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July 1983 



THE COLOR COMPUTER 



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Mapping QjHiH 
Memory 

An Index to Rainbol 



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First Two Years 1 



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A Quicksort For 0ti Co 





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COMPUTERS 

Model IV16K 
Model IV64K 

2 Disk & RS232 c 
Color Computer 16K 
Color Computer 16K 
w/extended basic 
JColor Computer 32K-64K 

w/extended basic 
Pocket Computer 2 
Pocket Computer 4 
Model 100 8K 
ModeM00 24K 
Model 121 Drive 
Model 16 1 Drive 
MODEMS 
Hayes Smart Modem II 
R.S. AC-3 
R.S. Modem I 
R.S. Modem II 
PRINTERS 
Smith Corona TPI 
Epson 
CGP-115 




$849 

1699 
175 

255 

345 
165 
59 
679 
835 
2699 
4199 

235 
129 
129 
199 

495 
Call 
199 



DMP-100 

DMP-120 

DMP-200 

Okldata 82A 

Okldata 92 

Okldata 83A 

Okldata 93 

Gemini 10 

Prowrlter 
DISK DRIVES 

Tandon 40 Track 

Color DR0 

Color DR1 
ETC. 

CCR-81 

R.S. Joysticks (pair) 

16K RAM Chips 

64K RAM Chips 

32K Mlcrobuffer Inline 

Video Plus 

Kraft Joystick (each) 

Disk Controller 

Serlalto Parallel Conv. 

Superpro Keyboard 



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655 
859 
319 
375 

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470 
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199 
69 
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We have the lowest possible 
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Prices subject to change without notice. 
Not responsible for typographical errors. 

TRS-80 Is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SOFTWARE 

(Tape Version) 

Zaxxon 39.95 

The King 26.95 

Colorpede 29.95 

Trapfall 27.95 

Pac Attack 24.95 

Ghost Gobbler 19.95 

Planet Invasion 21.95 
Color Zap 9.95 

Rallrunner 21.95 

Space Shuttle 28.95 

Typing Tutor 19.95 

Color Come 49.95 

Telewriter 64 49.95 

FHL Flex (Disk) 69.95 
Order any two above, take 10% 
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P.O. Box 926 
460 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01 460 
617-486-3193 



free catalog 



nder the Rainbow 






COVER art © by Fred Crawford 



Snowflakes In July?/ Robert Delbourgo 28 

(Graphics) Remember, it's winter Down Under 
MINIDOS Switches Programs/ Dr. Laurence Preble 44 

(Utility) Keep two programs in memory at the same time! 
Move Over Walt Disney/ Scott Bain 53 

(Graphics) Now you can do your own animations 
You Spent How Much?/./. D. Ray 60 

(Home Help) Analyze and graph Home Finance 

information 

A Pot Of Disk/ Roger Schrag 71 

(Disk Utility) A host of new utilities for your disk 
Let's Get Dotto/ Daniel W. Phillips 83 

(Game) Good old dot-to-dot hits CoCo 
Baseball Statistics Made Easy/ Edward R. Carson 92 

(Sports) This one does everything but buy you the peanuts 

and Crackerjack 

CoCo Meets The World/ Dennis Meixsell 106 

(Hardware) Hook CoCo up to all sorts of things 
Not Just A Sorta Sort/C. J. S tear man 112 

(Utility) A quick sorting program (First of two) 
RAINBOWfest Report/7/m Reed 122 

(Pictorial) A photo essay 
WH A TZ IT?/ Randall Smith 124 

(Word Game) A scrambled word game, that's what 
The Snails Strike Back/ Fred Seer bo 138 

(Game) We turn the tables on SNAIL INVADERS 
Play It Again, Rainbow!/ From All Of Us 146 

(Anniversary Special) A record of programs 
Direct Disk Directory Directions/ Melvin Hefter 152 

(Tutorial) How to use your disk directory 
Shuffle Off In High-Res/ Phillip Beistel . , 196 

(Game) Move those numbers around 
Game Train/7/m Schmidt 202 

(Game) A game and a memory trainer 

CoCo To Go/ Richard Giovanoni 218 

(Construction) Build a portable computer center 
Las Vegas CoCo?/ Linda Nielson 226 

(Statistics) Probable probability problems proven 

practical 

RAINBUG Ml/ Dan Downard 234 

(Utility) More on our ML monitor 
Rainbow Memory Map/ Bob Russell 254 

(Special) CoCo's most complete memory map — Part 1 
Printout At PMODE4/ Joseph Kohn 262 

(Printers) Dot graphics for Epson and Microline 
Speak Up, CoCo/ John Kelty 275 

(Hardware) Words from a chip 

Rainbow's Index/ Leslie A. Foster 290 

(Special) A complete index to our first two years 

Due to family illness, Dennis Lewandowski's Assembly 
Corner does not appear this month. It will return in August. 



THE PIPELINE CONTAINS AN EXCLUSIVE FIRST PREVIEW OF THE NEW 

TRS-80 MC-10 MICRO COLOR COMPUTER 



Departments 

Letters To Rainbow/ Our Readers 6 

PRINT #-2 J Lawrence C. Falk 13 

Editor's Notes 

Building July's Rainbow/7/w Reed 14 

A many-hued preview to this month's issue. 
Charlie's Machine/ Charles J. Roslund 18 

How to make ROM calls easily 

About Your Subscription 232 

Back Issue Information 284 

CoCo Counsel/ Tom Nelson 36 

Successful Software Submissions 

Submitting Material To Rainbow 70 

Rainbow Scoreboard 90 

Education Notes/S/eve Blyn 130 

Teaching kids to fill out forms 

Basic Training/ Joseph Kolar 148 

Learn by taking programs apart 

The Pipeline/ S/tf/f. 164 

A special look at a new (PoCo) CoCo 

Using Graphics/ Inman 168 

Making circles and arcs 

Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano 176 

Making a ROM Port "Y" Adapter 

The Dragon's Byte/ Bill Nolan, 178 

Combat and CoCo 

Bits And Bytes Of Basic/ Richard White 183 

Text entry routines 

Received And Certified 224 

GameMaster's Apprentice/ Bob Albrecht 248 

A character-finder program 

Greetings From Uncle Bert/ Dale Peterson 285 

Our new column on LOGO — for kids and their parents 

Corrections 288 

RAINBOW Info 298 

Advertiser Index 306 




Product Reviews 

64K Disk Utilities 284 

Alcatraz II 232 

CoCo Accountant 82 

Data-Comp FLEX 240 

Datamail 166 

Dollars & Sense 300 

Dungeons of Daggorath 220 

EPROM Programmer 70 

Fastape 221 

FHL FLEX 240 

Filmastr 231 

Fraction Math Quiz 167 

The Frog 233 

Function Graphing Module 16 

Grafplot 158 



Home Interest Calculator 50 

Home Money Manager 42 

Intoduction To Data 

Communications 24 

McCoCo's Menu 300 

Moneypak 300 

Morocco Gran Prix 222 

Planet Invasion 223 

Robottack 233 

Scramble 43 

Spectral FLEXPLUS 240 

Stock Option Strategies 201 

TRS-80 Programmer's 

Sourcebook 297 



NEXT MONTH: Football season starts soon, and the August Rainbow will be in the thick 
of it, with a football game. You can start training early. Also, an excellent new column for 
educators to go with our fine new LOGO offering. 

The memory map will be back — for Part II. It is really a big one and will be with us for a 
couple more months, yet. And, perhaps, a very special report. 

Plus . . . some more music, more games and just more of everything — programs, reviews, 
and information on CoCo than you can possibly find anywhere else. Don't miss August's 
Rain bowl 



The Rainbow 

Lawrence C. Falk 

Editor 



James E. Reed 
Managing Editor 

Courtney Noe 
Associate Editor 

Dan Downard 
Technical Editor 

Sally Nichols 
Art Director 

Jerry McKiernan 
Assistant Art Director 

Valarie Edwards 
Jutta Kapfhammer 
Suzanne Kurowsky 
Editorial Assistants 

Bob Albrecht 
Steve Blyn 
Tony DiStefano 
Don Inman 
Joseph Kolar 
Dennis Lewandowski 
Bill Nolan 
Dale Peterson 
Charles Roslund 
Dick White 
Contributing Editors 

Charlotte Ford 
Advertising Manager 

Patricia H. Hirsch 

General Manager 

Donna Shuck 
Bookkeeper 

Ivanka Kleier 
Customer Service Manager 

Deidra Henry 
Tanya Holder 
Monica Wheat 
Research Assistants 

Wendy Falk 
Transportation 



The Rainbow is published every month of the year by 
FALSOFT, INC., 9529 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 209, 
Prospect. KY, 40059. Phone (502) 228-4492. The 
RAINBOW and the Rainbow logotypes are * 
Trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. 

Second class postage pending at Louisville, KY. 
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to .teintew, 
P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. Fowarding Postage 
Guaranteed. 

Entire contents © by FALSOFT, Inc.. 1983. The 
RAINBOW is intended for the private use and pleasure 
of its subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by 
any means is prohibited. Use of informal ion herein is for 
the single end use of purchasers and any other use is 
expressly prohibited. All programs herein are 
distributed in an "as is" basis, without warranty of any 
kind whatsoever. 

TRS-80, Color Basic, Extended Color Basic, Scripsit 
and Program Pak are ® trademarks of the Tandy Corp. 
CompuServe is a « Trademark of CompuServe Inc. 

Subscriptions to the RAINBOW are $22 per year in the 
United States. Canadian and Mexican rates art* U.S. $29. 
Surfacemail to other countries is U.S. $57, airmail U.S. 
$85. All subscriptions begin with the next available 
issue. 

Limited back issues are available. Please se*e notice 
for issues which are in print and costs. Payment 
accepted by VISA, MasterCard. American Express, 
Cash, Check or Money Order in United States currency 
only. 



letters to 




PAINT 15L: NEW 

Editor: 

I would like to share with your readers 
a discovery I have made. 

I use and move my computer quite a 
bit. Hence, there are several places on it 
where the paint has worn off. A local 
Radio Shack dealer told me to try an 
automotive touch up paint. 

I found that General Motors makes a 
color called "Silver Sand," code 1 5L. It 
is a perfect match. A company named 
Dupli-Color markets it in spray cans. 
Dupli -Color's code isDS-GM 326. Now 
my CoCo looks newagain! 

Frank Cerra 
Kansas City, MO 



RAY LIKES HIS K' 

Editor: 

1 received a CoCo for Christmas and got 
your magazine in January. Your monthly 
editions have helped me a great deal in 
understanding different areas of the ma- 
chine, but what I really want to know is how 
to gain full usefulness of the memory in my 
machine. 

I have the new version of the CoCo with 
the "F board. What I want to know is why 
can't I access the full 64K of my chips, and 
would it be possible to piggyback a set of 
64K. chips to expand my memory to 64K 
Extended plus 128 with a DOS. Please help. 

Raymond Wise 
Stuart, FL 

Editor 's Note: The 6809 Processor has 
16 address lines and therefore can 
address 64K bytes. You have to have 
an operating system to tell the proces- 
sor what to do, such as BASIC. This 
operating system occupies memory. 
Therefore the maximum memory 
accessible is = (64 K — operating sys- 
tem). In the case of Extended BASIC 
this )eavesy ou32K of user memory as 
the BASIC ROMs occupy the top 
32K. 

64 K may be better utilized by some 
of the more sophisticated disk systems 
and software such as FLEX but at no 
time can you access more than 64 K. 



BENJAMINS BORDER 

Editor: 

I enjoyed the article by Ray Gauvreau to 
put a border around the CoCo screen. I have 
a I6K standard Color BASIC and was dis- 
appointed to read that Ray's program 
required ECB. 

However, with the help of the instruc- 
tion manual, I made the following changes 

6 ihe'RAlNBOW July 1983 



▲ 



IN 




and ran the program successfully. 
30 POKE 275,63: POKE 276,224 
HO IF BN>32767 THEN 100 
I20 CLS (RND(8)):X=USR(BN) 
140 X=USR(BN) 
!60X=USR(BN-3) 

I had to save the entire program since 
Color BASIC will not save 
machine language. Also, if you 
BREAK after the first RUN, you need to 
enter RUN 100. Entering RUN will get a SN 
error. 

I spent several hours playing with this 
program and trying different com- 
binations. 

I would like to see more articles for Color 
BASIC. I do enjoy your magazine. 

Benjamin W. Brunotte 
Beaumont, TX 



LET ME COUNT THE WAYS 

Editor: 

I thought the review of Gazon in your 
April issue was fair, but there are two things 
I would like to clear up. First, the game does 
not require Extended BASIC. Second, you 
can fire in 32 directions, not eight. 

David A . Sweet 
(Author of Gazon) 
Carmel, IN 



DISCOVERED BY OCCIDENT 

Editor: 

With regard to the letter from Mr. R.W. 
Odlin in your April issue in which he des- 
cribes theapparentlyaccidentaldiscovery of 
Japanese characters while using his CGP 
1 15 with the Telewriter 64 direct printer con- 
trol command: He must have had DIP 
switch 4 set to the special characters position 
and then entered the Hex values for the Jap- 
anese Kanacharacterset directly to the print- 
er buffer via the Direct control code com- 
mand. 

The Japanese Kana character set will be 
selected in the codes AO(Hex) through 
DF(Hex). This character set is also imple- 
mented in the Radio Shack LPV111 if DIP 
switch 8 is set to the closed position. 

I would like to congratulate you on the 
truly excellent quality of your magazine. It is 
marketed locally through Atlantic News, 
which carries the best selection of computer 
publications to be found in Canada. I would 
also like to compliment Ms. Sally Nichols 
and Mr. Jerry McKiernan on the outstand- 
ing job they have done in producing your 
new format. It's absolutely super. 

Wishing you every success with your fine 
publication. 

Andrew Gorman 
Halifax, N.S. Canada 



OW 



RAINBOWFEST 

Editor: 

I am not one to write letters to magazines, 
but I felt compelled to write this one. I want 
to thank Rainbow magazine for the wonder- 
ful time I had at R AINBOWfest. I didn't set 
up a booth for the show as I didn't really 
expect that many people to trek to Chicago 
for a computer show. Boy, was I wrong! If 
anything would be living proof of the solid- 
arity of the CoCo, it was what took place 
April 22-24 in the Hyatt-Regency Woodfield 
in Schammburg. It was great to see the aisles 
packed with fellow CoCo users and a real 
pleasure to meet my fellow CoCo advertis- 
ers. Though RAINBOWfest would have 
been very profitable for my company, that 
would rate a poor second to the experience 
that I will remember from it. I want to thank 
you again and am anxiously awaiting 
RAINBOWfest II. And you can bet that I 
will have a booth at that one! 

Bob Rosen 
President, Spectrum Projects 
Woodhaven, NY 

Editor: 

Congratulations, kudos and a thousand 
thank yous for RAINBOWfest. A success 
and a pleasure for all involved. 

John and Linda Nielsen 
Moreton Bay Software 
Santa Barbara, CA 

Editor: 

Just wanted to drop you a short note 
thanking you for sponsoring the RAIN- 
BOWfest. My wife and I learned much . . . 
and had an excellent time doing it. 

We will certainly look forward to the next 
one! 

Again . . . thank you! 

Len Baas 
Traverse City, MI 

Editor: 

It was really a pleasure meeting you and 
some of the other staff members at RAIN- 
BOWfest. Everyone I spoke with thoroughly 
enjoyed it. It's hard to imagine how many 
people will show up for nextyear's once they 
find out how much fun they missed. 

Gerry Schechter 
Yonkers, NY 

Editor: 

Thank you and all of the participants at 
RAINBOWfest who made the show such a 
success. The vendors who were there were all 
very pleasant and most helpful. I am writing 
to express my special thanks publicly to Paul 
and Susan Petrocci of Petrocci Freelance. 
Their kindness and consideration to me per- 
sonally far exceeded that which could be 
expected of them to extend to a total 
stranger. I look forward to seeing them 
again, together with all of the Rainbowpeo- 



pie at next year's show — wherever the Rain* 
bow touches down again. 

Thomas P. Daly 
Waukegan, JL 



LOST RONG 

Editor: 

Your reviews of our products Electricity 
Consumption Moniter and LLIST-Rite 
were more than we expected. In both cases, 
the reviewers had done their homework pro- 
grammatically as well as operationally, with 
the result of providing prospective purchas- 
ers very accurate information on which to 
base their buy decision. Well done, and 
thanks to your reviewers for a few compli- 
ments along the way. 

I would like to point out that the sample 
output from the LLIST-Rite utility on page 
204 is not correct. It does represent how 
LLIST-Rite separates complex program state- 
ments, but shows each line break with a new 
line number and '(comment). Apparently, 
either the author oryourstaff used the ROM 
LLIST function to simulate how LLIST- 
Rite works, but forgot to remove the line 
numbers and '. 

Finally, add my name to the growing list 
of folks in this business who view the Rain- 
bow as not just the best Color Computer 
magazine, but the best computer informa- 
tion source of its kind! 

Tom Mardis 
Owner, CoCoDATA Enterprises 

Orlando, FL 



NO TIRARING PIEDRAS, PLEASE 

Editor; 

The Spanish One software reviewer in 
April Rainbow gets an "F" in Spanish. 

In Spanish, they do use "yo," a nomina- 
tive pronoun as an object of a preposition, 
e.g., "entre usted y yo." 

The reviewer translates "Buenos Dias" as 
"Hello." Maybe so, but in actual use it is 
used only in the morning before noon. Does 
shethink we only read Rainbow in the morn- 
ing? You might say "Good Morning" in a 
morning newspaper, but not in a monthly 
magazine. 

"Programa" doesn't end in an "e." It's an 
exception to the rules. It's a masculine noun 
from Greek, not Latin, and ends in an "a." 

The reviewer should learn this sentence: 
"Los que viven en casas de vidrio, no deben 
tirar piedras." 

Literal translation: "Those who live in 
houses of glass, should not throw rocks." 

Conrad Kirksey 
Houston, TX 



HINTS N'TIPS 

Editor: 

In the April issue, a letter from Max 
Shank indicated that he was unable to run 
the VN1DA TFL program (June, 1 982 issue) 
in the upper 64K section using my program 
(January, 1983 issue) for relocating BASIC 



programs to the upper 64 K section of RAM, 
thus allowing for more data to be stored for 
the program. 

In order for UN I DATFL to work in the 
upper 64K section of RAM, you have to 
delete step I which has a "GOTO 4000" 
statement. Steps 4000 and 4010 contain a 
subroutine for relocating UN IDA TFL start- 
ing at &H0E1 8 and since you want the pro- 
gram to remain in the upper section of 
RAM, this subroutine must be avoided by 
deleting step I of the program. 

The above correction will allow you to 
increase the number of records to be stored. 
Therefore, line 60 of UN IDA TFL could be 
changed to read: "CLEAR 25000: D=500: 
DIM N$(D)." 

Jorge Mir 
New Berlin, WI 

Editor: 

I want to thank Roger Schrag for his two 
patches to EDTASM+. That in itself more 
than paid for my subscription to the 
Rainbow. 

I would like to offer a short patch to his 
that will print the disk directory when a L or 
W command is entered. I found myself for- 
getting the files I had on the disk and this 
seems to have solved the problem. 

Insert these lines after line 100 (FN AME 
PSHS U) of the original program. 
PSHS DP,X,Y 
CLRA 

STA >$006F RESET SCREEN- 
PRINTER SWITCH 
TFR A, DP CLEAR DP REGIS- 
TER 

JSR SCBCF DIR ROM ROU- 
TINE 

PULS DP,X,Y 

Reassemble the program following the 
instructions in Roger Schrag's article. 

Craig Lev an g 
Anoka, MN 



CHAIRMAN OF D' BOARD 

Editor: 

Asauthor of the March article"64K Mod- 
ification For 4 D' Board," I have been over- 
whelmed with the response from your read- 
ers. Many express thanks for the modi- 
fication described. Unfortunately, a few 
people have had problems getting the con- 
version to work. I've attempted to answer all 
questions as rapidly as possible (usually 
within one day). Some difficulties are to be 
expected with any article on hardware modi- 
fications. 

Difficulties experienced fall into three 
general categories: 

1) Using the described D-Board modifica- 
tion or 4 E' or even 4 F' series CoCo boards. 
The modification can work on these boards 
although not exactly as described. 

2) Not making all the changes indicated. It 
simply won't work if all the wires are not 
connected or if the jumper blocks haven't 
been reconfigured. 

3) Simply not understanding the article 
because of no familiarity with the CoCo or 



electronics wiring. I think it's great that 
some of you tried, even without this know- 
ledge. That's how progress is made. I'll cer- 
tainly do what I can to help you out. 

If you're having difficulty, by all means, 
write me at 113 Boone Road, 15085. Des- 
cribe the problem as completely as you can. 
Include a sketch of the modifications you 
installed. Include a checklist showing that all 
steps described in the article were com- 
pleted. Include a self addressed stamped 
envelope. If you are in a hurry, call me at 
(412)373-3363 after6 p.m. EST. Have your 
CoCo open in front of you when you call. 

Brian H. Alsop 
Trafford, PA 



ABUNCHA BBS'S 

Editor: 

Dr. D's CoCo Corner is a new Bulletin 
Board Service for the Color Computer. I 
would very much appreciate it if you would 
publish my BBS number in your magazine, 
as I do subscribe, and recommend it to ail 
my BBS users. This BBS runs 24 hours a 
day; we supper! upload and download. My 
BBS phone number is (904) 456-7195. 

Gary Dunsford, Sysop 
Pensacola, FL 

Editor: 

Tom Mix Software is pleased to announce, 
that we are now running a 24 hour bulletin 
board. The board is a total dedication to the 
Color Computer and will carry programs for 
downloading for the Color Computer. 

We, like most boards, are looking -for 
good public domain programs that will be 
uploaded to the system. 

Our 24 hour BBS number is (616) 
364-8217. J> 

Tom Mix Software 
Grand Rapids, MI 

Editor: 

I have set up a CoCo BBS in Morgan- 
town, W.Va., called the Mountaineer Soft- 
line. It is open 24 hours a day, seven days a 
week. The phone number is (304) 599-0760. 1 
would also like to compliment you on your 
fine magazine and I love how you have 
grown. 

Wallace Colyer 
Morgantown, WV 

Editor: 

J would like to use your excellent publica- 
tion to inform everyone of a new Bulletin 
Board Service in Arlington, Mass. I am run- 
ning the Color-80 (Silicon Rainbow pro- 
ducts) BBS system on my 64K Color Com- 
puter. It is up 24 hours a day at 300 baud. 
The number is (617) 646-6809. 

Also associated with this, I have formed a 
Color Computer user's group for the Boston 
area. Those wishing details can log onto the 
BBS or write to me directly at 3 Acton 
Street, 02174. 

Greg Moore 
Arlington, MA 



July 1983 theRASHKQW 7 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

Has, it really been two years? Who would 
believe that the little four page photocopy 
woulcj turn into the finest magazine availa- 
ble for any computer. Just when I think I 
have finally gotten nearly all the way 
through an issue, the next one arrives, even 
better than the last! 

Keep up the great work. I am proud to 
have played some small part in your fine 
efforts. 

Fred B. Scerbo, President 
Illustrated Memory Banks 
Williamstown, MA 

Editor: 

1 want to congratulate you on your new 
look. Rainbow is already a good magazine, 
but now it is also a very professional looking 
magazine. It seems right at home on the 
newsstand. 

Jack Gurner 
Memphis, TN 

ORG! THAT'S CONFUSING 

Editor: 

I have been experiencing difficulties with 
Radio Shack's EDTASM+ cartridge. When 
certain assembly language programs are 
entered into the editor, it seems to get the 
labels confused. On assembling the pro- 
gram, the editor returns a "Multiply Defined 
Symbol" error as it reaches every label. I 
have run into this problem several times, but 
only on three programs. Otherwise, 
EDTASM+ works perfectly. 

A lan A . Farmer 
Charlottesville, VA 

Editor's Note: The problem you are 
having is due to a double symbol table 
being accessed due to the location of 
your in-memory assembly. Try a dif- 
ferent ORG statement. 



CLUBS, CLUBS, CLUBS 

Editor: 

Those interested in activities of the Alaska 
Color Computer User's Group should write 
me at 816 N. Pine, #2, Anchorage, Alaska, 
99504 or call (907) 274-5778. 

Rick McDannel 
Anchorage, A K 

Editor: 

1 am interested in forming a Color Com- 
puter user's group in the Iowa City area. 
Interested people may contact me at R. R. 
#6, The Woods, Iowa City, Iowa, 52240. 

1 think you have a very fineand necessary 
publication, keep it running. 

S.P. C ha pier 
Iowa City, J A 

Editor: 

I have received the Rainbow for several 
months now and each month just gets better 
and better. I am impressed with the quality 
and professionalism of your articles. In 
addition, on the one occasion when I had a 



problem that I couldn't solve and called for 
help, your staff was both courteous and suc- 
cessful in helping me contact the person I 
needed to talk to. Your magazine is read 
from cover to cover each and every month 
both by myself and by my students at the 
school where I teach. 

I would like to announce the formation of 
our user's group here in our area. We are 
called the Mil-O-Bar Color Computer Club. 
We anticipate a turnout of around 35 at our 
next meeting. We meet on the last Thursday 
of each month at Ona Junior High School 
We welcome any and all who are interested. 
In addition, we would like to exchange ideas 
with other clubs on by-laws, newsletters, etc. 
Call me at (304) 743-4752 or Barry Huff- 
stutler at 743-5356. Please call on Wednes- 
day, Thursday or Friday. 

Jim Lemaster 
Milton, WV 

Editor: 

We are calling our user's group Ogden 
C0C0 and Rainbow readers are welcome to 
exchange newsletters or otherwise contact 
us by writing to 4535 S. 2600 W., 84067. 

Kathy Rush 
Roy, UT 

Editor: 

The Color Computer Club of Sarasota 
meets the last Thursday of every month at 
7:30 p.m. at 4047 Bee Ridge Road, Sarasota, 
Fla., 33582. 

Interested C0C0 and TDP-100 users are 
welcome to attend or to contact me at (8 1 3) 
921-7510. 

Ernie Bontrager 
Sarasota, FL 

Editor: 

I am pleased to announce the organiza- 
tion of a Color Computer Club in the greater 
Birmingham area. Anyone interested should 
write me at P.O. Box 335, Gardendale, Ala., 
35071 , or call (205) 631-3320 or 798-2355. 

I would also like to compliment you on 
the continuing excellence of your magazine. 

Joseph Bell, Jr. 
Gardendale, AL 

Editor: 

I recently purchased a Signalman modem 
for my C0C0. I also purchased the Color- 
corn/ E software cartridge to accompany the 
modem. My only problem is thatthe modem 
has a DB-25 male connector and my C0C0 
has a 4 pin serial I/O socket. The man I 
bought the modem from said, "You have to 
buy an adapter to use it on your computer." 
So I called everywhere I could think of and 
everybody said that they never heard of that 
kind of adapter. Can anybody help me find 
one? 

I also would like to try to start a C0C0 
user's club in the Linden/Rahway area. 
Anyone interested please contact me at 73 B 
Wavecrest Avenue, 07036, or call (201) 
925-1827. 

Bud Lavin 
Winfield, NJ 



Editor: 

We are pleased to announce the Metro- 
politan Greenville Color Computer Club 
formed in January of this year and already 
almost 50 members strong. 

The MGCCC serves the interests of pres- 
ent and prospective C0C0 owners in the 
entire western South Carolina region. As a 
group, we are totally committed to compu- 
ter literacy among ourselves and within the 
community. Members enjoy a lively ex- 
change of computing information, free lan- 
guage, programming and hardware tutorials 
as well as a biweekly club newsletter. 

Meetings are held every Tuesday at 7:30 
p.m. in the Plain Elementary School, Simp- 
sonville, S.C. 

Anyone wanting more information about 
this dynamic organization may contact me 
at any time at (803) 876-3928 or -3812, or 
write. 

Ed Lowe 
Gray Court, SC 

Editor: 

Any C0C0 owners in the Bloomington- 
Normal, 111., area, interested in starting a 
user's group, SIG, etc., please contact me at 
1 84 Southgate Estates, Bloomington, 111., or 
phone (309) 828-4671. 

Ray Myers 
Bloomington, IL 

Editor: 

I would like to announce the formation of 
a TRS-80 Computer Club in southwest 
Oklahoma. As of this writing, we have 32 
members. Anyone needing additional infor- 
mation can call me at (405) 355-7254, or the 
Secretary of the group, Cebe Mayse, at (405) 
536-1907. We are currently calling ourselves 
S.L.U.G. (Southern Lawton Users Group). 

Dan Goddard 
Geronimo, OK 

Editor: 

Those in the Louisvilleand southern Indi- 
ana area who would like to get a Color 
Computer Club started should contact me at 
2603 Garden Lake Lane, 40220, or call (502) 
491-1853. 

Roger Idstrom 
Louisville, KY 

Editor's Note: Roger, read on. 

Editor: 

We are forming a Color Computer group 
in the Louisville area, and would like very 
much to hear from anyone interested in join- 
ing us. For more information, contact me at 
2820 Del Rio Place #27, 40220. 

Stephen Hess 
Louisville, KY 

Editor: 

J am interested in forming a C0C0 Club in 
the Kannapolis/Concord/Salisbury area in 
North Carolina. All C0C0 owners interested 
please contact me at 2419 Lane St., 2808 1 or 
call (704) 932-6653. 

Mike Mundy 
Kannapolis, NC 



8 the RAINBOW July 1983 



COLORSOFT™ BUSINESS SOFTWAR 



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COLORSOFT lm General Ledger Is Ideal for the small business man who 
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— UP TO 96 USER DEFINABLE RECORD CATEGORIES "* 
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DETAILED USER S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS "* 
APPROXIMATELY 800 ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/PAYABLE FILES "* 
"•STYLED FOR THE ACCOUNTANT/BOOKKEEPING ORIENTED USER"* 
"* MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT "* 

COLORSOFT tm General Ledger Is an Integrated, journal-type double entry 
accounting package (or a small business that Includes General Ledger, 
Accounts Payable, and Accounts Receivable programs. Outputs of the system 
Include an income statement, balance sheet, accounts payable and receivable 
status lists, accounts payable and receivable aging reports, Journal reports, 
account listing and a closing summary. During each user established account- 
ing period (monthly, quarterly, annually, etc.), It will handle accounts of up to 
$1,000,000.00 for approximately BOO accounts paysble/recelvable. Accounts 
are automatically numbered and each transaction Is carried separately so that 
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Requires 16K and a Single Disk Drive. 
PRICE: $129.95 



COLORSOFT 1 " 1 SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

The COLORSOFT tm Small Business Accounting package Is Ideal for the 
small businessman who wants to take advantage of the time saving benefits of 
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person In mind and as such, extensive computer or accounting experience Is 
not required. The feature and options of thlspackage are comparable to much 
higher priced software. 

FEATURES 

USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN 444 
USER DOES NOT NEED TO BE AN ACCOUNTANT 
UP TO 32 USER DEFINABLE RECORD CATEGORIES "* 
444 DETAILED USER'S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS *" 
444 USER IS PROMPTED FOR COMPANION ENTRIES AS REQUIRED 444 
APPROXIMATELY 800 ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/PAYABLE FILES "* 
444 MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT 

COLORSOFT * m Small Business Accounting Is an Integrated, ledgerless 
accounting package for a small business that Includes Accounts Payable, 
Accounts Receivable, Sales, and Purchase Order.programs. Outputs of the 
system Include an Income statement, balance sheet, check register, accounts 
payable and receivable status lists, and accounts payable and receivable 
aging reports. During each user established accounting period (monthly, 
quarterly, annually, etc.), It will handle sales of up to $1,000,000.00 snd 
approximately 800 accounts payable/receivable. Accounts are automatically 
numbered and each transaction Is carried separately such that an account 
number will correspond to a specific purchase rather than a specific 
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Requires 16K and a Single Disk Drive. 
PRICE: $149.95 



COLORSOFT 1 " 1 MANAGEMENT SKILLS 
SERIES I: BEING BOSS 

"BEING BOSS" Is a collection of six programs and Is the first In an ongoing 
series of computer ssslsted management development tools. Those who can 
benefit Include corporate executives, managers, heads of teams, group leaders, 
supervisors, toremans, teachers, and parents. In fact, anyone who must take a 
leadership role can benefit from these programs. 

A. REFLECTIONS - a self evaluation guide 

B. ASSERTIVENESS - taking control as a leader 

C. MANAGEMENT STYLES - how to approach the leadership role 

D. DECISION MAKING - how to handle decision making 

E. COUNSELING - helping others solve personal problems 

F. STRESS CONTROL - taking care of yourself 

Each program Is In a multiple choice questionnaire format where the user Is 
q uerrled as to a responseto a specified management situation. Tutorials help the 
user learn new management skills and Insights. The programs Include voice 
annotation from theauthor, Mr. Terry Barker. "BEING BOSS" Is based In parton 
his forthcoming management books "BOSS TALK" and "THEORY C." 

The series, "BEING BOSS",ofters to the user the latest In management skill 
development concepts and should prove to be an Invaluable TOOL for anyone 
who wishes to reach their full potentlalas a leader. The author has condensed 
week long Intensive workshop msterlal Into this outstanding package. The 
accompanying user's manual is very well written and Is easily understood by 
anyone. 

Requires 16K and cassette. 
PRICE $89.95 



COLORSOFT 1 " 1 ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

COLORSOFT * m Accounts Receivable Is a full stand-alone accounts receiva- 
ble system. It Is also suited for Integration Into the COLORSOFT tm Small 
Business Accounting package. Accounts Recelvabledoea not require the user 
to be an accountant; In fact, this Is a highly user friendly system designed for 
dally use by the small businessman. The features and options of this system 
compare favorably with much higher priced software. 

FEATURES 

4 4 4 PROVIDES ACCOUNT AUDIT TRAIL 444 
444 ACCOUNTS ARE CARRIED BY CUSTOMER •'• 
4 4 4 USER FRIENDLY AND FULLY MENU DRIVEN "* 
4 4 4 PREPARES INVOICES AND MAILING LABELS 444 
444 USER DOES NOT NEED TO BE AN ACCOUNTANT ■"• 
444 DETAILED USER'S MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS — 
444 MENU PROMPTS MAKE ENTRIES EASY, FAST, AND EFFICIENT 444 

COLORSOFT tm Accounts Receivable provides the user with detailed audit 
trails and history flies on all transactions by a customer. It also prepares 
Invoices, mailing labels, aging lists, customer history reports, and an alphabet- 
ized 4 customer listing. The user can define discount/net terms for commercial 
accounts and finance charge and minimum payments for revolving accounts- 
Requires 16K and a Single Disk Drive. 
PRICE: $89.95 




USER'S MANUALS WITHOUT PROGRAM $20.00 EACH (Refunded on Purchase) 
INCLUDE: $2.25 Handling Per Order WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 



BRANTEX, INC. 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES DIV. 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE GROUP 
P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 




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(214) 454-3674 
COD/VISA/MASTERCARD 



ATTENTION DEALERS: WE OFFER THE BEST DEALER PLANS AVAILABLE 



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3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Make love not war? Not with these sultry FEMBOTS! What a 
tale you'll tell IF you live to tell it! Cold steel never felt so HOT! 
The color and excitement of ARCADE ACTION combined 
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by Tom Czarnecki 

The ONLY Ms. game around. A 
must for your PAC-like game 
collection. 

16K Tape $19.95 
16K Disk $24.95 

TRS-80 is a trademark ol Tandy Corp. 




by Kevin Herrboldt & Tim Nelson 
3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

A dead star ... A derlict vessel ... or is it? Trapped 
within you must venture the corridors; defend yourself 
against the merciless gauntlet of agents of the machine 
mind. A real-time, high-res, 3-D science fiction 
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16K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 



Hduenfure 

Critogy™, 




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3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Clash steel with thy foe in the arena of gore. Proved 
worthy, go in quest of the elusive Eye of Dazmor. If ye 
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Fast Machine Code • Hi-res Color Graphics • Exciting Arcade Action and Sound 



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Goes beyond "DEFENDER" 
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Why fly to VEGAS when you can have a 
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ORDERING 




Customer service and product support call (61 2) 881-2777 

Make checks or money orders payable to Nelson 
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PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

Astrology 

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PETROCCI FREELANCE 

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Trap Full 



SOFT SECTOR MARKETING 

Color Caterpiller 
Master Control II 



B-5 SOFTWARE 

Clock 
Money 
Math Fact 
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34.95 
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Trilogy (1 Ching. 
Numerology. Tarot) 
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19.95 



19.95 
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39.95 
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SOFTWARE 15% OFF ALL LIST 

16.95 Great Word Game* 19.95 16.95 

16.95 Household Helper 19.95 16.95 

16.95 Math Pack 1 19.95 16,95 

16.95 Pre-Read 24.95 21.95* 

1 6.95 Song Book (w/tapes) 29.95 25.95 

16.95 Fantasy Games Pk 19.95 16.95 

Las Vegas Weekend 24.95 2 1 .95 

33.95 Phonics II 24.95 21.95 

21.95 8-Bit Bartender 19.95 16.95 



RADIO SHACK 

64K Ext. Mod. 
16K Ext. 
Drive O 

9V 2 " Tractor (3000 sh) 
9 V 2 " Tractor (500 sh) 
Computer Cassettes 
Assorted ROM pkg. 
MD Keyboard 



King 

Katerpiller 
Protector 

Astro Blast 
Space Rider 



TOM MIX 

(32 K) 24.95 
(32 K) 24.95 
(32 K) 24.95 
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24.95 
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375.00 
279.00 
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59.95 

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Aardvark Products 

Haunted House 
Killer Bot 
Labyrinth 
Starship Here. 
Time Trek 
Escape from Mars 
Pyramid 
Quest 

Trek Adventure 
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Tube Frenzy 
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Golf 

Catchem 



) 



9.95 
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9.95 
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Cosmic Invaders 


21.95 


19.75 


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Current Events 





Computer Island 

Circus 10.00 

School Maze 10.00 
Name That Song ea. 1 0.00 
(I, II, Ml) 

Silly Sentences 6.00 

Silly Stories 6.00 

Poetry 6.00 

Wizard 6.00 

Apartment House 6.00 
Mystery 



Adventure 
Potpourri 
Auto Run 
TIMS (32K) 



14.95 
24.95 



Eigen Systems 

Basic Aid (cart.) 34.95 

Stripper 7.95 

Ccead 6.95 



Cognitec 



Telewriter 64 



59.95 54.95 



Terms: Cash, money order, your personal checks welcome. 
No waiting to clear on software items. Shipping and CCD. 
please add $2.50, hardware add 5% extra for packing. All pro- 
grams are 16K except where noted. We're open for phone 
orders from 12:00 noon until 9:00 p.m., 7 days a week. Send 
for our free catalog listings. We accept all foreign orders in 
U.S. funds only. 



Warranty: All hardware products are warranted for a period of 
180 days from date of purchase. We shall not be liable for loss 
or damage, alleged or caused indirectly to hardware or soft- 
ware including interruption of service, business loss, loss of 
expected profits or any damage resulting from use of hard- 
ware or software. 'Trademark of Tandy Corp. 



Desert Software, P.O. Box 502, Cortaro, AZ 85230 

Call (602) 744-1252 for immediate C.O.D. 



s 



1 



Print i'rA 



What a fitting way to lead into the beginning of the Rainbow's third year and 
this Second Anniversary Issue! 

What I am speaking about, of course, is RAINBOWfest, which we. held in 
Chicago in late April and on which you will see a report — in both words and 
pictures — in this issue. To quote one of the people who attended, it was a 
"smashing success." The booths were full, the aisles were even fuller (yes, there 
will be more space next time) and a good, great and wonderful time was had by 
just about everyone! YouVe seen me write often about CoCo Community. Well, 
RAINBOWfest was CoCo Community at its finest. There were thousands and 
thousands of people there — and what they spoke about for three days running 
was CoCo. I can tell you, after all the years of proclaiming time and again that 
CoCo isn't a toy, of beating down rumors (published by some magazines and 
otherwise) that CoCo was dead, of hearing praises about this computer system 
and that — RAINBOWfest, and all the people there who truly know the power, 
capability and have the sincere love for their CoCos was, indeed, one of the best 
moments in my life. 

We anticipated a couple thousand people would attend RAINBOWfest and, 
from that point of view, figured it would be a success. In all, total attendance was 
somewhere between 10,000 and 1 1 ,000. Our seminars were standing room only, 
the breakfast with Don Inman wasa complete sellout. In all it was far, far above 

any expectations. A veteran show-goer told me 
he had never seen anything like it in his life! Me 
either. 

I am as proud as can be that we were able to 
put on RAINBOWfest! And, for the record, I 
want to say that we will have another one — 
maybe more than one. Virtually every exhibi- 
tor was asking to be able to participate again. 
And there were a large number of people there 
who didn't exhibit who plan to be there next 
time. 

I couldn't talk about RAINBOWfest with- 
out saying how much all of us owe to Dave 
Hooper, the local arrangements chairman. Dave 
truly did it all — and in totally outstanding 
fashion. There are thousands of people, Dave, 
who thank you for everything you did to make 
the show what it was. 
There should be praise, too, for Don Inman, 
our breakfast speaker, who did a marvelous job, and for all our seminar 
speakers. They included Fred Scerbo of 1MB, Tom Nelson of Nelson Software, 
E. R. Bailey of Micrologic, Dr. Hal Snyder of the Northern Illinois CoCo Club, 
Steve Bjork, the author of Zaxxon, and Charles Roslund of Elite Software. By 
the way, Charles is back in the Rainbow with his popular Charlie s Machine 
feature. 

And the "gang" from here: General Manager Pat Hirsch; Ad Manager Patty 
King, who was also reponsible for putting things together from this end; Art 
Director Sally Nichols, Research Assistant M onica Wheat; Managing Editor 
(and truck driver) Jim Reed; and our "volunteer," Willo Falk, my better half. 
Too, a very special thanks to Ted Donhauser of ProMar in Chicago. He came to 
the rescue time and again. 

RAINBOWfest brought people from all over — from Great Britian, from 
Germany, from the Yukon, Hawaiiand all acrossthe United Statesand Canada. 
It certainly seemed every state was represented. It was a fantastic time and I hope 
you will make plans to share some fine CoCo Community with us in the future. 

So, now, it's Second Anniversary time. I hope you like this anniversary issue, 
as the Rainbow enters its third year. Our big surprise is included, too — the 
soundsheet that is bound in every issue. We encourage you to try it out; there are 
some good programs on it! And, then, we would really like to know whether you 
like this innovation. If you do, we may consider doing it again — or even on a 

(continued on page 27 2 j 






ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P O. Box 16842 - Sta B 
Greenville, South Carolina 29606 
(803) 233 2700 

PRESENTS 

1\ COLOR— STICK 

The ORIGINAL interface for 

\ rhe TRS-60* 

Color Compurerro let 
you use rhe f omous: 

ATARI* JOYSTICK' 



Just plug your Atari or Atari like 
joystick (the Color-Stick enables the 
use of most joysticks made for the 
Atari) into the Color-Stick interface 
and then plug the Color-Stick into an 
empty joystick port. 

The Color-Stick can improve 
scores 50% and more while making 
some games more exciting and fun to 
play. 

Don't settle for cheap imitations. 
Only the ORIGINAL Color-Stick's 
small inline design allows you to just 
piug your joystick into it and forget it. 
The Color-Stick becomes a part of 
your joystick so it does not interfere 
with your game playing. In addition 
Color-Stick returns a full value of '63' 
for the right and down directions, 
even when using two joysticks and 
even in the diagonal directions, the 
others don't. 

NOW Color-Stick has a 
new low price 

Color-Stick interface $12.95 each 

two for $22.95 (less joysticks) 
Atari joysticks $9.95 each 

ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P.O. Box 16842 — Sta. B 
Greenville, South Carolina 29606 
(803) 233-2700 

Don't miss out order the 
ORIGINAL. Send your check or 
money order or better yet call 
today and order your Color-Stick. 





Add $2.00 per order shipping and handling. Bank cards 
welcomed (please include expiration dale). Orders paid 
by cashiers check, money orders, bank cards and 
C.O,D. are shipped within 48 hours. Personal checks 
please allow 1 2 weeks. C.O.D. orders add $1.50 exlra. 
S.C. residentsadd4%salestax. *TRS-80 is a registered 
trademark of Tandy Corp. Atari is a registered 
trademark of Atari, Inc. 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 13 



BUILDING JULY'S RAINBOW 

The Second Anniversary issue . . . 
Leaping over the 300-page hurdle . . . 
Introducing the Rainbow Soundsheet . . . 



Partytime at the Rainbow! It's our 
second birthday. There's been a bit of 
reverie around here about breaking the 
300-page mark and, in a moment of 
reflection, we made the observation that 
this month's issue of the Rainbow has 
more pages, by eight, than the entire 
first year's editions combined. To put it 
another way, the very first issue of the 
Rainbowtook upboth sides of atotal of 
50 sheets of paper; this month's maga- 
zine will use more than two 35-ton box- 
car loads of paper. While we grew up in a 
hurry, we hope to grow old gracefully 
with our birthday resolution being to 
emphasize quality, not size. 

Size does haveits advantages, though. 
Thanks to the support of all of you and 
our 203 advertisers, we're able to offer 
everyone a birthday gift that we're really 
quite proud of, our Rainbow Sound- 
sheet sampling of programs from our 
birthday issue. If you haven't already, do 
give it a spin. 

Another bi rthday special i s "Two Years 
of Rainbow," a complete index — by 
subject and by author as well — of all the 
articles, programs, reviews and special 
features appearing in the Rainbow 
between July 1981 and June 1983. Many 



of you have been asking for this refer- 
ence piece, and we plan to make it an 
annual anniversary feature. 

Another index, of sorts, and what we 
hope will become an active, evolving 
reference work, is Bob Russell's Color 
Memory Map. This valuable compilation 
of "hooks" and "addresses" is being 
presented in installments over the next 
few months. Even if you aren't among 
those who are excited to get this other- 
wise unavailable information, do hang 
onto it because, asyou continue to learn 
more about BASIC, you'll develop a 
need for and appreciation of it. 

Among our many happy returns in this 
anniversary special are Charles J. 
Roslund, who's back with his popular 
Charlie's Machine and Fred Scerbo, who 
returns to our pages with Snail's 
Revenge, the long-awaited sequel to his 
Snail Invaders (February 1982). 

Moving right along, from snails to tur- 
tles, new this issue is Greetings From 
Uncle Bert, with Dale Peterson, our new 
column on LOGO, directed to kids and 
parents, too. 

Also new this issue is the TRS-80 MC- 
1 0 Micro Color Computer! Editor Lonnie 
Falk provides a preview of this 4K 



"Coquette?" in our Pipeline column. 

And, speaking of our founder/editor/- 
guiding light/driving force, since this is a 
festive occasion for the Rainbow, and 
even though the big ge\-\ogether and 
celebration took place at RAINBOWfest, 
I want to take this opportunity to salute 
the boss. In speaking of Lonnie Falk dur- 
ing his after-breakfast address at RAIN- 
BOWfest, Don Inman spoke of a man 
"with stars in his eyes and visions of 
rainbows in his mind," and that's very 
true of Lonnie. Later in his talk, Don said 
he likes to think of himself as, not an 
expert, but a "beginner in eachfield and 
(I) plan to stay that way forever." He was 
also descr i bi ng Lonnie Falk, whose creative 
spirit is kindled by an almost childlike 
fascination for the new, the different, the 
unexplored. Nobody is happierthan Lonnie 
Falk when he has a newly-delivered box 
to open and still another set of instruc- 
tions to read. If Lonnie ever found the 
rainbow's end, he wouldn't linger at all, 
but would immediately begin looking for 
another rainbow. Without getting too 
soupy, Lonnie, keep on chasing rain- 
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— Jim Reed 



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14 the RAINBOW July 1983 



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• On-board ROM expansion for future word pro- 
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• Available for cassette or disk based systems 
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Prototyping board with all the features. 

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Software Review 



Function Graphing Module 
An Electronic Blackboard 

I teach mathematics and 1 have often felt sorry for my 
students because of my poor drawings on the blackboard. I 
have wished for an electronic blackboard, which would 
graph functions at the press of a button. At last, my wish has 
come true, with Function Graphing Module from Calcsoft. 

Function Graphing Module allows you to graph func- 
tions of a single variable on the high resolution graphics 
screen of your Color Computer. Any function you can write 
in Extended BASIC, including those using the trig functions 
and logarithms, can be accurately graphed and analyzed. 

You enter the functions by using the Extended BASIC 
Editor to place the function definitions in specified program 
lines. You then start the program and have a wide range of 
options. Probably, you will first want to graph the function. 
The easiest way to use the graphing mode is to choose the 
range of x-values you want graphed, and allow the program 
to "auto-scale;" that is, to automatically choose the x- and 
y-scales, the placement of the origin, and so forth. The 
function will then be displayed according to these auto- 
scales values. Once you see how the graph looks with these 
values, it's easy to change any of them to graph the function 
just the way you want. In addition to choosing the graphing 




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parameters, you can mark any x-values you want on the 
graph with a vertical bar. 

In the multiple graphing mode, you can graph up to four 
functions on the screen at once. You have a choice of graph- 
ing them on the same set of axes, or on different axes. This is 
really very useful for solving many kinds of mathematical 
problems — for example, to graph a piecewise continuous 
function. 

The remaining two modes are the Value Mode and the 
Zero Mode. In the Value Mode, the program will find the 
value of the function forany x-value you specify. In the Zero 
Mode, the program finds a root of the function; that is, an 
x-value for which the function equals zero. You input two 
x-values, one where the function is positive, and one where 
it's negative. (Graphing the function first makes it easy to 
find such x-values.) As long as the function is continuous, a 
root will lie between the two x-values. The program then 
uses the bisection method, also known as the binary chop, to 
find the root to wjthin a tolerance you select. 

The documentation that comes with the program is 
superb! There are over 50 pages of documentation, along 
with a one-page "Handy Reference Guide." In addition to 
thoroughly describing all the options of the program, the 
manual has lots of examples showing exactly what you 
should type, and what will appear on the screen. These 
examples cover all aspects of the program, including the 
more complicated ones like graphing multiple functions. 
Examples are an important tool in learning, and the exam- 
ples here are a big help in understanding how to get the most 
out of this program. 

An unusual feature of the manual is the chapter titled 
"Crash!" Since you provide part of the program in the lines 
defining the functions, there's a chance you'll have a syntax 
error in a function definition, or a function that will require 
a division by zero, or some other illegal operation. The 
manual explains this thoroughly, and helps you avoid 
crashes by giving numerous examples showing correct syn- 
tax. If you crash the program anyhow, the manual gives 
instructions on how to recover. 

One suggestion for improving the manual: a table of 
contents and page numbers would help. 

Function Graphing Module performs flawlessly, and 
clearly has been designed with the user in mind. The func- 
tions have been well-chosen, and the documentation is 
excellent. This is an outstanding product. 

(Calcsoft, P.O. Box 401, St. Ann, MO 63074, 16K ECB, 

$19.95) 

—David Finkel 



Hint . 



PCLEARO With a Disk Drive 



While people insist that it is impossible to PCLEAR 0 on 
a disk system, 1 get that effect by using: POKE25,6: POKE 
27,6: POKE 29,6: POKE3l,6 

Although you cannot use the disk drive until you again 
PCLEAR 4, it can be acomplished. 

Steve Skrzyniarz 
Tacoma, WA 



16 the RAINBOW July 1983 




KEYBOARDS 

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The Premium Keyboard 

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* Four function keys complete the matrix 

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* Extended Radio Shack layout 

* Silk-smooth feel — 
uses ALPS keys witches 

Our Versakey software enhances 
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* Auto-repeat, n-key rollover and 
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* Fl becomes DEFINE, 
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Please specify your computer's PC board type if known. Otherwise, specify the complete catalog number 
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CHARLIE S MACHINE 



ROM 
CALLS 



THE 

EASY WAY 



By C. J. Roslund 



When programming in machine language, there are many 
times when life would be much easier if you could let 
BASIC take care of something for you. A few examples 
that come to mind are: 
*Writing data files to cassette or disk 
*Doing real math calculations (ie, SIN, COS) 

*Drawing complex graphics I 

There are, of course, routines in the BASIC ROMs to do all of 
these, since they can be done from a BASIC program. Calling these 
ROM routines from your own machine language program has typi- 
cally taken a lot of studying of the BASIC ROMs to discover exactly 
how to call the routine you need and also what parameters need to be 
initialized prior to calling the ROM routine. Another concern must 
always be if the entry point you use will be the same in all releases of 
the BASIC ROMs. I am going to present a method of making ROM 
calls I have developed that will allow you to call any ROM routine 
that has a BASIC command counterpart. For example: PRINT, 
LINE, CIRCLE, OPEN, CLOSE, CLEAR, etc. You will only 
to know one ROM entry point (which I will give you) to call any of 
these routines. 

The idea behind this method of making ROM calls is to trick the 
computer into thinking it is running a BASIC program in the middle 
of your machine language program. If you can do this, and point the 
BASIC interpreter to the BASIC command line of your choice, you 
can let the BASIC interpreter do all the work for you. You only need 
to create what looks like a BASIC command line in the middle of 
your program. For example: PRINT"IT WORKS." The first thing 




18 the RAINBOW July 1983 



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you, must know is how BASIC "Token- 
izes" all key words. Key words, such as 
PRINT, OPEN, LINE, etc. are stored 
in memory as a one byte token. This 
conserves memory^ and speeds execu- 
tion of a BASIC program. An example 
of this tokenizing follows: 

(Numbers in parentheses represent 
hex token values. All other characters 
represent their equivalent ASCII value.) 
untokenized: PRINT 

"IT WORKS" 
tokenized: (87) "IT WORKS" 

When creating the BASIC command 
line in the middle of your machine lan- 
guage program, you must use the 
TOKENS forall BASIC key words and 
functions. Table 1 provides a key word 
vs. token table for yoirr use in creating a 
tokenized BASIC command line. 
(Token values are listed in hex.) These 
are the values to use in place of key 
words listed. Note that the token for 
PRINT is hex 87 as was used in the 
above example. 

The program listing accompanying 
this article (named ROMCALL) pro- 
vides all initialization required to make 
ROM calls with this technique. It con- 
tains two sample ROM calls to the print 
and real math routines. A line by line 
explanation of the program follows. 
ROMCALL is written in position inde- 
pendent code, and will work with all 
versions of the BASIC ROMs in Color 
BASIC, Extended BASIC, or Disk 
BASIC computers. It uses only one 
ROM entry point in the Color BASIC 
ROM, and this entry point is the same 
in all versions. 

Line numbers are given in the first 
column of the listing. Lines I and 2 are 
assembler directives. They indicate the 
program name and start the assembly at 
address $3000. 

Program execution begins at line 3 
with the lable Start. Lines 3 and 4 load 
the X register from the direct page 
>?JJ. r ess$A6 and push this value on the 
stack. $A6 contains a pointer (actually 
stored in locations S00A6 and S00A7) 
that is used by the BASIC interpreter to 
keep track of its location in a BASIC 
program or direct command line. Later 
in my program I will modify $A6. Just 
to be safe, I am saving the original value 
of this pointer so that I can restore it (see 
Vines 9, 10 and II) before the program 
terminates. 

Lines 5 and 6 do all preparation to 
make the first sample call to the ROM 
routine "SIN." A pointer to the token- 
ized command string "A=SIN(1)" is 
loaded into the X register and a branch 
to the subroutine "BASIC'lis made. 

20 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Table 1 
Key-Word vs. Token 

KEY-WORD TOKEN KEY-WORD TOKEN KEY-WORD TOKEN 



FOR 
rui\ 


RO 


uu 






82 


* 


83 


FI SF 


84 


TF 


85 


DATA 

LJr\ 1 r\ 


86 


PR TNT 
r ix 1 J> l 


87 


ON 


88 


TNPI IT 


89 


FND 


8A 


NFXT 


8R 


DIM 


8C 

o v 


RF AD 

IX !_/ r\ Ly 


8D 


R UN 

rx \j j > 


8F 
u i—i 


RFSTORF 

IX \—i O I W IX i—i 


8F 
u i 


R FTI JRN 

Ix L 1 U Ix 1 >l 


90 


STOP 

O 1 w I 


91 


POKF 

I \J XX 1—, 


92 


CONT 


93 


I 1ST 


94 


CI FAR 

l—t l \ IX 


95 


NF W 

J ^1 l—> »T 


96 


CI OAF) 


97 

y i 


CSAVF 

V O/V V 1—, 


98 

y (J 


OPFN 

W I 1—, 1 ~ 


9Q 

yy 


CI OSF 


9A 

y ix 


I I 1ST 


9R 

y l_> 


SFT 

O l—i 1 


9C 

y V 


RFSFT 

IX LOL 1 


9F) 

y \~y 


ci s 


QF 


MOTOR 

1V1 w 1 w IX 


QF 

y i 


SOUND 


AO 


a i into 


A 1 


FYFP 


A? 


SK TPF 

o rv iii 


A3 


TAR/ 
1 /AD ^ 


A4 


TO 
i \j 


A5 


SUB 

V-/ m—J 


A6 


THEN 


A7 


NOT 


A8 


STEP 


A9 


OFF 


AA 


+ 


AB 




AC 




AD 


/ 


AE 


A 


AF 



AND 


B0 


OR 


Bl 


> 


B2 




B3 


< 


B4 


SGN 


FF 80 


INT 

i j ~ i 


FF 81 


ABS 


FF 82 


USR 


FF 83 


RND 


FF 84 


SIN 


FF 85 


PEEK 


FF 86 


LEN 


FF 87 


STR$ 


FF 88 


VAL 


FF 89 


ASC 


FF 8A 


CHRS 


FF 8B 


EOF 


FF 8C 


JOYSTK 


FF 8D 


LEFTS 


FF 8E 


RIGHTS 


FF 8F 


MIDS 


FF 90 


POINT 


FF 91 


INKEYS 


FF 92 


MEM 


FF 93 


ENTENDED BASIC 


DEL 


B5 


EDIT 


B6 


TRON 


B7 


TROFF 


B8 


DEF 


B9 


LET 


BA 


LINE 


BB 


PCLS 


BC 


PSET 


BD 


PRESET 


BE 


SCREEN 


BF 


PCLEAR 


CO 


COLOR 


CI 


CIRCLE 


C2 


PAINT 


C3 


GET 


C4 


PUT 


C5 


DRAW 


C6 


PCOPY 


C7 


PMODE 


C8 



PLAY 


C9 


DLOAD 


CA 


RENUM 


CB 


FN 


CC 


USING 


CD 


ATN 


FF 94 


COS 


FF 95 


TAN 


FF 96 


EXP 


FF 97 


FIX 


FF 98 


LOG 


| ' T * (\C\ 

rr 99 


POS 


FF 9A 


SQR 


FF 9B 


HEXS 


FF 9C 


VARPTR 


FF 9D 


INSTR 


FF 9E 


TIMER 


FF 9F 


PPOINT 


FF AO 


STRINGS 


FF Al 


DISK BASIC 


DIR 


CE 


DRIVE 


CF 


FIELD 


DO 


FILES 


Dl 


KILL 


D2 


LOAD 


D3 


LSET 


D4 


MERGE 


D5 


RENAME 


D6 


RSET 


D7 


SAVE 


D8 


WRITE 


D9 


VERIFY 


DA 


UNLOAD 


DB 


DSKINI 


DC 


BACKUP 


DD 


COPY 


DE 


DSKIS 


DF 


DSKOS 


E0 


CVN 


FF A2 


FREE 


FF A3 


LOC 


FF A4 


LOF 


FF A5 


MKNS 


FF A6 


AS 


FF A7 



Let me skip to lines 12 through 16 
next. This is where the actual ROM call 
is made. First, line 1 2 stores the pointer 
to the command string (X register) in 
direct page address SA6. Next the A 
register is loaded with the first byte of 
the command line (LDA ,X). Line 14 
clears the carry flag bit in the condition 
code register. This is required to signal 



the BASIC interpreter that a command 
line to execute follows. The other possi- 
bility is that a BASIC program line, 
with a line number, was being entered 
into memory. In this case, the BASIC 
interpreter would only store the line in 
the BASIC program storage area, not 
execute it. Line 15 makes the ROM call 
to execute the command line pointed to 



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by $A6,$A7. This ROM call is a subroutine in the Color 
BASIC ROM that is called by BASIC'S main command 
interpretation loop. The main command interpretation loop 
calls SADC6 when it is all set to execute the next command 
in a BASIC program, or in a directcommand. Uponentry, it 
assumes that$A6,$A7 is pointing to the next BASIC com- 
mand to execute, and that the A register contains the first 
byte of that command. After the ROM call returns, line 16 
of this subroutine returns program control to the calling 
routine withan RTS. This subroutine, named BASIC, is the 
real key to making ROM calls. It may be called from any 
part of your machine language program to make a ROM 
call. The only entry requirement is that the X register must 
point to the tokenized BASIC command line that is to be 
executed. 

Now back to the rest of the program. Lines 7 and 8 make a 
sample call (in the same manner as lines 5 and 6) to the ROM 
routine "PRINT." 

Lines 9, 10 and II restore the original contents of the 
pointer $A6,$A7, and then return to the main calling pro- 
gram. This istheend of my sample program so this RTS will 
return to BASIC and the OK prompt. 

Line 1 7 is where the tokenized BASIC command string is 
stored. This line was created as follows: 
$41 ASCII value for letter "A" 

$B3 Token for math operator 

$FF,$85 Token for function "SIN" 
$28 ASCII value for left paren. "(" 

$32 ASCII value for number " 1 " 

$29 ASCII value for right paren. ")" 

$0 Line terminator 

Put them all together they spell A=SIN(I) 

Line 18 stores a similar construction of the BASIC com- 
mand PRINT A: 
$87 Token for PRINT 

$41 ASCII value for letter "A" 

$0. Line terminator 

Line 19 is an assembler directive that ends assembly and 
indicates to the assembler the address of the program entry 
point. 

This completes the description of ROMCALL operation. 
Now I will point out some cautions you should observe 
when making ROM calls with this method. First, 
CLOA DM and CSA VEM cannot be called in this manner. I 
will describe changes to this program to call these ROM 
routines at the end of the article. Second, BASIC does 
memory available checks during many of these ROM calls. 



$1D,$1E 
$ I F,$20 
$21, $22 
$27,$28 



BASIC defines available memory as the space from where 
the free memory pointer is pointing up to the stack pointer 
register. (Free memory pointer is located at $IF,$20.) If 
your program has moved the STACK pointer very low in 
memory, BASIC may think you are out of memory (during 
a ROM call) and terminate your program with the familiar 
OM ERROR message. Third, if you define any numeric or 
string variables, BASIC will store them where it thinks 
variable storage and string storage have been allocated. You 
should not have any other important data here or it will be 
written over. Variable space is defined by the pointers 
located at the following addresses: 
$1B,$IC Start of simple variables 
Start of array variables 
Start of free memory 
Bottom of string storage space 
Top of string storage space 
These cautions can be summarized as follows: You must 
make sure your program stays away from memory used by 
BASIC, and be careful not to do anything that will prevent 
BASIC from being able to run (moving stack pointer so low 
that an out of memory error occurs, for example). You may 
make ROM calls to the routines CLEAR, PCLEAR, 
FILES, and DIM to modify the BASIC variable space 
pointers as you wish. 

The two commands CLOADM and CSA VEM may be 
called with one change to the program given. This change is 
necessary because the BASIC interpreter handles the two 
commands as special cases in the main command interpreta- 
tion loop, mentioned earlier. If BASIC sees a CLOAD or 
CSA VE token to execute, it does not call the ROM routine 
at $ADC6. Instead, it calls a routine at $8C62 for CLOAD, 
or $831 A for CSA VE, Therefore, to call CLOADM you 
must change line 1 5 to read JSR $8C62. To call CSA VEM 
you must change line 1 5 to read JSR $83 1 A. The command 
string token for CLOADM ox CSA VEM'is created with the 
token for CLOAD or CSA ^followed by the ADCII value 
of"M"($4D). 

I have not personally tried every possible ROM call using 
this method. If anyone finds one that does not work, I would 
be glad to hear from you, and offer some assistance if I can. 
From studying my disassembly of the BASIC ROMs, this 
method should work with any BASIC command that can be 
executed from within a BASIC program. 

If you EXECUTEthe sample program ROMCALL, you 
will be making ROM calls to the following BASIC com 
mands: 



Datacomp Computer Systems, 35 Farmstead Road, Short Hills, NJ 07078 (201) 376-6093 
Call or write to order. Phones are answered 24 Hrs./day, 7 days/week. 



TDP-100, 16 K from $269 
1 00% TRS-80 Color Computer 
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of Joysticks and a rompack. 


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3K buffer, hi-res graphics 
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Color Computer parallel 
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22 the RAINBOW July 1983 



The listing: 

PAGE M01 



12 KM 



■M3 3«V 



0MS 3004 308D0017 
flue 3NE 6D*3 



0009 3010 3510 

0010 3012 9FA6 

0011 3014 39 



0012 3015 9FA6 

0013 3017 A684 

0014 3019 1CFE 

0015 301B BDADC& 

0016 301E 39 



0017 301F 41B3FF8528 



001B 3027 B74100 



0019 302A 

MQ ERRORS FOMNP 



ROMCAI_l_ 



by i CHAfM_E8 J R08LUND 



t ROM CALLS MADE EASY t 
ttt ******************** 

NAM ROMCALL 

ORB •3000 START CODE ANY>0«R€ (PIC) 



* INITIALIZATION * 
******************** 

START LDX <«A6 
PBHS X 



SAVE PROGRAM POINTER 



* SAMPLE CALLS t 
****************** 

LEAX MATHS, PGR MATH STRING 
B5R BASIC 

LEAX PRNTS,PCR PRINT STRING 
BSR BASIC 

* FIX POINTERS BEFORE EXITING * 
******************************* 

PULS X 

STX <«A6 RESTORE POINTER 

RTS 

* EXECUTE COMMAND STRING SUBROUTINE * 

* X POINTS TO TOKEN START * 
************************************* 

BASIC STX <*A6 POINT TO STRING 

LDA ,X GET TOKEN 

ANDCC »*FE FLAG NOT A LINE ft 

JSR *ADC6 CALL BASIC 

RTS 

* CONSTANT STRING AREA * 
************************ 

t A^SIN(l) * 

MATHS FCB *4 1 , *B3, *FF, *85, «2S, »3 1 , *29, 0 



A=SIN (I) 



* PRINT A 

PRNTS FCB •87,*41,0 



PRINT A 



END START 



A=S1N(I) 

PRINT A 

You should see the floating point representation of 
S1N(1) displayed on your screen. Readers with assemblers 
can simply enter the source code from thelistingand assem- 
ble it. If you don't have an assembler, you may POKE the 
hex values from the program listing (third column) into any 
free memory space. A monitor would make this job a lot 
easier. I located this sample programat $3000. If you POKE 
ROMCALL into memory by hand, be sure to poke all eight 
values in line 17 (following the FCB) into memory. Only the 
first five are listed in column three due to the column width 
allocated. 

^ 



Hint . 



1 would like to pass on a helpful hint for single disk drive 
owners to use when backing up a disk. Use 

PC LEAR (ENTER) 
FILES (ENTER) 
BACKUP (ENTER) 

This will speed up the process and make fewer disk 
switches necessary. I use this all the time and have never had 
a problem doing so. 



Jim Lemaster 



PARALLEL 
PRINTER 



INTERFACE 

FOR THE RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER 
AND THE TDP 100 

* RUN ANY STANDARD PARALLEL PRINTER 
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July 1983 the RAINBOW 23 



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Data Communications 
Tutor Does the Job 



In case you've ever wondered what magic is involved 
when two computers hold a conversation, the folks at Com- 
puterware have a tutorial program which is designed to 
teach a beginner the basic ideas and terminology involved in 
computer generated data communications. 

Called, appropriately enough, Introduction to Data Com- 
munications, this instructional program, supplied on cas- 
sette or disk, is divided into five lessons so it can be loaded 
into I6K 80Cs. The first four parts are the instructional 
material which is presented one page at a time with about 1 5 
screen pages per "lesson." 

Colorful graphics are interspersed in the lessons showing 
visual examples of the material. For example, the material 
on acoustic modems has an illustration of a CPU, acoustic 
modem and a telephone handset suspended over the mod- 
em. Very nice use of the CoCo's graphic capabilities. The 
fifth section is a 10-question exam which determines what 
you have retained from the first four lessons. At the end of 
the test you are graded and to the chagrin of those not 
paying attention — critiqued. Just like my old school marm, 
Mrs. Grundy, nasty comments are given to those under- 
achieving, suggesting a review of the material. 

The lessons are written by Computerware to be specifi- 
cally applicable to transmitting and receiving data over 
telephone lines with the 80C. 

Topics covered are: 

• Definitions of data communications 

• Examples of its uses 

• Block diagram of a simple circuit 
•The RS-232 Interface 

• An explanation of the RS-232 signal 
•Types of modulation 

•Telephone line frequencies and level specs 

• Baud and BPS 
•Start and stop bits 

• Asynchronous data 

The lessons are presented in a concise manner on the 
screen. Each screen is advanced by the user at his own pace. 
Unfortunately, you cannot"back up" to review the material 
from previous pages without rerunning the program. The 
lessons auto-load from one series to another so the separa- 
tion of the material into five parts is not a problem in use. 

While Computerware has done a finejob of summarizing 
the basics of data communications relating to the 80C, I 
can't help but think that information of this type could be 
moreeffectively presented in a printed booklet. The student 
would be able to page back and forth to review the data. 

For those who are interested in learning the basics of data 
communications through interaction with their CoCo, 
Introduction to Data Communications is the program. 

(Computerware, Box 668, 4402 Manchester Ave., Suite 102, 

Encinitas, CA 92024, $17.95 on tape, $22.95 on disk) 

—Bruce Rothermel 



24 the RAINBOW July 1983 



COLORSOFT 



ESCAPE 

A 3-D GRAPHICS ADVENTURE WITH SOUND 
(Machine Language for Fast Action) 

This is NOT the usual "find the treasure" adventure. In 
ESCAPE, you are trapped on the top floor of a 
skyscraper and the only way out is by using a very 
unusual elevator. You must give the elevator the 
correct code or else the ride down is a real killer. The 
maze-like halls seem to cometo life due to the fantastic 
3-D graphics. Search the hallsforrooms which contain 
clues tothe correct code. Clues must be deciphered to 
learn the elevator's secret code. Game times depends 
on the skill of the player, but it is typically 8-10 hours. 
ESCAPE is suitable for group play. A mentally 
stimulating experience. 

16K BASIC $18.95 



RECIPE FILE 

A CASSETTE BASED STORAGE AND 
RETRIEVAL SYSTEM 

This program permits storage of your favorite recipes 
for retrieval by your computer. Once a recipe has been 
recalled, then the computer can adjust the ingredient 
measure for serving the desired number of persons. 
Each recipe can contain special comments on 
preparation as well asthefull instructions for using the 
recipe. Included is a line oriented text editor for 
creating and editing the variable length files. 
Completely menu driven and very user friendly. Easily 
modified by the userforuse in keeping track of record, 
coin or stamp collections or whatever your interest. 
Screen or printer output. 

16K Ext. BASIC $21.95 

SPECIAL: A collection of 30 recipies covering main 
meals to snacks. Only $3.95 with program. 



SQUIRE 

SQUIRE is a challenging game of 
asset management. The player must 
manage a country estate and contend 
with crop failure, investment losses, 
taxes and other such headaches. The 
object of the game is to increase the 
estate's value while providing for the 
peasant workers. The starting assets 
are computer selected so that each 
game otters different challenges. 
Great experience for the kids or 
aspiring executives. 



16K Ext. BASIC 



$14.95 



HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE 
MANAGER 

This menu driven program package is 
designed for creating and 
maintaining a data file on cassette of 
30 household expense categories for 
a 12-month period. It also keeps 
cumulative totals and a separate total I 
of tax deductable expenses. A 
comparative analysis program 
provides a graphic presentation of 
relative expenses between any two 
months during the year. The user can 
change categories by modifying 
program code. Screen or printer 
output. 

16K Ext. BASIC $19.95 



FLIPPER 

A fun and challenging version of the 
Othello™ type board games. This 
version includes options for play 
solely by the computer, one player 
against the computer, or two players 
against each other. The computer 
can play on four skill levels. Very 
colorful with plenty of sound. Fun for 
kids and challenging for adults. Great 
for parties. 




16K Ext. BASIC 



$16.95 



COLOR 

SOFT WARE 

SERVICES — 

P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 



INCLUDE $2.25 HANDLING PER ORDER 
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(214) 454-3674 
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THE TOP-RA TED COCO WORD PROCESSOR: 



Colorware researched the word 
processors available for the Color 
Computer. We came to the very 
same conclusion that so many re- 
view articles have! Telewriter-64 
is, by far, the superior word pro- 
cessor for the ColorComputer. 

Why is Telewriter so much bet- 
ter than the others? For one thing, 
it has overcome the 32x1 6 charac- 
ter display limitation of the Color 
Computer. No small feat, Telewri- 
ter accomplishes this by generat- 
ing its own set of characters in 
software. You select 51 x24, 64x24 
or 85x24 character displays by 
merely issuing a format command. 
If you have ever used a word pro- 
cessing system, you know how im- 
portant it is to be ableto see a good 
portion of your text on the screen. 



1 El C Utl 1 £K- 14 

lhis is an actual ureiaxted roiwoid fteto of a 
Mat*, and thtte screen sSoaim the 51224 [haraiter 
set that is ttftfritedbv Maletert-M". fetice 
he* there is also true \tmtr mti not the revww 
o«*r ta« letters ttat »?relv retreserit Ititwr 
tas* tiifatttrs in other Color Co»mr«r iroirws. 

lel?«Ti ter-6J is truly tlw wost PtMtrfv\ arr) 
v-thifti cited «ord irocitsor yw tan bw for «*.v 



< < I or Comuter or ttP"— lc 



*r ar» tliii*>rit of itttini 



If vov »wn a » r inter 



real Iv ttK'rti 



>,<wJ mth aw l*J.. S?t «r i4C svst*n artf mth Wi 
>•;.!<.*■ f,onrgter cowntiH* Kioter. 

ft t C » £ f G H I J t I H N D r I R S 1 I* V U ■ 

Jin4H?»)0''((ll'O':(l 

dt-t d <! f 1 K i iwl » no m r 5 I ( » « ' 
> > • i ■ ! i I i 1 ( ) * I - - I 



Telewriter-64 also generates 
true lower case characters. This is 
much preferable to the reverse 
characters that merely "represent" 
lower case letters in other co-co 
word processors. 

Telewriter-64 is feature packed. 
Besides the standard features 



TELEWRITER-64 



found in any word processor, Tele- 
writer also includes: user-friendly 
full-screen editing, rapid cursor 
and scrolling control, page jump, 
right justification, menu-driven 
disk or cassette access, compata- 
bility with spelling checkers (such 
as Spell-and-Fix), and a clever 
double check that asks the user 
"Are you sure?" before executing 
any operation that would kill any 
sizeable amount of your text. 

Telewriter-64 runs on any 16K, 
32K, or 64K system (extended 
Basic not required) and works with 
any printer. It has all of the control 
codes necessary to take full ad- 
vantage of all of the features in any 



printer. There is even a "typewri- 
ter" mode which sends typed lines 
directly to your printer. 

With advanced word processing 
software such as this, your color 
computer becomes a truly power- 
ful word processing system, with a 
price that makes sense for the per- 
sonal user. 

Beyond impressive capability, 
Telewriter-64 simply makes any 
kind of writing a pleasure. It is a 
truly sophisticated system that is 
marvelously easy to learn and en- 
joyable to use. 



Disk . . . 
Cassette 



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EXTENSION CABLE FOR QUALITY DISK DRIVE CABLES 

YOUR MODEM/PRINTER 



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COCO ROM/PROJECT/PRODUCT CASE 




QUANTITY 
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5-9 
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Give a Professional look to your project or product 

• Designed especially for the Color Computer ROM slot. 

• High quality 3 piece injection molded black plastic with 
spring-loaded door. 

• Same size and specifications as Radio Shack ROMpak 

SUPER-PRO KEYBOARD 

REPLACEMENT PROFESSIONAL 
KEYBOARD KIT...ONLY $69.95 

• Contour molded, full travel keys for fast smooth typing. 

• Custom madetofitprecisely. Hassamekey layout. 

• Complete, easy instructions for any CoCo or TDP-1 00. 

• Ideal for word processing and other serious CoCo use. 
Note : For computers manufactured af terOct. 1 982, add $4.95 

UPGRADE IN JUST MINUTES! 



COLORWARE 



COLORWARE INC 
78-03F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven NY 11421 
(212) 647-2864 




High quality cable and high force, gold plated contacts 
ensure the utmost in connection reliability for your CoCo 
or TDP-100. 

© Disk pack extender, 3 ft. . . $29.95 

Allows you to move your disk drive 
interface back and out of the way. 

© One Drive Disk cable $19.95 

© Two Drive Disk cable $29.95 

COLORWARE UGHT PEN 



ONLY $19.95 

FREE PROGRAM 
CASSETTE 
INCLUDED 



Plugs directly into your joystick port. 
Comes with six fun & useful programs on tape. 
Easy instructions show how to use it with Basic. 
Comptible with light pen software such as Computer 
Island's "Fun-pak." 



TOLL FREE ORDERING 
800-221-0916 

Orders only. NY& info call (2 12) 647-2664 





VfSA 




WE PAY 



shipping on any order that includes at least one game 
Use our convenient toll free 800 line. 




GHOSTGOBBLER 

From Spectral Associates, this 
"Pac" theme game is the best of it's 
ype. Brilliant color, action and 
ound, just like an arcade gobble 
our way to glory, but watch for 
hose ghosts! Get in on the wild fun 
f this aame craze now. Tape: 
21.95, Disk:$25.95 



GHOSTGOBBLER 



DONKEYKING 



DONKEYKING 

You simply can not buy a more impres- 
sive game for your color computer than 
this new wonder from Tom Mix. The 
graphics, sound, and animation are all 
just astonishing! There are four different 
graphic screens and each is endless 
fun. Requires 32K. Tape: $24.95, Disk: 
$27.95 





PROTECTORS 

There are several good ver- 
sions of the "Defender" theme 
available for the CoCo. None, 
however, rival this one from 
Tom Mix. No other game 
matches the detailed graphics 
and sheer excitement oTthis top 
seller. Requires 32K. Tape: 
$24.95, Disk: $27.95 





j. I, _p !■ if F_ L 

v*?** 

# * * 4 * i « ' 




CREATURE FEATURE 

From Color Software, comes a 
lightening swift shoot & dodge 
the enemy game. It's clever 
cross between "Robotron" and 
"Beserk" themes, with bullets 
flying everywhere. Solid, shoot- 
em-up-fun. Requires 16K. 
Tape:$17.95. Disk: $19.95 



ANDROID ATTACK 

Spectral Associates' very well 
done "Berserk" type game with 
some interesting added fea- 
tures. Each cassette contains 
both the 16K and 32K version. 
The 32K version has voice out- 
put! Plenty of action. Tape: 
$21 .95 



FROGGER 

Just released by The Cornsoft 
Group, this is the officially 
licensed version from Sega, the 
arcade manufacturer. It has it 
all! 4 lane super highway, 
snakes, turtles, logs, alligators, 
etc. Lots of action and laughs! 
Requires 1 6K. Tape: $19.95 



THE COLORCADE. 

SUPER JO YS TICK MODULE 



ONLY 

$19.95 





INTERGALA C TtC FORCE 

Your space fighter roars into the 
Death Corridor. Lock-on and 
blast the enemy fighter from the 
sky. Now try dropping one into 
Death Star's narrow exhaust 
vent. It takes skill and guts. 
Good luck! With "Star Wars" 
theme song. From Anteco. 
Tape: $24.95 

* It's a Joystick Interface. 

Now you can connect any Atari compatible joystick to your CoCo. 
These sticks are extremely rugged & provide very fast response 
and real arcade type action. They will improve the play of almost 
any game. The difference will amaze you ! 

* It's a Rapid Fire Module! 

Press the fire button on your joystick and get a great burst of fire 
instead of just a single shot! Adds tremendously to the many 
shooting type games that do not have repeat fire. With variable 
burst speed. 

it It's a 6ft Extender Cord. 



THE ATARI 



ONLY 

$8.50 




A well proven joystick, the Atari is 
known for being rugged and reliable. It 
gives good response and is the stan- 
dard among home video players. Now 
at a great price! Use with module above. 



ZIRCON VIDEO 
COMMAND 

ONLY 

$14.95 

A GREAT 
BUY! 



This one has received outstanding re- 
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beautifully and it has the truly fast and 
positive response needed for high 
speed play Actually out-performs some 
joysticks that cost $50 or more. 



WICO FAMOUS 
"RED BALL" 




THE BEST 

VOUCANBUV 

$34.95 



The high performance joystick from the 
people who make them for the arcade 
machines. Built to take the abuse of 
even the most enthusiastic player. This 
is the best! Wico #15-9730. Use with 
module above. 



ORDERING 
^INFORMATION 

ADD $200 PER ORDER 
FOR SHIPPING. 

WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTERCARD, 

CHECKS, M.O. 

C.O.D. ADD $3.00 EXTRA. 

NY RESIDENTS ADD SALESTAX. 

OVERSEAS, FPO, APO, ADD 10%. 

DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE. 

IF ONE OR MORE GAMES 

ARE INCLUDED, 

SHIPPING IS FREE. 



COLORWARE 



COLOR WARE INC. 
78-03 F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(212) 647-2864 







VISA 


l 







TOLL FREE ORDERING 



800-221 -091 6 

Orders only. NY& Info call (212) 647-2864 




GRAPHICS 



1 \J iV 


| 


f the ) 


1 


ECB 




RAINBOW 











E\SCINATING 
FRACTALS 



Geometry 
of 

Nature 



By Robert Ddbouigo 



> 



_ 



D 



on't read any further. Just take a long hard look at 
the figure below. It is probably the most famous 
example of a "fractal" shape and is named the 
"Koch Snowflake" after its discovery by von Koch in 1904. 
Notice that each successive stage in the construction of the 
flake involves the addition of equilateral triangles (scaled 
down by 1/3) along every segment of the perimeter; put 
another way, the perimeter is increased self -similarly by an 
extra I / 3 ateveryconsecutive stage. We probably agree that 
the fractal flake is a very beautiful shape, but you may be 
surprised to learn that until recently it was regarded as a 
mathematical monstrosity, to be shunned by any self- 
respecting scientist. The change in attitude, from monstros- 
ity to curiosity to conventionality, is largely due to the 
efforts of Benoit Mandelbrot who, more than anyone, has 
put the subject on a respectable basis and showed its signifi- 
cance for describing the real physical world. 

We'll be drawing some regular fractals shortly on the 80C 
but before we start let us see why fractals are so "odd" and 
therefore so fascinating. If you examine the stages in the 
snowflake construction, you will notice that the perimeter 
increases without limit as (4/3) n , where N (which tends to 
infinity) stands for the stage you have reached. Yet the area 
of the flake stays perfectly finite! This is the first queer 
feature of a fractal and you should contrast it with com- 
monplace geometrical figures where the perimeters are finite 
and simply go up as the square root of the enclosed areas. 
The second thing to notice is that more and more corners are 




( Robert Delbourgo, a professor of 
Physics, and his schoolboy sons 
Tino, 13, and Daniel, 11, started 
computing as a hobby with the 
purchase last year of a CoCo.) 



introduced with each consecutive stage in the construction; 
in the end so much jaggedness is introduced that it is impos- 
sible to draw a line which grazes the boundary anywhere. In 
the mathematical jargon, no tangents to the boundary curve 
exist — again this is quite contrary to our experience with 
ordinary geometrical shapes. Summarizing, 

1) Boundaries of true fractals are infinite in extent, 

2) No tangents may be drawn anywhere along a fractal 
boundary. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties, Mandelbrot has shown 
that such behavior is quite natural in many physical settings 



28 the RAINBOW July 1983 



(e.g. the shape of a coastline, or the human vascular system) 
and he has put the idea on a firm mathematical foundation. 1 
strongly urge you to read his magnificent book, Fractals, 
Form, Chance and Dimension, if you want to delve more 
into the topic. It is written mainly for non-experts and 
contains many striking examples of fractals, both regular 
and random, as well as a complete list of references. 

There are four programs for your delectation, Fractals 0 
to 3. The first is based on circles, the second on spokes, the 
third on cornered polygons and the fourth on edged poly- 
gons. Although they are somewhat different from one 
another, I suggest that you start by typing only two of them 
first; say Fractal 1 and Fractal 3. If you like what you see, 
carry on with the other two. Let me describe the main points 
about the programs for those of you who want to under- 
stand them more fully. 
Listing: Fractal 0 



Lines 1-7 provide the Title Card comprising Fractal Trees. 
Lines 8-9 give instructions. 

Lines 10-24 draw the circles in ever smaller radii (ratio of 
PI/N). Note the dimensioned arrays which locate the 
cente rs. 

Lines 25-20 freeze and paint (if needed) the final fractal 
shape. 

Listing: Fractal 1 



Lines 1-7 produce a Fractal Root System as the title card. 

Lines 8-29 give instructions, drawing routine and final 
painting in order. This time the basic shape is a spoked 
figure and for aesthetic reasons the ratio of successive 
radii is 3.3/N. 

Listing: Fractal 2 



Lines 1-8 give a Fractal Cornered Square. 

Lines 1 2-25 will draw the closed polygons at the corners of 
earlier ones. Here successive ratios are3/(N+2) to keep 
the shapes within the confines of the screen. 

Lines 26-30 for freezing the picture. 

Listing: Fractal 3 



Lines 1-7 produce a Title Card of a Fractal Edged Square. 

Lines 11-28 draw the polygons, which touch along their 
sides this time. It is necessary to reposition the centers 
in this operation and this is carried out at the end of 

Lines 17, 20 and 24. 

In all of these programs I have assumed that your compu- 
ter is 16K ECB, which is why I have restricted the ranges of 
N values in the dimensioned arrays. Those of you with 
greater memory may like to relax these ranges. For instance, 
in the first listing, 32K people can change Line 19 to having 
N>1 2 and Line 22 to having N>6, etc. One last suggestion: 
Try randomizing your fractals by varying the directions 
arbitrarily in the several programs. For instance, changing 
Line 16 in Fractal 0 to 

16 FORI=lTON:E=(RND(99*N))/99:A(I)=128+R*COS 
(2*Pl*E/N): U(1)=96+R*SIN(2*PI*E/N):CIRCLE 
(A(I),U(I)),R*PI/N,1:NEXTI 

and make similar changes to Lines 1 8, 2 1 , 24. Do you think 
that your final figure resembles a real map of a landscape? 



Listing 0: 



18. . 
END 



01C1 
046F 
0604 



1 CLS:PRINT@3, "fractals 0 by r. 
delbourgo" ;:PRINT@480, "15 willow 
dene av, austral i s7005" ; 

2 FORI=0TO32STEP32:FORJ=232TO247 
:POKE1024+I+J, 128:NEXTJ, I:FORI=0 
TO 1 : FOR J ■ 1 34T0358STEP32 : POKE 1 024 
+I+J, 128:POKE1042+I+J, 128:NEXTJ, 
I : FORI-0TO7: F0RJ-99T0387STEP288: 
POKE1024+I+J, 128: POKE 1 042+1 +J, 12 
8:NEXTJ, I 

3 FOR I =0TO27STEP9 : FOR J=0TO64STEP 
32 : POKE 1 090+ I+J , 128: POKE 1 378+ I +J 
,128:NEXTJ,I . 

4 FOR I =33T035 : FORJ=0TO288STEP288 
: FORK=0TO27STEP9 : POKE 1 024+ I+J+K, 
140:POKE1152+I+J+K, 131 : NEXTK, J, I 

5 FORI=32TO160STEP128:FORJ=0TO28 
8STEP288: FORK=0TO27STEP9: POKE 102 
4+I+J+K, 138: POKE 1028+ I+J+K, 133:N 
EXTK, J, I 

6 F0RJ=64T0352STEP288: FORK=0TO27 
STEP9: POKE 1024+ J +K, 139: POKE 1028+ 
J+K, 135:POKE1088+J+K, 142:POKE109 



CASSETTE CONTROLLER 

Allows you to hear your cassettes without 
unplugging cables. Switch knob between 




AUTO and MANUAL posilions. 

SERIAL SWITCHER 

Switch your serial port between two or three 
peripherals. 2 -Port s 25°° 3 -Port 

TOTALLY SOLDERLESS KITS 

4K ■ 16K $ 20 00 

16K - 32K $ 35 00 

4K - 32K $ 50°° 

All memory upgrades come complete with 16K or 32K button, 
easy-to-follow instructions, and 90-day unconditional warranty. 

PILOT LIGHT — Includes 5 different colored lenses, and 
simple instructions. Mounts in 5 minutes to top cover of your 
computer. With Lifetime Warranty, only s 7°° 



I.C.s 

6809ECPU . ...*25 00 

6883 SAM s 25°° 

6847 VDG 5 20 00 

6821 PIA S 8 0Q 

Full Set s 65 00 

★ FREE * 
CATALOGUE 



CABLES 

Direct Coax to TV-3', 6'. 9'. 12'. . MO 00 

* Serial M to M *7 eB 

Serial M to M, coiled - 5' *7 00 

* Serial Ext. M to F *7 00 

* Cass. Ext. M to F $ 7°° 

Cass. Ext., coiled -5' .... $ 7°° 

•Joystick Ext. M to F $ 7°° 

'Prices shown are for 6 feet. 
Extra length, add 50 c per ft. 



Terms: Cashiers checks and money orders for immediate 
delivery • Personal checks allow 2 weeks • Orders under S25 
add S2 shipping • C.O.D. add S2 • California residents add 6% 

4416 E. Chapman, Suite 284 
Orange, CA. 92669 




VIDTRON 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 29 



r - 



W. i 



2+J+K, 141 : NEXTK, J 

7 PLAY"L20O3CESO4CO3BECP1 " 

8 P0KE65495 , 0 : CLS : PR I NTS352 , " AF 
TER THE DRAWING IS FINISHED YO 
U MILL HEAR A SOUND. PRESS <P 

> TO PAINT OUT SURROUNDS OR <C 

> TO CONTINUE. ": PR I NT@0, " ENTER 
MULTIPLICATION RATE OF CIRCLE 
S (ANY INTEGER BETWEEN 4 AND 
16) "; : INPUTN:PI=3. 14159265 

9 IFN<40RN>16THEN8 

1 0 PMODE4 , 1 : SCREEN 1,1: PCLS 

11 I FN< 1 0THENR»N*7 

12 IFN>9ANDN< 12THENR=N*5 

13 IFN>11THENR=70 

14 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,R, 1 

15 DIMA(N) ,U(N) 

16 FORI=lTON: A<I)=128+R*C0S(2*PI 
*I/N) :U(I)=96+R*SIN(2*PI*I/N) :CI 
RCLE(Ad) ,U(I) ) ,R*PI/N, l:NEXTI 

17 R=PI*R/N:DIMB<N*N) ,V(N*N) 

18 FORI=lTON*N:B(I)=A< 1+INT (1-1) 
/N) +R*COS (2*PI*I /N) : V < I ) =U < 1+INT 
<I-1)/N)+R*SIN(2*PI*I/N) : CIRCLE ( 

B ( I ) , V < I ) ) , R*PI /N, 1 : NEXTI 

19 IFN>9THEN25 

20 R=PI*R/N:DIMC(N*N*N) ,W(N*N*N) 

21 FORI=lTON*N*N: C < I ) =B < 1 + INT < (I 
-D/N) )+R*C0S(2*PI*I/N) :W<I)=V<1 



'It. :\ 



r 



Sit, 



Shifter 



NEW 



■ 



A tai/cing "munc/i game" /or 1 or 2 simul- 
taneous players. Developed by MIT grad in 
machine language for incredible performance — 
at fastest speed, you can cross the screen in 
about 1 second. Shifting maze adds surprises. 
Players greet each other when meeting. Can 
select computer as opponent for 1 player. 

$20. 

Articulator I 

Add speech to your programs or change dialog 
in Shifter. Digitizes your voice from audio tape; 
sound track may be put on tape as part of other 
programs. Comes with Basic callable inteiface. 

$20. 

Both available on cassette for 16 or32K.Ext. 
Basic not required* Sticks required for Shifter* 

29 ENTERPRISES 

1208 Country Ct. ■ Cary, NC 27511 



+INT< (I-D/N) )+R*SIN<2*PI*I/N) :C 
IRCLE<C(I) ,W(I) ) ,R*PI/N, 1: NEXTI 

22 IFN>4THEN25 

23 R=PI*R/N:DIMD(256) :DIMX(256) 

24 F0RI=1T0256: D<I)=C< 1+INT ( (1-1 
)/4) )+R*C0S<PI*I/2) : X <I)=W<1 + INT 
< (I-D/4) )+R*SIN<PI*I/2) : CIRCLE ( 
D < I ) , X ( I ) ) , R*PI /4, 1 : NEXTI 

25 SOUND 100, 1 

26 I *= I NKE Y* : I F I *= " " THEN26 

27 IFI*«"P"THENPAINT<253,96) 
: PAINT (3, 96) , 1 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 0 

28 I F I *= " C " THENRUNS 
B0T026 



1.1 



Listing 1: 



8 026E 

19 03DF 

END ...05B0 



1 CLS0:R=127+16*RND(8) :F0RI=15T0 
495STEP32: POKE 1024+ I , R: NEXTI : FOR 
I=257T0285: POKE1024+I , R: NEXTI : FO 
RI=104TO118:POKE1024+I,R:POKE134 
4+1 , R: NEXTI : P0KE1484 , R: POKE1490, 
R 

2 DATA44,50, 105, 117, 172, 178, 197, 
217, 258, 264, 278, 284, 325, 345, 364, 
370,425,437 

3 F0RI=1T018:READD:P0KE992+D,R:P 
OKE1023+D, R: POKE1024+D, R: POKE102 
5+D,R: POKE1056+D, R: NEXTI 

4 PRINTS2, "fractals 1 " ; : PR I NTS 16 
, "by"; :PRINT@19, "r . del bourgo" ; :P 
RINTQ480, "15, )willowdene av,aust 
ralia7005"; 

7 PLAY " L20O3CE6O4CO3BECP 1 " 

8 POKE65495,0:CLS:PRINT@352, " AF 
TER THE DRAWING IS FINISHED YO 
U WILL HEAR A SOUND. PRESS <P 

> TO PAINT OUT SURROUNDS OR <C 

> TO CONTINUE. ": PR I NTS0, " ENTER 
MULTIPLICATION RATE OF SPIKES 

(ANY INTEGER BETWEEN 4 AND 
16) "; : INPUTN:PI=3. 14159265 

9 IFN<40RN>16THEN8 

10 PM0DE4, l: SCREEN 1, l: PCLS: M=P I / 
N 

11 IFN< 10THENR=N*7 

12 I FN >9ANDN< 1 2THENR=N*5 

13 IFN>11THENR=70 

15 DIMA(N) ,U<N) 

16 F0RI=1T0N: A(I)=128+R*C0S(M+2* 
PI*I /N) : U ( I ) =96+R*SIN (M+2*PI*I /N 
) :LINE(128,96)-<A< I) ,U<I) ) ,PSET: 
NEXTI 

17 R=3.3*R/N:DIMB(N*N) , V(N*N) 

18 F0RI=1T0N*N:B<I)=A<1+INT(I-1) 
/N) +R*COS (2*PI*I /N) : V < I ) =U < 1 + INT 
(1-1) /N)+R*SIN<2*PI*I/N) : LINE <B< 
I ) , V ( I ) )-<A< 1+INT < 1-1) /N) ,U(1+IN 
T( I-D/N) ) ,PSET: NEXTI 

19 IFNM0THEN25 



30 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



TO REALIZE THE FULL POWER & PERFORMANCE OF THE 6809, LOOK TO GIMIX. 

GIMIX OFFERS YOU A VARIETY OF SS50 BUS COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS. " u 



OS-9 GMX III 

The OMX 6808 CPU III aral QS-« QMX Ul,A MUfruser, Mulfciasking »ckaq«.to 
the ui?imate in System Peilortrance pitre aotsetton # the system BftcJ other users 
Iran crashes caused by errors in iridtviduai o^pri^rams^ m -^NNih 
#01 (CPU S Software) ^JgpjrSlfflfcm 

WTElteENt I/O PROCESSOR BQA8DS increase system throughput by reducing 
inter uc*s to tte tel. buffering <ixa -transfers, and data "p reprocessing: /prices 
'. include .an toafd' iintware, Reouirei system ihvers. 
#11 3 port Sena! . . . 4 ,- . ■ ■ 



#124{,fflt! 5 a'a ie' (SS5?) 




W j 
$Kfl.i2; 



:OS-9;8MXtlt'drryerH:: : (m^eaipM^rchasecM^ 

OS-9 level 2 users - contact GfMIX for system requ'rements and .av^abf^S |£i 

122K GMX III #78 SYSTEMS: •< indude GMX 6809 CPU 111 and GMX lif 
{#01 }.; a #1 1 3 port Inte ligent serial i/C & cables; WftClassy Ct^)$l|9?«B5#c; 
BAV , #63 DMA cOfttf oiler, al necsssary cables, power regulators, and fii=er plates 
Thfc CS-9 Editor, Assami^r. Debugger, BASlC-09, and RUNB are tneiiSiaf;? 1 \ 
#7Sw!:n-„'uai 40 track &SB8 drives' 
#79 with fluai 80 track DSOD drives 



m 

1.79 
$7598.79 
18999.79 

















43 



with #90 13MB Winder subsystem & oce 80 track OSDD drive 
umfliX for tne^MX $8t}& CPli-lii ;; ari d; i^ishi-l/O boards is to 

OS-9 GMX I; OS-9 GMX II; FLEX; and UniFLEX 

The #05 GIMIX 6809 PLUS CPU board $578.05 

Options: GMX DAT $35.00 SWTPCDAT $15.00 

9511 A $312.00 9512 $265.00 

#49 64KB GHOST SYSTEM includes: #05 CPU; #19 Classy Chassis; 64KB static RAM; a #43 2 
port serial card & cables: #68 DMA Controller; all necessary cables, power regulators, and filler 
plates; GMXBUG monitor; FLEX; and OS-9 GMX I. You can software select either FLEX or 
OS-9, The OS-9 Editor, Assembler, Debugger, BASIC-09, and RUNB are also Included. 

#49 with dual 40 track DSDD drives $4398.49 

#49 with dual 80 track DSDD drives $4698.49 

#49 with #88 8" Dual Drive Disk System $5998.49 

#49 with #90 19MB Winchester subsystems & one 80 track DSDD drive $7398.49 

#39 128KB SYSTEM includes: #05 CPUwDAT: #19 Classy Chassis; 128KB of static RAM; a 
#43 2 port serial card & cables; #68 DMA Controller; all necessaty cables, power regulators, 
and filler plates; GMXBUG monitor; FLEX; and OS-9 GMX II. You can software select either 
FLEX or OS-9. The OS-9 Editor, Assembler, Debugger, BASIC-09, and RUNB. and GMX-VDISK 
for FLEX are included. 

#39 with dual 40 track DSDD drives $4998.39 

#39 with dual 80 track DSDD drives $5298.39 

#39 with #88 8' ' Dual Drive Disk System $6598.39 

#39 with #90 1 9M B Winchester subsystem & one 80 track DSDD d rive $7998.39 

UniFLEX, available at extra cost, requires 8" or Winchester drives. A signed license agreement 
with TSC is required before shipment. 

You can add to any GIMIX system RAM, l/Os and other options, or 
substitute non-volatile RAM. GIMIX will customize to your needs. 

COMING SOON: Contact GIMIX for price and availability on 40MB and 72MB Winchester 
(5V<") drives, removeable pack Winchesters, 256KB static RAM boards. 

All GIMIX systems are guaranteed for 2MHz operation. GIMIX systems Include documentation 
for all boards and software In a GIMIX binder. ALL DRIVES ARE 100% TESTED AND ALIGNED 
BY GIMIX. 

ALL BOARDS AND SYSTEMS ARE ASSEMBLED, BURNED-IN, AND TESTED. GOLD-PLATED 
BUS CONNECTORS ARE USED. 

TO ORDER BY MAIL: SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER OR USE YOUR VISA OR MASTER CHARGE. Please 
allow 3 weeks for personal checks to clear. U.S. orders add $5 handling if order is under $200.00. Foreign 
orders add $10 handling if oider Is under $200.00. Foreign orders over $200.00 will be shipped via Emery Air 
Freight COLLECT, and we will charge no handling. All orders must be prepaid In U.S. funds. Please note that 
foreign checks have been taking about 8 weeks for collection so we would advise wiring money, or checks 
drawn on a bank account in the U.S. Our bank is the Continental Illinois National Bank of Chicago, 231 S. 
LaSalle Street, Chicago, IL 60693, account #73-32033, Visa or Master Charge also accepted. 

EXPORT MODELS: ADD $30 FOR 50Hz. POWER SUPPUES. 

GIMIX Inc. reserves the right to change pricing, terms, and product specifications at any time without 
further notice. 

ALL PRICES ARE F.O.B. CHICAGO 



Gimix 



Choose from GIMIX' wide variety of system components. 

The GIMIX CLASSY CHASSIS #19 consists of a heavyweight aluminum cabinet, constant 
voltage ferro-resonant power supply, and SS50 Mother board with baud rate gen- 
erator board $1398.19 

Triple Disk regulator card and cables $88.22 Baud rate generator card $88.93 

Missing cycle detector $38.23 Filler plates $14.92 

Back panel connector plates (specify) . $8.60 50 Hz. option $30.00 

MEMORIES (GIMIX uses only Static RAM) f 

#67 64KB NMOS STATIC RAM board $478.67 

#64 64KB CMOS STATIC RAM board w/battery back-up $568. 54 

#34 8 K PROM board $98 34 

#32 1 6 socket PROM/ROM/ RAM board $23£ 32 

I/O Boards (see above for Intelligent l/Os) 

#41 Single port serial. RS232/20rna. current loop $88.41 

#43 2 port serial, RS232 $128.43 

#46 8 port serial, RS232 ., $318.46 

#42 2 port parallel $83.42 

#45 8 port parallel $198.45 

#50 serial, RS232, RS422, RS423 S244.Su 

#52 SSDA serial, RS232, RS422, RS423 , , $254.52 

#54 ADLC serial, RS232, RS422, RS423 $260.54 

Each cable with connectors for back panel mounting (specify board) $24.95 

DISK CONTROLLERS 

#68 DMA (featured in all systems above) $588.68 

#28dbl. dens, programmed I/O (5" drives only) $298.28 

#58 single dens, programmed I/O (5' ' and/or 8" drives) $226.58 

#48 same as #58 but for 5" drives only S19&4B 

Cable sets: 8" with Back Panel connector $2$,ft> 

for two 8" external drives $44.26 

for two 5" drives $34.56 

SOFTWARE: GIMIX exclusive versions of 0S-9/GMX I, II, III & FLEX are for GIMIX hardware 
only. All versions of OS-9 require the #68 controller. 

When ordered with any controller, FLEX Is $SC.G£ 

GMXBUG PROMs and manual $9$,6S 

Boot or Video boot PROM $30.00 UNIFLEX boot PROM $58.00 

OS-9 GMX I $200.00 OS-9 GMX II $50CC0 

Editor $125.00 Assembler $125.00 

BASIC-09 $200.00 RUNB $1t«.C0 

DISK DRIVES FOR GIMIX SYSTEMS ~ complete with cables and power regulators. 

5"' DSDD 40 track 2 for $900.00 

5" DSDD 80 track 2 for $1300 ft* 

#88" Dual 8" DSDD drives, cabinet, power supply, & cables $2698 «3 

Cabinet only $848.18 220V 50Hz. Option, add $3Q.0iu< 

Filler plate $14.83 Cable for 2 drives ... $44, A2 

Cable for 4 drives $67.84 Cable for cabinet to mainframe $45.B % 

WINCHESTER SUBSYSTEMS: for use only In GIMIX systems with #68 
DMA controller. 

#90: Includes one 19MB drive, interface, and Software $3583 JS& 

#91 : includes two 19MB drives, interface and Software $5268.81 

Contact GIMIX for price and availability of other forthcoming subsystems. 

OTHER BOARDS 

#76 GHOST 80X24 VIDEO BOARD $3^.76 

#66 50 pin Protoboards $56.66 #33 30 pin ProtoboardS 

#03 6800 CPU $224.03 

#06 6800 CPU with timers $288.06 Baud rate option, add S30.00 

#08 RELAY DRIVER (board, bracket, transformer, and 31 relays) $1128.08 

#86 - #08 (board, bracket, transformer, without relays) $53fL36 

#85 OPTO board $348.85 

WINDRUSH EPROM PROGRAMMER $375.00 

3"' Binder 12.00 2" Binder $9.00 

GIMIX DOES NOT GUARANTEE PERFORMANCE OF ANY GIMIX SYSTEMS, BOARDS OR SOFT- 
WARE WHEN USED WITH OTHER MANUFACTURERS PRODUCT. 

DON'T SEE IT??? ASK! OUR BROCHURE HAS MORE COMPLETE DESCRIPTIONS AND SPECS. 
PHONE OR WRITE TODAY FOR YOUR COPY. 

BASIC-09 and OS-9 are trademarks dl Mfcrware Systems Cap. and MOTOROLA, Inc. FLEX and UniFLEX are trademarts of 
Technical Systems Consultants, Inc. GIMIX, GHOST. GMX, CLASSY CHASSIS, are trademarks of GIMIX. Inc. 



inC. 1337 WEST 37th PLACE • CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60609 
(312)927-5510 • TWX 910-221-4055 




20 R-3.3*R/N:DIMC<N*N*N) ,w<n*n*n 

> 

21 F0RI=1T0N*N*N:C(I)=B<1+INT( <I 
-D/N) )+R*C0S(M+2*PI*I/N) :W<I)=V 
<1+INT( (I— 1) /N) >+R*SIN(M+2*PI*I/ 
N) : LINE (C ( I ) ,W<I) >-<B<l+INT(I-l) 
/N),V<1+INT<I— 1 ) /N) > ,pset:nexti 

22 I FN >5THEN25 

23 R=3.3*R/N:DIMD(N*N*N*N) IDIMX ( 
N*N*N*N) 

24 F0RI=1T0N*N*N*N:D<I)=C<1+INT< 
< I - 1 ) / N ) > +R*COS (2*PI*I/N):X<I)=W 
<1+INT< <I-1)/N) )+R*SIN(2*PI*I/N) 
:LINE<D(I) ,X<I> >-<C<l + INT(I-l)/N 
) ,W<1+INT<I-1) /N) > ,PSET:NEXTI 

25 SOUND 1 00 , 1 

26 I *= I NKE Y* : I F I *= " " THEN26 

27 IFI*="P"THENPAINT (253, 96) , 1 , 1 
: PAINT (3, 96) ,1, l: SCREEN 1,0 

28 IFI*="C"THENRUN8 
B0T026 



i ■ i H * 



Listing 2: 



20.. 
END 



030& 
0609 
078B 



1 CLS0:R=127+16*RND<8> :FORI=0TO6 
: FORJ=0TO480STEP32: POKE1024+I+J , 
R: POKE 1 049+ I + J , R: NEXT J, I : F0RI=7T 
024 : FOR J=0TO32STEP32 : POKE 1 024+1 + 
J,R:P0KE1472+I+J,R: NEXTJ, I 



COLOR 

COMPUTER 

Buyers Club 

•Members enjoy a 30 - 40% savings on software! 

• More being added monthly! 

• Hardware & accessories atsubstantial savings! 

• Monthly specials and reviews! 

• Special orders service for members! 
» Mo service charge for VISA or MC! 

• Your savings can far exceed your dues! 

Join Today And Start Saving! 

Dues are $22.50 - We accept 

vrsA' _l 

Personal Checks, M.O. or Charge It! £ 




91 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



C/TY 



STATE 



ZIP 



d VISA o MC Exp. Date 
Mail to: 



Color Computer Buyers Club 

P.O. Box 241 

Eaton Rapids, Ml 48827 



2 FOR I =0TO5 : FOR J=0TO32STEP32 : POK 
E1101+I+J,R: P0KE1421+I+J, R: NEXTJ 
, I : FORI=0TO1 : FORJ=0TO96STEP32: PO 
KE 1 224+ 1 + J , R : POKE 1 238+ 1 + J , R : NE X T 
J, I 

3 DATA4, 10, 16,22, 132, 150,260,278 
,388,394,400,406 

4 FOR I = 1 TO 1 2 : READD : POKE 1 024+D , R- 
1 : POKE 1 025+D , R-3 : POKE 1 026+D , R-2 : 
POKE 1 027+D , R- 1 : POKE 1 028+D , R-3 : PO 
KE1029+D, R-2: POKE1056+D, R-4: POKE 
1 057 +D , R- 1 3 : POKE 1 058+D , 1 28 : POKE1 
059+D ,128: POKE 1 060+D , R- 1 4 : POKE 1 0 
61+D,R-8 

5 POKE 1088+D,R-l: POKE 1089+D,R-7: 
POKE1090+D, 128:POKE1091+D, 128: PO 
KE1092+D, R-l 1 : POKE1093+D, R-2: POK 
El 120+D, R-4: POKE1 121+D, R-12: POKE 
1 122+D, R-8: POKE1 123+D, R-4: POKE1 1 
24+D, R-12: POKE1 125+D, R-8: NEXT I 

6 FOR J =0TO6 : FORK=0TO96STEP32 : POK 
E1095+J+K, 128: POKE1 107+J+K, 128:P 
0KE1351+J+K, 128: P0KE1363+J+K, 128 
: NEXTK, J 

7 PRINTS203, "fractals 2";: PRINTS 
239, "by"; :PRINT@267, "r.delbourgo 
"5 :PRINT@328, "15,willowdene av"; 
:PRINT@360, "austral i a 7005"j: 

8 PLAY " O3L20CE8O4CO38ECP 1 " : P0KE6 
5495, 0 

9 CLS:PRINT@352, " WHEN YOU THE F 
RACTALS ARE ALL DRAWN YOU WILL 

HEAR A SOUND. PRESS <P> TO P 

AINT OUT THE SURROUNDS OR < 

C> TO CONTINUE. " 

10 PRINTS0," ENTER THE NUMBER OF 
SIDES OF THE FRACTAL POLYGON 
(3 - 8) ";: INPUTN:PI=3. 14159265 

11 IFN>8ORN<3THEN10 

12 R= (N+4)*5. 6 : PMODE4, 1: SCREEN 1, 
1 : PCLS 

13 DIMA<N),U<N) 

14 FORJ=lTON: A( J)=128+R*C0S(2*PI 
*J/N) : U ( J ) =96+R*S I N ( 2*P I * J / N ) : NE 
XT J 

15 forj=lton:line<a<j) ,u(j) )-<a< 
j+1-n*int(j/n) ) ,u(j+1-n*int(j/n) 
) ),pset: nextj 

16 r=3*r/ (n+2) : dimb< n*n) , v <n*n) 

17 fori=iton:forj=iton:b<j+<i-d 
*n) =a < i ) +r*cos ( 2*p i * j /n ) : v < j+ < i - 
1)*n)=u(i)+r*sin(2*pi*j/n) : nextj 

18 FORJ=lTON:K=J+(I-l)*N:LINE<B< 
K),V<K)) - <B <K+1-N*INT ( J/N) ) , V(K+ 
1-N*INT(J/N) ) ) ,PSET: NEXTJ, I 

19 R=3*R/ (N+2) :DIMC<N*N*N) ,W<N*N 
*N) 

20 fori=iton*n:forj=iton:c<j+<i- 
1)*n)=b(i)+r*c0s(2*pi*j/n) :w<j+( 
i-1)*n)=v<i)+r*sin(2*pi*j/n) : nex 



32 the RAINBOW July 1983 



CoCo HEADQUARTERS 

Looking to unlock the capacity of your Color Computer? 

Search no more 




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1-800-251-5008 






IM 


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32/64k Upgrade $ 69 

16k Upgrade $ 25 
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1 . 1 Basic ROM $ 2 7 
Amdek Disk Drives 



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ACCESSORIES 



$ 69.95 

$ 179.00 

$ 269.00 

$ 379.00 

$ 349.00 

$ 179.00 



Hayes SM1200 Modem $ 599 

USR AL212 (300/1200) $ 495 

Hayes SM 300 Modem $ 239 

R/S D.C. Modem 2 $ 215 

USR AL300 $ 199 

R/S D.C. Modem 1 $ 129 

Hayes/USR Cable $ 19 

26-3020 Cable $ 5 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
2 5 



26-1208 CCR-81 
26-3008 Joysticks 
Kraft Joystick 
Wico Track Ball 
Wico Joystick 
Wico Adapter 
Verbatim Disks 
Elephant Disks 



SOFTWARE 



Telewriter 64 $ 59 

Telewriter 64 $ 49 

Zaxxon by Sega $ 34 

The King by Tom Mix $ 26 

The Frog by Tom Mix $ 27 

Trapfall by Tom Mix $ 27 

The Bar Zapper $ 15.95(Cass) 



95(Disk) Space Shuttle $28 

95(Cass) Colorpede $29 

95(C or D) Mark Data A d v e n t u r e s $ 2 4 

95(Cass) Ghost Gobbler $19 

95(Cass) MSI DATABASE $39 

95 (Cass) MSI Color Finance $59 



95 (Cass) 

95 (Cass) 

95 (Cass) 

95 (Cass ) 

95 (Disk) 

95 (Disk) 



The Graph Zapper 
**** All TRS-80 Software 13% off list ***** 



$15.95 (Cass) 



Others include - Spectral Associates, Anteco, Prickly Pear, 
Mark Data, Tom Mix, Botek Instruments, Intracolor Communications. 

