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Air Traffic Controller is a computer Devil Assault is a mult-level multi- 
mode! of an air traffic control situation $4 ^ screen game in which bird-like 
in which Remotely Piloted Vehicles 0 4^ creatures, robots and the devil himself 
(RPV's) are operated by the controller * assault your home base which you 
In landing on and faking off from must defend. 




The Necromancer is about to wage war on Arcade Action. Method of play you are the Grab * 

earth. He needs his lost gold ring to acquire the ber. The object is to grab the 8 treasures and 

power to do so. You must find the ring, take it to store them in the center boxes. You start with 3 

ML Doom and destroy it in the flames from Grabbers and get extra ones at 20,000 points, 

which it came, thus elminating the Watch out for the googliesf Super high resolu- 

Nec romancer's evil powers. tion graphics* 

32K Machine Language 

32K Machine Language DISK ONLY 27.95 TAPE 27,95 DISK 30.95 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

3424 COLLEGE N.E. 
GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49505 



To Order Call 364-4791 
To Place Orders After 5:00 P.M. 
Call Our BBS At 
(616)364-6217 



• ADD $1,00 POSTAGE & HANDLING'TOP ROYALTIES PAID' 
• MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 
LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 



ARCADE ACTION GAMES 




From Computer Plus to YOU . . . 
PLUS after PLUS after PLUS 





Color Computer 16K 5175 
w/16K Ext. Basic $255 
W/32K Ext, Basic $345 





Model IV16K$849 
Model IV64K 
2 Disk *R$232 C$1699 




CITOH Prowrlter$375 
CJTOH Prowrlterll$649 




CoCo Drive 0 $329 
CoCo Drivel $235 




Silver Reed EXP500$430 
Silver Reed EXP550$665 



BUY DIRECT 



Here are just a lew of our line oilers 
call TOLL FREE for full information. 



COMPUTERS 




CGP115 


199 


Model IV 16K 


$849 


DMP100 


315 


ModeiiV64K 




DMP120 


399 


2 Drive & RS232 


1699 


DMP200 


599 


ColorComputer16K 


175 


GemJnHOX 


319 


w/16Kext basic 


255 


Gemini 15 


435 


t w/32K ext. basic 


345 


CITOH Prowrlter 


375 


Pocket Computer 2 


165 


CITOH Prowrtterll 


649 


Modei1008K 


679 


Okldata 


CALL 


Model 100 24K 


835 


Epson 


CALL 


Model 121 Drive 


2699 


ETC. 




Model 16B 1 Dr256K 


4249 


CoCo Drive 0 


329 


MODEMS 




CoCo Drive 1 


235 


Hayes Smartmodem II 


235 


Disk Drive Controller 


119 


R.S. AC-3 


129 


Extended Basic Kit 


89 


R.S. Modem! 


129 


8KSer/ParConv. 


155 


R.S. Modem II 


199 


Botek Ser/Par Conv. 


69 


R.S. DC-1200 


566 


64K Ram Chips 


75 


PRINTERS 




Superpro Keyboard 


69.95 


Smith Corona TPI D.W. 


545 


CCR-81 Recorder 


52 


Sliver Reed EXP500 D.W. 


475 


Kratt Joystick (each) 


49.95 


Sliver Reed EXP550D.W. 


695 


R.S. Joysticks (pair) 


22 


DWP210 


629 


Video Plus 


24.95 



SOFTWARE 



We have the lowest possible 
Fully Warranteed Prices AND 
a full complement of Radio Shack 
Software. 



Prices subject to change without notice. 
Not responsible for typographical errors. 
TRS-80 Is a registered trademark of Tandy Coip. 



(Tape Version) 
39.95 



Zaxxon 
The King 
Colorpede 
Trapfall 
Pac Attack 
Ghost Gobbler 
Lancer 
Color Zap 
Rallrunner (Frogger) 
Space Shuttle 
Typing Tutor 
Colorcome 
Telewriter 64 
FHL Rex (disk} 
Order 2 pes. above, take 10% off 
R.S. software 10% off Mst. 
Send for complete list. 

♦Color Computer 64K requires 
Drive 0 and FHL Flex D.O.S. 

TOLL FREE 

1 800 343 8124 



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com 




P.O. Box 1094 
460 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 
617-4663193 



plus 

I WntP for vaui 



Write for your 
tree catalog 



Under the Rainbow 



Feature Articles 



18 




204 




298 



COVER art ® 1983 by Fred Crawford 



Multifaceted Madness/Jo/irt Fraysse 18 

Game A major challenge from the author of Rainbow 
Roach 

The Secret Of Track 36/ Harry Hardy 46 

Disk Utility A hideaway for your disk directory 
REPAINT It White, Black and Pseudo/ David King 60 

Graphics Obtainingbrightcolorsona black background 
Cosmic Camera /Jim Griffin 68 

Game Outer space reconnaissance with Shutter Bug 
GraphicsPak / Mike Hall 77 

Graphics Four little eye-bogglers 
Sine Painter/ Norm Culler 80 

Graphics This is Roy's favorite quickie 
May The Source Be With You/ Roger Schrag 84 

Utility Handy source code to go 
A Flutter Of Color /Joseph Paravaii 92 

Graphics Identify the Hags of 23 countries 
The Pattern Poke/ Jim Hall 102 

Graphics Colors and patterns for the hi-res screens 
4K Graphics CAommex / David Dawson 122 

Utility Help with writing Non-Extended graphics 
programs 

A Good Deal/ Joseph Kohn 134 

Game A great game for those "21 and under*' 
Stats With C lass/ Stan Peppenhorsl 144 

Statistics Ringing the old bell curve 
Video Verit) /George £ Klemeni 148 

Utility Format your video screen with this worksheet 
Keyboard C olor / Darryl Kotcher 161 

Utility Viewing the graphic in progress 
Spreading The Wealth/Dan Downard 196 

Utility This ML program converts BASIC to MC-10 
BASIC 

Billowing Bumbershoots/Ztoft Delbourgo and Brian Ferguson 204 

Graphics Smooth animation effects in hi-res graphics 

Put 'Em Together/Jorge Mir 206 

Utility An easy cassette merge program 

The Turtles Are C oming/ Sharon Bardus 210 

Education How children and adults can work together 
with LOGO 

We Print Screen Print/ John K. Dayton 290 

Utility Upgrading Radio Shack's screen print program 

Microline 82A Crnphksf Robert W. Erickson 296 

Utility A decoded system for printing graphic characters 

Graphics Dump/y. Paul Fountain 298 

Utility Dot addressable capability for your TRS line 
printer 

Face Maker/ Daniel and Robert Delbourgo 306 

Graphics Create your favorite mug shot 
Don't Waste The RAM /Jorge Mir 317 

Utility Using your 64's upper RAM 



A NEWLY FORMATTED PRODUCT REVIEWS Section begins on pag* 226 



Departments 



Letters To Rainbow/ Our Readers 6 

PRINT #-2 J Lawrence C. Falk 14 

Editor's Notes 

Building October's Rainbow/7/m Reed 16 

A many-hued preview to this month's issue 
Education Overview/ Dr. Michael Plog 66 

Recognizing students' needs in computer literacy 
Education Notes/ Steve Blyn 106 

A personalized certificate for the CoCo student 
Using Graphics/ Don Inman 108 

Designing graphic figures 
Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano 130 

Project odds and ends 

Back Issue Information 146 

The Dragon's Byte/ Bill Nolan .152 

"Rolling up" combat characters 

The Pipeline/ Staff. 158 

Game Master's Apprentice/ Bob Albrecht 170 

Making your superhero a 10 
KISSable OS-9/ Dale L. Puckett L 178 

A new column on the OS-9 operating system 
Basic Trzmmgl Joseph Kolar 182 

Creating a tutorial 

Assembly Corner/ Dennis Lewandowski 190 

A little disk dabbling 

About Your Subscription 200 

Greetings From Uncle Bert/ Dale Peterson .215 

LOGO — And turtle icecapades 
Bits And Bytes Of Basic/ Richard White 220 

Formatting with PRINT USING 

Submitting Material To Rainbow 104 

Corrections 288 

Received And Certified 286 

CoCo Counsel/ Tom Nelson 292 

Important steps to your copyright registration 

Rainbow Scoreboard 314 

Advertiser Index 322 



Product Reviews 



Adventure in Wonderland 241 

AMDISK III 246 

Beyond Words 242 

Chroma Keys 236 

CoCo Mail 267 

Color Graphics Editor 228 

Color Monitor 258 

Colorout * 271 

Color Scribe 278 

First Sampler 262 

Fury 256 

HJL-57 Keyboard 234 

Kaleidophone 260 

Master Control II 248 

Math Adventure 252 



Motorbike Challenge 250 

Mouse 250 

Okidata's ML92 « 227 

Payup and Payout 244 

Pie Zapper 272 

Program File 276 

Rainbow-Writer 230 

Score-EZ . 245 

Statgraf 240 

Stereo Composer 274 

Super Color Writer II 280 

Super Screen 254 

VDUMP . . 238 

Wild Party. . 270 



NEXT MONTH: A special on data communications and the judges'decisions on our Simulation Contest! Want a 
BBS of your own? Our November issue features a program listing for a bulletin board system that requires only one 
disk drive as well as a method to "wash" your disks. Harry Hardy will examine synchronous data transmission and 
we'll learn all about data transmission with the CoCo. 

In addition to printing our top Simulation winners' programs, we'll have more games, more home use programs, 
more educational material and more information on our Color Computer than is available anywhere else. 

Look for November's Rainbow] 




cotior 

Lawrence C. Faik 



Managing Editor James E. Ree 

Senior Editor Courtney Noe 

Technical Editor Dan Downard 

Copy Editor Susan Remini 

Submissions Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 

Editorial Assistants Valarie Edwards, 
Suzanne Kurowsky, Noreen Morrison 

Contributing Editors Bob Albrecht, St 
Blyn. Tony DiStefano, Don Inman, Jos< 
Kolar, Dennis Lewandowski, Bill Nolan, 
Dale Peterson, Michael Plog, Ph.D.. 
Charles Roslund. Dick White 



Art Director Sally Nichols 

Assistant Art Director Jerry McKiernan 

Designer Peggy Henry 



Advertising Manager C\ 
Advertising Assistant Ly 

mm 



— 

Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 

iant General Manager for Finance 

ma Shuck 
Billing Clerk Monica Wheat 

Customer Service Manager Ivanka Kleier 

earch Assistants Laurie Falk, 
Deidra Henry, Tanya Holder, Wanda Perry 
Dispatch Mark Herndon 
Transportation Wendy Falk 



Garland Associates, Inc., is the advertising 
representative for the RAINBOW in the east- 
ern United States. Advertisers east of the Mis- 
sissippi may contact them for further inf 
mation. Garland Associates, Inc., P.O. r 
314, S.H.S., Duxbury, MA 02332, (617) 
6464 or 934-6546. 



m 

The Rainbow is published every month of the year by 
FALSOFT. INC., 9529 U.S. Highway 42. P.O. Box 209, 
Prospect, KY, 40059. Phone (502) 228-4492. The RAIN- 
BOW and the Rainbow logotypes are ® Trademarks of 
FALSOFT, inc. 

Second class postage pending at Louisville, KY. 
POSTMASTER. Send address changes to Rainbow, 
P.O. Box 209. Prospect, KY 40059. Fowarding Postage 
Guaranteed. 

Entire contents © by FALSOFT, inc., 1983. The RAIN- 
BOW is intended for the private use and pleasure of its 
subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any 
means is prohibited. Use of information herein is for the 
single end use of purchasers and any other use is 
~--,ly prohibited. All programs herein are distrib- 
an "as is" basis, without warranty of any kind 
soever. 

TRS-80, Color Basic, Extended Color Basic, Scnpsit 
and Program Pak are * trademarks of the Tandy Corp. 
CompuServe is a B Trademark of CompuServe Inc. 

Subscriptions to the RAINBOW are $22 per year in the 
United States. Canadian and Mexican rates are U.S. $29. 
Surface mail to other countries is U.S. S57, air mail U.S 
$85 All subscriptions begin with next available issue 

Limited hack issues are available. Please see notice 
for issues which are in print and costs. Payment 
accepted by VISA. MasterCard, American Express 
• or Money Order in U.S. currenc; 



letters to- 



RAINBOW 



DISK EXECUTIONER 

Editor: 

Floppy disks are very sensitive little crit- 
ters. Cigarette ashes, cat hairs and dust can 
zap them really quick, To avoid disk errors 
and get as much use as possible from each 
disk you have to treat them like sacred reli- 
gious objects. 

As soon as I get a failure to write to any 
sector on a disk I transfer all the contents to 
a backup disk (if I don't already have a 
backup) and put the culprit disk in my shoot- 
ing bag. 

On my weekly pilgrimage to the firing 
range with my trusty .45-caliber automatic 
pistol, the disks first get stapled to the target 
backdrop and then while taking aim, I recall 
that blank feeling when I got my first disk 
I/O error and lost a valuable program, then 
squeeze the trigger. A fellow shooter who 
lost his job to a computer finds it very thera- 
peutic to put what is left of the disk out of its 
misery with a double-barreled shotgun. 

Dirty Harry never had it so good. 

J. Michael Nowicki 
San Jose, CA 

EPSON NOTE EXCHANGE 

Editor: 

I would like to compliment you on your 
excellent magazine, and encourage you to 
keep up the great work. I look forward to 
receiving the Rainbow each month, I read it 
from cover to cover and refer to it often 
while "computing. " I have had my CoCo for 
over a year and have expanded it to 32K. I 
plan on purchasing a disk system soon, and 
already own an Epson MX-80. If anyone has 
a similar system, and would like to exchange 
notes, please write me at 8521-26 Hower 
Rd., 54548. 

Mark Leman 
Minocqua, Wl 



INFORMATION, PLEASE 

Editor: 

Radio Shack and CompuServe have refer- 
red me to you with my hardware/ software 
problem. 

I have all Radio Shack equipment — TRS- 
80 Color Computer 1 6K with one I/O 4-pin 
port— Vidtex CompuServe/ Dow Jones Pro- 
gram Pack. 

My problem is I want to print simultane- 
ously screen and printer while on line with 
CompuServe as most customers do. I've 
been told* the Radio Shack Program Pak 
does not have commands for printer. Also, 
I'm not sure if the Modem I cassette outlet 
will run the printer as well as cassette or if an 
adapter to get two I/O outlets in computer is 
required. 



Can you offer any suggestions, or poll 
readers or refer me further? Please respond 
to: RR 1, Box 150A Westview, 1 1952. 

Walter R. Silleck 
Mattituck, NY 11952 

Editor: 

I would like to extend my thanks to two 
previous software/hardware authors (even 
programmers and hackers need positive re- 
inforcement): 

Mr. DiStefano for his article on modify- 
ing CoCo to display reverse video. His arti- 
cle was comprehensive and his plans were 
easily followed. I comprehended, I followed, 
and I now have the closest thing possible to a 
"green screen" monitor without suffering 
through billfold surgery and actually buying 
one. Thanks, Tony. 

Mr. Good for his article on printer spool- 
ing. I had to modify his program slightly (a 
horrifying undertaking since it was in assem- 
bly language) to get it to work on my system, 
a 32K CoCo, non-Disk Extended BASIC, and 
a LP VIII. The modification was definitely 
worth the effort and now, just as promised, 
throughput is vastly increased. I will be glad 
to elaborate on the modification to anyone 
experiencing problems if they send me a 
S.A.S.E. c/o 6555 Pawnee Circle, 80915. 
Thanks, Steve. 

If any of you "machine language whizzes" 
have changed Tele64 to display on a black 
screen (reverse video) or have gotten Tele64 
to produce a key beep (click, etc.), I would 
much appreciate hearing from you — I'm 
sure all readers would be very appreciative. 

Herbert B. Ridge 
Colorado Springs, CO 

Editor: 

I've been looking for a game where you 
can look out a viewport and see the land- 
scape. What I had in mind was a plane, but a 
land vehicle would do all right. A couple of 
examples are Red Baron and Battle Zone. If 
you know of a game like this, please tell me: 
2532 W. Mesquite. 

Eric Kertesz 
Chandler, AZ 

Editor: 

I would like to find out from other Color 
Computer owners if anyone can tell me how 
to solve this problem. 

My computer starts to print garbage on 
the left side of the screen in two rows approx- 
imately tabs 5 and 10. Then the machine 



"hangs up" and must be turned off, thereby 
losing everthing. This happens after being 
on 10 to 30 minutes. However, if I turn the 
machine on-off-on when first used, the prob- 
lem usually does not occur. This is a big 
hassle when keying in a long program as I 
must make several saves to protect the pro- 
gram I'm keying in. 

Any help appreciated; replies to 12063 
Trampe Hts., 63138. 

Cornelius Washington, Jr. 

St. Louis, MO 

Editor: 

I recently tried to link RS Digitizer to my 
Color Computer. I need to measure irregu- 
lar surfaces for my work. Unfortunately, the 
machine language program supplied did not 
work and the demo program for CoCo had 
non-availablecommands like "DEFINT." It 
is no surprise that nobody is buying it and 
that RS plans to discontinue the product. If 
anybody has succeeded in linking the digi- 
tizer to CoCo, please contact me at 1708 
Simard, J 1 J 3X1. 

I enjoy your magazine very much. 

Pierre Blondeau 
Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada 

ANOTHER SERPENT VICTIM 

Editor: 

I have been trying at Radio Shack's 
adventure game Pyramid for a long time 
now and I still can't get by the green serpent. 

I was wondering if any of you adventurers 
out there could help me. Any clues at all 
would be helpful. Send to RD2 Box 331, 
26035. 

John Jenkins 
Colliers, WV 




the TV chassis as a grou 
present in "hot chassis"'" 



LOOKING FOR FELLOW MC-10ERS 

Editor: 

I am writing in the hopes of finding other 
readers who are interested in the new Radio 
Shack MC-I0 MicroColor Computer. I have 
just purchased this new machine, and would 
like to start a users' group. 

Any interested readers (both owners and 
potential owners) who send me a S.A.S.E. 
will receive the group's first newsletter and a 
member survey, inviting them to join the 
group. Due to time and expense constraints, 
only inquiries accompanied by the S.A.S.E. 
will be acknowledged. 

Bob Kant or 
Ossining, NY 

''ill 



UTIONAR 

er in last month's Rainbow, recommending usiii 
we caul ion you about a potential shock hazard 
Ve do not recommend grounding to f V chassis as. 



6 the RAINBOW October 1983 



PLEASE, I'D RATHER DO IT MYSELF 

Editor: 

I am the owner of a 16K Extended basic 
CoCo. I would like to upgrade it to 64K. 
Would it be better for me to have Radio 
Shack do the upgrade for $170 or do it 
myself for $50? People have told me that if 
you do it yourself the addressing will be 
different — is this true? Also, for the readers 
with Colorpede you can speed up the game 
by POKEing 7690,88 and slow it down by 
POKEing 7689,0. Keep up the good work on 
a great magazine. 

Scott Drake 
Pine City, NY 

EDITOR'S NOTE: There will be no 
problems doing it yourself if you fol- 
low the instructions in Rainbow. 



EDUCATIONAL RESPONSE PLEASE 

Editor: 

I have been very impressed with the issues 
of your magazine which I have recently pur- 
chased. You are to be congratulated on pro- 
ducing a forum which can only help in the 
development of support for the Color Com- 
puter. 

I am wondering if some of your readers 
can help me. This fall I will be supervising a 
pilot program which will introduce compu- 
ters to children in several schools in our local 
school district (Knox County, Tennessee). 



We will be using the Color Computer. I 
would like to hear from educators who have 
or are using computers in schools, particu- 
larly elementary schools. I am interested in 
their experiences with the machine, with 
children's reactions, with various software. I 
would be happy to share the results of our 
pilot with any interested readers as it pro- 
gresses. My address is Johnson Bible School, 
Kimberlin Heights Station, 37920. 

Chris Templar 
Knoxville, TN 



PRINTER OUTPUT BLUES 

Editor: 

Haven't been able to interface my Model 
33 teletype with Telewriter. 

Your listing #2 and loop supply work per- 
fectly after making corrections suggested in 
June Rainbow. 

Am trying to vary driver/ program so can 
use on Telewriter. Telewriter has (14) JSR 
$AZBFs which I have changed to JSR 
32719s. 

If I change line 290 in listing #2 to JSR 
$ AZBF and try to R UN, very strange things 
happen! Could you help me? 

Secondly, I find no $A282 or $A2Bf at all 
in Sigmon and Super Color Writer. Any 
suggestions on where to start on these? 

Craig Anderson 
Eldridge I A 

EDITOR'S NOTE: See next letter. 



Editor: 

Thank you for your hardware interface ip 
the February issue of the Rainbow Maga- 
zine. I have put it together and it works 
great; in fact I'm using the ASR-35 to print 
this computer-generated letter. 

There is a problem, though, and I was 
wondering if you have come up with a solu- 
tion to it. When I'm using a ROM pack such 
as Spectaculator or some other ROM pack 
with a PRINT routine in it, your program 
does not work. The ROM pack must take 
over the locations you have used to POKE 
your program in. Is there a modification to 
the program to allow the use of the printer 
with the ROM packs? 

Any ideas you have will be well received, I 
can assure you. And again, thanks for a 
great interface and program. It's very valua- 
ble to me even with the problem of the ROM 
packs. 

Grant H. Smith 
Northville, NY 



EDITOR'S NOTE; Some programs 
use their own character output rou- 
tines or maybe $A2BF directly. For 
these programs all references to prin- 
ter output such as JSR $A2BF must 
be changed to the address of your 
driver routine. At the same time your 
driver routine must end with a $39 or 
RTS instructions. 



The Color Computer 
Word Processor! 



MASTER WRITER is a professional quality full screen oriented word proces- 
sor for your color computer. Take a look at what you get. 

MASTER WRITER'S FULL SCREEN-ORIENTED EDITOR allows you to move 
the cursor anywhere in your text using the up, down, right and left arrows. Do this 
one character at a time or by line or page. Insert, delete or replace text at the cursor 
watching your changes as you make them. Delete or move blocks of text from one 
place to another. Merge in text from other files. 

AUTOMATIC CARRIAGE RETURN after last complete word on each line; with 
this and AUTOMATIC PAGE FEED you don't have to worry about where a line or 
page ends — just type! 

MASTER WRITER runs on a 1 6K, 32 K, or 64K color computer, taking advantage 
of all available memory. Use it with DISK OR CASSETTE based systems. EX- 
TENDED BASIC IS NOT REQUIRED for cassette version. 

EASY TO UNDERSTAND MANUAL has you comfortably using MASTER WRI- 
TER in minutes. It is a USER-FRIENDLY MENU-DRIVEN SYSTEM with single 
letter commands. Check any command without having to refer to the manual with 
the HELP SCREEN. 

10 PROGRAMMABLE FUNCTION KEYS allow easy insertion of frequently 
used words or phrases. 

MASTER WRITER 



WORKS WITH ANY PRINTER. Take full advantage of your printer's special 
functions such as variable character size and emphasized characters with EASY 
EMBEDDING OF PRINTER CONTROL CODES. 

GLOBAL SEARCH function lets you quickly locate specific strings for replace- 
ment or deletion. 

Customize form letters or standard text with the EMBEDDED PAUSE feature. 
Just "fill in the blanks" when your printer pauses for a personalized appearance. 

LIMITED MULTI-TASKING feature lets you print one file while editing ano- 
ther. 

In addition to regular text you can use MASTER WRITER to CREATE BASIC 
PROGRAMS with the convenience of full-screen editing. It can also be used to 
make and edit simple MAILING LISTS. 

OTHER FEATURES include easy setting of left, right, top and bottom margin, 
printer line width, and lines per page. Also repeat keys, auto line centering, auto 
page numbering and choice of display color formats. 

TO ORDER send $29.95 for cassette version or $34.95 for disk version plus 
$2.50 shipping (Calif, residents add sales tax) to: PYRAM ID DISTRIBUTORS, 527 
HILL ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90405 (213)399-2222. 



$29.95 Cassette 
$34.95 Disk 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 7 



COCO DIALER 

Editor: 

I've enjoyed your magazine ever since I 
first ordered. I've also learned a lot through 
it. 

Vm working on a phone dialer, through 
the CoCo, by making internal clicks — 
through motor on:motor off commands* 
Are there any POKEs or any commands 
(ML) that will make a click in the computer 
quickly in a row? 

My friend made a program for his compu- 
ter (Model I TRS-80) that dialed the phone 
quickly. I have a 64K ECB computer and am 
using a dial phone. 

Damon Frazier 
Binghurst, IN 

EDITOR'S NOTE: POKE &HFF21, 
&H3C to turn on cassette relay, POKE 
&HFF21,&H34 to turn it off. We do 
not recommend using the cassette 
relay to dial telephones due to the vol- 
tages that are present. 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

I have been receiving the Rainbow for just 
over half a year riow, and I cannot believe 
the growth I have seen in your publication. 
The most amazing part of that growth is the 
fact that the (quality of the Rainbow has been 
maintained, while the magazine itself has 
grown by 50 percent. 

This is the second time that I have written 
to you. The first time I complained about 
Telewriter 64, and the time it was taking for 
me to receive it from Cognitec. As you can 
see, I am a very happy Tele-64 user. Cognitec 
deserves credit for a great word processing 
program, and my thanks to you for your 
assistance. 

In closing, let me say that trie best just 
keeps getting better. Keep up the good work. 

Ted Gundersen 
Valhalla, NY 

Editor: 

I recently purchased a TRS-80 Color 
Computer (or rather my dad paid for it for 
me) and am very pleased with its capabili- 
ties. However, I am looking for more and 
better quality software from magazines. The 
only programs I have keyed in so far are 
Dragon-32 programs from British maga- 
zines. Unfortunately, none of them have 
been particularly good. Reading through 
TRS-80 Microcomputer News my attention 
was caught by a paragraph on magazines 
which stated that the Rainbow magazine 
covered the Color Computer and has "edi- 
torial content of high quality and will be of 
use to our customers." 

Michael Mooney 
Glasgow, Scotland 

Editor: 

I want to thank you for your incredible 
service. When my July issue of Rainbow 
didn't arrive, I went into mourning and my 
family, into hiding. I just couldn't believe it. 
I managed to hold off until the 25th as your 
policy states. At that time I rushed a letter 
off to your offices. Congratulations! Your 



system really works. I have received my 
magazine already. Such fine service should 
not go unnoticed. To all your staff, I thank 
you. 

Leonard Hyre 
Cambridge, MD 



COCO GROWS UP 

Editor: 

I own a 16K Extended basic TDP-100, 
and I would like to expand the computer to 
64K. What I need to know is do I have to 
only buy 64K RAM chips to make it into a 
full 64K computer? I have studied your 
magazine and I still haven't figured it out 
yet. I would also like to know why certain 
POKE statements such as 65497,0 mess up 
the computer and why useful POKE state- 
ments such as 65495,0 do certain tasks. 
Thank you for a fantastic magazine. 

Paul Miller 
West Valley, UT 

AH you need to upgrade to 64K from 
16K is eight (8) 4164 chips. Most chip 
suppliers will give you the instructions 
for the modification. For an explana- 
tion of the POKE statements you 
mentioned, obtain a copy of TRS-80 
Color Computer Technical Reference 
Manual at your local computer cen- 
ter. 



PIGGYBACK HAVOC 

Editor: 

I have a TRS-80 Color Computer series 
"D" 32K RAM (piggyback) but it didn't 
work properly with the disk version of RS 
Color Scripsit. 

The graphic display with upper and lower 
case letters didn't appear. We see only "gar- 
bage" when any letter is printed. 

Tell me also what I have to do to eliminate 
that terrible RFI when the disk controller is 
plugged at the ROM port. 

Nelson Lunha 
Monlevade, MG, Brazil 

EDITOR'S NOTE: Piggy backing 
RAM chips produces a "memory over- 
lay" that plays havoc with certain 
software. We do not have an imme- 
diate solution to your problem, to 
reduce your RFI, return your compu- 
ter to Radio Shack (after removing 
the piggyback chips) and they will 
update your computer by adding addi- 
tional grounding connections be- 
tween the main board and the disk 
controllers. 

IF YOU KNOW, TELL JOHN 

Editor: 

I would like to know if you or anyone else 
could tell me how to enter the assembly lan- 
guage programs that are printed in the 
Rainbow. 1 have the EDTASM+ from 
Radio Shack. 

I would like to know if any conversions 
are necessary. If so, could you tell me where I 
may find the information I need? Writing 
assembly language is new to me and I would 
like any help I can get. 



I would also like to know what the ASCII 
number just after the number line stands for. 
As well as how to enter the program using 
EDTASM+. Below is an example of what I 
mean: (this is part of the assembly listing of 
Rainbow Roach from the June 83 issue.) 

0001 0902 ORG16310 

0002 3FB6 8E0CIF LDX#$C1F 

0003 3FB9 A684 LOOP1 LDA ,X 

I would also like to know if anyone can tell 
me what the symbols in the game Space 
Shuttle stand for. As well as how you land 
on the runway (I crashed every time I tried to 
land). I would also like any clues anyone can 
give me on how to get through the forest in 
the adventure game Dragonquest. 

I think the Rainbow is the best magazine 
out for the CoCo, and I plan to renew my 
subscription early so I don't miss an issue. 
Keep up the good work. 

John D. Cleveland 
Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, Canada 

EDITOR'S NOTE: The number you 
are referring to is not ASCII but the 
actual machine code in hexadecimal 
form. The first two bytes are the 
address and the rest are the object 
code (the program). By using the 
memory examine/ exchange com- 
mands of ZBUG you can enter the 
machine (object) code at each respec- 
tive address. 



NEW BBS 

Editor: 

I wanted to inform you of a new Bulletin 
Board Service, Colorado Color* for the 
Radio Shack Color Computer. This board is 
always open (barring acts of God and the 
perversity of computers) and supports up- 
load and download. The 24 hour BBS 
number is (303) 249-7866. 

Congratulations on your excellent maga- 
zine — it is hard to believe your growth since 
my first issue (March 1981). I gladly recom- 
mend the Rainbow as the best magazine for 
the CoCo and probably the best computer 
publication I receive (of six). As much as I 
hate tearout cards in magazines, it seems I 
pass out most of yours to new users. Keep up 
the great work! 

Charles G. David 
Montrose, Colorado 



HINTS AND TIPS 

Editor: 

In the course of developing software for 
my new product, the Kaleidophone (see 
August Rainbow, page 156) I have disco- 
vered yet another bug in Microsoft basic. If 
you have any software that involves the use 
of small numbers, watch out! 

This is not the usual rounding error that 
all floating point is subject to, but a strange 
quirk in 1.1 basic. Try this: 

PRINT 31 — 1.0E-38 
Now 10- 3S is almost zero, so you should get 
3 1 , right? Wrong! The answer given is IE-38 ! 

There are many variations of this. And it's 
not just a problem with using E format for 
input. Try this: 
10 X=1.0 



8 the RAINBOW October 1983 





PRICK SUBJECT TO CHANCE 



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20 X=X/1.1 

30 IF (31-X)<30 THEN PRINT X;31-X 
40 GOTO 20 

You'll find a whole range where the error 
occurs — roughly 3xl0- 39 to 9xl0- 38 . Note 
that these answers are wrong by a factor of 
nearly 10 40 , not an insignificant amount to 
say the least! 

I think all vendors of numerical software 
should be aware of this. 

FredK. Lenherr, Ph.D. 
New Salem Research 
New Salem, MA 

Editor: 

Are you tired of seeing the "OK" prompt 
forever on the screen, especially after your 
favorite program has just bombed? This you 
can change if your 80C has been converted 
to 64K. All that is required is to be in the 
all-RAM mode and key in the following: 
POKE &HABEE, &H2B: POKE &HA- 

BEF, &H2B 
This will change the prompt to ++. You 
could use any other symbol of your choice. 

I initialize my computer upon start-up 
with this short routine. 
10 LOADM 64K: EXEC 
20 POKE &HABEE, &H2B: POKE 

&HABEF, &H2B 
30 NEW 

With this you can run all your favorite 
programs without affecting their operation. 

Edgar H. Poulin 
Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada 

SHARON HINTS 

Editor: 

In my last letter, I gave a rather compli- 
cated solution to the problem of "multiply 
defined symbol" error messages on Radio 
Shack's EDTASM+ software. 

I heard from Sharon Lunsford at Radio 
Shack. Here is what she had to say: 
"The 'multiply defined symbol' error 
message can be avoided by using the 
format OFFSET + LABEL instead of 
LABEL + OFFSET." 
I tried it and it worked! If you have a line 
in the text file such as 

LDX #TABLE+50 
change it to 

LDX #50+TABLE. 
This has cleared up my problems. I hope it 
works for your other readers. 

Dave Jenkins 
Evansville, IN 

Editor: 

I've .always liked the way Rainbow has 
treated games as seriously as other pro- 
gramming aspects of the Color Computer. 
Rainbow's Scoreboard is by far the most 
complete I've seen. Here are a few hints on 
two games that may help increase scores. 

In case you haven't noticed, the scores for 
jumping, barrels and knocking out pins in 
Donkey King (The King) by Tom Mix are 
not random. The score is derived by time left 
MOD 1000, so if you have 2400 time units 
left you will score 400 points when you jump 
a barrel, etc. 

In Protectors, also by Tom Mix software, 
if you do a POKE 13579,90 after you 
CLOA DM and before you EXEC, the same 



joystick that controls your vertical move- 
ment will also control which way you shoot. 
This puts more control in one joystick and 
leaves only the "throttle" button left on the 
other, 

Richard Uglum 
Milwaukee, WI 

Editor: 

I like the Pipeline program in the June 
issue but I thought I'd pass along a minor 
modification to pick up the game speed a bit. 
Change line 170 to read: 
170 FOR QX=341 TO 344:POKE QX,255: 
NEXT:I$=INKEY$:IF I$="'THEN 230 

This works with 1.0 through 1.2 Color 
BASIC to give the arrow keys a repeat func- 
tion. Addresses 338 through 345 are the key- 
board "last look" buffer, and POKEing 255 
there makes it appear that the key has been 
released and pressed again. Thus, the IN KEYS 
function will continue to recognize the key 
as long as it is held down. 

Stephen L. Lipps 
Lebanon, IN 

Editor: 

First I'd like to ask some questions and 
then IH give some helpful hints. 

1) How do I get past the large serpent in 
Pyramid! 

2) H ow do I get across the rug in the large 
rectangular room in Raaka-tut 

3) How do I get the green key out of the 
electroshock room in Bedlam] 

Now for the good stuff! 

X = 1 ... 255 
POKE 12914, X on Donkey King (The King) 
for more men. 

POKE 10739, X on Katerpillar Attack for 
more men. 

POKE 9009, X on PacTac for more men. 
POKE 10489, X on PacTac 2 for more men. 

NOTE: Unlike Donkey and Katerpillar, 
both PacTacs show all men given. 

If you readers have answers to questions 
above, write me at 19 S. Waterloo Road, 
19333. 

Pat J. Dolan 
Devon, PA 

Editor: 

In response to Chris Latham's letter on 
page 13 of your August 1983 edition of the 
Rainbow, there is a much easier way to save 
high scores. Simply reset the computer after 
you have played for 10 minutes, type CSA- 
VEM "DONK E Y" , 1 2803,325 1 2, 1 2803 . Then, 
whenever you load this new copy, the high 
scores will be included in the program itself. 

You can get 300,000 points on Donkey 
King (The King) by grabbing the hammer on 
the first level and falling off the edge. It 
happens once in a while, so keep trying. 
Whenever this happens I don't save the high 
scores. 

Kenny Miller 
Yardley, PA 

NO MODEM FOR MA BELL? 

Editor: 

I am looking for a way to send and receive 
programs using the cassette plugs over the 
phone lines to other CoCos. I saw an ad for a 
"Black Box" selling for $69 that would do 
this and it wasn't a modem. If I could get a 



schematic and a parts list I could build a few 
for our CoCo club members. Also maybe 
this circuit could be interfaced for two-meter 
ham radio, too. There are many CoCo 
owners that are hams in my area. Please 
contact The Radcliff Color Computer Club 
c/o N4GSB, 287 Highland Dr., 40160. 

Bryan Harp 
Radcliff, KY 

EDITOR'S NOTE: Telephone trans- 
mission of data without some type of 
modem is possible but not recom- 
mended. For cassette output the Baud 
rate is close to 1500 and the band- 
width would be excessive for normal 
telephone transmission. 



BRAZILIAN COCONUT 

Editor: 

I'm the leader of the only formal users' 
group in Brazil: The TRS-80 Color Club, 
P.O. Box 2951, Rio de Janeiro, with almost 
100 owners and growing up very fast. 
Here is one hint for your collection: 
If you are getting some keyboard failures 
(lock out), try to switch the PI As (6821 
and/ or 6822) between each other. 

Francisco J. M. C. da Silva 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

EVANSVILLE TO COCO, MOE 

Editor: 

I would like to form a C.C. Club in the 
Evansville, Indiana area. If anyone is inter- 
ested, please call or write to Box 462, 47633, 
or phone me at (812) 874-2210. 

Brian Boyles 
Poseyville, IN 



REVIEWER'S REPLY 

Editor: 

I would like to comment on the letter in 
the August issue from a Mr. John Plaxton 
regarding the software reviews published in 
the Rainbow. 

I have done several software reviews for 
the Rainbow, and can honestly say that 
nothing has influenced the context of my 
reviews other than the product itself. Mr. 
Plaxton correctly pointed out, however, that 
opinions vary, and I guess that this can be 
further influenced depending on what other 
programs the reviewer has seen. 

I have never reviewed what I considered to 
be a bad program, but I would like to point 
out that there is a difference between the 
choice of phrases such as "so-and-so is a fun 
game" as opposed to "so-and-so has excel- 
lent graphics and sounds." 

One final point that I'm sure most of your 
readers are not aware of is that except for 
spelling, grammatical, and punctuation 
changes, the Rainbow editorial staff does 
not, in any way, change the reviews from the 
way that they are received. 

Gerry Schechter 
Yonkers, NY 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 13 



PRINT #-2, 



The issue of software theft, sometimes called piracy, is one of 
the hottest ones in the computer marketplace today. One of 
the main reasons for this, frankly, is because of what has been 
happening in the past few months in the Model 1/ III market. 

A number of companies which have been producing some fine 
quality software for those machines have gone out of business and 
the reason that we are hearing that this has happened is because of 
the large amount of illegal software on the market. 

That fact, plus the anticipated pullout of at least one major soft- 
ware vendor in the CoCo field, suggests that there is a major problem 
brewing in this area. Yes, we have written about software theft before 
— but the issue appears, at least to us, to be more serious at this time 
than at any time in the future. 

Without doubt one of the reasons is because the Color Computer 
has grown to be one of the major forces in the marketplace. The 
potential for successful sales is greater than ever before — and that 
potential increases every day. Finally, with the introduction of the 
Color Computer 2, the 64K CoCo and the OS-9 operatingsystem by 
Radio Shack, the potential is so great that it staggers the imagination. 
The problem, however, is that it also attracts those who would seek to get something for nothing. And, 
while we do not condone it, the problem is reaching the proportions that the simple "copying a program for 
a friend" version of software piracy, while certainly damaging, is small scale. When bulletin boards spring 
up which are devoted to allowing illegal copies of commercial software to be downloaded, when "pirate 
newsletters" appear, when "companies" sell pirated software, there's a big problem out there. 

We've talked about this before, but the consequences of software theft are considerable. They mean that 
many talented programmers will simply stop, or never start, writing for the Color Computer. They mean 
that the cost of your software will go up. They mean that some companies with the resources to produce and 
market truly innovative programs will simply get out of — or never decide to enter — the CoCo field. 

The Rainbow has been a part of the Color Computer market for more than two years now. We have 
talked about software theft in the past. And, we have done a few things. Now, we are doing more and I think 
it might be helpful if we let you know what they are. 

We are asking all our advertisers to remove those "copy anything" programs from the market. Yes, we 
realize that some programs are sold with protected disks and tapes and that it can be a hassle to get a 
replacement. We are also asking our advertisers to provide a convenient and reasonable means of backing 
up their software for the personal use of purchasers. And, we suggest that you inquire whether software is 
sold without easy backup potential (such as Radio Shack, which gives you two disks in its Sands of Egypt 
package). 

We have also asked Color Computer clubs to approve bylaws that forbid theft of commercial software. It 
has been gratifying that a huge number of them — from Alaska to Florida, New York to California and in 
Canada, too — have done so already. It is our intention to list a directory of Color Computer clubs. With 
more and more people coming into the CoCo Community every day, such information is important to them. 

At last spring's RAINBOWfest in Chicago, we asked representatives of Color Computer clubs in 
attendance to let us know whether they would have a problem with such a rule as a condition of being listed. 
No one expressed any problem. And we, are in the process of preparing our directory. 

The bottom line here, though, is that software theft hurts you most of all. It drives up the price of software; 
it limits the programs that may be available to you. And, if you do have an illegal copy of a piece of software, 
it will probably mean you can't get any help from the manufacturer should something go wrong. 

I hope you will help us eliminate software theft. The Color Computer market is one of the most robust and 
successful among all personal computers. Please help us protect it so that it will continue to grow and thrive. 

While on the subject of Color Computer clubs, we will soon begin a section in the Rainbow that will give 
news of CoCo Club happenings. The purpose of this is to encourage the exchange of information 
— interesting presentations, new ideas, projects and the like. We encourage your club to be a part of that and 
to expect to receive some forms soon that will help you report news to us. 

Our first RAINBOWfest is moving along and we hope that we see many of you in Fort Worth. This show 
(continued on page 284) 




14 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 
True lower case characters 
User -friendly full -screen 
editor 

Right justification 
Easy hyphenation 
Drives any printer 
Embedded format and 
control codes 
Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 
Menu -driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 
The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 5 1 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VIII, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 
Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and /or cassette, For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



. . . truly a state of the art word processor. . . 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



/0% 

RAINBOW 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 
704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8A1VI-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Californians add 6% state tax. Allow 2 
weeks for personal checks. Send self-addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Micro, 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
information.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P.O. Box 16842 - Sta. B 
Greenville, South Carolina 29606 
(803) 233-2700 

PRESENTS 




COLOR— STICK 

The ORIGINAL interface for 

\ rheTRS-80* 
Color Computer to let 
you use the famous: 

ATARI* JOYSTICK' 



Just plug your Atari or Atari like 
joystick (the Color-Stick enables the 
use of most joysticks made for the 
Atari) into the Color-Stick interface 
and then plug the Color-Stick into an 
empty joystick port. 

The Color-Stick can improve 
scores 50% and more while making 
some games more exciting and fun to 
play. 

Don't settle for cheap imitations. 
Only the ORIGINAL Color-Stick's 
small inline design allows you to just 
plug your joystick into it and forget it. 
The Color-Stick becomes a part of 
your joystick so it does not interfere 
with your game playing. In addition 
Color-Stick returns a full value of '63' 
for the right and down directions, 
even when using two joysticks and 
even in the diagonal directions, the 
others don't. 

NOW Color-Stick has a 
new low price....... 

Color-Stick interface $10.95 each 

two for $19.95 (less joysticks) 
Atari joysticks $9.95 each 



ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P.O. Box 16842 — Sta. B 
Greenville, South Carolina 29606 
(803) 233-2700 

Don't miss out order the 
ORIGINAL. Send your check or 
money order or better yet call 
today and order your Color-Stick. 




Add $2.00 per order shipping and handling. Bank cards 
welcomed (please include expiration date). Orders paid 
by cashiers check, money orders, bank cards and 
CO.D. are shipped within 48 hours. Personal checks 
please allow 1-2 weeks. C.O.D. orders add $1.50 extra. 
S.C residents add 4% sales tax. *TRS-80 is a registered 
trademark of Tandy Corp. Atari is a registered 
trademark of Atari, Inc. 



BUILDING OCTOBER'S RAINBOW 

Our graphics issue , . . 
Bound for Fort Worth edition . . . 
Judging the Simulation Contest . . . 



In addition to the proverbial baling wire that holds many magazine operations 
together, the Rainbow's production process depends heavily on The Clipboard 
— if it's not on The Clipboard, don't bet on it ever hitting the printed page. 
About this time every month, it seems we all need The Clipboard at the same 
time. Lay it down and it's gone. Fortunately, it always reappears, because, 
without it, we would be in big trouble. It contains the evolving record of "what 
goes" and where it goes — and we don't even have a backup copy. 

This month is our graphics special and "what goes" (which is to say what stays 
on The Clipboard) is influenced by how closely the article or program relates to 
our graphics theme. While many submissions had to be held over for later issues, 
one that has a solid position on The Clipboard is Marathon, John Fraysse's 
action-packed graphics game. It's fun to play — and not as hard as his Rainbow 
Roach — and, best of all, he shares with us the tricks of the trade and his special 
techniques for getting the most out of CoCo's graphics capability. John's article 
is a marathon, itself, so if you "hit the wall," take a breather and come back to it. 
And, if you get blisters on your typing fingers, try Rainbow on Tape, but don't 
miss Marathon. 

One of our most colorful graphics offerings is Flags, which draws the flags of 
dozens of nations. Color Blackjack is a guaranteed winner, too, and even the 
program quickie, Sinelines, is a sure crowd pleaser. Sinelines was artist Fred 
Crawford's inspiration for our cover this month. 

Do a PCLEAR40, or so, for all the other graphics pages and, for dessert, try 
Picture Your Face, one of my personal favorites. I guess Dick Tracy has a sphere 
of influence that reaches all the way to Australia; at least, the Delbourgo family's 
latest offering reminds me of the way Junior, the police artist in the famous 
cartoon strip, would listen to eyewitness descriptions and then make a composite 
drawing of a face from an assortment of stock noses, ears, beady eyes and 
criminal type hairdos. I always wanted to try that; now we can all amaze our 
friends by letting CoCo Picture Your Face. 

A welcome return to our pages this month is Jorge Mir, who has two articles! 
In addition to a cassette merge program, Jorge has 64KBASIC for our growing 
number of readers with 64K. 

After completing his comprehensive CoCo memory map in last month's issue, 
Bob Russell will return next month with additional discoveries, corrections and 
documentation for the new ROMs. Stay tuned for this and a special article of 
hints and tips on how to make the most of the memory map. 

For those with I/O error blues, Harry Hardy's Hide That Disk Directory 
shows us how to initialize a 36th track! And, how to harbor an extra disk 
directory in out-of-the-way safety. 

A final note. Even though we all have one eye on Fort Worth and our next 
RAINBOWfest, our judges are poring over the dozens of Simulation Contest 
entries and promise to name the winners next month in our Simulation Contest/ 
Data Communications issue. The competition promises to be tough, though, for 
the quality and quantity of entries is high. Keep your fingers crossed and, in the 
meantime, if you haven't already done so, put a note on your own clipboard to 
subscribe to the Rainbow, with the cover price now at $3.95, a $22 per year 
subscription means an annual savings of more than $25. 

See you in Fort Worth! 

—Jim Reed 



16 the RAINBOW October 1983 



r 



GUARDIAN 



&=>= 



CD" 




IF YOU HAVEN'T PLAYED GUARDIAN, 
THEN YOU HAVEN'T PLAYED THE BEST. 



1). The Landers aren't suddenly just "there", they implode out of 
particles! 

2. ) Not just "Beeps" but stunning sounds! 

3. ) Explosions just like the arcade with no skimping! 

4. ) Thrust flame behind your ship. 



Order now by check, M.O., C.O.D., or see your dealer. . . 
(If he doesn't have it yet send him to us!) 
$27.95 - Tape / $29.95 - Disk 
Add $1.50 per order for postage and handling. California residents add 6%. 



Check these features: 



and many more! 



QUASAR ANIMATIONS 
1520 Pacific Beach Drive 
San Diego, CA 92109 



(619)274-2202 




••ore tha, ^jiace 

Well folks, here we go again! 1 must 
say that I was overwhelmed by the 
response to Rainbow Roach in the 
June 1983 Rainbow. First, let me say "thank 
you" to the CoCo community and my yet 
unseen friends or should I say fiends at the 
Rainbow. You made Rainbow Roach a 
smashing success! Now the question is are 
you ready for Marathon, which is probably 
what you will feel like you have been 
through after typing it in! But take heart, 
good things seldom come in small code 
space. 



(John Fraysse. Jr. holds a degree in aerospace 
engineering from Virginia Tech. He and his 
wife Jean and their four children (ages 18 
months to 12 yrs. J live in King George County. 
VA. Afabear Software is John s small spare- 
time business.) 



n -Of- 



at'«° n 10 

1 know what most of you are thinking. 
Marathon is a Son-Of-Roach. Well, yes, 
and no. Remember, in the Rainbow Roach 
article 1 said that we would do some wild 
and wonderful things with scrolling graphics 
at a later date? I had Marathon in mind at 
the time as a demonstration of the applica- 
tions of ML subroutines. Marathon has five 
ML subroutines, but please trust me, you 
will not need an editor or assembler— just 
the ECB listing provided and, of course, this 
article. Some of you wrote me righteously 
indignant that I had put a ML subroutine 
into a basic game and therefore had pre- 
cluded all non-ML programmers from using 
the program. This was luckily not the case, 
as I explained, and will go over once again 
in this article. At any rate, the ML routines 
occupy approximately 300 bytes of memory 
and are written in position independent 
code (PIC) or "run anywhere code." 



sts 



18 theRAJNSOW October 1983 




is 



L bsO 



lute 



Marathon is more complex than Roach . . 
more of an ordeal. You must first race 
downhill on a SLED past deviously 
arranged scenery, then FLY your airplane 
over miles of moving mountainous terrain 
cluttered with air traffic control problems. 
Next, you take to the streets at rush hour 
(of course), and no traffic 'copter is going to 
help you out. Finally, a trip into the bowels 
of the earth as you power your SUB 
through the narrow, mined crevices of the 
deep, and past the resting place of JAWS! 

1 have structured the program into two 
modules, or portions, of stand-alone code. 
With some very simple modifications, the 
entire Marathon listing (requiring 32K 
ECB) can be broken into two 16K ECB 
programs. Consequently, those of you with 
16K ECB can still play Marathon by creat- 
ing these two programs from the full listing 
and by CLOADing and RUNning one pro- 
gram over the other. Virtual memory 
techniques! 



For 32K ECB folks, the full Marathon 
listing automatically reconfigures itself for 
either a disk or cassette system. It does not 
use or need a BREAK key disable or the 
POKE 65495,0 CPU speedup since these 
things seemed to do more harm than good 
(judging from some of the confusion over 
Rainbow Roach). If your machine can hack 
it— POKE it and watch it fly. This is left as 
your choice. 

As with Rainbow Roach, 1 have provided 
a couple of screen dumps, a program func- 
tional line description, a variable list, and an 
assembly listing as well as a good deal of 
commentary including some debugging 
helps. So if all these words have hyped you 
up, get your typing fingers and your "bug 
spray" ready to hit those keyboards! But 
first some ground rules and useful hints: 

* You must have Extended Color BASIC 
(ECB). 

* If you have disk, you must have 32K. 

* You do not need a monitor or assembler. 

* ALWAYS save-to-tape or before typing 

RUN. 




October 1983 (he RAINBOW 





WITH 
3-DIMENSIONAL 
GRAPHICS 



BY DALE LEAR (L X ' 

-own there — below and to Ihe rloht — tongues of hre play across the face of a skyscraper like living things. Inside the copter, 
unaway temperatures nearly rip the conslclous from your heat-punished body, momentarily throwing you off course. But pansc 
taps a ntdden reservoir of strength, and with an adroit push on ihe throttle, your FIRE COPTER continues to knife through the 
swirling plume of smoke, carrying Its llfesaving water jets directly Into the flames 

FIRE COPTER Isjoystickcontrolled and accomodates one or two players. Ready for three-dimensional realism? Then you re ready 
lor FIRE COPTER — the hot new arcade game from Adventure International! 

Color Computer 16K Cassette >v»^M>,,>i^.i^.M:.. .. $24.95 




o 



^Adventure 



INTERNATIONAL 



A SUBSIDIARY OF SCOTT ADAMS. INC 

BOX 3435 • LONG WOOD, FL 32750 • (305) 862-6917 



To order, »«• your loco) dealer. (1 he doee not heve the program, then 
cell 1 -600*327-7 172 lorden only pleaie) or write for our Iree celelog. 
DEALER INQUIRIES ARE INVITFD' 



IF 



mm 



KzJ 




* Type in lines as you see them. DO NOT ADD or SUB- 
TRACT SPACES. This will keep your listing on your 
CoCo screen exactly like the Rainbow listing. 

* IF you have a correct Rainbow Roach listing, you can 
save some typing by first loading Roach and then deleting 
lines 0 — 44 and 50 — 65. Now, type and enter RENUM 
39 f 45,l then add the statements from the Marathon listing 
at the end of line 43 (L$(37) and a "GET"). The programs 
use the same character sets. 

* If you would like a tape of Marathon send $4 and a label 
with your address on it to: 

John Fraysse 
Afabear Software 
Box 822 

Dahlgren, VA 22448 
111 cover the cassette, postage and handling and try my 
best to give you next day service. Or if you prefer, send a 
self-addressed envelope with adequate return postage and 
a blank cassette with $3, whichever is more convenient. 

* When calling to discuss problems try to have your 
computer next to the phone so that we can debug and talk 
at the same time. Please look through this article's docu- 
mentation first, especially the "Debugging Section. " I will 
be glad to talk to you after 7:00 p.m. on weekdays, 
(703-775-7018). 

* Finally, as a favor, I would ask that you not give or sell 
Marathon or any other software you have purchased or 
typed in. As an individual, you have the right to use 
someone else's software (whether purchased or typed in) 
not to give away or sell it. Thanks much! 



How To Run 
A Marathon 




For 32K ECB users, simply CLOAD "MARATHON" 
RUN. Whether you are loading from a disk or cassette does 
not matter. 

If you have 16K ECB, read this paragraph — otherwise, 
skip to the next one. Okay, you have 16K. First CLOAD 
"MA RA.SET" and R UN. When the OK appears, CLOAD 
"MARADRVR" and RUN again to play. Maraset and 
Maradrvr are two programs created from Marathon. See 
the special 16K ECB instructions for details. If you wish to 
press the BREAK key to edit Maradrvr only do so when the 
game status word reads "DIF" or "RUB." This is the only 
time when the graphic scenes are properly aligned. Re- 
running Maradrvr does not recreate the scenes. {Maraset 
does that.) If you follow this rule, you will be able to edit 
Maradrvr and rerun without reloading and rerunning 
Maraset first. However, if things don't look right, you will 
have to repeat the Maraset- Maradrvr sequence. 

After typing RUN, the program headers will appear scrol- 
ling up from the bottom of the screen one at a time until a 
surrounding border is finally in place. The graphic screen is 
then displayed (see Figure 1) and the four scenes begin to 
move simultaneously. This is the wait mode. It occurs 
initially and after each game. Pressing the spacebar exits the 
wait mode, realigns the scenes and enters the "rub-in" mode 
(select difficulty level and enter your initials). The area in the 
center of the screen is the information/ score box. The small 
square to the left edge of the box is the difficulty level. A 
question mark ("?") and the status word below the box 
("DIF") indicate that you should select a difficulty level 
(1 — 4). Pressing the "1" through "4" keys will record your 
selection and move the "?" next to the "ID" label. The status 



6 02B9 40 19FP 

12 05CB 44 1D9A 

17 09B9 49 20B9 

22 0DC8 58 24A2 

27 1139 66 27B5 

34 1591 END 2A75 



0 CLEAR360 , 23999 : AD-24000 : 80SUB 1 
1 

1 IF T-5 THEN8 ELSE IF T-l OR T- 
3 THEN 2 ELSE 4 

2 PUT < PEEK ( AD+304 ) , LB ) - < PEEK < AD+ 
304 ) + 1 0 , LB+8 ) , X M , PSET : FORN-LB TO 

UB STEP ST:X-USR0(X) :QET(X,N)-( 
X+10, N+8) , PR, 6: IF PPOINT<X+DX,N+ 
DY)<>0 OR PPOINT(X+DX+1,N+DY)<>0 
THEN6ELSEPUT ( X , N) - < X+10, N+8) , P, O 
R: PUT ( X , N) - < X+10, N+8) , PR, AND: EXE 
CA < T ) : PLAY " V3 1 T2S5L25505A " 

3 NEXTN: N-ABS (N-LB) : PLAY" V3102T2 
L4AL803DEF+L4EC+ " : S-S+INT <N*. 93) 
: B0SUB56: 60SUB59: T-T+l : 60SUB63: 8 
OTOl 

4 PUT <LB, PEEK < AD+304) ) - <LB+10, PE 
EK < AD+304) +8) , XM, PSET: FORN-LB TO 

UB STEP ST:Y-USR0(Y):GET(N,Y)-( 
N+10, Y+8) ,PR,8: I FPPO I NT < N+DX , Y+D 
Y)O0THEN6ELSE PUT <N, Y) - (N+10, Y+ 
8) , P,OR:PUT<N, Y)— <N+10, Y+8) , PR, A 
ND: EXECA (T) : PLAY"T255L25505A M : NE 
XTN 

5 N-ABS ( N-LB ) : S-S+ I NT ( N* . 93 ) : PL A 
Y"V3102T2L4AL803DEF+L4EC+" : 60SUB 
56: 60SUB59: T-T+l : 80SUB63: 80T01 

6 IF T-l OR T-3 THEN DX=X:DY-N E 
LSE DX=N: DY— Y 

7 FORJ=0TO3:PUT(DX,DY)-(DX+10,DY 
+8 ) , E X , OR : PLAY " V2L30T20O5 M : FOR I - 
0TO13: PLAY"V+AA+V+ M : NEXT I : PUT <DX 
, DY) - (DX+10, DY+8) , PR, AND: NEXTJ : N 
=ABS (N-LB) : S-S+INT (N*. 93) : 60SUB5 
6: 60SUB59: T-T+l : G0SUB63: 60T01 

8 IF INKEY*=CHR*(32) THEN 9 ELSE 
PLAY " V3 1 T255L25505A " : EXECA ( 1 ) : E 

XECA(2) : EXECA (3) : EXECA (4) :N=N+1: 
60T08 

9 RS-500 : S-0 : N*- T- 1 : BOSUB56 : T 

=2: G0SUB56: T=3: G0SUB56: T-4: GOSUB 
56:FORI»0TO DF-2:PUT(TX(I),TY(I) 
) - (TX ( I ) +20, TY ( I ) +1 1 ) , XM, PSET: PU 
T(MX(I) ,MY(I) )-(MX(I)+6,MY(I)+&> 
, XM, PSET: PUT (HX ( I ) , HY ( I ) ) - (HX ( I ) 
+10, HY ( I ) +13) , XM, PSET: CIRCLE ( 152 
,138), 10,0 

10 PUT(BXd) ,BY(I) )-(BX(I)+14,BY 
( I ) +9) , XM, PSET: NEXT I : 8OSUB50: T-l 
:G0SUB63:G0T01 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 21 



1 1 PM0DE3, 1 : PCLS: DRAW"BM1 , 2C2R2S 
2D 1 87L252U 1 87BM4 , 4C4R246D 1 83L246 
U 1 83BM8 , 6C3R239D 1 79L239U 1 79BM63 , 
7D1 77BM 1 92 , 1 84U 1 77BM 1 92 , 20M64 , 20 
BM85,20M105, 1011125,2011135, 1511145 
, 20C2M 1 30 , 35M 115, 45L5M85 , 20BM 170 
, 20C3E5F5M 1 85 , 1 0M 1 90 , 20C2M 1 85 , 30 
65H5M170,20" 

1 2 cls4 : b*» " afabear " +chr* < 1 9 1 ) +c 
hr* < 191 ) + " software m +chr* ( 191 ) +ch 
r* < 1 9 1 ) : for i -488t0232 step-32 : cl 
S4:printsi,b*; :nexti 

13 draw " bm62 , 68c2nu8r 1 28m 191, 60l 

&M180, 45M170, 60M155, 35L5M130, 60M 
120, 651190, 60M85, 45M80, 55M77, 40L4 
M70 , 60L6BM64 , 78C3R 1 28BD 1L111D10N 
Rl 1 1D10NR1 1 1BD3NR1 1 1D10NR1 1 1D10R 
1 1 1BM95, 102D20BR41U20BR14D20BM67 
,86R10D10L10U10BM192, 17&L8M172, 1 
70M152, 180BM154, 184" 

14 DRAW "Ml 49, 174M129, 184M109, 174 
M99, 179M94, 169M89, 174M81 , 150L4M6 
8, 176L4BM245, 8C2M235, 28D20M245, 6 
8BM 1 94 , 70ND60M204 , 89D20M 1 94 , 1 30B 
M49, 7&C3M45, 78R2M43, 80R4M41 , 83R6 
M39, 87R20M51 , 83R6M51 , 80R4M51 , 78R 
21149, 76BM20, 1 10C2NE5NR20D10R20NE 



word will read "RUB" for rub-in. You must type three 
capital letters — all others are ignored. After entering your 
initials, the status word reads "RDY" for ready and an 
illuminating square to the left of the labels SLED, FLY, 
AUTO, or SUB will appear flashing and playing a short, 
random note sequence. Also, at this time, your vehicle will 
appear at its starting position in the appropriate trial area. 

Figure 1 



.it. 




si 


BLED 




nUTO 




FLY 




BUS 



v m 



iliiiiiii.^iiiiiiiiii 



Jk. 





Not* Our pfograms are different 
because they are written entirely 
in BASIC so they are easy for you to 
adapt to yogr particular needs. To 
make that even easier we provide a 
one page instruction guide which 
describes how key points In the 
programs work so that you can then 
develop your own similar types of 
programs. 





Holiday Jamboree; 
Similar to the 
holiday carolers, 
but has 5 holiday 
pictures. Great 
Advertising tool 
or a joy at home. ^ 
Tape 16K Ext $7.95 



S3- 



Tampa Instructional Center 

201 EAST LINEBAUGH AVENUE 
TAMPA, FLORIDA 33612 

(8131933.3923 



Ej 



Marathon has four trial areas which you must negotiate in 
order. The RIGHT JOYSTICK controls all of the action. 
The button is never used. Increasing the difficulty level 
causes more and more obstacles in your path. With the 
SLED trial, you get more TREES. With the FLY trial, you 
get more BIRDMEN. When AUTOing, you have more 
FIRE HYDRANTS, and while SUBing, you must dodge 
more of those pesty MINES. When the status word reads 
"GO" your trial begins, first on the left hand side, the SLED. 
You move downward, the scenery moves upward. The next 
trial is the plane (FLY). You move to the right, the scenery 
moves to the left. This is followed by the AUTO. You move 
upward, the traffic moves downward. Finally, it's the SUB. 
You move to the left, the undersea world moves to the right. 
Your joystick controls horizontal movement while SLED- 
ing or AUTOing and vertical movement while FLYing or 
SUBing. You must avoid "NOSE" contact with the scenery. 
Once the front portion of your vehicle has passed an 
obstruction you are safely by. Care was taken to make the 
joystick control exceptionally smooth and responsive, but at 
the higher levels a good deal of anticipation and split-second 
timing is required! 

Your score is proportional to how long you lasted in each 
of the four trials and is totaled after each trial. For each 
5,000 point increment in score, you will receive a bonus play 
round (a perfect Marathon is 5250). The game status word 
will read "BNS" and a rising scale is played. After the game 
has ended, the status word will read "END" and the four 
scenes will begin to move simultaneously again waiting on 
SPACEBAR to replay. Pressing the spacebar will realign 
the scenes and re-prompt the Difficulty/ Rub-in sequence. 

Well, that's your mission ... a Marathon if you should 
decide to accept it! 



22 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Special Instructions For _ 
[16K ECB Cassette Users - J ^ 

1. Clear your machine by turning it off then on again. 

2. Type and ENTER POKE 25,6 (This will clear all the 
graphic pages and allow you to use all of your memory for 
program.) 

3 . If you have a purchased tape or wish to add to or edit the 
one you have previously created just CLOAD"MARA- 
THON." If you have no tape file as of yet . . . type like crazy 
until complete or you are exhausted. Do not type RUN until 
you are instructed. If you wish to stop and rest prior to 
completion CSA VET MA RAT HON "and repeat steps 1—3 
to continue. When complete, make two copies and put them 
in a safe place. These are your "master" copies. 

4. Now, you must make two programs out of the one 
master. This is also necessary to debug the two programs. 
The first program will be the setup code which will create 
most of the necessary graphics plus POKE the ML code into 
the proper memory locations. Here are the steps assuming 
the master is loaded: 

* ADD "CLE A R360, 16074 " as the first statement in 
line 11. Line 11 should read: 11 CLEAR360, 
16074:PMODE3,1 . . . 

* ADD "AD-16075" as the first statement in line 30. 
Line 30 should read: 30 AD=16075:CK=0:FOR 
I^AD . . . 

* DELETE lines 0 — 10 then delete lines 36 to the end 
of the program (DEL 36 — ) 

* CSA VE the result as "MARASET" 

Now to create the second program — the BASIC driver. 



o 

O 
O 




& 

CP 
o 



Leave your machine on and reload the master file, "MARA- 
THON." Follow these steps: 

* REDO line 0. Line 0 should read: "AD=16075: 
GOSUB38" 

* DELETE lines 11—37 

* CSA VE the result as "M ARADRVR" just a few 
counts past the end of "MARASET" 

* Cycle your machine off then on again (restores gra- 
phic pages) 

5. If you started with a purchased cassette, rewind to 
"MARASET rCLOAD then RUN. When the "OK" ap- 
pears, CLa4£>"MARADRVR" and RUN. Marathon is 
yours! 



Owls nest 

w SOFTWARE 

WE GIVE A HOOT 

ATLANTIS ADVENTURE 

This one is tough! We challenge you to complete this in 30 
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PROGRAM FILE 

Organize your cassette programs. Let your computer find 
that program for you. Create and maintain a four field file. 
You can search, sort, modify, delete and display on screen 
or printer. Sorting may be done by name, type, or location. 
You may sort on all three fields with a single sort. 
Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $14.95 

LABEL III 

Develop and maintain a mailing list. Print lists or labels in 
your choice of 1 ,2 or 3 wide. Supports 3 or 4 line addresses 
with phone optional. Fast machine language sort on last 
name, first name, or zip code. You may sort on all three 
fields with a single sort. 

Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $19.95 
NEW!! 

Now you can add a little light and extend your coco's life. 
Don't leave your coco on and fry your chips. Put some lite 
in your coco's life. "OWLS EYE" indicator light plugs into 
either joystick port and may be mounted beside your key- 
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October 1983 the RAINBOW 23 



5U10E9ND10L20BM28, 120USR4DS" 
i 5 DRAW " BM64 , 1 24C3R 126": PM0DE4 , 1 
:DRAW"BM43, 160C1L2M32, 145BR2M37, 
1 60L4M36 , 1 45BR2M29 , 1 60BM27 , 65L 1 4 
R 1 2M20 , 55M 15, 65BM20 , 59NL2NR2BD4N 
L4R4BM43, 41M50, 48M57, 41BM15, 36R1 
0BU 1 0BR 1 63BL6H3BU4BR2RBL3U2L2D2 " 

16 CIRCLE (20, 25) , 3, 1 : CIRCLE (20, 3 
2) , 4, 1 : CIRCLE <50, 48) , 10, 1 , 1 , . 879 
, .625: CIRCLE < 125, 132) ,3, 1, 1, .25, 
. 75: CIRCLE (120, 153) ,3, l: CIRCLE (2 
03,58) ,8, 1, .5: CIRCLE (224, 70) ,6, 1 
, 1 , . 5, 1 : CIRCLE (95, 140) , 5, 1 , 1 , . 5, 
.75 

17 CIRCLE (85, 140) ,5, 1, 1, .75, l: CI 
RCLE(83, 144), 7, 1, 1, .75, l: CIRCLE ( 
97, 144) ,7, 1, 1, .5, .75:DRAW"BM218, 
72NU2E2F2E2F2E2F2U2BM27, 160M43, 1 
60 " : FOR I -0TO9 : L I NE ( 1 43+ I , 1 38+ I ) - 
( 152+1 , 129+1 ) , P8ET: NEXT I : CIRCLE ( 
152, 138), 9,1 

18 FORI-232TO104STEP-2:PRINTQI,B 
*; : NEXTI : B*» M PRESENTS" : F0RI-428T 
0 1 72STEP-32 : PR I NT« I , B* f : PR I NTS I + 
32, CHR* (191)1 CHR* ( 191 ) » CHR* ( 191 ) 
; CHR* (191)1 CHR* (191)1 CHR* (191) I C 
HR*(191) ; CHR* (191) ; : NEXTI 

19 DRAWBM95, 135M97, 137BH85, 135M 
83, 137BM143, 140M147, 155NR10M150, 
160R4M157, 155M161, 140BM120, 156D2 
BM125, 129U2L5R10BM125, 129M129, 13 
1R6L1U1D2U1L1M121, 135NH1R9BM89, 1 
07L4R1U2L2U1R6D1L2D2" : CIRCLE (129 
, 158) ,9, 1, 1, .37, .5: CIRCLE (87, 107 
) ,3, 1, 1,0, .5 

20 DRAW " BM92 , 1 1 7NU 1 ND2L3H 1L2D1L2 
U2L 1 D3R3NU2R6BM 1 43 , 1 03NQ 1 ND7F 1 D7 
L2U7D 1 L 1 R4BD5L4BL 1 BD 1 U2BU3U2BR6D 
2BD3D2BM138, 1 1 7NE 1 NR9F 1 R7E2NU 1 ND 
1 L5U2L2D2L 1 BM204 , 20NR 1 2D2R 1 NU 1 D2 
L 1 D2R 1 NU2D6R2G2L 1 D2R 1 NU2D2R 1 0U2R 
1 U2L 1 NL 1 0ND2H2R2U6R 1 U2L 1 ND2U2R 1 U 
2D2BM207 , 22D8R6U8L6 " 

21 DRAWBM21 1 , 104D1L1D3R1D1L1D3R 
1D4L1 D3R3D 1 R4U 1 R3U3L 1U4R1 U3L 1U1R 
1U3L1U1L8BM220, 1 16L10BU4M214, 106 
R2M219, 112L8BM233, 135NR10D2R1D2L 
1 D2R 1 D 1 0L 1 D2R 1 D2R3D3L5D2R2D6L 1 D2 
R 1 0U2L 1 U6R2U2L5U3R3U2R 1 U2L 1 U 1 0R 1 
U2L1U2R1U2" : CIRCLE ( 1 1 1 , 158) ,9, 1 , 
1,0,. 15 

22 PM0DE3 : DRAW " BM86 , 2 1 C2R56BM 17 1 
, 21R18BN64, 20C3M191 , 20" : PAINT (90 
, 10) , 4, 3: PAINT ( 1 15, 30) , 2, 2: PAINT 
( 150, 60) , 2, 2: PAINT ( 180, 25) , 2, 2: P 
AINT ( 105, 15) , 3, 3: PAINT ( 175, 18) , 3 
, 3: PM0DE4: FORI-0TO80: PSET (65+RND 
(60) *2, 22+RND (43) , 0) : NEXTI : DRAW" 



6. If you have typed the program in, I suggest that you first 
get the setup program right ("MAR ASET"). To help you do 
this, I suggest that you add line 36 as follows: 
36 SCREEN l,l:GOT036 

The FOR/ NEXT\oop in line 30 sum checks your ML code. 
It is properly entered when the value for CK is 31 68 1 . If not, 
an error message will result (see Debugging Hints for 
details). The screen command that you added as line 3,6 will 
let you see the graphics you have created. They should look 
like Figure 2 below. When "MARASET" is correct, note 
your corrections and CSA VEto tape, you should later edit 
the master and make the same corrections. You should also 
delete line 36 when you have finished debugging. 

Figure 2 



a 



I. 




7. Now CLOAD your correct "MARASET" program and 
RUN then CL04ZTMARADRVR" and RUN, but stand 
by on the SHIFT@ keys. As soon as you see the graphics, 
pause the program. Does the lettering look OK? It should 
now look like Figure 1 . If it does, congratulations, press any 
key and proceed. If not, start debugging, noting ALL your 
corrections. After you get it right, CSA VE"M AR ADRVR" 
to tape. 

8. You should really go back and correct the master 
(Marathon) file. One day you might have a disk and/ or 
more memory. The Marathon file would then be the one of 
choice. 

9. Here is what your 16K ECB memory looks like after 
running both programs: 



DEC 
ADR 

1536 



7680 



HEX 
ADR 

600 



1E00 



16075 
16383 



3EC6 



3FFF 



MARASETSTORES THE NECES- 
SARY GRAPHICS HERE 

MARADRVR— THE BASIC DRIV- 
ER—RESIDES HERE AND OPER- 
ATES ON THE FOUR GRAPHIC 
PAGES VIA THE ML SUBROU- 
TINES 

MARASET STORES ML HERE 



24 the RAINBOW October 1983 





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10. The reason this technique works is that only the BASIC 
program area is overwritten. The graphics and ML left 
behind by Marasei are not changed 




Debugging Hints 




The majority of all errors you will inadvertently type into 
Marathon, or any other program, for that matter, will be SN 
(syntax) or FC (function call) errors. I will assume that you 
will find and correct all of your SN errors as they could be 
caused by almost anything. But I will treat FC and OD 
errors as they pertain specifically to Marathon* my ultimate 
of these errors so that you may correct most of them your- 
self, goal being to help you better understand the causes 
Now, I know this is "old hat "to lots of you who may wish to 
skip this section, but many apparently could benefit from a 
few paragraphs on this subject. So here they are. 



* Dimensions of the PUT not equal to 
the dimensions of the GET. EX: GET 
(X+4,Y+4)-(X-4,Y-4),A,G. Then some- 

where else in a following line . . . 

PUT(X+4,Y+4)-(X-2,Y-4), A,PSET 
where X=10, Y=10. Since the arith- 
metic statements X-4 and X-2 do not 
match, this pair will usually produce 
either a FC or the gosh-awfulest gra- 
phics you have ever seenl 

* Execution of a string with an illegal 
character in it. EX; DRAW"BM100, 
I00;XL$(2);" where L$(2)="D2L2P2." 
There is nothing wrong with the DRA W 
statement; however, the STRING it is 
trying to execute has an unrecognizable 
character in it, "P2," The result is a FC 
error. Since a string can be any printa- 
ble character, BASIC has no way to know 
that you were going to use the string in a 
DRAW statement. You might have 
wanted just to PRINT LS(2) which 
would be perfectly legal. In addition, if 
the DRA W command is at line 500 and 
then the LS(2) string was defined, say in 
line 10, the source of your problems 
could be vastly removed from where 
you got your FC error. 

When you get a FC error you can ask 
— your CoCo to tell you any of the varia- 
bles in the program if you do not ask it 

to do anything else like EDIT or LIST, 

etc. In the example above with the 
GET/ PUT FC error you could type, ?X,Y ENTER. These 
two numbers returned would be none other than X and Y. 
Now do these look right? Then check where the array was 
gotten and check the NAMES of the graphic arrays in the 
GET, PUT, and DIM statements, 

You can also insert a STOP command wherever you want 
and the computer will stop. You may then ask it questions. 
When you wish to continue typing enter CONT. This inser- 
tion of STOP commands is referred to as adding break- 
points. 




Poking the NIL Code 
(OD errors) 





Function Call Errors 



FC (function call) errors in GET, PUT, DRA W, PLA Y 
and LINE commands are always caused by asking these 
guys to do something they can't. The most likely causes are 
as follows: 

* Coordinates out of range: horizontal and vertical must be 
POSITIVE with the horizontal less than 256 and the vertical 
less than 192, EX: PUT(X+4,Y+4)-(X«4,Y-4),A,PSET, 
where X— 0 and Y>4. Let's see; X-4 would equal -4. NO 
CAN DO! 



OD, or out of data, errors are caused by insufficient data 
in the DATA statements. In line 30, I have inserted an 
automatic sum check of all the ML code. If you get an OD 
error you will know that you have missed some entries. If the 
error message from basic results, ("ERROR IN DATA 
STATEMENTS ") the first number is the sum check (should 
be 3 1 68 !) and the second is the value of the last number read 
in case you put in too many. Between BAStC's checks and this 
one I Ijave installed and Rainbow Check (RBOWCHEK) 
you should be able to get this part right. 



Catastrophic Paint 




The ECB PAINT command can be very dangerous 
because it is very picky. If you wish to paint an object it must 
have its outline closed on itself otherwise the painting will 



28 the RAINBOW October 1963 



"leak out" and paint everything else. Sometimes this com- 
pletely wipes out your carefully detailed scene, although an 
error will not result. You Will rarely be pleased with what 
you get. Therefore, if you mistype coordinates of a PAINT 
or mistype the coordinates of the object to be painted, wild 
things could happen to your graphics. Try inserting GOTO 
100 before suspect PAINTs where 100 reads: 100 SCREEN1, 
l:GOTO100. This will let you see the graphics. Then move 
the GOTO 100 statement around until you locate the rogue 
PAINT. Now check the coordinates and color codes for 
correctness. Then try to find where the scene or object was 
generated — maybe you have an error there. If all else fails, 
delete the PAINT command giving problems and go on 
debugging the rest of the program. Make a note of this and 
return to the problem after all else is in order. Oh yes, don't 
forget to remove your added statements after you are 
through debugging. 



LINE 0 
LINE 1 

LINE 2—3 



LINE 4—5 



*** MAIN PROGRAM *** 

INITIAL SETUP (GOSUB11) 
DETERMINE ANIMATION LOOP BY 
TRIAL INDICATOR (T) 
VERTICAL ANIMATION LOOP/ SUC- 
CESS IF LOOP COMPLETED THEN 
GOSUB56 (ALIGN) GOSUB59 (SCORE) 
GOSUB63 (ASSIGN) GOTOl ELSE EXIT 
TO CRASH LINES 6—7 
HORIZONTAL ANIMATION LOOP/ SUC- 
CESS IF LOOP COMPLETED THEN 
GOSUB (ALIGN) GOSUB59 (SCORE) 
GOSUB63(ASSIGN) GOTOl ELSEEXIT 



BM75, 12C0NH2E2BM150, 12NH2E2" 

23 FORJ»0TO14STEP2:READC:FORI»J+ 
457 TO J +265 STEP-32:PRINTQI,CHR 
* (C) f : PRINT8I+32, CHR* ( 191 ) f : NEXT 
I, J: DRAW "BM 120, 62C1NL4R2M120, 60M 
1 23 , 57M 116, 57H3G3L5M99 ,511*1103,59 
M101 , 62M108, 60M120, 62" : PAINT ( 1 13 
, 58) , 1 , 1 : PSET ( 1 19, 58, 0) : DRAWBM1 
08,59C0E1BR3G1" 

24 DRAW " BR3BG 1 E2C 1 " : PMODE3 : DRAW " 
BM245 , 8C2D60 " : PA I NT < 242 , 35 ) , 2 , 2 : 
PAINT (198, 95) , 2, 2: PM0DE4 : PA I NT <2 
24, 67) , 1 , 1 : PSET (222, 68, 0) : PSET (2 
26,68,0) : PAINT (203, 58) , 1, 1: PAINT 
(210,36) , 1, l:DRAW"BM210, 150C1F4L 
2D2R2D2L2D3R3D2L 1 0U2R3U7L2E4BM20 
1 , 59C0NH2BR3NH2BR3NH2 " 

25 PAINT (240, 145) ,1,1: PAINT (210, 
155), 1, l:PAINT(210, 118),l,l:PAIN 
T (215, 1 18) ,1,1: DRAWBM237, 138C0D 
15BR2U15BM208, 154R4BD7L4BM236, 16 
2R4BD2L4C 1 " : PA I NT ( 1 25 , 1 32 > , 1 , 1 : P 
AINTU20, 153) , 1, l: PAINT (93, 137) , 
1, l:PAINT(B7, 137) , 1, 1: PAINT (152, 
157) ,1,1 

26 PSET (125, 132,0) :PM0DE3: PAINT ( 
80, 170) ,3, 3: PAINT (170, 178) ,3,3: P 



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October 1983 the RAINBOW 29 



AINT<47,85) ,3, 3: PAINT (145, 180) ,3 
,3: PAINT (30, 107) ,2, 2: PAINT (42, 11 
3) ,2, 2: PAINT (35, 113) ,2,2:PM0DE4: 
PAINT (45, 52) , 1, 1: PAINT (20, 25) ,1, 
1 : PAINT (20, 32) , 1 , 1 : PAINT (20, 61 ) , 
1,1: CIRCLE (45, 50) , 2, 0 

27 DRAWBM28, 108NU5R2NU5E1U5BM40 
, 1 10C1NE4ND10L20BM18, 32C0R4BM63, 
60D8L1C1U8BM22, 1 10D10" : PSET (20, 2 
5,0) 

28 PRINTS367, "BY" J :PRINT8426, "JO 
HN"+CHR* ( 191 ) +CHR* ( 191 ) +"FRAYSSE 
"I IPRINT8492, " 1983"+CHR* ( 191 ) +" ( 
C) " J : FORI-0TO480STEP32: PR I NTS I , C 
HR* ( 150) ; : PRINT8I+31 , CHR* ( 150) I : 
NEXTI : FORI-0TO30: PRINTttI , CHR* ( 15 
0)} 

29 PRINT© I +480, CHR* (150);: NEXTI: 
SCREEN0, 1 : DATA 109,97,114,97,116 
, 104, 111, 110 

30 ck=0:fori=ad to ad+300:readj: 
ck=ck+j : pokei , j: nexti : if ck0316 

81 THEN CLS: PRINT "ERROR IN DATA 
STATEMENTS " , CK | J : STOP 

31 DATA 173,159,160,10,230,141,1 
,37,39,5,246, 1,91,32,3,246, 1,90, 
203,8,84,84,84,84, 192,2,235, 141, 
1, 18,225, 141, 1, 12,37, 13,225, 141, 
1,7,34, 18,231,141, 1,2,79,32,20,2 
30, 141,0,249,231, 141,0,247,79,32 
,9,230, 141,0,239,231, 141,0,236,7 
9, 189, 180,244,57, 142,7,87, 19 

32 DATA 15,166,132,70,70,70,132, 
192,52,2, 166, 132,68,68,52,2, 166, 
31,70,70,70, 132, 192, 170,224, 167, 
132,48,31,90,38,234, 166, 132,68,6 
8, 170,224, 167, 132,48, 136,47, 140, 
14,55,47,207,57, 142,21,232, 198, 1 
5, 166, 132,73,73,73 

33 DATA 132,3,52,2,166,132,72,72 
,52,2, 166, 1,73,73,73, 132,3, 170,2 
24, 167, 128,90,38,236, 166, 132,72, 
72, 170, 224, 167, 132, 48, 136, 17, 140 
,29,40,38,209,57, 142, 7, 1 , 198, 7, 1 
66, 128, 52, 2, 90, 38, 249, 48, 136, 25, 
140,7 

34 DATA 65,38,239,142,7,65,198,7 
, 166, 128, 167, 136, 191,90,38,248,4 
8, 136,25, 140,29, 1,38,238, 142,28, 
232, 198,7,53,2, 167, 130,90,38,249 
, 48, 136, 231 , 140, 28, 168, 38, 239, 57 
, 142,28,248, 198,7, 166, 128,52,2,9 
0,38,249,48, 136,217, 140 

35 DATA 28,184,38,239,142,28,184 
, 198,7, 166, 128, 167, 136,63,90,38, 
248,48, 136,217, 140,6,248,38,238, 
142,7,31, 198,7,53,2, 167, 130,90,3 
8, 249, 48, 136, 39, 140, 7, 95, 38, 239, 
57 



TO CRASH (LINES 6—7) 
LINE 6—7 CRASH SEQUENCE/NEW TRIAL 
LINE 8 GAME OVER/ WAIT ON <SPACE- 

BAR> 

LINE 9—10 INITIALIZE NEW GAME/ GOTO 1 
*** END MAIN *** 

*** GRAPHICS/ML SUBROUTINE *** 

LINE 11 GRAPHICS 

LINE 12—17 #1 HEADER/ MORE GRAPHICS 
LINE 18—22 #2 HEADER/ MORE GRAPHICS 
LINE 23—29 #3 HEADER/ MORE GRAPHICS 
LINE 30—35 POKE IN ML CODE 
LINE 36—37 DISK OPTION 

LINE 38 DIM'S/ DEFUSRO ADDRESS FOR JOY- 
STICK ML SUBROUTINE 
LINE 39—43 CHARACTER/ NUMERAL SET 
LINE 44—45 DRAW LETTERS AND NUMBERS 
LINE 46—47 GET OBSTACLES/ DEFINE OBSTA- 
CLE COORDINATES AND ADR'S FOR 
THE FOUR SCENERY MOVE ML SUB- 
ROUTINES 

LINE 48 INITIAL WAIT ON <SPACEBAR> 
LINE 49 REALIGN SCENES/ DO DIF/ RUB-IN SE- 
QUENCE/ ASSIGN INITIAL TRIAL/ RE- 
TURN TO 1 



*** DIFFICULTY/ RUBIN SUBROUTINE *** 

LINE 50 DISPLAY "DIF" STATUS WORD AND 

LINE 51 POLL KEYBOARD FOR A 1 TO 4 
ENTRY 

LINE 52 DISPLAY "RUB" STATUS WORD AND 

LINE 54—55 PUT OBSTACLES DEPENDING ON 
"DIF" THEN RETURN 

*** SCENERY ALIGNMENT SUBROUTINE *** 

LINE 56 DETERMINE WHICH TRIAL (T) 
LINE 57 CALCULATE THE OUT OF ALIGN- 
MENT COUNTER (IC) FOR SLED OR 
AUTO, ALIGN SCENE THEN RETURN 
LINE 58 CALCULATE THE OUT OF ALIGN- 
MENT COUNTER (IC) FOR FLY OR 
SUB, ALIGN SCENE THEN RETURN 

*** SCORE/HI SCORE ROUTINE *** 

LINE 59—62 CONVERT SCORE TO GRAPHIC ELE- 
MENTS/PUT ON SCREEN AND 
CHECK IF SCORE IS HI SCORE IF SO 
DO HI SCORE THEN RETURN 

*** ASSIGN TRIAL PARAMETERS/'READY" 
DISPLAY/BONUS SUBROUTINE *** 

LINE 63—67 BRANCH TO APPROPRIATE INITIAL- 
IZATION ON (T) IF END (T=5) CHECK 
FOR BONUS PLAY 

LINE 68—71 CREATE ILLUMINATING DISPLAY 
EMPHASIZING THE NEXT TRIAL/ 
PUT NEXT VEHICLE AT START 
POINT/ DISPLAY "RDY"/ PLAY 
"READY-TO-PLAY" NOTES DISPLAY 
"GO" THEN RETURN 

LINE 72—73 CHECK FOR BONUS/ AWARD BONUS 
IF TRUE RESET TRIAL (T=l THEN 
RETURN 



30 the RAINBOW October 1983 






V&ckyFoOd! 



Hamburgers, fries, drinks and other fastfoods are 
chased by chattering teeth. Can you stop them 
before you go. ..WACKO? Three levels of play from 
beginner to expert. This is number one for fun. 
32K Disk $24.95 32 K Cass. $21.95 



Push blocks of ice to crush giant mosquitos and 
avoid getting stung long enough to get them all. 
Three levels with graphics so real you'll want your 
fly swatter. Don't miss this arcade classic. 
32K Disk $26.95 32K Cass. $24.95 




DIESIERT 
PATROL 

Armed with laser cannons guide your desert vehicle 
past obstacles while avoiding enemy fire. Watch out 
not to run out of fuel. Five levels of play. 
32K Disk $26.95 32K Cass. $24.95 




You are in a foodfight against the evil chefs. Can 
you eat the icecream cone before it melts? Fast 
paced arcade action and sound make this game 
unforgettable. Fifteen screens and ten levels of play. 
32 K Disk $27.95 32K Cass. $25.95 



All games 32K disk or cassette are written completely in machine language. Highest resolution arti 
fact graphics and spectacular sound effects are just two of the exceptional features you will find. 
Each game records high score and multiple skill levels with play features comparable to current 
arcade games. 

Other works by this author Rainbow 7-83 

"Not only is the action portion. ..spectacular, but the game is a visual triumph as well. ..with color 
rivaling most coin-op video games. " 

Order Line (201) 773-3474 - 24 Hours 
ORDERS SHIPPED WITHIN 24 HOURS BY FIRST CLASS MAIL, POSTAGE PAID. 

Order now and enjoy this new generation of video games for your Color Computer. 

s&ABS feizmemm, fee 

21 The Fairway Upper Montclair, N.J. 07043 



* Dealers inquires invited' 



36 IF PEEK(fcHC000)-68 AND PEEK (8c 
HC00D-75 THEN 37 ELSE 38 

37 POKEAD+74 ,15: POKEAD+ 1 2 1 , 22 : PO 
KEAD+ 1 27 , 29 : POKE AD+ 1 72 , 37 : POKEAD 
+178, 15:P0KEAD+193, 15: POKEAD+198 
,15: POKE AD+2 1 4 , 37 : POKE AD+2 1 9 , 36 : 
POKEAD+234, 36: POKEAD+240, 36: POKE 
AD+255, 36: POKEAD+260, 36: POKEAD+2 
76, 14:P0KEAD+281, 15:P0KEAD+296, 1 
5 

38 DIM L*(37> ,XM(13) ,P<2) ,PR<2> , 
TR<6) ,B<3> ,H(3) ,M(1) ,EX<2) , TX (2) 
,TY(2) ,BX(2) ,BY(2) ,HX(2>,HY(2) ,M 
X(2> ,MY(2> ,A(4) ,LC<1) : DRAW "BM 125 
, 50NH4NU4NE4NR4NF4ND4NB4NL4 " : 6ET 
( 120, 46) -( 130, 54) , EX, G: PUT (120, 4 
6) - < 130, 54) , XII, PSET: DEFUSR0-AD 

39 L* < 1 ) - M BM+2, 05 R1D6L3R6* BM+3, - 
6" : L* (2) ; D1U1R6D3L6D3R6; BM+3, - 
6" : L* (3) ; R6D3L4R4D3L6; BM+9, -6" 
: L* (4) =" 5 D3R6L1U3D6; BM+3, -6" : L* ( 

5) = M S R6L6D3R6D3L6U1 ; BM+9, -5" : L* ( 

6) =" ; D6R6U3L6; BM+9, -3" : L* (7) ; D 
1U1R6D6; BM+3, -6" : L* (8) =" 5 R6D6L6U 
3R6L6U3;BM+9,0" 

40 L* (9) ; R6D6U3L6U3 ; BM+9 , 0 " : L* 
(0) 5 R6D6L6U6; BM+9, 0" : L* ( 1 1 ) »" 5 
BM+0, +6J U3E3F3L6R6D3; BM+3, -6" : L* 

( 12) =" ; R6D3L6R6D3L6U6 % BM+9, 0" : L* 

( 13) ="BM+6, +1 5 U1L6D6R6U1 5 BM+3, -5 
" : L* ( 1 4 ) - " J R4F2D282L3U6L 1 D6 J BM+9 
, -6" : L» < 15) % R6L6D3R3L3D3R6J BM+ 
3,-6" 

41 L* < 1 6 ) - " I R6L6D3R3L3D3 ; BM+9 , -6 
" : L* < 1 7 ) * " ; BM+6 , + 1 J U 1 L6D6R6U3L3D 
1 5 BM+6 , -4": L* < 18) = "J BM+0 , +0 5 D6U3 
R6U3D6; BM+3, -6" : L* ( 19) =" J R6L3D6L 
3R6J BM+3, -6" : L* (20) =" J R6L3D6L3U2 
JBM+9,-4 ,, :L*(21)=";D6U1E5;BM+1,+ 
6; H3F3; BM+3, -6" : L* (22) =" ; D6R6; BM 
+3,-6" 

42 L* ( 23 ) « " I D6U6F3E3D6 5 BM+3 , -6 " : 
L* (24) =" ; D6U6F6U6; BM+3, 0" : L* (25) 
=" ; R6D6L6U6; BM+9, 0" : L* (26) »" 5 R6D 
3L6U3D6; BM+9, -6" : L* (27) % R6D6H3 
F3L6U6; BM+9, 0" : L* (28) ; R6D4L2F2 
H2L4D2U6; BM+9, 0" : L* (29) J R6L6D3 
R6D3L6; BM+9, -6" : L* (30) =" 5 R6L3D6; 
BM+6, -6" 

43 L* (31 ) % D6R6U6; BM+3, 0" : L* (32 
) =" ; D3F3E3U3; BM+3, 0" : L* (33) =" ; D6 
E3F3U6; BM+3, 0" : L* (34) =" ; F6H363E6 
; BM+3, 0" : L» (35) =" ; F3E383D3; BM+6, 
^6" : L* (36) =" ; D1U1R686R6U1 ; BM+3, - 
5" :L* ( 10) = " J BM+4, 0" : L* (37) J ND1 
R4D162BD2D1 " : SET ( 195, 54) - (21 1 , 62 
),H,B 

44 DRAW " BM84 , 8 1 C 1 ; XL* ( 18) ; XL* ( 19 



LINE 74 CREDITS 

*** END OF LISTING *** 

VI. *** LIST OF VARIABLES *** 

*** REGULAR VARIABLES *** 

RS REFERENCE SCORE USED TO DETER- 

MINE BONUS PLAY 

AD ADDRESS OF BEGINNING OF ML ROU- 

TINES 

T TRIAL INDICATOR 1— SLED:2— FLY:3— 

AUTO:4— SUB 
LB LOWER BOUND OF ANIMATION LOOP 

UB UPPER BOUND OF ANIMATION LOOP 

ST STEP OF ANIMATION LOOP 

X HORIZONTAL POSITION OF PLAYER 

Y VERTICAL POSITION OF PLAYER 

DX HORIZONTALOFFSET FOR TEST OF PLAY- 

ER ARRAY (i>) COLLISION 
DY VERTICAL OFFSET FOR TEST OF PLAY- 

ER ARRAY (P) COLLISION 
N ANIMATION LOOP COUNTER ALSO 

USED AS VERTICAL OR HORIZONTAL 
COORDINATE OF PLAYER ARRAY(P) DE- 
PENDING ON WHICH LOOP THE ANI- 
MATION IS IN 
I MULTIPURPOSE COUNTER 

J MULTI-PURPOSE COUNTER 

IC LOOP COUNTS THAT THE SCENES MUST 

GO THROUGH TO BE ALIGNED 
S CURRENT SCORE 

SX HIGH SCORE 

IH HI SCORE FLAG (IH=1 -> HIGH SCORE 

ACHIEVED) 

XD HORIZONTAL ILLUMINATING DISPLAY 

COORDINATE 

YD VERTICAL ILLUMINATING DISPLAY CO- 

ORDINATE 

CK SUM CHECK OF ML CODE (CK=3 1681 IF 

CORRECT 

*** STRINGS *** 

B$ MULTI-PURPOSE STRING 

N$ INITIALS OF CURRENT PLAYER 

NX$ INITIALS OF HI SCORE PLAYER 

S$ SCORE CONVERTED TO A STRING FOR 

SCREEN DISPLAY 
L$(37) CHARACTER/ NUMERAL SET + A "?" 

*** ARRAYS *** 

LC(1) NUMBER OF LOOP COUNTS IN EITHER 
THE VERTICAL (0) OR HORIZONTAL (1) 
SCENES 

A(4) ADDRESSES OF THE FOUR SCENERY- 
MOVING ML ROUTINES 

XM(13) GRAPHIC MULTI-PURPOSE BLANKING 
ARRAY 

EX(2) GRAPHIC EXPLOSION ARRAY 
TR(6) GRAPHIC ARRAY CONTAINING TREES 
B(3) GRAPHIC ARRAY CONTAINING BIRD- 
MEN 

H(3) GRAPHIC ARRAY CONTAINING FIRE HY- 
DRANTS 

M(l) GRAPHIC ARRAY CONTAINING MINES 
TX(2) HORIZONTAL COORDINATES OF TREE 
OBSTACLES 



32 the RAINBOW October 1983 



NEW for the Color Computer TRS-80 

COCOCASSETTE SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE 



'TRS-flO ISA TRADEMARK OF TANDY COMPANY 




RAINBOW 

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• Detailed Instruction Book 

• Data can be saved on Cassette or Disk 



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Call or write V^r^ 

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Texas Dealers call collect (817) 281-8403. Antenna Electronics Co. 




TY(2) VERTICAL COORDINATES OF TREE OB- 
STACLES 

BX(2) HORIZONTAL COORDINATES OF BIRD- 
MEN OBSTACLES 

BY(2) VERTICLE COORDINATES OF BIRDMEN 
OBSTACLES 

HX(2) HORIZONTAL COORDINATES OF FIRE 
HYDRANTS 

HY(2) VERTICLE COORDINATES OF FIRE HY- 
DRANTS 

MX(2) HORIZONTAL COORDINATES OF MINES 
MY(2) VERTICLE COORDINATES OF MINES 



) I BM143, 81 1 XL* (0) | XL* (0) I XL* (0) I 
XL* <0> t XL* (0) I BM84, 91 1 XL* ( 1?) I XL 
* ( 14) I BM143, 91 1 XL* (0) I XL* (0) » XL* 
(0) I XL* (0) I XL* (0) I BM100, 104$ XL* ( 
29) I XL* (22) | XL* ( is) I XL* ( 14) I BM15 
5, 104; XL* (11)1 XL* (31 ) | XL* (30) ; XL 
*(25);" 

45 LINE (88, 69) -(169, 77) ,PSET,BF: 
DRAW "BM 100, 1 14* XL* ( 16) * XL* (22) * X 
L* (35) ; BM155, 1 14; XL* (29) t XL* (31 ) 
; XL* (12) ; BM94, 70C0; XL* (23) ; XL* ( 1 

l ) ; XL* (28) ; XL* (11); XL* (30) ; XL* ( l 

8) ; XL* (25) ; XL* (24) ; CI ; BM185, 145N 
H2NE2BQ4NH2E2 " : PUT ( 208 , 1 30 ) - ( 224 
, 138) ,H,PSET 

46 GET (117, 150) -(123, 156) ,M,G:GE 
T(83, 135) -(97, 144) , B, 8: GET (205, 1 
50)-(215, 163) ,H,8:GET(38,76)-(58 

, 87) , tr, g: rs-500: tx (0) -33: ty (0) - 
17:tx(1)-h:ty(D-130:tx(2)-40:t 

Y (2) -1251 MX (0) -122: MY (0) -45: MX (1 
)-165:MY(l)-32:MX(2)-95:MY(2)-40 
: HX (0) -220: HY (0) -13 

47 HX(l)«221:HY(l)-46:HX(2)-222: 
HY(.2)-88:BX(0)-165:BY(0)-156:BX( 
1)-125:BY(1)-167:BX(2)-101:BY(2) 
-141:A(1)-AD+177:A(2)-AD+126:A(3 
) -AD+239 : A ( 4 ) -AD+73 : LC ( 0 ) -88 : LC ( 



Some of you might have already noticed that much of the 
programming philosophy used in Rainbow Roach has been 
used in Marathon. This is, indeed, true and, in fact, many of 
the variable names are exactly the same as well as most of the 
techniques used. This apparent lack of originality is actually 
a significant strength in most cases, especially in reducing 
the time necessary to develop new software. 

The more standardized your techniques become for doing 
a particular function, the more you will be able to do them as 
"second nature" allowing more time to think about new and 
more complex tasks. Some examples include: a standard 
method of input for player difficulty level and initials; a 
standard character and numeral set; a standard header dis- 
play; and a standard procedure for on-screen score keeping. 
With these little subtasks thoroughly understood and well 
documented, you may use them again and again if you made 
them general enough in application. You may even want to 
adopt a specific set of variable names to indicate certain 
quantities in all of your programs. An example would be "S" 
as score. Then, if you discover a more efficient way of doing 
something, a modification will be much simpler to imple- 
ment and easier to understand. 

My commentary concerning Marathon will be concen- 
trated in three primary areas most of which are not common 
to the Rainbow Roach tutorial (June 1983). These include 
Program Structure, Graphic Techniques and ML Sub- 
routines. 



1 ) -64: PUT (71 , 26) - (77, 32) , M, PSET: 
SCREEN 1 , 1 : FORI-0TO700: NEXT I 

48 IF INKEY*-CHR*(32) THEN 49 EL 

se play"v31t255l25505a" : execa ( 1 ) 
:execa(2) :execa(3) :execa(4) :n»n+ 

l:G0T048 

49 T- 1 : G08UB56 : T-2 : GOSUB56 : T-3 : G 
0SUB56: T-4: G0SUB56: GOSUB50: T-l : G 
0SUB63: RETURN 

50 N*«" " : 1-0: PUT (68, 88) - (75, 94) , 
XM, PSET: PUT (69, 98) - (75, 122) , XM, P 
SET: DRAW" BM69, 88C1 ; XL* (37) ; BM69, 
98; XL* (14) ; BM69, 106; XL* ( 19) ; BM69 
,114; XL* (16);" 

51 PL A Y " V3 1 T 1 0L 1 005 AO 1 C " : B*- 1 NKE 
Y* : I FB*- " " THEN5 1 ELSE I F ASC ( B* X 49 
ORASC ( B* ) >52THEN5 1 ELSEDF— VAL ( B* ) 
: PUT (68, 88) - (75, 94) , XM, PSET: DRAW 
"BM68, 88; XL* (DF) ; " : PUT ( 107, 91 ) - ( 
185, 97) , XM, PSET: PUT (69, 98) - (75, 1 
22),XM,PSET 

52 DRAW " BM69 , 98 ; XL* ( 28 ) ; BM69 , 1 06 
; XL* (31 ) ; BM69, 1 14; XL* ( 12) ; BM102, 
91 ; XL* (37) ; BM143, 91 ; XL* (0) ; XL* (0 
) ; XL* (0) ; XL* (0) ; XL* (0) ; " 

53 PLAY " OSAO 1 C " : B*- I NKE Y* : I F B*= 
" " THEN53ELSE I F ASC(B*)<65 OR ASC 
(B*)>90 THEN53ELSE N*-N*+L* ( ASC ( 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 35 



B«)-54) :DRAW"BM109,91J XN*| "! I-I+ 
l: IFI-3THEN PUT (69, 98)- (75, 122) , 
XM, PSET: PUT < 102, 91 ) - < 108, 97) , XM, 
PSET : PUT < 69 , 98 ) - < 75 , 1 22 ) , XM , PSET 
ELSE 53 

54 IF DF<2 THEN RETURN ELSE FORI 
-0TO DF-2:PUT(TX(I) ,TY(I) )-<TX<I 
) +20, TY < I ) +1 1 ) , TR, PSET: PLAY "LI 20 
2AB" : PUT (MX < I > , MY < I ) > - (MX < I ) +6, M 
Y(I)+6) , M, PSET: PLAY "LI 202 AB" : PUT 
(HX(I) ,HY(I) )-(HX(I)+10,HY(I)-H3 
) , H , PSET : PL AY " L 1 202 AB " 

55 PUT(BX(I),BY(I))-(BX(I)+14,BY 
( I ) +9 ) , B , PSET : PLAY " L 1 202AB " : NE XT 
I : RETURN 

56 ON T GOTO 57,56,57,58 

57 IC-LC(0)-N+INT(N/LC(0) )«LC(0) 
:IF IC=LC(0) THEN RETURN ELSE FO 

ri-ito ic:execa(T) :nexti: return 

58 IC«LC(1)-N+INT(N/LC(1))*LC(1) 
:IF IC-LC(l) THEN RETURN ELSE FO 
RI«1T0IC: EXECA(T) : NEXTI : RETURN 

59 B«- S*«STR* (S) : LX-LEN (S*) : I 

F LX-4 THEN B*«L* ( 0 ) ELSE I F LX-3 
THEN B*-L*(0)+L*(0)ELSEIF LX=2 T 
HEN B*-*L*(0)+L*(0)+L«(0) 

60 F0RI-2T0LX:B*=B*+L*(VAL(MID*( 



Program Structure 



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Three factors influenced the structure of the Marathon 
coding. 

First was the desire to have the animation as fast as 
possible without the POKE 65495,0 CPU speedup or a 
BREAK key disable. Therefore, the line numbers were 
sequentially numbered by ones and the animation loops 
placed as close as possible to the beginning of the program. 
Both loops are located in the first six lines of code. When 
BASIC encounters a NEXT, it starts looking for a FOR 
statement. The closer the FOR statement is to the beginning 
of the listing and the smaller the numbers it has to search 
through, the faster the loop. The speed attained is satisfac- 
tory updating at a 6 HZ rate which is faster, than a lot of 
people's reaction time. 

Secondly, I wanted the convenience and flexibility af- 
forded by wholesale SUBROUTINING. In this way, it was 
easier to think logically about the tasks involved. Consider 
the diagram below: 

MAIN PROGRAM 

BASIC 

(LINES 0-10) 



ML 


JOYSTICK SAMPLE 


ML 


MOVE SUB SCENE 


ML 


MOVE FLY SCENE 


ML 


MOVE SLED SCENE 


ML 


MOVE AUTO SCENE 


BASIC 


RUB-IN 


BASIC 


SCENERY ALIGN 


BASIC 


SCORE/ HI-SCORE 


BASIC 


ASSIGN TRIAL PARAMETER 




"READY" AND BONUS 



Subroutines Keep The 
Main Program Simple 




By letting a ML subroutine sample the joysticks and 
generate either the vertical or horizontal coordinates neces- 
sary to produce X-Y motion, I was able to get by with two 
(not four) very similar animation loops. One loop for verti- 
cal and one for horizontal animation. The bounds of the 
loops are variables ("LB" and "UB") as well as the steps of 
the loops ("ST"). Therefore, I can start and end the anima- 
tion anywhere I want and go forward or backward depend- 
ing on the sign of ST. In the vertical loop (LINES 2 — 3), the 
USRO function returns the horizontal coordinate "X." In 
the horizontal loop (LINES 4—5) the USRO returns the 
vertical coordinate "Y." In both cases, the coordinate not 
defined by the USRO is defined by the animation loop 
counter "N." Thus, the USRO intializes the missing coordi- 
nate and increments its value at a RATE proportional to the 
right joystick position and then limits the output. This is a 
slow process in BASIC requiring a JOYSTK(O), adds, sub- 
tracts, multiplies, divides and logical tests. It takes <.01 
seconds in ML. 



36 



the RAINBOW October 1983 



The other four ML subroutines move their respective 
blocks of graphics two pixels at a time up, down, right and 
left and wrap the scenery around. This eliminated the need 
to produce different graphics and greatly simplified the ML 
code while saving bunches of graphic memory. 

Now, what about the BASIC subroutines? First of all, none 
are in the animation loop as GOSUB's are very slow. But no 
one cares after the action has stopped. So they do things 
between the four trials. These include realigning the scenes, 
calculating and displaying the score, assigning animation 
loop parameters, and inputting the difficulty levels and 
initials. 

As an aside, you may be asking yourself "Why do you 
need to realign the graphic scenes?" It is because of difficulty 
levels. Since higher difficulty levels mean more objects and 
that you will need to ERASE these objects to change levels, 



"You may even want to adopt a specific 
set of variable names to indicate certain 
quantities in all of your programs. " 



problems go completely away. The method also provides 
consistency from game to game without destroying any 
graphic elements. Once again this is the concept of "single- 
synthesis" graphics used in Roach. 

