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HE COLOR COMPUTER mNTHLY]$GAZINE 

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Under the Rainbow 




COVER photograph® by James E. 
Reed for the Rainbow. 



Printer related snides highlighted in 
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28 




250 




116 




Feature Articles 

A Trivial Program/ Gary Wick 16 

Game Make up your own trivia game 

Hello Epson — Howdy CoCo/ Dennis Snyder 20 

Hardware Get your Epson and CoCo connected 
Who Was That Masked Tape?// Ray 30 

Utility Neat and easy printed cassette labels 
Poached Roach?/ John Fraysee 38 

Game Be wary of the hit-man's deadly spray 
Sopwith CoCo, Snoopy/ William G. Franklin 54 

Simulation A real-time instrument flight simulation 

That Key Does What?/£o6 Rosen 80 

Utility Programming function keys 

No Zonks For Disks/ Thomas F. Szlucha 84 

Disk Utility Make a safe backup of your disk directory 

Control Your Home / Alexander B. Trevor & Charles Yahn 98 

Home Control Theory and use of the Plug V Power 
Controller 

VARPTR Exposed//?0/i Mummaw 110 

Tutorial A full rundown on BASICS "hidden command 1 ' 

Plotting 3-D Graphs/ Bob Delbourgo 116 

Graph Graphics How to use three variables in plotting 
graphs 

NsNs Nyqcus/ Chris Reid 132 

Word Game The perfect program for cryptogram 
fanatics 

Mr, Ed Joins The Rainbow/ Hubert E. Samm 140 

Utility A full screen editor 
Now THAT'S Hard!/ Dr. J. C. Kreischmer 148 

Education Estimating the difficulty of text 

Printer Conversion Chart/ Staff 156 

Printers Convert control codes easily 
Boring Into The "F" Board/AM? Reilly 160 

Hardware An in-depth look at CoCo's newest board 
A Many-Formatted Thing/ Bill Bohne 182 

Printers Automatic printer formats done easily 

Joysticks For Educational Use/ David Macali 196 

Education Using the Wico joysticks 

Print It Bigger/ Dick White 198 

Printer Utility Character graphics makes a sign-maker 

Error Detection In Communications/ Harry Hardy 240 

Communication How to cut down on mistakes in your 
transmissions 

Look, No Waiting/ Steve Good 246 

Utility A software print spooler 

Blocking Out Microline Graphics/ Thomas F. Szlucha 250 

Printer Graphics Using the block graphics in the 82A 

Water, Water Everywhere, But Not . . . /Martin S. Monies 258 

Game Play Pipeline and quench some thirst 

Let's Make Music/ Bob Delbourgo 262 

Music With this fine musical scale generator 
Rainbug Redux/ Dan Downard 264 

Utility Part Two of our machine language monitor 




AN IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT CONCERNING SUBSCRIPTIONS IS ON PACE 271 



Departments 



Letters To Rainbow/ Our Readers 6 

PRINT #-2,/ Lawrence C. Falk 13 

Editor's Notes 

Building June's Rainbow/Tim Reed 14 

A many-hued preview to this month's issue. 
Education Notes/ Steve Blyn 28 

Construct a bar graph of your child's grades 

Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano 72 

A close look at memory 

Submitting Material To Rainbow 78 

Assembly Corner/ Dennis Lewandowski 76 

Word processing — ML style 

Rainbow Scoreboard 82 

Using Graphics/ Don Inman 90 

Some serious graphics 

The Dragon's Byte/ Bill Nolan 124 

DA TA lines cache monsters 

The Pipeline/ Staff. 130 

Received And Certified 147 

CoCo Counsel/ Tom Nelson 164 

Surveying the CoCo market 

Bits And Bytes Of Basic/ Richard White 174 

Bulletin board message entry 

Education And CoCo/ Paul Kimmelman 232 

CoCo a bargain for schools 

GameMaster's Apprentice/ito6 Albrecht 234 

Generate random character names 
Basic Tx^mmgl Joseph Kolar 255 

Now, let's write some programs 

Back Issue Information 263 

Corrections 270 

RAINBOW Info 272 

Advertiser Index 274 




Product Reviews 

Autoterm/ Rand olf Graham 118 

Banner 223 

BASIC Programming Primer 220 

Card Game 152 

Carry 195 

Co-existance 219 

Color Text/ A. Buddy Hogan 226 

The Composer 192 

CPP 172 

Crosswords 224 

Database Manager II 242 

DMP 200/ John Fernald 210 

Epson Interface 88 

Gemini 10/15 109 



CGP II 230 

Hebrew Bulletin Board 180 

INSIMB 170 

Monsters & Magic 222 

Pro-Color File/ Ed Lowe 208 

Soooper Pac 195 

Stagecoach 68 

Telewriter-64/ Frank J. Esser 216 

Words About Things 162 

Words That Act 162 

Zaksund 154 

Zarconian Marble 88 

Zaxxon 154 




NEXT MONTH: Will be our super-duper Second Anniversary Issue! And there will be a very special 
surprise for everyone — a first for any computer magazine. 

For those of you who want to know what's inside CoCo, we'll have the most complete and accurate 
memory map ever published. It is so big, it will be serialized, with Part One as an Anniversary Issue 
special. It covers all CoCo configurations. 

Yes. Yes. Yes. Our Anniversary Issue will also feature an Index! It is something many of you have been 
asking for. 

Plus ... a report on RAINBOWfest, and more programs, more reviews, more information on CoCo 
than you can possibly find anywhere else. Don't miss July's Rainbowl 



The Rainbow 



Lawrence C. Falk 

Editor 

James E, Reed 
Managing Editor 

Courtney Noe 
Associate Editor 

Sally Nichols 
Art Director 

Jerry McKsernan 
Assistant Art Director 

Jutta Kapfhammer 
Suzanne Kurowsky 
Editorial Assistants 

Bob Albrecht 
Stevs Blyn 
Tony DiStefano 
Don Inman 
Joseph Kofar 
Paul KimmeJman 
Dennis Lewandowski 
Bill Nolan 
Charles Roslund 
Dick White 
Contributing Editors 

Patty King 
Advertising Manager 

Patricia H. Hirsch 

General Manager 

Donna Shuck 
Bookkeeper 

Ivanka Kleier 
Customer Service Manager 

Deidra Henry 
Tanya Holder 
Monica Wheat 
Research Assistants 

Wendy Falk 
Transportation 



The Rainbow is published every month of the year 
by F ALSO Ft, 1NC. F 9529 U.S. Highway 42, P.O, Sox 
209. Prospect, KY, 40059. Phone 223-4492, 
The RA1N8QW and the Rainbow logotypes are ® 
Trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. 

Entire contents by F ALSO FT, inc., 1 983. The 
RAINBOW is intended for the private use and plea- 
sure of its subscribers and purchasers and repro- 
duction by any means is prohibited- Use of intorma- 
tion herein is for the single end use of purchasers 
and any other use is expressly prohibited. Ail pro- 
grams herein are distributed in an "as is" basis,' 
without warranty of any kind whatsoever. 

TRS-8G, Color Basic, Extended Color Basic, 
Scripsjt and Program Pak are * trademarks of the 
Tandy Corp. CompuServe is a ® Trademark Of 
CompuServe Inc. 

Subscriptions to the RAINBOW are $22 oar year 
m the United Stales. Canadian and Mexican rates 
are U.S. $29. Surface mail to other countries es U.S. 
$57; air mail U.S. SB5. All subscriptions begin with 
the next available issue. 

Limited hack issues are available. Please see 
notice lor issues which are in print and costs. Pay- 
ment accepted by VISA, MasterCard, American 
Express, Cash F Check or Money Order in United 
States currency only 



J 



letters to 

RAINBOW 



WEAVER'S CORNER 

Editor: 

As a very enthusiastic CoCo owner, I am 
enjoying your magazine very much. 

I'm also very enthusiastic about the CGP 
1 15 printer and think it has great potential 
for use in weaving, which is what I do. But 
Td like to see someone come out with a roll 
of address labels that would fit it. Does 
anyone make a roll of labels that would fit? 
Does Radio Shack plan to market such a roll 
of labels? 

And how about pens in other colors? It 
would be handy to be able to print out a 
weaving draft in brown and beige, for 
instance. Or yellow and lavender. Do you 
know whether RS has any further plans for 
the CGP 115? 

Sandra L. Willdrd 
Chireno, TX 



HERE TO ATARI? 

Editor: 

In a news bulletin from a local computer 
club last August, it mentioned an adapter to 
permit Atari and Activision cartridges to 
run on the 80C. Have your readers heard 
anything about when it is to be expected and 
if it will also allow Imagic, Parker Brothers, 
Coleco (for Atari) and other manufacturers' 
cartridges to run on it? 

Peter Stumpf 
McHenry, IL 



TRECKING FOR STAR TREK 

Editor: 

I have been searching, in vain, for a color 
version of one of my favorite games... Star 
Trek. I know that it works well on a M odel I 
Radio Shack computer; it was written by 
Joshua Lavinsky and copyrighted 1 978; fea- 
tures Starbase attack alerts, movement of 
the Enterprise within a quadrant by means 
of the arrow buttons, three button warp 
drive (one button to signal warp, two others 
to indicate destination quadrant), ten levels 
of play (with 8-12 Klingons in the first level, 
around 70 in the highest), and a ration of 
three photon torpedoes between resupply at 
a Starbase. 

If your readers know where I can contact 
the writer of this program, or if he has writ- 
ten a version of that same game for the Coior 
Computer, I would very much appreciate 
being provided with that information. My 
address is General Delivery, Whitehorse, 
Yukon Y1A3S7. 

Geoffrey B. Capp 
Whitehorse, Yukon 

Editor's Note: I don't know about this 
one, but there are sdme excellent Star 
Trek games available on the commer- 
cial market. Some we have played are 



even better than that which you 
describe. 



AID NEEDED 

Editor: 

I own a 32K Extended BASIC Color 
Computer, which I recently upgraded to 
disk. I am making the transitionf rom tape to 
disk, and I need some assistance inlocatinga 
certain utility. 

I am looking for a program that will load 
my machine language tape programs to disk 
so they will execute properly. If your readers 
have any information on this, please contact 
me at R.D.8, Raritan Grds., Flemington, NJ 
08822. 

Fred K. Herrman 
Flemington, NJ 

Editor: 

Is there a way to increase the number of 
characters per line for the display on the 
Color Computer? 

Derric Hawkins 
Richmond, KY 



MACHINE TROUBLES 

Editor: 

Is there any way to LLIST a machine 
language program? Can you key in a pro- 
gram that is written in assembler? Also, how 
do you understand and follow a program 
written in assembler or machine language? 

Lenny Munitz 
Bellerose, NY 

Editor: 

I have a question that may sound stupid 
but here goes. How do I get a printout on my 
VII printer of a machine language program 
and what is the procedure for typing in a 
machine language program? 

I enjoy your magazine. 

A.J. McNabb 
Orange, TX 

Editor's Note: You can list an assem- 
bly language program with an 
assembler or a disassembler. For 
some other information, see our 
Rainbow Info feature. To understand 
a ML program you must first under- 
stand how ML works. There are a 
number of good books (and articles in 
the Rainbow) on the subject. 



TV TITLES NEEDED 

Editor: 

I would like to know if any of your readers 
know of any programs that would turn my 
CoCo into a professional graphics and 
titling system to be used with my video 
recorder. Easy pre-programmed commands 
to effect animation and moving titles would 



be a plus. I'm also interested in any pro- 
grams concerning amateur radio. 

Your magazine is first rate, keep up the 
good work. 

Peter M. White 
Lauderhill, FL 



CHEATERS WANTED 

Editor: 

When I tried to "cheat" at Mr. Keys' pro- 
gram, Raaka-tu, it would only print the start 
and end addresses, then get stuck on 19345. 
Does anybody in Rainbow land have infor- 
mation that could help me? 

For anyone that enjoyed John Fraysse's 
graphics in Cadet Trainer I suggest that you 
purchase Space Shuttle by Tom Mix Soft- 
ware. Space Shuttle is so much like flying the 
real thing that when I got into space I was 
waiting for weightlessness. 

Steve Schweitzer 
Sewell, NJ 

Editor: 

I need help solving Keys Of The Wizard 
and Madness And The Minotaur. If anyone 
can help, please contact Robert Kiser at 
P.O. Box 631, Monticello, MS 39654. 

Robert Kiser 
Monticello, MS 



GOLF HANDICAPPING? 

Editor: 

Can anyone please advise how or where I 
may obtain a program for use with my Color 
Computer, Extended BASIC to allow hand- 
icapping players in my golf league? I have 
been unable to find such a program to date. 

Gene Eggers 
Villa Park, IL 



PEN PALS 

Editor: 

First I wish to say I really love your maga- 
zine. It has a lot of variety as well as great 
programs for all uses. I have one question, 
though. Could you please explain what 
FLEX is? I'm a novice and do not know such 
words. 

One more thing. How about getting a Pen 
Pal section going so computer lovers like 
myself can write to each other. 

Kim Moyer 
Bethlehem, PA 
Editor's Note: FLEX is an operating 
system for disk-based CoCo's. We'll 
have a full report on the three systems 
currently available in next month's 
issue. If anyone wants correspond- 
ents, just let us know. Well print 
names and addresses. 



6 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



SOMETHING IS AMISS 

Editor: 

I saw your article on upgrading a "D" 
board CoCo to 64K. I own a 4K "D" board 
CoCo so I decided to upgrade following 
your instructions. I read your instructions 
over and over. Then I ordered the 64K chips 
and my dad and I installed it following the 
instructions carefully. When we were done I 
hooked up my TV and typed in PRINT 
MEM. Then the numbers 2343 appeared on 
the screen! I still have 4K! If there is some- 
one who saw this modification in the March 
issue and has installed it with better success 
than I have, and can help me end this night- 
mare, please contact me by writing Chris 
Woods, RR1 Box 140, Hollandale, WI 
54533, (608) 967-2385. 

You have an awesome magazine! Keep up 
the good work! 

Chris Woods 
Hollandale, WI 



TTY INTERFACING 

Editor: 

I have a used teletype model 33TY and I 
need a printer program to give me a carriage 
return, line feed, and margin with line width 
allin one. I canmakeapapertapelistingbut 
how do I reload this paper tape? 

If possible, at different times I would like 
to use the keyboard from the teletype to 
input to the Color Computer. 

I hope there is someone who can help me. 

A. St oik, Jr 
Kendal, Ontario, Canada 
Editor's Note: Did you check out Dan 
Downard's article in our February 
issue? 



DANGER OF SURVIVALISM' 

Editor: 

When I first saw the cover of the March 
issue of the Rainbow, I thought it was drawn 
with a macabre sense of humor for a new war 
game program. I had to re-read "Predicting 
Fallout" twice before I began to realize that 
this "feature program" was serious. 

The philosophy expressed therein is that 
which may yet make high technology man's 
destroyer, rather than greatly improving his 
life. This so-called "survivalist" philosophy 
is infinitely more dangerous than a fifty 
megaton bomb, for it provides the only way 
a nuclear war could deliberately be started. 
I'll acknowledge that man's history has been 
devoted to destroying himself more effi- 
ciently. However, there is one great differ- 
ence since nuclear weapons were invented. 
War has always been waged with at least 
some hope of winning. I'm sure no one 
would consider having a few survivors scat- 
tered between cities burned to ashes "win- 
ning." Regarding the idea of Soviet workers 
sandbagging their machines in a nuclear 
war, the idea would be comical if this whole 
subject were not so deadly. Can you really 
imagine telling a working man, "A nuclear 
war has just started. Enemy missiles will 
strike in 30 minutes. We want you to spend 
your last minutes sandbagging your 



machines!" Replies would be varied, but 
none would be printable in the Rainbow. 

I appreciated Mr. Mickle's hope that his 
program may save a few American lives. 
Thus I say, "Be a real survivalist, and join the 
effort to prevent nuclear war and save 250 
million Americans, along with a few 
hundred million Russians and perhaps a few 
billion other people." 

Jeffrey Blaufarb 
New York, NY 



ON REVIEWERS' OPINIONS 

Editor: 

This letter is in response to the Software 
Review of Final Countdown by Paula Giese. 
Trying to be objective about the review I will 
say that she did a good job of evaluation. 

She, like every one, has a right to their 
opinions on any subject whether it is about 
their favorite automobile or type of music. 

However, her remarks about Southern 
sheriffs, cattle prods and quotes from Father 
Berrigan were as appropriate as the amount 
of her fee on the latest case she had as a 
private detective. 

I hope that in the future, Rainbow does 
not turn into a political publication and that 
reviewers will confine their opinions to the 
subject at hand. 

Stanley A. Parke 
Franktown, CO 



CLUBS, CLUBS, CLUBS 

Editor: 

I would like to inform your readers of a 
new Color Computer Club for users in the 
Utica — Rome — Western Mohawk Valley 
region of New York. We meet on the third 
Monday of each month at 7:30 p.m. in the 
Galaxy Room of the French Road General 
Electric Plant in Utica. For further informa- 
tion please contact: The Color Computer 
Club of Central New York, c/ o Joseph 
Short, Secretary, 248 South Fourth Avenue, 
Ilion, New York 13357, (315) 895-7730. 

Thanks f or a great magazine! 

Joseph D. Short 
Ilion, NY 

Editor: 

The Toronto Color Computer Club has 
decided to make the writing of software for 
children with learning disabilities a club pro- 
ject. We have several talented programmers 
involved but could use some help from read- 
ers as to program ideas. We would particu- 
larly like to hear f rom educators and parents 
with suggestions for the type of programs 
that are required. Program descriptions 
should be as complete as possible and should 
be sent to Geoff Wells, The Dataman, Box 
431, Sta B, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 
LBL 7W2. As programs are completed, we 
will make the programs available to the 
Rainbow for publication and also supply 
them on tape for the cost of the tape plus 
postage. 

Geoff Wells 
Ontario, Canada 



Editor: 

Anyone interested in learning more about 
Aggie Color Computer Group in the Bryan- 
College Station area can call f or inf ormation 
at (409) 696-1 656 or write me at 1 30 1 Fran- 
cis, College Station, Texas 77840. 

Thank you for a good magazine on the 
Coco. 

Louise Darcey 
College Station, TX 

Editor: 

The Halifax-Dartmouth Color Computer 
User Group meets from 7 to 1 1 p.m. on the 
third Monday of each month at the main 
branch of the Dartmouth Regional Library 
in the auditorium. For additional informa- 
tion, write me at 1034 Wellington St. #703, 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 2Z9. 

Bob Hamilton 
Halifax, Nova Scotia 

Editor: 

For information about The Quad City 
CoCo Club, contact me at 4211 Seventh 
Ave., Rock Island, IL 61201. 

John Greve 
Rock Island, IL 

Editor: 

I would like to form a CoCo club in Hun- 
tington, W.Va. If anyone is interested in 
joining, call me at (304) 522-2872, or write 
me at 614 1 1th Ave., Huntington, WV 
25701. 

Robert Cox 
Huntington, WV 

Editor: 

The Billings Color Computer Club in Bil- 
lings, Mont., would like to hear from all 
clubs about what you are doing at meetings, 
etc. Write to Jayne Kenyon, 4306 Phillip, 
Billings, MT 59101. 

Jayne Kenyon 
Billings, MT 

Editor: 

The L.A. CC Users Group welcomes new 
members. For information contact Mark 
Mooneyham, 2227 Canyon Road, Arcadia, 
CA 91006. 

Mark Mooneyham 
Arcadia, CA 

Editor: 

I would like to form a CoCo club for 
Washingtonians. For information contact 
Jack Darling, P.O. Box 8827, Washington, 
D.C. 20003, or call (703) 780-6159. 

Jon Tiffany 
Washington, DC 

Editor: 

I am interested in starting a computer club 
in Austin, Tex. Persons may join regardless 
of the computer they own. The purpose of 
this club would be to exchange programs, 
games and ideas. Interested persons may 
contact me by writing to: David Karam, 
1 809 Dexter, Austin, TX 78704, or call me at 
(512) 442-6317. 

Your magazine is excellent and getting 
better all the time (1 have seen back issues). 
Keep up the great work. 

David Karam 
Austin, TX 

P.S. My father would like to know if you get 
any correspondence from the International 
Users Group. 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 7 



Editor: 

Richmond, Va., CoCoNuts, call Randy 
Graham (320-0019 evenings and weekends) 
for information about our next meeting. 

Randy Graham 
Richmond, VA 

Editor: 

We are a group of about ten New York 
City Color Computer owners who meet once 
a month. Our members' expertise ranges 
f rom those who just got the CoCo out of the 
box a few months ago to one fellow who (the 
thought is almost terrifying) actually opens 
up his CoCo himself to add extra switches 
and make changes. One of our members can 
hardly wait to get a printer. Anyone in New 
York City wishing to join us should contact 
Ray Normandeau, P.O. Box 854, Times 
Square Station, New York, NY 1 0 1 08-0854; 
(212) 392-1267, 24 hours. 

Ray Normandeau 
Long Island City, N Y 

Editor: 

I'd like to start a kids (I emphasize that!) 
CoCo club in Puyallup, Wash. Please con- 
tact Chris Nitz, 6118 83rd St. Ct. E., Puyal- 
lup, WA 98371. 

Chris Nitz 
Puyallup, WA 

Editor: 

The Tucson 6809 Color Computer Club 
meets at my office the first Thursday of the 
month at 7:30 p.m. (door opens about 7 
p.m.) at Kolb Road Chiropractic Center 
(yellow sign), 902 S. Kolb Rd., Tucson, AZ 
85711,(602) 747-8233. 

Michael A. Watts 
Tucson, AZ 



KUDOS 

Editor: 

Thanks for Dan Downard's article on 
Teletype interfacing in the February issue. 
That article alone was worth the price of the 
subscription (which my eleven year old son 
received as a Christmas gift). It helped me 
learn a little electronics and gave me a 
chance to use my assembler and 
dissassembler. 

Needless to say, not everything worked 
the first time. Some of the following obser- 
vations may be helpful to others contemplat- 
ing this project. 

1) I substituted a 4N25 and a 2N2222 for 
the 4N33, which was unavailable where I 
live. 

2) I used three or four 1800 ohm !^-watt 
resistors in parallel for the adjustable resis- 
tor R2. 

3) I had to reverse the connections to Pins 
1 and 2 on the opto-isolator because logic 
zero at the Color Computer serial port ( — 
12V. at Pin 4) must cause current to flow in 
the 20MA loop. 

4) For a 16K machine the values poked 
into locations 360 and 361 in line 290 of 
Listing 2 must be changed to point to the 
beginning address of the driver. (Jumping to 
non-existent memory has interesting 
effects!) 

5) When I finally got both hardware and 



software working, I still got numerous mis- 
takes (e.g. @ instead of blank). I was able to 
correct these by slightly slowing the baud 
rate (POKE 149,2 : POKE 150,10) and 
increasing the carriage return delay (POKE 
151,128). 

6) I like the slashthrough the zero, not the 
oh, so I modified the driver to interchange 
these characters. 

7) In order to print Spectaculator work- 
sheets I covered Pins 7 and 8 (top and bot- 
tom towards back of the computer) with 
tape. Then the computer comes up in 
BASIC. I can first load and run the driver, 
then jump to Spectaculator with EXEC 
&HC000. 

Again, thanks for a helpful article and a 
helpful magazine. 

Robert W. Longer 
Eau Claire, WI 



JUST CLUE THEM IN 

Editor: 

We were pleased to see our program 
Inspector Clueseau reviewed favorably in 
the March 1983 issue. We would like to 
assure readers that they can obtain a version 
of Clueseau without the high speed POKE 
commands — just let us know with the order. 

Susan Petrocci 
Tucson, AZ 



BOUQUETS AND BRICKBATS 

Editor: 

I want to again recommend Custom 
Software Engineering of Cocoa Beach, Fla. 
I bought their Disk Double Entry system 
last month. 

Since I was having some problems getting 
the account numbering system to do exactly 
what I wanted it to do, I sent them some 
printouts reflecting all of the work I had 
done. 

Melvm Hefter marked them up so that the 
system would do what I wanted, and 
returned them with a very nice letter that 
gave me additional insights into the system. 

You can't ask for any better service than 
they gave me. 

S. E. Clarke 
Calabasas, CA 

Editor: 

Thanks for your help in finally obtaining 
my solution program f rom Snake M ountain 
Software. I am sure that their decision to 
send me the program is a directresult of your 
involvement in the matter. 

The solution is a great program which I 
know I am going to enjoy very much. If this 
program is any example, Snake Mountain 
produces excellent quality software. 

They do, however, have a lot to learn 
about customer relations. As a result, I 
won't be buying any more software from 
them in the future and I won't be recom- 
mending them to my friends. This is too bad, 
considering the apparent quality of their 
products. 

Thanks again for your help. If possible, I 
have an even better impression of the Rain- 
bow than I did before. 

Jack O. Bevill 
Mountain City, GA 



Editor: 

I would like to compliment one of your 
advertisers. I ordered a set of64K chips from 
Spectrum Projects. The price was $15 less 
than any other advertisement I'd seen. The 
chips arrived a little over a week later (and I 
paid for them with a check). Complete 
instructions were provided f or both "D" and 
"E" board installations. I was very surprised 
at the speed in which I received my order! 
Keep up the good work? 

James D. Nicholson 
Columbus, OH 



SLEW POKE 

Editor: 

For all you Donkey King addicts who find 
three men are just not enough, try this. After 
loading the program but prior to executing, 
type from the keyboard: 

POKE 129 14, A 

The "A" represents the number of men 
you would like. Substitute any number in 
place of the A. 

Mike Huffman 
Glendale, AZ 



HINTS 'N' TIPS 

Editor: 

As I was playing a game on my 32K CoCo, 
a thought dawned on me. I was wondering if 
there was some way to give me extra men 
(ships) on some of the more challenging 
games in rriy program library. As I attemp- 
ted to do so I found it was easier than I 
imagined. Here are the results on three of my 
newer programs: 

After loading type, 

Donkey King POKE 12904, (1-200) 

Invasion POKE 7446, ( 1-40) 

Dunkey Munkey . . . POKE 15121, (1-100) 

Note: on Donkey King specify a practice 
game. 

Harry Sawyer 
Wat c hung, NJ 

Editor: 

Enjoy reading your magazine — like the 
articles. Hate the typing. ..so I think the fol- 
lowing will help anyone keying in Half Life 
by D.C. Lengyel, page 35, March 1983 issue. 
Rather than type in all that data, how about: 
55 1=0 

60 FOR B=1T029 STEP 2: FOR 

A=0TO45 STEP 5 
70 1=1+1 

75 X(I)=A:Y(I)=B 
80 NEXT A:NEXT B 
Then you can delete lines 90-128. 
Should be easier. 

Harry Poster 
S. Hack, NJ 

Editor: 

One evening af ter a long period of use, my 
computer no longer recognized when a key 
was struck. A call to a local Radio Shack set 
me at ease. It seems that if one leaves the 
joysticks plugged in, and conditions are 
right (or wrong depending on your point of 
view), the joysticks somehow, sometimes, 
block the keyboard signal. I unplugged them 
and no more problem with my keyboard 
locking up. 

Jim Taylor 
Miami, FL 



8 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



The Official 




The game that puts space games in 
perspective, Zaxxon '". one of the most 
popular arcade games of 1982, is now avail- 
able for use with your home computer 
system, 

Zaxxon ,M technology and creativity present 
a 3-dimensional-like playfield which sets 
Zaxxon ,M apart from other computer games, 

Zaxxon ,w looks and sounds like aircraft 
flight, and players can soar to new levels of 



home computer entertainment, From the 



daring attack on the enemy's floating for 
tress and the blazing battle against the en 
emy's fighter fleet to the final showdown with 



the deadly armored robot, Zaxxon ,w chal 



lenges the skill and imagination of every 
player at every level of skill. 

Imagine yourself the pilot, attacking the 
enemy fortress-climbing, diving, strafing to 
score points and extra fuel. The enemy 
fights back with a barrage of missiles and 
gunfire. Then you face a fleet of enemy fight- 
ers in a gripping dogfight of altitude strategy 
and flying skill. Survive this battle and the 
enemy's fortress, defended with laser bar- 
riers, then youVe earned the ultimate chal- 
lenge; a blazing confrontation with the pow- 



erful robot, armed with a lethal homi 
missile, 

Zaxxon m is the one game that you must see 
to beiieve. You have to play it to feel its im- 
pact. If you're ready to face the challenge, 
check with your local software dealer or 
send check or money order with $2.00 post- 
age 'handling, California residents add 
6Ve% sales tax, Available on cassette or 
diskette. Suggested retail price $39.95. 

Available in January on Atari', February on 
Apple* and Radio Shack 1 Color, and April 
on Tl 99 4A'" and NEC 6000" 



COMPUTER SORWAPE 
9421 Wi n net ka Avenue 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 
{21 3) 701-5161 
©1982 Datasoft 1 *' Inc. 

Datasofr is a registered trademark of Datasort Inc * 



Se^fl" and Zaxxon'* are regfsiered icademarks of Sega Enterprises inc 



ColorQuesf 



GAMES 

For The TRS-80 Color 
and TDP System 100 



Fast Machine Code • Hi-res Color Graphics • Exciting Arcade Action and Sound 



Fembots/^ Revenge 



BEyOND THE CIMEEDN MOON 



TM 




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3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Make love not war? Not with these sultry FEMBOTS! What a 
tale you'll tell IF you live to lei I it! Cold steel never feltso HOT! 
The color and excitement of ARCADE ACTION combined 
with the sophistication, intellectual challenge and skill of an 
ADVENTURE GAME doesn t fully describe this cosmic 
shoot'em up. 

16K Tape $29.95 32K Disk $34.95 





* 


• 




■ 


* 


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: rh : | : 


■ 
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i 











TM 



by Tom Czarnecki 

The ONLY Ms. game around A 
must for your PAC-like game 
collection 

16KTape $19.95 
16K Disk $24.95 

TRS-90 is a trademark «f Tandy Corp. 




by Kevin Herrboldt & Tim Nelson 
3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

A dead star , . . A derlict vessel ... or is it? Trapped 
within you must venture the corridors; defend yourself 
against the merciless gauntlet of agentsof the machine 
mind. A real-lime, high-res, 3-D science fiction 
adventure game of mind-blowing magnitude. 
16K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 



Hduenture ( /rt , E 

/ 




by Kevin Herrboldt & Tim Netson 

3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Clash steel with thy foe in the arena of gore. Proved 
worthy, go in quest of the elusive Eye of Dazmor. If ye 
f indest the orb. hast ye the might to ward off skem and 
the fortitude to restore the Eye? The ultimate high-res, 
3-D quest for even the most experienced adventurer 1 

16K Tape $24.95 32K Disk $29.95 



For Orders 
ONLY Call 
Toll Free 




800-328-2737 



Fast Machine Code • Hi-res Color Graphics • Exciting Arcade Action and Sound 



INTERCEPTOR 



by Scott Snyder 

Goes beyond "DEFENDER" 
and "STARGATE" to offer the 
most realistic ARCADE 
simulation possible. Warp 
speed action, multi-colored 
terrain and long-range viewer 
make this game tops, 
16K Tape $19.95 
32K Disk $24.95 





T M 



by Dan Nelson 
Why fly to VEGAS when you can have a 
casino at home! The VEGAS GAMEPAK is 
live action packed games with great 
graphics & sound. SLOT MACHINE - 
BLACKJACK - UP AND DOWN THE RIVER 
- CRAPS & KENO, 

16K Tape $19.95 16K Disk $24.95 




o 



o 




by Tom Czarnecki 

Fast paced maze chase game will 16K Tape S19.95 
entertain the entire family, 16K Disk $24.95 



ColorQuesf 

A Division of Softlaw Corp. 612/881-2777 
9072 Lyndale Ave, So,, Minneapolis, MN 55420 

AUTHORS' SUBMISSIONS ARE ENCOURAGED 

Available at Dealers everywhere. 
If you Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECTI 



by Tom Czarnecki 

Shades of smartbombs and hurtling comets! Defending 
your planet from invasion was never s« challenging. 
Disruptor fire is your main defense again stthe fierce alien 
attacks. 

16K Tape S19.95 32K Disk $24.95 



ORDERING 



VTSA 




Customer service and product support call (612) 881-2777 

Make checks or money orders payable to Nelson 
Software Systems. Personal checks ailow 3 weeks. 
MAIL ORDERS; $2.00 U.S. Shipping ($4.00 CANADA 
$10 OVERSEAS) Add $2.00 for CO D. 
ORDERS SHIPPED SAME DAY! 




ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

f O B*x 16842 - Sta B 
Greenv>lle, Soulh Carolina 29606 
(813) 233-2700 

PRESENTS 

COLOR-STICK 

Th« ORIGINAL interface for 




rheTRS-60* 
Color Compurer ro let 
you use rhe famous: 



ATARI* JOYSTICK' 



Just plug your Atari or Atari like 
joystick (the Color-Stick enables the 
use of most joysticks made for the 
Atari) into the Color Stick interface 
and then plug the Color-Stick into an 
empty joystick port. 

The Color-Stick can improve 
scores 50% and more while making 
some games more exciting and fun to 
play. 

•on't settle for cheap imitations, 
•nly the ORIGINAL Color-Stick's 
small inline design allows you to just 
plug your joystick into it and forget it. 
The Color-Stick becomes a part of 
your joystick so it does not interfere 
with your game playing. In addition 
Color-Stick returns a full value of '63' 
for the right and down directions, 
even when using two joysticks and 
even in the diagonal directions, the 
others don't. 

NOW Color-Stick has a 
new low price 

Color-Stick interface $12.95 each 

two for $22.95 (less joysticks) 
Atari joysticks $9.95 each 

ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P.O. Box 16842 Sta. B 
Greenville, S^uth Carolina 29606 
(St 3) 233-27M 

Don't miss out order the 
ORIGINAL. Send your check or 
money order or better yet call 
today and order your Color-Stick. 





Add $2.#t per order 

welcomed {pteuse inclutte expirau«o dale), •rrfers paid 
b'j cashiers check, rn»ney orders, bank cards and 
C.#.P. are shipped within 4fl h*ur;> Personal checks 
please iil low 1 2'.o^ks C.O.D. orders acid 51. SO «* <ra. 
S.C, residents add 4% sales fax. *TRS-$#j$o registered 
nademark •f Tandy Corp. Atari is a registered 
nademark of Atart, (nc. 




1 have only to think back to a year ago at this time to remember how excited 
we were! The Rainbow had only then received its first typesetting unit and plans 
were a-buzz for the First Anniversary Issue in July. We had a few surprises up 
our sleeves then — a four-color cover, typeset copy and some other really 
interesting things. And we were really impressed by the size, 64 pages in total. 

Now, we are in the middle of preparations for the Second Anniversary Issue. 
And it is going to be something. 1 hope that you will be impressed with some of 
the features which we plan to include. And, evenmore, I am certain you will be 
doubly impressed with a major innovation which we will be including with the 
July issue next month. 

This is not the Anniversary column — that comes next month. But it is a sort 
of preview to the next issue in that 1 think you will really enjoy the surprise we 
have planned for you. It is truly something which has never been done by a 
computer magazine before at least to our knowledge - - and 1 think it will be 
the talk of the industry. Too, we believe it will besomethingthat will be useful, as 
well. Don't miss the July Second Anniversary Issue! It is one you will be wanting 
to have for sure! 




1 



By the way, 1 want to take this time to introduce a new publication to those 
which we at Falsof t, lnc M our parent company, will be introducing in a month or 
so. The title is Portable Computing Magazine, and it is designed primarily for 
the new TRS-80 Model 100 Portable Computer. 

You may have seen a mention of this new computer in The Pipeline last 
month. We think it is really sensational and believe Portable Computing Maga- 
zine will be able to aid in the growth and development of this system much as we 
hope it has been able to for the Color Computer. 

Nope, we certainly do not plan to slacken our interest in, excitement for and 
affection directed at CoCo, But, just as we have grown f rom 64 pages in July, 
1982 to 276 pages today — just 1 1 short months we have grown from two 
members of our staff to almost 20 full-time. 1 believe we can easily support a 
second magazine without doing injustice to either computer system. 

As did the Rainbow, Portable Computing Magazine will start small and 
expand. And, although it will not start quite as small as did the Rainbow (two 
pages in July, 1981), weexpect it - like its big brother — to grow and expand. 1 
hope you will take a look at the Model 100 and at Portable Computing Maga- 
zine when it appears. And yes, we're taking subscriptions at a charter rate of $23 
until July 1 — $28 afterwards. Canadian 1iWcf 5 for h eig^ will be 

slightly higher. 

So, where's Falk's picture this month, you might wonder. It is missing because 
we wanted to show you the logo for Portable Computing Magazine instead. For 
those of you who want something to throw darts at. it'll be back next month. 

( continued on page 78 ) 



12 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



BUY ANY 
ONE ITEM 
TAKE A 

10% 

DISCOUNT 



BUY TWO OR 
MORE ITEMS 
TAKE A 

15% 

DISCOUNT 



"1 



ARCADE GAMES 



SPECTRAL 
ASSOCIATES 

SPACE WAR-Fast action. You must break through enemy 
defenses of death star to win. Watch out for black holes. 16k 
& joystick required 

CASSETTE $21.95 

BATTLE FLEET-Traditional favorite. As Admiral-in- 
Command, you declare war against opponent or computer. 
Challenges your naval tactics. Extended basic required. 
CASSETTE $14.95 

SPACE TRADERS-Can you become the Horatio Alger of 
outer space? Become a millionaire if you make the right 
moves for 2 to 4 players. Extended Basic required. 
CASSETTE $14.95 

ROBOT BATTLE-Ciuide your human through an ever 
changing maze and never ending attacks of robot hordes. A 
berserk type game. 16k joysticks required. 
CASSETTE $21.95 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD-Super adventure game. Hundreds 
of rooms filled with treasures, magic spells, traps and 
puzzles. Save game in progress. 16k. 

CASSETTE $19.95 

GALAX ATTACK-lf you want a challenge, this is it! Pat- 
terned after Galaxians. An arcade quality game. 16k and 
joysticks required. 

CASSETTE $21.95 

SUB HUNT-As the commander of a destroyer, you must 
destroy as many enemy subs as you can before they destroy 
you. 16k extended basic. 

CASSETTE $14.95 

ALCATRAZ 11-No one escapes from Alcatraz 1 1, not even 
you! Think you can be the first? 16k extended basic. 
CASSETTE $8.95 

LASER COMMAND-Defend your cities and missle base 
from the deadly alien lasers. Multiple waves of attackers. 
16k extended basic and joystick required. 
CASSTETTE $10.95 

COSMIC SUPER BOWL-Fast action interstellar 
football. Five skill levels to provide a challenge. One or more 
players. 16k 

CASSETTE $14.95 

GHOST GOBBLER-Four relentless ghosts intent on your 
destruction. Chase your gobbler around this super maze. Best 
of the pac-man type games. 16k and joysticks 
required. 

CASSETTE $21.95 

LOTHAR'S LABYRINTH-An excellent version of the 
popular word search puzzle. The computer hides up to 48 
words on the screen in all directions. Use the computers 
words or your own. Extended basic. 

CASSETTE $14.95 

PLANET INVASION-If you enjoy Defender, you will love 
this one. Lots of fast action. 16k and joysticks 
required. 

CASSETTE $21.95 

SPACE RACE — Maneuver yourself around a race track in 
space, but beware of alien ships, the collectors, swarmers 
and bezerkers they are all out to do you in. 
CASSETTE $21.95 

DEFENSE-If you like Polaris and Missle Command this 
game is for you. A must for your collection. 16k and joystick 
required. 

CASSETTE $21.95 

PIRATES AH#Y-Find a sunken ship and treasures in this 

witty and humerous text adventure. 32k. 

CASSETTE $9.95 

ESCAPE FROM PRISON CITY-Explore the Prison City 
where your spacecraft has been shot down. You must find a 
battery for your spacecraft in order to escape. 16k extended 
basic. 

CASSETTE $8.95 

COLOR ZAP-Super space game! Dodge incoming photon 
torpedos before they penetrate your defenses. 16k and 
joysticks required. 

CASSETTE $9.95 



WRITE FOR OUR 

FREE CATALOG 



TOM MIX 
SOFTWARE 

BIRD ATTACK-Shoot the birdmen before they decend 
upon you. Watch out for their droppings. 16k extended 
basic. 

CASSETTE $21.95 

DONKEY KING-Exciting sound and graphics, four screens 
like the arcade game. Never before have you seen a game like 
this for your Color Computer. The best! Requires 32k. 
CASSETTE ....$24.95 DISK ....$27.95 

WAR KINGS-Shield your castle against cannonball attack 
and deflect them towards your opponets castle. 16k extended 
basic and joysticks required. 

CASSETTE $19.95 

PROTECTORS-Enemy fighters drop bombs on your city. 
Destroy them before they destroy your city. Just like the 
Defenders arcade game. Requires 32k. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

KATERPILLAR ATTACK-A fast-paced arcade game. 
Rave revues by color computermagazines. 16k and joysticks 
required. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

COMPUTERWARE® 

STARSHIP CHAMELEON-You must defend your planet 
against attack. You have the ability to change color in order 
to destroy on-coming bombs and anti-matter. Nine levels of 
play. 

CASSETTE ....$24.95 DISK ....$29.95 

STORM-A real TEMPFST of a game. Exciting and colorful. 
15 battlefields, 9 levels of play. 

CASSETTE ....$24.95 DISK ....$29.95 

EL DIABLERO-You awake, dazed and confused, in the 
middle of the desert. You have been learning techniques of 
sorcery from an old man who lives in these parts. He told 
you of his enemy, an evil sorcerer, "Diabloero", now your 
teacher is missing and you are alone! Pure adventure. 
CASSETTE .. ..$19.95 DISK . .. .$24.95 

DOODLE BUG-Your lady bug hustles through an intricate 
maze of barriers and turnstiles, eating dots, letters and 
hearts. Exquisite sound and graphics. 

CASSETTE ....$24.95 DISK ....$29.95 

RAIL RUNNER-Your engineer must scurry over the tracks 
of the busiest switch yard ever, to rescue the hobo's on the 
other side of the tracks. 

CASSETTE ....$21.95 DISK ....$26.95 

SHARK TREASURE-You must dive through shark infested 
waters to bring back treasures from the ocean floor. 
CASSETTE ....$21.95 DISK ....$29.95 

MEGAPEDE-A very fast version of the Centepede type 
game. Not for the faint of heart. 

CASSETTE.... $2 1.95 DISK ....$29.95 



COLOR BONANZA 

50 Programs - 6 Cassettes 

Some 4K * Some 16K * Some 32K 
Games — Educational — Utilities 

FUN FORTHE WHOLE FAMILY 

Only $49.95 

Plus $2.50 Shipping 



CoCo 
c Watehouse 

Where Shopping By Mail Is "USER FRIENDLY" 

500 N. DOBSON WESTLAND, MI 48185 

Phone (313) 722-7957 



SOFT SECTOR 
MARKETING 

DEATH TRAP-As a tank commander it's your job to find a 
safe passage through the maze of city streets that contain 
mines and other hazards. 

CASSETTE $19.95 

OKI-PRINT-Is a basic language program that is designed to 
do high resolution screen dumps from the Radio Shack or 
TDP-liO Color Computer, to an Okidata Microline 82A 
printer. OKI-PRINT wil dump any P MODE M, 
P(M - MODE, P - PAGE). If the P MODE is I or 3 (which 
are color modes) the printer will attempt to shade the dif- 
ferent colors in lighter and darker intensities of black in 
order to make them more recognizeable. Extended basic re- 
quired. 

CASSETTE $19.95 

DISASSEMBLER 6809-This is an interactive disassembler 
that allows you to call and examine subroutines or look at 
labels in an ASCI 1 mode without losing your place in the 
disassembly. It is primarily a SCREEN oriented 
disassembler, but does have printer output capability. 
CASSETTE $14.95 

ANIMATED HANGMAN-Playing hangman has never been 
so much fun. He winks. .he blinks. .he almost lives! An 
outstanding game for the whole family. Fun and educa- 
tional. 

CASSETTE $12.95 

CONCENTRATION/CONNECT UP 4-Concentration is a 
memory type game. You are trying to match up the screen 
displays. Connect up 4 is a game where you try to match 4 
dots of color in a row, but the person that you are playing 
with is trying to do the same thing. A game of strategy. 
CASSETTE $9.95 

HURDLERS-You are a hurdler running down the track try- 
ing to clear the jumps. If you miss, you fall flat on your face. 
Requires 16k extended basic. 

CASSETTE $14.95 



QUALITY SOFTWARE 

SHIPWRECK-Your stranded on a deserted island and your 
only hope for escape is your own wits and cunning. Can you 
find your way back to civilization? 16-32k. 
CASSETTE $14.95 

INTRACOLOR 

COLORPEDE-It's up to you to destroy the Colorpede, 
knock out the bouncing bug and eliminate toad stools. Ex- 
cellent version of the Centepede game. 
CASSETTE ....$29.95 DISK ....$34.95 

MARK DATA 

HAYWIRE-An exciting combination of angry Robots and 
the indestructable Menace will provide hours of challenge. 
The classic Bezerk type game. 16k. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

CALIXTO ISLAND-A challenging sometimes humerous ex- 
cursion to find stolen treasure. 

CASSETTE $19.95 

THE BLACK SANCTUM-You are pitted against the forces 
of Black Magic in this spooky adventure. 16k. 
CASSETTE $19.95 

CAVE HUNTER-Maneuver your way through a spooky 
cave to retrieve the treasures at the bottom. 16k and joystick 
required. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

ASTRO BLAST-Here's the space shoot 'em up you've been 
asking for. 16k. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

SPACE RAIDERS-A sensational rendition of the arcade 

classic Invaders. Selectable skill levels. 16k. 

CASSETTE $24.95 

HOW TO ORDER BY MAIL: For prompt and courteous 
shipment SEND MONEY ORDER, CERTIFIED CHECK, 
CASHIERS CHECK, MASTERCARD/VISA (include card 
number, inter- bank No., expiration date and signature). 
PERSONAL AND BUSINESS CHECKS MUST CLEAR 
OUR BANK BEFORE PROCESSING. Shipping and pack- 
aging charge of $2.50 minimum must be added to all 
orders in continental US (Canadian orders $5.00 mini- 
mum). Michigan residents include 4% sales tax, 10% 
deposit required on C.O.D. orders. 



BUILDING JUNE'S RAINBOW 

The Printed Word Issue . . . 
Our May-becomes- June get ahead edition . . 



Some things defy easy explana- 
tion. You can see it in people's eyes 
when they don't really understand. 
With a perplexed look they mutter 
something like, "Well, I can see 
where you're coming from," even 
when you suspect they don't have 
the foggiest glimpse. Such was the 
case when I tried to explain why I 
decided to spray paint the vintage 
family typewriter and make a planter 
out of it. 

My grandmother would have 
understood, and never have ques- 
tioned my motives. Of course, she 
might have preferred to make a lamp 
outof it. She and I shared a feeling of 
sentimentality over utilitarian items. 
But, for those of you who can drive 
the old family car to the car lot with- 
out a twinge of emotion, who 
wouldn't dream of placing an old 
wagon wheel in the garden and, 
otherwise, can't "relate" to a bit of 
whimsicality, let me just say that 
making a planter out of the old Royal 
seems, to me, like the "highest and 
best" use of a machine whose turn 



has come, and gone, in this compu- 
ter printer age. 

This month we're focusing on 
printers with a baker's dozen articles 
directly related to the Color Compu- 
ter's most popular peripheral! A cen- 
terpiece is our printer control code 
conversion chart on page 156. And 
Dick White's printer utility on page 
198 is a guaranteed crowd pleaser. 
The LLIST is too long to mention 
them all, but check them out- 
including our printer reviews. 

Of course, as always, we aim for a 
balanced mix of article and program 
offerings. For armchair pilots, we 
have "Flying the Sopwith CoCo," a 
toughy of a Simulation program. 
(Areyou developing an entry forour 
Simulation contest?) And, for 
gamers, our John "Crazy" Fraysee 
masterwork, Rainbow Roach, is a 
fast-moving, arcade-like run-for- 
your-lifer that'll slay you for sure. 
Get started on page 38 with a bit of 
Fraysee-ness that seems a lot more 
plausible than those frogs on logs 
who drown every time they hit the 
water. 



In addition to more than two 
dozen reviews, from Autoterm to 
Zaxxon, there's plenty for the 
serious Color Computer user from 
our expert panel of contributing edi- 
tors, including our new technical 
editor, Dan Downard, who's out to 
debug the magazine as well as 
develop a hybrid bug of his own 
creation. 

Among our four articles on educa- 
tion, Dr. J. C. Kretschmer's piece on 
using CoCo to estimate the diffi- 
culty level of reading material is 
especially intriguing. 

All in all, it's 276 pages all for 
CoCo, all for about a penny a page 
on the newsstands. That sounds 
hard to beat, but here's a proven 
method: pull out our subscription 
card and mail it before midnight 
tonight— then you'll be among the 
ranks of those in the CoCo Com- 
munity who never worry about arriv- 
ing at the local bookstore too late 
and who get all that's Under the 
Rainbow for just $22 a year. 

—Jim Reed 



TALK IS CHEAP. 



You want your color computer 
to talk, but how much will it 
cost? 

$50? $100? $200? No. 



$29^5? 



Yes! SPEAK UP!™ from 
is a machine language 

800—334-0854 Ext. 890 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 




Voice Synthesizer program for yourTRS- 
80 Color Computer.* It is 100% software. 
Nothing else to buy. Best of all, YOU CAN 
MAKE BASIC PROGRAMS TALK! It's 
easy to use, and will say virtually anything. 

SPEAK UP! For $29.95. 
Talk really is cheap! 



P.O. Box 12247 
Lexington, Kentucky 40582 



VISA 



LIU 



T.M. Tandy Corp. 



16k minimum 



14 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



TH€ 

PfiOGAflm/TOR€ 



A 



Color Computer Collection 




•• •••• ,.// 



E.T.T. 

From Soft Sector 

NEW — Extra Terrestrial Typing — Those famous 
fingers are familiar — none other than E.T.! His 
sensitive five fingers expertly tutor from novice to 
expert. You couldn't ask for 'a friendlier teacher — 
watch closely as E.T points the way. 

16K Tape, $19.95 




CATERPILLAR 

From Soft Sector Marketing 

This is the fast-action arcade game you've been 
waiting to play at home! You must hit mushrooms 
and caterpillars — segment by segment — moths 
and tumble bugs. The challenges: they are all 
moving; when hit they split into additional seg- 
ments or metamorphose into different shapes; 
when you destroy a caterpillar, the new one that 
replaces it is a segment longer than the original! 

16K Tape, $19.95 <m&x. 




VOYAGER I 

From Avalon Hill 

You're on board a spaceship infested with killer 
robots in this graphic science fiction game. You 
must clear the 4-level 144-location ship of robots 
and arm it to self-destruct. Can you do it and es- 
cape before you, too, are blown up? High-speed 
graphics are represented in 3-D perspective rep- 
resenting your eye's view; with instant switching to 
floor plan maps. Extended BASIC required. 

16KTape, $19.95 



color zap ^ 

By Frank Smith -^wJif 
From Spectral ^ ^ v 

Super space game written h machine language 
with highest resolution graphics. Avoid the incom- 
ing photon torpedoes as defensive fighters ap- 
pear and attack your ship. Guaranteed fun and 
fast action. Zap the enemy! Joystick required. 

16K Tape, $9.95 




NEVER BEFORE! 

Never before have there been 
COLOR DISKS! Never before 
have we advertised blank 
DISKS! But these are so 
special. . . 

INTRODUCING 



COLOR 
DISKETTES 



Bright and bold! Premium quality mini diskettes in 
5 brilliant colors: red, orange, yellow, blue, green. 
Single sided, soft sectored, double density with 
hub rings. Use them just for beauty or to color 
code your programs and data! 

Box of 10 — all one color or 
Box of 10 — 2 each color 
$34.50 Box 




xo 



3D 

TIC-TAC-TOE 

By Scott Adams 
From Adventure International 

A real family favorite with 8 separate skill levels. 
Use four 4X4 boards stacked one atop the other 
for Tic-Tac-Toe you never imagined. This real-time 
game features sound, optional joystick and the 
challenge and excitement to thrill your friends and 
family. 

16KTape, $14.95 




DRAGONQUEST 

By Charles Forsythe 
From Programmer's Guild 

Search for the Monarch of Dragonfolk in a des- 
perate race against the sun. You, Sir Knight, must 
rescue and return the kidnapped Princess before 
nightfall. Find the weapons, food and magical 
items you need while exploring unfamiliar lands in 
this magnificent machine language adventure. 
Can you vanquish Smaegor and beat the setting 
sun? Extended basic required. 

16K Tape, $15.95 



Over 2500 Programs for TRS-80, 



For Information Call 
202-363-9797 

Visit our other stores: 

829 Bethel Rd., Columbus OH 

Seven Corners Center, Falls Church, VA 

W. Bell Plaza, 6600 Security Blvd., Baltimore, MD 

White Flint Mall, Rockville Pike, Rockville, Md. 




wmr - 

Lpaogrmti /TOfK 




WAR KINGS 

From Tom Mix 

A challenge game for two with three skill levels. 
Battle to save your King and Castle. Not only can 
you protect your castle by moving your shields, 
but you can deflect the cannonball towards an op- 
ponent's castles. High resolution graphics and 
outstanding sound. Requires extended basic and 
joysticks. 

16KTape, $19.95 




SOLO POOL 

From Tom Mix 

Now, play pool on your Color Computer! Even 
without a cuestick you can be an expert. Play 
againstthe computer or afriend. With multiple skill 
levels, this is a game the entire family can play and 
enjoy! Shoot in super color. Extended basic re- 
quired. 

16KTape, $17.95 

TREK 16 

By C. Roslund 
From Tom Mix 

An outstanding adventure with screen display. 
Journey through space aboard the Starship En- 
terprise with all the familiar characters. Notfor the 
amateur — requires the cunning of Captain Kirk 
and the logic of Mr. Spock. Extended basic re- 
quired. Happy trekking! 

16KTape, $19.95 





PROTECTORS 

From Tom Mix Software 

You have 4 ships armed with laser cannon and 
smart bombs. They have waves of enemy fight- 
ers; their mother ships have lasers and heat- 
seeking mines. Get a new ship for each 5,000 
points you score. Exciting arcade action with hi res 
4-color graphics. 

32K Tape, $24.95 




COLORPEDES 

From Intracolor 

Try to keep up with the Colorpedes! Keep moving 
for quick scoring, smooth and accurate controls 
and fast action play with arcade quality sound ef- 
fects. Keep your eyes on the high resolution, mul- 
ticolored characters on the black background. Not 
just another game — this is a real escapade! 

16K Tape, $29.95 



ATARI 400/800, APPLE. IBM & VIC 20. 



THGfX I XI 
PAOGRflffliTOM 

Coming Soon to Boston, 
Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. 



t.m To Order Call Toil-Free 

800-424-2738 

MAIL ORDERS: Send check or M.'O. for total pur- 
chase price, plus $2.00 postage & handling. D.C., MD: & 
VA.: add sales tax. Charge cards: Include all embossed in- 
formation. 

© 1982 The Program Store, Inc. 





I 

I Item 
I 



THE PROGRAM STORE • Dept. 24-05-3 • Box 9582 • 4200 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20016 



Tape/Disk/Book 



Price Postage $2.00 Name 

Total Address... 

□ CHECK □ VISA City 

□ MASTERCARD Card # 

Computer 



State 



Zip. 
Exp 



Who Wrote the Rainbow's 

First Trivia Game? 

answer: Gary Wick 



Here it is. A Trivia Game that can be used by every 
80C user. You don't need more than 4K and 
you don't need Extended BASIC. If you do have 
more memory or Extended — Great, your Trivia Game will 
be that much better. 

The program listed below allows you to add your own 
sounds and graphics. Create your own scoringscheme or the 
amount of time allowed to players to answer each question. 
This game has been designed so that you can change it to 
your own tastes. Best of all, for those who don't program 
much, it's easy to make up your own Trivia Game with this 
program. You can make it a Sports, Rock & Roll or Old 
Movie Stars Trivia Game. Whatever you want. 

This game has been tested at several social gatherings by 
non-computer people and has proven to be popular. Rules 
for this game are: 

1) One player per game. 

2) Player earns + 10 points f or correct answer, — 5 points f or 
incorrect answer. 

3) If player doesn't enter an answer within 5 seconds, the 
game ends. 

4) Game also ends when program runs out of questions. 
(Twenty-five questions is enough. More than that can 
tire or bore the player.) 

You're sure to enjoy this very versatile game. 

Here is how you can design the game to your own tastes: 



Lines 

10-100 
120 
140 
160 

240-330 



270 

350-400 



430-510 



570-810 



Program Description 

Sets score(s) to zero and starts the game. 
N is the number of trivia questions. 
A$ are the trivia questions. 
B$ are the trivia answers. 

This loop checks to see if input to the keyboard 
equals B$, the correct answer. Line 300 is the time 
given player to complete his (her) answer. Line 

is the time given player to enter an answer. 
Program goes to this routine if the answer is 
wrong. This is a good place to insert your own 
sounds and graphics. 

Program goes to this routine if answer is correct. 
This is a good place to insert your own sounds and 
graphics. 

Insert your own questions and answers. 



Obviously, this game is very simple. Some of you more 
experienced programmers are probably wondering, "Why 
didn't he do this?" or "Why didn't he do that?" I did write it 
other ways but found that this simple version was the most 
popular. It goes to show that a program doesn't depend on 
its complexity but on whether the user enjoys it. 



The listing: 



300. 
570. 
700. 
END 



.0215 
03FD 
06A2 
08E7 



0 7 *****TRIVIA GAME***** 

1 * ******GARY WICK****** 

2 * *****MAD I SON , W I ****** 
10 S=0 

20 FOR P=l TO 600: NEXT P 
30 CLS 

40 PRINT @233, "TRIVIA QUI Z " 
50 FOR K=l TO 850: NEXT K 
60 CLS (4) 

70 PRINT© 52, "SCORE: "S 

80 INPUT "ENTER YES WHEN READY-RE 

ADY"; Y* 

90 IF Y*= M YES" THEN 100 ELSE 80 
100 CLS 
110 N=N+1 

120 IF N=25 THEN GOTO 520 
140 READ A* 
160 READ B$ 

170 PRINT @34,"F0R TEN POINTS... 



ii 



180 PRINT @96,A* 

190 T=0 

200 T=T+1 

210 SOUND 128, 1 

220 FOR Q=l TO 390:NEXTQ 

230 IF T=10 THEN 240 ELSE 200 

240 PRINTS 298, "ANSWER NOW" 

250 X*="" 

260 T=0 



16 the RAINBOW June, 1983 





AMDISK-III 



The AMDISK-III micro-floppy disk system is an engi- 
neering breakthrough tn disk size, storage capacity, 
media protection and user convenience. It's fully com- 
patible with your Radio Shack* " Color Computer. En- 
joy a full 624 KBytet (formatted) storage capability 
and the extra convenience of the new 3 " hard plastic 
encased diskettes. They fit into a shirt pocket and are 
easy to mail, too 




The AMDISK-III drive system is ruggedly constructed 
for years of trouble-free operation , and is backed with 
our 90 day warranty on parts and labor. 

Just circle the reader service number to receive com- 
plete specifications, 



* Radio Shack is a registered trademark ol Tandy Corporalion 
t Requires record tn g on both sides. 



2201 Lively Btvd, • Elk Grove Village JL 60007 V 
(312)364-1180 TLX: 25-4786 ^ 

Amdek , . your guide to innovative computing! 

Dealer inquiries invited 



270 IF T=100 THEN 60T0 515 
280 Z*=INKEY* 
290 T=T+1 

300 IF T=300 THEN 60T0 340 
310 X*=X*+Z*: PRINT @ 360, X* 
320 IF X*="" THEN GOTO 270 
330 IF X*=B* THEN 430 ELSE 280 
340 CLS 

350 SOUND 100, 10 

360 PRINT 9225, "SORRY, YOU' RE WRO 
N6" 

370 FOR Q=l TO 1000: NEXT Q 

380 S=S-5 

390 CLS 

400 GOTO 20 

430 SOUND 200 , 1 5 

440 S=S+10 

450 CLS 

460 C=0 

470 C=C+1 

480 FOR Q=l TO 300: NEXT Q 
490 CLS(C> 

500 PRINTQ235, "CORRECT! ! ! "; 
510 IF C=7 THEN 20 ELSE 470 
515 CLS(8):PRINT @ 69, "SORRY, YO 
U'RE TOO SLOW.";: FOR Q=l TO 1000 
:NEXT Q 
520 CLS 



Co Co - Cooler Si 







Brings operating 
temperature 
to ambient, 
regardless 
of 

accessory 
load 



• Reduces temperature 
of ENTIRE computer . . . 
not just the SAM chip 



Easy 1-minute installation 



Companion Keyboard Cover $7.95 
Co Co Software 

• Send For Free Catalog • For Fastest Service 
Send Money Order Or Certified Check • Add 
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Residents Add 6*A% Sales Tax • All Merchandise 
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530 PRINT @ 202, "END OF GAME " 
540 PRINT @ 38, "YOUR SCORE IS: "S 
550 PRINT @ 353,"T0 PLAY AGAIN, E 
NTER RUN" 

570 DATA NAME RIN TIN TIN'S OWNE 
R, RUSTY 

580 DATA HOWDY DOODY LIVED IN -? 
, DOODYVILLE 

590 DATA WHO PLAYED ALAN BRADY 0 
N THE DICK VAN DYKE SHOW 

?,CARL REINER 

600 DATA FULL NAME OF BATMAN'S B 
UTLER, ALFRED PENNYWORTH 
610 DATA WHO PLAYED MRS PEEL IN 
THE AVENGERS?, DIANA RIGG 

620 DATA THE VOICE OF MR MAGOO?, 
JIM BACKUS 

630 DATA IN CAR 54 WHO PLAYED OF 
FICER MULDOON?, FRED GWYNNE 

640 DATA WHAT WAS BARNABY JONES' 

OFFICE NUMBER?, 615 
650 DATA WHO PLAYED THE PENGUIN 
IN BATMAN, BURGESS MEREDITH 
660 DATA WHAT IS "KING OF BEERS" 
?,BUDWEISER 

670 DATA ANDY TAYLOR WAS SHERIFF 

OF WHAT TOWN?, MAYBERRY 
680 DATA POPEYE'S FOE IS-?,BLUTO 
690 DATA ERIC CARTWRIGHT'S NICKN 
AME WAS-?,HOSS 

700 DATA HEAD OF P&O (SECTION I) 

FOR UNLCE?, ALEX AND 

ER WAVERLY 

710 DATA COMMANDER OF FORT APACH 

E ON RIN— TIN— TIN?, 

LIEUTENANT RIP MASTERS 

720 DATA NAME THE MILL I ON ARE, 

JOHN BERESFORD TIPTON 

730 DATA SERGEANT JOE FRIDAY'S B 

ADGE NO.?, 714 

740 DATA NAME CISCO KID'S HORSE, 
DIABLO 

750 DATA CASPER'S HORSE GHOST FR 
I END?, NIGHTMARE 

760 DATA WHO WAS MR. WIZARD?, DON 
HERBERT 

770 DATA ACADEMY AWARD FOR BEST 
PICTURE OF 1961?, WEST 

SIDE STORY 
780 DATA ACADEMY AWARD FOR BEST 
PICTURE OF 1973?, THE 

STING 

790 DATA BEATLE'S LAST ALBUM?, 
ABBEY ROAD 

800 DATA ACADEMY AWARD FOR BEST 
SONG OF 1961?, MOON 

RIVER 

810 DATA NAME ZORRO'S SERVANT, BE 
RNARDO 



18 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




ANTECO 

division of 
Antenna Electronics Co. 



Fast arcade pinball action 
Three different game layouts 
Available now at your Software Dealer, 
if not haveyour dealer call (800) 433-7631 





4-P4 + frf-i-|-l«aB 

■ i, >. ri ■ a ■ ■ ^ ■ ■ ■ ■ 
*** aPf-frl-l-* + -l 

■1***1 •■«* + ■> ■ ■ 

+ l <■■•«•■ 
*«* + ■■■■■ + *■■ 

■ riri ■> + *■■■ 
j ■ ■ ■ .■ ■ . l .i if ■ ■ . f 

■ ■■■■■■■■ + *4-* 

J. B ■ ■ ■ L I , I I ■ ■ ■ 

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1-I1I-I- I-I1IIPI-4 

**■■■■■) I ■■■ 

r I J 4 ■ ■ fa I I » H « 
-■'■■»l-4-|i|""» 
■ ■ fa I fa ■ 4 

■ ■tlJriilfat-l I 
i i ■ ■ ■ r r | i ■■■■ 

-lifafa-lll'l lll-l I 
«■-*■■ ■ i ■ ■ 

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■I h I I H - . . F I » * • 



■ r 

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fa 4 



HARDWARE 

Building 
A Color Computer 

To EPSON MX 

Printer Interface 



By Dennis Snyder 



You have finally got your own Radio Shack 
TRS-80 Color Computer home and running. Like 
most of us, you soon develop a burning desire to 
make listings «I your programs, or to do fancier things like 
word processing and budgets. So you read all of the litera- 
ture on printers and decide on one of the loweost Epson MX 
series printers. There are three models: the MX-70, the 
MX-80 and the M X- 100. Since descriptions of these printers 
have been covered sufficiently elsewhere, 1 will not go into 
them here. 

After making your selection and rushing home with it, 
you hurriedly unpack it, itching to see, in print, all of those 
great programs that you wrote. What? It needs a cable! You 
rush back to the store and then find out the bad news — there 
is no stock cable to connect your Color Computer to the 
Epson, And, the Epson requires either a parallel Centronix 
plug or a serial converter board. Epson happens to make 
two different boards; one is strictly a serial to serial conver- 
ter and the other is a serial to parallel converter with 2K of 
buffer memory. Both plug into an internal, 26-pin, 100 mil 
center connector. However, at discount prices, these cost 
approximately $70 and $140 respectively. The $70 Serial 
RS-232C/ Current Loop Serial Interface (Cat. Nos. 8140 
and 8141) model provides a general purpose RS-232 inter- 
face and a TTY current loop interface, much of which is 
superflous to a Color Computer application. Epson's Serial 
Interface with 2K of buffer memory board is nice with its 
own 8048 microprocessor on it, but at about half the price of 
the Color Computer, it seems at odds with the objectives of a 
loweost system. If you bought the MX-70 or the MX-100 
which come with built-in graphics capability, or you intend 
to eventually add the Epson "Craphtrax-80"graphics ROM 
set, you will need either a parallel Centronix interf ace or the 
2K of buffer RAM to support the graphics mode. This is 
necessary because a line of bit-image graphics rapidly fills 
the internal buffer of the MX printer. 

At this time, although 1 have the MX-100, 1 do not have 
the need for iu graphics capabilities. Therefore, 1 came up 
with a very simple, 2 1C design which interfaces the serial, 



RS-232 1/D porl of the Color Computer to the internal 
serial port of the MX printers. 

Construction 

Although the MX series' PC boards appear very similar, 
there are some subtle differences between them and definite 
differences in the EPROM programs in each machine. 
However, the Epson serial interface boards are ed with all 
models which implies that area of the circuitry is at least the 
same. The serial interface circuit described in this article has 
been used successfully with both the Epson MX-80 and 
MX-100 printers, and should work with the MX-70. It will 
handle alpha-numerics and graphics characters but does not 
provide the necessary buffer f or bit image graphics. As can 
be seen in the schematics (Figure 1), the circuit consists of 
only two lCs, a few resistors, capacitors and diodes. 1 built 
mine on a small, 2.5 x 2.5 inch perf board using point-to- 
point wiring. Rather than using a full, 25-pin E1A connec- 
tor, 1 used a smaller connector since the Color Computer's 
I/O port requires only 3 wires. 

With the small number of components used in the circuit, 
wiring of the PC board and installing the components is very 
straight f orward and not critical. However, it is necessary to 
ground all of the unused inputs of the MC75188, or your 
printer output will be garbled, if the circuit works at all. 1 
have wired in S2, the DIP switch, because 1 may use my 
printer with other kinds of computers. If you intend to use 
your printer with only a Color Computer, you may want to 
eliminate this switch and hardwire in these functions. Switch 
SI is optional and can be mounted on the small, removable 
plastic panel at the rear of the printer. Since 1 dislike moving 
equipment with cablesdangling, 1 also installed a connector 
for the printer cable in this panel. 

1 had a hard time finding the 4-pin DIN plugs that Radio 
Shack uses, so 1 opted to buy their4-pin to 5-pin cable which 
is a little longer, and the same price as their 4-pin to 4-pin 
cable. 1 removed the 5-pin connector and attached a connec- 
tor from my spare parts box. You could use any 4+ pin 
connector here, or wire it directly to the serial interface 



20 Ihe RAINBOW June, 1983 



Figure 1 



EPSON MX SERIAL INTERFACE 



TO COMPUTER 



P1 



U1 
MC75189 



RS230UT)r 



13 



12V O— VW 
R2 
39K 




P2 TO PRINTER 

11 



->SI 



C6 
1000ul 



+5V 




23 

-) SELIN7 



CD 



RS2321N (■ 



(10) 



U2 
MC75188 



(1,1) 



R1 
2k 



4 



GROUND f 



I 



C5 
220pf 
50V 



(S2) 



14 



17 



U2 
13 



(Optional) 
S1 



13 



15 



12 



12 



10 



9 




11 



to 



9 



21 



a 



19 



-( Bt 

< B2 
V B3 

fU 

< PARITY DIS/ 
«( PAR ALL E L , S E R | A U 

< B T 7/ 



U2-14 O 



12Vd< 



U1-14 



5Vdc 



R2 O 
U2-1 O- 



C4 

,01 u* 

O- 



T 

T 



-M — L 



D1 

1 N4001 



1 



C3 



300 uf 



C2 X 0.1uf 



D2 

1N4GQ1 



K +l2Vdc 



-SVdc 



D3 



. r 1N4001 

C1 O.OUf 




board. Before making the4-wire connections, it is necessary 
to determine whether your Color Computer has a Version 
1,0 or 1.1 BASIC ROM. There arc several ways of determin- 
ing this; however, the easiest that I have found is to do a 
simple EXEC 41 175 which will then print on the screen the 
Radio Shaek heading and the BASIC version. 

The Color Computer transmits data to the printer and, in 
return, expects an acknowledgement. Thus, on the compu- 
ter to serial I/O interface, data is sent on the RS-232 Out 
line. Apparently, when Radio Shack and Microsoft were 
defining Version 1.0, they did not completely understand 
what the other was doing. Some problems arise in receiving 
the acknowledgement is you have the Version 1.0 BASIC 
ROM. Depending on the BASIC ROM version, the 
acknowledgement is input on either the Carrier Detect (CD) 
line or the RS-232 In line. Thus, the printer end of the cable 
is wired as follows, depending on your BASIC version: 

Version 1,0 The printer's RDY (Ready) output is 

connected to the computer's CD line. 

Version 1.1 — The printer's RfcY output is connected 

to the computer's RS232 In line. 
Another variation in the wiring, due to thedifferent ROM 
versions, is the connection of the 7- or 8-bit character 
options. If you have: 

Version 1.0 ■ Ground pin 19 of the 26-pin connector, 

thereby putting the MX printer in the 

7- bit mode. If you always intend to run 
the computer with Radio Shack's free 
PTFX4k or PTFXI6k program that 
puts the computer's serial output in an 

8- bit format, then follow the Version 1.1 
instructions below. 



Version 1.1 Do not connect pin-lf of the 26-pin 

connector. This places the printer in the 
8-bit mode. 



Parts List 

Ul 
U2 
CI 

C2,C4 
C3 
C5 
C6 

DI r D2,D3 

Rl 

R2 

SI 

S2 

PI 

P2 



MC75I88 TTL to RS232 Driver 

MC75I89 RS232 to TTL Receiver 

0,01 microfarad Capacitor 

0,1 microfarad Capacitor 

100 to 440 microfarad Capacitor. 35 VDC 

220 picofarad Capacitor 

1000 picofarad Capacitor 

IN4001 Diode {or any other diode cpable of 

25ma @ 35 VDC) 

2k, Va watt Resistor 

39k, V* watt Resistor 

SPST Switch 

DIP Switch, 8-pole, single throw (opptional) 
Radio Shack 4-pin to 5~pin DIN Cable, No. 
26-3009 

26-pin Header Connector, 2 rows, 100 mil 
centers 

Male and female connector pair, minimum 4- 
pins (opt.) 

2.5 x 2,5 inches 100 mil center, perf board 

1 14-pin DIP sockets 

I 26-pin DIP socket (optional) 



Circuit Operation 

The Color Computer transmits data to the printer using a 
software generated, asynchronous serial protocol via a 
PlA's output pins and the RS232 Out line. As previously 



mentioned, there isa bug in Version 1.0 as it transmits only a 

7- bit character. This is fine for transmitting ASCII charac- 
ters but does not work for bit addressable graphics. To get 
around this, Radio Shack provides a tape which provides a 
routine to generate 8-bit characters. In Version LI, this is 
taken care of by a routine in ROM. 

A typical, asynchronous data character transmission is 
shown in Figure 2. In between transmissions, the line is Idle 
and is held high. At the start of an asynchronous transmis- 
sion, the line is brought low for 1 bit period. This is the 
START BIT which is used to synchronize the receiver to the 
incoming bit stream. Following the START BIT is the 7-or 

8- bits of data. The character is ended by the line returning 
high for at least 2-bit periods. These final 2-bit periods are 
the STOP BITS which are used to preset the line for the next 
character. 

Figure 2 

$-L_^=] J 

START 7-8 BITS STOP 
BIT DATA BITS 



The computerdata enters the printer on pin 4 or Plug PL 
The signal level of the data swings between +12 VDC and 
-12VDC, and enters pin 13 of UL Ul is a Motorola 
MC75189 E1A RS232 receiverand level shifter which lowers 
the input voltage to the standard TTL levels of 0 to +5 VDC. 
This +VDC signal now becomes the Epson's Serial-ln line 
and is presented to the printer on P2- 1 1 . 

The only other active signal on the serial I/O board is 
RDY/, which is output by the printer on P2-4. RDY/ is 
driven by an open collector device and requires pulling-up 
through resistor Rl to +5 VDC. The Motorola MC75188 
line driver is also a level shifter which concerts the 0 to +5 
VDC RDY/ signal to +12 and -12 VDC. The + and - 12 
VDC output signal is now connected to CD or RS232 In as 
described earlier, This signal from the printer tells the com- 
puter when the printer is ready to accept another data char- 
acter. If you have trouble getting the printer to receive data, 
watch the printer's Ready light. The Color Computer always 
sends the first character without checking the printer's sta- 
tus. If the Ready light flicks OFF and then back ON once, 
then the data character is being received by the printer. The 
computer will not send a second character until the printer 
acknowledges receipt of the first character, which, of course, 
cannot happen until the proper RDY to ED, or RS232 In, 
connection is made. Another technique would be to peek at 
the PlAinputsand verify thatthc line was high. Thus, if the 
printer is ready then: 

Version 1 .0 PRINT PEEK(653 1 3 ) 

Returns an even number 
Version 1.1 PRINT P££^(65314) 

Returns an even number 
Capacitor C5 is possibly not necessary in this simple system 
but is generally recommended to match the MC75 1 88's slew 
rate to that of the LM330 input circuit of the Color 
Computer. 