Sugar Software, Cogni tec , 
and many more! 



TOLL FREE 
TENNESSEE 
1-800-545-2502 

All of the above units covered by our 120 
day carry in warranty, (d) denotes "Delker" 
(200ns) memory guaranteed for 1 year. 
TRS-80 Trademark Tandy Corporation. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
Sale prices good through June 30, 1983. 
Write for our FREE newsletter! 



TeleChtfck 



V/SA' 




TOLL FREE 
1-800-251-5008 

(DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME) 
DELKER ELECTRONICS, INC, 
P.O. BOX 897 
DEPT D 

SMYRNA, TN 37167 

800-251-5008 

61 5-459-2636 (TENNESSEE) 



TJ 

21 forj=iton:k=j+<i-1)*n:line<c< 

K) ,W(K) >- (C (K+1-N*INT (J/N) ) ,W(K+ 
1-N*INT(J/N) > ) ,PSET:NEXTJ, I 

22 IFNMTHEN26 

23 R=3*R/ (N+2) : DIMD <N*N*N*N) , X (N 
♦N*N*N) 

24 fori=iton*n*n:forj=iton:d<j+< 
i-1)*n)=c(i)+r*c0s(2*pi*j/n) : x (j 
+<i-1)*n)=w(i)+r*sin(2*pi*j/n) :n 

EXTJ 

25 forj=iton:k=j+(i-d*n:line(D( 

K> , X <K) )-<D(K+l-N*INT(J/N) ) , X <K+ 
1-N*INT(J/N) > ) , PSET: NEXTJ, I 

26 SOUND 100, 1 

27 I *= I NKE Y* : I F I *= " " THEN27 

28 IFI*="P"THENPAINT<253,96) 
: SCREEN 1,0 

29 IFI*="C"THENRUN9 

30 B0T027 



1 . 1 



Listing 3: 



& 02C1 

21 0680 

END ...08EA 



1 R=RND (8) : CLSR: FORJ=0TO1 1 : FORK= 
0TO224STEP32: POKE1 162+J+K, 128: NE 
XTK, J."DATA16, 132,278,394 

2 FOR I = 1 T04 : RE ADD : FOR J =0TO5 : FORK 
=0TO96STEP32 : POKE 1024+ J+K+D, 128: 
NEXTK J J, I : DATA13, 71 , 86, 129,217,2 



wild party 

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All prompts from TV screen, 
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Send check to P.O. Box 210, 
Jenkintown, PA 19046 



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60, 348, 391 , 406, 464 

3 fori=5TO14:readd:forj=0TO2:for 
k=0to32step32: poke 1024+ j+k+d, 128 
: nextk, j, i :data1 1,40, 55,69,98, 18 

6, 215, 258, 317, 360, 389, 404, 433 

4 FOR 1 = 1 5T027 : READD : POKE! 024+D, 1 
22+ 1 6*R : POKE 1 025+D , 1 28 : NEX T I : POK 
E1152, 1 28 : POKE 1 407 , 128 

5 DATA77, 106, 121, 150, 193,252,295 
, 324 ,412,441, 455 , 470 , 499 : FOR I =28 
TO40 : READD : POKE 1 024+D , 1 28 : POKE 1 0 
25+D, 117+16*R: NEXTI 

6 PRINT6203, "fractals 3";: PRINT® 
239, "by"; :PRINT@267, "r.delbourgo 
"5 :PRINT@299, "15,willowdene av"j 
:PRINT@331, "austral i a 7005"; 

7 PLA Y " O3L20CEBO4CO3BECP 1 " : P0KE6 
5495,0 

8 CLS:PRINT@352, " WHEN THE FRACT 
ALS ARE DRAWN A SOUND WILL BE 
HEARD. PRESS <P> TO PAINT OUT S 
URROUNDS OR <C> TO CONTINUE." 

9 PRINTS0, " ENTER THE NUMBER OF 
SIDES OF THE FRACTAL POLYGON 
(3 - 8) "; : INPUTN:PI=3. 14159265: M 
=2/N 

10 I FN >80RN< 3THEN9 

11 R=(N+4)*5:PM0DE4, l: SCREEN 1, 1: 
PCLS 

12 DIMA(N) ,U(N) 

13 F0RJ=1T0N: A(J)=128+R*C0S(2*PI 
*J/N> :U(J)=96+R*SIN(2*PI*J/N) : NE 
XT J 

14 F0RJ=1T0N:LINE(A(J) ,U(J) >-(A( 
J+1-N*INT(J/N) ) ,U(J+1-N*INT(J/N) 
) > , PSET: NEXTJ: F0RJ=1T0N: A ( J ) =A ( J 
) +M*R*COS (2* ( J + l ) *PI /N) : U < J ) =U< J 
)+M»R*SIN(2*<J+l)*PI/N) : NEXTJ 

15 r=m*r:dimb(n*n) , v(n*n) 

16 fori=iton:forj=iton:b(j+(i-d 
*n) =a ( i ) +r*cos (2*pi* ( j+2) /n+pi ) : 
v ( j+ ( 1-1 ) *n ) =u ( i ) +r*sin (2*pi* ( j+ 
2) /n+pi) : nextj 

17 forj=iton:k=j+(i-d*n:line(B( 
k) , v (k) ) — (b (k+1-n*int(j/n) ) , v(k+ 
1-n*int(j/n) ) ), pset: nextj: forj=l 
ton: k=j+ ( i — 1 ) *n: b (k) =b (k) +m*r*co 
s (2* ( j+3) *pi /n+pi ) : v (k) =v (k) +m*r 
*sin(2*(j+3)*pi/n+pi) : nextj, i 

ib r=m*r: dimc (n*n*n) , w <n*n*n) 

1 9 for 1 = 1 ton*n : for j = 1 ton : c ( j + ( i - 
1 ) *n> =b ( i ) +r*cos (2*pi* (j+2) /n+pi 
*2/n) :w(j+(i-1)*n)=v(i)+r*sin(2* 
pi*(j+2) /n+pi*2/n) :nextj 

20 forj=iton:k=j+(I-d*n:line(C( 

K) ,W(K) )-(C(K+l-N*INT(J/N) ) , W(K+ 
1-N*INT(J/N) ) ), PSET: NEXTJ :FORJ=l 
TON: K=J+ ( 1-1 ) *N: C (K) =C (K) +M*R*CO 
S(2*(J+4)*PI/N) :W(K)=W(K)+M*R*SI 
N(2*(J+4)*PI/N) :NEXTJ, I 



34 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



21 IFN>4THEN29 

22 R=M*R: DIMD <N*N*N*N) , X <N*N*N*N 

> 

23 FORI=lTON*N*N:FORJ=lTON:D(J+( 
I - 1 ) *N > =C < I ) +R*COS ( 2*P I * J / N+P I > : 
X < J+ ( 1-1 > *N>=W ( I ) +R*SIN (2*PI*J/N 
+PI) : NEXT J 

24 F0RJ=1T0N:K=J+(I-1>*N:LINE(D( 
K> ,X(K) >-(D(K+l-N*INT(J/N) > , X <K+ 

1-N*INT(J/N) > > ,pset:nextj:forj=i 

TON : K= J+ < I - 1 ) *N : D < K ) =D < K > +M*R*CO 
S<2*(J-4>*PI/N+PI/N) : X (K)=X (K>+P 
*R*SIN <2* (J-4> *PI/N+PI/N> : NEXT J, 
I 

25 I FN >3THEN29 

26 R=M*R : D I ME < N*N*N*N*N ) , Y < N*N*N 
*N*N> 

27 FORI=lTON*N*N*N:FORJ=lTON:E<J 
+ < 1-1 > *N> =D < I > +R*COS (2*PI* ( J+3> / 
N) : Y(J+(I-1)*N>=X<I)+R*SIN<2*PI* 
(J+3)/N) :NEXTJ 

28 forj=iton:k=j+<i-i>*n:line<e< 
k> , y <k) ) - <e <k+1-n*int (j/n) > ,y(k+ 
1-n*int(j/n) > > ,pset:nextj, i 

29 SOUND 100, 1 

30 I*=INKEY*: IFI*=""THEN30 

31 IFI*="P"THENPAINT (253,96) ,1,1 
: SCREEN 1 , 0 

32 IFI*="C"THENRUN8 

33 BOTO30 _ 



s 



0 



Video 
Plus 



connects the Color Computer to 
a composite video monitor. 

you'll love the crisp, clear picture 
with no RF interference. 



Fully assembled and tested 

Easy to install - no soldering. 

everything you need is included. jj 

Guaranteed to work. Tested on many brands, 
so you know you have a quality product. 

Does not disable your TV interface. Change 
from monitor to TV and back or display both? 

Works with color and monochrome monitors 
- any composite video/monitor can be used. 

Easy adjustment optimizes the video signal 
exactly for your monitor and computer. 

Works with every motherboard version! 



Doaic- irvOui «i invited 




OMPUTBRWARE 



® 



Box 668 

Enclnitas, Ca. 92024 
(619) 436-3512 



$24.95 

(plus $2 shipping) 



HAPPY ANNIVERSARY, RAINBOW !! 



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M. J, FREEMAN 



I 2W5 



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STANDARD BASIC 



BEAR BONES SOFTWARE 
Suite 108 

G-3117 Corunna Road 
Flint, Michigan ^850^ 



SOOOPER PAC - BEAR BONES SOFTWARE- SOOOPER PAC - BEAR BONES 



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July 1983 the RAINBOW 35 



CoCo COUNSEL 



sop 



'HE SECR 
SUCCESSFUL 

o SOFTWARE 0 
OUBMISSIONO 

BY TOM NELSON 
RAINBOW CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 



Independent software authors face a bewildering 
assortment of problems in trying to present software to 
the software house for marketing, or should 1 say, the 
software industry faces these problems. The problems are 
latent, and many authors, and perhaps even software 
houses, are often not aware of them. 

The problems arise from the ever-present potential for 
one person to misappropriate the ideas or programs of 
another, or for an author to perceive that a software house 
has stolen the author's programs or ideas. There's always the 
reality that it is much easier to just steal someone's source 
code, slightly modify it, and then publish it as a "different" 
program without giving the author credit than it would be to 
independently develop the software. It must be said here 
that any company that did this would not last long in the 
industry. On the other hand, since software houses are con- 
tinually developing their own software, misunderstandings 
can easily arise if a company later markets a piece of soft- 
ware with a similar theme to that submitted by an independ- 
ent author at some earlier data. 

This tremendous potential for actual rip-offs or perceived 
rip-offs cries for a solution to clarify the relationship which 
will be entered into between the author and the software 
house. Both sides have legitimate interests which must be 
dealt with before any software is sent or received. Honest 
authors and software houses have no desire or intent to 
cheat one another, but both sides also have legitimate fears 
that they may be cheated or subjected to a frivolous lawsuit. 
To the rescue the software submission agreement. 

Software submission agreements are universally used in 
industries which market products based on "intellectual 
property" such as software. The underlying purpose of the 
agreement is to inform the author that submitted software 
will not be held in confidence, but the author will have all 
protection afforded by the copyright laws. As an example of 
one of these agreements 1 will present here the core language 

(Tom Nelson is a Special Assistant Attorney General 
for the State o f Minnesota representing various state 
agencies, and a consultant to Nelson Software 
Systems. He has written almost all the manuals for the 
programs in the Super "Color" Library.) 



of the software submission agreement used by a well-known 
company. This agreement is representative of agreements 
used by many companies. 

This submission agreement is in the form of a letter. It is 
sent in response to inquiries about submitting software, or in 
response to software submitted without first having in- 
quired in advance about the company's policies. The agree- 
ment first indicates that this agreement must form the basis 
for any submission. It then introduces the company and its 
policies toward outside submissions, and the need for a 
submission agreement. The remainder of the agreement is 




36 the RAINBOW July 1983 



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We are a stocking dealer for most manufacturers of software, including 



Aardvark 
Armadillo 
Cog ni tec 
Computer Island 
Computerware 
Custom Software 
DSL 

Data Soft 



Eigen Systems 
M & S Software 
Mark Data 

Micro Tech. Products 
Moreton Bay 
Nelson Systems 
Platinum Software 
Prickly Pear 



Rainbow Connection 
Southern Software 
Sugar Software 
Superior Graphics 
Tom Mix 
York 10 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



Please include phone number with all orders. Also add $5.00 S/H for all printer and computer orders 

$2.00 for all software orders. Ohio residents please add 6% state sales tax. 



1-800-242-COCO 



(OUTSI DE OHIO) 



Rim 



COMPUTERS & ELECTRONICS 




3170 W. Central Avenue 
Westgate Meadows Shopping Center 
Toledo, OH 43606 

PHONE (419) 537-1432 (IN OHIO) 
11 a.m. to 9 p.m. EST 






devoted to the terms for submissions. Many companies will 
discuss royalty arrangements and their general philosophy 
of marketing sof tware as well. The operative language of the 
agreement is, of course, the most important. The following 
terms are exemplary: 

In order to protect both your rights and the rights of 
the company we will retain your submission in the 
Legal Department files, and we will consider your 
submission only upon the following conditions: 

1) All sketches, drawings and written disclosures 
must be submitted by way of copy only, and the com- 
pany shall have the right to retain such copies in its 
files. These copies may not be returned to the sub- 
mittor. 

2) The company shall have the right to consultothers 
as to the value of and interest in ideas and disclosures 
submitted to it by the outside person. The company 
shall only consult others when, in its sole judgment, it 
deems it necessary and desirable for all parties in- 
volved. The company shall not be placed under any 
obligation whatever to the submittor as a result of 
having consulted or disclosed submitted ideas to oth- 
ers in an attempt to evaluate the idea and disclosures, 
and to determine the commercial interest in such ideas. 

3) If the company should decide not to adopt an idea 
or disclosure, it is understood that the company is not 
required to divulge any reason for not adopting the 
idea or disclosure, it being understood that in doing so, 
the company may be placed in a position of a prema- 



ture disclosure of its future plans. 

4) It is understood that the submittor shall retain all 
rights and remedies afforded him by the patent and 
copyright laws of the United States, and that in no 
event shall the company have any obligation to the 
submittor for the unauthorized use or disclosure to 
others of any disclosure, whether or not patented or 
the subject matter of copyright or trademark pro- 
tection, which the submittor may make, except spe- 
cifically those obligations imposed upon the company 
and its subsidiaries by either the patent laws of the 
United States through the grant of a valid patent in 
which the claims thereof have covered the idea sub- 
mitted or the copyright laws of the United States 
through the grant of a valid copyright registration on 
the material submitted. Further, the submittor hereby 
warrants and represents that the idea submitted by 
him is wholly original with hirri, and that there are no 
other persons, firms, or organizations made a party to 
this understanding that have any interests or rights in 
the submitted idea or disclosures that may in any way 
affect the company. The submittor further agrees that 
any subsequent submissions or supplements to the 
submission made hereinbefore shall be subject to the 
terms and conditions of this agreement. 

5) The mere receipt of a submitted idea, whether 
solicited or unsolicited, by the company, and whether 
relating to a patentable subject matter, copyright, or 
trademark shall not imply any contractual obligation 




* RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTERS * 

16K COLOR BASIC $ 179 
16K EXTENDED COLOR BASIC $269 
32/64K EXTENDED COLOR BASIC $369 



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***C0MP0SITE VIDEO CIRCUIT 
***M EMORY UPGRADES D-E-F BOARDS 



EMERALD COMPUTER SERVICES 
4401 219th SW 

MOUNTLAKE TERRACE, WASH. 98043 

206-778-9826 



ALSO PRESENTING: 



MORROW DESIGNS ["] 
MICRO DECISION 



38 the RAINBOW July 1983 



whatever on the part of the company except as to the 
obligation of the company to evaluate the idea in a 
manner it deems best and to determine its interest in 
any valid patent, copyright, ortrademark rightthereun- 
der. 

6) All disclosures, whether solicited or unsolicited, 
submitted by. outsiders and any supplements thereto 
must be in writing. The officers, agents, and employees 
of the company may not make any oral commitments 
of the company with respect to any disclosures. If any 
statements are made by the officers, agents, or em- 



"The problems arise from the ever- 
present potential for one person to 
misappropriate the ideas or programs 
of another, or for an author to perceive 
that a software house has stolen the 
author's programs or ideas, 99 



ployees of the company to a submittor which the sub- 
mittor intends to rely upon, the submittor shall submit 
a record thereof, in writing, immediately to the com- 
pany. Failure to furnish a supporting statement will 
have the effect of invalidating any oral conversation. 



7) If the subject matter offered to the company is 
know-how, trade secrets, a proposed trademark, adver- 
tising slogan, merchandising plan, business idea, 
whether or not in use or generally known, or whether 
or not susceptible to trademark or copyright protec- 
tion, the company will examine it only under the terms 
set forth in this agreement. 

As you can see, these clauses cover rather completely the 
potential problems and concerns relating to the submission 
of software. The first clause gives the company the right to 
retain submitted copies. This is to protect the company 
against any future claims by giving it evidence of exactly 
what was submitted. The second clause gives the company 
the right to consult with experts and people outside of the 
company to determine the marketability of the submission. 
This allows the company to fairly and completely assess the 
value of the submission before it risks the substantial capital 
investment which must be made regarding the new product. 
The third clause makes it clear that the company does not 
have to give a reason for its rejection of the submission. This 
is necessary since otherwise it may be forced to announce its 
future plans, a highly guarded and valuable trade secret. The 
forth clause provides the limitation on the submittor's 
remedies. It is a disclaimer of liability for unauthorized 
disclosure of the submitted idea with express recognition of 
any rights the submittor may have under copyright or patent 
law. The clause also contains a statement by the submittor 
that he or she is the sole owner of the submission. This 
protects the company against claims of others that the sub- 



for 13" TV 




MONITOR (TV) 
STANDS 

for 19" TV 



for printers 





$19.95 PS-1 15Wx 11D x 4H 
$22.50 PS-2 same as above with 

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$25.50 TS-1 15W x 1 1 D x 4H $35.50 TS-4 24 W x 1 1 D x 4H 

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July 1983 the RAINBOW 39 



mittor stole their idea and is trying to sell it. The clause 
f urther binds the submittor to the terms of the agreement for 
any future submissions or supplements. This provision helps 
avoid excessive paperwork, and recognizes an ongoing 
relationship. 

The fifth clause is important. It makes it clear that the 
company is only agreeing to review the submission, not to 
market the submission. The clause helps to avoid misunder- 
standings. The sixth clause is an attempt to avoid unnec- 
essary disputes arising from any telephone calls or the like. It 
merely requires that anything to be a part of the final agree- 
ment must be in writing, and any oral agreements must be 
made a part of the agreement or be considered waived. The 
careful author will be sure to write down the nature of any 
telephone conversation and compare it with the terms of any 
future written contract. The final clause reinforces the fact 
that the submission will be considered only under the terms 
set out in the agreement. 

Okay, now you've seen a sample agreement, so how 
should you handle your submissions? First, do not just send 
in your program to a software house without first contacting 
them. Give them a call in advance. They should be willing to 
tell you the general terms of any future agreement, and also 
whether they are even interested in evaluating your pro- 
gram. You can also tell a lot by just bantering with them for 
a while. You can save a lot of valuable time by finding out in 
advance whether the company will even consider marketing 
your program. In fact, I would recommend that you call 
companies even before you begin developing your program 
so that you do not spend a lot of time developing a program 



D 



4 



L ■ 



. fir" 



Not just another "defenders'' game! Brilliant 
graphics show wide angle & close-up views of the 
city you protect. You must save your people from 
attacking space creatures who try to capture them. 
Your ship has forward & reverse thrusters, long range 
phasers & quick manueverability. Nerble Force 
requires only one joystick & you'll learn a whole new 
style of joystick control. Several levels of play! 
cassette s 24 95 disk s 29 95 add s 2°° shipping 



COMPUTERWARE 



® 



. 7 V 



40 



Box 668 • Encinitas, CA 92024 
Dealer Inquiries Invited (619) 436-3512 

the RAINBOW July 1983 



only to later learn that no one wants it or that it is acceptable 
only with significant modifications. If you develop a good 
working relationship early, you can make maximum use of 
the company's rich marketing experience. 

If the company is interested, ask for a copy of their 
submission agreement, and also fee\ free to ask to see a 



"The underlying purpose of the agree- 
ment is to inform the author that sub- 
mitted software will not be held in con- 
fidence, but the author will have all 
protection afforded by the copyright 
laws ..." 



sample contract. When you receive the submission agree- 
ment, sign it and send it together with your program. Com- 
panies differ in the form in which they wish to see your 
program. I feel it is inadvisable to submit any source code 
before you have a signed agreement to market your soft- 
ware. Any competent company can evaluate your program 
from a copy of the object code alone. Of course, this does not 
apply to those submitting BASIC programs. 

Some companies will also require that you give them an 
option to market your software. Signing such an option 
agreement will give the company an irrevocable right to 
market your software if they exercise the right within a given 
time period, say 30 days. This agreement will supply all the 
terms of the marketing agreement, and must be read care- 
fully. Option agreements will be discussed more fully in a 
later column. 

Once you have submitted your software, the waitinggame 
begins. If you are not under an option agreement, be sure to 
check back with the company after a reasonable period of 
time, say 30 to 60 days. By the way, it is not good practice to 
submit softwaresimultaneously to more than one company. 
If either finds out about the other, and they usually ask you, 
neither will be happy, and probably will reject your program 
out-of-hand. 

With the submission agreement the relationships are 
clearly set out. Doubt should no longer be present. Now you 
are ready to advance to the next step of the process of getting 
your software marketed. Let's assume your program is 
accepted . Now it's time to get down to contract negotiations. 
My next column will discuss contract fundamentals to pre- 
pare you for the process of negotiating a contract. Until 
then, good luck with your submissions. 

(Jlie information given in this article is not legal 
advice. If you have legal questions you should 
see competent legal counsel.) 




(Including 2 Diskettes) 



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The AMDISK-III drive system is ruggedly constructed 
for years of trouble-free operation, and is backed with 
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Home Money Manager 
Good Transaction Tracker 



Home Money Manager (H.M.M.) is a disk based check- 
book program that will keep track of all transactions asso- 
ciated with your checkbook. It is written in BASIC and will 
run on a I 6K system with a printer. H.M.M. is a "menu" 
driven program that will keep track of your checks, deposits, 
automatic transfers, bank charges, etc. To begin using the 
program you first create a new check file. The CoCo will ask 
you for a starting balance and let you name up to 26 
accounts. Now you are ready to start entering information 
from your check register. The CoCo will ask for five pieces 
of information: check number, date, paid to, amount, and 
account number. As you enter each transaction, CoCo 
computes your current balanceand displays it on the screen. 
Data entries are easy to change if you make a mistake. 

H.M.M. has one feature I really like. Let's say you pur- 
chased three different items (gasoline, clothes, and curtains) 
last month with a credit card . Now of course you pay this bill 
with only one check, but if you aretryingto run a budget you 
would want the total amount broken down and charged to 
three different accounts. H.M.M. will allow you to distri- 
bute the appropriate amount to each account by re-entering 
the same check number for each account. 

Once you have entered your monthly data, H.M.M. will 
allow you to go back and view any entries you want on the 
screen. At this point you can delete or edit records as neces- 
sary. Two other features probably would not be used often, 
but nevertheless are useful. The first is the ability to change 
account names originally specified when creating the file. 
The other feature allows you to change the current balance. 



You may need this if, for instance, you transposed numbers 
when entering a check or deposit, or do not wish to enter 
bank charges as an expense. 

There are four reports available with H.M.M. The first is 
a "transactions report." This report will printout a chrono- 
logical record of all entries made to the checking account. 
The second report is a "deposits report." It will print out a 
chronological record of all deposits made to the checking 
account. The next report, as you may have guessed by now, 
is the "expenses report." It will print out a chronological 
record of all withdrawals made from the checking account. 
All three of these reports can be printed for the month just 
completed orfora range of one day to as longasyoucover in 
the file. The fourth report prints out the monthly totals for 
each of your accounts and also the year-to-date totals. 

I found H.M.M. to be a user friendly program. The eight 
pages of documentation are excellently writtenand you will 
have a good understanding of how H.M.M. works after 
reading the documentation just once. There is even a dem- 
onstration file included with the program to familiarize you 
with all the features of H.M.M. before entering your own 
data. 

The only thing you may not like about H.M.M. is that it's 
a bit slow. I entered two months data into my file which was 
about 95 transactions. When I requested a report to be 
printed, it took two minutes and 40 seconds to sort the 
checks before starting to print. A full year's data may very 
well take over 1 0 minutes to sort. This is a lot faster than any 
of us could do by hand, but some of you might find it 
irritating. 

With a 16K machine H.M.M. will let you record up to480 
transactions. Since the program is written in BASIC, I'm 
sure it could be modified fairly easily to handle more if you 
have over 1 6K. 

If you are looking for a program to organize your income 
and expenses, then I recommend Home Money Manager. 

(Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, $19.95) 

— Michael Hunt 



r A CTUA L REPRO DUCtlON 
OF CHART 



IBM 8 3 j£2l 





86- 



SO- 



1 0 > 1 5 10/29 
j^S r R £ Q CO PIP -2. 0 3 11 DAV 11 ^12 



BETTER THAN HIGHER COST 
PACKAGES RUNNING ON 
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• Stocks, Options and Commodities 

• Dow Jones and Compuserve input 

• Optional unattended run mode 



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IN-DEPTH, TIMELY INVESTMENT 
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Gain the advantage of using the power of the 
Color Computer to make more money in 
the market. The easy-to-use, menu driven 
INVESTOGRAPH software package provides: 

$ Automatic data entry by the highly rated 
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volumes, moving averages, cycle compo- 
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sons, channels, and several other exclu- 
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$ Optional unattended run mode ■ have dinner 
while COCO works for you! 



I YES! I want an UNFAIR ADVANTAGE. 

Send INVESTOGRAPH rush at the INTRODUC- 
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Requires 32 K, Ext. Basic, 1 or 2 disks, Printer 



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Dealer Inquiries Welcome 

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P.O. Box 306 • Liberty Hill, Texas 78642 j 



42 the RAINBOW July 1983 




evii 




Like Word Games? 
Scramble's For You 



It's difficult to argue that your typical space games and 
pac-like thrillers don't challenge the mind, because they 
often do require concentration and mental alertness. It's 
probably safe to say that they don't require a lot of intellec- 
tual skills. 

And after a steady diet of arcade games, it is a welcome 
change to be challenged by computer programs that test 
your vocabulary skills. Take Scramble, for example, a new 
creation by Kaleidoscopic Creations of Melrose Park, 111. 
It's a word game, which can involve up to four players for 
hours in creative activity, competition and just plain fun. 

The participants, after entering their names, can compete 
on four levels. The first level allows only words (with 4 to 15 
letters) to be entered, and contestants have two and a half 
minutes to guess the answer. The next level allows words 
and names, but only two minutes are allotted. The third 
requires names and titles, with only a minute and a half for 
answers. The highest level asks for titles and phrases, and 
there is only one minute. 

When a player's turn comes up, his or her name appears 
on the screen. The opposition types in the word or phrase on 
thescreenand then presses the "/ "key, signaling thecompu- 
ters to scramble the terms. (Oh, yes, the player whose turn it 
is is expected to turn his head while the phrase is being 
entered.) The phrase takes about five to 10 seconds to be 
scrambled, which I found a little annoying, but I guess is 
understandable. If a typing error is committed while enter- 
ing a word, pressing the key allows you to make 
corrections. 

In order to unscramble the word(s), you must begin with 
the first position and proceed in order of the word to be 
spelled. If you type in the wrong letter, a beep sound is 
emitted by the computer. If there is a space between words, it 
must be entered or you receive the same signal. This seemed 
to bea kind of contradictionforme, because phrases appear 
onthescreenas one continuous line of letters, making it very 
difficult to determine the easier parts of a phrase. All levels 
of play allow for 10 errors before your turn is over. Bonus 
points are given for guessing the word(s) before time runs 
out, but they do not exceed the points awarded for correct 
unscrambling — which makes you wonder why they are 
called bonuses. 

The game requires only 16K and does not require 
Extended BASIC. It is written in machine language. 

If your experience is like mine, in that you've still not been 
able to get the female members of the family hooked on the 
computer, Scramble may be the program for which you 
have been looking. That's assuming, of course, that you do 
want the ladies to share your time on the CoCo. 

(Kaleidoscopic Creations, P.O. Box 1284, Melrose Park, IL 

60160, $15.95 tape) 

—Charles Springer 



TANDON 

DISK DRIVES 
for your COCO 

Features 
Fully software compatible 
6ms track-to-track 
40 tracks 
Higher quality 

DRIVE 0 $449. 
DRIVE 1 $249. 




PRINTERS 

STAR GEMINI 10 $379. 
STAR GEMINI 15 $519. 
OKIDATA 80 $349. 
PRO WRITTER $469. 
GXIOOP $249. 
BOTEK PARRALLEL ADAPTER $69. 

16K CHIP SET $14.95 

64K CHIP SET $64. 
WICO JOYSTICK $25. 
WICO-COCO ADAPTER $ 1 7.95 
HA YS SMART MODEM $239. 
VERBATIM SS/DD 10 box $25.95 

USE OUR WATTS LINE FOR A QUOTE 
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VISA. MASTER CARD, MONEY ORDERS, 

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COMPUKIT 

1-800-231-6671 order line 
1-713-480-6000 technical line 

16206D HICKORY KNOLL 
HOUSTON, TEXAS 77059 




July 1983 the RAINBOW 



43 




UTILITY 



16K 
ECB 




n 



1 



Minidos: 



Two Ring Circus for CoCo 

Double your pleasure with Minidos, a miniature 
version of a new virtual disk operating system 
which will hold two BASIC programs in memory 
at once. 

By Dr. Laurence D. Preble 




The Color Computer offers several alternatives for saving 
and loading programs. There is cassette tape which works 
fine but is very time consuming. For the more fortunate, 
there is floppy disk which is much faster but quite expensive. Some 
experimenters have even managed to interface a hard disk to the 
Color Computer which is extremely fast and extremely expensive. 
There is one more alternative which is even faster than hard disk 
but will fit anybody's budget. 

It will fit anybody's budget because I am going to give it away to 
each reader. This final method is memory to memory storage. I will 
call this method Minidos because it acts like a Virtual Disk Operat- 
ing System. Of course, there is no physical disk involved. Minidos 
is a software technique which is reproduced below. 

Do not be fooled by the BASIC program listing. Minidos was 
written in machine language. The BASIC program only serves as a 
convenient method to poke the machine language program into 
memory. When the BASIC program has finished its task it will self 
destruct leaving only the machine language code in your computer. 
About Minidos. 

Minidos does have its limitations. This particular version will let 
you save two of your favorite BASIC programs in memory — that is 
all. I have also written a much more powerful Virtual Disk Operat- 
ing System (VDOS) which I will tell you about later. Here is how to 
work Minidos. ENTER the supplied listing below. Check very 
carefully for typing errors. If you make a mistake in the machine || 




44 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Turn your 
color computer on 

to the power off 




NOW FROM THE WORLDS LARGEST SUPPLIER OF SOFTWARE FOR FLEX 
COMES FHL COLOR FLEX. JUST LOOK AT THESE FEATURES: 



IF YOU'RE TIRED OF 
NO DISK SOFTWARE, 

THEN FHL. Color FLEX 
IS THE ANSWER! 



FLEX is the world's most popular operating 
system for the 6809 and with over 150 
programs, we are the largest supplier 
of software for FLEX. These programs are 
NOT games but serious programs for your 
Color Computer. They range from word 
processors thru business applications to 
software development tools. Many Fortune 
500 companies use our software 
FHL Color FLEX turns your Color computer 
into a powerful system more capable than 
systems costing several times as much, 



See our NEW 32 page catalog in the 
Jan;83 issue of COLOR COMPUTER 
NEWS featuring over 150 products for 
FLEX, or send $3,00 to us and we wilt 
see that you receive a copy!! 





FLEX NOW ONLY $99 

* NEW - 'Tiny Editor" 

NEW - Interactive Assembler (Tiny ASM) 
* NEW - Machine Language Monitor 
* NEW - Video attributes include status lines, 
protected lines, and inverse video 
• Hi-Res screen formats 

16 x 32 and 24 x 5i, upper and lower 
case characters 
24 x 64 and 32 x 64 upper case 
Full ASCII keyboards 
Easy start-up— just type "FLEX" 
* On-line assistance— Just type HELP 
Optionally use a standard terminal 
and printer 

• Advance disk I/O and terminal 
capabilities - Supporting 35, 40, 
and 80 track single or double sided, 
single or double density drives 
1 No additional hardware required 
* We have supported FLEX with 
more than any one else in the 
world for more than two years! 

SPECIAL 

1. DBASIC, RS Disk Basic 
under FLEX with a utility to 
copy RS to FLEX disk $30. 

2. ED/ASM, line and screen editor 
with conditional macro assembler, 
both more powerful than TSC's and 
at the same cost, only $100. 

3. COLOR UTILITIES, a set of 12 
utilities especially designed for 
FHL COLOR FLEX $50. 





THE REGENCY TOWER 
770 JAMES ST. - SYRACUSE, NY 1 3203 
TELEX 646740 - (31 5) 474-7856 



HOGG * 
LABORATORY 



* FLEX Is a trademark ol Technical Systems Consultants Inc. 





LIMIT: One order per customer 





% 




This offer good towards purchase of software/hardware 

with proof of FHL FLEX purchase. 




0 









FRANK 








HOGG 








LABORATORY 


THE HEQEhtC* TPwffl . *J<JlT£ 2 *% ■ UfiJAMt&Sl • 5rfi»CU&t UJOl 




Save up to $2 00 on your next order when you buy FLEX from Frank Hogg 
Laboratory. That's right, you can save twice as much as you paid for FLEX when 
you order anything from FHL. Here's how it works. If you buy FLEX from us or 
have purchased our FLEX in the last 6 months then take a copy of your invoice and 
this coupon and send it in with your order of software and/or hardware from our 
catalog. Everything in our catalog is included! Suppose that your order was for $500. 
You would send in $450 and the copy of your invoice for FLEX and this coupon, 
saving $50. To save the maxium of $200, you order would have to total $2000. This 
special applies whether you bought FHL Flex from us or from one of our dealers, 
however, the 10% discount is only available from us. 

This deal is good for ONE order only per customer. What I mean by that is you can 
only use the coupon ONCE. 

Only FHL, with over 150 products in our catalog can offer you as good a deal as 
this. If you take advantage of some of our other deals in the catalog the savings are 
significant. 

This special 10% promotion will run for at least the next 3 months, and if it works 
out for us, we will make it a permanent thing. 



(EXCEPTIONS: The 10% discount cannot be applied to SPECIAL sale prices, 
will note these exceptions when they occur.) 



We 



THE REGENCY TOWER 
7 70 JAMES ST. . SYRACUSE, NY 13203 
TELEX 646 740 - (3 1 5) 4 7 4-7 856 



6809 WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 



AVAILABLE FOR FLEX™ UniFLEX™ and OS-9™ ' 



The STYLOGRAPH text processing system is a very easy to use but powerful 
method of creating and printing text. It allows the operator to type text on the CoCo, 
modifying and correcting it as it's typed, and then print it out. The STYLOGRAPH 
SYSTEM is cursor-oriented with dynamic screen formating. Cursor based editing 
means that any portion of the text may be worked on by moving the cursor to that 
point. Dynamic screen formating means that the text is formated on the screen In 
the same way It will appear on the printed copy. The display is continuously up- 
dated to show how the text will appear. This is a very Important feature and is nor- 
mally available only on very expensive commercial word processing systems. It 
significantly reduces the time required to produce a finished copy. 



FULL FEATURED TEXT EDITING 

A full array of commands help in the creation and modification of text. The text 
displayed on the screen may be moved up, down, left or right, The cursor can be 
moved to any page or to any specified series of letters or words. The cursor itself 
can be moved left, right, up, down, toany tab position, orto theextreme left orright. 
Any block of text can be moved, copied or deleted. The operator may also do a 
global replace so that all occurrences of a given string will be replaced with or 
without a "prompt" asking if the item should be replaced. 



OPERATOR CONVENIENCE 

Files longer than memory can be edited. The operator can move forward through 
a tong text file by selectively dumping text to the disk or filling from the disk. 

The supervisor mode is menu driven and self prompting so that the operator does 
not have to remember thesyntax of commands. This makes it easier for new opera- 
tors to use the system. 

An "assist" or "help" function makes it easy to learn the system since it is nor- 
mally not necessary to consult the manual to learn the commands. This function is 
menu driven and lists all of the keyboard functions and the formating commands. 

At the beginning of the text the operator normally types in a few simple com- 
mands indicating the line length, left margin, and so forth, and then enters the 
header and footer as they should appear. After that the operator need not worry 
about formating since it is taken care of automatically. Words that extend beyond 
the end of the line are automatically removed and placed on the next line. Headers 
and footers are automatically inserted so that the operator always knows what por- 
tion of the page Is being worked on. Ghost hyphens can be entered so that if the 
word falls at the end of a line, and a ghost hyphen has been Inserted, the hyphen 
will automatically be added. 



FLEXIBLE DISPLAY 

Lines longer than the screen width are allowed. STYLOGRAPH can scroll right 
and left on the screen so that tables can be constructed and appear on the screen 
exactly as they will appear on the print out. 

A command allows viewing of the formating commands on the screen. Another 
command allows the operator to see which characters will be modified at print out 
by underlining, superscripting or boldface. A page status command shows the cur- 
rent format values and other useful information. 



COMPLETE FORMATING CONTROL 

The text of individual lines may be centered, left justified, right justified, or right 
and left Justified. Tabs can be set or cleared at any point. Spacing of the lines on the 
page is under complete operator control with end of page, spacing and vertical tab 
commands. 

While entering text, it may be specified that the characters have some kind of 
modification when they are printed, such as underlining, superscript, boldface, 
overline, or subscript. These character modifications are done with "control" key 
strokes. For example, to start underlining characters, simply hold down the "CTRL" 
key, hit the "U" key and continue entering text. To stop underlining, hit the "DEL" or 
"RUB" key. 



Control codes may be embedded In the text /or special applications. For exam- 
ple, some printers require special control sequences for double width, graphics or 
boldface, These sequences may be embedded in the text for those users that have 
these printers. In conjunction with this, it is possible to cause the printer to stop in 
the middle of a print out for changing printwheels. A backspace feature allows 
overstriking. 



OPERATING SYSTEM COMPATIBILITY 

STYLOGRAPH is compatible with the FLEX, UniFlex, and OS-9 disk operating 
systems, Text files prepared using STYLOGRAPH are directly usable by other soft- 
ware such as BASIC and the assembler. (This significantly aids software develop- 
ment since cursor-based editing allows full viewing of the text being worked on, 
thereby reducing errors and decreasing programming time). File size is limited only 
by the capacity of the disk system. Files may be loaded into the text at any point 
making it possible to rapidly create "boiler plate" documents using portions of text 
that have been previously saved to a text file. Any portion of a text may be saved to 
a text file for use at a later point. The printer output may be directed to a disk file for 
later print spooling. Most operating system commands are directly accessible 
without leaving STYLOGRAPH. 

FULLY ADAPTABLE TO MOST PRINTERS 

STYLOGRAPH Is easily configured by the user for most terminals so there is no 
need to send for updates as equipment changes are made. Source code of the ter- 
minal interface is supplied so that users with unusual equipment configurations 
may adapt it to their systems. The sourcecode for all of the "prompts" is also sup- 
plied so that foreign language versions may be easily constructed. 

Printers currently included as standard are: Diablo, Qume, Starwriter, NEC 
5515/25, NEC 5510/20; CENTRONICS 737/739; TTY type printer with backspace func- 
tion; TTY type printer without backspace function. 

COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS 

A special tutorial section is included in the manual so that people with little or no 
computer experience can easily learn to use STYLOGRAPH in a few hours. A text 
file is Included which demonstrates most of the features of STYLOGRAPH and 
allows the operator to practice most of the functions. The logical arrangement of 
the commands and the immediate display of the results greatly simplifies the learn- 
ing process. In addition there is an "assistance" command which helps the new 
operator learn the commands. 

STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 

A major option of STYLOGRAPH is the related MAIL MERGE program. This pro- 
gram adds "form letter" capability to STYLOGRAPH. Variables such as names ad- 
dresses, dates, may be taken from a disk file or the keyboard at print out time and 
inserted into the text. Successive letters may be printed out without operator in- 
tervention. 

The second important capability of the MAIL MERGE program allows many 
STYLOGRAPH text files to be appended at print out time. This allows fites to be 
edited in smaller, more convenient blocks and then appended at print ouf time so 
that the page numbers will remain consecutive and the headers and footers will 
automatically be retained through all of the print out. 



STYLOGRAPH SPELLING CHECKER 

Another major option of STYLOGRAPH is the related SPELLING CHECKER pro- 
gram. This program reads through a text file and compares the words in the file with 
a dictionary. Words that are not found in the dictionary may be marked in the text 
for later editing, corrected on the spot, skipped, or added to the dictionary. Words 
may be added to or deleted from the dictionary to create unique vocabularies for 
particular applications. 



POWERFUL PRINTING OPTIONS 

Underlining is supported on TTY type printers. For those people who have 
specialty printers there are a variety of additional capabilities including: 

1.5 line spacing 
BOLDFACE * 
superscript' 
subscript, 
underline, overline, 
or any combination 

Right and left justification of text is accomplished by incremental printing on TTY 
type printers. True proportional spacing is supported on the specialty printers. 



STYLOGRAPH for the Color Computer FLEX 

STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 

STYLOGRAPH SPELLING CHECK 

STANDARD FLEX Version ... 



195.00 
.125.00 
.145.00 
295.00 





I FRANK 




Ihogg 




■ LABORATORY 



THE REGENCY TOWER-770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE, NY 13Z03«TELEX 646740«(315) 474-7856 



language listing, the program will bomb without necessarily 
giving any error message. CSAVE the program to cassette 
before running it. RUN the program. The BASIC listing 
disappears and Minidos is installed. 

Minidos has sectioned your computer memory into two 
halves. If you have a 32K computer, you may now CLOAD 
in a 1 6K or less BASIC program. If you have a 16K compu- 
ter, you may now CLOAD in an 8K or less BASIC program. 
Now CLOAD in one of your favorite BASIC programs. 
LIST your program or RUN it to make certain it is in 
memory. When you are satisfied your program is all right, 
type EXEC and press the ENTER button. Now try to list 
your program. It is gone! Don't worry. Your program is 
alive and well, safely tucked away in high user memory. 
Type in EXEC and ENTER again. LIST your program. It 
has returned safely. 

Now theacid test. Save your program in high memory by 
typing EXEC (ENTER) once more. Next CLOAD in one 
more of your favorite programs. Check to make certain your 
program will RUN. Finally, type EXEC (ENTER) to make 
your newly entered program switch places with the other 
program tucked into high memory. Check to make certain 
the otherprogram still will RUN. Great! Each time you type 
EXEC, your two programs will switch places and you may 
run either of them. 

Minidos has some obvious limitations. First, only BASIC 
programs may be saved with Minidos. Minidos will not 
work with any of your machine language programs. Sec- 
ondly, Minidos does not maintain a directory. There is no 
way for you to tell which program has been saved if you 
forget! Minidos will only save ONE extra program. Even if 



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42 11 -7th Ave. 
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you have plenty of memory space. Multiple saves are not 
permitted. Finally, once youVe loaded Minidos, choose the 
PCLEAR that you want, but do not change it while using 
the program or you'll have problems. 

Minidos has a big brother. 1 call it VDOS. VDOS is a 
complete Virtual Disk Operating System designed for 64K 
and 32K Color Computers. (By the way, any Color Compu- 
ter can now be upgraded to 64K for as little as $60. See 
Rainbow ads.) VDOS will save as many programs as will fit. 
VDOS will even save machine language programs. VDOS 
has a directory function which displays more information 
than even the normal Radio Shack Disk system. Imple- 
mented functions include, Directory, Save A Basic Pro- 
gram, Save A Machine Program, Load A Basic Program, 
Load A Machine Program, Kill A Basic Program and Kill A 
Machine Program. VDOS incorporates itself into your 
computer by giving you an extra command: You just type 
VDOS to get into VDOS. Unlike Minidos, it is permissible 
to change PCLEAR modes as often as you like with VDOS. 
Even pressing reset will not harm VDOS. 

If you have a 64K computer, it is possible to save from 
32K to 50K of programs, depending on where you tell 
VDOS\o locate itself. All memory is dynamically allocated 
and reallocated. 1 have had as many as 25 short programs 
saved on VDOS at once. In any case, if you like Minidos but 
want more, see our ad in this month's Rainbow. 



The listing: 




320 



0288 



END . . . 0555 



10 

20 

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40 

50 

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70 

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90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 

210 

220 

230 

240 

250 

260 

270 

280 

290 

300 

310 



MINIDOS - MINI VIRTUAL DISK 
ALLOWS USER TO CLOAD UP TO 
TWO OTHER BASIC PROGRAMS 
AND SWITCH BACK AND FORTH 
BETWEEN THEM. 

SEE RAINBOW ADVERTISEMENTS 
FOR A COMPLETE VIRTUAL 
DISK OPERATINS SYSTEM 

* WHICH ALLOWS MULTIPLE 

' BASIC AND MACHINE LANGUAGE 
' PROGRAM STORAGE AND EVEN 

* MAINTAINS A DIRECTORY. 

PCLEAR 1 

CLS 8 

PR I NT "STANDBY"; 

Sl=ScH21 

S2=&H22 

MX=PEEK (SI > *256+PEEK (S2> -25 

RG=MX-1536 

SP= I NT < RG/2+ 1 536 > 

CL=SP-1 

READ CT 

FOR X=SP TO SP+CT 

READ PK 

POKE X,PK 

NEXT X 

CLS 

CLS 3 

PR I NT "ONLY ONE GRAPHICS PAGE 



II 



48 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



cial 









1 




4 



The game that puts space games in 
perspective. ZaxxorT, one of the most 
popular arcade games of 1 982, is now avail- 
able for use with your home computer 
system. 

Zaxxon 1 " technology and creativity present 
a 3-dimensionaMike playfieid which sets 
Zaxxon™ apart from other computer games. 

Zaxxon" looks and sounds like aircraft 
flight, and players can soar to new levels of 



home computer entertainment. From the 
daring attack on the enemy's floating for- 
tress and the blazing battle against the en- 
emy's fighter fleet to the final showdown with 
the deadly armored robot, Zaxxon'* chal- 
lenges the skill and imagination of every 
player at every level of skill. 

Imagine yourself the pilot, attacking the 
enemy fortress-climbing, diving, strafing to 
score points and extra fuel. The enemy 
fights back with a barrage of missiles and 
gunfire. Then you face a fleet of enemy fight- 
ers in a gripping dogfight of altitude strategy 
and flying skill. Survive this battle and the 
enemy's fortress, defended with laser bar- 
riers, then you ve earned the ultimate chal- 
lenge; a blazing confrontation with the pow- 



erful robot, armed with a lethal homing 
missile. 

Zaxxon ,M is the one game that you must see 
to believe. You have to play it to feel its im- 
pact. If you're ready to face the challenge, 
check with your local software dealer or 
send check or money order with $2.00 post- 
age/handling. California residents add 
6 1 /2% sales tax, Available on cassette or 
diskette, Suggested retail price $39.95. 

Available in January on Atari^-, February on 
Applet and Radio Shack® Co/or; ancMprif 
onTI 99/4A" and NEC 6000'". 



COMPUTER SOFTWARE 
942! Wfnnetka Avenue 
Chaisworth f CA913H 
(213)701-5161 

©1932 Datasoft* Inc, 

■ 

Dalasoir is a registered trademark of Dalasoit Inc. * 
,nd Zaxxon are registered trademarks ol Sega Enterprises inc. 



320 PRINT " HAS BEEN PCLEAR'D." 
330 PRINT: PR I NT "REMEMBER TO PCLE 
AR MORE" 1 

340 PRINT"IF DESIRED. " 

350 PR INT: PR I NT: FOR X=l TO 2000: 

NEXT X I 

360 PRINT@480 

370 PRINT"TYPE EXEC (ENTER)" 

380 PRINT"TO SWITCH BETWEEN PROG 

RAMS" , 

390 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

400 Xl=INT<SP/256) 

410 X2=SP-X 1*256 

420 POKE 157, XI 

430 POKE 158, X2 

440 CLEAR 200, CL 

450 NEW 

460 DATA 137 

470 DATA 166,141,0,129,38,20,48, 
141,0, 128, 175, 141,0, 117, 111, 128, 
111, 128, 108, 141,0, 111, 175, 141,0, 
103,31,64, 147, 10,237, 141,0, 102, 1 
41,52, 174, 141,0,91, 16, 158,25, 166 
, 164, 230, 132, 167, 128, 231 , 160, 16, 
172, 141,0,80,37,241,220,27, 147,2 
5,227, 141,0,65,52,6,236 
480 DATA 141,0,57,163,141,0,55,2 
1 1 , 25, 221 , 27, 53, 6, 237, 141 , 0, 43, 3 
2,28,220,27, 147,25,237, 141,0,38, 
236, 141,0,29, 163, 141,0,27, 16, 163 
, 141,0,25,35,4,237, 141,0, 19,57, 1 
27,2,221, 127,2,222, 127,2,223,22, 
0,0, 57, 251 , 255, 255, 255, 0, 0, 0, 251 
,251 1 






PRO-COLOR-FILE 



If you're through playing games and are ready to 
get serious about software, then PRO-COLOR- 
FILE is for you. Turn your TRS-80 32K Color 
Computer Disk system into a powerful data base 
manager. 

We're serious about PRO-COLOR-FILE. It's the only 
program of its kind that gives so much flexibility and 
power to your color disk at a price that will fit your 
budget. In fact, it could be the least expensive software 
you'll ever buy. 

PRO-COLOR-FILE is not just one program. It gives you 
the ability to create any application that requires infor- 
mation to be stored, searched, updated, sorted and 
reported. You can custom design your own mailing list, 
inventory, stock investment records, time manager, 
expense records, income records .... anything. 

The best part about PRO-COLOR-FILE is that you don't 
have to be a programmer or even know a lot about disk 
input/output to use it. You design your application 
programs in a way that is easy for you to understand and 
use. In fact, the more you use PRO-COLOR-FILE the 
more you learn about data base development. 

Only $79.95 + $2.00 Shipping and Handling. 

We accept VISA. MASTERCHARGE, Checks or Money Orders. 
No C.O.D.'s please. 

Call or write for more details: 

DERRINGER SOFTWARE, Post Office Box 5300, Florence, S.C 
29502, Phone: (803) '665-5676 after 6:00 p.m. (EOT). 
PRO-COLOR-FILE ©1983 Dennis Derringer. 
'TRS-80 is a trademark of the Tandy Corp. 



Home Interest Calculator: 
Quick, Accurate Assistance 



Most families would find B.C. Engineering's INTRSTJ, 
Home Interest Calculator, quite useful for their software 
library. It's not a fancy program, no buffer or printout 
capabilities. You simply input the pertinent information 
asked for on loans or money deposited in interest-bearing 
accounts. Home Interest Calculator, in turn, calculates the 
answer quickly and accurately. 

It's a great little program for finding the difference in 
payments for a 20-year home loan as opposed to a 30-year 
loan. Or, finding the best financing for your next new car. 

On the deposit side, it can help plan for Junior's college 
education or that vacation you dream about. Just input the 
needed amount of money, the interest rate on the account 
and the number of years in which to accumulate the money. 
Or, plan for your retirement. It will calculate the principal 
needed to receive a desired yearly payment. 

Thedocumentation isshortand to the point. Quiteeasy to 
understand and use. 

To the point, the program will do the following: 

LOANS 

1) Will calculate payment account, 

2) Will calculate principal, 

3) Will calculate balloon to loan payoff amounts, 

4) Will calculate interest rate per period, 

5) Will find interest rate charged per compound period, 

6) Will find the number of payments that have to be made 
on a loan before the balance due is below the amount you 
enter." 

DEPOSITS 

1) Will calculate the final amount in an interest bearing 
account if a single payment is made to it, 

2) Will calculate the single original amount that must be 
deposited to get the desired final amount, 

3) Will calculate the final amount in an account after 
equal payments are made to it; payments are assumed 
yearly, 

4) Will calculate the equal payments that can be received 
from a deposit; payments assumed yearly, 

5) Will calculate the principal needed to receive a desired 
yearly payment, 

6) Will calculate the equal payments needed to get the 
final amount desired; payments assumed yearly. 

It may not be as easy to use a TI Business Analyst calcula- 
tor, but it'ssomewhat cheaper, and it gives you an excuse to 
play with your CoCo. 

(B.C. Engineering, P.O. Box 768, Manchester, MO 63011, 

$12.95) 

— Pamela Peitsch 



50 the RAINBOW July 1983 



THE GREATEST 

SOFTWARE DEAL 



ON EARTH 




( 







\ 




][ 









\ 



Tame your computer without breaking your wallet's spirit! Quality 
programs on tape for the price of peanuts! y 

A subscription to Chromasette Magazine consists of 6 to 8 
ready-to-load useful, practical, and fun programs delivered by First Class 
Mail every month. Programs like Curve Fit, Diggem, Graph Text,. List Mod, 
Robot Run, House Adventure, and Keep Text. ^ 

Treat yourself to a great show — get a subscription to Chromasette 
Magazine. Or catch a single act and try a back issue. You'll be delighted 
by the tricks your computer will do! 



The Bottom Line: 



I year (12 issues] S50. 00 
6 months 

(6 issues) $30.00 
Single Copies S 6.00 



Calif, residents add 6% to single copies. 
North America — First Class postage 
included. 

Overseas — add $10 to subscriptions and 
S I to single copies. Sent AO rate. 



The Fine Print: 



All issues from July 1981 available — ask for list. Programs are for the 
Extended BASIC model and occasionally for disks. 






MAGAZINE 

P.O. Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 (805) 963-1066 



MasterCard /Visa 



Fly your spaceship through 
enemy Starbases. Avoid 
guided missiles, lasers, and 
firing turrets! Can you reach 
their leader . . . ZAKSUND? 




U'l 



Box 1 1 224 
Pittsburgh, PA 15238 
(41 2) 795-8492 




* • * 



COLOR GRAPHICS 



$24.95 Cassette 
$27.95 Disk 

Add $1 Postage and Handling 
PA residents add 6% sales tax 



toe creators of 

— Intergalactic Force 1 
—War Kings 2 

— Party Pak 1 
-Trek-16 2 

— many other fine programs! 



1 ANTECO 

2 TOM MIX 





EXCITING 



32K 
MACHINE 
LANGUAGE 



Here's A 120 Frame ^Graphics Pad' 

For easy Animation J 

By Scott L. Bain 



Those interested in computer animation would do well 
to choose the Color Computer. TRS-80C Extended 
BASIC supports a wide range of extremely user- 
friendly graphics commands and allows for page switching, 
making simple, smooth looking animation a relatively easy 
task. But those who want to create lengthy, animated art- 
work without resorting to tedious DRA commands and 
slow graphics updates will need more than eight pages to 
work with. 

Animator is a full function "graphics pad" program that 
divides each of five graphics pages into 24 miniframes. The 
user is provided with a cursor controlled drawing board, a 
window to the area where the individual "frames"are stored, 
the ability to animate using any or all of the 1 20 frames, 
commands to edit and duplicate existing frames, and a 
subroutine to save finished frames to tape. 

Displays 

The main display is divided into two smaller displays, 
outlined by white boxes. The display on the left is the user 
"pad" — the flashing cursor there is moved using the arrow 
keys and l , 2, W, and Q (for diagonals), and wraps around in 
all four directions. Move (M), Draw (D), Erase (E), Paint, 
(P), Line (L), Circle, (C), and Box (B) are fully supported in 
black and white. The display on the right is a window to the 
current frame position on the storage pages : "F" will 
advance this position one frame and "R" will move it back 

i 

one. Pressing the "clear" key will display the storage page 
currently occupied by the frame cursor (the long white line). 
There are five storage pages, and repeated use of the "clear" 
key will allow you to flip through them (see point 5 under 
"other notes"). "F" and "R" will still work (try them) and 
"G"will advance the frame cursor one full page. 

"#" will clear the user pad. "*"will clear the storage pages 
and since on powerup the 80C's graphics pages are filled 
with random "garbage," it is important to clear them first. 

Storing and Animating Frames 

Using "D," put the cursor into DRA ^mode, then using 
the arrow keys and 1 , 2, W, and Q draw something on the 
pad. When you are finished press "S." The right screen 
(window) should now contain an exact copy of whatyoujust 
drew, and when you press "clear" you will notice that the 
storage page has a copy of your figure in the upper left hand 
corner (this is what the window is "looking at"). Press "F" 
once — don't hold it down as it will auto repeat — and the 
frame cursor will advance to the next position. Press the 
space bar to get back to the main display and you will notice 
the window is now blank. The window always displays the 
same frame as the frame cursor is underlining, and vice 
versa. 

Using the pad cursor controls, add something to the draw- 
ing you just made (it is still on the pad, you'll note), and press 



"S" again. This new version of the drawing will be copied 
into storage at the new frame cursor/ window position. Press 
"clear" and you will see how the two frames are stored. 

Press "A" and the two frame animation will begin. Use the 
"-" key to slow it down and "+" to speed it back up again. 
Pressing the space bar will stop it completely. 

NOTE: Animator's "A" command flips through the 
stored frames, one by one, starting with the first frame and 
ending with the frame currently underlined by the frame 
cursor and displayed in the window. This means that if you 
have stored 50 frames but have left the frame cursor on #5, 
only frames I through 5 will be included in the animation 
procedure. Use "G" and "F" to advance the frame cursor to 
the last frame position. 

Specialty Drawing Commands 

Animator's specialty commands make it easy to draw 
standard figures and erase them. Press "M" to get the pad 
cursor into "move" mode, and "#" and "*" to clear every- 
thing out. Press "'" (shift 7) and a single pixel will be set at 
the current cursor position, accompanied by a "beep." Move 
the cursor away, preferably toward a corner. This dot you 
have left behind is the "endpoint dot" used by the specialty 
commands. Press "C" and a- circle will be drawn using the 
endpoint dot as the center and the cursor as a point on the 
circumference. "X," which is just to the left of "C" will erase 
the circle if you have not moved the cursor. "B" (erased by 
"V") and "L" (erased by "K") will yield interesting results. 
Try them. Pressing "'"again will create a new endpoint dot, 
although the old one will not be erased from the pad. 

Paint (P) works just like it does in Extended BASIC, and 
is mainly intended to be used to fill in closed polygons. "O" 
does the same thing in black, and therefore can be used as an 
eraser. 

Editing and the "&" Command 

Once your animation is finished you may want to change 
or add to it. This is easily done: 

To change an existing frame, merely move the frame 
cursor/ window to the desired position. "T" will transfer 
(copy) the frame to the pad, wiping out anything that was 
there. You can now use the pad controls to alter the frame, 
or you can clear it out and draw something totally new. 
Either way, "S" will replace the stored frame with whatever 
is on the pad. 

Note that this will completely wipe out the old frame and 
insert the new in its place. 

The "&" command will work exactly the same way except 
that the pad frame will be added on top of the existing frame, 
thus combining the two. This can be mostuseful in complex 
animations. Programmers should note that the OR option 
of the Pf/rcommand is at work here. 

There is no edit "mode" because (in effect) you are always 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 53 



editing. When creating animation at first, you are actually 
editing out blank frames and replacingthem with filled ones. 
The commands are always the same. 

Command Summary 

" PAD 
D Puts the cursor into "draw" mode. The cursor will 
leave a white trail behind it as it moves. 

E Puts the cursor into "erase" mode. The cursor will 

erase (reset) any pixel it moves through. 

M Puts the cursor into "move" mode. The cursor will 
move through drawings without disturbing them. 
NOTE: "."will. set a single pixel while in this mode, 
and "," will reset one. 

# Will clear the pad to black. 

shift 7 Will set the. endpoint dot. 

C Draws a circle using the endpoint dot as the center 

and the current cursor position as a point on the 
circumference. "X" erases it. 

B Draws a box using the endpoint dot and current 

cursor position as the corners. "V" erases 
it. 



L Draws a line using the endpoint dot and current 

cursor position as the endpoints. "K" erases it. 




TREKBEST 
The BEST 1 Trek ' game ever 1 1 1 

I1WRUDER ALERT! 

Can YOU outsmart the Robots??? 



Both games with multiple levels, and 
Realtime, Fast Action lowres graphics I 
Each for only $16.95 



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A Three program Adventure!!! 

All Three l6k programs 

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THE QUEST FOR THE STAFF OF LLORINAR 

*** Book I Parts 1&2 *** 
Both parts (2 l6k programs) for 13-95 
(Parts coming soon!) 



All prices include P. & Ho NY State 
residents please add app. sales tax. 
HYPERION SOFTWARE 
P.O. Box 196 
Lagrangeville, NY 125^0 



54 Ihe RAINBOW July 1983 



P Paints the screen white, stopping at white borders. 

"O" does the same thing in black. 
(The arrow keys and l 2 W Q control the movement 
of the cursor. They will auto repeat, and wrap 
around.) 



WINDOW/ FRAME CURSOR 
F Moves position one frame forward. Beeps when last 

frame reached. 

R Moves position one frame back. 

G Moves position one full page forward, wraps 
around page 5 to 1. 

N Returns position to frame #1, page #1. 

clear Display current page. 

space Return to main display. 

* Clear all storage. 



TRANSFER/EDIT 

5 Save pad frame to current storage position. 

T Transfer frame at current position to pad for edit- 
ing, etc. ("S" returns frame to storage) 

6 As "S,"but with OR option. Adds the pad frame to 
whatever is stored at the current 

position. 

@ Locks the"F"command on. Everytime the"S"key 
is pressed thereafter, the pad frame will be stored 
and the frame position automatically advanced as if 
"F" had subsequently been pressed. A beep will 
sound each time, reminding you that the lock is still 
on. Pressing "@" again will turn the lock off. 

ANIMATING 

A Animate from frame # 1 , page # I , up to and includ- 
ing the frame displayed in the window (and under- 
lined by the frame cursor). 

space Stop animating. 

Slow down the animation. 

+ Speed up the animation (begins at full speed) 

Saving to Tape 

Once an animation is finished, make sure the framecursor 
is on the last frame you want stored, then press M / ."Use the 
"Save" option to create a machine language file that should 
be approximately four tape counts per page saved long, 
under any name you like, up to eight characters in length. 

To load a finished animation back into the program, 
make sure the storage is clear (*'*") then press "/■" After the 
file is loaded, note the frame cursor must be advanced to the 
last frame of the animation before using the animate "A " 
command. Using the "/ " option always returns the frame 
cursor to the # 1 frame. If you press "A" while it's still there, 
you end up looking at a one frame animation! 

■ BP- ■ 



Other Notes 

1) Don't worry if you need to "break. "The program will 
never clear out the storage unless you tell it to ("*"). Wha- 
tever was on the pad will be lost, though, unless you take the 
PCLS out of line 12 before running. 

2) Erasing a line using "L" or a box using "V" will also 
erase theendpointdot. Don't be fooled — the endpoint is still 
the same until you change it by pressing (shift 7) again. 

3) Copying a frame from one point of the animation to 
another is simple. Just move the frame position to the 
desired frame, transfer ("T") it to the pad (it won't be wiped 
out of storage, just copied onto the pad), then move the 
frame position to the new location and save ("S") it. You can 
duplicate any frame any number of times using this method. 

4) The number of dots in the upper left hand corner of the 
main display indicates which page of the frame cursor it's 
currently on (each page holds 24 frames, remember). 

5) Repeated use of the "clear" key will flip you through the 
pages in rotation. "G" will actually move the frame cursor 
position through the pages. If you use"clear"to viewa page 
other than the one currently occupied by the frame cursor, 
then try to move the frame cursor using "F,""R,"or"G, "the 
commands will still function, but you will be flipped back to 
the current page first. 

6) Only those commands listed under "Window/ Frame 
Cursor" in the command summary will function while you 
are viewing the storage page(s). If you press any other com- 
mand key you will be returned to the main display before the 
command is executed. All commands except "-" and 
may be used while viewing the main display, ("-"and "+"are 
only used during animation — there's no reason to use them 
any other time.). 



7) The following keys will auto repeat: thearrows, 1 , 2, W, 
Q, F, R, G, +, and -. 

8) Black on white drawing is possible by painting( u P") the 
screen white, then drawing in black using the erase com- 
mands. Note that "&" will not work properly using this 
method. 

9) If your computer cannot use the standard processor 
speed up, you should remove the POKE 65495,0 from lines 
12 and 19 and the POKE 65494,0 from line 19. 

10) After first loading Animator from tape you must 
PC LEAR 6 before it will RUN. I have no idea why, but 
RUNning twice will also work. I believe it's a quirk in the 
ROM. 

11) This program is dedicated to Andrea R. Chartier, 
without whom this entire project would never have come to 
be. 



(Scott Bain is a free-lance 
software author and 
journalist who works out 
of San Diego. He and his 
partner, Andrea Chartier, 
own and operate Scan 
Software Designs.) 

The listing: 



2a 039D 

40 060F 

54 084B 

75 0AC9 

93 0D18 

108 0F49 

END . . . 1181 



10 PCLEAR6 

11 CLEAR15:DIMM<11, 11) :DLAY=l:VP 





® 



Prism Software 



ARCADE GAMES 



Dtaler InqulriM walcome 
Quality color computer software 
All Software on tape only 
Alt oamee require 16 K except 
wtwre noted 



★ By Spectral 

GHOST GOBBLER $26.95 ROBOT BATTLE 



CHOPPER RESCUE 
LAS VEGAS 
THE ALIEN 



(Extended BASIC) 
(Extended BASIC) 



$13.95 
$11.95 

$13.95 



$26.95 

$11.95 PLANET INVASION $26.95 
$26.95 COSMIC INVADERS $26.95 
$26.95 SPACE RACE $26.95 
$23.95 DEFENSE $26.95 



ALCATRAZ II 
GALAX ATTAX 
SPACE WAR 
KEYS OF THE 
WIZARD 

★ By Mark Data Products* 

BLACK SANCTUM $28.95 ASTRO-BLAST $30.95 
CAVE HUNTER $28.95 CALIXTO ISLAND $28.95 
BERSERK $30.95 SPACE RAIDERS $30.95 

★ By Computerware* 

COLOR PAC ATTACK $30.95 STARSHIP 
DOODLEBUG $30.95 CHAMELEON $30.95 

RAIL RUNNER $30.95 STORM $30.95 

OOOO *By Intracolor* 

8 COLORPEDE $35.95 
★ By Tom Mix Software ★ 

O DONKEY KING $30.95 

requires 32 K 



RAIDERS "By Prism Software" In this adventure you must 
deal with voodoo curses, alligators, ancient traps and hostile 
natives. This adventure begins in the confusion of a large city 
and ends (maybe too soon if you're not careful) in a dangerous, 
dense jungle in South America. 

(Extended BASIC) $16.95 





^^^^^ 



Prism Software 

779 Queen St., 
Box 1360, Kincardine, 
Ontario, Canada. NOG 2G0 
Tel:(51 9)396-8224 



Add 5*n for shipping 
No C.O.O. 

VISA or Maslercard accepted 
Ontario residents add 7% safes tax. 



for fJtOvtry 




July 1983 the RAINBOW 55 



AGE=2 : lock-0 : o x=64 : 0Y=99 : x=ox: Y= 

oy: PIXEL=0: PDRAW=2: BX=1 : BY=1 

1 2 PMODE0 , l : PCLS : CLS : SCREEN 1 , l : L 
INE(42,77)-(86, 121 ), PSET, B: LINE ( 
170, 77) -(214, 121 ) , PSET, B: GOSUB10 
2:POKE65495,0 

13 PMODE0 , VPAGE : L I NE < BX , B Y+42 ) - < 
BX+40,BY+42) ,PSET:PMODE 0,1 

14 F0RI-2T0VPAGE 

15 PSET (1*4, 10,5) INEXTI 

16 A*=INKEY*:PSET(X, Y,5) 

17 F0RT=1T05: NEXTT: PRESET ( X , Y) 

18 IFA*="D"THEN PDRAW- 1 : PSET ( X , Y 
,5):60T014 

19 I F A*= " / " THENP0KE65494 , 0 : GOSUB 

l 14:gosubi02:run 

20 i fa*" "b" then line (ox , oy) - ( x , y 
),pset,b:pset(x,y,5) :pixel»i 

21 ifa*="v"thenline(ox,oy)-(x, y) 
, preset, b: preset ( x, y) : pi xel-0 

22 ifa*="n"then pmode 0, vp age: li 
ne (bx , by+42) - (bx+40, by+42) , prese 
t:pmode 0, i:line(1, i0)-(40, 10),p 
reset: bx=i:by=i:vpage=2: gosub 10 

2: GOTO 14 

23 IFA*<>"@"THEN25 

24 IFLOCK-1THENLOCK=0:SOUND100,2 
: ELSELOCK= 1 : SOUND 1 00 , 2 



UPLOAD *16,95. 
This is the UPLOAD side of DLOAD and 
DLOADM in Extended Color Basic. Send a 
basic or machine program to another ECB 
Color Computer! Programs can be passed 
directly or by phone if both computers are 
hooked to modemsi(not supplied)) Uploaded 
program arrives at the receiving end ready to 
save, run, or execute. Patch to correct the 
flaw in DLOADM is supplied in public domain* 

INDEXER $14.95 
Program produces a sorted list of variables 
and line numbers used in your basic program. 
Following each variable or line number will 
be a listing of the numbers of the basic lines 
which contain the variable or line number. 
RUNning the basic program is not required. 
Bonus! Global search of basic program for a 
variable, a text string, or a basic keyword. 

Fast machine language 
16K/32K EXTENDED BASIC, Tape or RS Disk 
Add $2.00 for shipping and handling 

ML-US'R SOFTWARE 
1 1 5 RISING SUN, Dept R 
FORT MITCHELL, KY 41017 



56 the RAINBOW July 1983 



25 I FA*= " E " THENPDRAW-0: PRESET ( X , 
Y):A*="," 

26 ifa*="l"thenline (ox, oy) - ( x , y) 
,pset:pset(X,y,5):pixel=i 

27 i f a*= " k " thenl i ne (ox , oy) - ( x , y) 
, preset :preset(x,y):pix el=0 

28 IF A*-"' "THEN SOUND 200,l:OX= 

x:oy=y: a*=". " 

29 ifa*=". "thenpset(x, y,5) : pixel 

=l:GOTO 14 

30 I FA*= " , " THENPRESET ( X , Y) : PI XEL 
=0:GOTO 14 

31 I F A*= " M " THENPDR AW-2 : GOTO 1 4 

32 IFA*="S"THENG0SUB68: I FLOCK- IT 
HEN A*= " F " : SOUND 1 00 , 2 : ELSEGOTO 1 4 

33 1 FA*- " & " THENG0SUB68 : I FLOCK- 1 T 
HEN A*- "F" : SOUND 1 00 , 2 : ELSEGOTO 1 4 

34 I F A*= " A " THENG0SUB74 : GOTO 1 6 

35 IFA*="#"THENPIXEL=0:GOTO12 

36 I FA*- " * " THENG0SUB86 : GOTO 1 3 

37 IF A*="T" THEN GET ( 172, 79) - (21 
2, 119) ,M,G:PUT(44,79)-(84, 119) ,M 
,PSET: IFPPOINT(X,Y)=0THEN PIXEL- 
0 ELSE PIXEL-1 

38 IFA*=CHR*(12)THEN GOSUB90:GOT 
017 

39 IFA*="F" THEN G0SUB98 : GOTO 1 4 

40 I FA*— " R " THEN GOSUB 104: GOTO 14 

41 IFA*="P"THEN PAINT (X, Y) , 5, 5: P 
SET(X,Y,5) :PIXEL=1 

42 IFA*="C"THEN CIRCLE (OX , OY) , SQ 
R ( ABS ( X-OX ) -2+ABS (Y-OY) ^2) : PSET ( 
X,Y,5) :PIXEL=l:GOTO 14 

43 IFA*="X"THEN CIRCLE (OX, OY) , SQ 
R(ABS(X-0X)~2+ABS(Y-0Y)-*2) ,0:LIN 
E (42, 77) - (86, 121 ), PSET, B: PRESET ( 
X,Y) : PI XEL-0: GOTO 14 

44 IFA*="0"THEN PSET ( X , Y, 5) : PAIN 
T(X,Y) ,0,0: LINE (42, 77) -(86, 121 ) , 
PSET, B: PRESET ( X, Y) : PIXEL-0: 

45 IFA*= "G" THEN GOSUB 123 

46 IFCHR*(94)-A*THEN Y1=Y-2:X1=X 
: G0T055 

47 IFCHR*(9)=A*THEN Xl-X+2: Yl-Y: 
G0T055 

48 IF CHR*(10)=A* THEN Yl-Y+2: XI 
=X:GOTO 55 

49 IF CHR*(8)=A* THEN X1=X-2:Y1= 

y:goto 55 

50 IF A*="l" THEN Xl-X-2: Yl-Y-2: 
GOTO 55 

51 IFA*="2"THEN Xl-X+2: Yl=Y-2: GO 
T055 

52 IFA*="W"THEN Xl-X+2: Yl-Y+2: GO 
T055 

53 I FA*— " Q " THEN X 1 -X-2: Yl-Y+2: GO 
T055 

54 GOTO 14 

55 IF XI <44 THEN Xl-Xl+42 

56 IFYK79THEN Yl-Yl+42 




Pinball 



Save $ 7 07 

0088 Re 9 29,95 

^m^m 26-3052 



Be a pinball wizard! Hit the circle poppers and knock- 
outs for points. You can even bump and tilt, For faster 
play, design your own customized playfield. 



Microbes 




Save $ 5 07 

1088 



Reg. 24.95 

26-3085 



You're the disinfector shooting antibodies at the nasty 
bacteria. Watch out for "X factor". This sneaky enemy 
can zap you with its own antibodies! 




Wildcatting 

Save $ 10 07 
1988 



Reg. 29.95 

26-3067 



One to four wheeler-dealers pick drilling sites and fight 
for the highest profits. Hit a gusher and you're in the 
money. But tap a dry hole and you're drained! 



in 




Save $ 10 07 
1988 



Reg. 29.95 

26-3080 



Test your tennis skill against a real pro — your Color 
Computer! Or play another person. Realistic matches 
demand quick reflexes and concentration. 



Art Gallery 

Save $ 1 0 07 

2988 



Reg. 39.95 

26-3061 



Create landscapes, still lifes, cartoons— whatever suits 
your artistic fancy! Special graphics features let you 
accurately control your drawing. 



... lllll -.lUli.. 8 

■ > 0 [1 v 1 Q L £ (hlRtrfllL 3£3fl)tQll 1 

acHst-fVi EnHttJa g^gainc* 



Audio Spectrum 
Analyzer 

New Low Price! 



1495 



Was 19.95 
In Cat. RSC-8 

26-3156 



Test your stereo equipment for maximum performance! 
Color bar graphs show the power distribution over nine 
full octaves in y h octave segments. 



Roman Checkers 




Save $ 5 07 
2488 



Reg. 29.95 

26-3071 



The classic game of strategic placement — as easy to 
learn as checkers, but as rewarding as chess. Play 
against the computer at different skill levels. 




Shooting Gallery 

Save s 5 07 
2488 



Reg. 29.95 

26-3088 



The carnival beckons — lights, music, the shooting gal- 
lery! Hit moving targets — owls, ducks and more — for 
points. Fewer shots each turn. 




r " 




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i j 

The biggest name in little computers® 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 
Retail prices may vary at individual stores and dealers. 



57 IFX1>84THEN Xl=Xl-42 

58 IFY1>119THEN Yl=Yl-42 

59 I FPDRAW= 1 THEN PIXEL=1 

60 IF PDRAW=0 THEN PIXEL=0 

61 0NPIXEL+1G0T062,63 

62 PRESET < X , Y ) I GOTO 64 

63 PSET<X,Y,5) 

64 IF PDRAW-1 THEN PSET < X 1 , Yl , 5) 
ELSE IF PDRAW «0 THEN PRESET (XI 

,Y1) 

65 IF PPOINT(X1,Y1)<>0 THEN PIXE 
L =1 ELSE PIXEL =0 

66 x=xi:y=yi:gosub 67: GOTO 14 

67 FOR N=338 TO 345: POKE N,255:N 
EXT N: RETURN J 

68 IFPDRAW=10RPIXEL=1THEN PSET<X 
, Y, 5) 

69 GET<44,79)- <84, 119) ,M,G 

70 PMODE 0,VPAGE 

71 IF A*-"8t" THEN PUT <BX , BY) - <BX 
+40,BY+40) ,M,OR ELSE PUT <BX,BY) 
-<BX+40,BY+40) ,M,PSET 

72 PMODE 0,1: IF A*="8<" THEN PUT 
<172,79)-<212, 119) ,M,OR ELSE PUT 

< 172, 79)- <212, 119) ,M,PSET 

73 RETURN 

74 F0RPAGE=2T0VPAGE 

75 IF PAGEOVPAGE THEN FOR 1 = 1 T 
0 161 STEP 44: FOR J=l TO 241 STE 
P 42: GOTO 78 



76 FOR I"l TO BY STEP 44 

77 IF I=BY THEN FOR J=l TO BX ST 
EP 42 ELSE FOR J=l TO 246 STEP 4 

2 

78 PMODE 0,PAGE 

79 GET < J, I ) -<J+40, 1+40) , M, G: PMOD 
E0, 1 

80 PUT<44,79)-<84, 119) ,M,PSET 

81 ford=itodlay:next D 

82 A*=INKEY«:IF A*="" THEN 84 EL 
SE IF A*="-" OR A*= ,, + " THEN GOSU 
B 87: GOTO 84 

83 RETURN 

84 NEXT J , I , PAGE 

85 G0T074 

86 BX=l:BY=l:FOR PAGE =2 TO 6:PM 
ODE 0, PAGE: PCLS: NEXT PAGE : PMODE0 
, 1:LINE<1, 10)-<40, 10) , PRESET: LIN 
E< 173, 79)- (212, 118) , PRESET, BF: VP 
AGE=2: RETURN 

87 IF A*="+" THEN DLAY=DLAY-10: I 
F DLAY< 1 THEN DLAY=1 

88 IF A*="-" THEN DLAY=DLAY+10: I 
F DLAYM90 THEN DLAY=190 

89 SOUND200-D , 1 : G0SUB67 : RETURN 

90 CPAGE=VPAGE 

91 PMODE0 , CPAGE : SCREEN 1 , 1 

92 A*=INKEY*:IF A*="" THEN 92 

93 IF A*=CHR*<12) THEN CPAGE=CPA 
GE+1:IF CPAGE=7 THEN CPAGE=2:G0T 



Find The 

COLOR COMPUTER INFORMATION 

YOU NEED 

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k COLOR COMPUTER CATALOG 9 



American Library and Information Services 

Dept. R, 3705 Mary Ellen NE, Albuquerque, NM 87111 

Gentlemen: 

1" Yes! Send me COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1980-1981 at $5 (Canada and Mexico $6) 

Z Yes! Sign me up for COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1982 (4 issues) for $16 (Canada and Mexico $20) 

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Color Computer Catalog $12 U.S. 



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58 the RAINBOW July 1983 



0 91 ELSE GOTO 91 

94 IF A«-"Q" THEN BOSUB 123: GOTO 
90 

93 IF A««"F" THEN BOSUB 98:B0T0 
90 

96 IF A«="R" THEN BOSUB 104:BOTO 
90 

97 PMODE0 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : RETURN 

98 PMODE0, VPABE : L I NE ( BX , B Y+42 ) - ( 
BX+40, BY+42) , PRESET: PMODE0, 1 

99 BX-BX+42: IFBX<241 THEN 102 

100 IFBY+44M61 AND VPASE=6 THEN 
SOUND200, 10:BX=BX-42:6OTO102 

101 IF BY+44M61 THEN VPABE=VPAB 
E+l:BX=l:BY=l ELSE BY=BY+44: BX=1 

102 PMODE 0, VPABE: SET (BX,BY)-( 
BX+40, BY+40 > , M , S : L I NE ( B X , B Y+42 > - 
< BX+40, BY+42) ,PSET: PMODE 0,1: PUT 
(172,79)-(212, 119) , M, PSET 

103 BOSUB 67: RETURN 

104 IF BXOl OR BYOl THEN 108 

105 IF VPABE=2 THEN RETURN 

106 PMODE 0, VPABE: LINE (BX, BY+42) 
- (BX+40, BY+42) , PRESET 

107 PMODE 0, 1 : PRESET ( VPASE*4, 10) 
: VPABE=VPASE-1 : BX=21 1 : BY=133: PMO 
DE 0, VPABE :BOTO 112 

108 PMODE0, VPABE 



109 LINE (BX, BY+42) -(BX+40, BY+42) 



110 BX-BX-42: IFBX>-1 THEN 112 

111 BX=211:BY-BY-44 I 

112 LINE (BX, BY+42) -(BX+40, BY+42) 



113 BET (BX, BY) -(BX+40, BY+40) ,M,B 
:PMODE 0, l:PUT(172,79)-(212, 119) 
, M, PSET: B0SUB67: RETURN 

114 CLS: INPUT "SAVE OR LOAD"ST*:T 
*=LEFT* ( T * , 1 ) : I FT*= " " THEN 1 22 

115 CLS: INPUT "FILE N AME " ; F* : I FLE 
N(F*) >8 THEN 115 v 

116 PR I NT "READY TAPE AND HIT 'EN 
TER ' " : L I NE I NPUT A* 

117 PMODE 0,2: SCREEN 1,1 

118 IF T*="S" THEN 120 

119 CLOADM F*:SOTO 122 

120 PMODE 0, VPABE: LINE (BX, BY+42 
) -(BX+40, BY+42) , PRESET: PMODE 0,2 

121 CSAVEM F*, 3072, 1535+ (VPASE*1 
536 ) , 44553 

122 PMODE 0,1: SCREEN 1 , 1 : RETURN 

123 PMODE0, VPABE: LINE (BX, BY+42) - 
( BX+40 , BY+42 ) , PRESET : VPABE-VPABE 
+l:IFVPABE>6 THEN VPABE-2 : PMODE0 
, 1 : LINE ( 1 , 10) - (40, 10) , PRESET 

124 BOTO102 ' 



FILM ASTR 



A powerful DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM for the 
COLOR COMPUTER. If you have been wanting a really 
good data manager at a reasonable price, THIS IS IT! 
FILMASTR combines the best features of the big 
systems to provide a combination of speed, power, and 
simplicity that can't be beat. 

CUSTOM SCREENS - Design input screens with up to 
20 fields. Inverse labels for contrast. 

FORM FILL ENTRY - Non-destructive blinking cursor, 
full screen editing, no garbage collections, copy fields 
from previous record. Keeps up with the fastest 
typist. 

FAST SORT & SEARCH - Machine language sorts the 
entire file in seconds. Sort on any field or fields. Use a 
variety of relational search techniques to select any 
record or group of records that you can define. 

EDIT FILES - Change or delete any record easily. Create 
and save sub-files or append files. 

PRINT FORMAT -Print any field in any order on any line. 
Insert characters or phrases. 

MENU DRIVEN - No special commands to be learned. 
All functions are menu selected and aided by on 
screen instructions. 

GAPACITY - Up to 255 characters per record, 24000 
characters per file. (9000 with 16K) 

Documentation - a thorough manual with 

examples and explanation of every command. 

1 6K or 32K TAPE $29.95 

EXT BASIC DISC 34.95 



FILMASTR 



TIME & MONEY 

A "WHAT IF?" financial planning tool. T & M is used to 
evaluate the time value of money as an aid in planning 
investments, savings plans, retirement plans, leases, 
loans, mortgages or any other situations that involve 
compound interest. 

The program is menu driven with simple on-screen 
instructions. It uses a unique form fill-in for data entry 
with easy editing. It even accepts simple math expres- 
sions as input. 

Calculated results are automatically entered as data and 
can be used for further "WHAT IF?" calculation. All 
factors are always on screen, making it easy to 
understand the relationship betweenTIME & MONEY. 



TIME & MONEY 



16K or 32K 
EXT BASIC 



TAPE $19.95 
DISC 24.95 



"■=RI If 
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Add $2.00 Postage & Handling 
PA Residents Add 6°/o Tax 
C.O.D. $2.00 Additional 





July 1983 the RAINBOW 59 



HOME HELP 




Cn v^ i 

X 1 o o 

B 



T 



4 



1 

n 



E R F 3 f 



n 1 ^ c 









I 












1 . 









3^ 



1 



I 




1 D 11 



BY J. D. RAY 



H 



ome Budget Analysis was developed for my use in 
summarizing year-end income and expense informa- 
tion for my household budget. This is the kind of 
program I like to use with my Color Computer because it 
demonstrates its extreme versatility. In the process of closing 
out our household finances for 1982, I wanted to be able to 
compare more visually certain categories and see how much 
was spent on a month-by-month basis. I use thePersonal 
Finance program ROM pak developed by Tandy and its 
biggest flaw is not being able to print out data with a printer 
and demonstrate visually what is happening in the various 
categories. 

This program fills that void by allowing you to enter the 
compiled information from the Personal Finance program 
and send the information to a printer. Then you have the 
option to see this data displayed on a high-resolution graph. 
The program not only gives you a month-by-month summary, 
but a year-end total and an average for the year. Please note 
that you do not have to use the Personal Finance program to 
compile information. Any process you use to compile your 
home finances can be used to determine data for this program. 

The best part of all of this is the program's ability to graph 
the information on a high-resolution graph. The grid is drawn 
with line statements and labeled with alpha-numerics. Then 




60 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



COLOR COMPUTER FLEX* OS-9f USERS 



DO YOU WANT faster 
running programs (over 
100 times faster than 
BASIC)? A high level 
language that is also a low 
level language? A compiler 
that runs in less than 
32K? Assembly language 
output? Position 
independent code? 
Extensive library 
functions in source 
assembly code? Periodic 
newsletters with new 
library functions? An aid 
in learning assembly 
language? Liberal version 
updates? 

C is the language of the 
eighties; accepted by IBM 
and Bell Labs for system 
development: a compact, 
highly versatile, easy to 
use language, excellent 
to use to build games, 
applications, utilities, 
operating systems, etc. 



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SYSTEMS C is a growing 
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Version 1 contains all the 
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(while, if, if else, int, char, 
etc.). Version 2 contains 
additional features (float, 
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AN EXTENSIVE 
LIBRARY in assembly 
language source is 
provided (char, I/O, 
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filehandling, string 
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Computer version also has 
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DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 




Move up to 
language compiler 



*OS-9 ia a trademark of Mio row are. I no. 

*FLEX is a trademark of Teohnical Systems Consultants. Ino. 



the data is plotted. Not only are monthly 
figures shown, lid blue line indicates the 
yearly average. Then, after you have 
gone but a soto all the trouble to 
compile and enter your data, you can 
send it to a printer for a permanent 
record. Please note that the printer 
subroutine (lines 1495-1640) is optional 
and can be deleted. The printer 1 use is 
the marvelous DMP-200 sold by Tandy 
and the CHR$ codes used are labeled so 
you can adapt to your own printer. 

The high-resolution graph is actually 
one graph with three available measur- 
ing grids. When you compile your infor- 
mation, you will need to decide which 
range you will want to visualize. This is 
important because, as you will discover, 
the larger range you use, the more 
difficult it is to compare small amounts 
and small differences of the monthly 
figures. Forexample, if you are compar- 
ing figures that are less than $500, to 
plot these figures on the 0-$ 10,000 grid 
would be of little use. However, put 
these figures on the0-$l ,000 grid or the 
$400 to $600 grid and you really have 
something that you can use. 



fromcrashingwhenyou accidentally hit 
a wrong key. When using INPUTYmes, 
you need to determine what specific 
responses you want or heed. List these 
with the IF I THEN statements and use 
the ELS £line with the reference back to 
the IN KEYS line (see 630 and 1 280). 

Lines 360 and 470 demonstrate how 
you can center a heading at the top of 
your screen and by changing the PRINT 
@ figure, you can center your heading 
anywhere on the screen. I suppose I am 
too fussy about my displays in that I 
want everything neat and systematical. 
Centering those lines can really put 
polish in your programs. 

To Use 

Change the items in line 150 to meet 
your own needs. You need to use ten 
items (or headings) or leave blank spaces 
between commas. You could also 
change line 160 to include the number of 
headings you want to use. You need to 
leave "review"as option#10 in themain 
menu or change line 280. "Review" 
allows you to return to see previously 
entered data. I MPORTANT: Once you 



The Program Summary 



10 


120 


Program Credits 


130 


180 


Data Statement, Read Line 


1 85 — 


290 


Menu Loop 


295 


350 


Range of Graph Selection 


355 


440 f 


Data Input Loop for Range #2 


445 


630 


Data Display 


635 


650 


Line-Plot Formula 


655- 


1020 


General Graph Plot — Grid 


1025- 


1 130 


Data Line-Plot 


1135 


1290 


Average Line-Plot 


1295- 


1310 


Line Plot Formula for Range #1 & 3 


1315 


1380 


Data Input Loop for Range #1 & 3 


1385 


1490 


Graph Plot Change for Range #3 


1495 


1640 


Printer Subroutine 


1650 


1670 


Variable Map 



Special Programming Techniques 

This program has some interesting 
programming techniques that I feel are 
worth mentioning. These hints orsugges- 
tions could be useful to any home 
programmer who has to learn as 1 do — 
THE HARD WAY! 

Line 120 demonstrates a very easy 
way to freeze a visual on your TV 
monitor. The range of the FOR state- 
ment determines how long your pro- 
gram will stall. It is used here to display 
the program credits. 

Lines 290, 350, 630 and 1280 demon- 
strate how you can keep a program 



enter new data in any category, all other 
data will be lost! The "Review" option 
cancorrect a mistaken key being pushed. 

If you do not have a printer, you can 
delete lines 630 and 1 495-1 640. You also 
have to delete the second half of line 
590. If you delete line 630, change line 
620 to: If R$ ="N" then 190 ELSE 600. 
If you do not have a printer, I would 
highly recommend you eliminate these 
lines to prevent the program from hang- 
ing up in the event "P" is typed. If you 
plan to use a printer, the printer codes 
are listed in the program lines so you 
can adapt to your own printer. These 
codes are for the DMP-200. 



When you are prompted to select a 
range for your input data, you will have 
to select one of the following: 
0—$ 1,000 Range -1- 
0— $10,000 Range -2- 
$400—5600 Range -3- 
Once you select a range, if you enter a 
figure outside of this range, you will be 
asked to re-enter the figure. Listen for 
the beep and watch for the new prompt. 
The purpose for the range figures is for 
the high-resolution graph. If you do not 
want to compare dollar figures, change 
the AS in line 460 and adjust the PRINT 
USING statements in lines 1570 and 
1610. You will also need to adjust lines 
310, 320, 330 and 1350 to eliminate the 
dollar signs. 

When entering figures, you cannot 
use commas to separate thousands or 
you will get an "entry ignored" error 
statement. Also, to enter a 0, just press 
ENTER and you will be prompted for 
the next month. 

When the entered data is displayed, 
you have three options, which are listed 
on the screen: 

Y — to see data on high-resolution graph 
N — to return to Menu Listing for other 
comparisons 

(NOTE: All previously entered data 
will be lost once you begin entering 
new data. If you press "N" acciden 
tally or choose to review previously 
entered data, select option# 10 listed 
as "REVIEW"and the old data will 
be displayed. Use the SHIFT ,0 key 
to type "review" in reverse letters.) 
P — sends list to printer (NOTE: You 
will be prompted with a "PRINTER 
READY?" Press ENTER to begin 
the line feed.) 
When the high-resolution graph is 
used, you also havethree options ("L"& 
R" are listed on screen under the word 
GRAPH"): 
L — to return to the menu listing (see 

NOTE above) 
R — to return and REVIEW data listing 

display 
N — to END program 

In case you are not familiar with 
alpha-numerics, you need to under- 
stand that on graphic screens 
(PMODE1-4), you cannot use regular 
type, thus you have to use DRA W 
statements and actually draw the letters 
and numbers on the high-resolution 
screen. If you are using a small TV 
monitor (1 use a 19 inch Color TV), the 
alpha-numerics may distort and be un- 
readable. If this is the case for you, then 
you'll need to adjust the DRA W lines. 
The letter or number being drawn is 
indicated on each DRA W line. 



it 



it 



62 the RAINBOW July 1983 



ANNIVERSARY SPECIAL! 

We are 1 year old this month and to celebrate, 

TAKE 15% OFF THE LIST PRICE OF EVERY ITEM WE SELL! 

(Good Until July 10, 1983) 



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DEALER & CLUB INQUIRIES INVITED 



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Holds up to 25 cassettes In Individual compartments. Units are 
stackable and revolve for easy access. Clear plastic sliding covers 
keep tapes dust-free (tapes not included). 



"In use, we found the ENDICOTT 
JOYSTICK to be smooth and respon- 
sive: ...built to last, the Endicott 
model is a solid buy". 

- the RAINBOW, October 1982 

6 Month Warranty. No adaptor • plugs right Inl 



"...provided the best feel of ail the 
joysticks tested. ...(a) rugged unit at 
an affordable price." 

- SOmicro, March 1983 



EXCELLENT PROGRAMS FROM LEADING SOFTWARE HOUSES^ 



We now carry disk versions! (Requires 32K unless otherwise noted). 



ELITE SOFTWARE 

★ ZAKSUND Fantasticl 
ELITE-CALC (16, 32, 64K) Spreadsheet 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

★ LANCER A Jousting good time. 

★ MS. GOBBLER Gobbler's female counterpart. 
WHIRLYBIRD RUN Great flying action. 
GALAX ATT AX Excellent Galaxlan 
SPACE RACE Excellent Omega Race 
PLANET INVASION Quick action Defender 
"SPACE TRADERS Buy stock in universe 

companies to become the richest. Like Acquire. 
'COMPUVOICE A phoneme speech generation 
program. 

MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

EL BANDITO Get the food and run. 
GLAXXONS Excellent adaptation. 
SPACE RAIDERS Not just another Invaders game. 
CAVE HUNTER Grab the Ireasure and outrun the 

creatures 
HAYWIRE Will drive you BERZERK 1 

COMPUTERWARE 

★ GRAN PRIX Test your driving skill. 

★ MOON HOPPER Get to moon-base alive 
BLOC HEAD Tricky action. 
NERBLE FORCE Excellent Defender clone. 
MEGAPEDE Most challenging version. 
SHARK TREASURE Don't get eaten! 
SPACE AMBUSH Action like Galaxian. 
DOODLE BUG Like Ladybug 
RAIL RUNNER Dodge trains and handcars 
PAC ATTACK II Great gobbler. New graphics. 
STORM A real Tempest! 
COLOR INVADERS Like the original. 
SYNTHER • 7 Music synthesizer 

TOM MIX 

THE FROG 

★ GRABBER 

★ SPACE SHUTTLE Control the Space Shuttle 

★ DONKEY KING 4 Screens - Full action! 

★ COLOR GOLF Challenging! Uses full set of 
clubs. 

TRAP FALL Many. '"Pitfalls" here! 
•ESCAPE FROM S.P.E.C.T.R.E. Graphic Spy Adv. 
•KATERPILLAR ATTACK Look out for spiders! 
•MOON LANDER 2 games in 1 
THE FIXER Loads 600 hex programs to disk 
DISK TO TAPE Dump most disks to tape 
TAPE TO DISK Load most tapes to disk 
•SPELLING TEST Provides a standard oral quiz. 



ARIZIN 

COLORKIT Full of powerful software development 
tools, aids, bells and whistles. 



T 


D 


HI A 

4^1,93 




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T 


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T 


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T 


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T 


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T 


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ANTECO SOFTWARE 

KATERPILLAR ATTACK 

6-BALL (POOL) All balls shown. Full Cue control. 
INTERGALACTIC FORCE Experience trench 

warfare in your X-Wing fighter, 
•HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE MANAGER Menu-driven 

with 30 household categories. Screen or printer 

output. 

•STOCK ANALYZER AND TREND Track your 
stocks. Disk compatible. Optional printer 
output. 

COGNITEC 

TELEWRITER 64 (For 16, 32, or 64K) 
THE word processor for the CoCo! 



24.95 
$19.95 



$21.95 



T 

$49.95 



PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

T 

$24.95 



SHAFT New arcade game 
•JUNGLE Adventure! 
THE DISK MANAGER A must! 
THE DISK MASTER Excellent! 

★ FLIGHT Realistic flight simulator 

★ 8-BIT BARTENDER Pdrty fun 100 + recipes. 
•VIKING Go from peasant to King! 
•GANGBUSTERS Lead a life of crime and wiri! 
PANDORA'S GAME BOX Includes: "pac" game, 

"defender-type'' game, Divebomb, Blockade, 
slot machine, and Squares (like cube). 
•PREREAD I, II & III (Three tapes) 

Prepare your preschooler to learn to read 



$19.95 



$19.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 
$24.95 



$24.95 



PETROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 

T 

$19.95 



★ INSPECTOR CLUESEAU Find the murderer in 

this excellent graphic adaptation of Clue. 
•STAGECOACH Graphic Adventure 
•STRESS EVALUATOR Measure and manage 
your stress 



$19.95 
$24.95 



ROM PK 
$26.95 
$29.95 
$29.95 



D 

$59.95 



D 

$29.95 
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$29.95 
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$24.95 
$24.95 
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$24.95 
$29.95 



Additional listings in our free catalog - call or write. 



•Requires 16K Ext. Basic Minimum. 

Others 16K Std. 



★ Requires 32K Ext. Basic Minimum. 
Basic Minimum. 



WE PAY SHIPPING! 

Other companies ask you to ADD $1, $2, $3, or more for shipping 
WE NEVER do to U.S.A., Canada, Mexico. 
Add $2.00 for C.O.D. (U.S.A. Only). Allow 2 weeks for checks to clear. 

SHIPPING-ALL OTHER COUNTRIES: Add $2.00 for each software Item. Add 
$3.00 for each Joystick, $10.00 for each carousel. Items will be shipped air mall. 

ALL PAYMENTS MUST BE IN U.S. FUNDS. 

ENDICOTT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 12543, Huntsville, AL 35802 



VISA 



(205) 881-0506 

PHONE OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK! 



This program has been a lot of fun to develop and will 
receive a lot o( use in my home and business. This program 
should be bug-proof, however, if you have any problems, 
just contact me and I will try to help you. This program is 
available on tape along with another like it to compare 
various yearly figures. J. D. Ray, 5065 France Avenue, 
North Charleston, SC 29406. My phone is 1-803-554-0627. 




Home Budget Analysis is one of 
three programs on the Rainbow 
'Record. 1 See page 146. 



The listing: 



^295 


034D 


490 


05C0 


640 


0896 


820 


0A77 


980 


0CF9 


1130 . 


. . OF 1 2 


1290 . 


. .113C 


1400 . 


..141C 


1560 . 


. . 1632 


| END . 


..1918 



10 '***HOME BUDGET ANALYSIS*** 
20 * BY J. D. RAY 
30 * 5065 FRANCE AVENUE 
40 * N. CHARLESTON, S.C. 29406 
50 * 1-803-554-0637 
60 CLS5: PR I NTS99 , STR I NG* ( 26 , " X " ) 
1 

70 PR I NTS 131, "XX HOME BUDGET ANA 
LYSIS XX" 5 
80 PR I NTS 163, "XX 
XX"; 

90 PRINT© 195, "XX BY J. D. RA 
Y '/.'/. " ; 

100 PRINTS227, "XX COPYRIGHT (C) 
1983 XX"; 



Now a LOGO for the 
COLOR COMPUTER 

***TINY TURTLE*** 

TINY TURTLE is an affordable, 
fully compatible LOGO language 
with high resolution turtle 
graphics, music, fast processor 
operation, and storing and 
retrieval of user procedures. 
TINY TURTLE comes complete with 
soft-copy reference user manual. 

3-2K/SXTD BASIC/CASSETTE $39-95 
HARD-COPY MANUAL $^«95 
SDS COMPUTERS BOGOTA, N.J. 

POB 450 07603 

N.J. ADD 5% TAX 




64 



1 10 PRINTS259, STRING* (26, "X" ) ; 
120 FOR T=l TO 1200:NEXTT 
130 DIM T<13) 
140 DIM Q*<10> 

145 * INSERT YOUR OWN HEADING FOR 

THE MENU LISTING 
150 DATA INCOME, ELECTRICAL USE 
EXPENSE, TELEPHONE EXPENSE, MED I 
CAL EXPENSE, SAVINGS, CLOTHING E 
XPENSE, GROCERY EXPENSE, MISCELL 
ANEOUS, AUTOMOBILE EXPENSES, revi 
ew 

160 FORX=1TO10 
170 READ Q*(X) 
180 NEXT X 
185 'MENU LOOP 
190 CLS 

200 PRINTS67, "WOULD YOU LIKE TO 

COMPARE: " 

210 L=130 

220 FORX=1TO10 

230 PRINT@L,X;Q*(X) 

240 L*L+32 

250 NEXT X 

260 PRINTS460, " < 1-10) " 

270 INPUT X 

280 IF X=10 THEN 460 . 

290 IFX<0 OR X>10 THEN 270 

295 * VARIABLE SELECTION 

300 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT" ALL FIGURE 

S ENTERED MUST BE: 

310 PRINT: PRINT" 0 - * 1,000. 
00 RANGE <1>" 

320 PRINT" 0 - $10,000.00 RA 

NGE <2>" 

330 PRINT" *-400 - *600.00 RA 

NGE <3>" 

340 PRINT: INPUT "SELECT RANGE: " 

;z 

350 IF Z<1 OR Z>3 THEN 340 

355 'DATA INPUT LOOP 

360 CLS:PRINT@15-INT(LEN(Q*<X> )/ 

2) ,Q*(X) 

370 T*=Q*<X) 

380 PRINT 

390 IF Z=l OR Z=3 THEN GOSUB 132 
0 

395 'DATA INPUT LOOP FOR RANGE#2 

400 FOR X=l TO 12 

410 PRINT "# " ;X 

420 INPUT "MONTH ";T(X> 

430 IF T(X)>10000 THEN PRINT "AM 

OUNT IS TOO HIGH. PL 

EASE ENTER NUMBER < 10000": SOUND 

150, l:GOTO410 
440 NEXT X 
445 'DATA DISPLAY 
450 M=0 

460 L=36:P=48: A*= "**#*, ###.##" 
470 CLS: PRINT @ 15-INT (LEN <T*> /2 
),T* 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



GIVE TOUR CHILD 

AN UNFAIR 

ADVANTAGE 
IN MATH 





Help your child gain an advan- 
tage by using one of our 
classroom-tested programs in 
number concepts, addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, 
division, fractions, decimals & 
percent, pre-algebra, or one of 
the 15 math games that teach. 



For students in grades K through 9, on tape or disk. For 
TDP and TRS-80 32K Color Computers with extended 
basic. These professional-quality programs use high res- 
olution graphics with text and sound. They have 
been written by experienced teachers, tested and re- 
vised to provide high-quality and highly motivating 
instruction. And while you are asking, ask to see 
our reading and language programs as well. 



ASK FOR MICRO SCHOOL 
PROGRAMS BY NAME at your 
local computer store. 





BERTAMAX INC. 

Max Jerman, Ph.D., 
President 




PERSONALIZED INSTRUCTION ON PERSONAL COMPUTERS 



BERTAMAX INC. 



© 1982 Berlamax. Inc. • 101 Nickerson St.. "202 • Seattle. WA 98109 • (206)282-6249 



480 FORX-1 TO 12 

490 PRINT8L, "MONTH # "SXlPRINTSP 
, USING A*)T(X) 
500 L»L+32: P-P+32 
510 NEXT X 

520 T«=T(1)+T<2)+T<3)+T<4)+T<5)+T 
<6> +T (7) +T (8) +T (9) +T < 10) +T < 1 1 ) +T 
<12) 

530 PR INT 64 16, "TOTAL: ";:PRINT 

USINGA*;T 

540 T=T/12 

550 IF Z=l THEN M=INT (T/20) *3 
560 IF Z«2 THEN M=INT (T/200) *3 
570 IF Z=3 THEN M=INT <T/20) #3 
580 PR I NTS448 , " AVERAGE : " ; : PR I NT 
US I NBA* ;T 

590 PR I NTS437 , " GRAPH? Y / N " : PR I NT 
6469, " PRINT? <P>" 

595 'SELECTION- (Y) TO SEE HIGH 
RESOLUTION GRAPH; (N) TO RETURN 
TO MENU; 8c <P) TO SEND DATA TO P 
R INTER 

600 R*=INKEY*IIF R*="" THEN 600 
610 IF R*="Y" THEN 640 
620 IF R*="N" THEN 190 
630 IF R*="P" THEN 1500 ELSE 600 
'LINE PLOT FORMULA FOR RANGE 



#2 

640 A=INT(T<1)/200)#3:B=INT(T(2) 
/200) *3: C=INT (T (3) /200) *3:D=INT ( 



SUPERIOR 



THE 



1 ORACLE SOFTWARE 
PRESENTS 

C C QUBE 



A MAGIC CUBE SIMULATION FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



FEATURING • 



• Easy to use commands 

• Fast - uses machine language routines 

• Random mixes 

• Undo moves or random mixes 

• See all 6 faces 

• Save QUBE to tape for later reload 
•Only $14.95 



Send Check or M.0. to: 
SUPERIOR ORACLE SOFTWARE 

PO Box -J505 

Greenwich, Conn. 06830 




RAINBOW 



Conn, residents add '/ ' i *■ >ales tai 
Shipping and handling included 

Personal checks require 
? weeks to clear 

No C.O.O.s 

Requires I6K Extended Basic 



T(4)/200)#3:E=INT<T(5) /200)#3:F= 
INT<T(6) /200)*3:B=INT<T(7) /200)* 
3: H-INT <T <8) /200) #3: I = INT (T <9) /2 
00) #3: J=INT <T< 10) /200) #3: K=INT <T 
(11) /200)*3:L=INT(T(12) /200)*3: 
650 IF Z=l OR Z=3 THEN GOSUB 130 
0 

655 ' GENERAL GRAPH PLOT - GRID 
660 CLSIPM0DE3, 1: COLOR 1,2: PCLSlS 
CREEN1,0 

670 F0RY=25T0175STEP15 

680 LINE (35, Y)-(244, Y) , PSET 

690 NEXT Y 

700 COLOR 1,2 

710 F0RX=35T0244 STEP 19 

720 LINE(X,25)-(X, 175) , PSET 

730 NEXT X 

740 DRAW " S2 ; BM35 , 1 85U 1 0G3 " '1 
750 DRAW " BM56 , 1 85L6U5R6U6L6 " ' 2 
760 DRAW "BM71 , 185R8U10L8R8D5L7R7 
D5" '3 

770 DRAW" BM90, 184BU5U5D5R8U5D10" 
"4 

780 DRAW "BM 109, 185R9U6L9U5R9" '5 
790 DRAW"BM128, 185U10R10L10D5R10 
D6L10" '6 

800 DRAW "BM148, 1 85U5E6L8D 1 " '7 
810 DRAW " BM 1 66 , 1 85 U 1 0R8D5L8R8D6L 
8" '8 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

ForTRS80 Color Computer & TDP 1 00 

PROGRAMERS TOOLKIT 

6 USEFUL TOOLS FOR THE SERIOUS COMPUTER USER 

CHAINRUN - Add a single line to a Basic program and 
subsequent Basic programs load and run auto- 
matically. Allows program chaining. 
HEXEDIT - ML program which gives full screen edit 
capability in Hexadecimal or ASCII for any RAM 
address in memory. Can be used to patch ML routines 
in memory. 

DUMP- Displays the memory contents of ML programs. 

CMERGE - ML subroutine which saves the trouble 

of retyping long subroutines. Merge different Basic 

programs into one large program. 

CROSS REFERENCE - ML program which prints line 

location of all variables and sorted cross reference 

list for the source and destination for every GOSUB 

and GOTO statement in a Basic program. 

BASIC FULL SCREEN EDIT - ML program which will 

give full screen edit capability for any Basic program. 

Edit programs with cursor control. 

16K $28.95 postage paid 

includes 10 pages of Documentation. 



Mormon Buy 




Sollwaro 

TRS 80 9 Tandy Corp. 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A DIVISION OF MORETON BAY LABORATORY 

316 Castillo Street 
Santa Barbara, CA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

California residents add 6% sales tax. 



66 the RAINBOW July 1983 



820 DRAW "BM 189, 1 85U1 0L8D5R8" '9 
830 DRAW " BM203 , 1 8SU 1 0G3 " : DRAW " BM 
207, 185U10R8D10L8" ' 10 
840 DRAW 11 BM223 , 1 85U 1 0G3 " : DRAW " BM 
227, 185U10G3" '11 

850 DRAW " BM24 1 , 1 85U 1 083 " : DRAW 11 BM 

249, 185L8U5R8U6L8" * 12 

860 IF Z«3 THEN GOTO 1390 

870 DRAW"S3;BM20, 175U10R10D10L10 

880 DRAWBM25, 160U10G3" '1 
890 DRAW " BM26 , 1 45L8U4R8U6L8 " ' 2 
900 DRAWBM27, 130U10L8R8D4L6R6D6 
L8" '3 

910 DRAW " BM25 , 1 1 5U 1 1 B6R9 " '4 
920 DRAWBM20, 100R8U6L8U4R8" '5 
930 DRAW " BM20 , 85U 1 0R8L8D5R8D6L8 " 

940 DRAW"BM23,70U6E5L7" '7 
950 DRAW " BM20 , 55U 1 0R8D5L8R8D6L8 " 
'8 

960 DRAW"BM27,40U10L8D5R8" '9 
970 DRAW " S2 ; BM 1 , 28U2E8U2BL8D2F8D 
2 " : DRAW " S2 ; BM9 , 28U 1 0G3 " : DRAW " BM 1 
2 , 28U 1 0R8D 1 0L8 " : DRAW " BM2 1 , 28U 1 0R 
8D10L8": IF Z=2THENDRAW"BM28,28U1 
0R8D10L8" * XI 000 

980 DRAW " S5 ; BM80 , 1 5U 1 0R 1 0D2U2L 1 0 
D10R10U4L4" *G 

990 DRAW " BM 1 00 , 1 5U 1 0R 1 0D5L 1 0R5F5 

1 000 DRAW " BM 1 20 , 1 5U5E5F5L 1 0R 1 0D5 
" 'A 

1010 DRAW " BM 1 40 , 15U10R10D5L10D5" 
*P 

1020 DRAW "BM160, 15U10D5R10U5D10" 
'H 

1025 'DATA-LINE PLOT 
1030 C0L0R4,2 
1040 V=175 

1050 IF Z=3 THEN V=l 15 

1060 line (35, v-a)-(54, v-b) ,pset: 
line - (73, v-c) , pset: line- <92,v-d 
> ,pset:line-(iii,v-e> ,pset:line- 
(130, v-f) ,pset: line- (149, v-g) , ps 
et : l i ne- ( 1 68, v-h ) , pset : l i ne- ( 1 87 
,v-i) ,pset: line- (206, v-j) ,pset:l 
i ne- ( 225 , v-k ) , pset : l i ne- ( 244 , v-l 

) , PSET 

1070 LINE (5, 10) -(10, 10) , PSET 

1 080 DRAW " S2 ; BM 1 5 , 1 3U 1 0R6F4D5G3L 

6" 'D 

1 090 DRAW " BM25 , 1 3U5E5F5L 1 0R 1 0D 5 " 
:DRAW "BM41, 13U5E5F5L10R10D5" 'A 
1100 DRAW"BM35, 13U8L5R8" *T 
1110 COLOR 3,2 
1120 V=175 

1130 IF Z=3 THEN V-115 

1135 'AVERAGE-LINE PLOT 

1140 LINE (35, V-M)-(244, V-M) , PSE 



T 

1150 LINE (205, 10)-(210, 10) , PSET 
1160 DRAW " S2 J BM2 16,1 3U6E5F5L9R9D 
6" 'A 

1170 DRAW " BM227 , 1 3H5U5D5F5E5U5BD 
10" 'V 

1 1 80 DRAW " BM233 , 1 3U8R8D 1 U 1 L8D8R8 
U4L3R3D4" '8 

1190 LINE (241, 13)-(242, 13) , PSET: 
LINE (241, 12) -(242, 12) , PSET 
1200 DRAW"Cl;BM110,23H5E5" '< 
1210 DRAW"BM119,23U10D10R6" 'L 
1 220 DRAW " BM 1 33 , 23U 1 0R9D5L9R3F6 " 
'R 

1 230 DRAW " BM 1 45 , 23E5H5 " ' > 
1240 DRAW " BM 1 26 , 20L2 " '- 
1245 ' SELECTION- (L) TO RETURN TO 
MENU LIST; (R) TO REVIEW DATA E 
NTERED; & (N) TO END PROGRAM. 
1250 R*»INKEY*: IFR*=""THEN1250 
1260 IF R*="L" THEN 190 
1270 IF R*="R" THEN 460 
1280 IF R*="N" THEN END ELSE 125 
0 

1290 END 

1295 'LINE PLOT FORMULA FOR RANB 
E# 1 & 3 

1300 A=INT(T(1)/20)*3:B=INT(T(2) 
/20) *3I C=INT (T (3) /20) *3: D=INT (T ( 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S 
SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING. 