The third and final reason for the structure of Marathon 
was the realization, even before I began to write the pro- 
gram, that it would not fit into 16K as is. Thus, I designed a 
stand-alone graphics/ ML module between lines 1 1 and 35, 
inclusive. These lines, with very simple modifications, 
become the graphics/ ML setup program Maraset. Note that 
it contains no GETs, PUTs, DIMs or character set. It is 99 
percent of all the graphics (minus the lettering) and all of the 
ML code and text headers. The remainder of the program 
(lines 0 — 10 and 38 — 74) makes up the BASIC driver — 
Maradrvr. The idea of the two programs was simply to 
provide a means to operate a 20K program in 16K and, 
therefore, allow anyone with ECB (except 16K ECB Disk) 
to play Marathon. 




Graphics Techniques 




you must have some way of knowing where they are. This 
can be done by counting the number of times through the 
animation loop and adding this quantity to original coordi- 
nates. But what if the scene STOPS when an object is 
partially wrapped around? The best method of PUTting or 
erasing things on a wrap-around scene is to always align the 
scene to its original position. This way the "partial wrap" 



First, let me say that there is little in Marathon in terms of 
graphics which is not general knowledge to many of you. 
But, there are three areas I would like to address before we 
go on to the commentary on ML. These are DRA Ws, the "1 
to 2" rule and generating two "new" color patterns. 

How many of you like using the LINE command? I don't 
because it is so inflexible especially when it comes to draw- 
ing colored lines. Did you know that you can use the DRA W 



Talk is Cheap! 



You want your color computer to talk, 
but how much will it cost? 
$50 . . . $100 . . . $200 ... NO! 

HOW ABOUT $29"? 

SPEAK UP!™ is a machine language 
Voice Synthesizer program for your 
TRS-80 Color Computer/ It is 
100% software. Nothing else to buy. 
Best of all, YOU can make 
basic programs talk! 



16K and 32K versions on one cassette. 
Has text to speech capability. 



It's easy to use, and will say 
virtually anything! 

Talk really is cheap! 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Reviewed in the April issue of Rainbow. 

COD orders, checks accepted - NO DELAY 
WE PAY POSTAGE 

1-800-334-0854, ext. 890 
Except North Carolina 



VISA 



*T.M. Tandy Corp. 



16k minimum 




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P.O. Box 3318 
Chapel Hill, NC 27515 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 37 



S*, I, 1) ) ) :NEXTI: IF IH-1 THEN61 E 
LSE PUT (107, 91) -(183,97) ,XM,PSET 
: DRAWBM107, 91 1 XN«; BM143, 91 1 XB*; 
XL«(0); N :GOTO62 

61 PUT (107,81) -(183, 87) ,XM,PSET: 
DRAWBM107, 81 ; XNX*; BM143, 81 1 XB*; 
XL«(0) ; ": IH=0: RETURN 

62 IF SX>*S THEN RETURN ELSE IH= 
1 : SX=S: S=SX : NX*=N«: G0T039 

63 ON T GOTO 64,65,66,67,72 

64 GET (82, 103) - (92, 1 1 1 ) , P, G: POKE 
AD+301 , 0: POKEAD+302, 8: POKEAD+303 
, 53: POKE AD+304, 30: DX=5: DY=8: LB=1 
0:UB=175:ST=l:PUT<30, 10) -(40, 18) 
,P,PSET:G0T068 

65 GET (82, 113) -(92, 121) ,P,G: POKE 
AD+301 , 1 : POKEAD+302, 125: POKEAD+3 
03, 176: POKE AD+304, 140: DX=1 1 : DY=4 
: LB=65 : UB= 1 80 : ST= 1 : PUT ( 64 , 1 40 ) - ( 
74, 148) ,P,PSET: IF DF=4 THEN CIRC 
LE(152, 138) , 10, l:G0T068 ELSE GOT 
068 

66 GET (138, 103) -(148, 111) ,P,G:PO 
KE AD+301 , 0: POKEAD+302, 192: POKE AD 
+303, 237: POKE AD+304, 220: DX=5: DY= 
0 : LB= 1 74 : UB=8 : ST=- 1 : PUT ( 220 , 1 74 ) 
-(230, 182) ,P,PSET:G0T068 

67 GET (138, 113) -(148, 121) ,P,G:PO 
KE AD+301 , 1 : POKEAD+302, 18: POKEAD+ 
303, 55: POKE AD+304, 38: DX=0: DY=4: L 
B=181 : UB=64: ST=-1 : PUT ( 181 , 38) - ( 1 
91,46) ,P, OR 

68 XD=82:IF T>2 THEN XD=138 
69YD=103:IF (T/2— INT (T/2) ) =0 TH 
EN YD=113 

70 PUT (69, 98) -(75, 122) ,XM,PSET:D 
RAW " BM69 , 98; XL* (28) ; BM69, 106; XL* 
( 14) ; BM69, 1 14; XL* (35) ; " : FORI=0TO 
20: PUT ( XD, YD) - ( XD+10, YD+8) , P, NOT 
: SOUND RND(235) , 1 : PUT (XD, YD) - (XD 
+10, YD+8) , P, PSET: NEXTI : PUT (69, 98 
)-(76, 122) ,XM,PSET:DRAW"BM69,98; 
XL* (17) ;BM69, 106; XL* (25) ; M 

71 RETURN 

72 IF (S-RS)>=0 THEN 73 ELSE PUT 
(69, 98) -(75, 122) ,XM, PSET: DRAW'BM 
69, 98; XL* (15) ;BM69, 106; XL* (24) ;B 
M69, 114; XL* ( 14) ; - : N=0: RETURN 

73 RS=RS+540 : PUT ( 69 , 98 ) - ( 75 , 1 22 ) 
, XM , PSET : DRAW " BM69 , 98 ; XL* ( 1 2 ) ; BM 
69, 106; XL* (24) ;BH69, 114; XL* (29) ; 
" : T= 1 : FOR 1=1 TO200 STEP4 : SOUND I , 1 
: NEXTI : G0T063 

74 REM MARATHON FROM afabear ©of 
tware BY JOHN FRAYSSE COPYRIGHT 
1983 



command to do almost anything a LINE command can do 
plus much more? Specifically, I am talking about using a 
DRA W to connect points not in the L-R-U-D-E-F-H-G 
directions. Simply use the "M" with no "B" in front of it. 

EXAMPLE: 

10 PMODE3:PCLS:SCREEENl,l,:DRAW"BM 100,100 

C2M120,100" 
20 GOTO20 

Now, you could replace the DRA W with a LINE com- 
mand but in terms of line color you only have a choice of 
PSET ov PRESET. To get the right color, you would also 
need a COLOR command. The DRAW does not need a 
COLOR command plus it has the L-R-U-D-E-F-H-G direc- 
tional capability as well as color, scale and the ability to 
execute STRINGS. DRA H^also takes less space than LINE 
giving you more graphics in the same memory. LINES are 
only more convenient when the points you are connecting 
are variables, but you can still make a DRA W work by 
converting the variable coordinates to strings and inserting 
them into the DRA W syntax. 

Now, what is the "1 to 2" rule? That's my name, inciden- 
tally, for lack of a better one. It will allow you to make 
substantially better looking multi-color, hi-res graphics. If 
you wish to outline an object and paint it in hi-res 
(PMODE4) you must first switch to PMODE3 then 
DRAW, PAINT and switch back to PMODE4. Have you 
ever noticed that the edges of some of your figures look 
better than others? The smooth edges are because of the "1 
to 2" rule or when the slope of a line is ±Vi . 

EXAMPLE: 

10 PMODE3: PCLS: SCREEN1,1,: DRAW'BM 100,100 
C2M120,110L20U1): PAINT (104, 106),2,2: PMODE4, 
1: SCREEN1,1 

20 GOTO20 

See that nice upper right edge? That's because (1 10-100)/ 
(120-100)=10/20=.5. Now, let's try a triangle with a 45 
degree angle. Change the DRAW to DRAW"BM100, 
100CF20L20U20" then RUN. Note how ragged the edge 
looks? This is due to the fact that the orange and blue colors 
of PMODE4 are caused by vertical lines drawn every other 
X position. If this pattern starts on an odd numbered X 
position, the color will be either orange or blue; if on an even 
numbered position the color will be the opposite (orange or 
blue) of what it was when the pattern started on the odd 
numbered position. Using lines with .5 slopes fits perfectly 
into the "every other line" color pattern, hence the smooth 
edges. Use of this technique is evident in the "FLY" trial 
graphics (mountains) although it could not be used every- 
where because I needed to have the mountains steeper in 
places. 

Count the colors in Marathon ... 5,6,71 Right! How? 
Well, orange-yellow stripe patterns can be obtained by 
drawing PSET lines every third or more X positions, but 
starting one position over from the beginning line of the 
exiting orange color pattern. 

EXAMPLE: 

10 PMODE4,l: PCLS: SCREEN1,1: FORI=20 TO 60 
STEP2: LINE(I,10)-(I,60),PSET: NEXTI: FOR 1=20 
TO 60 STEP 3: LINE(I+1,10)-(I+1,60),PSET: NEXTI 

20 GOTO20 

The two colors of the balloon in the "FLY" scene are 
neither orange nor blue; they are purple and red. These are 
caused by alternating orange and blue horizontal lines one 



38 the RAINBOW October 1983 



over top of the other. 

So, now you should see black, white, blue, orange, yellow, 
purple and red — seven colors! 



Machine Language 
Subroutines 




Let me first address those of you who are still confused 
over the marriage of BASIC and ML. If you are confused, it is 
probably because you think that you have to have an editor/ 
assembler/ monitor (E AM) to do M L. For all practical pur- 
poses, this is so if you are developing the ML. However, if 
someone else does that for you and puts the ML in a form 
that BASIC can handle, then you do not need an EAM, only a 
BASIC program containing the ML code. This is precisely 
what lines 30 — 35 are. Line 30 is a loop, reading the M L code 
values in the DATA statements (lines 31 — 35) one at a time 
and POKEing these values into a particular portion of 
memory. The values in the DA TA statements are the results 
of assembling the assembly listing given in this article. The 
CoCo's 6809 microprocessor understands these numbers 
and the sequence they are in, whether they came directly 
from an assembler or through a BASIC program such as 
Marathon. Inserting the ML in decimal form into a BASIC 
program via DA TA statements is the most straightforward 
way of providing those of you without EAMs all the benefits 
of ML without ever taking your eyes off the listing or your 
fingers from the keyboard. Well, now, I hope that settles this 
issue! Press on! 

You will notice that I have assembled all five ML routines 
together; however, each routine has its own RTS (return to 
BASIC). So, all I need to do is determine where the start 
addresses are for each routine and jump to them from BASIC 
whenever I want one. This can be done in two ways; through 



"This small savings is in the most re- 
peated loop, so a little bit of time savings 
here gets multiplied by the number of 
times the loop is executed, " 



the DEFUSRI USR method or the EXEC A (where "A" is 
the starting address) method. I choose to use the DEFUSR/ 
USR method with the first routine (joystick sample and 
limit) because I wanted to pass a coordinate variable back to 
BASIC. I used the EXEC A(T) method on the other four 
scenery-moving routines because it allows a subscripted 
variable as its address ( A(T)), where A(T) was defined as the 
starting address of the Tth trial (T=l to 4). 

Note that the assembly listing is PIC (position independ- 
ent code) due to the use of the PCR mnemonic following 
references to memory reserved labels (HRZ, LMIN, LM AX, 
CO). PIC means that you can move the ML code anywhere 
in memory and it will work just fine. This made converting 
the location of the ML for the 16K version of Marathon a 
snap! If I define the start address of the first ML subroutine 
as the variable "AD," and the start addresses of the other 
four ML routines relative to AD, then relocation is as simple 
as redefining AD. You will find the definition of AD in line 0 
and the definition of the other four ML starting addresses 
(A(l — 4)) in line 47. Note in the 16K instructions that 
AD= 16075 and I have added a CLEAR360J6074 state- 




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October 1983 the RAINBOW 39 



ment. This CLEAR statement clears 360 bytes of string 
memory space and sets the top of BASIC at 16074 so that the 
ML can be loaded safely starting at AD (16075 through 
16375). 

* From now on, the references to line numbers will refer 
to assembly listing line numbers unless otherwise stated. 



ML Routine #1 




This routine uses the four reserved memory locations at 
the end of the assembly listing. Line 2 causes a jump to 
Basic's joystick to sample, based on the value of HRZ. The 
value of HRZ as well as LMIN, LM AX and CO are POKEd 
in from BASIC prior to calling this routine. Lines 8 — 28 add 
eight to the joystick sample, divide by 16, subtract two then 
add the result to the current value of CO. CO is then limited in 
terms of both its maximum and minimum values (LM AX 
and LMIN) and restored in the CO location. Lines 29 — 30 
cause a jump to another BASIC routine at address SB4F4 
which converts the value of CO (now in the D register ( A+B)) 
to a floating point number and passes it through the USR 
argument list. Line 30 returns to BASIC. 




ML Routine #2 



This routine moves the SUB scene to the right and wraps 
the graphics around. The key to this routine is how the 
screen elements are moved two bits at a time. Each byte is 




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eight bits; therefore, the bytes must be sliced up and pushed 
around such that every two-bit pair "walks" to the right on 
the screen within the limits of the animation block. Here's 
how it's done. 

Line 3 1 loads X with the hex address of the end byte on the 
first row to be moved. Since each row is 1 6 bytes long, line 32 
loads B with $1F (15) as it will be used as a counter which, 
when zero, will signal the end of a row. Lines 33 — 37 load A 
with the byte pointed to by the X register and does a ROR A 
three times and masks off the lower order bits. Or put 
another way, the last two bits in the byte at address X have 
been moved to the first bits in the byte followed by six zeros. 
Line 38 pushes this result onto the stack for safekeeping 
until all the bits in the row have been moved. This is the 
"wrap-around" byte. Lines 39 — 41 load the X address byte 
into A and LSRA's twice, thereby dropping off the last two 
bits and pulling zeros into the first two. Line 42 pushes this 
result onto the stack for temporary storage. Now line 43 
loads A with the X-l byte or the byte to the left of the one 
previously operated on. Lines 44 — 46 do a RORA three 
times moving the last two bits in A into the first two while 
line 47 masks off the last six bits. Lines 48 — 49 OR the 
contents of A with the last byte pushed onto the stack (at line 
42) and stores it at the X address. 

At this point, the X byte has the two LSBs of the X-l byte 
as its two MSBs. Or, a two-bit pair has moved two bits to the 
right! Lines 50 — 52 decrement X and B and performs the 
entire process over until B is zero, at which time you have 
worked your way to the end of the row and are ready to do 
the wrap. Lines 53 — 57 load the X byte (now the end byte in 
the row), shifts the two LSBs out, pulling two zeros into the 
two MSBs ana ORs the result with the value on the stack. 
The stack value at this point is none other than the "wrap- 
around" byte placed there in line 38. This is subsequently 
stored in the X position. So then, the two LSBs of the end 
byte of the row have become the two MSBs of the byte at the 
beginning of the row. A two-bit wrap-around! 

Now, you need to repeat this for all the rows and to start 
back at the end of the next row down. Let's see, 32 bytes per 
row and we decremented B to zero starting from 15 
(32+1 5=47), line 58 adds 47 to the X pointer to start us back 
at the end of the next row while lines 59 — 60 check to see if 
we have finished all the rows. If not, we "do" to the next row 
(LOOP1); if so we return to BASIC. 



ML Routine #3 




Routine #3 is very similar to #2 except it moves the (FLY) 
scenery to the left. You will notice that the RORA and 
LSR A commands in #2 have turned into ROLA and LSLA 
and that the bit mask 1 1000000 is now 0000001 1. 



ML Routine #4 



• ".. j™. ^-V - :. ••'> ■■:..:>•■''■■*' 



Now, let's see about doing this two-bit business with 
vertical — (up/ SLED) animation. The scene is seven bytes 
wide so lines 92 — 93 load X with the leftmost byte of the first 
row to be moved and B is loaded with the number of bytes 
per row (seven). Once again B=0 will flag us that we are at 
the end of the row. Lines 94 — 100 push two lines (14 bytes) 
one byte at a time onto the stack for safekeeping; the equi- 
valent of a G£T(8,8)-(63-9),xx,G command. Lines 101— 



40 the RAINBOW October 1983 




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109 perform a two-line move up on every byte in the SLED 
scene. Note the offset to the X register in the STA command 
in line 104. To move up two lines, we should subtract 
32*2=64 not 65! But note the auto-increment on X in the line 
above (line 1 03). The X+ saves us from an additional INX or 
LEAX 1 ,X statement, so we must subtract one more (-64.-1= 
-65) This small savings is in the most repeated loop, so a little 
bit of time savings here gets multiplied by the number of 
times the loop is executed. 

Now let's complete the wrap-around. Lines 1 10 — 1 19 do 
the exact opposite as lines 92 — 100 and are the same thing as 
a P£/r(8,182)-(63,183),xx,PSET. The only difference is that 
the address loaded into X is now the address of the end byte 
on the last row at the bottom of the scene. 



ML Routine #5 




This is the downward (AUTO) scenery move routine. The 
differences between lines 92 — 119 and lines 120 — 147 are 
almost non-existent, save the obvious difference in the X 
register's load address which is across the graphics page. 

Some of you sharp folks out there might be saying, hey, he 
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of bytes wide, say six or eight. Well, you are right! But, there 
are two good reasons not to. The first is that a six-byte 
SLED or AUTO scene appeared to be too narrow and an 
eight-byte wide scene made the SUB and FLY scenes too 
short. The second reason is that the four ML routines exe- 



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cute almost precisely at the same speed in their respective 
animation loops. This meant that I didn't have to worry 
about "padding" the ML or the BASIC. 

Well, what can I say besides that I'm getting writer's 
cramp?! Feel free to "pull my chain" if you still have prob- 
lems after reading everything here and giving it a good try. 

As always, I am very interested in your success and will 
make every effort to help you out. But for now I think I will 
close and take the wife and kids on a long weekend sail along 
our beloved Chesapeake — land of bounteous grace! Until 
next time, may peace be your companion. 

Your CoCo Friend, 
John 



THIS ROUTINE SAMPLES 
THE RIGHT JOYSTICK 
AND PASSES A 
COORDINATE VALUE (CI) 
THROUGH BASIC'S USR 



m m m j m j mm 

0001 0600 




ORG 24000 


32K START PIC 


0002 5DC0 AD9FA00A 




JSR CIA00A3 


BASIC JYSTK 


0003 5DC4 E68D0125 




1 TVT\ 1 IPS ^ niMS 

LDB HRZ,PCR 


LD HRZ 


0004 5DC8 2705 




BEO HORIZ 


TEST IF 0/1 


0005 5DCA F6015B 




i tvtv a i p t> 

LDB $15B 


LD VERT JSTK 


0006 5DCD 2003 




TVfSA PHUT 

BRA CONT 


60 AROUND 


m m mm MfkMp m t m j m > 

0007 SDCF F6015A 


HORIZ 


LDB $15A 


LD HORZ JSTK 


0008 SDD2 CB08 


CONT 


ADDB 18 


ADD 8 TO JSTK 


0009 5DD4 54 




LSRB 


DIV 


0010 SDDS 54 




LSRB 




0011 5DD6 54 




LSRB 


BY 


0012 5DD7 54 




LSRB 


16 


0013 5DD8 C002 




SUBB 12 


-2--H/-RATE 


0014 5DDA EB8D0112 




ADDB C0.PCR 


ADD TO C0 


0015 5DDE E18D010C 




CNPB LHIN,PCR 


LNIN TEST 


0016 5DE2 250D 




BLO LINL 




0017 5DE4 E18D0107 




CNPB LNAX,PCR 


LHAX TEST 


0018 5DE8 2212 




BHI LIHH 




0019 5DEA E78D0102 




STB C0,PCR 


RE-STR C0 


0020 5DEE 4F 




CLRA 


A-0 


0021 5DEF 2014 




BRA HONE 


EXIT «L RTE 


0022 5DF1 E68D00F9 


LINL 


LDB LNIN,PCR 


C0-LINN 


0023 5DF5 E78D00F7 




STB C0,PCR 


RE-STR C0 


0024 5DF9 4F 




CLRA 


A=0 


0025 5DFA 2009 




BRA HONE 


EXIT NL RTE 


0026 5DFC E68D00EF 


LMH 


LDB LNAX,PCR 


C0 s LHAX 


0027 5E00 E78D00EC 




STB C0,PCR 


RE-STR C0 


0028 5E04 4F 




CLRA 


A-0 


0029 5E05 BDB4F4 


HONE 


JSR $B4F4 


BASIC RON 


0030 5E08 39 




RTS 


RTE /RETURN 



THIS ROUNTINE NOVES THE 
SUB TRIAL SCENERY 
2 BITS AT A TINE TO THE 
RI6HT AND WRAPS THE 
SCENE AROUND 



0031 5E09 8E0757 

0032 5E0C C60F 

0033 5E0E A684 



L00P1 



LDX #$757 
LDB t$0F 

LDA ,X 



UPPER LT BYTE 
SCENE HIDTH-1 
LD END BYTE 



42 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Wj4 


3c 10 


46 


DODA 


untie o cun 
nuvt 2 cNU 


0061 5E3D 39 




RTS 


RTS TO BASIC 


00jj 


5C1 1 

Dell 


4o 




BITS TO FIRST 












5C1 7 
JCU 


it 
46 


RORA 


TWO BITS 




# 


THIS ROUTINE MOVES THE 


000/ 


5C1 7 
JCl 0 


0410 


AunA iv i 1 aaaaaa 
RN1/R 1411000000 


t DTT MOV 

6 oil naK 




f 


FLY SCENE TO THE LEFT 


0038 


5E15 


3402 


DCUC A 

PSHS A 


CTD UDAD DVTC 

STR KRAP BYTE 




# 


2 BITS AT A TIME AND 


00J7 


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JCl / 


R004 


i nnP9 i nA y 
LUUri LUR , A 


i n cun dvtc 
LU CNU DTlC 






WRAPS THE SCENE AROUND 


0040 


5C1 0 

JCl 7 


44 


1 CDA 


CU7CT 1 ACT n 

anlrl LAal I 










0041 


5C1 A 
jCIR 


11 
44 


1 CDA 

LaKR 


DTTC OUT 

Dl la UUT 


0062 5E3E 8E15E8 




LDX t$!5E8 


UP/RT BYTE 


AAA 9 
004^ 


sci n 

jCIo 


71A9 
O404i 


pcuc A 
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CTD DU CTAPk* 

a IK UN alftlK 


0063 5E41 C60F 


L00P3 


LDB t«0F 


SCENE WIDTH-1 


AA17 
0040 


jCIU 


AA1 C 

Roir 


i nA -i y 

LUR ljA 


CCT DVTC AIT 

be! BY It 6 LI 


0064 5E43 A684 




LDA ,X 


LD BYTE 


0044 


^c i c 
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46 


DODA 


untie 1 ACT *? 
nUVc LAal I 


0065 5E45 49 




ROLA 


HOVE FIRST 2 


004D 


JC^0 


it 
46 


DODA 


DTTC TP TUC 

Dl la TU Inc 


0066 5E46 49 




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BITS TO LAST 


AAii. 
0040 


JCll 


It 
40 


DODA 

KUKft 


CTDCT 7 

r 1Kb 1 I 


0067 5E47 49 




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AfcMA IV 1 1 AAAAAA 

ftnUft Ik 11000000 


L DTT MGV 

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0068 5E48 8403 




ANDA 1*00000011 


6 BIT MSK 


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0040 


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HDA C+ 

UKft j at 


PD UTTU CTAPfc' 

UK HI In a 1 ALK 


MMin FPii 9i ah 

0069 5E4A 3402 




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CTD AT V DOC 

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0071 5E4E 48 




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0072 5E4F 48 




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0073 5E50 3402 




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0074 5E52 A601 




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0075 5E54 49 




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ANDA 1:00000011 


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0079 5E59 AAE0 




ORA ,Sr 


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0059 


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8C0E37 


CMPX ««E37 


DONE H/ROHS? 


0080 5E5B A780 




STA ,X* 


STR e X/INC X 


0060 


5E3B 


2FCF 


BLE LOOPi 


DO TIL TRUE 


0081 5E5D 5A 




DECB 


DECREHENT B 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST EARNED A MATH DEGREE! 




MATHMENU 

Developed by an engineer, Mathmenu is a 
powerful menu-driven system to turn your 
Color Computer into an intelligent, flexible 
tool for mathematics and engineering. 
Mathmenu takes the tedium out of math, 
leaving your full brain power to attack the 
"meat" of your problems. By rapidly mani- 
pulating matrices and vectors, performing 
integration and differentiation, solving 
quadratic equations, plotting user defined 
functions and much more, Mathmenu can 
help simplify the most complex problems. 
Whether you are a student or a professional, 
if you use math, you need Mathmenu. 



FEATURING: 

• 3D SURFACE PLOTTING — Plots a user defined equation on an 
X,Y,Z coordinate system in the High-Res graphics mode. Planes, 
surfaces of revolution, statistical surfaces, etc. can be easily plotted. 
Surfaces may be saved to disk or tape. We believe this is the only program 
of its kind commercially available for the Color Computer. 



PLUS: 

• Complete MATRIX Operations 
(up to 8 x 8) 

• Complete VECTOR Operations 

• Numerical Differentiation 

• Numerical Integration 

• Least Squares Curve Fitting 

• Binomial Expansion 

• Prime Number Verification 



2D Function Plotting 

Rectangular to Polar Conversions 

Base Conversions 
1 Large Number Addition and 

Multiplication 
1 Reverse Polish Logic Calculator 

with Hexadecimal 

Quadratic Equation Roots 



Main Menu with Single-key Selection and Return (Disk Only) 



Complete documentation of all functions is included. 

For 32K Disk $49.95 

For 16K Cassette $44.95 

Documentation only $5.00 (refundable with purchase) 

Or write for free brochure. 



Plotting Requires Extended BASIC 



L 1 J 



Inter <^y (^Action 



113 Ward Street • Dept. R • New Haven, CT 06519 • (203) 562-5748 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 43 



0082 5E5E 

0083 5E60 

0084 5E62 

0085 5E63 

0086 5E64 

0087 5E66 

0088 5E68 

0089 5E6B 

0090 5E6E 

0091 5E70 



26EC 
A684 
48 
48 

AAE0 

A784 

308811 

8C1D28 

26D1 

39 



BNE L00P4 
LDA ,X 
LSLA 
LSLA 
ORA ,S+ 
STA ,X 
LEAX $11, X 
CHPX M1D28 
BNE L00P3 
RTS 



B»0?/END RON? 
6ET X BYTE 
SHIFT FIRST 2 
BITS OUT 
OR N/WRAP BYTE 
STR RESULT 0 X 
BE6IN NEXT RON 
DONE N/RONS? 
DO TIL TRUE 
RTS TO BASIC 



0092 5E71 

0093 5E74 

0094 5E76 

0095 5E78 

0096 5E7A 

0097 5E7B 

0098 5E7D 

0099 5E80 

0100 5E83 



8E0701 

C607 

A680 

3402 

5A 

26F9 
308819 
8C0741 
26EF 



LOOP5 
L00P6 



THIS ROUTINE HOVES THE 
SLED SCENERY UPWARD AND 
AND NRAPS IT AROUND 



0101 5E85 8E0741 

0102 5E88 C607 

0103 5E8A A680 



L00P7 
LOOPS 



LDX 1*701 
LD8 17 
LDA ,X+ 
PSHS A 
DECB 

BNE L00P6 
LEAX 25, X 
CMPX 0*741 
BNE LOOP5 

LDX 01741 
LDB 07 

LDA ,X+ 



tTHIS BLOCK OF 
CODE IS THE 
E9UILAVANT 
OF A 

6ET(8,B>-<63,9 
),XX,6 

DONE N/RONS? 
DO TIL TRUE* 

STRT ADR R0N12 
SCENE NIDTH-1 
LD BYTE 



NEW FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

GRAFPLOT 

HIGH RESOLUTION DATA GRAPHING 



GRAFPLOT turns your COLOR COMPUTER jnto a sophisticated 
data plotter, producing professional quality graphs of any type 
of X-Y data. GRAFPLOT is perfect for personal, business, statis- 
tistical, scientific and engineering applications. Includes features 
not found in any other COLOR COMPUTER graphing system: 

■ 222x174 pixel on-screen data plotting area. 

■ Complete on-screen labeling for two Y-axes w/200 data 

points per axis leven more points by chaining data files). 

■ 9 graphing options: 3 symbols w/2 line types or points only. 

■ Full function data editing: add, change, delete and sort. 

■ Hardcopy w/standard screenprint programs [not suppliedl- 

includes interface for Tandy SCRPRT w/instructions for 
interfacing other printers and screenprint programs. 

■ Unlimited overlays -plot 9 or more data sets per graph. 

■ Graphs output to screen, printer, tape or disk. 

■ Plots any user-defined function, edit 4 program lines. 

■ Built-indata smoothing (moving binomial average). 

■ Built-in integration -calculate areas or evaluate integrals of 

user-defined functions. 

■ Lists data and integrals to screen or printer. 

■ Saves completed graphs for instant reloading. 

■ Menu-driven w/auto-prompt Option for fast throughput. 

■ Complete error trapping-GRAFPLOT won't let you make a 

mistake, practically impossible to crash. 

■ Comprehensive manual w/tutorials and sample data. 

GRAFPLOT is available for 16K E.C.B. on cassette ($35l and 32K- 
1 disk ($45! . Easy upgrade to disk for difference in price (disk 
version reads and writes tape data files). Send check or money 
order to: HAWKES RESEARCH SERVICES, 1442 Sixth St., 
Berkeley, CA, 94710. include $3 S/H on all orders. Manual 
available separately for $10 + S/H, refundable with purchase 
of GRAFPLOT. CA residents add state sales tax. 
Dealer inquiries welcome. Quantity discounts available. 



0104 5E8C A788BF 

0105 5E8F 5A 

0106 5E90 26F8 

0107 5E92 308819 

0108 5E95 BC1D01 

0109 5E98 26EE 



0110 5E9A 

0111 5E9D 

0112 5E9F 

0113 5EA1 

0114 5EA3 

0115 5EA4 

0116 5EA6 

0117 5EA9 

0118 5EAC 

0119 5EAE 



BE1CE8 

C607 

3502 

A782 

5A 

26F9 

3088E7 

BC1CA8 

26EF 

39 



0120 5EAF 

0121 5E82 

0122 5EB4 

0123 5E86 

0124 5EB8 

0125 5EB9 

0126 5EBB 

0127 5EBE 

0128 5EC1 

0129 5EC3 

0130 5EC6 

0131 5EC8 

0132 5ECA 

0133 5ECD 

0134 5ECE 

0135 5ED0 

0136 5ED3 

0137 5ED6 

0138 5ED8 

0139 5EDB 

0140 5EDD 

0141 5EDF 

0142 5EE1 

0143 5EE2 

0144 5EE4 

0145 5EE7 

0146 5EEA 

0147 5EEC 

0148 5EED 

0149 5EEE 

0150 5EEF 

0151 5EF0 

0152 5EF1 



8E1CF8 

C607 

A680 

3402 

5A 

26F9 
3088D9 
BC1CB8 
26EF 

8E1CB8 

C607 

A680 

A7883F 

5A 

26F8 
3088D9 
BC06F8 
26EE 

8E071F 

C607 

3502 

A782 

5A 

26F9 

308827 

BC075F 

26EF 

39 



STA -65, X 
DECB 

BNE LOOPS 
LEAX 25, X 
CHPX 0I1D01 
BNE L00P7 

LDX I*1CE8 
L00P9 LDB 07 
LOOP10 PULS A 

STA ,-X 

DECB 

BNE LOOP10 
LEAX -25, X 
CHPX 0I1CA8 
BNE L00P9 
RTS 



HOVE UP 2 RONS 
B*B-1 

B«0?/END RON? 
PT TO NEXT RON 
DONE N/RONS? 
DO TIL TRUE 

tTHIS BLOCK OF 
CODE IS THE 
EBUILAVANT 
OF A 

PUT(B,182)- 
(63,183), XX, 
PSET 

DONE N/RONS? 
DO TIL TRUE 
RTE TO BASIC* 



* THIS ROUTINE HOVES AUTO 

* SCENERY DONHNARD AND 

* NRAPS IT AROUND 



LDX itlCFB 
LOOP 11 LDB 07 
L00P12 LDA ,X+ 

PSHS A 

DECB 

BNE L00P12 
LEAX -39, X 
CHPX 0*1CB8 
BNE L00P11 

LDX 0I1CB8 
L00P13 LDB 07 
L00P14 LDA ,X+ 

STA 63, X 

DECB 

BNE L00P14 
LEAX -39, X 
CHPX t(6F8 
BNE L00P13 

LDX 0I71F 
L00P15 LDB 07 
L00P16 PULS A 

STA ,-X 

DECB 

BNE L00P16 
LEAX 39, X 
CHPX l*75F 
BNE L00P15 
RTS 



HRZ 
LHIN 
LNAX 
C0 



RHB 1 
RHB 1 
RHB 1 
RHB 1 
END 



♦THIS BLOCK OF 
CODE IS THE 
EfiUILAVANT 
OF A 

6ET<192,182)- 
(247,183), XX, 
PSET 

DONE N/RONS? 
DO TIL TRUE* 

BYTE ON R0N181 
SCENE NIDTH-1 
LD BYTE/1NX 
HOVE DN 2 RONS 
B=B-1 

B-07/END RON? 
ADR NEXT RON 
DONE N/RONS? 
DO TIL TRUE 

•THIS BLOCK OF 
CODE IS THE 
EBUILAVANT 
OF A 

PUT (192,8) - 
(247, 9), XX, 
PSET 

DONE N/RONS? 
DO TIL TRUE 
RTE TO BASIC 

HOR/VERT TRIAL 0/1 
HIN LIMIT OF C0 
HAX LIMIT OF C0 
OUTPUT COORDINATE 



44 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Setting 
The Standards 



WHAT THEY ARE SAYING ABOUT COLORPEDE 

forefront of the pack.. ." the Rainbow, Dec '82 ". . .an outstanding offer " N. Vernon, IN " the best graphics I have seen to date Erie. PA 
"It is great 1 ' Dayton, OH the best graphics and payability of any color computer game " McKeesporl. PA 



coLORPeoe HQBaTTflCfi 



This truly outstanding engineer designed, 100% 
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resolution characters and fast action will chal- 
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by 1 or 2 players controlled with joy sticks or key 
board. Joy stick control is fast, smooth and ac- 
curate. As COLORPEDE slithers through the toad 
stools, you attempt to destroy the COLORPEDE, 
knock out the menacing Bouncing Bug and elim- 
inate toad stools while accumulating higher and 
higher scores. Demonstration mode with top 5 
scores. Pause feature. For 16K Color Computer 
and TDP-100. 

Cassette-$29.95 Disk-$34.95 



Ultra fast arcade action with colorful high resolu- 
tion graphics. You are the super human who must 
fight off the attacking robots and save the remain- 
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powers, can shoot in any direction and move 
anywhere on the screen to accomplish your vital 
mission. 

Engineer designed, 100% machine language. 
Can be played by 1 or 2 players with joy stick con- 
trol. Top 5 scores displayed. Pause feature. For 
16K Color Computer and TDP-100 with joy sticks. 

Cassette-$24.95 Disk-$27.95 

TO ORDER: 

^_ s ^ VISA, MASTERCARD, Money Order. 

Please allow 2 weeks' for checks. Add 
rainbow $1.50 for shipping, $3.00 outside U.S. 4% 
CERr ™ tax in Mich. 



rntracolor 



P.O. Box 1035, East Lansing, Ml 48823 
(517) 351-8537 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



COMMUNICATIONS 



QUALITY PROGRAMS SOLICITED 



UTILITY | disk |J LpH 

By Harry Hardy 



How many times have you entered in a long program 
or text file, typed SA KE^filename" and the next 
prompt you got was "?I/0 ERROR'? If that's not 
enough, you then type DIR only to discover that your 
directory isn't there anymore. Frustrating, isn't it? Even just 
one occurrence is too many. 

What if we could hide a copy of that directory some place 
that even BASIC couldn't find? That is an interesting idea, 
but how can we do that? Well, not too long ago I discovered 
that my Radio Shack drive has the mechanical ability to 
access track 36. Actually that would be track 35 in the 
numbering scheme. Remember the other 35 tracks are num- 
bered 0 — 34. Well, I got an idea; if I can actually access track 
36, why not put a copy of the directory track, 17, out there? 

If you have the 64K modification on your Color Compu- 
ter that task is really quite simple, but if you don't have the 
mod you will need a program to do this for you. I have 
included the listings of several programs that will accomp- 
lish this. Two listings are in machine language for those of 
you with an editor/ assembler, two are in BASIC with 
appropriate DA TA statements to generate the two machine 
language programs, and the last one can be used to destroy 
your directory once you are satisfied that either set of the 
first two are working. 

Before I explain how these programs work, let's see if we 
can get an idea of why the directory track seems to be the one 
most often destroyed. Remember our tracks are numbered 
0 — 34 with track 17, the directory track, being right in the 
middle. Not only are the directory entries there, but so is 
something else called the File Allocation Table. Now when 
you want to access a file or save one, BASIC uses the file 



(Harry Hardy, who has 15 years experience as an 
applications and systems programmer in telecommun- 
ications is currently employed as a telecommunica- 
tions consultant by a large company that provides data 
communications products and services.) 



allocation table to locate the various granules associated 
with that file. Remember, each granule is half a track or nine 
sectors. Since the disk head moves across track 17 so much 
to access this table, chances are very good, unfortunately, 
that if some type of error is going to occur it will happen on 



. . not too long ago I discovered that 
my Radio Shack disk drive has the 
mechanical ability to access track 36." 



the directory track. That's why a backup of each disk is 
advisable. However, with the programs I've included, you 
will be able to restore that crashed d'wQclovy , assuming that 
the surface of the disk was not damaged. 

The first program I have included is called INIT36 for 
initialize track 36. Getting this track initialized is the first 
thing you will have to do. This program assures three things. 
The first being that the other tracks have already been 
initialized by using the DSKINI command. If they have not 
been initialized then you will get an I/O error from this 
program. I further assume that when you do the DSKINI 
that you use the default skip factor. If not, then it will be up 
to you to change the SKPTBL as appropriate. The other 
assumption is that drive 0 contains the disk we want to use. 
If you want to use another drive, I coded the program so it 
can be changed by POKEing the drive number in memory. 
Once you have loaded the program into memory type 
POKE &H1018,&Hn, where n is the drive number (0—3) 



46 the RAINBOW October 1983 



that you want to use. I do not validate drive number so if you 
type in a number for a nonexisting drive, the machine will 
lock up and you will have to push the reset button. The 
program is completely relocatable but be aware that since it 
formats all 18 sectors at the same time, it will require about 
6400 bytes of RAM to run in. So don't try to load it with an 
offset too high into RAM. 

Here is how this program works. At the routine labeled 
START, I display a prompt and read track 34 sector 1 8 . 1 do 
this simply to get the head moved to the last valid sector that 
BASIC knows. If the disk was not initialized by using 
DSKINI you will get an I/O error here. The next routine 
labeled STEP is used to cause the 1793 to step the head to 
track 36. Remember 36 is really 35. Any place in the pro- 
gram that indicates 36 in the comment is done for easier 
understanding of the listing. I will refer to this track as 36 
throughout the remainder of this article. 

Once we have moved the head to track 36, 1 then format 
the 18 sectors. This is done starting at statement 54. The 
sectors are formatted according to the Disk Programmers 
Manual on page 58. Once all sectors are formatted, they 
must be given to the 1793. This is done at the routine labeled 
WRITE. This is done by storing each character on the data 
register for the 1793. Look at that routine for a minute. 

The first instruction loads the address of the data register 
in the Y register. We then disable both interrupts. After that 
the old interrupt vector and vector out indicator are stored 
on the stack. The next instruction then loads the address of a 
routine within our program that control is to be given too, 
after all the data is written to the disk by the 1793. This 
address is then stored at location 0983. We now tell the 1 793 
that we want to write a track of data. This is done by storing 
the proper command on the command register located at 
address FF48. The command to write a track is $F4. Next, 
we must enable the NMI indicator for the 1793. This is done 
by storing a value on the control register located at FF40. A 
copy of that image is maintained at location 0986. By load- 
ing that address in the A register and turning on bit 7, we 
enable the NMI for the 1 793 once the new value is stored on 
the control register. 

The routine labeled W1793 simply gets a character from 
our formatted buffer and stores it on the data register. We 
will stay in that loop until all the data is sent. Once the 1 793 
has written all 18 sectors, it will interrupt the 6809 and give 
control back to us at the routine labeled RETURN. 
Remember, we saved the address of this routine in state- 
ments 100 and 101. This routine restores the old vector 
address, then gets the status byte from the 1793. I mask off 
drive not ready and busy bits before testing for an error. This 
routine then reads the new track to verify that it was written 
successfully, if not then an I / O error is issued here. Finally, I 
clear the screen and do a cold start back to Disk basic. 

Now that we have a disk with 36 initialized tracks, how 
can we get our directory there? That's the job of the second 
program that I've called HID EDI R for hide directory. This 
program simply gives you the option of saving or restoring 
the directory. If you want to save it, it reads all of track 17 
and writes it to our newly initialized track; to restore the 
directory this program does just the opposite. Again, this 
program also assumes that drive 0 contains the drive we are 
to hide the directory on. If you want to use another drive, 
POKE that drive number in &H 10004. Like the other pro- 
gram, I do not validate drive number. 

Want to test it out? Type in the first two programs using 
your assembler and/ or editor. Once you get an error free 



listing verify that it matches my listing and run each one, 
INIT36 first then HIDEDIR. Next type and run the short 
BASIC program I've called Crash Directory. After you run 
this program type DIR. How about that — you now have 
restored that lost directory! I do suggest that you try this a 
few times on a copy of an old disk until you are satisfied that 
it works. If you are having problems, verify your listings 
with mine. 

If you're using the BASIC programs to generate these 
programs, be sure to carefully check that your DATA 
statements match the listing. I have included instructions on 
how to save the programs in each BASIC listing. 

One note here. Once you are satisfied these programs are 
working and you hide your directory, then any copies you 



". . . you can also use the above method 
to access all 40 tracks. Just add four to 
each POKE value and put whatever 
you wish on these extra five tracks. " 



make of your disk, you will have to run the programs to hide 
your directories on the backups. BASIC will not backup that 
track for you. 

Now what about those of you who have the 64K mod on 
your Color Computer? Well, after you run whatever pro- 
gram you have to get an all RAM system, the following 
POKEs will allow you to use the BASIC commands to initial- 
ize track 36, make use of the DSKOS and DSKIS, and to do 
a backup command. First, POKE &HD572,&H24 and 
&HD595,&H24. These two will allow DSKINI to initialize 
36 tracks. POKE &HD446,&H23 POKE &HD1B0,&H24 
will allow DSKIS DSKOS and backup to access track 36. 1 
did not make a typing error on the &H23, DSKIS and 
DSKOS; use 23 instead of 24 for track number comparisons. 

Should you not have a Radio Shack drive that has 40 
tracks, you can also use the above method to access all 40 
tracks. Just add four to each POKEvalue and put whatever 
data you wish on these extra five tracks. Remember, how- 
ever, that BASIC will not use these tracks for file allocation 
since its file allocation method is based on 35 tracks. So, if 
you make use of the extra disk space you will have to 
manage it yourself. 

I hope you don't have to use the HIDEDIR program to 
restore any directories, but if you do, I hope you find it 
useful. 

Listing 1: 

INIT36 COMPUTERWARE MACRO ASSEMBLER 

INITIALIZE TRACK 36 ON RADIO SHACK DRIVE 

0001 NAM INIT36 

1000 0002 ORG $1000 

0003 OPT NOG 

0005 * THIS PROGRAM CAN BE USED TO INITALI2E TRACK 36 ON A 

0006 * RADIO SHACK DRIVE. TRACK 36 IS UNUSED BY COLOR BASIC 

0007 * THEREFOR IT IS A PERFECT PLACE TO HIDE A COPY OF 

0008 * YOUR DIRECTORY. 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 47 



M09 * 

0010 * WRITTEN BY HARRY HARDY 1983 



104D 26E5 
104F BDD6FD 



0047 BNE IOERR IF NEVER UNBUSY GO TO ERROR 

0048 JSR $D6FD 60 DELAY AWHILE 



1000 dDA928 


an i i ctadt 
0012 START 


JSR 




en pi cad crocckj 
50 CLEAR SCREEN 


101*3 308D0133 


0013 


LEAX 


PROMPT, PCR 




1007 2003 


0014 


BRA 


DISPLA 


DISPLAY PROMPT 


1009 BDA282 


0015 Dl 


JSR 


IA282 


DISPLAY CHAR IN A RE6. 


100C A6S0 


0016 DISPLA 


LDA 


»*♦ 


GET PROMPT CHARACTER 


100E 26F9 


0017 


BNE 


Dl 


NOT DONE GO DISPLAY ChAR. 


1010 BDA1B1 


0018 GETR 


JSR 


tAlBl 


GO GET REPLY 


1013 810D 


0019 


CHPA 


IID 


ENTER KEY 


1015 26F9 


0020 


BNE 


6ETR 


NO GET AGAIN 


1017 8600 


0021 


LDA 


10 


SET DRIVE NUMBER 


1019 97EB 


0022 


STA 


$E8 


TO DRIVE 0 


101B 8602 


0023 


LDA 


1102 


SET OPCODE FOR READ 


HID 97EA 


0024 


STA 


$EA 


SAVE FOR DSKCON 


101F 8622 


0025 


LDA 


134 


SET TRACK FOR TRACK 34 


1021 97EC 


0026 


STA 


$EC 


SAVE FOR DSKCON 


1023 8612 


0027 


LDA 


118 


SET SECTOR FOR SECTOR 18 


1025 97ED 


0028 


STA 


$ED 


SAVE FOR DSKCON 


1027 30SD017A 


0029 


LEAX 


BUFFER, PCR 


GET 1/0 BUFFER ADDR 


102B 9FEE 


0030 


STX 


SEE 


SAVE FOR DSKCON 


102D BDD66C 


0031 


JSR 


ID66C 


60 READ TRACK 34 SECTOR 18 


1030 0DF0 


0032 


TST 


$F0 


ANY ERRORS 


1032 2705 


0033 


BEG 


STEP 


NO 60 STEP TO NEXT TRACK 


1034 C628 


0034 IOERR 


LDB 


#$28 


SET 1/0 ERROR CODE 


1036 7EAC46 


0035 


JHP 


$AC46 


60 TO BASIC ERROR ROUTINE 




0037 * THIS 


ROUTINE STEPS THE HEAD TO TRACK 36 


1039 B609S6 


0039 STEP 


LDA 


$0986 


6ET FF40 IMA6E 


103C 8A10 


0040 


ORA 


•$10 


ENABLE WRITE PRECOMPENSATION 


103E B7FF40 


0041 


STA 


$FF40 


6IVE TO 1793 


1041 8653 


0042 


LDA 


•$53 


6ET STEP IN COMMAND 


1043 B7FF48 


0043 


STA 


$FF4S 


6IVE TO 1793 


1046 1E88 


0044 


EXG 


A, A 


DELAY 


1048 1E88 


0045 


EXG 


A, A 


DELAY SOME MORE 


104A BDD6DE 


0046 


JSR 


$D6DE 


60 WAIT FOR 1793 TO BECOME UNBUSY 



cAu/to/ia 

49 BROOKLAND AVE. 
AURORA, ONTARIO 
CANADA L4G 2H6 

FAMILY GAMES 

FOR 16K AND 32K COLOR COMPUTER 

STOCKBROKER — Up to 6 players can play the stock 
market. For 16K or 32K ECB. The 32K is in High-Res 
Graphics. 

CRIBBAGE — For 2 or 4 players. In High-Res 
Graphics! (for 32K). 

BATTLE — Will you get bombed before you can find 
all the ships? An extremely entertaining game for the 
family. 

COLORMIND — Up to 4 players challenge for hidden- 
colors. 

REMREM— Challenge your friends. Who can remem- 
ber the longest color sequence? 
CONCEN — Challenge the computer or a friend to a 
good ol' game of concentration. 

ALL GAMES only $20.00 or ANY TWO for $35.00 

also FROMc^u/to/taSo^tiAia/te: 

MR. COPY — A quality copier written in M.L that will 
make backup tape copies. MR. COPY is capable of 
making up to 99 copies in one loading! $25.00 
ROMDISK — If you have a modified 32K C.C. machine. 
ROMDISK will allow you to load your R.S. Rom Packs 
from a disk! $20.00 



0050 # THIS ROUTINE FORMATS THE 18 SECTORS FOR TRACK 36 

0051 * EACH SECTOR IS FORMATTED AS DEFINED IN 

0052 * THE DISK PROGRAMMERS GUIDE 



1052 0CEC 


0054 


INC 


$EC 


TRACK NOW EQUALS 36 


1054 30SD014D 


0055 


LEAX 


BUFFER, PCR 


GET BUFFER ADDR 


1058 CC204E 


0056 


LDD 


l$204E 


SET COUNT AND CHARACTER 


105B 8D2F 


0057 


BSR 


PUTCH 


GO LOAD BUFFER WITH CHARACTER 


105D 5F 


0058 


CLRB 




CLEAR SECTOR COUNTER 


105E 3404 


0059 NEXT 


PSHS 


8 


SAVE COUNTER ON STACK 


1060 338D00AC 


0060 


LEAU 


SKPTBL,PCR 


GET SKIP TABLE ADDR. 


1064 E6C5 


0061 


LDB 


B,U 


LOAD SECTOR NUMBER FROM TABLE 


1066 D7ED 


0062 


STB 


•ED 


SAVE IT 


1068 338D00B6 


0063 


LEAU 


SYSCNT,PCR 


SECTOR SYSTEM CONTROL CHARACTERS 


106C 8603 


0064 


LDA 


13 


LOAD 3 FOR FIRST THREE FIELDS 


106E 8D22 


0065 


BSR 


LDBUFF 


60 MOVE TO BUFFER 


1070 96EC 


0066 


LDA 


SEC 


GET TRACK # 


1072 A7S0 


0067 


STA 




STORE IN BUFFER 


1074 6FS0 


0068 


CLR 




CLEAR NEXT SYSTEM FIELD 


1076 96ED 


0069 


LDA 


$ED 


6ET SECTOR i 


1078 A780 


0070 


STA 




STORE IN BUFFER 


107A 8609 


0071 


LDA 


19 


LOAD BUFFER WITH NEXT NINE 


107C 8D14 


0072 


BSR 


LDBUFF 


SYSTEM FIELDS 


107E 3504 


0073 


PULS 


B 


6ET SECTOR COUNT 


1080 5C 


0074 


INCB 




ADD 1 TO COUNTER 


1081 CI 12 


0075 


CMPB 


118 


HAVE HE DONE 18 YET 


1083 25D9 


0076 


BLO 


NEXT 


NO DO ANOTHER ONE 


1085 CCCB4E 


0077 


LDD 


MCS4E 


DONE 


1088 8D02 


0078 


BSR 


PUTCH 


GIVE 1793 LAST FIELDS 


10SA 2012 


0079 


BRA 


WRITE 


GO WRITE ALL TO 1793 


108C E780 


0080 PUTCH 


STB 




PUT CHARACTER IN BUFFER 


108E 4A 


0081 


DECA 




SUB 1 FROM COUNT 


10SF 26FB 


0082 


BNE 


PUTCH 


NOT DONE MOVE NEXT ONE 


1091 39 


0083 


RTS 




DONE RETURN TO CALLER 


1092 3402 


0084 LDBUFF PSHS 


A 


SAVE # OF FIELDS TO HOVE 


1094 ECC1 


0085 


LDD 




GET SYSTEM FIELD TO HOVE 


1096 8DF4 


0086 


BSR 


PUTCH 


GO HOVE IT TO BUFFER 


1098 3502 


0087 


PULS 


A 


GET COUNT 


109A 4A 


0088 


DECA 




SUB 1 FROH IT 


109B 26F5 


0089 


BNE 


LDBUFF 


NOT DONE, DO NEXT FIELD 


M9D 39 


0090 


RTS 




DONE RETURN TO CALLER 



0092 * THIS ROUTINE GIVES THE 18 FORMATTED SECTORS 

0093 » TO THE 1793 



109E 


108EFF4B 


0095 WRITE 


LDY 


IIFF48 


LOAD Y WITH DATA REGISTER 


10A2 


1A50 


0096 


ORCC 


1150 


DISABLE IRQ AND FIRO 


10A4 


BE09S3 


0097 


LDX 


$0983 


GET OLD VECTOR ADDR 


10A7 


B609S2 


0098 


LDA 


$0982 


AND VECTOR OUT IND. 


10AA 


3412 


0099 


PSHS 


X,A 


SAVE ON STACK 


10AC 


308D0020 


0100 


LEAX 


RETURN, PCR 


6ET RETURN ADDR. FOR 1793 


10B0 


BF09S3 


0101 


STX 


$0983 


SAVE IT IN NMI VECTOR 


10B3 


308D00EE 


0102 


LEAX 


BUFFER, PCR 


GET BUFFER ADDRESS 


1087 


B6FF48 


0103 


LDA 


IFF4S 


RESET FLAG 


10BA 


730982 


0104 


COM 


$0982 


ENABLE NMI VECTOR OUT 


10BD 


S6F4 


0105 


LDA 


l$F4 


1793 COMMAND TO WRITE TRACK 


10BF 


B7FF4S 


0106 


STA 


IFF4S 


SAVE ON COMMAND REGISTER 


10C2 


B60986 


0107 


LDA 


$0986 


GET RAH IMAGE OF FF40 


10C5 


8A80 


0108 


ORA 


1*80 


ENABLE NHI FOR 1793 


10C7 


B7FF40 


0109 


STA 


IFF40 


PUT ON CONTROL REGISTER 


10CA 


A680 


0110 H1793 


LDA 


,Xf 


GET CHARACTER FORM BUFFER 


10CC 


A7A4 


0111 


STA 


0,Y 


PUT ON DATA RE6ISTER 


10CE 


20FA 


0112 


BRA 


H1793 


GO PUT NEXT CHAR. 



0114 * HE HILL STAY IN THIS H1793 LOOP UNTIL THE 1793 

0115 * HAS HRITTEN ALL DATA TO DISK. AFTERHARDS THE 1793 

0116 * HILL TRANSFER CONTROL TO THE ROUTINE BELOH 



1000 


3512 


0118 RETURN PULS 


X,A 


6ET OLD VECTOR ADDR. 


10D2 


BF09S3 


0119 


STX 


$0983 


RESTORE IT AND 


10D5 


B709S2 


0120 


STA 


$0982 


VECTOR OUT IND. 


10D8 


B6FF4S 


0121 


LDA 


IFF48 


GET STATUS 


10DB 


1CAF 


0122 


ANDCC l$AF 


ENABLE IRQ AND F IRQ 


10DD 


S47C 


0123 


ANDA 


l$7C 


MASK OFF NOT READY, fcBUSY 


10DF 


97F0 


0124 


STA 


$F0 


SAVE STATUS 


10E1 


1026FF4F 


0125 


LBNE 


IOERR 


ERRORS, GO TO ERROR ROUTINE 



48 the RAINBOW October 1983 





0127 * THIS ROUTINE HILL READ 


EACH SECTOR TO VERIFY 


1122 08 


0164 SYSCNT FCB 


08,00 




0128 * THAT THEY HERE WRITTEN OK. 


1124 03 


01 0 J 


CPD 

rLB 


03,$F5 












1126 01 


0100 


CPD 

rLB 


01,$FE 


10E5 308D00BC 


ana 


1 EAV 


oi irrc d ppd 
DUrrtn, rLn 


CCT ! /n DIICCCD 

Del 1/U BUrrtn 


1128 01 


ai A7 

010/ 


FPR 
TLB 


01,01 


10E9 9FEE 




CTV 


tec 
let 


bflvt rUK UbKLUN 


112A 01 


0100 


CPD 
TLB 


01,$F7 


10EB 8602 




1 HA 
LUH 


it to 


KtflU UrLUUt 


112C 16 


fl1 AQ 
ri 07 


FPR 
TLB 


$16,$4E 


10ED 97EA 


0133 


ST A 


tFA 

9CH 


D1VC iu uomur 


112E 0C 


0170 


FTR 
r ld 


$0C,00 


10EF 8623 


BIO^ 


LUH 


it?7 
1 »>0 


TDAPk' A 1U 
IKHLK f 00 


1130 03 


0171 


FCB 


$03,$F5 


10F1 97EC 


0135 


STA 


$EC 


SAVE IT 


1132 01 


0172 


FCB 


01,$FB 


10F3 33SD0019 


0136 


LEAU 


<?kptri prp 

Zh~ 1 DL ) rLn 


DC 1 DM" THLlUn IHDLC 


1134 00 


0173 


FCB 


00, IFF 


10F7 5F 


0137 


CLRB 






1136 01 


0174 


FCB 


01,$F7 


10FB A6C5 


0138 READ 


LDA 


B,U 


RFT QFrTHR Tfl RFflfi 

DC 1 JCL 1 Un IU nCHU 


1138 18 


0175 


FCB 


118, $4E 


UFA 97ED 


0139 


STA 


$ED 


SAVF IT FflR n^kTHN 
jhvc it run 1/jaluij 








10FC BDD66C 


0140 


JSR 


$D66C 


Rfl RFfln C-FrTDR 
du ncnu jcliuh 


113A 20 


0177 PROMPT FCC 


/ INITIALIZE TRACK 36/ 


10FF 0DF0 


0141 


TST 


$F0 


ANV FRRHRC: 

HUT CnnUnJ 


1153 0D 


0178 


FCB 


ID 


1101 1026FF2F 


0142 


LBNE 


IOERR 


YES 60 TO ERROR ROUTINE 


1154 20 


0179 


FCC 


/ by: harry hardy/ 


1105 5C 


0143 


INCB 




ADD 1 TO SECTOR COUNT 


116B 0D 


0180 


FCB 


ID, ID 


1106 CI 12 


0144 


CHPB 


• 18 


READ 18 YET 


116D 20 


0181 


FCC 


/ INSERT DISK IN DRIVE 0/ 


1108 25EE 


0145 


BLO 


READ 


NO 60 READ NEXT 


1188 0D 


0182 


FCB 


ID, ID 


110A BDA928 


0146 


JSR 


IA928 


60 CLEAR SCREEN 


1 ISA 20 


0183 


FCC 


/ HIT ENTER WHEN READY/ 


110D 7EC000 


0147 


JHP 


SC000 


DONE RETURN TO DISK BASIC 


11A3 0D 


0184 
0185 


FCB 
TTL 


ID, 10 

INITIALIZE TRACK 36 ON RADIO SHACK 



1110 01 

1119 0A 



0149 # ENTRIES FOR SKIP FACTOR, THESE ENTRIES ARE THE 

0150 ♦ SECTORS TO READ OR HRITE. THEY ARE BASED ON 

0151 I A SKIP FACTOR OF 4. IF ANOTHER SKIP FACTOR IS 

0152 * USED HHEN THE FIRST 35 TRACKS ARE VITALIZED THEN 

0153 ♦ THIS TABLE HILL HAVE TO BE CHANGED OR THE RESULTS 

0154 * MILL BE UNPREDICTABLE. 

0156 SKPTBL FCB 1,I0C, 5,110, 9, 2,100,6,111 

0157 FCB I0A,3,IE,7,I12,IB,4,IF,B 



0159 # SYSTEM CONTROL FIELDS TO INITALIZE A DISK TRACK 

0160 # THE FIRST CHARACTER IS THE NUMBER OF CHARACTERS 

0161 ♦ TO BE OUTPUT. THE NEXT CHARACTER IS THE 

0162 * CHARACTER TO BE OUTPUTED. 



0186 ♦ THE I/O BUFFER STARTS HERE 

11A5 0188 BUFFER EQU * 

1000 0189 END START 

NO ERROR (S) DETECTED 



Listing 2: 



1000 



0001 

0002 
0003 



NAM HIDE DIRECTORY 
OPT N06 
ORG 11000 



0005 # THIS PROGRAM HILL READ THE DIRECTORY TRACK (17) AND 

0006 * SAVE IT ON TRACK 36 HHICH IS NOT USED BY COLOR BASIC 

0007 * BEFORE THIS P0R6RAM CAN RUN TRACK 36 HAS TO BE INITALIZED 

0008 * 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S 
SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING. 



EASY TO USE 

ON-THE-SCREEN EDITING via cursor. Full prompting. 
Scrolling. Key Beep & Error Beebop. 

PLEASANTLY POWERFUL 

Total communications ability at 110 to 1200 baud. 
Transmit text, graphics, BASIC and Machine Language. 
Save & Load cassette/disk files while on line. Scan/Edit 
current data while receiving more data. Use any modem. 
Fully supports D. C. Hayes & others. Use any printer, 
page size, margins, line spacing. Override narrow text 
width of received data. Imbed printer controls. 

TRULY AUTOMATIC 

Automate almost any communications activity. Dial via 
modem, sign-on, interract, sign-off. Perform an entire 
session. Act as a message taker. Keystroke Multipliers 
may include parameter changes, editing, time delays, 
execution of other multipliers, looping, waiting for 
partially specified responses, and branching based 
upon alternative responses. Self-test mode. 

32K MEMORY RECOMMENDED 

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A /-SAV-A-BYTE A, 
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Never again experience that awful fear-or worse yet, the 
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that you have so painstakingly entered will be preserved dur- 
ing any AC power disturbance. You just resume inputting at 
the same point you were so rudely interrupted when power 
returns. 
FEATURES: 
•Absolutely no changes to your CoCo 
•Circuitry contained in ROM-port cartridge 
•ON-OFF switch on cartridge, with LED indicator 
•Over two hours support time during power 
failures 

•External battery connected via cable 
•Battery charging from CoCo power supply 
• Plug-and-Play installation 
•Optional ribbon cable bus extender 

(* +5v-only memory) 



Master Card or Visa 

Welcome 
call 803-356-2398 
or send checks or MO's to: 



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SAV-A- BYTE 

2857 Emanuel Church Rd. 
W. Columbia, S.C. 29169 

-Dealer inquiries welcome- 



90 Day Warranty 
10 Day Return Privilege 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 49 



9009 * COPYRIGHT (0 1983 HARRY HARDY 



1000 


BDA928 


0011 


BEGIN 


JSR 


SA928 


GO CLEAR SCREEN 


1003 


8600 


0012 




LDA 


10 


LOAD A WITH 0 TO 


1005 


97EB 


0013 




STA 


$EB 


INITALIZE DRIVE TO 0 


1007 


8602 


0014 




LDA 


12 


SET OPCODE TO READ 


1009 


97EA 


0015 




STA 


SEA 


FOR DSKCON 

run i/ji\luh 


100B 


8601 


0016 




LDA 


11 


SET START SECTOR TO 


100D 


97ED 


0017 




STA 


SED 


1 FOR DSKCON. 


100F 


308D0072 


0018 




LEAX 


MSG, PCR 


GET MESSAGE 


1013 


8D60 


0019 




BSR 


DISPLY 


GO DISPLAY IT 


1015 


8D63 


0020 




BSR 


GETCH 


GO GET REPLY 


1017 


BDA282 


0021 




JSR 


SA282 


GO ECHO CHARACTER 


1 01 A 


8152 


0022 




CMPA 


t'R 


RESTORE REQUEST 


101C 


2706 


0023 




BEQ 


RESTOR 


YES GO THERE 


1 02 E 


C61 1 


0024 




LDB 


fill 


START SAVE AT TRACK I 7 


1020 


D7EC 


0025 




STB 


SEC 


SAVE FOR DSKCON 


1022 


2004 


0026 




BRA 


READ 


GO READ IT 


1024 


C623 


0027 


RESTOR LDB 


IS23 


START RESTORE AT TRACK 36 


1026 


D7EC 


0028 




STB 


SEC 


SAVE FOR DSKCON 


1028 


J JOUPPLPI 


0029 


READ 


LEAU 


IQBUFF PCR 


GET BUFFER ADDR 


102C 


5F 


0030 




CLRB 




CLEAR SECTOR COUNTER 


I vzu 


nppp 
urcc 


0031 


READ1 


STU 


SEE 


SAVE BUFFER ADDR FOR DSKCON 

JnVL uurr Lr\ n u u n ■ run u jtluii 




RnnAAr 

DUUOOL 


VVJL 




JSR 


SD66C 


fifl RFAH n T ^fcf 


1032 


0DF0 


0033 




TST 


SF0 


ANY FRRORS 


1 f!74 
1 P On 




0034 




BNE 


IOERR 


YES GO TO ERROR 

iL.j uu iu Lnnun 


1036 


0CED 


0035 




INC 


SED 


ADJUST SECTOR 1 


1038 


5C 


0036 




INCB 




AND COUNTER 


1039 


C112 


0037 




CflPB 


118 


ALL BEEN READ YET 


j 033 


2706 


0038 




BEQ 


WRITE 


YES GO WRITE THEM 

1 LJ UU BlU 1 L II1L.II 




JJLIV IVV 


0039 




LEAU 


256, U 


NO ADJUST BUFFER POINTER 






vvnv 




BRA 


READ1 


GO GET NEXT SECTOR 

uu ul i ntA i jll i un 


1043 


0CEA 


0041 


WRITE 


INC 


SEA 


SET OPCODE TO WRITE 

JL 1 Ul LfUUL. 1 U P¥n 1 1 L. 


1045 


C601 


0042 




LDB 


11 


SET SECTOR TO 1 


1047 


D7ED 


0043 




STB 


SED 


SAVE IT 


1049 


338D00A9 


0044 




LEAU 


I08UFF,PCR 


RESET BUFFER POINTER 


104D 


8152 


0045 




CMPA 


t'R 


IS THIS A RESTORE 


104F 


2706 


0046 




BEQ 


WRITE1 


YES GO THERE 



1051 


C623 


0047 




LDB 


1123 


NO START SAVE AT TRACK 36 


1053 


D7EC 


0048 




STB 


SEC 


SAVE IT 


1055 


2004 


0049 




BRA 


WRITE2 


GO WRITE DIRECTORY 


1057 


C611 


0050 


WRITE1 


LDB 


IS1 1 


RESTORE STARTS AT TRACK 17 


1059 


D7EC 


0051 




STB 


SEC 


SAVE IT FOR DSKCON 


105B 


5F 


0052 


WRITE2 


CLRB 




CLEAR COUNTER 


105C 


DFEE 


0053 


WRITE3 


STU 


SEE 


SAVE BUFFER ADDR. 


105E 


BDD66C 


0054 




JSR 


SD66C 


60 TO DSKCON 


1061 


0DF0 


0055 




TST 


SF0 


ANY ERRORS 


1063 


261B 


0056 




BNE 


IOERR 


urn nr\ th rnnnn 

YES GO TO ERROR 


1065 


0CED 


0057 




INC 


SED 


NO ADJUST SECTOR ft 


1067 


5C 


0058 




INCB 




AND COUNTER 


1068 


CI 1 2 


0059 




CHPB 


118 


ALL WRITTEN YET 


106A 


270D 


0060 




BEQ 


RETURN 


YES 60 EXIT 


106C 


33C90100 


0061 




LEAU 


256, U 


un AnniPT nurrrn DnruTFO 

NO ADJUST BUFFER POINTER 


1070 


20EA 


0062 




BRA 


WRITE3 


GO WRITE NEXT SECTOR 


1072 


BDA282 


0063 


Dl 


JSR 


SA282 


DISPLAY CHARACTER 


1075 


A680 


0064 


DISPLY 


LDA 


,)(♦ 


GET CHAR- 


1077 


26F9 


0065 




BNE 


Dl 


NOT DONE GO DISPLAY IT 


1079 


39 


0066 


RETURN 


RTS 




RETURN TO CALLER 


107A 


BDA1B1 


0067 


GETCH 


JSR 


SA1B1 


GO POLL KEYBOARD 


107D 


27FB 


0068 




BEQ 


GETCH 


NONE YET NO POLL AGAIN 


107F 


39 


0069 




RTS 




60T CHAR. RETURN 


1080 


C628 


0070 


IOERR 


LDB 


IS28 


SET ?I/0 ERROR IND. 


1082 


7EAC46 


0071 




JMP 


SAC46 


GO TD BASIC'S ERROR ROUTINE 


1085 


48 


0073 


MSG 


FCC 


/HIDE DIRECTORY TRACK ON TRACK 36/ 


10A5 


20 


0074 




FCC 


i 


by: HARRY HARDY/ 


10BC 


0D 


0075 




FCB 


SD,SD 




10BE 


20 


0076 




FCC 


RESTORE OR SAVE DIRECTORY/ 


10DB 


0D 


0077 




FCB ; 


SD,SD 




10DD 


20 


0078 




FCC ' 


/ 


ENTER R OR S/ 


10F4 


0D 


0079 




FCB 


ID, $00 




10F6 




0081 


IOBUFF 


EQU 


* 




1000 




0082 




END 


BEGIN 





NO ERROR (S) DETECTED 



TS MARKET CHARTER 

TS LOG 

TS DATA NETWORK 




PROFESSIONAL LEVEL INVESTMENT TOOLS NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE 
COLOR COMPUTER. POWERFUL TECHNICAL ANALYSIS FUNCTIONS 
INCLUDING MULTIPLE VARIABLE MOVING AVERAGES, RATE OF CHANGE, 
OSCILLATORS, ETC. PLUS AUTOMATIC DAILY UPDATING OF PRICE AND 
VOLUME FILES VIA MODEM UTILIZING LOCAL AREA PHONE NUMBERS. 
SYSTEM COLOR COMPUTER 32K* 

REQUIREMENTS: 1 DISK DRIVE 

PRINTER (Optional) 
HAYES SMARTMODEM 
(Required For Auto Price Updating) 
PRICE: MTS MARKET CHARTER— $95.00 

MTS LOG & DATA NETWORK— $25.00 Per Month 
PRODUCT MANUAL— $25.00 If Purchased Separately 



Send Order Or Inquiry To: 



► 



MTS 

Market Timing Software, Inc. 

6912 N. Sheridan Rd. 
Chicago, IL 60626 



'ALSO AVAILABLE FOR TRS 80 MOD III, II, 12 AND 16; IBM-PC, APPLE II PLUS, ETC. 



50 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Listing 3: 

10 ' THIS PROGRAM WILL CREATE TH 
E PROGRAM TO INITIALIZE TRACK 36 
20 * AFTER YOU RUN IT TYPE SAVEM 
" INIT36. BIN" , &H1000, &H1 1A6, &H100 
0 

30 * YOU CAN THEN TYPE LO ADM" INI 

T36" AND EXEC IT. 

40 FOR X-4096 TO 45 1G 

50 READ A 

60 POKE X,A 

70 NEXT X 

100 DATA 109,169,40,40,141,1,53, 
32,3, 1G9 

110 DATA 162,130,166,120,30,249, 
1G9, 161, 177, 129 

120 DATA 13,30,249,134,0,151,235 
, 134,2, 151 

130 DATA 234,134,34,151,236,134, 
10, 151,237,40 

140 DATA 141,1,124,159,230,109,2 
14, 100, 13,240 

150 DATA 39,5,196,40,126,172,70, 
102,9, 134 

160 DATA 130,16,103,255,64,134,0 
3, 103,255,72 

170 DATA 30,136,30,136,109,214,2 
22,30,229, 109 

100 DATA 214,253,12,236,40,141,1 



,79,204,32 

190 DATA 70,141,47,95,52,4,51,14 
1,0, 174 

200 DATA 230,197,215,237,51,141, 
0, 104, 134,3 

210 DATA 141,34,150,236,167,120, 
111, 120, 150,237 

220 DATA 167, 120, 134, 9, 141 , 20, 53 
,4,92, 193 

230 DATA 10,37,217,204,200,70,14 
1,2,32, IS 

240 DATA 231,126,74,30,251,57,52 
,2,236,193 

250 DATA 141,244,53,2,74,38,245, 
57, 16, 142 

260 DATA 255,75,26,80,190,9,131, 
182,9, 130 

270 DATA 52,18,48,141,0,34,191,9 
, 131,48 

280 DATA 141,0,240,182,255,72,13 
4,255, 183,9 

290 DATA 130,134,244,183,255,72, 
182,9, 134, 138 

300 DATA 128,183,255,64,166,128, 
167, 164,32,250 

310 DATA 53,18,191,9,131,183,9,1 
30, 182,255 

320 DATA 72,28,175,132,124,151,2 
40, 16,38,255 



for 13" TV 



MONITOR (TV) 
STANDS 



for printers 





$19.95 PS-1 15W x 11 D x4H 
$22.50 PS-2 same as above with 

slot for bottom feed 

printers 



$25.50 TS-1 15Wx11Dx4H 



$35.50 TS-4 24W x 1 1 D x 4H 



• ventilator holes 

• slot for ROM pack 



Colors available: ivory, smoked gray 

deduct $1.00/stand for clear 

1 Year guarantee on plastic and workmanship. 

Stand may be returned within 30 days for refund if not satisfied. 



fTTTTJ 



Howard Medical Company 



Box 2 Chicago, Illinois 60690 
(312) 944-2444 



Please send me the following stands: 
Cat # Quan. Color Price 



Shipping 
IL Residents Add 6% 
Total 



Name , 



Address 



City/State . 
Zip 



We pay shipping on pre-paid orders 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 51 



330 DATA 77,48,141,0,188,159,238 
, 134,2, 151 

340 DATA 234,134,35,151,236,51,1 
41,0,25,95 

350 DATA 166,197,151,237,189,214 
, 108, 13,240, 16 

360 DATA 38,255,45,92,193,18,37, 
238, 189, 169 

370 DATA 40,126,192,0,1,12,5,16, 
9,2 

380 DATA 13,6,17,10,3,14,7,18,11 
,4 

390 DATA 15,8,8,0,3,245,1,254,1, 
1 

400 DATA 1,247,22,78,12,0,3,245, 
1,251 

410 DATA 0,255,1,247,24,78,32,32 
,32,32 

420 DATA 32,32,73,78,73,84,73,65 
,76,73 

430 DATA 90,69,32,84,82,65,67,75 
,32,51 

440 DATA 54,13,32,32,32,32,32,32 
,32,32 

450 DATA 66,89,58,32,72,65,82,82 
,89,32 

460 DATA 72,65,82,68,89,13,13,32 
,32,32 

470 DATA 32,32,73,78,83,69,82,84 
,32,68 

480 DATA 73,83,75,32,73,78,32,68 
,82,73 

490 DATA 86,69,32,48,13,13,32,32 
,32,32 

500 DATA 32,72,73,84,32,69,78,84 
,69,82 

510 DATA 32,87,72,69,78,32,82,69 
,65,68 

520 DATA 89,13,0 

Listing 4: 

10 ' THIS PROGRAM WILL CREATE 
THE PROGRAM TO HIDE THE DIRECTOR 

Y 

20 ' AFTER YOU RUN IT TYPE IN 
SAVEM 11 H I DED IR. BIN" , &H1 000 , &H 1 0F5 
,&H1000 

30 * YOU CAN THEN LOADM"HIDEDI 

R" AND EXEC IT. 

40 FOR X=4096 TO 4341 

50 READ A 

60 POKE X,A 

70 NEXT X 

100 DATA 189,169,40,134,0,151,23 
5, 134,2, 151 

110 DATA 234,134,1,151,237,48,14 
1,0, 114, 141 

120 DATA 96,141,99,189,162,130,1 
29,82,39,6 

130 DATA 198,17,215,236,32,4,198 



,35,215,236 

140 DATA 51,141,0,202,95,223,238 
, 189,214, 108 

150 DATA 13,240,38,74,12,237,92, 
193, 18,39 

160 DATA 6,51,201,1,0,32,234,12, 
234, 198 

170 DATA 1,215,237,51, 141,0, 169, 
129,82,39 

180 DATA 6,198,35,215,236,32,4,1 
98, 17,215 

190 DATA 236,95,223,238, 189,214, 
108, 13,240,38 

200 DATA 27,12,237,92,193,18,39, 
13,51,201 

210 DATA 1,0,32,234,189,162,130, 
166,128,38 

220 DATA 249,57,189,161,177,39,2 
51,57, 198,40 

230 DATA 126,172,70,72,73,68,69, 
32,68,73 

240 DATA 82,69,67,84,79,82,89,32 
,84,82 

250 DATA 65,67,75,32,79,78,32,84 
,82,65 

260 DATA 67,75,32,51,54,32,32,32 
,32,32 

270 DATA 32,32,32,66,89,58,32,72 
,65,82 

280 DATA 82,89,32,72,65,82,68,89 
, 13, 13 

290 DATA 32, 32, 32, 32, 82, 69, 83, 84 
,79,82 

300 DATA 69,32,79,82,32,83,65,86 
,69,32 

310 DATA 68,73,82,69,67,84,79,82 
,89, 13 

320 DATA 13,32,32,32,32,32,32,32 
,32,69 

330 DATA 78,84,69,82,32,32,82,32 
,32,79 

340 DATA 82,32,32,83,13,0 

Listing 5: 

10 ' CRASH DIRECTORY 

20 ' THIS PROGRAM CAN BE USED 

TO TEST THE HIDEDIR PROGRAM 
30 * AFTER YOU HAVE EXECUTED 

HIDEDIR TYPE AND RUN THIS ONE 
40 » THEN EXECUTE HIDEDIR AGA 

IN WITH THE R OPTION. THEN 
50 * TYPE DIR. YOUR DIRECTORY 

SHOULD BE RESTORED. 
60 CLEAR 500 

70 A*=STR I NG* < 1 28 , " # " ) : B*-STR I NG 
*<127, "?" ) 

80 DSKO* 0,17,2,A*,B* 
90 DSKO* 0,17,3,A*,B* 
100 DSKO* 0, 17,4, A*, B* 



52 the RAINBOW October 1983 



TURN 
THIS PAGE 

FOR A 



3IJ 



SPECIAL 




\ I I \ 




JUST GOT BETTER 

ONLY * 69 95 

! 

i ; 

FHL CC-FLEX has become the standard FLEX for the CoCo. Now you can buy CC-FLEX for only 
$69.95 for a savings of $30. CC-FLEX includes more extras, more utilities, and more functions than 
any other. 

INCLUDES: 

BEST PRICE IN THE WORLD! 

At $69.95, CC-FLEX, with all these features, is the best price anywhere' 
OFFICIALLY LICENSED TO FHL FROM TSC 

CC-FLEX is an official licensed FLEX from TSC. Be wary of unlicensed implementations 
NEW SMOOTH SCROLLING 

New with version 5.0:4 is SMOOTH scrolling. This is a feature not found on any 
other FLEX. 

NEW VARIABLE RATE SCROLLING 

Variable rate scrolling lets you control the speed that the screen scrolls, from smooth to 
very fast scroll. Also this version of CC-FLEX is 50% faster in scrolling than 
previous versions. 
NEW 'TED' TINY EDITOR 

Included with CC-FLEX at $69.95 is 'TED', which stands for Tiny Editor. TED is fine for 
small editing jobs and is the easiest editor to use of any available. You can learn how to 
use it in less than five minutes! 
NEW ISM' INTERACTIVE ASSEMBLER 

ISM is the program for those interested in assembly language but not convinced that they 
need to buy one. ISM is the perfect teaching tool to use to learn assembly language 
programming. You will need to use it in conjunction with a book on the subject (not 
provided). However, ISM includes a complete manual on its operation. 
NEW EXTERNAL TERMINAL PROGRAM 

If you want to run CC-FLEX connected to a terminal so that you can get the benefit of a 
real keyboard and full 24 x 80 display, then EXT will do it for you. EXT allows a standard 
terminal and printer to be connected to the CoCo. 'NEW EXT now supports real 
hardware handshaking. 
EASY START UP 

Justtype RUN"FLEX" or DOS if you have 1.1 Disk ROM. Quotefromthe June 1983issue 
Hot CoCo. Re: FLEX by David Wasler, pg. 143, "It istheeasiest to use. Afteryou receive it, 
just put it in your drive and type RUN"FLEX"." 
ONLINE "HELP" CAPABILITY 

Just like the big mainframes, CC-FLEX has a help function. Just type 'HELP' and 
CC-FLEX will answer your questions and help you run FLEX without having to keep 
paging through the manual. 
RECONFIGURABLE TO YOUR NEEDS 

CC— FLEX'S powerful SETUP facility lets you change CC-FLEX to suit your needs and 
hardware. CC-FLEX is the only FLEX that gives you such complete control. 
SUPPORTS ALL DRIVE TYPES AND SIZES, EVEN 3" 

CC-FLEX supports every type of drive currently available forthe CoCo. These include 35, 
40 and 80 track single and double sided. Even the new 3 inch from AMDEX. We supply 
support software on the 3 inch drive. 
SIX DIFFERENT HI-RES SCREENS 

51 x 24 and 16 x 32 with true lowercase, 64x24 and 64x32 all uppercase. You can switch 
between these screens at will. The different scroll types are available for each 
screen type. 

SUPPORTED BY THE LARGEST 6800 SOFTWARE FIRM IN THE WORLD! 

FHL is the largest software house in the world for 6809 based computers! We have over 
100 software packages for FLEX and OS-9. We support CC-FLEX like no other. 



FHL FLEX 



OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT EXTRA COST: 

* DBASIC - Radio Shack Disk Basic adapted to work with FLEX. 
This isstandard RS Disk Basic working with FLEX. Thisonly works with FHL FLEX at this 
time. DBASIC has everything that RS Disk Basic has except for Direct access files and 
those functions that go with Direct access files. 

* ED/ASM - Full feature Editor and Assembler 
SPECIAL now only $69.95! ED/ASM is the best Editor and assembler for the Color 
Computer. The editor is both screen and line oriented while the assembler is a full 
conditional macro assembler. 



REVIEWS: 

Quote from the June 1983 issue of HOT COCO. Re: FLEX by David Wasler, pg. 143. 
"Frank Hogg Color FLEX has been on the market the longest and has the most software 
support. It is also the easiest to use. After you receive it, just put it in your drive and 
type RUN"FLEX" " 

Quote from the March 1983 80 MICRO review by Scott Norman, pg. 101. 
"I think CC-FLEX offers the most painless way of trying one's hand at an advanced 
operating system for the Color Computer. It offers quite a few "big machine" features, and 
opens the door for a lot of applications software." 

Frank Hogg Lab brought FLEX to the CoCo over a year and a half ago. It has gone thru 5 
updates since its original release in February 1982! FHL not only has FLEX, we support our 
FLEX with more software than anyone else in the world! We have over 100 software 
packages compatible with FHL CC-FLEX to fulfill all your needs. These range from 
languages, utilities and software development tools to data base management, word 
processing and business applications. We guarantee these programs will work with our 
FHL CC-FLEX and probably with any licensed version of FLEX' 

And, there is no better way to purchase FLEX for less!! 

So, order FHL CC-FLEX today and take advantage of our SUMMER SPECIAL of 

$60.05 to bring out the true power of your CoCo!! 

We will accept Prepaid, COD, VISA, M/C and Diners. Please include $3.50 for shipping 
and handling. 




THE REGENCY TOWER* 770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE, NY 13203*TELEX 646740*(315) 474-7856 



I I I I I 1 I 



THE 




JUST GOT BETTER 



ED/ ASM .»69 M 

LOOK AT THESE FEATURES 
ED 

ED is both line and screen oriented. This means that you can edit by line number or by 
using screen type editing where you move the cursor to where you wish to edit and then 
make your changes. The line editing mode is very handy for programming as most 
assemblers and compilers refer to line numbers when an error occurs, thus making it easy 
tocorrect if the editor like ED can go to a line number to edit. Once there, ED can switch to 
screen editing to make the corrections. 

ED also has cut and paste type of editing, where you can split a line and move the other 
half. You can also delete and rename files on disk from ED, edit more than one file without 
leaving ED, and many more. Here is a list of features: 
Menu will list the command set for ED 
Set allows changing editor characters 
Cursor allows changing cursor control strings. 
X sends out a user defined string 
Status list flags and other internal editor settings 
Head allows setting and listing of headers and tabs 
Tab allows setting tab stops 
Width set screen width 
Number toggle number flag 
Renumber renumbers the lines 
Verify toggle the verify flag 

Zone set or reset the zone flag for string searches 
Top go to the top of the text ( also works) 
Bottom go to the bottom of the text (! also works) 
Next target line becomes the current line 
Find finds target string 
Append appends a string to the current line 
Change changes this to that in the text 
CChange like above but asks you first 
Copy copy a block a text 
Cut cut the current line at a specified column 
Delete a line or block of lines 
Expand tabs in the text 
Insert insert after the current line 
Move move a block of text 
Overlay the line 
Print a line or block of lines 
Replace a line or lines 
Splice a line to the current line 
Stop save the text to disk and edit 
Abort exit the editor without changing anything 
New allows working with files larger than available memory 
Edit restart the editor with a new file 
Dir list the directory of the disk 
Read insert a file from disk into the file in memory 
Write write a block of lines to a file on disk 
Save save the file to disk 
List list a line or group of lines 
FEDL deletes a file on disk 
FREN renames a file on disk 
CMACRO create a macro 
LMACRO list one or all macros 
DMACRO delete a macro 
MACRO execute a macro 

CALCULATE performs math functions with results in binary, decimal, and hex 
EXEC exec a text file as a set of commands for the editor 
Bell rings the terminal bell (useful in macros) 
REM used to document macros. 

As you can see, ED is a very versatile and powerful editor for all your editing needs. It 
is particularly useful for the programmer that needs a flexible editor!! 



FHL ED/ASM has been recognized as the most versatile package in its price range for 
FLEX. Now the best is less. Save $30 by buying ED/ASM. 

LOOK AT THESE FEATURES 
ASM 

ASM is a fast and versatile (8 bit) macro assembler. It has the necessary elements to 
support structured constructs like WHILE and FOR etc. These are the ability to define 
macros with substitutable parameters, conditional assembly directives, and the ability to 
change the value of a label or symbol. In addition, source code may be assembled in 
modular form. That is as a series of LIBrary files. A short file containing a list of file 
specifications in standard assembler source format may call as many library files as 
desired. Symbols default to a maximum length of 6, but may be redefined to a maximum 
length of 3 to 30 characters. 

ASM supports auto fielding and automatic label generation. Labels may beautomatically 
generated and accessed within expressions. 



This function has great power when used within macros. An example is the BASIC 
statement PRINT "HI". A macro would be created as: 



An example would be: 
BRA :1 
FCC "Hl",4 
: EQU * 

becomes: 

BRA L0001 
FCC "Hl",4 

L0001 EQU * 



PRINT MACRO 

LDX #:1 

JSR PSTRNG 

BRA :2 
: FCC "&1",4 
: EQU * 

ENDM 



would expand into: 
PRINT "HI" 
LDX L0001 
JSR PSTRNG 
BRA L0002 
FCC "Hl",4 
EQU * 



L0001 
L0002 



ASM supports the following directives or pseudo operators. 



FCC 

FCS 
FCB 
FDB 
SPC 

LEN 

OPT 

PAG 
ORG 
RAM 

EQU, SET 

END, MON 

NAM, TTL 
STTL 
RMB 
ERR 
RPT 



form constant 

character(s) 

form constant string 

form constant byte 

form double byte 

insert spaces in the 

output listing 

set up length of output 

line for printing 

switch assembler 

options 

skip to next page 
define a new origin {*) 
define a new storage 
counter origin (.) 
{re-) assign a value to 
a symbol 

signal end of source 
code 

specify a name or title 
specify a subtitle 
reserve memory bytes 
print error message 
repeat following line 
n times 



MACRO define a macro 
ENDM end a macro definition 
EXITM exit macro being called 
DUP duplicate lines n times 

up to 'ENDD' 
ENDD end duplication bracket 
IF conditonal assembly 

control 

ELSE complement true-false 

flag 

ENDIF end conditional 

assembly clause 
ENDC end conditional 

assembly clause 
WHILE incremental conditional 

assembly control 
WELSE complement sense of 

WHILE test 
ENDW end WHILE clauses 
LIB open a library source 

code file 
SYM define length of 

significant characters 

for symbols 



So, order FHL ED/ASM today and take advantage of our SUMMER SPECIALto bring out 
the true power of your CoCo. 

We will accept Prepaid, COD, VISA, M/C and Diners. Please include $3.50 for shipping 
and handling. 




THE REGENCY TOWER -770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE, NY 13203«TELEX 646740«(315) 474-7856 



■ i M M 



The world's larg 

manufacturer of software 
presents . . . 




IFHL FLEX I 



■PAK 



O-PAK 

for OS-9 

Hi Res Screen & 
Utilities Package 



This is the same Hi-res screen that is used on FHL 
FLEX. Using the same control codes and the same 
features. The utilities include a three way copy utility 
that allows copying files between FLEX, OS-9 
and Radio Shack DOS. For CoCo OS-3 - 534,95 



HOGG 

LABORATORY 




THE REGENCY TOWER • SUITE 215 • 770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE, NY 13203 
PHONE (3 1 5)474-7856 • TELEX 646740 




/BASIC COMPILER 

sic Compiler for 
and FLEX! 



This BASIC compiler generates pure, fast 
efficient 6809 machine code from easy to 
write BASIC source programs. •Uses 
ultra-fast Integer math, extended string 
functions* boolean operators and run-time 
operations. Output is ROMmable and 
RUNS WITHOUT ANY RUN-TIME 
PACKAGE. Supports IF-THEN-ELSE 
structure and random access. Supports 
the following statements: 

REM, END, CALL, FOR/NEXT, 
GOSUB/RETURN, IF/THEN, ON ERROR 
GOTO, ON-GOTO/ON-GOSUB, STOP, 
GEN, STACK, INPUT, PRINT, CLOSE 
FILES, OPEH, CLOSE, WRITE, RWRITE, 
READ, RREAD, CHAIN, RESTORE, 
SCRATCH, KILL. 

Includes Chess in A /BASIC source. 

Comment: A/BASIC does not compile RS 
Basic or any other Basic. It is an Integer 
only (no floating point), version of 
BASIC. It can be used for games and 
graphics, but it has no built in functions 
for them. A/BASfC is a powerful addition 
to your library, and it does not require a 
license to use or sell the compiled code 
produced from it. PH 

Written for 6809 OS-9 or FLEX 
Available for the Color Computer 

Object only $150*00 

4 Source programs on disk. 



Dynasoft Pascal is a portable p-code 
implementation of a Pascal subset 
specifically tailored for small scale 
microcomputer systems, 

Dynasoft Pascal is PASCAL SUBSET 
which includes the control structures of 
standard Pascal and supports the data 
types INTEGER, CHAR, BOOLEAN, 
scalar (enumerated), subrange, pointer, 
and ARRAY, along with the dynamic 
memory management functions NEW, 
MARK, and RELEASE. Its design is such 
that It is virtually impossible to write 
"spaghetti code", and the result is 
programs that are highly structured and 
highly readable. 

Dynasoft Pascal is COMPLETE. It 
includes a fast one-pass compiler, a p- 
code Interpreter, a supervisor program, 
and program SAVE, and LOAD routines 
that can be adapted for medio ranging 
from paper tape to cassette to floppy 
disks. For speed-sensitive applications 
there Is a built-in interface to machine 
language routines complete with 
parameter passing. 

Dynasoft Pascal is COMPACT. The 
entire system will run on systems with as 
little as 12K of available RAM without 
overlaying. It produces ROMable p-code 
which is also compact:a typical algorithm 
compiles to less than half the size of the 
same algorithm expressed in the native 
code of an 8-bit processor. This means 
that you can get a lot of program in a 
surprisingly small amount of memory. 



Dynasoft Pascal is PORTABLE. It is 
currently available for systems based on 
the 6809 microprocessors and more are 
planned. Programs written In Dynasoft 
Pascal are compatible at both the source 
and p-code levels: they can be 
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Written for OS-9 and FLEX 



OS-9 Object only 
w/run-time source 

FLEX Object only 
w/nin-time source 



$50.95 
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Available for CoCo OS-9 and FLEX 




Dynasoft sets a new price/performance 
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timings under r'LEX9 at 1 MHz using 
sieve benchmark from Sept 1981 Byte.) 

Dyna-C supports a large subset of 
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OS9: 
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$109.95 
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Available for the Color Computer 



The lntrol-C/6809 C longuage compiler 
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The lntrol-C/6809 compiler system is 
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The current release of the FLEX and 
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Bitfields and doubles are scheduled for 
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OC8809. Existing versions of these 
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include these features, as they become 
available. 

FLEX or OS-9 $375.00 
Available for the Color Computer 



ICROWARE 



The 6809 CIS COBOL compiler is the 
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COBOL meets the ANSI standard for 
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OS-9 $895.00 



■ 



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With 11 digits of precision, Random Basic 
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FLEX 
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CoCo versions 



$100.00 
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OSM is a MACRO Assembler with 
CONDITIONAL Assembly directives and 
other extended commands that are not 
found in other assemblers. If you write 
programs for OS9 and/or FLEX then OSM 
is for you beeause it generates OS9 or 
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FEATURES: 

* Motorola standard mnemonics and 
oddressing modes 

* 2 passes to generate object code 



• library file calls nestable to 12 deep 

• conditional assembly nestable to any 
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• maeroe nestable to any depth, with 
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• variable length symbols up to 32 
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• 2048 maximum symbols 

• automatically generated labels and 
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• errors tell file name and line number 

• object code format for OS9, FLEX, or 
neither 



For those users who write programs for 
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files on one system. OSM can generate 
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OSM supports the assembler directives for 
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Written for FLEX or OS-9 $99*00 
Available for the Color Computer 



CRASMB is a macro-conditional cross 
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FEATURES: 

• Cross assembles 8 CPU types: 
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Mostek 6502, RCA 1802, INTEL 8080-5 
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• 2 passes to generate object code 

• library file calls nestable to 12 deep 

• conditional assembly nestable to any 
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• variable length symbols up to 32 
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■ 2048 maximum symbols 

• automatically generated labels and 
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• object code format for OS9, FLEX, or 
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For those users who write programs for 
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This program Is the most powerful 
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Written for 6809 FLEX and OS-9 

Color Computer versions available in both 

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$ as»oo 

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This set of macros for the TSC Macro 
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OS-9 
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$55.00 each or 3/$110.00 
$50.00 e»cb or 3/$100.00 



Also available for the Color Computer 



Super Sleuth is a set of programs which 
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binary program files on disk or in 
memory on 6800, 6801, and 6809 systems. 
Programs may be disassembled into source 
code format and the source may be 
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produced by SLEUTH can be changed 
globally to labels of the user T s 
preferenoe.Cross-reference listings of 
labels In any Motorola assembler- 
formatted source file may be produced to 
aid in debugging or modifying the 
program. Programs in ROM may be altered 
with the revised program being saved on 
disk; the resultant program could then be 
used to program a new ROM.Object code 
for 6800, 01, 02, 03, 05, 08, 09, or 6502 
may be processed, 6800, 01, 02, 08, 09 
object code may be easily converted to 
6809 position-independant code. 



This version of SUPER SLEUTH analyzes 
Z80, 8080, 8085 object programs, It is 
otherwise virtually identical to the other 
version of SUPER SLEUTH. 



Object only versions: 
CoCo OS-9 
CoCo FLEX 
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$ 49.95 
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FLEX or OS-9 with Source: $ 99.00 
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Specify 6809 or 2-80 



DYNAMITE * is a new version of the 
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A cross-reference generator has been 
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Written for OS-9, FLEX 

OS-9 $150.00 
FLEX $100.00 

Available for the Color Computer 



The 6800-6809 translator converts 6800/1 
assembler-language programs to 8809 
assembler language programs by 
converting 6800/1 opcodes to sequences 
of one or more 6809 opcodes. The 6609 
P1C/PID translator assists In converting 
6 809 assembler-language programs to 
position-Independent code and data, using 
PC, ^ U, X, and Y as base registers. 

FLEX $50.00 
UniFLEX $60.00 
OS-9 $75.00 



This Editor and Assembler package is 
much more powerful than the programs 
Inclusive with CoCo OS-9. The Edit 
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CoCo OS-9 $69.95 



SCREEN EDITOR/ WORD PROCESSOR 
FOR OS9 A FLEX 

DynaStar is a powerful, menu-driven 
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system. 

DynaStar Version II features no-nonsense 
"what you see Is what you get" editing. 
To edit, simply move the cursor where 
you want It, and type. Any printable 
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control character Is Interpreted as an 
editing command and is executed 
immediately. lt*s that simple! Single 
keystroke commands move the cursor in 
any direction, by character, word, tab, 
line or screenful, and delete characters, 
words, or a whole line. Two keystroke 
commands augment the simple commands 
by moving the cursor to the left or right 
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next paragraph, or the top or bottom of 
the edit buffer. You can search for a 
string, replace It with another, do It 
again, mark text blocks, move, copy or 
delete blocks, write them to side-files, 
read them In somewhere else, set tabs 
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DynaStar features automatic word-wrap, 
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the screen as you go, so you see how it 
wiH look BEFORE you print It. For 
programmers there Is an auto-indent mode 
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up, and the OS9 version will even let 
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DyneStar Includes a unique macro fecility 
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commands by converting any control 
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can provide a special "startup string" 
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the editor to customise the editor to 
your own taste. 

For complete word processing, the 
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provides all the standard features 
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single, double, and multiple spacing, 
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DynaForm has its own macro facility 
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automatic generation of Index find Table 
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DynaStar for OS9 or FLEX $149.95 
DynaForm for OS9 or FLEX $149.95 
Purchased together $ J 75.00 

Color Computer versions** 

DynaStar $ 90.00 

Dynaform $ 90.00 

Purchased together $17S.00 



SPECIAL NOTE TO 
COLOR COMPUTER 
FLEX USERS: 

Because DynaStar does Its formatting on 
the screen, UNLESS you are using an 
external terminal the 51 x 24 CoCo 
FLEX format will limit its usefulness as 
a general word processor. DynaStar still 
makes an excellent screen editor for your 
programming needs and can be teamed up 
with the TSC text formatter (which 
formats at print time) to do word 
processing. 



O - Job Control 
inguage for O 



"DO" Is an easy to use Job Control 
Language for OS-9. BASJC like in 
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processing. 

DO uses a minimum of 8.5K user memory. 
Wore may be allocated when the user 
application exceeds buffer size. DO has 
26 number and 9 string variables. It also 
supports ON ERROR GOTO, allows 
parameter passing, and the use of labels. 

DO contains the following directives: 
REMARK, TRACE-ON, TRACE-OFF, 
LET, GOTO, GOSUB, RETURN, ON 
ERROR GOTO, RESUME, REPORT, F, 
FC, PRINT, 1KPLT, READ, END, and 
CHAIN. 

DO procedures may be chnincd or nested 
by using the DO commund as an OS-9 
command. The manuid includes a 
''Procedure Library* of example?. 



CoCo OS-9 version 
General OS-9 version 

mm* 



$49.00 

$99.00 



RMS Is a complete Database Management 
package for the 6809 computer. It is 
composed of five machine language 
programs that make up the most powerful 
business programming tool for the 6809. 
It can be used by the relative novice to 
Implement an Incredible variety of 
information storage and retrieval 
applications such as accounting, 
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line retrieval, sorting and printed reports. 
It includes the following features; 

* User defined record format via data 
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•All files in ASCII Text format, BASIC 

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* Extensive documentation, sample 
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* Versatile, professional quality report 
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* Built in sort/merge 



FLEX 
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$200 
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Available for the Color Computer 
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Password protection and automatic 
handling of vacation and sick hours are 
just two of the features of this system 
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Requires Computerware's Random Basic 
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CoCo versions $29$. 00 

General OS-9 or FLEX 

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Requires FHL O-Pak 



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Requires FHL O-Pak 



TORY CONTROL 



Requires Computer ware's Rflrwloin Rusic, 

CoCo versions $195.00 

General OS-9 and FLEX 

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Require Y\-,\ t O-Pak 



Maintain vendor Invoice information with 
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Requires Computer ware's Random 8aslc« 

CoCo versions 
General OS-9 and FLEX 
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Retires FHL O-Pak 



This single-entry check ledger may be 
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Requires Com puterw are's Random Basic. 

CoCo versions 
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Requires FHL O-Pak 



Sort out groups by one or many 
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OS-9 or FLEX 
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RAINBOW 









'Repainting' a PMODE 4 

Rainbow 



By David King 



How would you like to be able to write your next 
Color Computer or graphics game using a black 
background, lots of bright colors, and a 256 x 192 
resolution screen, and all in BASIC? Sound impossible? Read 
on! The technique used is not new — I first discovered it in an 
article by George Fraser in the June, 1982 TRS-80 Micro- 
computer News titled "Texture." The article gave a machine 
language program to create the effect, but since I am a 
confirmed BB (BASIC bigot) I noted the program but never 
tried it. Eventually my curiosity got the better of me and I 
decided to see if I could write the routine in BASIC to make it 
easier to use with another BASIC program. I ended up with 
two versions of the routine, each with advantages and disad- 
vantages as we shall see later. I have since discovered that the 
idea has been around for years before that, and it is capital- 
ized on in the system software of at least two other popular 
home computers. 

The technique, which I imagine was first discovered by 
accident, counts on the limitations of a standard TV. A TV is 
naturally designed to receive TV signals, and these signals 
must meet an industry encoding standard set. This standard 
requires the circuitry to be able to properly handle a maxi- 
mum of about 1 80 pels (pixels) on a line. When this standard 
is exceeded, the TV is not required to perform as expected. 
The trick is to turn this limitation into an advantage. This 
can be done with the Color Computer by using PMODE4 
(SCREEN1J), which uses 256 pixels per line and thus 
exceeds the standard, and places repetitive bit patterns such 
as 001 1001 1 in the memory graphics screen area. While 1 
bits 



(David King, an electrical engineer, is a twenty-year 
veteran in the field of large-system computer design. 
His programming experience includes computer per- 
formance simulation and computer-aided design. At 
home he works with stained glass, woodworking, 
home construction, and also teaches BASIC at a 
computer-oriented Explorer Scout Post.) 



1 bits should produce white and 0 bits black, the rapidly 
changing pattern "fools" the TV and the desired magic of 
what has been best described as "false colors" occurs. 

Now that we understand a little of the theory, here's how 
my REPAINT routines put this effect to work. First, on a 
PMODE4 screen with a black background you draw a 
figure and paint it white. Since in PMODE4 each pixel is 
represented by one bit in memory, this will give us a lot of 0 
bits for the black area with 1 bits where the figure was 
painted. Then my routine is called, after having previously 
set variables indicating the area to be "repainted "and the bit 
patterns (masks) to be used. The routine will then selectively 
reset bits in the painted area so that the resulting pattern 
matches the masks and the desired effect is produced. 

Before we look at the detailed operation of the routines, 
we need to discuss the specification of the bit patterns. My 
programs require the selection of two "masks," which may 
be identical, and a "shift amount," which may be zero. The 
masks are represented by an integer between 0 and 255, with 
repetitions of the binary form of the number being the bit 
pattern for a pixel row in memory. The two masks are used 
for adjacent rows, and this row-pair is repeated to fill the 
area to be colored. For example, the masks 51 and 204 
would result in a bit pattern in memory of: 

00110011 

11001100 

Now, what about the shift amount? This is a number from 
0 to 7 which represents the number of bits the row-pair is 
shifted right each time before being replicated. Here's 
another example — masks 136 and 68 and a shift amount of 
two: 

10001000 

01000100 

00100010 

00010001 

While and understanding of the masks is needed to exper- 
iment with the program, it is not needed to use it. Here is a 



60 the RAINBOW October 1983 



list of values that will give you good results. 



Ml 


M2 


S COLOR 


85 


85 


0 red 


170 


170 


0 blue 


85 


255 


0 light blue stripes 


170 


255 


0 light red stripes 


17 


17 


2 blue/ black checkered 


34 


34 


2 red/ black checkered 


187 


187 


2 yellow/ green checkered 


119 


119 


2 violet/ blue checkered 


153 


102 


0 medium green textured 


204 


51 


0 medium violet textured 


238 


238 


0 yellow/ green stripes 


119 


199 


0 violet/ blue stripes 


238 


187 


0 light green textured 


119 


221 


0 light violet textured 


170 


85 


0 red/ blue stripes 


136 


68 


2 red/ blue checkered 



The first two entries are the colors you get with the trick of 
defining objects in PMODE3 and then switching to 
PMODE4, and are also the ones frequently seen in machine 
language games. While the remainder of the parameter 
combinations do not result in pure colors, I'm sure that you 
will find plenty of uses for their unique colors and textures. 

Now let's look at the routines. Listing 1 contains a pro- 
gram Tve called SLOW-PAINT. When you use it, you will 
know where it gets its name. To help, there are speedup 
POKEs in lines 2000 and 2030 that you may remove if 
necessary. All variables used in the routine are listed in the 
comments. To evoke the program, set the variables for the 
masks, shift amount, and the X,Y coordinates to start 
repainting. This routine could also have been called D UMB- 
PAINT, because its algorithm is simple. It starts at the point 
given, proceeds right on the row, resetting bits to match the 
mask as it proceeds, until it finds a 0 bit, which marks the 
boundary of the painted area. It then returns to the starting 



"Now that I have psyched you up I 
must confess that there are a few 
drawbacks to this technique. First, . . . 
the edges of your figures may suffer 
distortion. I feel this is a small price to 
pay for the overall gain. Second, and 
last, is the 'great mystery ' . . . " 



point and does the same to the left, once again returning to 
the starting coordinate when the boundary is encountered. 
It then steps down one row and repeats the process. When 
the downward step encounters a 0 bit the routine terminates. 
Be sure to use an even number for the X coordinate; more on 
this later. This simplified painting process will not handle 
complex shapes in one pass, but multiple calls to the routine 
with appropriate starting points should handle most, if not 
all, shapes. A better algorithm is left as an exercise for the 
student. Think about it — you'll come to appreciate the 
BASIC PAINT function a lot more! 

The demo will draw a pie cut into four different colored 
pieces. The actual operation of the routine is a little hard to 
follow because of the optimization that I felt was necessary 
to maximize performance, but it should be understandable 
with the help of the variable definitions. Note the absence of 



GOTOs, which would have created a real slowdown if this 
routine was properly tucked away at the end of a large 
program. In particular, look at the use of the undocumented 
STEP 0 in line 2060, which creates a "loop-forever" situa- 
tion, thus avoiding a GOTO at line 2 1 20. The loop is exited 
in line 2080 by setting the loop variable Ql to 1. 

The routine shown in Listing 2 is appropriately called 
FAST-PAINT What it gains in speed over its brother it, 
unfortunately, loses in precision. It uses the blunderbuss 
approach; you specify the upper left and the lower right 
coordinates, as in GET, for example, and it sets everything 
in that box that has already been painted white to the 
selected bit pattern. More than that, it works on byte boun- 
daries, so the area covered may extend up to seven pixels to 
the left and right of the X points specified. This routine 
should be easy to follow with the comments and variable 
definitions. To aid in readability, I violated an important 
rule of maximum performance coding; all the constants 
used in the various calculations should have been placed in 
variables at the start of the routine. While the speed of this 
routine isn't too bad, you might want to make this change, 
along with adding in the high-speed POKEs. The approach 
used for the repainting is to PEEK a byte from the graphics 
screen buffer, AND it with the appropriate mask, and 
POKE it back. The screen buffer byte addresses are calcu- 
lated from the X/ Y pixels location by the formula: 1 536+INT 
(X/8)+32*Y, where 1536 is the start of the buffer area. (For 
disk systems I believe that this address should be changed to 
3584.) This routine was only designed to handle shift 
amounts of 0 and 2. While I haven't found other values to be 
of interest, you may try for yourself by using the first rou- 
tine, which will take any value from 0 to 7. 