The -12 VDC supply for the circuit board is generated by 
the half-wave rectifier formed by D3 and C3 across P2-12 
and 14, which are the 12 VAC power inputs from the printer. 
Diodes Dl and D2 provide the power supply isolation 
recommended in the MC75188devicespecification.Mostof 
the other linesare input to the printerto match its character- 
istics to the Color Computer. These lines and their functions 
are listed in Table I. 



Use of switch SI is optional, but it allows us to take full 
advantage of the Color Computer and Epson printer. Nor- 
mally, after power-on, the Color Computer outputs data to 
the printer at the rate of 600 bps. 1 use the term bps(bits-per- 
second) which is generally more accurate than baud rate. 
Baud rate defines the number of data bits per second and 
excludes synchronization and framing bits such as the 
START and STOP bits. For short transmission, 600 bps is 
adequate, as the time required to print a line at the Epson's 
80 cps is much longer than the transmission time. However, 
if you are printing as much as half a page or more, speeding 
up the transmission rate provides a significant time savings. 
Fortunately, both machines can operate at 2400 bps. The 
printer requires a mere flip of the switch SI and the Color 
Computer requires a POKE 150,18. A POKE 150,87 returns 
the computerto600 baud. Just remember, thecomputerand 
the printer must agree on bit rate. 

Despite the best intentions of Epson's manual writers, 
getting the right combination of switches on the printer so 
the Color Computer can communicate with it is sometimes 
frustrating, Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the combinations that 
have been used successfully with the MX-80 and MX-100. 
That about covers everything needed to get your computer 
and printer talking to each other. 



Table!: 



P2-9 



P2-7 



P2-21 



P2-19 



P2-i? 
P2-15 
P2-5 
P2-4 



Even Odd/ 



Parity 
Disable/ 

Serial- 
Parallel 

8 Bit- 
7 Bit/ 



Bl 
B2 
B3 
B4 



P2-23 



SELIN/ 



Selects Parity Type — No 
connection 

Enables Parity — No 
connection 

Selects printer's data 
input mode — ground 

Selects character length 

— 7 bits, Version 1.0 — 
Ground 

— 8 bits, Version LI 
No connection 

Baud rate control 1 — 
Ground 

Baud rate control 2 — 
No connection 

Baud rate control 3 — 
No connection 

Baud rate control 4 

— 600 pbs = No Connec- 
tion 

-2400 pbs = Ground 
Printer select — Ground 



I 




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Send Control Codes From Keyboard 
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We also have a disk version available called "DISKPACK/' 
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Figure 3 



MX-100 Switch Settings 



Switch 1 



Switch 2 



Position 


Condition 


1 


ON 


2 


OFF 


3 


OFF 


4 


OFF 


5 


OFF 


6 


ON 


7 


ON 


8 


OFF 


1 


ON 


2 


ON 


3 


ON 


4 


OFF 



The f ollowing listing isa short print demonstration which 
can be used to verify your circuits operation and illustrate 
the use of the various character codes used with the Epson 
printer. Note that when using the Escape codes with other 
character codes, there is no punctuation between the charac- 
ter codes, i.e., to turn on the emphasized character mode, 
you enter this line, followed by your text: 



PR1NT#-2,CH R$(27)CHRS(69)"YOUR TEST 



In comparing the MX-80 manualand the MX-100 manual I 
found an intei estinganomaly; the MX-100 manual does not 
describe use of produce Double Strike printing on the MX- 
100. Another problem that l have found with the Color 



Figure 4 



Switch 



MX-80 Switch Settings 



Position 

I 

2 
3 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 



Condition 

ON 
OFF 
OFF 
OFF 

ON 

ON 
OFF 

ON 



Switch 2 



1 ON 

2 ON 

3 ON 

4 OFF 

I 



Computer's BASIC ROMs lies in setting the printer line 
width. Accordingto the Color Computer manuals, it should 
be possibleto Poke newline widths into location 153. How- 
ever, that does not seem to work as the computer continues 
to output 132 characters per line. If you have a MX-80, this 
probably will never bother you. However, the first time you 
try to list a program on 80 column paper on your MX-100 
you will see the print head running off the paper and across 
the platen. Of course, you will need to study your Epson 
printer manual thoroughly and experiment, to really 
explore the capabilities of this fine printer. However, l am 
sure you will enjoy this combination of the TRS-80 Color 
Computer and the Epson printer. 
Time to LList! 




The listing: 



10 POKE 150,18 'set 2400 bps 

20 A*-"This is 11 

30 B*»" printing. " 

40 PRINT#-2 f A* "NORMALS* 

50 PRINT#-2 f CHR*<27) ,, E M A* ,, EHPHAS 

IZED"B* 

60 PRINT#-2 f CHR*<27) "F" 'turns 

off emphasized mode 

70 PRINT#-2 f CHR*<27) " Q M A * M DOUBLE 

STRIKE M B* 
80 PRINT#-2 f CHR*<27> "H" 'turns o 
ff double strike mode 
90 PRINT#-2 f CHR*<27) "E"CHR* (27) " 
G ll A* Ba Et1PHASIZED 9 DOUBLE STRIKE"B 
* 

100 PRINT#-2 f CHR* (27) "F"CHR* (27) 
"H" * returns to normal print 
1 10 PRINT«-2 9 CHR* ( 15) A*"CONDENSE 
D"B* 

120 PRINT#-2, CHR* (14) A 4 11 CONDENSE 
D 9 DOUBLE WIDTH"B* 



130 PRINT#-2 f CHR* (27) ,, Q ,, A* ,, CONDE 

NSED, DOUBLE STIKE"B* 

140 PRINT#-2, CHR* ( 14) A* M CONDENSE 

D 9 DOUBLE STRIKE, DOUBLE WIDTH"B 

* 

150 PRINT#-2 f CHR* < IB) CHR* (27) "H" 
'turns off condensed, double st 
ike 

160 PRINT#-2 f A*CHR* < 14) "DOUBLE W 
IDTH n CHR*(20)B* 

170 PRINT#-2 f CHR* (14) CHR* (27) "E" 
A* 11 DOUBLE WIDTH, EMPHASI ZED Ba B* 
180 PRINT#-2 f CHR* (27) H F — turns o 
ff emphasized 

190 PRINT#-2 f CHR*<14)CHR*<27) "6" 
A* 11 DOUBLE WIDTH & STRIKE"B* 
200 PRINT#— 2 f CHR* (27) "H" 9 turns o 
ff double strike 

210 PRINT#-2 f CHR* (14) CHR* (27) "E" 

CHR* < 2 7 ) " 0 " A • " DOUBLE WIDTH Sc STR 

IKE, EMPH AS I Z E D 11 B * 

220 PRINT#-2 f CHR* (27) "F'CHR* (27) 

"H"' turns off double strike & em 

phazied 



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Starship Troopers 

Colonies of insects are attacking a distant planet with their 
deadly energy waves, You must destroy them with your 
flame gun before they have their chance at you. Work fast! 
Don 1 t let your vital life support system fail. Go after this 
deadly menace alone or with a partner. 




NEW! 
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I %f 26-332 



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Try your hand at such favonties as Black Jack, Solitaire or 
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These 4 Daring Adventure Programs Will Test Your Skill and Bravery 




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As you try to escape from Bedlam, 
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THE TOP-RA TED COCO WORD PROCESSOR: 



Colorware researched the word 
processors available for the Color 
Computer, We came to the very 
same conclusion that so many re- 
view articles have! Telewriter-64 
is, by far, the superior word pro- 
cessor for the Color Computer. 

Why is Telewriter so much bet- 
ter than the others 9 For one thing, 
it has overcome the 32x1 6 charac- 
ter display limitation of the Color 
Computer. No small feal> Telewri- 
ter accomplishes this by generat- 
ing its own set of characters in 
software. You select 51x24. 64x24 
or 85x24 character displays by 
merely issuing a format command. 
If you have ever used a word pro- 
cessing system, you know how im- 
portant it is t o b e able t o see a good 
portion of your text on the screen. 



lEitmiHt-t* 

w; tft*T i WH'JTei "lei ele#r^'. «or 1 1 r 
i hi tr>at tr* ii«tr c*e> ri?t i:e rvti' 

<di» litter Tr»r Her el y rerrKen: unr 
CH^* iNraH-ifS id t<Vr {•lor Ccn»uk«r r-'nr^ . 

!lit<*\ttr <>* II truJ j" thrf rtHT *C4«rf«.'l 6W. 
flitAi»tit«Tti "4 r '3 ^fctiSSH- ton f r * r 

U»M»r ft lH-LfO, tr 4* 2 fn. -ri- 
ft r« thii*ir4 p Htlifii o^t* m. rtill-, s-'V'. 1 t 
■ ■ w,ir»,A f hi i. P'^iraB. "a:3J-its- car. n 

<S» J pi ri *n* Ik I . 'il rr »* 5^=f iYl m Tior 
'tuTf e««iiT »l -?»r >rr<'. 

I ( I < • ( ni i k I < i i i i r i I i , ■ 



Telewriter-64 also generates 
true lowercase characters. Thisis 
much preferable to the reverse 
characters that merely ''represent" 
lower case letters in other coco 
word processors. 

Telewriter-64 is feature packed. 
Besides the standard features 



TELEWRITER-64 



found in any word processor. Tele- 
writer also includes: user-friendly 
full-screen editing, rapid cursor 
and scrolling control, page jump, 
ripht justification, menu-driven 
disk or cassette access, compata- 
bility with spelling checkers (such 
as SpelLand-Fix). and a clever 
double check that asks the user 
"Are you sure?" before executing 
any operation that would kill any 
sizeable amount of your text. 

Telewriter-64 runs on any 16K, 
32K, or 64K system (extended 
Basic not required) and works with 
any printer. It has all of the control 
codes necessary to take full ad- 
vantage of all of the features in any 



printer. There is even a typewri- 
ter" mode which sends typed lines 
directlyto your printer. 

With advanced word processing 
software such as this, your color 
computer becomes a truly power- 
ful word processing system, with a 
price that makes sense f orthe per* 
sonal user. 

Beyond impressive capability, 
Telewriter-64 simply makes any 
kind of writing a pleasure. It is a 
truly sophisticated system that is 
marvelously easy to learn and en- 
joyable to use. 



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78-03 F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodha/en, NY 11421 
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High quality cable and high force, gold plated contacts 
ensure the utmost in connection reliability for your CoCo 
or TDP "100. 

© Disk pack extender, 3 ft. . . $29.95 

Allows you to move your disk drive 
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© One Drive Disk cable $19.95 

® Two Drive Disk cable $29.95 

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0NL Y $19.95 

FREE PROGRAM 

CASSETTE 
INCLUDED 

Plugs directly into your joystick port 
Comes with six fun & useful programs on tape. 
Easy instructions show how to use it with Basic. 
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GHOSTGOBBLER 

From Spectral Associates, this 
Pac" iheme game is the best of it's 
type. Brilliant color, action and 
sound, just like an arcade gobble 
your way to glory, but watch for 
those ghosts! Get in on the wild fun 
of this game craze now. Tape: 
$21 95,Orsk S25.95 



GHOSTGOBBLER 



DONKEYKING 



DONKEY KING 

You simply can no! buy a more impres- 
sive game tor your color computer than 
this new wonder from Tom Mi*. The 
graphics, sound, and animal ion are all 
just astonishing 1 There are four different 
g raphe screens and each is endless 
fun Requires 32 K Tape £24 95. Disk 
$27.95 





Baa ji 



F 














1 


















i ' 


* 


* 1 








I 


■ V, 






• •• 




* * 










• 






MtlH fHCMUfil mrliiM WlH 


J 


— 









PROTECTORS 

There are several good ver- 
sions of the ^Defender" theme 
available for the CoCo None, 
however, rival this one from 
Tom Mix. No other game 
matches the detailed graphics 
and sheer excitement of this top 
seller. Requires 32K. Tape: 
$24.95, Disk: 527 95 



CREATURE FEATURE 

From Color Soltware, comes a 
lightening swifl shoot & dodge 
the enemy game. It's clever 
cross between w Robot ron~ and 
"Beserk" themes, with bullets 
flying everywhere. Solid, shoot- 
em-up-fun. Requires 16K 
Tape: $17 95, Disk: $19,95 




ANDROID ATTACK 

Spectral Associates' veiy well 
done "Berserk" type game with 
some interesting added fea- 
tures. Each cassette contains 
both the 16K and 32K version. 
The 32K version has voice out- 
put! Plenty of action. Tape: 
$21.95 



FROGGER 

Just released by The Cornsoft 
Group, this is the olficially 
licensed version from Sega, the 
arcade manufacturer. It has it 
all* 4 lane super highway, 
snakes, turtles, logs, alligators, 
etc. Lots ot action and laughs! 
Requires 16K, Tape:S19 95 



INTERGALACTIC FORCE 

Your space tighter roars into the 
Death Corridor Lock-on and 
blast the enemy tighter trom the 
sky Now try dropping one into 
Death Star s narrow exhaust 
vent. It takes skill and guts 
Good luck' With u Star Wars" 
theme song. From Anleco, 
Tape:S24.95 



THECOLORCADE. 

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* It's a Joystick Interface. 

Now you can connect any Atari compatible joystick to your CoCo. 
These sticks are extremely rugged & provide very fast response 
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any game. The difference will amaze you! 

* It's a Rapid Fire Module! 

Press the fire button on your joystick and get a great burst of fire 
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* It's a 6ft. Extender Cord. 



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ORDERING 
INFORMATION 

ADD $2.00 PER ORDER 
FOR SHIPPING. 

WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTERCARD. 

CHECKS, M.a 

CO D. ADD $3.00 EXTRA. 

NY RESIDENTSADD SALES TAX. 

OVERSEAS, FPO, APO, ADD 1 0% 

DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 

IF ONE OR MORE GAMES 

ARE INCLUDED, 

SHfPPINGlSFREE. 



COLORWARE 



COLOFWARE INC. 
78-03F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodha/en, NY 11421 

(212)647-2864 



L 



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TOLL FREE ORDERING 
800-221-0916 

Ordersonty NY& Info call (212) 647-2664 





4K 


■ 
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EDUCATION NOTES 




mwrnm 

RAINBOW 







Make A Bar Graph 
Of Your Child's 

Test Scores 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 




A child's grades or marks are very important to him. 
They are very personal and deserve to be 
highlighted. If they are especially good, then special 
attention should certainly be shown. Graphs are one way 
that computers can aid in this type of reinforcement. This 
month's program demonstrates a bar graph. Bar graphs arc 
an illustrative means of clearly showing comparisons of 
various scores. 

It is very important to keep relating computer projects to 
the individual child. With the advent recently of so many 
wonderful arcade games for our computer, we don't want to 
take the chance of losing a child's interest in the personal 
uses of computersfor him. Whenever we can relate a compu- 
ter use to the individual's personal interests, we should 
encourage this. Let the child learn to utilize the computer lor 
as large a variety of tasks as possible. 

A bargraphcomparesscoresfromseveral occasions. Our 
graph can use up to eight scores. The reason that eight is our 
upper limit is tied into the fact that our computer can print 
only 32 spaces across the screen. If a child scores 100, the 
three digits and a space would take up f our spaces to record 
that grade. We therefore must allow for four spaces per 
grade or 32/4 = eight test marks. 

(Mr. Blyn, who teaches both exceptional and gifted 
children, holds two Master s degrees in the field of 
education and has won an award for the design of a 
computer program to aid handicapped children. He 
and his wife, Cheryl, own Computer Island J 



•ur graph will record and draw up to eight grades for any 
child. Most children receive weekly spelling or math or other 
subject quizzes. A graph could be made for each subject. 
After the graph is drawn, the average is computed and 
included on the screen. 

Don't just look at the graph. Try to use it for further 
learning. Think of interesting or challenging questions to 
ask the youngster such as: 

Which was the highest mark? 
Which was the lowest? 

Which two times did you score the same or nearly the 
same? 

Which time did you score 10 points higher than another 
time: 

Which time did you score twice as high as anothertime? 
How would your average change if you scored a 100 on 
test five? 

What would have to change to average two points 
higher? 

The list of possible questions is only limited to your 
imagination and the child's level of understanding. 

The listing that follows picks up the child's name in line 50 
and limits it to 10 letters on the screen in line 60. Lines 70-90 
set the limit at eight tests. Lines 110-170 ask for the actual 
test grades. Scores higher that 100 and lower than 0 are 
rejected on lines 130 and 140. Lines 180-250 draw in the 
graph's axes. Lines 260-420 draw in the vertical bars. 

The bars are advanced by fives so that they will fit on the 
screen. The bar for a score of 76 will thus appear identical to 



28 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



a score of 79. The real scores will however be printed just 
below the bars. Line 300 divides the real numerical value (H) 
by five to accomplish this. Line 440 computes and prints the 
average. If any key is pressed after the graph is drawn, the 
screen will clear and the program will run again to let you 
create a new graph. 

The program that follows is set up for an individual's 
scores. It could be modified easily to compare different 
children's performances on the same test by entering your 
own information on the bottom of the screen after the chart 
is completed. Please feel free to use this idea for your own 
children's purposes in any way that is appropriate for them. 



The listing: 



ii 




150 017E 

300 02D3 

END . . 03EC 




10 REM 11 BAR GRAPH 
20 REM"*** STEVE BLYN, COMPUTER 

ISLAND, 1983" 

30 Z=3:Y=27 

40 CLS RND (8) 

50 PR I NT "WHAT IS YOUR NAME";:INP 
UT N*:SOUND220,3 
60 N*=LEFT* ( N* , 1 0 ) 

70 PRINT@64," " : PRINT© 68, "HOW M 

ANY TESTS"; : INPUT T 

80 REM"***SET LIMIT AT 8 TESTS" 

90 IF T<1 OR T>8 THEN SOUND 10, 10 

IGOTO 70 

100 SOUND220,3 

110 FOR X= 1 TO T 

120 PRINT@128, " " : PRINT@128, "GRA 
DE ON TEST #";X;: INPUT Y*(X) 
130 IF VAL<Y*<X> ) >100 THEN 120 
140 IF VAL(Y*(X))<0 THEN 120 
150 SOUND 150, 1 
160 PRINT@128, " M 
170 NEXT X 

180 REM"***POKE IN BOUNDARIES" 
190 CLS0 

200 FORQ=1024 TO 1472STEP32: POKE 
Q, 143: NEXT: SOUND200, 1 
210 FOR Q=1472TO1503:POKEQ, 143:N 
EXTQ:SOUND200, 1 

220 FORQ= 1 503TO 1 055STEP-32 : POKEQ 
, 1 43 : NE XT Q : SOUND200 , 1 
230 PRINT@5,N*; "' S TEST MARKS"; 
240 FOR W=1504 TO 1535: POKEW, 207 



64K for $99! 

We will convert your Radio Shack Color Computer to a full 64K for only 
$99.00 plus shipping. (Compare this with RS price of $149 + $30 labor 
for 32K upgrade.) Board models D, E and F — No matter what ROM you 
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PYRAMID — 527 Hill St. - Santa Monica, CA - 90405 -(213) 399-2222 



:next 

250 PRINT@489, "bar"; :PRINT@498, " 
graph" ; 

260 REM"***MAKE THE BARS" 

270 FOR X= 1 TO T 

280 H=VAL(Y*(X> ) 

290 AV=AV+H 

300 V=INT(H/5) 

310 FOR J=0 TO V-l 

320 PRINT@447+L,H; 

330 IF H=0 THEN 360 

340 SET(Z,Y,8) 

350 SET(Z+1,Y,8) 

360 Y=Y-1 

370 S0UND252,2 

380 NEXT J 

390 Z=Z+8 

400 L=L+4 

410 Y=27 

420 NEXT X 

430 REM"*** FIND THE AVERAGE" 
440 PRINT@73, "AVERAGE =";INT((AV 

/T)+.5> ; ""/."; 

450 REM"*** PRESS ANY KEY TO GO 
AGAIN" 

460 IN*=INKEY* 

470 IF IN*="" THEN 460 ELSE RUN 



MYSTERIOUS 

ISLE 



GREAT NEW TEXT ADVENTURE GAME! 

You vaguely remember being put in the 
lifeboat as the ship was sinking. Now you 
awaken on the beach of MYSTERIOUS 
ISLE . . , alone in the small battered boat. 
Can you find the pirate's fabulous treasure 
and escape with it and your life!! 

TRS-80 Color Computer* 

Requires 16K Extended Basic 

CASSETTE $21.95 

including postage 
Send check or money order to: 

Computer Dynamics 

3640 Summitridge Lane 
Orange, California 92667 

*TM Tandy Corp. 




June, 1983 the RAINBOW 29 



Spruce Up Your Tapes With This 
Cassette Label Print Program 



By J. D. Ray 



1 recently invested in a supply of five and ten minute blank 
cassettes in order to store just one or two programs and 
not have to spend so much time searching and rewinding 
tape. GREAT! One problem solved and another created! 
How do you keep up with all those tapes? Well, writing on 
those labels with a pen or pencil is no easy matter (even if 
you can find a pen that will write on the labels). Besides, 
there is so little room! Thus, I end up scratching out a brief 
message or code on the tapes only to discover later that the 
codes have no meaning. Total Frustration! 

While browsing through my last issue of the Rainbow I 
ran across an ad for cassette tapes and tractor feed labels. I 
ordered a supply and developed the program listed below. 

The program will prompt you to input five lines of infor- 
mation. After each line is typed in, it will be printed on the 
label when ENTERed. You are inf ormed of the length of the 
line and warned if your input line is too long. Note that lines 
three and four are printed on the sides of the label and are 
very short. 

You have four options for the title (first line), depending 
on how you want your label to look and the length of your 
title. All titles on the first line will be underlined except for 
the elongation type. The fifth line can handle useful infor- 
mation such as the source of the program, copyright notice, 
index of contents, etc. 





The listing: 



240. . 
440. . 
600. . 
800. . 
1020. 
1200. 
1330. 
END. 



02F4 
05FA 
082A 
0AE7 
0D76 
0FEF 
.1281 
145B 



10 '♦♦♦CASSETTE LABEL PRINTER PR 

OBRAM*** 

20 'BY J. D. RAY 

5065 FRANCE AVENUE 
N. CHARLESTON, B.C. 2940 



30 
40 
6 

50 
60 



<C> COPYRIGHT MAR, 1983 
VERSION ttl 



I use the Radio Shack DMP-200 dot-matrix printer. The 
control codes for this printer are listed below: 



CHR$(13 
CHR$(14 
CHR$(15 
CHR$(27 
CHR$(27 
CHR$(27 
CHR$(27 
CHR$(27 
CHR$(27 
CHR$(27 



Line Feed 
End Underline 
Start Underline 



;CHR$(14) — Start Elongation 
;CHR$(15) — End Elongation 
CHR$(19) — Select Standard Character 
;CHR$(20) — Select Condenses Character 
;CHR$(23) — Select Compressed Character 
CHR$(31) — Start Bold Print 
;CHR$(32) — End Bold Print 
The codes are identified in the program as they are used. 

I am sure that this program can be adapted for use with 
any printer. Extended BASIC is not necessary, however, if 
you do not have Extended BASIC, you will need to change 
all the LINE INPUT statements to just INPUT. 

If you need to print more than one label, type "R" or 
REPEAT and you will be asked for the print type you want 
for the title and you will need to realign your label with your 
printer. If the printing is off centered, you might need to 
adjust the labels. 

The program should be bug free, however, if you have any 
problems, drop me a line. If you want this program already 
on tape, send $4.95 to J. D. Ray, 5065 France Ave., North 
Charleston, S.C. 29406. 



CASSETTE LAB 



70 CLS9: PRINT 8 100, STRING* (24, " 
#")| 

B0 PRINT m 132,^# 
ELS «"| 
90 PRINT 8 164, "# 
#"» 

100 PRINT 8 196,"* 
RAY # M | 
110 PRINT 8 228,"* 
> 1983 #"l 

120 PRINT 8 260, STRING* (24, "#">! 

130 FOR X-l TO 1300: NEXT X 

140 CLS: PRINT 8 234, "INSTRUCTION 

s? m :print a 270, (y/n> 

150 R*-INKEY*:IF R»- " "THEN 130 



BY J. D. 
COPYRIGHT <C 



(J. D. Ray is Minister of Music and Youth at Cooper 
River Baptist Church, N. Charleston, S. C.) 



(The Cassette Label Print Program is also available on 
Rainbow on Tape) 



30 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



160 IF R*-"Y"THENGO8UB1260EL8E17 
0 

170 CLS: PR I NT05, "CASSETTE LABEL 
PROGRAM" 

180 PRINT06S, "DO YOU WANT THE FO 
LLOWINO FOR THE TITLE:" 

190 PRINT9130, "1. ELONGATION (16 
MAX > " 

200 PR I NTS 162, "2. STANDARD (32 
MAX > " 

210 PRINTS194, "3. COMPRESSED (38 
MAX) " 

220 PR I NTH 226, "4. CONDENSED (SS 

MAX)" 
230 PRINT 
240 SOUND 200,1 
250 INPUT X 

260 IF X<1 OR X>4 THEN GOTO 240 

270 ON X GOTO 280,410,920,640 

280 'ELONGATION MODE 

290 PRINT#-2,CHR*(27) |CHR*(19)|C 

HR* (27) I CHR* (14) 'SELECT STAND AR 

D & ELONGATION MODE 

300 GOSUB 1190 

310 CLS: PR I NTS 128, "YOU HAVE 8ELE 
CTED THE ELONSAT I ONMODE FOR YOUR 
TITLE. " 

320 PR I NT : PR I NTS97 , " ENTER TITLE 
(LESS THAN 16": PRINT" CHARACTER 
s>:": PRINT 

330 IF R«-"R" THEN 370 

340 SOUND 200,1 

350 LINE INPUT A* 

360 IF LEN(A*)>16 THEN PRINT"TIT 

LE TOO LONB FOR THIS TYPE": SOUND 

150, 40: SOTO 170 

370 PRINT#-2,A* 

360 PRINTW-2, CHR* (27) I CHR* (15) |C 

HR*( 14) I CHR* (27) I CHR* (19) 'END E 

LONGATION, UNDERL I NE : BEG I N STAND 

ARD PRINT 

390 SOTO 750 

400 'STANDARD MODE 

410 PRINT#-2,CHR*(27)|CHR*(19)|C 

HR*(19)|CHR*(27)|CHR*(31) 'STAN 

DARD CHARACTER SELECT, UNDERLINE 

, BOLD 

420 603UB 1190 

430 CLS : PR I NTS 160, " YOU HAVE 8EL 
ECTED THE STANDARD PRINT MODE F 
OR YOUR TITLE" 

440 PRINT:PRINTS224," ENTER TITL 
E <LE88 THAN 32 CHARACTERS 

:>": PRINT 

450 IF R*«"R" THEN 490 
460 SOUND 200,1 
470 LINE INPUT A* 

480 IF LEN(A*)>32 THEN PRINT"TIT 
LE TOO LONG FOR THIS TYPE": SOUND 
150, 40: GOTO 170 



490 PRINT#-2, A*| CHR* ( 14) I CHR* (27 
)|CHR*(32) 'END UNDERLINE, BOLD 
500 GOTO 750 

510 'SELECT COMPRESSED MODE 
520 PRINT«-2, CHR* (27) V CHR* (23) I C 
HR«( 15) I CHR* (27)| CHR* (31) '8ELEC 
T COMPRESSED MODE, UNDERLINE, BO 
LD 

530 GOSUB 1190 

540 PR I NTS 128," YOU HAVE 8ELECTE 
D THE COMPRESSED PRINT 

MODE FOR YOUR TITLE" 
550 PRINT: PR I NT "ENTER TITLE <LES 
S THAN 38 CHARACTERS": PR IN 

T 

560 IF R*-"R" THEN SOTO 600 

570 SOUND 200,1 

580 LINE INPUT A* 

590 IF LEN(A*)>38 THEN PRINT"TIT 

LE TOO LONG FOR THIS PRINT" :80UN 

D 150, 40: SOTO 170 

600 PRINTW-2, A* 

610 PRINT*-2,CHR*(14)|CHR*(27)|C 
HR* (32) I CHR* (27) I CHR* (19) '<END U 
NDERLINE, BOLD: SELECT STANDARD TY 



620 SOTO 750 

630 'SELECT CONDENSED MODE 

640 PRINT«-2,CHR*(27)|CHR*(20)|C 



COLONIAL TRILOGY^ 



THREE INCREDIBLE NEW GAMES 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



HI 



EXT BASIC 



COLONIAL WARS: two player game on a galactic scale 

WITH HYCOMP'S UNIQUE SPLIT SCREEN CONCEPT-IT'S ALMOST 
LIKE HAVING A SEPARATE MONITOR FOR EACH PLAYERI COLONIZE 
AND BATTLE FOR CONTROL OF AN 11 STAR SYSTEM WHILE 
COMMANDING MASSIVE BATTLECARRIERS.FIGHTER SQUADRONS, 
FREIGHTERS, AND PLANETARY DEFENSE. WITH GAME S AVE(3-8hrs) 

ZYRONlTWO PLAYERS BATTLE WITHIN AN ASTEROID FIELD WITH 
SHIPS BUILT TO THEIR OWN SPECIFICATIONS. TWO SCENARIOS 
INCLUDED-ONE PLAYER TRIES TO SLIP FREIGHTERS PAST THE 
OTHER'S DEFENSES OR AN ALL OUT BATTLE. (2-4hrs) 

QUESTAR: explore over 30 planets and encounter 

UNKNOWN CIVILIZATIONS.DESERTED CiTIES.AND BUSY STARPORTS 
WHILE SEARCHING FOR HIDDEN ZYRON BASES. AN EXCELLENT 
ONE PLAYER GRAPHICS ADVENTURE GAME.(60-90min) 



ONLY $19.95 EACH OR ALL THREE FOR $49.95! 
PLUS $1.50 FOR SHIPPING 



CHECK OR MONEY 

ORDER ONLY. 
SEND SASE FOR 
MORE INFORMATION. 



AVAILABLE ONLY FROM 



'HYCOMP* 



P.O. BOX 15331 
TULSA, OK 74158 
(918)266-6452 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 31 



HR*<15>|CHR*(27>|CHR«(31> ' SELEC 
T CONDENSED MODE, UNDERLINE, BOL 
D 

650 QOSUB 1190 

660 PRINT0128," YOU HAVE 3ELECTE 
D THE CONDENSED PRINT NODE FOR Y 
OUR TITLE" 

670 PR I NT: PR I NT 11 ENTER TITLE <LE 
SS THAN 54 CHARACTERS >:": P 

RINT 

660 IF R»-"R" THEN SOTO 720 

690 SOUND 200,1 

700 LINE INPUT A* 

710 IF LEN(A»>>54 THEN PRINT"TIT 

LE IS TOO LONG FOR THIS TYPE": SO 

UND 150, 40: GOTO 170 

720 PRINT#-2,A» 

730 PRINT#-2,CHR«(14)|CHR*<27)|C 
HR»(32>|CHR*<27> |CHR»<19> 'END U 
NDERLINE, BOLD: SELECT STANDARD T 
YPE 

740 SOTO 750 
750 'START 2nd LINE 
760 CLS : PR I NT032 , "ENTER 2nd LINE 
US INS LESS THAN 32 CHARACTERS" 
770 PRINT 

7S0 IF R«-"R" THEN 820 
790 SOUND 200,1 



VI cmbuma »»siiMi anoup 

CCADS- 

$19.95 (T)/$22.95 (D) 

Color Computer Assembly And Debuging 
System , Includes Disassembler , 
Line Assembler , 
And Six Breakpoints. 

CHROMA-KEYS- 

$9.95 (T)/$13.95 (D) 

Keyboard Definition Program. 

Includes Key Deflner , Pre-defined Keys , 

Key Click , Tape and Disk Save 

UNLOCK- $24.95 (D) 

Will Backup Most Disks. Includes Copy 
Of Track 35 And Copy Of Tracks 
With I/O Errors. 

CLOCK- $9.95 (T)/$13.95 (D) 

Real-Time Clock Program For The Color 
Computer. Enter The Time Then Watch 
The Screen. 

CHROMA-SYSTEMS POLICY 

ALL SOFTWARE SOLD WILL INCLUDE 
FULL COMMENTED SOURCE AND 
WILL BE UNPROTECTED 



CHROMA-SYSTEMS GROUP 
POST OFFICE BOX 366 
DAYTON , OHIO 46420 



800 LINE INPUT B* 

610 IF LEN<B*>>32 THEN PRINT"LIN 

E IS TOO LONB***RE-TYPE*#" ! 00T06 

00 

820 PRINT«-2,B* 

830 * START 3rd LINE 

840 PRINT#-2,CHR*(27>|CHR*<23> ' 

SELECT COMPRESSED PRINT MODE 

890 CL8:PRINT032,"ENTER 3rd LINE 

USING LESS THAN 5 CHARACTERS" 
860 PRINT: IF R»-"R" THEN 940 
870 PRINT "LEFT SIDE": SOUND 200, 
1 

880 LINE INPUT C* 
890 IF LEN(C»>>5 THEN PRINTLINE 
IS TOO LONB**RE— TYPE**" : 6OTO870 
900 PRINT 

910 PRINT"RIBHT SIDE": SOUND 200, 
1 

920 LINE INPUT D* 

930 IF LEN<D*)>5 THEN PRINT "LINE 

IS TOO LONB**RE-TYPE**":BOTO910 
940 PRINT#-2,C«|TAB(34)|D« 
950 * START 4th LINE 
960 CLS : PR I NTB32 , " ENTER 4th LINE 

USING LESS THAN 5 CHARACTERS " 
970 PRINT: IF Rt-"R" THEN 1050 
980 PRINT "LEFT SIDE": SOUND 200, 
1 

990 LINE INPUT Et 

1000 IF LEN(E»>>5 THEN PRINT"LIN 

E IS TOO L0NB**RE-TYPE**":B0T09B 

0 

1010 PRINT 

1020 PRINT"RI8HT SIDE": SOUND 200 
,1 

1030 LINE INPUT Ft 

1040 IF LEN<F*)>5 THEN PRINT"LIN 

E IS TOO LON8**RE-TYPE**":BOTO10 

20 

1050 PRINT#-2,E*|TAB(34)|F« 
1060 * START 5th LINE 
1070 PRINT#-2,CHR*<27> |CHRt<20> 
'SELECT CONDENSED CHARACTER 
1080 CLS:PRINT032,"ENTER 5th LIN 
E USING LESS THAN 54 CHARACTERS 

II 

1090 PRINT 

1100 IF R*-"R" THEN 1140 

1110 SOUND 200,1 

1120 LINE INPUT 8* 

1130 IF LEN<8*)>54 THEN PRINT"LI 

NE IB TOO L0N8**RE-TYPE**":B0T01 

110 

1140 PRINT#-2,B* 

1150 CLS : PR I NT032 , "DO YOU WANT T 
O PRINT ANOTHER LABEL (REPEAT 
) ENTER <R>": PRINT: PRINT "DO YOU 
WANT TO PRINT A NEW LABEL? 
ENTER <N>" 



32 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




mm 



Fly your spaceship through 
enemy Starbases. Avoid 
guided missies, lasers, and 
firing turrets! Can you reach 
their leader . . . ZAKSUND? 



RAINBOW 

scat 



Box 1 1224 
Pittsburgh, PA 15238 
(412) 795-8492 




COLOR GRAPHICS _ 



the creators of 
Intergalactic Force 1 
War Kings 2 
Party Pak 1 
Trek-16 2 

many other fine programs! 

1 ANTECO 



2 TOMMIX 




EXCITING 



$24.95 Casette 
$27.95 Disk 

Add $1 Postage and Handling 
PA residents add S H % sales tax 



32K 
MACHINE 
LANGUAGE 



1160 SOUND 200,1 

1170 INPUT Rt:IF R*-"N" THEN 60S 
UB 1230 

1180 IF Rt-"R" THEN GOTO 1230 
1190 CL8: PRINT • 64, " LINE UP LA 
BEL8 WITH PRINTER HEAD FOR P 

ROPER ALIBNNENT" 
1200 PRINT: PRINT" PRE88 <ENTER> 
WHEN READY" 

1210 P+-INKEY*:IF P»-"" THEN 121 
0 

1220 RETURN ELSE GOTO 170 

1230 FOR X-l TO 3:PRINT4»-2,CHR*< 

13) :NEXTX 

1240 GOTO 170 

1250 'INSTRUCTIONS 

1260 PRINT 0 3, "CASSETTE LABEL P 

ROGRAM" 

1270 PRINT:PRINT"THI8 PROGRAM WI 
LL ALLOW YOU TO PRINT LABEL8 FO 
R YOUR COMPUTER TAPE8. THI8 PR 
06RAM 18 DE8IBN- ED FOR U8E WITH 

TRACTOR FEED LABEL8. 
1280 PRINT"YOU HAVE FOUR TYPE CH 
0ICE8 FOR YOUR TITLE!" 
1290 PRINT TAB (3) "ELONGATED TYPE 

(16 CHAR)": PRINT TAB (3) "8TANDAR 
D TYPE (32 CHAR)": PRINT TAB(3)"C 



^ C A TaCoMb! 

The best features of many games packed in- 
to one! Avoid enemy patrols while getting 
fuel for your escape from the CATACOMB! 
Then travel the hyperspace corridor to your 
mothership as you dodge space mines and 
enemy ships. Hi-Res, Multi-Screen, Multi- 
color, Machine Language, Fast Action!! 

16K Tape $19.95 Disk $23.95 

Joystick Required 

PEEK COPY 

Copies machine language tape programs, 
even most autostart! Displays start t end, ex- 
ecute addresses and memory! Allows you to 
change or insert machine code! The copy 
program with a difference! Written in 
machine language. 

16K Tape $11.95 

please add $2.00 for each order 
postage/handling, 
(extended basic not required) 

Oregon Color Computer 

PO Box 11468 Eugene Or 97440 



OMPREBBED TYPE (38 CHAR)": PRINT 

TAB (3) "CONDENSED TYPE (34 CHAR)" 

1300 PRINT: PRINT TAB (4)" HIT <EN 

TER> TO CONTINUE" 

1310 R*-INKEY»: IF R«-"" THEN 131 

0 

1320 CL8 

1330 PRINT"THE FOURTH LINE IB US 
EFUL FOR COPYRIGHT INFORMATION 
, LOADINB INSTRUCTIONS, OR A LI 
STING OF PROGRAMS ON THE TAPE. 

M 

1340 PRINT :PRINT"FOR A MORE UNIF 
ORM LABEL, TRY TO CENTER EACH 
LINE ON THE LABEL. AFTER P 

RINTINB YOUR LABEL, YOU WILL 

BE ASKED IF YOU WANT TO PRI 

NT ANOTHER LABEL OR PRINT A NEW 
LABEL. " 

1350 PRINT: PRINT TAB (5) "HIT <ENT 
ER> TO CONTINUE" 

1360 R«-INKEY*:iF R**"" THEN 136 
0 

1370 CLB 

1380 PRINT" IF YOU CHOSE TO PRINT 

ANOTHER LABEL, YOU WILL HAVE 
TO 8ELECT YOU TITLE TYPE AGAIN 
AND CHECK YOU LABEL ALIGNMENT W 
ITH YOUR PRINTER. 
1390 PRINT:PRINTTAB(3) "HIT <ENTE 
R> TO CONTINUE" 

1400 Rt-INKEY*:IF R*« " "THEN 1400 
1410 RETURN 
1420 END 



SOME OF THE PROGRAMS THAT MADE Mr. R's THE SOFTWARE 
LEADER FOR THE IM-l/lM-2 ARE NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE 
COLOR COMPUTER. 16K, EXT BASIC. PROGRAMS LIKE 

MURDER & 

ENTER THE MANSION AND FIND OUT WHO KILLED 
MRS MCDERMITT. CATCH THE CAT & SLAY THE KIILER, YOU 
SEE THEY ALL MOVE IN THIS CLUE TYPE THRILLER. IT'S 
A CHALLENGING, REALISTIC WHO DONE IT ??? lfc-95 



FOR EDUCATION TRY 



JAIL 




0 



AN EXCELLENT TOOL TO ENHANCE SPELLING AEILITY, FOR 
ALL AGES. NOT A • HANGMAN' TYPE PROGRAM, BUT A USER 
CONTROLLED , 2 PROGRAM TAPB. 

1. CREATE YOUR OWN WORD LIST (YOU CONTROL THE 
DEGREE OF HFICULTY AND AGE LEVEL), 

2. JAIL - YOUR LIST IS READ INTO THE PROGRAM & 
THE FUN/LEARNING BEGINS. ONE OR TWt PLAYERS 
COMPETE IN A SPEILING OR PHRASE CONTEST AND 
THE LOSER GOES TO JAIL. H-95 

(CREATE TAPES OF VARYING DIFICULTY FOR EACH GRADE) 



4 



3$ 



2FER 



1. GONDOLA - PILOT YOUR BALLOON OVER THE MOUNTAIN 
& LAND SAFELY ATCNGST THE TREES. WIND, GRAVITY 
& MOTHER NATURE ARE FACTORS TO CONSIDER. THIS 
ONE LOOKS EASY, TRY IT ? 

2. COPY CAT - MATCH THE COMPUTER IN THIS SIMON 
TYPE GAME, IF YOU CAN. 2FER 9.95 

ALL PROGRAMS ON CASSETT / WE PAY THE POSTAGE 

COD (ADD $2) Mr R's 

COD or MONEY ORDER 4*' KELLY ROAD 

FOR 2U> HOUR SERVICE SO WINDSOR CT 
TEL 203-6^-1617 060?^ 



34 the RAINBOW June. 1983 



Turn your 
color computer on 

to the power of 




NOW FROM THE WORLDS LARGEST SUPPLIER OF SOFTWARE FOR FLEX 
COMES FHL COLOR FLEX. JUST LOOK AT THESE FEATURES: 



IF YOU'RE TIRED OF 
NO DISK SOFTWARE, 

THEN FHL Color FLEX 
IS THE ANSWER! 



FLEX is the world s most popular operating 
system for the 6809 and with over 150 
programs, we are the largest supplier 
ot software for FLEX, These programs are 
NOT games but serious programs for your 
Color Computer, They range from word 
processors thru business applications to 
software development tools. Many Fortune 
500 companies use our software, 
FHL Color FLEX turns your Color computer 
into a powerful system more capable than 
systems costing several times as much. 

See our NEW 32 page catalog in the 
Jan.'63 issue of COLOR COMPUTER A 
NEWS featuring over 150 products for A 
FLEX, or send $3.00 to us and we will A 
see that you receive a copyM A Vffm 




FLEX NOW ONLY $99 

• NEW - l Tiny Editor" 
• NEW - Interactive Assembler (Tiny ASM) 
♦ NEW - Machine Language Monitor 
• NEW - Video attributes include status lines, 
\ protected lines, and inverse video 
• Hi-Res screen formats 
• 16 x 32 and 24 x 5L upper and lower 
case characters 

• 24 x 64 and 32 x 64 upper case 
• Full ASCI! keyboards 
• Easy start-up— just type "FLEX" 
• On-line assistance— Just type HELP 
jfiphL ■ Optionally use a standard terminal 

/ , <a!r^S% ancl P r ' nter 
/Mrr3%w> * Advice disk I/O and terminal 
fKiM^^^k ca P abt, 't' es " Supporting 35, 40, 
^f^-WS^mWL ana " 80 track single or double sided, 
' ■ n single or double density drives 
V \ ♦ No additional hardware required 
' \£\ » • We have supported FLEX with 
/ W ^ more than any one else in the 
/ 'y~z. H world for more than two years' 



^^^^^ \. * 




■urn* :* 



■} " .... ji 

m in 



' ** ' V* ' i » 



♦ : 



,M 1. DBASiC, RS Disk Basic 

under FLEX with a utility to 
copy RS to FLEX disk $30. 

2. ED/ASM, line and screen editor 
with conditional macro assembler, 
both more powerful than TSC's and 
at the same cost, only $100. 

3. COLOR UTILITIES, a set of 12 
utilities especially designed for 
FHL COLOR FLEX $50. 



Y ■ 





770 JAMES 



THE 

ST. • SYR 
EX 646740 



ENCY TOWER 
SE, NY 13203 
(315)474-7856 

'FLEX Is a trademark oi Technical Systems Consultants Inc. 




FRANK 



LABORATORY 



6809 WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 

AVAILABLE FOR FLEX,™ UniFLEXr and OS-9™ 



The STYLOGRAPH text processing system is a very easy to use but powerful 
method of creating and printing text. It allows the operator to type text on the CoCo, 
modifying and correcting it as it's typed, and then print it out. The STYLOGRAPH 
SYSTEM is cursor-oriented with dynamic screen formating. Cursor based editing 
means that any portion of the text may be worked on by moving the cursor to that 
point. Dynamic screen formating means that the text is formated on the screen in 
the same way it will appear on the printed copy. The display is continuously up- 
dated to show how the text will appear. This is a very important feature and is nor- 
mally available only on very expensive commercial word processing systems. It 
significantly reduces the time required to produce a finished copy. 

FULL FEATURED TEXT EDITING 

A full array of corhmands help in the creation and modification of text. The text 
displayed on the screen may be moved up, down, left or right. The cursor can be 
moved to any page or to any specified series of letters or words. The cursor itself 
can be moved left, right, up, down, to any tab position, or to theextreme left or right. 
Any block of text can be moved, copied or deleted. The operator may also do a 
global replace so that all occurrences of a given string will be replaced with or 
without a "prompt" asking if the item should be replaced. 

OPERATOR CONVENIENCE 

Files longer than memory can be edited. The operator can move forward through 
a long text file by selectively dumping text to the disk or filling from the disk. 

The supervisor mode is menu driven and self prompting so that the operator does 
not have to remember the syntax of commands. This makes it easier for new opera- 
tors to use the system. 

An "assist" or "help" function makes it easy to learn the system since it is nor- 
mally not necessary to consult the manual to learn the commands. This function is 
menu driven and lists all of the keyboard functions and the formating commands. 

At the beginning of the text the operator normally types in a few simple com- 
mands indicating the line length, left margin, and so forth, and then enters the 
header and footer as they should appear. After that the operator need not worry 
about formating since it is taken care of automatically. Words that extend beyond 
the end of the line are automatically removed and placed on the next line. Headers 
and footers are automatically inserted so that the operator always knows what por- 
tion of the page is being worked on. Ghost hyphens can be entered so that if the 
word falls at the end of a line, and a ghost hyphen has been inserted, the hyphen 
will automatically be added. 



Control codes may be embedded in the text for special applications. For exam- 
ple, some printers require special control sequences for double width, graphics or 
boldface. These sequences may be embedded in the text for those users that have 
these printers. In conjunction with this, it is possible to cause the printer to stop in 
the middle of a print out for changing printwheels. A backspace feature allows 
overstriking. 

OPERATING SYSTEM COMPATIBILITY 

STYLOGRAPH is compatible with the FLEX, UniFlex, and OS-9 disk operating 
systems. Text files prepared using STYLOGRAPH are directly usable by other soft- 
ware such as BASIC and the assembler. (This significantly aids software develop- 
ment since cursor-based editing allows full viewing of the text being worked on, 
thereby reducing errors and decreasing programming time). File size is limited only 
by the capacity of the disk system. Files may be loaded into the text at any point 
making it possible to rapidly create "boilerplate" documents using portions of text 
that have been previously saved to a text file. Any portion of a text may be saved to 
a text file for use at a later point. The printer output may be directed to a disk file for 
later print spooling. Most operating system commands are directly accessible 
without leaving STYLOGRAPH. 

FULLY ADAPTABLE TO MOST PRINTERS 

STYLOGRAPH is easily configured by the user for most terminals so there is no 
need to send for updates as equipment changes are made. Source code of the ter- 
minal interface is supplied so that users with unusual equipment configurations 
may adapt it to their systems. The source code for all of the "prompts" is also sup- 
plied so that foreign language versions may be easily constructed. 

Printers currently included as standard are: Diablo, Qume, Starwriter, NEC 
5515/25, NEC 5510/20; CENTRONICS 737/739; TTY type printer with backspace func- 
tion; TTY type printer without backspace function. 



COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS 

A special tutorial section is included in the manual so that people with little or no 
computer experience can easily learn to use STYLOGRAPH in a few hours. A text 
file is included which demonstrates most of the features of STYLOGRAPH and 
allows the operator to practice most of the functions. The logical arrangement of 
the commands and the immediate display of the results greatly simplifies the learn- 
ing process. In addition there is an "assistance" command which helps the new 
operator learn the commands. 



FLEXIBLE DISPLAY 

Lines longer than the screen width are allowed. STYLOGRAPH can scroll right 
and left on the screen so that tables can be constructed and appear on the screen 
exactly as they will appear on the print out. 

A command allows viewing of the formating commands on the screen. Another 
(command allows the operator to see which characters will be modified at print out 
by underlining, superscripting or boldface. A page status command shows the cur- 
rent format values and other useful information. 



COMPLETE FORMATING CONTROL 

The text of individual lines may be centered, left justified, right justified, or right 
and left justified. Tabscan be set orcleared at any point. Spacing of the lines on the 
page is under complete operator control with end of page, spacing and vertical tab 
commands. 

While entering text, it may be specified that the characters have some kind of 
modification when they are printed, such as underlining, superscript, boldface, 
overline, or subscript. These character modifications are done with "control" key 
strokes. For example, to start underlining characters, simply hold down the "CTRL" 
key, hit the "U" key and continue entering text. To stop underlining, hit the "DEL" or 
"RUB" key. 



STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 

A major option of STYLOGRAPH is the related MAIL MERGE program. This pro- 
gram adds "form letter" capability to STYLOGRAPH. Variables such as names ad- 
dresses, dates, may be taken from a disk file or the keyboard at print out time and 
inserted into the text. Successive letters may be printed out without operator in- 
tervention. 

The second important capability of the MAIL MERGE program allows many 
STYLOGRAPH text files to be appended at print out time. This allows files to be 
edited in smaller, more convenient blocks and then appended at print out time so 
that the page numbers will remain consecutive and the headers and footers will 
automatically be retained through all of the print out. 



STYLOGRAPH SPELLING CHECKER 

Another major option of STYLOGRAPH is the related SPELLING CHECKER pro- 
gram. This program reads through a text file and compares the words in the file with 
a dictionary. Words that are not found in the dictionary may be marked in the text 
for later editing, corrected oh the spot, skipped, or added to the dictionary. Words 
may be added to or deleted from the dictionary to create unique vocabularies for 
particular applications. 



POWERFUL PRINTING OPTIONS 

Underlining is supported on TTY type printers. For those people who have 
specialty printers there are a variety of additional capabilities including; 

1.5 line spacing 
BOLDFACE 

superscript 1 STYLOGRAPH for the Color Computer FLEX 1 95.00 

MnHorhno^^orlino STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 125.00 

underline, overline, 

or any combination STYLOGRAPH SPELLING CHECK 145.00 

Right and left justification of text is accomplished by incremental printing oh TTY 

type printers. True proportional spacing is supported on the specialty printers. STANDARD FLEX Version 295.00 

FRANK 




LABORATORY 



THE REGENCY TOWER»770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE, NY 13203»TELEX 646740»(315) 474-7856 




1. Here is Jeri plugging The Solution into the CoCo. Then she 
will move the main case up close to the CoCo. The cable is 
kept short to prevent noise and interference. The disk con- 
troller can be plugged into the side slot. The power supply 
plugs into a socket on the back of the case. All wires for the 
internal boards exit out the back of the case. 



2. Here Jeri is setting the dip switches in The Solution. The 
hinged top makes the job easy. The switches can be set for 
three different things. Up to four boards can be installed in- 
side the case. 




■<■■. ■ ■ ■ ' ■ m ■ ■ ■ ■ ■■ 



■■'■'Zi > 



3, Here is The Solution at work. It makes a very nice addition 
to your CoCo with a black anodized top and a silver anodi zed 
main case both made from heavy aluminum stock. 



4. Here's The Solution all by itself. The heavy aluminum 
anodized case is a thing to be proud of. The buffer board can 
be seen to the left of the main case. The LED indicator on the 
front comes on when you turn on the power to your CoCo. 
The Solution needs no on/off switch. 




5. All that's missing from this picture is the plug in the wall 6. Here's the real guts to The Solution. We took it all apart so 



power supply. You can see the 4K EPROM monitor and the 4 
position dip switch. At the front are four of the five expan- 
sion slots with a disk controller plugged into the fifth slot on 
the side. The power LED is at the Tower right front of the 
case. 



that you could look at the parts. The 1 amp power supply can 
be seen in this picture. AH the connectors are gold as you 
would expect. The small board is the buffer board. The white 
connectors are the same as the CoCo's. 



THE SOLUTION AND WHY WE BUILT IT 

When we first introduced FLEX for the CoCo in February 
1982 we received hundreds of calls from software and hard- 
ware developers who wanted to use the CoCo because it 
was so inexpensive compared to everything else on the 
market. However there is not enough expansion or I/O in the 
CoCo to make this possible for most of these users, i know 
that the CoCo is viable in most cases, but for many, there 
needed to be more. So that was the original reason for 
designing the expansion box we call "THE SOLUTION." 

The motherboard has the 2K/4K EPROM socket with a 4K 
monitor EPROM in it. Also inside are 4 vertical connectors 
for internally mounted boards or ROM type cartridges. The 
fifth connector is horizontal and is made for the disk con- 
troller, ROM cartridges or additional expansion out the side 
the of The Solution. A four position dip switch allows for 3 
options to be selected. One option will cause the CoCo to 
get its interrupt and reset vectors from the monitor instead 
of RS Basic. 

if you choose to come up in the monitor, then it is not 
necessary to have RS Extended Basic in the CoCo to boot 
FLEX because the monitor has a built-in boot. This saves 
$100.00 of the cost of The Solution. The power supply Is a 
plug-in-the-wall type with a connector in the back of the 
case. The back of the case is open and it is thru this that all 
the cables for the different cards go. This makes for a very 
neat appearance. 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS 

Bus Structure... Fully buffered Color Computer compatible 
bus. Priority daisy chained arrangement where each slot has 
a priority assigned to it. The farther out on the bus that you 
are, the less priority you have. The disk slot (0) has the 
highest priority with slot 1, 2, 3, and then 4 has the lowest. 
The pinout and the timing is the same as the Color Com- 
puters with the exception of the sound line. This is used on 
the motherboard for the priority line. 

Power Supply.. .The power supply is a tracking pow&r sup- 
ply which means that the Color Computer itself turns The 
Solution on and off so that there is no need for an on/off 
switch. A LED on the front of The Solution indicates when 
the entire system is on or off. The tracking power supply 
means that The Solution's bus voltage will be the same as 
the Color Computers to within a very few minnivolts. The 
power supply included with The Solution is a 1 amp supply 
for the 5 volt line only. The + 12 and - 1 2 voltages are taken 
from the Color Computer. 

Dip switch options... 

1) Select the 4K ROM monitor. When this option is 
selected, the system will come up in the monitor and get in- 
terrupt vectors from it rather than the Radio Shack Basic 
ROM. The reason you might want to do this is so you can 
boot FLEX from the monitor rather than Basic. This will 
allow running FLEX without have to have Extended Color 
Basic in the CoCo. This also ties in with the option on the 
serial card to come up on a terminal instead of the CoCo TV 
set and keyboard. 

2) Disable the disk slot (0). This will allow usina ROM 
cartidges in The Solution without unplugging the disk card. 
When the switch is on, the ROM is active. When it is off, 
whatever ROM cartridge is there is active. This infers that 
you could switch back and forth between a cartridge and the 
disk system. This is NOT necessarily true because of the 
need to initialize the disk software in the ROM and this may 
destroy what is in memory, it may be possible under special 
circumstances to do this but it is up to the user to work it 
out. 

3) Select either a 2K or a 4K EPROM. This is set for a 4K 
EPROM which is included with The Solution. However, it can 
be changed if you have a need. The EPROM is addressed at 
$E000. 

4) User definable. This means that we didn't use this 
switch for anything, but you can if you want, or we could call 
it 'reserved for future expansion.' This means that we don't 
have any use for it now, but we may in the future. 

The Solution I/O cards are addressed at either the $FF60- 
$FFBF area OR the $FE00-$FEFF area. 

These prices and specs are subject to change without 
notice. Call for confirmation. 

THE SOLUTION $249.00 

(Price includes case and power supply.) 

CARDS FOR THE SOLUTION 

DUAL SERIAL PORT $130.00 

Two 6551 ACiAs, programmable baud rates 
(110-19,200), full RS-232, DB-25 conn. 

CLOCK and PARALLEL PRINTER CARD $110.00 

OKI clock w/battery backup and 1 parallel output 
port 



PROTOTYPE Cards 

3Vi by 9 inch card 



$ 37.00 




FRANK 
HOGG 

LABORATORY 



THE REGENCY TOWEFW70 JAMES ST. •SYRACUSE, NY 13203-TELEX 646740«(315) 474-7856 



EPROM/RAM Card $ 90.00 

Up to 16K ROM (2732) or 8K static RAM (6116). 
Each device individually addressed anywhere in 
memory 

EPROM prog ra mm er $1 65.00 

Program 2K, 4K or 8K EPROMS. Software included 
either on disk or on board ROM. 



TRIPLE PARALLEL I/O Card 



$105.00 



Two 6821's and one 6522 for parallel I/O. 

Note: We are considering several other cards for The Solu- 
tion. Please let us know what you want, if there is enough in- 
terest, we will make it. 



This tutorial is in response to an accusation from the 
Rainbow (1 won't mention any names, okay, Lonnie?) 
that 1 had forgotten about them ever since several of 
my programs went out nationally for sale. It isalso to prove 
that BASIC games can be fun, challenging and responsive. 

Witness the Rainbow Roach, written especially for our 
own magazine. Countless folks have criticized the program's 
name, but whatever you call it, you will undoubtedly recog- 
nize it as a tk frogger-like" game although it is more difficult. 
You may also wonder how 1 got those six counter-rotating 
belts to move at such a rapid pace. Remember Charlie 
Roslund's article in the January ^3 Rainbow on machine 
language subroutines? Well, that's the answer. To be exact, 
72 bytes of machine code can do the rotations at a rate of 25 
times per second! The BASIC coding around this routine 
slows the belts down to a playable rate and starts your 
Roach (or whatever) jumpin\ ridin', slippin\ and slidin\ 
You may want to challenge your friends with those "other" 
computers to come up with a similar game written with their 
Extended Color BASIC and watch them slowly lose their 
minds! 

If for some reason you would like a copy of Rainbow 
Roach send S3, a blank cassette and a self-addressed, 
stamped-twice envelope to John Fraysse, AFABEAR Soft- 
ware, Box S22, Dahlgren, V A 22448. I'll have it in the mail 
the day after 1 receive your letter. 

PLEASE NOTE: Rainbow Roach uses aPOKE 65495,0 speed-up and 
a BREAK KEY disable. Toexit the program or BEFORE SAVING TO 
TAPE, PRESS THE RESET BUTTON in the back, right-hand corner 
of your machine. ThiswilJ automatically POKE654940 and slowthe 
CPU down, I/O from tape or any other device will not function 
correctly otherwise. 



For those of you who wish to go through the "ins-and- 
outs" of how this program works, you will find my commen- 
tary starting at Program Features. For those who wish to 
"type V run" (it's long!) here are the instructions. 

RAINBOW ROACH INSTRUCTIONS 

Objective: Get as many roaches as you can to the safe zone 
with the highest score possible. 

Your situation: You are a Roach (!!!) in a pastry factory 
trying to make your escape. The factory management is wise 
to your presence and has hired a "hit-man" to do you and 
your fellow co-roaches in. As a "bug-a-der" general you 
must guide your roaches through the exterminator's detec- 
tion system (See figure 1). 

When you jump on a belt, you will be detected and the 
exterminator will stop drinking coffee to look, but his sys- 
tem won't see you if your legs and body are not on a pastry. 
As an added precaution, he also sprays the floors (spaces 
between the belts) when he finishes his coffee. You will be 
sprayed under three conditions: 1} when the coffee (upper 
left) runs out; 2) if you jump ona pastry; 3) if you ride a belt 
to either screen edge (the wall sensors get you). It has been 
reported that there is an extremely small area on just one or 
two pastries where you may jump and eat without being 
detected. Very few "generals" have guided all seven of their 
assigned roaches to complete safety; you know how nasty 
and gross humans are! 

Scoring: 101 points are awarded foreach floor or belt you 
successfully cross. A completely safe trip to the top (SAFE 
AREA) is 1,001 points and a "safe" roach is one in the 
safe-roach box (upper right below the current score). A 
game cycle is seven roaches. However, for multiples of 5,001 



38 the RAtNBOW June, 1983 



points, you receive seven more roaches. High score and 
initials are displayed in the right, upper-most box. Just 
below the high score are the initials and score of the current 
player. Note: When asked to enter your initials, pleaseenter 
only capital letters. No special characters, please, 

Control: The right joystick controls the left-right motion 
while on the floors. Roaches on the belts ride with the belts. 
Extreme f orward joystick will cause a j ump to the next floor 
or belt A single jump is accomplished by quick forward- 
back {to center)joystick motion. Slightly slower action may 
cause a multiple jump situation until the stick is centered. 
Multiple jumps {without any stopping) from the bottom 
floor to the top safe zone are next to impossible because the 
belts rotate every time you jump to a floor, in addition to 
their normal rotation rate (determined by difficulty level), 
The belts rapidly rotate at the end of each game and initially 
when the program starts. Press the spacebar to continue to 
another game. 

Difficulty Levels: The difficulty level is indicated by the 
number in the box between the spray can and coffee cup. 
Increasing the level generally increases the speed at which 
the belts rotate. At level four the belts rotate at one (fast) 
speed while your roach is on the floor and 33 percent faster 
when on the belts. You will soon find out that the coffeecup 
timer is the limiting factor at the lower levels, while riding a 
belt into a wall is the problem at levels three and f our. You 
should also note that your roach can outrun the belts at 
levels one through three, but not at level four. So, if you 
should miss a jump point when playing at the higher levels, 
wait or run right to another. You may never catch the one 
you missed! You may also run and jump at the same time. 

Be f ore warned! The position at which your roach starts a t 
the bottom is random over+/ — 2 pixels. Therefore, do not 
assume that since youjumped safely in a particular place on 
your last roach that you may necessarily do it again. I n many 
cases +/ — 2 pixels turns a successful jump into a "roach-in- 
the-round pie." 



tpfiycBft wffwwlty cup .-oacfuu ton 




PJF 



■ML 



Cz;Q -?o 



Flnor [Sate Z one ) 



6th E3ftl| 





The listing: 



10 0401 

23 O70D 

40 0BF2 

50 1208 

58 1707 

END , • .1 ABC 



0 POKE65495,0:CLS6: PRINTS 167, "af 
abear software"; :PRINT@174, CHR* ( 
223) ; :PRINT@299, "presents"; : SCRE 
EN0, 1 : I FPEEK ( &H3EB9 ) < >&H32 THENC 
LEAR350,&H3EA0:FORI=ScH82B9 T0&H8 
31E:POKEI-&H4400,PEEK ( I ) : NEXTELS 



1 FORI=0TO2:POKE&H3EBD+I, 18!NEXT 
: I=&H3F1E 

2 POKEI ,&H26:P0KEI+1 , 3 : POKEI +2 , & 
H7E: POKEI +3, *<H83: POKEI+4, &H22: PO 
KEI+5, &H7E: POKEI + 6, &HA4 : POKE I +7 , 
&H4C 

3 P0KE&H19B, &H3E: RUN4 

4 GOSUB44:SX=0:NX*="" 

5 CLS2:RS=50:PUT<177, 14)-<254,20 
) , XM,PSET:PRINT@192, "PLEASE ENTE 
R YOUR INITIALS"; : I NPUTN* : LX=LEN 
<N*):IF LX>3 OR LX< 1THEN5 

6 B*=" " :forn=ito lx: B*=B*+L* (ASC 

<mid* <n*,n, l ) ) -54) :nextn:n*=b*:d 

RAWBM177, 14;Cl; XN*;BM210, 14; XL* 

(0) ; XL* (0) ; XL*(0) ; XL* (0) ; XL*(0) ; 

" : F0RN=98T0158 STEP10: PUT <N~3, 26 
) -<N+3,34) ,R,PSET: NEXTN: PUT (1 76 > 
26) -(254,34) , XM,PSET 

7 PUT<155,26)-<161,34) , XM,PSET:C 
LS2: PRINT@194, "PLEASE ENTER DIFF 
ICULTY LEVEL" ; : PRINT@232, " 1 -EASY 

4-HARD" ;: INPUT DF: IF DF< 1 OR DF 
>4 THEN 7 

8 CLS8:F0RN=22T028:LINE(33,N)-(4 
1 , N) , PRESET: NEXTN: DRAW"BM33, 22 ; C 

l ; xl*(DF) ; " : screen l , i:rc=6:s=0:s 
R=0: ih=0 

9 KD=16-DF*4: X=124+RND<3) *2: 1=16 
: J=0I K=0: FORN=0TO4 : PLAY l, V3104L24 
T24BAFEDC" : NEXTN:PLAY"T201C " : FOR 
N=0TO150! NEXTN: PLAY"C" : PUT ( 155, 2 
6)-(161 , 34) , XM,PSET 

10 IF J<9 THEN 11 ELSE26 

11 PUT (X-7, Y( J) -4)- (X+7, Y( J) +4) , 

rw, pset: i = i+.2:k=k+i:line<56, i ) - 

(72, I ) , PRESET: J X=INT ( ( JOYSTK ( 0 ) ~ 
31 ) /40+.5)*4: IF JOYSTK ( 1 ) =0THEN1 
5 

12 X=X+JX: IFABS( X-128) >116THENX= 
128+116*SGN (X-128) 

13 IF 1^34 THEN 26 ELSE IF K<KD 
THEN 1 1 

14 PLAY"V31T255L25503A": EXEC1631 



0:K=0: GOTOl 1 



June, 1963 the RAINBOW 39 



15 ID=0:PUT ( X-3, Y(J)-4)-( X+3, Y< J 
) +4) , XM, PSET: PLAY "T10L10O5AB" : J= 
J+l : SET ( X -3 , Y ( J ) -4 ) - ( X+3, Y( J) +4) 
,RX,G:G0T017 

16 PUT(X-3,Y( J)-4)-<X+3, Y( J) +4) , 
RX, AND: PLAY"T12L1205AB" : J=J+1 :6E 
T<X-3,Y< J)-4)-(X+3,Y< J) +4) ,RX,G 

17 IF PPOINT < X-3, Y(J> >=5 OR PPOI 
NT(X+3,Y( J> >=5 OR PPOINT ( X-2, Y ( J 
)-l)=5 OR PPOINT (X+2 , Y (J ) + 1 ) =5 O 

r ppoinkx, y(j> >=5 or ppoint ( x , y 
(j)-4)=5then 18 else 19 

18 put(x-3, y< j)-4>-(x+3,y< j>+4> , 
r,or: id=i:boto26 

19 put(x-3, y< j>-4)-<x+3,y< j>+4> , 

R,OR 

20 K=K+.25:N=JOYSTK(0) : IF JOYSTK 
(1)=0 THEN 24 ELSE IF K<KD THEN 
20 

21 XX=X: X=X+DX (J) : IF ABS(X-128) > 



22 X=128+123#SGN(X-128) :PUT(XX-3 
, Y < J ) -4 ) - ( X X+3, Y ( J ) +4) , RX , AND: BE 
T(X-3,Y( J)-4)-(X+3, Y< J)+4) ,RX,B: 
PUT(X-3,Y(J)-3)-(X+3, Y< J) +4) ,R,0 
R : S0T026 

23 PUT(XX-3, Y( J)-4)-(XX+3, Y(J)+4 
) , RX , AND: PLAY " V31 T255L25503A" : EX 
EC16310:PUT(X-3,Y(J) -4>-<X+3, Y(J 
) +4 ) , R , OR: K=0: 6OTO20 

24 IF J=l OR J=4 OR J=7 THEN 16 

25 PUT(X-3,Y( J)-4) -(X+3, Y(J) +4) , 

R x , and: play " t 1 0L 1 0O5AB " : j= j+ i : ex 

EC16310:SOTO10 

26 IF J=9 THEN 29 ELSE IF I>34 A 
ND ID=0 THEN28 

27 SOSUB31:FORN=0TO10:PUT(X-3,Y( 
J ) -4 ) - ( X +3 , Y ( J ) +4 ) , R , OR: S0UND255 
, 1: PUT (X-3, Y( J)-4)-(X+3, Y( J) +4) , 
RX, AND: NEXTN: S0SUB32: S=S+J-ID: GO 
TO3028 BOSUB31:FORN=0TO10:PUT(X- 
3,Y( J)-4)-(X+3, Y(J)+4) ,R,PSET:SO 
UND255 , 1 : PUT (X-7,Y(J)-4)-(X+7,Y( 

J) +4) , xm,pset:nextn:bosub32:s=s+ 

J:BOTO3029 PUT(X-3,Y(J)-4)-(X+3, 
Y( J) +4) ,R,OR:FORN=1TO120 STEP20: 
SOUNDN, 1 : NEXTN: PUT (X-3, Y ( J ) -4 ) - ( 

X+3,Y( J)+4) , xm,pset:sr=sr+i: XX = 1 

75+sr* 1 0 : put ( xx-3, 26) - ( x x +3 , 34 ) , 
r,pset:s=s+10 

30 RC=RC-l:XX=98+10*RC:SOSUB33:S 
OSUB40:PUT(XX-3,26)-(XX+3,34) , XM 
, PSET: ID=0: IF RC=-1THEN 41ELSE9 

31 LINE(25, 10) -(45,5),PSET:LINE( 
25, 12)-(45, 17) ,PSET:LINE(25, 11)- 
(45,8) , PSET: LINE (25, 11) -(45, 14) , 
PSET: RETURN 

32 LINE(25, 10)-(45,5) ,PRESET:LIN 
E(25, 12)-(45, 17) , PRESET:LINE (25, 



A note on difficulty is in order. 1 f eel most games are too 
easy. Usually BASIC games are only hard due to their lack 
of playability or lack of responsiveness. Rainbow Roach is 
very responsive and as good as any BASIC game youH find 
on the market today. The choice of difficulty levels makes it 
playable to my 6- and 12-year olds and I have trouble with 
level four. I believe this is a good mix (sorry, Tom!). I 
sincerely hope Rainbow Roach will be as entertaining to 
your family as it has been to mine. 

Rainbow Roach has several features that many arcade 
games possess. These include: 

* Colorf ul, hi-res, action graphics 

* Interesting sound effects 

* Joystick control with quick response 

* Bonus play feature 

* "Initials & Scores" and high score tally 

* Difficulty levels 



Rainbow Roach utilizes many aspects of ECB program- 
ming. These include: 

* Hi-res graphics 

* Complete character set [letters (A — Z); numbers (0 — 9)] 

* String manipulation 

* Break key disable 

* Machine language subroutine 

RAINBOW ROACH SIMPLIFIED FLOW CHART 




IstHOR 

BRK KEY 

HI SCORE = 0 



LINES 0-4 



f 



SETUP GRAPHICS 

2ndHDR 

POKE ML 



LINES 44-62 

~~r~ 



WAIT- LINE 64 

X 




UJ 

< 
CD 

UJ 



o 

CD 



X 

O 
ft 







INITIALIZE 
ANIMATION LOOP 



LINES 5-9 



ANIMATION LOOP 



LINES 10-25 




CHK EVENT: SUCCESS, 
FAILURE, BONUS, END 



LINES 26-42 








WAIT: LINE 43 
r 




40 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



EXPAND YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 




User Selectable Expansion Requirements 

• Activate your disk controller, ROM PAK , E PROM board, or any 
device that normally operates in the expansion slot. 

• Protects computer from electrical damage caused by experimental 
boards or by plugging/unplugging ROM PAKs and controllers with 
the power on. 

• Gold inlay connector contacts for more reliable operation. 

• Select any of 6 slots with push-button keys or programming. 

• Attach additional USER 80C's for additional expansion slots. 

• Utilizes its own reset button, eliminating the need to continually 
press the reset behind the computer. 

• Operates with a 9V battery eliminator (power supply independent of 
computer). 

• 9V battery eliminator included. 

• Has its own on/off switch and LED on/off indicator. 

USER 80C "Designed with the User in Mind" $249.95 

TERMS: Send certified check or money order for $249.95, plus shipping, handling and applicable sales 
tax. (Personal checks take three weeks to process.) For shipping and handling include $5.00 U.S., $8.00 
Canadian/Mexican, $15 Overseas. Illinois residents include 5% Sales Tax. Prompt shipment. 
Dealer/Club inquiries invited. 

J-NOR INDUSTRIES, INC. 

6272 W. North Avenue 

Chicago, IL 60639 
Phones (312) 745-7541 
(312) 622-4555 



ii>-<45,8> , PRESET: LINE (25, 1 1 > - <4 
5, 14) , PRESET: RETURN 

33 B*="":S*=STR*(S) :LX=L£N(5*> : I 
F LX=3 THEN B*=L* <0> ELSEIF LX=2T 
HENB*=L*<0>+L*<0) 

34 F0RN=2T0LX:B*=B*+L*<VAL(MID*< 
S*,N, 1) > > :NEXTN: IF IH=1THEN36 

35 PUT(177,14)-<255 !l 20>,XM 5 PSET: 
DRAW " BM 1 78 , 14; CI 5 XN* ; BM210, 14; XB 

*;xl*(0) ; xl*<0) ; ":G0T037 

36 PUT ( 1 77, 3) - (255, 1 1 ) , Xfi, PSET: D 
RAWBM17S, 3; CI ; XNX*; BM210, 3; XB*; 
XL*(0) ;XL*(0) 5 ": IM=0:8OTO39 

37 IF SX>=S THEN 39 

38 IH=i:SX=S:S=SX:NX*=N*:GDT033 

39 RETURN 

40 DRAW"C1":F0RN=34TQ17 STEP-1:L 
INE (56, N) - (72, N) , PSET: NEXTN: RETU 
RN 

41 IF (S-RS) >=0THEN42ELSE43 

42 RS=RS+50: FORN=0TO3: PLAY"V31T8 
L80 1 ABDCFEL2E " : NEXTN: F0RN=9STdl5 
8 STEP 10: PUT ( N~3 , 26 > - ( N+3 , 34> , R , 
PSET: PLAY" V31L1201 AB" : NEXTN: PUT ( 
176, 26) -(254, 34) , XM, PSET: RC=6: SR 
=0: IH=0:GQTO9 

43 EXEC16310:PLAY"V31T255L255D3A 
" : IFINKEY*=CHR* (32) THEN5ELSE43 

44 DIM L* (36) ,R (2) jRX (2) ,RW(3) , P 



Line No(s)Description 



Function 



COLOR COMPUTER 
SOFTWARE 



EARTHQUAKE 



EUMlfilATORl 




DEALER 
INQUIRIES 
INVITED 



COMING SOON FROM 

dventuie 

INTERNATIONAL 

BOX 3435 • LONGWOOD, FL 32750 
SEE YOUR DEALER OR CALL US AT 1-800-327-7172 




0-3 



5-6 



7-8 



10 



11 



12-13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 
20 



1st HDR+BRK 
key disable 

Initial set-up 



Initial header & break key 
disable 



GOSUB 44 (set-up graphics; 
define character set; put 
program in the wait mode; 
look for <spacebar>) 
New game & player Enter initials; erase old 

initials, write new on hi-res 
screen 

Erase old difficulty level, 
enter new, write new diffi- 
culty level 

Set initial counters, roach 
position and belt rate. Play 
"prepare to play;" tune; 
Blank out next roach 



Bonus game 
new roach 



Begin animation 
loop 



Floor loop 



Rotate belts 
End floor loops 



Check if at top floor ( J=9); if 
so go to EVENT CHECK 
(26) 

Put floor roach ("RW") on 
appropriate floor; incre- 
ment coffee timer: Calc. 
Horiz. Roach rate (JX); 
check vert, joystick f or jump 
(=0). If 0; GOTO 15 ( JMP 
FL— BLT) 

CALC. new horiz. position: 
Limit travel; check coffee 
timer (>34?) If so then go to 
EVENT CHECK (26); else 
check time to rotate belts 
(K=>KD?) If so then 1 4 else 
back to 1 1 

Play "Rotate" Note: EXEC 
ML; Set K=0; Go to 11 



JMP, FL — > BLT Assume successful JMP 

(ID=0); Blank floor roach, 
Play "JMP" Notes; INC J 
(Jump counter); Get Ref. 
roach array ("RX"); go to 1 7 
(jump on pastry test) 

JMP, BLT -> BLT Blank roach on old belt (Use 

"RX") Play "JMP" notes; 
INC J, Get ref. roach array 
("RX") 

ck: JMP -^-PASTRY Are any of six points relative 

to the roach's future posi- 
tion set? If so then 18 else 19 
Put roach (OR) on Pastry; 
set ID=1; go to 26 (EVENT 
CHK) 

Put roach on new BLT 
INC BLT COUNTER (k); 
sample joystick ck: If vert = 
0; If so go to 24 (JMP to 
BLT or FL test) else ck: If 
K<kd; If so then 20 else 21 
(ROTATE BLTS) 



DIE ON BLT 



Successful JMP 
BLT LOOP 



42 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE presents 




mm 




The ultimate in hi-res graphics text display. Allows your 
Color Computer to write text on any graphics screen 
in Rainbow colors. 



