=3ELSE29 

30 CLS: PRI NT@132, "SELECT MODE: 

1 CAMPAIGN MAN 
AGER OR 2 CAMPAIGN MAN 

AGERS?" 

35 INPUTMD: IFMD=10RMD=2THEN36ELS 
E30 

36 0NMDG0T037 , 40 

37 CLS: PR I NT "CHOOSE YOUR POLITIC 
AL PARTY 7 REPUBLICAN OR 'D ? 
EMOCRATIC" 

38 K*= I NKEY* : I FK*= " " THEN38ELSE I F 
K*= " R " THENMD= 1 1 ELSE IFK$="D" THENM 
D=12ELSE38 

39 G0T050 

40 PRINT6256, "PLAYER 1 IS THE DE 
MOCRATIC PARTY AND PLAYER 2 IS R 



EPUBL I CAN " : B0SUB90 1 1 

42 FOR I =0T050 : VT ( I , 3— PL ) =RND ( 5 ) + 

vt < 1 , 3-pl ) : next: G0T0680 

50 F0RJ=1T02 

55 G0SUB8000 

60 0NJG0SUB8010,8050 

70 NEXT 

100 DY=100:PL=l:CN=l 

102 F0RJ=1T02:MY(J)=250000*<SR<J 

,1,1)+SR(J,2,1)):NEXTJ 

200 FLAG=l: IFDY=0THEN700 

210 G0SUB7800 

220 I FK*= " T " THENG0SUB5000ELSE I FK 
$= » a " THENG0SUB5500ELSE I FK*= " R " TH 
ENG0SUB6000ELSE I FK*= " D " THENGOSUB 
6500ELSE I FK*=* " Y " THENG0SUB7000ELS 
E210 

230 FLAG=0:CN=2 
240 G0SUB7800 

250 I FK*= " T " THENG0SUB5000ELSE I FK 
$= »» a " THENG0SUB5500ELSE I FK*= " R " TH 
ENG0SUB6000ELSE IFK$ =,, D" THENGOSUB 
6500ELSE I FK*= " Y " THENG0SUB7000ELS 
E240 

260 PL=2:CN=1 
270 G0SUB7S00 

280 I FK*= " T "THENG0SUB5000ELSE I FK 
$= » a " THENG0SUB5500ELSE I FK*= " R " TH 
ENG0SUB6000ELSE I FK*= " D " THENGOSUB 



FILEBOX/16 HOME FILING SYSTEM 

RID YOURSELF OF THOSE NUMEROUS PAPER FILES 
AROUND THE HOUSE. ENTER THE INFORMATION AGE 
WITH FILEBOX/16, THE HOME FILING SYSTEM FOR THE 16K 
COLOR COMPUTER. 

Create, change, update, delete, search, sort and list files you 
define. You don't have to be a programmer to use this system. 
For the TRS-80 Color Computer with 1QK Extended BASIC and 
one disk drive. 

Applications are virtually unlimited. Use for address lists, car 
repair records, household inventories, book and record 
collections, tax records, etc. You can use FILEBOX/16 to print 
mailing labels. This use alone is worth your purchase price. 

Each file you create can contain any number of records. Each 
record can contain up to 10 fields and 256 characters. Print 
records to screen or printer. 

FILEBOX/16 IS EASY TO USE. This is NOT a system which 
requires that you learn special keys and operations. It is 
completely menu-driven. Has built-in lessons to supplement the 
20 page loose-leaf User Guide. 

FILEBOX/16 is written in BASIC with a machine language sort. 
It uses efficient formatted direct access file logic contained in 8 
programs you control from a menu. 

Only $39.90 plus $2.00 
shipping and handling. 

New Jersey residents please add $2.40 for sales tax. 

Mail check or money order to: 
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P.O. Box 1218 
Freehold, NJ 07728 
Phone: (201) 431-3660 after 6 p.m 

FILEBOX/16 1983 by Luke Watson 
TRS-80 is a trademark of the Tandy Corp. 



RAINBOW 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 77 



6500ELSE I FK*= 11 Y "THENG0SUB7000ELS 
E270 

290 CN=2 

300 G0SUB7800 

310 I FK*= 11 T " THENG0SUB5000ELSE I FK 
$= •' a " T HENG0SUB5500ELSE I FK$= " R " TH 
ENG0SUB6000ELSE I FK*= M D " THENGOSUB 
6500ELSE I FK*= 11 Y " THENG0SUB7000ELS 
E300 

320 DY=DY-ST 

325 I FDY< 30ANDST= 1 0THENST=5 

330 IF(DY<10ANDFV=0)THEN335ELSE3 

40 

335 FV=l:ST=l:F0RI=0T050: VT < I , 1) 
=INT(VT(I, 1) /2) +RND(2) : VT(I,2)=I 
NT(VT(I,2> /2)+RND<2) : NEXT 
340 PL=l:CN=l:G0T0200 
500 X=RND ( 7 ) : G0SUB90 1 O : G0SUB90 1 O 
510 I FMY ( PL ) < OANDDY >3THENX=8 
520 0NXG0T0530,550,550,570 !1 570,5 
70, 580, 590 

530 CLS:PRINTPC*(PL,CN) :PRINT M IS 
CHALLENGING YOU TO A DEBATE ON 
5 : IFRND (2) =2THENPRI NT" ECONOMIC 

S- "ELSEPRINT" DEFENSE - 11 

532 PRINT" DO YOU ACCEPT? (Y/N) " 

534 K*=INKEY*: IFK$=" Y"THEN536ELS 

E I FK*= " N " THEN538ELSE534 

536 X=RND ( 2 ) : G0SUB90 1 O : G0SUB90 1 O 





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: IFX=PLTHENPRINT"THE WASHINGTON 
POST EDITORS FEELTHAT YOU WON TH 
E DEBATE. "ELSEPRINT"THE PRESS CO 
RPS AGREES THAT YOU LOST THE DEB 
ATE. " 

537 IFX=PLTHEN540ELSE542 

538 G0SUB9011:G0SUB9011:X=RND(2) 
: IFX=PLTHENPRINT" YOU GAINED SOME 

SUPPORT FOR YOURSTAND. "ELSEPRIN 
T"YOU LOST THE CONFIDENCE OF YOU 
R PARTY REGULARS" 

539 IFX=PLTHEN540ELSE542 

540 F0RI=0T050: VT ( I , PL) =RND (5) +V 
T ( I , PL) : NEXT: G0T0680 

542 F0RI=0T050:VT(I,3-PL)=RND(5) 
+VT ( I , 3-PL) : NEXT: G0T0680 

550 CLS: X=RND(51)-l: IFPL=1THENPR 
I NT "THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY " ELSEPR I 
NT "THE REPUBLICAN PARTY" 

551 PRINT"IS ADVERTISING IN -";S 
* (X) ; "-" 

552 G0SUB9011: RESTORE: F0RI=1T015 
3: READY: NEXT 

553 Y=0: FORI =OTOX: READY: NEXT 

554 Y=Y*50000:MY(PL)=MY(PL)-Y:VT 
(X,PL) =VT (X,PL)+RND(15) +15 

555 G0T0680 

570 CLS:X=RND(51)-l:PRINTPC*(PL, 
CN):PRINT"IS CAMPAIGNING IN -";S 

*(X) ; "-":gosub90H 

572 RESTORE: F0RI=1T0X : READX 1 : NEX 
T 

573 RESTORE : FORI =1T0CC( PL, CN ): RE 
ADX2: NEXT 

574 REST0RE:F0RI=1T051+X:READY1: 
NEXT 

575 RESTORE: FOR I =1T051+CC( PL, CN) 
: READY2: NEXT 

576 X3=(X1-X2)*(X1-X2)+(Y1-Y2)*( 
Y1-Y2) : MY (PL) =MY (PL) -900*X3: CC (P 
L, CN) =X : VT ( X , PL ) =VT ( X , PL) +33-7»C 
N+RND (8) +2*SR (PL, CN, 3) 

577 LO=CC ( PL , CN ) : GOSUB 1 000 

578 G0T0680 

580 CLS:PRINTPC*(PL,CN) : PRINT" IS 
RESTING IN -";S*(CC(PL,CN> > ; "-" 
:GOSUB901 1 

582 VT (CC (PL, CN) , PL) =VT (CC (PL, CN 
) , PL ) +20-5*CN+RND ( 5 ) 
584 MY (PL ) =MY (PL) —1000 
586 G0T0690 

590 CLS:PRINTPC*(PL,CN) : PRINT" IS 
HOLDING A FUND RAISING DINNERFO 
R PARTY REGULARS " : G0SUB90 11 
592 X=RND(3) :Y=SR(PL,CN, 1>*10000 
*RND ( INT ( 10/ X ) ) : VT(CC(PL,CN) ,PL) 
=VT ( CC ( PL , CN ) , PL ) +20-5*CN*RND ( 5 ) 
594 MY(PL)=MY (PL) +Y 
680 G0SUB9010 

690 IF(PL=1ANDCN=1)THEN230ELSEIF 



78 the RAINBOW November 1983 



( PL= 1 ANDCN=2 ) THEN260ELSE I F ( PL=2 A 
NDCN= 1 ) THEN290ELSE I F ( PL=2ANDCN=2 
) THEN320 
691 G0T0230 

700 CLS:PRINTSTRING*(41,CHR*(239 
))S' 1 ELECTION DAY "; STRING* (41 , C 
HR* (239) ) 

702 fl=o:my(1)=o:my(2)=o: xi=o:yi 

=0 

709 PR I NT "THE RETURNS ARE COMING 
IN FROM THE EAST: " 

710 F0RI=0T011 

711 G0SUB800:NEXT 

712 CLS: PR I NT "THE RETURNS ARE CO 
MING IN FROM THE SOUTH" 

713 F0RI=12T023 

714 G0SUB800:NEXT 

715 CLS: PR I NT "THE RETURNS ARE CO 
MING IN FROM THE MIDWEST" 

716 F0RI=24T036 

717 G0SUB800:NEXT 

718 CLS: PR I NT "THE RETURNS ARE CO 
MING IN FROM THE WEST" 

719 F0RI=37T050 

721 G0SUB800:NEXT 

722 IFI >=50THENFL=0 
724 CLS:G0T0860 

800 G0SUB90 1 1 : CLS : PR I NT " CURRENT 
POPULAR VOTE TOTALS: " : PR I NTLEFT* 



(PC*(i, l ) ,22) :printusingh*;xi:pr 

INTLEFT*(PC*(2 ? 1) ,22) :PRINTUSING 
H* ; Y 1 : PR I NTSTR I NG* ( 32 , CHR* ( 1 85 ) ) 
: PRINT© 192, "RETURNS COMING IN 
- " : G0SUB90 1 O : PR I NTQ224 , " STATE - . 

805 SOUND 1*4 + 1 ? 3: RESTORE: F0RJ = 1T 

0205+1 : READY: NEXTJ 

810 PRINT", " ;Y; " ELEC- VOTES" 

815 RESTORE : FOR J = 1 T0255 : READ X : NE 
XT: F0RJ=1T051 : READK*: NEXT 

816 forj=otoi:readx:next 

817 J=VT(I, 1)+VT(I,2) : IFJ=<0THEN 
J=1ELSEJ=INT (J) 

818 T=VT ( I , 1 ) / J : W=VT ( I , 2) / J 

820 T=1500*X+7000*X*T+RND( 15000) 
: W=1500*X+7000*X*W+RND ( 15000) 

821 X1=X1+T: Y1=Y1+W 

822 IFT=WTHENW=10000-RND(20000)+ 
W 

823 IFT=WTHEN822 

825 PRINT@288 ? PC*(1 ? 1) :PRINTPC*( 
1 , 2 ) : PR I NTUS I NG " 7. 7.### , ### , ### 
X y. •';■■==== ";INT(T); M VOTES" 

826 PRINTPC*<2, 1) : PRINTPC* (2, 2) : 
PR I NTUS I NG " X X### , ### , ###X 



830 IFT>WTHENMY ( 1 ) =MY ( 1 ) +YELSEMY 
(2)=MY(2)+Y 



M&tyam industries, inc.- 

In Texas Orders, 22511 Katy Freeway 

Questions & Answers * ' 

1-713-392-0747 Katy (Houston). Texas 77450 



To Order 
1-800-231-3680 
800-231-3681 



SAVE BIG DOLLARS ON ALL TRS-80& HARDWARE & SOFTWARE 

TRS-80® by Radio Shack. Brand new in cartons delivered. Save state sales tax. Texas residents, 
add only 5% sales tax. Open Mon. - Fri., 9-6, Sat., 9 - 1. We pay freight and insurance. Come by 
and see us. Cal1 us for a reference in or near your city. Ref: Farmers State Bank, Brookshire, 
Texas. 



WE OFFER ON 
REQUEST 

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Delivery, Same Day Service 

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References from people who have 
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ED McMANUS 



Q 
0 

B 
0 




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WE ALWAYS 
OFFER 

0 We accept MasterCard, Visa and 

American Express cards 
0 We use Direct Freight lines. No long waits 

0 We always pay the freight and insurance 

0 Toll free order number 

0 Our capability to go to the giant TRS40® 
Computer warehouse 5 hours away, in 
Ft Worth, Texas, to keep you in stock. 



JOE McMANUS 



TELEX: 77-4132 (FLEXS HOU) 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 79 



834 G0SUB901 1 : G0SUB9010: CLS : PRIN 
T@l 28, "ELECTORAL VOTE TALLY: " 

835 PRINT@192,PC*(1, 1):PRINTMY(1 
) :PRINTPC*(2, 1) :PRINTMY(2) :PRINT 
: PRINT" — 270 VOTES NEEDED TO W 
IN — " 

840 G0SUB9011: IFMY ( 1 X270ANDMY (2 

) < 270THENRETURNELSE850 

850 I FFL= 1 THENRETURN 

852 F0RPL=1T08:CLS(PL) :S0UNDPL*2 

0,2: F0RLO= 1 TO 1 50 : NEXTLO : NE X TPL : C 

LS:FL=1 

860 IFMY ( 1 ) >=270THENPL= 1ELSEPL=2 
870 PRINT@128, "THE WINNER IS . . 

. . ";PC*(PL, 1 ) : PRINT 

STRING* (32, " - ") 
890 IFFL=1THEN896ELSE892 

892 PRINTPC*(1, 1) :PRINTMY(1) ; " E 
LECTOR AL VOTES " : PR I NTUS I NGH* ; X 1 ; 
: PR I NT" POPULAR VOTES" 

893 PRINTPC*(2, 1) :PRINTMY(2) ; " E 
LECTORAL VOTES " : PR I NTUS I NGH* ; Y 1 ; 
: PR INT" POPULAR VOTES" 

894 PRINT"PRESS < BREAK > TO EXIT" 

895 G0T0895 

896 PRINT"PRESS <ENTER> TO CONTI 
NUE THE TALLY": 
I NPUTX: RETURN 

1000 T=INT ( VS (LO) / 10) 

1001 W=VS(L0)-T*10 

1002 0NPLG0T01 010, 1020 



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1010 0NT+1G0T0101 1, 1013, 1015, 101 
6 

1011 VS (LO) =1 0*CN+W: RETURN 

1013 IFCN=1THEN1014ELSEVS(L0)=30 
+W 

1014 RETURN 

1015 IFCN=2THEN1014ELSEVS(L0)=30 
+W 

1016 RETURN 

1020 0NW+1G0T01021 , 1023, 1025, 102 
6 

1021 VS (LO) =CN+T# 10: RETURN 

1023 IFCN=1THEN1024ELSEVS(L0)=3+ 
T*10 

1024 RETURN 

1025 IFCN=2THEN1024ELSEVS(L0)=3+ 
T*10 

1026 RETURN 

2000 PM0DE1, l:PCLS2: SCREEN 1,0 
2010 C0L0R3,2 

2020 DRAW " BM32 , 24 ; L 1 2D 1 0R8L8D 1 OR 
12; BM38, 18; D20R12; BM72, 24; L12D10 
R8L8D 1 OR 1 2 ; BM88 , 28 ; L8G4D 1 2F4R8 " 
2030 DRAW " BM92 , 24 ; R 1 2L6D20 ; BM1 12 
, 20; D20; BM124,24; R4F4D12G4L4H4U1 
2E4;BM136, 16; D20; BM+12, +0;U20; " 
2040 LINE (136, 16) -(148, 36) , PSET 

2050 DRAW " BM 1 84 , 20 ; D4 ; BM+8 , +0 ; R4 
F4D4G4F4D4G4L4H4U4E4R4L4H4U4E4;B 
M208 , 20 j D 1 2R 1 2L4U6D 1 4 11 

205 1 DRAW " BM36 , 64 ; D 1 6R6E2U4H2L6 ; 
BM+ 1 2 , +0 ; D8R8D4G4L2R2E4U 1 2 ; BM+ 1 5 
, +0; U8R4F2D4R2D7G3L5U8R7; BM+8, +0 
; R8D8L8U8 ; BM+ 1 4 , +0; R8D8L8U 1 6 " 

2052 DRAW "BM128, 64; Rl 6L8D 1 6 ; BM+8 
, +0 ; U8D8R8U8D 1 2G4L2 ; BM+ 14,-8; R8U 
4L8U4R8; BM+8, +0; R8D8L8U8; BM+12, + 
0;D8U4E4R4D8 H 

2053 COLOR 1 , 2 : L I NE ( O , 1 00 ) - ( 255 , 1 
95) ,PSET,BF 

2055 C0L0R3,2 

2056 DRAW ,, BM52, 152; U26G4U4E8R38D 
1 0R2U6E4R4F4D26F2R2E2F 1 G4L6H4U8H 
6L2D 1 8L8U 1 2L24D 1 2L6 " 

2057 PAINT(72, 132) ,3,3 
2060 C0L0R4,2 

2062 DRAW "BM 148, 1 27 ; D12R2D1 2R4U1 
2R 1 8D 1 2R5U20R2D 1 1 R2U 1 1 H4L6D 1 L 1 7U 
1 H6U2L 1 UEL2D4L 1 G9D4R4E6 " 
2064 PAINT ( 158, 135) ,4,4 
2070 F0RI=1T015 

2072 SCREEN1, 1 : F0RJ=1T050 : NEXT : S 
CREEN1 , O: F0RJ=1 T050: NEXT 
2074 S0UNDI*10, 1:NEXTI 
2080 RETURN 

4500 X=RND(15) : IFFG ( X ) = 1THEN7690 
ELSE4502 

4502 FG(X)=l:0NXG0T04510,4520,45 
30, 4540, 4550, 4560, 4570, 4580, 4590 
, 4600, 7690, 7690, 7690, 7690, 7690 



80 the RAINBOW November 1 Q83 



4510 PRINT"AP NEWS BULLETIN: LEB 
ONESE AND SYRIAN FORCES EXCHANG 
ED GUNFIRE. JEWISH GROUPS REACT I 
N NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA - CA 
ND I DATES SHOULD TRAVEL TO THES 
E 3TATES TOMEET WITH JEWISH LEAD 
ERS. " 

4511 PL=3-PL: Y=4:GOSUB4700: Y=5:G 
0SUB4700: PL=3-PL: G0T07690 

4520 PR I NT "UP I BULLETIN: SUPREME 
COURT RULES THAT STATES HAV 

E THE RIGHTTO SET REASONABLE PEN 
ALTIES FOR REFUSING TO BE SEARCH 
ED - A.C.L.U. IS OUTRAGED, REPUB 
LI CAN CANDI-DATE LOSES SUPPORT 0 
F LIBERAL GROUPS. " 

4521 X=PL:PL=l:Y=RND<51)-l:G0SUB 
4700: Y=RND (51 ) -1 : G0SUB4700: PL=X : 
G0T07690 

4530 PR I NT "RUMORS DEVELOP THAT R 
EPUBLICAN CANDIDATE MAY AGREE T 
0 REMOVE TOBACCO PRICE SUPPORT 
S - TRAVEL TO NORTH CAROLINA < NO 

IS THE ONLY WAY TO STOP THE 
RUMOR" 

4531 X=PL:PL=l: Y=16:G0SUB4700:PL 
=X:G0T07690 

4540 PRINT" TIME MAGAZINE HAS END 
ORSED THE REPUBLICAN TICKET BAS 



a FREE o 

R GAMES, BUSINESS, HOME MANAGEMENT F 

IS COLOR OASIS T 

P.O. Box 178 ^ 
1122 12th Street Erie, IL 61250 ^ 

Please accept my application for trial-membership to COLOR 
OASIS & rusk me mv selection below at the get-ta-knaw-us price ¥J 
of $19.95*, a 20% • 30% savings off current prices of $24.% to 
$27.95. |7 

I understand I need buy only six more selections at which time 
my FREE selection of my choice will be sent, I will be receiving a 
complete listing every 6 to 8 weeks to choose from during the next 
two years. 

Specify □ Cassette □ Disk (Please add 83.50) 
□ Robottack □ Fury □ Tims 

by Intracolor by Computer Shack by Sugar Software 

□ Danger Ranger □ Zaksund 

by Screenplay by Elite Software 

Please send check or M.O. 

Signature 

Name 

PLEASE PRINT 

Address 

City State Zip 

Please add $2.00 for shipping & handling. 



ED ON ST A- BILITY OF GOVERNMENT 
- THIS HASRESULTED IN GENERAL S 
UPPORT FOR THE REPUBLICAN PARTY" 

4541 X=PL:PL=l:F0RJ=lT02O:Y=RND< 

50) -1 : G0SUB4700: NEXT J 

4542 PL=X:G0T07690 

4550 PRINT"AP WIRE STORY: SHUTTL 
E LAUNCH DELAY HAS RESULTED IN 

NEW QUERY ON COST OVERRUNS IN N 
ASA - BOTH CANDIDATES SUFFER, RE 
PUBLICANS IN TEXAS AND DEMOCRAT 
S IN CALI- FORNIA. " 

4551 X=PL:PL=l: Y=41:G0SUB4700:PL 
=2: Y=42: G0SUB4700: PL=X: G0T07690 

4560 PR I NT "NEW YORK TIMES HAS EN 
DORSED THE REPUBLICAN PRESIDENT I 
AL CANDI- DATE, AND THE L.A. TI 
MES HAS EN-DORSED THE DEMOCRATS. 

II 

4561 X=PL:F0RJ=1T025:Y=RND<51>-1 
: PL= 1 : G0SUB4700 : Y=RND ( 5 1 ) - 1 : PL=2 
:G0SUB4700: NEXTJ 

4562 PL=X : G0T07690 

4570 PR I NT "SECOND QUARTER ECONOM 
IC FIGURES SHOW A SLIGHT INCREAS 
E IN NEW HOUSING STARTS, BUT T 
HE COST-OF-LIVING INDEX HAS RISE 
N .67. FOR THE MONTH - DEMOCRATS 

WILL GAIN THE BENEFITS OF THIS 
NEWS" 

4571 X=PL:PL=l:F0RJ=lT013:Y=RND< 

51 ) -1 : G0SUB47OO: NEXTJ 

4572 PL=X:G0T0769O 

45G0 PRINT "YOU SHOULD GET TO CHI 
CAGO, IL TO SPEAK TO THE MAYOR 
CONCERN I NGH IS REMARKS ABOUT YOU 
R FINANCI ALDEALINGS. " 
45S 1 PL=3-PL : Y=29 : GOSUB4700 : PL=3 
-PLIG0T07690 

4590 PR I NT "WALL ST. JOURNAL REPO 
RTS THAT AFTER TAX INCOME HAS 
RISEN 1.27. LAST MONTH - REPUBLIC 
ANS WILL BENEFIT THE MOST FROM 

THIS NEWS" 

4591 X=PL : PL=2 : FOR J = 1 TO 19: Y=RND < 
51 ) -1 : G0SUB4700: NEXTJ 

4592 PL=X:G0T07690 

4600 PR I NT "NATIONAL ENQUIRER REP 
ORTS THAT" :PRINTPC*< 1,2) :PRINT"D 
EDUCTED EXPENSES ON HIS 19S0 I 
NCOME TAX FOR LAS VEGAS GAMB- L 
ING LOSSES." 

4601 G0SUB9Oll:PRINT"N0B0DY CARE 
D. . . ":GOT07690 

4700 VT<Y,PL)=VT<Y,PL)+5:RETURN 
5000 CLS: PRINT© 12G, "GOING OUT ON 

THE CAMPAIGN TRAIL" 
5002 K*=S*<CC<PL,CN) ) 
5004 PRINT: PR I NT "YOU ARE CURRENT 
LY IN ";K*j ". ":PRINT"WHERE DO YO 



84 the RAINBOW November 1983 



U WANT TO BO? (ENTER 2-LE 

TTER STATE)" 

5010 INPUTK*: IFLEN<K*)O2THEN500 
O 

5020 X=-l:F0RI=0T050 
5030 IFS*<I)=K*THENX=I 
5040 NEXT I 

5042 IFXO-1THEN5050 

5043 PR I NT "THERE IS NO STATE IDE 
NTIFIER LIKE THAT, TRY AGAIN" 
: G0SUB901 1 : G0T05000 

5050 RESTORE: FOR I=1T0X: READX 1 : NE 
XT 

5060 RESTORE: FOR I=1T0CC <PL,CN) :R 
EADX2: NEXT 

5070 RESTORE: FORI =1T051+X: READY 1 
:NEXT 

5080 RESTORE: F0RI=1T051 +CC < PL, CN 
) : READY2 : NEXT 

5090 X3= (X1-X2) *(X1-X2) +(Y1-Y2) * 
(Y1-Y2) 

5100 X3=INT<X3) : IFX3<=2THENPRINT 
"THIS WILL BE A CHEAP TRIP. "ELSE 
PR I NT "THE PRESS CORPS IS GOING A 
LONG. " 

5110 MY <PL)=MY <PL) -900*X3 : PRINT" 
THE TRIP COSTS V';900*X3 
5120 CC <PL,CN)=X 

5130 VT<CC(PL,CN) , PL ) =VT <CC (PL, C 
N ) , PL ) +33-7»CN+RND ( 8 ) +2*SR ( PL , CN 
,3) 

5140 G0SUB9011 

5150 LO=CC(PL,CN) : G0SUB1000 

5160 RETURN 

5500 CLS : PR I NT@ 128," ADVERT I S I NG 
. . . ": PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" WHERE? (E 
2-LETTER STATE) " 
INPUTK*: IFLEN(K*)O2THEN550 



NTER 
5510 

O 

5520 
5530 
5540 
5560 
5561 



X=-l :F0RI=0T050 

IFS*(I)=K*THENX=I 

NEXTI 

I F X=- 1 THEN556 1 ELSE5570 
PR I NT "THERE IS NO STATE IDE 
LIKE THAT, TRY AGAIN" 



NTIFIER 
: G0SUB901 1 
5562 G0T05500 

5570 RESTORE: F0RI=1T0153:READY:N 
EXT 

5580 JJ=0: F0RI=0T0X : READ J J : NEXT 
5590 J J= J J *S0000 : PR I NT " ADVERT I S I 
NG IN -";K*;"- COSTS *";JJ 
:G0SUB9010 

5600 MY(PL)=MY(PL)-JJ 



5610 
) 

5620 
6000 



VT ( X , PL ) = VT ( X , PL ) +15+RND ( 1 5 



RETURN 

CLS :PRINT@128, "RAISE FUNDS " 
: PRINT: PRINT: PR INT"OPT IONS: ":PRI 
NT " 1 =RALLY *HIGH R 



ISK2=*100-A-PLATE DINNER *MED R 
ISK3=PRIVATE CONTRIBUTIONS*LOW R 
ISK" 

6010 PR I NT "ENTER 1,2, OR 3"!INPU 
TX:X=INT(X) : IFX< 10RX>3THEN6010EL 
SE6020 

6020 Y=SR ( PL , CN , 1 ) * 1 0000*RND ( I NT 

(10/X) ) :PRINT"CONGRATULATIONS, Y 

OU RAISED IN EXCESS OF *";Y 

6030 VT(CC(PL,CN) , PL) =VT (CC (PL,C 

N ) , PL ) +20-5»CN*RND ( 5 ) 

6035 MY ( PL ) =M Y ( PL ) +Y 

6040 G0SUB9011: RETURN 

6500 CLS: PRINTS 128, "YOU ARE CHAL 

LENGING YOUR OPPONENT TO 

A DEBATE. . . ": PRINT 

6510 I FRND ( 3 ) =2THEN6530ELSE6520 

6520 G0SUB9010: PRINT: PRINT"HE DE 
CLINES . . . BUT YOU PICK UP SU 
PPORT NATIONWIDE FOR YOUR INITI 
ATIVE":G0SUB901 1 

6521 F0RI=lT025:X=RND(51)-l:VT(X 
,PL)=VT(X,PL)+RND(5) : NEXT I 

6522 RETURN 

6530 G0SUB9011 : PR I NT "HE ACCEPTS 
. . . BUT WILL ONLY DEBATE YOU 

ON"; 

6532 X=RND(4) 

6534 0NXG0T06535, 6536, 6537 



THE ORIGINAL cq^dputeb *bt swtm 

74t WW 9CUIN OVIIUT TECHNIQUE 

tOMP-U-TRM™ © 

Be An ArtistWith Your COCO* 



4S& 



' .L;' rinif T 



COHP-U- TRACE KIT INCLUDES : 

0 3 REUSEABLE SCREEN OVERLAYS 

o SPECIAL MAGIC PENCIL 

0 7 PAGE INSTRUCTION BOOKLET 
WITH WALL C0MPAS5 

o OEMO CASSETTE INCLUDING 11 
DIFFERENT GRAPHIC PICTURES 
FOR TRS-80" 16K EXT BASIC 

0 ON SCREEN X-Y LOCATION 
GRAPH PROGRAM 



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333 C:«IY WAY SUITE 59 R09EV1LLC. CA. 95678 (9 19) 789-7370 



November 1983 th«RAINBOW 85 



6535 PRINT" DEFENSE" : G0T06540 

6536 PRINT" THE ECONOMY ": G0T0654 

0 

6537 PRINT" SOCIAL PROGRAMS " : GOT 
06540 

6538 PRINT" HIS TURF" : G0T06540 
6540 PRINT: G0SUB90 10: X=RND(2) : IF 
X - 1 THENPR INT "THIS HITS YOUR WEAK 
NESS. . . "ELSEPRINT"THIS FITS YOUR 

STRATEGY ..." 
6542 PRINT: PRINT"DO YOU STILL WA 
NT TO DEBATE? Y/N" 

6544 K*=INKEY*: IFK*=" " THEN654 4EL 
SE I FK*= " Y " THEN6546ELSE I FK*= " N " TH 
EN6548ELSE6544 

6546 G0SUB9011:X=3-PL 

6547 Y=SR(PL,CN,2)+SR(PL,CN,3) -S 
R(X,CN, 2)-SR(X,CN,3)+3-RND(6) : GO 
T06560 

6548 G0SUB901 l: PRINT" OK, BUT YO 
U LOSE SOME RESPECT OF THE VOTE 
RS":G0SUB9011 

6549 IFPL=1THENX=2ELSEX=1 

6550 F0RI=1T020: Y=RND(51)-l: VT(Y 
,X)=VT(Y,X)+RND(3) 

6551 G0SUB90 10: RETURN 

6560 I FABS ( Y )< 1 THEN6570ELSE I FY >0 
THEN6580EL SE6590 

6570 PR I NT "THE DEBATE WAS A VIRT 



COMPUT€R 
BUSINCSS FORMS 

Continuous forms, labels, paper, checks, 
invoices, statements— oil with your 
imprint. Continuous letterhead with a 
perf so fine that you need a magnifying 
glass to tell it's a fan fold sheet. 
Matching envelopes. 

Regular letterhead, business forms and 
cards also. 

Send sample for quote. Send $3.00 
(refundable on first order) for our 
catalog. 

Catalog also includes computer 
furniture. 

D€S€RT PR€SS r INC. 

P. O. Box 1 51 28 
las Vegas, Nevada 891 1 4 



UAL DRAW" : G0SUB901 1 : RETURN 
6580 PR I NT "YOU WERE A CLEAR CUT 
WINNER OF THE DEBATE" : G0SUB901 1 
6582 F0RI=0T050:VT(I,PL)=VT(I,PL 
>+RND(4> INEXT 
6584 RETURN 

6590 PR I NT "YOU STUMBLED ON SOME 
IMPORTANT POINTS ... THE PRESS 
FEELS THAT YOU LOST THE DEBATE" 
6592 IFPL=1THENX=2ELSEX=1 

6594 F0RI=0T050:VT(I, X)=VT(I,X>+ 
RND(4) : NEXT 

6595 G0SUB9010:G0SUB9010 

6596 RETURN 

7000 CLS: PRINT® 128, "YOU ARE YIEL 
DING YOUR POSITION ...YOU WILL 
GAIN STRENGTH IN THIS STATE" 
7010 G0SUB9011 

7020 VT(CC(PL,CN) , PL) =VT (CC (PL, C 
N) , PL) +20-5*CN+RND (5) 
7025 MY (PL) =MY (PL) -1000 
7030 RETURN 

7500 RESTORE: F0RJ=1 T0204 : READX : N 
EXT 

7510 CLS: F0RI=0T050 
7520 READC*(1) 

7530 T=INT(VS(I)/10) :W=VS(I)-T»1 

O 

7532 I FT= 1 THENX = 1 88ELSE I FT=2THEN 
X = 1 79ELSE I FT=3THENX = 19 1 ELSEX = 143 
7534 I FW= 1 THEN Y= 1 72ELSE I FW=2THEN 
Y= 1 63ELSE I FW=3THENY= 1 75ELSEY= 1 43 
7540 PRINT@I*8, S* ( I ) +"-"+C* ( 1 ) +" 

";CHR*(X) ;CHR*(Y) ; 
7550 NEXT I 

7560 PRINT: PR I NT "PRESS < ENTER > F 
OR MORE INFO" 

7570 K*=INKEY«: IFK*=CHR* ( 13) THEN 

7580ELSE7570 

7580 CLS: X=0: Y=0 

7590 F0RI=0T050:X=X+VT(I, 1) :Y=Y+ 
VT(I,2) :NEXT 

7600 PRI NT"GALLUP POLL SHOWS:" 

7610 PRINTPC*(1,1) :PRINTTAB( 14) , 

INT ( 100*X/ (X+Y) ) ; "•/." 

7620 PRINTPC«(2, 1) :PRINTTAB(14) , 

INT( 100*Y/ (X+Y) ) ; "7." 

7630 G0T04500 

7690 PR I NT "PRESS < ENTER > TO CONT 
INUE" 

7695 K*= I NKEY* : IFK*=CHR* (13) THEN 
7800ELSE7695 

7800 0NPLG0T0780 1,7803 

7801 CLS4:PRINT@10, "DEMOCRATIC"; 

7802 G0T07804 

7803 CLS3: PRINT010, "REPUBLICAN"; 

7804 0NCNG0T07805, 7807 

7805 PRINT636," PRESIDENTIAL CAN 
D I DATE " 

7806 GOT 07808 



86 the RAINBOW November 1983 



78*7 PRINTS32," V ICE-PRESIDENT I A 

L CANDIDATE " 

78*8 PRINTPC*<PL,CN) 

78*9 I FD Y > 1 THENPR I NTCHR* < 255 ) ; " 

";DY;"DAYS UNTIL THE ELECTION " 

; CHR* ( 255 ) ; ELSEPR I NT " " ; CHR* ( 255 

) ;CHR*<255) ; " TOMORROW'S THE ELE 

CTION! ";CHR*<255> ; CHR* (255) ; " " 

■ 

9 

7810 PRINT© 129, "FINANCIAL STRENG 
TH M ;SR(PL,CN, 1) 

7812 PRI NT@161 , "EXPERIENCE 
";SR(PL,CN ? 2) 

7813 PRINTS193, "CHARISMA 
M ;SR(PL,CN,3) 

7814 IF(MD-10=PL)THEN5#0 

7815 I FMY ( PL ) >OORD Y< 3THEN78 1 6ELS 
E7838 

7816 PRINTUSING"7. 

7.*#, ###,###"; "MONEY AVAILABLE 
11 „ MY ( PL ) 

7817 PRINT" YOU ARE CURRENTLY 
IN - ,, ;S^(CC(PL !I CN) > ; 

7818 PRINTQ321, "T=TRAVEL 
A= ADVERTISE" 

7820 PRINT@353 ? "R=RAISE FUNDS 
D=DEBATE" 

7822 PRINT@385, "Y=YIELD 
1=1 NTELL I GENCE " : SOUND 1 00 , 5 



783# K$= I NKEY* : I FK*= " " THEN783* 
7832 I FK*= " T " ORK*= " A " ORK*= " R " ORK 
*= " D " ORK*= " Y " THENRETURNELSE7834 
7834 I FK*= " I " THEN75##ELSE783# 
7838 PRINTUSING" - /. 7.*#, ###,## 

#";"YOU OWE " , ABS (MY (PL) ) : PRINT" 
YOU MUST RAISE FUNDS" : G0SUB9#1 1 : 
K*=''R ,, :G0T07832 

8### CLS:PRINT"DIRECTIONS FOR CA 
ND I DATE SELECT I ON : 

CHOOSE PRESI DENTI 
AL AND VICE PRESIDENTIAL CAND 
I DATES FROM THE"; 

8*01 PRINT"LIST. STRENGTHS ARE C 
ODED BY F=FINANCIAL(l-5) 
E=EXPERIENCE( 1-5) 
C=CHARISMA(l-5) " 

:print:print"hit enter 



I FK*=CHR$ (13) THEN 



8003 PRINT: 
TO CONTINUE" 

8004 K*=INKEY*: 
8005ELSE80#4 

8005 RETURN 

8010 CLS:C*(1)="SEN. JOHN GLENN 

2 1 4":CS$(1)="0H":C*(2)= 
"SEN, ALAN CRANSTON 3 2 1 " : C 

S^(2)="CA":C*(3)="G0V. JERRY BRO 
WN 12 4":CS^(3)="CA" 

8*11 C*<4)= M SEN. WALTER MONDALE 
2 4 2 ,, :CS*(4)="MN":C$(5) = "G0V 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST EARNED A MATH DEGREE! 




MATHMENU 

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pulating matrices and vectors, performing 
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functions and much more, Mathmenu can 
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Whether you are a student or a professional, 
if you use math, you need Mathmenu, 



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of its kind commercially available for the Color Computer. 



PLUS: 

• Complete MATRIX Operations 
(up to 8 x 8) 

• Complete VECTOR Operations 

• Numerical Differentiation 

• Numerical Integration 

• Least Squares Curve Fitting 

• Binomial Expansion 

• Prime Number Verification 

• Main Menu with Single-key Selection 



2D Function Plotting 

Rectangular to Polar Conversions 

Base Conversions 

Large Number Addition and 

Multiplication 

Reverse Polish Logic Calculator 
with Hexadecimal 
Quadratic Equation Roots 
and Return (Disk Only) 



Complete documentation of all functions is included. 

For 32K Disk $49.95 D . „. D c , . . D>1P . r 

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Or write for free brochure. — 

i w 

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113 Ward Street • Dept. R • New Haven, CT 06519 • (203) 562-5748 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 87 



. REUBEN ASKEW 1 1 2":CS*<5 

)="FL":C*(6)="SEN. GARY HART 
1 1 3":CS*<6)="C0" 

8012 FL AG=* : PR I NT " SELECT PRESIDE 
NTIAL CANDIDATE DEMOCRATIC 
PARTY" : G0SUB8090 

8013 INPUTFL: FL»INT <FL) : IFFL< 10R 
FL>6THEN801 3ELSE801 4 

8014 CLS: PR I NT "SELECT RUNNING MA 
TE":G0SUB8090 

8015 INPUTX: X=INT(X) : IFX<10RX>60 
RX=FLTHEN80 1 5ELSE80 1 6 

8016 G0SUB8060 

8017 PC*(1,2)=PC*(1,2)+" D-"+CS* 
(X) : PC* (1, 1)=PC* (1,1)+" D-"+CS*( 
FL) 

8018 RETURN 

8050 CLS:C*(1>="PRES. RONALD REA 
GAN 3 5 3":CS*(1)="CA":C*(2)= 
"VICE- -PRES. GEORGE BUSH 1 3 2":C 
S* (2)="MI":C*(3)="SEN. LOWELL WE 
ICKER 1 2 4":CS*(3)="CT" 

8051 C*(4)="SEN. ROBERT DOLE 

3 2 1":CS*(4)="KS":C* (5)="SEN 
. HOWARD BAKER 1 3 3":CS*(5 

)="TN" 

8052 C*<6)="SEN. PAUL LAXALT 

2 1 2":CS*(6)="NV":CLS:PRINT" 
SELECT PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE 
REPUBL I CAN " : FLAG=0 : G0SUB8090 

8053 I NPUTFL : FL= I NT < FL ) : I FFL< 1 OR 
FL >6THEN8053ELSE8054 

8«54 CLS: PR I NT "SELECT RUNNING MA 
TE":G0SUB8090 

8055 INPUTX: X=INT (X) : IFX<10RX>60 
RX=FLTHEN8055ELSE8056 

8056 G0SUB8060 

8057 PC* (2, 2) =PC* (2,2)+" R-"+CS* 
(X) :PC*(2, 1)=PC*(2, 1)+" R-"+CS*< 
FL) 

8058 RETURN 

8060 PC* (J, 1 ) =LEFT* (C*(FL) ,23) :P 
C*(J,2)=LEFT*(C*(X) ,23) 

8061 PR I NT "THE STATE CHAIRMEN AR 
E GIVEN THEIR INSTRUCTIONS. . . 

II 

8062 F0RI=1T03 

8063 SR(J, 1 , I)=VAL(MID*(C* (FL) ,2 
2+2*1, 1 ) > 

8064 SR(J,2, I)=VAL(MID*(C*(X) ,22 
+2*1, 1) ) 

8065 NEXT I 

8067 HS*(J, 1 >=CS*(FL) :HS*(J,2)=C 
S* (X) 

8069 F0RI=0T050 

8070 IFHS* (J, 1)=S* (I)THENCC(J, 1 ) 
= 1 

8071 IFHS* (J,2)=S$ ( I ) THENCC (J, 2) 
= 1 

8072 NEXT 



8076 CN= 1 : PL= J : LO=CC ( J , 1 ) : GOSUB 1 
000 : VT ( L O, PL) = 1 0+ VT ( LO , PL ) 

8077 CN=2:PL=J:L0=CC(J,2) : GOSUB 1 
000: VT (LO, PL) =VT (LO, PL) +10 

8078 VT(L0,PL)=VT(L0,PL)+10 

8079 RETURN 

8090 PRINT" # HOPEFULS 
F E C n :F0RJJ=lT06 

8091 I FFL AG= J J THEN8095 

8092 PRINTJJ;C$(JJ) :PRINT" "+ 
CS* (JJ) 

8095 NEXT 

8096 RETURN 

8959 REM LOCATIONS X,X,Y,Y 

8960 DATA 12,11,12,12,11,11,13,1 
2, 12, 11, 12, 11,8,9, 10, 11, 11, 10,9, 
9, 10, 10,9,8 

8961 DATA 9,8,9,9,10,9,8,8,7,7,7 
,6,6,4,5,2,2,7,2,4,5,3,4, 1,5,3, 1 

8962 DATA 2,3,2,2,2,2,1,2,2,3,2, 
3,4,3,4,3,3,5,4,3,4,3,4,4 

8963 DATA 2,3,2,2,2,3,1,2,3,3,2, 
1,2,4,3,2, 1,4,3,3,4,2, 1,5,2,3, 1 

8969 REM EDGES 

8970 DATA 0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,1, 

0. 0.1.0.1.0.1.0.0.0.0.0.0 

8971 DATA 1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,1, 
1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,1 

8979 REM ADV COSTS 

8980 DATA 1,1,2,2,3,4,1,1,1,1,1, 
I* I* 1*2,2,2,2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 

8981 DATA 2,2,2,3,3,3,1,1,1,1,1, 
1,1,1,1,1,1,3,4,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1 

8989 REM ELEC VOTES 

8990 DATA 8,10,14,17,27,41,4,4,4 
,3, 3, 3, 10, 10, 12, 12, 13, 17, 9, 9, 8, 6 
,7,6 

8991 DATA 11,12,13,21,25,26,10,8 
,8,7,5,3,4,6,7,6,9,26,45, 4, 4,4,4 
,4,3,3,3 

8999 REM STATES AND AVG VOTES 

9000 DATA CT, MD, MA, NJ , PA, NY , ME, R 

1 , NH, DE, VT, DC, LA, TN, GA, VA, NC, FL, 
AL, KY, SC, WV, MS, AR 

9001 DATA WI,MO, IN, MI, OH, IL,MN, I 
A,OK,KS,NE,ND,SD, AZ,CO,OR, WA,TX, 
CA, UT, NM, ID, MT, HI , WY , NV , AK 

9002 DATA 150,150,250,300,450,65 
0,40,40,30,23, 18, 13, 130, 150, 140, 
170, 170,300, 120, 110,80,8,70,70 

9003 DATA 200,200,210,360,400,50 
O, 180, 120, 100, 90, 60, 30, 30, 70, 100 
, lOO, 150,400,750,50,40,32,32,30, 
15, 20, 11 

9010 F0RDL=1T01200: NEXT: RETURN 

9011 F0RDL=1T02400: NEXT: RETURN 
1 0000 CLEAR500 : PCLEAR2 

10010 G0T010 



88 the RAINBOW November 1983 



by Thomas (J. W(?lx»r 



FBI he idea for this simulation came from 
H the movie "WarGames" which was 
about a high school student who taps 
into the United States defense computer, 
and by doing so, almost starts World War 
III. 

In this simulation, you are in control of 
the NORth American Defense (NORAD) 
facility, and are required to take part in a 
simulation of a thermonuclear war between 
the U.S. and Russia. Both countries have 10 
bases. The country to lose all 10 of its bases 
first loses the simulation. No matter which 
side loses first, though, chances are that the 
other side wouldn't do much better, due to 
the damage done to its country. 

In WarGame, you'll have eight com- 
mands you can enter: USCON, SOVCON, 
JAM, SUBS?, DESUB, LAUNCH, TIME? 
and ?, which prints out the previous list. 
Every command except ? must be ended 
with a carriage return in order to be acted 
upon. 

USCON prints out the condition of the 
United States in terms of estimated kill 
ratio, and bases remaining. 

SOVCON does the same thingas USCON 
except using data concerning the Soviet 
Union. 

JAM will jam Russia's launch code for a 
short time, during which they cannot launch 
any missiles from theirbases, other than one 



which may already be in the air (it should be 
noted that Russia can do the same thing to 
you). 

SUBS? will detect any enemy subs near 
the Pacific coast. 

DESUB is a special mode you enter to 
destroy these subs. It is important that this 
be done, since these vessels launch missiles 
at your bases as frequently as, or more so 
than, the Soviet bases do. Even though 
knocking out the subs will save your bases 
from destruction, it will not affect the num- 
ber of bases you have to get. Along the same 
lines, you don't have to get any of the subs to 
conclude the simulation . . . just the bases. 
When you enter the sub destroy mode, a 
flashing dot will appear in the center of the 
larger map of the United States. You can 
move the dot around anywhere within the 
boundary of this map. The idea is to position 
it near the center of a submarine using the 
four arrow keys. When you hit the "kill 
spot" on a sub, you get a pulsing tone, telling 
you to launch the missile (by hitting [EN- 
TER]). Make sure that before you launch, 
you hear the tone at least twice with your 
fingers off the arrow keys. This assures that 
the sub will really be destroyed , rather than a 
near-miss. Once you've launched a missile in 
this mode, your flashing dot will return to 
where it started. You can now either go get 
another sub, or return to the regular corn- 



November 1963 th« RAINBOW 91 



BLACKJACKPRO 



A computer assisted learning tool 
that will pay for itselt, 
Expert play will become 
easy and natural. 
Read about BLACKJACKPRO on page 105 

HI A^Kl At K l*Kt > i-s <i tradf iturk nl Skill wjtl t ntpoT.it Km 



SKILLWARE 



mand mode by hitting [BREAK]. You 
can also return at any time while in the 
DESUB mode by hitting [BREAK]. 

Launch — the syntax for this com- 
mand is "LAUNCHx-y," where x is the 
number corresponding to the U.S. base 
launch site, and y is the number corres- 
ponding to the Soviet base target. (Don't 
forget the "-" in between them.) 

TIME? will tell you, in real time, the 
"game time elapsed " and the "estimated 
time remaining" in the simulation. 

Not all the missiles launched by one 



or the other side will make it all the way 
to their destinations. Occasionally, a 
missile may fail to launch at the launch 
site or malfunction in midf light. Neither 
of these indicate that the launch site 
base will not launch future warheads 
correctly, but rather indicate a fault 
with the individual missile. 

Usually this simulation is completed 
within five to 10 minutes, so think and 
act quickly; and Good Luck, General . . . 

Here are the names of all the bases, 
along with the numbers corresponding 



^^^^ 




to them: 

Soviet Bases: 

1) Moscow 

2) Leningrad 

3) Kharkov 

4) Volograd 

5) Rostov 

6) Archangel 

7) Yakutsk 

8) Kamchatka 

9) Vladivostok 
10) Minsk 



U.S. Bases: 

1) Nome 

2) Fairbanks 

3) San Francisco 

4) San Diego 

5) Spokane 

6) Denver 

7) Houston 

8) Charleston 

9) Chicago 
10) Seattle 



Loading Procedures 

Using an Editor/ Assembler like Ra- 
dio Shack's EDTASM+, type in the 
program called PART 1 . This routine is 
similar to that used in the "Micro- 
Meltdown" article {Rainbow, April 
1983), to allow the player to type in 
Hi-Res, but contains a different char- 
acter-set, and contains a few other ML 
routines. 

PART 2, which draws the NORAD 
war room scene, takes a long time to 
load and run, so for this reason, after 
completing its picture, it saves it out to 
tape as a ML file which is then loaded 
back in with a CLOADM command. 
The picture loads and is ready to go 
much faster than it took to load and run 
PART 2, so after you have saved its ML 
file, you can kill the basic program if 
desired. 

PART 3 is the instruction program. It 
gives a brief description of what you 
must do, and also will help you to match 
the base numbers to their locations. 
This program will automatically load in 
the next one. 

PART 4 is the actual simulation part 
of the program, and, like PART 2, takes 
awhile to load. When PART 3 has fin- 
ished loading PART 4, you'll see an 
"OK "prompt in the lower left corner of 
the screen. You can type RUN and 
[ENTER], then the war is on . . . 



Editor's Note: WarGame uses a speed- 
up poke in Lines 40 and 101. If your 
computer will not accept the speed-up 
poke, remove POKE 65495,0 from these 
lines.) 



(Thomas Weber is a freshman at 
Marquette University, majoring 
in Computer Science. He is an 
active member of a Co Co Club in 
Milwaukee, Wis.) 



92 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Listing 1 






5164 B6 


FF00 


00320 


LDA IFF00 










5167 8A 


80 


00330 


0RA #$80 










5169 81 


F7 


00340 


CHPA l$F7 






00010 i PART I SOURCE CODE • 


5168 27 


04 


00350 


BEG $5171 


JUU 




00020 


0R6 15120 


516D CA 


08 


00360 


ORB l$08 






00025 » ROUTINE TO ALLOW SCREEN OUTPUT IN HI -RES » 


516F 20 


02 


00370 


BRA $5173 


MIA An 


or ti 

OL Jl 


AAA1A 


tct isisi pro. 

191 UlJ^irLn 


5171 C4 


F7 


00380 


ANDB l$F7 


9A 


ifl 

10 


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Due 4S14A 
one ijiiv 


5173 F7 


0155 


00390 


STB $155 


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or or 

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62 


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ciir At 

Dm Rt 


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36 


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00650 


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0155 


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F7 


00660 


BNE $5185 


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F7 


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51BE C6 


24 


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CHECK FOR BACKSPACE 



CHECK FOR VALID KEYPRESS 



CHECK FOR DESCENDER 



for 13" TV 



MONITOR (TV) 
STANDS 



for printers 





$19.95 PS-1 15Wx11D x4H 
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Colors available: ivory, smoked gray 

deduct $1.00/stand for clear 

1 Year guarantee on plastic and workmanship. 

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Howard Medical Company 



Box 2 Chicago, Illinois 60690 
(312) 944-2444 



Please send me the following stands: 
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November 1 983 the RAINBOW 93 



31C2 27 


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00690 


BEfl I51C8 


51C4 31 


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00700 


LEAY 5,Y 


31C6 3A 




00710 


OECB 


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PUL9 PC, V, X,8,A 


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22 


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BSR $51EF 6ET Hi -RES PRINT POSITION 


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LDB 110] 


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00760 


NOP 


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8C 39 


00770 


STB I520C.PCR 


S1D3 C6 


39 


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LDB 1139 


S1DS 12 




00790 


NOP 


51D6 E7 


BC 58 


00800 


STB 15234, PCR 


3109 17 


02AD 


00810 


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BRA I51C9 


51E9 80 


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BSR I31EF 


31EB BD 


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BSR I320B 


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BRA I51C9 






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TRANSLATE PRINT POSITION FROM LO TO HI -RES » 


31EF DC 


88 


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LDD t88 GET LO-RES SCREEN PRINT POSITION 


31F1 34 


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00930 


P9HS 8 


31F3 44 




00940 


LSRA 


31F4 36 




00950 


RORB 


51F5 54 




00960 


LSR8 


51F6 54 




00970 


LSRB 


51F7 54 




00980 


LSR8 


51F8 54 




00990 


LSRB 


51F9 86 


tc 


01000 


LDA HOC 


51FB 3D 




01010 


HUL 


51FC B6 


20 


01020 


LDA 1120 


51FE 3D 




01030 


njl 


51FF IF 


01 


01040 


TFR D t X 


5201 35 


04 


01050 


PULS 8 


5203 C4 


IF 


01060 


AND6 IMF 


5205 3A 




01070 


A8X 



NO MATTERS* 

CONNECT TO L 

...STAFTT V^ft 

CC-1 INTERS 



M-.-VOUL 



w 




v 

SOLDEfiLESS CONNECTORS 
PROVIDE EASY ACCESS V 
AU C<^oJ3US SIGNALS 

■HIGH QUALfT¥|J?C 
BOARD CONSTRUCTION 

m FUCtY ASSEMBLED 
AND TESTED S 

-DEALERSHIP INQUIRIES 
INVITED 



-QUANTITY DISCOUN 
AVAILABLE 




A 

TO ORDER SEND $34— +$1.50 SHIPPING*" TO: 

Micro Script, Inc. box 265 Randolph, n.y 14772 

*LC. BREADBOARD NOT INCLUDED 
**NY STATE RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



3206 DC 


BC 




oioeo 


LDD IBC 






S208 30 


8B 




01090 


LEAX D,I 






S20A 39 






01100 


RTS 












01105 » PRINT CHARACTER IN Hl-flES t 


S208 C6 


03 




OHIO 


LDB l$03 






S20D 4F 






01120 


CLRA 






520E 20 


07 




01130 


BRA $5217 






5217 






01140 


0R6 $5217 






5217 A7 


00 




01150 


STA 0,1 CLEAR AREA ABOVE CHARACTER 


5219 30 


88 


20 


01160 


LEAI $20,1 






521C 5A 






01170 


DECB 






521D 26 


F8 




01180 


BNE $5217 






521F C6 


07 




01 190 


LDB 1107 






5221 A6 


AO 




01200 


LDA ,Yf 






5223 20 


05 




01210 


BRA $522A 






522A 






01220 


0R6 $522A 






522A A7 


00 




01230 


STA 0,1 Cim AREA BELOW CHARACTER 


522C 30 


B8 


20 


01240 


LEAX $20,1 






522F 5A 






01250 


DEC8 






5230 26 


Ef 




01260 


BNE $5221 






5232 B6 


OO 




01270 


LDA $$00 






5234 A7 


00 




01280 


STA $0, I 






5236 A7 


B8 


20 


01290 


STA $20, X 






5239 39 






01300 


RTS 












01305 t BACKSPACE ROUTINE t 




523A 17 


FFB2 


01310 


LBSR $51EF 






523D 30 


IF 




01320 


LEAX -1,X 






523F 31 


BD 0126 


01330 


LEAY $5369,PCR 




5243 BD 


C6 




01340 


BSR $5208 






5245 16 


FF81 


01350 


LBRA $51C9 












01355 f START OF CHARACTER DATA • 


3248 




41 




01360 


FCB 


141 


5249 




18 




01370 


FCB 


118 


524A 




3C 




01380 


FCB 


(3C 


524B 




66 




01390 


FCB 


166 


524C 




66 




At AAA 

01400 


era 

FCB 


966 


524D 




7E 




01410 


FCB 


(7E 


324E 




66 




Al I1A 

01420 


FCB 


166 


524F 




66 




Al ATA 

01430 


FCB 


♦66 


5250 




42 




01440 


FCB 


142 


5251 




7C 




A 1 A VA 

01499 


FCB 


(7C 


5252 




66 




01440 


FCB 


(66 


5253 




66 




01470 


FCB 


144 


5254 




7C 




01480 


FCB 


(7C 


5255 




66 




01490 


FCB 


t66 


5256 




66 




01300 


FCB 


(66 


5257 




7C 




01310 


FCB 


I7C 


5258 




43 




01320 


FCB 


(43 


5259 




3C 




01330 


FCB 


(3C 


525A 




66 




01540 


FCB 


(66 


525B 




60 




01550 


FCB 


(60 


525C 




60 




01560 


FCB 


(60 


523D 




60 




01570 


FCB 


(60 


525E 




66 




01580 


FCB 


(66 


525F 




3C 




01590 


FCB 


(X 


5260 




44 




01400 


FCB 


(44 


5261 




78 




01610 


FCB 


(78 


5262 




6C 




01620 


FCB 


(6C 


5263 




66 




01630 


FCB 


(66 


5264 




66 




01640 


FCB 


(66 


5265 




66 




01650 


FCB 


(66 


5266 




6C 




01660 


FCB 


(6C 


5267 




78 




01670 


FCB 


(78 


5268 




45 




01680 


FCB 


(45 


5269 




7E 




01690 


FCB 


(7E 


526A 




60 




01700 


FCB 


(60 


526B 




60 




01710 


FCB 


(60 



94 the RAINBOW November 1983 



49AP 
diOL 


7P 

/L 


Al 79A 
01 /lO 


CPD 47P 

rLfl l/L 


49m 


60 


A 1 71 A 
01/dO 


crn aia 
rto 160 


49AC 


AA 
60 


Al 7JA 
01 MO 


CPD 41A 

rto 160 


49AF 

□*or 


/t 


Al 74A 
01 /DO 


CPU 47C 


497A 

d*/0 


1A 
^0 


AI7AA 
01/60 


CPD Ail 

rLo 146 


4971 
di/l 


7C 
ft 


Al 77A 
01 //O 


CPD A7C 

rLo wft 


4979 
Jilt 


AA 
Ov 


Al 7QA 

01 /oO 


CPD 41A 

rto 160 


4977 

dl/ d 


AA 
60 


AI70A 

01 /YO 


CPD 41A 

rto 160 


4971 
diM 


7P 

/L 


Al OAA 

OloOO 


rto l/L 


4974 


1A 

60 


Al 01 A 

OlolO 


Flo $60 


497A 
di/O 


AA 
60 


AIQ9A 
OlOlO 


CPD A1A 

FLU 160 


4977 

Jit/ / 


AA 
Ov 


A IOTA 
OlOdO 


CPD A1A 

rLo 160 


4970 
d*/0 




A 1 OiA 
01 MO 


CPD A17 

rLfl 14/ 


4970 
d*/7 


IP 

dL 


Al Q4A 
OlOdO 


CPD 47P 

rLo 13L 


497A 
di/n 


AA 
00 


AIOAA 
01060 


CPD 411 

rLfl 166 


497R 

dl/D 


AA 
60 


AIQ7A 
01070 


CPD 41A 

rLfl 160 


497P 

dl/L 


AA 
60 


AIQQA 
OlooO 


CPD A1A 

rLfl 160 


497A 


ot 


AIQOA 

OloYO 


CPD A1C 

rLfl 16c 


497C 
di/t 


00 


Al OAA 

01Y00 


CPD All 

rLfl 166 


497C 


IP 

dL 


AIOI A 

01Y10 


CPD A7P 

rLfl 13L 


4 90 A 

d*oO 


10 


AI09A 
01Y*0 


CPD AJO 

rLfl 14o 


4901 
dlOl 


00 


A IOTA 
OlYdO 


CPD All 

rLfl 166 


4909 
dlOl 


11 
00 


AlOiA 
01Y40 


CPD All 

rLfl 166 


4901 
dlOd 


11 
00 


AI04A 
OlYdO 


CPD All 

rLfl 166 


4901 


ft 


Al OAA 
01Y60 


CPD A7C 

rLfl 1/t 


4904 

diOd 


AA 
00 


Al 07A 
01 Y/0 


CPD All 

rLfl 166 


4 90 A 


00 


AIOQA 
OlYoO 


CPD All 

rLfl 166 


4907 
d*07 


11 

66 


AIOOA 

01YY0 


CPD All 

rLfl 166 


4900 
d*00 


JO 

4Y 


AOAAA 
0*000 


CPD A A O 

rLfl 14Y 


4900 
d*07 


7P 

dL 


A9AI A 
0*010 


CPD A7P 

rLB 13L 


490A 


1 0 
10 


A9A9A 
0*0*0 


CPD A 1 0 

rLfl llo 


400D 
d*OB 


1 0 
10 


0*030 


TPB AID 

Flo llo 


490P 

d/oL 


1 0 
10 


A9AJA 

0*0W 


CPD A 1 0 

Flo llo 


dZoD 


1 0 
10 


Al)AIA 

0*030 


CPD A 1 0 

rLfl llo 


490C 
d*Ot 


1 0 
10 


A9A1A 
0*060 


CPD A 1 0 

rLfl llo 


49QC 

d*or 


IP 

dL 


A9A7A 
0*0/0 


CPD A7P 

rLfl 13L 


490A 
diYO 




A9AQA 
0*OoO 


CPD 4JA 

rLfl i4fl 


4901 
dlYl 


AA 
06 


A9A0A 
0*0Y0 


CPD AA1 

rLfl 106 


4100 


Al 

06 


All AA 
0*100 


CPD AA1 

FCB 106 


4907 

d*7d 


Al 

06 


A9 1 1 A 
Oil 10 


CPD AA1 

rLB 106 


4 90 J 
d*7^ 


Al 

06 


A9I9A 
0*1*0 


CPD AA1 

rLfl 106 


4904 

d*7d 


Al 

06 


A911A 
0*1 dO 


CPD AA1 

rLfl 106 


4901 
0*76 


ii 
66 


All J A 

0*140 


CPD All 

FLfl 166 


4907 

dl77 


TP 

dL 


A9I4A 
0*1 dU 


CPD A7P 

rLfl idL 


4900 


ID 


A9I1A 
0*160 


CPD AJD 

rLfl 14B 


4900 
0*77 


ii 
66 


AO 1 7A 
021/0 


CPD All 

FCB 166 


490A 


ii 
66 


A9I0A 

0*loO 


CPD All 

FLB 166 


4900 
d^YB 


IP 
61 


A9I0A 

0*1Y0 


CPD A1P 

rLfl 16L 


490P 
dlYL 


70 
/o 


A99AA 
0**00 


CPD A7Q 

rLfl 1/0 


490n 


AP 
6L 


A99I A 
OHIO 


CPD A1P 
FLfl 16L 


490C 
diYt 


11 
66 


A999A 


CPD All 

rLfl 166 


490C 

d*YF 


ll 
66 


0**30 


CPD All 

FCB 166 


49AA 
d*RO 


jp 


A99JA 
02240 


CPD AiP 

FLB 14L 


49AI 


1A 

60 


A994A 
0**dO 


CPD A1A 

FLfl 160 


49A9 


1A 

60 


A991A 

02260 


CPD A1A 

FLfl 160 


49A7 
d*Rd 


1A 

60 


A997A 

022/0 


CPD A1A 

rLfl 160 


49AJ 


1A 

60 


A99QA 

0**oO 


CPD A1A 

rLB 160 


40A4 
dZRd 


1A 

60 


A 000 A 

022Y0 


CPD A1A 

FCB 160 


52A6 


60 


A07AA 
02300 


FCB 160 


52A7 


7E 


02310 


FCB $7E 



49A0 

dlHO 


4D 

Til 


02320 

V£d£V 


FPR I4D 

TLO f7u 




AA 

00 


02330 

V£ddV 


FPR IAA 

rLO f OO 


52AA 


7C 

/ u 


02340 


FCR I7F 

rLD f/t 


^9AR 


7C 

f c 


02350 

VlddV 


FCB I7E 

rLD f/w 


JinL 


00 


023A0 

VldOV 


FTR IAA 

rLD fOO 




AA 

00 


02370 

Vld/ V 


FCR IAA 

rLO fWW 


dlHC 


AA 
00 


02380 

V£dOV 


FPR IAA 
rLD too 


UAF 


AA 

00 


02390 

VfcdTV 


FCR IAA 

rLD fOO 


49RA 

dlOU 


|C 

7C 


09400 


FPR I4F 

rLD f7fc 


49RI 

dlOl 


AA 

00 


09410 

vtl IV 


FPR IAA 
TLO 900 


^9R9 
\JLbL 


7A 
/o 


02420 


FCR I7A 

rLD f/O 


d&Od 


7F 

/ C 


02430 

V£7dV 


FCR I7F 

rLD frC 


d&OO 


7P 
/c 


02440 


FCR I7F 

rLD f/t 


J1DJ 


AA 

WW 


02450 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


■59BA 

d£DO 


AA 

00 


024A0 


FCR IAA 

rLD fOO 


JLDf 


AA 

00 


02470 


FPR IAA 
rLO foo 


d&OO 


IF 


02480 


FCR I4F 
tld for 




7F 

PC 


02490 

v4"Tv 


FCR I7F 

rLD f/t 


49RA 

dlOH 


AA 
00 


02500 

V£dVV 


FCR IAA 
rLO voo 


d&DD 


AA 

00 


02510 

VI d 1 V 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


52RC 


AA 

WW 


02520 

Vfc JAV 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


32RD 


AA 

WW 


02530 

V&wwV 


FCR IAA 

rwD fww 


C9RF 

d&DC 


AA 

00 


02540 

V£d7V 


FPR IAA 
rLO foo 


dior 


7P 
/ c 


09550 

VlddV 


FCR I7F 

rLD f/C 


49PA 

dlLO 


4A 

dV 


A95AA 

V&dOV 


FPR 150 

rLD fdv 


^9PI 


7P 

/L 


02570 

ViJ/V 


FCR I7C 

rLD f/L 


^9P9 

d&Ll 


AA 

00 


02580 

VldwV 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


^9C3 


AA 

00 


02590 

VldTV 


FCR IAA 

rLD f OO 


^9fl 
d^W^ 


7P 

/L 


09A00 
vlOvv 


FCR I7C 

rLD f/L 


d£Ld 


AO 

Ov 


02A10 


FCR IA0 

rLD fOV 


49PA 

d^LO 


AA 
Ov 


A9A9A 


FPR IA0 

rLD fOV 


49P7 

dlL/ 


AA 
00 


A9A7A 

VlOdV 


FPR IA0 

rLD fOv 


49Pfl 

dlLO 


41 


A9A4A 

V&07V 


FCR 151 
rLD fdi 


^9PQ 


dL 


02A50 

VlOdV 


FCR I3C 

rLD fdL 


59TA 


AA 

WW 


02AA0 


FCB IAA 

rwu fww 


^9PR 

d&LO 


AA 

00 


02A70 

VlW/ V 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


^9PP 


AA 

00 


02A80 

v&OOv 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


^9Pn 

JtLU 


7A 
/o 


02A90 

VlWTV 


FCR I7A 

rLD f/w 


^?PF 

d*LC 


AC 

OL 


02700 


FCR IAC 

rLD ftJL 


^9PF 


TA 
dn 


09710 

vt/ IV 


FPR I3A 
rLD fdn 


Jll/v 


■52 

d£ 


02720 


FCR 152 

rLD fdi. 


dll/l 


7C 


02730 

VI/ dV 


FCR I7C 

rLD f/L 


WD? 


AA 

WW 


02740 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


dllf d 


AA 

WW 


02750 

Vi./ dV 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


^9Ai 

d&ll^ 


7P 

/L 


027A0 

V&/OV 


FPR I7P 
TLO f/L 




AP 
OL 


02770 


FCR IAP 

rLD fwL 


JLuQ 


AA 

00 


02780 

VI/ wV 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


5207 

d4V f 


AA 

00 


02790 

v&/ 7v 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


52DR 


53 

WW 


02800 

V4WVV 


FCR 153 

rwD ftiw 


52D9 


wL 


02810 


FCR 13C 

rwD fww 


dll/H 


AA 

00 


A9P9A 
vlOxv 


FPR IAA 

rLD fOO 


49HR 


AA 
Ov 


09830 

VlOdV 


FCR IA0 

rLD fOV 


dll/L 


TP 

dL 


02840 


FCR I3C 

rLD fdL 


49HH 

JLUU 


AA 
vO 


09850 

V^OdV 


FPR I0A 

rLD fvO 




AA 

00 


028A0 

VlwWV 


FCR IAA 

rLD fww 


57DF 


wL 


02870 

Vlw/ V 


FCR I3C 

rLD fwL 


49FA 


4i 

dT 


09880 
v&OOv 


FPR 154 

rLD 9d7 


dlCl 


7F 
/c 


09890 

Vfc07v 


FCR I7F 

rLD f/C 


52E2 


18 


02900 


FCB 118 


52E3 


18 


02910 


FCB $18 



52E4 


18 


02920 


FCB 118 


52E5 


18 


02930 


FCB $18 


52E6 


18 


02940 


FCB $18 


32E7 


18 


02950 


FCB $18 


52EB 


55 


02960 


FCB $55 


52E9 


66 


02970 


FCB $66 


52EA 


66 


02980 


FCB $66 


52EB 


66 


02990 


FCB $66 

1 WW vww 


52EC 


66 


03000 


FCB $66 


52ED 


66 


03010 


FCB $66 


52EE 


66 


03020 


FCB $66 

1 WW vww 


52EF 


3C 


03030 


FCB $3C 

1 WW T¥W 


52F0 


56 


03040 


FCB $56 


52F1 


66 


03050 


FCB $66 


52F2 


66 


03060 


FCB $66 


52F3 


66 


03070 


FCB $66 


52F4 


66 


03080 


FCB $66 


52F5 


66 


03090 


FCB $66 

1 WW tWW 


52F6 


3C 


03100 


FCB $3C 

1 WW fVW 


52F7 


18 


03110 


FCB $18 


52F8 


57 


03120 


FCB $57 


52F9 


66 


03130 


FCB $66 


52FA 


66 


03140 


FCB $66 


52FB 


66 


03150 


FCB $66 


52FC 


66 


03160 


FCB $66 


52FD 


7E 


03170 


FCB $7E 


52FE 


7E 


03180 


FCB $7E 


52FF 


66 


03190 


FCB $66 


5300 


58 


03200 


FCB $58 


5301 


66 


03210 


FCB $66 

1 WW www 


5302 


66 


03220 


FCB $66 


5303 


3C 


03230 


FCB $3C 


5304 


18 


03240 


FCB $18 


5305 


3C 


03250 


FCB $3C 


5306 


66 


03260 


FCB $66 


5307 


66 


03270 


FCB $66 


5308 


59 


03280 


FCB $59 


5309 


66 


03290 


FCB $66 


530A 


66 


03300 


FCB 166 


530B 


3C 


03310 


FCB $3€ 


530C 


18 


03320 


FCB 118 


530D 


18 


03330 


FCB $18 


530E 


18 


03340 


FCB $18 


530F 


18 


03350 


FCB $18 


5310 


5A 


03360 


FCB $5A 


5311 


7E 


03370 


FCB $7E 


5312 


06 


03380 


FCB $06 


5313 


OC 


03390 


FCB $0C 


5314 


18 


03400 


FCB $18 


3315 


30 


03410 


FCB $30 


5316 


60 


03420 


FCB $60 


5317 


7E 


03430 


FCB $7E 


5318 


30 


03440 


FCB $30 


5319 


3C 


03450 


FCB I3C 


531 A 


66 


03460 


FCB $66 


5318 


6E 


03470 


FCB $6E 


531C 


7E 


03480 


FCB $7E 


531D 


76 


03490 


FCB $76 


531E 


66 


03500 


FCB $66 


331F 


3C 


03510 


FCB $3C 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 95 



3320 


31 


03520 


FCB $31 


3321 


18 


03530 


FCB $18 


3322 


38 


03540 


FCB $38 


3323 


18 


03550 


FCB $18 


3324 


18 


03560 


FCB $18 


3323 


18 


03570 


FCB $18 


5326 


18 


03380 


FCB $18 


3327 


3C 


03590 


FCB $3C 


3328 


32 


03600 


FCB $32 


3329 


3C 


03610 


FCB $3C 


332A 


64 


03620 


FCB $66 


332B 


06 


03630 


FCB $06 


332C 


OC 


03640 


FCB $0C 


332D 


18 


03650 


FCB $18 


332E 


30 


03660 


FCB $30 


532F 


7E 


03670 


FCB $7E 


3330 


33 


03680 


FCB $33 


3331 


3C 


03690 


FCB $3C 


3332 


66 


03700 


FCB $66 


5333 


06 


03710 


FCB $06 


5334 


1C 


03720 


FCB $1C 


5335 


06 


03730 


FCB $06 


5336 


66 


03740 


FCB $66 


5337 


3C 


03750 


FCB $3C 


5338 


34 


03760 


FCB $34 


5339 


OE 


03770 


FCB $0E 


533A 


IE 


03780 


FCB $1E 


533B 


36 


03790 


FCB $36 


533C 


66 


03800 


FCB $66 


533D 


7E 


03810 


FCB $7E 


533E 


06 


03820 


FCB $06 


533F 


06 


03830 


FCB $06 


5340 


35 


03840 


FCB $35 


5341 


7E 


03850 


FCB $7E 


5342 


60 


03860 


FCB $60 


5343 


7C 


03870 


FCB $7C 


5344 


06 


03880 


FCB $06 


5345 


06 


03890 


FCB $06 


5346 


66 


03900 


FCB $66 


5347 


3C 


03910 


FCB $3C 


534B 


36 


03920 


FCB $36 


5349 


3C 


03930 


FCB $3C 


534A 


66 


03940 


FCB $66 


5348 


60 


03950 


FCB $60 


534C 


7C 


03960 


FCB $7C 


534D 


66 


03970 


FCB $66 


534E 


66 


03980 


FCB $66 


534f 


3C 


03990 


FCB $3C 


5350 


37 


04000 


FCB $37 


5351 


7E 


04010 


FCB $7E 


5352 


06 


04020 


FCB $06 


5353 


06 


04030 


FCB $06 


5354 


OC 


04040 


FCB $0C 


5355 


18 


04050 


FCB $18 


5356 


30 


04060 


FCB $30 


5357 


60 


04070 


FCB $60 


5358 


38 


04080 


FCB $38 


5359 


3C 


04090 


FCB $3C 


535A 


66 


04100 


FCB $66 


535B 


66 


04110 


FCB $66 



96 the RAINBOW November 1983 



535C 


3C 


04120 


FCB $3C 


5350 


66 


04130 


FCB $66 


535E 


66 


04140 


FCB $66 

1 vv fBB 


535F 


3C 

wW 


04190 


FCB $3C 

rww fww 


5360 


39 


04160 


FCB $39 


5361 


3C 


04170 


FCB $3C 


5362 


66 

SB 


04180 


FCB $66 

1 WB fB9 


5363 

JvBv 


66 


04190 


FCB $66 

r ww fou 


5364 


3E 


04200 

V14VV 


FCB $3E 


5365 

JvBJ 


06 

VB 


04210 


FCB $06 

r wb fw 


1MB U' 


66 


04220 


FCB $66 

1 WW fWW 


5367 


3C 


04230 


FCB $3E 


5368 


20 


04240 


FCB $20 


5369 


00 


04250 


FCB $00 

1 WB WV 


536A 


00 


04260 


FCB $00 

r wb wv 


536B 


00 

vv 


04270 


FCB $00 

r wb wv 


536C 


00 


04280 


FCB $00 


536D 


00 


04290 


FCB $00 

1 WV f vv 


536E 


00 


04300 


FCB $00 


536F 


00 


04310 


FCB $00 


5370 

WW/ V 


25 


04320 

V~wfcV 


FCB $25 

iwb v*w 


5371 

WW / 1 


30 


04330 

VtwwV 


FCB $30 

rww f wv 


5372 


4A 


04340 


FCB $4A 


5373 


34 


04350 


FCB $34 


5374 


08 


04360 


FCB $08 

1 WW fVW 


5375 


2C 


04370 


FCB $2C 


5376 


52 


04380 


FCB $52 


5377 


OC 


04390 


FCB $0C 

1 WW WW 


5378 


27 


04400 


FCB $27 


5379 


18 


04410 


FCB $18 


537A 


18 


04420 


FCB $18 


537B 


18 


04430 


FCB $18 


537C 

WW/ w 


vv 


04440 


FCB $00 

r wb wv 


537D 

ww / V 


00 

vv 


04450 

vnwv 


FCB $00 

iwb wv 


537E 


00 


04460 


FCB $00 

1 WW f w 


537F 


00 


04470 


FCB $00 

1 WW wv 


5380 


2A 


04480 


FCB $2A 


5381 


10 


04490 


FCB $10 


5382 

www* 


54 


04500 


FCB $34 


1 5393 


38 


04510 


FCB $38 

1 WW fvu 


I 5384 


38 


04520 


FCB $38 

1 WW WW 


5385 


54 


04530 


FCB $54 


5386 


10 


04540 


FCB $10 


5387 


00 


04550 


FCB $00 


5388 


3A 

wn 


04560 


FCB $3A 

iwb fwn 


5389 

www 7 


00 

VV 


04570 


FCB $00 

r wb wv 


538A 


18 


04580 


FCB $18 


538B 


18 


04590 


FCB $18 


538C 

wwwW 


00 


04600 


FCB $00 

1 WW wv 


538D 


18 


04610 


FCB $18 


538E 

WWWW 


18 


04620 


FCB $18 


538F 

wwwr 


00 


04630 


FCB $00 

r ww wv 


5390 


3F 


04640 


FCB $3F 


5391 


3C 


04650 


FCB $3C 

1 WW fVW 


5392 


66 


04660 


FCB $66 

1 WW fBB 


5393 


06 


04670 


FCB $06 

1 WW WW 


5394 


OC 


04680 


FCB $0C 

1 WW WW 


5395 


18 


04690 


FCB 118 


5396 


00 


04700 


FCB $00 


5397 


18 


04710 


FCB $18 



3398 


2D 


04720 


FCB $20 


3399 


00 


04730 


FCB $00 


339A 


00 


04740 


FCB $00 


339B 


00 


04750 


FCB $00 


339C 


7E 


04740 


FCB $7E 


339B 


00 


04770 


FCB $00 


339E 


00 


04780 


FCB $00 


339F 


00 


04790 


FCB $00 


33A0 


2E 


04800 


FCB $2E 


33A1 


00 


04810 


FCB $00 


33A2 


00 


04820 


FCB $00 


33A3 


00 


04830 


FCB $00 


33A4 


00 


04840 


FCB $00 


33A3 


00 


04850 


FCB $00 


53A4 


60 


04840 


FCB $40 


33A7 


40 


04870 


FCB $40 


33A8 


2C 


04880 


FCB $2C 


33A9 


00 


04890 


FCB $00 


33AA 


00 


04900 


FCB $00 


33AB 


00 


04910 


FCB $00 


33AC 


00 


04920 


FCB $00 


33AB 


08 


04930 


FCB $08 


33AE 


18 


04940 


FCB $18 


33AF 


30 


04950 


FCB $30 


33B0 


41 


04940 


FCB $41 


33B1 


30 


04970 


FCB $30 


33B2 


48 


04980 


FCB $48 


33B3 


7B 


04990 


FCB $78 


53B4 


48 


05000 


FCB $48 


33B5 


48 


05010 


FCB $48 


S3B4 


42 


03020 


FCB $42 


33B7 


70 


03030 


FCB $70 


33B8 


48 


05040 


FCB $48 


33B9 


70 


05050 


FCB $70 


33BA 


48 


05040 


FCB $48 


33BB 


70 


05070 


FCB $70 


33BC 


63 


05080 


FCB $43 


33BD 


30 


05090 


FCB $30 


33BE 


48 


05100 


FCB $48 


33BF 


40 


05110 


FCB $40 


33C0 


48 


05120 


FCB $48 


33C1 


30 


05130 


FCB $30 


33C2 


64 


05140 


FCB $44 


33C3 


70 


05150 


FCB $70 


53C4 


28 


05140 


FCB $28 


53C3 


28 


05170 


FCB $28 


53C4 


28 


05180 


FCB $28 


33C7 


70 


05190 


FCB $70 


33C8 


43 


05200 


FCB $43 


33C9 


78 


05210 


FCB $78 


33CA 


40 


05220 


FCB $40 


33CB 


78 


05230 


FCB $78 


33CC 


40 


05240 


FCB $40 


33CD 


78 


05250 


FCB $78 


33CE 


44 


05240 


FCB $44 


53CF 


78 


05270 


FCB $78 


3300 


40 


05280 


FCB $40 


53D1 


78 


05290 


FCB $78 


3302 


40 


05300 


FCB $40 


33D3 


40 


03310 


FCB $40 



57M 

□01/4 


A7 
0/ 


A579A 
V30XV 


PPfl 4A7 

rto ?o/ 


57n5 

□0U3 


7A 
OV 


A577A 
V300V 


CPU ATA 

rto 900 


57iu 
Douo 


1Q 
40 


A57AA 
V3040 


CPD kiD 

rto ?4o 


57in 

301// 


1A 
4V 


A575A 

v303v 


CPU A j A 

rto 140 


57HP 
30v0 


5fi 
30 


A57AA 
V300V 


PPfl 4^fl 

rto ?30 


57no 

□01/7 


7A 
OV 


A577A 
V30/V 


PPfl 47A 

rto ?0v 


57flA 
□OuH 


Afl 
00 


A57QA 
VjOOV 


PPfl 4Afl 

rto loo 


57Hd 

301/D 


Ifl 
40 


A570A 
V307V 


CPD AIQ 

rto ?4o 


30vt 


Ifl 
40 


A51AA 
V34VV 


CPD kiD 

rto ?4o 


57nn 

30vv 


7Q 
/O 


A51 1 A 
V341V 


CPD A70 

rto ?/o 


57np 
30ut 


Ifl 
40 


A519A 
V34XV 


CPD 410 
rtO 940 


57np 
□our 


Ifl 
40 


A517A 
V340V 


CPD 410 
rtO 940 


57FA 
30tV 


AO 
07 


A511A 
V344V 


CPD 4A0 

rto 90" 


30C1 


7A 


A515A 

V343V 


CPD 47A 

rto 9/v 


57F9 
30LX 


9A 
XV 


A51AA 
V340V 


CPD 49A 

rto 9^0 


57C7 

30t0 


9A 
XV 


V34/V 


CPD A9A 

rto 9Z0 


57F1 

30L4 


9A 

XV 


V340V 


CPD 49A 

rto 9i v 


57F5 

30C3 


7A 

/V 


A519A 
V347V 


CPD 47A 

rto 9/v 


57FA 
30E0 


AA 
OH 


A55AA 

V33VV 


CPD 4AA 
rtO 90R 


57F7 

30 1/ 


Afl 
VO 


AMI A 

v331v 


CPD 4Afl 
rto 9v0 


57C0 
30t0 


Afl 
Vo 


A^^9A 
v33Zv 


CPD 4A0 

rto 90o 


57F0 

30t7 


Afl 
UO 


U330U 


CPD 4A0 

rto 90o 


57CA 
30CH 


ifl 
40 


A^SIA 
U334U 


CPD 410 
rtO 940 


30tD 


7A 
OV 


v333v 


CPD 4TA 

rto 900 


57FP 
30Lt 


Afl 
00 


v33ov 


CPD 4AD 
rtO 900 


57cn 

30LU 


ifl 
40 


ARR7A 

U33/U 


CPD 4iQ 

rto 94o 


57CC 
3 Oct 


5A 
3V 


A^^OA 


CPD 45A 

rto 930 


57CF 

30tr 


AA 
6 V 


ACC0A 


CPD 4AA 

rto 960 


57FA 

3orv 


5A 

3 V 


v30vv 


CPD 4^A 
rtO 93U 


57F1 

30N 


ifl 
40 


A^AI A 


CPD 410 
rtO 940 


57F9 

3orx 


AP 
OL 


A^A9A 


CPD 4AP 

rto 90t 


57F7 

3or o 


1A 
4V 


ARA7A 
v3o Jv 


CPD 41A 
rtO 94V 


57C1 

30M 


1A 
4V 


AE||A 

03640 


CPD AAA 

rto 940 


57C5 

30r3 


1A 
4V 


A^A^A 
U303U 


CPD AAA 

rto 940 


57FA 

3oro 


1A 
4V 


A^AAA 
v300v 


CPD 41A 
rtO 94V 


57F7 

□or / 


7fl 

/O 


ASA7A 
V30/V 


CPD 470 

rto 9/0 


57Ffl 

□oro 


Art 
Ov 


ASAflA 
v300v 


CPD 4An 

rto 90v 


57F0 

□or? 


11 
44 


ARAOA 
U307U 


CPD 411 
rtO 944 


57CA 
DOrn 


IP 
6t 


A^7AA 
03/00 


CPD 4AP 

rto 96t 


57CD 

□oro 


51 
34 


AC71 A 
03/10 


CPD A5A 

rto 934 


57CP 

□ort 


11 
44 


A^79A 

v3/^v 


CPD All 
rtO 944 


57cn 
□oru 


11 

44 


A^7TA 

v3/0v 


CPD 411 
rtO 944 


57CC 

□ore 


AP 


AR71A 
U3/4V 


CPD 4AP 

rto 90c 


57FF 

□orr 


Ifl 
40 


A^7SA 

v3/3v 


CPD 41fl 
rtO 940 


51AA 

34vv 


Afl 
00 


AR7AA 
v3/0v 


CPD 4AQ 

rto 900 


51A1 
34V1 


5fl 
30 


AR77A 

U3/ /V 


CPD A4Q 
rtO 930 


51A9 
34VX 


Ifl 
40 


AR7AA 
V3/0V 


CPD 41fl 
rtO 940 


51A7 

34vo 


Ifl 
40 


AR70A 

U3/7U 


CPD 410 
rtO 940 


51A1 
34V4 


AP 

or 


ARflAA 
v30vv 


CPD 4AC 

rto 9or 


51A5 

34V3 


7fl 

/O 


ARfll A 
v301v 


CPD 470 

rto 9/0 


51AA 
34V0 


Ifl 
40 


ARA9A 


CPD 410 
rtO 940 


51A7 

34 V/ 


Ifl 
40 


ARflTA 
v300v 


CPD 410 
rtO 940 


51AA 
34V0 


Ifl 
40 


ARfllA 
U304U 


CPD 410 
rtO 940 


51A0 
34V7 


7fl 

/O 


ARflRA 
v303v 


CPD 470 

rto 9/0 


51AA 
34VH 


7A 


ARflAA 
v300v 


CPD 47A 

rto 9/v 


51AD 
34V0 


7A 

/V 


A^07A 
030/0 


CPD 47A 

rto 9/v 


51AP 
34Vt 


Ifl 
40 


vjOOv 


cro A1Q 
rtO 940 


51ATI 
34VU 


7A 
/V 


U307U 


CPD 47A 

rto 9/v 


CI AT 

D40t 


AA 
40 


ACQAA 

05V00 


rto 94t 


540F 


40 


05910 


FCB $40 



SUA 
3^1 v 


71 
/ 1 


A599A 
VJ7XV 


PPfl 471 

rto ?/i 


511 1 
3^1 1 


7A 
OV 


A597A 

V370V 


PPD 47A 

rto 90V 


511 9 
3" 1 L 


Ifl 

40 


A591A 
V374V 


PPD 41fl 
rtO 940 


5117 
3410 


Ifl 
40 


A595A 


CPD 41fl 
rtO 940 


5111 


5fl 

□0 


A59AA 
V370V 


PPfl 45fl 
rtO 930 


5115 


71 

04 


A597A 

V37/V 


PPD 471 
rtO 904 


511A 
3410 


79 

/ X 


A59AA 


PPR 479 
rto v/x 


5117 

□41 / 


7A 

/V 


A5Q9A 
V377V 


PPD 47A 

rto 9/v 


51 Ifl 
□410 


Ifl 
40 


AAAAA 
VOVVV 


PPD 41fl 
rtO 940 


5110 
□417 


7A 

/V 


AAA1 A 
V0V1V 


PPD 47A 

rto 9/v 


541A 


50 

Jv 


AAA9A 
vovxv 


PPR 45A 
ruo ?jv 


51 1R 


Ifl 

40 


AAA7A 
vovov 


PPD 410 
rto ?40 


511P 

341L 


77 

/O 


AAA1A 
V0V4V 


PPD 477 

rto ?/o 


511T) 
3411/ 


70 
00 


AAA5A 
V0V3V 


PPD 47fl 

rto voo 


511 P 
□41 1 


1A 
4V 


AAAAA 
VOVOV 


PPD 41A 
rtO 94V 


51 IP 

□4ir 


7A 
OV 


AAA7A 
VOV/V 


PPD 47A 
rtO 90V 


519A 
□4aV 


Afl 
vo 


AAAAA 
VOVOV 


PPR 4AA 
rto ?vo 


5191 
34&1 


7A 

/V 


AAA9A 

V0V7V 


PPR 47A 
rto VrV 


5199 
□4^^ 


71 

/4 


AA1AA 
V01VV 


PPR 471 

rto 9/4 


5197 
□4Z0 


7P 

/t 


AA1 1 A 
V01 IV 


PPR 47P 
rto 9/t 


5191 
□4^4 


1 A 
IV 


AA1 9A 
V01 XV 


PPR 41 A 

rto 9iv 


5195 
34x3 


1A 
IV 


AA1 7A 
V010V 


PPR 41 A 

rto 9iv 


519A 
□4X0 


1 A 
IV 


AA14A 
V014V 


PPR 41 A 
ruo viv 


5197 

□41/ 


1A 
IV 


AA1 5A 

VOl Jv 


PPR 41 A 
rto ?iv 


5190 
□4X0 


75 

/□ 


AA1 AA 
V010V 


PPR 475 

rto ?/□ 


5190 
□4X7 


Ifl 
40 


AA17A 
VOl /V 


PPR 410 

rto ?40 


519A 
34XH 


10 
40 


AA10A 
V010V 


PPR 41fl 
rtO 940 


519D 
34x0 


Ifl 
40 


AA19A 
V017V 


CPR 41fl 
rtO 940 


519P 
34xt 


Ifl 
40 


AA9AA 
VOXVV 


CPR 41fl 
rtO 940 


519n 
34X1/ 


7ft 

/O 


AA91A 
V0X1V 


PPR 470 

rto v/o 


519P 
□4xt 


7A 
/ 0 


AA99A 
VOXXV 


PPR 47A 

rto ?/o 


519P 
34Xr 


11 

44 


AA97A 
voxov 


PPR 411 
rtO 944 


517A 

340V 


11 

44 


AA91A 
V0X4V 


PPR 411 
rtO 944 


5171 
3401 


11 

44 


AA95A 
VOxjV 


PPR 411 
rtO 944 


5179 
340X 


9fl 
XO 


AA9AA 
VOXOV 


PPR 49A 

rto 9xo 


5177 

□400 


1A 

IV 


AA97A 

VOX/ V 


PPR 41 A 
no 9iv 


5171 

□404 


77 

/ / 


AA9AA 
voxov 


PPR 477 
ruo 9/ / 


5475 

U40u 


44 

44 


0A990 

vOX7v 


PPR 444 

TLD 944 


517A 
□400 


11 

44 


AA7AA 
VOOVV 


PPR 411 
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5177 

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517fl 
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5179 

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517D 
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PPR 411 
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517P 
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PPR 49A 
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5170 
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AA77A 
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517P 
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PPR 49A 
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517P 

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11 

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AA79A 

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PPR 411 

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511A 
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70 


AA1AA 
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PPR 479 

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5111 
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11 

44 


AA11 A 
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PPR 411 

rtO 944 


5119 
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9fl 
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AA19A 
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PPR 490 

rto 9xo 


5117 

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5111 

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5445 

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544P 

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544F 

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5450 

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5451 
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PPR 470 
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5452 

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91 

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0A5P0 

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PPR 491 
rto 9xi 


5457 
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0A590 

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PPR 410 
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5454 

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70 

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PPR 47A 

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5455 

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54 5 A 


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5457 


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PPR 47A 

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545P 

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99 

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0AA40 

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CPR 499 
rto 9xx 


5459 

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0AA50 

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545A 

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545D 

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545F 


70 

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0A710 

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54A0 

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54AA 

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5487 


30 


07110 


FCB »30 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 99 



5488 


12 


07120 


FCB 112 END OF DATA 






07126 * ROUTINE TO PREVENT THE ERAS 


S489 C6 


05 


07130 


LDB 1105 


548B E7 


8D FD91 


07140 


9TB I5220.PCR 


S48F 17 


FD79 


07150 


L89R I520B 


5492 C6 


07 


07160 


LDB H07 


S494 E7 


8D FD88 


07170 


STB 15220, PCR 


S498 C6 


03 


07180 


LDB H03 


S49A 39 




07190 


RTS 






07195 * SCREEN REVERSAL ROUTINE * 


549B 8E 


0600 


07200 


LDK 110600 


S49E A6 


00 


07210 


LDA 0,X 


54A0 43 




07220 


com 


S4A1 A7 


80 


07230 


STA 


S4A3 8C 


1E00 


07240 


CHPX tflEOO 


S4A6 26 


F6 


07250 


BNE I549E 


54A8 39 




07260 


RTS 






07265 i U.S. HAP 9T0RA8E ROUTINE f 


S4A9 108E 6000 


07270 


LDY 116000 


S4AD 8E 


13A6 


07280 


LDX H13A6 


S4B0 5F 




07290 


CLRB 


S4B1 A6 


85 


07300 


LDA B,X 


S4B3 SC 




07310 


INCB 


S4B4 A7 


AO 


07320 


STA 


S4B6 C! 