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may try for yourself by using the first routine, which will 
take any value from 0 to 7. 

The FAST-DRA ffdemo program will draw 16 rectan- 
gles on the screen using the values in the preceding table. I 
suggest that you enter this program first to best see what this 
technique can accomplish. 

The parameter values that I have suggested were discov- 
ered by an only semi-rigorous search, and I bet there are 
some good ones that I have missed. Please feel free to 
experiment and, if you uncover some new ones, I would like 
to hear about it. In that way, I could act as a clearing house 
and pass on additional collections to everyone at some later 
time. I also have some reason to believe that repetitive 
patterns longer than a byte might give good results, but I 
haven't had time to check that one out. 

Now that I have psyched you up I must confess that there 
are a few drawbacks to this technique. First, you will find 
that the edges of your figures may suffer some distortion. I 
feel this is a small price to pay for the overall gain. Second, 
and last, is the "great mystery" — when you turn on the 
computer you never know exactly which colors you will get! 
Sometimes the parameters "85 85 0" will give you red and 
sometimes blue. The unpredictability is only partial, reds 
always alternate with blues and violets with yellows. This 
isn't as bad as it sounds since the results always seem to turn 
out pleasing with whatever color "set" you end up with. If 
you don't like what you get the first time you can try stop- 
ping the program, pressing the Reset button, and running it 
again. If you do this enough times, you will sooner or later 
get what you want. The same switching of colors can be 
achieved by changing the alignment of the bit patterns in 
memory. You can see this from my table; a mask of 85 (red) 




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is 170 (blue) when shifted one bit to the left. That is why I 
suggested that you always begin the repainting with the 
SLOW-PAINT routine on an even X value — you will get 
consistent, if not predictable, results. F/lST-iM/JVTdoesn't 
have that problem; an even alignment is always used. If 
someone knows why this happens I'd love to know. Better 
yet, how can this problem be avoided? 

In closing, if you hardware-types would like to learn more 
about this effect, the following articles have been recom- 
mended to me: 

*Byte, Dec. 1980. "A Simplified Theory of Video Gra- 
phics, Part 2" 

* Apple Orchard, Fall 1980, "Apple II Hi-Res Graphics: 
Resolving the Resolution Myth" 




Listing 1 

10 »♦»♦ PM0DE4 SLOW— PAINT DEMO 
20 * 

30 PCLEAR 4:PM0DE 4, 1 : PCLS: SCREE 
N 1,1 

40 CIRCLE < 128, 96), 20, ,.9 'DRAM 
CIRCLE 

50 PAINT (128,96) 
60 COLOR 0 

70 DRAW "BM128,96|NE12NF12NG12NH 

12" 'DIVIDE INTO 4 SECTIONS 

80 FOR 1-1 TO 4 'PAINT EACH SECT 

ION 

90 READ HI, VI, Ml, M2, SI 
100 BOSUB 2000 
110 NEXT I 
200 GOTO 200 
210 DATA 128,79,85,85,0 
220 DATA 114,85,170,170,0 
230 DATA 128,97,17,17,2 
240 DATA 142,85,34,34,2 
1000 '*** 

1010 '*** PM0DE4 SLOW-PAINT ROUT 

INE 

1020 ' 

1030 ' GLOBAL VARIABLES: 

1040 ' Ml - MASK 1 

1050 ' M2 - MASK 2 

1060 ' SI - SHIFT AMOUNT 

1070 ' HI, VI - START PAINT POSI 

TION 

1080 'LOCAL VARIABLES: 

1090 ' QM - CURRENT MASK 

1100 ' QS - MASK SELECT SWITCH 

1110 * QP - MASK BIT POINTER 

1120 ' QB - MASK BIT PTR. START 

POSITION 
1130 ' QX , QY - POSITION TO TEST 
/RESET 

1140 ' QD — X DIRECTION OF PAIN 
T 

1150 ' Q1,Q3 - LOOP VARIABLES 
1160 ' 

2000 POKE 65495,0 



62 the RAINBOW October 1983 



"TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER PRODUCTS" 



" ENHANCED 1 248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER " 

The list of directly compatible EPRDMs increases by one, now 
including: 2508's, 2758-0/1's, 251 6's, 271 6's, 2532's, 2732's, 
68732-0/1's, 68764's, and 68766's. 



NE \Aj^F EA TUR ES INCLUDE: 

1) Intelligent algorithm that reduces programming time to as little 
as 1 /6 that of fixed cycle programmers. 

2J Diagnostic routines to isolate defective EPROMs, or locate 
differences. 

3) A feature that guards against EPROM type entry errors. 

4) Diagnostic routines that prevent keyboard entry errors from 
causing disastrous consequences. 



FIR MWAR E_F EAT UR ES 

1 ] EPROM ERASED! 4) BYTE PROGRAMMING! 

2) COMPARE EPROM TO RAM! 5) DUMP EPROM TO RAM! 

3) BLOCK PROGRAMMING! 6) JUMP! 

Firmware is "stack-oriented", "position independent", and "menu 
driven". Supplied in an EPROM, it can also be stored on disc or tape 
for execution from RAM if desired. 



STANDARD HA RDWA (^FEATURES 

1) It has its own "on-board" 25 volt programming supply. 

2) A quality textool "zero insertion force" (ZIF) socket. 

3) Socket for firmware on-board. 

A PIA port is also available on the programmer. This 8 bit parallel 
I/O port with handshake lines, can be used for many applications, 
such as a parallel printer port. Details on how to use this port as a 
printer interface are included in the instruction manual. 

The instruction manual describes how to take full advantage of the 
power of this versatile programmer. We think you'll agree, that 
never before was an EPROM programmer so easy to use, and 
feature packed as is the 1248-EP. 

The enhanced 1248-EP costs only $129.95. 

Firmware upgrades are available to our previous 1 248-EP custom- 
ers, in EPROM, for just $29.95. 




TRS-80 is a trademark of TANDY CORP. 
->H(- SDS80C is a trademark of the MICRO WORKS. 



" THE CK4 SERIES PROM /RAM CARDS" 

The CK4 cards work with 2K. 4K, and BK ROMs or EPROMs of the 
5 volt only variety in 24 pin packages. The CK4 can also work with 
static RAMs, and increase your available memory by as much as 
16,128 bytes. 

The CK4-1 is specifically designed for use in computers with "F" 
series boards, or those machines that are "write protected" in the 
address range of $C000 through $FEFF. The CK4-1, therefore, 
does not incorporate features designed in the CK4 for use with 
RAM. 

The CK4-2 is the unpopulated version of the CK4 series board. Buy 
this version and configure to meet your specific requirements, and 
stretch the value of your dollar. 

^E^UW^UMMARY 

1) MIX ROM AND RAM! 4) EXTREMELY FLEXIBLE [DECODING! 

2) EXPAND RAM FROM 2-1 BK! 5) PROVIDES FDR BATTERY BACKUP' 

3) YOU WRITE PROTECT RAM' 6] LOW COST! 

PRICES 

CK-4 $29.95 ea. CK4-1 $27.95 ea. CK-2 $1 5.95 ea. 

MEW PRODUCT OFFERING 

A/D-80C ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER BOARD 

The A/D-BQC is a 16+ channel analog to digital converter with two 
8 bit PIA ports plus handshake lines. 

-)rlmplement closed-loop control of analog processes! 
-A-Use it to control your homes environment! 
-^-Computerize your laboratory or darkroom! 
-vcBuild a multi-channel voltmeter! 
-"-Use it for waveform generation! 
-vrFor robotics! 

The A/D-BOC is software programmable up to a maximum of 1 □ 
bits of resolution. The number of channels can be expanded beyond 
the 16 channel capability supplied, and the channels are software 
selectable. 

The A/D-BOC performs nearly 9K A/D conversions per second. 

A generous area of the board is designated for wirewrapping to 
permit customization of analog signal processing circuitry. 
Extensive documentation is provided to assist the user in the 
development of his application. Software listings are provided as an 
aid to software development, and a socket is provided for an 
EPROM for user developed software drivers. 

CONSULT FACTORY FOR AVAILABILITY AND PRICE INFORMA- 
TION ON NEW PRODUCTS 



FACTORY FRESH COMPONENTS : 

ITEM DESCRIPTION PRICE 

271 6 EPROM 2K by 8 Bit, $4.50 ea. 

2532 EPROM 4K by 8 bit, $6.50 ea. 

6821 P P.I.A. $3.50 ea. 

74LS156 Open collector decoder $1.70 ea. 

Socket Textool "Zero Insertion Force" $9.00 ea. 
Minimum component order: $25.00 



ORDERING INFORMATION : 

Add $3.00 to all orders to cover shipping and handling. Canadian 
residents add 5°/d to cover special handling. Arizona residents add 
5°/o sales tax. All items shipped UPS. Please allow 2-3 weeks for 
delivery. Prices subject to change without notice. 

Make checks payable to: 



COMPUTER ACCESSORIES OF ARIZONA 
5801 E. VOLTAIRE DRIVE 
SCOTTSDALE, ARIZONA 85254 
(602) 996-7569 



2010 QM-Ml:QS-l:QB-l 

2020 FOR QY-V1 TO 1000 

2030 IF PPOINT<H1,QY>«0 THEN POK 

E 65494,0: RETURN 

2040 QP-QB:QX— l:QD-l 

2050 FOR Q3-1 TO 2 

2060 FOR Ql-0 TO 1 STEP 0 

2070 QX-QX+QD 

2080 IF PPOINT<H1+QX,QY>«0 THEN 
Ql-1 

2090 IF (OH AND <2~ (8-QP) ) ) -0 TH 

EN PRESET < HI +QX, QY) 

2100 QP-QP+QD: IF QP>8 THEN QP-1 

ELSE IF QP<1 THEN QP-8 

2110 NEXT Ql 

2120 QD«-1 : QX-0: QP-QB-1 : IF QP<1 

THEN QP-QP+8 
2130 NEXT Q3 

2140 IF QS-1 THEN QS-2:QM-M2 ELS 
E QS-l:QM-Ml:QB-QB+SI: IF QB>8 TH 
EN QB-QB-8 
2150 NEXT QY 




7 «... 


0246 


1070 . . 


03CD 


END 


05EE 1 



Listing 2 

10 PH0DE4 FAST-PAINT DEHO 

20 * 



ACTIVE and/or PASSIVE LINEAR 
ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ANALY ZER 



itt EXTENDED BASIC CASSETTE FEATURES t 
: circuit editor; tape tave and load 
icoapute gain and phase versus frequency 
.•output to icreen, printer, or cassette 
ifile listing utility to screen or printer 

ADDED 32K DISK BASIC FEATURES i 
iprograa and data chaining via disk haInbow 
iauch larger circuit files possible "°;', ,c ."" < "' 
icoapute circuit delay versus frequency 
sprinter utility to graphically plot 
circuit response to any ASCII printer 



CASSETTE--S24.95 DISK--S34.95 
add $2 for shipping or $4 for C.O.D 
24 hour C.O.D order tape (619) 470-3B01 



DIGITAL-LINEAR SYSTEMS ENG. 
P.O. Box 754 

NATIONAL CITY, CALIF. 92050 
custom engineering services 



30 PCLEAR 4:PM0DE 4, 1 : PCLS: SCREE 
N 1,1 

40 FOR Y-50 TO 100 STEP 50 

50 Vl-Y: V2-Y+20 'Y LIMITS 

60 FOR X-32 TO 200 STEP 24 

70 H1-XIH2-X+16 'X LIMITS 

80 LINE <X,Y>-<X+16,Y+20>,PSET,B 

* DRAW BOX 
90 PAINT (X+1,Y+1) 
100 READ M1,M2,SI 'BET MASKS, IN 
CREMENT 

110 SOSUB 2000 'DO IT 
120 NEXT X,Y 
130 80T0 130 

200 DATA 85,85,0,170,170,0,85,25 
5,0, 170,255,0 

210 DATA 17,17,2,34,34,2,187,187 
, 2, 1 19, 1 19, 2 

220 DATA 153,102,0,204,51,0,238, 
238,0,119,119,0 

230 DATA 238,187,0,119,221,0,170 
,85,0, 136,68,2 
1000 '*** 

1010 '*** FAST PM0DE4 PAINT ROUT 

INE 

1020 ' 

1030 * GLOBAL VARIABLES: 

1040 ' Ml - MASK 1 

1050 ' M2 - MASK 2 

1060 ' SI - MASK SHIFT AMOUNT ( 

0 OR 2) 

1070 * H1,V1,H2,V2 - PAINT BOUN 
D ARIES 

1080 'LOCAL VARIABLES 

1090 ' 01 ,02 - "WORKING" MASKS 

1100 ' QW - MASK SELECT SWITCH 

1110 ' QM - CURRENT MASK 

1120 ' OA, OB - TEMPS 

1130 ' QX , QY - LOOP VARIABLES 

1140 ' 

2000 Q 1 -M 1 : Q2-M2 : QM-M 1 : QW-0 

2010 FOR QY=V1 TO V2 

2020 QB-1536+QY*32 

2030 FOR QX«INT<Hl/8> TO INT(<H2 

+8) /8) 

2040 OA— QX+QB 'CALC. BYTE ADDRES 

S 

2050 POKE QA,QM AND PEEK (QA) '"A 
ND" BYTE WITH MASK 
2060 NEXT QX 

2070 IF QW=0 THEN QW=1: QM-Q2: G 
OTO 2090 ELSE QW=0: QM=Q1 'SWITC 
H MASKS 

2080 IF SIO0 THEN Q1 = INT (Ql/4) + 
(Ql-INT(Ql/4)*4)*64: Q2-INT(Q2/4 
> + (Q2-INT (Q2/4) *4) *64: QM=Q1 'RO 
TATE MASKS RIGHT 2 BITS 
2090 NEXT QY 
2100 RETURN 



64 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Custom Software Engineering, Inc 



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CO 



5 

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00 
H 

o 
o 



01 

CO 



Ul 



807 Minutemen Causeway (D-2), Cocoa Beach, Florida 32931 

(305) 783-1083 



DISK DOUBLE ENTRY - If you have spent hours 
trying to balance your Debits and Credits, this program is 
for you! Designed for small business, club, and personal 
use. Enter transactions in a journal type format. Program 
will maintain current account balances, produce Trial Bal- 
ance, Income, and Balance Sheet reports and complete 
Account Ledgers. Will handle upto300 accounts including 
reportheadingsandtotais. Upto 1 400 average transactions 
on a diskette. Summary reports and four levels of subtotals 
available. REQUIRES 32K and a user understanding of 
standard double entry accounting concepts. - $44.95 in 
BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 

STATEMENT WRITER - For use with (and re- 
quires) Disk Double Entry. Produces statements suitable 
for billing from your Receivable accounts. Provides mailing 
labels to use with your statements and account summaries. 
Designed and documented to allow you to change formats 
to accommodate your own special needs. $34.95. 

DISK DATA HANDLER - 64K - Designed to use 
the full 64 K RAM, but may also be configured for 32 K. Uses 
standard ROM's - No special operating system required! 
Allows you to design disk data files for your specific needs. 
You define a basic record of up to 14 fields and 246 
characters. Provides fast selection and sorting based on 
any field or combination of fields in this record. Powerful on 
screen input and update. User defined output of reports to 
screen, printer, or disk files which may be read by your 
BASIC programs for any computational or special format- 
ting requirements. Printer reports allow headings, page 
breaks, and page numbering, and let you pass control 
codes to drive your printer's special features. Maximum 
number of records you may work with at one time will 
depend on RAM configuration and record size - 64K (32 K) 
1850 (500) - 21 char records, 1 79 (49) - 246 char records. 
An optional Extended record linked to the basic record may 
also be defined. The size of this Extended record is not a 
factor in determining maximum number of records. Will 
provide the growth capability needed foryour increasingly 
sophisticated applications. $54.95 in BASIC with Machine 
Language subroutines. 

DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - Puts you in charge 
of your schedule! Graphicallydisplaysany monthly calendar 
between 1700 and 2099. You put in up to twelve 28 
character memos per day - calendar shows where the 
memos are -call up of day shows details. Use for appoint- 
ments and a log of past activity. Study the chronology of the 
American Revolution or note the day your mortgage will be 
paid off. Search capability allows you to list or print all 
memos between two specified dates or only ones meeting 
key word criteria. Date computation shows elapsed time 
between two dates in days, weeks, months, and years. 
REQUIRES 32K in BASIC. 

TAPE DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $16 95 - (max. 400 
memos/tape file). 

DISK DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $1 9.95 (over 4,000 
memos/disk- max. 300 memos/month). 



COMMAND STREAM PROCESSOR - Adds a 
new dimension to the power of your Color Computer! A 
program to run your other programs. Will allow you to 
prepackage a stream of direct system commands as well as 
INPUT and LINE INPUT to your BASIC program. This 
results in a totally automated stream of activity. If you 
understand your computer and the flow of activity required 
for your total operation, you are ready for the power of 
CommandStream Programming. In completely relocatable 
Machine Language - $19.95. 

That's INTEREST-inCj - Time to let your computer 
do some real computation! This program will help you solve 
problems dealing with time, money, and INTEREST. Calcu- 
lates present vaJue, future value, and capital recovery for 
any combination of payments you specify. Rate of Return 
computation to predict how hard your money will be working. 
Special section to compute bond yields (current and to 
redemption). Amortization schedules about any way you 
want them - even allows you to change terms in mid 
schedule! All answers available on screen or printer. $29.95 
in BASIC. 

MATH TUTOR - Five programs that go from math fact 
(+, -, X, /) drill to full addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
and division at four levels of difficulty. Provides a step by 
step approach with error correction and rewards for good 
performance. - $13.95 in BASIC. 

SPELLING TEACHER - Up to 200 of their spelling 
words stored on tape or disk are presented in four lively 
study modes including a scrambled word game. - $1 2.95 in 
BASIC. 

ALPHA-DRAW - A subroutine designed to let you 
easily add characters to your graphic displays. You define X 
and Y coordinates and a string variable of one or more 
characters and Alpha-Draw will do the rest. Includes all 
keyboard characters. Comes with instructions for a true 
line numbered merge of tape files. Works great with the 
Screen Print program! - $8.95 in BASIC. 

GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM - 

Works in ALL PMODES and lets you shift screen image 
anywhere on the printed page. Relocatable code lets you 
use all of your 16K or 32K machine. Available for Color 
Basic 1.0 and 1.1/1.2. Use EXEC 41 175 to see which you 
have and SPECIFY with order. In Machine Language. 

SPECIFY PRINTER TYPE 

$7.95 - For TRS-80® LP-VII/VIII & DMP 100/200/400. 
$9.95 - For Epson GRAFTRAX®, NEC® PC 8023 A-C, 
IDS-440/445, Paper Tiger® 460/560, Micro Prism® 480, 
Prism® 80/132 (with dot plotting), TRS-80® DM P- 1 20, TDP-1 , 
Micro Peripherals, Inc. 88G/99G, PROWRITEFP, Centronics 739, 
Mircoline® 82A/83A (with OKIGRAPH I) /84/92/93 and 
Star Micronics, Inc. GEMINI 10/15. 
(Trademarks of Tandy Corp., Epson America, Inc., C-ltoh, 
NEC America, Okidata Corp., Integral Data Systems, Inc.) 



39 

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ALL PROGRAMS require Extended Color Basic and are 
delivered on cassette. All, except Tape Date-O-Base Calen- 
dar, are DISK System compatible. 



For VISA and Master Card orders: 
Include type, account number, expiration 
date, signature and phone number. 
Sorry' No COD's. 



U.S. and CANADA add $1 .00 per order for shipping. 
Overseas $2.50 per order. All prices in U.S. dollars. 
Florida residents add 5% sales tax. Return within two 
weeks if not completely satisfied. 




RAINBOW 

C€AT»FKATK)N 

SEAL 
ALL LISTE1 

PROGRAMS 



EDUCATION OVERVIEW 



What Is Computer Literacy? 

By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 



I want to tell you about three students. The first one just 
entered high school this year. During his junior high 
school career, he had some microcomputer training; he 
even wrote a program. (This boy is my son, in case you are 
wondering.) During a mathematics course, one option for a 
special project was to write a computer program. After some 
thought, he decided to write a computer program to calcu- 
late a Spearman's rho correlation. That's a statistical way of 
telling how closely two sets of ranked items correlate with 
each other. It is simply amazing what junior high students 
are being taught these days! I helped him with some of the 
BASIC commands, but he wrote the program, based on the 
steps he took to solve the problem on paper. The Color 
Computer performed the task with ease, as expected. The 
program had no bells and whistles, but it produced the 
desired end result. My son was impressed with the speed of 
the machine, and seeing something he had created actually 
work. 

A second student, a girl, graduated from high school last 
surrimer,and is a student at a state university now. She is an 
extremely bright student, and was placed in advanced 
courses in high school. This girl (well, young woman) took a 
computer course in high school — it was required. After this 
one course, she showed no interest in computers at all. She 
does not even enjoy playing games! About the only thing she 
wants to do on the machine is learn how to type. Now don't 
misunderstand — there is no sex role rigidity here. She is not 
at least interested in learning secretarial skills. She just 
realizes that in the very near future, anyone not knowing 
how to type will be functionally illiterate. 

The third student also graduated from high school last 
summer, and is now attending college. When this young 
man was a mere boy, his parents bought him a Color Com- 
puter. He went through several stages, from playing games 



(Michael Plog received his Ph.D. degree from the 
University of Illinois, the M.S. from Memphis State 
University, and the B.S.from the University of Ten- 
nessee. For his foreign/ research language option 
required for the doctorate, he naturally selected com- 
puter language. Michael currently works for the Illi- 
nois State Board of Education as a research and eva- 
luation specialist.) 



to learning how to program to advanced knowledge about 
the internal workings of the Color Computer. When this 
fellow was a sophomore in high school, he "inserviced" the 
teachers in his building on the use and potential of compu- 
ters. (Sophomore means 10th grade, folks!) The assistant 
superintendent of the school district learned a lot about 
computers from this lad, and then helped establish a compu- 
ter consortium of several school districts. 

So, we have these three students. You probably know of 
students similar to each of the three described above. Each 
of the three students described above have needs that must 



"It is easy, but dangerous, to forget 
that literacy about computers is not 
necessarily an end in itself— it is a way 
to get to many ends. 99 



be addressed by educational institutions. And while you 
may think this is heresy, it is my position that the second boy 
mentioned (the proficient programmer) does not represent 
the greatest need to be addressed by our schools. 

Let's shift mental gears for a minute. The recent publica- 
tion of the Commission on Excellence in Education caused 
quite a stir a few months ago. 

There are mixed reviews about the recommendations of 
the commission. (Generally because of special interest 
groups, but also because the commission was "stacked" in 
favor of those people already representing the views of the 
administration.) One of the recommendations is important 
to us here, and it has few (maybe not any) critics. 

The commission recommended that before graduating 
from high school, students be required to take one-half year 
of computer science. Now comes the problem. Exactly what 
should be taught during that half year? What types of things 
would satisfy the needs of the proficient programmer, the 
uninterested girl, and the fun user — all at the same time? 
Obviously, no single semester course will be adequate. 

Most schools have an introductory course about compu- 
ters, with an end goal of producing a program This is 
unwise, and will not address the needs of many students. 



66 the RAINBOW October 1983 



After all, how many programmers does 
a society need? Would our culture be 
any stronger if everyone knew how to 
write a simple BASIC program? So, there 
is no reason to have all our students 
become programmers. It is not only 
silly, it is a waste of human resources. 
Some people are developers of pro- 
grams, some users. Just because many 
people travel by automobile does not 
mean we should expect all our students 
to know how to rebuild an engine. 
Simply because we live in houses does 
not mean everyone should be a carpen- 
ter before allowed full adult status. 

We should recognize that schools 
have to meet different needs of different 
students. The needs of the proficient 
programmer noted above are not neces- 
sarily any greater than the needs of 
other students in our educational institu- 
tions. 

The major thing to learn about com- 
puters is that they can perform tasks. 
The specific tasks to be performed are 
varied. We should not present all stu- 
dents with the same learning experien- 
ces, because they will not all need to 
know the same things. 

The girl mentioned above is a good 
example. Our educational institutions 
should provide for her needs as well as 
for the proficient programmer. One of 
her needs may be to simply understand 
the types of things a microcomputercan 
do, and the things it cannot. 

It is reasonable to expect that high 
school graduates in the next few years 
will be computer literate. But what 
does — and should — that mean? All stu- 
dents should know the power of compu- 
ters, how microcomputers impact on 
their lives, and how to follow written 
instructions in order to get a program to 
work. 

But, the concept of computer literacy 
is more: it is as much an attitude and 



appreciation of the power our electronic 
slaves as it is the acquisition of know- 
ledge. 

Owners of Color Computers can 
probably appreciate the power of our 
electronic slaves better than owners of 
other machines. Many of you are prob- 
ably like me. I purchased a Color Com- 
puter because I wanted a micro of my 
own, but did not want to pay the out- 
rageous price of other machines, like the 
Model III. After working with my com- 
puter, then others, my sense of awe and 
appreciation for the Color Computer 
grew. 

It is easy, but dangerous, to forget 
that literacy about computers is not 
necessarily an end in itself — it is a way 
to get to many ends. 

This may be the real challenge of 
computer instruction in our schools. 
During the next few years, we will see 
many attempts to define computer liter- 
acy in functional terms. I expect that 
some companies will provide curricu- 
lum guides for computer studies from 
kindergarten through high school. There 
will be a growth in "snake oil" salesmen: 
those individuals interested in produc- 
ing a profit, yet not too concerned with 
educational experiences. 

The future of computers in education 
sounds exciting. We have a choice of 
approaches. Instead of blundering ahead 
with the incorrect assumption that all 
students should be exposed to the same 
experiences, I suggest we should try to 
develop a more realistic understanding 
of the needs of our students. 

If you have comments, arguments, or 
suggestions, I would like to hear from 
you. My address is 829 Evergreen, Cha- 
tham, 111., 62629. By the way, when I 
discussed the three students in this arti- 
cle, I left out the most important student — 
you. Your schooling may end, but never 
your education. Until next month. 



See you at 
RAINBOWfest 

October 14—16 Fort Worth, Texas 




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October 1983 the RAINBOW 67 



GAME 



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Bv Jim Griffin 

fjfiw Griffin* employed in the data processing field for 
! 7 years, is currently the Chief of Computer Systems 
Services for Public Archives Canada. He is currently 
using ht$ Color Computer to automate a 5000 record 
data base on tape for the Ottawa Cursifh Movement.) 

■ 

58 Ihe RAINBOW 4 October 1963 



I A bout two months after I got my Color Comput 
I /\ finally got around to the graphics side of things. My 
A. ^.objective in my first graphics program was to create 
a non-violent game which the younger members of my fam- 
ily could enjoy while still challenging the older arcade game 
fans. In this respect I am quite pleased with the results. 

In Shutter Bug, a UFO appears and darts about the screen 
in a random pattern. The player must attempt to frame the 
UFO in the camera's viewfinder, using the right joystick, 
and take a picture of it by pressing the joystick button. The 
game score, the number of exposures remaining in the 
| camera and the high score for the level being played at 
splayed across the bottom of the screen. 




The game plays at three different levels: novice, buff and 
pro. At the novice level the UFO varies speeds within a 
moderate range and may traverse the full screen without 
changing direction, allowing younger players a better 
chance to get a good picture. At the higher levels of play the 
time limit of the game is reduced, the distance the U FO may 
travel without setting a new course is reduced and the range 
of possible speeds is increased. In order to make the game 
more interesting the UFO is given a variable head start after 
a picture is taken and you are presumably advancing your 
film. Assuming that when UFOs make abrupt changes in 
direction they would do so by executing an edge wheel it 
follows that they may be virtually invisible for an instant. 
When this happens the program will not allow a picture to 
be taken, to spare the player the embarrassment of taking a 
picture of nothing, of course. 

Since my Color Computer was my introduction to basic 
and I had no knowledge of 6809 assembly language pro- 
gramming I assumed that I would be able to develop an 
arcade style game solely in BASIC. In this respect the initial 
version of the game was a major disappointment. From the 
time the picture was taken until the time the score was 
calculated and posted, the remaining exposures were calcu- 
lated and posted and the UFO was underway again, a full 
seven seconds had elapsed. I couldn't believe that this was 
the best that could be expected. Two months of work to 
refine the program yielded Shutter Bug (Listing 1) and a 
number of insights that I would.like to share, especially with 
novice programmers who are not prepared to begin learning 
assembly language programming yet. A list of the major 
variables used in the program has been provided (Table 1) to 
assist readers in analyzing the program. 

The first thing to contend with in graphics programs is the 
excessive amount of memory used by graphics arrays for- 
matted as suggested in the Getting Started With Color 
BASIC manual. As a number of articles have been written on 
the sizing of graphics arrays I won't deal with this topic 
in-depth, but would suggest that novice programmers who 
have not read these articles examine the DIM statement in 
line 20 and the GET statements associated with each array. 

The problem of scoring is a little more complex. Shutter 
Bug falls into the "hunter-victim" class of programs along 
with the familiar shoot-em-up variety. Generally speaking, 
shoot-em-up programs can utilize the PPOINT instruction 
to determine the presence or absence of a given color at or in 
a limited predescribed pattern around a set of coordinates 
equating to the joystick position and in so doing determine a 
score. The potential area within which a score may be 
realized in Shutter Bug, the area within the viewfinder, is 
significantly more extensive and therefore demands a differ- 
ent approach to scoring. The PPOINT scan used in the 
initial version accounted for a major portion of the seven 
second delay. 

The objective of the scoring routine was to award one 
point for each pixel of the UFO found within the viewfinder, 
a maximum of 246, and a bonus of four points for a perfect 
picture. The irregular shape of the UFO presented special 
problems. Figure 1 shows the UFO, as seen by the computer 
for scoring purposes, and the viewfinder in a "perfect pic- 
ture" relationship to it. It can easily be seen that if the 
viewfinder were moved up three lines the score would be 
different to what it would be if the viewfinder were moved 
down three lines. Therefore, it was necessary to know the 
specific relationship of the viewfinder to the UFO. The 
program accomplishes this in lines 620 — 630 by ascertaining 



the horizontal and vertical penetration of the viewfinder 
into the area occupied by the UFO. Since there were only 19 
points of possible horizontal coincidence and nine points of 
possible vertical coincidence between the viewfinder and the 
UFO, it was practical to use the horizontal and vertical 
penetration factors as subscripts applicable to a table of 
valid scores (lines 640 and 70 — 1 50). Thus the task of scoring 
became a matter of mathematics rather than the slower 
PPOINT scan. 

The second factor in the seven second delay was getting 
the score and exposure counters updated and onto the 
screen. The original "blank and redraw" strategy was too 
time consuming. Using the single PUT statement in line 800 
for all digits proved much faster. The digits 0 through 9 were 
saved in the variables NO through N9 (line 20) while the title 
screen was in preparation (lines 1070 — 1220), leaving no 
trace on the title screen when it appeared (line 50). The fact 
that this was accomplished with a single (TETstatement (line 
1220) was made possible by the use of a technique which, 
when using an interpreter, might be described as "instruc- 
tion modification." The trick is set up in line 40 and the 
subroutine beginning at line 1460. Based on the parameters 
in line 40 the subroutine searches out and stores in MA(1) 
the address where the "9" of the variable N9 is stored in the 

r ~i 

"Instruction modification has been used in 
this program to effectively simulate the sub- 
scripting of graphic arrays. The uses to which 
the technique may be put are not limited to 
this one application, " 

L J 

GET statement (line 1220). When line 1220 is executed the 
POKE statement preceding the GET modifies the name of 
recipient graphics array in the GET statement, making it NO 
the first time it is executed, Nl the second time and so on 
until it becomes N9 the final time. The fact that the GET 
statement is specifying a different array (variable) each time 
it is executed (NO through N9) is of no consequence to the 
interpreter as long as the array has been described in a DIM 
statement (line 20). 

The same technique as used again in line 60 and the 
subroutine beginning in line 1460. This time the subroutine 
stores in MA(2) the address where 0 of the variable NO is 
stored in the PUT statement in line 800. The POKE state- 
ment in line 790 modifies the name of the array to be PUTby 
line 800 to NO through N9 depending on the digit to be 
displayed on the screen. Thus a single PUT statement was 
used to display all the counts across the bottom of the 
screen. In addition to reducing the number of instructions 
which the interpreter must handle and therefore saving time, 
this technique has the benefit of saving precious memory by 
reducing the number of GET and PUT statements in the 
program. 

There is one essential difference between the GET state- 
ment in line 1220 and the PUT statement in line 800. If the 
BREAK key is pressed at any time other than when the title 
screen is being prepared, line 1220 will appear as it does in 
Listing 1 . This is not the case with the PUT statement in line 
800 however, since the array name will coincide with the last 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 69 



digit which was displayed at the bottom of the screen. If the 
player enters RUN after the BREAK key has been pressed, 
the program may not be able to find the modifiable address 
(MA) by virtue of the variable name not being in its original 
state. Line 960 protects against this occurrence in the event 
of a normal end condition; however, if the game is rerun 
after the BREAK key has been pressed, lines 1220 and 800 
should be examined to ensure that they are in their original 
condition or the program should be reloaded. 

Instruction modification has been used in this program to 
effectively simulate the subscripting of graphic arrays. The 
uses to which the technique may be put are not limited to this 
one application. I have also used it in a hangman game, 
among others, where it replaces an ON X GOTO and a 
string of GETs and PUTs. I leave it to your imaginations to 
envisage other uses. 

The primary question about using the technique is: Where 
do I start the search for the modifiable address? Code the 
variable name to be modified with a unique name, such as 
QQ, set the variable Y (line 40 in Shutter Bug) to a suffi- 
ciently small number (1536 will do if you have no idea at all 
where the statement might be) and raise the upper limit of 
the search (line 1480 in Shutter Bug) to the upper limits of 
your computer's RAM (16383 for 16K owners, 32767 for 
32K owners). The values PEEKedat in X and X+l must, of 
course, be the decimal equivalents of the letters used to 
identify the variable whose name you are going to modify. 
Put an end statement immediately following the GOSUB 
statement used to initiate the search and RUN the program. 
When the program ends, type ?X or PRINT X and press 
ENTER. The number that is returned is the address where 
the first letter of the two-lettered variable is located. Now the 

DRAW-IT 



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* Draw and erase lines, circles, * 

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search can be restructured as in Shutter Bug using some 
unique variable name which you might prefer to QQ, start- 
ing the search some reasonable distance prior to the address 
returned by the initial serach. Remember that as you add, 
change and delete statements in your program, the location 
of the modifiable address will also change, so the spread of 
addresses to be searched (line 1480 in Shutter Bug) should 
be wider during development than in the completed pro- 
duct. In Shutter Bug the difference between the value of Y in 
line 60 and the actual location of the modifiable address 
(M A(2)) effectively controls the length of time that the title 
screen is held. 

I hope that you enjoy Shutter Bug and find many new uses 
for these techniques. 




The listing: 

10 QT*«"SHUTTER BUG" 
20 DIM U(l,23) ,BC(1) ,YC(1) ,PT(9, 
19),N0<1),NM1>,N2<1>,N3(1>,N4<1 
),N5<1),N6<1),N7(1),N8<1),N9<1) 
30 POKE 65495, 0: CLS: PMODE 3,1:80 
SUB 1020 

40 Y=12365: Z»57: Ol : QOSUB1460 

50 GOSUB 1070: SCREEN 1,0 

60 Y-10200: Z-48: C-2: GOSUB1460 

70 DATA 0,0,0,0,6*12,12,12,12,12 

, 12, 12, 12, 12,6,0,0,0,0 

80 DATA 0,0,0,3,20,37,40,40,40,4 

0, 40, 40, 40, 37, 20, 3, 0, 0, 0 

90 DATA 0,3,10,21,46,71,82,89,92 

, 92, 92, 89, 82, 71 , 46, 21 , 10, 3, 0 

100 DATA 3,18,37,60,97,134,157,1 

76, 191, 194, 191, 176, 157, 134,97,60 

,37, 18,3 

110 DATA 3,21,47,78,123,168,199, 
225, 243, 250, 243, 225, 199, 168, 123, 
78,47,21,3 

120 DATA 3,21,47,78,117,156,187, 
213,231,234,231,213, 187, 156, 117, 
78,47,21,3 

130 DATA 3,21,47,75,103,131,159, 
185, 203, 206, 203, 185, 159, 131 , 103, 
75,47,21,3 

140 DATA 3,18,37,57,77,97,117,13 
6, 151, 154, 151, 136, 117,97,77,57,3 
7,18,3 

150 DATA 0,3,10,18,26,34,42,49,5 
2,52,52,49,42,34,26, 18, 10,3,0 

160 fory«ito9:forx«itoi9:readz:p 

t<y,X)«z:nextx,y 

170 hs»0:hi»0:H2=0:H3=0 

180 GOSUB 1240 

190 * START GAME 

200 GOSUB 1 020 : GOSUB 1 350 

210 S(1)»89:S<2)«176:S(3)»218:T» 

l:O0:E~0 



70 the RAINBOW October 1983 



220 H*-"BH M : J*-"S0": I*-", ":K*-"3 

0" : JK*«H*+J*+I *-H<* 

230 ' CREATE BACKGROUND 

240 PCLS <3> : DRAW"C4| BM0, 1821 R2S5 

": PAINT (0, 191) ,4,4 

250 DRAW"C3|BM100, 182|D9|L1|U9|L 

1 | D9I BM1S4, 1821 D9j Rl |U9|R1 ; D9" 

260 6OSUB690 

270 ' BRING ON UFO 

280 X«(RND<24>*8>+6: Y-2 

290 CIRCLE(X+26,Y+18>,20,4, .23: 

PAINT (X+26, Y+15) ,2,4 

300 CIRCLE <X+26,Y+14>, 8, 4,1,. 5,1 

: PAINT(X+26,Y+9>,2,4 

310 8ET(X,Y)-<X+5A,Y+29),U: TIME 

R-0 

320 ' SELECT UFO DIRECTION 

330 DX-(RND<24)*8)+6:DY-<RND<24> 

*6> +2: MD-RND <20*DD) 

340 IFDD<2 THEN MD-MD+40: 8OTO440 

350 IFDX>X THEN380 

360 Z-X-DX: IFZ>100 THEN DX-DX+48 

370 6OTO390 

380 Z-DX-X: IFZ>100 THEN DX-DX-48 
390 IFDY>Y THEN420 
400 Z-Y-DYMFZ>70 THEN DY-DY+36 
410 8OTO440 

420 Z-DY-Y: IFZ>70 THEN DY-DY-36 
430 * MOVE UFO 



440 IFX-DX THEN460 

450 IFX<DX THEN X-X+8 ELSE X-X-8 

460 IFY*DY THEN480 

470 IFY<DY THEN Y-Y+6 ELSE Y-Y-6 

480 PUT(X,Y)-<X+56,Y+29),U:Z-RND 

(3) : sounds <z > , t: forz-itomd: nextz 

490 IFX-DX AND Y-DY THEN330 

500 IFSH>0 THEN SH-0:8OTO440 

510 ' CREATE VIEWFINDER 

520 DRAWJK*:DRAW"C3|L4|D3fBM+0,+ 

10) D3» R4» BM+32, +0» R4» U3» BM+0, -10 

|U3|L4" 

530 POKE 65494,0: J- JOYSTK<0> :K-J 
OYSTK(l) :POKE 65495,0 
540 IFJ<2 THEN J -2 ELSE IFJ>53 T 
HEN J-53 

550 IFK<2 THEN K-2 ELSE IFK>53 T 
HEN J-53 

560 JA-J*4:KA-K*3 

570 J*-STR* < J A ) : K«-STR« <KA> : JK«- 
H«+J*+I«+K* 

580 DRAWJK*:DRAW n C2|L4|D3|BM+0,+ 
101 D3J R4| BM+32, +0| R4J U3| BM+0, -10 
IU3IL4" 

590 IFTIMER>TT THEN830 

600 P-PEEK < 65280 ) : IFP-1260RP-254 

THEN620ELSEBOTO440 

610 ' ANALYZE PICTURE 

620 E-E+l:HP-<JA+30-X)/4: IFHP<1 




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OR HPM9 THEN6S0 
630 VP-(KA+8-Y)/3: IFVP<1 OR VP> 
9 THEN6S0 

640 C-C+PT < VP , HP ) : SH-RND < 2 ) - 1 

6S0 GOSUB700 

660 IFE-20THEN830 

670 P«PEEK( 6S280) : IFP-1260RP-254 

THEN670ELSEQOTO330 

680 * DISPLAY COUNTERS 

690 M-HS : P 1 - 1 76 : P2-224 : P3- 160:80 

SUB730 

700 M-C : P 1 -24 : P2-72 : P3-8 : 80SUB73 
0 

710 Z«RND<3>: SOUNDS < Z ) , T 

720 H-20-E:P1-112:P2-128:P3»64:Q 

OSUB730: RETURN 

730 Ml (1)-INT(M/1000) 

740 Ml (2) -INT (M/ 100) -Ml (1)*10 

750 Ml (3)-INT(M/10)-(Ml (1)*100+M 

1 (2)*10) 

760 Ml (4)«M-(M1 (1)*1000+M1 (2) #10 
0+M1 (3)*10) 

770 F0RZ-P1 T0P2 STEP 16 

780 M2-<Z-P3)/16:M3-MKM2) 

790 POKE MA<2),48+M3 

800 PUT(Z, 182) -(Z+7, 189) ,N0 

810 NEXTZ: RETURN 

820 * END ROUTINE 

830 DRAWJK*:DRAW H C3;L4;D3;BM+0,+ 
101 D3 J R4; BM+32, +01 R4; U3; BM+0, -10 
;U3;L4" 

840 IFY< 3THEN850ELSEY-Y-6 : PUT < X , 
Y) — < X+56, Y+29) , U: 6OTO840 
8S0 F0RZ«lT06:BET(X,6)-(X+56,35) 
, U: PUT <X,0)- (X+56, 29) ,U: NEXTZ 

860 draw"C2;bm30,80;U6;R6;D6;U3; 

L6| BM+18, +3; U6; F6J U6; BM+12, +0) D6 

% R6| U6; L6; BM+17, +0} R7| L3; D6; BM+1 

5,+0;U6;D3;R6;D3;U6" 

870 DRAW "BM+18, +0) L6; D3; R4; L4; D3 

; R6; BM+12, +0; U6; R6; D3; L6; R3; F3J B 

M+30,-6;L6;D6;R6;U3;R2;L4; " 

880 DRAW" BM+1 2, +3| U6; R6J D6) U3j L6 

JBM+16,+3;U6JF4;E4;D6JBM+16,+0JL 

6?U3?R4;L4;U3jR6" 

890 DRAWBM33, 100; U2; H4; F4; E4; BM 
+18, +0JL6JD3JR4JL4J D3JR6J BM+18, - 

6;L6;D3;R6;D3;L6" 

900 DRAWBM201 , 100; U6; F6; U6; BM+1 

2,+0;D6;R6;U6;L6" 

910 FORZ-1TO500: NEXTZ: POKE 65494 

, 0: GET (48, 120) - (55, 129) , BC 

920 J«JOYSTK(0) : IFJ>31THENCX«208 

ELSECX-48 

930 PUT(CX,120)-(CX+5, 125),YC:F0 
RZ-1TO50: NEXTZ : PUT (CX , 120) - (CX+7 
, 129), BC 

940 P-PEEK (65280) : IFP-1260RP-254 
THEN960 



950 BOTO920 

960 IFJ>31THEN POKE MA(2),48:PCL 

s:CLS:end 

970 IFC<HS+1THEN200 

980 I FDD- 1 THENH 1 -C : GOTO 1 90 

990 I FDD— 2THENH2— C ELSEH3-C 

1000 BOTO200 

1010 * DRAW L080 

1020 PCLS (4) : DRAW"C2; BM126, 20; L6 
0; D74; R60; U28; D27; L59; U72; R59; BM 
-22, +38; R80; D52; L40; Dl ; R41 ; U54; L 
81;BM+36,+7;D80" 

1030 DRAW"BM126,23;L56;D68;R52;U 
25; D24; LSI ; U66; RS5; BM-22, +38; R76 
; D46; L36; Dl ; R37; U48; L77; BM+32, +4 
;D80" 

1040 DRAW"BM126,26;L52;D62;R44;U 
22; D21 ; L43; U60; R51 ; BM-22, +38; R72 
; D40; L32; Dl ; R33; U42; L73; BM+28, +1 
; D80" 

1050 GET (12, 12) -(19, 19) ,BC:RETUR 
N 

1060 ' GAME TITLE 

1070 DRAW"C2; BM42, 165; L6; D3; R6; D 

3; L6; BR18; U6; D3; R6; D3; U6; BR12; D6 

;R6;U6;BRll;R7;L3;D6;BRl7;U6;L4; 

R8;bri7;L6;D3;R4;L4;D3;R6;bri2;u 

6;R6;D3;L6;R3;F3" 

1080 DRAW"BR22; R7; El ; Ul ; HI ; L5; R5 

; El ; ui ; Hi ; L7; R2; D6; U6; BR17; D6; R6 

; U6; BR18; L6; D6; R6; U3; L2; R4" 

1090 C-0 

1100 DRAW"C2;BM8, 13;D6;R7;U6;L7" 
IGOSUB1220 

1110 DRAW"BM12, 13; D6" : GOSUB1220 
1120 DRAW"BM8, 14; Ul ; R7; D3; L7; D3; 
R7":GOSUB1220 

1130 DRAW"BM8, 13;R7;D3;L4;R4;D3; 

L7":BOSUB1220 

1 140 DRAW"BM8, 13; D3; R7; U3; D6" : GO 
SUB 1220 

1150 DRAWBM15, 13; L7; D3; R7; D3; L7 
":6OSUB1220 

1160 DRAWBM14, 13; L6; D6; R6; U3; L7 
":GOSUB1220 

1 170 DRAW"BM8, 13; R7; D6" : 60SUB122 
0 

1 180 DRAWBM8, 13; D6; R7; U6; L7; D3; 
R7":GOSUB1220 

1 190 DRAWBM8, 19; R7; U6; L7; D3; R7" 
:GOSUB1220 

1 200 DRAW " C3 ; BM20 , 20 ; U20 ; D20 ; L20 
":PAINT(19, 19) ,2, 3: BET (12, 12)-(1 
9, 19) ,YC 

1210 PAINT (19, 19) ,4,3:DRAW"C4;BM 
20, 20; U20; D20; L20" : RETURN 
1220 POKE MA(1) ,C+48:6ET(12, 12)- 
(19, 19) , N9: PUT (12, 12) - (19, 19) » BC 

:c-c+i: Return 



72 the RAINBOW October 1983 



OGLING 
ADVENTURES 




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Rescue the Princess Marlcna from the 
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SCORE EZ 

From I to 6 people can piay this excellent 
adaptation of a popular board game. The 
computer keeps score for all players, and 
rolls dice. You can roll again just like the 
original game. Properly position the 
results of each turn for maximum score. 
The only thing you will need besides your 
computer is players. Color graphics and 
sound will entertain you for hours, and 
it's EZ Co play. 

I6K EXT S15.95 

RAINBOW BIORHYTHM/ 
//F^™?^ PSYCHIC ART. 

1) Prints biorhythm charts of nearly 
unlimited length; attractively formatted 
for use on Line Printer VII. 1GK 

2) Your psychic ability b determined 
through questions evaluating your psychic 
experiences 

16KExi Both for $15.95 




EVASION 

by PAL Creations 

You have just escaped from a German 
prison camp. Thai was theeasy pan. No* 
you must get out of Germany! 
32k EXT S19.95 

TOWER CASTLE 

from Moreton Bay 
17,95 

BLACK SANCTUM 

hi Murk Data 
, .,...$19.95 

EL DIABLERO 

hy Ciun&uterwure 

... $19.95 

CALIXTO ISLAND 

by Mark Data 

$19.95 



RAINBOW 

cmrirC4T>Q* 



JA 



Dealer / Author Inquiries Invited 

Atl praams \^ 5*i ram i L-d 60day% f'tom chile o l purchase 
Hi ordinal purclutcr L nEcss othcrvusv spcctll^tl. ship- 
ping and handling 51 (JO per oafCr tali forma resident* 
add A»i la* 

U.S FUNDS ONI \ 

C.O.I). •RIM RS ACCEPTED 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



CARIBBEAN ODYSSEY 

You are stranded on a Caribbean island 
once used by pirates to store their 
treasures. While searching over 70 distinct 
locations, can you find your one chance 
for rescue? 

32K EXT $|9.95 

THE FINAL 
COUNTDOWN 

hy BUI <£ Debbie Cook 
You arc 'outside a missile base which has 
just been evacuated because a beserk 
General has started the countdown on a 
nuclear missile - target: MOSCOW. 
Your mission, il you accept it. is to slop 
the missile launch and prevent WWIII. 
I6KEXT .$14.95 

S*S. POSEIDON 

hy BH/& Debbie Cook 

You are aboard the S<S. Poseidon when it 
is capsized by a tidal wave. It is floating 
bottom-up on the surface and taking on 
water Will you survive to tell your tale? 
16KEXI $14.95 

SANDS OF EGYPT 

DISK $29.95 



UTILITIES 

Disk lo Tape { 1 om Mix) 1 9.95 

Tape to Disk (Tom Mix) 19.95 

Colar Diagnostic I Compu i erw arc) .17.95 

Programmers toolkit (Moreton Bay) 28.95 

CM f (Graphics n Text) . . , . 19,95 



From Computerware: 



From Intracolor; 
From Tom Mix; 



From Spectral Associates: 



ARCADE ACTION!!! 

Pac Attack IK Doodle Bug, Shark Treasure 24.95 

Megapede, Rail Runner 21 .95 

Synther 7 Music Synthesizer 24.95 

Colorpede 29.95 Robottack 24.95 

The King, Katerpiller .TSPtTT. 24.95 

Protectors, Moonlander 15 .95 

Bird Attack . , .21 95Solo Pool 17.95 

Space Shuttle .... <^j9v«/ 28.95 



Galax Attax 21.95 

Planet Invasion 24.95 

Ghost Gobbler 24.95 



FOR SERIOUS APPLICATIONS! 

Telewriter - 64 (Cognltee) 49.95 Cass. 59.95 Disk. 

Mailing List (Tom Mi*) 19.95 Disk 

Coco Writer (Moreton Bay) 34 .95 

File Cabinet (Moreton Bay) 29.95 

Report (Moreton Bay) 24,95 




(ATTENTION AUTHORS] 

Excellent Royalties 

ALL SUBMISSIONS EVALUATED 
Send S.A.S E. 



Radio Shack's Most Powerful 

Color Computer 





Ever! 



64K TRS-80® 
Extended BASIC 
Color Computer 

39995 

^M^M^M 26-3003 
Less TV 

Only $26 Per Month On CitiLinc Credit 

Double your programming 
power with our new TRS-80 
Color Computer — now with 
64K of memory! It even has 
a new electric typewriter- 
quality keyboard in a com- 
pact white case. With this 
professional computer, you 
can access 32K memory 
with the built-in Extended 
BASIC language or use the 
full 64K with our new, ad- 
vanced programming tools. 

Create Spectacular 
Graphics 

You can easily create sophisticated, high-resolution 
graphics using simple one-line commands, You can 
produce drawings, business charts, engineering di- 
agrams, even animation. Screen resolution can be 
up to 256x192 (49,152 pixels). In addition, Ex- 
tended BASIC allows multi-character variable 
names, string arrays up to 255 characters, full- 
featured editing, tracing floating point 9-digit 
accuracy, trigonometric functions, user defin- 
able keys, specific error messages and PEEK, 
POKE and USR commands to call machine lan- 
guage subroutines. 

Powerful Disk Operating System 

Add a Color Computer Disk Drive (26-3029, 
$399.95) and our new OS-9 with Editor/Assembler 
(26-3030, $69.95) and you have the perfect system 
for the advanced programmer. OS-9 is a real-time 
disk operating system that accesses the entire 
memory of the 64K Color Computer. It's designed 
for the 6809 microprocessor and includes functions 
for disk and terminal input/output, software memory 
management and multi-tasking. OS-9 contains ap- 
proximately 40 utility programs used for system and 
disk file maintenance and control. 




OS-9 with 
Editor/Assembler 

With the TRS-80 Color 
Computer's big 64K mem- 
ory and the superior OS-9 
operating system, you can 
develop powerful assem- 
bly language applications. 
Programming in machine 
language means more effi- 
cient memory use and 
faster execution of real- 
time action. In addition to 
converting assembly pro- 
grams to 6809 machine 
language, the OS-9 as- 
sembler will produce a for- 
matted program listing 
and alphabetized symbol 
table listing. It can also 
convert compiler-produced 
programs. 

Other Support 
Features 

OS-9 also gives you a text editor and debugger. You 
can edit single characters and groups of characters, 
plus single lines and blocks of lines with the text 
editor. And the macro definition facility lets you cre- 
ate new edit commands. The debugger is designed 
to facilitate testing of machine language programs. 
It includes commands to examine, dump, change 
and test memory; examine, change or initialize reg- 
isters; insert and/or remove program breakpoints; 
execute programs; run OS-9 commands; and evalu- 
ate and convert arithmetic expressions in or to bi- 
nary hexadecimal or decimal number systems. 

Discover the 64K TRS-80 
Color Computer 

To learn about all the features of the new TRS-80 
Color Computer, stop in today at your nearest Radio 
Shack Computer Center or participating Radio 
Shack store or dealer. We also carry a complete line 
of software and peripherals to make your Color 
Computer even more versatile. Be sure to ask about 
our new BASIC-09 language (26-3036, $99.95). It's 
an enhanced version of standard BASIC written for 
the 6809 processor, and includes features derived 
froip PASCAL for structured programming. 



Radio /hack 

The biggest name in little computers® 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



Prices apply at participating Radio Shack stores and dealers. 



'NEW 1984 TRS-80 CATALOG! Send lor your free copy," 

Mail To: Radio Shack, Dept. 84-A-620 

300 One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, Texas 76102 



NAME . 



ADDRESS . 
CITY _ 



, STATE ZIP „ 



TELEPHONE . 



YOU'RE WALKING 
CAMERA OVER YO 
SUDDENLY A UFO 

YOU HAVE 20 PI 
CAMERA, AND MH 
THE UFO WILL B 
GET AS MANY PI 
CAN. " 



1230 ' INSTRUCTIONS 
1240 PCL8:CL8:PRINT011,QT« 
1250 PRINT: PRINT" IT'S A LOVELY 
DAY FOR A STROLL. 

ALONG WITH YOUR 
UR SHOULDER WHEN 

APPEARS. " 
1260 PRINT: PRINT" 
CTURE8 IN YOUR 

0 KNOWS HOW LONG 
E THERE. TRY TO 
CTURES A8 YOU 
1270 PRINT: PRINT" GOOD LUCK!" 
1280 PRINT04G0, " (PUSH JOYSTICK B 
UTTON TO START)"| 

1290 P-PEEK <6S2G0> 

1300 IFP-126ORP-254THEN1320 

1310 GOTO 1270 

1 320 PM0DE3 , 1 : PCL8 : SCREEN 1 , 0 
1330 P>PEEK<69280):IFP-126ORP>29 
4 THEN 1 330EL8ERETURN 
1340 ' DEGREE OF DIFFICULTY 
1350 DRAW"BM20, 1701 U6I F6| U6| BM+& 
, +0| DA| R6| U6| LA | BM+12, +01 D2| R2| D 
21 Rl I D2I R2I U2I Rl I U2| R2| U2| BM+7, + 

01 DA I BM+15, +01 LAI UA| RA| BM+12, +01 
LAI D3| R4I L4I D3| RA" 

13A0 DRAW"BM12G, 1701 UA|RA|D3| LA| 



RA| D3| LA| BM+12, -A| DA I RAl UAl BM+12 
, +01 LAI D3| R4I L4I D3| BM+12, +01 U3| R 
4IL4IU3IRA" 

1370 DRAW"BM203, 1701 UA| RA| D3| LA I 
BM+12, +31 UA| RA| D3| LA I R3| F3| BM+A, 
+01 RA| UA| LAI DA" 

13G0 POKE A54?4,0:J-JOY8TK(0>: IF 
J >4 1 THENCX-2 1 A : GOTO 1 400 
1370 IFJ>21THENCX-144EL8ECX-48 
1400 PUT<CX, lG0)-<CX+5, 1G5),YC:F 

orz>ito50:nextz:put<cx, ig0)-<cx+ 

7, 1G5),BC 

1410 P-PEEK ( A52G0 ) : I FP- 1 2 AORP-25 

4THEN 1 420EL8EGOTO 1 3G0 

1420 POKE A549S,0:IFJ>41THENTT>2 

200: HS-H3: DD-3: RETURN 

1430 IFJ>21THENTT-3300:H8-H2:DD- 

2: RETURN 

1440 tt-4400:hs>hi:dd-i:return 
1450 ' identify addre88e8 for mod 
ification 

14A0 X-Y 

1470 IF PEEK(X)-7G AND PEEK(X+1> 
-Z THEN MA(C)-X+l:GOTO1490 
1480 IF X-Y+300 THEN PRINT"MA"C" 
NOT FOUND": END EL8E X-X+l:GOTO 1 
470 

1490 RETURN 



For Your TRS-80 Color Computer 

128 Full-time Audio Talk/Tutor Programs! 



You Mdftj be able to 

reduce 4uur tdixes by 




- incojie 

- tncotte 
spl lit ing 

- tax shelter 








We're Your Educational 
Software Source 

LANGUAGE ARTS 

Spelling 
Level 3-4 

(words in context with 
definitions and synonyms) 

Phonics 
English as a 
Second Language 

MATHEMATICS 

Levels 1*6 Numbers (16 programs) 
Basic Algebra (16 programs) 

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 

Physics (1 6 programs) 



(16 programs) 
(16 programs) 



(16 programs) 
(32 programs) 



One-sy I lab le adject i*jes that 
end t n y usually just add |y 



Uliich mie syllable^ 

MB *Ly 



In Color, with Pictures and Text! 

All of our TRS^80 Color programs have easy to understand profes- 
sional announcer narration, not synthesized, robotic voices. All text 
is displayed in easy to read upper and lower case characters. Video 
clearly illustrates key concepts in each frame of the program. 

Only $4.40 per program. ($8. 80 for 2, one on each side of a half-hour 
cassette). $59.00 for 16 programs (8 cassettes) in an album. Send for a 
catalog of over 1 000 programs for Atari, TRS-80, Apple, etc. 

For more information, or to order call: 

TOLL FREE 1-800-654-3871 




DORSETT 

Educational Systems, Inc. 

Box 1226, Norman, OK 73070 



76 



(he RAINBOW October 1983 



GRAPHICS 



16K 


■ 
1 


f the 1 
> M t 


ECB 




RAINBOW 




J.- -.V 




The next time you have a party or you just want to 
impress some friends, these four short, eye-catching 
graphic programs will help you be a CoCo graphics 
show-off. Each program requires 16K with Extended Color 
BASIC. 

Raindrop — A PC LEAR 8 must be executed before running 
this program. It produces a raindrop falling on calm water 
effect. This is a neat example of using all eight graphic pages 
to make animation. By deleting line 110, the graphics are 
greatly speeded up, and an eye-boggling effect is created. 
Quaddraxv — This program requires the right joystick. By 
moving the joystick lever, you create a line which will move 
in eight different directions. The line you make is symmetri- 
cally copied while you draw it, so it looks like you are 
drawing four different lines. Some very interesting pictures 
can be made with this program. 

Illusion — This uses coordinates stored in DA TA lines to 
produce a very interesting optical illusion. 
Twirler — This uses the CIRCLE command with variable 
parameters, and four colors in PMODE4 to create a neat 
little graphics effect. 

Listing 1: 

5 'RAINDROP 

6 'BY MIKE HALL 

(Mike Hall is a high school junior in Hart land, Wis- 
consin. He is a self-taught programmer who actively 
participates in the Milwaukee Area Color Computer 
Users' Group, the CoCo-MUGS.) 



7 '3019 SYLVESTER DRIVE 

8 'HARTLAND, WI 53029 

9 'DELETE LINE 110 FOR A REALLY 
NEAT EFFECT! 

10 PCLEAR8 

20 forx-ito8:pmode0,x:pcls:nextx 

30 CLS : PR I NT M PLEASE WAIT WHILE T 

HE raindrop IS CREATED" 

40 FOR X - 1 T08 : PMODE0 , X 

50 FORY»X#2TO180 STEP 16 

60 CIRCLE < 128, 96) ,Y 

70 NEXTY:T-RND<255) 

80 PLAY"T"+9TR»<T>+"|ABC M 

90 NEXTX 

100 forx-itob:pmode0,x:screeni,i 
110 forz-ito30:nextz 

120 NEXTX 
130 GOTO 100 

Listing 2: 

5 'QUADDRAW 

6 'BY MIKE HALL 

7 '3019 SYLVESTER DRIVE 

8 'HARTLAND, WI 53029 

10 PM0DE4, 1 : PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 1 

20 X-12BIY-96 

30 J-JOYSTK <0> : K-JOYSTK < 1 > 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 77 



40 IFJ-0 THENX-X-1 
50 IFJ-63 THEHX-X+1 
60 IFK-0 THENY-Y-1 
70 IFK-63 THENY»Y+1 
80 IFX<0 THENX-299 
90 IFX>299 THENX-0 
100 ZFY<0 THENY-191 
110 IFYM91 THENY-0 
120 PSET(X,Y, 1) 
130 PSET(X,191-Y,1) 
140 PSET < 255- X, 191-Y, 1) 
190 PSET(259-X,Y, 1) 
160 6OTO30 



Listing 3: 





01 2 A 


340 


0320 


END 


0501 



9 'OPTICAL ILLUSION 

6 'BY HIKE HALL 

7 '3019 8YLVE8TER DRIVE 

8 'HARTLAND, MI 93029 

10 PM0DE3, l:PCL 8: SCREEN 1,0 
20 LINE (50, 144) -(40, 139), PSET 
30 FORZ« 1 T02 1 : READX , Y 

40 LIME-<X,Y>,P8ET:MEXT 

90 LINE (81, 128) -(90, 144) , PSET 

60 LINE (90, 144) -(90, 81), PSET 

70 F0RZ-1T07: READX ,Y 

80 LIME- <X,Y), PSET: HEXT 

90 LIME (90, 60) -(90, 169), PSET 

100 LINE (40, 24) -(81, 49), PSET 




WITH FOUR SCREENS 
• TANKS • SPIDERS • BLOCKS • CYCLES • 

It's like four games in one! Four entirely different screens provide 
hours of interesting entertainment! Battle spiders! Blast your way 
through the descending blocks! Defeat the enemy tanks! Trap the 
menacing cycles! Increasing levels of difficulty make each a real 
challenge! KBON is a fast ML program with multi-colors, Hi-Res, and 
many great sounds. It displays the top five scores plus has a pause 
feature and display mode. 

TAPE $26.95 

32K STANDARD-JOYSTICK DISK $29.95 

CATACOMB 

Avoid enemy patrols while getting fuel for your escape from the 
catacombs! Then dodge or blast space mines and enemy ships as 
you travel the hyperspace corridor seeking the safety of your 
mothership waiting at the stargate! Catacomb is an original Hi-Res, 
multi-color, multi-screen, machine language program. 

TAPE $19.95 

16K STANDARD-JOYSTICK DISK $23.95 

PEEK COPY 
The copier with a difference 

• Copies tape based software (even most autostarts) 

• Displays memory in Hex and ASC11 

• Allows insertion or change of machine code 

• Displays start, end, and execute addresses of ML programs 

• Is written in relocatable machine language code 

16K STANDARD TAPE $11.95 

PLEASE ADD $2.00 EACH ORDER, POSTAGE/HANDLING 
OREGON COLOR COMPUTER 
P.O. BOX 11468, EUGENE, OR 97440 



110 F0RZ-1T019: READX, Y 

120 LINE- (X,Y), PSET: NEXT 

130 LINE (100, 108) -(131, 92), P8ET 

140 LINE- (131, 83), PSET 

190 LINE- (100, 99), PSET 

160 LINE (131, 92) -(123, 87), PSET 

170 LINE (141, 24) -(101, 46), PSET 

180 FORZ-1TO10: READX, Y 

190 LINE- (X,Y), PSET: NEXT 

200 LINE (122, 67) -(122, 44), PSET 

210 LINE (110, 90) -(122, 97), PSET 

220 PAINT (96, 72), 3, 4 

230 PAINT (96, 92), 3, 4 

240 PAINT (96, 132), 3, 4 

290 PAINT (76, 64) ,3,4 

260 PAINT (44, 76), 2, 4 

270 PAINT (84, 68), 2, 4 

280 PAINT (92, 96), 2, 4 

290 PAINT (128, 44), 2, 4 

300 PAINT (128, 88), 2, 4: PAINT (128, 

108), 2,4 

310 'first coordinate* 

320 DATA40,24,90, 18,91,40, 131,18 

330 DATA142,24,142, 140,90, 166 

340 DATA81, 161,81,69,90,60 

390 DAT A 100, 64, 100, 191,131,139 

360 DATA131,103, 122, 107, 122, 130 

370 DATA100, 142, 122, 130, 131 , 134 

380 DATA131, 103, 100, 118 

390 ' second coordinates 

400 DATA81, 97, 81, 118,60, 128 

410 DATA60, 119,81,108,60, 119 

420 DATA60,86 

430 'third coordinates 

440 DATA60,96,60,44,72,90,90,38 

490 DATA90,72,60,67,60,96,60,67 

460 DATA90,90,90,60,69,72,60,67 

470 DAT A81, 78, 81, 87, 90, 72, 

480 'fourth coordinates 

490 DATA1 10, 90, 131 , 39, 131 , 72 

900 DATA 100, 88, 100, 64, 1 14, 71 

910 DATA100, 79, 122,67, 131,72 

920 DATA90,90 

930 F0RX«1T0999:NEXT 

940 PH0DE4, l: SCREEN 1,1 

990 8OTO990 

Listing 4: 



1 : 

7 ' 

8 ' 
10 
3,1 
20 
30 
40 
90 
60 
70 



W'Bffl HALL 

3019 SYLVESTER DRIVE 

HARTLAND, MI 93029 

PH0DE4, 1 : PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 1 : PHODE 

LINE (0,0) -(299, 191), PSET 
LINE (299, 0)-(0, 191), PSET 
S-RHD ( 100) / 100: E-RND ( 100) / 100 
R-RND ( 100) : C-RND (4) 
CIRCLE ( 128, 96) , R, C, 1 , 8, E 
BOTO40 



78 the RAINBOW October 1983 





NEW 

for your 
COLOR 
COMPUTER 




Switchable Expansion Is Here 



CoCo HAS A COMPANION!! 

GOOD NEWS Switch over to more versatility with the new 
BT-2000 COMPANION. Save CoCos connector with the best 
COMPANION it will ever have. 

• Load 5 cartridges into the COMPANION and avoid the hassles 
while enjoying the benefits of push-button selection. 

• Push a Button or select from your keyboard to rurn on one of your 
5 selections. Handy indicator lights let you know at a glance which 
cartridge is connected. 

• No More Turn-Offs. Just switch to the next cartridge in your 
COMPANION. Push a button to Restart without turning off the 
power. 

• Plug-in. Fill one to five slots for flexible programming, game 
playing or both. Choose ROM Packs, serial ports, parallel ports, or 
disk drives. Then do what you like to do best. The mosr powerful 
and cost effective expansion you will find for just 

$200.00 

FOR THE ADVANCED USER OR 
EXPERIMENTER 

• The utmost in expansion power and versatility is the BT-1000 
Expansion Interface Unit. S^^tw. 

• Large Built-in power supply $220.00 rfjr^\ 
to power your peripherals rainbow 
and expenmenter circuits. 

• Space for your ML utilities with optional 8K of RAM. S£0#tJo 

$245.00 



basic 



Dept. Q P.O. Box 511 Ortonvllle, Ml 48482 



TECHNOLOGY 



(313> 627 6146 



ALSO NEW FROM BASIC TECHNOLOGY!! 

• Br- 1010 PPI Parallel Primer Interface. Free-up CoCo's serial 
port. Run your printer at top speed. Five foot cable with Centronics 
compatible connector and machine language printer driver are 
included. $79.95. 

• BT-1020 Real Time Clock/Calendar, Let CoCo keep the time and 
date for your programs and files. Day-light savings time and leap 
year keep you on time. Save data or program memory even when 
power is off with 50 bytes of battery backed memory. Alarm 
capability to turn on the coffee pot. All for only $109.00. 

• BT-1030 VIP Versatile Interface Port, Connect CoCo to the 
outside world with two 8-bit parallel ports, two 16-bit 
timer /counters and a serial shift register. AH user programmable. 
$69 95. 

• WRITE FOR FREE BROCHURE. 

For years of trouble-freeenjoyment all Basic Technology products use 
top quality components and are backed by a full 180 day parts and 
labor warranty. We service what we sell!]! 

Add $5 shipping & handling for BT-1000, $2-50 for BT-1020. 
Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. Shipping & handling for 
residents of Canada, Hawaii, Alaska is $10. Overseas orders add 15%. 
Check, money order, VISA, MC (give account no., expiration date, 
phone no.). Personal checks allow 2-3 weeks to clear. COD charge $2 
(requires certified check or money order). 

"Watch for mote peripberab from 
Basic Technology." 



GRAPHICS 



16K 
ECB 



The 



Simplicity 



ROYG. BIV 

AWARD 
WINNER 




Of 



Program By 
Norm Cutter 



Among the many pleasures of showing off your computer 
is that of demonstrating how a very simple listing can some- 
times produce spectacular results. Sinelines is just such a 
program quickie. Norm Cutter, of Aptos, California, writes 
us to say, "I would like to see many more short and interest- 
ing programs in your magazine. Copying those huge two to 
three page programs is a real chore. " Along with his letter he 
enclosed a "very brief program which your readers can type 
up in minutes.'" 

Well, we totally agree with Norm and, for offering to 
share his creation with all of us, we've selected him as this 
month's winner of the Roy G. Biv Award. Congratulations, 
Norm! 

Norm suggests that once you're ready to run Sinelines, 
cue up a recording of Elton John's "Carla Etude" for a mood 
music accompaniment. But, perhaps you have your own 
"right" music. If you want the graphics to move a bit faster 
or slower, to match your preferred beat, then change the S 
variable in line 61 to, say, .05 for slower music. Experiment. 



DRAWSTRING $25°° 
GENERATOR 32Kext 

Throw away your graph paper 
and let CoCo do the draw-strings. 

DRAW in any resolution with easy-to-use 

drawing board commands. 
GENERATE draw-strings automatical ly from 

your own drawings. 
EDIT the completed draw-strings. 
ANIMATE up to 16 drawings on the 
SAVE the draw-strings to tape as 

data or as a BASIC program. 



California residents must add 6% sales tax 



Scan Software Designs 

P.O.Box 1781 W 
San Diego, Ca. 92117 



Sinelines 



The listing: 

10 REM**S I NL I NES , BY NORM CUTTER 
20 PCLS:PMODE 4,1: SCREEN 1,1 

60 B=B+I 

61 S=S+.l 
70 D=D+Q 

80 IF B>250 THEN PCLS: I=-2 
90 IF D>180 THEN Q=-2 

92 IF D<5 THEN Q=2 

93 IF B<5 THEN 1=2 

96 X=<SIN<S)*129>+129 
100 LINE <X,D)-<D,B),PSET 
150 QOTO60 



"GAMES PEOPLE PLAY " AT DISCOUNT PRICES 
Zaxxon Z £ 3 V . Tf*37 ■ 95 

Lancer -^24^5*20.85 , computers 

Colorpede -*2*-T3 *28 . 45 # Printers 

Donkey K i n 9 — -£24^3" *23 . 70 * Keyboards 

Moon Lander -^X^rT5 %\ 7 .05 * 64K UpQrades 

Robottack -£2A^T5 *23.70 Hy 

Bloc Head -%24*95 *25 . 60 

ABOVE PRICES FOR TAPE-DISK AVAILABLE 
AND MUCH MORES AVAILABLE 



CALL OR WRITE FOR LIST 

Taurus Susiems® 

1200 MULBERRY LANE BRUNSWICK, OHIO 44212 216/273-4600 



VISA & M.C. ADD » 
S.4 H. ADD 12.00 
OHIO RES. ADD 5-1/2X 



80 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Double Ben/ifcij Software Double Den/jbjj Software 



COLOR TERM + PLUS + 

^29.9^ Now even more + 

v An Intelligent Terminal Program F'or The Color 
Computer or TDP 100. 

+ Communications BAUD rale: 1 10-19200 

4- Change printer BAUD rate: 600 9600 

+ Select printer line feeds if needed 

+ Select Half or Full Duplex 

+ Select Odd, Even, or No Parity 

+ Select 7 or 8 Bit Words ~* 

+ Select I or 2 Stop Bits 

+ Stand Control Characters 

4 Separate Keys for Escape & Delete (Ruhout) 

+ Turn off those UGLY Lower-case letters 

+ Word Wrap — eliminate all split words ^ 

+ Selectable Reverse or Normal Video * 





+ Scroll protect up to nine lines 

+ Automatic capture of incoming files 

4- Send one line at a time from your buffer 

+ Has programmable prompt for "send next line' 

4- Disk version extras: List Directory, Granules 

+ Buffer Size Indicator 

+ Ctrmplete up and down load support g^JJt 

+ Improved buffer editor in hoth versions 

\ On/Off Line Cassette/Disk Reads & Writes 

* Save & Load Machine Code, BASIC Programs or P iles 

+ On/Off Line Scrolling of Buffer uwi\tw« 

+ Pre-enler Data before going on line kh?u»«. 

+ Easy to read manual is included with each program 

PRICE $29,95 (Tape) $39.95 (Disk) 16k or 32k Req, 




COLOR DISK SAVER Saves a disk to tape. Reloads 
disk from saved tape. Also lias tape verify command! 
32k Ext.. BASIC Req. PRICE $12.95 (tape)** 



COLOR BIORHYTHUM Are you up or down today, 
tomorrow, or years from now? Find out with COLOR 
BIORHYTHUM. Uses high res graphics. Send the chart to 
printer. 16k or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. 

PRICE $14.95 (tape) 

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GANGBU STEPS: Start as a punk and manage 
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FOOTBALL: A strategy approach. Offense and defense 
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SIMULATIONS 



WORD GAMES 

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DECIPHER: 

For 1 or more players. Multiple players choose 
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JOYSTICK GAMES 

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FLIGHT: Not a game, but a hi-res 
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4 levels of instrument or regular 
landings with or without cross- 
winds. Needs 32 K. B& ML Tape- 
$19.95, Disk - $24.95 



FANTASY GAMING 
APPLICATIONS 

(These are not games) 

FANTASY GAMER'S PACKAGE: All versions have a 20 page 
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Tape 1 6K $1 9.95, 32K $24.95; Disk - $29,95 

FANTASY MASTER'S SECRETARY: For use during play, this 
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SHAFT: The ultimate in "dodge the moving object" games 
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MONSTERS lr MAGIC: Fight your way thru up to 50 different 
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combinations. For 1 player, needs 32 K. BASIC. Tape - 
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JUNGLE: Take a journey 
into trouble. This game 
gives Murphy's law new 
meaning, and in this mag- 
ical jungle, many things are 
only illusions, A very nice 
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the younger set. BASIC. 
Tape - $19.95, Disk - $24.95 




ADVENTURE 

ADVENTURE IN WONDERLAND: Simply the best adventure 
ever written for the color computer. A full Eliza intelligence 
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ADULT GAMES 

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UTILITIES 




COLORKIT: What can we say aboutthe absolute best state- 
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■°^3©fj3 or ^ ar ^ screen ' keyclick, screen editor, 
programable keys, a super memory tool, 
variable listing, echo to printer, BREAK 
disable, convert machine language to 
DATA, global search, single stepthru pro- 
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gram listings- that's less than half of what 
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lose no BASIC space atalL 1 00% ML Fully 
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PRICKLY- PEAR MAILING UST: This mailing list program will 
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MUSIC BOX: Compose your music in 4 voices and Jet the 
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EIGHT-BIT BARTENDER: Over 1 00 drink recipes, and you can 
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HOUSEHOLD HELPER: This gem does recipe conversions, 
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|*t*& SUPER 

ASTROLOGY: Everything our customers have writ- 
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printer The program will handle progressed and transit 
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Don't settle for a lesser program! Needs 32 K. B& ML Tape 
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EXPLANATION OF CODES 

BASIC: This program is 1 00% BASIC. That means it is easy 
to examine and easy to modify. BASIC is the best language 
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B & ML This program is written mostly in BASIC, but some 
routines are in machine language for more speed. May be 
harder to examine or modify than an all BASIC program. 

100% ML This program is all machine language for fastest 
possible execution. Examination or modification will re- 
quire a high skill level, 



EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS 

PREREAD I, II, & III; This program uses graphics and voice 
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by sound, and by shape B& ML. Tape -$24.95, Disk(wlth 
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PHONICS I: Teaches all the consonant blends phoneti- 
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digraphs. B & ML Tape - $24.95 

PHONICS I it II ON DISK: A package that includes both of 
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Disk only (with voice tapes) - $44.95 

SPELLING: 

Six tapes provide voice testing and practice 
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ML Tape -$49.95, Disk (with voice tapes) - $54.95 

MATHPAC: Provides drill and positive reinforcement of 
addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. Lots of 
extras for repeating, setting levels, and classroom usa 
Tape -$19.95, Disk - $24.95 



DISK UTILITIES 




OMNI CLONE: This program 
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utility. Easy to use. Needs 32 K 
and at least one disk drive, but 
works with two drives if you have them. 1 00% ML. $39.95 

DISK ZAP PER: A neat utility that 
letsyou easily examineand change 
data right on the disk! Rebuild di- 
rectories, format to 40 tracks, 
change programs, store backup 
directories, and more. Needs two 
drives and 64K for some func- 
tions. B & ML $34.95 

DISK MANAGER: ff you have an extensive software col- 
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with ML addresses and gives you three ways to recover a 
crashed disk! Needs 32K and 1 disk drive B & ML. $29.95 

DISK MASTER: Eight functions, including drive speed check 
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directory which includes ML addresses, two different disk 
maps, and an easy mass copy utility. Needs one disk drive 
and 32K. B& ML $24.95 

PUBLICATIONS 

SONGBOOK: The PLAY statements and lyrics for over 200 
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UTILITY 



16K 


I 


f the 


ECB 




RAINBOW 



c 



Machine Language 
Cassette I/O 

By Roger Schrag 



In the July issue of the Rainbow I presented a program 
that aided machine language programmers in doing 
Input / Output operations with disk drives. This month I 
would like to present a program that offers similar capabili- 
ties for cassette users. 

In the back pages of the Color BASIC and Extended Color 
BASIC manuals is a list of some routines contained within the 
BASIC ROM that machine language programmers may use. 
Four of these routines pertain to cassette operation, allow- 
ing you to load and dump blocks of memory to and from 
tape rather easily. 

However, these routines don't offer the flexibility and 
power you might like. When it comes to performing com- 
plex operations, such as handling a cassette data file, these 
ROM routines will do very little of the work; you must write 
some very involved routines of your own to get the job done. 

What I will present here is a block of source code that you 
may append to any program you write. This appendage 
contains nine powerful routines that your programs may all 
call upon as you wish. These nine routines are named Open, 
Close, Print, Input, Skipf, Cloadm, Csavem, Motor, and 
Audio. Each routine performs an operation similar to that 
of the BASIC statement the title reflects. For example, the 
Skipf routine allows you to skip over a file on the cassette. 
Please have a thorough understanding of how these nine 
BASIC statements work before atempting to use the routines. 

Each of the nine routines requires that you first prepare 
the registers with necessary information. To use the Cloadm 
routine, for example, you must provide a filename and a 
load offset. Now let's take a look at each of the routines and 
how you may use them. 

The first routine is Open. It allows you to open a tape file 
for either input or output. Before calling this routine, you 
must prepare the X, A, and B registers. Load the X register 
with the address of where in memory the filename is stored. 
Place a zero or $0D (ASCII code for a carriage return) after 
the last character of the name so that the Open routine can 
calculate how long the name is. If you are opening a file in 
the input mode and would like the computer to simply use 
the first program it encounters on the tape, then point the X 



(Rogef Schrag, currently studying computer science at 
the University of California at Berkeley, enjoys work- 
ing with the Co Co and writing articles for the Rain- 
bow. He also designs and translates programs for 
Adventure International) 

84 the RAINBOW October 1983 



register directly at a zero or $0D. 

Next you must load the A register with the file mode. To 
open the file for input load A with the value $49, the ASCII 
code for I. To open the file for output load A with the value 
$4F, the ASCII code for O. Finally, you must load B with 
the display status. The display status is irrelevant if you are 
opening the file in the output mode, but makes a difference 
for the input mode. If you load B with $FF, the computer 
will clear the screen and show an S in the upper corner. It 
will then display filenames as they come up, and blink an F 
as the data file is read. If you don't want all of this informa- 
tion printed on the screen, then load the B register with a 
zero. This way the computer will not affect the screen in any 
way. 

This example will open the next file encountered on the 
cassette for input mode. The filename will automatically be 
printed on the screen, and an F will blink as the data file is 
read: 



LDX 


#NONAME 


Load X with the address 






of the name 


LDA 


#$49 


Open file in the input 






mode 


LDB 


#$FF 


We want the on-screen 






information 


JSR 


OPEN 


Open the file 


BRA 


MORE 


Program continues . . . 


NONAME FCB 


$0 


Use next file encountered 



on the tape 

The second routine is Close. It closes the cassette file if it is 
open. It does not require any register preparation. This 
example will close the cassette file: 

JSR CLOSE Close the cassette file 

The third routine is Print, and it is used to write to a 
cassette file opened in the output mode. This routine differs 
from the BASIC statement Print#-1 in that you may only 
write one character at a time. A small loop is necessary to 
write a complete message or block of data. To use this 
routine you must load the ASCII code of the character you 
wish to write to the file into the A register. The routine will 
handle the rest. 

This example will write the data "PLASTIC SPOONS: 
360 DOZEN" to the tape file: 

LDX #DATA Point X at start of data 
LOOP LDA ,X+ Read a character of data 



TSTA 




A zero marks the end of 






the data 


BEQ 


MORE 


If all data has been 






written, go on . . . 


JSR 


PRINT 


Write the character to the 






file 


BRA 


LOOP 


Loop back for next 






character to write 


FCC 


/PLASTIC 


SPOONS: 360 DOZEN/ 


FCB 


$0 


A zero marks the end 



DATA 



The fourth routine is Input, and it is used to read in data 
from a cassette file opened in the input mode. If you chose a 
display status of $FF when you opened the file, then an F 
will blink on the screen as data is read in. Again, this routine 
will only deal with one character at a time. No register 
preparation is needed for this routine, so simply call it 
directly to read a character from the file. On return, the A 
register will hold the ASCII code of the character that was 
read in from the file. 

This example will read in a block of 512 characters and 
show them on the screen: 

Point X at beginning of 
the text screen 

LOOP JSR INPUT Read a character from the 

file 

Put it on the screen and 
increment X 

Check if we have covered 
the entire screen 
If not, then loop back for 
more 

The fifth routine is Skipf, and it may be used to serve two 
different purposes. First off, you may use Skipf to skip over 
a file on the cassette. However, you may also use it to verify 
files. You see, as the computer skips over the cassette file, it 
also reads the information carefully and watches for check- 
sum errors. This means that if the computer is able to Skipf 
through a file without causing any errors, then you can be 
reasonably sure that the recording on the cassette is good, 
and that you won't get any load errors when you try to use 
that file at a future time. 

The Skipf routine requires that you prepare the X and B 
registers in exactly the same manner as the Open routine. 
That is, you must load the X register with the address of 
where in memory the filename is stored and B register with 
the display status. 

This example will search the cassette for a file named 
OUTGOING and will then verify and skip over it. The 
screen will not be affected in any way: 



LDX 


#$400 


JSR 


INPUT 


STA 


,x+ 


CMPX 


#$600 


BNE 


LOOP 



LDX 


#NAME 


Load X with the address 






of the name 


LDB 


#$0 


Use a display status value 






of zero 


JSR 


SKIPF 


Skip over and verify the 






file 


BRA 


MORE 


Program continues . . . 


FCC 


/OUTGOING/ 


FCB 


$0 


Zero marks the end of the 






name 



NAME 



The sixth routine is Cloadm. It will load any machine 
language program from cassette that may ordinarily be 
loaded with the BASIC statement CLOADM. To use this 
routine you must provide the address of the filename and the 
display status, as with Open and Skipf. In addition, you 



must put the offset that the computer should use in loading 
your program in the Y register. If you want the computer to 
load theprogramnormally, not offset, then specify an offset 
of zero. 

This example will load the program MODULE1 from 
cassette with no offset. The screen will remain unaffected: 



LDX 


#NAME 


Load X with the address 






of the name 


LDB 


#$0 


Use a display status value 






of zero 


LDY 


#$0 


Load the program nor- 






mally, not offset 


JSR 


CLOADM 


Load the program 


BRA 


MORE 


Program continues . . . 


FCC 


/ MODULE 1/ 


FCB 


$0 


Zero marks the end of the 






name 



NAME 



The seventh routine is Csavem. It allows you to save a 
machine language program or block of memory onto tape in 
a format that may be loaded back in with Cloadm. Please 
note that you must have Extended Color BASIC to use this 
routine. 

This routine requires that you prepare the X, Y, U, and D 
registers with necessary information. As with many other 
routines, you must first load the X register with the location 
of the filename. Next, load the starting address of your 
program into Y and the ending address into U . Finally, load 
the execution address into the D register. When you call on 
the routine, everything in memory from address Y to 
address U will be written on tape. 

This example will write everything in memory from $E00 
through $FFF onto tape with a filename of RAMTEST. 
The execution address will be $E00: 



LDX 


#NAME 


Load X with the address 






of the name 


LDY 


#$E00 


The starting address 


LDU 


#$FFF 


The ending address 


LDD 


#$E00 


The execution address 


JSR 


CSAVEM 


Write it all on tape 


BRA 


MORE 


Program continues . . . 


FCC 


/RAMTEST/ 


FCB 


$0 


Zero marks the end of the 






name 



NAME 



The eighth routine is Motor. It allows you to turn the tape 
recorder's motor on and off. Simply load $FF into the B 
register to turn it on, or zero to turn it off. This example will 
turn the cassette motor off: 

LDB #$0 Zero means off 

JSR MOTOR Turn off recorder's motor 

The ninth and final routine is Audio. It allows you to 
connect the output from the tape recorder directly to the 
television's speaker. Load $FF into the B register to turn on 
this feature, or zero to turn it off. This example will play the 
recorder's sound over the television's speaker: 

LDB #$FF $FF means on 

JSR AUDIO Turn the cassette audio 
on 

And those are the nine routines provided in the program 
listing. Now let's look at the general requirements and con- 
ditions that apply to all nine routines. 

All routines require that you leave low memory from $0 to 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 85 



$3FF alone. This area is used by the ROMs in performing 
the various cassette functions. All routines will work on any 
Color Computer, right on down to 4K Color BASIC. The 
only exception is the Csavem routine which requires Ex- 
tended Color BASIC. 

Each of the routines will preserve the X, Y, U, A and DP 
registers. The contents of the CC and B registers will be lost. 
After you call a routine, check the zero flag. If it is set, then 
the operation was carried out successfully. If, however, it is 
reset, then an error has occurred and the error code is in the 
B register. The table lists the error codes and what they 
mean. 

This example shows how to use the error system to deter- 
mine if an error has occurred: 

JSR XYZ Call one of the nine rou- 

tines 

BNE ERROR If zero flag is reset, then 
an error 

(More 

code) Operation was carried out 

successfully 

Please note that this program makes extensive use of 
undocumented ROM routines. This means th$t the pro- 
gram shown in the listing very well may not work with future 
versions of Color BASIC. (The program was written for 
Color BASIC 1.1, but should also work with 1.0.). 

Now you should find it a whole lot easier to incorporate 
cassette I/O into your machine language programs. If you 
have any questions or comments, feel free to drop me a line. 
My address appears at the top of the program listing. Please 



include a self addressed, stamped envelope when you write. 
The source code for the program listing is available on 
cassette for five dollars at the same address: 2054 Manning 
Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90025. 

Table Of Error Codes 



Code 


Abbr 


Description 


19 


AO 


File already open 


21 


IO 


Input/ Output error 


22 


FM 


Bad file mode 


23 


NO 


File not open 


24 


IE 


Input past end of file 




61MI 





61111 » MACHINE LANGUAGE CASSETTE I/O » 
61121 tttttt*mm####tmtmtttttttt 
61131 t 

61141 tBy: Roger Schrag 
61151 * 2154 Harming Avenue 
61161 t Los Angeles, CA 91125 
61071 * 

61080 tFinal revision: 5/15/83 
61090 t 

61100 tThis code is intended to be appended 
61110 ton to your own prograt to give it 
61120 tcassette I/O capabilities. Your prograt 
61130 Hust supply the 0R6 statement. This code 
61140 Hay reside anywhere in RAH. 
61150 » 
61160 » 

0000 M 61170 SAVE FCB $0 3 byte storage 

0001 00 61180 FCB $0 Area for the 



»> — >ATTENTION 6809 HACKERS< -«< 
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PRO-COLOR-FILE 



" . . . PRO-COLOR-FILE is a very sophisticated data base manage- 
ment program. . ." (Color Computer News, June 1983) 

"... If s definitely a gigantic step for the serious CoCo users. . ." 
(Rainbow Magazine, June 1983) 

If you can't believe the reviews of these leading magazines for the 
Color Computer, then there is nothing we can say to convince 
you of the versatility of PRO-COLOR-FILE. However. . . 

IF you're in need of a program with the flexibility that lets you 
design your own records management system with up to 60 data 
fields, 4 data entry screens, 14 math equations, 5 custom report 
formats, and records lengths of up to 1020 bytes; AND that has 
the capability to duplicate records, index a file alphabetically on 
up to 3 fields simultaneously, print reports on a printer or the 
screen, select records using <, <=, >,>=,=, 
comparators individually or together with AND / OR relation- 
ships, obtain totals and averages, find any record out of a file of 
1000 in 10 seconds or less, and utilize from 1 to 4 disk drives, 
THEN PRO-COLOR-FILE WILL FILL YOUR NEEDS! 

Only $79.95 + $2.00 Shipping and Handling. ■■SSSS? 

We accept VISA, MASTERCARD, Checks or Money Orders. 

Call or write for more details: 

DERRINGER SOFTWARE, Post Office Box 5300, Florence, S.C. 
29502. Phone: (803) 665-5676 after 6:00 p.m. (EDT). 
PRO-COLOR-FILE ©1983 Dennis Derringer. 
*TRS-80 is a trademark of the Tandy Corp. 



86 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Hi? 


00 


61190 FCB II 


I18E error vector 


0035 17 


1113 


00 


612M STACK FCB «! 


2 byte storage area 


0038 IF 


IH4 


00 


61211 FCB 10 


For stack pointer 


003A BD 






61221 t 




003D A7 






61231 t 




003F 16 






61241 tRoutine to open a data file 








61251 t X=Address of filenaae 








61261 * A=File iodf 










61271 t B«Diiplay tUtut 










61281 t 






1115 17 


00C4 


61291 OPEN LBSR BE6IN 


Prepare 




0018 17 


0098 


61311 LBSR FNAKE 


Process the filenaee 


0042 17 


IIIB 81 


49 


61311 CNPA H49 


Use input eode? 


0045 17 


HID 27 


07 


61321 BEQ OPEN I 


If so, then go do it 


0148 BD 


IMF 81 


4F 


61331 CNPA IMF 


Use output eode? 


0048 16 


m\ 27 


09 


61341 BEQ OPENO 


If so, then go do it 




0113 7E 


A616 


61351 JHP IA616 


Cause FN error 




0016 BD 


A629 


61361 OPENI JSR IA629 


Open file for input 




0019 16 


I0DF 


61371 LBRA DONE 


Function complete 




001 C 4F 




61381 OPENO CLRA 


Nust clear A first 




001D BD 


A65B 


61391 JSR IA65B 


Open file for output 




0020 16 


00D8 


61411 LBRA DONE 


Function complete 








61411 t 




004E 17 






61421 t 




0051 34 






61431 tRoutine to dole a data file 


0053 17 






61441 t (No register setup required) 


0156 BD 






61451 t 




0159 35 


0023 17 


00A6 


61461 CLOSE LBSR BE6IN 


Prepare 


1058 BD 


0026 BD 


A437 


61471 JSR IA437 


Close the data file 


005E 16 


0029 16 


00CF 


61481 LBRA DONE 


Function coaplete 








61491 * 










61511 * 










61511 'Routine to write to an 


open file 








61521 * A=Character to write 








61531 i 






002C 17 


009D 


61541 PRINT LBSR BE6IN 


Prepare 




002F BD 


A290 


61551 JSR 1*290 


Write to the file 




0032 16 


00C6 


61560 LBRA DONE 


Function coaplete 






61570 i 




0061 17 






61580 t 




0064 34 






61590 tRoutine to input froe an open file 


0066 17 






61600 t (A returns with input character) 


0069 35 






61610 t 







0094 61620 INPUT LBSR BE6IN Prepare 
70 61630 CLR 170 Must clear $70 first 

A17F 61640 JSR SA17F Input froe the file 

60 61650 STA 0,S Put it on the stack 

0089 61660 LBRA DONE Function coeplete 

61670 t 

61680 t 

61690 tRoutine to skip over a file 
61700 t X'Address of filenaee 
61710 t B^Di splay status 
61720 t 

0087 61730 SKIPF LBSR BE6IN Prepare 
005E 61740 LBSR FNANE Process the filenaee 

A5EE 61750 JSR SA5EE Skip over the file 

HAD 61760 LBRA DONE Function coeplete 

61770 t 

61780 t 

61790 tRoutine to load a eachine language prograe 

61810 t X=Address of filenaee 

61810 t YsOffset 

61820 t B*Display status 

61830 t 

007B 61840 CLOADN LBSR BE6IN Prepare 
20 61850 PSHS y Save the offset 

0051 61860 LBSR FNANE Process the filenaee 

A64B 61870 JSR SA648 Do soee of the work 

10 61880 PULS X Put offset in X 

A511 61890 JSR IA511 Load the prograe 

009A 61900 LBRA DONE Function coeplete 

61910 ♦ 

61920 f 

61930 tRoutine to save a eachine language prograe 

61940 f (Extended Color Basic is required) 

61950 » X=Address of filenaee 

61960 t Y*First address 

61970 t U=Last address 

61980 t D=Execution address 

61990 t 

0068 62000 CSAVEH LBSR BE6IN Prepare 
66 62010 PSHS Y,D,U Save inforeation 

003D 62020 LBSR FNANE Process the filenaee 

66 62030 PULS U,D,Y Restore inforeation 



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Sequel to 'STALAG'. Now that you escaped the Ger- 
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SCAVENGE HUNT 

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ISLE OF FORTUNE 

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8 bombs in a city. Your mission: locate and disarm all 8 
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$19.95 

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The mansion of the mysterious Count Von Steinoff 
awaits you with unspeakable horrors. Defeat the 
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BEACON 

You are a lighthouse keeper. A storm is coming and a 
ship is off the coast. Turn on the beacon before the 
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MATCH-IT 



A challenging word game in which you identify 
your opponent's 5-letter word using deduction. 1-4 
players. 

* Different Every Time 



ENO 

You inherited a million dollars. Just one catch - first 
you have to find it! 

MOTHER LODE 

You just in heritedyour great-grandfather's goldmine. 
Did he die penniless? 



PAL 
CREATIONS 

10456 Amantha Ave., 
Sah Diego, CA92126 

Calif, residents add 6% sales tax 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 87 



0068 31 


8D 008C 


62040 


LEAX 


DONE, PCR Nhen lave is coiplete 


006F 34 


10 


62050 


PSHS 


X 


Control will go to DONE 


1171 34 


20 


62060 


PSHS 


Y 


Push start address 


1073 10BF 01E7 


62070 


STY 


$1E7 


Save start address 


0077 34 


40 


62080 


PSHS 


U 


Push end address 


007? 34 


06 


62090 


PSHS 


D 


Push execute address 


007B FD 


01E5 


62100 


STD 


I1E5 


Save execute address 


M7E 7E 


833D 


62110 
62120 t 
62130 i 


JHP 


I833D 


Bo save prograi 






62140 fRoutine to control tape recorder's lotor 






62150 t B*FF (Turn 


it on) 








62160 i B s 0 


(Turn it off) 








62170 t 








0081 17 


0048 


62180 MOTOR 


LBSR 


BE6IN 


Prepare 


0084 5D 




62190 


TSTB 




Turn on lotor? 


0085 26 


06 


62200 


BNE 


MOTORN 


If so, go turn it on 


0087 BD 


A7EB 


62210 


JSR 


IA7EB 


6o turn off eotor 


008A 16 


006E 


62220 


LBRA 


DONE 


Function coiplete 


008D BD 


A7CA 


62230 MOTORN 


JSR 


IA7CA 


Bo turn on eotor 


0090 16 


0068 


62240 
62250 • 
62260 f 


LBRA 


DONE 


Function coiplete 






62270 ^Routine to control the 


cassette audio 






62280 ♦ B=FF (Turn it on) 








62290 * B=0 


(Turn 


it off) 








62300 » 








0093 17 


0036 


62310 AUDIO 


LBSR 


BE6IN 


Prepare 


0096 5D 




62320 


TSTB 




Turn on the audio? 


0097 26 


06 


62330 


BNE 


AUDION 


If so, go turn it on 


0099 BD 


A974 


62340 


JSR 


IA974 


Bo turn off audio 


009C 16 


00SC 


62350 


LBRA 


DONE 


Function coiplete 


009F 5F 




62360 AUDION 


CLRB 




Hust clear B first 


00A0 BD 


A99D 


62370 


JSR 


IA99D 


Bo turn on audio 


00A3 16 


0055 


62380 


LBRA 


DONE 


Function coiplete 



OELRICH PUBLICATIONS, INC. 
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(in Illinois call 312-545-9286) 

VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED 



62391 f 
62411 t 

62411 tThe routines below are for internal use 
62420 tonly, and are not to be called by your 
62430 tprograe directly! 
62440 t 
62450 i 

62460 (Routine to process a filename 
62470 i 



iflAA 1)7 
WHO ul 


00 


A74RI FNAMP 


CTD 

a i o 


41Q Cat rlienl.su cfafnc 
100 3BI Olspiiy stilUs 


00AB CE 


01D1 




i nil 

LUU 


uiui naie storage area 


00AB 6F 


CI 


A 7^11 
OlJvW 


n d 
LLn 


,u~ naie iengin*v 


00AD C6 


20 


OlJlt 


i no 


iOA ACPI I rnrla inr hi inL 

wwiv RaLii cooe tor DianK 


00AF E7 


CI 


A 9^91 PI CAD 


CTD 

a Id 


, U+ Clear naie area 


00BI 1183 


01DA 


oZjjB 


tnru 


iiiufl tno ot naie arcar 


1065 25 


F8 


62540 


BLO 


CLEAR Loop back until done 


00B7 CE 


01D2 


62550 


LDU 


II1D2 Start of naie area 


00BA E6 


80 


62560 NAME 


LDB 


,X+ Bet part of filenaie 


00BC CI 


21 


62570 


CHPB 


H20 A null or C/R earks 


00BE 25 


IB 


62580 


BLO 


RETURN End of the naie 


00C0 E7 


CI 


62590 


STB 


,U+ Store the character 


•0C2 7C 


01D1 


62600 


INC 


•1D1 Increment naie length 


00C5 1183 01DA 


62610 


CHPU 


tf IDA Loop back if we haven't 


•0C9 25 


EF 


62620 


BLO 


NAKE Exceeded eaxiiui length 


00CB 39 




62630 RETURN 


RTS 


Return to caller 






62640 i 










62650 i 










62660 (Routine to prepare everything: 






62670 t(Save registers, set up error vector, etc.) 






62680 * 






00CC 34 


7A 


62690 BEGIN 


PSHS 


X,Y,U,DP,A Save registers 


00CE 4F 




62700 


CLRA 


ROM routines need 


00CF IF 


8B 


62710 


TFR 


A, DP The DP to be zero 


00D1 B6 


01BE 


62720 


LDA 


*18E 6et the contents 


00D4 FE 


01BF 


62730 


LDU 


*1BF Of the error vector 


00D7 A7 


8D FF25 


62740 


STA 


SAVE,PCR And save it 


I0DB EF 


BD FF22 


62750 


STU 


SAVE+1,PCR For now 


00DF 86 


7E 


62760 


LDA 


l$7E Now set up 


00E1 33 


8D 0012 


62770 


LEAU 


ERROR, PCR Error vector 


00E5 B7 


018E 


62780 


STA 


•18E Mi th our own 


00E8 FF 


01BF 


62790 


STU 


$18F Handling routine 


00EB A6 


60 


62800 


LDA 


0,S Restore A register 


00ED EE 


66 


62810 


LDU 


6,S Restore U register 


00EF 10EF 


BD FF0F 


62820 


STS 


STACK,PCR Save stack pointer 


00F4 6E 


FB 08 


62830 


JHP 


[8, S3 Return to caller 






62840 « 










62850 # 










62860 tlf an 


error 


occurs, control Mill pass 






62870 tto our error handling routine 






62880 ♦ 






00F7 54 




62890 ERROR 


LSRB 


B=Error code 


00F8 5C 




62900 


INCB 


Divide by 2, add 1 


00F9 20 


03 


62910 


BRA 


EXIT 60 to exit routine 






62920 t 










62930 t 










62940 tlf the function is completed properly, 






62950 tcontrol will 


pass to DONE 






62960 ♦ 






00FB 5F 




62970 DONE 


CLRB 


Zero leans no error 


00FC 20 


00 


62980 


BRA 


EXIT 60 to exit routine 






62990 * 










63000 * 










63010 tRoutine to restore registers and error 






63020 tvector 


, and return to the calling prograi 






63030 t 






00FE A6 


BD FEFE 


63040 EXIT 


LDA 


SAVE, PCR Restore the 


0102 EE 


BD FEFB 


63050 


LDU 


SAVE+1,PCR Error vector 


0106 B7 


018E 


63060 


STA 


I18E To its original 


0109 FF 


018F 


63070 


STU 


I1BF Value 


010C 10EE BD FEF2 


63080 


LDS 


STACK, PCR Restore stack pointi 


011! 35 


7A 


63090 


PULS 


A,DP,U,Y,X Restore registers 


0113 32 


62 


63100 


LEAS 


2,S Clean up the stack 


0115 5D 




63110 


TSTB 


Set flags if no error 


0116 39 




63120 


RTS 


Return to caller 






63130 * 










63140 tYour prograi supplies the label START 




0000 


63150 


END 





00000 TOTAL ERRORS 



88 the RAINBOW October 1983 



CoCo HEADQUARTERS 

Looking to unlock the capacity of your Color Computer? 

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1-800-251-5008 




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Mark Data Adventures 


s 


24. 95 


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The Frog by Toid Mix $ 




27. 95 


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Ghos t Gobbl er 


s 


1 9. 95 


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Ittf 

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THE TOP-RATED COCO WORD PROCESSOR: 



Coloiware researched the word 
processors available for the Color 
Computer. We came to the very 
same conclusion that so many re- 
view articles have! Telewriter-64 
is, by far, the superior word pro- 
cessor for the Color Computer. 

Why is Telewriter so much bet- 
ter than the others? For one thing, 
it has overcome the 32x1 6 charac- 
ter display limitation of the Color 
Computer No small feat, Telewri- 
ter accomplishes this by generat- 
ing its own set of characters in 
software. Vou select 51 x24, 64x24 
or 85x24 character displays by 
merely issuing a format command. 
If you have ever used a word pro- 
cessing system, you know how im- 
portant it is to be able to see a good 
portion of your text on the screen. 




Telewriter-64 also generates 
true lower case characters. This is 
much preferable to the reverse 
characters that merely "represent" 
lower case letters in other co-co 
word processors. 

Telewriter-64 is feature packed. 
Besides the standard features 



TELEWRITER-64 



found in any word processor, Tele- 
writer also includes: user-friendly 
full-screen editing, rapid cursor 
and scrolling control, page jump, 
right justification, menu-driven 
disk or cassette access t compata* 
bility with spelling checkers (such 
as SpelJ-and-Fix). and a clever 
double check that asks the user 
"Are you sure?" oefore executing 
any operation that would kill any 
srzeabte amount of your text. 

Telewriter-64 runs on any 16K, 
32K, or 64K system (extended 
Basic not required) and works with 
any printer. It has all of the control 
codes necessary to take full ad" 
vantage of all of the features in any 



printer. There is even a "typewri- 
ter" mode which sends typed lines 
directly to your printer. 

With advanced word processing 
software such as this, your color 
computer becomes a truly power- 
ful word processing system t with a 
price that makes sense for the per- 
sonaluser. 

Beyond impressive capabilrty. 
Teiewnter-64 simply makes any 
kind of writing a pleasure. It is a 
truly sophisticated system that is 
marvelously easy to learn and en- 
joyable to use. 



Disk . . . 
Cassette 



£59.95 
549.95 



EXTENSION CABLE FOR 
YOUR MODEM/PRINTER 

$19.95 



QUALITY DISK DRIVE CABLES 



Place your modem a printer where you 
want. 15 ft cable with four-pin mate 
and four-pin female DIN connectors. 



COCO ROM/PROJECT/PRODUCT CASE 




QUANTITY 
k 2-4{2min.) 

5-9 
9 10-99 
100 & up 



PRICE EACH 
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Give a Professional look to your project or product 

• Designed especially for the Color Computer ROM slot. 

• High quality 3 piece injection molded black plastic with 
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• Same size and specifications as Radio Shack ROMpak 

SUPER-PRO KEYBOARD 

REPLACEMENT PROFESSIONAL 
KEYBOARD KIT...0NLY $69.95 

• Contour molded, full travel keys for fast smooth typing. 

• Custom made to fit precisely. Has same key layout. 

• Complete, easy instructions for any CoCo or TDP-1 00. 

• Ideal for word processing and other serious CoCo use, 
Note:Forcomput©rsmanufactur©dafterOct 1982. add $4.95 

UPGRADE IN JUST MINUTES! 



COLORWARE 




COLORWARE INC. 
78-03F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven,NY 11421 
(212)647-2864 



High quality cable and high force, gold plated contacts 
ensure the utmost in connection reliability for your CoCo 
orTDP-100. 

© Disk pack extender, 3 ft. . . $29.95 

Allows you to move your disk drive 
interface back and out of the way. 

© One Drive Disk cable $19.95 

® Two Drive Disk cable $29.95 

COLORWARE UGHT PEN 



ONLY $19.95 

FREE PROGRAM 
CASSETTE 
INCLUDED 



• Plugsdirectlyintoyourjoystickport. 

• Comes with six fun & useful programs on tape. 

• Easy instructions show how to use it with Basic. 

• Comptible with light pen software such as Computer 
Island's "Fun- pak." 