EASY TO USE 

ON-THE-SCREEN EDITING via cursor. Full prompting. 
Scrolling. Key Beep & Error Beebop. 

PLEASANTLY POWERFUL 

Total communications ability at 110 to 1200 baud. 
Transmit text, graphics, BASIC and Machine Language. 
Save & Load cassette/disk files while on line. Scan/Edit 
current data while receiving more data. Use any modem. 
Fully supports D. C. Hayes & others. Use any printer, 
page size, margins, line spacing. Override narrow text 
width of received data. Imbed printer controls. 

TRULY AUTOMATIC 

Automate almost any communications activity. Dial via 
modem, sign-on, interract, sign-off. Perform an entire 
session. Act as a message taker. Keystroke Multipliers 
may include parameter changes, editing, time delays, 
execution of other multipliers, looping, waiting for 
partially specified responses, and branching based 
upon alternative responses. Self-test mode. 

32K MEMORY RECOMMENDED ™?°° w 
CASSETTE $39.95 DISKETTE (coming soon) $49.95 

Add $3 Shipping & Handling 
MC/VISA/COD 



PXE Computing 

11 Vlcksburg Lane 
Richardson, TX 75080 



Eves. & Weekends: 214/699-7273 
Weekdays: MICRO CONCEPTS 

214/458-0330 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 67 



4) /20> *3:E*INT (T (5) /20> *3: F-INT ( 
T <6> /20> *3:G=INT (T(7) /20) *3: H=IN 
T<T<8>/20)*3: I*INT<T(9)/20)*3: J» 
INT ( T ( 10) /20> *3: K-INT (T ( 1 1 > /20> * 
3:L»INT(T (12)/20)*3 
310 RETURN 

315 * DATA INPUT LOOP FOR RANGE 
& 3 

320 FOR X=l TO 12 
330 PRINT "# " ;X 
340 INPUT "MONTH "»T(X> 
345 IF Z=l THEN GOTO 1360 
350 IF Z=3 AND T<X) <-450 OR T< 
X) > 600 THEN PR I NT "AMOUNT IS OU 
T OF RANGE. ": PR I NT "PLEASE ENTER 
NUMBER BETWEEN": PRINT" *-400. 
00 - $600. 00": SOUND 150,1: GOTO 1 
330 

1360 IF Z=l AND T(X>>1000 THEN P 
R I NT " AMOUNT IS TOO HIGH. ": PRINT" 
PLEASE ENTER NUMBER < 1000":SOUN 
D 150, l: GOTO 1330 
1370 NEXT X 
1380 GOTO 460 

1385 'GRAPH PLOT CHANGE FOR RANG 
E #3 

1 390 DRAW " S3 } BM 1 5 , 1 70L3 " : DRAW " BM 

25, 175U11G6R9" * -4 

1400 DRAW " BM 1 5 , 1 55L3" : DRAWBM27, 



RAINBOW 



STOCK & FUND INVESTING 

with the 
TRS-SD* COLOR COMPUTER 

USE FUJ1DGRAF & FUMDFILE 

FUNDGRAf is a stock market analysis program 
that not only graphs and analyzes funds or stocks f 
but also makes decisions on when to BUY and SELL. 

• GRAPH6 fundus progress (up to 200 weeks). 

• SUPERIMPOSES for comparison! 

- a line of constant percent growth. 

- a graph of any other fund (or stock). 

• CALCULATES over any given time spam 

- the percent price change. /^^v 

- the moving average (any span). 

• INDICATES BUY and SELL signals. 

- FUNDGRAF - 

TAPE @ $U9.95 
DISK @ $69*9% 

- FUNDFILE ~ 

DISK only @ $27.95 

• ADD $2 Handling on 

all orders. 

• Details? SEND SASE 

• 16 K ECB Requir'd. 
-printer optional 

FUNDFILE is a portfolio and account manage- 
ment program for securities. It creates files for 
up to 900 transactions & 50 securities and reports 
asset value 1 realized & unrealized capital gains, 
adjusted costs (for stock dividends), and MORE I 1 

PARSONS SOFTWARE, DEPT. A 
118 WOODSHIRE DRIVE 
PARKERSBURG, WV 26101 




1 60U 1 0L8R8D4L6R6D6L8 " '-3 

1410 DRAW " BM1 5 , 1 40L3 " : DRAW " BM26 , 

145L8U4R8U6L8" '-2 

1 420 DRAW" BM 1 5 , 1 25L3 " : DRAW " BM25 , 

130U1063" '-1 

1430 DRAW" BM20, 1 15U10R10D10L10" 
'0 

1440 DRAW"BM25, 100U1063" ' 1 
1450 DRAW"BM26,85L8U4R8U6L8" '2 
1 460 DRAW" BM27 , 70U 1 0L8R8D4L6R6D6 
L8" '3 

1470 DRAW"BM25,55U11G6R9" '4 

1480 DRAW"BM20,40R8U6L8U4R8" '5 

1490 GOTO 970 

1495 'PRINTER SUB-ROUTINE 

1500 PRINT @ 437, "PRINTER": PRINT 

@ 469, "READY?": SOUND 160,2 
1510 R*=INKEY*:IF R*="" THEN 151 
0: IF R*=" " THEN GOTO 1520 
1520 PRINT#-2,CHR*<27> JCHR*<19> 
'SELECT STANDARD CHARACTER 
1530 PRINT#-2,CHR*<15) 'START UN 
DERLINE 

1540 PRINT#-2,T* 

1550 PRINT#-2,CHR*(14) 'END UNDE 
RLINE 

1560 FOR X=l TO 12 

1570 PRINT #-2,USING"##. ";X5 :PRI 
NT#-2 , US I NG " **## , ### .##"5 T (X) 
1580 NEXT X 

1590 PRINT#-2,CHR*<10) ' LINE FE 
ED 

1600 T=T(1)+T(2)+T(3>+T(4>+T(5>+ 
T(6)+T(7)+T(8)+T(9)+T<10)+T(ll)+ 
T(12) 

1610 PRINT#-2, "TOTAL: ";:PRINT 

#-2 , US I NG " **## , #*# . *# " ; T 
1620 T=T/12 

1 630 PR I NT#-2 , " AVERAGE : " ; : PR I N 
T #-2, USING "**##, ###.##" ;T 
1640 GOTO 590 

1650 ' VARIABLE MAP: 

1651 'T<X> - INPUT DATA FOR MONT 
HS OF YEAR OR 12 PERIODS OF TIME 

1652 'Q*(X> - MENU SELECTION 

1653 ' Z - RANGE OF INPUT DATA 

1654 ' T*~ HEADINGS FROM MENU 

1655 ' T - TOTAL OF T(X)'S AND A 
VERAGE 

1656 ' M - VARIABLE FOR AVERAGE 
LINE PLOT 

1657 ' A-L - VARIABLES FOR THE 1 
2 MONTHS OR TWELVE PERIODS 

1658 ' R* - SELECTION STRING: 

1659 ' Y - YES 

1660 ' N - NO (END) 

1661 ' P - PRINTER 

1662 ' L - RETURN TO MENU LIST 

1663 ' R - REVIEW 

1670 'MEMORY AVAILABLE - 2107 



68 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



PETROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 




PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT: Computer Software 
Documentation / Graphics / Consultation 




Inspector CLUEseau 



Sherlock Holmes/Agatha Christie fans-It's finally here— A murder 
mystery game for the 80-C! Mr. Goodbody has been killed in his 
mansion and you must solve the mystery. WHO committed the 
murder, WHERE did it occur and HOW was it done! Question 
suspects, find the secret passage, and break the code to get clues. 
Hi-Res graphics enhances this excellent game. The computer 
records the clues you obtain on a clue inventory screen and also 
provides suspect descriptions at the touch of a finger. A fast, fun 
game that will sharpen your deductive skills. Every game is 
different! 

32K Extended $19.95 



Stress Evaluator 

Assess your present level of stress and how it affects your 
potential for illness. Evaluate the amount of life change you can 
effectively handle in the future. The Stress Evaluator is a valuable 
tool for recognizing, measuring and managing stress. The 
program also provides a Coping Ability Test which shows your 
ability to handle stress in general. Provides goal setting exercises 
and meditation graphic screens to help achieve stress-alleviating 
goals. All results output to printer. 

16K Extended $24.95 



Weather Watch 

If you really care about the weather, this program is for you. Three 
programs provide you with National Weather Service approved 
statistics in a monthly report format. Input of daily high and low 
temp, and rainfall outputs a report of monthly average temps, and 
range; high and low averages; high and low temp, for month; total 
rainfall; days rain > .1 in.; heating and cooling degree days; days 
high > 90; days low < 32; days low temp. < 32and > 0; days low < 
0; day of highest range. Also retrieves a single day from data file 
for review. All data outputs to printer. Well documented. 
16K Extended $24.95 

Forecaster & Weather Watch (Disk) 

Forecast general weather conditions with 80% accuracy with this 
fun, simple to use program. Although not meant to replace 
National Weather Service forecasts, this program is informative 
and enjoyable to use. You can even create your own weather by 
setting the variables!! Provides general forecast including pre- 
cipitation probabilities. Includes Weather Watch program also all 
on one easy to use disk. 

32K Extended Disk $49.95 

Include $1.50 for handling for each program. 
Az. Residents add 6% Sales Tax. 
Quantity Discounts to Dealers. 

CIS subscribers contact through EMAIL 70435,754 



Stagecoach 




R0CCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 



651 N. Houghton Rd. 
Jucson, A2. 85748 
% 602-296-1 041 



Enter the Wild West Days as you try to carry gold across the 
desert in a stagecoach. Hot in pursuit are the James Gang and of 
course, Indians'! To make matters worse you are responsible for 
the safe journey of Annabelle, the judge's daughter. Hi-Res 
graphic screen plots your progress. Lots of fun surprises await 
you in this game -shootouts, kidnappings and more. Don't miss 
the fun! 

16 K Extended $19.95 



Heart-Lung-Circulatory Systems 

Hi-Re9 Graphic Education 

A difficult subject becomes fun and easy to learn. Programmed 
learning approach divides subject content into concise frames 
of information. Hi-res graphic display with labelled anatomical 
structures follows text frames for added clarity. Visually high- 
lights keywords and concepts. Self test questions follow each 
section. Provides immediate feedback to user response and 
displays correct answers beforemoving tonewsubject matter. 
Excellent for school or home use. 

32KEXT Cassette $34.95 

32KEXT Disk $39.95 



Bowling Secretary 



Save hours of tedious work with this elficient program. Calcu- 
lates individual player average, high game and total pins, as 
well as teamgames won/lost, high series, and cumulativetotal 
team pins. Also calculates team standings for each week in 
order from 1st to last! All data stores to tape and outputs to 
printer to provide professional, easy to read copy. After initial 
input of league and player names all you have to do is input 
each week's scores - the computer does the rest!! 

16KEXT Cassette $24.95 

32KEXT Disk $29.95 

Astrology Chart Print 

A Must for the Serious Astrologer 

Bothered by not having a professional easy to read hard copy 
of your chart? Want to see comparison charts around the Natal 
Chart? Look no more 1 Input of planetary positions and house 
cusps outputs a 6"x5" graphic printout of chart and will also 
plot a comparison chart (transit, progressed or compatibility) 
around perimeter of the natal chart. NOT A SCREEN DUMP 
ROUTINE. The program uses dot addressable graphics to 
draw chart with accurate planetary positioning. Top of form 
lists Name, Birthdate, Birthtime. Birthplace from user input. 
Accomodates Placidean. Equal House or Modified Equal 
House. AVAILABLE NOW FOR EPSON MX80 with Graftrax. 

32KEXT Cassette $21.95 



Medical Terminology 



If you've ever wondered what your doctor was talking about, 
this program can help! Includes most common terminology as 
well as abbreviations used in hospital charting. Menu Driven 
-allows choice of study, definition readout or self test. Study 
suffix, prefix or abbreviation in alphabetical groups. Input 
prefix, suffix or abbreviation and computer readsout definition 
(not meant to be an all inclusive dictionary). Provides multiple 
choice self tests with immediate reinforcement and correct 
answer displayed. Suffix/Prefix on one program. Abbreviations 
on 2nd Program. Both included. 

16KEXT Cassette $19.95 



Software Review 



New EPROM Programmer 
Is Impressive And Affordable 

How would you like to have your favorite monitor or 
other machine language programs on instant recall, pro- 
tected against resets and other inevitable bombouts? I guess 
at one time or another any computer hobbyist has wished 
for an EPROM progrmmer but the outlay of several 
hundred dollars didn't seem worthwhile. A commercial 
EPROM burnercancost from $500-$ 1000, with personality 
modules and a Radio Shack 232 interface as extras. Intron- 
ics has come to our rescue. Now for less than $90 you can 
buy an EPROM Programmer that, in my opinion, is better 
than the expensive models. How about you brave souls who 
have been thinking about changing some of the routines in 
the Extended BASIC ROMS? 

Intronics EPROM Programmer is a TRS-80 compatible 
board that plugs into the expansion port. The 4" x 4'/4 ,T 
circuit is not in a housing since you need access to the 
low-insertion force socket on the board. Also, the board 
contains a power-on indicator and an off/ on switch along 
with the necessary ICs. A 24 volt DC to DC converter is 
self-contained as this voltage is necessary forprogramming. 
I am very pleased with the appearance of the circuit board 
and construction. By the way, the EPROM socket has 28 
pins for future state of the art changes. Different EPROMs 
are selected by means of a personality module. Five modules 
come with the unit and cover the normal range of EPROMs 



from 1 to 8K. Other personality modules are available for $5 
each, such as a 68764, the EPROM replacement for the 
BASIC ROM. 

Software for the programmer is supplied on cassette tape 
and uses addresses $2000-$3FFF for program memory. 
Commands are as follows: 

ERASED — Checks for $FF in all EPROM memory loca- 
tions, the normal erased state. 

PROGRAM — Memory from the buffer is programmed 
into the EPROM. 

VERIFY — Compare the data in the EPROM and in the 
memory buffer. 

SLIDE ROM — Moves the data from the EPROM to the 
memory buffer. 

SLIDE MEMORY — Moves memory from one location to 
another. 

EXAMINE/CHANGE MEMORY — Modify buffer, or 

other memory. 
RETURN TO BASIC — Return to BASIC. 

The menu is well prompted and user friendly. All of the 
functions worked flawlessly. The memory examine/ change 
command could use a few bells and whistles, but works as 
intended. The beauty of this system is in the fact that any 
program that will load into the CoCo can be moved into the 
buffer, modified if necessary, and burnt into an EPROM. 

As you can tell 1 was impressed by the EPROM Pro- 
grammer, especially after using units that cost ten times as 
much and having to manipulate disk files, edit programs, 
etc., just to enter data into the programmer. 1 tried assem- 
bling a program in memory, moving it to the buffer, and 
burning an EPROM. Each step worked without a hitch. The 
documentation leaves a little bit to be desired but due to 
prompts in the software it is adequate. 1 would suggest that 
instructions be included for the uninitiated to explain how 
to modify a ROM pack to accept different EPROMs, and 
for that matter, a short explanation of the different types. 1 
would recommend this unit for both hobby and commercial 
use. You may be betteroff buying a CoCo and this unit than 
a Pro-Log — it certainly would be cheaper. 

(Intronics, P.O. Box 13723, Edwardsville, KS 66113, $85) 

— Dan Downard 



Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 

Contributions to the RAINBOW are welcome from everyone. 
We like to run a variety of programs which will be useful/ helpful- 
fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best to 
make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII format. We're 
sorry, but we do not have time to key in programs. All programs 
should be supported by some editorial commentary, explaining 
how the program works. We're much more interested in how your 
submission works and runs than how you developed it. Programs 
should be learning experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of criteria. Those 
wishing remuneration should so state when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed infor-mation on 
making submissions, please send a S ASE to: Submissions Editor, 
the RAINBOW, P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. We will send 
you some more comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs orarticles currently submitted to 
another publication. 



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quarters. Please make note of our 
new address. 

Thank You. 



our new adress is: 

PRICKLY PEAR SOFTWARE 
9234 E. 30th Street 
Tucson, Arizona 85710 



70 the RAINBOW July 1983 



DISK UTILITY 



Disk Operator Reveals 
Powerful New Routines 



By Roger Schrag 



Radio Shack thoughtfully included a technical infor- 
mationsection in their Color Computerdisk system 
manual. This section was designed for machine lan- 
guage programmers who wanted to incorporate disk I/O 
into their programs. 

Unfortunately, the information provided is in most cases 
perfectly useless. The one routine within the disk ROM that 
they show you how to use will merely read or write an 
individual sector on the diskette. The programmer must 
write his own routines to locate a file on the diskette, allocate 
disk space, create new files, delete old files, shut off the disk 
drive motor when it is no tin use...andthe list of responsibili- 
ties left for the poor programmer to take care of goes on and 
on. 



Code 


Abbr 


Description 


19 


AO 


File already open 


20 


DN 


Bad device or drive number 


21 


IO 


Input/output error 


22 


FM 


Bad file mode 


23 


NO 


File not open 


24 


IE 


Input past end of file 


27 


NE 


File not found 


29 


DF 


Disk space full 


30 


OB 


Out of buffer space 


31 


WP 


Diskette write protected 


32 


FN 


Bad filename 


33 


FS 


Bad file structure 


37 


VF 


Verification error 


Table 1: 


Error Codes 





What I would like to present here is a program that will 
perform a potpourri of disk-oriented operations. 1 have 
carefully scrutinized the disk ROM, and come up with some 
powerful routines that Radio Shack never told you about. 
The program contains seven routines that are analogous to 
the BASIC statements Files, Open, Close, Print#, lnput#, 
Kill and Verify. Each routine does a complete job. Your 
program will need to do a minimal amount of work, such as 
supplying a filename or device number. 

Please have a thorough understanding of the BASIC 
statements mentioned above before proceeding onward. 
Also please note that only the sequential input and output 



modes are supported; the direct access mode is not sup- 
ported. Neither is cassette 1/ O. I hope to cover both of these 
topics in a future article. 



$000 

$OFF 

$IOO 

$IFF 

$200 

$300 

$3FF 



Basic program 

Basic program in ASCII format 
Data stored in binary 
Data stored in ASCII 
Machine language program 
Text stored in binary 
Text stored in ASCII 



Table 2: File Types 




from 



CoCoHuf 




THE ULTIMATE STRATEGY GAME 



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Houston, TX 77015 




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July 1983 the RAINBOW 71 



The source code shown in Listing I may be appended onto 
your program to give it disk I/O capabilities. Now let's look 
at each of the seven routines and see how they are used. 

The Files routine organizes the disk system's area of 
memory by dividing it into smaller segments called buffers. 
Each buffer is 281 bytes, and is used by the disk system to 
work with a file while it is open. 



For this many Don't use any 



buffers 


memory 


0 


$OBA2 


1 


$OCBB 


2 


$ODD4 


3 


$OEED 


4 


$1006 


5 


IMF 


6 


$1238 


7 


1351 


8 


146A 


9 


1583 


10 


$I69C 


11 


I7B5 


12 


$I8CE 



Table 3: Reserved Memory 

You should use the Files routine at the beginning of your 
program in order to initialize and organize the disk system's 
memory. Decide on the maximum number of files you will 
want to have open at any given time; this is the number of 



buffers you will need. Put this figure into the B register and 
call the Files routine. Be sure that the buffer area won't 
overlap your program. Table 3 lists the boundary lines. This 
example would allocate space for six files, thus allowing 
your program to use device numbers of 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6: 

LDB #$6 WE WANT SIX BUFFERS 

JSR FILES GO SET UP MEMORY 



The Open routine works in much the same way that the 
BASIC statement works. You will need to prepare the X,Y, 
A, and B registers with certain data before calling the rou- 
tine. The X register must be loaded with the starting address 
of where in memory the filename is stored. Any filename 
that is valid in BASIC is valid here. Don't put quotes around 
the name, and if you don't specify an extension, then none 
will be used. Place a zero or SOD (ASCII code for a carriage 
return) after the last character in the filename, so that the 
routine will be able to tell how many characters long the 
name is. 

Next, the Y register must be loaded with the file type. A 
list of file types is shown in Table 2. A file's type will appear 
in a directory generated by the DIR statementfrom BASIC. 

The A register must be loaded with the modeyou would 
like to use. Use $49 (ASCII code for I) for the input mode, 
and $4F (ASCII code for O) for the output mode. Finally, 
you will need to load the B register with the device number 
you wish to assign to thisfile. Be sure that you havesetaside 
enough buffer space with the Files routine. 

When you have all four registers set up properly, you are 



™TRS80 color 

From the January 1 981 issue of the CSRA Computer 
Club newsletter: 

There was some amusement at the Novem- 
ber meeting when the Radio Shack repre- 
sentatives stated that the software in the 
ROM cartridges could not be copied. This 
month's 68 Micro Journal reported they had 
disassembled the programs on ROM by 
covering some of the connector pins with 
tape. They promise details next month. Never 
tell a hobbyist something can't be done! This 
magazine seems to be the only source so far 
of technical informations on the TRS-80 color 
computer* 5 . Devoted to SS-50 6800 and 
6809 machines up to now. 68 Micro Journal 
plans to include the TRS-80 6809 unit in 
future issues. 

NOTE: This and other interesting and needed articles 
for the Radio Shack TRS-80 color computer y - are being 
included monthly in 68 Micro Journal— The Largest 
specialty computer magazine in the world! 

68 MICRO JOURNAL 

5900 Cassandra Smith Road 

Hixson, Tennessee 37343 
615 842-4600 

Subscription Rates 



USA: 1-year $24.50; 2-year $42.50; 3-year $64.50 
CANADA and MEXICO: Add $5.50 per year to USA Price 
Foreign Surface: Add $12.00 per year to USA* Price 
Foreign AIRMAIL: Add $36.00 per year to USA Price 

** Sample Issue - $3.50 





68 Micro Journal 11 was established with one objective in 
mind; to provide a Magazine FOR 68xx Users BY 68xx 
Users. Because of a strict advertiser policy, 68 Micro 
Journal" has gained a strong following WORLDWIDE 
because the reader KNOWS what he is getting when 
purchasing from a 68 Micro Journal" 1 Advertiser. It has 
gained a strong User following because most of the 
material published is contributed BY USERS, and, 
therefore, Is relevant to the Users needs. 

Currently, and even before the Color Computer" hit the 
stores, 68 Micro Journal" was devoting more space to 
the TRS-80C Color Computer" and information concerning 
the Motorola 6809 (which is the CPU in the Color 
Computer") than ANY OTHER Computer Magazine , Examples 
i nclude: 

REVIEWS of the three major Disk Control Systems for 
the Color Computer", most "of the Monitors, 
Assemblers, and Disassemblers, Word Processors and 
Editors, "Terminal" Programs (for use with Modems, 
Communications with other Computers, etc.), and of 
course, Games. 

HINTS for Expanding Memory, Power Supply Cooling, re-r 
pairing sticky keyboards, disabling the ROM PAK "Take 
Over", hooking up to Printers, etc. 
DISCUSSIONS of the 6883 Synchronous Address 
Multiplexer, using the Color Computer" with 64K and 
9 6K memory (which it is ALREADY capable of handling), 
thoughts on Programming, etc. 

I suggest that you subscribe to 68 Micro Journal", SOON, 
as many back issues are sold-out. 

We still, and will continue to, lead in the type 
information you need to FULLY UTILIZE the POWER of the 
6809 In the Rajdto Shack TRS-80 Color Computer". 





Bob Nay 
Color Computer Editor 



3 



72 the RAINBOW July 1983 



****************************-H:-tt***#* 



ready to call the Open routine to open the file. This example 
will open an ASCII data fileforoutput. The filename will be 
CHECKS/ DAT:I, and device number two will be used. 
Note that the quote marks are used here as delimiters for the 
FCC instruction: 



NAME 



LDX 
LDY 
LDA 
LDB 

JSR 
JMP 
FCC 
FCB 



#NAME 
#$IFF 
#$4F 
#$2 



ADDRESS OF FILENAME 
FILE TYPE: ASCII DATA 
OUTPUT MODE 
USE DEVICE NUMBER 
TWO 

OPEN GO OPEN THE FILE 

MORE PROGRAM CONTINUES... 

"CHECKS/DAT:I" 

$0 TERMINATOR 



The Close routine will close a particular file and update 
the diskette T necessary. To close a file, load the device 
number into the B register and call the Close routine. Note 
that no error will occur if you try to close an already closed 
file. This example will close device number three: 

LDB #$3 DEVICE NUMBER THREE 

JSR CLOSE GO CLOSE THE FILE 

The Print routine will write a byte of data to a file which is 
open in the output mode. To use the routine, put the device 
number of the file you wish to write to in the B register, and 
the ASCII code of the character you wish to write in the A 
register. Then call the Print routine. Note that this routine 
will only write to one character at a time; you will need a 
simple loop to write groups of characters, or entire mes- 
sages. This example will write the message "Accounts paya- 
ble" to device number one: 



LOOP 



MESAGE 



LDX 


//MESAGE 


START OF MESSAGE 


LDA 


,x+ 


GET CHARACTER 


TSTA 




CHECK FOR END 


BEQ 


MORE 


GO ON IF ALL DONE 


LDB 


#$I 


TO DEVICE NUMBER 






ONE 


JSR 


PRINT 


GO WRITE CHARACTER 


BRA 


LOOP 


LOOP BACK FOR AN- 






OTHER 


FCC 


"ACCOUNTS PAYABLE" 


FCB 


$0 


TERMINATOR 



The Input routine will read a byte of data from a file open 
in the input mode. To use the routine, place the device 
number of the file you wish to read from into the B register 
and call the Input routine. The A register will now contain 
the ASCII code of the character read from the file. Note 
that, once again, you will need a simple loop to deal with 
entire groups of characters. This example will read a charac- 
ter from device number four and display it in the upper left 
corner of the screen: 



LDB #$4 

JSR INPUT 
ST A $400 



FROM DEVICE NUMBER 
FOUR 

READ A CHARACTER 
DISPLAY ON SCREEN 



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LETTER 
SETTER 
TYPESET 
THIS AD 



With LETTER-SETTER'S big bold 
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The Kill routine will delete a file from the directory and 



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July 1983 the RAINBOW 73 



free up any diskette space that was allocated to it. To kill a 
file, load the X register with the address of the filename and 
call the Kill routine. This example will delete a file named 
STOCKS/ FEB: 

LDX #NAME ADDRESS OF FILENAME 
JSR KILL DELETE THE FILE 
JMP MORE PROGRAM CONTINUES 
NAME FCC "STOCKS/ FEB" 

FCB $0 TERMINATOR 

The Verify routine will either activate or deactivate the 
verification system. With this system turned on, the disk 
system will automatically verify all write 
operations. To use the routine, load the status code into the 
B register and call the Verify routine. One means on, zero 
means off. This example will turn the verification system on: 

LDB #$I ONE MEANS TURN IT ON 

JSR VERIFY ACTIVATE VERIFY SYS- 
TEM 



Each of the seven routines will handle reasonable error 
conditions — such as a write protected diskette, an improp- 
erly mounted diskette, or a file not found in the directory. 
However, the routines are not thoroughly bomb-proof. If, 
for example, you try to write data to device number 47, 
strange things will surely happen. 

After calling a routine, the B register will contain zero and 
the Z flag in the condition code register will be set if the 
operation was performed successfully. If an error has 
occurred, then the Z flag will be reset, and the value in the B 
register will be the error code. Table 1 contains a listing of 
various error codes. This program uses the error vector at 
$I8E to handle error conditions. However, no problems 
should arise if your program also uses this vector, unless you 
are working with interrupt driven software. 

The routines will preserve all registers except for B and 
CC. The one exception to this rule is the Input routine which 
will replace the previous contents of the A register with the 
ASCII code of the character read in from the file. Note that 
your program may redefine the Direct Page register. The 
register will be temporarily reset to zero so that the ROM 
routines will function properly, and then it will be reset to its 
previous value. 

If you don't specify a drive number in the filename, drive 
zero will be used as the default. To change the default, store 



the desired drive number at memory location $95A. This 
example will make drive one the default drive: 

LDB #$I SELECT DRIVE ONE 

STB $95A AS THE DEFAULT DRIVE 

Also remember that interrupts must beenabled whenever 
the disk system is being used. Otherwise, the disk drive 
motor will not shut off after two seconds 
of non-use. Most of the routines will automatically enable 
interrupts. 

Listing 2 is a demonstration program, showing how the 
seven routines may be used. The program will allow you to 
type words on the screen. Press the Break key when you are 
done. The computer will now save the contents of the screen 
to disk under the name of DEMO/ DAT. When you press 
Break again, the image will be loaded back in and put on the 
screen backwards. Press Break again, and the file DEMO/- 
DAT will be killed and you will be returned to BASIC. Of 
course, this program has no real applications, but it does 
show the essential techniques for using the seven routines. I 
have included lots of comments to make it easier to 
understand. 

If you have any questions, comments, or requests for 
future article topics, feel free to drop me a line at 2054 
Manning Avenue, Los Angeles, Calif., 90025. Please include 
a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope. The source code for both listings is available from 
theauthorforfivedollars at the above address. I'll supply it 
on tape to ease mailing, but it is readily transferable to disk. 

Good luck, and may you input a character for each that 
you output. 

(Roger Schrag, a highschool senior, enjoys working 
with the CoCo and writing for the Rainbow. He also 
designs and translates programs for Adventure 
International.) 

Listing 1 



62000 
62010 
62020 
62030 
62040 
62050 
62060 
62070 
62000 
62090 
62.100 
6 211 0 
62120 
62130 
62140 
62150 



* MACHINE LANGUAGE DISK I/O * 

* VERSION 1.0 - MARCH 1, 1983 

* 
* 
* 

* 

*THIS CODE IS INTENDED TO BE 
* APPENDED ON TO YOUR OWN 
♦PROGRAM, SO YOU MUST SUPPLY 
*THE ORG STATEMENT . IT MAY 
*RESID£ ANYWHERE IN RAM 



ROGER SCHRAG 

2054 MANNING AVENUE 

LOS ANGELES, CA 9002: 




SB 



Is 



16K EXT. COLOR BASIC 8c 
PRINTER REQUIRED 

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74 the RAINBOW July 1983 




AUTO RUN 





Auto Run is a utility program for the TRS-80* 
Extended Basic Color Computer. It is used to add 
convenience and professionalism to your software. 

Auto Run will help you create your title screen 
with the graphics editor. The graphics editor allows 
you to choose a background color and border style. 
Using the arrow keys and several other commands 
you can draw pictures, block letters and also include 
text. 

Auto Run will generate a machine language load- 
er program to preceed your program on the tape. 
Then, to start up your program, simply type 
CLOADM to load in the Auto Run loader program, 
which will then automatically start itself up, display 
your title screen, load your program and then RUN 
or EXEC it. 

Also you may record a vocal or musical introduc- 
tion preceding your program. The Auto Run loader 
will control the audio on/off. 

Basic programs can be set to load anywhere in 
memory above $600 (the PCLEAR 0 page). 

Software authors: The Auto Run prefix may be 
appended to your software products. 

Auto Run is $14.95 and includes complete docu- 
mentation and an assembly source listing. 

Requires 16K Extended Basic. 



Galactic Hangm an 



^ .mill! 



X 

H 



J* I L 



nn_nn 

cm 



F R E E 

F IPE 

3 



4 » 



p 



A great new twist to the popular, educational word 
guessing game for the Color Computer. Large (700 
words) and sophisticated vocabulary. Or enter your 
own words, your child's spelling list, foreign 
language vocabulary, etc. 

Outstanding high resolution graphics, animation 
and sound effects. 

For $14.95 you get both the 16K and 32K versions 
of Galactic Hangman. 





Tape Information 
Management System 

A user-oriented, easy to use personal database 
management system for the TRS-80* Color Com- 
puter with these outstanding features: 

* keeps files of programs, names, addresses, birth- 
days, recipes, class or club rosters, anything 

'variable record and field lengths 

* phrase substitution editor 

* up to 8 user-definable fields 

* ML sort (up to 3 fields), search and delete functions 
*2 search modes — range and item 

* user-definable printer format, for any printer 
*up to 230 characters per record 

For $24.95 you get the database management 
system, our full documentation which includes a 
reference guide and a programmer's guide, and our 

1981 Bibliography of articles relating to the Color 
Computer. Requires 16K Extended Basic. 32K 
recommended. 

1982 TIMS Bibliography — $9.95 




Dado not;^ 




A sensational and educational version of a popular 
party game for the TRS-80* Color Computer . . 

For 1 to 10 players. Load a story into the com- 
puter. The players are asked to supply a noun, verb, 
part of body, celebrity, etc. which the program uses 
to complete the story. The story, which is displayed 
when all words are entered, will be hilarious. Silly 
Syntax requires 16K Extended Basic (32K for disk 
version). For $19.95, you get a user guide and a 
tape containing the Silly Syntax game and 2 stories. 
You can create your own stories or order story tapes 
from the selection below. 
Silly Syntax stories — Ten stories per tape. 
SS-001 - Fairy Tales SS-004 - Current Events 
SS-002 - Sing Along SS-006 - Adventure/Sci-Fi 
SS-003 - X-Rated SS-007 - Potpourri 

Each story tape is $9.95. 10% off for3 or more story 
tapes. Disk is $24.95 for Silly Syntax and 2 stories or 
$49.95 for Silly Syntax and all 62 stories. 



RAINBOW 













MM* 



"TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 
(614) 861-0565 

CIS orders EMAIL to 70405, 1374 



Add $1 .00 per tape or disk for 
postage and handling, Ohio- 
ans add 5.5% sales tax. COD 
orders are welcome. Dealer 
inquiries invited. 



621 6U 


tit 










62580 


* 






621 70 












62590 


♦ROUTINE TO CLOSE A FILE 


62180 


SAVE 


FCB 




$0 


0 BYTE STORAGE 


62600 


* B* 


DEVICE NUMBER 




62190 




FCB 




$0 


AREA FOR THE 


62610 


* 






62200 




FCB 




$0 


ERROR VECTOR 


62620 


CLOSE 


LBSR BEGIN 


PREPARE 


622 10 


STACK 


FCB 




$0 


2 BYTE. STORAGE 


62630 




STB *6F 


STORE DEVICE NUMBER 


62220 




FCB 




$0 


AREA FOR STACK F'O INTER 


62640 




JSR *CA53 


GO CLOSE FILE 


62230 


* 










62650 




LBRA DONE 


FUNCTION COMPLETE 


62240 


* 










62660 








62250 


♦ROUTINE TO 


INITIALIZE 


DISK 


62670 


* 






62260 


# SYSTEM 7 S MEMORY 




62680 


♦ROUTINE TO WRITE TO A 


FILE 


62270 




NUMBER 


ni — 

□F 


BUFFERS 




62690 


* A*= 


CHARACTER TO WRITE 


622Q0 


* 










62700 


% B= 


DEVICE NUMBER 




62290 


r 1 L b. a 






nr-n T Kl 


PREPARE 


62710 


* 






62300 




PSHS 




rj 


SAVE # OF BUFFERS 


62720 


PRINT 


LBSR BEGIN 


PREPARE 


6 231 0 




JSR 




$CA3B 


LLEDSE AL_L. FILEb 


62730 




STB $6F 


STORE DEVICE NUMBER 






PULS 




B 


REbTORE OF- BUFhEFVb 


62740 




JSR $A2B2 


WRITE CHARACTER 


62. /> 30 




STB 




$95B 


STORE # OF FILEb 


62750 




LBRA DONE 


FUNCTION COMPLETE 


6 2 vi- 4 O 




LDIJ 




#*92i:-l 


START OF BUFFER TABLE 


62760 


* 






62o5u 




LDX 




tt*9S9 


STAKT OF BUFFER AREA 


6277U 


* 






62.j60 


DGBUF 


CL.R 




* * 


clear status f-lag 


62780 


♦ROUTINE TO READ A CHARACTER 


62>7o 




STX 






PUT EN1 RY IN 1 ABLE 


62790 


♦ FROM 


A FILE 




62:<S<J 




LEAX 




$1 19, X 


bO TO NEXT BUFFER 


62800 


♦ B~ 


DEVICE NUMBER 








E>ECB 






DECREMENT COUNT 


628 IO 


♦ A 


RETURNS WITH INPUT CHARACTER 






BH I 




DOBUF 


LIJL)F BACH, UNTIL DONE 


62820 


♦ 






0 6 2 4 1 u 




LBRA 




DONE 


FUNLTION COMPLETE 


62830 


INPUT 


LBSR BEGIN 


PREPARE 


6 242 O 


* 










62840 




STB $6F 


STORE DEVICE NUMBER 


624oU 


* 










62850 




JSR $A176 


GO INPUT CHARACTER 


ca 4 4 0 


* ROUTINE TO OPEN 


1 A FILE 




62860 




STA , S 


PUT IT ON STACK 


O .i. *♦ ..i L> 


* X = 


ADDR OP FILENAME 




62870 




LBRA DONE 


FUNCTION COMPLETE 


6 ^4 6U 


* Y = 


FILE TYPE 






62880 


* 






6 ^1 4 / O 


* A= 


FILE MODE 






62890 


♦ 






62480 


* B= 


DEVICE 


NUMBER 




62900 


♦ROUTINE TO KILL A FILE 




6249U 


* 










62910 


♦ X = 


ADDR OF FILENAME 




62DOO 


OPEN 


LBSR 




BEGIN 


rRErARE 


62920 


* 






625 1 0 




STY 




$957 


STORE TYPE 


62930 


KILL 


LBSR BEGIN 


PREPARE 


62520 




PSHS 




D 


SAVE MODE S< DEVICE 


62940 




LBSR FNAME 


PROCESS FILENAME 






LBSR 




FNAME 


PROCESS FILENAME 


62950 




JSR $C6C5 


GO KILL FILE 


62540 




PULS 




D 


RESTORE MODE & DEVICE 


62960 




LBRA DONE 


FUNCTION COMPLETE 


62550 




JSR 




$C46B 


GO OPEN FILE 


62970 


♦ 






62560 




LBRA 




DONE 


FUNCTION COMPLETE 


629B0 


♦ 






62570 


* 










62990 


♦ROUTINE TO ACTI VATE/DEACT I VE 



ENTER THE FASCINATING WORLD OF 

GAME WRITER™ 

A SIMPLE TO USE PROGRAM FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 



For writing super-action video games with 
motion and sound 

For creating high resolution animated 
graphics scenes 

For experimenting with color, shapes, 
motion and sound 

For amateur or professional cartooning or 
commercial game authoring 
For the absolute beginner and for the 
expert programmer 




GAME WRITER is a programming language with all the 
features you need to write great VIDEO GAMES. It includes a 
built-in screen oriented text editor, high resolution color 
graphics support, any number of player-shapes (SPRITES), a 
shape pattern editor, full TURTLE GRAPHICS, sound effects, 
support for joy sticks and much, much more. Each player- 
shape can be given a program to run which tells it what to do. 
All the player programs run simultaneously to create fan- 
tastic game effects. GAME WRITER IS GUARANTEED EASY 
TO USE. Even if you have never written a program of any kind 
you will amaze your family, your friends and yourself with the 
fantastic things you can do with it. The package includes a 
GAME WRITER rom pak, a complete easy to read manual and 
a set of sample programs ready to run. GAME WRITER is a 
great programming language for a child or an adult. GAME 
WRITER requires a minimum of 16K. Extended BASIC is not 
required. 



^3 



PRICE $89 

Orders must be prepaid via check, 
money order or major bank card. Phone 
orders accepted for bank cards only— 
COD orders not accepted. Quantity dis- 
counts available. Orders outside U.S. 
add $5 shipping. WA state residents 
add 6.3% sales tax. Add 2 weeks for 
delivery if paid by personal check. 



WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES 

3028 SILVERN LANE 
BELLI NGHAM, WA 98226 



1 (206) 734-8248 



RAINBOW 



76 the RAINBOW July 1983 



63000 *THE VERIFICATION SYSTEM 

63010 * B=l (ACTIVATE) 

63020 * B=* (DEACTIVATE) 

63030 * 

63040 VERIFY LBSR BEGIN PREPARE 
63050 STB *9B7 STORE STATUS 

63060 LBRA DONE FUNCTION COMPLETE 

63070 * 

630B0 * 

63090 *THE ROUTINES BELOW ARE FOR 

63100 * INTERNAL USE ONLY, AND ARE NOT 

63110 *TQ BE CALLED BY YOUR PROGRAM 

63120 * D I RECTLY ! 

63130 * 

63140 * 

63150 * ROUTINE TQ PROCESS FILENAME 



63160 


* 








63170 


FNAME 


LDB 


#»FF 


CLEAR COUNTER 


63180 


GETLEN 


INCB 




CALCULATE HOW 


63190 




LDA 


B, X 


MANY LETTERS 


63200 




CMPA 


#420 


ARE IN THE 


63210 




BCC 


GETLEN 


FILENAME 


63220 




CLR 




MAKE SPACE ON STACK 


63230 




LDA 


*95A 


GET DEFAULT DRIVE * IN 


63240 




STA 


*EB 


CASE NONE IS SPECIFIED 


63250 




LDU 


#*94C 


NAME STORAGE AREA 


63260 




LDA 


#*20 


ASCII CODE FOR BLANK 


63270 


CLEAR 


STA 


, U+ 


CLEAR OUT 


632B0 




CMPU 


#*957 


FILENAME 


63290 




BNE 


CLEAR 


STORAGE AREA 


63300 




JMP 


*CBA4 


GO PROCESS FILENAME 



63310 * 

63320 * 

63330 * ROUTINE TO PREPARE EVERYTHING 

63340 * PRESERVE REGISTERS, SET UP 

63350 *ERROR TRAP, ETC 

63360 * 

63370 BEGIN PSHS X y Y ,U,DP ,A SAVE REGISTERS 
633B0 CLRA TEMPORARILY SET 

63390 TFR A, DP DP TO ZERO 

63400 LDA *1BE GET CONTENTS OF 



63410 




LDU 


*1BF ERROR VECTOR 


63420 




STA 


SAVE,PCR AND SAVE IT 


63430 




STU 


SAVE+1,PCR FOR NOW 


63440 




LDA 


#$7E NOW SET UP 


63450 




LEAU 


ERROR, PCR ERROR VECTOR 


63460 




STA 


*1BE WITH OUR OWN 


63470 




STU 


*1BF HANDLING ROUTINE 


634B0 




LDA 


,S RESTORE ft REGISTER 


63490 




STS 


STACK, PCR SAVE STACK POINTER 


63500 




JMP 


:b,s: return 


63510 


* 






63520 


* 






63530 


*IF AN 


ERROR OCCURS, CONTROL 


63540 


*WILL 


PASS TO 


ERROR ROUTINE 


63550 






63560 


ERROR 


LSRB 


B=ERROR CODE 


63570 




INCB 


DIVIDE BY 2, ADD 1 


635B0 




BRA 


EXIT GO TO EXIT ROUTINE 


63590 


* 






63600 


* 






63610 


*IF ROUTINE FINISHES PROPERLY, 


63620 


♦CONTROL WILL 


PASS TO DONE 


63630 


* 






63640 


DONE 


CLRB 


0=N0 ERROR 


63650 




BRA 


EXIT GO TO EXIT ROUTINE 


63660 


* 






63670 


* 




• 


636B0 


♦ROUTINE TO RESTORE REGISTERS AND 


63690 


♦ERROR 


VECTOR, 


AND RETURN TO 


63700 


♦CALLING PROGRAM 


63710 


♦ 






63720 


EXIT 


LDA 


SAVE, PCR RESTORE THE 


63730 




LDU 


SAVE+1,PCR ERROR VECTOR 


6374p 




STA 


*1BE TO ITS ORIGINAL 


63750 




STU 


*1BF VALUE 


63760 




LDS 


STACK, PCR RESTORE STACK POINTER 


63770 




PULS 


A,DP,U,Y,X RESTORE REGISTERS 


637B0 




LEAS 


2,S CLEAN UP STACK 


63790 




TSTB 


SET Z FLAG IF NO ERROR 


63B00 




RTS 


RETURN TO CALLER 


63B10 




END 


START 




P. O. Box 14806 

Jacksonville, FL 32238 

904 777-1543 

Prices on All games 
include shipping. Florida 
Resident add 5% tax. 

All Programs require Color 
ComPuter™ (Tandy Corp) or 
TDP System 100 ComPuter™ 
(RCA) 



ACROSS THE RUBICON 16K EXT or NON EXT — The popular 
WWII wargame. Break thru the Huertgen Forrest using infantry, 
heavy and light tanks, air & artillery strikes, Paratroops. Graphics, 
terrain modifiers, unit designators and 5 minute conversion instruc- 
tions for 16K NON EXT. State system when ordering. 
These games do not require EXTENDED BASIC. 

RUBICON II 32K EXT Everything ATR has and more! Mortar units, 
Patrols, German Artillery, Platoon movement, realistic supply and in- 
telligence, spotting rounds, unit merge, GAME SAVE $24.95 

MISSION EMPIRE! A strategic wargame/strategy game. Starting 
with one planet, incomplete intelligence and limited resources, you 
must conquer the rest of your galaxy. Play takes 2-5 hours and is 
DIFFERENT EVERY TIME! All versions offer GAME SAVE option. 
Specify 32K disc or 16K-The 32K versions require Extended Basic, 
the 16K does not. 

GALACTIC TAIPAN 16K EXT — The merchant's of space, battle 
storms, pirates and high taxes in their search for trade and profit. 
These games do not require EXTENDED BASIC. 

ROMPAC BACKUP — Can't run your ROMPACS with your disk in or 
just want backup? This program makes it easy. Requires S4K. 
Shipped on tape. 



$19.95 



All games available on Disk Add $3.00 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 77 



Listing 2: 

00100 * DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM 
00110 tMACHINE LANGUAGE DISK I/O 
00120 *BY ROGER SCHRAG 



00130 


* 








00140 


* 








00150 




ORG 


♦ 1000 


START ABOVE BUFFER AREA 


00160 


START 


LDB 


#•1 


WE WANT 1 BUFFER 


00170 




JSR 


FILES 


SET UP MEMORY 


001 BO 




LDB 


#*1 


ACTIVATE THE 


00190 




JSR 


VERIFY 


VERIFICATION SYSTEM 


00200 




JSR 


♦A92B 


CLEAR SCREEN 


00210 


WAIT 


LDA 


#*FF 


RED GRAPHIC BLOCK 


00220 




STA 


l$bb: 


SHOW CURSOR 


00230 




JSR 


C*A000D 


SCAN KEYBOARD 


00240 




BEQ 


WAIT 


WAIT UNTIL KEY PRESSED 


00250 




CMPA 


**3 


BREAK PRESSED? 


00260 




BEQ 


SAVEIT 


GO SAVE SCREEN IF SO 


00270 




LDB 


#$60 


ERASE THE 


002B0 




STB 


c*bb: 


CURSOR 


00290 




JSR 


*A30A 


PRINT CHARACTER 


00300 




BRA 


WAIT 


LOOP BACK 


00310 


SAVE IT 


LDA 


#$60 


ERASE THE 


00320 




STA 


l*BB1 


CURSOR 


00330 




LDX 


ttNAME 


ADDR OF NAME 


00340 




LDY 


#* IFF 


FILE TYPE: ASCII DATA 


00350 




LDA 


**4F 


OUTPUT MODE 


00360 




LDB 


#$1 


DEVICE NUMBER ONE 


00370 




JSR 


□PEN 


GO OPEN FILE 


003B0 




BNE 


GOOFED 


GO IF ERROR 


00390 




LDX 


#*400 


TOP OF SCREEN 


00400 


WRITE 


LDA 


,x + 


GET CHARACTER 


00410 




LDB 




DEVICE NUMBER ONE 


00420 




JSR 


PRINT 


WRITE CHARACTER 


00430 




BNE 


GOOFED 


GO IF ERROR 



PAY WHAT YOU WANT 

for home and business software 
P5 CoCo and TDP-100 

I 16/32K Disk or Cassette 

I Extended Color Basic Required 



00440 




CMPX 


**600 


END OF SCREEN? 


00450 




BNE 


WRITE 


LOOP BACK IF NOT 


00460 




LDB 


#$1 


DEVICE NUMBER ONE 


00470 




JSR 


CLOSE 


CLOSE FILE 


004B0 




BNE 


GOOFED 


GO IF ERROR 


00490 




JSR 


*A92B 


CLEAR SCREEN 


00500 




JSR 


BREAK 


WAIT FOR BREAK PRESSED 


00510 




LDX 


#NAME 


ADDR OF FILENAME 


00520 




LDY 


**1FF 


FILE TYPE: ASCII DATA 


00530 




LDA 


#*49 


INPUT MODE 


00540 




LDB 


**1 


DEVICE NUMBER ONE 


00550 




JSR 


OPEN 


GO OPEN FILE 


00560 




BNE 


GOOFED 


GO IF ERROR 


00570 




LDX 


**600 


END OF SCREEN 


005B0 


READ 


LDB 


*$1 


DEVICE NUMBER ONE 


00590 




JSR 


INPUT 


READ CHARACTER 


00600 




BNE 


GOOFED 


GO IF ERROR 


00610 




STA 


si -X 


PUT ON SCREEN 


00620 




CMPX 


#*400 


TOP OF SCREEN? 


00630 




BNE 


READ 


LOOP BACK IF NOT 


00640 




LDB 


#$1 


DEVICE NUMBER ONE 


00650 




JSR 


CLOSE 


GO CLOSE FILE 


00660 




BNE 


GOOFED 


GO IF ERROR 


00670 




JSR 


BREAK 


WAIT FOR BREAK PRESSED 


0O680 




JSR 


4A728 


CLEAR SCREEN 


00690 




LDX 


#NAME 


ADDR OF FILENAME 


00700 




JBR 


KILL 


DELETE FILE 


00710 




BNE 


GOOFED 


GO IF ERROR 


00720 




JSR 


♦A92B 


CLEAR SCREEN 


00730 




JMP 


♦A0F3 


RETURN TO BASIC 


00740 


BREAK 


JSR 


C*AOOO] 


SCAN KEYBOARD 


00750 




CMPA 


#*3 


BREAK KEY PRESSED? 


00760 




BNE 


BREAK 


WAIT MORE IF NOT 


00770 




RTS 




RETURN TO PROGRAM 


007B0 


GOOFED LDX 


♦♦ERRMSG 


MESSAGE "ERROR #" 


00790 


ERR 1 


LDA 


,X + 


GET CHARACTER 


OOBOO 




BEQ 


ERR2 


GO IF DONE 


00B10 




JSR 


*A30A 


PRINT CHARACTER 


00B20 




BRA 


ERR1 


LOOP BACK 


00B30 


ERR2 


LDA 


**2F 


PRINT ERROR CODE 


00B40 


ERR3 


INCA 




NUMBER ON SCREEN 


00B50 




SUBB 


**0A 


IN TWO DIGIT 


00B60 




BCC 


ERR3 


DECIMAL FORMAT 


00B70 




ADDB 


#*3A 


A=TENS B=*ONES 


OOBBO 




JSR 


*A30A 


PRINT TENS 


00B90 




TFR 


B , A 


GET ONES 


00900 




JSR 


*A30A 


PRINT ONES 


00910 




JMP 


*A0F3 


RETURN TO BASIC 


00920 


NAME 


FCC 


"DEMO/DAT" 


00930 




FCB 


*0 


TERMINATOR 


00940 


ERRMSG FCC 


"ERROR 


♦♦" 


00950 




FCB 


*0 


TERMINATOR 


00960 


* 








00970 


* 








009B0 


*THE DISK I/O PROGRAM HAS 


00990 


* BEEN 


APPENDED BELOW 




01000 


* 








01010 










01020 


SAVE 


FCB 


*0 


3 BYTE STORAGE 


01030 




FCB 


*0 


AREA FOR THE 


01040 




FCB 


*0 


ERROR VECTOR 


01050 


STACK 


FCB 


*0 


2 BYTE STORAGE 


01060 




FCB 


*0 


AREA FOR STACK POINTER 


01070 


* 








01080 


* 








01090 


♦ROUTINE TO INITIALIZE 


DISK 


01 100 


♦SYSTEM'S MEMORY 




01 1 10 


* B= 


^NUMBER OF 


BUFFERS 




01 120 


* 








01 130 


FILES 


LBSR 


BEGIN 


PREPARE 


01140 




PSHS 


B 


SAVE # OF BUFFERS 


01 150 




JSR 


*CA3B 


CLOSE ALL FILES 


01 160 




PULS 


B 


RESTORE * OF BUFFERS 


01 170 




STB 


*95B 


STORE # OF FILES 


01 1B0 




LDU 


♦♦$928 


START OF BUFFER TABLE 


01 190 




LDX 


♦♦$989 


START OF BUFFER AREA 


01200 


DOBUF 


CLR 


, x 


CLEAR STATUS FLAG 


01210 




STX 


, U++ 


PUT ENTRY IN TABLE 


01220 




LEAX 


*119, X 


GO TO NEXT BUFFER 


01230 




DECB 




DECREMENT COUNT 


01240 




BHI 


DOBUF 


LOOP BACK UNTIL DONE 


01250 




LBRA 


DONE 


FUNCTION COMPLETE 


01260 


* 








01270 


* 








012B0 


♦ROUTINE TO OPEN 


A FILE 




01290 


* X = 


ADDR OF FILENAME 




01300 


* Y= 


FILE TYPE 






01310 


* A= 


FILE MODE 







BUDGET RECORD 

Income 6 outlay ay 99 categories. Great for raxes, 32k. 

MAILING LIST 

Mahes labels, printouts and alphabetized lists. M/L $oa, 

APPOINTMENT BOOK 

Pnnt a calendar with any number of memos/day. (32h. Requires 
printer with compressed characters) 

GRADE BOOK 

Moke rolls 6 grade sheets, complete with stats and totals 

ALSO AVAILABLE 

Phone Book, Soles Recofd, Cor Repairs, Diet Delight, Grocery List 

The Fine Print i 

Order two programs maximum. 5end shipping /handling in aaVance 

ti— $4.00: 2—16,00), After using the piogram, pay only what the program 

fs worth to you. Let'* try applying right livelihood to the software industfy! 

Specify 16/32K and type of printer, 



Druck Associates 
6609 Westmoreland Ave. 
Tokoma Park, MD 20912 

(301)270-5622 




Free catalogue on request 



78 the RAINBOW July 1983 





NEW 

for your 

COLOR 
COMPUTER 



Switchable Expansion Is Here 



CoCo HAS A COMPANION!! 

GOOD NEWS Switch over to more versatility with the new 
BT-2000 COMPANION. Save CoCo's connector with the best 
COMPANION it will ever have. 

• Load 5 cartridges into the COMPANION and avoid the hassles 
while enjoying the benefits of push-button selection. 

• Push a Button or select from your keyboard to turn on one of your 
5 selections. Handy indicator lights let you know at a glance which 
cartridge is connected. 

• No More Turn-Offs. Just switch to the next cartridge in your 
COMPANION. Push a button to Restart without turning off the 
power. 

• Plug-in. Fill one to five slots for flexible programming, game 
playing or both. Choose ROM Packs, serial ports, parallel ports, or 
disk drives. Then do what you like to do best. The most powerful 
and cost effective expansion you will find for just $249.95- 

FOR THE ADVANCED USER OR 
EXPERIMENTER 

• The utmost in expansion power and versatility is the BT-1000 
Expansion Interface Unit. $270.00. 

• Large Built-in power supply 

to power your peripherals rainbow 

, CERTinCATWM 

and experimenter circuits. MAL 

• Space for your ML utilities with optional 8K of RAM. $300.00 

DdSiC De P l - Q P 0 - Box 511 Ortonville, Ml 48462 

Technology ^t^t^ 



ALSO NEW FROM BASIC TECHNOLOGY!! 

• BT-1010 PPI Parallel Printer Interface. Free-up CoCo's serial 
port. Run your printer at top speed. Five foot cable with Centronics 
compatible connector and machine language printer driver are 
included. $79-95- 

• BT-1020 Real Time Clock/Calendar. LetCoCo keep the time and 
date for your programs and files. Day-light savings time and leap 
year keep you on time. Save data or program memory even when 
power is off with 50 bytes of battery backed memory! Alarm 
capability to turn on the coffee pot. All for only $109. 00. rf^h 

RAINBOW 

• BT-1030 VIP Versatile Interface Port. Connect CoCo to the 
outside world with two 8-bit parallel ports, two 16-bit 
timer/counters and a serial shift register. All user programmable. 
$69.95. 

• WRITE FOR FREE BROCHURE. 

For years o f trouble-free enjoyment all Basic Technology products use 
top quality components and are backed by a full 180 day parts and 
labor warranty. We service what we sell!.'.' 

Add $5 shipping & handling for BT-1000, 12.50 for BT-1020. 
Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. Shipping & handling for 
residents of Canada, Hawaii, Alaska is $10. Overseas orders add 15 %. 
Check, money order, VISA, MC (give account no., expiration date, 
phone no.). Personal checks allow 2-3 weeks to clear. COD charge$2 
(requires certified check or money order). 



Watch for more peripherals from 
Basic Technology, " 



01320 

01330 

01340 

01350 

01360 

01370 

01 3B0 

01390 

01400 

01410 

01420 

01430 

01440 

01450 

01460 

01470 

014B0 

01490 

01500 

01510 

01520 

0 1 530 

01540 

01550 

01560 

01570 

01590 

0 1 590 

01600 

0 1 6 1 0 

01620 

01630 

01640 

01650 

01660 

01670 

016B0 

01690 

01700 

01710 

01720 

0 1 730 

01740 

01750 

01760 

01770 

017B0 

01790 



* 

□PEN 



'DEVICE NUMBER 



LB9R 

STY 

PSHS 

LBSR 

PULS 

JSR 

LBRA 



BEGIN 

*957 

D 

FNAME 
D 

*C46B 
DONE 



PREPARE 

STORE TYPE 

SAVE MODE 8* DEVICE 

PROCESS FILENAME 

RESTORE MODE & DEVICE 

GO OPEN FILE 

FUNCTION COMPLETE 



* 

* 

*ROUTI 
* B= 
* 

CLOSE 



NE TO CLOSE A FILE 
DEVICE NUMBER 

LBSR BEGIN PREPARE 

STB *6F STORE DEVICE NUMBER 

JSR *CA53 GO CLOSE FILE 

LBRA DONE FUNCTION COMPLETE 



* 
* 

* ROUT I 

* A= 

* B- 
* 

PRINT 



* 
* 

* ROUT I 
*FRQM 

* B= 

* A 
* 

INPUT 



NE TO WRITE TO A FILE 
CHARACTER TO WRITE 
DEVICE NUMBER 

LBSR BEGIN PREPARE 

STB *6F STORE DEVICE NUMBER 

JSR *A2B2 WRITE CHARACTER 

LBRA DONE FUNCTION COMPLETE 



NE TO READ A CHARACTER 
A FILE 

DEVICE NUMBER 

RETURNS WITH INPUT CHARACTER 



LBSR 

STB 

JSR 

STA 

LBRA 



BEGIN 
*6F 
* A176 
,S 

DONE 



PREPARE 

STORE DEVICE NUMBER 
GO INPUT CHARACTER 
PUT IT ON STACK 
FUNCTION COMPLETE 



* 
* 

* ROUT I 

* x- 

* 

KILL 



NE TO KILL A FILE 
ADDR OF FILENAME 



LBSR 
LBSR 
JSR 



BEGIN 
FNAME 
*C6C5 



PREPARE 
PROCESS 
GO KILL 



FILENAME 
FILE 




C.C. DIALER 



Let your Co. Co. do the "walking". 

Turn your computer into an automatic 
telephone dialer. 

Generate touch tones from C.C.'s keyboard 
or stored directory. 

Save, load and modify directories on tape 
or disk. 

Requires Extended Basic and Touch Tone 
phone service. 



CASSETTE VERSION - $29,95 
VISK VERSION - $34.95 



Send cheque or money order to: 

CHRIS COMPUTERS 
6299 Alderwood Lane 
Delta, B.C. Canada V4E 3E7 

18. C. Re.6ide.ntb include. 6% Saie* Tax] 



01800 
01B10 
01B20 
01B30 
01B40 
01B50 
01B60 
01870 
01 880 
01890 
01900 
01910 
01920 
01930 
01940 
01950 
01960 
01970 
01980 
01990 
02000 
02010 
02020 
02030 
02040 
02050 
02060 
02070 
02080 
02090 
02100 
021 10 
02120 
02130 
02140 
02150 
02160 
02170 
02180 
02190 
02200 
02210 
02220 
02230 
02240 
02250 
02260 
02270 
02280 
02290 
02300 
02310 
02320 
02330 
02340 
02350 
02360 
02370 
02380 
02390 
02400 
02410 
02420 
02430 
02440 
02450 
02460 
02470 
02480 
02490 
02500 
110 
i20 
i30 
140 
50 



LBRA 



DONE 



FUNCTION COMPLETE 



021 
02! 
021 

02: 
02: 



* 

* 

♦ROUTINE TO ACTIVATE/DE ACTIVE 
*THE VERIFICATION SYSTEM 

* B=l (ACTIVATE) 

* B=0 (DEACTIVATE) 
* 

VERIFY 



BEGIN 
*9B7 
DONE 



LBSR 
STB 
LBRA 

* 

* 

*THE ROUTINES 
* INTERNAL USE 
*T0 BE CALLED 
♦DIRECTLY ! 
* 
* 

♦ROUTINE TO PROCESS 
* 

FNAME 
GETLEN 



PREPARE 
STORE STATUS 
FUNCTION COMPLETE 



BELOW ARE FOR 
ONLY, AND ARE NOT 
BY YOUR PROGRAM 



FILENAME 



CLEAR 



LDB 


#*FF 


CLEAR COUNTER 


INCB 




CALCULATE HOW 


LDA 


B, X 


MANY LETTERS 


CMPA 


#*20 


ARE IN THE 


BCC 


GETLEN 


FILENAME 


CLR 




MAKE SPACE ON STACK 


LDA 


*95A 


GET DEFAULT DRIVE # IN 


STA 


*EB 


CASE NONE IS SPECIFIED 


LDU 


#*94C 


NAME STORAGE AREA 


LDA 


#*20 


ASCII CODE FOR BLANK 


STA 


,U+ 


CLEAR OUT 


CMPU 


#*957 


FILENAME 


BNE 


CLEAR 


STORAGE AREA 


J MP 


*CBA4 


GO PROCESS FILENAME 



* 
* 

♦ROUTINE TO PREPARE EVERYTHING 
♦PRESERVE REGISTERS, SET UP 
♦ERROR TRAP, ETC 
* 

BEGIN 



PSHS 


X, Y, U, DP, A 


SAVE REGISTERS 


CLRA 




TEMPORARILY SET 


TFR 


A, DP 


DP 


TO ZERO 


LDA 


*1BE 


GET 


CONTENTS OF 


LDU 


* 1BF 


ERROR VECTOR 


STA 


SAVE, PCR 


AND SAVE IT 


STU 


SAVE+1 


, PCR 


FOR NOW 


LDA 


#*7E 




NOW SET UP 


LEAU 


ERROR, PCR 


ERROR VECTOR 


STA 


$18E 


WITH OUR OWN 


STU 


*1BF 


HANDLING ROUTINE 


LDA 


«s 


RESTORE A REGISTER 


STS 


STACK, PCR 


SAVE STACK POINTER 


JMP 


LB, SI 




RETURN 



* 
* 

*IF AN ERROR OCCURS, CONTROL 
*WILL PASS TO ERROR ROUTINE 
* 

ERROR LSRB 
INCB 

BRA EXIT 
* 
* 

*IF ROUTINE FINISHES PROPERLY, 
♦CONTROL WILL PASS TO DONE 
* 

DONE CLRB 

BRA EXIT 
* 
* 

♦ROUTINE TO RESTORE REGISTERS 
♦ERROR VECTOR, AND RETURN TO 
♦CALLING PROGRAM 
* 



B=ERROR CODE 
DIVIDE BY 2, ADD 1 
GO TO EXIT ROUTINE 



0=N0 ERROR 
GO TO EXIT 



AND 



ROUTINE 



02560 EXIT 


LDA 


SAVE, PCR 


RESTORE THE 


02570 


LDU 


SAVE+1 , PCR 


ERROR VECTOR 


02580 


STA 


* 18E 


TO ITS ORIGINAL 


02590 


STU 


* 1BF 


VALUE 


02600 


LDS 


STACK, PCR 


RESTORE STACK POINTER 


02610 


PULS 


A, DP , U , Y , X 


RESTORE REGISTERS 


02620 


LEAS 


2,S CLEAN UP STACK 


02630 


TSTB 


SET 


Z FLAG IF NO ERROR 


02640 


RTS 


RETURN TO CALLER 


02650 


END 


START 





80 the RAINBOW July 1983 



DO YOU HAVE A BASIC OR ASSEMBLY PROGRAM TO SELL? 

... avoid unreliable cassette tapes and recorders 

and EPROM your program! 



With EPACK, BASIC and assembly routines for color computer can be read from cassette tape and stored onto 2516. 2716 (single supply), 2732, 2532, 2564 
and 2764 styled EPROM (21 and 25 volt). These EPROM are then inserted into MMB, a game packlike cartridge that automatically executes your program 
when it's inserted into the color computer just like the game packs. 

EPACK is an excellent alternative to cassettes for programs you want to sell and for personal programs you would like to execute quickly and conveniently 
from a more reliable medium. 

NOTE: 2732. 2764 and 21 volt capability are available optionally and are not Included in the standard EPACK. ** 

EPACK consists of EPG. BROM and MMB for $150.00 

The units in EPACK are sold individually as follows. 



BROM 



Utility fits any memory size color computer. Its function is to process 
BASIC source files into a format that can be written out to EPROM by Con- 
trol Craft Inc.'s EPROM programmer (EPG) . . . and still beexecutedby the 
BASIC interpreter - but from EPROM. not RAM" 

BROM $25.00 



EPROM PROGRAMMER (EPG) 



• Zero insertion force socket 

• Personality plugs configure programmer to accept 2716 (5 volt supply). 
2532 and 2564 style EPROM. 

• Programmer's software is included on the programmer board as firmware. 

• Program sources: 

* read cassette tape files into memory and then write file to EPROM 
(files are in Radio Shack format) 

* write color computer RAM to EPROM 

* read EPROM inserted in programmer into RAM 

* write color computer ROM to EPROM 

• Functions: 

* test EPROM to see if it's unprogrammed 

* read an EPROM into color computer RAM 

* write RAM buffer out to EPROM 

* redefine the location of the RAM buffer 

* verify the programming of an EPROM 

* compare the contents of RAM buffer against an EPROM 

* edit the RAM buffer 

1. Examine/change memory locations 

2. Examine/change start buffer address 

3. Fill RAM buffer with FF hex 

* read blocks from a cassette file into RAM 

• Menu driven operation allows easy use 

• Plastic case enclosed circuitry 

• Gold plated edge connectors 

• Self-contained unit no external power supplies are used 

• Unit operates on any memory sized TRS-80 color computer 

EPG $105.00 



MULTI MEMORY BOARD (MMB) 



• Complete with support IC, sockets and decoupling capacitors 

• Accepts 2516. 2716, 2532, 2732, 2564 EPROM (included in EPACK) 

• Accepts 2016. 4016. 6116 static RAM* 

• Max capacity of 6 memory chips 

• Runs on any size TRS-80 color computer 

• Board is jumper addressable to either SC000 or $8000 

• Provisions for write protect switch , or can jumper the board to write 
protect RAM 



• Jumpers configure the memory type used on the board. Provisions for 
inserting DIP switches in place of the jumpers 

• Gold plated edge connector 

• Each IC or IC socket has decoupling cap installed 

• Plastic case is available extra, at $7.50 (pricing is subject to change 
without notice) (case included in EPACK) 

• RAM may not work with series E or later color computers. 

MMB $30.00 



** UPGRADE (optional for EPACK or EPG) 

2732-25 volt $15.00 2732-21 volt $15.00 

2764-25volt $15.00 2764-21 volt $15.00 




SDUMP 



OKIDATA owners know that in order to print graphics they lose their 
serial interface 

NOT ANY MOflEI 

Now you can print Hi-res Pmode 4 graphics images, full size and detail, 
on your OKIDATA, EPSON and other printers, without dot addressable 
capacity. 



Features: 

• Callable from BASIC routine 

• Runs stand alone with a menu 

• Relocatable 

• Automatically finds the start 
of graphics pages 

• Configurable for several printers £™ 

• Fast 

• Useable on 16 or 32 or 64 K 
machines with or without 
Extended BASIC 

• Documented 



(OKIDATA. EPSON an* RS are trademarks! 

Actual graphics printed on an OK IDA TA printer (shown reduced) 

SDUMP $20.00 

All prices subject to change without notice. 




LONTROL LRAFT INC. 

19270 North Hills Drive • Brookf ield, Wl 53005 • (414) 784-9027 
Name 



Company 
• Address _ 



City/State 



Shipping address (if different from above) 



■Zip 



Order Form: EPACK 
BROM 
EPG 
MMB 

SDUMP 

UPGRADE NO. 



@ 


$150.00 = 


@ 


$ 25.00 = 


@ 


$105.00 = 


@ 


$ 30.00 = 


@ 


$ 25.00 = 


@ 


$ 15.00 = 



Wis. residents add 5% sales tax 
Shipping & Handling: of items x $2.00/item = 

TOTAL ORDER: S 



TO OHDEH BY MAIL: SEND MONEY ORDER. CERTIFIED CHECK. CASHIERS 
CHECK MASTERCARD/VISA (include card number, inter-bank number, 
expiration date and signature). 



DEALER INQUIRIES WANTED (minimum dealer order Is 10 units! 



wSmwe Revie 




Accounting Program Has 
Uses Beyond Tax Preparations 

CoCo- Accountant is an inexpensive home accounting 
program from Federal Hill Software that allows the user to 
keep track of checks written. The object of the program is to 
all ow for easy retrieval and sorting of this information at tax 
time from the files that may be kept on casette or disk, 
depending on the version purchased. The cassette version 
comes in both 1 6K or 32K while the disk version may only be 
used with 32K. 

I have had no training in accounting and thus I would 
have no idea how close this program adheres to regular 
accounting practices. Since I do take care of the finances for 
my family as well as the yearly chore of income tax, I do see 
how useful the information that may be generated from this 
program would be. The program will list and total each 
month's checks, list and total checks by account for a given 
month or year, and display all information on the screen or 
printer. In addition, the 32K versions will flagtax deductible 
expenses and checks subject to sales tax. In the latter case, 
the user need only type in the state's sales tax and the 
program will calculate the total amount of sales tax spent 
within these flagged purchases. 

Getting the program set up and operating is easy due to 
very complete and well-written documentation (nine pages) 



INSIM Instruction Simulator 

Simulates the complete 6809 instruction set. 
Use it to quickly debug assembly programs. 
Use it to find out how other programs work. 
Use it to find out how the basic roms work. 
Output to screen or printer. 

Includes commands to examine and change memory. 
FVen has a mini-disassembler 

16K STANDARD/ EXTENDED S39.95 



COMPRESS Reduce basic program size. 
Removes spaces and comments. 

OR 16K. 



*7.95 



I NTRST1 The interest calculator 
Calculates home mortgage payments or any 
loan payments. 

Calculates interest, total interest, total 
paid, amount due. 

Calculates how much to invest now to retire 
in style in ?0 years. 

This program will calculate future values, 
credent values and much more! 

l6K STANDARD 8 12.95 

DEPREC Calculate depreciation using: 
Strait line, production unit, working hours, 
declining balance, sum-of-the-years digits. 
l6K EXTENDED 810.95 

B C ENGINEERING 

P.O. BOX 768 
MANCHESTER, MO. 630 I I 



SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER. 

MO. RESIDENTS ADD 5.625% SALES TAX. 



RAINBOW 



and a menu/ prompt system built into the program itself. 
After loading the program for the first time, the user may 
define up to 24 accounts and a two-letter account code. The 
user may then enter check information from the keyboard or 
the storage medium. It is very important to remember each 
account's code or the program will not operate correctly. 
There is an option on the main menu that will list accounts 
and codes if the user forgets, but unfortunately you can't 
make a printed copy of this list. Other options from the main 
menu allow the user to list checks by month, account or 
payee, to make a year-to-date summary, to sort by date, 
correct an error, and list all checks. The printer routine 
supports a 45-column printout of any information wanted 
from most of the various "list" options. 

I did find some limitations in the program that may limit 
the usefulness of the system for some users. The 32K disk 
version allows for up to 400 checks to be entered. 1 was 
surprised to discover that I write about 480 checks a year 
and that I would have to split the program into half-years to 
be able to use it. The cassette 32K version will take up to 450 
checks and the 16K cassette version has a capacity of 200. 
This program is not a checkbook balancer as there is no way 
to enter credits or deposits. The documentation plainly 
states that the program is a way to organize cancelled checks 
only. If you like to balance your checkbook with your Color 
Computer, you will thus be obligated to enter your check 
information twice — once for your checkbook program and 
again for this program. Finally, the program is based 
around check writing only, and thus the reality of credit card 
or cash spending is not taken into account. I would suspect 
that organizing credit spending would be as important to 
some people as watching the checks. 

Despite the limitations mentioned, I can see some ex- 
cellent uses for a program such as CoCo- Accountant. 
Besides the obvious tax preparation advantages, an easily 
accessed record of, say, gasoline, energy or computer 
expenses would be useful for many people to watch where 
the money is going. When you measure the very reasonable 
price of this program against value received, I think value is 
the winner. 

(Federal Hill Software, 825 William Street, Baltimore, MD 
21230, 16K/32K cassette $15.95, 32K disk $21.95) 

—Brian James 



Graphics Hint . . . 

To B' or Not to B' 
That is the Option 

The Extended BASIC book tells us to always use the B 
option directly before the M motion command when mov- 
ing the draw position. Their reasoning is that you may get 
unwanted lines. My point here is that you may be able to 
omit the B option and get WANTED lines a lot easier than 
with any other method. I have used this method on several 
occasions and it can be of great help. It is useful anytime you 
need to draw a line from a point to another point that does 
not fall on one of the standard angles (U E R F D G L H). 
The N (no update) option also seems to work well with this 
method. I'm sure many people are aware of this ability, but I 
have never seen anything about it and it can be very helpful. 

Harvey R. Hall 
Inola, OK 



82 



the RAINBOW July 1983 




GAME 





■1 


r the 


ECB 


l_l 


mmmm 

RAINBOW 









Dots: A Change Of Pace 



• ■ • 

• • • 

■ • ♦ 
■ • • • 



• • ♦ 9 • 4 • " * 



From Outer Space 



• f • • 



■ 



By Daniel W. Phillips-:-:'-:-:': t 

■ "Wr • • • « • • t •••••• • * » • t 



- 



Here's a beginner strategy game that most everyone 
has played at one time or another. It's a change of 
pace from the outer space craze, and easy to play for 
even the younger kids. The computer allows no 'extra' 
moves or 'missed ' captures. A nice feature of this electronic 
version of Dots is that the computer will start the game for 
you with 60 random lines. Of course, you can start from 
scratch if you like. Instructions for the game are in the 
program. 

I've included a liberal sprinkling of REMarks on the flow 
and control of the game in the listing, however, a little 
background information maybe helpful if you want to make 
any changes or additions to the game. 

The numberingscheme I used for this game appeared in a 
November 1982 Popular Computing article by George 
Stewart, titled Making Mazes. Values for the sides and box 
are as follows: 



8 



1 



I i 



0 


No Lines 


1 — 


Right Side 


2 - 


Bottom 


4 — 


Left Side 


8 — 


Top 


16 — 


Captured Box 



A complete box 
will total 15. 



The value of the box is stored in the game array A(C,R), 
where "C" is the column and "R" is the row. 

I used only two lines to make a box. The top and left side 
are the two lines used for computing values. 



As you can see, the side of 
one box is also the oppo- 
site side of its adjacent 
box. 




That is, the top of box 4 A' 
is the same line as the bot- 
tom of box 4 B\ 



The value of both boxes must be revised when one line is 
drawn. 

Although weare concerned only with values of the ten by 
ten boxes on the board, we need eleven columns and rows 
for drawing lines. Column eleven will draw the right side on 
the far right, and row eleven will draw the bottom line for the 
bottom boxes. 



The search routines are simply a series of comparisons. 
The values chosen forcomparisonare sums of the line values 
for partially completed boxes. The order of comparison was 
arranged to equalize the time used for all searches. That is, 
instead of having a 'north' search zip along and a 'south' 
search barely crawl, both should take approximately the 
same length of time. 

And that's about it! 
Variable List 

Left Joystick 
Right Joystick 
Gameboard Locations 
Column and Row 
Flag — Color of Player 
Return Dot to Original Color Counter for 

Random Lines 
Flag to Indicate Capture 
Flag for Joystick Control 
Flag for Subroutine Returns 
Work Variables 
Scores 

Game Array — Column — Row 
Work 1NKEYS— Store Number Strings (not 
dimensioned) 



LP,LH,LV 

RP,RH,RV 

H,V 

C,R 

B 

D 

F 

FP 
X,Y 

SR,SL,ST 

A(]],ll) 

N$(10) 



The listing: 



79. 
169 
289 



• • • 



. 0389 
. 0758 
OAAD 




10 CLSIPMODE1, l: COLOR 1,21 PCLS: PR 
INTQ205, "DOTS" i PRINTS234, "WRITTE 
N FOR" : PRINT@263, "COLOR COMPUTER 
BY " : PR I NTS297 , " DAN PH I LL I PS " : PR 
I NTS45 1 , " FOR I NSTRUCT IONS PRESS 
' I ' ANY OTHER KEY TO PLAY 



tl 



20 N*=INKEY*I IFN*"""THEN20 ELSE 
IF N*="I" QOSUB740 ELSE CLS 
30 PRINT@323,CHR*<175> " OR "CHR* 
(239)" WILL BE RIGHT PLAYER" : PR I 
NTH355 , CHR* ( 1 9 1 ) " OR " CHR* ( 255 ) " 

WILL BE LEFT PLAYER" 
39 REM STRINGS FOR NUMBERS 

ORIGINALLY IN A PROGRAM BY 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 83 



RON VAN DYKE IN THE APRIL 82 
TRS 80 MICROCOMPUTER NEWS 
40 N* (0) ="BM+1 , 0; H1U4E1R2F1D4B1L 
2; BM+6, 0" : N* ( 1 ) ="BM+1 , 0; Rl NR1U6G 
l5BM+6,+5":N*(2)="NR4UlElRlE2UlH 
lL2Gl;BM+7,+5" 

50 N* ( 3 ) - " BM+0 , -1 ; F1R2E1 H2E2H 1 L3 
; BM+7, 6" : N* (4 > ="BM+3, 0; U2NR1L3U1 
E3D35 BM+4, 3" : N* (5) = "BM+0, - 1 ; F1R2 
E 1 U2H 1 L3U2R4 5 BM+3 , +6 " 
60 N* (6) ="BM+4, -5; H1L2G1D4F1R2E1 
U1H1L3JBM+7, +3" : N* (7) ="U1E4U1L4; 
BM+7, +6" : N* (8) ="BM+1 , -0; H1U1E1H1 
UlElR2FlDlGlNL2FlDlGlL2;BM+6,0" 
70 N* (9)-"BM+0, -1 ;F1R2E1U4H1L2G1 
D1F1R2; BM+4, +3" : N* ( 10) ="D18R36U1 
8" 

79 REM LIST ALL VARIABLES IN 
ORDER OF MOST USE . . SET ARRAY 
TO ZERO 

80 dim A (11 , 11) : x=0: y=0:rh=0:rv= 
0: RP=0: LH=0: lv=0: LP=0: H=0: v=0: FP 
=0: D=0: C=l : R=l : B=4: ST=0: SL=0: SR= 
0:f=i:for r=itoii:for c=itoii:a( 
c,r>=0:next c,r 

89 rem dram gameboard 

90 draw"bm46,0"+n*(10) :draw"bm11 
0, 0"+n* ( 10) : draw " bm 1 74 , 0 " +n* ( 10) 
: paint ( 1 , 1 ) , 1 , 1 : gosub150: g0sub16 
0: c0l0r2, 1 : forx=48to208 step16: f 




h i P™ 1 



[! 

iieIHih 



D P C3 P ffn 

"nrm luitainRl fount rftor riniiuuffl m 



n tiiii 

,i I ■> —i 

I * '.i 



[nmwuffl m mil A\ flu 



[TO uljfjiiriiii|ij 




muni 



• 3D TIC-T AC-TOE • 

NEW!! Over 150 possible ways to win. A real challenge. Just 
when you think you won, coco beats you to it. A lirsl for the 
coco. ' 

Cassette. 32K E.C.B. $14.95 
Disc. 32K E.C.B. . $19.95 

• TIC-T AC-TOE • 

// you thought Tic-Tac-Toe is an easy game, try matching your 
wits against this version. Play it with or without joysticks. A 
specist "SMALL FRY" level ol difficulty is provided. 
Cassette. 16K C.B. $10.95 

. JUMPS . 

Q-SOFT's challenging version of a very old European solitaire 
game An ADDICTIVE board game in HI-RES graphics. 
Reviewed in Jan. 1983 issue of the "RAINBOW" on page 164 
Cassette: 16K E.C.B.. $10.95 
Cassette. 4K C.B. $ 8.95 

• THE SPIDER • 

By: CHROMATIC SOFTWARE" Alf machine language 
Annihilate the spider before he destroys you. Arcade action 
Joysticks needed. Reviewed in Jan. 1983 issue of the 
"RAINBOW" on page 160. 

Cassette: 16K $19.95 

• ONE CHECK • 

48 "CHECKERS" are placed on the two outside rows of a 
standard checkerboard. Remove as many "checkers" as 
possible, jumping diagonally. Pfay with or without joysticks 
HI-RES graphics. 

Cassette: 16K E.C.B. $10.95 

Q-SOFT >«v 

7006 ROBINHOOD DRIVE • PAINESVILLE, OHIO 44077 

C.O.D. orders add $3.00 Call 216-352-2675 



RAINBOW 



84 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



ORY=20TO180 STEP16:PSET(X,Y,2) :N 
EXTY, X 

100 F0RX=1T05:N*=INKEY*:NEXT:PRI 

NTS419, "WOULD YOU LIKE SOME RAND 

OM LINES TO GET STARTED?" 

: PR I NTS493 , " < Y-N > " ; 

110 N*= I NKEY* : I FN*= " " THEN 1 1 0ELSE 

X=RND(2)-l:SCREENl, X 

1 20 I FN*= "Y"THENFP=-l:X =RND (-TIM 

ER) :GOSUB650:FP= l: GOTO 180: ELSE 1 

80 

129 REM DRAW HORIZONTAL LINES 

130 H=(C#16)+32: V=(R*16)+4:F0R X 
=H TO (H+16) :PSET(X,V, 2) :NEXTX:R 
ETURN 

139 REM DRAW VERTICAL LINES 

140 H=(C#16)+32: V=(R#16)+4:F0R X 
=V TO (V+16) :PSET(H, X,2) :NEXTX:R 
ETURN 

149 REM COMPUTE AND DISPLAY 
SCORE FOR RIGHT PLAYER 

150 X=INT(SR/10) : Y=SR-(X#10) :pai 
NT(178,2) ,3, l:DRAW"C2;S10;BM180, 
14"+N*(X)+N*(Y) : RETURN 

159 REM COMPUTE AND DISPLAY 
SCORE FOR LEFT PLAYER 

160 X=INT(SL/10) : Y=SL-(X#10) :PAI 
NT(50,2) ,4, l:DRAW"C2;S10;BM52, 14 
" +N* ( X ) +N* ( Y ) : RETURN 

169 REM ANY CHANGE IN SCORE -DO 
ANOTHER SEARCH 

170 IF STO(SR+SL) THEN 560 

179 REM FLAGS TO START SEARCHES, 
CHANGE PLAYERS - DISPLAY 
NEW SCORES 

180 IF F=-l AND B=3 GOSUB150 ELS 
E IF F=-l AND B=4 GOSUB160 

190 IF F=l THEN IF B=3 THEN B=4 
ELSE B=3 

200 F=l : PAINT (1 16,8) ,B, 1 : SOUND20 
0,5: IF ST=100 GOTO790 

209 REM JOYSTICK INPUT 

210 RH=INT(JOYSTK(0)/3)#8+40:RV= 
INT ( JOYSTK ( 1 ) /3) #8+12: RP=PEEK (65 
280) 

220 LH=INT (JOYSTK (2) /3) #8+40: LV= 
INT (JOYSTK ( 3) /3) #8+12: LP=PEEK (65 
280) 

230 IF B=3 THEN H=RH: V=RV: FP=RP: 
IF FP=125 OR FP=253 THEN FP=255: 
GOTO250 ELSE GOTO250 
240 H=LH: V=LV: FP=LP: IF FP=126 OR 
FP=254 THEN FP=255 

249 REM SET LOWER LIMIT FOR DOT 

250 IF H<48 THEN H=48 
260 IF V<20 THEN V=20 

269 REM FLASH DOT AND SET TO 
ORIGINAL COLOR BEFORE LEAVING 

270 D=PPOINT(H,V) :PSET(H,V,2) :FO 
RX=1TO40: NEXT: PRESET (H, V) : FORX=l 



Sale — Sale — Sale 




rtxi xa csmfmcs 



LARGE CHARACTERS 
FDR SMALL CHILDREN 
OR THE VISUALLY 
IMPAIRED 

1 234567890 1 £34567890 1 

ABCDEFGH I FKLMNDPQRSTU 
VUXYZabcdefghi Jk lfinop 
qrsiuvwxyzl 



to-: 



SOLUTION ON CARTRIDGE 

The cartridge version of THE SOLUTION has all of the 
features of the tape version and more. It works with all 
of the graphic modes (including 4 colors). It includes a 
51 characters per line feature and the ability to define a 
text window on the screen. All of this and much more 
at the low price of — $34 95 
ROM-PAKS £&3S $ 7.50 

This is an empty Rom-Pak with a PC board. It will hold 
either a 2716, 2732 or a 2764. The case looks very simi- 
lar to Radio Shack's Rom-Pak. Comes complete with 
instructions. 

CUSTOM PROGRAMING 

We will put your program in a Rom-Pak for you for a 

very reasonable fee. The program can be either Basic 
or machine language. Prices start at $19.95 for pro- 
grams up to 4K in length. $29.95 for programs up to 8K. 
Volume discounts are available. Send for a free sub- 
mittal form. 



KMIIHIrH-HIHMlllHI 

* c a l a r * 

* s e r i p s i t * 
t I 

*<C) K1LGUS t 

save on t*P^ 
I o£d (ron tape 
pr in t 

cKin3* standards 



SCRIPTFX $9^S $ 4.95 

Are you tired of the upper case display of Color Scrip- 
sit? Well then SCRIPTFX is for you. This is a program 
which converts the display of Color Scripsit over to a 
real display of upper and lower case letters with des- 
cenders. The program allows all of the features of 
Scripsit to function and comes with a money back 
guarantee if it does not work. Please specify machine 
type when ordering. Extended Basic is not required. 



SUPER PILOT $ 7.95 

An enhanced version of Pilot for use with Extended Basic. 
Includes features for math, graphics, and sound, Has a 
feature that makes it easy to create flash card type drill 
programs. Programs are pseudo compiled for faster 
execution. Comes with as 24 page tutorial manual and demo 
programs. Sample program included on tape to get you 
started. 

All programs for 16K, 32K Extended Basic machines unless 
otherwise noted. All programs on cassette. Add $4.00 per 
order for disk. 

DISCOUNT — order 10 or more programs (you may mix 
types) and you will receive a 30% discount on the order. 
Dealer discounts are also available. 

SNAKE MOUNTAIN SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 5722 
RALEIGH, NC 27650 

919-828-6669 

24 hour phone COD ordering service. 




(Eottgratitlattons 

you made the right choice when you purchased a 

Color Computer. It is a very powerful machine. 

However the standard display format does not do the 
machine justice. The machine is capable of much more than 
16 lines of 32 all capital characters. Now you can give your 
Color Computer the display it deserves. THE SOLUTION 
gives the Color Computer a much better display than it nor- 
mally has, and really makes the machine shine. Its features 
include: 

• provides a screen of 42 characters by 21 lines displayed 

• linked directly to basic — program is transparent to the 
user 

• prints all 96 ASCII characters, lowercase characters 
have descenders, has a slashed zero to avoid 
confusion when programing 

• prints characters on any two-color graphic screen 

• graphics and text may be intermixed on the same screen 

• special mode with 4 lines of text at the bottom of the 
screen (just like some other famous color machines) — 
great for working with graphics 

• large character mode for small children or the visually 
impaired 

character set may be reversed 

written in machine language, program is relocatable 
fast — prints at over 600 characters per second 
works with both cassette and disk 
includes a 20 page manual with demo programs (a lunar 
lander program is included) 

SOLUTION $14.95 



EXTENDER $ $ 4.95 

Still want more than 42 characters per line from your 
computer, Then the EXTENDER is for you. This program 
when used with THE SOLUTION will give a display of 51 
characters per line by 21 lines displayed. Please include your 
program serial number when ordering. 

GRAPH LABEL $&35 $ 5.95 

Have you ever wanted to place characters on a graphic 
screen but couldn't find an easy way to do it. Well then 
GRAPH LABEL is for you. This program will enable you to 
place characters anywhere on a graphic screen. It will place 
any of 96 ASCII characters on the screen or you may create 
your own characters. It features a cursor that may be moved 
anywhere around the screen with out rubbing out what it 
goes over. Superscripts and subscripts may be used since 
the cursor may be moved vertically and horizontally in steps 
as small as one pixel. Lowercase characters have descend- 
ers. GRAPH LABEL is written in Basic and is therefore easy 
to modify. It may be used by itself or as a subroutine. 

SCREEN PRINT PACKAGE $ 5.95 

A package of 2 programs for use with the LPVII, LPVIII, 
DMP100, DMP200, DMP400, DMP500. The programs will 
print an image of what is on a graphic screen to the printer. 
Both programs work with all the standard PMODEs. The 
programs are written in machine language and may be 
moved anywhere in memory. The two programs are: 

1) SCREEN PRINT — will produce a regular size print. The 
image may be located anywhere on a page. 

2) DOUBLE SIZE SCREEN PRINT — this program will 
produce a full size image that will fill up a sheet of paper. The 
finished product is 8 by 6.5 inches in size. Your computer 
graphics look really good when they are printed out with this 
program. 

SHIPPING — add $2.00 for orders less than $20.00. Shipping 
is free on orders of more than $20.00. 
Canadians — please send money orders only. 



All orders shipped within 5 working days. 



TO30 : NEX T : PSET <H, V, B> : FORX= 1 TO50 
: NEXT: PSET (H, V, D) : IF FP=255 OR F 
P=127 THEN210 

279 REM GET NUMBER OF COLUMN 
AND ROW FROM DOT LOCATION 

280 C=INT< <H-32>/16> :R=INT< <V-4> 
/16>:IF C=0 THEN C=l 

289 REM SET COLUMN AND ROW TO 
LOW LIMIT 

290 IF R=0 THEN R= 1 : REM NOV 1982 
WRITTEN BY 

DANIEL W. PHILLIPS 

289 S. SHERIDAN ST. 

W I LKES-B ARRE , P A . 1 8702 

299 REM CHECK FOR LEGAL MOVE 
IN HORIZONTAL -IF NO LEGAL 
MOVE CHECK VERTICAL 

300 IF<H-40> /16=INT< <H-40> /16> A 
ND <V-12>/16<>INT< <V-12> /16> AND 

<PP0INT<H-3, V>=1 OR PP0INT<H-3, 
V>=5> THEN F0RX=(H-8) TO (H+8):P 
SET (X,V, 2) : NEXT: ELSE GOTO320 

309 REM ADD VALUE TO BOXES 
ADJACENT TO HORIZONTAL LINE 

310 A(C,R>=A(C,R>+8:A(C,R-1)=A(C 
, R-l) +2: IF FP=-1 THEN RETURN ELS 
E GOTO340 

319 REM CHECK FOR LEGAL MOVE 
IN VERTICAL - IF NO LEGAL 



COMPUTER 
BUSINESS FORMS 

Continuous Forms, labels, paper, checks, 
invoices, statements— all with your 
imprint. Continuous letterhead with a 
perP so Pine that you need a magniPying 
glass to tell it's a Pan Pold sheet. 
Matching envelopes. 

Regular letterhead, business Porms and 
cards also. 

Send sample Por quote. Send $3.00 
(rePundable on First order) Por our 
catalog. 

Catalog also includes computer 
Purniture. 

D€S€RT PRESS, INC. 

P.O.Box 15128 
Las Vegas, Nevada 891 1 4 



MOVE, MAKE NOISE AND GO 

BACK TO JOYSTICKS 
320 IF<H-40)/16OINT< <H-40)/16) 
AND <V-12)/16=INT< <V-12) /16) AND 
(PPOINT(H, V-3)=l OR PPOINT<H,V- 
3) =5) THEN FOR X-<V-8) TO (V+8): 
PSET(H,X,2) :NEXTELSE SOUND 100, 5: 
GOTO210 

329 REM ADD VALUE TO BOXES 
ADJACENT TO VERTICAL LINE 

330 A(C,R)=A(C,R)+4: A(C-1,R)=A(C 
-l,R)+l:IF FP=-1 THEN RETURN 

339 REM CHECK THE ONLY THREE 
BOXES THAT COULD BE CAPTURED 

340 IF A(C,R)=15 GOTO380 

350 IF A(C,R-1)=15 THEN R=R-l:GO 
TO380 

360 IF A(C-1,R)=15 THEN C=C-l:GO 
TO380 

369 REM NO CAPTURES 

370 GOTO 180 

379 REM COLOR BOX WITH PLAYERS' 
COLOR - PROTECT BOX FROM 
BEING REUSED - ADD ONE TO 
SCORE 

380 X=<C*16)+40:Y=<R*16)+12:PAIN 
T(X,Y> ,B,2:S0UND144,3: A(C,R)=16: 
IF B=4 THEN SL=SL+1 ELSE SR=SR+1 
390 IF FP=-1 THEN RETURN 

399 REM FIND CONTINUED CAPTURES 

400 IF A(C,R-1)=7 THEN R=R-l:GOS 
UB130:GOTO310 

410 IF A(C+1,R)=14 THEN C=C+2:G0 
SUB 1 40 : FP=- 1 : GOSUB330 : FP= 1 : I F A ( 
C-l , R) =15 THEN C=C- 1 : GOTO380 
420 IF A(C,R+1)=13 THEN R=R+2:G0 
SUB 1 30 : FP=— 1 : G0SUB3 10: FP= l : I F A( 
C, R-l ) =15 THEN R=R-l:GOTO380 
430 IF A(C-1,R)=11 THEN C=C-l:GO 
SUB140IGOTO330 

440 IF A(C,R-1)=11THEN R=R-l:GOS 
UB140IGOTO330 

450 IF A(C,R-1)=14 THEN C=C+1:R= 

R-l : GOSUB140: GOTO330 

460 IF A(C+1,R)=7 THEN C=C+l:GOS 

UB130IGOTO310 

470 IF A(C+1,R)=13 THEN R=R+1:C= 
C+ 1 : GOSUB 1 30 : G0T03 1 0 
480 IF A(C,R+1)=11 THEN R=R+l:GO 
SUB 1 40 : GOTO330 

490 IF A(C,R+1)=14 THEN C=C+1:R= 

R+l : GOSUB 140: GOTO330 

500 IF A(C-1,R>=7 THEN C=C-l:GOS 

UB130IGOTO310 

510 IF A (C-l, R) =13 THEN C=C-1:R= 

R+l : GOSUB 130: GOTO310 

520 IF A (C, R-l) =15 THEN R=R-l:GO 

TO380 

530 IF A(C+1,R)=15 THEN C=C+l:GO 



86 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



* COLOR COMPUTER WORKSHEET * 




EliteCalc 



NOW . . . The worksheet calculator program you've 
been waiting for is waiting to work for you. 
ELITE*CALC is a powerful, full featured worksheet 
calculator designed especially for the Color Com- 
puter. Answer "what if" questions, prepare reports, 



maintain records and perform other tasks that, until 
now, required sophisticated business computers. 
ELITE*CALC J is a serious tool for those who want to 
do more than play games with their Color Computer. 



Features include: 

Single character commands 
Help Displays 

Enter text or formulas to 255 
characters long 

Repeat text entries 

255 maximum rows 

255 maximum columns 

Available memory always displayed 

Rapid Entry modes for text and 
data 

Selectable Automatic Cursor 
movement 

Insert, Delete, Move entire rows or 
columns 

Replicate one cell to fill a row or 
column with selectable formula 
adjustment 

All machine language for speed 

Extended BASIC required for ROM 
routine calls 

Automatic memory size detection 
for 1 6K, 32K or 64K 

> 20K bytes, storage available in 
32K systems 

BASIC style formulas 

Math Operators: + , — ,X,/ r I .(,),= 

Relation Operators: 
= ,>,<,<=,> =,<> 

Logic Operations: AND, OR, NOT 

Conditional Formula: IF . . . 
THEN ... ELSE 

Trig Functions: SIN, COS, TAN, 
ATN 



* Easy to use 

* Individual cell formulas 

* Copy blocks of cells 

* Full cell-edit capability 

* Compatible with all printers 

* Graph format for bar charts 

* Sort in ascending or descending 
order 

* Comprehensive manual included 



THE BEST FOR ONLY 








Disk or Tape 

— Shipping from stock NOW 

— Dealer Inquiries Invited. 
Add $2 Postage & Handling 

PA residents add 6% sales tax 



Hike -jo^twaze 




Log Functions: LOG, EXP, SQR. 

Misc. Functions: INT, FX, ABS, 
SGN. 

Range Functions: SUM, AVERAGE, 
COUNT, MIN, MAX, LOOKUP 

Nine digit precision 

Definable constant table 

User definable printer set-up 
commands 

Individual column width settings 

Adjustable row height to insert 
blank lines without wasting 
memory 

Hide colmns or rows 

Alternate print font selectable on 
cell by cell basis 

Display/Print formats set by cell, 
row, or column 

Dollar format, comma grouping; 
prefix or postfix sign 

Scientific notation, fixed point and 
integer formats 

Left and Right cell contents 
justification 

Full page formatting 

All formats stored with worksheet 
on disk(tape) 

Save & Load Disk(tape) files in 
compact memory form 

Scan disk directories 

Output ASCII file for word 
processor input compatibility 

Memory resident code ... no 
repeated disk calls 

Sample worksheets included 



Box 1 1 224 • Pittsburgh, PA 15238 • (412) 795-8492 



From the creators of: ZAKSUND • COLOR TEXTSET I • COLOR TEXT SET It * INTER* 

GALACTIC FORCE * TEXT EDITOR * PARTY PAK • COLOR MONITOR » TREK* 1 6 * MARKINGS • 
DISK & TAPE COPY • ANIMALS * BODY PARTS * TAPE COPY and many other fine programs 



TO380 

540 IF A<C,R+1>=15 THEN R=R+1:G0 
TO380 

550 IF A(C-1,R)=15 THEN C=C-l:GO 
TO380 F 

559 REM SET FLAGS TO GIVE THE 
CURRENT PLAYER ANOTHER TURN 

560 ST= (SR+SL) : F=-l 

569 REM SEARCH OF ENTIRE BOARD 

570 FOR Y=1TO10:FOR X=1TO10 

580 IF A(X,Y)=16 THEN NEXT X,Y:G 
OTO170 

590 IF A(X,Y)=7 THEN C=X:R=Y:GOS 
UB130: GOTO310 

600 IF A(X,Y)=14 THEN C=X+1:R=Y: 
GOSUB140: GOTO330 

610 IF A(X,Y>=13 THEN C=X:R=Y+1: 
GOSUB 1 30 : G0T03 1 0 

620 IF A<X,Y>=11 THEN C=X:R=Y:GO 
SUB140:GOTO330 

630 IF A(X,Y)=15 THEN C=X:R=Y:FP 
=-1 : GOSUB380: FP=1 : X=C: Y=R 
640 NEXT X,Y: GOTO 170 

649 REM PUT RANDOM LINES ON THE 
BOARD 

650 Y=RND(10) : X=RND(10) 

660 FOR R=Y TOll IFOR C=X TOIHIF 
R=ll AND C=ll THEN NEXTC,R:X=1: 

Y=l:GOTO660 

670 IF A(C,R)=0 AND A(C,R-1)=0 A 



SOFTWARE - HARDWARE 



FOR RADIO SHACK'S TR5-80 MODEL 1/3 
TRS-BO COLOR COMPUTER 

•SEND FOR FREE CATALOG* 
UTILITY PROGRAMS ON CASSETTE 

SU-l CASSETTE COPY k 10H ||l SPECIFY l|| 

I COMPUTER I 



SU-Z CASSETTE DUMP Y lO^ 



Y-PAK 

TRS-BO COLOR COMPUTER 

S7QS2 




rPUT 
CARTRIDGE 
MERE 



TURN YOUR COMPUTER INTO A 

1- SLOT SYSTEM. SWITCH 
BETWEEN THE TWO WITH EASE. 



RECORDER STAND 




MADE OF STURDY PLASTIC 
HOLDS RECORDER AT A 
PERFECT ANGLE. 



RAM/ROM USER-PAK FOR TRS~80 COLOR }30 

'GAMES ALSO AVAILABLE* 



B.ERICKSON SOFTWARE -P0, BOX 1K399 CHICAGO IL 60611 

CALL (312)276-9712ts>INfORMATION 



ND A(C-1,R)=0 THEN IF C=>R G0T07 
10 ELSE GOTO720 

680 IF A(C,R)=0 THEN LP=A(C,R-1) 
:LP=LP+l:ON LP GOTO 710,710,690, 
690,710, 700, 690, 700, 710, 700, 690, 
700,700 

690 IF A(C,R)=8 THEN LP=A(C-1,R) 
:LP=LP+l:ON LP GOTO 720,700,720, 
700, 720, 700, 700, 700, 720, 700, 700, 
700, 700 

700 NEXTC,R:X=l:Y=l:GOTO660 

710 IF C=ll THEN 715 ELSE GOSUB1 

30: GOSUB310: GOTO730 

714 REM SPECIAL CASE * VERTICAL 
LINE FOR RIGHT SIDE OF BOARD 

715 LP=A(C-1,R) : IFLP=2 OR LP=4 O 
R LP=8 THEN 720 ELSE 700 

720 IF R=ll THEN 700 ELSE GOSUB 1 
40:GOSUB330 

730 D=D+l: SOUND D,1:IF D=60 THEN 
RETURN ELSE 650 

739 REM PRINT INSTRUCTIONS 

740 CLS : PR I NT@46 , " DOT " : PR I NT " TH 
E OBJECT OF THE GAME IS TO CO 
NNECT THE DOTS TO FORM AS MA 
NY BOXES AS POSSIBLE WITHOUT LE 
TTING YOUR OPPONENT CAPTURE AN 
Y BOXES. THE PLAYER WHO COM- PL 
ETES A BOX CAPTURES THAT BOX . " ; 
750 PRINT" THE COMPUTER WILL THE 
N SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL CAPTUR 
ES. EACH BOX COUNTS FOR ONE PO 
INT. WHEN ALL CAPTURES ARE 

MADE FOR A TURN, THE SCORE IS 
UPDATED, AND THE PLAYER WILL D 
RAW ONE MORE L I NE . " : PR I NTS483 
, "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTIN 
760 N*=INKEY*:IF N*=""THEN760 EL 
SE CLS 

770 PRINTS35, "A TONE WILL SOUND 
WHEN. . . ":PRINT@97, "A- AN ILLEGAL 
MOVE IS ATTEMPTED B- THE DOT IS 
BACK ON THE BOARD AFTER A SE 
ARCH C- AS EACH CA 

PTURED BOX IS FILLED WIT 

H THE PLAYERS COLOR": PR I 

NT@489, "PRESS ANY KEY" ; 
780 N*=INKEY*:IF N*=" "THEN 780 E 
LSE PRINT@489,STRING*<13,CHR*<32 
) > ; : RETURN 

789 REM SHOW BOARD AFTER FINAL 
CAPTURE - THEN PLAY AGAIN 
OR QUIT 

790 FOR X=1TO2500:NEXTX:CLS:PRIN 
T@205 , " DOTS " : PR I NTS45 1 , " FOR ANOT 
HER GAME PRESS 'A' TO END 

PRESS ANY KEY" 
800 N*=INKEY*:IF N*= ""THEN 800EL 
SE IF N*="A" THEN RUN: ELSE END 



88 the RAINBOW July 1983 




3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

True lower case characters 

User-friendly full -screen 
editor 

Right justification 

Easy hyphenation 

Drives any printer 

Embedded format and 
control codes 

Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for. the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



...one of the best programs/ or the Color 
Computer I have seen.. . 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/V1U, DMP-I00/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer feauires like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 

Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, pariial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, lop of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 





. . . truly a stale of the art word processor, 
outstanding in every respeci. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognkec 

704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Calif ornians add 6% slate tax. Allow 2 
weeks for persona] checks. Send self-addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Micro. 8#-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
information.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-8# is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★^ 




Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world 
your high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in the Rainbow's 
Scoreboard column. All entries must be received by the first of the month to be eligible for the following 
month's Scoreboard. 



* New Number One 



ft Last Month's Number One 



SCORE PLAYER 



SCORE PLAYER 



SCORE PLAYER 



ASTRO BLAST 



158,000 
92,000 
79,914 
75,314 
71,000 
64,000 
63,025 

AVENGER 

14,075 
1 1 ,560 
5,345 
5,000 

BERSERK 

22,050 



if Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 
ft Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 
Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
Mike Hall. Hartland. Wl 
Emil Hayek, State College, PA 
Robert R. Franks, Jr.,Toledo, OH 
Russell Wronski, Palatine, IL 



if Stephen Lai, Palatine, IL 
ft Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

Craig Schubert, Newfoundland, NJ 
Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

^ Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 



10,250 ft Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 

10,070 Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 

7,800 Mike HalL Harland, Wl 

6,150 Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 

BUSTOUT 

34,700 if Sara Hennessey, Golden Valley, 

28,720 Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 

25,510 ft Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 

5,942 Norbert Berenyi, Northvale. NJ 

CANYON CLIMBER 

23,400 * Craig 



MN 



M. Arnold. Dallas, TX 



CATCH 'EM 

91,000 ft Dean Bouchard, Kingston, N~vaScotie 
65,768 Laura Sandman, Louisville, KY 

CATERPILLAR 

30,029 if Ron Rhead, Willowdale, Ontario 

CAVE HUNTER 

42,600 ft Gary Ritchie, Bellevue, Alberta 
26,300 Mike Hughey, King George. VA 
21,150 Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 

CLOWNS & BALLOONS 

65,050 if Brian Gould, Basking Ridge, NJ 

61,700 ft Dan Dowling, San Bruno, CA 
46,930 Stephen Shotts, Blacksburg, VA 
42,430 Joanne Ledson, North Bay, Ontario 
25,450 Norbert Berenyi, Northvale, NJ 
22,700 Shelley Partridge, Warkworth. Ontario 

COLOR HAYWIRE 

14,650 * Todd C. Hauschildt, Red Wing, MN 
14,350 Mike Hughey, King George, VA 
10,900 John Cole, King City, Ontario 
10,450 Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 
10,250 ft Pat Downard, Louisville, KY 

COLOR INVADERS 

166,425 if Jim Baker, Fiorissant, MO 
126,350 Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
101,240 Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 
83,000 ft Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

COLOR METEOROIDS 

252,050 if Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 
206,000 Peter Johnson, Chino, CA 
197.400 John Scannell, Renton, WA 
153,000 Steve Lewallen, Centerville, OH 
149,000 ft Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 



COLOR SCARFMAN 

976,520 if Bruce Thornhill, Barrhead, Alberta 

539,100 Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 

523,340 Fred K. Herrman, Flemington, NJ 

506,560 ft Russ Eubanks. Jay, ME 

488,730 Del Alexander. San Antonio, TX 

417,740 Danny Eldridge, Fair Oaks, CA 

401,990 Cynthia Eldridge, Fair Oaks. CA 

COLORPEDE 

2,139,248 * 
2,005,227 ft 
1,329,868 
1,104,029 

684,117 

539,941 

469,142 

386,506 

323,946 

317,361 

287,341 

206,558 

173,904 



Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 
Jennifer Maxey, Kalamazoo, Ml 
Russ Eubanks, Jay, ME 
Gary Ritchie, Bellevue, Alberta 
David Blyn, Staten Island, NY 
Brian Hsu, Holmdel, NJ 
Michael Rader, Hardtner. KS 
Robert Rahmes, Silver Spring, MD 
Herbert Ponder, Jacksonville, FL 
Lyman Green, Jr., Ballouville, CT 
Robert Denton, New Baden. IL 
Kim A. Cook, High Point, NC 
Andrew Herron, High Point, NC 

COLOR ZAP 

227,330 if Ron Rhead. Willowdale, Ontario 

COLOUR PAC ATTACK 

472,465 if Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
193,000 ft Cameron Amick, Reisterstown. MD 
51,150 Emil Hayek, State College. PA 
27,500 David Rosicky, Pittsburgh, PA 

CONQUEST OF KZIRGLA 

10,399 ft Scott Sehlhorst, Columbia, SC 

DEFENSE 

58,900 ft Greg Scott, Orlando, FL 

DOODLE BUG 

825,000 ■ 
355,440 
343,000 
338,590 
294,930 
260,000 
45,580 



r John Cole, King City, Ontario 
Bette Munitz, Bellerose, NY 
Mike Hughey, King George, VA 
Joanne Ledson, North Bay, Ontario 
Stephen Lai, Palatine, IL 
Jeff Pyne, Port Mouton, Nova Scotia 
Mrs. Sandy Nierste, Clio, Ml 

DOUBLEBACK 

89.840 if Craig M. Arnold, Dallas, TX 
50,110 ft Mary H. Thomas. Louisville. KY 
43,660 Ron Moore. Wellsville. OH 
27,680 Andrea L. Herron, High Point, NC 

DUNKEY MUNKEY 

1,618,800 * Bryan Bloodworth, Federal Way, WA 

1.099,400 ft Andrew Herron, High Point, NC 
1.000,500 Wendy Johnson, San Jose, CA 
1.000,001 Grant Gillott, Calgary, Alberta 
626.400 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
508,000 Robert Denton, New Baden, IL 
333.300 Rob Uriano, Framingham. MA 
308.000 Mitch Cohen, Framingham, MA 

THE FROG 

15,400 * Debbie Purdy, Dearborn, Ml 

FROG TREK 

10,370 * Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
7,160 ft Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 



GALACTIC 

54,200 
48,320 
43,010 
39,140 
25,210 

23,600 
22,240 
21,260 
18.120 
17,310 
16,660 



ATTACK 

if Mike Hughey, King George, VA 
John Cole, King City, Ontario 
Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 
Greg Onlofsky, Ridgefield .Park, NY 
John & Krista McCallum, 

Woodburn. OR 
John McCallum, Woodburn, OR 
Daniel Mi lb rath, Ann Arbor, Ml 
Brian Caulley, Reynoldsburg, OH 
Lenny Munitz, Bellerose, NY 
Tyler Bolen, Wheaton, IL 
Jeff Willard. Chireno, TX 



GALAX ATTAX 

46,450 if Robert Rahmes, Silver Spring, MD 

33.350 Aaron Cundiff, Livermore, KY 

33,000 Todd Zuehl. Livermore, KY 

30,350 Mark Raphael, Englishtown, NJ 

GHOST GOBBLER 

825,250 ft Randy Gerber, Wilmette, IL 

103,590 Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 

58,270 Mike Hall. Hartland, Wl 

49,880 Steven Picone, Leomister, MA 

INVADERS REVENGE 

32,600 ft Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 

INVASION 

82,000 ft Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 

KATER PILLAR ATTACK 

14,375 * Norbert Berenyi, Northvale, NJ 

12,703 ft Warren Schubert, Newfoundland, NJ 

12,544 Todd C. Hauschildt. Red Wing. MN 

12,100 Peter Stumpfi. McHenry, IL 

9.137 Ron Rhead, Willowdale, Ontario 

THE KING 

1,858,000 * Mike Hughey, King George. VA 

1,000,000 Debbie Purdy, Dearborn, Ml 

805,700 ft Dave Mercer, Marissa, IL 

486,500 Frank Bottino, St. Louis, MO 

448.900 Alan Mack. Penn Yan, NY 

388,500 Carl Castillo, Yorktown Heights, NY 

332.100 Candy Harden, Birmingham, AL 

319,500 Ben Lattin, Cosmopolis. WA 

239,100 Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 

238,100 Bill Schultz, High Bridge. NJ 

231.400 Tom Schultz, High Bridge, NJ 

167,200 James Whitt. San Antonio, TX 

131,200 John Ottesen, E. Hanover, NJ 

118,800 Brian Rugges, Dayton. OH 

110,000 Robert R.Franks, Jr., Toledo, OH 

KOSMIC KAMIKAZE 

49,900 ft Mark Raphael, Englishtown, NJ 

MEGA-BUG 

13,783 * 
12,236 ft 
1 1 ,886 
10,628 
10,250 

9.049 

9,019 

8,535 

8.313 

7,973 

5,991 



Donald Habben, Morrison, IL 
Claude Malepart, Montreal, Quebec 
John Tiffany, Washington. D.C. 
John Yapp, Park Forest, IL 
Benjy Nicholls, Lincoln. NE 
Sheri Louis. Streator, IL 
Scott Little, Somers, IA 
Pete McCallum, Woodburn, OR 
Chizuru Gannon. Eilson AFB. AK 
Christine Hoff, Decatur, IL 
Shizuka Gannon, Eilson AFB, AK 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



SCORE PLAYER 



SCORE PLAYER 



SCORE PLAYER 



METEORS 

17,810 * 

MICROBES 

259,700 ft 
88,120 
80,400 
63,570 
59,330 
44,750 

MR. MUNCH 

24,680 ft 



Lenny Munitz, Bellerose, NY 

Sheila Coleman, Griffin, GA 

Kevin Little, Somers, IA 

Ken Miller, Yardley, PA 

Greg Scott & Greg Shields, Orlando, FL 

Cathie Habben, Morrison, IL 

Daniel Milbrath, Ann Arbor, Ml 

Alan Mack, Penn Yan, NY 



MONKEY KONG 

1,028 * Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 
963 ft Mark Dowling, San Bruno, CA 

MONSTER MAZE 

60,000 * Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 
53,130 Michael Partridge, Warkworth, Ontario 
30,000 ft Claude Malepart, Montreal, Quebec 
9.590 John Tiffany, Washington, D.C. 