CHECK THESE IMPORTANT FEATURES: 



• User definable 224 character set featuring true 
lowercase with descenders, improved cursor, 
slashed zero, Greek math symbols, lunar 
landers, stick figures, tanks, cars, planes, card 
suits, etc. 

• Supplied character generator program allows 
easy creation of colored, animated figures to 
save and use in your own character-graphics 
programs. 

• Works in all PMODES. Four-color artifacted 
characters in PMODE 4 (highest resolution)! 

• Two character sets for maximum clarity pro- 
duce four character densities: 32 * 16, 42 * 24, 
50 x 24, 64 x 24, plus double widths in PMODE 4. 

• Pre-loader allows optimum loading in 16K, 32K 
or 64K machines. The 64K selection auto- 
matically transfers all ROM (including car- 
tridge) to RAM. 

• ML extension of BASIC completely interfaced 
and transparent incorporating direct conver- 
sion of all keys and commands including 
PRINT @. 



Add 3% 





Personal Checks Welcome! 

Include $2 shipping. 
Minnesota residents — 
add 6% tax. 

Dealer inquiries invited. 
Send SASE for catalog. 



Automatic underline, superscript, subscript, 
reverse video, top and bottom definable scroll 
protect options. 

User friendly — easy operation vja Status/Help 
screen, simplecommands, no messy peeksand 
pokes. 

Use all day for hi-density screen displays, 
graph labels and listings, or incorporate into 
your own marketed BASIC or ML games, word 
processors, etc. 

Special EDTASM+ command allows instant 
compatibility with R.S. editor-assembler 
cartridge. 

Includes demo program, tape/disk conversion 
instructions, character generator program, and 
operators manual. 

Built in syntax error detection and messages. 




Utainbow Connection tSojlwaro 



16K Extended Basic Required 
$29.95 Cas§ — $32.95 Disk 

Rainbow Connection Software 

3514 6th Place NW 
Rochester, MN 55901 

Not Affiliated With 
The RAINBOW 



6": 
6": 
:L* 
5> = 
6> = 
iu 



46 
(0 



(4)= M ;D3R6LiU3D6;BM+3^-6 (t :L*C 
" 5 R6L6D3R6D3L6U1 i SM+9, -5" : L* ( 
" ; D6R6U3L6 5 BM+9 , -3 M : L* ( 7 ) == M J D 
„„R6D6;BM+3,-6 l, :L*<8)="5R6D6L6U 
3R6LMJ3;BM+9,0 tJ 

( 9 ) = " ; R6D6U3L6U3 ; BM+9 , 0" : I 
; R6D6L6U6; BM+9, 0" : L* < 1 1 > = . 
. / - , .^.^^i ";BH+3,-6":L* 




NTUB, 
PMGDE4 



H2; 

Bii92,25;:u 

1LB0U11 



11 

l : 

BM7 

1R7 



21 



ROTATE BLTS 



22 



23 



24 



25 



26 



27 



28 



29 



30 



*31 
*32 
*33-39 



*40 
41-42 



HIT WALL 



RIDE BLT 



JMP, BLT 
TEST 



Store previous horiz posi- 
tion (xx); Calc new horiz. 
position (x): Is new position 
on either wall?; If so, then 22 
(HIT WALL) else 23 (RIDE 
BELT) 

Set horiz. position at wall; 
Blank the old roach posi- 
tion; Get the wall position 
graphics (RX); Put new 
roach at wall; Go to 26 
(EVENT CHK) 
Blank old roach position; 
Play "Rotate" Note; Exec 
ML; Rotate BLTS; Put new 
Roach position; reset BLT 
counter (k=0); Go to 20 
(BLT LOOP) 



FL Were you on a lower BLT. If 
so then 16 JMP, BLT — BLT 
else 25 (JMP, BLT ^ FL) 



SUCCESS! 



JMP, BLT ^FL Blank old roach; Play 
End Animation "JMP" notes; INC J, EXEC 
Loop ML (ROTATE BLT); Go to 

10 (FLOOR LOOP) 

EVENT CHECK CKfor top Floor; If so, go to 

29 (Success) else CK for 
1>34 (out of coffee and on 
floor) then 28 (Die on floor) 
else 27 (Die on BLT) 

DIE ON BELT Turn on spray; Blink roach; 

make "Error" sound; Turn 
off spray; Calc score; Go to 

30 (BOOKEEP) 

DIE ON FLOOR Turn on spray; Blink roach; 

make "Error" sound; turn 
off spray; Calc. score; Go to 
30 (BOOKEEP) 
Put roach at top floor; make 
"Success" sounds: INC Safe 
roaches; Put SAFE roach in 
box; Calc. score 
Dec. Roach count; GOStJB 
"SCORE/ HI SCORE"(33); 
GOSUB "FULL CUP" (40); 
Blank next roach; reset 
"dead" indicator (ID) CK 
for no more roaches. If so 
thenCK BONUS (41) else 9 
(New Roach) 
Turn spray on 
Turn spray off 

Prints current score; CKs 
for Hi Score 

Fills up coffee cup 
CKs f or Bonus Play (current 
score) a multiple of 5,000 
pts; Awards new roaches 
and a bonus game; If not 
bonus then end (43) 



BOOKKEEP 



SPRAY ON 
SPRAY OFF 
SCORE/ 
HI SCORE 

FILL CUP 
BONUS PLAY 



* Indicates a subroutine 



44 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



43 END OF GAME Game over: Belts rotate 

rapidly waiting on <space- 
bar> 

*44-63 SET UP 

ROUTINE Dim's; define character set 

(45-49); define vert. JMP 
coordinates & horiz. rates 
(50) set up some graphics 
(51-53); POKE ML (54-56); 
2nd HEADER: Rest of gra 
phics (57-63) 

64 INITIAL WAIT Introductory display; Belts 

rotate rapidly waiting on 
spacebar then return 

65 REMARKS Credits 

DESCRIPTION OF VARIABLES 
Regular Variables 

I — counter used to determine the time to spray the floors 
(I>34) otherwise a general purpose counter outside the ani- 
mation loop. 

J — Jump position counter (0-9; Floors = 0,3,6,9; Belts = 
1,2,4,5,7,8) 

K — counter used to determine the time to rotate the belts 
(K>=KD) 

KD — the number of K counts necessary to cause the belts 
to rotate (a function of difficulty level, DF) 
N — general purpose counter 

ID — "dead" flag — 1 died on belt/0 — died on floor 
IH — High score flag (IH=1 High score achieved 
IH=0, not) 



* <0> ; XL* <0> ; XL* (0) ; BM210, 14; XL* < 
0) ; XL* (0) ; XL* (0) ; XL* <0) ; XL* (0) ; " 

: PMODE4, 1 : DRAWBM93, 3; C0S7; XL* (2 
8> ; XL* (25) ; XL* (11); XL* ( 13) ; BM+0, 
-11 XL* (18) ;G1S4 H : CIRCLE (54, 22) ,5 
, 1, 1, .29, . 75: CIRCLE (54, 22) ,3, 1, 1 
, ■ 25 , ■ 75 

54 DATA 142,12,31,166,132,16,142 
,0,31, 230, 31 , 231 , 132,48, 31 , 49, 63 
,38,246, 167, 132,48, 136,63, 140, 14 
,63,47,230, 142, 14,96, 166, 132, 16, 
142, 0, 31 , 230, 1 , 231 , 128, 49, 63, 38, 
248, 167, 128, 140, 16, 160,47,235, 14 
2, 12,0,236, 129,237, 137,5,254,237 

55 DATA 137,11,254,140,16,160,38 
,241,57 

56 FOR 1=16310 TO 16381: READ J:P 
OKE I , J: NEXTI : LINE (0, 66) - (255, 66 
) , PSET: LINE <0, 84) - (255, 84) , PSET: 
CLS6: PRINT@237, "roach " ; : SCREEN0, 
1 

57 DRAW " BM98 , 32 ; C 1 ; 62E2F2H2 ; BM+0 
, -2; B3E3F3H3; BM+0, -2; 83E3F3H3; BM 
+2, -1R1 ; BM-5, 05 LI " GET (95, 26) - ( 1 
01 , 34) , R, G: LINE (92, 25) — (92, 36) , P 
RESET: GET (91 , 26) -(105, 34) , RW, 6: L 
INE(92, 25) -(92, 36) , PSET : GET ( 105, 
26)-(lll,34) ,RX,G: LINE (0,48) -(25 

| 5,48) , PSET 




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* Gold-plated card edge connectors throughout. 

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(505)265-1501 / I 



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J&M SYSTEMS, LTD. 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 45 



5B FORI=108TO159 STEP 10: PUT ( 1^3 , 

26)-C I+3 P 34) ,r ? pset: next: : line 

, 0>- (255,0) , PRESET: LINE (235,0) -( 
255, 40) , PRESET: LINE (0,36) -(255, 3 
6) , PSET: LINE (22, 17)- (22, 34) , PSET 
: LINE (56, 16? -(72, 16) , PSET: LINE (8 
7, l)-<87, 15) ,PSET 

59 FDRI = 17T034:LINE<56 ? D - (72, I) 
, PSET: NEXTI: CIRCLE (15, 53), 4, 1,1, 
,5, 1 : CIRCLE (19,57) , 4, 1 , 1, - 75, . 25 
: CIRCLE < 15, 61 > ,4,1,1,0, - 5: CIRCLE 
(11, 57) ,4, 1, 1 , . 25, * 75: CIRCLE (15, 
57) ,4, 1 , l: CIRCLE (15, 57) ,2, 1 , 1 :CI 
RCLE(32,51) , 1, l: CIRCLE (32, 63) , 1, 
1 

60 CIRCLE(45,54> ,3, 1, l:CIRCLE<45 
,60) , 3, 1 : PAINT (45, 54) , 1*1: PAINT ( 
45,60) ,1,1; CIRCLE ( 130,57) ,7, 1,1, 
.125,- 875 : DRAW " BM 1 30 , 57 5 NE5IMF5" : 
PAINT (125, 57) , 1, 1 : CIRCLE ( 1 29, 54) 
, 1,0: CIRCLE (200, 57) ,7, 1: CIRCLE (2 
00,57) ,3, 1:PAINTU96,57) ,1,1 

61 DRAW"BM215,63;NE9R10NU10LSNE7 
R 1 NE7R2E4 ; BM23S , 50 ; NF9R 1 0ND 1 0G4 " 
;PM0DE3, 1 : DRAW"BM55, 50; C3R10; BH6 
0,63; C4R 1 0 ; BM90 , 50 ; C3R2 0D 1 2L 20U 1 
2;BM147 5 50;C2R13D14L13U14;BM168, 
50; Rl 2BD2LSBD2C3D6BR3U6BR3D6BR2B 
D2C2LBSD2L3R12" : PAINT ( 100, 57) , 3, 
3:PAINT(155,57) ,2,2 

62 PM0DE4, 1 : PAINT (223, 61) ,5,5:LI 
NE (55, 50) - (60, 63) , PSET: LINE (65, 5 
0)-<60,63) , PSET: LINE (65, 50) - (70, 
63) , PSET: PAINT (65, 55) ,5,5:DRAW"B 
M200,57;C0;NE4NF4NG4NH4Cl n 

63 DRAW tr BM97,53;C0?XL*<2) ;BM151, 
54; XL* (2) ; CI" : GET (6, 49) -( 138,64) 
p PI, G: PUT (123, 67) -(255, 82), PI, OR 
: GET (146, 49) -(248, 64) , PI , G: PUT (9 
,67) -(111,82) ,P1 ? PSET;PCQPY2T03: 
PCaPY2T04:SCREENl, 1 : FORI=0TO1000 
:NEXTI 

64 EXEC16310:PLAY"V31T255L255G3A 
,t :IFINKEY*^CHR*(32)THEN RETURN E 
LSE64 

65 REM RAINBOW ROACH BY J, FRAYS 
SE 1983 



X — current horizontal position of roach 
XX — previous horizontal position of roach 
JX — horizontal rate of travel on floors (0, — 4, +4 pixels) 
S — score of current player 
SX — previous high score 
SR — number of safe roaches 
RC — roach count (remaining roaches minus 1) 
LX — length of strings for initials and scores 
RS — reference score used in a test for an increment of 
5,000 in the current score 



Strings 

B$ — string used to graphically display initials 

NX$ — initials of previous high score player 

N$ — initials of the current player 

S$ — string used to store the score converted to a string 

Arrays 

L$ (36) — character set (A-Z/0-9) 

R (2) — roach image used on belts 

RX (2) — reference roach graphics (background graphics 

around roach) 

RW (3) — "wide" roach image used on floors 
PI (54) — array used to transfer pastry graphics 
XM (20) — multi-purpose eraser array (a blank) 
DX (9) — rate-of -travel in the horizontal direction for 

roaches on belts 

Y (9) — vertical jump coordinates of roach on belts and 

floors 

PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES 
General Discussion 

Rainbow Roach was designed with the features listed in the 
Program Features section in mind. While the techniques 
used may not all be optimum, they do achieve (I believe) the 
desired result. Where there was a choice between speed and 
memory, memory was sacrificed, but not to the point of 
using more than 16K. Although the program is reasonably 
structured (that is, separate functions are restricted to spe- 
cific areas in the listing) it is admittedly not very "clear" due 
to the lack of REM statements and multiple statements on a 
single line (a substantial memory saving method). It is hoped 
that the discussions of this article will clarify and highlight 
some of the unequalled capabilities of CoCo and that in 
doing so will sharpen your skills and spark new ideas of your 
own. 
Graphics 

The philosophy behind the graphics is "single synthesis." 
This means that the vast majority of all the graphics are 
generated once. Animation was designed never to cause the 
destruction of any graphic elements. Objects should be 
allowed to be on top of each other (such as a roach on a pie) 
and then apart leaving the background elements totally 
intact. This is done by the use of two GET/ PUT arrays 
which I will refer to as the reference array and the object 
array. The object array contains the object you are moving 
(say a roach). The reference array has the identical dimen- 
sions as the object array and is used to GETthe elements in 
the area of an impending PUToi the object array. When the 
object array is PUT with a logical OR, the roach appears 
with its surroundings. These old positions are then stored 
and a new position calculated. 

When it is time to move the object array, the reference 
array is PUT with a logical AND in the now "old" position. 
Next the new position is "GOTTEN" by the reference array 
and the object array PUT( OR) in the new position etc. Since 
the reference array did not contain the object; a logical ,4 ND 
of the reference array on top of the object array and its 
background will leave only background. This technique is 
exemplified by the unsuccessful belt-to-belt jump of lines 16 
to 17 to 18 to26to27. Line 16 (Put ref. (RX) INC. JUMP 
COORDINATE (J); Get designation Ref. (RX); to Line 17 
to Line 1 8 (Put OBJ (R)) to Line 26 to line 27 (Put OBJ (R); 
Put Ref. (RX) in a loop back to line 27 for N=0 to 1 0). Thus 
the roach disappears from its previous belt (Line 16) and 
reappears on top of a pastry (Line 18) only to blink rapidly 
1 1 times and disappear (Line 28) leaving the pastry intact. 



46 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




ESCAPE 

A 3-D GRAPHICS ADVENTURE WITH SOUND 
(Machine Language for Fast Action) 

This is NOT the usual "find the treasure" adventure. In 
ESCAPE, you are trapped on the top floor of a 
skyscraper and the only way out is by using a very 
unusual elevator. You must give the elevator the 
correct code or else the ride down is a real killer. The 
maze-like halls seem to cometo life duetothefantastic 
3-D graphics. Search the hallsfor rooms which contain 
clues to the correct code. Clues must be deciphered to 
learn the elevator's secret code. Game times depends 
on the skill of the player, but it is typically 8-10 hours. 
ESCAPE is suitable for group play. A mentally 
stimulating experience. 

16K BASIC $18.95 



RECIPE FILE 

A CASSETTE BASED STORAGE AND 
RETRIEVAL SYSTEM 

This program permits storage of your favorite recipes 
for retrieval by your computer. Once a recipe has been 
recalled, then the computer can adjust the ingredient 
measure for serving the desired number of persons. 
Each recipe can contain special comments on 
preparation as well as the full instructions for using the 
recipe. Included is a line oriented text editor for 
creating and editing the variable length files. 
Completely menu driven and very user friendly. Easily 
modified by the user for use in keeping track of record, 
coin or stamp collections or whatever your interest. 
Screen or printer output. 

16K Ext. BASIC $21.95 
SPECIAL: A collection of 30 recipies covering main 
meals to snacks. Only $3.95 with program. 



SQUIRE 

SQUIRE is a challenging game of 
asset management. The player must 
manage a country estate and contend 
with crop failure, investment losses, 
taxes and other such headaches. The 
object of the game is to increase the 
estate's value while providing for the 
peasant workers. The starting assets 
are computer selected so that each 
game offers different challenges. 
Great experience for the kids or 
aspiring executives, 



16K Ext, BASIC 



$14,95 



HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE 
MANAGER 

This menu driven program package is 
designed for creating and 
maintaining a data file on cassette of 
30 household expense categories for 
a 12-month period. It also keeps 
cumulative totals and a separate total 
of tax deductable expenses. A 
comparative analysis program 
provides a graphic presentation of 
relative expenses between any two 
months during the year. The user can 
change categories by modifying 
program code. Screen or printer 
output, 

16K Ext BASIC $19.95 



FLIPPER 

A fun and challenging version of the 
Othello™ type board games. This 
version includes options for play 
solely by the computer, one player 
against the computer, or two players 
against each other. The computer 
can play on four skill levels. Very 
colorful with plenty of sound. Fun for 
kids and challenging foradufts. Great 
for parties. 



16K Ext. BASIC 



$16,95 



COLOR 

SOFTWARE 

SERVICES — 

P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 



INCLUDE S2.25 HANDLING PER ORDER 
WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 



DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



RAINBOW 

MM 

TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 
9-4 Monday-Saturday 

VISA/MASTERCARD 



This same method is used whenever the belts are rotated 
since the ML routine actually rotates only the top belts 
(Page 2). The lower belts (Pages 3 and 4) are COPIES of 
Page 2. Note Lines 20 to 2 1 (save old position; (xx=x); INC. 
position) to Line 23 (Put "RX" (AND) at "old" position; 
Rotate belt (EXEC 16310; Put "R"(ORJat new position; 
Go back to 20). 

While on the floor (which does not rotate) smooth left- 
right motion can be programmed using the "RW" (Wide 
Roach) array. This array has a blank area on either side of 
the roach figure equal to the maximum lef t-right rate (+/ — 4 
pixels per loop). Thus repeatedly PUTxng the "RW" array 
will automatically erase the previous roach image. The 
resulting animation is excellent and non-blinking but can 
only be used when in an area where no other graphic ele- 
ments exist which is precisely the case when on the floors 
between the belts. 

But aren't there some things that you would like to erase? 
Yes, there are. Here are two methods: 1) Preset the old 
object or figure and then redraw (PSET) its replacement 
(which requires keeping track of what was there), or 2) PUT 
a blank array over it and then draw the new figure. Specifi- 
cally, the items needing these methods are the difficulty level 
box, the "remaining roaches" box, the "safe roach" box and 
the current and high score boxes. The beauty of method (2) 
is that you can get away with using one multi-purpose blank 
array which you may PUT any place with any dimension so 
long as you do not GET it, otherwise the dimension of the 
GET must equal the dimension of the PUT. In Rainbow 
Roach this array is XM (eraser, multi-purpose). It is used to 
blank the high and current scores (78 x 6 — Lines 35 & 36), 
the safe roach box (78 x 6 — Line 42) and the remaining 
roaches (6x8 — Line 9). As long as XM is dimensioned to 
accommodate the largest blank, things will be "cool." 
Remember, DONT EVER GET THIS ARRAY. 




The graphics screen is laid out with the first page being the 
header and safe area. This is where all the non-animation 
takes place. The remaining pages each contain two 1 8-pixel- 
tall, counter-rotating belts, a separating line and one 11- 
pixel-high floor area (a total of 48 lines/ page). This allows 
relatively large detailed objects on the belts thus improving 
the quality of the graphics. 



Rainbow Roach contains a 9 x 6 capital letter and number 
set (letters A-Z; numbers 0-9 and a space). This allows "on 
screen" score keeping with the player's initials. For conven- 
ience, the L$ (36) array uses the elements 0-9 to represent the 
numbers 0-9. That is L$(2) draws a "2." L$(10) is the space. 
The letter "A" is L$(l 1) which is its ASCII code minus 54. 
Thus, any letter may be displayed on the screen by DRA W 
"BMX, Y,C1S4;XL$ (ASC(ZZ)— 54);" where "ZZ" is the 
letter you wish to create. 

Finally the "PI" array is used to move large blocks of 
graphics from belt #1 on Page 2 to belt #2. This avoids the 
reproduction of the code for the lower belt and most impor- 
tantly reduces the program set-up time (see Line 63). You 
never see this set-up because CoCo has two separate screen 
areas for text and graphics. By displaying the text screen 
headers initially and at the half-way point in the set-up 
routine (see Lines 0 and 56) and delaying the screen com- 
mand until the set-up is complete, one is able to give the 
appearance of "instant" hi-res graphics. Since the graphics 
are "Single synthesis" subsequent games are always set up. 
People hate to wait, but will tolerate an occasional header or 
two. 

Sound Effects 

The sounds used in Rainbow Roach come from a good 
deal of experimentation. The PL A Y command is one of the 
most versatile functions of CoCo but it's extremely hard to 
sit down and think of a sound you would like to make and 
then go program it. All I can say is that arcade-like sounds 
are possible and are best discovered by experimenting with 
combinations of high or low octaves, adjacent notes, short 
notes and tempos, and rapid volume changes. You'll find 
some examples on Lines 9, 14, 16, 29 (Sound), and 42. Try 
these by themselves, the POKE 65495,0 and notice the 
higher octaves. 

Basic Speed 

The eye-to-hand reaction time of the average individual is 
usually between .1 and .2 seconds. Therefore any control 
loop which updates between 5 and 10 times per second will 
seem like almost instantaneous response to almost every- 
body. The objective then is to design a loop that samples the 
joystick at these speeds. Some real "drags" to loop speed 
include GOSUBS, multiplications, divisions, multiple logic 
tests, "ON-GOTOs" and large GET or PUT arrays (>10 x 
10). One should also try to minimize the line numbers in the 
loop or use multiple statements per line. Logic statements 
should be at the end of a line unless you are absolutely sure 
you know how ECB will handle those jumble-up branches 
(I'm not sure I do). The fire button is also slow requiring a 
PEEK and then at least one logic test. Loops should be as 
close to the beginning line in the program as possible, and I 
always like the POKE 65495,0 speed up. 

Note the relative simplicity of the floor animation loop 
(Lines 1 1 to 14) and the belt animation loop (Lines 20 to 21 
to 23). Also note that the "K" belt timer counter is incre- 
mented by 1 in the floor loop and by .25 in the belt loop. This 
is done to slow down the belt rotations in the belt loop to 
that of the floor loop. At level 4, KD=0 and because of the 
logic test in Line 20 on KD, the program always branches to 
a rotation (assuming that you have not hit a wall) and the .25 
increment stops slowing the loop. Consequently at Level 
four, the belts move 33 percent faster when the roach is on 
them than when he is on the floor, (an added complication to 
the player!). 

Two arrays help speed the overall animation loop. They 



48 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



COLOR COMPUTER I FLEX* | OS-9t USERS 



DO YOU WANT faster 
running programs (over 
100 times faster than 
BASIC)? A high level 
language that is also a low 
level language? A compiler 
that runs in less than 
32K? Assembly language 
output? Position 
independent code? 
Extensive library 
functions in source 
assembly code? Periodic 
newsletters with new 
library functions? An aid 
in learning assembly 
language? Liberal version 
updates? 

C is the language of the 
eighties; accepted by IBM 
and Bell Labs for system 
development: a compact, 
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use language, excellent 
to use to build games, 
applications, utilities, 
operating systems, etc. 



DUGGER'S GROWING 
SYSTEMS with over 21 
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computing was first on the 
market with a 6809 C 
compiler. The compiler has 
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revised, and proven. 

DUGGER'S GROWING 
SYSTEMS C is a growing 
subset of the standard C. 
Version 1 contains all the 
necessary C commands 
(while, if, if else, int, char, 
etc.). Version 2 contains 
additional features (float, 
long, for, goto, etc.). 

AN EXTENSIVE 
LIBRARY in assembly 
language source is 
provided (char, I/O, 
formatted print, 
filehandling, string 
manipulating, etc.) Color 
Computer version also has 
additional functions which 
use the BASIC ROM 



functions (els, polcat, 
floating point, etc.). 



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Flex C Compiler 

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(a must) 19.95 

Computerware 

disk assembler 49.95 

Computerware Scribe 

(Disk editor-text formatter) . 49.95 

Shipping add $3.00 

C.O.D. and Foreign handling 

add 15% 

MasterCard and Visa accepted. 



DUGGER'S GROWinGHlSVSTEmS 

Post Office Box 305 • Solana Beach 
California 92075 • (619) 755-4373 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 




Move up to 
language compiler 



*OS-9 is a trademark of Microwai'e, Inc. 

iFLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants, Inc. 



DO YOU HAVE A BASIC OR ASSEMBLY PROGRAM TO SELL? 

. . . avoid unreliable cassette tapes and recorders 

and EPROM your program! 



With EPACK, BASIC and assembly routines for color computer can be read from cassette tape and stored onto 2516, 2716 (single supply), 2732, 2532, 2564 
and 2764 styled EPROM (21 and 25 volt). These EPROM are then inserted into MMB, a game packlike cartridge that automatically executes your program 
when it's inserted into the color computer . just like the game packs. 

EPACK is an excellent alternative to cassettes for programs you want to sell and for personal programs you would like to executequickly and conveniently 
from a more reliable medium. 



NOTE: 2732, 2764 and 21 volt capability are available optionally and are not included in the standard EPACK ** 

EPACK consists of EPG. BROM and MMB for 

The units in EPACK are sold individually as follows: 



BROM 



$150.00 



Utility fits any memory size color computer. Its function is to process 
BASIC source files into a format that can be written out to EPROM by Con- 
trol Craft Inc.'s EPROM programmer (EPG) ... and still be executed by the 
BASIC interpreter - but from EPROM, not RAM' 

BROM $25.00 



EPROM PROGRAMMER (EPG) 



• Zero insertion force socket 

• Personality plugs configure programmer to accept 2716 (5 volt supply), 
2532 and 2564 style EPROM. 

• Programmer's software is included on the programmer bpard as firmware. 

• Program sources: 

* read cassette tape files into memory and then write file to EPROM 
(files are in Radio Shack format) 

* write color computer RAM to EPROM 

* read EPROM inserted in programmer into RAM 

* write color computer ROM to EPROM 

• Functions: 

* test EPROM to see if it's unprogrammed 

* read an EPROM into color computer RAM 

* write RAM buffer out to EPROM 

* redefine the location of the RAM buffer 

* verify the programming of an EPROM 

* compare the contents of RAM buffer against an EPROM 

* edit the RAM buffer 

1. Examine/change memory locations 

2. Examine/change start buffer address 

3. Fill RAM buffer with FF hex 

* read blocks from a cassette file into RAM 

• Menu driven operation allows easy use 

• Plastic case enclosed circuitry 

• Gold plated edge connectors 

• Self-contained unit ... no external power supplies are used 

• Unit operates on any memory sized TRS-80 color computer 

epg $105.00 



MULTI MEMORY BOARD (MMB) 



Complete with support IC, sockets and decoupling capacitors 

Accepts 2516, 2716, 2532, 2732, 2564 EPROM (included in EPACK) 

Accepts 2016, 4016, 6116 static RAM* 

Max capacity of 6 memory chips 

Runs on any size TRS-80 color computer 

Board is jumper addressable to either $C000 or $8000 

Provisions for write protect switch , or can jumper the board to write 

protect RAM 



Control Lraft Tnc 



19270 North Hills Drive • Brookfield, Wl 53005 • (414) 784-9027 

Name . . 

Company 

% Address 

City /State 



Zip .... 



Shipping address (if different from above) 



• Jumpers configure the memory type used on the board. Provisions for 
inserting DIP switches in place of the jumpers 

• Gold plated edge connector 

• Each IC or IC socket has decoupling cap installed 

• Plastic case is available extra, at $7.50 (pricing is subject to change 
without notice) (case included in EPACK) 

• RAM may not work with series E or later color computers. 

MMB $30.00 



** UPGRADE (optional for EPACK or EPG) 

2732-25 volt $15.00 2732-21 volt $15.00 

2764-25 volt $15.00 2764-21 volt $15.00 




SDUMP 



OKIDATA owners know that in order to print graphics they lose their 
serial interface ... 

NOT ANY MORE! 

Now you can print Hi-res Pmode 4 graphics images, full size and detail, 
on .your OKIDATA, EPSON and other printers, without dot addressable 
capacity. 

Features: 

• Callable from BASIC routine 

• Runs stand alone with a menu 

• Relocatable 

• Automatically finds the start 
of graphics pages 

• Configurable for several printers 

• Fast 

• Useable on 16 or 32 or 64 K * 
machines with or without Sffjfr'' 
Extended BASIC Wtt&.' :?l 

• Documented Vi 

(OK IDA TA , EPSON and RS are trademarks) : . f;. jr* 

Actual graphics printed on an OKIDATA printer (shown reduced) 

SDUMP $20.00 

All prices subject to change without notice. 

Order Form: EPACK @ $150.00 = 

BROM @ $ 25.00 = 

EPG @ $105.00 = 

MMB @ $ 30.00 = 

SDUMP @ $ 25.00 = 

UPGRADE NO @ $15.00= 

Wis. residents add 5% sales tax 

Shipping & Handling: # of items x $2.00/item = 

TOTAL ORDER: S 

TO ORDER BY MAIL: SEND MONEY ORDER, CERTIFIED CHECK, CASHIERS 
CHECK MASTERCARD/VISA (include card number, inter-bank number, 
expiration date and signature). 

DEALER INQUIRIES WANTED (minimum dealer order is 10 units) 



PAGE 2 

Row 48 

Row 65 

Row 66 
Row 67 

Row 84 



FIGURE 2 
HEX ADR 

COO 

\' ROTATE RIGhP 
E20 



END ROW 



GIF 



E40 ....... DOES NOT MOVE. . . . 

E60 _ 

■ ^HOTA I E LEFT 



t 

E3F 



1 



. E7F 

I 

i 

J09F : 



Figure 2 is a detailed layout of the screen memory loca- 
tions of interest. A listing of the assembly code is figure 3. 
The following references to lines will refer to assembly list- 
ing line numbers. Rows, columns and addresses (in Hex) 
will describe the screen locations. 



0001 0902 

V V V A V 1 V mam 




0R6 16310 


START ADR 


0002 3FB6 8E0C1F 

•» «r V ttm war l . mmr mmf mmr i» *r %mf m f ■ 




IM »C1F 


LD ADR END 48 


0013 3FB9 A684 


LOOP! 


LDA ,X 


SAVE END COL 


0004 3FBB I08E001F 




LEY #t001F 


C0LS/R0H-1 


0005 3FBF E61F 

■r mr mr Mmw m mmw ■ u\m> mm¥ mm W 


L0QP2 


LDB 


LD X-l VAL 


mh 3FC1 E784 

mr mr « w ^* a mmr 4* ■ ■ • 




STB .X 


STORE X-l 3 X 


0007 3FC3 301 F 

'm- m • w Mr V' ^Bf w mm w 




DEX 


DECREASE X REG 


0008 3FC5 313F 

mi mr mr mmw mw w mm maw mw mm mm a 




LEAY -1,Y 


DECREASE Y RE6 


0009 3FC7 26F6 




BNE LOOP 2 


DO TIL LT COL 


0010 3FC9 A784 

mi mr mm • mmw w mm* -#- www mmw .9 




STA y X 


LAST C0L=FIRST 


001 i 3FCB 30883F 




LEAS t^F / 


END NEXT ROM 


0012 3FCE 8G0E3F 




CHPX #*E3F 


AT END ROW 


0013 3FD1 2FE6 




BLE LOOP! 


DO TIL TRUE 


0014 3FD3 SEflEiO 




LDX #tE60 


LD ADR 1STC0L67 


0015 3FD6 A684 


L00P3 


LDA ,X 


SAVE 1STC0L 


0016 3FD8 108E00 IF 




LDY «001F 


COL /ROM- 1 


0017 3FDC E*GJ 


L00P4 


LDB 1,X 


LD X+l VAL 


0018 3FDE E7B0 




STB ,1+ 


STORE W * X 


0019 3FE0 313F 




LEAY -1,1 


DEC Y 


0020 3FE2 26FS 




BNE LOOT 


DO TIL RT COL 


0021 3FE4 A780 




5TA ,X+ 


1STC0L=LA3T 


0022 3FE6 BC10A0 




CHPX M10AO 


i END ROW 64? 


0023 3FE9 2FEB 




&LE L0OP3 


DO TIL TRUE 


0024 3FEB 8E0C00 




LDX #$C00 


ADR ROW 48 


0025 3FEE EC81 


LOOPS 


LDD f J++ 


GET 2 BYTES 


0026 3FF0 ED8905FE 




STD $5FE,X 


OFFSET TO PG3 


0027 3FF4 ED890BFE 




3TD $BFE,)i 


OFFSET 7G PG4 


0028 3FF8 8C10A0 




CHPX HI DM 


END ROW 84? 


0029 3FFB 26F1 




BNE LOOPS 


DO Tit TRUE 


0030 3FFD 39 




RTS 


BACK TO BASIC 



Well, how do we do it? If you want to rotate a row to the 
right you must start at the right-most byte of the row. If you 
want to rotate to the lef t, you must start at the lef t-most byte. 
Otherwise, you will copy your initial byte through every 
column in the row. Now, referring to Figure 2 and the 
listing, let's go through the "rotate right" portion. Line 2 
loads the address of the last byte in row 48 into the X index 
register. Line 3 loads the contents of the X address into the A 



accumulation for safekeeping until after all the bytes have 
moved right. Line 4 uses the Y index register as a counter 
and loads the number of columns in a row minus 1 into Y. 
Thus we will use the value in Y to tell us when we have 
reached the end of the row. Line 5 loads the B accumulator 
with the contents of the address pointed to by the X register 
minus one; or just to the lef t of the X address. Line 6 puts the 
contents of the B accumulator into the X position or in 
BASIC N(X)=N(X-1). In words, the byte on the right is 
given t he value of the byte on the lef t. Line 7 moves the index 
pointer (X) to the left (decrements X). Line 8 subtracts one 
from the times you've been through the loop. Line 9 checks 
to see if Y is zero. If it is you are through with the row, if not 
then you go back to Line 5 (loop 2). Assuming that you are 
through with the row, Line 10 stores the A accumulator 
(remember what's in there?) in the X position or at this point 
in the program at the left-most byte of the row. Therefore, 
the right-most byte has now become the left-most . . . you've 
wrapped it around! Line 1 1 increments X to the end of the 
next row. Line 12 checks to see if you are at the end of row 
65. If not, Line 13 branches back to a new row. If so, then 
continue to Line 14 (rotate left). 




Lines 14 through 23 rotate rows 67-84 to the left in a very 
similar fashion. Lines 24 through 30 do a selective PCOPY 
f rom page 2 (rows 48 through 84) to pages 3 and 4. Use of the 
double accumulator D ( A+B) speeds the copying by a factor 
of almost two. The key is Lines 26 and 27 where the store 
command is used in its extended, indexed/ offset mode of 
operation. After the double X increment, Line 26 writes 
every two-byte element on page 2 to the corresponding two 
bytes on page 3. (5FE+2=600=the page to page distance). 
Line 27 does the same thing except with a 2 page offset 
(BFE+2=COO). Lines 28 and 29 test to see if you have 
gotten to the end of row 84. If you have, then you are ready 
to return to BASIC (Line 30-RTS). 

Well, that's all for now, folks! If you still have problems or 
questions call (703) 775-7018 after 6:00 p.m., write John 
Fraysse, Box 822, Dahlgren, VA 22448, or come see me. 
We'll go sailing on the Chesapeake and discuss it! (We race 
every Monday afternoon!) 



52 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



LEARN A SECOND LANGUAGE ON YOUR 

COLOR COMPUTER • NEW • exciting • easy 

Creative Courseware using the latest 
technology and Professional Programming 




Fulfill your educational objectives 
Have fun learning a new language 
Expand your children's horizons. 



• Improve your job potential 

• Young and old can learn 

• Affordable, only pennies per hour. 

— High quality visuals, not dotted graphics 

• HEAR — High quality audio as spoken by natives 

• UNDERSTAND — Through programmed instruction 

• RESPOND — Branching, and looping insure learning. 



Our Lessons Teach You to 
HEAR and THINK in a 
Second Language 

These lessons are for you if you: 

• Think you can't learn 

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Lessons Now Available in 
Spanish, English and 
French 

• Color Computer with 16K RAM 
and tape recorder required 

• SLU-1: People, Persons & Family 

• SLU-2: Stand, Walk & Run 

• SLU-3: Smile, Eat & Talk 

• SLU-4: House 

• SLU-5: Open & Closed 

• SLU-6: Furniture & Appliances 

• SLU-7: Meals 

• Vocabulary #1, 2 & 3: 200 words each 



Other Lessons and 
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Vocabulary (SL) $19.95 

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HOW TO HEAR AND THINK IN a second language 

Skilled linguists have developed our series of second language programs. The lessons utilize the power of programmed 
instruction wherein you are advanced to new material only after satisfactory learning has occurred at the current level. Our 
techniques teach you how to think in a language without initially using any printed text material. No mental translation to your 
native language is required. You learn as a child does, hearing and speaking before reading. The computer both tutors and 
keeps track of progress as it moves you forward (or backward when review is necessary). AUDIO plus VISUALS plus 
INTERACTIVE RESPONSE establish the learning process, and literally THOUSANDSof visuals help seal-in the sound patterns 
of your new language. 

All of our lessons are interactive and user friendly; yet, you are unaware of the complex course structure involved. For 
example: Lesson SLU-1 uses the theme of PEOPLE, PERSONS & FAMILY to teach the use of nouns to name things, to classify 
them into categories, and to identify members of a group. Sentence structure is developed using the verb be' and its relationship 
to nouns and adverbs, including plural forms and inversions. Noun structure using definite and indefinite articles, and regular 
and irregular plural forms is also presented. The other lessons are similarly designed. In addition, each VOCABULARY LESSON 
presents approximately 200 visuals and 200 words that are integrated into the learning process. 

While the foregoing might seem complex, and it is, IT IS ALSO THE REASON OUR COURSEWARE CAN TEACH 
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DEALER INQUIRIES ACCEPTED 

We have a broad range of Audio 
Visual Computer Aided Instruc- 
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users of our courseware might 
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ABSOLUTELY NO RISK 

You may examine your 
order for 15 days. If you de- 
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of the lesson(s) simply re- 
turn in good condition for a 
full refund or cancellation 
of credit card charges. 



*WE PAY UPS IN USA 

(street address required for UPS) 
*Add $2.00 if US Mail desired. 

*Add 15% for foreign, APO & FPO 

(Remit in US Funds) 
*Virginia Orders add 4% sales tax 
* Mail credit card orders please 

include all card information 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA and 
MASTER CARD 

• Money Orders 

• Certified Checks 

• Other Checks (must 
clear before shipment) 



FREE ORDER LINE 

1 -800-368-6300 

T T T 

FOR VIRGINIA ORDERS 
AND OTHER CALLS: 

1 -804-463-6300 

,1- * X 

BASIC PROGRAMS, INC. 

236 Mustang Trail, #102 

Virginia Beach, VA 23452 
■ > 



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Instrument Flight Simulator is a real-time representation 
of an instrumented light plane, The instrument in- 
dications fairly accurately represent the responses and reac- 
tions of a typical light plane, handled gently. The navigation 
is based on an X-Y plot and can be considered accurate 
within the range of the aircraft (earth curvature disregarded), 
Some of the more realistic responses are: 

•Gradual increases in rpm, airspeed, and vertical velocity. 
•Correct response of airspeed versus climb/descent (i,e. if 
you are flying straight and level and pull back the throttle, 
the aircraft will descend; or forward on the throttle, the 

(Editor s Note: We believe Instrument Flight Simulator to 
be a first-rate program of special interest to pilots or, at the 
very least, those with some knowledge of instrument flying. 
It is not an arcade type game, but a serious exercise that 
requires some brain-busting decisions, even for an expe- 
rienced pilot. It isan excellent example of a computer simu- 
lation, but it is not for the uninitiated.) 



aircraft will climb). 

•A lagging response on the vertical velocity indicator. 

•For fixed throttle and up pitch, a decreasing rate of climb 

to the maximum 10,000 feet altitude, 

•An outstanding navigational package which can be posi- 

tionally applied to a real map or a hypothetical map for 

practice. 

The program will run on 16K Extended Color. To do this, 
it is necessary to chop the input prompts. Explanation of the 
abbreviations follows. 

BRG — angular position of 0-360 degrees (0 at top and 
clockwise rotation) of a nav-aid or the aircraft. 
DISTANCE — distance in miles of the nav-aid or aircraft 
from the reference position. 
RWY HDG — runway heading of an 1LS airfield, 
HDG — heading, or direction of travel, of the airplane. 
WIND D1R— wind direction 0-360 degrees. 
VEL — velocity of wind in miles per hour, 
FUEL — fuel amount in gallons; maximum 24, 



54 



Ihe RAINBOW 



June, 1983 



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I have provided two examples of how 
stations may be input, and a sketch to 
help understand the ILS system. Once 
the station input system is understood, 
it is relatively easy to re-input the data 
on subsequent flights, perhaps changing 
only the aircraft position if you are 
starting from a different point. 

To use Instrument Flight Simulator, 
load and RUN. If you wish you may 
enter "0" in all the input prompts to get 
to the instrument panel for the familiar- 
ization phase. 

The aircraft is a single engine, light 
plane. It is not aerobatic and will not 
stall unless you are gliding down out of 
gas; then, if you allow airspeed to go 
below 50 mph, look out! Fuel capacity 
is 24 gallons and use rate is six gallons 
per hour at 2,000 rpm. Absolute ceiling 
is 10,000 ft. It will cruise at 120 mph at 
2000 rpm straight and level. 

The Instruments 

Starting from the top left and going 
counterclockwise the instruments and 
their function will be described. 

1) Top left: Air Speed Indicator. Scale 
reads in miles per hour x 100. 

2) Middle left: rpm indicator. Scale 
reads engine revolutions per minute x 
1 ,000. 

3) Lower left: D/ F Dial (direction find- 
ing). Scale calibrated in 30 degree 
increments for direction. Pointer will 
indicate bearing to station selected. Dot 
indicates heading of the aircraft. 

4) Lower left box: DME (distance 
measuring equipment). Gives miles and 
tenths to station selected (up to 99.9 
miles for a TACAN or9.9 milesf or ILS. 

5) Lower middle box: Station selected. Gives number of the 
navigational aid station selected. 

6) Lower right box: Elapsed time clock. Reads hours and 
minutes of elapsed time. 

7) Lower right: Fuel gauge. Capacity 24 gallons. Aircraft 
uses six gallons per hour at 2,000 rpm. 

8) Middle right: VVI (vertical velocity indicator). Indicates 
in feet per minute x 1000 the rate of climb or descent. This 
instrument does not indicate an immediate response, but 
lags actual vertical velocity and will "catch up." 

9) Upper right: Altimeter. Short pointer indicates altitude in 
feet x 1,000; long pointer is a vernier and is feet x 100. 

10) Top center: Course readout. Indicates the heading of the 
aircraft in degrees. This is a more precise indication than the 
dot on the D/F dial. 

11) Middle: Flight director. Scale at bottom indicates turn 
rate. Left side scale is for aircraft pitch. Scale at top is 
deviation from glide path in one-degree steps. Scale at right 
is deviation from glide slope in 1^-degree increments. Air- 
craft representation in center represents pitch and bank of 
the aircraft. 

Navigation 

While it is beyond the scope of this article to teach flying 
and navigation, a short explanation will help in understand- 
ing the navigational instruments and indications. 



fa fa ■ ■ 

fa I ■ d- 



F I I 
fall 




Glide Path Runway Heading 



Sketch of ILS System 



A 




2.5 tr lid Ml ope 



Runway Station 



Touch Down 
Point 



Glidepath deviation will be 
indicated up to 15° either side 
of the glidepath and in 1° 
increments when you are within 

3° 



When pointer is aligned with 
center mark you are on glide- 
path. When side indicator is 
aligned with the middle mark 
you are on glideslope. 



Left of Glidepath 
Below Glideslope 



Right of Glidepath 
Above Glideslope 



You must fly TO the indicator. 



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At the beginning of the program, you must input the 
locations of the stations you will be using to navigate by. 
Stations 1, 2, and 3 are ILS (instrument landing system); 
stations 4, 5, and 6 are TACAN (tactical air control and 
navigation); stations 7, 8, and 9 are ADF (automatic direc- 
tion finding). 

ADF. When an ADF station is selected, the pointer on the 
D/F dial will indicate the bearing to that station. 

TACAN. When a TACAN station is selected, the pointer 
on the D/ F dial will indicate the bearing to that station and 
the distance to that station will be indicated in the DME 
box. The range limit for a TACAN is 99.9 miles. 

ILS. When an ILS station is selected, to get instrument 
readings you must be within 9.9 miles of the station and 
within ±15 degrees of the runway heading, otherwise the 
signal cannot be received. The bearing to the station will be 
indicated on the D/ F dial and the distance indicated in the 
DME box. In addition, you will have deviation from glide 
path indicated at the top of the flight director and deviation 
from glide slope indicated on the right side of the flight 
director. In both cases, the indicator shows where the proper 
position is and you must fly toward that position (i.e. chase 
the indicator). At this point remember that the "0" deviation 
mark is the position of your aircraft — do not confuse the 
pitch and bank indicator with readings on these indicators — 
especially the glide slope indicator. 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 55 



Genesis Software 



presents 

Color Computer Programs 

*Secret Of The Crypt 

The BIG adventure continues. The sequel 
to the popular "Enchanted Forest" is here! 
You 11 move in more than 50 hi-res, 3-D 
graphic scenes searching for clues in an 
attempt to enter the crypt. But beware, the 
trail to the crypt is beset with puzzlements. 
In fact, the crypt's secret w 11 remain a 
mystery to all but the most adventuresome. 
Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

+Bigfoot 

Hunt Big foot in a hidden maze of caverns 
and twisting tunnels that are displayed in 
hi-res graphics as you move. Seek out the 
lair of Big foot while avoiding perils along 
the way. Features multiple levels and many 
options of play. Each hunt takes place in a 
new, randomly generated maze. Challeng- 
ing and fun. Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

* The Enchanted Forest 

The BIG adventure in hi -res graphics. 
Move through more than 50 scenes on a 
quest to rescue the captive princess. Deci- 
sions are made according to visual clues, 
not text. There are many inhabitants in the 
Enchanted Forest — some are friendly, 
some are not. This is a sophisticated com- 
puter adventure — a real challenge. A 
must for your adventure library. Requires 
32K extended basic. 

Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

(The Enchanted Forest was reviewed in the Dec. 1982 
issue of Rainbow). 

* The Game Show 

Now a lively party game where two teams 
compete against the clock to name several 
items in a category. Includes 60 rounds 
with color graphics and sound. Machine 
language routine for fast response. Re- 
quires 16K extended basic and joysticks. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $19.95 

(The Game Show was reviewed in the Jan. 1983 issue 
of Rainbow). 



Genesis Software 

P.O. Box 936, Manchester, Mo. 63011 

Personal checks welcome - no delay. 
Missouri residents add 5.625 percent sales tax. 



The positions of the various navigational aid stations are 
input at the beginning of the program. All input bearings 
and distances are referenced to a "0" point on a map, and 
this point does not necessarily have to be one of your sta- 
tions. Stations 1, 2, and 3 are ILS stations and require a 
bearing (BRG) and distance from the reference point and a 
runway heading (RWY HDG). Stations 4, 5, and 6 which 
are TACAN stations, and 7, 8, and 9 which are ADF sta- 
tions require only bearing and distance inputs. 

While ILS stations are obviously the locations of airports, 
the TACAN and ADF stations may be located elsewhere, 
and frequently are. This can present a navigational chal- 
lenge to the CoCo flyer. 

As you enter the station, location information bearing is 
in degrees (0-360), distance is in miles, and runway heading 
is in degrees (0-360). If you make an error while entering 
position information, simply punch on through and re-enter 
on the next station prompt. Do not try to enter more than 
one station position per station number, as only the last 
information entered is valid. When you have entered all 
your desired information, on the "STATION #" prompt 
enter "0" and the program will advance to the next input 
routine. Any stations that you have not entered data f or will 
reflect the position of the reference spot. 

After you have exited the navigational input routine, you 
will have prompts to position the airplane. These inputs are 
identical to an ILS station input. Presumably, you will want 
to place the airplane on one of your ILS airports and headed 
(HDG) in the same direction as the runway. Next input is 
fuel, 1-24 gallons. 

The next prompt will ask for a wind direction and then a 
wind velocity (and you thought this wasn't real?). Direction 

is in degrees, 0-360, and velocity in miles per hour. 

Remember, wind direction is the compass heading that the 

wind is comingfrom. 



Flying 

The right joystick is the throttle; left joystick controls the 
elevators and ailerons/ rudder. The joysticks are a little 
touchy, especially on the turn rate, however, this is a com- 
promise between having a turn rate that won't take all day 
for a turn and having gentle control for straight and level. 
For best simulation the joysticks should be moved slowly 
and smoothly (you probably wouldn't be violent in an actual 
airplane, either). 

The throttle should be pulled back all the way prior to 
starting, else you may already have airspeed by the time the 
panel appears. On start up, there will be no figures in the 
course readout at top center. However, as soon as the air- 
craft moves, course heading will appear. If the aircraft is not 
moving the navigational aids will not be updated. Theref ore, 
you cannot use the different stations to 
determine your position if you are sitting still on the runway. 

To select a navigational aid simply press the key (1-9) of 
the station you wish to use. If you are within range, 9.9 miles 
and ± 1 5 degrees f or an ILS, or 99.9 miles f or a TACAN the 
instruments will indicate accordingly. There is a 200-mile 
range limit for the ADF. If you are out of range of an ILS or 
TACAN station you will lose all pointers and mileage indi- 
cations. When you come back in range the information will 
again be displayed. To turn off your navigational aid 
receiver press "0" and all indicators will disappear. 

To navigate with any degree of accuracy, you should use 
some sort of map, actual or homemade, so that bearings and 



56 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




The TRS-80* Color-Computer 



ENHANCED 



Database Management, Word Processing and Spread Sheet Calculations in One Integrated Package 



Business Applications 

Real Estate 
Ledgers 
Mailing Lists 
Single Letters 
Memos 
Phone Lists 
Form Letters 
Charts 

Business Reports 
Inventories 

Income Tax Preparation 
Property Maintenance 
Property Rentals 
Receivables 
Payables 
Order Entry 
Business Contacts 
Appointments 
Client Profiles 
Document/ Article Indexing 
Lab Reports 
Personnel Records 
Student Grades 
Budgets 

Homebase is Easy to Use 

• No programming required. 
All options are displayed in 
menus. HOMEBASE automa- 
tically requests all required 
data and edits every entry. 

• All commands are single key 
stroke. 

• Full screen editing for text 
entry. 

• Complete curosr control for 
entering names, titles, 
notes, comments and all 
other data. 

• Over 100 pages of well 
organized and easy to use 
documentation with complete 
descriptions of every com- 
mand, and examples. 

• Requires 32K of memory, 
DISK BASIC and only one 
disk drive. No equipment 
modifications required. 

• Fast response to all com- 
mands including search and 
sort. 

Enhancement: 

• A tutorial/demonstration file 
with step-by-step instructions. 



Custom Report Writer For Data Management Files 

Merge data management files with text files 
Print one document per data record . 
Print one document for multiple data records by using a 
data field as a key for matching records. 
Use all printer control options. 
Print multiple copies. 
Print selected data records. 
Store multiple formats on a single TEXT file. 
Alter formats while using the REPORT WRITER or TEXT 
PROCESSING program. 



Data Management 

• Define 50 data fields, in- 
cluding a comment field, in a 
single record. Dates, time of 
day, phone numbers and 
dollar amounts are 
automatically formatted. You 
may also define 24 scratch- 
pad data fields not contained 
within your data records. 

• Reorganize records by mov- 
ing data fields within records 
or by moving records within 
a file. You may sort records 
in ascending or descending 
order using record names 
you assign or data values. 

• Manage files by searching, 
deleting, clearing, duplicat- 
ing, and displaying any data 
or record. Add, subtract, 
multiply, divide, or sum- 
marize any data field. Use 
any command on a single 
record or selected group of 
records. You may also selec- 
tively process any single 
data field or group of data 
fields. 

• Print files using automatic 



formatting with options to 
print report titles, a report 
date, page numbers, record 
names, and data field 
names. Print all or selected 
data fields or records. 

Enhancements: 

• Variable length alpha/text 
data fields. 

• Use 1 or 2 disk drives. 

• Range search for alpha/text 
data fields and record 
names. 

• Calculator mode for entering 
new data field values while 
performing calculations and 
automatically displaying the 
results of calculations. 

• Extended sort which permits 
sorting on any position 
within a comment alpha/text 
data field. 

• Separate printer drivers for 
NEC and OKI DATA printers. 

Text/Word Processing 

• Define 250 screens of text 
you can search, sort, 
display, or print. Reference 
or select records using 



ORDER TOLL FREE 800-334-0854 



Credit card holders call toll free: 800-334-0854, extension 887 
in North Carolina call: 800-672-0101, extension 887 or send a 
check or money order for $75 + $5 for handling charges to: 
HOMEBASE™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
P.O. Box 3448, Durham, N.C. 27702 
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N.C. residents add 4% for sales tax. Allow 1 to 3 weeks delivery. 

HOMEBASE™ is a trademark of HOMEBASE ™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS, 
a subsidiary of Small Business Systems, Durham, N.C. (919) 544-5408. 
*TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Radio Shack, Inc. 



record names you assign or 
by searching for any word or 
phrase within text records. 

• Edit text by duplicating, 
moving, clearing, searching 
and replacing, deleting, or 
reordering entire records of 
text or portions of text 
records. Print the text record 
appearing on the screen to 
review before final print. 

• Format labels, memos, let- 
ters, and other documents 
for printing with embeded 
printer controls for paging, 
skipping lines, and changing 
character fonts. Program 
controls provide for setting; 
right and left margins, lines 
per page, page width, 
horizontal tabs, and line 
spacing. Reuse control set- 
tings or change when 
desired. Print multiple 
copies. Merge text records 
to produce a form letter for 
an address file. 

Enhancements: 

• Use 1 or 2 disk drives. 

• A separate printer driver for 
NEC and OKI DATA printers. 

• Page numbering. 

• Print page headings. 

• Page backwards or for- 
wards. 

Utilities for Data 
Management and 
Word Processing 

• Generating new files from old 
files. 

Merging files. 
Duplicating files. 
Moving data between files. 
Summarizing files. 
Moving files from diskette to 
diskette using a single drive. 
Saving files to cassette and 
reloading from cassette. 
File synchronizing. 
Print disk directory 
Enhancements: 
Rename files. 
Extended summarize and 
update. 



rill 



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distances can be correlated to flight 
path and position. If you only want to 
practice approaches you may bypass the 
station inputs (in which case all entries 
for them are "0"), set your airplane at 
"0" bearing, "0" miles, "0" heading, fill 
up with fuel and go. You can then prac- 
tice touch-and-go ILS approaches 
without having to set up a more elabo- 
rate station network. 

As you near touchdown on an ILS 
approach, you don't have to be many 
feet off the glide path and glide slope for 
the indicators to show quite a depar- 
ture. This is normal and if you are on 
glide path and glide slope you should be 
around 200 feet altitude at one mile on 
the DME. At this point you are required 
to proceed visually. Since we have no 
visual, if you proceed on and touch 
down at approximately 0.2 DME with 
no more than ±2 degrees glide path 
error, you may walk away from this 
landing. 

Although you only have approxi- 
mately four hours of fuel, no matter 
where you land you can still input the 
same station locations and continue on. 
The only change would be your aircraft 
position if you wanted to continue from 
whatever cow pasture you landed in 
(and could estimate its bearing and dis- 
tance from the original reference point). 
If you are looking for a whiz-bang figh- 
ter plane with lots of action, then this is 
not for you. The CoCo Instrument 
Flight Simulator does present many 
parameters of flight in a fairly realistic 
display. It can present an interesting 
challenge in getting from point A to 
point B by spacing the navigational aids 
sparingly, and by using a wind input. 
Just as in flying there are periods where 
there won't be much "controlling"to do 
if you are going a long distance. 

The instruments are not labeled as to function, but their 
appearance is close to the real thing and recognition can be 
quickly learned. 

The program originally went slightly over 16K, but to 
make it available to a wider group of users some of the "nice 
to have" parts were trimmed (i.e. instrument labels and more 
lengthy input prompts). I hope this will satisfy some of the 
calls for a CoCo airplane (Scott, are you there?). So file your 
flight plan and "Off we go..." 

Instrument Flight Simulator runs on a 16K machine; 
however, you must execute a CLEAR 100 prior to running. 
If you have a 32K machine first type in the Instrument Flight 
Simulator program, then type in the supplemental listing. 
This listing gives the following improvements: 1) Input 
prompts are more descriptive and those stations that already 
have inputs are listed. 2) A reminder to retard the throttle 
and a short message on the screen during initialization. 3) 
Any station for which you have not input coordinates does 
not revert to the reference position as in the basic program. 
4) The XX. X in the DME box will blink if you select a 
station but are out of range; however, it will not blink if you 



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Station Positioning #1 



Conway, AR 



3 ILS 
6 TACAN 



N 



V4" = 1 mile 



0 1 ILS 

4 TACAN 



In this example Little Rock A.F. 
Base Is used as the reference 
point and aircraft starting point. 
Prompts and entries as follows: 




Little Rock AF Base 



STATION # ? 1 
ILS 

BEARING ?0 
DISTANCE ? 0 
RWY HDG ? 246 
STATION # ? 4 
TACAN 
BEARING ?0 
DISTANCE ? 0 
STATION # ? 2 
ILS 

BEARING ? 200 
DISTANCE ? 14 
RWY HDG ? 220 
STATION # ? 5 
TACAN 

BEARING ? 200 
DISTANCE ? 14 
STATION # ? 3 
ILS 

BEARING ? 304 
DISTANCE? 19 
RWY HDG? 15 
STATION # ? 6 
TACAN 

BEARING ? 304 
DISTANCE? 19 
STATION # ? 0 
ACFT BRG ? 0 
DISTANCE ?0 
HDG ? 246 
FUEL ? 
WINDDIR? 
VEL ? 



Adams Field 
Little Rock 



2 ILS 
5 TACAN 



Before you make the last 
entry, make sure throttle is 
pulled back. Initialization will 
take about a minute. I did not 
input any ADF stations in this 
example, however, the ADF and 
TACAN stations may be put 
anywhere to aid navigation. 



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select a station for which you have not input a position. 

Supplemental Listing for those with 32K. The following 
lines should be added, or altered as indicated, once the 16K 
main listing has been typed in. That listing begins on page 
60. 

30 FOR S=l TO 9:N(S)=0:NEXT 
40 SOTO 55 

50 GLS:PRINT"YOU have ENTERED CO 
ORDINATES FORTHE FOLLOWING STAT I 
ONS : " 

53 PRINTS*<1> ; : PRINTS* <2> ; : PRINT 

S* <3> ; : PRINTS* (4) ; : PRINTS* (5) ; : P 

RINTS*(6) ; IPRINTS* (7) ; :PRINTS*(8 
) ; : PRINTS* (9) 

55 PRINT: INPUT" WHAT STATION NUMB 
ER <0-9>";S:lF S>9 THEN 50 
70 PRINT: PRINT"STATION";S; "IS AN 
I LS " : I NPUT " STAT I ON BEAR I NS ( 0-3 



58 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

True lower case characters 
User- friendly full -screen 
editor 

Right justification 

Easy hyphenation 

Drives any printer 

Embedded format and 
control codes 

Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
1 elewriter gives the Color Computer a 5 1 
column b y 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 




...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
lelewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you cah 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time arid don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you cah get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VIII, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 

Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell "n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete)* wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



...truly a state o fthe art word processor., 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power arid efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Calif ornians add 6<Fo state tax. Allow 2 
weeks for personal checks. Send self-addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from GCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Micro, 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
information,) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



60) " I A: A«A/57- 29: INPUT "STAT ION D 
ISTANCE (MILES) "ID: D-D»5280:SX (S 
)-D«COS(A) :SY(S)-D»SIN<A) : INPUT" 
RUNWAY HEADING (0-360) " 1 X : RB (S) - 
I NT ( X ) / 57 - 29 : St ( S ) -STR* ( S ) : N ( S ) - 
l:BOTO 50 

80 PR I NT : PR I NT " ST AT I ON " | S| " I S A 

TACAN":BOTO 100 : >>:;>:£:;:£:; 
90 PR I NT : PR I NT "STATION" I S| "IS AN 
ADF":BOTO 100 

100 INPUT "STAT I ON BEARING (0-360 i^SS^ 

) " I A : A-A/ 57 . 29 : 1 NPUT "STAT I ON D I S ft!:::::::::::::*: 
TANCE (MILES) " i D: D«D»5280: SX (S) = 

D»cos (A) : sy (S) -d»s I n ( a ) : s* ( s ) -st i*S=:=E=E=E=E===z=:;i= 

R$(S) :n(S)-i:goto 50 :^>>>5::5^ 

110 CLS : PR I NT : I NPUT " A I RCR AFT BEA :;>>;::::::::■:;:>; 

RING (0-360) " | A: A- A/57. 29: INPUT" ;:::v:::;:::::"::;:i: 
AIRCRAFT DISTANCE (MILES) " I D: D-D 

♦5280 : T X -D»cos (A) : TY-D*S I N ( A ) : I N :::i:i:i>:>x:£> 

PUT " A I RCR AFT HEAD I NG ( 0-360 ) " I X : 

cs-int(X) :Kgg>K 

120 I NPUT "GALLONS OF FUEL (MAX 2 

4, USES 6 GPH 8 2000 RPM)"|X:IF 

X>24 THEN FR-12 ELSE IF X<0 THEN feSi^iS- 
FR— 12 ELSE FR-X-12 ^SKS* 
130 PRINT: I NPUT "WIND DIRECTION ( IS::;:;:::::::;::: 

0-360) " i x: wa— INT(X) +180: input m wi ;!;:S:y:|E$:;:=: 

ND VELOC I T Y ( MPH ) " I X : WS- 1 NT ( X ) :o:£>>>>:;:o 
1 35 CLS : PR I NT : PR I NT 

140 z-joystk (0) : x-joystk ( i ) : if x ;:;>>^:|x^ 

<63 THEN PRINT864, "PLEASE PULL T 
HROTTLE BACK": GOTO 140 
145 CLS 

150 PR I NT: PR I NT: PR I NT "PLEASE ST A >=:>=:=:=:=E=:"-;=:-E 
ND BY. AIRCRAFT IS BEING SERV ^SK:::::!: 
ICED. " ^^go:; 
1640 IF S-0 OR N(S)-0 THEN GOSUB ::>:x:>::S::i:i 
1710 ELSE GOSUB 1810 W£ 
1710 IF D7=15 AND N(S)=0 THEN RE 
TURN ELSE L I NE < 30 , 1 60 > - < S X , S Y > * P 
RESE T : DRAW " C0 I BM83 , 1 70 , X A* < D7 > I B ::::::;::':::>::::;::: 
M- 1 0 , 0 ; X A* < D6 > I BM-7 , 0 1 X A* < D5 ) 1 C 1 
I XA* (15)| BM+7 „ 0 1 X A* ( 1 5 ) I BM+ 10,01 
XA*(15) | M : LINE (128,40) -<IX, IY) ,P 

RESET : C I RCLE ( 1 62 , 92+GX ) , 1 , 0 , . 1 : D 

7-15: D6- 1 5 : D5- 1 5 

8025 IF AL<5 THEN AL-0 

■ + + + ■ 

h ■ + * + + * 

u m w*ww*m* + * 
m m * -P _ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ m. m. 

* ¥ ■ ■# * ■ f n ■ ■■ »■ 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR 



The listing: 



380 
1200 
1650 
1960 
5200 
5800 

END 



041 F 
0841 
0B67 
0FA2 
132C 
1924 
1D47 



Conway, AR 



Station Positioning #2 



V*" = 1 mile 



In this example an arbitrary 
point was chosen and all loca- 
tions referenced to It. Prompts 
and entries as follows: 




Little Rock 
AF Base 



1 ILS 
4 TACAN 



2 ILS 
5 TACAN 



Adams Field 
Little Rock 



STATION # ? 1 
ILS 

BEARING ? 68 
DISTANCE ? 14 
RWY HDG ? 246 
STATION # ? 4 
TACAN 
BEARING ? 68 
DISTANCE? 14 
STATION #? 2 
ILS 

BEARING ? 133 
DISTANCE? 11 
RWY HDG ? 220 
STATION #? 5 
TACAN 

BEARING ? 133 



DISTANCE? 11 
STATION #? 3 
ILS 

BEARING ? 350 
DISTANCE? 16.5 
RWY HDG ? 15 
STATION # ? 6 
TACAN 

BEARING ? 350 
DISTANCE ? 16.5 
STATION # ? 0 
ACFT BRD ? 68 
DISTANCE ? 14 
HDG? 246 
FUEL? 
WINDDIR? 
VEL ? 



The inputs in this example set 
up an identical situation to the 
other one. 



■:*:- 



in* 

ri + 4 



W 



rid* 
1+4 



4 4 4 11 



4 I I I I I 



.".V, 

I I + 



■ F ■ 

■ F ■■ 
lit 



■F I 



4 111- 



I -F ■■ 
III 
4 4 1 
III 



■ I I 



4 4 4 4 1 



■F --F 4_ 
■f"4 B -T 



1 PR I NT "COPYRIGHT WILLIAM 6. FRA 
NKLIN 1982" 

50 PRINT: I NPUT "STAT I ON #"|S:IF S 
>9 THEN 50 

60 ON S+l GOTO 110,70,70,70,80,8 
0,80,90,90,90 

70 PRINT" ILS": INPUT"BEARIN6"| A: A 

- A/57 . 29 : I NPUT " D I STANCE "|D: D-D*5 

280: SX (S) -D*COS (A) : SY <S )-D»SIN < A 

) : INPUT"RWY HDG"! X:RB(S)-INT(X) / 

57. 29: GOTO 50 

80 PR I NT " TACAN " : GOTO 100 

90 PR I NT "ADF": GOTO 100 

100 INPUT"BEARIN6"} A: A-A/S7.29: I 



NPUT "DISTANCE" I D: D-D* 5280: SX <S> « 
D*COS<A) :SY<S)-D»SIN(A) :GOTO 50 
110 I NPUT "ACFT BRG"|A:A-A/57.29: 
I NPUT " D I STANCE " I D : D«D*3280 : T X-D* 
COS <A) : TY-D*SIN (A) : INPUT"HDG" ; x: 
CS-INT(X) 

120 INPUT"FUEL"|X:IF X>24 THEN X 
=24 ELSE IF X<0 THEN X-0 ELSE FR 
-X-12 

130 INPUT"WIND DIR. "|X:WA-INT(X> 

+180: INPUT"VEL"|X:WS-INT(X) 

170 DIMA*(15):F0R X-0 to 15: read 

A* (X): NEXT X 
210 PH0DE4 , 1 : PCLS0 : SOSUB5000 

300 Q7-i:Q6-i:Q5-i:Q8-.01:h-0:al 
*0: C7-9: C6-9: C5-9: lr-40: pi-1 : TIM 

ER-0 

320 H-T I MER : T I MER-0 : TH-TH+H 

330 Z-JOYSTK < 0 ) : R-63- JOYSTK ( 1 ) : B 

-JOYSTK (2) -31 : EP- (JOYSTK (3) -31 ) / 



60 the RAINBOW June, 1983 





0 




m 



0 



£1Vf)IC0TT SOfW&fiE 

JOYSTICKS 



DEALER & CLUB INQUIRIES INVITED 



0 



o7 



AFFORDABLE 

ONLY 
$19.95 

TWO FOR 

$37.95 



■ v ^ 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



"...provided the best feel 
of all the joysticks tested. 
...(a) rugged unit at an 
affordable price." 

- 80 MICRO, March 1983 

"In use, we found the 
ENDICOTT JOYSTICK to 
be smooth and respon- 
sive." 

- the RAINBOW, 
October 1982 



Tired of broken joysticks? We offer an affordable joystick based on proven components. Each unit is hand assembled and 
checked to ensure reliability. The handles and internal mechanism have proven to be extremely rugged and reliable under 
extensive use with arcade-type games. The pots function smoothly to provide excellent cursor/cnaracter control. Get 
your joystick programs working the way they should! Our joysticks are backed by a 90 day warranty on material and labor. 



EXCELLENT PROGRAMS FROM LEADING SOFTWARE HOUSES 



PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE ^ 
15% OFF 



* FLIGHT Realistic flight simulator 

^ 8-BIT BARTENDER Party fun 100 + recipes. 

VIKING Go from peasant to King! 
*GANGBUSTERS Lead a life of crime and win! 

PANDORA'S BOX 

Includes: "pac" game, "defender-type" 
game, Divebomb, Blockade, slot 
machine, and Squares (like cube). 

*PREREAD I, II, & III (Three tapes! 
Prepare your preschooler to learn td 

*PHONICS I 

1 tutorial tape, 1 quiz tape. These begin the 
learning to read process. 

*PHONICS II 

Advancement from PHONICS I 



read 



$16.95 
$16.95 
$16.95 
$16.95 
$21.20 



$24*95" $21.20 
$24*95" $21.20 

$2A&* $21.20 



PETROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 

* INSPECTOR CLUESEAU Find the murderer in this 
excellent graphic adaptation of Clue. 

*STAGECOACH Graphic Adventure 

*STRESS EVALUATOR Measure and Manage your stress 



$19.95 
$19.95 



$24.95 



TOM MIX 
15% OFF Until June 7 

* SPACE SHUTTLE Control the Space Shuttle $2&9S 

* DONKEY KING 4 Screens Full action! $2&£fr 

* COLOR GOLF Challenging! Uses full set of clubs. 
TRAP FALL Many "Pitfalls" here! $22*95 

* ESCAPE FROM SPECTRE Graphic Spy Adv. 

* KATERPILLAR ATTACK Look out for spiders! $2^05 
*MOON LANDER 2 games in 1 $XZJ&r 
TAPE DUPE Copies any ML tape. $1&05- 
DISK TO TAPE Dump most disks to tape $1^05" 
TAPE TO DISK Load most tapes to disk $Ji8S~ 
*SPELLING TEST Provides a standard oral quiz. $1A9S' 

MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

SPACE RAIDERS Not just another Invaders game. 

CAVE HUNTER Grab the treasure and outrun 
the creatures. 

HAYWIRE Will drive you BERZERK! 



0% 



$24.60 J — 
$22.90 2l2 
$15.25 /j^t 
$23.75 ~~ 
$15.25 
$18.65 
$15.25 
$14.40 
$15.25 
$15.25 
$16.95 



$24.95 ^ 
$24.95^^ 

$24.95 



ARIZIN 

COLORKIT Full of powerful software development tools, $29.95 
aids, bells and whistles. 



$13.95 



SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

GALAX ATTAX Excellent Galaxian $21.95 

SPACE RACE Excellent Omega Race $21.95 

PLANET INVASION Quick action Defender $21.95 

*SPACE TRADERS Buy stock in universe companies to $14.95 
become the richest. Like Acquire. 

COMPUVOICE A phoneme speech generation program $34.95 

COLORSOFT 

*MATH DERBY Fun while learning! 

ANTECO SOFTWARE 

INTERGALACTIC FORCE Experience trench warfare in 

your X-Wing fighter. 
* HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE MANAGER Menu driven with 

30 household catagories. Screen or printer output. 
*STOCK ANALYZER AND TREND Track your stocks. 

Disk compatible. Optional printer output. 

COGNITEC 

TELEWRITER 64 (For 16, 32, or 64K) $49.95 
THE word processor for the CoCo 



$24.95 
$19.95 
$21.95 



COMPUTERWARE 
MEGAPEDE Most challenging version yet 
SHARK TREASURE Don't get eaten! 
SPACE AMBUSH Action like Galaxian. 
DOODLE BUG Like Ladybug 
RAIL RUNNER Dodge trains and handcars 
PAC ATTACK II Great gobbler. New graphics. 
STORM A real Tempest! 
COLOR INVADERS Like the original 



$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$24.95 
$21.95 



$24.95 
$24.95 2^ 
$19.95 ^ 



Requires 16K Ext. Basic Minimum, if Requires 32K Ext. Basic Minimum. 

Others 16K Std. Basic Minimum. 

ADDITIONAL LISTINGS IN OUR FREE CATALOG. CALL OR WRITE. 
SHIPPING: U.S.A., CANADA AND MEXICO 
WE PAY POSTAGE on all software orders. Add $2.00 for shipping joysticks 
(unless purchased with software - then we'll pay). Please add $2.00 for C.O.D. 
orders (available in U.S.A. only). Allow 2 weeks for personal checks to clear. 