TOLL FREE ORDERING 

800-221-0916 

Orders only. NY& Info cail (272) 647-2864 





WE PAY 



shipping on any order that includes at least one game 
Use our convenient toll free 800 line. 




GHOSTGOBBLER 

From Spectral Associates, this 
"Pac" theme game is the best of it's 
type. Brilliant color, action and 
sound, just like an arcade gobble 
your way to glory, but watch for 
those ghosts! Get in on the wild fun 
of this game craze now. Tape: 
$21.95. Disk: $25,95 



GHOSTGOBBLER 



DONKEY KING 



DONKEY KING 

You simply can not buy a more impres- 
sive game for your color computer than I 
this new wonder from Tom Mix. The 
Graphics, sound r and animation are all 
just astonishing! There are four different 
graphic screens and each is endless | 
W Requires 32K Tape: $24.95. Disk: 
$27.95 




PROTECTORS 

There are several good ver- 
sions of the "Defender" theme 
available for the CoCo None, 
however rival this one irom 
Tom Mix, No other game 
matches the detailed graphics 
and sheer excitement of this top 
seller Requires 32K Tape: 
$24.95. Disk: $27.95 



^ wi.". jjy 



CREATURE FEATURE 

From Color Software, comes a 
lightening swift shoot & dodge 
the enemy game. It s clever 
cross between "Robotron 11 and 
"Beserk" themes, with bullets 
flying everywhere Solid, shoot- 
em-up-furt Requires 16K. 
Tape $17.95, Disk. $19.95 





L 


n 

■ 


r •' 





t-UP Kill 

5 toga i±j -^d-tan 
• ** 

i \'z** 

««* ti« •«« 




ANDROID ATTACK 

Spectral Associates' very well 
done "Berserk" type game with 
some interesting added tea* 
tures. Each cassette contains 
both the 16K and 32K version 
The 32K version has voice out- 
put f Plenty ot action. Tape: 
$21.95 



FROGGER 

Just released by The Cornsolt 
Group, this is the officially 
licensed version Irom Sega, the 
arcade manufacturer It has it 
all! 4 lane super highway, 
snakes. turtles, logs, alligators, 
etc. Lots of action and laughs! 
Requires 1 6K Tape: $19 95 



IN7ERGALACTK FORCE 

Your space hghter roars into the 
Death Corridor. Lock-on and 
blast the enemy fighter from the 
sky. Now tiy dropping one into 
Death Stars narrow exhaust 
vent. It takes skill and guts 
Good luck! With "Star Wars" 
theme song. From Anteco 
Tape: $24 95 



if It's a Joystick Interface. 

'LgCt ^^M^g ^tQ^^ ft ^l^m Now you can connect any Atari compatible joystick to your CoCo. 
J ^| ^yr \fFw \Stm. m J hese st,cks are extremely rugged & provide very fast response 



SUPER JO YST/CK MODULE 
ONLY 

$19.95 



nd real arcade type action. They will improve the play of almost 
any game. The difference will amaze you! 




* It's a Rapid Fire Module! 

Press the fire button on your joystick and get a great burst of fire 
instead of just a single shot! Adds tremendously to the many 
shooting type games that do not have repeat fire. With variable 
burst speed. 

* It's a 6ft Extender Cord. 



THE ATARI 

ONLY 

$8.50 




A well proven joystick, the Atari is 
known lor oeuig rugged and reliable. It 
gives good response and is the stan- 
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at a great price! Use with module above. 



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A GREAT 
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This one has received outstanding re- 
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THE BEST 

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The high peflormance joystick from the 
people who make them for the arcade 
machines. Built to take the abuse of 
even the most enthusiastic player This 
js the best! Wico #15 9730. Use with 
module above 



ORDERING 

INFORMATION 

ADD $2.00 PER ORDER 
FOR SHIPPING. 

WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTERCARD. 

CHECKS, MO. 

COD. ADO$3.00EXTRA. 

NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX. 

OVERSEAS, FPO, APO, ADD 10%. 

DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 

IF ONE OR MORE GAMES 

ARE INCLUDED, 

SHIPPING IS FREE, 



COLORWARE 



COLORWARE INC. 
78-03 F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven NY 11421 
(212) 647-2864 



TOLL FREE ORDERING 
800-221-0916 



Orders onty NV& Info calf (212) 647-2864 



How many times have you seen a flag and were 
stumped as to which country it belonged to? Well, 
here is a program, submitted by Joseph S. Paravati 
of Yorktown Heights, New York, called Flags, It not only 
provides beautiful, high-res graphic illustrations of 23 
nations 1 flags, but is an educational tool as well, Joseph 
reminds us to make sure the screen is blue at the beginning of 
the program. If not, simply push the reset button and RUN 
the program again. 

The menu displays the names of 23 countries in which you 
can either enter the corresponding number of the desired 
country, or type # for an automatic flag display of each 
country. 

The most impressive aspect of Flags is watching the com- 
puter fill in the colors of the flags and slowly type the name 
of each country underneath the illustration, demonstrating 
the full color capabilities of your CoCo. 

Flags is impressively beautiful, and more importantly, 
you will be able to identify more flags as a result of using this 
educational program. 



The listing: 
10 




***FLAGS*** BY J -S- PARAVATI 
12/82 



(Joseph Paravati, now retired, was an electronic trou- 
bleshooter for the New York City Bus Company. He is 
a self-taught computer hobbyist who started pro- 
gramming in December 1981 in order to occupy his 
spare time and give his three children a head start with 
computers.) 



20 CLS: PRINT Q7, "***COLOR TEST** 
*": PRINT STRING* (32, "*"> 
30 PRINT: PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY- I 
F SCREEN IS NOT BLUE PRESS RESET 

BUTTON ON BACK OF COMPUTER AND 
RE-RUN PROGRAM p DO THIS UNTIL SC 
REEN IS BLUE- " 2 PR I NT "WHEN SCREE 
N IS OK (BLUE) THEN PRESS ANY 
KEY TO CONTINUE." 
40 K*=INKEY*:IF K*-"" THEN 40 
50 PM0DE4 , 1 : PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 1 : PMODE 
3, 1-PCLS6 

60 K*=INKEY*:IF K*="" THEN 60 
70 GOSUB 5040 

80 CLS: PRINT Q4, "***FLAGS OF THE 
WORLD*** " : PR I NT STR I NG* ( 32 , " * " ) 

» 

90 JP=0: K=0 

100 PRINT "<1 AFGHANISTAN", "<13> 
CZECH" 

110 PRINT "<2>ALBANIA", "<14>DENM 
ARK" 

120 PRINT "<3>ALGERIA" , "<15>FINL 
AND" 

130 PRINT " < 4 >ARGENT I NA " , " < 1 6 >FR 
ANCE" 

140 PRINT "<5>AUSTRALIA", "<17>GE 
RMANY <W) 

150 PRINT "<6>AUSTRIA", "<18>GREE 
CE" 

160 PRINT ,, <7>BELGIUM", "<1?>ISRA 
EL" 

170 PRINT "<8>BDLIVIA", "<20>ITAL 



the RAINBOW October 1963 



Y" 

180 PRINT "<9>BRAZIL", "< 21 > JAPAN 

II 

1 90 PR I NT " < 1 0 >CAN ADA " , " < 22 >ENGL 
AND (UK)"; 

200 PRINT "<11>C0L0MBIA", "<23>U. 
S.A" 

210 PRINT "<12>C0STA RICA" , "<0>A 
UTOMATIC" 

220 IF JP=1 THEN K=K+l:FOR T=l T 
O 2000: NEXT TIGOTO 250 
230 INPUT "ENTER NUMBER FOR FLAG 
. TO RETURN TO MENU PRESS ANY KE 
Y ";K 

240 IF K=0 THEN JP=1 : K=l 

250 IF K>23 THEN GOTO 80 

260 ON K GOTO 290,400,560,660,73 

0, 900, 950, 980, 1010, 1 150, 1250, 129 

0, 1320, 1370, 1400, 1450, 1480, 1510, 

1550, 1610, 1640, 1680, 1860 

270 ' GRAPHICS FOR FLAGS 

280 ' AFGHANISTAN 

290 PRINT: GLS2 

300 FOR Y=4 TO 10 

310 FOR X=2 TO 61 

320 RESET (X,Y-1): SET (X,Y+7,4): SE 
T(X, Y+14, 1) 
330 NEXT X,Y 

340 PRINT @67,CHR*( 134+16) +CHR* ( 
128) +CHR* ( 128) +CHR* (137+16) ; 
350 PRINT @99,CHR*( 137+16) +CHR* ( 
128) +CHR*( 128) +CHR*( 134+16) ; 
360 PRINT @132, CHR* ( 140+16) +CHR* 
(140+16) ; 

370 PRINT @100, CHR* ( 132+16) +CHR* 
(136+16) ; 

380 PR I NT @49 1 , " AFGHAN I STAN " ; : GO 

TO 1960 

390 » ALBANIA 

400 PRINT: CLS2 

410 FOR Y=4 TO 24 

420 FOR X=2 TO 61 

430 SET(X,Y,4) 

440 NEXT X,Y 

450 PRINT @175, CHR* ( 130+48) +CHR* 

( 143+48) +CHR* ( 129+48) ; 

460 PRINT @207, CHR* ( 138+48) +CHR* 

(128) +CHR* (133+48) ; 

470 PRINT @238,CHR*( 137+48) +CHR* 

( 143+48) +CHR* ( 143+48) +CHR* ( 143+4 
8) +CHR*( 134+48) ; 

480 PR I NT @269 , CHR* ( 1 37+48 ) ; : PR I 
NT @275 , CHR* ( 1 34+48 ) ; 
490 PRINT @240, CHR* ( 128) ; : PRINT 
@272,CHR*(128) ; 

500 PR I NT @303 , CHR* ( 1 37+48 ) ; : PR I 
NT (§305 , CHR* ( 1 34+48 ) ; 
510 PRINT @336, CHR* ( 131+48) ; 
520 PR I NT @206 , CHR* ( 1 34+48 ) ; : PR I 
NT @210, CHR* ( 137+48) ;: PRINT @173 



, CHR* ( 134+48) ;: PRINT @179,CHR*(1 
37+48) ; 

530 SET (32, 6, 2) 

540 PRINT @493, "ALBANIA"; : GOTO « 
960 

550 » ALGERIA 

560 PMODE 3,1: PCLS7 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : C 
OLOR 6 

570 LINE (10, 25) -(245, 150) ,PSET,B 
580 LINE (128, 25) -(128, 150) , PSET 
590 PAINT (50, 140) , 6, 6: PAINT ( 140, 
140) ,5,6 

600 CIRCLE (135, 82) ,24,8, 1, . 12, .8 
8 

610 CIRCLE (128, 82) ,30,8, 1, . 1, .90 
620 PAINT (104, 81) ,4, 4: COLOR 4 
630 CIRCLE (140, 81) ,7: PAINT (140, 8 
1),4,4 

640 A*= " ALGER I A" : B*=" S8C5BM85 , 1 7 
0":GOSUB 5080: GOTO 1960 
650 ' ARGENTINA 

660 PMODE 3, l:PCLS6: SCREEN 1,1 :C 
OLOR 5 

670 LINE (10, 25) -(245, 150) , PSET, B 
680 LINE (10, 66) -(245, 66) , PSET 
690 LINE (10, 107) -(245, 107) , PSET 
700 PAINT (128, 38) ,7, 5: PAINT (128, 
145) , 7, 5: PAINT ( 128, 96) , 5, 5 
710 A*= " ARGENT I N A " : B*= " C5S8BM75 , 
170":GOSUB 5080: GOTO 1960 
720 ' AUSTRALIA 

730 PM0DE4, 1 : PCLS: SCREEN 1,1: PMO 
DE3 , 1 : C0L0R6 

740 LINE (10, 25) -(245, 150) , PSET, B 
750 COLOR 8: LINE (10, 25) -(125, 94) 
, PSET, B: PAINT (15, 90) ,7,8 
760 DRAW " S4C8BM64 , 26 ; D30NL54BD7N 
L54D30R7U30NR54BU7NR54U30 " 
770 LINE (10, 25) -(65, 56) , PSET 
780 LINE (10, 29) -(61, 56) , PSET 
790 LINE (125, 25) -(72, 55) , PSET 
800 LINE (125, 29) -(76, 55) , PSET 
810 LINE (72, 63) -(124, 93) , PSET 
820 LINE (72, 67) -(120, 93) , PSET 
830 LINE (64, 63) -(12, 93) , PSET 
840 LINE (64, 67) -(16, 93) , PSET 
850 PAINT (68, 90) ,7,7 
860 PAINT (48, 33) ,6, 8: PAINT (20, 42 
) , 6, 8: PAINT (80, 36) , 6, 8: PAINT ( 108 
, 51 ) , 6, 8: PAINT ( 104, 75) , 6, 8: PAINT 
(80, 84) , 6, 8: PAINT (48, 84) , 6, 8: PAI 
NT (28, 72) ,6,8: C0L0R6: LINE ( 10, 25) 
- ( 125, 94) , PSET, B: PAINT (136, 120) , 
6,6 

870 COLOR 8: CIRCLE (68, 120) ,8: PAI 
NT (68, 120) , 8, 8: CIRCLE ( 195, 141 ) , 5 
: PAINT (195, 141) ,8, 8: CIRCLE (195, 3 
3) , 5: PAINT (195, 33) , 8, 8: CIRCLE ( 14 
8,87) ,5: PAINT (148, 87) ,8, 8: CIRCLE 
(232,87) ,5: PAINT (232, 87) ,8,8: CIR 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 93 



CLE (216, 108) ,3 

880 A*= " AUSTRAL I A " : B*= " C7S8BM75 , 
170":GOSUB 5080: GOTO 1960 
890 * AUSTRIA 

900 PRINT: CLS 3: FOR Y=4 TO 1 1 
910 FOR X=2 TO 61 

920 SET(X, Y,4) :SET(X, Y+8,5) S-SET ( 

X, Y+16,4) :next X,Y 

930 PRINT 6492, "AUSTRIA"; : GOTO 1 

960 

940 ' BELGIUM 

950 PRINT: CLS 6: FOR Y=4 TO 24:F0 
R X=4 TO 21 : RESET (X, Y) : SET (X+19, 
Yj2) :SET<X+38,Y,4) :RESET<X,Y+1) : 
NEXT X,Y 

960 PRINT 6493, "BELGIUM"; : GOTO 1 
960 

970 ' BOLIVIA 

980 PRINT: CLS 5: FOR Y=4 TO 1 1 : FO 

R X=2 TO 6l:SET(X, Y,4) :SET(X, Y+8 

,2) :SET(X, Y+16, 1) :next X,Y 

990 PRINT 6492, "BOLIVIA"; : GOTO 1 

960 

1000 ' BRAZIL 

1010 PMODE 3, l:PCLS 2: SCREEN 1,0 
1020 COLOR l: LINE (10, 25) -(245, 15 
0),PSET,B 

1030 LINE (128, 40) -(228, 90) ,PSET 
1040 LINE- (128, 140) , PSET 



YOUR TRS-80* SPECIALISTS 
IN CANADA 




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ACCEPTED 



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EDMONTON, ALBERTA 

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PHONE 403 - 488-7109 

•TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP. 



1050 LINE-(28,90) ,PSET 
1060 LINE- (128, 40) , PSET 
1070 CIRCLE (128, 90) ,30,3, .9 
1080 COLOR 3 

1090 LINE (107, 76) -(156, 90) , PSET 
1100 LINE (105, 80) -(154, 94) , PSET 
1110 PAINT (124, 98) ,3, 3: PAINT (124 
, 80) , 3, 3: PAINT ( 128, 144) ,1,1 
1120 COLOR 2: CIRCLE (116, 105) ,5, , 
. 9: CIRCLE ( 108, 99) , 3: CIRCLE ( 140, 8 

1) ,4: PSET (104, 97) : PSET (106, 99) :P 
SET (120, 90) : PSET (128, 99) : PSET (13 
2, 103) : PSET (140, 108) : PSET (144, 11 

2) : PSET (104, 90) : PSET (144, 99) 
1130 A*="BRAZIL":B*="S8C1BM90, 17 
5":G0SUB 5080: GOTO 1960 

1140 'CANADA 

1 1 50 PMODE 3,1: PCLS6 : SCREEN 1 , 1 
1160 LINE (10, 25) -(245, 150) , PSET, 
B 

1170 LINE (72, 25) -(184, 150) , PSET, 
B 

1180 PAINT (28, 147) ,8, 8: PAINT (220 
, 147) , 8, 8: PAINT ( 128, 147) , 5, 8: COL 
OR 5: LINE (72, 25) -(184, 150) , PSET, 
B: COLOR 8 

1190 LINE (128, 40) -(118, 50) , PSET: 
LINE- ( 108, 42) , PSET: LINE- ( 120, 75) 
, PSET: LINE- ( 108, 68) , PSET: LINE- ( 1 
04,72) , PSET: LINE- (92, 68) , PSET: LI 
NE- (100, 78) , PSET: LINE- (78,75) , PS 
ETi LINE- (116, 114) , PSET 
1200 LINE- (104, 120) , PSET: LINE- (1 
28, 117) , PSET: LINE- (128, 138) , PSET 
:LINE-(130, 138) , PSET: LINE- (130, 1 
17) , PSET: LINE- (152, 120) , PSET: LIN 
E-(140, 111) , PSET: LINE- (180* 75) ,P 
SET: LINE- ( 156, 78) , PSET: LINE- (168 
,69) , PSET 

1210 LINE- ( 152, 72) , PSET: LINE- ( 14 
8,69) , PSET: LINE- (140, 75) , PSET: LI 
NE-( 152,44) , PSET: LINE- ( 140,51 ) ,P 
SET : L I NE- ( 1 28 , 40 ) , PSET 
1220 PAINT (128, 108) ,8,8 
1 230 A** " CANADA " : B*= " S8C5BM90 , 1 7 
5":G0SUB 5080: GOTO 1960 
1240 'COLOMBIA 

1250 PMODE 3, llPCLS: SCREEN 1,0 
1260 COLOR2:LINE(10,25)-(245, 150 
), PSET, BF: COLOR 3: LINE ( 10, 99) - (2 
46, 123) , PSET, BF:C0L0R4: LINE (10, 1 
24) -(246, 150) , PSET, BF 
1 270 A*= " COLOMB I A " : B*= " S8C3BM80 , 
175":G0SUB 5080: GOTO 1960 
1280 'COSTA RICA 

1290 PRINT: CLS0: FOR Y=4 TO 7: FOR 
X=2 TO 61:SET(X,Y,3) :SET(X, Y+4, 
5) :SET(X, Y+8j4) :SET(X, Y+12,4) : SE 
T(X, Y+16,5) :SET(X, Y+20,3) :NEXT X 
,Y 



94 the RAINBOW October 1983 



1300 PRINT @492, "COSTA RICA"; : GO 
TO 1960 

1310 ' CZECHOSLOVAKIA 
1320 PMODE 3, 1 : PCLS6: SCREEN 1 , 1 
1330 COLORS: LINE (10, 25) -(245, 150 
> , PSET, BF: C0L0R8: LINE ( 10, 90) - (24 
5, 150) , PSET, BF 

1340 COLOR7:LINE(l0,25)-(100,90> 
, PSET: LINE- ( 10, 150) , PSETi LINE- ( 1 
0,25) , PSET: PAINT (44, 90) ,3,3 
1350 A*= "CZECHOSLOVAK I A" : B*="S8C 
5BM35 ,175": GOSUB 5080 : GOTO 1 960 
1360 'DENMARK 

1370 PRINT:CLS4:F0R X=2 TO 6l:SE 
T (X, 16,5) :NEXT X:FOR Y=4 TO 26:S 
ET(20, Y,5) :next Y:FOR Y=0 to 31: 
FOR X=0 TO 2: RESET ( X, Y) : RESET (X+ 

61, Y): next x,y:for Y=0 to 3: for 

X=0 TO 63: RESET ( X, Y) : RESET (X,Y+2 
8):NEXT X,Y 

1380 PRINT 0493, "DENMARK"; : GOTO 
1960 

1390 'FINLAND 

1 400 PM0DE3 , 1 : PCLS6 : SCREEN 1 , 1 
1410 COLORS: LINE (10, 25) -(245, 150 
) , PSET , BF : DRAW " S4C7BM 10,81; R58BR 
1 4R 1 62D 1 4L 1 62BL 1 4L58U 1 4BR58U56R 1 
4D56BD 1 4D56L 1 4U56 " 



1420 PAINT (76, 90) , 7, 7 

1430 A*= " FINLAND" I B*="S8C5BM84, 1 

75": GOSUB 5080: GOTO i960 

1440 'FRANCE 

1450 PRINT: CLS2 1 FOR Y=4 TO 24: FO 
R X=2 TO 20:SET(X,Y,3) :SET(X+21, 
Y,5) :SET(X+41, Y,4) :NEXT X,Y 
1460 PRINT 6493, "FRANCE"; : GOTO 1 
960 

1470 ' WEST GERMANY 

1480 PRINT:CLS7:F0R Y=4 TO ii:fo 

R X=2 TO 61 : RESET (X,Y) :SET(X, Y+8 

,4) :SET(X,Y+16,8) :NEXT X,Y 

1490 PRINT @490, "WEST GERMANY";: 

GOTO 1960 

1500 'GREECE 

1510 PM0DE3 , 1 : PCLS6 : SCREEN 1 , 1 
1520 COLOR7:LINE(20,25)-(235, 146 
) , PSET , BF : DRAW " S4C5BM 1 1 8 , 26 ; R20D 
50R95D20L95D50L20U50L95U20R95U50 
": PAINT ( 128, 90) , 5, 5 
1 530 A*= " GREECE " : B*= " S8C5BM95 , 1 7 
0": GOSUB 5080: GOTO 1960 
1540 'ISRAEL 

1 550 PM0DE3 , 1 : PCLS5 : SCREEN 1 , 1 
1560 C0L0R7: LINE ( 10, 25) - (245, 150 
), PSET, B: LINE (10, 32) -(245, 50) ,PS 
ET,BF:LINE(10, 144) -(245, 126) ,PSE 






NEW! 

ALL OTHER SPACE GAME GRAPHICS 
ARE NOW OBSOLETE ! 
WE HAVE DEVELOPED o I 
THE COLORTROLL! (gg 

Always fully controlled colors agains} 
black of space! 

STELLAR SEARCH 

Tape $27.95, Disk $30.95 

The largest and best graphics adventure 
ever. Graphics like color paintings! As 
Captain of the Enterprise you must estab- 
lish contact with an unknown race while the 
enemy tries to stop you. A total of over 
86K in 4 parts for 32K extended, giving a 
variety of game experience! 

CRYSTAL REVENGE 

Tape $18.95, Disk $20.95 
An action arcade game where you defend your 
Homeworld from the Robot Ships. You can 
win only if you plan your defense. See 
reviews Rainbow - April, and CCN - August 
1983. 16K extended. 



BASIC MANUAL Vty/> 
FOR THE COCO! ^ 

TOP DOWN BASIC 

by Ken Skier 
An excellent introduction to structured 
BASIC written specifically for the color 
computer. Carefully structured programs 
are a must for advanced BASIC programming. 
$14.95 



NEW! WORD PROCESSOR 

by Nelson Software 
20% Off Newest Version 

SUPER COLOR WRITER II™ 

This is the best word processor for the 
CoCo, and we are left with tape version not 
picked up by a customer. This program gets 
up to 51K storage on the 32K F-board. One 
only from stock for 32K . Started up twice 
for demo, full warranty. Usual price 
$69.95, this one $55.95. 

call to reserve (1~215)-682-6855 

Software Authors Wanted-Highest Royalties Paid 



$1.25 Per Order 
Postage & 
Handling 

All Orders Receive 
10% Voucher Oh Order 




OWL-WARE 

P.O. Box 116 R 
Mertztown. PA. 
19539 



PA Res Include 6% Tax DEALERS INQUIRIES INVITED 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 95 



T,BF 

1570 LINE (128, 60) -(100, 105) ,PSET 
: LINE- (155, 105) ,PSET:LINE-(128,6 
0) ,PSET 

1580 LINE (128, 118) -(100, 75) , PSET 

:LINE-(156,75) , PSET: LINE- ( 128, 11 

8) ,PSET: PAINT (128, 190) ,6,7 

1 590 A*= " I SRAEL " : B*= " S8C5BM90 , 1 7 

5":B0SUB 5080: GOTO I960 

1600 'ITALY 

1610 PRINT:CLS3:F0R Y=4 TO 245FO 
R X=4 TO 21:SET(X,Y, 1) :SET(X+19, 
Y, 5) : SET (X+38, Y, 4) : NEXT X,Y 
1620 PRINT 6493, "ITALY"; : GOTO 19 
60 

1630 ' JAPAN 

1640 PMODE4 , 1 : PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 1 : PMO 
DE3, 1 

1650 C0L0R8: LINE ( 10, 25) - (245, 150 

) , PSET, BF: C0L0R7: CIRCLE ( 128, 90) , 

40, , .9: PAINT (128, 90) ,7,7 

1660 A*="JAPAN":B*=" S8C7BM98 ,175 

":GOSUB 5080: GOTO I960 

1670 'ENGLAND-UNITED KINGDOM 

1680 PM0DE4, 1 : PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 1 : PMO 

DE3, 1 

1690 COLOR6:LINE(10,25)-(246, 145 
) , PSET , BF : DRAW " S4C7BM 1 22 , 25 ; D55L 
1 12D10R1 12D55R12U55R1 12U10L1 12U5 



THE FILE FIXER 

The all-in-one file maintenance program. 

• Machine language, Ext. Bas. not required. 

> Auto-configures for 32K or 64K. 

• Copy cassette to disk, or disk to cassette. 

► Load as many programs as your memory will hold, then copy all to 
cassette. 

» Gopys virtually any program. 

• Will remove most autostart loaders. 

• Append an autostart loader to your program that checks for, and 
switches to 64K mode. 

• Fixes programs that load below $1000 so that they will work on a 
disk system. 

• Make a tape directory and save it to tape. 

• Change name, load address and execution address of machine 
language program. 



Price: $14.95 



CLASSROOM SPELLING QUIZ 

This basic program was written for grades K-8 as an intro. to 
computers and a classroom spelling aid. Designed for 1 student at 
home, or a classroom full. Parents & teachers add words that the 
students are learning. 

Personal interraction, reward for hi score. Requirements: 
Extended Basic and a cassette recorder with remote motor control. 



Price: $9.95 



Include $1.00 per tape postage and handling. 
Illinois residents include 5.25% sales tax. 

Send check or money order to: 
DP Development / 115 St. Barbara 
Cahokia, Illinois 62206 



5L12": PAINT (128, 90) ,7,7 

1 700 C0L0R8 : DRAW " S4C8BM 1 2 1 , 25 ; ND 

52L1D52BD1L1 10D1R1 1 0BR 1 BD 1 3D53L 1 

U53L1 10U1R1 10BR14D53R1U53R1 10D1L 

1 10BU13R1 10U1L1 1 1U53R1D53" 

1710 C0L0R8I LINE (10,25)- (246, 145 

) ,PSET,B 

1720 C0L0R8: LINE (16, 25) -(122,78) 
, PSET: LINE- ( 100, 78) , PSET: LINE- ( 1 
0, 33) , PSET: PAINT ( 108, 72) ,8, 8: PSE 
T( 123, 78, 4) 

1730 C0L0R7: LINE ( 10, 26) - ( 1 15, 78) 
, PSET: LINE- ( 106, 78) , PSET: LINE- ( 1 
0,30) , PSET: LINE- (10, 26) , PSET: PAI 
NT (80, 63) ,7,7 

1740 COLORS: LINE (136, 96) -(244, 15 

0) , PSET: LINE (152, 93) -(255, 144) ,P 

SET: PAINT ( 188, 1 17) ,8, 8 

1750 C0L0R7:LINE(146,93)-(248, 14 

4) , PSET: LINE- (240, 144) , PSET: LINE 

-(138,93) , PSET: LINE- (146, 93) , PSE 

T:PAINT(196, 120) ,7,7 

1760 C0L0R8:LINE(136,75)-(236,25 

) , PSET: LINE (152, 78) -(246, 31) , PSE 

T: PAINT ( 188, 54) , 8,8 

1770 C0L0R7:LINE(238,26)-(246,26 

) , PSET: LINE- ( 145, 77) , PSET: LINE- ( 

138,77) , PSET: LINE- (240, 26) ,PSET: 

PAINT (188, 54) ,7,7 

1780 C0L0R8:LINE(118,96)-(14, 148 
), PSET: LINE (99, 93) -(3, 141) , PSET: 
PAINT(64, 117) ,8,8 

1790 C0L0R7:LINE(116,94)-(17, 144 
), PSET: LINE- (10, 144) , PSET: LINE- ( 
110,94) , PSET: LINE- (116, 94) , PSET: 
PAINT(48, 126) ,7,7 

1800 C0L0R6:LINE(9 ,25) -(247, 145 
) ,PSET,B 

1810 LINE (10, 25) -(246, 145) , PSET, 
B 

1820 PAINTU0, 146) , 5, 6: PAINT (4, 1 
40) , 5, 6: PAINT (248, 140) , 5, 6 
1830 C0L0R5:LINE(8,25)-(246, 145) 
,PSET,B 

1840 A*="UNITED K I N6D0M " : B*= " S8C 

8BM40 ,165": GOSUB 5080 : A*= " -ENGL A 

ND- " : B*= " S8C8BM73 , 1 85 " : GOSUB 508 

0:GOTO 1960 

1850 ' UNITED STATES 

1860 PM0DE4, 1 : PCLS0: SCREEN 1 , 1 : PM 

0DE3, 1 

1870 COLOR8:LINE(10,25)-(245, 150 
) , PSET , BF : C0L0R7 : FOR Y=34 . 6 TO 1 
41 STEP9. 6: LINE ( 1 1 , Y) - (244, Y) , PS 

et:next Y 

1880 COLOR7:LINE(10,25)-(245, 150 
), PSET, B: FOR Y=30.6 TO 146 STEP 
19. 2: PAINT ( 128, Y) ,7,7:NEXT Y 
1890 COLOR6:LINE(10,25)-(108,92) 
,PSET,BF 



96 the RAINBOW October 1983 





KEYBOARDS 

by Macrotron 

The Premium Keyboard 

All the features of our popular 
Professional Keyboard: 

* No gluing, soldering, or cutting — plugs right in 

* Four function keys complete the matrix 

* High Quality construction assures years of 
trouble-free operation 

* Complete documentation included 

PLUS these exciting new features: 

Lower profile than the Professional 

* Extended Radio Shack layout 
— * Silk-smooth feel — 

uses ALPS keyswitches 

Our Versakey software enhances 
the keyboard's utility 

* Auto-repeat, n-key rollover and 

type-ahead 
Fl becomes DEFINE, 
F4 becomes CTRL 

May define up to 128 keys (including 
their SHIFT, CTRL, and SHIFT-CTRL 
combinations) as strings of up to 80 
characters each. 

* Supplied on cassette, may be copied to disk 



'Have Joste ship yours today!" 



GRAND OPENING SALE 

The Premium Keyboard $89.95 

The Professional Keyboard (including software) $49.95 

Versakey software SPECIAL! FREE with Keyboard! 

Both keyboards carry a 90-day limited warranty. 

Please specify your computer's PC board type if known. Otherwise, specify the complete catalog number 
and serial number. 

We have moved to a larger facility in order to serve you better. Please note our new address and phone number. 

Micronix Systems Corporation 

8147 Delmar 
St. Louis, MO 63130 
(314) 721-7969 

Terms: Prepaid check or money order, Mastercard or Visa. 
Shipping Charges: U.S. $2.00, Canada $5.00, COD $3.50 (No COD'S to Canada). 



ATTENTION DISK USERS 



ARE YOU TIRED OF I/O ERRORS AND LOST DIRECTORY FAILURES 




GOLD EDGE CONNECTORS 

When these edge connectors are attached to the Color Computer/System 100 Disk controllers, the dreaded 
I/O error and lost directory failures may be virtually eliminated. These problems can be caused by oxidation of 
the tinned connectors on the disk controller; which can cause a poor electrical contact between the disk 
controller and the computer. The installation of these connectors DOES REQUIRE SOLDERING. THESE 
GOLD CONNECTORS ARE SOLDERED DIRECTLY TO THE EDGE CONNECTORS OF THE DISK CON- 
TROLLER. INSTALLATION OF THESE CONNECTORS MAY VOID THE WARRANTY ON THE DISK 
CONTROLLER. 

KIT INCLUDES TWO CONNECTORS AND COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS 
FOR EASY INSTALLATION. 

PRICE: $ 17.95 + $ 1.00 shipping (Installation not included) 

* ASK YOUR DEALER ABOUT THEIR INSTALLATION SERVICES * 

CUSTOM INSTALLATION (includes connectors) 
rainbow $ 35.95 + $ 4.00 return shipping 

CERTIFICATION ^ ^ 9 

SEAL 

INSTALLATION AND UPS 2nd DAY SERVICE WITHIN 5 DAYS OF 
RECEIPT OF DISK CONTROLLER 



BRANTEX, INC. 

COLOR SOFTware services div. 

P. O. Box 1708 
Greenville, Texas 75401 




TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214)454-3674 
COD/VISA/MASTERCARD 

Texas residents add 5% tax 
Foreign orders add $2 per order 
QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



ATTENTION DEALERS: WE OFFER THE BEST DEALER PLANS AVAILABLE 



GOLDLABEL 

BLANK CASSETTES 



TM 




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SCHOOL/CLUB DISCOUNTS 



IF YOU ARE SERIOUS ABOUT SAVING PROGRAMS AND 
DATA ON TAPE, THEN "GO FOR THE GOLD" 



1 dozen C 1 0 $ 8.50 + $ 2.50 shipping 

2 dozen C-10 $ 16.00 + $ 3.50 shipping 

1 dozen C-30 $ 12.50 + $ 2.50 shipping 

2 dozen C-30 $ 23.50 + $ 3.50 shipping 

INDIVIDUAL CASSETTE STORAGE BOXES (SOLD ONLY WITH CASSETTES) $2.40 PER DOZEN 



CASSETTE CADDY 




HOLDS 12 CASSETTES 
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FREE SHIPPING WHEN PURCHASED WITH CASSETTES 



BRANTEX, INC. 

COLOR SOFTware services div. 



P, O. Box 1708 
Greenville, Texas 75401 




TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 
COD/ VISA/MASTERCARD 

Texas residents add 5% lax 
Foreign orders add $2 per order 
QUANTITY OISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



ATTENTION DEALERS: WE OFFER THE BEST DEALER PLANS AVAILABLE 



1900 COLORS: LINE (10, 25) -(245, 150 
) ,PSET,B 

1910 FOR Y=31 TO 94 STEP 14: FOR 
X=18 TO 98 STEP 16: PSET (X, Y, 8) : I 
F X<96 THEN PSET (X+8, Y+8, 8) 
1920 NEXT X,Y 

1930 A*="UNITED STATES OF":B*="C 
6S8BM 1 8 , 1 68 11 : GOSUB 5080 : A*= " AMER 
I CA" : B*= " C7S8BM87 , 1 88 " : GOSUB 508 
0:GOTO 1960 
1940 ' 
1950 ' 

1960 IF JP=1 THEN 220 ELSE K*=IN 
KEY*: IF K*="" THEN 1960 ELSE GOT 
O 80 

5000 ' ***CHRACTER GEN.<2>*** 
♦SUBROUTINE* 

5010 ' 

5020 'SUBROUTINE MAIN PROGRAM BY 

J. S. PARA VAT I DATA FROM 

TRS-80 MICROCOMPUTER NEWS 4/82 
5030 ' 

5040 DIM X*(28> , Y*(28> 
5050 FOR N=l TO 28 
5060 READ X«(N),Y«(N> 
5070 NEXT N: RETURN 
5080 DRAW B$ 
5090 FOR J=l TO LEN(A*> 
5100 FOR L=l TO 28 




100 the RAINBOW October 1983 



5110 IF MID*(A*, J, 1)=X*(L) THEN 

DRAW Y$(L> 

5120 NEXT L 

5130 NEXT J 

5140 RETURN 

5150 DATA " ","BM+7,0" 

5160 DATA "A", "U4E2F2D2NL4D2; BM+ 

3,0" 

5170 DATA "B", "U6R3F1D1G1NL3F1D1 
GlL3;BM+7,0" 

5180 DATA "C", "BM+1,-0;H1U4E1R2F 

1 ; BM+0, +4; G1L2; BM+6, 0" 

5 1 90 DATA " D" , " U6R3F 1 D4G 1 L3 ; BM+7 

,0" 

5200 DATA "E", " NR4U3NR2U3R4 ; BM+3 
, +6" 

52 1 0 DATA " F " , " U3NR2U3R4 ; BM+3 , +6 

II 

5220 DATA "6" , " BM+ 1 , -0 ; H 1 U4E 1 R2F 
1 5 BM+0, +2? NL1D2G1L25 BM+6, 0" 
5230 DATA "H" , "U3NU3R4NU3D3; BM+3 
,0" 

5240 DATA " I " , "BM+l , 0; R1NR1U6NL1 
Rl;BM+4,+6" 

5250 DATA "J", "BM+0. -J : F1R1E1U5N 
LlRl5BM+3,6" 

5260 DATA "K" , "U3NU3R1NE3F3; BM+3 
,0" 

5270 DATA "L" , "NU6R4U1 ; BM+3, +1 " 
5280 DATA "M" , " U6F2ND 1 E2D6 ; BM+3 , 
0" 

5290 DATA "N" , "U6F1D1F2D1F1NU6; B 
M+3,0" 

5300 DATA "O", "BM+l , 0; H1U4E1R2F1 
D4GlL2;BM+6,0" 

5310 DATA "P", "U6R3FlDlGlL3;BM+7 

,3" 

5320 DATA "Q" , "BM+l , 0» H1U4E1R2F1 

D3G1NH1NF1G1L1 ; BM+6, 0" 

5330 DATA " R " , " U6R3F 1 D 1 G 1 L2NL 1 F3 

;BM+3,0" 

5340 DATA "S" , "BM+0, -1 ; F1R2E1U1H 

1L2H1U1E1R2F1 ; BM+3, +5" 

5350 DATA " T " , " BM+2 , +0 » U6NL2R2 ; B 

M+3,+6" 

5360 DATA " U " , " BM+0 , - 1 ; NU5F 1 R2E 1 
U5; BM+3, 6" 

5370 DATA "V" , "BM+0, -6; D2F1D1F1N 

D1E1U1E1U2; BM+3, +6" 

5380 DATA " W " , " NU6E2NU 1 F2U6 ; BM+3 

,6" 

5390 DATA " X " , "U1E4U1 ; BM-4, 0; D1F 
4Dl?BM+3,0" 

5400 DATA " Y " , " BM+0 , -6 i D2F2ND2E2 
U2SBM+3,6 M 

5410 DATA "Z", "NR4U1E4U1L45BM+7, 
6" 

5420 DATA " - " , " BM+0 , -3 ; R4 S BM+3 , + 

3" 

<^ 



PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-1 00 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 




GREAT NEW ADVENTURE 

ADVENTURE IN WONDERLAND 

100% MACHINE LANGUAGE 

We are going to go out on a limb here. We believe 
very strongly that this is the BEST adventure 
game ever written for the color computer. That's 
right, we said the BEST — no exceptions!! 

Adventure in Wonderland is 100% machine lan- 
guage, and completely fills a 32K machine. The 
program has a vocabulary of literally H UNDREDS 
of words, and uses a full "ELIZA" type of intelli- 
gence simulator. That means you can give com- 
mands and conduct conversations in WHOLE 
SENTENCES if you like!! Try that with any other 
adventure! 



This is a fantasy world peopled with the creatures of Lewis Carroll's 
"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland", "Through the Looking Glass", an 
ing of the Snark" have been blended into a delightful 
landscape. You will play the role of Alice as you wander 
through the garden of live flowers, the treacherous 
Tulgey Wood, the chessboard landscape, the 
wabe, and all the other familiar Wonderland 
scenes. You will meet, and talk with, the 
beamish Tweedle Dee and Tweedle Dum, 
the mimsy Mock Turtle, the uffish Duchess, 
the immortal Humpty Dumpty, and 
a dozen other Wonderland charac- 
ters. And, of course, you will chit-chat 
with the Cheshire Cat!! 

As we said, you have a vocabulary of 
HUNDREDS of words — not the usual 
stingy 30 or 40. The program's response 
to these words will vary depending 
on the situation, where you are, who you 
are talking with, what you have said in the past, and the way in 
which the words are combined. Your task is to become Queen, 
save Wonderland from the Snark, and manage to return home. 
You may feel completely trapped in certain places in Wonderland, 
but there is always a way out ... in fact, there are always (at least) three 
exits from each trap. An open mind, a pure heart, and a touch of Wonderland 
madness will keep you from despair!! 

This is not an easy adventure, and will provide ample challenge for 
the most experienced adult players, but you will have so „"v~ 
much fun conversing with the denisons of Wonderland 
that you may not want to leave anyway. We want to repeat 
what we said above, because we really mean it WE 
BELIEVE THIS TO BE THE VERY BEST ADVENTURE 
EVER WRITTEN FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER. After 
you have tried it, you'll think so too! 100% machine 
language — Fully 32K long. Tape ■ $24.95; Disk - $29.95 



magination. 
d"The Hunt- 



Programs are available on AMDEK cartridges • 
to the disk price. 



add $5.00 




Your personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 
on $50.00 or larger orders). AZ residents add 7% sales 
tax. Orders shipped within two days. 



Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Send Order To: PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9234 E. 30th Street 
Tucson, Arizona 85710 
(602) 886-1505 



Graphics Special 
The '178' POKE 



By Jim Hall 



In the past few months there have been quite a few 
articles showing you how it is possible to display several 
colors on the high-resolution screens using complicated 
programs. Well, I have found how to display not only the 
four basic colors, but also 252 different patterns on the hi-res 
screens. Even better, no special program is necessary. 
Simply manipulate memory location 178. Almost any 
Extended BASIC graphics command located after POKEing 
a number into 178 in a program will then use the pattern 
specified by the number poked to produce a spectacular 
effect! Here's a short program to show you what I'm talking 
about: 

10 PM0DE3, 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : PCLS 

20 X=RND<126> : Y=RND<96> : X2=255-X 

: Y2= 1 9 1 - Y : W=RND < X ) : H=RND < Y ) 

30 N=RND < 255 ): POKE 178, N 

40 LINE <X, Y) - <X-W, Y+H) , PSET, BF 

50 LINE < X2, Y) — < X2+W, Y+H) , PSET, BF 

60 LINE <X, Y2)-<X-W,Y2-H> , PSET, BF 

70 LINE<X2, Y2)~<X2+W, Y2-H) ,PSET, 

BF 

80 GOTO20 

Line 30 does the trick. It POKEs a random number into 
location 178. All graphics commands after this line will use 
the pattern corresponding number located in 178 just as if it. 
were one of the standard colors. 

As I said, this method can be used for almost any graphics 
command (PCLS is the only one I could find that would not 
work). The following example shows how the PAINT com- 
mand will use location 178. 

1 0 PM0DE4 , 1 : SCREEN 1,1: PCLS 

20 COLOR 1,0 

30 CIRCLE < 126, 96) ,50 

40 POKE 178,56 



(Jim Hall is a senior at the Columbus Academy and 
has been working with the Color Computer for 3 
years.) 



50 PAINT < 126, 96) , , 1 
60 GOTO 60 

I did not specify the paint color in line 50. This forces 
Extended BASIC to use the number in location 178 (56 in this 
case) to specify what pattern to use. Incidentally, if the 
following line were typed in: 

45 COLOR 1,0 

the number stored in location 178 would be changed to a 1 
by Extended BASIC and the circle would be filled in with 
white. 

You're probably anxious to start using this new capability 
in your own programs by now, but are wondering if there is 
any logical connection between the number you choose to 
put in 178 and the pattern that results. The way Extended 
BASIC interprets the value is hard to explain — the "bit patt- 
ern" of the number that is stored in 1 78 is not directly used to 
fill in shapes and so there doesn't appear to be any logical 
connection. However, I created a program to display the 255 
different patterns and colors to help you choose which ones 
are best for your program. 



. . I have found how to display not only the 
four basic colors, but also 252 different patt- 
erns on the hi-res screens. Even better, no 
special program is necessary. Simply manip- 
ulate memory location 178. " 



Pressing the arrow keys will move the blinking box onto 
different patterns. Pressing "?" (or "/ ") will print the number 
to be POKEd into 178 to produce the pattern inside the 
blinking box. Press any key to return to the display. Pressing 
"b" will fill a large square with the selected pattern. Pressing 
the spacebar will fill a circle, box, and draw some lines using 



102 the RAINBOW October 1983 



TH6 PROGRRm /TORE 



Guarantee: We will ship your order for items in this ad within 48 working hours or you get a 20% rebate. 
(Books/non-released items excluded. Gift certificate issued. Offer expires October 31, 1983) 




ROBOTTACK 

from Intracolor 
ZAP 'EM with your fast-firing ray gun! You're the super- 
human fighting off attacking robots to save humanity from 
destruction. Super powers enable you to move and shoot 
in any direction. This ultra fast arcade action with HiRes 
color graphics will thrill you with excitement. For 1 or 2 
players, top 5 scores displayed, joysticks required. 

14814TRS80 
Color 16K Tape, 
$24.95 



COLOR DISKETTES 

GET ONE COLOR DISKETTE FOR ONLY $1.00 WITH 
THIS COUPON AT ANY OF OUR PARTICIPATING 
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The whole disk is colored — not just the envelope! It's so 
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#40262 Green #33242 Orange 

#37460 Red #29865 Yellow $34 ' 50 

#33534 Blue 



#18515 Assorted Colors 

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$39.50 



LANCER 




by Rick La Mont from Spectral AssociatesW^^Wy^^^ 
The revolutionary new JOUST game! Riding on a huge- 
winged bird, tension mounts as you lower your magic 
lance. The enemy is meaner in each of the 15 levels of 
difficulty Beware of the deadly dragons touch, floating is- 
lands, lava pits and the Invincible Deadly Buzzard. Joys- 
ticks Required. 

31239 TRS80 Color 32K 
Tape $21 .95 



TYPING 
TUTOR 




by Ken Kalish from Tom Mix • 
Swing through the air with the greatest of ease! Jump over 
the pits, swing on the vine, watch out for alligators and 
beware of scorpions. There are many "pitfalls" in this ar- 
cade action quest for hidden treasure. Another high resolu- 
tion graphics game from the makers of "The King". 

261 21 TRS80 Color 1 6K Tape $27*3 
20% OFF SALE 
Now til Oct. 31 $22.36 



by Bob Sleath from Spectral Associates 
Do you hunt and peck? For beginners or rusty typists, 
become proficient in touch typing at your own pace. In- 
structional program has 15 lessons stressing eye-finger 
coordination, accuracy and speed. The last lesson points 
out errors so you know which characters you miss. 
Smooth free-flowing typing is simple with this tutorial. Ex- 
tended Basic Required. 

33006 TRS80 Color 
16K(EB) Tape $19.95 



ALPHA 
SEARCH 




I 



YOUR 

COLOR 

COMPUTER 




by Douglas Mosher from Sybex Books 
Find out how to use your computer to simplify routine 
tasks. Complete with cartoons, diagrams, photographs, a 
BASIC thesaurus, command reference section and de- 
scriptions of available software and peripherals. Have fun 
while you learn to use your color computer. 

44378 SOFTCOVER BOOK $1 2.95 



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What a brain teaser! Guide a space ship across the sky 
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find needed letters! Race against a timer or play against a 
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COMPUTER 
REFERENCE SYSTEM 



by Scott Wright & Guier Wright from Wright Books 
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by Tim Purves from Computer Shack 
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FRENCH, SPANISH or 
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Creative foreign language vocabulary games for learning 
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user modified to change the words and keep building your 
fluency. Requires Extended Basic. 

28932 FRENCH TRS80 Color 16K (EB) 
Tape $1 1 .95 

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Tape $11.95 



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the pattern. (Notice that when any key is pressed, the display 
will "scroll" using the subroutine starting at line 600. This 
may also be useful in your own programs.) Pressing "M" will 
switch the display between PMODE4 and PMODE 3, and 
pressing "S" will switch the screen number. 

I'm sure you see the potential now of this technique. I can 
only guess why Radio Shack did not include this capability 
in Extended basic. Perhaps they thought it would confuse 
the beginning programmer. 

The listing: 

3 PCLEAR8 

4 *CLS 
7 M-3:S-0 

1 0 PMODEM , 1 : SCREEN 1 , S : PCLS 
50 FOR X-12T0255 STEP 17 
60 FOR Y-2TO190 STEP 10 
70 POKE 178,N:N-N+l: IFN-256 
X-999: Y-999: GOTO90 
80 LINE(X, Y)-(X+10,Y+6) ,PSET, BF 
90 NEXTY, X 
95 SOUND 100, 1 
100 H-0:V»0 

X«12+H*17:Y«1+V*10 
LINE(X,Y)-<X+12,Y+8),PSET,B 
A4-INKEY* 

LINE < X, Y) - (X+12, Y+8) , PRESET, 



THEN 



110 
120 
130 
140 
B 

150 
155 
160 



I FA*- ""THEN 120 
N-H*19+V 

I FA4-CHR* < 8 ) THENH" 



'H-l: IFH<0T 




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HENH-0 

170 IFA*-CHR«(9)THENH-H+1: IFHM3 
THENH-13 

1 80 I FA*— CHR* ( 94 ) THEN V-V- 1 : I F V< 0 
THENV-0 

1 90 I FA4-CHR* (10) THENV-V+ 1 : I FV > 1 
8THENV-18 

191 I FN >255THENSOUND200 , 1 : GOTO 1 1 
0 

195 IF A*-"/"ORA*-"?"THEN300 

200 IFA*-CHR*(32) THEN 400 

205 I FA*— " B " THEN PMODEM, 5: SCREEN 

1 , S: PCLS: P0KE178, N: LINE (76, 46) - ( 

176, 146) , PSET, BF: FORQ-1TO200: NEX 

T:6OTO600 

207 I F A*- " M " THENM-M+ 1 : I FM-5THENM 
-3: PMODEM, 1 : SCREEN 1 , S: ELSEPMODEM 
, l:SCREENl,S 

208 I FA*- "3" THENS-S+ 1 : I FS-2THENS 
-0 : SCREEN 1 , S ELSESCREEN 1 , S 

210 QOTO110 
300 PRINTN 

310 I F I NKEY*— " " THEN3 1 0ELSESCREEN 
1,S:QOTO110 

400 PMODEM , 5 : SCREEN 1 , S : PCLS : COLO 

RM+1, l: CIRCLE (126, 96) ,65 

410 POKE 1 78, N 

420 PAINT (126, 96) , ,M+1 

430 LINE (10, 10) -(70, 40), PSET, BF 

440 FOR J-0TO180STEP35:LINE(40+J 

, 180) - (255, 180-J ) , PSET: NEXT 

450 I F I NKE Y*» " " THEN450ELSE6OTO60 

0 

600 FORZ— 5T01STEP— 1 

610 PMODEM , Z : SCREEN 1 , S : FORQ— 1 T03 

00: NEXTQ, Z 

620 GOTO110 ^ 

Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 

Contributions to the RAINBOW are welcome from 
everyone. We like to run a variety of programs which will be 
useful/ helpful/ fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or d isk and it is best 
to make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but we do not have time to key in programs. All 
programs should be supported by some editorial 
commentary, explaining how the program works. We're 
much more interested in how your submission works and 
runs than how you developed it. Programs should be 
learning experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of criteria. 
Those wishing remuneration should so state when making 
submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed infor- 
mation on making submissions, please send a SASE to: 
Submissions Editor, the RAINBOW, P.O. Box 209, 
Prospect, KY 40059. We will send you some more 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently 
submitted to another publication. 



104 



the RAINBOW October 1983 



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S3Aiua *sia SBAitia asia saAiaa asia saAiua »sia S3aihq asia saAiua >isia saAiaa xsia saAiua msiq 



EDUCATION 



RAINBOW 



A Personalized Certificate 
Can Reward Young Computerists 

By Steve Blyn 



The computer revolution has finally materialized in many schools and homes. Many 
children are involved in learning either computer literacy or basic computer 
programming. This article will present one way to reward these children for their 
efforts and accomplishments. 

Rewards are a wonderful way of encouraging children to further learning. The rewards 
do not always have to be glamorous or expensive. Sometimes the simple is more effective 
than the complex. My three-year-old daughter would much rather receive a bag of 29 
cent balloons than an expensive doll. (I know from past experience lhat 1 won't get away 
with that loo much longer.) A certificate generated bylhecomputercan perhapssimilarly 
be more effective a reward than something bought by an adult in a store. 

How are the children learning material about computers and programming? There are 
several fine possibilities. They can be using the manuals, a good text, or perhaps the 
teacher may have developed his/her own curriculum. Whichever the case may be, Tm 
surethat the long range aim is divided into certain steps or goalsalongthe way. There are 
usually chapters or units to be mastered. When these stepsare reached, thecompulercan 
generate a card or certificate to reward those particular accomplishments. 

It is my suggestion that certain key expressions can be developed by your kids for their 
accomplishments. The expressions will have more meaning if the kids think of them on 
their own. A little contest to think up the best titles or expressions may be a good idea. 
Some of the suggestions from kids that I work with are: COMTUTER WIZARD, 
COMPUTER W1ZZ, COMPUTER ACE WIZARD, COMPUW1Z, COMPUNUT, 
CH 1 PS 1 , 2 or 3, FIRST, SECOND or TH I R D CLASS OPERATOR , Of course, such 
titles only matter if they have some meaning and importance to the kids. The particular 
message or messages that you choose can be as individual as are the kids. 

The certificate that I will illustrate is for the logo WIZARD. With a little doodling, you 
may change this to any other logo. You will need a printer to get a hard copy of the 
certificate. A low resolution and a high resolution program listing are given. 

Any model printer that interfaces with any CoCo model will produce the low resolu- 
tion version. Line 40 of the low res version asks if you have your primer turned on. If you 
enter "N"you will see the card on the screen. If you press **Y"* you will get a printout of the 
card. Run the program as many times as you want to keep making cards. If you press "Y" 
and your printer is not on, then the computer will hang up. Don't panic: Either lurn the 
printer on or turn the computer off and start again. 

The high resolution version can be viewed on any Extended BASIC CoCo. A printer 
with graphics ability and a screen dump program are necessary to printout out this 
version. Lines 350 — 570 set up the strings lo draw the necessary letters. Lines 70—320 
draw out the certificate. 

1 hope lhat your children enjoy using ihese certificates. Both you and they will receive 
satisfaction in designing your own reward cards. We at Computer Island would love to 
see ihe results of your creations. 



BUM 



i 



PS 




the RAINBOW October 1983 



Listing 1: 



Y 180 


01BE 


! 340 


03F9 


END 


067C 



10 REM "COMPUTER LICENSE" 

20 REM "STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER I SLA 

ND, 1983 

30 CLEAR 1000 

40 60T0 360 

50 PMODE 4, l:PCLS: SCREEN 1,0: COLO 
R7 

60 REM "DRAW AND PAINT THE BORDER 

70 LINE (5, 5) -(250, 185) ,PSET,B 

80 LINE (10, 10)- (245, 180) , PSET,B 

90 LINE (15, 15) -(240, 175),PSET,B 

100 PAINT(14, 14) ,7,7 

110 REM "DRAW THE WORDS" 

120 DRAW "A2S8BM32,25"+C*+0*-H1*+ 

P*+U*+T*+E*+R* 

130 DRAWDD*+DD*+L*+I*+C*+E*+N*+S 
*+E* 

140 WI*=W*+I*+Z*+A*+R*+D* 

150 DRAW"A2S16BM73,45"+WI* 

1 60 DRAW » BM74 , 45 " +W I ♦ 

170 DRAW"BM75,45"+WI» 

180 REM "BOX THE WIZARD" 

190 LINE (40, 40) -(215, 70) ,PSET,B 

200 LINE (43, 43) -(212, 73) ,PSET,B 

210 REM "DRAW THE REST OF THE WOR 

DS" 

220 DRAW"A2S4BM30, 100"+T*+H*+I*+ 
S*+DD* : DRAWDD*+C*+E*+R*+T*+ I *+F* 
+I*+E*+S* 

230 DRAWDD*+DD*+T*+H*+A*+T* 

240 LINE (160, 110) -(220, 110) , PSET 

250 DRAW"A2S4BM30, 120"+C*+A*+N*+ 

DD*+DD*+R*+E*+A*+D*+DD* 

260 DRAW+DD*+A*+N*+D*+DD*+DD*+W* 

+R*+I*+T*+E* 

270 DRAW+DD*+DD*+I*+N*+DD*+DD*+B 
*+A*+S*+I*+C* 

280 PSET ( 225 , 1 25 ) : REM " PER I OD " 
290 DRAW " BM50 , 1 60 " +D*+A*+T*+E* 
300 LINE (35, 155) -(85, 155) , PSET 
310 DRAW " BM 1 50 , 1 60 " +A*+P*+P*+R*+ 
0*+V*+E*+D*+DD*+DD*+B*+Y* 
320 LINE (140, 155) -(220, 155) , PSET 
330 REM "THE LETTERS ARE DRAWN OU 
T HERE" 

340 GOTO 340: REM "END OF PR06RAM" 
350 REM "LETTER INS BY J. KOLAR" 
360 A*= " BEHUNU2R4NU2D6L2BGBL6 " 
370 B*= " BEHENR3HER3D4L3BGBL6 " 
380 C**"BU4ER2FD2GL2HBG2BL4" 
390 D*-"BEHU2ER3D4L3BGBL6" 
400 E*= " BER3U2NL2U2L4BG5BL2 " 
410 F*«"BUR4U2NL3U2BG5BL5" 
420 H*-"BUU2NU2R4NU2D2BGBL9" 



430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
580 



Listing 2: 



I *» " BR2BUU4BU2BD7BL8 " 
L*« " BU5R4D4BGBL9 " 
M*» " BUNU4E2F2U4BG5BL5 " 
N*= " BUU4F4U4BG5BL5 " 
Of- " BEHU2ER2FD2GL2BGBL6 " 
P*= " BER3U2NU2L36NFBG2BL4 " 
R*= " BEHERNH2R2NU2D2L3BGBL6 ' 
S*> " BU2FR2EHL2HER2FBG4BL6 " 
T*= " BUR2NU4R2BDBL 1 0 " 
U*« " BUU3ER2FD3B6BL9 " 
V*= " BUU2E2F2D2B8BL9 " 
W*« " BUU4F2E2D4B8BL9 " 
Y*« " BUE2NU2F2B6BL9 " 
Z**"BUNR4E4L4B64BDBL2" 
DD*« " BE4BUBG5BL5 " ' SPACER 
80TO 50 




10 REM "COMPUTER LICENSE LOW RES" 
20 REM "STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER ISLAN 
D" 

30 CLS 

40 PRINTS0, "DO YOU HAVE A PRINTE 
R TURNED ON": INPUT A* 
50 IF LEFT* (A*, 1)="Y" THEN K=-2 
ELSE IF LEFT* (A*, 1 ) -"N" THEN K=0 
ELSE 40 

60 PRINT#K," 



70 PRINT#K, " ! 
CENSE ! " 

80 PR I NT#K , " ! 
***** ! " 

90 PRINT#K, " ! 

*** ! " 

100 PRINT#K, " ! 
****** ! " 

110 GOSUB 220 
120 PRINT#K, " ! 
FIES THAT !" 
130 6OSUB220 
140 PRINT#K, " ! 
S ABLE TO !" 
150 PRINT#K, " ! 

160 PR I NT#K , " ! 

IN BASIC. ! " 

170 BOSUB 220 

180 PRINT#K, " ! 
i ■■ 

190 PRINT#K, " ! 
OVED BY '. " 

200 PRINT#K, " 



COMPUTER 



LI 



************** 



**** 



WIZARD 



************* 



THIS CARD CERT I 



READ AND WRITE 



DATE 



APPR 



210 GOTO 210 
220 PRINT#K, " ! 

! " : RETURN 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 107 



USING GRAPHICS 



16K 
ECB 



the 
RAINBOW 

7»- ES 



Direct Graphic Design 

By Don Inman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This handy tool allows you to 'design graphic figures 
directly on the screen. ' 



This month's article borrows a program that appeared 
in "Assembly Language Graphics" by Don and Kurt 
Inman. My son, Kurt, wrote the program in two 
versions — one in Extended Color BASIC and one in 6809 
Assembly Language. A modification of his BASIC program 
is presented here. 

In many past articles and in most of my books, I have 
designed graphic figures on paper before writing computer 
programs to produce them on the screen. Kurt's program 
takes a different approach. It allows you to design graphic 
figures directly on the screen. When a final version is ready, 
the program provides you with the data necessary to pro- 
duce the figure. This data can be used in any program that 
requires that figure. 

The figure is designed in the text mode using block gra- 
phics on a 12 x8 grid which is placed at the center of the 
screen. The color blocks in the grid are converted from 
BASIC color codes to hexadecimal data bytes that are 
POKEd into the graphics screen area. The conversion from 
the rectangular blocks on the text screen to colored pixels on 
the high-resolution graphics screen does not produce a one- 
to-one correspondence. 



Block Picture Designed 



High-Resolution Result 



To aid in the development of the final picture, the program 
allows you to go back and forth between your experimental 
blocks and the results produced in high-resolution. 



As the program begins, the title appears at the top of the 
screen. The color set and drawing color are shown at the 
right of the grid. A cursor is placed at the upper left position 
inside the 12x8 grid. The command prompt appears at the 
bottom left of the screen. 



FIGURE CREATION PROGRAM 



r 




"1 








COLOR 
SET = 0 








COLOR = 
GREEN 








COMMAND? 

L 





1 



Figure 1 — Beginning Screen 



The colors that are used in the experimental block mode 
are those of P MODE 3. 



Color Set 0 


Color Set 1 


1 = green 


5 = buff 


2 = yellow 


6 = cyan 


3 = blue 


7 = magenta 


4 = red 


8 = orange 



Table 1 — Colors Used 



(Don Inman is the acknowledged master of micro- 
computer graphics and the author of a large number of 
books, including "TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics 
and Assembly Language Graphics for the TRS-80 
Color Computer'* with Kurt Inman.) 



108 the RAINBOW October 1983 



The following one-key commands are used to create the 
figures. 





Typed, Symbol 


Command 


1 


! 


move cursor up 


2 


1 


move cursor down 


3 




move cursor left 


4 




move cursor right 


5 


c 


change draw color 


6 


s 


change color set 


7 


<space> 


set block where cursor is located 


8 




erase bl ock where cu rsor is located 


9 


D 


display data table 


10 


T 


test (draw figure in PMODE 3) 


11 


R 


restart with a clear grid 



Table 2 — Graphic Creator Commands 



The first four commands (t, I, — , — •) are used to move 
between blocks of the grid. The fifth and sixth commands (C 
and S) are used to select the drawing color and the color set 
used. If you desire to color a block, the space bar is pressed. 
If you change your mind and wish to erase a colored block, 
press the dash ( — ). 

The last two commands (T and R) are used to either start 
over with a clear grid or to leave the text mode and go to the 
high-resolution 4-color graphics mode to view the results, 
whether temporary or final. 

When you have decided on the final figure, the ninth 
command (D) will display a table of the data bytes which can 
be POKEd into the graphic screen's addresses to produce 
the high-resolution figure. The data may be saved and used 
in some future BASIC program. 



Three arrays are used. G is a 12x8 array that holds the 
color code for each cell of the block drawing. 

G(i.i> r" — 11 I I I I I 



M is a 3 x 8 array that holds the data bytes (see Figure 2) 
generated to create the high-resolution drawing. C$ is a 
nine-element single dimension array that holds the nine 
color names used for the border of the grid and the blocks of 
the experimental drawing. 
Five variables are used. 

Variable Function 



CS color set (0 or 1) 

CC current drawing color code (1 —4 or 5—8) 

OC old color (color code saved under cursor) 

CX X-position of cursor (1—12) 

CY Y-position of cursor (1—8) 



Program by Modular Functions 

The program is broken into 15 functional modules. This 
makes the program easier to understand and easier to 
explain. The program will be shown and explained by 
modules. The complete program appears at the end of the 
article. This program could be written more efficiently, but 
it is presented in this form so that the similarities and differ- 
ences of the functional modules can be easily seen. 

Module 1 (lines 100 — 199) — Dimension, Read and Assign 
The arrays are dimensioned in line 110. Line 1 20 fills array 
C$ by reading the data of line 1 30 . Line 1 40 sets the original 
conditions: color set = 0, current drawing color = green, old 
color = green, cursor in position (1,1) of the grid. Lines 
150 — 170 read the old color code into each element of the 
grid array (see Figure 3). 

100 REM * DIMENSION, READ, AND A 
SSIGN 

110 DIM G(12,8>,M<2,7>,C*<8> 
120 RESTORE: FOR X=0 TO 8: READ 
C*(X):NEXT X 

130 DATA BLACK, GREEN, YELLOW, BLUE 
, RED, BUFF, CYAN, MAGENTA, ORANGE 

140 cs=0:cc=i:oc=i:cx»i:CY=i 

150 FOR X=l TO 12: FOR Y=l TO 8 
160 G(X,Y)=OC 
170 NEXT Y,X 
199 * 

Module 2 (lines 200—299) — Draw Borders 
Line 210 prints the title. Lines 220 — 240 draw the top and 
bottom of the grid's border. Lines 250 — 270 draw the sides. 
Lines 280 and 290 draw the four corners. 



FIGURE CREATION PROGRAM 






G(12,8) 



SCREEN DATA 1 
ADDRESS DATA BYTES (HEX) 



XXXX + 00 


00 


00 


00 


XXXX + 32 


00 


00 


00 


XXXX + 64 


00 


00 


00 


XXXX + 96 


00 


00 


00 


XXXX + 128 


00 


00 


00 


XXXX + 160 


00 


00 


00 


XXXX + 192 


00 


00 


00 


XXXX + 224 


00 


00 


00 



^ HIT ENTER TO RETURN TO GRID A 

Figure 2 — Data Byte Screen Format 

Any value within the screen area may be chosen for XXXX as 
the display address. The data bytes from your drawing will 
replace the zeros shown in this diagram 



Figure 3 — Grid for Experimental Drawing 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 109 



200 REM * DRAW BORDERS * 

210 CLS: PRINTS4, "FIGURE CREATIO 

N PROGRAM"; 

220 FOR X=0 TO 12 

230 PR I NTS 1 06+X , CHR* ( 156) ; : PRINT 

8394+X,CHR«<147>; 

240 NEXT X 

250 FOR Y«0 TO 7 

260 PR I NTS 1 2Q+9+32*Y , CHR* < 1 54 ) ; 
270 PR I NTS 1 28+22+32* Y , CHR« ( 1 49 ) ; 
:NEXT Y 

2S0 PRINTS105, CHR* ( 15S) ; : PRINTS1 
18, CHR* (157) ; 

290 PR I NTS393 , CHR* < 1 55 ) ; : PR I NT84 
06, CHR* (151) ; 
299 * 

Module 3 (lines 300—399) — Display Array 
A subroutine (at line 50 1 0) is called at line 3 1 0 to fill in the 
grid with color, provide color data, and print the cursor. The 
subroutine provides the original picture and updates of any 
color changes. 



FIGURE CREATION PROGRAM 



r 




1 






COLOR 
SET = 0 

COLOR = 
GREEN 


L 




J 



300 REM * DISPLAY * 
310 GOSUB 5010 
399 " 

Module 4 (lines 400—499) — Get Command 
Line 410 prints, or reprints, the command prompt and 
erases the OLC command. Line 420 provides for the input of 
a new command (see Table 2). When starting the program, 
the screen at this point looks like the diagram in Figure 1. 



400 REM * GET COMMAND * 

410 PRINTG449, "COMMAND?" f STRING* 

<15," "); 

420 A*=INKEY*:iF A*-"" THEN 420 
499 9 

Module 5 (lines 500—599) — Up-Arrow 
Line 510 tests to see if an up-arrow command has been 
given. If not, program control is passed to Module 6 at line 
610. If an up-arrow has been pressed, line 520 checks to 
make sure that the cursor position is not in the top row. If it 
is, the cursor cannot move up or it will leave the grid. In that 
case, the command is rejected, and control returns to 
Module 4 for a valid command. If the cursor can move up, 
line 530 updates the variables. The old color code is placed in 
the current grid block, and the cursor's Y coordinate is 
decreased. The old color of the new block is saved in the new 
grid position. Line 540 then prints the cursor in the new 
position. Line 550 restores the old color of the previous 
position, thus erasing the cursor from that position. 



On the Screen 



In the Array 



Before After 



Yellow 



C(5,3) 



C(5,4) 



Before After 

OC=3 OC=2 
blue yellow 



blue 



C(X,Y) = C(5.4) C(X,Y) = C(5,3) 



After the cursor has been moved and the old color restored, 
control is passed to Module 4 for a new command. 



500 
510 
520 
530 
CY) 
540 

550 



REM * UP-ARROW * 

IF A»<> , " N " THEN 610 

IF CY-K1 THEN 410 

B (CX , CY) «OC: CY-CY-1 : OOB <CX , 



PRINTei38+32*<CY-l) + <CX-l) , " 

«- an inverted X 

PRINTei38+32*<CY)+<CX-l) , CHR 
• < <B<CX,CY+1>-1>*16+143> ; :GOTO 4 
10 
599 




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110 the RAINBOW October 1983 



THE STEREO 
COMPOSER 




THE 
VOICE 




YOUR COMPUTER NEVER SOUNDED SO GOOD 

The STEREO COMPOSER music synthesizer was developed for the true music 
lover. All the features available for the COMPOSER described below are also 
available for the STEREO COMPOSER. However, instead of using the single 6 bit 
digital to analog converter built into the computer and the speaker built into your 
TV. the STEREO COMPOSER uses two 8 bit digital to analog converters which 
drive two audio power amplifiers. These amplifiers supply enough audio power 
to easily drive your own external speakers. If you like, the output may be con- 
nected to your home stereo system to further increase fidelity. Connection is 
provided by two phono connectors. If the music is too loud, two built-in volume 
controls are provided to allow you to control the volume of each of the channels 
separately. The advantage of being able to use external high quality speakers is 
obvious. The use of higher quality digital to analog converters serves to further 
increase music fidelity. 

The STEREO COMPOSER produces music in stereo. Of the 4 voices produced. 2 
are directed to each channel. This ability alone increases the realism of the 
music. You can even move the voices between speakers as the music plays. 

The STEREO COMPOSER comes assembled, tested, burned in. with all the 
software and hardware to allow you to immediately start enjoying your music. A 
complete manual and examples are provided to give you everything you need. 

The STEREO COMPOSER is completely compatible with the Radio Shack disk 
system. Any expansion unit will allow you to have both a disk and the STEREO 
COMPOSER operating 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 

STEREO COMPOSER (Hardware, Cassette and Disk) $89.95 




THE COMPOSER 



The COMPOSER is a 4 voice music compiler which easily allows one to develop 
high quality music. Each voice is programmed separately. In addition, each 
voice uses its own waveshape table which means a unique sound foreach of the 
4 voices. 

The COMPOSER features a 7 octave range, it supports dotted and double dotted 
notes as well as eighth, quarter, and standard triplet notes. Sixteenth and thirty 
second notes are also supported. 

The COMPOSER allows the music to be played at any tempo and in any key. And 
believe it or not, the tempo and key can be modified as the music plays. This 
gives the user tremendous versatility in developing music. Key modification also 
allows the user to move the music up or down one or more octaves. 

The COMPOSER displays a constantly changing random kaleidoscope pattern 
as the music plays. In addition, the number of the note being played is displayed 
which aids one in finding sour notes during music development. Both of these 
displays can be disabled to allow any screen to be displayed while the music is 
playing. In this way, one can show the words to a song or display a picture as the 
music plays. 

The COMPOSER develops a machine language position independent sub- 
routine that can be Saved, Loaded, and Executed independent of all other 
software. This means that you can share your music with friends. In fact, you can 
write your own BASIC programs that call and play the music. Software vendors 
may include the music in their own product. 

The COMPOSER is menudriven making it extremely easy and friendlyto use and 
operate. A thick operating manual is provided as well as 20 minutes of music. 
Many examples are given to aid the user in getting started. All you need is 
provided, no additional hardware is necessary. Don't let the price fool you, the 
COMPOSER has got to be heard to be appreciated. For reviews see June '83 
RAINBOW, p. 192 and May '83 Color Computer News, p. 74. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 

CASSETTE VERSION $24.95 

DISK VERSION (32K) $29.95 



WHY PAY $100 OR $150 FOR A SPEECH SYNTHESIZER? 

Buy the $29.95 special and find out. Better yet, save your money and read one 
man's opinion in the August '82 issue of CCA/ on page 53. It's a fact of life that you 
get whatyou pay for. You simply can't accurately duplicate a speech synthesizer 
in software. Software synthesizers will give you either a limited vocabulary, use 
up a lot of memory, produce poor quality speech, or a combination of all three. 

THE VOICE is a hardware synthesizer that plugs into the cartridge slot. It uses a 
sophisticated integrated circuit. theSC-01 by VOTRAX. to reproduce any word in 
English as welt as other languages using phonemes. Phonemes are basic units 
of speech of which 64 are available at 4 inflections. This chip costs us $55. If you 
supply the chip, deduct $55. 

THE VOICE has two outputs. Speech may be heard through the TV speaker, or 
the built-in audio power amplifier may be connected to your own external 
speaker. If the volume is too high, a built-in volume control is provided. 

THE VOICE comes assembled, tested, burned in, with all the necessary 
hardware and software. A complete manual with many examples is provided to 
get you started in developing your own programs. 

THE VOICE is completely compatible with the Radio Shack disk system. Any 
expansion unit will allow you to have both a disk and THE VOICE operating. 

Software Included With THE VOICE 

BINGO The VOICE announces the BINGO titles while you play the game. 
MATH TUTOR The VOICE tutors your child in learning arithmetic. 
HIGH LOW The VOICE gives you hints in guessing a number it has picked. 
EDITOR This utility program will help you develop words phonetically. 

THE VOICE (Hardware, Cassette, and Disk) $149.95 

THE VOICE (As above without SC-01) $ 94.95 

THE TRANSLATOR 

The translator is a machine language program that uses a built-in dictionary and 
a sophisticated program algorithm developed by Del Software to automatically 
convert text to speech. For example. A$ THIS IS ALMOST TOO EASY" 
followed by calling a USR will allow the VOICE to speak. The translator will even 
allow you to type words in one language (i.e. French) and have the VOICE speak 
in another(i.e. German). Nobody else gives you that flexibility. For 16K. 32K and 
64K machines. 

Software Included With The Translator 

REACTION Test your reflexes as the VOICE gives you commands. 
SIMON Test your memory for numbers spoken by the VOICE. 

THE TRANSLATOR (Cassette or Disk) $29.95 

HOW TO ORDER 

We accept CASH. CHECK, COD, VISA, and MASTER CARD orders. 
Shipping and handling for all products in the 

continental US and Canada $2.00 

Shipping and handling for all products outside the 

continental US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge (requires cash, certified check, or 

money order) $2.00 

Illinois residents add 5 1 / 4 % sales tax for the STEREO COMPOSER or THE VOICE. 

Speech Sv^AtemA 

38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 

(312) 879-6880 

CALL ANY DAY, ANYTIME TO ORDER. YOU MAY ALSO ORDER BY MAIL. 



Module 6 (lines 600 — 699) — Down-Arrow 
This module performs in a similar manner as Module 5 
except for the down-arrow. The cursor is moved down one 
row. 

600 REM * DOWN-ARROW * 

610 IF A*OCHR*(10) THEN 710 

620 IF CY+1>8 THEN 410 

630 B(CX,CY)=OC:CY=CY+l:OC=B(CX, 

CY) 

640 PR I NTS 138+32* <CY-1 > + (CX-1 > , " 

ED" 5— inverted X 

650 PRINTei38+32*(CY-2)+(CX-l) ,C 
HR*< <B<CX,CY-1>-1>*16+143> ; :BOTO 
410 

699 * 

Module 7 (lines 700—799) — Left-Arrow 
Performs in a similar manner to Modules 5 and 6 except 
for the left-arrow. The cursor is moved left one column. 

700 REM * LEFT-ARROW * 

710 IF A*OCHR*(8) THEN 810 

720 IF CX-K1 THEN 410 

730 B(CX,CY)=OC:CX=CX-l:OC=B(CX, 

CY) 

740 PRINTS138+32* (CY-1 ) + (CX-1 ) , " 

EJf 1 ; inverted X 

750 PRINTei38+32*(CY-l>+CX,CHR*( 
(B(CX+1,CY)-1)*16+143) ; IBOTO 410 
799 * 




"JUDE" 

A full text, commentary & Ref. 
study on the Epistle of St. Jude. 
It speaks to the heart of 20th 
century America. A must for Pas- 
tors, Sunday School Teachers, 
any serious student of the "WORD" 
Req.32K E.C.B. 

Cassette $13.99 Disk $16.99 

Educational 3-game Pack 
Books of the Bible (memory aid) game, Bible 
character word scramble game & "Who Said 
That" Bible quote game. Req.l6K E.C.B. 
Cassette $10.99 Disk $13.99 

Church Contribution System. Req.32K E.C.B. 
Disk Only $49.95 

We Buy Quality Christian 
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Module 8 (lines 800—899) — Right-Arrow 
Performs in a similar manner to Modules 5, 6 and 7 except 
for the right-arrow. The cursor is moved one column to the 
right. 

800 REM * RIGHT- ARROW * 

810 IF A*OCHR*(9) THEN 910 

820 IF CX+1M2 THEN 410 

830 B(CX,CY)«OC:CX*CX+l:OC«B(CX, 

CY) 

840 PR I NTS 1 38+32* ( CY- 1 > + ( C X - 1 > , " 

EI"; inverted X 

850 PRINTei38+32*<CY-l>+<CX-2>,C 
HR*( (B(CX-1,CY)-1)*16+143) ; :BOTO 

410 
899 • 

Module 9 (lines 900—999) — Other Commands 
If none of the arrow commands have been pressed, this 
module looks for other requests. Line 9 1 0 checks for a space 
(change drawing color). If it has been pressed, the current 
color code replaces the old color of the block where the 
cursor exists. Control is passed to Module 4 for a new 
command. 

Line 920 checks for a dash (erase old color). If pressed, the 
old color code is replaced by either 1 (green) or 5 (buff) 
depending upon which color set is being used. Control is 
passed to Module 4 for a new command. 

Line 930 checks for the letter R (restart). If pressed, 
control is passed to the beginning of the program where a 
clear grid is provided for a new start. 

Lines 940 through 970 test for change of color set (S), 
change of color (C), test (T), and display data (D). Control is 
passed to the appropriate module to perform the command. 

Line 980 provides a final check. If an invalid command 
key has been pressed, control is returned to Module 4 for 
another attempt at a valid command. 



THEN 



900 REM * OTHER COMMANDS * 
910 PRINTS458, A*; : IF A**" ' 

OC=CC:BOTO 410 
920 IF A**"-" THEN 0C=4*CS+1 : BOT 
O 410 

930 IF A*= ,, R" 
IF A*= ,, S" 



940 

950 IF A* 
960 IF A* 
970 IF A* 
980 BOTO 410 
999 * 



"C" 

iiy it 
"D" 



THEN 120 
THEN 1010 
THEN 1110 
THEN 1210 
THEN 1310 



Module 10 (lines 1000—1099) — Change Color Set 
Line 1010 changes the old color and the current color to 
corresponding values in the new color set: 

(1) green < > (5) buff 

(2) yellow < > (6) cyan 

(3) blue < > (7) magenta 

(4) red < > (8) orange 

Lines 1020 — 1040 change all color codes in the grid array 
to those of the corresponding values of the new color set. 

Line 1050 changes the color set value and passes control 
to Module 3 to update the display with the new colors. 



112 the RAINBOW October 1983 



1000 REM * CHANGE COLORSET, VARIA 
BLES, AND ARRAY * 

1010 OC— CS*8*0C+4 : CO- CS*8+CC+4 
1020 FOR X»l TO 12:F0R Y-l TO 8 
1030 G<X,Y>— CS*8+G<X,Y>+4 
1040 NEXT Y,X 
1050 CS»l-CS:QOTO 310 

1099 * 

Module 1 1 (lines 1 100—1 199) — Change Drawing Color 
Line 1 1 10 prompts for the new drawing color code, and 
line 1 120 checks for the input. Line 1 130 checks for a valid 
code. Line 1 140 converts the ASCII input value into the 
appropriate color code. Lines 1 140 and 1 150 insure that a 
valid value is input. Line 1 160 places the value (if valid) into 
the current color variable (CC) and passes control to 
Module 3. 

1100 REM * CHANGE COLOR * 

1110 PRINTS449, "TYPE NEW COLOR C 
ODE: "f 

1120 C*=INKEY*;IF C*="" THEN 112 
0 

1130 PRINT@470,C*; : IF C*<"1" OR 
C*> ,, 8" THEN 1 1 10 

1140 C=VAL<C*>:IF CS=0 AND C>4 T 
HEN 1110 

1150 IF CS-1 AND C<5 THEN 1110 
1160 COClGOTO 310 
1199 * 



Module 12 (lines 1200—1299) — Test on Real Display 
Line 1210 sets the high-resolution, 4-color graphic mode. 
Line 1 220 calls a subroutine (at 40 1 0) that converts the color 
code values of the block figure into appropriate hexade- 
cimal codes that can produce the high-resolution drawing. 
These codes are placed in array M . Lines 1 230 — 1 250 POKE 
the values from the M array onto the high-resolution screen. 
Line 1260 provides an IN KEYS function to keep the picture 
on the screen as long as desired. Pressing any key passes 
control to Module 4 for further development of your picture 
on the block grid. 

1200 REM * TEST ON REAL DISPLAY 
* 

1210 PMODE 3,1: SCREEN 1,CS:PCLS 
1220 GOSUB 4010 

1230 FOR X=0 TO 2: FOR Y=0 TO 7 
1240 POKE 3072+14+X+32*Y,M(X,Y) 
1250 NEXT Y,X 

1260 C*»INKEY*:IF C*="" THEN 126 
0 

1270 PCLS: SCREEN 0,0: GOTO 410 
1299 * 

Module 13 (lines 1300—1399) — Display Figure Bytes 
Line 1 3 1 0 calls the subroutine (at line 40 1 0) that calculates 
the data bytes that produce the high-resolution drawing. 
Line 1320 prints a heading for the table of data bytes. Lines 
1330—1380 put the values into tabular form. Line 1390 
prints a prompt telling how to return to the experimental 
grid. 



EPROM BURNER/ROM EMULATOR 



FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 

$149.95 



The ProtoEPROM-CC from Prototech, 
Inc. will program and run 2716, 2732, 
and 2732A EPROMs. With the built-in 
4K of RAM you can create and debug 
your own program pack software, then 
copy it into EPROM. Plug the disk (or 
program pack) into the expansion port 
of the ProtoEPROM-CC to save or load 
EPROM images on disk. Both RAM and 
EPROM are programmable directly from 
BASIC or from assembly language. The 
ProtoEPROM-CC plugs in to your Color 
Computer ROM slot and is completely 
powered by the Color Computer. 




PROTOTECH, INC. 
P. O. Box 1210* 
Boulder, CO 80303 
(303) 499-5541 



ProtoEPROM-CC 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 113 




Super "Color" Library 

Gold Label Software for the V.I. P. in Everyone 



TM 




No mailer what kind of problem you are trymg to solve wilhlhe 
Color Computer, there <5 a program in the ever-expandmg 
integrated. Super "Color" Library that will give you the solution 
Faster, Belter. Smarter' 

Every Library program features MEMORY-SENSE to 
determine your computer s memory from l6to64K, and adjusts 
automatically to maximize work space AN programs, except the 
Super Color" Speller and Super "Color" Disk-ZAP leaturea true 
lowercase display with below line descenders Each program has 
been written specifically lor the Color Computer in fast machine 
code to be tota/ly compatible for optimum perlormance — 
Something a motley assortment of programs from diverse 
sources or a passel of overpriced wallet-FLEXing software Irom 
a bygone era simply can not achieve 

The Super "Color" Library has all Ihe power, speed 
dependabjlily and compatibility you will ever need so buffd your 
Ubrary a volume at a lime or put the lull power of the complete 
library of problem solvers to work right away 




The Official Dragon Microcomputer Word Processo 



Super "Color" Writer II 

VERSION 3.0 By Tim Nelson 

THE INTELLIGENT WORD PROCESSOR 




The Super "Color" Writer II 'S for those who desire the best It is 
the most powerful, fastfnt most dependable and versatile word 
processor available lor Ihe Color Computer Irom 16 to 64K The 
Super "Color" Whler II has features for the most demanding 
professional yet it is easy enough lor newcomers to master 

01 course Ihe Super "Color " Writer It has ail the leatures you 
would pxpeel tromlhe highest quality word processor such as a 
clear Crisp and readable professional display with your choice of 
display co >ors 9display formals standard 32x 16 & 51-64-85x21 
&24 with real lowercase descenders full 4-way cursor conlrol 
sophisticated edrt commands the ability to edit any BASIC 
program or ASCII textlile seven delete lunctions locate and 
change wild card locate a real block move & copy word wrap- 
around programmable labs display memory used and left, non- 
breakable space multiple headers and footers dynamo lext 
formatting comprehensive format parameters use with ANY 
printer at any baud rale (rom 110 to 9600 baud automatic justifi- 
cation automatic pagmalion w^utomatic centering automatic 
flush rtgJhl underlining, superscripts subsenpts, pause pnnt 
singto-'sheel pause, optionally pnnl comments append lext fries, 
available <n a ROMPAK cartridge for maximum work space but 
that s only half of the story No other program can even begin to 
compare in features with the Super Xolor'* Writer IJ. 

TAPE $69.95 ROMPAK 

Tape & Disk reQuire 32K 



Check These Exclusive Features 

MEMORY-SENSE adjusts lo computer s memory (16-64K) for 
maximum work space. TYPE-AHEAD, TYPAMATIC KEY 
REPEAT and KEY BEEP for the pros 3 PROGRAMMABLE 
FUNCTIONS, AUTO PHRASE INSERT COLUMN CREATION 
TEXT FJLE LINKING HELP MENU A TRUE EDITING WINDOW 
IN ALL 9 DISPLAY MODES TRUE FORMAT WINDOW to 
display line lengths up lo 255 characters, with horizontal and 
vertical scrolling lo rephcale the printed page including centered 
fines headers- footers page breaks, page numbers, margins 
giving a perfect printed document every lime Also makes 
hyphenation a snap TRUE AUTOMATIC JUSTIFICATION for 
neat even lefl and nghl hand margins Abilfty lo use 
CHARACTER CODES for printing special characters available 
with your prmter freedom lo embed as many PRINTER 
CONTROL CODES as desired anywhere in Ihe text EVEN 
WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT; 90-pius page tulonal manual 

ADDITIONAL DISK FEATURES: Read a directory. Display tree 
granules Save wilh Automate Verilication Load and Append 
ASCII files and BASIC programs, KHI hies and Link files from 
disk for continuous printing 54K bytes ol workspace available 
with a 64 K system Only the best oilers all of these features 

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DISK $99.95 




Super "Color" Speller ™ 

''f'ft'rfc&i j <'/ By Petfcr A Stan** \-' 1 \ 

The Super "Color" Speller «s a fast machine-code proofreading 
program tg correct Super "Color" Writer files Aulomahcaily 
proofreads your documents agamsl a 20 000 word stock 
dictionary plus your Own customized dictionary and corrects 
typos or .marks Ihem for special alt**nt*on rff^i 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $69 95 



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32x16 & 51 -64-85x21 &24 Display *| 
With Lowercase Descenders And I O Thru 

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TM 



ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEET By Kevin Herrboldt 
Now you can answer those "What cP" financial projection, 
forecasting, budgeting, engineering and caicufatmg questions 
with prec»sion speed and power using the Super "Color" Calc, 
truly the finest electronic worksheet' and financial modeling 
program available for the Color Computer, from 16 to 64 K Now 
every Color Computer owner has access Jto a calcufalmg and 
planning tool rivaling VisiCalc? containing all Us features and 
commands and then some You need only change one YanabJe 
and you instantly see how that change affects your assumptions. 
You can even use VisiCalc templates freely with Super "Color" 
Calc! Combine spread sheet tables with Super "Color" Writer II 
documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and 
financial reports and budgets 

Features include: 9 display formats, standard 32x16 & 51-64- 
85x2^24 with real lowercase descenders ' MEMORY-SENSE to 
adjust to computer's memory (16-64K) for maximum workspace, 
Fult-size 63x256 worksheet * Easy to use * HELP Menus to make 
learning faster * Machine code speed and htgh precision * Total 
flexibility in calculating * Up to FOUR VIDEO DISPLAY 
WINDOWS to compare and contrast results of changes ■ Sine 
and Cosine functions, Averaging Exponents. Algebraic 
functions, and base 10 or 16 entry ■ Multi-layered Column and 
Row Ascending and Descending sorts * Locate formulas or titles* 
♦n fields * Easy entry, replication and block moving of frames * 
Global or Local column width control up to 81 characters each ' 
Create titles of up to 255 characters * Typamatic Key Repeat * 
Key beep * Type-ahead * Print up to 132 column worksheet * 
Prints at any baud rate from 1 10 to 9600 ' Print formats savable 
along w*th worksheet ' Enter control codes for customized 
printing 

DISK FEATURES: Read a directory; Display free granules; Kill 
hies. Save with Automatic Verification; Load tiles; Append disk 
files for complete worksheet printing 54K bytes of worksheet 
space available with a 64K system 

Tuionat and sample templates are supplied with the program 
ROMPAK SB9.95 DISK $99 .95 

Oisk requires 32K for lowercase display. 

Super "Color" Disk-ZAP™ 

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Now the dreamed-of repair of I/O errors Is a reality The Super 
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Code programs 

This high-speed machine code disk utility has a special dual 
cursor screen dtsplay to show HEXIDECIMAL and ASCII 
displays simultaneously You are able to Verify or modify disk 
sectors at will * Type right onto the disk to change unwanted 
program names or prompts ' Send sector contents to the printer 
or any other RS-232 device ■ Search the entire disk tor any 
grouping of characters * Copy sectors ' Backup tracks or entire 
disks 1 Repair directory tracks and smashed disks * Full 
prompting to help you every step of the way 1 50-pius page 
Operators Manual which helps you simply and quickly fix the vast 
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structure and repair 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $49.95 



SOFTLAW Corporation 



TRS-80 in « U*4im*tk at T*n<Jy Corp Vl»>c*le H i trademark 0 f Vi*jCorp. 

WE TAKE THE COLOR COMPUTER SERIOUSLY, 
AUTHORS SUBMISSIONS ARE ENCOURAGED 



THE FINEST TERMINAL PROGRAM ANYWHERE' /?Rs\ 

Version 3.0 By Dan Nelson 

The besl has become even better, with many new features 
including 9 display formats. 32x16 & 51~64~85x21&24 with real 
lowercase descenders, plus compatibility with the 64K Color 
Computer This useMr»endly program makes communicating 
with ANY computer a breeze even lor a newcomer Communicaie 
using your modem with ah the popular information services such 
as Dow Jones. Compuserve, The Source, and local BBS's, clubs, 
friends, or the main-frame at work You can also communicate 
directly with other microcomputers, such as the TRS-60 I/HI. II, 
other Color Computers, Apples. IBM PCs, etc , via RS-232 
without using a modem Save the information or PRINT IT* 
FEATURES: MEMORY-SENSE to adjust to computer s memory 
{ 1 6-64K) for maximum work space Selectively print data at bauo 
rates from 1 10 to 9600 * 54K ol data storagewith 64K disk system 
126 character ASCII keyboard * Automatic graphics mode ' 
Word mode (word wrap) for unbroken words * Send & receive 
Super "Color" Writer II, Database & Calc ftles. ASCII hies. 
Machine Language & BASIC programs 1 Set communications 
baud rate from Il0to9600, Duplex Half/Full/Echo. Word length 
5 6 7 or 8, Parity Odd/Even or None. Stop Bus t-9 * Local 
linefeeds to screen - Save and load ASCII files, Machine Code & 
BASIC programs * Unique CLONE feature for copying any tape * 
Lower case masking ' 10 Keystroke Multiplier (MACRO} buffers 
to perform repetitive pre-entry log-on tasks and send shon 
messages * Programmable prompt or delay for send next line * 
Selectable character trapping ' Files compatible with other 
Library programs* 

ADDITIONAL OlSK FEATURES: Works with up lo four Disk 
Drives. Call a directory. Print free space. Kill disk tiles. Save with 
Automatic Vencation and Load textflles or BAStC programs 
Save and Load KSM'S to the disk 

TAPE $49.95 ROMPAK $59.95 DISK $69 .95 

Tape and disk versions require 32K for lowercase display. 

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Includes Mail Merge Capabilities 
This high speed machine language program including true 
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be they for your business or home Inventory, accounts, mailing, 
lists,, family histories, you name it. the Super "Color" Database 
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The Super 'Color" Database features MEMORY-SENSE io 
adjust to computer's memory ( 16-64K) for maxtmum work space 
It is structured in a simple and easy to understand menu system 
with full prompting for easy operahon Your data is stored in 
records of your own design, each divided into as many fields as 
you need All tiles are fully indexed tor speed and efficiency. Pull 
sort of records is provided for easy listing ol names, figures, 
addresses, etc . in ascending or descending order The math 
package performs arithmetic operations and updates other hetds 
which is especially useful when used as an order entry and 
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Personal checks allow 3 weeks 

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11 your Dealer Is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 



1300 REM *D I SPLAY FIGURE BYTES * 
1310 GOSUB 4010 

1320 CLS: PR I NT "POKE ADDRESS D 

ATA BYTES < HEX ) " : PR I NT 

1330 FOR Y-0 TO 7 

1340 PRINT"XXXX+ ,, |Y*32|TAB<16) I 

1350 FOR X-0 TO 2:H*«HEX»<M(X,Y) 

) 

1360 IF LEN<H*>=1 THEN H$«"0"+H» 

1370 PRINT H«; " "| 

1380 NEXT X: PRINT: NEXT Y; PRINT 

1390 INPUT M HIT ENTER TO RETURN T 

0 GRID" J H*: GOTO 210 

1399 * 

Module 14 (lines 4000—4099) — Create Display Array 
Line 4010 opens a loop in which lines 4020—4040 calcu- 
late the hexadecimal data bytes. Line 4050 places the bytes 
in array M. Line 4060 closes the loop, and line 4070 returns 
control to the main program. 

4000 REM * CREATE DISPLAY ARRAY 
# 

4010 FOR Yl=l TO B:FOR X1=0 TO 2 
4020 X2=l:IF CS-1 THEN X2«S 
4030 A1=Q ( X 1 »4+l , Yl > -X2: A2=Q < X 1 * 
4+2,Yl)-X2 

4040 A3=Q < X 1 *4+3 , Y 1 > - X 2 : A4»Q (XI* 
#+4,Yl)-X2 

4050 M < X 1 , Y 1 - 1 ) ■ - A 1 »64+A2* 1 6+A3*4 
tA4 



4060 NEXT XI, Yl 
4070 RETURN 
4099 9 

Module 15 (lines 5000—5099) — Inside of Grid 
Lines 5010 — 5030 print the individual colored blocks of 
the experimental drawing grid. Lines 5040 — 5060 place the 
current color information on the screen. Line 5Q70 returns 
control to the main program. 

5000 REM * INSIDE OF GRID * 
5010 FOR Yl-1 TO 8: FOR Xl-1 TO 
12 

5020 PRINT«138+32*<Y1-1)+<X1-1>, 
CHR*< <Q(X1,Y1)-1)*16+143) I 
5030 NEXT X1,Y1 

5040 PRINT9120, "COLOR" f I PRINT815 
2, M SET="JCSJ 

5050 PRINTG248, "COLOR-" J : PRINTG2 
80, " " ; : PRINTS280, C« (CO I 

5060 PRINTai38+32*<CY-D + <CX"l) , 

"k"J 

5070 RETURN 
5099 * 
9999 END 

Sample Program Use 

I first selected color set 1 using the command S. 



FIGURE CREATOR PROGRAM 

r ~ ! • *i 




COLOR 
SET = 1 



COLOR - 
BUFF 



COMMAND? 



Next, I changed the drawing color by using the command 

C. 



FIGURE CREATOR PROGRAM 

r ~ 1 

^^^wiv v^ COLOR 



I _ 1 COLOR = 

l 1 ^^=^ ^1 BUFF 

TYPE NEW COLOR CODE: 

L. ; ; . a 



A 3 was typed, and the lower-right information changed 
to COLOR = MAGENTA. The command prompt came 
back on (COMMAND?) in place of the prompt to type the 
new color code. 



UPLOAD *16*95 
This is the UPLOAD side of DLOAD and 
DLOADM in Extended Color Basic* Send a 
basic or machine program to another ECB 
Color Computer* Programs can be passed 
directly or by phone if both computers are 
hooked to modems* (not supplied)* Uploaded 
program arrives at the receiving end ready to 
save, rum or execute* Patch to correct the 
flaw in DLOADM is supplied in public domain* 

INDEXER * 14*95 

Program produces a sorted list of variables 
and line numbers used in your basic program* 
Following each variable or line number will 
be a listing of the numbers of the basic lines 
which contain the variable or line number* 
RUNning the basic program is not required* 
Bonus! Global search of basic program for a 
variablet a text string, or a basic keyword* 

Fast machine language 
16K/32K EXTENDED BASIC, Tape or RS Disk 
Add $2*00 for shipping and handling 

ML-US'R SOFTWARE /^^\ 
rainbow 1 15 RISING SUN, Dept R rainbow 
CERT £r 0N FORT MITCHELL, KY 41017 CERT ^ TI0N 



116 the RAINBOW October 1983 




WHEN YOU NEED INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR MICROCOMPUTER FAST, 
IN A FORM YOU CAN GRASP AND UNDERSTAND QUICKLY, 

THEN DO WHAT 90,000 OTHER PEOPLE DO. 

REACH FOR YOUR NANOS SYSTEMS CARD ! 
ITS FASTER THAN A NANOSECOND ! 





>Y5TEMSCORP. 



Nanos Systems Corp 



REFERENCE CARDS 




TRS-80 is a Registered Trademark of Tandy Corp. 
Computer picture reprinted permission Tandy Corp. 

Each card is a complete summary of the reference manuals and the microcomputer. Cards are two or more colors, printed on 80 pound Beckett Antique cover stock or a comparable stock, stretch- 
wrapped in plastic for shipping. They are accordion-foldup cards, in the same style as the traditional IBM reference cards used on the major computers for years. Fold-up size is eight and one-half . 
by three and three-quarter inches, so they will fit easily into the shirt pocket. These cards provide a complete summary of the manuals plus many extras at your fingertips. 



DRAGON 32 MICROCOMPUTER REFERENCE CARD 

A sparkling, beautiful 9-color card, with red-orange background, 18 pages, on 80 lb. Beckett cover-stock, stretch-wrapped in plastic 
for protection until you open it. We have everything but the kitchen sink on this card. 

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PLEASE SEND ME 

HOW TO GET A 
NANOS SYSTEMS 
REFERENCE CARD 



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1 . DEMAND ONE AT YOUR COMPUTER STORE. 

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(NO CREDIT CARDS) 

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P.O. BOX 24344 
SPEEDWAY, IN 46224 
(PHONE 317/244-4076) 



ADD $1.00 PER CARD FOR SHIPPING/HANDLING. 
(OUTSIDE OF NORTH AMERICA, ADD $2.00) 
(INTERNATIONAL MONEY ORDER ONLY) 

• INDIANA RESIDENTS ADD 5% SALES TAX. 



YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS 



WHEN YOU SUBTRACT THE 
NUMBER OF A GRAPHIC FROM 
THE "MAGIC NUMBER" THE 
RESULT IS THE NUMBER OF ITS 
REVERSE OR INVERSE GRAPHIC 



I then moved the cursor around with the arrow keys and 
used the space bar where the threes appear in Figure 3. 



Next month I'll show how to use several shapes that were 
created by this program in a BASIC program with lots of 
movement. 



Figure 3 — Partial Block Design 



The listing: 



310 021A 

720 043C 

1050 06FB 

1390 097B 

END 0B61 



The color was then changed to orange, and the arrow keys 
and space bar were used to fill in orange blocks where the 
twos appear in Figure 4. 



Figure 4 — Finished Block Design 



Any corrections can be made by using the arrow keys with 
the dash to erase errors or a new drawing color to replace 
one color block with another. 

Try using the program to create the same pattern as in 
Figure 4. When all finished, press T to see how the pattern 
looks in high-resolution. Then go back to the grid. Press D 
to see the data bytes which could be POKEd into any area of 
screen memory to produce the high-resolution result. Figure 
5 shows the data bytes produced by the design of Figure 4. 



SCREEN DATA 



ADDRESS 



DATA BYTES (HEX) 



XXXX + 00 
XXXX + 32 
XXXX + 64 
XXXX + 96 
XXXX + 128 
XXXX + 160 
XXXX + 192 
XXXX + 224 



00 

00 

02 

02 

AA 

AA 

A5 

05 



00 00 
AA 00 
AA 80 
AA 80 
AA AA 
AA AA 
AA 5A 
00 50 



HIT ENTER TO RETURN TO GRID 

kfch — — , *A 



100 REM * DIMENSION, READ, AND A 
SSIGN 

110 DIM G(12,8) ,M(2,7) ,C*(8) 
120 RESTORE: FOR X=0 TO 8: READ 
C*<X):NEXT X 

130 DATA BLACK, GREEN, YELLOW, BLUE 
, RED, BUFF, CYAN, MAGENTA, ORANGE 

140 cs=0:cc=i:oc=i:cx»1:cy=1 

FOR X=l TO 12: FOR Y=l TO 8 
G(X, Y)=OC 
NEXT Y,X 



150 
160 
170 
199 
200 
210 



REM * DRAW BORDERS * 
CLS: PRINTS4, "FIGURE CREATIO 
N PROGRAM"; 
220 FOR X=0 TO 12 

230 PRINT6106+X, CHR*< 156) ;: PRINT 

@394+X,CHR* <147) ; 

240 NEXT X 

250 FOR Y=0 TO 7 

260 PR I NTS 1 28+9+32* Y , CHR* ( 1 54 ) ; 
270 PR I NT@ 1 28+22+32* Y , CHR* < 1 49 ) ; 
:NEXT Y 

280 PRINT@105,CHR«<158) ; :PRINT@1 
18,CHR*(157) ; 

290 PR I NTS393 , CHR* ( 1 55 > ; : PR I NT@4 
06,CHR*(151) ; 

299 * 

300 REM * DISPLAY * 
310 GOSUB 5010 

399 ' 

400 REM * GET COMMAND * 

410 PR I NT6449 , " COMMAND? " ; STR I NG* 
(15," ">; 

420 A*=INKEY*:IF A*="" THEN 420 
499 ' 
500 
510 
520 
530 
CY> 
540 
k"i 

550 PRINT@138+32*<CY)+<CX-1> , CHR 
*< <G<CX,CY+1>-1>*16+143> ; :goto 4 
10 



REM * UP-ARROW * 

IF A*<>"~" THEN 610 

IF CY-K1 THEN 410 

G ( CX , C Y ) =OC : C Y=C Y- 1 : OC=G ( CX , 

PRINT@138+32*<CY-1)+<CX-1> , " 



118 



the RAINBOW October 1983 



EXPAND YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 




USER 80C 

User Selectable Expansion Requirements 

•Activate your disk controller, ROM CARTRIDGES, EPROM board, or any device 
that normally operates in the expansion slot. 

•Protects computer from electrical damage caused by experimental boards or by 
plugging/unplugging ROM CARTRIDGES and controllers with the power on. 

•Gold inlay connector contacts for more reliable operation. 
Menu-driven software (included). Allows user to operate multiple slots at the same 
time, (e.g., transfer data from one slot to any other slot). 

•Select any of 6 slots with push-button keys or programming. 

•Attach additional USER 80C's for more expansion slots. 

•Utilizes its own reset button, eliminating the need to continually press the reset 
behind the computer. 

•Operates with a 9V battery eliminator (included). Power supply is independent of 
computer. 

•Has its own on/off switch with LED indicator. 

•More to come: analog digital converter, parallel ports for printers and joysticks, 
four-channel scope. 

•Production of experimental boards upon request. (Based on your schematics). 

"Designed with the User in Mind" $249.95 

TERMS: Send certified check or money order for $249.95, plus shipping, handling and applicable sales 
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Phones (312) 745-7541 f(J ,| year (parts and )abor) 
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599 ' 

600 REM * DOWN-ARROW * 

610 IF A*OCHR*(10) THEN 710 

620 IF CY+1>8 THEN 410 

630 G(CX,CY)=OC:CY»CY+l:OC=G(CX, 

CY) 

640 PRINTS138+32* (CY-1 ) + (CX-1 ) , " 

x"? 