NIBBLER 

14,910 * 

OFFENDER 

965.400 * 

PAC ATTACK 

88,450 * 



Christal Glovinsky, Staten Island, NY 

Jim Baker. Florissant, MO 

Matthew Brenengen, Lake Elmo, MN 
Tyler Bolen, Wheaton, IL 



31,635 

30,650 ft Peter Niessen, Carlisle.MA 

PAC-DROIDS 

577,140 if Richard Cochrane, Wayne, NJ 

140,300 John Yapp, Park Forest, IL 

48,640 ft Murray Schechter, New York, NY 



47.000 
41,380 
38,060 
36,900 
36,000 
29,500 

PACET-MAN 

5,000 ft 
3,392 * 



Robert M. Russo, Marriotsville, MD 
Benjy Nicholls, Lincoln. NE 
Percy Butler, Canton, ME 
Jack Rains, Montreal, Quebec 
Wayne G. Perry, Charlottesville, VA 
Richard D. Gordley, Castleton, IL 



Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Norbert Berenyi. Northvale, NJ 

PHANTOM SLAYER 

180 ft Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 

PINBALL 

66,650 "fr Ken Miller, Yardley. PA 

PLANET INVASION 

286,075 Larry Plaxton, Medley, Alberta 

257,900 Ron Rhead, Willowdale, Ontario 

221,350 John Cole, King City, Ontario 

207.150 Mike Hughey, King George, VA 

74.350 Benjy Nicholls, Lincoln, NE 

69.500 Jeff Pyne, Port Mouton, Nova Scotia 

68,650 Robert Rahmes, Silver Spring. MD 



POLARIS 

151,154 * Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 

101,000 ft James Quadarella, Brooklyn, NY 

98,500 John Cole, King City, Ontario 

59,522 John Yapp, Park Forest, IL 

57,500 Scot! Little, Somers. IA 

49,737 Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 

49,247 Ron Rhead, Willowdale, Ontario 

45,541 Brad Behrendt, Vermillion, OH 

POLTERGEIST 

4,956 ft Mark Dowling, San Bruno, CA 

4,745 Bette Munitz, Bellerose, NY 

4,455 Ken Miller, Yardley, PA 

POPCORN 

110,570 ft Cameron Amick, Reisterstown. MD 

56.000 James Quadarella, Brooklyn, NY 

PROTECTORS 

358,514 ft Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

154,967 Frankie Jimenez, Mesa, AZ 

94,000 Gerry Schechter, Yonkers, NY 

RAIL RUNNER 

38,360 * Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 

13,195 Lenny Munitz, Bellerose, NY 

ROBOTTACK 

1,197,800 if Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 

939,300 Robert Kiser, Monticello. MS 

702.200 Stephen Lai, Palatine, IL 

527,700 Richard Slapp, Lake Elmo.MN 

523,010 Steve Lewallen, Centerville, OH 

358,300 Emil Hayek. State College, PA 

255,800 Sam Heitz, Chicago, IL 

213,870 Carol Wierzba, Southgate, Ml 

SHOOTING GALLERY 

28,500 if Kenneth Partridge, Warkworth, Ontario 

16,370 Saul Munitz, Bellerose, NY 

SHUTTLE SIMULATOR 

565 ft John W. Fraysse, Dahlgren, VA 

SKIING 

40.10 if Fred K. Herrmann, Flemington, NJ 

49.43 John Scanlan, Prairie Village, KS 

52.22 Peter Johnson, Chino, CA 

1:12.11 Benjy Nicholls, Lincoln, NE 

1:13.13 Norbert Berenyi, Northvale. NJ 

1:13.17 Donald Habben, Morrison, IL 

1:13.40 Daniel Milbrath, Ann Arbor. Ml 

SKY DEFENSE 

6,700 ft Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 

6,120 Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 

5,200 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

SOLO POOL 

103 ft John W. Fraysse, Dahlgren. VA 




SPACE ASSAULT 

238,580 if John Cole, King City, Ontario 
157,140 David Milbrath, Ann Arbor, Ml 

156,650 ft Nathan Miller, Portland, QR 
135,080 Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 
122,230 Robert Lightheart, Ellwood City, PA 
105,000 Rodney Garner, Denton, NC 
66,870 Fred K. Herrmann, Flemington, NJ 
54.280 John Yapp, Park Forest, IL 
36,930 Tyler Bolen, Wheaton, IL 
33,100 Brian Gould, Basking Ridge, NJ 
29,270 Todd Little.Somers, IA 

SPACE INVADERS 

62,300 ft Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

SPACE RACE 

59,825 if Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 

58,100 John Cole, King City, Ontario 

31,525 ft Gregg Scott, Orlando, FL 

4,000 Danielle Gardner, Louisville, KY 

SPACE SHUTTLE 

594 ft Steve Schweitzer, Sewell, NJ 
511 Larry Reitz, Toledo, OH 

SPACE WAR 

400,190 if Mark Felps, Bedford, TX 

116,000 ft Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

52,380 Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 

STARBASE ATTACK 

21,628 ft Mark Raphael, Englishtown, NJ 

STARBLASTER 

408,245 ft Mark Dowling, San Bruno, CA 
325,790 Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 
126,135 Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 
80,001 Alan Lewis, Ridgefield, CT 

STARFIRE 

2,102,450 ft Dean Bouchard. Kingston, Nova Scotia 

1,320,150 Joy Bailey, Lexington, NC 

1,120,000 Emil Hayek, State College, PA 

698,200 Robert E. Courts, Batonia, OH 

618,400 Peter Stumpfi, McHenry, IL 

563,200 Daniel Milbrath, Ann Arbor, Ml 

STARSHIP CHAMELEON 

72,600 if Jim Baker, Florissant, MO 
68,500 ft Cameron Amick. Reisterstown, 
64,800 David Rosicky, Pittsburgh, PA 

STORM 

723,335 ft 
472,320 
380,000 
240,745 
193,965 

VENTURER 

2,152,150 ft 
1,769,400 
1,526,200 

803,100 

344,550 

ZAXXON 

401,900 * 
81,800 ft 
78,190 
74,136 
65,600 
57,200 



MD 



Chris Sweet, Harvard, MA 
John Jaworski, Nashua, NH 
Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Todd C. Hauschildt, Red Wing, MN 
Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 

Greg Scott, Orlando, FL 
Todd C. Hauschildt, Red Wing, MN 
Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
Emil Hayek, State College, PA 
Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 

Mike Hughey. King George, VA 
Matt Cox, Roseville, CA 
Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
Rod Moore, Wellsville, OH 
Debbie Purdy, Dearborn, Ml 
John Scanned, Renton, WA 



By Edward R. Carson 



This program was written to assist all of us Little League 
coaches who have spent hours after each game writing 
down each players' at bats, hits, runs, etc., trying to figure 
out all the averages. Well, here is a program to do it for you. 

Stats will keep track of at bats, hits, runs, walks, strike 
outs and batting average. For the pitchers it tracks innings 
pitched, earned runs, hits, strikeouts, walks and earned run 
average. 

There is space for 15 players. In the pitching program 
there is space for seven pitchers. 

The program is easy to use and the menus are self-explan- 
atory. But, you must input all players' names first or zeros 
will be entered in place of the name. 

As you are entering the statistics, you will hear a warning 
tone as you go from one set of statistics to the next. I found 
this helpful as I went through the scorebook with my head 
down. 

On a 16K, ECB, CLOA D "STAT" then PCLEAR 1 and 
RUN. 

1 am looking forward to having Stats help me this year; 1 
hope it can help you, also. 



The listing: 



W in 







9100 . 


.. 118E 


1020 . 


. . 02B1 


9370 . 


.. 1339 


3080 . 


. 0441 


9640 . 


.. 14E2 


3340 . 


. 0623 


9890 . 


.. 1689 


5010 


07C5 


10060 


. . 1926 


5086 


0A27 


10215 


. 1ACF 


7095 . 


0C34 


10370 


..1C3F 


8230 . 


0E0E 


10540 


. 1DCD 


8530 .. 


0FFC 


END . 


.. 1F65 



5 CLEAR 1500: CLS 

10 :DIM PL$(20> ,AB$(20> ,HT*(20> 
,R$(30> ,K$(20> , BB*(20> , AV(20> 
12 : : 

15 'LITTLE LEAGUE STATS 
20 * BY ED CARSON, 3/15/83 

22 : 

30 CLS:PRINTTAB(8) "BASEBALL STA 
TS 11 

35 PRINT STRING* (32, "*") 

(Mr. Carson is a chief operator and instructor for the 
Tinken Company in Columbus, Ohio. He and his wife, 
Marilyn, have three sons. Mr. Carson has spent the 
last 16 years of his spare time coaching baseball, was 
president of the Center burg Little League, and is now 
secretary -treasurer of the Tri-County Babe Ruth 
. ^league.) ) 




50 PRINT @ 102, " (1 ) INPUT PLAYERS 



60 PRINT @134, " (2 ) ADD TO LIST" 
70 PRINT @166, " (3) INPUT STATS" 
80 PRINT @198, " (4)PRINT ALL PLAY 
ERS" 

90 PRINT @230, " (5)PRINT STATS" 

100 PRINT@262, ■• (6) SAVE TO TAPE" 

110 PRINT6294, " (7>L0AD FROM TAPE 
ii 

120 PRINTQ326, " (8) ADD TO STATS" 

121 PRINT6358, " (9) PITCHERS 
130 PRINT @427, "WHICH" 

135 PRINTQ459, " (1-9) " 
140 INPUT M 

150 IF M<0 OR M>9 THEN 30 

160 ON M GOSUB 1000,1055, 3000,4 

000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000 

170 GOTO 30 

190 : 

995 REM: INPUT PLAYERS 

1000 cls:y=i 

1010 CLS: PRINT @ 8, "INPUT/ADD PL 
AYERS" 

1020 PRINT @34, "PRESS<ENTER>WHEN 



92 



the RAINBOW July 1983 




ELIMINATE 
THE CLUTTER 




THE ORGANIZER 

ALBUMS TO HOLD YOUR CASSETTES 

Store and organize your cassette library. The Organizer is 
constructed of black vinyl with rigid molded plastic frame to 
prevent crushing. Label holder welded on the spine for quick 
identification of contents. Order albums filled with BASF- 
DPS, C-IO tapes and get an even better deal! 
Item Price 



Organizer- 


1 2 with Tapes 


$12.95 


Org^nizer- 


• 1 2 without Tapes 


$6.95 


Organizer- 


■6 with Tapes 


S8.95 


Organizer- 


■6 without Tapes 


$4.95 



Shipping: $2.00 for first item. 4- $.50 for each additional item. 




THE COCO-SWITCHER 

A QUALITY PIECE OF HARDWARE 

The CoCo Switcher allows you to hook up three peripherials 
to your RS-232 jack. Connect your modem, printer and any 
other RS-232 compatible peripheral to the CoCo Switcher. 
Select among these peripherials at the flick of a switch on the 
front of the CoCo Switcher or turn them all off. No more 
scrambling around behind your computer No more risk of 
harming your computer's RS-232 port. An LED on the CoCo 
Switcher shows if your computer is on or off at a glance. 

The CoCo Switcher is contained in a sturdy black anodized 
steel box which sits firmly on rubber feet. 
Dimensions: IVi' (64mm) x 4" (1 02mm) x 5 7 /s" (150mm) 
$39.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay Laboratory 

316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

California Residents, Add 6% Sales Tax to Orders 




THE COCO-WRITER 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE'S NEW 
WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 

(For the TRS-80 and TDP-100 Color Computers) 

EDITING FEATURES 

Pleasant green, white and black display. Full screen editing 
with cursor control. All keys repeat automatically. Tne word 
wrap-around eliminates split words on the screen. Edit any 
ASCII file, including Basic programs. Use the calculator 
functions of your computer without losing your document in 
memory. 

Insert, delete or type over characters. 
Insert, split, delete or copy lines. 
Insert, copy, move or delete blocks of text. 
All insert, delete, move and copy commands are completed 
virtually instantaneously. Instantaneous response to keyboard 
input. Even the fastest typist is not likely to out pace the CoCo- 
Writer. Find any word or character string in the document. 
Memory count and status indicators show on the edit screen. 
All 128 ASCII characters can be entered from the keyboard. 

PRINTING FEATURES 

Justify text at right or left margin. Justify text at both margins 
simultaneously for a professional looking document (such as 
this text) . Automatically center text for titles and letter heads. 
Automatically number pages beginning at any number 
between 0 and 255. Print part or all of a document. Repeat 
printing of all or any portion of a document up to a 1 00 times. 
Select single sheet or continuous form printing. Embedded 
printer controls. Change justification, print font, and line 
spacing with commands in the text which do not print in the 
document. Print in upper/lower case or all capital letters. 

TAPE FEATURES 

Document memory space with 1 6 K: 7424 characters. 
Memory space with 32K: 23,808 characters. The CoCo- 
Writer has the same features on either a I6K or 32 K system 
and automatically adjusts to memory upgrade. Load and save 
files in ASCII or binary format. Load and edit the ASCII files 
produced by other word processors. Save part or all of a 
document on tape. Merge tape file into existing document in 
memory. 

ADDITIONAL FEATURES OF DISK VERSION 

Spool printing feature allows simultaneous editing and 
printing. Menu selections simply and quickly controlled with 
cursor. Control I to 4 disk drives. Load and save files on disks in 
any one of these drives. Split screen disk directory for all disk 
input and output menus. Improved directory scrolling. File 
names do not disappear off the top of the screen. Error 
trapping for all disk file names. If you enter an invalid 
command, the command will be terminated and the system 
will report the type of error. 

CoCo-Writer comes with excellent documentation. The 
clearly written manual includes a table of contents and an 
index. A separate, sturdy, laminated card contains a summary 
of all commands for quick reference. 

CASSETTE VERSION I6K OR 32K EXTENDED BASIC 

$34.95 

DISK VERSION ON CASSETTE I6K OR 32K 

EXTENDED BASIC 

$44.95 

(Protect your investment' Quick and automatic casseiie load 
onto disk providing a dependable disk backup.) 



FINISHED" 
1030 PR I NT : PR I NT "PLAYER " Y ; 
1040 INPUT PL*(Y) 

1045 IF LEN(PL*(Y) > >7 THEN 1046 
ELSE 1050 

1046 Y=YI PR I NT: PR I NT" RE< ENTER > 
PLAYERS NAME USE (7) LETTERS O 
NLY" 

1047 FORT=1TO920:NEXT T:GOTO1030 
1050 IF PL$<Y)=""GOTO 30ELSE 106 
0 

1055 Y=Y:GOTO 1010 
1060 Y=Y+1 
1070 GOTO 1030 
1080 ; 
1090 : 

2999 REM: INPUT HITS 

3000 CLS:SOUND200,5:FOR Y=l TO 1 
5 

3010 PRI NT" PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 
SHED" 

3020 PRINT"ENTER HITS FOR " ; PL* ( 
Y) : 

3030 INPUT HT*(Y> 

3040 IF HT$(Y)=" " THEN 3100 

3050 Y=Y+1 

3060 GOTO 3020 

3080 : 

3099 REM: INPUT AT BATS 

3100 CLS: SOUND 200,5:FORY=1 TO 1 



DEALERS PLEASE WRITE FOR DISCOUNTS 




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ONLY $5.95 PPd 



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* INDIVIDUALLY BOXED 

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RAINBOW 



Srnd Checfc Of money OKlpr lo 



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MANUFAC IIJRING CO 



P O Box 30 
(206)365-0359 Mountlake, Terrace, WA 98043 



in Canada send 14.95 to oup Canadian distributor 
^ KELLY SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTORS LTD. 



P.O. BO* 1 i 932 EDnOHTON. ALBERTA T5j 3L1 



3110 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 
SHED" 

3120 : PR I NT "ENTER AT BATS FOR "P 
L*(Y> 

3130 INPUT AB*<Y> 

3140 IF AB$ < Y ) = " " THEN 3200 

3150 Y=Y + 1 

3160 GOTO 3120 

3180 : 

3199 REM: INPUT RUNS 

3200 CLS: SOUND 200,5: FOR Y= 1 T 
O 15 

3210 PRINT 11 PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FIN 
I SHED" 

3220 PR I NT "ENTER RUNS FOR " PL* 

<Y> 

3230 INPUT R*<Y> 

3240 IF R*<Y)=""THEN 3300 

3250 Y=Y+1 

3260 GOTO 3220 

3280 : 

3299 REM: INPUT STRIKE OUTS 

3300 CLS: SOUND 200,5: FOR Y=l TO 
15 

3310 PR I NT "ENTER STRIKE OUTS FOR 

"PL* (Y) 
3320 INPUT K*<Y> 
3330 IF K$<Y)=""THEN 3400 
3340 Y=Y+1 



NORTH WEST DATA 

15% to 20% OFF 







NOW JUST: 


Donkey King 


TM 


$21.20 


Colorpede 


Int 


$25.45 


Astro Blast 


MD 


$19.96 


Doodle Bug 


CW 


$19.96 


Space Race 


Sp 


$18.65 


Planet Invasion 


Sp 


$18.65 


Pacdroids 


PG 


$15.96 


Starfire 


Int 


$18.65 


Haywire 


MD 


$19.96 



PRINTERS 



GEMINI 10 

Serial Card for GEMINI 



$339.95 
$74.95 



Special prices in our news letter 
that only our customers 
will know about!! 

Write or call for catalog. 

NORTH WEST DATA 

P. O. Box 7175 Spokane, Wa. 99207-0175 

(509) 489-5133 

Add 5% for postage and handling 
Add $3.00 for C.O.D. orders 
No C.O.D. on PRINTERS 



94 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



Complete Personal Accountant: 

we've made the best 

much more friendly. 




If you have any doubts that we offer the best and 
most complete personal financial package available, 
look over the features listed below. Now we have 
the only package with full screen editing for Atari 
400/800f TRS-80 COLOR, Commodore 64* and 
VIC-20; the ability to move the cursor in any direc- 
tion makes our accountant-designed package ^ 
even more friendly than before. No one else 
offers all of these: A 

1. CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE- ^| 
automatically balances your checkbook ^^^^H 
with each entry; manages checks, ^^^^^H 
charges, deposits, and interest quick- ^^^KBr 
ly and accurately. A ■ 

2. CHART OF ACCOUNTS- ^^Kf 
maximum of user flexibilty with ^^^^^^^^H 
up to 99 accounts plus 9 sub- ^^^^^^^^^A 
categories may be defined. A 

3. CHECKSEARCH-mul- 

tracks items ^^^^M^^^^y 

on every field including ^^Bf 
tax deductibles. A 

4. NET WORTH/ A « 
INCOME/EXPENSE A 
STATEMENT- M^^^^m 
know-exactly- ft 
where-you-stand ^ ^ 

program generates ^tj^^T 

statements with the ^^^^ A 

touch of a key. \ A 

5. DETAIL & SUMMARY A 
BUDGET ANALYSIS— an ^J^, 
absolute necessity in financial i ^^^H 
planning. mm 

6. CHECK WRITER-prints N^Jl 
personalized checks** 

'Random Access available for disk. **32K only. 



7. PAYMENTS/APPOINTMENTS CALENDAR- 
monthly displays of up to 250 bills and 200 
appointments. 

8. COLOR GRAPH DESIGN PACKAGE -graphs 
all monthly files. 

9. MAILING LIST— maintains all records, sorts by 
name or zip, allows add/change/delete. 

^ 10. FRIENDLY USER MANUAL— complete 
with indexing, flow charts and diagrams; the 
most thorough documentation on the 
^^^^ market. 

^H^^ This all adds up to the finest personal 

financial system available— compre- 
f hensive enough for a small business. 

Less than one hour of data input 
X per month will allow this menu- 

A driven package to help you 

^Hk handle your finances with a 
^^H^^ lot more fun than drudgery. 

.^V^^Hk Plus,oursistheonly 
^^^^k expandable system; pur 
^V^^^^^ chase the package in 

sections and add on 
as your financial 
needs grow. Fea- 
I KjSI W tures1,2,3and6: 

Wkm V 539.95 diskette, 

$36.95 cassette; Fea- 
tures 4 and 5: $29.95 
^^^^Krw^^W diskette, $26.95 cassette; 
^^^^Fjk^^m Features 7, 8 and 9: $29.95 
^^HT^B diskette, $ 26.95 cassette; or 
^^V^Hf save $19.90 or S15.90 
^P^J^r respectively by buying the 

W*A entire system for $79.95 dis- 

YsWjm kette, $74.95 cassette. 




Prices subject to change without notice. See your local dealer or order direct. New catalog available. 
Add $3.00 for postage and handling. Credit card orders call toll free: 

1-800-334-SOFT 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



programmer's 





a division of FUTUREH0USE, INC 

p.o. box 3470, dept. R, chapel hill, north Carolina 27514, 919-967-0861 



3350 GOTO 3310 
3360 : 1 

3399 REM: INPUT WALKS 

3400 CLS: SOUND 200,5: FOR Y=l TO 
15 

3410 PR I NT 11 PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FIN I 
SHED" 

3420 PRINT M ENTER WALKS FOR "PL* ( 
Y) 

3430 INPUT BB$<Y> 

3440 IF BB$ ( Y ) = " " THEN 30 

3450 Y=Y+1 

3460 GOTO 3420 

3570 : \ 

3900 REM PRINT PLAYERS 

4000 FOR X= 1 TO Y -1 STEP 15 

4010 FOR Z=X TO X + 14 

4020 PRINT Z;PL*<Z> 

4030 NEXT Z 

4040 NEXT X 

4100 INPUT"PRESS<ENTER>TO CONTIN 

UE" ;c$ 

4110 RETURN 
4130 : \ 

4990 rem: print stats 

5000 cls:for y=i to is: goto 5010 

5005 Y=Y 

5010 V=40:I$="AB HT R K B 
B AV" 



C a TaCoMb! 

The best features of many games packed in- 
to one! Avoid enemy patrols while getting 
fuel for your escape from the CATACOMB! 
Then travel the hyperspace corridor to your 
mot her ship as you dodge space mines and 
enemy ships. Hi-Res, Multi-Screen, Multi- 
Color, Machine Language, Fast Action!! 

16K Tape $19.95 Disk $23.95 

Joystick Required 

PEEK COPY **h,, 

■ 

Copies machine language tape programs, 
even most autostart! Displays start, end, ex- 
ecute addresses and memory! Allows you to 
change or insert machine code! The copy 
program with a difference! Written in 
machine language. 

16K Tape $11.95 

please add $2.00 for each order 
postage/handling, 
(extended basic not required) 

Oregon Color Computer 

PO Box 11468 Eugene Or 97440 



5020 PRINTS8, I* 

5030 y=y:let ht=val<ht$<y> ) :let 

ab= val<ab$<y> ) 

5035 if ab=0 then ab=1 

5040 AV=HT/AB*1000 

5045 F=FIX (AV) 

5046 LN=LEN <AB$ (Y) ) : MB=4-LN 

5047 IF LEN<AB$<Y> > <>4THENAB$ < Y> 
=AB$<Y)+STRING$<MB, " " ) 

5048 AN=LEN (HT* ( Y) ) : CB=5-AN 

5049 IF LEN<HT*<Y> > 05THENHT* < Y> 
=HT$ ( Y ) +STR I NG$ ( CB , " " ) 

5050 BN=LEN<R$<Y> ) : DB=4-BN 

5051 IF LEN<R*<Y> X4THENR* < Y> =R$ 
(Y) +STRING$ <DB, " 11 ) ELSE 5052 

5052 CN=LEN<K$<Y> > : EB=4-CN 

5053 IF LEN ( K$ ( Y ) )< 4THENK$ ( Y ) =K$ 
<Y)+STRING$<EB, " " ) 

5054 EN=LEN <BB* < Y> > : DB=3-EN 

5055 IF LEN<BB*<Y> X 3THENBB* < Y> = 
BB$ ( Y ) +STR I NG$ ( DB , " " ) 

5065 PRINTPL$<Y> : PRINT6V, AB$ < Y> H 
T$<Y)R*<Y>K*<Y>BB$ (Y)F 
5081 Y=Y+l:lF Y=16 THEN 5100 
5083 V=V+64: IF Y=60R Y=12 THEN 5 
085 ELSE 5030 

5085 INPUT "PRESS ENTER TO CONTIN 
UE" ;c$ 

5086 CLS: GOTO 5005 

5100 I NPUT 11 PRESS< ENTER >T0 CONTIN 
UE"; C* 
5110 GOTO 30 

6000 CLS: PRINT® 135, "SAVE STATS O 
N TAPE" 

6010 PRINT6235, "REWIND TAPE" 
6020 PRINT6300, "PRESS PLAY AND R 
ECORD" 

6030 PRINT6388, " PRESS< ENTER > WHEN 

READY" 
6040 INPUT C$ 
6050 0PEN"0",#-1, "STATS" 
6060 FOR Y=1T015-1 

6070 PRINT #-l,PL*<Y>,AB*<Y>,HT* 
<Y> ,R*<Y> ,K$<Y> ,BB$<Y> , F 
6080 NEXT Y 
6090 CLOSE#-l: RETURN 
7000 CLS: PRINT© 136, "LOAD STATS F 
ROM TAPE" 

7010 PRINT6235, "REWIND TAPE" 
7020 PRINT@300, "PRESS PLAY" 
7030 PRINT@388, "PRESS< ENTER >WHEN 

READY" 
7040 INPUT C$ 
7050 OPEN" I ",#-1, "STATS" 
7060 Y=l 

7070 IF EOF(-l) THEN 7097 

7080 INPUT #-l,PL*<Y>, AB$<Y),HT 

*<Y> ,R$<Y> ,K$<Y> ,BB*<Y> , F 

7095 Y=Y+1 



96 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Your largest single source of programs and products for the COLOR COMPUTER / TDP 100 



THE GEMINI-10 
AN ASTRONOMICAL ARRAY 
OF FEATURES 
FOR A DOWN-TO-EARTH PRICE 






SAVE $80.00 

Our incredible Gemini-10 package - a 
PRINTING SYSTEM ready to plug in to 
your Color Computer NOTHING MORE 

TO BUY. Includes serial to parallel 
converter, graphic screen print software, 
deluxe user manual, and 5 minute setup 
instructions! A $479.00 value. Complete 
package ONLY $399*. 

Parallel printer only, $319/ Order yours 
today! 




GEMINI-10 
DOT MATRIX PRINTER 



MORE QUALITY: 100 cps • thruput time of 48 Ipm • high resolution 
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MORE FLEXIBILITY: super/subscript • underlining • backspacing 

• double strike mode • emphasized print mode • 2.3K buffer 

• compatible with most software supporting leading printers • 10" 
carriage • 15" carriage Gemini-15 available 

MORE RELIABILITY: 180 day warranty (90 days for head & ribbon) 

• mtbf rate of more than 5 million lines • print head life of more 
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THE POWER BEHIND THE PRINTED WORD 



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ORDERING 
INFORMATION 

ALL ITEMS SHIPPED 
FROM STOCK 
Phone orders 
may be placed at: 

(312) 260-0929 
(Our voice line), 

or with your 
computer at: 

(312) 260-0640 
(Our MODEM line) 

C.O.D. orders gladly accepted, 
$2.00 additional. 

Mail orders 

and requests for catalogs 
should be sent to: 

SOFT CITY 
442 Sunnyside 
Wheaton, IL 
60187 

*10 shipping & handling fee on 
all printers. 



VISA 



MasterCard 



Ji/l TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

* « F0R the COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616) 364-4791* 




"THE FROG" 

(C) 1983 



SPACE 
SHUTTLE 



1983 
32K Ext. Basic 



*** ARCADE ACTION*** 

This one will give you 
hours of exciting play. . . 
Cross the busy highway 
to the safety of the me- 
dian and rest awhile 
before you set out across 
thes swollen river team- 
ing with hidden hazards. 
Outstanding sound and 
graphics. 




16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 

$27.95 TAPE 
$30.95 DISK 



$28.95 
TAPE 
ONLY 

This program gives you the real 
feeling of flight. Full instrumenta- 
tion complete to the max. Actual 
simulation of space flight. 32K 
Ext. Basic 




THE 
KING 



1982 

32K Machine Language 
$26.95 tape 
$29.95 disk 



ARCADE ACTION ■ How high can you climb? Four full graphic 
screens. Exciting Sound - Realistic graphics. Never before has 
the color computer seen a game like this. Early reviews say: 
Just like the arcade - Simply outstanding! 



"YAAZEE" 

(C) 1983 

$19.95 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
EXT. BASIC 




"TRAPFALL" 

By KEN KALISH 
(C) 1 983 




** 'ARCADE ACTION*** 

The "Pitfalls" in this 
game are many. Hidden 
treasures, jump over the 
pits, swing on the vine, 
watch out for alligators, 
beware of the scorpion. 
Another game for the 
Color Computer with the 
same high resolution 
graphics as "The King." 




16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 

TAPE $27.95 



DISK $30.95 



Yaazee is a 2 player game using five dice to get the 
best poker hand. After game is loaded flashing 
digit below player number determines which 
player rolls dice at the start of the game. 




PROTECTORS 

Exciting fast paced arcade 
game that looks and plays like 
the popular arcade game 
"DEFENDER", 

Wave after wave of enemy 
fighters drop bombs on your 
city. Destroy them before they 
destroy your city. Soon the 
mother ships appear firing laser blasts at you. Watch for the 
heat seeking mines. 

$24.95 TAPE $27.95 DISK 32K MACHINE CODE 



COLOR GOLF 

Now sit at your computer and play 
nine or eighteen holes. Outstanding 
graphics in the fairway or on the 
green. Helps your game. 
32K EXTENDED BASIC $17.95 

ADD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX 




KATERPILLAR 
ATT AC K 

Outstanding graphics and sound will 
end all of those trips to the arcade. So 
much like the arcade you have to see it 
to believe it. Requires Ext. Basic. 
16K MACHINE LANGUAGE $21.95 
DISK $24.95 

OTHER GREAT GAMES 

ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K 

BIRD ATTACK-A fast paced machine language arcade game. 
Shoot the birdmen before they descend upon you. Watch out 
for their bombs! 16K Machine Language $21.95 

MAZE RACE- Maze race is a one or two player game. Play either 
against the built in timer or against your favorite opponent. 16K 
Machine Code $17.95 

SOLO POOL-Now play pool with your color computer. Two 
players. Plays like machine language. Super color. High resolu- 
tion graphics. 16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

ADVENTURES 

TREK-16-Travel thru space with Spock and Capt. Kirk. Adven- 
ture. Tough! Ext. Basic. $17.95 

SHIPWRECK-Escape from a desert isle if you can. Great 
Adventure! Ext. Basic. $14 95 

ESCAPE FROM SPECTRE (Graphic Ad venture)- You are a 

secret agent for British Intelligence sent on a mission to obtain 
the secret nerve gas formula being developed by S.P.E.C.T.R.E. 
to destroy the world. 16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

Call our BBS Number 616-364-6217 24 Hours a Day 

> TOP ROYALTIES PAID 

LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 




TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

•FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616) 364-4791* 



UTILITIES 



COLOR MONITOR-Written in position independent code. (May 
be located in any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 
1174 bytes of memory. Full Featured. Includes Break-Pointing 
of machine language programs, register display and modify, 
memory display and modify, and block memory move com- 
mands. Displays memory in hex and ascii format on one line 8 
bytes long. MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 

ROMThis program is a utility that will move "most" 8K Rom- 
Packs to disk and allow you to run them from disk. Easy to use. 
Requires 64K. $17.95 

SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE-Using your Epson or Microline 
Printer. Print the screen contents on a full size8V2 x 11 sheet. 
16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

TAPE DUPE Now — an all new Tape Backup Program. Even 
copies those hard to copy Auto-Execute Programs. Protect 
your software by making a backup copy. Probably the finest 
tape copier program ever. 16K Maching Language. TAPE $21.95 

DISK $25.95 



DISK TO TAPE-, Dump the contents of most disk, to tape 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

TAPE TO DISK - Load the contents of most tapes to disk 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

MAIL LIST-Maintain a complete mailing list with phone 
numbers etc. Ext. Basic. DISK BASED $17.95 

THE FIXER-Having trouble moving those 600 Hex progams to 
disk? The fixer will help. Completely automatic. $17.95 

TAPE CAT-AII new machine language program lists contents of 
tapes to printer. Make a catalog of your tapes. $17.95 

PROGRAM PRINTER UTILITY-Thls program will list basic pro- 
grams to your printer in two column format. Saves paper and 
makes your listing look professional. Disk based. $17.95 




EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE For The Color Computer and TDP 100 



STORY PROBLEMS is a program that is designed to give practice in 
solving STORY PROBLEMS (sometimes called STATEMENT, THOUGHT 
or WORD PROBLEMS) on the COLOR COMPUTER. It is suitable for use 
in either a home or school environment. It is also a tool that will allow 
you to create newstory problems to suit your children's needs and abili- 
ty levels. It has many features that make it particularly attractive: Story 
problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division or a 
combination of the four are presented to the student by slowly scrolling 
each letter of each problem onto the screen. Up to 5 students may use 
the program at the same time. There are 4, user modlfiabale, skill levels. 
1 6K Ext. Basic TAPE $19.95 

CLOCK-With the ever increasing use of digital clocks, more and more 
young people are unpracticed in the use of the "ANALOG" clocks. You 
remember those, the ones with the hands. This programi will attempt to 
teach the relationship between the two types of clocks. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $14.95 

SPELLING TEST is designed to give a standard oral spelling test using 
the audio track of the computer's tape recorder to dictate test words and 
sample sentences. Student responses are typed on the keyboard and 
checked by the computer. Results are displayed on the screen and (if 
connected) on a printer. REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

MATH DRILL is a program designed to help children to practice addi- 
tion, subtraction, multlpiFcatton.and division skills on the COLOR COM- 
PUTER. It has several features that make its use particularly attractive. 

• Up to 6 students may use the program at the same time. 
•Answers for addition, subtraction and multiplication are entered 

from right to left, just as they are written on paper. 
•Commas may be included in the answers. 

• Partial products for the multiplication problems may be com- 
puted on the screen. 

•Division answers that have a remainder are entered as a whole 
number followed by the letter "R" and the remainder. 
•There are ten, user modifiable, skill levels. 

•A "SMILEY FACE" is used for motivation and reward. Its size in- 
creases relative to the skill level. 

•Skill levels automatically adjust to the student's ability. 
•A timer measures the time used to answer each problem and the 
total time used for a series of problems. 

•After a problem has been answered incorrectly the correct answer 
appears under (above in division) the incorrect answer. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT BASIC $19.95 

WORD DRILL is designed to give a multiple choice vocabulary quiz. 
Words and definitions are entered into the program from the keyboard or 
from a tape file. The computer displays a randomly chosen definition 
and eight word choices. Jn& student must enter his response before a 
built in timer reaches zero. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 



SEARCH- A-WORD This Program generates a word search puzzle to your 
specifications. You specify the size of the puzzle and the number of 
words that it is to hide within the puzzle. 16K or 32K Ext. Basic. 
TAPE $17.95 FLEX VERSION $27.95 



EDUCATIONAL PACKAGE - SPELLING TEST - 

WORD DRILL — MATH DRILL - ESTIMATE — 
ALL FOR - $69.95 



ESTIMATE is a program designed to help children to practice estimating 
the answers to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division 
problems on the COLOR COMPUTER. It has many features that make its 
use particularly attractive: 

• Up to 5 students may use the program at the same time. 

•There are 5, user modifiable, skill levels. 

•The acceptable percent error may be changed as a student's skill 
improves. 

•A timer measures the number of seconds used to answer each 
problem and the total time used for a series of problems. 

•If a problem has been answered incorrectly, the student Is told the 
percent error and asked to try again. 

•If a problem is answered incorrectly a second time, the student Is 
told the correct answer and the range of acceptable answers is 
displayed. 

•A report is given at the end of each set of problems that Includes the 
number of problems done, the number of problems answered cor- 
rectly on the first try and the averac© percent error. 

•The (BREAK) key has been cSfsablgd so that a child will not in- 
advertently stop the program from running. 

16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

TEACHERS' DATABASE is a program designed to allow a teacher to 
keep a computerized file of information about his/her students. There 
are many features that make this program particularly attractive. 

• Information on as many as 100 students (or more) may be In the 
computer at one time. 

• Each student may have as many as 20 (or more) individual 
items of data in his/her record. 

• The program will run from cassette or disk. 

• Cassette and disk files are completely compatable. 

• The program Is menu driven. 

• Records may be easily changed, deleted, combined or 
added. 

• information about students may be numerical or text. 

• Records may be quickly alphabetized. 

• Records may be sorted by various criteria. 

• Records may be reordered (ranked) loased on test scores or 
other data. 

• Data displayed during a sort may be printed on a printer or 
saved on disk or cassette as a new file. 

• A full statistical analysis of data may be done and sent to the 
printer. 

• Student test scores may be weighted. 32K EXT BASIC TAPE $39.95 



VISA 




DISC $42.95 

Call our BBS Number 616-364-8217 24 Hours a Day 

• ADD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING • TOP ROYALTIES PAID • 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX • LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 




7096 GOTO 7070 

7097 CLOSE*- l: RETURN 
7200 : 

7900 REM: ADD STATS 

S000 CLS: SOUND 1,5: FOR Y=l TO 15 

8010 CLS: IF Y=16 THEN 8100 

8020 PRINT PL*(Y)"S"" HITS THIS 

GAME" 

8030 INPUT H2: 
8040 HT=VAL < HT* ( Y ) ) 
8050 HT*(Y)=STR*<HT+H2) 
8060 Y=Y+l: GOTO 8010 
8080 : 

8090 : rem: add at bats 

8100 S0UND1,5:F0R Y=l TO 15 

8110 CLS: IF Y=16 THEN 8200 

8120 PRINT PL*(Y)"S"" AT BATS TH 

IS GAME" 

8130 INPUT H3: 

8140 AB=VAL(AB*(Y) ) 

8150 AB*(Y)=STR*(AB+H3) 

8160 Y=Y+l: GOTO 8110 

8180 : 

8190 : REM: ADD RUNS 

8200 SOUND 1,5: FOR Y=l TO 15 

8210 CLS: IF Y=16 THEN 8300 

8220 PRINT PL*(Y)"S"" RUNS THIS 

GAME" 

8230 INPUT R2: 



8240 R=VAL(R*(Y) ) 
8250 R*(Y)=STR*(R+R2) 
8260 Y=Y+l: GOTO 8210 
8280 : 

8290 : REM: ADD STRIKE OUTS 

8300 SOUND 1,5: FOR Y=l TO 15 

8310 CLS: IF Y=16 THEN 8400 

8320 PRINT PL*(Y)"S ""STRIKE OUT 

S THIS GAME" 

8330 INPUT K2: 

8340 K=VAL(K*(Y)> 

8350 K*(Y)=STR*(K+K2) 

8360 Y=Y+l: GOTO 8310 

8380 : 

8390 : REM: ADD WALKS 
8400 S0UND1,5:F0R Y=l TO 15 
8410 CLS: IF Y=16 THEN 8500 
8420 PRINT PL*(Y)"S"" WALKS THIS 

GAME " 
8430 INPUT B2: 
8440 B=VAL ( BB* ( Y ) > 
8450 BB*(Y)=STR*(B2+B) 
8460 Y=Y+l:GOTO 8410 
8480 : 

8490 : REM NEW AVERAGES 

8500 FOR Y= 1 TO 15 

8510 CLS: IF Y= 16 THEN30 

8530 LET HT=VAL ( HT* ( Y ) ) : LET AB=V 

AL(AB*(Y) ) 



COLOR COMPUTER <and TDP-lOO OWNERS ■ ! ■ 

DO YOU HAVE A 32K SYSTEM WITH 64K MEMORY CHIPS?? ARE YOU STILL BEING TOLD YOU CM ONLY USE 32K FROM BASIC?? 

DON'T BELIEUE IT! - KEY COLOR SOFTWARE brinqs you the KEY-264K. An exciting NEW SOFTMRE utility that allows any 
STANDARD 32K COLOR COMPUTER TO ACCESS 64K R*S FROM BASIC, and with NO HARC&RE MODIFICATIONS REQUIRED! ! I 

The KEY-264K divides the 64K ram memory into two 32K banks or sides, each of which can be utilized independently 
by the BASIC interpreter, with the ability to switch instantly from one side to the other. IT'S LIKE HAVING TWO 
COMPUTERS IN ONE!! Have your BASIC program on one side and keep your variables on the other side, or have your 
main program on one side and your subroutines on the other side, or have your program on one side and use tne 
other side for 4 additional HI-RES pages y or any combination you like. The possibilities are endless because the 
KEY-264K allows full communication between sides plus the ability to switch back and forth at will, all from 
within BASIC. You could also have different programs in each side and switch back and forth between them using 
simple keystrokes, even while the urograms are running!! Or run them both at the sane time in the 
F C^ESROUND/EAC-KGROlJtsll> MULTI-TASKING mode. Don't buy that printer buffer yet! With the KEY-264K you can be printing 
in the background side while utilizing your computer normally in the foreground side AT THE SAME TIME!!! Debugging 
a program? Use either a BASIC commanJ or simple keystrokes to instantly duplicate- your progran, in it's present 
status, onto the opposite side. Switch to the opposite side later and pick up exactly where you were before! 

For USK users, the KEY-264K allows you to alternate between DISK and EXTENDED BASIC on the sane side with simple 
nt^LSk? 5 " No need t0 pul1 y° ur controller or power down. You can be in EXTENDED BASIC on one side and in 
DISK BASIC on the other side and still switch back and forth and have full cownuni cat ions between the two sides. 

The KEY-264K does all this and MORE thru extensions to the BASIC interpreter, No need to learn a new laflguaqe'ii 

IHaIMA .ftS.ffil" 26 * adds 15 NEW C£MiANDS and 1 function to BASIC, including powerful new BLO K MEMORY MOVE and 
GRAPHICS VIEWING commands, 

NOTHING ELSE LIKE IT - YOU VE TO SEE IT TO BELIEVE JT !!!!!! 

T ^ e u K II^5^ w P,liLy y J,?L?V5tems with B E", *F" or even modified "D" boards and requires EXTENDED or DISK BASIC 
with GOOD 64K MEMORY CHIPS! Systems with piggy-back. 32K or half-good 64K memory chips WILL NOT WORK!!! 

ORDER YOUR KEY-264K CASSETTE TODAY by sending check or money order for $39.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling 
(Mass. residents add Sf sales tax) to: 

KEY COLOR SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 360 
HARVARD MA. 01451 



100 the RAINBOW July 1983 



8535 IF AB=0THEN AB=1 
8540 AV=HT/AB*1000 
8550 GOTO 30 
8900 CLEAR 500 
9000 CLS 

9006 PR I NTTAB (9) "PITCHING STATS " 

9007 PRINT STRING* (32, "*") 

9010 PRINTTAB (7) "WHICH DO YOU W 
ANT" 

9015 PRINT STRING* (32, "-") 

9020 PRINTTAB (8) "(1) LIST PITCH 

ERS" 

9030 PRINTTAB (8) "(2) ADD TO LIS 
T" 

9040 PRINTTAB (8) "(3) INPUT STAT 
S" 

9050 PRINTTAB (8) "(4) PRINT STAT 
S" 

9060 PRINTTAB (8) " (5) ADD TO STAT 
S" 

9070 PRINTTAB (8) "(6) SAVE TO TA 



ll 



9080 PRINTTAB (8) "(7) LOAD FROM 
TAPE" 

9085 PRINTTAB (8) "(8) RETURN TO 
MENU 

9090 PRINTTAB (13) "(1-7) ?" 
9100 INPUT W 



9110 ON W GOSUB 9190,9200,9310,9 
820, 10000, 10500, 10600,30 
9120 IF W*=""THEN 9110 
9130 : 

9160 REM: INPUT PITCHERS 
9180 : 

9190 CLS:FORY=lTO 7 
9200 Y=YICLS 

9210 PRINTTAB (11) "INPUT PITCHERS 

II 

9220 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER>WHEN FIN I 
SHED " 

9230 PR I NT "PITCHER" Y,* 

9240 INPUT PT*(Y) 

9250 IF PT*(Y)="" THEN 9000 

9260 Y=Y+1 

9270 GOTO 9230 

9290 : 

9300 REM: INPUT STATS 

9310 CLS:F0RY=1T07 

9320 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 

SHED" 

9330 PRINT: PRINT"HITS GIVEN UP B 
Y "PT*(Y) 
9340 INPUT HG*(Y) 
9350 IF HG*(Y)="" THEN 9410 
9360 Y=Y+1 
9370 GOTO 9330 



DATABASE / MAILER - 'CC-DBM' 
LETTER WRITER - 'CC - LW 

introductory offer - FREE! CC-LW 



$49.95 

$39.95 



with the 
purchase of 



CC-DBM 



Database/ Mailer "CC - DBM" 



16K or 32K 



• Simple to use even for the novice 

• Active Main Menu guides user to valid operations. 

• 32K disk (or tape) allows 59. (61) to 338, (351) records. 

• 16K disk (or tape) allows 1 2, (1 5) to 72, (86) records. 

• 4 to 10 fields, 5 to 27 widths, 20 to 270 char /record. 

• All user definable with default values for ease of use. 

• Automatic memory sense adjusts to the size of your system. 

• Fast Basic sort byany field with "Percent Sorted" display. 

• Automatically adjusts for empty address lines - no gaps. 

• Print up to 9 line labels on envelopes or mailing labels. 

• Optional special printer codes for customized labels. 

• Master printout with 2 column format including field name. 

• Automatically prints header with date, paging and filename. 

• Works with any printer, use friction or tractor feed. 

• Selective printing by any field or field range. 

• Optional multiple copies of mailing labels. 

• Single screen 10 record display by user defined field. 

• Single key entry provides hard copy of screen data. 

• Comprehensive 25 page users manual with flow diagrams. 

• Includes detailed instructions for user modification. 

• Compatible with CC-LW for mail-merge, form letters, etc. 



Letter Writer "CC - LW " 



16K or 32K 



• Much easier to use than a 'word processor. 

• Allows fast single page letter writing. 

• Embedded commands for centering, multiple line skip, 
tabbing and optional indent new paragraph. 

• 16K or 32K tape or disk. 

• Edit mode allows you to delete or insert text. 

it Uses CC-DBM data files for form letter capability. 

• Works with any printer and standard paper. 

• Excellent users manual. 



CC-DBM 16K, 32K disk or tape 
CC-LW 1 6K, 32K disk or tape 
PLEASE SPECIFY TAPE OR DISK - 



$49.95 



$39.95 



RAINBOW 

<f.flip<JiOa 





To order, send check or money order to: 

EVS Engineering 
9528 Suite 35, Miramar Road 
San Diego, CA 92126 

Or check your local software dealer. For questions, credit card 
orders, call (619) 695-1385 or (619) 566-6013 on weekdays 
8 A.M. to 4 P.M. PST. We will be glad to help. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 

California residents please add sales tax - 6%. 
Allow 2 weeks for personal checks. 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 101 



9390 : 

9400 : REM: INNINGS PITCHED 

9410 CLS:F0RY=1T07 

9420 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 

SHED" 

9430 PRINT "INNINGS PITCHED FOR " 
;PT*(Y) 

9440 INPUT IP*(Y) 

9450 IF IP*(Y)=""THEN 9520 

9460 Y=Y+1 

9470 GOTO 9430 

9500 : 

9510 REM: STRIKE OUTS 

9520 CLS:F0RY=1T07 

9530 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 

SHED" 

9540 PR I NT "STRIKE OUTS FOR "PT*< 
Y) 

9550 INPUT SO*(Y) 

9560 IF SO*(Y>=""THEN 9620 

9570 Y=Y+1 

9580 GOTO 9540 

9600 : 

9610 REM: WALKS 

9620 CLS:F0RY=1T07 

9630 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 

SHED " 

9640 PR I NT "WALKS GIVEN UP BY "PT 
*(Y) 



[ 



Including SEMIGRAPHIC-8 EDITOR 

+ UTILITIES 

—Disk and Tape utilities 

-Boot -from disk or tape 

—Graphics and Sound commands 

—Printer commands 

—Auto-repeat and Control keys 

-Fast task multiplexing 

-Unique TRACE function in kernal 

-Clean INTERRUPT handling 
in HIGH-LEVEL FORTH 

-CPU CARRY FLAG accessible 

-Game of LIFE demo 

-ULTRA FAST: written in assembler 

-Directions included for 
installing optional ROM in 
disk controller or cartridge 

-Free Basic game "RATMAZE" 



FORTH 



H OYT S 



OYT OTEARNS ELECTRONICS 

4131 E.CANNON DR PHOENIX. ARIZONA 85028 

602-996-1717 



9650 INPUT W*(Y) 

9660 IF W*(Y)=""THEN 9720 

9670 Y=Y+1 

9680 BOTO 9640 

9700 : 

9710 REM: EARNED RUNS 
9720 CLS:FORY=lT07 

9730 PR INT "PRESS< ENTER >WHEN FINI 
SHED" 

9740 PR I NT "EARNED RUNS ALLOWED B 

Y "PT*<Y> 

9750 INPUT ER*(Y) 

9760 IF ER*<Y>="" THEN 9000 

9770 Y=Y+1 

9780 GOTO 9740 

9800 : 

9810 : REM: PRINT STATS 

9820 CLS: FOR Y=l TO 7 

9830 PR I NTS 10, "HT":PRINT@13, "IP" 

9840 PRINTS17, "K" : PRINTS20, "BB " 

9850 PR I NTS24 , " R " : PR I NTS27 , " ERA " 

9860 LET ER=VAL<ER*<Y> > 

9870 LETIP=VAL<IP*<Y> > 

9880 I FER=0THENEV=0 

9881 IF ER=0THEN 9897 

9890 EV=ER/IP*7 

9891 IF LEN(HG*(Y> X3THENHG* < Y> = 
HS*(Y)+" ":GOT09891 

9892 IFLEN<IP*<Y> X4THENIP* ( Y) =1 
P*(Y)+" ":GOT0 9892 

9893 I FLEN ( SO* ( Y ) X 3THENS0* ( Y ) =S 
0*<Y>+" " :GOT0 9893 

9894 IFLEN(W*(Y) X4THENW* < Y> =W* < 
Y)+" ":G0T09894 

9895 I FLEN ( ER* ( Y ) X 3THENER* ( Y ) =E 
R*<Y>+" ":GOTO 9895 

9896 IF LEN(PT*(Y) X8THENPT* ( Y) = 
PT*(Y)+" ":GOTO 9896 

9897 EV*=STR*<EV> 

9898 IF LEN<EV*<Y> X5THENEV* < Y> = 
EV*(Y)+" ":GOT09898 

9900 PRINT PT*<Y>TAB(10>HG*<Y> I 
P*<Y> SO*<Y> W*<Y> ER* ( Y) EV 
9910 Y=Y+1 

9920 IF Y=8 THEN 9930 ELSE 9860 
9930 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >TO CONTIN 
UE": INPUT C* 
9940 GOTO 9000 
9960 : 

9970 : REM: ADD STATS 
10000 CLS: FOR Y=l TO 7 
10010 CLS: IF Y=8 THEN 10070 
10020 PR I NTTAB ( 7 ) " ADD TO PITCHIN 
G STATS" 

10030 PRINT: PRINT PT*(Y) ,, S" 
10035 PR I NT : PR I NT " I NN I NGS PITCHE 
D THIS GAME" 

10040 INPUT 12: IP=VAL(IP*(Y) ) 
10050 IP*(Y)=STR*(IP+I2) 
10060 Y=Y+l:G0TO 10010 



102 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



SELECTED SOFTWARE 



FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



All programs are in 1 6K machine language unless noted. 



$21.95 



$21.95 



MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

SPACE RAIDERS New Invader-type game. $24.95 
Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. You'll love it. 

ASTRO BLAST Excellent space shooting $24.95 
game. Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

COLOR HAYWIRE Classic arcade game, $ 1 9.95 
rated A+ by Color Computer magazines. 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

ANDROID ATTACK Excellent berserk type $21 .95 
game. Comes with 16K and 32K. 32K version 
will talk. 

MS. GOBBLER (32K) Outstanding Pa.c Man- 
type game with 4 different mazes and 1 6 skill 
levels. 

WHIRLYBIRD RUN Pilot a chopper over a 
varying terrain while dropping bombs and firing 
missiles to destroy enemy bases, ships and 
missiles. 

GALAX ATTAX Protect your base by 
shooting alien fighter in formation. Excellent 
Graphics and Sound. 

SPACE RACE Maneuver yourself in space 
but alien ships appear and must be destroyed. 
Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

PLANET INVASION Excellent Defender-type 
game. Highest-Res Graphics and Sound. 

DEFENSE Defend your spaceships from 
enemy laser beams. 

SPACE WAR You must break through the 
enemy fighters and the defenses of Death Star. 
Super fast. 

SPACE INVADERS Fast action Invader 
game. Excellent Graphics and Sound. 

GHOST GOBBLER Highly rated Pac Man- 
type game. 1 6 skill levels and lots of action. 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD Super adventure 
game! Great sound! You never play the same 
twice. 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

DONKEY KING (32K) Just Outstanding! 

KATERPILLAR Excellent Centipede-type 
game. Highly rated by Color Computer 
magazines! 

WAR KINGS Battle to save your castle and 
king. Hi-Res Graphics with Outstanding Sound. 

PROTECTORS (32K) Excellent Graphics and 
Sound. 

MED SYSTEMS 

INVADER S REVENGE You are the last sur- 
vived space invader. You must revenge! 

PHANTOM SLAYER Enter the deadly cata- 
combs and destroy the phantoms, 3-D Graphics. 

INTELLECTRONICS 

DUNKEY MUNKEY (32K) Absolutely excel- 
lent Donkey Kong-type game. You'll love it! 

STAR FIRE One of the best Defender-type 
game. Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

INTRACOLOR 
COLORPEDE Just like the arcade. 
ROBOTTACK Just like the arcade. 



$21.95 

$21.95 

$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 

$17.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 



$24.95 
$24.95 

$19.95 
$24.95 

$19.95 
$19.95 

$21.95 
$19.95 



THE PROGRAMMER'S GUILD 

PACDROIDS The most challenging Pac Man- 
type. Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

CHROMATIC SOFTWARE 

THE SPIDER Travel the channels destroying 
the spiders before they get you. Super action. 
Excellent Graphics and Sound. 



$29.95 
$24.95 

$19.95 



$19.95 



$39.95 



$34.95 



$21.95 



$19.95 



$24.95 



DATA SOFT 
Top Notch Games 

ZAXXON (32K) Maneuver your ship through a 
battlefield of state-of-the-art missiles, anti-aircraft 
tanks and enemy planes. Survive all that and 
you'll meet the deadly ZAXXON Robot! 

MOON SHUTTLE Pilot your moon shuttle 
through outerspace avoiding man-o-wars, 
meteors, bomb launchers and expandos to meet 
the prince of darkness. But watch out for his 
darkest side. 

COMPUTERWARE 

DOODLE BUG Just like ladybug in the 
arcade. 

THE CORNSOFT GROUP 
FROGGER Just like the arcade. 

ELITE SOFTWARE 

ZAKSUND (32K) Fly your spaceship through 
enemy star bases. Avoid guided missiles, lasers 
and firing turrets. Can you reach their leader? 

SOFT SECTOR MARKETING 

MASTER CONTROL II Comes with plastic 
keyboard overlay and complete easy to 
understand manual. 

COLOR GRAPHIC EDITOR This program 
permits the creation of graphic pictures on the 
screen that can be saved to disk for later use. 
Requires extended BASIC or DISK BASIC. 

COLOR BONANZA 50 programs on 6 
cassettes stored in an attractive package. Some 
require extended BASIC. 

SUGAR SOFTWARE 
Extended BASIC Programs 

TIMS Excellent personal database management 
system. 

GALACTIC-HANGMAN Top-rated Hang 
man game. Can you find a better one? 

NELSON SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

SUPER COLOR WRITER II Version 3.0. 

64K Compatible Tape $69.95 

Rompak $89.95 

SUPER COLOR TERMINAL Version 3.0. 

64K Compatible Tape $49.95 

Rompak $59.95 



$19.95 



$19.95 



$39.95 



$24.95 
$14.95 



UPGRADE YOUR COLOR COMPUTER! 

Complete solderless kits with easy-to-follow instructions 
4K-16K $15.95 
4K-32K $49.95 
16K-32K $34.95 

64K CHIP SET 

Eight 41 64-200 NS Prime ICs $54.95 
Note: All ICs used in our kits are first quality 
200NS Prime Chips and carry one full year warranty. 



* Requires Joystick ** Joystick Optional 

ORDER 2 ITEMS AND GET 1 0% OFF! 

We pay postage on all orders in the United States 
and Canada. Overseas please add $3.00 
We accept check or money order. 
U.S. funds only for foreign orders. 

Send to: g ELECTED SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 32228, Fridley, MN 55421 

(MN Residents add sales tax.) 



10070 INPUT "PRESS ENTER TO CONTI 
NUE" ; 6$ 

10075 ON 6 SOTO 10110 
10080 SOTO 10110 
10090 : REM: ADD HITS 
10100 : 

10110 CLS:FOR Y=l TO 7 

10112 CLS:IF Y=8 THEN 10160 

10115 PRINT PT*(Y) 

10120 PRINT:PRINT"HITS SIVEN UP 

THIS SAME" 

10130 INPUT H2:HT=VAL(HS*(Y) ) 
10140 HG*(Y)=STR*(H2+HT) 
10150 Y=Y+l:IF Y=8 THEN 10160 EL 
SE 10112 

10160 INPUT"PRESS<ENTER>TO CONTI 
NUE"; 6* 

10165 SOTO 10200 
10190 : 

10195 : REM ADD STRIKE OUTS 
10200 CLS: FOR Y=l TO 7 
10205 CLS: IF Y=8THEN 10260 
10207 CLS: IF Y=8 THEN 10250 
10210 PRINT PT*(Y) 

10215 PRINT: PRINT"STRIKE OUTS TH 
IS SAME" 

1 0220 I NPUT S2 : LETSO=VAL ( SO* ( Y ) > 
10230 S0«(Y)=STR*(S2+S0) 
10240 Y=Y+l:IFY=8 THEN 10250 ELS 
E 10205 

10250 I NPUT "PRESS< ENTER >TO CONTI 
NUE " ; S* 

10260 SOTO 10300 
10280 : REM: ADD WALKS 
10300 CLS: FOR Y=l TO 7 
10305 CLS: IF Y=8 THEN 10370 
10307 CLS: IF Y=8 THEN 10360 
10310 PRINT PT*(Y) 

10320 PRINT: PR I NT "WALKS SIVEN UP 

THIS SAME " 
10330 INPUT W2ILET W=VAL(W*(Y>) 
10340 W*(Y)=STR*(W2+W) 
10350 Y=Y+l:IFY=8 THEN 10360 ELS 
E 10305 

10360 I NPUT "PRESS< ENTER >TO CONTI 
NUE";S« 

10370 GOTO 10400 



* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



********************************* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



*** BASIC Compiler *** 



Now everyone can have a compiler for their Color Computer. 
Haximwe the capabilities of your computer by converting 
BASIC programs to machine language. 

Specifications : 
Integer compiler * strings, ZD arrays .DATA ,P»C0E .PCOPY . 
IBSHFT. RESTORE and more 

Fast M.L. code produces relocatable, EXECutable 6809 code 
Automatically links main program with a library of assembly 
language subroutines 

Produces code smaller, and 50x faster than origlonal BASIC 
Allows the use of entire 64k RAX * entire 32k ROM ! 
CLOADH from tape and EXECute "In Hemory" - NO DISK NEEDED ! 
Uses Color Basic syntax, No Extended Color Basic needed ! 
Versions available for 16.32 or 64k RAH systems - tpecify 

* Introductory offer - Now only 134.95 



Send check or 
money order. 
No C.O.D. 
Utah residents 
add SI tax. 



Uasatchwate 

PO Box 510371 

SLC.Utah 

84151-0371 



10380 : 

10390 : REM: ADD EARNED RUNS 
10400 CLS: FOR Y=l TO 8 
10405 CLS: IF Y=8 THEN 10470 
10410 PRINT PT*(Y) 

10420 PRINT: PR I NT "EARNED RUNS TH 
IS SAME" 

10430 INPUT E2:ER=VAL(ER*(Y) > 
1 0440 ER* ( Y ) =STR* ( E2+ER ) 
10450 Y=Y+l:IFY=8 THEN 10460 ELS 
E 10405 

10460 PR I NT " PRESS< ENTER >TO CONTI 
NUE" 

10470 SOTO 9000 

10495 : REM: SAVE TO TAPE 

10496 : 

10500 CLS: PRINT @135, "SAVE ITEM 
S ON TAPE" 

10510 PRINTS234, "POSITION TAPE" 
10520 PRINTS294, "PRESS PLAY AND 
RECORD" 

10530 PRINTS388, "PRESS< ENTER >WHE 

N READY" 

10540 INPUT Q* 

10550 OPEN "0",#-l, "STATS" 

10560 FOR Y=l TO 8-1 

10570 PRINT#-1,PT*(Y) ,HS*(Y) , IP* 

<Y) ,SO*(Y) ,W*(Y) ,ER«(Y) ,EV(Y) 

10580 NEXT Y 

10590 CLOSE #-l: SOTO 9000 

10593 : 

10594 : REM: LOAD FROM TAPE 
10600 CLS: PRINT@235, "REWIND TAP 
E" 

10610 PRINT@300, "PRESS PLAY" 

1 0620 PR I NTS388 , " PRESS< ENTER >WHE 

N READY" 

10630 INPUT Q* 



II 



II 



-1 . "STATS" 



10640 OPEN 
10650 Y=l 

10660 IF EOF(-l) THEN 10695 

10670 INPUT #-l,PT*(Y) ,HT*(Y) , IP 

*(Y) ,SO* (Y) , W*(Y) ,ER*(Y) ,EV(Y) 

10680 PRINT PT*(Y) 

10685 Y=Y+1 

10690 SOTO 10660 

10695 CLOSE #-l: SOTO 9000 



******************** ** ******************* 



Formerly distributed only by ZETA 
SOFTWARE, we have the original FOOTBALL 
FORECASTER 1 with 1983 dato base 
Available for 1 6K ZX-8 1 . T/S 1 000 or 16K TRS-80 
Color Computer. Spec ify NFL or College. Only 
S19.95 each or S29.95 for both Add $1.00 
P&H. Ark. residents add 4% Tax. 

HAWG WILD SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7668 
Little Rock, Arkansas 72217 



104 



the RAINBOW July 1983 




TM 



BASF-DPS 

WORLD STANDARD TAPE 




I DATA TR AC / C-OS, C*2f 
CASSETTE STORAGE CADDY 

n ORGANIZE 
YOUR TAPES! 

$2 95 EACH 



COMPUTER GRADE BLANK CASSETTES 

PREMIUM 5-SCREW SHELL WITH LEADER FITS ALL STANDARD RECORDERS 
PREFERRED BY SOFTWARE PRODUCERS, SCHOOLS AND BUSINESSES NATIONWIDE 



HERE'S ""VuT YORK 10 CASSETTES: 
USERS SAY ABO „ relvo n100%of 
,,, s nice to have e tape jgj the fast, 

♦ to the computer with a 
•Wa^r^rr^ar''''^" 0 

Il " 1 „ 1 If 




STACK ABLE 






FINEST QUALITY 
PHIUPS INORELCO) 
TYPE HARD BOXES 



TRACTOR FEED 
DIE-CUT BLANK 
CASSETTE LABELS 



HANDY 
INDEX CARD 



W TBO S,V9lffis 0 A F N Oi?ioOY 





Call: 213/710-1430 

FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT 
on Credit Card Orders. 

°E tJT vork lOXomputer ujQf e 

24573 Kittridge St., #R Canoga Park, CA 91307 



I 
I 



ITEM 


1 DOZEN 2 DOZEN 


TOTAL 


C-05 


□ 7.50 □ 13.50 




C-10 


□ 8.00 □ 14.40 




C-20 


□ 10.00 □ 18.00 




Hard Box 


□ 2.50 □ 4.00 




Storage Caddy (c 


D $2.95 ea.: Quantity 
FRFF: Quantity: 




Blank labels 


□ 4.00/100 □ 30.00/1 (XXJ 




SUB TOTAL 




Calif, residents add 6% sales tax 




Shipping/handling 1 doz. $2; 2 doz. $3.50; 
3 doz. $4.50; each additional doz. $.50. 




For Parcel Post instead of UPS $1 additional 




Outside Continental USA, $2 additional 




TOTAL 





Bach cassette includes two YORK 10 labels only. Boxes are sold separately. 
Shipments are by U.P.S. unless Parcel Post requested. Boxes, caddies, and 
blank labels are free of shipping charges when ordered with cassettes. When 
ordered without cassettes, shipping charges: Boxes— $1.00/doz., Caddies 
$1.00 each. MINIMUM SHIPPING/HANDLING ON ANY ORDER— $2.00. 

Check or M.O. Charge to 

enclosed □ Credit Card: □ VISA □ MASTERCARD 



Card No. 



Exp. 



Name 



Address 



City 



S t ate /Zip 



Signature 



Computer make & model Disk?(y/n) 

□ CHECK HERE FOR QUANTITY DISCOUNTS PRICE LIST 



HARDWARE 



R l Jll D THIS BCAR ft 



FOR EASY 





RFACING 




By Dennis Meixsell 



I'm sure most Color Computer owners would love to be 
able to hook up devices such as a real time clock, voice 
synthesizer, complex sound generators, keypads, etc. 
Even though these modifications are not that complicated 
or expensive, it seems the thought of getting a soldering gun 
within 10 feet of our precious CoCo is enough to leave most 
of us lyingawake staring at the ceiling. Also, such words and 
phrases as address lines, data bus, interrupt, read/ write and 
clock begin to totally overwhelm us. 

Well, I havesomegood news. In this article you will learn 
the basic steps of interfacing without taking the back off 
your CoCo. All the connecting will be done through the 
cartridge port using inexpensive and readily available parts 
(most coming from "Mama" Radio Shack herself). For the 
experienced hobbiest this may be all you need to get over the 
hump and into some serious projects. For the newcomer 
there is plenty to learn about interfacing, but this first step 
will give you what you need to begin experimenting. 

The standard device used for interfacing is the Motorola 
6921, called the Peripheral Interface Adapter, The PIA, as 
we will refer to it, decodes specific addresses, incorporates 
timing and provides memory port addressing. It provides 
two eight bit ports with each bit selectable as an output or 
input port. This will be explained in more detail laterin this 
article. 

Our project is to build an experimenter's board and hook 
up a PIA. This board will be versatile and the foundation of 
future experiments. Once this project is finished, most addi- 
tional interfacing will be a snap. So hang in there and the 
rewards will be great. The construction will involve three 
steps; making a ribbon connector, building the experimen- 
ter's board and interfacing the PIA. 

Parts to be used are as follows: 
* 276- 1 65 computer PC board 



*276- 1 74 modular I.C. breadboard (solderless) 
*64-2346 self-sticking cushion feet 
*276-1558 edge connector — 40 pin solderless 
*64-2343 double-sided foam tape 
*22 or 24 gauge solid connection wire 
*Motorola 6821 PIA (not available at Radio Shack) 
*wire ribbon, 2 feet (discontinued at Radio Shack but 
still might have it) 
If you are a wise shopper, these items can be purchased at 
a lower price elsewhere. If you don't want the grief and have 
a few extra bucks, you can purchase experimenter boards 
and pre-made extension cables from several companies 
found in this magazine. 

The first step is for convenience and to protect the edge 
connector inside the CoCo. What we will make is simply a 
connector extender; that is, a 40-pin extension cord. You 
may want to leave this in the CoCo permanently and plug all 
cartridges into the ribbon connector. Take the 276-165 
computer connecting board and cut it in half along the 
dotted line marked A (Figure I). Put the bottom half aside, 
it will be used later. Then cut along the two dotted lines 
marked B. With the CoCo off, plug this board into the 
cartridge port to see if you did a good job cutting. Be sure to 
keep it level with the CoCo. If it is raised too high or low it 
may damage the CoCo's internal connector. Be sure to keep 
the printed side up and the copper side down in all steps. 
Remove the board from the CoCo. The next step is to solder 
the40-wire ribbon to this board. 

From one end of a two-foot section of 40-wire ribbon 
cable, separate each wire back about 3" with a knife. Then 
strip Vt" of insulation from the end of each of the 40 wires. 
This is a tedious and difficult job. I usually roll a knife over 
each wire on a hard surface. Be very careful. This may take 
some practice. Next, slightly enlarge the holes marked C 



106 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Figure 1 



HI 



C 

Enlarge 



l 
i 

ft 

IB 



I Cut 
I 



B 

Cut 



1 1 



A 



Cut 



/I 



L 



39 .17 }S .1 


* 31 29 27 


25 23 


21 


19 


17 15 13 


119 7 


5 3 1 


41 }X 36 3 


1 12 31) 2X 


26 24 


22 


21 


IK If. 14 


12 II « 


6 4 2 



Color Computer 
internal connector 



(Figure 1). There are 20 of these and they need to be large 
enough to allow a strand of the 40-wire cable to pass 
through, insulation and all. Now thread every other wire 
from the ribbon cable through the holes marked C. Start on 
the right and put wire # 1 through that hole. Be sure that pin 
#1 on this edge connector will line up with pin #1 on the 
solderless connector that will be placed on the other end of 
the cable. If in doubt, use a volt-ohm meter and check it out. 
Now you must solder each of the wires to the base of the 
corresponding prong on the 40-pin edge connector. After 
this is accomplished tape the ribbon to the PC board to act 
as a strain release. On the bottom of the PC board tape a l A " 
thick piece of plastic or wood to insure that the edge connec- 
tor stays parallel with the CoCo'sconnector. Put the solder- 
less 40-pin connector on the free end of the cable. A small 
hammer will help to lightly tap the back piece in place. Now 
mark in large, clear letters "TOP"and "BOTTOM " on both 
the edge card and the 40-pin connector (this will save much 
frustration later). Put this aside — the hard part is over. 

The second phase will use the bottom half of the PC 
board, the 40-pin socket and connecting wire. Place the 
40-pin socket on the printed side of the PC board in the 
location shown on Figure 2. Look at the copper side of the 
board and make sure each leg is going through an individual 
copper pad. Solder the socket into place. Now solder a wire 
from each pin of the edge card to the appropriate pin of the 



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July 1983 the RAINBOW 107 



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40-pin socket. Pin 1,3,5,7,9,. . . are on top of the PC board. 
Pins 2, 4, 6, 8, . . . are on the bottom. The dip socket is 
numbered 1-20 on the left side and 21-40 on the right side. 
You should mark thedip socketand edge connector with the 
appropriate numbers to help as you solder. I tried to make 
this look nice by runningall the wires on the bottom side and 
then coming up in front of the top pins. Be sure that this is 
exact. Use a VOM and be positive that each wire goes from 
the edge card pin number to the same number on the dip 
socket. Now with double-sided tape secure the solderless 
breadboard to the lower section of the PC board. Put four 
cushion footies on the bottom side and BINGO! You are 
now the proud owner of an experimenter's board! 

Finally, in part three, I will show how to connect the P1A 
to the experimenter's board. Get the package that contains 
the PI A. Use proper handling technique, or static electricity 
could damage the P1A. Without interruption, pick up the 
P1A in both hands. Use one hand to straighten any bent 
pins. Now place the chip on the left end of the solderless 
breadboard. Make sure that pin #1, which is identified by 
the circle or notch is to the left (Figure 2). Now connect 
jumper wires between the socket and the PIA as shown in 
Figure 3. The circled numbers refer to the pin number of the 
low profile socket. Make certain this is exact. 

This finishes construction. Now, to explain the PIA in 
more detail. Actually, an entire article could easily be dedi- 
cated to understanding the PIA, but Til do what I can. The 
PIA is made of six registers, three for side A and three for 
side B. Side B and side A perform exactly the same, so we 
will just look at side A. In our experiments, the PIA will be 
addressed at memory locations SFF40 and SFF41. Most 
numbers will be listed in hexadecimal as indicated by the $. 
The PIA must first betold which direction the data will flow 
for each bit. This is done by use of the Data Direction 
Register A, or abbreviated, the "DDR A. "As you can see by 
Figure 4 the DDR A and the Output/ Input Register A, or 
abbreviated, "ORA" are both addressed by memory loca- 
tion SFF40. The way to select which one is determined by bit 
#2 of the Control Register A, or abbreviated, "CRA," 
located at $FF4 1 . If a "0" is put in bit #2 of Control Register 
A then location SFF40 will be addressing the DDRA. If a 
"]"is in bit #2 of CRA then address SFF40 will be address- 
ing the ORA. Now, if we put a " I" in a bit of the DDRA, 




108 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Database Management 
Business Applications 

Real Estate 
Ledgers 
Mailing Lists 
Single Letters 
Memos 
Phone Lists 
Form Letters 
Charts 

Business Reports 
Inventories 

Income Tax Preparation 
Property Maintenance 
Property Rentals 
Receivables 
Payables 
Order Entry 
Business Contacts 
Appointments 
Client Profiles 
Document/Article Indexing 
Lab Reports 
Personnel Records 
Student Grades 
Budgets 

Homebase is Easy to Use 

• No programming required. 
All options are displayed in 
menus. HOMEBASE automa- 
tically requests all required 
data and edits every entry. 

• All commands are single key 
stroke. 

• Full screen editing for text 
entry. 

• Complete curosr control for 
entering names, titles, 
notes, comments and all 
other data. 

• Over 100 pages of well 
organized and easy to use 
documentation with complete 
descriptions of every com- 
mand, and examples. 

• Requires 32K of memory, 
DISK BASIC and only one 
disk drive. No equipment 
modifications required. 

• Fast response to all com- 
mands including search and 
sort. 

Enhancement: 

• A tutorial/demonstration file 
with step-by-step Instructions. 



The TRS-80* Color-Computer 

DATABASE 

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Custom Report Writer For Data Management Files 

Merge data management files with text files 
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Print one document for multiple data records by using a 
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Use all printer control options. 
Print multiple copies. 
Print selected data records 
Store multiple formats on a single TEXT file. 
Alter formats while using the REPORT WRITER or TEXT 
PROCESSING program. 



Data Management 

• Define 50 data fields, in- 
cluding a comment field, in a 
single record. Dates, time of 
day, phone numbers and 
dollar amounts are 
automatically formatted. You 
may also define 24 scratch- 
pad data fields not contained 
within your data records. 

• Reorganize records by mov- 
ing data fields within records 
or by moving records within 
a file. You may sort records 
in ascending or descending 
order using record names 
you assign or data values. 

• Manage files by searching, 
deleting, clearing, duplicat- 
ing, and displaying any data 
or record. Add, subtract, 
multiply, divide, or sum- 
marize any data field. Use 
any command on a single 
record or selected group of 
records. You may also selec- 
tively process any single 
data field or group of data 
fields. 

• Print files using automatic 



formatting with options to 
print report titles, a report 
date, page numbers, record 
names, and data field 
names. Print all or selected 
data fields or records. 

Enhancements: 

• Variable length alpha/text 
data fields. 

• Use 1 or 2 disk drives. 

• Range search for alpha/text 
data fields and record 
names. 

• Calculator mode for entering 
new data Held values while 
performing calculations and 
automatically displaying the 
results of calculations. 

• Extended sort which permits 
sorting on any position 
within a comment alpha/text 
data field. 

• Separate printer drivers for 
NEC and OKI DATA printers. 

Text/Word Processing 

• Define 250 screens of text 
you can search, sort, 
display, or print. Reference 
or select records using 



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record names you assign or 
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phrase within text records. 

• Edit text by duplicating, 
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Enhancements: 

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Utilities for Data 
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• Generating new files from old 
files. 

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diskette using a single drive. 

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Enhancements: 

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update. 



Figure 3 



POKE $FF40,$FF 



POKE $FF4I,04 



Side A 
Input/Output 



then the corresponding bit of the ORA 
will be set for output. Put a "0" in a bit 
of DDRA and the corresponding bit of 
ORA will be set for input. Okay, got all 
that? I'm sure thatall is aboutasclearas 
mud! Let me go on; an example should 
help. If we want to set all the ORA to 
output we should do as follows: 

POKE $FF40,$FF 'SELECT DATA DIREC 

TION REG. A 
'PUT A "I "IN EACH BIT 
OF DDRA 

'CHANGE TO OUTPUT 
REG. A 

Now any byte poked into SFF40 will 
show up at pins 2-9 of the PI A. To set all 
bits as inputs we must: 

'SELECT DATA DIREC 
TION REG. A 
'PUT A "0" IN EACH BIT 
OF DDRA 

'CHANGE TO OUTPUT/ 
INPUT/INPUT REG. A 

Now anytime pins 2-9 have a logic 0 
or I this will show up when we peek 
(SFF40). 

Run this next program with the PIA 
hooked up. Register A should be equal 
to zero, as shown on the screen. Use a 
jumper wire and connect pin til to pin 
#1. Pin til is ground and pin #2 is bit 0 of 
DDRA. Register A should now read 
" 1 . " Ground pins 2-9, one at a time and 
watch the screen, 
j > ***** TH j S PROGRAM WILL READ SIDE A OF 
THE PIA 

5 CLS 

80 A=&HFF40 
200 POKE A+1,00 




POKE $FF4I,00 
POKE $FF40,00 
POKE SFF4J.04 



Side B 
Input/ Output 



@ AW- 

iooon 



CD 



PIA 
6821 



O L 

v y 




1 Vss 


CA1 c/o 


2 PAO 


CA2 39 


3 PA1 


1RQA 38 


4 PA2 


1RQB 37 


5 PA3 


RSO 36 


Z A A 

6 PA4 


RSI 35 


7 PA5 


Reset 34 


8 PA6 


DO 33 


9 PA7 


Dl 32 


10 PAO 


D2 3 1 


I f A 1 

I I PA1 


D3 30 


12 PA2 


D4 29 


13 PA3 


D5 28 


1 A T% A A 

14 PA4 


D6 27 


15 PA5 


D7 26 


ju r au 




17 PA7 


CSI 24 


18 CB1 


CS2 23 


19 CB2 


CS0 22 


20 Vcc 


R/W 21 



-\VW— 

ooo a 



210 POKE A,00 
220 POKE A+l,04 

230 P=PEEK(A) 

300 R=255-P 

310 PR1NT@ 1 10, R 

330 GOTO 230 



'LOCATION OF PIA 
'SELECT DATA DIRECTION 

REG. A 
TUT A "0" IN EACH BIT 
'CHANGE TO OUTPUT/ INPUT 

REG. A 
'READ THE PIA 
'LITTLE CONVERSION 
'SHOW US THE VALUE 
'READ IT AGAIN SAM 



I can see the wheels starting to turn already . . . buttons . . . 
switches ... a keypad . . . maybe I could build an alarm 
system . . . just maybe I could? Welcome to the world of 
interfacing. In part two I will show how to interface a 
calculator keyboard. This should only take about one hour. 
Then I'll explain more about the PIA and the different lines 
coming out of the CoCo. I know there has been quite a large 
amount of material presented here. Don't worry if you 
didn't understand it all — just have fun and play with the 
PIA. It's not necessary to understand every detail to build 
these projects. Just stick in there and before you know it 
you'll be interfacing like an old pro. 



Figure 4 



Side A 



Side B 



PIA's Internal Registers 



$FF40 
$FF41 

$FF42 
$FF43 



Output Register A (ORA) 

Data Direction Register A (DDRA) 

Control Register A (CRA) 

Output Register B (ORB) 

Data Direction Register B (DDRB) 

Control Register B (CRB) 



110 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST GOT WHEELS ! 




REVOLUTION! 



You accelerate hard down a long straightaway, 
braking heavily at the end for a hard corner. 
You slice smoothly through the esses, and then 
boldly keep the power on for a fast sweeper. 
The Ferrari drifts dangerously near the edge, 
but you make a tiny correction in the steering, 
and you are through. 

The finish line flashes by, and suddenly you 
are in the pits. The car falls silent. You see your 
lap times being held up. Your final lap was a 
new lap record! At last, you permit yourself 
a small smile. 

You have mastered this powerful car on a 
difficult track, driving with the assurance and 
precision that comes only from long hours of 
practice. 

You are driving an authentic race car. You are 
playing Revolution! 

FANTASTIC ACTION 



Revolution uses high resolution, machine language graphics 
for action that is smooth and fast. The emphasis is on 
authenticity in the control and motion of your car. As in 
driving a real race car, accuracy and precision in your driving 
are what counts. Frillsand non-essentials have been left out. 

PURE COMPETITION 



Like a real race driver in practice and qualifying sessions, you 
compete against the clock and against the existing lap record 
for that track. Revolution records the lap records and the 
name of the person who set the record, so you always know 

who reigns supreme on your f avorite track! 

\ 

DESIGNED WITH YOU IN MIND 

Revolution is menu-driven, and self explanatory. Informa- 
tion screens tell you what you need to know. When you're 
ready to play, a menu of the names of all your tracks is 
displayed, along with the lap record for each track and the 
name of the person who setthat lap record. You select a track 
with a single keystroke, and Revolution takes you there. 



A NEW CONCEPT 

Revolution is a unique game, because it allows you to create 
the most important part of any race game: the track itself. 

The first time you run Revolution, you will be able to choose 
from several tracks and cars which are included with the 
game. 

But, with Revolution, this is only the beginning! You can 
create as many tracks as you like. You can make each new 
track as difficult or as easy as you wish. You can make easy 
ones to begin with, and tougher ones as you become more 
skilled. You may find creating tracks to be almost as much 
fun as driving on them! 

You can save your favorite tracks to run on again whenever 
you wish. Revolution will automatically add these new tracks 
to the menu. And you can exchange your favorite tracks with 
other Revolution owners. 

Be careful, though, about letting your friends play this game. 
They may not want to let you have your computer back! 

THE EARLY REVOLUTION 



A prototype version of Revolution was published in the 
September, 1982 issue of Rainbow magazine, under the 
name The Track. The response to The Track has been terrific. 

Revolution has all the features that have made The Track a 
favorite, and Revolution's fast, high-resolution machine 
language graphics are dramatically improved over the 
prototype's. 

REVOLUTION NOW! 



The original Revolution for the TRS-80™ Color Computer 
requires 32K and one disk drive. A new cassette version has 
action just like the disk version, and similar track-saving 
features excluding a menu of available tracks. The cassette 
version will run on a32KColor Computer or TDP-100. You 
can upgrade to the disk version later, too, for a nominal fee. 



REVOLUTION 






For32KDisk 


$24.95 


Requires Joysticks 


For 32K Cassette . . . 


$21.95 


& Extended BASIC 



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QSORT For The 
TRS-80 Color Computer 

By C. J. Stearman 

This two part article brings to the Color Computer the fast and versatile 
number and string sorting routine, QSORT. In addition, we will explore the 
way numbers and strings are represented by Microsoft BASIC, 



Sooner or later the need arises in BASIC programs to 
sort large amounts of data. If youVe arrived at this 
point and written BASIC routines to perform bubble 
sorts and the like, you know they can be painfully slow. Even 
a sort of tens of items can take upwards of a minute. There- 
fore, a machine code routine, callable from BASIC, would 
make a very useful addition to our utility program library. 

Sorting is a complex science and much research has been 
done to discover fast, efficient methods. Unfortunately 1 
know little of the subject and was always on the lookout for 
articles describing sort methods. 1 finally came across one 
describing an implementation of Quicksort for the TRS-80 
Model I by Don Biumm (SO Micro, November, 1982). It 



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boasted some impressive sorting times; eight seconds to sort 
1000 strings, 23 seconds to sort 3000! 

I wanted this capability for my Color Computer and felt it 
worth the effort to develop a similar program. The result of 
this will be described in this and the next issue. 1 learned 
much about the way strings and numbers are handled by 
Microsoft BASIC and this knowledge is generally useful. I 
also discovered ways of using BASIC functions (such as 
RND) from machine code. 

In this issue we will look at these subjects and implement 
the final algorithm in BASIC. The next issue will list the 
assembly language version and describe its operation in 
detail. 

Program Requirements 

If the final sort program was to be really useful, it would 
have to be versatile, as well as fast. Probably it would be 
necessary to trade off some speed to ensure that versatility. I 
felt that it should be able to: 
*Sort string and number arrays 
*Sort in ascending and descending order 
*Sort strings in any character order 
*Sort parts of the array only 
*Contain thorough call error detection 
*Sort I and 2 dimensioned arrays 

*lnclude or exclude the second dimension in 2 dimension 
sorts 

*Sort either dimension in 2 dimension arrays 

The desirability of some of these features will become 

obvious as we get into this further. 

If we are to sort numbers and strings using a machine code 
routine it is going to be necessary to understand how these 
are stored by BASIC, so let's explore that next. 

Inside BASIC 

BASIC used 5 bytes of storage to describe a number or 
string of characters. Numbers are stored in a floating point 
format within these 5 bytes. I n the case of strings, the 5 bytes 
contain details of where the string is and how long it is. The 
string itself is elsewhere in memory. It is important to note 
that the Color Computer has no capability to store numbers 
as integers. This fact will figure in some decisions later. 

( Mr. Stearman is Field Engineering Manager for Bos- 
ton Digital Corp., a manufacturer of precision, 
computer-controlled milling machines. He was born 
and educated in England and has lived in the U.S.A. 
since 1970.) 



112 the RAINBOW July 1983 



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Strings 

Looking at the 5 byte descriptor for a string, we find that 
the first bytecontains a count of the number of characters in 
the string, and the third and fourth contain a 1 6 bit address 
of the first character. With these two pieces of information 
the whole string can be accessed. The second and fifth bytes 
are "reserved for the computer" to quote the manual, and 
seem to always be zero. So string desciptors are simple to 
understand. 

Numbers 

By comparison, numbers are much more complex. These 
5 bytes must store a decimal number in the range +/-I0A38! 
To do this, the number must be stored as a binary value in 
the form: 

MANTISSA x 2AEXPONENT 
where the mantissa is a 32 bit, signed binary number in the 
range: 

1 .0000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 (Base 2) 

to 

1.1111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 (Base 2) 
and the exponent is an 8 bit, signed binary number in the 
range: 

-126 to +126 (Base 10) 

No doubt this looks pretty confusing! However, it is akin 
to the practice of representing numbers in scientific nota- 
tion. For example, the decimal value 1 23.456 can be repres- 
ented as 1 .23456 x 1 OA 2. Or the decimal number -0.001 23 
becomes-1.23 x 10 A-3.This action is called normalizing. In 
binary normalized numbers the mantissa is always in the 
signed range of 1 to 2 (inclusive of 1 but exclusive of 2). 

Looking at the way BASIC actually stores this, the first 




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byte contains the exponent. If the Most Significant Bit 
(MSB) is a zero the exponent is negative, if a 1 it's positive. 
The remaining 7 bits describe the value of the exponent 
plus one." This "wrinkle" is needed because the number 
zero"is aspecialcase. It is represented by theexponent byte 
being zero. In this case, the 4 mantissa bytes are immaterial. 
However, an exponent of zero is a valid value, so the expo- 
nent must be "offset" by one to allow for its representation. 
This also explains why the exponent range is 126, not 127. 
Exponent 126 is stored as 1 27, the highest value which can 
be contained in 7 bits. 

As the mantissa is always "one point something," this 1 
can be assumed, and the MSB of the most significant byte 
can be used to store its sign. This time a 1 indicates negative, 
and a 0 positive. 

If you're thoroughly confused now, let's look at a couple 
of examples. Take the decimal number 9.625 and "code" it 
first. It is represented in binary by 100 1.101 (going from the 
binary point right, the 1 represents P/2; then !4; 1 V% etc.). 
Normalizing this, it becomes 1 .00 1 1 0 1 x 2A3 (2 A3 shown 
in decimal). The mantissa is positive, as is the exponent so 
the result is: 

Byte 1 : 1 0000 1 00 (exponent* 1 ) 
Byte 2 : 000 1 1 01 0 (sign + fraction) 
Byte 3 : 00000000 
Byte 4 : 00000000 
Byte 5 : 00000000 
As a second example, take the value -0.09375 (decimal). 
This is -0.0001 1 in binary. Normalizing it becomes -1. 1 x 
2A-4 (mantissa in base 2, rest in base 10). Converting 
according to the rules above: 

Byte 1 : 01111101 (negative,-4+l in 7 bit 2's 

complement) 
Byte 2 : 1 1000000 (negative and fraction part) 
Byte 3 : 00000000 
Byte 4 : 00000000 
Byte 5 : 00000000 
Having nearly 32 bits to represent the mantissa provides 
the ability to handle decimal numbers with 9 significant 
digits. Using the normalized format with an exponent of 7 
bits allows the large value range. 

Floating Point Accumulator 

Numbers are stored in memory as described above. How- 
ever, when a BASIC function uses them they are passed 
through the Floating Point Accumulator (FAC). This is six 
bytes in memory starting at 6F (Hexadecimal). Note it is six, 
not five. Numbers are represented in it slightly differently 
from in memory. Bytes 1,3,4 and 5 are the same. Byte 6 in 
the FAC is the same as byte 2 in memory. Byte 2 in the FAC 
is the same as byte 2 in memory, except that the MSB is 
always 1. This arrangement allows byte 6 to represent the 
mantissa sign, while bytes 2 through 5 represent the true 
absolute value of it. 

Arrays 

When a string or number array is dimensioned in BASIC, 
a section of memory is used to represent it. The section 
comprises a header and then groups of 5 byte descriptors. 
This is true for either number or string arrays. In the former 
the 5 bytes contain the array element value; in strings, the 
length and pointer to the string. 

The header provides general details of the array. In the 
order of storage, the header contains: 
Byte 1 = First letter of name 

Byte 2 = Second letter of name (+1 28 if a string array) 



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Byte 3 & 4 = 1 6 bit count of total bytes used by the array, 

including the header 
Byte 5 = Number of dimensions 
Byte 6 & 7 = 16 bit count of elements in last dimension 
Byte 7 & 8 = Ditto for next to last dimension 
Byte 9 & 10 = Ditto for first dimension 
Byte ii = First byte of 5 byte descriptor of "zeroth" 
element 

This is for an array with 3 dimensions. If more orless, then 
more or less byte pairs are needed to detail the number of 
elements in each dimension. So it is immediately obvious 
that the number of bytes in the header is dependent upon the 
number of dimensions. 

The elements of the array itself are stored in an order with 
the leftmost dimension varying most rapidly. The array 
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A(0,0,0; 

A( 1 ,0,0 

A(2,0,0 

A(3,0,0 

A(0,1,0 

A(1,I,0 

A(2,l,0 

A(3,l,0 

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Knowing the address of the "zeroth" element thus enables 
us to locate any subscript descriptor in the array. 

The VARPTR Function 

Extended BASIC provides this function which returns the 
address of the variable descriptor supplied as its argument. 
This can be used to pass an array pointer from BASIC to a 
machine code routine. For example, the call X=USR 
(VARPTR(A(0,0))) will pass the address of the first byte of 
the 5 byte descriptor for that subscript variable. The 
machine code function INTCNV will put this value in regis- 
ter D of the microprocessor. Knowing the address of the 
"zeroth" element also provides us with the location of the 
array header. 

A word of caution is needed! BASIC moves the variables 
around in memory when a new one is introduced. So a new 
variable must not be created after a call to VARPTR before 
the result is used, as the value will no longer be valid. This 
can best be avoided by pre-assigning the variables at the 
beginning of the program. 

Using BASIC Functions 

As we will see later, one of the requirements of the Quick- 
sort Routine is the generation of a random number. Another 
is the conversion of a floating point number in the FAC to a 
1 6 bit integer. The second requirement is already available 
through a routine documented in the BASIC manual. It is 
called INTCNV and its address is B3ED (hexadecimal). 

However, the function which performs the RND function 
is not documented. Fortunately there's a book called "The 
Facts for the TRS-80 Color Computer" published by Spec- 
tral Associates, which provides a considerable amount of 
information about the routines in BASIC. Amongst other 
data, it provides the dispatch table for the BASIC functions. 
The RND function happens to be at BFl F (hexadecimal). I 
speculated that this probably took the argument from the 
FAC and returned a random number from I to the argu- 
ment to the FAC. Experimentation showed this to be so. 
Tests on other functions such as MEM, which returns the 
available memory, worked in a similar manner. 

With access to these functions, all that was required was a 
method of getting the FAC value into register D as a 1 6 bit 
integer (the INTCNV routine mentioned earlier), and 
another to do the reverse. This proved more difficult. 
BASIC does have a documented routine called GIV ABF(at 
B4F4 hexadecimal) but this does too much and is really only 
useful for returning an integer value to a variable in BASIC. 
So I was forced to write my own for the QSORT program. 
This has limited capability but does adequately for the needs 
here. 

Quicksort 

We now have the tools to proceed with the sort routine. 
The general principle will be to exchange descriptors in the 
array so that it becomes ordered. This will conveniently 
handle both strings and number arrays. In the case of strings 
this has the advantage of making it unnecessary to move the 
actual strings themselves. 

The Algorithm 

Quicksort is a fast and simple process, but does entail 
considerable "housekeeping." To help follow it through, 
listing I shows its implementation in BASIC. 

The general procedure involves the ordering of a parti- 
tion. Initially the whole array is taken as a partition. An 
element is selected from this partition and designated the 



116 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



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comparand. Then each element is compared with this, start- 
ing from the low end. When one is found which is equal to or 
greater than the comparand, its subscript is noted. The scan 
is then started from the high end, looking for an element 
which is equal or lower than the comparand. When one is 
found, it is swapped with the element found on the upward 
scan. This is only done however, if the upward scan element 
was originally below the downward scan one. If so, then the 
upward and downward scan continues from where it left off, 
performing similar swaps. 

Eventually the selected element on the upward scan will 
not be below the one on the downward. At this point the 
selected elements will either be the same one, or the upward 
higher than the downward. The result is an array with all the 
elements below the upward scan selected element being 
equal or less than the comparand. All elements above the 
downward scan selected element will be equal to or higher 
than it. 

The partition must nowbe split into two separate parti- 
tions. Then each partition has the same action peformed on 
it, until every partition is reduced to one element. When all 
partitions have been so reduced, the array is sorted. 

The partition to be divided is split into one with all ele- 
ments up to but not including the upward scan selected 
element. The other is made up of those elements from the 
downward scan, in a similar fashion. It is apparent from this 
that the data defining one partition must be saved while the 
other is further scanned. If the original array is limited to 
4096 elements and the data on the larger of the two resulting 
partitions is saved while the other is scanned, then the divid- 



ing process cannot result in more than 12 lots of data being 
stored at any one time. This is due to the fact that 4096 
cannot be divided by two more than 12 times before the 
result is unity. This is verified by the fact that 4096 is 2 A 12. 

This seemingly complex process is in fact extremely fast. 
Also its speed varies roughly linearly with number of ele- 
ments. Bubble sort times, in contrast, increase as the square 
of the number of elements. 

Selecting The Comparand 

The comparand is ideally chosen so that there are approx- 
imately equal numbers of elements in the resulting two 
partitions. To obtain this a median value should be chosen, 
as this will have as many elements lower than it as higher. 
Unfortunately, the process of calculating median values is 
itself time consuming. To avoid this problem, the compa- 
rand element is chosen at random from the partition. With 
larger enough partitions, the average result will be satisfa- 
tory. However, when partitions become small, this is not so. 
Toavoid this problem another simpler routine is used to sort 
the partition when it contains 10 or less elements. The rou- 
tine used here is a form of bubble sort which 1 have called 
Easysort. It is simple in function and can be readily under- 
stood from the BASIC in listing I . Experimentation showed 
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The BASIC Version 

I chose to test my understanding of the algorithm by first 
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PAK #4 — 2 Double Sided, Double Density Sys. S949.95 

PAK #5 — 2 Oume Thinlme Double Sided Double Density Sys. $764.95 



PARTS AND PIECES 

Radio Shack Disk Controller 
i Tandon Single Sided. Double Density Disk Drive 
i Tandon Double Sided. Double Density Disk Drive 
i Qume Thinline Double Sided. Double Density 

Single Drive Cabinet with Power Supply 

Double Drive Cabinet with Power Supply 

Single Drive Disk Cable for RS Controller 

Double Drive Disk Cable for RS Controller 

Micro Tech. Prods., Inc LOWER CASE ROM Adapter 

Radio Shack BASIC Version 1.1 ROM 

Radio Shack Exlended Basic ROM 



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DATA-COMP 1-615.842.4601 9S> t , 




118 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



ingly quick, sorting 100 numbers in around 18 seconds. This 
is significantly faster than a bubble sort. Listing 1 is by way 
of a demonstration program. You select the size of the array 
to sort. It then generates a random number array and sorts 
it. Adisplay isgiveh of the time taken to sort and the number 
of times Easysort was called. The program is easily con- 
verted to sort strings by changing array "N" to "N$" 
throughout and modifying the rand om array filling routine. 

The Quicksort routine itself is from line 200 through 990. 
Line 230 determines the size the partition below which Easy- 
sort is used. The Easysort routine is from line 1200 to the 
end. The remaining lines are involved with test set-up (10- 
140) and result display (1000-1 1 20). 

In the Quicksort routine the following variables perform 
these functions: 
SIZE sort array size 
N sorted array 
LS partition left end stack array 
RS partition right end stack array 
B current partition left end subscript 
E current partition right end subscript 
LI left scan pointer 
Rl right scan pointer 
PTR partition stack pointer 
LSZ size of left section of split partition 
RSZ size of right section of split partition 
CMP subscript of selected random element 

The Quicksort routine breaks down into various sections. 
These sections will generally be duplicated in the machine 
code version later. Lines 200-220 initialize the pointers. Line 
230 selects either Quicksort or Easysort, depending on the 



size of the partition. Lines 300-380 determines which side of 
the divided partition to stack. Also tests are done to ensure a 
remaining partition has something in it. 

The left and right stacking is performed by lines 750-810 
and lines 850-9 1 0 respectively. Line 380 checks to see if the 
stack is empty. If so, the sorting iscomplete. If not, then lines 
950-990 unstack the next partition for sorting. Line 500 
selects the comparand at random. Lines 550-570 scan 
upward and 600-620 scan down. Finally line 700 tests the 
scan pointer for crossing. If not, the elements are swapped; if 
so, the scanning stops. 

Armed with this information it should be easy to follow 
the operation of both Quicksort and Easysort. 

The next issue will wrap this up with the complete assem- 
bly language listing and details on the features and uses of 
the routine. 



The listing: 




60O. . 
1000 
END 



01 08 
0265 
03C5 
0593 



INPUT "ARRAY SIZE"; SIZE 
IF SIZE=0 THEN END 
IF SIZE>4095 THEN 10 
INPUT "RESULTS TO PRINTER" 5 A* 
IF A$="Y" THEN DV=-2 ELSE DV= 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
0 

60 DIM N(SIZE) 5 LS(12) ,RS(12) 
70 FOR 1=0 TO SIZE 
80 N(I)=RND(1000) 



BEAR 
ONES 



CASSETTE SOFTWARE 



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^ T ~~ k - A ■— v ^ x h fri MANUEVER YOUR SPEEDING CAR 
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PRICE 



GHOST GOBBLER 
PLANET INVASION 
GALAX ATTAXX 
SPACE WAR 
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SPACE INVADERS 
CC THELLO 
COLOR ZAP 

MONKEY KONG 
PHANTOM SLAYER 
INVADERS REVENGE 

SOOPER PAC 
WHIRLY BIRD RUN 
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MS. GOBBLER *32K 
STORM ARROWS 
SPACE SENTRY 
ALPHA SEARCH 

VOWEL FUN 
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WORD MATCH 

MOTOROLA PROG. CARD 



ORDER TOTAL: $ 
MICH. RES. ADD 4% TAX: . 
TOTAL ENCLOSED: $. 

SHIP TO: 



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CITY 



STATE 



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July 1983 the RAINBOW 119 



MAIL TO: BEAR BONES SOFTWARE, INC. 

G-311 7 CORUNNA RD., SUITE 1 08 
FLINT, MICHIGAN 48504 



Enclose Check or Money Order, Allow 
Two Weeks for Check to Clear. 
Money Orders Shipped Immediately. 



90 NEXT I 

100 PR INT "SORT BEGINS" 
110 TIMER=0 
120 GOSUB 200 
130 GOSUB 1000 
140 RUN 

200 B=0: E=SIZE 

210 li=0:ri=size 

220 PTR=0 

230 IF E-BM0THEN GOSUB 500ELSE 

GOSUB 1200:GOTO380 

300 LSZ= (LI-1 ) -B 

310 RSZ=E-(RI+1) 

320 IF LSZ=RSZ THEN 350 

330 IF LSZ>RSZ GOSUB 750 ELSE GO 

SUB 850 

340 GOTO 370 

350 IF LSZ<=0 THEN 380 

360 GOSUB 760 

370 I F ( E-B ) < =0THEN 380 ELSE 230 
380 IF (PTR)=0 THEN RETURN 
390 GOSUB 950 
400 GOTO 230 

500 CMP=N ( RND ( E-B+ 1 ) +B- 1 ) 
550 FOR LI=LI TO E 
560 IF N(LI)=>CMP THEN 600 
570 NEXT LI 




WLS NEST 

SOFTWARE 



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16K EXTENDED BASIC UNLESS NOTED. 



LABEL III — develop and maintain a mailing list. 
Prmt lists or labels in your choice of 1, 2, or 3 wide. . 

RAHBOW 

Supports J or 4 line addresses phone optional 

$19.95 




PROGRAM FILE — organize your cassette files 
Create and maintain a four field (ile Search, son. 
modify, delete, and display on screen or printer. 

$M 95 

DISASSEMBLER - ASSEMBLER (by Dynamic 
Electronics) Designed lor the beginner who wants to 
learn to write machine language programs. 
(EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED) 

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600 FOR RI=RI TO B STEP-1 
610 IF N(RIX=CMP THEN 700 
620 NEXT RI 

700 IF LKRI THEN T=N (LI ) : N (LI ) = 

N(Ri) :N(RD=t:li=li+i:ri=ri-i:go 

TO550 

710 RETURN 

750 IF LSZ<=0THEN 790 

760 LS(PTR)=B 

770 RS(PTR)=LI-1 

780 PTR=PTR+1 

790 B=RI+1 

800 RI=E 

810 RETURN 

850 IF RSZ<=0 THEN 890 

860 LS(PTR)=RI+1 

870 RS(PTR)=E 

880 PTR=PTR+1 

890 E=LI-1 

900 LI=B 

910 RETURN 

950 PTR=PTR-1 

960 B=LS(PTR) 

970 E=RS(PTR) 

980 LI=B: RI=E 

990 RETURN 

1000 T=TIMER 

1010 PRINT#DV, STRING* (30, "*") 
1020 PRINT#DV, "ARRAY SIZE WAS " ; 
SIZE 

1030 PRINT#DV,USING"SORT TIME WA 

S ###.## SECONDS" ; T/60 

1040 PRINT#DV, "CALLS TO EASISORT 

=":CL 

1050 FOR 1=0 TO SIZE-1 

1060 IF N(I)>N(I+1) THEN 1100 

1070 NEXT I 

1080 PRINT#DV, "SORT WAS SUCCESSF 
UL" 

1090 GOTO 1110 

1100 PRINT#DV, "SORT WAS UNSUCCES 
SFUL" 

1110 PRINT#DV, STRING* (30, "*"> 

1120 RETURN 

1200 K=B 

1210 CL=CL+1 
1220 K=K+1 

1230 IF K>E THENRETURN 

1240 IF N(K)>=N(K-1) THEN1220 

1250 TN=N(K> 

1260 I=K 

1270 N(I)=N(I-1) 
1280 1=1-1 

1290 IF I=B THEN 1310 
1300 IF TN<N( 1-1) THEN 1270 
1310 N(I)=TN 
1320 GOTO 1220 



120 the RAINBOW July 1983 



A WORD FROM THE SPONSOR 

Number five in these chats, and it is still too early to judge the 
results in our Name the Column contest. But I have received some 
excellent entries, and will have the winner next month. Stay tuned. 

At this point, I'd like to thank a few more magazines for giving our 
products great reviews in the past few months — in March, Color 
Computer News reviewed NEWTALK and Rainbow reviewed 
REMOTERM, while in April 80 Micro reviewed STAR- DOS. They 
all loved them . . . naturally. 

This month I thought you might be interested in some of my 
cassette procedures. 

While a number of outfits make leaderless computer cassettes, 1 
distrust them. From my audio days, I know that the beginning and 
end of a reel- to- reel or cassette tape tend to get crinkled and 
develop dropouts. This can destroy a program copy, and so I 
wouldn't use the beginning of a leaderless tape anyway. In that case, 
why pay extra for leaderless tape when you don't use it? 

Instead, I buy 10-minute C-10 cassettes. These cassettes are 
available from a variety of sources, and cost about 50 to 80 cents 
each, f prefer to use one cassette per program, rather than put 
many programs on one tape and then have to search for them. 

All of these tapes have a leader, and so when you use them you 
must be careful not to record your program on the leader instead of 
the tape. Using fast forward to get past the leader may leave a bit of 
an old program on the tape just before the new one, and CoCo will 
have trouble separating them. Instead, my method is to do the 
following: First, make sure the tape is fully rewound. Then place 
the recorder in RECORD, and type the command MOTOR ON on 
the computer. This starts the recorder motor, so that you are 
recording although the computer is not yet writing anything to tape. 
This erases the beginning of the tape. In the meantime, type your 
CSAVE or CSAVEM command, but do not hit ENTER until you 
see that the tape is well past the leader. I usually give it about ten 
seconds before typing ENTER. This procedure not only makes sure 
that I get past the leader, but also guarantees that there is blank 
space before the program to make reading it easier. Works every 
time. 

For the disk users among you, I would like to announce two new 
products: STAR-DOS 64 and STAR FLEX. Both are disk 
operating systems for 64K computers. STAR FLEX is the famous 
FLEX system by Technical Systems Consultants, adapted for the 
CoCo, while STAR-DOS 64 is our own STAR DOS, but modified 
for 64K computers. Both come with high resolution screens and 
have many features for the more advanced disk user. STAR FLEX 
is, of course, compatible with the large amount of software 
developed over the years for FLEX systems. STAR-DOS 64 will 
also run much of that software, but its big advantage (besides the 
fact that it is cheaper) is that its disk format is the same as Radio 
Shack's. 

If you do not have a 64K system, then by all means consider the 
original STAR-DOS. The upgrade from STAR DOS to STAR- DOS 
64 is just the price difference between the two, so you can upgrade 
at any time. (But before getting any DOS for your CoCo, read our 
February advertisement!) 

That's it for this month. Until June, just remember: On a Clear 
Disk, You Can Seek Forever. 



SPELL 'N FIX 

Regardless of whose text processor you use, let SPELL 'N FIX find 
and fix your spelling and typing mistakes. It reads text faster than 
you can, and spots and corrects errors even experienced 
proofreaders miss. It is compatible with all Color Computer text 
processors. $69.29 in the Radio Shack disk or cassette versions; 
$89.29 in the Flex version. (20,000 word dictionary is standard; 
optional 75,000 word Super Dictionary costs $50 additional.) 

HUMBUG — THE SUPER MONITOR 

A complete monitor and debugging system which lets you input 
programs and data into memory, list memory contents, insert 
multiple breakpoints, single-step, test, checksum, and compare 
memory contents, find data in memory, start and stop programs, 
upload and download, save to tape, connect the Color Computer t o 
a terminal, printer, or remote computer, and more. HUMBUG on 
disk or cassette costs just $39.95, special 64K version for FLEX or 
STAR-DOS 64 costs $49.95. 

STAR-DOS 

A Disk Operating System specially designed for the Color 
Computer, STAR-DOS is fully compatible with your present Color 
Computer disk format — it reads disks written by Extended Disk 
Basic and vice versa. STAR-DOS for 16K or 32K systems costs 
$49.90; STAR-DOS 64 for 64K systems costs $74.90. 

STAR FLEX 

The best implementation of FLEX for the Color Computer. 
Complete with all utilities, text editor, macro assembler, and 
HUMBUG debug monitor, $250.00. 

ALL IN ONE — Editor Etc. 

Three programs in one — a full function Editor, a Text Processor 
and a Mailing List/Label program. All this for just $50. Requires 
STAR- DOS and 32K, or STAR-DOS 64, or FLEX, specify which. 

DBLS for Data Bases 

DBLS stands for Data Base Lookup System. A super-fast system 
for searching for a selected record in a sequential disk file. Supplied 
with SPELL 'N FIX's 20,000 word dictionary as a sample data file — 
lets you look up the spelling of any word in under FOUR seconds. 
Priced at $29.95. Requires STAR-DOS. 

CHECK 'N TAX 

Home accounting package combines checkbook maintenance and 
income tax data collection. Written in Basic for either RS Disk or 
Flex, $50. 

REMOTERM 

REMOTERM — makes your CoCo into a host computer, operated 
from a remote terminal. $19.95. 

NEWTALK 

NEWTALK — a memory examine utility for machine language 
programmers which reads out memory contents through the TV 
set speaker. $20. 

SHRINK 

SHRINK — our version of Eliza, in machine language and 
extremely fast. $15. 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

Introduction to Numerical Methods — college level course on 
computer math, $75.00. 

We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY State 
residents please add appropriate sales tax. 



Star-Kits 



P.O. BOX 209 — R 
MT. KISCO, N.Y. 10^49 
(914) 241-0287 



PHOTOfest 

A Brief Pictorial of RAINBOWfest 







Had a wonderful time. Wish you were 
there. Fact is, several thousand of us were 
at RAINBOWfest and, by all accounts, it 
was a huge success. From Don Inman's 
insightful breakfast address to the infor- 
mative seminars by Fred Scerbo, Dr. Hal 
Snyder, Charlie Roslund, E. R. Bailey, 
Lonnie Falk, Tom Nelson and Steve Bjork, 
to all the activities in the crowded Mayoral 
Ballroom exhibit hall, CoCo's very first 
show was a time to learn, a time to explore 
and, perhaps most of all, a time to meet 
people. When will the next one be, and 
where? Stay tuned. We don't think we can 
wait a year. 



122 



the RAINBOW July 1983 




1 



Whatzit? 

Itz A Scrambled 
Word Game 



By Randall Smith 



Whatzit is a one or two player scrambled word game using 
P MODE 3 to generate the screen format and character set. 
The game requires 16K and Extended BASIC. I'm sorry to 
say that it doesn't seem to want to run in a 1 6K machine with 
the disk drive attached. 

The game, as written, is geared toward the older child or 
adult. The word list can be easily changed to fit any age 
group. One thing 1 Ve noticed in writing this game is the need 
to choose your list carefully, so as to reduce the number of 
words that consist of letters that would form a different 
word, when rearranged, to a minimum; e.g. BAT-TAB, 
KEEP-PEEK. I tried to use a word list that kept this prob- 
lem to a minimum, but I don't think it's possible to com- 
pletely eliminate the problem. The word list contains 232 
words. If you change it to a different number of words, the 
contents of lines 90 and 270 will have to be changed to match 
the number of words used. 

On running the program you are greeted with options to 
see the directions orbypass them, and to choose the number 
of players. The input is error trapped throughout, and 
screen and sound prompts will guide you through the game. 

The score given for each correct guess is a result of the 
formula in line 630 and is a function of both the time 
required and length of the word. You are given approxi- 
mately 30 seconds to enter the correct answer. If you mistype 
a letter the entry can be erased and started over by pressing 
the left arrow key. If you fail to guess the word the correct 
response will be displayed at the expiration of time. 