SHIPPING: ALL OTHER COUNTRIES 
Add $2.00 for each software item. Add $3.00 for each Joystick. Items will be 

shipped air mail. 

ALL PAYMENTS MUST BE IN U.S. FUNDS. 

ENDICOTT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 12543, Huntsville, AL 35802 
(205)881-0506 

PHONE OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK! 



VISA 



f ' 1 



188 

340 IF BOB1 OR EP< >PE THEN GOSU 
B 8000 

360 IF AL>0 OR R>12 THEN R=1260+ 
R*20 ELSE R=R*116 

365 IF FR=-12 AND AL>0 THEN R=70 
0 ELSE IF FR=-12 AND AL=0 THEN R 
=0 

367 IF RK30 THEN R1=0 
370 R=Rl+( <R-R1>*.6> :R1=R: X=30+( 
SIN(R/636.6)*15) : Y=100- (COS (R/63 
6.6)*15) : LINE (30, 100) - (RX , RY) , PR 
ESET:LINE(30, 100) -(X, Y> , PSET:RX= 
X : RY=Y 

380 AP=(SIN(6*( (R-2000)/4488)+.5 
7)-. 54)/6 

390 AS=(R*(1-AP)*(1-EP) )/16.66:A 
S=Al + ( (AS-AD*. 1) : IF AS<10 THEN 
AS=0 

400 X=30+(SIN(AS/39.46)*15) : Y=40 
- (COS (AS/39. 46) *15) : LINE (30,40) - 

(ax , ay) , preset: line (30, 40) - (x , y) 
, pset: ax=x : ay=y: ai=as 

405 IF AS<50 THEN EP=-1 

410 IF SSN(W)=-1 THEN W= ( (AP+E 

P)*AS)/15 ELSE W=(1-AL/ 10000) *( 

(AP+EP)*AS)/15 

420 IF AL=0 AND SSN(W)=-1 THEN 
W=0 





WLS NEST 

SOFTWARE 



' WE GIVE A HOOT ' 

16K EXTENDED BASIC UNLESS NOTED. 

LABEL III — develop and maintain a mailing list- 
Print lists or labels in your choice of 1 , 2, or 3 wide. 
Supports 3 or 4 line addresses phone optional 

$19.95 

PROGRAM FILE — organize your cassette files. 
Create and maintain a four field file. Search, sort, 
modify, delete, and display on screen or printer. 

$14 95 

DISASSEMBLER - ASSEMBLER (by Dynamic 
Electronics) Designed torthe beginner who wants to 
learn to write machine language programs 
(EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED) 

$19.95 

CASSETTE TAPES C-05 
$7.50 • Dozen $9.50 • DOZEN WITH BOXES 
PLEASE ADD $1.50 PER DOZEN 
SHIPPING HANDLING 



OWLS NEST SOFTWARE 

P. O BOX 579 
OOLTEWAH, TN 37363 




430 Vl=V5+( (W-V5)*.3) : X=224-(C0 
S(V1)*15) : Y=100-(SIN(V1)*15) :LIN 
E(224, 100)-(VX,VY) , PRESET: LINE (2 
24, 100) -(X, Y) ,PSET: VX=X: VY=Y: V5= 
VI 

440 Z=JOYSTK(0) :B=J0YSTK(2)-31:E 
P=(JOYSTK(3)-31)/188:P=INT(100*( 
EP+ (SIN (6*AP— . 57) +. 54) /6) ) : IF B< 
>B1 OR EPOPE OR POP1 THEN GOSU 
B 8000 

450 AL=AL+(W*H)/4.6: IF AL<=0 TH 
EN AL=0 

460 X=224+(SIN(AL/159)*15) :Y=40- 

(cos ( al/159) *15) : line (224, 40) - (l 
x,ly) , preset: line (224, 40) -(x,y) , 
pset:lx=x:ly=y 

470 X=224+(SIN(AL/1592)*8) : Y=40- 
(COS (AL/ 1592) *8) : LINE (224, 40)- (L 

1,l2) , preset: line (224, 40)- (x,y) , 
pset:li=x:L2=y 

560 fr=fr-( (r*h) /72000000) : if fr 

=<-12 THEN FR=-12 

570 X=224+SIN(FR/25.2)*26: Y=180- 
COS (FR/25. 2) *26: LINE (224, 180) - (F 

x, fy) , preset: line (224, 180)-(x,y) 
,pset:fx=x:fy=y 

580 Z=JOYSTK(0) :B=J0YSTK(2)-31:E 
P= ( J OYSTK ( 3 ) —3 1 ) / 1 88 : I F BOB1 OR 

EPOPE THEN SOSUB 8000 
1190 IF AS<=0 THEN 1310 
1200 BC=-10* (COS ( (B/31) +1.570796 
3) ) :CS=CS+BC: IF CS>360 THEN CS=C 
S-360 ELSE IF CS<=0 THEN CS=CS+3 
60 

1310 C=INT (CS+. 5) : IF C=C1 THEN 1 
350 ELSE C2=INT(C/100) :C3=INT(C/ 
10) - ( 10*C2) : C4=C- ( 100*C2) - ( 10*C3 
) : C1=C: DRAWC0; BM134, 23; XA* (C7) ; 

ci;xa*(C4) ; ":C7=C4 

1320 IF C3=C6 THEN 1350 ELSE DRA 
W"C0;BM126,23; XA* (C6) 5 CI ; XA* (C3) 
; " : C6=C3 

1330 IF C2=C5 THEN 1350 ELSE DRA 
W"C0;BM118,23; XA*(C5) ;Cl; XA*(C2) 

; " : C5=C2 

1350 X=30+SIN(C/57.2)*10: Y=160-C 

OS(C/57.2)*10:CIRCLE(CX,CY) , 1,0: 

CIRCLE (X,Y) , 1, i:cx=x:cy=y 

1360 Z=JOYSTK(0) :B=J0YSTK(2)-31: 

EP= ( J OYSTK ( 3 ) -3 1 ) / 1 88 : I F BOB1 O 

R EPOPE THEN SOSUB 8000 

1510 IF AS=0 THEN 1610 ELSE CD=( 

AS*5.28*H) /216: A=CS/57.29: X=CD*C 

OS (A) : Y=CD*SIN(A) : TX=TX+X : TY=TY+ 

Y 

1520 IF AL=0 OR WS=0 THEN 1610 E 
LSE WD=(WS*5.28*H) /216: A=WA/57.2 
9: X=WD*COS (A) : Y=WD*SIN (A) : TX=TX+ 
X : TY=TY+Y 



62 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



GIVE YOUR CHILD 

AN UNFAIR 

ADVANTAGE 
IN MATH 




Help your child gain an advan- 
tage by using one of our 
classroom-tested programs in 
number concepts, addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, 
division, fractions, decimals & 
percent, pre-algebra, or one of 
the 15 math games that teach. 



For students in grades K through 9, on tape or disk. For 
TDP and TRS-80 32K Color Computers with extended 
basic. These professional-quality programs use high res- 
olution graphics with text and sound. They have 
been written by experienced teachers, tested and re- 
vised to provide high-quality and highly motivating 
instruction. And while you are asking, ask to see 
our reading and language programs as well. 



ASK FOR MICRO SCHOOL 
PROGRAMS BY NAME at your 
local computer store. 




Wn nir 

i 



BERTAMAX INC. 

Max Jerman. Ph.D.. 
President 




BERTAMAX INC 



PERSONALIZED INSTRUCTION ON PERSONAL COMPUTERS 




© 1982 Bcrtamax. Inc. • if] NJckerson St.. *202 • SeaUJe, WA 98109 • (206)282^6249 



1610 S*=INKEY*:IF S*= ,,M THEN 164 
0 

1620 X=VAL<S*> : IF X>10 THEN 1640 

ELSE GOSUB 1710 
1630 DRAW "C0;BM 126, 170; XA* <S> ; CI 

;xa*(X); ":s=x 

1640 IF S=0 THEN GOSUB 1710 ELSE 

GOSUB 1810 
1645 Z=JOYSTK<0) :B=J0YSTK<2)-31: 
EP= (JOYSTK (3) — 31 > / 188: IF BOB1 0 
R EPOPE THEN GOSUB 8000 
1650 GOTO 2100 

1710 if d7=15 and s<7 then retur 
n else line (30, 160>-(sx,sy) , pres 
et:draw m C0;bm83, 170; xa*(D7) ;bm-i 
0, 0; xa* (d6) ; bm-7 ,0; xa* (d5) ; ci ; xa 
* ( 15) ; bm+7, 0; xa* ( 15) ; bm+10, 0; xa* 
(15) ; ": line (128, 40) -(ix, iy) , pres 

ETC CIRCLE ( 162, 92+GX) , 1,0, . l:D7=l 
5:D6=15:D5=15 

1720 IF PP0INT(38, 17) =0 THEN GOS 
UB 5000 

1730 screen 1,0: return 

1810 bx=sx (S)-tx:by=sy(S)-ty:sd= 
sqr(bx~2+by a 2) 

1811 if bx=0 then bx=.001 

1812 if by=0 then by=.001 

1820 x=by/bx:if bx<0 then 1830 e 
lse sb=atn ( x ) : goto 1835 

1830 SB=ATN(X)-3. 1416 

1835 X=INT( (S/3)+.9) :0N X GOTO 1 

839, 1939,2039 

1839 IF SD/5280M0 THEN 1710 

1 840 C A=SB- ( RB ( S ) - 1 . 5708 ) : DB=COS 
(CA):IF ABS (DB) >. 2588 THEN 1710 
ELSE IF DB>.0523 THEN DB=.0523 E 
LSE IF DB<-.0523 THEN DB=-.0523 

1 850 X= 1 28-S I N ( DB*20 ) * 1 5 : Y=40+CO 
S (DB*20) *15: LINE ( 128, 40) - ( IX, IY) 
, PRESET: LINE ( 128, 40) - ( X , Y) , PSET: 

ix=x: IY=Y 

1860 X=( (AL/ (SD-1000) )-. 04366) *1 
000: IF X>18 THEN X=18 ELSE IF X< 
-18 THEN X=-18 



1870 CIRCLE ( 162, 92+GX) , 1,0, . l:CI 
RCLE(162,92+X) , 1 , 1 , . 1 : GX=X:GOTO 
1940 

1939 IF SD/528>999 THEN 1710 

1940 X=30+SIN(SB)*15: Y=160-COS(S 
B)*15:LINE(30, 160)-(SX,SY) ,PRESE 

t:line(30, 160)-(X, y) ,pset:sx=x:s 

Y=Y 

1950 SD=INT (SD/528) : IF SD=D1 THE 
N RETURN ELSE D2=INT (SD/ 100) : D3= 
INT (SD/ 10) - ( 10*D2) : D4=SD- ( 100*D2 

)-(i0*D3) :di=sd:draw"C0;bm83, 170 
;xa*(D7) ;ci;xa*(D4) ; ":D7=D4 

1960 IF D3=D6 THEN RETURN ELSE D 
RAWC0; BM-10, 0; XA* (D6) ; CI ; XA* (D3 

) ; " : D6=D3 

1970 IF D2=D5 THEN RETURN ELSE D 
RAW"C0; BM-7, 0; XA* (D5) ; CI ; XA* (D2) 
; ":D5=D2: RETURN 

2039 IF SD/528M999 THEN 1710 

2040 X=30+SIN(SB)*15: Y=160-COS(S 
B)*15:LINE(30, 160)-(SX,SY) ,PRESE 

t:line(30, 160) -( x, Y) , pset: sx=x:s 

Y=Y : RETURN 

2100 Q1=INT (TH/3600) : IF Q1=Q8 TH 
EN 320 ELSE Q2=INT (TH/216000) : Q3 
=INT (TH/36000) - (6*Q2) : Q4=Q1- ( 10* 
Q3) - (60*Q2) : Q8=Q1 : DRAWC0; BM184, 

170; xa* (Q7) ; ci ; xa* (Q4) ; " : Q7=Q4 

2130 IF Q3=Q6 THEN 320 ELSE DRAW 

"C0;BM-7,0;XA*(Q6) ;C1;XA*(Q3) ;": 

Q6=Q3 

2140 IF Q2=Q5 THEN 320 ELSE DRAW 

"C0; bm-10, 0; xa* (Q5) ; ci ;xa*(Q2) ;" 

:Q5=Q2:G0T0 320 

5000 FOR X=30 TO 224 STEP 194:F0 

R Y=40 TO 160 STEP 60: CIRCLE (X , Y 

) ,25, l: NEXT y:next X 

5010 CIRCLE (128, 92) ,55, 1 

5020 LINE (84, 92) -(88, 92) , PSET: FO 

R X=74 TO 110 STEP 6: LINE (86, X ) - 

(88, X) , PSET: NEXT X 

5030 LINE (168, 92) -(172, 92) , PSET: 
FOR X=74 TO 110 STEP 9: LINE (168, 





ik 



16K EXT. COLOR BASIC 8c 
PRINTER REQUIRED 

WORD SEARCH PUZZLE MAKER 



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ANY 3 10X OFF ANY 9 1SX OFF ANY 8 201 OFF ANY 10 23X OFF 



64 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



NOW THERE ARE TWO TOOLKITS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



The software development tools that let you put even more power into the already 
powerful Color Computer. They're full of tools, aids, bells and whistles useful to the BASIC 
or MACHINE LANGUAGE programmer, in friendly, easy-to-use software packages. 

BOTH TOOLKITS CONTAIN . . . 

• Light characters on daric background with Current Line Highlighting; or normal characters 

• Full Screen Editor with Arrow Key controlled cursor; open up space/delete and close up space 

• Enabling selective Line Renumber/copy/move/merge; or normal Extended Basic line editor 

• Protect the current BASIC program from being wiped out with a CLOAD, NEW etc.; or from being LISTed 

• Restore a protected BASIC program/Append any number of BASIC programs together easily 

• Tone on keypress or normal silent keys (Tone modifiable by use of Sound an Command) 

• Global Search of command or text strings in BASIC programs With wildcard character and next 

• 9 Screen Print Delays with keyboard override (for slow, readable LISTings and DISK DIRectories) 

• Variable Name List/String-Byte memory usage/Range of FREE MEM/Top of memory address display 

• Fast Machine Code to BASIC DATA converter for storing machine code visibly in BASIC 

• (C)SAVEM address/ Backup Tool (Last file name, start end and execute address) 

• Recovery of Lost BASIC programs after NEW, BACKUP, DSKINI, etc. 

• Break Key Disable/Enable (Pause keys still available) 

• Modified TRON display (IN replaces (LN) 

THE FULL TOOLKIT ALSO CONTAINS . . . 

□ Merge BASIC with Machine Code routines so machine code is "invisible" and (C)SAVE/(C)LOADable 

□ 9 BASIC RUN delays with keyboard override; Single Step(s) mode with current line number display 
n Memory Examine/Modify with HEX/ASCII/DEC/Double Decimal output and HEX/ASCII input 

□ Memory Block Move for relocating machine code programs, DATA blocks, etc.; or the Kit itself 

□ Ten User Defined Function Keys accessable with @/ number (BASIC Macros/Block storage) 

□ Automatic linefeed for printers that don't/double space LISTings; or normal PRINT 

□ Delete all spaces (not in PRINT strings, DATA or REMARK lines) 

□ ASCII/HEX memory Dumps to screen or printer 

□ Delete all REMarks (either REM or ' type) 

□ Parallel ECHO of screen output to printer 



THESE FEATURES ARE FOUND ON BOTH VERSIONS . . . 

— Transparent to the user. Install it and forget it until you need it 

— BASIC runs up to one-third faster through the Toolkit (5-10% typical) 

— HELP command lists all Kit commands and current Kit address 

— Same program works with tape or disk and in 16 or 32K 

— Entire system totally removable at any time 

— Compatible with other utility programs 

— Green/Orange text screen capability 

— Easily modifiable command syntax 

The Kits are relocatable programs that load any time without bothering your BASIC program or variables or top of 
memory address. All tools may be turned on or Off at will, including the kit itself. 

The tools are available with simple three or four letter commands entered in the direct mode, with the entire instruction 
set viewable through the HELP command. 




The Colorkit is 5K bytes for $29.95 rainbow The Microkit is 2.5K bytes for $27.95 

Available on disk with handy BASIC Kit loader for additional $5 c ° n Ei m Manual available separately for $5 



THE GOOD LIFE 



$16.95 THE DISK COMMANDER 



$19.95 DEER HUNT 



The Classic Game of Life With: 

• 64x64 color symmetrical display 

• 3 Selectable birth and old age colors 

• 15 modifiable pre-programmed 

patterns 

• Save/Load life screens to tape/disk 

• Speeds from 8 gen/sec to 1 a second 

• Joystick or arrow key input 

• Written in user-modifiable BASIC 

• With machine code LIFE processor 

• Help screen command list 

• Tape/Disk compatible 

• Selectable color sets 

• Y&X axis wraparound 



$15.95 



Disk File Utility with: 

• One key vlew/copy/load(m) of flies 

• Two key kill/rename of flies 

• Sort directory on name/extension 

• Pack directory so new files put at end 

• Directory keyword search of filename 

• Print DIR with machine code address 

• Recover killed flies 



• Arcade shooKem-up skill game 

• Aim only for the deer 

• Avoid hitting people, cars, train 

• Will not cause tension headache 

• BASIC/machine code hybrid 

• Tape/Disk compatible 



ARIZIN 



P. O. Box 8825 
Scottsdale, AZ 85252 



X)-( 170, X)»PSET: NEXT X 

5040 FOR 2=1 TO 3:B0SUB 5060: NEX 

T Z 

5050 FOR Z=5 TO 7:G0SUB 5060: NEX 
T Z:60T0 5100 

5060 X=SIN< <6.2832/10)»Z) : Y=COS( 
(6. 2832/10) *Z) 

5070 XA=30+(20*X) : XB=30+(24*X) : Y 

A=40- (20*Y) : YB=40- (24*Y) 

5080 LINE (XA, YA) -<XB, YB) , PSET: RE 

TURN 

5100 DRAW " BM28 , 24 ; XA* (0) ; BM39, 58 

;xa*(1) ;BM10,36;xa*(2) ; " 

5200 FOR Z=l TO 9 STEP 2 
5210 X=SIN( <6.2832/10)*Z) : Y=COS( 
(6. 2832/ 10) »Z) 

5220 X A-224+ ( 20* X ) : X B=224+ ( 24*X ) 
: YA=40- ( 20*Y ) : YB=40- ( 24* Y ) 
5230 LINE (XA, YA) — ( XB, YB) , PSET: NE 
XT Z 

5250 DRAW " BM222 , 24 ; X A* ( 0 ) 5 BM239 , 
36; XA* (2) ; BM233, 58; XA* (4) ; BM210, 
58; XA* (6) ; BM204, 36; XA* (8) ; " 
5300 FOR Z=2 TO 8 STEP 2:X=C0S(< 
6. 2832/10) *Z> : Y=SIN< (6.2832/10)* 
Z) 

5320 XA=224+ <20*X ) : XB=224+ (24*X ) 
:YA=100+(20*Y) : YB=100+(24*Y) 
5330 LINE < XA, YA)-(XB,YB) , PSET: NE 
XT Z 

5340 DRAW"BM237, 1 13; XA* (2) ; BM215 
, 121 ; XA* ( 1 ) ; BM203, 102; XA* (0) ; BM2 
15,85; XA* ( 1 ) ; BM237, 92; XA* (2) ; " 
5350 LINE (114, 15) -(142, 25) , PSET, 
B:CIRCLE(128, 19) , 18, 1 
5400 FOR Z=l TO 5 STEP 2 
5410 X=SIN( (6. 2832/8) *Z) :Y=COS( ( 
6. 2832/8) *Z) 

5420 X A=30+ ( 20*X ) : XB=30+ ( 24*X ) : Y 
A= 1 00- ( 20* Y ) : YB= 1 00- ( 24* Y ) 
5430 LINE (XA, YA) -(XB, YB) , PSET: NE 
XT Z 

5450 DRAW " BM28 , 84 ; X A* ( 0 ) ; BM47 , 1 0 
3; XA* ( 1 ) ; BM28, 122; XA* (2) ; BM9, 103 



; xa*(3) ; " 

FOR Z=2 TO 11 STEP 3:B0SUB 

10: NEXT 

5505 FOR Z=l TO 10 STEP 3:G0SUB 

5510: NEXT: GOTO 5540 

5510 X=SIN( (6. 2832/12) *Z) : Y=COS( 

(6.2832/12)*Z) 

5520 XA=30+(20*X) : XB=30+(24*X) : Y 
A= 1 60- ( 20* Y ) : YB= 1 60- ( 24* Y ) 
5530 LINE ( XA, YA)-(XB,YB) , PSET: RE 
TURN 

5540 DRAW" BM28, 144; XA* ( 12) ; BM47, 
163; XA*(10) ;BM28, 182; XA*(13) ;BM9 

, 163;xa*(14) ; " 

5600 FOR Z=-l TO 1 

5610 X-SIN( (6. 2862/24) *Z) : Y=COS ( 

(6. 2862/24) *Z) 

5620 XA=224+ ( 30*X ) : XB=224+ ( 33*X ) 
: Y A= 1 80- ( 30*Y ) : YB= 1 80- ( 33* Y ) 
5630 LINE (XA, YA)-(XB,YB) , PSET: NE 
XT 

5650 DRAW " BM206 , 1 54 ; X A* ( 1 0 ) ; BM23 
8, 154; XA*(11) ; " 

5660 CIRCLE ( 128, 0) , 140, 1, 1, .23, . 



5670 DRAW"BM128, 135; ND5; BM+12, 0; 

nd3; bm+12, 0; nd2; bm-36, 0; nd3; bm-1 
2,0;d2; " 

5680 LINE(62,161)-(9l,172),PSET, 
B: LINE (163, 161) -(192, 172) , PSET, B 
:LINE(122, 161)-(134, 172) , PSET, B: 
DRAW " BM80 , 169; Ul ; BM+94, 0; N; Dl ; BU 

2;ui; " 

5705 FOR Z=-3 TO 3: A=Z/57. 29: X=S 
IN(A*20) : Y=COS(A*20) : XA=128-(19* 
X) :XB=128-(21*X) : YA=40+(19*Y) :yb 
=40+(21*Y) 

5710 LINE ( XA, YA)-(XB,YB) , PSET: NE 
XT 

5800 DRAW" BM126, 170; XA* (S) 5 " 
5900 RETURN 

7000 data bui;U4;ei;r2;fi;n;g4;d 
4; 61 ; L2 ; Hi ; bdi , BU6; BR2; n; bi ; D6; r 
l ; L2; BLi , BUS; El ; R2; Fl ; Dl ; 81 ; Ll ; 8 



Datacomp Computer Systems, 35 Farmstead Road, Short Hills, NJ 07078 (201) 376-6093 
Call or write to order. Phones are answered 24 Hrs./day, 7 days/week. 



TDP-100, 16 Kfrom $269 
1 00% TRS-80 Color Computer 
compatible. Comes with a pair 
of Joysticks and a rompack. 


C. ItOH Prowriter8510 
parallel printer. ^ 20 CPS 

3K buffer, hi-res graphics 
1 year warranty $395 

Color Computer parallel 
printer interface $69 


TRS-80 Color Computer 

(TDP) Disk Drives 

Drive 0 $415 

Drive 1 $245 


Wabash Diskettes. 1 year 
warranty. Certified 100% 
error free, w/hub rings. !' 
SS/SD $17.50/box of 10 
SS/DD $19.95/box of 10 



NEW! PLANET FURY 

by DCS Software. 32K ext. basic 
req'd. Just like Gravitar in the 
arcade. Hi-res graphics, 6 colors, 
sound. Only $1 9.95 cassette. 



We carry ALL Color Computer 
software including Tom Mix, Spectral, 
Med Systems, Computer Ware, Datasoft 
Intracolor, and more. Up to 25% 
discount. Call for more info! 



All equipment carries manufacturers 
warranty. Prices do not include shipping. 



66 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



WE DO BASIC BETTER! 



Experience High Resolution Graphics 
and Speed Unsurpassed in Color 
Computer Extended Basic Software 



GALLOPING 
GAMBLERS 



Those who have tried It agree that QALLOPINQ 
QAMBLERS}* so addictive, so exciting, that you and 
your whole family will sit cheering for your horse to 
win. 

No Joysticks are required for this 4 player game. Place 
your beta on the variable odds and then wait for the 
sound of post tlme...and ...they're off. 
Game Includes color graphics with score and birds- 
eye view of the race track. Can you last all twelve 
races? 

We dare you to try. , 

$18.95 

GATOR ZONE- 

Is the first video computer game that takea a "byte" 
out of the Preppy craaal You can finally get even with 
those peaty ivy League snobs by blasting away at a 
host of Preppy Gators on their home planet of "Prep- 
tune". You have to be quick, or the gators will gob- 
ble up your shlrtsl This la comic arcade fun at Its best, 
includes high-resolution graphics, on-screen scoring, 
joystick action, and three levels of play. 
An 1MB original I 

$18.95 

STAR SIEGE PLUS- 

Dlacuated with Space Battle games in which your 
space craft looks like an asterisk? 
STARSIEQE lets you and your friend (or enemy) pilot 
two high resolution space ships while trading iaeer 
blasts. The first to take ten hits loses, but watch out 
for that peaty alien aaucerl He wants to see to It that 
you both get vaporized. 

Also Includes two player TANK TORCHER game. 

$18.95 

METEOR STORM- 

If you are bored with apace obstacle games that place 
you aa a distant observer from a point far off in apace, 
then METEOR STORM le for you. Enjoy the thrill of 
blasting the approaching meteors from the cockpit 
of your own spacecraft. Watch the meteors grow in 
size until. . . I 

16K Color Extended Required, includes sound 
enhanced laser blasts, multi game sooring, and three 
levels of play. 



$12.95 



SELECT-A-GAME- 

combinesS of IMB's finest bonus gsmes in one sim- 
ple loadl You can switch back and forth from "ALPINE 
ALIENS", "OH, GOBI", and "ZELDA'S BAT BOTTLE". 
All contain stunning color graphics snd high speed 
sction. Even If you already own one or more of these 
gsmes, you will wsnt this fine package. 

$18.95 

MICRO-MATH 
SKILLS QUIZ- 

Is a fine math drill for students at or below the 3rd 
grade math level. Includes sutomatlc grade tally, and 
I.NKEY entry with large print, high-resolution graphics, 
this is s must for educators I 

$12.95 

CREATAVADER- 

Now you csn dsslgn your own "Invader-style" game 
for your Color Computer. Includes sll the routines 
needed for customizing the crestures you hste the 
most. Full Instructions Included. Crests your own 
tsrgets or select from s menu of seven predesigned 
four color tsrgets. 

$18.95 

COLOR 
WORDCLONE- 

Tum your Color Computer Into s supertypewrlter. 
Screen displays 50 characters by 23 lines In rssl up- 
per snd lowercase. User modifiable. Remove our 
character generator and use It In your own basic pro- 
gram. This Is sn easy to uss word processor. The 
character generator alone Is worth the price of the 
tspe. Works with tspe or disk. 

$18.95 

KOSMIC KAMIKAZE- 

Our best selling high-resolution, deep specs srcade 
game which the RAINBOW called "...the best 
spsceshlp grsphlcs we hsve seen In s non-machine 
language program." Battle high speed alien saucers, 
decoy ships, bonus killer crafts and speeding comets. 



ADVANCED 

STAR*TRENCH 
WARFARE- 

This High Resolution Color Game has the moat 
elaborate graphics of any Color Computer Game 
created to date. You'll be amazed by the remarkable 
speed and flicker-free animation found in this graphic 
spsce challenge. Program Includes a moving trench, 
cockpit perspective, on-screen rapid scoring, energy 
and ship gauges, sutomatlc high score tally, joystick 
control, and a recharge and crash sequence you'll 
have to see to believe. Use your own 3-D glasses and 
add an amazing sense of depth to this clsssic game. 
Truly a must for every Color Computer. 



$18.95 




STARBASE ATTACK- 

Why be a loser? Here's an arcade game you can play 
to win. in other space city defenee games you play 
until you loss. STARBASE ATTACK Is totally different. 
Your mission Is to clear a path for the escape vehicles 
which will carry your people toaafety. Not only that, 
but you must also maneuver your own escape before 
alien warheads or a wave of killer asteroids level your 
dome-covered cities. You control high energy iaeer 
blasts snd expansion shields, but watch outl You 
might end up the one who doesn't escape. 



$18.95 



$12.95 




SUPER DISC WITH ALL 11 PROGRAMS 

A VALUE OF $171.50 JUST $59.95 POST. PAID. 



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P O BOX 289 

WILLIAMSTOWN, MA 01267 
VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED • 
CALL (413) 663-9648 3-7 PM. EST. 



RAINBOW 

t:tp*1 if UATitm 

it 



MENTION THE RAINBOW AND SELECT ONE FREE PROGRAM FOR 

EVERY TWO $18.95 PROGRAMS YOU ORDER. 



4 



2;di;n;R4,bu5;ei;R2;fi;di;gi;n;l 
i;fi;di;gi;l2;hi;bdi,bu2;n;r4;ui 
;E3;D6;BL3 

7010 data bu6;n;R4;D3;ei;R2;fi;d 

2; si ; L2; hi ; bdi , BU6; BR2; n; R2; G2; d 

3;U2;r3;fi;di;gi;l2;hi;boi,bu6;r 

4;di;G3;D2;bli,bui;ui;ei;n;ri;hi 

; ui ; ei ; R2; fi ; di ; gi ; n; li ; fi ; di ; gi 

;l2;hi;boi, bu4;n;fi;ui;ei;r2;fi; 

D2;n;L3;di;G2;L2 

7020 data U6;R4;bd3;bli;L3;D3;n; 

R4,U6;R4;bd3;bli;L3;D3,U6;di;F4; 

n; us; di ; BL4, bus; BR4; hi ; L2; Gi ; di ; 

fi ; R2; fi ; di ; Gi ; L2; hi ; bdi , n; U6; E2 

; n; Ul ; F2 ; N ; U6 ; BL4 , BU6 ; Dl ; F2; E2; N 

;ui;bd4;n;di;h2;G2;di 

8000 TR=INT(B*C0S(B/41)+.5) : IF T 
R=LR THEN 8020 

8010 LINE(126+LR, 130) - ( 130+LR, 13 
0) , PRESET: LINE <128+LR, 130) -(128+ 
LR, 133) , PRESET: LINE (126+TR, 130)- 
(130+TR, 130) ,PSET: LINE (128+TR, 13 
0)-(128+TR, 133) ,PSET:LR=TR 
8020 P=INT(100*(EP+(SIN(6*AP-.S7 
)+.54)/6) ): IF P>20 THEN P=20 ELS 
E IF P<-20 THEN P=-20 
8030 IF AL=0 AND AS<50 OR AL=0 A 
ND SGN (P)=-l THEN P=0 
8040 IF P=P1 AND B=B1 THEN RETUR 
N 

8050 BB=B/93: IF AL=0 THEN BB=0 
8060 X=INT(C0S(BB)*25) : Y=SIN(BB) 




8070 LINE (128+PX,92-Pl+PY)-( 128- 
PX , 92-P 1 -P Y ) , PRESET : C I RCLE ( 1 28 , 9 
2-P1) ,5,0 

8080 line(128+x,92-p+y)-(128-x,9 
2-p-y) ,pset: circle (128, 92-p) ,5, 1 
: pi=p: px=x: py=y: bi=b: pe=ep: retur 
n 



Hint 



Disk Display 



While working on a program to put a direct file access on 
a disk, I ran into the usual problems when writing a program 
and found myself wondering just exactly what my program 
had put into the file. After about 15 minutes of typing 
DSKISO etc., I came up with the following little program 
which will display the entire contents of the disk on the 
screen and shows the track and the sector which it is on. 
Maybe someone else could benefit by this. 

—George Quellhorst 

1 * "DISKSEEK" BY Q-SOFT 

2 'FOR USE BY RAINBOW READERS 

3 CLEAR 500 

4 FOR T=0 TO 34: FOR Y= 1 TO 18 

5 DSKI*0,T,Y,A*,B* 

6 PRINT A*, B* 

7 PRINT "C SECTOR "T" 3 C TRAC 
K "Y" 3 

8 NEXT Y: NEXT T 



This Stagecoach 
No Oscar Winner 



When the bumpy lettering of the Stagecoach title screen 
came up, I thought of young John Wayne in the classic 1939 
western of that name. 

When the instruction page of the 16K Extended Color 
BASIC program told me that my mission was to drive my 
stagecoach over 250 miles of burning sand to deliver the gold 
and the judge's pretty daughter, Annabelle, I put on my best 
Gabby Hayes hat, thumbed a couple of No. 1 buckshot 
rounds into my Greener and climbed up on the box, ready 
for any kind of trouble, be it maraudin' injuns or a band of 
thievin' skonk outlaws. 

What I got when I went to the command screen was a 
series of six commands, such as "drink from canteen," and 
"ahead at a full gallop." Command number five was for 
"graphic display-status check." Good enough. Might as well 
look over the terrain before starting out. 

The terrain, as shown on screen, is a straight line with a 
couple of mountainous bumps on either side, culminating in 
what may represent the town. In one corner of the screen, a 
canteen shows its water level, while another corner shows 
possession of Annabelle and the gold. If Annabelle looks 
anything like her screen picture, the judge may not want her 
back! 

No matter. Onward, says the crusty old stage driver. 

The idea of Stagecoach is to use the various commands to 
make best use of your water and horses, and to cope with 
sandstorms, Indians and the James Gang. To win, you must 
travel the 250 miles and retain both Annabelle and the gold. 

The first time I played this kind of game, I found it in 
"Basic Computer Games, Vol. II," a 1979 Creative Comput- 
ing release. In that publication, the game was Camel. Stage- 
coach is very similar — to the point that many of the reply 
phrases are the same except for the use of "horses" for 
"camel" and "indians" instead of "pygmies." 

Camel's tragic flaw was that it was too random. Seem- 
ingly logical play might get you halfway through, then a 
random number would wipe you out. Stagecoach shares the 
same flaw — there seems to be no reliable strategy. The play 
is too simple to be intellectually involving and too frustrat- 
ing and repetitive to be mindless fun. The graphics used in 
Stagecoach are for naught — the pictures are crude and add 
nothing to the play of the game. Instead of making use of 
CoCo's varied sound repertoire, the authors settled f or a few 
standard beeps and boops, with a couple of out-of-time and 
out-of-tune ditties at the end of play. 

Disk users have to disconnect bef ore loading the program 
from tape, because it uses a low-memory auto run routine 
that writes over disk controller memory. 

Stagecoach, had it been out in early 1980, when CoCo 
users were hungry for any software, would have been wel- 
come. Today, it's sadly behind state-of-the-art. There was 
no price on the review copy, but if Stagecoach sells for 
anything more than a real bargain basement price, your 
money would be better spent elsewhere. 

(Petrocci Freelance Associates, 651 N. Houghton Road, 

Tucson, AZ 85748) 

—Bruce L. Sublett 



68 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



COMPUTER SHACK 



COLOR OFT (Direct File Transfer) 
Disk or Tape 

At last a terminal program forthe color computer that allows you 
to send and receive machine language programs without any 
conversion routines. Send directly from disk to disk or tape to 
disk. DFT will send and receive any type of program machine 
language, basic, text files, datafiles etc. from a color computer, 
Model I, Model II! or a Bullet 80 system. DFT has a chat mode 
and has software controlled half and/or full duplex. You must 
have a modem in order to use DFT. 

Tape Version $24.05 Disk Version $20.05 

COLOR TAPE COPY $15.05 

By Gob Withers 

There have been few copy programs on the market for the Color 
computer but none can compare with Color Tape Copy. This 
program is designed so that you don't lose any of youryaulable 
programs or data bases. 

It will make a backup of any Color Computer Tape; Machine 
language, data, or basic program. 

First load color tape copy into your CC. Then it prompts you to 
put your original copy into the recorder. After it loads the 
program into memory it tells you to put a blank tape into the 
recorder and press the record button. It then writes the program 
to a new tape. 

You'll never have to worry about your little kids destroying, your 
$20.00 tapes. 16K. 

TELEWRITER - 64 

Best word processor for the Color Computer. 

Tape $40.05 Disk $50.05 

DRAG0NQUEST 

A new text adventure by Charles Forsythe. You must rescue the 
princess from the Smaaegor Monarch of Dragonfolk. All Machine 
language. Fast, Exciting and only $15.05 

MADNESS AND THE MINOTAUR 

A classic adventure game utilizing two word commands. 
Price $10.05 

BUG0UT 

A compact but very powerful rrionitorforthe6809 microprocessor. 
Only $10.05 

MISADVENTURE SERIES 

MADAM ROSA'S MASSAGE PARLOR 

Tape $15.00 

WET T-SHIRT CONTEST 

TaDe $15.00 



COMPUTER SHACK'S 



PROGRAMMING THE 6809 

By Rodney Zaks & William Labiak $1 4.95 

This book explains how to program the 6809 in assembly 
language, covering all aspects progressively and systematic- 
ally. Beginning with the basics of programming, Programming 
the 6809 goes on to explain registers and buses, subroutines, 
the 6809 instruction set, addressing modes, I/O techniques and 
devices, and finally, data structures. With this knowledge, you 
will be able to give your 6809 processor 1 6-bit performance 
with 8-bit economy. No prior programming knowlede is required. 

TRS-80 COLOR PROGRAMS 

by Tom Rugg and Phil Feldman $19.95 

Here are 37 fully documented programs ready to type into your 
color computer. These programs promise to be educational, 
practical, and in almost all cases, fun. 332 pages. 

COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

by Ron Clark $9.95 

The complete handbook on howto do colorvideographics, with 
ready to run programs. Learn all about low, medium and high- 
resolution graphics, and how to create each. 138 pages. 

TRS-80 COLOR BASIC 

by Bob Albrecht $9.95 

With this book you can teach yourself BASIC, the language of 
the TRS-80 and many other computers. Packed with games, ex- 
periments, programming problems and solutions, this entertain- 
ing self-instructional book is the ideal introductory aid for kids, 
parents and teachers. 378 pages. 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

byDonlnman $14.95 

Explore the creative and imaginative blending of computers 
and color using Color Computer Graphics. This book will enable 
you to explore all the graphics capabilities of Extended Basic, 
you will learn how to create interesting graphicsto enhance you 
own computer programs. The book also provides application 
programs and useful subroutines 303 pages 

COLOR COMPUTER S0NGB00K 

by Ron Clark $7.95 

40 of the world's best known songs, scored for easy playing on 
the TRS-80 Color Computer, including many favorite popular, 
classical, folk and seasonal musical selections. Some of which 
include Dixie, Minuet, Greensleeves, Jingle Bells, Yellow Rose 
of Texas, etc. 96 pages 



COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313)673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 302-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 
Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list. 



ODLE BUG 



DOODLE BUG is a machine 
language high resolution 
graphics game for one or 
two players who move their 
Ladybugs through an ever- 
changing maze gobbling dots 
and other items while avoid- 
ing Enemy bugs and Skulls. 
Excellent Graphics. 
Similar to Lock N' Chase™ 
Tape. . . $24.95 Disk. . . $29.95 



COLORPEDE 

Colorpede has a variety of bugs 
ranging from a tiny bettle to the 
gigantic colorpede. Colorpede 
has better graphics than Kater- 
pillar but the sound is not as 
good. Colorpede also has a 
more varied and complicated 
play routine. 1 6K. 
Tape $29.95 



DONKEY KING 

Using the four stages from the 
original acrade game, with your 
joystick in hand try to jump the 
barrels, collect the pins, 
manuever your way pastthe fall- 
ing jacks, and figure out the crazy 
conveyor belts. Written by Tom 
Mix, this ones sure to become a 
classic! 32K 

Tape . . . $24.95 Disk . . . $27.95 




Now you can deduct up to 20% on the price of 
games: buy any 2 games deduct 10%, buy any 3 
games deduct 1 5%, buy any 4 games deduct 20% 
from games prices. 



PACDROIDS 

With its space theme, the Super 
Saucerlaysdestructominesand 
the Super Bomb that disinte- 
grates everything in your path, 
right up to the wall. The maze 
changes every 1 0,000 points as 
the difficulty escalates. 1-4 
players. 16K extended basic. 

Tape $1 9.95 

MEGAPEDE 

Could this be the best 
Centipede yet? 
Computerwares new addition 
to the field, super graphics 
and sound. 

Tape. . . $21.95 Disk. . . $26.95 



PHANTOM SLAYER 

You must chase the phantoms 
and kill them with your assort- 
ment of weapons. This is a graph- 
ics type maze/adventure game 
with full screenthree dimension- 
al graphics. You are armed with 
a laser pistol, and proximity de- 
tector. 1 6K. 

Tape $19.95 

SHARK TREASURE 

Dive down through the 
sharks and salvage the gold. 
Armed with special flash 
bombs you fight off the 
sharks. Excellent game. 
G reat graphics , sound. From 
Computerware. 
Tape. . . $21.95 Disk. . . $26.95 

GHOST GOBBLER 

Ghost Gobbler is an excellent 
version of Pac-Man". You must 
gobble all the food dots while 
avoiding the ghosts. There are 
four energizer dots which will 
make the ghosts turn blue and 
become scared. This is the best 
copy of the arcade game. 1 6K. 
Tape $21 .95 



COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac* Michigan 48054 
Info: (313)673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 302*6061 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Pleas© add $3.00 for shipping in the USA ■ $5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 
Dealers: We are distributors for ait items in this ad Write for our catalog and price list. 





■ TOP TEN 1 










FOR THE COCO 




1). 


DONKEY KONG 




2). 


COLORPEDE 




3). 


ROBOTTACK 




4). 


7i yvniM 

+ I r H h+r-iH rr -^h P 1 f \ f\ % 1 




5). 


DOODLE BUG 




6). 


SHARK TREASURE 




7). 


ASTRO BLAST 




8). 


PLANET INVASION 




9). 


SPACE RACE 




10). 


; GHOST GOBBLER 





ROBOTTACK 

Manuever your way 
around the screen in a last 
desperate attempt to save the 
human family. As the robots 
grow in number, use your 
lasers to eliminate them and 
your superior manuevering 
to avoid their deadly grip. 

ROBOTTACK is a 100% 
machine, 1 to 2 player arcade 
action game for the entire 
family. 16K CoCo. 
Tape. r $24.95 Disk.. $27.95 



HAYWIRE 

This is Mark Data's version of 
Beserk". Super Colors and dy- 
namite sound effects in this fast 
paced arcade game for one or 
two players. The exciting com- 
bination of angry robots an the 
Indestructible Menace will pro- 
vide hours of action filled fun. 
Tape $24.95 





1 ?34^b 






— 1 




1 1 




>y.' 












-r *y* 








- ' 


** 






11 V 






20*24 = 




YES THATS RIGHT 20 PLUS 24 EQUALS 1. 
TRANSLATED THAT MEANS 20% DISCOUNT ON 
SOFTWARE ORDERS OF 4 OR MORE ITEMS PLUS 24 
HOUR DELIVERY MAKE US YOUR #1 DEALER. TRY US 
AND SEE! WE HAVE OVER 50 DIFFERENT PROGRAMS 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER. 



ASTRO BLAST 

Your routine space patrol in an 
outer galaxy sector becomes a 
life and death struggle with alien 
invasion forces advancing to- 
wards Earth. Wave after wave of 
attack squadrons challenge you 
in this superhi-res machine lang- 
uage shoot-em-up game. One or 
two players. 16K. 
Tape version $24.95 



SPACE RACE 

Maneuver your ship around the 
four cornered "race track" in 
space while destroying hordes 
of alien ships. As you fly around 
the "race track" bouncing off the 
walls, watch out for mines laid by 
the swarmers. Great color and 
sound and a new approach. 1 6K. 
Tape $21.95 



Four great reasons why you should buy from Computer 
Shack (1 ) We have a toll free line, it costs you nothing to call 
us. (2) We ship all orders out within 24 hours (3) Most of our 
salespeople have color computers and they will be more than 
happy to help you pick out games, books, etc. (4) If you buy 
morethanoneprogramwewillgiveyouadiscount. If you buy 
2 programs you can take 1 0° < off both programs. If you buy 3 
programs you can take 15°< off and if you buy 4 or more 
programs you can take 20°o off the price of all four. 

We are still in need of some additional people to add to our 
top ten panel. If you are interested send us a listing of your 1 O 
favorite games. 

We carry many programs that are notinourad's, please call if 
there ts a special program you want 



MONKEY KONG 



\ 



Once again, Mario jumps into 
action. Avoiding rolling barrels, 
ramps, ladders, and killer flames 
while trying to save the beau- 
tiful girl from the clutches of the 
giant ape. Written by Ken Kalish 
its so much like the arcade ver- 
sion, you might try to insert a 
quarter. 16K. 

Tape $1 9.95 



RAIL RUNNER 

Something like Frogger™. 
But with a difference. 
Excellent hi res graphics and 
exciting play. 
From Computerware. 
Tape... $21.95 Disk... $26.95 





SPACE TRADER 

Establish vast interstellar shipp 
ing lanes and purchase stock in 
the companies that control 
those trade routes. This is a multi- 
player board game with graph- 
ics. This is a game for the think- 
ers, it takes more than a quick 
hand to win this one. 16K 
Tape $21 .95 

PLANET INVASTI0N 

A great new Defender action 
game, its success insured by its 
spellbinding graphics and mar- 
velous sound, but most of all by 
its controlability. Using both the 
keyboard and the joystick, you 
manuever your way through this 
revolutionary new game. 16K 
Tape $21 .95 

VENTURER 

Fantastic arcade game comes 
to life on your Color Computer 
screen. Upon entering each 
room you'll find new treasures 
and new challenges. Using your 
joystick, get the treasure while 
fending off the attacking crea- 
tures. This great new adaptation 
be Aardvark will put excitement 
back into your Color Computer. 
16K 

Tape $1 9.95 

GOLF 

Aardvark has brought this age old 
game to your Color Computer. 
With sandtraps, trees, water 
holes, and a great sound track, 
you just might mistake it for the 
real thing. Choose your club and 
select a swing, if you make it to 
the green you can even putt. 
16K extended color basic. 
Tape $9.95 






COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 

Info: (313) 673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 302-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. * Canada * Mexico. 
Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list. 



TURN OF THE SCREW 



Memories Of The PROM 

By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This month I would like to take a close look at memory. 
What is a ROM? What is RAM? Or PROM? Or 
EPROM? Or EEPROM? They are all forms of 

memory chips, I think that before I go on, I'd better cough 
up a little background on memory chips. For those of you 
who know all about memory chips. I think that before I go 
on, I'd better cough up a little background on memory chips. 
For those of you who know all about memory chips, bear 
with me while I explain the concept of memory to those who 
are not quite up on the subject. 

The first thing I'll look at is memory chips in general. A 
memory chip is a device which holds a certain amount of 
information. How much information it holds depends on 
the chip itself. It can be anywhere from IK by 1 to 6K by 8 
and more. (1K=1024) More on this later. A memory chip is 



wild party 

A naughty, sexy computer game 
for 2 to 6 couples. 
Different exciting action 
every time you play. 
Your parties will be 
the hit of your neighborhood 
All prompts from TVscreen, 
no need to read 
complicated instructions. 

On cassette tape. 
For 16K Color Computer. 
Extended BASIC not required. 



$35*00 incl postage. 
(PA resid add $2 JO) 
Send check to PoO. Box 210, 
Jenkintown, PA 1901+6 

shoehorn 

"squeezing big jobs 

into little computers" 



much like a telephone book. You look up a name and it gives 
you a telephone number. The name (in the phone book) is 
equivalent to the address lines of a memory chip. The tele- 
phone number (in the book) is equivalent to the data lines of 
a memory chip. Your fingers are equivalent to the CPU 
(Central Processing Unit), in this case the MC6809. 

Let's take a look at the address lines first. A typical 
memory chip has between 10 and 14 address lines. This 
depends on how much memory the chip has. Address lines 
on a chip form a binary number (quick, look up binary 
numbers in your nearest math book). Each number is one 
memory location. One memory location is one byte. If the 
chip has 10 address lines then it has 2 to the power of 10 
different combinations. That is 2*2*2*2*2*2*2*2*2*2 and 
that is equal to 1024. (Is my math right?) In this chip (or 
phone book) there are 1024 bytes (or names). The CPU (or 
figures) can ask to look at any one of these bytes by giving 
the memory chip a binary number. This number, in the form 
of address lines then, tells the memory chip, what byte of 
information the CPU wants. This is the function of address 
lines. 

The CPU gives the memory chip a binary number that 
corresponds to the address of where the byte is to be found. 
The memory chip then reacts by giving the CPU the infor- 
mation that is stored at that location, with the data lines. 
Data lines (like address lines) form a binary number. 
Memory chips can have from 1 to 16 data lines. Each line is 
known as one bit. Four bits make one nibble. Two nibbles or 
eight bits make one byte. Two bytes or 16 bits make one 
word. Most microprocessors work with 8 bits or 1 byte. 
Some work with 16 bits or one word. The Color Computer 
works with 8 bits. That means the CPU in the computer has 
8 data lines or an 8-bit data bus. A bus is no more than wires 
that connect all of the chips together. 

The last set of lines that are associated with the memory 
chip are control lines. Two of these lines include power and 
ground to the chip. The rest of the control lines are quite 
invisible to the user. The only one that is of interest is the 
chip select. This line tells the memory chip when to activate. 
Since there are usually more than one memory chip in a 
computer system, there must be a way of controlling which 
chip is to be giving or taking data from the CPU. This is 
where the chip select line comes in. A memory chip will not 
give or take data unless this line is activated. Well, that's 
enough on memory chips in general. 

ROM stands for Read Only Memory. In this type of 
memory, the information that is in it cannot be changed, 
erased or lost. ROM memory is non-volatile. As soon as 
power is applied to a ROM, the data is available. The data in 
these chips was entered into it when the chip was made at the 



72 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



factory. Anyone can have a ROM made with their own data 
in it, but there is usually a minimum order of about 1000 
pieces. It also takesa long timef or delivery. Not practical for 
a home user. A ROM is said to be masked with the data 
when produced. All computers need at least some ROM 
memory in order to function. The Color Computer has 
Color Basic in ROM. Without ROM the computer would 
not be able to do anything. 

RAM stands for Random Access Memory. This is quite 
different from ROM. RAM memory can be changed, erased 
and lost. When power is applied to a RAM chip, there is 
nothing in it. The computer can put any data it wants in it 
and change the data that is in it whenever it wants. One thing 
about RAM is that as soon as the power is removed from the 
chip, the data that was there is lost forever. RAM memory is 
volatile. 

PROM stands for Programmable Read Only Memory. 
This chip is much like the ROM. The difference is that a 
PROM is blank. It has no data in it. All of the bits in a 
PROM are HI. With the proper accessories a user can put 
any data into a PROM. Once the data is entered or pro- 
grammed into the chip, it becomes just like a ROM. It has all 
the properties of a ROM. It cannot be changed, erased, or 
lost. The only exception to that is, if a PROM is pro- 
grammed more than once, the data can become very 
scrambled and totally useless. 

EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only 
Memory. This chip is very much like a PROM. The major 
difference is that (like the name says) it can be erased. An 
EPROM is like a PROM but has a little window in the chip 
that exposes the internal circuits. When an EPROM is 
exposed to ultraviolet light it is erased. To protect an 
EPROM from being erased, a small sticker is placed over 
the window. All the bits return to their original state of HI. 
An EPROM can then be re-programmed with different 
data. It can be re-used over and over again. 

EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programma- 
ble Read Only Memory. This chip is much like the EPROM. 
The difference is that, instead of using a window and ultra- 
violet light to erase the memory, an electrical pulse is used. 
There is no need f or a window or an ultraviolet light to erase 
an EEPROM. 

How are memory chips used in the Color Computer? The 
CPU in the Color Computer is a MC6809E. It has 16 
address lines. That means it is capable of addressing (or 
looking at) 65535 different bytes of memory. Normally it is 
said that this CPU can access 64K of memory. That is like 
having a phone book with 65535 names in it. A 32K Disk 
Color BASIC computer has many memory chips. First, it 
has 32K or RAM. Then it has 8K BASIC ROM, 8K 
Extended BASIC ROM and 8K Disk ROM. There is also 
8K memory not being used. That totals up to 64K of 
memory. That is our full 65535 telephone book. But what if 
you had another phone book? What if you could switch 
between two phone books? That could give you much more 
memory. Or could it? In the Color Computer there is a chip 
called the SAM chip. SAM stands for Synchronous Address 
Multiplexer. This chip has the ability to switch between two 
phone books. EHH!? I mean between different memory 
chips. This gives the computer the capability to access a total 
of 96K bytes of memory. In a full blown Color Computer 
there is 96K of memory. Not all of this memory can be 
accessed at one time (especially with Radio Shack BASIC), 
but with the SAM chip in action and the right software, all 
of the 96K of memory can be used. 

This brings me to the most asked question about the 



Color Computer. "How come, when I put 64K memory 
chips in my computer, I do not get any more free memory 
when I type in PRINTMEM, than with 32K memory?" The 
answer is that the BASIC INTERPRETER was not written 
to handle more than 32K of RAM. It is possible however, to 
use all the available RAM by using the right software. As 
soon as more companies realize that the extra memory is 
there, more and more programs will be written to take 
advantage of the full 64K memory. ^ 



GOLDLABEL 

BLANK CASSETTES 

★ PREMIUM 5 SCREW SHELL 
★COMPUTER DATA QUALITY ★LOW NOISE 
★ MADE IN USA ★GUARANTEED 

1 DOZEN C-10 LENGTH $8.50 + $2.50 shpg. 

2 DOZEN C-10 LENGTH $16.00 + $3.50 shpg. 

1 DOZEN C-30 LENGTH $12.50 + $2.50 shpg. 

2 DOZEN C-30 LENGTH $23.50 + $3.50 shpg. 

Individual storage boxes (sold only with cassettes) $2.40 per dozen. 
CASSETTE CADDY: $3.95 + $2.00 shpg. 

2 for $7.00 + $3.00 shpg. 

Free shipping on one caddy with each dozen cassettes. 

Foreign orders include shipping at 16 oz. per dozen tapes/9 oz. per 
caddy/13 oz. per dozen boxes. Shipped in U.S. by UPS. 

CASSETTE CADDY 

TIRED OF MISPLACED TAPES AND A CLUTTERED WORK AREA? TRY 
OUR HINGED TOP SMOKED PLASTIC CADDY THAT HOLDS 12 TAPES IN 
ONE HANDY LOCATION. EDGE LABELS INCLUDED TO I0ENTIFY TAPES. 




RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Visa and Mastercard accepted (include expiration date) Orders paid by 
cashier's check, money order or bankcard are shipped within 48 hours. 
Personal check takes 1-2 wks. No COD. Some foreign sales are restricted. 
Texas residents add 5% tax. 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES 

P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 

Telephone Orders: (214) 454-3674 9-4 Monday-Saturday 
★ DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED * QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 73 



ifr TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

^ #F0R t he COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616) 364-479> 



"THE FROG" 

(C) 1983 



m 



•••ARCADE ACTION"* 

This one will give you 
hours of exciting play. . . 
Cross the busy highway 
to the safety of the me- 
dian and rest awhile 
before you set out across 
thes swollen river team- 
ing with hidden hazards. 
Outstanding sound and 
graphics. 




16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 

$27.95 TAPE 
$30.95 DISK 




THE 
KING 



1982 

32K Machine Language 
$26.95 tape 
$29.95 disk 



ARCADE ACTION • How high can you climb? Four full graphic 
screens. Exciting Sound - Realistic graphics. Never before has 
the color computer seen a game like this. Early reviews say: 
Just like the arcade - Simply outstanding! 




"YAAZEE" 

(C) 1983 

$19.95 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
EXT. BASIC 



Yaazee is a 2 player game using five dice to get the 
best poker hand. After game is loaded flashing 
digit below player number determines which 
player rolls dice at the start of the game. 



PROTECTORS 



Exciting fast paced arcade 
game that looks and plays like 
the popular arcade game 
"DEFENDER", 

Wave after wave of enemy 
fighters drop bombs on your 
city. Destroy them before they 
destroy your city. Soon the 
mother ships appear firing laser blasts at you. Watch for the 
heat seeking mines. 

$24.95 TAPE $27.95 DISK 32K MACHINE CODE 





SPACE 
SHUTTLE 

1983 
32K Ext. Basic 




$26.95 
TAPE 
ONLY 



This program gives you the real 
feeling of flight. Full instrumenta- 
tion complete to the max. Actual 
simulation of space flight. 32K 
Ext. Basic 




"TRAPFALL" 

By KEN KALISH 
(C) 1983 





VISA 


IMcKtafCod) 







COLOR GOLF 

Now sit at your computer and play 
nine or eighteen holes. Outstanding 
graphics in the fairway or on the 
green. Helps your game. 
32K EXTENDED BASIC $17.95 

ADD $1 .00 POSTAGE & HANDLING 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX 



•••ARCADE ACTION"* 

The "Pitfalls" in this 
game are many. Hidden 
treasures, jump over the 
pits, swing on the vine, 
watch out for alligators, 
beware of the scorpion. 
Another game for the 

Color Computer with the 16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 

same high resolution _ A 

graphics as "The King." TAPE $27.95 

DISK $30.95 

KATERPILLAR 
ATTACK 

Outstanding graphics and sound will 
end all of those trips to the arcade. So 
much like the arcade you have to see it 
to believe it. Requires Ext. Basic. 
16K MACHINE LANGUAGE $21.95 
DISK $24.95 

OTHER GREAT GAMES 

ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K 

BIRD ATTACK-jA fast paced machine language arcade game. 
Shoot the birdmen before they descend upon you. Watch out 
for their bombs ! 16K Machine Language $21.95 

MAZE RACE- Mazerace is a one or two player game. Play either 
against the built in timer or against your favorite opponent. 16K 
Machine Code $17.95 

SOLO POOL-Now play pool with your color computer. Two 
players. Plays like machine language. Super color. High resolu- 
tion graphics. 16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

ADVENTURES 

TREK-16-Travel thru space with Spock and Capt. Kirk. Adven- 
ture. Tough! Ext. Basic. $17.95 

SHIPWRECK-Escape from a desert Isle if you can. Great 
Adventure! Ext. Basic. $14.95 
ESCAPE FROM SPECTRE (Graphic Adventure)- You are a 

secret agent for British Intelligence sent on a mission to obtain 
the secret nerve gas formula being developed by S.P.E.C.T.R.E. 
to destroy the world. 1 6K Ext. Basic $1 7.95 

Call our BBS Number 616-364-8217 24 Hours a Day 

TOP ROYALTIES PAID 
LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 




TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

• FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616) 364-4791 • 



UTILITIES 




COLOR MONITOR-Written in position independent code. (May 
be located in any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 
1174 bytes of memory. Full Featured. Includes Break-Pointing 
of machine language programs, register display and modify, 
memory display and modify, and block memory move com- 
mands. Displays memory in hex and ascii format on one line 8 
bytes long. MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 

ROM-This program is a utility that will move "most" 8K Rom- 
Packs to disk and allow you to run them from disk. Easy to use. 
Requires 64K. $17.95 

SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE Using your Epson or Microline 
Printer. Print the screen contents on a full size 8V2 x 1 1 sheet. 
16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

TAPE DUPE Now — an all new Tape Backup Program. Even 
copies those hard to copy Auto-Execute Programs. Protect 
your software by making a backup copy. Probably the finest 
tape copier program ever. 16K Maching Language. TAPE $21.95 

DISK $25.95 



DISK TO TAPE- Dump the contents of most disk, to tape 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

TAPE TO DISK - Load the contents of most tapes to disk 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

MAIL LIST-Maintain a complete mailing list with phone 
numbers etc. Ext. Basic. DISK BASED $17.95 

THE FIXER-Having trouble moving those 600 Hex progams to 
disk? The fixer will help. Completely automatic. $17.95 

TAPE CAT-AM new machine language program lists contents of 
tapes to printer. Make a catalog of your tapes. $17*95 

PROGRAM PRINTER UTILITY-This program will list basic pro- 
grams to your printer in two column format. Saves paper and 
makes your listing look professional. Disk based. $17.95 





EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE For The Color Computer and TDP 100 



STORY PROBLEMS is a program that is designed to give practice in 
solving STORY PROBLEMS (sometimes called STATEMENT, THOUGHT 
or WORD PROBLEMS) on the COLOR COMPUTER. It is suitable for use 
in either a home or school environment. It is also a tool that will allow 
you to create new story problems to suit your children's needs and abili- 
ty levels. It has many features that make it particularly attractive: Story 
problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division or a 
combination of the four are presented to the student by slowly scrolling 
each letter of each problem onto the screen. Up to 5 students may use 
the program at the same time. There are 4, user modifiabale, skill levels. 
16K Ext. Basic TAPE $19.95 

CLOCK-With the ever increasing use of digital clocks, more and more 
young people are unpracticed in the use of the "ANALOG" clocks. You 
remember those, the ones with the hands. This program will attempt to 
teach the relationship between the two types of clocks. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $14.95 

SPELLING TEST is designed to give a standard oral spelling test using 
the audio track of the computer's tape recorder to dictate test words and 
sample sentences. Student responses are typed on the keyboard and 
checked by the computer. Results are displayed on the screen and (if 
connected) on a printer. REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

MATH DRILL is a program designed to help children to practice addi- 
tion, subtraction, multiplication, and division skills on the COLOR COM- 
PUTER. It has several features that make its use particularly attractive. 

•Up to 6 students may use the program at the same time. 

•Answers for addition, subtraction and multiplication are entered 
from right to left, just as they are written on paper. 

•Commas may be included in the answers. 

• Partial products for the multiplication problems may be com- 
puted on the screen. 

•Division answers that have a remainder are entered as a whole 
number followed by the letter "R" and the remainder. 
•There are ten, user modifiable, skill levels. 

•A "SMILEY FACE" is used for motivation and reward. Its size in- 
creases relative to the skill level. 

•Skill levels automatically adjust to the student's ability. 

•A timer measures the time used to answer each problem and the 
total time used for a series of problems. 

•After a problem has been answered incorrectly the correct answer 
appears under (above in division) the incorrect answer. 

REQUIRES 16KEX1 BASIC $19.95 

WORD DRILL is designed to give a multiple choice vocabulary quiz. 
Words and definitions are entered into the program from the keyboard or 
from a tape file. The computer displays a randomly chosen definition 
and eight word choices. The student must enter his response before a 
built in timer reaches zero. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 



SEARCH-A WORD This Program generates a word search puzzle to your 
specifications. You specify the size of the puzzle and the number of 
words that it is to hide within the puzzle. 16K or 32K Ext. Basic. 
TAPE $17.95 FLEX VERSION $27.95 



EDUCATIONAL PACKAGE - SPELLING TEST - 
WORD DRILL — MATH DRILL — ESTIMATE — 

ALL FOR — $89.95 

ESTIMATE is a program designed to help children to practice estimating 
the answers to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division 
problems on the COLOR COMPUTER. It has many features that make its 
use particularly attractive: 

•Up to 5 students may use the program at the same time. 

•There are 5, user modifiable, skill levels. 

•The acceptable percent error may be changed as a student's skill 
improves. 

•A timer measures the number of seconds used to answer each 
problem and the total time used for a series of problems. 

•If a problem has been answered incorrectly, the student is told the 
percent error and asked to try again. 

•If a problem is answered incorrectly a second time, the student is 
told the correct answer and the range of acceptable answers is 
displayed. 

•A report is given at the end of each set of problems that includes the 
number of problems done, the number of problems answered cor- 
rectly on the first try and the average percent error. 

•The (BREAK) key has been disabled so that a child will not in- 
advertently stop the program from running. 

16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

TEACHERS' DATABASE is a program designed to allow a teacher to 
keep a computerized file of information about his/her students. There 
are many features that make this program particularly attractive. 

• Information on as many as 100 students (or more) may be in the 
computer at one time. 

• Each student may have as many as 20 (or more) individual 
items of data in his/her record. 

• The program will run from cassette or disk. 

• Cassette and disk files are completely compatable. 

• The program is menu driven. 

• Records may be easily changed, deleted, combined or 
added. 

• Information about students may be numerical or text. 

• Records may be quickly alphabetized. 

• Records may be sorted by various criteria. 

• Records may be reordered (ranked) based on test scores or 
other data. 

• Data displayed during a sort may be printed on a printer or 
saved on disk or cassette as a new file. 

• A full statistical analysis of data may be done and sent to the 
printer. 

• Student test scores may be weighted. 32K EXT BASIC TAPE $39.95 




DISC $42 95 

Call our BBS Number 616-364-8217 24 Hours a Day 

• ADD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING • TOP ROYALTIES PAID • 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX • LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 




Be Nice To Your Printer- 
Give It This AL Word Processor 

By D. S. Lewandowski 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This month has been a month for surprises. The 
original topic was going to be a clock for the 80C. 
However, last month (page 20) I see that Mr. Trevor 
beat me to the punch. Rather than being redundant, I tried 
to think of another topic. Burning much of the midnight oil I 
came up with a simple word processing program. It's written 
in two parts; this month we will be able to enter, look at and 
print the text. Next month we will add edit, tape save, and 
tape load features. I realize that there must be a hundred 
word processing programs out there, yet I haven't seen any 
in print except for BASIC listings. I feel that this may break 
some new ground and get us to use some ROM routines we 
would normally overlook. 

When entering the program please use the same line 
numbers, as next month we shall delete the ones concerning 
the additional functions. This listing has been entered using 
the R/S EDTASM+, rather than the Micro-Works 
SDS80C. The reason is quite simple — I grabbed the one 
closest to the computer. By the way, the booklet called 
"USING an EDITOR/ ASSEMBLER" is now available, 
just send your name and address with a 37 cents stamp (two 
20 cent stamps will do) to DSL Computer Products, P.O. 
Box 1113, Dearborn, MI 48121 for a copy. Requests with- 
out return postage enclosed will not be honored. 

The program is fairly straight forward. In line 1 20 the text 
buffer is defined, the location is then stored within the 
program at BU FST, f or buffer start, and BUFEN, f or buff er 
end. The screen is then cleared. In 160 the X register is 
pointed at a sign-on message. Then we branch to PRINT, 
the reason f or calling it as a sub-routine is so we may reuse it. 
Line 180 branches around our reuseable routine to another 
routine at SA393. 1 like to call this routine LINE INPUT, as 
you may enter any keypress, it will terminate with either an 
ENTER or a BREAK key. This routine will make use of a 
buffer at S02DD. It will also reset X to the start location of 
the buffer -1 . For this reason we must take the text from this 
buffer and move it to our buffer prior to reusing the routine. 
This is what is happening at line 250. We load the Y register 
with our current buffer location. As I just mentioned, X is 
pointing at the text just typed in -1, so we need to increment 
X. Since there is no command such as INCX, we load A with 
the contents of X, and increment X, in line 260. Now X is 
pointing at the text we typed in, so we can move it to our 
buffer. Before we do, we will check the contents of A to see if 



either an up arrow, (end text input) or a zero, (end of line) is 
there. Once all the text has been moved, a zero will be 
encountered which will branch us to MORE, in line 360. 
Here a SOD, which is an ENTER key, will be stored in our 
buffer to signal the end of a line. The contents of the Y 
pointer is stored at BUFEN, and the text input is resumed. 

Once an up arrow is encountered, end of input. We 
branch to FIN, for finish. A zero is stored in our text buffer 
to mark end of file. The screen is cleared, and a menu of 
options is displayed, which brings us to WAIT. Using the 
routine at SA1C1, we scan the keyboard for a keypress. 
Once a key is pressed, the valid options are compared to the 
value of the keypress. If a match is found, that routine will be 
executed. If no match is found, line 600 will bring us back to 
WAIT. 

The only options that will function are: C — Continue, 
P — Printer, and X — Exit to BASIC. Pressing E, L, or S will 
refer you to next month's RAINBOW. See you there. 

The listing: 



00100 


ORG 


*E00 




00110 » A SIMPLE TEXT PROCESSOR IN ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 


00120 START 


LDY 


♦BUFF 


GET BUFF LOC. 


00130 


STY 


BUFST 




00140 


STY 


BUFEN 




00150 


JSR 


*A928 


CLS 


00160 


LDX 


tHESl 


PRINT INTRO 


00170 


BSR 


PRINT 


DISPLAY ON SCREEN 


00180 


BRA 


CONT 


60 AROUND ROUTINE 


00190 PRINT 


LDA 


a* 


GET BYTE 


00200 


BEQ 


DONE 


IF ZERO EXIT 


00210 


JSR 


♦A30A 


OUTPUT A TO SCREEN 


00220 


BRA 


PRINT 


LOOP TILL DONE 


00230 DONE 


RTS 


RETURN FROH SUB 


00240 CONT 


JSR 


*A393 


RON INPUT ROUTINE 


002S0 


LDY 


BUFEN 


TEXT POINTER 


00260 


LDA 






00270 LOOP 


LDA 


,x+ 


POINT AT INPUT BUFFER 


00280 


CHPA 


t$5E 


UP ARROW? 


00290 


BEQ 


FIN 




00300 


CHPA 


#0 


END OF LINE? 


00310 


BEQ 


HORE 


GET ANOTHER LINE 


00320 


STA 


,Y+ 




00330 


BRA 


LOOP 




00340 BUFST 


FDB 


0 


BUFF POINTER 


003S0 BUFEN 


FDB 


0 




00360 MORE 


LDA 


H0D 


ENTER BYTE 


00370 


STA 


,Y + 




00380 


STY 


BUFEN 


SAVE LOC. 


00390 


BRA 


CONT 


GET TEXT 


00400 FIN 


LDA 


#$00 


END OF TEXT 


00410 


STA 


,Y 




00420 


STY 


BUFEN 


UPDATE POINTER 


00430 FIN1 


JSR 


*A928 


CLS 


00440 


LDX 


IHES3 




00450 


JSR 


PRINT 


DISPLAY OPTIONS 


00460 WAIT 


JSR 


• A1C1 


INKEY* 


00470 


BEQ 


WAIT 




00480 


CHPA 


#$43 


ASCII C 


00490 


BEQ 


REST 


RESTART 



76 theRAINBOW June, 1983 



00500 

www 




CMPA 

Will II 


#$45 


ASCII E 

ff ff ml mm mm m mm 


00770 


BRA 


WAIT 


00510 




LBEQ 


EDIT 




00780 TMES 


FCC 


/NOT AVAILABLE TILL JULY ISSUE OF 


mi mi \J A mi 

00520 

Ji mi ml mm mi 




W mi mmm mm 

CMPA 

Will' II 


mm mm m I 

i$4C 

W ~ 1 w 


ASCII L 

ff ff W mm m m mm 


RAINBOW/ 






00530 




LBEQ 

mm mi mm mm 


LOAD 

mm mm ff ff mm 




00790 


FDB 


$0D00 


00540 




CMPA 

Will ff V 


i$50 

w ~ w mi 


ASCII P 


00800 MES1 


FCC 


/ A SIMPLE TEXT/ 


00550 

V mf W W V 




BEQ 

mi mm mm 


PAPER 




00810 


FCB 


$0D 


00560 




CMPA 

Will 1 f 


#$53 

m T W mf 


ASCII S 

1 1 W W m m W 


00820 


FCC 


/ HANDLING PROGRAM/ 


00570 

mi mi ml / A/ 




LBEQ 

mm mi mm 14 


SAVE 

W ff V ¥ mm 




00830 


FCB 


$0D 


00580 




CMPA 


#$58 


ASCII X 


00840 


FCC 


/ by D.S. LEWANDOWSKI/ 


00590 




BEQ 


EXIT 




00850 


FDB 


$0D0D 


00600 




BRA 


WAIT 




00860 MES2 


FCC 


/ ENTER TEXT TERMINATE EACH LINE 


00610 


REST 


JSR 


$A928 


CLS 


WITH AN enter. 

m w m m w m mm I I • * ■ 


PRESS 


A KEY AND PRESS ENTER TO STOP./ 

W m mm www m mm W mm mm mmw mmw mm www mm mm W mm mmw m mm m mm 


00620 




LDX 


#MES2 


POINT AT PROMPT 


00870 


FDB 


$0D00 


00630 




JSR 


PRINT 




00880 MES3 


FCC 


/ C - CONTINUE/ 


00640 




LDX 


BUFST 


POINT AT TEXT 


00890 


FDB 


$0D0D 


00650 




JSR 


PRINT 


PRINT TEXT 


00900 


FCC 


/ E - EDIT/ 


00660 




JMP 


CONT 


ENTER MORE TEXT 


00910 


FDB 


$0D0D 


00670 


PAPER 


LDY 


BUFST 


POINT AT START 


00920 


FCC 


/ L - LOAD FROM TAPE/ 


00680 


L00P2 


LDA 




BET TEXT 


00930 


FDB 


$0D0D 


00690 




BEQ 


FIN1 


ALL TEXT PRINTED 


00940 


FCC 


/ P - SEND TEXT TO PRINTER/ 


00700 




JSR 


$A2BF 


SEND TO PRINTER 


00950 


FDB 


$0D0D 


00710 




BRA 


L00P2 




00960 


FCC 


/ S - SAVE ON TAPE/ 


00720 


EXIT 


JMP 


$A027 




00970 


FDB 


$0D0D 


00730 


SAVE 


NOP 






00980 


FCC 


/ X - EXIT TO BASIC/ 


00740 


EDIT 


NOP 






00990 


FDB 


$0D00 


00750 


LOAD 


LDX 


#TMES 




01000 BUFF 


t 




00760 




JSR 


PRINT 




01010 


END 


START 




AUTOTERM+ COLOR COMPUTER 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S 
SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING. 



EASY TO USE 

ON-THE-SCREEN EDITING via cursor. Full prompting. 
Scrolling. Key Beep & Error Beebop. 

PLEASANTLY POWERFUL 

Total communications ability at 110 to 1200 baud. 
Transmit text, graphics, BASIC and Machine Language. 
Save & Load cassette/disk files while on line. Scan/Edit 
current data while receiving more data. Use any modem. 
Fully supports D. C. Hayes & others. Use any printer, 
page size, margins, line spacing. Override narrow text 
width of received data. Imbedded printer controls. 

TRULY AUTOMATIC 

Automate almost any communications activity. Dial via 
modem, sign-on, interract, sign-off. Perform an entire 
session. Act as a message taker. Keystroke Multipliers 
may include parameter changes, editing, time delays, 
execution of other multipliers, looping, waiting for 
partially specified responses, and branching based 
upon alternative responses. 

32K MEMORY RECOMMENDED RAN - - 

CASSETTE $39.95 DISKETTE (coming soon) $49.95 

Add $2 Shipping & Handling 

Telephone 

PXE Computing SOFTWARE CONCEPTS 

11 Vicksburg Lane 214/458-0330 
Richardson, TX 75080 MC/VISA/COD 



AUTO-DIALER 

BY SOUNDWORKS 

AUTOMATIC PHONE DIALER 

El ULTRA HIGH SPEED DIALING AND 
REDIALING 

6^ STORE OVER 50 NUMBERS 
Gf NO MODEM REQUIRED 

NO TONE SERVICE NEEDED 
Sf SIMPLE HOOK-UP 
Sf ADAPTA1LE TO ANY PHONE 
gj 16K EXTENDED REQUIRED 



■ 



CASSETTE $24.95 DISK* 34.95 

Soundworks Productions 

26 EAST 7th STREET 
PATCHOGUE ,NEW YORK 11772 



WW 



mm+m, 



*.* * aiftlMNfS< AOO 7.11% TAX 
i 



June, 1 983 the RAINBOW 77 




C.C. DIALER 



Let your Co. Co. do the "walking". 