650 PRINT@138+32*(CY-2)+(CX-l) ,C 
HR*( (G(CX,CY-1)-1)*16+143) ; :GOTO 
410 

699 * 

700 REM * LEFT-ARROW * 

710 IF A*OCHR*(8) THEN 810 

720 IF CX-K1 THEN 410 

730 G(CX,CY)=OC:CX=CX-l:OC=G(CX, 

CY) 

740 PRINTei38+32*<CY-l)+(CX-i> , !! 
x"? 

750 PRINT©138+32*(CY-1)+CX,CHR*( 
(G(CX+1,CY)-1)*16+143) ; :GOTO 410 

799 ■ 

800 REM * RIGHT-ARROW * 
810 IF A*OCHR*<9) THEN 910 
820 IF CX+1M2 THEN 410 

830 G(CX,CY)=OC:CX=CX+l:OC=G(CX, 
CY) 

840 PRINTS138+32* (CY-1 ) + (CX-1 ) , " 
x"; 

850 PRINTS138+32*(CY-l)+(CX-2) ,C 
HR*( (G(CX-1,CY)-1)*16+143) ; : GOTO 
410 

899 * 

900 REM * OTHER COMMANDS * 

910 PR I NTS458 , A* ; : IF A*=" " THEN 

OC=CC:GOTO 410 
920 IF A*="-" THEN 0C=4*CS+1 : GOT 
O 410 

930 IF A*="R" THEN 120 
940 IF A*="S" THEN 1010 
950 IF A*="C" THEN 1110 
960 IF A*="T" THEN 1210 
970 IF A*="D" THEN 1310 
980 GOTO 410 

999 ' 

1000 REM * CHANGE COLORSET, VARI A 
BLES, AND ARRAY * 

1010 OC=-CS*8+OC+4 : CC=-CS*8+CC+4 
1020 FOR X=l TO 12: FOR Y=l TO 8 
1030 G(X,Y)=-CS*8+G(X,Y)+4 
1040 NEXT Y,X 

1050 cs=i-cs:goto 310 

1099 * 

1100 REM * CHANGE COLOR * 

1110 PRINTS449, "TYPE NEW COLOR C 
ODE: "? 

1120 C*=INKEY*:IF C*= M " THEN 112 
0 

1130 PRINTS470, C*; : IF C*<"1" OR 
C*>"8" THEN 1110 



1140 C=VAL(C*):IF CS=0 AND C>4 T 
HEN 1110 

1150 IF CS=1 AND C<5 THEN 1110 
1160 CC=C:GOTO 310 

1199 * 

1200 REM * TEST ON REAL DISPLAY 
* 

1210 PMODE 3,1: SCREEN 1,CS:PCLS 
1220 GOSUB 4010 

1230 FOR X=0 TO 2: FOR Y=0 TO 7 
1240 POKE 3072+14+X+32*Y,M(X,Y) 
1250 NEXT Y,X 

1260 C*=INKEY*:IF C*="" THEN 126 
0 

1270 PCLS: SCREEN 0,0: GOTO 410 

1299 ' 

1300 REM *D I SPLAY FIGURE BYTES * 
1310 GOSUB 4010 

1320 CLS: PR I NT "POKE ADDRESS D 

ATA BYTES (HEX )": PRINT 

1330 FOR Y=0 TO 7 

1340 PRINT"XXXX+"; Y*32;TAB(16) ; 

1350 FOR X=0 TO 2:H*=HEX*(M(X,Y) 

) 

1360 IF LEN(H*)=1 THEN H*="0"+H* 

1370 PRINT H*; " "; 

1380 NEXT X: PRINT: NEXT Y: PRINT 

1390 INPUT "HIT ENTER TO RETURN T 

O GRID" ; H*: GOTO 210 

1399 * 

4000 REM * CREATE DISPLAY ARRAY 
* 

4010 FOR Yl=l TO 8: FOR X1=0 TO 2 
4020 X2=l:IF CS=1 THEN X2=5 
4030 A1=G (X 1*4+1 , Yl ) — X2: A2=G (XI* 
4+2, YD-X2 

4040 A3=G(X1*4+3,Y1)-X2: A4=G(X1* 
4+4, YD-X2 

4050 M(X1,Y1-1)=A1*64+A2*16+A3*4 
+A4 

4060 NEXT XI, Yl 
4070 RETURN 
4099 ' 

5000 REM * INSIDE OF GRID * 
5010 FOR Yl=l TO 8: FOR Xl=l TO 
12 

5020 PRINT@138+32*(Y1-1)+(X1-1) , 
CHR*( (G(X1,Y1)-1)*16+143) ; 
5030 NEXT X1,Y1 

5040 PR I NT@ 1 20 , " COLOR " ; : PR I NTS 1 5 

2, m set=";cs; 

5050 PR I NTS248 , " COLOR= " ; : PR I NT@2 
80," "; :PRINTS280,C*(CC) ; 

5060 PRINT@138+32* (CY-1 )+ (CX-1 ) , 

"x"; 

5070 RETURN 
5099 ' 
9999 END 



120 the RAINBOW October 1983 




"THE ALTERNATIVE" 



COLOR COMPUTER 
DISK SYSTEMS 



ouih 449 95 ao D "v fl E CK 200 K BYTES 

USER STORAGE 

% 549 9S N .r 400 K BYTES 



40 TRACK 
DRIVE 



j w USER STORAGE 

j ROM SOFTWARE INCLUDES: TC-99 Disk Controller W/CCMD 9 DOS 

1 a ci hi co^fi iron R0M * 40 0r 80 Track Disk 0rive * Power Supply • 

I Dnri^ r^L^iHio n^c Case * 2 Drive Cable * 9 Dl5k utilit V Programs 

I Basic LompatiDie UUb . CCEDT9 Disk Text Editor ♦ Disk Text Processor I 

I Manufactured under License From Tall Crass Technologies 



Editor /Assembler CO-RES9 



CO-RES9 is a Co-resident Editor/Assembler that 
will allow you to create, edit and assemble 
machine language programs for the color com- 
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assembly language programs into machine code 
fijes, it will output machine object code to either 
cassette tape in a cloadm compatible forma_t or 
directly to memory for direct execution. 




co-res9 mm / 

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R.S. DISK EDITOR & ASSEMBLER Disk 



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LexL Pro TL 



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TEXT PROCESSOR FEATURES 

• tftaracter FiK 

• Programmable Footer 

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• Ten programmable Tab stops 

• Margin justification 

Le-iFt & Right 

• Decimal Align, Center, Left & 

Right Justify on Tab Column 

• Display & input from Keyboard 

• Change Formatting During 

Processing 



Word Processor" 

TEXT EDITOR FEATURES 

• Single Keystroke Edit 

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• Fully integrated Disk Ftte 

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- (No conversion Required) Fully 
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• Full Featured Line Oriented 

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• Search and Replace Any 

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• Edit Basic, Text or Assembler 

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text PRO II Features Over 70 commands in All. Disk ... $79.95 



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Terminal Baud Rates 300 to 9600 Baud 
Automatic word Wrap Eliminates Split words 
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Programmable word Length, Parity & Stop Bits 
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Save & Load Text Buffer to Tape Or Disk 
Send Files Directly From Buffer Or Disk 
Full Disk Support For Disk version 
Printer Baud Rates 110-4800 y^^v 
Send Control Codes From Keyboard ffrXfl 
ASCII Compatible File Format rainbow 



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we also have a disk version available called "DISKPACK." 
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GIOMMER: 

True Graphics for 4K 



By David Dawson 



If you have a Non-Extended BASIC Color Computer and 
have been frustrated in your attempts to write graphics 
programs, this article should help. The program pres- 
ented and described here will even work on a 4K computer 
as the display only requires 5 1 2 extra bytes, leaving a reason- 
able amount of memory on any system for program storage. 
Routines presented can also be adapted, and described 
techniques applied, to assist in the development of new 
programs. 

In the following, I will present and explain a program that 
uses the 64 x 64 four color graphics mode that is unsup- 
ported by Extended Color BASIC. This mode has the advan- 
tages of being a true graphics mode (all dots are independ- 
ent, unlike the semigraphics modes) and uses the least 
memory of any of the four color modes — which means 4K 
computers can use it, too. 

This program was designed to use the memory directly 
below the text screen so it is not recommended for use with 
the disk drives unless the display memory is moved by 
changing the POKEs in line 70. But doing so will reduce the 
memory savings, as you will see. 

Reserving Graphics Memory 

Extended Color BASIC locates graphics memory separate 
from text screen memory. For many programs, this means 
512 trapped bytes during graphics display. With a cassette 
system this is not necessary and using text memory would 
reduce the 1024 bytes required for graphics display of the 
four color mode used here to 512 bytes. The display could 
quickly be cleared when the text screen is required again as is 
also demonstrated in the Glommer program. 



(David Dawson is a teaching assistant at the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska at Omaha and is working on his 
master 's in psychology. He has a wife, Leigh Anne, 
and a son, Adam.) 



The problem is how to tell BASIC that the 5 1 2 bytes below 
the text screen are needed for graphics. This is easily solved 
by POKEing the BASIC program pointers to a point below 
the graphics memory required. 

By POKEing the most significant byte of the top of BASIC 
program pointer (location 25) with 6, the pointer is located 
right below the text screen memory. This is because each 
addition of one to location 25 moves the pointer down 256 
bytes. Thus, 6 x 256 = 1536 or the pointer points to byte 1 536 
which is the first byte below the text screen. Another 512 
bytes are needed for mode G 1 C used in Glommer, so, if two 
is added (2 x 256 = 512) and POKE 25, 8 ENTER is used, any 
program will be loaded just below the graphics memory 
needed by mode G1C. 

Two problems may appear when using this. First, a syn- 
tax error will appear when RUN or several other commands 
are used. This is because BASIC requires that the first byte of 
program memory be a zero. To cure this, type: 
POKE(PEEK(25)*256),0 ENTER 

Second, some garbage will probably be present in the 
memory now intended for storage of BASIC program lines. 
Always type: NEW ENTER after moving the pointer. 

All of this must be done before any program is loaded or 
typed in. Use the commands listed in the opening remarks of 
Glommer before you begin typing it in and each time it is 
loaded. Extended BASIC reserves 6K on power-up so 
Glommer will work without the POKEs and NEW com- 
mand. This technique is still useful in reserving less graphics 
memory than Extended BASIC allows. 

Go To Graphics 

The POKEs necessary to select various graphics modes 
and starting pages are given in the Color BASIC manual so I 
will not discuss them here. By changing line 60 alone, any 
mode can begin using the text screen memory. Make sure to 
POKE or PCLEAR enough memory for display. If you wish 
to use the mode used for Glommer in your own program, 
lines 60, 70 and 80 can be lifted out and used (see Table 1). 



122 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Line 40 can also be taken out and used any time the text 
screen is needed. Routines for clearing the screen, checking 
the keyboard and checking for player hit (see Table 1) can 
also be removed and used in other programs once certain 
variables are considered. 

Table 1 

Subsections of Glommer Program 



Line 


Function 


40 


Go to text screen 


60 


Set graphics mode 


70 


Set start of graphics memory 


80 


Choose color set 


90 


Clear graphics screen 


300 


Check keyboard 


350 


Check for creature near 



Drawing Objects 

In mode G 1 C, as well as the other four color modes, two 
bits specify the color of each dot (pixel) (see Figure 1 ), which 
means four pixels are specified by each byte. (For more 
background see the Color BASIC manual.) Instead of using 
boolean operators as the Color basic manual suggests, four 
dots could be drawn to graphics memory at a time by 
converting each set's binary number into decimal and 
POKEing the whole number at once. This is faster than 
boolean operators and uses much less memory than Ex- 
tended BASIC'S G£Tand PUT routines. 

The easiest way to produce such a set of numbers is to first 
draw the image using graph paper as has been done in Figure 
1 . By using the color key (part a) in the same figure, each dot 
is then converted to two binary digits. If the dot were to be 
orange, for example, the two digits would be 1,1. This 
processcontinues until the entire object you are interested in 
is converted to binary digits. . 

Next, each binary number must be converted to decimal 
to be POKEd in. To convert, use part b of Figure 1 : Add the 
decimal numbers in the diagram which correspond to a one 
in the binary number you are converting. If a one appears in 
the leftmost location 128 must be added and so on. Using 
this, the binary number in row 1 is converted : 001 10100 = 
(128 x 0)+(64 x 0)+(32 x 1)+(16 x l)+(8 x 0)+(4 x l)+(2 x 
0)+(l x 0) or 001 10100 = 32+16+4 or 001 10100 = 52. 

Figure 1 
The Digitization of Ffloyd 

(a) 



Bits — 
in 

decimal-* 



pixels -*> 



7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


0 


128 


64 


32 


16 


8 


4 


2 


1 


3 


j_ 2 


l 


0 



(b) 

two bits specify each pixel as follows: 
Bit Pair mode 0 mode 1 



0 0 

0 1 

1 0 



green 
yellow 
blue 
red 



buff 
cyan 
magenta 
orange 





graphic 




fc) 

bit pattern 


decimal 






rV 




= 


00,11,01,00 


=32+16+4=52 










= 


00,1 1, \ 1,1 1 


=32+16+8+4+2+1=63 










= 


00,11,11,00 


=32+16+8+4=60 










— 


00,1 1,00,00 


=32+16=48 










= 


10,10,10,10 


= 128+32+8+2=170 










= 


10,10,10,00 


= 128+32+8=168 


m 








= 


10,00,10,00 


= 128+8=136 












10,00,10,00 


= 128+8=136 




^orange 


□ 


-buff g 


=cyan §1] -magenta 



Plotting Movements 

When using lines 60 and 70, the graphics display begins 
with location 1024 and every 16 locations — that is, 1040, 
1056, and so on — begin a new column. Adding 1 5 to the base 
specifies a point on the right side of the screen, adding 8 
specifies a point near the center. A graphics Worksheet could 
then be constructed. To plot any point find the byte that 
holds it by getting the base address at the left and adding the 
number in the column to it. Use the technique given above to 
plot a point within a byte. Using this figure it would be 
possible to draw and animate almost any object or design 
with only a 4K system. 

To move objects on the screen, I recommend that each 
creature's location be stored in a variable and that this 
number be the actual memory address of the top byte of the 
shape. The rest of the bytes in the shape are POKEd relative 
to that reference byte. For example, at the beginning of the 
game, the array for Ffloyd, our Glommer hero, begins in 
location 1768 so the second byte is then POKEd in location 
1 784, the third in location 1 800, the fourth 1 6 below that and 
so on. Because of the shape of this array all of the bytes are 
POKEd in one column. That is, the second byte was POKEd 
in the location 1 6 greater than the reference byte, the third 32 
below the reference byte and so on. One byte lower in mode 
G1C is 16 locations greater as 16 bytes specify a row. In the 
same way, if the array was wider than one byte the byte to 
the left of the reference byte would be stored in the address 
one smaller than the reference, the one to the right would be 
one greater and so on. Carefully examine how the monsters 
and Ffloyd are POKEd into memory in the program listing 
if you do not totally understand this idea. Of course, an erase 
routine must be constructed as well that exactly covers the 
drawn array. 

To move objects to the right in any mode add 1 to their 
location, to move left subtract 1, to move up subtract the 
number of bytes that make up one row, in the case of G1C, 
16, and add the same amount to move down. 

Because this system POKEs directly into memory be very 
careful none of your objects leave the screen. If any do, the 
system may crash and must be reset or even turned off (thus 
losing your program) to regain control. 

The Game 

Ffloyd is trapped in an area with dreaded Glommers. He 
has only one means of escape, to float the balloons he found 
in his pocket up to the rainbow barrier at the top and break a 
hole in it to escape through. 

The arrow keys are used to move Ffloyd and the spacebar 
is used to release balloons. A hole three bricks wide must be 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 123 



cut to allow Ffloyd to escape. The spacebar will show the 
scoreboard once Ffloyd has been killed (the action stops) 
and the up arrow will begin the action. Ffloyd may only be 
killed by having a Glommer or the wall come near or touch 
his head. 

Use the spacebar and then the up arrow to start the game 
at the beginning. When the last Ffloyd is lost, the colors will 
reverse. Press the spacebar to see the final score and the up 
arrow to begin a new game. Glommer objects wrap around, 
so it is possible to move off one side of the screen and appear 
on the other. 

The game has five levels and gets very difficult as it 
progresses. The scoring also increases with the bonus for 
escaping round one at 100 points, round two at 200 and so 
on. Glommers are worth between two and six points 
depending upon the round. The wall blocks are always 
worth one point each. 

This game was carefully written and executes about as fast 
as is possible using POKEs and BASIC. Delete the remarks 
and use the speed-up POKE (POKE 65495,0) before run- 
ning the game for extra speed. If your computer stops on a 
sound command you cannot use the speed-up POKE and 
must press reset to regain control. 

When typing in the program always make a backup copy 
on tape before testing the program (be sure the computer is 
in the slow mode before doing this) as this program does 
POKE directly into memory and if you make certain typing 
errors the computer could lockup and you would lose the 
copy you have typed unless you saved it to tape. 

Glommer is fairly simple but a strangely addictive game; I 
hope you enjoy it. I have not been able to get through level 



five— if anyone accomplishes it, please write and tell me how 
you did it. I would also be interested in comments or appli- 
cations of these techniques. 



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The listing: 

1 REM TO USE WITH UNEX TENDED 
BASIC ENTER THE FOLLOWING 

2 REM BEFORE THE PROGRAM IS 
LOADED: 

3 REM POKE 2046,0 (ENTER) 

4 REM POKE 25,6 (ENTER) 

5 REM NEW (ENTER) 

6 REM CLEAR 8 (ENTER) 

7 REM #### GLOMMER 

8 REM **** BY DAVID LIONELL DAWS 
ON 

9 REMARKS SHOULD BE DELETED FOR 
USE ON A 4K SYSTEM. (THESE 9 LIN 
ES + LINES ENDING WITH A 5.) 

10 R- 1 : B-4 : CLS0 : PR I NT9236 , " gl omm 
er " I : PRINTO326, "by" I CHR* ( 12G) \ "d 
avid"! CHR* ( 1 26 ) f " d awson "I :DIM A ( 
5),E(5) : A(l)-1 172: A(2) -1632: A(3) 
-1220: A (4) -1996: A (5) -1940 

20 IF PEEK (345)0247 THEN 20 
25 REM SCOREBOARD. 
30 CLS0:PRlNTO166, "score "JOJSPR 
INT9230, "adventurers "»Bj:IF B-0 
THEN PRINT&420, "G A M E O V E 

R"j :O-0:R-l:B-4 

35 REM GO TO ALPHANUMER I CS . 
40 P0KE65472 , 0 : P0KE65474 , 0 : P0KE6 
5476 , 0 : P0KE653 1 4 , ( PEEK ( 653 1 4 ) AND 
47) 

50 IF PEEK (341)0247 THEN 50 ELS 
E T-P 

55 REM SET GRAPHICS MODE. 

60 POKE 65473, 0: P0KE65474, 0: POKE 

65476,0 

65 REM SET START OF GRAPHICS. 
70 POKE 65478,0: POKE 6548 1,0: FOR 
X -65482 TO 65490 STEP 2: POKE X, 
0:NEXT 

75 REM CHOSE COLOR SET. 

80 POKE 65314,136 

85 REM CLEAR 8RAPHICS SCREEN. 

90 FOR X-1024 TO 2048: POKE X,0:N 

EXT 

95 rem paint barrier. 

100 for x-1056 to 1167:p0kex,245 

:next 

110 P-1768:N»1775:S«1040:E«5: IF 
R>5 THEN R-5 

115 REM INITIALIZE FFLOYD, TOP A 
ND BOTTOM OF SCREEN, AND CHECK R 
OUND. 



124 the RAINBOW October 1983 



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120 for x-i to r:E(X)-a<X) :next: 
j-i 

130 GOTO 340 

135 REM MONSTER MOVEMENT. 

140 FOR X-l TO R:M-E<X) 

150 IF RND<4>-1 THEN E»M+32:F0R 

Q-M TO E STEP 16: POKEQ, 0: POKEQ+1 

,0:NEXT ELSE 190 

160 IF M-16< P THEN M-M+16 ELSE 
M-M-16 

170 IF M<P THEN M-M+2 ELSE M-M-2 
175 REM DRAM GLOMMERS. 

180 e<x>-m:pokem,2:m-m+i:pokem, l 

60: M-M+l 5: POKEM, 8: M-M+l : POKEM, 72 
: M-M+l 5: POKEM, 42: M-M+l : POKEM, 170 
190 NEXT X 
200 POKET,0 

210 IF PEEK <345) -247 THEN I-1:T- 
P+l 

220 IF KM THEN 300 
225 REM MOVE SHOTS. 
230 T-T-32 

240 IF T<S THEN 1-0: GOTO 300 
250 POKET, 60: K— PEEK <T-16) : IF K-0 

THEN 300 
260 I=0:POKET-16,0:FOR L-l TO r: 
IF T-16<E<L> THEN 290 
270 X-E(L)+4G:IF X<T-16 THEN 290 
280 S0UND255, 10: FOR Z«E(L) TO X: 
POKE Z, 255: POKE Z, 0: NEXT: E <L) -A ( 

L> :o=o+R 

290 NEXT L : SOUND 1, 1:0-0+1 

295 REM CHECK KEYBOARD. 

300 IF PEEK < 341) -247 THEN NP-P-1 

6 ELSE IF PEEK < 342) -247 THEN NP- 

P+16 ELSE IF PEEK (343) -247 THEN 

NP-P-1 ELSE IF PEEK (344) -247 THE 

N NP-P+1 ELSE 350 

310 IF NP>N THEN NP-N:GOTO330 EL 

SE IF S<P THEN 330 

315 REM END OF ROUND. 

320 FOR X-l TO 9: SOUND X» 20, l:POK 

E65314, 128:P0KE65314, 136: NEXT: O- 

O+R#100: R-R+l : GOTO20 

325 REM ERASE FFLOYD 

330 FOR X-P TO P+112 STEP16:P0KE 

x,0:next:p-np 

335 REM DRAM FFLOYD 
340 POKE P,52:P0KEP+16,63:P0KEP+ 
32,60: POKEP+48 , 48 : POKEP+64 , 1 70 : P 
OKEP+80 , 1 68 : POKEP+96 , 1 36 : I F RND < 
2>-l THEN POKEP+112, 136 ELSE POK 
EP+112, 130 

345 REM IS FFLOYD HIT? 

350 IF PEEK<P-16)<>0 OR PEEK<P+3 

1)<>0 OR PEEK<P+33)O0THEN B-B-l 

:IF B-0 THEN POKE 65314, 128: GOTO 

20 ELSE SOUND100, 5: S0UND5, 10: GOT 

020 

360 GOTO 140 A 



126 the RAINBOW October 1983 




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Donkey King 32K $24.95 For E or F Boa rd w/1 . 1 ROM (EXEC 41 1 75) 

Cave Hunter 1 6K $24.95 Add $15 00 tool deposit (refundable) 

Haywire 16K 324 95 16-32K RAM SLAM (Piggy Back) $49.95 
Astro Blast 1 6K $24.95 Both s , am kits solderless. 

C0,0rpede 1 6K ML T. $29.95 ONE YEAR WARRANTY 

Rotoattack ...16K ML T. $24.95 

ADVENTURES ^i^k ATARI JOV8TIC K8 

Calixto Island 16K ML $19.95 ^jB^^m^ 

Black Sanctum 16K ML $19.95 SUflH^Full sicle to sicle contro ' P ,U 9 S right in 

DTn ITIFfi ^^TV no adapter needed. 

f GET THE "REAL" ARCADE FEEL. 

CopyCat 16K ML $19.95 00 _ XA/ 

^ y 90 Day Warranty 

Color DFT 1 6K ML T. $19.95 

D. $29.95 $14.95 EACH 

2 FOR $28. OO 

Nelson Super Color Terminal T. $49.95 D. $69.95 

R8 232 SWITCHER 
THE GENERAL Stop Strainjng Those Connectors. 

THE GENERAL Ledger programforthe color computer. Stop Listening to the Modem. 

32K required. 100 accounts, over 500 transactions. Stop Trying to Log on the Printer. 

Tape Based $39.95 Fast, Fast, Relief the RS 232 Switcher. 

Nelson Super Color Writer T. $69.95 D. $99.95 2 wgy $29 .95 3 way $39.95 

DSL COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

jfHHBiK P.O. BOX 11 13 • DEARBORN, MI 48121 • (313)582-8030 ^mmm 

^l|(jPlHr Michigan Residents Add 4% Sales Tax To Order VISA 

Please include $3.00 for 8&H 




Christmas Sale (Until December 24, 1983) 



STAR-DOS 64 Reduced from $74.90 to $49.90. This is the same price as the 

standard 16/32K version. Here is your chance to get this 
extraordinary Disk Operating System for the Color Computer 
at a great price. 

SPELL 'N FIX Reduced from $69.29 to $59.29 for the CoCo disk or cassette 

version, and from $178.58 to $125 for the Flex disk version. 



HUMBUG-64 Reduced from $59.95 to $49.95. This version is specially 

configured for 64K disk systems using either Flex or STAR- 
DOS. 

REBATE 

Buy your Star-Kits software from a dealer, and get an extra savings by sending us your 
registration form and a copy of your sales slip or invoice. The rebate is $10 on software 
priced over $50, and $5 for software under $50. The rebate is in effect until December 24, 
1983. 

ILLEGITIMACY PROGRAM 

If you have an illegitimate (ahem . . . pirated) copy of a Star-Kits program, we offer you an 
amnesty as part of our Illegitimacy Program. Send us (a) a working copy of the program, (b) 
details on where and from whom you got it (with adequate identification of the source), and 
(c) 25% of the current list price, and we will send you (a) the latest up-to-date copy of the 
program, (b) a complete and up-to-date manual, and (c) a sales slip welcoming you to the 
world of happy Star-Kits customers. A small price to pay for a clear conscience? 

MC-10 SPECIAL 

To celebrate Star-Kits' being first with MC-10 software, here's our MC-10 Triple-Pak: 
MC-10 HUMBUG (normally $29.95), MC-10 REMOTERM (normally $19.95), and MC-10 
COMMTERM (a brand new terminal communications program which sells separately for 
$19.95), a total value of $69.85, all for a special price of just $55. 



Star — Kits 

P.O. BOX 209 — R 
MT. KISCO, N.Y. 10549 
(914) 241-0287 



STAR-KIBBITS 

Welcome to the ninth of my monthly chats. To begin with, a 
short program and two requests. 

When you do a BACKUP on a disk system, the computer is 
supposed to make an exact copy of a disk. Have you ever 
wondered whether the copy is really identical to the original? 
Here is a short program in Basic which allows you to compare 
two disks (it is written for two drives): 
10 CLEAR 2000 

20 FOR T=0 TO 34 : FOR S=l TO 18 

30 DSKI$ 0,T,S,A$,B$ 

40 DSKI$ 1,T,S,C$,D$ 

50 If A$=C$ AND B$=D$ THEN 70 

60 PRINT "DIFFERENCE ON";T;S 

70 NEXT S : NEXT T 
This program consists of two loops which repeat for tracks 0 
through 34, and sectors 1 through 18 of each track. Lines 30 and 
40 read the corresponding sectors from drives 0 and 1, and line 
60 prints the track and sector number for those sectors which 
are different on the two disks. You may find it very useful. 

OK, now here's the first request. I'd like you to help me with a 
simple test. Initialize two disks with the DSKINI command, and 
then BACKUP one of them to the other. Now use the above 
program to check whether they are really identical, and let me 
know. I have an ulterior motive — I have run this test on three 
different computers (including different disk controllers and 
different drives). On two of them I got identical errors on sector 
13 of tracks 5, 11, 17, 23, and 29. I'm curious to see whether 
anyone else has the same problem. 

TAX DEDUCTION? 
Now for the second request. Do you have any Color 
Computer hardware or software which you would like to donate 
to a non-profit school? In the last few years, Star-Kits has 
donated six Color Computers, as well as several printers, disk 
drives and cassette recorders, to local schools for computer 
education. If you have any CoCo equipment or software (such 
as a color computer, or disk system, or Line Printer VII, or 
anything else which you no longer need), or else if you just feel 
up to making a tax-deductible contribution of equipment or 
cash, we'd like to encourage you to do so. Send to the St. 
Francis School, 12 Green Street, Mt. Kisco NY 10549. 
SALE! 

Christmas is slowly approaching, and with it the time for the 
traditional holiday sales. The following items will be offered at 
special sale prices until December 24th, 1983: 

STAR-DOS 64 is reduced from $74.90 to $49.90, the same 
price as the standard 16/32K STAR DOS. Actually, for the 
$49.90 price you get both versions. 

SPELL 'N FIX is reduced from $69.29 to $59.29 for the CoCo 
disk or cassette version, and from $178.58 to $125 for the Flex 
disk version. 

HUMBUG-64, the 64K version for Flex or STAR-DOS is 
reduced from $59.95 to $49.95. 

Add this to the rebate we announced last month, and you can 
get Star-Kits software at really bargain prices. 

To close, a neat definition (from The Devil's DP Dictionary 
by Stan Kelly-Bootle) of Gershwin's Law: "It ain't necessarily 
so!" 



SPELL 'N FIX 

Regardless of whose text processor you use, let SPELL 'N FIX find 
and fix your spelling and typing mistakes. It reads text faster than 
you can, and spots and corrects errors even experienced 
proofreaders miss. It is compatible with all Color Computer text 
processors. $69.29 in the Radio Shack disk or cassette versions; 
$178.58 in the Flex version. (20,000 word dictionary is standard; 
optional 75,000 word Super Dictionary costs $50 additional.) 

HUMBUG - THE SUPER MONITOR 

A complete monitor and debugging system which lets you input 
programs and data into memory, list memory contents, insert 
multiple breakpoints, single-step, test, checksum, and compare 
memory contents, find data in memory, start and stop programs, 
upload and download, save to tape, connect the Color Computer to 
a terminal, printer, or remote computer, and more. HUMBUG on 
disk or cassette costs just $39.95, special 64K version for FLEX or 
STAR-DOS 64 costs $59.95, MC- 10 version $29.95. 

STAR-DOS 

A Disk Operating System specially designed for the Color 
Computer, STAR-DOS is fully compatible with your present Color 
Computer disk format — it reads disks written by Extended Disk 
Basic and vice versa. STAR-DOS for 16K or 32K systems costs 
$49.90; STAR DOS 64 for 64K systems costs $74.90. 

STAR FLEX 

The best implementation of FLEX for the Color Computer. 
Complete with all utilities, text editor, macro assembler, and 
HUMBUG debug monitor, $250.00. 

ALL IN ONE - Editor Etc. 

Three programs in one — a full function Editor, a Text Processor 
and a Mailing List/Label program. All this for just $50. Requires 
STAR DOS and 32K, or STAR DOS 64, or FLEX, specify which. 

DBLS for Data Bases 

DBLS stands for Data Base Lookup System. A super-fast system 
for searching for a selected record in a sequential disk file. Supplied 
with SPELL 'N FIX's 20,000 word dictionary as a sample data file — 
lets you look up the spelling of any word in under FOUR seconds. 
Priced at $29.95. Requires STAR-DOS. 

CHECK 'N TAX 

Home accounting package combines checkbook maintenance and 
income tax data collection. Written in Basic for either RS Disk or 
Flex, $50. 

REMOTERM 

REMOTERM — makes your CoCo or MC- 10 into a host computer, 
operated from a remote terminal. $19.95. 

NEWTALK 

NEWTALK — a memory examine utility for machine language 
programmers which reads out memory contents through the TV 
set speaker. $20. 

SHRINK 

SHRINK — our version of Eliza, in machine language and 
extremely fast. $15. 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

Introduction to Numerical Methods — college level course on 
computer math, $75.00. 

We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY State 
residents please add appropriate sales tax. 
(FLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants, Inc. 
Everything else in this ad is a trademark of Star-Kits.) 



Star — Kits 



P.O. BOX 209 - R 
MT. KISCO, N.Y. 10549 
(914) 241-0287 



TURN OF THE SCREW 



A Hardware Hacker 
Cleans House 

By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Trying to come up with one project a month is some- 
times just too much. First, I must think of a good 
project, then, there is the research. Making diagrams 
and designing circuits. After that, there is the proto-typing, 
(that is the hardest part and the most time consuming) — 
buying the parts, soldering it together, and then trying to 
find out why it doesn't work. Sometimes that requires a 
whole change of circuit. After the hardware works fine, it's 
time to write the article. All this must be leading up to 
something; it is, this month is cleanup month. It's time to 
answer a few questions and clear up a few problems. That is 
to say I didn't have time to complete a project. But, I'll tell 
you this, there will be some hot projects coming this fall. 

Okay, the first thing on the agenda is a correction: Radio 
Shack does have a 1 mega-ohm potentiometer. The part 
number is 27 1-21 1. This correction comes from the April 1983 
issue of the Rainbow. It stated that Radio Shack did not 
carry this part, but as someone pointed out to me, they do. 
This was in my finger-saving rapid-fire project. 

The next thing is a little longer. A reader sent me a letter 
and asked me if it was possible to do my Reverse Screen on a 
"F" board, or the latest version, the one which has the 
smaller RF shield. Well, it is possible to do it. There arejust 
a few differences. The first change is the "U," or chip 
numbers. Since Radio Shack decided to change the com- 
plete layout of the Color Computer, they changed the chip 
ID numbers. U29 on the old board now becomes U8 on the 
new board, that's the 74LS02. U7 on the old board becomes 
U6 on the new board, that's the MC6847. I stated in my 
article you have to remove the 74LS02 and bend the pins 
upwards and replace the chip in the socket with the pins 
sticking out. Well you can't do that on the new board. Radio 
Shack decided to save a few cents by not putting this chip in 
a socket. Fortunately they had the insight not to solder the 
input pins to ground. When making the modification you 
don't have to remove the chip, just solder your wire straight 
to the pin, there is nothing connected on the other side. Use 



(Tony DiStefano is well known as an early specialist in 
Color Computer hardware projects. He is one of the 
acknowledged experts on the " inside s" of Co Co.) 



the same pin numbers as the other chip. Remember though, 
you still have to bend pin number 32 on the MC6847. Apart 
from these changes, the reverse screen will work fine. 

The next problem is with my Y'er. You cannot plug in a 
Radio Shack program pack or any other pack for that 
matter, into one of the slots when the disk controller is 
plugged in the other slot. It will not work and might even 
cause damage to the computer and or to the disk controller. 
This is because the bus is not buffered nor does it have the 
switches to select between different slots. It will only work 
with my projects or other projects that are independently 
memory mapped. That is to say it does not use the CTS (pin 
number 32 on the cartridge connector) or SCS (pin number 
32 on the cartridge connector) for selecting the device. These 
signals are being used by the disk controller software and 
hardware. If another device were to use these signals, there 
would be a bus contention and the CPU would get very 
confused. Maybe later on I could work on an adapter that 
would let you use these signals without any problems. 

Another point of interest to you goes back to my article on 
memory chips. If you can recall, I talked about ROMS and 
EPROMS. Here is a little more. The socket that is available 
for Extended BASIC inside your computer has 24 pins. It 
usually holds an 8K ROM'supplied by Radio Shack. This is 
where Extended BASIC resides. It is necessary though, to put 
an Extended BASIC ROM there. You can put different soft- 
ware there. All you need is to insert a chip. What chip? That 
depends on how long your program is. It is possible to put 
software that takes from IK to 8K of memory. Most of the 
time an average user puts in an EPROM, because they are so 
easy to program, and are relatively inexpensive. All you 
need is some software and an EPROM Programmer, and of 
course an EPROM. Most of the common EPROM chips 
available today are 24 pins, that means that they are pin 
compatible with the socket (in the Color Computer) and will 
plug into the socket directly. There is however, one chip that 
is not. This is the 2764 8K EPROM. They why use it? You 
might ask. Well it's the least expensive 8K EPROM chip on 

This adaptation works for the 2764 EPROM only. After 
the adaptation, it will fit in any of the Color Computer's 
ROM sockets: BASIC, Extended basic, or even the Disk 
BASIC socket. 



130 the RAINBOW October 1983 



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HARMON YCS 

P.O. BOX 1 573 



SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84110 




Arcade games putting your kids in a tailspin? 
HARMONYCS educational software ends the 
arcade game dizzys. 

EDUCATIONAL ***************** 

MATCH & SPELL turns spelling drudgery into spelling fun. 

16K Extended Basic . : $11.95 

MATHWAR is a 1st and 2nd grade math drill game. 

16K Extended Basic . . $11.95 

FLASHCARDS assists in studying anything from Mythology 
to Medicine. 16K Extended Basic .. $11.95 

TIC-TAC-TOE MATH. Plenty of color and sound. Different 
age players can compete against each other with their 
own skill level. 16K Extended Basic .. $11.95 

PRE-SCHOOL PAK. Alphabet recognition and counting 
drills. Hi-res graphics and sound. 

16K Extended Basic . . $8.95 

HOME & PERSONAL *************** 

DISK MONEY MINDER. A home budget tool. Allows print- 
out of category balances. Up to 56 user defined cate- 
gories. Helps you watch those dollars and cents. 

32K and Disk Basic .. . $19.95 

MONEY MINDER II. Cassette tape version of our popular 
DISK MONEY MINDER. 

16K Color Basic $14.95 

SEVEN-ELEVEN. It's a card game, it's a dide game. It's 
skill and luck for 1 to 6 players. Uses machine language 
subroutines. 

16K Extended Basic $12.95 

MAZE RUNNER. The Ytirrods have invaded! Can you 
penetrate their fortress? Joysticks required. 

16K Extended Basic .. $14.95 

Gift certificates available. We pay shipping on all orders. 
We ship next day... period! 
Write for free catalog. 

RAINBOW 




CERTIFICATION 
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HARMONYCS 

— PO BOX 1573 

SALT LAKE ClTV. UTAH 841 10 



This adaptation can be done directly to the chip or in- 
between two extra sockets. If done with the sockets, one 24 
and one 28-pin socket is needed. The 28-pin to seat the 
EPROM and the 24 to go into the other socket. 

1) Directly on the Chip. 

a) Solder pins 1, 28, 27 and 26 together. 

b) Pry up pin 20 so that it does not go back in the socket 
when the chip is replaced. 

c) Solder pins 20 and 22 together 

d) Solder a wire to pin 2 and insert the other side of the 
wire into the hold left by pin 20. 

e) Insert the chip so that pin 3 on the chip goes into pin 1 in 
the socket. 

2) Using two sockets. 

a) Align pin 3 of the 28 pin socket on top of pin 1 of the 24 
pin. 

b) Solder all the pins but pin 20 of the 28 pin socket to the 
24 pin socket. 

c) Solder pins 1, 28, 27, 26 of the 28 pin together. 

d) Solder pin 20 to pin 22 on the 28 pin socket. 

e) Insert chip into the top socket. Pin 1 of the chip goes 
into pin 1 of the socket. 

f) Insert the bottom socket into computer socket. Pin 1 
goes into pin 1 on both sockets. 

The only other consideration left is when programming 
the 2764. The above modification reverses the address lines 
All and A 12 as seen by the Color Computer. This means 
that, at programming time, these lines must be again rev- 
ersed. This can be done in software or in hardware. Hard- 
ware requires that the two traces that lead to the EPROM 
programmer socket be reversed . In software all you have to 
do is transfer the second 2K block of memory with the third 
2K block of memory. 

Some of you who have had problems with my projects 
have written me asking for help. I must confess. I have a 
hard time answering letters. If you do write me, be patient, I 
will answer in time. Tell you what, 111 set aside one night a 
week, let's say Monday night, when you can call me at home* 
and talk to me about your problems. My telephone number 
is (514) 473-49 10. But please, don't call before 7 p.m. or after 
1 1 p.m. The cost of your long distance call might be worth 
not having to wait for a response in a letter. 



Hint . . . 



Single Disk COPY 



Here's a feature which can be invaluable for users with a 
single disk drive. The Radio Shack Disk Manual mentions 
that use of the COPY Command requires two or more 
drives. This is not necessarily true. A single drive COPY can 
be made by doing the following: 

1) Insert disk with file to be copied into the drive 0. 

2) Type "COPY "FILENAME/ ext:0" and press 
<ENTER>. 

3) There will be one short beep and a notice will appear 
on the screen instructing the user to insert the desti- 
nation disk. 

4) Insert destination disk and press <ENTER>. 

5) Once completed there will be two copies of the pro- 
gram: one original and one on the destination disk. 

This method works for all types of disk files including 
machine language programs. It surprises me that Radio 
Shack would not mention such an important feature in their 
documentation. 

—Larry Sandhaas 



132 



the RAINBOW October 1983 




COMPUTERWARE 



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134 the RAINBOW October 1963 





f you enjoyed my version of Color Poker, which appeared in 
the April 1983 issue, you will find this version of Blackjack to 
be a pleasant companion. The game is played with you against 
the dealer. As explained later on, betting is done for you on a 
| random basis, which speeds playing and adds an additional chance 
factor. 

The dealer has two decks of cards and will reshuffle before the 
start of a new deal if there are less than 20 cards remaining. This 
allows you to do card counting to improve your luck. You have the 
option of splitting opening pairs. If you do split, your bet is 
doubled and split between the two hands. 

In terms of win/ lose, if you "bust, 1 ' it's all over. If you make a 
"Blackjack," you win and the hand ends. You will break even in a 
tie with the dealer, including a "2 1 

Now, on with the program. The listing contains comments and 
should be straightforward to follow. All the subroutines are placed 
at the end of the program, starting at line 1470. 

Lines 1 20—610 contain the strings used to DRA Ffthe required 
ASCII characters on the PMODE1 screen. Subroutine 1480 does 
; the actual drawing. The screen is blanked while the card symbols 
and the opening title are created; also the two decks of cards are 
formed in lines 650 — 690. 

The cards are created by three variables: CV(), CN(), and CS() 
for card value, card number and card suit. The card value is first set 
to the number of the card (1 to 13) then changed to 1 0 for jacks, 
queens and kings or to 11 for aces. The ace is counted high, as 1 1 , 
unless the total value of a hand is over 2 1 , then the aces revert to a 
value of 1 . 

The player's bet is selected in line 900 in increments of $100. The 
initial deal is started in line 940. The two-dimensional variable 
^ j CD() keeps track of the dealer's cards as well as the player's cards, 
^including splits. The player's cards are checked to see if there is a 
pair by line 980. If there is, the player is given the option to split. 

Line 1020 checks for player Blackjack. The variable PT() is the 
tally of the players' hands, which are obtained from subroutine 
1770. 

If the split option is taken, the program branches to deal the split 
I 



— ' 



♦ mm. 

mm 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

mm 

♦ ♦♦ 

♦ ♦♦ 

^ ^ ^ 

♦ ♦♦ 

mm 

♦ ♦♦ 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

mm 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

♦ ♦♦ 

♦ ♦♦ 

♦ ♦♦ 

♦ ♦ ♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦ | 



♦ 

mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
m:M 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
♦ ♦ 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 

11 



October 1983 Ihe RAINBOW 135 



HARDWARE & SUPPLIES 



MONITORS 



BMC GREEN SCREEN II" 

89.95 

COMREX CR SMO 
HI-RES MONITORS 

12" Green Phosphor 179.95 

12" Yellow Phosphor 189.95 

1 2" Amber Phosphor 199.95 

COMREX CR f f 00 
GREEN SCREEN 

12" Phosphor Monilor 129.95 

VIDEO PLUS 

(From Compuferware) 

This unit is so good, we have slopped pro* 
ducing our popular video inierface kil so 
thai we can supply our customers wiih the 
hest unit available. Requires no soldering 
or hole cutting for installation. Will work 
on ANY composite monilor, color or 
monochrome. 

Only $24.95 

BMC BM AU9I9IU 

(IV* Color Monitor) 

High resolution display monilor produces 
an incredibly sharp image. Includes built 
in speaker with audio circuit, Compatible 
with virtually any microcomputer. 
$344.95 

DUAL JOYSTICK UNIT 
(D.J.) 

Single unit assembly enhances payability 
of multUjoysiick /player games; conve- 
nient press-io-ttre buttons 
Add $4. 00 shipping $35.95 

SPLC 1 

Lower Case Board 

(By Saturn Software) 

Plug in board gives true lower case letters 
with descenders insiead of inverted letters 
on your video display. Installation of an 
optional switch (not provided) allows in- 
verse or standard video with ihe flip of a 
switch. Fits all "E" and later "D" boards, 
$59.95 

LCINT 

Lower case interpreter program allows in- 
put of lower case command words to be 
accepted. Also allows for one key pause 
features and single step through listings. 
With instructions and cassette* disk com- 
patible $10.95 



J A KB 



HARDWARE 



U.S FUNDS ONLY 

C.O.I), ORDERS ACCEP TED 

Sorry, no COD. on printers 
monitors. 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



* 



and 



1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 9205$ 
(619) 474-S981 



MEMORY 
UPGRADE KITS 



ibK RAM CHIPS 



,1.50 ea, 



•I6K 3ZK 

MEMORY UPGRADE KIT 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips 
with Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, 
Bus Wire, and 32K Ram Slicker. Com- 
prehensive I nsi ructions. Recommended 
for "D" or earlier, but may be used on 
"E", Only 9 simple solder connections lo 
kil. None to computer. 
x $25,95 

* 64K RAM CHIPS 

Him 21X) NS Factory Prime 64K RAM 
Chips. Allows you to upgrade "E" board 
easily. Nu soldering needed, 
$69.95 

NOTE: 64K upgrade wilf NOT provide 
G4K of user Ram T but allows later revision 
boards (E, L~H to run cooler and more ef- 
ficiently. ' 

• instillation of these items «•/// \ n0 the 
Radio Shuck warranty. Radio Shack i\ a 
trademark of the Tandy C orp. 



NAN08 COLOR BASIC 

AND EX TENDED 
SYSTEM REFERENCE 
CARD 

"The New Industry Standard" 
$4.95 

(Wc pay postage on this one) 
All types of Nanos cards available 



J ARB 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

1616 D Avenue* Suite C 
Naiional City, CA 92050 
(619) 474-8981 



PRINTERS 

EPSON PRINTERS 

FX-80+ $575.00 

RX-80 $449.00 

Serial Interface w/4K Buffer 

Ideal forSOCuse $109.95 

80CTO Epson Cable $19.95 

See shipping !r\fo 

PRINTER ACCESSORIES 

Roll Paper Holder (Epson) 30 .00 

Adjustable Tractor for FX-80 39.95 

Also Tractor Fed Mail Labels and 
Cassette Labels, Ribbons, etc. 

COCO PRINTER PACKAGE 

Epson FX-B0 and Serial Interface with 4K 
Buffer, Cable 674,90 

COMREX CR l 

Compact desk-top daisy wheel 
printer, especially designed for word 
processing. Assures high reliability, 
and produces quiet, high quality 
priming. Complete with RS-232 in- 
terface. 

$810.00 

JARB DISK DOUBLER 

Why spend twice as much as you 
need lo for double sided diskettes? 
With our doubler. you can make 
your own and pay for it with Ihe First 
box you double. A must for disk 
drive users. 

5^" size only 12.95 

BASF DATA CASSETTES 
C-Of C-IO 



MO 
11-20 



.60 ea. 
.55 ea. 



.65 ea. 
60 ea 



Sot'i Poly Cases Ea. $.20 

Hard Shelled Cases Ea. $.22 

Cassette Labels (1 2) Sh. $ 36 

Cassette Labels Tractor (1000) .... $30.00 



Cat! or write far quantity prices on ail 
cassette products. Special lengths avail- 
able, eg., C-02, etc. 



We carry products 
from many manufacturers. 
If you don't see it, ask. 



SHIPPING AND HANDLING: Printers 
and monitors add 3%. Unless otherwise 
specified, all other orders $2.00 per order. 
California Residents add 6% sales tax. 



in line 1 150. Both hands are checked for Blackjacks or"21," 
then back to play hand 1 (line 1010). 

The player must respond to the HIT? question with either 
(Y) or (N). If another card is drawn the tally is checked to see 
if it is over 21 (bust). If not, the sequence is repeated. 

When the player stops drawing cards, play passes to the 
dealer in line 1 2 1 0. The dealer will draw until the card tally is 
over 17. 

Once all the cards are down, the scoring routine is called, 
line 1280. All hands win/ lose even money except Blackjack, 
which pays 3 to 2. Woe unto the loser of more than $3000. A 
special treat awaits him courtesy of Morton Goldberg 
(February 1983 Rainbow) 

Key Variables: 

A$() Strings to draw ASCII characters 

CN() Card number (1 to 13) 

CV() Card value (1 to 11) 

CS() Card suit (1 to 4) 

DD() Array of cards dealt (1 to 104) 

BT Bet ($100 to $1000) 

CD(H,X) Cards in each hand 

SP SP=1 for split 

PT() Tally of players' hands 

CT Tally of dealer's hand 

TT Money player has 

DK Number of cards left to deal 



(Joseph Kohn, a systems engineer for TR W, is inter- 
ested in games and utilities. His current activities 
include a user's group at Norton AFB and formation 
of an Inland Empire user's group.) 




The listing: 



10 GOTO30000 

20 '20FEB83 

30 '*****************< 

40 '# COLOR BLACKJACK 

50 '* VERSION 1.0 

60 '* JOSEPH KOHN 



* 
# 
* 



70 
80 
90 
100 
110 
120 
130 

140 A* (35)' 

BR4"*C 

150 A*(37>> 

E 

160 A*(38>< 
170 A* (39) « 



'#1343 BLOSSOM AVE* 
' #REDLANDS, CA 92373* 

CLS: DIM A* (89) : X-RND (-TIMER) 

' DRAW STRINGS 

A* (33) -"U4E2F2D2NL4D2BR3" *A 
A* (34)= * RU6LR3FD8NL2FD6L3BR7 



' " BR3E 1 BU4H 1 L28 1 D4F 1 R2 

* " R4BU6L4D3NR2D3BR7 " * 

! " U6NR4D3NR2D3BR7 " P F 
< " BR4BU5H 1L2Q1D4F1 R3U2 



NL1D2BR3" p 6 

180 A*(40)-"U6D3R4U3D6BR3" P H 
190 A«(41)-"BU6BR1R2L1D6L1R2BR4" 
'I 

200 A*(42)-"BU1F1R2E1U5BD6BR3" 

'J 

210 A*(43)-"U6D3R1NE3F3BR3" P K 
220 A*(44)-"NU6R4BR3" 'L 
230 A»(46)«"U6F4U4D6BR3 M *N 
240 A*(47)-"BU1U4E1R2F1D4B1L2NH1 
BR6" p O 

250 A*(48)-"U6R3F1D1G1L3BF3BR4" 
'P 

260 A* ( 49 ) - " BUU4ER2FD36NHNF0LNHB 
R6" *Q 

270 A«(50)-"U6R3F1D161L3R1F3BR3" 
P R 

280 A*(51)-"R3E1U1H1L2H1U1E1R3BD 
6BR3" P S 

290 A*(52)«"BU6R4L2D6BR5 M P T 
300 A* ( 53 ) - " BU 1 U5BR4D58 1 L2NH 1 BR6 

310 A*(54)«" BU4NU2FDFNDEUEU2BD6B 
R3" P V 

320 A*(55)«"NU6E2F2NU6BR3 M P W 

330 A* ( 57 ) - " BU6D 1 F2E2U 1 D 1 82D3BR5 
ii » y 

340 A*(65)-"BU4R2F1D1L2G1F1R2NU2 
R1BR3" '« 

350 A«(66)-"U6D2R3F1D281L3BR7" ' 
b 

360 A* (69)-" BR3L2H 1 U2E 1 R2F 1 D 1 NL4 
BD2BR3" * e 

370 A* ( 72 ) » " U6D3E 1 R2F 1 D3BR3 " p h 
380 A*(73)-"BU6BR1R1BD2NL1D4L1R2 
BR4" p i 

390 A*(79)- M BU1U2E1R2F1D281L2NH1 
BR7" p o 

400 A*(B2)*"U4D1E1R2F1BD3BR3" 'r 
410 A* (83)-" R3E 1 H 1 L2H 1 E 1 R3BD4BR3 

" * » 

420 A*(84)»"BU5R4L2U1D5F1E1BD1BR 
3" p t 

430 A«(85)-"BU4D3FlR2NU4RlBR3 n ' 
u 

440 A* (86) -"BU4F1D1F1ND1E1U1E1BD 
4BR3" p v 

450 A* ( 87 ) « " BU4D3F 1 E 1 NU2F 1 E 1 U3BD 
4BR3" p w 

460 A* (0) = n BR3" ' SPACE 
470 A* ( 1 ) - " BR 1 R 1 BU2U4BD6BR5 N ' ! 
480 A*(4)-"BR2U6D1R2L381F1R2F181 
L3BD1BR7" p * 

490 A* ( 1 0 ) - " BUE4BD4H4BR2D4BH2R4B 
D3BR3" '* 

500 A* ( 16) -"BU1U4E1R1F1D401L1NH1 
BR6" p 0 

510 A* < 1 7 ) = " BU6BR2N6 1 D6L 1 R2BR4 " 
' 1 

520 A*(18)« n BU5ElR2FlDi81L281D2R 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 137 



4BR3" *2 

530 A* ( 1 9 ) ■ " BUSER2FDGNLFD0L2NHBR 

A" *3 

540 A* ( 20 > - " BU2U 1 E3D4NR 1 NL3D2BR4 

It 9 Q 

550 A*(21)-"BU1F1R2E1U2H1L3U2R4B 
D6BR3" '5 

560 A*(22)-"BU6BR3L1B2D3F1R2E1U1 
H1L3BD3BR7" '6 

570 A*(23)- n BU6R4DlB4DlBR7 n *7 
5B0 A* < 24 ) - » BUUER2EUHL2GDFR2FD0L 
2NHBR6" '8 

590 A* ( 25 ) - " BRRE2U3HL2BDFR3BD3BR 
3" *9 

600 A* ( 26 ) - " BU6NB 1 D6L 1 R2BR2BU 1 U4 
E1F1D481NH1" '10 

610 A«(31)-"BR1R1BU2E2U1H1L2Q" ' 

? 

620 » TITLE 

630 PMODE 1,1: PCLS2 : DRAM " BM62 , 52 | 
S 1 6C 1 " : X*= " COLOR " : QOSUB 1 490 : DRAM 
"BM66, 52| C3" : QOSUB 1490: DRAM"BM6, 
1 12| CI " : X*" " BLACKJACK " S QOSUB 1 490 
: DRAWBM10, 1 12i C3" : QOSUB 1490 

M0 » CREATE DECK 

650 Z-0:DIMCN<104> ,CD(2,9) ,CS<10 
4) ,CV(104) ,DD(104) ,C(12> ,H(12) ,S 
(12),D(12) 

660 fori-0to1:forx-1to4 * 1=club, 
2-spade, 3-heart, 4=di ahond 
670 f0ry-1t013:z-z+1:cs(z)-x:cv< 
z)-y:cn(Z)-y 



660 IF CN(Z)«1THEN CV(Z>«11 * ACE 

690 IF CN(Z)>10THEN CV(Z)-10 *JA 
CK, QUEEN, KING 
700 NEXT Y, X, I 

710 ' CREATE SYMBOLS 

720 DRAM " BH6B , 1 56 I S8C3RURDR2U2LU 
RUR3DRDLD2R2URDRD3LDLUL3D2LU2L3D 
LULU3" 

730 PAINT (80, 152> ,3, 3: SET <68, 148 
)-(91, 167) ,C,G 

740 DRAM " BM 1 00 , 1 56 I C4BRRURURURUD 
RDRDRDRDLDLDLDLDULULULULU " 
750 PAINT < 114, 156) ,4, 4: GET (100, 1 
48) -(123, 167) ,D,G 

760 DRAM » BM 1 32 , 1 56 1 C3BRRURURURUR 
DRDRDRDRD2LDLUL2D3LU3L2DLULU2 " 
770 PAINT (146, 156), 3, 3: GET (132, 1 
4Q)-(155, 167) ,S,G 

7G0 DRAM » BM 1 64 , 1 56 S C4BRU2RURUDRD 
R3URUDRDRD2LD2LDLDLDLULULULU2L " 
790 PAINT (170, 152), 4, 4: GET (164, 1 
48) -( 187, 167), H, 6 

600 screeni,0:forx»itoi000:next: 

PLAY " V20T 1 5L 1 04CL2036P58L 1 A6P 1 BO 
4C M 

810 ' RULES DISPLAY 

620 CL80:PRINTSTRING*(G, "*") "C0C 
0 CASINO RULES" STRING* (7, •'*•')» 
630 PR I NT "DEALER:": PR I NT" STAND 
S ON 17 OR MORE. ": PRINT" DRAMS 
ON 16 OR LESS.": PRINT" HA8 2 DE 
CK8. ": PRINT" SHUFFLES MITH 20 C 
ARDS LEFT . " : PR I NT : PR I NT 
640 PRINT"PLAYER:": PRINT" MAY S 
PLIT PAIRS. ": PRINT" STARTS MITH 
41000. " 

850 TT- 1 000 : PR I NT6480 , " READY? " I 
660 GOSUB 1660:CLS 

670 * START PLAY 

680 BOSUB1670 

690 COLOR4, 1 : PCLS: IFDK<21G0SUB16 
70 

900 BT- 1 00*RND (10): BT4-M I D* ( STR* 
(BT) , 2) : DRAM"BM20, 102) C4" : X*-"Yo 
ur bet is *"+BT*+"!":GOQUB1490 
910 SCREEN1,0 

920 forx»0to9: for h-0to2: cd (h, x) 
=0:next h,x 'h=0 dealer, h«0/i 

PLAYER 

930 » INITIAL SET UP 

940 QOSUB 1500: CD <0,0>=Z 'DEALER 

SHOM CARD 
950 X X =»0 : Y Y»0 : GOSUB 1 520 
960 COLORS, l: LINE (16,0) -(42, 66), 
PSET, BF: CIRCLE (30, 32) ,10,1,2 
970 K=i : FOR X=0TOl: QOSUB 1500: CD (1 
, X ) »Z: XX»16*X : YY-10&: GOSUB 1520: N 
EXT 

980 IFCN(CD(1,0))-CN(CD(1,1))THE 



^ VALHALLA 



VENTURE WITH YOUR LEGIONS INTO THE MYSTICAL LAND OF 
VALHALLA TO CONQUER ALL AND REIGN SUPREME IN THIS TOTALLY 
HI-RES, COMPLETELY JOYSTICK CONTROLLED, STRATEGY GAME. 
THE BEAUTIFULLY DETAILED TERRAIN MAP INCLUDES CASTLES, 
VILLAGES, ROADS, RIVERS, SWAMPS, LAKES, BAYS, AND MOUNTAINS. 
TWO TO FOUR PLAYERS CONTROL SIXTEEN ARMIES LED BY LORDS, 
GENERALS, OR CAPTAINS. EACH ARMY FEATURES HEAVY CALVARY, 
LIGHT CALVARY, FOOT SOLDIERS, AND ARCHERS. 

A SUPERB GAME FOR ONLY $24.95. , 

CHECK OR MONEY AVAILABLE ONLY FROM P.O. BOX 15331 



ORDER ONLY *HYC0MP* ^ 74158 



(918)266-6452 



ALL ORDERS 1.50 SHIPPING. GAMES REQUIRE 32K, EXT. BASIC, AND 
DUE TO MEMORY REQUIREMENTS ARE AVAILABLE ONLY ON CASSETTE 



COLONIAL TRILOGY 




THE INCREDIBLE SAGA OF THE STRUGGLES 
BETWEEN TWO RACES AT THE EDGE OF OUR GALAXY 

COLONIAL WARS: one player commands the colonial 
homeworlds and all their forces while the other player 
leads the invading zyron empire. the ultimate in two 
player strategy games with hycomp's unique split screen 
concept, game save, and 10 page instruction manual(3-8hrs) 

zyron: the siege over one of the colonial homeworlds 
and the attempt to break it is the setting for this two 
player game. features include custom built fighters and 
freighters, 300 location hi-res playing grid, seven page 

MANUAL, TWO SCENARIOS, AND PLAYING AID (2-4hrs) 

QUESTAR: ONE PLAYER EXPLORES OVER 30 PLANETS ON A 
DARING MISSION TO DESTROY A HIDDEN ZYRON BASE IN THIS 
EXCELLENT GRAPHICS ADVENTURE (60-90min) y*"— V 

ONLY $19.95 EACH OR '""> 

hi i -r, ,r-.l-l- ^^r^ ~ . ^ „ ,-, RAINBOW 

ALL THREE FOR $49.95! 



1 38 the RAINBOW October 1983 



NDRAWBM2, 188C2": X«-" SPLIT? ":SP- 

1 : GOSUB 1 490ELSESP-0 : GOTO 1010 

990 GOSUB 1660: GOSUB 1830 

1000 IFK*- M N"THENSP»0: GOTO 101 0EL 

SE1150 

1010 * player hand 1 

1020 h=i:gosubi770:pt<d-t: ifpt< 
1)-21thenpt(1)»99:draw"bm2, 188": 
x*-" blackjack" : bosub1490: goto107 

0 

1030 DRAW"BM2, 188" : X*-"HIT?" : BOS 
UB 1 490 : GOSUB 1 660 : GOSUB 1 830 : I FK*« 
"N"THEN1070 

1040 bosubi900:k-k+i:cd<i,k)-z:x 
x- 1 6*k : y y- 1 06 : bosub 1 520 

1050 H-l : GOSUB 1770: DRAW"Bt12, 188" 
: PT < 1 ) =T: IF T>21THENX«="BUST ! " : 8 
OSUB 1 490 : BOTO 1 070 

1 060 I FPT ( 1 ) «2 1 THENX*- " *2 1 * " : BOS 
UB 1 490 : BOTO 1 070ELSE 1 030 
1070 IFSP-0THEN1210 

1080 * PLAYER HAND 2 

1090 IFPT(2)-99THEN1210 
1100 K-l 

1110 DRAW "BM 128, 188" : X«-"HIT?" : 8 
OSUB 1490: BOSUB 1660: BOSUB 1840: IFK 
*< > " N " THEN 1 1 20ELSEH»2 : BOSUB 1 770 : 
PT<2)=T:BOTO1210 

1120 bosubi500:k=k+i:cd<2,k>-z:x 

X=l 28+K* 1 6 : YY= 1 06 : BOSUB 1 520 
1130 H=2 : BOSUB 1 770 : DRAW "BM 128, 18 
8" : PT <2) =T: IF T>21THENX«-"BUST ! " 
: BOSUB 1 490 : BOTO 1210 
1 1 40 I FPT ( 2 ) =2 1 THENX *= " *2 1 * " : BOS 
UB1490: GOTO1210ELSE1 1 10 

1150 * REDEAL FOR SPLIT 

1160 CD(2,0)-CD<1,1>:GOSUB1500:C 
D ( 1 , 1 ) =Z : XX-16: YY-106: GOSUB1520 
1170 GOSUB 1500: CD < 2, 1)-Z:FORI=0T 

oi:z-cd<2, I) :xx»126+16*i:yy»106: 

6OSUB1520:NEXT 

1180 H«2: BOSUB 1770 :PT< 2) -T 

1190 IFPT(2)»21THENPT(2)»99:DRAW 

"BH128, 188" : X««" BLACKJACK" : GOSUB 

1490 

1200 GOTO1020 

1210 * COMPLETE DEALER HAND 

1 220 K-0 : I FPT < 1 ) >2 1 THEN I FSP-0THE 
N 1 290ELSE I FPT < 1 ) >21ANDPT <2) >21TH 
EN 1290 

1230 K=K+l:GOSUB1500:CD(0,K)=Z: X 
X - 1 6*K : Y Y-0 : BOSUB 1 520 

1240 h-0: gosub i 770 :ct-t: IF CT<17 

THEN 1 230ELSE I FCT< 2 1 THEN 1 290 
1250 DRAW"BM128,50":X*«"BUST!" 
1 260 I FCT=2 1 THENX *= " *2 1 * " : I FK« 1 T 
HENX*» " BLACKJACK " 
1270 GOSUB 1490 
1280 * SCORIN6 

1290 LINE (0,6G)-<255, 102), PRESET 



BF : LO B 0 
1300 H-l: GOSUB 1700 
1310 I FSP- 1 THENH-2 : BOSUB 1 700 
1320 DRAW"BM20,86":IFLO-0THENX«- 
" BROKE EVEN! ": BOTO 1350 
1330 IFLO>0THENX*-"You LOST *"EL 
SEX*-"You WON *" 

1340 X*-X*+MID*<STR*(LO),2)+" ! " 
1 350 BOSUB 1 490 : TT-TT-LO : I FLO< 0TH 
ENPLAY " T203L 1 6CEBL804CL 1 603GL404 
C"ELSEIFLO>0THENSOUND50, 10ELSESO 
UND100, 2: SOUND50, 2 
1360 IFTT<0THENX*-"You ow« *"ELS 
EX«-"You have ♦" 

1370 DRAWBM30, 102":X*-X*+MID*(S 

TR*<TT) ,2) +" ! ": BOSUB 1490 

1380 BOSUB 1660: IFTT>-3001GOTO890 

ELSECLS: PRINTQ108, "SORRY ! " : PRINT 

9257, "YOU EXCEEDED YOUR *3000 LI 

MIT ! " : SCREEN0, 1 : FORX-1TO10: SOUND 

200-15*X,9:NEXT 

1390 CLS8: FORH-0TO63: SET <H, 0, 3) : 
NEXT: FORV-0TO31 : SET (63, V, 3) : NEXT 
: FORH-63TO0STEP-1 : SET (H, 31 , 3) : NE 
XT: FORV-31TO0STEP-1 : SET <0, V, 3) : N 
EXT: FORH=3TO60: SET (H, 2,1): NEXT: F 
0RV-3T029: SET (60, V, 1 ) : NEXT: FORH- 
60TO3STEP-1 : SET <H, 29, 1 ) : NEXT 
1 400 F0RV-29T03STEP- 1 : SET < 3 , V , 1 ) 



TDP 100 Computers 

White Cases — Extra Vents 
New F (ND) Board — RS Compatible 



1 6K Non-Extended $1 99.95 

64K Extended Basic $379.95 

TDP Line Printer 100 $279.95 

TDP Four-Color Graphics Printer $169.95 

Drive 0 Complete (First One) $399.00 

Drive 1 (Second One) $299.00 

TDP or Tandon Drives (Your Choice) 

64K Upgrade (with instructions) $ 79.95 

32K Upgrade (with instructions) $ 39.95 



ALL TANDY DATA PRODUCTS ARE WHITE 
Over 100 Different CoCo Programs In Stock! 



(901)323-1183 
3422 Plaza 

MEMPHIS, TN 

38111 




October 1983 the RAINBOW 139 



: NEXT: F0RH-7T056STEP2: RESET (H,6) 
: NEXT: F0RV-8T024STEP2: RESET (57, V 
) : NEXT; F0RH-56T06STEP-2: RESET (H, 
26) : NEXT : F0RV-24T07STEP-2 : RESET ( 
6, V): NEXT 

1410 F0RH-9T013: RESET <H, 12) : NEXT 
: F0RV-13T018: RESET ( 1 1 , V) : NEXT: FO 
RH-17TO20: RESET <H, 15) : NEXT: FORV- 
1 2T0 1 8 : RESET ( 1 6 , V ) : NEXT : FOR V- 1 2T 
018: RESET (21 , V) : NEXT: F0RH-25T027 
: RESET (H, 12): NEXT 

1 420 F0RH-25T027 : RESET (H, 15) :NEX 
T: F0RH-25T027: RESET (H, 18) : NEXT: F 
0RV-12T01B: RESET (24, V) : NEXT: FORH 
"34T037: RESET (H, 12) : NEXT: FORH-34 
T037: RESET (H, 15) : NEXT: F0RH-34TQ3 
7: RESET (H, 18) : NEXT: F0RV-12T018: R 
ESET(34,V) :NEXT 

1430 F0RV-12T018: RESET (40, V) : NEX 
T; FORV-12T018: RESET (46, V) : NEXT: R 
ESET (41 , 12) : RESET (41 , 13) : RESET (4 
2, 14) ; RESET (43, IS) : RESET (44, 16) : 
RESET (45, 17) : RESET (45, 18) : FORH-4 
9T054: RESET (H, 12) : NEXT: F0RH-49T0 
54: RESET (H, 18): NEXT 
1440 FORV- 13T017: RESET (50, V) : NEX 
T: FORV-13T017: RESET (54, V) : NEXT 
1 450 FORX- 1 T05 : FORH-5T056STEP2 : S 
ET (2+H, 6, 8) : NEXT: F0RH-5T056STEP2 
: RESET (2+H, 6) : NEXT: F0RV-6T025STE 
P2: SET (57, V+2, 8) ; NEXT: F0RV-6T023 
STEP2: RESET (57, 2+V) : NEXT: FORH-56 
T06STEP— 2: SET (2+H, 26, 8) : NEXT 
1 460 F0RH-54T05STEP-2 : RESET ( 2+H , 
26) : NEXT:F0RV»24T06STEP-2: SET (6, 
2+V, 8) : NEXT: F0RV-24T06STEP-2: RES 
ET (6, 2+V) : NEXT: NEXTX: 8OTO820 
1470 '***SUBROUTINES*** 

1480 ' DRAW ASCII 

1490 F0RX1-1TQ LEN(X«) : Y1-ASC(MI 
D» ( X«, X 1 , 1 )) -32: DRAMA* (Yl ): NEXT: 
DRAW"C4": RETURN 
1500 '—DEAL 

1510 Z-RND(104):IFDD(Z)-1THEN151 
0ELSEDD ( Z ) - 1 : DK-DK- 1 : RETURN 

1520 ' CARD 8RAPHICS 

1530 COLOR2, l:LINE(XX,YY)-(XX,YY 
+66 ) , PRESET : L I NE ( X X+2 , Y Y ) - ( X X +30 

Now YOU can create custom 

overlays for your programs 

USEABLE ON BOTH SIDES- ACCEPTS PENCIL OR INK- 4 MIL MYLAR ' 



BLANK KEYBOARD OVERLAYS' 

JOAMR sales 



jfl250 forW FOR THETRSSC^CoC. R0^Qox9S)L 

1) *^ 50 SlMM0MViu*,SC.Jt?<8l 

i *IjOO to all ordors for shipping i handling 
"^ siden ts add a solos tax _ AIumF 



,YY+66),PSET,BF 

1540 CC*""4":IF CS(ZX3THEN CC*- 
-Z" 

1550 X*-CHR*(CN(Z)+48) 

1560 IFCN(Z)-1THENX«- M A M 

1570 IF CN(Z) M0THEN X«-MID*("JQ 

K",CN(Z)-10,1) 

1580 DRAW ,, BH M +STR» ( XX+4) + M , "+STR 

* ( YY+16) + ,, S8C ,, +CC«: 8O8UB1490 
1590 DRAW"BM M +STR«(XX+18)+", M +ST 
R* (YY+62) : BOSUB1490 

1600 ON CS(Z) BOTO 1610,1620,163 
0, 1640 

1610 PUT ( XX+4, YY+24)-(XX+27,YY+4 
3 ),C,PSET: RETURN 

1620 PUT ( XX+4, YY+24)-(XX+27,YY+4 
3), S,PSET: RETURN 

1630 PUT(XX+4,YY+24)-(XX+27,YY+4 
3), H,PSET: RETURN 

1640 PUT ( XX+4, YY+24)-(XX+27,YY+4 
3 ),D,PSET: RETURN 
1650 »— BETKEY 

1660 K*-INKEY*:I-INSTR(1," NY"+C 
HR* ( 13) , K«) : I F I< 2THEN 1 660ELSERET 
URN 

1670 ' SHUFFLE 

1680 FORI-1TO104:DD(I)«0:NEXT:DK 
•105 

1690 draw"bh64,86c2": x*»"shuffle 

• •• ; 8osub1490: return 
1700 '—win/Lose 

1710 ifpt(h)-99thenlo-lo-bt*1.5: 

RETURN 

1 720 I FPT ( H ) >2 1 THENLO-LO+BT : RETU 
RN 

1730 IFPT(H)>CT THENLO-LO-BT:RET 
URN 

1740 IFPT(HXCT THEN I FCT >2 1 THENL 

0-LO-BT ELSELO-LO+BT 

1750 RETURN 

1760 '—TALLY CARDS 

1770 T-0:A-0:FORX-0 TQ K 'A-NUMB 

ER OF ACES 

1780 IFCN(CD(H,X) )-lTHENA-A+l 
1790 T»T+CV(CD(H,X)):NEXT 
1800 IFT>21THENT»T-10»A 
1810 RETURN 

1820 ' ERASE BLOCKS 

1830 LINE (0, 174) -(80, 188) , PRESET 
, BF: RETURN 

1840 LINE (128, 174) -(208, 188) , PRE 

set, bf: return 

10000 forx«ito2:printx:motoron:f 

ORY-1TO6000: next: CSAVE"BLACKJAC h 
: next: end 

20000 PRINT#-2,CHR*(17)CHR*(30)C 
HR* (31 ) CHR* (27) " B" "***COLOR BLAC 
KJACK*#* M CHR* (30) : LLIST: END 
30000 PCLEAR2:6OTO20 



140 the RAINBOW October 1983 



BLACKJACKPRO 




This is not a game. 



Introducing BLACKJACKPRO. The 
computer assisted learning tool 
that teaches you to BEAT THE 
HOUSE. 

BLACKJACKPRO is not a game 
for you to play against your Color 
Computer for fun. BLACKJACK- 
PRO is a tutorial that will teach 
you the probability based system 
that expert black jack players have 
been using for years. 

Phone orders may be placed by calling 
(212) 582-2006 or (613) 594-7855, or toll- 
free at 1-800-223-6015. 
Mail orders and requests for information 
should be sent to 

SKILLWARE CORPORATION 
Applied Probability Dept., 2nd Floor 
314 West 53rd Street 
New York, New York 10019 

BLACKJACKPRO is a trademark of 
SKILLWARE CORPORATION 



BLACKJACKPRO will make it 
happen for you. It will condition 
you to make the correct play ef- 
fortlessly. 

BLACKJACKPRO will teach you 
at speeds ten times faster than any 
other method. Expert play will be- 
come easy and natural. You will be 
able to beat the house and go UN- 
DETECTED! 



BLACKJACKPRO will pay for it- 
self. Once you learn the black jack 
system using this tutorial, you will 
eliminate the house advantage 
and BE A WINNER. 
BLACKJACKPRO is not a game. It 
is serious business. 
The introductory price is only $75. 
You can call us now. We're ready 
to take your order. 



Please send me _ 
□ Cassettes □ 

Name 

Address 

City 



BLACKJACKPRO tutorials @ $75. each. 

Diskettes Total amount enclosed $ 



. State 



Zip 



Account # 



Signature 



. Exp. Date 



C.O.D. orders 
gladly accepted 
($2.00 additional). 
Please allow two 
weeks for personal 
checks to clear. 
N.Y. State resi- 
dents please add 
sales tax, 



SKILLWARE CORPORATION 



COLORSOFT™ BUSINESS SOFTWAR! 

AT LAST! BUSINESS SOFTWARE DESIGNED FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
* MAKE YOUR COLOR COMPUTER A WORKING BUSINESS PARTNER * 
* ALL PROGRAMS ARE MENU DRIVEN AND USER FRIENDLY * 
* PROFESSIONALLY WRITTEN AND FULLY TESTED * 
* AFTER-THE SALE SUPPORT * 



COLORSOFT™ GENERAL LEDGER 

COLORSOFT lm General Ledger le Ideal lor the emell buelness men who 
wsnls to teke advantage od the time saving benefllaol computerized account- 
ing procedures Thle package le designed lor the businessman who le 
knowledgable of accounting principle! and who wants a computer laed 
accounting eyetem with greater ueer control. The leetures and opllona of thle 
peckage compare fevorebly to higher priced eoftware. 

FEATURES 

USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN — 
UP TO 06 USER DEFINABLE RECORD CATEGORIES 
USER FLEXIBILITY IN ACCOUNT DESIGN AND ENTRIES *" 
DETAILED USER'S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS — 
"* APPROXIMATELY BOO ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE PAYABLE FILES *" 
■^STYLED FOR THE ACCOUNTANT/BOOKKEEPING ORIENTED USER*" 
"■ MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY. FAST. AND EFFICIENT '" 
COLORSOFT ,m General Ledger ka an Integrated, journal-type double entty 
eccountlng package tor a emell buelneee that Incfudae General Ledger, 
AccountePayable,and Accounte Receivable programe. Outpule ollhe eyetem 
include an Income etetemenL balance sheet, eccounte payable and receivable 
statue Hals, eccounle payable and receivable aging report*, journal reporte, 
accountllsllngand e closing eummery. During each ueereclabllehed account- 
ing period (monthly, quarterly, annually. etc,) T It will handle accounts ol up to 
$1,000,000.00 tor approximately 800 eccounle payable/receivable. Accounts 
are automatically numbered and each transaction le carried separately so that 
en account number will correspond to a specific purchase rattier lhan a 
specific vendor/customer. 

Requlree 16K and a Single Dlek Drive. 
PRICE: $129.95 



I COLORSOFT"" SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

I The COLORSOFT lm Small Buelneee Accounting package la ideal tor the 
( email buelneeeman who wants to tekeedvanlageof the time saving benefits of 
I computerized accounting procedures. Thle package le deelgnad wrth thle 
J pereonln mind and ae auch. extensive computer or acco ntlng experience le 
I not required. The teeture end optlone of thle package are comparable to much 
I higher priced software. 

FEATURES 

••" USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN — 
USER DOES NOT NEED TO BE AN ACCOUNTANT 
UP TO 32 USER DEFINABLE RECORD CATEGORI ES *** 
DETAILED USER'S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS " m 
" USER IS PROMPTED FOR COMPANION ENTRIES AS REQUIRED 
■ APRROKIMATEtY B00 ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE /PAY ABLE FILES 
•* MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT "* 
I COLORSOFT ,m Small Bualness Accounting le an Inlegretedi ledgerless 
I accounting package tor a email business Ihef Includes Accounts Payable, 
I Accounts Receivable, Salee, and Purchase Order programs. Outpule d the 
1 eyetem Include an income etalement, balance sheet, check register, accounts 
peyeble end receivable eletue Mais and eccounle payable and receivable 
aging reporte. During eech uaer established accounting period (monthly. 
I quarterly, annually, etc.). It will handle aales ot up to $1,000,000 00 end 
I approximately 800 accounte peyable/rec livable, Accounte are automatically 
I numbered and each transaction le carried separately euch thet an account 
1 number will correepond to a specific purchaee rether than a apeclllc 
| vendor/customer. 

Requires 16K and a Single Dlek Drhre. 
PRICE S 149, 95 



COLORSOFT PAYROLL 

The COLORSOFT Payroll it a standalone payroll a* si em. It is also suited tor 
Integration <nlo lh« COLOR SOFT** Smell Suslneis Accounting Package. Piiyrollis 
a highly uier friendly system designed tor tegular use by the small businessman. 

FEATURES 

•"SUPPORTS OVERTIME AND BONUS PAY 
USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN *" 
— HANDLES HOURLY AND SALARIED EMPLOYEES'" 
'•■ MAINTAINS YEAR TO DATE TOTALS PER EMPLOYEE 
HANDLES FEDERAL. STATE, AND LOCAL INCOME TAXES '" 
■'• DETAILED USERS MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS " 
••' HANDLES OVER 200 EMPLOYEES WITH B DEDUCTIONS EACH 
■■■ MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY. FAST. AND EFFICIENT " 

COLORSOFT "" Payroll Is a complete stand-alone Package lor maintaining 
Personnel and pa yroll dala on Ihe emp loyeej old small business and I or calculating 
payroll and lax amounts and maintaining year lo date totals lor Income tax 
reporting, This tyilem will compula each pay periods totals based on hours 
worked, calculate taxes to be withheld, allow lor specified deductions, compute nel 
pay and prepare a mailing list Additional reports that are produced include * listing 
of employees, a yea' to dete federal and/ or stale lax listing, and a listing or current 
miscellaneous deductions This system is suited lor use in all states except 
Oklahoma and Oaitware 

Requires 16K and a Single Oisk Drtve, 
PRICE 599-95 



COLORSOFT ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

COLORSOFT ,m Accounte Receivable Is e full aland-alone accounts receiva- 
ble eyetem. 11 le aleo aulted for Integration Into the COLORSOFT *™ Smell 
Business Accounting package. Accounte Receivable does not require me ueer 
to be en accountant; In feci, Ihle le a highly uaer Irlendly eystem deelgned lor 
dally use by the email buelnessman. The features end option a ol Ihle eyelem 
| compare favorably with much higher priced eolhware. 

FEATURES 
••• PROVIDES ACCOUNT AUDIT TRAIL "' 
ACCOUNTS ARE CARRIED BY CUSTOMER 
USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN — 
PREPARES INVOICES AND MAILING LABELS 
• M USER DOES NOT NEED TO BE AN ACCOUNTANT "' 
*" DETAILED USER'S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS "' 
"» MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT — 
COLORSOFT tm Accounte Receivable provldee the ueer with detailed audit 
I trade and history lllee on ell Irenaacllone by a cualomer. It also preperea 
Inyolcee, mailing labels, aging lle.se. customer history reports, and an alphabet- 
| I zed* cuatomer Haling. The ueer can define dlscounl/nel terma tor commercial 
accounte and Una nee cherge and minimum paymente lor revolving accounts. 
Requlree 16K end a Single Dlek Drive. 
PRICE: $89.95 



USER'S MANUALS WITHOUT PROGRAM $20,00 EACH (Refunded on Purchase) 
INCLUDE: $2.25 Handling Per Order WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 



BRANTEX, INC. 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES DIV. 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE GROUP 
P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 




TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 
COD/VISA/MASTERCARD 



ATTENTION DEALERS: WE OFFER THE BEST DEALER PLANS AVAILABLE 



COLORSOFT * APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE 



COLORSOFT 1 " MANAGEMENT SKILLS 
SERIES I; BEINO BOSS 

"BEING BOSS" la a collection of tin programa and la lite Ural In an ongoing 
sertea ol computer aaelaled management development loola. Those who can 
benelfl Include corporate eaecullvet. managers, heads of learn*, group leadce, 
supervisor*, foreman*, teachers, and parents, In tact anyone who mual lake a 
leadership role can bene Jit Irom Iheae programs. 

A. REFLECTIONS - a «H1 evaluation guide 

6 ASSERTl VENESS - taking control as a leader 

C MANAGEMENT STYLES - how to approach the leadership role 

D. DECISION MAKING - how 1o handle decision making 

E COUNSELING - helping others solve personal problems 

F. STRESS CONTROL - taking care of yourael! 

Each program Is In a multiple choice question nalre format where Ihe user la 
querrled aa lo a response to a specified management slluallon. Tutorials help Ihe 
user learn new managemenl akltle and Insight*. The programa Include voice 
annotation Irom Iheaulhor, Mr. Terry Barker 'BEING BOSS" la baaed In pari on 
hla forlhcoming management books "BOSS TALK" and "THEORY C." 

The aeriss. "BEING BOSS". oilers lo the user the latest In menagement skill 
development concepts and should prove to be an invaluable TOOL for anyone 
who wishes lo reach their lull polentlsl as a leader, The author has condensed 
week long intensive workshop material Into Ihia outstanding package. The 
accompanying user's manual Is very well written and la easily underalood by 
anyone. 



RtqyjFtt 16K E»l BASIC *nd c«i*lt« 

price see tt 



J 



LOAN ANALYSIS • . .Prlnt»»morl!*nUon labia s, determines slalua 
ol loan a, and auto loan option with trade-in allowance and taxes . S 20.95 

ANNUITY ■ • » Future value, preienl value, compound interest, and 
determines Individual Retirement Accounts (IRA) 

16K Eftt BASIC S 18.95 

STOCK ANALYZER . . .Maintains stock portfolio data ba»e lor 
multiple slocks. Graphs toscreen orprinter and project! trends ol data. Disk 
compelible . 16K Ext BASIC S 21.95 

RECIPE FILE ■ • ■Saveyourreclpeson lape. Features Include buiIMn 
lexl edilorlor creating and editing each recipe and adjusts ingredient measure 
lor dsslred servings. Screen or Printer output 16K Ext BASIC 5 21.95 

HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE MANAGER . . .Menu driven 

packs gefor maintaining cassette tile of 30 household expenses for a 12 month 
period. Keepa cumulative totals by category and a separate total lor tai 
deductible expenses. Analysis p<ogram comparee month lo month. Screen or 
Printer output 1 6* Ext BASIC S 19.95 



COLORSOFT " GAMES 



TAG 



ESC At) E 



pi IPPPR Pirate Treasure 




Classic two player game of 
chase - fun for all ages. 

16K BAStC with joysticks 
S12.95 



A 3-D Graphics Adventure de- 
signed for the thinker. 8-10 
hour game time. 

16K BASIC 

$18.95 



An excellent version of the 
Othello type board games. 1 
or 2 players. 

16K Ext. BASIC 
$16.95 



Beginners Adventure. Visit 
over 40 rooms in search of the 
Pirate's treasure, 

16K Ext. BASIC 
$13.95 




HALLOWEEN SPECIAL: The Great Pumpkin Adventure Designed 
for kids who will love searching for tricks 'n f treasures while they try to learn the 
Great Pumpkin's secret. This adventure is great for Halloween parties, family 
play, or single players. This program features an action game at the Goblin 
Gulch arcade. 

16K Ext BASIC with joysticks $18.95 



BRANTEX, INC. 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES DIV. 



P. O. Bo* 1708 
GreenvJlle. Texas 75401 




TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 
COD/VISA/MASTERCARD 

Include $2.25 Handling per order 
Write for Free Catalog 



ATTENTION DEALERS: WE OFFER THE BEST OEALER PLANS AVAILABLE 



STATISTICS/EDUCATION 



16K 


1 


■ imm ] 


ECB 




RAINBOW 
J" -\ 



Statistics 

in the 
Classroom 

Mean and 
Standard 
Deviation 

By Stan Peppenhorst 




/i = mu = (arithmetic average) 
o = sigma = standard deviation 

In a normal distribution, 68.26% will be within one standard 
deviation of the mean (-1 to -fl), 95.44% will fall within two 
standard deviations of the mean r and 99.75% will fall within 
three standard deviations. 



Teachers often need the arithmetic average (mean) and 
standard deviation of a set of test scores. This 
program calculates the mean, and displays two 
standard deviations on each side of the mean. (In this pro- 
gram, standard deviation is calculated as the square root of 
the variance.) The program can be adapted for use by those 
not in education by substituting other words to describe the 
data gathered. 

The number of items is requested in line 130 and is limited 
to 50 by line 120. Line 150 requests the student's name or 
initials followed by a comma and the score. The name can be 
omitted by starting with the comma. This permits flexibility 
by using only numbers. 

Insert "1;" after the second PRINTin line 180 if number- 
ing is desired. If a student number is preferred, change NS to 
N in lines 120, 150, and 180. The format of the printed data 
can be changed by using the comma, the semicolon, or 
nothing after N$(I) and S(I) in line 1 80. Line 180 also has a 
timer loop. 

Lines 1025 and 1055 round the values to the nearest 
hundredth. These lines may be omitted or the precision may 
be altered by changing the exponents. In addition, calcula- 
tions for -3 to +3 standard deviations may be added to lines 
1070 and 1090 if desired. 



(Stan Peppenhorst teaches high school physics and is a 
doctoral candidate in educational administration and 
supervision at Memphis State University.) 



01 C7 
END... 046C 



10 ' MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION 
20 ' 

30 ' BY STAN PEPPENHORST 
40 ' GERMANTOWN HS 
50 9 GERMANTOWN, TN 38138 
60 ' 

70 cls:print 

80 PRINT " STUDENT SCORES, TH 
E MEAN," 

90 PRINT " AND STANDARD DEVI A 
TION" 

100 print:print 

110 rem maximum class size-50 

120 DIM N*<50),S<50> 

130 print " how many students too 
k the exam"? : input c: print 
140 print "enter the name or ini 
tials for each student followed 
by a comma and the exam score." 
150 print! for 1=1 to c: input n*< 
d,s(d:next i 

160 GOSUB 1000 

170 PRINT "WOULD YOU LIKE THE NA 
MES AND SCORES PRINTED? (Y O 



144 th« RAINBOW October 1983 



LEARN A SECOND LANGUAGE ON YOUR 
COLOR COMPUTER • NEW • EXG|T|NG • EASY 

Creative Courseware using the latest 
technology and Professional Programming 




• Fulfill your educational objectives 

• Have fun learning a new language 

• Expand your children's horizons. 



• Improve your job potential 

• Young and old can learn 

• Affordable, only pennies per hour. 



• SEE — High quality visuals, not dotted graphics 

• HEAR — High quality audio as spoken by natives 

• UNDERSTAND — Through programmed instruction 

• RESPOND — Branching, and looping insure learning. 



Our Lessons Teach You to 
HEAR and THINK in a 
Second Language 

These lessons are for you if you: 

• Think you can't learn 

• Have had previous difficulties 

• Want to start out right 

• Want language success 



Lessons Now Available in 
Spanish, English and 
French 

• Color Computer with 16K RAM 
and tape recorder required 

• SLU-1: People, Persons & Family 

• SLU-2: Stand, Walk & Run 

• SLU-3: Smile, Eat & Talk 

• SLU-4: House 

• SLU-5: Open & Closed 

• 5LU-6: Furniture & Appliances 

• SLU-7: Meals 

• Vocabulary #1 , 2 & 3: 200 words each 



Other Lessons and 
Languages Available Soon 



Special Values 

Special Value #1 

SLU 1-3, VOCAB 1, and Lesson Control 

A $129.75 Value for only $99.95. 

SV-1 (specify language desired) $99.95 

Special Value #2 

SLU 1-7, VOCAB 1-3, and Lesson Control 

A $249.45 Value for only $199.95. 

SV-2 (specify language desired). . . $1 99.95 

Demonstration Lesson (for the doubter) 
QEMO-1 $9.95 

Indivjdual Lessons: 

(specify language desired) 

Second Language Usage (SLU) $19.95 

Vocabulary (SL) ..$19.95 

Lesson Control: (only one copy needed 

for al I lessons and languages) 

LC-CC ..............$49.50 



HOW TO HEAR AND THINK IN a second language 

Skilled linguists have developed our series of second language programs. The lessons utilize the power of programmed 
instruction wherein you are advanced to new material only after satisfactory learning has occurred at the current level. Our 
techniques teach you how to think in a language without initially using any printed text material. No mental translation to your 
native language is required. You learn as a child does, hearing and speaking before reading. The computer both tutors and 
keeps track of progress as it moves you forward (or backward when review is necessary). AUDIO plus VISUALS plus 
INTERACTIVE RESPONSE establish the learning process, and literally THOUSANDS of visuals help seal-in the sound patterns 
of your new language. 

All of our lessons are interactive and user friendly; yet, you are unaware of the complex course structure involved. For 
example: Lesson SLU-1 uses the theme of PEOPLE, PERSONS & FAMILY to teach the use of nouns to name things, to cjassify 
them into categories, and to identify members of a group. Sentence structure is developed using the verb 'be' and its relationship 
to nouns and adverbs, including plural forms and inversions. Noun structure using definite and indefinite articles, and regular 
and irregular plural forms is also presented. The other lessons are similarly designed. In addition, each VOCABULARY LESSON 
presents approximately 200 visuals and 200 words that are integrated into the learning process. 

While the foregoing might seem complex, and it is, |T IS ALSO THE REASON OUR COURSEWARE CAN TEACH 
LANGUAGES. If you have tried 'game' or 'tape' language programs you know that they are ineffective. Our programs can teach 
you a language because we have successfully combined expert authoring of programmed courseware with audio & visuals & 
response & branching into a powerful tutorial package. 



DEALER INQUIRIES ACCEPTED 

We have a broad range of Audio 
Visual Computer Aided Instruc- 
tion under development. Some 
users of our courseware might 
include Day Care Centers, 
Schools (public and private), 
institutions in various categories, 
individuals and language tutors. " 



ABSOLUTELY NO RISK 

You may examine your 
order for 1 5 days. If you de- 
cide not to take advantage 
of the lesson(s) simply re- 
turn in good condition for a 
full refund or cancellation 
pf credit card charges. 



*WE PAY UPS |N USA 

(street address required for UPS) 
*Add $2.00 if US Mail desired. 

*Add 15% for foreign, APQ & FPO 

{Remit in US Funds) 
*Virgtnia Orders add 4% sales tax 
*Mail credit card orders please 

include all card information 



J V 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA and 
MASTER CARD 

• Money Orders 

• Certified Checks 

• Other Checks (must 
clear before shipment) 



FREE ORDER LINE 

1-800-368-6300 

* * * 

FOR VIRGINIA ORDERS 
AND OTHER CALLS: 

1 -804-463-6300 

* * * 

BASIC PROGRAMS, INC. 

236 Mustang Trail, #102 
Virginia Beach, VA 23452 



COLOR COPY 

COLCOPY is a menu driven copy utility that 
copies data files or programs: disk to tape, tape to 
disk or disk to disk. It also kills files or programs. 

Many options are provided: copies basic programs, 
machine language programs or data files, allows 
selection by groups of filenames or extensions, 
individual files by menu selection, writes multiple 
copies of files to tape, backup a disk to tape, 
restore a disk from tape, copies files in alphabetic 
sequence and much more. 

Written in basic with machine language subroutines. 
Requires 32K, DOS. 

Includes program on tape and instructions. 
ONLY $15 pp 

CASSDIR 

CASSETTE DIRECTORY will read a tape and list 
the program name, length of basic program or 
start, end and transfer addresses for a machine 
language program. You may display the listing on 
the screen or a printer. Does not require extended 
basic. 

This program is our get acquainted offer. Request 
CASSDIR when you order COLCOPY and we will 
add it to the flip side of the cassette for free or send 
2.50 to cover our cost. Of course we will add your 
name to our mailing list for new products and 
send you a copy of our catalog. 

With this small cost their is no reason not to send 
for your own copy. 

FREE CATALOG 

Send self addressed stamped envelope. 

Send check or money-order to: 
COCOPRO 
P.O, BOX 37022 
ST. LOUIS, MO 63141 

Postage paid on all pre-paid orders in U.S. 
Miss'ouri residents add 5.625 percent sales tax. 

DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



R N)": INPUT A*: IF A*="Y" THEN 18 
0 ELSE 2000 

180 print: for 1=1 to c: print n*( 
I)ss<d 5 :next i j for x=i to 10000 
: next x:goto 2000 

200 STOP 

1000 * SUBROUTINE FOR MEAN AND 

STANDARD DEVIATION 
1010 REM COMPUTE AND PRINT MEAN 
1020 PRINT: FOR 1=1 TO C:T=T+S<I) 
: NEXT I: PRINT: PRINT: A=T/C 
1025 A=INT < A* 10^2+. 5) / 10^2 
1030 PRINT "THE CLASS AVERAGE IS 
"SA? ": PRINT 

1040 REM COMPUTE AND PRINT THE 

STANDARD DEVIATIONS 

1050 FOR 1=1 TO C:S=S(I)^2:S1=S1 

+SJ NEXT I:D=SQR<S1/C-A^2) 

1055 D=INT<D*10^2+.5>/10^2 

1060 PRINT "THE STANDARD DEVI AT I 

ON IS"?D; 

1070 pi=a+d:P2=a+2*d:mi=a-d:M2=a 
-2*d: print 

1080 PRINT " THE VALUES FOR T 
HE STANDARD DEVIATIONS ARE: " 
1090 PRINT " +2",P2," +1",P1," 

MEAN", A, " -1",M1, " -2%M2 
1100 RETURN 
2000 END 

^ 



Back Issue Availability 

Back copies of many issues of the RAINBOW art still 
available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue cover price — which 
is $2 for copies of Volume I, Numbers 1-8 (through Febru- 
ary, 1982), $2.50 for Volume I, Numbers 9, 10 and 12 
(through June except May, 1982) and $2.95 for Volume II, 
Numbers 9, 10, 11, 12 (March, April, June and July 1983). 
Also $2.95 for Volume II, Number 3 (October 1983). In 
addition, there is a $3.50 charge per order for postage and 
handling if sent by United Parcel Service and $6 for orders 
sent U.S. Mail. UPS will not deliver to a post office box or to 
another country. This charge applies whether you want one 
back issue or all of them. 

Most back issues are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. Issues out of print include May, July, August, Sep- 
tember, October, November, and December, 1982 and Jan- 
uary, February, April, 1983. VISA, Master Card and Amer- 
ican Express accepted. Kentucky residents please add 5 
percent state sales tax. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you order back issues 
you want now while supplies last. 

In addition, copies of the cover only of the July, 1982, 
Anniversary Issue are available separately for $1 each, plus 
50 cents shipping and handling. These are suitable for 
framing. 



146 the RAINBOW October 1983 



PRETTY PRINTER 

This M/L utility program will allow you to write your 
code in as compact a form as you wish, but list it to 
the screen or printer in an easy to read 'PRETTY 
PRINT format. Turn this: - 

10 PRINT" EXAMPLE": FORX=ATO M:FORY=STO 
P:Z=X + Y:PRINTZ:NEXTY:NEXTX 

Into this: - 10 PRINT "EXAMPLE": 
FOR X A TO M: 
FOR Y = S TO P: 
Z = X + Y: 
PRINT Z: 
NEXT Y: 
NEXT X 

With one simple command. 

CAT. NO. DM001 16K Ext $12.95 

P.U.F.F. 

Say the magic word and P.U.F.F. your print formatting 
problems dissappear. The Printer Utility File Format- 
ter turns any word Processor (that produces ASCII 
text files) into a super printer formatter. Embedded 
codes will perform the following functions: - 

* Send control codes to your printer. 

* Set left and right margins at any time. 

* Set headers and footers. 

* Left, Right and Fill Justify. 

* Centre the; next 'n' lines. 

* Temporary indent (neg or pos). 
Plus many other features. 

CAT NO. DM002 16K Ext $24.95 
KEYBOARD OVERLAYS 

Many programs are supplied with keyboard overlays 
to help you keep track of the various commands 
used by the program. Now you can add overlays to 
your own programs or to commercial programs 
that did not come with this feature. Die cut to f it the 
standard Color Computer keyboard. Dealer inquir- 
ies for blank or custom printed overlays are invited. 

CAT. NO. HW002 99$ each 



□ATAMAIL 

The ultimate cassette based mailing list program 
for home or business use. Fully customized data 
collection screen allows you to set your own field 
lengths and field titles. Fast machine language sort 
by any column in any field. Save all or any block of 
files for latter reading by DATAMAIL or your own 
letter program. Merge two or more lists, search by 
record number or key word in any column. One key 
commands for Input, Kill, Change. Print single 
records or any block of files, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 across. 32K 
holds about 300 files. 

CAT. NO. DM003 1BK Ext $14.95 
FIRST SAMPLER 

Six programs for the price of one. All have been 
published in popular computer magazines and are 
now available on one tape at this special price. 

* MATH Improve your mental math skills 

* WORD Make words from the supplied letters in 
this game for the whole family. 

* CONVOY Can you sink the computers convoy 
before it sinks yours? 

* BAGIT Train your memory to remember the 
things you put in the bag. 

* VECTORS Row your boat across the river with- 
out going over the falls. 

* AHHA Find the treasure chest in Another 
Haunted House adventure. Don't get caught by 

the Old Miser's ghost. 

CAT. NO. DM005 16K Ext $9.95 
COCOCOPY 

This all M/L Program will copy BASIC or M/L 
programs including most Auto Start Programs. |t 
will supply the beginning, ending and offset addresses 
and allow you to change the load address for M/L 
programs. I/O errors are ignored so that bad tapes 
can be corrected. Programs can be renamed and 
the motor/audio functions are controlled from the 
keyboard. 

CAT. NO. DM004 16K Ext $12.95 



SEND $2.00 FOR OUR 25 PAGE CATALOGUE 



Refunded with first order 



We are dealers for the following fine companies: - 



• ARK ROYAL GAMES 

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Canada L8L 7W2 
1-416-529-1319 



w 1 

ALL PRICES 
IN CANADIAN 
DOLLARS 



ADD 3% SHIPPING - MINIMUM 2 



Format Your Video 
With This Worksheet 



By George E. Klement 



Good screen formatting will add a great deal of 
interest when planning your programs. Here is a 
simple utility program called Video Worksheet that 
will provide a printout of video screen positions as an aid in 
programming PRINT@ locations. 

The program starts with a prompt, asking for number of 
copies. (Remember to have a sufficient amount of paper in 
the printer.) Then press ENTER, A counter on the screen 
shows what your CoCp has sent to the printer by copy 
number. The program ends when the counter matches the 
input number. 

An EPSON MX-80 printer was used for this utility set for 
9600 Baud. This may require a POKE number change to 
match your printer, or just delete line #1. Also line 130 has 
Printer Control Code (140) that may not be compatible. 
This code tells the printer to form feed to the end of each 
page. Other than that, make as many copies as you wish. 
This is a good way to reuse the back side of printouts you 
may be recycling for scratch paper, if they haven't already 
been separated. 




The listing: 



90 0108 

END 027A 



1 POKE 150, l'WRKSHT 2/15/83 

10 CLS: PRINTS 136, "VIDEO WORKSHEE 

T»:©-0 

20 PRINTS230, "NUMBER OF COPIES: " 
I 



30 INPUT Q 

40 IF G>0 THEN PRINT8423, "COPY#" 
; :PRINT@428,G; "COMPLETE" 
50 PRINTS331, "PRINTING" 
60 IF G>-Q THEN END 
70 G=G+1:C=0 

80 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2,TAB(30)STRI 
NG*<19, "*") 

90 PRINT#-2,TAB<30> "* VIDEO WORK 
SHEET *" 

100 PRINT*— 2, TAB < 30) STRING* ( 19, " 
* " ) : PR I NT#-2 : PR I NT#-2 
110 PRINT#-2,TAB(30) "1 11111 
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 

•I 

120 PRINT#-2,TAB<10) "0 12 3 4 5 
6 789012345678901 
2345 6 789 0 1" 

130 FOR T=l TO 17:PRINT#-2,TAB<7 

) STRING* (67, "—">: IF T>=17 THEN P 

RINT#-2, CHR*< 140) ;: GOTO 40 

140 IF C<32 THEN Y=6 

150 IF C>=32 AND C<=96 THEN Y=5 

160 IF C>96 THEN Y=4 

170 PRINT#-2,TAB<Y)C; 

180 FOR N=l TO 33:A*=": ":PRINT# 

-2, TAB (9) A*; : NEXT N 

190 C=C+32:PRINT#-2:NEXT T 



Datacomp Computer Systems, 35 Farmstead Road, Short Hills, NJ 07078 (201) 376-6093 
Call or write to order. Phones are answered 24 Hrs./day, 7 days/week. 


TDP-100, 16 K from $269 
1 00% TRS-80 Color Computer 
compatible. Comes with a pair 
of Joysticks and a rompack. 


C. ITOH Prowriter8510 
parallel printer. 1 20 CPS 

3K buffer, hi-res graphics 
1 year warranty $395 

Color Computer parallel 
printer interface $69 


NEW! PLANET FURY 

by DCS Software. 32K ext. basic 
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We carry ALL Color Computer 
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TRS-80 Color Computer 

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Drive 0 $415 

Drive 1 $245 


Wabash Diskettes. 1 year 
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error free, w/hub rings, 
SS/SD $17.50/box of 10 
S5/ DD $19.95/box of 10 


All equipment carries manufacturers 
warranty. Prices do not include shipping. 



148 the RAINBOW October 1983 



The PROFESSIONAL Keyboard 



A direct plug-in 
replacement for your 
Color Computer. 

* Simple Installation 

(No glueing or cutting) 
'Redefinable keys 
'Free Software - See page 

80 of June 1983 RAINBOW 
*No Extra Charge for TDP/F 

Model 



$59.95 

"A Model 1 keyboard 
in a Color Computer case. 
This product is a real gem/' 
Rainbow Review, March 1983 
*AII TDP/F orders please specify 



«M f ? f T T f 
* f I f I f I. !_ I. 




'The Spectrum Switcher 
is a fantastic device" 
RAINBOW review, April, 
1983 r Page 207 





SPECTRUM SWITCHER 



$69.95 



RAINBOW 

CCATlflCATtON 



Have your Disk and Cartridge too! 
Transforms a Color Computer into a dual slot 
system. 

Optional Extender Cable— Add $30 

Why Pay $179.95, $249.95, $270 ... or more??? 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93 15 86th DRIVE WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 

212-441-2807 

all orders plus $3 S/H,N.Y. residents add sales tax 




from SPECTRUM PROJECTS 




The must CoCobook 
for 1983. Contains a 
myriad of peeks and 
pokes, ROM and RAM 
upgrades, machine 
language backups, 
printer potpourii and 
morel Make your 
computer do things it 
never did before. 
$1495 



COCO COOLER— Internal cooling 
system. Prevent heat buildup 
inside your Color Computer 
"CoCo Cooler keeps things 
cool."— Rainbow Review, Dec, 
1982. Page 39 $49,95 








1 — 1 






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1 — > 




1 — 1 






r -i 




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LIGHT PEN-Plugs right in to 
your joystick port and reads 
the colors off your screen. 
Includes four demo pro- 
grams and is completely 
compatible with Computer 
Island's Fun-Pak software. 




Add $3 for Shipping 
and Handling 



DISK INTERFACE/ROM PACK 
EXTENDER - 3 FEEL Move your disks 
and ROM packs where you want 
them. Gold plated contacts 
| eliminate corrosion. $29.95 $19.95 

IHIPPEN ftftflC tol 
finallyl A program written to protect 
your BASIC programs. HIDDEN BASIC 1.0 
will modify your BASIC programs so 
these commands will not function: 
CLOAD or CLOADM 
CSAVE or CSAVEM 
DEL or EDIT 
USTor LLIST 
lhe protected copy is not a BASIC pro- 
gram anymore. It (s a special machine 
language program referenced by the 
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HIDDEN BASIC there's noway to undo itl 
Tape $19.95 



FOUR-PIN MALE TO FOUR PIN 
FEMALE— 15 FEET. Move your 
printer or modem to another 
location— easier use., .$14,95 



BPCCntUM PROJECT! 



COLOR COMPUTER EDITOR 
ASSEMBLER AND DEBUGGER 
" CCEAD is o high quality program ond 
excellent value. CCEAD is o tool that no 
assembly language programmer con afford 
to be wlthout/'-RAJNSOW Review, February, 
1983* 56.95 



THE STRIPPER 

Deletes R€Morks,pocxs lines ond removes 
blanks. 

How much Memory con you save? About 
25% ove/oae;- RAINBOW Review. February, 
1983' $7.95 



»3-16 66t*DftfVE 
WOODHAVEKNY. 11421 



(212)441 2807 (VOICQ 
(212) 441 47M (DATA) 



'Order both and gave a buck! 



Coll the Rainbow Connection At (212) 441-3755 & (212) 441-3766 for Rainbow Programs & Reviews 

DEALER/CLUB INQUIRIES WELCOME 

New York State Residents add appropriate taxes 



Tired of plugging and unplugging 
devices from the RS232 poet of your Color 
Computer? Make your life easier. Buy our 
RS232 expansion cable and connect 1wo 
devices at the same time Just right for 
printers, modems, etc. Anything that plugs 
Into the Color Computer will plug Into this 
high qualhy cable. 

RS232 Cable $20.00 
RS232 Switcher $29.95* 
# 3 Position 

COLORCOM/E BONUSI Order 
COLORCOM/E and get the RS232 cable 
for only $15.00. Save 55.00 

32K RAM Button $2.99 

64K QAM Button- New $499 

SPECfRUM MAS THE NEW ROMI 

Disk ROM 1 . 1 —New DOS Command for OS-9! _$39,95 

64K Chips (Spectrum Special) $44,95 

C-10 Tapes Any quantity! 49 cents 

5tt Diskettes Any quantllyl $199 

CoCo Memory Mop _$9,00 



EXPANSION 

CABLE 



Color Computer Tech Manual 

Bio Detector— New! Explore the world of Bjo 

Feedback with your CoCo 

Epson Printer Interface 

Lowercase Board . 



_$7.95 



6683 (SAM) Chip with heat sink 

6809E-CPU Chip 

Bosic ROM 1.2- Runs Basic 30% faster! . 
CoCo Rrst Aid Kit (Be Prepared) 
(2 6821's, 6809E&6883). 



EPROM Programmer (2716, 2732, 2764 
and 68764)_ 



_$29.95 
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_$39.95 

_$69,95 

_$99.95 



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Hardware Voice Synthesizer w/ VOTRAX Chip. 
Unlimited Vocabulary (Colorware) Only _$69,95 

Expended Bosic ROM . _$69.95 

Mini-Modem w/RS 232 Cable, $79.95 

Co!ar-8D BBS Software .$1 15.00 

Disk Interface (Spectrum Special) $139.95 



DRAGON 64 — The hottest selling computer from 
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order today! $399.95 



~^SMART TERMINAL PACKAGE 

Buy Colorcom/E and get Mini Modem for only $49.95!!! Mini Modem is Full 
Duplex, 300 Baud, Answer or Originate. Requires CoCo RS232 Cable ($14.95). 
Call the Rainbow Connection and Communicate with your fellow CoCo 
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Complete Upload and Download Support 
Online Cassette/Disk Reads and Writes 
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Automatic Capture of Files 
Send All 127 ASCII Characters From Keyboard 
Word Mode Eliminates split Words 
7 or 8 Data Bits (Including Graphics Support) 
Efficient Data Storage S-t-re4-c-h-e-s Memory 
100% Compatible w/Rainbow Connection BBS's! 