Enough about the playing directions; they're well-docu- 
mented in the internal documentation. Let's take a look at 
some of the logic of the program: 

LINES 

Sets up title screen, initializes variables 
Sets up the graphic screen 
Chooses word and scrambles it 
Determines placement of word on the screen 
Puts scrambled word on the screen 
Timing loop for answer 
Erases scrambled word and displays correct 
answer 

( Mr. Smith is a supervisor at a state training center for 
retarded citizens. He is an avid "Co Co Hacker" and is 
also pursuing a degree in computer technology.) 



J0-J40 
150-260 
270-370 
380 
390-420 
430-490 
500-550 



560-570 

580-620 

630-650 
660-750 
760-820 
830-880 
890-1240 
1250-1320 



Sets up placement of keyboard entry on 
screen 

Reads and error traps keyboard entries, 

displays it on the screen 

Calculates score and gets the next word 

Displays end of game message 

Updates and displays scores after each word 

Word list 

Data for font set 

Directions for playing game 



The use of an incrementing scale value in the DRAW 
command, when displaying the scrambled word, results in 
the letters appearing to grow on the screen. Because of the 
varying lengths of the words, the beginning point for each 
word had to be figured to keep them centered. This was 
accomplished by the formula in line 560. The algorithm to 
scramble the word is in lines 280-340. Each word is checked 
in line 340 to be sure it is scrambled. 

The font set used to generate the characters in the game is 
of my own design and is made with a 5 x 7 matrix. 1 tried to 
make it resemble the screen character set as much as possi- 
ble. The font set can be utilized in your own programs by 
deleting all the lines in this program except lines 890-1240. 
These lines can then be saved to tape or disk and loaded back 
in memory before you begin writing the program. The size of 
the characters can be controlled by use of the scale factor in 
the DRA W command. 

Clearing the screen of the previous entries was done by 
using the /M/tVT command to fill in the box at the bottom 
of thescreen with the background color. This method works 
well if you are clearing out an area completely enclosed by 
the same color. To clear out the center of the screen it was 
necessary to use the LINE, BF command with the back- 
ground color. These methods are both utilized in line 640. 

I feel the program is quite flexible for different situations. 
By customizing the word list it can be made suitable for all 
age groups or for special occasions like bridal or baby 
showers or to challenge people in different vocabulary areas; 
such as specialized technical field words, states, countries — 
well, you get the idea. We've played with it for over a year 
and I hope you get as much enjoyment out of it as we have. If 
you get a score of 8000 or greater you've done real well. So, 
get those thinking caps on and let's play Whatzit! 



124 the RAINBOW July 1983 



The listing: 



* 




DuU . . . 


0FC7 




0971 




19A9 


240 


04BF 


960 . . 


1513 


410 


074B 


1110 . 


.. 1754 


590 


097F 


1250 . 


. 1A0C 


680.. 


. OBAA 


END . 


..1D00 



10 '***WHATZIT A WORD GAME*** 
20 '***BY RANDALL A. SMITH*** 
30 'IF YOU CHANGE OR ADD TO THE 
40 ' WORD LIST, YOU WILL HAVE TO 
50 'DETERMINE HOW MANY WORDS YOU 
60 ' HAVE AND ADJUST THE COUNT IN 
70 'LINES 90 ic 270 ACCORDINGLY 
80 CLS : SOUND200 , 1 : PCLEAR4 : PM0DE3 
, 1 :PCLSRND<4) :SCREENl,RND(2)-l:C 
LEAR350: DIM CH* (35) , U ( 10) , B ( 12) , 
SC*(2) :T=RND< -TIMER) 
90 FOR X=l TO 232: READ X*:NEXT:F 
OR X=0 TO 35: READ CH* (X) : NEXT: RE 
STORE 

100 SOUND200,2:FORX=1024 TO 1055 
:POKEX, 134:NEXT:FORX=1056 TO 147 
2 STEP32:P0KEX, 134IP0KEX+31, 134: 
NEXT: FORX=l 504 TO 1535: POKEX, 134 

:next 

110 prints225, "do you want instr 
uctions(y/n)?"; 

115 PRINTS170, "w h a t z i t"; 
120 IN*=INKEY*: IF IN*="Y"THEN GO 
SUB 1250 ELSE IF IN*=""THEN 120 
130 PRINTS225, " HOW MANY PLAYER 
S (1 OR 2)? "5 

140 PL*=INKEY*: IF PL*<>"1" AND P 
L*<>"2" THEN 140 ELSE PL=VAL(PL* 
) :SOUND200, 1 

1 50 PCLS : DRAW 11 BM0 , 1 2 J C8 ; S8 " +CH* ( 

30) +CH* <25) : GET <0, 0) - <28, 14) , U, G 

: GET (128, 96) -(156, 110) ,B 

1 60 PCLS : DRAW " BM83 , 1 2 ; S8 ; C7 " +CH* 

( 32 ) +CH* (17) +CH* (10) 

170 DRAW CH*(29)+CH*(35)+CH*(18) 

+CH*(29) 

1 80 DRAW " BM0 , 30 " +CH* ( 25 ) +CH* ( 2 1 ) 
+CH*(10) 

190 DRAW CH*(34)+CH*(14)+CH*(27) 
+CH* ( 1 ) 

200 DRAW " BM0 , 48 " +CH* ( 28 ) +CH* (12) 
+CH* (24) +CH* (27) +CH* ( 14) : C0L0R8, 
5: LINE (69, 33) -(126, 51) ,PSET,B 
210 IF PL=1 THEN 240 ELSE C0L0R7 
, 5 : DRAW " BM 1 63 , 30 " +CH* ( 25 ) +CH* ( 2 1 
) +CH* ( 10) 

220 DRAW CH*(34)+CH*(14)+CH*(27) 
+CH*(2) 

230 DRAW " BM1 9 1 , 48 " +CH* ( 28 ) +CH* ( 1 
2) +CH* (24) +CH* (27) +CH* ( 14) : COLOR 
8,5: LINE (128, 33) -(185, 51) ,PSET,B 
240 LINE (52, 171) -(200, 190) ,PSET, 
B 



IF PL=2 THEN LP=2:PL=PL-1 
260 PUT (0,52) -(28, 66) ,U,PSET:SCR 
EEN1 , 1 

270 FOR WORD=l TO 10: FOR X=l TO 

RND (232) : READ W*:NEXT X: RESTORE 

280 L=LEN(W*) 

290 W(1)=RND(L-1)+1 

300 FOR X=2 TO L 

310 W(X)=RND(L) 

320 FOR XX=1 TO X-l : IF W ( X X ) =W ( X 
) THEN310 ELSE NEXT XX:NEXT X 
330 FOR X=l TO L:W*(W(X) )=MID*(W 

*,x,d:next x 

340 J*= FOR X=l TO L:J*=J*+W*( 

X):NEXT X:IF J*=W* THEN 290 

350 DRAW " BM65 , 187?C6; S8"+CH* ( 17) 

+CH*(18)+CH*(29) 

360 DRAW " BM+ 1 0 , +0 " +CH* (14) +CH* ( 2 

3 ) +CH* ( 29 ) +CH* (14) +CH* ( 27 ) 

370 IF INKEY*OCHR*(13) THEN 370 

ELSE PAINT (128, 175) ,5,8 
380 L=LEN(J*) :M=INT(132-(21*(LEN 
(J*)/2))-21) 

390 FOR X=l TO L:M=M+21:F0R S=l 
TO10 STEP 3 

400 DRAW"BM"+STR*(M)+", 100;C6SS" 
+STR*(S)+CH*(ASC(MID*(J*, X, 1) > -5 
5) 

410 PLAY " V3 1 ; T230; L230 j 03 ; A " : DRA 
W " BM " +STR* ( M ) + " , 1 00 ; C5; S " +STR* ( S 
)+CH*(ASC(MID*(J*, X, 1) )-55) 



r 





GUARDIAN 

by 

WILLIAMS® 



You've played "DEFENDER" at the arcade, but 
you've only seen the "attempted copies" for your 
Color Computerl Now get the real thing! 

Stunning sounds and explosions good enough to 
be approved by Williams Electronics (Makers of 
"DEFENDER"). 

Order now by check, M.O., C.O.D.. or see your 
dealer ... (If he doesn't have it yet. send him to usl) 

$27.95 - Tape 
$29.95 — Disk 

Add $1.50 per order for postage and handling. 
California residents add 6%, 

QUASAR ANIMATIONS 
1520 Pacific Beach Drive 
San Diego, CA 92109 
(619) 274-2202 

WILLIAMS is a registered trademark of Williams Electronics. 



J 



420 NEXT S:DRAW"BM"+STR*(M)+", 10 
0;C6;S12"+CH*(ASC(MID*(J*,X, 1) )- 
55): NEXT X 
430 T=2000 
440 GOSUB560 

450 T=T-l:IF T=0 THEN BOSUB470:B 

OTO650 

460 GOTO580 

470 PLAY" T3; L3; V31 » 01 ; B; L2; A" 

480 PAINT < 128, 175) ,5,8 

490 IF T>0 THEN GOSUB560 : RETURN 

500 LINE<0, 79) -<255, 100) , PRESET, 

BF 

510 M=INT(132-(21*(LEN(J*)/2) )-2 
1) 

520 FOR X=l TO LEN(W*) :M=M+21 
530 DRAW"BM"+STR*(M)+", 100;C8;S1 
2"+CH*<ASC<MID*<W*, X,2) )-55) :NEX 
T X 

540 FOR X=l TO 1000: NEXT: LINE <0, 
79) - (255, 100) , PRESET, BF 
550 RETURN 

560 WW*= M=INT(130-(14*LEN(W*) 

/2) ) 

570 DRAW"BM"+STR*(M)+", 187;C6;S8 
" : RETURN 

580 IN*=INKEY*: IF IN*=""THEN GO 
TO450 

590 IF ASC(IN*>=8 THEN WW*= GO 

TO 610 ELSE IF ASC(IN*)=13 THEN 



PAK NO. 


PROGRAM SIDE 1 


s 


PROGRAM SIDE 2 


DUO-PAK-l 


GONE FISHING 


/ 


CONCENTRATION 


DUO-PflK-2 


CRAPS 


/ 


SLOT-MACHINE 


DUO-PAK-3 


STflRSHIP 


/ 


SHERLOCK HOLMES 


OUa-PPK-4 


TANK ATTACK 


/ 


ASSOCIATION 


DUO-PAK-3 


NUMBER GUESS 


/ 


DICE ROLL 


DUO-PAK-6 


IN-BETWEEN 


/ 


SHELL GAME 


DUO-PAK-7 


SAFARI 


/ 


STARSHIP-2 


DUO-PAK-8 


MORTAR BATTLE 


/ 


PUZZLE 


DUO-PAK-9 


TEASERS 


/ 


MOUSE 


DUO-PflK-10 


PT BOAT 


/ 


TURTLE RACE 


DUO-PAK-ll 


CHEK-CHES 


/ 


STARSHIP-3 


DUO-PAK-12 


THINK 


/ 


LUCK i LOGIC 


DUO-PAK-13 


TREASURE ISLAND 


/ 


RESCUE 


OUO-PflX-300 


DC-OHMS LAW 


/ 


FLC-FRC 


DUO-PAK-301 


IC-TIMER-1 


/ 


IC-TIMER 2 



*******************************(*************** 
SYSTEM PROGRAMS 110 EACH 

SU1 CASSETTE COPY /• CASSETTE COPY 

*********************************************** 
ORDERS MILL BE SENT BY FIRST CLASS MAIL PPD. 

SORRY NO COD' S 
BE SURE TO SPECIFY WHICH COMPUTER YOU HAVE. 
B. ERICKSON P.O. BOX 11099 

CHICAGO. IL. 60611 



620 ELSE IF ASC(IN*)<65 OR ASC < I 
N*)>90 THEN GOTO450 
600 IF LEN(WW*)=LEN(W*) THEN 450 
ELSE DRAM CH* ( ASC (IN*) -55 ) : WW*= 
WW*+IN*:GOTO450 

610 PAINT (128, 175) ,5,8: GOSUB560: 
GOTO450 

620 IF WW*=W* THEN PLAY"V31 ; L10; 

T100;O3;A;B;C;D;E;F;G" ELSE GOSU 

B470: IF T>0 THEN 450 ELSE G0T065 
0 

630 SC*(PL)=STR*( (INT( (LEN(W*)*3 
0)+T/2.86) ) +VAL ( SC* ( PL ) )) : G0SUB7 
60 

640 FOR X=l TO 500: NEXT: LINE (0,7 
9) -(255, 100) , PRESET, BF: PAINT (128 
, 175) ,5,8 

650 NEXT WORD: IF LP=2 THEN PL=PL 
+ 1 : LP=0: PUT (0, 52) - (28, 66) , B: PUT ( 
227 , 52 ) - ( 255 , 66 ) , U , PSET : PLAY " T3 ; 

L3 ; 03 ; V3 l ; G ; L3 ; 02 ; G " : GOTO270 

660 IF PL=2 THEN PUT (227, 52) - (25 

5,66),B ELSE PUT (0, 52) - (28, 66) , B 

670 DRAM "BM13, 100; C7; S16"+CH* ( 16 

) +CH* (10) +CH* ( 22 ) +CH* (14) 

680 DR AM " BM 1 45 , 1 00 " +CH* ( 24 ) +CH* ( 

31 ) +CH* ( 14) +CH* (27) 

690 DRAM " BM65 , 187 ; C6; S8"+CH* (17) 

+CH*(18)+CH*(29) 

700 DRAM "BM+10, +0" +CH* (14) +CH* ( 2 

3)+CH* (29) +CH* ( 14) +CH* (27) 

710 IF VAL(SC*(1) ) >VAL(SC*(2) ) T 

HEN DRAM"BM107,25" ELSE DRAM "BM1 

49,25" 

720 DRAM " S4 ; C8 ; NU5 ; NE5 ; NR5 ; NF5 ; N 

D5;NG5;NL5;NH5":for x=l TO 100: N 

EXT 

730 dram " c5 ; nu5 ; ne5; nr5; nf5 ; nd5 ; 
ng5;nl5;nh5":for x=itoi00:next 
740 if inkey*ochr*(13) then 720 
750 sc* ( 1 ) ="0" : sc* (2) ="0" : screen 

0,0: GOTO 130 

760 L=LEN ( SC* ( PL ) ) - 1 : ON PL G0T07 
70, 780 

770 PAINT(98,36) ,5,8:M=INT(101-( 

14*L/2) -14) : GOTO790 

780 PAINT (158, 36) , 5, 8: M=INT ( 160- 

(14*L/2)-14) 

790 FOR SC=2 TO L+l : M=M+14: DRAM" 

BM" +STR* (M) +" , 48; C6; S8" 

800 DRAM CH*(ASC(MID*(SC*(PL) , SC 

, 1) )-48) 

810 NEXT SC 

820 RETURN 

830 DATA SIRLOIN, HELP, ASSIST, DON 
E, REMEMBER, WORK, LADY, NAME, PROGRA 
M , NUMBER , C I GAR , GRAPH , D I SH , MOTOR , 
ENG I NE , BODY , AUTOMOB I LE , TRUCK , SWE 
EP , L AMP , L I GHT, D I SPLAY , REC I PE , AUT 
OMATIC, FEATURE, ADVENTURE, CONTEST 



START 




COMPUTER PROGRAMS 
TRS-80 MODEL 1/3 16K LEVEL II 
TRS-80 16K COLOR 

S3 FROG PACE *3 

DEMO PROGRAM FROG RACE COMES ON CASSETTE WITH A 
REFUND COUPON TO USE ON YOUR NEXT ORDER. 
FROG RACE CASSETTE $3. WITH CATALOG 



DUO-PAKS ARE 



126 the RAINBOW July 1983 



IIS, JUST , W I LD , MOTHER , FATHER , UNC 
:, AUNT, SHOCK, EXACT, GENEROUS, BRO 
WN , BLUE , GREEN , PURPLE , E I GH 
860 DATA INDIAN, STATE, COUNTRY, TH 
AT, POLICE, PECAN, WALNUT, BROOM, SAG 
E, PEPPER, MALT, DRUG, STAMP, ENVELOP 
E, HEAT, CLEAN, DIRTY, CARPET, SOFA, C 
OUCH, TABLE, FLOWER, SHACK, LOOK, SHO 
E , PANTS , DRESS , SH I RT , SOCK , M I TTEN P 
GLOVE , STRANGE ,CITY,TOWN,BRIGHT,l 
E AUT I FUL , NOVEL , SW I NG , FORM 
870 DATA CAB I NET, DRIFT, FLOAT, PRI 
TEND , AUD I O , DOCTOR , DENT I ST , NURSE , 
RENT , LEASE , SK I LLET , BRO I L , BAKE ct 



9 

FR 



Ei;R2;Fl;Dl;Gi 

IHl;BM+7,+0" 
NR4 ; M+3 , -3 ; D6 ; BM+4 
,+0" 

940 DATA "BU4;NR3;U2;R4;BD2;BLl; 

fi; D2;gi;L2;hi;bm+7,+i" 

950 DATA "BU6;BR3;NFJ?L2;Gl;D2;N 

R3; D2; Fl ; R2 ; El ; Ul ; HI ; BM+4, +3" 

960 DATA "Ul;BU5;R4;Dl;M-4,+4;BM 
+7,+l" 




CIRCLE CITY 
SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 30166 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46220 




o 

I 



Credit Card Customers 
include number and expiration date. 



SEA TRADER 

A new game in which you play an 18th cen 
tury sea captain plying the trade routes. 
The you start start out on a shoestring 
and try to become a billionaire. Hazzards 
include pirates, storms, bad markets, 
and bad debts. People have become 
so fascinated with this game that 
they actually cheat to keep from 
winning. 16K color basic, tape or disk 
$19.95. 



COLOR STAR PILOT 

Take a trek through space to defeat the 
alien enemy in this superior version of 
a classic space game! Reviewed in Rain 
bow. Requires extended basic. Comes 
with 32K 3-level game or 16K novice 
version. Tape or disk $19.95. 





N EW MASTER DISK $29.95 

A touch of a button allows you to keep tabs 
on your disk library. Creates directory files 
directly from 100 of your source disks on one 
Master Disk. Search by file name, file type, 
disk name, free space, or individual directory. 
All output can be sent to line printer. Menu 
driven and very user friendly! This is an im- 
proved version of the program reviewed inThe 
Rainbow. Optional accessory package adds 
even more features. 16K or 32 K disk required. 

ACCESSORY PACKAGE $20.00 

A second disk for improved versions of the or- 
iginal single-disk accessory programs. Includes 
notebook for storage of disks and paperwork. 

*SORT* 

New Sort program is faster and more efficient 
than original version. Runs in 16 or 32K to 
produce an alphabetic listing of all file types 
you specify. 

♦RECOVER* 

New Recover program not only rewrites direc- 
tories from master files but can rebuild an en- 
tire disk to eliminate "10" errors. 

*ZAP* 

New addition. User friendly directory Zapper 
to manually correct directory data when all 
else fails. Menu-driven with help files for 
novices. 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 127 



970 DATA "BUl;Ui;El;R2;El;Ul;Hl; 
L2;gi;di ;fi;R2;F1;di;gi;L2;hi;bm 

+7,+l" 

980 DATA "BUI > F 1 > R2> El ; U4; HI ; L2; 

Gl ; Dl ; Fl ; R3; BM+3, +3" 

990 DATA "U5;El;R2;Fl;D3;NL4;D2; 

BR3" 

1000 DATA "U6;R3;F1;D1;G1;NL3;F1 
;Dl;Gl;L3;BR7" 

1010 DATA "BUl;U4;El;R2;Fl;BD4;G 
l;L2;Hl;BR7;BDl" 

1020 DATA "Rl;U6;NLl;R2;Fl;D4;Gl 

; L2;BR6" 

1030 DATA "U3;NR3;U3;R4;BD6;L4;B 

R7" 

1040 DATA "U3;NR3;U3;R4;BD6;BR3" 

1050 DATA "BUl;U4;El;R3;BD4;NLl; 

D2;L3;hi;br7;bdi h 

1060 data "u3;nr4;u3;br4;d6;br3" 

1070 DATA "BU6;BRl;Rl;ND6;Rl;BRl 

;BD6;BLi;l_2;BR6" 

1080 DATA "BU2;Dl;Fl;R2;El;U5;BD 

6;BR3" 

1090 DATA "U6;BR4;M-4,+3;M+4,+3; 
BR3" 

1100 DATA "NU6;R4;BR3" 

1110 DATA" "U6;M+2,+3;M+2,-3;D6;B 

R3" 




UPSET] 

ABOUT POOR 
VIDEO QUALITY? 

We can fix it ! 



Designed 
by 

Dennis E3- 



I I 



ASSEMBLED LOWER CASE MODULE $69.95 
Easy to install - No software changes 
Adds lower case with true descenders. 
BOARD ONLY $12.00 




TV Buff 

will give standard NTSC 
video output for virtually 
any monitor $ 9.95 



send $1,60 for our 
complete catalog 



dealers caff (212) 499 -5400 



WORLD ELECTRONICS 

177 2 7th Street 
Brooklyn, N.y. 11232 



1120 DATA 
1130 DATA 
1140 DATA 
BR7" 

1150 DATA 

;L2;hi;bei 

1160 DATA 
M+3 , +3 ; BR3 
1170 DATA 

i;L2;gi;di 

1180 DATA 



" U6 ; M+4 , +6 ; U6 5 BD6 ; BR3 " 

"U6;R4;D6;L4;BR7" 
"U6;R3;Fl;Di;Gi5L3;D3; 

"BUl;U4;Ei;R2;Fl;D4;6i 
;BRl;F2;BR3" 
"U6;R3;Fl;Dl ;G1 »L3;R1; 

II 

"BUI ; Fl ; R2 ; El ; Ul ; BU3; H 
;M+4, +2;BR3;BD2" 

" BU6 ; R2 ; ND6 ; R2; BD6 J BR3 



II 



128 



1190 data h bui;U5;br4;D5;gi;L2;h 
l;BDl;BR7" 

1200 DATA "BU6;M+2,+6;M+2,-6;BD6 

;BR3" 

1210 DATA "U6;BR4;D6;M-2,-2;NUl; 
M-2,+2;BR7" 

1220 DATA "Ul;M+4,-4;ul;BL4;Di;M 
+4,+4;Dl;BR3" 

1230 DATA "BR2;U3;M-2,-2;Ul;BR4; 
D 1 ; M-2 , +2 ; BD3 ; BR5" 

1240 DATA "BU6;R4;M-4,+6;R4;BR3" 
1250 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" IN whatz 
it A SCRAMBLED GROUPOF LETTERS 
WILL APPEAR. YOU WILLHAVE APPROX 
IMATELY THIRTY SEC- ONDS IN WHI 
CH TO FIGURE OUT THE CORRECT WOR 
D THESE LETTERS FORM AND ENTER T 
HEM ON THE KEYBOARD. " 
1260 PRINT" IF YOU MAKE A TYPING 
ERROR, YOU MAY HIT THE * KEY A 
ND START OVER. IF YOU < ENTER > 
THE WRONG ANSWER, IT WILL BE ER 
ASED AND YOU MAY RE-ENTER IT A 
S TIME AL-" 

1270 PRINT " LOWS. THE GAME MAY BE 

PLAYED BY EITHER ONE OR TWO PEO 

PLE. ": PRINT: PRINT" HIT ANY KE 

Y TO CONTINUE"; 

1280 IF INKEY*=" "THEN 1280 

1290 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT" EACH PL A 

YER GETS TEN RANDOM- LY CHOSEN W 

ORDS IN EACH ROUND. YOUR SCORE 

IS BASED ON BOTH THE AMOUNT OF T 

I ME YOU USE AND THE LENGTH OF T 

HE SCRAMBLED WORD. 11 

1300 PR I NT "PLEASE NOTE THAT YOUR 

ANSWER IS NOT COMPLETE UNTIL YO 

U PRESS < ENTER >. THE TIMER DO 

ES NOT START UNTIL ALL THE S 

CRAMBLED LETTERS ARE ON THE SC 

REEN. FOL- LOW THE PROMPTS AS TH 

EY APPEAR ON THE SCREEN AND GOO 

D LUCK ! ! " 

1310 PRINT: PRINT" HIT ANY KEY TO 

BEGIN THE GAME" 
1320 IF I NKE Y*= " " THEN 1320 ELSE 
CLSRND < 8 ) : GOTO 1 30 

. 0% 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



WORKSAVER RECEIVES 

RAVE REVIEWS 

FROM COLOR COMPUTER NEWS AND RAINBOW 



• Fast Entry of 
Basic Programs 

• Over 100 user 
definable keys 

• Enhances all Coco's 
from 16K Non Extended 
Basic to Extended, 64K, 
Disk 

• Available on Disk or 
cassette 

• Built in cassette merge 

• User's Support Service 




"There are a number of 
products on the Coco 
market. .the WORKSAVER 
ranks up there with the 
best of them" 

—Rainbow Dec. '821 

..undoubtedly the best 
program I have ever 
bought for my color 
computer" 

—Color Computer News 

Jan. '83 

"the main function of the 
program seems to be mak-\ 
ing things easier and morel 
functional for the user. It 
succeeds extremely well" 
—Color Computer News 

Jan. s 83 



THE WORKSAVER WILL SAVE YOU HOURS OF WORK...WRITING AND DEBUGGING YOUR PROGRAMS 11 

— Rainbow Dec. "82 



FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

-WANT TO CHANGE the fine a 
couple lines up? Simple. Use the 
arrow keys to the appropriate 
place and make the change. This is 
not only a lot easier, but it is vastly 
faster, too. ..changing fine 
numbers, joining iines together, 
breaking them apart, duplicating 
them elsewhere— heady stuff— is 
very easy fo do with the 
Worksaver" (Rainbow) 



DYNAMIC EDITING 

This is one of our users' favorite 
features: When the computer halts 
due to an error, or you want to 
make an improvement while run- 
ning, you can make changes 
without losing data: 'This is a ma- 
jor plus in debugging,, .it can save 
a lot of time in data loads„,(and) 
the generation of data through in- 
puts." Rainbow Dec/82 



"The things that this program 
add to the color computer... 

INCREASE ITS 
CAPABILITIES MANIFOLD 

...it should have been incor- 
porated into the original 
MICROSOFT programming (or) 
given out with every color com- 
puter." 

—Color Computer News Jan '83 



THE PLATINUM WORKSAVER 
INCLUDES: 

• Enhancement program, including a 
sample array editor on a high-quality 
Agfa cassette. 

• Fully labeled acetate keyboard over- 
lay, not a cheap stick-on. 

• Complete instructions 

• Loads in seconds, takes 2.2 K 



WORKSAVER A1 A3 OWNERS: 

Contact us regarding return policy for 
our New A-4 version. 



The PLATINUM WORKSAVER costs 
$35.00 plus $3.00 S&H (NY residents 
add appropriate tax). To order write: 

— PLATINUM SOFTWARE 

m^S P.O. Box 833 

Plattsburgh, N.Y. 12901 

Phone orders: (518) 643-2650 9-5 EST 

VISA, MASTERCARD ACCEPTED. PERSONAL CHECKS 
TAKE 2-3 WEEKS TO PROCESS. 



DYNAMIC INPUT 

Perform numeric calculations, 
and check the contents of ar- 
rays and variables, WITHOUT in- 
terrupting the running of BASIC 
programs: "An EXTREMELY 
valuable feature that I use ALL 
the time." 

—Color Computer News Jan. '83 



NUMERIC KEYPAD 

CONVERSION 

"The keys JKLUIOP are defined 
as the numbers 1-7, respective 
fy..>this mode is a Godsend for 
long data statements. " 
—Color Computer News Jan. 83 



FULL FEATURED 
4 COLOR 
KEYBOARD OVERLAY 

"TRUTH: The WORKSAVER 
overlay is the best we have 
seen for this type of program. " 
—The Rainbow Dec. 82 

"A well designed keyboard 

over la y (NO T a s tick er../' 

— Color Computer News Jar*. 




EDUCATION NOTES 



\ 16K 


■ 


tne 
•»* 

RAINBOW 


ECB 












Learning 
To Create 



Forms of Subsl^iS 



1M 




By Steve 





- , - 



ing Editor 




r- 



yfryj> 



W 



m 




hen was the last time you filled out a form? I 
sometimes feel that I am constantly asked to fill out 
a form of one kind or another. 
A surprising number of students are unable to independ- 
ently complete many forms and applications. In a world full of 
forms, it is essential to have the ability to fill them out 
properly. Too often, mistakes are made by handlers of these 
forms even after we have completed them correctly. Let's at 
least learn to do our part right. 

We have all had experiences filling out charge, employ- 
ment, school, social security, motor vehicle, bank account, 
health insurance, and innumerable other forms and applica- 
tions. Yet, this is not a subject often taught in our schools. It 
really should be taught as part of a "survival education" or 
"life preparation" course. Too frequently, children encounter 
these legalistic looking papers for the first time when they 
actually have to fill them out for a real purpose. 

This month's program offers practice and some teaching of 
a few of the common elements of applications. It is by no 
means a comprehensive course in filling out forms. It is merely 
a start on this path. 

You may be surprised to find which items confuse certain 
children. I am constantly surprised by this. My own 10 year 
old was totally baffled on whether his borough or city should 
go into the "city" space. (The borough is usually the expected 
correct response in New York City.) Many children who are 
well aware of the answer are confused about exactly how they 
should enter their date of birth. Don't be surprised when 
unusual answers occur. A common answer to the questions of 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



"sex" for many children is "yes" or "no" rather than "male" 
or "female. "This is the time and place for the kids to learn 
the correct responses. 

Much effort went into anticipating the various possible 
mistakes that children may make on the individual items. 
For example, line 250 will automatically insert a comma 
after the name of the city. Lines 310 and 340 will similarly 
place parentheses around the area code in a telephone 
number. 

Some items on applications have variable lengths. As 
much room as possible was left to accommodate names of 
persons and cities. Other items, however, have definite 
lengths. This program coaxes the child to use only the 
correct number of entries. For example, the U.S. Post Office 
has two letter abbreviations for all of the 50 states. No 
periods are used anymore. Line 260 checks to see if two 
letters were used for the state's entry. If other than two 
letters are used, the program goes to line 520 where the 
message "all states use two letters" is flashed. Then the child 
is always given another chance to enter the item correctly. 
Area codes, zip codes, and telephone numbers have similar 
error trapping and messages. Of course, ifyou live in an area 
that has different rules, then change the values in the 
appropriate places to reflect your needs.. 

Most applications expect two digit answers for data of 
birth questions. February 20, 1960, usually appears as 
02/20/60. This program reinforces the use of two digits and 
checKs on lines 430 and 450 for improper month or date 

(Mr. Blyn, who teaches both exceptional and gifted children, holds 
two Master 's degrees in the field of education and has won an award 
for the design of a com puter program to aid handicapped children. 
He and his wife, Cheryl, own Computer Island.) 



entries. Line 630 prints the error message for these re- 
sponses. 

After the lastentry is completed, the message "your appli- 
cation is accepted" is scrolled across the bottom of the 
screen. Other possible items that you may wish to include in 
an enlarged version are sex, date, height, weight, hair and 
eye color, references, etc. 

We welcome your comments as well as the opinion of any 
youngsters who make use of this program. Let's hear from 
you. 



The listing: 



7/ 




430 


0590 


120 


01B9 


560 


0858 


260.. 


. . Q36C 


END 


. . 0AC7 



10 REM*STEVE BLYN, COMPUTER ISLAN 
D 

20 CLEAR500 

30 CLS: PRINT@96, "DO YOU HAVE A P 

R INTER TURNED ON": INPUT PR*: IF L 

EFT* ( PR* , 1 ) = " Y " THEN PR= 1 

40 P0KE359 , 57 : SCREEN0, 1 : REM**** 

♦LET'S USE A DIFFERENT COLORED 

SCREEN FOR A WELCOME CHANGE 

50 CLS 

60 PRINT@6, "*appl ication form*"; 

70 PR I NTS32 , " NAME : " ; 

80 PRINT869, " 



90 PR I NTS 102, "LAST 
RST " ; 



FI 



100 PRINTS37, 



II II ■ 
9 



LINE INPUTL$:SO 





Spellbinding ? 

^-^^ Of Course! And Educational Too! 0^9 



"Hello, I'm Merlapple™ the Wizard. My friends and I from Follett Library Book Company are helping grade school 
>,\ children all over Ine United States build logic, math and language skills through six unique programs designed for the 

Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer. 

These widely acclaimed, award winning games from The Learning Company capture the fancy and test the reasoning pro- 
cesses of boys and girls ages preschool through thirteen. Using both high and low resolution graphics, the games range from easy to "mind-boggling", each offering a 
distinct challenge to its players. "How-to-play" enactments contribute to program understanding, while both graphic and musical feedback enhance learning. 

The six outstanding programs offered include Juggles RainbowTM ( Bumble Plot™, Bumble Games™, Magic Spells™, and Moptown Hotel™. To order 
any or all of the above programs, please return the order form below. 



PRICES SUBJECTTO CHANGE 



SOFTWARE ORDER FORM 



Date 



RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER (16K EXTENDED BASIC! 





CASSETTES 


DISKETTES 


PROGRAM 

TITLE 


OftOEPl 
NUMBER 


PRICE 


Oil A NT IT V 


ORDER 
NUMBER 


PRICE 


QUANTITY 

, 


Juggle * Riiniaow 


mm 


$37 




5D202D 






Bumble Gamsi 


902Q0C 


S45 




9O2D0D 






BumblB Pitt 


9D201C 


545 




902QTD 






Mjglt Sp«ll& 


9DZ03C 


S40 










Moplown Hole! 
(J programs) 


90204C 


sarj 




902040 


m 




MapLgwn Paiade 
(8 programs I 


9B205C 






902C&D 








TOTAL 




TOTAL 





Name 



School/Library 

Address 

City 



Dist. # 



State 



Zip 



Phone No. of Person Originating Order 



- Your FLB Acct. # 



P.O.# 



CHECK ENCLOSED □ 
CHARGE CARD # 



□ 



□ EXP. DATE 




FOLLETT LIBRARY BOOK CO. 

4506 Northwest Highway, Crystal Lake. IL 60014 

TOLL-FREE 800-435-6170 

In Illinois. Hawaii, Alaska call collect: B15-455-1100 



J 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 131 



UND170,3 

110 PRINTS52, " ":PRINT@52, ""; :li 

NE INPUTF*:SOUND200,3 

120 PRINTS64," ":PRINT@96, " ":'* 

♦♦REMOVES LAST AND FIRST 

130 PRINTS96, "ADDRESS: "; 

140 PRINTS136, " 



II 



150 PRINT© 169, "STREET AND NUMBER 

ii ■ 

» 

160 PRINTS 104, ""; : LINE INPUTS*: SO 
UND100,3 

170 IF LEN(S*)>24 THEN PRINT© 104 
, LEFT* (S*, 24)+" 

180 PRINTS132, PRINT@160," " 

190 SOSUB200:SOTO210 

200 PRINTS160, " 

"; : RETURN 

210 PRINTTAB ( 10) "CITY"TAB (22) "ST 
ATE "TAB (28) "ZIP" 

220 PRINTH128, " " ; : L I NE I NPUTC* : SO 
UND125,3 

230 CC=LEN(C*) : IF CC>22 THEN PR I 

NTS128, PRINT@128,LEFT*(C*,22 

) 

240 IFC022 THEN CC=22 

250 PRINTS128+CC, " , " ; 

260 PRINTS152, " " ; : L I NE I NPUTST* : I 

F LEN(ST*)<>2 THEN BOTO 520 




The pyramids of brightly colored cubes would be a simple 
challenge for your little Bloc Head - II- it weren't lor the 
dispicable characters after him. who try to push him off 
the cubes before he can change their colored surfaces! 
Bloc Head must dodge the sinister springs, bad eggs. & 
other evils. Luckily the good guys give him points and 
two elevators help him escape to the top of the pyramid, 
leaving the evil pursuers behind. Bloc Head knows that if 
hecanjustclcarthc pyramid of cubes, he goes to the next 
level of play, always adding up points, 
cassette 526« d is k s29« add *2"« shipping 



QOMPUTERWARE® @ 

Bo* 668 • Enclnitas. CA 92024 
Dealer inquiries Invited (6 19) 436-3512 

132 the RAINBOW July 1983 




270 SOUND 150,3 

280 PRINTS155, "" f Z LINE INPUT Z* 
IF LEN(Z*)<>5 THEN GOTO 530 
290 SOUND 180,3 

300 PRINTS160, PRINT@192," 

310 PR I NTS 192, "TELEPHONE #: ( 



) 



II 



320 PR I NT@236 , " "; 

330 PR I NTS205 , " " ; : L I NE I NPUTT* : I F 
LEN(T*)<>3 THEN 540 
340 PRINTS208, ") "; 

350 PRINTS210, PRINTS210, ""; : 

LINE INPUT TT* : I FLEN ( TT* ) <>8 THE 
N 550 

360 IF MID*(TT*,4, 1)<>"-"THEN 55 
0 

370 PRINTS224, PRINTS256, "AGE 

: "; :PRINT@292, " — "; 

380 PRINTS260, PRINTS260, " " ; : 

LINE INPUT AG* 

390 IF VAL(AG*)<1 OR VAL(AG*)>99 
THEN GOTO 560 

400 PRINTS264, "DATE OF BIRTH:";: 
PRINTS310, " — — — "; 

410 prints342, "mo.da. yr."; 

420 nn= 1 2 : pr i nts278 , pr i nts27 

8, " "; :lineinputmo*: iflen(M0*x>2 
then goto 570 

430 if val(mo*)<0 or val(m0*)>12 

then goto 580 

440 nn=3 1 : pr i nts28 1 , pr i nts28 

1, " " ; : l i ne i nputd a* : iflen(da*)<>2 

then goto 590 
450 ifval(da*)<0 or val(da*)>31 
then goto 600 

460 pr i nts284 , " " : pr i nts284 , " " ; : 
l i ne i nputyr* : i flen ( yr* ) <>2 theng 

OTO 610 

470 PRINTS288, " " 

480 AP*="your application is acc 

epted" 

490 F0RT=1T029:PRINT@447-T,LEFT* 
( AP*, T) : SOUND230, 1 : NEXTT 
500 IF PR=1THEN 640 ELSE 710 
510 '* 

520 FORT= 1 T03 : PR I NT@420 , " ALL ST A 
TES USE 2 LETTERS" ; :SOUND40, 8: NE 

XTT:PRINT@152, PRINTS416, 

GOSUB200: GOTO260 

530 FORT= 1 T03 : PR I NT@4 16," ALL ZIP 
CODES HAVE 5 DIGITS. ": SOUND70, 8 
:PRINT@155," ": NEXTT: PR 

I NT@4 16, GOSUB200 : GOTO280 

540 FORT= 1 T03 : PR I NT@4 16," AREA CO 
DES HAVE 3 DIGITS. " : SOUND70, 8: Nt£ 

XTT:PRINT@416, GOTO310 

550 F0RT=1T03:PRINT@416, " TELEPH 
ONE #'S HAVE 7 DIGITS WITH A 
DASH AFTER THE FIRST 3.":SOUND70 
,8:NEXTT:PRINT@416, PRINTS448 




* Computers produced after ap- 
proximately October, 1982 require 
an additional keyboard plug 
adapter — please add $4.95. 




• Affordable Price— Only $69.95. 

• A must have for all serious computerists. 

• Highest quality— U.S. made. 

• Direct replacement — same key layout 

• Professional appearance and operation. 

• Fast, simple installation. 

• Complete instructions included. 

• In stock now. 

AT YOUR FAVORITE DEALER OR DIRECT FROM 



Mark Data Products 



24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 226, MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 

We pay shipping on all orders in the continental U.S. and Canada. Overseas add $5.00 for shipping and handling. Foreign orders 
please remit U.S. funds. California residents, please add 6% sales tax. We accept MasterCard and VISA. We are always looking 
for quality machine language programs. Contact us for details. 




APPRAISAL & FINANCIAL 
SOFTWARE 



INCOME APPROACH PRINTOUT USING 

MORTGAGE-EQUITY CAPITALIZATION 
It provides a report ready page, listing all 
significant details of the cap. rate construc- 
tion, capitalization of the net income, round- 
ing and comments, if any. Select any 
interest or yield rate, and terms within 
normal parameters. User friendly; just 
answer the questions as to rates, terms, net 
appreciation/depreciation, net income and 
out comes the Income Approach page. It 
takesso little time, you can do it over quickly 
if you wish to amend the computation. 
Printer required. Tapes $85. Disk $95. 



COMPOUND INTEREST & ANNUITY TABLES, 
WITH LEASEHOLD AND SUBLEASEHOLD 
COMPUTATION PROGRAMS 



Have the big book and more for your 
assistance at computer speed. Computes 
any rate, and terms within normal para- 
meters. This alone is worth the price. The 
lease program is of inestimable value. User 
friendly and menu driven for ease of use. 
Printer desireable. Tape $85. Disk $95. 



INVESTMENT ADVISOR PROGRAM 



Provides practical usage of all six functions 
of compound interest: (1) What a fixed 
amount left at compound interest will grow 
to, (2) What a fixed amount deposited 
periodically will grow to, (3) The periodic 
deposit required to grow to a fixed amount 
by a future date, (4) What a fixed amount due 
in the future is worth today, (5) What a fixed 
periodic payment for a fixed period of time is 
worth today, (6) Fixed periodic payment 
required to repay a loan at compound 
interest. THESE COMPOUND FUNCTIONS 
ARE THE BASIC REQUIREMENTS TO 
COMPUTE MOST FINANCIAL PROBLEMS. 
Printer desirable. Tape $85. Disk $95. 



OTHER COMPUTER SYSTEMS 



The programs are being made available 
for TRS 80 II & III, Apple, and IBM, PC. 
Ask for price. 



IN EXTENDED BASIC FOR TRS80CC & TDY100 



ORDERING: Include $3. for shipping in 
U.S. & Canada; others $6.00. Add $2.00 for 
C.O.D. Texas Residents add 5% for sales 
tax. 713/780-4566 (9 to 5 C.T.) All pro- 
grams prepared by M.A.I, with over 20 
years experience. WINSTEAD CO., INC., 
Box 31489, Houston, TX 77231 



" " : BOTO 350 
560 F0RT=1T03:PRINT@417, "THAT'S 

NOT YOUR REAL AGE. . . " : SOUND70, 8: 

NEXTT:PRINT@416, "":BOTO 380 

570 BOSUB620:6OTO 420 

580 6OSUB630:6OTO420 

590 BOSUB620IBOTO440 

600 BOSUB630: BOTO440 

610 BOSUB620:6OTO460 

620 FORT= 1 T03 : PR I NTS422 , " USE 2 D 

IBITS, PLEASE" : SOUND70, 8: NEXTT: PR 

INTS416, RETURN 

630 FORT= 1 T03 : PR I NT@4 17," ONLY US 
E NUMBERS FROM 1 TO" ; NN: SOUND200 

,6:NEXTT:PRINT@416, RETURN 

640 PR I NT#-2 , TAB ( 30 ) " APPL I CAT I ON 

FORM" : SOSUB720: BOSUB720 
650 PR I NT#-2 , TAB ( 5 > " N AME : " TAB ( 20 
>L*TAB<40)F*:BOSUB 730 
660 PR I NT#-2 , T AB ( 20 ) " LAST " TAB ( 40 
) "FIRST" : BOSUB720 

670 PRINT#-2,TAB(5) "ADDRESS: "TAB 
<20>S*:6OSUB730 

680 PRINT#-2,TAB<20)C*", "ST*" " 

Z*: BOSUB730: BOSUB720 

690 PRINT#-2, TAB (5) "TELEPHONE #: 

" TAB ( 20 > " ( " T* " > " TT* : SOSUB730 : BO 

SUB720 

700 PRINT#-2,TAB(5) "ABE: "TAB (12) 
A6*TAB < 20 > " DATE OF BIRTH: "MO*"/ 
" DA* " / " YR* : BOSUB730 
710 END 

720 FORT=l TO 2:PRINT#-2, NEX 

TT: RETURN 

730 PR I NT#-2 , TAB (20) " 



II 



: RETURN 



RAINBOWfest Seminar 
Talks Available On Tape 

Copies of all seminars given at RAINBOWfest are now 
available on audio tape. 

In addition, a tape is available of the keynote breakfast 
speech given by Don Inman. Seminars were given by 
Fred Scerbo of 1MB on educational software; E.R. 
Bailey of Micrologic on faster Basic; Dr. Hal Snyder of 
the Northern Illinois Color Computer Club on assembly 
language techniques; Tom Nelson of Nelson Software on 
legal aspects of software marketing; Steve Bjork of 
Datasoft on assembly language graphics; Charles 
Roslund of Elite Software on machine language utilities 
and a cooperative session for CoCo clubs with Lonnie 
Falk of the Rainbow. Each session lasted over an hour. 

Tapes are $5 each, or all eight for $35. There is a $ 1 .50 
shipping and handling charge, whether you buy one or all 
of them. 

Orders should be sent to Seminar Tapes, Prickly-Pear 
Software, 9234 E. 30th Street, Tucson, AZ 857 i 0. Do not 
send orders directly to the Rainbow, it will just delay your 
order. 



the RAINBOW July 1983 




PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DI$K UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



ALL NEW THIS MONTH 

Disk Zapper!!! 

This great utility is unique in the Color Computer field. It gives you the ability to format and copy disks 
with up to 40 tracks, instead of the usual 35. In addition, when copying a disk it will not crash when it 
encounters a bad sector. Instead, it tries to read the sector five times and then continues, so you can 
retrieve most of the data from even a worst case disk, where the directory track is physically damaged. 
These features alone makethis program invaluable, but it will alsocopyany tnackandsectortoany other 
(Make a copy of your directory upon track36 where BASIC can't get to it!!!) and allows you to display the 
contents of any part of the disk on the screen, where you can examine the information directly and make 
any changes you want using a full screen editor. Your changes are automatically made on the disk as you 
scan thru the sector There are also many other applications of this powerful utility which are fully 
described in the extensive documentation. This is both a programmer's tool and a means to protect your 
expensive disk software collection by backing up your disks and your disk directories. DISK ZAPPER!!! 
requires 64K and one disk drive. Copy procedure requires two drives. $34.95 

Music Box 

A 1 00% machine language program that lets you EASILY compose (or type in from sheet music) your 
favorite song in FOUR PART HARMONY, and assign a different instrument to each voice. Hear the flute 
on the high parts, the bass on the low, and the cello and clarinet on the others. Or, if you prefer, use one 
instrument for several voices. This program makes it easy to key in your songs, and they sound great!! 
You can play them either backward or forward when you get them done, and you can save them on tape 
to be loaded in later. You can easily write pieces that will run for several minutes. The program comes 
with a song by BACH, and when you hear it I think you will agree that this song alone is just about worth 
the price. You won't believe the music coming out of your TV!! The program comes with lots of 
instructions to help you along, and you will find yourself playing your first masterpiece in a very short 
time. Requires 16K with any BASIC. Cassette - $24.95 



Prickly-Pear Mailing List 

We hope you waited for this mailing list program, 'cause you'll be mad at yourself if you didn't!! This 
program has six fields for Name, Address, City and State, Phone number, Zip code, and Code. You can 
sort alphabetically by last name whether you type your entries with the first name or last name first. You 
can sort in Zip Code order. You can search your file on any field you like. You can easily add or delete 
entries. You can print any entry — or all entries — or all entries meeting your search criteria. You can print 
a phone number list. You can print your labels either one or two across the page. And best of all, you can 
do all these things with up to 1 500 records on a single drive systenri. Oh yes, all screen display is in full 
upper and lowercase letters on your choice of a green or white background with no adaptors needed. To 
use this mailing list you need32K Disk Basic and one disk drive. It comes with very complete instructions 
and is a truly "User Friendly" program. $49.95 



FOR DISK VERSIONS ON AMDEK CARTRIDGES, ADD $5. 

Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include Send Order To: PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

$1 .50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 9234 E. 30th Street 

on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 6% sales Tucson, Arizona 85710 

tax. Orders shipped within two days. (602) 886-1505 



Super "Color" Library 



TM 



For the TRS-80 Col 



Su|»Cf Color" llUrstV 




or and TDP System 100 Personal Computers 

No matter what kind of problem you are try\fifi to solve wrth the 
Color Computer, there is a program in the ever-expanding 
integrated, Super "Color" Library that w.l) give you the solution; 
Faster. Better, Smarter! 

Every Library program features MEMORY-SENSE to 
determine your computer's memory, from 16 to 64K. and adjusts 
automatically to maximize work space, All programs, except trie 
Super "Color" Speller and Super "Color" Dlsk-ZAP, feature a true 
lowercase display with below line descenders. Each program has 
been written specifically for the Color Computer in fast machine 

■ / code to be totally compatible for optimum performance — 
Something a motfey assortment of programs from diverse 
sources or a passel of overpriced, wailet-FLEXmg software from 
a bygone era simply can not achieve. 
The Super "Color 11 Library has all the power, speed, 
dependability and compatibility you will ever need so buifd your 
library a volume at a time or put the full power of the complete 
library of problem solvers to work right away. 



NEW! 



fcdflC) Super "Color" Writer II 



TM 



The Super "Color" Writer II is for those who desire the best. Jt is 
ihe most powerful, fastest, most dependable and versatile word 
processor available for the Colo: Computer, from 16 to 64 K. The 
Super "Color' 1 Writer It has features lor the most demanding 
professional, yet il is easy enough for newcomers to master. 

Of course the Super "Color" Writer \\ has all the features you 
would expect from the highest quality word processor, such as a 
clear, crisp and readable professional display with your choice of 
display colors, 9 display formats; standard 32x16 & 51-64-85x21 
&24 with real lowercase descenders; full 4-way cursor control, 
sophisticated edit commands, the ability to edit any BASIC 
program or ASCII textfile, seven delete functions, locate and 
change, wild card locate, a real block move & copy, word wrap- 
around, programmable tabs, display memory used and left, non- 
breakable space, multiple headers and foolers, dynamic text 
formatting, comprehensive format parameters, use with ANY 
printer at any baud rate from 1 1 0 to 9600 baud, automatic justifi- 
cation, automatic pagination, automatic centering, automatic 
flush right, underlining, superscripts, subscripts, pause print, 
single-sheet pause, optionally print comments, append text files, 
available in a ROMPAK cartridge for maximum work space, but 
that's only half of the story. No other program can even begin to 
compare in features with the Super "Color" Writer II. 



VERSION 3.0 By Tim Nelson 

THE INTELLIGENT WORD PROCESSOR N V>T^> 

SSSHffim^ Check These Exclusive Features 



TAPE $69.95 



MEMORY-SENSE adjusts to computer's memory (16-64K) for 
maximum work space; TYPE-AHEAD, TYPAMATIC KEY 
REPEAT and KEY SEEP for the pros; 3 PROGRAMMABLE 
FUNCTIONS; AUTO PHRASE INSERT; COLUMN CREATION; 
TEXT FILE LINKfNG; HELP MENU; A TRUE EDITING WINDOW 
fN ALL 9 DISPLAY MODES; TRUE FORMAT WINDOW to 
display line lengths up to 255 characters, with horizontal and 
vertical scrolling to replicate the printed page including centered 
lines, headers, footers, page breaks, page numbers, margins, 
giving a perfect printed document every time. Also makes 
hyphenation a snap; TRUE AUTOMATIC JUSTIFICATION lor 
neat, even left and right hand margins. Ability to use 
CHARACTER CODES for printing special characters available 
with your printer; freedom to embed as many PRINTER 
CONTROL CODES as desired anywhere in the text, EVEN 
WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT; 90-plus page tutorial manual 

ADDITIONAL DISK FEATURES: Read a directory, Display free 
granules, Save with Automatic Veriffcaifon. Load and Append 
ASCII files, and BASIC programs. Kill files, and Link tiles from 
disk for continuous printing. 54K bytes of workspace available 
with a 64 K system. Only the best otfers all of these features. 



ROMPAK $89.95 



DISK $99.95 



Tutorial only $15.00 (Rolundaftle with purchase) 
Tftpn & Disk require 32K for lowtifcase display 
Ptiivious Super "Color" Writer II owrtns caII lor upgrade 



Super "Color" Mailer™ Super "Color" Speller 

^^^ ^M^mm ^ ... By Peter A, Stark 



By Tim Nelson 

The Super "Color" Mailer is a powerful multi-purpose mailing 
tist merging and sorting program including lowercase display 
lhat uses tiles created by the Super "Color" Writer It, Combine 
tiles, sort and print mailing lists, print "Boilerplate" documents, 
automatically insert text in standardized forms, address 
envelopes, the list is endless. 

TAPE $39.95 D|SK $5g 95 

Operators Manuaf only $10,00 (Refundable with purchase) 



The Super "Color" Speller is a fast machine-code proofreading 
program to correct Super "Color" Writer files. Automatically 
proofreads your documents against a 20.000 word stock 
dictionary, plus your own customized dictionary and corrects 
lypos or marks them for special attention, 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $69,95 

Operators Manual only $10 00 (Refundable with purchase) 



NELSON SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 9072 Lyndale Avenue So, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 612/881-2777 



32x16&51-64-85x21&24 Display jt * yr 

With Lowercase Descenders And I D Thru Dtix Too! 

/ £^W)Super ' Color" Calc™ Super "Color" Terminal™ 



<Z-~~*^ ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEET By Kevin Herrboldt 
Now you can answer those "What if?" financial projection, 
forecasting, budgeting, engineering and calculating questions 
with precision, speed and power using the Super "Color" Calc, 
truly the finest electronic worksheet and financial modeling 
program available for the Color Computer, from 16 to 64K. Now 
every Color Computer owner has access t to a calculating and 
planning tool rivaling VisiCalcV containing all its features and 
commands and then some. You need only change one variable 
and you instantly see how that change affectsyourassumptions. 
You can even use VisiCalc templates freely with Super "Color" 
Calc! Combine spread sheet tables with Super "Color" Writer II 
documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and 
financial reports and budgets. 

Features include: 9 display formats; standard 32x16 & 51-64- 
85x21 &24 with real lowercase descenders * MEMORY-SENSE to 
adjust to computer s memory ( 1 6-64K) for maximum work space; 
Full-size 63x256 worksheet • Easy to use * HELP Menus to make 
learning faster ' Machine code speed and high precision * Total 
flexibility in calculating ' Up to FOUR VIDEO DISPLAY 
WINDOWS to compare and contrast results of changes " Sine 
and Cosine functions, Averaging, Exponents, Algebraic 
functions, and base 10 or 16 entry * Multi-layered Column and 
Row Ascending and Descending sorts * Locate formulas or titles 
in fields * Easy entry, replication and block moving of frames ' 
Global or Local column width control up to 81 characters each ' 
Create titles of up to 255 characters * Typamatic Key Repeat ' 
Key beep * Type-ahead ' Print up to 132 column worksheet * 
Prints at any baud rate from 1 10 to 9600 1 Print formats savable 
along with worksheet * Enter control codes for customized 
printing. 

DISK FEATURES: Read a directory; Display free granules; Kill 
files, Save with Automatic Verification; Load files; Append disk 
files for complete worksheet printing. 54K bytes of worksheet 
space available with a 64K system. 

Tutorial and sample templates are supplied with the program. 
ROMPAK $89.95 DISK $99.95 

Tutorial only $15 00 (Refundable with purchase) 
Disk requires 32K for lowercase display. 



Super "Color" Disk-ZAP™ 

By Tim Nelson 

Now the dreamed-of repair of 1/0 errors is a reality. The Super 
•'Color" Disk-ZAP' - is the ultimate repair utility for simple and 
quick repair of all repairable disk errors. Designed with the non- 
programmer in mind, the Super "Color" Disk-ZAP T * will let you 
retrieve all types of bashed files, including BASIC and Machine 
Code programs. 

This high-speed machine code disk utility has a special dual 
cursor screen display to show HEXIDECIMAL and ASCII 
displays simultaneously. You are able to: Verify or modify disk 
sectors at will ' Type right onto the disk to change unwanted 
program names or prompts ' Send sector contents to the printer 
or any other RS-232 device ' Search the entire disk for any 
grouping of characters 1 Copy sectors * Backup tracks or entire 
disks • Repair directory tracks and smashed disks ' Full 
prompting to help you every step of the way * 50-ptus page 
Operators Manual which helps you simply and quickly fix the vast 
majority of disk errors, and teaches the rudiments of disk 
structure and repair. 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $49.95 
Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 



NELSON 

SOFTWARE 

SYSTEMS 



9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 612/881-2777 



THE FINEST TERMINAL PROGRAM ANYWHERE! 

Version 3.0 By Dan Nelson 

The best has become even better, with many new features 
Including 9 display formats; 32x16 & 51-64-85x21 &24 with real 
lowercase descenders, plus compatibility with the 64K Color 
Computer. This user-friendly program makes communicating 
with ANY computer a breeze even for a newcomer. Communicate 
using your modem with all the popular information services such 
as Dow Jones, Compuserve, The Source, and local BBS's, clubs, 
friends, or the main-frame at work. You can also communicate 
directly with other microcomputers, such as the TRS-80 l/lll, II, 
other Color Computers, Apples, IBM PCs, etc., via RS-232 
without using a modem Save the information or PRINT IT! 
FEATURES: MEMORY-SENSE to adjust to computer's memory 
(16-64K) for maximum work space; Selectively print data at baud 
rates from 1 1 0 to 9600 * 54K of data storage with 64K disk system. 
128 character ASCII keyboard * Automatic graphics mode ■ 
Word mode (word wrap) for unbroken words * Send & receive 
Super "Color" Writer II, Database & Calc files, ASCII files. 
Machine Language & BASIC programs * Set communications 
baud rate from 110 to 9600. Duplex: Half/Full/Echo. Word length: 
5 6 7 or 8. Parity: Odd/Even or None. Stop Bits: 1-9 ' Local 
linefeeds to screen ' Save and load ASCII files, Machine Code & 
BASIC programs ' Unique CLONE feature for copying any tape ' 
Lower case masking ' 10 Keystroke Multiplier (MACRO) buffers 
to perform repetitive pre-entry fog-on tasks and send short 
messages ■ Programmable prompt or delay for send next line ■ 
Selectable character trapping * Files compatible with other 
Library programs. 

ADDITIONAL DISK FEATURES: Works with up to four Disk 
Drives; Call a directory. Print free space. Kill disk files. Save with 
Automatic Vencation and Load textfiles or BASIC programs. 
Save and Load KSIWS to the disk. 

TAPE $49.95 ROMPAK $59.95 DISK $69.95 

Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 
Previous Super "Color" Terminal owners call for upgrade policy 



^j)Super "Color" Database™ 

y By Dan Nelson 

"This high speed machine language program including true 
lowercase displays fills all your information management needs, 
be they for your business or home. Inventory, accounts, mailing, 
lists, family histories, you name it, the Super "Color" Database 
will keep track of all your data. 

The Super "Color" Database features MEMORY-SENSE to 
adjust to computer's memory (16-64K) for maximum workspace. 
It is structured in a simple and easy to understand menu system 
with full prompting for easy operation. Your data is stored in 
records of your own design, each divided into as many fields as 
you need. All files are fully indexed for speed and efficiency. Full 
sort of records is provided for easy listing of names, figures, 
addresses, etc.. in ascending or descending order. The math 
package performs arithmetic operations and updates other fields 
which is especially useful when used as an order entry and 
invoicing system. You can create reports, or lists for mailings, or 
whatever. Create files compatible with the Super "Color" Writer II 
and Terminal. Up to five different print formats are available, and 
control codes may be imbedded for customized printing. 
AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $79.95 
Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 

For Orders ONLY Call Toll F ree 

Si 1-800-328-2737 9E 



A Division of Solllaw Cof poration Minneapolis. Minnesota 55420 U. S. A. 

TRS-80 is a trademark ot Tandy Corp Visicalc is a trademark of VisiCorp. 

WE TAKE THE COLOR COMPUTER SERIOUSLY. 
AUTHORS' SUBMISSIONS ARE ENCOURAGED. 



Customer service and product support call (612) 881-2777. 

MAIL ORDERS: $3 U.S. Shipping ($4 CANADA, $10OVERSEAS) 
Personal checks allow 3 weeks. ORDERS SHIPPED SAME DAY! 

Available at Dealers everywhere. 
If your Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 



GAME 



Just when you thought 
it was safe to go back 
to your CoCo . . . 

MO^Wf COMES 




By Fred B. Scerbo 



Some of you may recall a program which 
appeared in the Rainbow over a year ago 
called Snail Invaders which was written 
with the help of Dale 'Snail' Haggerty. Since the 
publication of that game, many CoCo users have 
been asking if and when a follow-up to that game 
would appear. Well, the wait is finally over. With 
a little graphic help from Dale, we have an even 
better graphic game now called Snail's Revenge. 

Dale, a Junior at Drury Senior High School in 
North Adams, Massachusetts, has not had as 
much time available to devote to the CoCo this 
yearas hedid inthepast. Still, we were able to find 
the time for him to design a new Snail graphic and 
a more impressive title card which appears at the 
top of the screen. The animation and actual game 
mechanics are my own. A number of 1MB graphic 
techniques have been further sharpened to milk 
the maximum speed available from Extended 
Color BASIC. Originally, this game was written 
on a 32K machine. However, since a greater 
number of CoCo owners are still at the 16K level, 
a little extra time was spent cramming the same 
graphics into 16K. The result was an even more 
efficient, structured program. 

Now, for a few words about how Snail's 
Revenge works. 



138 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



Snail is written in PMODE 
l:SCREENl,0.ThechoiceofPMODE 1 
over PMODE 3 was for several reasons. 

First, there is not too great a differ- 
ence in the resolution between PMODE 
3 and 1. PMODE 3 uses graphic pixels 
which are rectangular in shape. If we go 
to PMODE 1, our pixels are twice as 
wide, and we can obtain a smoother 




graphic since our pixel settings are not 
irregular, but perfect squares. 

Secondly, PMODE 1 uses half as 
much memory as PMODE 3. Since this 
program will use the PCOPY command, 
we need to copy only one page for our 
animation. The graphics also execute 
more rapidly since less graphic memory 
must be relocated by the PCOPY com- 
mand. Of equal advantage is the addi- 
tional memory this gives us for actual 
program operation. 

The actual execution of this game 
takes place in only one graphic page 
which occupies half of the viewing 
screen. The top half of the screen (page 
I) is reserved for the title card and scor- 
ing mechanisms. Our game action takes 
place on page 3 which is PCOPY to 
page 2 which occupies the bottom half 
of the screen. Since all animation is tak- 
ing place on page 3 which remains out of 
view, our movement becomes virtually 
"flicker-free." 

While Snail Invaders received its in- 
spiration from other Invader style 
games, Snail's Revenge is a distant cous- 
in of the many Pac or Dig games found 
on the market or in the arcades. The 
plot is relatively simple, but game play is 
far from a breeze. 

You are The Snail. You are trying to 
work your way out of a four-level maze. 



The listing: 



5 OFOB 

17 1102 

26 1354 

45 15A6 



54 1867 

69 1 A99 

95 1 D89 

109 1F78 

END ...218A 



1 PCLEAR3: P0KE65495, 0: CLEAR 1 90 : D 
IMW<12) , Z(12> ,U(9> ,D(9>,L(9> ,R(9 
> ,N(9) ,AE(12) ,BE(14) ,CE(17) , V(9) 
,0(4) 

2 CLS0:R*=CHR*(128) : F0RS=-1 6TO80 
STEP 16: F0RI=258T0387STEP32: PRINT 
@I-K, STRING* (5, 159+S) ; : NEXT: PRIN 
TS418-K, STRING* <5, 156+S) ;: PRINT© 
450-K, STRING* <5, 128) i 

3 FORY=0TO6STEP6 : PR I NTS264+Y-K , C 
HR* ( 1 45+S ) +CHR* ( 1 59+S ) +CHR* ( 1 59+ 
S) +CHR* < 159+S) +CHR* < 146+S) ; 

4 F0RI=296T0392STEP32:PRINT@I+Y- 
K, STRING* (5, 159+S) ; : NEXTI : PRINTS 
424+ Y-K, STRING* < 5, 156+S) ; : PRINT© 
456+Y-K, STRING* (5, 128) ; : NEXTY 

5 FORY=0TO96STEP96 : PR I NTS276+ Y-K 
, STRING* (9, 159+S) ;CHR*(155+S) j R* 
; : PR I NTS308+ Y-K , STR I NG* < 1 0 , 1 59+S 
) ; CHR* ( 1 52+S ) j R* j : PR I NTS340+Y-K , 
STRING* <9, 156+S) ;CHR*(152+S> ;R*; 
:PRINT@372+Y-K,STRING*(11, 128) ; : 
NEXTY: K=K+32: NEXTS 

6 PMODE1, l:PCLS:COLOR2,3:LINE<0, 
160)-(256, 192) , PSET,BF:LINE(0, 16 
0>-(256, 160) , PRESET 

7 DRAW "S8BM 120, 1 76C3F3DLRDR5E3UH 
2L3G2DFR2EHL " 

8 DRAW " BM6 1 , 1 76C3G3DRLDL5H3UE2R3 
F2D6L2HER": PAINT (20, 170) ,1,3 

9 COLOR 1 , l: GET (120, 174) -(144, 186 
>,W,G 

10 GET(39, 174)-(63, 186) , Z,G:L*=C 
HR* ( 1 29 > : Q*= " DPMPS " +L*+ " DPNQVUFS 
"+L*+"HBNF"+L*+"CZ" 

11 FORI=0TO160STEP40: CIRCLE (20+1 
,20), 12, 3, .9 

12 PAINT (20+1, 20) ,3,3 

13 LINE (8+1, 10) -(32+1, 30) , PRESET 

,B 

14 PSET(20+I, 16,2) 

15 NEXTI 

16 LINE(32, 10>-(22,20) ,PRESET:LI 
NE-(32,30> , PRESET: PAINT (24,20) , 1 

, 1 

17 FORS=1T022:F=ASC(MID*(Q*,S, 1) 



July 19B3 the RAINBOW 139 



) +31 : PR I NTS324+S , CHR* <F) ; : NEXTS: 
Q*= "GSFE " +L*+ " TDFSCP" 

18 F0RS=1T011:F=ASC(MID*(Q*,S, 1) 
)+31:PRINT@394+S,CHR*(F) ;: NEXTS 

1 9 L*=CHR* ( 209 ) : Q*= " TOBJ M " +L*+ " E 
FT JHOFE " +L*+ " C Z " +L*+ " EBMF " +L*+ " I 
BHHFSUZ" 

20 F0RDH=1T031: ZL=ASC <MID* <Q* , DH 
, 1) ) IP0KE1472+DH, ZL-65:NEXTDH 

2 1 Q*= "BRC 1 NU4RU4RD4RU4RD4RU4RNL 
4D2NL4D2L6C4" : FORI=0TO9: RE ADZ* < I 
) : NEXT 

22 DATA BR2U4R3D4NL3, BR4NU4BR, BR 
2U2R3U2NL3BD4NL3 , BR2R3U2NL2U2NL3 
BD4, BR2BU2NU2R3U2D4, BR2R3U2L3U2R 
3BD4, BR2U4NR3D2R3D2NL3 , BR2BU4R3D 
4, BR2U4R3D2NL3D2NL3, BR2BU2NR3U2R 
3D4 

23 EX*="01L255BC": 1=0: FORI 1=1 1TO 
227STEP27: 1 = 1 + 1 : V < I ) =1 1 : NEXTI I 

24 1=0: FORI I=7T077STEP22: 1 = 1+1 :0 
(I)=II+96:NEXTII: 1=0 

25 LINE (70, 32) -(60, 22) , PRESET: LI 
NE-<50,32) , PRESET: PAINT (60, 24) , 1 

,1 

26 LINE <88, 30) -<98, 20) , PRESET: LI 
NE-(8&, 10) , PRESET: PAINT (96, 20) , 1 

,1 

27 LINE (130, 8) -(140, 18) , PRESET: L 
INE- ( 150, 8) , PRESET 

28 PAINT (140, 16), 1, 1 

29 C0L0R2,3:LINE(26, 16) -(22, 20) , 
PSET:LINE-(26,24) , PSET 

30 LINE(64, 26) -(60,22) , PSET: LINE 
-(56, 26), PSET 

31 LINE (94, 24) -(98, 20), PSET: LINE 
-(94, 16) , PSET 

32 LINEU44, 14)-(140, 18) ,PSET:LI 
NE-(136, 14) , PSET 

33 FORI=0TO80STEP40: CIRCLE (20+1, 
80) , 14+LL,2, .9 

34 C0L0R2, l:LINE(6+I-LL,68-LL)-( 
34+ I +LL , 92+LL ) , PRESET , B 

35 PAINT (20+1, 80) ,2,2 

36 CIRCLE (20+1, 76-LL) ,2+LL,2, .9: 
LL=LL+2: NEXT 

37 FORYP=0TO40STEP40: FORKP=1TO40 
+YP: PSET (RND (40) +20+ YP, RND (20) +7 
0,3) :NEXTKP, YP 

38 GET (6, 68) - (34, 92) , AE, G 

39 GET (44, 66) -(78, 94) ,BE,G 

40 GET(82,64)-(122,96) ,CE,G 

41 C0L0R3, 1 

42 GET (10, 12) -(30, 28) ,R,G 

43 GET (50, 12) -(70,28) ,D,G 

44 GET(90, 12)-(110,28) ,L,G 

45 GET(130, 12)-(150,28) ,U,G 



Unfortunately, the corridors of the maze are stalked by a 
hungry Pac-person with sharp teeth and glassy eyes. You 
must cautiously work your way through the maze, while 
your adversary can pass through walls at will. If he attacks 
you, he will swallow you after rapidly grinding you to snail 
pulp with his sharp teeth. (Pay particular attention to this 
gobbling sequence which you do not often find in other 
games.) 

Fortunately, you do have a means of defense. Whenever 
the small box below the snail at the top of the screen turns 
red, you will obtain the ability to fire a hose into the Pac- 
fiend and inflate him to twice his size before he bursts open. 
Unfortunately, you must be on the same level as your foe. 
You cannot pass through walls as he can. If you "blow-up" 
your opponent, you will gain 10 points. If you make it to the 
end of the maze, you will gain 50 points. Thus, it will take 
some skill to work your way out of the maze while remaining 
close enough to blast your hunter. Once you have been eaten 
eight times, the game ends. (A reverse Pac-opponent will 
appear at the top of the screen whenever you become his 
meal.) 

Carefully type in the listing. Be sure to POKE 65494,0 
before trying to CSA VE this program. Also, do not try to 
run the game until you have entered all the lines. We have 
done some fancy encoding to keep you guessing what will 
happen with each line. I have also included a new 1MB 
introduction which appears in text while the graphics are 
drawn on the graphics' screen. Your right joystick operates 
the snail while the fire button controls your shooting. 

With a little typing, you will have an arcadegame which 
rivals machine language in speed while using the special 
features found in Extended BASIC. When trying to reload 
this program, be sure to PCLEAR 3 or the program will not 
fit in memory. (Only about 200 bytes remain when running 
the game.) If your machine cannot handle the POKE65495.0 
then leave it out. The game still has impressive speed without 
it. This game will work with disk, but you will need 32K. 

Enjoy Snail's Revenge] While you do, I'll see if I can 
motivate "Snail" to come up with some ideas for Snail III. 
(Maybe Donkey Snail or Snail- A-Pede. Who knows? Only 
time at the CoCo will tell! 




40 the RAINBOW July 1983 




WHAT THEY ARE SAYING ABOUT COLORPEDE 

.forefroni of [he pack . " the Rainbow, Dec 82 an outsiandmg of for N. Vernon, IN '" ihe best graphics I have seen k> dale* Erie. PA 

"It isgreal! Dayton, OH ■ the besl graphics and playabilMy ol any color com pule* game McKeespori. PA f\ 



INTRODUCING 




coLORpeoe HQBDTTflCK 






HARMONYC5 

P.O. BOX 1573 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84110 



PREMIUM SOFTWARE 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



DISK MONEY MINDER is a family budget tool It allows you to set up a 
family budget with as many as 56 user definable categories You may print 
out balances, change category names, search a year (or a month or whatever) 
bf records ((or tax purposes for example) DISK MONEY MINDER allows 
24 sets of entries and 56 user definable categories at one time. You may 
break checks and deposits into any number of categories DISK MONEY 
MINDER is menu driven and easy to use. Excellent manual with plenty of 
examples 

Requires 32K plus DISK $19.95 

MONEY MINDER II is the cassette version of DISK MONEY MINDER. Reviewed 
in April 1982 Rainbow and improved since then 1 

Requires 16K but does NOT require Extended Basic $14.95 

PlE-CHART is a unique graphing program It allows you to enter data such 
as monlhly bills, yearly expenditures etc This data may be entered as per- 
centages or m its "raw" state. Data entered raw will be converted to percent- 
ages by the program. The resulting PIE-CHART can be saved to tape or 
the data itself can be saved to tape for later use By using a screen print 
program (not supplied) you can make printouts ol the pie-charts One unique 
feature of the program allows you to save a large number of pie-charts or 
other hi-resolution screens to tape and reload and display them one at a 
lime by "flipping" through them quickly much as you might do with a slide 
show presentation This feature would be great for a sales presentation, 
club meeting or retail display Other features— automatic screen writing i e 
designations— up to 20 entries possible per pie-chart— keyboard toggle ol 

raw" vs percentage data entry. 
PIE-CHART needs 16K and Extended Basic S10.95 

AMOFlT asks you to mpul the amounl of a loan, the term of the loan and it's 
interest rate. The program will print to screen and or lo your printer and will 
give you: 1— a running total of principal still to be paid. 2— The amount of the 
monthly payment applied to principal. 3— The amount of the monthly paymenl 
applied to interest. 4— Thetotal monthly payment 5— Thetotal amount paid into 
principal to date 6— The total amount paid into Interest to date. 7— The total 
amount payed out to date 

Requires 16K and Extended Basic $11,95 

COLORHYTHM is a biorhythm program for your Color Computer It plots in 
High-Resolution graphics (PMODE3) and color a 15 day biorhythm chart 
displaying your intellectual. Emotional & Physical biorhythms Reviewed in 
August 1982 Rainbow 

Requires 16K & Extended Basic S9.95 

* * * EDUCATIONAL * * * 

MATCH & SPELL combines a game similar to the familiar TV game of CON- 
CENTRATION and a spelling drill to provide a truely unique and fun program 
You may load a spelling list (up to 32 words of up to 11 letters each) from 
tape or keyboard. The program then allows you lo study the list for as long 
as you like After that the game begins. One of your words is presented 
to you either correctly or misspelled with a common spelling error You are 
asked if it is spelled right Then the correctly spelled word is displayed for 
a bnef time and you are then asked to spell the word The CONCENTRATION 
type game is played by one or two players during the spelling drill 
A lot of fun for 16K and Extended Basic $11.95 

PRESCHOOL PAK consists of two programs for preschooler learning fun 
ALPHABET drills the child in alphabet recognition and rewards a correct 
answer COUNTER drill the child in counting to 10 Both use Hi-Resolution 
graphics and sound Reviewed in September 1982 Rainbow S8.95 

MATHWAR is an educational game. In the game the player must jump one 
space-fighter over another checkers style, until only one fighter remains. 
Each time a move is selected the program will not complete the move until 
a main problem is answered correctly The player selects addition or subtrac- 
tion and one of four difficulty levels Level i is problems with numbers up to 
19 but no carrying or borrowing is required Level 2 is the same as Level 1 
but numbers up to 99 are allowed Levei 3 uses numbers up to 19 but allows 
carrying and borrowing problems. Level 4 is the same as Level 3 with numbers 
up to 99 No negative responses to wrong answers and the math score is 
displayed at the end of the game. 

Requires 16K and Extended Basic S11.95 




We pay postage on all orders 



V7SA 

I 




46 SET < 170, 12) -< 190, 28) ,N,G 

47 PMODE 1,1: PCLS : SP=9 : LV=4 : SOSUB 
48 : BOTO50 

48 1=40: J=40:zz=8: oo=6: K=40:M=40 
: A=4: B=3: PMODE0, 3: PCLS: PMODE 1 , 2: 
C0L0R2, 1: LINE (2, 100)-<252, 186) ,P 
SET,B:LINE(0,98)-<256, 188) ,PSET, 
B: LINE (30, 120) - <256, 122) , PSET, B 

49 LINE (0, 142)-<226, 144) , PSET, B: 
LINE (30, 164) - (256, 166) , PSET, B: LI 
NE (228,98) -(250, 100) , PRESET, B: RE 
TURN 

50 PMODE 1,1: PCLS : SCREEN0 , 0: DRAW " 
S16BM0, 32; C4E4L3E4R3B3R3B5NL3BR2 
E5R2F2E2R2B5L2H2G2L2BR 1 0E5R3D5L2 
UBUL2ERDBDL3GL2BR 1 0U5R3D5L3BR5U5 
R2D3RF2NL5BRBU5RDBD4BR3E2L3E3R3S 
2R3B3L3" 

51 F0RILM1T06: READPA: PAINT (PA, 26 
) ,4,4:NEXTIU 

52 DATA10,50,88, 106, 130, 170 

53 DRAW " BM28 , 66C3L2H3BUU2RD2LBDD 
3L2U7R4FD2BF3BRU7R4DL2D2RDLD2R2D 
NL4BR4H3U4R2D3FREU3R2D4S3NLBR4U7 
R4DL2D2RDLD2R2DNL4BR8L2H3D3L2U7R 
2F3U3R2D7BR7L4H2U3E2R3FD2L2UL2D3 
FRULURR3DLD2BR2U7R4DL2D2RDLD2R2D 
L4 " 

54 F0RFL=1T07:READ KL: PAINT (KL, 4 
6) ,3,3:NEXTFL 

55 DATA6, 38, 58, 90, 110,142, 172 

56 PUT (212, 16) -(236, 28) , 2, PSET 

57 LINE (208, 38) -(236, 48) , PSET, B: 
6OSUB119:SOTO60 

58 P=I-2: D=J : S=K+2: T=M: I=V(A) :J= 
0(B) :k=i+20:m=j+16:colori, i 

59 PM0DE1,2:PUT(I, J)-(K,M) ,N,PSE 
T : PC0PY3T02 : LINE ( I , J ) -(K, M) , PRES 
ET,BF:LINE(V(SP) ,0(LV) )-(V(SP)+2 
4, 0 (LV) +12) , PRESET, BF: RETURN 

60 PMODE 1, l: SCREEN 1,0: QR=RND (TIM 
ER) : RV=RND (10) : IFRV>3THEN62 

61 LINE (212, 42) -( 232 j 44) , PRESET, 

b:rg=0:goto63 

62 line (212, 42) -(232, 44) , pset, b: 

RS=1 

63 PMODE 1 ,2: QR=RND ( 10) : ONQR BOTO 
64, 67, 70, 73, 67, 67, 67, 73, 73, 73 

64 B=B-1 : IFB< 1THEN66 

65 S0SUB58:PUT(I, J)-(K,M) ,U,PSET 
: S0T076 

66 B=l:E=RND(2) : IFE=1THEN67ELSE7 

3 

67 A=A+l: IFA>9THEN69 

68 G0SUB58 : PUT ( I , J)-(K,M) ,R,PSET 
: G0T076 

69 A=9:E=RND(2) : IFE=1THEN64ELSE7 

0 



142 the RAINBOW July 1983 



70 B=B+ 1 : I FB >4THEN72 

71 G0SUB58:PUT(I, J)-(K,M) ,D, PSET 
: G0T076 

72 B=4:E=RND<2) : IFE=1THEN67ELSE7 

3 

73 A=A- 1 : I FA< 1 THEN75 

74 G0SUB58:PUT(I, J)-(K,M) ,L,PSET 
: 60T076 

75 A= 1 : E=RND (2) : I FE= 1 THEN64ELSE7 
0 

76 PL AY " L2550 1 C04CD " : IF SP=A AND 
LV=B THEN77ELSE78 

77 PM0DE1,2:LINE(V(SP) ,0(LV) )-(V 
(SP) +24, O <LV) + 12) , PRESET, BF: PUT ( 
I , J > - (K, M) , N, PSET: BOTO108 

78 JH=JOYSTK(0) : IFJH>32THEN90 

79 SP=SP-1 : I FSP< 1 THENSP= 1 

80 IFLV=4ANDSP=1THEN83 

81 IFLV=2ANDSP=1THEN83 

82 GOT085 



r 




83 JV=J0YSTK<1) : IFJV<16THENLV=LV 

-1 

84 S0T089 

85 IFLV=3ANDSP=1THEN88 

86 IFLV=1ANDSP=1THEN88 

87 B0T089 

88 JV=JOYSTK(l) : IFJV>46THENLV=LV 
+1 

89 PUT(V(SP),0(LV))-(V(SP)+24,0( 
LV)+12) , W,PSET:BOTO101 

90 SP=SP+l: IFSP>9THENSP=9 

91 I FLV=3ANDSP=9THEN95 

92 IFLV=1ANDSP=9THEN93ELSE97 

93 PM0DE1,2:PUT(V(9) ,0(LV) )-(V(9 
) +24 ,0(LV)+12),Z, PSET : PC0PY3T02 : 
LINE (V (9) ,0(LV) >-(V(9)+24,0(LV)+ 
12) , PRESET, BF: PMODE1 , 1 : FORPC=lTO 
5: M2=M2+1 : BOSUB1 19: SOUND200, 1 : NE 
XT 

94 LV=4:SP=9:S0T097 

95 J V= JOYSTK ( 1 ) : I F J V< 1 6THENLV=LV 



Genesis Software 



presents 

Color Computer Programs 



+ Secret Of The Crypt 

The BIG adventure continues. The sequel 
to the popular "Enchanted Forest'' is here! 
You'll move in more than 50 hi-res, 3-D 
graphic scenes searching for clues in an 
attempt to enter the crypt. But beware, the 
trail to the crypt is beset with puzzlements. 
In fact, the crypt's secret will remain a 
mystery to all but the most adventuresome. 
Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

+ Bigfoot 

Hunt Big foot in a hidden maze of caverns 
and twisting tunnels that are displayed in 
hi-res grapnics as you move. Seek out the 
lair of Big foot while avoiding perils along 
the way. Features multiple levels and many 
options of play. Each hunt takes place in a 
new, randomly generated maze. Challeng- 
ing and fun. Requires 32K extended basic. 
Ta pe cassette (postage paid ) $21 . 95 

* The Enchanted Forest 

The BIG adventure in hi -res graphics. 
Move through more than 50 scenes on a 
quest to rescue the captive princess. Deci- 
sions are made according to visual clues, 
not text. There are many inhabitants in the 
Enchanted Forest — some are friendly, 
some are not. This is a sophisticated com- 
puter adventure — a real challenge. A 
must for your adventure library. Requires 
32K extended basic. 

Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

(The Enchanted Forest was reviewed in the Dec. 1982 
issue of Rainbow). 

* The Game Show 

Now a lively party game where two teams 
compete against the clock to name several 
items in a category. Includes 60 rounds 
with color graphics and sound. Machine 
language routine for fast response. Re- 
quires 16K extended basic and joysticks. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $19.95 

(The Game Show was reviewed in the Jan. 1983 issue 
of Rainbow). 



Genesis Software 

P.O. Box 936, Manchester, Mo. 6301 1 

Personal checks welcome - no delay. 
Missouri residents add 5.625 percent sales tax. 



RAINBOW 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 143 



-1 

96 GOTO 100 

97 IFLV=2ANDSP=9THEN99 

98 GOTO 100 

99 JV=JOYSTK ( 1 ) : IFJV>46THENLV=LV 
+ 1 

100 PUT<V(SP) ,0(LV) )-(V(SP)+24,0 
<LV)+12> , Z,PSET 

101 IF SP=A AND LV=B THEN108ELSE 
PC0PY3T02: PMODE1 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 0: PMO 
DE1,2:LINE(I, J)-(K,M) , PRESET, BF 

102 IF PEEK ( 339) =255THEN60 

103 IF RG=0THEN60 

104 IF LVOB THEN60 

105 PMODE1, l:LINE(V(SP)+12,0(LV) 
+6) -(1+10, J+6) ,PSET 

106 G0T0115 

107 GOTO60 

108 LINE(V(SP> ,0(LV) )-(V(SP>+24, 
O(LV) +12) , PRESET, BF: F0REM=1T05: P 

UT( I, J)-(K,M) ,n,pset:playex*:pco 

PY3T02: PUT (I,J)-(K,M),D, PSET : PLA 
YEX*109 PC0PY3T02:NEXTEM:PM0DE1, 
1 : SCREEN1 , 1 : PMODE1 , 2: LINE ( I , J ) - ( 
K,M) , PRESET, BF: L INE ( V (SP) , O ( LV) ) 
- ( V(SP> +24, O ( LV) +12) , PRESET, BF: P 



MODE 1,1: SCREEN 1 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 0 : SP=9 
:LV=4 

110 MS=MS+l:PUT(MS*24-24, 74) -(MS 

*24-4, 90) , R, PRESET: IFMS=>8THEN1 1 
2 

111 GOTO60 

112 FORI=1TO1000:NEXT 

113 X*=INKEY*: IFX*=""THEN113 

114 RUN 

115 PM0DEl,2:PUT(I-4, J-3)-(K+4,M 
+5 ) , AE , OR : PC0PY3T02 : PL AYEX *+EX * 

116 PUT(I-6,J-5)-(K+8,M+7) ,BE,OR 
: PC0PY3T02: PLAYEX*+EX* 

117 PUT(I-10, J-7)-(K+10,M+9) ,CE, 
OR: PC0PY3T02: PLAYEX*+EX* 

118 M2=M2+l:G0SUB119:G0SUB48:G0T 
060 

I FM2 >9THENM3=M3+ 1 
I FM3 >9THENM4=M4+ 1 
I FM4 >9THENM5=M5+ 1 
I FM5= > 1 0THENM5=0 

1 23 PMODE 1,1: DRAW " C4S8BM 1 88 , 64 " + 
Q*+Z* (M5) +Q*: DRAWZ* (M4) +Q*+Z* (M3 
) +Q*: DRAWZ* (M2) +Q*+Z* (Ml ) : RETURN 

124 'SNAIL'S REVENGE BY F.SCERBO 
8tD. HAGGERTY, (C) 1983, 1MB, P.O.BOX 
289, WILLI AMSTOWM, MA, 01267 



119 
120 
121 
122 



M2=0 
M3=0 
M4=0 



NEW KODOMO NO GO 

Get 5 in a row before your opponent. 19x19 playing 
matrix. This is thefavorite relaxation gamefor Japanese Go 
players. Two-player version and 4 computer skill levels for 
one player: also Tic-Tac-Toe on the same tape. 

$19,95 32K Ext. Basic cassette only. 

$1 4.95 1 6K Ext. Basic. Three skill levels plus Tic-Tac-Toe. 

$ 8.95 1 6K Ext. Basic Tic-Tac-Toe only. 

ALSO CO-EXISTENCE 

Successfully develop your country in a resource-limited 
world. Form a world government, sign treaties, go to war: 
anything goes. This is a two - to six - player game which 
combines computer and board play (board and pieces 
provided). 

$24.95 16K Ext. Basic cassette only. 

AND 5 EXCITING GAMES 

Be a Cosmic Trash Collector, fight a mighty space battle, or 
surround your opponent in Trap'em — all this and more on 
one tape. The RAINBOW says, "Great fare for the family 
with young children." 

$15.95 16K Ext. Basic cassette. 

























4 






























»i 
































J 


























< 


> 




































> 










■ 1 




































1 






































































































RAIN toW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 




P. 0. Box V0I6 
Cherry Hill, ,\J 0803V 




Celebrating Our 2nd 

'Record' Year 





Happy Birthday to all 50,000 of us! And what better way to 
celebrate the beginning of our third year than with a present? 
We thought about including two candles and a cupcake, but 
decided against it when it was pointed out that the grooves on 
the soundsheet would probably get all gummy with icing. 

Anyway, we wanted some means by which we could share our 
excitement and express our appreciation to our readers at the 
same time. After all, over the entire two year existence of the 
Rainbow, each moutii has been a new record of growth in size 
and quality for us, thanks to you! ^^^^^^^ 

Af ter a bit of late-night brainstorming, we decided on binding 
a soundsheet of programs into our 2nd Anniversary issue — if it 
would work, that is. We ordered a prototype, and received a 
half-dozen sheets just as they would come from a full pressing 
run. After trying them out on several home systems by both 
methods listed here and finding that they all loaded, we were 
satisfied. 

Well, then, there it was. And here it is. Happy Birthday, good 
friends. We hope you enjoy the party favor. And we hope you 
enjoy each coming month of the Rainbow as we grow toward all 
the anniversaries to come. 

The Staff 




i 



There are three programs on our sound- 
sheet. Please note that thesearenotmeantas 
"stand alones," but are meant to be used 
after reading the article and any special 
instructions in the article on how to load and 
use the program. For instance, Memory 
(page 202) requires a PCLEAR 1 prior to 
loading into 16K machines. 

Programs 

Shuffle, page 196 

Memory, page 202 

Home Budget Analysis, page 60. 

Instructions for loading record 

Important: Carefully remove soundsheet 
with the aid of a razor blade or other sharp 
instrument so as not to warp. Also, before 
loading Memory, page 202, be sure to 
PCLEAR I if you have 16K. 

Method I — Integrated stereo system with 



built-in cassette tape deck. 

Step I — Insert blank tape in the 
cassette deck and put the re- 
cord on the turntable. If the 
record slips on the turntable 
use a coin as indicated on the 
record label. 

Step 2 — Record all three programs on 
the record on the blank cassette 
tape. 

Step 3 — Remove the cassette and 
insert it into your CTR-80 cas- 
sette recorder. 

Step 4 — Type "CLOAD" on your 
CoCo and RUN. 

Method 2 — Stereo system with turntable 

only. 

Step I — Make a patch cord to go from 
your stereo headphone jack to 
the AUX input on your CTR- 
80 using a 6' Extension Cord- 



146 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



Miniature Phone Plug (R.S. 
#42-2420)and a Plug Adap- 
ter (R.S. #274-046 or R.S. 
#274-305). No soldering will be 
required. (The R.S. #42-2157 
Mini Phone Plug to Stereo 
Phone Plug will also work.) 
Step 2 — Record the record on your 
CTR-80. 

Step 3 — Load the tape into your CoCo 
using "CLOAD" and then 
RUN. 

Comments 

1) Do not try to input data directly from 
your stereo system. This could possibly 
damage your computer. 

2) If precise recording levels can be obtained, 
the recording level should be lOdBM. 

3) Once the program is loaded into the com- 
puter, save the data to another tape using 
CSAVE "name of program" for future use. 



0@ylbll@ 0@im/ibyj §@lf%iuu)<siff © 



COLOR TERM + PLUS + 

An Intelligent Terminal Program For The Color 
Computer or TDP 100. 

Features: 
BAUD RATE - 1 10 to 19200 
Half or Full Duplex 
One or two Stop Bits 
Odd, Even or No Parity 
Word WRAP 

Turn off Lowercase Letters 
Send All Control Characters 
Print Buffer 
Examine Buffer 

Send & Receive BASIC or Machine Language Programs 
or Files. 

Editor allows entry of text into Buffer as well as 
Editing of Buffer. 

(Disk Version Has more powerful Editor) 

Special Feature: 
Code & Decode ANYTHING in the Buffer for Secure 
Transmission or Storage Using a User defined key word 

PRICE $29.95 (Tape) $39.95 (Disk) 16k or 32k Req. 





COLOR KEY COMMAND 

Looking for a powerful programmer's aid, but you don't 
have a fortune to spend? This program is for you! Look 
at these features: two keystroke entry of more than 80 
Basic, Extend Basic, and Disk Basic commands. Select 
the color of your cursor. Select the prompt you want — 
no more "OK" when a program bombs! Automatic line 
numbering — you select the start line and increment! 4 
custom programmable keys for a total of 64 characters 
each — enter whole lines with two key presses! Copy 
any line with the copy command. Merge tape programs 
together automatically. Redefine any or all keys with a 
short basic program we supply. How can you get all this 
and more for so little? Because you make the keyboard 
overlay! We give you a template with all commands 
printed on it — you cut it out and use it. That is all there 
is to it! Note: Not all features are available on every 
machine; some require Extended or Disk Basic to work 
properly. 16K or 32K Req. PRICE $18.95 (tape)* D 





UNDERGROUND 

Tired of playing adventure games that have a limited 
vocabulary? Underground gives a detailed description 
of your surroundings, just like a main-frame adventure! 
There are over 90 separate rooms, passageways, etc. 
Discover what the mysterious machine does, what lies in 
the Egyptian sarcophagus, how do you tame the guard- 
ian of Hell's Gate, where is the fabled golden apple? 
Everything is up to you. You give the orders, you are the 
hero. This adventure is not for the faint of heart! You 
can suspend your game at any time and continue later. 
Takes from 5 to 20 hours to play. 
32K ext. BASIC Req. PRICE $26.95 Disk only 





TAPENAME 
Tapename searches tape ami stores iho name* of any 
program or file. You can print the information to the 
screen, printer or tape. Also chocks for load emirs, 
^k, Hik, or:l:>k liog. or Ext. BASIC. 
PRICK t7.95 (tape)' D 

COLOR DISK SAVER 

Saves a disk (o iapr. Keloadsiiisk from saved tape. Also 
has tape verify cmiunund! :32k Ext. BASIC lie*). 
PRICK •12.»(S luipt-r * 1) 



COLOR DOCTOR 

Discuss your problems with your computer. Color Doc- 
tor will discuss your problems with you. This is a great 
party program! Your friends will not believe that your 
computer is tnlk iny hack to them! Is il intelligent'? sure 
seems like it! 

1UK ext. BASIC Req. PRICE « lfi.9fi (tape) I) 

Use your MODEM for something other 
than a dust catcher— play games! 

Two tapes and two sets of instructions are includ- 
ed with each MODEM game. 

MODEM CHESS Use your Modem and your Color Com- 
puter to play chess ol«r Ute phone! Has high res color 
graphics l>oard and pieces. Make your move, select a 
message lo send, press a button— seconds later your op 
ponents board is updated automatically. Has audio 
alerts, lel'syou know when a move Is being made. 
16k or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. 
PRICE S39.95 (tape)" D 

MODEM CHECKERS Play checkers ot*r Uiephonef Pro- 
gram allows up to 4 jumps to be made at a lime, crown 
pieces, etc, lf>k or 32k Ext . BASIC Req. 
PRICE S39.95 (tape)'* D 

MODEM IAGO Play our version of Othello over lite 
phone! Make your move, press a key. your oprxinenl's 
board is updated seconds later! Has a lakehack key if 
you decide you don't like the move you made. 16k or 
32k Ext. BASIC Req. 
PRICE $39.95 (tape)" D 



CURSOR II 

Bute (hill blinking cursor? Tired of seeing the rompuier 
print "UK'" after your program jilM Ixmibcil? Cursor II 
changes the cui-sor to a solid, non-flashing roil. Knier 
an)' message up to "2(H) characters in length. Your 
message will be displayed instead of "OK" 
«»k. Hik. or :12k Reg. or Ext. BASIC:. 
PRICE $-1.95 (tape)' 

SUPER PEEKER 

This is a BASIC program thai will allow tin* user to ex- 
plore iltn inside of the color computer. Explore the 
possibilities with Super Peeker. 
Hik or ;)2k Kxt. BASIC lieq. 
PRICE $9.95 (tape)" 

COLOR B10RHYTHM Are you up or down today 
tomorrow, or years from now? Kind tint wiih COLOR 
lUOKHYTIlM. l ! ses high res graphics. Send the chart lo 
printer. JlikordJk Kxt. BASIC Rei]. 
PRICK $14.98 (tape) D 

DD CLOCK Don't forget what lime it is when you are 

programming. The time is displayed in the upper right 

corner of your screen. Shows hours, minutes and 

seconds. Beep.s ever> hour. 

•Ik. Hik. up :12k. lExi. BASIC noi required.) 

PRICK $9.95 (tape)' D 

AUTO LOAD Auto Load will put any program or file 
from tape to dink! All machine language programs that 
load below the top of your disk system are modified so 
that they will operate properly wiili a disk system! 
hik or :12k Ext. BASIC Req 
PRICK $12.95 (tape)* 



GALACTIC MATH 

Load this game into your computer and start playing! 
This is a math tutor that is really an arcade game! Keep 
those saucers from landing! There are no "happy faces" 
or 1 'funny clowns' ' in this math program. This is a multi- 
level addition and multiplication quiz. You select the dif- 
ficulty level. This program uses high resolution color 
graphics and shows the score, elapsed time, number of 
hits, number of misses and number of "bases' ' left to the 
player. Adults may start this game, but the kids will 
finish it! This program has been teacher and kid tested. 
Realistic explosions and laser fire sounds make this pro- 
gram a winner! This program rates an A + . For grades 1 
andup.l6Kor 32 Ext BASIC Req. PRICE $15.95(tape)D 

^(//V/ CLONE ATTACK 

Blast those nasties as they appear! 3 skill levels and 9 
levels of difficulty. Uses -high res color graphics, 
Joysticks required. 16k or 32k Ext. BASIC only, 
PRICE $15.95 (tape) (Disk 32k only) 

^ASff MOON BASE INVASION 

Nuclear bombs are ncaring your cities! Can you stop 
them hefore t hey reach you 9 High res graphics. 
10k or 32k Ext. iJASIC Req. 
PRICE $12.95 (tape) D 

COLOR IAGO 
Based on popular Othello game. Match wits with your 
computer! Uses high res color graphics. 5 levels of dif- 
ficulty. Joysticks required. 16k or 32 Ext. BASIC. 
PRICE $15.95 (tape) D 



COLOR COMPUTER/TDP-100 

SUPER-PRO 

REPLACEMENT KEYBOARD KIT 

©M<i! $64.95 



* All machine code D Disk Compatible 
** BASIC with machine code t>ubroulinei> 

Specify Disk when ordering and add $!>.(M) per program. 
Save money and u.sk that all ordered programs ho loaded 
on one disk. You pay only for the one disk! Please add 
shipping and handling on all orders. No extra 
charge on CODnrders. Mastercard and VISA accepted. 
Allow two wei-k* for personal cheek*. Your order will 
usually he shipped within two or three days. We will 
notify you of any problems within one week. Send 20 
cent .stamp f or f roe catalog. 

DOUBLE DENSITY SOFTWARE 



920 Baldwin Street 
Denton, Texas 76201 
Phone 817/566-2004. 



V/SA 



THE STEREO COMPOSER 



■ mm 




THE VOICE 




The STEREO COMPOSER music synthesizer was developed for the true music 
lover. All the features available for the COMPOSER described below are also 
available for the STEREO COMPOSER. However, instead of using the single6 bit 
digital to analog converter built into the computer and the speaker built into your 
TV, the STEREO COMPOSER uses two 8 bit digital to analog converters which 
drive two audio power amplifiers. These amplifiers supply enough audio power 
to easily drive your own external speakers. If you like, the output may be con- 
nected to your home stereo system to further increase fidelity. Connection is 
provided by two phono connector's. If the music is too loud, two built-in volume 
controls are provided to allow you to control the volume of each of the channels 
separately. The advantage of being able to use external high quality speakers is 
obvious. The use of higher quality digital to analog converters serves to further 
increase music fidelity. 

The STEREO COMPOSER produces music in stereo. Of the 4 voices produced, 2 
are directed to each channel. This ability alone increases the realism of the 
music. You can even move the voices between speakers as the music plays. 

The STEREO COMPOSER comes assembled, tested, burned in, with all the 
software and hardware to allow you to immediately start enjoying your music. A 
complete manual and examples are provided to give you everything you need to 
know. 

The STEREO COMPOSER iscompletely memory decoded so itdoes not conflict 
with the Radio Shack disk controller. In this way, disk owners with an expansion 
interface such as the BT-1 000 by Basic Technology can prod uce music from disk 
with the STEREO COMPOSER in one slot and the disk controller in another In 
tact, you can even have THE VOICE in another slot without any fears that there 
will be memory conflicts. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 
Specify Cassette or Disk 

STEREO COMPOSER (Hardware and Software) Si 19.95 




THE COMPOSER 




The COMPOSER is a4 voice music compiler which easily allows one to develop 
high quality music. Each voice is programmed separately. In addition, each 
voice uses its own waveshape table which means a unique sound for each of the 
4 voices. 

The COMPOSER featuresa7 octaverange It supportsdotted and double dotted 
notes as well as eighth, quarter, and standard triplet notes. Sixteenth and thirty 
second notes are also supported. 

The COMPOSER allows the music to be played at any tempo and in any key. And 
believe it or not. the tempo and key can be modified as the music plays. This 
gives the user tremendous versatility in developing music. Key modification also 
allows the user to move the music up or down one or more octaves. 

The COMPOSER displays a constantly changing random kaleidoscope pattern 
as the music plays. In addition, the number of the note being played is displayed 
which aids one in finding sour notes during music development. Both of these 
displays can be disabled to allow any screen to be displayed while the music is 
playing. In this way, one can show the words to a song ordisplay a picture as the 
music plays. 

The COMPOSER develops a machine language position independent sub- 
routine that can be Saved. Loaded, and Executed independent of all other 
software. This means that you can share your music with friends. In fact, you can 
write your own BASIC programs that call and play the music. Software vendors 
may include the music in their own product. 

TheCOMPOSER ismenudriven making itextremely easy and friendly to useand 
operate. A thick operating manua\ is aiso provided. Many examples are given to 
aid the user in getting started. All you need is provided, no additional hardware is 
necessary. Don't let the price fool you, the COMPOSER has got to be heard to be 
appreciated. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 

CASSETTE VERSION $24.95 

DISK VERSION (32K) $29.95 



SPEECH SYSTEMS got its start providing high quality speech synthesizers lor 
SS-50 bus computers. We are now proud to announce the same high quality 
product for the Color Computer and TDP-100. 

THE VOICE should no! be mistaken with software speech synthesizers which 
require the computer to do all the work in producing speech. 

THE VOICE uses a special large scale integrated circuit, the SC-01 by VOTRAX, 
to reproduce any one of 64 phonemes at4 inflections. Phonemesarebasic units 
of speech which allow one to reproduce any word in English as well as many 
other languages. 

THE VOICE has two outputs. Speech may be heard through the user's TV 
speaker, or the built-in audio power ampl ifier may be connected to your own 
external speaker. A phono connector is provided for this purpose and if the 
volume is too high, a built-in volume control may be used to adjust it to the 
proper level. 

THE VOICE comes assembled, tested, burned in. with all the necessary 
hardware and software. A complete manual with many examples are provided to 
gel you started in developing your own BASIC or machine language programs to 
use speech. 

THE VOICE is completely memory decoded so it does not conflict with the Radio 
Shack disk controller In this way. disk owners with an expansion interface such 
as the BT-1000 by Basic Technology can produce speech from disk with THE 
VOICE in one slot and the disk controller in another. In fact, you can even have 
the STEREO COMPOSER in another slot without any fears that there will be 
memory conflicts. 

We are trying to develop a library of software forTHE VOICE. Toward this end. we 
will be offering substantial royalties to software authors for their work. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 1 6K 
Specify Cassette or Disk 

THE VOICE (Hardware and Software) $179.95 



HOW TO ORDER 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA, and MASTER CARD orders. 
Shipping and handling for all products in the 

continental US and Canada $2.00 

Shipping and handling for all products outside the 

continental US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge (requires cash, certified check, or 

money orde r) $2.00 

Illinois residents purchasing the STEREO COMPOSER or THE VOICE please ad£ 
5'/4% sales tax. 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 

SPECIALISTS IN SYNTHESIZERS 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER AND TOP- WO. 



emA 



Speec 

38W255 DEER PATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 

(312) 879-6880 



RAINBOW 



CALL ANY DAY. ANYTIME TO ORDER. YOU MAY ALSO ORDER BY MAIL. 



Learning Through 
Program Dissection 

By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



YouVe come a long way! It is time to introduce you to 
program analysis. 
There comes a time, which you may have reached, when 
things begin to fall into place. You know the rudiments of 
BASIC and have spent a lot of time at the keyboard. You are 
beginning to get the feel of computing. It is all starting to 
make sense. But, not quite! 

There are some things thai remain hazy. Things you don't 
grasp. You understand the program "in toto," but not every 
line. In fact, a few lines may not ring a bell at all. 

Dredge up the 3CRAPS program listing from our June 
installment. It will be used as the example to demonstrate 
one way to analyze a program. This will be a learning 
experience, and in a sense you will become an author. 



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INSPECT, SEARCH, SORT, MAILING LABELS, TICKER FILE, 
and INVOICE all so easily, you'll wonder why you waited so long! 

Up to 500 RECORDS containing 10 FIELDS can be stored per file 

(memory and system dependent). 

CMAILIST is available in the following versions: 

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148 the RAINBOW July 1983 



A notebook, similar to the reference notebooks you 
created, will be used. Do not number the pages. Using a 
black, felt-tipped pen, on a well-centered, gummed labels 
print "program analysis." On the inside cover, about two 
inches from the top, draw about five horizontal lines. Print 
"contents" neatly, above the top line. Between the two top 
lines you drew, print neatly, "3CRAPS,"or some title that is 
meaningful to you. 

On the top line of the first page, print in red ink, "analysis 
of 3CRAPS." Skip a line. In black ink, print in paragraph 
form, a summary of the program. Use your own words and 
add anything you discover as you analyze the program. 

An example: "This is an attempt to analyze, by dissecting 
line by line, a home-made 3 crap dice game taken from the 
Rainbow, June 1 983." 

Remember, when you analyze a program, no permanent 
modifications, revisions or improvements are made. This is 
a no-no! 

CLOAD and RUN the program. Look it over carefully 
and compare it with your listing. Then, LIST \i in incre- 
ments, (list- 1 00; list 100-200) and try to figure out the pur- 
pose of each line. Keep your program in memory. You may 
want to run the program or just a part of it to verify how a 
line reads and what it does. 

Note: You can run a program from a selected point by 
"RUN 130-" to begin at line 130. Try it and see what 
happens. RUN 140- to RUN 1 70-. Notice the different 
results you get. Some lines may give a UL error. Try to figure 
out why. 

Good starting or insertion points are at CLS, PRINTor 
REM lines. They will carry the program forward to a logical 
stop, IN PUT or press ENTER, awaiting some information 
necessary to continue. If none is demanded, the program 
will run to the end. These are good entry points to check out 
certain parts of a program. 

Suppose you wanted to check out line 220 in action. Line 
220 states that if the total of the three dice is four you will 
GOTO line 570, which, aftera short pause, will tell you ona 
blue background the bad news that you lost. You might have 
to wait all day for a four to be cast. One way to overcome this 
would be to inject the desired result, "4," by changing lines: 
140 B=l; 150 A=l; 160 C=2. Another way: change line 170 
R=4 which ignores the results of lines 140-160. There are 
other ways to achieve the desired result. Can you work out 



(Joseph Kolar is a free-lance writer and programmer 
dedicated to proselytizing for computers in general, 
and the CoCo specifically.) ^ 



"WANNA FIND OUT 
WHAT FUN REALLY IS?" 

THE KIND OF EXCITEMENT YOU GET OUT OF YOUR SYSTEM DEPENDS ON 

WHAT GAMES YOU PUT I NTO IT. 

If You Want to Find Out What it's Like to Use yourComputer to its Fullest....Then These are the Games 
You'll Need! for your trs-80 color computer 

Dunke/Munkey 

32K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
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'J llOO 




ON THIS SCREEN: 
Pop the Rivets and Fight Fires 



ON THIS SCREEN: 
Jump Barrels and Ride the Elevator 



We're sure you already know 
the rules to this game' As game 
progresses so does the diffi- 
culty level. 

Cassette $24.95 

Diskette $29.95 

ULTRA-FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE ■ HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS ■ SPECTACULAR SOUND EFFECTS 



STARFIR€ 

16K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 





Give your Color Computer 
a New Image! 




RAINBOW 

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Plays like popular arcade game 
Defender"' including: 

• Hyperspace 

• Smart Bombs 

■ Radar Scanner 

Cassette $21.95 

Diskette $26.95 



Int eIIec trnnics 

22 Churchill Lane 
Smithtown, N.Y. 11787 
(516) 543-6642 



Ltd 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



SCREEN - 64 

64 Characters X 32 Lines 
Upper & LowerCase 

16K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 



1. Load in SCREEN-64 

2. Type EXEC 

3. You're Back in BASIC with a 64 x 32 
Screen plus.... 

FEATURES: 

• Slow/Fast Scroll Selectable 

• Window Capabilities 

• Text & Graphic on same screen 

• Superscript/Subscript 

• Reverse Screen/Reverse Video 

• No Hardware Modification Needed 

Cassette $19.95 

Diskette $24.95 



We pay all shipping. All orders shipped in 
24 hours. N.Y. residents please add sales 
tax. Canadian orders please send M.O. in 
U.S. funds only. 



any? Of course, you must restore the original line or you will 
be "4'ed"to death. 

Jf you have Extended Color BASIC, you can TRONyom 
way through a program. We shall assume that you have 
Color BASIC only. 

By now, you are hopelessly addicted to the 80C. If you 
have 4K, Color BASIC, I strongly urge you to have your 
machine upgraded to include Extended Color BASIC and 
I6K, in that order. You are going to do it anyway. You will 
be glad you did! 

Back to the drawing board. After your introductory 
notes, skip a line. In black ink, print "10" to the left of the 
red, vertical line. To the right of this line, print in black ink 
the actual listing of line 10, up to the color (:), which separ- 
ates multiple statements massed in one line. On the next line, 
indent about an inch and in red ink, using your own words, 
print an explanation of the meaning of that segment of the 
line: "blank out the screen." In black ink, on the next line, 
lined up with the black listing, print ":PRINT." Indent an 
inch on the next line and in red, print "skip a line." 

Next line: write 20 to the left of the red, vertical line. Print 
the following: print "rules" to the right. Count the spaces 
between ("") and (R) and write the number, enclosed in a 
circle in the space. (Sometimes, it is easier to count them 
from the screen than thelint listing.) On the next line, indent 
and in red, print: the word "rules" is centered on the screen. 
Do you knowanother way to achieve the same result? If you 
do, in pencil write any alternate way you have discovered to 
get exactly the same result. Try it out to be certain by 



OELRICH PUBLICATIONS 
BRINGS YOU 
GREAT SOFTWARE VALUES 

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SEGA. Great graphics and sound! Maneuver 
your way through enemy planes and anti-air- 
craft fire to meet your date with the deadly robot 
ZAXXON ! 32K cassette $35.95 

2. ) MOONSHUTTLE (by Datasoft) Watch your 

screen explode with life threatening man-o- 
wars, meteors, bomb launchers and more! The 
Prince of Darkness is the enemy, so this one will 
take your best effort. 16K cassette $31.00 

3. ) 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe (by J. Makowski) It's human vs. 

computer in this all machine language version 
of a classic. Great graphics and a very strong 
playing program make this a bargain. 

16K cassette $16.95 

4. ) FROG TREK (by R. Oelrich) Use the keyboard ar- 

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TO ORDER SEND CHECK OR M/O TO: 

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replacing line 20 in the listing and RUN it. Restore the 
original line. 

Follow the same format throughout, systematically pro- 
gressing from one line number to the next. Do not skip a line 
number. If you are uncertain of the meaning of a line, leave 
adequate space to put in your explanation at a later time. 
List multiple entries, separated by a (:) separately. The 
exception would be an obvious case such as line 30 PRINT: 
PRINT:PRINT. Put the entry on one line in black; indent 
on next line and in red print "skip three lines." 



"There comes a time, which you may have 
reached, when things begin to fall into place. 
You know the rudiments of BASIC and have 
spent a lot of time at the keyboard. You are 
beginning to get the feel of computing. It is all 
starting to make sense. But, not quite I" 



Drop down to line 1 80. It would be listed, in its turn, as 
described above. An explanation could be "print the results 
of the cast of the 4 A' die at screen location 200. Verify the 
location by checking the print @ worksheet in the manual." 
If you know another way, add it in pencil. You could say: 
"PRINT @ 32*6+8, A." 

Drop to line 480, which would be listed in its proper turn. 
This line means that if you rolled a number, 2, that was not 
equal to the number you were supposed to roll, R, or was not 
a 10, then get set to make another cast. Notice how lines 
480-500 give you all possible directions for any number that 
might be cast. 

Isn't it interesting to puzzle out the significance of every 
line? But, what happens when you get hung up? If you can't 
figure it out, try different strategms. For instance, RUN the 
program from some entry point near the problem area. 
Delete the line or lines that bug you. See what happens. 
(Remember to replace the lines later.) Pass around the prob- 
lem line with a GOTO or insert an (') at the beginning of a 
line to effectively bypass the line. Substitute other data. 
Introduce temporary markers. (Insert an * at some point.) 
There are lots of things you can try to isolate the problem. 
RUN the program or part of the program, observing what 
changes occur, and you will get many good clues to help you 
solve the problem. 

Finally, if all fails, leave a few lines blank for the explana- 
tion. Continue, and return to it later. This will indicate your 
weak areas and what you need to work on. Don't be 
obsessed with it. It may come to you later like a flash out of 
the blue. 