14 


07330 


CHPB 1124 


54B8 2D 


F7 


07340 


BLT I54B1 


S4BA C6 


20 


07350 


LDB 1120 


S4BC 3A 




07360 


m 


54BD 8C 


1C86 


07370 


CHPX M1C86 


S4C0 2D 


EE 


07380 


BLT I54B0 


54C2 39 




07390 


RTS 






07395 i U.9. HAP RESTORE ROUTINE * 


S4C3 108E 6000 


07400 


LDY 116000 


S4C7 8E 


13A6 


07410 


LDX M13A6 


MCA 5F 




07420 


CLRB 


S4CB A6 


AO 


07430 


LDA ,Y* 


S4CD A7 


85 


07440 


BTA B,X 


54CF 5C 




07450 


INCB 


S4D0 CI 


14 


07460 


CHPB M14 




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54D2 2D 


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07470 


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54D4 C6 


20 


07480 


LDB M20 


5406 3A 




07490 


Ail 


S4D7 8C 


1C86 


07S00 


CHPX M1C86 


54DA 2D 


EE 


07510 


BLT I54CA 


54DC 39 




07520 


RTS 




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Listing 2 

10 ' WARGAME 

20 ' WAR ROOM DRAWING 

30 PCLEAR4 : PM0DE4 , 1 : PCLS : P0KE654 

95 , O : DEFUSR0-&H5 1 20 : DEFUSR 1 -&H5 1 

41ICLS0: A-USR1 (O) :PRINT<I70, "w«r" 

f : PRINTH74, "room"! :PRINT«79, "bmi 

ng " | : PR I NT985 , " dr awn " I : A-USRO < O ) 

:A-. 708333333 

40 READB , C: I FB— 1 ANDC— 1 THEN360E 
LSE I FB-99ANDC-99THEND-0 : E-0 : GOTO 
40 

50 C-192-< <C+SGN(C)*(ABS(C/8)+AB 
3<C*C/150> > ) /l. l#A+96> :B-B»15*A: 
I FD-OANDE-OTHEND-B : E-C: G0T040ELS 
ELINE <D, E) - (B, C) , P9ET: D-B: E-C: GO 
T040 

60 DATAO, 25, .5,25, .75,21, .83,22, 

1. 15,8, 1.4, 10, 1.4, 15. S, 1.9,22,2, 

22,2. 1,23,2. 16,20,2.3, 19 

70 DATA2.3, 15.2,2.5, 15.8,2.6, 11, 

2.56,8.5,2.65,8.7,2.74,3,2.9,6,2 

.7,7,2.65, 11 

80 DATA2. 74, 13,2.83, 12.5,2.83, 11 
,3, 10.5,3,8,3.3, 11.5,3.32, 14,3. 1 
5, 18,3. 1,20.5,3.23,22,3.38,22,3. 
56, 23, 3. 65, 23. 5,4, 25. 5, 4, 26. 5, 4. 
13,29 

90 DATA 4.11,31.5,3.95,36,4.2,37 
.5,4.05,38,3.9,37.2,3.77,40,3.87 
,40,4. 1,41,4. 1,39.5,4.35,40,4.35 
,38,4.5,38,4.44,35,4.6,36,4.6,37 
.5,4.54,38.5 

100 DATA4.8,43,4.95,42.8,5.4,49, 
5.47,52,5.47,53,5.4,54,5. 15,53.5 
,5.57,59.7,5.95,59.5,5.97,60,6. 1 
5,59,6.32,59.7,6.3,60,6.5,62,6.7 
5,62.3,6.75,60.5,6.9,62,6.9,61,6 
.45,56,6.5,51,6.6,52,6.67,53,6.8 
,53,6.8,58,6.9,60,7.45,60,8,62.5 
110 DATA7.72,65,7.9,64.6,8.05,65 

■ 5 f 8 ■ 25 « d)5 ■ 8 j 8 ■ 5 ■ 6 A ■ 8 ■ 8 ■ 5 ■ 65 ■ 3 • 8 

■ 65 « 65 ■ 3 $ 8 ■ 5 j 66 ■ 7 « 8 ■ A « 66 ■ 6 « 8 ■ 38 ^ 
67.2,8. 13,68,7.4,70,7.5,68.5,7.3 
5,68,7.28,69.5,6.7,69.5,6.7,71,6 
.2,71,6,71.5,5.35,72 

120 DATA5. 37, 70, 4. 9, 70, 4.85, 69, 4 



100 the RAINBOW November 1983 



.6,71.5,3.5,73.5,3,72,3.5,75,3.4 
8, 76. 5, 3. 15, 76. 5, 3, 77. 5, 2. 73, 77, 
2.75,76.5,2,75.5, 1.7,74.5, 1.7,74 
, 1.47,74, 1.47,73, . 6 , 73. 3, . 5, 71 . 5 
, .5,69,0,70 

130 DATA99, 99, 11,69, 10.45,70,9.5 

5,71,9. 15,70,9. 1,69,8.95,69,8.9, 

68.5,9. 1,67.5,9.2,67.5,9.2,66.5, 

9.07,66.5,9.05,67,8.85,66.3,8.8, 

66.2,8.9,65.5,9.2,65.7,9.3,66,9. 

35,64.5,9.27,64.5,8.9,62,9,60.5, 

9.2,60,9.25,60,9.3,60.5 

140 DATA9.3,58.5,9.4,59,9.55,58. 

5,9.5,57,9.2,55,9,54,9.48,56,9.7 

5, 59, 9. 75, 60, 9. 95, 61 . 5, 9. 8 , 60. 5, 

9.8,59.3, 10.2,61, 10.35,61, 10.4,6 

0, 10.65,59.5, 10.9,58.5, 11,59, 11. 

1,59, 11.45,51.5, 11.8,50.5, 11.85, 

49.5, 11.7,49.5, 11.75,47 

150 DATA11.7, 42. 5, 11.77,38.5, 11. 

85,37.5, 12,35, 12.2,34, 12.35,29, 1 

2.4,28.5, 12.45,27, 12.42,27, 12.42 

, 27. 5, 12. 5, 25, 12. 55, 24, 12. 6, 22. 5 

, 12.67,23, 12.55,25.5, 12.4,30, 12. 

38, 32, 12. 48, 32, 12. 51 , 30, 12. 75, 26 

, 12.75,25, 12.92,22, 13, 19, 13.3, 16 

.5 

160 DATA13. 6, 16, 13.7, 16.5, 13.97, 
14, 14, 14, 14. 15, 13, 14.25, 11, 14.25 
, 10.5, 14.47,9, 14.65,8.5, 14.77,9, 
14.77,8, 14.8,7.5, 14.82,5 
170 DATA16. 7,0, 16.6,0, 16.66, 1.5, 
16.62, 1.5, 16.6,5, 16.55,5.5, 16.2, 
6, 15.8, 11, 15.5, 10.5, 15.45, 11.5, 1 
5.3, 11.5, 15.3, 12.5, 14.95, 11.5, 14 
.8,9, 14.77, 10, 14.5, 10, 14.45, 11, 1 
4.47, 15, 14.45, 16, 14. 1, 16, 14.2, 17 
, 14.25,21.5, 14,21.5, 13.95, 19.5 
180 DATA13. 7, 19, 13.6,20, 13.5,23, 
13.55,28, 13.6,30, 13.9,30, 14,29, 1 
4. 1,29, 14,31, 14.35,31, 14.4,30, 14 
.45,30, 14.47,27, 14.55,25, 14.6,25 
, 14.6,27.5, 14.55,31, 14.9,37.5, 14 
.9,38.5 

190 DATA15. 1,40, 15.4,41, 15.37,41 
, 15.34,42, 15.5,44.5, 15.6,46, 15.5 
3,44.5, 15.45,44, 15.8,46, 15.65,46 
, 15.6,49, 15.5,48.5, 15.55,49, 16,4 
9, 16. 1,50, 16.3,50.3, 16.3,52, 16.2 
,52, 16.2,53, 16,53, 15.7,60, 15.6,5 
9.7, 15.6,59, 15.45,59, 15.45,61, 15 
.3,61.5, 14.8,62, 14.8,60 
200 DATA14. 75, 59, 14.8,58, 14.85,5 
6.5, 14.75,55, 14.8,51.5, 14.7,51.5 
,14.65,52.5, 14.65,55, 14.3,56, 13. 
95,57, 13.85,57, 13.85,59, 13.75,59 
, 13.77,62, 14,64.5, 14.2,65.5, 14.5 
5, 66, 14. 5, 68. 5, 14. 35, 69, 14. 25, 67 
, 14.2,68.5, 14,67.5, 13.8,71, 13. 6, 
70, 13.8,68, 12.9,68.5, 12.35,68 



210 DATA12. 4, 69, 11.5,70.5, 11,69, 
99,99 

220 DATA2. 45, 5, 3, -6, 3. 1,-3,2.6,5 
,2.45,5,99,99,3.35, 1,3.4,-2,3.8, 
~2 ■ 5 9 3 • 95 f m 5 9 3 ■ 95 y 5 ■ 5 p 3 ■ 85 3 ■ 3 
5, 1 , 99, 99, 3. 1 , -6. 5, 99, 99 
230 DATA17. 6, 84, 15.5,81, 15.6,80, 
15. 1,79.5, 15.5,76.5, 16,77, 16.55, 
63, 16.75,61, 17. 1,60.5, 17.3,64.5, 
18.3,68.5, 18.7,80, 19. 2, 81 , 17. 6, 8 
4,99,99 

240 DATA24,69,23.6,68.5,23.65,69 
, 23. 25, 68, 23. 25, 67.5, 23, 68, 23. 1 , 
68.5,22.9,68.75,22.95,67,22.7,66 
. 5, 22. 75, 65. 5, 22. 5, 66, 22. 55,65, 2 
2. 15,67,22.6,66.5,22.7,67,21.9,7 
1,21, 69, 20. 75, 64. 5, 20. 4, 63, 20.4, 
58,20.7,59,20.9,56,21. 1,56.5,21. 
15,59,21.25,59.5,21.2,60.5 
250 DATA21.2,62.5,21.47,65,21.7, 
65, 21 . 72, 64. 5, 21 . 45, 63, 21 . 55, 60, 
22,60,21.6,59,21.65,57.5,21.5,58 
, 21 . 4, 55. 5, 20. 7, 55. 5, 20. 75, 57, 20 
. 6, 56. 5, 20. 7, 55, 20. 4,54, 19. 75, 49 
.5, 19.9,46, 19.87,43.5, 19.4,44, 19 
.45,42.5, 19.45,38, 19.55,38.5, 19. 
6,37, 19.85,37.5,20.2,42 
260 DATA20.2,44,20.7,45,20.73,43 
,21. 1,40.5,21.03,39,21. 15,40,21. 




LEARN INTERNATIONAL MORSE CODE! 
Through your home computer and 
the TUTDRCOOE program. 



•Learn letters, numbers, and punctuation. 
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•Flashcard exercises available. 
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Technical Requirements: 
•For use on 16K TRS 80 Color Computers. 
• Extended Basic Not Required. 
•Available Only on Cassette. 

Only $19.95 + $1.50 shipping and handling. 
Send a check or money order to: 

Rabbitt Ware Inc. /^\ 

Rt. 1 Bascomb Road ^SKKS 
Jackson, TIM 38305 



N ovember 1983 the RAINBOW 101 



15,41,21.25,40.5,20.8,45,21,45,2 

1.35,42,21.45,36,21.6,36.5,21.55 

,39,21.8,40,21.85,36,22.45,36,22 

.3,31,21.8,31,21.4,32.5,21.4,30, 

20.8,32.5,20.75,36, 19.85,35, 19.6 

,35.5, 19.45,33, 19.35,29 

270 DATA 19. 15, 28, 18.8,21, 18. 9, 21 

, 18.9, 16, 18.8, 16, 19, 12, 19.5,5,20 

.25,6.5,20.4,5,20.6,5,20.65,4,20 

.6,-1 

280 DATA22.7,-1,23.2,4,23.4, 12,2 
3, 11,22.7, 15,22.2,30,22.25,28.5, 
22.35,29,22.8, 17,22.9, 13,23.7, 17 
. 5, 24, 23,23. 7, 25, 23. 6, 24, 23. 25, 3 
0,23.4,30,23.7,26.5,23.8,27,23.8 
2,26,24,26,99,99 

290 DATA19. 7, 58, 19.6,57, 19.7,54, 
19.77,54, 19.6,51,20.05,52,20. 1,5 
3, 19.8,55, 19.9,57, 19.75,57, 19.8, 
58, 19.7,58,99,99, 19.5,54.5, 19.4, 
54.5, 19.4,51.5, 19.55,52, 19.6,54, 
19.5,54.5,99,99, 18.5,66, 18.4,65. 
5, 18.7,63, 19. 1,64.5, 19,65.5, 18.5 
5,65, 18.5,66,99,99 
300 DATA15. 55, 62, 15.65,64, 15.5,6 
6, 15.9,66, 14.9,74, 14. 1,74, 14,73, 
14.55,71, 14.97,71.5, 15.05,70, 15, 
65, 14.8,65, 14.8,64.5, 15. 1,64.5, 1 
5.55,62,99,99, 15.2,84, 13.75,82, 1 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S 
SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING. 



EASY TO USE 

ON-THE-SCREEN EDITING via cursor. Full prompting. 
Scrolling. Key Beep & Error Beebop. 

PLEASANTLY POWERFUL 

Total communications ability at 110 to 1200 baud. 
Transmit text, graphics, BASIC and Machine Language. 
Save & Load cassette/disk files while on line. Scan/Edit 
current data while receiving more data. Use any modem. 
Fully supports D. C. Hayes & others. Use any printer, 
page size, margins, line spacing. Override narrow text 
width of received data. Imbed printer controls. 

TRULY AUTOMATIC 

Automate almost any communications activity. Dial via 
modem, sign-on, interract, sign-off. Perform an entire 
session. Act as a message taker. Keystroke Multipliers 
may include parameter changes, editing, time delays, 
execution of other multipliers, looping, waiting for 
partially specified responses, and branching based 
upon alternative responses. Self-test mode. rf^h 

32K MEMORY RECOMMENDED 

CASSETTE $39.95 DISKETTE (coming soon) $49.95 

Add $3 Shipping & Handling 
MC/VISA/COD 



PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson. TX 7S080 



Eves. & Weekends: 214/699-7273 
Weekdays: MICRO CONCEPTS 
214/458-0330 



3.85,79, 14.25,79, 13.9,77, 13.6,77 

.3, 13.9,76.5, 13.9,75, 14.6,75, 14. 

65,75.7, 14,76, 14.65,76.5 

310 DATA15, 79, 15.9,83.5, 15.2,84, 

99,99, 13.25,71, 12,74.5, 11.7,74.5 

,11.75,73, 12,73.5, 12.4,70, 13.25, 

71,99,99,5.5,45,5.7,43.5,5.6,42, 

5.45,42.5,5.5,45,99,99,5.4,41,5. 

5,40,5.4,36,4.7,32,4.6,33,5.3,37 

,5.4,41,99,99,5.55,54,5.6,49,5.5 

5,49,5.5,46,5.5,52.5,5.55,54 

320 DATA99,99,2.4,81,2. 1,80.5,2. 

7, 78. 5, 2. 65, 78, 3, 78. 5, 3, 79, 2. 9, 7 

9. 5, 2. 85, 79, 2. 85, 80, 2.4,81 , 99, 99 

,1.4, 10.5, 1.4,7.5, 1.5,7, 1.5,9.5, 

1.4, 10.5,99,99,9.7, 19,9.65, 19,9. 

65, 20, 9. 7, 19, 99, 99, 20. 75, 79, 20. 9 

,78,21.2,78,20.9,77.5,21. 15,77,2 

1.3,78,21.4,78,21.4,77.5 

330 DATA21. 55, 77. 5, 21. 1,79,21.75 

, 79, 21 . 85, 80, 21 . 2, 80, 20. 75, 79, 99 

,99,24,74.5,23.75,73,23.75,72,23 

.8, 71 , 23.5, 71 . 5, 23. 75, 75, 24, 76, 9 

9,99,0,76, .7,77, .7,76.5,0,75,99, 

99,22,47,21.8,42,21.9,41,22.45,4 

2,22.55,41,22.8,41.5,22.8,42.5,2 

2. 55, 45, 22. 65, 47, 22. 3, 46 

340 DATA22.5,45,22.25,45,22. 1,46 

.5,22,47,99,99, 14.4,22.5, 14.55,2 

2.5, 15.05,20, 14.8, 19.5, 14.55,22, 

14.4,22,99,99, 15. 1, 18, 15.4, 18.5, 

15. 1 , 20, 15. 1 , 18, 99, 99, 16. 25, 50, 1 

6.05,47.5, 16.5,47, 16.22,49, 16.25 

,50,99,99 

350 DATA23.5,47.5,23.2,46.7,23. 1 
,45,23.4,40,23.3,37,23.55,35.5,2 
3. 65, 36, 23.6, 40, 23. 7, 39. 5, 23. 65, 
42, 23. 4, 45, 23. 65, 45. 5, 23. 5, 47. 5, 
-1,-1 

360 60T0680 

370 LINE (0,93)- (255, 93) ,PSET: LIN 
E (0,94)- (255, 94) ,PSET 
380 LINE (0,95)- (255, 95) ,PSET 
390 LINE (0, 109) -(255, 109) ,PSET 
400 LINE <207, 110)- <207, 179) , PSET 
410 LINE (207, 179)- (255, 179) , PSET 
420 LINE(207, U9)-(255, 119) , PSET 
430 LINE (O, 179) -(255, 179) , PSET 
440 PR I NTQ256 , STR I NQ* ( 32 , " " ) 
450 Xl=125tYl«52 

460 READX , Y : I F X-99ANDY-99THEN480 
ELSELINE(X1,Y1)-(X,Y) ,PSET: XI -X: 
Y1=Y:80T0460 

470 DATA145, 52, 147,52, 148,51, 147 
,53, 148,56, 149,56, 150,52, 152,53, 
152, 56, 154, 57, 159, 55, 160, 55, 165, 
51,99,99 

480 X1»143:Y1=75 

490 READX, Y: IFX«99ANDY=99THEN510 
ELSELINE (X1,Y1)-(X,Y) ,PSET: X1=X: 



1 02 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



Y1-Y:G0T0490 

500 DATA 140, 72, 139,72, 138,72, 136 
,70, 133,70,99,99 
510 LINE( 1 14,26) -( 114,37) ,PSET 
520 X1-148IY1-51 

530 READX, Y: IFX-99ANDY-99THEN550 
ELSELINE(X1, Y1)-(X,Y) ,PSET:X1-X: 
Y1-Y:Q0T0530 

540 DATA149, 50, 150,50, 151,51, 155 
,52, 153,55,99,99 
550 X1-225IY1-43 

560 READX , Y : I F X -99 AND Y-99THEN580 
ELSELINE<X1,Y1)-(X,Y) ,PSET:X1-X: 
Y1-Y:Q0T0560 

570 DAT A227, 44, 227, 52, 224, 54, 231 
,54,99,99 

580 LINE (235, 24)- (233, 27) ,PSET:L 
I NE ( 233 , 27 ) - < 233 , 36 ) , PSET : L I NE ( 2 
42, 58) - (248, 60) , PSET: LINE (250, 60 
) -(255, 60) , PSET 
590 X1-0IY1-60 

600 READX , Y : I F X -99ANDY-99THEN620 
ELSELINE(X1,Y1)-(X,Y) ,PSET:X1-X: 
Y1=Y:G0T0600 

610 DATA2, 62, 4, 60, 9, 60, 8, 58, 11,5 
7, 12,56, 12,54, 15,54, 16,52, 19,52, 
19,50,27,47,27,45,29,45,31,47,33 
, 48 , 35, 47, 36, 48, 37 , 47 , 40, 47 , 42, 5 
0, 44 , 50, 44, 51 , 52, 49, 51,51, 52, 51 , 
50,53,52,55,99,99 



620 READX , Y : I F X -99 AND Y-99THEN650 

ELSEPSET ( X , Y , 1 ) : G0T0620 

630 DATA238 , 42 , 232 , 40 , 238 ,45, 240 

, 46, 238, 47, 242, 31 , 48, 34, 70, 42, 53 

,53,230,46 

640 DATA99, 27, 107,29, 128,62, 132, 
66, 130,55, 136,61, 142,70, 154,66, 1 
47,58, 126,54,99,99 

650 READX , Y : I F X -99 AND Y-99THEN670 
ELSEPAINT ( X , Y) , 1 , 1 : G0T0650 
660 DATAO, 63, 28,89, 58, 56, 139,75, 
163,91, 119,26, 131,21, 146,24, 152, 
28, 154,20, 154, 12, 171, 12, 199,31,2 
23, 31 , 223, 48, 221 , 56, 235, 56, 228, 5 
6, 228, 62, 235, 61 , 209, 68, 99, 99 
670 PRINT8480, " " 5 : G0T0730 
680 ' 

690 PR I NT«3 14," DEFCON " I : PR I NT835 

0, "5" ; : PRINTQ382, "4" * : PRINTG414, 
"3"| :PRINT8446, " 2 " J : PR I NTH478 , "1 
"I I PR I NTH 480, " "| 

700 LINE (210, 121) -(253, 121) , PSET 
:LINE(253, 121)-(253, 131) ,PSET:LI 
NE(253, 131)-(210, 131 ) , PSET: LINE ( 
210, 131) -(210, 121) , PSET: LINE (234 
, 131 ) - (234, 121 ) , PSET: PAINT (211,1 
22), 1,1 

710 PR I NT9288 , " LAUNCH " ; : PR I NTQ32 

1, "CODE"; : LINE (48, 109) -(48, 179) , 
PSET 



6809 RECORD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM RMS 

DATABASE MANAGEMENT 

RUNS ON THE COLOR WITH FRANK HOGG FLEX 



•USER DEFINED RECORD FORMAT VIA DATA DICTIONARY 
•SCREEN ORIENTED, FORM FILL OUT TYPE OF ACCESS 
•OPTIONAL TWO LEVEL RECORD HIERARCHY 
•ALL FILES IN ASCII TEXT FORMAT, BASIC COMPATIBLE 
•DIRECT ACCESS BY KEY FIELD, MULTIPLE INDEX FILES 
•EXTENSIVE DOCUMENTATION, SAMPLE APPLICATION 
•VERSATILE, PROFESSIONAL QUALITY REPORT WRITER 
•BUILT-IN SORT/MERGE 
•EASY TO USE 



/ 

Ihvf HrORY 




1 custom* * 




| BFCOHOS 






RMS is a complete DATABASE MANAGEMENT package 
for the 6809 computer. It is made up of five machine 
language programs that make up the most powerful 
business programming tool available for the 6809. It can be 
used by the relative novice, to implement an incredible 
variety of information storage and retrieval applications, 
without any programming. However, the programmer can 
use RMS as part of the solution to a larger problem, saving 
many hours of unnecessary program development time. 
RMS can be used to handle data input, editing, validation, 
on-line retrieval, sorting and printed reports. Custom data 
manipulation can be filled in by the user's BASIC programs. 



SINGLE CPU LICENSE 

FLEX* $200 
0S-9 + $250 
UNIFLEX* $300 

TERMS: VISA / MC / PREPAID 



WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES 

3028 SILVERN LANE 
BELLINGHAM, WA 98225 
1 (206) 734-8248 



' F LEX and UMFlEX are trademarks of Technical System Consultants Inc.. + OS 9 it a trademark of Microware 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 03 



720 Q0T0370 

730 PR I NT9393 , " nor ad " : PR I NT9329 , 

CHR*<34) "8c":PRINT«332,CHR*<34) "- 

" : PR I NT«368 , CHR* < 34 ) " * " : PR I NT«40 

3,CHR*<34) "/":X1-68:Y1-112 

740 READX , Y : I F X-99ANDY-99THEN8 1 0 

ELSELINE<X1,Y1)-<X, Y) ,PSET:X1-X: 

Y1-YIB0T0740 

750 DATA 128, 112, 136, 114, 132, 116, 
132, 118, 135, 117, 135, 119, 140, 114, 
140, 116, 145,116, 142, 118,141, 121, 
145, 119, 141, 121, 142, 123, 144, 124, 
148, 123, 148, 119, 150, 117, 152, 118, 
153, 118, 154, 119, 154, 121, 152, 122, 
155, 122, 152, 124 

760 DATA154,125, 162, 124,162, 122, 
165, 122, 166,123, 170, 120, 170, 119, 
174, 117, 178, 117, 180, 112, 181,114, 
183, 111, 185,114, 187, 113, 183, 118, 
184, 120, 181 , 123, 181 , 125, 178, 127, 
178, 129, 175, 131 , 175, 133, 177, 135, 
178, 137, 175, 140 

770 DATA173, 141, 171, 142, 171, 144, 
170, 146, 169, 148, 168, 152, 169, 156, 
170, 158, 173, 161 , 176, 165, 175, 167, 
172, 165, 169, 163, 167, 162, 167, 161 , 
165, 159, 163, 158, 161 , 158, 159, 160, 
157, 158, 147, 158, 148, 160, 149, 158, 
147,161,146, 161,138, 159 




ARCADE! 



JOWST 



Two players can compete against the computer at the same time or against each other 
with ThunderVision's exclusive Head-to-Head mode. OQ QC 

16K Cassette -CO«5fO 

RETURN OF THE JET EYE 

Race your speed cycle through the forest and destroy the dark forces of the enemy 

by ramming them into trees or blasting them to pieces with your phaser. 

16K Cassette 24-35 

TROFF 

Four games in one! TROFF pits man against computer in a desperate game of survival! 
Requires Extended Basic. 

16K Cassette 

XEBEC 

A jet-age dog fight in High Resolution 3-D, Defeat your enemy with lasers and use 
Hyperspace for temporary safety. 
16K Cassette , 



21.95 



21.95 



thunderV/ision 

P.O. Box 3241 w 

Grand Junction, Colorado 81502 

(303) 241-7851 




Dealer Inquiries Welcome 
Pay by check. Money 
Order or COD 



780 DATA135, 159, 130, 160,128, 161, 
126, 162, 126, 164, 125, 166, 126, 168, 
124, 168, 122, 166, 120, 165, 119, 163, 
117, 161, 114, 161, 112, 163, 110, 162, 
108, 160, 104, 159, 100, 159, 100, 160, 
92, 160,80, 157,75, 157,73, 154,70, 1 
53,70, 151,67, 150 

790 DATA65, 145,64, 140,62, 139,64, 
138,62, 135,63, 132,64, 126,65, 120, 
63, 115,62, 113,67, 118,68,118,69, 1 
17,69, 115,68, 112 

800 DATA67, 109,66, 111,64, 111,62, 
109,140, 109, 136, 114, 140,109, 142, 
110, 143, 112, 144, 114, 146, 114, 149, 
115, 153, 115, 155, 116, 156, 118, 156, 
120, 157, 122, 160, 122, 160, 120, 169, 
120,99,99 

810 LINE ( 187, 113)- < 190, 109) ,PSET 
:X1=126:Y1»168 

820 READX , Y : I F X=99ANDY-99THEN840 
ELSELINE<X1,Y1)-<X,Y) ,PSET: Xl-X: 
Y1-Y:80T0B20 

830 DATA128, 169, 128, 170, 126, 171, 
129, 179,99,99 
840 X1-75:Y1-157 

850 READX , Y : I F X-99ANDY-99THEN870 
ELSELINE<X1,Y1 )-<X, Y) ,PSET: Xl-X: 
Y1-Y:G0T0850 

860 DATA76, 163,77, 165,80, 170,80, 
172,78, 172,80, 174,82, 175,83, 179, 
86, 179,85, 175,86, 173, 84, 170,83, 1 
65,82, 162,82, 161,86, 162,89, 163,8 
9, 165,90, 170,92, 175,94, 179,99,99 
870 X1-150:Y1-179 

880 readx , y : i fx =99 and y-99the n900 
elseline(x1,y1)-(x,y) ,pset: xl-x: 
yi=y:boto8BO 

890 DATA152, 177, 154, 176, 156, 176, 
157, 177, 158, 176, 159, 177, 158, 178, 
99,99 

900 X1=166:Y1-174 

910 readx, y: ifx-99andy-99then930 
elseline<x1,y1)-<x,y) ,pset: xl-x: 
yi=y:goto910 

920 DATA168, 173, 171, 172, 175, 172, 

176, 173, 179, 174, 183, 175, 185, 175, 

184, 176, 187, 176, 189, 177, 188, 178, 

178, 178, 180, 177, 176, 176, 173, 175, 

174, 174, 172, 174, 165, 175,99,99 

930 READX, Y: IFX-99ANDY-99THEN950 

ELSEPSET ( X , Y , 1 ) : G0T0930 

940 DATA67, 140,77, 155,76, 118, 105 

, 135, 125, 159, 167, 145, 141 , 125, 72, 

117,99,99 

950 X1-64:Y1-131 

960 READX, Y: IFX-99ANDY-99THEN980 
ELSELINE<X1,Y1)-<X,Y) ,PSET:X1-X: 
Y1-Y:G0T0960 

970 DATA67, 131,70, 133, 122,133, 12 
2, 154, 120, 154, 120, 163,99,99 



104 the RAINBOW November 1983 



980 X1-122IY1-154 

990 READX, Y: I FX -99 AND Y-99THEN 101 

0elseline<x1, y1)-<x,y) ,pset: xl-x 
:yi-y:goto990 

1000 DATA147, 154, 147, 139, 156, 139 
, 162, 133, 169, 117, 169, 1 10, 99, 99 
1010 LINE (169, 117)-(183, 117) ,PSE 
T 

1020 LINE (162, 133) -(174, 133) , PSE 
T 

1030 LINE(122, 110)-(122, 133) ,PSE 
T 

1040 LINE (85, 110) -(85, 133) ,PSET 
1 050 READX , Y : I F X =99 AND Y=99THEN 1 0 
70ELSEL I NE ( X , Y ) - ( X , Y+3 ) , PSET : L I N 
E (X+2, Y) - (X+2, Y+3) , PSET: LINE (X+4 
, Y)-(X+4, Y+3) , PSET: G0T01050 
1060 DATA109, 132, 115, 135,92, 156, 
88,116, 100, 114, 112, 114, 116, 118, 1 
09, 118, 111, 122, 115, 126, 127, 143, 1 
29, 139, 136, 149, 99, 99 
1070 READX, Y: IFX-99ANDY-99THEN10 
90ELSEL I NE ( X , Y ) - ( X +2 , Y-2 ) , PSET : L 
INE ( X+2, Y-2) - ( X+4, Y) , PSET: LINE (X 
+4,Y)-(X,Y) ,PSET:G0T01070 
1080 DATA109,129,73,115,78, 116,7 
O, 140,74, 139,73, 136,78, 153, 113, 1 
56, 114, 150, 120, 145, 119, 133, 118, 1 
16,128, 157, 141, 146, 145, 128, 161, 1 
53,173, 120, 177, 122,99,99 
1090 LINE (105, 138) -(109, 138) , PSE 
T: LINE- (106, 140) , PSET:LINE- ( 107, 
137) , PSET: LINE- (108, 140) ,PSET 
1 1 00 P0KE65494 , O : A-USR 1(0): CLSO : 
PRINT9256," INSERT TAPE TO SAVE 
WAR ROOM PICTURE TO, THEN H 

IT ENTER" : PRINT" 

" I : PRINT9334, ""I 
: I NPUTA* : CSAVEM " WAR ROOM " , 1 536 , 7 
679,20768 



Listing 3 

10 
20 
30 
40 




WAR8AME 
INSTRUCTIONS 



BY TOM WEBER 
50 DEFUSR0-&H5 120: DEFUSR 1 =8cH5 1 4 1 
:CLS:P0KE65495,0 

60 INPUT "DO YOU WANT INSTRUCTION 
S";A*: IFLEFT*(A$, 1)="N"THEN220 
70 M=l 
80 CLS 

90 ONM G0SUB140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 
190,200,210 

1 00 IFM-6THENM-M+ 1 : G0T090 

110 F0RA-1T0LEN(A«) : B*-MID* (A*, A 

, 1 ) : PRINTB*| : POKE 140, 190: POKE 142 



, 2: EXEC43350: NEXT: M-M+l :PRINT:FO 

RX-1T0300:NEXT 

120 IFM< 9THEN90 

130 F0RX»1T0300:NEXT:PRINTSTRINQ 

♦(32, "-") ; :F0RX-1T016: PRINT: FORY 

- 1 TO 1 00 : NE X T Y , X : G0T0220 

140 PRINT913, ""I :A»-"WARGAME":RE 

TURN 

150 A*- "THIS PROGRAM IS A SIMULA 
TION OF OPERATING OUR NORTH AMER 
I CAN DEFENSE (NORAD) COMPLEX IN 
CHEYENNE MOUNTAIN, COLORADO. »: RE 
TURN 

160 A*-" IN ACTUALITY, THIS IS A 
SIMULATION OF A SIMULATION. ONE 
OF A NUCLEAR ATTACK CONDUCTED BY 

NORAD TO TEST PERSONEL AND EQUI 
PTMENT IN THE EVENT OF AN ACTUAL 

NUCLEAR WAR.": RETURN 
170 A*- "THE OBJECT OF THE SIMULA 
TION IS SIMPLE: DISABLE ALL SOVI 
ET BASES BEFORE THEY DISABLE OUR 
S. ": RETURN 

ISO PRINT" "|:A*-"GOOD LUCK, QE 
NERAL. THE PRESIDENT EXPECTS A H 
IGH RATING OF NORAD AS A RESULT 
OF THIS TEST.": RETURN 
1 90 FORX - 1 T05 : PR I NT : FORY- 1 T0200 : 
NEXTY,X: RETURN 

200 PRINT8498, ""I :A*-"THAT IS AL 



VAL 

SYSTEMS 



At Last! 
YOU CAN SORT LARGE FILES 

— PRESENTING — 

VSDSORT 

VSDSORT IS AN EASY TO USE DISK SORT 
UTILITY THAT WILL ALLOW YOU TO SEQUENCE 
LARGE DISK FILES AS YOU WISH. 



• UP TO FIVE KEYS 

• FULL RECORD OR 
TAG OUTPUT 



• MANUAL OR PROGRAM 
CALLABLE/RETURNABLE 

• SINGLE OR MULTI DISK 



EXT. DISK BASIC REQUIRED 

SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER FOR 
$39.95 + 3.00 SHIP/HANDLING TO: 



Y£l\ p m q 15 E ' MOUNTAIN AVENUE 
S V b 1 b M b PEN ARGYL, PA 18072 



NAME 



ADDRESS 
CITY 



STATE 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 105 



L. " : RETURN 

210 PR I NT9500 , " " I : A*- " PENTAGON O 
UT": RETURN 

220 CLSO : PR I NT&231, "SIMULATION B 
EG INS"; 

230 p0ke65494 , o : f0rpm-0t04step2 : 

forsc-oto 1 : screeno , sc : play "vi 503 

l 1 7ev3 1 l2 a " : pmodepm , 1 : screen 1 , sc 

: play " 02v 1 0l90el 1 sc " : for x - 1 t0520 

:nextx,sc,pm 

240 a-usro (o) : screen 1 , 1 

250 P0KE65495,0 

260 A*- "SIMULATION WILL BEGIN SH 

ORTLY " : G0SUB270 : G0T0340 

270 L-LEN (A*) : A-0: B-0 
280 A=A+1 

290 D*-MID*<A*, A, 1) 
300 L*=" 

"+D* 

310 PRINT9256,L*» : A-A+l: IFA>L TH 

ena-l:b-b+i: ifb-32THENRETURN 
320 l*-right*<l*,len<l*)-1)+mid* 

(A*, A, 1) 

330 S0UND200,2:G0T0310 
340 * SHOW BASES 

350 A*-"SOVIET BASES: ":X-0 
: Y-0: G0SUB590 

360 A*- "MOSCOW " : X-23G: Y-42: GOS 
UB590 

370 A*=" LENINGRAD " : X-232: Y-40: 
G0SUB590 

380 A*-" KHARKOV " : X-238: Y-45: GO 
SUB590 

390 A*="VOLOGRAD " : X-240: Y-46: G 
0SUB590 

400 A*-"ROSTOV ": X-238: Y-47: GOS 
UB590 

410 A*- "ARCHANGEL " : X-242: Y-31 : 
G0SUB590 

420 A*- "MINSK " : X -230: Y-46: GOSU 
B590 

430 A*— " KAMCHATKA " : X-70: Y-42: G 
0SUB590 

440 A*- "VLADIVOSTOK ":X-53:Y-53 
: G0SUB590 

450 A*= "YAKUTSK " : X=48: Y-34: GOS 
UB590 

460 A*="U.S. bases: ":X-o:Y- 
O: G0SUB590 

470 A*- "NOME " : X-99 : Y-27 : G0SUB5 
90 

480 A*- "FAIRBANKS " : X-107: Y-29: 
G0SUB590 

490 A*-" SEATTLE " : X-126: Y-54: X2 

-72 : Y2- 117: G0SUB590 

500 A* = "SPOKANE " : X-130: Y-55: X2 

=76: Y2=l 18: G0SUB590 

510 A*="SAN FRANCISCO ":X-128:Y 

-62 : X 2-67 : Y2- 1 40 : G0SUB590 

520 A*="SAN DIEGO " : X-132: Y-66: 



X 2-77 : Y2- 1 55 : G0SUB590 

530 A*- "DENVER " : X-136: Y-6 1 : X2- 

1 05 : Y2- 135: Q0SUB590 

540 At- "HOUSTON " : X-142: Y-70: X2 

- 1 25 : Y2- 1 59 : Q0SUB590 

550 A*-" CHICAGO " : X-147: Y-5G: X2 

-141: Y2- 1 25 : G0SUB590 

560 A*- "CHARLESTON ":X- 154: Y-66 

: X2- 1 67 : Y2- 1 45 : G0SUB590 

570 PRINTQ276, " 

580 G0T0710 

590 L-LEN ( A* ): A-0 : B-0 

600 A-A+l 

610 D*-MID«<A«, A, 1) 
620 L*-" 

"+D* 

630 PRINT9256,L«f 

640 I F Y-OORF 1-1 THEN660ELSE I FPPO I 
NT ( X , Y ) -OTHENPSET ( X , Y , 1 ) ELSEPRES 
ET<X,Y) 

650 I F Y2-0THEN660ELSE I FPPO I NT < X 2 
, Y2) -OTHENPSET <X2, Y2, 1 ) ELSEPRESE 
T<X2, Y2) 

660 A-A+l :IFA>L THENA-L: IF Y-OORF 
1-1 THEN670ELSEPSET ( X , Y , 1 ) ELSE6G0 
670 PRINT8256," 

": IFF1-1THENF1-0: 
RETURNELSE I F Y2-0THENRETURNELSEPS 
ET<X2, Y2, 1) : RETURN 
680 L*-RIGHT*<L*,LEN<L*)-1)+MID* 
(A*, A, 1) 

690 S0UND200,2:G0T0630 
700 PRINTQ4G0, ""J 

710 PR I NTQ480 , " " i : P0KE65494 , O : CL 
DAD ^ 



Listing 4 





. 027C 


1340. . 


. .1707 


225. . . 


. 05B2 


1420. . 


. 19B5 


380. . . 


. 078E 


1460. . 


. 1BB2 


570 


0961 


1520. . 


. 1E85 


735 .. . 


. 0C64 


1670. . 


. .2101 


915. . . 


. 0F53 


1750. . 


. 236A 


1040. . 


. .1162 


1920. . 


. 262D 


1240. . 


. .1490 


END. . 


. .2833 



WARGAME 



10 ' 
20 ' 

30 ' BY TOM WEBER 

40 P0KE65495 , O : G0SUB2020 : G0T090 
50 L-LEN ( A* ) : A-0 : B-0 : A- A+ 1 : D*-M I 
D*<A*,A, 1> :L*-STRING*<31, " " ) +D* 
60 PRINT9256,L*» : A-A+l: IFA>L THE 
NA-L : I FY-OORF 1-1 THEN70ELSEPSET ( X 
, Y , 1 > ELSE80 

70 PRINTQ256, STRING* (32, " " ) : RET 
URN 

80 L*=RIGHT*<L*,LEN<L*)-1)+MID*< 

A*, A, 1 ) : S0UND200, 2: G0T060 

90 SB* < 1 ) -"213778" : SB* <2> -"22378 

4 " : SB* < 3 ) - " 233790 " : SB* < 4 ) - " 24379 

C" : SB* <5) -"3D37A8" : SB-RND <5> : SS- 

SB:RM-RND(2000) 



1 06 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



1 00 UC- 1 0000+RND < 89999 > : CU- 1 0000 
+RND < 89999 ) : PR I NT9383 , UC ; : PR I NTS 
415,CU| :CU*-STR*(CU)+STR*<UC) ICU 
*«R I GHT* ( CU* ,11): CU*-LEFT* ( CU* , 5 
>+RIGHT*<CU*,5> :forsz-itoio:oc*< 
sz)-mid*<cu*,sz, l) :oc<sz)-io:nex 

T:3U-10:US-10:TIMER-0:DIMX1 (50) , 
Yl <50>,X2<50),Y2<50) 

101 P0KE65495 , 0 : G0T0340 
110 * COMPUTER ARC DRAW 

1 20 GOSUB 1 370 : FORX -0T050 : X 1 < X > -O 

: Yl < x ) -o: next: R-o: zm-o: F-o: b-usr 
0(0) :pmode4, l: screen i, i:xx-xi: xo 
-XI: YO-Yl: IFX2<X1 thenr-i: x-xi:y 
-Yl : X1-X2: Y1-Y2: X2-X: Y2-Y: X0-X2: 
Y0-Y2 

130 XI (O)-Xl: Yl <0)-Yl:XF-(Xl+X2) 

/2:yf-(Y1+y2)/2:d-<yi-Y2) :aos-xf 
: xv- aos: yv- < yf+D) /2 

140 g0sub990: ifzm>50thenzm-0 

141 ifzm<0thenzm=50 

145 xm-<x1+xv)/2:ym-<y1+yv)/2:xn 
-<xi+xm)/2:yn-ym:xi <zm)-xi:yi <zm 
) -yl : iff-0thenzm-zm+1elsezm-zm-1 
150 ifint<xn)-int<xv)-2then180 
160 ifint(xn)=int(xv)+3 then 190 
170 xi-xn: yi-yn:gotoi40 

180 ZM-ZM-l: IFZM<OTHENZM-0 

181 IFZM>47THENZM-47 



185 F-l:Xl <ZM)-XV:Y1 <ZM)-YV:X1 <Z 
M+1)-XV:Y1 <ZM+1)-YV:X1 <ZM+2)-XV: 
Yl (ZM+2)-YV: XI (ZH+3)-XV: Yl (ZH+3) 
-YV: ZH-ZM*2: X1-X2: Y1=Y2:B0T0140 
1 90 F-0 : ZH-Z H*2 : I FR- 1 THEN260 
200 IFZM>50THENZM-50 
205 IFY1 (ZM)-OTHENZM-ZM-l 
210 F2-l:A— 1 

220 A-A+l:IFA>ZM THEN240EL8E I FX 1 
(AX0THENX1 (A)-XO 

221 IFY1 (AXOTHENYl <A)-YO 

225 PSET (X1(A),Y1(A),1) : LINE ( XO, 
Y0)-(X1 (A) p Yl (A) > ,PSET: X0-X1 (A) : 
YO-Yl (A) : I FUU— 1 THEN960ELSEB0SUB9 
90:G0T0220 
230 G0T0220 

240 F-O: ZM-O: F2-0: RR-O: IFY0>52TH 
EN670ELSE I FUS< 1 THEN 1 940 
250 RETURN 
260 ' 

270 IFY1 <ZM)-0THENZM-ZM-l:G0T027 

O 

280 A2-ZM+1 

290 A2- A2- 1 : I F A2< 0THEN3 1 OELSEPSE 
T<X1 <A2) , Yl <A2) , 1) :LINE<XO,YO)-< 
XI <A2) ,Y1 (A2) ) ,PSET:X0-X1 <A2) :yo 
-Yl <A2) : I FUU- 1 THEN960ELSEG0SUB99 

O 

300 G0T0290 



wild party 

A naughty, sexy computer game 
for 2 to 6 couples. 
Game varies 
every time you play. 
All prompts from TV screen, 
no need to read 
complicated instructions. 
Send self-addressed stamped 
envelope for program descrip- 
tion and instruction sheet. 

On cassette tape. 
For 16K Color Computer. 
Extended BASIC not required. 

835.00 incl postage. 
(PA resid add $2.10) 
Send tfheck to P.O. Box 210, 
Jenkintown, PA 1 90^-6 



b & b 
software 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 




TEST — AID 

from 
i n P OTOOLS 




EDUCATORS — TEST USERS 

TE3T-AID IS A UTILITY PROGRAM WHICH ALLOWS A 
USER (1) TO CREATE A LARGE BANK OF 
4— ALTERNATI VE , MULTIPLE -CHOICE TEST QUESTIONS, 
(2) TO EDIT QUESTIONS IN THE BANK, (3> TO 
SELECT QUESTIONS FROM THE BANK FOR INCLUSION 
ON AN EXAM (QUESTIONNAIRE), (4) TO PRINT A 
FORMATTED COPY OF THE EXAM, AND (S) TO 
GENERATE WITH EASE DIFFERENT DRD ERjjt OF ITEMS 
FOR AN EXAM. 

FEATURE8 
MENU-DRIVEN COMMANDS 

FORMATTED ENTRY AND DISPLAY SCREENS 
HANDLE QUESTIONS UP TO 700* CHARACTERS 
LONG 

STORE AND LOAD QUESTION BANKS FROM TAPE 
SELECT ITEMS FROM MULTIPLE BANKS 
TITLE OR HEADING FOR PRINTED COPY 
PRINTED COPY WITH AUTOMATIC WORD-WRAP AT 

LINE ENDINGS AND PAGE BREAKS BETWEEN 

SEPARATE TEST ITEMS 
ERROR RESISTANT 

INSTRUCTION MANUAL — PROGRAM ON TAPE 
REQUIRES 32- or &4-K COMPUTER WITH 
EXTENDED BASIC 



I NFOTOOLS 
111 COUNTRY CLUB LANE 
OXFORD, OHIO 43036 
(313) 323-8473 

CHECK OR MONEY ORDER FOR 418.00 PLUS 9 1.00 
FOR SHIPPING 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 07 



310 F-0: ZM-O: RR=0: IFYOS2THEN670 
ELSE I FUS< 1 THEN 1 940 
320 RETURN 

330 * GET SOVIET COORDINATES 
340 RR-l:B-RND(10) 

3S0 ONB G0SUB470,480,490,500,510 
, 320, 330, 340, 330, 360: IFU-1THENIF 
SU (B) -OTHENSU-SU-1 

360 IFU-lTHENSU(B)-l:X4-X7:Y4-Y7 
: RETURN 

370 X1-X7:Y1-Y7:TX-X1:TY-Y1 
380 ' GET U.S. COORDINATES 
390 B-RND(IO) 

400 ONB G0SUB570,580,590,600,610 
, 620 , 630 , 640 , 650 , 660 : I FU9- 1 THENI 
FUS < B ) - 1 THENGOSUB 1 870 
410 IFU-1THENX5-X8: Y5-Y8: X6-X9: Y 
6-Y9: RETURN 

420 X2-X8: Y2-Y8: X3-X9IY3-Y9: XT-X 
2: YT-Y2: UX-X3: UY-Y3: IFUS (B) -OTHE 
NUB-US- 1 

430 US(B)-l:G0SUB110 
440 PR-SU+1 

430 PU-RND(PR) : IFPUOl THENGOSUB 

990:G0T0430 

460 G0T0340 

470 X7=238:Y7-42: RETURN 
480 X7=232: Y7=40: RETURN 
490 X7-238: Y7-45: RETURN 



RAINBOW 

POSTER 
NOW 




Yes, it's here! A beautiful full-color poster of 
the cover our our January issue! 

This big (31x23) poster is printed on heavy 
poster paper and varnished to make it really 
shine. It is the perfect addition to your compu- 
ter room and is available for only $5. There's 
even a small Rainbow logo in one corner. 

Send for yours today! There is only a limited 
supply, and when we run out, there won't be 
any more. 

Each poster Is $5, plus $1 .50 handling charge per order 
to same address In U.S. and Canada. Other points add $3. 
U.S. Currency only. VISA, MasterCard and American 
Express accepted. Mall to: Rainbow Poster, P.O. Box 209, 
Prospect, KY 40059 or call (502) 228-4492. 



500 X 7-240 1 Y7-46 : RETURN 

510 X7-238: Y7-47: RETURN 

520 X7-242: Y7-31 : RETURN 

530 X7-48: Y7-34: RETURN 

540 X7-70: Y7-42: RETURN 

550 X7-53: Y7-53: RETURN 

560 X 7-230 : Y7-46 : RETURN 

570 X8-99: Y8-27: RETURN 

580 X8-107: Y8-29: RETURN 

590 X8-128:Y8-62:X9-67:Y9-140:RE 

TURN 

600 X8-132: Y8-66: X 9-77: Y9- 155 IRE 
TURN 

610 X8-130:Y8-55:X9-76:Y9-118:RE 
TURN 

620 X8-136:Y8-61: X9-105 : Y9-135: R 
ETURN 

630 X8-142:Y8-70: X9-125: Y9-159:R 
ETURN 

640 X8-154: Y8-66: X9-167: Y9=145:R 
ETURN 

650 X8-147: Y8-58: X9-141 : Y9-125: R 
ETURN 

660 X8=126:Y8-54:X9=72:Y9-117:RE 
TURN 

670 'U.S. GROUND EXPLOSION 

680 I FU- 1 THENRETURN 

690 LINE < (XX+X3) /2, 109) -< X3, Y3> , 

PSET: F0RX-1T04: CIRCLE (X3,Y3) , X:N 

EXT : P0KE65494 , O : PLAY " V60 1 L9C " : PO 

KE65495, 0: IFUS< 1 THEN 1 940ELSEG0T0 

440 

700 'PLAYER'S ARC DRAW 

710 F0RXL-0T050: X2(XL)-0: Y2(XD- 

o:next:R2-o: zz-o:qq-o: XA-X4: xi-x 

4: YI-Y4: IFX5<X4 THENR2-1 : X-X4: Y- 
Y4: X4-X5: Y4-Y5:X5-X: Y5-Y: xi-xs:y 
I-Y5 

720 X2(0)-X4: Y2<0)=Y4: XF-<X4+X5) 
/2: YF=<Y4+Y5) /2: D- < Y4-Y5) : AOS-XF 
: X V= AOS : Y V- < YF+D ) / 2 

730 IFZZ>50THENZZ-0 

731 IFZZ<0THENZZ=50 

735 XM=<X4+XV)/2:YM«<Y4+YV)/2:XN 
-<X4+XM)/2: YN-YM: X2(ZZ)-X4: Y2(ZZ 
) = Y4 : I FQQ-OTHENZ Z = Z Z + 1 ELSE Z Z - Z Z - 
1 

740 ifint<xn)-int<xv)-2then770 
750 ifint<xn)-int<xv)+3 then790 
760 x4=xn: y4=yn:g0t0730 
770 zz=zz-i:qq=i:X2<zz>-xv:y2<zz 
)=yv: x2(zz+1)=xv: y2<zz+1)-yv: x2< 
zz+2) =xv: y2 < zz+2) =yv: x2 <zz+3) -xv 
: y2<zz+3)=yv: zz=zz*2: x4-x5: y4-y5 

: G0T0730 
780 ' 

790 11=11*2: UU- 1 : I FR2- 1 THEN880 
800 IFY2<ZZ)=0THENZZ«ZZ-l:G0T0B0 
O 

810 I FU- 1THENIFYU >52THENL I NE ( X 6 , 



108 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Y6)-< (X2(0)+X6)/2, 109) ,PSET 
820 AU— 1IFK-1 

830 AU-AU+i: IFAU>ZZ THEN8S0ELSE I 

FX2<AUX0THENX2<AU)-XI 

835 PSET(X2(AU) , Y2(AU> , 1) :LINE(X 

I,YI)-<X2(AU) ,Y2<AU) ),PSET: XI-X2 

(AU) : YI=Y2(AU) :G0SUB990: IFRR-1TH 

EN970ELSEG0T0B30 

840 G0T0830 

850 IFSU»0THEN1900 

860 UU=0 : FK-0 : I FRR- 1 THEN970ELSER 

ETURN 

870 ' 

880 IFY2<ZZ)-0THENZZ-ZZ-l:G0T0B8 

0 

890 I FU= 1 THEN I F YU >52THENLINE<X6, 
Y6)-< (X2(0)+X6)/2, 109) ,PSET 
900 AU-ZZ+1 

910 AU=AU- 1 : I FAU= - 1 THEN930ELSE I F 

X2 < AUX0THENX2 (AU) -XI 

915 PSET(X2(AU) ,Y2(AU) ,1):LINE(X 

I,YI)-(X2(AU) ,Y2(AU) ),PSETIXI»X2 

(AU) : YI-Y2(AU) :G0SUB990: IFRR-1TH 

EN970ELSE80T09 10 

920 G0T0910 

930 IFSU-0THEN1900 

940 UU-O: I FRR- 1 THEN970ELSERETURN 

950 " RETURN TO OTHER'S ARC 

960 I FFK- 1 THEN830ELSE9 1 O 

970 IFF2-1THEN220ELSE290 



980 ' 

990 'PLAYER INPUT 

1 000 I FLA- 1 THEN V-RND (5) : I FLL-9TH 
ENV-1 : V-RND ( 10) : OC ( V) — VAL (OC* < V) 
) : GOTO 1 020ELSE I F V- 1 THEN V-RND (10) 
:OC(V)-VAL(OC*(V) ) :G0T01020ELSE1 
020 

1010 GOTO 1150 

1 020 LL-0 : FORS Z - 1 OTO 1 STEP- 1 : I FOC 
(SZ ) < 10THENV-0C (SZ ) : LL-LL+1ELSEV 
-RND (9) 

1030 V*=STR*(V) :ONSZ GOSUBUOO, 1 
1 10, 1 120, 1 130, 1 140, 1050, 1060, 107 
0, 1080, 1090: NEXT: I FLL- 1 OTHENL A-2 
: GOTO 1 040ELSEG0T0 1 1 70 
1040 A*- "U.S. LAUNCH CODE RE- ACT 
I VATED" : IFU*=" "THENG0SUB50: G0T01 
1 50ELSEF0RS Z - 1 TOLEN ( U* ) : PR I NT847 
9+SZ , M ID* ( U* , SZ , 1 ) ; : S0UND240, 1 : N 
EXT: G0SUB50 : GOTO 1 1 50 



1050 PR I NTH 383, V*| 
1060 PRINT9384,V*| 
1070 PRINTQ385,V*f 
1080 PR I NTS 386, V*| 
1090 PRINT«387,V*| 
1100 PRINT8415,V*| 
1110 PRINT9416,V*| 
1120 PRINT8417, V*| 
1130 PRINT9418, V*| 
1140 PRINT9419,V*| 



RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 



WORD PROCESSOR 

for your Color Computer 



Yes! That's right, because we want to create some excitement with 
an offer you can't pass up — a professional quality full screen 
oriented wordprocessor that would be a bargain at $50. It's a good 
one too. Take a look at what you get. 

MASTER WRITER'S FULLSCREEN-ORIE NTED EDITOR allows 
you to move the cursor anywhere in your text using the up, down, 
right and left arrows. Do this one character at a time or by line or 
page. Insert, delete or replace text at the cursor watching your 
changes as you make them. Delete or move blocks of text from one 
place to another. Merge in text from other files. 

AUTOMATIC CARRIAGE RETURN after last complete word on 
each line, withthis and AUTOMATIC PAGE FEED youdon't have to 
worry about where a line or page ends — just type! 

MASTER WRITER runs on a 16K, 32K, or 64K COLOR COM- 
PUTER, taking advantage of all available memory. Use itwith DISK 
OR CASSETTE based systems. EXTENDED BASIC IS NOT 
REQUIRED. 

EASY TO UNDERSTAND MANUAL has you comfortably using 
MASTER WRITER in minutes. It is a USER-FRIENDLY MENU- 
DRIVEN SYSTEM with single letter commands. Check any com- 
mand without having to refer to the manual with the HELP 
SCREEN. 

1 0 PROGRAMMABLE FUNCTION KEYS allow easy insertion of 
frequently used words or phrases. 




WORKS WITH ANY PRINTER. Take full advantage of your 
printer's special functions such as variable charcter size and 
emphzsized characters with EASY EMBEDDING OF PRINTER 
CONTROL CODES. 

GLOBAL SEARCH function lets you quickly locate specific 
strings for replacement or deletion. 

Customize form letters or standard text with MASTER WRITER'S 
EMBEDDED PAUSE feature. Just "fill in the blanks" when your 
printer pauses for a personalized appearance. 

LIMITED MULTI-TASKING feature lets you print one file while 
editing another. 

In addition to regular text you can use MASTER WRITER to 
CREATE BASIC PROGRAMS with the convenience of full-screen 
editing. 

OTHER FEATURES include easy setting of left, right, top and 
bottom margin, printer line width, and lines per page. Also auto 
repeat keys, auto line centering, auto page numberingand choice of 
display color formats. 

And, perhaps one of the best features, is MASTER WRITER'S 
SUPER LOW PRICE OF $1 4.95. At this price you can't go wrong. 
Buy it today! 

TO ORDER send $1 4.95 for cassette version or $1 9.95 for disk 
version plus $2.50 shipping (Calif, residents add 6 % sales tax) to: 
PYRAMID DISTRIBUTORS, 527 HILL ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 
90405 (213) 399-2222. 



MASTER WRITER 



$1 4.95 Cassette 
$19.95 Disk 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 09 



11 SO I FL A-0 ANDT I MER > 1 OOO+RM THEN 
PRINT9383, lOOOO+RND (89999) : PRINT 
9413, lOOOO+RND (89999) : LA-1 : A*-"S 
OVIETS HAVE JAMMED YOUR LAUNCH C 
ODE. . . ":G0SUB50:PRINT9480, "** CH 
ANGES LOCKED OUT SOUNDS, 2 

1160 I FLA- 1THENA*-" COMPUTER ATTE 
MPT INS TO RESTORE CODE... STAND B 
Y. . . ":GOSUBSO: PRINT9480, STRING* ( 



30, " 
1170 
1180 
1190 
1200 



") 



G0SUB1520: IFU-1THENRETURN 
IFSL-1THEN1610 
K-INKEY*: IFI*-" "THENRETURN 
S0UND240, l: IFI*>"e"ANDI*<CH 
R*(91)0RI*>"/"ANDI*< ": "ORI*-"?"0 
RI *=CHR* ( 1 3 ) OR I *=CHR* ( 8 ) OR I *» " - " 
THEN 121 OELSERETURN 
1210 IFI*-CHR*(8)THENIFI>0THENI« 
I-1:U*=LEFT*(U«, I ) : PRINT9480+I , " 

" ; : RETURN 
1220 IFI*-"?"ANDI=0THEN1310 
1230 I FHP- 1 THENGOSUB 1310 
1240 IFPEEK(338)-191THENIFLA-1TH 
ENU*- "" : I -O : PR I NTQ269 , " STAND BY . 
. . ":F0RSZ-1T04:PRINT@480, "** ACC 
ESS DENIED **": PLAY"V2801L6C" : PR 
INT9480, STRING* (20, " " ):F0RZS=1T 
0150:NEXTZS,SZ:PRINTQ269, " 

" : PR I NT9480 , STR I NG* ( 20 , " " ) 



: RETURNELSEGOT O 1 270 

1250 U*-U*+I*:PRINT9480+I, I*| : I- 

I+l: RETURN 

1260 PRINT9480, STR INS* (32, " " ) I I 
=0:U*» RETURN 

1 270 U-INSTR(U*,CHR*(8)):IFU-0TH 
EN1 280ELSEU*=LEFT* (U*, U-l ) +MID* ( 
U*,U+1) : GOTO 1270 

1 280 I FU*- "JAM" THEN 1 350ELSE I FU*« 
- SUBS?" THEN 1 390ELSE I FU*- " USCON" T 
HEN 1 4 30ELSE I FU*- " SOVCON " THEN 1 470 
1 290 I FU*- "TIME?" THEN 151 OELSE I FL 
EFT* (U*, 6) ="LAUNCH"THENU*=MID*(U 
* , 7 ) : 60T01 720ELSE I FU*= " DESUB " THE 
N 1 590ELSE60SUB 1 260 : PR I NTS480 , " *C 
OMMAND INPUT ERROR*" : S0UND240, 1 : 
S0UND50, 1 : 60SUB1260: RETURN 
1300 'HELP MENU 
1310 G0SUB1260: IFHP-1 THEN 1330 
1320 PRINT8288, "USCON ":PRINT"SO 
VCON" : PRINT" JAM " : PRINT"SUBS? 
" : PR I NT " DESUB " : PR I NT " LAUNCH " : PR 
INT "TIME? ": HP- l: RETURN 
1 330 HP-0 : PR I NT9288 , " LAUNCH " : PR I 
NT" CODE ": PRINT" ": PRINT" 

": PRINT" ": PRINT" 

":PRINT9383,UC? : PRINTQ415, CU| :L 
INE(0, 109)-(4S, 109) ,PSET: LINE (O, 
179) -(48, 179) ,PSET:GOSUB 1260: RET 



DISK DRIVES 



COMPUTERS 

64K Coco 
Coco 2 
Micro MC-10 
Model 100 
Dragon 64 



Radio Shack Drive 0 *385 
Tandon Drive 0 $375 
Shugart Drive 0 *3?5 
Amdek Drive 0/1 *595 
Note: 100X Radio Shack compati- 
ible. Includes R/S or J&M Con- 
troller, Cable, & Manual. Call for 
other Disk Drive Conf i qurat i ons. 



We Carry Application/Utility Software 

Data Soft Compu terware Spectral Elite 
Radio Shack C'er-Comp Colorsoft Skyline 
Star Kits Double Density Computer Shack 
Cust. SW Engrg So. Sl-J Systems Moreton Bay 
Eigen Tom Mix MSI Cognitec Nelson 
Inter*Action Adventure International 
Prog. Institute Spectrum Projects L.C. Shrou 
Superior Graphic SW Bertamax PCSG Armad i 1 1 
Homebase Prickly Pear 

" THE COLOR COMPUTER STORE" 

1-800-468-4606 / 206-778-9826 

4401 219th SW, Mountlake Terrace, Wa 98043 



ACCESSORIES 

Col ormate 

Ser/Par Convtrs 

Ser Prt Switcher 

Finger Print 

Video Plus 

R i bbon s 

Keyboards 

U i deo Mon i tors 

Coco Jewelry 

Cassettes 

Cabl es 

Modems 

Di sket tes 

Joyst i cks 

Componen ts 



PRINTERS 

Juk i 
Epson 
Ok i data 
Gem i n i 
C. Itoh 
Tr an star 
Mannes/Tal 1 y 
Silver Reed 



110 the RAINBOW November 1983 



URN 

1340 'JAM SOVIET'S CODE 
1350 00SUB1260: IFJM>OTHENA*-"SOV 
IETS HAVE SECURED THEIR LAUNCH C 
ODE FROM OUR SENSORS ... JAMM I NO I 
S I NEFFECT I VE " : 00SUB50 : RETURN 
1360 JM=l:A»=" SOVIET LAUNCH CODE 

JAMMED " : G0SUB50 : J 1 -O : RETURN 
1370 IFJM=1THENIFJK350THENJ1-J1 
+1 : Q0SUB990:Q0T01370ELSEJM=2: A»= 
"SOVIET LAUNCH CODE RE-ACTIVATED 
" : Q0SUB50: RETURNELSERETURN 
1380 '# OF SUBS 

1390 GOSUB 1260: A*-" THERE ARE"+ST 
R*<SS)+" ENEMY SUBS REMAINING ":G 
0SUB50: IFSS-OTHENRETURN 
1 400 FORSZ- 1 TOSB : I FSB* < SZ ) - " " THE 
NNEXT: RETURNELSESC=VAL < "8eH" +LEFT 
»(SB*<SZ),2) ) :SX-VAL("«cH"+MID*<S 
B*(SZ) ,3,2) ) :SY-VAL<"«tH H +RIGHT«< 
SB*(SZ) ,2) ) :PRINT9263+<SZ+1 )#32, 
CHR*(SC) :LINE(SX,SY>-(SX+7,SY> ,P 
SET: LINE- <SX+8, SY-1 ) , PSET: LINE- ( 
< SX+7,SY-2) ,PSET 

1410 LINE-(SX+5,SY-2) ,PSET:LINE- 
(SX+3, SY-3) , PSET: LINE- (SX+4, SY-3 
) , PSET: LINE- (SX+4, SY-2) , PSET: LIN 
E- <SX , SY-2) , PSET: L INE- (SX-l , SY-1 
) , PSET: LINE- (SX-2, SY-2) , PSET: LIN 



E-(SX-2,SY) , PSET: S0UND200, l: NEXT 
: RETURN 

1420 'U.S. CONDITION 
1430 G0SUB1260: A*="UNITED STATES 
' CONDITION: ":G0SUB50:EXEC&H54A 
9 : F0RSZ=294T0454STEP32 : PR I NT8S Z , 
STRING* (20, " "): NEXT: UH-RND< 100) 
: UP=RND (100000000) : PRINTS294, "PR 
OJECTED KILL RATIO" : PRINTS333, UH 
:PRINT@358, "'/. HOUSING DESTROYED" 
:PRINT8394, " "| :PRINTUSING"#««« 
1440 FORSZ- 1T03000: NEXT: FORSZ-29 
4T0454STEP32:PRI NTGS Z , STR I NG* ( 20 
," " ) : NE X T : PR I NT8294 , " BASES REMA 
INING: " : X-326: F0RY=1T010: IFUS (Y) 
= 1 THENNE XTELSEPR I NTQX , Y : SOUND 1 O , 
1 : X=X+32: IFX-4G6THENX-335: NEXTEL 
SENEXT 

1450 F0RSZ-1T03000: NEXT: FORSZ-29 
4T0454STEP32 : PR I NTSSZ , STRI NG* ( 20 
, " " ) : NEXT: PRINTG294, "MISSLES TA 
RGETED " : PR I NT9330 , " AND READY " : FO 
RSZ-1T01000: NEXT: EXEC&H54C3: RETU 
RN 

1460 'SOVIET CONDITION 
1470 GOSUB 1260: A*- "SOVIET UNION' 
S CONDITION: ":G0SUB50:EXEC&H54A 
9: F0RSZ-294T0454STEP32: PRINTtSZ, 
STRING* (20, " ") : NEXT: SH-RND( 100) 



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November 1983 the RAINBOW 111 



: SP-RND < 100000000) : PRINTG294, "PR 
OJECTED KILL RAT I O " : PR I NTQ333 , SH 
:PRINT«358, "y. HOUSING DESTROYED" 
I PR I NTS394 , " " ; I PR I NTUS I NQ " #### 
1480 F0RSZ-lT03000:NEXT:F0RSZ-29 
4T0454STEP32 : PRINT3SZ, STR I NQ* ( 20 
, " " ) : NE X T : PRI NTG294 , " BASES REMA 
INING: ": X-326IF0RY-1T010: IFSU(Y) 
= 1 THENNE X TELSEPR I NT&X , Y: SOUND 100 
, 1 : X=X+32: IFX-486THENX-335: NEXTE 
LSENEXT 

1490 F0RSZ-lT03000:NEXT:F0RSZ-29 
4T0454STEP32 : PRI NT9SZ , STR I NG* ( 20 
, " ") :NEXT:PRINT9294, "MISSLES TA 
RGETED " : PR I NT9330 , " AND READY " : FO 
RSZ=1T01000: NEXT: EXEC&H54C3: RETU 
RN 

1500 'TIME FUNCTION 
1510 GOSUB 1260: GOSUB 1 560 :F0RSZ-2 
94T0454STEP32 : PR I NTOSZ , STR I NG* < 2 
O, " " ) I NEXT: PRINT9298, "GAME TIME 
" : PRINT9330, " ELAPSED" : PRINT9358 
, THE " HRS " TME " M I N " TSE " SEC ": PR I NTS 
394 , " EST I MATED T I ME " : PR I NT8428 , " 
REMA I N I NG " : PR I NT8454 , RH " HRS " RM " M 
IN"RS"SEC" : F0RSZ-1T04000: NEXT: 
1520 ' 

1530 I FT I MER >32768THENTF- 1 

1540 IFTIMER<32768 AND TF-1THENF 




ACTIVE and /or PASSIVE LINEAR 
ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ANALYZER 



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[circuit editor; tape lave and load 
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ioutput to screen, printer, or cassette 
tfile listing utility to screen or printer 

ADDED 32K DISK BASIC FEATURES i 
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4-F4+l:TF-0 

1550 GOSUB 1780: RETURN 

1560 EXEC&H54A9: TS- < (F4#18) #60) + 

FIX (TIMER/60.680555) :THE=F IX (TS/ 

60/60) : TS=FIX (TS- (THE*60#60) ) : TM 

E-F I X ( TS/60) : TS-F I X ( TS-TME#60 ) : T 

SE-TS : RH-4-THE : RM-59-TME : RS-60-T 

SE: RETURN 

1570 ' 

1580 'SUB DESTROY MODE 

1590 GOSUB 1260: A*- "SUBMARINE DES 

TROY M0DE":G0SUB50 

1600 XS-128: ys-144:sl-i:si=xs:S2 

-YS: C-PPOINT ( XS, YS) 

1610 PSET (S1,S2,C) :C-PPOINT(XS, Y 

S) :S1-XS:S2-YS: IFC-OTHENPSET(XS, 

YS, 1 ) ELSEPRESET (XS, YS) 

1 620 GOSUB 1 680 : I *- I NKEY* : I FPEEK ( 

338 ) - 1 9 1 THEN 1 700ELSE I FPEEK ( 340) - 

191 THENSL-0 : PSET ( X S , YS , C ) : RETURN 

1 630 I FPEEK ( 34 1 ) -247THENYS-YS- 1 : 

I FYS- 1 1 5THEN YS- 116 

1 640 I FPEEK ( 342 ) -247THENYS-YS+ 1 : 

I FYS- 1 73THENYS- 1 72 

1650 IFPEEK(343)-247THENXS-XS-l: 

I F X S-54THENXS-55 

1660 I FPEEK (344) -247THENXS-XS+1 : 
I F XS-20 1 THENX S-200 
1670 RETURN 

1680 F0R8Z-1T0SB: IFSB* (SZ ) =" "THE 
NNE X T : RETURNELSESX- V AL ( " &H " +M I D* 
(SB*(SZ) ,3,2) ) :SY=VAL("&H"+RIGHT 
*(SB*(SZ) ,2) ) : IFXS-SX+3 AND YS-S 
Y - 1 THEN 1 690ELSENE X T : RETURN 
1 690 S0UND240 , 1 : RETURN 
1700 I FLA- 1 THEN 1 240ELSES0UND 120, 
1 : CIRCLE (XS, YS) , 6: IFXS-SX+3 AND 

YS-S Y- 1 THENSB* ( S Z ) - SS-SS- 1 : L 

I NE ( XS-3 , YS+6 ) - ( XS+3 , YS+6 ) , PRESE 
T 

1710 uz»u:u=i:b-rnd(8)+2:gosub40 
o: l i ne ( x6, y6 ) - ( xs, ys) , pset : u-uz : 
f0rx-1t06: circle (xs, ys) , x: next: f 
0rx-6t01step-1 : circle (xs, ys) , x,0 
: ne x t : p0ke65494 , 0 : play " v60 1 l9c " : 

p0ke65495, o: u*» u-0: goto 1600 

1720 'u.s. launch routine 

1730 pri ntq4b0, string* (32, " " ) : i 

=0 : i flen ( u* x 3thenu*- goto 1 280 

1740 s0und120, 1 : u-instr ( 1 , u*, "-" 
) : ul*-right* (u«, len (u*) -u) : ur*-l 
eft* ( u* , u- 1 ) : u= 1 : u9- 1 : b-val (ul* ) 
: i fb >oandb< 1 1 theng0sub350elseu*- 
u=o : U9-o : goto i 280 

1 750 B-VAL ( UR* ) : I FB >OANDB< 1 1 THEN 

G0SUB400ELSEU*- U-0 : U9-0 : GOTO 1 

280 

1760 U9-0 : IFUS(B)-1T HENRETURN 

1770 uu=i: yu=Y5:u*= x=X4:y-Y4: 

X4-X5: Y4-Y5 : X5-X : Y5-Y : G0SUB7 l o: U 



112 the RAINBOW November 1983 



=0 : RETURN : RETURN 

1780 'SUB LAUNCH ROUTINE 

1790 IFSS-OTHENRETURN 

1800 IFJM-1THENPP-30ELSEPP-50 

1810 RN-RND < PP > : I FRN< > 1 OTHENRETU 

RN 

1820 F0RZS-1T0SB: IFSB* <ZS) ■" "THE 

NNE X T : RETURNELSES X- VAL < " *H " +M I D* 

(SB*(ZS) ,3,2) ) :SY-VAL< M fcH M +RIQHT 

*<SB*<ZS) ,2) ) :SX-SX+5:SY-SY-3 

1 830 UZ-U : U- 1 : B-RND < 8 > +2 : G0SUB40 

0:LINE<SX,SY)-<X6, Y6) ,PSET:U=UZ: 

I FUS < B ) -OTHENUS-US- 1 

1840 US<B)*1:F0RX=1T04:CIRCLE<X6 

, Y6) , X: NEXT: P0KE65494 , O : PLAY " V60 

1L9C" : P0KE65495, O : I FUS< 1 THEN 1 870 

ELSERETURN 

1850 'NONEXISTENT SOVIET BASE 
1860 RR-0:B0T0340 
1870 'NONEXISTANT U.S. BASE 
1880 IFU=1THENA«="U.S. BASE "+STR 
♦ (B) +" NO LONGER EX I STS " : G0SUB50 
:u=o: RETURN 
1890 G0T0410 
1900 'SOVIET LOSE 

1910 PRINTS265, "THEY LOOSE ": 

F0RX«1T0165:CIRCLE(128,96) ,X:EXE 
C&H549B : I F X=50THEN 1 920ELSENEXT : G 
0T01930 

1920 PRINT8279, "FIRST. . . ":P0KE65 



494 , O : PLAY " V60 1L9C" : P0KE65495 , O : 
NEXT 

1930 GOTO 1970 
1940 'U.S. LOSE 

1950 PRINT8266, "YOU LOOSE.... ":F 
OR X - 1 TO 1 65 : C I RCLE < 1 28 , 96 > , X : EXEC 
«<H549B: I F X *50THEN 1 960ELSENE XT: GO 
TO 1970 

1960 PRINTS279, "FIRST. . . ":P0KE65 
494 , O : PLAY " V60 1 L9C " : P0KE65495 , 0 : 
NEXT 

1970 CLSO:A*= M IS IT A GAME, OR 
IS IT REAL? ":G0SUB50:PRINT«257 
, A*; : PRINTS2B8, STRING* (32, CHR* ( 1 
28) >; 

1 980 PLAY " V60 1 L9C " : FORS Z= 1 TORND < 
300) 

1 990 I *= I NKEY * : I F I *<> " " THEN2000E 

LSENEXT: GOTO 1980 

2000 PRINT8480, " " » : STOP 

2010 'DEFCON DROP 

2020 Y=121:X=190 

2030 Y-Y+12: I F Y > 1 69THENRETURN 

2040 G0SUB2050: PAINT (21 1,Y-11) ,0 

, O: G0T02030 

2050 LINE<210,Y)-<253,Y) ,PSET:LI 
NE- (253, Y+10) ,PSET: LINE- <210, Y+l 
O) ,PSET:LINE-<210,Y) ,pset:line<2 
34, Y)-<234, Y+10) , PSET: PAINT < 21 1 , 

Y+ l ) , l , l : soundx , l : x=x- 10: return 



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1 THE GRAPH ZAPPER plots line graphs of data and equations-multiple lines with different symbols- mix equations and data on the same graph- with or 
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114 



the RAINBOW November 1983 



EDUCATION OVERVIEW 



u ini lOCD ii i i nc 

imJsU KEkuLU i iUi 1 

By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The impact of microcomputers on the educational 
scene presents several unusual features. Some are 
downright weird. It is not stretching truth or credibil- 
ity too much to say that a real revolution is underway. We 
won't know the full impact of this revolution for a few years 
yet, but it is easy to tell that changes are happening now. 
Well, what are some of these features? 

First, it is no secret that many students are much more 
knowledgeable about microcomputers than most teachers. 
This reversal of roles is completely new in the educational 
arena. Never before, as far as I know, has a field of study 
appeared so important to the nation s schools, with the 
adults in thoseschools having less knowledge than students. 

No matter what you may think about teachers you had (or 
have), this is definitely not normal. Math teachers have 
always known more about mathematics than students being 
taught. The same holds true for teachers of English, the 
social sciences, and physical sciences. Even in the less tradi- 
tional courses taught in schools, teachers have almost 
always started with more knowledge than students. 

In many schools around the country, students with 
microcomputers in their homes were asked to help set up 
courses and computer labs. Often students provided teacher 
with a "first lesson" in microcomputers. 

Ah, this is just a passing phase of the computer revolution 
in education; the situation cannot last for very long. Now, 
notice, 1 was talkingabout knowledge of the subject matter. 
That is different than talking about the ability to learn 
something, or the intelligence involved. The unbalanced 
situation of students' knowledge being greater than teachers' 
will soon pass away — because of the nature of teachers. 



(Michael Plog received his Ph.D. degree from the 
University of Illinois, the M.S. from Memphis State 
University, and the B.S. from the University of Ten- 
nessee. For his foreign/ research language option 
required for the doctorate, he naturally selected com- 
puter language. Michael currently works for the Illi- 
nois State Board of Education as a research and eva- 
luation specialist.) 



Teachers are a strange breed; they return to school them- 
selves, and appear to never tire of learning. After all, educa- 
tion is their way of life, their reason for existence, their base 
of personal satisfaction and self-image. Have no doubts 
about it; the next few summers (plus this last one) will see a 
large number of teachers returning to state universities for 



'There is a different type of 
person interested in micro 
applications in schools now 
than in the past." 



courses in computers. 1 was i na discussion witha man(over 
40 years old) talking about his 12-year-old son. The man 
commented casually, " Jeff took a BASIC course this summer. 
So did 1." All over the country, expect to see teachers 
pouring over textbooks they would never have noticed a few 
years ago. 

This means the students of the future will come to school 
at age five, knowing less about computers than the teachers. 
(Teachers do know how to study.) For the present, however, 
we are stuck with an unusual situation. 

There is another passing phase in the computer revolution 
worth mentioning here. There is a different type of person 
interested in micro applications in schools now than in the 
past. Let me tell you a story about a man who is a perfect 
example of the past type of micro/education. About seven 
or eight years ago, I worked for a school district. I heard 
about a sixth grade teacher in the district who had an 
interest in microcomputers. He even purchases a kit and 
built a computer. It had few applications, of course, but he 
was an electronic nut. His kit ended up in his classroom, 
where the students promptly discovered the power of 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 115 



PRO-COLOR-SERIES 



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4 Color Data Entry Screens 

28 User defined Equetions 

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Duplicate records 

Duplicate fialds 



8 Report formats 
Summary Reports 
Screen Reports 
Pege titles, numbering 
Sort on eny Field 
Sort 3 Fialds at once 
Sort eny size file 
Select sub-sets of file 



See Reviews in: 

Color Computer News - June 83 
Hot CoCo -- August 83 
Rainbow Magazine - June 83 



J 



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Compile a master listing of all your directories in one 
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PRO-COLOR-FILE is then used to generate reports or 
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Diskette ID name 

File nama/Extansion 

File type (Basic, ML, Data) 

Number of Sectors allocated 

ML Load end Execute address 



Date Creeted 

Dete Updeted 

Number of Grans allocated 

Number of Sectors used 

ML file length 



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Store 1000 entriesl Requires PRO-COLOR-FILE to use. 



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humans over machinery. A few years later, I was in a differ- 
ent job, and again heard about this fellow. He now was 
director of a consortium of schools, with the task of imple- 
menting microcomputer education in several districts. 

It used to be the case that only one type of person was 
interested in educational microcomputer applications. We 
all know thay type of person. Typically male (why?), inter- 
ested in electronics, wanted to poke around inside machines, 
enjoyed Adventure games, and was of ten a member of some 
futurist organization. When these people buy Color Com- 
puters, the first thing they do is take off the case and play 
with the internal parts. Now, however, the situation is for 
teachers to learn from; and some may be technicians. It is, 
however, impossible to replace a teacher in education. 

Today, the typical administrator considering putting 
microcomputers in schools is a lot different from the elec- 
tronic nut. I have heard several superintendents comment 
that they did not understand microcomputers, did not like 
them, never wanted to touch one, even admit they were 
afraid of computers; but know they had to have the ma- 
chines. They realized that without some background in 
microcomputers, their students would be unable to cope in 
tomorrow's world. 

This change of potential educational market may have 
greater import than we realize. Naturally, the early interest 
people will continue to expand their microcomputer uses in 
schools — both in types of applications and number of 
machines available to students. But the late-comers are 
more numerous, and represent a different type of market. It 
would be interesting to see the outcomes of each type of 
school administrator: attitudes of students toward micro- 
computers, educational applications of the technology, 
types of machines purchased, etc. Vm sure someone will do 
such a study in a few years. 

There is one last change, another passing phase, in educa- 
tional uses of microcomputers to be discussed here. When 
microcomputers were first being used in school, a common 
fear was expressed — that teachers would be replaced by 
machines. Yes, you and I know that is pure bunk, but people 
who do not understand either education or microcomputers 
had said it. If anything, the use of microcomputers will mean 
more educational professionals, not less. Now, some of 
these prof essionals may not be teachers. Some will be devel- 
opers of computer curriculum; some will be resource people 
for teachers to learn from; and some may be technicians. It 
is, however, impossible to replace a teacher in education. 

Unlike the other two passing phases in the educational 
computer revolution — type of school people using micros 
and knowledge level of students compared with adults — 
this phase is not yet occurring. There is still uncertainty, 
maybe even fear, in the schools. 

Afewyearsfrom now, thissituation will have changed. It 
is out responsibility to help that change happen. After all, if 
you have read this far, you must be a computer evangelist. 
Keep it up, those who will become reluctant converts still 
need you. 

Bef ore I sign of f f or this month, I want to thank all of you 
who have written me. I appreciate hearing from you. I'm 
looking f orward to the sof tware evaluation process begun in 
September. (If you do not know what I'm talking about, dig 
out your September issue.) It willtakeseveral months before 
anything is reported, but keep mailing those forms. 

Until next month, keep thinking education. As long as 
you keep learning, you may grow up, but you'll never grow 
old. 



116 



the RAINBOW November 1983 





16K 


| 


f the 


| 


UTILITY 




on 

RAIIMSOW 





Remote Operation 
Of The Color Computer 

By Dan Downard 
Rainbow Technical Editor 



I guess that the first experience that I had with computers 
was in school when everyone had to stand in line for 
hours just to use the keypunch. After you labored over 
the magic keys for a few hours, you were ready for the acid 
test. Usually a tray for student projects was situated at the 
entrance to the computer room. You would place your card 
deck and the programs would place your card deck and the 
programs would be run on a first-come, first-served basis, 
sometimes at night when business use was at a minimum. 
The first computer I remember was an IBM mainframe with 
all kinds of flashing lights and switches. It occupied a large 
room in the basement of the administration building. Other 
than an operator's console, all input and output was 
accomplished by punched cards and a printer. My, if they 
could only see me now. 

I guess the only real difference, besides price and state-of- 
the-art changes, is remote control and time sharing which at 
that time were very expensive and in their infancy. At the 
same time, present technology allows home computers with 
the power of those old mainframes and, with the advent of 
OS-9, you can now use the CoCo for time sharing and 
remote operation. In this same issue the Rainbow is giving 
you a bulletin board if you are interested in remote opera- 
tion of the CoCo. One of the most important aspects of 
BBS's is the driver routine. This is the link between your 
computer and the outside world. To be more specific your 
Serial I/O, or RS-232 port as we like to call it, is your 
communications link to printers, modems, ham radio, etc. 

In this article, we will examine the three major operating 
systems for the CoCo, Disk BASIC, FLEX and OS-9, and 
examine the ways to use remote terminals, whether they be 
direct connected or by use of a modem. As you are probably 
aware, FLEA' and OS-9 already contain software for remote 
I/O but what about Disk BASIC? A very short program 
called Remote is included to allow elementary remote con- 
trol of the CoCo. 

In addition to your CoCo, you will need a terminal, or 



( Dan Downard is an electrical engineer and has been 
involved in electronics for 24 years through ham radio 
(K4KWT). His interest in computers began about five 
years ago and he has built several 68XX systems.) 

118 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



remote computer, whether it be another CoCo, and MCIO, 
Model I00 — anything that has a screen and a keyboard, 
and a modem. Even the modem is not required if you wish to 
direct connect the terminal. The remote terminal must have 
software to translate keystrokes into serial output signals 
and remote input signals to the screen. Several commercial 
pieces of software are available such as Super "Color" Ter- 
minal, "Colorcom/ E, "and "Videotex. "What we are inter- 
ested indoing is the exact opposite of a terminal. We wish to 
replace the keyboard with a remote signal and reroute out- 
put from the screen to the RS-232 port. 

Disk basic 

First, several commercial programs are available allowing 
remote operation of the CoCo. A few that come to mind are 
Remoter m by Star Kits; RTD3.0, by Ed March; and RTD28, 
by Lee Blitch. All have many features besides driver rou- 
tines. Why do you need a program like this in the first place? 
The three programs mentioned above are synonymous with 
bulletin boards. As we all know, BBS's are becoming a great 
medium of information exchange regarding computers. 
Why not start your own? 

On the other hand, there are several other uses for remote 
operation of the CoCo. Serious word processing requires 
more than a 32-, 5 1 - or 64- character screen. How about that 
budget too? How many of us can afford to have two com- 
plete computers with disk drives, etc. With a remote termi- 
nal, you can have one complete system and one bare-bones 
terminal to effectively give you two computers. Model I00 
owners can have a disk system before they are marketed. 

Listing I is an elementary remote terminal driver for the 
CoCo. It allows both local and remote operation of the 
CoCo. Local I/O is obviously the keyboard and moni- 
tor(TV). All output to the screen is also sent at 300 Baud to 
the Serial I/O port. Input can either be from the keyboard or 
a 300 Baud signal from the port. No frills or bells and 
whistles are included in this version. If you have a serious 
application I would recommend one of the above commer- 
cial drivers. Remote should provide you with a method of 
experimentation with a remote terminal. 

Running Remote 

Remote \s written in PIC (position independent code) and 



will execute anywhere in memory. To input Remote the first 
time, use a monitor such as ZBUG or an assembler such as 
EDTASM+. 

With ZBUG, enter the object code one byte at a time at 
your selected address. The listing is assembled at S3F00. A 
typical session would appear as follows with [E] meaning 
[ENTER] and [DA] meaning Down Arrow: 

Z[E] Enter ZBUG from£ DTASM+ 

B[E] Enter byte mode 

3F00/ Open memory at address S3F00 

BE[DA] Store $BE at S3F00 and increment address 

01[DA] Store $01 at$3F01 

68[DA] Store $68 at $3F02 

After the program is in memory, save it to tape before you 
run it using the ZBUG P command for the listing given, 
$3F00 is the start and execute address. Exit ZBUG and 
CLOADM the program from BASIC. Type EXEC and you 
are in the remote mode. 

FLEX 

A remote terminal driver is built-in to Frank Hogg FLEX 
5.0:4. It is called the EXT command. At any FLEX +++ 
prompt you simply type EXT, [hex I],. . . ,[hex n] [E] and 
you have it made. [Hex 1] thru [hex n] are hex numbers sent 
to change the preset values for terminal parameters such as 
delay after from feed, delay between characters, etc. A com- 
plete description of this command is given in the Flex 
manual. 

rate of the external terminal. 

A typical remote initialization of FLEX would appear as 
follows: 

+++SETUP PB300<E> 
+++EXT„„2, 1 B,6 1 ,2, 1 B,60<E> 

The first command sets the Baud rate at 300. The next 
command enables the remote driver. The hex string 2, IB, 
61,2,1 B,60are codes to turnoffand on a printerattached to 
the terminal. This is a very nice feature of FLEX since more 
elaborate terminals also have a printer port. 

OS9 

I hated to save the best until last, but OS-9 is designed for 
remote operation. The previous operating systems are capa- 
ble of remote access with one limitation: Only one program 
and task can run at a time. Since OS-9 is both multi-user and 
multi-tasking, you can now think of your CoCo as a main- 
frame. While you are using BA S IC09 from the keyboard 
one of your budd ies can run PA SCA L from a remote termi- 
nal. Sounds unreal, doesn't it? Well, it's really simple. OS9 
has three commands that affect remote operation. TSMON 
is the command that implements time-sharing, or time- 
sharing monitor. LOGIN provides a security system for 
logging on the CoCo by remote users. XMODE provides 
initialization for non standard terminals. 

First, let us take a look at the LOGIN command. LOGIN 
requests a user name and password, which it checks against 
a validation file named "password." The system notation of 
the password file is /DO/ SYS/ password. A typical line in 
this file would appear as: 

DAN DOWN ARD, REMOTE, 1,1,/ DO/ CM DS,/ D 1 / DP 
D, SHELL 

From left to right the codes stand for user, password, user 
ID, priority, pathlist of initial execution directory, pathlist 



of initial data directory and the name of the initial program 
to execute. I n addition to LOGIN, each file in the system has 
attributes to protect against public access if you so desire. 