AND, our efficient storage and easy editing of received data makes 
printing to your printer offline a snap. Select any portion of the received 
data for printing. No need to print everything. rainbow 



Add $3 for Shipping and Handling 

|64K DISK UTILITY PACKAGE! 

1. 40K - Tired of seeing 228237 

2 ROMCNACK - Now place your ROMPAC 
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3. Software Print Spooler — Tired of wait- 
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TAP€ UTILITY by Tnomas OlkjjNEW? 

A powerful prog ram that perm Its the user to easily maintain, 
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% TDR— Tope directoiy 
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a PTD— List tape directory to printer 

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7. TTD— Copy tm from tape to disk 
& BAC— "Auto disk to tope bockup** 1 

Cassette or Disk— $24,95 

Rainbow Programs & Reviews 



DEALER/CLUB INQUIRIES WELCOME 

New York State Residents add appropriate foxes 




Development 

Of A New 
Fantasy Game 



By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 




Last month 1 got a little ahead of myself in this column. 
If you recall, there is a combat program we have been 
working on here, and the first barebones version was 
published last month. The reason 1 may have been ahead of 
myself is simple. The combat system used in the program 
is— as I mentioned— not like any currently in use. In fact, 
the combat system you saw last month was excerpted from a 
game in development. In this column, 1 will give you some 
general material about the game we are developing and 
provide you with a program for rolling up characters suita- 
ble to the new game. You may well prefer to continue 
playing whatever fantasy game you play now, but it won't 
hurt to see how a new game develops. 

In this new game (for which we need a name— any sugges- 
tions?) there are eight basic character ability scores, These 
are: 

1. physical beauty 

2. intelligence 

3. faith 

4. agility 

5. speed 

6. manipulation 

7. stamina 

8. strength 

Each of these abilities is determined by rolling five four- 
sided dice and totaling the three highest. This results in 
scores from three to 12, heavily weighted toward the top, 
The top weighting results from an assumption that player 
adventurers will be superior individuals. After all, if they 
were average they would choose an easier life. 

Hit points are found by totaling strength, stamina, and 
faith, and as the player character rises in level an adjustment 
is made. Force points are determined by adding together the 
scores for stamina, faith, and intelligence, with an adjust- 
ment for level. Force points are a measure of mental strength 
and atunement with the forces of nature, and are used to 
figure saving throws and in the magic system, 

The magic system is completely new, since I think that the 



(Bill Nolan is a principal in Prickly- Pear Software. He 
teaches computer science at a local college and referees 
a weekly fantasy game.) 



present magic systems are the weak links in many games, In 
our new game there are several ways of practicing magic, 
and these are referred to by color, as in white magic, black 
magic, green magic, red magic, and so on for most colors. 
"Within each color there are three types of character classes, 
and these are the arcanist, the guardian, and the champion. 
The arcanist is a dedicated student of a certain color of 
magic, the guardian is sort of a keeper of the faith, and the 
champion is a fighter dedicated to the cause. There are also 
several classes of characters who are not aligned with any 
particular color, and some of these classes are the fighter, the 
thief, and the rogue. The rogue is a sort of charismatic 
fighter with thieving abilities. 

1 hope that this general overview will help you to keep the 
combat system in perspective as we continue working on it. 
One of these days, we will finish the new game, and then we 
can all try it out. One of the main ways it is different is that it 
is designed from the start to be played with the help of 
computer programs, and as we proceed, you will be sur- 
prised at how many things that affects. 

Meanwhile, back at the combat system, we were working 
on critical hit and fumble tables. For those of you not 
familiar with these tables, let me explain them a bit. 

Almost every combat system 1 have ever seen for a fantasy 
game involves dice, and one of the rolls you make is your roll 
to hit. A number is computed by some method (often by 
looking it up on a table of numbers called a "to hit" chart), 
and the player taking a swing must roll that number or 
higher in order to hit his target. For example, let us suppose 
that one player's fighter is a low level type while his oppo- 
nent is several levels higher and is also more agile and has 
better armor. Aside from the fact that the first fighter is 
probably in over his head, we can assume several things. The 
bottom line, as they say, is that it will be much easier for the 
second fighter to score a hit with his sword than for the first 
fighter to do so. A combat system is nothing more than a 
means of reducing this to some sort of numerical chance. 

Let's suppose that we determine— using our favorite 
combat system — that the first fighter has 1 chance in 3 of 
hitting the second, while the second has 2 chances in 3 of 
hitting the first. In terms of dice, that would mean that 
fighter number 1 must roll a 21 or higher on a die having 30 
sides in order to score a hit, while fighter number 2 needs to 



152 the RAINBOW October 1963 




'•••V.V 

K«4< 






MI 



;iiiillll§ 




The Spectrum Projects' SRR 
provides easy access to your 
system reset and eliminates the 
need of reaching around cables 
and components or moving the 
computer. 

Installation of this sturdy device 
is simple, quick, requires no 
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Put control back where it 
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( ) REMOTE RESETS. 



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NAME 



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ADD $2.00 S/H & SALES TAX 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93-15 86th DR. WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 

212 • 441 • 2807 



I 

$12.95 I 
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roll an 1 1 or higher on the same 30-sided die. Of course, your 
particular combat system may call for the use of a die having 
20 sides, or even two dice giving a range of 1 to 100 (percen- 
tile dice), but the principle is the same. 

If fighter 1 rolls a 21, he has hit, and if he rolls a 20 he 
misses. That seems simple enough, but suppose he misses 
terribly. Suppose he rolls a 1 , which represents the absolute 
worst possible swing he can make. It has always seemed 
logical to many gamers that there should be some difference 
between missing your roll by 1 and missing it by 20. At the 
other end of the situation, suppose our intrepid fighter rolls 
a 30 for a perfect hit. Is a perfect hit to go unrewarded? 

The answer to both of these problems comes in the form 
of a set of two tables. The first is a FUMBLE table and is 
referred to whenever a player makes the worst possible roll 
— usually a 1 . When this happens, the player rolls again and 
looks up the result on the fumble chart. That result may be 
anything from falling on your own sword to dropping your 
weapon. The other chart— the CRITICAL HIT table, is 
referred to whenever you roll the best possible roll, and here 
the result is beneficial to the fighter. 

Below are the two tables. These are not cast in bronze, so 
if you have any suggestions for improvements, let me know. 
Both tables are set up for a 30-sided die, and thus give 30 
possibilities. 

FUMBLE TABLE 

1 . fell on your weapon and were killed 

2. fell on your weapon for 1D20 damage 

3. fell on your weapon for 1D12 damage 

4. fell on your weapon for 1D10 damage 



—NEW! 

FROM THE PROGRAMMER'S GUILD 
—DEMON'S DEFIANCE 

Fresh from the fertile imagination of BASIC Graphics Master— Fred 
Scerbo; DEMON'S DEFIANCE is a riot of color and action. Trapped by 
the Demon's Energy Shield, the rebels tried desperately to blast their 
way to freedom but the Winged Horror hovers overhead and reigns 
down destruction. 
Who will emerge victorious? 

For 16K CoCo or 4K MC10 . . . cassette $14.95 

TRI-PLANETARY HANGMANOIDS 

HANGMAN as you've never seen it. Spell the word correctly before the 
Hangmanoids' KILLER SHIP can be assembled. If not, the earth lies 
doomed. Graphics, sound, top fun the way you like it. 

For 16K CoCo or 4K MC10 . . . cassette, $14.95 

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY PRICE 
BOTH GAMES $25 

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Send check, MO or VISA, MC # to: 

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P.O. BOX 66 

PETERBOROUGH, NH 03458 

(603) 924-6065 
(COD add $3.00) 



5. fell on your weapon for 1D8 damage 

6. fell on your weapon for 1D6 damage 

7. fell on your weapon for 1D4 damage 

8. broke your weapon — even if magical 

9. broke your weapon — if magical loses 1 plus 
10. broke your weapon — if magical no effect 

12. slipped and fell — no attack for 2 rounds 

13. slipped and fell — no attack for 1 round 

14. slipped and fell — attack at -2 next round 

16. slipped and fell — attack at -1 next round 

17. sprained wrist — can't hold weapon in that hand 

18. sprained ankle — attack at -2 for rest of fight 

19. broke your ankle — can't stand up 

20. wrenched your knee — dexterity bonus is reduced by 4 
even if that makes it minus 

21. dropped your weapon — must draw another 

22. dropped your weapon — can recover in 2 rounds 

23. dropped your weapon — can recover in one round 

24. fell on your back hard — all items on your back must 
save vs. crushing blow and no attack next round 

25. left yourself open and opponent adds 5 to his roll this 
round 

26. left yourself partially open and opponent adds 2 to his 
roll this round 

27. fell and hit your head — stunned for 2 rounds 

29. fell and hit your head — stunned for 1 round 

30. no bad effect 

CRITICAL HIT TABLE 

1 . no special effect 

2. stunned your opponent for 1 round 

3. stunned your opponent for 2 rounds 

4. disarmed your opponent — he must draw another 
weapon 

5. disarmed your opponent — 2 rounds to recover 

6. disarmed your opponent — 1 round to recover 

7. your opponent was open — double your damage 

8. broke your opponent's wrist — he can't attack with 
that hand 

9. broke your opponent's ankle — he can't stand 

10. sprained your opponent's ankle — he's -2 to hit for the 
rest of the fight 

11. your opponent broke his weapon 

12. damage is plus 1D20 

13. damage is plus 1D12 

14. damage is plus ID 10 

15. damage is plus 1D8 

16. damage is plus 1D6 

17. damage is plus 1D4 

18. knocked your opponent down — he can't attack for 2 
rounds 

19. knocked your opponent down — he can't attack for 1 
round 

20. knocked your opponent down — he is -2 next round 

21. knocked your opponent down — he is -1 next round 

22. your blow landed on the forehead — opponent is 
blinded by the blood, and attacks at -4 for the rest of 
the fight 

23. you get another attack this round 

24. opponent is confused — you get an extra attack next 
round 

25. the god of war was impressed and takes a hand — you 
are plus 2 for the rest of the fight 

26. you inspire your companions — they are all plus 1 next 
round 



154 the RAINBOW October 1983 



ADJUSTABLE SPEED 

BLASTER/ 

AUTO-FIRE MODULE 



Wl CO 



COMMAND 



CONTROL 




Add 
AWESOME 
automatic firepower to 
your play. Adjustable 
speed control 1 to 20 
shots per second- $14.95 




Now you can hookup two 
digital type joysticks to 
your Color Computer or 
TDP-100 for only $19.95 
The ADAPTOR with two 
Atari* joysticks- $39.95 




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27. opponent is demoralized and fights at -1 for the rest 
of the fight 

28. opponent is severely demoralized and fights at -3 for 
the rest of the fight 

29. opponent flees in panic if able 

30. opponent is killed outright 

NOTE: In some instances, the effects will have to be 
adjusted by the game referee to take account of the current 
situation. 

Well, that's the tentative fumble and critical hit charts. 
Below is a program that rolls the characteristics of our new 
type player and also tells you what classes and races the 
player qualifies to be. If you are interested in the new game, 
let me know. If enough people are interested, I will develop it 
into a complete gaming system in the coming months. It's a 
good system, and we are already using it here. So long 'til 
next time. Write me in care of Prickly-Pear Software. 



. 0192 

130 0326 

END 0508 



3 "COPYRIGHT 1983 BY BILL NOLAN. 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED! ! ! 
5 X-RND (-TIMER) 
10 DIM C<8),C*<8) 




Take Note! 
Saguaro Software 
Catries^ri^Y PearSoftw^ 
New This Mont h 

ERDIHPEC 
DECIPHER 

Cass. i>*sk 

Ret. 24.95 Ret. 29.95 

Oar* 19.75 0018 23 75 



Super Astrology 

Cass. Disk 

Ret. 24.95 Ret. 29.95 

Oars 19.75 Ours 23.75 

Spelling 

Cass. Disk 

Ret. 49.95 Ret. 54.95 

Ours 39.75 Ours 43.75 



Amdek disc available - add $2.50/program. Add 
$1:00 per item shipping ($4 00 max.). Az. 
residents add 7% tax. 



*FantasY Gamer's Package 
Eight-Bit Bartender 
Flight 

Monsters & Magic 
*Viking 
*Gangbusters 
Jungle 
Topsy Turvy 
Math Pac I 

The Great Word Game 
Household Helper 

**Tarot 

**I Ching 

** Numerology 



Retail Tape 19.95 
Our Price 14.75 



Disc 
Disc 



24.95 
18.75 



**AU 3 tapes 39.95 Disc 44.95 
'Available for Mod<?i 100 



7331 E. Beverly Drive 
Tucson, AZ 85710 
(602) 885-6508 



20 FOR X-l TO 8: READ C*(X):NEXT 
100 CLS: PRINT" PRESS ANY KEY TO 
ROLL » : K»- 1 NKE Y* : QOSUB 9000 : PR I NT 
" COMPUTING ROLL"; :80SUB 199 
110 CLS: FOR X-l TO 8:PRINTC*(X) , 

C(X> :next x 

112 HP-C(3)+C<7)+C(8) :PRINT"HIT 
POINTS", hp: CC-0 

115 IF C(l)>9 AND C(2)>9 AND C(4 
)>7 AND C<5>>8 AND C<&>>9 AND C< 
7)>8 AND C(8)>8 THEN PRINT" ROGU 
E% :CC=l 

118 IF C<5>>6 AND C<7)>8 AND C(8 
)>8 THEN PRINT" WARRIOR" ,: CC-1 
120 IF C<2)>7 AND C<4)>7 AND C(5 
)>8 AND C<6>>9 THEN PRINT" THIEF 

",:cc-i 

122 IF C<2>>9 AND C(3)>8 AND C<6 
)>8 AND C<7>>7 THEN PRINT" ARC AN 
1ST", :CC*1 

124 IF C(2)>8 AND C<3)>11 THEN P 
RINT" GUARD I AN " , : CC= 1 

126 IF C<2)>9 AND C(3)>10 AND C< 

4) >9 AND C(5)>9 AND C(7)>9 AND C 
<G)>9 THEN PRINT" CHAMPION" , : CC* 
1 

127 IF CC=0 THEN PRINT" COMMONER 

•I 

128 IF C(l)>10 AND C(2)>9 AND C( 

5) >9 AND C<&)>9 THEN PRINT" ELF" 

129 IF C<8)>7 THEN PRINT" DWARF" 

130 PRINT: PR I NT "PRESS »R» TO RER 
OLL OR *G* ":PRINT ,l TO GO ON. " ; : K* 
=INKEY* 

140 K»»INKEY»:IF K*<>"R" AND K»< 
>"G" THEN 140 ELSE SOUND 150,1:1 
F K*-"R" THEN 100 

199 FORC= 1 T08 : C < C ) =0 : FORC- 1 T08 : D 
1=RND (4) : D2=RND (4) : D3=RND (4) : D4- 
RND(4) :D5=RND<4) 

200 HH*(1)*STR*(D1) :HH*(2)-STR*( 
D2) : HH* <3) =STR* <D3) : HH* <4) =STR* < 
D4 ) : HH* (5) =STR» ( D5) 

210 FOR X=l TO 4: IF HH*<X)>HH*(X 
+1) THEN 250 
220 NEXT X 

230 C<C)-<VAL<HH*<3)>+VAL<HH*<4> 
)+VAL(HH»<5))) 

240 print". "| : next c: return 
250 x*-hh*<x>:hh*<X)>>hh*<x+i>:hh 

*(X+1)=X*:GOTO210 

9000 IF INKEY**"" THEN X=RND<0): 
GOTO 9000: ELSE SOUND 150, HRETUR 
N 

10000 DATA PHYSICAL BEAUTY, INTEL 
LIGENGE, FAITH, SPEED, AGILITY, MANI 
PULATION, STAMINA, STRENGTH 



156 the RAINBOW October 1983 



SPECTRUM SPECIALS 



Rompak w/Blank PC Board $9.95 

The Disk Doubler-Doubleside your disks ...$12.95 

Video Clear- Clean UpTVim $14.95 

Video Plus- Superb Video Interface $24.95 

16/32K Upgrade Kit - Lowest price $25.95 

The Spectrum Joystick- Save $10 $29.95 

Wico Analog Joystick - THE BEST!..... $49.95 

Botek Printer Interface $69.95 

HJL-57 Keyboard w/free software! $79.95 

"Gorilla" Hi-Res Green Screen Monitor $99.95 

"Banana Printer"- (same as DMP-1 00).... $249.95 
Amdek Twin 3" Drive System $499 

w/Disk Interface $639 



CALL 212-441-2807 SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

ALL ORDERS PLUS $3.00 S/H 93-15 86th DRIVE 

N.Y. RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX WOODHAVEN. N.Y. 11421 



OS-9 IS REALLY taking off, as we 
predicted here that it would once Radio 
Shack came out with its official version. 
The Microware OS-9 seminar early in 
August was a crowded affair and the 
enthusiasm was everywhere! What 
we Ye hearing is that OS-9 will, in real- 
ity, make the Color Computer the "ma- 
chine for everyone." On the most simple 
level, you can use CoCo to just run pro- 
grams that you purchase (and there are 
more than a thousand of them now 
available and more coming in every 
day), or you can program — which will 
usually require an Extended Color 
BASIC machine with more than 16K of 
memory. Farther down the road, there 
is assembly language programming and 
OS-9. which is a full-blown disk operat- 
ing system- The ability to use OS-9 on a 
multi-user and multi-tasking system is 
important to the family which wants 
two computers but only one set of soft- 
ware. Our hat's off to Radio Shack for 
bringing OS-9 to the CoCo! 

If you doubt the impact introduction 
of OS-9 and the new CoCo product 
lines will have on the world of compu- 
ters, as well as the CoCo Community, 
then just take a look at these figures 
which come from the well-respected 
Science Digest. In a recent survey of 
12,000 persons. Science Digest found 
that 36 percent owned a personal com- 
puter and that 56 percent planned to 
purchase one within the next year. But, 
of even more significance, 80 percent 
look for memory when buying a compu- 
ter, 79 percent survey expansion capa- 
bility and 77 percent make or will base 
their choice on software availability. 
Sounds like they Ye talking about CoCo. 

Also on the OS-9 front, the first pro- 
gram to hit the market specifically for 
the Radio Shack version of OS-9 has 
already been announced. It is by Frank 
Hogg Laboratoryand is called 0-Pak % a 
combination high resolution screen (with 
a number of options) and a set of utili- 
ties. One of the most useful utilities: One 
which will copy files between the Hogg 
Flex system. Radio Shack's OS-9 and 
the standard Radio Shack disk formats. 

Also on the subject of OS-9, we Ye 
proud to report that our new columnist. 
Dale Puckett, has been elected presi- 
dent of the National OS-9 User's Group, 



One of Dale's objectives is to integrate 
the OS-9 User's Group with Color Computer 
Clubs across the world. 

YOU'VE READ ON THESE pages 
about the departure of Jon Shirley as 
Vice President for Computer Merchan- 
disingat RadioShack. Now, newappoint- 
ments for three senior Radio Shack 
executives have been announced in Fort 
Worth. 

Ed Juge, who has been Director of 
Computer Merchandising, becomes Director 
of Merchandising — Business Compu- 
ter Products. Mark Yamagata, Director 
of Merchandising in the United King- 
dom, is now Director of Merchandising 
- Personal Computer Products. Bill 
Wash, Director of Customer Service, 
has been named to be Director of Com- 
puter Merchandising Services. 

CoCo (and the Portable Computer) 
fit under the aegis of Mr. Yamagata. He 
has worked with Tandy in Japan and 
the United States before his assignment 
to head up the UK operation. He joined 
Tandy Radio Shack in 1968. 

In making the announcements. Ra- 
dio Shack said the new organization 
was done to "direct more intensive 
management support to specific TRS- 
80 computer product segments.** Juge, 
Yamagata and Wash will report to Ber- 
nard Appel, Radio Shack's Executive 
Vict President — Marketing. 

WHILE ON THE SUBJECT of Radio 
Shack, a new and important product 
has been announced in the education 
field. It is a card reader, which will read 
data from marked or punched cards. 
The card reader will then transfer the 
data to a computer — via an RS-232 
— for use with an appropriate applica- 
tions program. Card readers are one 
way in which educators can quickly 
grade testsand make surveys important 
in the education process. So, this rep- 
resents a significant step for Radio 
Shack. The card reader is affordable, 
too, for such a complicated piece of 
hardware — $1,595. 

SEVERAL FIRMS IN THE United 
States are announcing agreements to 
sell their products overseas, particularly 
in the British market, where the Dragon-32 
is popular. 



Superior Graphic Software says that 
it signed an agreement with Eurosoftfor 
European marketing; Nelson Software's 
Super Color Writer 11 has been chosen 
as the "official" word processor for the 
Dragon to be introduced in this country 
by Tano Corp.; and Nanos Systems 
Corp. has now produced a reference 
card for the Dragon similar to that it 
made up several years ago for CoCo. 

71ie Rainbow hasn't been left behind, 
either. We've just signed a major deal 
for international distribution in Europe, 
Africa, Asia and Australia. 

A NEW FORMS processing program 
is now available from Derringer Software 
of Florence, SC. The program allows 
the merger of data files and letters. Just 
in time for the upcoming elections next 
year! 

WE DONT EVEN BELIEVE this, 
but there's a new product available 
called the Byte Bat from MicroTie Sys- 
tems Corp. This is a foam rubber bat 
that lets you "slug" your CoCo when 
things go wrong — without hurting 
CoCo. A Byte Bat is $12.95 by mail at 
P.O. Box 8112, Walnut Creek, CA 
94546. 

IF YOU WANT to let CoCo earn you 
some money, try Home Computer Bus- 
iness Reports at P.O. Box 4759, Santa 
Barbara, CA 93103. These reports will 
show ways that you can make your 
computer make money for you. Some 
of the ideas are fairly common, others 
pretty unique. A catalog is available for 
just $1. 

NOW THERE IS The Computer 
Newsletter, with a digest of all sorts of 
information on computers. And, because 
CoCo is so big, it even has an edition of 
its own! It costs $17.50 a year in the 
U.S., $20 in Canada and can be ordered 
at P.O. Box 952, Cleveland, OH 44120. 
Be sure to mention that you want the 
CoCo edition, as there are several oth- 
ers. 

A UNIQUE SOFTWARE catalog is 
offered by a firm called ^uestron, P.O. 
Box 576, South Holland, IL 60473. 
Their catalog of CoCo software is in the 
form of a tape, which lets you get an 
"advance look" at what games, utilities 
and art programsactually do. The catalog 
costs $2, but comes with a free program. 



158 



me RAINBOW October 1983 



COLORFUL UTILITIES 



• BASIC AID - Speed program entry by single key input of 43 common BASIC 
commands. Redefine any or all keys. Merge, move and rentmber any part of your pro-am. 
Comes with a plastic keyboard overlay. ROMPAK $34.95/DISK $49.95 

• BASIC COMPILER - Convert your BASIC programs into fast efficient 
machine language Produces code more conpad and up to 50X faster than original BASIC. 
Integer coopiler with no Extended BASIC needed. 16K-64K versions included. TAPE $39.95 

• Omni Clone — Back everything up! This amazing program handles "non- 
standard" disks with ease! We haven't found any yet that it can't handle. Lowest price too! 
32K $29.95 

• BACKUP64 - Make single drive backips of all your disks with half the effort. 
By utilizing your 64K RAM, only 6 quick swaps are needed instead of a slow 12. Relief 
for single drive owners. DISK $14.95 

• PRITTY PRINTER - Disassemble complex, multiple line statements of 
BASIC code with this professional program lister. Simple commands control printer baud 
rates, maximum line length, lines per page and disable form feeds. DISK/TAPE $19.95 

• SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCESSOR- save hours 

of work and design professional looking electronic dia^ams using a 480X540 pixel 
worksheet with 6 viewing windows. Over 30 electronic symbols with 10 user definable 
symbols are provided. Dump hard copy to the printer and save the created schematics 
to disk. 64K DISK $49.95 

• MICROTERM A terminal program for the new Radio Shack MC-10 Color 
Computer. Now you can use your PoCo Coco as an inexpensive terminal to access bulletin 
boards, Compuserve and other data lines. TAPE $24.95 

• MASTERMAIL 1200 - Finally a disk mailing list program for serious 
business applications. Mastermail can store tip to 1200 5-line labels per disk, print by code, 
and uses a very fast machine language sort. 32K-1 disk min. DISK $49.95 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

k 93-15 86th DR • WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 

212-441-2807 

orders plus $3 S/H - NY residents add sales tax 




B 5 Software 



B5 believes the Computer is o unique teaching tool and 
deserves quality software. Our programs ore based on 
sound learning principles and make learning fun. 



*4L 



EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS 

far ijmtr trs-so color computer* &tdp-ioo* 



CLOCK 



Grade* 1-4, Helps children procicce lulling time, 4 
skill levels: hour, quorter hour, 5 minute and 1 rrnnvie 
mtarvals. Option* include reod>ng hours end minutes 
seporotely on the lo»ge graphic clock with »ynchro- 
on«d hands. Altar 10 correct *»iw»Jt o Jtnoll mavi« 
otcends fo iha tune of Hickoiy. Diekary, Dock, 
16K Coss $24.95 32K 0, »k $26.95 



MONEY « 

Grade 2-4. Provides on opportunity to coyni coins. 
5 sk(M lavals rOnge Iram counting only dimes, nickels 
Ond ptnnttl to counting vorious combmOtlon* of oil 
coins which can tatol mare than one dollor. The pro- 
gram u*ot grophic coini. If a series of 3 problems ore 
answered correctly a rocket oscends to the moon. If 1 
or mare ore incorrect, the rocket crashes insieod. 
16K Coss $19.95 16K Disk $21.95 



BORROW 



t 



Grades ?»4. Allows the iiudani io reinforce sublroc* 
tian skill*. Problems oppeor in large gr op h i c numer* 
ols. Smoll boxes obove the numorols ollow for rogrou* 
ping procedures. 7 skill levols. A hoppy lace oppeor* 
on the screen for eoch conect onswer, After 10 com* 
pletad problems, a Pac-Man-typo creature munches a 
nvmera t down. 

16K Cost $19.95 32K Disk $21.95 



CARRY t 



Grade* 2-4. A program destgned lo help student* io 
practice addition. Uses soma lormot os Borrow. A skiN 
level*. 

16K Coss $19.95 32K Dc.k $21-95 



? ? 
QUESTION X 



P 9 



Grodei K8. Asks questions wrth multiple choice or 
true ond fol*» answers. Fits any curriculum becouie 
you con inpur tha question* anrf on 4 wars. Graphic re- 
ward i* a blinking robot. Also designed for vii with 
doio topes. Printer use optianol. 
16K Cos* $19.95 32K Disk $21.95 



with Extended Basic 



MATH FACT ' 

Grade 1-5. Motivates student* to learn theit facts. All 
4 moth operation; ore m the program. Student »elects 
the desired aperotian then the de*>red addend, Subtro- 
hend, foe tor or divisor, or then con request a mixed 
presentation wrthm eoch aparotion. 2 skill lavals, oil 
drills limed ond scored. If oil facts ora answered corr- 
ectly, students con ploy a quick number gome as a re- 
word. 

16K Coss $16.95 32K D> tk $16.95 



HANGWORD & SCRAMBLE 

Groda* 1-8. Present* 2 word gomes. Hongword is simi- 
lar la tht old fovorite, Hortgmon. Blanks oppeor and 
students guess letter* |ar the blonk*. Wrap? guesses 
build the graphic drsploy of the word 'Sorry'. Scrambler 
displays iha word with iha letters tcrambrad. Students 
9ue*s the word ond spall it correctly. InPul awn word* 
with thj » pogrom or purchosa doto topes. We doto 
tope listing. Printer u*e aptionol. 
16K Cots $14.95 32K Disk $16.95 



SPELLING 

Grode* 1-8. Very flexibla os It ollows you to input 
your own choice of words ond store them an tapa fila*. 
You may olso purchase data tapes lar this progrom. 
See data tope lifting* Words fiosh on the screen from 
.1 to 10 seconds, then student types the word. The 
scare r* given olter eoch entry ond the student is 
reworded with o graphic display of words ond o song. 
Printer use optional. 
16K Coss $16.95 32K D.sk $18-95 



KEYBOARD 



Mpiiiiiipn 
IMliimi 



Groda s 1-6. Hajps fomilionxe student with keybaord. 
A graphic keyboord enobles user to lacote key* Quick- 
ly. Home key* ore identified and proper fingering way 
be tought. Le*sort* ore built around alphabet finger, 
word ond Sentence drills. At the end a graphic reward 
is given, 32K ve/sion hos lengthier timed drills. Bath 
16K Ond 32K versions can use data tapes for luriher 
practice. S<r<r dorrj tope listings. 

16K Coss $)9.95 32K Coss $24.95 32K Disk $26.95 



ABC'S 



Grodes K-1. Tha child types the letters in the olpho- 
bei to the tune of the olphoboi song. The r«word rs a 
grophic ond sound drsploy. 
16K Coss $9.95 16K Disk $11.95 



SKIP COUNTING 

Gcodas 1-4. Helps the child leorn to count by 1*s, 2'i, 
fi'Sj 10'*, 100'*, or ony number desirad. The User *aU 
acts iha poromater* by giving the number to count by 
ond the begmningond ending number of eoch sequence. 
Tha student can practice at whenever level needed, 
and each lesson has « grophi c re wor d. 
16K Coss $16.95 




Doto Tape* may be used with other 85 progrom*. They 
connot be used alone. 

Use with Keyboord Pragrom 
KEYBOARD PHONIC DRILL Latter, *ord ond sen- 
tence linger drills using common vowel ond consonant 
combinations. $8.95 

Use with Keyboard/ Spefhng Or Honpword Programs 
DOLCH WORDS * 273 words used mast often in begin- 
ning reoders, $8.95 

GRADE LEVEL SPELLING - Over 300 wards on eoch 
tope. Eoch lesson follows o phonic rule. Avai lobla in 
Grode* 2,3,4.5 or 6 Levels. $8.95 P*r grade Uvel 

SPACE WORDS • Over 300 wards to chollenge ond mo- 
tivate the supexor speller. Gradas 4-8. $8.95 

ADULT WORDS* Most aftan misspelled words. Highly 
chollanging. $8.95 

Use with Questions Progrom 
NOUNS AND VERBS * 4 lessons on nouns and 4 on 
verbs- Grode* 3-5. $8.95 

READING COMPREHENSION • Lessons build Irom 
Simple TO complex, Grade* 2-4. 

Main Idea $10.95 

SoSuoncing $10.95 

Fact & Opinion $10.95 

Couse & Effect $10.95 
Complete Series of 4 $39.95 



/J^^\ Ask your Dealer for a Demonstration today! 

BROCHURES UPON REQUEST 



RAINBOW 

4€*i 



TRS-80 and COLOR COMPUTER 
are Trademarks or Tandy Corp 



(614) 276-2752 



If unavailable locally, send check or money order to: 

B5 Software 

1024 BAINBRIDGE PLACE 
COLUMBUS, OHIO 43226 



Free Shipping in U.S.A. & Canada 

TOT A I F\C ].(»SkP . 



NAMfc , 



ADDRESS . 



_ STATE . 



. ZIP . 



(OH Residants odd Soles To* 



CLOCK 



MATH F ACT , 

QUESTIONS 

MONEY , 

SKIP COUNTING . 

HANGWORD 

SCRAMBLE 

CARRY 



KEYBOARD 

BORROW 

ABC's 



DATA TAPES 
. KEYBOARD PHQNrC DRILL . 
.DOLCH WORDS 



GRADE LEVEL SPELLING . 



GRADE 2 - GRADE 3 * GRADE 4 
GRADE 5 ■ GRADE 6 



SPACE WORDS 
ADULT WORDS 



NOUNS AND VERBS 



SPELLING . 



READING COMPREHENSION 



- ^ 1. 1 * rAX 



TOTAL ORD1 H 



GRAPHICS 



Color Sketch 



A Keyboard Graphics Utility 



By Darryl Kotcher 



Though the Color Computer has excellent capabili- 
ties as far as creating graphics goes, many times it is 
useful to view the graphic as it is being drawn in order 
to insure accuracy. Colorskeich allows one to do this. 

Using the arrow keys and several one-key commands, 
excellent sketches can be drawn, and with enough persist- 
ance, can even compare to those obtainable on a graphics 
tablet. 

Here are the commands that are available with Color- 
sketch: 

B — Move cursor but don't draw (blank) 

C — Move cursor and draw (color) 

E — Exit from drawing 

H — Display help table (this list) 

I — Alter high speed cursor increment 

M — Change graphics mode (PMODE) 

N — Disengage key repeat (no repeat) 

O — Origin of circle to be drawn 

P — Paint an enclosed section 

R — Engage key repeat 

S — Define line starting point 

T — Draw line from starting point (terminating point) 
X — Change cursor color 

Upon loading and running the program the user is promp- 
ted with questions about which mode (PMODEO — 4 ) color 
set (0 or 1 ), foreground and background colors (within limits 
of given PMODE), and starting point on screen (0 — 255, 
0 — 191). After this initial information is entered the user is 
shown the help table (which can be called at any time simply 
by hitting the H key) and asked to hit any key to continue. 
The user is then asked if an old picture is to be loaded. If the 
answer is yes, then the user is prompted to set up tape and hit 
ENTER to load. The graphics screen will be displayed and 
the old picture will be loaded in with the cursor located at the 
predefined location. If no is selected, the graphics screen is 
immediately displayed and cleared with the cursor positi- 
oned at the predefined location. At this point the user is now 
ready to put Colorsketch to work. 

The program is initially set to draw with no repeat to the 
arrow keys. Hit B (Hear the beep?) and also hit R. Now hold 
one of the arrow keys down. The cursor will continue to 

(Darryl Kotcher is a senior at Eastern Michigan Uni- 
versity, majoring in computer-science. Upon gradua- 
tion, he hopes to continue working with Micros, pos- 
sibly software development.) 



move in the direction Of the arrow until it is released. Hit C 
and press any arrow key. The cursor will continue to move in 
the direction of the arrow but leaving its trail behind making 
it now a sketching tool. Oops, you made a mistake? Just hit 
B and go back over the line in the opposite direction. The 
line is now being erased. In this way a simple sketch can be 
drawn. 

Hit H and look at the help table. See all those other 
commands available? Those are where the real power of 
Colorsketch lies. Hit any key and return to the graphics 
screen. Move the cursor anywhere and hit S. Now move it 
anywhere else and hit T. Presto, a line is drawn between the 
two points. Now draw a box and place the cursor within. Hit 
P and follow the instructions for painting shown. The lower 
right corner will show you which mode (PM) and color set 
(CS) you're in. When you are returned to the graphics screen 
you will find your box now painted if you followed the 
instructions and used an allowable color. Now using 
<SHIFT> and any arrow key move the cursor quickly to 
another location and hit O. You are now prompted with the 
information needed for Extended BASIC'S CIRCLE com- 
mand. When all are answered and you are returned to the 
graphics screen a circle with origin at the cursor will now be 
drawn. Now use the M key to switch to one of the four color 
modes. Hit X and change the cursor to another color and 
draw a small line. Hit X again and draw another line using a 
different color. Using this technique, one can draw very 
colorful drawings. 

The program is written in as structured BASIC as I found 
feasible and thus is easily modified. I hope you find as many 
uses for this program as I have. CoCo's can create some 
impressive graphics and this program will only make it 
easier. If anyone encounters any problems or any questions 
regarding this program, feel free to contact me at (313) 
981-3825. Good luck and happy sketching! 



The listing: 



80 



100 . . . 


09F2 


130 


. . 0C2E 


158 .. . 


. . .0E2A 


186 . . 


. 108C 






END . 


... 1497 



1 

2 
3 



♦»♦♦♦ COLORSKETCH ♦*♦** 



POKE 65495,0 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 161 



4 PCLEAR 4 

5 CLEAR 1200,fcH7EFF 

6 DEF USR-&H7F00 

7 * 

8 * 

9 ' ***** MACHINE LANG. ROUTINE 
FOR KEY REPEAT ***** 

10 ' 

11 FOR MM-lcH7F00 TO &H7F1B 

12 READ DT* 

13 DT*«"ScH ,, +DT* 

14 POKE MM, VAL<DT*> 

15 NEXT 

16 DATA CC,0,0,8E, 1,55,A6,80,8D, 
9,8C, 1,59,26,F7,4F,7E,B4,F4,81,F 
F, 2D, 1*39, CC,0, 1,39 

17 ' 

18 ' 

19 * ***** MAIN PROGRAM ***** 

20 ' 

21 A«- ,,M :NI-10 

22 GOSUB 227ICLS 

23 GOSUB 152 

24 80SUB 63 

25 CLS 

26 PRINT "LOAD OLD PICTURE <Y/N) 

?" 

27 SCREEN 0,1 

28 AN«=INKEY»: IF AN*<>"Y n AND AN 
*<>"N M THEN 28 



29 IF AN«- M Y" THEN GOSUB 139: GOT 
O 32 

30 PCLS 

31 SCREEN 1,VAL<CS*> 

32 U=94:D-10 

33 L»S:R«9JRPT-0:RF-0 

34 PSET <X,Y,C) 

35 IF FL-1 THEN PRESET <X1,Y1) 

36 GOSUB 78 

37 GOTO 34 

38 GOSUB 114 

39 END 

40 " 

41 * 

42 * ***** SUBROUTINE TO PAINT * 
**** 

43 * 

44 PRINT "COLOR", "NUMBER" 

45 PRINT "- "," » 

46 PRINT "BLACK", 0, "GREEN", 1, "YE 
LL0W",2, "BLUE", 3, "RED", 4, "BUFF", 
5, "CYAN" ,6, "MAGENTA", 7, "ORANBE" , 
8 

47 PR I NT: PR I NT "COLOR SET 0-1 ST 
4 COLORS"*" PM«"JM«:PRINT "COL 
OR SET 1-2ND 4 COLORS"*" CS-"| 
CS* 

48 PRINT "ONLY 0 OR 5 IN 2 COLOR 
MODES" 

49 PRINT "TYPE NO. OF DESIRED CO 



6809 RECORD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM RMS 

DATABASE MANAGEMENT 

RUNS ON THE COLOR WITH FRANK HOGG FLEX 



•USER DEFINED RECORD FORMAT VIA DATA DICTIONARY 
•SCREEN ORIENTED, FORM FILL OUT TYPE OF ACCESS 
•OPTIONAL TWO LEVEL RECORD HIERARCHY 
•ALL FILES IN ASCII TEXT FORMAT, BASIC COMPATIBLE 
•DIRECT ACCESS BY KEY FIELD, MULTIPLE INDEX FILES 
•EXTENSIVE DOCUMENTATION, SAMPLE APPLICATION 
•VERSATILE, PROFESSIONAL QUALITY REPORT WRITER 
•BUILT-IN SORT/MERGE 
•EASY TO USE 




RMS is a complete DATABASE MANAGEMENT package 
for the 6809 computer. It is made up of five machine 
language programs that make up the most powerful 
business programming tool available for the 6809. It can be 
used by the relative novice, to implement an incredible 
variety of information storage and retrieval applications, 
without any programming. However, the programmer can 
use RMS as part of the solution to a larger problem, saving 
many hours of unnecessary program development time. 
RMS can be used to handle data input, editing, validation, 
on-line retrieval, sorting and printed reports. Custom data 
manipulation can be filled in by the user's BASIC programs. 



SINGLE CPU LICENSE 

FLEX* $200 
OS-9+ $250 
UNIFLEX* $300 

TERMS: VISA / MC / PREPAID 



WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES 

3028 SILVERN LANE 
BELLINGHAM, WA 98225 
1 (206) 734-8248 



* FLEX and UNIFLEX are trademarks of Technical System Consultants inc.; + OS 9 is a trademark of Microwere 



162 the RAINBOW October 1983 



LOR"; 

50 SCREEN 0,1 

51 CR«-INKEY«: IF CR*< M 0 M OR CR*> 
"B" THEN 51 

52 PRINT&480, "BORDER COLOR TO S 
TOP AT <0-8)?"J 

53 SCREEN 0,1 

54 ST«"INKEY»: IF ST*<"0" OR ST«> 
"8" THEN 54 

55 BD«VAL<ST*> 

56 SCREEN 1,VAL(CS«) 

57 PAINT < X+2, Y+2) , VAL <CR*) , BD 

58 RETURN 

59 ' 

60 * 

61 » ***** SUBROUTINE TO PRINT T 
ABLE ***** 

62 * 

63 CLS 

64 PRINT " **** COMMAND TABLE 
***»" 

65 PRINT"B-BLANK DRAW": PRINT "C- 
RESUME COLOR": PR I NT "P-PAINT ENC 
LOSED SECTION": PRINT "E-EXIT FRO 
M DRAW I NO" 

66 PRINT "< SHI FT >< CLEAR >-CLEAR S 
CREEN" : PRINT "R-ENQAQE KEY REPEA 
T": PRINT " N-D I SEN8 AGE KEY REPEAT 



67 PRINT "S— LINE START INS POINT" 
: PRINT "T-LINE TERMINATING POINT 
" : PRINT "O-ORIGIN OF CIRCLE TO B 
E DRAWN": PR I NT "X -CHANGE CURSOR 
COLOR" 

68 PRINT "H— DISPLAY COMMAND TABL 
E" 

69 PRINT "M-CHANGE MODE" 

70 PRINT "I -ALTER CURSOR MOVE IN 
CREMENT":PRINT "HIT ANY KEY TO R 
ESUME"; 

71 SCREEN 0,1 

72 H*«INKEY«:IF H«-" M THEN 72 

73 RETURN 

74 * 

75 ' 

76 ' ***** SUBROUTINE TO MOVE CU 
RSOR ***** 

77 * 

78 IF RF-0 THEN 81 

79 RPT»USR<0) 

80 IF RPT»1 THEN 96 

81 A*»INKEY* 

82 IF A*- M P" THEN SOUND 200,1:80 
SUB 44 

83 IF A*«"R" THEN SOUND 200, 1:RF 
■1 



4* 



SOUTHERN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

SERIOUS SOFTWARE FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
Presenting. . THE GRAPH ZAPPER, S%> 
THE BAR ZAPPER and THE PIE ZAPPER 



1 THE PIE ZAPPER draws pie charts of your data-plain or fancy sectors-5 kinds of sectors -alternate sectors styles to make an outstanding impact -labeled 
sectors -option to display raw numbers or percentages on chart with or without totals. 

1 THE BAR ZAPPER creates bar graphs with multiple bars-five different bar styles -positive and negative bars-can use names or numbers for bar identifi- 
cation - plenty of options - "Extremely easy to use. . .Beautiful. . . Well prepared and documented tool. " The Rainbow, April 1 983. 

■ THE GRAPH ZAPPER plots line graphs of data and equations-multiple lines with different symbols-mix equations and data on the same graph- with or 
without grids - plots lines or points - "The Graph tapper is one of the most completely documented pieces of software we have seen. . . The Graph 
Zapper is an outstanding utility and can be a major tool in statistical, business and other uses where graphic representation of numbers is desirable. " 
The Rainbow, Dec. 1982 

» Endless applications -electric consumption, stock prices, math class equations, children's height and weight, data analysis, trend indication, experimental 

results, statistical analysis, sales presentations. 
» The three ZAPPERS provide you with a sophisticated capability that will handle from the simplest to the most complex graphing needs. 

All three ZAPPERS have these Features: 

• User friendly, easy to understand. 

• Thorough error prevention. 

• Save data for later graphing or editing. 

• Low cost upgrade from tape to disk. 



High resolution graphs with on screen numbers, titles, and labels. 
Sophisticated data editor makes changing data simple. 
Disk version has added features including storing completed graphs 
on disk and menu driven file loading. 
Detailed user's guides for all features. 
Low resolution graphs can't compare. 
14 day money back guarantee. 



$15.95 

for 16K tape versions 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



• Hard copies possible with readily available screen print programs 
for nearly any brand of printer. 

• Requires Ext. Color Basic and delivered on cassette. 

add $1.00 for shipping . . . send check, money order, $19.95 
or VISA/MasterCard number and expiration date for 32K disk versions 

$44.95 for all three tape versions 4- $3.00 shipping 
$56.95 for all three disk versions + $3.00 shipping 

Florida residents add 5% sales tax [3E| 

SOUTHERN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

485 South Tropical Trail, Suite 109 • Merritt Island, Florida 32952 • (305) 452-2217 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 163 



84 IF A*«"N" THEN SOUND 200, l:RF 
«0 

85 IF A*-"B" THEN SOUND 200, l:FL 
-1 

86 IF A*="H" THEN SCREEN 0,1: SOU 
ND 200, lrOOSUB 63: SCREEN 1,VAL(C 
S*> 

87 IF A*-"E" THEN SOUND 200,1:80 
TO 38 

88 IF A*«"C" THEN SOUND 200, 1:FL 
-0 

89 IF A*«"\" THEN SOUND 200,1:80 
SUB 220:PSET(X,Y) 

90 IF A*="S" THEN SX=X : SY=Y: SOUN 
D 200,1 

91 IF A*-"T" THEN TX-X: TY»Y: SOUN 
D 200,1: BOSUB 174 

92 IF A*-"0" THEN SOUND 200,1:80 
SUB 181 

93 IF A*-"X" THEN SOUND 200,1:80 
SUB 198 

94 IF A*«"I" THEN SOUND 200,1:80 
SUB 206 

95 IF A*-"M" THEN SOUND 200,1:80 
SUB 212 

96 IF A*-CHR*<U> THEN X1-X:Y1»Y: 
Y-Y-l 

97 IF A*=CHR*(L> THEN Y1»Y:X1-X: 
X-X-l 



Co Co - Cooler 



• Brings operating 
temperature 
to ambient, 
regardless 
of 

accessory 
load 




• Reduces temperature 
of ENTIRE computer . . . 
not just the SAM chip 

• Easy 1-minute installation 



• $39.95 



Companion Keyboard Cover $7.95 
Co Co Software 

• Send For Free Catalog • For Fastest Service 
Send Money Order Or Certified Check • Add 
$2.00 Shipping Charge Per Order • Calif. 
Residents Add 6*A% Sales Tax • All Merchandise 
Shipped From Stock • 



REM Industries, Inc. 

9420 "B'Lurline Ave., Chatsworth, CA 91311 

(213) 341-3719 



98 IF A*=CHR*(D> THEN X1-X:Y1-Y: 
Y»Y+1 

99 IF A*-CHR*(R> THEN Y1-Y:X1»X: 
X-X+l 

100 IF A*-CHR*(95> THEN Y1-Y:X1» 
XIY-Y-NI 

101 IF A*=CHR«<91) THEN Y1-Y:X1- 

x:y-y+ni 

102 if a*-chr*<21) then y1-y:x1» 
x:x-x-ni 

103 if a«-chr»<93) then y1-y:x1- 
x:x»x+ni 

104 if a«- m " then 81 

105 if x>255 then x-255 

106 if x<0 then x=0 

107 if ym91 then y-191 

108 if y<0 then y-0 

109 RETURN 

110 » 

111 » 

112 * ***** SUBROUTINE TO SAVE P 
ICTURE ***** 

113 ' 

114 CLS 

115 POKE 65494,0 

116 PRINT "SAVE PICTURE <Y/N>?"» 

117 SCREEN 0, 1 

118 S*=INKEY*:IF S*<>"Y" AND S*< 
>"N" THEN 118 

119 IF S*»"Y" THEN 122 

120 PRINT " "|S* 

121 GOTO 134 

122 M=VAL(M*> 

123 PRINT " "JS* 

124 IF M=0 THEN M=l 

125 PRINT 

126 PRINT "POSITION TAPE": PRINT 
"HIT ANY KEY TO TAPE" 

127 SCREEN 0,1 

128 T*»INKEY*:IF T*="" THEN 128 

129 PRINT: INPUT "NAME" f NM* 

130 LTH»1536*M+1535 

131 PRINT: PRINT "SAVING WITH NAM 
E»"|NM* 

132 SCREEN 0,1 

133 CSAVEM NM*, 1536, LTH, 1536 

134 RETURN 

135 * 

136 * 

137 * ***** SUBROUTINE TO LOAD O 
LD PICTURE ***** 

138 * 

139 PRINT: PRINT "SET UP TAPE, HI 
T ENTER TO LOAD" 

140 SCREEN 0, 1 

141 T*»INKEY*:IF T*»"» THEN 141 

142 SCREEN 1,VAL(CS«) 

143 PCLS 

144 POKE 65494,0 

145 CLOADM 



164 the RAINBOW October 1983 



WORKSAVER RECEIVES 
RAVE REVIEWS 



FROM COLOR COMPUTER NEWS AND RAINBOW 



• Fast Entry of 
Basic Programs 

• Over 100 user 
definable keys 

• Enhances all Coco's 
from 16K Non Extended 
Basic to Extended, 64K, 
Disk 

• Available on Disk or 
cassette 

• Built in cassette merge 

• User's Support Service 




"There are a number of 
products on the Coco 
market. .the WORKSAVER 
ranks up there with the 
best of them" 

—Rainbow Dec. '82| 

''...undoubtedly the best 
program I have ever 
bought for my color 
computer" 

—Color Computer News 
Jan. '83 

"the main function of the 
program seems to be mak- 
ing things easier and more\ 
functional for the user. It 
succeeds extremely well" 
—Color Computer Newsl 
Jan. '831 



FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

"WANT TO CHANGE the line a 
couple lines up? Simple. Use the 
arrow keys to the appropriate 
place and make the change. This is 
not only a lot easier, but it is vastly 
faster, too. ..changing line 
numbers, joining lines together, 
breaking them apart, duplicating 
them elsewhere—heady stuff — is 
very easy to do with the 
Worksaver" (Rainbow) 



DYNAMIC EDITING 

This is one of our users' favorite 
features: When the computer halts 
due to an error, or you want to 
make an improvement while run- 
ning, you can make changes 
without losing data: "This is a ma- 
jor plus in debugging. ..it can save 
a lot of time in data loads. ..{and) 
the generation of data through in- 
puts." " Rainbow Dec. '82 



"The things that this program 
add to the color computer... 

INCREASE ITS 
CAPABILITIES MANIFOLD 

...it should have been incor- 
porated into the original 
MICROSOFT programming (or) 
given out with every color com- 
puter." 

—Color Computer News Jan '83 



THE PLATINUM WORKSAVER 
INCLUDES: 

• Enhancement program, including a 
sample array editor on a high-quality 
Agfa cassette. 

• Fully labeled acetate keyboard over- 
lay, not a cheap stick-on. 

• Complete instructions 

• Loads in seconds, takes 2.2 K 



WORKSAVER A1-A3 OWNERS: 

Contact us regarding return policy for 
our New A*4 version. 



The PLATINUM WORKSAVER costs 
$35.00 plus $3.00 S&H (NY residents 
add appropriate tax). To order write: 

^ PLATINUM SOFTWARE 
P.O. Box 833 

<™ Pittsburgh, N.Y. 12901 

Phone orders: (518) 643-2650 9-5 EST 

VISA, MASTERCARD ACCEPTED. PERSONAL CHECKS 
TAKE 2-3 WEEKS TO PROCESS 



DYNAMIC INPUT 

Perform numeric calculations, 
and check the contents of ar- 
rays and variables, WITHOUT in- 
terrupting the running of BASIC 
programs: "An EXTREMELY 
valuable feature that I use ALL 
the time/ 1 

—Color Computer News Jan. '83 



NUMERIC KEYPAD 
CONVERSION 

"The keys JKLUIOP are defined 
as the numbers 1-7, respective- 
ly. ..this mode is a Godsend for 
long data statements/' 
—Color Computer News Jan. '83 



FULL FEATURED 
4 COLOR 
KEYBOARD OVERLAY 

"TRUTH: The WORKSA VER 
overlay is the best we have 
seen for this type of program." 
—The Rainbow Dec. '82 

"A well designed keyboard 
overlay (NOT a sticker... " 
—Color Computer News Jan. 




TRS-80 

COMPUTERS 

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ACCESSORIES 

WE CARRY A FULL LINE OF: 

• SOFTWARE 

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• PRINTER ACCESSORIES 

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PLEASE WRITE AND REQUEST . . . 

• CUSTOMER DISCOUNT PRICE LIST 

• MANUFACTURE WARRANTIES 

c TRS-80 TANDY CORPORATION 



I 



PERRY COMPUTERS 

Dept. No. C-3 137 NORTH MAIN ST.. PERRY. Ml 48872 

FOR ORDERS CALL 1 -800-248-3823 

FOR INFORMATION CALL (517) 625-4161 



146 POKE 65475,0 

147 RETURN 

148 * 

149 ' 

150 * ***** SUBROUTINE TO INPUT 
STARTING DATA ***** 

151 " 

152 PRINT "MODE (0-4) ?"l 

153 M*"INKEY* 

154 IF H*>"4" OR H*<"0" THEN 153 

155 PRINT VAL(M«) 

156 PMODE VAL(H*),1 

157 PRINT "COLOR SET (0/l)?"| 

158 CS*«INKEY*: IF CS*<>"0" AND C 
S«>"1" THEN 158 

159 PRINT VAL(CS*) 

160 PRINT "FOREGROUND COLOR (0-8 
)?"$ 

161 FG*«INKEY*: IF FG*<"0" OR FG* 
>"8" THEN 161 

162 PRINT VAL (FG*) 

163 C-VAL(FG*) 

164 PRINT "BACKGROUND COLOR (0-8 

)?"; 

165 BG*«INKEY*: IF BG*<"0" OR BG* 
>"8" THEN 165 

166 PRINT VAL (BG*) 

167 COLOR VAL ( FG* ) , VAL ( BG* ) 

168 PRINT 

169 INPUT "START INS POINT" S X, Y 

170 RETURN 

171 ' 

172 * ***** SUBROUTINE TO DRAW L 
INES ***** 

173 * 

174 COLOR C,VAL(BG*> 

175 LINE (SX,SY)-(TX,TY) ,PSET 

176 COLOR VAL ( FG* ) , VAL ( BG* ) 

177 RETURN 

178 * 

179 * ***** SUBROUTINE TO DRAW C 
IRCLE ***** 

180 ' 

181 CLS 

182 INPUT "RADIUS OF CIRCLE " JRD 

183 INPUT "HEIBHT TO WIDTH RATIO 
(0.0-4.0) "JHW 

184 IF HW<0 OR HW>4 THEN 183 

185 PRINT "COLOR OF CIRCLE (0-8) 

?"; 

186 C*«INKEY*:IF C*<"0" OR C*>"8 
" THEN 186 

187 PRINT " "|C* 

188 INPUT "CIRCLE START POINT (0 
-1) "SSP 

189 IF SP<0 OR SP>1 THEN 188 

190 INPUT "CIRCLE END POINT (0-1 

) ";ep 

191 IF EP<0 OR EP>1 THEN 190 

192 CIRCLE (X,Y) ,RD,VAL(C*) ,HW,S 



166 the RAINBOW October 1983 



ELIMINATE 
THE CLUTTER 



SOFTWARE 




THE ORGANIZER 
ALBUMS TO HOLD YOUR CASSETTES 

Store and organize your cassette library. The Organizer is 
constructed of black vinyl with rigid molded plastic frame to 
prevent crushing. Label holder welded on the spine for quick 
identification of contents. Order albums filled with BASF- 
DPS, C-IO tapes and get an even better deal! 
Item Price 



Organizer- 12 with Tapes 


$12.95 


Organizer- 12 without Tapes 


$6.95 


Organizer-6 with Tapes 


$8.95 


Org'anizer-6 without Tapes 


$4.95 


Shipping: $2.00 for first item + i 


5.50 for each additional item. 




THE COCO-SWITCHER 

A QUALITY PIECE OF HARDWARE 

The CoCo Switcher allows you to hook up three peripherials 
to your RS-232 jack. Connect your modem, printer and any 
other RS-232 compatible peripherial to the CoCo Switcher. 
Select among these peripherials at the flick of a switch on the 
front of the CoCo Switcher or turn them all off. No more 
scrambling around behind your computer. No more risk of 
harming your computer's RS-232 port An LED on the CoCo 
Switcher shows if your computer is on or off at a glance. 

The CoCo Switcher is contained in a sturdy black anodized 
steel box which sits firmly on rubber feet. 
Dimensions: 2/2" (64mm) x 4" (102mm) x5 7 /8 M (150mm) 
$39.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay Laboratory 

316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

California Residents, Add 6% Sales Tax to Orders 




GAMES AND DIVERSIONS 

ADVENTURE IN TOWER CASTLE — Can you recover 
the treasure? 
32K EXB $17.95 

CUBE SOLVER-ML Program mix up cube, solve it, let 
CoCo solve it. 16K $19.95 



SCIENCE 

PLANETARIUM — See 33 Constellations, 21 first magni- 
tude stars, planet chart, Northern and Southern lati- 
tudes. 16K EXB $19.95 

GALAXY — Read right ascension, declination, azimuth, 
elevation, rising and setting times for sun, moon, planets 
and 21 first magnitude stars. 16K EXB $19.95 



UTILITIES 

FILE CABINET — Data base, up to 20 fields, each entry 
can hold 256 alpha numeric characters, sort alphabeti- 
cally or numerically, sort any field, print all or selected 
entries, add, subtract, multiply, or divide numerical 
entries. 16K EXB $29.95 

REPORT — Uses data generated by File Cabinet. For- 
mat data to print invoices, write checks, etc. 16K EXB 
$24 95 

PROGRAMMER'S TOOL KIT — Edit programs with full 
screen cursor control, merge programs, run programs 
automatically, list variables with line locations, list cross 
reference of GOSUB and GOTO, examine memory 
values of ML programs, each program can be. used 
separately. 16K $28.95 

COCO WRITER — The best word processor for the 
money. Full screen edit, word wrap, insert, delete, over- 
type, justify right or left margins or both, automatically 
number pages between 1 and 255, print all or part of 
document, repeat printing up to 100 times, document 
memory space; 16K: 7424, 32K: 23,808, excellent docu- 
mentation. 16K EXB Tape $34.95, disk version $44.95 



EDUCATION 

ADDITION THRILLS AND SUBTRACTION ACTION — 

One and two digit addition and subtraction practice in 
game format. 16K EXB $14.95 

QUESTION AND ANSWER — Equation theory for the 
crayon set. Symbolic math. An excellent set of pro- 
grams. 16K EXB $17.95 

SUPER FLASH CARDS — Time drill in addition, sub- 
traction, multiplication and division. Build speed and 
accuracy. 16K EXB $15.95 

ROMAN NUMERALS:ARABIC NUMERALS — Learn to 
read your clock and copyright dates. Tutorial and game. 
16K EXB $16.95 



Genesis Software 

presents 

Color Computer Programs 
+Secret Of The Crypt 

The BIG adventure continues. The sequel 
to the popular "Enchanted Forest" is here! 
You 11 move in more than 50 hi-res, 3-D 
graphic scenes searching for clues in an 
attempt to enter the crypt. But beware, the 
trail to the crypt is beset with puzzlements. 
In fact, the crypt's secret will remain a 
mystery to all but the most adventuresome. 
Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21 . 95 

+ Bigfoot 

Hunt Bigfoot in a hidden maze of caverns 
and twisting tunnels that are displayed in 
hi-res graphics as you move. Seek out the 
lair of Bigfoot while avoiding perils along 
the way. Features multiple levels and many 
options of play. Each hunt takes place in a 
new, randomly generated maze. Challeng- 
ing and fun. Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21 . 95 

* The Enchanted Forest 

The BIG adventure in hi-res graphics. 
Move through more than 50 scenes on a 
quest to rescue the captive princess. Deci- 
sions are made according to visual clues, 
not text. There are many inhabitants in the 
Enchanted Forest — some are friendly, 
some are not. This is a sophisticated com- 
puter adventure — a real challenge. A 
must for your adventure library. Requires 
32K extended basic. 

Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

(The Enchanted Forest was reviewed in the Dec. 1982 
issue of Rainbow) . 

+ The Game Show 

Now a lively party game where two teams 
compete against the clock to name several 
items in a category. Includes 60 rounds 
with color graphics and sound. Machine 
language routine for fast response. Re- 
quires 16K extended basic and joysticks. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $19.95 

(The Game Show was reviewed in the Jan. 1983 issue 
of Rainbow). 



Genesis Software 

Pic Box 936, Manchester, Mo. 6301 1 

Personal checks welcome - no delay. 
Missouri residents add 5.625 percent sales tax. sks* 



P,EP 

193 SCREEN 1,VAL(CS*) 

194 RETURN 

195 * 

196 ' ***** SUBROUTINE TO CHANGE 
CURSOR COLOR ***** 

197 * 

198 CLS 

199 PRINT "NEW CURSOR COLOR (0-8 

)? " 

200 CC*-INKEY*: IF CC*<"0" OR CC* 
>»8" THEN 200 

201 C«VAL(CC«) : SCREEN 1,VAL(CS«) 

202 RETURN 

203 * 

204 ' ***** SUBROUTINE TO CHANGE 
HIGH SPEED INCREMENT ***** 

205 ' 

206 CLS: INPUT "NEW INCREMENT ";N 
I 

207 SCREEN 1,VAL(CS«) 
200 RETURN 

209 ' 

210 ' ***** SUBROUTINE TO CHANGE 
MODES ***** 

211 * 

212 CLS: PRINT "NEW MODE (0-4)? " 
I 

213 NM4-INKEY*: IF NM*<"0" OR NM* 
>"4" THEN 213 

214 PMODE VAL(NM*),1 

215 SCREEN 1,VAL(CS*) 

216 RETURN 

217 * 

210 ' ***** SUBROUTINE TO DELETE 
PICTURE ***** 

219 * 

220 CLS: PRINT "REALLY DELETE (Y/ 
N)?": SCREEN 0,1 

221 AA*-INKEY«: IF AA*«"" THEN 22 
1 

222 IF AA*< >"Y" THEN SCREEN 1,VA 
L (CS*>: RETURN ELSE PCLS: SCREEN 

1 , VAL ( CS* ) : RETURN 

223 * 

224 * 

225 * ***** START-UP SCREEN **** 
* 

226 ' 

227 CLS 

220 PRINT8192, STRING* (32, 255) 

229 PRINT8234, "COLORSKETCH" 

230 PRINT8256, STRING* (32, 175) 

231 FOR DL=1 TO 1000: NEXT 

232 PRINT8232, "BY DARRYL KOTCHER 

II 

233 FOR DL-1 TO 1000: NEXT 

234 RETURN 

235 END 



168 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Complete Personal Accountant: 
we've made the best 
much more friendly. 



If you have any doubts that we offer the best and 
most complete personal financial package available, 
look over the features listed below. Now we have 
the only package with full screen editing for Atari 
400/800f TRS-80 COLOR, Commodore 64* and 
VIC-20; the ability to move the cursor in any direc- 
tion makes our accountant-designed package 
even more friendly than before. No one else 
offers all of these: 

1. CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE— 
automatically balances your checkbook 
with each entry; manages checks, 
charges, deposits, and interest quick- 
ly and accurately. 

2. CHART OF ACCOUNTS- 
maximum of user flexibilty with 
up to 99 accounts plus 9 sub- 
categories may be defined 

3. CHECK SEARCH-mul- 
ti-reference; tracks items 
on every field including 
tax deductibles. 

4. NET WORTH/ 
INCOME/EXPENSE 
STATEMENT— 
know-exactly- 
where-you-stand 
program generates 
statements with the 
touch of a key. 

5. DETAIL & SUMMARY 
BUDGET ANALYSIS— an 
absolute necessity in financial 
planning. 

6. CHECK WRITER-prints 
personalized checks** 




7. PAYMENTS/APPOINTMENTS CALENDAR- 
monthly displays of up to 250 bills and 200 
appointments. 

8. COLOR GRAPH DESIGN PACKAGE -graphs 
all monthly files. 

9. MAILING LIST— maintains all records, sorts by 
name or zip, allows add/change/delete. 

10. FRIENDLY USER MANUAL— complete 
with indexing, flow charts and diagrams; the 
most thorough documentation on the 
market. 

This all adds up to the finest personal 
financial system available— compre- 
hensive enough for a small business. 
Less than one hour of data input 
per month will allow this menu- 
driven package to help you 
handle your finances with a 
lot more fun than drudgery. 
Plus, ours is the only 
expandable system; pur- 
chase the package in 
sections and add on 
as your financial 
needs grow Fea- 
tures 1,2, 3 and 6: 
§39.95 diskette, 
$36.95 cassette; Fea- 
tures 4 and 5: $29.95 
diskette, $26.95 cassette; 
Features 7, 8 and 9: $29.95 
diskette, $26.95 cassette; or 
save $19.90 or $15.90 
respectively by buying the 
entire system for $79.99 dis- 
kette, $74.95 cassette. 



*Random Access available for disk. 

** ATARI 400/800, COMMODORE 64, TRS-80 COLOR 




in 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

a division of PUTUREHOUSE, W0. 

pt. R, chapel hill, north Carolina 27f " 





16K 

Game Master's Apprentice ecb 



The 



Carefully Contrived 

Superhero 



By Bob Albrecht 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



FANTASY ROLE PLAYING GAMES 

Millions of young people, and many not-so-young, 
are playing fantasy role playing games. A role playing 
game is a game in which one or more players create 
and control characters (adventurers) who live their 
' imaginary lives in a specially made game world. The 
game world is created, managed, and operated by a 
Game Master (GM), also called a referee, adventure 
master, or Dungeon Master (DM). 

Most people who play role playing games use a 
formal rule system. Some of the best known are shown 
below. 

Dungeons & Dragons (D&D). From TSR Hob- 
. hies, P.O. Box 756, Lake Geneva, WI 53147. 
RuneQuest (RQ). From Chaosium, P.O. Box 
6302, Albany, CA 94706. 

Tunnels & Trolls (T&T). From Blade, Box 1467, 
Scottsdale, AZ 85252. 
. Worlds of Wonder (WOW). From Chaosium, 
P. O. Box 6302, Albany, CA 94706 

BEGINNERS BEWARE! The rule books are very 
difficult to understand. If you are a beginner, first try 
Worlds of Wonder or Tunnels & Trolls. Programs in ' 
f< Game Master^ Apprentice" are based on the game 
system used in Worlds of Wonder and RuneQuest. 
For general information about fantasy role playing 
games, try the following book, excellent for beginners. 

Through Dungeons Deep by Robert Plamondon. 
From Res ton Publishing Company, 1 1400 Sunset 
■ Hills Road, Reston, VA 22090. IllllII 

Copyright (C) 1983 by DragonQuest, P.O. Box 310, 
Menlo Park, CA 94025. Portions of "Game Master's 
Apprentice "are from a booknn- progress called A dven- 
turer's Handbook: A Beginner's Guide to Role Play- 
ing Games. 



In the game of Champions,* you create a superhero like 
Batman or Wonder Woman or Spiderman. Your char- 
acter has a base value of 10. You increase the value of a 
characteristic by spending Power Points according to the 
following price schedule. 

CHARACTERISTIC ABBREVIATION PRICE 



Strength 


STR 


1 


Dexterity 


DEX 


3 


Constitution 


CON 


2 


Body Pips 


BOD 


2 


Intelligence 


INT 


1 


Ego 


EGO 


2 


Presence 


PRE 


1 


Comeliness 


COM 


.5 



Suppose you have 100 points to spend on improving your 
character's characteristic. You might spend them like this: 
ADDED 



CHARACTERISTIC 


VALUE 


PRICE 


POINTS 


STR 


10 


1 


10 


DEX 


10 


3 


30 


CON 


10 


2 


20 


BOD 


0 


2 


0 


INT 


20 


1 


20 


EGO 


10 


2 


20 


PRE 


0 


1 


0 


COM 


0 


.5 


0 




TOTAL POINTS 


100 



*For information about Champions, contact Hero Games, 
92 A 21st Avenue, San Mateo, Calif., 94402. 



(Bob Albrecht and George Firedrake are two of the 
most prolific authors in the microcomputer world 
today. Specialists in writing for beginners, they are 
authors of numerous books, including TRS-80 Color 
Basic.) 



170 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Write a program to help design a Champions superhero. 
When you type RUN, it might begin like this: 
CHARACTERISTIC VALUE PRICE POINTS 

1 STR 0 1 0 

2 DEX 0 3 0 

3 CON 0 2 0 

4 BOD 0 2 0 

5 INT 0 1 0 

6 EGO 0 1 0 

7 PRE 0 1 0 

8 COM 0 .5 0 

TOTAL POINTS: 
CHANGE WHAT (1 TO 8)? 

Select a characteristic to change by pressing a number key 
from 1 to 8. The CoCo then asks: 

NEW VALUE? 
Type your new value and press ENTER. The new value 
appears on screen along with a new TOTAL POINTS. You 
can select a characteristic and enter a new value as many 
times as you want until you get the character you want, with 
exactly the number of TOTAL POINTS the GM said you 
could have. 

We suggest you store information in arrays of subscripted 
variables, as follows. 

CH$( ) for the characteristic abbreviations, 

STR, DEX, and so on. 
TVAL( ) for the values of the characteristics. 
PRICE( ) for the prices. 
POINTS( ) for the total points, each trait. 

For ideas on how to write this program look at our 
simpler program to contrive a RuneQuest character in the 
August, 1983 issue. We have the following outline in mind 
for this program. 

100 REM**CONTRIVE A SUPERHERO 
200 REM**SET UP FIXED ARRAYS 
300 REM**SET TVAL ARRAY TO ZERO 
400 REM**PUT WORKSHEET ON SCREEN 
500 REM**CHANGE WHICH ONE? 
600 REM**GET NEW VALUE 
700 REM**COMPUTE TOTAL POINTS 
800 REM**GO AROUND AGAIN 

In block 500, you might want to include a way to start over. 
If someone presses 0, start over at block 300. 

Roll A Character 

In the February and March issues, we showed you several 
programs to roll the seven basic characteristics for a Rune- 
Quest or Worlds Of Wonder character. There is always 
another way. The following program packs the abbrevia- 
tions into a string RQ$, then picks them out as needed. 

100 REM**CREATE A CHARACTER 

1 10 RQ*="STRCONSIZINTPOWDEXCHA" 

120 CLS 

300 REM **ROLL THE CHARACTER 
310 FOR K=0 TO 6 

320 : CH* = MIDf (RQ*, 3*K+1, 3) 
330 : BOSUB 910 'ROLL DICE 
340 : PRINT CH*, DICE 
350 NEXT K 

400 R£M**TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 



410 PRINT 

420 PRINT 11 TO DO AGAIN, PRESS AN 
Y KEY" 

430 IF INKEY* « MM THEN 430 ELSE 
120 

900 REM**DICE SUBROUTINE 

910 Dl = RND (6) 

920 D2 = RND (6) 

930 D3 = RND (6) 

940 DICE = Dl + D2 + D3 

950 RETURN 

Also try the following variation for lines 310 and 320. 
310 FOR K=l TO LEN(RQ$)/3 
320 : CH$=MID$(RQ$,3*(K-1)+1,3) 

A Dungeons & Dragons (D&D) or Tunnels & Trolls 
(T& T) character has six characteristics, with slightly differ- 
ent abbreviations. 

Dungeons & Dragons Tunnels & Trolls 
Strength (STR) Strength (STR) 

Constitution (CON) Constitution (CON) 
Intelligence (INT) Intelligence (INT) 
Wisdom (WIS) Luck (LK) 

Dexterity (DEX) Dexterity (DEX) 

Charisma (CHA) Charisma (CHR) 

Your Turn 

1) Modify our program for D&D or T&T. 

2) Write a single program to roll the characteristics for a 
D&D, RuneQuest, or r&Tcharacteras selected by the 
user. It might start like this: 

I CAN ROLL A CHARACTER FOR: 
DUNGEONS & DRAGONS (D) 
RUNEQUEST (R) 
TUNNELS & TROLLS (T) 

WHICH GAME (D, R, OR T)? 

3) Replace the DICE SUBROUTINE with one of the 
variations shown in the March issue. Better yet, 
include several different DICE SUBROUTINES and 
let the user select one. 

The Character File 

In the August issue, we challenged you to write a CHAR- 
ACTER FILE PROGRAM with character records stored 
in arrays of subscripted variables. Our program begins by 
reserving memory space and, using a subroutine, loading the 
arrays from DA TA statements. We then present a menu and 
wait for someone to order. 

100 REM**CHARACTER FILE PROGRAM 
110 CLEAR 1000 

120 DIM NAYM*<50),STR<50> 

121 DIM CON(50),SIZ<50>,INQ(50) 

122 DIM POW (50), DEX (50) , CHA (50) 
130 BOSUB 13010 'LOAD ARRAYS 

200 REM**TELL HOW TO USE 
210 CLS 

220 PRINT "YOU CAN FIND A CHAR AC 
TER RECORD" 

230 PRINT "BY NAME OF CHARACTER 
OR YOU CAN" 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 171 



240 PRINT "SCAN THE ENTIRE CHARA 
CTER FILE." 

250 PRINT 0128, "MENU: " 

260 PRINT 0194, "TO FIND A RECOR 

D PRESS * 1 * N 

270 PRINT 8226, "TO SCAN ENTIRE 
FILE, PRESS '2'" 

280 PRINT 9238, "TO RETURN TO ME 
NU, PRESS '0'" 

400 REM**WAIT FOR KEYPRESS 

410 KY* - INKEY* 

420 IF KY*-"" THEN 410 

430 IF KY*«" 1 " THEN 1010 

440 IF KY«-"2" THEN 2010 

450 IF KY*«"0" THEN 210 ELSE 410 

You can combine lines 120, 121, and 122 into a single long 
line. Line 130 calls the LOAD ARRAYS SUBROUTINE 
which begins with a REM statement in line 1 3000. Look for 
it in the subroutine section below. The character records are 
stored in DA TA statements beginning at line 30000. 

The program has two main modules, shown below. 

MODULE 1 

1000 REM**CHARACTER FINDER 
1010 CLS 

1020 INPUT "NAME* "| WHO* 
1030 RN - 0 'RECORD NUMBER 




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Voice: 305-894-1887 = » 
Data: 305-894-1886 



172 the RAINBOW October 1983 



1100 REM**LOOK FOR WHO* 

1110 RN — RN + 1 'NEXT RECORD 

1120 IF NAYM* (RN) < >WHO* THEN 121 

0 

1130 SOSUB 12010 'DISPLAY RECORD 
1140 GOTO 1310 

1200 REM **CHECK FOR EOF 

1210 IF NAYM* ( RN > ■ " ENDF I LE " THEN 

1220 ELSE 1110 
1220 PRINT "I DON'T KNOW ■ WHO* 

1300 REM**TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
1310 GOSUB 10010 'GET REQUEST 
1320 IF KEY*="0" THEN 210 'MENU 
1330 GOTO 1010 'DO AGAIN 

MODULE 2 

2000 REM**SCAN CHARACTER FILE 
2010 CLS 

2020 RN - 0 'RECORD NUMBER 

2100 REM**D I SPLAY NEXT RECORD 
2110 RN = RN + 1 

2120 GOSUB 12010 'DISPLAY RECORD 

2200 REM**TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
2210 GOSUB 10010 'GET REQUEST 
2220 IF KEY*-"0" THEN 210 'MENU 
2230 IF NAYM* ( RN > - " ENDF I LE " THEN 
2020 ELSE 2110 

Both modules use subroutines that begin at lines 10000 
and 12000. These are called in lines 1 130, 1310, 2120, and 
2210 above. 

Three subroutines and the character records complete this 
program. 

10000 REM**GET REQUEST SUBR. 
10010 PRINT 

10020 PRINT "TO DO AGAIN, PRESS 
SPACE" 

10030 PRINT "TO RETURN TO MENU, 

PRESS '0'"? 

10040 KEY* - INKEY* 

10050 IF KEY*-"" THEN 10040 

10060 IF KEY*-" " THEN RETURN 

10070 IF KEY*="0" THEN RETURN 

ELSE 10040 

12000 REM**D I SPLAY RECORD SUBR. 
12005 REM**RN IS RECORD NUMBER 
12010 CLS 

12020 PRINT NAYM* (RN) : PRINT 
12030 PRINT "STR" , STR (RN) 
12040 PRINT "CON",CON(RN> 
12050 PRINT "SIZ",SIZ(RN> 
12060 PRINT "INT", INQ(RN) 
12070 PRINT "POW",POW(RN) 
12080 PRINT "DEX",DEX (RN) 




MATCH 2! 

Color pattern concentration. Two player option or play 
against the computer at different skill levels. Some unex- 
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skills. 

order code ... M2 price $7.95 

GRAPHICS PROGRAM GENERATOR II 

This program actually writes graphics programs for you! 
Edit your graphics while viewing the screen using menu 
driven commands. When your picture is complete GPG-II 
will write a unique BASIC program to tape, duplicating 
your edited picture. A machine language module supports 
lettering including shifted keys and has repeat function. 
'Binary save' feature to use graphics text in later program. 

ordering code ... GPG-II price $16.95 

HOUSEHOLD BUDGET WORKSHEET 

If you have a CoCo and any printer, don't be without this in- 
expensive money management helper! Operates without a 
separate file, yet loans are automatically updated with 
months remaining and new balances. Provisions for vari- 
able income/expenses and one time income/expense; 
user defined budget catagories. All figures incorporated 
into calculations visa-calc style, 
order code ... HBW price $6.95 



LLIST-RITE 

Complex, non-commented programs (like someone else's) 
are much easier to follow after using this listing utility! 
Multiple and IF. ..THEN. ..ELSE are logically separated, line 
numbers are set apart from text, page boundaries ob- 
served. Works with any CoCo Printer. 

order code ... LLR price $5.95 



ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION MONITER 

Want to reduce your electric bill? You can t manage it if 
you can't measure it . This program utilizes your CoCo to 
store consumption information and then produce Hi-Res 
graphic usage charts, text displays of the last 30 days in 
KWH or DOLLARS with high low and average days. Pre- 
dicts your next bill with increasing accuracy as the month 
progresses. 

ordering code ... ECM price $10.95 



SCREEN REFERENCE CARD 



Is your CoCo turned off while you write programs? TURN 
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graphics patierns, X/Y coordinates, ASCII codes and 
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PROGRAMMERS WORKSHEET 

Can't remember variable assignments/descriptions or 
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Low cost, high quality programs 1 
Color Computer Weekly 3/83 

May I compliment you on a fine program^ 
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RAINBOW REVIEW 4/83 

...radical. ..fun. ..powerful. ..a breeze to 
use 

RAINBOW REVIEW 6/83 (GPG-II) 

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RAINBOW REVIEW 4/83 (LLIST-RITE) 



Include 75c shipping and handling for each 
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Address 



Mail check or M.O. to: 
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Items ordered: SBP GPG-II ECM M2 SRC HBW LLR PWS 



City, ST ZIP_ 



THE FUTURE OF HOMECOMPUTING IS PROGRAMS THAT ENLIGHTEN, TEACH, SAVE & MANAGE 



CC SOFTWARE 

» UNIVERSAL PROGRAM l(UP-l) * 

Known as the Program Stacker, UP-1 allows 
several programs to be loaded until the memory is 
-filled. Quickly jump -from one program to another 
or compose new programs while retaining the old 
ones. Data or ML programs can be stored and re- 
trieved -from a cassette. Characters or values can 
be written to memory and memory contents can be 
examined. Text can be composed and stored in mem- 
ory and printed on an external printer. 
UP-1 Cassette $14.. 95 

« DISASSEMBLER-ASSEMBLER (DISASM) * 



* Using English mnemonics and Decimal Locations, 

* DISASM is an easy way to learn to assemble machine 

* Language Programs or Subroutines. Subroutines can 

* be used with Basic Programs and called by either 

* USR or EXEC commands. For CC compatibility, all 
» locations are given in Decimal eliminating the 

* con-fusion associated with HEX. All commands are 
» Menue oriented -for easy entry. The Disassembler 

* can be used to Analyze Machine Language Programs 

* as well as the Basic and Extended CC ROMS. Example 

* programs are included. Cassette S19.95 
* 

* » TERMINAL PROGRAM (DYTERM) 



* DYTERM converts a CC into a terminal. Receive and # 

* send data between 2 computers, another terminal or * 
» a MODEM. BASIC Program with ML subroutines. * 

* DYTERM Cassette S14.95 ♦ 



* # FINANCE PROGRAM (DYFIN) # new 
* 

* DYFIN is designed to aid in the -financial planning 

* o-f loans, savings, annuties, investments & retire- 

* ments. It quickly calculates monthly payments -for 

* loans and gives the return -for money invested over 

* a period o-f years. Also included is a 500 year 

* Calender that displays any month o-f any year plus 

* a checkbook program. EB is required. Tape S19.95 

* EXTENDED BASIC not REQUIRED unless noted. Programs 

* require a 16K Computer and are DISK compatibile. 
* 

» HARDWARE I TEMS 

* 

* Increase your computer's memory with the -following 
» Memory Expansion Kits. Soldering is not required 

* and the modifications are reversible. Each kit is 

* warranted -for one year. 
* 

» ME-1 upgrades 4K to 16K S19.95 

* ME-2 upgrades 4K to 32K $59.95 
» ME-3 upgrades 16K to 32K S39.95 

* ME-4 upgrades D & E CC to 64K S99.95 
» ME-4F upgrades F series to 64K SB9.95 

* Note: ME-4 & ME-4F require a 1.1 ROM. WE WILL 

» install our kits in your Computer -for S10 + ship. 



12090 PRINT "CHA" , CHA <RN) : RETURN 

13000 REM**L0AD ARRAYS SUBR. 
13010 RN ■ 0 * RECORD NUMBER 
13020 RN - RN + 1 'NEXT RECORD 
13030 READ NAYM* <RN) , STR (RN) , CON 
(RN) , SIZ (RN) , INQ(RN) , POW(RN) , DEX 
(RN) ,CHA(RN) 

13040 IF NAYM* ( RN ) ■ " ENDF I LE " 
THEN RETURN ELSE 13020 



30000 


REM»#CHARACTER 


RECORDS 




30010 


DATA 


AL0YSI0US 










30011 


DATA 


10, 11, 10, 


12, 


10, 


12, 


9 


30020 


DATA 


BAROSTAN 










30021 


DATA 


17, 17, 13, 


8, 


7, 


15, 


6 


30030 


DATA 


BRIDLA 










30031 


DATA 


11, 12, 10, 


15, 


6, 


11, 


16 


30040 


DATA 


DERNFARA 










30041 


DATA 


13,13, 8, 


13, 


4, 


17, 


13 


30050 


DATA 


JOLEEN 










30051 


DATA 


13,11, 7, 


13, 


8, 


17, 


13 


30060 


DATA 


ROKANA 










30061 


DATA 


9, 9, 9, 


17, 


18, 


9, 


10 


30070 


DATA 


ENDF I LE 










30071 


DATA 


0, 0, 0, 


0, 


0, 


0, 


0 



Remember, when you enter this program, you can omit 
REM statements and comments following an apostrophe. 

Coming Attractions 

Surely, but slowly, we will explore the following things: 

•The elusive RND 
•GameMaster's Dice 

• Looking up stuff in files. First, files of information in 
DATA statements and arrays. Next, cassette files. 
Eventually, disk files. 

•Whatever else comes to mind or is suggested by you. 

What do you want? If it fits into the general idea of 
"GameMaster's Apprentice," we might do it. Send your 
suggestions, complaints, kudos, requests, whatever ... to 
George & Bob, P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park, Calif., 94025. 



6B09E Microprocessor Chip S19.95 
6821 Peripheral Inter-face Adapter $6.95 
EXTENDED BASIC ROM SB7.00 



* UJE F*EF»^IR COMPUTERS 

# # PUT YOUR PROGRAMS IN A PROM PACK # 
* 

* Send us your program on a cassette and we will 

* send you a cartridge with your program in it. Send 

# $19.95 for 4K and $29.95 for BK. 

* Blank cartridge with circuit board S9.95 

♦ EPROM type 2764 $9.95 
* 

♦ NEW & USED RS & TDP COLOR COMPUTERS were purchased 

* and upgraded -for use in our Computer School. Call 
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Hint . 



Saving In ASCII 



When you save programs, CoCo can perform this func- 
tion in two ways, by using binary codes or actual letters and 
numbers (called ASCII and pronounced AS-KEY). 

Although it takes longer, ASCII sometimes is a more 
accurate way to save a program, especially when you may be 
transferring programs between systems — say from a disk- 
based to a cassette-based system. 

To save in ASCII, simply add a comma and an"A"to the 
end of your "SAVE" instruction, like this: CSA VE "PRO- 
GRAM"^ and the ASCII save will be done by CoCo. 



174 (he RAINBOW October 1983 



FHS Federal Hill Software 

FINE PRODUCTS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER AND TDP-100 



Coco-Accountant II 



We've turned a fine accounting program into a great 
accounting program for the home or small business. 
The all-new Coco-Accountant II provides everything 
you need to keep track of your finances and make 
income tax time a breeze. Spend a few minutes every 
month with your canceled checks, credit card bills, 
cash receipts and payroll stubs. Data entry is quick and 
painless. When you're through, Coco-Accountant II will 
list and total expenditures and income by month, 
account or payee, provide a year-to-date summary by 
account and figure your net cash flow. Better yet, it will 
provide a printed spreadsheet to show your year at a 
glance. 

The program sorts entries by date, lists most func- 
tions to screen or printerand saves yourfiles to tape or 
disk. A special feature flags tax deductible expenses 
and expenses subject to state sales tax. It even com- 
putes the sales tax you paid. In addition, COCO- 
ACCOUNTANT II includes a separate program to bal- 
ance your checkbook the easy way and print a 
reconciliation statement. Up to 450 entries per file on 
32K tape version, 500 per file on 32K disk and 750 on 
64K disk version. For 16K Coco owners we have a 
simpler program thattracks expenses only, without the 
tax options. It will handle 200 entries per file. All ver- 
sions are easy to use and menu-driven and come with 
complete documentation. And here's the best part — 
the price! Coco-Acountant II is only $21.95 on tape, 
$24.95 on disk. 

Play Blackjaq! 

This is as close as you can come to the real thing 
without losing your shirt! Afull casino simulation, with 
up to 5 players and 9 decks. The computer plays vacant 
hands by card counting rules, keeps track of every- 
body's winnings and losings, displays two card- 
counting algorithms and even prints outthe results of 
every hand if a printer is on line!. Greatforthe beginner 
or experienced player. Use it at home for fun or brush 
up on your technique before hitting Atlantic City or Las 
Vegas. Requires 16K Ext. Bas. Only $19.95 on tape, 
$24.95 on disk. 



Kokomath! 



Teachers and parents: Are your kids bored by dull 
educational programs? Let KOKO the Math Clown 
make arithmetic a joy. KOKO gives your youngsters 1 0 
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Colorful graphics and music make this a kid-tested 
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To order programs, send check or money order to 
FEDERAL HILL SOFTWARE, 825 William St., Balti- 
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delays. Add $1.50 per order for postage and handling. 



64K Breakthrough! 

Did you feel gypped when you found out your "64K" 
computer still had the same old 32K in Basic? We sure 
did. So we've developed HID 'N RAM, a program that 
will access that "hidden" 32K from Basic and use it for 
data storage. Imagine writing a 28K data handling pro- 
gram with every bell and whistle you can think up and 
still having 32K left for the names, numbers and ad- 
dresses you're crunching! HID 'l\l RAM is a brief ML 
driver embedded in a Basic demonstration program (a 
mailing list) that shows you how to store your data in 
the "other" 32K and access it using regular Basic com- 
mands. When you see how it works, you can delete our 
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catch? There's only one. Your data must be in strings of 
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1 28 bytes). Of course, you must have a 64K computer. 
Comes with complete documentation. HID 'N RAM is 
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The Handicapper 



Use the power of you Color Computer to im- 
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Printer Artist 

This unique printer utility introduces the Color Com- 
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typewritten characters, and Printer Artist puts it at your 
fingertips. It includes two programs with 12 ready-to- 
run drawings of of ships, birds and animals, holiday 
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addition, there are two utility programs and in- 
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file of printer art and save it to tape or disk. Complete 
documentation. Fun for home or classroom. Only 
$19.95 on tape, $24.95 on disk. Requires Ext. Bas. 





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MDISK — Hal Snyder's latest breakthrough for the64K Color Computer! MDISK lets you use the upper 32K of memory for rapid storage 
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Full documentation included. Cassette $27.95 Disk $29.95 

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including detailed patching instructions to allow several popular "problem" cartridges to run from tape or disk. Stop plugging and 
unplugging your disk controller! Don't blow any more SAM chips or 6809Es! Use ROMBACK, and run those programs from tape or disk 
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KISSable OS-9 



The Power Of OS-9 

(And How To Keep It Simple) 

By Dale L. Puckett 

This is the first installment of a new monthly feature on the 

powerful OS-9 operating system. 



Grab your CoCo and hold on! Thanks to Tandy's 
release of Microware's OS-9 operating system, you 
now have more computing power at your fingertips 
than you ever dreamed possible. 

Welcome to KISSable OS-9, a brand new monthly fea- 
ture in Rainbow. First, let's explain the title. Computing is a 
complex business. Yet, if we keep our wits about us and 
learn to solve one small problem at a time, we can create 
large programs that are nothing short of amazing. 

Writing is the same. Although it sounds like a snap, it is 
probably one of the hardest things in the world to do right. 
However, if you look closely, you'll find the writer's formula 
for success is similar to the programmer's. He uses short 
words, short sentences and short paragraphs to build stories 
that work. 

Today's programmers use short modules of readable code 
to build complex programs. The OS-9 operating system and 
the high level languages it brings you make the job easy. 

Simplicity is the key to success in both professions — 
unfortunately, it is also highly evasive. Often, it seems 
impossible to achieve. That's where our title comes in. 

KISS is an acronym learned early in a journalism curricu- 
lum. It stands for "Keep It Simple, Stupid." Hopefully, 
every time I wander into a complex maze and start to 
confuse you— and myself — I'll glance back at the title of the 
column and force myself back on track. 

I've been very excited ever since the Rainbow asked me if I 
would be interested in introducing you to OS-9. I didn't 
hesitate. 

My response was immediate because of my pleasant expe- 
riences with OS-9 during the past several years. Let's make a 

(Dale L. Puckett is a freelance writer and programmer 
who has worked with the Motorola family of microp- 
rocessors since 1976. He just completed his first book, 
"A Complete Tour Guide To BASIC09/' this summer. 
It is being published by Micro ware and will be availa- 
ble this fall. He is the author of DynaSpell, Readiest, 
Esther and Help, which are available from Frank 
Hogg Laboratories. He serves on the Info World Soft- 
ware Review Board and is a Chief Warrant Officer in 
the U.S. Coast Guard.) 



comparison. If you have only used Radio Shack's Disk 
Extended BASIC in the past, you probably think it's pretty 
hot stuff. It is! However, if you've already moved up to a real 
opeating system like FLEX, you probably love it more. In 
either case, I'm predicting that after you've used OS-9 for a 
while, you'll think you're in microcomputer heaven. 

This column is dedicated to you — the CoCo user. We'll 
try to show you little tricks that make your computer more 
powerful and easier to use. And soon, we'll move on to 
introduce you to powerful new languages like BASIC09, C, 
and Pascal. We'll also introduce you to the OS-9 assembler 
and show you how to write your own 6809 machine code 
modules. Then, since it's always better to show than tell, 
we'll take a few short Color BASIC programs and rewrite 
them in BASIC09. Wait till you see the difference! 

The arrival of OS-9 has already generated a lot of excite- 
ment in the Color Computer arena. Frank Hogg Labora- 
tory, for example, has already announced a new High Reso- 
lution Screen and Utility package for the CoCo version of 
OS-9. It's called O-PAK and will give you a 5 1 x 24 character 
screen for around $35. 

Frank immediately realized that a state of the art operat- 
ing system like OS-9 and the powerful applications software 
it can run would be cheated by the 32-column display on 
CoCo. He plans to have O-PAK ready by October 1. 

Incidentally, you'll love the utilities you get with O-PAK. 
You'll be able to read FLEX and Radio Shack disks from 
OS-9. You'll also be able to dump and list them and look at 
their directories. Powerful OS-9 applications software like 
the DynaStar text editor, DynaSpell spelling checker and 
many high level languages will be available for CoCo's OS-9 
operating system at some very nice prices. 

Our registration fee has been mailed and plane reserva- 
tions confirmed. We'll be covering the Second Annual OS-9 
Seminar in Des Moines for you, August 12 — 15. We'll even 
take along the camera so you can see the faces of the people 
who are bringing you this powerful tool. 

OS-9: An Overview 

OS-9 has so many things going for it that it will take us 
several months to show you the major features. In this first 
column we'll reveal some new magic in CoCo's keyboard as 



178 the RAINBOW October 1983 



we show you how to talk to OS-9, Well even throw in a few 
tricks that will make your life as a programmer easier. But 
first, let's answer a few questions in an attempt to get to the 
bottom line. 

Why should you be excited about OS-9? What's an oper- 
ating system? What are OS-9's advantages over Disk 
Extended BASIC? Why is it better than FLEX? Is it? To 
answer these questions we must look at OS-9's family tree. 

OS-9 is an extremely efficient implementation of the 
UNIX operating system philosophy which was designed and 
coded in 6809 assembly language by Microware Systems 
Corporation in Des Moines, Iowa. Since it is native 6809 
machine code it is small and fast. 

UNIX, developed by Bell Laboratories in the early 1970s, 
was written in "C." Its designers strived to create an operat- 
ing system that recognized that software development is 
expensive. It simply took too much time to write and main- 
tain system and application programs. UNIX helped, but 
was too big to fit on most microprocessors. OS-9 makes the 
UNIX philosophy work on CoCo and other 6809 microcom- 
puters. 

Let's use your Color Computer as an example. How many 
times have you needed to use one program while .you were 
running another? How many times have you wished that 
your spouse could use the computer to keep the books while 
you were programming it from a second terminal? Have you 
ever wished you could print a long letter while you were 
composing another? Now, we all do these things easily, 
every day, with OS-9. 

It all started when Motorola, the 6809's manufacturer and 
Microware Systems Corporation in Des Moines, joined 
forces to write an operating system designed to use every 
capability in the chip. The project was possible because the 
8-bit 6809 microprocessor has several 16-bit registers and 
almost every memory addressing mode used by a minicom- 
puter. 

Motorola's goal was to sell mass-produced "software-on- 
silicon" — everything would be distributed in ROM (Read 
Only Memory) chips. To do this, they needed a set of 
modules (programs) that could be plugged anywhere in 
memory. 

The use of an assembler to reassemble the source code or a 
linking loader to link the modules together at "run time" was 
out of the question. The modules had to be "position 
independent." 

The operating system also needed to meet several other 
requirements: All modules had to be re-entrant. More than 
one user would be running them at the same time. This 
meant that you had to be able to interrupt the routine in the 
module, let another program execute it and then return to 
the original caller with all answers intact. It also meant that 
the programs in the modules could not modify themselves 
while they were running. 

OS-9 Modules must contain only machine code. Varia- 
bles are stored in a separate data area. This lets you remove 
modules when they aren't being used and makes room for 
other programs. 

The OS-9 operating system knows which language is 
being used in a module. And, modules can talk to each 
other. The streams of characters travelingbetween modules, 
files and devices all look alike. An OS-9 program can't tell if 
it is getting instructions from a keyboard or a disk file. It has 
no need to know. Individual device drivers are the only 
modules that need to know — because they take care of all 
adjustments. 



The requirements and characteristics above give you an 
operating system made up of a number of small modules. 
Each module contains the following information: 

a) A name made up by a string of ASCII characters. 

b) A module header that contains the module type and 
size. 

c) A revision number. 

d) The distance from the beginning of the module to the 
beginning of the code. 

e) The amount of memory required to execute the 
module. 

f) A checksum that makes sure your program is loaded 
properly. If the checksum is incorrect, OS-9 will not execute 
your program. 

Major modules in your Color Computer's OS-9 operating 
system include: 

a) QS9 and OS9p2: A kernel which forms the heart of the 
operating system. 

b) Clock: Divides the 6809's time between several differ- 
ent processes by managing interrupts from a 60 cycle 
power line. This makes the processes appear to be 
running at the same time and also keeps the time of 
day. 

c) IOMan: Manages all requests for Input/ Output from 
all devices. 

d) RBF: Takes care of all Input and Output to random 
files on floppy disks and other block-oriented devices. 
It also handles all directories and other file informa- 
tion. 

e) SCF: Manages OS-9's communication with your 
keyboard, CoCo's screen and other devices that read 
or write one character at a time. 

f) CCIO: The device driver that actually communicates 
with the hardware inside CoCo. It services both the 
keyboard, and the screen. 

g) RS232: The device driver for the RS-232 port. You use 
it when you timeshare your CoCo with an external 
terminal, 

h) TERM: A device descriptor that contains data used to 
tell your programs what your terminal looks like. It 
works with the CCIO device driver. 

i) T 1 : Another device descriptor that tells your programs 
what they can expect from your external terminal. It 
uses the RS232 device driver. 

How does this newfangled operating system fit into the 
picture? How does it compare to the Color Disk Extended 
BASIC you have been using? 

Color Disk Extended BASIC is a programming language. 
It contains a few simple routines that allow you to save 
programs and data on a floppy disk and load them back in 
for use. When you talk to it, you use BASIC language. You 
can tell it to "PRINT HELLO!," etc. 

OS-9, on the other hand, is an environment. It makes it 
possible for BASIC09, Microware's own highly readable and 
structured advanced BASIC language, and other computer 
languages to talk to the real world. 

OS-9 connects your program to your keyboard. It writes 
letters and numbers on CoCo's screen so you can read them 
and prints data on your printer so you can have a hard copy. 
It saves programs on floppy disks for you — so you won't 
have to type them over every time you want to run them and 
it even lets you run two or more programs at the same 
time — a process called multi-tasking. 

OS-9 has its own library of programs that you can call in 

October 1983 the RAINBOW 179 



to dp your dirty work. These programs are called utility 
programs and we'll be showing you how to use them during 
the next several months. This month, we'll show you some 
new magic in CoCo's keyboard. 

Special Keys 

When you run OS-9, several special keys make life easier. 
They help you correct mistakes, repeat actions or even stop a 
program in midstream. 

Let's start with the "mistakes. " What happens if you mean 
to type L/STbut LOST comes out of your fickle fingers? No 
problem — if you correct it. And if you don't OS-9 will let 
you know. 

There are two ways to correct an error. You can hit the 
backspace key and back the cursor up to the bad character 
so you can type over it. Or, you can hit the line delete key to 
get rid of the whole mess and start over. It's your choice. To 
do this, you use CoCo's back arrow key. 

You say your Color Computer doesn't have a key marked 
"LINE DELETE"? No problem! Most terminals don't. 
CoCo's OS-9 lets you delete the line you are typing by 
striking the "X" while holding down the key marked 
"CLEAR." In fact, the CLEAR key always serves as the 
CONTROL key when you are running OS-9. 

Other special functions let you repeat the previous input 
line, interrupt a program, redisplay the present input line, 
exit a program, or wait. The "wait" function gives you a way 
to stop CoCo's screen from scrolling so that you may study a 
line while listing a long file. 

The Repeat Key 

You'll love the repeat function because of the wear and 



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tear it saves your finger tips. To use it, you hold down the 
"CLEAR" key while typing the letter "A." You'll find this 
function really handy when you need to run the same com- 
mand line several times. Just type CLEAR A and the line 
will magically reappear. Then, type ENTER to run the 
command again. 

Try this the next time you turn on CoCo. Type: DIR 
ENTER. You should see a list of the contents of your 
current data directory. 

Then, type: CLEAR A ENTER. Your trusty Color Com- 
puter should list the directory again. If you think the repeat 
key is neat now, wait till you use it with a long command 
line. 

It sure beats typing. Exercise this special key every time 
you get the chance. You'll save hours. 

Other Special Keys 

If you ever need to temporarily stop a program in the 
middle, you can use the Interrupt Key. To do this on your 
Color Computer, you strike the letter "C" while holding 
down the CLEAR key. Or, you can strike the BREAK key 
while holding down the SHIFT key. 

You may redisplay the present input line by typing 
CLEAR D. Or, stop a program by typing BREAK. Or, you 
could type CLEAR E. The "E" stands for "End." On most 
other OS-9 computers you type "Control Q" for quit. 

Imagine that you are running a program that prints a long 
list of numbers on your terminal. The numbers are coming 
at you so fast that they scroll off the screen before you can 
read them. What do you do? 

This would be a good time to try OS-9's special "wait" 
key. Strike the "W" key while holding down the CLEAR 
key. The printing should stop. After you have studied the 
numbers, you may continue printing by hitting any other 
key. Try it. 

The last special key lets you ESCAPE. It sends an end-of- 
file character and gives you a way to send a signal to proce- 
dures that receive data from the'keyboard. To send it, hold 
down the CLEAR key and strike the BREAK key. 

There's only one catch. When you send this ESCAPE 
code to OS-9, you must be sure that you type ESCAPE as 
the first character on the line. 

Other OS-9 Magic 

Hold on to your seats, we haven't told you everything. Are 
you impatient? Do you often know what you want to do 
next but you find yourself waiting for the computer to finish 
one task so you can tell it to do the next? 

Rest easy. OS-9 lets you "type ahead. "This is a fancy way 
of saying that while CoCo is running one program, you can 
go ahead and type another command line, or answer the 
next question if you know what it will be. 

In fact, you may stay several command lines in front of 
CoCo. It will execute them one at a time, just as fast as it can. 
There are only two gotchas. First, you will be typing blindly. 
This is only a minor slow-down however, and is much better 
than sitting around chewing your fingernails. And secondly, 
you cannot type ahead on CoCo's keyboard while the disk 
drives are being accessed. Tandy should have used an ACI A 
for I/O instead of bit banging PI As. 

I hope you have enjoyed this first look at OS-9 on the 
Color Computer. Next month we'll look at the file system, 
show you how the directories work and start looking at all of 
the handy OS-9 utility commands. 



180 the RAINBOW October 1983 



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#49 with dual 80 track DSDD drives $4698.49 

#49 with #88 8" Dual Drive Disk System $5998.49 

#49 with #90 1 9MB Winchester subsystems & one 80 track DSDD drive $7398.49 

#39 128KB SYSTEM includes: #05 CPUwDAT: #19 Classy Chassis; 128KB of static RAM; a 
#43 2 port serial card & cables; #68 DMA Controller; all necessary cables, power regulators, 
and filler plates; GMXBUG monitor; FLEX; and OS-9 GMX II. You can software select either 
FLEX or OS-9. The OS-9 Editor, Assembler, Debugger, BASIC-09, and RUNB, and GMX-VDISK 
for FLEX are included. 

#39 with dual 40 track DSDD drives $4998.39 

#39 with dual 80 track DSDD drives $5298.39 

#39 with #88 8" Dual Drive Disk System $6598.39 

#39 with #90 1 9MB Winchester subsystem & one 80 track DSDD drive $7998.39 

UniFLEX, available at extra cost, requires 8" or Winchester drives. A signed license agreement 
with TSC is required before shipment. 

You can add to any GIMIX system RAM, l/Os and other options, or 
substitute non-volatile RAM. GIMIX will customize to your needs. 

COMING SOON: Contact GIMIX for price and availability on 40MB and 72MB Winchester 
(5 1 A") drives, removeable pack Winchesters, 256KB static RAM boards. 

All GIMIX systems are guaranteed for 2MHz operation. GIMIX systems include documentation 
for all boards and software in a GIMIX binder. ALL DRIVES ARE 100% TESTED AND ALIGNED 
BY GIMIX. 

ALL BOARDS AND SYSTEMS ARE ASSEMBLED, BURNED-IN, AND TESTED. GOLD-PLATED 
BUS CONNECTORS ARE USED. 

TO ORDER BY MAIL: SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER OR USE YOUR VISA OR MASTER CHARGE. Please 
allow 3 weeks for personal checks to clear. U.S. orders add $5 handling if order is under $200.00. Foreign 
orders add $10 handling if order is under $200.00. Foreign orders over $200.00 will be shipped via Emery Air 
Freight COLLECT, and we will charge no handling. All orders must be prepaid in U.S. funds. Please note that 
foreign checks have been taking about 8 weeks for collection so we would advise wiring money, or checks 
drawn on a bank account in the U.S. Our bank is the Continental Illinois National Bank of Chicago, 231 S. 
LaSalle Street, Chicago, IL 60693, account #73-32033. Visa or Master Charge also accepted. 

EXPORT MODELS: ADD $30 FOR 50Hz. POWER SUPPLIES. 

GIMIX Inc. reserves the right to change pricing, terms, and product specifications at any time without 
further notice. 

ALL PRICES ARE F.O.B. CHICAGO 



Gimix 



Choose from GIMIX' wide variety of system components. 

The GIMIX CLASSY CHASSIS #19 consists of a heavyweight aluminum cabinet, constant 
voltage ferro-resonant power supply, and SS50 Mother board with baud rate gen- 
erator board $1398.19 

Triple Disk regulator card and cables $88.22 Baud rate generator card $88.93 

Missing cycle detector $38.23 Filler plates $14.92 

Back panel connector plates (specify) . $8.60 50 Hz. option $30.00 

MEMORIES (GIMIX uses only Static RAM) 

#67 64KB NMOS STATIC RAM board $478.67 

#64 64KB CMOS STATIC RAM board w/battery back-up $568.64 

#34 8K PROM board $98.34 

#32 16 sxket PROM/ROM/RAM board $238.32 

I/O Boards (see above for Intelligent l/Os) 

#41 Single port serial, RS232/20ma. current loop $88.41 

#43 2 port serial, RS232 $128.43 

#46 8 port serial, RS232 $318.46 

#42 2 port parallel $88.42 

#45 8 port parallel $198.45 

#50serial,RS232,RS422,RS423 $244.50 

#52 SSDA serial, RS232, RS422, RS423 $254.52 

#54 ADLC serial, RS232, RS422, RS423 $268.54 

Each cable with connectors for back panel mounting (specify board) $24.95 

DISK CONTROLLERS 

#68 DMA (featured in all systems above) 

#28 dbl. dens, programmed I/O (5" drives only) 
#58 single dens, programmed I/O (5" and/or 8" 
#48 same as #58 but for 5" drives only 



$588.68 

$298.28 

drives) $226.58 

$198.48 



Cable sets: 8" with Back Panel connector $29.25 

for two 8" external drives $44.26 

for two 5" drives $34.96 

SOFTWARE: GIMIX exclusive versions of 0S-9/GMX I, II, III & FLEX are for GIMIX hardware 

only. All versions of OS-9 require the #68 controller. 

When ordered with any controller, FLEX is $30.00 

GMXBUG PROMs and manual $98.65 

Boot or Video boot PROM $30.00 UNIFLEX boot PROM $50.00 

OS-9 GMX I $200.00 OS-9 GMX II $500.00 

Editor $125.00 Assembler $125.00 

BASIC-09 $200.00 RUNB $100.00 

DISK DRIVES FOR GIMIX SYSTEMS - complete with cables and power regulators. 

5"' DSDD 40 track 2 for $900.00 

5" DSDD 80 track 2 for $1300.00 

#88" Dual 8" DSDD drives, cabinet, power supply, & cables $2698.88 

Cabinet only $848.18 220V 50Hz. Option, add $30.00 

Filler plate $14.83 Cable for 2 drives $44.82 

Cable for 4 drives $67.84 Cable for cabinet to mainframe $45.81 

WINCHESTER SUBSYSTEMS: for use only in GIMIX systems with #68 
DMA controller. 