Eventually, you will have the entire program psyched out. 
Good for you! Getting it down on paper helps to jog your 
memory. 

At some time, you will come across an intriguing and 
more complex program listing that you will want to dissect 
and study. Save it fora project and when you want a change 
of pace, get the old notebook out and chop it up. 

After you do four to six analyses, you will discover that 
you will begin to meaningfully read listings and give up 
dissecting programs. That is as it should be. In the mean- 
time, have fun! 



150 the RAINBOW July 1983 




PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 




Flight 



If you'd like to fly a plane then this is what you've been 
waiting for. A really good graphics oriented flight simulator 
in high resolution. Four difficulty levels let you go from 
student level to a difficult instrument-only landing. In front 
of you on the screen are your instruments, and above 
them are two representations of your plane in relation to 
the flight path (top and side views). At the higher levels all 
you have to go by are the instruments. Can you put it down 
on the runway to hear the synthesized voice from the 
tower say ''perfect landing"? It's tough! You use your 
joystick just like the control stick on a plane, and the action 
is realistic indeed. This program was written by a pro- 
fessional flyer— a pilotfora major United States air carrier, 
and the high standards of professionalism really show. 
Just CLOADM and take to the skies!! Requires 32K 
extended. TAPE is $1 9.95 — DISK is $24.95 



The Fantasy Master's Secretary 

This program will be greatly appreciated by the many 
people trying to run a fantasy game! It's not easy to keep 
track of hit points, charges in magic items, monsters, game 
time, armor values, and a lot more, all while trying to 
conduct a meelee and listen to 8 people talking at once. If 
you ever thought you needed a secretary, this is it! It keeps 
track of all the above and more, and even has a help file in 
case you forget how to use it. It also figures the experience 
points of monsters while keeping an electronic eye on 
value and weight of treasure found. You'll truly wonder 
how you got along without it!!! If you quit before the 
campaign is completed, you can save the whole thing to 
tape (or disk) and take up right where you left off next time 
you play. At the beginning it will ask you whether or not the 
players canseethe screen, and set its displays up accord- 
ingly. Remember, this isn't a game — it's an aid to use with 
a fantasy game. $1 9.95 tape — $24.95 disk. 



Eight-bit Bartender: 

This will light up your next party! Over 100 great drink 
recipes are stored by the bartender and called up at your 
command. Askforthembydrink name, main liquor used, or 
class of drink (highball, cocktail, etc.). These were gathered 
from the favorites and house specialties at famous pubs 
and taverns across the US. It outputs to the screen, printer, 
or both! At your next party let the guests browse through 
the Bartender. Needs 32K. TAPE $1 9.95— DISK $24.95 



Phonics I 

This classroom-tested program is the newest in our Phonics 
series. Written by the same elementary school teacher, it 
takes up where PREREAD I, II, & III leave off. Actually two 
programs (on separate tapes), the TUTORIAL teaches all 
22 of the consonant blends using on-screen graphics and 
voice (controlled by the computer and played through the 
TV speaker). The TEST program asks for the letters in 
these blends (again using voice throught the speaker), and 
checks the keyboard input for the correct answer. Again, 
on screen graphics are used as an aid to learning, and 
immediate feedback to the learner is given. 

Phonics II 

Similar to Phonics I in concept and execution, but Phonics 
II teaches consonant digraphs. Again there are two pro- 
grams (on different tapes) for the TUTORIAL and TEST 
modes. 



Both Phonics I and Phonics II are well documented, andare 
sold separately on TAPES for $24.95 each. They are also 
available as a package — only on DISK for $44.95. 



A Partial List of Prickly-Pear Programs 

Astrology, Gangbusters, Household Helper, 
Fantasy Gamer's Package, Viking, Football, 
Preread I, II & III, Mathpac I, Tarot, I Ching, 
Numerology, The Great Word Game, The 80C 
Songbook, Phonics I, Phonics 2, Flight, Las 
Vegas Weekend, The 8-Bit Bartender, The 
Fantasy Master's Secretary, Monsters& Magic, 
Topsy Turvy, Galactic Patrol, Blockade, Sea 
Wars, Jungle, Spanish . . . 



FOR DISK VERSIONS ON AMDEK CARTRIDGES, ADD $5. 



Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 
on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 6% sales 
tax. Orders shipped within two days. 



Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Send Order To PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9234 E. 30th Street 
Tucson, Arizona 85710 
(602) 886-1505 




TUTORIAL 



DISK 
BASIC 





Most people with disk systems use the D//?ectory 
command to list the names of files on their 
diskette, but many may not have a good idea of 
what the disk directory really is and other ways it may be 
used. The disk directory is that information stored on the 
diskette which tells Disk BASIC what files are there and 
where those files are located. Disk BASIC needs this infor- 
mation to use these files to store programs or data. 

The total disk directory is composed of a file allocation 
table and directory entries for each file. When you use the 
DIR command, this information is combined to tell you the 
name and size of each file. You can redirect this information 
to your printer by POKEyng the printer's device number 
(254) into location 1 1 1 before requesting the directory list- 
ing. POKEW 1 ,254: DIR] will print the directory for drive 1. 

Disk BASIC divides the diskette into 35 tracks. You can 
visualize these tracks as concentric circles. Each track is 
sub-divided into 18 sectors. The designation of a track and 
sector identifies a unique area of the disk which contains 256 
bytes of information. The Disk BASIC file system groups 
nine of these numerically adjacent sectors into a unit called a 
Granule. There are two Granules per track. A Granule is the 
smallest unit that will be allocated to a file. The use of this 
Granule convention results in fewer disk areas for the file 
system to manage. There is no reason that this value had to 
be nine. Tandy could have decided to group six, or three, or 
two sectors into an allocation unit, or even allocated indi- 
vidual sectors. The use of a smaller allocation unit would 
haver resulted in less disk data area being wasted, but more 
disk space being required for directory information and 



( Mr. Hefter is president of Custom Software Engineer- 
ing of Cocoa Beach, Florida ) 

152 the RAINBOW July 1983 



more overhead in the allocation process. The filesystem uses 
track 17 for the directory information. This leaves 34 tracks 
(68 Granules) available for files. The table below shows the 
track/ sector of the first sector of each Granule. 



Gran- 



ule# 0 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


0 


o/i 


0/10 


l/l 


1/ 10 


2/1 


2/ 10 


3/1 


3/10 


4/1 


4/ 10 


10 


5/1 


5/ 10 


6/1 


6/10 


//I 


7/ 10 


8/1 


8/10 


9/1 


9/10 


20 


10/ 1 


10/10 


M/l 


1 1/10 


12/ 1 


12/10 


13/1 


13/10 


14/1 


14/10 


30 


15/ 1 


15/ 10 


16/ 1 


16/ 10 


18/ 1 


18/ 10 


19/ 1 


19/ J 0 


20/ 1 


20/10 


40 


21/1 


21/10 


22/ 1 


22/ 10 


23/ 1 


23/ 10 


24/ I 


24/10 


25/ 1 


25/10 


50 


26/1 


26/10 


27/1 


27/ 10 


28/ 1 


28/ 10 


29/ 1 


29/ 10 


30/1 


30/10 


60 


31/1 


31/ 10 


32/ 1 


32/ 10 


33/ 1 


33/10 


34/ 1 


34/ 10 







Tabulation Of Track/ Sector For Each Granule 



The file allocation table (which is really a Granule alloca- 
tion table) is located in sector 2 of track 17. Only the first 68 
bytes of this sector are used. Each byte corresponds to one 
Granule on the disk. The first byte will give the status of 
Granule 0. The 15th byte will be the status of Granule 14. If 
the value of the byte is 255, it means that the corresponding 
Granule is not in use. A byte value between 0 and 67 indi- 
cates that the corresponding Granule is in use, and the byte 
value is a pointer to the next Granule of the file. This means 
that this Granule is not the last Granule of the file. A value 
between 192 and 202 means that the corresponding Granule 
is the last Granule of the file and tells how many of the 9 
sectors in that Granuleare part of the file. The file allocation 
table does not provide enough information to tell where any 
given file begins. 

Sectors 3 through 1 I of track 17 contain the actual names 
of the files on the disk and other information including the 
number of the first Granule of each file. This information is 
referred to as the directory entry. The directory entry for 



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Works with 64K tape or disk systems. 
Cassette $27.95 Disk $29.95 

MDISK — Hal Snyder's latest breakthrough for the 64K Color Computer! MDISK lets you use the upper 32K of 
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not only under manual keyboard control, but from programs in progress as well, permitting high-speed swapping of 
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work on disk or tape based 64K systems. Full documentation included. 
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ROMBACK — Why pay more? The easiest to use ROM-pak dumping utility available! At the best price, too! Comes 
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Use ROMBACK, and run those programs from tape or disk instead. Works with any 64K Extended BASIC tape or 
disk system. 
Cassette $16.95 

QUICKSORT — A machine language sort routine specifically designed to be used by BASIC programmers. This 
utility will speed up those programs where a BASIC sort is just too slow. Great for mailing lists and databases. Can 
be incorporated into many existing programs as well. Written in position independent code, works on tape or disk 
systems. 16K required. 
Casette $12.95 

64K BOOT/PAGER — Two 'must have' utilities for the 64K Color Computer owner. The 64K Boot allows you to 
modify BASIC by moving it from ROM to RAM. The PAGER is a menu- 
driven utility allowing you to manually page between the 32K banks of 
memory, copying BASIC or data from one page to the other, the 
complete assembler source code for both programs is included, so you 
can see how it's done! Both programs are written in position independent 
code and run on 64K tape or disk systems. 
Cassette $19.95 

STRUCTURED MACROS — An assembly language programming tool for 
users of the Macro-80C assembler, by the Micro Works. Structured 
macros come close to transforming your assembler into a high-level 
language. Your programs become more understandable and debugging is 
simplified. Commands include IF, ELS, ENDIF, IFTST, IFCC, WHILE, 
ENDWH, REPEAT, and UNTIL. 
Disk $19.95 

WIZARD'S TOMB — A text and graphic adventure that the whole family 
can play! Like no other that you've played before. Up to four players 
can be involved in the attempt to enter the Wizard's Tomb. 16K and 
Extended BASIC required. 
Cassette $12.95 

WIZARD'S TOMB, PART II — Takes up where Wizard's Tomb left off. 
Now that you've found the treasure in the Wizard's Tomb, try to find your 
way through the ten levels of the catacombs! Good luck— you'll need it! 
32K and Extended BASIC required. 
Casette $15.95 

WIZARD 64 — If you've got 64K, then this one's for you! Uses both 32K 
pages of memory for graphics and action — combines the features of 
Wizard's Tomb and Wizard's Tomb Part II into one great game. 
Challenging enough for adults, yet entertaining for younger players too. 
64K Extended BASIC required. 
Cassette $21.95 Disk $23.95 

All Software Available on 3" AMDISK Cartridges — $4 additiona 

Dealer Inquiries Invited. 



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each file does not tell how many Granules long that file is. 
This is why both the directory entry and the file allocation 
table are required to produce the D/R listing. The directory 
entry tells where the file begins. Counting the Granules as it 
traces through the file allocation table until it finds the last 
Granule tells how long it is. Figure 1 illustrates how this all 
works. 

Each directory entry uses 32 bytes even though only 16 
bytes contain any useful information. The first 8 bytes are 
the file name and the next 3 are the extension (BAS, DAT, 
etc.). If the first byte of the file name is zero, it means that the 
file has been killed. If the first byte of the name is a 255, it 
means that entry and all following entries have not been 
used — no need to look further. It is the 14th byte of each 
entry which tells the number of the first Granule of that file. 

The disk directory is not part of any file and may not be 
OPENed or read with the INPUT command. Disk BASIC 
provides another command which will bypass the file system 
and allow you to directly read any sector of the disk. This is 
the DSKJS command and uses as parameters the drive 
number, track, sector, and two string variables — one to 
receive the first 128 bytes of the sector and one for the last 
\2S bytes. (Remember that one string variable will not hold 
more than 255 bytes). 

Now we have enough background to put that disk direc- 
tory to work for us. Listing 1 shows a program which may be 

Figure 1 



I 



B>tf 
u 



Kile A 


, BAS, 






> i 




Kile B 


!dat; 





Directory Entry 



255 



File Allocation Table 



255 


2^ 


200 1 „ 201 




\n 








200 


255 


255 


255 






r\u i em) 


r 


FIND 








END 







Byte # 

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 
Granule # 

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 

used to get a different kind of directory listing. This program 
will produce a map which shows which Granules are used 
for each file and their order of use. This program checks the 
first character of the file name for 255 (Vint 50) to find the 
first unused entry (no need to read further) and checks for a 
zero (line 70) to see which files should be omitted from the 
listing. Line 80 prints the file name and extension and finds 
the first Granule of the file. Line 90 traces through the file 
allocation table until the last Granule is found. This pro- 
gram is written to allow you to customize it for your own 
use. For example, if you want the listing in alphabetical 
order, just add a bubble sort between line 60 and 70. Or if 
you want only BASIC programs listed, test for this in line 
70. Try running this program on several of your diskettes. 

The map produced may be of use if you have problems 
with your diskette. Listing 2 is a short program which may 
be used to read all sectors on a diskette. If you get an I/O 
error while trying to backup a diskette, run this short pro- 
gram. It wili terminate with an I/O error, but the last track/ - 
sector displayed on your screen will tell you the first sector 



which cannot be read. You can generally make this sector 
readable by writing over it with a DISKOS command. You 
can then use your map and the track/ sector vs. Granule 
table to see which file (if any) has lost data. Remember to 
run the program (listing 2) again to confirm that the sector is 
readable and see if any other sectors are bad. 

The directory map is also of use to show you how your 
diskette is organized. If you have a map of a diskette you just 
put into service, it will probably show the files are well 
organized. Files are clustered around the middle of the 
diskette and multi-Granule files are using adjacent areas. 
But a map of a diskette which has been used for a while and 
which has had files grow or shrink in size, files deleted 
(killed), and others added, shows a less organized picture. 
The disk system will try to allocate adjacent Granules when 
it can. This is more than just aesthetically pleasing. It also 
allows files to be read or written with a minimum of time 
required to reposition the read head. But if you have several 
files (data or program) which gradually grow over time, the 
allocation pattern is one of intertwined Granule allocation. 

The disk system BA CKUP capability is good for making 
an exact duplicate of your diskette. It makes a physical 
copy — that is, it copies all sectors whether used or not. The 
BA CKUP process does nothing to reorganize your disk and 
get things back to a neat (and efficient) allocation. The disk 
system COP Y command does write a file copy as if it is just 
being created, and in so doing keeps things together. You 
can create a new and well organized disk just by copying all 
of your old files to that new disk one by one. If you have 
many files on the disk, this will be a bit of a chore. 

But unlike the BA CKUP command, the COPKcommand 
can be used by a program. The disk manual states that the 
COP Y will erase memory, but it really doesn't. What it does 
do is use whatever memory is not in use by your program. 
The more memory available, the better COPY will work on 
longer files. 

Listing 3 is a program which will copy all files on a 
diskette in Drive 0 to Drive 1 . The effect of copying all files is 
to produce a logical backup of your diskette. But since this 
new diskette will probably be better organized (more effi- 
cient) than the original, you may want to make it your new 
working copy and keep the original as the backup. The 
COPY command will not write over an existing file. To use 
this program, the new diskette must not have any files with 
the same name as those on the diskette to be copied. This will 
generally mean a newly formatted diskette. 

The use of this program also has some other advantages. 
The program will not try to read unused sectors so an 
unreadable but unused sector will not be a problem. If your 
old diskette is only partially filled, this procedure may actu- 
ally be faster than the BACKUP command. You may use 
this program to make one backup diskette combining two 
half-filled diskettes as long as file names do not repeat. And 
you may add those customizing touches like sorting the file 
names or copying only program files or only files which start 
or end with this or that. If you found a disorganized diskette 
with program Listing 1 , try program Listing 3 on it and then 
get a map of the new diskette to see what neat means! 

Unfortunately, Listing 3 will not work on a one-drive 
system. Program Listing 4 shows the modifications required 
for a logical backup using only one drive. This version does 
have many of the advantages of Listing 3, but it also has one 
major disadvantage. You will need to switch diskettes at 
least once for each file to be copied. For a single drive 
system, the BA CATV/ 0 command will generally be easier and 



154 the RAINBOW July 1983 



The PROFESSIONAL Keyboard 



A direct plug-in 
replacement for your 
Color Computer. 



* Simple Installation 
(No glueing or cutting) 

*Redefinable keys 
*Free Software - See page 
80 of June 1983 RAINBOW 
*No Extra Charge for TDP/F 
Model 

$69.95 

"A Model 1 keyboard 
in a Color Computer case. 
This product is a real gem." 
Rainbow Review, March 1983 

* All TDP/F orders please specify 



IMMMIM 




'The Spectrum Switcher 
is a fantastic device" 
RAINBOW review, April, 
1983, Page 207 



SPECTRUM SWITCHER 




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RAINBOW 

Have your Disk and Cartridge too! -sr- 
Transforms a Color Computer into a dual slot 
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all orders plus $3 S/H, N.Y. residents add sales tax 



faster than Listing 4 (unless you only have about half a 
dozen files). But you may wish to use the program when the 
map shows a real need for reorganization. 

You will probably find these small utilities useful. But 
more important, the use and understanding of these pro- 
grams will give you a better idea of how the file system uses 
the disk directory and how to make it work for you. 

Listing 1: 

1 'LISTING #1 

2 * 

3 'THIS PROGRAM IS USED TO 

4 'PRODUCE FILE ALLOCATION MAP 

5 ' 

10 PCLEAR 1: CLEAR 2000: DIM F*<72 

):DR=0 'DR IS DRIVE NUMBER 

20 DSKI* DR, 17,2,AL*,B* 

30 N=l:FOR S=3 TO 11 

40 DSKI* DR, 17,S,A*,B«: A*=A*+LEF 

T*(B*, 127) :FOR J=0 TO 7 

50 F*(N)«MID*(A«, J#32+l, 16) : IF L 

EFT* ( F* ( N ) , 1 ) =CHR* < 255 ) THEN N=N 

-HGOTO 61 

60 N=N+l:NEXT J,S 

61 ' BUBBLE SORT CAN GO HERE 

70 FOR M=l TO N: IF LEFT* <F* (M) , 1 

)=CHR*(0) THEN 100 

80 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2,LEFT*(F*(M) 

, 11 ) ; " "; :G=ASC(MID*(F*<M) , 14, l 

) ) 

90 PRINT#-2,G; :G=ASC(MID*<AL 
*,G+1,1)):IF G<68 THEN 90 
100 NEXT M 



IS DRIVE NUMBER 
20 FOR T= 0 TO 34:CLS:F0R S=l TO 
18 

30 PRINT T,S:DSKI* DR, T,S, A*, B*: 
NEXT S,T: CLEAR 2000 

Listing 3: 

1 'LISTING #3 

2 ' 

3 'THIS PROGRAM IS USED TO 

4 'MAKE A LOGICAL BACKUP FROM 

5 'DRIVE 0 TO DRIVE 1 

6 ' 

10 PCLEAR l: CLEAR 2000: DIM F*<72 

) : DR=0 ' DR IS DR I VE NUMBER 

30 N=l:FOR S=3 TO 11 

40 DSKI* DR, 17, S, A* , B* : A*=A*+LEF 

T*(B*, 127) :FOR J=0 TO 7 

50 F*<N)=MID*(A«, J*32+l, 16) : IF L 

EFT* <F* (N) , 1 ) =CHR* (255) THEN N=N 

-i:GOTO 61 

60 n=n+i:next j,s 

61 'bubble sort can go here 

70 FOR M=l TO N:IF LEFT* (F* (M) , 1 
)=CHR*<0) THEN 100 

80 W*=LEFT*<F*<M) , 8) +"/"+MID* (F* 
(M) ,9,3) : PRINT W*:COPY W* TO W*+ 
" : 1 " 

100 NEXT M 



Listing 2: 

1 'LISTING #2 

2 ' 

3 'THIS PROGRAM IS USED TO CHECK 

4 'ALL SECTORS ON A DISK 

5 'IF IT ENDS WITH AN I/O ERROR 

6 'THE LAST TRACK/SECTOR DISPLAY 

7 'IS NOT READABLE 

8 ' 

10 PCLEAR 1: CLEAR 8000: DR=0 ' DR 



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Listing 4: 

1 'LISTING #4 

2 ' 

3 'THIS PROGRAM IS USED TO 

4 'MAKE A LOGICAL BACKUP 

5 'USING ONLY DRIVE 0 

6 ' 

10 PCLEAR 1: CLEAR 2000: DIM F*<72 

):DR=0 'DR IS DRIVE NUMBER 

30 N=l:FOR S=3 TO 11 

40 DSKI* DR, 17, S, A*, B*: A*=A*+LEF 

T*(B*, 127) :FOR J=0 TO 7 

50 F*(N)=MID*(A*, J*32+l, 16) : IF L 

EFT* <F* <N) , 1 ) =CHR* (255) THEN N=N 

-l:GOTO 61 

60 N=N+l:NEXT J,S 

61 'BUBBLE SORT CAN GO HERE 

70 FOR M=l TO N:IF LEFT* (F* (M) , 1 
>=CHR*(0) THEN 100 

80 W*=LEFT*(F*(M) , 8) +"/ "+MID* (F* 
(M) ,9,3) :PRINT W*:COPY W* 
90 IF M<N THEN PRINT: PRINT" INSER 
T SOURCE DISKETTE AND" : INPUT "PRE 
SS ENTER" ;C* 
100 NEXT M 



156 the RAINBOW 



July 1983 



SPECTRUM SPECIALS 

Rompak w/Blank PC Board $9.95 

The Spectrum Remote Reset $ 1 2.95 

The Colorcade w/Rapid Fire $ 1 9.95 

Video Plus - Superb Video Interface $24.95 
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Wico Red Ball Joystick .$34.95 

The Spectrum Joystick $39.95 

Wico Analog Joystick $49.95 

Super - Pro Keyboard $69.95 

Botek Printer Interface .$69.95 

Convert Modem to Auto - Answer $99.95 

Amdek Twin 3" Drive System $599 

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Consider that just a year ago the cupboard was woefully 
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Consider that when you finished your journey through 
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cartridges. Foggy memories? Then pull out some of your 
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We're seeing more and more utilities and serious applica- 
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Take for example this brand new product that came 
across my desk for review just recently. GRAFPLOT is its 
name, a general graphing program. Written in open BASIC, 
it's described as being capable of turning your Color Com- 
puter "into a sophisticated data plotter, producing profes- 
sional quality graphs of any type of X-Y data" and promises 
that you'll never have to mess around with pencil, graph 
paper and ruler again. And 1 thought it was another pro- 
gram designed to print text on the graphics page before 1 
cracked the manual! 

GRAFPLOT is an applications program which will find 
itself equally useful in the home and office Color 
Computer — although probably more so in the latter case. 
And that, although not revolutionary, is progress, my 
friend! 

So what's so great about this product? After all, you can 
learn how to make graphs from the computer manuals. But 1 
guarantee you won't be able to do it nearly as well and with 
the diversity that GRA FPL OT offers. 1 know there's a new 
product out from the Fort Worth folks, but it's ROMpak 
based, isn't it? I find those cartridge programs so limiting for 
some reason. 

GR A FPL OT comes in two versions: a cassette version for 
16K machines; and a disk version for 32K machines. For the 
cassette version, you'll need a minimum of 16K with 
Extended Color BASIC and, naturally, a good cassette 
recorder. For the disk version you need 32K Disk Extended 
Color BAS 1C with one or more drives. Optional equipment 
requirements to get hardcopy printouts of your graphs are 
listed as a Line Printer Vll or DMP-100 and the Radio 
Shack screenprint program. (There is a section in the man- 
ual on how to interface other screenprint routines and print- 
ers with GRAFPLOT.) 

Well, 1 found and blew the dust off my long unused copy 
of the screenprint program with a sigh of relief. But since 
changing over to the faster, smarter and much neater Oki- 
data 82A, I had passed my LP Vll along to my computer 
engineering daughter. All I could do was cross my toes in 
hopes of discovering that the Oki' would work out. (It went 
crazy when I tried to get a screen print!) 

After carefully reading through the documentation's 34 
pages, it was time to tackle the program. Unfortunately, 1 
couldn't think of anything I wanted to plot out on a graph at 
the time! Wouldn't you know it? Well, anyway, the manual 
includes an extensive tutorial section with a set of basicdata 
provided to permit you to initiate a number of graphs and 
even includes printouts of what they should look like. Why 
not use these data, 1 said to myself. 

Following the manual's instructions to clear the machine 
forall available memory (aimed at the 1 6K user), 1 loaded in 
the first cassette program and started following the step by 
step tutorial. Once 1 had entered the data and checked it, 1 
simply called for the graph to be drawn on the high resolu- 
tion screen. I was both surprised and pleased at the results. 
Looking good, CoCo! The screen presentation, using 
PMODE 4, was clear and very crisp indeed. Eventhoughthe 
steps taken to get thatdisplay were at first kind of confusing, 
1 quickly got used to it, thanks to the meticulous "handhold- 
ing" documentation. 

After discovering that the Okidata 82A wouldn't respond 
to the screenprint program (1 should have known better), 1 
"borrowed" and hooked up the LP Vll and soon produced 
my first hardcopy printout. The image produced by the LP 
Vll left much to be desired in my opinion: too small (3"h x 
4'/i ,, w) and kind of jagged. Maybe the latter is a result of a 



158 the RAINBOW July 1983 



BASIC AID 



AT LAST! Help for the BASIC programmer. BASIC AID isan indespensable addition tothe Color 
Computer. It will save you valuable time and effort. If you write or modify BASIC programs 
you need BASIC AID. 

You get 43 Common BASIC commands available as single Control Key inputs. Greatly 
speeds up program entry. 

A powerful feature is the ability to redefine any or all of the keys to your own specifications 

PLUS you get invaluable features such as a MERGE command, Move Line command and 
Automatic Line Numbering 

MERGE— Insert programs stored on 
cassette into your Basic program. 
You can even assign new line 
numbers to the program you read 
in. Great for creating your own 
tape library. 

MOVE— Lets you move and renumber any 
part of your Basic program. GOTOs 
and GOSUBs are automatically 
changed. 

Redefine any or all keys! Put in your most 
frequently used commands. Then save 
them to tape for use another time. 




"An excellent program 
and fine utility " - 
-RAINBOW review, 
August, 1982, Page 27 



MERGE 

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PRINT MEM 



BASIC AID 



IM 



All of this in a convenient ROM cartridge which is available instantly on power-up. And, it 
uses almost none of your valuable memory Comes with a convenient easy to remove, 
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BASIC AID CARTRIDGE 




Disk Basic Aid $49.95 

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much-used printer head, though. I found the first prints 
coming out in white on black. Remembering that I could 
POKE value 255 into memory location 16303, I soon 
changed that to a black on white printout. (The disk version 
takes care of this for you by modifying the screenprint 
program and relocating it to high memory. 

One last word about the cassette version and we'll move 
on. Because G RA FPLOT itself consists of two programs, 
you'll find yourself shuffling back and forth among three 
cassettes: the program tape, screenprint, and a data tape. 
You might get a bit confused at first, but it'll wear off soon, 
especially if you keep your work area clean and neatly 
organized. 

The disk version is much easier to use. After the long 
process of backing up the master disk's two programs and 
then bringingthe main program up, you're asked if you have 
a copy of the modified screenprint program on the disk. No? 
Then load the screenprint program into memory from 
cassette and within a few seconds it's modified (including 
getting rid of the shift/ up arrow), moved to high memory 
and on your disk ready to work! You're advised to then 
make a new backup working copy of your backup. 

Both versions employ extensive error trapping to guard 
against your bombing the program and losing your data to 
boot. One method used very effectively is Automatic 
Prompting to lead you through all of the steps necessary to 
enter, set up and draw a graph. You're urged to use this 
option every time. 

I mentioned earlier that I was hard-pressed to come up 
with a set of statistics of my own to graph out. But suppose 
you're more creative than I. Just what kind of data will 

^ — 

FL Y the FUi 

Instrument 

Simulator 

Variable control sensitivity for 
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and landings. Get yours now to 
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Its as if your printer had built 
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forget its there. The lowercase 
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16K/32K Tape or Disk $14.95 
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GRAFPLOT handle? Its author suggests the following 

applications: 

Personal: 

*budgets and actual expenses versus time (days, weeks, 

months, or years) 
Children's growth curves (height and weight versus time) 
*tax bracket versus income 

*stock and investment performance versus time or interest 

rate 
Business: 
*sales charts 

*marginal cost and marginal profit versus units produced 
*total cost and revenue versus time 

*performance forecasts or production, investments, et 

cetera 
Statistics: 

*scatter plotting of raw data 

*plotting of data versus regression curves 

*evaluation of integrals of complex equations 

Scientific and Engineering 

*experimental results plotting 

*removal of noise from data 

*data extrapolation to new experimental conditions 
*evaluation of certain quantities by calculating the area 

under a curve. (I'd never have thought of that one! I'm 

usually behind the curve.) 

If you can think of unique applications, you can even 
define your own functions with the manual and program 
leading you along. 

Suppose you've already got some files with data you'd like 
graph plotted. Can you integrate them directly into GRAF- 
PLOT? Yes, with reservations. "GRA FPLOTcan read data 
from any tape or disk file that has the proper data structure." 
What that means is that you must use the GRAFPLOT 
format in recording your data. There's a section in the 
manual suggesting how you can achieve this compatibility. 

The documentation — let's call it a manual — isn't too 
badly put together. 1 was a little skeptical from the start 
about its print format of very closely spaced typewritten 
lines. It just seems a bit too crowded to my eyes. Maybe I'm 
mellowing, though, because I soon found myself able to 
wade through it and make some sense out of the format. It's 
"chock-full-'o'-nuts" to make G RA FPLOT easy to use. 

Here are the basic questions (with short answers) I asked 
myself after running through the program several times and 
getting a good feel for it: 
Overall impression? — (Very impressed) 
Probable market? — (Small, small business and the natu- 
rally inquisitive) 
Easy to use? — (Very, if you follow the manual) 
Would 1 buy it? — (Maybe) 

Do I recommend it? — (Yes, to anyone with such a need) 

I'm very impressed with GRAFPLOT, even though it 
doesn't produce pie — or bargraphs. One last thing: because 
it uses high resolution's PMODE 4, don't expect to see 
dazzling colors on the screen. And if you're going to use the 
hardcopy printouts in business, you might want to enlarge 
them a bit photographically first. Whether these are short- 
comings or not depends on your intended applications^ 
(Hawkes Research Services, 1442 Sixth Street, Berkeley, CA 
94710, $35 cassette, $45 tape) 

— Ed Lowe 



160 the RAINBOW July 1983 



THE 



"Recommend to 
anyone who enjoys 
gameson his CoCo." 
RAINBOWReview, 
March 1983 




STICK INTERFACE 



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RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



*********************************** 

tt "BREAKING ALL 

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# Bob Rosen 

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93-15 86th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 
212 441 -2807 

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from SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

I. iililllii I 11 11 'I III 





The must CoCo book 
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upgrades, machine 
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never did before. 
$14.95 



■ 1 I I t 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I ITT 

COCO COOLER— Internal cooling 
system. Prevent heat buildup 
inside your Color Computer. 
"CoCo Cooler keeps things 
cool."— Rainbow Review, Dec, 
1982, Page 39 $4995 







[ I 


















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DISK INTERFACE/ROM PACK 
EXTENDER - 3 FEET. Move your disks 
and ROM packs where you want 
them. Gold plated contacts 
eliminate corrosion $29.95 

HIDDEN BASIC 1.0 

Finally! A program written to protect 
your BASIC programs. HIDDEN BASIC 1 .0 
will modify your BASIC programs so 
these commands will not function: 

CLOAD or CLOADM 

CSAVE or CSAVEM 

DEL or EDIT 

LIST or LLIST 
The protected copy is not a BASIC pro- 
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language program referenced by the 
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Tape $19.95 



LIGHT PEN-Plugs right in to 
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Includes four demo pro- 
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Includes "softtouch" fire 
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FOUR-PIN MALE TO FOUR PIN 
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location— easier use...$14.95 



COLOR COMPUTER EDITOR 
ASSEMBLER AND DEBUGGER 
•* CCEAD is a high quality program and 
excellent value. CCEAD is a tool that no 
assembly language programmer can afford 

to be without '— RAINBOW Review. February, 
1983* S6.95 



THE STRIPPER 

Deletes REMarks, packs lines and removes 
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"How much Memory can you save? About 
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WOOOHAVEN, N.Y. 11421 (212) 441 -3756 (DATA) 



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DEALER/CLUB INQUIRIES WELCOME 

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RS232 Cable $20.00 
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Nanos System Reference Card _ 
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Extended Basic ROM 

CoCo Coo Coo (24 Hour Clock) 

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Disk Interface (Spectrum Special 



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0>16 66th DRIVE 
WOOO HAVEN, N.V. 1 1421 



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(21 2) 441-3756 (DATA) 



DEALER/CLUB INQUIRIES WELCOME 

New York State Residents add appropriate taxes 




Hi 


1 


■ ' ■• 


h n 






, To fiv n„, ^fee- 



YOU'VE BEEN READING ABOUT 

the "new" Color Computers on these 
pages for some time — now we're going 
to tell you something about one of 
them. 

Yes, it is available. It is called the 
MC-IO and has the now-familiar CoCo 
logo of red, green and blue rectangles on 
its white cover (see the picture on this 
page). Not only is the "PoCo CoCo" 
(poco means small in Spanish) available 
now, but it is available for $119.95. 
That's a very competitive price and 
when we tell you more about it, you'll 
see that it looks like the peopleat Radio 
Shack have come up with another winner. 

From the standpoint of the CoCo 
Community, the advent of theTRS-80 
MC-10 means that there will be a whole 
lot of people joining us! Here's an ideal 
"first" computer at a "first computer 
price/' And, while the initial version 
comes with just 4K, there is reference to 
greater memory availability and some 
interesting possibilities for expansion. 

The instructionsetfor PoCo CoCo is 
something of a mixture of Color BASIC 
and Extended Color BASIC. And while 
there are no high-res commands, it 
seems obvious that high resolution gra- 
phics will be possible with machine lan- 
guage programs. 

PoCo CoCo arrived here just as we 
were on deadline, so there may be 
number of details we will be forced to 
leave out of this first look-see. But, Dan 
Downard, our technical editor, promises 
a full run-down on PoCo CoCo for next 



month. 

In the meantime, here are some first 
impressions: 

The MC-10 has all the string functions 
available for CoCo, many of the trig 
operations (like COSine and SINe) and 
a good amount of other good ies such as 
RND, ABS, CHR$ and the like. It also 
has PEEK and POKE, which the non- 
Extended BASIC CoCo did not origi- 
nally have. 

Along the same vein, italso has multi- 
dimension array capabilities, which were 
not included with non-Extended. And, 
surprise, il sends information lo the 
printer by LPR1NT — not PRINT #-2, 
as does CoCo. This may cause some 
compatibility problems, but shouldn't 
be too serious. 

Then there's somethingnew: CLOAD* 
and CSAVE*. These two commands 
allow you to save and load arrays to 
tape without affecting the rest of the 
program. A nice addition! 

Also obviously different is the key- 
board, which sports automatic key-in of 
BASIC keywords by using a "control" 
key. Also, the block graphic symbols 
can be accessed directly from the key- 
board. 

PoCo CoCo uses a Motorola 6803 
microprocessor. This is in the same 
"family" as CoCo's 6809, but it is not 
exactly the same. It does use the same 
P1A chip, so the display looks virtually 
the same as does its big brother's. All the 



chips we saw were soldered to the mother- 
board inside — meaning no sockets 
as with CoCo. What there is, though, is 
an "expansion edge card slot" in the 
back. The manual says this is for extra 
memory, but Joe Bennett of JARB 
Software/ Hardware says he believes all 
the address busses come out through 
this port — which means a lot of things 
could be added there. 

We have to wonder whether they will 
be, though. We see PoCo CoCo as an 
ideal beginner's machine that will help a 
person "graduate" to either CoCo or the 
"Super CoCo" that rumors say will be 
introduced by Radio Shack some time 
in the future. In fact, if you read the 
Pipeline last month, you would have 
seen reference to the computer we are 
now describing and to the "Super 
CoCo" we're talking about now. 

Also, PoCo CoCo has a full-blown 
RS-232 serial port and the standard 
cassette port. It, like CoCo, can run on 
eitherchannel 3 or4 and doescome with 
the TV connection box (and appro- 
priate cable) at no extra charge. 

At first blush, PoCo CoCo looks to 
be very similar, technical-wise, to 
CoCo. The text screen starts at a dif- 
ferent place and the top of BASIC is 
located at a different place in memory. 
But, these are about the same, so there 
will have to be some more experi- 
menting before we can be sure whether 
programs will run "as-is." 

There are some differences inthe I/O 
routines, too. Forinstance, PoCo CoCo 
does not appear to use the remote con- 
trol for the tape recorder motor. Also, 

there may be some differences in BASIC 
tokens — but programs typed in will 

run the same. New tapes may have to be 
made to handle programs on that 
medium. Stay tuned. 

All i n all, we feel it very reasonable to 
say that PoCo CoCo is a good addition 
to the Color Computer family. We 
believe it will interest thousands and 
thousands of people in computing — 
and at a price more attractive than 
CoCo itself. Once these people get their 
feet wet in computing, the natural "up- 
grade" will be to CoCo (or "Super 
CoCo"). 

In comparing PoCo CoCo to the 
other computers in its price range, it 
definitely comes out far ahead. While 
Motorola's 6803 is not quite as spiffy as 
6809, it is a fine step up from what other 
low end computers are using. Too, the 
command set is excellent and the variety 
of applications seems to be good. And, 
wedo hear a memory upgrade will beon 
its way soon. 



164 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Spectrum Projects 

Your TDP100 Dealer 

Trims Down Prices! 



64KTDP100 : : Line Printer I 
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LAST CHANCE AT THESE LOW PRICES 




DAT AM AIL Flexible, Needs 
Slight U.S. Modification 



Oh #$0#%$0l What did I do with that address? Fret no 
more. Your answer lies in CoCo. That is, of course, if you 
have DATA MAIL. 

Upon getting DA TAMAILto review, I quickly leafed through 
the short documentation and CLOADed the tape. When 
CoCo gave methe proverbial OK I simply entered RUN and 
was greeted with a complete menu which clearly depicted 
what this program would do for me. A very nice touch. 

DA TA MA IL allows you to save complete addresses, eas- 
ily edit them as required, and print them using any of three 
selectable formats. Name, address, and phone numbers are 
stored. You can find addresses automatically by typing in a 
name or semi-automatically using an up/ down scan feature. 

To use DATA MAIL you need the renowned CoCo 16K 
Extended, a cassette to save your addresses, and a printer is 
not necessary (you can use the screen listing) but awfully 
handy. 

DA TA MAIL is flexible. You can print part of the list, all 
of the list, a certain address, customize in which you can 
select which part of an address you want printed, and it has a 
label feature so you can print labels. For the latter, my better 
"half has great plans. I imagine CoCo will be completely 
exhausted as we mail out our Christmas cards. 

A little more about flexibility. DA TAMA IL is written in 
BASIC which makes it easy to modify. If you have read my 
previous reviews you already know I am verybigon custom- 



izing any programs I buy and if they are in BASIC, it's that 
much easier. 

DA T AM AIL is fast enough to work on my printer and 
should suit anybody's full speed ahead requests. The only 
disadvantage I found was we hackers have to key in the 
addresses (but, we only have to do it once). Come on, you 
elusive voice recognition software people, get to work. Our 
tired digits need you! 

One of the two changes I could suggest for DA TAMA IL 
is a different program for people who live in the United 
States. They do, in their documentation, tell you how to 
change the program and it is a very small change. You see, 
DATAMAIL comes from a Canadian company and Can- 
ada does not have states or zip codes. They have provinces 
and postal codes. These two changes are easily made and 
saved in your customized version of the program. The 
second change would be an option to print multiple copies 
of one address for labels. I make my own return address 
labels and printing them one at a time is a waste of time and 
energy. 

The bottom line must always be — should you buy it? Let 
us try a short program to give us the answer (be forewarned, 
you may get a syntax error). 

10 IF you would like to maintain a mailing list AND 
need the flexibility DATAMAIL allows THEN 
GOSUB to the parenthetical data and let 
PRICE=$14.95 ELSE GOTO 40. 
20 IF you can afford PRICE then GOTO 30 ELSE 
GOTO 40. 

30 GOTO the advertisement and order DATAMAIL. 
40 END: REM Whatever your decision I leave it 
exclusively in your hands. 

(THE DATAMAN, Box 431, Sta. B, Hamilton, Ontario, 
Canada L8L 7W2, $14.95) 

—Herbert B. Ridge 




All CDlDr So 



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This simple kit comes with the parts to modify 2 Joysticks* and clearly 
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166 



the RAINBOW July 1983 




Fraction Math Quiz 
Has Multiple Defects 

Computer owners who are actively involved in education, 
whether as teachers or parents, seek software which will 
enhance and extend classroom activities. All too often the 
"educational programs"are meredrills, which do not utilize 
the computer's capabilities. 

Fraction Math Quiz is another drill program. It presents a 
menu of choices for seven fraction operations, including 
fractions to decimals, at five levels of difficulty for each 
operation. The answers are given in multiple choice format, 
(which is the best feature of the program) for many students 
are able to work problems exactly, yet fail to see that some- 
thing like 13/16 is approximately 3/4. This program pro- 
vides plenty of practice in "smart guessing," partially 
intended by the author, but also because the levels of diffi- 
culty are not properly thought out. For example, in doing 
addition, Level 1 consists of problems which share a com- 
mon denominator, yet Level 11, where the denominators 
should be in the range of 2 to 6, presents problems of the type 
4/9 + 11/14. Because the program is written in BASIC it 
would be easy to change so that the difficulty levels corres- 
pond to actual classroom practice. 

The menu contains an eighth choice, "Play Starship 
Commander." That sounds enticing, doesn't it? Who, on 
loading in the program, would make any other choice? 
Unfortunately, when this option is selected, a message 
appears saying you are in the galaxy and must return to your 
home planet withouttheaid of your computer, and will have 
to calculate the course yourself. You are then returned to the 



original menu. So sure was 1 that the author had inadvert- 
ently omitted the game that 1 called to check. I am sorry to 
say that this message and the return to the menu for the 
review constitutes the intended diversion. It is against all 
principles of education to raise someone's hopes for a 
reward, and then not deliver. This leads me to believe that 
the program was not child tested before release. My testers 
(ages 9 to adult) suggest that the whole drill be made into a 
starship game. The present scoreboard which shows the 
number right on the first try could be retained. 

Unfortunately, the program as it stands is only a drill. No 
child of my acquaintance has the motivation, persistence, 
and patience to sit at the computer and perform such drills 
when the only reward is a simpie "Right on, Alfred" for a 
correct response. In our house, the children were willing to 
go through the program only because they knew they were 
participating in a review, and could make suggestions for 
improvement. 

Should you need a drill program for your child, and find 
the multiple choice format desirable, you should provide the 
motivation and reward which the program lacks. You could 
merge a game into it, as the program occupies less than 8K, 
and this game could be played after a certain number of 
correct responses and then return from the gametothedrill. 

For a high school student or adult who is already highly 
motivated to improve basic fraction skills, and for whomthe 
improvement would be sufficient reward, the advanced lev- 
els are a real challenge and definitely improve the ability to 
approximate answers. 

(Creative Technical Consultants, P.O. Box 652, Cedar 
Crest, NM 87008, $14.95 including s/h) 

— Carol Kueppers 



ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE ? 

Tired of typing in those long, but wonderful, programs from each issue of the RAINBOW? Now, you can get RAINBOW ON TAPE and give 
those tired fingers a rest. With RAINBOW ON TAPE, you'll be able to spend your time enjoying programs instead of just typing... typing ...typing 
them! All you need to do ever again is pop a RAINBOW ON TAPE cassette into your recorder, CLOAD and RUN any one you want. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE is available as a single issue for $6.50 or on a yearly subscription basis for only $60. It is the perfect complement for the 
RAINBOW itself. 

VISA, MasterCard and American Express accepted. All subscriptions begin with the current issue and back issues are available 
beginning with April, 1982. Subscriptions are sent first class mail to coincide with the arrival of your current issue of the RAINBOW. 

Now . . . 

The Best Color Computer Magazine 
Offers The Best Tape Service 

Think of it! Not 10 or a dozen— but between 20 and 30— programs every month from 
Rainbow On Tape. All the really good programs from the Rainbow! All the long ones ... so 
you don't have to type them in. Just CLOAD and RUN! 

ORDER RAINBOW ON TAPE TODAY! 

HANDY ORDER CARD BETWEEN PAGES 34 and 35 



July 1983 theRAINBOW 167 





By Don Inman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



A 1 



point located on a circle can be referenced in terms 
of Cartesian coordinates (X,Y) or by Polar coordinates 
R, ANG). Since most microcomputersscreen displays 



radius 



angle 



are described in Cartesian coordinates (even though the Y 
axis is upside-down from the normal notation), a few 
conversions are necessary whenyou wish to use Polar coordi- 
nates. 

ANGR = ANGD/57. 295779 

in radians in degrees 

X = R*COS(ANGR) 
Y = R*SIN(ANGR) 

For those who are rusty in mathematics, a radian measure 
is the ratio of the arc that the angle subtends to the radius of 
the circle in which it is the central angle. 



arc 
radius 



or 



a 
R 




If the arc length (a) equals the 
radius (R), the angle measure is one 
radian. 

I radian is approximately equal to 
57.295779 degrees 

2n radians = 3t>0 degrees 



If you know the radius of a circle and a given central 
angle, the X and Y Cartesian coordinate locations of a point 
(P), relative to the circle's center, can be calculated with the 
conversion formulas given above. 



P(\,Y)ot P(R.ANG) 




The Color Computer has a wonderful BASIC statement, 
CIRCLE, that takes all the work out of plotting a circle. The 
C/^CLi: statement can even be modified for height to width 
ratio (a circle's eccentricity) to produce an ellipse. In this 
article, we will analyze the circle in order to find out how we 
can produce more complex curves. 

A circle can be thought of as a series of connected straight 
lines of the same length. At each end of the straight lines is a 
point. These points are determined by the radius of the circle 
and the size of the angle used to divide the circle (the central 
angle). For example, look at a circle with radius R and ANG 
= 30 degrees. 




A simple FOR-N EXT loop can be used to calculate the 
X,Y coordinates for the end points. 

FOR ANG = 0 TO 360 STEP INC 

X = R*COS(ANG) : Y = R*SIN(ANG) 
NEXT ANG 

Of course, the X and Y values must be adjusted for the 
distance of the circle's center from the origin of the axes on 
which they are plotted. The Y value must be corrected for 
the computer's Y orientation. 









P(X,Y) 


u 




4 


^Nang 


> 








Y 


(0,0) 


ix 
! Y 


= R*COS(ANG)+XCEN 1 
= 180 - (R*COS(ANG)+YCEN) 






XCEN 


-^z *~ 



168 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



Our program will be general enough to provide for plot- 
ting arcs (sections of circles) as well as complete circles. The 
parameters used in the program are: 

XCEN — X coord inate of the circle's center 

YCEN = Y coordinate of the circle's center 

R = radius of the circle 

SAN = starting angle (in degrees) 

EAN = ending angle (in degrees) 

INC = angle increment (in degrees) 
The main program accepts the inputs, defines the parame- 
ters, sets up the graphics screen, calls the plotting subrou- 
tine, and provides INKEYS statements for terminating the 
graphics screen when desired. 



Here are screen dumps made from several runs of the 
CIRCLE program. 



RESULTS 



The listing: 



ii 



100 REM »* CIRCLES AND ARCS ** 

110 ' 

120 REM ** INPUTS #* 

130 CLS 

140 INPUT "STARTING ANGLE (DEG) 

;san 

150 INPUT "ENDING ANGLE <DEG)";E 
AN 
160 
170 
180 
190 ' 

199 REM ## SET GRAPHICS ## 

200 ! 4, 1 
210 ! 1 

! 1,0 
! 0, 1 



I 



INPUT 
INPUT 
INPUT 



" I NCREMENT (DEG) " j INC 
"RADIUS" ;R 

"CENTER X , Y " ; X CEN , YCEN 



REM ## CONVERT AND GO PLOT * 



230 
240 
299 
* 

300 PL-INC/57. 295779 
310 EAN=EAN- I NC 
320 ! (0, 180) -(250, 180) , ! 
330 ! (0, 180) -(0,0) , ! 
340 GOSUB 2000 

399 REM »* HOLD IMAGE ** 

400 A»-"" 

410 A*»INKEY*: IF A*="" THEN 410 

ELSE 130 
420 END 
430 ' 

1990 REM ** CALCULATE AND PLOT * 
* 

2000 FOR N-SAN TO EAN STEP INC 

2010 ANG=N/57. 295779 

2020 X=R»! (ANG)+XCEN 

2030 Y=180-(R*SIN(ANG)+YCEN)*.B 

2040 XX=R»! (ANG+PL) +XCEN 

2050 YY= 1 80- ( R»S I N ( ANG+PL ) +YCEN ) 

*.8 

2060 ! (X, Y)— (XX, YY) , ! 
2070 NEXT N 
2080 RETURN 



INPUTS 



SAN = 0 
EAN = 360 
INC = 60 
R =30 
X,Y = 128,96 



SAN =0 
EAN = 360 
INC = 30 
R =30 
X,Y = 64,45 



SAN = 0 
EAN = 270 
INC = 15 
R = 40 

X,Y = 192,135 



SAN =90 
EAN = 180 
INC = 15 
R = 40 
X,Y = 64,135 



July 1963 the RAINBOW 169 



f UTILITIES AND GAMES 

f FOR THE 

COLOR COMPUTER 

' BACKUP $9.95 

Speed up disk backups, helps to recover 
crashed disks. Bypass I/O errors and fix 
many disk problems. 

CATALOG $9.95 

An automatic disk file cataloging system. 
File the directories of your disks. 

COPYTAPE $9.95 

Copy, merge, and backup your tape based 
software. Works even with most popular 
pre-loader tapes. 

CZAP $9.95 

A disk inspect and modify routine. Learn 
how disks work, fix problems on your 
disks. 

CCRPM $12.95 

A disk drive speed checking routine. 
Displays on your screen the current, 
average, high, and low speeds of your 
drive. Complete with instructions for 
correcting the speed of your disk drive. 
NEATDIR $6.95 

I Places the file names of your disk 
directory into alphabetical order. Makes 
finding programs on your disks easy. 
Keeps, your disks in order. 
OFFLOAD $9.95 

I Create tape backups of your disks. A disk 
to tape, tape to disk backup system. 

ONERR $12.95 

An error handler for BASIC programs. 
Allows your program to receive control 
whenever any error occurs. Take control 
and fix your problems. 

TAPEDIR $9.95 

Create a directory of your tapes. Lists 
program name, length of program, start, 
end, and transfer addresses for all 
programs on your tapes. 

TAPELIB $12.95 

A BASIC tape subroutine append routine 
and a starter library of 5 subroutines. 
Create your own subroutine library on 
tape to append to your programs. 

1 TAPEXFER $9.95 

Load your tape programs to disk auto- 
matically. Great for Chromassette sub- 
scribers, automatically loads an entire 
issue to disk. 

TREK80C $14.95 

The classic Star Trek computer game. A 
real time game with moving Klingons and 
action graphics. 

Please add $1.00 shipping and handling 
on all orders. Pa. residents add 6% sales 
tax. Canada orders must be paid in 
American funds. No COD or charge cards, 
send check or money order only to: 
A.M. HEARN SOFTWARE 
602 S. 48th Street 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19143 
Write for a free catalog of these and other 
products. 
. Dealer inquiries invited. 

170 the RAINBOW July 1983 



When I made the screen dumps to my printer, the draw- 
ings were stretched in the X direction. The program includes 
a factor of 0.8 to correct for the way the screen stretches 
things in the Y direction. Therefore, I have found it conve- 
nient to include stretch factors as inputs for both X and Y. 
Then 1 can control whether I want a good appearance on the 
screen or on the screen dump. The variables XST and YST 
are used. For a normal appearance on the video screen, 1 use 
XST = 1, YST = 0.8. For a good appearance from the 
printer, I use XST = 0.8, YST = 1 . 

The inputs are added to the input section of the CIRCLE 
program. 

183 INPUT "Y-STRETCH"; XST 
186 INPUT "Y-STRETCH"; YST 
Lines 2020 through 2050 are changed to: 
2020 X=(R*COS(ANG)+XCEN)*XST 
2030 Y=180-(R*SIN(ANG)+YCEN)*YST 
2040 XX=(R*COS(ANG+PL)+XCEN)*XST 
2050 YY=180-(R*SIN(ANG+PL)+YCEN)*YST 
These optional inputs allow you to stretch the circle in 
both directions so that it is quite easy to draw an ellipse of 
your choice. 



Typical Screen Dumps 

INPUTS for all three dumps: 

SAN = 0 

EAN = 360 
/ \ INC = 15 

J \ R = 40 

\ \ X,Y = 128,96 



XST= .8 
YST = I 



XST = 1 
YST = .5 



XST = .5 
YST = 1 



REALISTIC ACTION FEATURING--- Bank Shots, Combinations, Engish on 
the Cue Ball.can be played by 1 or 2 players. Ask your friend to chalk up, 

the action is fast. Now at your Software Dealer, if not have them call 

ANTECO 4220 Clay Ave. ANTECO 
Fort Worth, Texas 76117 division of 

1 - 80 0 - 433 - 7631 Antenna Electronics Co. 



, The program WIDGET shows an application of the sub- 
routine used in the CIRCLE prograrrt. Suppose you want to 
generate a computer drawing of a widget which will eventu- 



ally be machined* stamped, or produced in some other way. 
You can use the subroutine in CIRCLE but re-write the 
main program. Our widget will look like this. 



i 

Y 



120 
110 
100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 
0 



CIRCLE 4 



CIRCLE 1 



CIRCLE 2 







CIRCLE 3 





0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 

x 



You can see that there are four circles and five arcs to 
\ draw. WIDGET draws the arcs first, then the circles, and 
finally the straight lines. Try WIDGET. Then change the 
main program to draw the design of your choice. 
WIDGET is divided into four modules: 

1 ) The SCREEN module clears the text screen. It then sets 
up PMODE4 with a green background and black fore- 
ground. It also draws the X,Y axes: 

2) The DRA Wmodule uses a FOR-NEXT\oop to read in 
. the data necessary to draw the arcs and circles. It calls the 

CALCULATE AND PLOT subroutine to do the drawing. 
After all arcs and circles have been drawn, the straight line 
portions of the drawing are made. The DATA is then res- 
tored, and IN KEYS waits for a re-run if desired. 
. 3) The DA TA module contains the starting angle (SAN), 
ending angle (E AN), angle increment (INC), radius (R), and 
the X,Y coordinates of the center of the circle (XCEN and 
YCEN). 



4) The CALCULATE AND PLOT module is the same 
subroutine used in the first CIRCLE program. 

The listing: 

100 REM ** CIRCLES AND ARCS ** 
110 ' 

120 REM ** INPUTS ** 

130 CLS 

140 INPUT "STARTING ANGLE (DEG) " 
J SAN 

150 INPUT "ENDING ANGLE (DEG) 11 ; E 
AN 

160 INPUT "INCREMENT (DEG) " ; INC 

170 INPUT "RADIUS" ;R 

180 INPUT "CENTER X, Y" ; XCEN, YCEN 



AUDIO AND VIDEO 
INTERFACE 

Provides SWITCHED color or monochrome 75ohm, 1 volt p-p video from CoCo. 
If you wish to use a high resolution monitor this interface is a must. 
Separate enhancements are provided for color and monchrome outputs. 

This is not a simple emitter-follower add-on. 

'UNIT DOES NOT REQUIRE SOLDERING 
'INTERFACE IS ASSEMBLED AND TESTED 
*400mw AUDIO @ 8 ohms 
TWO YEAR WARRANTY 

Price $49.95 (Includes Shipping) FREELAND ENG. 7503 N. Kerby, Portland, OR 97217 



172 theRAINBOW July 1983 




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183 INPUT 11 X— STRETCH" ? XST 
186 INPUT "Y-STRETCH"; YST 
190 * 

199 REM ** SET GRAPHICS ** 

200 PMODE 4, 1 
210 PCLS1 

220 SCREEN 1,0 
230 COLOR 0, 1 
240 * 

299 REM ** CONVERT AND GO PLOT * 
*■ 

300 PL=INC/57. 295779 
303 XCEN=XCEN/XST 
306 YCEN=YCEN/YST 
310 EAN=EAN-INC 

320 LINE(0, 180)-(250, 180) , PSET 
330 LINE (0, 180) -(0,0) , PSET 
340 GOSUB 2000 

399 REM -** HOLD IMAGE ** 

400 A*=" " 

410 A*=INKEY*I IF A*=" 11 THEN 410 

ELSE 130 
420 END 
430 * 

1990 REM ** CALCULATE AND PLOT * 
*■ 

2000 FOR N=SAN TO EAN STEP INC 

2010 ANG=N/57. 295779 

2020 X= ( R*COS ( ANG ) +XCEN ) *XST 

2030 Y=180-<R*SIN<ANG) +YCEN) *YST 

2040 XX=<R*COS<ANG+PL)+XCEN)*XST 

2050 YY= 1 80- ( R-k-S I N ( ANG+PL ) + YCEN ) 

*YST 

2060 LINE (X, Y) -(XX, YY) , PSET 
2070 NEXT N 
2080 RETURN 

SCREEN DUMP OF WIDGET 

I 

i 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
t 

i r ^ \ 

I I V v 



I 

'l 

1 



100 REM ** WIDGET 
110 ' 

120 REM SCREEN 

130 CLS: PMODE 4,1: PCLS 1 

140 SCREEN 1,0: COLOR 0,1 

150 LINE(0, 180)-<250, 180) , PSET 

160 LINE (0, 180) -(0,0) , PSET 



170 > 

180 REM ** DRAW 

190 FOR ARC = 1 TO 9 

200 READ SAN, EAN, INC, R, XCEN, YCEN 

210 PL = INC/57.295779 

220 EAN = EAN- INC 

230 GOSUB 2000 

240 NEXT ARC 

250 DRAW 1 ' BM10, 1 48U32BU24BR30R 160 
it 

260 DRAW"BD32L50BL60BD48L50" 
270 A*= ,,n : RESTORE 

280 A*=INKEY$: IF A*= M " THEN 270 
ELSE 130 

290 END 

291 ' 

299 REM ** DATA ** 

300 DATA 90,180,15,30,40,80,180, 
270, 15,30,40,40 

310 DATA 270,360,15,30,90,40,180 
,90,-15,30, 150,40 

320 DATA 270,450,15,20,200,90,0, 
360, 15, 10,40,80 

330 DATA 0,360,15,10,90,80,0,360 
, 15, 10,65,40 

340 DATA 0,360,15,10,200,90 

1990 REM ** CALCULATE AND PLOT * 

*■ 

2000 FOR N=SAN TO EAN STEP INC 

2010 ANG=N/57- 295779 

2020 X=R*COS<ANG)+XCEN 

2030 Y=180-<R*SIN<ANG)+YCEN)*.8 

2040 XX=R*COS<ANG+PL) +XCEN 

2050 YY=180-(R*SIN<ANG+PL)+YCEN) 

*. 8 

2060 L I NE ( X , Y ) - ( X X , Y Y ) , PSET 
2070 NEXT N 
2080 RETURN 

. ^ 



Hint . . . 

Finding ML Addresses 

You can find the addresses of a machine language 
program in memory by PEEKing several addresses. Those 
addresses are: 

To find the start address, use the command PEEK 
(487)*256 + PEEK(488) 

To find the end address, use the command 
PEEK(I26)*256 + PEEK(!27)-I 

To find the execute address, use PEEK(J57) * 256 + 
PEEK(I58) 

With all these commands, you must ask CoCo to PRINT 
the addresses as well as work out the formula. A simple way 
to do this is add a question mark (?) before each of the 
commands. 

These commands can be used either in a program or in 
direct mode from the keyboard. 



174 the RAINBOW July 1983 



E DO BASIC BETTER^ 



Experience High Resolution Graphics 
and Speed Unsurpassed in Color 
Computer Extended Basic Software 



GALLOPING 
GAMBLERS 

Those who have tried it agree that QALLOPtNQ 
GAMBLERS le ao addictive, ao exciting, that you and 
your whole family will sit cheering for your horse to 
win. 

No joysticks are required for this 4 player game. Place 
your bets on the variable odds end then wait for the 
sound of post llme...and...they're off. 
Game Includes color graphics with score and birds- 
eye view of the race track. Can you last all twelve 
races? 

We dare you to try, 

$18.95 

GATOR ZONE- 

Is the first video computer game that takes a "byte" 
out of the Preppy crazsl You can finally get even with 
those pesty Ivy League snobs by blasting away at a 
host of Preppy Gators on their home planet of "Prep- 
tune". You have to be quick, or the gators will gob- 
ble up your shirts! This Is comic arcade fun at Its beat. 
Includes high-resolution graphica, on-screen scoring, 
joystick action, and three levels of play. 
An 1MB original! 

$18.95 

STAR SIEGE PLUS- 

Olacusted with Space Battle games In which your 
space craft looks tlka an asterisk? 
STAR S1EQE lets you end your friend (or enemy) pilot 
two high resolution space ships whlls trading iaaer 
blasts. The first to take ten hits loses, but watch out 
for that pesty alien saucerl He wants to see to It that 
you both get vaporized. 

Also Includes two player TANK TORCH ER game. 

$18.95 
METEOR STORM- 

if you are bored with apace obstacle games that place 
you as a distant observer from a point far off In space, 
then METEOR STORM Is for you. Enjoy the thrill of 
blasting the approaching meteors from the cockpit 
of your own spacecraft. Watch ths meteors grow In 
size until. . . I 

18K Color Extended Required. Includes sound 
enhanced laser blasts, multl game scoring, and three 
levels of play. 



$12.95 



SELECT-A-GAME- 

combines 3 of IMB's finest bonus games In one sim- 
ple loadl You can awltch back and forth from "ALPINE 
ALIENS", "OH, GOBI", and "ZELDA'S BAT BOTTLE". 
All contain stunning color graphics and high speed 
action. Even If you already own one or more of these 
games, you will want this fine package. 

$18.95 

MICRO-MATH 
SKILLS QUIZ- 

Is a fine math drill for studente at or below the 3rd 
grademath level. Includes automatic grade tally, and 
INKEYentry with large print, high-resolution graphics. 
This Is s must for educators! 

$12.95 

CREATAVADER- 

Now you can design your own "Invader-style" game 
for your Color Computer. Includes all the routlnee 
needed for customizing the creatures you hate the 
most. Full Instructions Included. Create your own 
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TURN OF THE SCREW 



Build AT Adapter 
For Your Disk Controller 

By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



A lot of people have been asking me to explain how 
to expand their computer without havingto spend a 
lot of money on expansion interfaces, power sup- 
plies, and the like. Well, here goes. This is the first ofa series 
of expansion projects for the Color Computer. The empha- 
sis on these projects will be low cost. They will be geared 
toward the experimentalist or the "hacker. "They will satisfy 
the person who is tired of playing games and wants to 
expand his or her knowledge about hardware by experi- 
menting. All of these projects will be done via the Program 
Pak connector. A problem arises in trying to experiment 
when you have disk drive. Those of you that have disk 
drives really don't like to constantly remove the controller 
and plug in some experimental board and then replace the 
controller. And when it comes to using software, having first 
to save the program on cassette(yuk), unplug the controller, 
try the software out on the project and then replace the 
controller is not a very interesting proposition. 




Here is the "Y-er" in use with next months project. 



POOR MAN'S 
FLOPPY 



176 



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5:00 600 PM MST W W ^ 0 f> e ^ 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



Did you ever try to plug two pair of headphones into one 
headphone jack? You can't. What you have to do is, go to 
your nearest Radio Shack store and buy a "Y" adapter for 
your headphones. That is what you are going to do; go to 
your nearest Radio Shack store and get a "Y" adapter for 
your disk controller. Well, not quite! You see they don't 
make a "Y" adapter for a disk controller. What a shame! I 
guess you'll have to make one. This brings me to the first 
project for the Color Computer. I call it "The Color Compu- 
ter Y-er," or is that "wire?" In any case, it will solve the 
problem of having access to the bus with the disk controller 
plugged in. Putting this together is not that hard, and not 
expensive, but you have to remember that this just gives you 
acess to the bus, it is not a buffered expansion interface. You 
cannot plug in a ROM Pak and expect it to work. To do that 
will require some circuitry. That may come later. 

The Y-er requires four parts: one project board, Radio 
Shack No. 276-163; two 40-pin Card Edge Connectors, 
Radio Shack No. 276- 1 558, and a J 2" piece of 40-wide flat 
ribbon cable. You can use Radio Shack No. 276-1 542. This, 
however, has a connector on one end. You don't need it and 
have to cut it off. 

If you can get ribbon wire from another source (like I did), 
do so; why pay more for a connector when you don't have 
to? As for tools, all you need is the regular set of tools for 
electronic projects. The only other tool you will need is a 
four inch vice. You need that to crimp the connector to the 

(Tony DiStefano is well known as an early specialist in 
Color Computer hardware projects. He is one of the 
acknowledged experts on the "insides" of CoCo.) 



ribbon cable. And that's it — one hour later, you'll have your 
very own Y-er. 

Okay, let's start. Take the project board and cut it in half, 
at about the "20"mark. You will need the half with the lower 
numbers. The other half may be used in a later project, but 
fornow, put it aside. With a sharp knife, separate oneend of 
the ribbon wire into individual wires about one inch long. 
Strip about 3/ 16 inch of insulation off of each wire. Tin each 
wire with solder. This is where the tricky part starts. This has 
to be done just right. Hold up the ribbon wire by the stripped 
end and let the rest of the wire hang down. Starting from the 
right hand side, bend the ends of the wire alternately for- 
ward and backward. The first one on the right side goes 
away from you. This divides the ribbon into two sections. 
Counting from right to left, the odd numbers are away from 
you and the even numbers areclose to you. Thetop section 
and the bottom section. The top section will solder to the top 
(component side) of the project board and the bottom will 
solder to the bottom (copper side). You do this by soldering 
the bottom side first. The first wire on the rightgoes into the 
hole just below the first finger on the right. That means that 
it will solder to the copper side. The second wire goes on the 
first finger on the component side directly above the first 
wire. Then the third wire goes under the second finger to the 
finger on the copper side. The forth wire goes on top of the 
second finger and so forth until all of the wires are done. The 
last wire on the left goes on the top (component) side of the 
last finger. From now on this is known as the top side. The 
first finger on the right side is pin # 1 , the pin directly under- 
neath is pin #2, the last finger on the top side is pin #39 and 
the pin under that is pin #40. 

Now, it's time to put the connectors on. Slip one connec- 
tor into the other end of the ribbon wire. The connector 
should be pointing upwards, in the same direction as the top 
of the project board. Place the connector about two inches 
away from the edge of the project board. Examine the 
connector and wire carefully and make sure that all the wires 
line up with the teeth of the connector. You might have to 
stretch and tug the wire into place. Gently pinch the connec- 
tor together between two fingers. The teeth should start to 
press against the wire. Again check that all the teeth align 
with the wires. When they do, sandwich the connector in 
between two small pieces of wood. Put the wood and the 
connector into a vise. Turn the vise until the connector is 
completely closed. Examine the connector to be sure that it 
is properly closed. If not, then give it another shot on the 
vise. It is important that the connector be fully closed. Now, 
slip in the second connector. It should stay close to the end 
of the wire. Crimp it like you did the first. If you think that 
you cannot properly crimp the connector, local electronics 
shop personnel might be able to help you. 



Figure 1 



Y-ER 
PIN PIN 




PIN 
#40 



1 < 



CONTROLLER 



EXTRA 



Your "Y-er" should now look like the one in Figure I. 
Before you go plugging this thing in, you should run a few 
tests. The first test is to determine if all the wires have 
continuity. This is where the other half of the project board 
comes in. Plug the board into one of the connectors. With an 
OHM meter, check that all the wires show continuity 
between the two ends. Make sure that theyall line up! Pin#l 
on one should be pin #J on the other. That is important: 
reversed wires can cause a disaster. Next check the conti- 
nuity of the other connector. If all is well there is one more 
thing to check before you can use the "Y-er." You must 
check for shorts between the pins. Put one lead of the OHM 
meter on pin #1. Place the other lead on each of the sur- 
rounding pins one at a time. All of the readings should show 
high. There should not be any resistance between any pins. 
After all this checks out, remove the flux left behind when 
you soldered the wires to the project board. This can be done 
with flux cleaner. If you don't have any, an old toothbrush 
and lighter fluid will work. You might have to getdown to a 
little bit of scrubbing. If you bought the Radio Shack con- 
nectors you will have to do a little trimming in order for the 
disk controller to fit in correctly. A small knife will do the 
trick. Cut deep enough that the controller fits in all the way. 

After you feel sure beyond the shadow of a doubt that 
there are no shorts and no opens it's time to try it out. With 
the power off, plug the "Y-er" into the Color Computer's 
cartridge slot. Make sure it is in tight. Turn the computer on. 
If all is well, then turn it off again and plug the controller 
into the first connector. Turn it on and there you are, you 
have access to the bus with the controller plugged in. Right 
now you don't have anything to try it out with, but next 
month my project is a parallel printer port. For now try 
plugging the controller into the other connector to make 
sure that it works. 



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July 1983 the RAINBOW 177 




Ready For Combat? 
Draw Your Crossbows! 




By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Welcome to the Dragon's Byte! In past columns we 
have talked about creating characters and mon- 
sters for fantasy games. We have also spent some 
time on record keeping systems for keeping track of the 
progress of a character. 

For those of you who are not familiar with fantasy role 
playing games, the play consists of creating an imaginary 
character and then pretending to be that character while 
exploring old dungeons, fighting with monsters, or traveling 
to distant lands where strange and wonderful things can be 
found. You could compare it to writing a play by giving each 
actora characterto work with and letting them make up the 
dialog as they went along. 

Needless to say, a game of this kind can be very complex. 
One of these games has five hard cover books of rules to 
explain the play, and the rules still fall short of fully explain- 
ing every possiblesituation. To handle this kind of problem, 
and also to have someone available to act out the parts of all 
the bad guys and monsters, a special game position was 
created. 

This special person is called the dungeon master, referee, 
or game master, and they keep track of where everyone is, 
how they are doing, and myriad other facts and figures. 
Several of our previous articles have been addressed to the 
need to computerize all that data. 

This time I want to begin discussing combat. In a fantasy 
game combat comes up like this: 

PLAYER ONE:- "I open up the door and go into the 

room." 



(Bill Nolan is co-owner of Prickly- Pear Software, and 
teaches Programming in BASIC at Pima College in 
Tucson, Arizona.) 



REFEREE: "O.K., there is a huge cavern on the other 

side, and you see a large red dragon!" 
PLAYER ONE: "I draw my sword Tiredrake slayer' and 

move to the attack." 
PLAYER TWO: "While Elrond runs toattack, I fire off a 

bolt from my crossbow at the dragon! 
Did I hit him?" 

Ah, there is the problem! "Did I hit him?" That seems like 
an easy enough question, but consider the possibilities. 
First, was a shot actually fired at all? Maybe the dragon was 
lying in wait and knew the players were coming. Maybe our 
players were so surprised they dropped iheir sword or bow 
on the floor in excitement. After all, you don't open a door 
and find a dragon everyday. Then again, maybe the dragon 
was faster than the intrepid fighters. Maybe the dragon let 
off a gout of flaming breath as the players were getting out 
their weapons and cooked them on the spot. Fighting drag- 
ons is dangerous work, you know! 

And even if the shot was fired, it may have missed the 
dragon altogether, or it may have bounced off the armored 
scales. Who can tell? Who will decide? If we let the referee 
decide, then we have no game at all. We may as well just have 
the dungeon master tell us how everything will come out 
right at the start, and then we won't need to play! Think of 
the time we can save! 

To get around this difficulty, the fantasy games have 
developed combat systems. These systems attempt to take 
into account as many of the factors in a combat as possible, 
and they all use dice rolls to settle the outcome. Most of 
these systems are very complex and consume a lot of time. A 
combat that would take five minutes in real time may take 45 
minutes of time in a game. 

Let's go through the above dialogue again, and 



178 the RAINBOW July 1983 



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you'll see what I mean. 

PLAYER ONE: "1 open up the door and go into the 

room." 

Did the door actually open? Maybe it was locked or stuck. 
We roll a die to find out. If it was locked or stuck, additional 
dice will have to be rolled to see if it was successfully picked 
or kicked open. Only after all this has been done can we 
safely assume that the party enters the room. 
REFEREE: "O.K., there is a huge cavern on the other 

side, and you see a large red dragon!" 

That's nice. But, dragons have a reputation for sleeping a 
lot, so we have to roll a die to see if this particular dragon 
was awake or asleep. Let's assume this one was awake. Was 
it startled or surprised? Were any of the party members 
surprised? We have to roll a die for each character and 
monster involved! 

PLAYER ONE: "I draw my sword Tiredrake slayer' and 

move to the attack." 
PLAYER TWO: "While Elrond runs to attack, 1 fire of fa 

bolt from my crossbow at the dragon." 

Before any of this can be decided, we have to find out 
which side gets the first attack. In most games this is called 
"initiative." Each side will have to roll a die to determine 
this. Let us pretend that the dragon wins the initiative and 
gets to attack first. The dragon can either breathe on the 
fighters or it can attack with claws and teeth. Which will it 
choose? You guessed it, roll another die! Whichever choice 
the dragon makes, its attack may not succeed. The dragon 
could miss, or the players'armor may protect them, so more 
dice must be rolled. If the attack does succeed, dice must be 
rolled to find out how much damage was done. 

If any players survive theattack of thedragon, then weget 

to: 

PLAYER TWO: "Did 1 hit him?" 

Gee, my dice are getting a little worn on the corners, and 
we are still only getting started! To make matters worse, 
after we roll a die, we have to look up the number we rolled 
on a large table to find out the result. This result can then be 
modified by the armor worn by the attackee, the strength of 
the attacker, what kind of weapon was used, and any magi- 
cal spells in effect. (There may be several.) 

You have to be dedicated to play these games. So far, 
about five million people have gotten dedicated! 

Naturally, since I collect computers, I have been thinking 
of how to design a computer combat system to take the 
drudgery out of all this fighting. A big advantage of a 
computer is that you aren't limited to dice of 6 or 10 or 20 
sides. You can have any number of sides you want, and that 
gives you much more flexibility in designing your combat 
system. 

First, however, a word about the random number com- 
mand on the Color Computer. RND(n) will return a number 
from 1 to the number "n." If "n" is 1 or 0, the number 
returned will be a decimal number larger than 0 but smaller 
than 1 , like . 12345678. If the number "n" is a minus number, 
it will reseed the random number generator with a different 
seed for each minus number. 

Hold on a minute! What was that last? Well, the random 
number generator is what the computer uses to calculate its 
random numbers. For example, do a cold start. (That means 
turn your computer off, wait 15 seconds like the manual 
says, and turn it back on.) Now type: 

10 FOR X=l to 10:PRINT RND( 100):NEXT X 

When you have this line typed into thecomputer and have 
entered it, type RUN and press ENTER. If you made no 
mistakes, a row of 10 numbers from I to 100 will appear 



180 



the RAINBOW July 1983 




FOR THE 

COLOR 




COMPUTER/, 
TDP1 00 



\ 



COLOR CATERPILLAR by the Rugby Circle. Inc. ®1983 

An ecological system out of control; the last survivors ban together in 
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TAKE CONTROL OF BASIC PROGRAMMING ON YOUR TPS-COLOR OR 
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Master Control is a Machine language program designed to increase 
the speed in which it takes to write BASIC programs by providing the 
most commonly used program statements with two(2) keystrokes rather 
than having to type the entire command. The program is relocatable 
and can be placed anywhere in memory normally the top 1616 bytes 
of RAM. it will wortc on 16K and 32K systems. All of the instructions are 
compatible with the Radio Shack Disk Controller. 

OVERVIEW 

1 . 51 preprogrammed command keys of standard and Extended 
BASIC commands. 

2. Direct control of motor, trace and audio functions. 

3. Relocatable Machine code, now works with disk systems. 

4. Automatic line numbering, starting point and increment are alterable. 

5. Programmable custom key. you can select your own special function, 

6. Direct run key. run the program as you write It. 
7 Plastic keyboard overlay for easy program use. 

8. Easy entry of commands into program statements. 

9. New. complete, easy to understand Instruction manual. 
10. Repeat keyboard function on all keys. 

Requires 16K. Does not require Extended BASIC (Extended BASIC is 
required for some functions.) 

Introductory Offer - Cassette #0-79 $19.95 



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OF MASTER CONTROL - 

If you have the original MASTER CONTROL program you can update to 
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1) Remove the comer of your old foil overlay that has the words MASTER 
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We must have all the above to process your update. 



COLOR GRAPHICS EDITOR 

^1983 Soft Sector Marketing. Inc. Written by Larry Ashmun. 

AT LAST, a graphics drawing program that is USEFUL in writing programs 
that use graphics. 

This program permits the creation of graphic pictures on the screen that 
can be saved to disk in the form of DATA STATEMENTS, for DISK BASIC, or in 
the form of FDB STATEMENTS, for use with a disk based Editor/ Assembler 
(eg. MICRO WORKS MACRO 80C). It allows two type of data entry, 
testing of animation effects and many additional features. 

Written in Machine language requires Extended BASIC or RS Disk 
BASIC and a minimum of 16K of memory. Works with cassette or disk. 

. Cassette #0-211 $19.95 



OKI-PRINT ^1983 by Craig Edelheit 

DUMP SCREEN GRAPHICS FROM VOUR RADIO SHACK TTCS-80" OR TDP100* 
COLOR COMPUTER TO AN OKIDATA MICROLINE 82 A SERIAL DOT MATRIX 
PRINTER 256 x 192 HIGH RESOLUTION, 

OKI-PRINT is a BASIC language program that is designed to do high 
resolution screen dumps from a Radio Shack or TDPIOOColorComputer. 
ro an Okidata 82A printer. OKI-PRINT will dump any PMODE MP (M = 
MODE. P = PAGE). If the PMODE is 1 or 3 (which are color modes) the 
printer will attempt to shade the different colors in lighter and darker 
intensities of black in order to make them more recognizable. Requires 
16K Extended BASIC. 

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in* 

or I 



down the left side of the screen. Write those numbers down, 
in the order they appear. Now, do another cold start, type in 
the same line all overagain, and RUNihe program one more 
time. How about that? The SAME 10 numbers! This is a 
problem in a game. What fun is a game if you can predict 
what the next roll of the dice will be? The answer to that 
depends upon whether you're playing Monopoly with 
friends or craps in Vegas. 

What weare getting are PSEUDO-random numbers, and 
being able to repeat the same series of numbers is very useful 
in some statistical applications. That won't help our game, 
though. Weneed unpredictable numbers. Try theabove one 
line program again, but this time add a line 5 before you 
RUN it. Remember to do a cold start first. 
5 X=RND(-100) 

10 FOR X=l TO 10-.PRINT RND( 100):NEXT X 
This is an improvement. Now we have different numbers. 
Do it again (remember the cold start with -200. See, different 
again. That's what we mean when we say that "minus 
numbers reseed the random number generation. "The prob- 
lem here is that if you use the same minus number you 
always get the same result. Try the above again with -100 
(cold start) and you will see what I mean. 

What we need is an unpredictable minus number. The 
timer is quite unpredictable! After all, it changes 60 times a 
second, and that may well be the solution. If we change line 5 
above to be: 

5 X=RND(-TIMER) 
the resulting numbers will become unpredictable. As we 
continue with our combat system then, we will have to 
remember to insert the above line into the beginning of our 



program. 

Before wegetoff this subject, let me give you another way 
to insure unpredictable numbers. Since we get the same 
series of numbers from each seed, we can either change the 
seed, as we did above, or jump into our series at an unknown 
point. The program below does both! 
10 X=RND)-TIMER) 
20CLS0 

30 PRINT @ 202, "RANDOMIZING"; 

40 PRINT @ 293, "PRESS ANY KEY TO GO 

ON";:K$=INKEY$ 
50 IF INKEY$="" THEN X=RND(0) :GOTO 50 
60CLS:FOR X=l TO 10 
70 PRINT RND(100) 
80 END 

In line 10, a new "seed" number is chosen. Then, in line 50, 
random numbers are chosen over and over again an 
unknown number of times until you press a key to go on. I 
have found the above combination to give the best results in 
BASIC game programs. It isn't necessary to print the "ran- 
domizing" message on the screen, or even create a special 
routine for this. You can simply insert the RND statement 
into the middle of an INKEYS loop somewhere in your 
program. 

Next month we will get into writing the program to com- 
puterize a combat system. This is going to be a very complex 
program, so we'll see how much fits in one column. Mean- 
while, give some thought to ideas you would like to see 
covered in future columns and let me know what y.ou want. 
Happy Anniversary, Rainbow 1 . 





r 



♦ 



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182 the RAINBOW July 1983 




BITS fWD SITES OF 8RSIC 



16K 

ECB 


1 


RAINBOW 









Wrapping Up Our 
Communications Word Processor 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Last month, we began writing a Communications Word 
Processor program to generate, off-line, text that could be 
loaded and sent by COLORCOM / E or other terminal 
packages that support line by line transmission of a pre- 
viously loaded file. Special program features include keep- 
ing line counts and a wordwrap feature to move text from 
overlength lines to the next line. We also want an easy-to-use 
editor and need printer and cassette or disk file handling 
ability. The program is modular. That is, specific line 
numbers were predefined for the various functions we knew 
had to be included. Main Menu starts at 1000, an easy-to- 
remember line if you get an error or break the program and 
want to reenter without losingyour data. FollowingisTable 
I which lists all modules used. 



TABLE 1 



Commwp Modules And Number Block Assignments 



Lines 


Module 


Comments 


5—99 


Subroutines 


Frequently called subroutines used 






by more than one routine. 


100—199 


Enter Message 


Enter lines at bottom of message. 


200—249 


Edit 


Phrase substitution editor. 


250—299 


Insert 


Put new text between existing lines. 


300—399 


Wordwrap 


Cut over limit text and add to 






next line. 


400—500 


Delete 


Delete line and renumber those 






above. 


500—600 


Copy 


Copy line into temporary variable 






and insert at new location. 


600—700 


Printer 


Hard copy for proof or file. 


900— 1 000 


Save/ load 


Disk or cassette option. 


1000—1050 


Main Menu 


Select primary functional choices. 


1050—1100 


Configuration 


Configure limits to specific bulletin 






board requirements. 


2000—2100 


Initialization 


Read strings and enter key variables 






into table. 


10000 


Auto-save 


Run past leader and save two copies 






to tape. 


11000 


PCLEAR1 


Avoid SN error. 



(Richard White has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC programming. 
With Don Dollberg, he is the author of the TIMS data 
base management program.) 



Last month, we discussed initialization, the Main Menu, 
bulletin board limits, the program save routine and word- 
wrap. Focus was on program logic and ways to implement 
the logic in BASIC. It is now time to do the same thing with 
the heart of the program, the text entry and editing routines. 
My assignment is to explain them to you. Your assignment 
is to understand them well enough that you can make some 
improvements on your own or use parts of the code in your 
own programs. Certain objectives we stated last month 
determine how the text entry sections called from itare to be 
written and need to be reviewed. 



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1) Display lines used and lines left. As finally imple- 
mented, this became lines used and lines allowed. 

2) Allow user to scroll up or down through the message 
using the arrow keys. 

3) Edit or delete the bottom line displayed. 

4) Be able to insert a new or copied line between others. 

5) The editor will be a phrase substitution type, where the 
usertypesthe material to be removed and then the newtext. 

6) Provide wordwrap so lines longer than the limit can be 
typed and theexcessfrom the last space before the limit will 
be moved into an additional line oradded to the next line as 
appropriate. 

7) In addition to arrow key control, how about other 
control keys like "T" for top of message, "B" for bottom of 
message and "G" to GOTO a particular line. "G" was not 
implemented due to screen space limits. 

The text entry section code will use certain BASIC rou- 
tines that could be used again elsewhere in the program. The 
plan was to identify these and put them in low line numbered 
(and quickly found) subroutines. The result is that the text 
entry code starting at line 100 is fairly short. 

8 PRINT696, STRING* (32, CHR* ( 163) > 
5 : I F I > 1 THENPR I NTA* ( 1-2) 

9 PRINTA*(I-1>:PRINTA*(I) : RETURN 

10 PRINT ,I LINE# ,, I M LINES" IH" ALLO 
WED"LM,MO*" mode ^< ENTER >=COMM 
ANDS", ,: RETURN 

100 MO*=" enter ": CLS4: I=IH+l:GOS 
UB 1 0 : GDSUB8 : L I NE I NPUTC* : I FLEFT* ( 
C*, 1 ) < >CHR* (94) THENIFA* ( I ) =" "THE 



NA* ( I ) =A* ( I ) +C*I ELSEA* ( I ) =A* ( I ) + 
" "+C*ELSE105 

Since some subroutines will be used by a number of 
calling routines, we send the calling routine name in MO$ 
which starts Line 100. The screen is cleared and the line 
counter is incremented. If there are no lines yet in the mes- 
sage, I H = 0 and I goes to 1 . Subroutine 1 0 writes a header 
showing current line, I, number of lines already entered, IH 
and lines allowed. The ", "after LM moves the print location 
to the second line where the calling mode is printed along 
with the reminder "up arrow." Followed by ENTER you 
will shift to Command Mode for scroll ing through the mes- 
sage and accessing other functions like Edit, Insert and 
Delete. 

Text is entered using LINE INPUT C$ so there are no 
restrictions on keyboard characters that can be entered. 
When the entry is completed, a nested IF — THEN IF 
— THEN — ELSE — ELSE — construction is encountered. 
If the condition afterthe first IFis not true, control is passed 
to code following the second ELSE. If that condition is true, 
the second IF is evaluated and final action will be either the 
code following the second THEN or first ELSE. Nested 
conditionals can be tricky. Perhaps the following statement 
will help. 

/F(Test 1) 77/£7V(ifTest I is true) IF (Test 2) THEN(\[ 
Test 2 is true ACTION A) ELSE (if Test 2 is false 
ACTION B) ELSE(\{ Test 1 is false ACTION C). 
Program clarity considerations more than machine capacity 
determine how many IF THEN ELSEs you nest. Debugging 
IF THEN statements can be tricky, which is another reason 
toconsideralternate ways. Weird things can happen if there 
areerrors in test codeafter the IF. BASIC is looking for only 
a true or a false indication at this point and messed up test 
code may not return a syntax error to help you pinpoint a 
problem. It just won't work right. This can happen in any IF 
THEN statement, it's just more trying in more complex 
situations. Let's look at what the code in line 100 is saying. 
IF (no up-arrow at beginning of C$) THEN IF(A%(\) is 
null) THEN (A$(I) = C$) ELSE (A$(I) = A$(I) plus a 
space plus C$) ELSE 105. 

102 IH=I: IFLEN(A*(I) ) >CL GOSUB30 
0: IFLEN(A$(I + 1) ) >CL THENI=I+1=GG 
TO 1 02 : ELSE 1 00ELSE 1 00 
105 1=1-1 

110 PRINTQ4S0, "COMMAND ?";:GOSUB 
1 2 : ONZ GOTO200 , 250 , 400 , 500 , 1 000 : 
Z=Z-5:CLS3:FG=l:0NZ G0SUB14,16,1 
8, 20: FG=0: GOTO 110 

Line 102 clarifies why we would need to test for A$(I) 
being null. The user is free to enter as much text as desired in 
a line and wordwrap is called in 102 if text is longer than 
maximum line length. Wordwrap cuts offenough of the left 
of C$ to fill A$(I) and RETURNS. In line 102, one is added 
to I and wordwrap is again called if needed until C$ is used 
up. Again nested IF — THEN — ELSE statementsare used, 
but the false action for both IFs is to go to 100. Still, two 
ELSE statements are required, one for each IF. In this 
special case where actions are identical, 103 GOTO 100 can 
be substituted for the pair of ELSEs. 

If the up-arrow is entered, it is assumed that there is no 
text, I is reduced in 105 and the program goes into the 
command mode in Line I 10. Subroutine Line 12 is called to 
print the command options, get the letter keystroke and 
convert it to a number that is returned in Z. In some cases, 



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184 the RAINBOW July 1983 



NOW THERE ARE TWO TOOLKITS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



The software development tools that let you put even more power into the already 
powerful Color Computer. They're full of tools, aids, bells and whistles useful to the BASIC 
or MACHINE LANGUAGE programmer, in friendly, easy-to-use software packages. 

BOTH TOOLKITS CONTAIN . . . 

• light characters on dark background with Current Line Highlighting; or normal characters 

• Full Screen Editor with Arrow Key controlled cursor; open up space/delete and close up space 

• Enabling selective Line Renumber/copy/move/merge; or normal Extended Basic line editor 

• Protect the current BASIC program from being wiped out with a CLOAD, NEW etc.; or from being LISTed 

• Restore a protected BASIC program/ Append any number of BASIC programs together easily 

• Tone on keypress or normal silent keys (Tone modifiable by use of Sound an Command) 

• Global Search of command or text strings in BASIC programs with wildcard character and next "." 

• 9 Screen Print Delays with keyboard override (for slow, readable LISTings and DISK DIRectories) 

• Variable Name List/String-Byte memory usage/Range of FREE MEM/Top of memory address display 

• Fast Machine Code to BASIC DATA converter for storing machine code visibly in BASIC 

• (C)SAVEM address/ Backup Tool (Last file name, start end and execute address) 

• Recovery of Lost BASIC programs after NEW, BACKUP, DSKINI, etc. 

• Break Key Disable/Enable (Pause keys still available) 

• Modified TRON display (IN replaces (LN) 

THE FULL TOOLKIT ALSO CONTAINS ... 

□ Merge BASIC with Machine Code routines so machine code is "invisible" and (C)SAVE/(C)LOADable 

□ 9 BASIC RUN delays with keyboard override; Single Step(s) mode with current line number display 

□ Memory Examine/Modify with HEX/ASCII/DEC/Double Decimal output and HEX/ ASCII input 

□ Memory Block Move for relocating machine code programs, DATA blocks, etc.; or the Kit itself 

□ Ten User Defined Function Keys accessable with @/number (BASIC Macros/Block storage) 

□ Automatic linefeed for printers that don't/double space LISTings; or normal PRINT 

□ Delete all spaces (not in PRINT strings, DATA or REMARK lines) 

□ ASCII/HEX memory Dumps to screen or printer 

□ Delete all REMarks (either REM or ' type) 

□ Parallel ECHO of screen output to printer 



THESE FEATURES ARE FOUND ON BOTH VERSIONS . . . 

— Transparentto the user, Install it and forget it until you need it 

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— HELP command lists all Kit commands and current Kit address 

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— Compatible with other utility programs 

— Green/Orange text screen capability 

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The Kits are relocatable programs that load any time without bothering your BASIC program or variables or top of 
memory address. All tools may be turned on or off at will, including the Kit Itself. 

The tools are available with simple three or four letter commands entered in the direct mode, with the entire i nstruction 
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like scrolling with the arrow keys, we want to return to 1 10 
to repeat the action or make another choice so a subroutine 
call is desirable. In other cases, like going to the Main Menu, 
any return will be from choices at that routine and GOTO 
action is appropriate. Line 1 2 was written so that the GOTO 
choices are returned as Z=l through 5. The ONZ GOTO 
comes first in 1 10 and if Z is greater than 5 no action is taken, 
the program subtracts 5 from Z and does an ONZ GOSUB. 
When control comes back from the subroutine, we loop 
back and do 1 10 again. 

12 PRINTQ32, "tOP bOTTOM UP/DOW 
N ARROWS eDITiNSERT dELETE cOP 
Y mENU " ; : I FFG= 1 THENRETURN 

ELSEFORJ=0TO0: Z*=INKEY*: J= ( Z*=" " 
) : NEXT: Z=INSTR(''EIDCMTB''+CHR*<94 
>+CHR*<10> , Z*> : IFZ=0THEN12ELSERE 
TURN 

I like Line 12 both for what it does and how it does it. 
First, it prints theCommand Mode options. Next itchecks if 
flag FG=1 . If so, it returns to the calling routine. Next it gets 
the letter keystroke and converts it to a number using the 
INSTR routine we discussed last month. Finally, it checks 
for invalid entries, Z=0, and goes around again in that case. 
As written, a lower case letter is an invalid entry. In any 
word processor where the user is likely to be using lower case 
as not, failure to allow lower case command strokes is 
intolerable. Your assignment, should you decide to accept it, 
is to rewrite line 1 2 and 1 10 if need be to accept lower case 
commands. There are at least two ways to do this. One 
involves changes in 12 and 1 10. The other splits 12 into two 



lines (12 and 13) and does not require changing 110. It's 
things like this that cause Versions 2.0 and 3.0 to be written. 

Coming back to the flag FG=I , this was set in 110. If the 
action called for involves scrolling the screen or moving to 
the top or bottom, one of the subroutines 14, 16, 1 8 or 20 is 
used. These use subroutines 8 and 10 to rewrite the screen. 
Since 12 is called by 1 10, its use in the other subroutines is 
only to get the command test up quickly so the eye does not 
notice what 1 0 wrote on text lines 2 and 3 while the message 
text is being written. Indeed, the GOSUB 12 in line 1 10 
might better be in line 105. I leave you to experiment. 

The subroutines in lines 14 to 21 do the scrolling and Top 
and Bottom functions. Pay attention to I and you can figure 
out how they work. 

14 i=i:gosubi0:gosubi2:gosub8:re 
Turn 

16 i=ih+i:gosubi0:gosubi2:gosub8 

: RETURN 

15 IFI>1THENI=I~1 

19 GOSUB 10: GOSUB 12: G0SUB8 : RETURN 

20 IFKIH THENI = I + 1 

21 GOSUB 10: GOSUB 12: G0SUB8 : RETURN 

It may seem that we have spent an inordinate amount of 
space on one block of code. But, there was a lot to think 
about in those few lines. The remaining text functions follow 
a bit different pattern in that the subroutines pertaining only 
to that function are in the same code block, following the 
main routine, and not at the front of the program. You can 
compare text entry and edit and decide which way you like 
best or if you even care. Note that I did not follow my 
original intent, but this would prevent me from going back 
and doing some rewriting once the program was working to 
my satisfaction. 

I think a phrase substitution editor is the next best thingto 
a full screen editor and is much easier to implement in a 
BASIC program. After writing the heading and text lines, 
the program asks for the "old phrase." This can be any 
combination of characters that occurs in the last line of text. 
This occurs in Line 200. There is also the test for no entry 
and for the up-arrow. Either of these provides escape. Since 
one may want to make a number of changes in a line, or even 
change a change just entered, the option to change with the 
escape is necessary. 

200 MO*=" edit ":CLS5: GOSUB 10: GO 
SUB8: LINE INPUT "old phrase ";A*: 
IFA*=" u ORA*=CHR* (94) THEN220 
210 F=INSTR(A*(I) , A*) : IFF=0THENC 
LS5: GOSUB10: G0SUB8: PRINT'phrase 
not found": LINE INPUT "old phrase 

" ; A* : I FA*= " " OR A*=CHR* ( 94 ) THEN22 
0ELSE210 

215 LINE INPUT "new phrase ";B*:L 
1=LEN ( A* ( I ) > : A=LEN ( A*) : C*=LEFT* ( 
A* ( I ) , F-l ) : L2=LEN <C*> : L3=L1- (A+L 
2) :Q*=RIGHT*(A*(I) , L3) : A*<I>=C*+ 

b*+q*:goto200 

In Line 210, the starting position of the old phrase in the 
line is found. If the exact combination of characters is not 
found, fNSTR returns a zero, we reprint the screen with the 
message "phrase not found" and the invitation to re-enter 
the old phrase. A lot of Line 200 code is duplicated, mainly 
so the message "phrase not found" will be correctly posi- 



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CALCULUS MATH MODULE 32K EXT-S34.95 

* STARTS WITH THE GRAPHING MODULE 

* LOAD UP 9 FUNCTIONS AT ONCE 

* FIND AND COMPUTE MAXIMA & MINIMA 

* NUMERIC INTEGRATION & DIFFERENTIATION 

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* COMPLETE MANUAL — PROGRAM ON TAPE 

/ CALCSOFT 

a / P.O. BOX 401 
VST. ANN, MO 63074 * 

, CHECK OR MONEY ORDER — $1 .00 for 
' shipping 




166 the RAINBOW July 1983 



PRETTY PRINTER 

This M/L utility program will allowyou to write your 
code in as compact a form as you wish, but list it to 
the screen or printer in an easy to read 'PRETTY 
PRINT format. Turn this: - 

1 □ PRINT "EXAMPLE": FDRX=ATD M:FDRY=STD 
P:Z=X + Y:PRINTZ:NEXTY:NEXTX 

Into this: - 10 PRINT "EXAMPLE": 

FOR X = A TO M: 
FOR Y = S TO P: 
Z = X + Y: 
PRINT Z: 
NEXT Y: 
NEXT X 

With one simple command. 

CAT. NO. DM001 1BK Ext $12.95 

P.U.F.F. 

Saythe magic word and P.U.F.F. your printformatting 
problems dissappear.The Printer Utility File Format- 
ter turns any word Processor [that produces ASCII 
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codes will perform the following functions: - 

* Send control codes to your printer. 

* Set left and right margins at any time. 
+ Set headers and footers. 

* Left, Right and Fill Justify. 

* Centre the next'n' lines. 

+ Temporary indent (neg or pos]. 
Plus many other features. 

CAT. NO. DM002 16K Ext $24.35 
KEYBOARD OVERLAYS 

Many programs are supplied with keyboard overlays 
to help you keep track of the various commands 
used by the program. Now you can add overlays to 
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that did not come with this feature. Die cut to fit the 
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ies for blank or custom printed overlays are invited. 

CAT NO. HW002 99$ each 



□ATAMAIL 

The ultimate cassette based mailing list program 
for home or business use. Fully customized data 
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lengths and field titles. Fast machine language sort 
by any column in any field. Save all or any block of 
files for latter reading by DATAMAIL or your own 
letter program. Merge two or more lists, search by 
record number or keyword in any column. One key 
commands for Input, Kill, Change. Print single 
records oranyblock of files, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 across. 32K 
holds about 300 files. 

CAT NO. DM003 1BK Ext $14.95 
FIRST SAMPLER 

Six programs for the price of one. All have been 
published in popular computer magazines and are 
now available on one tape at this special price. 

* MATH Improve your mental math skills 

* WORD Make words from the supplied letters in 
this game for the whole family. 

* CONVOY Can you sink the computers convoy 
before it sinks yours? 

* BAGIT Train your memory to remember the 
things you put in the bag. 

* VECTORS Row your boat across the river with- 
out going over the falls. 

* AHHA Find the treasure chest in Another 
Haunted House adventure. Don't get caught by 

the Old Miser's ghost. 

CAT. NO. DM005 1 BK Ext $9.95 
COGOCOPY 

This all M/L Program will copy BASIC or M/L 
programs including most Auto Start Programs. It 
will supply the beginning, ending and offset addresses 
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programs. I/O errors are ignored so that bad tapes 
can be corrected. Programs can be renamed and 
the motor/audio functions are controlled from the 
keyboard. 

CAT. NO. DM004 1 BK Ext $12.95 



SEND $2.00 FOR OUR 25 PAGE CATALOGUE 



Refunded with first order 



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tioned. When the old phrase is found, the program moves to 
2 1 5 to get the new phrase. Then the text line is taken apart 
into the portion left of the old phrase, C,$ and the portion to 
the right of the old phrase, Q$. It is then put back together 
with the new phrase in the middle as A$(I) = C$ + B$ + Q$. 

220 PRINTQ480, "command ?";:GOSUB 
230: ONZ GOTO200, 100, 1000: Z=Z-3: C 
LS5:FG=l:0NZ G0SUB242 , 244 , 246 , 24 
8:FG=0:GOTO220 

230 PRINT632, "tOP bOTTOM UP /DO 
WN ARROWS eDIT CURRENT MES 

SAGE mENU " j : IFFG=1THENRETUR 
NELSEFORJ=0TO0 : Z*= I NKEY* : J= < Z*= " 
"):NEXT:Z=I NSTR ( " ECMTB " +CHR* ( 94 ) 
+CHR* ( 10) , Z*) : I FZ=0THEN230ELSERE 
TURN 

242 i=i:gosubi0:gosub230:gosub8: 

RETURN 

244 I=IH+l:GOSUB10:GOSUB230:GOSU 
B8: RETURN 

246 IFI>1THENI=I-1 

247 GOSUB10:GOSUB230:GOSUB8:RETU 
RN 

248 IFKIH THENI = I + 1 

249 GOSUB 1 0 : GOSUB230 : G0SUB8 : RETU 
RN 

Line 220 does the same thing as Line 1 10 in text entry and 
Lines 230 to 249 are similar to 1 2 to 21 that were used in text 




era 



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entry. The difference is that the choices in Line 230 are 
different than those in Line 1 2 and all subroutines need to be 
rewritten using 230 rather than 12 as the subroutine call. 

The insert routine starting at line 250, the delete routine 
starting at line 400 and the copy routine at line 500 are built 
on structures similar to edit which we discussed above. Copy 
may be viewed as a special case of insert since the source of 
the text is string memory rather than the keyboard. In each 
case we need to move strings and we do this by moving the 
address of the string in the variable table, rather than copy- 
ing the string itself to a different place in memory. 

250 MO*=" i nsert " : CLS6 : GOSUB 10: GO 
SUB 8 : PR I NT "enter 1 i ne " : L I NE I NPUT 
C*: IFLEFT* <C$, 1 ) =CHR* (94) THEN260 
255 FORJ=IH TOI STEP— 1 : A=VARPTR ( 
A* (J) ) :B=VARPTR(A* (J+l) > : FORK=0T 
04:P0KEB+K,PEEK<A+K> : NEXT: NEXT: I 
=1+1: IH=IH+l:A*(I)=C*: IFCL<LEN (A 
* ( I ) ) GOSUB300 

In insert, the new text is obtained in line 250. In line 255, the 
variable table listing for each string is moved to the next 
higher array location. The text that was represented by, say, 
A$(10), the tenth line is now represented as A$(ll). The 
program will then move the pointers for A$(9) up to the 
A$(10) location until the right line is opened up f or the new 
text. Delete does the reverse, moving the variable table 
contents down and in the process erasing the address of the 
string being deleted. Though the deleted string still exists in 
memory, the computer has no way of finding it. Eventually a 
garbage collection will overwrite the deleted material and it 
will be gone for good. 

All of the code for these routines are in the program listing 
at the end of this article. 1 invite you to study it. You may 
also want to rewrite these to use common subroutines in low 
line numbers to reduce the code in each section. 

The printer code starting in line 600 is intended to print 
the text file for review and editing only. Hence, it is short 
without refinements. The baud rate setting routine is the 
fanciest thing there. Feel free to use it in your programs. 

As more owners acquire disk drives, the ability to save or 
load using either tape or disk becomes more important. 
Tape makes a good long-term storage media for archive 
purposes and for sending data through the mail. The stra- 
tegy used here is to have a savingand a loading routine. The 
variable D, for device number, is used with each OPEN, 
PRINTtt and LINE INPUTtt statement so these can apply to 
either disk or tape operations. For example, line 914 sets D 
— 1, gets the file name and runs past the tape leader if the 
user wishes. Control is then passed to 950 to PRfNTV-I the 
data. But when disk is specified, line 91 1 sets D=I, gets the 
file nameand transfers control to 950 that pre-forms the disk 
operation since D=l. Considerable flexibility and perfor- 
mance is achieved with a modest amount of code, much of 
which is in the menu to make the thing user friendly. Since 
the program listing follows closely, consult it for the 900 
section coding. 

This wraps up the discussion of COMMWP . It has served 
well as a discussion piece. There is much room for improve- 
ment and refinement and 1 hope that some of you do just 
that. If you do, keep in mind the modular concept that 1 have 
been teaching. There is plenty of room for more code in each 
block, except perhaps 200. You may also want to use the 
BASIC program framework, perhaps keeping the printer 
entry and tape/disk I/O and start over todo a different type 
of program. Once you have a library of program modules 



188 the RAINBOW July 1983 



"TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER PRODUCTS" 



"ENHANCED 1248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER 



if 



"THE CK4 SERIES PROM/RAM CARDS" 



The list of directly compatible EPROMs increases by one. now 
including; 250B*s. 275B-0/1's, 251 6's, 271 6's. 2532's, 2732's, 
6B732-0/1's, 6B764's, and 6B766's. 



NE \AM= EA TUR ES INCLUDE: 

1) Intelligent algorithm that reduces programming time to as little 
as 1 /6 that of fixed cycle programmers. 

2) Diagnostic routines to isolate defective EPROMs. or locate 
differences. 

3) A feature that guards against EPROM type entry errors. 

4) Diagnostic routines that prevent keyboard entry errors from 
causing disastrous consequences. 



FIR MWAREJ EA TUR ES 

1) EPROM ERASED! 4) BYTE PROGRAMMING! 

2) COMPARE EPROM TO RAM'5) DUMP EPROM TO RAM! 

3) BLOCK PROGRAMMING! 6) JUMP! 



TheCK4cards work with2K. 4K. and BK ROMsor EPROMs of the 
5 volt only variety in 24 pin packages. The CK4 can also work with 
static RAMs, and increase your available memory by as much as 
16.12B bytes. 

The CK4-1 is specifically designed for use in computers with "F" 
series boards, or those machines that are "write protected" in the 
address range of $COOO through $FEFF. The CK4-1, therefore, 
does not incorporate features designed in the CK4 for use with 
RAM. 

The CK4-2 is the unpopulated version of the CK4 series board. Buy 
this version and configure to meet your specific requirements, and 
stretch the value of your dollar. 

FEATURES SUMMARY 



1) MIX ROM AND RAM 1 

2) EXPAND RAM FROM 2-1 6K' 

3) Y.OU WRITE PROTECT RAM! 



4) EXTREMELY FLEXIBLE DECODING! 

5) PROVIOES FOR BATTERY BACKUP! 

6) LOW COST' 



PRICES 



Firmware is "stack-oriented", "position independent", and "menu 
driven". Supplied in an EPROM, it can also be stored on disc or tape 
for execution from RAM if desired. 



CK-4 $29.35 ea. 



CK4-1 $27.95 ea. 



CK-2 $15.95 ea. 



MEW PRODUCT OFFERING 

A/D-80C ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER BOARD 



STANDARD HA RDWA RE_F EA TU RES 

1) It has its own "on-board" 25 volt programming supply. 

2) A quality textool "zero insertion force" CZIF) socket. 

3) Socket for firmware on-board. 

A PIA port is also available on the programmer. This B bit parallel 
I/O port with handshake lines, can be used for many applications, 
such as a parallel printer port. Details on how to use this port as a 
printer interface are included in the instruction manual. 

The instruction manual describes how to take full advantage of the 
power of this versatile programmer. We think you'll agree, that 
never before was an EPROM programmer so easy to use, and 
feature packed as is the 124B-EP. 

The enhanced 1 24B-EP costs only $1 29.95. 

Firmwareupgrades are available to our previous 1 24B-EP custom- 
ers, in EPROM. for |ust $29.95. 




The A/D-BOC is a 1 6+ channel analog to digital converter with two 
B bit PIA ports plus handshake lines. 

v-lmplement closed-loop control of analog processes! 
-"-Use it to control your homes environment! 
A-Computerize your laboratory or darkroom! 
irBuild a multi-channel voltmeter! 
-)!-Use it for waveform generation! 
-"-For robotics! 

The A/D-BOC is software programmable up to a maximum of 10 
bits o f resolution. The number o f channels can b e expanded beyond 
the 16 channel capability supplied, and the channels are software 
selectable. 

The A/D-BOC performs nearly 9K A/D conversions per second. 

A generous area of the board is designated for wirewrapping to 
permit customization of analog signal processing circuitry. 

Extensive documentation is provided to assist the user in the 
development of his application. Software listings are provided as an 
aid to software development, and a socket is provided for an 
EPROM for user developed software drivers. 

CONSULT FACTORY FOR AVAILABILITY AND PRICE INFORMA- 
TION ON NEW PRODUCTS 

FACTORY FRESH COMPONENTS: 



ITEM 

2716 EPROM 
2532 EPROM 
6B21P 
74LS156 
Socket 



DESCRIPTION PRICE 

2K by B Bit, $4.50 ea. 

4K by B bit, $6.50 ea. 

P.I.A. $3.50 ea. 

Open collector decoder $1.70 ea. 

Textool "Zero Insertion Force" $9.00 ea. 
Minimum component order: $25.00 



-X TRS-BQ is a trademark of TANOY CORP. 
SDSBGC is a trademark of the MICRO WORKS. 



ORDERING INFORMATION : 

Add $3.00 to all orders to cover shipping and handling. Canadian 
residents add 5°/o to cover special handling. Arizona residents add 
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delivery. Prices subject to change without notice. 

Make checks payable to: 



COMPUTER ACCESSORIES OF ARIZONA 
5801 E. VOLTAIRE DRIVE 
SCOTTSDALE, ARIZONA 85254 

(602! 886-7568 I 



like these, you can reuse them in other programs with minor 
modifications. Indeed, neither the I/O nor the printer rou- 
tines were written for COMMWP. 



W 210 







255 . 


0629 


310 


0869 


442.. 


.. 0AA5 


542 


0D26 


640 


101D 


915 


1260 


1050 


... 1514 


END 


. .. 1745 



The listing: 

0 GOTO 11 000 

a i-i-i 

8 print«96, string* <32,chr*< 163)) 

1 : ifimthenprinta»<i-2) 

9 printa*(i-d:printa*(I):return 

10 print"line# m i " l ines" ih m allo 

WED " LM , MO* " mode ^< ENTER >-COHM 
AND3 RETURN 

12 PRINT«32, M tOP bOTTOM UP/DOW 
N ARROWS •DIT INSERT dELETE cOP 
Y mENU M | S I FFQ- 1 THENRETURN 

ELSEFORJ-0TO0S Z»-INKEY»: J- (Z*- M " 
> I NE X T : Z » I NSTR ("EI DCMTB " +CHR* (94 
>+CHR»<10> p Z«) : I F Z -0THE N 1 2EL8ERE 
TURN 

14 i-i:gosubi0:qosubi2:qosubb:re 

TURN 



TRS-80 COLOR BASIC 

by BOB ALBRECHT 

This entertaining self-instructional book is packed with 
games, experiments, scores of intriguing challenges, and 
activities related to fantasy role-playing games. The 
ideal introductory aid for kids, parents and teachers 
using the Color Computer. 