With XMODE, you can control the characteristics of the 
remote terminal, or to put it in proper perpective, you can 
initialize output to the remote terminal to match its parame- 
ters. The following parameters are initialized to default 
values but can be changed if desired: 



upc Upper or upper/ lower case 

bsb Erase on backspace 

bsl Backspace over line 

echo Input "echoed" to terminal 

If Automatic line feed 

pause Pause screen 

null Set null count 

pag Set page length 

bsp Backspace input character 

bse Backspace output character 

del Input delete line character 

bell Bell character 

eor End of record character 



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program arrives at the receiving end ready to 
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flaw in DLOADM is supplied in public domain* 

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Program produces a sorted list of variables 
and line numbers used in your basic program* 
Following each variable or line number will 
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November 1 983 the RAINBOW 119 



eof 
type 
reprint 
dup 
pes 
abort 
quit 
baud 



End of file character 
ACIA init. value 
Reprint line character 
Duplicate last input line char. 

Pause character 
Abort character 
Quit character 
Set Baud rate 



The Baud rate has a range of 1 10 to 19200. Tl is the device 
number of the RS-232 port, so a line to initialize the remote 
terminal at 300 Baud and generate line feeds would appear 
as: 

OS9:XMODE Tl baud = l If 

Finally we haveTSMON. Assuming you can use default 
values for the above commands, all you really have to do to 
activate the timesharing monitor is type "TSMON /T1&." 
The ampersand (&) is a modifier for concurrent execution. 
Any XMODE or LOGIN changes should be made before 
TSMON is activated , but as long as the Baud rate is correct, 
XMODE can be accessed by the remote user if you have 
given him access to that command. 

All of the OS-9 commands are well documented in the 
Radio Shack manual including the above three. At the sake 
of repeating myself, OS-9 is designed for remote operation, 
one of the reasons it is such a popular operating system for 
small computers. 



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Hardware 

One of the most difficult tasks facing you will be making 
an interface cable between your CoCo's RS-232 port and the 
remote terminal or modem. A few hints are in order. For 
RS-232 operation the serial 1/0 pinout is defined as follows: 



CoCo 
Pin I 
Pin 2 
Pin 3 
Pin 4 



Description 

Carrier Detect 
RS-232 IN 
Signal Ground 
RS-232 OUT 



RS-232(25 Pin) 
** 

Pin 2 
Pin 7 
Pin 3 



Jumpers may be required on the RS-232 connector. For a 
start, try shorting Pin 4 to 5 and Pins 6,8, and 20. If this fails, 
try to obtain assistance from a manual or from the 
manufacturer. 

Summary 

Remote operation of the CoCo is a reality for whatever 
reason you desire. Personally, I have always dreamed of 
connecting my ham radio to a modem under computer 
control and carrying on a QSO (contact) from my office at 
lunch. It's getting closer to reality. 1 still like to check into 
bulletin boards and see what's going on, but you might say 
that OS-9 will make them obsolete, but who knows? By the 
way, assuming you have enough disk space to initialize 
users, OS-9 will only accept 65535. Any more than that and 
you're out of luck. 



The listing: 



3F00 



00100 tttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt 

00110 * REMOTE * 

00120 #A REMOTE TERMINAL DRIVER # 
00130 #F0R THE COCO * 
00140 #DAN DONNARD RAINBOW 11/83 # 
00150 Htt#*t#f»tttMt#*tt#ttt####l#tt 
00160 ORG I3F00 

00165 ♦EQUATES FOR ROM AND RAM ADDRESSES 





016A 


00170 IH00K 


EQU 


$016A 




0167 


00180 0H00K 


EBU 


$0167 




FF22 


00190 PIA 


EQU 


<FF22 




A000 


00200 P0LCAT 


EBU 


tAOOO 




BE0C 


00210 RS0UT 


EBU 


I8E0C 




00E6 


00220 BAUD 


EBU 


»E6 




00C9 


00225 BAUDR 


EBU 


$C9 




006F 


00230 DEV 


EBU 


*6F 




0070 


00240 FLAG 


EfiU 


170 






00245 'INITIALIZE RAN HOOKS 


3F00 86 


C9 


00250 START 


LDA 


•BAUDR 


3F02 97 


E6 


00260 


STA 


(BAUD 


3F04 BE 


0168 


00270 


LDX 


1+0H00K 


3F07 AF 


8D 0035 


00280 


STX 


1+0RET2,PCR 


3F0B BE 


0168 


00290 


LDX 


1+IH00K 


3F0E AF 


8D 0064 


00300 


STX 


1+IRET2.PCR 


3F12 86 


7E 


00310 


LDA 


t$7E 


3FM B7 


016A 


00320 


STA 


I HOOK 


3F17 87 


0167 


00330 


STA 


0H00K 


3FIA 30 


8D 0008 


00340 


LEAX 


0UT,PCR 


3F1E 8F 


0168 


00350 


STX 


1+0H00K 


3F21 30 


8D 001D 


00360 


LEAX 


IN.PCR 


3F25 BF 


016B 


00370 


STX 


1+ I HOOK 


3F28 39 




00380 RET 


RTS 





1 20 the RAINBOW November 1 983 







00385 tOUTPUT CHARACTER IF DEV*0 


7 CCD 

3F58 


ZD 


rZ 


00600 


BCS 


1N4 






AATOi m! UPCDT 1 TklT CCCHO Tfl DCMflTC T\rilTPC 

00386 *I NScRT LINE FEEDS TO REnOTE DEVICE 








00605 tRS-232 INPUT ROUTINE 






00387 tUSE ROM SUBROUTINE 








AA/ Ai a A\/Tr 

00606 *BYTE 


INTO A RE6ISTER 


3F29 34 


02 


00390 OUT 


PSHS 


A 


7PC A 

3F5A 


on 

8D 


i r 

IE 


AA 1 t A nPf U 

00610 RSIN 


BSR 


HALF 


3F2B OD 


6F 


AAA AA 

00400 


TST 


<DEV 


3F5Q 


C6 


A 4 
01 


00620 


LDB 


11 


3F2D 26 


OE 


00410 


8NE 


0RET1 


3F5E 


74 

34 


A4 
04 


AA/.7A 

00630 


PSHS 


B 


3F2F 81 


OD 


00420 


CMPA 


MOD 


3F60 


AC 

4F 




AA L J A 

00640 


f*l DA 

CLRA 




3F31 26 


07 


00430 


BNE 


RENOUT 


7PJI 

orol 


on 
8D 


15 


AA t KA nr i kit 

00650 RS2N1 


BSR 


FULL 


3F33 86 


OA 


00440 


LDA 


f$OA 


3F63 


F6 


FF22 


AA 1 I A 

00660 


LDB 


PIA 


3F35 BD 


8E0C 


00450 


JSR 


RSOUT 


3F66 


56 




AA 17A 

00670 


nnnn 

R0RB 




3F38 86 


OD 


00460 


LDA 


HOD 


3F67 


24 


AO 

02 


AA /.OA 

00680 


BCC 


RSIN2 


3F3A BD 


8E0C 


00470 REN0UT 


JSR 


RSOUT 


oroY 




ov 


AA/.OA 

00690 


0RA 


0,S 


3F3D 35 


02 


00480 0RET1 


PULS 


A 




LO 
00 


60 


AA7AA 

00700 RSINZ 


ASL 


0,S 


3F3F 7E 


3F28 


00490 0RET2 


JNP 


RET 


7C L l\ 

3F6D 


14 

24 


F2 


AA7 1 A 

00710 


BCC 


RSIN1 






00495 tJNPUT FROM KEYBOARD OR RS-232 


3F6F 


7« 

32 


61 


00720 


LEAS 


1,S 






00496 *IF DEV=0 




7T7 4 

3F71 


B4 

84 


7F 


00730 


ANDA 


l$7F 






00497 tUSE RSIN FOR REMOTE INPUT 


7C77 

3F73 


7B 

35 


75 


AA7JA inrTi 

00740 IRET1 


PULS 


B,CC,X,PC 


3F42 OF 


70 


00500 IN 


CLR 


(FLAB 


3F75 


7E 


7C00 


AA7BA f BPT1 

00750 IRET2 


JNP 


RET 


3F44 OD 


6F 


00510 


TST 


<DEV 








00755 *BAUD 


RATE DELAYS 


3F46 26 


2D 


00520 


BNE 


IRET2 


3F78 


8D 


AA 

00 


AA7 I A PI II 1 

00760 FULL 


BSR 


HALF 


3F48 32 


62 


00530 


LEAS 


2,8 


7T7 A 

3F7A 


34 


AO 

02 


A A T T A Mil m 

00770 HALF 


PSHS 


A 


7PJA 74 

3F4A 34 


15 


00540 


PSHS 


B,CC,X 


7P7P 

3F7C 


96 


E6 


00780 


LDA 


<BAUD 


3F4C AD 


nr AAAA 

9F A000 


00550 INI 


JSR 


[POLCAT] 


3F7E 


O 4 

21 


rr 

FE 


A A ^ A A II Al ^ 4 

00790 HALF1 


BRN 


HALF1 


3F50 27 


02 


00560 


BEG 


RENIN 


7FOA 

3FB0 


J A 

4A 




A An A A 

00800 


DECA 




3F52 20 


IF 


00570 


BRA 


IRET1 


3F81 


26 


FB 


00810 


BNE 


HALF1 






00575 tCHECK FOR RENOTE INPUT 


3F83 


7* 

35 


82 


00820 


PULS 


PC,A 


3F54 F6 


FF22 


00580 RENIN 


LDB 


$FF22 






3F00 


00830 


END 


START 


3F57 56 




00590 


R0RB 




00000 TOTAL ERRORS 












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November 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 21 



COMMUNICATIONS 



Teach CoCo To 
Dial Up Some Fun 

By Ric Manning 



There's a device you can plug into your computer that 
can deliver free software, computer games, loads of 
technical advice and information and perhaps even a 
date for Saturday night. 

The device is called a modem and when it's matched with a 
terminal program and your Color Computer, it becomes 
your passport to a world of fun and information. But be 
careful. Data-tripping can be addictive and a computer can 
be like a teenager — once you teach it to use the telephone, 
it's hard to get it off. 

More than 1 ,000 other computers around the country are 
out there waiting for yours to dial up for a chat. A growing 
number of bulletin boards are run on Color Computers and 
dozens of others are loaded with information, merchandise 
and fun things to read about and do. 
Here are just a few examples: 

• The Mines of Moria bulletin board in Houston 
(713-871-8577) contains 17 tutorials that give you 
step-by-step instructions for solving some of the 
most popular adventure games. 

• Callers who dial up Dickinson's Movie Guide 
near Kansas City (913-432-5544) can get a brief 
review of the movies playing in the Kansas City area 
along with a list of the stars and a synopsis of the 
plots. 

• The Fantasy Plaza in Burbank, Calif., (213-244- 
1 100) is a computer set up like a large department 
store. Callers can shop for hardware and software 
(including CoCo products), videogame cartridges, 
health and beauty aids and even kitchen products. 

• The Big Top Games system in Milwaukee (414- 
259-9475) lets you play any of about 20 games while 
you're connected. 

• The flagship of the Dial-Your-Match system in 
Burbank, Calif., (213-842-3322) is an electronic 



( Ric Manning is the editor of Plumb, a newsletter that 
covers news and features about specialty bulletin 
boards and computer communications services. A 
five-issue subscription is $20 from Plumb, Box 300, 
Harrods Creek, Ky„ 40027.) 




matchmaker on which computer nuts can meet and 
get to know each other. 

Best of all, most of the computer bulletin board systems 
around the country contain a library of free programs that 
can be transmitted directly to your computer. 

A good example is Dr. D's CoCo Corner run by Gary 
Dunsford in Pensacola, Fla. (904-456-7195). The system 
contains 15 programs including a disk utility, copy pro- 
grams, several games such as Missile Command and Saucer 
and programs for creating graphic displays. 

Plugging In 

So howdo you find a seat at this banquet table of compu- 
ter goodies? 

First you need a modem. That's shorthand for modulator- 
demodulator, a device that translates the digital signal put 
out by a computer into an analog signal that can be carried 
by telephone lines. For the Color Computer, any modem 
that plugs into an RS232 port will do. 

Also, you'll need a program that tells your computer to 
act like a terminal — an extension of the computer you call. 

Some of the more popular terminal programs for the 
Color Computer are Colorcom/E, which is available on 
disk or ROM pack for about $50, and Nelson's Super Color 
Terminal, available on tape, disk or ROM pack for $50 to 
$70. Others include Color Term Plus, Autoterm, DFT 11 
and Videotex. 

And, of course, you'll need a telephone. The garden var- 
iety phone will do just fine, but one equipped with a Touch- 
Tone dialer will let you take advantage of long-distance 
discount services such as Sprint or MCI. 

Stepping Out 

Once your computer is all dressed up with the right hard- 
ware and software, youll want to find someplace fun for it to 
visit. You aren't limited tocalling only other Color Compu- 
ters. It makes no difference if the computer you call is an 
Apple, an Orange, a TRS-80 or even a large mainframe 
computer; in most instances, you'll be able to speak the same 
language. 

There are several ways of finding other computers to talk 
to. 

* Check The Source and CompuServe. Both publish lists 



1 22 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



of hundreds of bulletin board systems around the country. 
The lists, however, are not always up-to-date because sys- 
tems come and go faster than network television shows. 
Notices of new boards are often posted in the Color Compu- 
ter Special Interest Group section. 

* Try a specialized newsletter such as PLUMB, which 
contains news and features about all sorts of computer 
communications systems plus a list of 100 bulletin boards 
coded to show their features and special interests. 

* Many CoCo boards contain a list of other boards that 
are run on a CoCo or contain software and technical infor- 
mation of interest to CoCo owners. 

* Check the letters section in the Rainbow. CoCo owners 
who start their own bulletin board system often send in 
letters announcing their boards and listing their phone 
numbers and hours of operation. 

Your modem will know it has reached an available board 
when it hears a high-pitched tone. Put your computer into 
terminal mode and the two computers will shake handsand 
determine if they are speaking the same language. 

Most boards will introduce themselves, then ask if you 
have a password. If youVe a new caller, it will ask for your 
name, the city youVe calling from and perhaps your phone 
number. Passwords are often required to use some of the 
features, such as the download section. If you plan to be a 
frequent caller, it's a good idea to ask for one. 

Sysop Dru Simon makes callers pass an addition test if 
they want to enter her "adult" sections. She asks a series of 
questions designed to prove that callers are 2 1 years old. If 
you can't answer her questions, you don't get in. And 
sof tware-seller Tom Mix says callers have to make five visits 
to his board before they are allowed to begin downloading 
software. 

Once aboard, the system will show you a set of commands 
f or the f unctions it supports. One command may adjust the 
screen width, another will move you from one section to 
another, and so on. 

Here's a sample of some of the commandsfound on many 
Color Computer boards: 



Application Lets you apply for a password 
Configure Sets screen display parameters 
E-Mail Lets you send messages to other board 

users 

Help Just what it says 

Merchandise Catalog shopping section 
Time Tells you how long you've been on the 

board 

View system Displays information about the board 

Board numbers Displays a list of other boards 

Download Lets you capture programs f rom the board 

Goodbye Logs you off the system 

Logs Shows a list of the board's regular callers 

Sysop page Calls the board operator for an online chat 

Upload Lets you contribute a program 

Want ads Just like the newpaper 

? Displays the command menu again 

If you get confused, try the Help command or page the 
sysop who can break in, talk directly with you and help you 
find your way around. 

Tech Talk 

Many of the early systems were literally bul Jetin boards — 
electronic versions of the push-pin-and-paper variety where 



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PCLEAR 80 is very serious about the Color Conputer! 
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If you prefer to write your own programs* we also 
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of UORKSRVER is in it's full-screen editor and dynamic 
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*** NEW! Ue are happy to add the excellent utilities frtm 
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Of course we still carry a nuaber of fine iawes. And 
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WORKS AVER (Platinum Software) $35.08 TAPE 

The best of all the programmer's utilities. 

64K JJPB RflDES 
"F* BOARD $ 69 f £*** , * mf **** H ******** 

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Ue don't just stick the chips in— we support you. 
Our prices include priae 200 NS chips, installation, two 
pages explaining what a 64K CoCo is all about, and ROM 
MOVE* a prograM that will give you 40K meeory from BASIC. 
You can trust your Conputer to PCLEAR 80. 

ALL PROGRAMS 16K NON-EXT. UNLESS NOTED 
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ALL CANADIAN ORDERS ADD $5.00; ALL OVERSEAS ORDERS ADD 
$10.00 SHIPPING. 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 123 



notices of club meetings, equipment for sale and help 
wanted ads were posted. 

Ward Christiansen and Randy Suess, two Apple compu- 
ter and ham radio hobbyists in Chicago, are credited with 
writing the first BBS software for microcomputers. The 
board was originally designed as an information clearing- 
house for members of the Chicago Area Computer Hobby- 
ist Exchange Club and their CBBS board (3 1 2-545-8086) is 
still populated largely by want ads, meeting notices and 
requests for technical advice. 

Lee F. Blitch said he wrote a BBS program for his Color 
Computer virtually out of self defense. "1 had become a 
telephone junkie. I was always calling other boards." His 
board can be examined between 6:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. 
(404-378-4410). 

Blitch said he has sold about 15 copies of his BBS pro- 
gram. Interest in telecommunications is relatively new 
among Color Computer users, he said, "but I think you'll see 
more and more of it." 

Potential sysops, though, should be willingtoputinsome 
hard work and a good bit of money. "The amount of work 
needed to keep a board running is tremendous," said Mar- 
shall Goldberg, founder of The Boston Bullet, a TRS-80 
board. "The software has to be maintained perfectly and 
your hardware is running 24 hours a day." 

Blitch blamed the demands of the BBS for overheating 
and his vintage 1980 CoCo. 

"I would warn anyone interested in running their own 
board that if they don't have a lot of time on their hands, 
they better not get into it," said Greg Moore, who runs a 
Color Computer board in Arlington, Mass. (61 7-646-6809). 

At least three BBS programs are available for the Color 

I Jkukoka I 
So^tuict/ie 

49 BROOKLAND AVE. 
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FAMILY GAMES 

FOR 16K AND 32K COLOR COMPUTER 

STOCKBROKER — Up to 6 players can play the stock 
market. For 16K or 32K ECB. The 32K is in High-Res 
Graphics. 

CRIBBAGE — For 2 or 4 players. In High-Res 
Graphics! (for 32K). 

BATTLE — Will you get bombed before you can find 
all the ships? An extremely entertaining game for the 
family. 

COLORMIND — Up to 4 players challenge for hidden- 
colors. 

REMREM— Challenge your friends. Who can remem- 
ber the longest color sequence? 
CONCEN — Challenge the computer or a friend to a 
good of game of concentration. 

ALL GAMES only $20.00 or ANY TWO for $35.00 
ALSO FROM^uftOrtoSo^tUJafte: 

MR. COPY — A quality copier written in M.L that will 
make backup tape copies. MR. COPY is capable of 
making up to 99 copies in one loading! $25.00 
ROMDISK — If you have a modified 32K C.C. machine 
ROMDISK will allow you to load your R.S. Rom Packs 
, from a disk! S20.00 

I I 1 

1 24 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



Computer. For details on purchasing them, call Blitch's 
board; the Silicon Rainbow board in Sunnyvale, Calif., 
(408-783-6809) or Steve Odneal's board in Kansas City 
(816-358-6222). 

Variety And Spice 

Although most boards are stocked with technical advice, 
some offer their own, unique features. Some may contain 
stock market reports, movie reviews or online games. Dr. 
D's board in Pensacola, for example, has a collection of 
novelty peeks and pokes for the Color Computer and the 
Doctor's own computer industry rumors and inside dope. 

Some systems are also devoted to particular specialties: 

* Education-80 in Greenwich, Conn. (203-629-4375) 
keeps its eye on education conferences around the Northeast 
and new developments in the use of computers in education. 

* The Joke Byte board in Atlantic City (609-927-5922) is 
loaded with some really awful jokes. 

* The Apple-Med board in Iowa City (319-353-6528) 
contains postings about medical conferences and reviews of 
medical hardware and software. 

* The Magnetic Fantasies board in Los Angeles (213- 
388-5198) is devoted to discussions about science fiction 
films, literature and software. 

* Want to take a trip to the moon? Check out the Gas-Net 
board in Greenbelt, Md. (301-344-9156). It's a board that 
caters to people who want to keep up to date on space flight 
programs. 

* The Notebook in West Palm Beach (305-686-4862) is a 
place for writers and editors to exchange messages about 
freelance assignments. 

What's Ahead 

Several retailers of computer products have found that a 
BBS is good for business. Moore and Dru Simon said 
catalog sales of products listed on their boards help pay the 
board expenses. 

And Mix, owner of Tom Mix Software in Grand Rapids, 
Mich., said his new board (616-364-8217) is a convenience 
f or both his business and its customers. They can call when 
rates are lowest "and we don't have to answer the phone 
after five o'clock." 

Bob Rosen's business, Spectrum Projects of Woodhaven, 
N. Y., grew out of Connection-80, a board run on the Model 
I that was the first board to exclusively serve the Color 
Computer. Rosen has now added two other boards to his 
original (212-441-3755). 

Rosen and Mix are both working toward the time when a 
large amount of software will be sold and delivered via 
modem. A couple of other firms are already running such 
systems. One is The Telephone Software Connection in 
Torrence, Calif, (21 3-516-9432) which has developed a sys- 
tem for high-speed transmissions to Apples. 

Mix said he believes the day will come when vast amounts 
of software will be purchased that way. Mix said he's work- 
ing on ways to prevent rip-offs f rom such a system. 

Others are using bulletin boards for other commercial 
purposes, such as delivering customized stock reports or 
special newsletters to members. Howard Young is a former 
psychologist who explored using a bulletin board to post a 
newsletter about software for investors. 

Young said he thinks the frontiers of electronic informa- 
tion exchange haven't yet been reached . "I think we're at the 
infant stages of something that will be so explosive that 
people will wonder why it took us so long to see it." 



GRAPHICS 



16K 



the 

ate 

RAINBOW 



How To Be A Printer Artist 
In One Easy Lesson 



By Michael J. Himowitz 



Ideas for programs can turn up in strange places. In this 
case, it was the bottom of a cardboard box of 20-year- 
old junk that I was rescuing from a flooded basement. 
There I stumbled upon two books entitled Typewriter 
Mystery Games that I had bought while I was taking a 
typing course in junior high. They were very simple but, as I 
dimly remembered, a lot of fun. Each contained sets of 
instructions for 15 different typewriter pictures: type so 
many Xs, so many spaces, etc. The gimmick was that you 
didn't know what you were creating until you were almost 
through. 

Immediately I thought of the computer and the advan- 
tages it would have in using this kind of instruction. First, 
when you're using a typewriter, you often don't know if 
youVe made a mistake until it's too late — then you have to 
start over from scratch. And even when you have finished a 
drawing, there's no way to reproduce it, short of using a 
copier or retyping it. Creating your own drawings is even 
more difficult for the same reasons. 

The computer, on the other hand, gives you the potential 
for retaining a drawing in memory and allowing you to edit 
it. Eventually I developed several techniques fordoing this, 
the simplest of which is the program listed below. It is the 
first step toward developing a library of printer artistry. 

Also printed here are three different Printer Mysteries. I 
won't say much about them, other than they're appropriate 
for the season. Look for more mysteries in future issues of 
the Rainbow. These, by the way, were created by Julius 
Nelson, author of many typing textbooks and the founding 
father of the craft known as "Artyping. "They are reprinted 
with his encouragement and permission. 

Here's how to use the program: 

When you run Printer Art you will get a menu with six 
choices: 

1. CREATE A DRAWING 

2. SAVE TO TAPE OR DISK 

3. ENTER FROM TAPE OR DISK 

4. PRINT DRAWING IN MEMORY 

5. EDIT DRAWING 

(Michael Himowitz is a Washington correspondent 
for the Baltimore Evening Sun and proprietor of Fed- 
eral Hill Software. He uses his computer extensively 
and has written several programs including "Co Co 
Accountant. " He is interested in meeting people who 
use their computers in journalism.) 



This is what the various options do: 

1) CREATE A DRAWING— If you are using the pro- 
gram for the first time, begin with this option. The computer 
will ask if you want to print out each line you enter as you go 
along. This is a good way to check on your progress, particu- 
larly if you're creating your own drawings. But as you get 
more familiar with the program, you'll probably want to 
wait until the end and correct all your mistakes at once. 

The computer will then ask you if you want to start a new 
drawing or continue entering an existing drawing. If you 
have a drawing in memory, starting a new one will erase 
everything you have already entered. So, save one drawing 
to tape or disk before beginning another one. 

If you are starting a new drawing, the computer will 
immed iately prompt you f or the first line. Select the mystery 
drawing you wish to enter and look for the first line. Well 
use thefirstline of No. 1 asan example. The instructions are 
as follows: 

44SP 2% 



Follow the instructions, type in 44 spaces ("SP"stands for 
space) and 2 %s. Then hit the ENTER key. Do not put 
additional spaces at the end of a line. When you hit ENTER, 
the program will ask you if the line is correct. If it is correct, 
type"Y"and the computer willprompt youforthenext line. 
If it is not correct, type u N"and the computer will ask you to 
enter the entire line again. Line 2 consists of 43 spaces and 4 
%s, and so on. Other lines include punctuation marks such 
as colons and periods. 

If you are doing your own printer drawings, do not enter 
lines of more than 80 characters unless you have a printer 
with a larger carriage and have instructed it to accept lines of 
more than 80 columns. 

The program has two features which will speed up your 
work. If the line you are entering is identical to the previous 
line, just type the word SAM E and hit the ENTER key when 
prompted f or the line. If the line you are entering is identical 
to another line earlier in the drawing, just type in the number 
of the line you wish to duplicate. For example, if you are on 
line 24 and it is the same as line 12, just enter the number 12. 

You may create a drawing up to 80 lines long. When you 
are finished with the drawing or want to return to the main 
menu at any time, just hit the ENTER key with no other 
input when prompted for a line. 



1 26 th« RAINBOW November 1 983 



V.7.V. 



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•/.*/. y.7.7. 

XXX V/.'/.-J.V.V.-A XX 
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7.7.7. 7.:C XV. 7.V.7.7. V.V. V.V. 7.7. 
7. V. 7/X7. XV. V. 7.7. 7.7.7.7.7. 7. V.V. V/. %7. 
7. V.V.7. 7.XX 7. 7.7.7. * V. V. VLV. 'X V.V/. V. V. 7. 
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r«XXW%XTtV.V. XX XX 7.T.X7.XXV.XXXXV4XXXXXXXXXX 

* *** 3%j xv.7.xxxx xx xx xxxxxxxxx xxrixxxxxx 

L-iX XXX 7.XXXXXX XX XX xxxxv.xXX^xxx xxx x 
LXX XX W.XXXX "* XX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXttW 

■vxv xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxv.-. 

X XX XX X V. XXX XXXX XX XX xx xx xx mn 
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X X X XX V- XX V. V.V. VI It V.V. X V. 

v. 7.7.V. v. v.v. v. xv. y.xxv.7.xv.v. 

7. X X X X X 7. ' X X X X V. /! 7. 7. X X V.XX XXXV. 
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XXX XX X X XX XX X X XX XX X XXX X x x xxxxx X 
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V. X V.V. V.V. X V.V. 

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This American Eagle is an example of what a drawing will 
look like but this /sho/ one of the three mysteries appearing 
in this article. 

2) SAVE TO TAPE OR DISK-The computer will ask 
you whetheryou are using tape or disk (if you are usingdisk, 
you still might want to make a tape backup to protect 
against disk crashes). When you have answered, the compu- 
ter will ask you forthe name of the drawing. Entera name of 
no more than seven letters. If you are using disk, do not put 
an extension on the name, as the program will automatically 
add the extension k ' ART" to your filename. 




Sagtiaro 

Software 



7331 E. Beverly Drive • Tucson, RZ 85710 
(602) 885-6508 



New This M onth 

Music 
Reader 



Can 

Retail 34 95 
Om 27.75 



Dttk 

Retail 39 95 
Ourt 31.75 



Super 
Astrology 



Retail 24 95 

Oun 19.75 



Retail 29 95 

Ourt 23.75 



Adventure In 

Wonderland 18.75 

TeeeoffT 18.75 

Omni Clone 29.75 

Color Kit 26.75 

Super Astrology 14.75 

Decipher 14.75 
Disk Manager (only) 18.75 

Disk Master disk 18.75 
Disk Zapper (only) 26.75 

Football 14.75 

Shaft 18.75 

The Nake Gamer 16.75 

Monsters & Magic 14.75 

Viking 14.75 

Disk Add $3 To Tape - Amdek >6To Tape 



Amdek diie av/aildbte add $3 #0 'program Add 
SI X per it«m shipprjg i$4 00 mux) Az 
residents add 7% tax 



We carry Prickly-Pear, Pctrocci Freelance Associates, and 
Sugar Software. Authors! Check with us about royalties 



The program will prompt you to prepare the tape or disk 
(inserta tape and depressthe RECORDand PLAY buttons 
if you are using a recorder). Then hit ENTER to save the 
data. When the drawing has been saved, you will be returned 
to the main menu. 

3) ENTER FROM TAPE OR DISK-This is similar to 
the SAVE function, the only difference being that you 
should depress only the PLAY button of the recorder. If you 
are using disk, do not put an extension on the filename. The 
program will do this for you. 

4) PRINT DRAWING IN MEMORY-This is the 
payoff. The program will ask how many copies you want. 
Enter the number, then position the paper so the printer 
head is at the very top and hit the ENTER key. After a brief 
delay, while the program figures out the centering parame- 
ters, you will be told to hit ENTER again. The program will 
then print out the picture, centered horizontally and verti- 
cally. 

5) EDIT DRAWING— When you have finished and 
printed a drawing, you may notice errors or omissions. This 
function will allow you to correct, delete or add lines to the 
drawing. 

To change a line, use option I . When prompted, enter the 
number of the line you wish to change. The computer will 
print that line on the screen and prompt you for a new one. 
To delete the line, just type in DEL and hit the ENTER key. 
To change it, type the whole line again (correctly this time) 
and hit the ENTER key. At this point, the computer will ask 
if you want to change another line. If you do, type "Y"and 
the computer will repeat the process. If not, type "N" and 
you will return to the main menu. 

To insert a line, use option 2. The computer will ask you 
where you want the line inserted. Enter the number of the 
line immediately preceding the line you wish to insert. For 
example, if you want to insert a line after line 23, ENTER 
the number 23. Then type in the new line and hit the ENTER 
key. Here the program will ask you if the new line youVe 
entered is correct. If it is not, the computer will go back to 
the start of the process, which meansyou mustagain type in 
the number of the line after which you want the new line 
inserted. 

Odds 'n Ends 

The program will work with any printer. If you have a 
printer with different fonts, you might want to experiment 
by typing in directly the command for the font you want 
before loading the program. It will not, however, work with 
expanded 10 cpi fonts. Also, use of the condensed font 
available with Epson, Gemini and Okidata printers will 
result in a somewhat distorted picture because the type itself 
is more elongated than the standard size. 



Now YOU can create custom 

overlays for your programs 

USEABLE ON BOTH SIDES - ACCEPTS PENCIL OR INK-4MIL MYLAR 

BLANK KEYBOARD OVERLAYS* 



.KbO Each 
V50 for 10 
iDOtor 50 



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S»M»to«yiuLC,S.tjL9<6t 



I *1J00 to all ordors for shipping & handling 
- Sjdonts add i& solos tax 



1 23 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



I have also encountered a problem of some columns not 
lining up because my printer is set to receive at 2400 Baud 
(standard is 600 Baud). If you are running this fast and have 
trouble, you might want to poke in a longer line printer 
delay {POKE 151J28.POKE 152,0) to straighten things 
out. 

If you look carefully at the program, you may notice that 
it converts leading spaces into marks and colons into 
u =" signs. This is because I/O routines have trouble with 
these characters. The program converts them back to the 
proper characters before printing. 

For those with a further interest in the subject, a complete 
four-progrdm cassette and tutorial with 12 ready-to-run 
pictures and instructions for 49 more are available for 
$19.95 from Federal Hill Software, 825 William St., Balti- 
more, Md., 21230. 



The listing: 

1 » PRINTER ARTIST 



.0081 

248 0386 

600.... 05E5 

950 0877 

1355 . . . 0B36 
END . . . 0O72 



2 ' (C) 1983 BY MICHAEL J. HIMOW 
ITZ 

3 » FOR PERSONAL USE OF RAINBOW 
READERS ONLY 

5 PCLEAR1 
10 CLEAR 5000 
20 DIM L*<80> 
25 A=l : NN=-2 

30 CLS: PRINT " PRINTER A 

RTIST" : PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" 1 . CREA 
TE A DRAWING": PR INT "2. SAVE TO T 
APE OR DISK": PR I NT" 3. ENTER FROM 
TAPE OR DISK":PRINT"4. PRINT DR 
AWING IN MEMORY" :PRINT"5. EDIT D 
RAWING" 

35 IF NF*="" THEN 40 ELSE PRINTS 

480-32, "current file: " +NF* 

40 CH*=INKEY*: IF CH*="" THEN 40 

50 ON VAL<CH*> GOTO 200, 400, 60 

0, 800, 1000 

60 GOTO 40 

200 CLS: PRINT" CREATE A DRAW IN 
G":GOSUB 15300 

203 PRINT: PRINT" 1. START A NEW D 
RAWING": PRINT "2. CONTINUE CURREN 
T DRAWING" 

204 HG*=INKEY*: IF HG*="" THEN 20 



I The Original FLEX "for Color Computers 



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' Save RS Basic from RAM to Disk 

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Languages Available 
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II you are tired ol playing games on your TRS-80C Color Computer or find that you arc 
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1 



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Micro Tech Prods Inc LOWER CASE ROM Adapter 
Radio Shack BASIC Version T.I ROM 
Radio Shack Extended Bas»c ROM 



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Key Combination will give you what luncdon: with USER ORIENTED functions to make using 
the Operating System natural like having the Computer AUTOMATICALLY determine what 
type ot Disk is being used in what type ol Disk Drive and working accordingly rather that you 
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November 1983 Ihe RAINBOW 129 



4 

205 IF VAL(H6*)=1 THEN A=l 

220 FOR X=A TO 80 

230 PRINT-LINE NO. "X: LINE INPUT 

L*(X> 

233 IF L*(X)="SAME" THEN L*(X)=L 
*(X-1) 

234 V=VAL(L*(X) ) : IF V>0 THEN L* ( 
X)=L*<V> 

235 IF PL=1 AND L*(X)<>"" THEN P 
RINT#-2,L»(X) 

240 IF L*(X)="" THEN 350 

243 GOSUB 245: GOTO 260 

245 IF MID*<L*<X> , 1, 1)=" " THEN 

MID*(L*(X) , 1, 1)="<" 

247 FOR B-l TO LEN (L* (X ) > : IF MID 
*(L*(X) ,B, 1)=": " THEN MID*(L*(X) 
, B, 1)="=" 

248 NEXT B 

249 RETURN 

260 PRINT"IS THIS CORRECT? (Y/N) 

II 

270 CR*=INKEY*: IF CR*="" THEN 27 
0 

280 IF CR»<>"Y" THEN PRINT "CORRE 
CTED":GOTO 230 
290 NEXT X 
300 GOTO 30 

350 X=X-l:A=X+l:GOTO 30 



400 CLSIPRINT" SAVE DRAWING": PR 
INT: PR I NT "TAPE (T) OR DISK <D>?" 

401 GOSUB 405 

402 INPUT "NAME OF DRAWING" ; NF*: 
NF*=LEFT*(NF«,7> 

403 GOTO 430 

405 MD*=INKEY*: IF MD»="" THEN 40 
5 

410 IF MD«="T" THEN MD=-1 ELSE I 
F MD*="D" THEN MD=1 ELSE GOTO 40 
5 

420 IF MD=1 THEN ZR«="DISK" ELSE 

IF MD=-1 THEN ZR*="TAPE" 
425 RETURN 

430 PRINT" PREPARE "+ZR*: INPUT "A 

ND PRESS enter ";PE 

440 PR I NT "SAVING "+NF»+" TO "ZR* 

450 IF MD=1 THEN IF RIGHT»<NF*,3 

)<>"DAT" THEN NF*=NF*+ " /ART " 

460 OPEN "0", #MD, NF* 

470 PR I NT#MD , X : FOR K=l TO X:PRIN 

T#MD,L*<K) :NEXT K : CLOSE#MD : GOTO 

30 

600 CLS: PR I NT "ENTER FROM TAPE OR 
DISK" 

605 PR I NT " TAPE <T> OR DISK <D>?" 
610 GOSUB 405: INPUT" NAME OF DRAW 
I NG " ; NF* : NF*=LEFT* ( NF* , 7 ) : I F MD= 
1 THEN NF*=NF*+" /ART " 



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1 30 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



615 PR INT" PREPARE "+ZR*: INPUT "A 

ND PRESS enter ";PE 

620 PR I NT "LOAD INS "+NF*+" FROM " 

ZR*" 

630 OPEN "I",#MD,NF*: INPUT#MD, X 

: FOR K=l TO X:LINE INPUT#MD, L* <K 

):NEXT K:CLOSE#MD:GOTO 30 

800 CLS:PRINT"PRINT "+NF*: PRINT: 

INPUT "HOW MANY COPIES";BB 

810 PRINT"POSITION TOP OF PAPER" 

: PR I NT "AT PRINTER HEAD": INPUT "A 

ND PRESS enter ";PE 

815 GOSUB 2000 

820 FOR F=l TO BB:CLS: PRINT NF*+ 
" COPY NO. "F 

830 KK=66-X:AA=INT<KK/2> 

840 FOR R=l TO AA: PRINT#NN: NEXT 

R 

850 FOR K=l TO X 

860 IF MID*(L*(K) , 1, 1)="<" THEN 

MID*(L*(K) , 1, 1)=" " 

870 FOR B=l TO LEN <L* <K> > : IF MID 

*(L*(K) ,B, 1)="=" THEN MID*(L*(K) 

,B, 1)=": " 

880 NEXT B 

930 PRINT#-2,TAB<MR)L*<K) 
935 FOR W=l TO 30: NEXT W 
940 NEXT K 

945 FOR F=l TO AA: PRINT#NN: NEXT 
950 PR I NT#NN 
960 GOTO 30 

1000 CLS: PRINT" EDIT A LINE": PR 

INT: PRINT" 1. CHANGE A LINE":PRIN 

T"2. INSERT A LINE" 

1030 Q*=INKEY*:IF Q*="" THEN 103 

0 

1040 ON VAL<Q*> GOTO 1100,1300 
1050 GOTO 1000 

1100 CLS: PR I NT "CHANGE A LINE": PR 
INT: INPUT "WHICH LINE?";WN 
1120 PR I NT "CURRENT LINE" : PRINTL* 
<WN) 

1130 PR I NT "ENTER CORRECTED LINE" 
: LINE INPUT J* 

1140 IF J*="DEL" THEN 1150 ELSE 
1200 

1150 FOR K=WN TO X-l : L* (K) =L* <K+ 
1):NEXT K:X=X-l:A=X+l:GOTO 1280 
1200 L* ( WN ) = J * : GOSUB 1400 
1280 PR I NT "ANOTHER CHANGE?" 
1283 AC*=INKEY*: IF AC*="" THEN 1 
283 

1285 IF AC*="Y" THEN 1100 ELSE 3 
0 

1300 CLS: PR I NT "INSERT A LINE": PR 
I NT : PR I NT "LI NE AFTER WHICH" : INPU 
T "NEW LINE WILL BE INSERTED" ;WN 
1310 PRINT "ENTER NEW LINE": LINE 
INPUT J* 

1315 PRINT:PRINT"IS THIS CORRECT 



?" 

1320 RC*=INKEY*: IF RC*= ,,M THEN 1 
320 

1325 IF RC*<>"Y" THEN 1300 
1330 IL=WN+1 

1340 FOR K-X+l TO IL+1 STEP-1:L 
* <K)=L* (K-l > : NEXT K:L*(IL)=J* 
1350 GOSUB 1500 
1355 X=X+l: A=X+1 
1360 GOTO 30 

1400 IF MID*(L*(WN) , 1, 1)=" " THE 

N MID*(L*(WN) , 1, 1)="<" 

1410 FOR B= 1 TO LEN (L* (WN) > 

1420 IF MID*(L*(WN),B, 1)=": " THE 

N MID*(L*(WN) ,B, 1)=" = " 

1430 NEXT B 

1440 RETURN 

1500 IF MID*(L*(IL> , 1, 1)=" " THE 

N MID*(L*(IL) , 1, 1)="<" 

1510 FOR B=l TO LEN(L*(IL> > : IF M 

ID*(L*(IL) ,B, 1)=": " THEN MID*(L* 

(ID ,B, 1 ) = " = " 

1520 NEXT B 

1530 RETURN 

2000 MJ=0 

2010 FOR K=2 TO X 

2020 IF LEN(L*(K> > =>LEN (L* (K-l > > 
THEN MJ=LEN(L*(K) > :MR=INT( (80-M 
J) /2) 



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Specializing In Educational Software 
For TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

CLOCK ARITHMETIC— for kindergarten through third grade; auto 
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MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS 32K EXTENDED BASIC $24.95 

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9 * 9, 0 x 0 thru 1 2 * 1 2, and 0 * 0 thru 15 * 15); timed, scored, with two 
chances for correct answer; graphic and musical rewards provided. 
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS 16K EXTENDED BASIC $24.95 

BEAT THE COMPUTER— for third grade thru adult; auto load; timed 
drill on themultiplication tablesO x 0 to 12 * 12, Program isdivided into 
4 sequential parts: 1 ) factors 1 * 1 thru 6 * 6; 2) 0 * 0 thru 1 2 * 1 2; 3) 6 * 6 
thru 9><9; and 4) 10 * 10 thru 12 * 12. Musical reward upon beating 



computer; An exciting way to learn. Revised May 83. 
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS 16K EXTENDED BASIC $19.95 

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ALSO AVAILABLE CASSETTE 

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Number and Color Word Drill 19.95 

Graphic Alphabet/Audio 24.95 

Numbers Before, Between and After 24.95 

Addition Drill 24.95 



ALL programs developed by educators and field tested. 
Add $1 .00 per cassette for shipping and handling, Tennessee residents 
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chure. Mail Check or Money Order to: 

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5705 Chesswood Drive, Knoxville, TN 37912 
Phone 615-688-4865 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 131 



2030 NEXT K 

2040 IF MJ=>80 THEN MR=0 
2050 RETURN 
2060 FOR K= 1 TO X 
2070 PRINT#-2, USING "###"; K; : PR 
INT#-2, " "+L*<K) 
2080 NEXT K:GOTO 25 
15300 PR I NT: PR I NT "DO YOU WANT TO 
PR I NT": PR I NT "LINES WHEN ENTERED 
? (Y/N)" 

13310 PL*«INKEY*: IF PL*="" THEN 
15310 

15320 IF PL*="Y" THEN PL-1 ELSE 
PL=0 

15330 RETURN 



Printer Mystery 1 Halloween Printer Surprise 



LINE NO. 

1 - 44sp2% 

2 - 43sp4% 

3 - 43sp5% 

4 — 44sp6% 

5 - 45sp5% 

6 — 45sp6% 

7 - 46sp6% 

8 - 46sp 7% 7sp 2% 

9 45sp 9% 5sp 3% 

10 - 45sp 16% 

11 - 45sp 16% 

12 - 45sp 14% 

13 - 42sp 17% 

14 - 40sp 20% 

15 — 40sp21% 

16 — 43sp 16% 

17 - 34sp26% 

18 — 31sp28% 

19 - 28sp28% 

20 - 26sp30% 

21 - 24sp32% 

22 - 22sp34% 

23 - 20sp36% 

24 - 18sp39% 

25 - 16sp43% 

26 - 15sp46% 

27 - 14sp54% 

28 — 10sp65% 3sp 2% 

29 - 5sp 74% 

30 - 79% 

31 - lsp77% 

32 — 2sp 23% 3sp 45% 

33 — 8sp 14% 6sp 44% 

34 — 28sp 36% 3sp 4% 

35 — 28sp37% 

36 - 28sp36% 

37 - 29sp34% 

38 — 30sp32% 

39 - 30sp32% 

40 - 32sp30% 

41 - 37sp24% 

42 - 29sp 2% 2sp 27% 

43 - 25sp34% 

44 — 14sp 5% lsp 12% 2sp 24% 



The following are instruc- 
tions, not BASIC listings. For 
instance, line one instructs 
you to hit the [SPACEBAR] 
44 times and the percent key 
two times. 



45 




8sp 23% 2sp 24% 9sp 3% 


46 




28%3sp 26%3sp 10% 


47 




25% 4sp 40% 


48 




lsp 21% 4sp 40% 


49 




3spl5% 4sp39% 


50 




3sp 14% 4sp 24% 


51 




4sp 9% 4sp 23% 


52 




6sp 5% 3sp 23% 


53 





6sp 3% 3sp 22% 


54 




6sp2%4sp 16% 


55 




14sp 8% 



Printer Mystery 2 

LINE 1: 24SP 3 
LINE 2: 23SP 1 
LINE 3: 22SP 1 
LINE 4: 21SP 1 
LINE 5: 20SP 1 
LINE 6: 19SP 1 
LINE 7: 13SP 1 
LINE 8: 13SP 1 
LINE 9: 13SP 1 
LINE 10: 11SP f 
LINE 11: 10SP t 
LINE 12: 
LINE 13: 
LINE 14: 
LINE 15: 
LINE 16: 
LINE 17: 
LINE 18: 
LINE 19: 
LINE 20: 
LINE 21: 
LINE 22: 



5SP 5X 






ISP IX ISP 


IX 


4SP IX 2SP 5X 


2SP IX 2SP 


IX 


3SP IX 


3SP IX 3SP 


IX 


2SP IX 


4SP IX 4SP 


IX 


ISP IX 


3SP 5X 2SP 


5X 




4SP IX 4SP 


5X 


2SP 5X 


3SP IX 5SP 


5X 


2SP 5X 


2SP IX 6SP 


$X 


2SP 5X 


7SP 5X 2SP 


7X 




9SP IX 6SP 


IX 


3SP 2X 



IX 8SP 7X 7SP 5X 2SP 5X 2SP 2X 
ISP 2X 5SP 8X 7SP 5X 2SP 5X 3SP 2X 
2SP 2X 3SP 9X 7SP 5X 2SP 5X 3SP 5X 
3SP 4X 16SP 5X 2SP 5X 3SP 6X 
3SP 13X 7SP 5X 2SP 5X 3SP 7X 
4SP 16X 5SP IX 6SP IX 5SP 8X 
5SP 28X 2SP 8X 
7SP 34X 
10SP 29X 
11SP 26X 
11SP 24X 



Printer Mystery 3 
LINE 1 



LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 
LINE 10: 
LINE 11: 
LINE 12: 
LINE 13: 
LINE 14: 
LINE 15: 
LINE 16: 
LINE 17: 
LINE 18: 
LINE 19: 
LINE 20: 
LINE 21: 
LINE 22: 
LINE 23: 
LINE 24: 
LINE 25: 
LINE 26: 



10SP 3U 2SP 3U 3SP 2U ISP 3U ISP 3U 
ISP 2U 3SP 3U 2SP 3U 
8SP 13U 2: 9U 2: 13U 
8SP 14U 2: 7U 2: 14U 
8SP 15U 2: 5U 2: 15U 
8SP 16U 2: 3U 2: 16U 
8SP 16U 1: 5$ 1: 16U 
7SP 12U 4SP 9$ 4SP 12U 
3SP 13U 5SP 13$ 5SP 13U 
3SP 12U 2SP 21$ 2SP 12U 
3SP 5U 9SP 21$ 9SP 5U 
3SP 4U 9SP 23$ 9SP 4U 
3SP 4U 9SP 23$ 9SP 4U 
3SP 4U 9SP 23$ 9SP 4U 
3SP 4U 8SP 12$ II 12$ 8SP 4U 
3SP 4U 8SP 12$ II 12$ 8SP 4U 
3SP 4U 7SP 13$ 11 13$ 7SP 4U 
3SP 4U 5SP 15$ II 15$ 5SP 4U 
ISP 7U 2SP 18$ 11 16$ 2SP 7U 
ISP 7U ISP 20$ 11 16$ ISP 7U 
ISP 7U ISP 21$ 11 15$ ISP 7U 
ISP 3U ISP 3U 17SP 5$ 17SP 3U ISP 3U 
ISP 3U ISP 3U 18SP 3$ 18SP 3U ISP 3U 
ISP 3U ISP 5U 35SP 5U ISP 3U 
ISP 53U 
55U 

55U ^ 



132 



the RAINBOW November 1 983 



Game Master's Apprentice 



Design Your Own 
Champion 

By Bob Albrecht 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The Carefully Contrived Superhero 

In the game of Champions * you create a superhero like 
Batman or Wonder Woman or Spiderman. Your character 
has eight basic characteristics. Each characteristic has a base 
value of 10. You can increase the value of a characteristic by 
spending Power Points according to the following price 
schedule. 



CHARACTERISTIC ABBREVIATION 


PRICE 


Strength 


STR 


1 


Dexterity 


DEX 


3 


Constitution 


CON 


2 


Body Pips 


BOD 


2 


Intelligence 


INT 


1 


Ego 


EGO 


2 


Presence 


PRE 


1 


Comeliness 


COM 


.5 


We have written a simple ' 


'worksheet" program to help a 



RUN, it begins like this: 

CHARACTERISTIC VALUE PRICE POINTS 



1 


STR 


0 


1 


0 


2 


DEX 


0 


3 


0 


3 


CON 


0 


2 


0 


4 


BOD 


0 


2 


0 


5 


INT 


0 


1 


0 


6 


EGO 


0 


1 


0 


7 


PRE 


0 


1 


0 


8 


COM 


0 


.5 


0 



TOTAL POINTS: 0 

YOU CAN CHANGE ANY VALUE OR 

PRESS ZERO (0) TO START OVER 

CHANGE (1 TO 8)? 



(Bob Albrecht and George Fired rake are two of the 
most prolific authors in the microcomputer world 
today. Specialists in writing for beginners, they are 
authors' of numerous books, including TRS-80 Color 
Basic.) 



* For information about Champions, contact Hero Games, 
92 A 2 1st Avenue, San Mateo, Calif., 94402. 



Just like it says, press ZERO (0) to start over or press a 
number from 1 to 8 to change the value of a characteristic. If 
you press a number key from 1 to 8, the CoCo asks: 
NEW VALUE? 

Type your new value and press <ENTER>. The new value 
appears on-screen along with a newTOTAL POINTS. You 
can select a characteristic and enter a new value as many 
times as you want until you get the characteryou want, with 
exactly the number of TOTAL POINTS the GM said you 
could have. 

We begin by setting up fixed arrays to hold the character- 
istic abbreviations (CHS) and the prices (PRICE). 

100 REM**CONTRIVE A SUPERHERO 

199 * 

200 REM**SET UP FIXED ARRAYS 
210 FOR K=l TO 8 

220 : READ CH*<K), PRICE <K) 
230 NEXT K 

240 DATA STR, 1, DEX, 3, CON, 2, BOD, 2 
, INT, l,EGO, 1,PRE, l,COM, .5 

Next, we initialize the variable information by setting the 
characteristic values (C V AL), points spent for each charac- 
teristic (PTS), and total points spent (TTL) to zero. 



INFO TO 0 



300 REM**SET VARIABLE 
310 FOR K=l TO 8 
320 : CVAL(K) = 0 
330 : PTS(K) = 0 
340 NEXT K 
350 TTL = 0 
399 » 



Inside the CoCo, everything is set up and ready to go. 
Let's put it on the screen. 

400 REM**PRINT HEADINGS 
410 CLS 



1 40 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



420 PRINT "CHAR ACT." TAB (10) "VA 
LUE" TAB (17) "PRICE" TAB (24) "PO 
INTS" 

500 REM**PRINT WORKSHEET DATA 
510 FOR K=l TO 8 
520 : PRINT K TAB ( 4 ) CH*(K); 
530 : PRINT TAB(10) CVAL (K) > 
540 : PRINT TAB (17) PRICE (K) ; 
550 : PRINT TAB (24) PTS(K) 
560 NEXT K 

570 PRINT TAB (10) "TOTAL POINTS: 
" TTL 

The information is on-screen. Find out what the user 
wants to do. 

600 REM»*CHANGE WHAT VALUE? 
610 PRINT 

620 PRINT "YOU CAN CHANGE ANY VA 
LUE OR" 

630 PRINT "PRESS ZERO (0) TO ST A 
RT OVER" 
640 PRINT 

650 PRINT "CHANGE (1 TO 8)?"; 
700 REM**GET USER'S RESPONSE 
710 K*=INKEY*:IF K*="" THEN 710 
720 IF K*="0" THEN 310 
730 IF K*<"1" THEN 710 



740 IF K*>"8" THEN 710 
750 CN = VAL(K*> 
760 PRINT CN 

Line 710 causes the CoCo to scan the keyboard until 
someone presses a key. If you press the zero (0) key, line 7 1 0 
sends the CoCo back to line 310 to start over. Lines 720 and 
730 cause the CoCo to ignore any key other than a number 
key, 1 to 8. Line 750 converts the string value of K$ to a 
numeric value. 

Next, find out the new value for the characteristic to be 
changed. 

800 REM**GET NEW VALUE 

810 INPUT "NEW VALUE"; CVAL(CN) 

The new value replaces the old value of the characteristic 
in the array CVAL. Of course, this changes the points for the 
characteristic and the total points for all eight characteris- 
tics. So let's now compute these values, then loop back for 
another change. 

900 REM**COMPUTE POINTS AND TTL 

910 TTL = 0 

920 FOR K=l TO 8 

930 : PTS(K) = CVAL(K)*PRICE(K) 
940 : TTL = TTL + PTS(K) 
950 NEXT K 

1000 REM:: GO AROUND AGAIN 
1010 GOTO 410 



GRAFPL0T 



P ICTURE WORTH 1 OOO WOf 
INTEREST ft ATE AND STPCK YIELD 




"Vmrw kmrniKl. " 
'Equ*i ] v L.*#f li L W thl I 

■"tstLtulcLil, handhold- <c<* 

inq docu*«it*ti cc, H 
■ l Viry I4S. to use. H e 



(Actual cutout) 
(Shown reduced' 

76 77 73 75 80 81 82 

CALENDAR YEAR < QUARTERLY DATA > 

GRAFPLOT 1.1 turns vour COLOR COMPUTER into a sophisticated 
graph mater, producing high resolution qraphs of anv type of 
data. Includes features not found in any other qraphing system: 

t Automatically scales and draws graph for best appearance. 
t Full ASCII upper and lower case in 4 on-screen labels. 
t Two fully labeled Y-axes w/ 200 data Points per a::i5. 

* 9 qraphing symbols with unlimited overlay of data. 

t Full function data editing: add. change, delete and iort. 

* Includes interfaces for Radio Shack and Custom Software 

Engineering graphic screenprint programs. 
t Graphs output to screen, printer, tape or -d i s k . 
t Plots any user-defined function, edit 2 program lines, 

* Calculates moving averaqes (binomial smoothing), cumul.n i 

totals and integrals of data or user — defined functions. 
t Saves completed qraphs for instant reloading. 
t Complete error trapping- GRAFPLOT won't let vou make a 

mitttake, practically impossible to crash. 
t Comprehensive manual w/ tutorials and sample data. 

* Disk Onlv: display or print directory, kill or rename files. 

GRAFPLOT is available for 16K E.C.B. («35.00) and 32K E.C.B. 
(♦40. CO) on cassette and for 32K disk <«45.00> (U.S.). Send 
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Things To Come 

Next time we will start writing programs to store informa- 
tion on cassette tapes. If you don't know how to set up and 
use cassette files, we suggest you read pages 2 19 through 230 
in "Getting Started With Color BASIC." Try your hand at 
writing these programs: 

•The Name Machine #1. Write a program to ask for a 
name structure (See "GameMasters Apprentice," July, 
1983), then generate random names, one at a time. Press "S" 
to save the name on cassette tape. Press the space bar for 
another name. Press "N" to enter a new structure. 

•The Name Machine #2. Write a program to ask for a 
name structure, then generate names numbered zero through 
nine. You can save any name to tape by'prcssing its number 
key. Press the space bar for ten more names. Press "N" to 
enter a new structure. 

•The Name Machine #3. Write a program to select name 
structures at random from a list of name structures (perhaps 
in DATA statements or in an array). Generate ten names 
numbered zero through nine. You can save any name to tape 
by pressing its number key. Press the space bar for ten more 
names. 

• Store Character Records On The Tape. Write a program 
to store the name and seven basic characteristics for a char- 
acter on a cassette tape. Enter the information from the 
keyboard in response to questions on the screen. 

• Find Character Record. Write a program to search a 
cassette file for a character record by name of character. If 
the record is found, display it. If it is not found, print an 
appropriate message. 

• Scan Character File. Write a program to read and dis- 
play all records in a cassette file, one by one. Press the space 



144 



the RAINBOW November 1983 



bar to get the next record. 

• Load Character Arrays. Write a program to read all 
character records in a cassette file into arrays NAYMS, 
STR, CON, SIZ, INT, POW, DEX, and CHA. 

Well, that should be enough to keep you busy until the 
next issue of the Rainbow arrives. 



Clubs and Cons 

How do you learn about fantasy role-playing games? 
How do you find people to play with? Easy. Join a club or go 
to a convention. Here is a brief list of clubs and people who 
run conventions: 



Drangonsteeth 
A & J Hobby House 
20 Auburn Ave. 
Utica, N.Y. 13501 

Dragon Hunters' Guild 
c/ o Keith Payne 
Rt. 1, Box 794 
Winfield, W.Va. 25213 

Unicorn Adventurers 
P.O. Box 12666 
Lexington, Ky. 40583 

Forest Gamers Club 

River Forest Community Center 

414 Jackson 

River Forest, 111. 60305 

Society Of Wizards & Warriors 

P.O. Box 168 

Julian A. McPhee U.U. 

Cal Poly 

San Luis Obispo, Calif. 93407 

Eastcon 
P.O. Box 139 
Middletown, N.J. 07748 

X-Con 
P.O. Box 7 

Milwaukee, Wis. 53201 

Denver Gamers Association 
P.O. Box 2945 
Littleton, Colo. 80161 

Kommander's Wargaming Club 
P.O. Box 2235 
Mansfield, Ohio 44905 



Gamemasters Guild 
1413 Washington St. 
Waukegan, 111. 60085 

Seaga 
P.O. Box 

Norcross, Ga. 30093 

Mythopoeic 

P.O. Box 711 

Seal Beach, Calif. 90740 

Omacon 

2518 S. 167th St. 
Omaha, Neb. 68130 

Nancon 

1 18 Briargrove Center 
6100 Westheimer 
Houston, Texas 77057 

Memphis Fantasy Con 
665 S. Highland 
Memphis, Tenn. 38 1 1 1 

Archon 

P.O. Box 15852 
Overland, Mo. 63114 

Mysticon 
P.O. Box 1367 
Salem, Va. 24153 

Texakron 
1021 East 29th 
Texarkana, Ariz. 75502 



Conquest 

P.O. Box 36212 

Kansas City, Mo. 641 1 1 

Marcon 

P.O. Box 2583 

Columbus, Ohio 43216 

Dallcon 

P.O. Box 345125 
Dallas, Texas 75230 

Metro Detroit Gamers 
2616 Kenwyck 
Troy, Mich. 48098 

Gateway 

Strategicon PR Dept. 
P.O. Box 2577 
Anaheim, Calif. 92804 

Grimcon 
P.O. Box 4153 
Berkeley, Calif. 94794 

Cincinnati Adventure Gamers 
1 1020 Reading Road, Suite 175 
Sharonville, Ohio 45241 

OSU Wargamers 
700 West Scott #321 
Stillwater, Okla. 74074 

Vikingcon 
Associated Students 
Viking Union 402 
Western Washington U 
Bellingham, Wash. 98225 



If we didn't mention your club or con, let us know about 
it. George and Bob, P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 94025. 



The listing: 

1W 



^399. . . 


0117 


630 . . . 


. 028B 


END. . 


. .0418 



REM**CONTR I VE A 



SUPERHERO 



200 REM**SET UP FIXED ARRAYS 
210 FOR K-l TO 8 
220 : READ CH*<K), PRICE (K) 
230 NEXT K 

240 DATA STR, 1 , DEX, 3, CON, 2, BOD, 2 
, I NT , 1 , EGO, 1 , PRE, 1 , COM, . 5 
299 » 



300 REM**SET VARIABLE INFO TO O 

310 FOR K=»l TO 8 

320 : CVAL<K> - O 

330 : PTS<K> - O 

340 NEXT K 

350 TTL - O 

399 * 

400 REM**PRINT HEADINGS 
410 CLS 

420 PRINT "CHARACT. " TAB (10) "VA 
LUE" TAB (17) "PRICE" TAB<24) "PO 
I NTS" 

499 ' 

500 REM**PRINT WORKSHEET DATA 
510 FOR K«l TO 8 



146 



Um RAINBOW November 1983 



520 
530 
540 
550 
560 NEXT 



PRINT K TAB (4) CH«<K>| 
PRINT TAB < 10) CVAL(K)| 
PRINT TAB < 17) PRICE <K)| 
PRINT TAB<24) PTS(K) 



"TOTAL POINTS: 



"PRESS ZERO <0) TO ST A 



"CHANGE <1 TO 8)?"» 



570 PRINT TAB (10) 
" TTL 

599 * 

600 REM**CHANGE WHAT VALUE? 
610 PRINT 

620 PRINT "YOU CAN CHANGE ANY VA 
LUE OR" 
630 PRINT 
RT OVER" 
640 PRINT 
650 PRINT 

699 * 

700 REM**GET USER'S RESPONSE 
710 K*-INKEY*:IF K*-"" THEN 710 
720 IF K»-"0" THEN 310 

730 IF K»<"1" THEN 710 
740 IF K*>"8" THEN 710 
750 CN - VAL<K«) 
760 PRINT CN 

799 ' 

800 REM*»GET NEW VALUE 

810 INPUT " NEW VALUE" % CVAL(CN) 
899 * 



INTRODUCING! 




WITH FOUR SCREENS 
• TANKS • SPIDERS 'BLOCKS • CYCLES • 

Bailie spiders! Blast your way through the descending blocks! Deleat the 
enemy tanks! Trap the menacing cycles! Increasing levels of dilficulty make 
each a real challenge 1 KRON is a fast ML program with multi-colors, Hi-Res, 
and many great sounds. It displays the top five scores plus has a pause feature 
and display mode 

32K STANDARD- JOYSTICK TAPE-DISK S26.9S-S29.9S 



CATACOMB 

An original and challenging, multi-color, multi-screen. Hi-Res, fast paced, ML 
arcade-type game! See the review in the Sept. Rainbow! 

16K STANDARD-JOYSTICK TAPE-DISK S19.95 J22.95 



MEM-OS64 

A 64K Menu Driven ML Utility which allows you to store multiple ML or Basic 
programs in the high 32K RAM then pull the desired program and Run/Exec it. It 
maintains a directory, displays the amount of free memory and length ol pro- 
grams, has a Motor/Audio On/Oft command, a Load and Kill command, and 
allows the easy switching ol programs with disk-like speed! With the Multiple 
Load feature, you can load several programs at once with ease 1 
64K EXTENDED TAPES1S.95 



PEEKCOPY 

Copies tape-based software {even most autostarts), displays memory in Hex 
and ASCII, displays the Start, End. and Exec addresses of ML programs, allows 
[he changing of memory, and more (ML)! 

16K STANDARD TAPES11.95 



REDUCIT 

A ML program that makes your Basic programs use less memory and run more 
efficiently (faster) by combining lines and removing unnecessary spaces and 
remarks! 

16K STANDARD TAPE $9.95 



PLEASE ADD $2.00 EACH ORDER, POSTAGE/HANDLING 

OREGON COLOR COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

P.O. BOX 11468, EUGENE, OR 97440 



900 REM**COMPUTE POINTS AND TTL 

910 TTL - O 

920 FOR K-l TO 8 

930 : PTS(K) - CVAL<K)*PRICE<K> 
940 : TTL - TTL + PTS(K) 
950 NEXT K 

999 * 

1000 REM: : GO AROUND AGAIN 
1010 GOTO 410 

FANTASY ROLE PLA YING GAMES 

Millions of young people, and many not-so- young, 
are playing fantasy role playing games. A role playing 
game is a game in which one or more players create 
and control characters (adventurers) who live their 
imaginary lives in a specially made game world. The 
game world is created, managed, and operated by a 
GameM aster (GM), also called a referee, adventure 
master, or dungeon master (DM). 

Most people who play role playing games use a 
formal rule system. Some of the best known are shown 
below. 

Dungeons & Dragons (D&D). From TSR Hob- 
bies, P.O. Box 756, Lake Geneva, W 1 53147. 
RuneQuest (RQ). From Chaosium, P.O. Box 
6302, Albany, CA 94706. 

Tunnels & Trolls (T&T). From Blade, Box 1467, 
Scottsdale, AZ 85252. 

Worlds of Wonder (WOW). From Chaosium, 
P.O. Box 6302 \ Albany, CA 94706. 

BEGINNERS BEWA RE! The rule books are very 
difficult to understand. If you are a beginner, first try 
Worlds of Wonder or Tunnels & Trolls. Programs in 
"GameMaster's Apprentice" are based on the game 
system used in Worlds of Wonder and RuneQuest. 
For general information about fantasy role playing 
games, try the following book, excellent for beginners. 

Through Dungeons Deep by Robert Plamondon. 
From Reston Publishing Company, 11400 Sunset 
Hills Road, Reston, VA 22090. 

Copyright (C) 1983 by Dragon Quest, P.O. Box 310, 
Menlo Park, CA 94025. Portions of "GameMaster's 
A ppr entice "are from a book-in-pr ogress called A dven- 
turer's Handbook: A Beginner's Guide to Role Play- 
ing Games, 



*** BASIC Compiler *** 

This new BASIC compiler, called IN^BASIC, will become 
one of your »ost used useo litllllj programs Convert BASIC 
source code to 68C9 wcMw language programs 
SHtUl CATIONS 

• Synta*- PRINT. PR] *T#- 2 . 1 NPUM NK E Y J . PEEK. POKE , FOR . .STEP. 

NEXT , I F . THEN, GOTO. GOSUB .RETURN ,ST0 p . EKD.DATA. 
READ. RES TORE .DIM, RtH.CLS . £ UC . PMODE , PCOPf , IBSHF7 , 
CJ4RI and A5C equivalent 

• Variable types- 26 Scalar Integer variables. 26 dimensioned 

integer arrays (1 or 2d1n>ens1ona 1 ) . and 26 string 
arrays. 

• IhTBASIC allows the use of all 64k bytes of RAH along 

with all 32k available ROM in One program. 

• IHTBASIC comes in « 16,32 0 r 6*k RAM version, where 

all. vfp.sioNS are included 

• Ho Disk is needed' ho Extended Baslt needed - CLOAO* froir 

tape and EXECutf the compiler "In Hemc-j 



★★★★★★★★★ 



$39.95 



Send check or 
money order. 
No C.O.D. 
Utah residents 
add 51 tax. 



Wasatchware 

PO Box 510371 

SLC.UUh 

84151-0371 



**************************************** 



1 48 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



the 




16K 


RAINBOW 




ECB 


J'' -u 








Can't read a note? Spent all your money on computers 
and can't afford a stereo? If so, this program will 
solve your problems. After loading this program, 
woo your friends and relatives with your musical ability as 
your computer plays "Sinfonia" by J. S. Bach. 

CoCo-Bach requires 16K and Extended Color BASIC. 
After CLOADing "Sinfonia," type RUN, and after a title 
you will be asked to press a key to begin. At the end of the 
music, pressing any key will repeat the program. 



40 01FC 

80 03EC 

END 05E9 



The listing: 

1 GOSUB 1000 

2 FOR X«l TO 100: NEXT X 

10 PLAY"02L8C05L16C04B05L8C04GEG 
LI 6CDC03B04L8C03GEGL 16CGDGEGFGEG 
DGC04C03BAG04C03BAQFEDCGDQEQFOEG 
DGC04C03BAG04C03BAGFEDCDEFGAB04C 
DEFDEGCDEFGAB05C04AB0SC04GFGEGFG 
EGDG" 

20 PLAY"C05C04BAGCACGCFC EGDGEGF 
GEGDGC05C04BAGCACGCFC E03C04C03C 
BC04C03" 

30 PLAY"C04D03CBC 04C03C04E03C04 
D03C04E03C04F03C04D03C 04EC03C04 
C02B04C03C04C03D04C02B04C 03C04C 
03E04C03D04C03E04C03F " 
40 PLAY"04C03D04C 03CDCDEGCDEGCD 
EFEFG04C03EFG04C03EF GAGAB-04E0 
3GAB-04E03GA B-04GEC03B-GEC02B-A 
B-G ABAB03C#E02AB03C#E02AB" 
50 PLAY"03C#DC#DEAC#DEAC#D EFEFG 
04C#03EFG04C#03EF G04EC#03A04GEF 
DC»E03AG FAFD04D03B04C03AG»BED C 

(Tommy Pollock is an eighth grader, a little leaguer, 
and was a drummer in his school band. His mother, 
Gail Pollock, is a published composer and an instruc- 
tor of business and economics at Gordon Junior 
College.) 



EC02A03CEAE04C03A04E03A " 
60 PLAY " G#BG«E04ED#ED#E03B04C03A 
G«BG«E04DC«DC«D03B04C03A G#BG#E 
AEG«EL8AF L4E04DP8L803B L404C03A 
P804L8D* L4E0SDP8L804B L40SC04AP 
8L803A" 

70 PLAY "LI 6 CD*AD«04C03D*AD«04C0 
3D#AD# CD*AD«04C03D«AD*04C03D«AD 
# 02B03EAEBEAEBEAE DE8#EBE6#EBE8 
#E A04A8FEAEDCEC03B A04AEDCEC03B 
A04C03A8 L8F#DF#AL404C L1603B04G 
F#EDBDC03B04D03BA B04GFEDFDC03B0 
4D03BA" 

80 PLAY "L204FL 1 6FEFD ECEG0SC04GE 
CP1604G05C04B" 

90 PLAY"L405C04L2G L8GL16FEL2F L 
8FL 1 6EDL4EL 1 6EC03G04C 03F04CDC03 
BGB04CD03G04DE L4.FL8GL4E L16EFE 
L32FDL32DEDEDEDEDEDEDEDEL4 . DL8C 
L 1 6C05C04BAG05C04F05C04E05C04D05 
C 04C05C04BA8CFCECDC P1603EGB04C 
EGBL405C" 

900 PRINTS394, "PRESS ANY KEY" 
910 I*«INKEY*:IF I««""THEN 910 E 
LSE 1 

999 END 

1 000 CLS : PR I NT843 , " S I NFON I A " 
1010 PRINT973, "BY J.S. BACH" 
1020 PRINT* 139, "ARRANGED" 

1030 PR I NTS 165, "FOR THE COLOR CO 
MPUTER" 

1040 PRINTO206, "BY" 
1050 PRINT8233, "TOMMY POLLOCK" 
1060 PRINT9269, "AND" 
1070 PRINTS 298, "GAIL 
1080 PRINT8357, "PRESS 
BEGIN" 

1090 I*=INKEY*:IF 
0 ELSE RETURN 



POLLOCK" 
ANY KEY TO 



!♦="" THEN 109 



152 



the RAINBOW November 1983 




WHO KNOWS WHAT'S for the 

CoCo? Already, Radio Shack has given 
us one of the most sophisticated operat- 
ing systems on the market in OS-9, and 
now, this month an Ink Jet printer will 
really liven things up for the Color 
Computer. 

But, truth be it known, there are more 
and more people — including those in 
Fort Worth, as we hear it — working on 
loads and loads of other things for 
CoCo in the months and years ahead. 

A year ago we wrote that a full-blown 
compiler would be one of the best things 
to come down the pike, when and if one 
did. There are a couple on the market 
now, and so we must wonder where 
things will go from this point on. 

One of them seems to be in thearea of 
memory. And, in this instance, "memory" 
would seem to come in two forms: 
dynamic memory and disk storage. 

Yes, we know that disk storage does 
not fall into the area of memory per se, 
but it is a viable way to increase the 
storage capacity of a computer. 

We are reminded of an article which 
Alan J. Morgan wrote in an early issue 
of the Rainbow which spoke about the 
need for additional memory. Morgan's 
thesis at the time was that programmers 
who are able do not need more memory 

— though they might need more storage. 
If you will think about that fora while 

and add in the fact that most things for 
which you need memory can be done 
with a disk as well — sorts, for example 

— then the line does begin to blur 
between "real" memory and storage 
"memory." 

Couple that to the fact that even 
though dynamic RAM memory is becoming 
less and less expensive, "real" memory is 
still a pretty costly proposition. And 
that includes bubble memory as well. 

Truth to say, although there have 
been some interesting, from a technical 
point of view, articles in several journals 
concerning bubble memory, the fact is 
that it probably won't be viable on a 
cost basis for CoCo. Just too expensive 
to produce on a mass basis. 

That leaves our hybrid, disk memory. 
And, afteryou hook up four disk drives, 
what can you do? 

Why, do to a hard disk, of course. 



We expect that there will be some 
moves toward a hard disk for CoCo in 
the coming year. Whether they arise 
from Tandy Center or elsewhere, it 
seems certain that this is the way that 
things will go in the future. And we'll be 
surprised if someone doesn't have a 
hard disk drive for CoCo available by 
this time next year. 

And what else? Rumors. seem very 
persistantabouteven newer Color Computers 
from Radio Shack. We could be wrong, 
but we don't see anything really innova- 
tive in the next few months. One of the 
things Tandy seems to have done is to 
generate two "lines" of CoCos, with the 
64K and the CoCo 2. We think they'll let 
the dust settle for a little while before 
things start popping again. 

One other trend wesee, though, is for 
more "home" education products to 
make their appearance. We're not talk- 
ing about formal educational setting 
materials, though there will be more 
and more of those, too. We believe the 
computer at home is a very viable 
appliance, if you will, and the develop- 
ment of quality "home education" pro- 
grams is a very real market, along with 
the other, more traditional, ones. 

* * * 

HIGH RESOLUTION screens seem 
to be all the rage right now. The Rain- 
bow has already reviewed at least one of 
these packages, Super Screen by Mark 
Data Products. Another one, for use 
with OS-9 from Frank Hogg Labs, is 
due for review in a future issue. 

Now comes still another, called Hi- 
Res Screen Pak from Cer-Comp. The 
Cer-Comp version allows for all kinds 
of different displays, including double- 
wide and double-high characters. It 
allows use of PRINT@ and will display 
up to 255 characters per line. The high- 
est character-per-line displays are not 
readable, but they do allow you to for- 
mat page layouts and the like. 

* * * 

SPEAKING OF GRAPHICS the new 

idea of the month award goes to All 
Event Video for its Comp- U- Trace pro- 



duct. This is a screen overlay that lets 
you place a clear, reusable vinyl overlay 
that you can attach to your screen and 
then "trace" the same picture with pro- 
gramming. Very interesting. 

While on the subject of graphics, 
there is a new product out from The 
Micro Works called Magigraph for the 
experienced BASICand ML programmer. 
This new program will allow drawing of 
very detailed graphics, including use of 
a full set of logical operations and pixel 
manipulation. 

* * * 

ANOTHER AREA WHERE we are 

seeing some rapid growth in the compu- 
ter world is in the spreading of program- 
sales stores. Two of the most active 
firms in this area have been The Pro- 
gram Store and Software City. 

What is most interesting to us in this 
area is that the primary aim of such 
chains is software, not hardware. In 
many ways, this breaks the mold of the 
"traditional" computer store — which 
pushed one or two brands of computers 
and, for that reason, carried little more 
than software for the brands they carried . 

Judging from the success of The Pro- 
gram Store and Software City (The 
Program Store has just opened a fran- 
chise in Littleton, Colo, and Software 
City is moving into London, England), 
we believe this is a development that will 
prove interestingin the monthstocome. 

* * * 

BRIEFLY NOTED . . . 

The Software Connection in Fort 
Lauderdale has something everyone near 
a large body of water might be inter- 
ested in owning: A hurricane tracking 
program. 

Mark Data Products, which pioneered 
CoCo Adventure games, is out with new 
one: Shenanigans, which is said to com- 
bine both text and graphics and which 
does not require a disk system. 

Want some customized software? Try 
bitCards from Chartscan. Their first 
offering is called A Christmas Adven- 
ture and it features customized referen- 
ces to the person who receives it. 



156 the RAINBOW November 1983 



GRAPHICS UTILITY 



16K 


1 


the 1 


ECB 




RAINBOW 




-l' m -v. 



REDCHASE 



By Rich Dersheimer 



This program changes the text screen to the orange/ red 
mode, clears the screen to red blocks, and then demonstrates 
a chaser for the lo-res color graphics. 

The color changes can be used to highlight titles and 
instructions, or if used in groups of eight, for a burst of 
colors without changing the original block graphics. 



The listing: 

1 ' 

2 ' 

3 ' 

4 * 
3 * 

6 ' 

7 ' 
100 
110 
120 




REDCHASE 

WRITTEN BY 
RICH DERSHEIMER 
2203 8. HUGHES 
AMARILLO, TX 79109 



CLEAR200, 16300 
'DATA FOR RED SCREEN 
DATA 86, 20, BE, 03, FF 

W W WrWr V WWWWUW 



KALEIDOSCOPIC CREATIONS 
PRESENTS 

scRAWBre 

AN AMAZING NEW WORD GAME 

FOR 2 TO 4 PLAYERS THAT 
CHALLENGES THE INTELLECT. 
WILL YOU HAVE THE "SMARTS" 
TO UNSCRAMBLE THE MESS? 
FOUR DIFFICULTY LEVELS. 
FUN FOR ALL AGES. 
GREAT AT PARTIES. 
16K NON-EXT. TAPE 

SEND $1 5.95*(DELIVERV INCL.) TO 



KALEIDOSCOPIC CREATIONS 
P.O. BOX 1284 
MELROSE PARK. IL 60160 
'Illinois residents add 6% sales lax. 

FOR THE TRS 80 COLOR COMPUTER 



© 



158 the RAINBOW November 1983 



130 DATA 30,01, A7,64,6C 
140 DATA 05,FF,25,F7,39 
ISO ' DATA FOR CHASER 
160 DATA BE, 04,00, BC, 06 
170 DATA 00,27,1 A, A6, 84 
180 DATA 81,80,29,08,81 
190 DATA F0,2S,0B,BB,90 
200 DATA A7, 84, 30, 01, 20 
210 DATA E9,8B, 10,A7,B4 
220 DATA 30, 01, 20, El, 39 
230 * LOAD INTO HIGH MEMORY 
240 FOR X-l TO SO 
250 READ A* 

260 POKE X+16300,VAL<"*H H +A«> 
270 NEXT X 

280 ' DEFINE USER ROUTINES 

290 DEFUSRO- 16301 

300 DEFU8R1-16316 

310 ' TEST THE CODE 

320 SCREEN 0,1 

330 POKE 3S9, 13 

340 A-U8R0<0> 

350 PRI NTB70, "chaaar " I 

360 PRINTB77, "tHfl 

370 PR I NTH 105, "with "I 

380 PRINTB110, "r»d"| 

390 PRINTail4, N acraan"| 

400 FOR X-0 TO 7 

410 N-143+16*X 

420 PRINT«172+X,CHR*<N>| 

430 PRINTB204+X,CHR*<N>| 

440 PR I NTB236+X , CHR* < N ) I 

450 PR I NTB268+X , CHR* (N) % 

460 PR I NTS300+X , CHR* ( N ) I 

470 NEXT X 

480 PRINTB357, "hit" I 

490 PRINTB361, "spacebar"! 

500 PRINTB370, "to" I 

510 PRINTB373, "Btop"| 

520 A-U8RK0) 

530 BOUND RNDdOO),l 

540 At-INKEY* 

550 IF A«<>" " THEN 520 

560 8CREEN 0,0 

570 PRINTB480, ""| 

5BO POKE 359,126 

590 END 



GRAPHICS 



32 K 


■ 
1 




ECB 




RAINBOW 






A. -A 



Now, You Can 
Graphic Data 
Statements 

By Fred B. Scerbo 

One of the greatest strengths of the CoCo is the ease 
with which one can create graphic displays and 
drawings without having to POKE complex geo- 
metric formulas to the screen. Commands such as CIRCLE, 
LINE. PAINT, DRAW. GET, and PUT can be used to 
manipulate any sections of the graphic screen so as to dis- 
play any item which you have the patience to draw. Add to 
this the release of the X-Pad by Radio Shack and a variety of 
drawing programs by independent software dealers, and 
you can create almost any kind of graphic display in up to 
four true colors at one time. 

What happens if you use one of these graphic generators 
to create a detailed display which you wish to incorporate 
into a BASIC program? Most will allow you to save the 
contents of the graphic memory to tape ( CSA VEM "name" 
1536,7679,0) or to disk (SA K£A/ U name'\3584,9727,0). This 
can be later loaded back into memory from a program. 
However, there are several drawbacks to this technique: 

First, tape and disk versions can not be interchanged 
unless they are offset loaded, which can be tricky. 

Secondly, you cannot shrink your graphics down to a 
smaller size. 

Thirdly, using the machine language screen dump re- 
quires additional I/O from tape or disk. 

Fourth, therecould be no opportunity for a listing of your 
graphic display in a magazine such as the Rainbow , unless it 
were a dump of the graphic memory done with POKE 
statements. 

Here is where we introduce the Graphic Screen Data 
Compiler. This short program will take whatever graphics 
you have drawn on the graphic screen and create a basic 
program which will recreate the same graphic from DA TA 
statements using the DRA W commmand. 

Before we go any further we should probably explain 
exactly how the CoCo's graphics work. When you draw in 
any PMODE y your graphics will remain in the graphics 
memory until you use the PCLS" command. You can even 



(Fred Scerbo is a Special Needs instructor for the 
North A dams Public Schools. He holds a Master 's in 
education and has published some of the first software 
available for the Color Computer through his software 
firm. Illustrated Memory Banks.) 



Easily Generate 




wipe your program memory clean with the NEW command. 
Your graphic memory remains untouched. 

( You don't believe me? Try this. Write a few lines to create 
any graphic display with the commands you are familiar 
with, such as: 

10 PMODE4,l:PCLS:SCREENl,l 

20CIRCLE(128,96),20,1 

30 GOTO30 

RUN the program and then enter NEW and LIST. Now 
type SCREEN! J:FOR 1=1 TO 2000: NEXT and press 
[ENTER]. Your graphics are still there.) 

Therefore, if we draw a graphic display by whatever 
means we choose (a program, the X-Pad, a graphics pack- 
age, etc.), we can load in the Compiler without destroying 
our graphics. We can save only part of the screen if we wish, 
since the program asks us at which position on the graphic 
screen we wish to start and end, from vertical position 0 
through 192. 

While the Compiler will work in 1 6K , i t is likely t o create a 
ready to run program which will only run in 32K. (Sorry 
about that for you 16K folks. Now would be a good time to 
upgrade.) 

Here is how the program works. Each. graphic line from 0 
to 192 is analyzed pixel by pixel. The Compiler then writes 
two DRA W statements counting the number of pixels and 
their color. Twostatementsarecreated per line since a single 
statement might exceed 255 characters, the maximum 
length of a STRING. When the line has been compiled, the 
program will write the statement to either tape or disk 
preceded by a line number and the command DA TA. The 
information is written in ASCII form so that when we try to 
reload the file the Compiler creates, we will be loading a 
ready to run basic program. (The CoCo's internal mecha- 
nisms recognize this as a BASIC program when it sees the line 
number.) 



When you run the Compiler, you may choose either tape 
or disk. Simply follow the instructions shown on the screen. 

Now let us talk about the drawbacks to this program. The 
Compiler is very slow. After all, it is analyzing a tremendous 
amount of information and compacting each string as it is 
created. (The program may take up to half an hourtocreate 
the ASCII file so if you are using tape, make sure it is at least 
a C-60.) Once you have created your file program/ BASIC 
program, you may reload and run it. It is wise to resave the 
listing since the ASCII version loads more slowly than a 
normal CSA VE. 

Notice also that the Compiler uses the PMODE4 and 
PMODE3. If you wish to change to another PMODE you 
must alter the listing yourself. 

You will notice that I have included REM statements that 
say speed up and slow down. If you wish, you can use the 
high speed POKEs, especially with disk (while some will). 
Simply insert POKE65495.0 to speed up and POKE65494.0 
to slow down. If you use one, however, you must use the 
other, otherwise you will crash your disk or mess up your 
tape. If you are really daring, use POKE65497 ,0 to speed up 
and POKE65496,0 to slow down. This will disconnect your 
screen and fill it with garbage while the data is being ana- 
lyzed so do not press break or you will lose the program. 

You will gain some speed with these POKEs but you are 
probably better off being patient. Walk away from your 
CoCo and let it do the work for you. After all, that is why 
you bought a computer. Just imagine how long it would take 
to write these DRA ^statements by hand! 

Earlier I mentioned using this program to shrink your 
graphics. Here's how. 

Take the BASIC program created by the Compiler and use 
the following lines instead: 

************-x-*-x--x--x-*x- ~x-**x--x-****x-***x-**-x-**** 

DRAW-IT 



Requires 16K-Ext .BASIC , cassette 
Draw and erase lines, circles, 
boxes, and vectors. 
Alphabetically coded keyboard 
control , with sound cues . 
Hi-Resolution, 256x192. 
0n-3creen cursor, with variable 
jump rate. 

Paint function, can be used to 
produce negative graphics. 
Tape storage of graphics screen 
change taped graphics. 
$15.00 
J P S 

11462 Columbus Ave.,W. 
Fostoria, OH, 44830 



* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
-X- 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

***** 



10 PM0DE1,1:PCLS:SCREEN1,1 

40 DRAW"S2BMO,"+l$+A$:DRAW B$ 

55 PMODE4,l:SCREENl,l 

Keep the rest of the lines the same. What you havedone is 
draw only halfway across the screen since you have changed 
size from 4 to 2 in the DRA ^statement. By switching from 
PMODEl to PMODE4, you will have created a graphic half 
the size of the original. You can rerun this graphic through 
the Compiler and create the lines needed to recreate this 
smaller graphic inside another BASIC program. Experiment. 

What uses can this be put to? You can generate small parts 
of the graphic screen which can be merged with other BASIC 
programs. Create a complex small graphic which you can 
read into a GET and PUT statement in your own games. 
With a little manipulation, you can generate DRA ^state- 
ments small enough to fit into a 16K game. The process is 
slow, but once it is done, the results can be pleasingand you 
can use a graphics package to create detailed, arcade-like 
graphics for your own basic programs. 

In time, I hope some of you will use this Compiler to 
submit some complex graphic computer art for Lonnie to 
run on his Radio Shack Color Graphic Paint printer for 
inclusion in the Rainbow. This could even become a 
monthly competition or listing. Then all of you can really 
show off your CoCo's power to those friends of yours who 
bought a fruity computer. (Just dare them to try it on their 
machine.) 

Included with this article is a printout from the Rainbow 's 
CGP-220 Ink-Jet Printer created from a very long but 
detailed graphic listing which displays everyone's favorite 
alien in PMODE4. (Remember this isjust an artisticdisplay 
and cannot be used for promotional purposes as the actual 
image is protected from such unauthorized use for profit. 
Still, cartoonists use this image for artistic expression, so 
that is what we are doing here. This is for your own use 
only.) 

The listingf or DRA W-EZ is not reproduced in the maga- 
zine, due to its extreme length, but is included on Novem- 
ber's Rainbow On Tape. DRAW-EZ requires 32K since 
there is so much detail in the drawing. Those of you with 
16K might try part of the listing just to see the results partly 
displayed. 

Now let's see what all of you can come up with. Let's see 
some real computer art submitted to the Rainbow for future 
issues. You have the tools to do it now, 



The listing: 

10 CLEAR 1000 
20 CLS 

30 PRINTSTRING*<32,42> ; 
40 PRINT" GRAPHIC SCREEN DATA C 
□MPILER" 

50 PR I NTT AB < 8 ) " B Y FRED B.SCERBO" 
60 PRINTSTRING*<32,42> ; 
70 PRINT'* ENTER PROGRAM NAME TO 
BE SAVED" 

BO PRINT" UP TO 8 LETTERS: " 

90 PRINTSTRING*<32,42> ; 

100 PRINT917B, M,, | 

110 LINE INPUT PN* 

120 IF LEN<PN*>>8 THEN RUN 

130 IF LEN<PN*>«0 THEN RUN 




1 62 the RAINBOW November 1983 



140 PRINT8228, " <T) APE OR (D) I3K 
OUTPUT?" 

130 PRINTSTRING* (32, 42) I 

160 IF I NKE Y*™ " T " THEN 1 70ELSE I F I 

NKE Y«- ■ D " THEN 1 90ELSE 1 60 

170 W— 1: PRINT" PRESS <ENTER> W 

HEN RECORDER " : PR I NTT AB < 1 1 ) " I S RE 

ADY":PRINTSTRIN6*(32 f "♦"> I 

180 IF INKEY*"CHR* (13) THEN200ELS 

E180 

190 W-l:PN«-PN*+"/BAS" 

200 OPEN"0",*W ( PN« 

210 FORI-ITOIOOINEXT 

220 PRINT#W, "5 CLEAR500" 

230 PRINT#W,"10 PM0DE4, l:PCLSl:S 

CREEN1, 1 : PM0DE3, 1 " 

240 GLS: INPUT "STARTING LINE < O 

- 192 ):"jSP: 

250 IF SP<0 THEN240 ELSE IF SP>19 
2 THEN240 

260 PR I NT " END I NG LINE ("SP" - 19 
2 ) : "| : INPUT EP 

270 IF EP<SP THEN 240 ELSE IF EP> 
192 THEN260 

280 A«-"20 FORI-"+STR*<SP)+"TO"+ 

STR*(EP) : PRINT #W,A* 

290 A*-" 30 I *"STR* < I ) : READ A*: RE 

AD B*": PRINT *W,A* 

300 A*- "40 DRAW"+CHR*<34)+"S4BM0 

NFW 

DATA - 500 

A FULL FEATURE DATA BASE 
•It is menu driven with prompts. 

•500 data lines with up to 
3,000 characters per file, 

•Cassette operated . 

•Runs on 16K TRS-80 color computer. 

•Has many uses household and 
small business. Keep things 
organized . 

Priced at $12.00, postage paid. 
Send check or money order to: 




UTEFRAC SOFTWARE INC. 
2002 N. MAGNOLIA 
TUCSON, AZ 85712 



Arizona res. add 7% sales tax. 
TRS-80 is a trademark of the 
RADIO SHACK CORP. 

RAINBOW 

CEBTWTCATKX 
SEAL 



, "+CHR*<34)+"+I*+A*:DRAW B*":PRI 
NT «W,A* 

310 A*-"50 NEXT I":PRINT «W,A* 
320 A*- "60 60T060": PRINT «W,A* 
330 PP-1000 

340 PM0DE3, 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 

350 FORY- SP TO EP 

360 REM SPEED UP 

370 FOR L-0T0128STEP128 

380 CLS 

390 A*- ,,M 

400 T*-STR* < PP ) + " DATA " 

410 OPP0INT<0, Y) :T«-T*+"C"+STR* 

<C)+"R" 

420 PR I NT 11 NOW DECODING LOCATION 
tt ";Y 

430 FORI-O+L TO 128+L 
440 PRINT«63,T*| 

450 D-PP0INT(I, Y) : IF D-C THEN490 

460 H«-STR* (V) +"C"+STR* (D) +"R" : P 

RINTH* ; : 60SUB670 

470 T*-T*+H*:H*- M " 

480 C-D: V-l:G0T0500 

490 V-V+l 

500 NEXT I 

510 H*-STR* ( V ) : 80SUB670 : T*-T«+H* 
520 PRINT•64,T♦:V-0:A♦-T♦:T♦- ,,,, 

530 

540 K™LEN <T*) 

550 F0RYY-1T0K:R«-MID*<T*,YY,1) 

560 IF R*-" "THEN580 

570 P«-P«+R« : PR I NT964 , P+ I 

580 NEXT YY:A♦-P♦:PRINT•64,P*r , 

:P*-"»:PP-pp+10 
590 REM SLOW DOWN 
600 PRINT «W,A* 
610 REM SPEED UP 
620 NEXTL 
630 NEXTY 
640 REM SLOW DOWN 
650 CLOSE ttW 
660 GOT0710 

670 TR-LEN<H*> IFOR KL-1T0 TR:JJ* 
-MID*(H*,KL, 1) : IF JJ*=" "THEN690 
680 WR*=WR*+JJ* 
690 NEXT KL 

700 H»=WR* : WR*- " " I RETURN 

710 CLS: PR I NTS 160, STRING* (32, 42) 

I 

720 PR I NT "YOU BASIC GRAPHIC PROG 
RAM IS NOWSAVED AND READY TO BE 
RELOADED INTO YOUR COMPUTER'S M 
EMORY. " 

730 PRINTSTRING* <32, 42) ; : PRINT:P 
RINT: PRINT: PRINT 
740 END 

750 REM ****GRAPHIC SCREEN DATA 
COMPILER BY FRED B. SCERBO, USED 
BY THE PERMISSION OF ILLUSTRATED 
MEMORY BANKS, COPYRIGHT <C) 1983 



164 



the RAINBOW November 1983 




The 

^Dragon'; 

YiBvt< 



Computer Supporte 
Combat 
Is No Fantasy 



By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 




Welcome back to the land of fantasy gaming. You 
may recall that we have been putting various 
portions of the tedious work associated with 
record-keeping and character creation process on the com- 
puter. The built-in problem with this has been simply that 
the existing fantasy role-playing games were never designed 
or written with computers in mind. 