#90: includes one 19MB drive, interface, and Software $3588.90 

#91: includes two 19MB drives, interface and Software $5288.91 

Contact GIMIX for price and availability of other forthcoming subsystems. 

OTHER BOARDS 

#76 GHOST 80X24 VIDEO BOARD $398.76 

#66 50 pin Protoboards $56.66 #33 30 pin Protoboards $38.33 

#03 6800 CPU $224.03 

#06 6800 CPU with timers $288.06 Baud rate option, add $30.00 

#08 RELAY DRIVER (board, bracket, transformer, and 31 relays) $1128.08 

#86 - #08 (board, bracket, transformer, without relays) $538.86 

#85 OPTO board $348.85 

WINDRUSH EPROM PROGRAMMER $375.00 

3" Binder 12.00 2" Binder $9.00 

GIMIX DOES NOT GUARANTEE PERFORMANCE OF ANY GIMIX SYSTEMS, BOARDS OR SOFT- 
WARE WHEN USED WITH OTHER MANUFACTURERS PRODUCT. 

DON'T SEE IT??? ASK! OUR BROCHURE HAS MORE COMPLETE DESCRIPTIONS AND SPECS. 
PHONE OR WRITE TODAY FOR YOUR COPY. 

BASIC-09 and OS-9 are trademarks of Microware Systems Corp. and MOTOROLA, Inc. FLEX and UniFLEX are trademarks of 
Technteal Systems Consultants, Inc. GIMIX, GHOST, GMX, CLASSY CHASSIS, are trademarks of GIMIX, Inc. 



1337 WEST 37th PLACE • CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60609 
(312)927-5510 • TWX 910-221-4055 



©1983 GIMIX INC. 




6-83 



TAKING BASIC TRAINING 



16K 



Create Your 
Own Tutorial 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



In the last article, we found that when you key in a very 
long sentence or paragraph which requires more than 
one program line to complete, and put quotes after the 
"imaginary line" (the left margin) of the last line of text and 
follow it with a semicolon, you can continue on the next 
program line and get neat, satisfactory results. 

Given this knowledge, it is good practice to run a tutorial 
program for your own amusement. The object is to experi- 
ment and see if what you are learning holds up in all cases. 
Also, you want to see if you can find some additional tech- 
niques that might be useful. 

A good practice, whenever you experiment or revise pro- 
grams, is to put a fresh tape into your cassette. Many times 
you will be interrupted or you will get a nice display. If you 
CSA Kistwice, you will be able to keep revising and improv- 
ing your program without the fear of forgetting what you 
had done before. Later, you can decide to either keep it or 
erase it. You should keep a specially designated tape handy 
just for temporary storage. 

Personal tutorials are good for the soul! They enable you 
to make your own programs and give you practice in organ- 
izing text. You learn with this "hands on" approach. After 
you make a nice tutorial, you should CSA VEit for your own 
reference and for your fellow computer addict's benefit. 

It is fun to create and you can't help feeling good when 
you finish and know that not only have you learned some- 
thing new and enjoyed learning it, but that it is available for 
future reference and pretty strong evidence that you've come 
a long way. 

It is the old story, "what happens if . . ." Look at the 
listing. 

1) Pose a question. 

2) Illustrate it with an example. 

3) Determine what happens. 

4) If the answer is inconclusive or unsatisfactory, discard 
it and try another question. 

5) If the answer has significance to you, write REM 
statements, giving your conclusions, in your own 
words that make sense to you. 



(Joseph Kolar is a free-lance writer and programmer 
dedicated to proselytizing for computers in general, 
and the Co Co specifically.) 



6) Pose another question to cover a slightly different 
case. (Go off on a tangent.) 

7) Repeat steps 2 to 6. 

8) When you have exhausted the possibilities or have 
gone as far as your interest allows, finish up with a 
conclusion. 

The above instructions are not chiseled in stone. You need 
not memorize or follow them religiously. They are just a 
guide to give you the feel of "what if . . ." 

Later, you may find other avenues to investigate. You 
may find your tutorial has a fatal flaw. No sweat! Get out 
your tutorial and work it up. 

Remember, you are making this up for your own benefit 
and making boo-boos is part of the game. You will agree 
that it is fun when you discover something new on your own. 

Finally, as the proud creator of a tutorial, you may want 
to share it with others. Submit it to your favorite publica- 
tion. 

Let us consider R EM statements. If REMs are used prop- 
erly, they are very useful. They can also be distracting and 
annoying to read if they appear haphazardly in a program. 

Did you ever notice a long, explanatory REM that has 
single letters of a word at the right margin and the rest of the 
word on the next line? Or, a space at the left margin, causing 
the line to be indented? 

Fire up your trusty CoCo and key in this REM program 
line: 10 "NOW IS THE TIME FOR ALL NEWC- 
OMERS TO TRY TO LEARN AS MUCH AS THEY 
CAN ABOUT WHAT THEY CAN DO WITH THEIR 
COLOR COMPUTER." Did you type it in exactly with a 
space between each word? Good! 

Notice that the first line will end with "NEWC'The next 
line will begin with "OMERS." Your next two lines will have 
a beginning space at the left margin. 

Admit it! It looks like hell and is awkward to read. It need 
not be! 

Recall how we formatted text so that it has a neat appear- 
ance and is easily read? The technique for writing neat, 
readable REMs is quite different from formatting text. 

Rule 1 is that REMs must be formatted on the screen to be 
read exactly as they are keyed in. What and how you key in is 
exactly what you see. 

Consider that sentence again. Key in: 10 "NOW IS 



182 the RAINBOW October 1983 



DO YOU HAVE A BASIC OR ASSEMBLY PROGRAM TO SELL? 

. . . avoid unreliable cassette tapes and recorders 
and EPROM your program! 



With EPACK, BASIC and assembly routines for color computer can be read from cassette tape and stored onto 2516, 2716 (single supply), 2732, 2532, 2564 
and 2764 styled EPROM (21 and 25 volt). These EPROM are then inserted into MMB, a game packlike cartridge that automatically executes your program 
when it's inserted into the color computer . . . just like the game packs. 

EPACK is an excellent alternative to cassettes for programs you want to sell and for personal programs you would like to execute quickly and conveniently 
from a more reliable medium. 

NOTE: 2732, 2764 and 21 volt capability are available optionally and are not included in the standard EPACK. ** 

EPACK consists of EPG, BROM and MMB for 

The units in EPACK are sold individually as follows: 



$150.00 



Utility fits any memory size color computer. Its function is to process 
BASIC source files into a format that can be written out to EPROM by Con- 
trol Craft Inc.'s EPROM programmer (EPG) ... and still be executed by the 
BASIC interpreter - but from EPROM, not RAM! 
BROM $25.00 



EPROM PROGRAMMER (EPG) 



• Zero insertion force socket 

• Personality plugs configure programmer to accept 2716 (5 volt supply), 
2532 and 2564 style EPROM. 

• Programmer's software is included on the programmer board as firmware. 

• Program sources: 

* read cassette tape files into memory and then write file to EPROM 
(files are in Radio Shack format) 

* write color computer RAM to EPROM 

* read EPROM inserted in programmer into RAM 

* write color computer ROM to EPROM 

• Functions: 

* test EPROM to see if it's unprogrammed 

* read an EPROM into color computer RAM 

* write RAM buffer out to EPROM 

* redefine the location of the RAM buffer 

* verify the programming of an EPROM 

* compare the contents of RAM buffer against an EPROM 

* edit the RAM buffer 

1. Examine/change memory locations 

2. Examine/change start buffer address 

3. Fill RAM buffer with FF hex 

* read blocks from a cassette file into RAM 

• Menu driven operation allows easy use 

• Plastic case enclosed circuitry 

• Gold plated edge connectors 

• Self-contained unit ... no external power supplies are used 

• Unit operates on any memory sized TRS-80 color computer 

EPG $105.00 



MULTI MEMORY BOARD (MMB) 



• Complete with support IC, sockets and decoupling capacitors 

• Accepts 2516, 2716, 2532, 2732, 2564 EPROM 

• Accepts 2016, 4016, 6116 static RAM* 

• Max capacity of 6 memory chips 

• Runs on any size TRS-80 color computer 

• Board is jumper addressable to either $C000 or $8000 

• Provisions for write protect switch , or can jumper the board to write 
protect RAM 



• Jumpers configure the memory type used on the board. Provisionsfor 
inserting DIP switches in place of the jumpers 

• Gold plated edge connector 

• Each IC or IC socket has decoupling cap installed 

• Plastic case is available extra, at $7.50 (pricing is subject to change 
without notice) (case included in EPACK) 

• RAM may not work with series E or later color computers. 

MMB $30.00 



** UPGRADE (optional for EPACK or EPG) 

2732-25 volt $15.00 2732-21 volt $15.00 

2764-25 volt $15.00 2764-21 volt $15.00 



SMALL MEMORY BOARD (SMB) 



• Provision for decoupling capacitors 

• Accepts (1) 2732 eprom (4K program) 

(1) 2764 eprom (8K program) 
(1) 2764 eprom (16K program) 

• No jumpers need to be set 

• Board will fit into standard Radio Shack cartridge 
cases 

• Control Craft cartridge cases available 
(Radio Shack is a trademark) 



SMB (with Control Craft case) $1 5.00 

SMB (board only) $8.00 

All prices subject to change without notice. 



Control Lraft Inc. 

19270C North Hills Drive • Brookfield, Wl 53005 • (414) 784-9027 

Name 

Company 

Address 

City /State Zip 



Order Form: 



EPACK 
BROM 
EPG 
MMB 

UPGRADE NO 

SMB (with case) 
SMB (board only) 



.@ $150.00 = 

.@ $ 25.00 = 

. @ $105.00 = 

_@ $ 30.00 = 

-@ $ 15.00 = 

_@ $ 15.00 - 

. @ $ 8.00 = 



Shipping address (if different from above) 



Wis. residents add 5% salestax _ 

Shipping & Handling: # of items x $2.00/item = . 

TOTAL ORDER: $ 



TO OROER BY MAIL: SEND MONEY ORDER, CERTIFIED CHECK, CASHIERS 
CHECK MASTERCARD/VISA (include card number, inter-bank number, 
expiration date and signature). 

DEALER INQUIRIES WANTED (minimum dealer order is 5 units) 



THE TIME FOR ALL NEW." Put after the NEW and 
continue on the next line: "COMERS TO TRY TO LEARN 
AS MUCH. "There are two spaces left. Press two SPACES. 
This will bring you to the next line. Key in "AS THEY CAN 
ABOUT WHAT THEY CAN. "This time there is one space. 
Press SPACE and continue on the next line and finish up. 

Now the REM looks neat and is easy to read. 

Keep in mind that the only time you will see the REM is 
when you LIST your program. LIST it! 

HINT: If a line of REM text ends with a one-letter word 
like "A" or a variable like "X," you may prefer to put a space 
in that right margin position and start the letter at the left 
margin. 

There are a few conventions that you can use to make 
your REMs interesting. 

When making an ordinary REM statement, put three 
asterisks after " 1 ." This spotlights the line. 

If you run out of string space (LS ERROR MESSAGE), 
backspace to the end of a full line. Start a new ' line but 
leave out the asterisks and continue. This indicates that the 
line is a continuation of the starred REM. 

When you want to call attention to a part of the program 
with a REM, try centering it, and fill in the places before and 
after it with plusses. 

If memory allows, you may want to blank out lines above 
and/ or below a REM line. Just put in line numbers and " 
to set off parts of your program. 

Notice the treatment in lines 5; 50,60; 130,140; 340, 
350,360 of the listing. These are some of the visual effects 
you might want to create. 

All your effort may be in vain if you fail to leave a space 



between the program line number and the " ' "marker. If you 
don't leave a space, when you ENTER and RUN your 
program, the computer will automatically put it. Your entire 
REM line will be effectively moved to the right one space. 
There is no telling what a long REM line will look like. The 
chances are that you will spoil the effect you spent so much 
time trying to create. 

Mike Bryant, Utica, N.Y., suggests putting REMs into 
the listing using lower case. This will create reversed charac- 
ters and cause them to stand out vividly. 

Check out how many bytes are used up when you use 
REM and when you use " 

With formatted text and formatted REMs you can create 
visually pleasing tutorials for yourself. Remember that each 
investigation; each question pursued; each "what if . . ." 
explored adds to your knowledge. If you consciously try to 
follow these hints, you will find that, in time, you will make 
neat program text and program listings that will be a joy to 
read. 

You may even want to dress up the listing with a title page 
for practice. Go ahead! Indulge yourself! 



100. 
190.. 
310.- 
395. 
END. 



0201 
03C4 
. 064F 
0968 
0C06 
0EC5 



0 GOTO 500 

1 ****THIS LISTING IS AN EXAMPLE 
OF EXPLORING DIFFERENT EXAMPLES 
TO TEST WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU DO 



FILMASTR 

The Color Computer has a powerful ally in FILMASTR. This is a DATA 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM that you can trust. FILMASTR combines 
the best features of the big systems to provide a combination of 
speed, power, and ease of operation that can't be beat. 
YOU are in complete control of this friendly program with no program- 
ming knowledge required. You design the data screen with up to 20 
fields by moving the cursor on screen with the arrow keys and typing 
in the field names. FILMASTR takes care of all of the rest. 
Enter data by just filling in the blanks. This form fill-in is easy and 
natural to use. You can even copy data from the previous record with 
one key-stroke. Add records, delete records, change records without 
fuss. 

Tell FILMASTR to sort your file on any field that you want or to re- 
trieve a particular file and the job is done with super-human machine 
language speed. FILMASTR will find a single file or a group of files that 
meet your request and will save those records as a separate file if you 
want to. 

Controlled printing formats? Of course! Tell FILMASTR which records 
to use, which fields to print and in what order. You can control the 
print location to any position on the page. Mailing labels 9 You bet! 
All commands are given to FILMASTR with single keystrokes. Press 
the HELP key (BREAK), and the available commands are displayed. 
Make your choice from the menu and let FILMASTR do the work. 
FILMASTR can store up to 255 characters in each record and up to 
24,000 characters in each file. [9000 with 1 6K). 



FILMASTR 16K or 32K TAPE $29.95 

EXT BASIC DISK $34.95 

AMDISK $39.95 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Add $2.00 Postage & Handling • C.O.D. $2.00 Additional 
PA Residents Add B°/o Tax 





THE 

COMPUTER 



Box 1051 • DuBois, PA • 15801 
Phone (814) 371-4658 



184 the RAINBOW October 1983 



DIFFERENT THINGS TO DIFFERENT 
CASES OF THE SAME ITEM UNDER 
STUDY. 

2 '♦♦♦THIS LISTING ALSO PROVIDES 
EXAMPLES OF HOW TO WRITE <REM>'S 
SO THEY ARE NEATLY AND LEGIBLY 
PRESENTED TO AFFORD EASY READ- 
ING. 

3 ' 

5 '♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦EXAMPLE NO. 1 #*##**## 
10 PRINT: PRINT" 1 THIS IS A TEST 
TO DETERMINE JUST HOW TO GO AB 
OUT MAKING A SECOND LINE THAT 
LINKS UP TO THEFIRST LINE OF AN 
EXTRA NUMBER OF"; 
20 PRINT-LINES. 

30 '♦♦♦♦ IF THE LINE ENDS JUST 
BEFORE THE IMAGINARY LINE, NO 
LEAD SPACE IS REQUIRED AFTER THE 
IMAGINARY LINE IN THE NEXT PRO- 
GRAM LINE. 

40 '♦♦♦YOUR IMAGINARY LINE WILL 
BE THE SAME. 

50 ' 

60 '♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦EXAMPLE NO. 2*###### 
65 PRINT 

70 PR I NT "2 WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE 

END OF THE WORD DOES NOT COME 
UP TO THEEND OF THE IMAGINARY LI 
NE? LET" 



80 PR I NT "US CHECK IT OUT! THE I 
MAG I NARY LINE IS ALWAYS AFTER TH 
E 'QUOTE 'MARK. 

90 PRINT: INPUT" PRESS <ENTER>" J 
01 

100 CLS: PRINT 

110 '**#IF THE LINE ENDS ONE 

SPACE BEFORE THE IMAGINARY 
LINE, PUT ON THE END <"> AND DO 
NOT LEAVE A SPACE AFTER THE IM- 
AGINARY LINE ON THE NEXT PROGRAM 
LINE. 

120 '♦♦♦THE SAME RESULT CAN BE 

ACHIEVED BY PUTTING THE <"> 
AFTER THE IMAGINARY LINE AND 
FOLLOW WITH A < J >. 
130 ' 

140 '♦♦♦♦♦♦♦EXAMPLE NO. 3******* 
150 PR I NT "3 WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YO 
U DON'T" 

160 PR I NT "USE THE IMAGINARY LINE 

IN THE FIRST PROGRAM LINE? 
165 PRINT 

170 '♦♦♦SO LONG AS THE FIRST 
PROGRAM LINE IS LOGICALLY ENDED, 
WITHOUT A BREAK IN SYLLABLES, 
YOU CAN USE THE IMAGINARY LINE 
IN THE SECOND PROGRAM LINE AS 
YOUR NEW IMAGINARY LINE. 
180 '♦♦♦♦♦♦EXAMPLE NO. 4******* 




We have a complete line of 
color computer products 
Call or write for free catalog 

COD's • Visa • Mastercard accepted 



DISK SYSTEM 

$389.00 

Fully Radio Shack compatible 

Gomes complete with: 

♦ Attractive cabinet and power supply 

* Tandon TL-5CM Disk Drive 

• Disk control board and Rom software 

♦ Radio Shack disk basic manual 

* Diskette 

• Fully assembled and tested, just plug it in! ! ! 

* Dealer inquiries invited 

Second Drive with Cable,..$3l9. 

MICON ENTERPRISES 

714/841-4210 

7248 HEIL AVENUE 
HUNTINGTON BEACH, CA 92647 



_ 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 185 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

• FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TOP 100 • 3424 College Grand Rapids, M! 49505 (616) 364-4791 • 




"THE FROG" 

(C) 1983 



"•ARCADE ACTION*** 

This one will give you 
hours of exciting play, . . 
Cross the busy highway 
to the safety of the me- 
dian and rest awhile 
before you set out across 
thes swollen river team- 
ing with hidden hazards. 
Outstanding sound and 
graphics. 




16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
$27.95 TAPE 
$30.95 DISK 




THE 
KING 



1982 

32K Machine Language 
$26.95 tape 
$29.95 disk 



ARCADE ACTION • How high can you climb? Four full graphic 
screens, Exciting Sound - Realistic graphics. Never before has 
the color computer seen a game like this. Early reviews say: 
just like the arcade - Simply outstanding! 




"YAAZEE" 

(C) 1983 

$19.95 

^ 16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
EXT. BASIC 



Yaazee is a 2 player game using five dice to get the 
best poker hand. After game Is loaded flashing 
digit below player number determines which 
player rolls dice at the start of the game. 

PROTECTORS 

Exciting fast paced arcade 
game that looks and plays like 
the popular arcade game 
"DEFENDER", 

Wave after wave of enemy 
fighters drop bombs on your 
city. Destroy them before they 
destroy your city. Soon the 
mother ships appear firing laser blasts at you. Watch for the 
heat seeking mines. 

$24.95 TAPE $27.95 DISK 32K MACHINE CODE 





SPACE 
SHUTTLE 

1983 
32K Ext. Basic 




$28.95 
TAPE 
ONLY 



0" 



This program gives you the real 
feeling of flight. Full instrumenta- 
tion complete to the max. Actual 
simulation of space flight, 32K 
Ext. Basic 



"TRAPFALL" 

By KEN KALISH 

(C) 



'"ARCADE ACTION*** 

The "Pitfalls" in this 
game are many, Hidden 
treasures, jump over the 
pits, swing on the vine, 
watch out for alligators, 
beware of the scorpion, 
Another game for the 
Color Computer with the 
same high resolution 
graphics as "The King." 




16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 
DISK $30.95 



KATERPILLAR 



will 




COLOR GOLF 

Now sit at your computer and play 
nine or eighteen holes. Outstanding 
graphics In the fairway or on thn 
green. Helps your game. 
32K EXTENDED BASIC $17.95 

AOD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX 



ATTACK 

Outstanding graphics and sound 
end all of those trips to the arcade, So 
much like the arcade you have to see it 
to believe it. Requires Ext. Basic. 
16K MACHINE LANGUAGE $21.95 
DISK $24.95 

OTHER GREAT GAMES 

ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K 

BIRD ATTACK-A fast paced machine language arcade game. 
Shoot the birdmen before they descend upon you. Watch out 
for their bombs! 16K Machine Language $21.95 

MAZE RACE* Maze race is a one or two player game. Play either 
against the built in timer or against your favorite opponent 16K 
Machine Code $17.95 

SOLO POOL-Now play pool with your color computer. Two 
players. Pfays like machine language. Super color High resoiu* 
tion graphics. 16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

ADVENTURES 

TREK-16-Travel thru space with Spock and Capt, Kirk. Adven- 
ture. Tough! Ext. Basic. $17.95 
SHIPWRECK-Escape from a desert isle if you can. Great 
Adventure! Ext. Basic. $14 95 

ESCAPE FROM SPECTRE (Graphic Adventure) You are a 
secret agent for British Intelligence sent on a mission to obtain 
the secret nerve gas formula being developed by S.P.E.C.T.R,E, 
to destroy the world. 16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

Call our BBS Number 616-364*8217 24 Hours a Day 



TOP ROYALTIES PAID 
LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 




TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TOP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616) 364-4791* 



UTILITIES 



COLOR MONITOR Written in position Independent code. (May 
be located in any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 
1174 bytes of memory. Pull Featured. Includes Break-Pointing 
of machine language programs, register display and modify, 
memory display and modify, and block memory move com- 
mands. Displays memory in hex and ascii format on one line 8 
bytes long. MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 

ROM-Tnis program is a utility that will move "most" 8K Rom* 
Packs to disk and allow you to run them from disk. Easy to use. 
Requires 64K. $17.95 

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MAIL LIST-Maintain a complete mailing list with phone 
numbers etc. Ext. Basic. DISK BASED $17.95 

THE FIXER-Having trouble moving those 600 Hex progams to 
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TAPE CAT-AM new machine language program lists contents of 
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STORY PROBLEMS Is a program that Is designed to give practice in 
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problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division or a 
combination of the four are presented to the student by slowly scrolling 
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16K Ext. Basic TAPE $19.95 

CLOCK With the ever Increasing use of digital clocks, more and more 
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REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $14.95 

SPELLING TEST is designed to give a standard oral spelling test using 
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MATH DRILL is a program designed to help children to practice addi- 
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•There are ten, user modifiable, skill levels. 

•A "SMILEY FACE" is used tor motivation and reward. Its size in- 
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•Skill levels automatically adjust to the student's ability. 
•A timer measures the time used to answer each problem and the 
total time used lor a series of problems 

•After a problem has been answered incorrectly the correct answer 
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REQUIRES 16K EX1 BASIC $19.95 

WORD DRILL is designed to give a multiple choice vocabulary quiz. 
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REQUIRES 13K EXT. BASIC $19.95 



SEARCH . A WORO This Program generates a word search puzzle to your 
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16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

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• information on as many as 100 students (or more) may be in the 
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• Cassette and disk files are completely compatable. 
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230 * 

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250 PR I NT "5 THIS IS ANOTHER TEST 
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;oi 

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RAINBOW 

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. SEAL 



O MEMORY. REMEMBER, WITH AVAILAB 
LE REFER- ENCE MATERIAL, IT IS N 
OT WRITTEN IN BLOOD, THAT YOU ARE 
REQUIRED TO MEMORIZE EVERYTHING 
. ALL YOU" J 

320 PR I NT "NEED TO KNOW IS WHERE 
TO LOOK I TUP. 

330 '***IF YOU LEAVE OFF THE <|> 
YOU WIND UP WITH AN EMPTY ROW, 
ONLY IN THE CASE WHERE THE LAST 
LETTER ENDS JUST BEFORE THE IM- 
AGINARY LINE. IT IS NEEDED TO 
CLOSE UP THE SENTENCE. 
340 ' 

350 * ********CONCLUS I ON******** 

360 ' 

370 '***IT HOLDS IN ALL CASES 
THAT IF YOU REACH THE END OF A 
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LAST LOGICALLY POSITIONED LINE, 
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380 'THE IMAGINARY LINE, YOU CAN 
PUT A <"> AFTER, REPEAT, AFTER, 
THE IMAGINARY LINE FOLLOWED BY A 
<;> AND YOU ARE IN BUSINESS. 
390 '***FOR USE WITH ARTICLE 8A. 
395 GOTO 395 

500 CLS: FOR 1= 1 TO 4: PRINT: NEXT 
: PRINT" THIS PROGRAM EXPLAINS D 
IFFER- ENT FACETS OF FORMATTING 
TEXT. REMS ARE USED TO SHOW H 
OW THISIS ACHIEVED. 
510 PRINT: PRINT" YOU ARE REQUIR 
ED TO READ THE LISTING FIRST. 
WHEN YOU RUN THE PROGRAM, YOU WI 
LL SEE THE RE- SULTANT EXAMPLES 

1 THRU 6. 
515 PR I NT: PR I NT" REMEMBER TO CO 
PY THIS LISTING EXACTLY AS WRITT 
EN. 

520 PRINT: INPUT" PRESS < ENTER >" 
»01 

530 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT" NOTE HOW E 
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101 

560 PCLS:GOTO 2 



188 the RAINBOW October 1983 



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DlaK 


1 

■ 


the 

IB 


BASIC 




RAINBOW 







Down for debugging, text processor's problems cause author to go 

Dabbling With Disk 



By D. S. Lewandowski 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Well, it seems that a "simple" text processor isn't. I 
am having a few problems debugging the EDIT 
portion of the program. So in the meantime let's 
hope the lower prices have encouraged you to purchase a 
disk system. This month we are going to dabble with disk. 
Now, I have been playing with the new ROMs. I still haven't 
gotten my hands on the 1.1 Disk Extended. But from the 
rumors I've heard, it won't be around long enough to be of 
any real importance. Yet, we shall access the disk ROM call 
as recommended in the disk manual. So let's all turn to Page 
61 of the disk bible according to Tandy. 

Hmmm! It says here that using offset addressing, the 
location of the DSKCON address is at $C004, with the 
address of a pointer to the disk variables at $C006. There is 
even a short assembly language program here which will 
read Track 3, Sector 1 7 and store the 255 bytes at $3800. Oh 
well, not very practical. Let's see if we can modify it to do 
something. 

First of all, I like to see if something is happening, so, let's 
move the buffer to the screen, located at $400. That's nice, 
now half my screen is pink. (You really have to fill a disk to 
get information on Track 3, Sector 17.) So, let's reverse 
those numbers and make it Track 17, Sector 3. That's better, 
now I see part of the directory track. Now that we know that 
DSKCON works, let's write a program to allow us to step 
through the disk and see what it holds. I haven't commented 
on the listing as I usually do, probably due to the problems 
with the £X)/rroutine in the text program. So, here is a line 
by line account of what's happening. 

Since we are going to use this program with the disk 
controller plugged in, we have to ORGinate it at $E00. Start 
is the now-familiar Clear screen ROM call. Next we need a 
prompt, or message, to fill the empty screen. So, in line 120 
we load the X register with the address of MES. Since we 
shall be printing more messages, we make PRINT a. subrou- 
tine and branch to it in line 130. The PRINT subroutine 
loads the A register with whatever X is pointing at. Since we 



(Dennis Lewandowski, one of the early authors active 
with the Color Computer, specializes in machine lan- 
guage programming. He and his wife, Rose, founded 
DSL Computer Products.) 



pointed X at a line of text labeled MES, we know it's aimed 
at the right place. Since our MESsage is not very long, we 
check to see if we have loaded the A register with a zero. If 
A=0, then our message is over. If A contains anything other 
than a zero, we jump to a ROM routine which will print the 
contents of the A register on the screen. Then we branch 
back to PRINT and get the next character that X is pointing 
to. When the A register finally contains zero, we branch to 
RET1, which is a return from subroutine. This will bring us 
back to line 140. Line 140, cleverly enough, branches us 
around the PRINT routine as well as the text. 

Okay, we have arrived at line 260. Here we need to get the 
track and sector inputs from the operator. Now we shall do 
something I haven't done yet. We are going to get decimal 
inputs. First, point X at MES1, which is the word TRACK. 
Then, you guessed it, back to PRINT. We know that our 
disk drive has 35 tracks, numbered 0 to 34. So, let's get a 
decimal input between 00 and 34 — this will make error 
checking easier. Since we need two keypresses, we branch to 
GETWO, line 410, from line 280. In GETWO we get a 
keypress and compare it against $30 on an ASCII zero. If it's 
less than zero it's no good, so back to GETWO. If it's greater 
than ASCII 3 or $44, we also go back. Since the A register 
already contains the ASCII value of the keypress we jump to 
the ROM call which prints it, echoing the keypress on the 
screen. If you lost track, we're at line 470. Strip off the 
ASCII by subtracting $30. Now here's a cute trick, the A 
register contains the absolute value of the keypress. In line 
480 we load the B register with $0A. Next, in line 490 we 
MULtiply the contents of A with the contents of B. 
(Remember $0 A = 10 Decimal.) The B register now contains 
either 0, 10, 20, or 30 Decimal, depending on the previous 
contents of A. Let's put that somewhere safe. Line 500 stores 
the contents of B at a memory location named V AR. Back to 
pressing keys, we repeat the same procedure, except that 
now we will accept a number from zero to nine. In 580 we 
add the contents of A to the contents of V AR and get our 
track number. At line 600 we finally return to line 290. Here 
we load A with $0D, a carriage return, and print it. Next, we 
load X with the position of MES2, print the prompt, and get 
the sector number. QUESTION? What is to stop someone 
from requesting sector 39? ANSWER: Nothing, just don't 
do that. 

Moving right along we come to line 380. Again, we branch 



190 the RAINBOW October 1983 




PIT YOU'RE SKILL AND CUNNING AGAINST 
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around our subroutines and end upat MAIN, line 6 10. Here 
we have something to see — the track and sector we input is 
loaded into the proper memory locations using the address 
contained at SC006. To accomplish this, we load the X 
register, with the contents of SC006 and SC007 (remember X 
is a 16-bit register). Loading A with 2 and storing it in the 
memory location X is pointing at tells DSKCON we wish to 
READ data. Then using offset addressing, we clear, or zero 
the memory location X which is pointing at 4-1. Sounds 
confusing? Wait and see how far we are going to carry this. 
Now we load A with V AR 1 , and store the track number at 
the memory location X which is pointing at +2. Line 650 
loads A with the sector number and stores it at X+3. Since 
the U stack pointer is idle, we load it with the screen start 
address and store it at? Right, X+4. Now that all the pointers 
are in place we jump to the DSKCON routine in line 710. 
Since DSKCON leaves the drive on, we must turn it off by 
putting a zero in A and storing it at $FF40. 

It would be helpful knowing which TRACK and SEC- 
TOR we are on. Since a sector equals 255 bytes, or $FF, we 
know that $400 to $4FF will be occupied. However, we still 
have half a screen left. Let's move the cursor down one line, 
for neatness, and print the word TRACK. We already have 
TRACK as MES2, so we shall reuse it. We are on line 800 
now. BASIC does a lot of things. One is that it constantly is 
converting hex to decimal. The way this is accomplished is 
by placing a hex number into the D register. Then after 
complimenting, ANDing, and ORing, it comes out decimal 
because the D register is really a combination of A and B, 
and the numbers we are working with will be no greater than 
34 decimal. In line 800 we zero the Z register, which is the 
first half of the D register. Then we jump to a ROM routine 
by loading B with the track number stored in VAR1. This 
routine will convert the hex number in B to decimal, as well 
as printing it on the screen. Lines 830 to 890 do the same with 
the sector number. 

Now for a command loop. We want to go forward and 
backward on the disk. For these functions we shall use the + 
(PLUS) and - (MINUS) keys. We may also wish to restart 
our program, using the X key for this. To save a sector in a 
buffer other than the screen, we shall use S, and we shall use 
W to write that sector. W should also stand for warning, 
since you can really spoil a disk by writing over system 
information. 

Well, everything else seems fairly self-explanatory. So, 
back to work on the TEXT program. See you next month. 



0E00 




00100 


ORS 


$E00 


0E00 BD 


A928 


00110 START 


JSR 


$A928 


0E03 8E 


0E14 


00120 


LDX 


MES 


0E06 8D 


02 


00130 


BSR 


PRINT 


0E08 20 


2A 


00140 


BRA 


CONT 


0E0A A6 


80 


00150 PRINT 


LDA 


,X.t 


0E0C 27 


05 


00160 


BEQ 


RET1 


0E0E BD 


A30A 


00170 


JSR 


$A30A 


0E11 20 


F7 


00180 


BRA 


PRINT 


0E13 39 




00190 RET1 


RTS 




0E14 


09 


00200 MES 


FCC 


/ 


0E23 • 


0D00 


00210 


FOB 


$0000 


0E2S 


54 


00220 NES1 


FCC 


/TRACK 


0E2B 


00 


00230 


FCB 


0 


0E2C 


53 


00240 HES2 


FCC 


/SECTOR 



disk read/ 



0E33 


00 


00250 


FCB 


0 


0E34 8E 


0E25 


00260 CONT 


LDX 


tMESl 


0E37 8D 


Dl 


00270 


BSR 


PRINT 


0E39 8D 


IB 


00280 


BSR 


GETNO 


0E3B 86 


0D 


00290 


LDA 


t$0D 


0E3D BD 


A30A 


00300 


JSR 


$A30A 


0E40 B6 


0E54 


00310 


LDA 


VAR 


0E43 B7 


0E55 


00320 


STA 


VAR1 


0E46 8E 


0E2C 


00330 


LDX 


#MES2 


0E49 8D 


BF 


00340 


BSR 


PRINT 


0E4B 8D 


09 


00350 


BSR 


GETNO 


0E4D 86 


0D 


00360 


LDA 


HID 


0E4F BD 


A30A 


00370 


JSR 


$A30A 


0E52 20 


2F 


00380 


BRA 


MAIN 


0E54 


00 


00390 VAR 


FCB 


0 


0E55 


00 


00400 VAR1 


FCB 


0 


0E56 BD 


A1B1 


00410 GETNO 


JSR 


$A1B1 


0E59 81 


30 


00420 


CMPA 


#$30 


0E5B 25 


F9 


00430 


BLO 


GETNO 


0E5D 81 


33 


00440 


CMPA 


#$33 


0E5F 2E 


F5 


00450 


BGT 


GETNO 


0E61 BD 


A30A 


00460 


JSR 


$A30A 


0E64 80 


30 


00470 


SUBA 


#$30 


0E66 C6 


0A 


00480 


LDB 


i$0A 


0E6B 3D 




00490 


MUL 




0E69 F7 


0E54 


00500 


STB 


VAR 


0E6C BD 


A1B1 


00510 


JSR 


$A1B1 


0E6F 81 


30 


00520 


CMPA 


t$30 


0E71 25 


E3 


00530 


BLO 


GETNO 


0E73 81 


39 


00540 


CMPA 


t$39 


0E75 2E 


DF 


00550 


BGT 


GETNO 


0E77 BD 


A30A 


00560 


JSR 


$A30A 


0E7A 80 


30 


00570 


SUBA 


l$30 


0E7C BB 


0E54 


00580 


ADDA 


VAR 


0E7F B7 


0E54 


00590 


STA 


VAR 


0E82 39 




00600 


RTS 




0E83 BE 


C006 


00610 MAIN 


LDX 


$C006 


0E86 86 


02 


00620 


LDA 


12 


0E88 A7 


84 


00630 


STA 


.x 


0E8A 6F 


01 


00640 


CLR 


l.X 


0E8C B6 


0E55 


00650 


LDA 


VAR1 


0E8F A7 


02 


00660 


STA 


2,X 


0E91 B6 


0E54 


00670 


LDA 


VAR 


0E94 A7 


03 


00680 


STA 


3,X 


0E96 CE 


0400 


00690 


LDU 


t$400 


0E99 EF 


04 


00700 


STU 


4,X 


0E9B AD 


9F C004 


00710 


JSR 


E$C004] 


0E9F 4F 




00720 


CLRA 




0EA0 B7 


FF40 


00730 


STA 


$FF40 


0EA3 86 


60 


00740 


LDA 


#$60 


0EA5 B7 


053E 


00750 


STA 


$53E 


0EA8 8E 


0522 


00760 


LDX 


#$522 


0EAB 9F 


88 


00770 


STX 


$88 


0EAD 8E 


0E25 


00780 


LDX 


#MES1 


0EB0 BD 


0E0A 


00790 


JSR 


PRINT 


0EB3 4F 




00800 


CLRA 




0EB4 F6 


0E55 


00B10 


LDB 


VAR1 


0EB7 BD 


BDCC 


00820 


JSR 


$BDCC 


0EBA 8E 


0536 


00830 


LDX 


#$536 


0EBD 9F 


88 


00840 


STX 


$88 



192 the RAINBOW October 1983 



UPGRADE YOUR COCO THIS FALL 



SOFTWARE 



The Official 
ZAXXON 

by SEGA 
(from Datasoft) 
Probably the most incredible arcade 
game ever is now available for the Color 
Computer. NOTE: this is the official ZAX- 
XON, not an imitation! 

32K Tape or Disc 53*35. 

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THE KING 

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Four full graphic screens. Exciting sound 
and realistic graphics. Never before has 
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Tape $26.95 

Disc $29.95 

LANCER 

from Spectral Associates 

This is the revolutionary new "JOUST" type 
game. (Watch out for THE INVINCIBLE DEAD- 
LY BUZZARD!) 

Tape : $21.95 

Disc $25.95 

SPEAK UP! 

from Classical Computing, Inc. 

This is an exciting utility for converting text 
to speech. (No hardware mod. needed.) 
Easy to use. 

Tape $29.95 



HARDWARE 

16K-32K UPGRADE KIT 

Kit includes 8 200 ns #411 6 Factory Prime 
Chips, piggybacked sockets, SAM socket, 
and "32K" button to replace the 16K on 
your computer's case. Easy to remove. 
Instructions included $25.95 

64K UPGRADE KIT 

200 ns #4164 chip set will upgrade your 
"E" board easily. Factory Prime Chips. 

Instructions included $49.95 

Nanos Reference Cards 

Color Computer & TDP-100 

Color BASIC & EXTENDED 4.95 

DATA CASSETTES 

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WABASH DISKETTES 

Box of 10 $25.00 

JOYSTICK INTERFACE 

Use ATARI or WICO Joysticks with your 
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0E8F SE 


0E2C 


00850 


LDX 


INES2 


0EC2 BD 


0E0A 


00860 


JSR 


PRINT 


0EC5 4F 




00870 


CLRA 




0EC6 F6 


0ES4 


00880 


LDB 


VAR 


0EC9 BO 


BDCC 


00890 


JSR 


♦BDCC 


0ECC BD 


A1C1 


00900 LOOP 


JSR 


$A1C1 


0ECF 81 


3B 


00910 


CNPA 


0*38 


0ED1 27 


14 


00920 


BE8 


NEXT 


0ED3 81 


2D 


00930 


CNPA 


0*2D 


0ED5 27 


30 


00940 


BEQ 


NINUS 


0ED7 81 


53 


00950 


CNPA 


1*53 


0ED9 27 


47 


00960 


BEQ 


SAVE 


0EDB 81 


57 


00970 


CNPA 


0*57 


0EDD 27 


54 


00980 


BEQ 


WRITE 


0EDF 81 


58 


00990 


CNPA 


1*58 


0EE1 1027 FF1B 


01000 


LBEQ 


START 


0EES 20 


E5 


01010 


BRA 


LOOP 


0EE7 B6 


0E54 


01020 NEXT 


LDA 


VAR 


0EEA 4C 




01030 


INCA 




0EEB 81 


13 


01040 


CNPA 


0*13 


0EED 27 


05 


01050 


BEQ 


CLR 


0EEF B7 


0E54 


01060 


STA 


VAR 


0EF2 20 


8F 


01070 RET 


BRA 


NAIN 


0EF4 7F 


0E54 


01080 CLR 


CLR 


VAR 


0EF7 7C 


0E54 


01090 


INC 


VAR 


0EFA Bi 


0E55 


01100 


LDA 


VAR1 


0EFD 4C 




01110 


INCA 




0EFE 81 


23 


01120 


CNPA 


0*23 


0F00 27 


81 


01130 


BEQ 


NAIN 


0F02 B7 


0E55 


01140 


STA 


VAR1 


0F05 20 


EB 


01150 


BRA 


RET 


0F07 B6 


0E54 


01160 MINUS 


LDA 


VAR 


0F0A 4A 




01170 


DECA 




0F0B 27 


05 


01180 


BEQ 


STEP 


0F0D B7 


0E54 


01190 


STA 


VAR 


0F10 20 


E0 


01200 


BRA 


RET 


0F12 86 


12 


01210 STEP 


LDA 


0*12 


0F14 87 


0E54 


01220 


STA 


VAR 


0F17 B6 


0E55 


01230 


LDA 


VAR1 


0F1A 27 


D6 


01240 


BEQ 


RET 


0F1C 4A 




01250 


DECA 




0F1D B7 


0E55 


01260 


STA 


VAR1 


0F20 20 


D0 


01270 


BRA 


RET 


0F22 BE 


C006 


01280 SAVE 


LDX 


*C006 


0F25 CE 


0F45 


01290 


LDU 


0BUFF 


0F28 EF 


04 


01300 


STU 


4,X 


0F2A AD 


9F C004 


01310 


JSR 


[*C004] 


0F2E 7F 


FF40 


01320 


CLR 


*FF40 


0F31 20 


BF 


01330 


BRA 


RET 


0F33 BE 


C006 


01340 WRITE 


LDX 


*C006 


0F36 86 


03 


01350 


LDA 


03 


0F38 A7 


84 


01360 


STA 


,x 


0F3A CE 


0F45 


01370 


LDU 


IBUFF 


0F3D EF 


04 


01380 


STU 


4,X 


0F3F AD 


9F C004 


01390 


JSR 


C*C004] 


0F43 20 


AD 


01400 


BRA 


RET 


0F45 




01410 BUFF 


♦ 






0E00 


01420 


END 


START 



00000 TOTAL ERRORS 



194 the RAINBOW October 1983 






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CU 118 




Opening CoCo's Library 
To The MC-1 0 

By Dan Downard 
Rainbow Technical Editor 

A machine language program to convert Color BASIC to MC-10 BASIC 



I think in the months to come we will see accelerated 
interest in the Model MC-10. The availability of soft- 
ware is on the horizon. Radio Shack has introduced a 
few programs for the PoCo, but the real advantage lies in 
MicroColor BASIC. Since it's nearly identical to Color BASIC 
why not take advantage of existing software? For those of 
you who have already tried loading your CoCo programs 
into the PoCo, you probably noticed that the tapes loaded 
correctly but, when you listed the program, all you got was 
garbage. 

How come? The BASIC tokens are different. A token is an 
abbreviation of a BASIC command, or function, used to save 
memory and speed program execution. If we could find a 
way to convert these tokens, CoCo programs written in 
Non-Extended BASIC could be run on the PoCo. Besides the 
advantage of existing software, it may be easier to input a 
program on the CoCo due to the editing commands not 
present on the other system. Extended and Disk commands 
are not available with the exception of a few math functions. 
The program listing that follows contains a machine lan- 
guage listing that not only converts the tokens, but flags the 
commands that are not available. 

Tokens 

BASIC converts every command or function input from 
the keyboard into a one- or two-byte "token" before storing 
the line into memory. This is done by the ROMs, and 
invisible to the user. For example, the Color BASIC token for 
PRINT is $87. If you would examine a BASIC program in 
memory, you would see the hex byte $87 at every location 
where a PRINT command was input. At the same time, 
when you list a program you see the original command. This 
is because the ROM also detokenizes the line before output- 
ting it to the screen or, if an ASCII save is requested, to the 
storage device such as a tape recorder. 

Tokenizing is done to preserve memory. Obviously, the 
one hex byte $87 occupies four less bytes than PRINT Also, 
program execution is faster. Before every command is exe- 



(Dan Downard is an electrical engineer and has been 
involved in electronics for 24 years through ham radio 
(K4KWT). His interest in computers began about five 
years ago and he has built several 68XX systems.) 



cuted, BASIC has to compare the command in question to a 
table of all the commands and find a match. When the match 
is found, another table is used to find the execution address 
for that routine. Again, matching just one byte is less time 
consuming than a table of several bytes each. Actually, the 
process we have just described is the same method we will 
use to convert tokens. It is called a "lookup table." Lookup 
tables are used extensively for code conversion. 

Tokens are easy to spot in a hex-dump of a program. They 
all have bit 7 set, or they are all greater than $80. Since no 
other ASCII characters greater than $7F represent standard 
printable characters, you would not expect to find numbers 
this high in a listing. By this method, BASIC picks out the 
tokens when scanning a line for execution. 

The Program In Memory 

The only other thing we need to know to convert pro- 
grams is where the program is located in memory. This, too, 
is not as hard as it sounds. If you have been reading the 
articles about memory maps, you may have noticed an 
address $0019 (25). The two bytes, or word, at this address 
tell us where the BASIC program begins. It makes no differ- 
ence if you are using Non-Extended, Extended or Disk 
BASIC. If we start at this location in memory, the first two 
bytes will be the address of the next line, the next two will be 
the line number, and the remaining bytes will be the pro- 
gram line until a zero is encountered. A zero signifies the end 
of a line. With a monitor such as RAINBUG, HUMBUG or 
ZBUG, look through a program sometime, it's interesting. 

We must use this information to convert our tokens. After 
ignoring the first four bytes of a line, we can scan for tokens 
by testing the byte for a minus. This means bit 7 is set. After 
encountering a token we use a lookup table to convert from 
CoCo to PoCo. For example, addresses $3000 to $303B 
correspond to CoCo tokens $80 through $BB. If we look at 
the corresponding FCB byte, we will find the PoCo token. 
After converting the token we simply store the new one at 
the same location as the old one. In the CoCo, functions 
tokens are preceded by $FF. The succeeding byte is the 
actual token. For these values, we convert the tokens and 
store a $20, or a space, in place of the $FF as the PoCo does 
not have any two-byte tokens. 

The only exceptions to this rule are GOTO and GOSUB. 
The CoCo recognizes these two tokens as GO-TO and GO- 
SUB. After finding a $81, or the token for GO, we must 



196 the RAINBOW October 1983 



- COMPUTER SHACK- 



examine the next byte to reveal the true command. 

An error reporting routine is called when a token is not 
convertible, such as DRA W or PMODE. An "!" is substi- 
tuted for the command much like in the BASIC ROM 
routine. 

Running MC-10 GONV 

As you can see, I used the new Microxvare OS-9 Assem- 
bler to produce the object code for this program. It was a 
good exercise in becoming familiar with the new operating 
system. This particular program is so short it would proba- 
bly be faster just to key in the machine code using a monitor 
rather than assembling a file. Once the program is in 
memory, save it using: 

(C)SAVEM"MC10",cfeH3000,cfeH30Ct,&H305 C 

If you are using EDTASM+ be careful with the FCBs; 
every, one must be entered on a separate line. Also delete 
Line 1, as EDTASM+ will not support the NAM directive. 
After these two changes the rest of the text can be entered as 
it is shown. 

The program is written in position independent code and 
will execute anywhere in memory depending on your sys- 
tem. To convert a program, use the following steps: 

1) Load the CoCo BASIC program. You may list it but do 
not run it. 

2) (C)LOADM"MC\W' 

3) EXEC 

4) After the OK prompt save the BASIC program to tape 
using CSA ^FILENAME" 

5) Load the tape into your PoCb using CLOAD. 



The 

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• ASCII/hex search-up to a 10 byte search. 

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• Over 40 commands. 

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(+ $2.00 shipping and handling) 



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New program that lets you copy a color computer disk 
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ASSEMBLY LANGUAl 
COLOR COMPUTER 

By Don Inman $14.95 
Written specifically for the TRS-80 Color Computer, this 
book uses sound and graphics to show how 6809 assembly 
language can be used to perform tasks that would be 
difficult or impossible with BASIC. All of the explanations 
are hands-on, so that the manual can serve as a tutorial. 

PROGRAMMING THE 6809 

By Rodney Zaks & William Labiak $14.95 
This book explains how to program the 6809 in assembly 
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Mexico. 

Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad Write for our catalog and 
price list. 



October 1983 Ihe RAINBOW 197 



6) List the program and notice any"!" symbols. If there 
are none, you're OK. 

If you find a in your program, you will have to list the 



original program and do the best you can to convert the 
command to an equivalent that will be accepted by the 
MC-10. One good example is ELSE. For example . . . ELSE 
N=10 can usually be rewritten as . . . :N=10. Watch out for 





COCO 


MC-10 




COCO 


MC-10 








FUNCTION 


TOKEN 


TOKEN 


COMMAND 


TOKEN 


TOKEN 








SON 


FF80 


Bl 


FOR 


80 


80 


LL1ST 


9B 


99 


INT 


FF81 


B2 


GOTO 


81 A5 


81 


SET 


9C 


9B 


ABS 


FF82 


B3 


GOSUB 


81 A6 


82 


RESET 


9D 


9C 


USR 


FF83 


B4 


REM 


82 


83 


CLS 


9E 


9D 


RND 


FF84 


B5 


IF 


85 


84 


SOUND 


AO 


9E 


SIN 


FF85 


B9 


DATA 


86 


85 


EXEC 


A2 


9F 


PEEK 


FF86 


BC 


PRINT 


87 


86 


SKIPF 


A3 


AO 


LEN 


FF87 


BD 


ON 


88 


87 


TAB( 


A4 


Al 


STR$ 


FF88 


BE 


INPUT 


89 


88 


TO 


A5 


A2 


VAL 


FF89 


BF 


END 


8A 


89 


THEN 


A7 


A3 


ASC 


FF8A 


CO 


NEXT 


8B 


8A 


NOT 


A8 


A4 


CHR$ 


FF8B 


CI 


DIM 


8C 


8B 


STEP 


A9 


A5 


LEFTS 


FF8E 


C2 


READ 


8D 


8C 


OFF 


AA 


A6 


RIGHTS 


FF8F 


C3 


RUN 


8E 


8E 


+ 


AB 


A7 


M1DS 


FF90 


C4 


RESTORE 


8F 


8F 




AC 


A8 


POINT 


FF91 


C5 


RETURN 


90 


90 


* 


AD 


A9 


INKEYS 


FF92 


C7 


STOP 


91 


91 


/ 


AE 


AA 


MEM 


FF93 


C8 


POKE 


92 


92 


T 


AF 


AB 


COS 


FF95 


BA 


CONT 


93 


93 


AND 


BO 


AC 


TAN 


FF96 


BB 


LIST 


94 


94 


OR 


Bl 


AD 


EXP 


FF97 


B8 


CLEAR 


95 


95 


> 


B2 


AE 


LOG 


FF99 


B7 


NEW 


96 


96 




B3 


AF 


SQR 


FF9B 


B6 


CLOAD 


97 


97 


< 


B4 


BO 


VARPTR 


FF9D 


C6 


CSAVE 


98 


98 


LET 


BA 


8D 




SHUGART or TEAC 
1 YEAR WARRANTY 




40 TRK SS/DD 
w/ RS DISK CONTROLLER 
DOS MANUAL Included! 



* RADIO SHACK/ TANDY * EPSON * 0KIDATA * 

* TRANSTAR * MANNESMAN-TALLY * STARKITS * 

* TOM MIX * MARK DATA * BMC * AMDEK * NEC * 

* B0TEK * MS I * SHR0UT SW * NELSON SW * 

* M0RET0N BAY * DERRINGER SW * DATAS0FT * 

* CUSTOM SW ENGRG * SOUTHERN SW SYSTEMS* 

* TAXAN * PRICKLY PEAR * SPECTRAL * ANTEC0 

* COMPUTERWARE * EIGEN SYSTEMS * C0L0RS0FT 

* BERTAMAX * C0GNITEC * DRESSELHAUS * 

EMERALD COMPUTER SERVICES 
4401 219th SW 

M0UNTLAKE TERRACE, WASH. 98043 



206-778-9826 



* RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTERS * 

16K COLOR BASIC $ 179 

16K EXTENDED COLOR BASIC $269 

32/64K EXTENDED COLOR BASIC $369 



MASTERCARD/VISA WELCOME 
FOREIGN ORDERS WELCOME! 

NEW 5 DAY SHIPPING 
SCHEDULES (IF STOCKED) 



** FACTORY AUTHORIZED PRINTER 
REPAIR- EPSON .OKIDATA, TRANSTAR 

*** TEAC Thinline 40 TRK DRIVES 
*** TAND0N DS/DD 40 TRK DRIVES 

***C0MP0SITE VIDEO CIRCUIT 
***MEM0RY UPGRADES D-E-F BOARDS 

1-800-468-4606 

ALSO PRESENTING: 

MORROW DESIGNS 
MICRO DECISION 



198 the RAINBOW October 1983 



- COMPUTER SHACK — 



PRINT#-2 commands. They will have to be changed to 
LPRINT. 

Summary 

I tested the program on two of the examples in the back of 
the "Getting Started" book and they worked fine. The first 
program was Blackjack, on page 292. It had an ELSEstate- 
ment in Line 4020 that required a colon instead of the ELSE. 
The other program was Play Back Your Tune, on page 294. 
No modifications were necessary at all after using "MC10." 
These were two good examples, as the first program had 
graphics and the second used SOUND for some music. 

There's a wealth of software already written for the MC- 
10. Just find someone with a Color Computer. 



The listing: 



flicrottare OS-9 Assembler RS Version 01.01.00 
HC10CONV - 



07/27/83 191 12:21 



Piqe 001 



00001 






NAM 


HC10CONV 




00002 


♦DAN DOHNARD REV0 








00003 


♦PROGRAM TO CONVERT 






00004 


#C0C0 TOKENS TO NC-10 






00015 


3000 




0R6 


$3000 




00006 


3000 80008300 


TABLE 1 


FCB 


$80,0,183,0 


00007 


3004 00848586 




FCB 


0, $84, $85, $86 


00008 


3008 8788898A 




FCB 


$B7,$BB,$B9,$BA 


00009 


300C 8B8C8E8F 




FCB 


$8B,$8C,$8E,$8F 


00010 


3010 90919293 




FCB 


$90, $91, $92, $93 


00011 


3014 94959697 




FCB 


$94, $95, $96, $97 


00012 


3018 98000099 




FCB 


$98,0,0,$99 


00013 


301C 9B9C9D00 




FCB 


$9B,$9C,$9D,0 


00014 


3020 9E009FA0 




FCB 


$9E,0,$9F,$A0 


00015 


3024 A1A200A3 




FCB 


$A1,$A2,0,$A3 


00016 


3028 A4A5A6A7 




FCB 


$A4,$A5,$A6,$A7 


00017 


302C A8A9AAAB 




FCB 


$A8,$A9,$AA,$AB 


00016 


3030 ACADAEAF 




FCB 


$AC,$AD,$AE,$AF 


00019 


3034 80000000 




FCB 


$B0,0,0,0 




00020 


3038 00008D00 




FCB 


0,0,$8D,0 




00021 


303C B182B384 


TABLE2 


FCB 


$B1,$B2,$B3,$B4 


00022 


3040 B5B98C8D 




FCB 


$B5,$89,$BC,$BD 


00023 


3044 8EBFC0C1 




FCB 


$BE,$BF,$C0,$C! 


00024 


3048 0000C2C3 




FCB 


0,0,$C2,$C3 


00025 


304C C4C5C7C8 




FCB 


$C4,$C5,$C7,$C8 


00026 


3050 008ABB&8 




FCB 


0,$BA,$BB,$B6 


00027 


3054 00B700B6 




FCB 


0,$B7,0,$B6 


00028 


3058 00C60000 




FCB 


0,$C6,0,0 




00029 


305C DE19 


START 


LDU 


<$19 


START OF PR06RAH 


00030 


305E 2004 




BRA 


START 1 


SKIP OVER NEW LINE 


00031 


3060 EEC4 


NENLIN 


LDU 


,u 


START OF NEXT LINE 


00032 


3062 2746 




BEfl 


OUT 


FINISHED 


00033 


3064 3142 


START 1 


LEAY 


2,U 


V'LINE NUMBER 


00034 


3066 3044 




LEAK 


4,U 


X'FIRST BYTE OF LINE 


00035 


3068 A680 


LOOP 


LDA 




LOAD BYTE i INC K 


00036 


306A 2B04 




BHI 


TOKEN 


BIT 7 INDICATES TOKEN 


00037 


306C 27F2 




BE Q 


NENLIN 


0 HEANS END OF LINE 


00038 


306E 20F8 




BRA 


LOOP 


6ET ANOTHER BYTE 


00039 


3070 81FF 


TOKEN 


CHPA 


l$FF 


IS IT A FUNCTION? 


00040 


3072 261C 




BNE 


CONVERT 


IF NOT BRANCH 


00041 


3074 C620 




LDB 


t$20 


SUB SPACE FOR $FF 


00042 


3076 E71F 




STB 




STORE IT 


00043 


3078 A680 




LDA 




BET REAL TOKEN 


00044 


307A 61A0 




CHPA 


i$A0 


CAN ME CONVERT? 


00045 


307C 2C2F 




B6E 


N0600D 


IF NOT PRINT 


00046 


307E 847F 




ANDA 


l$7F 


STRIP BIT 7 


00047 


3080 3410 




PSHS 


X 


SAVE K RE6 


00048 


3082 308DFFB6 




LEAK 


TABLE2, PCR LOOKUP TABLE 2 


00049 


3086 A686 




LDA 


A, X 


CONVERT BYTE 


00050 


3088 2721 




BEfl 


N01 


CAN NOT CONVERT 


00051 


308A 3510 




PULS 


X 


RESTORE K RE6 


00052 


30BC A71F 




STA 




STORE NEN TOKEN 


00053 


308E 20D8 




BRA 


LOOP 


BET ANOTHER BYTE 


00054 


3090 B1BC 


CONVERT 


CHPA 


l$BC 


CAN HE CONVERT? 


00055 


3092 2C19 




B6E 


N0600D 


IF NOT PRINT 


00056 


3094 8181 




CHPA 


•$81 


IS IT 60T0 OR 60SUB? 


00057 


3096 27 IB 




BEO 


60T0 


IF YES BRANCH 



7 GREAT NEW GAMES 

All of these games are 1 00% machine language for high speed action 
and exciting graphics Some highlights of the games... Fury and 
Chopper Strike come with both a 16K version and a 32 K version on 
each tape/disk A good version for 1 6K computers and a better one for 
32K computers. CASHMAN and STRONGHOLD let two players play at 
the same time competing against each other. CASH MAN and CATALYST 
arenori violent (no one gets killed)- CASH MAN has 32 different screens 
with excellent colors and graphics A Super Super game. ;. CHOPPER 
STRIKE has 105 different landscape screens in its 32 K version. 
Probably the best WAR GAME written for the COCO. See our COLOR 
AD in this issue for pictures of the actual screens. 
CASHMAN 

Anew hit arcade game from Dunlevyand Frayer.This isaoriginalgame 
with some ideas from BagMan™ and Jumpman™. A non-violent game 
with tremendous excitement. You have 35, yes 35 different screens 
with ladders, jump boards, movi ng conveyors, birds, cats, nets, stairs and 
bags of money. You can play one player or better yet 2 players at the 
same time! 

32K Tape $27.95 |isk jj. $29.95 

DEMON SEED 

Birds, Demons, am 
screen's and thre< 
and exciting game. 
32K tape 

CHOPPER STRII 

The newest chop : peT game " v o6 the -ma 
Whirij^pTruri! This game^^r^- '~ 
scree^^the 3^K version. Th 

Fly a ' very responsive helicc,, 

backward. You have tunnels, heat seekinc 
anti-aircraft guns, missies, aw* .men to res< 
16K-& 32 K Tape $27.95 ' 




429.95 




. $29.95 

:s TOP 15 



Lance 

2) THE KING 

%XON 
THOUSE 




6} ROBBATTACK 11) BLOC HEAD 

7) COLORPEDE 12) DOODLE BUG 

8) LUNAR PATROL13J GRABBER 
; ^iT#APFALL 14) NINJA • 
10)/ SEA DRAGON 15) ZAKSlfKlD 

We stock all of the fifteen games 



COLOR FURY 

The sky is the limit in this action packed airborne, dog fight simulation. 
The enemy attacks with everything they've got. Airplanes, helicopters, 
hot air balloons, paratroopers, and magnetic air mines. 
1 6K & 32K tape $27.95 Disk $29.95 

COLOR OUTHOUSE 

The wildest, funniest game ever produced on a home computer. 
Originally done on the Model l/lll this is the color version done by 
the original author. This is the game you will want to show your 
friends. No other home computer has anything like it. you must 
protect your outhouse from paper thiefs. They come on foot, in 
spaceships, and some even try to destroy your outhouse. Fast and 
furious fun! 

32KTape $27.95 Disk $29.95 

CATALYST 

A new original gamef ortheCOCO you must capture a certain number of 
free carbon atoms and then destroy the catalyst to complete the 
mutation. Exciting, different. A real time arcade game. 
16Ktape ........$19.95 Disk $21.95 

STRONGHOLD 

An excellent two player game (or one player) You must protect your city 
against bombs that bounce around the screen. Its fun and has excellent 
graphics: 

16K tape ■ ■ $21.95 Disk. $24.95 



COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac* Michigan 48054 
Info: (313) 873-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 302-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - 
- Proper postage outside of U.S. 

Dealers: We are distributors for ail items in this ad. Write for our catalog and 
price list. 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 199 



BACKUP MASTER/ 

GRAPHIC MONITOR $29.95 

SUPER powerful UTILITY allows backups to be made of any program — cassette, 
disk, even ROM based!! 

• Over rides all software autostart mechanisms 

• Fijlly relocatable — will not interfere with any program 

• Capable of reading many tapes which BASIC can't 



64K USERS have extra power 

• Modify BASIC to suit your needs 

• Save copies of BASIC, Ext BASIC, Disk BASIC, etc. 

• Run address dependent ROMS from RAM 

GRAPHIC MATH 
ADVENTURE $21.95 



Challenging Adventure! Fully player selectable up to 300 "room." Search for treasure on 
land, on river, and in the labyrinth ot caves. Your search is blocked by many obstacles which 
can beovercomeby correctly answering math problems. Any one or all four functions (+, x, 
-r) can be selected to add variety. 24 skill levels make the game challenging for all ages. 
32K EXT BASIC Required 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Also: 

SPELLING MASTER 



$14.95 



Conquer spelling. Learn the words you 
have trouble with. User input unlimited 
number of words. Good for weekly spell- 
ing lists. SAMPLE list provided. 
16K EXT BASIC cassette 



MATH MASTER $14.95 

for both 

Learn Basic Math Facts (+, x, — , +) and 
counting routines. Math drill for speed. 
Math tutor teaches with graphics. 
MATH DRILL Non-EXT BASIC $8.95 
MATH TUTOR 16K EXT BASIC $8.95 



CONCENTRATION $6.95 

40 blocks hide 20 patterns. Pit your memory skills against your friends. Two 
players. Non-EXT BASIC cassette. 

15% off 

ALL "SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES" 
SOFTWARE 



LANCER 


23^3 


18.65 


PICKWHICH 


3#S 


8.45 


STORM ARROWS 




18.65 


SPACE CHESS 




12.70 


WHIRLYBIRD RUN 




18.65 


KEYS OF THE WIZARD 




17.80 


CUBIX 




15.35 


LOTHARS LABRYNTH 




12.70 


ALPHA SEARCH 




11.00 


LEMANS 




12.70 


MS. GOBBLER 




18.65 


COLOROUT 




8.45 


GHOST GOBBLER 




16.95 


CCTHELLO 




12.70 


SPACE SENTRY 




12.70 


COSMIC SUPER BOWL 




12.70 


TRILOGY 




42.45 


SPACE TRADERS 




12.70 


COLOR COSMIC INVADERSU£5" 


15.35 


YAHTCC 




7.60 


SPACE RACE 




18.45 


ALCATRAZ II 




7.60 


SPACE WAR 


2>e? 


18.45 


GEOGRAPHY PAC 


&m 


25.45 


GALAX ATTAX 




18.45 


TYPING TUTOR 




16.95 


DEFENSE 




18.45 


FLEXPLUS DOS 




59.95 


PLANET INVASION 


2XO€r 


18.45 


ULTRA 80C 




42.45 


PIGGY 




8.45 


ORACLE 




25.45 


COLORZAP 




8.45 


COMPUVOICE 




29.70 


DESERT GOLF 




7.70 


SOUNDSOURCE 




21.20 


C-TREK 




7.70 


GRAPHICS N TEXT 


1^95 


16.95 


GAME PAC I 




12.70 


DISASSEMBLER 




12.70 


GAME PAC II 




8.45 








GAME PACK III 




12.70 









COUPON- 



10% OFF 



any order over $60.00 

Include this coupon with your order 

to get this special offer. 
coupon 




mm 

Software Factory 

1333 Morgan Road 



Bremerton, WA 98312 

(206) 377-1 694 write for free catalog 

Dealer & Author inquiries invited - Add $3 Shipping — No COD 



vvvjU 


TflOD 017C 




ANOA 


#I7F 


STRIP BIT 7 


VVV J7 






PSHS 


X 


SAVE X RE6 


f FFO0 


JiTL jfOUrroB 




t CAV 


TABLE 1 


PCR LOOKUP TABLE 1 


#0661 


30A0 A686 




LOA 


A,X 


1 nriK IIP TDICFN 


01162 


30A2 2707 




BE6 


N01 


CAN NOT PONVFRT 
inn nu i LunT tn i 


00063 


30A4 3510 




PULS 


x 


RESTORE X REG 


00064 


30A6 A71P 




STA 


-l.X 


STORE NEM TOKEN 


00065 


30AB 20BE 




BRA 


LOOP 


BET ANOTHER BYTE 


00066 


30AA 39 


OUT 


RTS 




RETURN TO BASIC 


00067 


30AB 3510 


N01 


PULS 


I 


RESTORE X RF8 


0006B 


30AD 8621 


N06000 


LDA 


i' 1 


l «N0 CONVERT NARKFR 


00069 


30AF A71F 




STA 


-i,x 


STORE IN PLACE OF TOKEN 


00070 


30B1 20B5 




BRA 


LOOP 


GET ANOTHER BYTE 

ul i nnu i nun D I i b 


00071 


30B3 A680 


60T0 


LDA 


u 

j * T 


GET REAL TOKEN 


00072 


30B5 81 A5 




CNPA 


t$A5 


IS IT GOTO'' 


00073 


30B7 2606 




BNE 


60SUB 


IF NOT BRANCH 


00074 


30B9 8681 




LDA 


1181 


TOKEN FOR GOTO 

lURtn run wuiu 


00075 


30BB A71E 




STA 


-2 X 


STORE TOKEN 


00076 


30BO 200B 




BRA 


BACK 


rftiirn to i nnp 


00077 


30BF B1A6 


60SUB 


CNPA 


IIA6 


IS IT GOSUB? 


0007B 


30C1 26EA 




BNE 


N0G00D 


CAN NOT CONVFRT 


00079 


30C3 B6B2 




LDA 


IIB2 


TflKFN FOR AflSllfi 
i UKtn run dujud 


00080 


30C5 A71E 




STA 


-2 X 


J 1 Unt 1 UMH 


000B1 


30C7 B620 


BACK 


LDA 


1120 


STORE SPACE IN 

3 1 unt jihll in 


000B2 


30C9 A71F 




STA 


-1,1 


BYTE ONE 


000B3 


30CB 209B 




BRA 


LOOP 


6ET ANOTHER BYTE 


000B4 






END 







' error (5) 
00000 warnings) 

I00CD 00205 prograi bytes generated 
10000 00000 data bytes allocated 
10106 00262 bytes used for syibols 

30C7 L BACK 3090 L CONVERT 30BF L 60SUB 30B3 L GOTO 3068 L LOOP 
3060 L NENLIN 30AB L N01 30AD L N0600D 30AA L OUT 305C L START 
3064 L START 1 3000 L TABLE 1 303C L TABLE2 3070 L TOKEN 





About Your Subscription 

Your copy of the RAINBOW is sent second class 
mail and, for subscribers in the United States, the date 
of mailing is printed on the label. If you do not receive 
your copy by the 25th of any month, send us a card and 
we will mail another immediately via first class mail. 

You must notify us of a new address when you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than the 
15th of the month prior to the month in which you 
change your address. Sorry, we cannot be responsible 
for sending another copy when you fail to notify us. 

Your mailing label also shows an "account number" 
and the subscription expiration date. Please indicate 
this account number when renewing or corresponding 
with us. It will help us help you better and faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U .S. subscribers, there 
may be a mailing address shown that is different from 
our editorial office address. Do not send any corres- 
pondence to that mailing address. Send it to our edi- 
torial offices at P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. 
This applies to everyone except those whose subscrip- 
tions are through our distributor irt Australia. 



200 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Box 11224 • Pittsburgh, PA 15238 • (412) 795-8492 



Fly your spaceship 
through enemy 
starbases. Can you 
reach ZAKSUND? 

■ 3D color graphics 

■ Fast pace 

■ Exciting action 

■ Synthesizer sound 

■ 2 playing levels 

■ Machine language 

32K 
$24.95 Tape 
$27.95 Disc 




ARTIFICIAL 
INTELLIGENCE 



^ue&4 the o4mm<at 



COLOR COMPUTER WORKSHEET 

ELITE»CALC is a powerful, full featured worksheet 
calculator for your Color Computer. The all machine 
language program will help you answer "what if" 
questions, prepare reports, maintain records and 
perform other tasks. Has all the features you want. 
Individual cell formulas • Copy blocks of cells • Full 
cell-edit capability • Sorts • Graphs • Easy to use • 
Works with all printers • 



Elite*Calc 



THE BEST FOR ONLY 

DfSC %M M**$ 
or TAPE 



$ 44 9 



UTILITIES 

DISK MANAGER— Copy any program (or file) to 
another disk with only two key strokes. Kill disk pro- 
grams with the same ease. All menu driven. A must 
for disk users. 1 6K $22.95 Disk only. 

TAPE DUB— Make personal copies of Basic and 
Machine Language tapes with ease. Completely au- 
tomatic, menu driven. All machine language. 16K 
$19.95 Tape, or $22.95 Disk. 

REPEAT KEY— Have your keyboard automatically 
repeat the key that was held down. It's great when 
you're typing programs! Position independent code. 
Machine language, Both 16K and 32K versions for 
$14.95 Tape, or $1 7.95 Disk. 

LLISTER— Would you like to have program listings 
that "page break". How about program listings with 
nice margins? Works with any printer. Machine 
language. 1 6K $1 4.95 Tape, or $1 7.95 Disk. 

SHRINK— Eliminate all unnecessary spaces from 
any Basic program. Get more program into your 
memory. Machine language. 16K $14.95 Tape, or 
$17.95 Disk. 





GUESS THE ANIMAL — A machine language, 
artificial intelligence program for the Color Com- 
puter. You must play it to believe it. Think of an 
animal, and this software will try to guess it using 
your clues. Watch this program learn, and use your 
clues. See it respond with questions. The longer you 
play, the smarter this program becomes. 16K 
$17.95 Tape, or $20.95 Disk. (Both Animals and 
Body Paris $24.95 Tape, or $27.95 Disk.) 



(Bawdy Parts) 

Have fun with artificial intelligence. This take-off on 
Animals is a riot. See if this program can guess the 
body-part you have in mind. The program teams, 
and responds with questions. If you give it x-rated 
clues, it turns into Bawdy Parts. 16K $17.95 Tape, 
or $20.95 Disk, (Body Parts and Animals $24.95 
Tape, or $27.95 Disk.) 

# # # 

COLOR TUTOR— An exceptional program for 
Language, History, Math and Vocabulary drills. You 
enter questions and answers, Program randomizes, 
presents questions, keeps lesson score. Store 
lessons for future use, Excellent for you or your chil- 
dren. 16K Ext. Basic $19.95 Tape, or $22.95 Disk. 

LOAN PAYMENT CALCULATOR-A fast and easy 
way to calculate what a monthly loan payment will 
be. Amount of loan, interest rate and length of loan 
are displayed; along with your calculated monthly 
payment. You change any item, and your new 
monthly payment is displayed. Output to a printer if 
desired, if you are going to buy a new car, stereo, or 
house . , . this program was written for you, 1 6K Ext. 
Basic $1 7.95 Tape, or $20.95 Disk. 



• Shipping from stock NOW • 
• Dealer inquiries invited • 



• Add$1 Postage and Handling • 

• PA residents add 6% sales tax • 



r-(CotorQuesi 



TM 



GAMES 

For The TRS-80 Color 
and TDP System 100 



Fast Machine Code • Hi-res Color Graphics • Exciting Arcade Action and Sound 

BEYOND THE CIMEEON MOON" 




3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Make love not war? Not with these sultry FEMBOTSl What a 
tale you'll tell IFyou live to tell it! Cold steel neverfeltso HOTJ 
The color and excitement of ARCADE ACTION combined 
with the sophistication, intellectual challenge and skill of an 
ADVENTURE GAME doesn't fully describe this cosmic 
shoot'em up. 

16K Tape $29.95 32K Disk $34.95 



J" 



***** I * I * I * * 




by Tom Czarnecki 

The ONLY Ms. game around. A 
must for your PAC-like game 
collection, 

16K Tape $19 95 

16K Disk $24.95 



TRS-flO is a trademark of Tandy Corp 




Rated Tops In April 1963 Issue of RAINBOW! 
3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

A dead star . , . A derlict vessel ... or is it? Trapped 
within you must venture the corridors; defend yourself 
against the merciless gauntlet of agents of the machine 
mind. A real-time, high-res, 3-D science fiction 
adventure game of mind-blowing magnitude. 

32K Disk $29.95 



16K Tape $24.95 

flduenfure 
trilogy T 




by Kevin Herrboldt & Tim Nelson 
3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Clash steel with thy foe in the arena of gore. Proved 
worthy, go in quest of the elusive Eye of Dazmor. If ye 
findest the orb, hast ye the might to ward off skem and 
the fortitude to restore the Eye? The ultimate high-res, 
3-D quest for even the most experienced adventurer! 

16K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 



For Orders 
ONLY Call 
Toll Free 



1-800-328-2737K 



Fast Machine Code • Hi-res Color Graphics • Exciting Arcade Action and Sound 



JMTEHCEPTDH 



by Scott Snyder 

Goes beyond "DEFENDER" 
and 'STARGATE" to offer the 
most realistic ARCADE 
simulation possible, Warp 
speed action, mufti-colored 
terrain and long-range viewer 
make this game tops. 
16K Tape $19.95 
32K Disk $24.95 





by Dan Nelson 
Why fly to VEGAS when you can have a 
casino at home! The VEGAS GAMEPAK is 
five action packed games with great 
graphics & sound. SLOT MACHINE - 
BLACKJACK - UP AND DOWN THE RIVER 
- CRAPS & KENO. 

16K Tape S19.95 16K Disk S24.95 



o 




by Tom Czarneckt 
Fast paced maze chase game wilt 16K Tape $19,95 
entertain the entire family. 15K Disk S24.95 



eolorQuesf 

A Division of Softlaw Corp. 612/881-2777 
9072 Lyndale Ave. So., Minneapolis, MN 55420 

AUTHORS* SUBMISSIONS ARE ENCOURAGED 

Available at Dealers everywhere. 
If you Dealer Is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 



by Tom Czarnecki 

Shades of smartbombs and hurtling comets! Defending 
your planet from invasion was never so challenging. 
Disruptor fire is your main defense against the fierce alien 
attacks. 

16K Tape S19.95 32K Disk $24.95 

ORDERING * 

Order status and product support call (612) 881-2777 

Make checks or money orders payable to Nelson 
Software Systems. Personal checks allow 3 weeks. 
MAIL ORDERS: $2.00 U.S. Shipping ($4.00 CANADA 
$10 OVERSEAS) Add $2,00 for C.O.D. 




By Bob Delbourgo 
and 

Brian Ferguson 



An article in an earlier Rainbow described a way of 
projecting a picture of a solid object on your video 
screen and provided the basic method of how to spin 
it around. It was suggested that the idea could lead to 
spectacular animation effects. Here, we will present a short 
program which does just that; it depicts a tumbling umbrella 
but you may easily adapt the program to shapes of your own 
making, 

The whole key to smooth animation lies in being able to 
release enough high-resolution graphic pages. On a 16K 
CoCo with ECB you PCLEAR8 to access eight pages in 
PMODEQ but you can do a lot better if your computer has 
more memory, (Many people today have upgraded from 
16K to double or more memory.) Those of you with 32K 
RAM can release 18 graphic pages or more by entering 
N=18 (equals the number of graphic pages in our 
program) 

POKE (N+[)*1536,0:POKE 25.(N+1)*6:NEW 
before you type in the program. It is vital not to PCLEAR 
anything at the same time. Obviously the larger "N" is (20 
maximum) the less space there is to write the program! 
Incidentally, when N=0 you get the usual POKE25,6:NEW 
result for achieving maximum text. 

In the accompanying listing there are 20 vertices marking 
out the umbrella; their coordinates are spelled out in lines 1 2 
and 13. Their projections are worked out in lines 17 to 19 
and their video positions arejoined in lines 20 to 22 to make 
the umbrella shape. Suffice it to say that M stands for the 
graphic page number and, correspondingly, line 23 increases 
the rotation angle T by 20 degrees with each successive 
picture. The rest is self-explanatory. 



The Hsting: 



1 CLS2: PRINTB37, "THE TUMBLING UM 
BRELLA" f I 

2 PRINT*101,"AN ANIMATION PROBRA 
M "I :PRINT9133, "WITH 18 GRAPHIC 
PAGES"; 

3 PRINT8193, "BY r. delbourgo and 




(he RAINBOW October 1983 



b.f«rguson"| :PRINTQ225, "hob«rt,t 
asfflinia, austral i a7003" ; 

4 PLAY " 03L8CL404C03L 1 2A0FL6DP 1 2L 
8CL4FL 1 2F6A04L4C " 

5 PRINT8352, "you will be asked t 
o choose the polar angle (or lat 
itude) and the azimuth (or Ion 
gitude) of the rotation axis." 

6 PLAY " 03L8CL4FL 1 2QA04L4C03L8 AP 1 
20O4CL4CL 1 203AGL4D " 

7 PI«3. 141592653: DIMX<20) ,Y (20) , 
Z <20) , NR<20> ,P<20) ,Q<20) ,P8(24) 

8 CLS:PRINT«2, "** THE TUMBLING U 
MBRELLA #*": PRINT: INPUT "POLAR AN 
6LE (IN DEGREES) " ; B: B=B*PI / 180: C 
B-COS(B) : SB-SIN (B) 

9 INPUT"AZIMUTH (IN DEGREES) "; A: 
A«A*PI / 180: CA=COS (A) : SA-SIN (A) 

10 T«15»PI / 180: PRINT«417, "PRESS 
<R> AFTER ANIMATION IF":PRINTe44 
9, "YOU WANT TO CHANGE ORIENT AT 10 

N"; 

n nx«sb*ca:ny«sb*sa:nz-cb 

12 FORU=lTO8:X(U)«40»COS(U»PI/4) 

: y (U) =40*sin (u*pi /4) : z (U) »40: x (U 

+8)*»7*X (U) /4: Y (U+8) =7*Y (U) /4: Z (U 
+8)-20:NEXTU 

13 X(17)«0:Y(17)=0:Z(17)-50:X(18 

) -0: y ( 18) =0: z ( 18) =-60: X ( 19) -0: Y ( 

19) =10: Z (19) =-70: X (20) =0: Y (20) =2 
0:Z(20)=-60 

14 fori=1to20:nr(i)=nx*x(i)+ny»y 
(I)+nz*Z(I) :nexti 

1 5 f0rm= 1 8t0 1 step- 1 : g0sub26 

1 6 pmode0 , m : color0 , 1 : pcls : screen 

1,0 

17 FORI=1TO20:P(I)=128+X(I)*CT-N 
R ( I ) * (CT-1 ) *NX- (NY*Z ( I ) -NZ*Y (I) ) 
*ST 

18 Q(I)=96+Y(I)»CT-NR(I)*(CT-D* 
NY- (NZ*X ( I ) -NX*Z (I) ) *ST 

19 NEXT I 

20 F0RU-1T0B:LINE(P(U) ,Q(U) )-(P( 
U+1-8*INT (U/8) ) , Q (U+1-8*INT (U/8) 
) ) , PSET: LINE (P (U+8) , Q (U+8) ) - (P (U 
+9-8*INT (U/8) ) , Q (U+9-8#INT (U/8) ) 

) ,pset:nextu 

21 f0ru=1t08: line (p (u) , q (u) ) - (p ( 
u+8), q (u+8) ), pset: line- (p( 17) ,q( 
17)),pset:nextu 

22 line(p(17) ,q(17) )-(p(18) ,q(18 
) ) , pset: line- (p( 19) ,q(19) ) ,pset: 
line- (p (20) , q (20) ) , pset 

23 t=t+pi/10:nextm 

24 form" 1 8t0 1 step- 1 : pmode0 , m : scr 

EEN1, l:FORT=lT015 

25 IFINKEY*<>"R"THEN NEXTT, M: GOT 
024 ELSERUN7 

26 CT-COS ( T ) : ST=S I N ( T ) : RETURN 




CHROMA 



EUCHRE! 



A Hi-Res version of the card game. Your partner is 
he computer, the opponent team is played by the computer. Allows 
any of the four players to "GO" alone. 
(ECB, 32k) 

Cassette $19.95 




DSKMON! 



Examine and fix sector data, also includes disk read, 
write, file information display, and selective disk backup 
(ML, 16k or 32k) 

Disk (With Source) $24.95 



MORE CSG PROGRAMS! 



— ■ < UTILITIES — v 

CCADS : — A full 6809 machine language monitor with line assembler 
and disassembler All you need to debug machine language programs. 
(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 
Cassette $19.95 or Disk (With Source) -fi'-rw $23.95 

UNLOCK — A complete disk backup utility. Features included are 
initialization of any track; copy any track and correct I/O errors, or leave 
them intact; and verify any track. Track numbers up to track 80 may be used 
at any time. 

(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 

Disk (With Source) "« $24.95 

CHROMA-KEYS — Define function keys and save them to disk or 
cassette 

(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 

Cassette $9.95 or Disk (With Source) ?p $13.95 

SPOOLER — Print ASCII files from disk without waiting. 
(ML, 16k, 32k, or 64k only) 

Cassette $1 1 .95 or Disk (With Source) $1 5.95 

COMMAND — Add machine language programs as commands to 
BASIC 

(ML, 16k or 32k) 

Cassette $15.95 or Disk (With Source) $19.95 



GAMES 



PROSPECTOR — An ECBHi-Resgraphicsgame Can you getthe gold 

out of the mine? 

(ECB, 16k or 32k) « 

Cassette; $7.95 

JUMP-A-PEG — A Hi-Res version of an ancient strategy game. 
(ECB, 16k or 32k) ^ 

Cassette . . . r=T $7.95 



MISCELLANEOUS 



CLOCK — A software real-time clock program for the CoCo. Warning: 
The clock will stop during tape I/O. 

(ML, 16k or 32k) ^ 

Cassette $9.95 or Disk (With Source) «• $13.95 

DARKROOM DATABASE — Throw away your Photo-Lab index. Let 
CoCo look up the facts! Darkroom Data-Base with timer. 
(Disk, 16k or 32k) 

Disk $19.95 



■^OM^^3S^^ MC " 10 S0FTWARE! 



1 Write for more details. 



CHROMA- SYSTEMS GROUP 

P.O. Box 366 
Dayton, Ohio 45420 

Please include $1 for shipping and handling per item. Ohio residents please 
add 6% sales tax. 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 



V 

205 



CMERGEing The 
Easy Way 



By Jorge Mir 



This simple, straightforward program will allow you to 
merge cassette programs quickly and easily. 
After you CLOAD the program and RUN it, the screen 
will display the amount of memory available so you can 
judge whether or not additional programs can be merged. In 
addition, the screen shows the beginning and ending RAM 
locations where your merged programs are located. The 
references are given both in decimal and hexadecimal 
formats. 

If you are planning to merge large programs, you should 
make as much memory available as possible. This is done by 
typing in the following: 
POKE 25,6: POKE26,l: NEW 

POKE 25,&H0e:POKE 26,1:NEW (for disk systems) 
You can then load the program and run it. 

The program gives you the choice of continuing to merge, 
or ending the merging routine. 

Selecting number 1 (continue to merge) will start loading 
the next program. Make sure the next program to be merged 
is in the tape recorder and the "play" button has been 
pressed. Once you select 1, the recorder will start imme- 
diately, so you have to have the tape ready. 

After the new program has been merged, the computer 
will stop and the OK prompt should appear. At this point, 
you should renumber the program to make sure it does not 
conflict with the step numbers in the CM ERG E program. 
Renumber the first program merged starting with line 
number 100. This is done by typing: RENUM 100,, 10. 

List the program and jot down the last step number. 
When you merge the next program, you will have to 
renumber it starting with a line number higher than the 
previous program's last line number. 

This renumbering procedure is necessary, especially if 
your programs have any GOTO or GOSUB statements. 

After renumbering, just type EXEC and ENTER and the 
CMERGE program will take over again and you will be 
ready to merge additional programs. 

Please note that you must return back to CMERGE even 
though you are through merging programs. When back on 
CMERGE just select 2 from the menu to end the merging 
process. You can then list the entire merged programs, edit 
them, save them to tape or to disk, etc. 

Once you have merged all programs and exited from the 
CMERGE program, you should delete the CMERGE sec- 
tion of the merged program. In its place, type in a menu to 
access the various merged programs, or just simply delete 
those step numbers. 

If you get an "OM ERROR" when merging a new pro- 




gram in, that means you have run out of RAM and your 
merged program is too long. Simply type EXEC to return to 
the CMERGE program and end the merging process as 
described above. 

Please note that the amount of memory available as 
shown on the screen does not take into consideration addi- 
tional memory required by any dimension statements your 
programs might use. Therefore, it is quite possible to be able 
to merge programs that might subsequently give you an OM 
ERROR when you try to run them because there may not be 
sufficient room left in RAM for your dimension statements. 

Closely following the above simple instructions will allow 
you to merge your programs successfully. Have fun! 



17 023E 

END . . . 04A9 



♦CMERGE* 
BY: JORGE MIR 
1981 <C> 



The listing: 

1 ' 

2 ' 

3 ' 

4 ' 

5 IF PEEK(&H200)=&H8E THEN 8 

6 X=&H200:POKE X,&H8E:P0KEX+1,PE 
EK (25) : POKE X +2, PEEK (26) : POKE X +3, 
&H9F : POKE X +4 , &H 1 9 : POKE X +5 , &H7E : P 
OKE X +<b , &H AE : POKE X +7 , &H75 

7 poke&h9d , &h2 : p0ke&h9e , 0 

8 cls: print tab (10) "*cmerge*":pr 

I NT 

9 PR I NT "MEMORY AVAILABLE: "MEM 

10 A1=PEEK(25) : A2=PEEK(2<b> : A3=A1 
♦256+A2 

11 B1=PEEK(27) :B2=PEEK(28) :B3=B1 
♦256+B2 

12 PRINT: PR I NT "START OF PROGRAM: 

"; :print using"###### '/. y.";A3; 

HEX* (A3) 

13 PRINT"END OF PROGRAM :";:PRI 
NT USING "###### '/. 7,";B3;HEX*(B 

3) 

14 PRINT: PRINT" 1 ~ MERGE NEW P 
ROGRAM" 

15 PRINT: PRINT" 2 -- END MERGING 
ROUTINE" 



206 the RAINBOW October 1983 




THE MICRO COMPUTER BUSINESS 
WILL GROW FROM $10 TO $100 BILLION 
IN THE NEXT EIGHT YEARS! 
ARE YOU READY TO CASH IN? 

f The micro computer business is predicted to grow from its present $10 billion to $100 billion before 1990! Imagine the 
possibilities this opens for you! No matter where you live, if you're starting up or presently in business, no other industry offers 
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one place - THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR MANUAL! - An immense information source, compiled by our inquisitive research 
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We present the inside story of more than 100 lucrative computer businesses you can enter, where you'll find the real 
opportunities for the eighties: from one man operations like Programming Author, Word Processing Center or Consulting, to 
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How to start, Capital needs, Profit estimates and Margins, How to Sell and Market, How missing technical or business 
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We'll show you inside tricks, like how to never again pay retail for computer products and consumer electronics, even for 
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will more than pay for the manual! You'll read actual case histories of other computer entrepreneurs, so you can learn from their 
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Order now and take advantage of our limited introduction special, THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR MANUAL, and a 
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r -'-"ft 




EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW 
TO SUCCEED IN THE COMPUTER BUSINESS 
IS ALL IN THIS MANUAL! 



THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR MANUAL has the answers to all your questions about 
selecting, starting and succesfully running a computer business! There has never been such a 
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These are some of.the 100-plus businesses covered in PART ONE of the manual, with the 
facts on How to start and run, Start-up Cost ( Even how to operate on a shoestring ), What profits 
| to expect, Wholesale prices, Mark-ups, Suppliers, future outlook, case histories for each, etc: 

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l ware Publisher ( How to find programs that sell. Word Processing Service, Consulting and Con- 
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PART TWO of the manual is loaded with the know-how and "streetfighting" savvy you need, both as a novice or business veteran, to get started, to stay 
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financing, The mistakes you must avoid, How to hire and manage employees, Incorporation ( when, and how to do it cheaply ), Surviving bejd times, Record 
Keeping, how to estimate your market before you start. Use multiple locations to maximize profits, how to promote and stay steps ahead of Jhe competi- 
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Don't miss this opportunity to be part of this great industry - the next success story could be your own! Order the manual today! Part one and two. 
bound in a deluxe ring binder, where you can also collect our newsletter ( free for six months with the manual - a $32.50 value! ) - all for only $29.95! 

Qrder by phone (Credit cards only), or use the coupon: 




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nesses! 

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You'll find many items in our newsletter that will save 
you the cost of your manual many times over! 




CALL TOLL FREE! 

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U 



MIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIM 

Mail to THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR PUBLISHING CO 

= PO BOX 456, Grand Central Station, New York, N.Y. 10163 

= Please send me THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR 

E MANUAL, and the six month free subscription to 

E THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR REPORT/NEWSLETTER 

E AM for only $29.95, plus $3 for postage/handling ( NY resi- 

5 dents: add $2 64 for sales tax ). If ! decide not to keep the 

E manual. I may return it within 30 days for a full refund. 

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□ Check or M O enclosed Charge to □ VISA □ MC 
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Exp. Date: - 
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RB0983 



©1983 THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR 



PCLEAR 80 Software. . . 

...15 very serious about the Color Computer! We are 
concentrating on bringing you the finest business and u- 
tility software available anywhere. Programs like TELE- 
WRITER and COLORCQM-E gave the CoCo respectability. No* 
with ELITE CfllC and PRO COLOR FILE, the Color Computer be- 
cones a powerful small-business computer. PCLEflR 80 now 
offers all of these prograus to the small business owner. 

If you prefer to write your own programs, we also 
support you. The WQRKSflVtR has features that will cut 
hours from your programing and debugging time. The 
two-key entry of Basic words is actually the feature I use 
LEAST! The power of WORKSflVER is in it's full-screen 
editor and dynastic editing. We also carry RAINBOW-WRITER, 
which gives a new dimension to your programs. And watch 
for a powerful new disk utility coming soon. 

Of course we still carry a number of fine games. And 
don't forget to ask for the POKEFILE or the P.D. GRABBAS 
if your order is over $2O0 (both if your order is over 
$30.80). See last month's ad for details. 

BUSINESS 



$49.95 TAPE 
$59.95 DISK 

$44.95 D or 
"Provides all 



TELEWRITER— 64 (Cognitec) 

This may be the BEST word processor 

for ANY hone computer at fiNY price! 
ELITE CALC (Elite Software) 

Professional Spreadsheet Program. 

features that are required to do really 

serious work.*— Rainbow 
PRO— COLOR— FILE (Derringer) $79.95 DISH 

To complete your small business library, "a gigantic 

step for the serious CoCo users" —Rainbow. 
♦♦♦BUSINESSMAN* S SPECIAL*** 

Purchase any two of above programs and take lift off 

your entire order. 
COLORCOM-E (Eigen Systems) $49.95 DISK 

The ultimate smart -terminal package for the CoCo. 

Also available as Rompak. 
T.I.M.S. *E.B.» (Sugar Software) $24.95 TAPE 

PEEK i POKE file included. 

UTILITIES 

RAINBOW— WRITER »16K E.B.» (Rbow Conn J 

Screen Formatter/Character Generator 

with many outstanding features. $29.95 TAPE 

WORKSAVER (Platinum Software) $35.38 TAPE 

The best of all the programmer's utilities. 

TAPE DUPE (Tom Mix) $21.95 TAPE 

The best of the tape copiers. 

CCEAD/STRIPPER (Eigen) $13.95 TAPE 

H HHHHHHHHHHHHH H HHHHK HHHHHH l»<HHt»»««»jHHHHHHHHHK»»«»»»*« 

ALL PROGRAMS 16K NON-EXT. UNLESS NOTED 

***MASAZINES*** $2.95 EA 

We carry RAINBOW, COLOR COMPUTER NEWS, 4 COLOR COM- 
PUTER MASAZIINE. Ask about back-issue availability. 

CALL AFTER 6 P.M. ABOUT 64K UPGRADES 

SEND $.58 IN STAMPS OR COIN FOR YOUR CATALOG TODAY TO.- 

JLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJLJL 
WWWWTWWWWWWWTIrTTWTWWWTTTWWWWWWWWWWW 

PCLEAR S0 SOFTWARE 
494 CLINE AVE. 
MANSFIELD, OH 44907 
(419)756-4873 

UW W« WUWWWWMMWWWWWWWWMMWM»WWWWWWWWWWWW»WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 

VISA, MASTERCARD WELCOME. WE DON'T HOLD PERSONAL CHECKS. 

IF DOMESTIC ORDER > $58.80 THEN SHIPPING=FREE ELSE SHIP- 
PING=$2.88: C.0.D.=$2.88: IF OHIO THEN SALES TAX = 6*. 

ALL CANADIAN ORDERS ADD $5.88; ALL OVERSEAS ORDERS ADD 
$18.88 SHIPPING. 



16 PRINT @357,"Y0UR CHOICE" S : INP 
UT I 

17 ON I GOTO 19,24 

18 GOTO 1 6 

19 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT" RENUMBER THE 
NEW PROGRAM WHEN LOADING IS 

COMPLETED SO AS TO AVOID CONFLI 
CT WITH THE OTHER PROGRAM STEP 
S. " 

20 PRINT: PRINT" TYPE 'EXEC* <ENT 
ER> AFTER THE RENUMBERING IS C 
OMPLETED TO GO BACK TO ' CMERGE* 

AND CONTINUE OR END THE MERGI 
NG PROCEDURE. " 

21 IF B2<2 THEN 23 

22 P0KE25 , B 1 : P0KE26 , B2-2 : CLOAD 

23 P0KE25 , B 1 - 1 : P0KE26 , B2+254 : CLO 
AD 

24 CLS: PRINT: PR I NT" YOUR PROGRAM 
S HAVE BEEN MERGED AND YOU CAN 
NOW LIST, EDIT, OR SAVE THEM TO 

CASSETTE OR DISK. " 

25 PRINT: PRINT" YOU SHOULD DELET 
E THE SECTION OF THE PROGRAM 

THAT CONTAINS 'CMERGE' AND IN 
ITS PLACE YOU SHOULD PLACE A M 
ENU TO ACCESS THE VARIOUS ME 
RGED PROGRAMS." 

26 PR I NT : PR I NT : END 



TRS-80 COLOR BASIC 

by BOB ALBRECHT 

This entertaining self-instructional book is packed with 
games, experiments, scores of intriguing challenges, and 
activities related to fantasy role-playing games. The 
ideal introductory aid for kids, parents and teachers 
using the Color Computer. 



John Wiley & Sons 

605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158 



$9.95 



TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

by DON IN MAN 



Explore the creative and imaginative blending of computers 
and color. This exciting book will enable you to explore 
all the graphics capabilities of Extended Color BASIC. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 
11480 Sunset Hills Rd., Reston, VA 22090 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS 

FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

by DON INMAN and KURT INMAN 

This book is specific to the TRS-80 Color Computer with 
applications using sound and graphics to illustrate how an 
assembler can be used to perform feats that would be quite 
difficult, if not impossible in the BASIC language. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 



DYMAX, P.O. 3 10, MENLO PARK,CA 94025 

Dymax orders must be prepaid via check, money order, Visa 
or Mastercard. Sorry, no Purchase Orders or COD orders. 
Please add $2.00 shipping and handling. California residents 
add 6% sales tax. /5PSi 



208 the RAINBOW October 1983 




But true! There is a disk 
drive in your Color Compu- 
ter . . . and it is faster and 
more efficient than any 
"hardware" drive you can 
buy, for any price. This new 
"disk drive" is called VDOS— 
for Virtual Disk Operating 
System— and it will absolutely 
revolutionize the way you 
operate your CoCo. 

VDOS lets you use the 
"extra" memory inside your 
CoCo as a virtual disk, with 
programs (any programs) 
stored out of the way, You 
can "save" and "load" pro- 
grams from your in-memory 



disk into working memory, 
and then run them. When 
you're done, you can simply 
access your in-memory disk 
again * . , and save or load 
another, and another. 

And VDOS is fast, 
Because you are using 
memory rather than a 
mechanical device (like a 
disk drive or cassette 
player), programs load 
instantly. Yes, VDOS is fas- 
ter than a disk! 

VDOS works with all 
Color Computers— from 
16K non-extended to 64K 
extended, Obviously, the 



more memory you have, the 
greater number {and 
length) of programs you 
can store. For a 64K sys- 
tem, VDOS also uses the 
"unused" part of memory, 
providing up to 50,000 
bytes of storage! Now, 
that's some disk! 

We call it VDOS because 
in the future there will be 
utilities for your VDOS 
UNDISK that will give even 
greater capabilities— such 
as a full one-pass memory 
dump to cassette. Other 
utilities are planned, too. 

We believe VDOS is the 



greatest advancement for 
CoCo since the introduc- 
tion of the disk drive itself. 
And, at less than $100, it is 
so inexpensive you can't 
afford to be without it. If 
you have the "cassette 
blues," VDOS is the answer! 

Finally, VDOS is simple to 
operate. It is entirely self- 
prompting and comes with 
a complete manual. But you 
almost don't even need the 
instructions— it requires 
absolutely no technical 
expertise. 

VDOS, The answer to 
your prayers. 



Cassette: $49.95 Add $1 .50 shipping 
and handling; Canadians add $5 lor 
shipping; Foreign points add $9. 
VISA and Master Card accepted. 
All Kentucky residents add 5% sales 
tax. Payments accepted in United 
States currency only. 




Dr. Preble's Programs 
6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 
{502)241-6474 
Deafer Inquiries Invited 



(;kaphk s 



The Young, The Old 
And Color LOGO 



By SI mm Bordus 



Helping children with LOGO is a rather tricky 
business. It is not a simple matter of reading 
and explaining the manual. Radio Shack's 
Color LOGO manual defines the role of the child as the 
explorer, and the role of the teacher as the guide. This 
challenging relationship requires much finesse. For a 
child to get the most out of LOGO, the helping adult 
needs to know when to guide and when not to. Some- 
times it is difficult to stay in the background. LOGO is 
so much fun that an enthusiastic adult can quite easily 

(Sharon Bardus is a third grade teacher at South- 
western City Schools, Columbus, Ohio. She holds 
a 8<S. in early and middle childhood education 
and an MA, in curriculum and foundations from 
Ohio State University, She and her husband, 
Glenn, self educational programs under the name 
of B5 Software.) 



and unintentionally "take over , M It requires willpower 
not to. 

If the adult intercedes too much, two negative results 
occur. First, the child is not allowed to go through the 
thinking processes to create an end product. In LOGO, 
the thinking processes are far more important than the 
actual program. Second, if too much help is given, the 
program becomes the parent s or teacher's and not the 
child's. Ownership is transferred. The child is robbed 
of the pride and self-esteem that comes with the com- 
pletion of a program . 

Knowing the history and theory behind LOGO 
should help an adult appreciate the significance and 
importance of LOGO, That information should, in turn, 
help the aduft deter mine how to guide the child better. 

In thesixties, working on mainframes in the artificial 
intelligence laboratories at MIT, many people helped 
to develop and experiment with LOGO. Seymour 



210 the RAINBOW October 1983 



6< 




Papert guided much of this work. Papert had spent five 
previous years working with child psychologist, Jean 
Piaget. Piaget's work has greatly influenced educa- 
tion. Behind most of his theories is the idea that child- 
ren will learn better by themselves, when there is a 
purpose or meaning to that learning that is useful to 
the child. 

Papert extended this idea to computers and child- 
ren. While programming in LOGO, children teach a 
computer how to think. This in turn improves a child's 
own thinking abilities. To draw lines, shapes and geo- 
metric patterns, children use important mathematical 
concepts without ever having had formal instruction in 
them They are able to do this because there is a need 
and a reason to do so + 

Children work with variables to change the number 
of repetitions, or the colors, or the degree of turns. 
Estimating distances must be done each time a fine is 
drawn or a turn is made. In a classroom math lesson, 
many youngsters are afraid to estimate. They are 
afraid of giving a wrong answer. \ r\LQGO, children will 



estimate readily and eagerly because there is a real 
r i < ■ f • < J rind pur posr b<?hmd M 

Working with proportions to make the desired shape 
look right, or to make the shape look right in relation- 
ship to something else helps to provide the building 
blocks for working with ratios. Turning the turtle 
requires an intuitive use of angles and degrees, 

LOGO provides numerous problems that children 
can solve with a thoroughness that is hard to find 
elsewhere. To "debut 1 " a program, a child must learn to 
break the problem into small components until the 
problem is identified and corrected. Self-correcting 
with a purpose becomes a natural phenomenon. Child- 
ren learn that errors can be beneficial because they 
lead us to study what happened and why. Thus, the 
processes of creating a program in LOGO far outweigh 
the importance of the end product/ 

With all this thinking going on T who would want lo 
interrupt it? Unfortunately, well-meaning adults are 
often overcome by their own enthusiasm. They inter- 
rupt the child's thinking because they visualize a dif- 
ferent end product, one that is fancier or more com- 
plex. Or, they want to show the young programmer a 
more efficient way to write the same program. Children 
are quite willing to let this happen, yet, the child's own 
discoveries are interrupted and the child passes owner- 
ship of the program over to the adult. 

* Papert, Seymour. Mindstorms, Children, Com- 
puters, and Powerful Ideas 



October 19B3 the RAINBOW 211 



OMVfes/ 



FREE RAINBOW 
POSTER For 
First 200 Tickets Sold. 



The fun and excitement o! RAINBOW- 
fast is com irtg. your way and now there 
will be a RAINBOWfest near youl 

For the19B3-84 season, we"ve scheduled 
four RAINBOWfests (n four parts of the 
country. Each one will offer fun, excite- 
ment, new products, seminars and infor- 
mation for your CoGol And for those who 
{perish the thought) don't like CoCo as 
much as you. we've scheduled each RAIN- 
BOW f&st in an area that will provide fun 
and enjoyment tor the whole family, 

i us: look at this great lineup: 

Fori Worth, Texas — October 14— f 6. 
We'll kick of1 the RAINBOWtest "season" 
with a visit to CoCo"s home — Radio 
Shack's headquarters in Fort Worth, Our 
CoCo Community Breakfast will feature 



And, we hope to be able to offer tours of 
Tandy Center f or those who will be at what 
promises to be an exceptional RAINBO W- 
tedrRlckoft, 

Long Beach, California — February 17- 

19. What away to get away from the winter 
doldrums! And what better pJace than sun- 
ny Southern California with thousands of 
fellow CoCo owners' Fly with CoCo to the 
sun for the winter Top flight seminars will 
draw on many local CoCo experts. 

Cherry Hill, New Jersey — April 6— S. 
Just 6.3 miles from the Liberty Bell, RAIN- 
BOWfesi comes to the populous north- 



east, it's a close drive from New York. Bos- 
ton* Philadelphia. Washington and Balti- 
more, 

Chicago — June 22—24. Well play RAIN- 
BOWiest again, CoCo! This is the site o1 
CoCo's very hrst $how this spring, And 
right next to the world's largest indoor 
shopping malt. 

Every show will be hetd at a Hyatt- 
Regency Hotel and all whi be offering spe- 
cial rates for RAtNBOWfest. Every show 
will open at 7—10 p m. Friday, run 10 
a m —6 p.m. Saturday and close with an 1 1 
a.m.— 4 p m session Sunday, Each will 
have a CoCo Community Breakfast featur- 
ing an outstanding national speaker from 
the Color Computer World And each exhi- 
bition will be interspaced with a number of 
seminar sessions on all aspects of CoCo 
—from writing In machine language to 
making your basic work better. 

But most of all* there will be exhibitors. 
Lots of them, AH ready to demonstrate 
products of every kind. Some with special 
programs and hardware items to intro- 
duce. Others with show specials. 

Tickets can be secured directly from the 
Rainbow, We'll also send you a special res- 
ervation form so you can get your special 
room rale. 

Come to RAINBOWfests - *;tielp us all 
celebrate CoCo Community at its finest! 



RAtNBOWiest-Hii Worth RAtNBOWfest- Long Beach RAtNBOWfest Chetry Hill, NJ RAtNBOWfest — Chicaw 

GATES Oct. 14—16. 1983 DATfS Feb 17-t9. 1984 DATES: April &-~4 1984 OATfS June 22-24 1984 

HOTEL Hyatt fegency. Ft Worth HOTEL Hyatt Regsncy. Long Beach HOTEL Regenty-Hya!! Cherry Hill HOTEL Regency Hyatt Woodlield 

ROOMS S&5 per night smglt/double ROOMS $59 p*f ruijhl Sfnqle/iiouble ROOMS. To Be Annuunceif ROOMS To fie Annnnnced 

KEYNOTE Mark yamanala KEYNOTE Buti Alhtscitt KEYNOTE: To Be Announced KEYNOTE: To Be Announced 

DifKclor tit Conpter Merchandising 

P&sanal Computet Products 

Mio Shack 

Advance Ticket Deadline Oct 10, 19B3 Advance Ticket Deadline Feb 13 1984 Advance Ticket Mine Mat 30 19W Advance Ticket Deadline June IB 1984 



oWfe s # 




Make cheeks payable to: 
the Rainbow 



MAIL TO: 

RAINBOWtest 
P.O. 80X 209 
Prospect, KY 40059 



YES, I'm coming to RAlNBOWfest in 

□—Ft. Worth 

Please send me: 

three day tickets at $8 each 

one day tickets at $6 each 

breakfast tickets at $1 1 each 



□—Long Beach □— Cherry Hill □— Chicago. 



total - 
total . 
total . 



$1.00 



Handling Charge 

TOTAL ENCLOSED (U.S. FUNDS ONLY. PLEASE} $ 

—Also send me a hotel reservation card for; 

□—Ft. Worth □— Long Beach □— Philadelphia □— Chicago 

NAME (please print) 

STREET & NUMBER 

CITY A STATE . 