John Wiley & Sons $9.95 
605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158 



TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

by DON IN MAN lu^^^^ 

Explore the creative and imaginative blending of computers 
and color. This exciting book will enable you to explore 
all the graphics capabilities of Extended Color BASIC. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 
11480 Sunset Hills Rd., Reston, VA 22090 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS 

FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

by DON INMAN and KURT INMAN 

This book is specific to the TRS-80 Color Computer with 
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assembler can be used to perform feats that would be quite 
difficult, if not impossible in the BASIC language. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 



DYMAX, P.O. 310, MENLO PARK,CA 94025 

Dymax orders must be prepaid via check, money order. Visa 
or Mastercard. Sorry, no Purchase Orders or COD orders. 
Please add $2.00 shipping and handling. California residents 
add 6% sales tax. ffF^\ 

RAINBOW 



16 I-IH+l:GO8UB10:GO8UB12:GO8UB8 
: RETURN 

IB IFIMTHENI-I-1 

1 9 G08UB 1 0 : B08UB 1 2 : 808UB6 : RETURN 

20 IFKIH THENI-I+1 

21 8O8UB10" 808UB12: Q08UBB: RETURN 
100 MO*"" antar":CL84: I-IH+l:G08 
UB 1 0 : G08UB8 : L I NE I NPUTC* : I FLEFT* ( 
C*, 1><>CHR*<94)THENIFA*<I>-" "THE 
NA* ( I ) -A* ( I ) +C* : EL8EA* ( I ) -A* < I ) + 
" "+C4ELSE105 

102 IH-I : IFLEN < A* (I) > >CL 6O8UB30 
0:IFLEN<A*(I+1> ) >CL THENI-I+1 : GO 
TO 102: ELSE 100EL8E 100 

109 I-I-l 

110 PR I NT *4 80, "COMMAND ?"|:B08UB 
12: ONZ GOTO200, 250, 400, 300, 1000: 
Z-Z-9:CL83:F6-l:0NZ 808UB14, 16, 1 
8 , 20 : F8-0 : GOTO 110 

200 MO*-" •dit":CLS5:BOSUB10:6O 
8UB8:LINEINPUT"old phrasa "|A«: 
I FA*-" "ORA*-CHR* (94) THEN220 
210 F-IN8TR(A*(I),A*):IFF-0THENC 
LS5 : G08UB 1 0 : G0SUB8 : PR I NT " phr as* 
not found ": LINE INPUT" old phraaa 

"I A*: I FA*— " "ORA*-CHR* ( 94 > THEN22 
0EL8E210 

219 LINE INPUT "naw phrasa "|B*:L 
1— LEN (A* ( I ) > : A-LEN (A*) : C*— LEFT* ( 
A* < I ) , F-l ) : L2-LEN <C*> : L3-L1- < A+L 
2) : Q*— R I QHT* (A* ( I ) , L3) : A* ( I ) -C*+ 
B*+Q*:BOTO200 

220 PRINT0480, "command ?"|:G08UB 
230: ONZ GOTO200, 100, 1000: Z-Z-3: C 
L89 : FG- 1 : ONZ G08UB242 , 244 , 246 , 24 

e:FG-0:8OTO220 

230 PRINT032,"tOP bOTTOM UP/DO 
WN ARROWS aDIT CURRENT ME8 

SAGE mENU " I : I FFG- 1 THENRETUR 
NEL8EF0R J — 0TO0 : Z*-INKEY«: J— (Z*— " 
u ) : NEXT: Z- I NSTR < " ECMTB " +CHR* (94) 
+CHR* ( 10) , Z«) : I FZ-0THEN230EL8ERE 
TURN 

242 I-1:GO8UB10:GOSUB230:GO8UBB: 
RETURN 

244 I-IH+1:GOSUB10:GOSUB230:GQSU 

bg: return 

246 ifimtheni-i-1 

247 g08ub 1 0 : go8ub230 : g08ub8 : retu 

RN 

248 IFKIH THENI-I + 1 

249 QOSUB 1 0 : GO8UB230: G08UB8 : RETU 
RN 

290 MO*-"ina*rt":CL86:GO8UB10:GO 
8UBB: PRINT "an tar Una" : LINE INPUT 
C«: I FLEFT* (C«, 1 ) -CHR* (94) THEN260 
255 FOR J- 1 H TO I STEP- 1 : A-VARPTR < 
A* < J ) > : B-VARPTR ( A* < J+l ) ) : FORK— 0T 
04: POKEB+K, PEEK (A+K) : NEXT: NEXT: I 
-I+l: IH-IH+l:A*(I>-C«: IFCL<LEN(A 



190 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



HARDWARE & SUPPLIES 



MONITORS 



BMC GREEN SCREEN 12" 

89.95 

COMREX CR 5600 
HI RES MONITORS 

12" Green Phosphor 179.95 

12" Yellow Phosphor 189.95 

12" Amber Phosphor 199.95 

COMREX CR 5500 
GREEN SCREEN 

12" Phosphor Monitor 129.95 

VIDEO PLUS 

(From Computerware) 

This unii is so good, we have slopped pro- 
ducing our popular video interface kit so 
ilia! we can supply our customers with the 
hest unit available. Requires no soldering 
or hole cutting for installation. Will work 
on ANY composite monitor, color or 
monochrome. 

Only $24.95 

BMC BM AU919IU 

(13" Color Monitor) 

High resolution display monitor produces 
an incredibly sharp image. Includes built- 
in speaker with audio circuit. Compatible 
with virtually any microcomputer. 
.„..., $344.95 

DUAL JOYSTICK UNIT 

(D.J.) 

Single unit assembly enhances playability 
of multi-joysiick/player games; conve- 
nient press-to-fire buttons 
Add $4.00 shipping $35.95 

SPLC-1 

Lower Case Board 

(By Saturn Software) 

Plug in board gives true lower case letters 
with descenders instead of inverted letters 
on your video display. Installation of an 
optional switch (not provided) allows in- 
verse or standard video with the flip of a 
switch. Fits all "E" and later "D" boards. 
$59.95 

LCINT 

Lower case interpreter program allows in- 
put of lower case command words to be 
accepted. Also allows for one key pause 
features and single step through listings. 
With instructions and cassette, disk com- 
patible $10.95 

U.S FUNDS ONLY 

C.O.D. ORDERS ACCEPTED 

Sorry, no CO.D. on printers and 
monitors. 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



t a iiiii r soFTwARE | 

%J AAIl 'c I hardware] 



1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 
(619) 474-6213 



MEMORY 
UPGRADE KITS 

I6K RAM CHIPS 1 .50 ea. 

'16K/32K 
MEMORY UPGRADE KIT 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips 
with Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, 
Bus Wire, and 32K Ram Slicker. Com- 
prehensive Instructions. Recommended 
for "D" or earlier, but may be used on 
"E". Only 9 simple solder connections to 
kit. None to computer. 
$25.95 

*64K RAM CHIPS 

Eight 200 NS laeiory Prime 64K RAM 
Chips. Allows vow 10 upgrade "E" board 
easily. No soldering needed. 

.$69.95 



NOTE: 64k upgrade will NO T provide 
64 k of usei' Ram, bin allows later revision 
boards ([£. LT) in run cooler and more ef- 
ficiently. 

"Instul Union oj these items will void (he 
Radio Shuck warranty. Radio Shack is a 
trademark of the Tandy C Dtp. 



NANOS COLOR BASIC 

AND EXTENDED 
SYSTEM REFERENCE 
CARD 

"The New Industry Standard" 
$4.95 

I W e pay pasture on this one) 
All types of Nanos cards available 



JARB 



I 

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C 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 
(619) 474-6213 



PRINTERS 

EPSON PRINTERS 

FX-80 + $575.00 

RX-80 $449.00 

Serial Interface w/4K Buffer 

Ideal for80Cuse $109.95 

80CTO Epson Cable $19.95 

See shipping Info 

PRINTER ACCESSORIES 

Roll Paper Holder (Epson) 30.00 

AdjusiableTracior forFX-80 39.95 

Also Tractor Fed Mail Labels and 
Cassette Labels, Ribbons, etc. 

COCO PRINTER PACKAGE 

Epson FX-80 and Serial Interface with 4K 
Buffer, Cable 674.90 

COMREX CR-1 

Compact desk-lop daisy wheel 
printer, especially designed for word 
processing. Assures high reliability, 
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priming. Complete with RS-232 in- 
terface. 

$810.00 

JARB DISK DOUBLER 

Why spend twice as much as you 
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With our doublet - , you can make 
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5 '/» "size only 12.95 

BASF DATA CASSETTES 
C-05 C-XO 

1-10 .60ea. .65 ea. 

11-20 .55 ea. .60 ea. 

Soft PoK Cases Ea. $.20 

Hard Shelled Cases Ea. $.22 

Cassette Labels (1 2) Sh. $.36 

Cassette Labels Tractor ( 1 000) $30.00 



Call or write for quantity prices on all 
cassette products. Special lengths avail - 
able, eg., C-02, etc. 



We carry products 
from many manufacturers. 
If you don't see it, ask. 



SHIPPING AND HANDLING: Printers 
and monitors add 3%. Unless otherwise 
specified, all other orders $2.00 per order. 
California Residents add 6°7o sales tax. 





I 



u 



IELP 
WANTED 



Dragon Slayers, Space Pilots, Witch 
Doctors, Maze Makers, Professors 
and other creative programmers. 

We Want You! 

Your original Color Computer Soft- 
ware program is worth money and we 
want to discuss it with you. . . 

Earn Top Buck! 




Mark Data Products 



24001 ALICIA PKWY,, NO. 226 
MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 

(714) 768-1551 



Po H 
expo 
ReqJ 
assil 

knd 

13'! 
Cc 

1 

Wit i 
lllu r 
corr\ 
doll| 

mac; 
Con^ 
poss! 
expef 
is / 



COMPUTERS 

Growing Company with lots r>*' 



% ( I ) ) GOSUB300 

260 PR I NT8480, "command ?"|:GOSUB 
270: ON Z GOT 02 50, 100, 1000: Z-Z-3:C 
L8S : FG- 1 : ON Z G08UB282 , 284 , 286 , 28 
8:FG»0:GOTO260 

270 PRINT032, "tOP bOTTOM UP /DO 
WN ARROWS INSERT CURRENT M 

ESSAGE mENU " I : IFF8-1THENRETUR 
NEL8EFORJ-0TO0: Z*-INKEY*: J- ( Z*-" 
" ) : NEXT: Z-IN8TR < " ICMTB"+CHR* <94) 
+CHR* < 10) , Z»> : IFZ-0THEN270ELSERE 
TURN 

282 I - 1 : GOSUB 1 0 : GO8UB270: GOSUB8 : 
RETURN 

284 I - I H+ 1 : GOSUB 1 0 : GO8UB270 : GOBU 
B8: RETURN 

286 IFIMTHENI-I-1 

287 GOSUB 1 0 : GO8UB270 : G08UB8 : RETU 
RN 

288 IFKIH THENI-I+1 

289 GOSUB 1 0 : GOSUB270 : G0SUB8 : RETU 
RN 

300 FOR J- I TOIH:Fl-0: IFLEN<A*<J> 

XCL THENNEXT: RETURN 

303 F-IN8TR(F1+1,A«(J)," "):IFF< 

CL ANDF< >0THENF 1 -F : GOTO309EL8EC* 

-RIGHT* (A* (J) ,LEN(A*(J))-F1) :A*< 

J) -LEFT* (A* (J) ,F1) 

310 IFJ<IH ANDA* < J+ 1 ) <>" " ANDLEFT 

*(A*(J+1) , DO" "THENA*(J+1)-C*+ 

192 the RAINBOW July 1983 



" "+A» (J+l): NEXT: RETURN 
315 IFJ-IH THENA* ( J + 1 ) — C* : RETURN 
320 FORJ1-IH TO I STEP— 1 : A— VARPTR 
(A* ( J 1 ) > : B-VARPTR < A* < Jl + 1 > > : FORK 

-0to4 :pokeb+k, peek < a+k ) : next: nex 
t: ih-ih+i:a*(J1+d-c*:next 

400 MO*-"dmlmtm":CL87:GO8UB10:GO 
BUB8:PRINT"dalata this Una? Y/N 

" : forj-0TO0: c*- inkey* : j- < c«- " " 

):NEXT: IFC*-CHR0(94)ORC*O"Y"THE 
N4 10405 FORJ-I TO I H— 1 : A-V ARPTR < A 
» < J+l ) > : B-VARPTR < A* < J ) > : FORK-0TO 
4: POKEB+K, PEEK (A+K) : NEXT: NEXT: I- 
I-l: IH-IH-1 

410 PR I NT0480, "command ? " I : GOSUB 

420: onz goto400, 100, 1000: z-z-3:c 
ls5 : fg- 1 : onz g0sub442 , 444 , 446 , 44 
8:F6-0:qoto410 

420 PRZNT932, "tOP bOTTOM UP/DO 
WN ARROWS dELETE CURRENT M 

ES8A8E mENU " I : I FFG- 1 THENRETUR 
NELSEFOR J -0TO0 : Z*-INKEY«: J- ( Z*-" 
" ) : NEXT : Z- 1 NSTR < " DCMTB " +CHR« < 94 ) 
+CHR* ( 10) , Zt) : I F Z — 0THEN420EL8ERE 
TURN 

442 I - 1 : GOSUB 1 0 : GOSUB420 : GOSUB© : 
RETURN 

444 I - I H+ 1 : G06UB 1 0 : GOSUB420 : GOSU 
B8: RETURN 

446 IFI>1THENI-I-1 

447 GOSUB 1 0 : GOSUB420 : G08UB8 : RETU 
RN 

448 IFKIH THENI-I + 1 

449 GOSUB 1 0 : GOSUB420 : G0SUB8 : RETU 
RN 

500 CL88 : GOSUB 1 0 : GOSUB540 : GOSUB8 
: PR I NT "copy this line? Y?":FORJ- 

0TO0: z*-inkey«: J- ( z»«" " ) : next: z- 

INSTR < " YCMTB " +CHR* < 94 ) +CHR* ( 10) , 
Z*) : IFZ-0THEN500 

505 ONZ GOTO510, 100, 1000: Z-Z-3:C 
LS8 : ONZ G0SUB542 , 544 ,546, 548 : GOT 
0500 

510 C*-A*(I) 

515 CL88 : GOSUB 1 0 : GOSUB540 : G08UB8 
: PRINT" in mart. . . "C»:PRINT"hara 
? Y?" : FORJ-0TO0: Za— INKEY*: J— ( Z«- 

■"■ ) : NEXT: Z- 1 NSTR < " YCHTB" +CHRS (94 
>+CHR*(10) ,Z») : IFZ-0THEN515 
520 ONZ G0T0525, 100, 1000: Z-Z-3:C 
LS8 : ON Z GO8UB540 , 54 4 , 546 , 548 : GOT 
0515 

525 FORJ-IH TO I STEP— 1 : A— VARPTR < 
A* ( J ) ) : B-VARPTR (A* (J+l ) ) : FORK-0T 
04: POKEB+K, PEEK (A+K) : NEXT: NEXT: I 

-i+i: ih-ih+i:a*(D-c*:goto500 

540 PRINT032, "tOP bOTTOM UP/DO 
WN ARROWS CURRENT M 

ESSAGE mENU "I : RETURN 
542 I- l: RETURN 



INTERNATIONAL 
COLOR COMPUTER CLUB, INC. 




RAINBOW 

Cfa?<JiC*-->0>. 



A Non-Prof it Educational Corporation 
Main Office 
2101 E. Main St., Henderson, Texas 75652 

Canadian Branch 
P.O. Box 7498, Saskatoon, SK S7K-4L4 



A 



\ 



7 



<$>/<Q> 



ii 




4). CLUB LIBRARY. 



WORLD'S LARGEST COLOR COMPUTER CLUB / 

} 

< 

HERE ARE SOME GOOD REASONS TO JOIN OUR CLUB 

1) . FREE PROGRAMS.' Good programs written by our members are contained in our library, 

in the newsletter, and on the new member tape. 

2) . NEWSLETTER. A "magazine" sized newsletter (last issue was 80 pages), with programs, 

tips, data, reviews, articles and much more. 

3) . NEWSLETTER Tape. A tape of all the programs appearing in the newsletter is available from 

the library for $2.00 (to members) or $4.50 (to non-members). 

The club maintains a library of programs, books, and Radio Shack ROM- 
packs. The programs are member written and come six program to a tape 
or disk. They are yours to keep; however, there is a small fee to cover the 
postage and tape (or disk) of $2.00 ($4.50 for disk). The books and ROM- 
packs may be checked out for 3 weeks at a time (extensions possible). 

You can get large discounts on many software and hardware items for the 
Color Computer from some of the MAJOR companies. Also discounts on 
subscriptions to the RAINBOW, Color Computer News, Color Computer 
Magazine, Chromasette Magazine, and CoCocassette Magazine(up to 25%). 

6). ADVERTISE FREE. Members may place ads up to V* page (classified type) per issue during their 

entire membership in the newsletter FREE. Display ads at 25% off. These 
ads must be computer related; however. 

Don't wait weeks for the parts to come in from Radio Shack! Just check 
them out from the Club's Parts library and return them when yours arrive. 

You receive a "New Member" package containing many useful items. 

This is the world's largest Color Computer Club. With members in almost 
every field of expertise. So if you have a problem with the Color Computer, 
we can almost always get you the answer. Put your problem on the Club's 
Bulletin Board, write, or call. Telephone No. (214) 657-7834. 

As a new member, you will receive a list of the members in your area on a 
quarterly basis whom you may contact for CoCo talk. 



5). DISCOUNTS. 



7) . BORROW PARTS. 

8) . SURPRISE. 

9) . GET HELP. 



10). FIND FRIENDS. 



HOW TO BECOME A MEMBER:::: 

Write to the club for an application, there are no conditions for membership other than agreeing 
to obey the rules and by-laws, being interested and paying the dues. The membership dues are $30.00 
($50.00 outside the U.S.( In Canada it is in Canadian funds) in U.S. funds)per year and we believe you 
get more than your moneys worth. You can save more than the memberhip dues in discounts the club 
offers to you. Example : Subscription to the RAINBOW, 25% off of the regular subscription rates. 
Some members have told me that the new member tape alone is worth the membership dues. It contains 
10 very good programs. Some of the programs contained in the library are Accounts Receivable, General 
Ledger, Inventory, Sales File and ticket program with automatic Inventory update (for32K with 2disk )■ 
There is over 72 programs in the library to choose from ranging from 4K to 64K w/disk. 



VISA MastefCord 



S44 I-IH+l: RETURN 

946 IFIMTHENI-I-1 

947 RETURN 

348 IFKIH THENI-I+1 
549 RETURN 

600 P0KE69494 , 0 : BP-PEEK ( 1 90 ) : BU- 
IN8TR< "61841 87 180",RI8HT 
* ( 8TR* (BP) , LEN ( 8TR* < BP ) ) - 1 ) > : BU- 
4800 /BU 

610 CL8:PRINT073, "PRINT ROUTINES 

CURRENT BAUD RATE -"BU, 
TAB < 6 ) " RE8ET BAUD RATE",,," P 
RINT TEXT" , , , , " HENU":CT-1 
615 CT«-RI8HT*<8TR*<CT),1):LP-IN 
8TR < " 12 3", CT« ) : LP-LP#32+2: 
PRINTW-P, " >" | : FORJ-0TO0: Z»-INKEY 
•: J-(Z«- M ") :NEXT:PRINT0LP, " "I 
620 I F Z *-CHR« ( 1 0) ANDCT< 3THENCT-C 
T+ 1 : 80T06 1 5EL8E I F Z*-CHR* < 94 ) ANDC 
T > 1 THENCT-CT- 1 : B0T06 1 5EL8E I F Z*<> 
CHR*(13)THEN615EL8E0N CT 00T0625 
,640, 1000 

625 PRINT" "I : INPUT" ENTER NEW BA 
UD RATE" | BU* : BU*— LEFT* ( BU* , 1 > : BL 
- 1 N8TR < " 36 1 24 " , BU* ) : I FBL-0THENPR 
INT'baud rat* mrr or ": SOUND 100, 50 
: BOTO600 

630 BU(1)-180:BU(2)-87:BU(3)-41: 
BU(4)-18:BU(5)-6:POKE150,BU<BL) : 
8OTO600 

640 CLB: PR INTO 194, "BET TOP OF 8H 



eet at printer head and pr 

ess any key " : for j-0to0: j- < i nkey* 
-""> :next:lm-int<80/cd :forj-ito 

5:PRINT#-2, " " 

650 F0RI-1T0IH:PRINT#-2,TAB(LM)A 

* < i ) : next: BOTO1000 
900 cl83 : pr i nt866 , " save to tap 
e "| :print0130, " save to disk 
"i : prints 194, " load from tape" 
i : pr i nt0258 , " load from di8k"|: 
ct-1905 ct*— ribht* (str* (ct) , 1 ) : l 
p- 1 nstr < " 1 2 3 4 " , ct* ) : lp-lp*32 
+2:print0LP, ">"i :forj-0TO0: z*-in 
key* : j- < z»- " " ) : next : pr i nt0lp , " " 

I 

910 IFZ*-CHR*<10)ANDCT<4THENCT-C 
T+l : QOTO905ELSEIFZ*-CHR* ( 94 ) ANDC 
T>1THENCT-CT-1 : 8OTO909EL8EIFZ*< > 
CHR*(13)THEN905EL8EON CT Q0T0914 
,911,913,912 

911 D— 1 : PR I NT8322 , "FILE NAME"|:I 
NPUTNA* : 8OTO950 

912 D- 1 : PR I NT9322 , "FILE NAME"|:I 
NPUTNA*: QOTO920 

913 D— l:PRINT0322, "FILE NAME" I : 
I NPUTNA* : 8OTO920 

914 D— l:PRINT0322, "FILE NAME",: 
I NPUTNA* : PR I NT0386 , " RUN PAST LEA 
DER Y/N": INPUTI*: IFI*-"Y"THENMOT 
ORON : FORK- 1 TO6000 : NE X T : : QOTO950 

915 BOTO950 



TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER* 

-16K Extended Basic, Menu-Driven, Well-Documented, Easily-Modified. 
-For either cassette or diskette systems (Be sure to specify). 
-Place an order of at least $40 and get one extra of your choice free. 
-Orders shipped on cassette - Add $5 for shipment on diskette. 



-FURST- sssr 

Data Element Dictionary driven File Update and 
Retrieval SysTem. Create and maintain files according 
to your specifications. Ideas for applications in- 
cluded $25 

-MAILING LABELS- EHK? 

Generate and maintain mailing label records. Selective- 
ly print desired quantities. Can keep several label files if 
desired. Designed for Printer VII, easily modified. $20 



-REPORT WRITER- n ™ 

Used in conjunction with FURST to selectively format 
reports on your printer. Includes headings and total 
capabilities $15 

-EXERCISE PLANNER- ESS? 
Build and maintain complete exercise schedule for 
regular and/or weight programs. Display guides you 
through daily-calculated routines. Print complete 
schedule if desired $15 



RAINBOW 
i - - * - ■ - - 



-DISK DIRECTORY PRINT- 

For diskette users only. Get hard copy of disk directories on your printer for easy use and reference. Only $5 



Send check or money order to: 
____ LAND SYSTEMS 

VIST P.O. Box 232 

Bellbrook, Ohio 45305 



I MasterCard 1 



•TRS-80 and COLOR COMPUTER 
are Trademarks of Tandy Corp. 



194 the RAINBOW July 1983 



920 OPEN"I u ,D,NA«: 1-0 

925 IF EOF(D) THENCL08ED: IH-I : 60 

TO1000 

930 I-I+l:LINEINPUT#D, A»<I) :0OTO 



950 AUDI00N:0PEN"0 H ,D,NA*:F0RI-1 
TOIH: PRINTWD, A* < I ) : NEXT: CLOSED: I 
FCT >0AND D— 1 THENMOTORON : FORK- 1 T 
0600 : NEXT : MOTOROFF : CT-0EL8E 1 000 
1000 CL83:PRINT041, "CONHUNICATIO 
N3 M | : PR I NT073 , " WORD PROCESSOR " I : 
PRINT0105," VERSION 1.0 " I :PRIN 
T0197 f "nEW MESSAGE "|:P 
RINT0229, "CURRENT MESSAGE 
I 

1005 PRINT0261, "hULLETIN BOARD L 
I M I T8 " | : PR I NT0293 „ " p R I NT MESSAGE 

"I :PRINT0325 V "SAVE/LOAD 
MESSAGE 11 1 : FOR J-0TO0 : Z*-I NKEY 

»: J- ( z«- M " ) : next: z-instr < "NCBPS" 

, Z*> : IFZ-0THEN1000 

1010 ONZ GOTO 1020, 100, 1050,600, 9 



1020 fori-ito50:a*<I)-"":next: i- 
0: ih-0 

1050 cls3: pr i nt070, "bulletin boa 
rd limits" | :print0166, "character 
s/line "cl| :print019g, "1 ines/me 

S8AGE "LM| : PRINT0230, "oK AS I 
S "| : FORJ-0TO0: Z*-IN 



key*: J- < z*-" " ) : next: z-instr < "CLO 

",Z*):ONZ GOTO1060, 1070, 1080 
1055 GOTO 1050 

1060 C*-" " : PRINT0184, " "I : FORK- 
0TO1 : FORJ-0TO0: Z0-INKEY*: J- <Z*-" 

" ) : next: print01G4+k, z*i : c«-c*+z* 
: next: cl-val <c*> : gotoi 050 

1070 C«-" M :PRINT0216, M "CFORK- 
0TO1 : FORJ-0TO0: Z*-INKEY*: J— (Z*- N 

" ) : next: print«216+k, z*i : c«-c«+z* 
: next: lm-val <c«) : gotoi 050 
10g0 i f i h— 0then 1 00el8ei f i h >lm th 
encl83: prints 168, "current mes8ag 
e"| :print0299, " has more lines " 
i : pr i nt 0232, "than limit 8et."|:p 
rint0296," press any key " |: pr in 
t032g," to continue "|:forj-0to 
0: j— < i nkey*-" 11 ) : next 

1090 I-l:GOSUB300: GOTO 100 
2000 CLEARS000:DIMA*(50> 

2010 cl-64:lm-16:a-0:b-0:k-0 

2100 6OTO1000 

10000 AUDIOON: INPUT "RUN PAST LEA 
DER Y/N" | I*: I F I *- " Y " THENMOTORON : 
FORX-1TO6000: NEXT 

10010 F0RC-1T02:C8AVE"C0MMMP":M0 
TORON : FOR X - 1 TO600 : NEXT : NEX T : MOTO 
ROFF * END 

11000 PCLEARl:GOTO2000 






1 




JFD - COCO DISC SYSTEM -$449 





J & M Systems, Ltd. is a leader in the Model Hi 
marketplace with our JFD-III Disc Controller With 
thousands in operation, we have set new standards 
in controiler performance and reliability. We bring 
these same high standards to the COCO, resulting 
in the highest quality disc controller system on the 
market. Compare these functions before you buy: 

• Price. S449 includes controller, first drive, disc* 
basic in ROM, and manuals. Just plug it in. 

* Never needs adjusting. Our exclusive Digital 
Phase Lock Loop Data Separator and Digital Pre- 
comp Circuit eliminates the 3 adjustments found 
on other controllers. / 
High quality standard production disc drives. For 
improved service and reliability. Tan don & Teac - 
drives provide twice the read sensitivity that the 
drives found in other disc systems do, and hold 
their alignment far longer. } 

■ Oo id-plated card edge connectors throughout. 

■ Software compatible with Radio Shack Disc 
Basic, Flex, and OS/9. j 

J & M Systems, Ltd. 137 Utah NE, Albuquerque, N.M. 87108 
(505) 265-1501 / 

/ / 



*T1 




J&M SYSTEMS, LTD. 
I 1. 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 195 



Doin' the Hi-Res Shuffle 

Program 
By 

Phillip Beistel 

Shuffle is one of three programs on (he Rainbow 

' Record. ' See page 146. 



If youVe ever shuffled little numbered plastic squares 
around on a palm-sized plastic board, trying to order 
them chronologically, you know the game called Shuffle. 
Whether in its solid form it was called that or something else, 
1 Yn unsure. Nevertheless, it was always enjoyable — an estab- 
lished item in that revolving crop of kid-crazes which 
included the yo-yo, Hula hoop and Gumbo shooter. 

In its computerized form, the game gives up its pocket 
portability, but it gains in pizazz with some very nicely done 

(Mr. Beistel has been associated with large computer 
hardware and software for nearly 15 years and has 
been writing 80C software during the last three years.) 




FL Y the Fill 

Instrument 
Flight 

Simulator 

Variable control sensitivity for 
beginner or expert. Navigate a 
new course each flight or do 
aerobatics. Instrument takeoff s 
and landings. Get yours now to 
be elgible for future low cost 
upgrades. Specify 16K or 32K. 
Tape $19.95 Disk $21.95 

LPVII DMPIOO Descenders 

Its as if your printer had built 
in descenders. Load, execute, and 
forget its there. The lowercase 
set: #focdef ghj. jk 1 mriopqrs.tuvwxyz 
16K/32K Tape or Disk $14.95 
Add $1.00 Shipping on all orders. 

KRT Software 813-321-2840 
P O Box 41395 

St Petersburg, Fl 33743 



hi-res graphics. Phillip BeisteTs outstanding version of this 
classic, by the way, is not only listed here, but is also one of 
the three programs on our Rainbow "Record" which you 
will find on page 146. 

Shuffle has a couple of quite interesting features: the most 
obvious is the flashing name at the top of the screen. The 
routine starting at line 46 does the flashing. Also, Phillip 
uses the keyboard rollover table to allow f aster access of the 
keyboard. You'll find this within the line46 routine, as well. 

The game will randomly place 15 numbers inside a 4 x 4 
matrix. The object is to rearrange the numbers into ascend- 
ing order by using the arrow keys to move the blank square 
and, consequently, the numbers, around the screen. If you 
get frustrated, you can quit at any time by pressing the "Q" 
key. When the game is either finished, or you quit, the 
number of moves and the time used is displayed. 

We think this is an excellent quality game, worthy of its 
inclusion in our first"record,"and hope you will take advan- 
tage of this for easy loading. For those who prefer the direct 
approach, we give you the following listing. 



The listing: 



01 D3 

26 0472 

38 0727 

50 0A77 

70 0C1F 

90 0F17 

END ... 1044 



1 RUN6 

2 ' SHUFFLE 

3 ' by PHIL BEISTEL 

4 ' 1439 ARNOLD ST. 

5 ' PGH, PA. 15220 

6 if peek (&hc000) =126 and peek<& 
hc001>=126 then p0ke65495, 0 

8 xr=rnd < -t i mer ) : goto 1 09 

9 cls(rnd<8) ) : pr i nts 1 1 , " ' shuffle 
"■; :print@96, " arranse the numbe 
rs from 1 to": print" 15, upper l 
eft to lower right. " : print" use 
the arrow keys to move. " 

10 pr i nts228, "duplicate this pat 
tern: "; :print@298, " 12 3 4"; 
:print@330," 5 6 7 8";: prints 

362," 9 10 11 12"; :PRINT@394, "13 
14 15 



II 



196 the RAINBOW July 1983 



LEARN A SECOND LANGUAGE ON YOUR 

COLOR COMPUTER • NEW • exciting • easy 

Creative Courseware using the latest 
technology and Professional Programming 




Fulfill your educational objectives • Improve your job potential 
Have fun learning a new language • Young and old can learn 
Expand your children's horizons. • Affordable, only pennies per hour. 

• SEE — High quality visuals, not dotted graphics 

• HEAR — High quality audio as spoken by natives 

• UNDERSTAND — Through programmed instruction 

• RESPOND — Branching, and looping insure learning. 



Our Lessons Teach You to 
HEAR and THINK in a 
Second Language 

These lessons are for you if you: 

• Think you can't learn 

• Have had previous difficulties 

• Want to start out right 

• Want language success 



Lessons Now Available in 
Spanish, English and 
French 

• Color Computer with 16K RAM 
and tape recorder required 

• SLU-1: People, Persons & Family 

• SLU-2: Stand, Walk & Run 

• SLU-3: Smile. Eat & Talk 

• SLU-4: House 

• SLU-5: Open & Closed 

• SLU-6: Furniture & Appliances 

• SLU-7: Meals 

• Vocabulary #1 ,2 & 3: 200 words each 



Other Lessons and 
Languages Available Soon 



Special Values 

Special Value #1 

SLU 1 -3, VOCAB 1 , and Lesson Control 

A $129.75 Value for only $99.95. 

SV-1 (specify language desired) $99.95 

Special Value #2 

SLU 1-7, VOCAB 1-3, and Lesson Control 
A $249.45 Value for only $199.95. 

SV-2 (specify language desired). . . $199.95 

Demonstration Lesson (for the doubter) 
DEMO-1 $9.95 

Individual Lessons: 

(specify language desired) 

Second Language Usage (SLU) $19.95 

Vocabulary (SL) $19.95 

Lesson Control: (only one copy needed 

for all lessons and languages) 

LC-CC $49.50 



HOW TO HEAR AND THINK IN a second language 

Skilled linguists have developed our series of second language programs. The lessons utilize the power of programmed 
instruction wherein you are advanced to new material only after satisfactory learning has occurred at the current level. Our 
techniques teach you how to think in a language without initially using any printed text material. No mental translation to your 
native language is required. You learn as a child does, hearing and speaking before reading. The computer both tutors and 
keeps track of progress as it moves you forward (or backward when review is necessary). AUDIO plus VISUALS plus 
INTERACTIVE RESPONSEestablish the learning process, and literally THOUSANDSof visuals help seal-in the sound patterns 
of your new language. 

All of our lessons are interactive and user friendly; yet, you are unaware of the complex course structure involved. For 
example: Lesson SLU-1 uses the theme of PEOPLE, PERSONS & FAMILY to teach the use of nouns to name things, to classify 
them into categories, and to identify members of a group. Sentence structure is developed using the verb 'be' and its relationship 
to nouns and adverbs, including plural forms and inversions. Noun structure using definite and indefinite articles, and regular 
and irregular plural forms isalso presented. The other lessonsaresimilarly designed. In addition.each VOCABULARY LESSON 
presents approximately 200 visuals and 200 words that are integrated into the learning process. 

While the foregoing might seem complex, and it is, IT IS ALSO THE REASON OUR COURSEWARE CAN TEACH 
LANGUAGES. If you have tried 'game' or 'tape' language programs you know that they are ineffective. Our programs can teach 
you a language because we have successfully combined expert authoring of programmed courseware with audio & visuals & 
response & branching into a powerful tutorial package. 



DEALER INQUIRIES ACCEPTED 

We have a broad range of Audio 
Visual Computer Aided Instruc- 
tion under development. Some 
users of our courseware might 
include Day Care Centers, 
Schools (public and private), 
institutions in various categories, 
individuals and language tutors. 



ABSOLUTELY NO RISK 

You may examine your 
order for 15 days. If you de- 
cide not to take advantage 
of the lesson(s) simply re- 
turn in good condition for a 
full refund or cancellation 
of credit card charges. 



*WE PAY UPS IN USA 

(street address required for UPS) 
*Add $2.00 if US Mail desired. 

*Add 15% lor foreign, APO & FPO 

(Remit in US Funds) 
*Virginia Orders add 4% sales tax 
"Mail credit card orders please 

include al( card information 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA and 
MASTER CARD 

• Money Orders 

• Certified Checks 

• Other Checks (must 
clear before shipment) 



FREE ORDER LINE 

1-800-368-6300 
* • * 



1 



FOR VIRGINIA ORDERS 
AND OTHER CALLS: 

1-804-463-6300 



BASIC PROGRAMS, INC. 

236 Mustang Trait, #102 
Virginia Beach. VA 23452^ 



11 DIM A(4,4) ,B(16) : X16-0: Y16=0: 
M=0: ZT=0 

12 S*="T200L200O4V31; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6 
\ 7; 8} 91 10) 111 12? Ill 10;9":T*="T10 
0IL100V31|O4| l; 12" 

13 forx=ito4:fory»ito4:a<x,y>=0: 
nextyi nextx i screen0, 0: f0rx=1t016 
:b(X)=x:nextx 

14 f0rx=1t04:f0ry=1t04 

15 D=RND(16) 

16 IF B(D>=0 THEN 15 

17 IF D=16 THEN X16=X:Y16=Y 

18 A(X,Y)=B(D) :B(D)=0:NEXTY, X 

19 PMODEl,l:PCLS 

20 DRAW"C2;S8|BM72,4;BD1D1F1R3F1 
D261L3H1 BU5E 1 R3F 1 BR4BU 1 | D7U4R5NU 
3D4 ; BR4BU7D6 F 1 R3 E 1 U6BR4NR5D3NR4D 
4BR5; BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4BR5; BR4BU7D 
7R5| BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4R5" 

2 1 DRAW " C3 ; S4 ; BM28 , 28 ; R203 ; D 1 63 ; 
L203IU163" 

22 PAINT (40, 30) ,2,3 

23 DRAW "C3| S4|R51 ; D163; R51 ? U163; 
R51 \ D163I R50; U40| L203 ;U41 ; R203; U 
41IL203" 

24 G0SUB52 

25 F0RX=1T04:F0RY=1T04 

26 PLAY T*:X*=STR*(((X-l)»50)+32 
) :Y*=STR*( ( (Y-l)#40)+32) : ON A(X 



SP SOFTWARE 

cmtf<t<«- 

FOUR NEW PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 

SPDUMP A screen dump routine of 360 bytes of fasti 
relocatable machine language ante. All PMODESi color 
PMODES in h MM shades, twice size option in PWODES 3 
or 4, position dump on paper, inverse image option, do 
■ore than 1 screen as for MPP graphics. Works on 
DW200 LPVII etc. Ccwes with BASIC instructions. Needs 
BASIC1.1 or an flbit printer fix. On tape. $16 

CONCPOLY Use this menu driven program to design and 
draw a fantastic variety of intricate and colorful 
patterns, suitable for dump to a printer, includes 
examples and instructions. Works in a 16K computer, 
EXT. or DISK BASIC. Cmes on tape. *8 

SIXFOURK Use your 64K computer from BASIC. This 
program allows you to inspect RAM, move ROM to RAM and 
run it there, disable DISK or EXT. BASIC, and make 
setups with graphics, program, strings, and USR in 
upper or lower RAM to get the best use of RAM. The 
program does the setups and includes tutorials and 
instructions to let you make setups. On tape. $2fl 

ROTUORLD This showy program for the 6AK computer will 
display a rotating color globe of the earth. You get 
20 frames of a PM0DE1 globe which is loaded into 60K 
of RAM by a driver program plus an instruction program 
all on disk to show off your MK color computer. $25 

Free little graphics program with order or request for 
our catalog. For fast service send check or MO to: 

SP SOFTWARE, 1102 BILTMORE, LYNCHBURG VA 24502 
^ / 

198 the RAINBOW July 1983 



,Y) GOTO 29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36 
, 37 , 38, 39, 40, 41 , 42, 43, 44 

27 PRINTS483, "< PRESS ANY KEY TO 
PLAY. ) "» : I«=INKEY* 

28 I*=INKEY*:IF 1*="" THEN 28 EL 
SE SCREEN 1,0:BOTO53 

29 DRAW"C4;S8fBM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD5 
BR8E3D 1 3NL3R3 " : Q0T044 

30 DRAW"C4;S8;BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD6 
BR8U2E1 R6F 1 D4B1 L7D6R7 " I 60T044 

31 DRAW"C4;S8?BM"+X*+", "+Y«+"BD2 
BR6R6F 1 D4G 1 NL4F 1 D4G 1 L6 " I 60T044 

32 DRAW"C4;S8;BM ,, +X*+", "+Y*+"BD2 
BR 1 2ND 1 4G8R 12": G0T044 

33 DRAW"C4;S8;BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD3 
BR6NR8D6R7F 1 D4G 1L7H1U2" I G0T044 

34 DRAW"C4;S8;BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD3 
BR7R6F 1 H 1 L6G 1 D 1 0F 1 R6 E 1 U6H 1 L6G 1 " : 
G0T044 

35 DRAW"C4;S8;BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD3 
BR6R 1 0G2D 1 G2D 1 G2D 1 G2D 1 " : G0T044 

36 DRAW"C4;S8;BM"+X*+", "+Y«+"BD2 
BR8R6F 1 D4G 1 L6H 1 U4NE 1 D4F 1 G 1 D5F 1 R6 
E1U5H1":G0T044 

37 DRAW " C4 ; S8 ; BM " + X *+ " , " +Y*+ " BD3 
BR8R6F 1 D4G 1 L6H 1 U4NE 1 D4F 1 R6G6 " : GO 
T044 

38 DRAW "C4;S8;BM"+X*+" , " + Y*+ " BD5 
BR4E2D 1 2NL2R2BR4R4E 1 U 1 0H 1 L4G 1 D 1 0 
F1":G0T044 

39 DRAW ,, C4;S8;BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD4 
BR4E2D 1 2NL2R2BR4R2NR2U 1 2G2 " : GOTO 
44 

40 DRAW"C4;S8;BM ,, +X*+", "+Y*+"BD5 
BR4E2D 1 2NL2R2BR4NR5U6R4U 1 R 1 U4L 1 U 
1L3D1L1":G0T044 

41 DRAW " C4 ; S8; BM"+X*+" , "+Y*+"BD4 
BR4E2D 1 2NL2R2BR4R4E 1 U4H 1NL3E1 U4H 
1L4":G0T044 

42 DRAW"C4;S8;BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"BD4 
BR4E2D 1 2NR2L2BR 1 2U 1 2G6R8 " I G0T044 

43 DRAW " C4 ; S8 ; BM " + X *+ " , " +Y*+ " BD5 
BR4E2D 1 2NL2R2BR3BU 1 NU2F 1 R6E 1 U4H 1 
L6U6R7 " : G0T044 

44 IF MO0 THEN RETURN ELSE NEXT 
Y, X 

45 G0T027 

46 DRAW"C2;S8;BM72,4;BD1D1F1R3F1 
D2G1 L3H 1 BU5E 1 R3F 1 BR4BU 1 ; D7U4R5NU 
3D4 ; BR4BU7D6F 1R3E1 U6BR4NR5D3NR4D 
4BR5; BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4BR5; BR4BU7D 
7R5; BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4R5" 

47 IF PEEK (339) =251 OR PEEK < 341) 
=247 OR PEEK (342) =247 OR PEEK (34 

3) =247 OR PEEK (344) =247 THEN 50 

48 DRAW"C3; S8; BM72, 4; BD1D1F1R3F1 
D2G 1 L3H 1 BU5E 1R3F1 BR4BU 1 ; D7U4R5NU 
3D4 ; BR4BU7D6F 1 R3 E 1 U6BR4NR5D3NR4D 
4BR5; BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4BR5; BR4BU7D 
7R5; BU7BR4NR5D3NR4D4R5 " 




'THE ALTERNATIVE 

COLOR COMPUTER 
DISK SYSTEMS 

% 449*« fl0 D r 200 K BYT 



if 



SS 549« 



ROM SOFTWARE 



80 TRACK 
DRIVE 



200 K BYTES 

USER STORAGE 

400 K BYTES 

USER STORAGE 



Jr I VVMKC INCLUDES; TC-99 Disk Controller W/CCMD 9 DOS 
_ t Qrt ROM ■ AO Or 80 Track otik Gave * Power Supply * 

r^r^nf riV.il nnc Ca5e ■ 2 Drive cable * 9 Disk utility Programs 
: Lompatioie uub , CCEDT9 Te)(t Editor . Disk y ext processor i 

Manufactured Under License From Tall Grass Technologies 



Editor / Assembler CO-RES9 



CO-RES9 is a Co-resident Editor/Assembler that 
will allow you to create, edit and assemble 
machine language programs for the cg>lcr c$r%iy 
puter. it will quickly. ^(Jswflll^^^n^i^ 
assembly language .c 0^<^i^ife^||p.^nG^<^ lWf^ code 
fljes^t witfoutftul rttaeirie otsjecttbde to either . 
cassett0i%>e ii^t'lTODM^ compatible farnpat gr|..f 
dteffiv'td memory for direct«xeo#&f|%! 

, ..i^ifMIC.. . H il l 
CO-RES9 editor /ls^i|rt^pe ^ " 1 
0 \p||^ai lg. 7:. . ^sftss: $29.95 

l^|i#i)(TOR & ASSEMBLER Disk 

w/manual z$2&9^ $49.95 




, "The Profession 





3>f 



-^j-V- 



> %ipgr^mmabje Footer 

• Right Justify Line 

• Multiple Footnotes 

• Three, indent M*wfes1| 
•:^7|tt'€SS%i^ramj^bJi? Headers 

• rein ftrb^rammapie ^tafr stops 

*. : ??Maj^n jjiustification 
LelFt & Right 

• Decimal Align, Center, Left & 

Right Justify on Tab Column 

• Display & input from Keyboard 

• change Formatting During 

Processing 



Ofcessor" 

TEXT EDITOR FEATURES 

Single Keystrpjc^f* 

Wpen&Ptfas Ipftt Tape otBis* 
F^ly inte^t|$^£*fte 

rat or Process Fries Larger 

Than Memory 
(No conversion Required) Fully 

asc 11 compatible 
Full Featured Line Oriented 

Screen Editor 
Search and Replace Any 

Character Pattern 
Copy, Move or Delete Lines 

or Blocks of Text 
Edit Basic, Text or Assembler 

Files 



TEXT PRO 11 Features Over 70 commands in All. Disk ... $79.95 



TERMINAL PACKAGE 



Full Text Buffering 

Terminal Baud Rates 300 To 9600 Baud 
Automatic word wrap Eliminates Split words 
Full/Half Duplex 
Automatic File Capture 

Programmable Word Length, Parity & Stop Bits 
Automatic Buffer Size At Memory Limit 
Save & Load Text Buffer To Tape Or Disk 
Send Files Directly From Buffer Or Disk 
Full Disk Support For Disk version 
Printer Baud Rates 110-4800 
Send Control codes From Keyboard ffrv 
ASCII compatible File Format rainbow 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 



• Display On Screen or Output Contents Of Buffer 
To Printer 

we also have a disk version available called "DISKPACK." 
it includes all the commands mentioned plus com- 
mands for disk control. They include: Disk Load, Disk 
Save, Directory, Send Disk File and Kill Disk File. As usual 
all files are Basic Compatible ASCII formatted files 
which are also compatible with our Text Editor and 
word Processor programs. 

Datapack on tape w/manual S24.95 

Diskpack for R.s. disk w / manual $a9.95 

Diskpack for CCMD 9 w/manual $39.95 



(702) 152-0632 



All Orders Shipped 
From Stock 
Add $2.50 
Postage 



49 IF PEEK (339)0251 AND PEEK (34 
1)<>247 AND PEEK (342) <>247 AND P 
EEK (343)0247 AND PEEK (344) <>247 

THEN 46 

50 RETURN 

51 PAINT (( (X16-l)*50) +32, ( (Y16-1 
)*40)+32) ,2, 3: RETURN 

52 PAINT (( (X16-l)*50) +32, ( (Y16-1 
)*40)+32) ,4, 3: RETURN 

53 T I MER=0 

54 M=1:G0SUB46 

55 IF PEEK (339) =251 THEN 108 
ZT=ZT+1 

IF PEEK (341) =247 THEN 62 
IF PEEK (342) =247 THEN 75 

59 IF PEEK ( 343 ) =247 THEN 68 

60 IF PEEK ( 344 ) =247 THEN 81 

61 G0T054 

62 IF Y16=4 THEN SOUND 100, 1 : GOTO 
54 

63 G0SUB51 

64 A(X16,Y16)=A(X16, Y16+1) 

65 X=X16:Y=Y16:G0SUB26 

66 Y16=Y16+l:G0SUB52 

67 G0T087 

68 IF X16=4 THEN SOUND 1 00, 1 : GOTO 
54 

69 G0SUB51 



Co Co - Cooler & 




• Brings operating 
temperature 
to ambient, 
regardless 
of 

accessory 
load 

• Reduces temperature 
of ENTIRE computer . . . 
not just the SAM chip 

• Easy 1-minute installation 



Companion Keyboard Cover $7.95 
Co Co Software 

• Send For Free Catalog • For Fastest Service 
Send Money Order Or Certified Check • Add 
$2.00 Shipping Charge Per Order • Calif. 
Residents Add 6*A% Sales Tax • All Merchandise 
Shipped From Stock • 



$39. 95 




70 A(X16, Y16)=A(X16+1, Y16) 

71 X=X16: Y=Y16:G0SUB26 

72 X16=X16+l:G0SUB52 

73 G0T087 

74 END 

75 IF Y16=l THEN SOUND 1 00, 1 : GOTO 
54 

76 G0SUB51 

77 A(X16, Y16)=A(X16, Y16-1) * 

78 X=X16: Y=Y16:G0SUB26 

79 Y 1 6=Y 1 6- 1 : G0SUB52 

80 G0T087 

81 IF X16=l THEN SOUND 1 00, 1 : GOTO 
54 

82 G0SUB51 

83 A(X16,Y16)=A(X16-1,Y16) 

84 X=X16:Y=Y16:G0SUB26 

85 X16=X16-l:G0SUB52 

86 G0T087 

87 IF A(l,l)=l AND A (2,1) =2 AND 
A(3,l)=3 AND A(4,l)=4 AND A (1,2) 
=5 AND A(2,2)=6 AND A(3,2)=7 AND 

A (4, 2) =8 AND A (1,3) =9 AND A (2,3 
)=10 AND A(3,3)=ll AND A(4,3)=12 
AND A(l,4)=13 AND A(2,4)=14 AND 
A(3,4)=15 THEN 89 

88 G0T054 

89 WN=TIMER:CLS(RND(8) > 

90 SC=l:FORQ=lTO10 

91 SCREEN1,SC 

92 PLAY S* 

93 IF SC=1 THEN SC=0:GOTO95 

94 SC=1 

95 NEXT Q 

96 PRINT@99," YOU COMPLETED THE 
PUZZLE "; 

97 PRINTS138," IN" ; ZT; "MOVES "; 

98 SC=1 

99 SQ=INT(WN/60) : MQ=INT (SQ/60) :S 
Q=SQ-MQ*60 

100 IF MQ=0 THEN 102 

101 PRINTS170, MQ;"MIN. AND";SQ; 
"SEC. " ;: GOTO 103 

102 PRINTS170, SQ;"SEC"; 

103 PRINTS481, "PRESS Y TO TRY AG 
AIN. N TO END"; 

104 I*=INKEY*:IF 1*="" THEN 104 

105 IF I*="Y" THEN M=0 : CLS ( RND ( 8 
) > IPRINTS200, " RESTARTING ";:TIM 
ER=0 : ZT=0 : GOTO 1 2 

106 IF I*<>"N" THEN104 

107 CLS (RND (8) >:PRINT@203, "T.T.F 
.N. "; :PRINT@448, "BYE-BYE"; : P0KE6 
5494 , 0 : NEW 

108 CLS(RND(8> >:PRINT@102, " YOU 
GAVE UP AFTER " ; : PRINTS138, ZT; "M 
OVES AND "; :WN=TIMER:G0T098 

109 PCLEAR2:G0T09 



L 



REM Industries, Inc. 

9420 "B" LurlineAve., Chatsworth, CA91311 

(213)341-3719 J 



200 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Software Revie 




Stock Option Strategies 
For Experienced Traders 



Stock options — Ah, visions of gleaming Rolls Royces, a 
seaside hideaway in the Caribbean, and me sipping rum 
drinks with bits of tropical fruit floating in them. All this and 
more drifted through my mind as I gazed at the Slock 
Option Strategies cassette in my hand. 

Stock options offer the potential of immense gains for 
relative small investments, they also havea darkerside — the 
possibility of sudden and complete loss of your investment. 

Thequestion was would this program and my trusty 80-C 
be able to guide me around the pitfalls of sudden loss and to 
a life of ease and plenty which I so justly deserve? 

Tm sad to report that this review is being typed into my 
CoCo in the somewhat cluttered office of my home, instead 
of overlooking blue waters with a tanned companion at my 
side. 

Advertising for the Stock Option Strategies program 
states that the program allows you to devise your own stock 
option strategies. Alas, the program did not allow me to do 
so. The problem lies more with the documentation than the 
program. 

Program documentation only consists of a % page 
xeroxed copy of typed instructions. Assumptions are made 
that the user is familiar with all the terminology of buying 
stock options, how they work and where to find the neces- 
sary information. 

For instance, if you know what a strike price is, you're 
OK, if not, forget it, Charlie. The only hint as to where to 
find necessary information is a reference advising you to 
consult the Wall Street Journal. 

A common mistake has been made by the author in 
asuming that the user has a working knowledge of the 
specific activities associated with the program. The program 
makes sense to the author, so it must be fine. Testing the 
program with end users of ter leads to adding needed addi- 
tional explanations and instructions. 

Documentation on a program of this type should include 
an explanation of how stock options are traded and a com- 
plete and concise set of definitions for all requested 
INPUTS. 



Instructions on how to "test run" a few examples to 
familarize yourself with the programs operation should also 
be included so that the user can become comfortable with 
the program before taking a plunge with more than monop- 
oly money. The single paragraph explanation of the mecha- 
nisms involved in stock option trading is just not enough. 

The program itself does not offer the "bells and whistles" 
one expects from a professionally marketed, business- 
oriented program. The frills, like a colorful title page, are 
missing, but more important options, like saving your data 
and results todisk ortapefor later retrieval, or printingyour 
data on a printer, are also missing. 

The program has a routine which graphs future stock 
prices in color and shows the resultant gains and losses. 

Overall, the detail and presentation of Stock Option 
Strategies is not what I would expect from a tape available 
from a mailorder software marketer. 

Greentree Software has missed regarding their target 
aud ience. In its existingform, it is most usable only by those 
now actively involved in stock option trading. I cannot 
recommend this program to those interested in learning 
about stock options before investing. As mentioned before, 
the problem lies more with incomplete documentation than 
the program itself. 

Stock Option Strategies requires J6X. 

(Greentree Software, P.O. Box 97, Greenwood, IN 46142, 

$14.95) 

—Bruce Rothermel 



Hint 



Saving In ASCII 



When you SAVE programs, CoCo can perform this 
function in two ways, by using binary codes or actual letters 
and numbers (called ASCII and pronounced AS-KEY). 

Although it takes longer, ASCII sometimes is a more 
accurate way to SAVEa program, especially when you may 
be transferring programs between systems — say from a disk- 
based to a cassette-based system. 

To SAVE in ASCII, simple add a comma and an "A" to 
the end of your SAVE instruction, like this: CSAVE 
"PROGRAM", A and the ASCII SAVE will be done by 
CoCo. 





★ ★ CoCo T-SHIRTS ★ * 





HANES QUALITY — TAN WITH COLORFUL GRAPHICS 
GREAT FOR INDIVIDUALS AND CLUBS 

SIZES. SM, MED, LG, XLG CHILDS 10/12, 14/16 
PRICES: $6.95 EA. OR 2-5 AT $6.50 EA., 
6-11 AT $6.25 EA., OR 12 & UP AT $5.95 EA. 

SPECIFY QUANTITY AND SIZE WHEN ORDERING 
SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 

CoConut Products 

6400 N.W. 34th AVE., FT. LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA 33309 
SEND $1.00 FOR POSTAGE AND HANDLING 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 201 



Memory 

Brain Strain With Schmaltz 

By Jim Schmidt 



Memory is several things at once. Obviously, it's a game. 
But it isalso something of a memory trainer. Based on sound 
research, the concepts it uses are valid and real. It remains to 
be seen, however, if the memory improvement one seems to 
experience will last. 

The use of simple ASCII character graphics along with 
sound, and care taken in the borders of the instructions give 
added interest, 1 hope, to the program. 

All of us have purchased programs that perform quite 
well in their functions, but have such minor imperfections as 
misspelled words, words broken on the screen, vague 
instructions, and endless black text on green. It seems that 
having gotten the program to run properly, the programmer 
quits! Not much (if any) thought is given to packaging and 
eye appeal. 

Memory is perhaps the other extreme. I normally would 
not load up sucha simplegame withas much gingerbread. It 
was done primarily to illustrate some of the things that can 
be done quite easily. 



SPECTRAN 
— SPECTACULATOR TO ASCII — 
— ASCII TO SPECTACULATOR — 



RAINBOW 



Use Your Word Processing Program 
To Include Spectacul ator Tables In Your 

Reports 

Run Spec tacul ator On Data Files Created 
Outside Of Spectacu 1 ator 

Spectran is a easy to use program for unleashing the 
power of Disk Spec t acul ator . ML makes it quick. Works 
with ASCII compatible WP programs on 16K or 32K Disk 
systems. Use spreadsheet tables in your reports. Use 
downloaded data in Spectaculator . Easy to follow manual 
with examples. On diskette for *25. 00 postpaid. 

DISK UTILILTY PACKAGE 



DIRDUPL - 

Simple program for protecting 
bombed diskettes. 



and restoring many 



DISKLOOK - 

— > Disk utility program to examine and change 

data bytes on diskettes. 
— > File analysis. 

— > List granules allocated to a disk file. 
— > Alter Directory contents. 

-> Simultaneous listing of diskette data contents 

in ASCII and HEX formats. 
— > User friendly. 

The DISK UTILITY PACKAGE including DIRDUPL, DISKLOOK, 
and manuals on diskette for SlS.00 postpaid. 

INTRODUCTORY OFFER! 

For a limited time, if you order Spectran at $25.00 we 
will include the DISK UTILITY PACKAGE and manuals at no 
extra cost. Now that's a bargain! 

CRIMSON SOFTWARE 
The RESEARCH ASSOCIATES Group 
32 Beverly Heights 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35404 




Regardless of what program you're working on, 1 don't 
think it ever hurts to throw in a little schmaltz! 

Memory is one of three programs on the Rainbow 

'Record. 'See page 146. 



For those with I6K. 
machines, a PCLEAR I 
will be needed prior to 
CLOADing to provide 
enough free memory to 
load the program. 

The listing: 



30 0049 

150.... 01CB 

480 05A6 

760 08D4 

920 0B98 

1100 ... 0E71 
1260 ...111B 



1440 

1620 

1770 

2040 

3055 . 

11500 

END , 



13D3 
16B5 
. 1922 
1C8D 
. 1FEE 
22A9 
. 25F3 



10 ' THE MEMORY BUILDER 

20 * A LEARNING GAME BY 

30 * JIM SCHMIDT 

40 ' 196 A ARLENE CT. 

50 ' WHEELING, IL. 

60 ' 60090 

62 CLS0 

63 POKE280, PEEK (275) 

64 CLEAR 1000 

65 GOSUB 10000 
67 GOTO30000 
70 GOSUB 1980 

80 ' ENTRY FOR RERUN 
90 CLS0 

100 GOSUB2200: PRINT© 128, 11 MAN 
T INSTRUCTIONS? - < Y/N) " : POKE1 15 
2,DB:P0KE1183,DB 

110 A*=INKEY*:IF A*="" THEN 110 
120 IF A*="Y" THEN GOSUB 750 
1 30 CLS0 : GOSUB2200 : PR I NT© 1 28 , " 

NUMBER OF STRINGS (1-9)": POKE 
1 152, DB: POKE 1 183, DB 
140 AI*=INKEY*: IF AI*="" THEN 140 



(Mr. Schmidt is a professional in data processing. 
Currently, he is a Senior System A nalyst and special- 
izes in financial I business software and systems develop- 
ment.) 



202 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



NOW THE DEST IS 
EVEN BETTER! 



MASTER CONTROL II 

from Soft Sector Marketing 

The best doesn't always cost more and 
MASTER CONTROL is a good example. What 
would you be willing topay for a program that 
would cut your typing time by more than 50% 
and eliminate hours of debugging because 
you misspelled acommandword? Forexample 
the command STRINGS(requires nine strokes, 
with MASTER CONTROL II you only require 
two strokes. Just hit the down arrow key twice 
and it's done, and no mistakes. That is just one 
of the 50 pre-programmed commands avail- 
able to you. If that isn't enough you also have 
the ability tocustomizeyour own key toentera 
statement or command, correctly, automatically 
every time. But thats not all, how about auto- 
matic line numbering. Just enter the starting 
number and the increment you want and 
MASTER CONTROL II will do it for you. You 
also have direct control of MOTOR, AUDIO 
and TRACE plus a direct RUN key. Sounds 
great? Well thousand of color computer owners 
have been enjoying these features for years. 
But now the new MASTER CONTROL II also 
has the following features: 

* New plastic overlay that can be removed 
when you are not using MASTER 
CONTROL II. 

* New documentation, to help you get the 
most from the program. 

* New repeating keyboard. 

* New-now loads to disk with appropriate 
disk commands. 

List price $19.95 



Introductory price 



88 



Plus $2.50 Shipping & Handling 

SAVE A BUCK...Order the NANOS Color 
Basic and Extend pocket card with your 
MASTER CONTROL II and you get this $4.95 
value for only $3.95 extra. (NANOS pocket 
card not sold separately.) 



166 
PAGES 



only 

S14.95 

plus 12.50 
shipping 



FOR THE 
COLOR 
COMPUTE*' 



A MU5T DOOK 
for the 
Color 
computer 
owner! 

Schematics 
* 

Spec 
Sheets 



CoCo 
ZWalehousa 



SPECIALS 

DONKEY KING 

by Tom Mix Software 

Exciting sound-Realistic graphics. Never 
before have you seen a game like thisforyour 
CoCo. Four graphic screens just like the 
actual arcade games. 

Requires 32K TAPE...J19.95 

IFYOU DON'T HAVE 32KORDERTHE RAM 
SLAM. THIS SIMPLE KIT TO UPGRADE 
YOURCOCO TAKES LESSTHAN 30 MINUTES 
TO INSTALL, NO SOLDERING REQUIRED... 

only $49.95 

KEYS of the 
WIZARD 

By Spectral Associates 

Keys of the Wizard is a fast- 
action, Machine language ad- 
venture game filled with tricks, 
traps, treasures and creatures 
all of which are randomized at 
the beginning of each adven- 
ture so that no adventure will 
ever be exactly the same. Three 
different skill levels to choose 
from. Cassette only. 

Reg. $1$.$5 .. $16.95 

MAGIC BOX 

By Spectral Associates 

Magic Box is a special pur- 
pose utility designed to load 
TRS-80 Model I and III 50 
Baud Basic programs into the 
Color Computer. Makes avail- 
able a wide selection of soft- 
ware. Magic Box DOES NOT 
convert Machine language pro- 
grams. Requires 16 K Extended 
BASIC. 

Reg. $24.^5 ...... $21.95 

DOODLE DUG 

by Computerwore 

You must hustle your lady bug through an 
intricate maze of barriers and turnstiles, while 
trying toearn pointsby eating all the dots, letters 
and hearts. Enemy bugs buzz after you and 
you must avoid the skulls! Exquisite sound 
adds to the excitement. A must game for any- 
one who enjoys fun and a challenge. 

Cosserre...$21.21 



ORDER YOUR COPY TODAY! 

The first document to provide information that will 
allowthe usertotakeadvantage of all thefeaturesof 
the Color Computer. Aimed at the machine language 
user. 

The FACTS attempts to explain, and describes in 
detail, how the user can make use of the computers 
internal features. Divided into two sections: Hardware 
and software; the primary emphasis is on hardware 
capabilities and circuits. Provides detailed explan- 
ations of all the internal large scale integrated 
circuits. 



WRITE FOR OUR CATALOG 
SEND ORDERS TO 



500 N. Dobson • Westland, Ml 46185 

Phone C0 13) 722-7957 




KATERPILLAR ATTACK by Tom Mix Soft- 
ware. Katerpillar is a fast-paced arcade game 
Machine language. Requires joysticks. 
Cassette only . $24.95 

GHOST GOBBLER by Spectral Associates 
This is an excellent version of the popular 
arcade game of PAC-MAN. You control 
maze with the right joystick. Requires Ex- 
tended BASIC. 

Cassette only $21.95 

WAR KINGS by Tom Mix Software 
Shield your castle from cannonball attacks 
and deflect them towards your opponent's 
castle. Machine language, Ext BASIC. Re- 
quires joysticks. 

Cassette only $19.95 

HAYWIRE by Mark Data 

Have fun zapping robots with fast paced 

action combined with dynamite sound effects 

and super Hi- Res graphics. For one or two 

players. 

Cassette only $24.95 

GALAX ATT AX by Spectral Associates 
Under a constant barrage of enemy fire you 
protect your ground base by shooting alien 
fighters. Use the right joystick to control the 
motion of your ship and right fire button to 
fire. 

Cassette only $21.95 

BATTLEFLEET by Spectral Associates 
This grown-up version of Battleship is the 
toughest thinking game available. There is 
no luck involved as you seek out the com- 
puters hidden fleet. 

Cassette only , , $14.95 

CAVE HUNTER by Mark Data Products 
Fast-paced action for the Color Computer 
Super Hi-Res graphics, dynamite sound ef- 
fects. This game will astonish you with its 
detail and quality. 

Cassette only . $24.95 

SPACE TRADERS by Spectral Associates 
Space Traders is a fast moving galactic trading 
game for the Color Computer. Requires Ext. 
BASIC. 

Cassette only . $14.95 

TYPING TUTOR 

This personal typing teacher allows you to 
learn at your own pace whether a beginner or 
just a little rusty. 1 6K 

Cassette-,* 19.95 



HOW TO ORDER BY MAIL: For prompt and courteous shipment, SEND MONEY ORDER, CERTIFIED CHECK, 
CASHIERS CHECK, MASTERCARD/VISA (include card number, inter-bank No., expiration date and signature) 
PERSONAL AND BUSINESS CHECKS MUST CLEAR OUR BANK BEFORE PROCESSING. Shipping and packaging 
charge of $2.50 minimum must be added to all orders in continental U.S. (Canadian order $5.00 minimum) Michigan 
residents include 4% sales tax 10% deposit required on C.O.D. orders. 



1 50 S0UND234 , 1 : A= VAL < A I * ) 

160 IF A=0 THEN PRINT" 

CAN'T BE ZER0":S0UND7,7:F0R L0=1 

TO 100: NEXT: GOTO 130 
165 I FA >5THENPR I NT " 
1 70 CLS0 : GOSUB2200 : PR I NT@ 1 28 , " 

LENGTH OF STRINGS <l-9> " : POK 
E1152,DB:P0KE1183,DB 
180 BI*=INKEY*: IFBI*="" THEN 180 
1 90 S0UND234 , 1 : B-VAL < B I * ) 
200 IF B-0 THEN PRINT" 
CAN'T BE ZER0":S0UND7,7:F0R LO-1 

TO 100: NEXT: GOTO 170 
210 CLS0: GOSUB2200 : PR I NTS 1 28 , " 
DIFFICULTY LEVEL <TIME>< l-5>" : PO 
KE1152,DB:P0KE1183,DB 
220 CI*-INKEY*: IF CI*-"" THEN 22 
0 

230 S0UND234 , 1 : C- V AL ( C I * ) 

240 IF C=0 THEN PRINT" 

CAN'T BE ZERO": S0UND7,7:F0R LO=l 

TO 100: NEXT: GOTO 210 
242 IF C>5 THEN PRINT" YOU 
MUST BE KIDDING! !! " : S0UND7 , 7 : FOR 

LO=1TD100:NEXT:GOTO210 
250 C=900/C 
260 GOSUB 330 



PRESS SPACE BAR 



Introducing - MORE Quality Software by MSI. 

Featuring * COLOR FINANCE for the Color 
Computer - 32k Ext. Disk req'd. $59.95 

Features include: 



User Friendly - No programming knowledge 
required 

Fully documented/Easy to use 
Maintain up to 21 Asset, 21 Liability, 
and 54 Expense Accounts 

Print Options (Account Statements, Budgets, 

Trial Balance, & MORE!) 

Backup/Restore To Cassette Tape 

Large 42 x 32 screen display 

Sample Session Included for Fast and Easy 

Instruction. 

ONLY $59.95 
^^^^^^^^ exclusively from 

Delker Electronics, Inc. 



* 

* 




DELKER 




(Dealer Inquiries welcome) 
Delker Electronics, Inc. 
P.O. Box 897 
Dept D 

Smyrna, TN 37167 
800-251-5008 

615-459-2636 (Tennessee) 



270 CLS0 
280 PRINTS32, " 

WHEN READY" 
290 PR I NTS 140, "ready ??" 
292 PRINTS 148, STRING* (11, CHR* ( 14 
4) > :P0KE1183, 144:P0KE1169, 144 
300 GOSUB2200 

310 A*»INKEY*:IF A*-"" THEN 310 
320 GOTO 490 

330 NO*-"Y":GOSUB9000:DIM AA* (A) 
:DIM ZZ*(A) 

340 DATA A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H, I, J,K,L 

,M,N,0,P,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z 

350 FOR I»1T0A 

360 FOR K=1T0B 

370 D»RND<26) 

380 FOR J=1T0D 

390 READ BB* 

400 NEXT 

410 RESTORE 

420 AA* < I ) =AA* < I ) +BB* 

430 PR I NTS 128-32, "PLEASE WAIT... 



It 



440 S0UND234, 1 

450 PRINT8128, "I'M GETTING MY ST 
UFF TOGETHER. " 
460 NEXT: NEXT 
470 RETURN 
480 CLS 

490 FOR L=1T0A 

493 PRINTS224, ">»»»»>" 

500 PRINT@235,AA*(L) 

503 PRINTS246, "<«<<<<<<<" 

510 FOR M=1T0C:NEXT 

515 S0UND245, 1 

516 PRINTS225, STRING* < 30, 255) 
520 NEXT 

530 SOUND 200, l:SOUND200, 1 

540 CLS0:PRINT" ANSWER TI 

ME ! ! ! ! " 

550 PRINT "ENTER STRINGS ONE AT 
A TIME AND < ENTER > AFTER EACH" 
560 FORAZ=lTOA 
570 INPUTZZ*(AZ) 

580 IF AA*(AZ) ><ZZ*(AZ) THENGOSU 

B9000 : SOUND 1 34 , 7 : S0UND2 , 24 : PR I NT 

"YOU MISSED IT. . . ":PRINT"YOU ENT 

ERED ";ZZ*(AZ>;" SHOULD BE "AA*( 

AZ) :R-R+l:GOTO 690 

590 NEXT 

600 GOSUB 9000 

610 PRINTS96, " ALL STRINGS ARE 

CORRECT !!!!!" 

620 SOUND 69, 2: SOUND 111,9 

630 SOUND 69, 2: SOUND 111,9 

640 SC=<A*2)+<B*3)+<VAL<CI*>*4>* 

10 

650 PRINTS 160, "YOUR SCORE IS ";S 
C 

660 PRINT"" 



204 



the RAINBOW July 1983 




READ THE FINE PRINT. 

It's worth your time. This is good stuff. 



SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 



MACRO-BOC 

This is a disk-based editor, macro assembler and 
monitor, written for Color Computer by Andy Phelps. 
THIS IS iT — The ultimate programming tooil 

The powerful 2-pass macro assembler features condi- 
tional assembly, local labels, Include files and cross 
referenced symbol tables. Macro80C supports the 
complete Motorola 6809 Instruction set in standard 
source format. There are no changes, constraints or 
shortcuts in the source language definition. Incor- 
porating all of the features of our Rompack-based 
assembler (SDS80C), MACRO-80C contains many 
more useful Instructions and pseudo-ops which aid 
the programmer and add power and flexibility. 

The screen-oriented text editor Is designed for 
efficient and easy editing of assembly language pro- 
grams. The "Help Key" feature makes It simple and 
fun to learn to use the editor. As the editor requires no 
line numbers, you can use the arrow keys to position 
the cursor anywhere In the file. Macro-80C allows 
global changes and moving/copying blocks of text. 
You can edit lines of assembly source which are 
longer than 32 characters. 

DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows 
examining and altering of memory, setting break 
points, etc. 

The editor, assembler and monitor — as well as 
sample programs — come on one Radio Shack com- 
patible disk. Extensive documentation included. 
MACRO-BOC Price: $99.95 

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

The Micro Works Software Development System 
(SDS80C) Is a complete 6809 editor, assembler and 
monitor package contained in one Color Computer 
program pack! Vastly superior to RAM-based 
assemblers/editors, the SDS80C is non-volatile, 
meaning that If your application program bombs, It 
can't destroy your editor/assembler. Plus It leaves 
almost all of 16K or 32K RAM free for your program. 
Since all three programs, editor, assembler and 
monitor are co-resident, we eliminate tedious 
program loading when going back and forth from edit- 
ing to assembly and debugging! 

The powerful screen-oriented Editor features finds, 
changes, moves, copys and much more. All keys have 
convenient auto repeat (typamatlc), and since no line 
numbers are required, the full width of the screen 
may be used to generate well commented code. 

The Assembler fealures all of the following: complete 
6809 instruction set; conditional assembly; local 
labels; assembly to cassette tape or to memory; 
listing to screen or printer; and mnemonic error codes 
instead of numbers. 

The versatile monitor is tailored for debugging pro- 
grams generated by the Assembler and Editor. It 
features examine/change of memory or registers, cas- 
sette load and save, breakpoints and more. SDS80C 
Price: $89.95 

MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH 

• Forth Is faster to program in than Basic 
• Forth Is easier to learn than Assembly Language 
• Forth executes in less time than Basic 

Forth is a highly interactive language like Basic, with 
structure like Pascal and execution speed close to 
that of Assembly Language. The Micro Works Color 
Forth is a Rompack containing everything you need 
to run Forth on your Color Computer. 

Color Forth consists of the standard FORTH Interest 
Group (FIG) Implementation of the language plus 



most of FORTH-79. It has a super screen editor with 
split screen display. Mass storage is on cassette. 
Color Forth also contains a decompiler and other aids 
for learning the Inner workings of this fascinating 
language. It will run on 4K, 16K, and 32K computers. 
Color Forth contains 10K of ROM, leaving your RAM 
for your programs! There are simple words to effec- 
tively use the Hl-Res Color Computer graphics, Joy- 
sticks, and sound. The 112-page manual Includes a 
glossary of the system-specific words, a full standard 
FIG glossary and complete source listing. COLOR 
FORTH . . . THE BESTI From the leader in Forth, 
Talbot Microsystems. Price: $109.95 

MICROTEXT: COMMUNICATIONS 

VIA YOUR MODEM! 

Make your Color Computer an intelligent printing 
terminal with off-line storage! The Mlcrotext module 
Is just what you'll need for: 

— Talking to a tlmeshare system or Information 
service 

— Printing out what Is received as It Is received 

— Saving received text to cassette tape 

— Re-dlsplaylng the received text even while 
on-line 

— Communications with other computers 

— Using your computer as a general-purpose 
300-baud terminal 

— Downloading programs from other computers 

The Mlcrotext module is a program pack containing 
not only firmware but a second serial port so that 
both your printer and modem can be connected at the 
same time. Mlcrotext can be configured for any serial 
printer that will work with the Color Computer, even If 
It requires line feedsl But even If you don't have a 
printer, you can keep a permanent copy of your data 
by storing to cassette tape. Also, any Radio Shack/ 
Centronics-compatible parallel printer may be used 
by adding the Micro Works' PI80C parallel interface. 

For those of you with special terminal applications, 
Mlcrotext has selectable parity; it sends odd, even, 
mark or space. With mark parity (which Is default) you 
can send to computers requiring either seven or eight 
bits. All 128 ASCii codes can be sent. Exchange pro- 
grams with other Color Computer users! Basic pro- 
grams may be downloaded from other computers or 
timesharing systems. 

You'll find many uses for this versatile module! 
Available in ROMPACK, ready-to-use, for $59.95. 

MACHINE LANGUAGE 

MONITOR TAPE: A cassette tape which allows you to 
directly access memory, I/O and registers with a 
formatted hex display. Great for machine language 
programming, debugging and learning. It can also 
send/receive RS232 at up to 9600 baud, including 
host system download/upload. 19 commands In all. 
Relocatable and reentrant. CBUG Tape Price: $29.95 

MONITOR ROM: The same program as above, 
supplied in 2716 EPROM. This allows you to use the 
entire RAM space. And you don't need to re-load the 
monitoreach time you use It. The EPROM plugs Into 
the Extended Basic ROM Socket or the Romless Pak 
I. CBUG ROM Price: $39.95 

SOURCE GENERATOR: This package Is a disas- 
sembler which runs on the color computer and gener- 
ates your own source listing of the BASIC Interpreter 
ROM. Also Included Is a documentation package 
which gives useful ROM entry points, complete 
memory map, I/O hardware details and more. A 16K 
system is required for the use of this cassette. 80C 
Disassembler Price: $49.95 



BOOKS 



6809 Assembly Language Programming, by Lance 
Leventhal, $16.95 

TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics, by Don Inman, 
$14.95 

Assembly Language Graphics for the TRS-W Color 
Computer, by Don Inman, $14.95 

.Starting Forth, by L. Brodie, $19.95 



GAMES 




Star Blaster — Blast your way through an asteroid 
field in this action-packed Hi-Res graphics game. 
Available In ROMPACK; requires 16K. Price: $39.95 

Pac Attack — Try your hand at this challenging game 
by Computerware, with fantastic graphics, sound and 
action! Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 

Haywire — Have fun zapping robots with this Hi-Res 
game by Mark Data Products. Cassette requires 16K. 
$24.95 

Dunkey Munkey — Arcade excitement awaits those 
who dare to conquer the Munkey! Joystick and 32K 
required, by Intellectronics. Cassette: $24.95 

Colorpede — Great graphics, two-player option, and 
pause control In this exciting game by Intracolor 
Communication. Cassette requires 16K: $29.95 

Adventure — Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by 
Mark Data Products. Each cassette requires 16K: 
$19.95 each. 

Cave Hunter — Experience vivid colors, bizarre 
sounds and eerie creatures in hot pursuit as you wind 
your way through a cave maze In search of gold 
treasures. This exciting Hl-Res game by Mark Data 
Products requires 16K for cassette version. $24.95 

Starflre — Fly around the planet defending Earthlings 
from being snatched up by aliens in this challenging 
game from Intellectronics. Cassette requires 16K: 
$21.95 

Doodle Bug — Joystick-controlled Doodle Bugs must 
move quickly through mazes while being chased by 
enemy bugs In Hl-Res game by Computerware.. 
Cassette requires 16K: $24.95 

Astro Blast — You'll need to act fast as you protect 
Earth from wave after wave of alien Invaders In this 
Hi-Res game by Mark Data. Cassette requires 16K^ 
$24.95 



HARDWARE 



PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE — Serial to parallel 
converter allows use of all standard parallel printers. 
PI80C plugs Into the serial output port, leaving your 
Rompack slot free. You supply the printer cable. PI80C 
Price: $69.95 

MEMORY UPGRADE KITS: Consisting of 4116 200ns., 
Integrated circuits, with instructions for Installation. 
4K-16K Kit Price: $39.95. 16K-32K Kit (requires 
soldering experience) Price: $39.95. For Rev. level E, 
ET, NC and TDP-100s, we carry 64K chips; upgrading is 
easy! Eight prime 64K chips and Instructions: $64,95 

Romless Packs fa your custom EPROMs — call or 
write for Information. 





n [ n\ MaslerChar{jre/Visa Accepted 

/AJu U^£? I f yClOJ California residents add 6% lax. 

ESOSS 3 P.O. BOX 111D. DEL MAR. CA 9201 4 [61 9) 942-2400 




670 PRINTS224, "CONGRATUL 

AT IONS ! " 
680 GOTO 710 

690 PRINT ,,,, :PRINT"PR06RESS IS... 

CONT I NUOUSLY TRY ING. " 

700 PRINT "DEFEAT IS... NOT TRY IN 
6. " 

710 PRINT"" 

720 PRINT"A6AIN7 <Y/N>" 

730 S*«INKEY*:IF S*«"" THEN 730 

740 IF S««"Y" THEN RUN 80 ELSE 

GOTO 15000 

745 END 



750 



760 CLS : CG* 1 : GOTO2200 

765 PRINT" ***MEMOR Y *** " 

766 GOSUB 8000 

770 PRINT" IT HAS BEEN KNO 

WN" 

775 GOSUB 8010 

780 PRINT" FOR SOME TIME THA 

T" 

785 GOSUB 8020 

790 PRINT" WHAT WE CALL MEMO 

RY" 

795 GOSUB 8030 

800 PRINT" IS REALLY TWO VER 

Y" 

805 GOSUB 8040 

810 PRINT" DIFFERENT FUNCTIO 

NS." 



DISK ZIPPER 




COLOR DISK UTILLITY PACKAGE 
A MENU DRIVEN SYSTEM DISK CONTAINING : 

ERROR CRASHLESS BACKUP - DUAL AND SINGLE DRIVE 
WRITE OR READANY SECTOR : CHECK DISK FOR ERRORS 
PAGE DISK THROUGH ANY PMODE WINDOW IN COLOR 
DUMP DISK IN HEX OR ASC 1 1 - PRINTER SUPORTED 
LOAD ML TAPE TO DISK RELOCATES UNLOADABLES 
WITH COMPLETE MANUAL • REOS3CK RS DISK 
ONLY 24.B5 

ARCADE - CONTROLS/ 

WICO WADE JOYSTICK INTERFACE: TWIN STICKS' 
ALLOWS ANY TWO JOYSTICKS TO WORK ON THE 
COLOR COMPUTER: ONLY1S.S5 

ACC-U-FIRE PADDELS/ ATARI*--TYPE GAME PADDELS PLUG INTO COLOR - 
COMPUTE RJOR IMPROVING SCORES? WORKS ON HOR. & VERT. GAMES. 

HARDWARE! 

ROMPACK EXTENDER :PUT YOUR DISKPACK 
WHERE YOU WANT IT: 3 FEET LONG 
QUALITY CABLE ONLY 2*7.0 0 

GREEN -PHOSPHER ADAPTER / NOW PRINT GREEN ON BLACK SCREEN' 

ALL HARDWARE. NO SOFTWARE.' NO SOLDERING/ ANDONLY $19.95.' 

WORKS ON ANY TV: SMALL BOARD GOES ON THE 
RF SHIELD: ONLY THREE WIRE CLIPS 

EPROM PROGRAMING! SK.4K.BK BYTES 

WE WILL PROGRAM YOUR EPROM FOR B.O O 

SEND US ONE OF YOUR GAME PACKS AND WE WILL PUT YOUR 

PROGRAM IN IT FOR OlMLYEO-OO 

CALL OR WRITE FOR OETAILB 

YOU C AIM PRINT VIOTEX FROM ROMPACK 
WICO COMMAND CONTROL STICK BflOO OUR SOFTWARE ALLOWS YOU TO 
WICO REDBALL STICK 3400 
WICO TRACKBALL 6 BOO 
ATARI" JOYSTICKS $6.95/ 
WE CARRY TOM-MIX & MARK- DATA. 

ZAXXON"DATASOFT 34.85 MICRO ~ Dl V. Toledo.Ohlo 43612 

450 W. LASKEY 





PRINT OFF LINE FROM VIDTEX 
WITH SERIAL Y CABLE : 29.05 
WITHOUT CABLE: <>.05 



DONKEY KING $24.95 

PROTECTORS 24.95 

ASTRO BLAST 24.95 

SPACE RAIDERS 24.95 

MOON-LANDER E.B. 19.95 
HAYWIRE - 24.95 



1-419- 476-6282 



ASK FOR MICRO- DIV. 



C.O.D. Credit Card 
orders accepted/add$2.00 shipping 



815 GOSUB 8050 

820 PRINT" CALLED SHORT TERM 

AND" 
825 GOSUB 8060 

830 PRINT" LONG TERM MEMORY, 



II 



835 GOSUB 8070 

840 PRINT" TWO ABILITIES CAN 

NOT" 
845 GOSUB 8080 

850 PRINT" ONLY BE TRAINED, 

BUT " 

855 GOSUB 8090 

860 PRINT" CAN ACTUALLY BE M 

ADE TO" 

865 GOSUB 8100 

870 PRINT" ACHIEVE SOME VERY 



II 



875 GOSUB 8110 

880 PRINT" REMARKABLE RESULT 

S IF" 

885 GOSUB 8120 

890 PRINT" YOU ARE MILLING T 

0 TRY. " 

895 GOSUB 8130 

900 PRINT" <ANY KEY > " 

905 GOSUB 8140 
915 GOSUB 8150 

920 GL*-INKEY*: IF GL*="" THEN 92 
0 

930 CLS: PRINT" " : CG-2: GOTO2200 
940 PRINT" IT IS NOT A MA 

TTER " 

945 GOSUB 8000 

950 PRINT" OF INTELLIGENCE. 

WE " 
955 GOSUB 8010 

960 PRINT" ALL HAVE THE NECE 

SSARY" 

965 GOSUB 8020 

970 PRINT" EQUIPMENT. IT IS 



II 



975 GOSUB 8030 

980 PRINT" MOSTLY A MATTER O 

F " 

985 GOSUB 8040 

990 PRINT" EFFORT AND TRAINI 

NG. " 

995 GOSUB 8050 

1000 PRINT" HOW MUCH EFFORT 

IS, " 

1005 GOSUB 8060 

1010 PRINT" OF COURSE, UP TO 

YOU. " 
1015 GOSUB 8070 

1020 PRINT" THE MORE YOU TRY 

THE " 
1025 GOSUB 8080 

1030 PRINT" BETTER YOUR MEMO 

RY WILL " 



206 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



Introducing . . . 



New! From the Programmer's Guild 



TM 



The Ultimate Arcade Challenge! 

New from Arcade Master Charles Forsythe! 
The most original game ever produced! 
16 levels of breath taking action! 
Up to 6 players in competition! 
Keyboard or joystick control. 
Runs on any 16K TRS-80 color or TDP 100. 
Guide your Ninja through boulders, fire, pitfalls, flaming 

meteors, and Ninja masters to attain the ultimate 

achievement in — NINJA GRANDMASTER! 

WH1A WAWOft 



TM is the single most difficult arcade 
game ever written! 



Exciting— Frustrating— Difficult— Impossible — your skill will tell the tale. 



HWA WAftftiOK 



— for those who would face 

TTsfl 

the ultimate arcade challenge 



TO WIN OR DIE! 

$29.95 cassette 

Free Shipping 

VISA MASTERCARD 



THE PROGRAMMER'S GUILD 

P.O. BOX 66 
PETERBOROUGH, NH 03458 
or Call (603) 924-6065 for COD— 



AND GET "FREE" SHIPPING ANYWHERE ON THE 

PLANET EARTH OR HER COLONIES 



GET. YOUR SHORT 



103S BOSUB 8090 
1040 PRINT " 

TERM" 
1045 BOSUB 8100 

1050 PRINT" MEMORY IS THE ON 

E THAT" 

1055 BOSUB 8110 

1060 PRINT" CAN MOST BE IMPR 

OVED. " 

1065 BOSUB 8120 

1070 PRINT" <ANY KEY>" 

1075 GOSUB 8130 
1077 GOSUB 8140 
1080 GOSUB 8150 

1090 BL*= I NKE Y* : IFGL*=" " THEN 10 
90 

1100 CLS:PRINT"":CB»3:BOTO2200 
1110 PRINT " BY UTILIZINS 

ONE " 

1115 BOSUB 8000 

1120 PRINT" OF THE FAVORITE 

TRAININS" 

1125 BOSUB 8010 

1130 PRINT" METHODS USED BY 

THE" 

1135 BOSUB 8020 

1140 PRINT" RESEARCHERS IN T 



AUTO-DIALER 

BY SOUNDWORKS 

AUTOMATIC PHONE DIALER 

g) ULTRA HIGH SPEED DIALING AND 
REDIALING 

^ STORE OVER 50 NUMBERS 

Gf no modem required 

fif NO TONE SERVICE NEEDED 
gf SIMPLE HOOK-UP 
Sf ADAPTABLE TO ANY PHONE 
S) 16K EXTENDED REQUIRED 



CASSETTE ♦24.95 OISK) 34.95 



Soundworlcs Productions 

26 EAST 7th STREET 
PATCH OGUE,NEW YOR K 11772 

M.V S.IIUMNII' ADD 7. 15% TAX 



ww w 



HIS " 

1145 BOSUB 8030 
1150 PRINT" 

II 

1155 BOSUB 8040 
1160 PRINT" 
SROUP" 

1165 GOSUB 8050 
1170 PRINT" 
YOU" 

1175 BOSUB 8060 
1180 PRINT" 
IMPROVE " 
1185 BOSUB 8070 
1190 PRINT" 
AR AS" 

1195 BOSUB 8080 
1200 PRINT" 
TO BO. " 

1205 BOSUB 8090 
1210 PRINT" 
E SOME" 

1215 BOSUB 8100 
1220 PRINT" 
LE YOU" 

1225 BOSUB 8110 
1230 PRINT" 



FIELD, THE TIMED 



SEQUENCE / RANDOM 



LETTERS METHOD, 



CAN POTENTIALLY 



YOUR MEMORY AS F 



YOU ARE WILLING 



AND, YOU CAN HAV 



FUN DOINB IT WHI 



CHART YOUR PROGR 



<ANY KEY>" 



1235 GOSUB 8120 
1240 PRINT" 

1245 GOSUB SI 30 

1246 GOSUB 8140 
1250 GOSUB 8150 

1260 GL*-INKEY*: IFGL**"" THEN 12 
60 

1270 CLS:PRINT CG=4:GOTO2200 



1280 PRINT" 
WILL" 

1285 GOSUBS000 
1290 PRINT" 



THIS PROGRAM 



PROVIDE YOU WITH 



II 



1295 GOSUB8010 
1300 PRINT" 
TRINGS" 

1305 GOSUB8020 
1310 PRINT" 
S AT" 

1315 GOSUBS030 
1320 PRINT" 

YOU" 
1325 GOSUB8040 
1330 PRINT" 
TH AND" 

1335 GOSUB8050 
1340 PRINT" 

CAN" 
1345 GOSUB8060 
1350 PRINT" 
R OF" 

1355 GOSUB8070 



VARYING LENGTH S 



OF RANDOM LETTER 



VARYING SPEEDS. 



CONTROL THE LENG 



YOU ALSO 



SELECT THE NUMBE 



208 



the RAINBOW July 1983 





I I I I 1,1 ■ 



1 * ■ '.'.L 1 /.*. 1 





■v:v;:xv:v::/:-:::-:'X;;;X;--- l>Jiil ' ■'■ - > 

Xv,^'-'*v.v,\vAv.w.-. r .v.v, 
'M'Mv. v*'.-. v . v, v, V-'.'.'.*. v. 
v " v!" ( , i% , * , .'.'iV,' l , J '. , . , .'. , . , * , .'i 

v^\v-v,v.v,\v.v»Vi\w.-. 

— .v. v .v. v.v v v - v* ■: . i m<*!v! ■, ■-■ . ■. 

■ ■ .".v .♦. v.v." i p , v , v .*. '. i**' ■ * v .%v.*y*.*. v. ■ P< . »\ i ■ ■ - 
if .'/.^ ^Vb3S^v> -Xv.v.v^.v.vv.v.v,%\v bV.v.-.'.v- 

1 h ■^^P^P^^tTl^lZ?-^ ^JAfc + 1 " " » " " b b b b I- ■ ■ .111 bbbb-bll-l*' 

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|'» »»BrB-aall-«F"""'"' i 1 * 1 



vx^w.v.' b- + -: ^ 
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■-■■ ■■rl ■ + «■ 

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1 1 -1 + ■■■ J ■ 

p : J, >. ■ k m ■ ■ j 

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m 4 ' 



k u u m m * I J I ■ 

-fchhl"1 ■■' 

■ p E.IHBq + K1 



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p> 1 p> pl ■ I 



I I 4- I P .■ ■ * 

■ + J 

■ - » r - ■■ p 4- h 4 + ■ ■ 

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i 11 !. Il # *. ■# |p' kV * ■ 4 ■■, ¥ , P '.T. 1 * 
•.■i«tpb14«-P"*«-"""' p^"-^P » 
4 fa i pi + "B"a p""T^ ^. J * -*- M . 

i ffi *V**i*'"r 1 l^l * 

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. ■ ■ ■ ■ i ■ p 4 p h h 1 LB 
■ i ■* i ■ I I h 

■'I h"J ■ h ■ _ 



• WRITTEN IN MACHINE 
LANGUAGE 

• FIVE SCREENS WITH 
INCREASING DIFFICULTY 

• HI RES COLOR GRAPHICS 

• REALISTIC SOUND 
EFFECTS 

Requires 1 6K RAM. Joysticks 
ONLY S21.95 



B.UI1AR-ROUBR 



■ iii J-b- /, . j i. j . 

■ l, ■ 

l-pipb-Ii p r r ■ I 4 

41>#41-fP4P4*ll 
* 1 + F' 

_ "_~ J~b ~J T «~»~ l~1 ~4 

>■ i v ■ ■ P 4 ■ 4 4 h P I 

■ SI->1'-< ■ ■ i. » 1 * | ■ 

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- 1 4 I * ■ ■ 4 ■ ■ -4 » I I 

I 1* i i'i'/i'i't'-'i J 

It's ■ I i p 4 I I I 

I I 4 P 1 I I I ■ T *r P. - " 

I ' ■ 1 I I ■ I <r I ■ F h 

■ I 

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• WRITTEN IN MACHINE 
LANGUAGE 

• HI RES COLOR GRAPHICS 

• GREAT SOUND 

• EXPLODING BOMBS. 
DEADLY MISSILES, 
ATTACKING TANKS 

Require* 32K RAM. JoyicJcks 
ONLY % 2 195 



■FpP ■ 



LUNAR-ROVER PATROL - Guide your Lunar Rover along the moon's surface following every bump and 
crevice as a barage of obstacles hinder your movement. No MOON-PATROL type features left out of this 
game. 

VVHIRLYBIRD RUN - Your mission is to reach and destroy the enemy base hidden deep within the Tunnel 
of Doom encountering missiles, saucers, and deadly gas clouds along the way. If you like SCRAMBLE, you 
will love VVHIRLYBIRD RUN. 



For Orders Only 

1-800-426-1830 

except WA, AK, HI 



Call or write for a 
Business Office and 



complete catalog 
Information Call: 



(206)581-6938 

Office open 8:30-4:30 P.S.T. 



Wc accept VISA. MASTERCARD. AMERICAN EXPRESS. 
Add 3% for shipping. NO C.O.D. 

All prices U.S. FUNDS. 
WA residents add 7,8% sales tax. 



SPECTRAL 
ASSOCIATES 



3416 South 90th Street 
Tacosna, WA 98409 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



STRINGS DISPLAYE 



BECAUSE THE SROU 



DISPLAY IS RANDO 



WILL OCCASIONALL 



UP WITH A REAL W 



1360 PRINT" 
D. " 

1365 BOSUB8080 

1370 PRINT" 
p.. 

1375 GOSUB8090 
1380 PRINT" 
M, IT" 

1385 BOSUB8100 
1390 PRINT" 
Y COME" 

1395 GOSUB8110 
1400 PRINT" 
ORD. " 

1405 GOSUB8120 
1410 PRINT" 
1415 GOSUB8130 
1417 GOSUB8140 
1420 GOSUB8150 

1430 GL*«INKEY*: IFGL*-"" THEN 14 

30 

1440 CLS:CG=5:GOTO2200 

1450 PRINT" THIS WORD MAY 

BE A" 

1455 GOSUB8000 

1460 PRINT" NAUGHTY WORD. I 

P THIS" 

1464 GOSUB8010 

1470 PRINT" IS OF CONCERN, R 



<ANY KEY>" 



GRAND SLAM BRIDGE 




SHARPEN UP YOUR BRIDGE GAME. COM- 
PUTER BIDS YOUR PARTNER'S HAND AND 
PLAYS THE OPPONENT'S HANDS. RAN- 
DOM HANDS DEALT EACH TIME. CARDS, 
TRICKS, BIDS, AND CONTRACT SHOWN 
ON SCREEN. 

32K CASSETTE $19.95 



RAINBOW 



STOCK OPTION STRATEGIES 



IES $ 



DEVISE YOUR OWN STOCK OPTiON STRAT- 
EGIES. COVERED OPTIONS, STRADDLES, 
CALLS, AND PUTS. % GAINS AND LOSSES 
VS, FUTURE STOCK PRICES GRAPHED IN 
COLOR. EASY TO USE, NO DATA BASE RE- 
QUIRED, JUST ENTER FROM KEYBOARD. 
MENU DRIVEN. 

16K CASSETTE $14.95 /J^N^ 



RAINBOW 




SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 



GREENTREE SOFTWARE 
(, P.O. BOX 97 

GREENWOOD, IN 46142 




EMOVE " 

1475 6OSUB8020 
1480 PRINT" 
THE " 

1485 SOSUB 8030 
1490 PRINT" 
ND" 

1495 SOSUB 8040 
1500 PRINT" 
RS" 

1505 SOSUB 8050 
1510 PRINT" 

TO 21." 
1515 SOSUB 8060 
1520 PRINT" 
«c 2210) . " 
1525 SOSUB 8070 
1530 PRINT" 

OFF" 
1535 SOSUB 8080 
1540 PRINT" 



THE VOWELS FROM 



DATA STATEMENT A 



CHAN6E THE NUMBE 



IN THE RND «c FOR 



(LINES 340, 370 



YOU SHOULD START 



WITH A FEW SHORT 



II 



1545 SOSUB 8090 

1550 PRINT" STRINSS AT A SLO 

W SPEED" 

1555 SOSUB 8100 

1560 PRINT" AND INCREASE BOT 

H THE" 

1565 SOSUB 8110 

1570 PRINT" LENSTH OF THE ST 

RINSS" 

1575 SOSUB 8120 

1580 PRINT" AND THE SPEED AS 

YOU SO. " 
1585 SOSUB 8130 

1590 PRINT" < ANY KEY>" 

1595 SOSUB 8140 
1600 SOSUB 8150 

1610 SL*-INKEY*: IFSL*="" THEN 16 
10 

1620 CLS: PRINT CS-6: 6OTO2200 

1630 PRINT" YOUR SHORT TE 

RM" 

1635 6OSUB8000 
1640 PRINT" 



MEMORY, AS AN AV 



II 



1645 6OSUB8010 
1650 PRINT" 
MS. " 

1655 6OSUB8020 
1660 PRINT" 



CAN HANDLE 7 ITE 



BY USINS 'GROUPS 



7 II 



1665 6OSUB8030 
1670 PRINT" 



(STRINSS) OF LET 



II 



1675 6OSUB8040 
1680 PRINT" 

LONSER" 
1685 6OSUB8050 
1690 PRINT" 



YOU CAN REMEMBER 



SEQUENCES. THIS 



210 the RAINBOW July 1983 



But truel There is a disk 
drive in your Color Compu- 
ter . and it is faster and 
more efficient than any 
"hardware" drive you can 
buy, for any price. This new 
"disk drive" is called VDOS— 
for Virtual Disk Operating 
System— and it will absolutely 
revolutionize the way you 
operate your CoCo. 

VDOS lets you use the 
"extra" memory inside your 
CoCo as a virtual disk, with 
programs (any programs) 
stored out of the way. You 
can "save" and "load" pro- 
grams from your in-memory 



disk into working memory, 
and then run them. When 
you're done, you can simply 
access your in-memory disk 
again . . . and save or load 
another, and another. 

And VDOS is fast. 
Because you are using 
memory rather than a 
mechanical device (like a 
disk drive or cassette 
player), programs load 
instantly. Yes, VDOS is fas- 
ter than a disk! 

VDOS works with all 
Color Computers— from 
16K non-extended to 64K 
extended. Obviously, the 



more memory you have, the 
greater number (and 
length) of programs you 
can store. For a 64K sys- 
tem, VDOS also uses the 
"unused" part of memory, 
providing up to 50,000 
bytes of storage! Now, 
that's some disk! 

We call it VDOS because 
in the future there will be 
utilities for your VDOS 
UNDISK that will give even 
greater capabilities— such 
as a full one-pass memory 
dump to cassette. Other 
utilities are planned, too. 

We believe VDOS is the 



greatest advancement for 
CoCo since the introduc- 
tion of the disk drive itself. 
And, at less than $100, it is 
so inexpensive you can't 
afford to be without it. If 
you have the "cassette 
blues," VDOS is the answer! 

Finally, VDOS is simple to 
operate. It is entirely self- 
prompting and comes with 
a complete manual. But you 
almost don't even need the 
instructions— it requires 
absolutely no technical 
expertise. 

VDOS. The answer to 
your prayers. 



Cassette: $97.50. Add $1.50 shipping 
and handling; Canadians add $5 for 
shipping; Foreign pointsadd$9. 
VISA and Master Card accepted. 
All Kentucky residents add 5% sales 
tax. Payments accepted in United 
States currency only. 




Dr. Preble's Programs 
6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 
(502) 241-6474 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 

RAINBOW 

CWv* re 
MM 



IS" 

1695 GOSUB8060 
1700 PRINT" 
ACT ICE, " 
1705 GOSUB8070 
1710 PRINT" 

THE " 
1715 SOSUB8080 
1720 PRINT" 
A " 

1725 GOSUB8090 
1730 PRINT" 
OR A " 

1735 GOSUB8100 
1740 PRINT" 
1745 SOSUB 8110 
1750 PRINT" 
1752 GOSUB8120 
1755 BQSUB8130 
1757 BOSUB8140 
1760 GOSUB8150 
1770 GL*=INKEY*: 
70 

1780 CLS: PRINT"" 
1790 PRINT" 
T ALL" 

1795 GOSUB8000 
1800 PRINT" 
PAND " 



BECAUSE, WITH PR 



YOUR MEMORY USES 



SAME 'SLOT' FOR 



WHOLE GROUP AS F 



SINGLE LETTER. " 



<ANY KEY>" 



IFGL*="" THEN 17 

: CG=7 : GOTO2200 
SO IT IS NOT A 



IMPOSSIBLE TO EX 



STAT ' S 



A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PROGRAM, THAT CALCULATES-MEAN. ~ UARANCE, 
AND STANDARD OEUIAT ION FDR BOTH SAMPLES OR POPULATION 
ALLOUS DATA STORAGE TO TAPE OR DISK. FULL COLOR GRAPHING OF 
FREQUENCY NISTOORAM. ALLOUS EASY MODIFICATION DF STOREO DATA, 
COMBINE TUO FILES. ETC. USER FRIENOLY8 ^ _ 35 

COLOR GRflPIC PRINTER UTILITES 

UTILITES FDR RADIO SHACKS CGP-1 13, COLOR GRAPIC PRINTER/PLOTTER 
UORO PROCESSOR— SUPPORTS IMBEDED CONTROLS FDR PRINT SIZE ANO COLOR 
RIGHT JUSTIFICATION. DESIGNED JUST FOR THE CGP-113 

SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM TRUE FOUR COLOR PRINT OUT, UORKS IN PMOOE 3 

OR 4 YOU UON'T 0ELEUE THE OE TAILS 

DRAUING BOARD ETCH-A-SKETCH FOR THE PRINTER. ANY COLOR, EASY 

CORRECTIONS 



CASSETTE $24 . 95 



RELOCATE 



RELOCATE MAKES AUTOMATIC TAPE COPIES OF ANY COLOR COMPUTER 
CARTRIDGE. ALLOWS CHANGES TO PE flAOE TO THE PROGRAM SUCH AS 
(PRINT-OUT VIDEOTEX, CHANGE BAUD RATE IN 4SCRIPSIT, ECT. 3 
REQUIRES EITHER A 64K MOD. OR A 10K OR LARGER COMPUTER WITH A 
CARTRIOGE MEMORY EXPANSION OF 4K OR LARGER. UERY EASY TO USE I 
ONCE FAMILIAR UITH THE PROGRAM, COPIES CAN BE MAOE IN LESS THEN 

™W*"S CASSETTE $24.95 



C0MPTERI2ED ALARM SYSTEMS 

LET C0C0 UATCH YOUR HOUSE UHlLE YOU ARE AUAY. LESS THAN TUENTY 
DOLLARS OF RAOIO SHACK COMPONENTS. PLANS AND SOFTWARE. 
URITE FOR DETAILS 



CTHIS AO TYPESET UITH THE COLOR GRAPIC PRINTER} 



Transtion Technology 
1458 u. birchwood aue. 
chicago il 60626 

•J.5fl SNIPING AND HANDLING C.O.O. EXTRA 



PLEASE SPECIFY 

SYESTEM 

10K-MIN 



tTANOY Corp 



1805 GOSUB8010 
1B10 PRINT" 



YOUR ABILITY TO 



II 



1815 GOSUB8020 
1820 PRINT" 
RS TO" 

1825 GOSUB8030 
1830 PRINT" 
EMEMBER" 
1835 GOSUB8040 
1840 PRINT" 
5 " 

1845 GOSUB8050 
1850 PRINT" 
E THEN" 

1855 GOSUB8060 
1860 PRINT" 



REMEMBER 7 LETTE 



THE ABILITY TO R 



7 GROUPS OF SAY 



YOU AR 



II 



REMEMBERING 35 L 
WITH THE SAME ME 



HORSEPOWER USED 



II 



HOW FAR CAN Y 



IF YOU ARE READY 



1870 PRINT" 
NTAL" 

1880 PRINT" 
FOR 7." 
1890 PRINT" 
1895 GOSUB8070 
1900 PRINT" 
OU GO ?" 
1905 GOSUB8080 
1910 PRINT" 

TO TRY" 
1915 GOSUB8090 
1920 PRINT" 

1925 GOSUB8100 

1926 GOSUB8110 

1927 GOSUB8120 

1928 GOSUB8130 

1929 GOSUB8140 

1930 GOSUB8150 

1940 Q*=INKEY*:IF Q*»"" THEN 194 
0 

1950 IF Q*="Y" THEN RETURN 

1 960 NO«= " Y " : GOSUB9000 : PR I NT@ 1 28 

, "WELL, LET'S GET TOGETHER SOON. 



GIVE ME A ' Y' " 



II 



1970 END 

1980 MM*="M EMORY" 

1990 LC-491 

2000 FOR JZ=1TO100 

2010 PRINTSLC-1 1 , " 

M* 

2020 LC=LC-32 
2030 IF LC<32 THEN LC=491 
2040 NEXT 
2050 PRINT" 
R Y" 

2060 PRINT" 

R Y" 
2070 PRINT" 

R Y" 
2075 PRINT" M 
R Y" 



";m 



M 



MEM 
MEM 

E M 
E M 



212 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



ORGANIZE and PROTECT your VALUABLE 
software library the COLORFUL way with 
ZETAPAKS ™ from ZETA Computer. 

Mix 'n' match your collection with these rugged-vinyl 
software "safes" in a choice of 4 COLORS. Now you can 
store your media TOGETHER with your instructions on the 
SAME shelf with your computer books. 

$3.50 EACH or 
$38.95 Per DOZEN 
Postpaid 

—COLORS- 
BEIGE 
TAN 
BLUE 
YELLOW 

HOLDS ALL TYPES OF SOFTWARE MEDIA 

Besides holding a 6" * 8V2" manual up to Vi" thick, a 
ZETAPAK can hold 2 audio/digital cassettes 

or 2 stringy floppy cartridges 
or 2 of the new 3" micro disks 

or 6 5 1 A" floppy disks 

or 2 ROM cartridges (up to 7 /s" thick) 

Ask you local computer dealer to stock ZETAPAKS or 
ORDER DIRECT: ZETACOM Dept. RB 

P.O. BOX 3522 
GREENVILLE, SC 29608 

*Specify how many of what color. 

*Send Bank or PO Money Order for fastest service. 

*COD is fast but $2 extra. *Please allow4 weeksdelivery on checks. 

*Foreign: US Funds add .50 each for Air Mail. *Purchase Price of 

$3.00 each ZETAPAK REFUNDABLE if returned unopened within 

30 days. 'SOFTWARE PUBLISHERS/DEALERS write or call for 

discount schedule. ..(803) 246-1741 after 1 P.M. EST. 

© tm 1 983 ZETA Computer 





2080 PLAY " V30 % 03 j T255 % L255 " 
2090 FOR JJ=1TO30 
2100 PLAVCDEABFCDjV-" 
2110 NEXT 

2 1 20 PD*= " FGRPBCZX AQPLTYE I KBNTLD 
FSEOKBVC X RUG J V J XOQ " 
2125 CLS 

2130 FOR JJ=1TO50 

2140 LN=RND ( 5 ) : LL=RND ( 35 ) 

2150 ST*=MID*(PD*, LL,LN> 

2160 PRINT@RND(510) , ST* 

2170 S0UND169, 1 

2180 NEXT 

2190 RETURN 

2200 RESTORE 

2210 F0RPQ=1T026 

2220 READWW* : NEXT 

2230 DATA131, 134, 140- 147, 150 

2240 DATA153, 156, 166, 169, 172 

2250 DATA195, 198,201,204,211 

2260 DATA214, 217,220, 230, 243 

2270 DATA246,249,252 

2280 FORWO=lTO RND(22) 

2290 READDB 

2300 NEXT 

2310 RESTORE 



& < MRTHFRCT > BR 

mZ gQFTUR RE (C) 19831 



■ <.m RDDITIOH 60 
6 <B> SUBTRACT ION m 
B (C) MULT I PL I CRT I ON 19 

h .:d> division m 

■ SELECT LEVEL 1 OR 2? 1 M 
E SELECT R, B, C, OR D? R B 

is n 

B PLERSE TYPE YOUR PIRST NAME- ■ 

B BURTON m 



Requires 16K Extended Basic 

* * 
TRS-80 Color Computer/ TDP- 100 

* Trademark of Tandy 



Cassette $16.95 



Ohio Residents 
Add 5V*% Sales Tax 



APPEALING GRAPHICS • FUN REWARDS • SOUND 
Used Successfully In Classrooms and In Homes 



ALSO AVAILABLE-CASSETTES 



Clock 
Money 

Subtract/Borrow 
Question 



$24.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 



Carry 
ABC's 
Spelling 
Hangword 



$19.95 
$ 9.95 
$16.95 
$14.95 



WRITE FOR FREE DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE 
OR ASK FOR DEALER DEMONSTRATION 



B5 SOFTWARE • dept. c 

1024 Bainbridge PI. •Columbus, Ohio 43228 »C614] 276-2752 



2313 IF CBO0 THEN BOTO3000 

2320 'BUILD BORDER 

2350 FORBD«1024TO1504 STEP32 

2360 PQKEBD, DB 

2370 POKEBD-1 , DB 

2380 NEXT 

2400 POKE 1 055+480 , DB 
2410 RETURN 



G0T0765 
GOTO 940 
GOTO1110 
GOTO 1280 
GOTO 1450 
GOTO 1630 
GOTO1790 



3000 IF CG=1 THEN CO=0 
3010 IF CG=2 THEN CG=0 
3020 IF CG=3 THEN CG=0 
3025 IF CG=4 THEN CG=0 
3030 IF CG=5 THEN CG=0 
3040 IF CG=6 THEN CG=0 
3050 IF CG=7 THEN CG=0 

3055 PR I NT " ERROR " : STOP 

8000 POKE 1 024, DB: POKE 1 055, DB: RET 
URN 

8010 POKE 1 056, DB: POKE 1 087, DB: RET 
URN 

8020 POKE 1 088, DB: POKE 11 19, DB: RET 
URN 

8030 POKE1120,DB:POKE1151,DB:RET 
URN 

8040 P0KE1152,DB:P0KE1183,DB:RET 
URN 

8050 P0KE1184,DB:P0KE1215,DB:RET 
URN 

8060 POKE 1 2 1 6 , DB : POKE 1 247 , DB : RET 
URN 

8070 P0KE1248,DB:P0KE1279,DB:RET 
URN 

8080 POKE1280,DB:POKE1311,DB:RET 
URN 

8090 P0KE1312,DB:P0KE1343,DB:RET 
URN 

8100 POKE 1 344, DB: POKE 1 375, DB: RET 
URN 

8110 POKE 1 376, DB: POKE 1 407, DB: RET 
URN 

8 1 20 POKE 1 408 , DB : POKE 1 439 , DB : RET 
URN 

8130 POKE 1 440, DB : POKE 1 47 1,DB: RET 
URN 

8140 POKE 1 472, DB: POKE 1 503, DB: RET 
URN 

8150 POKE 1 504, DB: POKE 1 535, DB: RET 
URN 

9000 GOTO20000 

9045 IFNO*="Y" THEN 9095 

9050 PLAY " V30 ; 03 ; T255 j L255 " 

9060 F0RGL=1T03 

9070 PLAY "DEFG ABC; V— " 

9080 PLAY " CB AGFED ; V+ " 

9090 NEXT 

9095 NO*= RETURN 

10000 GOSUB20000 
10500 IF HT*="Y" THEN RETURN 
10600 POKE 1058, ASCC'P") 
10700 POKE 1059, ASCC'R") 



214 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



TRS-80 C01.0R OJMPiniR 





Computer Island Presents 

THE BEST IN 
SOFTWARE FOR KIDS! 



TDP SYSTEM 100 



DOLLARS AND SENSE 16K Ext - S11.95 

Learn to make purchases. Graphic displays ol items 
kids love. Player buys using dollars and coins to prac- 
tice using money correctly. Solutions given. 

McCOCO'S MENU 16K Ext. $11.95 

America's favorite pastime — going out to eat! Learn 
to buy and add up your purchases from a typical fast 
food restaurant menu. Gain skill in using money. Dif- 
ferent prices each time. 

MONEY-PAK 32K Ext. $22.95 

This is a menu-driven merged version ol the above 2 
programs. Also includes play money for extra rein- 
forcement. 

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 16K $11.95 
Menu driven, 2 level program provides practice in 
adding or subtracting 2 digit numbers. Vertical format 
for proper entry of digits in the answers. Report card 
scoring. 

LONG DIVISION TUTOR by Ed Guy 

16K Ext. Basic $14.95 
A tutoriat that takes the child through all steps of the 
example. Includes HELP tables, cursor aids, and 
graphic aids. Input your own numbers, or let the com- 
puter choose the example. Three levels of difficulty. 
Great teaching program! 

MULTIPLICATION TUTOR by Ed Guy 

16K Ext. Basic $14.95 
Similar type tutorial to the above. All carries indicated. 
Teaches examples from one to three place multipliers. 

READING AIDS 4-Pak 16K Ext. $19.95 

A 4 part menu driven program for the Elementary 
school child to create his own original reading 
material. Includes the 4 popular programs — POETRY, 
SILLY STORIES, SILLY SENTENCES and WIZARD, now 
expanded to 16K Extended Basic. 



W- ET* * * f Mr * M- E * * * + FT-TTTTTFFFV it H f * * 



NEW 



BEYOND WORDS 32K Ext. $19.95 Each 

3 Part menu driven program with tutorials and grade 
appropriate subtests and reviews. Over 400 questions, 
800 words, modifiable. 

* Beyond Words I - Grades 3-5 

* Beyond Words II - Grades 6-8 

* Beyond Words III - Grades 9-12 

VOCABULARY BUILDERS 32K Ext. $19.95 Each 

4 Part multiple choice format. 200 questions, 1000 
words. User modifiable. 

* Vocab. Builder I - Grades 3-5 

* Vocab. Builder II - Grades 6-8 

* Vocab. Builder III - Grades 9-12 



On Disk 

Beyond Words I and Vocab. Builder I 
Beyond Words II and Vocab. Builder II 
Beyond Words III and Vocab. Builder III 



$38.95 
$38.95 
$38.95 



FOREIGN LANGUAGE GAMES 16K or 16K Ext. $11.95 



:;t j,c !,t !,< !/;;< 



NO EXTRAS NEEDED 
Instructions are included enabling you to modify these 
programs for additional vocabulary or verb practice. 
Create your own luture versions!!! 

FRENCH BASEBALL - Score base hits or home runs 
for correct answers. You're out if wrong. Correct 
answers supplied. Fun way to learn and practice 
vocabulary. 2 levels. 200 questions 
SPANISH BASEBALL — Same game using Spanish 
vocabulary words. 