Having realized that, we have been working on a combat 
system designed from the ground up to be computer sup- 
ported. That has been very well received, so what you see 
here is the start of a grander (perhaps grandiose) plan for a 
whole fantasy gaming system designed from the ground up 
to be computer supported. 

This summary of the new game is not cast in concrete, and 
some of what is below will possibly be altered in the future, 
but we have been test playing it for about two months in our 
own group, so you will find most of it to be workable as is. 

Thereare eight character attributes, and each of theseare 
found by rolling five four-sided dice, throwing out the low- 
est two, and adding up the highest three. In the listing below 
you will find a neat little program to roll up characters and 
also check to see which characters qualify to be which races 
and classes. 

You will notice that when a character is rolled up, you 
have a choice to reroll or continue. If you choose to con- 
tinue, you will find the program ends with an error. That's 
because I haven't written the rest of the program yet. Even- 
tually the program will do a very complete character genera- 
tion. Well then, on to the summary. 

CHARACTER ABILITY SCORES 



Physical Beauty 

Intelligence 

Faith 

Speed 



Agility 

Manipulation 

Stamina 

Strength 



Warrior 

Thief 

Rogue 



CHARACTER CLASSES 

Arcanist (white, black, and green) 
Guardian (white, black, and green) 
Champion (white, black, and green) 



( Bill Nolan teaches computer science at a local college, 
moderates a fantasy game once a week, and is a princi- 
pal in Prickly- Pear Software) 



THE MAGIC SYSTEM-A Quick Overview 

The colors of magic are complex, and we will go into them 
in detail next time. To quickly summarize, players must 
align themselves with the white, green or black if they are an 
Arcanist, Guardian, or Champion. The main thing to keep 
in mind here is that these colors are not related to the 
concept of alignment used in many games. A character's 
choice of magic color is unrelated to good or evil. There are 
several other colors of magic known, but they may not be 
used by player characters. 

There are three levels of magic. These are trivial or trick 
spells, battle spells, and regular spells. There are also several 
levels of power among regular spells. A spell user can cast 
spells each day up to the limit of his force points. These are 
figured as f ollows: Faith + Intelligence + Stamina -I- (Level * 
3). Trivial spells use one point. Battle magic uses two points, 
and regular spells use their power level times five points. If 
the caster is a warrior, rogue, or thief, then double force 
points are used up in casting spells. 

Magic is written in a special language that can be learned 
by anyone having an intelligence of nine or more. Once the 
language is learned, any character may try to cast spells as 
detailed below. If you cast spells past the limit of your force 
points, the extra is deducted from your hit points, and these 
will be recovered at the rate of one per week. There has never 
been a case recorded of them being recovered more quickly. 

Arcanists and Guardians can f orm a chain of power. This 
will combine their force points and chance of success. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF CHARACTER CLASSES 

Warrior: To be a warrior, a character must have agility of 
seven, stamina of nine, and strength of nine. A warrior has a 
combat adjustment of six. If a warrior learns the magic 
language, he can try to cast spe lls of trivial and battle magic. 
Thief: To qualify as a thief, the character must have an 
intelligence of eight, speed of eight, agility of nine, and 
manipulation of ten. The combat adjustment is three. 

Thieves have the following abilities: PICK LOCKS 30% + 
(5% * (level - I)) + (5% if manipulation is 1 1 or 15% if 12). 
PICK POCKETS 30% + (5% * (level - 1 )) + (5% if manipula- 
tion is 1 1 or 15 %ifmanipulationisJ2).STALKING40% + 
(5% * ( level - 1 )) + (5% if intelligence is 1 0 or more) + (5% per 
point above 10 of agility). HIDING 30% + (5% * (level -I)) 



168 



the RAINBOW November 1 983 



+ (5% if intelligence is 10 or more) + (5% per point of agility 
above 10). 

When a characteristic reaches 85%, it begins going up 2% 
per level, and can never exceed 95%. If you fail to pick a 
pocket, the intended victim always notices the attempt. 
Also, picking pockets is just that. It confers no ability for 
more complex maneuvers. It is impossible to stalk or hide in 
noisy or shiny armor. If a thief learns the magic language, he 
can try to cast spells of trivial and battle magic. 

Rogue: To be a rogue requires physical beauty of ten, 
intelligence of ten, speed of eight, agility of nine, manipula- 
tion of ten, stamina of nine, and strength of nine. This 
character has the combat adjustment of a fighter and the 
thieving skills of a thief. Rogues can cast trivial and battle 
magic spells, as well as regular spells up to first power level. 
Check out the points f or rising in levels bef ore choosing this 
class. No complaints later!!! 

Arcanist: If you have intelligence of ten, manipulation of 
nine, stamina of eight, and faith of nine, you can be an 
arcanist. Combat adjustment is zero. Arcanists must choose 
between the green, black, and white, and can never turn 
back from a chosen way. The chance of successfully casting 
a spell(assumingdirectionsareat hand) is: Intelligence * 5 + 
manipulation * 3 + Faith + (level -I) * 10. This is for a spell 
of first level of power. The chance goes down by 25% for 
each level higher. However, there is always 3 3% chance of 
failure or success. Each time you correctly cast a spell, your 
chance on that spell goes up 2%. I f you miss a spell by 25% or 
more, you must roll on thedreaded spell mis-fire table to see 
what happened. 

Guardian: You need an intelligence of nine and a faith of 
12 to be a guardian. A guardian must choose between the 
green, black, and white, and can never turn back from the 
chosen way. Combat bonus is two. A Guardian can turn 
aside undead if he successfully rolls a saving throw. How- 
ever, the level of the undead is added to his roll. The chance 
of successfully casting a spell (assuming directions are at 
hand) is: Intelligence * 3 + Faith * 5 + (level -1 ) * 10. This is 
for a spell of first level of power. The chance goes down by 
25% for each level higher. However, there is always a 3% 
chance of failure or success. Each time you correctly cast a 
spell, your chance on that spell goes up 2%. If you miss a 
spell by 25% or more, you must roll on the dreaded spell 
mis-fire table to see what happened. 

Champion: These fighters for the cause need an intelli- 
gence of ten, faith of 1 L speed of ten, agility of ten, stamina 
of ten, and strength of ten. No, we won't see many of these! 
These fighters have a combat adjustment of 6, and because 
of the force being with them, they are + 1 to hit. They can cast 
regular spells of the arcanist up to first power level, and 
guardian spells up to second level. However, only spells of 
the proper color can be cast. Champions are immune to 
poison of any kind. If they leave the way of their color, they 
will invariably sicken and die of unknown causes. 

For All Classes: Hit points are Faith, Stamina, and 
Strength added together. When hit point level reaches zero, 
the character is unconscious. Death occurs at double the hit 
point level below zero. Each level after the first adds one hit 
point. Females subtract two from strength and add two to 
manipulation. They get the benefit both ways. If the deduc- 
tion drops them below needed strength, they qualify any- 
way, and if the manipulation brings them up to qualifying 
level, that's fine too. 

Climbing: All classes climb the same. For a rope or easy to 
climb wall, the formula is (Agility + Strength + Level) * 3. 




"AN ABSOLUTE JEWEL", "THE PERFECT DBM" 
"1 USE C.C. WRITER FOR MY CORRESPONDENCE" 
"IMPRESSIVE", "JUST RIGHT", "PROFESSIONAL" 



Trans Tek Software 

has earned these words of praise from review- 
ers in The Rainbow, 80 Micro, Creative Com- 
puting, and other publications. Like our 
customers, you'll see why when you buy: 

C.C. Calc The Electronic Spreadsheet $34.95 

C.C. File The Micro Data Base Manager $12.95 

C.C. Writer Versatile Word Processing $29.95 

C.C. Mailer Mailing List/Letter Merge $29.95 



JUKI MODEL 6100 
LETTER QUALITY DAISYWHEEL PRINTER!! 

18 c.p.s. • 2K (expandable to 8K) Buffer • 
Optional Tractor Feed • Uses IBM Ribbons • Rugged 
Construction • Complete Kit, Ready to Plug In To 
Color Computer, Including Serial to Parallel Converter!! 

$689.00' 




November 1983 the RAINBOW 169 



For easier or harder conditions, the adjustment will be 
provided by the moderator. Use percentile dice. 

Finding Secret Doors: : All races have the same percen- 
tage of chance. If not actively looking, the chance is (Intelli- 
gence + Level) * 2. If looking, the chance doubles. 

Fin and Remove Traps: Everyone has the same chance. 
(Intelligence + Manipulation + Level) * 2. Roll twice - 
once to find and again to remove. The moderator rolls the 
chance to find. Use percentile dice. 

Races: There are three races which can be player charac- 
ters. These are Human, Elf, and Dwarf. Anyone can be 
human — there are no qualifying scores. 

Elf: These need physical beauty of 1 1 , intelligence of ten, 
agility of ten, and manipulation of ten. They subtract one 
from the initial rolls of the dice for strength and stamina, 
and the result must be less than nine or it will be reduced to 
make this so. These adjustments are made afterclass qualify- 
ing, and the hit points are reduced when applicable. Elves 
have wood sense, which operates only above ground. They 
are never lost, they can find any available food or water, and 
they sense large (man-size or bigger) animals within 150 feet, 
it is not possible tosneak up on an awake elf above ground. 

Dwarf: If you covet Dwarfhood, you need a strength of 
eight. Dwarves subtract one from speed and physical 
beauty, and if either of these ends up higher than eight, it will 
be reduced to that level. Again, this is done alter class 
qualifying. Dwarves have stone sense when below ground. 
They can sense pits in the floor large enough to fall into, and 
hollows in the rock larger than ten feet across within 50 feet 
— even if blocked by rock. They never bump into walls 
underground, even in pitch blackness. They can't see them, 
but they know they are there. They are never lost under- 
ground, and always know the distance to the surface. 

In the case of both elves and dwarves, the "never lost" 
assumes that they went to a place while aware. If they are 
teleported or carried unconsious, they won't know where 
they are. 

Saving Throws: If a saving throw is required, the charac- 
ter must roll a 30-sided die and obtain a number lower than 
their current force point level divided by two and rounded 
down. A 30 always misses and a one always succeeds. The 
moderator will specify plusses or minuses as necessary. 

That's about it for this month. Below is the character 
generating program. Remember, it works as is, but isn't 
finished yet. We will be adding on to it next month. In the 
meantime, 1 want to warn you to beware of the dragons in 
this game. They are very, very powerful. No more easy 
Dragon treasure! By the way, the tentative name for the new 
game Is Dragon Magic, suggested by Pat Zircher, the artist 
who drew the pictures at the head of this column every 
month. If you have a better name, let me know. 



The listing: 



118 . . 020A 
140 03DC 
END . . 05A6 



1 ' ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦DRAGON MAGIC»#*»*»**» 

2 * ♦♦♦♦♦♦CHARACTER CREATOR^^^ 

3 '♦♦♦♦♦♦♦COPYRIGHT 1983*#*^^# 

4 '♦♦♦♦PRICKLY -PEAR SOFTWARE^^ 

5 '♦♦♦♦♦ALL RIGHTS RESERVED^^^ 

6 X=RND (-TIMER) 
10 DIM C(8),C*(8) 

20 FOR X-l TO 8: READ C«(X):NEXT 
100 CLS: PRINT" PRESS ANY KEY TO 



R0LL":K»-INKEY*:G08UB 9000: PR I NT 
" COMPUTING ROLL" I : GOSUB 199 
110 CLS: FOR X-l TO 8: PRINTC» < X > , 

c<x>:next x 

112 HP-C(3)+C(7)+C(B) :PRINT"HIT 
POINTS",HP:CC-0 

115 IF C(l)>9 AND C(2)>9 AND C(4 
)>7 AND C(5)>8 AND C<6>>9 AND C< 
7)>8 AND C<8>>8 THEN PRINT" ROGU 
E", :cc-i 

118 IF C<5>>6 AND C(7)>8 AND C(8 
) >8 THEN PRINT" WARRIOR" , : CC-1 
120 IF C(2)>7 AND C<4)>7 AND C(S 
) >8 AND C(6)>9 THEN PRINT" THIEF 
", :cc-i 

122 IF C(2)>9 AND C(3)>8 AND C(6 
)>8 AND C(7)>7 THEN PRINT" ARCAN 
1ST", : CC-1 

124 IF C(2)>8 AND C(3)>11 THEN P 
RINT" GUARDIAN", : CC-1 

126 IF C(2)>9 AND C(3)>10 AND C( 

4) >9 AND C<5)>9 AND C(7)>9 AND C 
(G)>9 THEN PRINT" CHAMPION" ,: CC- 
1 

127 IF CC-0 THEN PRINT" COMMONER 
■i 

128 IF C<1)>10 AND C(2)>9 AND C< 

5) >9 AND C(6)>9 THEN PRINT" ELF" 

129 IF C(8)>7 THEN PRINT" DWARF" 
i 

130 PRINT: PR I NT "PRESS 'R' TO RER 
OLL OR 'G'":PRINT"TO GO ON. "|!K* 
=INKEY* 

140 K»-INKEY»:IF K»<>"R" AND K*< 
>"G" THEN 140 ELSE SOUND 150,1:1 
F K«-"R" THEN 100 

150 CLS:PRINT"THIS PART ISN'T DO 
NE":END 

199 F0RC-1T08:C(C)-0:F0RC-1T0B:D 
1=RND<4) :D2=RND<4) :D3»RND<4) :D4- 
RND<4> :D5=RND<4) 

200 HH»(1)-STR»(D1) :HH«(2)-STR»( 
D2> :HH»(3)=STR*<D3) :HH*<4)*»STR»< 
D4 ) : HH* ( 5 ) -STR* ( D5 ) 

210 FOR X=l TO 4: IF HH*(X)>HH»(X 
+1) THEN 250 
220 NEXT X 

230 C<C)=(VAL<HH* <3> >+VAL<HH»<4) 
>+VAL<HH*<5> )) 

240 PRINT". " 5 : NEXT C: RETURN 

250 X»=HH*<X> :HH*(X)=HH»<X+1) : HH 

♦<X+1)=X*:G0T0210 

9000 IF INKEY*-"" THEN X-RND(O): 
GOTO 9000: ELSE SOUND 150, 1:RETUR 
N 

10000 DATA PHYSICAL BEAUTY, INTEL 
L I GENCE , F A I TH, SPEED , AG I L I T Y , MAN I 
PULATION, STAMINA, STRENGTH 



172 the RAINBOW November 1983 



DATA COMMUNICATIONS 

An Introduction To 
Synchronous Data Transmission 

By Harry Hardy 



In the April and June issues we took a look at asynchro- 
nous transmission, in particular as to its relationship 
to the Color Computer. As we now know, asynchronous 
transmission can be implemented rather inexpensively and 
is rather efficient, at least for our needs. We also know that 
the error detection methods are not foolproof and error 
recovery is seldom implemented. Finally, asynchronous 
transmission is usually limited to speeds less than 2400 bits 
per second (BPS). Probably 300 and 1200 BPS are more 
commonly used. I have heard that faster speeds can be used, 
but I'm not familiar with those devices. Speeds up to 9600 
BPS are used but the only asynchronous terminals I've seen 
operating at speeds this high are connected directly to a 
computer for in-house use only or they have some kind of 
protocol converter to convert from asynchronous to syn- 
chronous transmission. We'll look at that later. Well, that's 
enough about asynchronous terminals for now, let's look at 
some newer technology. 

Since the theme this month is communications I thought I 
would introduce you to another type of data transmission 
where speeds up to 56000 BPS (56K BPS) are not uncom- 
mon, and even speeds up to 1 .54 million BPS and faster may 
be found. This type of transmission is called synchronous 
transmission. 

Before we look at this technology, I should let you know 
that my background is with large IBM mainframes using 
either their terminals or what are known as plug-compatible 
terminals, mainly those made by Teletype Corporation. 
Since this environment (IBM) is my forte, the examples we 
will be looking at will be of those device types in particular, 
however the principles involved apply to all devices capable 
of synchronous transmission, also some of the examples will 
apply to asynchronous transmission; where this overlap 
occurs 1 will point them out. 

A good place to start is to look at how synchronous 
transmission differs from asynchronous. You may recall 
that I defined asynchronous transmission as one that lacked 
any continuity between transmitting and receiving stations, 
and in order to achieve this continuity or synchronization 
start and stop bits were used so the receiving station could 
get synchronized on the character being transmitted so it 
would know when to start assembling bits into a character. 
Let's briefly look at how efficiency is affected in an asynch- 
ronous environment. 



(Harry Hardy, who has 15 years experience as an 
applications and systems programmer in telecommun- 
ications is currently employed as a telecommunica- 
tions consultant by a large company that provides data 
communications products and services.) 



Assume we are using an 8-bit character which will be 
preceded by a start bit and end with a stop bit. That gives us 
a total of 1 0 bits per character. Since each and every charac- 
ter will require these framing bits, we have a 20 percent 
overhead on each character being transmitted. As you have 
probably figured out, if you are transmitting a lot of data, 
this 20 percent overhead can really delay the actual process- 
ing of this data by your program. For example, if your 
program requires 1 00 characters of information to process a 
given transaction, 200 of the 1 ,000 bits, or 25 characters, are 
overhead to your program to get the 100 characters you 
require. 

How does synchronous transmission differ from this, you 
ask? Well, to help understand this let's look at the RS-232C 
interface you have heard about. This interface is a standard 
that has been agreed upon by the Electronics Industries 
Association (E1A) for interfacing different manufacturers' 
terminal and computer equipment. The RS-232C port on 
your Color Computer meets this standard, even though in 
just about the most simple form possible to perform data 
communications. 



Figure 1 



PIN 


FUNCTION CIRCUIT 


1 


GROUND 


AA 


2 


TRANSMITTED DATA 


BA 


3 


RECEIVED DATA 


BB 


4 


REQUEST TO SEND 


CA 


5 


CLEAR TO SEND 


CB 


6 


DATA SET READY 


CC 


7 


SIGNAL GROUND 


AB 


8 


DATA CARRIER DETECT 


CF 


9 


POSITIVE DC TEST VOLTAGE 




10 


NEGATIVE DC TEST VOLTAGE 




12 


SECONDARY CARRIER DETECT 


SCF 


13 


SECONDARY CLEAR TO SEND 


SCB 


14 


SECONDARY TRANSMITTED 






DATA 


SBA 


15 


TRANSMITTER CLOCK 


DB 


16 


SECONDARY RECEIVED DATA 


SBB 


17 


RECEIVER CLOCK 


DD 


19 


SECONDARY REQUEST TO 






SEND 


SCA 


20 


DATA TERMINAL READY 


CD 


21 


SIGNAL QUALITY DETECT 


CG 


22 


RING INDICATOR 


CE 


23 


DATA RATE SELECTOR 


CH 


24 


EXTERNAL TRANSMITTER 






CLOCK 


DA 


25 


BUSY 





November 1983 Iht RAINBOW 1 7c 



pWfes/ 




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RAINBOWfest Fort Worth 

Seminar Program And Speakers 



Don Inman Using And Teaching LOGO 

Don is one of the most respected names in the Color Computer field 
and an expert on graphic techniques in both BASIC and assembly 
language. His Using Graphics column appears monthly in the 
Rainbow. 

Tim Purves Using Voice And Sound Synthesis 

Tim, who writes for Computer Shack, is the author of Fury and Clll. 

Steve Blyn Programming For Education 

Award-Winning Rainbow columnist and teacher, Steve has written 
dozens of educational programs for Computer Island. 

Frank Hogg Advanced Operating Systems 

Frank is a pioneer in OS-9 and FLE X systems and is president of Frank 
Hogg Laboratory. 

John Grabbard Writing Adventure Games 

John, who writes programs for Spectral Associates, is the author of 
Keys To The Wizard and Android Attack. 

Andy Larson Education and Software 

Development 

Andy, of Follett Library Book Company, has long been active in 
developing software for educational uses. 

Bill Nolan Fantasy Gaming And CoCo 

DungeonM aster, programmer and Rainbow Columnist, Bill has 
developed a complete Dungeons and Dragons program for CoCo. 

Tom Nelson Start Your Own Software Business 

Tom is a Rainbow columnist and one of the owners of Nelson Software 
Systems. 

Frank Brandon CoCo Business Applications 

Frank, who will be joined in this seminar by business programmer 
Dennis Mitchell, is principal of Color Software Services, a division of 
Brantex, Inc.. 



PLUS.-.RAINBOWfest's XoCo Community" Breakfast 
featuring Mark Yamagata, Radio Shack's New Director Of 
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Mr. Yamagata has just been appointed to this position, which among other responsibilities, has overall 
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Additional seminars are planned as well. Admission to all seminars is at no charge. See registration form for 
admission prices to exhibit area and breakfast. 

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If you look at the cable you connect 
to your computer and your modem, you 
can see the obvious differences in plugs. 
The computer end is round and has only 
four pins, while the other end is flat and 
rectangular in shape. Although there 
may be only four pins in that end, there 
is space for 25 of these pins. Figure 1 
lists these pin assignments by number 
and EIA circuit identification. Note 
that all pins are not assigned; however, 
some modem manufacturers do make 
use of these unassigned pins. We will 
not discuss those pin functions here 
since assignment purposes may differ by 
modem manufacturer. 

Your Color Computer uses pins 2, 3, 
7 and 8, a very simple EIA interface for 
data communications. Synchronous and 
some asynchronous transmission devi- 
ces use several of the other pins. Let's 
see which ones as we proceed. 

Synchronous transmission, in addi- 
tion to the transmit data lead (pin 2), 
requires either a separate clock lead 
from the transmitting station, or a mo- 
dem that includes the clocking informa- 
tion when it encodes the data, converts 
from digital to analog. In other words it 
is up to either the DTE or the modem to 
provide the timing, or clock, as it may 
be referred to, that was accomplished by 
using start/ stop bits in asynchronous 
communications. At the transmitting 
end this clock signal, if provided by the 
computer, is received on pin 24 from the 
computer. This signal is then put on pin 
2 at a different frequency level than the 
data. If the modem is providing the 
clocking, then the clock signal is re- 
ceived from circuit DB (figure 1) or pin 
15 on the modem, not the computer. 
This clock signal is then placed on pin 2 
just as before. At the receive end, this 
signal, data and clock, are found on pin 
3. Let's not get into the electronics of 
how this is done, but what happens is 
that, at the receive end, this timing, or 
clocking, is recovered from the side- 
bands of the received signal to indicate 
to the DTE the appropriate instant to 
sample the data stream on the received 
data lead, pin 3, for a character or 
information. This recovered clock sig- 
nal is then placed on pin 17 for the 
receiving station. This inclusion of the 
clock "beside" the data stream provides 
the synchronous continuity that is lack- 
ing in asynchronous communications. 
By providing this continuity we have 
defined the term "synchronous trans- 
mission." By the way, in probably 99 
percent of all installations the modem 
provides this clocking, not the DTE. 

By eliminating the start/ stop bits, we 
have created a couple of side effects. 




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176 the RAINBOW November 1983 



One is good. While the other may seem bad, it is easily 
overcome. First the good ; since all bits are used to represent 
data, we have eliminated the 20 percent overhead or the 20 
percent waste characteristic of asynchronous communica- 
tions. Now the other side effect. As you recall 1 said that 
those start/ stop bits served another purpose besides timing, 
that being framing bits. This meant that the presence of a 
start bit indicated to the receiving station to assemble the 
next eight bits into a character, the following stop bit indi- 
cated to start monitoring for the next start bit. Since these 
framing bits are absent in synchronous communications we 
must provide another method of determining which group 
of bits constitutes a character. Sound like a problem? Not 
really — in fact, the solution is quite simple. Let s see how this 
is accomplished. 

The framing of each character is accomplished by defin- 
ing a synchronization character, commonly called a "syn" 
character. This syn character is usually one that has a bit 
pattern different from that of any of the regular characters 
that are to be transmitted in a data stream. This is done for 
reasons that will become obvious. We wouldn't want the 
DTE to think that the bit pattern for the letter A is a syn 
character. This would create a lot of problems, as you can 
see. Each reception of the letter A would indicate to the 
receiver to start assembling bits that follow as a character 
and to ignore the letter A. If your DTE transmits in ASCII, 
the syn character is made up of the bits 01 101000. In the 
world of IBM, this character would be 001 10010. Why the 
difference? IBM equipment uses a code called EBCDIC, 
extended binary coded, decimal interchange code.Thiscode 
uses all eight bits for data, therefore 255 possible characters 
can be represented where only 127 characters are available 
with ASCII. Although their synchronous devices talk 
EBCDIC, their computers can support certain synchronous 
devices using ASCII. 

Back to our syn character: No matter which one we use it 
will precede the data characters in all transmissions. It seems 
we've reduced our overhead quite a bit by sending a syn 
character before each block of data. Well, there's a little 
more to it. Suppose the first syn character loses a bit along 
the way. We then lose our data, for the DTE wouldn't know 
it was to collect the following bits as data. Well, to allow for 
this condition we send one more syn character than is 
required. Typically one syn character is required, therefore 
our synchronous device will send two syn characters. 1 
know, you don't have to remind me what if both syn 
characters are destroyed? Well, the line has to be drawn 
somewhere. We could send 25 syn characters, but then we 
would be approaching our 20 percent overhead again, so 
what's the point? Just like in asynchronous transmission, 
why not send 20 stop bits in case the first J 9 are destroyed. 
Ridiculous, huh? 

So, we will send two syn characters followed by our data, 
correct? Well, let's look a little deeper and see what we can 
find (sounds like we may be losing ground on our savings). 
Actually each synchronous transmission has four characters 
of overhead. Besides the two syn characters, we have a 
leading and a trailing PAD character. The leading pad bits 
are 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 and the trailing pad bits are all ones, to the 
computer. From the computer, all transmissions must have 
at least two syn characters, data, and a trailing PAD charac- 
ter. This PAD has the format of 1 I 1 1 xxxx where x is either a 
1 or 0. So from the computer we have three characters of 
overhead. In addition to this, two syn characters arc auto- 
matically sent every second during transmission to or from 
the computer. This is done to make sure the model clocks are 



still in sync and the data is being sampled at the correct 
interval. 

Does it sound like we haven't gained any in the overhead 
department? Let s look at a situation and see if that is really 
the case. Consider the speeds at which we transmit in a 
synchronous environment. For a computer to terminal data 
link, the speeds are usually 2,400, 4,800 and 9,600 BPS— 
7,200 BPS may also be found. Probably 4,800 BPS is the 
most common speed with 9,600 rapidly gaining in popu- 
larity. 

Let's say we are running at 4,800 BPS and we have 594 
characters of data to transmit. We also have four overhead 
characters, those being two PADS and two syn characters, 
and possibly two syn characters will be sent in the middle of 
our data. Add all those up and you can see we have 600 
characters with eight bits each for a total of 4,800 bits to 
transmit. Of these 4,800 only 48 are overhead. That works 
out nicely, for depending on the distance between sending 
and receiving devices, we can send this data in one second. 

Now, take those same 594 8-bit characters and send them 
asynchronously. We would still have 4,752 bits like before, 
however we now have an additional two bits per character, 
or 1 , 1 88 bits overhead for a total of 5,940 bits. Besides this 
excess overhead we see that we can't even send the data in 
one second, assuming we could transmit asynchronously at 
4,800 BPS. For you mathematicians, that's one percent 
versus 20 percent of overhead. Let's not get too anxious; in 
short blocks of data we would still have those 32 bits of 
overhead. In those instances — 1 didn't figure one out the 
overhead in synchronous transmission would outweigh the 
asynchronous overhead; however, in a busy interactive sys- 
tem that isn't likely to happen very often during the actual 
transfer of data between computer and terminal. 



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Now that we have some idea of how synchronous trans- 
mission works, what about the line discipline or protocol 
that is used to govern this type of transmission? There are 
different types of synchronous protocols, but I will focus on 
only one of them here. The reason is that, although the 
Color Computer doesn't support synchronous communica- 
tions, other personal computers do. Apple, Radio Shack's 
Models 12 and 16, and IBM's PC offer a package that 
supports binary synchronous protocol. Maybe you own one 
of those computers in addition to the Color Computer or 
maybe you have been thinking about getting one. In either 
case, let's look at some of the concepts of this protocol. 

Binary synchronous, or bisync as it is more commonly 
called, has an extensive set of control codes to ensure that 
the transfer of data is done in a very accurate and precise 
manner. In addition to a choice of error detection schemes, 
it also employs a complete error recovery procedure. There 
are three types of bisync configurations, these being: point- 
to-point private line, point-to-point switched line, and a 
private line multipoint configuration. 

Thechoiceof errordetection methods is dependent on the 
type of terminal. If the terminal uses ASCII to represent 
data, then VRC and LRC are used, resulting in a one-byte 
block check character. If the terminal uses EBCDIC then 
the CRC-16 method of error detection is used resulting in a 
two-byte block check character (BCC). CRC or Cyclic 
Redundancy Check is an error detection method in which 
the check character is generated by taking the remainder 
after dividing all the serialized data bits of a block by a 
predetermined number. With CRC-16, the 16 tells us how 
many bits are in the BCC, providing error detection of 
bursts up to 16 bits in length, with more than 99 percent of 
error bursts greater than 16 bits being detected. Therefore, 



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systems that use the CRC method of error detection are 
more effective at detecting errors than those that use 
VRC/ LRC. 

As 1 said, there are several control codes used by bisync to 
control data flow. Let's define a few of them. 

SOH — Start of heading. 
STX — Start of text. 

ETX — End of text, terminates a block ol data 
and indicates BCC character(s) is next. 
EOT — End of transmission, indicates the end 
of a message, is also used to respond "nothing to 
transmit" to polling sequence. More on that 
later. 

NAK — Negative acknowledgement indicates 
previous block received with an error, retransmit 
data. 

ACKO/ACKI — Positive acknowledgement in- 
dicates previous transmission was received error 
free. ACKO is used to acknowledge even-num- 
bered blocks, ACK1 is used for odd-numbered 
blocks. 

WACK — Wait before transmit positive acknow- 
ledgement indicates that previous block is error 
free, but receiver is not ready to receive next 
block. 

RV1 — Reverse interrupt, a positive acknow- 
ledgement, but is is also a request for the trans- 
mitting station to terminate the current trans- 
mission as there is a high priority message 
waiting to be sent. 

ENQ Inquiry, used to bid for the line in a 
point-to-point environment. In multipoint, it 
indicates end of polling or selection sequence. 
Also used to request retransmission of NAK or 
ACK if the response was garbled or not received 
when expected. 

DLE — Data Link Escape. One use is in for- 
matting WACK, ACK, or RVI as these are two- 
character codes. Example: ACKO is DLE I or 
1031 in ASCII. Another use is to indicate trans- 
parent text mode. This mode is necessary to 
transmit binary files such as machine language 
programs, for some of the characters in this type 
of file can be bisync control codes. DLE STX 
start transparent mode, DLE ETX ends it. 

There are a few other codes, but these will be enough for 
our example. For the first example, let's look at a point-to- 
point data link (figure 2). This type of data link is also 



6 



6 



6 



Figure 2 



178 the RAINBOW November 1983 



known as a "contention" system. Ill explain that in a 
moment. Before I do, let's get an idea of what the format of a 
message would be. I haved used the / to separate fields and 
the data flow will be from left to right. 

/ BCC/ ETX/TEXT DATA/ STX/H EADER DATA/ SOH/ 

The header may or may not be present, but all other fields 
must be. 

For our point-to-point example we will be transmitting 
between points A and B in figure 2. Let's start by sending a 
message from the computer "A" to the device at point "B." 
This could be some type of terminal or another computer. 
Location A will start by sending an ENQ asking "are you 
ready," B will respond with an ACKO. "A" will then send the 
message followed by ETX and appropriate BCC. If B 
received the message error free, it will respond with an 
ACKI, A can now send another message or send EOT 
saying "I have no more messages to send now." 

If the message was received with an error being detected B 
would send a NAK and A would then have to re-send the 
message. This time, if it was error f ree, B would respond with 
an ACK I . If another error was detected the NAK sequence 
would continue a predetermined number of times, then A 
would send an EOT, and probably notify an operator via the 
system console that an unrecoverable error has occurred 
and would not try to send the message again until some 
command from the operator i nstructed it to do so. Once this 
command is entered the scenario would start over with an 
ENQ. 

Now, suppose that af ter all messages were sent by location 
A and an EOT had been sent, A had another message to 
send. At this same instance, suppose B had a message to send 

/ N 



to A and they both send an ENQ to each other. Interesting 

situation, if I do say so myself, for neither will respond with 
an ACKO since ENQ is an invalid response to an ENQ. We 
now have defined why this type of link is sometimes called a 
contention system, for both have "bid" for the line and 
neither can get control. This situation only happens when 
both bid f or the line at the same time. If point A had not bid 
for the line, B would have control and could send its mes- 
sages in the same fashion described above for point A. 

To get around this problem a concept termed "Master/ 
Slave" is used. What this means is that the location desig- 
nated as the control or master station will bid for the line in 
an interval thatis less thanthe slave station, in this example 
point B. This enables point A to seize the line and send its 
messages prior to point B. Thus, we have eliminated this 
"contention" problem. 

These are the basic concepts of a point-to-point data link 
using bisync regardless of the type of facility used, switched 
or private line. What about this new configuration called 
multipoint? The rules governing this type of configuration 
are different; let's see how. 

Unlike point-to-point bisync, the remote terminals in a 
multipoint environment can never initiate the transfer of 
data, they can only send data upon an invitation to do so. 
Look at figure 2 again. I have included a multipoint circuit 
which contains four points. Point A again will be used to 
represent the computer, while points D, E and F could be 
anywhere from as nearby as the same building, or as far 
away as across country. Each remote point has an intelligent 
controller with two terminals each. We could have as many 
as 32 devices per controller, and as many as 32 controllers 
per circuit, however I doubt there would ever be a single 
circuit with that many devices (1,024) as I suspect response 
time for each transaction could, depending on the applica- 
tion, be unacceptable. 

Each controller has all the intelligence to perform error 
recovery as described earlier, and has enough RAM for 
buffer space to handle all the devices attached to that con- 
troller. Now that we know something about each of these 
controllers, let's see how we will communicate with them. 

In a point-to-point environment we saw that if one station 
wanted to send data to the other, it bid for the line by 
sending an ENQ. We can't do that with a multipoint circuit 
for we wouldn't know which device bid for the line, and 
when the computers bid for the line, each controller 
wouldn't know if we wanted to send data to it or one of the 
other controllers. How do we get around this? Well, the 
computer would solicit data from each location by invita- 
tion or"polling"as it is called. There are two types of polling 
we could do. One is called a "general poll," the other is a 
"specific poll." A general poll will ask a particular controller 
fordatafromany of its terminals, whereasa specific poll will 
ask a particular controller for data from a specific terminal. 
Let's see how that would work. 

Suppose we wanted to see if controller "F" had any data 
from either of its two terminals. The computer would send 
the general polling characters f or that location. Those char- 
acters for location "F" would be FF""ENQ, or 4646222205 
in ASCII. Bisync always sends the station's address twice. I 
don't know why that is, just the way it was designed. That's 
why two Fs are sent. The two ""s indicate that it is a general 
poll and the ENQ simply asks "Do you have anything to 
send?" If it does, controller "F" would respond by sending 
the data with the appropriate framing characters such as 
STX, ETX and BCC. If the data was received error free, the 
computer would respond with an ACK-0; if an error was 



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1 80 the RAINBOW November 1983 



detected it would respond with a NAK and the same error 
procedure would be followed as described for a point-to- 
point data link. If controller F had no data from either 
terminal, it would respond to the poll by sending an EOT. 

Why didn't controllers "D" and "E" respond to the poll? 
Well, even though each of these controllers did see the poll 
on the line, they knew by the two Fs that the poll was not 
meant for them and simply ignored it. Had we wanted to 
poll either D or E, the Fs would have been replaced with the 
characters of the controller we wanted to communicate 
with. 

Now that we have just received a message from controller 
F, we probably want to send some kind of reply for the 
operator. Maybe the message received was a request for the 
work location of an employee and we needed to get that 
information back to the terminal. To do this we would do 
what is called a "selection" sequence for that particular 
terminal on controller F. But how do we know which con- 
troller and which terminal on that controller to select? Well, 
part of the data we received from the poll were the codes that 
identify the controller and terminal that requested the infor- 
mation. The software in the computer would be aware of 
this and would save this information for the reply. Now that 
we know which terminal to select, how do we do it? 

Assume we need to send the reply back to terminal A on 
controller F. The selection codes for contro ller F now must 
be different from those used for a poll so the controller will 
know what we are trying to do. The selection code for 
controller F is 57 in ASCII. That is the code for the letter W. 
The code for terminal A will be 41 in ASCII. Our selection 
sequence will then look like this: WW AAENQ, or57574 14105. 
If the controller was ready to receive the data for terminal A 




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it would respond with an ACK-0 and the computer would 
now send the data. If it was received error free the controller 
would respond with an ACK-l. Again, if an error was 
detected by the controller, the same error procedure would 
be followed. 

When do we use a specific poll? Well, this could be done 
instead of using a general poll, but it would take longer to 
service each terminal on a controller. Example: suppose 
controller D had 10 terminals. We would have to do a 
specific poll for the first nine before we got any data from the 
10th one. That's not too efficient, particularly if the first nine 
had no data to send. Probably the most common use of a 
specific poll would be in the case where the host software 
determined that part of the data it received was incorrect, an 
invalid part number, etc., and senta message tothe terminal 
notifying the operator of this error. We would do a specific 
poll to receive this corrected information so we could pro- 
cess the transaction. Again, the specific polling characters 
would be unique to that device. For controller F, terminal 
A, the codes would be FFAAENQ or46464!4l05 in ASCII . 
As you can see, this is similar to a general poll except we 
have replaced the two quotation marks with the terminal 
code. 

One moreexample, then we will leave this topic. Suppose 
that device B on controller D has some kind of problem 
— perhaps thisdevice is a printer and it has run out of paper. 
Also, assume we have just selected this printer for output. 
Obviously, we can't print without paper, so in response to 
the selection the controller will respond with an RVl. This 
RVl is a positive acknowledgement but it is also saying, *l 
have a problem with one of my devices, if you will poll me l 
will tell you what it is." The host software would then poll 
the controller and receive this status message. All status 
messages take priority over any other messages. In response 
to this status message the host would send an EOT or RVl. 
Now we can poll the terminal for input, but we still can't 
send any data to that printer until the error condition is 
cleared. How would we know when this happened? In 
response to some future poll, the controller would again 
send us a new status message saying "the problem has been 
cleared, you can now select that device." 

As you can see, multipoint is a little more complicated 
than point-to-point; however, there are benefits that make 
this extra effort worth it. The major ones are probably line 
cost, and the saving of ports on the computer. In our exam- 
ple, we had six terminals on one circuit. I f it wasn't for this 
multipoint capability, we would have to have six separate 
lines that would probably be more expensive than one mul- 
tipoint line, plus we would need five additional portsto serve 
the other locations. 

Now that we've seen how bisyncprotocol works once each 
point on the data link is ready to communicate, let's take a 
quick look at what happens prior to any data transfer taking 
place. To do this, l will be referring to Figure l again. The 
first two pins we want to look at now are pins 4 and 5, 
request to send and clear to send. Before the DTE will send 
any data it will first turn pin 4 ON to condition the modem 
fordata transmission, and on a half duplexcircuit to control 
the direction of data transmission. If the modem is ready it 
will turn pin 5, clearto send, ON. The DTE can now send its 
data. There is some delay in this RTS/CTS sequence. The 
actual amount of delay is dependent on the modem being 
used, but typically this delay will range from 50 to 250 
milliseconds. 

There are two more leads we should consider; those are 
pins 6 and 20, data set ready and data terminal ready. 



182 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Data set ready is used to indicate that the local terminal 
equipment is connected to a communications channel; it is 
not in any type of test mode; and, for switched lines, any 
timing functions required by the switching system to com- 
plete a call have been completed. 

Data terminal ready is used to control switching of the 
data communications equipment to the communications 
channel. The ON condition prepares the equipment to be 
connected to the communication channel while the OFF 
condition causes the equipment to be removed from the 
communication channel following the completion of any"in 
process" transmission. 

This should take care of the pins, or at least most of them, 
that are required to perform data communications. This 
interface is a standard and all types of data transmission 
may make use of the pins discussed, or at least part of them. 
As you know, we only need four of them for use with the 
Color Computer. For a complete definition of all the EIA 
leads there is a publication available from the Electronic 
Industries Association in Washington, D.C. The complete 
title of the document is Interface Between Data Terminal 
Equipment and Data Communications Equipment Employ- 
ing Serial Binary Data Interchange. " 

So far, we have been discussing the use of modems, thus 
implying that our facilities, whether private line or dial-up 
are analog. We know that these analog facilities were origi- 
nally designed to transmit voice and in order to transmit 
data we must convert the sending DTE's digital signal to 
analog and back to digital for the receiving DTE. This 
conversion process does take up some time no matter how 
minute this time period may be. Why not have facilities that 
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we found on modems. This service allows you to still use 
telephone company facilities and it is maintained by them. 

There are other digital services available; however, they 
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AT&T's High Capacity Transport Service (HCTS), and Bell 
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1.544 million bits per second. The other three offer speeds 
from 2,400 up to several million BPS. Also, DDS has a 
56,000 BPS offering. Since we know there aren't many, if 
any, terminals that operate at speeds above 9,600 BPS, how 
can we make use of these speeds beyond that? 

Let's take a look at Figure 3 and see how we can do this. 
What we have here is several ports from the computer going 
into something called a multiplexer. The multiplexer will 
take the data from each of these ports, combine the data into 
a single data stream and transmit all the data at a high rate of 
speed to another multiplexer which will separate the data 
and send it out on its ports onto the appropriate lines to the 
attached devices. The same is done for data coming f rom the 
remote network to the computer. In this example, 1 show a 
56K BPS DDS data link between multiplexers. This data 
link could be any one of the other services as well. For 



9600 bpi 



56 K bpa 



9600 bpi 



Figure 3 



example, this link could be two earth stations transmitting 
to each other via a satellite. 

By the way, if your computer network was all asynchro- 
nous you could make use of these high speed data links, for 
some multiplexers have the ability to convert the async data 
stream to synchronous and even perform error checking and 
recovery for you. 

What is the advantage of using these types of services? 
First of all, we can see that these systems were designed for 
the large users. By using such a system they could be saving 
in line cost, for, instead of having several circuits they would 
only have the one high speed link. The time period to realize 
a savings will, of course, vary depending on the type of 
service providing the data link. Satellite earth stations and 
the service itself aren't cheap. Of course, there may be situa- 
tions where you wouldn't have much choice as to which 
service to use. For example, if you had a data center in Los 
Angeles and one in Australia, you might have to use satellite 
services to get there. 

As you can imagine, there are other configurations that 
we could use these high speed facilities for let's not get into 
all of them here in any detail — but some more uses would be 
to transmit voice, facsimile, and of course, television 
broadcasting. 

1 hope it has been interesting to look at some ways to 
transmit data and to look at some of the new technology that 
is available today. And, with fiber optics already being 
capable of transmitting at speeds over 400 million bits per 
second, who knows what tomorrow will bring? I'm not 
saying you will ever have an earth station in your backyard, 
or a microwave tower on your roof, but just think; with the 
way technology is progressing and the cost of hardware 
continuously coming down, maybe one day when you log on 
to your favorite bulletin board with your home computer it 
may just be at 4,800 BPS or higher. Wouldn't that be nice? 



1 84 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



TUTORIAL 



c— 

LANGUAGE 



BASIC is a special type of computer language in that it is 
interpreted. This means that a machine language 
BASIC interpreter program must be resident in the 
computer to run a BASIC program. While a BASIC program 
runs, the interpreter takes each statement in turn, looks up 
what to do, and goes to the code in the BASIC interpreter that 
performs the required task. If you run a FOR TO NEXT 
loop that prints "X" 100 times, the interpreter must look up 
the PRINTioktn 100 times. This takes time. In a machine 
language program, either the address of the required code or 
the distance, in bytes, to the required code is in the program 
and the microprocessor goes directly to the address. How- 
ever, getting or writing a program in machine language takes 
some doing. Most high level languages produce a machine 
code file. Some run directly. Others need some runtime code 
that interprets an intermediate code. Best is a stand alone 
machine code file that you can LOAD, EXEC and be in the 
program. 



OF THE 

80s 



C was written in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labora- 
tories. Ritchie worked closely with Ken Thompson in devel- 
oping the UNIX system. Nearly every software tool now 
supplied with UNIX including the operating system is writ- 
ten in C. Subsequently, C has just grown in use on its own 
merit. It has not had true believers out preaching the faith 
and bad mouthing competiting languages. It has not been 
"marketed." More like a carpenter choosing a good saw to 
quicker finish the job, programmers have chosen C so they 
can get good code to their client faster and get the paycheck. 
C feeds the family, if you will. 



Writing in assembly language is one way to get to a 
machine language program. The assembly language source 
code is run through an assembler program which converts 
the assembly language to machine code also called the object 
code. Assemblers can be remarkably small, efficient pro- 
grams. Radio Shack's EDTASM+ for the CoCo combines 
an editor, assembler and a monitor to run the machine 
program under operator control in less than 8K bytes. 

Another approach is to write in a language whose source 
code is converted to machine language by a program called a 
compiler. Fortran, PL/ 1, and Pascal are all compiled lan- 
guages though Pascal needs a runtime program to interpret 
the compiled file. Cis unique in that it compiles to assembly 
language source code for the microprocessor in question 
and the assembly language file is then assembled to obtain 
the final machine code file. C is a small language so its 
compiler is small. A limited, but very useful C compiler fits 
easily into 16K. There now exist a number of Ccompilers for 
CoCo as well as a number of excellent references the begin- 
ning programmer needs to learn the language. Further, C 
has been implemented on many other micro and mini com- 
puters in such a way that Ctext is more transportable than 
most other languages. For these reasons, C makes a good 
choice for a next language to learn after BASIC. 



(Richard White has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC programming. 
With Don Dollberg, he is the author of the TIMS data 
base management program.) 



By Richard A. White 



186 the RAINBOW November 1983 



C comes out of a family of languages whose traditions 
stress reliability, simplicity and ease of use. An international 
committee designed ALGOL 60 in 1960. Highly sophis- 
ticated, ALGOL has had major influence on programming 
language design but never caught on in the United States. 
Combined Programming Language appeared in 1963 as an 
attempt to "retain contact . . . with the realities of an actual 
computer." But, CPL was bigand its hosts of features made 
it hard to implement and hard to learn. Basic Combined 
Programming Language was a 1967 attempt to boil CPL 
downtoitsbasicgood features. KenThompsonat Bell Labs 
further simplified CPL to B to use on an early implementa- 
tion of UNIX. But, BCPL and B were so condensed that 
they could only deal with certain kinds of problems. Build- 
ing on these roots, Ritchie's C restores some lost generality 
without sacrificingsimplicity or "computer contact." As for 
power, C's limited stock of parts can be assembled into more 
complex parts and combined into elaborate assemblies. 

How does one get to the machine program using C on 
CoCo? Here are the mechanics without going into language 
details yet. First, an editor or word processing program is 
required that supports all the characters available from 
CoCo's keyboard when running in BASIC. Unfortunately, 1 
thought that my beloved Telewriter-64 did not make the 
grade since characters like the backslash did not seem to be 
available and are indispensible to C. 1 subsequently made 
the mistake of reading the instructions (nobody ever does 
that)and found the backslash is CLEAR-COMMAand was 
provided just so Telewriter-64 could write Ctext. Two other 
needed characters were found by typing errors. These are "f" 



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CLEAR. In the mean time, a surprisingly good editor, Mr 
Ed, was published in the June 1983 Rainbow, page 140. I 
modified the program to accept lowercase commands {Bits 
and Bytes of Basic, Rainbow, August 1983), modified the 
program name line to follow C's comment convention and 
have been very satisfied. 

The Csource code for the program is prepared, edited and 
saved to disk. Oh yes, C runs on disk only and gives a disk 
drive quite a workout. Cassettes just cannot do what has to 
be done. The C compiler is then loaded and executed. The 
compiler calls the Csource code and converts it to assembly 
language source code which is considerably larger than the 
Ctext. During the process the CCompiler is reading in the C 
source from one disk file, converting it and saving assembly 
source to another disk file. Little of either C or assembler 
code is in memory at any time and you can combine a 
number of C source files to make a large assembly source 
file. Next, the assembler program is loaded from disk and 
executed. It goes to work on the assembly source file and 
you sit back while the disk chugs and chugs some more. 1 do 
believe the disk gets warm after a five to 10 minute session of 
constant rotation. The output object code is on disk now 
ready to LOADM and EXEC. If all went well you have a 



"C comes out of a family 
of languages whose trad i- 
tions stress reliability, 
simplicity and ease of 
use." 



running machine language program. Since all never, ever 
goes well with any computer program in any language, the 
program will probably bomb and you will enter the debug- 
ging phase. Actually, the Ccompiler sends a variety of nasty 
messages which you will have responded to prior to assem- 
bling a corrected assembly source file so the problems now 
are ones of basic program logic and not ones of language 
systax. Now you can start to see one of the negatives of a 
compiled language compared to BASIC. When you write in 
BASIC, you need only RUN the program to see if the code 
you just entered works. With a compiled language, you have 
to compile your source code , and in the case of C, assemble 
it before you execute it. 

C is a structured language. You need to declare your 
variables by type before you use them in each function that 
they are used. Further, variables are local to each function 
except those declared before "main()". This is somewhat like 
using DIM in BASIC in that it reserves space for that varia- 
ble. Then you write your code in groupings called functions. 
These are analogous to subroutines in BASIC, but are named 
and are called by name. There are also standard functions, 
some of which are provided with the Ccompiler, which are 
not part of the language, but which you call from your 
program to perform certain tasks. C itself has no input or 
output statements. These are all in the standard library, 
provided with the compiler, and are written for the specific 
computer in question. 



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So, what does C source code look like? Following is a 
simple program that prints a table of Fahrenheit and Celsius 
temperatures. The table is not exact since the program per- 
forms integer math only. 
/* FAHRCELS.DAT */ 

/ * print Fahrenheit-Celsius table for fahr=0, 20, 300 */ 
main() 

(53 

char c; 

int lower, upper, step, fahr, Celsius; 
lower = 0; /*lower limit of table*/ 
upper = 300; /*upper limit*/ 
step — 20; /* step size */ 
fahr — lower; 

while (fahr <= upper) @ 

Celsius = (((5* l00)/9)*(fahr-32))/ 100; 
printf("%d %d/rT, fahr, Celsius); 
fahr = fahr + step; 

$ 

c=getchar(); 

$ 

#asm 
LIBS INCLIB.TXT 

tfendasm 

First note that C is written in lowercase. The first two lines 
are comments enclosed by the /*. . .*/ delimiters called for 
by the compiler. Then main() defines the start of the pro- 
gram which is enclosed between the first @ and the last $. 
Next the variables are all declared, in this case as a character 
(char) and as integers (int). Variables can and should be 



meaningful words since this makes the source easier to read. 
Don't worry about space. None of the comments or varia- 
bles get to the object code from the assembler. The "while 
(fahr<= upper)" is a control structure that tests if fahr is less 
than or equal to upper. As long as this is true, the following 
three lines between the @ and the $ are executed. The first of 
these lines calculates the value of Celsius from the current 
fahr value. Then, both values are printed using printfQ. 

PrintfQ is one of the standard library functions that is 
tailored to the particular computer. It is somewhat like 
PRINT USING in BASIC as it provides for some print 
formatting. The "%d%d/ n" tells printfQ to print a number, 
%d, print a few spaces, print a second number, %d againand 
then start a newline, /n. The variables containing the two 
numbers follow as fahr and celcius. In the library are a 
number of utility functions like printfQ. Typically, the 
library file may be in a C compiler readable format and 
added to your program by the compiler or it may be in 
assembly language and added by the assembler. You can 
develop your own set of functions and keep them in a library 
to be added to your own programs or to be shared with 
other. Finally fahr is incremented by step (20) and looping 
continues until the test after "while" becomes false. Then 
this program goes to the next statement after the $ which is 
"c=getcharQ". getcharQ is another library function that 
works just like C=INKEY$ in BASIC. Here it serves to stop 
the program until a keyboard entry is made so one can read 
the table. 

All function calls, even mainQ which is a function, are 
followed by parentheses where data to be sent the function is 
listed. In the printfQ example, the peren's contents was 



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C%d%d/n", fahr, Celsius). The printf() code got the full 
string of characters within the quotes and copies of the 
values in fahr and Celsius. How printfQ handles its work to 
get the values of fahr and Celsius onto the screen is of no 
concern to the programmer. printfQ is a black box that 
prints things to the screen in a way the programmer can 
control through what goes into the perens. 

A C program is really a set of user written and library 
functions. Execution starts in main() where needed func- 
tions are called in their order of need. Ideally, main() will be 
as simple as possible with major blocks of logic in other 
functions which in turn call functions including themselves. 
This system makes C usable for a variety of programming 
tasks where needed statements are not in the kernel of the 
language. C has no math functions like log, sine, cosine, 
powers and the like. But, utility functions to do the tasks can 
be written and used just as the printfQ function was used. 
Likewise Cdoes not contain any string handling statements 
like RIGHTS, LEFTS and MIDS. Again, functions to do 
these things would need to be written or obtained from 
others who have already written them. 

If, after all this, you are still interested in learning more, 
start with The C Primer, by Les Hancock and Morris 
Krieger, published by McGraw-Hill Book Company 
($14.95). This and the otherbooks mentioned belowcan be 
obtained generally off the shelf. Some computer stores will 
carry one or more of these. If the Primer turns you on, you 
will certainly need a copy of the bible. This is The C Pro- 
gramming Language, by Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis 
M. Ritchie, Prentice-Hall Software Series ($19.95). After 
the first chapter, Kernighan and Ritchie becomes so concise 



that the beginner finds the water quite muddy. But such 
conciseness is on the mark in a reference volume for the 
serious user. In addition this book is the definition of Stand- 
ard C which is closely followed by most users and writers. 
Finally comes "The C Puzzle Book," by Alan R. Feuer, 
Prentice-Hall Software Series ($14.95). This book provides 
a series of short examples program f or you to figure out with 
detailed analyses at the back. 



"A C program is really a set 
of user written and library 
functions." 



But, it's no fun just reading and figuring while the compu- 
ter sits cold on the table. Dugger's Growing Systems has an 
ad for their C compilers in this issue. I have the one for 
TRS-DOS which fits into a I6K machine. More memory 
may be needed for the text editor and text file, but not for 
either the compiler or the assembler. At this writing, Version 
1 .2 supports only the most necessary parts of the language. 
Version 2.0 implements another chunk and should be avail- 
able by the time this is published. Duggers Compiler for 
FLEX is the 2.0 Version. Also coming from Dugger is a text 
editor written in Cand an assembler written with assembly 
and linkage of C produced source code in mind. The Version 
1 .2 TRSDOS compiler was designed using Computerware's 
assembler. One of the attractions of this assembler is the 
ability to include LIBS assembler commands which will call 
additional assembly source files and combine these to pro- 
duce a single object file. The other available C compiler for 
CoCo is from Frank Hogg Labs and also runs under FLEX. 
I have no information on this program. However, if it is an 
adaption of a compiler for another 6800 or 6809 based 
computer to the CoCo (one of the things FLEX makes 
possible) it may be the most comprehensive compiler for 
CoCo. Perhaps users will report their experiences. 

By now you should know enough about C to decide to 
look further or not and know where to look should you 
choose. Obviously, we can only hope to touch a few bases in 
an article like this. To summarizeand to help you calibrate 
your expectations should you go further, here are a few 
thoughts. If assembly language programming is low level 
and BASIC, PL/ 1, Pascal and others are high level, C is 
somewhere in the midd le. A lot of the bells and whistles of a 
high level language are not there. While the BASIC pro- 
grammer has access to the machine with PEEK, POKEand 
VARPTR, these are used with restraint, in C there is need to 
deal with addreses of data and manipulating pointers to 
data. As 1 read about Cand its syntax logic, I think about 
how the computer is working more than I do when pro- 
gramming in BASIC. Finally, assembly language pro- 
grammers should find Ca natural step up the ladder since C 
permits assembly source inclusion within the C text, in the 
example above, #asm and #endasm enclose an assember 
command. They could just as well enclose assembly source 
code that the compiler passes directly to the assembler as 
part of the assembly source stream. 



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1 90 the RAINBOW November 1983 



DATA COMMUNICATIONS 



Communicating With 
Your Color Computer 



By Bob Rosen 



One of the added features of the Color Computer is 
the built-in RS-232 interface. It can be used to hook 
up a serial printer like the DMP-100. More impor- 
tant, though, it can be used to help you communicate. 
Communicate? That's right! There is a whole new world of 
telecommunications that many CoCo owners are unaware 
of. Besides playing games and writing programs, you can 
connect a modem to your RS-232 port. A modem is an 
electronic device which converts the computer's electrical 
pulses bit by bit into audible sounds that can be transmitted 
over the telephone lines. Modem stands for MOdulator/ 
DEModulator and there are two types available. 

The two main types of modems currently on the market 
are the direct-connect modem and the acoustic-coupled 
modem. Both have their advantages. The direct-connect 
unit hooks right into the phone lines. For instance, Spec- 
trum's Mini-Modem allows you to unplug your phone from 
the jack and hook it into our unit. Then you can plug the 
cable from the Mini-Modem back into your phone jack. 
This assumes that your phone and jack are modular. If not. 
Radio Shack sells two adapters, 279-393 and 279-35 1, that 
will convert your hook-up to modular. Since the direct- 
connect unit hooks right into the line, virtually no external 
noise can be detected which means someone else in the room 
can be watching TV or listening to a stereo. The acoustic- 
coupled modem is even easier to hook up. The attachment is 
the same as adding a telephone answering machine. If you 
have no extra jacks, Radio Shack sells two "Y M adapters, 
279-357 and 279-370, for modular and four-prong systems. 
The acoustic-coupled modem is more susceptible to line 
noise as you are placing your phone's receiver into the unit's 
two cups, or "synthetic ears." This can be a problem if you 
are calling long distance and the signal on the other end is 
weak. Another problem is that today's modern phones 
might not fit the modem's circular cups (Slim line phones, 
for example). One advantage to this modem is that it is more 
flexible to use with multi-line phone systems than a direct- 
connect because all you have to do is push buttons to use the 
modem on another line. 

(Bob Rosen is president of Spectrum Pro jects and has 
been running a successful CoCo mail-order business 
for a year and a half He is ably assisted by Paul Rosen, 
Tom Delabo, Tom Genoski, Jerry La to, Al Harlman, 
and Mel Silverman.) 




The only other piece of hardware you will need for your 
modem is a serial cable to hook it up to the RS-232 port. For 
the Mini-Modem, you will need a 4-pin to BD25 cable. 
There are two other cables which can be very handy. One is a 
printer modem extension cable, which allows you to place 
your modem in another location. It extends your three-foot 
Radio Shack cable another fifteen feet. The second cable is 
the RS-232 expansion cable. This is a "Y" adapter cable 
which allows you to hook up your printer and modem inline, 
independently, at the same time. This eliminates constant 
swapping out of cables, since the Color Computer has only 
one RS-232 port. Also, as you will see later on, it will come 
in handy when using a smart terminal program. 

Now thatyou have the hardware situation taken care of, 
you will need software. As with modems, there are two types 
of software. The first type is known as "dumb terminal 
software." Radio Shack sells a version under the Videotex 
name. It is catalog number 26-2222 and includes one free 
hour on the Dow Jones and CompuServe Networks. The 
software allows access to these networks, but that's about all 
it does. It lacks the desired features that a smart terminal 
program contains. 

Now you might ask, what can a "smart terminal program" 
do for methata dumb terminal doesn't?Thesmart terminal 
program can take the information you access from a tele- 
communications system and store it into your computer's 
memory. After you go off line from a system, you have the 



192 



the RAINBOW November 1983 



option of printing it out or writing it as a cassette or disk file. 
Or, you can type a message off line and then upload with a 
single keystroke to the host computer. 

Since networks such as CompuServe and The Source 
charge for their services, this can save you money as it can 
transmit it faster than you can type and it allows you to 
examine it for errors while off line. 

Another nice feature of a smart terminal program is that it 
enables you to change any RS-232 or printer parameters. 
For example, it allows you to access half duplex systems and 
use 1200 Baud modems. You can run your printer at 1200 
Baud and insert a carriage return after a linefeed. 

Another bonus a smart terminal program has to offer is 
that you can scroll on line or offline up to 12 lines at a time. 
Where can you purchase such a program? Spectrum Pro- 
jects sells a smart terminal package under the name Color- 
corn/ E. (Other popular terminals include Super "Color" 
Terminal, by Softlaw; Color+Term+Plus, by Double Den- 
sity; and Autoterm,by PXE Computing.) These do not offer 
any free time for CompuServe and Dow Jones, but do offer 
the desired features of a smart terminal program. One can 
still purchase from Radio Shack a Universal Sign Up Kit 
(26-2224) to go on line with CompuServe and Dow Jones. 
However, this kit contains no software. It can be used, 
though, in conjunction with a smart terminal program. 

Now that you know more about the hardware and soft- 
ware which is involved, you may ask, "What else can 1 access 
besides large data bases which charge for the use of their 
systems?" The answer is a growing phenomena called Bul- 
letin Board Services which are mushrooming all over the 
United States. A Bulletin Board Service, or BBS for short, 
consists of an individual with a personal computer and an 




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auto-answer modem set up to have outside callers access 
their computer. (Yes, your own mini CompuServe!) Aside 
from the auto answer modem, one needs special BBS soft- 
ware to run the system. For example, Spectrum Projects 
owns and operates three BBS's which totally support the 
Color Computer. The three systems can be accessed by 
dialing (212) 441-3755, (212) 441-3766 and (212) 441-5719. 
These are operated and run on three Model Ills with a 
Corvus 20 Meg hard disk drive. The system is free and no 
passwords are needed to access the system. Some features of 
the system are a message retrieval section, the Rainbow 
Tape section which contains over 300 programs from the 
pages of the Rainbow, a merchandise section, and a Rain- 
bow Review section with over 100 evaluations of hardware 
and software. Using a smart terminal program, you can dial 
into the system and capture files from the download section. 
These files consist of games and utilities which you can run 
on your Color Computer. In the message retrieval section 
you can leave or retrieve messages with other users of the 
system. It is a way to get info on the Color Computer that is 
not readily available through other channels. You can ask 
technical questions, get opinions on Color Computer hard- 
ware or software, and place an ad. In the merchandise 
section is a list and description of products for your Color 
Computer. 

There is one last thing you can do with your modem. 
Become a CoCo sysop! Sysop stands for SYStem OPerator. 
The minimum requirements to run a BBS on a Color Com- 
puter are 64K of RAM, a disk drive, and an auto-answer 
modem. And of course, BBS software! (See Rainboard 
elsewhere in this issue for a complete free software program 
to start your own BBS.) 

Bulletin Boards have proven to be very profitable invest- 
ments as yours truly can attest to. Just imagine sitting in 
front of your CoCo BBS and watching it beingaccessed by a 
complete stranger at any time of day or night from anywhere 
in the world ! Make way for the Bulletin Board System — the 
wave of the future! 





About Your Subscription 



Your copy of the RAINBOW is sent second class 
mail and, for subscribers in the United States, the date 
of mailing is printed on the label. If you do not receive 
your copy by the 25th of any month, send us a card and 
we will mail another immediately via first class mail. 

You must notify us of a new address wben you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than the 
15th of the month prior to the month in which you 
change your address. Sorry, we cannot be responsible 
for sending another copy when you fail to notify us. 

Your mailing label also shows an "account number" 
and the subscription expiration date. Please indicate 
this account number when renewing or corresponding 
with us. It will help us help you better and faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U .S. subscribers, there 
may be a mailing address shown that is different from 
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pondence to that mailing address. Send it to our edi- 
torial offices at P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. 
This applies to everyone except those whose subscrip- 
tions are through our distributor in Australia. 



196 



the RAINBOW November 1983 



BITS MID 8VTE5 OF 8RSIC 



Sfinoins M on g 

* 5 with 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



(Richard White has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC programming. 
With Don Doll berg, he is the author of the TIMS data 
base management program.) 

198 the RAINBOW November 1983 



the same way by BASIC. A string of characters does not have 
to make sense to still be a character string. 

Characters can be entered into the computer in a number 
of ways. We will concentrate on program and keyboard 
entry, leaving data entry from cassette or disk to other 
columns. Strings may be part of a program. Here are two 
examples: 

10 S$="DEMONSTRATION" 
20 PRINT "THIS IS A "S$ 

In Line 10, the string "DEMONSTRATION" is assigned 
to the string variable S$. As we have said before, S$ docs not 
equal the string. It represents the string and allows the 
computer to find the string. 

Once BASIC runs Line 10 it knows where S$ string is and 
can use it anywhere in the program. In Line 20, there is also a 
string, "THIS IS A "that is notassigned to a variable. This is 
a string that BASIC uses when it comes to it in Line 20 and 
nowhere else. Note that BASIC also uses S$ in Line 20 to 
print THIS IS A DEMONSTRATION. 

Strings can also be put in a program in DA TA statements. 
In this case, the DA TA must be read into string variables 
before it can be used. 

10 FOR X=l TO 4:READ S$(X):S$(X)+ fct ":NEXT 
20 FOR X = 1 TO 4:PR1NT S$(X);):NEXT 
30 END 

1000 DATA THIS, IS, A, DEMONSTRATION 

A FOR. ..TO ..NEXT loop reads the the DATA into 
S$(X) string variables. We then add a space to each string. A 
FOR. ..TO... NEXT loop is used to print the strings and we 
get the same THIS IS A DE MONSTRATION printout we 
had before. Note that the program never reached Line 1000, 
but found the DA TA and printed it all the same. 

BASIC is set up to find the DA TA wherever it is put in the 
program. The obvious place for DATA statements is at the 
very end of the program where BASIC can find the informa- 
tion, but does not waste time running over DATA lines. 

1 don't use DA TA statements much. 1 like to define varia- 
bles, including strings, at the end of program, send the 
program over these lines once and have them available from 
then on. Here is an example. 



Color basic owners listen up. Most string handling is 
accomplished using Color BASIC Commands. So when we 
discuss strings and string functions, the only Extended 
BASIC one involved will be LINE INPUT. 

Extended BASIC and Disk BASIC owners listen up. Did 
you know that the bulk of non-graphics and non-music 
programming isdone with keywords and functionsfrom the 
Color basic ROM? 1 wrote a program for the Rainbowihal 
tests a program and reports back the number of Color 
BASIC, Extended basic and Disk BASIC Keywords and 
Functions used. 1 was suprised how few Extended and Disk 
commands were counted in programs that were designed to 
run from Disk or Extended BASIC. The message is that we 
can write many useful programs without Extended or Disk 
BASIC. 

In fact, the Tutorial Program on Strings at theend of this 
column will run fine in Color basic. This is in response to 
those cards and letters to the Rainbow asking for more such 
programs. Tutorial programs help you learn in two ways. 
First, RUNing the program helps some to focus on the 
elements of the lesson in a step by step manner a little easier 
that following text in a magazine. Secondly, those who type 
in the code will see multiple examples of what the tutorial is 
discussing. In either case, once you have the program on 
tape ordisk, it will beeasy to load it into CoCosometime in 
the future and get a quick review of the subject. 

We think of computing as dealing, for the most part, with 
numbers. There are some programming languages whose 
reason to be is to deal with numbers. While dealing with 
numbers is important, dealing with characters and words 
has become a major task for modern computers. Word 
processing and data base management, including mailing 
list data, client lists, employee information listings and 
inventory all work on the computerized handling of strings. 

A string is a series of characters. Characters are anything 
not treated as a number. Letters, numerals, punctuation, 
control characters (such as carriage return and back space) 
and graphics codes are all just characters and are treated in 



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keyboard input that is put into a string. INPUT AS accepts 
characters from the keyboard for entry into a string until it 
sees a carriage return [ENTER], quote, comma, or semi- 
colon. 

This is good news and bad news. The good news is that 
you can enter a number of strings with one INP U T state- 
ment. The bad news is the obvious limits on what the string 
you [ENTER] can contain. INPUT also lets you print a 
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'The big value of LINEIN- 
PUT is in word process- 
ing and data base man- 
agement programming 
where all keyboard charac- 
ters need to be entered 
into strings." 



The Extended BASIC statement LINEINPUT AS allows 
entry of any keyboard character except the carriage return 
[ENTER], which terminates the string. It allows only one 
string to be entered at a time and does not support printing a 
string after the keywords. The equivalent of the above 
INPUT code follows. 

100 PR1NT"ENTER YOUR NAME ANDTELEPHONE 
NUMBER" : LINEINPUT N AS : LINEINPUT TL$ 

The big value of LINEINPUT is in word processing and 
data base management programming where all keyboard 
characters need to be entered into strings. 

In the ideal program, all operator choices will be entered 
as single keystrokes. Why entera characterand an [ENTER] 
when we can do the same thing with one keystroke. 1NKEYS 
is our hero. 

20 I$=1NKEY$:1F IS- ^ THEN 20 ELSE RETURN 

This subroutine is a real workhouse. Put it early in the 
program so basic can get to it in a hurry. You can then call it 
from various places in the program. A good example in the 
tutorial is Line 18, which lets the user pace himself through 
the program. 

Once the character or string is entered, it is processed or 
used in some way. BASIC includes a variety of powerful 
processing facilities. 

Strings can be combined or added to each other in a 
process called concatenation. 



200 



the RAINBOW November 1 983 



5 GOSUB 2000 

100 A$= B$ + C$ + D$ : PRINT AS : END 
2000 B$="THIS C$="DEMOS D$="CONCATE- 
NATION." : RETURN 

Here three strings were added to form a new one, AS, 
which was then printed. This becomes a powerful tool when 
you need to make a string that includes characters not 
availablefromthe keyboard. There is no other way to make 
astringin a program thatcontainsa quote than toadd it to a 
string using CHR$(34). In the tutorial program, 1 need to 
print to thescreenexample lines of BASIC thatdefine strings. 
How would you write BASIC that prints the following: 

10 A$="TEST STRING" 

The First try might be: 

10 PRINPM0 A$ = 'TEST STRING"" 

But that won't work since BASIC will read the second 
quotation mark as the end of a string. It will think that 
TEST isa variable, which has not been evaluated, of course, 
and print a zero. It treats STRING the same way. The final 

is thought of as a null string, a string with nothing in it 
which prints nothing. If you run line 10 you get: 

10 A$=0 0 

The ASCII value of "is 34. Let's rewrite Line 10 to tell the 
program to print CHR$(34), the character whose ASCII 
value is 34 whenever we need to print a ". We will put the 
whole thing into a new string so we can easily print it any 
time we need. 

5 Al$ = 4 M0 A$=" + CHR$(34) + "TEST STRING" + 
CHR$(34) 
10 PRINT A$ 

This will do the job. Key it into your CoCo and prove it to 
yourself. 

What CoCo can put together, CoCo can take apart. Tak- 
ing strings apart, or getting pieces of strings, is fully as 



important as putting strings together. Color BASIC offers 

three functions that return a part of a string. 
L$ = LEFTS (AS, NUMBER) 
MS = MIDS (A$,POSITION, NUMBER) 
R$=RIGHT$(A$,N UMBER) 

In all cases, AS is the string we need to get something from 
or take apart. NUMBER is simply the number of characters 
from the left end of AS that need to be put into L$. AS 
remains unchanged, and the characters in question are in 
both AS and in L$. When RIGHTS is used, it works the 
same way except it counts back from the right end of AS to 
determine which characters to get. 

MIDS is more general, and more powerful, but has only 
one more parameter to remember. POSITION is the 
number of characters from the left end of the string where 
BASIC is to start getting characters. NUMBER is the length 
of the string to get and put into MS. Did you happen to think 
that we can throw LEFl^S and RIGH7S away and use 
MIDS for all string disassembly? The substitution for 
LEF1S is simple to use 1 for position. 

L$=MID$(A$, I, NUMBER) 

This will work exactly like LEF7S above. 

To substitute MIDS for RIGHTS, we need to know how 
long AS is and subtract NUMBER from that length to get 
the starting position. 

100 L=LEN(A$) : R$= MID$(A$, L-NUMBER, NUMBER) 

Looks simple, doesn't it? Well it is and it isn't. The prob- 
lem is not in knowing how to use LEFl^S, RIGH7S and 
MIDS. It comes when you need to write the program to 
calculate POSITION and NUMBER. This I cannot simply 
lay out in a tutorial. It depends on the logic of the program 
you are writing. Indeed, string handling functions are basi- 
cally simple. It is how they are used that gets complicated. 
Do not despair! Many before you have learned and come to 
appreciate the power of BASIC strings. 



ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE ? 

Tired of typing in those long, but wonderful, programs from each issue of the RAINBOW? Now, you can get RAINBOW ON TAPE and give 
those tired fingers a rest. With RAINBOW ON TAPE, you'll be able to spend your time enjoying programs instead of just typing. ..typing. ..typing 
them! All you need to do ever again is pop a RAINBOW ON TAPE cassette into your recorder. CLOAD and RUN any one you want. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE is available as a single issue for $6.50 or on a yearly subscription basis for only $60. It is the perfect complement for the 
RAINBOW itself. 

VISA, MasterCard and American Express accepted. AH subscriptions begin with the current issue and back issues are available 
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HANDY ORDER CARD BETWEEN PAGES 34 and 35 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 201 



HARDWARE 



Custom Interface For The 

Gemini-10 



By William R. Hall 



Interfacing the CoCo to a Gemini-10 line printer has not 
been an easy path to tread. From bulky serial-parallel 
converters to factory interfaces, there's been a price to 
pay, if not in dollars, then in transmission speed. The inter- 
face presented in this article can be built for less than $20 
(complete kit); and transmission speeds are selectable from 
1 10 to 9600 Baud. We call it the 8010 interface. 

Before you decide to upgrade or backup a current inter- 
face, let's cover a few bases. This interface is only for the 
Gemini-10 or /5, and not the J OX. The 8010 uses the intelli- 
gence of the printer, but does not require any modification 
of the printer or CoCo. If you use the printed circuit in 
Figure I, you can mount the 8010 in the same place as the 
factory interface and still have access to the set-up switches 
without removing the case. All options and buffering of the 
Gemini remain functional. In short, the 8010 emulates the 
Star Micronics serial interface for the signals required by the 
CoCo. 

Circuit Theory 

Understanding the circuit theory is not necessary to build 
the interface, but for those who wish to know . . . read on. 
The Gemini is capable of handlingserial inputs, providinga 
status word is read to set up the microprocessor for this 
function. The 8-bit status word is strobed into the micropro- 
cessor on pin 8 of CN2. All timing of this word is also 
managed by the processor through pin 5 and pin 6 of CN2. 
Table I shows thefunctionoftheindividualbitsinthestatus 
word. The SN74165 is used tocreatethis statusand permit it 
to be retrieved by the Gemini's electronics. 

The remaining electronics are buffers and signal condi- 
tioning circuits. Data from pin 4 of the serial port of the 
CoCo is inverted and converted to TTL levels and then fed 
to pin 3 of CN2. The system busy signal (pin I of CN2) is 
buffered and then sent to CoCo to stop transmission when 
the Gemini's buffers are full or off line. "System BusyV is 
also fed back through pin 9 of CN2. 

Power is supplied by the printer through CN3 in the case 
of a Gemini-10, or CN12 with a Gemini-15, (see Figure 2). 
Only +5V and ground are required to interface the CoCo. 

Using The Printed Circuit 

The circuit board shown in Figure I has been designed to 
mount inside the printer, directly behind the serial port 
panel. All components and cables are mounted on side I, 
except theswitch bankand data cable. This isdonetoenable 
the switches to be accessed through the serial port panel. The 



vacant IC position and the diode pads are reserved for a 
68 188 line driver, for installation over 50 feet between host 
and printer. Jumping pins 8 and 9 of this vacant slot will 
enableoperation without the line driver. Pin numbers on the 
upper set of pads correspond to CN2, and the lower set 
correspond to the serial port of the CoCo. The personality 
jumpers shown in Figure I are for operation with the CoCo. 

Step By Step 

1) install 1C I and 2 

2) install RI 

3) install SWI on side 2 

4) connect ribbon cable pads 1 — 9 

5) connect wire to pads +5 and G 

6) solder jumpers as in Figure I 

7) connect data cable (3 wire) to the pads next to SWI 
on side 2 and to 4-pin din 

8) install connectors on cables 

9) use small mounting brackets and 6mm x 3mm screws 
for mounting 

10) set switches (see Table 2) 



Parts List 



1C1 


SN74165 


IC2 


SN7404 


RI 


IK ohm @ i/ 4 W 


SWI 


275-1301 Radio Shack 


CN2 


CEI0028-10 (Panduit) 


Serial Port Plug . . 


274-008 (Radio Shack 


P.C.B 


. . .SN6-83 (Dayton Assoc.) 



Table 1 

Bit I irrelevant 

Bit 2 parity (on, off) 

Bit 3 serial select 

Bit 4 serial select 

Bit 5 parity (odd,even) 

Bit 6 Baud rate 

Bit 7 Baud rate 

Bit 8 Baud rate 



202 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Table 2 



Baud rate 


CU/1 

o W Z 






Poke loc. 










1 jU 


VoUU 




rvxr 

Ul\ 


AM 


l 


4oUU 


AM 


KJiS 


off 
yJr r 


/ 


2400 


ON 


OFF 


ON 


18 


1200 


ON 


OFF 


OFF 


41 


ouu 


OFF 


ON 


ON 


87 


300 


OFF 


ON 


OFF 


180 




* Recommended 






Parity 


SW6 


SW1 






no parity 


OFF 


OFF 






Serial Select 


SW7 


SW8 


SW5 






ON 


OFF 


OFF 








~ iooooo 

— 4 



1 2 3 * S 6 7 B 



Figure 1 Printed Circuit (2X) 





+5V 




k 




IC2 


SERIAL 


7404 


PORT 




OF 


| 


COCO 






IC2 



IC2 



IC2 NC- 



J 3 



"1 



R1 

1/4 W 



NC- 



K7 



-<1 



K10 



-<3 






November 1 983 the RAINBOW 203 



the RAINB( 



How does your computer read your mind? 



How 

Is 
How! 



Facing Forms 



Here is a cute number guessing game sent to us by 
Henry Portela of Martin, Tenn. Called How, it 
requires 16K and Extended Color BASIC. Although 
it requires hardly any effort on the user's part, it is fun, 
especially for children. The most impressive aspect of How 
is the hi-res graphics used in the title page and throughout 
the game. The title page is done in perspective, giving it a 
three-dimensional look. 

After typing and RUNning the program, press R to start 
the game or ENTER to see the instructions. You will then be 
asked to pick a number between one and 100 in your mind. 
You will be presented with an array of numbers and asked if 
your secret number is among the cluster. Respond by press- 
ing Y (yes) or N (no). The CoCo will repeat this procedure 
several times, using different number clusters. Then your 
CoCo will "read your mind" and tell you your secret 
number. 



Program Line Description 
Line Comments 

speed up the action with POKE 65495,0 
clears string space 
letters and numbers data 
GOSUB46 draws title page, circles and sound, 
waits for R to start the game, or ENTER for 
information 

GOSUBb% — draws information and waits for R 
to start game 

transforms the words in drawings for the screen 
main loop 

transforms all numeric data in drawing for the 
screen 
-46 numeric data 
1 1 1 part of main routine or loop 



11 

12—30 
31 



39- 
47- 



Henry included a high speed poke, so rememberto POKE 
65494,0 before CSA VEing. 

How does not require skill or a certain amount of intelli- 
gence. It's just a very simple math trick with brilliant 
graphics. 

(Henry Portela, a foreign student residing in Martin, 
Tenn., came to the United States four years ago "with- 
out knowing a word of English. "He has had his CoCo 
for only two years and this is his first submission to the 
Rainbow.) 






0352 


38 ... 


068C 


46 ... 


0A7B 


67 ... 


. 0E74 


92 ... 


. 1205 


END . 


. 1410 



The listing: 

1 POKE 65495,0 

2 CLEAR 200:DIMO«<26) ,H»<10> ,N<5 
2) ,Y<7) : RESTORE 

3 1 



)="U5R10U5L10BD10R10BR4":H*(3)=" 
R10U10L10R1 0D5L8R8D5BR4 " : H* ( 4 ) =" 
BU5U5D5R 1 0U5D1 0BR4 " : H* ( 5 ) = " R 1 0U5 
L10U5R10BD10BR4" 

4 DATAU4E4F4L8R8D4BR4 , U8R7FD2GL7 
R7FD2GL7R7BR5 , U8R8L8D8R8BR4 , U8R7 
F 1 D6G1 L7R7BR5, U8R8L8D4R6L6D4R8BR 
4, U8R8L8D4R6L6D4BR12, U8R8D2U2L8D 
8R8U4L4R4D4BR4, U8D4R8U4D8BR4, R4U 
8L4R8L4D8R4BR4 , U2D2R8U8D8BR4 , U8D 
4R4E4G4F4BR4 , U8D8R8BR4 , U8F4E4D8B 
R4,U8F8U8D8BR4 

5 DATAU8R8D8L8R8BR4, U8R8D4L8D4BR 
12, U8R8D8L8R6H2F4H2R2BR4, U8R8D4L 
8R4F4BR4, R8U4L8U4R8BD8BR4, BR4U8L 
4R8BD8BR4, U8D8R8U8D8BR4, BR4H4U4D 
4F4E4U4BD8BR4, U8D8E4F4U8D8BR4, E8 
G4H4F8BR4, BR4U4H4F4E4BD8BR4 , E8L8 
BD8R8BR4 




204 the RAINBOW November 1983 



5BR4 " : H* < 9 ) = " R 1 0U 1 0L 1 0D5R 1 0D5BR4 

II 

7 GOSUB 46 

8 GOSUB 68 

9 PMODE1 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 

10 GOTO 12 

11 L=LEN <R*> : FOR TY=1 TO L:M=ASC 
(MID* <R*, TY, 1 ) ) -64: IF M=-32 THEN 

DRAW "BR 10" : NEXT TY: RETURN ELSE 
DRAWO*(M) : SOUND 50, 1: NEXT TY: RET 
URN 

12 DRAW"S4BM2, 2BD8" 

13 Y<1)=64: Y<2)=2: Y(3)=16: Y(4)=l 
:Y(5)=32: Y(6)=8:Y<7)=4 

14 FOR S=l TO 7 :T=Y(S) 

15 FOR X-l TO 52: READ N 

16 A*=STR*<N> 

17 C=C+l: GOSUB 31 

18 IF 06 THEN DRAW"BL254" : DRAW" 
BD20":O0 

19 IF A*=STR*<0) THEN 21 

20 NEXT X 

21 DRAW"S4C4BM0, 190":R*=" IS YOU 
R NUMBER HERE ": GOSUB 11 

22 E*=INKEY*: IF E*= " "THEN 22 

23 IF E*="Y"THEN TT=TT+T : GOSUB 3 
3 :GOTO 28 

24 IF E*="N" THEN TT=TT: DRAWBM2 
,2BD8": GOSUB 33 : GOTO 28 



25 IF E*="Q"THEN PCLS:RUN 

26 IF S=7 THEN GOSUB 33: GOTO 27 

27 GOTO 22 

28 C=0 : PCLS : DRAW " C4BM2 , 2BD8 " 

29 SOUND S+150,S+l:NEXT S 

30 GOTO 30 

31 DRAW"C3BR2BU5R4BD5BR4":F0R L= 
2 TO LEN(A*> :M=VAL(MID*(A*,L, 1> ) 
'.DRAW H*(M):PLAY "LI 00O3CO2AE " : N 
EXT L 

32 RETURN 

33 IF S=7 THEN 34 ELSE GOTO 36 

34 IF TTM01 THEN TT=0 

35 IF S=7 THEN A*=STR*(TT) :PCLS 
: GOSUB 94: GOSUB 103: DRAW" S8BM80, 
120": GOSUB 31 : GOSUB 98: GOSUB 107 

36 RETURN 

37 GOSUB 94 

38 GOTO 38 

39 DATA 64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71, 
72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 , 82 
,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90,91,92,9 
3,94,95,96,97,98,99, 100,0 

40 DATA 2,3,6,7,10,11,14,15,18,1 
9,22,23,26,27,30,31,34,35,38,39, 
42,43,46,47,50,51,54,55,58,59,62 
,63,66,67,70,71,74,75,78,79,82,8 
3,86,87,90,91,94,95,98,99,0 

41 DATA 16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23, 




CIRCLE CITY 
SOFTWARE 

NEW ADDRESS: 
1210 Victoria Drive 
Lebanon, Indiana 46052 



Credit Card Customers 
include number and expiration date. 




SEA TRADER 

A new game in which you play an 18th cen 
tury sea captain plying the trade routes. 
The you start start out on a shoestring 
and try to become a billionaire. Hazzards 
include pirates, storms, bad markets, 
and bad debts. People have become 
so fascinated with this game that 
they actually cheat to keep from 
winning. 16K color basic, tape or disk 
$19.95. 

COLOR STAR PILOT 

Take a trek through space to defeat the 
alien enemy in this superior version of 
a classic space game! Reviewed in Rain 
bow. Requires extended basic. Comes 
with 32K 3-level game or 16K novice 
version. Tape or disk $19.95. 




NEW MASTER DISK $29.95 
A touch of a button allows you to keep tabs 
on your disk library. Creates directory files 
directly from 100 of your source disks on one 
Master Disk. Search by file name, file type, 
disk name, free space, or individual directory. 
All output can be sent to line printer. Menu 
driven and very user friendly! This is an im- 
proved version of the program reviewed in The 
Rainbow. Optional accessory package adds 
even more features. 16K or 32K disk required. 

ACCESSORY PACKAGE $20.00 

A second disk for improved versions of the or- 
iginal single-disk accessory programs. Includes 
notebook for storage of disks and paperwork. 

*SORT* 

New Sort program is faster and more efficient 
than original version. Runs in 16 or 32K to 
produce an alphabetic listing of all file types 
you specify. 

♦RECOVER* 

New Recover program not only rewrites direc- 
tories from master files but can rebuild an en- 
tire disk to eliminate "10" errors. 

*ZAP* 

New addition. User friendly directory Zapper 
to manually correct directory data when all 
else fails. Menu-driven with help files for 
novices. 



206 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



24, 25, 26, 27 , 28,29, 30, 31 , 48, 49, 50 
,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,6 
1,62,63,80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87, 
88, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 0 

42 DATA 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19 
,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,35,37,39,4 
1 , 43, 45, 47, 49, 51 , 53, 55, 57, 59, 61 , 
63, 65, 67, 69, 71 , 73, 75, 77 ,79, 81 , 83 
,85,87,89,91,93,95,97,99,0 

43 DATA 32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39, 
40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50 
, 51 , 52, 53 ,54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 6 
1,62,63,96,97,98,99, 100,0 

44 DATA 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,24 
,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,40,41,42,4 
3,44,45,46,47,56,57,58,59,60,61, 
62, 63, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 88 
, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 94, 95, 0 

45 DATA 4,5,6,7,12,13,14,15,20,2 
1 , 22, 23, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 36, 37, 38, 39, 
44,45,46,47,52,53,54,55,60,61,62 
, 63, 68,69, 70, 71 , 76, 77, 78, 79, 84, 8 
5,86,87,92,93,94,95, 100,0 

46 REM 

47 PMODE 3, UPCLS 

48 DRAW "BM8, 123; E40R16ND12616R12 
NE4R12E16R16ND12640D12NE12L16U12 
NR16E16L24G16L16D12R16NU12E16NU1 
2R12" 



49 DRAW " BM76 ,123; E40R 1 2F40D 1 2L92 
U 1 2NR92R 1 6BE8E 1 6ND 1 2R 1 2ND 1 2F 1 6L4 
4R12E4R12F4" 

50 DRAW " BM 1 80 , 1 23 ; H40ND 1 2R 1 6F32R 
1 2H 1 6ND 1 2R 1 2H4U 1 2R 1 6F40D1 2L68NH 1 
2U 1 2NR68R 1 6BH8R 1 2BR 12NH16R1 2H32 " 

51 PAINT (16, 128) ,2, 4: PAINT (60, 12 
8) ,2, 4: PAINT (104, 128) , 2, 4: PAINT ( 
200, 128) ,2, 4: PAINT (32, 120) ,3,4 

52 PAINT(56,96) ,3,4:PAINT(48, 116 
) , 3, 4: PAINT (80, 1 16) , 3, 4: PAINT ( 10 
8, 108) ,3, 4: PAINT (120, 108) ,3, 4: PA 
INT(136, 110) ,3,4:PAINT(160, 108) , 
3,4 

53 PAINT (190, 112) ,3, 4: PAINT (200, 
100) ,3,4 

54 PAINT (40, 100) ,4, 4: PAINT (108, 1 
00) ,4, 4: PAINT (160, 100) ,4,4 

55 PMODE 4,1: SCREEN 1 , 1 

56 FOR 1=1 TO 20STEP 10: CIRCLE (1 
24,20) , 1,3, . l:NEXT I 

57 FOR 1=1 TO 40 STEP 8: CIRCLE (1 
24,23) , 1,3, . l: SOUND 10+I,1:NEXTI 

58 FOR 1=1 TO 60 STEP 10: CIRCLE ( 
124,30) ,1,3, . l:SOUND150+I, l:NEXT 

I 

59 FOR 1=1 TO 80 STEP10: CIRCLE ( 1 
24,40) ,1,3, . l:SOUND180+I, 1:NEXTI 

60 FOR 1=1 TO 100 STEP10: CIRCLE ( 



\ 




To make theTnost of your new Dragon microcomputer from Dragon-Tano, you need Dragon User 
— the international, independent magazine for Dragon owners. 