TELEPHONE ZIP CODE 

COMPANY 



Orders sent less than two weeks prior to show opening will be held for you at the door 
VISA, MasterCharge, American Express accepted. 

My Account # Ex. Date: 

Signature 



RAINBOWfest Fort Worth 

Seminar Program And Speakers 



Don Inman Using And Teaching LOGO 

Don is one of the most respected names in the Color Computer field 
and an expert on graphic techniques in both BASIC and assembly 
language. His Using Graphics column appears monthly in \he 
Rainbow. 

Tim Purves Using Voice And Sound Synthesis 

Tim, who writes for Computer Shack, is the author of Fury and CIN. 

Steve Blyn Programming For Education 

Award-Winnjng Rainbow columnist and teacher, Steve has written 
dozens of educational programs for Computer Island. 

Frank Hogg Advanced Operating Systems 

Frank is a pioneer in OS-9 and FLEX systems and is president of Frank 
Hogg Laboratory. 

John Grabbard Writing Adventure Games 

John, who writes programs for Spectral Associates, is the author of 
Keys To The Wizard and Android Attack. 

Andy Larson Education and Software 

Development 

Andy, of Follett Library Book Company, has long been active in 
developing software for educational uses. 

Bill Nolan Fantasy Gaming And CoCo 

DungeonMaster, programmer and Rainbow Columnist, Bill has 
developed a complete Dungeons and Dragons program for CoCo. 

Tom Nelson Start Your Own Software Business 

Tom is a Rainbow columnist and one of the owners of Nelson Software 
Systems. 

Frank Brandon CoCo Business Applications 

Frank, who will be joined in this seminar by business programmer 
Dennis Mitchell, is principal of Color Software Services, a division of 
Brantex, Inc.. 

PLUS...RAINBOWfest's "CoCo Community" Breakfast 
featuring Mark Yamagata, Radio Shack's New Director Of 
Computer Merchandising for Personal Computer Products. 

Mr. Yamagata has just been appointed to this position, which among other responsibilities, has overall 
supervision for the Color Computer. This will be among his first public appearances in his new capacity. 
Additional seminars are planned as well. Admission to all seminars is at no charge. See registration form for 
admission prices to exhibit area and breakfast. 

GOME TO RAINBOWfest FORT WORTH —SEE COCO'S OWN 

HOMETOWN! 



Computer literacy, developing higher level thinking 
skills, increasing pride and self-esteem can result from 
using LOGO. To let this happen, a parent or teacher 
needs to be able to accept a program or the manner in 
which it is written as an expression of the child, at his or 
her own level. Healthy respect is an essential ingre- 
dient in any collaboration. 

Steeped in all this theory, I eagerly introduced my 
third graders to Color LOGO. I enthusiastically showed 
them the commands FD, BK, LT and RT, and I 
explained how to put numbers with the commands. As 
a class, we experi mented together unti I we reached the 
magical 90-degree turn. Then with more exploration 
we built a square. From a roomful of waving hands, I 
selected two "lucky" students to investigate the world 
of Color LOGO. Within minutes, the novice pro- 
grammers interrupted the class to find out why the 
computer did not understand their commands of up 
and down. Obviously, intervention was necessary. 

Young children have difficulty orientating them- 
selves to the direction the turtle will move on the 
screen. They do not realize commands such as for- 
ward or right can be any direction depending on the 
placement of the turtle. 

Using the body to do walk-through exercises is a 
good way to help children grasp the sense of direction 
required for LOGO. I had my class stand up and face 
the board. I told them to move forward three steps. 
Then turn right. They continued this movement three 
more times. After the last movement, the children were 
again facing the board. I asked them, "Were you facing 
the same way each time you moved forward or turned 
right?" The students then realized forward or right 
could really be any direction. We continued doing 
more walk-through exercises adding the commands 
backward and left. Body walk-throughs are a good way 
to help children orientate themselves to the screen 
turtle and think about movements they want the turtle 
to make. 

Explanation and guidance are definitely necessary 
when helping a child use LOGO. So, however, is time 
for thinking and self-discovery. A wise adult will bal- 
ance the two discreetly. 

Following are the first LOGO programs written by a 
nine-year-old boy, Jason Wright. Jason had had a few 
introductory lessons to LOGO. He had learned how to 
build a square with the class. He and my son Burt, age 
12, experimented to come up with the triangle. The 
circle command was taken from the manual. When 
Jason began typing in the command square repeat- 
edly, he was taught the repeat command and the turn 
command. He was also taught the color command. 
With these three shapes, and using the repeat and 
color commands, Jason developed these programs. 
Naming them was another enjoyable creative venture. 

Appreciate these programs as beginning programs 
written by and belonging to a nine-year-old. Let your 
child copy them, change the variables, explore, and 
experiment. Watch as they change into programs 
belonging to your son or daughter. Maybe he or she 
will let you name them. 

TO SQUARE 
FD 50 



RT 90 
FD 50 

RT 90 ' 
FD 50 

RT 90 , 
FD 50 
END 

TO TRI 

RT 90 

FD 80 

LT 130 

FD 75 

LT 110 

FD 65 
END 

TO CIRCLE * 

REPEAT 36(FD6RT10) 
END 

TO TOP HAT 

REPEAT 12 (PC 1 SQUARE RT 5) 
END 

TO PINWHEEL 

REPEAT 12 (PC 1 TR! RT 5) 
END 

TO SLINKY 

REPEAT 12 (PC 1 CIRCLE RT 5) 
END 

TO SQUARE-CIRCLE * 

SQUARE 

CIRCLE 
END 

TO ROSE 
BG 1 

REPEAT 18 (PC 3 
SQUARE-CIRCLE RT 8) 
END 

TO SCT 

SQUARE 

CIRCLE 

TRI 
END 

TO SAWBLADE 

REPEAT 20 (PC 1 SCT RT 6) 
END 

*Taken from manual 

: ^ 



See you at 
RAINBOWfest 

October 14—16 Fort Worth, Texas 



214 the RAINBOW October 1983 




Greetings! 

As you may remember, last month I was put in my place 
by a terrible thing. I was trying to make the machine draw a 
circle for me. I figured the most sensible way to draw a circle 
was to move forward one little step, turn to the right a 
degree, move forward another little step, and et cetera, 360 
times. So I gave my turtle the following instructions: 
TO CIRCLE 

REPEAT 360 (FD 1 RT 1) 
END 

But the dagnabbed turtle drew a stop sign instead. I couldn't 
figure out why until one night last week, right in the middle 
of a chess game with Bertha. It was my move, and I wanted 
to move my horse, and I started to think about all the kinds 
of hopping that three-legged chess horses can do. Then, sort 
of like one of those hallucinations, I started seeing a turtle 
right on the chessboard. If you told it to turn one degree to 
the right and at the same time move one square ahead, what 
would it do? Well, depending on the rules of the chessboard, 
it might do a number of things. But if the rules said it could 
only be in the middle of one square at a time, then when you 
told it to move one square forward while turning one degree 
right, it might be gradually turning to the right but for a long 
time it would have to keep hopping only into the square in 
front of it. 
Make sense? 

Let me draw the situation: 



1 


CM 


3 


8 


* 


4 


7 


6 


5 



On the first move the turtle could hop forward one square, 
but as long as it's moving forward, it only has three squares 
to choose from (square 1 , in front and to the left; square 2, 
directly in front; and square 3, in front and to the right). 
Well, obviously the turtle will keep hopping to the square 
directly in front of it until all those one degree turns add up 
to enough that it is inspired to hop to the square in front and 
to the right. How much is that? Well, if each time it hops a 
square it points one more degree to the right, then it will be 
pointing directly at the square in front and to the right after 
45 hops (adding up to 45 degrees). That means that once it's 
pointing at about 22 and a half degrees, it should be ready to 
make its leap to the square in front and to the right. It should 
keep on leaping to the next square (each time front/ right) 
until the number of accumulated degrees makes it turn 
enough so that it can begin leaping to square 4. 

That more or less makes sense. I decided to check my 
reasoning by making the turtle trace over the stop sign a few 
steps at a time. Doing that, I found that each of the turns was 
45 degrees. That seemed reasonable, since the centers of 
those boxes should be 45 degrees apart from each other. 
But — but — but I found that half the sides were about 60 
steps long and the rest were about 43 steps long. Altogether 
that adds up to some 412 steps, instead of the 360 1 expected. 

Weird! I keep thinking about a turtle on ice skates who is 
trying to make a turn but sliding and sliding and sliding until 
all at once he makes a nice big turn. One thing I thought was 
that maybe the boxes weren't really squares after all, but 
rectangles — that would explain why the sides of my stop 
sign were not all the same length. But why should the 
instructions "REPEAT 360 (FD 1 RT 1)" produce a figure 
that I can trace over almost exactly by telling the turtle to 
make a few 45 degree turns here and there and 412 forward 
steps? Of course, I could always say that the turtle has a bug. 
Anybody out there have a better explanation? 

I also lost the chess game — and I blame it entirely on the 




C.C. DIALER 



Let your Co. Co. do the "walking". 

Turn your computer into an automatic 
telephone dialer. 

Generate touch tones from C.C.'s keyboard 
or stored directory. 

Save, load and modify directories on tape 
or disk. 

Requires Extended Basic and Touch Tone 
phone service. 

CASSETTE VERSION - $29.95 
WISK VERSION - $34.95 



Send cheque or money order to: 

CHRIS COMPUTERS 
6299 Alderwood Lane 
Delta, B.C. Canada V4E 3E7 



18. C. "RaudanU include 6% Saiei Tax) 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 215 



distraction of thinking about turtles. I lost both my knights 
faster than you can imagine (after nefarious footwork on the 
part of certain pawns and others). But I'll tell you one thing. 
The turtle doesn't do very well when you tell it to make little 
steps and turns. It's got ice skates. So, maybe we should try 
to make a "circle" with bigger steps and bigger angles (we'll 
really have a polygon, but maybe it'll look like a circle). 

TO CIRCLE2 

REPEAT 36 (FD 8 RT 10) 

END 

That looks okay. Let's try to get fancier. How about making 
it circle around itself? 

TO CIRCIR 

REPEAT 36 (CIRCLE2) 

END 

Whoops! I forgot to reorient it each time. How about this? 
TO CIRCIR2 

REPEAT 36 (CIRCLE2 RT 10) 
END 

Neat! Looks like a jelly doughnut. How about a real 
doughnut? 

TO CIRCIR3 

REPEAT 36 (GIRCLE2 RT 10 FD 10) 
END 

Not very good ! Can you do better? I'm going to play around 
with the angle and the forward step in "CIRCIR3." 
TO CIRCIR4 

REPEAT 36 (CIRCLE2 RT 10 FD 20) 
END 



COLOR 

COMPUTER 
Buyers Ckjb 

•Members enjoy a 30 - 40% savings on software! 

• More being added monthly! 

• Hardware & accessories at substantial savings! 

• Monthly specials and reviews! 

• Special orders service for members! 

• No service charge for VISA or MC! 

• Your savings can far exceed your dues! 

Join Today And Start Saving! 

Dues are $22.50 - We accept 



\ 

Personal Checks, M.O. or Charge It! [ 



NAME 



ADDRESS 
CITY 



□ VISA □ MC Exp. Date 
Mail to: 



STATE 



.ZIP . 



Color Computer Buyers Club 

P.O. Box 241 

Eaton Rapids, Ml 48827 



Still needs work. How about moving the turtle over on the 
screen before starting the whole thing? Did I mention that 
the turtle will move without leaving a line if you instruct it 
"pen up" ("PIT stands for "pen up" "PD" for "pen down")? 
TO CIRCIR5 

PU LT 90 FD 105 RT 90 PD 

CIRCIR4 

END 

Pretty good, but couM be better. You make it better, 
okay? Moving right along, let's try to doughnut a diamond. 
A diamond might be something like this: 

TO DIAMOND 

FD 45 RT 40 

FD 45 RT 140 

FD 45 RT 40 

FD 45 RT 140 

END 

I guess if we're working in the same fashion as we did with 
the circle, we might first try spinning it. How would I do 
that? I'm thinking, I'm thinking. Well, maybe if at the end of 
each diamond I reorient the turtle a little and have it draw 
another. Let's say I'll reorient the turtle five degrees to the 
left— how many times do I have to redraw it to make a 
complete diamond circle? 

TO DI AMONDCIR 

REPEAT 72 (DIAMOND LT 5) 

END 

Well, that was okay. Ben likes it, I think. He's been 
watching the screen and then licking my toes, and darn, it 
tickles! One thing about having a linguistical dog, you don't 
have to bathe nearly as much as ordinary people. Dear Ben! 
Don't anybody tell me animals don't have feelings or sense. 
This dog's all sweetness and light, except for sometimes a 
shade of melancholy around the eyes and a little mischief. 
Anyhow, let's now try for a diamond doughnut. How did I 
do the circle doughnut? Let's do something similar: 
TO DIADOUGH 

REPEAT 72 (DIAMOND LT 5 FD 5) 
END 

Well, that was not too terrible. I think I might try some- 
thing with pen up and pen down and see if I can sneak that 
diamond over and keep it pointing directly outward. Mean- 
while, I hear thunder. Aunt Bertha's calling. I hope she 
hasn't run into any more bristles. She tells me she'll never 
ever speak to me again if I mention the pig incident one more 
time. How was I to know the pig would roust himself at the 
worst possible moment? By the way, did you see the excel- 
lent comparison of the various forms of Logo and the turtle 
graphics programs in the August issue of Popular Comput- 
ing? If you didn't, I recommend you check it out. Especially 
you, Doug! I remain, 

Uncle Bert 

P.S. You can send your cards and letters to me in care of my 
good friend Dale Peterson. Just address them like this: 

Uncle Bert Woofensburger 

the Rainbow 

9529 U.S. Highway 42 

P.O. Box 209 

Prospect, KY 40059 



216 the RAINBOW October 1983 




TRS-80C®and TDP lOO® SPECIALISTS 

COLORFORTH® 

IS THERE LIFE AFTER BASIC? Yes! with COLORFORTH, a new, high level language for the color computer. 
COLORFORTH, a figFORTH compiler, has an execution time as much as lO to 20 times faster than Basic, 
and can be programmed faster than Basic. COLORFORTH is highly modular for easy testing and debug- 
ging. COLORFORTH has been specially customized for the color computer and requires only 16K. It does 
not require Extended Basic. When you purchase COLORFORTH,you receive both cassette and RS/DISK 
versions, the figEDITOR and an extensive instruction manual. Both versions and 75 page manual, all for 
only $ 49.95 

PCFORTH 

FORTH for the IBM PC®and Zenith Z-lOO® All the features of COLORFORTH, but customized for the IBM 
and Zenith Z-lOO personal computers. Requires 32K and MS/DOS or IBM/PCDOS. On 5-1/4" SSDD 
diskette. Complete with 75 page manual, just $ 59.95 

^j^tf %m MASTER MIXOLOGIST® 

^ The Bartenders' Guide 

This disk based program for the color computer contains recipes for over 150 of your favorite bar drinks- 
both alcoholic and non-alcoholic. MASTER MIXOLOGIST is menu driven for ease of use. Requires 16K 
and one RS/DOS drive. Get this one today, it will be great for your next party $ 19.95 

ARMADILLO BUG® 
MACHINE LANGUAGE MONITOR 

More and more programs are appearing in magazines written in Machine Language. Now with AR- 
MADILLO BUG, you can easily enter Machine Language programs without a lot of time consuming 
"pokes". ARMADILLO BUG is an excellent system for beginners to learn to write and debug their own 
Machine Language programs as well. This package includes: Memory examine and change; Move; 
Punch and Load; Fill commands; and more! Runs in 16K, and DOES NOT require Extended Basic. Com- 
plete on cassette with printed manual. Just $ 14.95 

COLOR BIORHYTHMS 

This is a neat BIORHYTHMS program you can use to chart the future (or past). Includes High Resolution 
graphics without Extended Basic being required. Runs in 16K. On cassette, with instructions ... $ 10.95 

OTHER ITEMS OF INTEREST 

"STARTING FORTH", a book by Leo Brodie. The best introductory Forth text available. 384 pages. 
Soft cover $ 16.00 

figFORTH Installation Manual. Contains FORTH model, glossary, memory map, and 

instructions $ 15.00 

figFORTH 6809 Source Listing. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT IDENTICAL TO COLORFORTH SOURCE). Requires in- 
stallation manual for implementation $ 15.00 

BUY BOTH at the same time and SAVE! ! Both for $ 25.00 

"Computers Piss Me Off". Wear the official programmers badge. Large 2-1/4" yellow button says it all ! 

Post paid $ 1.50 

"I %f My Color Computer". White button with black lettering and red heart. 2-1/4". 

Post paid, only $ 1.50 

DEALER and AUTHOR INQUIRES INVITED 
Please add $ ZOO shipping in U.S. Texas residents add 5 % 

Foreign orders must be in U.S. funds drawn on U.S. banks, or Mastercard and VISA 



ARMADILLO INTL SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 7661 

AUSTINJEXAS 78712 PHONE (512)835-1088 







32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 
DISK $30.95 



By Rugby Circle 



We've done it again! You thought The 
King was great? Wait 'til you see this!! 
Outstanding high resolution graphics, 
tremendous sound make this "Joust" 
type game a must for your software col- 
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ARCADE ACTION GAMES 



8!T5 RI1D SITES OF 8R5IC 



ON USING 




By Richard A. White 
Rainboiv Contributing Editor 



In many programs, readability and understandability of 
the data sent to screen or printer requires an output in 
different form than the way the data is stored in the 
computer. For example, dollar amounts may be typed in a 
number of different ways and stored accordingly in the 
computer. For the output, we want these values all printed 
in the same format and aligned on the decimal point. The 
following table will give you an idea of what this means. 

INPUT DESIRED OUTPUT 

123.2 $123.20 
4231$ 4,231.00 
-22.78 $-22.78 

BASIC routines to convert a number to a stringand format 
it to the desired form could be written. Why bother when 
PRINT USING in Extended BASIC is there to do it for you? 
PRINT USING gives you wide flexibility in formatting 
numbers and some string formatting capabilities as well. In 
the text of this column we will describe how PRINTUSING 
works, and some of the jobs it can do. The listing at the end is 
a tutorial and practice program that covers each PRINT 
USING form in a step by step way, shows how PRINT 
USING responds to various inputs and lets you try various 
inputs of your choice. Save the program to tape or disk and 
call it up in the future when you want to use PRINT USING 
and need a refresher, or need to test if what you want to do 
will work. Educators may find some ideas here for writing 
tutorial programs of their own on other subjects. 

PRINT USING needs two pieces of data to work. It needs 
to know how you want the output formatted and it needs to 
have the data to be output. Here is the basic syntax for 
outputting a number: 

PRINT USING "#####";D 

D is the variable containing the number. is a 

string that tells PRINT USING the format. 1 will call it the 



(Richard White has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC programming. 
With Don Dollberg, he is the author of the TIMS data 
base management program, ) 



"format string" from now on. In this case, "#####" says 
"print D as an integer number with up to five digits. Here are 
some examples. 

D FORMATTED OUTPUT 

345 345 

345.89 346 

23456.4 23456 
Note that the output is aligned right and that the decimal 
part has been rounded. This is true rounding as opposed to 
1NT() a °d F1X() which only chop the excess. By the way , 0.5 
rounds up to 1 .0, while 0.49999 rounds down to 0.0. 

PRINT USING works from your keyboard as well as 
from a BASIC program, so fire up CoCo and let's get some 
action along with the reading. Type in the following: 
D- 12345.6 
OK 

S$= u $##.###.##" 
OK 

The computer now has some data, 1 2345.67, and a format 
string named S$ in memory. The format string "$##,###.##" 
will tell PRINT USING to print a $ on the left, allow space 
for five integer and two digits after the decimal point, print a 
command when there are more than three integer digits and 
print a decimal point with two digits to its right. Let's try it 
on the keyboard. Type PRINT USING S$;D and press 
ENTER. 

PRINT USING S$;D 

$12,345.60 

OK 

It worked and it's easy. Here is something else that works 
Press CLEAR and type PR1NT@100, USING S$D 
ENTER. 

PRINT @100,USING S$;D 
$12,345.60 

OK 

This means that you can print a formatted output exactly 
where you want it on the screen. And don't forget using a ; 
after D to hold the cursor position to the end of the last 
character printed and avoid wiping off other things printed 



220 the RAINBOW October 1983 



PETROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 



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Bowling Secretary 



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Most Common Suffixes and Prefixes. 
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on the same line. You can show this from the keyboard by 
typing CLEAR and then PRINT@100, USING S$D;D; 
ENTER. 

PRINT@100, USING S$;D; 
$12,345.60OK 

CoGo can output to screen, cassette, printer and disk. It 
turns out that PRINT USING will send formatted data to 
any of these devices. If you have a printer, turn it on and type 
PRINT#-2, USING S$;D and press ENTER. 

PRINT #-2, USING S$;D 

OK 

Your printer will have printed $12,345.60 

Here are two other keyboard exercises to demonstrate 
other PRINT USING properties. You type the lines indi- 
cated and the computer does the rest. 
You Type E=34.2 

OK You Type PRINT USING S$;E;D 

$ 34.20512,345.60 

OK 

The computer allocated the same number of print positions 
for each number. The unused positions before the three were 
filled with spaces. The number of print positions is equal to 
the length of the formatting string. When it is not approp- 
riate to print a character in the formatting string like the 
comma when the number has only two integers, PRINT 
USING prints a space. But, the numbers run together above 
and do not make a clear printout. One way to solve this is to 
provide PRINT C XY, USING statements separately to print 
E and D. But, there is another way. Try this at your 
keyboard. 

You Type S$=" $##,###.##" 

OK You Type PRINT USING S$;E;D 
$ 34.20 $12,345.60 

Much better. Any ASCII characters can precede or follow 
the number formatting characters and will be printed as 
typed into the formatting string. 
You Type S$="$##,###.## PAID" 

OK You Type D=234.75 

OK You Type PRINT USING S$;D 

$ 234.75 PAID 

OK 

If you have been typing along with me you should have 
the basic PRINT USING idea and syntax well in hand. Let's 
now look at the various formatting options PRINT USING 
gives us. Each is accomplished by configuring the format 



string in a specific way. Examples of each type of format are 
included in the tutorial and practice program at the end of 
this article. Below is the practice code only. I recommend 
that you type it in now. Then, I will assume that you are 
running this program and can call each string, enter data 
and see result as the discussion continues. 

10 CLS: DIMS$(20): S$(2)="#####.###": S$(l )="#####": 

S$(3)="##,###.##": S$(4)="**,###.##": S$(5)="$####.##": 

S$(6)="$$###.##+": S$(7)="**$###.##+": S$(8)="+##.##": 

S$(10)=-##.##": S$(9)="AMOUNT $$#.##!???": S$(14) 
kk | « 

11 S$(12)="%%": S$(13)="%%": S$( 11 )="##.##" : NO$= 
"things to note;" 

100 CLS: F0RX=1T013STEP2: PRINTX;S$(X) ;TAB 
(16)(X+1)S$(X$+1): NEXT 

120 PRINT@224,"ENTER STRING #";: INPUTS 

125 PRINT@224,S$(S): PRINT"ENTER DATA ";:LINE 

INPUTDS: PRINT 

130 IFVAL(D$)O0 THEN D=VAL(D$): PRINTSS(S): 
PRINT USING S$(S);D ELSEPRINTSS(S): PRINT 
USING S$(S);D$ 

140 INPUT dATA sTRING";A$ PRINT@224,„„„„„„: 
IFA$="S"THEN 120 ELSE 125. 

When you RUN this program, it prints the internally 
defined format strings (lines 10 and 11), and asks you to 
enter the number of the string you wish to work with. Your 
display should look like this: 



1 

3 
5 
7 
9 
11 



##### 
##,###.## 
$####.## 
**$###.##- 
AMOUNT 
##.##?! ft 



$$#.## 



13% % 

ENTER STRING #? 



2 ####.### 
4 **,###.## 

6 $$###.##+ 

7 +##.## 
10 -##.## 
12 %% 
14 ! 



A number of these format strings have been discussed or 
should be fairly obvious from what we have already said. 
One PRINT USING property common to all number for- 
matting strings is overflow. Let's see it work. 

ENTER STRING #? You Type 1 <ENTER> 

##### 

ENTER DATA You Type 123456 <ENTER> 
%123456 

dATA STRING? 

The format string, #####, was set up for five digits. We gave 



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it six and it responded % 123456. In this case, the computer 
can do no right. When it prints what it did, your presenta- 
tion will likely be fouled up. If it chops a digit from either 
end* the value printed is meaningless. Rounding doesn't help 
since six digits are still necessary to communicate the size of 
the number. 123000 and 123456 are the same order of mag- 
nitude and could be interchangeable for some engineering 



"BASIC routines to convert a number to a 
string and format it to the desired form could 
be written. Why bother when PRINT US- 
ING in Extended BASIC is there to do it for 
you? PRINT USING gives you wide flexibil- 
ity in formatting numbers and some string 
formatting capabilities as well " 



applications, but six digits are still required. One way out is 
to lengthen the format string to, say, #######. This now 
provides for seven characters. Another way, in applications 
where rounding to a preset number of significant figures is 
acceptable, is to use String 11. 

ENTER STRING #? You Type 1 1 <ENTER> 

##.##tttt. 

ENTER DATA 123456 



This can deal with any size number that CoCo can handle. 
Two digit spaces left of the decimal point are required to 
hande a digit and a minus sign when the number is negative. 
Up to eight digits right of the decimal point could be speci- 
fied. You can also use it with other formatting characters. 
For example, a string $##.##! 1 1 1 ■ and 123456 for data will 
print $ 1 .23e+05. However, I can hear our accountant read- 
ers screaming NO! NO! NO! 

String 4, **,###.## will print up to five digits left of the 
decimal point. If less than five digits need be printed, the 
unneeded digit spaces are filled with *s. 

ENTER STRING #? You Type 4 <ENTER> 

**,###.## 

ENTER DATA You Type 1234 <ENTER> 
♦1,234.00 

This notation Can be used with a "$" to print an amount on a 
check that cannot be easily altered. 

ENTER STRING #? You Type 7 <ENTER> 

**$###.##_ 

ENTER DATA You Type 123.7 <ENTER> 
**$123.70 

And while we are dealing with money, let's put the dollar 
sign immediately before the leftmost digit and NOT fill out 
with *s. 

ENTER STRING #? You Type 6 <ENTER> 
$$,###;##+ 

ENTER DATA You Type 123.7 <ENTER> 
$123.70+ 

PRINT USING will print a minus sign left of the leftmost 



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DISK DRIVE PACKAGES, etc. 



DATA-COMP s FLEX9 Conversion for the TRS-80C Color Computer was designed for the 
SERIOUS COMPUTER USER; with features like greatly increased Display Screens WITH 
Lower Case Letters, so you can put a FULL Menu on ONE Screen, or see SEVERAL Para 
graphs at the same time, with features liKe providing a FULL Keyboard so you have FULL 
Control of your Computer AND it s Programs NATURALLY without needing a chart to see what 
Key Combination will give you what function: with USER ORIENTED functions to make usin§ 
the Operating System natural, like having the Computer AUTOMATICALLY determine what 
type of Disk is being used in what type of Disk Drive and working accordingly, rather that you 
have to specify each and every thing for it. or like having the Computer work with the Printer you 
have been using all along without you having to tell the new Operating System what is there. etc 

™ FLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants 

P.O. Box 794 HIXSON, TN 37343 



These Packages include the Radio Shack Disk Controller Disk Drives with Power Supply and 
Cabinet, and Disk Drive Cable: 
PAK #1 — 1 Single Sided. Double Density Sys 
PAK #2 2 Single Sided Double Density Sys 
PAK #3 1 Double Sided. Double Density Sys 
PAK #4 2 Double Sided. Double Density Sys. 
PAK #5 — 2 Qume Thmlme Double Sided Double Density Sys 
„ u „ ' „ PARTS AND PIECES 

Radio Shack Disk Controller $179.95 
1 Single Sided Double Density Disk Drive Tandon $249 95 

1 Double Sided Double Density Disk Drive Qume $349 95 

1 Qume Thmlme Double Sided. Double Density $279 95 



$489.95 
$749.95 
$569.95 
$919.95 
$749.95 



Screen Clean — Clears Up Video Distortion On Your Color Computer 

Single Drive Cabinet with Power Supply 
Double Drive. Cabinet with Power Supply 
Smgie Drive Disk Cable for RS Controller 
Double Drive Disk Cable. for. RS Controller . 
Micro Tech. Prods.. Inc. LOWER CASE ROM Adapter 
Radio Shack BASIC Version 1.1 ROM 
Radio Shack Extended Basic ROM 



$39.95 
$89 95 
S 109 95 
S24 95 
S34 95 
S74.95 
S34.95 
S89 95 



DATA-COMP 



1-615-842-4601 



224 the RAINBOW October 1983 



digit when numbers are negative and the 
format string does not give other instruc- 
tions. Remember to allow for this when 
you are calculating how long a number 
to make the format string for. You can 
force a sign to be printed and cause it to 
print on either the left or the right of the 
number. Accountants like signs to be on 
the right of the number in some instan- 
ces. String 7 was used above. Its form is 
**$###.##-. The at the right causes 
the sign to print at the right only if it is 
negative. Compare the following to the 
example above. 

ENTER STRING #? You Type 7 <ENTER> 
**$###.##- 

ENTER DATA You Type -123.7 <ENTER> 
**$123.70- 

The example using String 6, above, 
printed a "+" after the number. This was 
forced by the "+" at the right of the 
string, $$###.##+. A on the left like 
in +##.## will cause a sign, either a "+" 
or a "-" to always print left of the 
number. Now here is a weird one. If the 
format string is -##.##, a minus sign will 
always print left of the number irrespec- 
tive of whether the number is positive or 
negative. If anyone can figure out where 
to use that one, let the Rainbow know. 

We noted before that ASCII charac- 
ters other than those that effect format- 
ting can be included in the format 
string. Now we will look at a couple of 
format strings that work on other 
strings rather that on numbers. 
ENTER STRING #? You Type 1 4 <ENTER> 
i 

ENTER DATA You Type JOHN <ENTER> 
J 

So that gets the first letter of a word and 
prints it only. If you want more of the 
string, use %% or % % as the format 
string. Each "%" reserves one character 
space. Spaces are added between the 



two %s to extend the format string to as 
many characters as you need. The string 
is aligned left. Here are two examples. 
ENTER STRING #? You Type 1 3 <ENTER> 
% % ENTER DATA You Type Jim <ENTER> 
Jim 

ENTER STRING #? You Type 13 <ENTER> 

% % 

ENTER DATA You Type Lonnie <ENTER> 
Lonnie 

Please remember that when printing a 
string, the data is held in a string varia- 
ble. The PRINT USING statement must 
be coded accordingly. 

PRINT USING S$;D$ 

Finally we mentioned that PRINT 
USING can be used to format data sent 
to a tape or disk file. The topic is 
covered very briefly in the CoCo Disk 
System Manual. Following is a short 
program to save dollar amounts to tape 
(if you want to use a disk drive, just 
change each - 1 to 1 ) and then read them 
back in and print them. 
10 OPEN^Vl/TEST" 
20 INPUTA:PRINT #-l,USING"$##, 

###.##";A:IF AO THEN20 
30 CLOSE 

40 PRINT"RE WIND, SET TO PLAY 
AND PRESS ^NTER^': 
INPUTA 

50 OPEN'TV 1 ,"TEST" 

60 IFEOF(-l)THENCLOSE:END 

70 INPUT#-l,A$:PRINTA$:GOTO60 

Note well that while numbers can be 
saved from a numeric variable, they are 
saved as strings and must be read back 
into a string variable. Also, while PRINT 
USING does not change a number or 
string in memory, it does change if it is 
used to put that data to tape or disk. 
There must be a creative use for this 
somewhere. 





ROAR! 



Do tricks with your computer without 
breaking your wallet's spiritl A subscrip- 
tion toChromasettegetsyou a tape or 
disk full of quality programs delivered by 
First Class Mail every month! Write for 
more information or, better yet, try a Back 
Issue. At S6.00 for 6 to 8 programs on 
tape | S1 1.00 on disk), you'll see just how 
good and inexpensive Chromasette 
software is. 

The Bottom Line: Tape Disk 

1 year (12 issues) $50.00 $95.00 
6 months (6 issues) $30.00 $55.00 
Single Issues $ 6.00 $11.00 



Calif, residents add 6% to single issues. First Class postage to 
N. Amer. included. Overseas add SI0 to subscriptions and SI to 
single issues. Sent AO rate. All back issues from July 1981 avail- 
able—ask for list. Programs are for the Extended BASIC model 
and occasionally for disks. 




m &vcoma±e±tE 

RO. Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 
(805) 963-1066 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 225 



RAINBOW REVIEWS 




Adventure In Wonderland 

Alice Is At Least A Prickly-Pear Software 241 

Amdlsk III 

Small Drives, Big By\e/Amdek Corp 283 

Beyond Words 

Just As The Name Implies/Computer Island 242 

Chroma Keys 

Let Your Fingers Do The Walking/Chroma Systems Group 236 

CoCo Mall 

Not First C\ass/ Reitz Computers & Electronics 267 

Color Graphics Editor 

Will Help You Build Characters/CoCo Warehouse 228 

Color Monitor 

Help For ML Programmers/Tom Mix Software 258 

Colorout 

A Versatile Blockbuster Of A Gar\)e/Spectral Associates 271 

Color Scribe 

Here's A Good One For Hi re/ Compute/ware 278 

First Sampler 

The Good, The Bad And The Ugly/Trie Dataman 262 

By A. Buddy Hogan 

Fury 

Good Color, Good Graphics, Good Sound/ Computer Shack . 256 

HJL-57 Keyboard 

It Has The Answer/HJL Products 234 

Kaleidophone 

An Array Of Color, Sound And Instruction/A/ew Salem Research 260 

Master Control II 

Fulfills Its Promise/CoCo Warehouse 248 

Math Adventure 

Could Be An Educational Treasure/ The Software Factory 252 

Motorbike Challenge 

It Provides Cheap Thrills/M/crocom Software 250 

The Mouse 

It Stands A\one/Radio Shack 250 

ML92 Printer 

Quality, Speed and Compactness/Ofc/dafa inc 227 

Payup And Payout 

Some Strengths And A Few Weaknesses/So/fware Sector 244 

By David Johnson 
Pie Zapper 

All Cherry (No Lemons r No Apptes}/Sotyfr?em Software Systems 272 

Program File 

Sort, Search, Delete And Save/O wf's Nest Soft ware 276 

Rainbow-Writer 

Good "Hues 11 For This Word Processor/fla/nbow Connection Software 230 

By Dr. Charles Santee 
Score-EZ 

Is Easy To Use/JARB Software 245 

Statgraf 

A Powerful Regression Analysis Package/Sugar Software 240 

Stereo Composer 

Composing Music [n Stereo/Speech Systems 274 

Super Color Writer II 

Lives Up To Its Name/A/e/sor? Software 280 

By Stuart Hawkinson 
Super Screen 

High Res And Much More/Mark Data Products 254 

VDUMP 

A Must For VDOS Users/Or, Preble's Programs 238 

By Frank J. Esser 

Wild Party 

For The Daring/8&B Software 270 



226 Ihe RAINBOW October 1963 



i 



Hardware Review! 



Okidata's ML92: Quality, 
Speed And Compactness 



The previous line of printers by Okidata, the Microline80 
series, offered the CoCo user a rugged, high quality printer 
with economical ribbon (spools, not cartridge) replacement 
and a "no extra cost" serial interface. What is the incentive 
for going to the ML92 printer? There is quite a bit, but alas, 
with some penalties! 

Let's hit the most important subject for CoCo users first, 
the serial interface. Early literature and distributor ads indi- 
cated that the new printers were available with either paral- 
lel or serial, not both, interfaces at the same price. Unfortu- 
nately, when ordering time came, it was apparent that the 
only way the printer came was with a parallel interface and 
optional extra cost serial board. I don't know why Okidata 
changed its strategy, but I feel the extra cost was justified. As 
a previous happy ML82A owner, I am now a very pleased 
ML92 owner. 

Now let's get down to some of the goodies that justify 
(right justify, even) the cost, First, the new printers are fast, 
160 cps at 10 cpi (10 pitch). This rate is even more impressive 
if you set printer and computer to a 2400 Baud rate, as 
opposed to the normal 600 Baud. With the 2K buffer in the 
printer, the printing is full speed bidirectional with no pause. 

For type styles, or fonts, there are 5, 6, 8.5, 10, 12 and 17.5 
pitch. These are all available in the data processing mode, 
which is the fastest. These can be printed at enhanced {Vi dot 
vertical) or emphasized O/2 dot horizontal) double strike. 
Underline, subscripts and superscripts are supported. 

Where the ML92 really shows its colors is the correspon- 
dence mode. This replaces the data processing font with one 
which is a close approximation to standard typewriter char- 
acters. The letters are formed in two passes. This is not the 
same as double strike. Some of the dots are printed on the 
first pass, then the letters are completed on the second pass. 
This has to be seen to be appreciated. The effect is to 
eliminate the dot matrix look from your final printed letters, 
term papers, etc. The descenders do not have the stunted 
appearance of Radio Shack printers. The print speed is 
reduced to 40 cps to accomplish this feat and the 17.5 pitch 
cannot be used. 

Vertical and horizontal form controls are very complete. 
These include tabs, form length, dot tabs, print start, and left 
margin. Correspondence mode supports proportional spac- 
ing between characters with the appropriate software. 

In the dot graphics mode, seven pins out of nine can be 
addressed, which requires only printer codes from 0 to 127 
(seven bits). There are control codes for entering and exiting 
graphics without having to pre-specify the number of graph- 
ics characters to be printed. For this privilege, there is a 
slight quirk. The CHR$(3) is not printed. In fact, trying to 
print CHR$(3)CHR$(2) will return to the text mode. Solu- 
tion: in software, detect that a C H R$(3) is to be printed, then 
send it twice. Dot resolution is up to 72 by 72 dots per inch, 
which can fill an %Vi" xlT sheet with the full PMODE4 
screen at 3 x 3 dots per pixel. Uhfortunately, the TRS-80 6 
block graphics are not provided , they stayed with the ML80 
series. j" 

Need Greek or Hebrew? Then make your own characters 



using the Down-line Loadable Character Generator 
(DLCG). This is custom programming with a resolution of 7 
vertical dots by 1 1 horizontal half dots. Up to 96 characters 
may be stored in the printer. 

On the mechanical side, the Okidata printers are very 
rugged and their printing precision appears to hold up. The 
paper feed pins are on the platen which means you don't 
waste a sheet of paper whenever you start to print. An 
optional tractor attachment is available to print narrow 
paper or labels. 

You will probably have to install the serial board yourself. 
It is essentially piggyback on the parallel board. The only 
trick is to watch that no wires get pinched when all the 
screws are finally tightened down. With the serial board in 
there is no longer access to the parallel connector. While you 
are at it, the ability to externally switch between 600 and 
2400 Baud may be made by soldering two wires across dip 
switch SW6 on the serial board. These are connected to a 
SPST switch that can be conveniently mounted on the plate 
used to cover the parallel port. 

There are two versions of the instruction manual. The 
correct one is fully typeset with good quality illustrations. If 
you receive the manual with Okidata type printing, contact 
Okidata for a replacement. 

Overall, the ML92 is a compact, high quality printer that 
should have a long life and provide sufficient versatility for 
most users. 

(Okidata, Inc., Ill Gaither Drive, Mount Laurel, NJ 08054, 
$699) 

—Joseph Kohn 




THE NEXT BEST THING TO A DISK DRIVE" 



["IF YOU ARE TIRED OF WAITING FOR THOSE TAPES TO LOAD, I STRONGLY 
RECOMMEND THAT YOU BUY THIS FINE UTILITY." 
The RAINBOW, July 1983 
". . . A REAL TREAT FOR THOSE WITHOUT DISK SYSTEMS." 
Hot Coco, October 1983 



Saves and loads cassette tiles at 3000 baud (double normal speed) 
Uses high-speed (POKE 65495,0) mode, makes it convenient to stay in this mode 
throughout 

Automatic adjustment of cassette and printer parameters when speed mode is 
changed 

Control-key functions for many Basic commands and for changing speed modes 
Compatible with Basic, ML, or ASCII tape fifes (convert those long ones to double 
speedl] 

Transparent to Basic; takes up just V? K of your valuable memory 



1 6K casseHe ■'■ -. $2195 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 



THE PEEPER"^ 



This ML utility makes it possible to inspect any desired part of memory WHILE BASIC OR 
MLPROGRAMS ARE RUNNING (uses interrupts to run "along side" of anotherprogram). 
Flip through memory using arrow keys, in any of Coco's 26 documented display modes. 
Freeze the action, or slow it to a crawl. Unlock the secrets of arcade animation effects! 
See what Basic is doing "behind the scenes"! A superb learning/debugging aid for ML 
programmers (prints out registers and stackon command), or the just plain curious. "A 
Guided Tour Through Coco's Memory" (included) will show you the way. 



16K 



cassette (copyable to disk) $16.95 

with assembler listing $19,95 



SPECTROSYSTEMS 




Florida residents add 5% 



11111 N. Kendall Drive, 
Suite A 108 
Miami, Florida 33176 
(305) 274-3899 
CompuServe 72355,407 j 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 227 



Software RevleifS^^^^^^^^^^^ffG\ 

Use CGE To 
Build Character(s) 

After being around computers for a while, I'm sure that 
you have heard of "word processing" and have a pretty fair 
idea of what some of the uses of a "text editor" are. Great! 
Now, how about guessing what a graphics editor is used for? 
You've got it; a graphics editor can be thought of as a "word 
processor" for creating graphics. CoCo Warehouse has 
recently introduced one of these editors which they appro- 
priately named Color Graphics Editor, designed specifically 
for the Color Computer. 

Color Graphics Editor (CGE) is a utility program de- 
signed to help create animated graphics figures on the 
screen. It is a machine language program which allows the 
advanced programmer to work in color graphics modes 
G6R, G6C, G3C or G2C. 

After loading the program from disk or cassette, the 
programmer is given a choice of graphics mode to work in 
and color set for the particular graphics mode. Once these 
are chosen, the editing screen appears. This screen comes up 
in the graphics mode which you have chosen and has a box 
in the upper left hand corner with a blinking pixel used for a 
cursor in the box. On the right side of the screen is a matrix 
of hex numbers which correspond to the values stored in 
memory needed to create the figure drawn in the box. In 



creating a figure, the cursor is moved about the box with the 
arrow keys. Using appropriate keys, a pixel can be turned on 
to any color available, the background color can be 
changed, and the pixel's pattern can be shifted left, right, up 
or down. When you are through drawing a figure, it can be 
saved into one of four memory buffers. Once you have filled 
up the buffers with four slightly different positions of your 
animated character, there is a command that allows the 
buffers to display, in step fashion, one at a time on the 
screen. This allows you to test the animation for character 
building ranges from 10 x 16 in the G2C mode to 16 x 30 in 
the G6R mode. The box size is fixed, therefore, you lose 
some flexibility in the types of graphics that can be gener- 
ated. Larger pictures, such as background scenes, require 
building various boxes and stringing them together. 

There are actually two editing modes with this program. 
There is a mode that allows direct access to the hex data 
table. With this, minor changes can be made after a figure is 
drawn rather than having to move the cursor all over the 
graphics box to make a change. 

This program is designed for the more sophisticated pro- 
grammer, because the output of this program is a file of code 
configured in a FDB format recognized by an assembler. 
Output can also be in a BASIC file with the hex code written 
into a series of data statements which can be appended to a 
BASIC program. I n either case, these may be of little use to a 
neophyte programmer. 

CGE is a program which I found to be easy to use in 
generating graphics animation. The instructions are well 
written with no obvious errors. The instructions could be 
enhanced and more helpful to an intermediate programmer 
if specific examples of merging data to BASIC programs were 
described. 

The program comes on tape, with instructions to easily 
transfer to disk. Its only real use is in the disk format, 
because there is no tape data file saving feature built in. A 
somewhat puzzling feature is that it is written for a 16K 
machine in non-relocatable code. Since it was evidently 
designed mostly for disk use and most disk systems are at 
least 32K, it would be nice to have it relocatable. 

With the exception of these few minor flaws, this is an 
excellent program designed for the advanced programmer 
looking for an easier way to animate assembly language 
programs. 

(CoCo Warehouse, 500 N. Dobson, Westland, MI 
48185, $19.95 on cassette) 

—Thomas Szlucha 



Hint . . . 

Get The Sound Out 

You can send sound from your 80C to any amplifier 
simply by soldering a couple of connections from the RF 
modulator. 

Pin 3 from the RF modulator and any PC Board ground 
will give you audio output that you can send to any outside 
amplifier. 

Incidentally, Pin 3 is the third pin back from the rear of 
the 80C on the RF modulator. 

You should remember that opening the computer case 
will void your warranty. 



COLOFC — FORTH 

Including SEMI GRAPH I C-8 EDITOR 
+ UTILITIES 

—Disk and Tape utilities 

-Boot from disk or tape 

—Graphics and Sound commands 

—Printer commands 

-Auto— repeat and Control keys 

—Fast task multiplexing 

-Unique TRACE function in kernal 

-Clean INTERRUPT handling 
in HIGH-LEVEL FORTH 

-CPU CARRY FLAG accessible 

-Game of LIFE demo 

-ULTRA FAST: written in assembler 

-Directions included for 
installing optional ROM in 
disk controller or cartridge 

-Free Basic game "RATMAZE" 

FORTH 

Hoyt Stearns Electronics 

4131 E. CANNON DR. PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85028 
602-996-1717 



228 the RAINBOW October 1983 



11 



a :j::nilt:c - 



-||§!l?fl I he Color CoHput-21 

GRAPHICS EDITOR 

fjj DRftU ALrtOST ftHVTHISS fij 



OOUPLICHTEO OPock Picture ]!!! and C^Rvt i 
OOUtlPto R.S. 4 COLOR PRINTER Q £FIU 
<> Pii 0 DE -5 i. : 3. s Q red 4 . 2 color;- or 4 O H^g^^iT- 
O S w a p Co! o r s "*> !1 a «g r » i f v > 3 h r 1 r k <> r> Letters f> 
oFifre Joystick Cursor control O 0 Rotate O 
O FULL PH GE Oot- ||§ H| 

Hotrix Priftt Out 




(cliffs if § 




Grid 



hctuhl 

SCREEN 
PRMT ! 



fit* V G U DRHM ? 



T.U. GRAPHICS EDITOR 

TIRED OF PLAYING GAMES? The TU Graphics 
Editor allows you to expand your 
creativity. Simple joystick cursor 
control and powerful but easy to use 
keyboard commands allow you to create, 
print, save, and use anything the screen 
will display. Become an artist, make 
blueprints, design graphics, make the 
terrain for Tour next video game. TUG 
Editor makes it easy. Only 27;95$ 
Canadian or 22.95$ U.S. 



SCREEN TUO 

EXPAND TOUR DISPLAYS 
LONGER LINES, To 35 characters, MORE 
LINES, to 27, LOWER CASE UITH 
DESCENDERS2 COMPATABLE with all 

versions of BASICS ***See your text as 
it will appear on your printer. 
***Reserve any amount of the screen for 
PMODE 4 graphics. ***List slowly enough 
to seeS Uorks with most BASIC programs. 
Just 14.95$ Canadian or 12.50$ U.S. 



LIST tt+t$CREEN niOt+++ 

Id CIRCLE<126,*6) ,56,1 
2* PRI MTG1 2, SCREEN TUQ+W} 
30 PRIMTQ430, "Block oi* UKito"; :PRINTG464, " 
Background"; 
49 P0KE32753 , 4 : B**f3275?>4 :PRI NT9488 , "Sol 
tct 32 to 65 l>tt*i»* per liK*> 1 to 27 tin 
• s on *croon./:P0KE32753 l 5:P0JCE32754,51 
59 PRINfllorKs nornally with hoot BASIC pr 
ogpan*j RegiMar, Ex1»nd*dj oiAOisfc." 
69 P0KE32753,6:P0KE32754,42:PR|Nr w REflL 
or cooo. Qr 
OK 

RUM \ Block 

Background 
5«1tct 32 u *5 Utttr* pr li»t, 1 U V'Um** to tart**. 
Uorks nornoJIy **ith mwt BASIC proyowo; Regular, 
Extondod, or Disk. 

REAL loner eooe. Graphics a* you notch. 
OK 



won, /m^JjL 
TVS 

SCRggd PRTArT 

CUU<r JUrXlU MMtL L? VII, 

LP VIII, oaU Dl*\?ioo 

PLANET CONQUEST 



^11 three pro9Tams are 100* machine 
language, and require 16K, Non-Extended 

8as i o t minimum. Here's a special offer 
from the author, Craig Carmichaei: 50$ 

Canadian or 41$ U.S. for all three 

programs . 



Combines the SKILL of learning to fly 
your spaceship as in a "LUNAR LANDER" 
with the THRILL of aerial dogfights with 
flying monsters that threaten the 
success of your mission. Dangerous 
landings and variable gravity add to the 
excitement. There are 3 "Lander only" 
skill levels plus 6 more with monsters. 
A low 19.95$ Canadian or 16.50$ U.S. 



27; 




FOUR GREAT NEU PRODUCTS FRQfl INTERNATIONAL SOFTWARE 

ORDERING INFORMATION 

Please send cheque, money order, or UISA 
number with expiry date to : 

INTERNATIONAL SOFTWARE? INC. 
829 DUNSnUIR ROAD 
UICTORIA, B.C., CANADA, USA 5B? 



Or, PHONE C604D 384-2626 



10 FOR NU-1 TO 188 
20 PRINT«-3, "THIS It fV' JNU 
30 NEXT NU 

40 PRlNT*-3, '-K8UNT KUMPLET, 



C0C0U0ICE 

H.S.I. CoCoUoice voice synthesizer works 
from BASIC CPRINT#-33 or machine 
language. In addition to phoneme based 
spelling, CoCoUoice will correctly say 
numbers. tex. 12. 34="twe I ve point three 
four", SEP^'flve exponent seven " JP lease 
allow 6 weeks for delivery. 295* 
Canad I an or 240* U. S. 

ICOCOUQXCE 1 

DOOR LPl T CH 

COCOUOICE 
Can't 8e Pulled 
Out flccidenta ! ?y 



CARTRIDGE Stk.PT 

Se-curcly Mold* 
Oisk Control ler 
Or Other Cartridge* 



Please include 3* for handling and 
shipping B.C. residents add sales tax. 
American customers may use U.S. funds 
for convenience, all others please use 
Canad i an funds . 




FOOT 

Solid Support 



Software Revien^^^^^^^—^^^^f£\ 

Good 'Hues' 
From Rainbow-Writer 

By Dr. Charles H. Santee 

Rainbow Connection Software has come up with a utility 
that offers good news and "hues" for programmers. Anyone 
interested in writing programs is soon faced with a need to 
mix graphics and text on the same display. Rainbow- Writer 
offers you this facility and more. When I first received the 
program, I began like a kid with a new toy. I hurriedly read a 
few instructions, casually tossed the documentation aside, 
and loaded a program {LOADM"RW42":EXEC\ 

I was greeted with a menu. The first task was to select an 
appropriate memory size for the machine I was using. After 
pressing "2"for 32K, I was asked for an "OFFSET." I didn't 
quite know what this meant so I pressed ENTER. I then 
received my first surprise. 

A title page appeared with two lines of text at the top. It 
looked somewhat like a text page with black characters on a 
green background, but there was something different. The 
cursor was replaced by an underline and each line of text 
contained as many as 42 characters. After typing a few lines, 
the moment of insight finally hit. Aha! The text is written on 
the graphic screen and I was in the immediate mode of 

BASIC. 



I had expected that Rainbow- Writer would allow me to 
construct programs with text on a graphic screen. I had not 
expected that I would be able to operate in the immediate 
mode of BASIC with a graphics text display. Let me restate 
this, because the documentation is not clear on this point. 
After you load and EXECute one of the programs which 
generates predefined character sets (RW42 or RW64) you 
are given a preloader menu. You then answer two questions. 
Answer the first by pressing " 1 " if you have a computer with 
1 6K, "2" if you have a 32K or "3 " if you have 64K. The next 
question which appears as "OFFSET?" allows you to delete 
part of the predefined character set (up to 99 characters) so 
that you have fewer characters to work with, but also use less 
memory. You are then transferred to the immediate mode of 
BASIC. Your text is displayed on a graphic screen. The return 
to text screen after any PRINT command is disabled. This 
means you can have as many as 64 characters and 24 lines 
with which to prepare and display BASIC as you are prepar- 
ing the program. This is a very nice feature for those of you 
without a printer. You can see more of your program lines 
on the screen. 

After this brief excursion, I went back to thoroughly read 
the documentation and ran the Demo program. The docu- 
mentation lists the following features: 

•User definable 224 character set. You are given a set of 
letters, numbers and graphics characters that you can easily 
change if you wish. 

• Works in all PMODES. You can print using the standard 
print commands in all PMODES. 

•Two character sets which produce four character densities — 
32 x 16 (32 characters per line with 16 lines), 42 x 24, 50 x 24, 
64 x 24, plus double widths in PMODE4. 
•ML extension of BASIC completely interfaced and trans- 
parent. This means you can operate using standard BASIC 
commands to control the location of text including 
PRINT@. 

• Automatic underline, superscript, subscript, reverse video, 
top and bottom definable scroll protect options. You can 
turn these on before using an option and off afterwards from 
a program or from the immediate mode of BASIC. 

• User friendly, easy to operate via Status/ Help screen, sim- 
ple commands, no messy PEEKs and POKEs. 

•Special EDTASM+ command allows instant compatibil- 
ity with Radio Shack's Editor/ Assembler cartridge. 
•The program includes a Demo program, tape/ disk conver- 
sion instructions, character generator program and op- 
erations. 

This program contains the features listed as well as a few 
more that I discovered. Once I understood what the pro- 
gram did, I found it to be extremely easy to use. Many of the 
features can be used by the standard Extended BASIC com- 
mands. You can switch from one mode to another. The 
actual number of characters per line and number of lines 
depends on the mode you select. In modes allowing four 
colors you can select the color of characters by using the 
COLOR command. You can also use four colors in 
PMODE 4 to define the background and foreground of 
characters. The documentation refers to these colors as 
artifacted colors. These artifacted colors are fast becoming a 
favorite of a number of programmers. Take a look at the 
Shack's Sands of Egypt to see the type of display you can get 
with these colors. 

All special commands are accessed by typing "CH R$(27)" 
then two to four letters to indicate the command. I found 



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230 the RAINBOW October 1983 



this infinitely easier to remember than trying to use PEEK 
and POKE. If you forget the commands, you can type 
"CHR$(27) 'H.' " to get a help page that shows the com- 
mands and their present status. 

Two separate BASIC programs are included with which 
you can generate and save your own character set. These 
programs were easy to use and greatly enhance the flexibility 
of the program. 

Although not stated in the documentation, you can turn 
on the alternate text mode by typing "SCREEN 0, 1 " and it 
will remain on. Thus, in the text mode, you can use that 
yellow background you sometimes see in commercial pro- 
grams (like Color Scripsit). 

Another nice feature of Rainbow- Writer is the ability to 
scroll protect the top and bottom lines. This allows you to 
effectively set a text window and draw pictures above or 
below this window. The text you print will scroll in the 
defined area. This is excellent for constructing Computer 
Assisted Instructional (CAI) programs for education, gra- 
phic adventure games and a variety of other uses. This 
feature can be used in the immediate mode so that you can 
experiment with the graphic commands in Extended Color 
BASIC and see both the command and the results of using 
that command before incorporating those commands into a 
program. 

Rainbow- Writer includes instant compatibility with Ra- 
dio Shack's EDTASM+. To use this feature, turn off all 
equipment. Insert the EDTASM+ROM Pack. Turn on the 
computer and enter "Q"from ED TA S M+ Editor. Load the 
version of Rainbow-Writer you wish to use, enter the 
parameters appropriate for the memory you have, and then 



type "PRINT CHR$(27) "E+.' You will then be back in 
the Editor/ Assembler with the text displayed on the graphic 
screen. This makes it easy to alter Rainbow- Writer to your 
own specifications and/ or add other assembly language 
code to make your own assembly language programs. This is 
a very nice touch that advanced programmers will love. 

The program is designed so well that beginning BASIC 
programmers could probably use Rainbow-Writer with lit- 
tle trouble. However, the beginning programmer may find 
that the instructions in the documentation do not give a 
clear enough explanation of what can be done. Advanced 
programmers, I am sure, would like more information, but 
the ease with which this program is integrated with an 
Editor/ Assembler and examples included in the Demo pro- 
gram make it easy to experiment to find the desired 
information. 

All users should pay close attention to the last page of the 
documentation which gives a chart for PRINT@ locations. 
This is an excellent aide in formatting the screen. A desirable 
addition to this chart would be a chart showing the X and Y 
coordinates for PRINT@ locations. This would have 
enabled locating graphics around or through the text with 
greater ease. 

When using a 64 character set in PMODE4, the letters are 
packed closely together and are difficult to read. However, 
this character set has two important functions. First, you 
can view larger sections of text as might be desired in some 
word or text processing programs you might want to write. 
Second, you can use this compact mode with your own 
defined character sets to put two or more characters 
together for special effects. For example, you might make a 



The KEY — 2 6 ^ K is here!! 



DO YOU HAVE A 32K SYSTEM WITH 64K MEMORY CHIPS ?? 



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*** Works with CASSETTE based systems! *** 



*** Works with DISK based systems! *** 



The KEY-264K divides the 64K ran memory into two 32K banks or sides, each of which can be utilized independently 
by the BASIC interpreter, with the ability to switch instantly from one side to the other. IT'S LIKE HAVING M> 
COMPUTERS IN ONE!! Have your BASIC program on one side and keep your variables on the other side, or have your 
main program on one side and your subroutines on the other side, or have your program on one side and use the 
other side for 4 additional HI -RES pages, or any combination you like. The possibilities are endless because the 
KEY-264K allows full communication between sides plus the ability to switch back and forth at will, all from 
within BASIC. You could also have different programs in each side and switch back and forth between them using 
simple keystrokes, even while the programs are running!! Or run th both at the same time in the 
FOREGROUND/BACKGROUND MULTI-TASKING mode. Don't buy that printer buffer yet! With the KEY-264K you can be 
printing in the background side while utilizing your computer normally in the foreground side A 1 I HE SAME TIME!!! 
Debugging a proqram? C»e either a BASIC command or simple keystrokes to instantly duplicate your program, in it's 
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For DISK users, the KEY-264K allows you to alternate between DISK and EXTENDED BASIC on the same side with 
simple keystrokes. No need to pull your controller or power down. You can be in EXTENDED BASIC on one side and in 
DISk BASIC on the other side and still switch back and forth and have full communications between the two sides. 



thru extensions to BASIC. No need to learn a new language! The KEY-264K adds 

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The KEY-264K does this and MORE 

15 NEW CCmWDS and 1 function to BASIC, including powerful new BLOCK MEMORY MOME 



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The KEY-264K works on 32K systems with 'E B , "F\ or even modified "D 1 boards and requires EXTENDED or DISK BASIC 
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October 1983 the RAINBOW 231 



figure by defining several characters and then use the 
PRINT1@ command to move this character across the 
screen. You may be able to construct BASIC language games 
with animated characters that come close to rivaling those 
that are written entirely in machine language. 

Let me give a specific example of how this might be done. 
The standard character set includes a little man shown in six 
different views (one character for each view). Program list- 
ing #1 allows you to use the joystick to make this man walk 
and jump across the screen in eight directions. Now, I know 
this program will not work unless you have EXECuted 
Rainbow-Writer. However, I have included a simulation in 
program listing #2. This brief example moves a graphic 
character as you move the joystick. Just watch this second 
program operate and imagine that the character is a little 
man that takes steps with each move. This will give you a feel 
for the animation that is possible. In both cases, I used the 
sounds of steps to slow down the animation to a reasonable 
walking rate. 

This brings me to what I feel is a major shortcoming of the 
program. You can define and save your own character set. 
You can create a separate character generating program 
which can be used with a BASIC program for your own 
marketed software product. However, there are no instruc- 
tions given as to how to MERGE the machine language 
program and the BASIC program into one independent pro- 
gram. As a teacher, I am primarily interested in constructing 
educational programs which are easy to use. Having to load 
a machine language program and then a BASIC one is just an 
extra step for us simple-minded users to mess up. 

In the short time I had to review this program, I tried some 
quick and dirty ways I knew of MERGEing BASIC and 



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machine language programs (moving the end of the pro- 
gram pointer to incorporate the machine language progrdm 
at the end of the BASIC line) but, to date, I have not been 
successful. The ideal solution would be to include a BASIC 
language frame which incorporates the machine language 
utility as part of the software package. The user would then 
simply load the frame, add the lines of BASIC to make the 
kind of program desired and then save the final product for 
future use. 

As the software exists, I would rate this program as a 
"very good" utility and an excellent addition to a pro- 
grammer's set of tools. It is easy to use, has many good 
features and I found no bugs. 

To move this program to the "excellent" category, I would 
like to see the following features added: 

1 ) A brief statement in the introduction or operation section 
that tells the user (in language that a beginner can under- 
stand) that after answering a few questions, the program 
returns to the immediate mode with text in a graphic 
display. 

2) Instructions for MERGEing the machine language por- 
tions with BASIC for one integrated program. 

3) A chart that shows memory locations and/ or X and Y 
coordinates in relation to PRINT@ locations for drawing 
graphics in relation to the printed text. 

4) Additional aids for formatting text such as word wrap, 
centering text and left/ right justification. 

5) A keyboard, joystick, or XPAD (graphic tablet) graphics 
editor with a graphic cursor that is compatible with 
Rainbow- Writer. 

In conclusion, I feel that Dan Larson and Paul Penrose 
should be commended for their work on Rainbow-Writer. 
This program is an easy-to-use, yet powerful tool for begin- 
ning and advanced programmers. I would especially recom- 
mend this program for teachers who want to write their own 
computer assisted instruction programs in BASIC. 

(Rainbow Connection Software, 3514 6th Place NW, Roch- 
ester, MN 55901, $29.95 tape, $32.95 disk) 



Name Display 

Here's a short program that turns your name into a color- 
ful display. Requiring 16K Extended Color BASIC, Name 
Display will create different patterns and colors for each 
name. 

Pressing any key (but BREAK) returns the computer to 
the normal text mode. 

—Randy Cassel 

The listing: 



5 INPUT "YOUR NAME"; A* 
10 POKE 359, 128 
20 PRINT A* 

30 B*= I NKE Y* : IF B*=" "THEN 20 
40 POKE 359,126 

^ 



232 the RAINBOW October 1983 



READ THE FINE PRINT. 

It's worth your time. This is good stuff. 



SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 




BOOKS 



MACRO-SOC 

This is a disk-based editor, macro assembler and 
monitor, written for Color Computer by Andy Phelps. 
THIS IS IT — The ultimate programming tool! 
The powerful 2-pass macro assembler features condi- 
tional assembly, local labels, include files and cross 
referenced symbol tables. MACRO-80C supports the 
complete Motorola 6809 instruction set in standard 
source format. There are no changes, constraints or 
shortcuts in the source language definition. Incor- 
porating all of the features of our Rompack-based 
assembler (SDS80C), MACRO-80C contains many 
more useful instructions and pseudo-ops which aid 
the programmer and add power and flexibility. 
The screen-oriented text editor is designed for 
efficient and easy editing of assembly language pn> 
grams. The "Help Key" feature makes it simple and 
fun to learn to use the editor. As the editor requires no 
line numbers, you can use the arrow keys to position 
the cursor anywhere in the file. MACRO-80C allows 
global changes and moving/copying blocks of text. 
You can edit lines of assembly source which are 
longer than 32 characters. 

DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows 
examining and altering of memory, setting break 
points, etc. 

The editor, assembler and monitor — as well as 
sample programs — come on one Radio Shack com- 
patible disk. Extensive documentation included. 
MACRO-80C Price: $99.95 

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

The Micro Works Software Development System 
(SDS80C) is a complete 6809 editor, assembler and 
monitor package contained in one Color Computer 
program pack! Vastly superior to RAM-based 
assemblers/editors, the SDS80C is non-volatile, 
meaning that if your application program bombs, it 
can't destroy your editor/assembler. Plus it leaves 
almost all of 16K or 32K RAM free for your program. 
Since all three programs, editor, assembler and 
monitor are co-resident, we eliminate tedious 
program loading when going back and forth from edit- 
ing to assembly and debugging! 
The powerful screen-oriented Editor features finds, 
changes, moves, copys and much more. All keys have 
convenient auto repeat (typamatic), and since no line 
numbers are required, the full width of the screen 
may be used to generate well commented code. 
The Assembler features all of the following: complete 
6809 instruction set; conditional assembly; local 
labels; assembly to cassette tape or to memory; 
listing to screen or printer; and mnemonic error codes 
instead of numbers. 

The versatile monitor is tailored for debugging pro* 
grams generated by the Assembler and Editor. It 
features examine/change of memory or registers, cas- 
sette load and save, breakpoints and more. SDS80C 
Price: $89.95 

MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH 

• Forth is faster to program in than Basic 
• Forth is easier to learn than Assembly Language 
• Forth executes in less time than Basic 
Forth is a highly interactive language like Basic, with 
structure like Pascal and execution speed close to 
that of Assembly Language. The Micro Works Color 
Forth is a Rompack containing everything you need 
to run Forth on your Color Computer. 

Color Forth consists of the standard FORTH Interest 
Group (FiG) implementation of the language plus 



most of FORTH-79. It has a super screen editor with 
split screen display. Mass storage is on cassette. 
Color Forth also contains a decompiler and other aids 
for learning the inner workings of this fascinating 
language. It will run on 4K, 16K, and 32K computers. 
Color Forth contains 10K of ROM, leaving your RAM 
for your programs! There are simple words to effec- 
tively use the Hi-Res Color Computer graphics, joy- 
sticks, and sound. The 112-page manual includes a 
glossary of the system-specific words, a full standard 
FIG glossary and complete source listing. COLOR 
FORTH ... THE BEST! From the leader in Forth, 
Talbot Microsystems. Price: $109.95 

MICROTEXT: COMMUNICATIONS 
VIA YOUR MODEM! 

Make your Color Computer an intelligent printing 
terminal with off-line storage! The Microtext module 
is just what you'll need for: 

— Talking to a timeshare system or information 
service 

— Printing out what is received as it is received 

— Saving received text to cassette tape 

— Re-displaying the received text even while 
on-line 

— Communications with other computers 

— Using your computer as a general-purpose 
300-baud terminal 

— Downloading programs from other computers 
The Microtext module is a program pack containing 
not only firmware but a second serial port so that 
both your printer and modem can be connected at the 
same time. Microtext can be configured for any serial 
printer that will work with the Color Computer, even if 
it requires line feeds! But even if you don't have a 
printer, you can keep a permanent copy of your data 
by storing to cassette tape. Also, any Radio Shack/ 
Centronics-compatible parallel printer may be used 
by adding the Micro Works' PI80C parallel interface. 
For those of you with special terminal applications, 
Microtext has selectable parity; it sends odd, even, 
mark or space. With mark parity (which is default) you 
can send to computers requiring either seven or eight 
bits. All 128 ASCII codes can be sent. Exchange pre* 
grams with other Color Computer users! Basic pre* 
grams may be downloaded from other computers or 
timesharing systems. 

You'll find many uses for this versatile module! 
Available in ROMPACK, ready-tc*use, for $59.95. 

MACHINE LANGUAGE 

MONITOR TAPE: A cassette tape which allows you to 
directly access memory, I/O and registers with a 
formatted hex display. Great for machine language 
programming, debugging and learning. It can also 
send/receive RS232 at up to 9600 baud, including 
host system download/upload. 19 commands in all. 
Relocatable and reentrant. CBUG Tape Price: $29.95 

MONITOR ROM: The same program as above, 
supplied in 2716 EPROM. This allows you to use the 
entire RAM space. And you don't need to re-load the 
monitor each time you use it. The EPROM plugs into 
the Extended Basic ROM Socket or the Romless Pak 
I. CBUG ROM Price: $39.95 

SOURCE GENERATOR: This package is a disas- 
sembler which runs on the color computer and gener- 
ates your own source listing of the BASIC interpreter 
ROM. Also included is a documentation package 
which gives useful ROM entry points, complete 
memory map, I/O hardware details and more. A 16K 
system is required for the use of this cassette. 80C 
Disassembler Price: $49.95 



6809 Assembly Language Programming, by Lance 
Leventhal, $16.95 

TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics, by Don Inman, 
$14.95 

Assembly Language Graphics for the TRSW Color 
Computer, by Don Inman, $14.95 

^Starting Forth, by L. Brodie, $19.95 



GAMES 




Star Blaster — Blast your way through an asteroid 
field in this action-packed Hi-Res graphics game. 
Available in ROMPACK; requires 16K. Price: $39.95 

Pac Attack — Try your hand at this challenging game 
by Computerware, with fantastic graphics, sound and 
action! Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 

Haywire — Have fun zapping robots with this Hi-Res 
game by Mark Data Products. Cassette requires 16K. 
$24.95 

Dunkey Munkey — Arcade excitement awaits those 
who dare to conquer the Munkey! Joystick and 32K 
required, by intellectronics. Cassette: $24.95 

Colorpede — Great graphics, two-player option, and 
pause control in this exciting game by Intracolor 
Communication. Cassette requires 16K: $29.95 

Adventure — Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by 
Mark Data Products. Each cassette requires 16K: 
$19.95 each. 

Cave Hunter — Experience vivid colors, bizarre 
sounds and eerie creatures in hot pursuit as you wind 
your way through a cave maze in search of gold 
treasures. This exciting Hi-Res game by Mark Data 
Products requires 16K for cassette version. $24.95 

Start ire — Fly around the planet defending Earth lings 
from being snatched up by aliens in this challenging 
game from Intellectronics. Cassette requires 16K: 
$21.95 

Doodle Bug — Joystick-controlled Doodle Bugs must 
move quickly through mazes while being chased by 
enemy bugs in Hi-Res game by Computerware. 
Cassette requires 16K: $24.95 

Astro Blast — You'll need to act fast as you protect 
Earth from wave after wave of alien invaders in this 
JHi-Res game by Mark Data. Cassette requires 16Kv 
■ $24.95 



HARDWARE 

PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE - Serial to parallel 
converter allows use of all standard parallel printers. 
PI80C plugs into the serial output port, leaving your 
Rompack slot free. You supply the printer cable. PI80C 
Price: $69.95 

MEMORY UPGRADE KITS: Consisting of 4116 200i>s., 
integrated circuits, with instructions for installation. 
4K-16K Kit Price: $39.95. 16K-32K Kit (requires 
soldering experience) Price: $39.95. For Rev. level E, 
ET, NC and TDP-1 00s, we carry 64K chips; upgrading is 
easy! Eight prime 64K chips and instructions: $64.95 

Romless Packs for your custom EPROMs — call or 
write for information. 



THE /V\ PI /J^k f7^\ MasterCharge/Visa Accepted 

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Software Review^^^^^^^^^^^^S7?S 

HJL-57 Keyboard 
Has The Answer 

The Color Computer has been widely mistaken by many 
people as just another game machine. This was mainly due 
to the fact that it had a "toy like" keyboard and a limited 
screen display. Many products have been introduced to 
overcome the screen format problem; however, up until 
now, not many solutions to the keyboard dilema have 
appeared. The HJL-57 replacement keyboard is a welcomed 
solution to an existing need of your Color Computer. 

The keyboard is available in two versions; one is for the 
original Color Computer up to and including those with "E" 
boards. The other is for the "F" board revision and TDP- 1 00 
computers. You must specify which computer you have 
when ordering the keyboard. There is no extra charge for 
either one of the keyboards. The key layout is identical to 
that of your Color Computer, with the exception of the four 
function keys. They are placed in pairs on each side of the 
spacebar. All the letter and number keys are a light gray 
color. The ENTER, CLEAR, and arrow keys are white, 
while the BREAK key is red. All of the keycap characters are 
molded into the keys with either black or white plastic. The 
keyboard comes with two spacers, four flat plastic washers, 
eight metal spring clips, and installation instructions. 



COLOR 

COMPUTER 

WEEKLY 




234 the RAINBOW October 1983 



All of the keys have sculptured tops which provide a firm 
grip for your fingers. A touch typist or hunt V peck user will 
experience no lost characters, because the keys require very 
little pressure to activate. I would compare the feel of this 
keyboard to that of a Televideo or a DEC keyboard. 

One of the four function keys is described as being "lat- 
chable. " What this means is that when the key is depressed, it 
will remain that way until it is pressed again. Although the 
use of the function keys is not mentioned in the accompany- 
ing documentation, I have been assured by HJL that there 
will be software available very soon that will make use of 
these keys. In the meantime, however, there is a simple 
solution to make use of these keys thanks to Bob Rosen of 
Spectrum Products. In the June 1983 edition of Rainbow, 
an article appears by Mr. Rosen showing you how to pro- 
gram function keys. Type it in (plus add a couple of correc- 
tions noted in the July issue) and RUN it. It will work 
perfectly with the four function keys on your keyboard. 

Construction of the keyboard is first-rate. The keyboard 
mounting plate is constructed of an extruded aluminum 
plate. A flat membrane sheet is attached to it. The keys are 
then mounted on top of the sheet to the aluminum baseplate. 
This type of construction provides you with an extremely 
sturdy keyboard package. Again, depending on which ver- 
sion of the computer you have, the proper keyboard connec- 
tor is provided for the connection to the computer. The 
keyboard also carries a one year warranty, showing the 
confidence that HJL has in this product. 

The installation instructions are simple and straightfor- 
ward. Start by removing the screws from the bottom of your 
computer. Remember, opening the case voids any warranty 
from Radio Shack. Next, remove the keyboard unit from 
the computer and trim down the center support post. Place 
the two spacers provided onto the rear two posts, and con- 
nect the keyboard connector to the computer. Place the new 
keyboard onto the four support posts, lining up the holes 
with those in the aluminum baseplate. Place the four plastic 
washers over the posts and push on the four retainer clips. 
These clips may be removed at any time without difficulty if 
you ever want to remove the keyboard. 

Now flip over the top half of the case and set in the custom 
black bezel, lining it up on the four posts in the case. Install 
the remaining clips and reassemble the case. The keyboard 
has been designed to meet the RFI and EMI shielding 
requirements, set by the FCC, which become effective 
October 1, 1983. With my computer, I noticed a very large 
reduction in picture interference. Installation of the key- 
board took me about five minutes. 

It is my opinion that all those who are serious about the 
potential of the Color Computer will definitely appreciate 
the quality and performance of the HJL-57 keyboard. 

(HJL Products, 955 Buffalo Road, P.O. Box 24954, Roches- 
ter, NY 14623, $79.95 plus $2 s/h) 

—Ted Hasenstaub 



Get The Most Memory 

You can get the most memory available on your CoCo by 
entering the command POKE 25,6:NEW. This, in effect, is a 
PCLEARO on your system. 

This command will not work with a disk installed. It will, 
instead, clobber the disk operating system. If that happens, 
simply RESET. CoCo. 



CAN YOU AFFORD $1 A WEEK? 
The CCW Newsletter will give you this if you can: 

• An issue loaded with program listings of all sorts 
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Send to: CCW • P.O. Box 1355 • Boston, MA 02205 




LUNAR-ROVER PATROL « Guide your Lunar Rover along the moon's surface following every bump and 
crevice as a barage of obstacles hinder your movement. No MOON-PATROL type features left out of this 
game. 

WHIRLYBIRD RUN - Your mission is to reach and destroy the enemy base hidden deep within the Tunnel 
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Software Review! 



Let Chroma Keys 
Do The Walking 

Tired of typing in programs from your favorite magazine? 
(Rainbowl) Don't have the bucks for Rainbow On Tape, 
basic Aid, or Worksaverl You can't keep up with all the 
good program listings you see or want to key into your 
CoCo; and it takes your hunt-and-peck fingers forever to 
type in programs? 

Enter Chroma Keys to the rescue — a low-cost, effective 
utility program for the BASIC language programmer that 
reduces the amount of time required to key in listings. 
Extended BASIC is not required, and it should work with any 
cassette- or disk-based CoCo. 

The program, in machine language, is very fast and per- 
forms its duties flawlessly. The 26 keys of the alphabet are 
assigned /defined with up to 12 characters per key. Keys 
comes with all 26 keys defined to get you started. It is with 
these keyword definitions per keystroke that you are able to 
speed up your BASIC programming time. After execution of 
Keys you are still in the BASIC mode and all functions, 
including the editing mode, are at your disposal with the 
addition of the Keys feature. 

One of the bonus features is a key click. I, being a touch- 
typist, value this feature a lot. Several times, prior to review- 
ing this program, 1 have pressed keys and eventually not 
found them in the program later! Now, I know by the click 
that the key pressed was received. 

The other features are obtained by simultaneously push- 



ing SHIFT and up-arrow. By so doing, you have immediate 
access to all 26 defined keys, as well as a "help" display of the 
current definitions and a MENU MODE that 

1) allows you to very quickly change any or all the key 
definitions, 

2) save those definitions to tape or disk (especially if you 
develop your own personal set more to your liking), 

3) turn the key click on or off, 

4) display current definition of keys, 

5) return from the menu and continue programming, 

6) exit program. 

Actually, you can save up to nine Keys programs num- 
bered 1 through 9, and, I discovered (not documented) you 
can reload (CLOADM) those sets at any time during your 
programming without destroying any of your BASIC pro- 
gram or the ML utility, should your needs change drastically 
within the typing session. Also, once you've saved a Keys 
program with your own set of definitions, that program and 
definitions is complete in itself and can be CLOADMed 
instead of the original Keys, 

I find it quite easy and very fast (within a couple seconds) 
to change the keyword and continue programming. An 
example of when it would be suitable to change definitions 
would be if you're typing along and you can see multiple 
lines of PRINT or INPUT statements coming up but 
already have the P key defined for PRINTUSING and the I 
key defined for INKEYS. I like to keep the associations as 
logical as possible so I take one or two seconds to jump into 
the DEFINE KEYS mode and redefine those two keys for 
PRINT and INPUT. Maybe after I finish that section of the 
program there seems to be more PRINTUSING or PRE- 
SET lines appearing so I redefine again. It's not really so 



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the RAINBOW October 1983 



confusing as it might seem changing back and forth as long 
as you keep the word association in mind and that word 
would start with the first letter anyway. 

Now I'll show you one final example I used to make a 
complex LINE statement into a simple matter. Define 
A: (A(X),A(X+1) 
C: (C(Z),C(Z+1) 
L: LINE( 128,96), and 

Z: PRESET (P was already needed for PRINTUSING). 
The program listing I was typing in alternated between 
LINE(128,96)-(A(X),A(X+l)),PRESETand LINE(128,96)- 
C(Z),C(Z+1)),PRESET. Now with only a handful of key- 
strokes instead of a lineful I was able to complete either 
LINE statement, not only in less time but with less hassle 
using parentheses. 

I consider myself a pretty fair touch-typist and I must say 
that using a utility program with keys having defined key- 
words took a little getting used to. I thought to myself while 
typing in the first program listing using Keys, "This program 
would not be for the touch-typist. I have to look at the 
definitions to find the right key when I could have typed it in 
already!" Not so! Admittedly, it did take me more time at 
first, but it was something new and I wasn't familiar with 
Keys or how best to use the definitions. However, the more I 
used Keys I began to see better ways of redefining the keys to 
suit my needs through different sections of the listing. 
Touch-typing capability eventually added to the speed of 
programming. 

Documentation was not perfect, but was nevertheless 
sufficient or above average for anyone to understand and 
use. There was a problem with incorrect of fset numbers and 
memory clearing, but I was assured by the author that the 



documentation was an early release for the RAINBOWfest 
and that the corrections and additions would be in future 
releases. The program itself, once executed, guides you 
through all necessary functions without need for good doc- 
umentation. However, I feel that the casual CoCo user may 
need just a little more information in the "Loading From 
Tape" section. You are clearly shown how to save your 
personalized set of definitions but are not quite as clearly 
instructed on how to load that program back into CoCo. If 
you try to CLOADM your program following the tape 
instructions with an offset, it will not load. (No offset is 
required after the copy is made.) 

In using Keys I think probably the most important 
improvement that could be made would be to allow greater 
than 12 characters per key. Having more than 26 definable 
keys might be helpful too, although 26 were generally suffi- 
cient once you became acquainted with Keys and used a 
little pre-thought. And finally, I would suggest adding one 
more item to the MENU MODE: Print current key defini- 
tions to the printer. A minor thought, but it would be nice to 
have a hard copy, especially if you have more than one set of 
definitions saved. 

There are other "key-defining" utility programs on the 
market with more bells and whistles. But they also cost 
considerably more. I found Keys very useful and it did 
everything it was meant to do. For under $10, this utility is 
certainly worth your consideration. 

(Chroma-Systems Group, P. O. Box 366, Dayton, OH 
45420, $9.95 tape, $13.95 disk) 

—Kenneth D. Peters 




112 W. WISCONSIN AV. 
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October 1983 the RAINBOW 237 



Software Review! 



VDUMP — 
A Must For VDOS Users 

I had the privilege, about a month ago, to review a pro- 
gram which I thought had excellent potential. The subject of 
that review was the VDOS program by Dr. Preble. One of 
the items mentioned in that review was the author's promise 
of upcoming utilities to expand VDOS's capabilities. The 
subject of this review is one of those utilities. VDUMP is a 
machine language program designed to dump the contents 
of VDOS to tape or to load a previous dump into VDOS. 

For those of you who may have missed the review on 
VDOS, a brief explanation follows. VDOS is a virtual disk 
operating system. The term "virtual" means that an item 
takes on an appearance of something other than that which 
it really is. The term "virtual disk" then means a disk system 
which really is not a disk system but takes on the appearance 
of one. VDOS will take half of the user memory for the disk 
system data storage. Thus in a 16K or 32K system you will 
lose half of the available memory. However, with a 64K 
system, the memory you will lose will be the 32K which lies 
under your ROM hidden from use. In other words, you will 
be using the upper 32K of RAM. Thus the only real loss will 
be the 2K required for the actual program. VDOS behaves 
like a disk system in that it allows the user to catalog pro- 
grams in its data storage area in a manner similar to that of a 
disk system. Since the program to be stored under VDOS 
must already be in user memory, the data movement is 



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memory to memory. This makes the data transfer very fast. 
The original VDOS did not have a dump facility with it. It 
required the user to load the programs to be cataloged on an 
individual basis each and every time the system was used. 
However, with VDUMP that all changes. 

VDUMP comes on a cassette tape and unlike VDOS is 
not auto-loading. The documentation consists of three 
pages of single-sided typewritten material. The instructions 
are broken down into three sections: Introduction, how to 
use the DUMP function, and how to use the LOAD func- 
tion. The instruction sheets are easy to read and follow. 

VDUMP is loaded using the CLOADM "VDUMP" 
command. Once it is loaded, typing EXEC will get it run- 
ning. V DUMP's start message then appears on the screen, 
along with the request: DUMP OR LOAD (D/ L)? VDUMP 
is now awaiting your command input. How does your 
VDUMP work and why is it needed? Suppose you have 
already cataloged a series of programs under VDOS and 
wish to save the entire set of programs on cassette tape for 
later use. Without VDUMP you would have to recall each 
and every program from VDOS one at a time and CSA VE it 
to tape. This can be a long and tiresome process. With 
VDUMP the process becomes very simple. You load and 
execute VDUMP. VDUMP will now ask if you want to load 
the VDOS system from tape or save the contents of VDOS 
to tape. In our case, the save or dump would be the correct 
function. Placing the cassette recorder in the record mode 
and typing D to VDUMP's prompt will do just that. The file 
that is placed on the cassette tape will not be in standard RS 
format. That is, only one file per tape side can be done. 
Trying to position the tape past the first file using the SKIPF 
command will get an 1/ O error. There are ways to overcome 
this problem, I'm sure, but I did not investigate any of them. 
You have now saved the contents of VDOS for use at 
another time. Suppose at some future date you decided to 
pick up where you left off. The process is simple. First, you 
load VDUMP from tape and EXECute it. Second, you load 
the tape containing the previously saved data. Put the 
recorder in the PLAY mode and answer VDUMP's prompt 
with L. The load process takes about three to four minutes 
for a full 32K. Once the load is complete, VDUMP exits and 
control is returned to the BASIC interpreter, which promptly 
displays the familiar OK message. Once the OK appears you 
know the restore/ load feature functioned properly. Now 
typing VDOS and performing a directory list will display the 
contents of VDOS. 

VDUMP is a short utility which functions just as des- 
cribed in the literature. It will save the entire contents of 
VDOS to cassette tape in a single file. VDUMP will also 
restore a previous dump. Using VDUMP and a cassette tape 
is similar to changing a diskette in a standard disk drive. 
VDUMP is a welcome addition to a very good system. I see 
only one drawback. I think it would have been nice if 
VDUMP had the data on the cassette in standard RS for- 
mat. Then more than one dump could have been placed on 
each tape. I liked VDOS, and it combined with VDUMP to 
form a great combination. The price has been reduced to a 
point where it is affordable by most everyone. Thus, for 
those who have a cassette-based system, the addition of 
VDOS and VDUMP would speed up and enhance that 
system considerably. I consider the VDOS/ VDUMP com- 
bination to be an excellent addition to any serious CoCo 
library. 

(Dr. Preble's Programs, 6540 Outer Loop, Louisville, KY 
40228, $14.95 plus $1.50 s/h) 

—Frank J. Esser 



238 



the RAINBOW October 1983 




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Software Review^^^^^^^^^^^^^Z7^\ 

Statgraf: A Powerful 
Regression Analysis Package 

Statgraf is a new linear regression analysis package by 
Dennis D. Zaebst. In the course of my graduate studies, I 
used canned regression routines on a large mainframe from 
time to time. This new package from Sugar Software seems 
capable of doing all the things those routines could do and 
maybe more. It is an excellent program and does all it says it 
will. To use Statgraf, you need 32K of RAM. A printer and a 
screen print program are also desirable. 

I am too limited by time, space and knowledge to give any 
type of discussion on linear regression technique or theory. 
So, I will limit my discussion to the capabilities of this 
package, which are many. First of all, the documentation is 
excellent. The 40-page manual includes a very good tutorial 
on the use of Statgraf which, while powerful, is very easy to 
learn and use. One pass through the step by step tutorial and 
all I needed from then on was the command reference sum- 
mary. The tutorial takes you through an example problem 
which uses all the features of Statgraf A technical appendix 
is included with instructions for interfacing a screen print 
program and also a brief discussion of regression terminol- 
ogy which serves as a good review. 

Data pairs can be entered from the keyboard or from a 
tape/ disk data file. There is room for up to 250 observa- 
tions. The package contains a powerful data editing mode 
which allows editing the data pairs in almost any fashion. I 
felt that this was one of the package's strongest features 
because you can really roll up your sleeves and manipulate 
the data any way you want. Pairs can be inserted, deleted, 
modified or printed as hard copy. There is also a sort routine 



which will automatically sort data pairs in ascending order 
of the independent variable if desired. 

The graphing function is also versatile. It uses the highest 
resolution screen to graph the data, allowing you to set up 
the axes and to display the data points, regression line and 
95 percent confidence limits. You even have a choice of five 
different symbols to use in plotting the data (circles, trian- 
gles, squares, etc.). It is also possible to superimpose a grid 
over the graph if you desire, and you can produce an area 
graph in which the area below the curve is shaded. Multiple 
data sets can also be plotted on the same graph. 

Labeling of the graph is very easy. The orientation of the 
text (up, down or horizontal) is selected in command mode 
and a cursor is used to position the text on the graph. All in 
all, the package produces a very good-looking graph indeed! 

Other functions include transformation of observations 
using logarithmic, square root, exponential, inverse or addi- 
tive codes and the calculation, plotting and display of resid- 
uals based on the current transformation. Statgraf also cal- 
culates, displays and sends to the printer a number of useful 
statistics including a slope, Y-intercept, correlation, confi- 
dence limits and tests of significance for each parameter and 
coefficients of determination and alienation. An interpola- 
tion the function calculates predicted values given a value of 
the independent variable and calculates the 95 percent pre- 
diction and confidence intervals for the observation. 

I feel this package would be great for the study of regres- 
sion theory. Things happen fast enough for the student to 
really begin to spot and analyze trends and see how the 
theory fits together. But Statgraf s main plus is that it is an 
excellent regression analysis package for anyone who has 
occasion for serious use of this statistical technique. 

(Sugar Software, 2153 Leah Lane, Reynoldsburg, OH 
43068, $24.95 tape or disk) 

—David Johnson 




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240 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Software Revlevr^^^^^^^^^^^^ST^x 

Adventure In Wonderland- 
Alice Is At Least A '9' 

You were beginning to get very tired of sitting by your 
sister with nothing to do. You were considering whether the 
pleasures of eating ice cream would be worth the trouble of 
walking all the way to the refrigerator when, suddenly, a 
white rabbit with pink eyes ran by. There was nothing so 
very remarkable in that; nor did you think it was so very odd 
to hear the rabbit say to itself, "Oh dear! Oh dear! I shall be 
too late!" But, when the rabbit actually took a watch out of 
its waistcoat pocket, looked at it, and then hurried on, you 
burned with curiosity. So you ran after it and you were just 
in time to see it draw a rabbit hole on the TV screen and pop 
right through it. 

In another moment you jumped right after the rabbit, 
never once considering how in the world you were going to 
get out. Down . . . down . . . down. Then suddenly thump! 
Fortunately, you were not hurt. 

This is where this wonderful new adventure begins. You 
are stuck in Wonderland and you have three major objec- 
tives. You must become Queen, help capture the nasty 
Snark and, of course, get home again. Don't let the name 
fool you. It sounds easy to play but believe me it isn't. I 
consider myself a novice adventurer and so far I have only 
been able to get home. 

The documentation states that the adventure is based on 
the works of Lewis Carroll. Knowing this, I rushed down to 
my local library and checked out "Alice in Wonderland." 
When I got home I was surprised to find out that the 
adventure followed the book down to the tea. Mad Hatter's 
Tea Party, that is. The adventure has everything the book 
has, including the three-legged glass table and even the 
caterpillar and his hookah. 

In most adventure packages you receive a small sheet of 
paper with a few instructions and a list of verbs. This does 
not hold true for Adventure in Wonderland. When I opened 



up the package I found a six-page instruction booklet beau- 
tifully illustrated. The illustrations made the documentation 
very interesting, many of them depicting the people and 
places you will discover. I give Prickly-Pear an A+ on the 
documentation. 

Wonderland is a non-graphic, 100 percent machine lan- 
guage adventure that requires 32K. Unlike most adventures 
that only understand 30 to 40 words, Wonderland uses an 
"Elize" type intelligence simulator that allows you to carry 
on full sentence conversations with many of the inhabitants 
in Wonderland. You can converse with Cheshire Cat, Mock 
Turtle and many others. This adds to the interest of the 
adventure. 

Cheshire Cat is your constant companion. He has many 
things to tell you if you tell him the right things. I really 
enjoyed talking with Cheshire at first, but sometimes when 
you are trying to move, the cat interrupts with one of his 
jokes or sayings and you are unable to complete your move. 
I found this to be very annoying after playing the adventure 
five or six times. 

For those of you who like to kill things, you only have one 
foe. Because of this, and the fact that you cannot get killed, 
they should change the name of this program to Fantasy 
Adventure. Then again, it is Wonderland. 

This adventure falls short in only a few areas of being the 
best adventure. The program does not set up a video window 
so all room descriptions scroll off the screen. The program 
also does not allow you to use abbreviations. This means 
every time you want to move you must type the complete 
command. One last thing that bothered me about this 
adventure is that you cannot save it while in progress. 

I rate this adventure from difficult to very hard. If you are 
a real adventure buff, then I recommend this adventure. It 
may not be the best but it is one of the best. It is a welcome 
change from your typical dungeon and haunted house 
scenarios. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 9234 E. 30th Street, Tucson, AZ 
85170, 32K tape, $24.95, 32K disk, $29.95) 

—Steven Schweitzer 



ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE ? 

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those tired fingers a rest. With RAINBOW ON TAPE, you'll be able to spend your time enjoying programs instead of just typing.. .typing. ..typing 
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RAINBOW itself. 

VISA, MasterCard and American Express accepted. All subscriptions begin with the current issue and back issues are available 
beginning with April, 1982. Subscriptions are sent first class mail to coincide with the arrival of your current issue of the RAINBOW. 

Now ... 

The Best Color Computer Magazine 
Offers The Best Tape Service 

Think of it! Not 10 or a dozen— but between 20 and 30— programs every month from 
Rainbow On Tape. All the really good programs from the Rainbow! All the long ones ... so 
you don't have to type them in. Just CLOAD and RUN! 

ORDER RAINBOW ON TAPE TODAYS 
HANDY ORDER CARD BETWEEN PAGES 34 and 35 



October 1983 the RAINBOW 241 



Software ReWeir^^^EI^^^^^SS?^ 

Beyond Words 
Is Beyond Words 

EDITOR'S NOTE: While this review was originally 
run in our September issue, substantial portions were 
inadvertently deleted during the production process. 
Following is the review in its entirety. 

Beyond Words consists of three separate language arts 
tutors from Computer Island written for children and young 
adults, grades three through 12. After CLOADing this 32K 
Extended basic program, the user must enter PCLEAR 1 
before proceeding to RUN. At this point the student is asked 
to enter his/ her name and tell if the printer is turned on. The 
child then chooses one of three subtests. Each is a three-part, 
menu-driven program and the user can practice one skill and 
then go on to another at the end of a round. The incorrect 
questions and answers are displayed, and if the printer is 
turned on, a list of items to study is generated. If a particular 
subtest is used for five rounds, a total score is given. 

Beyond Words 1, 2 and 3 are written for children in grades 
three to five, grades six to eight, and grades nine to 12 
respectively. All have spelling subtests in which a correct 
and an incorrect spelling of a word is given. The child then 
types in and enters the word that he thinks is spelled cor- 
rectly. Fourth graders who tested it really liked the idea of 




TO ORDER SEND $34 $1.50 SHIPPING** TO: 

Micro Script, Inc. box 265 Randolph, n.y 14772 
*i.c. breadboard not included 

**N.Y STATE RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



having to type in a word, rather than keying in the number of 
the answer. That age groups seems to enjoy a program that 
allows them to use the computer as much as possible. 

A second subtest in eacrj program deals with antonyms 
and synonyms. In this part, two words are shown. The child 
has to decide if the meaning of the words is the same (S) or 
opposite (O). 

It is the third subtest that is different in each program. In 
Beyond Words 1, it is short forms. This subtest covers 
abbreviations and contractions. The long form is given and 
dashes are shown to indicate the length of the answer. The 
child is then to type in the short form. In Beyond Words 2, 
there is a subtest in homonyms. A word is given, and again 
dashes indicate the length of the answer. The child has to at 
sounds type in a word thexactly like the given one. 

Beyond Words 3 's third subtest is analogies. Two pairs of 
words are given and the user has to decide if the relationship 
of the first pair is the same as the relationship of the second 
pair. In other words, is the analogy true (T) or false (F)? 

All three programs have 400 questions each. The ques- 
tions are randomly selected and, in our testing, we found 
hardly any repeats with each loading. 

The words used in the program are all contained in 
DATA statements. The documentation suggests that the 
program can be modified by the user and gives very com- 
plete directions on how to change the DA TA statements so 
the program's use really becomes infinite. The modification 
directions are clearly written and very easy to follow. 

We had many children of all different ages use the pro- 
gram that was suited to their particular age group. The 
reactions and comments about the programs were all very 
favorable. All of the children, especially the younger ones, 
enjoyed the amount of interaction that they had with the 
computer. My daughter, Shari, who is in the eighth grade, 
found the subtests for her level very challenging. Very often 
she complains that "educational" software written for her 
age group is too easy. 

I was glad to see a program written for the high school 
level. The types of subtests given here would certainly supply 
excellent practice for the standardized tests that many high 
school students have to take, such as SATs. 

Beyond Words 1, 2 and 3 are excellent language arts 
tutors. They cause children to think. What more need be 
said ... I am beyond words. 

(Computer Island, 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, NY 
10312, tape $19.95 each) 

—Stephanie Snyder 



Hint . . . 

Slow Scrolling 
Through Orange 

Here's a powerful little POATsthat will slow your scrol- 
ling by creating a horizontal LIST. Type POKE 359,60 and 
you'll see what we mean. Add a colon (:) and SCREEN0J 
and you'll be slow-scrolling across an orange screen. To 
return to the green screen at full tilt, just type POKE 
359,126. 



242 the RAINBOW October 1983 



Unlock 
/^the full 
potential of 
your color computer 



It's easy with the right keys. 

The HJL-57 professional keyboard instantly upgrades your 
TRS-80* Color Computer to a dependable, high-performance 
machine with all the capabilities of systems costing 
hundreds more. 

If you've ever tried to enter a major block of data or do 
word processing, you know that the keyboard is the major 
limitation of the color computer. 

Designed from scratch 

To provide a total solution to the problem, the HJL-57 was 
designed from the ground up, specifically for the Color 
Computer(not an adaptation of a stock keyboard). The result 
is adependable, high-throughput keyboard that makes input 
less tedious, less time-consuming, and less distracting. 

State-of-the-art, full-travel technology 

A real keyboard with all the feel 
and response to make you more 
confidentand reduce input 
errors. Sculptured, low-profile 
keycaps are economically 
designed to cut fatigue and 
improve typing speed. 

Compatible with all TRS-80* Color Computers 

Including the F-version and TDP-100.* Layout is identical to 
original CoCo keyboard PLUS four software-definable 
function keys (one latchable), specially positioned to avoid 
inadvertent actuation. 

Built for heavy use 

Manufactured under contract by a leading U.S. OEM, with 

•Trademarks of Tandy Corporation 




Compare before you buy 

The HJL-57 was designed with your needs in mind. Why settle for less? 

j HJL-57 | Brand X ] Brand Y 


Switch technology 


Full-travel 
membrane 


Mech. 
contact 


Mech. 
contact 


Warranty 


FuH year 


90 days 


90 days 


Function keys 


Four 
(one latching) 


None 


Four 


Low-profile, 
sculptured keycaps 


Yes 


No 




Spill-proof contacts 


Yes 


No 




RFI/EMI shielding 


Yes 


No 




Contact rating 


100 million 
cycles min. 


Not 
specified 


Not 
specified 


Money-back guarantee 


Yes 


No 


No 



contacts rated for 100 million cycles minimum, rigidized 
aluminumbaseplate, and spill-proof construction, the HJL-57 
comes with a full 1 -year warranty. 

Quick and easy installation 

Anyone can remove the old keyboard and easily install the 
HJL-57 in just a few minutes, and the kit includes a new 
bezel for a totally finished conversion. 

RFI/EMI shielded 

Meets FCC Article 15 requirements which become effective on 
October 1, 1983. 

15-day money-back guarantee 

If you are not completely satisfied, just re-pack it (in 
original condition, of course) and return it to us within 
15 days for a full refund. 

CoCo owners go professional today 

The keys to peak performance are yours for only $79.95.0rder 
now to release the hidden potential and full value of 
your color computer. 



PRODUCTS INC. 

955 Buffalo Road • P.O. Box 24954 
Rochester, New York 14624 

To: HJL Products Inc. 1B 

LJ Yes. I'm ready to go pro. Ship one HJL-57 keyboard 

to my address below $79.95 

Specify which model color computer you have: 

□ Original (Sold prior to October, 1 982] 

U F-version (after October, 1 982) or TDP-1 00 

L J Shipping and handling 2.00 

I" INew York residents add 7% sales tax 

Total $ 



Payment by: 



I. \ C.O.D. [. ] Check or money order enclosed 

□ Visa H MasterCard— Interbank No 

Card No. Expires 



Signature . 
Name 



_ Date_ 



Street Address _ 
City 



. State . 



Zip- 



Compiled from manufacturers' published data available at press time. 



To order by phone, call (716) 235-8358 

Dealer inquiries invited. 



Software Review! 



Payup And Payout: Some Strengths 
And A Few Weaknesses 

By David Johnson 

Payup and Payout are new tape-based accounts receiva- 
ble and accounts payable packages from Sector Software of 
Canada. Written by Warren Wagner for the CoCo and an 
LP VII, both programs offer a number of useful accounting 
functions, but Payout (accounts payable) has one fault that 
I, as an accounting teacher, find very hard to live with. More 
on that later — first, the good news. 

One strength is the author's invitation to freely edit the 
programs to tailor them to your particular needs. In some 
places, this is necessary as well as desirable. 

Given the inherent limitations of a tape file system, these 
packages both are fairly easy to learn and operate. Before 
LOADing it is necessary to execute a POKE 25,6 :NEW in 
order to clear all available memory. When I failed to do this 
I got an OM Error when I tried to run the program. After 
this, POKE and CLOAD will load a short cover program 
which, when run, loads the main program while a title screen 
is displayed. This all seems to take a little too much time to 
my liking. The loader program can be skipped by position- 
ing the tape and CLOADing. This saves some time. During 
processing, the speed-up POKE is used. If your machine 
can't handle this, you can edit it. 



A main menu, which is the same for both programs, is the 
first thing you see when you run the program. The first 
function is start or add to files and is the basic data entry 
function. Information is entered pertaining to receivables 
and payables invoices such as date, customer or vendor 
name, invoice number, amount and whether paid, not paid 
or a credit memo. Payup also allows entry of labor charges 
and sales tax amounts, while Payout will ask which asset or 
expense account to charge the expenditure to. Twelve asset 
and expense accounts are provided. Nine are already named 
while the last three are only numbered. Editing the program 
would easily give you any twelve specific account titles you 
want. The search, edit, delete function is fairly self-explan- 
atory. The search menu allows a fast scroll through all 
invoices or you can search through the files by customer or 
vendor name, invoice number, paid, not paid or credit 
memo and, in Payout, by the check number which paid the 
invoice. The search-by-name function allows use of partial 
names. If you don't know the complete name of a vendor or 
customer, you can still find the invoice. 

Selections 4 and 5 on the main menu are the load- 
from/save-to-tape functions. I encountered no problems 
here other than the usual limitations of sequential access 
files. A nice feature here is the ability to load blocks into 
memory on top of each other without disturbing any files 
already in memory. This removes some of the sequentially 
of the files. It also lets you save separate daily or weekly 
blocks of data and put it all into memory for processing at 
the end of the period. With a 32K machine, you have room 
for 200 files in memory at any one time so space is limited. 

Main menu selection 6 is the print statements function 




PLEASE— ARE THERE 
ANM CoCo 
OUT THERE? 

THE 

PRINCESS 

from the 




TROLI For 

HE* OWN Good/ 

DUNGEON MAZE. 
32K EXT. $ 24 9£ 

M & & g>0fturare 

1ZD BDX *1 SUN5ET DRIVE - LOD1 

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PRESIDENT 



FOR DISK ONLY $7 ea./BUY ONE GET ON FREE — 



ADDRESS PRINT— Aids copying Ml. programs from disk 
CONVERT— Fixes Mod. 1 syntax after Spectral "MAGICBOX" 
DIR SORT-Gets DIR. sorts it, and puts it back, sorted 
DISKSCAN— inspect good/bad disks without "bombing" 



SALVAGE— copy all readable parts— even "bad" disks 
TRACE— Give filename. It tells you which grans 

and how many bytes of each are used on the disk 
DISKCOPY— A selective backup for 1wo drives 

allows you to pick which programs to copv 




244 the RAINBOW October 1983 



and differs slightly for each program. In both programs, 
screen output is limited due to the limited space available on 
the screen. However, the screen statements do offer useful 
account summaries for intra-period perusal. The screen and 
printer provide the same basic statements; the screen state- 
ments are just more condensed. 

Both programs provide good looking, well-formatted 
output. Double-size letters are used for headings, which can 
include your company name if you edit it into the program. 
Instructions for this are provided. 

Payup offers a summary of the accounts receivable bal- 
ance which lists the current period's activity by invoice with 
debit, credit and balance columns, a complete listing of all 
invoices in memory indicating amount and whether paid or 
not paid and statements of account by customer. There is 
also a sales tax statement but some program editing will 
likely be necessary here to reflect specific tax rates and 
vendor's commissions. 

Payout's statements are similar to those generated by 
Payup. There is a balance sheet by invoice with debit, credit 
and balance columns, a listing of all invoices in memory 
indicating amount and whether paid or not (The title of this 
statement is "List of Receipts"; I feel "List of Charges" 
would be better.) and a listing of any or all of the asset or 
expense accounts showing their balances and listing the 
invoices that make up those balances. 

It is in Payout's balance sheet where there is a problem. 
When an invoice is entered, the amount is correctly debited 
to the selected asset or expense account, but is also debited 
to the accounts payable account. Similarly, a credit memo 
from a vendor is properly credited as far as assets or 
expenses are concerned, but it is also credited to accounts 
payable. Payments of invoices are also credited to accounts 
payable. What this means is that the accounts payable 
account is exactly in reverse, that is, the debits should be 
credits and vice versa. I have not been able to determine as 
yet how difficult a fix this would be in the program, but I do 
feel it is a serious problem. In accounting, debits are debits 
and credits are credits and must be handled with the least 
possibility of errors. One could ignore the debit and credit 
columns and just use the balance, but I feel this just increases 
the chances of an error occurring when the primary financial 
statements are prepared. 

Except for the complete listings, the statements can only 
be printed on a monthly basis according to invoice date. All 
balance calculations are performed when the statements are 
printed so you must keep up with previous balances as of 
particular dates (the program will ask for the previous bal- 
ance) should you want statements printed on intra-period 
dates. This might require a subsidiary paper file. 

The documentation for the program is enough to get you 
started, but it is somewhat sketchy, offering only brief des- 
criptions of the functions and some statement examples 
(without explanations). Instructions are provided for chang- 
ing the program to fit a 16K machine, but you really need 
32K for any real quantity of data. 

Overall, there is a good beginning here, but I feel more 
work is needed. If you plan to buy this one, be prepared for a 
thorough testing period before you go on line. 



(Sector Software, 17 Waynewood Drive, Dartmouth, N.S. 
B2W 1G1, Canada, $29.95 each on cassette) 



Software Review 

Score-EZ 
Is Easy 

Jarb Software's Score-EZ is a great game for the CoCo. It 
is a version of the home game Yahtzee, where you try to 
make the best poker hand out of five dice in three rolls. This 
version is for one to six s players, each one having their own 
score pad on the screen. The CoCo does all the work: it rolls 
the dice and keeps score. All you do is pick the dice you want 
to keep and roll the rest, and if you get what you want before 
your three rolls are up, you can skip the rest of your rolls and 
go right to your own score sheet. 

The game starts with some simple block graphics that 
spell Score-EZ. I like the game instructions and the write-up 
that came with the game. They were "ez" to understand and 
it was "ez" to play the game. The game is written for 16K 
Extended BASIC. 

The only aspect I didn't like was the double entry 
prompts: you always had to key what you wanted and then 
hit ENTER. This confused people at the start, but as the 
game progressed it was no longer a problem. 

Have fun, and may all your rolls be good ones. 

(Jarb Software, 1636 D Ave., Suite C, National City, CA 
92050, tape $15.95) 

—Stephen M. Hess 



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