Turn your computer into an automatic 
telephone dialer. 

Generate touch tones from C.C.'s keyboard 
or stored directory. 

Save, load and modify directories on tape 
or disk. 

Requires Extended Basic and Touch Tone 
phone service. 

CASSETTE VERSION - $29.95 
VISK VERSION - $34.95 



Send cheque or money order to: 

CHRIS COMPUTERS 
6299 Aiderwood Lane 
Delta, B.C. Canada V^E 3E7 

[B.C. Ro.ud2.ntb include. 6% Saiei Tax) 



fftan* premium 




FOR 
TRS-80 COLOR 



• Fingertip control and greater cursor accuracy 

• "Spring-centering" and "free-floating" stick 
modes at the flip of a switch 

• Comfortable button placement for fast action 




COMPUTERWARE 



Box 668 • 

6809 Specialists Encinitas, CA 92024 

(619) 436-3512 
Computerware is a trademark of Computerware. 



PRINT #-2, 

(continued from page 12) 

For you poster fans, we have bowed to your letters and are 
pleased to be able to announce that we now have a full-size 
poster available of the January, 1983, cover. That's the fine 
acrylic by Fred Crawford of the wizard, dragons, crawly 
creatures and other things that graced our special Adventure 
Issue. Cost is $5 plus $ 1 .50 for postage and handling. We do 
have only a limited supply, so when they're gone, they're 
gone. This poster is really nice and features the full artwork 
plus a Rainbow logo. But, no cover lines, mailing informa- 
tion and the like on the poster! It is designed to be a worthy 
addition to your computer room. 

I don't want to get into the Second Anniversary Column 
early, but I really have to say thanks to the countless thou- 
sands of you who have taken the time to call and write and 
say nice things about us. And, too, to thank you for men- 
tioning us when contacting our advertisers when you have 
occasion to buy or inquire about a product. 

By far, we are the largest selling Color Computer maga- 
zine in the world — both in terms of size and of circulation. 
We've been able to achieve that distinction because of your 
fantastic support of what we have been trying to do. 

I hope you will continue to support us. We intend to keep 
your interests paramount. And, although there are a lot of 
people here right now, we make sure that anyone who is 
associated with the Rainbow knows that you, our readers 
and subscribers, are the most important of all. 

The Rainbow started as a two-page photocopied newslet- 
ter to serve a f ew people who had just bought something new 
called a TRS-80 Color Computer. And, while we've grown 
pretty big by now, I like to feel we have done so simply 
because we keep one word consistently in mind — service. 
Service to you and to the Color Computer. Frankly, we're 
not out to make big bucks and we do not see the CoCo as a 
mechanism to make money. Instead, we see the Rainbow as 
an opportunity to serve you and the CoCo Community. 

We hope you'll help us continue. 

— Lonnie Falk 



Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 

Contributions to the RAINBOW are welcome from everyone. 
We like to run a variety of programs which will be usef ul/ helpful/ - 
fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best to 
make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII format. We're 
sorry, but we do not have time to key in programs. All programs 
should be supported by some editorial commentary, explaining 
how the program works. We're much more interested in how your 
submission works and runs than how you developed it. Programs 
should be learning experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of criteria. Those 
wishing remuneration should so state when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed infor-mation on 
making submissions, please send a SASE to: Submissions Editor, 
the RAINBOW, P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. We will send 
you some more comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently submitted to 
another publication. 



78 the RAINBOW June, 1 983 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST GOT WHEELS! 




REVOLUTION! 



You accelerate hard down a long straightaway, 
braking heavily at the end for a hard corner. 
You slice smoothly through the esses, and then 
boldly keep the power on for a fast sweeper. 
The Ferrari drifts dangerously near the edge, 
but you make a tiny correction in the steering, 
and you are through. 

The finish line flashes by, and suddenly you 
are in the pits. The car falls silent. You see your 
lap times being held up. Your final lap was a 
new lap record! At last, you permit yourself 
a small smile. 

You have mastered this powerful car on a 
difficult track, driving with the assurance and 
precision that comes only from long hours of 
practice. 

You are driving an authentic race car. You are 
playing Revolution! 

FANTASTIC ACTION 



Revolution uses high resolution, machine language graphics 
for action that is smooth and fast. The emphasis is on 
authenticity in the control and motion of your car. As in 
driving a real race car, accuracy and precision in your driving 
are what counts. Frills and non-essentials have been left out. 

PURE COMPETITION 

Like a real race driver in practice and qualif ying sessions, you 
compete against the clock and against the existing lap record 
for that track. Revolution records the lap records and the 
name of the person who set the record, so you always know 
who reigns supreme on your favorite track! 

DESIGNED WITH YOU IN MIND 

Revolution is menu-driven, and self explanatory. Informa- 
tion screens tell you what you need to know. When you're 
ready to play, a menu of the names of all your tracks is 
displayed, along with the lap record for each track and the 
name of the person who set that lap record. You select a track 
with a single keystroke, and Revolution takes you there. 



A NEW CONCEPT 

Revolution is a unique game, because it allows you to create 
the most important part of any race game: the track itself. 

The first time you run Revolution, you will be able to choose 
from several tracks and cars which are included with the 
game. 

But, with Revolution, this is only the beginning! You can 
create as many tracks as you like. You can make each new 
track as difficult or as easy as you wish. You can make easy 
ones to begin with, and tougher ones as you become more 
skilled. You may find creating tracks to be almost as much 
fun as driving on them! 

You can save your favorite tracks to run on again whenever 
you wish. Revolution will automatically add these new tracks 
to the menu. And you can exchange your favorite tracks with 
other Revolution owners. 

Be careful, though, about letting your friends play this game. 
They may not want to let you have your computer back! 

THE EARLY REVOLUTION 



A prototype version of Revolution was published in the 
September, 1982 issue of Rainbow magazine, under the 
name The Track, The response to The Track has been terrific. 

Revolution has all the features that have made The Track a 
favorite, and Revolution's fast, high-resolution machine 
language graphics are dramatically improved over the 
prototype's. 

REVOLUTION NOW! 



The original Revolution for the TRS-80™ Color Computer 
requires 32K and one disk drive. A new cassette version has 
action just like the disk version, and similar track-saving 
features excluding a menu of available tracks. The cassette 
version will run on a 32KColor Computer or TDP-100. You 
can upgrade to the disk version later, too, for a nominal fee. 



REVOLUTION 






For 32K Disk 


. $24.95 


Requires Joysticks 


For 32K Cassette.. 


. $21.95 


& Extended BASIC 



Connecticut residents add sales tax. 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



VtSA* 



[ MiibieiCarrt 



Inter <^> (^Action 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



113 Ward Street • Dept. R • New Haven, CT 06519 • (203) 562-5748 



This Will Program Your 
Keys On Professional Keyboard 



People who have bought the Professional Keyboard for 
CoCo may want to program the four function keys, F1-F4, 
that appear on the keyboard. One way to do this is with the 
following program, which will assign the following func- 
tions to the keys: 

Fl — When pressed with the shift key will make a screen 

dump of the contents of your screen to a printer. 

F2 — When held down will function as a repeat key. Any 

key pressed along with this key will repeat. 

F3 — If you have a lowercase kit, pressing this key will "flip" 

between the upper case and lower case display. 

F4 — A Control key. When used like a shift, it will subtract 

64 from the ASCII value. For example, pressing Control 

and the "H" key will give you a backspace. 

To make this program work, type it in and then RUN it It 
will EXECute automatically. Because it POKEs informa- 
tion into high memory, it will not interfere with your BASIC 
programs. 

The listing: 

1 A=PEEK(116)*256+PEEK(117) 

2 CLEAR200,A— 226:A=PEEK(1 16)*256+PEEK(1 17): 



FOR X=A— 226 TO A: READ A$: POKE X, VAL(- 
"&H"+A$):NEXT:EXEC A— 226:NEW 
10 DATA BE, 01, 6B, OF, FD, 9F, F8, BE, 01, 68, BF, 7C, 
E1,31,8D,00, 15, 10,BF,01,6B,86,7E,B7,01,6A,B7,01, 
67, 31, 8D,00, Bl, 10, BF,01, 68, 39, 32, 62, AD,9F,0F, 70, 
0D, 6F, 27, 03, 7E, Al, 7F, BD, Al, Bl, 81, BD, 27, F9, 81, 
04, 27, F5, 8 1 , 67, 27, 45, 8 1 , 1 3 , 10, 27, 00, 4E, 34, 02, B6, 0 1 , 
56,85 

20 DATA 40, 26, IF, 86, FF,B7,01, 52, B7,01, 53, B7,01, 
54, B7, 01, 55, B7, 01, 57, B7, 01, 58, B7, 01, 59, 86, BF, B7, 
01,56,35, 02,39, B6, 01, 58, 85, 40, 26,0D,35, 02,81,41,25, 
06, 8 1 , 5B, 24, 02, 80, 40, 39, 35, 02, 39, 34, 02, B6, 01, 57, 85, 
40, 26, BA, 35, 02, 03, FD, 4F, 39, 34, 36, B6, 01 , 55, 85, 40, 
26 

30 DATA 2F, 8E, 04, 00, C6, 20, A6, 80, 81, 60, 26, 04, 86, 
20, 20, 0E, 8 1 , 20, 24, 04, 8B, 60, 20, 06, 8 1 , 60, 25, 02, 88, 40, 
84, 7F, BD, A2, BF, 5A, 26, E0, 86, 0D, BD, A2, BF, 8C, 06, 
00, 26, D4, 35, B6, 0D, 6F, 26, OA, 0D, FD, 27, 06,81,41, 25, 
02, 88, 20, 7E, CB, 4A 

—Bob Rosen 



ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE ? 

Tired of typing in those long, but wonderful, programs from each issue of the RAINBOW? Now, you can get RAINBOW ON TAPE and give 
those tired fingers a rest. With RAINBOW ON TAPE, you'll be able to spend your time enjoying programs instead of just typing.. .typing... typing 
them! All you need to do ever again is pop a RAINBOW ON TAPE cassette into your recorder, CLOAD and RUN any one you want. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE is available as a single issue for $6.50 or on a yearly subscription basis for only $60. it is the perfect complementfor the 
RAINBOW itself 

VISA, MasterCard and American Express accepted. All subscriptions begin with the current issue and back issues are available 
beginning with April, 1982. Subscriptions are sent first class mail to coincide with the arrival of your current issue of the RAINBOW. 

Now . . . 

The Best Color Computer Magazine 
Offers The Best Tape Service 

Think of it! Not 10 or a dozen— but between 20 ond 30— programs every month from 
Rainbow On Tape. All the really good programs from the Rainbow! All the long ones ... so 
you don't have to type them in. Just CLOAD and RUN! 



ORDER RAINBOW ON TAPE TODAY! 

HANDY ORDER CARD BETWEEN PAGES 34 and 35 



80 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



READ THE FINE PRINT. 

It's worth your time. This is good stuff. 



SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 




BOOKS 



MACRO-80C 

This is a disk-based editor, macro assembler and 
monitor, written for Color Computer by Andy Phelps. 
THIS IS IT — The ultimate programming tool! 

The powerful 2-pass macro assembler features condi- 
tional assembly, local labels, include files and cross 
referenced symbol tables. MACRO-80C supports the 
complete Motorola 6809 instruction set in standard 
source format. There are no changes, constraints or 
shortcuts in the source language definition. Incor- 
porating all of the features of our Rompack-based 
assembler (SDS80C), MACRO-80C contains many 
more useful instructions and pseudo-ops which aid 
the programmer and add power and flexibility. 

The screen-oriented text editor is designed for 
efficient and easy editing of assembly language pro- 
grams. The "Help Key" feature makes it simple and 
fun to learn to use the editor. As the editor requires no 
line numbers, you can use the arrow keys to position 
the cursor anywhere in the file. MACRO-80C allows 
global changes and moving/copying blocks of text. 
You can edit lines of assembly source which are 
longer than 32 characters. 

DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows 
examining and altering of memory, setting break 
points, etc. 

The editor, assembler and monitor — as well as 
sample programs — come on one Radio Shack com- 
patible disk. Extensive documentation included. 
MACRO-80C Price: $99.95 

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

The Micro Works Software Development System 
(SDS80C) is a complete 6809 editor, assembler and 
monitor package contained in one Color Computer 
program pack! Vastly superior to RAM-based 
assemblers/editors, the SDS80C is non-volatile, 
meaning that if your application program bombs, it 
can't destroy your editor/assembler. Plus it leaves 
almost all of 16K or 32K RAM free for your program. 
Since all three programs, editor, assembler and 
monitor are co-resident, we eliminate tedious 
program loading when going back and forth from edit- 
ing to assembly and debugging! 

The powerful screen-oriented Editor features finds, 
changes, moves, copys and much more. All keys have 
convenient auto repeat (typamatic), and since no line 
numbers are required, the full width of the screen 
may be used to generate well commented code. 

The Assembler features all of the following: complete 
6809 instruction set; conditional assembly; local 
labels; assembly to cassette tape or to memory; 
listing to screen or printer; and mnemonic error codes 
instead of numbers. 

The versatile monitor is tailored for debugging pro- 
grams generated by the Assembler and Editor. It 
features examine/change of memory or registers, cas- 
sette load and save, breakpoints and more. SDS80C 
Price: $89.95 

MICRO WORKS COLOR FORTH 

• Forth is faster to program in than Basic 
• Forth is easier to learn than Assembly Language 
• Forth executes in less time than Basic 

Forth is a highly interactive language like Basic, with 
structure like Pascal and execution speed close to 
that of Assembly Language. The Micro Works Color 
Forth is a Rompack containing everything you need 
to run Forth on your Color Computer. 

Color Forth consists of the standard FORTH Interest 
Group (FIG) implementation of the language plus 



most of FORTH-79. It has a super screen editor with 
split screen display. Mass storage is on cassette. 
Color Forth also contains a decompiler and other aids 
for learning the inner workings of this fascinating 
language. It will run on 4K, 16K, and 32K computers. 
Color Forth contains 10K of ROM, leaving your RAM 
for your programs! There are simple words to effec- 
tively use the Hi-Res Color Computer graphics, joy- 
sticks, and sound. The 112-page manual includes a 
glossary of the system-specific words, a full standard 
FIG glossary and complete source listing. COLOR 
FORTH . . . THE BEST! From the leader in Forth, 
Talbot Microsystems. Price: $109.95 

MICROTEXT: COMMUNICATIONS 

VIA YOUR MODEM! 

Make your Color Computer an intelligent printing 
terminal with off-line storage! The Microtext module 
is just what you'll need for: 

— Talking to a timeshare system or information 
service 

— Printing out what is received as it is received 

— Saving received text to cassette tape 

— Re-displaying the received text even while 
on-line 

— Communications with other computers 

— Using your computer as a general-purpose 
300-baud terminal 

— Downloading programs from other computers 

The Microtext module is a program pack containing 
not only firmware but a second serial port so that 
both your printer and modem can be connected at the 
same time. Microtext can be configured for any serial 
printer that will work with the Color Computer, even if 
it requires line feeds! But even if you don't have a 
printer, you can keep a permanent copy of your data 
by storing to cassette tape. Also, any Radio Shack/ 
Centronics-compatible parallel printer may be used 
by adding the Micro Works' PI80C parallel interface. 

For those of you with special terminal applications, 
Microtext has selectable parity; it sends odd, even, 
mark or space. With mark parity (which is default) you 
can send to computers requiring either seven or eight 
bits. All 128 ASCII codes can be sent. Exchange pro- 
grams with other Color Computer users! Basic pro- 
grams may be downloaded from other computers or 
timesharing systems. 

You'll find many uses for this versatile module! 
Available in ROMPACK, ready-to-use, for $59.95. 

MACHINE LANGUAGE 

MONITOR TAPE: A cassette tape which allows you to 
directly access memory, I/O and registers with a 
formatted hex display. Great for machine language 
programming, debugging and learning. It can also 
send/receive RS232 at up to 9600 baud, including 
host system download/upload. 19 commands in all. 
Relocatable and reentrant. CBUG Tape Price: $29.95 

MONITOR ROM: The same program as above, 
supplied in 2716 EPROM. This allows you to use the 
entire RAM space. And you don't need to re-load the 
monitor each time you use it. The EPROM plugs into 
the Extended Basic ROM Socket or the Romless Pak 
I. CBUG ROM Price: $39.95 

SOURCE GENERATOR: This package is a disas- 
sembler which runs on the color computer and gener- 
ates your own source listing of the BASIC interpreter 
ROM. Also included is a documentation package 
which gives useful ROM entry points, complete 
memory map, I/O hardware details and more. A 16K 
system is required for the use of this cassette. 80C 
Disassembler Price: $49.95 



6809 Assembly Language Programming, by Lance 
Leventhal, $16.95 

TRS-80 Coior Computer Graphics, by Don Inman, 
$14.95 

Assembly Language Graphics for the TRS-ffl Coior 
Computer, by Don Inman, $14.95 



Starting Forth, by L. Brodie, $19.95 




GAMES 




Star Blaster — Blast your way through an asteroid 
field in this action-packed Hi-Res graphics game. 
Available in ROMPACK; requires 16K. Price: $39.95 

Pac Attack — Try your hand at this challenging game 
by Computerware, with fantastic graphics, sound and 
action! Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 

Haywire — Have fun zapping robots with this Hi-Res 
game by Mark Data Products. Cassette requires 16K. 
$24.95 

Dunkey Munkey — Arcade excitement awaits those 
who dare to conquer the Munkey! Joystick and 32K 
required, by Intel lectronics. Cassette: $24.95 

Colorpede — Great graphics, two-player option, and 
pause control in this exciting game by Intracolor 
Communication. Cassette requires 16K: $29.95 

Adventure — Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by 
Mark Data Products. Each cassette requires 16K: 
$19.95 each. 

Cave Hunter — Experience vivid colors, bizarre 
sounds and eerie creatures in hot pursuit as you wind 
your way through a cave maze in search of gold 
treasures. This exciting Hi-Res game by Mark Data 
Products requires 16K for cassette version. $24.95 

Starflre — Fly around the planet defending Earthlings 
from being snatched up by aliens in this challenging 
game from Intellectronics. Cassette requires 16K: 
$21.95 

Doodle Bug — Joystick-controlled Doodle Bugs must 
move quickly through mazes while being chased by 
enemy bugs in Hi-Res game by Computerware. 
Cassette requires 16K: $24.95 

Astro Blast — You'll need to act fast as you protect 
Earth from wave after wave of alien invaders in this 
W-Res game by Mark Data. Cassette requires 16K: 
$24.95 



HARDWARE 



PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE — Serial to parallel 
converter allows use of all standard parallel printers. 
PI80C plugs into the serial output port, leaving your 
Rompack slot free. You supply the printer cable. PI80C 
Price: $69.95 

MEMORY UPGRADE KITS: Consisting of 411 6 200ns., 
integrated circuits, with instructions for installation. 

4K16K Kit Price: $39.95. 16K-32K Kit (requires 
soldering experience) Price: $39.95. For Rev. level E, 
ET, NC and TDP-100S, we carry 64Kchips; upgrading is 
easy! Eight prime 64K chips and instructions: $64.95 

Romless Packs for your custom EPROMs — call or 
write for information. 




Ma 51 er Charged Visa Accepted 
California residents add 6% la*. 



P.O. BOX 1110. DEL MAR, CA 92014 [61 9) 942-2400 






REBOAR 




Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world 
your high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in the Rainbow's 
Scoreboard column. All entries must be received by the first of the month to be eligible for the following 
month's Scoreboard. 



* New Number One 



ft Last Month's Number One 



SCORE 

92,000 ★ 
75,314 
63,000 ft 
53,000 
31,600 

1 1 ,560 ft 
5,345 
5,000 

10,250 * 
10,070 
6,150 

25,510 ft 

91,000 ★ 
65,768 

42,600 * 



61 ,700 * 

10,250 ft 
9,750 
9,550 
9,550 
9,200 

9,200 

83,000 ft 

149,000 ft 
148,600 
72,000 



2,005,227 
1 ,329,868 
1,104,029 

590,000 
495,669 
489,684 
448,723 
377,749 
163,863 

506.560 
448,860 



PLAYER 

ASTRO BLAST 

Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 
Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 
Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
David Rosicky, Pittsburgh, PA 

AVENGER 

Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
Craig Schubert, Newfoundland, NJ 
Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

BERSERK 

Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 
Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 
Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 

BUSTOUT 

Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 

CATCH 'EM 

Dean Bouchard, Kingston, Nova 
Scotia, Canada 

Laura Sandman, Louisville, KY 

CAVE HUNTER 

Gary Ritchie, Bellevue, Alberta, 
Canada 

CLOWNS & BALLOONS 

Dan Dowling, San Bruno, CA 

COLOR HAYWIRE 

Pat Downard, Louisville, KY 
Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 
Alan Lewis, Ridgefield, CT 
Murray Schechter, New York, NY 
Dean Bouchard, Kingston, Nova 
Scotia, Canada 
Peter Stumpf, McHenry, IL 

COLOR INVADERS 

Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

COLOR METEOROIDS 

Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 
Herb Little, Fredericton, NB, Can- 
ada 

COLORPEDE 

Jennifer Maxey, Kalamazoo, Ml 
Russ Eubanks, Jay, ME 
Gary Ritchie, Bellevue, Alberta, 
Canada 

Larry Seida, University of MN 
Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 
Andy Potter, Crofton, MD 
Balinda Fortman, Flagstaff, AZ 
Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 
Danny Burch, Louisville, KY 

COLOR SCARFMAN 

Russ Eubanks, Jay, ME 

James Quadarella, Brooklyn, NY 



446,000 
427,160 

388,060 

1 93,000 
27,500 



10,399 ft 



58,900 ★ 



48,160 ★ 



1 ,099,400 
1 ,000,500 
1,000,001 

626,400 
512,300 



7,160 ★ 



ft Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 
Chantal Delorme, Actonvale, Que 
bee, Canada 

Michelle Thompson, Milipitas, MS 

COLOUR PAC ATTACK 

ft Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
David Rosicky, Pittsburgh, PA 

CONQUEST OF KZIRGLA 

Scott Sehlhorst, Columbia, SC 

DEFENSE 

Greg Scott, Orlando, FL 

DOUBLEBACK 

Mary H. Thomas, Louisville, KY 

DUNKEY MUNKEY 

ft Andrew Herron, High Point, NC 
Wendy Johnson, San Jose, CA 
Grant Gillott, Calgary, Aberta, 
Canada 

Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 

FROG TREK 

Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 

GALACTIC ATTACK 

34,350 # Murray Schechter, New York, NY 
31,780 ft Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 
30,350 Mark Raphael, Englishtown, NJ 

28,000 Nathan Miller, Portland, OR 

26,040 Warren Schubert, Newfoundland, 

NJ 

24,680 Hans Haimberger, Milton Freewat 

er, OR 

18,360 Doug Toombs, Rochester, NY 

GHOST GOBBLER 

825,250 ft Randy Gerber, Wilmette, IL 
103,590 Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 

49,880 Steven Picone, Leomister, MA 

INVADERS REVENGE 

Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 

INVASION 

Harry Sawyer, Watchung, NJ 

KATERPILLAR ATTACK 

Warren Schubert, Newfoundland, 
NJ 

12,100 Peter Stumpf, McHenry, IL 

10,249 ft Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
7,556 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

THE KING 

805,700 * Dave Mercer, Marissa, IL 
486,500 Frank Bottino, St. Louis, MO 

448,900 Alan Mack, Penn Yan, NY 

346,000 Miles C. Langmacher, Minco, OK 

319.000 ft Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
316,700 Brad Scoffin, Encinitas, CA 

185,700 Larry Seida, University of MN 




32,600 ★ 



82,000 ★ 



12,703 ★ 





ORE 

5,500 
6,900 

9,900 

2,236 

9,901 

9,546 

8,942 
8,781 
7,801 
7,235 
6,732 

19,700 
10,400 
13,570 

5,620 
4,680 
963 
.0,000 

10,650 

.8,640 
£.000 
7,000 

5,000 

180 

>6,650 

15,400 
>7,240 
19,480 
>7,600 
i2,300 

)1 ,000 
;9,455 
>1,000 
17,892 
14,370 
^6,000 
^5,462 
19,688 



4,956 
4,455 

10,570 
J6,000 



PLAYER 

Michael Rothman, Solon, OH 
Alan Cox, Roseville, CA 

KOSMIC KAMIKAZEE 

* Mark Raphael, Englishtown, NJ 

MEGA-BUG 

* Claude Malepart, Montreal, Quebec 
Canada 

Beverly Cremer, Kempten, W. Ger- 
many 

Gary Ritchie, Bellevue, Alberta, 
Canada 

Russ Eubanks, Jay, ME 
Ken Miller, Yardley, PA 
Jen Teeter, Hawley, PA 
Dick Teeter, Hawley, PA 
Julie Teeter, Hawley, PA 

MICROBES 

* Sheila Coleman, Griffin, GA 
Ken Miller, Yardley, PA 

Greg Scott & Greg Shields, Orlan 
do, FL 

Russ Eubanks, Jay, ME 

MR. MUNCH 

* Alan Mack, Penn Yan, NY 

MONKEY KONG 

it Mark Dowling, San Bruno, CA 

MONSTER MAZE 

* Claude Malepart, Montreal, Que 
bee, Canada 

PAC ATTACK 

ft Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

PAC DROIDS 

ir Murray Schechter, New York, NY 
James Quadarella, Brooklyn, NY 
ft Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

PACET-MAN 

ft Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

PHANTOM SLAYER 

* Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 

PINBALL 

* Ken Miller, Yardley, PA 

PLANET INVASION 

Chris Sweet, Harvard, MA 
Alan Mack, Penn Yan, NY 
Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
Brian Bates 

Greg Scott, Orlando, FL 

POLARIS 

* James Quadarella, Brooklyn NY 
i% Alan J. Weiss, Summitt, NJ 

Dan Dowling, San Bruno, CA 
Sheila Coleman, Griffin, GA 
David Rosicky, Pittsburgh, PA 
Doug Toombs, Rochester, NY 
Tom Disch, Brookfield, Wl 
Matthew Breneugen, Lake Elmo, 
MN 

POLTERGEIST 

it Mark Dowling, San Bruno, CA 
Ken Miller, Yardley, PA 

POPCORN 

it Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
James Quadarella, Brooklyn, NY 



358,514 it 
94,000 

405,900 ★ 

565 ★ 

1:04.17 ft 

1:13.16 
1:13.25 

6,700 ★ 
6,120 
5,200 rir 

103 ★ 

156,650 ★ 
1 24,660 
120,880 

97,500 

53,030 

62,300 ft 

31,525 ★ 

594 ★ 

116,000 ft 

21,628 * 

408,245 ★ 
325,790 
126,135 
80,001 

2,102,450 ★ 

1,320,150 * 
618,400 
464,700 

68,500 it 
64,800 

723,335 * 
380,000 & 

69,710 

60,265 

2,152,150 * 
1 ,526,200 * 

344,550 

313,250 

81,800 ★ 
78 J 90 



PROTECTORS 

Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Gerry Schechter, Yonkers, NY 

ROBOTTACK 

Joseph Prisio, Oswego, NY 

SHUTTLE SIMULATOR 

John W. Fraysse, Dahlgren, VA 

SKIING 

Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA (No 
Errors) 

Doug Toombs, Rochester, NY 
Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

SKY DEFENSE 

Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 
Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

SOLO POOL 

John W. Fraysse, Dahlgren, VA 

SPACE ASSAULT 

Nathan Miller, Portland, OR 
Alan Mack, Penn Yan, NY 
Murray Schechter, New York, NY 
Alan Lewis, Ridgefield, CT 
Warren Schubert, Newfoundland, 
NJ 

SPACE INVADERS 

Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

SPACE RACE 

Greg Scott, Orlando, FL 

SPACE SHUTTLE 

Steve Schweitzer, Sewell, NJ 

SPACE WAR 

Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

STARBASE ATTACK 

Mark Raphael, Englishtown, NJ 

STARBLASTER 

Mark Dowling, San Bruno, CA 
Mike Anheluk, Fall Creek, OR 
Mike Hall, Hartland, Wl 
Alan Lewis, Ridgefield, CT 

STARFIRE 

Dean Bouchard, Kingston, Nova 
Scotia, Canada 
Joy Bailey, Lexington, NC 
Peter Stumpf, McHenry, IL 
Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

STARSHIP CHAMELEON 

Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
David Rosicky, Pittsburgh, PA 

STORM 

Chris Sweet, Harvard, MA 
Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

VENTURER 

Greg Scott, Orlando, FL 
Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
David Glovinsky, Staten Island, NY 

ZAXXON 

Matt Cox, Roseville, CA 
Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 



June. 1983 the RAINBOW 83 



How To 'Zonk Proof 
Your Disk Directories 



By Thomas F. Szlucha 



If you own a Radio Shack disk drive for your Color 
Computer, you will be interested in the following disk 
utility program. If you are contemplating a disk drive in 
the future f or your Color Computer, you may also be inter- 
ested in this article because it may influence your choice of a 
disk system. 

A disk drive represents one of the ultimate peripherals 
which can be added to the Color Computer. It allows almost 
instant recall of programf iles and gives the ability to do real 
data file handling on this computer. Although there are 
several competing operating systems available, the Radio 
Shack disk system represents a logical choice. It is the only 
configuration that is supported by Tandy, but, perhaps 
more important, the vast majority of independent software 
developers support this operating system. 

I have learned several things about the Radio Shack 
Color Disk Drive after having made the logical choice of this 
system. It features the advantage of having the operating 
system stored on ROM rather than taking up valuable 
RAM space. Also, the operating system is very "user 
friendly;" you hardly know it is there until you need it to 
store or retrieve a program. That is enough platitudes for the 
Radio Shack Color Disk Drive, because this article is not 
about what is right with this system but what is wrong with 
it. This disk system has an inherent reliability shortfall 
related to a random loss of the Directory. Track 17, the 
middle track on the disk, contains vital information that the 
operating system needs in order to access or save programs 
and data files. This information is referred to as the Direc- 
tory. The loss of information on this track which I and many 
others using the Radio Shack drive system have experienced 
is not completely understood. It appears that it may be due 
to loose or dirty contacts in the interface connector. Since 
the drive head rests over track 17 most of the time, spurious 
signals to the drive controller can scramble the information 
written in the Directory. Again, these failures are random 
but when they do occur, they are fatal. The disk cannot be 
accessed by normal means. All programs and data become 
lost. The accompanying program can be used to eliminate 



this problem by making a spare copy of the information in 
the Directory ready for instant recovery of a zonked 
Directory. 

COPYDIR is written in Extended Color BASIC. It 
makes a backup copy of track 17 onto track 0. When you run 
the program, the computer first checks to see if track 0 is 
being used f rom program storage. If the disk is only partially 
full, it probably is not in use, because track 0 is one of the last 
tracks written on as you fill a disk. If the track is not in use, a 
special code (CHR$ 191) is put into byte 0 of sector 2 in track 
1 7 to reserve track 0 f or the backup Directory. This sector in 
the Directory is referred to as the File Allocation Table. You 
can read about this in more detail in the Color Disk System 
Owners Manual — Chapter 11. 

After reserving track 0, you are presented with a short 
menu asking whether you want to copy track 17 or restore 
the Directory. Before you run the program to copy track 17, 
consider if there is any data on track 0 from a previous 
Directory copy run that you may have deleted from the 
present Directory with a Kill command. COPYDIR can be 
used to restore a previously deleted program if the data 
relating to this program exists in the Directory copy. To aid 
in this decision process, the program will scroll the informa- 
tion on track 0 onto the screen. If you are not interested in 
trying to restore a deleted program, then simply select 
(C)opy 1 7. If you note a deleted program, be sure to examine 
the normal Directory to see if there are any new programs 
not listed in the backup copy of the Directory. If so, copy 
them onto another disk for temporary storage or you will 
lose them in the process of restoring the old Directory. 

You will want to keep a copy of COPYDIR on all your 
working disks and run it occasionally to keep your backup 
up-to-date. When you need to restore a wrecked Directory 
you will have to load COPYDIR from another disk. A 
typical symptom of a wrecked Directory is an I/O error 
response after issuing a DIR command. My experience with 
the R.S. Color Disk system is that, with moderate use, disk 
failures occur at the rate of about one to two a month. 
Greater than 95 percent of these failures are caused by the 



84 the RAINBOW June, 1983 





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E.UI1AR-ROVBR 



LUNAR-ROVER PATROL - Guide your Lunar Rover along the moon's surface following every bump and 
crevice as a barage of obstacles hinder your movement. No MOON-PATROL type features left out of this 
game. 

WHIRLYBIRD RUN - Your mission is to reach and destroy the enemy base hidden deep within the Tunnel 
of Doom encountering missiles, saucers, and deadly gas clouds along the way. If you like SCRAMBLE, you 
will love WHIRLYBIRD RUN. 



For Orders Only 

1-800-426-1830 

except WA, AK, HI 



Call or write for a 
Business Office and 



complete catalog 
Information Call: 



We accept VISA, MASTERCARD. AMERICAN EXPRESS. 
Add 3% for shipping. NO CO D 

All prices U.S. FUNDS. 
WA residents add 7.8% sales tax. 



SPECTRAL 
ASSOCIATES 

3416 South 90th Street 
Tacoma, WA 98409 



. . (206) 581-6938 

Office open 8:30—4:30 P.S.T. 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



loss of the Directory track. This disk insurance comes at the 
small penalty of requiring two out of 68 granules on the disk 
needed for the program and Directory backup storage. 

Type in this program very carefully. It would be a good 
idea to practice on a scratch disk to assure that the program 
is working error free. The DSKOS command used in this 
program is very powerful and will destroy everything in its 
track if its parameters are set incorrectly. To intentionally 
wipe out the Directory in debugging the program, type in 
and run: 

10 A$ = " " 
20 B$ = " " 

30 DSKOS 0, 17, 2, AS, B4 

After debugging this program and using it to backup the 
directories, your confidence in program and data storage on 
the Color Computer Disk system should be restored. After 
applying this fix you should continue the normal practice of 
maintaining backup copies of all your disks but triple or 
quadruple backups (which I understand some frustrated 
Color Computer owners are doing because of this disk 
problem) are no longer needed. 




1 70 0295 

350 045C 

END. . . 061B 



The listing: 

10 * DIRECTORY PROTECTION PROGRAM 
20 * REV 1.1 02/07/83 
25 * THOMAS SZLUCHA - PERSONAL CO 
MPUTER CONSULTING - 14 GREAT GAR 
LAND RISE, FAIRPORTpN.Y. 14450 
40 CLEAR4000 

50 CLS:PRINT8200 P "<C>OPY TRACK 1 
7 <R>ESTORE DIRE 

CTORY <E>ND 

WHICH"; : INPUTR 

60 IF R*="C" THEN GOSUB 150 
70 IF R*«"R" THEN GOSUB 550 
75 IF R»-"E" THEN 90 
G0 GOTO 50 

90 CLS : PR I NT9202 , "FINI SHED " : END 
110 CLS: PR I NTS 195," SOMETHING ALR 
EADY ON TRACK 0 RUN ABORTED": 
END 

120 CLS : PR I NTS 1 95 , " CANNOT RESTOR 
E DIRECTORY TRACK 0 IS NO 

T A COPY! ! RUN ABORTED": 



Formerly distributed only by ZETA™ 
SOFTWARE, we have the original FOOTBALL 
FORECASTER' with 1983 data base. 
Available for 1 6K ZX-8 1 , T/S 1000 or 1 6K TRS-80 
Color Computer. Spec ify NFL or College. Only 
$19.95 each or $29.95 for both. Add $1.00 
P&H. Ark. residents add 4% Tax 

HAWG WILD SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7668 
Little Rock. Arkansas 72217 



END 

140 ' ROUTINE TO LOCK OUT TRACK 

0 (GRANULE 0) 

150 DSKI* 0, 17,2,A*,B* 

160 IF LEFT* (A*, 1)-CHR*( 255) OR 

LEFT* (A*, 1 ) -CHR* ( 191 ) THEN 200 

170 OOTO110 

200 A*-CHR* (191 > +RIGHT* ( A*, 127) 

210 DSKO* 0, 17,2,A*,B* 

215 ' ROUTINE TO VIEW TRACK 0 

220 CLS: PR I NTQ 193, "THIS IS WHAT 

IS PRESENTLY ON TRACK 0" 

225 FOR T-1TP800:NEXT 

230 FOR SN-1 TO 9 

240 DSKI* 0 t 0 t SN t Dl* t D2* 

250 PRINTD1*|D2* 

260 FOR T-l TO 300: NEXT T 

270 NEXT SN 

280 CLS: PRINTS 195, "DO YOU WANT T 

O COPY TRACK 17 TO TRACK 0 < 

Y>/<N>"; : INPUT R* 

290 IF R*-"Y" THEN 320 

300 IF R*-"N" THEN 50 

310 GOTO 280 

315 * ROUTINE TO COPY TRACK 17 T 

O TRACK 0 

320 VERIFY ON 

330 FOR SN-2 TO 10 

340 DSKI* 0, 17,SN,D1*(SN-1) ,D2*( 

SN-1) 

350 NEXT SN 

360 FOR SN-1 TO 9 

370 DSKO* 0,0,SN,D1*(SN),D2*(SN) 

380 NEXT SN 

390 VERIFY OFF 

400 RETURN 

500 ' ROUTINE TO SEE IF TRACK 0 

IS A DIRECTORY COPY 

510 DSKI* 0,0,2,A*,B* 

520 IF LEFT* (A*, IX >CHR* ( 191 ) TH 

EN 120 

540 ' ROUTINE TO RESTORE D I RECTO 
RY 

550 CLS : PR I NTS 1 95 , " READY TO REST 
ORE DIRECTORY <Y>/<N>" I : INP 

UT R* 

560 IF R*-"N" THEN 50 

570 IF R*-"Y" THEN 590 

5G0 GOTO550 

590 VERIFY ON 

600 FOR SN-1 TO 9 

610 DSKI* 0,0,SN,D1*(SN),D2*(SN) 

620 NEXT SN 

630 FOR SN-2 TO 10 

640 DSKO* 0, 17,SN,D1*(SN-1) ,D2*( 

SN-1) 

650 NEXT SN 
660 VERIFY OFF 
670 RETURN 



86 the RAINBOW June. 1983 




' ^J&sStfHB? £>*B*TO3M ! £3*iifrT3$fl 3 £ 




LtfRGE CHARACTERS 
FOP SMALL CHILDREN 
OR THE VISUALLY 
IMPAIRED 

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hi ■i|ilm 11 



SOLUTION ON CARTRIDGE 

The cartridge version of THE SOLUTION has all of the 
features of the tape version and more. It works with all 
of the graphic modes (including 4colors). It includes a 
51 characters per line feature and the ability to define a 
text window on the screen. All of this and much more 
at the low price of — $34.95 
ROM-PAKS $9.95 

This is an empty Rom-Pak with a PC board. It will hold 
either a 2716, 2732 or a 2764. The case looks very simi- 
lar to Radio Shack's Rom-Pak. Comes complete with 
instructions. 

CUSTOM PROGRAMING 

We will put your program in a Rom-Pak for you for a 

very reasonable fee. The program can be either Basic 
or machine language. Prices start at $19.95 for pro- 
grams up to 4K in length. $29.95 for programs up to 8K. 
Volume discounts are available. Send for a free sub- 
mittal form. 




* 




Mm 



SCRIPTFX $9.95 

Are you tired of the upper case display of Color Scrip- 
sit? Well then SCRIPTFX is for you. This is a program 
which converts the display of Color Scripsit over to a 
real display of upper and lower case letters with des- 
cenders. The program allows all of the features of 
Scripsit to function and comes with a money back 
guarantee if it does not work. Please specify machine 
type when ordering. Extended Basic is not required. 

SUPER PILOT $9.95 

An enhanced version of Pilot for use with Extended Basic. 
Includes features for math, graphics, and sound. Has a 
feature that makes it easy to create flash card type drill 
programs. Programs are pseudo compiled for faster 
execution. Comes with as 24 page tutorial manual and demo 
programs. Sample program included on tape to get you 
started. 

All programs for 16K, 32K Extended Basic machines unless 
otherwise noted. All programs on cassette. Add $4.00 per 
order for disk. 

DISCOUNT — order 10 or more programs (you may mix 
types) and you will receive a 30% discount on the order. 
Dealer discounts are also available. 

SNAKE MOUNTAIN SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 5722 
RALEIGH, NC 27650 

919-828-6669 

Phone COD orders accepted. 





fir 



t f ''. i ' ■■ :■ t 1 .■ 

,; : i 1 i ? - '■ <i >'i 

t L * l! I- '■> V '-■ T li V 

- i \> ■:■ i - f '} •- ; *■ 

■ .■' '.-i T. ' ■ i 



(* ! 



^ <.■ i> > 



Gl0« 9 ratuJatt<ms 

you made the right choice when you purchased a 

Color Computer. It is a very powerful machine. 

However the standard display format does not do the 
machine justice. The machine is capable of much more than 
16 lines of 32 all capital characters. Now you can give your 
Color Computer the display it deserves. THE SOLUTION 
gives the Color Computer a much better display than it nor- 
mally has, and really makes the machine shine. Its features 
include: 

• provides a screen of 42 characters by 21 lines displayed 

• linked directly to basic — program is transparent to the 
user 

• prints all 96 ASCII characters, lowercase characters 
have descenders, has a slashed zero to avoid 
confusion when programing 

• prints characters on any two-color graphic screen 

• graphics and text may be intermixed on the same screen 

• special mode with 4 lines of text at the bottom of the 
screen (just like some other famous color machines) — 
great for working with graphics 

• large character mode for small children or the visually 
impaired 

• character set may be reversed 

• written in machine language, program is relocatable 

• fast — prints at over 600 characters per second 

• works with both cassette and disk 

• includes a 20 page manual with demo programs (a lunar 
lander program is included) 

SOLUTION $19.95 



EXTENDER $ 7.95 

Still want more than 42 characters per line from your 
computer. Then the EXTENDER is for you. This program 
when used with THE SOLUTION will give a display of 51 
characters per line by 21 lines displayed. Please include your 
program serial number when ordering. 

GRAPH LABEL $8.95 

Have you ever wanted to place characters on a graphic 
screen but couldn't find an easy way to do it. Well then 
GRAPH LABEL is for you. This program will enable you to 
place characters anywhere on a graphic screen. It will place 
any of 96 ASCII characters on the screen or you may create 
your own characters. It features a cursor that may be moved 
anywhere around the screen with out rubbing out what it 
goes over. Superscripts and subscripts may be used since 
the cursor may be moved vertically and horizontally in steps 
as small as one pixel. Lowercase characters have descend- 
ers. GRAPH LABEL is written in Basic and is therefore easy 
to modify. It may be used by itself or as a subroutine. 

SCREEN PRINT PACKAGE $8.95 

A package of 2 programs for use with the LPVII, LPVIII, 
DMP100, DMP200, DMP400, DMP500. The programs will 
print an image of what is on a graphic screen to the printer. 
Both programs work with all the standard PMODEs. The 
programs are written in machine language and may be 
moved anywhere in memory. The two programs are: 

1) SCREEN PRINT — will produce a regular size print. The 
image may be located anywhere on a page. 

2) DOUBLE SIZE SCREEN PRINT — this program will 
produce a full size imagethat will fill up a sheet of paper. The 
finished product is 8 by 6.5 inches in size. Your computer 
graphics look really good when they are printed out with this 
program. 

SHIPPING — add $2.00 for orders lessthan $20.00. Shipping 
is free on orders of more than $20.00. 
Canadians — please send money orders only. 

All orders shipped within 5 working days. 



This Board Makes It Easy 
To Use A Parallel Printer 



Zarconian Marble: 
Ultimate Strategy Game? 



So you're thinking about buying a printer, but the one you 
really have your eye on is parallel only and the serial inter- 
face converter the company sells costs a couple of hundred 
bucks? 

If that printer is an Epson MX-80, then this plug-in serial 
to parallel interface board is just the ticket. After all, it only 
costs $49.95, which is a whole lot less than what the manu- 
facturer wants for his board that, essentially, does the same 
thing. 

The Color Computer sends out serial signals from its 
RS-232 port in the rear. The "basic" Epson accepts only 
parallel signals. So, what is needed is a way to marry the two. 

Enter this board. It will convert the serial signals to paral- 
lel and, while it is at it, also allow you to set the baud rate on 
the printer at anything between 300 (slow) and 4800 (fast). 

This is a well-built piece of equipment which plugs into 
the Epson without any problem. As a nice touch, it also 
includes a plug which will fit right into the back of CoCo 
— so there is no need to buy a special cable of any kind. 
There are several DIP switches which need to be set before 
operating the new board, but these are a bonus rather than a 
drawback, since they allow you the flexibility to operate 
your printer no matter whether you have the basic Epson, 
Epson with GRAFTRAX or with GRAFTRAX-PLUS. 

In short, installation is easy and the product performs 
perfectly. That, plus the ability to change the baud rate, 
makes this a fine buy at considerable savings over the official 
Epson board's price. 

One final note: If you operate the printer at a speed either 
greater or less than 600 baud, you will have to POKE the 
new baud rate into your CoCo as well. No great difficulty 
— a simple POKE will do it. 

(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, NY 

11421, $49.95) 



Have you parents out there ever found your children 
couldn't play a strategy game because they couldn't under- 
stand it? Do you get tired of complicated wargames or 
games of destruction? If you like simple-to-learn games such 
as chess, checkers, and tic-tac-toe, you will enjoy Zarconian 
Marble. 

I enjoy strategy games, but I usually either get bored 
because they are too easy, or frustrated because they are too 
complex. When I received Zarconian Marble and saw the 
"Ultimate Strategy Game" advertisement, I thought, "Oh, 
oh, sounds like a toughie!" I was soon proven completely 
wrong. 

Zarconian Marble is a graphic game made up of a combi- 
nation of chess, checkers, and tic-tac-toe. There are three 
levels of difficulty, and you can either play against a friend, 
against the computer, or have the computer play against 
itself. The game board resembles a checkers or chess board 
with the exception that you move (place) your game pieces, a 
blue or red dot, to any board space which is not already 
occupied. A player moves his marbles with the right or left 
joystick. The right joystick selects what game and skill level 
will be used. Joystick control is a little shaky at first, but you 
will easily become accustomed to it. 

The game is won when you or your opponent line up five 
marbles or make five captures. I won't reveal the "secret" of 
a capture. You can find out for yourself. 

The program has very good sound effects for a "capture" 
and pretty good graphics. While the game is easy enough f or 
young children to play, it is still challenging enough f or most 
adults. I personally found this game to be most enjoyable. 

(CoCoHut, P.O. Box 24451, Houston, TX 77015, cassette 

$19.95, disk $24.95, 16K ECB) 

—Dave Mercer 




Maintains : 
1 

8 Generations 
Ancestors 

Points : 

Pedigree Chart 

Family Groups 

iRef. Index 
11 

Requires : 



32K - ECB 



RAINBOW 



88 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



Four smart ways 

to make your Atari 400/800, 
TRS-80 COLOR, VIC-20 and Commodore 64 

much more inteUtaent. 



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DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



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p.o. lx»x 3470, chapel hill, north Carolina S7514, 919-967-0861 



l 

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r.-< 








By Don Inman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



For those of you who are concerned with the serious 
side of computer graphics, we will consider some 
applications to trigonometry this month. In the past 
few articles in this series, we have been working in the first 
quadrant of the Cartesian coordinate system. The normal 
origin of the screen's Y-axis was inverted so that the two 
systems would correspond visually. 

0 / 



191 



J 



Normal Computer 
Screen 




Cartesian 
System 



Inverted Computer 
Screen 



In this article, we'll consider the first and fourth quadrants 
of the Cartesian system. The Y-axis will have its origin near 
the center of the screen with positive values upward and 
negative values downward. 



+ 



0 



quadrant I 



+ 



quadrant IV 



I'll choose a screen value of Y=90 for the Cartesian Y 
origin. This is reasonable since 90 is a nice round number 
that is approximately one-half the full screen value of 191. 
The normal screen value of Y=0 will be +90 for the Carte- 



sian system, the screen value of Y=90 will become 0 Carte- 
sian, and the screen value of Y=l 80 will become — 90 Carte- 
sian. A table of Cartesian Y values can be calculated from 
the screen values by the equation: 

Ycart = 90 — Yscreen 



Screen 


Cartesian Y 


' ■■■■■■■ 

0 


"— " - «H 

+90 


JO 


+80 


20 


+70 


30 


+60 


40 


+50 


50 


^40 


60 , 


+30 


- 70 


+20 


80 


+ 10 


90 , 


0 


100 


10 


110 


20 


120 


—30 


130 


40 


140 


■ -50 


150 


-60 


160 


..... 70 


170. '•' 


-80 


, 180 





The two Cartesian quadrants will be used to graphically 
display trigonometric functions such as sine and cosine. The 
X-axis will be used to represent angle rotation from 0 
through 27r radians. The Y-axis will be scaled to represent 
multiples of the magnitude of the trigonometric function. 

You may remember your high school or college math 
courses that required calculating and plotting such func- 
tions by hand. The Color Computer can be used to take all 
the drudgery and detail out of such chores. 



90 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



Ycart. 




Planning the Program 

It is helpful to think of such a pro- 
gram as a series of short fundamental 
blocks, or modules, before starting 
haphazardly into writing program 
statements. Such thought also results in 
a more orderly program that others can 
understand. I call mine a "Sloppy Joe" 
diagram to avoid an open attack by 
flowchart purists. 



Block 1 - SET VP 

In the first Hint It, a graphic mode wilt be *et up 
Vihh black Im-eground lints on a cyan back- 
ground in high resolution The axes uii! be 
drawn with 10 tsCale marks along I he po$j:ive and 
negative Y-axis audi foL=i icale mark* along the 
X^iuiis. Two uvtayx Vi-M be dimensioned to bold 
i-jlcidaied values 1\>r SIN acid COS. 



X 



Bluek 2 ™ C AU ULATL 

Art appropriate iTKhj^fiC wtSl hftihfiijsyrd on thur 
ttXE saetn y> the computcE fjlculnct's the SIN 
anil COS velI-jcs in he pkM-iud. Sound may bi: 
used isk^^wilhy visual uourrer ot Ihc p^. : i rs e ^ +i ^ 
thes- eir: t\l k-n'.ii ltd. 



T 



SUBROUTINES 



Set Y EoSL\ value 



Scl Y i ti COS value 



Set Y to SlNi+COS value 



Set Y to SIN-COS value 



,S«i Y to COS-SIN value 



1 


_.. . . . .J 

r 


Blofii 3 - MEN I 

, A menu i*iit be prourf^l nn tbr texl scr^n .so 
-Ml tin 1 thu user car* thotJhC itif- particular curve to . '' 

be pt&Ucd. Ontiitni should pr ovule tin exit I'm in 

ItJS- prugrarfi. 


\ 


r 



Block 4 — PLOT POINTS 

'turn on the graphics screen. Ii immediately 
shnwstheajtes which were drawn L ra Block 1. I he 
■ curve chosen in BJock 3 is thet PSET from lite 
points chosen by the appropriate subroutine 
ietet mined by she merit: choice. 

A return will then he made to rhe menu foi 
another selection. Previously u>a«T, graphs Will 
remain on the graphics screen so that you may 
see curves overlaid on others J 



Writing The Program 

Now that the blocks have been defined, the program 
becomes much easier to write. 



Block 1 

99 REN * SET UP * 

100 PMODE 4,1 
110 PCLS 1 : COLOR 0 
120 DIM YA(240) y YB<240> 
130 LINE (0,0>-(0, 180) ,PSET 
140 LINE (0, 90) -(240,90) ,PSET* 
1S0 FOR Y-0 TO 180 STEP 9 
160 LINE<0,Y)-<9 ( Y>,P8ET 
170 NEXT Y 

1B0 FOR X-0 TO 240 STEP 60 
190 LINE<X,B9)-tX,9S>,P8ET 
200 NEXT X 

Block 2 

299 REH » CALCULATE * 

300 CLS: PR I NT 038, "PLEASE WAIT" 
310 PR I NTS 102, "I'M THINKING" 
320 FOR X-0 TO 240 
330 PRINTB203,X 
340 PLAY W L299|3" 
390 TH-X/38.2 
360 YA<X)-90-S0*SIN<TH> 
370 YB<X)-90-90*COS<TH> 
300 NEXT X 
390 ' 

Block 3 

399 REH # NENU * 

400 CLS 

410 PRINT 013, "MENU" 
420 PRINT039, "CHOOSE BY NUMBER" 
430 PR I NTS 1 03 , " 1 . PLOT SIN" 
440 PRINTS 139, "2. 
490 PR I NTS 167, "3. 
460 PR I NTS 199, "4. 
470 PRINTS231,"5. 
480 PRINTS263, "6. 
490 AS-"" 

900 A*-INKEY4: IF AS-"" THEN 900 
910 IF AS-"6" THEN END 
920 ' 

Block 4 

399 REM # PLOT POINTS* 

600 SCREEN 1,0 

610 FOR X-0 TO 240 

620 ON VAL <AS) BOSUB 1000,1100.1 

200,1300,1400 

630 P8ET<X,Y,0> 

640 NEXT X 

690 A*-"" 

660 AS-XNKEY*: IF AS—"" THEN 660 
400 



PLOT COS" 
PLOT 8IN+C08" 
PLOT SIN-COS" 
PLOT COS-SIN" 
QUIT" 



Comments 



hi-res 

black on cyan 

arrays 
Y-axis 
X-axis 

Y scale marks 



X scale markers 

allow space between 
blocks 



message on text screen 



point number (0-240) 
play note 
angle in radians 

2 /240 38.2 

r 

scale by 50; convert 
to Cartesian; store 



clear text screen 



print menu 



make choice 
THE END if 6 is 
chosen 



turn on graphics 



get points and PSET 



A70 



any key returns to menu 



June, 1983 ths RAINBOW 91 



Subroutines 

999 REM *• 8IN »» 
10*0 Y-YA<X> 
1010 RETURN 
1020; » 

1099 REH ** COS 

1100 Y»YB«X> 
1110 RETURN 
1120 » 

1199 REH ** SIN+COS #* 

1 200 Y*VA i X > +YB { X ) ^90 
1210 RETURN 
1220 ' 

1299 REN *• SIN-COS * 

1300 Y-YA < X )-YB< X 1+90 
1310 RETURN 

1399 REM ** COS-SIN *< 

1400 Y*YB <X)-YA<X>+90 
1410 RETURN 



Comments 



pick Y from array 



pick Y from array 



modify sum for 
screen . 



mddify difference 



modify difference 



Program Operation 

It should be remembered that you can shift back and forth 
between the text and graphics screens without destroying 
either one since they are located at different places in 
memory. The X and Y axes are drawn in Block 1 even 
though you don't see it being done. The graphics screen is 



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not displayed until you give the SCREEN command. 

The sine and cosine values are all calculated and placed in 
separate arrays in Block 2. You could calculate them at the 
time that they are plotted, but the plots are drawn more 
quickly if the points have been pre-calclilated. The value of 
50 in lines 360 and 370 are merely scale factors and can be 
changed to produce whatever magnitude you desire to dis- 
play. The value 90 is the conversion factor used to make the 
Y origin appear to be near the center of the screen. 

The menu in Block 3 allows you to choose the curve of 
your choice. Other combinations could be used with an 
appropriate change in the related subroutine. Since Block 4 
will always return you to the menu, choice number 6 gives 
you a chance to stop when you have seen enough. 

Block 4 plots the points by going to the subroutine corres- 
ponding to your menu choice. If you wish to plot fewer 
points, add a STEP value to line 610. For example: 

610 FOR X = 0 TO 240 STEP 2 
would plot only the even numbered points (0,2,4 . . . 240). 
After the curve has been plotted the graphic screen stays on 
until you press a key. A return is then made to themenu. The 
plots that you have previously made stay on the screen. Keep 
in mind that CLS clears only the text screen, and PCLS 
clears only the graphics screen. 

The subroutines supply the Y values to be plotted by 
picking the appropriate values from the arrays. The SIN 
subroutine uses array YA, and the COS subroutine uses 
array YB. The others perform the appropriate arithmetic 
and necessary screen adjustments. 



SIN+COS = YA + YB —90 

= [90-50*SIN(TH)] + [90-50* COS(TH)] —90 
= 90 — 50*(SIN(TH)+COS(YH) 

SIN-COS = YA — YB + 90 

= [90-50*SIN(TH)] — [90-50* COS(YH)] +90 
= 90-50(SIN(TH)-COS(TH)) 

COS-SIN = YB — YA + 90 

= [90-50* COS(TH)] — [90-50*SIN(YH)] +90 
= 90-50*(COS(TH)-SIN(TH)) 



Other Options 

If you have a printer and a screen dump program, you can 
make hard copies of various combinations of the trigono- 
metric functions. If you would like to see the values f or each 
point for the various functions you can add the appropriate 
print statements. You might want to add a print option to 
the menu, as: 

7) PRINT FUNCTIONS 
Line 620 would then need another GOSUB value (1500), 
and a subroutine that would print the data in the desired 
format. 

The SIN / COS plots shown with this article were dumped 
to an Epson MX-80 printer by a program from Custom 
Software Engineering, which carries the Rainbow Certifica- 
tion Seal. The following listing includes lines 10 through 30 
and 700 through 720 to handle the screen dumps. I modified 
line 510 (the QUIT selection) of the original program to call 
a screen dump after the appropriate functions had been 
plotted. Theref ore, a QUIT selection f rom the menu actually 
sends the computer to the screen dump before ending. 

The machine language screen dump is loaded from the 
BASIC program by lines 1 0-30. Line 7 1 0 deletes lines 1 0 and 



92 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 




Flight 



If you'd like to fly a plane then this is what you've been 
waiting for. A really good graphics oriented flight simulator 
in high resolution. Four difficulty levels let you go from 
student level to a difficult instrument-only landing. In front 
of you on the screen are your instruments, and above 
them are two representations of your plane in relation to 
the flight path (top and side views). At the higher levels all 
you have to go by are the instruments. Can you put it down 
on the runway to hear the synthesized voice from the 
tower say "perfect landing"? It's tough! You use your 
joystick just like the control stick on a plane, and the action 
is realistic indeed. This program was written by a pro- 
fessional flyer — a pilot for a major United States air carrier, 
and the high standards of professionalism really show. 
Just CLOADM and take to the skies!! Requires 32K 
extended. TAPE is $19.95 — DISK is $24.95 



A Partial List of Prickly-Pear Programs 

Astrology, Gangbusters, Household Helper, 
Fantasy Gamer's Package, Viking, Football, 
Preread I, II & III, Mathpac I, Tarot, I Ching, 
Numerology, The Great Word Game, The 80C 
Songbook, Phonics I, Phonics 2, Flight, Las 
Vegas Weekend, The 8-Bit Bartender, The 
Fantasy Master's Secretary, Monsters & Magic, 
Topsy Turvy, Galactic Patrol, Blockade, Sea 
Wars, Jungle, Spanish . . . 



If you are running a disk system, we suggest that you order 
the disk version, because the cassette version will notrun 
on a disk system without modification or disconnection of 
the disk controller. The above disk programs require 32K 
Ram. 




RAINBOW 

CtftTlFICATIOM 
MAI 



Your Personal check is welcome - ho delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 
on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 6% sales 
tax. Orders shipped within two days. 




Viking! 

A simulation for 1 to 4 persons. Each begins as a land- 
owner, and by farming their land, buying and selling land, 
expanding their fishing fleet, building on to their manu- 
factory, increasing their population, equiping and training 
more soldiers, and regulating theirtaxes,each player tries 
to increase their economic power and rank until one 
becomes ruler over all. But beware plagues, rats, raiders, 
revolts, bad weather, and other misfortunes which may lie 
along the road to success. As you progress, seethe mapof 
your holdings increase. Playable in 1 to 2 hours, and 
different every time, you may have an addiction problem. 
$19.95 tape — $24.95 disk 





Gangbusters 

If you ever wanted to try a life of crime, this is yourchance. 
You will start out as a Punk, but by using brains, and a little 
muscle, you can rise to become a Hood, Runner, Bookie, 
Torpedo, Fence, Kingpin, or win by becoming Syndicate 
Boss. Indulge yourself. Bribe a judge, or the District 
Attorney. Pay off the Cops. Take out a contract on another 
player, but watch out, they may be afteryou. Buy trucking 
companies, bootleg operations, houses of ill fame, but 
remember, if you get caught, you may do some hard time. 
Do you havewhat ittakestotakeover?Thisgamewill keep 
you close to your rod, get you thinking about bulletproof 
glass in your car, and definitely bring out the worst in you, 
but you'll love every minute of it. For 2 to 6 players, takes 
about 2 hours to play. Every game is excitingly different. 
$19.95 tape — $24.95 disk 



Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Send Order To: PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9822 E. Stella Road 
Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 



20 after the program runs the first time. In this way, the 
program will not try to load the machine language program 
on subsequent runs. Once it is in memory, there is no need to 
load it again. 




340 016F 

610. .. . 02FD 
END .... 0459 



The Listing: 

89 REM *** SIN/COS PLOT *** 

90 ' 

99 REM * SET UP * 

100 PMODE 4,1 

110 PCLSl: COLOR 0 
120 DIM YA(240>,YB(240> 
130 LINE (0,0)-(0, 180), P8ET 
140 LINE (0,90) -(240, 90), P8ET 
150 FOR Y-0 TO 180 STEP 9 
160 LINE(0,Y)-(9,Y),P8ET 
170 NEXT Y 

160 FOR X-0 TO 240 STEP 60 
190 LINE(X,B5)-(X,95),P8ET 
200 NEXT X 
210 '220 

9 

REM * CALCULATE * 
CLS: PRINT838, "PLEASE WAIT" 
PRINT8102,"I'M THINKING" 
FOR X-0 TO 240 
PRINT8203, X 
PLAY"L255|3" 
TH-X/38.2 

Y A ( X ) -90-90*8 I N ( TH ) 
YB ( X ) -90-S0*COS ( TH ) 
NEXT X 

9 



300 
310 



330 
340 



360 
370 
380 
390 



400 
410 
420 



REM * MENU * 
CLS 

PRINT 813, "MENU" 

PRINT839, "CHOOSE BY NUMBER 1 



Sample Runs with Screen Dump 



t- 

L 

V/ 

t 

h- 
H 



SIN 













L ^ 




L. y x 




- / \ 




r? 


^_ 

\ 

■ H 


X" " " f- 


-fr- 


*~ \ 
^ ■■. 





l.SIN 

2. COS 

3. SIN+COS 











L - f N 
_ ^ -\ 

/ 

j" ■. "■ 

—/ 








V — ■ 

h 


— 




K 











1. SIN 

2. COS 

3. SIN-COS 



r 



430 PRINT8103,"1. PLOT SIN" 
440 PRINT8139,"2. PLOT COS" 
450 PRINT8167, "3. PLOT SIN+COS" 
460 PRINT8199,"4. PLOT 8IN-C08" 
470 PRINT8231, "5. PLOT COS-SIN" 
480 PRINT8263, "6. QUIT" 
490 A*-"" 

500 A*-INKEY*:IF A*-"" THEN 500 
510 IF A*-"6" THEN END 
520 ' 

599 REM * PLOT POINTS* 

600 SCREEN 1,0 
610 FOR X-0 TO 240 

620 ON VAL(A*> 808UB 1000,1100,1 
200 f 1 300 f 1 400 
630 PSET(X,Y,0) 
640 NEXT X 
650 A*-"" 

660 A*-INKEY«: IF A»- " " THEN 660 

ELSE 400 
670 ' 

999 REM ** SIN ** 

1000 Y-YA(X) 
1010 RETURN 
1020 ' 

1099 REM ** COS ** 

1100 Y-YB(X) 
1110 RETURN 
1120 ' 

1199 REM ** SIN+COS ** 

1200 Y-YA ( X ) +YB ( X ) -90 
1210 RETURN 

1220 ' 

1299 REM *• SIN-COS *• 

1300 Y-YA ( X ) -YB ( X ) +90 
1310 RETURN 

1320 ' 

1399 REM ** COS-SIN *• 

1400 Y-YB(X)-YA(X)+90 
1410 RETURN 



l.SIN 
2. COS 



x- 

L 
L 



- 2 







1. SIN 

2. COS 

3. COS-SIN 



v 

r 
r- 

i- 

I-'- -V 

f? 



-1 
I 



L.' 



l.SIN 

2. COS 

3. SIN+COS 

4. SIN-COS 

5. COS-SIN 



94 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




COLOR CATERPILLAR by the Rugby Circle, Inc. ®1983 

An ecological system out of control; the last survivors ban together in 
the valley. Of the predator insecta the caterpillar remains as the worst 
menace because of its amazing ability to reproduce From your mobile 
post, your guns are aimed at the moving target: a raging caterpillar 
splits in two with each half going in opposite directions. Even if, in your 
persistence, you manage to destroy the creature, another one appears 
one segment longer than the previous caterpillar. Adopting to its hostile 
environment, if the caterpillar reaches the valley below without attack- 
ing you, he tronsforms into a killer moth. Your survival instincts are not 
nearly so advanced as those of your foe. 

Snatch up this survival epic. A challenging fast-action, Machine 
language, arcade-style game. You' II need plenty of practice. Rated the 
best arcade simulation of Its type. Requires 1 6K memory forthe cassette 
version Only $19.95 

DEATH TRAP the Rugby Circle. Inc. ®1983 

To satisfy your insatiable hunger for wealth, you have set out to explore 
the ancient ruins of a lost civilization. Protected by your armor- plated 
tank, you amble through the twisted remains searching for hidden 
treasures. As you explore the complicated Death Trap which extends far 
beyond the horizon, your energy supply continually diminishes forcing 
you to consume the existing fuel mines. Barring your path are various 
deterrents which, among other things, destroy tanks, award points, 
supply maps, and teleport your tank to unknown regions of the Death 
Trap. 

Death Trap is a totally unique concept It is a hybrid game employing 
the graphics of an arcade game and the excitement of an adventure 
game, yet requiring the concentration of a strategy game. A great 
investment! You'll never tire of exploring the immense, seemingly 
endless maze, and you can look forward to a number of new Death Trap 
mazes in the future! Requires 16K memory and is written entirely in 
Machine language Only $19.95 

ETT (Electronic Typing Teacher) 

Learn the RIGHT WAY - FAST! 
Video Keyboard Guides Beginners — 

• Finger Exercises SHOW & TEACH every Finger- Letter combination 

• Self- Tests Help Beginners & Challenges Experts! 

• 10 Page Student Manual & Self Study Course 

• Hundreds of Practice Sentences 

• 19 Skill-Building Practice Sets as DATA FILES 

• Create your own data files for your own usage 

Written by a Certified Teacher and a Professional Programmer. For the 
Radio Shack* & TDP-100* Color Computers. Requires 16K minimum and 
Extended BASIC. If you need to learn to type, don't miss this super 
program. Only $19.95 



MASTER CONTROL II - New & Improved! 

Copyright °1982 Soft Sector Marketing, Inc. Written by Alan Schwartz. 

TAKE CONTROL . . OF BASIC PROGRAMMING ON YOUR TPS-COLOR OR 
TDP100 MACHINE. 

Master Control is a Machine language program designed to increase 
the speed in which it takes to write BASIC programs, by providing the 
most commonly used program statements with two(2) keystrokes rather 
than having to type the entire command. The program is relocatable 
and can be placed anywhere in memory, normally the top 1616 bytes 
of RAM. it will work on 16 K and 32K systems. All of the instructions are 
compatible with the Radio Shack Disk Controller, 

OVERVIEW 

1 . 51 preprogrammed command keys of standard and Extended 
BASIC commands. 

2. Direct control of motor, trace and audio functions 

3. Relocatable Machine code, now works with disk systems. 

4. Automatic line numbering, starting pointand Increment are alterable. 

5. Programmable custom key, you can select your own special function. 

6. Direct run key, run the program as you write It. 

7. Plastic keyboard overlay for easy program use. 

8. Easy entry of commands into program statements. 

9. New, complete, easy to understand instruction manual. 
10. Repeat keyboard function on all keys. 

Requires 16K. Does not require Extended BASIC (Extended BASIC is 
required for some functions.) 

Introductory Otter - Cassette #0-79 $19.95 



ATTENTION PRESENT OWNERS 
OF MASTER CONTROL - 

If you have the original MASTER CONTROL program, you can update to 
the newest version for only $8.00 plus shipping and handling. To get this 
low cost update do the following: 

1 ) Remove the corner of your old foil overlay that has the words MASTER 
CONTROL on it. 

2) Paste it to a piece of paper. 

3) Send this piece of paper and your original MASTER CONTROL tape with 
$8.00 for the update and $2.00 for shipping and handling to: 

Master Control Update 
c/o Soft Sector Marketing, Inc. 

P.O. Box 340 
Garden City, Michigan 48136 

We must have all the above to process your update 



COLOR GRAPHICS EDITOR 

'^1983 Soft Sector Marketing, Inc. Written by Larry Ashmun. 

AT LAST, a graphics drawing program that is USEFUL in writing programs 
that use graphics. 

This program permits the creation of graphic pictures on the screen that 
can be saved to disk in the form of DATA STATEMENTS for DISK BASIC, or in 
the form of FDB STATEMENTS, for use with a disk based Editor/Assembler 
(eg. MICRO WORKS MACRO 80C). It albws two type of data entry, 
testing of animation effects and many additional features. 

Written in Machine language, requires Extended BASIC or RS Disk 
BASIC and a minimum of 16K of memory. Works with cassette or disk. 
Cassette #0-2 1 1 $19.95 



OKI-PRINT ®1983 by Craig Edelheit 

DUMP SCREEN GRAPHICS FROM YOUR RADIO SHACK TRS-80* OR TDP1 OCT 
COLOR COMPUTER TO AN OKIDATA MICROLINE 82A SERIAL DOT MATRIX 
PRINTER. 256 x 192 HIGH RESOLUTION. 

OKI-PRINT is a BASIC language program that is designed to do high 
resolution screen dumps from a RadioShackorTDP100 Color Computer, 
to an Okidata 82A printer. OKI-PRINT will dump any PMODE M.P (M = 
MODE. P = PAGE). If the PMODE is 1 or 3 (which are color modes) the 
printer will attempt to shade the different colors in lighter and darker 
intensities of black in order to make them more recognizable. Requires 
16K Extended BASIC. 

. .. Cassette #0-23 $12.95 




SOFT SECTOR MARKETING, 

INCORPORATED 

6250 Middlebelt • Garden City, Michigan 481 35 

Order Line 800-521 -6504 

Michigan Orders & Questions 313-425-4020 , 




P4VMENT-ciavmentacceptedbvct^orge.p$f$onoiche<; 

or COD. only, under the following conditions Charges 
processed when shipped, usually withm48 nours Personal 
Checks delqy shipping; pending 3 weeks to clear C.O.D. 
orders are certified Greek or cash only, add S1 50. Ml residents must add 4% sates tax 

SHIPPING * HANDLING - Shipping Charges: Send the larger amount, 2% or S2 50. unless 
stipuiarea atheiwise Any oraer recetvedwithout shipping ana hanaimgwill Pe shipped freight 
collect Air Mail Shipping outside of North America, please sena the larger amount: 10% or 
S10 00 Overpayment will be refunaed. a 



® 



PRODUCTS FOR THE 



COMPUTERWARE 

COLOR COMPUTER 



Radio Shack or TDP-100 



HOME & WORK 



HOME & WORK 



HOME & WORK 




3D DRAWING BOARD 

Draw a simple or complex 
object in three dimensions, 
then rotate, change 
elevation, size & distance of 
your object. Educational & 
entertaining. Extensive 
documentation, including 
examples & sample 
drawings, 
cassette. . .$24.95 
disk. . .$29.95 




ADDRESS FACTORY 

Computerize your mailing 
list for church, business, or 
clubs. This stores Name, 
Address, City, State, Zip, & 
Special Code for each 
person. You can add, 
change, or delete 
information and print either 
mailing labels or lists. 255 
names on disk, 125 on 32K 
cassette, or 55 on 16K 
cassette. 

cassette. . .$17.95 
disk. . .$22.95 



Color i. .v. 
[Connection 



THE COLOR 
CONNECTION 

This is the easiest iand most 
complete modem package 
available for the Color 
Computer. 

* Supports both full & half 
duplex 

* You designate the 
required parity 

* MACROS for log-on & 
auto dial 

* Requires only 16K 

* Big buffer for upload & 
download 

* Line wrap does not break 
words 

* 300 baud 
cassette. . .$29.95 
disk. . .$39.95 



I 




SEMI DRAW 

Your computer's keyboard 
or joystick draws in 8 colors 
with semi alpha graphics 8, 
12, 24. You can do 
animation and dump your 
screen's picture to a printer 
(Line Printer VII or VIII, 
NEC 8023A). From 6 years 
and up! 

cassette. . .$21.95 




COLOR SCRIBE 
WORD PROCESSOR 

Scribe is the perfect word 
processor as well as a great 
programmer's editor. 
Features include: fast 
change, search, insert, & 
delete; move & copy of a 
line or whole paragraphs; 
text formatting with margin 
justification, automatic 
paging, centering, tabs, 
headings, & footings. You 
can edit files larger than 
memory. Works with LCA- 
47 lower case adapter. 
Radio Shack Disk. . .$49.95 




COLOR DATA 
ORGANIZER 

CDO is a little data base 
system for small inventory 
ideas, remember lists, serial 
numbers, etc. It stores, 
retrieves, sorts, prints, & 
totals whatever you want 
within the two 9 digit 
numeric and two 16 
character string entries, 
cassette. . .$19.95 
disk. . .$29.95 




FINANCE PROGRAMS 

Two great programs, each 
with nine options covering 
loans and investments, 
cassette. . .$17.95 
disk. . .$22.95 




HOME MONEY 
MANAGER 

Organize your income & 
expenses! Not only can you 
balance your checkbook 
but get reports like 
summary of expenses or 
income for the month by 
category. Records up to 480 
transactions by date, "paid- 
to", check number, account 
number, and amount, 
cassette. . .$19.95 



COLOR 
COMPUTER 

Memory Expansion 
Books • Supplies 
Accsssorlss 



TO ORDER: 

Add shipping of 
$2 surface or $5 
air/Canada. Visa 
& MasterCard 
accepted. 



Dealer Inquires Invited 




OMPUTERWARE 



® 



Computerware is a trademark of Computerware. 



call or write 
Box 668 

Encinitas, Ca. 92024 
(619) 436-3512 



FUN & GAMES 



FUN & GAMES 



FUN & GAMES 



PAC ATTACK 







1- 


-_□ 


CT-j 










-a 


51 


- 




fa 



BE AMAZED J 






Jl J 

CAJMLKM1 



PAC ATTACK 

Bring arcade fun to your 
home'. Three little rare earth 
muggers chase your man 
relentlessly around a 
maddening maze as you 
furiously try to eat up 
points. Three levels of 
difficulty and great graphics 
with sound! 
cassette. .$24.95 
disk. . $29.95 




MAZERACE & 
CAPTURE THE FLAG 

Two great games in one 
package! Mazerace is a 
board type game of chance 
& strategy. The hexagon 
matrix is filled with paths & 
obstacles. You must reach 
the other side before your 
opponent. Capture the Flag 
is similiar but runs in real 
time and has a different 
field. You can play with a 
friend or with the computer, 
cassette. . .$19.95 
disk. . .$24.95 




SHARK TREASURE 

A diver after sunken 
treasure, you brave shark- 
infested waters to recover 
gold & jewels. Graphics to 
chill the spine! 

cassette . . . $21.95 
disk. . . $26.95 



EL DIABLERO 

You awake, dazed and 
confused, in the middle of 
the desert. You had been 
learning techniques of 
sorcery from an old man 
who lives in these parts. He 
told you of his enemy, an 
evil sorcerer, a "diablero." 
Now your teacher is 
missing and you are alone 1 
Pure adventure!! 
cassette. . .$19.95 
disk. . $24 95 




STORM! 