Each issue of Dragon User contains: • program listings covering games and utilities 

• reviews of the latest software • reviews of Dragon peripherals and add-ons 

• programming advice for beginners • technical advisory service 

• hardware projects • programming articles for users 

The Draqon microcomputer was launched tn the UK , Subscription order form. Receive a free book and save money by taking out a 

laqt vpar qTnrPthPnwPhav/pHPVPlnnpHa knnwlpdnp long-termsubscnption - a two year subscription saves 10%, a three-year 

lasi year, bince men we nave aeveiopea a Knowledge H subscription saves 20% In addition Jong-term subscribers will receive a free H 

and mastery Of the machine's abilities YOU can _ copy of either □ The Working Dragon or Dragmn Games Master Please send 

benefit from Our experience by Subscribing tO I a check, made payable to Dragon User, with this form 

Dragon User, which is expanding its coverage to include | Stan ™v subscr.pt.on from the foiiow.ng issue 

all US developments. Name H 

To make sure that you receive a copy of Dragon User H Address | 

regularly, subscribe direct to us. This costs only $29.95 | 

for 12 issues airspeeded to you - or take advantage of H 

our special offer to long-term subscribers, Individual I Signed . Date 

copies Of the magazine Can be Obtained from your | Subscription rates US and Canada airspeeded □ US$29', 95 for 12 issues/ 1 year _ 

Dragon dealer. US$53.90 for 24 issues US $71.90 for 36 issues Send this form to 

Dragon Uset % Business Press imemaiional, 206 E 42nd Si.. New York , NY 10017 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 207 



124,52) , 1,3, . l: SOUND 180-1, UNEX 
TI 

61 FOR 1=1 TO 1208TEP 10: CIRCLE (1 
24,70), 1,3,. l: SOUND 140-1,1: NEXT 
I 

62 FOR I- 1 TO 160 STEP10: CIRCLE 
(124, 152) ,1,3, . l:SOUND200, 1 : NEXT 
I 

63 FOR 1=1 TO 180 STEP10: CIRCLE ( 
124, 180) , I , 3, . 1 : SOUND150, 1 : NEXTI 

64 E«-INKEY*:IF E*=" "THEN 64 

65 IF E*=CHR*<13) THEN PCLS:RETU 
RN 

66 IF E*="R"THEN PCLS:80T0 9 

67 60T0 64 

68 REM 

69 PMODE 1,1: PCLS2 : SCREEN 1 , 0 

70 DRAW"S12C4BM50,40":R*»"H O W" 
:60SUB 11 

71 DRAW"S8C3BM2,80":R»="IS A SIM 
PLE":60SUB 11 

72 DRAWS8C3BM30, 110":R»="T R I 

c k m :gosub ii 

73 DRAW " S8C3BM 100,140": R*= "OF " : 6 
OSUB 11 

74 DRAW"S8C4BM76, 170" : R*="MATH" : 
GOSUB 11 

75 FOR X=l TO 2000: NEXT X 



• Sam and laodo cassette Hies it 3000 hi id (doable normal speadl 

• Um high-speed (POKE 85405.0) noil, mills It confinlinl to slay in mil mtff 
tbreaihiul 

• Aatimitlc idlutlmonl ol cassette ind prlnlir parimiliri when speed mode Ii 
chingid 

• Controfkay functions tor many Basic comminds ind tor changing spud modes 

• Compatible wllh Basic. ML, or ASCII tap« tiles (convert these long ones to double 
iieedl) 

• Transparent lo liaic: takes up jusl Vi X at your valuable memory 

"IF YOU ARE TIRED OF WAITING FOR THOSETAPES TO LOAD. I STRONGLY 
RECOMMEND THAT YOU BUY THIS FINE UTILITY." 

Th* RAINBOW, July 1963 
•'...A REAL TREAT FOR THOSE WITHOUT DISK SYSTEMS." 

Hoi Coco, Oclobmr t963 RAINBOW 

i eK m m ^, ^ ^ w n ^"St "** 







THE PI 


El 


E 


PI 


El 


R 





Till Ml uHlltf eukee II paillble M Intpecl anrdtilrsd partol memory WHILE BASIC U 
MLPRMMMSAR! RUHHIN9 I am Interrupts ran "a ongnde'ol another proBriml. 
Flip Mrtvgllnlnitniilni arrow fci VI. Ill uvolCoCQ'tZ8<ocHfflinllddiiplJr«dtt. 
Freeie the ectlen. or alew Itla a crawl. Unlock the aacrala al arcade animation attach! 
laa what Baslclidolag 'Behind me acenoi' 'IdiuperHeornlng/dohagglagaldlorPJi. 
prairaainiari (prints oat rogiatera and Hack an command), or tka|aal plain carlaaa. "» 
Balded Tear Through Cace'i Memory" llncladadl will eaew >w Ma wag. 

canalta Icapgalle ta dial) 816.9S 

1 6K aaaarabtar iietlag 1 1 J as 



76 PCLS: SCREEN 1, 1 

77 DRAW"S6C3BM0,40":R*="HOW TO P 
LAY HOW" : GOSUB 11 

78 DRAW"S4C4BM50,60":R*="YOU WIL 
L THINK ":G0SUB11 

79 DRAW"S4C4BM40,80":R*-"A NUMBE 
R BETWEEN": GOSUB 11 

80 DRAW " S4C4BM 10,1 00 " : R*= " ONE A 
ND ONE HUNDRED": GOSUB 11 

81 DRAW " S4C4BM2 ,120": R*= " THE CO 
CO WILL ASK YOU": GOSUB 11 

82 DRAW" S4C4BM10, 140": R*=" IS T 
HE NUMBER HERE": GOSUB 11 

83 DRAWS4C4BM10, 160":R*=" YOU L 
L ANSWER Y OR N": GOSUB 11 

84 FOR X=l TO 3000: NEXT X 

85 PCLS 

86 DRAW"S8C3BM60,20":R»="T HEN 
" : GOSUB 11 

87 DRAW"S4C4BM0,60":R*="THE MAGI 
C OF THE CO CO": GOSUB 11 

88 DRAW"S4C4BM40,80":R»=" WILL 
GIVE YOU": GOSUB 11 

89 DRAWS4C4BM30, 100": R«=" THE R 
IGHT ANSWER": GOSUB 11 

90 DRAW " S4C2BM 1 0 , 1 60 " : R*= "IF YOU 
WANT ": GOSUB 11 

91 DRAW " S4C2B M 1 0 , 1 80 " : R*™ " TO PLA 
Y AGAIN PRESS R": GOSUB 11 

92 GOTO 64 

93 PCLS: RETURN 

94 DRAW"S4C3BM30,40":R«-"DO YOU 
BELIEVE IT": GOSUB 11 

95 DRAW"S4C3BM20,60":R»=" THE 
CO CO SAYS ": GOSUB 11 

96 DRAW"S4C3BM20,80":R»=" YOUR 
NUMBER IS": GOSUB 11 

97 RETURN 

98 DRAWS4C4BM20, 140" : R*=" HA HA 
HA THE CO CO ": GOSUB 11 

99 DRAW"S4C4BM10, 160" : R*=" CAN 
READ YOUR MIND": GOSUB 11 

1 00 DRAW " S4C3BM 10,175": RH= " DO 
YOU WANT TO PLAY" : GOSUB 1 1 

101 DRAW " S4C3BM90 , 1 90 " : R«= " PRESS 
R ": GOSUB 11 

102 RETURN 

103 FOR X=80 TO 90 

104 SOUND X,l: SOUND X+10, 2: SOUND 
X-10, 1 

105 NEXT X 

106 RETURN 

107 E»=INKEY»:IF E*« " " THEN 107 

108 IF E*-"R"THEN PCLS: RUN 

109 IF E*="N"THEN POKE 65494, 0:E 
ND 

110 IF E*=CHR*<13)THEN PCLS: GOT 
0 1 

111 GOTO 107 



SPECTROSYSTEMS 




Florida resident ad<J 



Mill N Kendall Drive 

suiie a i Da 

Miamr Florida 3:*i 76 
f3U$} 274 3099 
CompuServe / 2355 W 



J 



210 th* RAINBOW November 1983 



CoCo COUNSEL 



Copyrighting Your Software 

Part 3 

By Tom Nelson 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



That crispy, f resh certificate f rom the Copyright Office 
sure looks good on your wall. So what does your 
copyright give you. What are your rights and what 
are your obligations? 

Yes, obligations. Your copyright is a bundle of rights 
created by Congress which has certain requirements to be 
retained. You must follow the technical requirements of the 
law to obtain and retain your copyright. 

Let's first investigate the rights you get with your copy- 
right, registered or not Section 106 of the Copyright Act 
gives the owner of the copyright exclusive rights to do and to 
authorize several things: 



1 ) Reproduce the copyrighted work in copies; 

2) Prepare derivative works based upon the copyrigh- 
ted work; 

3) Distribute copies of the copyrighted work to the 
public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by 
rental, lease or lending. 



Well, there you go. You get the right to control the .sale 
and manufacture of your computer program, the translation 
of your program f or use on other computers and the copying 
of your program. You get to reap the benefits of your 
creativity — for awhile. 

Your copyright is not unlimited in duration. Still, for the 
purposes of the viability of yourprogram in the marketplace 
you have a virtual monopoly. Your copyright is good for 
your lifetime plus fifty years, unless you are the owner of an 
anonymous or a pseudonymous work, or a work made for 
hire. Then the copyright is good only for seventy-five years 
from the date of first publication. That's a long time with 
computer programs. Even the Color Computer will be long 
gone by that time, and your computer program will be 
antique and quaint at best (yes, even the VIP Writer™). 

These rights are great and give you virtual control over 
your program. I say virtual because the copyright law 
includes certain exceptions to your exclusive rights. One 
limitation is that there are certain "fair uses" of the program. 
Section 107 of the Copyright Act states that uses of copy- 
righted works for purposes such as criticism, comment, 
news reporting, teaching, scholarship and research is not 
infringement of copyright. As you can see, the "fair use" 

(Tom Nelson was formerly a special assistant attorney 
general for the State of Minnesota. He currently is 
general counsel for Softlaw Corporation, makers of 
the VIP Library 1 *, and ofColorQuesf* games.) 



exception is rather limited, and applies only to a very limited 
extent to computer programs, since only rarely would a 
critic or scholar ever look at your object code. 

This and other minor exceptions to your copyright rights 
are insignificant compared to the giant exception created by 
the 1981 amendment to the Copyright Act for computer 

"Your copyright is not 
unlimited in duration. 
Still, for the purposes of 
the viability of your pro- 
gram in the marketplace 
you have a virtual mo- 
nopoly." 

programs. The 1 98 1 amendment added a special section I J 7 
to apply to computer programs: 

Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106, it is not an 
infringement for the owner of a copy of a computer 
program to make or authorize the making of another 
copy or adaptation of that computer program provided: 

1) that such new copy or adaptation is created as an 
essential step in the utilization of the computer pro- 
gram in conjunction with a machine and that it is used 
in no other manner; or 

2) that such new copy or adaptation is for archival 
purposes only and that all archival copies are des- 
troyed in the event that continued possession of the 
computer program should cease to be rightful. 

Any exact copies prepared in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section may be leased, sold, or otherwise 
transferred , along with the copy from which such copies 
were prepared, only as part of the lease, sale, or other 
transfer or all rights in the program. Adaptations so 
prepared may be transferred only with the authorization 
of the copyright owner. 

This section is potentially devastating to the author of a 
program and perhaps even to the microcomputer software 
industry as a whole. It allows the owner of a copy of your 
program to legally make an archival copy and legally alter 



212 the RAINBOW November 1983 



* ♦ 

* CC SOFTWARE ♦ 

* * 

* EXTENDED BASIC not Required unl tit noted. Program! « 

* require a 16K Computer and are Diek Compatible. ♦ 

* * 

* * UNIVER8AL PROGRAM MUP-l) * * 

* A powerful utility that allows programs to be * 



* stacked in memory until the memory is -filled. Jump * 

* from one program to another or compose new ones * 

* while retaining the old ones. Also included are ♦ 

* tools for patching defective programs plus many * 

* other useful functions. Tape % 14.95, Cart. S24.95 * 

* * 

* * DISASSEMBLER-ASSEMBLER (DISASM) * * 

* Designed for CC Compatibility DISASM uses * 

* English! Mnemonics & Decimal Locations rather than * 

* HEX and special symbols. Write Machine Language * 

* Programs or Subroutines with the Assembler. Die- * 

* Assemble the CC ROMS or any other ML Program with * 



* the Disassembler. Tape »19.95, Cart. »29.95 * 

* * 

* ♦ TERMINAL PROGRAM (DVTERM) ♦ 

* DVTERM converts a CC into a terminal. Receive and * 

* send data between 2 computers, another terminal or * 

* a MODEM. BASIC Program with ML subroutines. * 

* DVTERM Cassette S14.95, Cart. S24.9S * 

* * 

* * FINANCE PROGRAM (DVFIN) * new * 



* DVFIN quickly calculates loans, savings, annuities,* 



* Investments, Retirements, Interest on Loans, Pay- * 

* ments on loans, Check book Balance, & Return on * 

* money invested. A 500 year Calender is included. * 

* Extended Basic is required. DVFIN Tape S19.95 * 

* * 

* HARDWARE ITEMS * 

* * 

* Increase your computer's memory with the following * 

* Memory Expansion Kits. Soldering is not required * 

* and the modifications are reversible. Each kit is * 

* warranted for one year. * 

* * 

* ME-1 upgrades 4K to 16K 419.95 * 

* ME-2 upgrades 4K to 32K S59.95 ♦ 

* ME-3 upgrades 16K to 32K 439.95 * 

* ME-4 upgrades D 8c E CC to 64K S99.95 * 

* ME-4F upgrades F series to 64K 489.95 * 

* Note: ME-4 8c ME-4F require a 1.1 ROM. ME MILL * 

* install our kits in your Computer for 410 -t- ship. * 

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your program to work with the owner's special use. 

This section was added to the Copyright Law after con- 
siderable study, and after a special committee investigated 
the relation of copyright law to computers. Unfortunately, 
this committee was comprised of specialists who were only 
familiar with the computers of the time, that is, mainframes. 
In the short time from the late 1970's to the present, micros 
have become of unprecedented importance. But the prob- 
lems of micros are not identical to those for mainframes, and 
the solutions differ considerably. 

Mainframe computers are generally of limited quantity 
and are programmed with high-level language programs. 
Software for mainframes is sold in very limited quantities 
and for very high prices, such as $ 100,000. The programs are 
usually customized for the particular use and company, 
either by the program designer or the company itself. Thus, 
to allow copies and customization by the program owner 
applies quite logically to programs written for the limited 
number of mainframes. The investment of such a large sum 
of money, and the special application f orwhich the program 
must be designed, make it imperative that an archival copy 
of the program is obtained and the right to modify subsist. 

Micros, a phenomenon new to the computer industry, 
have lead to a different software situation. Software for 
micros is generally not meant to be altered by the end user. 
Alteration assumes a specialized use, a concept alien, by and 
large, to the micro market. Micros are mostly used for 
generalized purposes, for example, word processing, data 
management and communications. Moreover, software for 
micros is very cheap, and easily replaceable. Thus, the logic 
which allows a company to make a copy to protect its 
$100,000 investment does not apply to the inexpensive 
micro market. 

Still, the law exists, and has caused a considerable disrup- 
tion of the software market. It still allows the end user to 
make copies and make alterations. If limited to the skills of 
users this would not be a problem. 

The problem arises from the provision allowing people to 
legitimately make archival copies. This "loophole" allows 
companies to sell "copy" programs to allow end users to 
make "backups" of their programs. If the end user had no 
such right, copy programs would clearly be illegal as instru- 
ments only for infringement. 

It is obvious to all that these so-called "backup" programs 
are not just used by the honest to make backups of their 
programs, a practice approved of by all; they are used by all 
sorts of persons to steal programs. Of course, the makers of 
such copy programs include all sorts of disclaimers, but the 
user often is not mindful of these when in the privacy of his 
or her own home. The temptation to avoid even the smallest 
amount of money by just making a copy is just too great. 

The ability of any Tom, Dick or Jane to steal programs 
rather than purchase them will eventually have two results. 
It will inhibit software houses from producing programs for 
a particular computer, and it will substantially decrease the 
quality of programs available. There is little incentive to put 
months, even years, of research into a program when you 
know that only 30 percent of all copies of your programs 
used by people will have been legally purchased. 

So the law, as it stands, will eventually lower the quality of 
software. Obviously, for the benefit of all concerned, the law 
has to be changed for the micro market to prohibit the end 
user from making archivals, while perhaps requiring archi- 
val copies to be supplied by the manufacturer. You, as an 
author, should do what you can to make sure that the 



21 4 the RAINBOW November 1 983 




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section 1 17 is suitably changed to protect your interests in 
your creations. 

What a digression! YouVe nowgotan idea of your rights. 
Now, how to use them. As owner of the copyright you have a 
few options to make the most of your program. You can 
market your program yourself, you can license your pro- 
gram for marketing by another company, or you can totally 
assign your rights in the program. 

Marketing your program yourself gives you two options. 
You can either sell copies of your program, or you can 
license the use of your program. Licensing theoretically 
gives you more control over the use of your program. 1 'm 
sure youVe seen these types of license agreements. For 
example, Tandy uses them. With a license, the end user is 
not buying a copy of the program, but paying for the right to 
use the programs under the conditions set out in the license 
agreement. Thus, the licensee could be prohibited from 
making archivals or altering the product in any way, 

It sounds wonderful, almost too good to be true. Well, it 
is. Licenses work well when there is a negotiated agreement 
or an atmosphere of contractual agreement. These do not, 
however, typify the merchandise market where software is 
"sold." Instead, software is "sold" like apples or records. 
You go in, see the package and buy it without any thought 
that there may be some strings attached. In fact, you think 
that you are buying the software, not licensing it. 

Here's where a sticky contractual problemariscs. For you 
to have agreed to the terms of the license, you must have 
read them first, otherwise the transaction must be consi- 
dered a sale of the software. Thus, if the license is contained 
inside the package, and the user doesn't see it until he or she 
gets home, there can be no license. You agreed to buy what 
you saw in the store, not what you saw once you got home. 
This is why companies are now placing their license agree- 
ments in a conspicuous place on the packaging so that they 
can argue that you should have read it, and therefore agreed 
to it. Some companies even require you to sign an agreement 
before you can have the software. All this is even more 
pertinent with the mail order business. You can hardly claim 
that a person who orders over the phone has read your 
license agreement. And placing your license terms in an ad is 
next to absurd. 

As you can see, licensing is not all that attractive. If you 
put a bunch of fine print legalese on your packaging or in 
your ad, you run the substantial risk that the purchaser will 
be turned off and won't buy it. If you try instead to slip it 
inside your packaging to get a "license by intimidation" it 
simply will not work. Technically, the userowns thecopyof 
the program and is not bound by all that fine print. 

Thus, many companies choose to just sell copies. You 
have to make your own choice when you decide to market 
your own software. 

On the other hand, you can choose to have someone else 
market your software. This can be done by licensing your 
software for royalties or by assigning all your rights for the 
software for a lump sum. Next time I will discuss the legal 
considerations involved in licensing or assigning rights in 
your software, and Til discuss many of the standard contract 
provisions and things you should look for. 

See you at RAlNBOWfest! 

This column is meant to be educational and infor- 
mative. It is not intended as legal advice. If you should 
have a legal question you should consult an attorney of 
Your choice. ^ 



216 the RAINBOW November 1983 



The Lciyzrcoorm 
and 

The FiraFlv 



By Josef A. Laake 




I had a strange idea for a video game one day and 1 'm just 
crazy enough to spend hours translating it into reality 
for all you fellow CoCo-nuts. Now you, too, can learn to 
think like a Laserworm! Just type in the following program 
and RUNh. It's pretty much self-explanatory, but here area 
few pointers. First, you receive points for your shots as 
charted here: 



Scoreboard 

1st shot— -1,000 pts 

2nd shot 500 pts 

3rd shot 250 pts 

4th shot 100 pts 

5th shot 50 pts 



In addition to shot points, after connecting five shots you 
receive bonus points f or the amount of time left in your turn 
(as indicated by the remaining energy indicator line at the 
top of the game screen). Every five connected shots increases 
the level of play difficulty (as indicated in the upper right- 
hand corner). This number also acts as a bonus multiplier, 
so you can see that as difficulty of play increases you are 
rewarded for quick shots. You are also rewarded with an 
additional laserworm for every 10,000 points. (You have 
three laserworms to start with and the number of laser- 
worms left is indicated by the laserworm cocoons in the 
upper left-hand corner.) 

I have used the high speed POKE in this program, so if 
your CoCo can't handle high speed be sure to delete the 
following statements: 

In line 26 DELete 4 POKE65495,0' 

In line 163 DELete 4 POKE65494,0' 

DELete line 200 

There are several ways to lose your laserworms, but you'll 
find out what they are soon enough. 

So grab your joystick, (right joystick, that is) and go get 
those pesky fireflies! 



^7 



The listing: 



.OODD 

22 0443 

41 07 A2 

58 0A55 

79 0C1E 



108.. 
151.. 
177. . 
200.. 
END. 



0E80 
11DD 
14E6 

.1723 
19F8 



0 * LASERWORM & FIREFLY 6.3 

1 * 16K STRIPPED VERSION 

2 9 <C) 1983 JOSEF A. LAAKE 

3 GOTO 18 



220 the RAINBOW November 1983 



4 LINE(M,R)-(F,E) , PRESET: LINE (M, 
R ) - ( F , E ) , PSET : PLAY " 05L255BA#B#FC 
#0-G#DO-G M : RETURN 

5 Y=PEEK (65280) : IFY=1260RY=254TH 
EN108ELSERETURN 

6 PLAY"CDEFGAB0+CP8" : RETURN 

7 CLSRND(7)-H:FORA=0TO31:P=RND(9 
)-l:SET(A,0,B) :SET(0,A,B) : SET (63 
-A,0,B) : SET (63, A, B) : SET (A, 31, B) : 
SET (63-A, 31 , B) : NEXT: G0SUB6: RETUR 
N 

8 DRAW''BM45,3''+A*<INT<SC<3>/10) ) 
+"BM53, 3"+A* (SC (3) -INT (SC (3) / 10 ) 
*10)+"BM61 !I 3 ,, +A*<INT<SC<2) /10) ) 

9 DRAW " BM69 , 3 M + A* ( SC ( 2 ) - 1 NT ( SC ( 2 
) /10)*10)+ ,, BM77,3 ,, +A*(INT(SC(1)/ 
10) ) +"BM85, 3"+A* (SC ( 1 ) -INT (SC ( 1 ) 
/10)*10) 

10 DRAW M BM239,3 M +A*(INT( (INT(H/5 
) ) /10) )+"BM247,3"+A*( <INT(H/5) )- 
( (INT( (INT(H/5) >/10) >*10) > :LINE( 
100, 5) -(235, 5) ,PSET 

11 ONG G0T012, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 

12 PUT(35,3)-(41,7),L,PSET 

13 PUT(27,3)-(33,7) ,L,PSET 

14 PUT(19,3)-(25,7) ,L,PSET 

15 PUT(11,3)-(17,7) ,L,PSET 

16 PUT (3, 3) -(9, 7) ,L, PSET 

17 RETURN 

18 PLAY "LI 2802" : G0SUB7 

19 PRINT@198," RESET HIGH SCORE 
? "; :PRINT@295, " FOR YES, HIT <Y 

> "; :PRINT@327, " FOR NO, HIT <N 

> "; :PRINT@358, " OR JOYSTICK BUT 
TON "; : PL AY" 01" 

20 A$= I NKEY* : I FA*= " Y " THEN2 1 ELSE I 
FA$= " N 11 THEN22ELSEY=PEEK ( 65280 ) : I 
FY= 1 26ORY=254THEN22ELSE20 

2 1 FOR Y= 1 6376T0 1 63 78 : POKEY , 0 : NE X 
T 

22 GOSUB7:PRINT@106, " CAT'S MEOW 
"; :G0SUB6:PRINT@135, " ELECTROSO 

FT INC. ! G0SUB6: PRINT© 171 , " PR 
ESENTS " ; : G0SUB6 

23 PLAY " L 1 603GF#GEFGL8AL 1 6GF#GL2 
8CDEFG AB04CP8 " : PR I NT@260 , " LASER 
WORM "; :PLAY"03C" :PRINT@271, " «< 

:PLAY ,, G ,, :PRINT@274, " FIREFLY! 

splavo+ggipb" 

24 PRINT@358," COPYRIGHT (C) 198 
3 "; :G0SUB6:PRINT@392, " JOSEF A. 

LA AKE " ; : G0SUB6 : PLAY " L 1 28 " : GOSU 
B6 

25 FOR Y= 1 6379T0 1 6383 : POKEY , 0 : NE X 
T: POKE 16380, 4 

?6 POKE65495.0:CLEAR350. 16375 
27 DIMK(8,5) ,L(7,5) ,Q(8,5) , V(8,5 
) ,A(0) ,B(0) ,C(0) ,D(0) ,E(0) ,F(0) , 
G(0) ,H(0) ,M(0) ,R(0) , X (0) , Y(0) ,HS 
(3) ,SC(3) ,T*(8) ,A*<9) 



28 G=PEEK ( 16380) :H=PEEK( 16379) :S 
C ( 1 ) =PEEK ( 1 638 1 ) : SC ( 2 ) =PEEK ( 1 638 
2) :SC(3)=PEEK(16383) 

29 SOSC(1)+SC<2)*100+SC<3)*1000 
0: HS ( 1 ) =PEEK (16376) : HS (2) =PEEK ( 1 
6377 ) : HS ( 3 ) =PEEK ( 1 6378 ) 

30 HS=HS<1)+HS<2)*100+HS<3)*1000 
0: T* ( 1 ) = M BL7R 1 NE3F3 

31 T*(2)="BR7L1NH3G3 

32 T*<3)="BU7D1NG3F3 

33 T$ ( 4 ) = " BD7U 1 NH3E3 

34 T*(5)= M BE6G1ND3L4 

35 T*(6)= M BH6F1ND3R4 

36 T*<7)="BG6E1NU3R4 

37 T*<8)=''BF6H1NU3L4 

38 A*(0)= M BR1R2F1D4G1L2H1U4 

39 A*<1)="BF1E1D6L2R4 

40 A$<2)="R3F1D1G1L2G1D2R4 

41 A* <3)="BD1E1R3F1D1G1L1R1F1D1G 
1L3H1 

42 A*<4)="D4R4U2D4 

43 A*<5)="BR4L4D2R3F1D2G1L3 

44 A$ ( 6 ) = M BR3L2G 1 D4F 1 R2E 1 U 1 H 1 L3 

45 A*(7)="D1U1R4D2G2D2 

46 A* <8)="BR1R2F1D1G1F1D1G1L2H1U 



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November 1983 the RAINBOW 221 



LE1NR1H1U1 

»7 A*(9)="BF3L2H1U1E1R2F1D4G1L2 
*8 PM0DE4, l:PCLS: CIRCLE (4,20) ,4, 
5, .9: PAINT (4, 20) ,5,5 

49 DRAW "BM1, 1F3R1E3D1 G3L 1H3D1F3R 
1E3D1 G3L 1H3BM1, 15E3R1F3U1 H3L 1 G3U 
1E3R1F3U1H3L1G3 

50 GET(l,2)-(8,6) ,V,G:GET(1, 10)- 
(8, 14) ,Q,G:GET<9,2)-<16,6> ,K,G:G 
ET(1, 18) -(7, 22) ,L,G:M=122:R=183: 
1=1 : K=l 

5 1 PM0DE4 , 1 : PCLS : SCREEN 1,1: GOSUB 
8:TIMER=0 

52 A=RND (247) : B=RND ( 172) +1 1 

53 PUT(A,B+3)-(A+7,B+7) ,K,PSET 

54 A=A+RND < INT < ( (2*H) +45) /5) ) -IN 
T( (H+25) /5) : B=B+RND ( I NT ( < <2*H)+4 
5) /5) )-INT ( (H+25) /5) : IFA<0THENA= 
0 

55 IFB<11THENB=11 

56 IFA>248THENA=248 

57 IFB>182THENB=182 

58 PUT (A, B) - (A+7,B+4) ,V,PSET:GOS 
UB62 : G0SUB5 : PUT < A, B) - ( A+7, B+7) , K 
, PSET: PUT (A, B+3) - (A+7, B+7) , Q, PSE 
T 

59 IFTIMER>1240THENB=3:GOTO159 

60 Y=TIMER/9+100: LINE ( 100, 5) - ( Y, 
5) , PRESET 



61 IFM< A 0RM>A+7 ORR<B 0RR>B+7TH 
EN53ELSEB=1 : GOTO 159 

62 C=JOYSTK(0) :D=JOYSTK(l) :P0KE2 
00, M: POKE202 , R : DRAW " C0 "+ T* < K >: PL- 
AY "L6403G" 

63 IFC=63 AND D=63THEN80 

64 IFC=0 AND D=63THEN83 

65 IFC=0 AND D=0THEN86 

66 IFC=63 AND D=0THEN89 

67 IFD=63THEN92 

68 I FD=0THEN96 

69 IFC=63THEN100 

70 IFC=0THEN104 

71 PUT(M-3,R-2)-(M+3,R+2) ,L,PSET 
: POKE200, M: POKE202, R: DRAW"C5"+T* 
(K):ONK G0T072,73,74,75,76,77,78 
,79 

72 PLAY" 1 " : RETURN 

73 PLAY"8": RETURN 

74 PLAY "5": RETURN 

75 PLAY" 12": RETURN 

76 PLAY"6": RETURN 

77 PLAY "3 ": RETURN 

78 PLAY"0+1": RETURN 

79 PLAY "10": RETURN 

80 M=M+4: IFM>247THENM=24 7:GOT094 

81 R=R+4: IFR>183THENR=183:M=M-4: 
GOTO 102 

82 K=8:G0T071 




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PRODUCTS 



AUTHORS: 



Send us your software we pay 
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HANGER: by s. cum 

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(519)396-8224 



222 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



83 M=M-4: IFM<10THENM=10:GOTO94 118, 

84 R=R+4 : I FR > 1 83THENR= 1 83 : M=M+4 : 1 09 
GOTO106 110 

85 K=7:G0T071 111 

86 M=M-4: IFM<10THENM=;10:GOTO98 112 

87 R=R-4: IFR<16THENR=16:M=M+4:G0 113 
TO106 114 

88 K=6:GOT071 115 

89 M=M+4 : I FM >247THENM=247 : G0T098 116 

90 R=R-4: IFR<16THENR=16:M=M-4:G0 117 
TO102 118 

91 K=5:G0T071 119 

92 IFM<10THENM=10 120 

93 IFM>247THENM=247 121 

94 R=R+5: IFR>183THENR=183 122 

95 K=4:G0T071 123 

96 IFM<10THENM=10 124 

97 IFM>247THENM=247 125 

98 R=R-5: IFR<16THENR=16 126 

99 K=3:G0TD71 127 

100 IFR>183THENR=183 128 

101 IFR<16THENR=16 129 

102 M=M+7: IFM>247THENM=247 130 

103 K=2:G0T071 131 

104 IFR>183THENR=183 132 

105 IFR<16THENR=16 133 

1 06 M=M-7 : I FM< 1 0THENM= 10 134 

107 K=l:G0T071 135 

108 X=TIMER: ONK GOTO109, 1 12, 1 15, 136 



121, 126, 131, 136 
E=R: F0RF=M-8T02STEP-2 
I FPPO I NT ( F , E ) =5THEN 181 
PSET < F , E ) : NEX TF : GOTO 1 4 1 
E=R: F0RF=M+8T0254STEP2 
I FPPO I NT ( F , E ) =5THEN 181 
PSET(F,E) :NEXTF:G0T0141 
F=M: F0RE=R-8T01 1STEP-2 
I FPPO I NT (F, E) =5THEN181 
PSET (F,E) :NEXTE:GOT0141 
F=M: F0RE=R+8T0191STEP2 
I FPPO I NT ( F , E ) =5THEN 1 8 1 
PSET ( F , E ) : NEXTE: GOTO 1 4 1 
E=R-7: F0RF=M+7T0255STEP2 
IFPPOINT (F, E) =5THEN181 
PSET(F,E) :E=E-2 
IFE< 10THENE=E+2:GOTO141 

nextf: f=f-2: e=e+2: GOT0141 

F=M-7: FORE=R-7T01 1STEP-2 
I FPPO I NT ( F , E ) =5THEN 181 
PSET(F,E) :F=F-2 
IFF< lTHENF=F+2: GOT0141 
NEXTE:GOT0141 
F=M-7:F0RE=R+7T0191STEP2 
IFPPOINT (F, E) =5THEN181 
PSET(F,E) : F=F-2 
IFF<0THENF=F+2: GOT0141 
NEXTE: E=E-2: F=F+2: GOT0141 
F=M+7 : FORE=R+7TO 191 STEP2 



Sagtiaro Software 



Petrocd Freelance flttoHatea (T*p«) 

Oar 



Bowling Secretary 
Statistical Analysis 
Bond Yield 

Real Estate Investment 
Hurricane Tracker 
Patti Par 

Disk Add S3 00 To Tape 
Amdek $6 00 To Tape 



24.95 
34 95 
1995 
2495 
1S95 
21 95 



19.75 
26.75 
17.75 
18.75 
1275 
16.75 



Sugar Software 




Om 

FHu 


AmdtM 
Otoe 


Galactic Hangman 


17.95 


14.75 




Auto Run 


19.95 


15.75 




Tims Mail 


19 95 


15.95 


23.95 


Tims 


24 95 


19.95 


27.95 


Pre reader 


19.95 


15.95 


23.95 


Statgraph 


2495 


19.95 


27.95 


Tim Bibliograph 


995 


7.95 


15.95 


SiDy Syntax (Tape) 


19.95 


15.95 




SiDy Syntax (Disc) 


24.95 


19.95 




5dJy Stories 




a 75 





Kangaroo Single Sided Double Pensity Disk (New Price) $22 75/Box 
Cassette Tapes C- 1 5 85C Each 



9'/ 2 Inch Paper - 500 Sheets - $6.95 Pius 
3000 Sheets - $32.95 Shipping 



WcWy-Paar 




Out 
Prk» 


Tom Mix 










Grabber 


Retail 


Color Kit 


2995 


26.75 


3 Left 


27.95 


Flight 


19 95 


14.75 


Yaazcc 




Gangbustcrs 


19 95 


14.75 


1 Left 


Our 


Mathpac 


19 95 


14.75 


Space 


Price 


Disk Add $3 00 To Tape 


• Amdek Add $6 00 To Tape 




21.95 


For More PncWy Psai S«r Our OheT M 


Cassette Onty^ 



Look next month for a few new programs from Saguaro Software. Authors! 
Contact us about royalties. 



Az Residents Add 7% Tax • Add $1.00 Per Program For Shipping (14 00 Max ) 



7331 Beverly - Tucson, AZ 85710 - (602) 885-6508 




Prickly Pear Mailing List, 
just in time for that 
Christmas card list. $25.00 
(retail $54.95) 

10-3" diskettes. $60.00 
US. disk controller, $135 with 
Amdek. $165 alone. 
Disk mannAl, $15.00 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 223 



137 IFPPOINT <F,E)=5THEN181 

138 PSET(F,E> :F=F+2 

139 IFF >255THENF=F-2: GOTO 141 

140 NEXTE:E=E-2:F=F-2: GOTO 141 

141 G0SUB4 

142 LINE(M,R)-(F,E) , PRESET 

143 1=1+1 : IFI=6THENB=2:G0T0159 

144 TIMER=X : RETURN 

145 PLAY"L6402":G0SUB7 

146 PRINT633," FINAL SCORE "; 

147 PRINT049," HIGH SCORE "? 

148 IFHS<SC THENHS=SC ELSE 152 

149 POKE 1 6376, SC ( 1 ) 

150 P0KE16377,SC(2) 

151 P0KE16378,SC(3) 

152 PRINT@67,SC; :PRINT@86,HS; 

153 PRINT0233," *** GAME »** "; 

154 PRINT6265, " #** OVER *** 

155 PRINT0417," TO RESET GAME, 
PRESS <R> OR "; 

156 PRINT0450, " FIRE BUTTON ON 
JOYSTICK "; 

157 Y=PEEK (65280) : IFY= 126 OR Y=2 
54THEN3 

158 I F I NKE Y*= " R " THEN3ELSE 157 

159 PLAY"L28":F0RY=5T055STEP5 

160 CIRCLE<M,R) ,Y, , .9 

161 PLAY"L-L-01; "+STR*(13- (Y/5) > 

162 NE X TY : G=G+l: POKE 1 6380, G 

163 POKE65494,0:CLS5 

164 ONB G0T0165, 176, 179, 180 

165 PRINT@68," FIREFLY IN YOUR E 
YE ! ! ! " i 

166 PR INTO 132," FATAL TO LASERWO 
RMS ! ! ! " ; 

1 67 PLAY "L80 1CDE-FE-P8CP8L44G#AG 
#AG#AG#AG# AL8GP 1 6L 1 6B02CP 1 60 1 GP 1 
6CP2" 

168 I FG=6THEN 1 70ELSE I FG=7THEN 1 45 

169 PRINT@258," YOU HAVE LASER 
WORMS LEFT " ; : GOTO 1 7 1 

170 PRINT@258," YOU HAVE LASER 
WORM LEFT! "; 

171 F0RY=1T05:PRINT@268,CHR*( 128 

>; 

172 PLAY " L 1 2601 C02C0 1 C02C0 1 C02C " 

173 PRINT@267,7-G; 

174 PLAY"01G02G01G02G01G02G" 

175 NEXT:G0T026 

176 PRINT@71," TOO MANY SHOTS!! 

"; 

177 PRINT0132, " DEPLETED ENERGY 
SUPPLY "; 

178 PRINT0195, " IS FATAL TO LASE 
RWORMS ! ! " ? : GOTO 167 

179 PRINT@72," OUT OF TIME!!! "? 
IG0T0177 

180 PRINT@69," YOU SHOT YOURSELF 
! ! ! IG0T0166 

181 G0SUB4 



182 IFF< A OR F>A+7 OR E<B OR E>B 
+7THENB=4 : GOTO 1 59 

1 83 PLAY " L80O4 " : FOR Y= 1 5T039STEP3 

184 CIRCLE(F,E) ,Y-10, , .9 

185 IFY<39THENPLAYSTR* (Y/3) : NEXT 
ELSEPL AY " 05C " : C=0 : H=H+ 1 

186 ONI G0T0187, 188, 189, 190, 191 

187 C=500 

188 C=C+250 

189 C=C+150 

190 C=C+50 

191 C=C+50 

192 SC=SC+C: B=INT( < 1240-X) * ( INT ( 
H/5) /24.8) ) 

193 IFX>930ORC=50THENB=0ELSESC=S 
C+B 

194 SC(3)=INT (SC/10000) 

195 SC<2)=INT< <SC-SC<3) *10000) /l 
00) 

196 SC(1)=SC-SC(3)»10000-SC(2)»1 
00 

197 POKE 1 6380, G: POKE 1 6379, H 

198 P0KE16381,SC(1) 

199 P0KE16382,SC(2) 

200 POKE 65494,0 

201 CLS5:PRINT@228, " POINTS THIS 
SHOT "C; 

202 I FH< 5THEN204ELSEPR I NTO260 , " 
ENERGY BONUS X " INT (H/5) ; B; 

203 PRINT@292," TOTAL THIS ROU 
ND"B+C; 

204 ONI GOTO205 , 207 , 206 , 208 , 209 

205 PLAY "L3204CDE0+CEGEC0-ECEG0+ 
C":GOTO210 

206 PLAY " L 1 604EDC0-A0+ AP 1 6G0+C " : 
GOTO210 

207 PLAY "L20O4GFGDGO-BO+CDO-GO+C 
":GOTO210 

208 PLAY " L 1 603EE-EE-EDC0- AGO+C " : 
GOTO210 

209 PLAY " L60O3E-EP 1 0G-GP30E-EP6E 
-EP10G-GP30E-E" 

210 IFSC(3) >PEEK( 16383) THENP0KE1 
6383 , SC ( 3 ) : G=G- 1 ELSE26 

211 POKE 1 6380, G 

212 CLS5:PRINT@70, " CONGRADULATI 
ONS ! ! ! " ; 

213 PRINTO130, " EVERY 10,000 ENE 
RGY POINTS "; 

214 PR INTO 199," HATCHES ANOTHER 

II - 
f 

215 PLAY "LI 603GEG04C03GECDED02G0 
3L48CDCECFCGCACBC04L 1 6CP 1 605CP6 M 

216 F0RX=1T05: PR I NT@262, STRINGS ( 
20, 143+X*16) ; : PLAY ,, L6405GCGCGC H 

217 PRINTS262," LASERWORM LARVA! 
! ! " ; : PLAY " GB-GB-GB-GB- " : NEXT 

218 PRINT@322, " YOU NOW HAVE n 7~G 
" L ASERWORMS ! 11 ; : PLAY "PI": G0T026 



224 the RAINBOW November 1983 



'itkitkirkitkifirkitkitkitk^ 



RAINBOW 



Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists In showing the Color Computer world 
your high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in the Rainbow's 
Scoreboard column. All entries must be received by the first of the month to be eligible for the following 
month's Scoreboard. Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. 



★ New Number One 



• Last Month's Number One 



ALCATRAZ II ( Spec far Associates) 

18,790 WChrta Sweet, Harvard, MA 
8,710 •Kanti Dinda, Kingston, Ontario 
ANDROID ATTACK 

25.000 *Wes HIH. Vashon. WA 
15,500 Cameron Amick. Reisterstown, MO 
ASSAULT (Computer Shack) 

1,100 *Kevin Mesecher Ft. Walton Beach. FL 
ASTEROID 

2.322 *Matt McMann. New Boston. Ml 
ASTRO BLAST ( Mark Data) 

158,000 Wlirry Plaxton. Medley. Alberta 
Scott Drake, Pine City. NY 
Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
Tim Warr, Bellingham, WA 
Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 
Brenda Teel. Mart mown, Ontario 
AVENGER (The Cornsoft Group) 

24,575 *Rlch McGervey, Morgantown, WV 
•jim Sparke 
Vince Lok. Mississaugn. Ontario 
Dave Lubnow, Sussex, NJ 
Stephen Lai, Palatine. JL 
BIRD ATTACK {Tom Mix) 

200.725 WPeler Niessen Carlisle, MA 
110,850 Chris Sweet. Harvard, MA 
BLEEP 

105 *Matt McMann, New Boston, Ml 
BLOC HEAD (Computerware) 

286.900 *Ron Moore, Greensburg, PA 
Greg Redden, Halifax, NS 
Mitt* Rausch Denver, CO 
Beth Walker, Gloucester PL, VA 
Pat Davis, Bolhell WA 
Don M assay, Bothell, WA 
Hal Mermelstein, S. Windham. ME 
David Plesser, El Cajon, CA 
BUSTOUT (Radio Shack) 

42.000 ^Derrick Kardos. Colonia, NJ 

Sara Hennessey. Golden Valley. MN 
Perry Denton. New Baden, IL 
Mike Wells. Pittsburgh, PA 
Neil Berkman, DeWitt, NJ 
BUZZARD BAIT { Tom Mix) 

116.450 #Stev« Sentell, Seymour. TN 
102,450 Steve Sytsma, Big Rapids, Ml 
CANYON CLIMBER (Radio Shack) 

155.900 *Dustin Yates, Shreveport, LA 
Andy Herron, Highi Point. NC 
Jim Corkrey, Leesburg VA 
Peter Johnson, Chino. CA 
Kevin Dawdy, Findlay. IL 
Krtst.rv Vitek, Hillside, IL 
Gary Smith. North Bay. Ontario 
Philippe Moisan, St Jerome. Quebec 
Joe Nasal, Doylestown. PA 
John Mattox Chattanooga, TN 
Matthew S. Kerr, Plainfield. NJ 
Abdullah VanDer Breggen Regina, 
Saskatchewan 
CATCH EM (Aardvark) 

237,000 *Craig Edelhe t W. Bloomlield Ml 
91.000 Dean Bouchard, Kingston, N S 
70.157 Kirk Beler. Taber, Alberta 
65,768 Laura Sandman. Louisville. KY 
CATERPILLAR /AardvarA> 

180,627 wStiani Panepinto. Spencerport. NY 
63.100 •Todd Bylngton, N. Salt Lake. UT 
54,608 Lawrence McEltigott, Lane ster, CA 
53,233 Ron Pinson, Guelph, Omano 
46,641 Laura Schooley Richmond. VA 
44.853 Felicia Schooley, Richmond. VA 
42.563 Doug Scholield. Plainfield, IL 
15.029 Michael Jimenez, Mesa. AZ 
10.148 Steven Jimenez, Mesa, AZ 



157,000 
104,464 
96,000 
92.000 
46.250 



19.480 
19.220 
16.310 
14,075 



153.825 
124.925 
113.225 
107.500 
63.475 
61.475 
47,925 



34.700 
28.720 
27.880 
17,170 



144.000 
142.100 
140.000 
133.400 
126.400 
113.000 
111.800 
99,600 
64.000 
63.000 
61.400 



CAVE HUNTER Mark Data) 

42,600 *Gary Ritchie, Bellevue, Alberta 
Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
Mike Hughey, King George. VA 
Jim Baker. Florissant. MO 
Rick McGemey, Morgantown WV 
CLOWNS & BALLOONS (Radio Shack) 

85,660 , ^Tere&a Stulsman N. Little Rock. AR 
•Don Fraser, Shakope, MN 
Dan James, Clearwater, FL 
Sal Barlett. Mesa, AZ 
Jimmy Kendall, E kview WV 
Kevin Schofield, Plainfield. IL 
COLOR CUBES Snack) 
4:50 *John Handls 
6 05 Chris Cope, Central SC 
COLOR HAYWIRE (Mark Data) 



27,050 
26,300 
21,150 
15,200 



83J10 
77,910 
74,920 
74,600 
30,030 



"fcjim Baker, Florissant, MO 
Brian Wall ngtord Fall River, MA 
Michael Rhattigan, Cary. NC 
Rich McGervey. Morgantown, WV 
Chris Coyle, Seiden, NY 
COLOR INVADERS (Computerware) 

240,700 *Roland Hendel. Mississauga* Ontario- 
John Osborne. Kincardine, Ontario 
jim Baker, Florissant. MO 
Perry Denton. New Baden. IL 
Rich McGervey. Morgantown, WV 
COLOR METEROiDS (Spectral Associates) 
1,496,000 *Craig Edelheit W. Bloomfield Ml 
Jeff White. Prairie de Chien, Wl 
Roland Hendel, Mississauga, Ontario 
Vince Lok, Mississauga. Ontario 
Larry Plaxton. Medley. Ontario 
COLOR OUTHOUSE (Computer Shack) 

35,908 *Ron Rhead, Ontario, Canada 
COLOR PEDE (Intracoior) 
3.355,248 *Scott Drake, Pine City, NY 

•Roland Hendel, Mississauga. Ontario 
Rich McGervey. Morgantown. WV 
Scott Sehlhorst, Columbia, SC 
Mike Hall. Hartland. Wl 
Bryan Andrews Plainfield. IN 
David Gibson, Longwood FL 
Margaret Dunlop, Trail, BC 
Kenny Miller, Yardley. PA 
COLOR SCARFMAN (The Cornsoft Qroup) 

976,520 *Bruce Tbornhill Barrhead. Alberta 
Keith Seifned. Greenville, OH 
Roland Hendel, Mlssi£$aug». Ontario 
Larry Plaxton. Medley. Alberta 
Alan Klotzback, Plainesville, OH 
Frankie Jimenez. Mesa. AZ 
Steven Jimenez. Mesa. AZ 
Michael Jimenez. Mesa. AZ 
COLOR ZAP {Specif i f Associates) 

227,330 WRon Rhead. Willowdale. Ontario 
64,400 Chris Sweet. Harvard, MA 
82,710 Neil Berkman, DeW«tt. NY 
50,600 Scott Sehlhorst, Columbia. SC 
COLOUR PAC ATTACK (Computerware) 
472.465 *Jim Baker. Florissant, MO 
211,000 Roland Hendel. Mississauga, Ontario 
193,000 Cameron Amick. Reisterstown, MD 
169,540 Mark Nichols, Birsay, Saskatchewan 
154,600 Greg Lesher, North Chili, NY 
CONQUEST OF KZIRGLA Rainbow Connection Software) 
50,199 *Bruce Uher, Coshocion, OH 
10,399 Scott SeMhorst. Columbia, SC 



22,050 
17.850 
14,850 
14.750 
12.450 



227,050 
217,635 
126.350 
93.510 



1.253.200 
292,000 
292.000 
252,050 



2.745,982 
2.547.299 
2.400.735 
2.139.248 
1.102.724 
339,438 
207,249 
173.564 



772.000 
600.410 
539.100 
530,200 
300,690 
222,000 
110,690 



COSMIC CLONES (Mark Data) 

41.300 *John Osborne, Kincardine, Ontario 

CROSSWORDS (Radio Shack) 

864 *Bob Strang, Chicago, IL 

DEATH TRAP f Soft Sector) 

89.035 WKelthi Philabaum, Coschocton, OH 
84.672 •Sandra W Hard 
75.431 Jeff Willard, Chireno. TX 
41.490 M. A. Brickler Allen Park, Ml 
41,272 Perry Willard. Chireno, TX 

DEFENSE (Spectra? Associates) 

68.750 *M A. Brickler. Allen Park. Ml 
58,900 *Greg Scoit, Orlando, FL 

DOODLEBUG (Computerware) 



*Donut. Tabor, I A 

J w Panks, Indianapolis, in 
•Bobby Bruce, Springfield. MO 
Lawrence McElligott, Lancaster, CA 
Marc Hassler 

Scoit Snyder, Allentown, PA 
Greg Redden. Halifax, NS 
Kyle Keller, Overland Park. KS 
DOUBLEBACK (Radio Shack) 
1.060,000 *Ph IHpe Duplanties, St Jerome. 
Quebec 
Paul Moritz Butte. MT 
•Phillippe Morsan. St Jerome, Quebec 
Steve Damm, Phoenix, AZ 
Jim Wolf, South Bend. IN 
Kyle Keller, Overland Park. KS 
Johanne Duplanties, St. Jerome, 
Quebec 

France Duplanties, St. Jerome. 
Quebec 

DUNKEY MUNKEY (intetlectronics) 
3,214,200 *Rich McGervey, Morgantown. WV 
Andrew Herron. High Point, NC 
Bryan Bloodworth, Federal Way, WA 
Mike Wells. Pittsburgh. PA 
Jodi Knudsen, Kenosha. W! 
Michael McCafferty. Idaho Falls. ID 
Bryan Teel, Marl ntown Ontario 
FAST LANE (Ace Soft Computer Products) 
23.782 *Phllip Deen, Enterprise, FL 
93 Marie Love, Columbia. SC 
FIRECOPTER (Adventure International) 

113.880 *Steve Skrzynlarz. Tacoma, WA 
74.640 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
FLYBY 

3.670 *Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
THE FROG (Tom Mtx) 

73.350 *Evelyn Gagnon, Ontario, Canada 
66,480 Jeannie Hawkins, Dellona. FL 
47.360 •Jeanntfr Hawkins, Dellona, FL 
36,260 Chris Coyle, Seiden. NY 
31.480 Aimee Bergeron, Carlisle, MA 
24,700 David Gib:- on. Longwood. FL 
14,540 Damon Frazier, Brnghurst IN 
FROGGER (The Cornsoft Qroup) 



2,248,840 
1,560,000 
1.577,320 
1,265,580 
1.152,360 
747,160 
518,820 
286,560 



474.040 
435.570 
429,000 
378.750 
127.460 
119.390 

115.840 



1,924,000 
1.618.800 
1.437.200 
1.245.000 
778,400 
603.100 



*Laura Schooley. Richmond, VA 
•Kantl Dlnda, Kingston, Ontario 
Felicia Schooley. Richmond, VA 
Tamara Schooley. Richmond. VA 
Sieve Skrzynlarz, Tacoma. WA 
Sieve Hemphill, Los Angeles, CA 
FROG-MAN (Computer island) 

3,735 *Aaron T, Clncotta, Peru, IN 
FROG TREK (Oelrich Publications) 

14.700 *Greg Burke, Kenora. Qniario 
Alan Weiss, Summit, NJ 
Jim Partridge, Clinton, CT 
Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
Tom Eberhardt. Fair iew Pat%^ OH 



32,010 
25,425 
20,745 
18,575 
17,945 
15.050 



14.060 
11,200 
10.370 
8.550 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 



226 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 

SCOREBOARD 



FURY (Computer Shack) 

54,300 *Hans Haimberger, Freewater Ontario 

GALACTIC ATTACK (Radio Shack) 

67.750 *Chuck Gaudette. Monroe, CT 
58.000 Terry Steen, San Bernndino, CA 
55.360 Donald Thompson, Lubbock, TX 
54.200 Mike Hughey. King George. VA 
54.000 Craig Edelheit. W Bloomfield. Ml 
23.670 Laura Schooley, Richmond. VA 
20.250 Felicia Schooley, Richmond. VA 
16,260 Joan Haysom, Ottawa, Ontario 

GALAX ATT AX (Spectrar Associates) 

62,650 wSteY* Hargis, Tucson, AZ 
73,000 Wes Hilt, Vashon. WA 
66.750 Jim Wolf. South Bend. IN 
65,700 Steve Otis. Graham, WA 
60.950 •Dennis Goehnng M ss ssauga 
Ontario 

GHOST GOBBLER (Spectral Associates) 
1.007,430 WTodo Brannam, Charleston Hts . SC 
825.250 *Randy Gerber. Wilmette, IL 
423.390 Rich McGervey Morgantown, WV 
255,000 John Osborne. Kincardine, Ontario 
142.070 Chns Kulawy St Johnsville NY 
92.350 Geno Benick, Rice. MN 
76.590 Steve Cumow, Woodbury. MN 
72.250 Greg Redden, Halifaz. NS 
48.300 Chns Leonard. Minoa, NY 
GOLF (Aardvark) 

40 *Matthew Brenengen. Lakelmo, MN 
GRABBER (Tom Mix) 

50,250 *Doug Rodger, Harvard. MA 
44,100 •Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma. WA 
31,200 Cameron Amick. Reisterstown, MD 
30,600 Phil Calandrino, Springfield. IL 
GRANPRIX (Computerware) 

5,875 *Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
HAIDER KHAZEN 

81,000 *Davd Karam Austin, TX 
HALL (Chromasette) 

3.650 *Michael McCafferty. Idaho Falls. ID 
INVADERS REVENGE (Med Systems) 

451.060 *John Osborne. Kincardine. Ontario 
32.600 Harry Sawyer. Watchung. NJ 
16.300 Eric Lund, Milllngton, NJ 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Computerware) 
1,115,300 *Ryan Van Manen Grand Rapids. Ml 
144,200 Rich Van Manen. Grand Raptds. Ml 
KATER PILLAR ATTACK (Tom Mix) 

163,526 *Andy Truesdate, Ferguson, MO 
109,247 Jamie Gritton, Irvine, CA 
14,375 Norbert Berenyi. Nortrwaie NJ 
14,211 Roland Hendel, Mississauga. Ontario 
12.703 Warren Schubert. Newfoundland. NJ 
8,504 Chris Leonard. Minoa, NY 
KEYS OF THE WIZARD (Spectral Associates) 

640 *Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma. WA 
THE KING Tom Mix) 
4,040,300 *Andy Truesdale. Ferguson, MO 
2,410,200 Candy Harden. Birmingham, AL 
2.213,000 James Ouadarella, Brooklyn, NY 
1,658.000 Mike Hughey. King George, VA 
1,670,200 Joei Doucet Yarmouth, Nova Scotia 
604,500 Curtis Giles, Altamonte Sp'tngs, FL 
469.600 Kyle Keller. Overland Park, KS 
289.400 Brian Panepinto, Spencerport NY 
232.600 Rich Trmwick lP N. Adams. Ml 
175.300 Brian Chaples. Springfield. VA 
167.720 Scott Snyder. Allentown. PA 
142,700 Michael Rosenberg. Prestonsburg, KY 
127.000 Kenny Miller, Yardley PA 
91,600 Bryan Teel. Mart ntown Ontario 
82.700 Frankie Jimenez, Mesa, AZ 
64.000 Chris Leonard, Mmda NY 



KOSMIC KAMIKAZE (1MB) 

200.550 *Fred lha. Columbus AFB. MS 
62.250 Beth Walker. Gloucester Pt VA 
55.000 Paul Morris, Richland. WA 
49.900 Mark Raphael. Englishtown, NJ 
30.450 Jeff Teague, Nobletvillt, IN 
LANCER (Spectral Associates) 

474.250 *Mike Rausch, Denver. CO 
469.400 Jeff Jackson, Littleton, CO 
462.100 Scott Jackson. Littleton CO 
183.050 Larry Sandhaas. Springfield. IL 
134.900 Grant Gillott, Calgary. Alberta 
112.250 Briar* Chaples, Springfield. VA 
105.750 Alex Barr, Littleton, CO 
93.750 Kurt Kinney. Whitesboro. NY 
84.250 Michael Rhattigan. Cary NC 
74,050 Nick Lewis. Cumming. GA 
66,600 Gary Davis. Cary. NC 
53.700 Daniel Shat. Chalfont. PA 
MEGA-BUG (Radio Shack) 

60,000 *Rob n Worthem. Milwaukee. Wl 
16.632 John Tiffany. Washington. DC 
15.999 Ed Mitchell. Ragged Mountain, CO 
14.297 Aleisha Hemphill. Los Angeles. CA 
13.852 Ryan Van Manen. Grand Rapids. Ml 
5.709 Joan Haysom, Ottawa, Ontario 
MEGAPEDE (Computerware) 

89.038 *Mark Skala, Fa rvew PA 
67.605 # Ed Bottini. St. Louis. MO 
58.070 Rich Van Manen, Grand Rapids. Ml 
55.291 Ryan Van Manen, Grand Rapids. Ml 
53.019 Jim Gann nger Des Peres MO 
METEOROIOS (Spectral Associates) 

140.210 WFred lha. Columbus AFB. MS 
METEORS 

403.000 *J mmy Chan, Kincardine, Ontario 
17.810 •Lenny Munitz. Bellerose. NY 
13,120 Jennifer Klamp, Winter Park. FL 
MICROBES (Radio Shack) 

318.830 *Hwan Joo, Weston. Ontario 
316.200 Steve Mayer & Keith Seifried. 

Greenville. OH 
259.700 Sheila Coleman. Griffin. GA 
258,150 Rick Van Manen, Grand Rap«o$. M) 
244,700 Ian Waters. North Hero. VT 
MR. MUNCH 

40,000 *Wes Hill, Vashon. WA 
20,000 Scott Drake, Pine City. NY 
MONKEY KONG (Med Systems Software) 
1.000,000 *Wes Hrll, Vashon. WA 

1,876 Kanll Dinda. Kingston. Ontario 
1,323 Ryan Van Manen, Grand Rapids, Ml 
1,210 Susan Brink. Portage. Ml 
1,185 Mik* Fath, Wadswonh, OH 
1,106 Kelly Kerr. Wentzv lle MO 
MONSTER MAZE (Radio Shack) 

520.470 ^Robert L. Bull. Trenton, Ontario 
323,490 Philip Morrissey. Gilboa. NY 
200.000 Daniel Mifbfith, Ann Arbor, M< 
150,000 Jamie Gritton. Irvine. CA 
114,000 Michael Daley, Biloxi. MS 
MOON HOPPER (Computerware) 

809.750 *Ed Bottini. St. Louis, MO 
142,600 Ron Rhead Willowdale Ontario 
100,640 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
MOROCCO GRAN PRIX (Computerware) 

4,153 *Prank Bottini. St. Louis, MO 
2,344 Cameron Amick. Reisterstown, MD 
NERBLE FORCE (Computerware) 

31$ .150^ *Frank Bottini. St. Louis, MO 
49 20CT Jim Ganninger, Des Peres, MO 
NIBBLER (Color Quest) 

20.650 "Artick McGervey. Morgantown. WV 
14.910 •Christal Glovinsky, Staten Island, NY 
NINJA WARRIOR (The Programmer's Guild) 
74,500 *Greg Burke, Kenora. Ontario 
39.900 Dennis Teague. Noblesvtlle IN 
29,700 Damon Frazier. Bringhurst. IN 
27.500 •Jeff Teague. Noblesville. IN 



OFFENDER (American Business Computers) 
999.900 *Scott Drake. Pine City. NY 
965.400 •Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
406.800 Betty Moore, Greensburg, PA 
293,900 Maria Moore. Greensburg, PA 
273,900 Walt Moore, Greensburg, PA 
PAC-ATTACK II (Computerware) 

107,070 *Mark Skala, Fairview PA 
88.860 Michael J. Garozzo Mornsv lie PA 
62.870 •Stanley Sneed. Erwin. TN 
44.000 Robert Lang. Port McNeill. BC 
42,045 Dave Lubnow. Sussex, NJ 
33.900 Jean Archambault, Quebec, Canada 
30.995 Bryan Teel, Martintown Ontario 
30.015 Joan Haysom. Ottawa. Ontario 
PAC-DROIDS (The Programmer's Guild) 
1.476.730 *Joshua Josephson, Corning. NY 
577,140 •Richard Cochrane. Wayne, NJ 
151.590 Annita Powell. Huber Heights. OH 
140.300 John Yapp. Park Forest, IL 
94.140 Lee Powell. Huber Heights, OH 
PACET-MAN (American Business Computers) 
26.600 *v nee Lok, Mississauga. Ontario 
14,050 Susan Brink, Portage. Ml 
7,200 Fred lha. Columbus AFB. MS 
5.000 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown. MD 
3,392 Norbert Berenyi. Northvale, NJ 
PARACHUTE JUMP (J ARB Software) 

451.000 *John Osborne. Kincardine, Ontario 
PHANTOM SLAYER (Med Systems) 
1.306 *Marc Hassler 
604 J. Powell. Bournemouth. England 
406 Imre Kertesz Chandler. AZ 
197 Mark Heizler, R dgef eld CT 
160 Mike Hall. Hartland Wl 
PICNIC ( Computer Island) 

100.000 WSeott Drake. Pine City. NY 
1.220 Jon Bauch. South Fallsburgh, NY 
PINBALL R<id>o Shack 
4.000,000 tKc-nf. Seifried. Greenville. OH 
2.111.900 Dale Westmoreland. Lannon, Wl 
1.266.250 Donut. Tabor. IA 
300.250 Brad Widdup. Dundas. Ontario 
258.600 Michael Rosenberg. Prestonsburg. KY 
PLANET INVASION (Spectral Associates) 
483.250 *Chris Sweet. Harvard. MA 
286.075 *Larry Ptaxton. Medley. Alberta 
257.900 Ron Rhead, Willowdale, Ontario 
221.350 John Cole. King City, Ontario 
207.150 Mike Hughey, King George. VA 
PLANET RAIDERS (Aardvark) 
2.010.900 *Bill Messerick S. St. Paul, MN 
POLARIS (Radio Shack) 

256.018 *Michael Popovich Sr.. Nashua. NH 
218.450 Allen Rolh, Dayton, TX ' 
212.746 Hwan Joo, Weston. Ontario 
170.100 Steve Johnson. Santa Ana. CA 
151.154 Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 
39.746 Steve Curnow. Woodbury. MN 
POLTERGEIST (Radio Shack) 

6.455 "drRrck Van Manen. Grand Rapids, Mt 
5,021 Rich Van Manen, Grand Rapids. Ml 
4,978 •Tim Warr. Bellingham. WA 
4.956 Mark Dowling, San Bruno. CA 
4,835 Scott Butler. Spnngtkeid. II 
4,710 Don Turowiki, Natrona Heights. PA 
4.640 joe Nasal, Doyleatown. PA 
4,455 Scott Snyder. Allentown, PA 
4,395 Joan Haysom. Ottawa, Ontario 
POPCORN (Radio Shack) 

560.900 *Vlnce Lok, Mississauga. Ontario 
168.680 Steve Johnson, Santa Ana. CA 
136.530 Scott Sehlhorst, Columbia, SC 
110.570 Cameron Amick, Re stertown MD 
96.470 Mike Wells. Pittsburgh. PA 
38.360 Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg. KY 



continued 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 227 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 



III 



RAINBOW 



SCOREBOARD 



PROJECT NEBUtA 

430 *Da'o Westmoreland. Lannon Wl 
PR OTECTOR9 / Tom Mix) 

594,610 *florar.it Hande M ss ssauga Ontario 
358,514 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
275,610 Julian Bond. Berkeley, CA 
272.000 Douglas Hug, Rosevilie. CA 
217,000 Ian Waters, North Hero. VT 
106,750 David Gibson. Longwood, FL 
43.650 Mike Hishan, London, Ontario 
40.500 Michael Jimenez, Mesa, AZ 
PYRAMID (Radio Shack) 

165 *Dale Westmoreland, Lannon, Wl 
RAIL RUNNER (COfftAurtrWi/ 

53.520 WJlm Baker, Florissant, MO 
53.400 Ed Botl n Si Louis, MO 
19.400 Chris Sweet. Harvard. MA 
15.520 Kirk Mesecher, Ft. Walton Beach. FL 
12.275 Larry Mescher, Fl. Walton Beach, FL 
ROBOT BATTLE (Spectral Associates) 

21,000 *Bobby Bruce. Springfield, MO 
ROBOTTACK (tntracolor) 
1.512.200 *Robert Kiser, Monticello, MS 
1.219.810 •Steve Skrzyniarz. Tacoma. WA 
1.197.800 Brian Austin. Rotterdam. Ny 
1,146,750 Justin Marcus 
1,107,400 John Osborne, Kincardine, Ontario 
807,700 Jeff Jackson, Littleton, CO 
559,750 Philippe Moisan St. Jerome, Quebec 
SANDS OF EGYPT (Radio Shack) 

121 *Grant GHIot. Calgary. Alberta 
86 Mike Rausch, Denver, CO 
SCAR FM AN (Gprnaoti? 

495.440 TtWoody Farmer, Aiberla, Canada 
371,540 •Stanley Sn ed. Erwin. TN 
121.600 M. A. Brickies, Allen Park. Ml 
SEA DRAGON iAdventurm International) 

60,430 vSleva Skrzyniarz. Tacoma. WA 
36.540 Steve Schweitzer, Sewell, NJ 
27,500 Wes Hill. Vashon. WA 
23,750 Stephen Har en. Birmingham, AL 
15.300 Derek Keener. Columbus. OH 
SHAFT (Prickly-Pear Software) 

18,150 *Loren Seng, Tuscon. AZ 
17,160 Julian Bond. Berkely. CA 
SHARK TREASURE (Computerware) 
72,000 *Marc Hassler 
60,000 Aaron Peella, Bennington, VA 
50.000 Jennifer Kfamp, Winter Park. FL 
46,000 Ed Bottini, St. LOuU_ MO 
SHOOTING GALLERY (Radio Shack) 

37,300 *Mark Nichols. Birsay. Saskatchewan 
37.200 •Chris Kulawy, St Johnsville. NY. 
37.080 Gary Long. Peru. NY 
33,060 Mrs Merle Burzynski, Erie, Ml 
31,230 D. A. Turowski. Natrona Heights. PA 
SKIING (Radio Shack) 

31 52 "frAndy Truesdale, Ferguson, MO 
35.89 Peter Johnson. Chino. CA 
40,10 Fred Herrmann, Flemington. NJ 
49 43 John Scanlan. Prairie Village. KS 
SKY DEFENSE (Quasar Animation ) 

9.700 WVin.ce Lok, Mississauga, Ontario 
6,700 Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 
6,120 Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
5,200 Cameron Amick. Reisterstown. MD 
SNAIL'S REVENGE (the Rainbow) 

510 WMalL Luck, McLean. VA 
420 Christie James, Ashland. VA 



SOLO POKER (Radio Shack) 

640 *Mary J, Hernng, Bloomingion, IL 
640 WStephen Jenkicfc, Pittsburgh. PA 
SOLO POOL (Tom Mtx) 

110 WBill Steelman, Edmonds. WA 
103 •John Fraysse. Dahlren VA 
SPACE ACE (Spectral Associates) 

963 WMatl McMann, New Boston. Ml 
SPACE AMBUSH (Computer ware) 

403.350 WJimmy Chan, Kincardine. Ontario 
124,460 •John Osborne Kincardine, Ontario 
SPACE ASSAULT (Radio Shack) 

358.660 WMike Snelgrove Oshawa, Ontario 
238.560 •John Cole. King City, Ontario 
224,130 Di'rr.ch Kardos Colonia, NJ 
221,130 Steve Johnson Santa Ana, CA 
216.680 Chris Kulawy, St. Johnsville. NY 
152,260 Ryan Van Manen, Grand Rapids Ml 
30,380 Steve Curnow, Woodbury. MN 
SPACE INVADERS (Spectral Associates) 
1,496,030 WJimmy Chan. Kincardine, Ontario 
62,300 •Peter Niessen. Carlisle, MA 
54.980 Susan Brink. Portage. Ml 
29,560 Greg Brink. Portage, Ml 
11.750 Bob Hosken. Mentor. OH 
SPACE RACE (Spectral Associates) 

83.750 wjohn Osborne, Kincardine, Ontario 
62.675 Shane Deike. Bolme. TX 
59,625 Jim Baker. Florissant. MO 
58.100 John Cole, King City, Ontario 
55,625 Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
SPACE RAIDERS (Mark Data) 

112.100 WJimmy Chan. Kincardine, Ontario 
SPACE SENTRY i Spedfjf Associates) 

41.129 WSteve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma. WA 
2.625 Cameron Amick. Reisterstown, MD 
SPACE SHUTTLE (Tom Mix) 

595 WSteve Schweitzer, SeweU NJ 
575 Fred Wejssman Brook! I ne MA 
571 Ted McDonald, SummervllJe. SC 
566 Tim Smith. San Rafael. CA 
562 Kenton Fifield, Fl. Frances, Ontario 
SPACE WAR (Spectraf Associates) 

400,190 WMark Felps, Bedford, TX 
116,000 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
52,380 Jim Baker. Florissant, MO 
16.500 Chris Leek. Martintown, Ontario 
11,540 Davdtf Iverson Dorval Quebec 
STARBASE ATTACK (1MB) 

328.000 WPaul Morris, Richland. VA 
62,551 ©Chris Coyle, Selden, NY 
60.602 Beth Walker. Gloucester Pt VA 
35,659 Dennis Teague, Nobiegville. IN 
24,668 J W Panks, Indianapolis, IN 
24,553 Steve Walters. W. Lafayette. IN 
STARBLASTER (Micro Works) 

408.245 WMark Dowling, San Bruno. CA 
325.790 MM- Anheluk, Fall Creek. OR 
126,135 Mike Hail. Hartland Wl 
60,001 Alan Lewis. Ridgefield CT 
35.400 Peter Niessen. Carlisle. MA 
STARFIRE ( Intel lectronic ) 

3,444.500 WJohn DeMuth Pwamm de Chien, Wl 
2.102.450 Dean Bouchard. Kingston. NS 
1,320.150 Joy Bailey, Lexington. NC 
1,000.000 DO Jackson. Ontario. Canada 
1,000,000 Shaw Jackson, Ontario, Canada 



STARSHIP CHAMELEON (Computerware) 
861.200 *Greg Lesher, North Chili. NY 
62,200 Chris Sweet, Harvard, MA 
79,250 VI nee Lok, Misiistauga. Ontario 
75,500 Ron Pinson. Guelph, Ontario 
72.600 Jim Baker, Florissant. MO 
STORM i Computet warm 

840,010 *no!anrr Hendel, Mississauga. Ontario 
723.335 Chris Sweet. Harvard. MA 
472,320 John Jeworsk^ Nashua. NY 
360,000 Cameron Amick Reisterstown, MD 
312,000 Dave Lubnow, Sussex, NJ 
109,350 Kenny Miller, Yardley. PA 
STORM ARROWS (Spectral Associates) 
94,000 *Steven Ohsie. Houston, TX 
22,200 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown. MD 
TEEEOFFF (Prickly-Pear Software) 

32 *Mark Wright. Tipton, Ml 
TRAPFALL fToro M/x) 

113,406 WRich Trawick, N, Adams. Ml 
96,586 Dan Burch. Louisville, KY 
90.146 •Neil Berkman. DeWitt. NY 
69.162 Rich Van Manen, Grand Rapids Ml 
65,976 Ryan Van Manen. Grand Rapids. Ml 
65.756 Brian Chaples Springfield. VA 
85.022 Dennis Burch. Louisville. KY 
VENTURER (Aardvark) 
2,657.350 'A'Brian Panepinto, Spencerport. NY 
2,152,150 •Greg Scott. Orlando. FL 
1,769,400 Todd Hauschildt. Red Wing, MN 
1,526,200 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
1,126,550 Hwan Joo, Weston, Ontario 
WHIRL YBIRD RUN (Spectral A sociates) 
96,400 WDave Lubnow, Sussex, NJ 
46.000 Todd Brannam, Charleston Hts SC 
44,900 John McClennan, Holliston. MA 
37.900 Mark Nelson. Alexandria, VA 
30,130 Ron Rhead. Ontario, Canada 
WILDCATTING /Radio Shack) 

30.555 WGary Jones, Dale. TX 
26.648 Lon Kozza. Allentown. PA 
26,625 Kevin Marsh, Bokeelia FL 
27.455 Annie Rosenberg, Prestonsburg. KY 
26,726 Stephen Jinklch. Pittsburgh. PA 
ZAKSUND (Elite Sol ware) 
1.128.050 WRichard Minton, West Frankfort. IL 
1.006.100 Andy Mickelson, Granville, OH 
950,500 •Michael Rothman Solon, OH 
676.200 John Osborne, Kincardine. Ontario 
617.500 Ed Bouini. St. Louis, MO 
193,450 Andy Tail. Lexington, MA 
133.600 Ron Gherman. Marion, OH 
112.050 Luc Archambault, Quebec. Canada 
45.900 Frankie Jimenez, Mesa, AZ 
22,000 Steven Jimenez, Mesa, A A 
ZAPEM (Chromasette) 

12.950 *Michael McCafferty. Idaho Falls. ID 
ZAXXON (Datasoft) 

2,000,000 WRoland Hendel, Mississauga, Ontario 
1,510.000 James Quadarella. Brooklyn. NY 
401.900 Mike Hughey, Kkn$ George, VA 
370.400 Chris Coyle. Selden. NY 
235.200 Rich McGervey, Morgantown, WV 
134.600 Rich Trawick, N Adams. Ml 
127,300 David Karam, Austin, TX 
100,000 Rich Van Manen, Grand Rapids, Mf 
96,600 Ryan Van Manen, Grand Rapids, Ml 
81.300 Steven Friedman, Kings Park. NY 
60,500 Damon Frazier, Bringhurst, IN 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 



228 the RAINBOW November 1983 



TURN OF THE SCREW 



Build A Speaker/Amplifier 
For Your Computer 

By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 




(Tony DiStefano is well know n as an early specialist in 
Color Computer hardware projects. He is one of the 
acknowledged experts on the "inside* " of Co Co.) 



January 9, 1981; that was a great day. I bought my first 
Color Computer. Today, two and a half years later I 
bought a video monitor. It is a standard composite- 
video monitor. It is a 9" green phosphorous screen Iilectro- 
home. 1 know what you are thinking, "Oh no, not another 
video monitor adapterP 1 Well, I'm not about to bore you 
with another version of this adapter. I used one of them 
myself rather than design my own. When I connected my 
monitor, I was delighted with the clear, crisp quality of the 
picture. I found that it had one thing missing— a speaker. I 
could not make any sounds with this monitor because it did 
not have a built-in speaker. At first, 1 would keep my color 
TV set next to it with the volume up. That was quite an 
inconvenience. Well,youguessed it, this month \ project isa 
low cost, built-in speaker and amplifier for the Color Com- 
puter. The whole thingfits under the keyboard. It even hasa 
volume control with an on off switch. 

The heart of the amplifier is the power 1C # FM80. T his is 
a complete preamp and amp in one. It requires a minimum 
of support parts and is quite rugged. It also has a high input 
impedence, about 1 50k ohms. A high impedence is needed in 
our case because the sound circuit on the Color Computer is 
high impedence. If you look in the '83 Radio Shack catalog, 
you will sec that they say the power supply has a maximum 
of 10 volts. That is not true, it must be a mistake in printing. 
It can, in fact, take up to 22 volts for B+. We will be using 1 2 
volts. 

To construct this project you will need the standard pro- 
ject tools things like screwdrivers and pliers and cutters 
and soldering iron and solder and a drill to mount the 
volume control. You will also need everything on the list of 
parts. See Figure 2. All of these parts arc quitecommon and 
need not be bought at Radio Shack. As a matter of fact, 1 
had all of the parts in my parts bin. I have included the 
Rad io Shack numbers, where possible, just as a matter of 
convenience. Mount all of the components except the 
speaker and volume control on the Proto board. Following 
the schematic in Figure 1, solder all the components 
together. All the ground points indicated on the schematic 
should be soldered together at one point. This is to prevent 
what is known as ground loops. A ground loop is when an 
electrical signal has two or more paths to get to the same 
point. This path or loop can act like an antenna, in which it 



230 the RAINBOW November 1983 



can radiate RF noise or act like an RC circuit and cause 
feed back. Though it is not indicated in the schematic, pins 3, 
4, 5, 10, 1 1, 12 arealsogrounded. Thisactslikea heatsink for 
the IC, and should be enough for most applications, but if 
you think that you'll be using this amplifier very loud, it 



Figure 1 




r 



would be wise to add a small heatsink to the IC. Also, make 
sure that the ground wire that goes from this board to the 
main board is at least 22 gauge. Make this wire about 4" 
long. Now, the B+ line (12 volts) should also be 22 gauge. 
This wire will go to one side of the switch on the pot. Make 
this wire 5" long. The other side of the switch will go to the 12 
volt supply. You might think this to be heavy wire, but this 
chip can deliver up to 8 watts. (That is a lot of power.) The 
switch-to-powcr wire should be about 10"long. That willgo 
to the B+ on the main board. The connections for the 
speaker should be 24 gauge. Make these wires aboul 5" long. 



LINE PRINTERS 



CENTRONICS 588 (used) serial 600 
Baud, 88 CPS with 4 pin DIN plug 

All prices F.O.B. Henderson, Tx . 

Terms: Cash, check or COD 

Tx . residents add 4% sales tax 

■ » /^^\ • • 
LEADER SALES CORPORATION 
P.O. Box 1220, Henderson, Tx. 75652 
214/657-7800 after 6:00 P.M. 

■ » * • 

Discounts available to CC clubs 
and volume buyers. 



That should be long enough to reach the holes on the other 
side of the computer just underneath the keyboard. Solder 
the other ends of the two wires to the speaker. Thereare two 
more wires from the board, and they go to the volume 
control — one wire to the center and the other to the left side. 
Make them about 5" long, too. That will be long enough to 
reach anywhere in the front of the computer. 

Open the computer in the usual way and remove the 
keyboard. Place the components in accordance with Photo 
#L You may want to tape them down temporarily so that 
they don't move around too much. Drill a hole in the com- 
puter to mount the volume control. Personal taste will judge 
exactly where to drill it. The hole should be / it". Mount the 
volume control in the hole. Be careful not to break the 
attached wires. Make sure that the position of the volume 
control will not get in the way of the keyboard. The next step 
is to connect the B+ ( 1 2 volts) and ground. If you have the 
"F'(or 285) board, find the power by looking at the photo. 
It is the jumper for 16/64K memory. Use the one marked 
16K. For the ground connection, scratch off a bit of the 
green coating on the PCB just to the right of the keyboard 
connector, under C59, and solder to that. If you have 
another version, use Test point #9 for the 12 volts and Test 
point #4 for ground. The last connection to make is the 
input. That connection goes all the way to the top. It con- 
nects to pin #3 on the RF adapter. This is all that has to be 
done; but before you close the computer, check your work. 

Replace the keyboard and turn the computer on. To test 
your amplifier, any sound command will work. This one line 
program works fine: 

10 SOUND RND(255),1 : GOTO 10 
Turn the volumecontrol on. You should hear a click. Turn- 
ing the volume control up should result in some random 
sounds coming out of the speaker. 1 00 lFSOUND= NONE 
THEN TROUBLESHOOT ELSE CONTINUE. Only kid- 
ding folks, but that is the next step. If you don't get sound, 
check your wiring and check for cold solder joints. Make 
sure that the chip is plugged in the right way. If the sound is 
loud at first and drops as you turn the volume control up, 
you have the outside wire on the pot on the wrong side. 
Unsolder, and reverse it. Other than that, you should have 
no problems. 

Now, you could leave the speaker and amplifier just taped 
down, or you could use some rubber cement or screws. 
Don't use a permanent glue though, it could make a mess if 
ever you have to remove this thing from the computer or 
change the speaker. When all checks out, replace the cover 
and enjoy your new speaker and amplifier. 



Figure 2 




Parts List 








# 


Part 


Description 


RS # 


R-l 


Resistor 


150K ohms 


271-047 


R-2 


Resistor 


2.7 ohms 


rW a 


C-l 


Capacitor 


10 uf @ 16v 


272-1423 


C-2 


Capacitor 


.022 uf @ 16v 


272-1066 


C-3 


Capacitor 


10 uf @ 16v 


272-1423 


C-4 


Capacitor 


470 uf @ I6v 


272-957 


C-5 


Capacitor 


220 uf @ 16v 


272-1006 


C-6 


Capacitor 


.1 uf @ 16v 


272-1069 


S-I 


Speaker 


2 to 5 inch 


40-248 


IC-1 


Amplifier 


LM' 380 


276-076 


PC 


Proto-Board 


. 1 inch spacing 


276-1392 


V-l 


Potentiometer 


100K ohms 


271-216 



232 the RAINBOW November 1983 



RAINBOW REVIEWS — /^ \ 



Amortization 

Is User Friendly and Useful/ Harmony cs 274 

Arex 

It's A Space Adventure: But, Inner or Outer?A4 dvenfi/re International 244 

Atari Joysticks 

Outlast Chewbones/DS/. Computer Products 270 

Blackjaq 

A Blackjack Trainer/Federa/ Hill Software 250 

C.C. Daller • 

Reach Out And Touch Someone/C/>r/s Computers 254 

Color Finance 

Color Budgeting With Th\s/Delker Electronics 238 

Color Ink Jet Printer 

This Is A Sensational CoCo Peripheral/flad/o Shack 242 

Color Term+Plus+ 

Has Many Plusses/Dot/bte Density Software 246 

Color Zap 

The Game/Spectraf Associates 286 

The Companion 

A New ROM- Mate For CoCo/Sas/c Technology 273 

Cosmic Clones 

It's Out Of This World//Warfr Data 286 

Deprec 

Simplifies Depreciation Calculations/8. C. Engineering 272 

Derby 

As Games Go This Is Old Hat/Bumblebee Software 285 

Dlsasm 

New Approach Has Reviewer Longing For The 0\6/Dynamic Electronics 248 

Disk Manager 

A Take Charge Utility/Pricfc/y Pear Software 275 

Elclrcan 

The Circuit Designer's Friend/DLS Engineering , 280 

Flexl Filer 

Has Professional Features/ Computerware 282 

Fundflle 

Is Not So Fundamental/Parsons Software . . 262 

Gorilla Monitor 

A Gorilla Of A Monitor, Plus Video Plus/Spectrum Projects 284 

Grand Slam 

Bam, More Ram/DSL Computer Products 260 

Guardian 

From A Galaxy Far, Far Away /Quasar Animations 277 

Label III 

A Serious Applications Program For Cassette/ Owl's Nest Software 255 

Line Cross Referencer 

A Lot Of Program For The Price/Micrologic 256 

Pigskin Predictions 

Passes With Dazzling Effects/Ra/n6ow Connection Software 258 

Quicksort 

A Valuable Fast-Sort Utility/S/cy//ne Software 283 

Reactoid 

New ROM Pak/Radio Shack 240 

Remote Reset 

We Hadn't The Remotest Idea, Now We Have Five/ 'Spectrum Products 268 

Sonar Search ^fSj 

Interesting Version Of Old Favorite/S & S Arcade 281 

Super "Color" Speller ^^^^^^^ 

A Good Proofreader/Soff/aw Corporation 266 

That's INTEREST-Ing 

An Interesting Finahciaf Program/Custom Software Engineering 264 

3-D Tlc-Tac-Toe/ 

Think It's Simple, Think Again/ Oel rich Publications 272 

Voicepak Ik 

Quality Speaks For ItseJ i/Spectrum Projects 278 

Video Plus m 

Not The Neatest Installation, But Practieal/Specfri/mPro/ecfs 284 



reviewing 

REVIEWS 



SEA DRAGON 

Editor: 

Adventure international would like to 
comment on the review of Sea Dragon in the 
September issue by Neil Edward Parks. 
Normally, we would be reluctant to do so, 
but we felt that the tone of thearticle and the 
conclusions drawn by the reviewer do not 
remotely rellect the high quality of Sea 
Dragon. 

Clearly, two-thirds of the review deals 
with items that have nothing to do with 
game play, and by the author's own admis- 
sion, he states that "Even in the Practice 
Mode, I've never made the first plateau." 
This, I would suspect, would be the reason 
so much time was spent with what (game 
play options) Mr. Parks states are "major 
faults." Sorry . . . but thegamedoes not hang 
up in the middle of play, nor does it do less 
than theadvertisingpromises. If this was the 
case, we would agree that Sea Dragon has 
majorfaults. Mr. Parks rightfully points out 
that there was a problem with how the 
options work . . . but, we consider this a 
minor fault. In fact, wc have yet to receive a 
single complaint and if Mr. Parks would 
have given us a call, he would have found 
that the problems had been noted by Adven- 
ture International and were fixed. 

Mr. Parks also states that he is not "ena- 
moured of the packaging"and finds it bulky 
and "awkward." He is certainly entitled to 
his opinion, but his opinion does not reflect 
the fact that Sea Dragon is sold in the best 
packaging available in the industry and was 
designed for ease of use and durability. 
Adventure International buys its hardboxes 
in quantities of 50,000 to 100,000 units. 
Therefore, the cost of our software is not a 
rellcction at all of the high quality packaging 
we use. Instead, Mr. Parks should consider 
the high cost of doing business ahd ask what 
part the cost of advertising, printing, art- 
work, salaries, color separations, royalties 
and overhead play in determining the final 
cost of software. I assure you it is con- 
siderable. 

Adventure International acknowledges 
the minor problems noted by Mr. Parks, but 
wc feel he may not be suited to stand in 
judgment of a product that he, by his own 
admission, cannot play. We, at Adventure 
International, wonder how one can reason- 
ably criticize a piece of software when less 
than one-tenth of Sea Dragon has been 
played. 

Mark Sprague 
Product Development Manager 
Adventure International, Inc. 



VOCABULARY BUILDERS 

Editor: 

Our 32K program, Vocabulary Builders, 
was reviewed in the September issue of the 
Rainbow. We appreciated the kind words 
that were written, but feel that several of the 
Criticisms were humorous at best. Great 
care, preparation and much field-testing go 
into each Computer Island program. 

The reviewer's main criticism was our 
method of randomly selecting the questions 
used. I have described, in several of my arti- 
cles for this magazine s educational column, 
various ways of randomly selecting ques- 
tions in a program. Our Vocabulary Buil- 
ders program selects 50 out of 200 questions 
randomly for each set. On the next series of 
questions, the program selects again 50 of 
the next 200 questions. This guarantees that 
some questions will be repeated and some 
will be new. The reviewer suggests that some 
of the 200 questions may not be used after 
many, many rounds. Exactly our purpose! 

We extensively field-test all of our pro- 
grams and have found that children easily 
memorize answers in short reading and lan- 
guage arts programs. After several rounds, it 
is often unclear whether the child has mas- 
tered the work or merely memorized the 
location of specific answers. Our method of 
presentation insures that new words will 
keep cropping up set after set of questions to 
prevent the memorization factor. 

The reviewer also felt that wc should have 
used 1NKEY instead of INPUT as the 
method for having answers entered. We 
though of using that method but found it to 
be unwise in this case. When field-testing 
this program, we noticed that children often 
hit the wrong answer key by mistake. IN- 
PUT gives the child a second chance by 
allowing him to use the back arrow and 
change his answer before hitting [ENTER]. 
We arc looking for accuracy, not speed, in 
this type of program. 

Finally, one of the main strengths of our 
Vocabulary Builders program is the amount 
of questions it contains. Children use these 
programs to prepare for various types of 
system-wide school tests. The more ques- 
tions and examples covered, the better pre- 
pared they will become: We met that need by 
preparing 32K programs packed with DA TA 
and examples. Our reviewer's suggestion 
that our program could be reduced to 4K 
finally reduced all of our credibility in his 
credentials. 

We truly wish that the reviewer had spent 
more time discussing the degree to which our 
program actually teaches vocabulary. An 
educational review is not the proper place to 
state one's philosophy of education or de- 
bate programming techniques. It should be 



the place to report whether the program 
works well on the children for whom it was 
intended. In a two-page review, the reviewer 
made no mention at all of his using our 
programs with any children. 

Steve Blyn 
Computer Island 



TALKING SPELLER 

Editor: 

I am writing in regards to a review of 
Talking Speller published in September 1983 
Rainbow, page 199. Wc arc always happy to 
see one of our products reviewed, but in this 
case the review requires comment. I am not 
critical of that portion of the review directed 
to the actual performance of the Talking 
Speller, as I feel it was very adequate. I do 
object strongly to the inclusion of editorial 
comments into a review, as this destroysany 
pretense of objectivity on the part of the 
reviewer. In this case, Professor Tchudi has 
his own concepts of the proper use of com- 
puters in education. That is his right. How- 
ever, since the same issue of Rainbow car- 
ried an article by the good professor ("The 
Write Idea," page 139), I believe your read- 
ers would have been better served had he 
confined his philosophy lecture to his own 
article. Since he did not, I feel compelled to 
reply. 

Granted, use of a word processing system 
and a spelling checker may well be the best 
method to really master spelling— for those 
students capable of utilizing such educa- 
tional aids. However, in this part of North 
Carolina, wc have very few first-, second- or 
even third-graders who know how to type. 
Many of them do not even know how to 
operate a computer, much less use word 
processing. Perhaps elementary students in 
Michigan lire so advanced that Professor 
Tchudi's theories apply. In our case, they arc 
not necessarily valid. Many of our elemen- 
tary teachers do not feel that spelling drills, 
of whatever form, arc "trivial" or "pedagogi- 
cally obsolete." Instead, they are convinced 
thata student must learn proper spelling of a 
few words, by whatever method, before the 
students can be launched on their writing 
career. 

Professor Tchudi missed the point com- 
pletely. Talking Speller is aimed at the pre- 
school and lower elementary levels. At this 
level, regardless of how pedagogically ad- 
vanced the educational system, you cannot 
teach advanced concepts when the students 
do not have the basic motor skills. 

Happy Bits and Bytes. 

H. A. Manning 
Superior Graphic Software Products 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 237 



Software Revleir^^^^^^^^^^^^Sr7Z\ 

Colorful Budgeting 
With Color Finance 

By Frank J. Esser 

Finance programs on today's market run from the simple 
programs to balance your checkbook and provide informa- 
tion on where your money goes to those that provide a more 
complete financial picture. MSI Color Finance, from Micro 
Services, Inc., and distributed by Delker Electronics, is a 
program that gives you the ability to better manage your 
personal finances. Properly set up and maintained, MSI 
Color Finance can give you an accurate picture of your 
finances at any time during the year with surprisingly little 
effort. Color Finance is set up as a double entry bookkeep- 
ing system, tailored to a personal finance application. For 
those not familiar with double entry bookkeeping systems, 
do not despair. Color Finance has excellent menus and 
documentation to take you through its setup and use. 

Color Finance comes on a single 51/1-inch diskette and 
requires a Color Computer with 32K of memory, disk drive 
and a line printer. Optionally, a cassette recorder can be 
used to provide backup of the data files. The disk is not copy 
protected. However, Color Finance does have a safeguard 
which will discourage unauthorized access to your financial 
records. A plug is supplied which must be inserted in the left 
joystick port before Color Finance will run. A neat way to 
discourage tampering with your records like the lock on 
your personal records file. 

The documentation is of excellent quality and comes 
bound with a plastic spiral binding. The manual is well laid 
out and very easy to follow. It is divided into four parts: 
Introduction, Getting Started, Commands and a Sample 
Session. 

The introduction gives a brief overview of the program 
and its capabilities. Part 1 Getting Started isjust that. This 
chapter takes you through the steps necessary to get Color 
Finance up and running. The account codes are explained 
along with their classification. There are three account class- 
ifications and a range of code numbers associated with each. 
They are: 

01-21 Asset Accounts 

22-42 Liability Accounts 

43-96 Expense Accounts 
97 Income Account 

Several examples of each account type are given. For 
instance, checking and savings accounts are assets, while 
charge accounts and bank charge cards would be liabilities. 
Items such as food, rent, gasoline, clothing and heat would 
be expense accounts. Also explained are the 75 descriptive 
categories available. These categories are used to help 
explain each entry made into the system. 1 found that, in my 
personal application, 1 used only half the available entries. 
There is also a table explaining how each type of entry 
affects each class of account. 