ITALIAN BASEBALL - Same game using Italian 
vocabulary words. 

PLEASE SPECIFY LANGUAGE AND VERSION 




PRESCHOOL PACK 1 by Joseph Kolar 

16K Ext. $11.95 
Clown and Fish-Num: Two programs to help your child 
recognize and count the words and numbers 1 - 10. 
Hi-res graphics and lively songs help to attract and 
keep attention. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 2 by Joseph Kolar 

16K Ext. $11.95 
Count Kids and Add Penny: Two programs to help your 
child count and add up to 10. Beautiful hi-res 
graphics. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 3 by Joseph Kolar 

16K Ext. $11.95 
Alpha-Byte: Programs designed to teach recognition 
and identification of the alphabet. Attractive hi-res 
graphics. 

Each of the above Preschool Packs on disk • $15.95 
All three Preschool Packs on disk - $38.95 

HEBREW BULLETIN BOARD 16K Ext. $15.95 

bj Joseph Kolar 
A utility that rill enable YOU !0 create Hebrew or 
Hebrew/English words, flash cards, sentences, 
greeting cards, etc. in Hi-res. Easy lo learn-full 
documentation. For hard copy, use your printer and 
any screen print program. 



MUSIC DRILL by David Steele 

16K Extended $19.95 
A high resolution program that teaches and tests the 
notes of the Treble and Bass clefs in each of the 10 
most popular Major and Minor keys. 

"A must for all MUSIC students." 



1 

'* 

i 
¥■ 



"S FGR THE PflIK i i" 




SPECIAL - CLOSEOUT of Creative Computing's never 
released software for the CoCo. 2 Hi-Res machine 
language, joystick controlled arcade style games. 
PICNIC (escape spider, capture food), TRICKASHAY 
(tank duel in a tricky maze). 1 or 2 players, multi level. 
16K Ext. Both for an incredible $1 1.95 



* 

i 

* 




#0 



*6 



V 



THE TALKING WIZARD 16K Ext. $19.95 

A talking version of our popular WIZARD game. This is 
a child size (Eliza-Freud) type game. Input any ques- 
tion and the WIZARD writes and now SPEAKS (through 
the T.V. speaker) an amusing answer. Great for reading 
practice or just plain fun. 

voict by-Cliiiicil Cowting Inc. 



COCO-JOT by Steve Greenberg 

16K $11.95 
A new version of the famous Jotto word game. A guess- 
ing game using your powers of reasoning and deduction. 
1 or 2 pfayer game. Different levels of play. Ages 8 to 
adult. User modifiable. 

GHOST 16K Ext 

by Sherman Rosen $11.95 
Color Computer version of the famous word game. 2 
levels. Ages 8 to adult. Great Family Fun! 

SOFTWARE FOR SPECTRUM'S LIGHT PEN 

KID'S FUN-PAK: This 3 program game set will enter 
tain you with a great new dimension for your com 
puter. Tutorial included with documentation. 
Kid's Fun-Pak Tape 16K Ext. $14.95 

Light Pen and Tape $34.95 



COMPUTER ISLAND 

DEPT. R 
227 Hampton Green 
Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 



(212) 948-2748 

DEALERS INQUIRIES INVITED 



FREE set of BINARY DICE, including full directions, 
with orders of 2 or more items. 

Add $1.00 S/H • N.Y. Add Proper lax 
Send lor catalog of other programs 



16K CIRCUS ADVENTURE $9.95 

A child's adventure game with many songs, graphics, 
and surprises. Meet all of your circus favorites while 
searching for the popcorn man. Great famify fun for afl 
ages. 

16K SCHOOLMAZE ADVENTURE $11.95 

White in search of a lost computer tape, you travel in a 
school and draw pictures, compose songs, play basket- 
ball, and use the keyboard to travel in the hallways. 



Authors: We are seeking quality children's software for 
leisure or learning. Write for details. Top royalties. 



r 



CoCoDA TA Enterprises 

1316 Quail Avenue • McAllen, Texas 78501 



Color Computer 16K 
EXTEHDED BASIC 



"Low Cost, High Quality Software" 

Color Computer Weekly, March 11, 1983 

"Satisfaction guaranteed or your money back ! " 



★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 



The Product Line 



★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 

GRAPHICS PROGRAM (ff^ 
GENE R ATO R I $11.95 -;\r°* 

Let your CoCo write "Syntax perfect" graphics programs for you! 
Boxes, circles, arcs, ellipses, paint, and lines can all be created 
while viewing the graphics screen using the arrow keys and a 
tew one-key commands. Use either of four color sets in PMODE3, 
Extra features like "erase", "check remaining strings space" and 
optional grid marker pixels. When your graphics are complete, 
GPG I will write a unique program to tape to duplicate the picture 
you've created. This generated program can be edited, added to, 
or merged like ahy other! Manual details operation. 



GRAPHICS PROGRAM 
GENERATOR II $16.95 -St"" 

All the features of GPG I plus characters with a self loading 
machine language module! Includes a binary screen save feature 
to reproduce your graphics with text in a later program. Manual 
includes Assembly Language source listing. 



ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION 
MONITOR $10.95 

Utilize your CoCo to reduce your electric bill! Both text and 
graphic presentations are used to show consumption in either 
dollars or KWH. Extra features include bill projection anytime 
during month and 20 day trend analysis. If you can't measure it, 
you can't manage it! Sixteen page manual includes listing and 
forms to record data. Printer is NOT required. 



HOUSEHOLD BUDGET 
WORKSHEET $ 6.95 "",r*" 

Produces an up-dated monthly financial worksheet without files, 
yet contractual loans are automatically up-dated with new 
balances and months remaining. Budget categories and variable 
expenses user defined. Includes provisions for variable income 
like commissions, one time expenses and/or income. Excellent 
manual includes listing, examples, form to list data. Works with 
any printer. ^*-s. 

LLIST-RITE $ 5.95 

Complex, non-commented programs are much easier to follow 
after using this listing utility! Multiple statements and IF. 
THEN. .ELSE statements are logically separated, line numbers 
are set apart from text, page boundries are observed. Works 
with any printer; complete, easy to understand instruction sheet 
included. 



MATCH 2! $7.95 

Our version of concentration. Play against the computer at 
different skill levels or select two player option. Some unexpect- 
ed surprises add more fun, should sharpen memory skills. 

★ ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 

Each program ordered must include 75$ for Shipping and 
Handling. 



10800 POKE 1060, ASCC'O") 

10900 POKE1061, ASC<"6") 

11100 POKE1064, ASCC'M") 

11200 POKE1063, ASC<"A"> 

11300 POKE1062, ASC<"R"> 

11400 POKE1068,ASC<"B") 

11500 POKE1069,ASC<"Y") 

11600 P0KE1131,255:P0KE1163,255- 

1 6 1 POKE 1195, 255 : POKE 1 204 , 255-32 : 

POKE 1223, 255: POKE 1227, 255-48: POK 

E 1 236 , 255 : POKE 1 255 , 255-64 : POKE 1 2 



11700 POKE 1257, 255: POKE 1258, 255- 
16: POKE 1259, 255: POKE 1268, 255-32: 
POKE 1 296 ,255: POKE 1 300 , 255-48 : POK 
E1328, 255: P0KE1329, 255-64 
11800 POKE 1330, 255: POKE 1331, 255- 
16: POKE 1332, 255 
13020 F0RUI=1T03 

1 3030 PLAY " T 1 3 ; L3 ; V30 ; CCDEF6AB J P 
55; C" 

13035 NEXT 

13040 RETURN 

13045 PLAY"C" 

1 3 1 00 HT*« "Y" : GOTO 1 0000 

13200 END 

1 5000 NO*=" Y" : CLS: 6OSUB9000 
16000 PRINT@12B," UNTIL NEXT TI 
ME... BYE!" 

16010 FOR LP=1 TO 500: NEXT 

17000 play ,, V30;03;T5;L5" 
18000 play"cdefgaabbc" 

19000 END 
20000 CLS0 

20010 IF HJOITHEN HJ=1 : DlMFG* ( 1 
6) 

20020 C 1=1 50 

20040 F0RX1=1T016 

20050 FG*(X1)=STRING*<32,C1> 

20060 NEXT 

20070 Y1=0:C1=C1+1 

20090 F0RX1=1T016 

20100 PRINT@Y1,FG* (XI) 5 

20120 Yl=Yl+32 

20130 NEXT 

20140 Vl=1535 

20150 FORZ1=1504TO1519:POKEZ1,C1 

-l : pokevi , ci-i : vi=vi-i : next 

20155 RETURN 

20170 IFS*="Y" THEN END 

30000 CLS0:PRINT@96, " " 

30005 PRINT6102, "COPYRIGHT (C) 1 



30007 PRINT© 128, " " 

30010 PRINT© 134, "J. J. SCHMIDT" 

30017 PRINTS160, " " 

30020 PRINT© 166, "ALL RIGHTS RESE 

RVED" 

30030 FORYY=1TO500:NEXT:GOTO70 



216 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



TRS-80 COLOR 



AARDVARK 

COMMODORE 24 VIC-20 SINCLAIR/TIMEX TI99 





QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMES! Different from all the others. 
Quest is played on a computer generated 
map of Alesia. Your job is to gather men 
and supplies by combat, bargaining, explor- 
ation of ruins and temples and outright 
banditry. When your force is strong enough, 
you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable 
in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different every 
time. 16k TI99, TRS-80 Color, and Sinclair, 
13 K VIC-20. $14.95 each. 

32K TRS 80 COLOR Version $24.95. 
Adds a second level with dungeons and 
more Questing. 





CATERPILLAR 

O.K., the Caterpillar does look a lot like a 
Centipede. We have spiders, falling fleas, 
monsters traipsing across the screen, poison 
mushrooms, and a lot of other familiar 
stuff. COLOR 80 requires 16k and Joy- 
sticks. This is Edson's best game to date. 
$1 9.'95 for TRS 80 COLOR. 



ADVENTURES! !J 

The Adventures below are written in BASIC, 
are full featured, fast action, full plotted ad- 
ventures that take 30-50 hours to play. (Ad- 
ventures are interactive fantasies. It's like 
reading a book except that you are the main 
character as you give the computer, com- 
mands like "Look in the Coffin" and*"Light 
the torch.") 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, 
TRS-80, and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k 
on OSI and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires 
extended BASIC. Now available for TI99. 
Any Commodore 64. 
$14.95 Tape - $19.95 Disk. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS 

(by Rodger Olsen) 
This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANET. You'll have to explore a Martian 
city and deal with possibly hostile aliens to 
survive this one. A good first adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 
This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. 
It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of 
problems. Exciting and tough I 

DERELICT 

(by Rodger Olsen & Bob Anderson) 
New winner in the toughest adventure from 
Aardvark sweepstakes. This one takes place 
on an alien ship that has been deserted for a 
thousand years — and is still dangerous! 

Dungeons of Death — Just for the 16k TRS- 
80 COLOR, this is the first D&D type game 
good enough to qualify at Aardvark. This is 
serious D&D that allows 1 to 6 players to go 
on a Dragon Hunting, Monster Killing, Dun- 
geon Exploring Quest. Played on an on- 
screen map, you get a choice of race and 
character (Human, Dwarf, Soldier, Wizard, 
etc.), a chance to grow from game to game, 
and a 15 page manual. At the normal price 
for an Adventure ($14.95 tape, $19.95 disk), 
this is a giveaway. 

WIZARDS TOWER - This is very similar to 
Quest (see above). We added wizards, magic, 
dragons, and dungeons to come up with a 
Quest with a D&D flavor. It requires 16k 
extended color BASIC. $14.95 Tape, 
$19.95 Disk. VIC 20 Commodore 64. 



PLANET RAIDERS - Not just another de- 
fenders copy, this is an original program 
good in its own right. You pilot a one man 
ship across a planetary surface dogfighting 
with alien ships and blasting ground installa- 
tions while you rescue stranded troopers. 
Rescue all the troopers and be transported 
to another harder, faster battle. Joysticks 
required. ALL MACHINE CODEI EDSONS 
BESTI 16K Tape TRS80COLOR $19.95 - 
32K Disk $21.95. 

BASIC THAT ZOOOMMSI ! 
AT LAST AN AFFORDABLE COMPILER! 

The compiler allows you to write your 
programs in easy BASIC and then auto- 
matically generates a machine code equiv- 
alent that runs 50 to 150 times faster. 

It does have some limitations. It takes at 
least 8k of RAM to run the compiler and it 
does only support a subset of BASIC — 
about 20 commands including FOR, NEXT, 
END f GOSUB,GOTO, IF, THEN, RETURN, 
END, PRINT, STOP, USR (X), PEEK, 
POKE, *,/,+,-, > , < ,=, VARIABLE 
NAMES A-Z, SUBSCRIPTED VARIABLES, 
and INTEGER NUMBERS FORM 0-64K. 

TINY COMPILER is written in BASIC. It 
generates native, relocatable 6502 or 6809 
code. It comes with a 20-page manua/ and 
can be modified or augmented by the user. 
$24.95 on tape or disk for OSI, TRS-80 
Color, VIC 20, or Commodore 64. 

SEAWOLFE - ALL MACHINE CODE In 
this high speed arcade game, you lay out 
patterns of torpedoes ahead of the attacking 
PT boats. Requires Joysticks, at least 13k 
RAM, and fast reflexes. Lots of Color and 
Sound. A fun game. Tape or Disk for Vic20, 
Commodore 64, and TRS-80 Color. 
$14.95 Tape - $19.95 Disk. 

Dealers — We have the best deal going for 
you. Good discounts, exchange programs, 
and factory support. Send for Dealer Infor- 
mation. 

Authors — Aardvark pays the highest com- 
missions in the industry and gives programs 
the widest possible advertising coverage. 
Send a Self Addressed Stamped Envelope 
for our Authors Information Package. 

Adventures and Quest new available 

for TI99 



Please specify system on all orders 

ALSO FROM AARDVARK - This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 




AARDVARK 

2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 / (313) 669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 

$2.00 shipping on each order 



AAlHBPrW 



CONSTRUCTION 



\X/brk Station 



o 



n 



Wh 



ees 



By Richard G lovanom 



This lcc Gocart Brings Home Economy 
Of Organization Rather Than Mileage 



This past Christmas, when I added a printer to my 
TRS-80 Color Computer, it became obviousthat I 
would have to consolidate my work area. Too 
many cables and cords, and space was becoming a prob- 
lem. Two of my sons were home from college: it's amaz- 
ing how they consume food and space in an exponential 
relationship to their presence. Necessity, then, was the 
mother of my prototype portable computer center, lcc 
Gocart. 

Now my total operation is contained within a four- 
square-foot area. It's on wheels and I can retreat to any 
leftover space in the house. The computer, printer, 
recorder, tapes, notebooks and magazines have all been 
stacked and shelved in a converted stereo cabinet. (The 
cheap kind that go for about $20 on sale.) The overall 



setup is shown on page 2 of the plans. 

Since this was my prototype, a good deal of the con- 
struction was dictated by what odds and ends I had on 
hand. This included the stereo cabinet which no longer 
was in use. As it turned out, the system has worked so well 
that I haven't even taken the time to finish it up properly. 
The pristine beauty of its rough hewn plywood remains 
intact for all to admire. 

Construction 

Building the Gocart was done in two stages, the base 
and the equipment-holding upper section. 

It all started with the basic stereo cabinet; it set the size, 
and because it was available, meant the project could be 
completed sooner. Five major modifications were needed 
to fill my requirements. 




I) 



2) 



3) 



- 4) 



Metal reinforcing angles were 
added to all four corners on the 
back of the cabinet to make the 
unit more solid. 

I added the casters along the 
bottom, using eight of them 
mounted on pieces of scrap one 
inch board. I figured eight of 
them were needed to distribute 
the load and provide stability. 
The second sliding shelf was in 
stalled four inches down from 
the top. In my case this is a piece 
of half inch plywood, 20 x 15 
inches. Strips of half -inch quar- 
ter round molding make up the 
rails as shown in Detail A on 
page 1 of the plans. 
A 1 V2 inch hole was cut in the 
middle of the back panel about 
two inches down from the top so 
the recordercordand cable could 
be brought out to the power 
outlet and computer. 



218 the RAINBOW July 1983 



5) To provide support for the TV, an end support, 12 
inches wide was added to the left side between the 
upper and lower shelves. By inserting t he t i xtra shelf 
as shown, I picked up a place for my notebooks and 
other miscellaneous stuff that I tend to accumulate. 
Once this task was complete I could attack the construc- 
tion of the equipment bay shown in the plans on page 1 , 
I figured out how to stack up the rest of the equipment 
so that 1 could get at, and see everything in the most 
efficient manner for me- I'm right handed, over six feet, 
and a lousy typist, all of which influenced my set up and 
some of the vertical dimensions. 

Page 1 of the plans shows the layout of the pieces that 
make up the equipment bay, They were all cut out of half 
inch plywood. After the rails for the sliding shelves have 
been put on with glue and brads the sides can be 
assembled to the base. I used glue and four penny finish 
nails. By slipping in the shelves at this time the proper 
spacing can be maintained while the 
TV shelf is hammered home. At this 
point the unit is solid as a rock. The 
printer shelf is installed last. All those 
M/i inch holes are for getting the 
cables and cords routed to the proper 
place and still keeping them out of 
the way, 

The completed bay was lined upon 
top of the base and clamped in place 
while I drilled Va inch holes at each 
end down through the top shelf of the 
base. Quarter-inch bolts and wing 
nuts installed through these holes 
make everything secure and allow for 
easy removal. 

The easel holds papers or maga- 
zines when typing programs. The 
location is a must for me. As a hunt 
and peck, two-fingered typist I have 
to have the copy as close to the key- 
board as possible. That's one of the 
main reasons for my "in-line" arran- 
gement of the equipment. This setup 
also makes it easier to check the text against the screen 
when trying to find typing bugs. 



To attach the easel 1 used an old bracket that I found in 
myjunkbox. I bent it to abouta 60 degree angle and then 
bolted it to the front edge of the printer shelf. The easel 
was then attached with another bolt to t he other leg of the 
bracket. I found that it was best for me to adjust the 
location of the easel so that the lower edge just rests on 
the top of the computer case. 

The easel is a piece of lef tover pegboard. I glued half- 
inch flat molding strips along the top and sides. A piece of 
one inch inside corner molding serves as a lip that forms 
the paper rest. 

A short extension cord with three outlets is attached to 
the back of the cabinet near the computer end. Printer, 
computer and recorder power cords, fed through those 
1 Va inch holes along the sides, all plug in here. It is close to 
my left hand so that I can unplug the computer easily at 
the end of a session. The excess length of the cables and 
cords are coiled and secured with garbage bag tiesand lie 





My daughter, Mary, at the controls. The overall arrangement is 
shown with the BW portable 1 use most of the time. The 
recorder shelf is in the stored position. 



out of the way on the base of the equipment bay under the 
printer and paper shelves. 

As an example of routing, the cable from the RF 
modulator feeds down through the hold in the right side 
of the TV shelf, out the top hole in the right side, back in 
through the bottom hole and then to the computer port, 
with the excess coiled up. This path keeps it out of the 
way of the printer and the paper feed. 

1 added the optional storage shelf above the paper tray 
because thespacewas there touse. When theprinter is in 
use I slide this shelf back out of the way. 

If I had to do it over, 1 would make the printer shelf a 
couple inches deeper (as shown by the dotted lines on the 
plan) to give me a little more clearance for my DMP 100 
printer. Obviously, this particular shelf has to be sized to 
whatever printer you may have. Next time 1 would use 
ball-type casters; it would be much easier when moving 
over carpeted areas. I am still trying to figure out how to 
add a built-in light. 

IYn really happy with the setup and hope that it con- 
tains some ideas useful to others. ^ 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 219 



Dungeons Of Daggorath 
New Adventure Standard 

(Editor's Note: This review is made possible through an 
advance copy of the program provided to the Rainbow by 
Radio Shack.) 

We seem to be breaking frontiers all over the place for 
CoCo these days. The arcade games get better and better yet; 
the utilities become more and more powerful; the abilities of 
our favorite computer seem to grow more and more each 
month in regard to data bases, word processing and the like. 

Now, in the world of Adventure gaming, there is a new 
standard. It is called Dungeons of Daggorath. It is from 
Radio Shack, available in a Program Pax. 

Frankly, it is one of a kind — yet I expect to see more of its 
ilk in the months ahead. The reason is simply that once 
someone does something, the way they do it tends to get 
around. 

In the case of Dungeons of Daggorath, this is a clear 
bonus for us all. 

As most everyone who reads this magazine for very long 
will know, I am hooked on Adventure games. Now, I con- 
fess to not being very good (the pressure of a monthly 
deadline seems to slow down the time 1 have to analyze 
them), but I love to play 'em. 

Thus far, Dungeons of Daggorath is simply the best 
Adventure game I have played to date. In fact, it is almost a 
falsehood to say that it is an Adventure — because the action 
gets fast and furious, much like many of the better arcade 
games IVe enjoyed. In short, it is more an Adventure/ Ar- 
cade offering than anything else! 



Thanks to an advance copy of both the documentation 
and the Program Pak, we can probably stay ahead of some 
of you until next month — that's when Dungeons of Daggo- 
rath goes on sale at your local Radio Shack stores and 
dealerships. But, while we are, so far, the number one player 
of this excellent offering, it is only fair that we tell you 
something about it (this is a review, isn't it?) 

Dungeons of Daggorath is a three level, real time Adven- 
ture that makes you do a bit of thinking and a lot of fast 
reacting all at once. But, it also won't let you go too fast. Oh, 
I'm getting ahead of myself . . . 

The screen is divided into three segments — one which 
shows the area you are in — in G 3D-type maze format, the 
second showing what you are holding (if anything) in each 
hand. At the bottom of all this is a four-line "command 
area" that lets you enter commands. 

In the middle of the status area is a beating heart — yours. 
As you exert yourself, the heart beats faster and faster. If it 
gets going too fast, you're a goner — which means you can't 
rush through room after room. If you do, you'll be out of 
breath and the smallest, tiniest spider might do you in. Or, 
you can just overexert yourself and burst your heart then 
and there. 

I think this is the most true to life aspect of Dungeons of 
Daggorath. Face facts: If you are a real adventurer, you 
don't go racing from room to room. And, you do have to 
conserve some energy. A lot of programs do this with water 
and food availability — but Dungeons handles it in real time 
and completely true to life. 

This is hardly the only thing which makes Dungeons of 
Daggorath a superior program, however, the maze is 
extremely well constructed and populated with all sorts of 
creatures. There are also various kinds of objects — and dif- 
ferent levels of each object. The stronger the object, the more 
good it can do you. 

As an example, you start with a wooden sword, which can 
kill certain things. But there is also an iron sword . . . and an 
"elvish" one, as well. The more powerful the sword, the 
better it is for you! 

Too, you only have two hands, and generally, you can 
only carry one thing at a time in each. To actually use an 
object, you have to specify the hand in which you are carry- 
ing it. You do have a pack, though, to stow other things. 

Movement is easy, using just the "M" key to move for- 
ward. You can turn around, turn right or left and the like. 
You can also move backwards (backpedal), something that 
is often necessary in a fight to get your heart slowed down a 
bit. 

Incidentally, the sound is fantastic. You can hear an 
opponent before you can see it (and each has its own distinct 
sound). Your heartbeat is audible, too. And, when you light 
a torch, you can hear the match sizzle. 

Commands can be abbreviated (but must be separated by 
a space, which can be frustrating) and there is a save game 
feature (to cassette). The only thing we didn't like was that 
there is no "score"/?er se, you either live ordie. We think the 
addition of some sort of status after death would be a nice 
addition to Dungeons of Daggorath. 

This game is not for the novice adventurer, nor for the 
novice arcade player, either. But, with a little skill and 
thinking (fast thinking), Dungeons of Daggorath will pro- 
vide you with more fun than you've had in quite a while. 

Dungeons of Daggorath: A great game! 

(At Radio Shack stores, dealers and computer centers, 

$29.95) 

— Lonnie Falk 



^COLONIAL TRILOGY^ 






THREE INCREDIBLE NEW GAMES 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

HI-RES — 32K — EXT BASIC 

COLONIAL WARS: two player game on a galactic scale 
with hycomp's unique split screen concept-it's almost 
like having a separate monitor for each playeri colonize 
and battle for control of an 11 star system while 
commanding massive battlecarriers.fighter squadrons, 
freighters, and planetary defense. with game save(3-8hrs) 

ZYRON:two players battle within an asteroid field with 
ships built to their own specifications. two scenarios 
included-one player tries to slip freighters past the 

OTHER'S DEFENSES OR AN ALL OUT BATTLE. (2-4hrs) 

QUESTAR: explore over 30 planets and encounter 

UNKNOWN CIVILIZATIONS, DESERTED CITIES.AND BUSY STARPORTS 
WHILE SEARCHING FOR HIDDEN ZYRON BASES. AN EXCELLENT 
ONE PLAYER GRAPHICS ADVENTURE GAME.(60-90mln) 



ONLY $19.95 EACH OR ALL THREE FOR $49.95! 
PLUS $1.50 FOR SHIPPING 



CHECK OR MONEY AVAILABLE ONLY FROM 

nnnrn nwi v P O - BOX 15331 
8END SASE FOR 

MORE INFORMATION. (918)266-6452 



220 the RAINBOW July 1983 




Federal Hill Software 



Fastape: ML Utility 
Allows High Speed I/O 

Much has been said lately about the high-speed, or 
vitamin E POKE Tor our CoCo. While in this mode, BASIC 
programs will run about 30 percent faster, making number 
crunching and arcade-type programs execute at a more 
satisfactory speed. The major problem in using high-speed is 
that you cannot do any I/O operations to your cassette, 
printer, or disk. If you do, you will find out the true meaning 
of "I/O error'* or possibly a "locked up" system. What we 
need is a way to have our cake and eat it too. 

Fastape is a machine language utility that will solve most 
of these problems. With it, you can save and load programs 
and data from cassette, and use your printer, all while 
remaining in high-speed mode. Once loaded, the program 
will auto-execute and automatically adjust itself for the 
amount of memory you have. Unlike most machine lan- 
guage utilities, it is not necessary to reserve space for it, by 
means of a CLEAR statement, before loading it in. 

Using Fastape could not be easier. It operates in four 
modes. The first two are the high and low (or normal) speed 
CPU modes. These modes will have your CoCo running in 
either the high or low speed mode of operation, just as if you 
had entered the proper POKEs. Each of these modes, in 
turn, have two speed modes for cassette operations. The 
high speed cassette mode will save and load your files in 
almost exactly one-half the normal time. Unbelievable, but 
true! The low speed mode (did you guess it already?) oper- 
ates just as if the program was not running. 

With the combination of these four modes, you can save 
or load data in any desired format. This allows for the 
necessary flexibility when you first start to use the program, 
by enabling you to load your existing tapes, and then to save 
them out in the high-speed format. You can even load tapes 
created in the high-speed CPU mode that were saved with- 
out using the program (possibly by accident). 

When using your printer with Fastape, it will auto- 
matically adjust the baud rate for you, so that.your printer 
will produce the listings you want, instead of garbage. If you 
operate your printer at a rate other than the default of 600 
baud, all you have to do is to enter the necessary POKE 
prior to loading the program, or while it is running in the 
low-speed CPU mode. 

Switching between operating modes is accomplished by 
holding down the "control" (down arrow) key and pressing 
the number I to4 key, depending on which of the modes you 
want. The control key can also be used to speed up the entry 
of some common BASIC commands. These include the 
audio, motor, and cassette commands, as well as a few 
others. In addition, you can use it to find out which of the 
modes you are in, in case you have forgotten. 

Fastape is a great utility program that should prove to be 
boon to all cassette users. The documentation explains ever- 
ything you need to know in order to use it without any 
problems, and it works like a champ. If you are tired of 
waiting for those tppes to load, I strongly recommend that 
you buy this fine utility. If I could only figure out how it 
works. 

(SpectroSystems, 11111 North Kendall Drive, Suite A108, 
Miami, FL 33176, $21.95 tape) 

—Gerry Schechter 



Coco-Acountant! 

Were your taxes a mess this year? Make those j 
deductions a breeze! Use data from up to 450 canceled j 
checks for reports of expenditures by month, account of 
payee! Flags deductible checks, checks subject to sales tax- 
-even computes the sales tax you paid. Lists to screen or i 
printer. $1 5.95 on tape, $21 .95 on disk. 32K 
CREDIT ACCOUNTANT performs same functions for 
credit card expenditures. Only $9.95 when ordered with 
Coco-Accountant (tape or disk). 

Blackjaq! 

As close as you can come to the real thing without 
losing your shirt. Full casino simulation - - up to 5 players 
and 9 decks. Computer plays vacant hands by card count- 
ing rules, gives counting pointers, keeps track of winnings 
and will even print out results of every hand! Keyboard or 
joystick. Nothing else like it in 16K Ext. $19.95 on tape, 
$24.95 on disk. 

The Handicapped 

Use the power of your COCo to improve your 
performance at the track! Separate 16K programs for 
thoroughbred and harness horses apply proven handicapping 
techniques using speed, pace, post position, past perfor- 
mance, driver or jockey record and horse's attributes, j 
Simple enough for the beginner - - sophisticated enough for 
the veteran horseplayer. Detailed instructions. Does not 
require Extended Basic. Harness Handicapper or Thorough- 
bred Handicapper, $24.95 on tape. Both programs, $39.95. I 

Printer Artist! 

Turn your printer into an artist with this unique 
series of 16K Ext. programs. Create drawings of birds and 
animals, sports figures, ships, holiday and patriotic scenes, 
famous Americans and others. Set up a file of printer art 
on disk or tape. Includes 12 ready-to-run pictures and 
simple instructions for 40 more, Complete documentation 
and guide to creating your own art. $19.95 on tape. 

Koko Math ! 

Teachers and parents: Are your kids bored with dull 
educational programs? Let Koko the Math Clown make 
arithmetic a joy! Get 10 problems right and give him a 
bath! All operations, three levels of difficulty. Colorful 
graphics and music. Does not require Extended Basic. 
$8.95 on tape. 



Federal Hill Software 
825 William Street 
Baltimore, Maryland 21230 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 221 



SAVE!!! 

AT ARIZONA DISCOUNT SOFTWARE YOU CAN SAVE ON ALL SORTS 
OF SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE ITEMS FOR YOUR COLOR COM- 
PUTER OR TDP 100!! (TDP IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY) 

CHECK THESE OUT!!! 

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THE KING (MIX) 

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So 




Morocco Gran Prix 
Roars With Action 



In Morocco Gran Prix, Computerware's newest graphics 
game for the Color Computer, you are a pit crew memberat 
the local race track. During qualifications, the world famous 
race driver Juan "el Racero" Gomez becomes sick on gaso- 
line vapors. You cjecide to take advantage of the opportun- 
ity to take the high powered racer for a test drive, but little 
did you know that the race would begin as soon as you hit 
the track. 

Once the game has loaded, you see the instruction screen. 
The racer is controlled with the right joystick. Left to right 
controls your steering, while forward and back controls 
your speed. 

An overhead view of the brightly colored racer appears at 
the pits on the side. To begin the game just cross over the 
guard rail. A timer is instantly activated and the race is on! 
The timer begins counting down at I00 seconds. Points are 
awarded for the amount of time you stay on the track. The 
faster you drive, the more points you accumulate. If you 
crash, you end up at the pits on the side. To re-enter the 
track, just cross over the guard rail. Occasionally, you 
encounter night drivingconditionsand snow covered roads, 
just to keep you from getting bored. There are also a few 
surprises, such as fire trucks and the like. If you get over 
2000 points by the time the timer runs out, you are awarded 
with an extended play. Morocco Gran Prix keeps track of 
the top ten scores. 

The wisest strategy when racing is to start off fast. Once 
you pass by a car, don't worry about it anymore — it's out of 
the picture. All danger lies ahead. Develop a sense of timing 
early in the game as to how frequently other autos show up. 
At those times, slow down and survey the scene. If the racers 
ahead can be easily passed, then resume top speed. Of 
course, the best strategy is practice. And that's what you'll 
want to do, because Morocco Gran Prix is addicting! 

Not only is the action portion of Morocco Gran Prix 
spectacular, but the game is a visual triumph as well. The 
racers themselves are handsomely detailed with color rival- 
ing most coin-op video games. The only things missing are 
curves and road signs. The track remains straight through- 
out the entire game, and there are no road signs to add to the 
visual effects of the game. A red caution flag does appear 
once in a great while just before the fire truck hits the track. 
The sound effects are about average for the Color Compu- 
ter, and are nothing short of spectacular when you crash 
(though it would be nice if the fire truck had a siren!). 

Morocco Gran Prix is delightful to look at and a blast to 
play. Computerware should be congratulated for their work 
in this new racing game for the Color Computer. 

(Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, 32K Mach- 

ing Language, $24.95) 

—Barry Younce 



222 



the RAINBOW July 1983 




Fast Action And Great Graphics 
Make Planet Invasion Challenging 

As 1 loaded this 16K machine language program from 
Spectral Associates into my CoCo, I sighed at the prospect 
of what I thought would be just another space arcade game, 
but I soon discovered that the outstanding graphics and 
animation put this game in a class by itself. 

Planet Invasion is a "Defender -type" arcade game. You 
are required to cruise above the planet's surface locating and 
destroying wave after wave of Praetorian invaders. The 
playing area extends off the screen in both directions, but 
author Steve Geiseking had the foresight to provide our ship 
with a long range scanner which helps determing the exact 
locations of the invaders. You are given a certain amount of 
time to destroy each wave or the invaders will begin to fire 
chasers at you, and these are extremely difficult to avoid. 
Developing an ability to use the long range scanner is impor- 
tant because it will save you a lot of time and will help to 
destroy a wave quickly before any of the deadly chasers 
appear. 

In addition to the chasers, each wave is made up of 
different types of enemy craft, each with different character- 
istics. Grabbers will fire at you while they lower themselves 
to the planet's surface in order to grab the caloxin crystals 
which dot the terrain. After grabbing a caloxin crystal, they 
lift off and begin moving toward the top of the screen. There 
are two reasons why it is important to destroy the grabbers 
before they ascend to the top of the screen. First, if a grabber 
succeeds in reaching the top with a caloxin crystal it 
becomes a killer — a deadly, intelligent craft which seeks you 
out and spews rapid fire. Second, if the enemy succeeds in 
capturing or destroyingall your caloxin crystals, you will be 
forced to fight "in the outer reaches of space far from the 
planet's surface." What this means is that the display of the 
planet's terrain disappears and only your ship and those of 
the enemy are displayed. Before this happened to me the first 
time I didn't think that it would make much difference, but, 
boy, does it! Without the surface of the planet scrolling by 
beneath you all sense of speed is lost and tracking and 
destroying the enemy becomes doubly difficult. 

You can avoid this calamity by preserving your caloxin 
crystals. There are three ways to do this. First, of course, you 
can destroy the grabbers before they seize any crystals. This 
is an okay strategy for about the first two waves; after that, 
there are just too many of them for this to be effective. 
Second, you can destroy a grabber after it has seized a 
crystal and begun its acent. If the grabber is destroyed at a 
low altitude, the caloxin crystal will drop back to the 
planet's surface unharmed. Finally, if you are forced to 
destroy a grabber with a crystal at a high altitude you can 
catch the caloxin crystal in mid-air and return it safely to the 
planet's surface; otherwise the crysta I wi II be destroyed when 
it hits the surface. 

In addition to the pesky grabbers and chasers, the Praeto- 
rians have an array of sophisticated weaponry pitted against 
you. Among these are miners which move slowly about the 
screen leaving mines which will destroy you if you collide 
with them. The only good thing about miners is that they are 
relatively easy to shoot down because they move so slowly. 
Beamers are deceptive; they sit there barely moving and are 



very easy to hit, but when hit, theysplit intothree berserkers 
and, boy, is that an appropriate name! These littleattackers 
are difficult to shoot down because of their small size and 
their violently evasive maneuvers. They are intelligent 
trackers and literally spew out lethal rapid fire. 

Fortunately our ship is equipped with three "smart 
bombs" which, when released, destroy all enemy ships pres- 
ently on the screen. However, there are so few of them that 
one must be very judicious in their use. Fire them only when 
the screen is crammed with Praetorians or when you are 
threatened by a chaser. 

Your ship is controlled by a combination of joystick and 
keyboard inputs. The right joystick controls elevation, 
direction and speed. If the joystick is positioned to the left, 
our craft moves to the Jeft (that is, the screen scrolls to the 
right) and the further left thejoystick is moved the faster the 
ship moves. I like this combination of speed and direction in 
one control. The fire button controls the laser fire and if you 
hold the button down you get continuous rapid fire, a fea- 
ture I like very much. It really saves wear and tear on theold 
trigger finger. There is a tendency to fly along with the laser 
firing at all times but this doesn't really give you much of an 
advantage. Pressing the space bar fires one of the smart 
bombs, and pressing the "H" key moves your ship into 
hyperspace; that is, it moves you immediately to some other 
portion of the battle area. This can be very helpful when you 
find yourself in an area teeming with Praetorians and you 
want to get out fast. 

On-screen scoring is provided and also high score for the 
session is displayed. You are also kept informed as to the 
number of ships remaining, the number of smart bombs 
remaining and the current Praetorian wave number. Docu- 
mentation is adequate. 

If you enjoy good space games then this one is for you. 
Another plus: Spectral Associates says it will replace the 
tape for only $1.50 should it be accidentally erased or 
become unusable for any other reason. (How can you go 
wrong with a deal like that?) Fordisk users, instructions are 
provided for transferring the program to disk. 

(Spectral Associates, 141 Harvard Avenue, Tacoma, WA 

98455, $21.95) 

— David Johnson 



K-2 READING PHONICS 



OLD MCDONALD'S 
FARM VOWELS 



Agame like drill programtopresent long and 
short vowels wilh words, pictures and spoken 
messages Teacher generated for home and 
school. Five challenging levels with scoring, 
rewards and reinforcement. 

For COCO Color Computers with 16K Ext. 
Color BASIC & cass. OMF $14.95 + 2.00 ship- 



ping VISA & M.C. 




RAINBOW 



a ■ ri(j rip* 
MM 



TEKSYM CORPORATION 
14504 County Road 15 
Minneapolis. MN 55441 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 223 



RECEIVED & CER TIFIED 

The following products have been recently received by the Rainbow, examined by our magazine staff and approved 
for the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your assurance that we have seen the product and have ascertained that it is 
what it purports to be. 

This month the Seal of Certification has been issued to: 



Scramble, a 16K word game for two to four 
players. Objective: opponents alternate enter- 
ing a 4-15 letter word, the computer scram- 
bles the word, and your opponent must 
unscramble the word in 2Vi minutes. Four 
skill levels. Kaleidoscopic Creations, P.O. 
Box 1284, Melrose Park, 1L 60160, tape 
$15.95. 

The Computer Camp Book, a (8!/ 2 " x 11", 
227-page, soft-cover) book on computer 
camps and how to become a computer liter- 
ate. First, it is a manual on how to start your 
own computer camp; second, it is a guide to 
computer camps, and third, it tells you how 
to become a computer literate. YSCC, 8327 
Sheridan Lane, Eden Prairie, MN, $12.95. 

TNT-ALYZ, an electronic circuit analysis 
program of interest to electronic hobbyists, 
hams, and engineers. This program is capa- 
ble of computing the gain and phase re- 
sponse of complex electronic circuits. In- 
cludes a 30-page manual. TNT Software, 
Route 2, Box 76 D, Manor, TX 78653, tape 
$29.95. 

Fastape, a 32K program which doubles the 
speed of your cassette operations and allows 

\//~»n full nc*» r»f \//~»nr r>occpttp o n/H nrintpr 



CoCo Copy, a I6K machine language pro- 
gram that will copy BASIC or machine lan- 
guage programs including most automatic 
start programs. Dataman, Box 43 I, Station 
B, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8L 7W2, 
tape $12.95. 

Pretty Printer, a 16K machine language util- 
ity program that will allow you to write your 
code in a compact form and list lo the screen 
or printer in an easy to read format. Data- 
man, Box 43 1 , Station B, Hamilton, Onta- 
rio, Canada L8L 7W2, tape $12.95. 

P.U.F.F., Printer Utility File Formatter, a 
16K program which turns any word proces- 



sor into a super printer formatter. Dataman, 
Box 431, Station B, Hamilton, Ontario, 
Canada, L8L 7W2, tape $24.95. 

Fraction Math Quiz, a 16K drill program 
with five skill levels from introductory ele- 
mentary school to advanced high school 
fractions. Includes seven fraction operations 
and multiple choice format. Creative Tech- 
nical Consultants, P.O. Box 652, Cedar 
Crest, NM 87008, tape $14.95. 

Fire Copter, a 32K full color graphics game 
for one to two players. Objective: you are 
aboard the Fire Copter, trying to keep your 
city from being burned to the ground by the 
minions of Pyro Maniac — the firedroids, 
while putting out the firesand destroying the 
firedroids. Adventure International, P.O. 
Box 3435, Longwood, FL 32750, tape 
$24.95. 

Sea Dragon, a 32K arcade game with seven 
skill levels for one or two players. Objective: 
you are sea captain of the nuclear sub — the 
Sea Dragon; make it through the mine field 
to reach your target — the Master mine — as 
you snake through treacherous underwater 
passages, avoiding mines, depth charges, 
stalactites, and enemy attack stations along 
your way. Adventure International, P.O. 
Box 3435, Longwood, FL 32750, tape 
$34.95. 

Grafplot, a 16K graph drawing program 
used to turn your computer into a data plot- 
ter producing graphs of any type of X-Y 
data. Hawkes Research Services, 1442 Sixth 
Street, Berkeley, CA 94710, Tape $35, 32K 
disk $45. 

An Adventure in Murder, a mystery game. 
Objective: you are a detective hired to find 
the murderer of Mrs. McDermitt. While 
searching through her four-floor mansion 
you are given clues and a list of suspects 
enabling you to determine the murderer. 
Mr. R's Software, 68 Kelly Road, South 
Windsor, CT 06074, tape $14.95. 

Zarconian Marble, a 16K checker-style stra- 
tegy game for one or two players. Objective: 
play against the computer or an opponent 
and be the first toeithergetfive marbles in a 
row or first to make five captures. CoCo 
Hut, P.O. Box 24451, Houston, TX 77015, 
tape $19.95. 

8-Ball, (Rom Pac) a 16K arcade-type pool 
game for two players. Objective: try and be 
first to sink all of your balls and then the 
8-ball to win the game. Anteco Software, 
P.O. Box 14728, 4220 Clay Avenue, Fort 
Worth, TX 67! 17, $29.95. 



Family, a 32K genealogical data base pro- 
gram for up to eight generations and 255 
ancestors. Prints pedigree charts, family 
groups and a reference index. Available 
from The Word Merchant, P.O. Box 232, 
Lititz, PA 17543, tape $9.95. 

Pie Chart, a 16K graphing program which 
allows you to enter data such as monthly 
bills, yearly expenditures, etc. Harmonycs, 
P.O.Box 1573, Salt Lake City, UT 84110, 
tape $10.95. 

Help! Color Computer Reference System, a 

(4"x 6", 99-page, ringbound, soft-cover) ref- 
erence system designed to provide the be- 
ginning programmer with the essential infor- 
mation needed to write personal and work- 
able programs. Wright Books, 54 Vly Road, 
Albany, NY 12205, $9.95. 

Rainbow- Writer, a 1 6 K high resolution gra- 
phics text display utility which allows you to 
write text on any graphics screen in rainbow 
colors. Rainbow Connection Software,3514 
6th Place, NW, Rochester, MN 55901, disk 
$32.95. 

Electronic Calligrapher, a 16K disk based 
calligraphing program that when used with a 
printer capable of dot matrix graphics will 
print any line, up to 25 characters, in either 
an Old English or Chancery cursive-type 
font. DSL Computer Products, Inc. 13726 
West Warren, Dearborn, MI 48126, disk 
$18.95. 

Pie Zapper, a high resolution graphics pro- 
gram that produces pie cjiarts on the screen. 
Includes a 26-page manual. Southern Soft- 
ware Systems, 485 Tropical Trail, Suite 109, 
Merritt Island, FL 32952, tape $15.95, disk 
$19.95. 

Convert, a 1 6 K program that will convert 
units of length, volume, area or weight from, 
or to, the equivalent imperial, metric, nauti- 
cal or historical systems of measurement. 
Dataman, Box 431, Station B, Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada L8L 7 W2, tape $9.95. 

Filmastr, a general purpose database man- 
ager in data entry screen format which holds 
up to 20 data fields. The Computer House, 
Box 1051, DuBois, PA 15801, tape $29.95, 
disk $34.95. 

Time& Money, a financial planningaid that 
will determine the value of investments and 
compare various methods of handling invest- 
ments. The Computer House, Box 1051, 
DuBois, P A 1580 1 , tape $ 1 9.95, disk $24.95. 

Master Control II, a 16K machine language 
program designed to increase the speed it 
takes to write BASIC programs. Includes a 



Fastape, a 32K program which doubles the 
speed of your cassette operations and allows 
you full use of your cassette and printer, 
while the computer is running at high speed 
mode. Spectro Systems, 1 1 1 1 1 N. Kendall 
Drive, Suite A-108, Miami, FL 33176, tape 
$21.95. 

Function Graphing Module, a I6K program 
that allows you to graph functions of a single 
variable on the high resolution graphics 
screen of your computer. Includes a 53-page 
manual. Calcsoft, P.O. Box 401, St. Ann, 
MO 63074, tape $19.95. 

Amortise, a 1 6K program which allows you 
to print amotization charts. Showing for 
each month, the date due, amount to princi- 
pal, amount to interest, total interest to date, 
balance still owing and totals for each year. 
Dataman, Box 431, Station B, Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada L8L 7W2, tape $9.95. 



224 the RAINBOW July 1983 



plastic keyboard overlay. Soft Sector Mar- 
keting, Inc., 6250 Middlebelt, Garden City, 
MI 48135, tape SI9.95. SSM is offering 
owners of the original Master Control an 
update to the newer version for $8 plus $2 
S & H. 

Color Graphics Editor (CGE), a 16K ma- 
chine language program that allows you to 
create on screen high resolution graphics 
which can also be transferred to disk. Soft 
Sector Marketing, Inc., 6250 Middlebelt, 
Garden City, Ml 48135, tape S 19.95. 

Color Caterpillar, a 16K machine language 
arcade-style game for one or two players. 
Objective: destroy the caterpillar in seg- 
ments by firing missiles and gaining points 
by killing off mushrooms, tarantulas, and 
beetles. Soft Sector Marketing, Inc., 6250 
Middlebelt, Garden City, MI 48135, tape 
$19.95. 

Colonial Trilogy, a series of three new 32 K 
games with high resolution graphics. Volume 
I, Colonial Wars, a two-player space battle 
game with a split screen concept. Objective: 
colonize and battle for control of an eleven- 
star system while commanding massive bat- 
tle carriers, fighter squadrons, freighters and 
planetary defenses. Volume II, Zyron, a 
space battle game for two players. Objective: 
battle within an asteroid field while one 
player tries to slip freighters past the others 1 
defenses. Volume 1 1 1, Questar, an adventure 
game for one player. Objective: explore over 
30 planets and encounter unknown civiliza- 
tions, deserted cities, and busy starports 
while searching for hidden Zyron bases. 
HYCOMP, P.O. Box 15331, Tulsa, OK 
74158, $19.95 each or all three tapes for 
$49.95. 

BLACKJAQ!,a I6K casino simulation card 
game of "2 1 " for one to five players. Objec- 
tive: beat the dealer's hand without going 
over 21 points. Federal Hill Software, 825 
William Street, Baltimore, MD 21230, tape 
$19.95. 

Harness Handicapper, a 16 K program that 
applies established handicapping techniques 
and the power of the computer to the ratings 
of harness horses, which will enable you to 
improve your betting performances at the 
race track. Federal Hill Software, 825 Wil- 
liam Street, Baltimore, MD 21230, tape 
$24.95. 

CoCo Accountant, a 32K home or small 
business accounting program that allows 
you to keep records of yearly expenses while 
providing information at tax time without 
thetask of sorting through cancelled checks. 
Federal Hill Software, 825 William Street, 
Baltimore, MD 21230, tape $15.95, disk 
$21.95. 

Printer Artist, a I6K four-program cassette 
and tutorial package on computer art. In- 



cludes two programs containing 1 2 ready to 
run pictures and an instruction booklet for 
49 other drawings which can be created, 
printed and saved to tape or disk using the 
two utility programs which will enable you 
to use those instructions to create pictures. 
Federal Hill Software, 825 William Street, 
Baltimore, MD 21230, disk $19.95. 

Pick Which, a 16K machine language game 
for all ages. Objective: search the screen in 
an effort to choose the most desirable pic- 
ture. Detailed pictures fill the screen along 
with sounds. Spectral Associates, 141 Har- 
vard Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98466, tape 
$9.95. 

Space Race, a 16 K RAM machine language 
game with high resolution graphics and 
sound. Objective: maneuver your ship 
around the four-cornered race track while 
destroying alien ships and watching out for 
mines laid by the swarmers. Spectral Asso- 
ciates, 141 Harvard Avenue, Tacoma, WA 
98466, tape $21.95. 

C-Trek, a 16K space combat game. Objec- 
tive: you are the captain of the ship and it is 
your task to destroy all the invading forces 
before they can launch their attack on the 
Federal seats of power. Spectral Associates, 
141 Harvard Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98466, 
tape $8.95. 

Color Zap, a 16K high resolution graphics 
arcade game with 15 skill levels and sound. 
Objective: zap the onslaught of alien attack- 
ing ships as they seek to destroy you to gain 
entrance to the Stargate — which you are 
defending. Spectral Associates, 141 Harvard 
Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98466, tape $9.95. 

Home Money Manager, a disk-based per- 
sonal checkbook system. It tracks data by 
date, paid to, check number, account num- 
ber, amount of check, and current balance. 
Each of the printed reports will show month- 
ly deposit total, expense total, gain or loss, 
and current balance. Computerware, Box 
668, Encinitas, CA 92024, disk $19.95. 

Introduction to Data Communications, a 

five part, 16K program requiring Extended 
BASIC, designed to teach beginners the 
basic ideas and terminology to use a data 
communications device. Computerware, 
Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, tape $17.95. 

Moon Hooper, a 32K arcade game with five 
skill levels. Objective: you are out on test 
maneuvers in the new exploration machine, 
the Moon Hooper and must avoid being 
blasted by enemy saucers while firing phas- 
ers and racing toward your home base. 
Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 
92024, tape $24.95. 

Morocco Gran Prix, a 32K race car game. 
Objective: you are part of the pit crew and in 
Juan 4i e! Racero" Gomez's absence, you 
sneakingly take his high-powered racer out 



for a test driveand are caught in the middle 
of the actual race. See how well you can do, 
avoiding crashes and demolitions. Compu- 
terware, Box 668, Encinitas, C A 92024, tape 
$21.95. 

Indexer, a 16K machine language utility 
program which producesa sorted list of var- 
iables and line numbers used in your BASIC 
program. ML-US'R Software, 115 Rising 
Sun, Fort Mitchell, KY 41017, tape $14.95. 

Label III, a 16K mail list program which will 
print lists or labels of three or four line 
addresses and a telephone number. Owls 
Nest Software, P.O. Box 579, Ooltewah,TN 
37363, tape $19.95. 

Clock, a 16K machine fanguage time clock 
program that uses the interrupt that is gen- 
erated by the VDG. Chroma-Systems Group, 
P.O. Box 366, Dayton, OH 45420, tape 
$9.95. 

CCADS, Color Computer Assembly Lan- 
guage Debugging System, a 16K complete 
language software development monitor. 
Included are a 6809 line assembler and disas- 
sembler, hex and ASCII memory dump, 
memory alteration routines, serial printer 
capabilities, and a user software execution 
controller with six breakpoints, and user 
register storage and modification. Chroma- 
Systems Group, P.O. Box 366, Dayton, OH 
45420, tape $19.95. 

Unlock, a menu driven disk backup utility 
which produces copies of diskettes that can- 
not be backed up using the BACK UP com- 
mand from BASIC. Chroma-Systems Group, 
P.O. Box 366, Dayton, OH 45420, disk 
$24.95. 

Chroma-Keys, a 16K utility program that 
will reduce the amount of time required to 
key in magazine listings by adding a click 
sound when a key is pressed. Chroma- 
Systems Group, P.O. Box 366, Dayton, OH 
45420, tape $9.95. 

Program File, a I6K Extended BASIC pro- 
gram that will organize your cassettes. Owls 
Nest Software, P.O. Box 579, OoItewah,TN 
37363, tape $14.95. 

Kodomo-no-go, a I6K or 32K Japaneese 
named game for five in a row played on a 1 9 
x 19 board. For one or two players and four 
skill levels. This game issimilarto tic-tac-toe 
which is also included on both tapes. Inter- 
cept Enterprises, P.O. Box 4016, Cherry 
Hill, NJ 08034, 16K tape $14.95, 32K tape 
$19.95. 

Fundfile, a 16K Extended BASIC portfolio 
and account management program for secur- 
ities. Creates files for up to 900 transactions 
and 50 securities. Parsons Software, Dept. 
A, 118 Woodshire Drive, Parkersburg, WV 
26101, disk $27.95. 



The Seal of Certification program is open to all manufacturers of products for the TRS-80 Color Computer, the 
TDP-I00, or the Dragon-32, regardless of whether they advertise in the Rainbow. By awarding a Seal, the magazine 
certifies the program does exist, but this does not constitute any guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be forwarded to the Rainbow's reviewers for evaluation. 

— Jutta Kapfhammer 



July 1983 theRAINBOW 225 




By Linda Nielsen 



Having spent a 
little time in Las 
Vegas recently 
(most of it at the Consu- 
mer Electronics Show, 
honest!), I thought 
it might be interesting to 
write a bit about pro- 
grams to calculate the 
probabilities for some 
games of chance. This is 
my way of beginning to 
talk about the whole area of programming 
probability and statistics. 

Interestingly enough, there is no generally 
accepted definition of probability among 
mathematicians, even though everyone has an 
intuitive understanding of what probability 
means. The classical interpretation of probabil- 
ity, and the one I will use, depends on the con- 
cept of equally likely events. For example, if 
you flip a coin and it has an equal chance of 
showing a "heads" or a "tails," then each of 
those outcomes has a l /> or 50 percent probabil- 
ity. It may be hard to imagine how equally likely 
events can be found in weather forecasting, but 
they are quite common in games of chance. 

Let's examine what happens when a single die 
is thrown. Imagine this die is one of those six- 
sided kinds you once used in Monopoly or that 




you see at crap tables in 
Las Vegas. Before you 
ever throw that cube, you 
know thatwhenitlands,a 
side will be showing on 
the top. You also know 
that the top side will have 
between one and six spots 
on it. You know that you 
are not going to see one 
side with two hundred lit- 
tle spots on it. So you 
simply throw away the idea of getting two 
hundred. A statistician would say that the 
probability of getting two hundred in one roll of 
an ordinary six-sided die is zero. 

On the other hand, if the die has already been 
thrown but you can't see the top side, you can 
still imagine the probabilities. If you don't 
know what happened, from your perspective 
the outcome is still uncertain even though the 
event happened in the past. 

Since you know for certain that the number 
of dots showing will be between one and six, we 
say that the probability of a whole number 
between one and six is equal to one. The proba- 
bility of the sure or certain event is always equal 
to one. 

If this is a fair die, then each of the outcomes 
one through six is equally likely. An unfair die is 



226 



theRAINBOW July 1983 



What's blue and red, about an inch tall, able to leap 
across a Color Computer video display in a single bound, 
and destined to put Inky, Winky and Stinky out to 
pasture? 

Danger Ranger, the newest character from 
ScreenPlay. That's who. 

Danger Ranger isn't a clone of some moldy arcade 
game. It isn't like any video game you've ever seen. It's 
faster. More challenging. More fun. 

Your joystick controls Danger Ranger on his mission 
to make the universe safe for Mom, Brotherhood and 
The American Way. First, our hero finds himself in the 
surrealistic 'Chamber of Pasha,' which consists of five 
consecutive platforms. Danger Ranger has to blast his 



way through radioactive bats and roving eyes to pick up 
the ten keys that may spell the difference betwen survival 
and death for the human race! 

If Danger Ranger can muster enough skill and courage 
to survive those challenges, he'll enter the 'Acid Cham- 
ber.' Here, not only do demons guard the treasure boxes 
he wants to collect, but fatal drops of acid fall from the 
ceiling and rise from the floor. Not a nice way to make a 
living - but it makes one heck of a video game. 

Danger Ranger, from ScreenPlay. 

Poor Winky. Lucky you. 

I6K Tape $24,95 

No Extended Basic Required 



ScreenPlay™ 

I -800-334-5470 
P.O. Box 3558 Chapel Hill, NC 27514 

* Radio Shack and Color Computer ait trademarks of Tandy Corp. 



one of those that usually or always shows a particular 
number on the top and you wouldn't want to mess with one 
like that. (In a future article I will discuss how you could 
write a program to do a good job of guessing if a particular 
die is a fair one or not.) If each of the numbers, one through 
six, is equally likely then probability of any particular 
number coming up must be 1/6. If we built a fair die with 
four sides numbered one through four, then the probability 
of each number between one and four being the number on 
the bottom would be 1/4. Similarly, a fair, 20-sided die 
numbered from one to 20 has a 1/20 chance of showing each 
number between one and 20 and a zero probability of any 
other outcome. 

The probability of getting a number Jess than five on a 
six-sided die would be the probability of getting a one or a 
two or a three or a four. It isn't possible to get both a two and 
a three in one roll so we can add the probabilities of one, 
two, three and four to arrive at the probability that the 
number will be less than five. That is 1/6+1/6+1/6+1/6 or 
4/6=66667. 

Now we are ready to write a simple program to calculate 
the probability of some outcomes from a single throw of an 
"N" sided die. First clean up the screen, then query the user 
for the number of sides on the die. 

IOOCLS:INPUT"HOW MANY SIDES ON THE DIE";N 

Next calculate the probability of each number using the 
formula: probability=l / number of sides. 

IIOP=I/N:PRINT"THE PROBABILITY OF EACH 
NUMBER FROM I to 4l, N;"IS";P 



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Next, put in a program loop to calculate the probability 
that the number of the die will be less than each of the 
numbers from I to the highest number that exists on the die. 
Statisticians call this a cumulative probability table and you 
can see why: 

120 FOR J = l TON:T=0:FOR K=I TOJ' T=P+T:NEXTK 
130PRINPTROB ABILITY OF <=";J;"IS "; 
140PRINT USING "#.#####";T: NEXT J 

If you want the program to return to the beginning to 
accept new parameters, then add these lines: 

160 R$=INKEY$:IF R$=""THEN 160 
170 GOTO 100 

If you want the cumulative probability table to be sent to 
the printer then change line 140 and add line 150: 

140 PRINT USING"#.####/T;T; 

150 PRINT#-2,"THE PROBABILITY OF <=";J;" = ";T: 
NEXT J 

Now let us consider a more interesting question. Most 
games of chance involve throwing more than one die. The 
most common one I know of is the game of craps in which 
two, six-sided dice are thrown. But thereare also games like 
Dungeons and Dragons which use one or more four, six, 
eight, twelve and twenty-sided dice. Next, we will write a 
program to determine the probability of any selected 
number when you throw from one to five "N" sided dice. 
Clean up the screen and ask the user for the number of dice 
and the number of sides on each of the die. 

100CLS:INPUT "HOW MANY DICE (U5)";D : INPUT 
"HOW MANY SIDES";N 

Suppose we are throwing three, four-sided dice. Each of 
these dice is an equilateral pyramid with sides numbered one 
through four. When it lands there are three sides showing 
and one facing down. Imagine that the dice are different 
colors so we can distinguish among the first, second and 
third die. The first die has a 1 /4 chance of having a one on 
the bottom side. Assuming, (and it seems a safe assumption) 
that the dice don't influence each other, thesecond and third 
die also have a 1/4 chance of showing a one on the bottom. 
Then the probability of a total throw of three is ( 1 /4)*( 1 /4)* 
(1/4) or 1/64 which is 0.015625. 

Consider theevent that the first die has a three, thesecond 
die has a two and the third die has a one on the bottom. This 
exact event also has a probability of (1 /4)*( I/4)*( 1/4) or 
0.015625. Notice, however, that the sum of the die is now 
3+2+1 or six, and we can get a six in several different ways. 
In tabular form we could get a six by: 



First Die Second Die Third Die 

I I 4 

1 4 1 

4 1 I 

I 2 3 

1 3 2 

2 I 3 

2 3 I 

3 1 2 
3 2 I 
2 2 2 



228 the RAINBOW July 1983 



In all there are ten different ways that we could get a six 
from the roil of three four-sided dice. Each of these ten 
different sequences is equally likely. That is, each of the 
sequences has a probability of 0.0 1 5625. Nevertheless, when 
rollingseveral dice, we are usually interested in the sum and 
not in the precise order of each die. So if we are interested in 
the probability of a six in this example it would be 0.015625 
+ 0.0 1 5625 + 0.0 1 5625 etc for ten times. M ore simply, that is 
10 x 0.015625 or 0.15625. 

We want to use our program to calculate the probability 
of each simple (or equally likely) event and then add up all 
the occurrences of this particular event. The next line of the 
program calculates the probability of each simple event: 

1 10 P=(l/N)tD 

The next line of the program asks the user what number is 
wanted and sets the program variables to zero: 

120 INPUT"YOU WANT'l:: T=0: E=0: F=0: G=0: H=0: 
M=0 

Then we want to calculate the occurrences of the chosen 
number, L, over all the dice and all the numbers one through 
N: 

130 IF D=I THEN T=P: GOTO300 

140 IF D>4 THEN FOR E=I TO N 

150 IF D>3 THEN FOR F=l TO N 

160 IF D>2 THEN FOR G=lTON 

170 IF D>l THEN FOR H=l TO N 

180 FOR M=l TO N 

190 Z=E+F+G+H+M 

200 IF Z=L THEN T=T+P 

210 NEXT M:NEXT H: IF D=2 THEN 300 

220 NEXT G: IF D=3 THEN 300 

230 NEXT F: IF D=4 THEN 300 

240 NEXT E 

300 ?"YOUR PROBABILITY IS ";:PRINT USING 

"#.######";T 
310 GOTO 1 10 

This program works. (Whew! I'm so proud!) It runs quite 
slowly if you have lots of sides on your dice. I imagine there 
are some programmers out there who can improve on my 
system, and I would appreciate hearing from them. 

I seem to have left you with lots of dice that are hard to 
build. Can you imagine a one-sided die? Well, I can't either, 
but try it anyway because it will demonstrate something 
about probability. Remember the probability of the sure or 
certain event is always one. Moreover, these programs are 
not limited to dice games. If you have cards or balls or slips 
of paper numbered one through "N," the outcome from one 
random draw is the same as throwing one die. If you return 
your draw, mix up the items and draw again; that is like 
throwing two "N"sided dice. Statisticians call this sampling 
with replacement because if you get a two on the first draw 
you can get a two on a later draw, also. In other words, items 
are not removed from the pool of possibilities when they are 
chosen. Next time I will discuss how you might write a 
program to determine the probabilities of some card games 
where the cards are dealt without replacement. 

One last note about Las Vegas. From the perspective of 
classical statistics, the house will always win. Nevertheless, if 
you enjoy gambling you can consider it entertainment and 
enjoy your fling. 1 had a wonderful time playing the vjdeo 
Black Jack and Poker. The screen graphics were stunning 




PO loi 3flfl 
DaytM , OMo 45410 



ccads 

A full r >P09 machine language monitor with lin*.? 
assembler and disassembler. All you need to f.lebug 
machine language programs. (.MX, 2 6k or 32 k) 

Cassette 519.95 or Disk (With Source) S 2 3.9 5 



UNLOCK *W 

A complete disk backup utility. Features included 
are initialization of any track; copy any track 
and correct I/O errors, or leave them intact; and 
verify any track. Track numbers upto track 60 nay 
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Disk (With Source) $24.95 



DSK'tON 

Examine and fix sector data, also includes disk 
verify, file information display, and selective 
disk backup. (ML, 16k or 32k) 

Disk (With Source) $24.9 5 



Utilities 

Chroma-Keys — Define function keys and save them 
to disk or cassette. (ML, 16k or 32k) 

Cassette $9.95 or Disk (With Source) S13.95 f\ 

Spooler — Print disk filers or the basic program 
in memory without waiting. (ML, o4k only) 

Cassette $11.95 or Disk (With Source) $15.95 



Games ^ = 

Prospector — An ECD I!i-Res graphics game. Can you 
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Mi-Res version of an ancient 

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Jump-A-Peg A 
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Cassette S7.95 



Miscellaneous 

Clock A software real-time clock program for 

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Cassette 3°. 9 5 or Disk (With Source) $13.05 



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July 1983 the RAINBOW 229 



and at $.25 the price was low enough for my entertainment 
budget. Remember something else: even unlikely events do 
happen. If the probability of winning is only 0.01 you can 
still win. Just don't try it too often! 

(Ms. Nielsen has taught economics and statistics in 
several universities for the past 10 years.) 



Listing 2: 



Listing 1: 

100 CLS: INPUT "HOW MANY SIDES ON 
THE DIE" JN 

110 P-1/N:PRINT"THE PROBABILITY 
OF EACH NUMBER FROM 1 TO"|N|"IN 
"|P 

120 FOR J-l TO N:T-0:FOR K-l TO 

j: t-p+t:next k 

130 pr i nt " probab i l i t y of <-"|j|" 

IS "I 

140 PRINT USING "#.#####" I T: 

150 PRINT#-2, "THE PROBABILITY OF 

<-" I J I " - " |T: NEXT J 
160 R*-INKEY«: IF R*-"" THEN 160 
170 SOTO 100 



100 

110 

120 

140 

0:6' 

1S0 

160 

170 

180 

190 

195 

200 



240 



260 



300 
:PRI 



CLS: INPUT 11 NUMBER OF SIDES" |N 
I NPUT " NUMBER OF DIE (1-5) "|D 
P-l/ (N A D) 

I NPUT "YOU WANT"|L:T-0:E-0:F- 
0:H-0:M-0 

IFD>4 THEN FORE- 1 TON 
IFD>3 THEN FORF-1TON 
IFD>2 THEN FORB-1TON 
IF D>1 THEN FORH-1TON 
I FD- 1 THENT-P : 6OTO300 
FORM- 1 TON 
Z-E+F+B+H+M 
IFZ-L THEN T-T+P 
NEXTM:NEXTH: IFD-2THEN300 
NEXTB: IFD-3THEN300 
NEXTF: IFD-4THEN300 
NEXTE 

PR I NT "YOUR PROBABILITY IS "I 
NTUS INS"#. ######" | T 
GOTO 120 



VOI 


CE 


RECOGNITION 


For 


your 16K 


TRS-80 Extended Basic Color Computer 






By Cary D. Perttunen 



Using your cassette recorder's condenser microphone, the COLOR TALK TO ME software 
package can let you use your own voice as an alternate means of input for any of 
your BASIC programs. Over 200 words can be stored in 16K RAM. With a little 
practice, you can attain from 80% to over 90% accuracy for most applications. 

The COLOR TALK TO ME Software Package includes: 
-COLOR TALK TO ME machine language subroutine 

-The BASIC subroutine which can merge COLOR TALK TO ME with your programs 
-Complete instructions on how to use and incorporate COLOR TALK TO ME 

in BASIC programs 
-Two application programs: 

1. VOICE CALC- Use your voice to enter arithmetic problems and VOICE CALC 

will display the solution. 

2. SCREEN PAINTER- Say a color and the screen will be painted that color. 

ALL OF THIS ON TWO CASSETTES FOR ONLY $49.95!!! 

ColorSoft Software Co. will soon be releasing voice recognition programs which can be used 
once you buy COLOR TALK TO ME. Coming soon: Connect More, Crosswords & more! 

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Dealer 
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11764 Raintree Ct. 
Utica, MI 48087 



230 the RAINBOW July 1983 




mRevi&w 



Filmastr: A Handy Do-It-All 
Filing System For CoCo 

One of the reasons that I bought a disk, aside from the 
inherent speed, was to enable me be explore more serious 
applications of my CoCo. Sure I like games, but itseemed to 
me to be a waste of computing power when all 1 was doing 
was eating "power dots," and protecting cities from being 
destroyed. 

I took my first step in this direction when 1 bought a word 
processor. The next step I took was to write a program to 
keep track of my growing library of programs. After I wrote 
it, I started to think of other things that I wanted to keep 
track of. 1 did not want to have to write a new program for 
each application 1 could think of so I started to think about a 
"do-it-all" program. At about the same time I began to see 
ads for this type of program, so 1 figured that 1 would lay 
back and let someone else do the work for me. 

Filmastr is just such a program. With it you can create and 
maintain just about any kind of file that you can think of. It 
features full screen editing of data, copying fields from one 
record to the next while adding information, machine lan- 
guage sorting, record selection, print formatting, and of 
course, adding, changing and deJetingof the records in your 
file. 

When the program is RUN, a title screen appears with a 
menu of two choices. You can either define a new file or load 
an existing one. Since you must define your file before you 
can do anything else with it 1 will discuss this first. 

The first thing you do is to give your file a title (or name as 
1 prefer to call it). You then define all of your fields and their 
lengths. While you are doing this the fields as well as the title 
can be placed almost anywhere on the screen. Also each field 
is assigned a number for future reference. I thought that this 
was a nice feature, because it allows you to determine 
exactly how the screen will look when you are using it later 
on. 

Once your file is defined you are told how many fields it 
has, the length of the file and how many records it can hold. 
This definition is then saved, and you are ready to start 
working with your file. 

In order to begin working with your file you must first 
load it. This may seem like the obvious thing to do, but it 
also applies to files that have just been defined that have no 
records in them yet. After your file is loaded, the bottom of 
the screen shows your choices at this point. 

The first thing that you will be doing is to add some 
records to your file. This is done using the screen format that 
you defined previously. Entering data is done one field at a 
time, and you can use the arrow keys to correct any mistakes 
before you hit ENTER. 

From this screen you can also load in another file. This 
requires that both files be defined in exactly the same 
manner, and allows you to merge several small files into a 
larger one. More on this later. This screen also has the Sort 
option, which will allow you to put your file into any 
sequence. You can sort on more than one field but you 
cannot sort in descending order. The other options here are 
to End the program, which will ask you if you have saved 
your file, and to List your file. 



When listing your file, you can browse through it quickly 
on the screen using the arrow keys. If you hit the BREA K 
key, another menu is presented at the bottom of the screen. 
This menu has six additional options. From it you can 
change or delete records. These are pretty straightforward, 
so I won't go into them any further. 

The Select option allows you to work with a subset of the 
file. Any field can be used in the selection. You can also use a 
portion of a field, as well as two relational operators. For 
example, you can select name e^ual to "S" for all names 
starting with the letter "S," or name equal to "PETERS" for 
all names of "PETERS," "PETERSON," or whatever. The 
relational operators can be used, for example, to select all 
Zip Codes greater than "20000." 

The Save option allows you to save your file. The interest- 
ing thing here is that your file is saved based on the records 
that have been selected. If the Select option has not been 
used, then all the records are saved. However, if you have 
selected records, then only those selected will be saved. 
These smaller files can be used just like any other and can 
always be merged together, which provides a good amount 
of flexibility. 

The Sum option allows you to add up any numeric field 
and will give you a total of the field. By combining this 
feature with the Select feature, you can get totals for any 
part of your file. 

The Print option (you guessed it) will print your file to the 
screen or printer. In order to print a file you must define a 
"print format." This format tells the program which fields 
are to be printed, and in what order. You can also add spaces 
or whatever you like between the fields, and you can print 
the fields on several lines. An example of this would be if you 
wanted to print name and address labels. You would print 
the name and address on separate lines, thecity followed by 
a comma and a space, the state followed by a space, and the 
Zip Code. Although this sounds very flexible, you cannot 
format numeric fields with embedded commas or periods, 
and you cannot produce listings with headings or page 
numbers — very basic features in my opinion. Also when 
listing to the screen, you will have to hit the shift and "@" 
keys to stop it from scrolling off the screen. 

All things considered, Filmastr is a very good utility pro- 
gram. The documentation is very well written, and will guide 
the first time user through the various options with no 
problem. If you want to do some serious work with your 
CoCo, I recommend that you check it out. 

(The Computer House, Box 1051, DuBois, PA 15801, 

$29.95 tape, $34.95 disk) 

— Gerry Schechter 



80C VOICE SYNTHESIS !!! 



BUILD YOUR OWN VOTRAX SC-flt SPEECH MODULE THAT PLUGS INTO 
THE SERIAL PORT. ENJOY THE FUN THAT COMES WITH BEING ABLE 
TO PROGRAM YOUR SYSTEM TO SAY ANY T^XT YOU WISH. USE IT TO 
ENHANCE GAMES. AS A TEACHING AID, OR TO HELP A DISABLED 
FRIEND. NO SPECIAL TOOLS REQUIRED. SIMPLE STEP BY STEP 
INafRUCTIONS USING EASY TO OBTAIN RADIO SHACE STOCK PARTS 

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Manitoba residents include 5% sales tax 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 231 



SoitwamEmmm 



■ SB 



A Icatraz II Unsuccessful 
As Great Escape 

A Icatraz II is a graphic escape game using low resolution 
graphics (PMODE I ). In your role as a convict, you franti- 
cally try to escape from the penitentiary, avoiding guards, 
robots and the trained killer, the Minotaur. After CLOAD- 
ing the Extended BASIC program, you start the game by 
choosing to use either the four arrow keys or the right 
joystick. 

You maneuver your figure through a maze of square cell 
blocks, hopingto find a clear escape path from the wing. The 
exit of each wing is located on the right side of the screen. 
There are also guards in the wing who constantly patrol the 
hallways. Your figure moves at the same speed as the guards, 
so there is no chance of being outrun. If a guard catches you, 
the escape is unsuccessful and the game is over. Between 
some of the blocks are closed gates. You cannot pass 
through the closed gates, but when a guard passes through a 
gate, he opens it, leaving you a way out. The key to the game 
is to lure the guards toward you. If a guard sees you in his 
hallway, he will move toward you, opening all gates in his 
way. li you take toomuch time in a wing, you should expect 
to see the hall lasers. After a short buzzing alarm, five lines 
slowly emerge down each ha 11, from either the right or top of 
the screen. You must quickly move to a safe hallway to avoid 
being zapped. Unfortunately, the lasers will close any pre- 
viously opened gates. If you reach the exit of the wing, your 
score will be added up and displayed. After you escape each 
wing, the number of guards in each wing increases. You 
must get through two more identical wings before encoun- 
tering the Minotaur. 

In the fourth wing, you will see the Minotaur, two walls, 
and three force fields with their corresponding switchboxes. 
The Minotaur moves in random directions, but moves faster 
than you, so you have to react quickly. Once in the Mino- 
taur's lair, you must deactivate the force fields by entering 
the switchboxes. You may hide from the Minotaur in the 
switchboxes because he is too large to enter. You cannot 
pass through a wall, but the Minotaur can, leaving a hole in 
the wall. Waiting for the Minotaur to destroy a particular 
segment in the wall can take a considerable length of time, a 
wait that is quite tedious. 

After eluding the Minotaur, you must get through two 
more wings to complete the escape of the first building. The 



second and third buildings are identical to the first in struc- 
ture, except for additional robot guards. The robot guards 
move slower than you, but they always move directly toward 
you, forcing you to make quicker decisions than before. You 
must take advantage of the robots' slower spee^ to avoid 
being captured. The great escape is over when you exit the 
third building. 

On the opposite side of the tape of Alcalraz II, there is an 
instruction program. This program explains the important 
aspects of playing, and introduces you to the characters. 
Personally, 1 would rather read instructions on the screen 
than on paper any day. The instruction program also gives 
you hints on playing and automatically starts loading the 
main program. The documentation also explains the bug in 
ROM which may yield a SN error because of the PCLEAR 
statement. If this occurs, simply type RUN again and all 
should be well. 

The movements of the figures are slow and choppy due to 
the limitations of Extended BASIC. The program also 
makes use of sound and keeps track of the high score. 

Alcatraz II, 1 believe, does not compare with the high 
quality of some other games of this type for the Color 
Computer, but the price is not high, either. 

(Spectral Associates, 3416 South 90th Street, Tacoma, WA 

98409, $8.95 on tape) 

—Joe Esposjto 



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232 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Robottack: A Fast-Paced, 
High-Res Shoot 'em up 

When Robottack arrived for review, the first thing that 
struck my mind was, "Oh no, not another clone of the 
famous Beserk game! Can't they think of anything new?" 
Well, I 'm glad to Say I was wrong (maybe even dead wrong). 

Although there are robots and humans involved in this 
game, it does not incorporate the mazes and rooms of the 
well known arcadegame. As a matter of fact, one of the neat 
features of this game is the ability to move freely all around 
the screen. You are the "super human" who must fight off 
the attacking robots and save the remaining humans from 
destruction. The left joystick is used to move your human 
anywhere on the screen, and the right one to shoot in any of 
eightdirections. This takes a little getting used to at first, not 
only to coordinate the movement between the two joysticks, 
but to "untrain" yourself that the fire button shoots bullets. 
In this game, the fire button is used only to start playing. 

As you successfully fend off the robots, you move to 
another "frame," and the action starts over again, only with 
more difficulty. I don't know how many frames there are, 
but after about 10 minutes of play, I progressed to frame 1 1 
and achieved a score of28,000 points. I'll spend a few hours 
trying to reach the heights of Robottack fame. There are 
plenty of obstacles to overcome, however, since there is not 
just one kind of robot, but guardian robots, gunner robots, 
mind robots, and bombs. The bombs look like "X's," and 
they chase after you very very fast. 

The beginning of each new frame starts off with great 
audio/ visual effects, as your super-human "materializes" in 
the center of the screen, similar to the famous Imagic game, 
Demon Attack. At the same time, your foes appear at var- 
ious random points on the playfield, wasting no time as they 
start to seek you out. Each new frame brings more vicious 
robots and faster action. IVe discovered that it's not neces- 
sary to clear each new frame entirely of robots, which leads 
me to believe that new playfields are achieved by reaching 
certain point levels. 

Although many games claim to be (and indeed are) in 
machine language, thatdoesn't necessarily mean that they're 
done well. All too often, the sound effects suffer for the 
graphics, or vice versa. Intracolor did a good job with this 
one, taking full advantage of the Color Computer's sound 
and graphics abilities. It is a fast-paced, high-resolution, 
arcade style shoot 'em up, and for those of you who like that 
kind of thing, this is a good bet. It's designed for one or two 
players, with the top five scores displayed on the screen. 

They were thoughtful enough to includea PAUSE feature 
which you activate by pressing the space bar. But my game 
has paused long enough — it's time to get to frame 12. 

(Intracolor Communications, P.O. Box 1035, East Lansing, 
MI 48823, $24.95 cassette, $27.95 disk) 

—Bob Safir 



New Frog Is A 
Prince Of A Program 

Tom M ix Software has done it again! Their newest addi- 
tion to the company's list of software is The Frog. 

The Frog is an almost flawless derivative of Frogger. 
Everything in Frogger is here in The Frog. There are lady 
frogs, treacherous diving turtles, pesky flies, hungry alliga- 
tors and deadly snakes to contend with. 

In case any of you out there have not seen Frogger or The 
Frog, here is a description of how the game works. The 
object is for you, the frog, to travel from the bottom of the 
screen to the top and safety. Sound easy? Not quite. 

There are cars, trucks and other vehicles that would love 
to run your green body into the pavement. There are about 
five rows of this before you reach the middle of the screen — 
if you live that long. Here is a safe place from the cars, but, 
on screen three, a snake moves back and forth when you 
reach this spot and would like frog legs for dinner. 

Ahead of you are another five rows of water and numer- 
ous logs and turtles move back and forth in different direc- 
tions at varying speeds. \Jntortunate\y, your frog can't swim 
and getting your feet wet is fatal. Now we jump on a group of 
turtles and wait there. Oh no, their backs are only showing 
now; better get off before they submerge and we get all wet. 
So we quickly jump onto a passing log. 

What do we have here? A girl frog! Like a lady or gentle- 
man you'll help her get across the river, for an extra 200 
points. Now we jump on another faster log and — what's 
this? — a snapping alligator is moving towards us! Don't 
jump into gator's jaw or we will be someone's lunch. We'll 
jump on his back. 

Now we slowly move along watching the clock in order 
not to run out of time. Here comes a home safe spot, our 
destination. Before we jump, a fly appears in that spot, so 
now, instead of being eaten, let's eat the fly and get 200 extra 
points. We must do that five more times before we go to 
another screen and a harder challenge. 

The detail of this game is amazing. Some of the cars have 
exhaust coming out of them as they move. The logs roll. The 
turtle's legs move. When turtles dive there are bubbles. The 
fly flaps his wings. Thegator'sjawsand tailmoveand, when 
you are killed, a skull and crossbones appear over the spot. 
The Frog uses the highest graphics mode and is written in 
machine language. 

The Frog, fortunately, takes the middle ground in diffi- 
culty. It is not too hard as to be impossible, but not too easy 
as to be boring, and after some practice you can actually get 
good. 

(Tom Mix Software, 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, MI 
49505, $27.95 on tape, $30.95 on disk) 

-Jeff White 



July 1983 the RAINBOW 233 




UTILITY 



RAINBUG 

111 



Part three of a series on our 
new machine language 
monitor being developed 
by the author, Rainbow 
Technical Editor, 
Dan Downard 



In last month's installment we added a section of machine 
code to the Rainbug monitor showing how to calculate 
offsets and mentioned the different types of addressing 
used in a 6809 microprocessor. This month we will add the 
facility of calculation of postbytes, such as those used in 
indexed and indirect addressing of Rainbug and discuss the 
different types of instructions understood by the machine. If 
you are having trouble inputtingthe machine code into your 
CoCo look in this issue under "Rainbow Info" for a quick 
BASIC program for inputting machine language routines. 
Remember the starting address for Rainbug is $3000 in the 
listing, but it can be changed toany address you desire. Until 
you are sure it is functioning properly it is best to leave it at 
$3000. 

6809 Instructions 

Machine code instructions can be divided into five major 
categories according to the affected registers: 

Instructions Register(s) 
•8-Bit Accumulator and Memory 

Instructions A,B 

• 16-Bit Accumulator and Memory 

Instructions D 

• Index/ Stack Pointer Instructions X,Y,U,S 

• Branch Instructions CC 

• Miscellaneous Instructions All 

For your reference we are including a list of all instructions 
in Table I through 5. By looking at the mnemonics and the 
description following them you can follow assembly texts in 
any article as they are used exclusively with the addressing 

(Dan Downard is an electrical engineer and has been 
involved in electronics for 24 years through ham radio 
(K4KWT). His interest in computers began about five 
years ago and he has built several 68 XX systems.) 



modes discussed in last months segment to describe all of the 
available machine code functions. We will examine an 
instruction from each set to familiarize us with the pro- 
cedure. 

8-Bit Accumulator 

and Memory Instructions 

For our example let's look at the ADDA instruction, or 
add memory to accumulator A. This particular instruction 
is also valid for the B register, thus the notation ADDB. It 
canbe used with all but inherent addressing modes since the 
value of any memory location is added to the A registerand 
the a register is replaced with this value. Certain bits of the 
CC (Condition Code) register are affected by this operation 
and for anything but simple binary arithmetic must be 
examined for future operations. 

16-Bit Accumulator 

and Memory Instructions 

The STD instruction stores the 16-bit value in the D 

register, which is the A and B registers combined, at any 

memory location depending on the addressing method in 
use. How can you store a 16-Bit valueat one8-Bit memory 

location? You can't. The 16-Bit value is actually stored at the 
memory address specified and the next consecutive byte. 
Again, the inherent mode is the only type of addressing that 
can't be used. 

Index/Stack Pointer Instructions 

What happens when you want to store a value for future 
reference such as a return address for a subroutine. The 
microprocessor does this automatically when you execute 
certain instructions through the use of the S, or Stack Pointer 
register. In reality, this is a memory location in RAM whose 
location is recognized by the 6809 through your instruction 
such as LEAS. If you notice f rom Table 3 there are actually 
two stacks, the S and U registers. The S register is always 



234 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



recognized by the microprocessor as the primary, or hard- 
ware, stack. Any register c^n be temporarily saved f orfuture 
use by instructions such as PSHS or retrieved by the PULS. 
What these instructions do is provide a method of organiza- 
tion for logical temporary storage of variables and ad- 
dresses. 

Table 1 

8-Bit Accumulator and Memory Instructions 



Table 2 

16-Bit Accumulator and Memory Instructions 



■ _ 1 

Instruction 


Description 


AULA, AULB 


Add memory to accumulator with carry 


AnnA Anno 


Aoo memory to accumulator 


ANDA, ANDB 


And memory with accumulator 


A CI A CI A ACID 

AbL, AoLA, AoLU 


Arithmetic shift of accumulator or memory left 


IACD ACDA A C D D 

|ASn, ASRA, ASRB 


Arithmetic shift of accumulator or memory right 


1 QITA QITQ 
| DM A, 01 1 D 


bit test memory with accumulator 


CLR, CLRA, CLRB 


Clear accumulator or memory location 




, compare memory rrom accumulator 


LUM, LUMA, LUMU 


Complement accumulator or memory location 


UAA 


Decimal adjust A accumulator 


DEC, DECA, DECB 


Decrement accumulator or memory location 


EORA, EORB 


Exclusive or memory with accumulator 


EXG R1, R2 


Exchange R1 with R2 (R1, R2-A, B, CC DP) 


INC, INCA, INCB 


Increment accumulator or memory location 


LDA, LDB 


Load accumulator from memory 


LSLj LSLA, Lb LB 


Logical Shift left accumulator or memory location 


LSR, LSRA, LSRB 


Logical shift right accumulator or memory location 


MUL 


Unsigned multiply (AxB-D) 


NEG, NEGA, NEGB 


Negate accumulator or memory 


ORA, ORB | 


Or memory with accumulator 


ROL, ROLA, ROLB 


Rotata accumulator or memory left 


ROR , RORA r RORB 


Rotate accumulator or memory right 


SBCA, SBCB 


Subtract memory from accumulator with borrow 


STA, STB 


Store accumulator to memroy 


SUBA, SUBB 


Subtract memory from accumulator 


TST, TSTA, TSTB 


Test accumulator or memory location 


TFR R1, R2 


Transfer R1 to R2 (R1, R2 = A, B, CC, DP) 



NOTE: 

A, B r CC, or DP may be pushed to [pulled from) either stack with PSHS, PSHU 
(PULS, PULU) instructions. 

Branch Instructions 

Remember the offset calculator from last month's article? 
Offsets are used in conjunction with branch instructions to 
compare values in a program requiring a decision on howto 
proceed. I suppose a simple program is the best way to 
illustrate. Using the memory examine function of Rainbug, 
enter the following program into memory starting at $2000. 



$2000 


8E AI47 


LDX 


#$AI47 


$2003 


A6 80 


LDA 


,x+ 


$2005 


BD A30A 


JSR 


$A30A 


$2008 


8C A16F 


CMPX 


#$A16F 


$200B 


26 F6 


BNE 


$2003 


$200D 


39 


RTS 





This particular program should tell you what version of 
ROM you have in your computer. Notice that the routine 
printed the value of memory at the location of the X register 
and compared it each time with $A 16F. If it was not equal, 
another character was printed. 

Miscellaneous Instructions 

This group of instructions is a grab bag of commands that 
are not directly related to any specific register. For example 
the JMP instruction tells the 6809 to change the value of the 
program counter, thereby moving program execution to a 
different address. Essentially when you execute an EXEC 
instruction in BASICyou are doing the same thing. Did you 



Instruction 


Description 


ADDD 


Add memory to D accumulator 


CMPD 


Compare memory from D accumulator 


EXG D, R 


Exchange D with X, Y, S, U, or PC 


LDD 


Load D accumulator from memory 


SEX 


Sign Extend B accumulator into A accumulator 


STD j 


Store D accumulator to memory 


SUBD 


Subtract memory from D accumulator 


TFR D, R 


Transfer D to X, Y, S, U, or PC 


TFR R, D- 


Transfer X, Y, S, U, or PC to D 



NOTE: 

D may be pushed (pulled) to either stack with PSHS, PSHU (PULS, PULU) 
instructions. 

notice the interrupt instructions? We will cover interrupts 
and condition codes next month. 

Rainbug 

Two new commands are added to Rainbug this month. 
One was actually in the listing last month but omitted from 
the commands. 
X Exit to BASIC 
E Encode Postbyte 

The X command is self explanitory and executes as soon as 
the key is depressed, so be careful. If hit by accident an 
EXEC command from BASIC will return you to Rainbug. 
The E command has the following syntax: 
E ,X++ 

E HHHH,PCR 
E H,X 



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July 1983 the RAINBOW 235 



The preceding examples are all mnemonics requiring a 
postbyte as part of the op-code. The E command will auto- 
matically calculate the postbyte for you. The letter "H" is 
input to indicate the number of hex bytes needed in the 
expression. 

Table 3 

Index/Stack Pointer Instructions 



Instruction 


Description 


CMPS, CMPU 


Compare memory from stack pointer 


CMPX, CMPY 


Compare memory from index register 


EXG Rl. H2 


Exchange B. X. V, 5, U or PC with D. V. Y. S. U or PC 


LEAS. LEAU 


Load effective address into stack pointer 


LEAX, LEAY 


Load effective address into index register 


LDS, LDU 


Load stack pointer from memory 


LDX. LDY 


Load index register from memory 


1 PSHS 


Push A, B, CC, DP. D, X, Y, U, or PC onto hardware stack 


rpsHu 


Push A, B, CC, DP, D, X, Y, X, or PC onto user stack 


1 PULS 


Pull A, B, CC, DP, D, X, Y, U, or PC from hardware stack 


PULU 


Pull A, B, CC, DP. D, X, Y. S, or PC from hardware stack 


STS, STU 


Store stack pointer to memory 


STX, STY 


Store index register to memory 


TFR R1. R2 


Transfer D, X. Y, S, U, or PC to D, X, Y, S, U, or PC 


A8X 


Add E accumulator to X ^'-.signndl 



Summary 

It looks like this four-part series is going to be extended 
another month out of necessity to cover all of the material 
intended in short, hopefully digestible, segments. Next 
month we will cover interrupts and the CC register. We will 
add tape and disk commands to Rainbug leaving break- 
points for last. So far the starting, ending and execute 
addresses are $3000, $3302, $319E. Notice that the lookup 
table is different due to addition of a newcommand. Seeyou 
next month! 



Table 4 
Branch Instructions 



Instruction 


Description 


SIMPLE BRANCHES 


BEQ. LBEQ 


Branch if equal 


BNE. LBNE 


Branch if not equal 


BMl. LBMI 


Branch if minus 


BPL, LBPL 


Branch if plus 


BCS. LBCS 


Branch if carry set 


BCC, LBCC 


Branch if carry clear 


BVS, LBVS 


Branch if overflow set 


BVC, LBVC 


Branch if overflow clear 


SIGNED BRANCHES 


BGT, LBGT 


Branch if greater (signed) 


BVS, LBVS 


Branch if invalid twos complement result 


BGE. LBGE 


Branch if greater than or equal (signed) 


BEQ. LBEQ 


Branch if equal 


BNE. LBNE 


Branch if not equal 


BLE, LBLE 


Branch if less than or equal (signed) 


BVC. LBVC 


Branch if valid twos complement result 


BLT, LBLT 


Branch if less than (signed) 


UNSIGNED BRANCHES 


BHI. LBHI 


Branch if higher (unsigned) 


BCC, LBCC 


Branch if higher or same (unsigned) 


BHS, LBHS 


Branch if higher or same (unsigned) 


BEQ, LBEQ 


Branch if equal 


BNE, LBNE 


Branch if not equal 


BLS, LBLS 


Branch if lower or same (unsigned) 


BCS. LBCS 


Branch if lower (unsigned) 


BLO, LBLO 


Branch if lower (unsigned) 


OTHER BRANCHES 


BSR, LBSR 


Branch to subroutine 


BRA, LBRA 


Branch always 


BRN, LBRN 


Branch never 



236 the RAINBOW July 1983 



Table 5 
Miscellaneous Instructions 



Instruction 


Description 


ANDCC 


AND condition code register 


CWAI 


AND condition code register, then wait for interrupt 


NOP 


No operation 


ORCC 


OR condition code register 


JMP 


Jump 


JSR 


Jump to subroutine 


RTI 


Return from interrupt 


RTS 


Return from subroutine 


SWI, SWI2. SWI3 


Software interrupt (absolute indirect) 


SYNC 


Synchronize with interrupt line 



Re primed from the MC6809 - MC6809E Microprocessor Programming 
Manual with the permission of Motorola, Inc. 



00100 *RAINBUG 

00110 *DAN DOWNARD REV 2 

00111 *LINES 100-2550 AND LINES 

00112 *2885-3080 APPEARED IN PARTS 

00113 #1 AND 2 OF THIS SERIES 



Ovvv 




00120 


ORG 


$3000 




71 AQ 
0 1 Ho 


00130 CHDBAD 


EQU 


ERROR 




00OL- 


00140 SKIP2 


EQU 


$8C 




HVVV 


00150 POLCAT 


EQU 


$A000 






00160 CHROLIT 


EQU 


$A002 






02555 *TABLE OF COMMANDS 




79015 

JLVJ 


02560 CMDTBL 


EQU 


* 


7 r )fl*s 


Al 


02570 


FCC 

1 w w 


/B/ 


JIOiL 


VVr L 


02580 


FDB 


BKPT-* 




A7 
*tO 


02590 


FCC 

l w w 


/C/ 


J/107 


vvrv 


02600 


FDB 


CALL-* 

Ul ILL 




AA 


02610 


FCC 


/D/ 




vvtt 


02620 


FDB 


DISK-* 






02630 


FCC 


III 






02640 


FDB 


ENCDE-* 


oil 1 


hi 


02650 


FCC 


/G/ 


JlIl 


vvti 


02660 


FDB 


GO-* 


3214 


A P 

4C 


02670 


FCC 


III 


3215 


n n p* i 

00E7 


02680 


FDB 


LOAD-* 


3217 


4D 


02690 


FCC 


mi 


3218 


FOEB 


02700 


FDB 


CMEM-* 


321A 


40 


02710 


FCC 


/@/ 


321D 


00E2 


02720 


FDB 


PRINT-* 


321D 


4F 


02730 


FCC 


101 


321E 


0017 


02740 


FDB 


0FFS-* 


3220 


50 


02750 


FCC 


IPI 


3221 


00DD 


02760 


FDB 


PUNCH-* 


3223 


52 


02770 


FCC 


/R/ 


3224 


00DB 


02780 


FDB 


REG-* 


3226 


53 


02790 


FCC 


/S/ 


3227 


00D9 


02800 


FDB 


STLEV-* 


3229 


54 


02810 


FCC 


HI 


322A 


00D7 


02820 


FDB 


TRACE-* 


322C 


56 


02830 


FCC 


/V/ 


322D 


00D5 


02840 


FDB 


VER-* 


322F 


57 


02850 


FCC 


/W/ 


3230 


FE5C 


02860 


FDB 


CWIND0-* 


3232 


58 


02870 


FCC 


III 


3233 


002A 


02880 


FDB 


EXIT-* 






03085 ENCODE 


A POSTBYTE 


3263 6F 


E2 


03090 ENCDE 


CLR 





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July 1983 the RAINBOW 239 




A Tale of Three Flexes 

By Dr. Laurence D. Preble 



All in favor of more powerful software for the Color 
Computer say Aye! Good . . . Now, someone explain 
to the Russian ambassador that rumble he heard 
was not a nuclear test — only the unanimous agreement of a 
megaton of CoCo users. 

If you have been following my periodic reviews, you know 
that Flex (TM of Technical Systems Consultants) is a pow- 
erful alternative disk operating system for the Color Com- 
puter. An incredible variety of business software is designed 
to run under Flex. A number of programming languages are 
available including Pascal, Fortran, RS BASIC, RS Assem- 
bler, TSC BASIC, TSC Assembler, Relocating Assembler, 
Macro Assembler, Mumps, Forth and "C." Another reason 
1 use Flex with the Color Computer is that it allows me to 
run high performance disk drives as well as the standard 
Radio Shack drives. One drive 1 use can handle nearly a 
megabyte of storage; that translates to over 200 programs 
stored on one disk! 

Data-Comp was the first to "have" Flex for the Color 
Computer about two years ago. Commercial distribution 
did not actually begin until 1982. Their current offering has 
evolved considerably since the early beginnings which 
required hardware adapters and much software modifica- 



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not found in any other COLOR COMPUTER graphing system: 

■ 222x174 pixel on-screen data plotting area. 

■ Complete on-screen labeling for two Y-axes w/200 data 

points per axis leven more points by chaining data filesl. 
" 9 graphing options: 3 symbols w/2 line types or points only. 

■ Full function data editing: add, change, delete and sort. 

■ Hardcopy w/standard screenprint programs [not suppl ied l - 

includes Interface for Tandy SCRPRT w/lnstructions for 
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■ Unlimited overlays -plot 9 or more data sets per graph. 

■ Graphs output to screen, printer, tape or disk. 

■ Plots any user-defined function, edit 4 program lines. 

■ Built-in data smoothing Imovlng binomial average!. 

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tion. Frank Hogg Labs began offering their commercial 
version in early 1 982. This implementation was actually the 
first to run on an "almost"stock CoCo. I say almost because 
it still required the hardware addition of 64K chips as do all 
current versions of Flex. Brand new is the offering by Spec- 
tral Associates. If each version of Flex were totally identical 
with its companions, it would not matter much where you 
purchase Flex. Life is rarely that simple. Technical Systems 
Consultants (TSC) authored the original versions of Flex; 
those versions, however, will not run on the Color Compu- 
ter without modification. It is the modifications to Flex that 
are unique to each distributor. 

Modifications to Flex consist of special input/ output 
routines, video display implementations, printer drivers and 
disk drivers. Methods of installing Flex in the CoCo vary as 
well. In addition, each distributor has provided certain 
added attractions which we will discuss in some detail. 

Data-Comp Flex 

Data-Comp does not actually sell a fully modified version 
of Flex — what they do sell is the F-MATE(RS) conversion 
for TSC Flex. The user, however, may purchase both the 
F-M ATE(RS) conversion and TSC General version of Flex 
from the people at Data-Comp; it is then, a relatively simple 
procedure to combine the conversion package with Flex to 
have a working system. Once a "boot up" disk has been 
created, you can enter Flex from Radio Shack Disk BASIC 
by typing RUN "FLEX." 

Once you have entered Flex, you may select a high resolu- 
tion video display; you are no longer limited to the standard 
Radio Shack 32 column by 1 6 row screen format. A 5 [ x 24 
display format is most useful; it provides good legibility on 
most TVs while giving you the added features of upper and 
lower case characters and an X Y addressable cursor. Inverse 
video is also available. One very nice extra is that Data- 
Comp provides you with the Assembly Language Source 
listings of the video routines so that you may modify them at 
will. You may create screen formats of 32 x 16, 32 x 24,42 x 
24, 51 x 24 and 64 x 24. (Data-Comp also provides Source 
Code for a total of eight of its support commands, a freebie 
not currently available from other companies.) 

Another salient feature of Data-Comp Flex is its NEW- 
DISK command. NEWDISK allows you to format a new 
disk any way you like within the physical limitations of the 
disk drive you are using. You may specify double or single 
sided, double or single density and you may specify the 
maximum number of tracks available. Up to this point, 
everything I have mentioned is also true of the other com- 
panies' NEWDISK commands; however, Data-Comp's 
NEWDISK also provides you with a running commentary 
on how the formatting is proceeding. Formatting a mega- 
byte disk on a high performance drive takes several minutes 
and may lead you to believe your system has "hung" or 
crashed; so it is very nice to visualize the progress being 
made. 

Although It is fine to use a Radio Shack disk drive with 
Flex, the formats of a Flex diskette and a Radio Shack 
diskette are dissimilar and therefore incompatible; however, 
Data-Comp provides three utilities for exchange of infor- 
mation between Radio Shack and Flex diskettes. RSREAD 
is a machine language command which will read a file from a 
Radio Shack disk and transfer the information to a Flex 
disk. This function is provided free. RSDIR is a machine 
language command which displays the directory of a Radio 
Shack disk — also free. Frank Hogg Labs does provide a 
command which includes the functions of RSREAD and 



240 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



RSDIR but Hogg's version is written in DB ASIC which you 
must purchase separately. Spectral Associates does not cur- 
rently provide a similar function. RSWRITE is a machine 
language command which will write a Flex file to a Radio 
Shack disk. Currently, neither Frank Hogg Labs nor Spec- 
tral Associates offers such a function. Finally, RSCVBIN is 
a machine language command which will rearrange the 
format of a Radio Shack machine language program so that 
it will run under Flex. No other company currently offers 
this function. 

Also provided free is CCBASIC, a conversion for Radio 
Shack Extended BASIC to run under Flex. The conversion 
allows you to LOAD and S A KEboth BASIC and machine 
language programs in Flex format. Special disk input/ out- 
put routines such as individual sector read/ write functions 
are not implemented. 

Data-Comp providesan unusual printerdriver command 
that checks to see if the printer is ready before outputting 
data. Without such a feature, your system will "hang up" 
and need to be reset if you attempt to send data to the printer 
port with no printer available. 

MEMEX and D1SKEX aretwomore interesting machine 
language commands which allow the user to examine and 
change memory or the sectors of a disk respectively. 

D1SKRATE allows the user to set the stepping rate of a 
DISK drive. This is useful because some high performance 
drives can step up to five times faster than normal Radio 
Shack drives. 

USERKEYS providesa means of defining your own con- 
trol codesand special characters not available on the normal 
Color Computer keyboard. 



When you buy the Flex package from Data-Comp, they 
also include a full feature Editor and Assembler from TSC. 
This is not exactly a freebie, however, because Data-Comp's 
price for their Flex package is higher than either the Frank 
Hogg Laboratories or the Spectral Associates version. 

For those of you who wish to purchase or already own a 
separate terminal, Data-Comp sells a handy utility called 
TERM. For $19.95 you receive a package that allows 
another terminal to access the Color Computer. An interest- 
ing feature is the recognition of the BREAK key on the 
terminal. While using EXT and receiving output from the 
computer, you may press BREAK on the terminal which 
will cause the output to pause. You may then press ESC to 
continue output or press a carriage return to abort output. 
One truly unique feature of TERM is ^automatic recogni- 
tion of baud rates from the terminal. 

Overall, I was impressed with Data-Comp's version of 
Flex. There were a few aspects 1 felt were lacking or could 
stand some improvement. One example which really stands 
out is that the people at Data-Comp never purchased a 
license for Flex from TSC. Both Frank Hogg Labs and 
Spectral Associates purchased the rights to distribute Flex 
at a cost of from $ 12,000 to $20,000. A license to Flex allows 
the distributor to freely modify the operating system and to 
distribute the end result at whatever price they choose. By 
not purchasinga license to Flex, Data-Comp must sell their 
package of modifications separate from Flex and devise a 
method for the user to combine the modifications with the 
Flex package. This is not so bad but does add an extra step 
to setting up Flex. To reiterate, anybody, including you or I, 
can sell TSC Flex; of course, TSC will receive most of the 




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July 1983 the RAINBOW 241 



profit unless we agree to pay X amount of dollars to license 
the product. Once we obtain the license, we owe TSC 
nothing more and can modify and distribute Flex at will. 

Without a license, the problem is that the price of Flex is 
set by TSC. Theoretically at least, both Spectral Associates 
and Frank Hogg Labs could cut prices on their versions of 
Flex as low as they like becaue the own the rights to Flex and 
pay no further royalties on each sale. In practice, however, 
the prices of the three Flex versions are fairly competitive. 

Frank Hogg Labs Flex 

Frank Hogg Labs has been supplying Flex for the Color 
Computer for over a year now but has been supplying 
business software to run under Flex since 1979, long before 
the Color Computer was invented. The FHL version of Flex 
is well done. Installation of Flex is very simple because you 
do not need to do any procedures to modify Flex. Insert the 
system disk provided into drive 0 and type RUN "FLEX." 

FHL Flex also privdes several high resolution screens 
such as 32 x 24, 5 1 x 24, 64 x 24 and even 64 x 32. Again, I 
find the 5 1 x 24 screen most useful in all versions of Flex as it 
provides the best compromise between legibility and density 
of information. The FHL video formats provide all of the 
expected features plus a few unique features. Like Data- 
Comp and Spectral Associates, FHL gives you an addressa- 
ble cursor, upper and lower case, control codes and inverse 
video. Extra functions include an optional status bar at the 
bottom or top of the screen like the fancy professional 
terminals. It is also possible to "protect" certain portions of 
the screen. That is, you can put a block of information on the 
screen and keep it from scrolling or being overwritten. FHL 

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video routines also allow special methods of generating all 
of the ASCII characters and codes without the necessity of 
defining user keys. 

A very handy feature of FHL Flex is the HELP com- 
mand. Did you forget how to work a certain command like 
CAT?Type HELP CAT to get the answer. No other version 
of Flex currently offers this feature. 

FHL also provides a printer driver that is built into Flex. 
That means the driver is immediately available without 
loading from disk. You can even send a special control code 
form the keyboard to cause everything that outputs to the 
screen to also output to the printer. This is especially useful 
for getting hard copies from programs that were not 
designed to access the printer port. Baud rates up to 9600 are 
provided. 

The SETUP command is very powerful. You may use 
SETUP to alter the printer baud rates, setup parameters for 
an external terminal, set up stepping rates for your disk 
drives and examine and change portions of memory. You 
can even use the SETUP command to tell the operating 
system what kind of disks you have; once the system is 
informed that you have a 40 track single sided drive, it would 
not waste time trying to format that drive 80 track or double 
sided. FHL's competitors at Data-Comp seem to feel that 
this aspect of SETUP is a waste of time and an extra step. On 
other Flex systems, if you attempt to operate a disk drive 
beyond its capacity it will flop around for a while but even- 
tually give up. On FHL Flex the system immediately knows 
if you try to overextend a drive's capability and aborts 
gracefully. Is the extra step of using SETUP worthwhile? 
Well, before deciding, remember that this only need be done 
once and then forgotten. The other mentioned functions of 
SETUP are undisputably worthwhile. 

For those who own or intend to buy a professional dumb 
terminal, a useful set of commands is EXT and INT. Like 
Data-Comp's TERM command, EXT gives control of the 
computer to an external terminal which would normally 
include a professional full function keyboard and an 80 x 24 
character display. INTrestores control to the Color Compu- 
ter's internal keyboard. As with Data-Comp's TERM com- 
mand, the BREAK key is recognized to cause a pause in the 
output stream. Unlike Data-Comp's TERM command, 
baud rates to the terminal are initialized with the SETUP 
command. Also unlike Data-Comp's TERM command, 
EXT and INT are included in the purchase price of FHL 
Flex. 

Some of you may be interested in learning Assembly 
Languageand may need some editingcapability butare not 
willing to spend a hundred bucks for the software. Frank 
Hogg Labs recently began including an Interactive Assem- 
bler and a Tiny Editor free when you purchase their version 
of Flex for $69.95. I know that Data-Comp includes a full 
feature Assembler and Editor with their Flex. The catch is 
that Data-Comp charges $ 1 99 for their basic Flex package. 
Neither the Interactive Assembler (ISM) nor the Tiny Edi- 
tor (TED) are as powerful as their grownup counterparts 
but they are surprisingly capable for their size. ISM assem- 
bles code directly to memory and can immediately execute 
the code, hence the term "Interactive." Also included is the 
ability to examine and change memory. TED is line oriented 
and allows global searches and changes. 

So far, everything I have described is included when you 
buy FHL Flex for $69.95. For an extra $30, you can buy 
DBASIC which I feel is well worth the expense. DBASIC is 
FHL's conversion of Radio Shack's Disk Extended BASIC. 



242 



the RAINBOW July 1983 



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STALAG & ENO 

bv PAL Creations 

1) You are an allied POW in a German 
prison camp in 1944 and were forgotten in 
the hot box when the camp was evacuated 
due to unexpected bombing raids. How 
will you get ou! ALIVE? 

2) Your eccentric old aunt just died and 
left you a fortune in cash. To prove you 
deserve it, you must decipher the clues 
and find your fortune, which she hid in 
her living room. 

32K EXT Both for $14.95 



OLDIES BUT GOODIES. 
JUNGLE TREK 



RAINBOW 

CE«»h*»C*iiOn 

II *-L 

Lost in a jungle with wild animals lurking; 
your only survival is to find a safe com- 
pound before you are lunch for lions; 
high resolution; multi-color. 
I6KEXT $14.95 

SCORE EZ 

From 1 to 6 people can play this excellent 
adaptation of a popular board game. The 
computer keeps score for all players, and 
rolls dice. You can roll again just like the 
original game. Properly position the 
results of each turn for maximum score. 
The only thing you will need besides your 
computer is players. Color graphics and 
sound will entertain you for hours, and 
it's EZ to play. 

I6K EXT $15.95 

BIORHYTHM 
PSYCHIC APT. 



RAINBOW 



1) Prints biorhythm charts of nearly 
unlimited length; attractively formatted 
for use on Line Printer VII. 16K 

2) Your psychic ability is determined 
through questions evaluating your psychic 
experiences 

16KExt Both for $15.95 



EVASION 

by PAL Creations 

You have just escaped from a Cierinan 
prison camp. That was the easy pan . Now 
you must get out of Germany! 
32k EXT $19.95 

TOWER CASTLE 

from Moreton Bay 



CARIBBEAN ODYSSEY 

You are stranded on a Caribbean island 
once used by pirates to store their 
treasures. While searching over 70 distinct 
locations, can you find your one chance 
for rescue" 1 



BLACK SANCTUM 

bv Mark Data 



17.95 



EL DIABLERO 

by Compaterwure 



$19.95 



32K EXT 



$19.95 



RAINBOW 



$19.95 



CALIXTO ISLAND 

hv Mark Data 



$19.95 



J ARB 



1 

N 

C 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

I636D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 
(619) 474-6213 

Dealer/ Author Inquiries Invited 

All programs uiirraniicd 00 day*, from date uf purchase 
lo original purchaser. Unle.v, otherwise specified, ship- 
ping and liandfing S2.00 per order. California residents 
add (i ft 'o sales lax. 

U.S FUNDS ONLY 

C.O.D. ORDERS ACCEPTED 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



THE FINAL 

COUNTDOWN 

ccr..*..** h v Bm & oeblue Cook 

St It. 

You are outside a missile base which has 
jusi been evacuated because a beserk 
General has started the countdown on a 
nuclear missile - target: MOSCOW. 
Your mission, if you accept it, is to stop 
the missile launch and prevent WWII I. 
I6K EXT $14.95 

S.S. POSEIDON 

hv Biff & Debbie Cook 

You are aboard the S.S. Poseidon when il 
is capsized by a tidal wave. It is floating 
bottom-up on the surface and taking on 
water. Will you survive to tell your tale? 
16k EXt ..... . .... $14.95 



SANDS OF EGYPT 

'ISK S29.95 



UTILITIES 

Disk to Tape (Tom Mix) 

Tape to Disk ( I om Mix) 

Color Diagnostic (Computerware) . . . 
Programmers Toolkit (Moreton Bay). 
GNT (Graphics *n Text) . t + . 



19.95 
19.95 
17.95 
28.95 
19.95 



From Computerware: 



ARCADE ACTION!!! 

Pac Auack I I, Poodle Bug, Shark Treasure 24.95 

Megapede, Rail Runner - , 21 .95 

Syniher 7 Music Synthesizer , 24.95 



From Iniracolor: 
From Tom Mix: 



Colorpede 29.95 Roboitack T^^Jr 24.95 

The King, Kaierpiller 24.95 

Protectors, Moonlander ♦ ► ♦ ♦ 1 5.95 

Bird Auack ^y^/\ ' • - 2, - 95So, ° p ° o1 17 ' 95 

Space Shuule . . . >^2w> 28.95 




From Spectral Associates: 



'HE 



Galax Attax 21.95 

Planet Invasion 24.95 

Ghost Gobbler 24.95 



FOR SERIOUS APPLICATIONS: 

Telewriter - 64 (Cognitec) 49.95 Cass. 59.95 Disk. 

Mailing List (Tom Mix) 19.95 Disk 

Coco Writer (Moreton Bay) 34.95 

File Cabinet (Moreton Bay) 29.95 

Report (Moreton Bay) 24.95 




Excellent Royalties 

ALL SUBMISSIONS EVALUATED 
Send S.A.S.E. 



Nearly all the disk commands have been adapted to work 
with Flex. Implemented disk commands include FREE, 
DRIVE, VERIFY, LOC, LOF, DSKIS, DSKOS, OPEN 
and CLOSE. Only random files have notbeenimplemented. 
Nearly all of my disk oriented RS BASIC programs will now 
run under DBAS1C. This is different from Data-Comp's 
CCBASIC which will allow you to LOAD and SA KE pro- 
grams in Flex but does not implement the other disk I/O 
commands. Of course, you must pay extra for DBASIC 
wh