A tempest of a game, Storm 
is an exciting & colorful 
experience with 15 different 
battlefields & 9 levels of 
challenge. Shoot enough 
Rainbow Raiders and you 
earn your way to the next 
level. Watch out for the 
milibars! 

cassette. . .$24.95 
disk. . .$29.95 




SYNTHER 7 

Turn your keyboard into 
a musical instrument with 
a digital synthesizer. 
Adjustable attack, decay, 
sustain, release, & pitch- 
bending. Simulate several 
instruments. Fun for 
novice & musician! 
cassette . . . $21.95 
disk. . . $26.95 



DOODLE BUG 

In high resolution graphics 
your lady bugs hussle 
through an intricate maze 
of barriers & turnstyles, 
trying to earn points by 
eating dots, letters, & 
hearts Enemy bugs buzz 
after you! Exquisite sound 
and graphics! 
cassette. . .$24.95 
disk. . $29.95 




RAIL RUNNER 

Watch Out!! Your railroad 
engineer must scurry over 
the track of the busiest train 
switchyard ever, dodging 
speeding trains & handcars, 
to rescue the poor little 
hobos on the wrong side of 
the tracks! And the clock 
keeps on ticking! 
cassette. . .$21.95 
disk. . .$26.95 




SPACE AMBUSH 

Trapped in a crater, 
attacked by a band of 
galaxian hoodlums, you 
defend Starbase. Fast- 
paced, hi-res game for 
those who want to go 
beyond Invaders. 

cassette . . . $21.95 
disk. . . $26.95 



STARSHIP 
CHAMELEON 

Your intergalaxian vessel 
must defend your planet 
against evil Gabalatok 
attack. You have the unique 
ability to change color at 
the push of a button to 
destroy oncoming bombs 
and anti-matter. Watch out 
for the semi-intelligent 
aerial mines that home in 
on you! Nine levels of play, 
cassette. . .$24.95 
disk. . .$29.95 






COLOR INVADERS 

You are at the controls of 
the Space Tank, firing at 
steller ships and invading 
critters. Ships burst in air 
with explosive noise. Alien 
critters march across the 
screen dropping bombs & 
screaming as life is zapped 
from their fried bodies, 
cassette. . .$19.95 
disk. . .$24.95 




MEGAPEDE 

Caught in a jungle of 
algae, attacked by vicious 
spiders & fleas, you must 
shoot your way out. A 
megaton more action than 
any other! 

cassette . . . $21.95 
disk . . . $26.95 



UTILITY 



X 10 Protocol Theory 

Home Power Control 

Part 




Unfortunately, my prediction about Radio Shack 
discontinuing the Plug 'n Power Controller has 
has come true. Apparently, there aren't enough peo- 
ple in the marketplace (or Tandy Towers) who appreciate 
the potential of this little device. However, many of you were 
perceptive enough to buy aP'nP Controller, and if you 
weren't, some can still be found (at only $19.95) in assorted 
Radio Shack stores. The first article in this series showed 
how this modest little device allows your Color Computer to 
control all kinds of lights and appliances with simple BASIC 
programs. The second pointed out how to use it as an 
inexpensive but quit e accurate time base. In this installment 
we will explain the protocol used to communicate from the 
controller to remote devices through ordinary house wiring. 
An understanding of this protocol will enable you to better 
appreciate the potential and limitations of the Plug 'n Power 
system so you can use it more effectively with your Color 
Computer in your own unique situation. 

Modulation 

All X10 devices such as Radio Shack's Plug 'n Power 
units use "carrier current" modulation on your household 
power wiring similar to "wireless" intercoms. While inter- 
coms generally use amplitude modulation (AM) or fre- 
quency modulation (FM) to transmit analog signals (voi- 
ces), X 10 systems use a form of pulse coded modulation to 
transmit digital messages from a control unit to remote 
receiving units. The pulses are synchronized with the power 
line frequency, and consist of short "bursts" of 120KHz 
ultrasonic tones and "pauses." In the absence of any official 
documentation on this subject from BSR or Radio Shack, 
we have developed the following definitions to aid in our 
quest. 

(Alexander Trevor is Executive Vice President of 
computer resources at CompuServe. Charles Yahnisa 
design engineer at CompuServe's Research and 
Development Center in Tucson, Arizona.) 



By A. B. Trevor 
and Charles Yahn 



Burst: 

A period of time during which the 120 KHz tone is 
transmitted over the power line. The length of the 
burst is slightly less than 1/2 tick (1/ 120 sec). (See 
Figure 1.) 

Pause: 

A period of time during which no tone is transmit- 
ted. A pause is 1/2 tic (1/ 120 sec). 

Bit: 

Binary digits are encoded as follows: 

0) (PAUSE) (BURST) 

1) (BURST) (PAUSE) 

In normal data transmission the combinations (PAUSE) 
(PAUSE) or (BURST) (BURST) never occur. When no 
transmission is taking place, the controller idle state is 
(PAUSE) . . . (PAUSE). 

Listing 1 details how "bursts" and "pauses" are generated 
on the CoCo. Line synchronization is achieved at BUR2 by 



"An understanding of this protocol 
will enable you to better appreciate the 
potential and limitations of the Plug c n 
Power system so you can use it more 
effectively with your Color Computer 
in your own unique situation" 



watching the cassette input bit, followed by a 210 microse- 
cond wait at BUR3. The ultrasonic tone is set on or off at 
BUR4+1 via the 6 bit D/ A and timed for 1 millisecond at 
BUR5. If this has been done three times, the "burst" is 
complete; otherwise it is repeated after a two millisecond 
delay at BUR8. 



98 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



Packet Format 

As in asynchronous data communications over telephone 
lines, a "start" signal is needed to properly synchronize 
remote units with the incoming data. In the X 10 world, data 
is transmitted in "packets" consisting of several bits pre- 
ceded by a header. A special sequence is used as the header: 

(BURST) (BURST) (BURST) (PAUSE) (rest of packet) 
There are two distinct kinds of packets: address packets and 
command packets. The structure of each is as follows: 

Address Packet: 

(header) (house code) (unit code) (0) 

4 bits 4 bits 
Command Packet: 

(header) (house code) (command) (1) 

4 bits 4 bits 
Notice that the house code is repeated in the command 
packet. The reason for this is to prevent accidential activa- 
tion of units operating on a different house code. Once a 
device has recognized its own house code and unit code in an 
address packet, the device remains ready to receive com- 
mands until: 

1) an address packet is received for a different unit (but 
same house code), 

2) or, a universal command is received (such as clear). 
Thus, if the house code were not included in command 
packets, addressed devices in another house might respond. 

Data Mapping 

The binary codes used in X 10 packets to represent house 
codes and unit numbers are not simply the corresponding 



hex values. House and unit numbers must be encoded 
according to Table 1 before being used in a packet. Table 2 
lists the values used for all X 10 commands. 

The "X 1 0 Low Level Routines" given in Listing 1 presume 
that the mapping is the responsibility of the calling program. 
This point was well illustrated by the sample program 
included in Part 1 of this series on page 163 of the February 
1983 issue of the Rainbow. 

Table 1. X10 Encoding Table 



House 


Unit 


4 bit hex 


Code 


Code 


Value 


A 


1 


6 


B 


2 


E 


C 


3 


2 


D 


4 


A 


E 


5 


1 


F 


6 


9 


G 


i 


5 


H 


8 


D 


I 


9 


7 


J 


10 


F 


K 


11 


3 


L 


12 


B 


M 


13 


0 


N 


14 


8 


O 


15 


4 


P 


16 


C 



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add $5.75 each for Shipping & Handling * 
New Jersey residents add 6% sales tax 



Address 



City 

•Within Continental U.S.A. 



Zip 



Phone 



Allow 4 to 6 weeks delivery 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 99 



Table 2. X10 Commands 



Code 


Command 


o 


All off (clear) 


1 


All on 

A. AAA Vil 


2 


On 


3 


Off 


4 


Dim 


5 


Bright 



Example 

To summarize, let us look at an example. Suppose we 
wish to turn on light 5 with house code B. By looking in 
Table 1 for house code "B" and unit 5; and in Table 2 for 
"ON," we find the following values: 



House "B 
Unit 5 
Command "ON 



Hex 

E 
1 

2 



Binary 

(1110) 
(0001) 
(0010) 



If we let "b" represent a (BURST) and "." represent a 
(PAUSE), we can depict the resulting address packet as 
follows: 

bbb.b.b.b..b.b.b.bb..b 

idle (hd) 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 idle 

This packet is repeated three times to insure that the device is 
properly addressed. The command packet follows: 

bbb.b.b.b..b.b.bb..bb 

idle (hd) 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 idle 



STOCK & FUND INVESTING 

with the 
TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

USE FUND GRAF & PUMDP1LE 

FUNDGRAF is a stock market analysis program 
that not only graphs and analyzes funds or stocks, 
but also makes decisions on when to BUY and SELL* 

• GRAPHS fund's progress (up to 200 weeks). 

• SUPERIMPOSES for comparison! 

- a line of constant percent growth. 

- a graph of any other fund (or stock). 

• CALCULATES over any given time spam 

- the percent price change. 

- the moving average (any span). w>ft 



INDICATES BUY and SELL signals 

ff 



RAINBOW 



PROCiRnM FOR 
IT RSI- COLOR COMPUTl 



T 



I ' I ' | ' I 1 1 ) 



-FUNDGRAF - 

TAPE @ 449^5 
DISK @ $69*95 

- FUNDFILE - 

DISK only @ $27.95 

• ADD $2 Handling on 

all orders. 

• Details? SEND SASE 

• 16 K ECB Required, 
-printer optional 

FUNDFILE is a portfolio and account manage- 
ment program for securities. It creates files for 
up to 900 transactions & 50 securities and reports 1 
asset value t realized & unrealized capital gains, 
adjusted costs (for stock dividends)* and MORE! ! 

PARSONS SOFTWARE, DEPT. A 
118 W00DSHIRE DRIVE 
PARKERSBURG, WV 26101 




The command packet is also repeated three times, unless it is 
a "dim" or "bright" command, which is repeated 2n+l times, 
where "n" is a repeat count that determines the degree of 
dimming or brightening to be done. 



Real World Considerations 

After you have played around with the Plug 'n Power 
controller on your computer for awhile and you start to 
consider using this system to control your home or office, 
the f olio wing concerns will probably come to mind: 1 ) Can I 
really leave my computer powered up for days or weeks 
without doing any harm? 2) What about power failures? 3) 
How reliable is this set-up? 

There are probably as many opinions on the first question 
as there are Color Computer owners, but in my opinion, if 
you use your computer nearly everyday any way, then leav- 
ing it on continuously probably is actually less stress on your 
computer's components than cycling it on and off. I know 
people who have left their CoCos on for a year; I regularly 
leave mine on for a week or more when I am out of town. 
Since heat is the main thing that could damage the compo- 
nents in your computer, you may wish to remove the top 
cover during extended use to reduce the operating tempera- 
ture of the I.C.'s. If you have "piggyback" memory, then this 
is especially important, and you should have a heat sink on 
the SAM chip. As long as all the chips in your machine run 
cool enough to touch, then it should be OK. Of course, you 
should turn off your TV when running the CoCo 
unattended — otherwise you could damage the screen and 
will waste a lot of power. 

Although the CoCo will tolerate a respectable amount of 
small power glitches, any power failure of more than a few 
cycles duration will cause your CoCo to lose memory, or at 
the very least, will stop program execution. If you want to be 
sure that your CoCo stays on the job (especially during the 
summer when power outages are most common), then you 
should use a small "UPS"(Uninterruptable Power Supply). 
These devices include a battery to provide backup power, an 
inverter to generate 120 V.A.C., and some kind of battery 
charger. Since the CoCo draws less than 25 watts, a very 
small UPS will be adequate. I use a Topaz 2645, which is 
really overkill, since it has a 300V A capacity. 

A cool running, UPS equipped CoCo is a very reliable 
device, but there are other hazards that should be consi- 
dered: lightning, power surges, and interference. Unfortu- 
nately, the only way to provide total protection from light- 
ning strikes on the power line is to unplug your computer. 
The next best thing is to use a good surge protector, which, 
although not perfect, will greatly reduce the danger of frying 
your computer. Note that only the computer (and disk drive, 
if applicable) should be plugged into the UPS and surge 
suppressor; the Plug 'n Power controller must be plugged 
directly into a wall outlet. Otherwise, the ultrasonic tone 
may be filtered out by one of these devices. 

Operation of FM intercoms on the same power trans- 
former will interfere with the operation of the Plug 'n Power 
unit; even if the intercom is in a neighbor's house. Most 
other f orms of interference are dealt with adequately by the 
fact that X10 packets are transmitted three times. 

X10 Routines 

Sources of the Color Basic callable machine language 
routines used to generate X 10 packets by all the programs in 
this series of articles are available on CompuServe in the 
public ACCESS data base in X10.M69[70000,130]. These 
routines are in MAC69 format, but are easily convertible to 



1 00 the RAINBOW June, 1 983 



SEE WHArS NEW 

THIS MONTH at QUASAR ANIMATIONS 




SOFTWARE 

The Official 
ZAXXON 

by SEGA 

Probably the most incredible arcade 
game ever is now available for the Color 
Computer. NOTE: this is the official ZAX- 
XON, not an imitation! 

32K Tape or Disc $39.95 

THE KING 

by Tom Mix Software 

Four full graphic screens. Exciting sound 
and realistic graphics. Never before has 
the color computer seen a game like this. 

Tape $26.95 

Disc $29.95 

SKY-DEFENSE 

Can you survive the first wave of attack? 
Or the next? Or the next? Only your joy- 
stick will ever know! Features horizontal 
flight in highres graphics, and fast-paced 
action. Machine language; joystick re- 
quired. 16K $12.95 

BIGNUM 

If you dislikeseeing numbers like 1 .23045 E 
23, and wish you could have all the ac- 
curate digits instead, then BIGNUM is for 
you. Add, subtract, multiply, divide and 
raise BIG numbers to BIG powers and get 
totally accurate results. Even if you are 
satisfied with an approximation, without 
this program the Color Computer would 
return an "OV ERROR" with this problem: 
34*45. BIGNUM returns the entire 68 digit 
result! Accurate to 1,024 digits in 16K & 
about 3,068 digits with 32 RAM. 
16K $9.95 



HARDWARE 



16K-32K UPGRADE KIT 

Kit includes 8 200 ns #41 1 6 Factory Prime 
Chips, piggybacked sockets, SAM socket, 
and "32K" button to replace the 16K on 
your computer's case. Easy to remove. No 
soldering to computer $25.95 



64K UPGRADE KIT 

200 ns #4164 chip set will upgrade your 
"E" board easily. Factory Prime Chips. 
Instructions included $49.95 

Nanos Reference Cards 



Color Computer & TDP-100 
Color BASIC & EXTENDED . . 



4.95 



DATA CASSETTES 

C05 C10 

$ .65 Qty. 1-10 $ .70 

$ .60 Qty. 11-20 $ .65 

Soft Poly Cases Ea. $ .20 





WABASH DISKETTES 

Box of 10 $25.00 



JOYSTICK INTERFACE 

Use ATARI or WICO Joysticks with your 
COCO! $17.95 



WICO COMMAND CONTROL 
JOYSTICK 




The best joystick available for COCO . . . 

$29.95 



Km 



Add $1 .50 per software order and $2.00 per hardware order for postage and handling. 

California residents add 6% Sales Tax. 

QUASAR ANIMATIONS 

1520 Pacific Beach Drive. San Diego. California 92109 

(619) 274-2202 



the syntax of other assemblers. 

The next and final installment in this series will present a 
Disk BASIC program incorporating all the techniques pres- 
ented so far that will allow you to generate, save and execute 
simple or complex Plug 'n Power control programs 



Figure 1. X10 Timing Diagram 

— — 



Burn 



Binary "ONE" y 

/ Paul* 



Bhnaty'ZEHO" 
Bunt ■ 



/ 5 



1$ 



Millisecond! 




4 

1 ; 


•Low Level Routines for BSR X-10 Controller 


2 ; 


Translated from Charles Yahn s 6502 version 


3 ; 


To 6809 by Sandy Trevor, 8 Nov 1981 


4 ; 


Modified to PC relative 30 Oct 1982 


5 ; 




6 ; 


Calling Sequence for Color Basic 


7 ; 




8 ; 


nrr* i inn a i iha a a 

DEF USRn = &H3000 


o 

7 ; 


i inn # , i \ . j jl j 

USRn(argl) to send an address or command 


1U ; 




11 ; 


artjl is a 16 bit integer 


12 ; 




13 : 




14 


i i i c i pniikiT i op t ii /p ■ 

: ! !F ! COUNT ! HC ! U/C ! 


id ; 
16 


4il44PTJI'"IA 

! 14 11-8 7-4 3-0 


1/ , 




18 


where: j 


i 0 


; F - Address/command flag i 


Oft 


; 2 0 address pacKet 


Zl 


; - 1 command pacKet 






oo 
2J 


; COUNT - Repeat count 


O/l 

24 




25 


; HC - House Code (0 thru $f) 


ot 

£0 




I OT 

Ll 


; U/C - Unit number or Command 


00 
£0 




29 


n j n j 

Code Command 


OA 


A All .BB / _ 1 _ _ _ \ 

; 0 All off (clear) 




4 All 

1 All on 


32 ; 


2 On 


33 ; 


1 n a a 

3 Off 


Til 

34 ; 


4 Dim 


35 ; 


5 Bright 


36 ; 




37 j 


ll III*. 1 at s 111 . 1 « « • - » All 

House and Unit codes must be translated by the calling routine as follows: 


38 ; 


oo 

JV ; 


House Unit 4-bit value 


4U ; 


P — J n j /i_ ^ 

Code Code (hex) 


41 ; 


A 1 6 


! 


o o r 

o Z E 


43 ; 


C 3 2 


44 ; 


D 4 A 


45 : 


E 5 1 


46 


F 6 9 


47 : 


G 7 5 


48 ; 


H 8 D 


49 


I 9 7 


50 ; 


J 10 F 



102 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



fb rare 

AUID DUN 



Auto Run is a utility program for the TRS-80* 
Extended Basic Color Computer. It is used to add 
convenience and professionalism to your software. 

Auto Run will help you create your title screen 
with the graphics editor. The graphics editor allows 
you to choose a background color and border style. 
Using the arrow keys and several other commands 
you can draw pictures, block letters and also include 
text. 

Auto Run will generate a machine language load- 
er program to preceed your program on the tape. 
Then, to start up your program, simply type 
CLOADM to load in the Auto Run loader program, 
which will then automatically start itself up, display 
your title screen, load your program and then RUN 
or EXEC it. 

Also you may record a vocal or musical introduc- 
tion preceding your program. The Auto Run loader 
will control the audio on/off. 

Basic programs can be set to load anywhere in 
memory above $600 (the PCLEAR 0 page). 

Software authors: The Auto Run prefix may be 
appended to your software products. 

Auto Run is $14.95 and includes complete docu- 
mentation and an assembly source listing. 
Requires 16K Extended Basic. 



Galactic Han gman 



'!i 'I...- 



.Hllll 



FREE 



J H I L 



cm 



f it:E 



P 



I.J U i'l \< 

A great new twist to the popular, educational word 
guessing game for the Color Computer. Large (700 
words) and sophisticated vocabulary. Or enter your 
own words, your child's spelling list, foreign 
language vocabulary, etc. 

Outstanding high resolution graphics, animation 
and sound effects. 

For $14.95 you get both the 1 6K and 32K versions 
of Galactic Hangman. 



Tape Information 
Management System 

A user-oriented, easy to use personal database 
management system for the TRS-80* Color Com- 
puter with these outstanding features: 

* keeps files of programs, names, addresses, birth- 
days, recipes, class or club rosters, anything 

* variable record and field lengths 

* phrase substitution editor 

* up to 8 user-definable fields 

* ML sort (up to 3 fields), search and delete functions 
*2 search modes — range and item 

* user-definable printer format, for any printer 
*up to 230 characters per record 

For $24.95 you get the database management 
system, our full documentation which includes a 
reference guide and a programmer's guide, and our 

1981 Bibliography of articles relating to the Color 
Computer. Requires 16K Extended Basic. 32K 
recommended. 

1982 TIMS Bibliography — $9.95 



6 



A sensational and educational version of a popular 
party game for the TRS-80* Color Computer . . . 

For 1 to 10 players. Load a story into the com- 
puter. The players are asked to supply a noun, verb, 
part of body, celebrity, etc. which the program uses 
to complete the story. The story, which is displayed 
when all words are entered, will be hilarious. Silly 
Syntax requires 16K Extended Basic (32K for disk 
version). For $19.95, you get a user guide and a 
tape containing the Silly Syntax game and 2 stories. 
You can create your own stories or order story tapes 
from the selection below. 
Silly Syntax stories — Ten stories per tape. 
SS-001 - Fairy Tales SS-004 - Current Events 
SS-002 - Sing Along SS-006 - Adventure/Sci-Fi 
SS-003 - X-Rated SS-007 - Potpourri 

Each story tape is $9.95. 1 0% off for 3 or more story 
tapes. Disk is $24.95 for Silly Syntax and 2 stories or 
$49.95 for Silly Syntax and all 62 stories. 



RAINBOW 

CtttTtfCATIOM 
MM. 



*TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 
(614) 861-0565 

CIS orders EMAIL to 70405, 1374 



Add $1 .00 per tape or disk for 
postage and handling. Ohio- 
ans add 5.5% sales tax. COD 
orders are welcome. Dealer 
inquiries invited. 



*\1 


If 


1 1 
1 1 


J 


5? 


t L 


1 9 

IL 


n 
0 


Do 


y 

! n 


1J 


U 




! N 


1 VI 

14 


n 

8 


SS 9 




13 


4 


56 


■ n 

; p 


16 


c 


57 : 








58 0000 


LOC 


♦3000 




59 B3 ED 


INTCNU= 


:«B3ED 




60 FF 20 


BSRSTA 5 


=$FF20 





jConvert arg to integer 
;Cassette I/O address 



61 


3000 






SENPKT: 






62 


3000 


BD B3 ED 




JSR 


INTCNV 


;Convert arg to integer 


63 


3003 


ED 8D 00 


71 


STD 


FLAG.PCR 


;Saue flag and arguments 


64 


3007 


84 3F 




ANDA 


#$3F 


;Clear bit 0 


65 


3009 


A7 8D 00 


6A 


STA 


RCNTR,PCR 


;Save packet repeat count 


66 


300D 


8D 39 




HEADER: BSR 


BURST 


;Send out header 


67 


300F 


8D 37 




BSR 


BURST 




6B 


3011 


8D 35 




BSR 


BURST 




69 


3013 


8D 2E 




BSR 


PAUSE 




70 








;Send out data 


- house code, unit or command 



71 


3015 


A6 8D 


00 60 


SEND: LDA 


FLAG+1,PCR 


72 


3019 


8E 00 


08 


LDX 


IB 


73 


301C 


8D 13 




BSR 


BITFLD 



;Get hse code,, unit or cud 
;Set size of bit field 
;Output the field 



GRAPHIC MATH 
ADVENTURE $21.95 

Challenging Adventure! Fully player selec- 
table up to 300 "room." Search for treasure 
on land, on river, and in the labryinth of 
caves. Your search is blocked by many 
obstacles which can be overcome by correctly answering math prob- 
lems. Any one or all four functions (+. x. -, Ocan be selected to add variety. 
24 skill levels make the game challenging for all ages. 
32K EXT BASIC Required 




Also: 

SPELLING MASTER $14.95 

Conquer spelling. Learn the words you 
have trouble with. User input unlimited 
number of words. Good for weekly 
spelling lists. SAMPLE list provided. 
16K EXT BASIC cassette 



MATH MATER 



$14.95 
tor both 

Learn Basic Math Facts (+. x, -.?) and 
counting routines. Math drill for speed. 
MATH TUTOR teaches with graphics. 
MATH DRILL Non-EXT BASIC $8.95 
MATH TUTOR 16K EX1 BASIC $8 95 



CONCENTRATION $9.95 

40 blocks hide 20 patterns. Pit your memory skills against your 
friends. Two players. Non-EXT BASIC cassette. 



15% OFF ALL Spectral Associates Software 



examples 
Android Attack 
Cosmic Invaders 
Chost Gobbler 
Space War 
Battle Fleet 
Keys of Wizard 
Space Traders 
Lothars Labyrinth 
Alcatraz II 
Cosmic Super Bowl 
Typing Tutor 
Flex Plus Dos 
Ultra 80C 
editor/assembler 



18.65 
15.35 
16.95 
18.65 
18.65 
18.65 
12.70 
12.70 
10.15 
12.70 
16.95 
59.45 

42.45 



n n 




SOFTWARE FACTORY 



1333Morgan Road 
Bremerton, WA 98312 
(206) 377*1694 

Dealer & Author inquiries invited 




WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 
Add 3% for shipping — No COD 





ABOUT POOR 
VIDEO QUALITY? 

We can fix it! 



Designed! 
by 



Dennis 

1 1 



ASSEMBLED LOWER CASE MODULE $69.95 
Easy to install - No software changes 
-Adds lower case with true descenders. 



BOARD ONLY 




$12.00 



TV Buff 

will give standard NTSC 
video output for virtually 
any monitor $ g T fl fi 



send $1.00 for our 
complete catalog 



d*st0rs can (212) 499 -5400 

WORLD ELECthONlCS I 

17727th Street 

Brooklyn, N.Y. 11232 



1 04 tht RAINBOW June, 1 983 



74 



;Send the unit/connand flag (1 bit) 



75 

/j 


JvlC 


al an ftfi SA 

HO Ou Uv JO 


OCnr ■ Lun 


pi arc pro 

rLHU r rLn 


■ Hat t kn nAAne J i*t*A C 1 art 

y iici wile auurs/cmu tidy 


7A 






PHI A 

IYULH 




y ruoiiiura in noo 


77 




P.F ftft ftl 

OC vv Ul 


LUA 


it 


•Qot ciia nf kit fialW 

y 0cw size or on tieiu 


7fl 


jvlO 


Ou V" 


RC.P 


0 1 1 rLU 


■ Hut nut tha Plari 
y uuwpuw wnc Tidy 


79 


3028 


6A 8D 00 4B 


DEC 


RCNTR.PCR 


;Repeat RCNTR times 


Dv 




?A HP 
to ur 


BNE 


HEADER 




01 
01 




J7 


RTS 






82 


30ZF 


00 


BSROFF: BYTE 


0 




83 


3030 


FC 


B5R0N: BYTE 


$FC 










; Transmit a byte 




oD 






; C(A) -- 


House code 


unit nr PfiMManW 


at 

00 






• C(X) = 


bit field 


c i 7P 


87 


3031 


49 


BITFLD: ROLA 




;Get bit to send in 'C 


88 


303Z 


ZD 06 


BCS 


SI 


•Rranrh if a M ' 
y di diibn lid i 


89 


3034 


8D OD 


BSR 


PAUSE 


;Else, send a '0' 


90 


3036 


8D 10 


BSR 


BURST 




91 


3038 


20 04 


BRA 


BITDN 




92 


303A 


8D OC 


SI: BSR 


BURST 


;Send a '1' 



93 303C 8D 05 



94 303E 30 IF 



BSR 



PAUSE 



BITDN: LEAK -l.X 



; DECREMENT X 



BEAR 
ONES 



CASSETTE SOFTWARE 

(16-K NON-EXTENDED BASIC UNLESS NOTED BY * ) 



BEAR 
ONES 



SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES: 

GHOST GOBBLER NOW M9.95 

PLANET INVASION s 21 .95 

GALAX ATTAXX s 21.95 

SPACE WAR s 21.95 

DEFENSE s 21.95 

SPACE RACE s 21 .95 

ANDROID ATTACK s 21.95 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD H9.95 

SPACE INVADERS H4.95 

CCTHELLO H4.95 

COLOR ZAP s 9.95 

MED SYSTEMS: 

MONKEY KONG s 24.95 

PHANTOM SLAYER M9.95 

INVADER'S REVENGE H9.95 

TUTOR TAPES: 

VOWEL FUN-1st GRADE H4.95 

MATH CHALLENGE-2nd GRADE . H4.95 
WORD MATCH-2nd GRADE . H4.95 

•SPECIAL-MOTOROLA ASSEMBLY 

PROGRAMMING CARD 

FOR6809E M.95 



COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE f 
^ NEW RELEASES 



RAINBOW 



SOOPER PAC 

$21 .95 BONES 



EXCITING - PROGRAMMABLE 
SELECT 3 SCREENS, SPEED & 
COLOR CHANGES. BONUS 
SHAPES, FANTASTIC ACTION 
• 30 SKILL LEVELS. 



WUIDIY RIPn PI IN COMMAND YOUR CHOPPER AND 

vvniKLi pircu kutn fight through the tunnel of 

DOOM! 



$21 .95 SPECTRAL 

LANCER 

$21 .95 SPECTRAL 

MS. GOBBLER* 

$21 .95 SPECTRAL 



1 OR 2 PLAYERS - MEDIEVAL 
COMBAT INCLUDES FLYING YOUR 
OSTRICH BETWEEN FLOATING 
ISLANDS. 



4 SCREENS, INVISO-MAZE AND 
MOVING BONUS FRUIT. 1 OR 2 
PLAYERS. 



rTAnM ArtrtS-MA/C MANUEVER YOUR SPEEDING CAR 

STORM ARROWb THROUGH THE CITY STREETS & 

ALLEYS WHILE AVOIDING STORM 

cdcotdai ARROWS & THE DREADED IMPERIAL 

SPECTRAL CRUISER. 



$21 .95 
SPACE SENTRY 

$14.95 SPECTRAL 

ALPHA SEARCH 

$10.95 SPECTRAL 



YOUR MISSION AS THE SENTRY IS TO 
DEFEND YOUR PATROL SECTOR 
FROM INCOMING INVADERS. 
30-TYPE WITH RADAR SEARCH 
PANELS. 

EDUCATIONAL - A CHALLENGING 
RACE TO GATHER THE ALPHABET 
WITH SPACE SHIPS & ELEVATORS. 
EARLY ELEMENTARY GRADES. 



ORDER FORM 



QTY. 



PRICE 



GHOST GOBBLER 
PLANET INVASION 
GALAX ATTAXX 
SPACE WAR 
DEFENSE 
SPACE RACE 
ANDROID ATTACK 
KEYS OF THE WIZARD 
SPACE INVADERS 
CC THELLO 
COLOR ZAP 

MONKEY KONG 
PHANTOM SLAYER 
INVADERS REVENGE 

SOOPER PAC 
WHIRLY BIRD RUN 
LANCER 

MS. GOBBLER *32K 
STORM ARROWS 
SPACE SENTRY 
ALPHA SEARCH 

VOWEL FUN 
MATH CHALLENGE 
WORD MATCH 

MOTOROLA PROG. CARD 



ORDER TOTAL: $. 
MICH. RES. ADD 4% TAX: . 
TOTAL ENCLOSED: $. 



HIPPING FREE 



SHIP TO: 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 



-J 

105 



MAIL TO: BEAR BONES SOFTWARE, INC. 

G 3117 CORUNNA RD„ SUITE 108 
FLINT, MICHIGAN 48504 



bnclose Check or Money Order, Allow 
Two Weeks for Check to Cleeir 
Money Orders Shipped Immediately 



95 


3040 


26 EF 




BNE 


BITFLD 


;If More bits, then repeat 


96 


3042 


39 




RTS 




;Else, BITFLD done 


97 






;Send a 


"Pause" 






9B 






i 


Uses B and Y 




99 


3043 


31 8C E9 


PAUSE: 


LEAY 


BSROFF , PGR 


;Pause for 8ms 


100 


3046 


20 03 




BRA 


BUR1 


101 






;Send a 


"Burst" 






102 


3048 


31 8C E5 


BURST: 


LEAY 


BSR0N r PCR 


; Burst for 8»s 


103 


304B 


34 12 


BUR1: 


PSHS 


A,X 


;Save A and X 


104 


304D 


B6 FF 20 


BUR2: 


LDA 


BSRSTA 


;Hait 1/2 tick time (lsBIT is 60Hz 


105 


3050 


85 01 




BITA 


#1 


:Test for cassette input 4 -clocK) 


106 


3052 


27 F9 




BEG 


BUR2 




107 


3054 


mm ■ a 

86 34 




LDA 


#$34 


;Kill 7*$20us=210us 


108 


3056 


4A 


BUR3: 


DECA 




109 


3057 


26 FD 




BNE 


m inn 

BUR3 




110 


3059 


C6 03 




LDB 


#3 




111 


305B 


A6 A4 


BUR4: 


LDA 


,Y 


; BSROFF contains 0 

7 


112 


305D 


B7 FF 20 




STA 


BSRSTA 


;Clears or sets 120Khz burst 


113 


3060 


86 B2 




LDA 


t$B2 


;Wait 7*$90us= l»s 


114 


3062 


4A 


BUR5: 


DECA 






115 


3063 


26 FD 




BNE 


BURS 




116 


3065 


7F FF 20 




CLR 


BSRSTA 


;Turn off burst 


117 


3068 


1C 00 




ANDCC 


#0 






CIRCLE CITY 
SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 30166 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46220 





Credit Card Customers 
include number and expiration date. 



SEA TRADER 

A new game in which you play an 18th cen 
tury sea captain plying the trade routes. 
The you start start out on a shoestring 
and try to become a billionaire, Hazzards 
include pirates, storms, bad markets, 
and bad debts. People have become 
so fascinated with this game that 
they actually cheat to keep from 
winning. 16K color basic, tape or disk 
$19.95. 



COLOR STAR PILOT 

Take a trek through space to defeat the 
alien enemy in this superior version of 
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All output can be sent to line printer. Menu 
driven and very user friendly! This is an im- 
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ACCESSORY PACKAGE $20.00 

A second disk for improved versions of the or- 
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1 06 the RAINBOW June, 1 983 



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TAPE DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $16.95 
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DISK DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $19.95 
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MATH TUTOR -Five programs that go from math fact (+, — X,/) drill to full addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
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SPELLING TEACHER - Up to 200 of their spelling words stored on tape or disk are presented in four lively 
study modes including a scrambled word game. - $1 2.95 in BASIC. 

ALPHA-DRAW - A subroutine designed to let you easily add characters to your graphic displays. You define 
X and Y coordinates and a string variable of one or more characters and Alpha-Draw will do the rest. 
Includes all keyboard characters. Comes with instructions for a true line numbered merge of tape files. 
Works great with the Screen Print program! - $8.95 in BASIC. 

GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM -Works in ALL PMODES and lets you shift screen image anywhere 
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DISKDATAHANDLER - 32K only version - as above, but without report headings, page breaks, or printer 
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DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - Puts you in charge of your schedule! Graphically displays any monthly calendar 
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Date computation shows elapsed time between two dates in days, weeks, months, and years. REQU I RES 
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1 08 the RAINBOW June, 1 983 




Gemini 10: New Star 
From Star Micronics 

There's a new Star f rom the Midwest which just might be 
the one wise men and women are seeking these days. The 
Gemini 10 printer from Star Micronics has landed on our 
shores with surprisingly little fanfare, and it looks like it 
might make a very large dent in the printer market. 

After seeing a few ads for it, I called up and ordered one 
on the spot. Now, I am not ordinarily an "impulse buyer." In 
fact, I'm well known for carrying comparison shopping to 
ridiculous extremes. But, I bought the Gemini 10 sight 
unseen and without even having spoken to anyone who 
owns one. It has turned out to be a very good move. 
Here's a partial list of the Gemini's features: 
*100 characters per second 
*9 x 9 dot matrix 
*true low case descenders 
(see self -test, below) 
♦proportional spacing 
♦italics 

♦compressed and double width character modes 
*sub- and superscripts 
♦underlining 
*2K buffer 

♦friction and tractor feed 
And, best of all possible worlds — 
♦fully dot-addressable (this means graphics!!!) 
There are plenty of other goodies, including such charac- 
ters as Greek sigma and mu; copyright symbol and trade- 
mark symbol. 

I know. You're saying, "Great, but I bet the price is outta 
sight." Not so, Bucko. This machine is cheaper than others 
in its class. In fact, it's only slightly more than the original 
price of the L.P.VII. 



There are a number of mail-order houses currently offer- 
ing the Gemini. I ordered mine from Texas Computer Sys- 
tems and was impressed with the speed with which they 
processed my order. My printer arrived one and a half weeks 
after I sent the check! 

To use the Gemini with a Color Computer (TRS80c or 
TDP), also buy the serial interface board. This comes with 
instructions for plugging it into the printer board. It's not 
difficult to attach the board — even a non-techie like me can 
do it. What is confusing is setting the eight dip switches on 
the serial board to conf orm to the CC's standards. For this, I 
needed help from the experts, so I went to my good friend, 
Dennis Lewandowski, of DSL Computer Products. With 
Dennis' help and a call to some very friendly folks at Star 
Micronics, we finally figured it out. To save you the same 
efforts, the serial board switches which should be 'ON' are 3, 
7 and 8. (The manual contains a few errors about what 
switch does what with regard to #3 and #4.) Also, there are 
eight jumpers on the serial board. Dennis pushed #8 (on far 
left) up. Don't ask me why — all I know is, it works. 

Nothing is perfect, of course, and though I'm hard pressed 
to find fault with this machine, I do have a "wish list." I wish 
the dip switches for controlling the baud rate were more 
easily accessible. They are on the serial board and to get to 
them you have to unscrew the cover and reach in through a 
maze of chips and stuff. And you'd better have real long, 
skinny fingers. I also wish the Gemini were a little quieter. It 
is lots better than the L.P.VII, but not as quiet as the Epson. 
Wish #3 is for better documentation. Some program exam- 
ples, especially for the bit imaging, would be most helpful. 
The novice will have a tough time figuring out how to 
address the dot. 

I have sung the praises of the L.P.VII many times. I still 
say you can't beat it as a first printer. But, if you need better 
print quality and faster throughput — in short, if you're 
ready for your second generation printer, here's my advice: 
Follow the Star. 

(Star Micronics, 500 Park Blvd., Suite 645, Itasca, IL 60143, 

$3.99 suggested retail) 

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June, 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 09 



TUTORIAL 




hidden 



COMMAND 

By Ron Mummaw 



There is a command in Extended Color BASIC which I 
very seldom see used or even mentioned and yet it can 
be a very useful item. The command is VARPTR and 
I would like to describe how it can be used and how I have 
found it to be helpful. I have been doing some professional 
programming recently, and in converting some Apple pro- 
grams to the Color Computer, I found it necessary to speed 
up some of the low resolution graphics routines to make 
them match the Apple's low resolution speed. I realized that 
machine language subroutines would do the trick and I 
wanted to use the most efficient way I could of storing them 
in my programs. That is where VARPTR comes in. Even if 
you are a novice programmer and know nothing about 
machine language programming, you will find some useful 
and easily understood information in this article. 

If you will look on page 148 of your Extended Color 
BASIC manual you will find a somewhat confusing and not 
very useful description of VARPTR. It is also mentioned in 
the reference summary in the back of the book and on the 
quick reference card. Hopefully, my explanation will make 
more sense to you, and you will be able to make use of this 
command. 

First of all, a little background on how the computer 
stores the things it needs to remember. Some of you old pros 
may want to skip this part. If you have a 1 6K Color Compu- 
ter your computer has 1 6384 little "drawers" that it can store 
numbers in. The more technical name for these "drawers" is 
bytes. This is the area known as RAM (random access 
memory) memory. There are actually up to 65536 "drawers" 
but many of those have numbers permanently stored in 
them (the ROM (read only memory) memory areas) and for 
our purposes we need only be concerned with the ones that 



(Mr. Mummaw has a Bachelors Degree in Early 
Childhood Education from Arizona State University. 
He taught elementary school for six years and is cur- 
rently doing some freelance programming, mainly for 
The Learning Company.) 

110 the RAINBOW June, 1 983 



change with each program we load into the computer. If you 
have a 32K machine then you have 32768 "drawers" of 
RAM memory. 

Each of those "drawers" has a number or an address. The 
RAM addresses start at 0 and go to 1 6383 or 32767 depend- 
ing on the amount of memory you have. The first 1024 
locations (numbered 0-1023) are used by the computer to 
keep track of all kinds of things that go on during the 
running of a program and some things that are even going 



"As you can see, finding where the 
computer has stored your value forX 
orA $ could take you quite some time 
if you had to go looking through all 
of those "drawers." Fortunately, 
your computer is a very efficient file 
keeper . . . " 



on when it appears as though nothing is happening (ie, the 
timer, sound and play values, etc.). The next 512 are the 
normal text screen memory locations. After that comes 
either your BASIC program, high resolution graphics 
memory, or disk memory storage if you have a R.S. disk 
system. These areas can change in size depending on how 
many graphics pages you have PC LEA Red, how long your 
BASIC program is and whether or not you have a disk 
system. Finally the computer uses what is lef t to store all the 
variables and their values. Don't forget, all of this stuff is 
stored in the form of binary numbers from 00000000 to 
11111111 which for us the computer changes to 0 to 255. 

As you can see, finding where the computer has stored 
your value for X or AS could take you quite some time if you 
had to go looking through all of those "drawers." Fortu- 
nately, your computer is a very efficient file keeper and it has 



an excellent memory for where it has stored all the things 
that you tell it. If you ask it just right, it might even tell you 
where it is keeping some information that you need. That is 
where VARPTR comes in. 
Let's say you type in your computer: 

A$="COMPUTER" (ENTER) 
The computer has now stored away several pieces of infor- 
mation about what you told it. We can use some of those 
pieces of information. If you now type in: 

PRINT VARPTR(A$) (ENTER) 
the computer will give you back a number. For our example 
only, we'll say that number is 9733. That number is the 
memory "drawer" where the computer has stored informa- 
tion about A$. If you were to PEEK into that location (by 
typing PRINT PEEK(9733)), the computer would give you 
the number 8 for our example. Why 8? Because 8 is the 
number of characters in A$ or the number of bytes or 
memory "drawers" that A$ occupies. The number 9734 or 
VARPTR(A$)+\ is not used, however, VARPTR(A$)+2 
and VARPTR(A$)+3 (9735 and 9736 in our example) are, 
and they contain very useful information. They contain 
information that will tell us where the computer has stored 
A$. 

We need to remember that in any of its memory locations, 
the largest number that will fit is binary 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 or decimal 
255 yet the computer has up to 65536 memory locations to 
keep track of. I could go into a lesson on hexadecimal 
numbering here, but that would take up another article so I 
will try to make this as simple as possible without going into 
a lot of detail, for those who are new to the subject. If you 
multiply what is stored in VARPTR(A$)+2 times 256 and 



add that to what is stored in VARPTR(A$)+3 you will get 
the beginning address where the computer has stored A$. 
That is because VARPTR(A$)+2 contains the "high order 
byte" and VARPTR(A$)+3 contains the "low order byte." 
The high order byte must b e multiplied b y 256 because o f the 
computers use of binary numbers. I know that may not be 
very clear but it will suffice for our purposes here. Let's say 
we found that A$ was stored beginning with memory loca- 
tion 1 1029. If you type: 

PRINT PEEK( 1 1 029) (ENTER) 
you will get a 67 because that is the computer's way of 
representing a "C." Location 1 1030 contains a 79 for "O," 
location 1 1031 a 77 for "M," etc. Just for fun now type: 

POKE 11029,68 (ENTER) 
NOTE: 1 1029 will probably not work for your example. Be 
sure to use the value f or the beginningaddress of A$ that you 
got. 
Now type: 

PRINT A$ (ENTER) 
Your computer should have printed "DOMPUTER." Why? 
Because you just poked a "D" in place of where the compu- 
ter was storing the value for a "C," the first character in A$. 

You're probably sitting there saying to yourself, "So 
what! This is interesting but what good will it do me?" Now 
comes the fun part. 

This technique comes in very handy if you are using 
machine language subroutines in your BASIC programs. 
There are two ways of using a machine language subroutine 
in a BASIC program; 1 ) reserve the top X number of bytes of 
your RAM (depending on the length of your subroutine) 
and then poke the routine into that area, 2) pack the routine 



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June, 1 983 the RAINBOW 111 



into a string and use VARPTR to locate that routine. 

Method 1 works okay, but it has some drawbacks. One of 
those is if the program was written for your 32K machine 
and you put your subroutine into the top of RAM, then it 
will not work on your friend's 16K machine even if the 
B ASIC program itself is short enough. Another drawback is 
the memory space and time it takes to poke it into memory 
each time you run the program. Finally, when you run 
another program that might need the memory you reserved, 
you either have to turn the computer off and on again or, 
CLEAR200,32767 or CLEAR 200,16383 to get all of your 
memory space back. 

I will now describe how to pack a machine language 
subroutine into a string and then discuss the advantages of 
this method. 

The following is a source code for a simple machine 
language routine to draw an orange square in the center of 
the screen. It is not absolutely necessary at this point that 
you understand how this program works. 

10 A* - "/////////////////////// 

////////////////////////■■ 

20 VI - VARPTR ( A* > 

30 V2 - 256 * PEEK ( VI + 2 ) + 

PEEK ( VI + 3 ) 

40 FOR L ■ V2 TO V2 + 46 

50 READ B* 

60 A - VAL ( aa 8cH aa + B* > 
70 POKE L . A 



DO 

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Cassette: 32 K E.C.B $14.95 

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• TIC-TAC-TOE • 

If you thought Tic-Tac-Toe is an easy game, try matching your 
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Cassette: 16K C.B $10.95 

• JUMPS • 

Q-SOFT's challenging version of a very old European solitaire 
game. An ADDICTIVE board game in HI-RES graphics. 
Reviewed in Jan. 1983 issue of the "RAINBOW" on page 164. 

Cassette: 16K E.C.B $10.95 

Cassette: 4K C.B $8.95 

• THE SPIDER • 

By: CHROMATIC SOFTWARE". All machine language. 
Annihilate the spider before he destroys you. Arcade action. 
Joysticks needed. Reviewed in Jan. 1983 issue of the 
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Cassette: 16K . . $19.95 

• ONE CHECK . 

48 "CHECKERS" are placed on the two outside rows of a 
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60 NEXT L 

G5 Q* - HEX* ( V2 + 27 ) : Ql* - 
LEFT* ( Q* , 2 ) : Q2* - RIGHT* 
< Q* , 2 > : POKE V2 + 2 , VAL 

( "*H" + Ql* ) : POKE V2 + 3 , V 

AL < "&H" -i- Q2* ) 

90 CLS0 

100 OEFU3R0 - V2 
110 Z - USR0 ( 0 ) 
120 GOTO 120 

1000 DATA 10,GE,06, 1B,GE,04,CE, A 
6,A0,G1,01,26,09,30,GG,1C,20,F9, 
Gl, U,26,01,39,A7,80,20,EC,FF,FF 
,FF,FF,01,FF,G0,G0,FF,01,FF,G0,G 
0,FF,01,FF,FF,FF,FF,11 

The first column of numbers are just line numbers for refer- 
ence. The addresses where this program could go are the 
numbers in the second column starting with $0600 (I will use 
the $ to indicate a hexadecimal number). That would be 
1 536 in decimal or 6*256. This is not, however, where we will 
put it. The third column are the hexadecimal numbers that 
tell the computer what to do. Here is a BASIC program that 
will pack a string with this machine language subroutine. 

10 A* - "RUN&RUNDIRSUBSOUNDGO&0O 
N ! Q0&9THENF0R • ! ! SBNFOR I NTSGNFO 
RINT! !" 

20 VI - VARPTR ( A* > 

30 V2 - 256 * PEEK ( VI + 2 ) + 

PEEK ( VI + 3 ) 

B5 Q* - HEX* ( V2 + 27 ) : Ql* - 
LEFT* ( Q* , 2 ) : Q2* - RIGHT* 
( Q* , 2 ) : POKE V2 + 2 , VAL 

< "«cH" + Ql* ) : POKE V2 + 3 , V 

AL < "*H N -i- Q2* ) 

90 CLS0 

100 DEFU8R0 - V2 
110 Z - USR0 ( 0 > 
120 GOTO 120 

You will really begin to see the beauty of this technique if 
you can follow my explanation of this BASIC program. 
Here goes: Line 1 0 sets up a "dummy" string. It is that string 
that will later contain our machine language subroutine. 
Line 20 finds out where the computer has stored its informa- 
tion about A$ and makes VI equal to that address. Line 30 
PEEKs into V 1+2 and multiplies it times 256. It also PEEKs 
into VI +3. Then it adds those together to give us the address 
where A$ actually begins and it calls that address V2. The 
loop which starts in line 40 begins with L being equal to the 
address of the first character in A$. L will increase 46 times 
for a total of 47 values, the number of characters in our 
"dummy" string. Line 50 gets the values in the DA TA state- 
ment (line 1000) one at a time calls them B$. Line 60 gets the 
decimal value of B$ and sets it equal to A. Line 70 POKEs 
the value of the current A into whatever memory location L 
happens to be equal to this time through the loop. Line 80 
starts the loop over again with the next value of L. After the 
loop, A$ no longer contains a series of "/ "s. It now contains 
all the values that the loop POKEd into the memory loca- 
tions where A$ is stored. Line 85 is somewhat hard to 



112 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



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THE DISK DOCTOR 

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EL CASINO 

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DICE GAME.. 

• This is the only craps game on the market that allows 4 players to make any or allot 1 2 field bets 
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super sound effects. 

H ucicui* SLOT MACHINE.. 

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explain, especially if you are not to the point of being able to 
understand the assembly language listing. To put it simply, 
the location where the TABLE is will change depending on 
where the computer stores A$. Since the machine language 
program needs to know where that table is, line 85 figures 
that out and POKEs the new values for the address of table 
into the string at the right location. If that was too confus- 
ing, don't worry about it. Line 90 CLEARs the screen to 
black. Line 100 tells the computer where to find the machine 
language program. Line 110 tells the computer to run the 
machine language program. Finally line 120 is just to keep 
the computer from writing OK with a green stripe at the top 
of the screen. To get out of the endless loop in line 120, press 
the break key. 

There's one more line you say? Yes, line 1000 contains the 
DA TA for one M.L. program. I got those numbers from the 
third column of the source listing. You will notice that they 
are hexadecimal. I did the assembly language program on 
my assembler first so I wouldn't have to look up all the hex 
numbers f or the commands, but you could just look them up 
in a good book on 6809 assembly language. 

List the program. WHOA! What happened to A$? Those 
aren't the "/"s that were there before. Each command in 
BASIC has a numerical equivalent. When you poked 
numbers into the memory locations where A$ was stored, 
the computer looked at them as BASIC commands. How- 
ever, it will not treat them as such when the program is 
EXECuted. SAVE THE PROGRAM! 

Run the program. You should, after a short pause, see a 
black screen with an orange square near the center. The 
pause was the program poking the M.L. values into 
memory. If you don't get the orange square and/ or your 
computer "hangs up," you will need to turn it off and then 
reload the program to find the mistake. If the program runs 
as it should, then press BREAK and DELete the following 
lines: 40,50,60,70,80,1000. Now that A$ is your machine 
language program, you no longer need the lines that POKEd 
the hex values into A$. Run the program and you should 
immediately see the black screen with the orange square (no 
waiting this time). That is the real beauty of this method. 
Now you can save this final version. You only saved the 
original in case of errors. This final version will run correctly 
everytime you load it. Another plus is that it now takes up 
probably half of the memory space that it did before. Also, 
the machine language program will run perfectly everytime 
no matter where the computer stores A$. 

There are a few points of caution I should mention. Your 
M.L. subroutine cannot contain the values 0 or 34 ($22). A 0 
value will confuse the computer into thinking it has reached 
the end of your string and it will not save A$ properly. A 
value of 34 ($22) will essentially do the same thing because 
that is the value for quotation marks. Many times there are 
ways to get around these problems, but sometimes you will 
just have to resort to the old method of reserving space at the 
top of RAM and putting your subroutine there. Another 
important point to remember is to save your first version of 
your BASIC progarm before you RUN it This way, if your 
M.L. program has an error which causes everything to 
crash, you haven't lost your original. 

I hope many of you will find this inf ormation usef ul. Even 
if you're not at the stage of writing machine language code 
(as I wasn't when I first learned about VARPTR) it would be 
time well spent for you to experiment with what you have 
learned here. This method can also be used for "packing" a 
string with graphics characters for quick animation. 



114 the RAINBOW J une, 1 983 



"WANNA FIND OUT 
WHAT FUN REALLY IS?" 

THE Kl ND OF EXCITEMENT YOU GET OUT OF YOUR SYSTEM DEPENDS ON 

WHAT GAMES YOU PUT I NTO IT. 

If You Want to Find Out What it's Like to Use your Computerto its Fullest....Then These are the Games 
You'll Need! for your trs-so color computer 

DunkeyMunkeY 

32K EXTENDED BASIC WOT REQUIRED 



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ON THIS SCREEN: 
Popthe Rivets and Fight Fires 



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ON THIS SCREEN: 
Jump Barrels and Ride the Elevator 



ULTRA-FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE ■ HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS ■ SPECTACULAR SOUND EFFECTS 



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16K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 




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1. Load in SCREEN-64 

2. Type EXEC 

3. You're Back in BASIC with a 64 x 32 
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FEATURES: 

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• No Hardware Modification Needed 




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GRAPH GRAPHICS 




RAINBOW 
J** 





3 D Graph 
Plotting 
of Multiple 
Variables 



By Bob Delbourgo 




When a quantity Z depends on a single variable X, it is 
convenient to plot a two-dimensional graph of Z against X 
and get a picture of their relationship — your Color Compu- 
ter and video screen are marvelous aids in this respect. But 
whenZ depends on two variables, say X and Y, the graphical 
plot ought more properly to be three-dimensional, whereas 
you are stuck with a flat video screen. In spite of this limita- 
tion, it is possible to get a 'perspective'view of the depend- 
ence by slanting the Y axis on the screen relative to the X 
axis and then plotting Z upwards from the so-determined 
X,Y coordinate, This is how scientific data are often pre- 
sented in journals and books. 

The program below shows you how to accomplish this on 
your computer. 1 have arbitrarily chosen X and Y to run 
from -10 to + 10 and have constrained Z to runfromO to 100; 
but you can easily adapt the program to other ranges of 
values. 

The spacing between contours has been taken as two 
(lines 12 and 13) and the resulting pattern forms a "net;" 
again you can vary this spacing yourselves to make finer or 
coarser meshes, It is also possible to shade in the elevated 
and distorted grid to form a checkerboard 'quilt'; but this 
program takes a lot longer to run(if you want a good picture 
at least) because the contours must be drawn at fine inter- 
vals, from the back towards the front. 1 have chosen 
PM0DE1 as a compromise between resolution and pa- 
tience but, even so, quilts take a long time to map out. 
However, the results are very pleasing and, 1 think, well 
worth the wait. By using further graphics pages and flipping 
through them you can modify the program and make the 
quilts changeshape. Also you can overlay quilts with others; 
but be careful to move from the bottom upwards when 
superimposing. 

The dependence of Z on X and Y appears in Line 30, and it 
gives avoided napkin'picture. Asa suggestion, try changing 
the dependence to the following cases to arrive at other 
interesting shapes. 



Z = 100*EXP(-(ABS(X*X-Y*Y)/ 100)) 

'diagonally folded napkin 
Z= 100*EXP(-(ABS(X)+ABS(Y))/5) 

'spike 

Z = 50*(1 + C#S(X/3)*C#S(Y/3)) 

'two-dimensional wave 
Z = (X*X + Y*Y - 100)*(X*X + Y*Y - 100)/ 120 

'hat 

Z = 100*EXP(-(X*X + Y*Y)/50) 

'bell 

Z = (I00-X*X + Y*Y)/2 

Saddle 

Z = 8*SQR(200 - X*X - Y*Y) 

inverted sphere 
Z = 140 - 10*SQR(X*X + Y*Y) 

*eone 

Z=(X*X + Y*Y)/2-20 

paraboloid 
Z = 5*(20 - ABS(X+Y) - ABS(X-Y)) 

'pyramid 



Naturally you will have your own ideas about possible 
dependences: test these out quickly on the net before pro- 
ceeding to the quilt. 




13 0287 

END... 043E 



The listing: 

1 DIHA<23) :CLS5:DATA100,6?,38,7, 
8,9,42, 75, 108, 141, 174, 175, 176, 14 



116 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



5, 114,83,52,21,22,23,56,89, 122 

2 F0RI=1T023:READA<I) :P0KEA(I)+1 
024, 128:P0KEA(I)+1248, 128:NEXTI: 
PR I NTS 196, "contour nets and qui 1 

ts"; 

3 PR I NTS427 , " r . del bour go " ; : PR I N 
TS456, "15,willowdene av. "; : PRINT 
8481 , "hobart , tasmania, austral i a 
7005"! 

4 S0UND2 18,1: S0UND227 , 1 : S0UND232 
, 1 : S0UND239 , 1 : S0UND232 , 1 : S0UND22 
7, 1 I S0UND218, 1 I F0RT=1 TO 1000: NEXT 

5 CLS0:PRINT@229, "NETS(N) OR QUI 
LTS(Q) ?"; :PRINT@352, "PRESS R TO 

RETURN TO MENU AT END"; 

6 I *= I NKE Y* : I F I *= " " THEN6 

7 IFI*="N"THEN10 

8 IFI*="Q"THEN20 

9 60T06 

1 0 C=0 : P0KE65495 , 0 : PM0DE4 , 1 : PCLS 
: SCREEN 1,0 

1 1 FORJ=0TO200STEP20: FORK=0TO50S 
TEP5: PSET ( J+K+6, 2*K+92, 1 ) : NEXTK, 
J 

12 FORX=-10TO10STEP2:FORY=-10TO1 
0STEP. 1 : BOSUB30: GOSUB40: NEXTY, X 

1 3 FOR Y=- 1 0TO 1 0STEP2 : FOR X =- 1 0TO 1 



0STEP. 1 : GOSUB30 : GOSUB40 : NE X T X , Y : 
P0KE65494 , 0 

14 I F I NKE Y*= " R " THEN5 

15 60T014 

20 P0KE65495, 0: PMODE 1,1: PCLS 1 : SC 
REEN1 , 1 : C0L0R8, 5 

21 FORI =6TO206STEP20: LINE < 1,92)- 

<I+50, 192) ,pset:nexti 

22 FORI=92TO192STEP10: LINE (1/2-4 
0, I)-<I/2+160, I),PSET:NEXTI 

23 FORY=-10TO10STEP. 1 : FORX=-10TO 
10STEP. 1 

24 GOSUB30 : G0SUB35 : GOSUB40 : NE X T X 
,Y:POKE65494,0 

25 SCREEN 1,0: FORT=l TO500 : NE X TT 

26 I F I NKE Y*= " R " THEN5 

27 SCREEN 1,1: FORT=l TO500 : NEXTT: 8 
0T025 

30 Z=70*EXP<-ABS<X*Y)/40) 

31 RETURN 

35 C=INT(X/2)-2*INT(X/4)+5+INT(Y 
/2) -2* I NT ( Y/4) : IFC=7THENC=5 

36 RETURN 

40 A=131+10*X+2.5*Y:B=142+5*Y 

41 IFB<Z THENB=Z 

42 IFB>Z+192THENB=Z+192 

43 PSET < A , B-Z , C+ 1 ) : RETURN 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST EARNED A MATH DEGREE! 





MATHMENU 

Developed by an engineer, Mathmenu is a 
powerful menu-driven system to turn your 
Color Computer into an intelligent, flexible 
tool for mathematics and engineering. 
Mathmenu takes the tedium out of math, 
leaving your full brain power to attack the 
"meat" of your problems. By rapidly mani- 
pulating matrices and vectors, performing 
integration and differentiation, solving 
quadratic equations, plotting user defined 
functions and much more, Mathmenu can 
help simplify the most complex problems. 
Whether you are a student or a professional, 
if you use math, you need Mathmenu, 



FEATURING: 

• 3D SURFACE PLOTTING — Plots a user defined equation on an 
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surfaces of revolution, statistical surfaces, etc. can be easily plotted. 
Surfaces may be saved to disk or tape. We believe this is the only program 
of its kind commercially available for the Color Computer. 



PLUS: 

• Complete MATRIX Operations • 
(up to 8 x 8) • 

• Complete VECTOR Operations • 

• Numerical Differentiation • 

• Numerical Integration 

• Least Squares Curve Fitting • 

• Binomial Expansion 

• Prime Number Verification • 

• Main Menu with Single-key Selection 



2D Function Plotting 

Rectangular to Polar Conversions 

Base Conversions 

Large Number Addition and 

Multiplication 

Reverse Polish Logic Calculator 
with Hexadecimal 
Quadratic Equation Roots 
and Return (Disk Only) 



Complete documentation of all functions is included. 

For 32K Disk $49.95 ni • D r , , , DylC r/n 

For 16K Cassette $44.95 Plotting Reqmres Extended BASIC 

Documentation only $5.00 (refundable with purchase) 

Or write for free brochure. 



VISA* 




Inter <y> ^Action 



113 Ward Street • Dept. R • New Haven, CT 06519 • (203) 562-5748 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 117 




A UTOTERM Won't Make 
Coffee, But Causes Quite A Stir 

By Randolf W. Graham 



You see, in a review, you need to say something negative 
about the product. You have to show that you took a cold, 
hard look at it. And so, I will put it right up front. A UTO- 
TERM not make coffee! What it will do is everything 
you have ever wished a terminal program would do — and 
many things you never dreamed of. 

The Big Picture 

The wave of the present in personal computing is net- 
working, being connected to a giant computer by telephone 
lines. We no longer buy programs on media by mail, nor do 
we type them in laboriously from magazine listings; we 
download them from CompuServe or the Rainbow Connec- 
tion. We are not limited to talking to fellow CoConuts at the 
local club; we exchange messages on bulletin boards all over 
the country. No more trips to the library for scholarly 
research; we seek inf ormation f rom the databases of Dialog, 
BRS, Dow Jones, etc. 



To join the Network Generation, you need an account 
number and password (for the commercial services), a tele- 
phone to which you attach a modem (a device to translate 
the computers' bit streams into frequencies which can relia- 
bly travel over telephone lines) and a personal computer. 
CoCo owners plug the modem cable into the serial 1/ O port. 
You need one more thing: a program to convert your com- 
puter into a "smart" terminal which can communicate with 
the big computer (called the "host"). Enter A UTOTERM, 

AUTOTERM, produced and marketed by Phil Zwart, 
PXE Computing, joins a number of terminal programs now 
on the market. Compared to the three others with which I 
am familiar, A UTOTERM is the Best of Class. Let me tell 
you why. 

Getting Started 

A UTOTERM comes on a cassette with manual. Spend a 
lot of time studying the manual. The author gives a thor- 
ough and painstaking tutorial on the use of the program. 
This is one time you cannot read the instructions last; you 
will miss too much. When ready, CLOADM and EXEC. 
You will be given a main menu to choose three modes: text 
editing, terminal and keystroke multipliers. BREAK will 
always get you back to the main menu, as will RESET. 
Surprise, you do not lose text in memory when you hit 
RESET. 

Choose # 1 . In rapid order, type SHIFT-CLEAR to get to 
commands, U for user options and BEP. The cursor will 
flash by this option. Type N and ENTER. That stops the 
beep tone which has been driving you crazy every time you 
touched a key. I did not give this feature a full test, but my 
intuition is that my sanity would last about a minute and a 
half with those beeps. You may want to go through the same 
routine with the "BOP" option which gives you a "Boo" 
when you do something wrong. Of course, you can always 
turn down the volume. 

While in the text mode, play around. You will find that 
entering text is fairly normal. You can backspace to correct, 
ENTER only to start a new paragraph, etc. A neat f eature is 
that the arrow keys repeat. If you hold one down, the cursor 
will skip along very rapidly. Scrolling up and down is a 
breeze with this feature. When you are through exploring, 
delete what you have by going to the command mode 
SHIFT-CLEAR and type D. Prompts at the top will guide 
you to delete the whole mess and clear your memory. Back 
to main menu for the next mode. 

Going Online 

Assuming that you have a CompuServe password and a 
modem, select the terminal mode and then call up and log on 
in the usual way. If you are used to using a terminal pro- 
gram, you will not have trouble with A UTOTERM. While 
online, read something you want to save.Do not download 
it — it is not necessary with A UTOTERM. Logoff in the 
usual way. 

Now the fun begins. Use your arrows to scroll up and 
down. All the text is still in memory. Switch to edit mode. It 
is still there. Clean it up. Delete all the conversation and 
prompts between you and the computer. Save only the text 
you want to print or save to tape. Have a BASIC program? 
Save it — and only it — to tape. No extra text to give you a 
DS ERROR when you try to CLOAD it later. Go to the 
command mode and type S. You will be prompted how to 
save it. The manual tells you how to insert control codes to 
save BASIC, binary, ASCII, machine language and picture 
files. 

Want to print out hard copy? A UTOTERM gives you a 




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I : 



118 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



\\ 





The drawing to the right is a representation of the screen 
during play. The eight elevators in the center shafts move 
up and down in one of several random patterns. Your man 
starts out at the bottom left. You must maneuver him 
across the screen to the other side while avoiding the 
crushing elevators. When you reach the other side the 
elevator in the top right corner will come down and pick 
you up. It takes you up one floor, where you must repeat 
the process going the other way. If you make it all the way 
across the top floor you get a new, faster screen. The on 
screen scoring is across the bottom, (15,330 would be a 
new record for us) and next to it is a row of heads indicating 
how many men you have left. You start with four men, but 
they may not last long. 



Shaft 

It took a long time, but we finally found a 1 00% machine 
language arcade game that met our standards. It had to be 
good, with outstanding graphics and animation. It had to 
be tough at high levels of play, to challenge an expert, but 
still have an easier level of play forthe beginneroryounger 
child. Maybe hardest of all, we didn't wantanother copyof 
some arcade game!! 

If you are tired of your friends telling you that the Pac-Mac 
running on their whatever brand video game or computer 
is better/more like the arcade than your Color Computer 
version, here's your chance. Show them SHAFT. It's new 
and ORIGINAL, and nobody has anything like it on ANY 
other computer (or in the arcades, either). 

It starts with one of the most impressive title screens we've 
ever seen. Yes, there's full animation and sound even on 
the title screen!!! Then you select your level of play. (on a 
second hi-resolution title screen) and get down to fun. 

The animation is smooth and fast (it gets faster as you go 
along), the sound effects are great, and your man is very 
detailed. The whole game is done in hi-resolution, multi- 
color graphics, and while the game lookseasy enough, it is 
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full range of adjustments to format your page. A common 
problem with terminal programs is that you cannot have 
your printer hooked up because your modem is plugged into 
the I/O port. I do not think it is safe to plug and unplug 
peripherals while the computer is on. And so, you have to 
save to tape, turn off, unplug, plug, turn on, reload, print 
out. I have a DSL switcher to reduce plugging and unplug- 
ging and it is a fine accessory here. 

A really great feature of AUTOTERM is its ability to 
print a whole line. Ever printed out a text file from Compu- 
Serve? Know how it prints 32-character lines because of 
built-in carriage returns? One of A UTOTERM's options is 
to ignore these extra CR's so that you print out whole lines 
with automatic wordwrap (words are not split at the end of a 
line). 

Before leaving the terminal mode, let's explore one other 
great feature. Want to call up a bulletin board and leave a 
message? Type it out in advance in the text mode and mark it 
as a block, as taught in the manual. Now, call up and logon. 
Upload your prepared message by typing a single digit! But, 
on to greater things. 

With Whipped Cream 

Time for that third mystery mode. With it, you can prede- 
fine a string of characters which is called by typing a single 
digit. Back to CompuServe for an example: you can prede- 
fine a key for your account number, another for your pass- 
word and a third to type "Go PCS- 126" if you want to go 
straight to the Color SIG. Dial up, type SHIFT-CLEAR 1, 
(S-C) 2 , (S-C) 3 at the proper times and you are in the SIG. 
You can even add things like ENTER at the end of each 
command. You almost have to see this feature to believe it. 
Believe it, for greater things are yet to be. 



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And A Cherry On Top 

The Keystroke Multiplier mode allows what the author 
calls "Computer Dialogues." This means that if you know 
your logon procedure involves certain queries by the host 
computer and responses by you, you can preprogram this 
"dialogue." As each query is received, your terminal recog- 
nizes it and automatically makes the proper response and 
you are online in minimum time. Flexibility is possible 
through "Wild Card" options. 

Inf ormation specialists — those of you who play in the big 
leagues with Dialog, BRS, NYT and so forth — will perk up 
your ears when I say "search strategy." CompuServe's $5 per 
hour is like a trip to the movies. But when you are paying up 
to $120 per hour for connect time (figured to the nearest 
hundredth of a minute), minimizing online time is a survival 
technique. Well, A UTOTERM \s what you have been look- 
ing for. You can set your logon protocols as described and 
you can preload your search strategy in the text mode. Get 
on, run the search and get off as soon as possible. Then, go 
back and clean up your text, format it for printing and print 
out j ust what you want to give your customer. It is the f astest 
database searching I have seen on a home computer. 

Nobody's Perfect 

Every program has its limitations, and A UTOTERM has 
a few. It is a long program — 12K bytes. When I load it into 
my 32K machine, the memory indicator shows that I have 
about 1 8. 5K available memory. 

It is awkward to insert text. You must insert spaces, then 
go back and fill them in, and finally wipe out any extras. 
Pretty tedious for someone like me who has to do a lot of 
revising. I wish it was as easy to insert as it is to delete. 

The documentation is a little thin. The manuals you get 
for the information service will talk about control characters 
and parameters that must be used. These are not given in a 
convenient way in A UTOTERM's manual. You just have to 
experiment. 

A strange feature is that I experienced keyboard bounce 
for the first time. Shades of old Model I. Perhaps this could 
be fine-tuned out with a little fiddling with the options. 

Summary 

I tried every feature of A UTOTERM except its ability to 
work with an automatic-answering modem to achieve what 
sounds like really automatic computing. The day seems to 
be drawing near when they won't need us anymore after we 
push the button. 

Everything works. I did not get perfect results on every 
try, but I think that was due to unfamiliarity with the pro- 
gram's full power. There is a lot of adjusting and tinkering 
possible to get just the right configuration. Once done, you 
can save your customized pattern of options to tape for 
regular reuse. Unfortunately, Rainbow only gives you a few 
days to do a review and fiddling time is limited. But in the 
f ew days I used it, I f ound that I was getting familiar with the 
actions I most often used. 

I would not hesitate to recommend A UTOTERM to a 
friend. If you are thinking about getting into networking, 
this will be a good investment. The manual will lead you by 
the hand into effective utilization and you can grow into its 
exotic features. You will never outgrow it. Experienced 
networkers will find here the help and the capabilities they 
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120 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



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Using DA TA 
Lines To Cache 
Your Creatures 



By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Those of you who follow the column will recall that last 
month we were working on a program to store informa- 
tion about monsters. This kind of information is used 
in virtually all fantasy role playing games, and there are 
often several hundred monsters to choose from. This can 
necessitate a lot of looking things up in books. 

Also, while it is fairly easy to look up acertainmonsterby 
name, it may be more difficult to find all those that fit a 
certain range of values as regards armor class, hit dice, or 
alignment. As a result, the same few monsters tend to get 
used over and over again. 

Before 1 go on, let me give a few definitions for you 
novices. Armor class is a measure of how hard it is to hit 
something in a fight, A monster(or person) may havea good 
armor class because of actual armor (tough skin, scales, 
plate mail, etc.) which makes weapons and blows bounce 
off. A good armor class can also be obtained by a monster 
that is exceptionally fast and agile, and thus too elusive to 
easily hit. In most games, the lower the armor class number, 
the better the armor class, and minus numbers may be 
common. 

Hit dice is a measure of how much damage a monster can 
withstand before being killed, and a larger number of hit 
dice is better (for the monster). On the average, it will take 
about one blow with a sword for every hit die a monster has 
to kill it. Of course, all these blows would have to connect, 
and not bounce off the armor, or miss. 

Alignment refers to the moral stance of the monster or 
person. Alignment can be good or evil, lawful or chaotic, or 
a combination such as lawful good. It can also be neutral, 

124 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



which could be compared to the person who doesn't vote in 
an election because they don't care who wins. 

Now, let's takea look at the program, ltstores the follow- 
ing information about each monster: 

•type of monster 
•armor class 
•movement rate 
•hit dice 

•number of attacks 
•damage per attack 
•special attacks 
•special defenses 
•magic resistance 
•intelligence 
•alignment 
•size 

This information is stored in DA TA lines beginning at 
line 2000. As you can see, I have put in a few monsters, but 
you will want to add more. There must be twelve DATA 
items for each monster, as listed above, and you can use as 
many DATA lines as your memory will allow. 16K should 
allow at least 100 or so, and lots more with 32K. Do a 
PMODEQ.PCLEAR I before loading the program. You 
can use any unused line number between 2000 and 4999 for 
additional monsters. 

In the program itself, line 20 dimensions the two arrays 
used. If you have more than 50 monsters, you will have to 
change the 50 following MAS to a higher number. Line 22 
reads the DATA in line 1900 into an array CH$(X). 



BASIC AID 



AT LAST! Help for the BASIC programmer. BASIC AID is a n indespensable addition to the Color 
Computer. It will save you valuable time and effort. If you write or modify BASIC programs, 
you need BASIC AID. 

You get 43 Common BASIC commands available as single Control Key inputs, Greatly 
speeds up program entry, 

A powerful feature is the ability to redefine any or all of the keys to your own specifications 
PLUS you get invaluable features such as a MERGE command. Move Line command and 
Automatic Line Numbering. 



MERGE— Insert programs stored on 
cassette into your Basic program. 
You can even assign new line 
numbers to the program you read 
in. Great for creating your own 
tape library. 

^ MOVE— Lets you move and renumber any 

part of your Basic program. GOTOs 
and GOSUBs are automatically 
changed. 

Redefine any or all keys! Put in your most 
frequently used commands, Then save 
them to tape for use another time. 




"An excellent program 
and tine utility — 
— RAINBOW review, 
August, 1982, Page 27 



MERGE ttOTt ON/OFF 
» 1 » f 1 



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Sl/F? USE* 
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Lines 30 through 85 read all of the monster DATA into 
the main array MAS. Because it checks for the DATA 
"EOD" (end of data) before reading in each monster, the 
program doesn't care how many monsters there are. 

Lines 200 through 280 print the menu on the screen and 
get your choice before branching to the correct search rou- 
tine. Lines 400 to 410 do a search by name of monster. The 
name you input must be the same — letterf or letter and space 
for space — as the first DA TA item about that monster or the 
monster will not be found. Computers have no sense of 
humor about spelling. 