Part 1 1 — Commands is the heart of the manual. It is set up 
such that it follows the menu presented at startup. There arc 
10 selections presented on the main menu. They are: 

1) Daily Posting Module. Provides the ability to add 
entries, print account statements and exit this section. 
This module handles the entries for a given period, in 
this case a month. 

2) Monthly Update Module. Updates your financial 



records for a given month and prepares the balances 
for the upcoming month. Will also print description 
summary, general journal entries, trial balance, ac- 
count statements for any given month. 

3) Yearly Module. Provides the ability to obtain on a 
year-to-date basis the following reports: budget, des- 
cription and the accounting statement. 

4) Account Maintenance. Provides the ability to enter 
the account titles for each of the account classifications 
along with the beginning balance and the month that 
balance is valid for. 

5) Description Maintenance. Provides for the entry of 
description codes to be used during actual data entry. 

6) Change Today's Date. Allows for the entry of the date 
which will appear on the heading of each report 
generated during this session. 

7) Utility Module. Provides for the ability to backup or 
restore your records for cassette tape. 

8) Codes Listing. Will produce the account names and 
code numbers by account classification. Will also 
produce a listing of all the description codes and code 
numbers. 

9) Initialization. Provides forthe intialization of the data 
files for startup or at the beginning of each new year. 

10) Exit System. Leaves the program and returns to the 
BASIC system. 

Part III — Sample Session provides a brief session using 
the data files already existing on the supplied disk. This 
session walks the new user through six entries for a given 
month, explaining each entry in detail. You are directed to 



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238 the RAINBOW November 1983 



this section in the first chapter before you initialize the disk. 
The initialization process will wipe out the data in the files, 
thus making the sample session impossible. 

Color Finance is a well-designed and smooth running 
program. The menus are excellent with clear crisp lettering 
done in the graphics mode. All the menus used by Color 
Finance are done on the graphics screen, thus they are not 
limited to the standard 32 x 16. Instead, the screens are 42 x 
32. The options are always explained and a prompt line 
appears at the bottom of each menu handling data entry or 
correction. If an error is made it is easily corrected. 

Color Finance is a complex program and, being such, 
requires more than the average effort in becoming familiar 
with it. However, if you are willing to put in the time and 
effort I am sure you will find the investment well worth it. 

How does Color Finance provide these financial services 
and how does it work? Color Finance is a double-entry 
bookkeeping system tailored to a personal finance applica- 
tion. A double-entry bookkeeping system is one in which a 
corresponding entry is required to offset the original entry. 
Thus, at any one time, the summation of all the debits will 
equal a summation of all the credits, indicating that the 
books are in balance. Setting up the accounts for Color 
Finance is simple and really depends on how complicated 
you want your application to be. If you simply want to track 
your monthly expenses and not cover your net worth or 
charge accounts, then all that is required is a list of your 
monthly expense items and descriptions of each. However, 
if you want Color Finance to track your entire financial 
picture, then much more information will be needed. You 
will need to know what assets you own and to whom you 
owe money. You will also need the above mentioned 



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1 



expense lists to complete the list. Items which would fall into 
the asset category would be, cash on hand, either in savings 
or checking accounts, cash value of life insurance policies, 
saving and investment plans, and IRAs. Examplesof liabili- 
ties would be a bank loan for an automobile, charge 
accounts, bank credit cards and any other open loans. 
Expenses would be items like the mortgage, clothes, food, 
auto, recreational activities, medicine, doctor/ dentist, insu- 
rance and utilities. 

I think by now you are getting the picture. You are now 
ready to create your accounts and descriptions. Data is 
entered from your checkbook stubs on a month-by-month 
basis. You can enter a month's worth at a time or as many 
months at one sitting as desired. 

1 think 1 write more than the average number of checks a 
month, between 50 and 60. It took a little more than 45 
minutes for me to get thefn entered for a one-month period. 
The reports ran a little over an hour and 1 5 minutes. Not bad 
considering it needs to be done only once a month. 

Some of the hardest items to budget for and track are 
charge cards. Most systems do not make provisions to han- 
dle items purchased on time easily, if at all. It is here that 
Color Finance really shines. At the time the purchase is 
made, the expense account describing the item is debited 
and the appropriate liability account covering the charge 
card is credited. When the first of the month comes around 
and it is time to make a payment, then the checking account 
is credited and the liability account is debited. This has the 
net effect of showing the item purchased and in its approp- 
riate category at the time of purchase for its full amount. It 
also reduces your net worth since you do not yet own the 
entire item. As you make the payments, your net worth will 
increase because your liability is decreasing. 1 suppose all of 
this sounds complicated and perhaps to someone without 
any bookkeeping or accounting experience, it is. The real 
secret of Color Finance is becoming familiar with it and how 
it works and then tailoring the setup to your needs. 

Color Finance is everything it is advertised to be, and then 
some. 1 found it easy to use, with good documentation, 
excellent menus and very good error trapping. Color 
Finance uses a double entry bookkeeping system to main- 
tain its records and is set up in such a manner as to prevent 
off balance situations from occurring. 

The program provides for full maintenance functions 
such as add, change and delete records. It has several print 
functions such as account statements, budgets, trial balance, 
and general journal entries. It also has a backup-restore 
function to cassette tape — something I wish more develop- 
ers of business software would provide. The ability to store 
data on tape is a definite plus since the tape storage is much 
more rugged and versatile than floppy backup, not counting 
the economics. 

Color Finance provides for 22 asset and liability accounts, 
56 expense accounts and 75 separate descriptions. The only 
problem 1 had with Color Finance was the description fields. 
Theyare 10 characters wide and I found this to bea little too 
restrictive. A field width of 20 characters would have made 
for much more meaningful entries. However, this is a minor 
item on what 1 consider an excellent program. 

If you are looking for a system to record and update your 
financial transactions, the CoCo and Color Finance are a 
winning team. 

(Delker Electronics, P.O. Box 897, Dept. D, Smyrna, TN 
37167, $59.95 on disk) 



240 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Hardware Review, 



Color Ink Jet Printer Is 
Sensational CoCo Peripheral 

There are some things that are just so sensational that it is 
difficult to keep from being excited about them. Radio 
Shack's newest printer — theCGP-220 Color Ink Jet printer 
— is one of them. 

I must confess that it isn't very often that 1 get the oppor- 
tunity to do reviews anymore. Sure, 1 spend a lot of time 
looking at both software and hardware products as they 
come in, and more time looking at the programs which are 
submitted to be included in the Rainbow. But to be able to 
take the time out to put a piece of hardware through the 
paces? Well, 1 do wish I had a little more time for that. 

But, from the time I bought my first Quick Printer 11 for 
my first CoCo, printers have been my "thing." And then 
along comes something that is absolutely revolutionary for 
the Color Computer. So, 1 was hooked. Am hooked. And, if 
you're into color graphics, then I think you'll be hooked, 
too. 

The Color Ink Jet Printer prints by using two reservoirs 
of colors — one of them black and the other red , yellow and 
blue. Now, as anyone will tell you, those three colors, when 
combined, will give you three more colors — orange, purple 
and green. Add the black and non-printing, or white, and 
you suddenly have a printer which prints with eight colors! 

Yes, the Color Ink Jet Printer automatically combines red 
and yellow to create orange. All you have to do is give it a 
command. Needless to say, this can really do some interest- 
ing things for your listings and printouts — you can color- 
code them. And in two sizes, too. 

This has some real possibilities, all in itself. 1 can't wait for 
someone to come up with a program that not only "pretty 
prints" listings, but changes the colors, too. 

But, this isn't where the Color Graphics Printer really 
shines. It does that with its high resolution color graphics. 
And, if you think PMODE4 has high res, wait until you see 
the Color Ink Jet! It generates 640 dots per line — a higher 
resolution than CoCo itself. 

We ran an article several months ago by Dr. Lane Lester 
which showed how you could make color pictures on your 
printer using colored ribbons. The Color Ink Jet lets you 
print the same quality pictures — or better — in one fell 
swoop! And what pictures! See .the example here, and else- 
where in this month's Rainbow. 

I was telling you about my first printer, the Quick Printer 
U. Now, let me tell you about my second, the Line Printer 
VII. Among everything else my kids remember about my 
computing when the Rainbow was still a "kitchen table" 
operation was the noise the LP VII made while it was 
printing out copy and listings. It is still worth a good laugh 
to hear the girls' imitation of the noise — BURRRRUP, 
CHUNNNG! 

Color Ink Jet won't even wake the mice. Because the 
technology is that it actually sprays individual drops of ink 
on the paper, there is, for all practical purposes, no sound at 
all. 

It features bi-directional line scanning, a 5x7 dot matrix 
for the letters and true descenders. It handles both sheet fed 
and roll paper in full 8 ! /2xl 1 size. Color Ink Jet also has both 
parallel and serial interfaces and, in serial mode, will accept 




UNITED STATES OF 

AMTD T C*f\ 



Baud rates of both 600 and 2400. A simple switch on the 
back of the printer and a POKE to CoCo allow the faster 
speed. 

Yes, there is a drawback — speed. In text mode, Color Ink 
Jet prints at only 37 characters per second. In graphics mode 
it will handle 2630 dots per second. The reason for this 
seeming difference in speed is that it forms its letters graphi- 
cally — by printing across a line three times to fully form a 
letter. So, although the printhead is moving pretty quickly, 
it takes more than one pass to actually form a letter. 

Those of us used to just turning on a printer and telling it 
to print will have to get used to one more thing. The Color 
Ink Jet Printer has a "new" lever which you use to cap the 
ink supplies. This keeps the inks from spilling when the 
printer is being moved and, more important, keeps them 
from becoming dried out. If you've ever put a brand new 
ribbon in your conventional printer and then gone off on 
vacation two days later only to find on your return that the 
ribbon has dried out, you'll really appreciate this feature. 
And, you can use the same lever to "pump" the ink supply to 
darken it up (a little) if you wish. 

Setup was extremely easy and the instructions were clear, 
well detailed and easy to figure out. We were printing out 
some color graphics about 30 minutes after we opened the 
box. 

And now for the kicker. Radio Shack also has a new 
screen dump program in machine language written for the 
Color Ink Jet. With it, you can select your background color 
and you can print from all PM ODEs. This is extremely easy 
to use and provided some excellent color printouts. There 
are also "standard" graphics characters for the "other" 
Radio Shack computers. 

All in all, we think this is an excellent printer with some 
very exceptional capabilities. The colors and graphics are 
outstanding, the alphanumerics are well-formed and the 
lack of noise is a real bonus. Combined with ease of use and 
some truly exciting possibilities the Color Ink Jet Printer 
has to offer, we believe this one to be a real winner at an 
attractive — for an ink jet printer — price of $699. 

(Radio Shack, available nationwide, $699) 

— Lonnie Falk 



242 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Software Revlen^^^^^^^^^^^^Sr^\ 



It's A Space Adventure: 
But, Inner Or Outer? 

Among the better offerings of computer games for CoCo 
grenadiers introduced in recent months is A REX, a pro- 
gram adapted for our computer by highly-talented Roger 
Schragand marketed by Adventure International of Long- 
wood, Florida. 

Although billed as a space game, AREX could just as 
easily have been named something like "Super Squares" or 
"Blockbuster" because, in the course of the game, youVe 
involved with trying to fill 90 percent of the screen with 
squares. The only resemblance to a space game is a tiny but 
deadly missile whose unpredictability will have you banging 
on your keyboard in frustration. 

Accompanied by a nice assortment of sound effects, 
A RE X greets you with a nicely designed title page, asking" I 
or 2 Players?" You have an option of using joysticks or the 
arrow keys on your computer. 

Your mission as the AREX Commander is to capture 90 
percent of the enemy's territory by skillfully maneuvering 
the vehicle horizontally or vertically. As the ship moves, it 
"neutralizes" enemy ground, leaving a trail of squares. 
When you have conquered the territory on each level, there's 
a temporary pause before you advance to the next level. 

On the various levels, you encounter a variety of enemy 
ships: There's the Snarfer, which moves at right angles only, 
but with an ability toaccelerate rapidly. The Diagon, which 
1 had the most problems with, moves in highly unpredictable 
patterns and is without a doubt the most dangerous of the 
enemy defenses. The Diagon appears to have radar and is a 
very capable defender, so watch him! The Rippler is more an 
effect than an intelligent danger. It appears only when your 
ship is stationary for more than five seconds, tracing the 
path of your vessel until it wipes you out. You can expect to 
encounter the Rippler when you have blocked yourself in. 

Points are earned in three different ways: Each square you 
occupy in enemy territory is good for four points; the figure 
increases by 10 with every four successful units. Ramming a 
defenseless Snarf is good for up to 900 points. Knocking off 
the Snarfs gives you a great sense of accomplishment 
because there are some nice sound effects. Walling an enemy 
ship, which is accomplished by trapping it with the trail of 



your vessel, is worth 900 bonus points. Thus tar, I have 
found walling all but impossible because the enemy moves 
so quickly that you can easily find yourself being put out of 
commission. The task is made even more difficult by the fact 
that the area of confinement must not be more than the size 
of one area unit. 

Enemy ships will sometimes collide during the course of 
the game, causing them to exchange battle characteristics, 
or they may be destroyed. An innocent Snarf, for example, 
will suddenly be transformed into a deadly Diagon, or vice 
versa. 

You can earn an extra ship for every 10,000 points you 
rack up. 

All but the first level, which is completely clear except for 
enemy craft, have different physical barriers that you have 
to negotiate while attempting to earn points and stay alive. 
The barriers and the unpredictability of the enemy make 
AREX a game of continuing challenge, and, therefore, a 
game you will not tire of after a few tries or a couple of 
weeks. 

Another nice feature is the ability to record high scores. 
Initially AREX, with 3,000 points, holds the top 10 posi- 
tions. The low point total built into the score columns is a 
nuisance, too, because it is so easy to get 3,000 points that 
you are constantly typing in your name. I resorted to just 
hitting the space bar to keep the game moving unless I was 
able to get a real high score. After you turn CoCo off, of 
course, the scores are erased. The documentation, which is 
quite good, indicates that scores can be saved on the TRS-80 
Model I and III versions of the game. Oh, well. 

Another feature that the other models enjoy is voice- 
announced information. A call to Adventure International 
led to the conclusion that voice was unavailable for CoCo 
because it could not fit in 1 6K models, and the widest market 
for such games is for such owners. (Someday there'll be 
some super fantastic programs for us folks who have 
upgraded to 64K.) 

A must for any review of AREX has to include a word 
about the high quality packaging of the program. A full- 
color package with super graphics simply jumps out at you 
and demands that you have a copy. Someday, too, there will 
be retail stores everywhere with third-party software (hope- 
fully including Radio Shack outlets) so that such packaging 
can realize its potential. Adventure International is to be 
commended for its professional approach. 

(Adventure International, P.O. Box 3435 , Longwood, FL 
32750, 16K ECB, $34.95 on tape) 

—Charles Springer 



AUDIO AND VIDEO 
INTERFACE 

Provides SWITCHED color or monochrome 75ohm, 1 volt p-p video from CoCo. 
If you wish to use a high resolution monitor this interface is a must. 
Separate enhancements are provided for color and monchrome outputs. 
This is not a simple emitter-follower add-on. 

'UNIT DOES NOT REQUIRE SOLDERING 
•INTERFACE IS ASSEMBLED AND TESTED 
*400mw AUDIO @ 8 ohms 
*TWO YEAR WARRANTY 

Price $49.95 (Includes Shipping) FREELAND ENG. 7503 N. Kerby, Portland, OR 97217 



244 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



Software ftev/eir^^^^^^^^^^^^ST^S 

COLOR TERM +PLUS+ 
Has Many Plusses 

By Bruce Rothermel 

Let's take a few seconds to consider the wonderfulness of 
the free enterprise system. 

We are all free to enter the consumer market and intro- 
duce and sell "The Better Mouse Trap." Whether or not the 
people beat a path to your door depends on how good the 
product is, the support given to the product, and, of course, 
the price. 

An excellent example is the Terminal Program Market 
for the 80C. 

For those of you new to the principles of Data Communi- 
cationsvia the 80C: It is possible for your computer to "talk" 
to distant computers using telephone lines. These telephone 
lines were not designed to handle data from a computer 
which consists of a series of "bits" of information, where 
each bit has only two values, on or off a digital signal. 

The telephone line was designed for the many different 
tones that make up the human voice — an analog signal. 

For transmission through the telephone line, the digital 
signal is changed to an analog signal by means of an elec- 
tronic converter called a "modem." The modem converts 
(MODulates) the digital signal into an analog signal com- 
patible with the telephone line. At the other end, another 
modem converts (DEModulates) the analog signal back to 
its original digital form. 



Modems are available which operate at many different 
data rates measured in bits per second (BPS). The higher the 
rate, the faster the information is transferred. 

Terminal Programs allow the 80C to handle the connec- 
tion to the other computer, and direct the flow of data to and 
from the two machines through the modems. 

Most reasonably priced modems operate at 300 bits per 
second — 300 Baud. Higher priced modems operate at 1200 
Baud and up. 

In the beginning there was Video Text 1.0 from our 
friends at The Shack. Using this ROM pack and a modem, 
the CoCo could easily link up with a bulletin board or data 
bank service like CompuServe. 

However, Video Text 1.0 did not allow the user to easily 
print the information received from the service or bulletin 
board and programs could not be transferred between 
machines. When Video Text 1.0 was written, the 32K 80C 
did not exist and CoCos were treated as if they were 4K 
machines with virtually no usable buffer memory. While the 
32K problem was solved with the introduction of Video 
Text 1.2, the lack of printing and transferring programs was 
not addressed. Even the revised issue was a dumb terminal. 

For those of you still stuck with version 1 .0, and having 
32K computers, the 2.0 version is available for an upgrade 
charge of $ 1 5 .95 (order stock #700-330 1 ). 

To our rescue came the Independent Programmers — and 
now we have a selection of "intelligent" terminal programs 
to choose from. This strong secondary market has even 
created competition among these programmers and as a 
result we are getting better programs, with more features, 
for less money. 

Ain't free enterprise wonderful! 

The subject of this review, COLOR TERM 
from Double Density Software, is one of those Intelligent 
terminal programs. 

COLOR TERM +PLUS+ has been upgraded to include 
additional features and capabilities. You can now: 
Select communications Baud rate from 1 10—19200 
Select printer Baud rate from 600 — 9600 
Select Half or Full Duplex 
Select Odd, Even, or Full Parity 
Select 7- or 8-bit words 
Send Control Characters 
Turn off lower case letters 
Word Wrap on or off 
Select normal or reverse video 
Scroll protect up to nine lines 
Automatically capture incoming files 
Send one line at a time from your buffer 
List directory and granules (disk version) 
Show buffer size remaining 
Up and Down load programs 
Edit buffer 
Scroll buffer 

Load and unload the buffer when off line 

Save and load machine language or basic programs or files 

Pre-enter data before going on line 

While this list at first boggles the mind, with a little 
practice, using the program is easy. The above options allow 
you to configure this communications program to meet your 
needs. 

The activities involved in a typical communications ses- 
sion using COLOR TERM + PLUS+ would be: 

1) Load ROM Pack, tape or disk version. 

2) Set Parameters These are preset to 300 Baud, Even 



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246 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Parity, Half Duplex, 7-bit words, Word Wrap Off, 
Lower Case Letters Off, No Auto Buffer. 
If the computer you are going to communicate with is 
set to the same parameters, go on. If not, they can be 
easily changed by answering the prompt screens. 
With CompuServe for example, just change Half 
Duplex to Full Duplex and Log-On. 

3) Communicate Mode — Log On can be either auto- 
matic by pre-loading your ID number and password 
into your buffer for transmission, or by typing the 
information directly on line. 

4) Storing Information in Your Buffer — The Buffer is 
the storage area set aside in memory in order to store 
information the user may wish to save or print later. 
The buffer can be turned on or off to save only the 
information you will want to retrieve or print later. 
For instance, when accessing "World Book Ency- 
clopedia" on CompuServe, you would close the buffer 
during log-on and then open it to keep the subject 
information in the buffer for later review or printing. 

5) Transmitting and Receiving Programs — In addition 
to capturing data, COLOR TERM +PLUS+ allows 
the user to transmit and receive programs from one 
computer to another by preloading a program into the 
buffer and transmitting it over telephones, or receiving 
a program into its buffer. BASIC, ASCII and machine 
language programs, data and files can be transmit- 
ted in this manner. 

6) Editing the Buffer — After this info is loaded or 
received into the buffer, if it is a BASIC program or file, 
it can be edited. The editor is not sophisticated, but 
very usable. 



You can: 

Insert a single space 

Delete a single space 

Delete a word or part of one 

Delete an entire line 

Change any character by typing over it 

Scroll up, down, left or right 
7) Saving the Buffer — After the buffer has been loaded, 
you can go "off-line" to save long distance fees and 
service charges; then you have the option of dumping 
the buffer to a printer, saving it on tape or disk, dis- 
playing it on the screen for review or coding it for 
security purposes prior to saving it. 

Double Density Software has priced C7H- at $29.95 for 
the tape version #2.2, $39 .95 for the ROM pack version #2.3 
and $39.95 for the disk version #3.2. These are priced some- 
what lower than other competitive communications pro- 
grams. 

And in the spirit of free enterprise, D.D.S. is offering a 
"trade-irTallowance of $10 if another original and complete 
program is turned in at the time of order. Quite a value! For 
owners of previous versions, upgrades are available for 
$12.54 (tape) and $17.54 (disk). 

In summary, COLOR TERM +PLUS+ offers the 80C 
user, who is willing to invest some time in studying the 
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flexibility at a very good price. 

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COMPUTERS IN ONE!! Have your BASIC program on one side and keep your variables on the other side, or have your 
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KEY-264K allows full communication between sides plus the ability to switch back and forth at will, all from 
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For DISK users, the KEY-264K allows you to alternate between DISK and EXTENDED BASIC on the sane side with 
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Novem ber 1 983 the RAINBOW 247 



Software Review! 



Disasm's New Approach Has 
Reviewer Longing For The Old 

An assembler that uses decimal input and output instead 
of hcxidecimal? It calls for some serious consideration 
before answering. 

DISAS M (disassembler-assembler) by Dynamic Electron- 
ics Inc. is a new approach to assembling and disassembling 
machine language programs. It uses decimal notation for all 
addressingand data. This may sound appealing to the inex- 
perienced, (not having to learn that confusing hex notation) 
but it has very serious drawbacks. Namely, all good books 
and articles written on the subject of ML (machine lan- 
guage) programming are written using hex notation. Look 
into backissuesof the Rainbow for articles by Lewandowski 
and Roslund and you will see that none, repeat, none of their 
articles on ML use decimal notation. They are all in hex 
notation. Books like LeventhaTs "Assembly Language Pro- 
gramming" or StaugaarcTs "6809 Microcomputer Pro- 
gramming and Interfacing" use hex notation, not decimal. 
This does not mean that decimal notation is not possible, 
but where would you turn to if you needed additional infor- 
mation on a particular problem you had with the assembly? 

DISASM is written in basic and is about 8K bytes long, 
therefore requiring a 16K system. Extended BASIC is not 
required. 



DISASM 


STANDARD: 




41014 LDD 1 65332 


A036 


LDD 


#FF34 


41017 STA X D1R R+5 OS= 2 


A039 


STA 


2,X 


41019 STB X D1R R+5 OS= 1 


A03B 


STB 


l,X 


41021 STB X D1R R+5 OS=3 


A03D STB 


3,X 


41023 LDX I 65312 


A03F 


LDX 


#FF20 


41026 CLR X D1R R+5 OS= 1 


A042 


CLR 


i,x 


41028 CLR X D1R R+5 OS= 3 


A044 


CLR 


3,X 


41030 DECA 


A046 


DECA 




41031 STA X D1R R+0 


A047 


STA 


,x 


41033 LDA 1 248 


A049 


LDA 


#F8 



The assembler is not a two-Pass Assember. It does not 
support labels. All locations for branches and jumps must be 
known ahead of time. This is acceptable if the branch or 
jump is backwards because you know what address you 
want to go to. But if the branch is forward, you don't know 
where the forward address is going to be. The way 1 found to 



get around this is to put in a dummy address into the branch 
location and then goingback and inserting the address later 
when it was properly determined. Thus in effect, you the 
user must create a second pass on the assembler to complete 
the branch or jump instruction. 

In the instructions, the first example program caused a 
havoc until the error was found. The instructions assembled 
the sample program in memory address 13000. This over- 
wrote the existing basic program and caused it to crash. 
Moving the program lower in memory by doing a PCLEAR 
1 didn't help because the system variables were being over- 
written. 1 then did a PCLEAR 4 and assembled the test 
program into add ress 3000 and the sample program ran OK. 

To EXECUTEihe sample program, the instructions said 
to assemble a JMP E 13000 (JMP E 3000 in the modified 
location) into address 274. My CoCo has Extended BASIC 
and location 274 is where the TIMER variable is stored. 
Therefore putting a JMP instruction there was hopeless as 
the TIMER variable is always changing. The way to execute 
the sample program was by doing a DEFUSR0=3000 fol- 
lowed by A=USR(0). 

When the assembler asks for an instruction and the 
instruction is invalid, DISASM prompted with "1NSTRUC- 
T10N?"again, but it did load a code into a memory location 
causing the ML program to crash. 

An attempt is made to keep the screen clean during 
assembling by going back and erasing previously used 
prompts. But the previous prompts are not fully erased and 
at times the screen looks like this: 

INSTRUCTION? 

ENTER ADDR 

This gives the impression that DISASM wants you to input 
an address when in fact it wants you to input an instruction. 

An instruction like: LDA X D1R R+0 is broken down 
into three parts by DISASM. Each part is processed by the 
program individually and the user must wait between each 
part while the program is processing it. This makes entering 
the M L program quite time consuming and uncomfortable 
as you have to look at the screen between each part to see if it 
is completed. 

Overall, 1 do not recommend DISASM. 1 found it diffi- 
cult to make the constant conversions to decimal (although 
hex could be forced by using &H) and the break from the 
trad itional assembler/ disassembler format was not found to 
be of any advantage. 

— AL Burzynski 



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248 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Software °^ iW ^— x^x 



Blackjaq— A Blackjack Trainer 

By Thomas C. Roginski, Ph.D. 

I have been playing blackjack for a number of years and 
am co-author of the only book specifically for Atlantic City 
blackjack (Playing Blackjack in Atlantic City). 1 also am a 
loyal CoCo user and am therefore, very glad to review one of 
the two CoCo programs which try to teach, ratherthan only 
play, blackjack (the other program was reviewed in August). 
Blackjack is a much-studied game because it is the only 
game of "chance" played in the casino where the player can 
get theedge on the house. Blackjack experts have made a lot 
of money beating the house at their own game. If the game 
can be beaten, then why do the casinos offer blackjack? The 
reason is that few people know how to win. Casino buildings 
were not built by winning players but by losers. Blackjack 
has grown to be a major casino favorite since it was found to 
be beatable in the early 1960s. By learning how to play 
correct blackjack, the player can have fun and profit from 
the casino's money. 

Blackjaq is one of the few computer programs which 
attempts to teach blackjack, is the least expensive, and is the 
only such program which can run on a 16K CoCo. The 
ability to make such a complex program run on 16K is an 
example of efficient programming technique. The 16K lim- 
itation did prevent the use of graphics in the program. 



One of the nice features is that five players can play at one 
time. When less than five players are playing, the computer 
will play the vacant seats (even all five places if desired). Up 
to two of the playerscan use thejoysticks to play the game. 
While it took a little getting used to, it was easy to bet and 
play entirely with the joystick. This also felt real because all 
play in Atlantic City is with hand signals. 

In order to win at blackjack, it is necessary to both learn 
correct play and to learn to count. Of these, the most impor- 
tant at first is to learn correct play. Because no referencesare 
given in the documentation that comes with Blackjaq, I will 
suggest Million Dollar Blackjack by Uston, Professional 
Blackjack by Wong and/ or perhaps Playing Blackjack in 
Atlantic City by Chambliss and Roginski. One of these or 
one of the other modern blackjack books are needed to 
begin to win because the casinos have changed the game to 
beat professional players since many of the older books were 
written. One of these changes is the almost universal use of 
multideck games in the casinos. While 1 would have 
expected Blackjaq to have included the single deck game as 
one of the options, as the authors point out, there are few 
single deck games left. 

In addition to knowing how to play the hands, in order to 
be a winning player you must know when to bet high and 
low. In blackjack you use systems of "counting" to deter- 
mine your advantage. You bet high with advantage and 
lower without it. In this program two systems of counting 
are shown. One of these systems is called Hl-OPT I and is 
displayed as the second number at the top of the screen (the 
first number is the number of cards played). In HI-OPT 1 the 
cards 3, 4, 5 and 6 count as plus 1 when they are removed 
from the deck and the ten cards (10, jack, queen and king) 
count as minus 1. The higher the count, the higher the 
player's advantage. The third number at the top of the screen 
is the Hl-OPT II system. In this system the 2, 3, 6 and 7 
count as plus 1 , the 4 and 5 count as plus 2 and the ten cards 
count as minus 2. All cards not listed count as zero. As an 
added refinement, a separate count of aces may be kept. In 
order to determine your advantage, these counts, called the 
"running counts" must be converted to the "true counts." 
The true count is the running count divided by the number 
of decks remaining unplayed. The true count times 0.5 
minus the house advantage (usually about +0.5 percent) 
gives the player's advantage in percent. As an example, 
consider an Atlantic City six deck game with five decks left 
in the box ("shoe") and a running count of + 10. The advan- 
tage to the player is then +0.5 percent. This is from 
((+10/5)*0.5)-0.5=0.5 percent. 

When you first begin to count, it is useful to have the 
count show on the screen. After a while it would be better to 
have a way to turn off the count, because you must learn to 
count by yourself in the casino. 

Blackjaq dots not have this option. The easiest way 1 have 
found to add this option is as follows: EDIT660 by hacking 
off (H) everything after the INKEYS, add a new line as 
follows: 665 IFA$="'THEN 660ELSE IFA$="Y"ORA$ 
="N"THEND0$=A$:GOTO660ELSE B=V AL(A$):1FB = 
0THEN660ELSEBE(1,0)=B:BE(I,1)=B:RETURN. 

Then, change line 560 to read as follows: 560 RC=Y 
♦RW^RINT^CL-IFDOS^'ORDOS^-Y'THEN PRINT 
@5,INT(Y*CQ)""INT(RC);:RETURNELSE1F D0$="N" 
THENRETU RN. Using these changes when you are asked 
for a bet, if you enter "N" you will freeze the display of the 
count until you answer "Y"for a bet. In either case, you then 
bet in the normal manner after changing the display. 




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250 the RAINBOW November 1983 



As with many areas which are on the borderline of science 
and art, there are a number of disagreements about many 
details. Thecounting systems offered above use the HI-OPT 
systems which allow the ace to be equal to zero. The ace has 
a neutral value for playing the hand after the bet because it 
has the function of both a high card or a low card. Before 
making the bet, however, the card is very important because 
the bonus payment for a natural (blackjack) and because of 
several useful options in doubling of soft hands. These are 
hands where the ace counts as 1 1 . 

Note that if your hand does not exceed 21 with the ace 
counted as 1 1, no card which you then take will make the 
hand exceed 21 or bust. This makes it possible to double 
certain hands against the low dealer up cards which would 
otherwise bust. 

These facts of the Hl-OPT systems make them have what 
is called good "playing efficiency" but lower "betting effi- 
ciency." The simplest system with the ace counting as other 
than zero is the H I-LOW system which has the 2, 3,4. 5 and 
6 equal to plus 1 and the ace and the 10 cards equal to minus 
1 . This system has better betting efficiency but lower playing 
efficiency. 

Ifyou keepa side count of aces(which Idon't recommend 
for a novice counter — you have enough to worry about as it 
is), these systems are of equal value. The best way to play the 
modern game of four to eight decks is to "back count," that 
is, to watch the game from behind the table without playing 
until the deck is to the player's advantage. Then, you sit 
down and make a bet without having to play at a disadvan- 
tage with the house. Ifyou are going to do this it is best to use 
a system which has a high bettingefficiency. You should use, 
in my opinion, either the HI-LOW, Wong's halves system, 



or my combination of these. Lines 5 10 to 550 in the program 
control the count calculation. Although the program does 
not give the option of changing the count you can change the 
HI-OPT I to display the HI-LOW by changing line 530 as 
follows: 530 1FD>1 AN DD<7THENCQ=CQ+ 1 ELSE 
IFD= 1THENCQ=CQ-1. You can use my system by adding 
a new line as f ollows:535I FD=20R D=7T H ENCQ-CQ+0.5 
ELSE 1 FD= 1 TH EN CQ=CQ- 1 . Leave line 530 in the origi- 
nal form for this count system. Note that the program 
displays integer values of the counts. Don't change the sec- 
tions of line 520 to 560 which are "R W" calculations because 
this calculates the HI-OPT II which the program uses to 
decide how the computer will play the hands the players do 
not play. 

In any system, yougetan advantage when you bet high on 
high counts (your best advantage) and low on minus counts 
(house advantage). This program uses a range of one to nine 
as the range of bets. While all other blackjack programs bet 
in dollars, think of these bets as bets in unit chips. There is 
never an excuse to bet a range of greater than one to nine 
(although the "back counting" method may bethought of as 
a bet of zero chips). 

At first it was not clear how the computer was betting its 
player's hands. As it turns out, this program plays better 
than the scientific method of betting a fixed ratio of advan- 
tage to bet. It uses the much better concept of not increasing 
or decreasing the bets rapidly which hides the fact that the 
player is a counter. The house spots the counter (considered 
as undesirable) by look ing for very rapid bet changes from a 
bettor who had made a series of small bets then makes a 
much bigger one. In Atlantic City, they cannot throw out 
counters at this time, but they can shuffle away a good deck 



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252 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



when they spot you. In Nevada, they can throw anyone out, 
so this form of hidden bet is even more important. You can 
normally get away with "back counting" unless you drop 
down a very large bet after watchinga table for anextended 
period of time. Don't watch too long at any one table. For 
me, part of the fun of the game is to play the role of a fool at 
the table. 

There are several other options available with this game. 
The percentage of each card value is shown at the bottom of 
the screen. Do not look at this when you are doing serious 
practice. There is no need to turn this off as it does not 
intrude as much as the display of the count does. 

There also is the possibility of having the computer play 
all hands for an extended period of time. This shows what an 
expert player can do (but see below for two problems). The 
results of all plays can be dumped to the printer when this 
option is chosen. There also is a second screen available 
where the complete results since the game's beginning are 
shown. This shows the average count to date and the house 
wins, draws and losses. There also are two options not 
shown in the documentation. You can make backup copies 
of the program and any changes you made by typing 
(GOTO3000). There also is a way to save the results of a long 
session to tape by typing (GOTOl 140), although how to do 
and use this is not explained in the instructions. 

As with many programs, there are a few technical prob- 
lems. The program allows and the computer will play cards 
to split aces. Although any pair can be split, nowhere but in 
Puerto Rico does the house allow you to play more than one 
card to each ace when they are split. The program gives the 
playeran additional 0. 1 percent with this rule. This program 
lets you play your hand before it checks for a dealer black- 



jack. If the house has blackjack, all bets made, includingthe 
doubles and split pair monies, are kept. This rule is only 
played in England. Although the play in Atlantic City 
appears to be the same, only the original monies are col- 
lected, and thedouble and split monies are returned. It is set 
back as if these bets were not made. This program gives the 
housea 0. 1 percent additional advantage from this rule. The 
author of Blackjaq has informed me that he will be changing 
this in the new version of the game to the method used in 
Atlantic City. 

One rule not offered to the player in Blackjaq is the 
insurance option. In this option, if the dealer has an ace up, 
the player may make a bet equal to the original bet that the 
dealer has blackjack. If the dealer does have blackjack, the 
player ends up even because the original bet is lost and the 
other bet is played at 2-1 . The house is very generous to the 
player because this is normally a very bad "rip off" for the 
player and should not be taken. If the player is counting and, 
therefore, knows that the deck is more than one-third 10 
cards, this is a good bet. Not having this bet available is a 
problem for the advanced player because the higher the 
count, the higher the bet and the higher the probability of 
the dealer having blackjack when the ace is up. This rule is so 
valuable to the house over the average player that almost all 
casinos offer it. The lack of this rule to the advanced player is 
about a 0.1 percent disadvantage. 

The program Blackjaq is an excellent program which 
should be bought by all players who plan to go to a casino or 
who wish to know how we "counters" work our game. 

(Federal Hill Software, 825 William Street, Baltimore, MD 
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Computer, write for a free catalog. 

ALL PROGRAMS ARE FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER OR TDP-lOO WITH A 
MINIMUM OF 1* K OF MEMORY AND EXTENDED BASIC. 

SEND CHECK, MONEY ORDER 

OR PURCHASE ORDER TO: CREATIVE TECHNICAL CONSULTANTS 



P.O. Box 652 Cedar Crest, N M 87008 



Software Revlew^^^^^^^^^^^^Sfci 

C.C. Dialer — Reach Out 
And Touch Someone 

If there is any justice, there is a special place in heaven for 
those who have served as Telephone Chairman. 

For those fortunate enough not to have served in this 
capacity, a Telephone Chairman (or Chairperson if you 
prefer) is the unlucky "volunteer" who has the responsibility 
to call everyone on the team, club, committee, etc., to 
remind them of the group's next activity and what and who 
to bring. 

I've had this position of honor with Indian Guides, school 
groups and, of course, The Team. The next time Tm so 
bestowed, I'm prepared, because I now have C.C. Dialer. 
C.C. Dialer turns your 16K Extended basic 80C into the 
equivalent of an automatic dialer. It does this by generating 
telephone touch tones through your television speaker. 

The program allows you to create a telephone directory of 
up to 126 names and numbers. This directory is then saved 
on tape and reloaded when you wish to use the "dialer." 
After loading the program, the first screen to appear is the 
Main Menu. At this point you have the choice of manually 
dialing a number using the numerical keys, or recalling the 
directory. The directory is really the useful part of the pro- 
gram. When called up with a single key command, 14 pre- 
viously saved names and numbers appear for each page with 
up to nine pages per directory (126 names). Pages are 
changed using the left and right arrow keys; individual 
namesand numbers on the page are chosen using the up and 
down arrows. When the desired listing is found, hitting 
[ENTER] "dials" the number. 

What actually occurs is the TV speaker "beeps" and 
"boops" the same tones which would be generated by push- 
ing the touch tone buttons for the chosen number. 

To "acoustically couple" the 80Cs tones to the outgoing 
line, you simply hold the telephone mouthpiece up to the TV 
speaker. Crude, but it works! 

Chris Computers uses the CoCo's digital-to-analog con- 



verter to replicate the dual tones used by Ma Bell when a 
touch tone number is pushed. When the tones generated by 
the TV speaker are received by the phone company's equip- 
ment, the call is placed. 

Because it uses tones, C.C. Dialer is compatible with the 
non-Bell long distance companies such as MCI and SPRINT. 
To use it for these services, one directory line is used to dial 
the access number. You then wait for the access tone, use 
another directory line for your access code, and a third line 
for the number being called. Actually, it's easier said than 
done. 

The length of the tone is adjustable; I needed a longer tone 
when using C.C. Dialer with MCI. When stored as part of a 
telephone number, pauses can be inserted between digits. A 
"9" is often used in a business system to access an outside 
line. Using pauses, a stored number will "wait" for the 
outside dial tone and then continue to dial the number. 

Any name or number in the directory can be changed at 
any time. The only enhancement I would like to see in the 
directory would be the ability to insert a number into an 
existing list and sort the directory either by Alpha names or 
numbers. However, it is easy to use as is. 

For those of you with devious minds, no, C. C. Dialer does 
not generate "Blue Box" signal tones which allow pirating of 
long distance time. And since it does not connect to the 
telephone lines, no FCC registration is necessary. C. C. Dialer 
is also available on disk, with telephone number files stored 
on the disk for rapid access. 

If you do a lot of calling to a lot of people at one time, 
C. C. Dialer will be of use to you, but if all you do is place a 
few calls at a time, you'd be better off letting your fingers do 
the dialing. C.C. Dialer won't replace my telephone dialer at 
work, because I don't do a lot of consecutive dialing, but it 
will be very useful when I'm leaving messages for those lists 
of people when I'm Telephone Chairman. 

(Chris Computers, 6299 Alderwood Lane, Delta, B.C., Can- 
ada V4E 3E7, disk $34.95, tape $29.95. User's telephone 
system needs Touch Tone compatibility) 

—Bruce Rothermel 





RAINBOW 



Tm a wizardly hero!" 

Who writes kids games anyway? 

You'll find the handiwork of an entire elementary school in Rainbow's Corner 
. . . 450 five to eleven-year-olds spent hundreds of hours playing with and suggesting 
improvements on Rainbow's five learning games and two math utilities. 

The result: Games naturally stimulating and fun for kids. 

Educational specialists watched over the development of Rainbow's Corner. Each activity is 
educationally sound, easy to play, and challenging. 

The result Games that encourage learning and creativity. 

ForTRS-60 Color Computer, 16K, Extended Basic, cassette tape. 
Send your check or money order for $19.95 today. Money back guarantee. California residents add $1.20 (6% sales tax). 
Rainbow's Corner 2901 Mlrante Ct, Richmond, CA 94803 



254 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Software Revlew^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

A Serious Applications 
Program For Cassette 

Label ]]](V. 1 . 1 .) is a cassette-based program to generate 
mailing labels (or lists). A Color Computer with Extended 
BASIC is required. A 16K computer (the absolute minimum 
required by this program) will accomodate up to 50 records 
(a record comprises a first name, last name, address, city and 
state, ZIP code, and optional phone number); a 32K compu- 
ter (recommended by the producer, Owl's Nest Software) 
will accomodate up to 200 records. 

1 am, by profession, a technical writer. So I .naturally 
looked first at the instructions supplied with Label III. The 
five pages of instructions fully describe the program and 
detail operating procedures. Even a carefully-written proce- 
dure to produce a backup copy of the program (complicated 
somewhat because the program uses both machine language 
and BASIC instruction) is included. My only dissatisfaction 
with the instructions is that they lack an introductory sec- 
tion — an overview — describing briefly and nontechnically 
the program, memory requirements, and tape format. (Both 
the functional program and a nonfunctional source copy to 
facilitate program modification are furnished.) Note, how- 
ever, that this information is included — it's just not organ- 
ized as well as it might have been. 

Now to describe the program. The program is comprised 
of a machine language "loader" to allow automatic program 
execution, a lengthy BASIC program, and a fast language 
subroutine that allows sorting on a maximum of three of the 
six fields in each record. The program is, to quote Owl's Nest 
Software, "error trapped. . . and prompting is very exten- 
sive." I agree. The program led me through every procedure 
(these are explained in the following paragraphs) without 
requiring a single reference to the instructions. 

As I mentioned in the first paragraph, this program 
accomodates up to 200 records (50 if using a 1 6K machine), 
and each record consists of six fields: 

1 . First name 

2. Last name 

3. Address 

4. City and state 

5. ZIP code 

6. Phone number (optional) 

After typing "CLOADM ," the program automatically 
starts. The resulting menu offers eight procedures: 

1. Input names 

2. Delete names clear memory 

3. Locate names 

4. Save records to tape 

5. Load records from tape 

6. List records on the screen 

7. Print labels 

8. Sort records 

Input Names. If I select this procedure, 1 am asked if 1 
wish to enter phone numbers in addition to names and 
addresses (1 can omit the phone numbers later if I wish when 
using the print procedure). I am then asked for the data for 
each field (1 use upper- and lowercase characters for best 



appearance). After the first address line, 1 can select an extra 
line to accomodate four-line addresses. After completing the 
record, the entire record is printed on the screen and a 
second menu gives me the options to continue to the next 
recored, to modify the one just entered, or to return to the 
main menu. 

Delete Names/ Clear Memory. This procedure allows me 
to delete a single record, or all records. If I choose the latter 
(to clear memory), the computer "beeps" and asks me to 
either verify my instruction or to return to the main menu. 

Locate Names. This procedure allows me to go directly to 
a particular record without viewing the entire file. Again, a 
second menu gives me the choices to continue searching, to 
modify the located record, or to return to the main menu. 

Save to Tape. This procedure allows me to name my 
record file, then save it to cassette. It automatically saves the 
file twice, creating a backup file to prevent the loss of data 
due to a tape defect. After saving the file twice, 1 can verify 
the recorded file or return to the main menu. 

Load from Tape. This procedure loads the file whose 
name I specify from cassette and concludes with the main 
menu. 

List to Screen. This procedure lists all file records — one 
record at a time — on the screen using my choice of five 
speeds. After listing the last record, I again get the main 
menu. 

Print Labels. This procedure allows me to print my file 
either on labels or as a list on standard paper. I can print one, 
two, or three labels per line, and 1 can select how many sets 1 
wish. 

Sort. This procedure allows me to sort a file on one, two, 
or three fields — last name, ZIP code, and/ or first name. 
This procedure utilizes a machine language subroutine and 
is really fast. Owl's Nest Software states that this subroutine 
will sort 200 records on a single field in less than three 
seconds, or on three fields in less than 1 8 seconds. When the 
sort is completed, 1 am given the main menu. 

As you probably suspect, I was very impressed with this 
program. It is extremely easy to useand the instructions are 
complete. The program was carefully designed, as evidenced 
by the extensive use of prompts and menus and its error 
trapping. In these days when so much emphasis is given to 
disk drives and disk-based software, it is refreshing to find a 
serious applications program written for a cassette-based 
system. 

(Owl's Nest Software, P.O. Box 579, Ooltewah, TN 37363, 
cassette, $19.95) 

—Jerry Oefelein 



' 64K for $99! 

We will convert your Radio Shack Color Computer to a full 64K for only 
S99.00 plus shipping. (Compare this with RS price of $ 1 49 + $30 labor 
for 32K upgrade.) Board models D. E and F — No matter what ROM you 
have — Typically 24 hour turnaround — Includes hardware modification 
to access the entire 64K. with special softwareand instructions on useof 
the upper 32K. Pack your computer well Include cashiers check, money 
order, or personal check (allow 2 weeks for personal checks) for $ 1 04 00 
($99.00 + $5.00 shipping) to PYRAM ID. You may also pay by Mastercard 
or return COD. We will treat your computer tenderly and rush it back to 
you. 

^ PYRAMID - 527 Hill St. - Santa Monica , CA • 9Q4 Q5 • (213) 399-2222 ^ 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 255 



Software Review! 



Line Cross Referencer 
A Lot Of Program For The Price 



Utilities, utilities. 1 love utilities! 1 was quite pleased to 
receive a utility as my first software review from the Rain- 
bow. This one is named LN XREFR (Line Cross Reference) 
and is published by Micrologic. And they pack a lot of 
programming into a program that costs only $7.95 (U.S.)! 

LNXREFR is one of many utilities for the Color Compu- 
ter (Extended or disk versions) put out by Micrologic. 
Among its features, it provides a sorted listing of all refer- 
enced line numbers from all occurrences of THEN, ELSE, 
GOTO. GOSUB, and RUN. It also allows for optional 
printer output and includes an optional REMark remover, 
which removes all unreferenced REMs and comments, and 
will remove the whole line number if it is only a REM. If a 
REM is referenced, it will remove all the comments. 

LNXREFR also has a line protect feature, which allows 
you to protect up to 10 lines from being removed. One item 
of note here. 1 had saved a program in ASCII (which all 
programs used by LNX REFR have to be) which contained 
REMs in line numbers 0 through 6. The program did not 
touch line number 0. It was left intact. Well, perhaps every- 
thing should start at line number 1 , but this was not menti- 
oned in the instructions. 



Chattanooga Choo Choo Software 

Your One Stop Station 
For Computer Programs 




Buy 1 Program Get 70% Off 
Buy 2 or more Programs Get 75% Off 



VtSA 



Spectral Associates 

Ms Gobbler (32K) 
Storm Arrow 
Lancer (32K) 
Gallax Attax 
Lunar Rover (32K) 
$24.95 ea. 



Except Prickly-Pear Software 

Datasoft, Inc. 



Tom Mix Software 

■Donkey King (32K) 
Katerpillar Attack 
$26.95 
Space Shuttle (32K) 
$28.95 



Ghosl Gobbler $22.95 Trap Fall. Frog Jjff 
Whtrly Bird Run $24.95 Grabber (32K) ~ 
Buzzard Bait (32K) 
Anteco Software ^Cu'ber (32K) 
$27.95 ea. 



Zaxxon (32K) $39.95 

(Tape or disk) 
Moon Shuttle $29.95 

(Tape & disk) 
Pooyan(32K) $29.95 
^ (Tape & disk) 



Intergalactic Fence 
Pinball. 8 Ball 



Mark Data Products 

"Glaxxons. "Bumpers, 
El Bandito& 'Cosmic Clones 
$24.95 ea. 



(Available in Rom Pac) 
$29.95 ea. 

, Computerware 

Moon Hopper (32K) 
$24.95 
Junior's Revenge (32K) 
$28.95 
Bloc Head $26.95 



Kraft Joystick 
The Best 
$49.95 ea. 



Prickley-Pear Software 
15% OFF 
Omni Clone-S3fc^""$33.95 
"Vikings. "Flight (32K). Jungle 
^iMKSS* $16.95ea 

Adventure Int'l 
Sea Dragon (32K) $34.95 
Fire Copter (16K) $24.95 



'Also available on disk (32K) at extra charge 
All programs 16K on cassette unless olherwise stated. Send for free 
complele listing'WE pay postage.YOU save money! (m the U.S. and 
Canada). TN residents add 6 .25% sales lax. COD orders add $2.00 



(615) 875-8656 • P.O. Box 15892 • Chattanooga, Tn 37415 




The instructions are well-written and take you through 
everything step by step. They include a section on problems 
and customizing. 

One item I had to fix (because 1 have disk drives) was the 
high-speed pokes. The instructions were very specific. They 
led me to all the places and showed me all the changes that 
had to be made. They even show you how to increase the 
number of lines that can be processed by the program and 
how to recover from an error while running LNX REFR. An 
error can occur if there is not enough cleared space set aside, 
the DIMmed variable is not set high enough for your pro- 
gram, or there is a syntax error in the target program. 

Among the plusses for this program, it is user-friendly, 
with audio used when necessary. The instructions are ade- 
quate. The program checks if a disk system is being used and 
modifies itself accordingly, using different prompts and 
messages. The program tells you at the end of its list of 
referenced lines how many total bytes (non-ASCII) and how 
many total lines in the program. A nice little added touch. 

The print routine allows for a margin to be set for each 
printed line. 1 have used another one of their products called 
LLSTFM (LLIST Formatter). The print routines in this 
program were much more extensive. One feature LLSTFM 
had which is missing in LNXREFRlsa user-selectable Baud 
rate. It was very disappointing to run through the program 
and try to print out the results only to realize that it was still 
sending out information at 600 Baud while my printer (the 
DMP-200) was set for 1200 Baud. So before you run the 
program, type POKE 150,41 to put your system into 1200 
Baud and everything should be okay (600 Baud users need 
not worry about this). 

One more note. Since the program is written in BASIC, 
modifying it to suit your needs or fix something as described 
earlier shouldn't pose too much of a problem. Just remem- 
ber, as menioned in the instructions, since the program uses 
an ML routine built into it at the end of the BASIC program 
to d isable the [BR E AK] and [SH 1 FT][@], never save a copy 
of the program for running purposes in ASCII format, for 
this will eliminate the ML code. 

Micrologic is putting out some good software values, 
especially considering the price. 1 use LLSTFM every time 1 
list a program on the printer, and although 1 don't use a 
cross-reference program as often, I'm sure you will liken to 
Micrologic's LNXREFR. 



(Micrologic, Box 193, First Ave., East Brady, PA 
(412) 526-5781, $7.95 on tape) 



6028, 



— Eldon Doucet 




FLORIDA 
SEARCH NO LONGER! 

The Software Connection of 

Fort Lauderdale is your one stop source 
for your Color Computer Software, 
Peripherals, Books, Magazines & Repairs 





CD 


\ THE SOFTWARE 
] GMECTDN, MC. 


r_ Z < 5460 No. State Rd. 7. Suite 108 

Affldfigg^ Fort Lauderdale, (under the Loft Restaurant) 
1 *_ (305) 484-7547 



256 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Software Revlewi 



7f7?\ 



ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P O. Box 16842 — S<a B 
Greenville* S«u(h Carolina 29646 
(803) 233-2700 

PRESENTS 




COLOR-STICK 

The ORIGINAL interface for 

V rheTR5-60* 
Color Compurer ro let 
you use rhe famous: 

ATARI* JOYSTICK' 



Just plug your Atari or Atari like 
joystick (the Color-Stick enables the 
use of most joysticks made for the 
Atari) into the Color-Stick interface 
and then plug the Color-Stick into an 
empty joystick port. 

The Color-Stick can improve 
scores 50% and more while making 
some games more exciting and fun to 
play. 

Don't settle for cheap imitations. 
Only the ORIGINAL Color-Stick's 
small inline design allows you to just 
piug your joystick into it and forget it. 
The Color-Stick becomes a part of 
your joystick so it does not interfere 
with your game playing. In addition 
Color-Stick returns a full value of '63* 
for the right and down directions, 
even when using two joysticks and 
even in the diagonal directions, the 
others don't. 

NOW Color-Stick has a 
new low price 

Color-Stick interface $10.95 each 

two for $19.95 (less joysticks) 
Atari joysticks $9.95 each 



ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P.O. Box 16842 Sta. B 
Greenville, South Carolina 29606 
(803) 233-2700 

Don't miss out order the 
ORIGINAL. Send your check or 
money order or better yet call 
today and order your Color-Stick. 



# ^ 

Add $2 00 ]wr order shipping and handling. Bank cards 
welcomed (pieaw imlude expiration date). Orders paid 
by (. ashiers check, rrumey orders, bank cards and 
C OD. are shipped within 48 hours Persona! checks 
please allow \ 2 vfteks COD tf^tfladd % 1 50 extra. 
S.C. residents add 4'^ sales tax. *TRS-80 is a registered 
trademark ol Tandy Corp. Atari is a registered 
irademjrk ol Atari, lne 



Pigskin Predictions 
Passes With Dazzling Effects 



Predicting the future is rarely an 
exact science. More often than not, 
crystal balls, intuition and pure guess- 
work are involved. Not so with Pigskin 
Predictions. This menu-driven, multi- 
faceted program rivals the flexibility of 
the object of its machinations — the 
National Football League (NFL). While 
some people will no doubt see in this 
program an opportunity to increase 
their odds of winning illegal bets, the 
program is an excellent analytical tool 
for those who suffer from an affliction 
described by many football widows 
(and, increasingly, widowers) as NFL 
mania. Rainbow Connection Software 
even includes a disclaimer that the pro- 
gram is designed "for your entertain- 
ment and reference only," and predicts 
that its use will make you as good as 
most experts and better than most ama- 
teurs at predicting the outcome of NFL 
games. 

The disk version requires 32K Extend- 
ed BASIC while the tape version includes 
both I6K and 32K Extended BASIC pro- 
grams and a data tape for updating 
scores. The 32K "enhanced" version 
features Rainbow- Writer screen dis- 
plays. This screen utility program has 
been cleverly used to create very attrac- 
tive screen displays mixing several 
colors, character sets, true descenders 
and other tricks in a 64-column format. 

You begin by loading the 1983 sche- 
dule and initial ratings. Thedocumenta- 
tion informs you that it will take you 
from one to two hours to input the cur- 
rent season schedule and last year's final 
standings. But this tedious task has been 
done for you on both the disk and tape 
versions. You just select "Load Data" 
from the main menu, "Load Data" from 
the submenu, and then enter zero as the 
week desired. This data is included on 
the program tape right after the pro- 
gram (to protect it from accidental era- 
sure). If the season has already begun 
when you buy the program, just update 
it with the scores of all games played to 
date and you are up to date. Updating of 
scores is done any time after the Mon- 
day night game and takes only about 10 
minutes. Updating is a very sensitive 
process because a mistake means that its 
effect will be reflected in every subse- 
quent week's results. So check your 
work very carefully. 

The real power of this program is its 
ability to generate seven printed reports 
that provide you with all the data any 
NFL nut could possibly expect from a 



prediction program. Any printer that 
will handle more than 72 columns will 
do (this includes Model 33 teletypes). In 
the 32K version, double wide characters 
are used to emphasize headings and 
other facts (assuming your printer can 
handle this). If a printout is desired, just 
follow your menu selection number 
with a "P" and everything that goes to 
the screen alsogoesto the printer. Print- 
outs are available for: 

1) schedule by week, 

2) schedule by team, 

3) ratings by week, 

4) ratings by team, 

5) predictions and results by week, 

6) predictions and results by team, 
and 

7) division races by week. 

The predictive variables include the 
home field advantage (number of points 
scored at home compared to number 
scored on the road) and a "power rat- 
ing" (points scored vs. points allowed 
against an "average" team). The pre- 
dicted point spread is the result of three 
calculations: L the home field advan- 
tage is added to the power rating of the 
team, 2. the home field advantage is 
subtracted from the power rating of the 
visiting team, and 3. the difference is the 
point spread. The point spread is then 
shown next to the favored team on the 
"Predictions and Results" printouts. If 
the game has been played, the actual 
score is displayed and a "C" is indicated 
for each score that came within the pre- 
dicted point spread. While 1 obviously 
haven't used the program for an entire 
season, the documentation includes 
samples for the 1981 season that indi- 
cate after the eighth week (Oct. 25) the 
program predicted 57 percent of the 
weekly games correctly and was batting 
(passing?) 61.4 percent for the season. 

Pigskin Predictions isagoodexam- 
ple of the dazzling effects that can be 
achieved by combining a good utility 
program with a good application pro- 
gram. The use of byte-mapped memory 
for data storage runs circles around 
array and string storage in terms of 
memory conservation and processing 
speed. The program should prove to be 
a boon to those who are interested in 
predicitng the outcome of NFL games. 

(Rainbow Connection Software, 3514 
6th Place NW, Rochester, MN 55901, 
$29.95 tape, $32.95 disk) 

—A. Buddy Hogan 



258 



the RAINBOW November 1983 



Hardware Review 

Grand Slam: 
Bam, More RAM 

By Jim Reed 

I keep thinking, "This is like a birthing." I don't know 
why; I've never been near a birthing. Yet, there is this keyed 
up feeling, as if something very irreversible is about to 
happen. 

The kitchen is crowded with people eating, drinking, talk- 
ing. There is an undeniable electric charge of excitement in 
the air. That, too, is a bit hard to fathom since we are hardly 
breaking new ground or exploring a new realm. But I feel it, 
nonetheless, even though the focus of all the attention is 
nothing more than a 32 to 64K upgrade. And a simple "F" 
board modification at that. 

So, what is all the fuss? 1 mean, I've seen "F" board 
upgrades done in hallways between meetings. Well, this is 
my "F" board, my TDP- 100 and my new 64K chips, and / 
am going to do it, or be laughed out of town in the process. 
Somehow, I have become the only CoCo owner 1 know who 
doesn't have64K, and it is high time 1 got with it. 

You see, I'd been waiting around, for the most part satis- 
fied with 32K in my personal computer, to see what Radio 
Shack was going to unveil in the way of its 64K CoCo. My 
theory was I'd grab one of the new models and be the envy of 
my block. Well, once I saw the new 64K, 1 liked it, but 1 
didn't fall head over heels in love. 



As a matter of fact, 1 sort of like the so-called "Chicklet" 
keyboard — and my TDP is already in a handsome white 
case, with ventilation holes where they're needed. 1 use a 
typewriter keyboard more than many people and, quite 
frankly, 1 find the wobbly, square keys on the CoCo a 
welcome relief from the all-business keys on my high-priced, 
office typewriter. Besides, no one has explained to me yet 
what I'm supposed to do with Art Gallery, BASlC,4/d, Plati- 
num Worksaver and the handful of other software programs 
that use keyboard overlays. So, upgrade, here we come. 

1 called DSL Computer Products on Wednesday. Two 
days later, on Friday afternoon, the UPS man delivered my 
Grand Slam. If my being managing editor of the Rainbow 
influenced the delivery schedule, well, so much the better. 
We all need our perks, don't we. 

Friday evening, the main event. Representatives of Spring- 
board Computing and Megahard are on hand; which is to 
say Charlie and Dr. Doom are there to hold my hand. Jenni 
occasionally peeks into the kitchen where my TDP is the 
centerpiece of the table. Dorris goes out for pizza. Yessir, 
this is a full-fledged event. 

On opening the package, the chips are passed around for 
inspection. Charlie and Doom, both veterans of at least one 
upgrade each, nod their approval. Then, a kibitzer who shall 
go unnamed announces that these a re "good chips," a decla- 
ration that appears to be based solely on an eyeball evalua- 
tion. I decide this means that they made it intact from 
Dearborn without getting run over by a truck. More reassur- 
ing to me is the 1 1-page instruction manual, complete with 
seven illustrations. Give me the printed word and a few 
pictures and I'll do brain surgery on my electronic brain, 
that is. 

Armed with a screwdriver to fend off overeager helping 
hands that keep finding their way inside my CoCo, 1 lay the 
instruction booklet aside, to be consulted only if I run 
aground. By now, Charlie and Dr. Doom have each found a 
screwdriver. Doom had brought his from home, a magnetic 
one that proves to be very useful. Reportedly, DSL has an 
installation tool kit, but since they didn't get the required 
(but refundable) $15 tool deposit, 1 didn't get to use their 
toolkit. No matter. A screwdriver is about all 1 need; the 
Grand Slam is a solderless kit. 

The trough around the wick of a very wide candle is used 
to store the seven screws that hold the top cover on. Charlie 
removes a screw. Doom removes two screws. 1 get to do one 
all by myself. Doom announces that the two shorter screws 
are for the holes in the front, and sneers when 1 suggest that 
maybe I already knew that. 

There is nothing to removing the RF shield, except that 
my hands are too big to reach under the motherboard and 
bend open the tabs. 1 grab the screwdriver, but the consensus 
is that someone with smaller hands should take over since I 
would surely manage to screw up, left to my own devices. I 
am allowed to read the instructions while Charlie deftly 
bends the tabs. The instruction book even tells the order in 
which to straighten out the tabs. Nothing to it, really. 1 truly 
believe most anyone, experienced or not, could install the 
Grand Slam without a hitch. Still, it is comforting to have a 
couple of know-it-alls sitting there tellingyou which hand to 
hold the screwdriver in. 

Since 1 don't have the "chip extractor" that comes in the 
official DSL $15 refundable deposittoolkit, 1 usethescrew- 
driver to pry loose the old RAM chips: 16 chips, two in each 
of the eight sockets since 1 had a "piggyback" 32K conver- 
sion. These come out as a unit, the jumper wires holding 



MORE-BEEF 

A beef. feed ration system. Select the 
lowest cost nutritionally adequate feed 
rations for your cattle. 




Tailor the solution to your own feeding 
objectives. Use feed qualities and prices 
appropriate to your own area. 16K EXB 
Disk Compatible $49.95. 

Another useful product from: 
MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay Laboratory 

316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA, 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

California Residents, Add 6% Sales Tax to Orders 




260 th« RAINBOW November 1 983 



them firmly together. They now reside in one of my 50 or so 
"junk d ra wers,"just in case I might need them in the middle 
of the night. 

Removing the new64K RAM chipsoneata time from the 
foam padding they were shipped in, 1 insert each one in a 
socket, mindful that our technical editor has called me for 
no other purpose than to caution me to "keep the notches 
lined up." The instructions are also explicit on this subject, 
"The white dots on the chips should point toward the rear of 
the computer." A piece of cake. I even develop a noteworthy 
technique of lining the pins up on one side of the socket and 
then raking my fingernail against the other pins to seat them 
in sort of a sweeping motion. 

Trouble! Three jumpers have to be moved from the 16K 
position to the 64K position and a fourth jumper (supplied 
in the Grand Slam kit) dropped in. Ordinarily, this is a 
simple push-pull operation, requiring maybe 30 seconds to 
do all l our. Trouble is, one of the pins has some extra solder 
on it and the jumper won't slide into place. 1 decide to 
remove the solder and a chilling chatter fills what had 
become a hushed room. Everybody has his or her own idea 
of what 1 am going to burn out or blow up with the soldering 
iron. 

Panic sets in among the unfaithful when 1 elect to skip the 
soldering iron and instead heat up the screwdriver over the 
gas range in order to remove the little drop of solder. What 
should be a 15-second chore takes me about two dozen 
passes between the gas range and the computer, each pass 
punctuated with such helpful advice as "Careful now," and 
"Maybe you'd better bare wirejump it," or "You're going to 
catch something on fire." Finally, enough solder is burned 
off to permit the jumper to grudgingly slide into place. A 
sigh of relief is had by all. 



The most tedious part is removing the eight capacitors. 
You see, 1 have needlenose pliers and 1 also have cutters, but 
1 don't have needlenose cutters like those in DSL's toolkit. 
Regular cutters make do — with a little bit of force. While 1 
point out to all gathered that the instructions plainly say that 
you need only clip one side of the capacitors and simply 
leave them in place, the assembled advisory staff concludes 
that total removal will "be much cleaner." It takes about 20 
more minutes, given the clumsy tools 1 have to work with. 

If I had that to do over, I'd most certainly leave the 
capacitors in place. Personally, 1 think that gives a cleaner 
appearance plus, you don't have to turn thecomputer upside 
down and shake it toget rid of all the tiny pieces. Also, as the 
instructions wisely suggest, if you happen to cut the wrong 
capacitors — admittedly unlikely — with only one end cut, it 
would be a simple job to repair. 

Almost done. Before replacing the cover, we power up 
and, sure enough, the machine still works. 1 guess they are 
"good chips" after all. Did anyone ever doubt it? 

A successful birthing! My baby now has 64K. The Grand 
Slam from DSL works, even when installed by a committee. 
Someone notes the time; with timeout for pizza, and a 
running tutorial from Dr. Doom during time-in, we have 
completed the job in less time than it takes to watch "Roots." 
It is noted that everyone present has personally witnessed 
someone else do the entire upgrade in less than seven min- 
utes, ... in a subway, . . . going through a tunnel, ... on an 
"E" board. 1 am unimpressed and totally happy. After all, 
when youVe having fun, why rush? 

(DSL Computer Products, P.O. Box 1113, Dearborn, MI 
48121,575) 






J & M Systems, Ltd. is a leader in the Model III 
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thousands in operation, we have set new standards 
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November 1 963 the RAINBOW 261 



Software Revlew^^^^^^^^^^^^S^ 

Fundfile Is Not 
So Fundamental 

Fundfile is advertised by Parsons Software as a portfolio 
and account management program for funds and stocks 
using the Color Computer. Designed fordisk-based systems 
only, one can use it to keep track of up to 50 securities and up 
to 900 transactions on a single disk. Written in open BASIC, 
it requires a minimum of 1 6K and a single drive. A printer is 
highly desirable for finished reports, although the program 
does generate screen reports as well. 

The Fundfile package consists of the following four pro- 
grams and some demonstration files on a write-protected 
diskette: 

• Fundfile, the main program, is used to access any of the 
other three programs, although they may be loaded in 
directly. 

• Fund-Rec is the data entry and direct access storage 
routine. 

• Fund-Scr permits formatted screen callup of specific or 
all reports. 

• Fund-Rpt delivers hardcopy printouts. (According to 
the accompanying literature, Radio Shack's LP Vll, 
DMP-100, or equivalent is required. Actually, 1 believe 
that any CoCo compatible printer will do because there 
are no special printer format requirements.) 

First, the good news: the program works. 1 must admit 
that 1 had some reservations about my ability to get it to do 
so. You see, Pm one of those people who still thinks that 
money is safest under the mattress. So 1 couldn't come up 
with a lot of "empirical data" to apply to this. In other 
words, 1 just don't happen to have a portfolio of stocks 
and/or funds lying around. In fact, 1 don't have a portfolio 
of anything lying around! So, for several days 1 just played 
with the demonstration data, changing values and playing 
big-time stock market financial mogul. 1 suppose 1 really 
didn't mind getting rich and suddenly poor using only elec- 
tric money, but what's caution anyway except a virtue of the 
poor. 

(Referring to Parsons Software advertising in this and 
other magazines, I discovered that Fundfile has a counter- 
part program called Fundgrmf which is designed to make 
investment and divestment decisions for you — at a higher 
price!) 

We're finally used to CoCo programs that work by now. 
So let's be critical and talk about those things which make 
Fundfile stand out for a moment. You get what the ad 



dalSoft,* 

shopping list noisy printer? 

f, Mrr.1 DRIVE* PROGKA'1 TO ASSIST MAKE YOUR OWN ACOUSTIC ENCLOSURE 

:n the preparation A grocery using some scraps of flywood or 

Sti~?::*!Z lis:. fc^d :?ek ARE PANELING AND A50UT $ 10 WORTH CP 
PRT\':E3 by category ON 7KE screen purchased materials, performs the 

THE USSR THE DESTRED ITEM SA«1E 5ASTC FUNCTION AS COMMERCIAL 

Nl*5E:*3 AND 'THEN CALIo UP OTHER ENCLOSURES COSTING $1*00 OR MORE. 

CA7 SERIES. A^TER SELECTING ALL COMPLETE PLANS AND A MATERIALS 

I IT.v., ,THL LIST IS FRTM'JL BY TYP- LIST ASH. PROVIDED ALONG WITH STEP 

IC.'iL AISLE GROUPINGS. 3Y STEP INSTRUCTIONS. DIMENSIONS 

K BASIC LANGUAGE FROGKAY, , EASILY ARE PROVIDED FOR VARIOUS SIZE 

TAILORED TO YOUR PREFERENCES. PRINTERS INCLUDING THE LP-VII AND 

I 2b FOOD CATEGORIES 258 ITEMS ^"^0. 

REQUIRED : 16K CoCo WITH PRINTER COMPLETE PLANS AND DIRECTIONS -$5 
CASSETTE - $ ij 

S£NQ PERSt&l-L CHECK CR HOHEY ORDER TO: DAI.-3CFT , BOX 751, WEST MONROE 
KEd YORK 1316 7 . NEW Y 0? tv RE5ID3NT5 e .DD k$> STATE SALES TAX. 



promises: selected and general stylized screen and printer 
reports of asset value, realized and unrealized capital gains, 
dividend payments, sales and transactions. 

"Okay, Mister Reviewer, now really tell me about it. Let 
me know about the documentation and whether I could use 
the program as soon as 1 rip open the package, and all that 
stuff. In short, should 1 buy it?" 

Well, since you asked, 1 will. Parsons Software, at least in 
its marketing of this package, seems to fall into that group of 
software houses or vendors who haven't been getting the 
complete word. That word is even if you come up with the 
most dynamic software yet conceived, skimp on the docu- 
mentation and you're in trouble. Why so much critical atten- 
tion to documentation by reviewers? Because, without clear, 
logically arranged and precise instructions, the end-user 
(you) will have trouble implementing the complete package. 
Unless the program itself is self-documenting, well-laid-out 
how-to instructions are just as important as the program 
itself. 

Fundfile '$ "documentation" consists of 1 1 front and back 
pages of typewritten material stapled in the upper lefthand 
corner. Three of those pages provide sample printed hard- 
copy reports. There is no index or table of contents. It is 
broken down into the following sections: 
r. Equipment Requirements 
EL General Directions and Descriptions 

III. Demonstration of the Fundfile (c) Programs with 
the Sample Data 

IV. How to Start Your Own Account. 

Those are not broken down any further. The meat of the 
literature must be considered sections 111 and IV, yet they 
are the most disorganized. Section 111, for example, tells you 
how to run the demo files using all four programs. The 
author uses 80 lines of type in one paragraph forinstructions 
before taking a breath and starting a new paragraph! In the 
meantime, however, it seems like 1 got lost dozens of times. J 
tried using a finger to keep my place, but that proved fruit- 
less and inconvenient. And that's just one example of the 
effects of "afterthought documentation." 

Everything is cramped and hard to visually follow. 
Unprofessional. Too bad. And too bad for us, too. 

Some of this same lack of attention to detail is seen in the 
program's screen text formatting. 1 couldn't gain an appre- 
ciation for the obvious lack of symmetrical centering and 
spacing. The same applies to the hardcopy printouts, but to 
a less degree. 

In short, it's attention to detail and making product use a 
breeze for the user that makes the difference between a good 
piece of software and an otherwise great product. 

This was my first exposure to Parsons Software, there- 
fore, 1 can consider myself completely unbiased and objec- 
tive as a reviewer. 1 was inclined to think that maybe 1 had 
received a premarkct package. But 1 discovered that they 
have been advertising Fundfile since at least the May June 
issue of Rainbow. Hopefully, they'll take this opportunity to 
rework the "documentation. "Otherwise, on a scale of one to 
10, 1 give them an overall rating of five. 

Therefore, to finally answer your last, and perhaps most 
pressing question, to buy or not to buy is your decision 
alone. 1 wouldn't until the entire package is cleaned up. At 
today's prices, what's $30 for a specialized program? You 
answer that one. 

(Parsons Software, Dept. A, 118 Woodshire Drive, Par- 

kersburg, WV 26101, disk only $27.95+ $2 s& h) 

—Ed Lowe 



262 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Software Review* 



An 'Interesting' 
Financial Program 



That's INTERESTing is a clever title of a progam from 
Custom Software Engineering, Inc., that handles several 
varieties of interest calculations: amortization tables, bond 
yield, present value and rate of return. 

The opportunity to review a program that figures loan 
amortizations could not have come at a better time, since my 
wife and 1 have just purchased a house and are now shop- 
ping for financing. The fixed rates being offered in our area 
are running between 12'/$ and 13 percent plus three to three 
and a half points, but we can get a five-year variable for 1 1 % 
percent plus two points. The only problem with the variable 
rate is that there's no limit on how high it can go after each 
five-year period. Am 1 willing to gamble that the high rates 
of the early '80s can never come back? 

The amortization portion of That's INTEREST-ing is 
very versatile. You can select any number of payments per 
year. You can input a number of payments or a number of 
years, and the program will tell you the amount of each 
payment. Or you can select the amount of the payment, and 
the program will tell you how many payments it will take to 
amortize the loan — or that the payment amount entered is 
not enough to amortize the loan at the interest rate specified. 

You can stop at any point along the way and change any 
of the values for the remaining balance — interest rate, 



amount of payment, amortization time, etc. Instead of equal 
payments, you can specify a constant amount to be applied 
to principal. 

We fed in a variety of numbers— different rates, different 
starting balances, 15- and 30-year amortizations — and came 
up with a surprise (to me) result: If we borrow $80,000 at 
eleven and three-fourths percent with a 15-year amortiza- 
tion, then sell our condominium within a few months and 
use the proceeds to pay down the mortgage, we could pay 
the whole thing off in five years before the rate changes. That 
makes the variable rate look like the best buy. 

For any portion of the schedule, you can print out each 
payment or request only yearly and cumulative totals. Spec- 
ifying a starting month is optional, but if you don't enter 
one, you won't get the year-to-date figures. 

In the bond yield portion of the program, for a bond that 
you are considering buying, you enter the current date, the 
current price of the bond expressed as a percentage of face 
value, the coupon rate, the maturity or call date, and the 
redemption price. The program will return the current yield 
to redemption, the latter expressed in both simple interest 
(annual rate) and compounded (effective annual rate) form. 

The present value program really should have been called 
present and future value, since you will frequently need to 
get past a "present value" which may be of limited use in 
order to get to a more useful "future value." The instructions 
include a very good example showing how much your dep- 
osits to a nest egg (such as an 1 R A) will be worth, and how 
this future value can be amortized. The program will tell you 
how many withdrawals of a specified amount you can make, 
or will give the amount for a specified number of withdra- 
wals. The only catch is, you will not get hard copy for these 



FILMASTR 

The Color Computer has a powerful ally in FILMASTR. This is a DATA 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM that you can trust. FILMASTR combines 
the best features of the big systems to provide a combination of 
speed, power, and ease of operation that can't be beat. 
YOU are in complete control of this friendly program with no program- 
ming knowledge required You design the data screen with up to 20 
fields by moving the cursor on screen with the arrow keys and typing 
in the field names. FILMASTR takes care of all of the rest. 
Enter data by just filling in the blanks. This form fill-in is easy and 
natural to use. You can even copy data from the previous record with 
one key-stroke Add records, delete records, change records without 
fuss. 

Tell FILMASTR to sort your file on any field that you want or to re- 
trieve a particular file and the job is done with super-human machine 
language speed FILMASTR will find a single file or a group of files that 
meet your request and will save those records as a separate file if you 
want to. 

Controlled printing formats 9 Of course! Tell FILMASTR which records 
to use. which fields to print and in what order. You can control the 
print location to any position on the page. Mailing labels 9 You bet' 
All commands are given to FILMASTR with single keystrokes Press 
the HELP key (BREAK), and the available commands are displayed 
Make your choice from the menu and let FILMASTR do the work. 
FILMASTR can store up to 255 characters in each record and up to 
24.000 characters in each file. (9000 with 16K) 



FILMASTR 



RAINBOW 

CtftTl'KATfOta 
SIAl 



16K or 32K 
EXT BASIC 



TAPE $29.95 
DISK $34.95 
AMDISK $39.95 

Add 52.00 Postage & Handling • CO D. $2.00 Additional 
PA Residents Add 6 D /a Tax 




THE 

COMPUTER 
HOUSE 

Box 1051 • DuBois, PA • 15801 
Phone (814) 371-4658 



264 the RAINBOW November 1983 



future value data unless you have first opted to print out a 
detailed computation of "net present value" whether you 
need it or not. 

Another example given deals with a prospective invest- 
ment in machinery. You enter your projected costs (outflow) 
and revenues (inflow) and your desired rate of return. A 
negative present value indicates that the investment does not 
meet your requirement. (A zero or positive present value 
would indicate that the proposed investment would equal or 
exceed your requirement.) 

The rate of return portion of the program could then be 
used to find out what the actual rate is. Inflow and outflow 
specifications can be retained and reused as needed in both 
the present value and rate of return calculations. 

If you want to find out the rate of return, that's really all 
the program should give you. But it doesn't stop there — it 
insists on giving you a net present value which should be 
zero, but often appears as a miniscule fraction expressed in 
scientific notation. A rounding subroutineshould havebeen 
included to prevent that. 

There is an undocumented bug in the amortization por- 
tion of the program. The instructions state: "If you did not 
want printer output, the schedule will be displayed on the 
screen in three columns. The output to the screen when each 
payment is displayed is intentionally slowed down to give 
you a chance to read it. If you want faster output, you may 
press the F on the keyboard. You may return to the slower 
rate by pressing any key other than F. If you did not request 
a full schedule, the program will give you the option of 
continuing after it finishes the amount of the schedule you 
did request. The program will produce totals at each stop- 
ping point." 



The problem is that if you want less than a full schedule, 
and you press the F to shift into fast mode, your chosen 
stopping point will sometimes be ignored and additional 
payments will scroll by until the loan is fully amortized. If 
that happens, and you then enter another loan and request 
printer output, the override remains in effect and a full 
schedule will be printed. Even breaking and running again 
seems to be no help. The only solution that seems to work is 
to enter another loan, select screen output, and shift back 
into the slower mode. 

The instructions, though generally clear and well-written, 
should have been better organized. The first two pages (of 
seven) claim to be general instructions, but almost all of 
page two is devoted to how to enter specifications f or pres- 
ent value or rate of return. Since none of the information is 
applicable to bond yield or amortization, it doesn't belong in 
a "general" section at all. 

There isa slightly confusing promptthat occurs when you 
select hard copy of an amortization schedule. It says, "SET 
PRINTER TO TOP OF PAGE." I took that to mean that 1 
should turn on the top-of-form switch on my Smith- 
Corona, but 1 found out by experimentation thatsuch is not 
the case. In printing a multi-page schedule, the program 
employs a line-counting subroutine that automatically 
leaves a margin at the bottom of each page and the top of the 
next. With the top-of-form switch on, the second page 
started printing too far down on the paper. 

(Custom Software Engineering, Inc., 807 Minutemen Cause- 
way, Cocoa Beach, FL 32931, 16K ECB tape, $29.95 + $1 
S/H) 

—Neil Edward Parks 




112 W. WISCONSIN AV. 
KAUKAUNA, Wl 54130 
(414) 766-1851 
STOCK ITEMS SHIPPED SAME DAY! 



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THE POWER BEHINDTHE PRINTED WORD. 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 265 



Software Review! 



Super 'Color' Speller 
A Good Proofreader 



This is my first exposure to a "Speller" program. I don't 
know what I expected, but I would call the Super 'Color' 
Speller a proofreader. What it does, it does very well, typical 
of the quality of the company's Super "Color" Writer. 

Super "Color" Speller will read a text file from disk and 
compare the words enclosed by spaces with a dictionary list 
of approximately 20,000 words. Any words which do not 
match the dictionary list will be displayed individually for 
you to take further action. In 41 words or less, that is what 
the Super "Color "Speller does. Yes, you still need your own 
dictionary. 

The Speller is very easy for the first-time user. Program 
execution is well-prompted and the documentation is nearly 
exhaustive. 

Speller seemed to work as well with my Scriptsit files as 
with the SCW. It would not read my Telewriter-64 files but 
they were not saved with Telewriter's ASCII option. It 
appears that it will work with most ASCII files, although 
Softlaw does not advertise it to be universal. 

The program is sold to support the Super "Color" Writer, 
however, to use Speller, you must power down to get out of 



It's been a long time since the -first 
TransTek ad went into the Rainbow. It was 
issue Number 5 and there were a grand 
total of 18 pages and 3 advertisers 
(including us). If you haven't guessed by 
now, we're pulling out of the active mail 
order business. Our -first love was the 
R&D -for this machine that had no software 
but look through the Rainbow pages now. 
We're not leaving the business but we are 
leaving direct sales. Our R&D work with 
the CoCo, the TRS-BO Model 100 (see 
Fal soft's PCM magazine) and the Dragon are 
requiring all our time. 

In order to continue to support our cur — 
rent and future customers and dealers, we 
have asked Skyline Marketing to continue 
to support our production and sales. Your 
favorite dealer or Skyline Software will 
be able to fill your order for: 

C.C. Writer C.C.Mailer C.C.File C.C.Calc 

We will continue to provide technical 
support to our products just as we have in 
the past. It was nice to meet a lot of 
you by mail and many of you at the first 
RAINBOWf est. 

□ur thanks to you al 1 . 



IK 



the SCf^ program and then load Speller. It would be much 
more convenient to be able to call the Speller program from 
the command line of SCW, make the necessary correction, 
and then save your file. 

To use Super "Color" Speller, you first load the autostart 
program and then you are prompted to load a file f rom disk. 
After the text file is in memory, you are prompted to set one 
of two parameter selections. Your choice is to select any 
group of characters enclosed by a space or C/ R, or only 
words which are reasonable. Next, it will tell you the quan- 
tity of words in the file. The next prompt asks if you want to 
add any of the text words to the stock dictionary. This 
option requires another disk because the system is write- 
protected. This feature is "very nice," but the program is so 
easy to use, I don't think the extra disk handling is worth the 
effort. 

There is a slight pause to process the data and then you are 
into the main element of the program. The words which do 
not match the dictionary list are printed to the screen, one at 
a time while you select one of the operational features. 

With each word put up on the screen you may: 1) ignore 
the prompt and move to the next word, 2) mark this word 
incorrect, 3) mark all words, or 4) quit. Marking the word 
incorrect will lead you to two other options at the end of the 
file. You are prompted to write a new file with either the 
marked words or with corrected words. Either option is easy 
to use. 

If you choose to correct the words before writing a new 
file, each word is presented with a portion of ad jacent text so 
that you can determine how the word is used to be certain of 
the spelling. If you choose to write the file with the words 
marked (with three asterisks), you can quit and reload SCW, 
load the new file, then use the locate feature of SCW to find 
and correct the marked words. 

Other features of Super "Color "Speller include the ability 
to produce a completely custom dictionary, produce hard 
copy of the incorrect words and segment text files that are 
larger than available memory. Speller will perform a 
"memory sense" and make adjustments for any size memory 
from 16 to 64K. 

Super "Color "Speller i s pretty bomb-proof and very easy 
for first-time use. It would be put to best use proofreading 
longer documents but, if it could be loaded from the text 
editor of SCW, it would be used even more frequently. 

(Softlaw Corporation, 9072 Lyndale Ave. So., Minneapolis, 
MN 55420; $69.95 for disk only.) 

—Ed Sehlhorst 



LET ^ S GET DOWN TO BUS I NESS 

Gemini 10 Printers (excellent) S369.00 

Botek Interfaces <ser/par) S69.00 

64K Chip set (prime) S59.00 

Mark Data Super Pro Keyboards S69.00 

J * M Disk Drive 0 <the best) *449.00 

If you're looking for 'Oni Stop ShanoinQ 1 and 
friendly service- then this is it. Business, games, 
educat i onal and utilities - we deal with over 60 
major manufacturers for the CoCo <only the best). 

CALL OR WRITE FOR LIST 

TauruM SuMtetnn® s.4 h. ado t2.oo 

1200 MULBERRY LANE BRUNSWICK, OHIO 44212 216/273-4600 



266 the RAINBOW November 1963 



Software RevlewJ^^S^^^^^^^^BG^ 

We Hadn't The Remotest Idea 
Now We Have Five 

Among the burning questions facing those in the CoCo 
World today is this: Do I, or don't I need a Spectrum 
Remote Reset? 

To this pressing query, I can honestly answer: No, I don't 
need one. That's because after testing out a review sample, I 
called Bob Rosen and ordered four more. 

You say you're surprised? Let me tell you, I'm probably 
even more surprised. The Spectrum Remote Reset is the 
perfect answer to a question I'd never thought to ask. In fact, 
when I first saw a Spectrum Remote Reset, I laughed and 
said something akin to, "What in the expletive is that?" 
Upon showing it around the office, I could find no one who 
had the slightest idea what it was. 

In the ensuing weeks since being introduced to this new 
gadget, I have tried to think of something to liken it unto; 
I'm still at a loss. An aluminum backscratcher? A burglar's 
tool? A croupier's rake? Ronco's newest TV offer? 

Whatever you compare the Spectrum Remote Reset to, I 
believe you'll agree that it works splendidly and should last a 
lifetime. For those of you who've somehow missed the full 
page ad, the Spectrum Remote Reset is a hardware device 
that lets you press the reset button from the front, a "warm 
restart" trigger that's right at your fingertips when you're 



268 the RAINBOW November 1963 



using the keyboard. Not the top item on your want list? 
Well, read on. 

While there are many who can immediately appreciate the 
benefit of having a Remote Reset, I believe most of us need a 
little reminder of what it can do. I'm come to think of it as a 
relief valve. You see, while the reset is within arm's reach — 
unless you have a really compact installation, in which case 
your need for the Remote Reset is readily apparent — 
there's something about reaching to the back that amounts 
to admitting defeat. Reaching to the back breaks your con- 
centration and can wreck your whole attitude. But not if you 
have the Remote Reset. 

Yes, you say, but EXEC 40999 accomplishes the same 
thing as hitting the reset button. True enough, but it seems 
by the time I'm thinking[RESET] the keyboard is locked up 
anyway. With the Remote Reset, you can sort of "sneak in" 
a reset with your pinky without ever lifting your hands from 
the keyboard. Thus, the Remote Reset is sort of a compo- 
sure preservation device — and I can use all of those I come 
across in this business. That's why we have five Remote 
Resets at the Rainbow now. 

A brief physical description is in order. The Remote Reset 
is all aluminum and is essentially a long, sturdy slat with 
three bends in it, a pin to hold it in position on the underside 
of the computer and a small hollow reamed out in the back 
to make it fit snugly over the reset button. It installs readily. 
It comes off easily, too, but I predict that, once installed, it'll 
have a permanent home. 

Bob Rosen will be happy to know that the Spectrum 
Remote Reset fits the new 64K Color Computer as well as 
the vintage CoCo. On the other hand, I had to do a bit of 
custom bending to get it to work on the TDP-IOO. Perhaps 
there should be a TDP-IOO model of the Remote Reset. 

If you're still not convinced and I can imagine some of you 
are saying, "I'll just make myself one out of scrap metal or 
coat hanger wire," let's try and recall how successful you 
were the last time you used a coat hanger to roast marshmal- 
lows. Maybe you could fashion a dandy imitation, but, with 
too vivid memories of creatingcrude candy dishes out of tin 
cans in junior high school metal shop, I'll gladly leave the 
engineering to someone else. 

Yes, the Remote Reset is just a hunk of metal with no 
moving parts at all, but it works without a hitch, does 
exactly what it's supposed to every time, would be difficult 
to improve on, and couldn't be more durable. For a piece of 
hardware, that's a combination that's hard to beat. 

(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, NY 
11421, $12.95 plus$2S/H) 

—Jim Reed 



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EUCHRE! 



A Hi-Res version ol the card game Your partner i 
heTompuier ihe opponent learn is played by the computer Allows 
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fECB. 32k) 

Cassette , $19.95 j 



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CCADS — A full 6809 machine language monitor with line assembler 
and disassembler All you need to debug machine language programs 
(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 
Cassette $1 9.95 or Disk (With Source) $23.95 

UNLOCK — A complete disk backup utility Features included are 
initialization of any track, copy any track and correct I/O errors, or leave 
them intact, and verify any track Track numbers up to track 80 may be used 
at any time 

(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 

[Disk (With Source) ^ $24.95 

CHROMA-KEYS — Define function keys and save them to disk or 
cassette 

(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 

Cassette $9.95 or Disk (With Source) $1 3.95 

SPOOLER — Print ASCII files from disk without waiting 
(ML, 16k, 32k, or 64k only) 

Cassette $1 1.95 or Disk (With Source) $15.95 

COMMAND — Add machine language programs as commands to 
BASIC 

(ML. 16k or 32k) 

Cassette $15.95 or Disk (With Source) $19.95 



, GAMES ^ 

PROSPECTOR — An ECB Hi-Resgraphics game Can you get thegold 
out of the mme' ? 
(ECB, 16k or 32k) Si 

Cassette $7.95 

JUMP-A-PEG — A Hi-Res version of an ancient strategy game 
(ECB, 16k or 32k) 
\^ Cassette ~ $7.95 



MISCELLANEOUS 



CLOCK — A software real-time clock program for the CoCo Warning 
Theclock wtll stop during tape I/O. 

(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 

Cassette $9.95 or Disk (With Source) -sp $13.95 

DARKROOM DATABASE — Throw away your Photo-Lab index Let 
CoCo look up the facts. Darkroom Data-Base with timer 
(Disk, 16k or 32k) 

^ Disk $19.95 j 



Atari Joysticks 
Outlast Chewbones 



Our family "puppy" isn't three years old yet, but he weighs 
about I 20 lbs. and has long black hair all over(his body and 
the house). Gonga is a Newfoundland, a dog that most 
people say looks like a black St. Bernard. As theyoungest of 
our three canines, he gets into trouble most often. I don't 
know how many pairs of shoes my wife has had "Gonga-ed," 
but I've begun to suspect she pours butter over her old shoes 
at the beginning of each fashion season. 

We even had a couch Gonga-ed; a total loss! When he 
bent a heavy-gauge metal steak plate in half with his teeth, l 
began to think nothing was safe. 

Well, Gonga seems to have met his match — Atari Joys- 
ticks. I kid you not. No, l didn't cover them with butter and 
yell "take it," a command on which he will leap into the air 
and chomp onto a ball bat held well over my head. But, 
somehow, he got a crack at one of them. 

DSL Computer Products had sent me a set of Atari sticks 
with the necessary plugs to fit a CoCo already built in, and I 
took them home to test them out. I noticed the teeth marks 
only after noting that one of the pair of sticks seemed to be, 
shall we say, a bit "freer" in movement than the other. Yes, 
one was still stiff with newness while the other had been 
Gonga-ed. For a giant breed whose teeth sink clear through 
every tin can he manages to steal, Gonga had scarcely dented 
the Atari handle. Yessir, a real, true-life testimonial that, in 
my book anyway, beats any test Sampsonite ever put their 
suitcases through. Atari joysticks are tough. 

In addition to toughness, Atari sticks have a handle big 
enough to wrap your fist around — and, to me, that's 
important, too. I can never quite "get into" an arcade game 
when the joystick must be held between the thumb and 
forefinger; dainty, I'm not. 

If you have some Atari sticks, you know what I mean. 
Maybe you even have one of the many Atari stick/CoCo 
interfaces available. If you don't have Atari sticks, DSL's 
Atari sticks have the plug built right into the cable, so you 
won't need to buy an extra interface. 

For the uninitiated, Atari sticks are a breed apart. There is 
a major difference between your Radio Shack, standard 
equipment joysticks and the Atari type. That is, Radio 
Shack's sticks use a potentiometer, and the position of the 
cursor — your paddle, plane, "man" or whatever — depends 
on the resistance in the potentiometer. The resistance varies 
according to the position the joystick handle is placed in. 
With a Radio Shack stick youcan place the cursor anywhere 
within the screen's playing field. Not so, with the Atari. 

The Atari stick uses switches instead of a "pot," and this 
has both its good and its bad points — mostly good, but 
while Atari sticks give you greater control on many games, 
on others they are practically useless. 

The best example I can think of to explain the difference is 
John Fraysee's Solo Pool, marketed by Tom Mix. In Solo 
Pool, a single pool ball is placed on the table and you have to 
position the stick (flashingcursor) behind the ball in order to 
shoot (fire button). That's simple enough with any poten- 
tiometer-type joysticks, but next to impossible with switch- 
type sticks, which don't have any in-between settings. 



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CHROMA- SYSTEMS GROUP 

PO . Box 366 
Dayton. Ohio 45420 
Please include $1 for shipping and handling per item Ohio residents please 
a dd 6°.o sales tax ^ A 



270 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Picture the pool table with me. With a switch-type joy- 
stick, your stick (cursor) can be in the exact middle of the 
table Atari sticks automatically return to center on 
release, often a definite plus — or positioned at any of the 
end or side pockets. Additionally, the cursor can be placed 
on either end rail halfway between the end pockets. Thus, 
there are only nine places on the table that the cursor can be 
held still; otherwise the cursor is moving. 

Of the Atari's four switches, one takes you from the center 
of the screen to the top-middle position on the screen. Pul- 
ling back on the Atari stick causes that same switch to take 
you back to center, or from center to bottom-middle of the 
screen — no in-between. Likewise, pushing an Atari handle 
to the left takes you from dead center to extreme left you 
can't stop along the way; it's either all the way left, all the 
way right, or dead center. 

So, how do you get to the end pockets then? Well, using 
compass directionsfor orientation, if you push the handle in 
a northeast direction, both the "north"and the "easf'switch 
are activated and the cursor moves all the way up and all the 
way right, coming to a rest in the upper right-hand corner of 
the screen, or that particulargame'splayingfield. Similarly, 
you push in a southeasterly direction for extreme bottom 
right, southwest for bottom left, and northwest for top left. 
If you want to go north by northeast, you're out of luck. 
With Solo Pool and an Atari joystick, your cursor can only 
be placed in one of the nine aforementioned positions. 

In that case, what happens if you need to be in a different 
place in order to line up your cue stick of a cursor to hit the 
ball into the pocket. Simple, most of the time you miss. 
Occasionally, you get lucky with a three-railer or some such 
silliness. 

At the risk of over-explaining, 1 want to be sure that we all 



understand Atari sticks, because you do need some — 
they're not just another pair of joysticks, but rather a differ- 
ent concept in joysticks — and DSL has them tailor-made 
for the CoCo. 

Now, which games work with Atari and which don't? 
Well, I was surprised as often as not. As 1 suspected, with 
Atari sticks you lose quite a bit of control on games such as 
Colorpede — nine places you can remain still, otherwise 
you're moving. Nonetheless, 1 found Colorpede enjoyable 
with Atari sticks. On the other hand, 1 expected trouble with 
Adventure International's Fire Copter, but was pleasantly 
surprised to find that Atari sticks seemed to give me even 
more control. 

In general, on Pac Man derivatives and other maze games 
you usually get equal, and occasionally better, control with 
the Atari sticks. 

Another surprise came with Computerware's Morocco 
Gran Prix. 1 was sure that with Atari sticks I 'd be in the ditch 
most of the time, but apparently something in the software 
program gave me much better control with DSL's Atari 
sticks than with my official RSI (Radio Shack issue) sticks. 

No, 1 haven't compiled a comprehensive list of which 
games are better on which type of joystick, but I do hope 
everyone gets the general idea, which is to say: It's not really 
a case of either/ or, but thanks to DSL Computer Products, 
now you can have both without the added cost of an 
interface. The only unanswered question concerns those 
canine toothmarks: Was Gonga biting down in earnest? Or, 
was he simply playing a round of Ghost Gobbler? 

(DSL Computer Products, P.O. Box 1113, Dearborn, MI 

48121, $14.95 per stick, or two for $28.) 

—Jim Reed 



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Contractions 2 

Synonyms 3, 4, 5/6 

Antonyms 3, 4, 5/6 

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November 1 983 the RAINBOW 271 



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Software Review 

Think Tic-Tac-Toe Is Simple? 
Think Again 

I was both anxious and curious to try 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe 
when I received it to review. I must say, after playing it, I was 
not disappointed. 

3-D Tic-Tac-Toe is a game which you play against your 
CoCo (a very experienced player), and is played on four 
planes, or levels. Each plane is a four-by-four grid and, by 
placing markers on the grids, you must get four in a row in 
either direction, up, down or diagonally. 

I received the game, on cassette, with one typewritten 
page of documentation, which was completely adequate. 
Entering CLOA DM, the program loaded and automatically 
executed with no problems. 

At the beginning of the game, there is one screen of 
instructions and you areasked if you wishto movefirst or if 
you wish your computer to move first. Upon answering you 
go to the game screen. Pressing the "S" key will label the 
planes, rowsand columns foryou, which will makethe game 
much easier until you get used to entering your moves. You 
then enter your move by typing plane/ row/column. The 
computer will place your marker and then, almost imme- 
diately, make its move. If you enter a wrong move, by 
pressing "T," you can take back your move. 

The game continues until either you or your CoCo gets 
four markers in a row or the game ends in a draw. When one 
of you wins the computer will flash the markers that com- 
pose the win. Pressing any key will then begin a new game. 

The game played very smoothly and had very clear and 
concise graphics. I was able to beat the computer about 25 
percent of the time, usually doing better if I made the first 
move. It is not an easy game to master and it does make you 
use the old "gray matter." I recommend this game, highly, to 
anyone who likes games such as chess, backgammon, 
checkers or tic-tac-toe. 

(Oelrich Publications, 4040 N. Nashville Ave., Chicago, IL 
60634, $16.95 on cassette) 

—James Stewart 



Software Revle w^^^^^^^^^^^^^SGZ\ 

Deprec Simplifies 
Depreciation Calculations 

Depreciation is an important accounting tool. It allows 
businesses to account for the declining value of their equip- 
ment, and plan for its eventual replacement. Depreciation 
expenses for business equipment are tax deductible, too. 
There are a number of ways to calculate depreciation, 
depending on the type of equipment involved, and the patt- 
ern of use. Deprec, from B. C. Engineering, can help you do 
most, but not all, of the necessary calculations. 

The program calculates depreciation by the following 
methods: straight-line, production (based on hours worked 
or units produced), double declining balance, and sum-of- 
the-years digits. Unfortunately, it doesn't provide 150 per- 
cent or 1 25 percent declining balance calculations, which are 
used for some classes of property, and doesn't adjust the first 
year's depreciation for the number of months of use, as 
required for some depreciation methods. 

The program is easy to use. You are asked for the required 
data, one item at a time, and the results are listed on the 
screen. There's a minor bug in the program. If you do several 
sum-of-the-years digits calculations in a row, the "Totals" 
column will not be correct. B. C. Engineering assures me 
that this bug is being corrected. 

The documentation for Deprec is extremely brief. It con- 
sists of a single page, describing the inputs required . While 1 
don't expect a textbook on accounting, some discussion of 
when to use the various methods would eertainly be in order. 
You'll need some accounting knowledge, or an accounting 
book, to make use of this program. 

Depreciation calculations are complicated, and Deprec 
can help you with them. It would help even more if the 
documentation were improved, and the additional calcula- 
tions were included. 

Deprec requires 16K ECB minimum memory. 

(B.C. Engineering, P.O. Box 768, Manchester, MO 63011, 
$10.95) 

— David Finkel 





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272 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Software Revlew^^^^^^^^^^^^E'fZS 

The Companion 
A New ROM-Mate for CoCo 

Since your CoCo now has a multi-user capability, the 
need for additional I/O ports is reality. I'm not saying that 
The Companion by BTI is the answer, but it certainly is a 
long step in the right direction. 

The Companion is a CoCo bus expander that allows the 
user to plug up to five cartridges into the ROM port at the 
same time. Essentially this gives the user five ROM ports for 
anything, including disk controllers, ROMpacks, real-time 
clocks, serial and parallel ports. A real-time clock and paral- 
lel port are offered by BTI for use with the interface. 

The Companion actually consists of a plug-in adapter for 
the ROM port containing bus buffers, a 12" connecting 
cable, and a 14" enclosure containing the expansion bus 
(which means it will operate on the new Color Computer 11 
without difficulty — an important plus). The larger enclo- 
sure also contains a power supply and decoding logic to 
make the system operate. In addition to the five slots in the 
top for your peripheral devices, a few switches and lights are 
evident. 

On the front-right of the enclosure is a power on/ off 
rocker arm switch with a lighted handle. Gone are the days 
when you forget to turn everything off. It's too bad the unit 
can'tsensewhetherthecomputerand disk drivesare still on. 
Five red LEDs are accompanied by a red pushbutton to 
enable manual selection and indication of the slot, or port in 
use. 

These LEDs, 1 think, are a major plus, too, and an 
advantage over the Radio Shack expansion device. It is 
sometimes difficult to tell which slot is active with other such 
devices. The Companion leaves no doubt. 

Two of theexternal switches deserve some special consid- 
eration. On the side of the unit is a switch marked On 
andOJf. This is a memory decode switch that controlls how 
the cartridge select signal will function. It recognizes the fact 
that a 64K program must differentiate between ROM and 
RAM depending on the memory page. One setting is used 
for 64K programs and another for all others. A restart 
button is immediately adjacent that will simulate an actual 
"Power On Reset" if your computer should happen to 
lock-up. 

The actual selection of the port in use is very uncompli- 
cated. After power-up you simply push the select button on 
the front of the unit to select any of five devices. The corres- 
ponding LED will light, indicating which one is selected. 
Cartridges are activated by an EXEC 49152 instruction 
from BASIC as they will not auto execute with The Compan- 
ion. With a disk controller, you must first select the proper 
port and then depress the restart button on the side of the 
unit. 

If you would rather type than press buttons, all ports are 
also software selectable. POK E 65504, X where X is the port 
number will enable any slot. POKE65504,0 will disable all 
ports. 

The instructions explain both the actual operation and 
the theory of operation in detail. Full schematics and com- 
ponent drawings are included. 1 would say the documenta- 
tion is adequate. I like the idea of BTI providing parts lists 
for all components. For an investment of this nature, it is 
nice to know that parts are not proprietary. Enough docu- 
mentation is provided that an experienced electronic techni- 



cian could service the unit if necessary. BTI includes a 
1 80-day full warranty on all parts and labor if you return the 
unit postpaid. 

I was very impressed with the overall craftmanship of the 
unit. From an electronic view, the unit was of the highest 
quality. The circuit boards and components were very 
impressive. 

1 was, however, disappointed in the mechanical construc- 
tion of The Companion. The plastic used for the case was 
flexible and loose-fitting. To point cut an example, the hole 
for the port select pushbutton was so sloppy it affected the 
operation. Sometimes it would work and sometimes it 
wouldn't. I guess cost constraints prohibited a moulded 
enclosure, but it sure would have prevented problems. At 
the same time, I'm sure the problem I encountered was 
caused during shipping due to the flexible nature of the 
enclosure. 

Finally, as most of youareaware, Radio Shack is market- 
ing an expansion interface for the CoCo. It depends on your 
point of view as to which is the better buy The Radio Shack 
unit is more compact, more attractive, has the same features 
and has a moulded plastic case matching the CoCo. The 
Companion has the LEDs, a flexible cable and one more 
part. Take your choice as to which is more important to you. 
BTI's unit does cost $25 more. 

(Basic Technology, Dept, Q, P.O. Box 511, Ortonville, MI, 
48462, (313) 627-6146, Model BT-2000, $200) 

— Dan Downard 




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Up to 700 RECORDS containing 10 FIELDS can be stored per file 
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CMAILIST is available in the following versions: 
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November 1983 the RAINBOW 273 



Software Reviews 



Amortization 
Is User Friendly and Useful 



Amortization is defined as extinguishing a debt by means 
ofa sinking fund. Say What? If 1 wrote out the amortization 
formula for figuring monthly payments Rainbow's printer's 
probably couldn't print it, you would experience agonizing 
difficulty if you ever used it, and then it would only give very 
limited information. It is that complex. The definition and 
formula aren't very useful, but Amortization is. Before 1 get 
into any specifics let me give you a little nice-to-know infor- 
mation about Amortization. 

It is in Extended BASIC and requires 16K minimum to run. 
It actually is only 3.794K long but evidently uses up a lot of 
space in buffers since the user must do a PCLEA R 1 before 
CLOADING. If anything is tricky about the program, the 
latter is it. Amortization is very straightforward and user 
friendly. 

Amortization provides you with everything you ever 
wanted to know about any amortized loan. It will work with 
the screen or printer. For each month it gives you what you 
still owe, how much your total monthly payment is, how 
much of your monthly payment went to pay for the princi- 
pal, how much of your monthly payment went to interest, 



STOCK & FUND INVESTING 

with the 

TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER 

USE FUNDGRAF & FUNDFILE 

FUNDGRAF is a slock market analysis program that not only 
graphs and analyzes funds or stocks, but also makes decisions 
on when to BUY and SELL. 



• GRAPHS fund's progress (up to 200 weeks). 

• SUPERIMPOSES for comparison: 

- a line of constant percent growth. 

- a graph of any other fund (or stock). 

• CALCULATES over any given time span: 

- the percent price change. 

- the moving average (any span). 

• INDICATES BUY and SELL signals. 

nr 



- FUNDGRAF - 

TAPE @ $49.95 
DISK @ $69.95 

- FUNDFILE - 

DISK only @ $27.95 

• ADD $2 Handling on 
all orders. 

• Details? SEND SASE 

• 16 K ECB Requir'd. 
- printer optional 



T 



I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 



FUNDGRAF — A STOCK 

MARKET ANALYSIS 
PROGRAM FOR 16K EX 
TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER- 




TRS-89 CCLC* CCVif*UTER -TM ThtK/'f CORP 

I . I ■ I . I . I ■ 



FUNDFILE is a portfolio and account management 
program for securities. It creates files for up to 900 transactions 
&50 securities and reports asset value, realized & unrealized 
capital gains, adjusted costs (for stock dividends), and MORE!! 

PARSONS SOFTWARE, DEPT. A 

1)8 WOODSHIRE DRIVE 
PARKERSUURC. WV 26101 



how much interest you have paid to date, and what your 
total paymentsadd up to so far. Anythingelse you can think 
of a loan? 

1 found the menu options to be complete and self- 
explanatory. If you can remember to PCLEA R 1 before you 
CLOA D, you can throw the instructions (clear, short, and 
comprehensive) away. The menu is that good. Once you 
insert the item, the total amount borrowed, the number of 
months, and the interest rate, you can go to the next consec- 
utive month, jump to any desired month (forward or back- 
ward), or go the main menu where you can make changes or 
start over, any with the press of one key. The screen always 
keeps you aware of what the program is doing, and that is 
also a nice touch. You never have to worry about whether or 
not the program bombed. 

As 1 said, the menu options were nice but what 1 liked best 
was the output to the printer. On each page of the printout it 
gives you a heading and puts the information in columnar 
form with six columns. When it's finished giving you the 
particulars about all the months, it gives you the total inter- 
est paid, total principal paid, and the total interest plus 
principal paid. A really nice touch, but scary if you are a 
penny-pincher like me. I would suggest you do a couple line 
feeds before you start the printing so you will have a nice top 
and bottom margin. 

Even though Amortization is not written in machine 
language, 1 found it fast enough to suit may needs and I am 
pretty picky about speed. Because it is in basic, you can 
modify it, even though 1 can't think of any modifications 
needed, except possibly the printer Baud rate (which is now 
600). 

I think Amortization will prove beneficial to me and to 
anybody who has, or plans to have, amortized loans. These 
are among the kind of loans common on cars, homes, and 
home improvement. It would sure be nice if institutions 
which make loans sould give customers a printout such as 
Amortization. 



(Harmonycs, P.O. Box 1573, Salt Lake City, UT 84110, 
$11.95) 



— Herbert Ridge 



Hint . . . 



To Hex With Decimal 

To convert Hex to decimal: 7&HXXXX 

To convert decimal to Hex: ?HEX$(YYYY) 

The four Xs equal the Hex number, while the four Ys 
equal the decimal number. 



274 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Software Review: 



Disk Manager 
A Take-Charge Utility 

An attentive freshman business student knows that a 
good manager is one who plans, organizes and controls the 
work that needs to be accomplished. Disk Manager mea- 
sures up on each count. Disk Manager is a disk utility 
program written in BASIC for either the 16K or the 32K 
CoCo. Both versions are supplied on the same cassette. The 
medium chosen is unusual considering the end use of the 
software. The 16K version actually uses two separate pro- 
grams, but functions otherwise identically to the 32K ver- 
sion (of course, you sacrifice file space — 32K will catalog 
230 files, I6K about 95). 

Disk Manager is first saved to each disk in your collec- 
tion. I've learned from the use of this program and others 
that it is a good idea to leave about 10 granules free on each 
disk for unforeseen uses. The program has two major sec- 
tions: one for single disk management and one for manage- 
ment of your disk collection. 

Single Disk Management 

The program begins by prompting for today's date. The 
date can then be added to any existing files on the disk or it 
can be incorporated into any file when it is being created. 
Updating of files and disks is a breeze with this feature. 

With one letter commmands you can do the following: 

1. Print a directory including the date of creation, today's 
date and the normal information contained in the RSDOS 
D1R command, 

2. Print a Super Directory that also includes the size of the 
file in sectors and bytes, the granule numbers in which the 
file is located and the Start, End and Exec locations for 
machine language files. This feature was meant to be used 
with a printer, so don't be confused by the screen appear- 
ance. The printout is advanced on the printer so that when it 
is torn off3. Toggle the printer on and off. When the printer 
is on, everything directed to the screen will also be printed 
simultaneously. 

4. List all of the files on the disk. The files names are listed in 
two columns with ascending numbers next to them. You 
may run any program listed by just entering the number next 
to its name. 

5. Create a table that shows which granules are in use on the 
disk. All 68 granules either show up as a pair of zeroes or 
their number is printed if they are used. This feature is 
helpful to the technically-oriented user. 

6. Add dates to files that have been changed. The date is 
stored in an unused portion of the disk. At the same time the 
date is saved, a spare directory is also saved to an unused 
part of the disk. This feature allows for crashed disks to be 
rescued relatively easily. 

7. Change the drive number that the program is addressing. 
This allows those with multiple drives to use all of the drives 
in sequence rather than constantly switching disks in only 
one drive. 

8. Locate the Start, End and Exec addresses for machine 
language programs. 

9. Rescue disks that have been clobbered by damage to the 
directory, or one that has a file on it that has been killed that 
you now want to restore. It is absolutely necessary that the 
user know what was on the original directory in order to use 



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November 1963 the RAINBOW 275 



BACKUP MASTER/ 

GRAPHIC MONITOR $29.95 

SUPER powerful UTILITY allows backups to be made of any program — cassette, 
disk, even ROM based 1 ! 



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• Over rides all software autostart mechanisms 

• Fully relocatable — will not interfere with any program 

• Capable of reading many tapes which BASIC can t 

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• Save copies of BASIC, Ext BASIC. Disk BASIC, etc 

• Run address dependent ROMS from RAM 

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ADVENTURE $21.95 



Challenging Adventure' Fully player selectable up to 300 "room Search for treasure on 
land, on river, and in the labyrinth ol caves. Your search is blocked by many obstacles which 
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— , *) can be selected to add variety 24 skill levels make the gamechallengtng for all ages. 
32K EXT BASIC Required 



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$14.95 MATH MASTER 



Conquer spelling Learn the words you 
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42 45 


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16 95 


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1845 


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18.45 


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this program to rescue the disk. Unless you are blessed with 
a photographic memory, it is essential that you make 
printed copies of the Super Directory after each change to 
the disk since the information contained in this printout is 
what is needed for the rescue mission on the directory and 
the killed file(s). 

10. Print the menu for this portion of the program. 

1 1 . End the program. 

Multiple Disk Management 

By selecting Catalog from the main menu above, you may 
perform several functions to manage your entire disk collec- 
tion. You may: 

1 . Add a disk's directory to the catalog of all disk directories. 

2. Write the catalog to disk or read it from disk. This 
provides you with the titles of all the programs in your 
collection and the location (by title of disk) for easy access. 
This catalog may be sorted by a file name, extension, date, 
disk number or disk name. As the program is executing the 
sort, a binary countdown appears on the screen so that you 
can follow what is happening. 

3. List to the screen or a printer, find a file in the catalog, 
delete a directory from the catalog, print the multiple disk 
management program menu and exit to the main menu. 

The documentation for Disk Manager consists of six 
single-spaced, typewritten, 8 '/ 2 x 1 1 sheets. In addition to an 
adequate explanation of the operation of the program, the 
documentation includes several useful tips for using the 
program to an even better advantage. 

1 wish the address and phone number for the supplier had 
been given so that I could have called or written for informa- 
tion or to have questions answered. Disk Manager is an 
excellent utility that every disk user should consider care- 
fully. At $29.95 it offers all of the features found in some disk 
utilites that go for $99.95. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 9234 East 30th St., Tuscon, Ariz. 
85710. $29.95) 

— A. Buddy Hogan 



Back Issue Availability 



Back copies of many issues of the RAINBOW arc still available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue cover price — which is $2 
for copies of Volume I, Numbers 1-8 (through February, 1982), 
$2.50 for Volume 1, Numbers 9, 10 and 12 (through June except 
May, l982)and$2.95forVolumeII,Numbers9, 10, II, l2(March, 
April, June and July 1983). Also $3.95 for Volume 11, Numbers 3 
and 4 (October, November 1983). In addition, there is a $3.50 
charge per order for postage and handling if sent by U nited Parcel 
Service and $6 for orders sent U .S. Mail. LI PS will not deliver to a 
post office box or to another country. This charge applies whether 
you want one back issue or all of them. 

Most back issues are available on white paper in a reprint form. 
Issues out of print include May, July, August, September, 
October, November, and December, 1982 and January, February, 
April, 1983. VISA, Master Card and American Express accepted. 
Kentucky residents please add 5 percent state sales tax. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you order back issues you 
want now while supplies last. 

In addition, copies of the cover only of the July, 1982, Anniver- 
sary Issue are available separately for $ I each, plus 50 cents ship- 
ping and handling. These are suitable for framing. 



276 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Software Reviews 



From A Galaxy 
Far, Far Away 

I'm sure I was born a few centuries 
too soon. 1 am in love with science fic- 
tion, whether it be literature, films, or 
arcade and computer games. Of course, 
my favorite form of transportation is a 
high-powered spaceship (not your con- 
ventional "flying saucer") equipped with 
ammunition and thrusters to get me the 
heck out of Dodge, if I'm being attacked 
by enemy spacecraft. Alas, 1 found the 
game that puts me in seventh heaven . . . 
or somewhere in a galaxy far, far away, 
called Guardian, by Quasar Anima- 
tions. 

1 was very impressed the first time 1 
played Guardian, requiring 16K Ex- 
tended Color BASIC, not onlybecauseof 
its similarity to Defender, one of my 
favorite arcade games (thank goodness, 
no more quarters), but because it pro- 
vides more action than its counterpart. 

Your spaceship has a very important 
mission: to boldly defend your planet 
from enemy spaceships such as the 
Lander, Mutant, Pod. Swarmers, Bait- 
ers, Pulsers, and Munchies which at- 
tempt to shoot you and steal your 
energy modules located at various points 
on the planet s surface. If a Lander suc- 
ceeds in carrying an energy module to 
the top of the screen, the module will be 
destroyed and the Lander will becomea 
Mutant Lander — a more powerful ship 
that chases you and shoots missiles. 
When all 10 modules have been des- 
troyed, your planet's defensive force 
field will no longer exist and the planet 
will destruct. 

Ah, but what defense capabilities 
does your fastest ship in the ga laxy pos- 
sess? Its movement is controlled by your 
right joystick and, very responsively, I 
might add. The up/down axis controls 
the vertical position of the ship, while 
the left/ right axis is used to regulate the 
thrusters (speed) and reverse your ship's 
direction. This is great for getting you 
out of tough situations. If thejoystick is 
positioned in the center, your ship will 
slow down and eventually stop — anoth- 
er great strategic quality. 

The fire button controls your ship's 
main gun which shoots plasma bolts. 
These bolts are more effective in des- 
troying your enemy at short range, and 
single shots are more effective than 
rapid fire. Because, although five plas- 
ma bolts may appear on the screen at 
one time, only the most recent bolt has 
deadly potency — the previous shots are 
harmless. Getting close to the enemy is a 
big challenge and very exciting (your 
heart rate increases significantly). 



One of your greatest defenses is the 
Smart Bomb, controlled by your space- 
bar, which causes all enemy ships on the 
screen to explode. You can chalk up a 
number of points and get a lot of annoy- 
ing aliens off your back. You are al- 
lowed three Smart Bombs per game (so 
use them wisely), but you can be award- 
ed an additional one at the end of each 
completed wave. Helpful tip — If Swarm- 
ers are on the screen, don't use the 
Smart Bomb or you'll lose precious 
points. 

If a Lander is destroyed while carry- 
ing an energy module, the module will 
fall to the planet's surface. If its fallen 
distance is greater than one-third of the 
screen's height, the module explodes on 
impact. So, you must catch the module 
in flight by touching it with your ship 
and bringing it safely to the ground. 
This takes tricky, fancy maneuvering. 

The game consists of three plays, 
which are terminated when your ship is 
destroyed. One helpful hint 1 found that 
was not provided in the instructions, is 
to push thejoystick up or down imme- 
diately after your ship's destruction, 
because if your ship is in the middle of 
the screen when a new play starts, your 
ship has a greater chance of being 
zapped by materializing enemy here 
than if it is at the top or bottom of the 
screen. 

Guardian provides excellent Hi-Res 
graphics and astonishing sound. The 
screen not only provides the game play, 
but has a long-range scanner in the 
upper-central portion of the screen which 
displays you and your enemy, plus your 
current score is displayed in the upper- 
left section. One of the most impressive 
aspects of Guardian I found is the color 
and sound the thrusters made when the 
left/ right axis of the joystick was 
pushed. This is not only an excellent 
example of how detailed Guardian is, 
but more importantly, a fine example of 
what a good Color Computer game is 
all about. 

I recommend Guardian to anyone 
who enjoys a responsive, action-packed 
game, although I don't recommend the 
game for young children because they 
might find the action too difficult and 
fast. 

Oh, and remember, as an old and wise 
man once said long ago, feel the force 
and be the guardian of your planet - 
just don't close your eyes like hisappren- 
tice did or you'll miss all the fun and 
action of this fantastic game. 

(Quasar Animations, 1520 Pacific 
Beach Drive, San Diego, Calif. 92 109, 
$27.95 tape, $29.95 disk) 

—Susan Remini 




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November 1 983 the RAINBOW 277 



Hardware Review, 



LETTER-SETTER® 




Turns your dot addressable printer 
into a typesetter. Makes 3 sizes of 
letters: 



%" high 18 characters per line 
W high 10 characters per line 
3 A" high 6 characters per line 

Good for flyers, handouts, church 
bulletins, product announcements. 

requirements: color computer with 
16K extended basic 

Specify LS-1 24.95 tape 

Printer 34.95 rom pack 

STOCK ANALYSIS PROGRAM 

ANALYZES YOUR PORTFOLIO with 
specific recommendations to sell or 
hold. Works with any stock, bond or 
option. No data base to maintain or 
update. Gives quantity, date bought, 
current price, profit/loss, extension, 
and comparison to bank investment. 

Change function allows instant update 
for errors, what-if, or stop-loss 
projections. Hard copy function 
allows print-out. 

Compatible with any 16K color 
computer. 

SAP II 19.95 tape 

Bernie Litton 



Box Two 

Chicago, IL 60690 
312/944-2444 




Voice Pak Quality 
Speaks For Itself 

By Bruce Rothermel 

My CoCo just said the above title — really! Clearly, 
distinctly, and very understandably! This magical transfor- 
mation was acomplished with the addition of Spectrum 
Projects Voice Pak - Voice Synthesizer. The Voice Pak 
consists of a ROM Pack containing a VOTRAX SCOl 
Phoneme synthesizer and a PIA (Peripheral Interface 
Adapter) chip with a pot to adjust pitch — and a data tape 
containing a series of programs allowing the Rom Pack to 
do its thing. 16K Programs are on one side — 32K on the 
other. Loading and using Voice Pak is very easy. First, like 
any ROM Pack, insert the pack while the computer is off, 
then power up and load the cassette. The first program, 
"Speak," is a basic program which, when run, loads and 
executes the machine language "translate" program which, 
is the computer/ Pak/dictionary interface program. The 
first words will be spoken by your computer now as it 
announces it isnowready by saying, "READY"to you. You 
now are presented with a menu giving the following choices: 

1. Direct input from keyboard. 

2. Build a text from keyboard. 

3. Speak text from tape file. 

4. Return to BASIC. 

After punching #1 S you are in charge of what your CoCo 
says, and this is almost where this review stopped 'cause at 
this point, after typing a few test words and sentences, 1 lost 
control of the computer. First the kids invaded the sanctity 
of my office with questions like "what is that!"and "Who's 
talking?" and "Oh, Wow!" and shortly, "Move over!" 

For the next four hours, my CoCo was talking in a slightly 
Swedish and East Coast U.S. accent saying things like: "E.T. 
Call home," "Bonnie is a Skunk," "U R A Q T"and even 
"Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers." No amount 
of reasoning or pleading about the need to complete this 
review could pry them away. Even my wife, the computer 
widow, declared this a time of temporary truce and actually 
enjoyed the CoCo. 

This is a great way to bring the fa mily together even if you 
don't want to. In mode 1, you type and enter short phrases 
and sentences that will be spoken upon hitting the [ENTER] 
key. After the computer speaks out the phrase an arrow 
prompt appears for the next line of input. This mode is ideal 
for getting used to the sound of computer speech and for 
trying out new words. What makes the computer speech so 
understandable is a phoneme dictionary which is loaded 
into memory with the ML program. It contains about 200 
words with their correct pronunciation stored. When a word 
on the dictionary is encountered, the accurate pronuncia- 
tion is then recited; if the word is not in the dictionary, it 
reverts to the phonetic rules stored in the chip. This results in 
a very understandable output which is enhanced by your 
spelling some words as they sound rather than as they are 
spelled. Thus "Peter Piper Picked" becomes "Peter Pyper 
Pyked", etc. Words in the dictionary are virtually perfect; 
"One" is pronounced "one." You don't have to redo it as 
"une" to get a proper sound. If you use a word often, you 
have the option of adding this word to the dictionary with 



278 the RAINBOW November 1983 



the correct pronunciation. Thereafter it will be caught in the 
dictionary before reverting to the chips 1 pronunciation rules. 

A pleasant surprise is that numbers and special characters 
are recognized by the ML program and will be spoken out. 
Numbers as high as 999,999,999,999,999.999 will be under- 
stood and spoken as trillions, billions, millions, thousands, 
hundreds, etc. The number 23 is pronounced twenty-three, 
not two-three. The phrase 100 x 3 = 300 is spoken as "One 
hundred times three equals three hundred. " If you put a $ in 
front of a number the program assumes thatyou are talking 
about money. $123.45 is spoken as "One hundred twenty 
three dollars and forty-five cents." 

Quotation marks are spoken as "Quote"and the # sign is 
pronounced as "number." Each comma, space and period 
produce a pause. Numbers can be pronounced individually 
by either putting a space between or by putting the "!" 
control code before the number. 

The resulting statements contain inflection and human- 
like intonation in the sentences similar to what you would 
have in a normal conversation. I have no idea how these are 
added, but it's there. 

Inflection can be changed via a pot on the ROM pack or 
through keyboard commands. Four speech tones are avail- 
able. By changing tones you can have four different voices. 

In no time at all, your CoCo is talking like your Uncle Bill 
— assuming your Uncle Bill was born in Sweden and is 
currently living in New York. 

After beating the kids and wife away, I was able to 
advance to choice two of the Menu: Build text from key- 
board. This mode allows you to input more than one line of 
text at a time. Using this, you can create long messages. Ever 
hear a computer say the Gettysburg Address? I have! You 
have the opportunity to save this text on tape or disk for 
later retrieval. 

Choice three of the menu allows you to load and hear text 
which was saved in an ASCII file on tape or disk. 

Choice four returns you to BASIC. 

Disk users have to use Radio Shack's Multi-Pack Inter- 
face (#26-3024) to use both the disk controller and the ROM 
pack at the same time. The disk controller goes in slot four; 
the voice unit goes in slot three. 

Making nifty sentences with your Color Computer is fun, 
but how do you use it for "practical"purposes? The Trans- 
late program can be easily merged with BASIC programs (or 
ML clear programs less easily) adding speech to programs. 
A typical addendum would be: 

10 PCLEAR 1 (Clear video RAM unless needed.) 
20 Clear 5000, &H5FFF (Reserve high RAM for ML) 
30 CloadM "Translate" (load M L program stored at end 
of BASIC program) 
50 DEFUSR1 = &H6005 (entry point for speech) 
130 Phrase $ = "This is a Speech" (insert text) 
340 X$ = USR1 (Phrase $) 



Hint . . . 

Faster, Slower! 

To speed up CPU, POKE&HFFD&,0 
To slow down CPU, POKE&HFFD6,0 



Viola! Your BASIC Program now talks! Full details of 
merging the ML "Translate" program with basic programs 
to use the Voice Pak are included in the two operations 
manuals included with the package. 

The dictionary section contains a dictionary manager 

program which allows you to: 

— Add Words to the dictionary — with their desired 
phoneme pronunciation. 

— Delete a word. 

— List the dictionary and pronunciations to the screen or 
printer. 

What are the uses for this program? Absolutely astound- 
ing! The uses are limited only by your imagination. 

People with speech problems now have an inexpensive 
voice which allows them to talk to anyone on the phone. 
Conversations are as simple as typing in responses and 
hitting [ENTER]. 

Any programs can now be voice-prompting. Educational 
programs now can include pronunciation of spelling words. 
Foreign languages can be taught with the correct pronuncia- 
tion. Adventure games can yell "Look out" and any other 
hints the author wishes to include. Arcade games can now 
include the voices of the control tower or you can hear the 
Aliens attacking. 

Bob Rosen of Spectrum is out to make this the standard in 
CoCo Voice Paks. His chances of succeeding are high. First, 
the verbal results are Great. Second, the price is right. He is 
betting on low margins and high volume. Third, and most 
important, complementing programs are being developed 
by software houses. Computer Island, Prickly Pear, Jarb 
Software and Aardvark are in development or have released 
programs which utilize the Voice Pak. More will be coming. 

I had the opportunity to run the French Foreign Lan- 
guage Program from Computer Island. It displays the 
French word — pronounces it — and then asks for the 
English translation. Congratulations arespoken f orthe cor- 
rect answer; the correct word is given if the answer was 
incorrect. 

Spectrum Projects is developing a smart terminal pro- 
gram using Voice Pak to announce the data received from a 
BBS or other information source. 

This advancement, at this price ($69.95) is a breakthrough 
adding immeasurably to the utility of the Color Computer. 
Get One! 

(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven N. Y. 11421. 
$69.95 ROM pack and Tape, plus $3.00 S/H. 16K mis., or 
Dragon 64) 



BIBbB BOOKS GAME 

AN EDUCATIONAL GAME FOR ALL AGES 

USE FOR HOME - CHURCH - VAC A TION 

BIBLE SCHOOL 
Learn the Books of the Bible the easy way! 

16k 

Send $14.95 for cassette to 

Sunrise Software Services 
P. O. Box 1012, Bradenton, FL 33506 
FL resident ad 5% sales tax 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 279 



Software Revlew^^^^^^^^^^^^SiZZs 

Elcircan 
The Circuit Designer's Friend 

Elcircan, from DLS Engineering, is an electronic network 
analysis program that is available on tape or disk. You may 
be asking yourself at this time "What the heck is network 
analysis?" Well, if you are involved in linear circuit design, 
either as a hobby or at work, this program will interest you 
because of its time saving potential. Linear circuits, such as 
audio amplifiers and active or passive filters, are usually 
designed to operate over a specific frequency range. To 
check out a prospective design, many calculations have to be 
made across intended frequency range to see if the circuit 
"fits" in the area of interest. This type of fine-tuning may 
require circuit value changes or design modifications to be 
implemented and then all the calculations have to be done 
again. This is where a network analysis program shines 
because it can predict the performance of a design by doing 
all these calculations for you at as many frequencies as you 
need. In effect, you can turn your CoCo into an electronic 
breadboard! 

Elcircan models circuits using the nodal analysis tech- 
nique. Nodes are connecting points between the various 
components in the circuit being tested. This method allows 
any configuration of circuitry to be modeled. The "answers" 



you get from Elcircan analysis for a given circuit is the ratio 
of outputamplitude to input amplitude expressed in DB, the 
phase change between input and output signal, and delay in 
seconds which is a measure of how fast the phase angle is 
changing with frequency. The program allowsyouto use the 
following circuit elements: resistors, capacitors, operational 
amplifiers, FET transistors, inductors and NPN bipolar 
transistors. As with most circuit analysis programs, these 
components are assumed to be perfect, capacitors and 
inductors have no stray parasitic reactances, etc. These stray 
effects are important at high frequencies and can be simu- 
lated using nodal techniques. I should mention at this point 
that all network analyzers have various limitations, the 
computer term GIGO, (garbage in-garbage out) applies here 
also, a FET or transistor circuit should be properly biased 
and configured to be correctly analyzed. 

If you have the cassette version and a 16K machine you 
have to do the PCLEARO routine before loading. You are 
allowed to save or load circuits to and from tape and also 
circuit analysis in a like manner. This lets you build up a 
library of circuits and their respective operation for future 
use. A utility called LISTER is included and is used to list 
the saved output of Elcircan to screen or printer, it can also 
be used to list any file saved in the ASCII format. 

The disk version of Elcircan includes a great utility that 
lets you use your printer to plot a display of frequency versus 
amplitude and phase, or amplitude and delay. Standard 
ASCII characters are used for plotting and should work on 
any standard ASCII printer. A hard copy of a circuit 
response is a valuable design tool and adds a professional 
touch to this program. 

A review isn't complete without a little criticism; very little 
in this case. Being written in BASIC, large arrays may take 
more than a minute per frequency to analyze due to the large 
number of calculations to perform, however, you can dump 
data to a printer or file and review when the program is 
finished. Of course, changes are much easier to implement if 
you want to customize the program to specific requirements. 
A short routine to select Baud rate and 80- or 132-column 
format for instance. The manual is adequate but for the 
individual with little or no experience with this type of 
circuit analysis it may be somewhat brief. Several circuits 
using all the available circuit components and a step-by-step 
walk-through would be a big help here. 

Elcircan is a very useful tool and should be added to the 
very long list of excellent CoCo software. 

(DLS Engineering, P.O. Box 754, National City, C A 92050, 
$24.95 tape, $34.95 disk) 



sbs? <££@ >m® -as© .g&P .tSB@ skp <sss 

Now a t- C* G & -for the 
COL. GJR C GM f=>U 7£« 

"TIMY TURTLE 

TINY TURTLE is an a-f -f ordable, 
-full/ compatible LOGO language 
with high resaul tion turtle 
graphics, music, -fast pro- 
cessor operation, and re- 
trieval o-f user procedures. 
TINY TURTLE comes complete 
with so-f t copy reference user 
manual . 

32K/EXTD BASIC 

CASSETTE or DISK *39.95 
HARD-COPY MANUAL *4.95 

ALSO 

GAS MILEAGE MONITOR 

DISK *S>.?5 

SDS COMPUTERS BOGOTA, N J 

POB 450 07603 
NJ ADD 57. TAX 

■■SSfy ^9 438® ^;|» -tBsS <3»ffi 



— Ron Hansen 

Plan to Attend 

RAINBOWfest 

Feb. 17-19, 1984Long Beach Calif. 



280 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Software Review ^^^^^^^^^^^^SrTS 

Sonar Search Interesting 
Version Of Old Favorite 

Do you remember, as a kid, using reams of paper and 
trees worth of pencils to play battleship? Though the details 
varied from neighborhood to neighborhood, the game con- 
sisted of two players, each equipped with pencil and paper, 
the paper beingdivided intoan array ofsquares(16 x 16,20 
x 20, etc.), on which each player "hid" five war ships of 
varying size. The object was to "sink" all five of your oppo- 
nent's ships by guessing their locations before he/she 
guessed yours. 

One of the big toy companies has a fancy plastic board 
version and I remember seeing a battery operated version 
with lights and sound effects. I figured this had to be the 
ultimate. 

Of course, the ultimate is never really the ultimate and 
that holds true in this case. Now, the old game is computer- 
ized! Sonar Search, written by Bob Schmerling, is an 
interesting variation of this game for the CoCo. Though not 
a machine language shoot-em-up, it is a pleasant change of 
pace, a thinking game. 

The scenario is simple and straightforward. You're in a 
submarine equipped with sonar and a number of torpedos. 
The object is toseek outand destroy five enemy ships on the 
surface. What you actually see is a blue field of water cover- 
ing about 80 percent of the screen and a small crosshair for 
aiming the sonar and torpedos. The bottom 20 percent of the 
screen is ded icated to designating players'turns and remain- 
ing shots. 

You position the crosshair with the right joystick any- 
where on the blue portion of the screen and press the fire 
button. If one of your opponent's ships is hidden at that 
particular location, a small colored box appears, indicating 
a hit but not total destruction. Moving the crosshair again, 
you try to figure out where the rest of the ship is hidden. 
Once you hit the ship enough times to sink it, a picture of the 
ship remains on the screen. The hidden ships require three to 
five hits depending on the ship's size before it is sunk. 

The real challenge occurs after pushing the fire button and 
not hitting anything. A very realistic sonar sound is gener- 
ated and by counting the number of beeps you get an indica- 
tion of how far away the nearest ship is located but not its 
direction. You'll have to develop your own strategy in decid- 
ing which way to move next — up, down, left or right. 

There are three modes of play, though the manual only 
mentions two. The first is the one player mode which is 
really a practice mode. You get an unlimited number of 
torpedos to sink the five hidden ships. This mode is where 
you develop the bloodhound instinct. After all five ships are 
sunk, you are told the number of shots fired, the number of 
actual hits and an accuracy score. 

The second option is the two player mode — you against a 
friend. The scoring is similar to that of the practice mode,, 
but with the added information of how many games each 
player won and all the other information for both players. 
The added incentive (or handicap) in this mode is the fact 
that each player starts with only seven torpedos for each 
round of the game. If one player manages to sink one of his 
opponent's ships, his opponent loses one torpedo on the 
next turn. The manuaLstates: "In general, the number of 



chances that a particular player has at the beginning of 
his/her turn is determined by the formula N = 8-(number of 
ships belonging to that particular player that have been 
sunk); N is the number of chances that the player has." 

I discovered the third mode by accident. After loading 
and running the game from the first side of the cassette, I 
thought I would check to see if there were really three copies 
of the game, two on the front, one on the back. So I turned 
the cassette over and, lo and behold, the label on the back 
proclaimed there was a 32K version that would let me play 
CoCo. (All copies of Sonar Search both I6K ECBand 32K 
ECB versions.) 

So I CLOADed this version and, sure enough, the menu 
had three choices: one player, two player and practice; the 
one player is you against CoCo. 

CoCo doesn't play an unbeatable game (it doesn't cheat), 
but it does have the advantage of never forgetting its last 
position and the number ofbeeps it "heard. "From one turn 
to the next there is no visual indication of your last location 
and everybody uses the same crosshair which always starts 
at the center of the screen. Remembering your last location 
is no mean feat considering the lack of land marks on the 
screen. 

At this point, the two resident arcade experts were called 
in to give Sonar Search the once-over. The 12-year-old, 
Cheryl, said "Boring"and that was that. Tim, the nine-year- 
old with blisters on his joystick fingers, said "Neat" and has 
yet to beat CoCo. I believe this game may be too subtle for 
the hot-shotarcade set, but if you liked the paper and pencil 
version, this game is probably for you. 

I say probably only because I got a very negative reaction 
to the price of $18.95. I'm not sure why, but that seemed high 
for a program written in BASIC. It is a well-written game and 
came over-packaged in a large vinyl-covered, plastic, clam- 
shell box which only contained the cassette and a small 
four-page instruction booklet. I personally have no objec- 
tions to a plastic bag containing the cassette and instruc- 
tions, especially if I could save a few bucks. 

Sonar Search is written in BASIC for a 16K ECB CoCo 
and the TDP-100 but won't fit in a 16K Disk system. The 
32K version needs (you guessed it) 32K ECB. The graphics 
are done in four-color medium resolution. The four-page 
booklet is adequate, although a bit confusing at times. The 
last note in the booklet suggests using a self-centering joys- 
tick for best results; I used both kinds and found both to be 
adequate. 

As far as any recommendation for this game goes, I can 
only say that if you like battleship, and have run out of paper 
and pencil or people to play with, this version should please 
you. On the other hand, if you're into fast and furious 
shoot-em ups, you probably won't want this in your 
collection. 

(S&S Arcade Supplies, 8301 Sarnow Dr., Orlando, FL 
32807, $18.95 on tape) 

— C.L. Pilipauskas 



Hint . . . 

Cold Poke 

If for some reason you wish to simulate a cold startup, try 
the following: POKE 1 13,0:EXEC40999. If you can think of 
any handy uses for this poke, drop us a line. 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 281 



Software Q ~ lW ~- Software Review^ /7\ 



Reactoid: New ROM Pak 
From Radio Shack 

Reactoid, a new ROM Pak game f rom Radio Shack, is a 
simulation of the operation of a nuclear power plant. The 
power plant is controlled automatically by a network of 
highly sophisticated computers, and all you have to do is to 
monitor their operation. The core of the reactor is sur- 
rounded by particle-emission tubes, that release energy par- 
ticles which produce power when they strike the energy 
posts in the center of the core. The computer controls the 
"reflectoid," which diverts the energy particles towards the 
energy posts. Without the reflectoid, the energy particles 
would strike other particle-emission tubes and eventually 
cause the core of the reactor to suffer meltdown. As luck 
would have it, the computer system has just broken down. 
To make matters even worse, the primary and secondary 
backup systems have also just broken down. You are now on 
yourown. You caneither keep the power plantgoingmanu- 
ally, or fry in a meltdown. 

When the game is started, the word REACTOID is 
formed letter by letter on the screen. The background color 
is black by default, but you can change it to either green or 
buff. The game is played with the left joystick, and it is 
started by pressing the fire button. The screen now shows 
you an overhead view of the reactor complex, with 24 energy 
posts in the center surrounded by 20 particle-emission tubes. 
At the top of the screen is the word MELTDOWN, with the 
first letter lit up. 

The joystick moves the "reflectoid" around the screen, 
and the fire button is used to change the angle of deflection. 
As each energy particle is released from the particle- 
emission tubes, you have only one chance to position the 
reflectoid in order to divert it into the energy posts. When an 
energy particle strikesa post forthefirst time, it will light up, 
and youget25 kilowatts (points). Eachsubsequenttime that 
you hit it, you get another 10 kilowatts. Once all of the posts 
are lit, you then proceed to the next round. 

The particle-emission tubes emit one energy particle at a 
time in round one, two at a time in round two, and so on. 
The scoring in subsequent rounds is multiplied by the round 
number, so it takes a while beforeyouan really start to rack 
up the points. There are also bonus points awarded after 
each round for each letter in the word MELTDOWN that is 
not lit. 

Of course, if the energy particles are not properly 
diverted, they can hit the particle-emission tubes, which will 
cause another letter in the word MELTDOWN to light up. 
After the entire word is lit up, you get to watch the reactor 
meltdown, and the game is over. 

Reactoid is a fun game with good graphics and sound 
effects. The documentation provides a good background for 
the game, and clearly explains the game play and scoring. 
However, after playing it a while, 1 began to get bored 
because of its simple nature. As a result of this, 1 do not feel 
that it will hold the interest of the hard-core arcade buffs, 
who are used to more complex strategies. 1 do, however, feel 
that it would be an excellent game for younger children for 
the very same reason. 

(Radio Shack, Catalog No. 26-3092, $19.95 ROM Pak) 

— Gerry Schechter 



Flexi Filer 
Has Professional Features 

My first interest in microcomputers stemmed from the 
fact that 1 had a large phonograph record collection that was 
badly in need of organization. 1 was told that through the 
use of a database program 1 would be able to set up a catalog 
of my collection and sort and search for items at a rapid 
speed. For the past three years my database software collec- 
tion has grown at a rate faster than my record collection in 
search for the perfect Color Computer database program. I 
own or have tested just about everything from a $10 super 
simple system to the $200. FLE X systems. 1 now add to that 
experience a new package f rom Computerware called Flexi 
Filer. In a nutshell, this is an impressive and relatively 
inexpensive system that compares with some of the best. 

First of all, the Flexi Filer has nothing to do with the 
FLEX operating system, and it can be used with a standard 
Radio Shack DOS. One disk drive will work fine with Flexi 
Filer, though it will support up to four drives. The multiple 
drive configuration simply gives you the advantage of more 
data space on a disk while you use the other drive for your 
system programs that are called by a series of menus. Hap- 
pily, the program is not protected, which means that single 
drive owners may put the system information on their data 
disk and eliminate timely disk changing. 

After typing RUN "START" the program shows a title 
page and the main menu. Defining a new file is very much 
like most sophisticated database programs and it is well 
described in the documentation. Fields are specified, labeled 
and saved in a file that is recalled when the database is run. 
You can define up to thirty-five elements (fields) per record 
and use up to 240 characters per record. Flexi Filer lets the 
user set up the screen display any way you want it on the 
standard 32 column CoCo screen. 1 would assume that 
settingupyourown screen display for data entry makes fora 
more logical form when data is actually entered and recalled 
on the screen. Flexi Filer uses perhaps the easiest screen 
display format maker I have yet encountered in a database, 
and the user should find this an easy and f ruitf ul experience. 

Adding, deletingand changingrecords is likewisea simple 
and straightforward operation and shouldn't be a surprise to 
any first-time or experienced database users. There is one 
major flaw in this are that is perhaps the worst problem I 
encountered in the entire system. That is, if you type too fast 
you run the risk of skipping letters on the screen and your 
data entry is garbled. The only way to avoid this problem is 
to slow down and watch the screen for missed letters. As I 
was writing this review 1 received an upgraded version (3. 1 ) 
of the program. I thought for sure that this problem would 
be fixed. This was not the case, however. Perhaps Compu- 
terware will be able to provide a fix in the future. 

The number of records which may be stored in one data- 
base is a function of the size of each database record and 
what else you have on the disk. Computerware includes a 
one line program (PRINT FREE(0)*2300/(size) to help you 
calculate the approximate number of records your disk will 
hold. For example, if you have a one-drive system and a 
database of 100 characters, your database can have about 
900 records. A multi-drive system that uses Drive #0 for the 
program and Drive#I for data will yield about 1400 records, 



282 



the RAINBOW November 1983 



100 characters long. This isn't bad for a program that uses a 
Radio Shack DOS that isn't noted for conservation of disk 
space. 

Sorting and searching are also straightforward functions 
to use in Flexi Filer. As noted earlier, Computerware has 
upgraded the program and the sort section got the most 
improvement. All sorting is done via Select files. A Select 
file is a mini-file that sets up pointers to the main data file 
when screen or printed reports are called for in a given 
sequence. Earlier versions also had "disk sorts" where the 
entire data file disk is rearranged to a given sequence. "Disk 
sorts" are very time consuming and, in my experience with 
other database programs, often result indisk errors that can 
ruin your entire database. Owners of Flexi Filer should 
contact Computerware f or upgrade information to Verison 
3. 1 . The"select"functions provided with Flexi Filer are very 
complete and they should satisfy just about any general 
database user. 

I left the description of the report writer functions till last 
as thisarea is perhaps the most complicated and unique part 
of the program. In general, Flexi Filer provides two 
methods of printing information — on address labels and on 
full sheets of paper. The formatting of both types of report 
are done on the screen through a rather unusual, but fairly 
easy to learn, screen editing program. Yes, Flexi Filer can 
cram a full size 80 column or 132 column report form on a 
standard 32 column Color Computer TV screen for editing. 
I found the use of the provided report worksheets a must, 
however, as the title area and records area of your intended 
report are shown on separate screens. I often print report 
data on tractor feed 3" X 5" cards and I found this format 
not supported by the stock version of Flexi Filer, Also not 
supported are arithmetic functions, except for the summa- 
tion of all the numbers in a given field. On the plus side, you 
can save up to 10 different report formats for each database. 
These formats can be recalled easily by pressing a number 
from zero to nine. 

Flexi Filer also includes an extensive disk information 
menu to help the user with disk functions. For example, you 
can list the directory or (on version 3.1) copy files from one 
drive to another. The thirty-two page documentation is 
compact, butcompleteand generally easy to follow. I would 
caution first time users to read the many appendixes 
included in the manual. Some of the information given in 
these "add on" pages should have been included in the main 
instruction portion. For example, only in Appendix "F" is 
there an explanation of why the screen format worksheets 
are included and that using them makes report formatting 
much easier. 

In conclusion, this is an above average database program 
for the Color Computer. Users who do not have FLEX or 
OS-9 will especially appreciate the availability of a profes- 
sional filing system program, without going to the added 
expense of 64K and another operating system. My only 
major complaint is the speed of keyboard entry. Now it 
looks like I have no excuse not to return to that original task 
I purchased my computer for three years ago. The only 
problem now is that I'm more interested in reviewing soft- 
ware than cataloging phonograph records! 

(Computerware, Box 668, 4403 Manchester Avenue, Suite 
102, Encinitas, CA 92024, $64.95 32K Disk with Radio 
Shack DOS) 

—Brian James 



Software Revlew^^^^^^^^^^^S72\ 

Quicksort: A Valuable 
Fast-Sort Utility 

While BASIC is an easy language to learn and implement, 
there are some aspects of this programming language which 
are more involved than others, and it is sometimes easier to 
have a subroutine or utility handle these chores. 

The sorting of string arrays, variable field lengths and 
numeric data seem to fall into these time consuming catego- 
ries. Now, because of a new utility on our software market 
from Skyline Software called Quicksort or Qsort, this job 
has become easier. 

Qsort itself is a high speed, machine language sorting 
utility that is made to be called from yourBASlC program. It 
can also be incorporated into existing BASIC programs to 
improve their sorting speed. 

To use Qsort, you must use the specific variables within 
your programasstated in the documentation. Stringsare in 
a BASIC array Called S$, with S$(0) being the first string. The 
number of strings that you want sorted would be contained 
in variable N. You must also define the starting position of 
the sort, the length of the sort field and a DIMension of at 
least 4. 

All of the five variables must belncluded in your program 
otherwise Qsort will inform you of a "MISSING ARG" 
since they are essential for proper program operation. 

Also included with Qsort is a test program called Qtest. 
This BASIC program generates random strings of random 
lengths and then calls Qsort. A typical sort of 100 random 
strings takes less than a half-second! It actually takes BASIC 
longer to generate these strings than it does for Qsort to 
arrange them in proper sequence. Wow! Sorting of longer 
strings is equally swift. 

Besides there being a practical need for this type of pro- 
gram, and an apparent shortage of this kind of utility avail- 
able* the time saved by implementing Qsort into your own 
program alone will justify the small cost of this fine utility. 

Qsort is also compatible with your Disk system, since it 
loads at &HE00, It is also position independent. 

(Skyline Software, 442 Sunnyside, Wheaton, IL 60187, 
$12.95 tape) 

—Steve Schechter 



See you at 
RAINBOWfest 

October 14—16 Fort Worth, Texas 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 283 



Hardware Review* 



The Gorilla Monitor 

By Jim Reed 



A number of years ago, when photography was my life, 1 
read all the popular and professional photography maga- 
zines. When I got hold of a new issue, the first place 1 always 
looked was at the Spiratone ad. Spiratone, a New York mail 
order house, always had pageafter page after pageof things 
to make a photographer's life easier. And, each month, there 
were always new items — a cross-screen filter, a clever new 
paper safe, this attachment, that accessory — all holding the 
promise of making it a bit easier to get that great picture we 
all aimed for. 1 was a Spiratone addict. 

Photography is just an occasional, vocational necessity 
now, and 1 don't know if Spiratone is still around or not; 
now, I'm tuned in to Spectrum Projects for the same sort of 
reasons. It seems that if I've just acquired say* a widget, Bob 
Rosen at Spectrum is the advertiser most likely to have a 
widget-to-CoCo interface and the necessary cable to attach 
it to my whatsit. A deluxe model will have an LED and an 
extra switch that is "user-programmable." Now, I'm a Spec- 
trum junkie. You can tell Rosen is both a "user" and a 
"hacker." As soon as you decide you need something, he 
already has it in stock waiting for your call. 

This time he beat me to the punch entirely. Again, hesent 
me something before 1 even realized 1 needed it. Not that 
Bob Rosen invented green screen monitors, but he foresaw 
my need before I did. 



CREATES THESE FORMS 
Invoice Overdue Notice 

Purchase Order Job Quote 

Mail Order Order Conformation 
Payment Record 
and stores al! the information on disk or tape 
for easy retrieval later. Figure list, net, discount, 
subtotals, freight, tax, etc. 
Extremely user friendly. 



2 Versions 
l6KExt Or 
32K With Added Features 



$29.00 



(Freight Included) 
Disc Or Tape 



Best of all, well load it with your name, address, 

credit card #, tax rate & number and more 
to customize this package to your needs - FREE! 

Challenger Software 

1729 Albemarle Rd. 
Clearwater, FL 33546 Q£3 
or call (813) 531-7654 CO 

Call Between 9 am - 9 pm EST 
We II mail you more information, samples, and 
a program customizing sheet 



P 2 " 



Color Computer owners go through this cycle, you see. 
First, it's "I'll use the computer when the rest of the family 
isn't watching TV." Then, they say to themselves, "Well, HI 
just take over the old TV in the bedroom all the time." Of 
course, to get the full-blown effect of a CoCo, eventually you 
decide "Let the kid pay his own way through college — it'll 
be better that way — I've got to have a brand new color TV 
set or I simplycan't live another minute." And, in the back of 
your head there's this persistent, "Wonder what it'd be like 
to play Startrench Warfare on a giant projection screen?" 

Bob Rosen doesn't stock giant projection TVs because he 
knows you really don't need one. He does stock the Gorilla 
12" green screen high-resolution monitor because he knows 
you want one, or soon will. 

Initially, I was pleased with the looks of the Gorilla moni- 
tor, but unimpressed with the resolution on the screen; that 
was because 1 hadn't yet changed the color signal to 
monochrome; that made a huge difference. Then I loaded a 
full-screen word processor. Wow! Even in the 85 x 24 high 
density display — used mainly for formatting a page — 1 
could still read the display. On my 19" Sylvania Color TV, 
by way of contrast, in the 85 x 24 character set, even with the 
color turned all the way off and the sharpnesscontrol turned 
to maximum resolution, 1 still could only guess at some of 
the blurred words. 

Now, I'm not saying 1 would want to write copy in the 85 x 
24 mode, even with a Gorilla monitor, but 1 could if neces- 
sary. In the 64 columns by 24 lines mode, I could write all 
day with the Gorilla monitor, but I'd be blind if I tried that 
more than a couple of minutes with my big color TV. With 
the 5 1 -column screen, both the green screen monitor and the 
color TV are easily readable. But the color TV's character set 
has halos while the Gorilla is markedly clear. 

In a few weeks of use, I've found myself squinting and 
uncomfortable using the same color TV set 1 once thought 
was so terrifically sharp. I think I've developed another 
habit. The Gorilla green screen is so good, don't even try it 
once. 

The truth is, before 1 compared the 1 2" Gorilla and my 19" 
Sylvania, 1 worried that maybe 1 was being unfair. After all, 
how could a little $100 monitor compare with my brand- 
name 19" pride and joy? Now that they're side by side 
— operating from the same signal thanks to Computerware's 
Video Plus interface — I keep reaching over to make abso- 
lutely sure the sharpness is at maximum on my Sylvania. It 
is, but it no longer "gets it"incomparisontothe Gorilla. For 
one thing, on my color TV, when I use a word processing 
program the words tend to get "crunched up" if you're 
typing at the very bottom of the screen. Not so with the 
Gorilla, with this Hi-Res screen the words at the bottom are 
as clean and clear as those in the middle. 

By the way, you do need some sort of video interface such 
as Video Plus to connect a composite video monitor such as 
the Gorilla to your CoCo. Naturally, Spectrum sells Video 
Plus, too. 

I called on Dr. Doom to help me install the Video Plus. 
As is often his way, he took over completely and told me to 
shut up and take notes, "or whatever it is you writers do." 
Among Doom's comments on Video Plus: "This gizmo is a 
bit delicate. It could have been sturdier." After managing to 
pull one wire loose just inspecting the Video Plus board, 
Doom allowed as how, " We have to be real careful now." He 
did the obligatory lining up the notches, etc., diverting his 
attention momentarily to "straighten up your heat sink for 
you." 



284 the RAINBOW November 1983 



In order to have both a color signal for my TV and a 
monochrome signal for the Gorilla monitor, Doom had to 
add a switch to the Video Plus circuit. That went without a 
hitch, thanks to quite adequate instructions. Still, given a 
choice, I would have opted to simply pay a little more and 
get a switch installed by the elves at the factory. 

No soldering is necessary with Video Plus — if you don't 
need both a color and a monochrome signal. We wanted 
both, so we located a U-shaped "wire loop" that Doom then 
snipped, soldering a single-pole, single-throw slide switch 
from Radio Shack across the cut ends. There was also a 
potentiometer that needed adjusting — easy enough given 
the good documentation — before we replaced the cover on 
the CoCo. 

On replacing the cover, we faced a decision on whether to 
cut holes for the four new wires or just to route them out any 
available opening. We chose the latter, running the bigger 
wires out the video port and the thin wires out the 3-4 
channel selection switch. Not the neatest installation, but 
practical. 

The non-glare tube on the Gorilla does eliminate many 
reflections. Certainly, the green phosphor iseasy on theeyes 
and graphics games, though not in color, do have a crisper 
display with the Gorilla monitor. 

The Gorilla has only three control knobs on the front 
(on/ off, brightness and contrast) and three more on the 
back (image width, image height and stablizer). By the way, 
the Gorilla does not have sound capability. 

On a thorough reading of the manual, 1 find that there is 
indeed a tilt bracket on the bottom of the monitor to facili- 
tate a laid-back viewing position. And in addition to several 
other telephone numbers for Leading Edge Products, Inc., 
which makes the Gorilla, there is a "service hot line" 800- 
number printed in red. 1 call it and get no answer, but then it 
is 3 a.m. I'm a night owl; this number must be for day owls. 

As a last note, one of the showiest modes for the green 
screen monitor is with inverse video. This is not a built-in 
feature, but I pop in a software terminal program with this 
feature and it's very dramatic. I make a note to use it next 
time 1 want to impress someone. This Gorilla has found a 
home. As for Bob Rosen, I can see the handwriting on the 
wall; next month he'll be advertising a second keyboard/ 
OS-9 package so that I can timeshare with myself now that 1 
have two screens. 

(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, NY 
1 1421 $24.95 for Video Plus,$99.95 for the Gorilla Monitor, 
plus $5S/H) 

—Jim Reed 



See you at 
RAINBOWfest 

October 14—16 Fort Worth, Texas 



Software Revlew^^^^^^^SI^^^^S/^\ 



As Games Go 
Derby Is Old Hat 

Race cars traveling in a square maze eating dots and 
avoidingcrashes with other cars make Derby very similar to 
the Atari game cartridge called Dodge-Em. In my opinion, 
Derby, is a below-average game. Written in machine lan- 
guage, it requires 16K and joysticks. Younger children may 
find Derby interesting, but it does not compare to the qual- 
ity of games we have seen recently for the CoCo. 

The scenario is as follows: you are in a speedy car and 
your prime objective is to run over all of the dots without 
crashing into a computer controlled car while moving 
through a mazelike track. The left joystick is used to switch 
lanes and the button is used to accelerate. It has much the 
same objective as the video game PacMan. Scoring goes as 
follows: you get 10 points for each dot you cross, and 100 
points for clearing a whole screen of dots. You begin play 
with three cars and the game is over as soon as they are 
demolished. No high scores are recorded. 

The instructors for the program are very skimpy and don't 
explain a lot of things that you need to know, such as how to 
use the joystick to control the car, or how many palyers can 
play at a time. Theonly colors on the screen are blue (maze), 
red (cars), and white (the background color). I tappears that 
only one player is allowed; and one level of play is all that we 
found. 

Derby will not go on my list of most wanted games. Better 
graphics and sound would have improved the action, but 1 
think PacMan-\'\ke games are getting old. 

(Bumblebee Software, P.O. Box 25427, Chicago, III. 60625, 
$14.00) 

— Pat Downard 



Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 




Contributions to the RAINBOW are welcome from eve- 
ryone. We like to run a variety of programs which will be 
useful/ helpful/fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best 
to make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but wedo not have time tokey in programs. All 
programs should be supported by some editorial commen- 
tary, explaining how the program works. We're much more 
interested in how your submission works and runs than how 
you developed it. Programs should be learning experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of criteria. 
Those wishing remuneration should so state when making 
submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed infor- 
mation on making submissions, please send a SASE to: 
Submissions Editor, the RAINBOW, P.O. Box 209, Pros- 
pect, KY 40059. We will send you some more comprehensive 
guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently sub- 
mitted to another publication. 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 285 



Software Revlen^^^^^^^^^^^^^r*\ 

Cosmic Clones Is Out Of 
This World 

"They shoulda named it Invaders Clones" we thought as 
we played the first game, but come to think of it, the first 
5000 hit rock 'n roll recordsall had three chords and a simple 
structure that consisted of first verse, second verse, chorus, 
third verse (which was usually the same as the first verse) and 
then a fade out. And weloved all of those records, didn't we? 
So why don't we just play this game and forget the 
intellect ualizing? 

We never got to answer that question because about that 
time a "Cosmic Clone" zapped us and the game was over. 
We only had 200-and-something points! Hey! If this thing's 
so formularized as to be boring, we ought to be able to 
stomp it into the ground in a couple of rounds, turn it offand 
forget it. 

We never got to the turn-it-off part, either. Like a record 
with a good beat, Cosmic Clones hypnotized us. We fought 
the fiends late into the night. We came to know their every 
move. We grokked the clever way the Death Layer not only 
drops bombs and closes in on you like the spiked ceiling ina 
horror movie, but returns every shot you fire that misses a 
target. 

The Clonesdivide into two bombs when hit, and you have 
to dematerialize both of them with you laser before they 
blow up your fuel cells, below. If a clone gets to the ground 
unheeded, it will zoom back up to the top and come down 
again as "Superklone." When a Superklone is hit it becomes 
two Clones, each of which becomes two bombs when hit. 

The pace was picking up faster than the Death Layer was 
comingdown. It was all too overwhelming 'cause here we 
were — hooked again. Living proof that the magic of any 
good entertainment is in its ability to make you forget 
yourself and all your intellectual constructions and have a 
good time. 

And a good time was had by all. This game is well done. (It 
even has a pause feature.) Oh, we sit around and make our 
snide remarks like everybody else. "The Death Layer should 
be graphically better." It sure is irritating to go to the title 
page so long between games," and like that. But all com- 
plaints were trivial in nature. (In fact, we have three other 
Mark Data products and find them all quite good.) Overall, 
the graphics and sound are excellent. 

After playing for hours on end we still appreciate the 
subtleties of Cosmic Clones. There are no skill levels. None 
are needed. It starts easy, which makes it easy for anyone to 
play from the startand itgetshard which keepsall of us pros 
coming back again and again. 

We are a father-and-son review team. So naturally Kat 
the Younger holds the family high score of 15.700. But he 
had help from above because at 10,000 points a Mother Ship 
started sneaking in and usinga laser to materialize morefuel 
cells for him right before my very eyes. Cosmic Clones 
requires a minimum system of 16K Extended Color BASIC. 

(Mark Data Products 4001 Alicia Pkwy No. 207, Mission 
Vie jo, Calif., 92691 $24.95 Tape, $29.95 Disk) 

— C.C, and Kat Courtney 



Software Revlew^^^^^^^^^^^^S7^\ 



Colorzap — The Game 

This program should not be confused with Colorzap, the 
utility sold by Software Options Inc. or with Colorzap, the 
disk utility published in 80- Micro. 

Colorzap, the game, is written in machine language to 
offer arcade speed even on a 16K basic machine. This is a 
very good game for computers without Extended basic. 
The feature 1 like most is, as you run up the score (bonus 
shields every 10,000 points) the skill level increases by two. 

The game keeps track of the high scores and the level on 
which each score was made. Colorzap provides you with 15 
skill levels to choose from. You are the large base in the 
center. Your mission, as described in the program, is to 
defend your "Stargate." The enemy ships appear in any one 
of four places, N, S, E and W on a compass. These are the 
four directions you can face using your joystick. The gauge 
on the left of the screen lets you know how many enemy 
ships remain during that particular wave. The gauge on the 
right tells the temperature of your laser. If you fire too 
rapidly for too long, you will overheat and lose one shield 
(shields are Spectral Associate's way of expressing lives in 
Colorzap. ). 

The different colored bars under the temperature gauge 
show how much shield energy you have remaining. When 
you complete a wave of enemy ships, something resembling 
a TIE fighter appears and it circles your base. If you don't 
hurry up and shoot it, it will fly into your base and you know 
what that means. 

The Rainbow Scoreboard can start with my son's high 
score of 50,8000. He is our resident expert on game playing 
and he likes Colorzap. 

(Spectral Associates, 141 Harvard Ave., Tacoma, WA 
98446, 16K, $9.95 cassette, $14.95 disk) 

—Ed Sehlhorst 




RAINBOWfest 

Feb. 17-19, 1984Long Beach Calif. 



286 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



DATA COMMUNICATIONS 



The Other End Of The Phone 

By Alexander B. Trevor 



More and more CoCo owners are finding that their 
computer is not only useful and fun on its own, 
but with the addition of a* modem and communi- 
cations software it opens up a whole new world of data 
communications. Hundreds of computer bulletin boards 
(BBG's) around the country offer facilities for reading and 
posting messages, and often have free programs that can be 




Computer users from around the country tie into 
CompuServe's mainframe computers in Columbus, 
Ohio. CompuServe uses Digital Equipment corpora- 
tion mainframes for extensive commercial data pro- 
cessing activities and for its Videotex service to home 
computer owners. 

downloaded to your CoCo if you have terminal software 
with "capture" capability. 

The commercial "information services" such as Compu- 
Serve, Dow Jones and the Source provide these and many 
other capabilities on a much largerscale. They are becoming 
increasingly popular, not only because of their useful data- 
bases, but because of their widespread availability via local 
telephone. In fact, using an information service is less 
expensive than using most "free" BBSs, except those in your 
local area. Long distance telephone rates are often higher 
than the charges made by these information services, partic- 
ularly evenings, nights and weekends when the service's 
rates are as low as $5.50 per hour, but long distance rates are 
still $10-$ 18 per hour. 

The information services are able to provide local access 
to their centralized "host" computers at rates less than long 
ces; CompuServe also operates its own national data net- 



( Alexander Trevor is executive vice president of computer 
resources at CompuServe. 




CompuServe's communications processors, called 
Microcodes, facilitate the flow of data throughout 
CompuServe's extensive telecommunications network. 



work. The networks lease private lines from AT&T and 
other carriers most also operate some satellite channels to 
carry because they utilize nationwide public-packet, data 
traffic -data networks. The two largest packet networks, 
Tymnet and Telenet, are used by all three information ser- 
vi-across the nation (and around the world). The lines are 
used to interconnect communications processors ("nodes") 
in each access city, and are operated at speeds from 9,600 
Baud on voice grade circuits to 56,000 Baud on special high 
bandwidth circuits. The communications processors are 
minicomputers specially designed to handle data communi- 
cations efficiently; all three networks have built their own 
special nodes. 

Besides the "high speed " leased lines that connect it to the 
rest of the network, the node supports a bank of "low speed" 
modems connected to local telephone lines. These modems 
are set up as "answer" modems (to talk to your "originate" 
modem) and usually handle all Baud rates from 1 10 Baud 
through 1200. The Bell 103 modem standard is used by all 
the networks for 1 10 through 300 Baud; at 1200 Baud there 
are two standards: Vadic 3400, and Bell 212. Tymnet sup- 
ports all three standards at all locations, but the other net- 
works have many ports that support only the Bell standards, 
since they have become by far the most widely accepted. 

When someone calls one of the ports on a network node, 
the node answers the telephone, brings up a carrier tone, and 
then listens for the corresponding "originate" tones. Usu- 
ally, the modem listens fora short timeforthe 103 tones, and 
if those are not heard, it listens for one of the 1200 Baud 



288 



the RAINBOW November 1983 



tones. If the caller is using 1200 Baud, then the modem 
modulation determines the Baud rate. But below 1200 Baud, 
it is more difficult to determine the Baud rate, since the same 
modem tones are used at all rates. The networks solve this 
problem by initially assuming a Baud rate for the first char- 
acter, then examining the character(s) they actually receive. 

Tymnet and Telenet require the user to type a carriage 
return [ENTER] in most cases as the first character; Com- 
puServe uses control-C (or carriage return for network des- 
tinations other than CompServe hosts). This initial charac- 
ter will appear as different but distinct and recognizable 
characters depending upon the Baud rate of the originating 
terminal. The node then sets the port to the appropriate 
Baud rate, and prompts the user for whatever information is 
required to complete a connection to the desired host 
computer. 



"When a user calls in to Compu- 
Serve from any location, through 
any of the networks, he may be 
connected initially to any one 
of 25 host computers." 



By use of packet protocols, the networks are able to make 
very efficient use of their expensive leased lines. Most termi- 
nal sessions consist of considerable amounts of idle (or 
"think") time; during these periods space on the long lines 
may be used by other users, so no bandwidth is wasted. If 



bandwidth were strictly reserved for each user, as in simpler 
FDM (frequency division multiplexing) or TDM (time div- 
ision multiplexing) schemes, then a 9600 Baud line could 
support only 32 300-Baud users or eight 12 Baud users. In 
practice, the networks' packet protocols support several 
times that many users. 

The network connects the user to the destination host 
computer by means of a "virtual circuit" that is a logical path 
built from the originating node through as many as 10 or 20 
nodes to the host adjacent node. The virtual circuit usually 
remains intact for the entire user session. Until recently, 
Telenet used a (theoretically) more reliable technique called 
"end-to-end" packet switching, in which every packet of 
data is separately routed through the network. This tech- 
nique is supposed to make network link failure invisible to 
the user, but has the disadvantage of being much more 
expensive because of the additional overhead in routing 
each packet and the necessity of sorting packets at the 
destination. 

Although the networks have all pretty much agreed on the 
best technique for data communications (with minor 
implementation differences), no such agreement has been 
reached on which host computer is best for an information 
service. Of course, nearly any computercan be used as a host 
— in fact, many CoCo's are used as BBS hosts. But even this 
giant of the micro world is far from having the capabilities 
required to support gigabyte databases (that's 1,000 maga- 
bytes, or over 6,300 Color Computer 156 kilobyte floppy 
disks) and the several hundred simultaneous users needing 
access to the data at any given instant. CompuServe uses 
Digital Equipment Corp. KL-10 processors in their own 



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November 1983 the RAINBOW 289 



"Vision-50" systems; Dow Jones uses IBM 4300 series com- 
puters; and the Source uses Prime computers. 

In the case of CompuServe, each user is assigned to one of 
over a dozen disk "structures," each of which consists of one 
or more 200 megabyte disk packs. These disks live on differ- 
ent host computers from day to day, but all hosts always 
know where all the packs are residing. When a user calls in to 
CompuServe from any location, through any of the net- 
works, he may be connected initially to any one of 25 host 
computers. When the user identifies himself by entering his 
"user id" number, then the host knows which host currently 
is the "home base'Tor this user. 

A new virtual circuit is then built from the originating 
node to the proper host, which then prompts the user for his 
password. It is important to direct the user initially to his 
"home base" because that is where his own personal data 
files and E-mail messages reside. 

During a session, a user may be "transported" to another 
host to gain access to a particular data base or service that 
resides on that particular system. For example, the "CB" 
simulator is a program that allows users from anywhere in 
the country to "talk" with each other via screen and key- 
board on any one of 36 public channels. (Some apparently 
do more than talk: to wit, two on-line weddings that 1 know 
of, and countless "hot tub" parties.) 

To permit any user to talk instantaneously to any other 
user with the required speed, their jobs must share a segment 
of memory, implying they must be on the same host compu- 
ter. Another time that the user must be "moved" is when he 
accesses the Official Airline Guide (OAG). This data base 
actually resides on a computer in Chicago. In either case, a 
new virtual circuit is built through the network. Moving the 



user fom one host to another takes only a few seconds, and is 
infinitely faster and more efficient than trying to copy large 
data bases around to many hosts on demand. (The latter 
technique was employed by an early information service in 
England called Prestel; even Prestel has advanced to moving 
users between hosts — they call it "gatewaying." 

The host computers used by the information services 
differ from your CoCo in a number of important respects 
besides price. The word length is larger (32 to 36 bits), the 
processors are faster and have more powerful instruction 
sets (and have more memory — up to 10 megabytes), and 
they have at least on high bandwidth path (or channel) to 
several strings of hard disk. Perhaps most important of all, 
they all have sophisticated operating system software, allow- 
ing the hardware resources to be efficiently used by many 
simultaneous users (or "timeshared"). 

The CoCo now has an operating system (OS-9) that has 
some of the features of a mainframe operating system, and, 
in fact, implements a two-user timesharing environment. 
However, I don't expect to see the information services 
running out to exchange their large machines for rooms full 
of CoCos. The reason is that in spite of their large price tags 
compared to micros, the mainframe computers are, still 
today, the leastexpensive way to provide high volume access 
to large data bases. As communicating micros become 
commonplace in homes and businesses, the information 
services and their mainframe computers will play an increas- 
ingly important role in providing easy and inexpensive 
access to elctronic mail, financial data, weather, special 
interest bulletin boards and many other services that have 
yet to be invented. 



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TRACE— Give filename It tells you which grans 

and how many bytes of each are used on the disk , 
DlSKCOPY— A selective backup for two drives 

allows you to pick which programs to copy 



290 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Launch Your Next Trip 

From X-PAD 



By Paul S. Hoffman 



Now that vacation is over, we can start dreaming of 
that even greater automobile trip we'll take next 
summer. Or maybe you'd like to check what route 
will give you a certain amount of mileage for a running or 
cycling workout; or which route is the shortest between two 
points? Maybe you'd like to measure the course of a river for 
a canoe trip or for a geography essay. This program, MAP- 
MINDER, will measure any distance, no matter how circui- 
tous or meandering, on any map (as long as your X-PAD 
Graphics Input Tablet can be slipped under the map). 

First 111 give you the highlights of how to use the pro- 
gram, and then go into detail on how it works. You will need 
your X-PAD with either the supplied menu or a piece of 
paper with the menu area marked. Specifically, you'll need 
the 10 numbered spaces on the right side of the menu, and a 
line to indicate the edge of the left menu. Start by following 
the directions on the screen: locate the map's scale (a line in 
the area by the map title that shows how many miles or 
kilometers are in an inch or so of the map). Place the scale 
part of the map on top of the X-PAD, and press the pen 
down on one end of the line, then on the other end. The 
computer will calculate exactly how long (in inches) that line 
is. Then you will need to enter the length of the line in miles 
(or whatever units are indicated on the map scale). Digits are 
entered in sequence, using the boxes on the right side of the 
menu. The numbers will come up on the screen; when you've 
finished entering the number, press the pen in the left margin 



(Paul S. Hoffman is an independent Color Computer 
programmer and designer for television and film. He is 
the author of Computers are's Semi-Draw and forth- 
coming software packages for the X-PAD. Current 
projects include a sophisticated graphic animation sys- 
tem, including 3-D perspective displays.) 



area of the pad to signal that you're through. (If you make a 
mistake, it's not much trouble to start over.) The computer 
will calculate and display the map scale in units per inch. 
Now lay your map route or part of it on the X-PAD. Start 
tracing the route with the pen (making sure you hold the pen 
straight up and down, and press just hard enough to have the 
internal switch make contact). The computer will display a 
constantly updated measurement of the total inches you've 
traced and what that means in map units. When you need to 
move the map, just pick up the pen from the surface, and 
CoCo will remember the accumulated measurements. Be 
sure to resume tracing in the same spot on the map after 
you've moved it. 

How The Program Works 

The 7" x 9" image area of the X-PAD represents 192 by 
256 measurable picture elements. Each inch in the X- 
direction is exactly one-ninth of 256 pixels (HF=256/9) 
while each vertical inch is exactly one-seventh of 192 
(VF=l29/7). Each time two points are compared, their 
horizontal separation is figured (HS=ABS(X1-X)) in pixels 
and then converted to inches by dividing by the horizontal 
factor (HF). The same is done for the vertical separation 
(VS=ABS(Y1-Y)/VF). HS and VS are then used as the 
height and base of a right-angled triangle (the line in ques- 
tions is the hypotenuse — the side opposite the 90-degree 
angle). The famous Pythagorean Theorem is used to calcu- 
late the length of the hypotenuse, which is simply added to 
all previously calculated distances. 

Testing And Adjusting Your X-PAD 

In a previous article on the X-PAD ("The Expressive, 
Expeditious, Exhilirating X-PAD," the Rainbow, January 
1983) 1 complained about how touchy the Y-adjustment was 
on my unit. I've found it handy to keep a calibration routine 
at my immediate beck and call, so I frequently tack it on to 



292 the RAINBOW November 1 983 



an X-PAD program. You'll find it here at lines 1000 to 1020. 
There are four adjustment screws under paper stickers under 
the upper right-hand corner of the X-PAD — that's the 
corner where the gray cord exits. The two holes along the 
top edge of the pad are for the X-adjustment, while the two 
along the side are for the Y-adjustment. In both cases, the 
screw closer to the corner controls the centering of that 
coordinate, while the screw away from the corner controls 
the width. Start by marking a piece of paper in the center 
(4!4" from each side in the narrow dimension, 5 V2" from each 
end the other direction). When you press the pen on this 
center mark, your data should be within two points either 
direction of 128(X), 96(Y). If it's not close, adjust the 
appropriate screw with a small flat-bladed screwdriver. 
After making sure the center is relatively accurate, check the 
X or Y width by placing the pen against the menu. On the 
left, the X-value should be within two points of zero (two 
pointsbelowzero is 254) while on the right it should beclose 
to 255 (moving to zero and above if it exceeds 255). The 
Y-value should go from zero at the top (255 or lower if it's 
less than zero) to 191 at the bottom. To increase or decrease 
the range in either direction, adjust the screw further from 
the corner. - 



Vm... 


. 01 FD 


310.., 


. 052A 


END. . 


0748 



The listing: 

10 * ********M AP-M I NDER»******** 



20 
30 
40 
60 
70 
ALE 



' **REQURES EXTENDED BASIC*** 
* ******* AND X— PAD*********** 
'**PAUL S. HOFFMAN - 9/9/83* 
HF=256/9: VF=192/7 
CLS: PRINT: PRINT" PLACE MAP SC 
ON XPAD SURFACE — THEN PRES 



AT 



ONE END OF T 



S THE PEN DOWN 
HE SCALE." 

80 G0SUB500 : ' GETS PAD DATA 
90 IF<S AND1 ) < MTHEN80 
100 X1=X: Y1=Y 

110 PRINT:PRINT"800D! NOW PRESS 
THE PEN DOWN ON THE OTHER EN 
D OF THE SCALE." 

112 G0SUB510: IF(S AND1 ) -1THEN1 12 
115 G0SUB500: IF <S AND 1 ) <> 1 THEN 1 1 
5 

120 
125 



GOSUB600: ' FIND LINE LENGTH 
PRINT: PRINT"THE SCALE WAS";L 
; " INCHES" : PR I NT "LONG. 
130 PR I NT: PR I NT" ENTER 



ON THE RI 
THE NUMBER OF U 
REPRESENTED BY 
JUST MARKED. (P 
THE LEFT MARGIN 
DONE ENTERING D 



GHT MENU MARGIN 
NITS (MILES?) 
THE LINE YOU 
RESS THE PEN IN 

WHEN YOU ARE 
IGITS. ) " 

140 G0SUB700: 'READ RIGHT MENU DI 
GITS, CREATING A STRING. 
1 50 M=VAL < I * ) : SC=M/L : ' SCALE=MAP 
UNITS PER INCH 



155 PR I NT: PR I NT "THAT MAKES THE M 
AP SCALE EQUAL ";SC; "UNITS PER I 
NCH. 

160 PRINT: PR I NT "NOW TRACE THE RO 
UTE OR WHATEVER ON THE MAP - THE 
TOTAL DISTANCE WILL BE CONTINUA 
LLY DISPLAYED. 

170 G0SUB500: IF<S AND1 ) 01THEN17 

O 

1 80 g0sub5 10:1 fs< >3then 1 70 

190 xi*x:yi-y:gosub500 

195 ifso3then170 

200 i f abs < x 1 - x > >250then300else i f 

ABS (Yl-Y) M86THEN300 

210 G0SUB600 

215 LL=LL+L 

220 D=L*SC: DD=DD+D 

225 CLS : PR I NT«5*32+6 , LL I " I NCHES 

230 PRINT«7*32+10,DD 

240 GOTO 190 

250 END 

300 PRINT«9*32," 
T OVER INTO THE 
KE A REST AND 
AP. THEN CON- 
310 S0UND5,5 
320 GOTO 170 
500 X=PEEK< 65376) 
510 S=PEEK < 65378 ) : RETURN 
600 HS=ABS<X1-X)/HF:VS=ABS<Y1-Y) 
/VF 

610 L=SQR<HS A 2+VS~2) : 'MEASURES L 

ENGTH IN INCHES 

620 RETURN 

700 1*="" 

710 G0SUB500 

720 IFSO7THEN710 

725 G0SUB5 1 0 : I F < S AND 1 ) - 1 THEN725 
730 IFX>224THENRETURN: * USE LEFT 

MARGIN TO EXIT THIS LOOP 
740 RM=INT(Y/19.2)+1 
750 ONRM G0SUB770,771,772,773,77 
4 , 775 , 776 , 777 , 778 , 779 
755 PRINTS 14*32+24, I* 
760 G0T0710 



OOOPS! YOU WEN 
MENU AREA - TA 
READJUST THE M 
TINUE TRACING. 



Y=PEEK< 65377) 



770 


I*-] 


[♦+"0" 


: RETURN 


771 


I*=] 


[*+"l" 


: RETURN 


772 


I*=] 


[«+"2" 


: RETURN 


773 


I*=] 


[*+"3" 


: RETURN 


774 


I*=] 


[♦+"4" 


: RETURN 


775 


I*-] 


[*+"5" 


: RETURN 


776 


I*=] 


[♦+"6" 


: RETURN 


777 


i*-: 


[*+"7" 


: RETURN 


778 


I*-] 


[*+"G" 


: RETURN 


779 


I«=] 


t*+"9" 


: RETURN 



1000 G0SUB500 
1010 PRINTX;YjS 
1020 GOTO 1000 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 293 



UTILITY 



Calibrating Your Disk 



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294 



the RAINBOW November 1 983 



HARDWARE 



Install Your Own 

Disk Drive "On/ Off" Indicator 



By Richard S. Ellis 



Here is a quick and easy modification for the TRS- 
80C Disk Drive that will help prevent leaving the 
drive on accidentally. Those with Disk Drives know 
that there is no "ON" indicator on the drives. With a little 
cash ($2 max), you can add a "POWER ON" LED to the 
front of the drive. 

You don't have to be an expert at soldering, nor do you 
have to be an expert at drilling, so even if you have no 
experience, you should be able to put this modification in. 
You will need the following parts: one 5" red wire, one 5" 
black wire, one 330 to 800 ohm resistor, one LED (prefera- 
bly large yellow or green), solder and superglue. If you have 
some clear fishtank air tubing it will make a more expert 
installation, otherwise, you will need some electrical tape. 
For tools, you will need a soldering iron and a drill. 
Here are the instructions: 

1) Turn off and unplug the drive. Take out the two screws 
on each side of the drive and then carefully lift the cover 
straight up. Set the cover off someplace, as you won't need it 
for this mod. 

2) Look on the right side of the drive and you will see the 
component side of a large circuit board. Refer to the at- 
tached picture and find the 5V strip. Solder a 5" red wire 
(prestripped on both ends) to the point indicated on the 
picture. You will find an unused hole in the board there but 
it may be filled with solder. Move the free end of this wire 
out of the way towards the back of the drive. 

4) On the right front of the drive above the door lever there 




is a space about 2" by 3". Look on the inside and you will see 
a recession in the plastic where the wall is thin. Pick a spot in 
the recession where you want your LED, then drill a hole the 
size of your particular LED. Use the LED and make sure 
that it will fit the way you want. 1 had a bar type LED and 

296 the RAINBOW November 1 983 




had to use a small flat file to make the hole the proper size. 
When you get the hole the way you want it and have tested to 
make sure the LED will fit, proceed to the next step. 

5) Clip the short end of the LED and both ends of the 
resistor to about l". 

6) Solder the resistor to the short lead of the LED. 

7) If you have the air tubing, slide a 4" piece over the red 
wire, then solder the red wire to the other end of the resistor 
and slide the tubing down over the LED lead. 

8) Clip the other lead of the LED to about l". 

9) Again, use the tubing if you have it and slide it over the 
black wire, then solder the black wire to the free end of the 
LED. Slide the tubing over the LED lead. 

10) If you didn't have the tubing, wrap the bare leads with 
electrical tape. 

1 1) Nowlay theassembly down, plug in your drive and turn 
it on. Did the LED light up? If not, review the steps above 
and check your LED. If it did, turn off the drive, unplug it, 
then proceed to the next step. 

12) Mount your LED, then glue it in. 

13) Replace your cover with the four screws. 

14) You are finished. 



( Richard S. Ellis, a senior morse intercept operator for 
the U.S. Navy, uses his computer for radio-teletype 
transmissions and word processing. He also has an 
amateur radio license ( KC5XS).) 



ASSEMBLY CORNER 



16K 
ECB 



All's Not Lost-Wfe\e Still Got fjQffl 



By D.S. Lewandowski 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



It seems that the final part of RAINTEXT has visited 
regions unknown, while searching for it, we have de- 
cided not to leave you withouta column for this month. 
With luck, we should have it for you next month. Here are a 
couple of programs that you may find interesting. Both are 
rather short, but the principles are different. 

Thefirst one we shall call MIMIC. Wouldn't it behandy if 
we could send a copy of anything typed on the screen to the 
printer? If you happened to be working oh an Adventure, 
(Has anyone solved Sir Randolf of the Moorsl), you would 
have hard copy to show how you finally won the game. 

To perform this feat, what we have to do is direct all 
characters being sent to the screen to the printer as well. 
Sounds difficult! Not really, our favorite computer jumps to 
a subroutine before it prints anything to the screen. The 
pointer for this routine is located at $168. So, what we can 
do is intercept this pointer to send the character to the 
screen. We send the character to the printer, then put the 
routine back on track, which sends the character to the 
screen. 