Lines 600 to 620 search for a monster having more than a 
certain number of hit dice, and the computer will prompt 
you for a number to use as a basis for the search. Since the 
hit dice are stored as a string in the array MAS, line 610 
converts the first two characters of the string into a number. 
This allows the program to handle things like "9 to 1 1 "and 
"4 + 3." In the first case, the first two characters are 9 and a 
space, which is converted into the number 9, and the 4 and 
space in the second case are converted into a 4. However, if 
the space was lef t out between the 4 and the "+, " then the "+" 
would be the second character and would result in a value of 
zero being returned. For this reason, make sure you leave a 
space after the first number in the hit dice DATA element. 

Lines 800 to 820 are almost identical to the 600s, except 
that the program is searching for monsters with hit dice less 
than the target value rather than greater. The big difference 
is the symbol between the "Z" and the "T" in 610 and 810. 

Lines 1000 and 1010 search for a certain alignment, and 
the same caution regarding spelling applies here as well as to 
the name. Lines 1 200 to 1 220 search f or monsters having an 
armor class equal to or better than the target value you 



COMPUTER 
BUSINESS FORMS 

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input. Here again, the left two characters are used, so be sure 
to put a space after all the numbers if there is more than a 
simple number in your DATA statement. (These cautions 
about a space after hit die and armor class numbers in the 
DATA lines don't apply if the number has two digits.) 

The sections at 600, 800, 1000, and 1 200 will bring up all of 
the monsters fitting the selection criteria. They will be dis- 
played one at a time, and you press any key to go to the next 
one. After the last one, or if none are found which meet the 
criteria, you will be returned to the menu. 

Line 1400 ends the program if you select that choice from 
the menu, and lines 1450 to 1470 are the subroutine that 
prints out the information about each monster. 

By the way, the programs in this column are for use by 
people who play fantasy role playing games. They are not 
games themselves. Every month I get letters from people 
who typed in the program and then can't get the computer to 
play the game. So, if you aren't a fantasy gamer, these 
programs may not be of use to you. However, the gaming 
industry estimates that between 15 and 20 million people in 
the U.S. play fantasy games, and a recent survey indicated 
that 95 percent of those had a personal computer. That 
explains why computer magazines run articles on using your 
computer for a fantasy game! 

Till next month, remember — this is "Be Kind to Dragons" 
month. But then, who would be mean to a Dragon? 




275 01 FC 

1200. . . 041 E 
END. . . .0748 



The listing: 

10 CLS 
15 PR I NT" READING DATA" 
20 DIM MA*<50,11),CH*<11> 
22 FOR X-0 TO 11: READ CH*<X):NEX 
TX 

25 CC-0 

30 READ At: IF A»« " EOD "THEN 200 
40 MA*<CC,0)-A* 

50 FOR X-l TO 11: READ MA*<CC,X> 
80 NEXT X 

85 COCC+l:GOTO 30 
200 REN MAIN MENU 
205 CLS 

210 PRINT" 1. SEARCH FOR A NAME" 
220 PR I NT "2. SEARCH ABOVE CERT A I 
N HD" 

230 PR I NT "3. SEARCH BELOW CERT A I 
N HD" 

240 PR I NT "4. SEARCH BY ALIGNMENT 

it 

250 PR I NT 11 5. SEARCH FOR BETTER T 
HAN A CERTAIN AC" 

259 PRINT"6. END THE PROGRAM" 

260 PR I NT: PR I NT "KEY THE NUMBER O 
F YOUR CHOICE" :K»- I NKEY* 

270 K«-INKEY»:K-VAL(K»):IF K<1 O 
R K>6 THEN GOTO 270 
279 SOUND 150,1 

2G0 ON K GOTO 400,600,600,1000,1 
200, 1400 

400 CLS : INPUT "WHAT MONSTER" I Tt: S 
OUND 150, l: FOR X-0 TO CC-HIF MA 



126 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



%» »|a ^0 ^» ml* «f# .%# 

#|» #|» #|» #j» #|» #j* *|* *|* #^ *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* *|* #|* #g* 



STICK INTERFACE 



# "BREAKING ALL 

# SALES RECORDS" 

# Bob Rosen 

* 

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* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
# 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 



THE 



"Recommend to 
anyone who enjoys 
games on his CoCo." 
RAINBOW Review, 
March 1983 





* 
# 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
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* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
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CITY,STATE,ZIP 



N.Y. residents add sales tax 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 



93-15 86th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 
212- 441- 2807 

^It ^» ^» ^» ^» ^» ^» ^» ^» ^1* wt> wfc <|> 

*!• ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* *l* ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* *l* *l* ^* <r|> <r|V <r|> <r|> <r|> ^% <r|> 



*<X,0>-T* THEN QOSUB 1490: GOTO 2 




CC-1 

610 Z-VAL(LEFT*(MA*(X,3) ,2) ) I 
Z<T THEN GOSUB 1490 
820 NEXT X:GOTO 200 
1000 CL8: INPUT " WHAT ALIGNMENT" I T 
*: SOUND 190, l: FOR X-0 TO CC-1 : IF 

MA*<X,10)-T* THEN GOSUB 1490 
1010 NEXT XIGOTO 200 
1200 CLS: INPUT "WHAT ARMOR CLASS" 
I T; SOUND 130,1 

1210 FOR X-0 TO CC-1 :Z-VAL (LEFT* 
<MA*<X,1),2>>:IF Z-<T THEN GOSUB 
1490 

1220 NEXT X:GOTO 200 
1400 CLS: END 

1490 CLS: FOR Y-0 TO ll:PRINTCH*< 

y>i :printma»<x,y>:next y 
1460 print: pr i nt 11 press any key t 
o go on"i:k»-inkey» 

1470 IF INKEY»-"" THEN 1470 

SOUND 190, l: RETURN 

1900 DATA "NAME " , "AC 

","MOVE ", "HIT DICE — 

","# OF AT. — ", "DAM/ ATTACK " , "S 
P. ATTACK ","SP. DEF. — ", "MAGIC 

RES. "," INTEL. ", "ALIGNMENT 

- "SIZE " 

2000 DATA GOBLIN, 6, 6,1 (1-7 HP), 
1,1-6 OR BY WEAPON, NIL, NIL, NORMA 
L, AVERAGE, LAWFUL EVIL, SMALL (4' 
TALL) 

2010 DATA MINOTAUR, 6, 12,6 +3,2, 
2-6 OR 1-4/BY WEAPON TYPE, NIL, SU 
RPRISED ONLY ON A 1 , NORMAL , LOW , C 
HAOTIC EVIL, LARGE 
2020 DATA RED DRAGON, —1 , 9/24, 9 T 
O 11,3, 1-6/ 1-8/3-30, BREATH WEAPO 
N + P088IBLE MAGIC USE , N I L , NORMA 
. -"" , LARGE 

, - OR 1,3 

-16/3-18 OR 4-24, NIL, NIL, NORMAL, 
ANIMAL, NEUTRAL, LARGE (60' WINGS) 
9000 DATA EOD 




PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO 

& TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR 
TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



NEW THIS MONTH 




Jungle 



If you are out for a stroll, what better place than a 
jungle? After all, the scenery is nice, and there are all 
those pretty birds and flowers and snakes . . . Did I 
say snakes? I meant to say spiders ... or was it 
headhunters? Anyway, there's always something 
interesting in the jungle! All you have to do is take a 
little hike from one place to another. Did I mention it 
was quite a distance? That's no problem though, 
because you have 10 bearers to carry your equip- 
ment ... as long as nothing happens to them. That's 
it, then. All you have to do is hike down the trail a 
piece. I never have any trouble in the jungle myself. 
Of course, I've never actually been in the jungle, but 
I'm sure if you talked to any of the people who have 
made this trip, they'd tell you it was just a pleasant 
walk. In fact, if you see any of those people, let me 
know. I always have wondered why we never heard 
from any of them again ... If you are ready for a real 
fun challenge, don't miss JUNGLE. The game is all 
text, but your imagination will provide plenty of 
graphics!! TAPE - $19.95, DISK - $24.95 



Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1 .50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping 
free on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 
6% sales tax. Orders shipped within two days. 



At your local dealer, or send order to: 

PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9822 E. Stella Road 
Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 



128 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



LOSING BATTLES WITH 

GLOOMSTICK? 




The feeling of this joystick 
is superb 

-80 Micro March 1983 



PUT THE JOY BACK IN 
COLOR COMPUTING 
WITH A NEW 



Dealer/Club Inquiries Invited 



SPECTRUM 
STICK 



Features include: 



Power on/off LED 
indicator 



Ball joint components 
a true feel of control 




"More like arcade joy- 
sticks than anything 
we've yet encountered'' 
Rainbow review October 
1 982, Page 1 1 2 



Extra long cables 
Sturdy construction 



please send( ) SPECTRUM STICK(s) at 
$39.95 each plus $3.00 shipping to 



name 



address 

city,state,zip 



Hair trigger response 



N.Y. Residents Add Appropriate Taxes 



"Both the joystick and pushbutton 

should have a considerably longer life 
than the Radio Shack unit since they are 
made of higher quality components"— 
Creative Computing Feb., 1983, Issue. 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 
93-15 86 th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN, N.Y. 



11421 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 





1 ... V 

* — L- 




RUMORS AND REPORTS 

abound as to what might be the future 
for our favorite computer. We've heard 
just about everything that could possi- 
bly come down the pike, but one of the 
things that isclear — the Color Compu- 
ter, in some form, will be with us for 
quite some time. And, too, remember, 
that Radio Shack has never obsoleted 
any computer. In other words, they 
always make certain that all the soft- 
ware generally available to one compu- 
ter will run on anything that may come 
down the pike in the future. 

We are not trying to tell you that the 
Color Computer will soon die. It just 
doesn't seem to be in the cards (sec 
another piece of information in this 
month's column for some reinforce- 
ment of this), but there will be some 
changes in CoCo, for sure. 

Yet, look at Radio Shack's record. It 
has been several years since they pro- 
duced the Model 1, yet they continue to 
produce sof tware and other items which 
are usefulon the Model I. And,asfaras 
the aftermarket is concerned, there is 
still a hef ty business in Model 1 sof tware 
and hardware. 

The point simply is that were Radio 
Shack to end production of the present 
Color Computer tomorrow, it would be 
years and years before they would stop 
producing software and hardware to 
support it. And, outsiders would con- 
tinue to produce material, too. 

Taking all that into perspective, we 
h^ar two general stories: First, thai 
there will be a "No Frills" Color Com- 
puter to come along and that. Second, 
there will be a "Super" CoCo, too. In 
any event, software for all systems 
would be usable on one another 
given memory and certain other 
requirements, 

We do not have confirmation of any 
of this, but we hear that "No Frills" 
would be in the low price range that 
would compete with such as Commo- 
dore and TL It probably would not have 
Extended Basic and may have no 
socket f or adding it, It certainly would 
have an RS-232 for printer and com- 



munications output. And, of course, a 
ROM Port and joysticks, 

"Super" CoCo, on the other hand, 
would probably have an even more 
powerful video display there is the 
possibility of as many as 2,000 colors 
— and a 64 character screen display. 
Will the screen be built in? We don't 
know. Will it have built-in disk drives? 
Maybe. 

At this stage, ail thesearc rumorsand 
reports, with nothing whatsoever con- 
firmed. However, they seem to indicate 
that Tandy — unlike some reports you 
may have read elsewhere — is commit- 
ted to the Color Computer concept. 
And no wonder, it has been a major 
seller for them for a couple of years 
now. 

SOFTWARE CITY IS A name you 
may be hearing a lot more about in the 
future. The firm has 18 franchises oper- 
ating nationally, with a whole lot more 
scheduled to open in the future. The 
concept is somewhat unique, in that 
Software City is just that — a software 
city. The stores operate on a software- 
only concept, which means that they do 
not market computers themselves, 
While they do sell peripherals as well as 
software, they have an interesting con- 
cept which does not tie them to a single 
computer system. 

EDUCATION IS MAKING some 
major strides in the CoCo market, and 
in the next several months we believe 
you will see a lot of the firms which, 
frankly, made the Apple so well known 
come into play for the Color Computer. 

Radio Shack has announced a whole 
range of agreements with a host of the 
largest names in educational sof tware to 
produce learning materials for the 
CoCo. And, if you follow the adver- 
tisements in our pages, you will see that 
several educational software publishers 
are now advertising some of their pro- 
ducts directly. More will f ollow and, we 
believe, you will see an increased 
emphasis on educational programming 
that can be translated into increased use 
of CoCo in schools. 



A NEW DATA BASE program is 
now available from The Computer 
House (Box 1051, Dubois, PA 15801). 
It includes machine language sorting 
capabilities and a top capacity of 24,000 
characters in a 32K CoCo. It is available 
on tape or disk. 

WORLD ELECTRONICS reports 
that it has several kits available for 
CoCo projects. The projects are offered 
both in bare board and fully assembled 
form. Further information can be 
obtained from World Electronics (177 
27th Street, Brooklyn, NY 1 1232). 

SINCE INCOME TAX TIME has 

just passed, you might want to consider 
a small contribution to help your tax 
status next year, suggests reader Tom 
Clines, a CPA. Clines says that if you 
wish to make contributions of a Rain- 
bow subscription to the local library or 
to any school, that contribution would 
be tax deductable. It would also help 
turn on others to the CoCo's 
capabilities. 

81-U.S. JOURNAL HAS changed its 
name and will be known as Basic Com- 
puting in the future. 8Q-US. was one of 
the early Radio Shack magazines and 
covers all the models. It went toa 14 slick" 
magazine format the first of the year 
and gives some fine information about 
CoCo, as well as other TRS-80 compu- 
ters. Further information can be 
obtained from the magazine (3838 
South Warner St., Tacoma WA 98409). 

MARK DATA PRODUCTS has a 

new high-res machine language game 
out, called Glaxxons. This attack-the- 
aliens game is said to provide a chal- 
lenge f or both novice and expert players 
and has seven selectable skill levels. It is 
available on disk or tape (at 24001 Ali- 
cia Parkway, Suite 207, Mission Vie jo, 
CA 92691). 

YOU HAVE READ a great deal on 
these pages about a compiler for the 
CoCo, and now we hear one is just 
about ready to come to market. It may 
be a couple of months yet, but we 
understand the program is just about 
complete and that it has reached the 
"writing the documentation*' stage. Our 
understanding is that this compiler is 
pretty full-blown in that it will support 
both graphics and non-graphics com- 
mands. For those who don't know, a 
compiler is a program that will take a 
BASIC listing and change it into a 
machine language program, This is 
probably the most difficult program of 
all to write. 



130 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



Spectrum Projects 

Your TDP lOO Dealer 

Trims Down Pfices! 



s rau Tnp.inn 

• Willi LXl/DdSIC ; 

• $$ Call $! < 




* 1 inA DpiniAt* 1 • 

> Line rnnicr i • 

| V Ulflr "iuuy • 

w 








• Color Drive ! 

: Zero i 




j DC Modem 1 : 
| Communications • 








j Color Cassette j 

• Recorder<ccR8i)] 

• $49.95 i 






5K TDPlOO | 

ith Ext/Basic : 



CALL 212-441-2807 SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

all orders plus S3 00 S/H 93-15 86th DRIVE 

N.Y. residents add sales tax WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 



LAST CHANCE AT THESE LOW PRICE 



NsNs Nyqcus 

-Buhy 




Ujyl 

Cfggaly 



CoCo Crypto 
A Three-Star 
Puzzler 

By Chris Reid 



The Color Computer, with only 512 characters on 
screen and no lowercase letters, is far from ideal for 
word puzzles. But the real problem is shared by all 
home computers: the memories are much too small and the 
microprocessors are too slow. In a few "generations" of 
home computers, when they can store lists of 20,000 words 
internally and search them very fast, we'll be able to play 
games like Scrabble on (and against) computers; but today 
most word games are better handled with pencil and paper, 
or on game boards. 

Cryptograms—simple substitution ciphers — are an 
exception. They don't need word lists, they're short enough 
to fit on any screen, and they're easily available — the com- 
puter doesn't have to supply them. Cryptograms can be 
handled right now on the Color Computer — in fact, the only 
improvement I'm waiting foris a $25 optical scannerto take 
puzzles out of the puzzle magazines so I don't have to type 
them. 

Working cryptograms with a pencil can get rather 
tedious. It takes too long to write an "E" over eaeh of ten 
"^"s — whieh have to be searched for, and you're apt to miss 
a couple. Then if you decide to change the "E"s to "A"s, you 
have some erasing to do, After a few false starts you'll be 
tempted to abandon the mess, 

The computer fills in all 12 "E"s in no time. It replaces 
them just as easily. And you can make as many false starts as 
you need — in fact, you can put in letters just to see if they 
work. You wouldn't want to do that with a pencil. 

Even the first crude versions of Crypto revived my interest 
in cryptograms to the point of addiction. My speed and skill 
improved rapidly. 1 used to be able to solve two of the six 
increasingly difficult cryptograms in Four-Sttr Puzzler — 
now 1 average five. 

The features 1 added later — eliminating wraparound, 
automatic copying of punctuation, ability to erase trial solu- 



tions and to correct mistyped letters in the puzzle, and the 
second, "frequency" cryptogram — were added because as a 
solver 1 needed them. None of them arejustfor show. This is 
one of the obvious — but constantly violated — principles of 
recreational programming. Some more: 

v It's not enough f orthe creation of a program to present 
interesting problems to the programmer. If the program 
won't interest the user, it should be put aside for later — or 
forever. 

V There's no way to know in advance whether a program 
will get that lucky "click," For example, everyone has tried 
writing a kaleidoscope program. It never gives the same 
thrill as a real kaleidoscope. (Much sharper diagonal lines 
and faster movement of large color patterns are needed — 
and should arrive by 1990.) 

A respectable program that doesn't have that sparkle 
should be put aside for another try later, 

V A recreational program should be tested for many 
hours by the programmeras user. The idea is not only to get 
bugs 0U(> but to get interest in, 

Why does Crypto — which 1 believe will be useful (with a 
few modifications) for many computer generations — have 
such limited commercial value? One reason is that the 
market for software is split among an increasing number of 
computerbrands, each accepting only software written in its 
own dialect. Slow-but-sure sales are too small to be worth 
waiting for when a program can only be sold to users of one 
brand — which will be obsolete in a few years. It makes more 
sense to take a chance on a shoot-'em-up which may make a 
quick killing before everybody gets sick of it. 

What's needed is a translation company which will take 
superior programs of lasting appeal and produce versions 
for Pet, Sinclair, Atari, IBM PC, the Color Computer, and 
even the no-color computers, Instead of grabbing a copy of, 
say, Getting Started with Color BASIC and rushing out a 



132 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



i 



translation that will barely run, the company should use a 
knowledgeable translator for each brand name — a person 
who has done a lot of programming on that brand and 
knows its ins and outs on at least this level: If cryptograms 
are INPUTted instead of LINEINPUTted, there will be 
problems with commas, colons, and quotation marks. 

Today's home computers are already powerful and 
resourceful — it's surprising how few useful, enjoyable 
recreational programs there are. Someone has defined the 
home computer as "a solution waiting for a problem." 
Crypto tries to be an example of what computers were really 
made for: enjoyable expansion of the powers of the user. 

For a Quick Start 

If you're typing the program, you can start with a no-frills 
version that only takes a few minutes. Type lines 50, 700- 
720, 740, 760, 4000-4010, 5000-5060, 5080-5100, 5120, and 
add the following lines: 

80 CLEAR500:CLS:'PRINT"TYPE CRYPT 

OGRAM AND ENTER";:PRINTSTRING$(3 

9,32);:LININPUTC$ 

750' 

4500' 

Later you can change these three lines and type in the rest 
of the program. 

Here are a few cryptograms to get you going — then you 
can find lots more in puzzle magazines (which are on most 
newsstands) and go on, if you wish to specialized magazines 
and books. 



10 CLEAR 1000 

20 C*(1)="SC ZKKV P ABPV6HMW LHB 
KMS MCFFPDL JBCF WMBCEEHDA 

, PLL ,, +CHR*(34)+"JCBP-lSC2W 
SK V0 : DKTS " +CHR* < 34 ) + " . < " +CHR* < 3 
4>+"P"+CHR*<34>+" DKQKB AKSW 

SC 2. > SC KDL, BHS SGK "+CHR* 
(34) +"NBKPZ "+CHR* (34) +" NRSSCD. 
30 C*(2)-CHR*(34)+ ,, XTLBY 8 " +CHR* 
(34)+" PJRVX J OQCEGJP OJKXV, IK 
Y QCK FJS'Y KXV YTV RVQICJQZ. YQ 
Q " +CHR* ( 34 ) + " I B V JR 11 +CHR* ( 34 ) + " - 
-LY DVYX QCK OGLSY UJGLJIDVX IQ 
ZLGVFY FCPPJSZ YC XW TCA PKFT 
CB YTV OGCEGJP LX ZCSV, JSZ TCA 

AVDD. 

40 CA*(2)- M YTVS YQOV M +CHR*(3 
4)+ ,, FCSY ,, +CHR*(34)+" JSZ YTV OGC 
EGJP ALDD FCSYLSKV ATVGV LY 

DVBY CBB. 

50 C* ( 3 ) - " 22222222 . 2* 1 0-22222222 
2, KG UIT YGJKS'W 22222222.2*10- 
222222222 JEDCH VJAG? (WAT XW. ) 
WIJ CSKUJA XK WIJ XSBXKXNHJ WJSW 
I YXZXW — XW YGJKS'W ZJW OAXSWJY 
, NDW XW CQQJLWK QDAWIJA LCHLDH 
CWXGSK. 

60 C*(4)="QSW TON TQDS'M M8K MKS 
MG WPOPM AKVF, QD PM DGFYRW LK? 



LKIQYDK (KEIKXM ZFV PSMKOKVD) 
SYHLKVD IQS OKM ZYAAN TGKS MGK 
IFHXYMKV I GQSOKD MGKH MF LPSQVN 
SYHLKVD 9 IQRIYRQMKD, QSW MGKS I 
GQSOKD MGKH LQIB. 
70 PRINT#-2,C*(1):PRINT 
G0 PRINT«-2,C*<2>| 
90 PRINT#-2, CA* (2) : PRINT 
100 PRINT#-2,C*<3>: PRINT 
110 PRINT«-2 9 C*(4) 

Program Notes 

First, I would like to thank INSTR. This very fast com- 
mand (in Microsoft's Extended BASIC) is essential to this 
and many other word programs. Without it — even with 
POKE65495fi and C.J. Roslund's Break Disable utility — 
this would be a slow program (lines 3240 and 5030; 50; 
10-40). 

Second, in a slow part of the program the even faster 
POKE65491,0 disables the screen and tries to offer a rather 
off color "snow" — but a switch to PMODE2 fixes the color 
(lines 3040 and 3290). 

Last, in the 3000 block, the frequencies FR(Z) have been 
added up for each leter in the cryptogram: "B" appears once, 
let's say, " W" 1 2 times, and "T" 3 times. Each number is put 
into the left side of a string, with the letter on the right side. 
This is FR$(Z), which is "IB", "12E", and "3T". These 
strings have VALues(\, 12, and 3 — VAL ignores the letters), 



CRRRY " 






1 

(3.1 


1 


1 


+ 


5 


2 


8 




Q 


2 


5 



REGROUP I MG IN 
Requires 16 K Extended Basic 



RDDITION 

Cassette $19.95 



TRS-80 Color Computer 
^Trademark of Tandy 



Ohio Residents 
Add 5V*% Sales Tax 



APPEALING GRAPHICS, FUN REWARDS AND SOUND 
Used Successfully In Classrooms and In Homes 



ALSO AVAILABLE-CASSETTES 



Clock 
Money 

Subtract/Borrow 
Question 



$24.95 
$19.95 

$19.95 
$19.95 



Mathfact 
ABC's 
Spelling 
Hangword 



$16.95 
$ 9.95 
$16.95 
$14.95 



WRITE FOR FREE DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE 
DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 

B5 SOFTWARE ^ 



. hi '-d J-j ■ ■> 



1024 Bainbridge PL Columbus, OH 43228 

(614) 276-2752 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 133 



and can be shell-sorted in decreasing order: "12E", "3T", 
and "IB". 

Now the RIGHTS, 1 of the "Siamese strings" can be read 
off in order and used as "A", "B", and "C" in a new, "fre- 
quency" cryptogram where "A" represents the most fre- 
quent letter in the cryptogram, "B" the next most frequent, 
and so on. (The frequency cryptogram is a powerful tool 
which, as you get the feel of how to use it, will greatly 
increase your ability to solve tough cryptograms.) 

So a string that contains a number (which can have sev- 
eral digits, but must be on the left) and a letter (or several, 
but always the same number of letters) can be treated some- 
times like a numeric variable and sometimes like a string. 
This can save a lot of memory and execution time. 



^riOO.. 


. . 020D 


220. . 


, . 06AA 


320 . . 


. 09E1 


570. . . 


. 0C2B 


1050. 


. . 0E3E 


1320. 


. . 102D 


END. 


. 1AC4 



c 

Y 



The listing: 

'"CRYPTO". COPYRIGHT 1983 BY 
HRIS REID, 319 E. 5TH ST. , NEW 
ORK, NY 10003 

10 I FPEEK ( 1 6057 ) < >50THENCLEAR200 
, 1 6048 : FOR I =33465T033566 : POKE I -1 
7408, PEEK ( I ) I NEXTELSE40 
20 FORI=0TO2:POKEI+16061, 18: NEXT 
30 1=16158: POKEI, 38: POKEI+1, 3: PO 
KEI+2, 126:P0KEI+3, 131 : POKEI+4, 34 



r 



SUPERIOR 



ORACLE 
PRESENTS 



SOFTWARE 



THE C C QUBE 



A MAGIC CUBE SIMULATION FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



FEATURING - 



* Easy to use commands 

* Fast - uses machine language routines 

* Random mixes 

* Undo moves or random mixes 

* See all 6 faces 

* Save QUBE to tape for later reload 
•Only $14.95 



RAINBOW 

■IF i'-jI . b 



Send Check or M.O. to: 
SUPERIOR ORACLE SOFTWARE 

PO Bo, 4S05 

Greenwich, Conn. 06830 



Conn, residents add 7.5 X sales tax 
Shipping and handling included 

Personal checks require 
2 weeks to clear 

No C.O.D.s 

Requires 16K Extended Basic 



:P0KEI+5, 126:P0KEI+6, 164:P0KEI+7 
,76 

40 POKE411,62:RUN50 

50 POKE65495,0 'IF THIS SPEEDUP 

WORKS ON YOUR COMPUTER 

60 6OTO5130 

70 CLEAR1500:DIMFR(26) ,FR*(26) :C 
LS:Q*=CHR*(34) 

80 pr i nt "if you need instruction 
s, type ,, q* ,, ?"q*" and enter": pr 
i nt: pr i nt "if not, type crypt06ra 
m and enter"; : printstring* (5 
9,32) ; :lineinputc* 
90 i fc*= " " thencls : boto80 
1 00 i fc*= " # " thencls : end 
110 ifleft*(c*, 1)<>"?"then500 
120 cls: pr i nt "after you enter th 
e cryptogram, it will reappear o 
n screen with no wraparound. (to 
keep wrap- around, type "q*"@ 

"QV AND enter; THENENTER CRYPTO 
GRAM) 

130 PRINT: PRINT" IF, FOR EXAMPLE, 
YOU SEE THE 1- LETTER WORD "Q*" 
Q"QV AND THINK IT MAYBE THE WOR 
D "QVA"QV, TYPE "QVA"QV AND 

THEN "QVQ"Q* 
140 PRINT: PRINT"AN "QVA"QV WIL 
L APPEAR OVER EVERY "QVQ"QV 
IN THE CRYPTOGRAM 

150 PR I NTS480 , "PRESS ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE. . . "; 
1 60 I F I NKE Y*= " " THEN 1 60 
170 CLS: PRINT" IF YOU DECIDE THAT 
"QVQ"QV IS REALLY " Q* " I " Q* " , T 
YPE "QVI"QV AND THEN "QVQ"QV 
. AN "QV I "QV WILL REPLACE EAC 
H "QVA"QV OVER THE "QVQ"QVS 
. (TO ERASE THE "QVI"QVS, HI 
T THE SPACEBAR AND TYPE "QVQ"Q* 
") 

180 PRINT: PRINT" IF YOU FIND A MI 
STYPED LETTER INTHE CRYPTOGRAM, 
YOU CAN TYPE "QV&"QVAND GET IN 
STRUCT IONS ON HOW TO CORRECT IT 
190 PRINT@480, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE. . . "; 
200 I F I NKE Y*= " " THEN200 
210 CLS:PRINT"IF YOUR SOLUTION I 
SN'T WORKING OUT, TYPE "QV A "Q* 
" AND IT WILL VAN- ISH. THE CRY 
PTOGRAM IS STILL THERE AND YO 
U CAN GET A FRESH START 
220 PRINT: PRINT" IF YOU'RE REALLY 
STUMPED, TYPE "QV< "Q* " . A NEW 
VERSION WILL REPLACE THE CRYPTO 
GRAM, WITH "Q$"ft"Q$" AS THE MOST 
FREQUENT LETTER, "Q$"B"Q$" THE 
NEXT MOST FREQUENT, AND SO ON 
230 PRINTS480, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 



134 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



CONTINUE. . . "; 
240 I F I NKE Y*= " " THEN240 
250 CLS: PR I NT "SOME OF THE MOST C 
OMMON LETTERS <E, T, A, 0, I, N) 
WILL NOW BE REPRESENTED IN THE 
CRYPTOGRAM BYEARLY LETTERS SUCH 
AS A, B, C, D, E, F. THIS MAKE 
S IT EASIER TOSOLVE 
260 PR I NT: PR I NT "A BLACK BOX AT L 
OWER RIGHT SHOWSYOU ARE USING TH 
E FREQUENCY CRYPTOGRAM. IF Y 

OU TRY A SOLU- TION LETTER THAT 
IS THE SAME AS THE PUZZLE LETTE 
R IN THE ORIGI- NAL CRYPTOGRAM, 
A WARNING CHREEPIS PLAYED 
270 PR I NTS480 , "PRESS ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE. . . "; 
280 I F I NKE Y*= " " THEN280 
290 CLS : PR I NT "TO GET BACK FROM T 
HE FREQUENCY CRYPTOGRAM TO THE 
ORIGINAL, TYPE"Q*">"Q* 
300 PRINT: PR I NT "WHEN YOU'VE SOLV 
ED THE CRYPTO- GRAM <OR GIVEN U 
P ON IT) , TYPE ,, Q* ,, + ,, Q*" AND TR 
Y ANOTHER — 

310 PRINT: PRINT"OR TYPE "Q*"#"Q* 
" TO END THE PROGRAM. (YOU CAN E 
ND THE PROGRAM DURING OR BETWEEN 
CRYPTOGRAMS) 



320 PRINTS480, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 

CONTINUE. . . "; 

330 I*=INKEY* 

340 IFI*=""THEN330 

350 I F I *= " # " THENCLS : END 

360 CLS: PR I NT" it CORRECT MISTY 

PED LETTER": PR I NT: PR I NT" A ERA 

SE SOLUTION": PRINT: PRINT" < GE 

T FREQUENCY CRYPTOGRAM; ": PRINT" 

> GET BACK THE ORIGINAL" : PRINT 

: PR I NT" + START ANOTHER CRYPTO 

GRAM; ": PRINT" # END THE PROGRA 

M 

370 PRINTS480, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 

RETURN"; 

380 I*=INKEY* 

390 IFI*=""THEN380 

400 I F I *= " # " THENCLS : END 

410 CLS:GOTO80 

500 I FC*= " @ " THENN J= 1 : CLS: GOTO80 
510 IFNJ=1THEN700 
520 FORV=0TO7 

530 I FLEN ( C* X 32*V+33THEN700 
540 IFMID*(C*,32*V+32, 1)=" "ORMI 
D* < C* , 32*V+33 , 1 ) = " " THEN6 1 0 
550 I FM I D* ( C* , 32* V+32 , 1 ) = " - " ANDA 
SC (MID* <C*, 32*V+33, 1 ) > >64ANDASC ( 
MID* (C*, 32*V+33, 1 ) ) <91THEN610 
560 F0RH=31T02STEP-1 



ENTER THE FASCINATING WORLD OF 

GAME WRITER™ 

A SIMPLE TO USE PROGRAM FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 



For writing super-action video games with 
motion and sound 

For creating high resolution animated 
graphics scenes 

For experimenting with color, shapes, 
motion and sound 

For amateur or professional cartooning or 
commercial game authoring 
For the absolute beginner and for the 
expert programmer 




GAME WRITER is a programming language with all the 
features you need to write great VIDEO GAMES. It includes a 
built-in screen oriented text editor, high resolution color 
graphics support, any number of player-shapes (SPRITES), a 
shape pattern editor, full TURTLE GRAPHICS, sound effects, 
support for joy sticks and much, much more. Each player- 
shape can be given a program to run which tells it what to do. 
All the player programs run simultaneously to create fan- 
tastic game effects. GAME WRITER IS GUARANTEED EASY 
TO USE. Even if you have never written a program of any kind 
you will amaze your family, your friends and yourself with the 
fantastic things you can do with it. The package includes a 
GAME WRITER rom pak, a complete easy to read manual and 
a set of sample programs ready to run. GAME WRITER is a 
great programming language for a child or an adult. GAME 
WRITER requires a minimum of 16K. Extended BASIC is not 
required. 



PRICE $89 

Orders must be prepaid via check, 
money order or major bank card. Phone 
orders accepted for bank cards only— 
COD orders not accepted. Quantity dis- 
counts available. Orders outside U.S. 
add $5 shipping. WA state residents 
add 6.3% sales tax. Add 2 weeks for 
delivery if paid by personal check. 



WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES 

3028 SILVERN LANE 
BELLI NGH AM, WA 98226 rf^^ 



1 (206) 734-8248 



RAINBOW 



June, 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 35 



570 IFMID$ (C$, 32*V+H, DO" "ANDM 
I D* < C* , 32* V+H , 1 > <> " - " THEN600 
580 I FLEN ( C* ) +32-H >255THEN700 
590 C*=LEFT* ( C* , 32* V+H ) +STR I NG$ ( 
32-H , 32 ) +R I GHT* ( C* , LEN ( C* ) -32* V- 
H) : GOTO610 
600 NEXTH 
610 NEXTV 

700 CLS: IF158<LEN(C*)THENSQ=1 
710 F0RL=1T0LEN<C*> 
720 PR I NT@L+63-32*SQ+ ( 64-32*SQ ) * 
INT( <L-1> /32) ,MID* <C*,L, 1 > ; 
730 IFASC<MID*<C*,L, 1) )<>32AND(A 
SC<MID*<C*,L, 1) ><650RASC<MID*<C* 
, L , 1 ) ) >90 ) THENPR I NT@L+3 1 -32*SQ+ ( 
64-32*SQ> *INT < (L-l ) /32) , MID* <C*, 

L,l); 

740 NEXT 

750 I FHH*< > " " THENH I *=HH* : HH*= " " : 
GOTO 1000 

760 H I *= I NKE Y* : I FH I *= " " THEN760 

1 000 I FH I *<> " & " THEN2000 

1010 IFLEN(C*X225THEN1060 

1 020 ER*= " " : FOR Z = 1 495T0 1 502 : ER*= 

ER*+CHR* ( PEEK ( Z ) > : NEXT 

1030 PRINT8471, "too long";:FORZ= 

1TO3000INEXT 

1040 F0RZ=1T08:P0KEZ+1494, ASC(MI 
D*<ER*, Z, 1) > INEXT 
^ 

SP SOFTWARE 

FOUR NEW PR06RAHS FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 

SPDUNP A screen duip routine of 368 bytes of fasti 
relocatable aachine language code. All PHODESi color 
PHODES in 4 B&N shades, twice size option in PHODES 3 
or 4, position duap on paper, inverse iiage option, do 
■ore than 1 screen as for HPP graphics. Works on 
»f>288 LPVII etc. Cms with BASIC instructions. Needs 
BASIC1.1 or an 8bit printer fix. On tape. $16 

CONCPOLY Use this lenti driven prograa to design and 
draw a fantastic variety of intricate and colorful 
patterns, suitable for duip to a printer, includes 
examples and instructions. Works in a 16K computer, 
EXT. or DISK BASIC. Ctes on tape. *8 

SIXFOURK Use your 64K computer fro» BASIC. This 
I prograa allots you to inspect RAM, «ove ROM to RAH and 
run it there, disable DISK or EXT. BASIC, and sake 
setups with graphics, prograa, strings, and USR in 
upper or loner RAH to get the best use of RAH. The 
prograa does the setups and includes tutorials and 
instructions to let you sake setups. On tape. $28 

ROTWORJ) This showy prograa for the 64K coaputer will 
display a rotating color globe of the earth. You get 
28 fraaes of a PH0DE1 globe which is loaded into 60K 
of RAH by a driver prograa plus an instruction prograa 
all on disk to show off your 64K color coaputer. $25 

1 Free little graphics prograa with order or request for 
our catalog. For fast service send check or HO to: 

SP SOFTWARE, 1182 BILTHORE, LYNCHBUR6 VA 24582 
V II J 

136 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



1050 GOTO760 

1 060 I FFF= 1 THENPR I NTQ466 , " press 
> first"; :FORZ=1TO3000:NEXT:PRIN 
TS466, STRING* ( 12, 32) ; : POKE1502, 1 
4 1 : GOTO760 

1100 PRINT@480, "LINE NO. OF CRYP 

TO. (1-7)?"; 

1110 I*=INKEY* 

1120 IFI*=""THEN1110 

1130 I FASC ( I * X 490RASC ( I * ) >550RL 

EN ( C* X 32*VAL ( I * ) -3 1 THENPR I NTQ50 

7, "REDO"; :FORZ=1TO1500:NEXT:PRIN 

T@507," ";:SOTO1110 

1140 PRINTQ507, I*; 

1150 LI=32*VAL(I*)*(3-SQ)-32 

1 1 60 ER*= FOR Z =L I +992T0L I + 1 023 

: ER*=ER*+CHR* ( PEEK ( Z ) ) : NEXT 

1170 FORZ=LI TOLI+31 

1180 IFPEEK(Z+1024)=96THENPOKEZ+ 

992, 38: GOTO 1200 

1190 NEXT 

1200 FORZZ=1TO50:NEXT 

1210 PRINTS480, STRING* (28, 32) ; 

1220 FORZZ=1TO50:NEXT 

1300 PRINTS480, " WHICH LETTER (A- 

Z ) ? " ; 

1310 I*=INKEY* 

1320 IFI*=""THEN1310 

1330 IFASC(I*X650RASC(I*> >90THE 

nprints500, "redo"; : forzz=1to1500 
:next:print@500, " ";:gotoi310 

1340 P0KE992+Z,96 
1350 PRINTQ500, I*; 
1360 CN=0 

1370 FORZ=LI TOLI+31 

1380 IFPEEK(1024+Z)=ASC(I*)THENP 

0KE992+Z , 38! CN=CN+1 

1390 NEXT 

1 400 I FCN=0THENPR I NTQ500 , " " ; : FO 
RZ=1TO1000: NEXT: PRINTS500, "REDO" 

; :forz=itoi500:next:print@500, " 
"; :GOTO1310 

1410 FORZZ=1TO50:NEXT 

1420 PRINTS480, STRING* (21, 32) ; 

1430 FORZZ=1TO50:NEXT 

1500 PRINT@480, "OCCURRENCE ON LI 

NE (1-9)?"; 

1510 J*=INKEY* 

1520 IFJ*=" "THEN1510 

1 530 I FASC ( J * X 490RASC ( J * ) >570RV 

al ( j * ) >cn thenpr i ntq506 , " redo " ; : 
forz=1to1500:next:print@506, " 
"; :gotoi510 

1540 PRINTS506, J*; 
1550 OC=0 

1560 FORZ=LI TOLI+31 

1570 IFPEEK(1024+Z)=ASC(I*)THENO 

C=OC+l ELSE 1590 

1580 IF0COVAL(J*)THENP0KE992+Z, 
96ELSEPS=Z 



PETROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 




PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT: Computer Software 
Documentation / Graphics / Consultation 




Inspector CLUEseau 

Sherlock Holmes/Agatha Christie fans-It's finally here— A murder 
mystery game for the 80-C! Mr. Goodbody has been killed in his 
mansion and you must solve the mystery. WHO committed the 
murder, WHERE did it occur and HOW was it done! Question 
suspects, find the secret passage, and break the code to get clues. 
Hi-Res graphics enhances this excellent game. The computer 
records the clues you obtain on a clue inventory screen and also 
provides suspect descriptions at the touch of a finger. A fast, fun 
game that will sharpen your deductive skills. Every game is 
different! 

32K Extended $19.95 



Stress Evaluator 

Assess your present level of stress and how it affects your 
potential for illness. Evaluate the amount of life change you can 
effectively handle in the future. The Stress Evaluator is a valuable 
tool for recognizing, measuring and managing stress. The 
program also provides a Coping Ability Test which shows your 
ability to handle stress in general. Provides goal setting exercises 
and meditation graphic screens to help achieve stress-alleviating 
goals. All results output to printer. 

16K Extended $24.95 



Weather Watch 

If you really care about the weather, this program is for you. Three 
programs provide you with National Weather Service approved 
statistics in a monthly report format. Input of daily high and low 
temp, and rainfall outputs a report of monthly average temps, and 
range; high and low averages; high and low temp, for month; total 
rainfall; days rain > .1 in.; heating and cooling degree days; days 
high > 90; days low < 32; days low temp. < 32 and > 0; days low < 
0; day of highest range. Also retrieves a single day from data file 
for review. All data outputs to printer. Well documented. 
16K Extended $24.95 

Forecaster & Weather Watch (Disk) 

Forecast general weather conditions with 80% accuracy with this 
fun, simple to use program. Although not meant to replace 
National Weather Service forecasts, this program is informative 
and enjoyable to use. You can even create your own weather by 
setting the variables!! Provides general forecast including pre- 
cipitation probabilities. Includes Weather Watch program also all 
on one easy to use disk. 

32K Extended Disk $49.95 

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Az. Residents add 6% Sales Tax. 
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Stagecoach 



z 



ft* 



^ilPSTROCCI freelance associates 

" l[ — 651 Houghton Rd. 

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* 602-296 ^041 



Enter the Wild West Days as you try to carry gold across the 
desert in a stagecoach. Hot in pursuit are the James Gang and of 
course, Indians!! To make matters worse you are responsible for 
the safe journey of Annabelle, the judge's daughter. Hi-Res 
graphic screen plots your progress. Lots of fun surprises await 
you in this game -shootouts, kidnappings and more. Don't miss 
the fun! 

16 K Extended $19.95 




Heart-Lung-Circulatory Systems 

Hi-Res Graphic Education 

A difficult subject becomes fun and easy to learn. Programmed 
learning approach divides subject content into concise frames 
of information. Hi-res graphic display with labelled anatomical 
structures follows text frames for added clarity. Visually high- 
lights keywords and concepts. Self test questions follow each 
section. Provides immediate feedback to user response and 
displays correct answers before moving to new subject matter. 
Excellent for school or home use. 

32KEXT Cassette $34.95 

32KEXT Disk $39.95 



Bowling Secretary 



Save hours of tedious work with this efficient program. Calcu- 
lates individual player average, high game and total pins, as 
well as team games won/lost, high series, and cumulative total 
team pins. Also calculates team standings for each week in 
order from 1st to last! All data stores to tape and outputs to 
printer to provide professional, easy to read copy. After initial 
input of league and player names all you have to do is input 
each week's scores - the computerdoes the rest!! 

16KEXT Cassette $24.95 

32KEXT Disk $29.95 

Astrology Chart Print 

A Must for the Serious Astrologer 

Bothered by not having a professional easy to read hard copy 
of your chart? Want to see comparison charts around the Natal 
Chart? Look no more! Input of planetary positions and house 
cusps outputs a 6"x5" graphic printout of chart and will also 
plot a comparison chart (transit, progressed or compatibility) 
around perimeter of the natal chart. NOT A SCREEN DUMP 
ROUTINE. The program uses dot addressable graphics to 
draw chart with accurate planetary positioning. Top of form 
lists Name, Birthdate, Birthtime, Birthplace from user input. 
Accomodates Placidean, Equal House or Modified Equal 
House. AVAILABLE NOW FOR EPSON MX80 with Graftrax. 

32KEXT Cassette $21 .^5 

Medical Terminology 

If you've ever wondered what your doctor was talking about, 
this program can help! Includes most common terminology as 
well as abbreviations used in hospital charting. Menu Driven 
-allows choice of study, definition readout or self test. Study 
suffix, prefix or abbreviation in alphabetical groups, input 
prefix, suffix or abbreviation and computer reads out definition 
(not meant to be an all inclusive dictionary). Provides multiple 
choice self tests with immediate reinforcement and correct 
answer displayed. Suffix/Prefix on one program. Abbreviations 
on 2nd Program. Both included. 

16KEXT Cassette $19.95 



1590 NEXT 

1600 FORZZ=1TD50:NEXT 

1610 PRINTS480, STRING* (27, 32) ; 

1620 FORZZ=1TD50:NEXT 

1700 PR I NTQ480, "REPLACEMENT (A-Z 

)?"; 

1710 I*=INKEY* 

1720 IFI*=""THEN1710 

1730 IFASC(I*K650RASC(I*) >90THE 

NPRINTS499, "REDO"; : FORZ=1TO1500: 

NEXT:PRINT@499, " ";:6OTO1710 

1740 PRINTQ499, I*; 

1750 POKE1024+PS,ASC(I*) 

1760 F0RZ=1T032:P0KEZ+LI+991, ASC 

(MID*(ER*, Z, 1 ) ) :NEXT:P0KE992+PS, 

96 

1770 L=PS-63+32*SQ-(INT(PS/32)-2 

+SQ ) * ( 64-32*SQ ) / ( 3-SQ ) 

1780 MID*(C*,L, 1)=I* 

1 790 I FLEN ( F* ) =0THEN 1 820 

1800 F0RZ=1T026: IFRIGHT* (FR* ( Z ) , 

1 ) =I*THENMID* (F*, L, 1 ) =CHR* (Z+64) 

: 60T0 1 820 

1810 NEXT 

1820 FORZ=1TO50:NEXT:PRINT@480,S 

TRING*(20,32) ; : FORZ=1TD50: NEXT: P 

RINTQ480, "60 AHEAD" ;: F0RZ=1TD 100 

0:NEXT:PRINT@480, STRING* (8, 32) ; 

1830 6OTO760 

2000 I FH I *<> " A " THEN3000 

2010 S1=31-32*SQ:S2=33+S1 

2020 FORL= 1 TOLEN ( C* ) 

2030 AS=ASC(MID*(C*,L, 1) ) 

2040 I FAS< 65THEN2070 

2050 IFAS>90THEN2070 

2060 PR I NT@L+S 1 +S2* I NT ( < L- 1 ) / 32 ) 
■■ ii ■ 

2070 NEXT:SOTO760 
3000 IFHI*<>"<" THEN3500 
3010 IFFF=1THEN760 
3020 FF=1 

3030 I FF*< > " " THEN3300 

3040 PM0DE2 : PCLS : SCREEN 1 , 1 : P0KE6 

5497,0: FORZ=1TO26:FR(Z)=0: next 

3050 F0RL=1 TOLEN (C*) 

3060 AS=ASC(MID*(C*,L, 1) ) 

3070 I FAS >64ANDAS< 9 1 THENFR ( AS-64 

)=FR(AS-64)+l 

3080 NEXT 

3090 F0RZ=1T026:FR*(Z)=STR*(FR(Z 
) )+CHR*(Z+64) :NEXT 
3100 QB=1 

3110 QB=2*QB : I FQB< =26THEN3 110 

3120 QB=INT (QB/2) : IFQB=0THEN3170 

3130 F0RZ=1T026-QB:QC=Z 

3140 QD=QC+QB: IFVAL (FR* (QC) ) >=VA 

L ( FR* ( QD ) ) THEN3 1 60 

3150 QE*=FR*(QC) :FR*(QC)=FR*(QD) 

: FR* ( QD ) =QE* : QC=QC-QB : I FQC >0THEN 

3140 



3160 NEXT: S0T03 120 

3170 F*=STRINS*(LEN(C*) ,32) 

3180 F0RL=1 TOLEN (C*) 

3190 IFASC(MID*(C*,L, 1) X650RASC 

(MID* (C*, L, 1 ) ) >90THENMID* (F*, L, 1 

)=MID*(C*,L, 1) 

3200 NEXT 

3210 F0RZ=1T026 

3220 NT*=RISHT*(FR*(Z) , 1) 

3230 NP=1 

3240 NF=INSTR(NP,C*,NT*) 
3250 IFNF=0THEN3290 
3260 MID* (F*, NF, 1)=CHR*( Z+64) 
3270 NP=NF+1 

3280 I FNP< =LEN ( C* ) THEN3240 

3290 NEXT:POKE65496,0 

3300 F0RL=1 TOLEN (C*) 

3310 PRINT@L+63-32*SQ+(64-32*SQ) 

♦ INT ( (L-D/32) , MID* (F*,L, 1); 

3320 NEXT 

3330 POKE 1502, 141 

3340 SOTO760 

3500 I FH I *<> " > " THEN4000 

3510 FF=0 

3520 FORL= 1 TOLEN (C*) 

3530 PR I NT@L+63-32*SQ+ ( 64-32*SQ ) 

*INT( (L-D/32) ,MID*(C*,L, 1) ; 

3540 NEXT 

3550 POKE 1502, 143 

3560 SOTO760 

4000 I FH I *<> " + " THEN4500 

4010 HI*="":F*= FF=0:SQ=0:NJ=0 

:CLS:SOTO80 

4500 I FH I *= " # " THENCLS : PR I NT " THE 
PROGRAM HAS ENDED, BUT THE VARI 
ABLES ARE STILL IN MEMORY. IF Y 
OU WANT TO GET THE CRYPTO- GRAM 
BACK, TYPE "Q*"GOTO700"Q*" AND 
ENTER ": PR I NT : END 
5000 LO*=INKEY*: IFLO*=""ORLO*=" 
" THEN5000 
5010 P0=1 

5020 I FFF=0THEN I N= I NSTR ( PO , C* , LO 
* ) : GOTO5040 

5030 IN=INSTR(PO,F*,LO*) 

5040 IFIN=0THEN5090 

5050 PRINT@IN+31-32*SQ+(64-32*SQ 

)*INT( (IN-1) /32) ,HI*; 

5060 P0=IN+1 

5070 I FHH*= " " THENHH*= I NKEY* 

5080 I FPO< =LEN ( C* ) THEN5020 

5090 I FFF=0THEN750 

5 1 00 I F ASC ( LO* ) < 650RASC ( LO* ) >90T 

HEN750 

5110 IFRIGHT*(FR*(ASC(L0*)-64) , 1 

) =H I *THENPL A Y " L25505 V3 1 CGD AEBF#C 

#A— E— B-FCGDA 

5120 GOTO750 

5130 PCLEAR2:GOTO70 



138 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



COLORSOFT™ BUSINESS SOFTWARE 



AT LAST! BUSINESS SOFTWARE DESIGNED FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

★ MAKE YOUR COLOR COMPUTER A WORKING BUSINESS PARTNER ★ 
★ ALL PROGRAMS ARE MENU DRIVEN AND USER FRIENDLY ★ 
★ PROFESSIONALLY WRITTEN AND FULLY TESTED ★ 

★ AFTER-THE-SALE SUPPORT ★ 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING PACKAGE... Ideally suited for any small business with up to $1,000,000 in an- 
nual sales and 400 accounts receivable and 400 accounts payable. This package provides detailed record keeping on ac- 
counts receivable and payable, sales, purchase orders, and allows input and maintenance of payroll related data. 
Prepares balance sheet and income statement, agingreports, and displays a check register, a listing of sales by date, and 
a listing of individual purchase orders. Included are printer output options. The step-by-step user's manual and the user 
friendly, menu driven format makes this program package fast, efficient, and easy to use. 

REQUIRES SINGLE DISK DRIVE (User's manual without program $2t) . . , $149.95 



DEPRECIATION. ..Determines depreciation values for assets based upon the new accelerated cost recovery system 
(ACRS) and the alternate ACRS methods in addition to the conventional methods. Adjusts for plaeing assets in service 
during the year. Screen or printer output $22.95 



LOAN ANALYSIS,,. Evaluate cost of borrowing for capital investments or business expansion. Prints amortization 
schedules and allows user to determine loan status at any point in the term of a loan. Other options allow user to deter- 
mine either principle, interest, payment, or term based upon input of any three. An auto loan option includes trade-in 
allowance and taxes. Screen or printer output , * . . . , ♦ .$20.95 



ANNUITY. ..Determine future value of investments, present value of a future amount, compound imerest, and 
amount of an individual retirement account (IRA). Screen or printer output. . $18.95 



EXPENSE ACCOUNT DIARY.. -Keeps a record of travel expenses for up to 25 trips per year. Performs file searches 
based upon cross-referencing of date of trip, city visited, hotel* or purpose of trip. Screen or printer output. An ex- 
cellent program for the traveling businessman, . , . . . . . . ■ * $15.95. 



STOCK ANALYZER... Reviewed in July 1*82 RAINBOW. New version provides printer output and is disk compat- 
ible. Maintains a stock portfolio data base of multiple stocks. Can be used to track performance of sales personnel or 
similar applications. Features graphing of data to screen or primer along with analyses that includes projection of data 



trends 



$21.95. 



COLOR 
SOFT 



INCLUDE $2.25 HANDLING PER ORDER 
ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXT. BASIC 
CUSTOM PROGRAMMING SERVICES AVAILABLE 
WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 



TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 
9-4 Monday-Saturday 



RAINBOW 



DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



VISA/MASTERCARD 



Want A Workhorse Editor? 

Here's Mr. Ed! 

By Hubert E. Samm, Jr. 



How often have you ever been in the middle of keying 
in a program, and needed to do a GOSUB, or a 
GOT0, only you weren't certain what line number 
it was you needed to go to? Have you ever wished you could 
do a search and find a string in your program? Instead you 
print it out, and laboriously scan each line looking for the 
all-illusive string, •ops! Typed another word wrong. No 
worry — that is* if you are using 'MR. ED. ' 
What is 'MR. ED; you ask? Read on. 
For my living (besides programming on my CoCo, and 
reading the Rainbow) 1 program on the large IBM compu- 
ters. In doing this, 1 usethe editors that have been written for 
the larger computers and, in the back of my mind, keep 
thinking how nice one of these editors would be on my 
CoCo. 

After three months of programming with the built-in 
editor of the CoCo, one evening 1 decided to write my own. 
•riginally 1 designed MR. ED for my assembly language 
programs, but now have become so attached to it that I use it 
for all my programs, 

MR. ED is an editor for an ASCII file. It operates on the 
principles of a full screen editor with many features of the 
editors found on large scale computers. Some of these are: 

• Being able to browse through a program. 
•Replacing one string for another. 
•Locating a string in a program, 
•Paging through a program, 

•Getting multiple files, and creating one file with 
them. 

• Replacing one line for another. 
•Copying one line multiple times. 

• Moving a line from one section to another. 

The program is written in BASIC, and keeps the program 
you are working on in an array. An array was a must since 
speed would be important. 1 had a disk version, but aban- 
doned it due to slow response time. There is also another 
unique feature of this program in the design of the arrays. It 
uses forward and backward links, or pointers. This was 
absolutely necessary. A sequential search through an array 
would have been just about as bad as my earlierdisk version. 



The links work in this manner. The program isloadedinto 
the array, and the last entry is noted. Any new lines are 
added here. Forward and backward links are changed to 
point to the new lin£s, and backward links of the new lines, 
pointing back into the array. (See figure 1 for examples.) 

Figure 1. 

The following shows how a program would look in the 
arrays. 



Entry 


Text of Line 


Forward 


Backward 


00 


line number 1 


01 


00 


01 


line number 2 


02 


00 


02 


line number 3 


03 


01 


03 


line number 4 


04 


02 


04 


last line of program 


00 


03 



When reading this program, entry 00 is always the starting 
point of a program. From there, the forward link points to 
the next line of the program. In the example below, a line 
was added after entry 01 , 



Entry 


Text of line 


Forward 


Backward 


00 


line number 1 


01 


01 


01 


line number 2 


05 


00 


02 


line number 3 


03 


05 


03 


line number 4 


04 


02 


04 


last line of program 


00 


03 


05 


inserted line 


02 


01 



Note how the forward and backward links operate. It is 
due to this that the great speed and dynamic insertions are 
done in MR. ED. 

The backward link is used in browsing backwards in a 
program. The forward link, in addition to keeping lines in 
sequence, is used in forward browsing operations. 

The program you are editing will start at the beginning, 
and display the first 10 lines. You can then issue any of the 
commands, and you're on your way to adding lines, replac- 
ing lines, etc. . . . 



140 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



FINALLY! 



A REAL SPREAD-SHEET PROGRAM FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



Business people use spread-sheets to organize columns and rows of figures. 
DYNACALC simulates the operation of a spread-sheet without the mess of paper and 
pencil. Of course, corrections and changes are a snap. Changing any entered 
value causes the whole spread-sheet to be re-calculated based on the new 
constants. This means that you can play, 'what if? 1 to your heart's content. 

But DYNACALC isn't just for accountants. DYNACALC can be used for just 
about any type of job. Not only numbers, but alphanumeric messages can be 
handled. Engineers and other technical users will love DYNACALC's s i xteen-d i g i t 
math and built-in scientific functions. There's even a built-in sort command, 
so you can use DYNACALC to manage small data bases - up to 256 records. 

DYNACALC will let your computer do just about anything you can imagine. 
Ask your friends who have VisiCalc, or a similar program, just how useful an 
electronic spread-sheet program can be for all types of household, business, 
engineering, and scientific applications. 

DYNACALC is designed to be used by non-programmers, but even a Ph.D. in 
Computer Science can understand it. Built-in HELP messages are provided for 
quick reference to operating instructions. 

DYNACALC has a beautifully simple method of reading and writing FLEX data 
files, so you can communicate both ways with other programs on your system, such 
as the Text Editor, Text Processor, Sort/Merge, RMS data base system, or other 
programs written in BASIC, C, PASCAL, FORTRAN, and so on. 

Except for a few seldom-used commands, DYNACALC is memory-resident, so 
there is little disk I/O to slow things down. The whole data array (worksheet) 
is in memory, so access to any point is instantaneous. DYNACALC is 100$ 6809 
machine code for blistering speed. 

Color Computer DYNACALC works with the FLEX operating system from Frank 
Hogg Laboratory (64k required). If you aren't already using this powerful 
operating system, we have a special deal for you: order DYNACALC (regularly 
$200)- and FHL Color FLEX (regularly $99) together for only $250. 

To order, see your local DYNACALC dealer, or order directly from CSC at the 

address below. We accept telephone orders from 10 am to 6 pm, Monday through 

Friday. Call us at 314-576-5020. Your VISA or MasterCard is welcome. Be sure 
to specify that you want the Color Computer version. 




TM 



ORDER YOUR DYNACALC 



TODAY! 



Computer Systems Center 
13461 Olive Blvd. 
Chesterfield, MO 6301 7 
(314) 576-5020 




RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



The screen has the following format: 

Line 1 — is always the CURRENT LINE. Any of the 
commands always use this as the reference point. 

Lines 2-12 — are the next lines of the program. The maxi- 
mum characters for a line is limited to the 256 
established by the CoCo; however, MR. ED will 
display only the first 64 characters of each line. (I 
find 64 characters more than adequate for all 
programming.) 

Line 13 — is a separator line. The work 'TXT' appears at the 
end of this line. This is a prompt for you to enter 
your text line. In some cases, the text line is used in 
conjunction with a command. (Well discuss this 
later on.) 

Lines 14-15 — is the text line. Program statements as well as 

some commands are typed here. 

NOTE: once a text or command has been placed in 
the text line, the ENTER key must be hit. 
Once the ENTER key has been hit, the last 
four positions of the text line (line $ 15) 
will be overwritten with the prompt 
'CMND.' Do not worry if this overwrites 
part of your text line, it has not been de 
stroyed. 

Line 16 — is the command line. The single character com- 
mand will display here. The current entry number 
and total number of statements appear here also. 
The following rules must be observed with MR. Ed. 
0 1 ) Program line 1 must be reserved f or the program name. 
It will be set up f or you with the 'N' f unction of MR. ED. 



The format of this line is ** in columns 1 and 2, followed 
by a space, followed by an apostrophy, and then an 
eight (or less) character program name. 

ie. . . 

** 'PAYROLL1 
** 'GAME10 

Since MR. ED was originally set up for assembly lan- 
guage programs, this format is treated as a comment, 
and ignored. This is not true with BASIC programs. To 
do BASIC programs, use the 'N' function, and then use 
the 'C'function to change the ** to 00. This way BASIC 
will treat the statement as a REMark. 

02) Many of the commands do not require text. The first 
mode of MR. ED is text mode. If the command requires 
no text, simply hit enter, thus causing MR. ED to enter 
in command mode. 

03) Although lines may be longer than 64 characters, MR. 
ED will only display the first 64 characters. A good 
practice is to only use 64 character lines. 

04) The / * you see as the last line of your program must 
never be removed. It is never written to your disk file; it 
is used for an internal end of file. (This should look 
familiar to all you IBMers out there.) 

The following briefly explains the lines of the program: 
LINE $ DESCRIPTION 

30 sets up string of dark boxes for screen format. 
40 arrays used for the program, forward link, and 

backward link. 
50-2 1 5 main program root. Decides which command was 



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142 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



220-end 



selected, and performs the proper subroutine to 
execute the command, 
subroutines to execute the commands 
230-360 format screen, get text, get command 
name set up 
insert text 

position to top of program 
write program to disk 
read program from disk, set it up for 
editing 

delete the current line 
replace current line with text line 
locate string in text line 
page forward one page (9 lines) 
get another file, and insert it after the 
current line 

870-1039 search current line for string number 
one, and change that string to string 
two 

1 040- 1 1 30 screen ref resher 

1 140- 1 1 50 browse backward one line 

1 160-1 190 print starting at current line to end of 

file, or 'S' key is hit 
1200-1200 copy a line for later use 
1300-1300 insert a copied line after current line 



E 



Key in name of program for file you wish to 
edit- 



370-400 
410-440 
450-460 
470-530 
540-610 

620-630 
640-640 
650-710 
720-770 
780-860 



COMMAND 

N 



NAME 



HOW TO USE IT 

Key in name of program you wish to create, 
(up to 8 characters) 

Hit ENTER 



I 

INSERT 



TOP 



D 

DOWN 

ONE 

LINE 



Key *N" 

You should now see your program name at 
the top of the screen, followed by a 7 *' on line 
2, 

Type in the line you wish to be inserted. 

Hit ENTER 

Key T or hit ENTER 

The text line will insert after the current line 
(first line of screen) and become the current 
line. 

Hit ENTER 
Key T' 

The start of the program now becomes the 
current line, 

Hit ENTER 

Key 'D' 

The next line after the current line becomes 
current line (forward browse) 

Hit ENTER 



FILE Key'F 
PROGRAM 

The program will be written to disk. Its name 
will be the name in the name line, the exten- 
sion will be TXT. 



EDIT Hit ENTER 
PROGRAM 

Key E' 



D 

DELETE 
A LINE 



R 

REPLACE 
LINE 



LOCATE 
STRING 



The program will be read in from disk. The 
display will start at beginning of the program. 

Hit ENTER 

Key 'X' 

The current line will be deleted. 
Key in replacement line. 
Hit ENTER 

Key 

The current line will be replaced with the new 
line of text. 

Key in string you wish to locate. 
Hit ENTER 

Key 'L' 

The search will start with the current line. If 
the string is not found, the current line will be 
reset to the start of the program. If the string 
is found, then the line in which it is found will 
become the current line. 



THE MOST COMPLETE LIST OF 
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Only 

A partial list — 

• Add 

• Algebra 

• Alphabet 



$Q00 



per cassette 



• Biology 

• Weather Forecaster 

• Physics 

• Planetary Positions 

• Flash cards for German, French, 

Spanish, States and Capitals 



Programs for — TRS 80 Color Computer, 
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Many more! From Kindergarten through graduate 
courses. All cassettes $ 69° each. Write for free list . 

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P. O. Box 11038 • Ardmore Hwy. Station 
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(205) 837-3356 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 143 



Hit ENTER 



U 



Hit ENTER 



PAGE Key l P* 
FORWARD 

1 he next nine lines are skipped, and the 10th 
line becomes the current line. 



Q 

QUIT 



Hit ENTER 
Key 'Q' 



Causes the program to end "quit. 
NOTE: the file is not saved, changes will not 
be reflected. 

G Type in name of file you wish to get. 

GET FILE Hit ENTER 



Key *G' 

The file is ready, and inserted following the 
current line. 

Type in string one, string two. Separate string 
one and string two by a slash. 

Hit ENTER 
Key 'C 

The current line will be scanned for string 
one. If it is found, it will be replaced by string 
two. If it is not found, no action will occur. 



CHANGE 
STRING 




POOR MAN'S 
FLOPPY 

HIGH SPEED CASSETTE SYSTEM 

Now for the TRS-80 Color Computer 

The JPC PRODUCTS High Speed Cassette System, in operation 
for over 4 years, is now available for all versions of the Radio 
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• TC-8C — Plugs directly into the expansion port of your 
TRS-80 Color Computer. It is fully compatible with all 
versions of the Color Computer from the standard 4K to 
the Extended 32K. 

• FAST — Twice the speed of the Color Computer System. 

• RELIABLE — Less than one error in a million bits. 

• SUPPORTS TWO DRIVES — Software selectable. 

• ALL FILE TYPES — BASIC, machine language, data. 

• MOTOR CONTROL — Two on-board relays. 

• EPROM OPERATING SYSTEM 

• SFARE EPROM SOCKET — 2716 or 2732 compatible. 

• OPTIONAL JBUG MONITOR — EPROM or Cassette 

• 6809 Assembler • Memory modify and list 

• 6809 Dis-assembler • Break point traps 

• ASSEMBLED and TESTED 

TC-8C $129.95 JBUG (EPROM) .... $34.95 

JBUG (Cassette) .... $29.95 



TERMS: 

Cash, Master Card or Visa 
Shipping & Handling S3.50|US) 
S5.50 fCanada) S 15.00 
(Foreign) Technical 
Inquiries: Phone 
5:00 - 6:00 PM MST 




UP A 
LINE 



Key '£/' 

The previous line will become the current 
line (backward browse). 

Hit ENTER 



PRINT Key "T 



K 

COPY 
(KOPY) 



Printing of the program will start at the cur- 
rent line. It will continue till end of file, or the 
'S' (stop) key is held down. 

Hit ENTER 

Key 'K' 



The current line is copied to a hold area. 
UP ARROW Hit ENTER 



COPY 
PART 2 



M 

MOVE 



Key 'up arrow' 

The line that was copied will be inserted after 
the current line. 

Hit ENTER 

Key 'M' 

The current line will be copied to a hold area, 
and then deleted. 



UP ARROW Hit ENTER 



MOVE 
PART 2 



Key 'up arrow' 

The moved line currently in the hold area will 
be inserted after the current line. 



MR. ED is set up for a 500 statement program. This is not 
a hard rule; to allow editing of a larger program, change the 
DIMS to a larger number. The default extension name is 
TXT. If you wish to use some other name, change the disk 
open and close statements. 

I hope you find MR. ED as useful as I do. 

One other note. 

Any BASIC program may be saved as an ASCII file by 
specifying 4 A' on the save command. 

SAVE "NAME/ TXT", A 
If this type of file is edited with MR. ED, you will see that 
line 1 is blank. No worry, replace it with a name line. 
Remember the format: 

00 'program name 



The listing: 




02B4 
0592 
088D 



10 * MRED 

20 PCLEAR 1 : CLEAR 1 7000 : CLS 

30 U««STRING*( 127,126) 

40 DIM TX«<500),T<500),BL<500> 

50 GOSUB 230 

60 GOSUB 250 

70 IFC«-"N"GOSUB370 

80 IFC*="I"GOSUB410 

90 IFC*»"T"GOSUB450 



144 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



100 


I FC«- 11 D 11 GOSUB460 


350 


■ a>a a ■ ■ a a« aaa iai-|a_ a> 

IFC»«cH0D THENC*» " I " 


110 


I FC*» " F M GOSUB470 


V ^ yaj 

360 


PR I NT8480 , C* ; : RETURN 


120 


I FC*» "E " GOSUB540 


370 


TX* (0)-»"** * "+X* 


130 


I FC*» 11 X 11 GOSUB620 


Ta*#9yS 

3G0 


™P / V 4 a V>| / \ 

T (0) = 1 : BL (0) "0 


140 


I FC»- " R " GOSUB640 


390 


TX* < l ) /#" : T ( l ) »0: BL < l ) »0 


150 


I FC*» 11 L 11 GOSUB650 


400 


a. ■ I M _ ai J« _ lava • 

NL«2 : CL-0: RETURN 


160 


I FC»- " P " GOSUB720 


410 


mi a ■ _ ai ^pa « aaa % _ » ai a, a. 

OL-CL: SL-T (CD : T (CL) -NL 


170 


I FC*» " Q " THENEND 


420 


«Ua M a.11 % U A a ^P « a. II % m _ m a. II 

TX* (NL) =X*: T (NL) =SL: CL-NL 


180 


V »P»."%..4M» || MM || .^A. MA MM, A i#LM#m^M 

I FC*» 11 G 11 GOSUB780 


a aa jb 

430 


aaa-a m a| a. fBL| aaa.. a aa a aai a, % Mi 

BL(CL)*0L:BL(T(CL) )»CL 


190 


I FC*» " C " GOSUB870 


a a vw 

440 


aVM a. II a al a P B aP B>aB PI KP"a aV ■ 

NL»NL+ 1 : RETURN 


200 


I FC*« 11 U 11 GOSUB 1140 


450 


CL=0: RETURN 


210 


I FC*» 11 2 11 GOSUB 1 1 60 


460 


% at al .V4I %. aa aP*a ■ % J - PLMM| BaV-Wak. al 

Y»T ( CL ) : CL= Y : RETURN 


21 1 


V f*MA ■■ t ^ m 9a km 9a m Mam Mt ■ V% 4 MAil 

I FC*» 11 K 11 GOSUB 1 200 


a aa jb 

470 


■ fltf 9 V»% af aWa%aW fl 

VERIFY ON 


212 


I FC*= " GOSUB 1 300 


480 


aV la fcal V V%aa # "VP a # a*M V aa» a a. 

N*"MID* (TX* (0) p 5, 8) 


21S 


I FC*» " M " THENK*«T X * ( CL ) : GOSUB 


a n w 

490 


a^a^BBL ■ || aa a a mm a & |a a ■■ M mm W U ^P ■■ a % a* VV 

OPEN "O" p #1 9 N*+ M /TXT M : Y»0 


620 




500 


IF TX*(Y)- B "/»"GOTO530 


220 


GOSUB 1040: GOTO60 


taaP at a«S 

510 


V-W V .k. • •>aaP a •! aA "-atB fkat aV a* % af %. am «-W ta^M at % af % m a 4M 

PRINT#1 9 TX* ( Y) : Z=T ( Y) : Y»Z 


230 


P%P% V klVAVH M ■ I .at* a 

PR I NT8384 , U* | 


520 


GOTO500 


240 


POKE 8eH5FFp 120: RETURN 


aaaa -J— 

530 


aa a amama a iaaa b aati aaaaaaB _ aai ia 

CLOSE: VERIFY OFF: END 


2S0 


POKE 8e H5FF , 1 2G 


aV> a w 

540 


amaa.aBia | u a aa -1 if ai a ■■ M %lM aa aa _ % a jmm 

OPEN" I" p #l p X^'VTXT" : Y*0 


260 


P%P^ V ^|TAVn M ■ lata a 

PRINT83G4, U*J 


550 


■ ■ al 

LL=-1 


270 


PR I NT8490 , NL | 


aV> # w 

560 


V paF^am aa < j • al aaaaaa a aa ai 

I FEOF ( 1 ) 1 GOTO600 


260 


PR I NT8500 9 CL | 


570 


■ fk|pafk|a| I^Paft. al VMa a % a % 

LINEINPUT#1 pTX* (Y) 


290 


P%P% V m\.m mmMm mfam\ A 4 aw ■■ mmm \# aB P aa _ 

PRINT8413, M TXT M | 


■T*a« w 

580 


fP-kB M % af % all ■ ■ a| 

BL ( Y ) »LL : LL-LL+ 1 


ya ya 

300 


LINEINPUTX9 


590 


■P afffkaftk % at « a| a. % at % at « a| a _«B 

T ( Y ) ■ Y+ 1 : Y=Y+ 1 : GOTO560 


310 


LX*»TX* 


600 


^P U .aa a % a a. u m aa _ ^bb a a, a a, yB aa a jb 

TX* ( Y ) = " /♦•• : T ( Y ) "0: CL»0 


320 


PRINTa476, "CMND"; 


610 


a i| % a . al a P%l aaampB _ a\ a a JB a, a] _ aa« ■VkAa.l 

NL» Y+ 1 : CLOSE : BL ( 0 ) -0 : RETURN 


330 


Am ^ am M. a a a aa«a & M ~- aVft »- a a * * aWaa. aVWaV VaaWJ aWaaV SaW aV 

C*=INKEY*:IFC*= ,,M 6OTO330 


620 


CF=T ( CL ) : CB-BL < CL ) : CL-CF 


340 


C=ASC<C») 


630 


T ( CB ) =CF : BL ( CF ) -CB: RETURN 



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All the challenge and excitement of an arcade game plus the fun and 
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game with one to five players competing against each other and the 
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family can compete and enjoy. 

"EDUCATIONALLY NUTRITIOUS A REAL DELIGHT 

the RAINBOW - February, 1983 $ 14.95 



RAINBOW 

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FRACTION MATH QUIZ 




An entertaining fraction drill program for a single player. Choose from 
a menu of seven fraction operations - reducing, adding, subtracting, 
multiplying, dividing, converting mixed numbers to fractions, and con- 
verting fractions to decimals. Multiple choice answer formats, five skill 
levels, and personalized screen messages make this program fun for 
students of all ages $ 14.95 



• Both programs for the 16K Color Computer with Extended BASIC. 

• Versions also available for 16K Color Computers without Extended BASIC. 

• Quantity discounts available to schools. 

• Prices include postage and handling. Send check or money order to-. 



Crea 



Tivi 
et 



hnical 
Consultants 



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June, 1983 the RAINBOW 1 45 



COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

* UNIVERSAL PROGRAM 1(UP-1) * 

Known as the Program Stacker, UP-1 allows several 
programs to be loaded until the memory is filled. Quickly 
jump from one program to another or compose new 
programs while retaining the old ones. Programs are 
included for patching damaged programs. Allows data or 
machine language programs to be stored and retrieved 
from a cassette. Programs are included for writing values 
or characters to memory, and displaying memory con- 
tents. Blocks of memory can be relocated. UP-1 can be 
used as a Word Processor by allowing text to be stored in 
memory and printed on the screen or an external printer. 
UP-1 Cassette $14.95. 

* DISASSEMBLER-ASSEMBLER (DISASM) * 

Using English mnemonics and Decimal Locations, 
DISASM is an easy way to learn to assemble machine 
LanguageProgramsorSubroutines.Subroutinescan be 
used with Basic Programs and called by either USR or 
EXEC commands. For CC compatibility, all locations are 
given in Decimal Values eliminating the confusion asso- 
ciated with using HEX. All commands are Menue 
oriented and the user provides the particulars for the 
commands without having to remember command for- 
mats. The Disassembler can be used to Analyze Machine 
Language Programs as well as the Basic and Extended 
CC ROMS. Example programs are included. Cassette 
$19.95. 