The actual program will take up only eight bytes of code! 
Sure is a shame to have to CLE A R 8,32760 just to use this 
program. I wish we could find a place in memory that BASIC 
sort of ignores. Well, there is always the memory just below 
the screen. BASIC "almost" never uses that. So we shall put 
our little program there. 

So let's 0/?<7inate the program at S3E5, which is just 
below the screen. Then, we have to move our pointer at 
$168. Loading the X register with the contents of $ 168 and 
storing it at POINT, will cause our program to contain the 
location in which the PRINT routine would normally fol- 

Listing 1: 

PAGE 0001 THE MICRO WORKS 



0001 0E00 




ORB 


$3E5 


BEL0N SCREEN 


0002 03ES BE0168 


START 


LDX 


1168 


CURRENT L0C. 


0003 03E8 BF03F8 




STX 


POINT 


SAVE L0C. 


0004 03E8 8E03F2 




LDX 


IHERE 


PATCH ADDR. 


0005 03EE BF0168 




STX 


tl68 


PLACE IT 


0006 03F1 39 




RTS 




BACK TO BASIC 


0007 03F2 2103 


HERE 


BRN 


THERE 


ON/OFF SNITCH 


0008 03F4 BDA2BF 




JSR 


IA2BF 


?#-2 CHAR. 


0009 03F7 7E 


THERE 


FOB 


$7E 


JHP OP CODE 


0010 03F8 0000 


POINT 


FOB 


0 


SPOT FOR L0C. 


0011 03FA 




END 


START 





NO ERRORS FOUND 



low. Next, we have to substitute the address of our routine. 
To do this, we load the X register with the address of HERE, 
and store it at $168. So far so good. 

No w each time a character is sent to the screen this routine 
will send it to the printer via the BSR SA2BF. Then it will 
jump to the address we stored in POINT, which is where it 
would go normally. Wait one minute! Whataboutthe BRN 
THERE ? Oh, well BRN is a Branch Never, thislineof code 
causes the program to never branch to THERE. Why do I 
wanna do that? Let's say youwish to turn this routine on and 
off. By simply typing POKE 1010,32 you will change the 
Branch Never to a Branch Always. This will, in effect, turn 
off the MIMIC routine. By typing POKE 1010,33 you turn it 
back on. 

Okay, but I don't have a printer, so what about me? I'm 
glad you asked. Listing 2 is what I call a FUN program. Are 
you bored with the normal method of clearing the screen. 
CLS, and bing, a blank screen. Let's look into that. If we 
have a blank screen, the screen is really full of $60s, which 
means anything else must equal something else. 

There must be another way. What if we load the X register 
with the start of the screen ($400) and, using it as a pointer, 
each check screen location for $60? If the location equals 
$60, we leave it alone. If not we subtract one from the 
current value until it reaches $60. That is just what the 
program in listing 2 does. Now, about DLAY, if you allow 
this program to run at full tilt, it clears the screen about as 
fast as CLS. By adding DLAY it takes a little more time, but 
this way you can see what's happening. Have fun till next 
month. 

Listing 2: 

0E00 00100 0R6 IEO0 

0E00 BE 0400 001 10 START LDI 11400 

0E03 34 04 00120 PSHS 8 

0E0S SF 00130 CLR8 

0E06 SA 00140 DLAY DECB 

0E07 27 02 00150 BEQ OK 

0E0V 20 FB 00160 BRA DLAY 

0E0B 33 04 00170 OK PULS B 

0E0D 7C 0E22 00180 INC VAR 

0E10 27 II 00190 BEQ STOP 

0E12 A6 84 00200 LOOP LDA ,X 

OEM 81 60 00210 CMPA M&0 

0E16 27 01 00220 BEQ NEIT 

0E18 4A 00230 DECA 

0E19 A7 80 00240 NEIT STA ,X* 

0E1B 8C 05FF 00250 CHP1 II5FF 

0E1E 27 E0 00260 BEQ START 

0E20 20 F0 00270 BRA LOOP 

0E22 00 00280 VAR FCB 0 

0E23 3F 00290 STOP SHI 

0EOO 00300 END START 
00000 TOTAL ERRORS 



SCREEN START 
B ON STACK 
ZERO B 
B-B-l 

10*8 EN0U6H CONTINUE 

8ET B OFF STACK 
PASS COUNTER 
253 PASSES? 

8ET SCREEN LOCATION DON'T INC X 

DOES IT EQUAL $60 

IF SO PASS IT 

NO, OK SUBTACT ONE 

PUT IT BACK AND INC X 

END OF SCREEN? 

DO IT A8AIN 

DO ENTIRE SCREEN 

PASS COUNTER 

PUT AN RTS HERE FOR BASIC 



298 the RAINBOW November 1 983 




Greetings! 

Psst! Wanna try some state of the art art? Try this: 

TO CIRCLE 

REPEAT 36(FD8 RT 10) 
END 

TO FLY 
PU 

REPEAT 10 (CIRCLE RT 36 FD 60) 
END 

TO NOSE 

REPEAT 12(FD4 RT 30) 
END 

TO EYE 

REPEAT 12(FD5 RT 30) 
PU RT90 FD 3 LT 90 PD 
REPEAT 12(FD3 RT 30) 
END 

TO EAR 

RT25 FD30 
RT 130 FD 30 
END 

TO DOG 
NOSE 

RT 20 FD 10 
RT 40 FD 40 

PU LT 150 FD 23 RT 90 PD 
EYE 

PU RT 90 FD 30 LT 90 PD 
EYE 

PU BK 33 LT90 FD 38 PD 

RT 190 FD 5 LT 15 FD 10 

LT 15 FD 10 

RT 90 F D 3 R T 90 

FD 10 RT 15 

LT85 FD20 

REPEAT 5 (RT 36 FD 4) 

FD 16 

LT 90 FD 7 

RT 90 FD 2 

PU FD 15 PD 

LT 15 FD 15 RT 10 FD 15 RT 10 FD 10 LT 5 



EAR 

LT65 FD 15 LT90 

EAR 

FD 100 

PU RT 115 FD 115 RT90 FD 40 

FLY 

END 

TO KENNEL 

REPEAT 2 (DOG LT 90 FD 95 RT 90 PD) 
END 

Wanna see another one? Try this: 

TO C1RCLE2 

REPEAT 12(FD6 RT 30) 
END 

TO CIRCLE3 

REPEAT 12(FD4 RT 30) 
END 

TO CATEAR 

FD 17 RT 135 FD II 
LT 90 FD 1 1 
RT 135 FD 17 
END 

TO CATHEAD 
CIRCLE3 
CATEAR 
END 

TO CATBODY 

PU LT 20 FD 10 PD 

C1RCLE2 

END 

TO CATTAIL 
LT20 

REPEAT 6 (FD 6 LT 30) 
END 

TO CAT 
CATHEAD 
CATBODY 
CATTAIL 
END 

TO POSITION 

PU BK 65 RT 90 FD 75 LT90 PD 
END 

TO CATCAT 

REPEAT 4 (CAT PU LT 50 FD 90 RT 90 PD) 

CAT 

END 

TO COPYCAT 
POSITION 
CATCAT 
END 

TO REPOSITION 

PU RT 130 FD 156 LT 90 FD 40 PD 
END 

TOCOPYCOPYCAT 
COPYCAT 

REPEAT 3 (REPOSITION CATCAT) 
END 



300 



the RAINBOW November 1 983 



TO C1RCLECAT 
PU BK 50 PD 
REPEAT 9 (CAT) 
END 

TO C1RCLECAT2 
PU BK 60 PD 
REPEAT 10 (CAT RT4) 
END 

Was it good? Did 1 make any mistakes? Did you figure out 
how to do it differently, or better? Try another: 

TO CTRCLE4 

REPEAT 12 (FD 3 RT 30) 
END 

TOSNAKEPOSITION 

PU RT90 FD 10 LT90 PD 
END 

TO HALFC1RCLE 

REPEAT 6 ( FD 4 RT 30) 
END 

TO HALFC1RCLE2 

REPEAT 6 (FD 4 LT 30) 
END 

TO BODY 

REPEAT 3 (HALFC1RCLE HALFCIRCLE2) 
END 

TO SNAKE 
C1RCLE4 




(HI|rtsttan 
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SNAKEPOSITION 

BODY 

END 

TO SNAKERETURN 

PULT90FD 94 RT90PD 
END 

TO SP1NSNAKE 

REPEAT 10 (SNAKE SNAKERETURN LT 36) 
END 

TO SP1NSNAKE2 

SNAKE HOME LT 36 
SNAKE HOME LT 72 
SNAKE HOME LT 108 
SNAKE HOME LT 144 
SNAKE HOME LT 180 
SNAKE HOME LT216 
SNAKE HOME LT 252 
SNAKE HOME LT 288 
SNAKE HOME LT 324 
SNAKE HOME LT 360 
END 

Don't tell me! 1 know there is an easier way to do SP1N- 
SNAKE2. And I'll let you know what it is, just as soon as 1 
figure it out myself. Now, why the results of SP1NSNAKE 
and SP1NSN AKE2 are not identical is beside me. Kris, 1 bet 
you know but aren't saying. 

1 have just started learning how to work the little eyebrow 
in the EDIT room. 1 find it a bit confusing, and wonder if 
anyone has any good ideas about exercises f or working the 
eyebrow. 

Here is what happens. First, I'm in the BREAK room. 1 
press E, and immediately I'm in the EDIT room. The little 
eyebrow hangs there in the bottom lefthand corner of the 
green screen. 

1 press the right arrow and the eyebrow moves one space 
to the right. 1 press it again, and nothing happens. That's all 
the farther it'll go, 1 guess. 

1 press the left arrow and the eyebrow moves back to its 
corner. 1 press the up arrow and nothing happens. 1 press the 
down arrow and nothing happens. 

Next, 1 press the spacebar, and discover that each time 1 
press it the eyebrow moves over. 1 guess I'm placing blank 
spaces on the screen. 1 notice now that the little eyebrow will 
move to the right and to the left when 1 press the right arrow 
and the left arrow. Something may be happening when 1 
press the up arrow and down arrow, but if it is, 1 can't tell. 

Next 1 try placing the letter "O" several times on the 
screen. 1 notice that each time 1 type an O the eyebrow 
advances one space. 1 put a whole row of Os on the bottom 
of the screen. (If 1 reach the end, that line advances one, and 
the eyebrow goes back to the left bottom corner to start 
another row — but for now I want to experiment with this 
single row of Os.) 

Okay, now 1 have some material on the screen to exper- 
iment with. I try pressing the lef t arrow and right arrow. The 
eyebrow moves in whatever direction the arrow points. 
That's neat, and it's also reasonable. Unfortunately, when 1 
try the same thing with the up arrow and down arrow, what 
happens is NOT similar. When 1 press the up arrow, the line 
of Os goes up, but the eyebrow remains in place at the 
bottom of the screen. When 1 press the down arrow, the line 
of Os goes down, but the eyebrow remains in place. 

In other words, the left arrow and right arrow move the 



302 



the RAINBOW November 1983 



eyebrow relative to the text; but the up arrow and down 
arrow move the text relative to the eyebrow. That's confus- 
ing, and I think about writing to my Congressperson regard- 
ing this sad situation. 

I have no trouble remembering that the right arrow and 
left arrow move the eyebrow, but I have had a lot of trouble 
remembering that the up arrow and down arrow move the 
image, until a friend showed me the following trick. You try 
it. 

First, erase everything youVe already typed. Next, type 
four spaces, then a single O in the fifth place. 

Press RETURN, so that the single O on the fifth space 
advances up one. Then type three spaces, a single O in the 
fourth place, another space, and a second single O in place 
six. Then press RETURN. 

Next, type two spaces, a single O in place three, three 
spaces, and a second single O in the seventh place. Press 
RETURN. 

Next, type a single O in places two and eight; press 
RETURN. Then, a single O in one and nine; press RE- 
TURN. Keeping doing the one and nine for several more 
lines, say, 10 more. Then, on the 1 ith, type a whole row of 
Os from places one through nine. 

Below that place nine "!"s (exclamation points). Do that 
for five lines. 

Once you've done all that, press the CLEAR button and 
everything disappears, except perhaps for a single O at the 
bottom of the screen. Have you erased your wonderful 
creation? No. Hit the up arrow several times, and watch 
your rocket gradually rise across the screen. Hit the down 
arrow several times, and watch the rocket gradually return 
to its silo (under the bottom of the screen). 





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Note: Our programs ore drfterent 
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That's a little boring, but try this: press SHIFT and the up 
arrow at the same time, and the rocket pops up. 

Wouldn't it be nice to have it fly up and away (past the top 
of the screen)? Why doesn't it? Try this: hit the RETURN 
key several times. Each time you do, you seem to be placing 
a blank space in the active text, and the rocket does slowly 
rise through the top of the screen. 

Once you have the rocket all the way through the top of 
the screen, press CLEAR. Then press SHIFT and the up 
arrow at the same time, and the rocket emerges from its silo 
andflies off into the clouds. In otherwords,pressingSHIFT 
and the up arrow will scroll up whatever text is in the EDIT 
room — including blank lines. 

Well, that was fun, and after doing it a few times I find 
that I have the ideas of up arrow, down arrow, right arrow 
and left arrow firmly lodged in the old cerebris mediocus. 

What does SHIFT and the down arrow do? First, I tried it 
when the rocket was up in the clouds. Nothing. But I keep 
trying it. Nothing. So SHIFTand the downarrow is not the 
opposite of SHIFT up arrow. What does it do? 

First, bring the rocket ship back down into its silo by 
pressing CLEAR. Next, raise it about six or seven lines so 
that it's halfway out. Now press SHIFT and the down arrow 
a few times. What happens? The bottom line on the screen 
disappears, and I wonder if SHIFT down arrow has just 
been erasing part of my rocket. I send it up to examine the 
damage, but am not certain what's happened. I do notice 
there is a gaping space in the middle of my rocket. 

I press CLEAR again, and this time use the up arrow once 
or twice until just the tip of the rocket is sticking out. Now I 
press SHIFTand thedown arrow three or fourtimes. What 
happens? Well, the bottom line on the screen disappears. 
But the next line up (which contains a single O) remains 
exactly where it is. Does this mean that SHIFTdown arrow 
has erased the bottom line? Am I gradually erasing the 
rocket ship, line by line, each time I press SHIFT and the 
downarrow? Let's see. Raise what's left of the rocket ship by 
pressingthe up arrow a few times until somethingappears at 
the bottom of the screen. What finally appears? Voila ! What 
appears is the missing line that you may have thought you 
erased. 

Press SHIFT and up arrow once more, and see that the 
line under that is still there. You press SHIFT down arrow 
again, and a similar thing happens. That bottom line disap- 
pears. Press SHIFT and the down arrow about three more 
times. What do you see? Nothing? Right. Nothing. What- 
ever image is on the screen remains the same. So what is 
going on 1 . 

Well, it appears that every time I press SHIFT and the 
down arrow, the text is splitting downwards. I have not 
erased the rocket. Rather, I have elongated it: if I connect 
the lines with more Os, I'll have an ICBM. I have lots of 
good ideas, but I better go — I hear thunder. I remain, 

Uncle Bert 

(W. Bert Wo oj ens bur ger (" Uncle Bert") manages his 
own hog and corn farm near Ypsilanti, Mich. He has 
recently acquired a Color Computer and is learning 
LOGO. Woofensburger's editor and assistant, Dale 
Peterson, writes for a living, and his recent books 
include " Genesis II: Creation and Recreation with 
Computers" and "Intelligent School house: Readings 
On Computers and Learning. "He is currently work- 
ing on a book about Color LOGO with Don Inman 
and Ramon Zamora, to be published in 1984.) 



304 



the RAINBOW November 1 983 



TAKING BASIC TRAINING 



Home-Crown Hints 
And Evil— Exe 

BX JOSEPH OAR 
RAIN OW CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 



It is hint time again! Newcomers to the Color Computer 
arrive unencumbered with preconceived notions. They 
must strike out on their own to solve many problems 
that crop up. Since there are no precedents for them to use as 
guides, they are apt to find startling but innovative solutions 
to problems that they had never encountered, much less 
imagined, These tailor-made solutions are quickly incorpo- 
rated into their growing storehouse of knowledge and 
become a part of their operating system. The logic is that if 
these home-brewed solutions work for them, then they will 
work for someone else. That someone else could be you! 

The old-timers, who once were newcomers, have their 
own tricks of the trade to make life a bit easier at the 
keyboard. Isn't it a shame that so many excellent tricks, 
solutions and hints lie dormant in somebody's computer 
room? 

Let's make up a rule! A hint is anything that you discover 
that serves some purpose in making the use of the Color 
Computer simpler, saves time and ultimately, is fun. Don't 
sit on a hint because you feel it is unimportant. There is no 
such animal as a useless hint. It may be ignored as irrelevant 
to an individual's system, but it isn't useless. Many newco- 
mers would like to know what you know. The rule is: pass it 
on through the Rainbow. Use simple language to explain the 
hint and help make life a bit easier for those who come after 
you to the wonderful world of the Color Computer. 

Here are a pair of home-grown hints to give you the idea. 

Do you use your printer frequently? When you detach the 
end strips from the fan-fold paper, do you toss them into the 
waste bin? Keep a cardboard box, or other container in a 
discreet location. Save the strips by dropping them into your 
special container. When loosely crumpled up, they make 
excellent packing excelsior (filler) when you mail parcels. 
They might make good kitty litter. What other uses can you 
dream up for the strips? 

Do you use cassette index labels (RS 44-62 1) to affix over 
other cassette labels? Get double duty from the labels. If you 
use the index label, carefully peel it off the waxed paper 
backing so that the center strip remains attached to the 
waxed paper. Save this residue! That leftover strip will have 
a color-coded border. Use this handy bonus strip to label file 
folders or cassette storage boxes. Conversely, if you don't 
need the index label, you can still use the center strip. Just 
peel it off and use it. Put the index label back in the packet 
for f uture use. Now, what else can you use the "excess" strip 
for? Thank RS for the free, color-coded labels. 

(Joseph Kolar is a free-lance writer and programmer 
dedicated to proselytizing for computers in general, 
and the CoCo specifically.) 



Now for some hints from the field. John W. Bowles, 
Stillwater, Okla., offers the following hint. 

When developing/ running a program that demands max- 
imum memory allocation, the procedure for tape users is to 
POKE 25,6: NEW. This clears all graphic pages reserved at 
power-up. However, this does not give one all of the availa- 
ble RAM. If the program does not require string space, a 
command of CLEAR 0 following the poke will provide an 
additional 200 bytes of RAM. CSAVE the program and 
deliver a respectable 31,207 bytes of workable RAM in a 
32K machine. 

Fred Sawtelle, Huntsville, Texas, offers the following 
hints to owners of the CGP-1 15: 

If your CGP-1 15 is in the text mode and the dip switch #3 
(on the rear panel) is set to carriage return and line feed, then 
the control code for reverse line feed, PR1NTX2, CHR$(11) 
is useless by itself. This is because the printer executes the 
command, backing up a line, and then automatically feeds 
forward a line, putting you back where you started. To 
prevent this, simply add a semicolon to the command, as 
you would to prevent automatic line feed on your TV screen: 

PR1NT#-2,CHR$(11); 

To stop CGP- \ 1 5 paper from curling up so much when it 
is nearly used up, flip the roll over so that the paper feed is 
from the top moving forward. This curls the paper back- 
ward and removes some of the tight curl. 

Fred Sawtelle also offers this hint: When working out 
bugs in a program and listing the same lines over and over, it 
gets pretty boring typing LIST 1200 — 1300 (or whatever) 
each time. Add the following lines to your program: 

3 GOTO 10 

4 CLS:LIST 1200—1300 
1302 GOTO 4 

With this, either let the program run its course or 

[BREAK] and type RUN4. 

Don Prisk, Salt Lake City, Utah, offers this tidbit: 

If you want to make the LINE command print (he color 

you want, type in DRAW"CN," "N" being the number of 

the color, before your LINE statement. 

10 DRAW"C7" 

20 L1NE(10,40)-(30,70),PSET 

Does your computer stuff (i.e., software catalogs, invoi- 
ces, newspaper clippings, etc.) become a disorganized pile of 
junk? Just use a "trapper keeper" notebook and some 
"trapper keeper" folders. Then, you can label each folder 
separately for a different software company, or whatever. 
Also, you can put your TRS-80 Microcomputer News in the 
binder. 



306 the RAINBOW November 1963 



BLACKJACKPRO 




SKILLWARE 



Michael E. Parry, our northern neigh- 
bor from Nepean, Ontario, Canada, has 
some helpful hints regarding the CTR- 
80A cassette recorder. 

To prevent wear on the keys, develop 
a habit of depressing the recorder keys 
in a certain sequence in order to avoid 
the ultimate breakdown. It goes like 
this: 

Before engaging any key, hold the 
[STOP] key down, depress the required 
key. Then, while holding it down fully, 
release the [STOP] key. 

Before operating the [STOP] key, 
first depress the engaged key, or keys, 
fully. Depress the [STOP] key and hold 
it down while releasing the engaged key. 

It takes a bit of time to develop the 
habit of operating the keys in this 
manner. However, wear is eliminated 
on the internal operating surfaces of the 
functioning keys. Try this technique 
and you will immediately notice the 
absence of frictional resistance while 
operating the keys in this manner. 

Michael Parry also suggests that you 
should never leave the [PLAY] key 
engaged, when tape motion is stopped. 
A dimple may be created on the tape. 
This may create a potential "drop out" 
type of failure. Given enough time, a 
bumpy capstan pinch roller may de- 
velop. Use the [PAUSE] key on the 
CCR-81 or the [STOP] key on the 
CTR-80A to disengage the capstan dur- 
ing lengthy pauses. 

Here are a few home-grown hints: 

Back to the CTR-80A! Haven't you 
often wished you could set the cassette 
counter to a desired number to avoid 
lots of winding and rewinding, when 
copying a taped program embedded far 
into a 60-minute tape? Save your next 
burnt-out cassette tape, preferably, a 
60- or 90-minute one. With a black, felt- 
tipped pen, print"COUNTER"on both 
sides of the tape, after erasing or taping 
a new label over the old one. 

Suppose you CLOADed a program 
that ended at counter number 220. You 
take the tape out of the cassette. Pop in 
a new tape and CSA VE'W. You eject the 
tape and decide to put in the original 
tape in order to call some other pro- 
gram. You recall that the program end- 
ed at 220. But, the counter is at some 
other number. 

Rewind, reset the counter and ad- 
vance back to the desired location? No 
more! 

Pop in the "COUNTER" cassette. 
Run in [FORWARD] or [REWIND] 
until the desired number appears on the 
counter. Stop! Eject "COUNTER." Put 
in the tape that you know is set at loca- 



tion 220. You now are properly orient- 
ed. 

You don't care where you are on the 
counter cassette. Keep it handily lo- 
cated near your recorder. 

The only cautionary is that you must 
definitely know where you are located 
on the tape. When in doubt, or if you are 
CSA VING with an important program, 
do it the hard way, until you are familiar 
with the system, to avoid the grief of 
recording over an existing program. 
The more you use this system, the more 
it grows on you. 

When creating a program, it is gener- 
ally good practice to assign blocks of 
line numbers for each routine or part of 
your program. Do not RENUM 10,10, 
10 or some other equivalent, in the mid- 
dle of expanding or creating a program. 
Even though it makes a neat, orderly 
numbered program, it may confuse you. 
You lost your assigned block series and 
also lost your mental line-number im- 
age of your program. This will slow 
down your concentration until you fig- 
ure out where you are. 

Consider how much easier it is to key 
in a program that has blocks of line 
numbers assigned to elements of a pro- 
gram. Consider the neat, but mind- 
numbing program that is listed numeri- 
cally from 10 to 100, incremented by 1 . 
Haven't you had the exasperating and 



tedious experience of keying in such a 
program? Wasn't it difficult to keep 
your place? 

Since all of these hints may have been 
useless to you, let's have a little fun! Key 
in the Evil-Eye listing. Make a backup 
copy. Look over the listing! RENUM 
1,1,1 and LIST. Look it over! RENUM 
10,1,10 and LIST again. Look it over. 
Aren't you sorry that you renumbered 
it? Type NEW; get your backup copy; 
CLOAD "EVIL-EYE." 

Have a little fun with Evil-Eye. Alter 
orimproveit. Delete lines 220,300,320, 
400. It may not be quicker, butyougeta 
different presentation of the same de- 
signs. 

Add the following: 

500 FOR X+1T03 

510 CIRCLE(129,30),X,1 

520 NEXT X 

That is the scoop for putting a pupil 
in the top eye. Put in the other pupils. 

How would you alter the routine for 
the four outer eyes, to make the eyes 
appear more round (increase the black 
area)? How would you make the pupils 
flash on and off? 

Give it your best shot and if you get 
frustrated or want to show me what you 
came up with, drop me a card at 1709 
Dickinson St., Inverness, Fla., 32650. 
Have fun at the keyboard. >^ 



November 1 983 the RAINBOW 307 



A Better Method For 
Washing Your Disks 



By David and Thomas Szlucha 



There are several ways to wash your disks. You could 
gently scrub them in a mild solution of diskwasher 
soap and water but this does not always work well 
because the insides of the jackets get soggy and are difficult 
to dry. A better way is to use the utility program presented 
here called Diskwash. Diskwash is a program designed to 
work with the Radio Shack Color Disk Operatingsystem. It 
was patterned after a similar program called Wash available 
to CP/ M users. 

Diskwash is a multifunctional disk utility designed to help 
maintain orderly disks and allow easy file transfer to other 
disks. When Diskwash is 

run, you are presented with P 
a menu of items to select 
from as you step through 
the directory of files and 
programs present on that 
disk. You are allowed to 
COPY, RENAME, 
DELETE, or PRINT 
(hardcopy) the directory of 
the currently logged-on 
drive. You can also elect to 
change the current drive or 
the disk being examined. 
Without this utility, many 
of these functions can take 
12 to 18 or more keystrokes 
to accomplish. Often, you 
must repeat the procedure 
because it is so easy to 
forget the required exten- 
sion or misspell a filename. The beauty of Diskwash is that it 
is almost automatic with usually only one or two keystrokes 
required to carry out a function. The computer now does all 
of the hard work, such as remembering spelling, file exten- 
sions and the syntax of the commands. This program has 
not been made so automatic that you accidentally kill the 
wrong file; with the DELETE command you are asked "Are 
you sure?" So pay attention — do not respond to that cue 
with reckless abandonment. 

The heart of Diskwash starts on line 1 40, a routine to read 
the names of existing files from the directory track with the 
very powerful DSKI$ command. This routine was taken 
almost directly from Chapter 1 1 of the disk operating man- 




ual. Although I have read some criticism of the disk manual 
for lacking detail, I believe that Tandy has revealed many 
useful concepts which can be helpful in building handy 
utilities such as this. The disk manual is well worth the effort 
to study. There are many helpful gems amongst its pages. 

Line 80 utilizes the rather well-known break key disable 
routine to help prevent accidental disruptions of the pro- 
gram. The directory printout routine in line 960 is a pre- 
viously documented POKE which routes output automati- 
cally to the printer. It creates a single column printout 
exactly as it would appear on the screen. 

Try washing your disks 
with Diskwash. I guarantee 
that once you use it, this 
program will become one 
of your most used utilities. 

It saves so much time. If 
you don't like the directory 
print format, change it. If 
you want to add a function, 
there is plenty of room on 
the screen, see lines 400 — 
620 of the program for the 
input selection routine. 
In the way of explana- 
tion, Diskwash works with 
both single and multiple 
drive systems. If you are 
doing a COPY with a sin- 
gle drive system, be sure to 
insert the destination disk 

when asked, then be especially sure to remove it and reinsert 
the original disk when you are through. If you don't, you will 
only end up confusing yourself because the directory of the 
original disk is stored in a buffer and will be shown to you 
instead of the "new" disk which is in the drive. If you desire 
to change disks, select this option from the menu after you 
insert the new disk. Also, be sure to PCLEAR1 before 

(David Szlucha is a student in Minerva Del and High 
School, Fairport, New York, and is planning to pursue 
a career in computers. He collaborated on this article 
with his father, Thomas, who is a frequent contributor 
to Rainbow.) 



308 



the RAINBOW November 1 983 



loading this program, especially when you plan to transfer 
(COPY) large files so that the computer can use all the 
available memory for data storage. Because Diskwash is 
written in BASIC, if a disk error occurs, you will drop out of 
the program. If this happens simply retype RUN and try 
again. 

Key in the program carefully and test it on a "scratch" disk 
to make sure that it functions correctly. You cannot be too 
careful with a program of this type when working with the 
precious information stored on your disks. Once Diskwash 
is up and running, throw away your scrub brush. Your disks 
will be clean and tidy and you will no longer have diskpan 
hands. 



90 DRIVE S 
100 ' 

110 G0SUB500 
120 X«3 

130 PR I NT8480 , " 



PLEASE WAIT. 



The listing: 



10 'DISKWASH 1.1 
20 * DAVID SZLUCHA 
30 '14 GREAT GARLAND RISE 
40 ' FAIRPORT N.Y. 14450 
50 * 7/11/83 
60 CLEAR2000 
70 B=143:S=0 

80 POKE &HF8,&H32:P0KE &HF9,&H62 

:poke &hfa,&hic:poke8<hfb,8<haf:po 

KE&HFC, &H7E: POKE&HFD, &HAD: POKE&H 
FE , &HA5 : POKE&H 1 9A , &H39 : POKE&H 1 9B 
, &H0 : POKE&H 1 9C , &HF8 : POKEScH 1 9 A , «<H 
7E 



140 DSKI* S,17,X,A*,B* 
1 50 C*= A*+LEFT* < B* , 1 27 > 
160 NAM* (0) -LEFT* <C*, 8) 
170 EXT*(0)«MID*(C*,9,3) 
180 FOR N=l TO 7 
190 NAM*(N)«MID*<C*,N*32+1,8> 



F 120. . . 


. 012A 
0262 


200 


EXT*(N)=MID*(C*, 


9+N*32,3) 


250 


210 


TYP*(N)=MID*(C*, 


13+N*32, 1) 


490. . . 


. 043E 


220 


NEXTN 




720 


0682 


230 


IF FL=0 THEN N=0 


ELSE N=7 


END. . 


. 08D7 


240 


IF LEFT* (NAM* (N) 


, 1)=CHR*(255 



TRS-80 COLOR BASIC 

by BOB ALBRECHT 

This entertaining self-instructional book is packed with 
games, experiments, scores of intriguing challenges, and 
activities related to fantasy role-playing games. The 
ideal introductory aid for kids, parents and teachers 
uiing the Color Computer. 

John Wiley & Sons $9.95 
605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS \ 

by DON IN MAN fab/W&W^ 

Explore the creative and imaginative blending of computers 
and color. This exciting book will enable you to explore 
all the graphics capabilities of Extended Color BASIC. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 
1 1480 Sunset Hills Rd., Reston, VA 22090 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS 

FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER a J 

by DON INMAN and KURT INMAN fy&QflB*" 

This book is specific to the TRS-80 Color Computer with 
applications using sound and graphics to illustrate how an 
assembler can be used to perform feats that would be quite 
difficult, if not impossible in the BASIC language. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 



DYMAX, P.O. 310, MENLO PARK.CA 94025 

Dymax orders must be prepaid via check, money order, Visa 
or Mastercard. Sorry, no Purchase Orders or COD orders. 
Please add $2.00 shipping and handling. California residents 
add 6% sales tax. 



) THEN 310 

250 IF LEFT* (NAM* <N> , 1 >=CHR*<0> 

THEN 310 

260 PRINTS480, " 

270 PRINT@416,NAM*<N) 5 " / "% EXT* (N 

). ii ■ ■■ . 
» • » 

280 G0SUB380:FL«0 

290 PR I NTQ384 , " " : PR I NT : PR I NT 

300 PR I NT«384 , " DR I VE : " S 

310 IFI*="B" THEN350 

320 N»N+l:IF N<8 THEN 240 

330 X=X+l:IF X<12 THEN 130 

340 GOTO 120 

350 I FN >OTHENN-N- 1 : Q0T0240 

360 IFN=0 THEN FL=1 : X=X-1 : IFX<3 

THEN X-ll ELSE GOTO 130 

370 GOTO 130 

380 I*=INKEY* 

390 G0SUB920 



400 


IF 


I*-"R" 


THEN 


650 


410 


IF 


I*=" " 


THEN 


RETURN 


420 


IF 


I*="X" 


THEN 


END 


430 


IF 


I*»"B" 


THEN 


RETURN 


440 


IF 


I*-"P" 


THEN 


960 


450 


IF 


I*="D" 


THEN 


730 


460 


IF 


I*="C" 


THEN 


780 


470 


IF 


I*="S" 


THEN 


850 


480 


IF 


I#=»N" 


THEN 


890 


490 


GOTO 380 






500 


CLS: PRINT 


" 'DISKWASH' 



310 



the RAINBOW November 1983 



E SZLUCHA" 
510 PRINT 
520 PRINT" 
ION" 

530 PRINT" 
PRINTER" 

540 PRINT" 
FILE" 

550 PRINT" 

ILE " 

560 PRINT" 

FILE" 
570 PRINT" 



COMMAND 



FUNCT 



DIR TO 



RENAME 



COPY F 



DELETE 



EXIT T 



r UTILITIES AND GAMES 

FOR THE 
COLOR COMPUTER 

BACKUP $9.95 

Speed up disk backups, helps to recover 
crashed disks. Bypass I/O errors and fix 
many disk problems. 

CATALOG $9.95 

An automatic disk file cataloging system. 
File the directories of your disks. 

COPYTAPE $9.95 

Copy, merge, and backup your tape based 
software. Works even with most popular 
pre-loader tapes. 

CZAP $9.95 

A disk inspect and modify routine. Learn 
how disks work, fix problems on your 
disks. 

CCRPM $12.95 

A disk drive speed checking routine. 
Displays on your screen the current, 
average, high, and low speeds of your 
drive. Complete with instructions for 
correcting the speed of your disk drive. 

NEATD1R $6.95 

Places the file names of your disk 
directory into alphabetical order. Makes 
finding programs on your disks easy. 
Keeps your disks in order. 

OFFLOAD $9.95 

Create tape backups of your disks. A disk 
to tape, tape to disk backup system. 

ONEKR $12.95 

An error handler for BASIC programs. 
Allows your program to receive control 
whenever any error occurs. Take control 
and fix your problems. 

TAPEDIR $9.95 

Create a directory of your tapes. Lists 
program name, length of program, start, 
end, and transfer addresses for all 
programs on your tapes. 

TAPELIB $12.95 

A BASIC tape subroutine append routine 
and a starter library of 5 subroutines. 
Create your own subroutine library on 
tape to append to your programs. 

TAPEXFER $9.95 

Load your tape programs to disk auto- 
matically. Great for Chromassette sub- 
scribers, automatically loads an entire 
issue to disk. 

TREK80C $14.95 

The classic Star Trek computer game. A 
real time game with moving Klingons and 
action graphics. 

Please add $1.00 shipping and handling 
on all orders. Pa. residents add 6% sales 
tax. Canada orders must be paid in 
American funds. No COD or charge cards, 
send check or money order only to: 
A.M. HEARtf SOFTWARE 
602 S. 48th Street 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19143 
Write for a free catalog of these and other 
products. 
^bealeMnquine 

31 2 the RAINBOW November 1983 



O BASIC" 

580 PRINT" SPACE BAR FOR WAR 
D" 

590 PRINT" B BACK" 

600 PRINT" S CHANGE 

DRIVES" 

610 PRINT" N CHANGE 

DISK" 
620 PRINT"DRIVE: "S 
630 RETURN 
640 GOTO 500 

650 LINE INPUT "NAME ";N*: PRINT; 
660 IF LEN<N*>>8 OR LEN<N$><1 TH 
EN 710 

670 E$=EXT*<N> 

680 PRINTS480, " RENAMING., 
ii • 

690 RENAME NAM* (N) +"/ "+EXT* (N) T 
O N*+"/"+E* 
700 G0T0110 
710 G0SUB300 
720 RETURN 

730 LINE INPUT "ARE YOU SURE ?<Y>/ 
<N> "iS% 

740 IF S*<>"Y" THEN RETURN 

750 PRINTS480, " DELETING 

II » 

... 9 

760 KILL NAM*(N)+"/"+EXT*(N) 
770 G0T0110 

780 LINE INPUT" DESTINATION DRIVE 
";D* 

790 IF D*>"3" OR D*<"0" THEN RET 
URN 

800 S1=S:D=VAL(D*> :S*=STR*(S) :S* 
=RIGHT*<S», 1) 

810 IF S1=D THEN COPY NAM*<N>+"/ 
"+EXT* (N) +" : "+S*: G0SUB500: RETURN 
820 PRINT©480, " COPYING. . 

. "; :COPY NAM*(N)+"/"+EXT*(N)+": " 
+S* TO NAM*(N)+"/"+EXT*(N)+": "+D 

830 GOSUB 500 
840 RETURN 

850 LINE INPUT "DRIVE ";S»:S=VAL(S 
*) 

860 IF S>3 OR S<0 THEN S=0 :RETU 
RN 

870 DRIVE S 
880 GOTO 100 

890 PRINT:PRINT" INSERT NEW DISK 
AND" 

900 LINE INPUT "PRESS ENTER "«Q* 

910 GOTO 110 

920 IF B>255 THEN B=143 

930 PR I NTCHR* (B) ; : FORP= 1 T075 : NE X 

TP:PRINTCHR*(8> ; 

940 B=B+16 

950 RETURN 

960 P0KE111,254:DIR 

970 RETURN 



EDUCATION NOTES 



Can It Recite 
The 'Pledge 
Of Allegiance'? 



By Steve Blyn 



I can remember taking much abuse from my colleagues 
over the initial purchase of my Color Computer shortly 
after it became available. Its capabilities were basically 
unknown at that time. Everyone was uncertain of its 
abilities. 

Over the past two years, all that has changed . We can each 
point out arcade games that graphically match those of any 
other computer. Alternate DOS's allow us to use very 
sophisticated business programs. There are also many fine 
educational software programs. We can certainly hold our 
heads high now when we compare the attributes of the CoCo 
with other micros on the market. But then again, there's 
Texas Instruments. 

Why mention Texas Instruments? Not a very impressive 
computer at all. True, but it always talked. 1 have always 
liked their Speak and Spell and Speak and Math self- 
contained games. Even E.T. liked them. Early on, Texas 
Instruments had a Type and Talk program pack for their 
computer. I could not believe the clarity of the voice quality 
when 1 first tried it over a year ago. 

Of course, it was not programmable or usable within a 
program. It merely repeated or parroted whatever you typed 
on the keyboard. But, even that was certainly impressive and 
something that my computer could not do. Think of the 
educational possibilities of a talking CoCo! 

I have always felt that the addition of voice to many 
educational programs would be of great value and 1 am sure 
that this will be a reality in the future. Of course, voice is not 
necessary for all programs. A high school student studying 
an SAT program would no doubt be greatly annoyed and 
consider it a waste of time to hear the computer say, "Great, 
Charlie, you got this example correct." But a preschooler 
would love to hear that message. A balance of which pro- 
grams in the future will contain voice will, I'm sure, be 
achieved by the various educational software companies. 

There are entire groups of people that will benefit from 
educational voice-aided programs in the future. There is a 
whole class of speed-impaired people who will find voice 
synthesizers of great personal use. The blind, many of whom 
are already touch typists, will be able to more fully partici- 
pate in using computer software by hearing questions and 
responses. Children who are too young, or otherwise unable 
to read will be able to participate and be rewarded in many 




more programs. And of course, the normal child will be 
attracted to using many of the new talking programs. 

The situation has changed radically over the past few 
months. Several fine talking programs have emerged. 1 am 
referring to computer rather than cassette-generated speech. 
There are two methods that the companies use to create 
speech. One is software-based and the other is hardware- 
based. 

The method of using software to generate speech is, of 
course, much cheaper: All you pay for is the program on 
cassette. The tape that you buy contains digitized instruc- 
tions for generating phonemes or sounds. The phonemes 
can be combined by you into any words or sentences you 
desire. These programs are a real bargain. The drawback is 
the often criticized sound of "computer-generated voice." 

(Steve Blyn teaches both exceptional and gifted child- 
ren, holds two master's degrees and has won awards 
for the design of programs to aid the handicapped. He 
and his wife, Cheryl, own Computer Island.) 



31 4 the RAINBOW November 1983 



These programs have a distinct computer quality to them. 
As the author of these programs tries to improve their sound 
quality with more instructions and rules, he must obviously 
use more memory space. This leaves you little room to 
include your program so that the final version actually does 
something beyond parroting what is typed on the keyboard. 

The second method utilizes a Votrax voice synthesizing 
chip. This is contained in a ROM pack and is plugged into 
the slot on the side of the computer. These packs contain a 
hardware voice synthesizer. A software program is included 
on tape to interface the CoCo to the Votrax. 

I don't believe anyone would really be fooled into think- 
ing that this type of speech were really a human being 
speaking, but the voice quality is truly exceptional. It is clear 
and understandable. The method of appending your own 
program to the synthesizer's program is similar in both types 
of voice programs. The drawback to the hardware systems 
has been the high cost. 

The July issue of the Rainbow contains an article called 
"Cheap Talker for Our CoCo" by John R. Kelty. I was very 
excited after reading it. He described how anyone could 
purchase the Votrax chip and other parts necessary to con- 
struct their own voice synthesizer forabout $80. 1 was all set 
to purchase the equipment when my wife reminded me that I 
am allergic to schematic diagrams. She is quite correct. 
After viewing them for more than 30 seconds, I begin to get 
dizzy. After one minute, I cry. Constructing hardware peri- 
pherals is definitely not my forte. 

Recently, Bob Rosen of Spectrum Projects sent me a 
sample of his new Spectrum Speaker to field test. It is a 
hardware system containing a Votrax chip within a ROM 
pack and a cassette program to create the speech on a CoCo. 
The speech is as good as the original Texas Instruments 
speech that I admired. A knob in the side of the ROM pack 
even allows you to change the pitch of the voice at will. It has 
an immediate mode for voice input, a mode to save speech to 
cassette, and incorporating your own programs with speech 
are a breeze. Best of all, Spectrum is retailing the complete 
package tested and assembled for only $69.95. 

We often find that educators lag well behind in utilizing 
technological improvements. Let's not let that happen this 
time. The technique to include your own program into any 
of the Voice Paks is similar. I will illustrate this from the 
Spectrum Speaker's program because that is the one with 
which I am most familiar. 

The Spectrum Speaker's accompanying software con- 
tains two programs. The first is a short BASIC program 
whose main purpose is to access the machine language pro- 
gram. The ML program contains the speech-phoneme direc- 
tions necessary to interface between the CoCo and the ROM 
pack to create speech. The ML program must be loaded 
before any speech can be created. This may beaccomplished 
in either of two ways. 

You may LOAD the BASIC program which will load the 
M L program for you. Then return to BASIC and type NEW. 
This will remove the basic program but leave the ML 
program intact. You may also choose to begin fresh and 
have your program load the ML program. This particular 
ML program begins at location &H2600. (This program is 
for the 16K version only.) 

10 IF PEEK(&H2600)=&H7F AND PEEK(&H2601)= 
&H37 THEN 50 
This line checks to see if the ML program is already loaded. 

20 PCLEAR 1: CLEAR 2500,&H25FF 
Clear memory space for the program. 



30 CLS0: PRINT "LOADING M/L" 
Clears screen. 

40 CLOADM "TRNSLT16" 
Loads the ML program. 

50 DEFUSR2=&H2605 
Defines the location of the text conversion program. 

That's it. You are now free to create any type of BASIC 
program. Assign a string name to anything that you want 
spoken and the computer will speak it through a USR 
function. For example: 

60 A$="HELLO FROM RAINBOW MAGAZINE" 

70 U$=USR2(A$) 

You may program many types of string information for 
your computer to speak. Here is an example of reading, 
printing and speaking DATA. 
80 B$="MY FRIENDS ARE" 
90 FOR T = 1 TO 5 
100 READ C$ 
110 PRINT B$+C$ 
120 U$=USR2(B$+C$) 
130 NEXT T 

140 DATA CHERYL,STEVE,ADAM,DAVID,SHARI 

All of the speech programs work in a similar fashion. 
They easily permit you to insert speech intoalmost any kind 
of BASIC program that you write. By spelling the words 
phonetically, you may even try any foreign language. The 
Votrax is above 90 percent accurate in English pronuncia- 
tion and will certainly prove to be a great aid to educational 
programs of the future. ^ 



MYSTERIOUS 



ISLE 



ffi. 



GREAT NEW TEXT ADVENTURE GAME! 

You vaguely remember being put in the 
lifeboat as the ship was sinking. Now you 
awaken on the beach of MYSTERIOUS 
ISLE . . . alone in the small battered boat. 
Can you find the pirate f s fabulous treasure 
and escape with it and your life!! 

TRS-80 Color Computer* 

Requires 16K Extended Basic 

CASSETTE $21.95 

including postage 

Send check or money order to: 
Computer Dynamics 

3640 Summitridge Lane 
Orange, California 92667 

•TM Tandy Corp. /Z 



Novem ber 1 963 the RAINBOW 317 



CORRECTIONS 



Paul Hoffman reports that, "I don't know what 1 was 
thinking of at the time, but . . In his article, "This Peri- 
pheral Acquaintance Is A Real PAL" (September 1983, 
page 82), Paul gave the wrong offset address for loading a 
picture from tape. Instead of &HC000, you should use 
&HF7FF. 



W. H. Barnes, of Naples, Fla., dropped in to report that a 
few characters are missing from the end of line 55 of the 
listing for Mike Dubuc's "Try These Test Patterns On Your 
Color Monitor. 11 The line seems to end with GOT. 

Correctly, line 55 ends with GOTO 40. It might be neces- 
sary to take out a few spaces to ensure that this last portion 
of a very long line stays in. 



Bob Tyson, author of "Strategy Football" (August 1983, 
page 234), writes to say that Joe Fisher of Denver, NC, has 
found a "mistake/' 

"1 call it a mistake rather than a 'bug' because it didn't 
crash the game or create any weird effects," says Tyson. "It 
just allowed for a 104-yard field goal!" 

My mistake," he continues, "was in my logic of determin- 
ing the success or failure of the kick. 1 didn't anticipate such 
an attempt. The fix for it is simple (unless you like super- 
human kickers)." Just change line 278 to read: 

278 I=(3-2*BL)*YL*KL:1F 1>=50 THEN279 ELSE 285 



Poke Display 

By Andrew Ilowit 



Here, in the tradition of Roy G. Biv, (who is he, 
anyway?) is a short and simple program whose main 
purpose is to demonstrate a method of printing on 
the screen with pokes instead of print commands. 

Line 10 contains the poke positions for video. Line 20 
pokes each position with the ASCII code of the character to 
be displayed. Line 16 displays at the bottom corner of the 
screen the ASCII code of the displayed character. This 
display gets partially covered up by the last character (code 
255). By using the [SHIFT] and [@] key you can ascertain 
the ASCII code of a displayed character. 

The concept used here can become very useful for title 
pages for programs. In the April 1983 Rainbow, Jim 
Schmidt used these methods to display his title, and in lines 
620 — 670 to display the binary for a Hex number. 

The listing: 

1 CLS 

10 FOR X=1024 TO 1035 STEP2 

15 Y=Y+1 

16 PRINT@508,"";:PRINTUSING"##r;Y; 
20 POKEX,Y 

25 FOR Z=l TO 100:NEXTZ 

27 IF Y>254 GOTO 35 

30 NEXT 

35 GOT035 ^ 



WEST BAY 

ROUIf I BOX 666 

WHIlf SlONF VIRGINIA ^ ? *) 7 H 



John Fraysse has pointed out a small glitch in his Mara- 
thon program which will cause big problems if not attended 
to. The problem is in the DA TA statement in line 31 on page 
30 of your October Rainbow. Remove the final datum, 
along with its preceding comma from line 32 — that is, the 
"19" at the end of the line and the comma before it. Now, 
change the " 1 9" into a 198, and put it at the beginning of the 
DATA statement in line 32. Line 31 now ends with 87 and 
line 32 now begins: 32 DATA 198,15,(etc). 

A quirk only allows the first two digits of 198 to print at 
the end of line 31, so it must be dropped down to the 
beginning of the next line. 



Firmware Him . . . 

For Your Portable . . . 

If you have one of Radio Shack's new TRS-80 Model 100 
portable computers, you need PCM, the Portable Comput- 
ing Magazine. It's from Falsoft, Inc., publishers of the 
Rainbow. The new monthly is now in its fourth issue. 



' INVENTORY ONE" - (BY ALAN ROUSE) EFFICIENT, EASY TOg 
USE INVENTORY PROGRAM: SMALL BUSINESS, HOMES, CLUBS, g 
P^tfl RECORDS 16K, 148 32K. PRINTS INVENTORY STATUS AND vi 

• mAINBOW 

PEOMB REPORTS. BE RIGHT! 16-32K EXT TAPE $20.00 £ 
8 " GRAPH ONE' - COLOR SCREEN BARGRAPHS IN SECONDS. MAKE % 
V- BUSINESS PLANS COME ALIVE. 1A-32K EXT TAPE $ 8.00 * 
ft IK -GRAF' -PRINT BARGRAPHS, EPSON OR OK I DATA PRINTER, 3 
:ji/f^wl3 MINUTES. NO SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM NEEDED. PRODUCES:':;: 
5?*$f°*PH0T0READY GRAPHS, MODIFIABLE. 8-32K EXT TAPE $12.50 % 
" FILE ONE" - SMALL DATABASE PROGRAM FOR FILES, RECIPES, % 
lij AD&RESSES. PRINTS MAIL LABELS. 16-32K EXT TAPE $12. 50 S 
i ' FAMILY PACK ONE " - FUN, EDUCATION, NO GAMES. USEFUL AT:j:j 
§ HOME, BUSINESS. SHOW FRIENDS. 16-32K EXT TAPE $12.50 % 
S " IDQTHINK* - DO COMPUTERS THINK? 3 PROGRAMS WILL MAKE ji: 
YOU WONDER, PONDER, GUESS. 16-32K EXT TAPE $12.50?: 
•: ^S PANISH ONE" - WORDS, PHRASES, SPANISH OR ENGLISH, HAS •:•: 
•:/A^WsQUN0ING GUIDES FOR SPEAKING. 1&-32K EXT TAPE $ 8.00$: 
::; RA ' ^ANISH TWO' - MORE ADVANCED. 14-32K EXT TAPE $ 8.00$: 
j: " HONlTofl ONE" - SMALL MONITOR. 16-32K EXT TAPE $ 6.00:;:; 
£ FOR EDUCATION, PRE-SCHOOL. 16-32K EXT TAPE, EACH $ 6.00-;- 
•:• " LETTERS ONE" - ALPHABET WITH COLORS AND SOUND CUES. K 
NUMBER LEARNING (1-12). 



"NUMBERS ONE" 



AS ABOVE. 



ft INCLUDES POSTAGE COSTS. IF VIRGINIA, ADD « SALES TAX. & 

&:y:*::::::: : ::: : ::::: : :::::v 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 319 



RAINBOW Info 



How To Read Rainbow 

Please note that all the BASIC 
program listings you will find in the 
Rainbow are formatted for a 32- 
character screen — so they will show up 
just as they do on your CoCo screen. 
One easy way to check on the accuracy 
of your typing is to compare what 
character "goes under" what. If the 
characters match — and your line 
endings come out the same — you have 
a pretty good way of knowing that your 
typing is accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you 
the minimum system a program needs. 
But, do read the text before you start 
typing. 

Finally, the little cassette symbol on 
listings indicates that program is 
available through our Rainbow On Tape 
service. An order form for this service is 
on the insert card bound in the 
magazine. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
S6AL 

The Rainbow Seal 

The Rainbow Certification Seal is our 
way of helping you, the consumer. The 
purpose of the Seal is to certify to you 
that any product which carries the Seal 
has been physically seen by us and that 
it does, indeed, exist. 

Manufacturers of products — 
hardware, software and firmware — are 
encouraged by us to submit their 
products to the Rainbow for 
certification. We ascertain that their 
products are, in actuality, what they 
purport to be and, upon such 
determination, award a Seal. This lets 
you know that we have seen the product 
and that it does, indeed, exist. 

The Seal, however, is not a "guarantee 
of satisfaction." The certification 
process is different from the review 
process. You are encouraged to read 
our reviews to determine whether the 
product is right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship 
between advertising in the Rainbow and 
the certification process. Certification is 
open and available to any product 
pertaining to CoCo. A Seal will be 
awarded to any commercial product, 
regardless of whether the firm 
advertises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of 
instances of violation of Seal use. 



Using Machine Language 

Machine Language programs are one 
of the f eatu res of theRainbow. There are 
a number of ways to "get" these 
programs into memory so that you can 
operate them. 

The easiest way is by using an Editor- 
Assembler, a program you can purchase 
from a number of sources. 

An editor-assembler allows you to 
enter mnemonics into your CoCo and 
then have the editor-assembler 
assemblethem intospecific instructions 
that are understood by the 6809 chip 
that controls your computer. 

When you use an editor-assembler, all 
you have to do, essentially, is copy the 
relevant instructions from the Rainbow's 
listing into CoCo. 

Another method of getting an 
assembly language listing into CoCo is 
called "hand assembly." As the name 
implies, you do the assembly by hand. 
This can sometimes cause problems 
when you have to set up an ORIGIN 
statement or an EQUATE. In short, you 
have to know something about 
assembly to hand assemble some 
programs. 

Use the following program if you wish 
to hand assemble machine language 
listings: 

10 CLEAR200,&H3F00:I=&H3F80 

20 PRINT "ADDRESS:";HEX$(I); 

30 INPUT "BYTE";B$ 

40 POKE l,VAL("&H"+B$) 

50 l=l+1:GOTO 20 

This program assumesyou havea 16K 
CoCo. If you have 32K, change the 
&H3F00 in Line 10 to &H7F00. 



What's A CoCo 

CoCo is an affectionate name which 
was first given to the TRS-80 Color 
Computer by its many fans, users and 
owners. As such, it is almost a generic 
term for three computers, all of which 
are very much alike. 

When we use the term CoCo, we refer 
to the TRS-80 Color Computer, the TDP 
System-100 Computer and the Dragon- 
32 Computer. It is easier than using the 
three "given" names throughout Me 
Rainbow, 

In most cases, when a specific 
computer is mentioned, the application 
is for that specific computer. However, 
since the TDP System-100 and TRS-80 
Color are, for all purposes, the same 
computer in adifferent case, theseterms 
are almost always interchangable. 



The Rainbow Check 

The small boxes which you see with 
programs in the Rainbow are our RAIN- 
BOW CHECK program, which is 
designed to help you type in programs 
accurately. 

The check program will count the 
number of characters you type in. You 
can then compare the number the 
RAINBOW CHECK gives you to those 
printed in the Rainbow. On longer pro- 
grams, some benchmark lines are given. 
When you reach the end of one of those 
lines with your typing, simply check to 
see if the numbers match. 

To use the RAINBOW CHECK, type in 
the program, CSAVE it for future use, 
then type in the command RUN and 
press ENTER. Once the program has 
run, type NEW to remove it from that 
area into which you will be keying 
programs. 

Now, whenever you press the down 
arrow, CoCo will give you the hexade- 
cimal number of bytes in memory. This 
is to check against the numbers printed 
in the Rainbow. If your number is differ- 
ent, check the listing carefully to be sure 
you typed in the proper BASIC program 
code. 

As the hexadecimal number appears 
in the upper-left corner of the monitor 
screen, you may want to clear the screen 
and press the spacebar five or six times 
to move the cursor out of the way for 
easy reading. The RAINBOW CHECK 
counts spaces, too, follow the spacing 
just as it appears in the magazine. 

Here's the program: 

10CLS:IF PEEK(116) = 127 THEN 
X=32688 ELSE X=1 6304 
20 CLEAR 25.X-1 

30 IF PEEK(116) = 127 THEN X=32688 
ELSE X=16304 
40 FOR Z=X TO X+77 
50 READ Y:W=W+Y:PRINT Z,Y;W 
60 POKEZ,Y:NEXT 
70 IF W=5718 THEN 80 ELSE PRINT 
"DATA ERROR":STOP 
80 EXEC X:END 

90 DATA 182, 1, 106, 167, 141, 0, 68 
100 DATA 134, 126, 183, 1, 106, 190 
110 DATA 1, 107, 175, 141, 0, 57, 48 
120 DATA 141, 0, 4, 191, 1, 107, 57 
130 DATA 129, 10, 38, 44, 52, 22, 220 
140 DATA 27, 147, 25, 142, 4, 0, 141 
150 DATA 6, 31, 152, 141, 2, 32, 25 
160 DATA 52, 2, 68, 68, 68, 68 
170 DATA 141, 4, 53, 2, 132 
180 DATA 15, 129, 9, 46, 4, 139, 112 
190 DATA 32, 2, 139, 55, 167, 128, 57 
200 DATA 53,22,126,0,0 



320 the RAINBOW November 1983 



RECEIVED & CERTIFIED 



The following products have been recently received by the Rainbow, examined by our magazine staff and approved 
for the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your assurance that we have seen the product and have ascertained that it is 
what it purports to be. 

This month the Seal of Certification has been issued to: 



Pilot Light, a pilot light with five different 
colored lenses that mounts to the top cover 
of the computer. Comes with instructions 
and a lifetime warranty. Vidtron, 4418 E. 
Chapman, Suite 284, Orange, CA 92669, $7 

Outhouse, a 32K game for one or two play- 
ers. Objective: Thieves are making off with 
your toilet paper supply, stringing it out the 
door and across the field. As your ship hov- 
ers above, you must pick off the scoundrels, 
avoid being shot down by enemy ships, and 
avoid firing the f ragile toilet paper. Compu- 
ter Shack, 1691 Eason, Pontiac, MI 48054, 
disk $29.95 

C-lll, a utility that makes your Color Com- 
puter disks compatible with other TRS-80s 
and able to copy programs and data files 
from machine to machine without conver- 
sions or retyping. Computer Shack, 1691 
Eason, Pontiac, MI 48054, disk $29.95 

Balloon Attack, a Hi-Res ML game with 
action and adventure. The game includes a 
complete commented printout of the entire 
source code for improving programming 
skills. Objective: Dodge the continuing on- 
slaught of bombs being dropped by the big 
red balloon f lyinghigh in the sky. Computer 
Shack, 1691 Eason, Pontiac, M148054,disk 
$23.95 



Teee OflT, a 16K Hi-Res 100 percent ML 
golf game for one or two players. Objective: 
Select from 24 different clubs and play golf 
on a nine hole course while avoiding sand 
traps, water holes, and sanguaro cactuses. 
Prickly-Pear Software, 9234 E. 30th Street, 
Tucson, AZ 85710, tape $24.95 

Disk Master, a menu-driven, several func- 
tion program that: provides a speed check 
and adjustment to get disk drives into shape; 
moves data files from tape to disk — or f rom 
disk to tape — or moves any sort of file f rom 
one disk to another; prints a directory that 
includes ML addresses to the screen or prin- 
ter; gives two different disk maps — one 
showing which grans are available and the 
other showing how many sectors of each 
gran are in use; and quickly kills a number of 
files on a crowded disk. Prickly Pear Soft- 
ware, 9234 E. 30th Street. Tucson, AZ 
85710, disk $24.95 

Mailing List, a 32K Disk basic mailing list 
program with six fields for name, address, 
city and state, phone number, zip code and 
code. It sorts alphabetically or in zip code 
order; searches your file on any field; adds or 
deletes entries, prints any or all entries, or all 
entries meeting search criteria; and has up to 



1 500 records on a single drive system. Screen 
display is in full upper- and lowercase in the 
choice of a green or white background with 
no adapters needed. Prickly-Pear Software, 
9234 E. 30th Street, Tucson, AZ 857 10, disk 
$49.95 

Diskey, a 16K RAM utility written entirely 
in ML that is designed primarily to assist in 
recovering data from a slipped disk and for 
recovering KILLed files. It also can be used 
to examine, modif y, or copy any d isk, j ust as 
long as there is at least one readable sector. 
Includes a 50-page manual. Adventure Inter- 
national, Box 3435, Longwood, FL 32750, 
disk $49.95 

Jude, a 32K ECB f ull text commentary and 
reference study program of the Epistle of St. 
Jude. QCS, Quality Christian Software, 
P.O. Box 1899, Duncan, OK 73533, tape 
$13.99, disk $16.99 

UT-l,a !6K ECB utility for the LPV11 and 
DMP-100 printers. It listsprograms, genera- 
ting 125 characters by 90 lines. UT-1 can also 
be utilized with Scripsit by Radio Shack. 
QCS, Quality Christian Software, P.O. Box 
1988, Duncan, OK 73533, tape $14.99, disk 
$17.99 

Colorspeak, a user friendly, complete 
phoneme-based voice synthesizer that con- 
verts plain English text to speech, adds voice 
inflection to text to speech mode, allows 
programming the SCOl directly in pho- 
nemes, spells text, and pronounces most 
punctuation. Colorspeak uses the VOTRAX 
SCOl phoneme synthesizer integrated cir- 
cuit as the heart of its functional electronics 
circuitry. This "CH IP" produces 64 different 
phonemes and f our different inflection levels 
that result in 256 different sounds in which 
to produce speech. The SCOl has a 6-bit 
data input for phoneme selection, and a 2-bit 
input for inflection. Includes a detailed users 
manual, a phoneme dictionary, and a demo 
tape. Bumble Bee Software, P.O. Box 25427, 
Chicago, 1L 60625, $169 

Rainbow's Corner, five 16K learning games 
and two math utility programs forages five 
through 11. Each game gives children a 
chance to experiment with words or num- 
bers in a playful environment and gives 
problem solving skills as children discover 
patterns and solutions to animated puzzles 
and adventures. John Boeschen & Co., 2901 
Mirante, Richmond, CA 94803, tape $19.95 

Atlantic Adventure, a I6/32K ECB text 
adventure. Objective: Try to raise your sub- 
marine safely above the water surface while 
you remain safely aboard. Owl's Nest Soft- 
ware, 9036 Pleasant Lane, Ooltewah, TN 
37363, tape $2 1.95 



Bomber Command, a 16K 1941-45 strategy 
war game. Objective: Control the allied air 
armada and destroy Germany's industry by 
launching bombing raids each turn, which 
equals one real month during the war. Play 
is held on a tactical map that may be toggled 
to a strategic map via a ML routine and semi 
graphics. Ark Royal Games, P.O. Box 14806, 
Jacksonville, FL 32238, tape $19.95 

Microdis, a ML program designed specifi- 
cally for the 4K MC-I0 computer, that will 
allow you to read and disassemble areas of 
RAM or ROM in the MC-10, and under- 
stand the complete MOTOROLA 6803 
OPCODE set and will disassemble areas of 
memory to your printer or screen, using 
industry accepted mnemonics. Micro Ten 
Software, 496 Amboy Avenue, Perth 
Amboy, NJ 09861, tape $19.95 

Pre Reader, a 32K ECB learning tool for 
preschool (ages 3-5) children and beginning 
readers (grade 1). Level 1 teaches the child to 
work with colors, shapes, numbers, and 
upper and lowercase letters. It also teaches 
how to associate sounds with the letters 
which represent them. Level II matches sin- 
gle letters and consonant blends with their 
corresponding sounds. Sugar Sof tware, 2 1 53 
Leah Lane, Reynoldsburg, OH 43068, tape 
$19.95 

Data Doctor, a 32K menu driven program 
that provides the file edit capabilities most 
DOS provide. It lists files, examines, edits 
and deletes data. It also corrects file errors 
without running an entire system. Superior 
Graphic Software Products, P.O. Box 451, 
Canton, NC 28716, disk $49.95 

The 8010 Interface, a serial interface for the 
Gemini- 10 that will link virtually any per- 
sonal computer with an RS-232 serial port, 
to a Gemini- 10/ 1 5. Dip switches select Baud 
rate, parity, word length and start bits. The 
8010 is shipped configured for TRS-80C, 
4800 Baud, includes an assembled and tested 
circuit board with mounting hardware, a 
five foot data cable for the TRS-80C and 
instructions. Dayton Associates of Willie 
Hall, Inc., 720! Claircrest Drive, Building 
D, Dayton, OH 45424 $27.50 

Remrem, an educational game with eight 
skill levels. Objective: Try to remember a 
sequence of colors that the computer has 
selected with sounds. Aurora Software, 49 
Brookland Avenue, Aurora, Ontario, Can- 
ada L4G 2H6,tape $20. 

Battle, a war game. Objective: Score points 
by bombing and sinking boats while avoid- 
ing hitting bombs. Aurora Software, 49 
Brookland Avenue, Aurora, Ontario, Can- 
ada L4G 2H6 tape $20. 



322 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Romdisk, a program that will allow you to 
load Radio Shack ROM Packs from a disk. 
Aurora Software, 49 Brookland Avenue, 
Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 2H6, tape 
$20. 

Mr. Copy, a copier written in ML that will 
make backup tape copies, and is capable of 
making up to 99 copies in one loading. 
Aurora Software, 49 Brookland Avenue, 
Aurora, Ontario, Canada, L4G 2H6 tape 
$25 

Concen, an educational game in four skill 
levels. Objective: The computer hides eight 
pairs of three letter words that you must try 
and match up against the computer or an 
opponent. Similar to the television game of 
"Concentration." Aurora Software, 49 Brook- 
land Avenue, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 
2H6 tape $20 

Colormind, an educational game for up to 
four players. Objective: The computer hides 
a sequence of four colors. You must guess 
the colors and the position they are in. Sim- 
ilar to a popular board game. Aurora Soft- 
ware, 49 Brookland Avenue, Aurora, Onta- 
rio, Canada L4G 2H6, tape $20 

Cribbage, a 32K hi-res graphics card game 
for two to four players. Aurora Software, 49 
Brookland Avenue, Aurora, Ontario, Can- 
ada L4G 2H6, tape $20 

Stockbroker, a 16/32K ECB game for up to 
six players. Objective: Each player is given 
$500,000 to buy stock and must play and 
keep their stocks, as they may go up or down 
duringthegame. Aurora Software, 49 Brook- 
land Avenue, Aurora, Ontario, Canada L4G 
2H6, tape $20 

Mastermail 1200, a 32K disk mailing list 
program for serious business applications. 
Can store up to 1200 five-line labels per disk, 
print by code, and uses a M Lsort. Spectrum 
Projects, 93- 15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, NY 
11421, disk $49.95 

Microterm, a terminal program for the new 
Radio Shack MC10, used to access bulletin 
boards, CompuServe and other data lines. 
Spectrum Projects, 93- 1 5 86th Drive, Wood- 
haven, NY 11421 tape $24.95 

Kron, a 32K ML game with four playing 
screens. Objective: Select from screen of 
blocks, spiders, cycles or tanks and achieve 
the best possible score. Similar to the arcade 
game TRON. Oregon Color Computer Sys- 
tems, P.O. Box 11468, Eugene, OR 97440, 
tape $26.95 

Wild Party, a 1 6K adult party game for two 
to six couples. The play of the game consists 
of a sequence of events performed by the 
players designed to liven up the dullest 
party. B&B Software, P.O. Box 210, Jenkin- 
town, PA 19046, tape $35 



Family Finance, four 4K BASIC programs 
for the MC-10, including Mortgage, Amor- 
tization, Loans, Phone Numbers and Check- 
book Balancer, Family Computers, 4125 
Prescott Street, Sarasota, FL 33582, tape 
$14.95 

Family Fun, four 4K programs for the M C- 
10 including Forest Fire, Simple Simon, 
Concentration and Master Mind. Family 
Computers, 4125 Prescott Street, Sarasota, 
FL 33582, tape $14.95 

SRC, Screen Reference Card, a 16K aid to 
BASIC programming. It offers a variety of 
information normally available in manuals 
or reference cards such as: a quick reference 
to the proper syntax of all commands; shows 
text screen (PRINT 1) locations; explains the 
coordinate grid patterns; displays graphic 
character codes; displays ASCII character 
codes; is user defined; etc. CoCo Data, 1316 
Quail Avenue, McAllen, TX 78504, tape 
$7.95 

CSP-F, Command Stream Processor — 
Full, a utility which will allow the user to 
pre-package a series of input lines to be 
automatically passed to BASIC. These lines 
may be direct commands or values requested 
by INPUT or LINE INPUT statements of a 
BASIC program in execution. The end result 
is to allow the automation of a total stream 
of activity and may be considered a program 
to run your other programs. The user is 
supplied both a short processor version, for 
use when RAM space is tight, and a full 
version which allows a more sophisticated 
approach to command stream programming. 
Custom Software Engineering, Inc., 807 
Minutemen Causeway, CoCo Beach FL 
32931, tape $19.95 

Gomoku/Renju, 16K games of strategy for 
two players in eight skill levels, played on a 
pattern or grill of intersecting lines. Objec- 
tive: Two players move alternately by plac- 
ing a piece of their own color on any vacant 
point where two lines cross, and be first to 
create a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal line 
of five adjacent pieces of his own color. 
Radio Shack stores Nationwide. Rompack 
$19.95 

Reactoid, a 16K game of skill. Objective: 
You are in manual control of the reflectoid 
in a computer guidance system and must 
keep energy particles from hitting other par- 
ticle emission tubes that will eventually melt 
the core of the reactor and must prevent self 
destruction and meltdown. Radio Shack 
stores nationwide, Rom Pack $19.95 

Dark Castle, a 32K ECB text adventure pro- 
gram. Objective: You must free KingLothan 
and return him to his rightful throne. Pal 
Creations, 10456 Amantha Avenue, San 
Diego, CA 92616, tape $14.95 



Witches Knight, a 32K ECB text adventure 
program. Objective: you must free Sir Noble 
from the witches evil spell while avoiding 
many obstacles during this quest. Pal Crea- 
tions, 10456 Amantha Avenue, San Diego, 
CA 92126, tape $14.95 

Scavenge Hunt, a 32K ECB text adventure. 
Objective: You must return all the items on 
the scavenge hunt list to Hickory Ridge, in 
order to free your niece, Rebecca from the 
evil hermit of Medicine Tree. Pal Creations, 
10456 Amantha Avenue, San Diego, CA 
92126, tape $15.95 

Stalag, a 32K ECB text adventure program. 
Objective: You must get out of a prison 
camp in Germany, 1944, alive. Pal Crea- 
tions, 10456 Amantha Avenue, San Diego, 
CA 92126, tape $14.95 

Evasion, a 32K ECB text adventure pro- 
gram. Objective: You must evade the Ger- 
man patrols and snipers. Pal Creations, 
10 456 Amantha Avenue, San 
Diego, CA 92126, tape $15.95 

Bomb Scare, a 32K ECB text adventure 
program. Objective: You must disarm all 
eight bombs that have been planted in the 
city by a terrorist group. Pal Creations, 
10456 Amantha Avenue, San Diego, CA 
92126, tape $14.95 

Beacon, a 32K ECB text adventure pro- 
gram. Objective: you must successfully op 
erate an old lighthouse in order to avert any 
major sea-going accidents. Pal Creations, 
10456 Amantha Avenue, San Diego, CA 
92126, tape $14.95 

Mansion of Doom,a 32K ECB text adven- 
ture program. Objective: you must success- 
fully reunite the Crown Princess Marlena 
with the townspeople of her village in Tran- 
sylvania. Pal Creations, 10456 Amantha 
Avenue, San Diego, CA 921 26, tape $14.95 

Sac, a 32K flight simulation program in nine 
skill levels. Pal Creations, 10456 Amantha 
Avenue, San Diego, CA 92 1 26, tape $ 1 9.95 

Isle of Fortune, a 32K ECB text adventure. 
Objective: You must find a treasure and 
bring it back to the waterfront bar where the 
adventure starts. Pal Creations, 10456 
Amantha Avenue, San Diego, CA 92126, 
tape $19.95 

Option 4, a 32K ECB Canadian payroll pro- 
gram which features all provinces and terri- 
tories; auto S.I.N, validation; formatted 
screens, full format trapping; all media trans- 
fers; detailed pay stubs; batched checks; 
total cost/duty allocations; and gross pay 
any period. YGS, Box 208, Brechin, Onta- 
rio, Canada LOK 1BO, disk $149.95 



The Seal of Certification program is open to all manufacturers of products for the TRS-80 Color Computer, the 
TDP-I00, or the Dragon-32, regardless of whether they advertise in the Rainbow. By awarding a Seal, the magazine 
certifies the program doesexist, but this does not constitute any guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be forwarded to the Rainbow's reviewers for evaluation. 

— Jutta Kapfhammer 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 323 



DATA COMMUNICATIONS 



1S ^W»^m^ ~tM-> 



The 



Bulletin Boards 



ALASKA 

Fort Wainwright 

ARIZONA 

Phoenix 

CALIFORNIA 

Berkeley 
Burbank 

Los Angeles 
Los Angeles 



Napa 

San Diego 

Sunnyvale 

CONNECTICUT 

Greenwich 



Meriden 

FLORIDA 

Ft. Lauderdale 
Lantana 

Orlando 
Pensacola 



Sarasota 



Name of BBS 

CoCo-Cold BBS 

6809 CCUG 

East Bay BBS 
The Fantasy Plaza 



Magnetic Fantasies 
Board 

Morning Star Color 
BBS 

JARB/COCOSig 
BBS 

Silicon Rainbow BBS 
Education-80 



Cool CoCo 
Color Burst 



All Systems Go 

Dr. D's CoCo Corner 



Color-80 BBS (Silicon 
Rainbow Products) 



SYSOP 

Kerry Clabaugh 



Norm Wolfe 

Don Brown 
Phil Rusin 

Joe Bennett 

Shawn Jipp 



Bob Boyce 
Gary Dunsford 



Phone 

907-ELO-COCO 

602-298-4194 

415-895-0699 
213-244-1100 

213-502-0907 
213-388-5198 

213-563-7727 
707-257-1485 

619-474-8981 

408-733-6809 

203-629-4375 

203-237-2668 

305-525-1192 
305-533-0333 
305-894-1886 
904-456-7195 



Comments 

24 hours 

System down until Nov. 1 



Shop for hardware, software, 
health, beauty aids & kit 

Science fiction films, literature 
software 



Education conferences in 
northeast & new developments 
for computers in education 



Ernie Bontrager 813-924-COCO 



24 hours a day/ programs for 
creating graphic displays, disk 
utility, games, etc. 
24 hours a day 



West Palm Beach The Notebook 



305-686-4862 An exchange of messages 
related, to freelance assign- 
ments between writers/ editors 



November 1983 the RAINBOW 325 



GEORGIA 

Atlanta 
Atlanta 
Augusta 
Ringgold 

ILLINOIS 

Chicago 
Wheaton 

IOWA 

Iowa City 

KANSAS 

Kansas City 
Kansas City 



Bulletin '68 
CoCo Board 
Forum 80 



OS/9 Board 

Metro West Data Base 

Apple-Med Bd. 



Hot CoCo BBS 
Dickinson's Movie 
Guide 



Wayne Ashe 404-929-0680 

Lee F. Blitch 404-378-4410 
^— 803-279-5392 

Dennis Womack 404-891-0136 



George Doner 312-397-8308 
Skyline Marketing 3 12-588-79 17 



Between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. 



KENTUCKY 

Louisville 

LOUISIANA 

New Orleans 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Arlington 

Woburn 

MARYLAND 

Greenbelt 
Marlboro 

MICHIGAN 

Dearborn 

Detroit 

Grand Rapids 
Lansing 

MINNESOTA 

Minneapolis 
Moorhead 

MISSOURI 

Independence 

Kansas City 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Greenville 

NEW JERSEY 

Atlantic City 
New Brunswick 

NEW YORK 

Glen Oaks 
New York 
Rochester 

Woodhaven 

Woodhaven 

Woodhaven 

OHIO 

Cincinnati 



Baud-Ville 



N.O. BBS 

Color-80 BBS (Silicon 
Rainbow Products) 



Gas-Net Board 
Color-80 #25 

DSL BBS 

Westside Down 
Tom Mix Software 



NC Software 
CoCo BBS 



Youngstown 



MACCUG 

Mid America CC 

Sangarnet Bulletin Bd. 

Joke Byte Board 
CoCo Board 

CoCo's Next 
Nybbles-80 

Color-80 BBS 
Rainbow Connection 
#1 

Rainbow Connection 
#2 

Rainbow Connection 
#3 

Cintug TBBS 
CoCo Club 80 



John RosS 



Steve Odneal 

Computer Em- 
porium 

Mike Randazzo 

Greg Moore 
Orman Beckles 



Dennis S. Lewan- 
dowski 

Tom Mix 
Greg Miller 

Bob Shaw 



Jerry Morgan 
Steve Odneal 

Gary L. David 



Bob Rosen 
Bob Rosen 
Bob Rosen 



319-353-6528 

913-384-2196 
913-432-5544 

816-358-6222 
502-423-0695 

504-277-9450 

617-646-6809 
617-321-6809 

301-344-9156 
301-599-1726 

313-582-3406 

313-533-0254 
616-364-8217 
517-339-3367 

612-533-1957 
701-280-1928 

816-358-MACC 

816-358-6222 

919-758-5261 

609-927-5922 
201-572-0617 

212-423-4623 
212-626-0375 
716-899-4473 
716-381-6800 
212-441-3755 

212-441-3766 

212-441-5719 



Medical conferences plus re- 
lated hardware and software 



Movies playing in area and 
a synopsis 



24 hours a day 



Keeps up on space information 



24 hours a day, free board 
operated by DSL 

24 hours a day 



24 hours a day 

24 hours a day/ seven days 
a week 



Some bad jokes 



Dan Jaffee 513-522-8227 
Jeff Butler 513-742-1895 
Larry Cad man 216-788-7910 



OKLAHOMA 
Efei Oklahoma City 
^ Oklahoma City 


Flexnet (Flex Sys.) 


Roger Walton/ 
R. L. Hilbun 


405-722-6809 


OREGON 

Portland 


Bit Bucket Systems 


Rick Rensene 

1\1 vIV Uvll Jvllv 


503-761-6345 


PENNSYLVANIA 

Erie 

Philadelphia 


CoCo BBS 
CoCo BBS 




814-898-2952 
215-857-3035 






RHODE ISLAND 

Providence 


Syslink-80 


Andy Nulman 


401-272-1 138 


TENNESSEE 

Hixson 


68XX 

Micro Journal BD 


Don Williams & 
Tom Williams 


615-842-6809 


TEXAS 

Elgin 

Henderson 

Houston 

Houston 


Color Connection 
Intl C.C.C. 
CoCo Country 
Mines of Moria 


Peter Banz 
Ron Garrett 


512-285-5028 
214-657-8147 
713-331-2599 
713-871-8577 






WISCONSIN 

Milwaukee 


The Big Top Games 




414-259-9475 




WEST VIRGINIA 

Morgantown 


Mountaineer Softline 


Wallace Coyler 


216-788-7910 



A 



24 hours a day/ seven days 
a week 



CANADA 
ONTARIO 

Burlington 



Brent Bogle 



416-639-3812 



Thoughts of a Computer Widow 

Or What's A Nice Girl Like Me 
Doing With An I/O Error? 

By Charlotte Bish 

It has been one of those days here! My rocking chair 
broke, I burned three fingers and some clown has 
written "I love my CoCo" in the dust on the table. I may 
not need to tell you this, but, it was the clown I married. 

This gave me reason to pause and reflect on our past nine 
years. There have been many tests of our marriage; my 
inability to cook and two new babies were only the tip of the 
iceberg! 

I didn't mind when he had radio control planes buzzing 
around day and night ... I didn't mind when he left me home 
a lone to go a nd see Star Trek ... I was even nice when he left 
me to take a computer course — on the night of our eighth 
anniversary, no less! 

But soon there was to be a new challenge to our love! He 
bounded in one evening, "hi baby!"(Whydo Ialways know 
something is up when he says that?) He continued, "I know 
exactly what we can do with our income tax refund money!" 
I stood in a somewhat fearful silence, and he concluded, 
"let's buy a computer!" He did^sure enough. 

One morning the United Parcel man knocked on our door 
with a big red and white box. I wonder if I should mention 
this, but I can't keep it quiet. On that very same day I was 
getting the Asian flu I should have taken that as an omen. 

Nonetheless, we are now a one-computer family. You will 



hardly be able to imagine my life since then. But try! Please 
try! 

The only way I know him now is from the back of his 
head. I used to lose him if he got one aisle away from me in 
the supermarket no more. Now when I lose him in town, 
the first place I go is Radio Shack, then the newsstand. If I 
haven't found him by this time, I simply stand on any corner, 
face any direction and yell, "Willis, if you aren't here in 30 
seconds I'm going to sit on your computer!" I bet O. J. 
Simpson's mother wished O. J. could run half that fast. 

His first question used to be, "what is there to eat?" This 
has been replaced by, "did my Rainbow come yet?" 

I have gotten used to carrying his computer (strike that — 
"our" computer) almost everywhere we go. This is inconve- 
nient, but it cuts down on his acute computer withdrawal. 
We take CoCo to his mom's house, to my mom's house, 
virtually everywhere but the grocery store. He'd take it there 
too, but there is no place to plug it in. I was a little worried 
about his "hobby" causing family squabbles but everyone 
was quite receptive. As my mother put it, "Charlotte, be 
thankful he doesn't drink!" 

As 1 come to a close, I was concerned that you might think 
that I dislike my love's new passion—well, "byte" your 
tongue! Besides, how can anyone not like something called 
"CoCo?" After all, what is so bad about a computer that 
does all the things every computer can do. and (an added 
bonus) keeps my dearest busy, happy, contented, and out of 
my hair for hours? It even teaches my kids math, numbers, 
letters, remembers my recipes (I can't remember my recipes) 
and on top of all that it plays me music, times my baking, 
and draws me pictures.- What do you know — all this and 
heaven too! _ 



328 the RAINBOW November 1983 



new clubs 

Editor: 

I would like to announce the Spartanburg 
County CoCo Club formed in March 1982 
with an excess of 35 members at present. We 
meeteveryThursday eveningat 7:30 p.m., in 
the old library, wing C of Spartanburg 
Technical College, Spartanburg, S.C. 

For more information, call or write Den- 
nis Shattuck, 473 Royal Oak Dr., 29302, or 
phone 803-583-3017. 

Dennis Shattuck 
Spartanburg, SC 

Editor: 

Deer Park Color Computer Club is for 
CoCo users in the Deer Park, Pasadena area 
of Texas. Our club meets on the third Sun- 
day of every month. We welcome anyone 
who is interested to contact Don Burr at 
(7 1 3) 479-6657 or (7 1 3) 479-53 1 3 or write me 
at 43 14 W. Grant, 77536. Rainbow is by far 
the best magazine written for the CoCo! 

Don Burr 
Deer Park, TX 

Editor: 

I would like to inform your readers of a 
new Color Computer Club for the users in 
the Radcliff, Ky. area. We meet on the 
second Sunday of each month 2:00 p.m. at 
the Kentucky Utilities Bldg. For further 
information please contact: The Radcliff 
Color Computer Club c/o N4GSB Bryan 
Harp, 287 Highland Dr., 40160. 

Bryan Harp 
Radcliff, KY 

Editor: 

I have founded a Color Computer Club in 
the desert area. It is called the CoCo Nutz 
Computer Club. We meet every two weeks 
at Allstate Savings In Indio. This group is 
also open to all other types of computer 
owners. We are about to publish a newsletter 
that will contain review of hardware and 
software for different systems. 

Walter V. Seay 
Thermal CA 

Editor: 

This is an announcement of the existence 
of the Midlands 80 Computer Club of 
Columbia, S.C. We currently have about 
100 members (60 CoCo users) and are 
extremely active. Anyone interested should 
write to: President, Midlands 80 Computer 
Club, P.O. Box 7594, Columbia, SC 29202. 

Jerry Kilpa trick 
Columbia, SC 



Editor: 

This is to announce the formation of the 
Shippensburg Color Computer Club "Rain- 
bow Connection." We wish to invite the 
people of the Southcentral Pennsylvania 
area to join us at our regular monthly meet- 
ings which are held on the fourth Tuesday of 
each month in Room 104 of the Franklin 
Science Center, Shippensburg University. 

For further information, please contact: 
Shippensburg Color Computer Club, c/o 
Department of Mathematics & Computer 
Science, Shippensburg University, 17527, 
(717) 532-1406. 

Veronica H. Mowery 
Secretary- Treasurer 
Shippensburg, PA 

Editor: 

I would like to announce the formation of 
the Ventura County Color Computer Club, 
sponsored by the Oxnard public library. The 
club meets the third Wednesday of each 
month — place to be annouced. 

For information, contact me at the library, 
805-984-1842. We are sharing a bulletin 
board service with the Cabrillo Computer 
Club, so anyone with a modem can leave a 
message for Pete at 805/987-2577. 

Doug McLaughlin 
Oxnard, CA 

Editor: 

A Color Computer group has begun 
locally which serves southern Michigan and 
northern Indiana ... the name of the group 
is "Michiana Color Computer Club" and 
further information can be obtained from 
Clay Howe, Secretary. 

Clay Howe 
Sturgis, MI 

Editor: 

I am pleased to let you know that Central 
Arkansas now has a Color Computer Club. 
The CACCC meets twice monthly, is infor- 
mal and free. More information can be 
obtained by writing or calling Melinda Bras- 
lavsky, 1205 Erving Rdg. Tp., 72023, 982- 
8854. Many thanks. 

Melinda Braslavsky 
Cabot, AR 

Editor: 

I would like to announce the formation of 
the CO*CO*M*U*G* of Marion, Ind. 
(Color*Computer*Marion* Users* Group). 
We are meeting on the second Monday of 
each month at 7:00 p.m. at the Marion pub- 
lic library. The CO*CO*M*U*G of Marion, 
Ind. will serve the interests of all presentand 
prospective Co*Co owners in Marion and 
Grant County. 

Anyone wanting more information about 
this growing users' group may contact me at 
3635 N.300 East, 46952 or just show up at 
the meeting. I would also be interested in 
hearing from other clubs in Indiana. Your 
truly, 

John A. Helwig 
Marion, IN 



Editor: 

I am pleased to announce the formation of 
an Adventure Game usersclub. We are hop- 
ing to involve people from across the conti- 
nent who are interested in adventure gam- 
ing. We will try to establish a library of 
member-written games as well as offering 
hints to the solutions of the many games now 
on the market and to offer reviews of new 
games. Anyone interested should contact me 
at the following address: 35 Scotland Road, 
Agincourt, Ontario MIS-IL5. 

Ian Hanna 
Canada 

Editor- 
Please include our club name and mailing 
address in your magazine. BUG-80 Users 
Group, P.O. Box 62, 08826. 

George Miller, Secretary 
Glen Gardner, NJ 

Editor: 

1 would like to tell about the forming of a 
Color Computer Club in the Adirondack 
region. The club would like to hear from 
anyone — anywhere who would like to join. 
Please write to me at Box 365, 1 28 1 4, or call 
me at (518) 644-9927. Thank you. 

Bill Edwards 
Bolton Landing, NY 

Editor: 

Well, 1 guess I have waited long enough 
for a Color Computer Club to be started in 
my area. Instead of waiting another year 1 
have decided to start one myself. Anyone in 
the northern San Diego County area is wel- 
come to contact me at 743 Santa Paula, 
92075 or call (691) 755-2961. 

Don Bradford 
Solana Beach, CA 

Editor: 

The Mid-America Color Computer User's 
Group (MACCUG) c/o Bob Colin, 716 
Crisp, Independence, MO 64054, phone 
(816) 833-0367. We have been in existence 
for a little over a year and have approxi- 
mately 90 members throughout the K. C. 
Metro area. Our meetings are held every 4th 
Tuesday at 7 p.m. in the Campus Center 
Building (room 503) at Penn Valley Com- 
munity College, 320 1 Southwest Trafficway, 
Kansas City, MO. 

Jerry Morgan 
Independence, MO 

Editor: 

1 would liketo inform all your readers that 
Saskatoon (Saskatchewan, Canada) has a 
Color Computer Club. The SCCC (Saska- 
toon Color Computer Club) meets on the 
second and fourth Saturdays of each month 
at 2 p.m. at the J.S. Wood Branch Library 
downstairs. Anyone interested can write to 
Guy Tomashewski, 415-423 Pendygrasse 
Rd.,S7M 4Z2. Yours truly. 

Guy Tomashewski 
Vice President SCCC 
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 
Canada 



330 the RAINBOW November 1983 



Editor: 

The Keesler Color Computer Club has 
been formed and is holding bimonthly meet- 
ings for CoCo owners in the Biloxi Missis- 
sippi area. Meeting times are the first and 
third Monday of each month. For more 
information call Tony at (601) 374-3375. 

Tony Byorick 
Biloxi, MS 

Editor: 

The East Bay Color Computer Club has 
only met once and is situated in the East San 
Francisco Bay Area. The meetings are prob- 
ably going to be in Oakland. It is not an 
official organization and so, to find out 
about it, you would have to log on to a BBS 
and ask around. 

Justin Paola 
Berkeley, CA 



Editor: 

Raleigh, N.C., has a Color Computer 
Club with over eighty members, forty of 
which always show up at each meeting. 

We meet at 7:30 p.m. on the second and 
fourth Wednesdays at a local school. We 
have a club library of over forty uncopyrigh- 
ted, copyable programs that have been writ- 
ten by the club members for the club 
members'use. There areno dues yet, but the 
thought and need for a newsletter may 
prompt us to start a small fee in the future. 

Newcomers are always welcome. We love 
to answer the questions that new owners 
often have: P.O. Box 681 , 27529. 

David Roper 
Garner, NC 



Editor: 

I am writing in the hopes of finding other 
readers who are interested in the New Radio 
Shack MC-10 MicroColor Computer. 1 have 
just purchased this new machine, and would 
like to start a user's group. Write me at 36 
Prospect Avenue, 10562. 

Bob Kanto 
Ossining, NY 

Editor: 

Several CoCo owners and I are forming a 
club called "Color Swap" which deals in 
trading color computer machine language 
programs. Anyone interested can reach me 
at the following address: 12541 Norman 
Rd., 48097. 

Timothy Wehner 
Yale, MI 

Editor: 

I would like to announce the formation of 
a Color Computer Club for the New York 
City Metropolitan area. We would gladly 
accept people from New Jersey and Long 
Island. If you are interested in joining the 
club, please contact me at (201) 889-5737 
anytime during the week. 

Bob Shichman 
Scotch Plains, NJ 



Editor: 

1 am interested in forming a CoCo user's 
group in the Oakland area. If you are too, or 
are interested in membership, please contact 
me at (415)487-3537. 

Joe Hayden 
Hayward, CA 

Editor: 

I am very much interested in forming a 
C.C. User's Group in the Medina, Maple 
Plain, Mound Minnesota Area. Write me at 
3145 Cedar Ave., 55359, or call (612) 479- 
2746. 

Jim Beletti 
Maple Plain, MN 

Editor: 

A couple of guys, in cooperation with 
KCR Data Co., are interested in starting a 
local Color Computer user's group/club in 
and around Glendale Heights, 111. Anyone 
interested can write to me c/o KCR Data 
Co., P.O. Box 1 140, 60139 or call 668-0629. 

Keith R. Serue 
Glendale Heights, IL 

Editor: 

We're trying to start a CoCo Club in the 
Warsaw, lnd., area. We're real Rainbow 
fans and hope some of your readers in Kos- 
ciusko County will join us. Contact me at 
RR#1, Maze Road, 46580. 

Steve Hardin 
Warsaw, IN 

Editor: 

1 am interested in forming a nationwide 
kids CoCo Club. For kids and kids only. We 
could exchange programs and talk over 
ideas (through the mail). For more informa- 
tion write me at 914 Albany Ct., 27609. 

David Joyner 
Raleigh, NC 

Editor: 

I am interested in starting a Color Com- 
puter Club for kids in the Amherst/ Buffalo 
area. If anyoneelseis interested, pleasecon- 
tact me at 88 Ruskin Rd., 14226, orcall(7 16) 
836-0713. 

Devon Copley 
Amherst, NY 

Editor: 

I would like to know if there are any local 
Color Computer Clubs near here. If anyone 
has any information, please contact me: 477 
Rusty Lane, 83301. 

Jim Reynolds 
Twin Falls, ID 

Editor: 

I would like to start a San Diego CoCo- 
Nut club fo