* TERMINAL PROGRAM (DYTERM) * new 

DYTERM is designed to convert a Color Computer into 
a terminal. Use it to send and receive information from 
another computer, another terminal, or use it to provide 
the software needed for sending and receiving informa- 
tion over telephone lines with a MODEM. DYTERM is a 
BASIC program with Machine Languate Subroutines. 
Cassette $14.95. 

EXTENDED BASIC is not REQUIRED. All programs 
require a 16K Computer and are DISC compatible. 

HARDWARE ITEMS 

Increase your computer's memory with the following 
Memory Expansion Kits. Soldering is not required but 
your waranty will be voided by removing the cover. The 



kits carry a one year warranty. 

ME-1 upgrades 4K to 16K $19.95 

ME-2 upgrades 4K to 32K $59.95 

ME-3 upgrades 16K to 32K $39.95 

ME-4 upgrades all CC to 64K $99.95 
Note: A 1.1 ROM is required for ME-4 

6809E Microprocessor Chip $19.95 

6821 Peripheral Interface Adapter $6.95 

EXTENDED BASIC ROM $85.00 



WE REPAIR COMPUTERS 

* PUT YOUR PROGRAMS IN A PROM PACK * 

We will put your Machine Language and/or BASIC 
Programs in a Cartridge. Send us your program on a 
Cassette and we will return a Cartridge with your pro- 
gram in it. The cost is $19.95 for up to 4K and $29.95 for 
up to 8K. Add $2 for shipping. 

ATTENTION SOFTWARE PROGRAMMERS: We are 
looking for good original programs and are willing to pay 
high ROYALTIES for them. Write or call for details. 

DEALERS INQUIRIES INVITED 

Checks, VISA & MC Cards Add $1 shipping 

DYNAMIC ELECTRONICS INC. 

P.O. Box 896 (205) 773-2758 

Hartselle, AL 35640 



146 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



640 TX* (CD -X*: RETURN 
650 Y-T(CL) 

660 F-INSTR(TX*(Y>, X*> 

670 IF F>0 GOTO 710 

680 Z-T(Y>:Y-Z 

690 IF Y-0 THEN CL-0: RETURN 

700 GOTO 660 

710 CL-Y: RETURN 

720 Y-CL 

730 FOR W-l TO 9 

740 Z«T(Y):Y-Z 

7S0 IF Y-0 THEN CL-0: RETURN 

760 NEXT 14 

770 CL-Y: RETURN 

780 OPEN " I " f #1 f X*+"/TXT M 

790 IF EOF ( 1 ) — 1GOTOG60 

G00 LINEINPUTttl, X* 

G10 ol-cl:gl-T(CL):t<cd-nl 
G20 tx*(nl)-x*:t(NL)-gl:cl-nl 

G30 BL(CL)-0L:BL(T(CL) )-CL 
G40 NL-NL+1 
G50 GOTO 790 
G60 CLOSE : RETURN 

870 A-0 : B-0 : C-0 : T»- " " : CH»- M " 

880 FOR X-l TO 24 
890 H*-MID*(X*,X, 1> 
900 IF H*-"/"GOTO930 
910 T*«T*+H»: B-B+l 
920 NEXT X 
930 FOR Y-X+l TO 32 
940 H*-MID*(X*,Y, 1) 
950 IFHt-'V'GOTO 980 
960 CH*-CH*+H* 
970 NEXTY 

980 F-INSTR(TX*(CL) ,T*> 

990 I FF-0THENRETURN 

1000 A-F-l : C-LEN (TX* (CD > -A-B 

1010 A*-MID*(TX*(CD,1,A> 

1020 C*-MID*(TX*(CD, A+B+1,C> 

1030 TX* (CD -A*+CH*+C«: RETURN 

1040 cls:y-cl 

1050 FOR X-0 TO 10 

1 060 I FLEN ( TX* ( Y ) )< 33G0T0 1 090 

1070 PRINTS (X*32),TX*(Y):X-X+1 

1080 GOTO 1100 

1090 PRINTS (X*32) f TX* (Y) 

1100 Z-T(Y):Y-Z 

1110 IF Y— 0THENRETURN 

1120 NEXTX 

1130 RETURN 

1140 Z-BL(CL) :CL-Z 

1150 RETURN 

1160 Y-CL 

1170 i ft ( y ) — 0thenreturn 
1 1 g0 i f i nkey*— " 8 " thenreturn 
1190 print#-2,tx*(Y):z-T(y>:y-z: 

GOTO 1170 

1200 K*-TX* (CD: RETURN 

1300 X*-K*:GOTO410 _ 



RECEIVED & CER TIFIED 

The following products have been recently received by the Rainbow, examined by our magazine staff and approved 
for the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your assurance that we have seen the product and have ascertained that it is 
what it purports to be. 

This month the Seal of Certification has been issued to: 



Stagecoach, a game played with 16K ECB. 
Objective: you are responsible for the safe 
journey of the judge's daughter, Annabelle, 
while you try to carry gold across the desert 
in a stagecoach. The James Gang and Indi- 
ans are in hot pursuit. Available from 
Petrocci Freelance Associates, 651 N. 
Houghton Road, Tucson, AZ 857 10, $ 19.95. 

Weather Watch, a series of three programs 
which will provide you with National 
Weather Service approved statistics in a 
monthly report format. Also, retrieves a sin- 
gle day from data-file for review. 16K, 
$24.95. Forecaster & Weather Watch, used 
to forecast general weather conditions with 
80 percent accuracy. Includes the above 
Weather Watch program, all on one disk. 
32K E disk, $49.95. Available from Petrocci 
Freelance Associates, 651 N. Houghton 
Road, Tucson, AZ 85710. 

Color DFT (Direct File Transfer), a utility 
program that allows two TRS-80s equipped 
with a modem and the DFT package to 
transmit any file from one to the other over 
telephone lines and the file may be transmit- 
ted without any conversation. Available 
from Computer Shack, 1691 Eason, Pon- 
tiac, MI 48054, tape $24.95, disk $29.95. 

The Color Picture Plotter (CPP), a program 
that produces color pictures on the CGP-1 1 5 
plotter. 16K ECB required. Available from 
Ultralight Industries, 1 144 Kingston Lane, 
Ventura, CA 93001, $14.95. 

Graphics Program Generator I, a graphics 
editor and program generator using 16K or 
32K ECB. Using GPG-1 you can build a 
complex picture on the PM ODE 3 screen in 
either of four color sets and then it will write 
a graphics program to tape to reproduce 
your picture exactly. $11 .95. Graphics Pro- 
gram Generator II, has all the f eatures of the 
above GPG-1, plus characters with a self- 
loading language module. $ 16.95. Available 
from CoCo Data Enterprises, 1215 Emer- 
alda Drive, Orlando, FL 32808. 

Soooper Pac, a pac-maze style game requir- 
ing 16K non-extended. Includes 3 mazes, 30 
skill levels, 6 programmable speeds, 3 back- 
ground colors, and 17 bonus point objects. 
Choose between joystick or keyboard 
action. Available from Bear Bones Soft- 
ware, Inc. G-31 17 Corunna Road, Suite 108, 
Flint, MI 48504, $21.95. 

Intergalatic Force (/?OMPack), a space bat- 



tle game requiring 16K ECB. Objective: you 
are piloting an X-wing fighter and must 
penetrate the def enses of the Death-Star and 
fend off the attacks of imperial fighters that 
have been dispatched to destroy you. When 
you approach the shaft opening, you must 
attempt to fire a bomb into the shaft. Avail- 
able from Anteco Software, P.O. Box 
14728, Fort Worth, TX 761 17, $24.95. 

Add-A-Voice, a machine language utility 
program which allows the user to add voice 
output to any BASIC program f or the TRS- 
80 with 16K (non-extended). Available from 
H.I.B., 3505 Hutch Place, Chevy Chase, 
MD 20815, $14.95. 

Kwikgraf, a bargraph drawing program for 
ECB used in con junction with EPSON MX- 
80 printer. Available from West Bay Com- 
pany, Route 1, Box 159-B1, White Stone, 
VA 22578, $12.50. 

Robottack, a 16K game with colorful high 
resolutions graphics for 1 or 2 players. 
Objective: you are the super human who 
must fight off attacking robots and save the 
remaining humans f rom destruction. Avail- 
able from Intracolor Communications, P.O. 
Box 1035, East Lansing, MI 48823, $24.95. 

Canyon Climber, a game of skill and reflex 
for 16K or more memory. Objective: gather 
as many points as possible while avoiding 
mountain goats, arrow-shooting Indians, 
and rock-dropping eagles to reach your 
goal — the rim of the canyon. Available from 
Radio Shack Stores, Cat. No. 26-3089, 
$34.95. 

Graphic Screen Print Program, a utility 
screen print program f or the Star Micronics 
Gemini 10/ 15 printers. This tape has the 1.0 
version on one side and the 1.1 version on 
the other. Available from Custom Software 
Engineering, Inc., 807 Minuteman Cause- 
way, Cocoa Beach, FL 32931, $9.95. 

Mathwar, an education program that pro- 
vides an entertaining way f or a child to prac- 
tice beginning math: adding and subtract- 
ing. Available from Harmonycs, P.O. Box 
1573, Salt Lake City, UT 841 10, $11.95. 

TRS-80 Extended Color BASIC, a (814" x 

11", 170-page, soft-cover) textbook for 
learning to program BASIC using the TRS- 
80. Suitable for high school, junior college, 
and university levels, or can be used for self 
study. A Spectrum book, written by Richard 



Haskell. Published by Prentice-Hall, Inc., 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, $12.95. Also 
available in cloth— $19.95. 

Datamail, a cassette-based mailing list pro- 
gram for home or business use. 32K holds 
approximately 300 files. Available from 
Dataman, Box 431, Station B, Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada, L8L 7W2, 16K, $14.95. 

First Sampler, a tape with six programs, 
including a mental math skill game, a word 
game, a computer convoy game, a computer 
memory game, an areade-type game, and a 
haunted house adventure game. Also avail- 
able from Dataman. 16K n $9.95 

Yaazee, a 16K dice game for two players. 
Objective: player pushes firebutton and tries 
to get the best poker hand using five dice. 
Available from Tom Mix Software, 3424 
College, N.E., Grand Rapids, MI 49505, 
$19.95. 

The Frog, an arcade-type 32K game. Objec- 
tive: you are a frog trying to get safely across 
a busy road while dodging traffic and jump- 
ing on the backs of turtles, alligators, and 
logs to cross a river. Also available from 
Tom Mix Software. $27.95 tape, $30.95 
disk. 

Trapfall, an arcade-type 16K game. Objec- 
tive: fight your way through the jungle col- 
lecting treasures as you jump the pits and 
swing across the alligators. But be cautious 
of the creature hidden in the basement. Also 
available from Tom Mix Software. $27.95 
'tape, $30.95 disk. 

Space Shuttle, a game requiring 32K. Objec- 
tive: learn to fly the space shuttle from 
launch to landing. Also available from Tom 
Mix Software. $28.95 tape only. 

MSI Data Base, a program used for main- 
taining a customer list or any list of names 
and addresses that you may wish to create 
with full edit and update functions. Availa- 
ble from Delker Electronics, Radio Shack 
Dealer #D223, P.O. Box 897, Smyrna, TN 
37167, disk $39.95. 

Upload, a program that provides the com- 
puter with the capability of transferring pro- 
grams to another computer in either BASIC 
or machine language. Available from ML- 
US'R Software, 1 15 Rising Sun, Fort Mit- 
chell, KY 41017, $16.95. 



The Seal of Certification program is open to all manufacturers of products for the TRS-80 Color Computer, the 
TDP-100, or the Dragon-32, regardless of whether they advertise in the Rainbow. By awarding a Seal, the magazine 
certifies the program does exist, but this does not constitute any guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be forwarded to the Rainbows reviewers for evaluation. 

— Jutta Kapfhammer 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 147 




EDUCATION 






■ 

u 






( the 1 


ECB 




RAINBOW 
_J.- -L 



Esti mate 
Reading 
Difficulty 

Sentence- 
By-Se n t ence 



By J, C Kretschmer, PhD, 



Interested in the reading level of the books you arc con- 
sidering purchasing for your children — or those that are 
being used by your local schools? Perhaps you are plan- 
ning to write a children's book. Will the finished product be 
"over their heads" in terms of vocabulary and sentence 
length? Now your CoCo can give you this information in a 
way that no other readability program can. thanks to a new 
readability estimation procedure from Sweden that has been 
mod if ied for use with English texts (see J . Anderson's article 

in the March 1983 Journal of Reading). 

Simply called Rix (a modification of "Lis, " which is a 
shortened version of Laharhtisindex, the original Swedish 
formula), this new procedure differs from other short read- 
ability methods in that it can provide a readability estimate 
with as little as one sentence of text as a sample. #f course, it 
is far more accurate if a sizable number (30 or so) sentences 
are analyzed, preferably equal proportions from the begin- 
ning, middle and end of a book or article. 

There are several readability programs for microcomput 
ers, but they all share a common limitation: you have to 
enter about 30 sentences or more of text, then wait for the 
computer to calculate the readability and display it. RIX- 
RA r£will monitorthe readability of the text as you enter it, 
on a sentence-by-scntcncc basis. This BASIC program fea- 
tures a "status window" similar to the status lines of word 
processing programs that continually updates the readabil- 
ity estimate, RIXRA TKv status window displays the text 
title (a one-word descriptor input by the user), the total 
number of words, number of sentences, number of long 
words (7+ letters), average sentence length and, finally, the 
estimated reading grade level of the text being entered. All 



(Dr. Kretschmer is with the Department of Teacher Educa- 
tion, School of Education and Applied Professions, Miami 
University, Oxford, Ohio.) 



this information is updated as soon as the user signals the 
end of each sentence by pressing ENTER. 

For writers of children's books and educational materials, 
RIX RATE can provide a check on whether or not their 
writing is unconsciously beginning to "drift upward" out of 
range of the intended readership. Teachers who produce 
very clearly-written assignment sheets sometimes inadvert- 
ently introduce them with directions that would make an 
IRS-form writer proud. Keying such text into this program 
might spare their students from "Directions Shock." 

Those people who write the "simple" directions for 
assembling children's new Christmas toys might also do well 
to run them through RIXRA TE. 

The program listing includes complete directions that 
make the program user-friendly. About half of the listing 
(lines 290-690) consist of instructions, and these should be 
read carefully when the program is run. You can type in the 
text normally, thanks to the IN KEYS loop that is the heart 
of the program (lines 700-&00), but you must omit all punc- 
tuation except apostrophes (for contractions) and hyphens 
(for hyphenated words). Be especially careful to remember 
to hit the space bar before pressing ENTER at the end of 
each sentence, (If you don^t, the last word will not be regis- 
tered. An occasional slip won't affect the readability to any 
significant extent, but consistently doing this will result in 
loss of accuracy.) 

Pressing ENTER — CHR$( 1 T) — clears the screen and 
updates the readability statistics through two subroutines 
(see line 770). GOSUB 1000 computes the Rix score (Rix = 
number of long words/ number of sentences) and converts it 
to a grade level Grade level scores beyond grade 12 are 
reported as "college" (see lines 2020 and 3030). GOSUB 
3000 clears the screen and prints the status window with 
updated readability figures. For very long sentences (Wil- 
liam Falkner's The Bear has sentences of several hundred 



148 



the RAINBOW 



June. 1983 



words) line 790 provides a mechanism that clears the screen 
but does not change the readability stats if the input over- 
flows the bottom of the screen. The counter (r) is set in line 
740. You can correct spelling mistakes by backspacing and 
not inflate the word length count because line 750 subtracts 
each backspace. Finally, line 780 resets the word length 
count (1) to — 30 after determining whether a word has 
seven letters. This prevents additional letters from being 
counted as long words. To fool the system, a word would 
have to be 36 letters long! (Since "paradichlorobenzene" has 
only 19 letters, I'm assuming this will take care of any 
jawbreakers you choose to enter.) 

The program does not require Extended Color BASIC. 
RIXRA TEhas no formal ending command, so simply press 
BREAK when you've had enough. 

Now — is Lady Chatterly 's Lover really difficult enough to 
be safely indecipherable to your 10-year-old? 



The listing: 



330 02F7 

480 0536 

620 0751 

770 . 0965 

END. . . 0BA9 



100 'RIXRATE READABILITY PROGRAM 
110 CLS:FOR X-32 TO 63 
120 PRINT0X, CHR«( 143+32) | : NEXT X 
130 PRINTG64+1 1 . "r ixr«t« 



140 PR I NTS 128+6 
LITY 

150 PR I NTS 160+6 
N THE 

160 PR I NTS 192+6 
Y J. 

170 PRINT8224+6 
AL OF 

180 PRINTS256+6 
1983) 

190 PRINT9320+6 

BY> 

200 PRINT8352+6 
R > 

210 PRINT8384+6 

TY> 

220 PRINT9416+6 



"A RAPID READABI 
"PROGRAM BA8ED O 
"RIX PROCEDURE B 
"ANDERSON (JOURN 
"READING, MARCH 
"< BASIC PROGRAM 
"< JOE KRETSCHME 
"<MIAMI UNIVERSI 
"<OXFORD OHIO 19 



83 > 

230 FOR X-480 TO 51 1 ZPRINTtX, CHR 
* (143+32) | : NEXT X 
240 FOR P-l TO 3000: NEXT P 
250 CLS: PR I NTS 196, "DO YOU NEED I 
NSTRUCTIONS? 

260 PRINT8258, " (TYPE <Y> FOR . 
— <N> FOR NO) 

270 R*-INKEY*:IF R*«" "THEN 270 
280 IF R*-"N"THEN 710 
290 PRINT832, "instructions: 
300 PRINT864, "l.YOU MILL BE ASKE 
D TO TYPE IN 

310 PRINT898,"A SHORT TITLE FOR 
THE TEXT TO 

320 PR I NTS 130, "BE ANALYZED BY ri 



Mr at*. 

330 PRINT8160, "2. AFTER THE TITLE 

IS ENTERED, A 
340 PRINT81 94, "STATUS WINDOW WIL 
L APPEAR AT 

350 PRINT8226, "THE TOP OF THE SC 
REEN. rixrata 

360 PR I NT8258, "MONITORS READABIL 
ITY SENTENCE 

370 PRINT8290, "BY SENTENCE. ALL 
FIGURES WILL 

380 PR I NT8322 , " BE AT ZERO UNTIL 
A COMPLETE 

390 PR I NT8354, "SENTENCE IS ENTER 
ED. 

400 PR I NT 93 84, "3. TYPE IN THE TEX 
T, SPACING 

410 PRINT&418, "AFTER EACH WORD A 
S USUAL, BUT 

420 PRINT8451, "< PRESS ANY KEY TO 

CONTINUE> 
430 R*-INKEY«:IF R*« " " THEN 430 
440 CLS:PRINT866, "OMIT ALL PUNCT 
UATION EXCEPT 

450 PRINT898, "APOSTROPHES AND HY 
PHENS. 

460 PRINT8128, "4. SIGNAL THE END 
OF A SENTENCE 

470 PR I NTS 162, "BY PRESSING <ENTE 



Introducing • Quality Software by MSI. 

Featuring * DATA BASE for the Color Computer 
* 32k Disk req'd. on i y $39.95 

Features include : 

. User Friendly - No programming knowledge 

required 
. 15 User defined fields 

, Full Maintenance Capability (Add, Change, or 
Delete) 

. Print Options (Mailing Labels or Alpha listing) 

. backup/restore to cassette 

. Large 42x32 Screen Display 

. Store up to 500 or more names on one disk! 

. Fast direct access by name 

. Sample "DATABASE" Included for Fast and 

Easy Instruction ONLY $39.95 

exclusively from 
Delker Electronics, Inc. 




□ELKER 




(Dealer Inquiries welcome) 
Delker Electronics, Inc. 
P.O. Box 897 
Dept D 

Smyrna, TN 37167 
800-251-5008 

615-459-2636 (Tennessee) 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 149 



R>. BE SURE 

480 PR I NT* 194," TO SPACE AFTER TH 
E LAST WORD. 

490 PR I NT 9224 9 "5. DIALOGUE EXPRE8 
8 IONS SUCH AS 

S00 PRINT«258. " < WHAT? ASKED ANN> 

SHOULD BE 
510 PRINTQ290, "CONSIDERED ONE SE 
NTENCE. 

520 PRINTt320,"6.U8E THE _ KEY T 
O CORRECT 

530 PRINT* 354, "MISTAKES, BUT BE 
CAREFUL TO 

540 PRINT* 386, "SPACE ONLY ONCE F 
OR EACH WORD. 

550 PRINTH419, "< PRESS ANY KEY TO 

CONTINUE> 
560 R*-INKEY*:IF R*»" "THEN 560 
570 CLS:PRINT864p"7.BE SURE TO I 
NCLUDE ENOUGH 

580 PR I NT*98p "SENTENCES TO CONST 
ITUTE AN 

590 PR I NTS 1 30 p "ADEQUATE SAMPLINB 

OF THE TEXT. 
600 PR I NTS 1 62 p "TAKE BLOCKS OF SE 
VERAL 8ENTEN- 

610 PRINT*194p"TENCE8 FROM THE B 
EOINNINBp 



TRS-80 COLOR BASIC 

by BOB ALBRECHT 

This entertaining self-instructional book is packed with 
games, experiments, scores of intriguing challenges, and 
activities related to fantasy role-playing games. The 
ideal introductory aid for kids, parents and teachers 
using the Color Computer. 

John Wiley & Sons $9.95 
605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158 



TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

by DON IN MAN (i£j$fi&&^ 

Explore the creative and imaginative blending of computers 
and color. This exciting book will enable you to explore 
all the graphics capabilities of Extended Color BASIC. 



Reston Publishing Company 

1 1480 Sunset Hills Rd., Reston, VA 22090 



$14.95 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS 

FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

by DON INMAN and KURT INMAN 

This book is specific to the TRS-80 Color Computer with 
applications using sound and graphics to illustrate how an 
assembler can be used to perform feats that would be quite 
difficult, if not impossible in the BASIC language. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 



DYMAX, P.O. 310, MENLO PARK,CA 94025 

Dymax orders must be prepaid via check, money order. Visa 
or Mastercard. Sorry, no Purchase Orders or COD orders. 
Please add $2.00 shipping and handling. California residents 
add 6% sales tax. flPw 

RAINBOW 



620 PRINTG226, "MIDDLE AND END OF 

THE TEXT. 
630 PR I NT* 256, "6. FINALLY, REMENB 
ER THAT READ- 

640 PRINTG290, "ABILITY ESTIMATES 

ARE ONLY ONE 
650 PRINTG322, "FACTOR IN DETERMI 
NINO THE 

660 PRINT0354, "THE DIFFICULTY OF 
WRITTEN 

670 PR I NT8386, "MATERIAL. CONTENT 

AND OTHER 
630 PR I NT84 16, "FACTORS ARE EQUAL 
LY IMPORTANT. 

690 PRINT0452, "< PRESS ANY KEY TO 
START > 

700 R*-INKEY*:IF R*™" "THEN 700 

710 cls : s-0 : sl-0 : w-0 : lw-0 : r-0 

720 INPUT"TEXT TITLE (9 LETTERS 

OR LESS): "|T*:OOSUB 3000 

730 L*-INKEY*:IF L«-""THEN 730 

740 printl*i:r-r+i 

750 IF L*-CHR*(B)THEN L«L-1:R«R- 
l:GOTO 730 

760 IF L*-CHR*<32)THEN W-W+l:L-0 
:OOTO 730 

770 IF L*-CHR*(13)THEN 8-S+l:SL- 

w/s::oosub 1000:qosub 3000 

760 L-L+l:lF L>6 THEN LW-LW+llL- 
-30 

790 IF R>355 THEN R-0:BOSUB 3000 
800 GOTO 730 

1000 RX-LW/SIIF RX<-2 THEN O-l :R 
ETURN 

1010 IF RX<.5 THEN 0-2: RETURN 
1020 IF RX<.8 THEN 8-3: RETURN 
1030 IF RX<1.3 THEN 8-4: RETURN 
1040 IF RX<1.8 THEN 8-5: RETURN 
1050 IF RX<2.4 THEN 8-6: RETURN 
1060 IF RX<3.0 THEN 8-7: RETURN 
1070 IF RX<3.7 THEN 8-8: RETURN 
1080 IF RX<4.5 THEN 8-9: RETURN 
1090 IF RX<5.3 THEN 8-10: RETURN 
2000 IF RX<6.2 THEN 8-1 1: RETURN 
2010 IF RX<7.2 THEN 8-12: RETURN 
2020 IF RX>7.2 THEN 8-13: RETURN 
3000 CLS: PRINT80, "TEXT: "|T»:PRI 
NT816, "TOTAL WDS-"|W 
3010 PRINTO32, "N0.8ENT*S-"|S:PRI 
NT848 , " NO . L0N8 WDS- " V LW 
3020 PRINT864, "AV. SEN. LNTH— " V INT 
<SL) 

3030 IF 8-13 THEN PRINT880, "grad 
• lv: COLLEGE": 80T0 3050 
3040 PRINT8S0, "grade lv:"|B 
3050 FOR N-96 TO 127: PRINTUN, CHR 
* (140) I : NEXT N 
3060 RETURN 



150 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



forefront of It^e pack 
"It is great' 



WHAT THEY ARE SAYING ABOUT COLORPEDE 

" the Rainbow, Dec "82 ". .an .outsiarsdsny oflttr " N. Vernon. IN " . ;he bes\ graphs ^ \ twe sec si to U-,^ 
Dayton, OH ;he best grapl^cs and piriyabiLiiy o! any color corupui^r name ' McKeesport, PA 



INTRODUCING 



4 



1 53456 



COLORPCDC 



This truly outstanding engineer designed, ^00% 
machine language game with multi-colored high 
resolution characters and tast action will chal- 
lenge the most avid arcade buff. Can be played 
by "I or 2 piayers controlled with joy sticks or key 
board Joy stick control is fast, smooth and ac- 
curate As COLORPEDE slithers through the toad 
stpols, you attempt to destroy the COLORPEDE, 
knock oullhe menacing Bouncing Bug and elim- 
inate toad stools while accumulating higher and 
higher scores. Demonstration mode with top 5 
scores Pause feature. For 16K Color Computer 
and TDP-100. 

Cassette -$29. 95 



1 fa 



to*. - .: - . 



w fi- 



ll w 



RrjBQTTflCK 



Ultra fast arcade action with colorful high resolu- 
tion graphics. You are the super human who must 
light off the attacking robots and save the remain 
ing humans from destruction. You have super 
powers, can shoot in any direction and move 
anywhere on the screen to accomplish your vital 
mission. 

Engineer designed, 100% machine language. 
Can be played by 1 or 2 piayers with joy stick con- 
trol Top 5 scores displayed. Pause feature. For 
16K Color Computer and TDP-100 with joy sticks 

Cassette- $24. 95 
TO ORDER: 

VISA, MASTERCARD, Money Order 
Please aliow 2 weeks for checks Acid 
$1.50 for shipping. $3.00outstde U.S. 4% 
tax in Mich. 



P.O, Box 1035, East Lansing, Ml 48823 
(517)351-8537 



COMMUNICATIONS 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 



FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP-100 



Like Card Games? 



The 'Shack's Got Card Games! 



We've all had that feeling of having purchased something 
at such a low price that we almost felt like a thief, expecting 
at any minute to receive a phone call informing us that a 
mistake had been made and would we please return the 
merchandise or cough up the correct amount. 

That's about how I felt upon receiving a copy of Radio 
Shack's Card Game, a collection of six superb games on 
three casette tapes, which sells for only $19.95. This collec- 
tion of programs is enough to quench the card-playing thirst 
for people of all ages — with Poker, Black Jack and Solitaire 
for the older set, and Go Fish, Last Pirate and War for the 
youngsters. Included is a nicely designed and well-written 
24-page instruction book that makes it easy to play them. 

Another thing that should have bothered me, I guess, was 
that I enjoyed some of the games directed toward the 
children — such as Go Fish and Last Pirate — just as much as 



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Requires l6K-EJxt .BASIC , cassette. 
Draw and erase lines, circles, 
boxes, and vectors. 
Alphabetically coded keyboard 
control, with sound cues. 
Hi-Resolution, 256x192. 
On-Screen cursor, with variable 
jump rate. 

Paint function, can be used to 

produce negative graphics. 

Tape storage of graphics screen, 

change taped graphics. 

$15.00 

J P S 

11^62 Columbus Ave.,W. 
Fostoria, OH, ^4830 



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those aimed at more mature audiences. I found them fasci- 
nating, in fact, and very challenging. Gee, you're thinking, 
this guy is either off his rocker or those are awfully good 
games. You're probably right on both counts. Trust me! 

Black Jack — Everybody knows how to play this old 
favorite, don't they? Oh, well, just in case: up to four players 
may compete with the dealer in this version. The object, of 
course, is to beat the house in drawing cards that add up to 
2 1 . If you wind up closer to 21 than does the dealer, you win. 
If not, or your cards total more than 21, you lose. 

Everyone receives $500 to start the game and the min- 
imum bet per hand is a buck. The maximum wager is $500, 
even if your winnings exceed that amount. The cards are 
dealt af ter the last player's bet has been entered. The dealer's 
hand is at the top of the screen with one of the cards 
concealed. The amount of money a player has remaining is 
displayed at the left of his cards, along with his/her name 
(which blinks when a card is dealt, and the current amount 
bet on the hand. Winnings are one-and-a-half times the 
amount bet. If you want a hit, simply press the "H" key, "D" 
to double the bet, and "S" to stay. 

If your experience is similar to mine, you'll play until 
every last dollar is gone. But you always get another $500 
when you start a new game. 

Solo Poker — Playing one hand of poker can be a chal- 
lenge, but did you every try playing 10 hands at one time? 
That's what is expected of you in this mind-boggier. 

You have five horizontal and vertical rows, in which you 
try to obtain the best hands possible. Five cards have already 
been dealt face down in a left-to-right diagonal pattern. 
They will become a part of the 10 hands you build. 

The deck is to the right of the playing area. When a card is 
to be dealt, a flashing block appears which can be moved to 
any position within the five rows via the cursor. Once a card 
is placed in a square it can't be moved again. 

In order to turn one of the diagonal cards mentioned 
earlier, you need to have at least a pair in the same row or 
column. It then becomes a part of two hands — the one going 
up and the one going down. It is wise to turn these cards up 
as soon as possible. 

The game is very confusing at first, as are many good 
computer games, but with practice, the enjoyment increases. 

Go Fish — A game that my seven-year-old son, Stephen, 
used to play a lot with cards before we even dreamed of 
owning a CoCo. And there's no doubt in my mind that 
playing the game with CoCo is a much more enjoyable 
experience. Seven cards are dealt to each player — you and 
the computer. The computer's cards are at the top of the 
screen face down. Yours are at the bottom of the screen face 
up, but the computer doesn't know what's in your hand. 

The object is to make more books than your opponent. 
You ask the opponent for a card that matches what you have 
in your hand. If you don't get the card, you are told to "Go 
Fish," drawing one from the deck. If you get one that 
matches one you already have, you get to go again. 

There's really a lot of good interaction between you and 
the computer. And for a seven-year-old, it's quite a learning 
experience. 

War — Half the deck is lined up on the left of the screen, 
the other half on the right. The object is to get all the cards 
away from the opponent. To win a hand, your card simply 
has to be higher. Doesn't require much thinking, but it's 
interesting to watch the rat-a-tat-tat of the cards as they fly 
to the winner's side. 



152 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



What's blue and red, about an inch tall, able to leap 
across a Color Computer video display in a single bound, 
and destined to put Inky, Winky and Stinky out to 
pasture? 

Danger Ranger, the newest character from 
ScreenPlay. That's who. 

Danger Ranger isn't a clone of some moldy arcade 
game. It isn't like any video game you've ever seen. It's 
faster. More challenging. More fun. 

Your joystick controls Danger Ranger on his mission 
to make the universe safe for Mom, Brotherhood and 
The American Way First, our hero finds himself in the 
surrealistic 'Chamber of Pasha/ which consist* of five 
consecutive platforms. Danger Ranger has to blast his 



way through radioactive bale and roving eyes to pick up 
the ten keys that may spell the difference betwen survival 
and death for the human race! 

If Danger Ranger can muster enough skill and courage 
to survive those challenges, he'll enter the 'Acid Cham- 
ber/ Here, not only do demons guaid the treasure boxes 
he wants to collect, but fatal drops of acid fall from the 
ceiling and rise from the floor. Not a nice way to make a 
living - but it makes one heck of a video game. 

Danger Ranger, from ScreenPlay. 

Poor Winky. Lucky you. 

l6KTape „ . . . . . $24.95 

No Extended Basic Required 



ScreenPlay™ 

I -800-334-5470 
P.O. Box 3558 Chapel Hill, NC 27514 

' flifldie Shack and Color Campuitf art tusdftmirki q( Tandy Corp 



Last Pirate — A pirate's card is substituted for a queen in 
this game and the object is not to be lef t holding that card or 
you'll walk the plank! Your cards are dealt face up, the 
computer's face down. During each turn you draw a card 
from the opponent's hand, until eventually all pairs have 
been removed. A blinking cursor moves so rapidly that it's a 
little tricky trying to stick the computer with the pirate, but 
it's fun trying. 

Solitaire — Sometimes this game is called "patience" 
because it's very hard to win. It's even more difficult with 
CoCo because CoCo doesn't stand for any wishful thinking 
or planned coincidences. If you try to play a card in the 
wrong place, CoCo automatically returns it to the pile it 
came from. 

The deck is situated in the upper left corner of the screen, 
above the seven rows of cards f ace down, except f or the final 
card in each column. In the lower right is the "picked up" 
corner, where a card stays until you've figured out what to 
do with it. 

Be f orewarned: You will rarely win, and Solitaire requires 
a lot of time to play. But I think that the game was invented 
as someone's way to kill time. 

All in all, Card Games is an impressive effort on the part 
of Radio Shack. And if this is any indication of how the 
company plans to beef up its software support for CoCo, 
then we all can look forward to even more delightful 
experiences. 

(Available at Radio Shack Stores, Cat. No. 26-3320, three- 
tape package $19.95) 

—Charles Springer 




Color Computer Enhancements from Micro Technical Products 



*LCA-47— Lower Case Adapter 

Smart improvement 1 

■ Compatible with ALL Color Computer 
Software 

- Bright characters on a dark background 

• Lower Case with true descenders 

■ Comprehensive User's Manual 

- Easy 5-min installation 
no cutting, no soldering 
Uses NO system memory 

■ 1 year warranty 1 

Assembled & Tested $75.00 

*PP-16— EPROM Programmer 

■ SvoltEPROMs- 2516, 2716 & 2758 

• Read. Program. Verify data, Verify erased 

• Auto verify after programming 
Softwareavailablelor 6502. 6800 
6809. 8080, 8085, & Z80 \ ipeci=y one) 

Note User must provide i v^'!;!::^ to computer 

Bare PC Board & 

Documentation $25.00 

Complete Kit $45.00 

*PAK ATTACK- 

From Computerware 

■ Great fun for all ' kids' without the quarters 

■ Fast action, brilliant colors 

Tape $24.95 

•Super Color' Writer II- 

From Nelson 

- Tops ALL word processors for the 
Color Computer' 

• More features 
Supports ANY line printer 
Comprehensive documentation 

ROM PAK.. $74.95 Disk. .$99.95 
ORDER 



*ROML-R0M PAK Loader Program 

Innovative 1 

Save your ROM PAKS on disk and run 
WITHOUT removing disk controller (requires 
64k RAM). 

- Load and run ANY machine language 
program. rainbow 
FREE program included to copy machine '"lET 10 " 
language programs from tape to disk 

Tape . . . $25.00 Disk . . . $29.00 
*ROMKIL-BASIC ROM Disabler 

- Disables Disk BASIC ROM or Extended 
BASIC ROM 

Frees up extra RAM 

System v.tys in selected level of BASIC 
even if Hasr:: 
■ Cycling power restores all ROMs 

Tape. .. $15.00 Disk ... $19.00 
*PLUS32-64k RAM Enabler 

Runs BASIC from RAM where you can 
modify it. 

Allows you to load machine language 
programs above BASIC 
Requires good 64k RAM system 

Tape. .. $15.00 Disk ... $19.00 

•BANNER— Moving Marquee 
Program /S\ 

Display any message in GIANT *" 

m o v_i n g letters 

• You choose colors & speed 

Tape. .. $19.00 Disk ... $23.00 
♦SPECIAL SAVINGS— $25 oo Off 

when you purchase Super Color' Writer II and 
an LCA-47 together 1 

NOW 



RAINBOW 

aflTIFlCAUt* 



INC. 



Micro Technical Products, Inc. 

123 N. Sirrine, Suite 106-A2 
Mesa, AZ 85201 (602) 834-0283 

Add 5% for shipping, minimum $2.00. 
Overseas 10%, min. $4.00. Arizona, add 
5% tax. Visa & MasterCard welcome. 



Two Zaxxon Games 
Provide The Arcade Experience 



During a recent visit to the local arcade, I noticed some- 
thing very interesting. Almost all of the "in" games are 
currently available for our CoCo. As each new breed of 
games shows up in the arcades, the most popular soon 
becomes available to us. 

The latest entries into the family of arcade games f or our 
CoCo are two versions of the very popular Zaxxon. Both of 
them are written in machine language and require 32K. In 
this game, you have to try and zap the deadly Zaxxon robot. 
Before you get the chance to do this, however, you must 
fight your way through a space fortress and then make your 
way through outer space and fend off the enemy fighters. 
Once you make it past these obstacles, which is no easy task, 
you are ready to take on the Zaxxon robot. 

Flying through outer space is similar to some of the 
'space-war' type games, in that you must kill or be killed. 
The most interesting part of the game is when you have to 
make your way through the space fortress. There are walls 
and force fields which you must navigate around. There are 
also radar towers and fuel tanks, which you must either 
destroy or navigate around. There is a certain amount of 
strategy involved also. For example, if you destroy a fuel 
tank, you are given additional fuel for your spacecraft. 
Naturally, there are other things to contend with. There are 
gun emplacements, missiles, and enemy planes, whose mis- 
sion in life is to zap your spacecraft and prevent you from 
getting a chance to kill the Zaxxon robot. 

Zaxxon is the 'official' version of this game, which 
explains why the name is the same. It has a nice demo mode, 
and will accommodate two players. This one can be consi- 
dered a clone copy of its big brother. 

Zaksund, I guess, is the 'un-official' version of the game. 
This one has two skill levels to choose from, and features 
amazing sound effects during the beginning and ending of 
each game. Although not quite a clone copy, probably for 
legal reasons, it is very similar to its big brother. 

Both of these games feature excellent fast moving graph- 
ics as well as great sound effects. To me, they represent what 
we should expect from a 32K machine language game these 
days. There is no way to adequately describe the visual 
effects, except to say that you really get the feeling that you 
are flying a spacecraft. Responsiveness to the joystick is also 
very good, and this is important' in these games, because 
maneuverability is the key to success. 

Zaxxon more closely resembles the arcade version, and 
has a slight edge in the graphics department. Zaksund, on 
the other hand, has the edge in offering two levels of play f or 
the novice and expert alike. In deciding which of these two 
fine offerings to buy, I recommend that you either flip a 
coin, or better yet treat yourself to both of them. 

(Zaxxon, Datasoft Inc., 9421 Winnetka Ave., Chatsworth, 

CA 91311, $39.95 tape or disk. Zaksund, Elite Software, 

P.O. Box 11224, Pittsburgh, PA 15238, $24.95 tape, $27.95 

disk) 

—Gerry Schechter 



154 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




WORKSAVER RECEIVES 

RAVE REVIEWS 

FROM COLOR COMPUTER NEWS AND RAINBOW 



u 
p 

G 
R 
A 



Fast Entry of 
Basic Programs 

Over 100 user 
definable keys 

Enhances all Coco's 
from 16K Non Extended 
Basic to Extended, 64K, 
Disk 

Available on Disk or 
cassette 

Built in cassette merge 
User's Support Service 




"There are a number of 
products on the Coco 
market. .the WORKSAVER 
ranks up there with the 
best of them" 

—Rainbow Dec. , 82| 

''...undoubtedly the best 
program I have ever 
bought for my color 
computer" 

—Color Computer News 

Jan. '83 

"the main function of the 
program seems to be mak- \ 
ing things easier and morel 
functional for the user. It ' 
succeeds extremely well" 
—Color Computer News; 

Jan. '83 



THE WORKSAVER WILL SAVE YOU HOURS OF WORK^WRITING AND DEBUGGING YOUR PROGRAMS" 

—Rainbow Dec, '82 



FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

"WANT TO CHANGE the line a 
couple fines up? Simple. Use the 
arrow- keys to the appropriate 
place and make the change. This is 
not only a lot easier, but it is vastly 
faster, too. ..changing line 
numbers, joining lines together, 
breaking them apart, duplicating 
them elsewhere— heady stuff — is 
very easy to do with the 
Worksaver" (Rainbow) 



"The things that this program 
add to the color computer... 

INCREASE ITS 
CAPABILITIES MANIFOLD 

...it should have been incor- 
porated into the original 
MICROSOFT programming (or) 
given out with every color com- 
puter." 

—Color Computer News Jan '83 



THE PLATINUM WORKSAVER 
INCLUDES: 

* Enhancement program, including a 
sample array editor on a high-quality 
Agfa cassette: 

* Fully labeled acetate keyboard over- 
lay, not a cheap stick on. 

* Complete instructions 

* Loads in seconds, takes 2,2 K 



DYNAMIC INPUT 

Perform numeric calculations, 
and check the contents of an 
rays and variables, WITHOUT in- 
terrupting the running of BASIC 
programs: "An EXTREMELY 
valuable feature that f use ALL 
the time/' 

—Color Computer News Jan. 83 



NUMERIC KEYPAD 

CONVERSION 

"The keys JKLUIOP are defined 
as the numbers 1-7, respective- 
ly^Ahis mode is a Godsend for 
long data statements " 
—Color Computer News Jan, 83 



FULL FEATURED 
4 COLOR 
KEYBOARD OVERLAY 

'TRUTH: The WORKSAVER 
overlay is the best we have 
seen for this type of program/' 
—The Rainbow Dec, 82 

"A weft designed keyboard 
overlay (NOT a sticker. /' 
—Color Computer News Jan. 

83 



DYNAMIC EDITING 

This is one of our users 1 favorite 
features: When the computer halts 
due to an error, or you want to 
make an improvement while run- 
ning, you can make changes 
without losing data: l This is a ma- 
jor plus in debugging., it can save 
a lot of time in data loads,., (and) 
the generation of data through in^ 
puts. Rainbow Oec, 1 82 



u 



\ 





Line Printer Conversion Chart 








Function 


Radio Shack 


Radio Shack 


Radio Shack 


Radio Shack 


TOP Line 


Smith Corona 


Microllne 


Epson 


Gemini 




LPVII 


LP Vlil 


DMP100 


DMP200 


Printer 1 


Daisy wheel 


82A 


MX Series 


10/15 


Line Feed 


10 or 13 


10or138 


10OM3 


10or 138 


10or13 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Back Space 


— 


8nn 


— 


8nn 


— 


8 




a 


6 


Carriage Return 

WW 


26 


13orl41 


26 


13 or 141 


26 


13 


! 13 


13 


13 


Start Underline 


Graphics 


15 


15 


15 


15 


25 




ESC 1 


ESC 1 


Cancel Underline 


Graphics 


14 


14 


14 


14 


— 


, 


ESC"K" 


ESC ,4 K" 


Enter Graphics Mode 


18 


16 


18 


18 


18 


— 


14 


ESC ,4 @" 

- ^^^^ 


ESC ,4 @" 

- ^^^^ 


Data Processing Mode 

mm, 


30 


30 


30 


30 


30 


— 


14 


ESC ,4 @" 


ESC' 4 ®" 


Word Processing Mode 

mm 


— 


— 


— 


20 


— 


— 








Normal Characters 


30 


30 


30 


30 


30 


— 


15 


ESC ,4 @" 


ESC ,4 @" 


Expanded Characters 




ESC 14 


31 


ESC 14 


31 


31 




14 


14 


Cancel Expanded 


30 


ESC 15 


30 


ESC 1 5 


— 


>. 




20 


20 


Condensed Characters 


— 


ESC 20 


ESC 20 


— 


— 





29 


14 


14 


Italic Characters 


— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


— 







ESC ,4 4 rr 


ESC "4" 


Cancel italics 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 







ESC "5" 


ESC ,4 5" 


Double-Strike 


— 


— 




ESC31 


— 





29 31 


ESC "G" 


ESC ,4 G" 


Cancel Double-Strike 


— 


— 


— - 


ESC 32 


< — 







ESC ,4 H" 


ESC "H" 


Emphasized 


— 


- — 


■ — 


— 


— 







ESC ,4 E" 


ESC "E" 


Cancel Emphasized 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





_ 


ESC'F" 


ESC "F" 


Set Line Length 


— 






— 




— 


: _ 


ESC "CT nn 


ESC "Q" nn 


Set Form Lenght 














ESC ,4 F" nn 


ESC "C" nn 


ESC ,4 C" nn 


Top Of Form 












12 


12 


12 


12 


Skip Over Perforation 
















ESC "N" nn 


ESC 4 N" nn 


superacnpi 




ESC 30 




ESC 30 








pop "o«» n 


LOU O U 


Subscript 




ESC 28 




ESC 28 








ESC "S" 1 


ESC ,4 S" 1 


NOTES: 

All commands {except nn, see below) are written as PRINT 
#-2, CHR${NUMBER) where NUMBER is shown in the chart 
above. Thus, to send a line feed on an Epson printer, the 
proper format is PRINT#-2,CHR${10). 


ESC is achieved by typing CHR$(27) 
nn means a number 

Where the format is shown as ESC "G" the command is 
typed PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)"G" 





For your convenience, we at the Rainbow have prepared this 
chart to enable you to make the appropriate changes when 
confronted with a program written for a printer other than yours. 

Although most printers are produced to receive input via the 
American Standard Codef or Information Interchange, there are 
subtle differences in programs written for various models. For 
example, you would type in CHR$(27) CHR$(31) to program 
expanded characters on Radio Shack's Line Printer VM. But on 
the DMP 200 and others, an ESC(14) is required. 

We have selected 26 of the more common printer commands, 



which should satisfy the needs of most hobbyists and personal 
computer users, and maybe even some small businesses. The 
capabilitiesof printers vary, obviously, so if there's adash under 
a category listing, the option is not available under normal 
circumstances. 

If you have a notebook, or another method of keeping helpful 
hints readily available, this chart belongs there. Thevalueofthis 
information will increase as you become moref amiliar with your 
computer and printer, and as the computer becomes a growing 
part of your lifestyle. Keep it handy! 



OS-9 • 6809 • FLEX 



The same system software on FLEX, OS-9, SSB DOS, RS DOS — 
offers portability and easier learning — for Color Computer and SS-50 systems 



SCRIBE 
EDITOR 



* Many commands 
compatible with familiar 
editors for easy learning. 

* Edit files larger than 
memory. 

* Many easy line edit 
commands including 
insert, change, delete 
characters within a line. 

* Macros for repeated edit 
sequences. 

* Merge files from disk 

to create programs or 
manuscripts. 

* Interfaces with Text 
Processor for word 
processing. 

* Great with Macro 
Assembler! 



WHY COMPUTERWARE 



* Only Computerware 

offers system software 
on ALL major 6809 
operating systems. 

* 7 years of 68XX 
experience and 

unmatched expertise. 

* As you change 
operating systems, 

there is no need to 
re-learn system 
packages. 

* No-one can match the 
quality for the price. 



RANDOM 
BASIC 



* Thousands of existing 
programs are now 
transportable to 

other operating systems. 

* Extraordinary File 
Handling Capabilities — 

ISAM, Random, & 
Sequential file structures; 
FAST data file access; 
Very efficient file design 

— records can bridge 
sectors. 

* 1 1 Digits of precision — 
BCD arithmetic for those 
who need extended 
precision. 

* Flexible User Input 
Commands — Conversa- 
tional" programming is a 
snap with commands 
designed for easy user 
input — single character 
or whole lines. 

* Easy Output Formatting 

— Print Using, automatic 
pagination, left & right 
justification, easy 
columnization and decimal 
point alignment. 

* Programming's Fast — 

The interpreter provides 
fast program development 
and debugging — it is 
self-documenting with 
extended variable names. 




MACRO 
ASSEMBLER 



* All Standard 6809 

mneumonics and directives 
supported. 

* Macros allow you to 
create often-used routines 
only once! 

* Conditional Assembly 

allows you to build only 
one multi-purpose source 
code to generate several 
versions, reducing 
maintenance significantly! 

* Repeat Sequences 

eliminate redundant 
coding. 

* Any Size Source File — 

assembles from disk. 

* XREF program included 
for easy cross-reference 
listings 

* Addressing Modes: 

inherent, immediate, 
relative, direct, extended, 
and indexed — all 
addressing modes! 



FLEX is a trademark of TSC 
OS-9 is a trademark of Microvware 

Dealer Inquiries invited 



COMPUTERWARE 



6809 Specialists 



Box 668 

Encinitas, CA 92024 • (619) 436-3512 



Computerware is a trademark of Computerware 



CALL 
OR 
WRITE 
FOR 
COMPLETE 
INFORMATION 



Super "Color" Library 7 

For the TRS-80 Color and TDP System 100 Personal Computers 



fc ^ \ \ \ \ \ 




No matter what kind of problem you are trying to solve with the 
Color Computer, there is a program in the ever-expanding 
integrated, Super "Color" Library that will give you the solution; 
Faster, Better Smarter! 

Every Library program features MEMORY-SENSE to 
determine your computer's memory, from 16 to 64K h and adjusts 
automatically to maximize work space. All programs, except the 
Super "Color" Speller and Super "Color" Dlsk-ZAP, feature a true 
lowercase display with below line descenders, Each program has 
been written specifically for the Color Computer in fast machine 
code to be totally compatible for optimum performance — 
Something a motley assortment of programs from diverse 
sources or a passei of overpriced, wailet-FLEXing software from 
a bygone era simpiy can not achieve. 

The Super "Color" Library has ail the power, speed, 
dependability and compatibility you will ever need so build your 
library a volume at a time or put the fuli power of the complete 
library of problem solvers to work right away. 



NEW! 



£/VVC) Super "Color" Writer II 

s^f^y VERSION 3.0 By Tim Nelson 

^ THE INTELLIGENT WORD PROCESSOR 



The Super "Color" Writer II is for those who desire the best. It is 
the most powerful, fastest, most dependable and versatile word 
processor available for the Color Computer, from 16 to 64K. The 
Super "Color" Writer II has features for the most demanding 
professional, yet it is easy enough for newcomers to master. 

Of course the Super "Color T1 Writer Jl has all the features you 
would expect from the highest quality word processor, such as a 
clear, crisp and readable professional display with your choice of 
display colors, 9 display formats; standard 32x16 & 51-64-85x21 
&£4 with real lowercase descenders; fulf 4-way cursor control, 
sophisticated edit commands, the ability to edit any BASIC 
program or ASCII textfile, seven delete functions, locate and 
change, wild card locate, a real block move & copy, word wrap- 
around, programmable tabs, display memory used and left, non- 
breakable space, multiple headers and footers, dynamic Text 
formatting, comprehensive format parameters, use with ANY 
printer at any baud rate from 110 to 9600 baud, automatic justifi- 
cation, automatic pagination, automatic centering, automatic 
flush right, underlining, superscripts, subscripts, pause print, 
single-sheet pause, optionally print comments, append text files, 
available in a RGMPAK cartridge for maximum work space, but 
that's only half of the story. No other program can even begin to 
compare in features with the Super "Color" Writer IL 

TAPE $69,95 ROMPAK 



Check These Exclusive Features 

MEMORY-SENSE adjusts to computer's memory (16-64K) for 
maximum work space; TYPE-AHEAD, TYPAMATIC KEY 
REPEAT and KEY BEEP for the pros; 3 PROGRAMMABLE 
FUNCTIONS; AUTO PHRASE INSERT; COLUMN CREATION; 
TEXT FILE LINKING; HELP MENU; A TRUE EDITING WINDOW 
IN ALL 9 DISPLAY MODES; TRUE FORMAT WINDOW to 
display line lengths up to 255 characters, with horizontal and 
vertical scrolling to replicate the printed page including centered 
lines, headers, footers, page breaks, page numbers, margins, 
giving a perfect printed document every time. Also makes 
hyphenation a snap; TRUE AUTOMATIC JUSTIFICATION for 
neat, even left and right hand margins; Ability to use 
CHARACTER CODES for printing special characters available 
with your printer; freedom to embed as many PRINTER 
CONTROL CODES as desired anywhere in the text, EVEN 
WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT; 90-plus page tutorial manual. 

ADDITIONAL DISK FEATURES: Read a directory, Display free 
granules, Save with Automatic Verification, Load and Append 
ASCII files, and BASIC programs, Kill files, and LinK flies from 
disk for continuous printing. 54K bytes of workspace available 
with a 64 K system. Only the best offers all of these features. 

$89.95 DJSK $99.95 



Tutorial only 515 00 (Refundable with purchase) 
Tape & Disk require 32 K for lowercase display 
Previous Super "Color 1 ' Wrilef II owners call for upgrade pohcy. 



Super "Color" Mailer™ 

By Tim Nelson 

The Super "Color" Mailer is a powerful multi-purpose mailing 
list merging and sorting program including lowercase display 
that uses files created by the Super "Color" Writer IL Combine 
files, sort and print mailing iists, print "Boilerplate" documents, 
automatically insert text in standardized forms, address 
envelopes, the list is endless. 

TAPE $39.95 DISK $59.95 

Operators Manual oniy $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 



tfy Super "Color" Speller™ 

By Peter A. Stark 

The Super "Color" Speller is a fast machine-code proofreading 
program to correct Super "Color" WHter files Automatically 
proofreads your documents against a 20,000 word stock 
dictionary, plus your own customized dictionary and corrects 
typos or marks them for special attention. 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $69.95 

Operators Manuai only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 



NELSON SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 9072 Lyndale Avenue So., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 612/881-2777 



i 



32x16 & 51 -64-85x21 &24 Display 
With Lowercase Descenders And 



^fi)Super "Color" Calc™ 

I P ^ ^ELECTRONiC SPREADSHEET By Kevin Herrboldt 
Now you can answer those What if?" financial projection, 
forecasting, budgeting, engineering and calculating questions 
with precision, speed and power using the Super <h Color' T Calc, 
truly the finest electronic worksheet and financial modeling 
program available lor the CoJor Computer, from 16 to 64K. Now 
every Color Computer owner has access ,to a calculating and 
pfanning toof rivaling VisiCalcV containing all its features and 
commands and then some. You need only change one variable 
and you instantly see how that change affects your assumptions. 
You can even use VisiCalc templates freely with Super "Color 
Calc! Combine spread sheet tables with Super "Color" Writer II 
documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and 
financial reports and budgets. 

Features include: 9 display formats; standard 32x16 & 51-64- 
85x21 &24 with real lowercase descenders * MEMORY-SENSE to 
adjust to computer's memory (16-64K) for maximum workspace; 
Full-size 63x256 worksheet * Easy to use * HELP Menus to make 
learning faster * Machine code speed and high precision * Total 
flexibility in calculating * Up to FOUR VIDEO DISPLAY 
WINDOWS to compare and contrast results of changes * Sine 
and Cosine functions, Averaging. Exponents, Algebraic 
functions, and base 10 or 16 entry * Multi-layered Column and 
Row Ascending and Descending sorts ™ Locate formulas or titles 
in fields * Easy entry, replication and block moving of frames * 
Global or Local column width control up to 81 characters each * 
Create titles of up to 255 characters * Typamatic Key Repeat * 
Key beep ' Type-ahead " Print up to 132 column worksheet * 
Prints at any baud rate from 110 to 9600 * Print formats savable 
along with worksheet * Enter control codes for customized 
printing. 

DISK FEATURES: Read a directory; Display free granules; Kilt 
files, Save with Automatic Verification; Load files; Append disk 
files for complete worksheet printing. 54K bytes of worksheet 
space available with a 64K system. 

Tutorial and sample templates are supplied with the program. 
ROMPAK $89.95 DISK $99.95 

Tutorial only 1 15.00 (Refundable with purchase) 
Dish requires 32 K for lowercase display. 

Super "Color" Disk-ZAP™ 1 

By Tim Nelson 

Now the dreamed-of repair of 1/0 errors is a reality. The Super 
"Color" Disk-ZAP T * is the ultimate repair utility for simple and 
quick repair of all repairable disk errors. Designed with the non- 
programmer in mind, the Super "Color" Disk-ZAP™ will let you 
retrieve all types of bashed files, including BASIC and Machine 
Code programs. 

This high-speed machine code disk utility has a special dual 
cursor screen display to show HEXIDECIMAL and ASCII 
displays simultaneous^. You are able to: Verify or modify disk 
sectors at will " Type right onto the disk to change unwanted 
program names or prompts " Send sector contents to the printer 
or any other RS-232 device * Search the entire disk for any 
grouping of characters * Copy sectors * Backup tracks or entire 
disks " Repair directory tracks and smashed disks * Full 
prompting to help you every step of the way * 50-plus page 
Operators Manual which helps you simply and quickly fix the vast 
majority of disk errors, and teaches the rudiments of disk 
structure and repair. 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $49.95 
Operators Manual only $10 00 (Refundable with purchase) 



NELSON 

SOFTWARE 

SYSTEMS 




9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 812/881-2777 



d 16 Thru 64 K Too! 

Super "Color" Terminal™ 

THE FINEST TERMINAL PROGRAM ANYWHERE! 

Version 3.0 By Dan Nelson 

The best has become even better, with many new features 
including 9 display formats; 32x16 & 51 -64-85x21 &24 with real 
lowercase descenders, plus compatibility with the 64K Color 
Computer. This user-friendfy program makes communicating 
with ANY computer a breeze even for a newcomer Communicate 
using your modem with all the popular information services such 
as Dow Jones, Compuserve, The Source, and local BBS s, clubs, 
friends, or the main-frame at work. You can also communicate 
directly with other microcomputers, such as the TRS-80 l/lll, IF, 
other Color Computers, Apptes, IBM PCs, etc., via RS-232 
without using a modem. Save the information or PRINT IT! 
FEATURES: MEMORY-SENSE to adjust to computer s memory 
(16-64K) for maximum work space; Selectively print data at baua 
rates from 110 to 9600 * 54K of datastorage with 64K disk system. 
128 character ASCII keyboard T Automatic graphics mode ' 
Word mode (word wrap) for unbroken words * Send & receive 
Super "Color" Writer II, Database & Calc files, ASCII files. 
Machine Language & BASIC programs ' Set communications 
baud rate from 1 10 to 9600, Duplex: Half/Full/Echo, Word length: 
5 6 7 or 6, Parity: Odd/Even or None, Stop Bits: 1-9 * Local 
linefeeds to screen * Save and load ASCII fifes, Machine Code & 
BASEC programs * Unique CLONE feature for copying any tape " 
Lower case masking 1 10 Keystroke Multiplier (MACRO) buffers 
to perform repetitive pre-entry log-on tasks and send short 
messages * Programmable prompt or delay for send next line * 
Selectable character trapping ' Files compatible with other 
Library programs, 

ADDITIONAL DISK FEATURES: Works with up to four Disk 
Drives; Call a directory, Print free space, Kill disk files, Save with 
Automatic Verication and Load textfiles or BASIC programs: 
Save and Load KSM'S to the disk 

TAPE $49,95 ROMPAK $59.95 DISK $69.95 

Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 
Previous Super +< Co IOr' T Terminal owners call for upgrade policy 



/"^VfrSuper "Color" Database™ 

(N^ y By Dan Nelson 

This high speed machine language program including true 

lowercase displays fills all your information management needs, 
be they for your business or home Inventory, accounts, mailing, 
lists, family histories, you name it, the Super "Color" Database 
will keep track of all your data. 

The Super "Color" Database features MEMORY-SENSE to 
adjust to computer's memory (16-64K) for maximum work space. 
It is structured in a simple and easy to understand menu system 
with full prompting for easy operation Your data is stored in 
records of your own design, each divided into as many fields as 
you need. All files are luHy indexed for speed and efficiency. Full 
sort of records is provided for easy listing of names, figures, 
addresses, etc , in ascending or descending order. The math 
package performs arithmetic operations and updates other fields 
which is especially useful when used as an order entry and 
invoicing system. You can create reports, or lists for mailings, or 
whatever. Create files compatible with the Super 'Color" Writer Jl 
and Terminal. Up to five different print formats are available, and 
control codes may be imbedded for customized printing 
AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $79.95 
Operators Manual only $10. 00 (Relundable with purchase) 

For Orders ONLY Call Toll F ree 

1 -800-328-2737 3E 

Customer service and product support call (612) 881-2777. 

MAIL ORDERS: $3 U.S. Shipping ($4 CANADA. $10 OVERSEAS) 
Personal checks allow 3 weeks. ORDERS SHIPPED SAME DAY! 

Available at Dealers everywhere. 
If your Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 



A Division of SotUaw Corporal ion Minneapolis, Minnesota 55 420 US.A, 
TRS-80 is a trademark oi Tandy Corp Visicafc *s a trademark of VistCorp. 

WE TAKE THE COLOR COMPUTER SERIOUSLY. 
AUTHORS 1 SUBMISSIONS ARE ENCOURAGED, 




If It's Not The T' Board 
How About The '285? 

By Mike Reilly 



I was one of the early Color Computer owners. Well over a 
year and a half ago I had my 4K — 1 .0 Color Basic in my 
rev. D board and was perfectly happy. After all, I didn't have 
to worry about those old A, B, and C revisions. But bliss 
ended quickly. My first friend to get a machine told me, 
"When my screen comes up it says COLOR BASIC 1.1." 
Right there and then I should have known what Tandy had 
in store for me. Soon, most hardware types could tell you all 
about the "E" board, with the 32K RAM piggyback, or 
those strange "half -good 64K RAM chips." Then the full 
64K modification appeared along with the five little 
jumpers, and with a few wires you could handle FLEX and 
much more. At that point we were ready for the long 
rumored "F" board. Around the end of last year the new 
board appeared in the TDP 100 and in November the TRS- 
80C got it. But . . . it's not the "F rev.," folks. The board 
layout is totally different. So what do we call this board? The 
old board number was 8709137-E and the new number is 
8709285. How about the "285" board? 




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I'll explain what's different and what has changed. 

There are no major design changes except for one very 
nice one: the ability to use the full 64K RAM mode. This 
needed some wiring and I.C. pin bending with the "E" 
board, but had been designed into the stock board. The 64K 
chips and just four jumpers are all that you need to access all 
the memory. You pull out the eight 16K chips, move the 
three jumpers in the memory area over to the 64K position, 
add a jumper to the lone 64K patch posts to the lef t of U 1 7 
and cut capacitors C58, C60, C62, C66, C68, C70, C72, and 
you're finished. That's what most figured might happen on 
the "F" rev. if we were lucky. My guess is that very soon we'll 
see the Extended BASIC 1.1 ROM that will allow us to use 
64K for Radio Shack's BASIC. This way the Color Compu- 
ter can easily compete with the Commodore 64. Now that 
makes sense, doesn't it? 

Some of the changes to the layout are: 

The power transformer has moved toward the keyboard, 
so the power supply section moved to the back. 

The troublesome cassette motor relay has been changed 
from a read type to a solenoid/ hard contact type. You can 
hear quite a difference between the two. The reed gave a 
small ping; the new relay sounds very prominent. Just by 
turning the machine on you can hear if you have a new 
board. This will help you people with tape recorders other 
than Radio Shack, where the motor would not turn off 
because of a locked up relay due to that motor's current. 

The door on the ROMpack port door might be supported 
by a very sturdy metal strap, not the upper half of the case. 
But from what I see, even that will be changed soon as an all 
plastic ROMpack door assembly is now appearing in new 
units. 

The keyboard connector which used to be a short flat 
ribbon cable with two connectors was changed to a camera- 
type, clear, flat cable which is part of the keyboard. You can 
still disconnect the keyboard, but it's much more difficult to 
do. The keyboard itself is also totally different. It looks 
exactly the same as before, but now, inside there is a flat 
conductive rubber contact sheet which solves the sticky key 
problem many had. Lots of folks will rejoice over that. 

The large RF shield has shrunk way down in size. It now 
only covers the memory chips and the 6883 SAM chip. It's 
tougher to remove, too. It's held in place by seven metal 
fingers that go through the board and are bent underneath. 
To remove it, you can reach under to straighten out most of 
the fingers, then slowly pull it off. 

One of the two 6821 PI As has been changed to a pin for 
pin compatible 6822 II A which stands for Industrial Inter- 
face Adaptor. There's not much difference between the two, 
but the new chip is capable of higher drive levels and sensing 
with higher noise immunity, which is needed for the key- 
board matrix decoder contact system for the new keyboard. 

Another possible problem change is the whole schematic. 
Almost none of the designs have changed, but all the parts 
were physically moved, and worst of all, every part has a new 
location part number. This makes it extremly hard to find 
anything without the new renumbered schematic. Not to 
worry, because Tandy has them on the way. We'll be needing 
an update to the Color Computer Technical Manual before 
new owners get stuck with old schematics. 

And last, I've noticed in the few new machines I looked 
into that there are some small "fixes" (floating parts sol- 
dered across other components, such as in the video output 
area) in various places in some Color Computers, and not in 
others, so get ready for the "285 rev. A." Here we go again! 



160 theRAINBOW June, 1983 



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Kid Tested: 
Radio Shack Tutors Are A-OK 

Tandy Corporation has introduced two vocabulary tutors 
for children ages 8-10 or grades three to five. Words That 
Act and Words About Things are written f or CoCo using 4K 
(Hooray! Hooray!). These programs employ text, pictures 
and recorded speech to increase vocabulary skills. Questions 
and feedback response techniques are used to enhance user 
interest and provide a f un way to teach children without the 
use of "shoot-em-up" arcade type rewards for correct 
answers. 

The programs are written in machine language, so 
CLOADM and EXEC are the appropriate commands for 
loading and running them. Also the recorder must be left 
ON, so that the voice-cued lesson can proceed. This is not a 
usual procedure for 4K programs and care should be taken 
in explaining this to the "I-can-do-it-myself"age group these 
tutors are geared for. The documentation suggests that the 
volume control of the CTR-80A recorder be set between "5" 
and "7," in order to load the program. We consistently 
received an I/O error at these settings. Words That Act 
finally loaded at "1" and Words About 772W£s loaded at "3." 
The volume setting on the recorder then had to be readjusted 
so that the voice could be heard. In all fairness, the docu- 
mentation does say that some minor adjustments may have 
to be made by turning the volume "a little higher or a little 
lower." Still, I was disappointed in the hit and miss way the 
proper setting had to be found for a program produced by 
Radio Shack, using our original Radio Shack equipment, 
which had been recently serviced. 

Well, enough of the "adult" observations about these 
latest entries. The proof is in the pudding. My daughter, 



Now a LOGO for the 
COLOR COMPUTER 

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TINY TURTLE is an affordable , 
fully compatible LOGO language 
with high resolution turtle 
graphics, music , fast processor 
operation f and storing and 
retrieval of user procedures, 
TINY TURTLE comes complete with 
soft-copy reference user manual. 

3-2k/extd basic/cassette $39*95 
hard-copy manual $^*95 
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pob ^50 07603 

n.j. add 5% tax 



Jenny, is eight years old and in the third grade. Having the 
opportunity to help in reviewing these programs, was a 
wonderful chance for her to invite her friends to "play" with 
our CoCo. She invited a cross section of children, aged 8 to 
10, in third through fifth grade. 

Judging from the way the children handled the programs, 
the age specifications were accurate. Of course, individual 
differences and abilities must always be considered. Most 
had no previous experience with a computer, except game 
playing using joysticks. 

In each program the student works at his own pace, 
therefore having plenty of time to think out the answer. In 
both programs, a word is presented with a brief definition 
and an accompanying "picture." Then a question about its 
meaning is asked. The next question then reinforces the 
definition. At the end of the program, there are a f ew review 
questions. Words That Act contains 45 questions and 
Words About Things has 39. Both lessons took between 15 
and 20 minutes to complete. 

I was glad to see adequate reinforcement for correct 
answers, as the voice indicates modest praise. Wrong 
answers are indicated by a short beep tone, followed by a 
new screen giving a verbal "hint." In fact, in most cases, the 
hint is the answer. The screen then returns to the original 
and the question is asked again. Most questions are multiple 
choice, with some requiring a fill-in answer. The older child- 
ren and those who were more computer literate enjoyed the 
challenge of the latter. Both tutors involve reading and 
listening skills and a score at the end was welcomed by the 
children. It was evident that each child felt pride in doing 
well. The boys were less impressed with the activity than the 
girls. However, all said they really enjoyed doing them and 
would do both repeatedly if they had the opportunity. All 
the students expressed a desire to have programs like these 
in their schools. 

Words That Act and Words About Things are a good step 
in the right direction for educational software. 

As an educator, I would like to have had more thought 
put into the choice of words used. It seems that the words 
chosen were done so without a theme or common denomi- 
nator within the programs. Also, many of the children 
expressed their confusion concerning the low resolution 
graphics. They said that sometimes they concentrated more 
on trying to figure out what the picture was and missed the 
verbal explanation of the word. Most frustrating for the 
children was that, in multiple choice questions, if a key other 
than the ones needed to answer the question was pressed, it 
was considered a wrong answer. For example, if the proce- 
dure was to choose answer 1 , 2 or 3 and the child inadvert- 
ently keyed 4 or spacebar, etc., the answer was incorrect. 
Once they adjusted to this, they were more cautious. These 
things concerned me as an adult. However, all of these 
proved to be minor inconveniences to the children. The 
result was that the children, for whom these programs were 
written, were very impressed and they really liked doing 
them, while learning in the process. This teacher gives Radio 
Shack an "A-" on this report card; there's always room for 
improvement, but these two are near the top of the class. 
(Radio Shack, Nationwide, Words About Things (Vocabu- 
lary Tutor 1) is Cat. No. 26-2568. Words That Act (Vocabu- 
lary Tutor 2) is Cat. No. 26-2569. Each is $8.95 on cassette) 

—Stephanie Snyder 



162 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



THE STEREO COMPOSER 



THE VOICE 




The STEREO COMPOSER music synthesizer was developed for the true music 
lover. All the features available for the COMPOSER described below are also 
available f orthe STEREO COMPOSER. However, instead of using the single 6 bit 
digital to analog converter built into the computer and the speaker built i nto your 
TV, the STEREO COMPOSER uses two 8 bit digital to analog converters which 
drive two audio power amplifiers. These amplifiers supply enough audio power 
to easily drive your own external speakers. If you like, the output may be con- 
nected to your home stereo system to further increase fidelity. Connection is 
provided by two phono connectors. If the music is too loud, two built-in volume 
controls are provided to allowyou to control the volume of each of the channels 
separately. The advantage of being able to use external high quality speakers is 
obvious. The use of higher quality digital to analog converters serves to further 
increase music fidelity. 

The STEREO COMPOSER produces music in stereo. Ofthe4 voices produced, 2 
are directed to each channel. This ability alone increases the realism of the 
music. You can even move the voices between speakers as the music plays. 

The STEREO COMPOSER comes assembled, tested, burned in, with all the 
software and hardware to allow you to immediately start enjoying your music. A 
complete manual and examples are provided to give you everything you need to 
know. 

The STEREO COMPOSER is completely memory decoded so it does not conflict 
with the Radio Shack disk controller. In this way, disk owners with an expansion 
interface such as the BT-1 000 by Basic Technology can produce music from dtsk 
with the STEREO COMPOSER in one slot and the disk controller in another In 
fact, you can even have THE VOICE in another slot without any fears that there 
will be memory conflicts. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 
Specify Cassette or Disk 

STEREO COMPOSER (Hardware and Software) $119.95 




THE COMPOSER 




The COMPOSER is a 4 voice music compiler which easily allows one to develop 
high quality music. Each voice is programmed separately. In addition, each 
voice uses its own waveshape table which means a unique sound for each of the 
4 voices. 

The COMPOSER features a 7 octave range. It supports dotted and double dotted 
notes as well as eighth, quarter, and standard triplet notes. Sixteenth and thirty 
second notes are also supported. 

The COMPOSER allows the music to be played at any tempo and in any key. And 
believe it or not, the tempo and key can be modified as the music plays. This 
gives the user tremendous versatility in developing music. Key modification also 
allows the user to move the music up or down one or more octaves. 

The COMPOSER displays a constantly changing random kaleidoscope pattern 
as the music plays. In addition, the number of the note being played is displayed 
which aids one in finding sour notes during music development. Both of these 
displays can be disabled to allow any screen to be displayed while the music is 
playing. In this way, one can show the words to a song or display a picture as the 
music plays. 

The COMPOSER develops a machine language position independent sub- 
routine that can be Saved, Loaded, and Executed independent of all other 
software. This means that you can share your music with friends. In fact, you can 
write your own BASIC programs that call and play the music. Software vendors 
may include the music in their own product. 

The COMPOSER is menu d riven making it extremely easy and friendly to use and 
operate. A thick operating manual is also provided. Many examples are given to 
aid the user in getting started. All you need is provided, no additional hardware is 
necessary. Don't let the price fool you, the COMPOSER has got to be heard to be 
appreciated. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 

CASSETTE VERSION $24.95 

DISK VERSION (32K) $29.95 




SPEECH SYSTEMS got its start providing high quality speech synthesizers for 
SS-50 bus computers. We are now proud to announce the same high quality 
product for the Color Computer and TDP-100. 

THE VOICE should not be mistaken with software speech synthesizers which 
require the computer to do all the work in producing speech. 

THE VOICE uses a special large scale integrated circuit, the SC-01 by VOTRAX, 
to reproduce any one of 64 phonemes at4 inflections. Phonemes are basic units 
of speech which allow one to reproduce any word in English as well as many 
other languages. 

THE VOICE has two outputs. Speech may be heard through the user's TV 
speaker, or the built-in audio power amplifier may be connected to your own 
external speaker. A phono connector is provided for this purpose and if the 
volume is too high, a built-in volume control may be used to adjust it to the 
proper level. 

THE VOICE comes assembled, tested, burned in, with all the necessary 
hardware and software. A complete manual with many examples are provided to 
get you started in developing your own BASIC or machine language programs to 
use speech. 

THE VOICE is completely memory decoded so it does not conflict with the Radio 
Shack d isk controller. In this way, d isk owners with an expansion interface such 
as the BT-1000 by Basic Technology can produce speech from disk with THE 
VOICE in one slot and the disk controller in another. In fact, you can even have 
the STEREO COMPOSER in another slot without any fears that there will be 
memory conflicts 

We are trying to develop a library of software forTHE VOICE. Toward this end, we 
will be offering substantial royalties to software authors for their work. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 
Specify Cassette or Disk 

THE VOICE (Hardware and Software) $179.95 



HOW TO ORDER 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA, and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling for all products in the 
continental US and Canada 



Shipping and handling for all products outside the 
continental US and Canada 



COD charge (requires cash, certified check, or 
money order) 



$2.00 
.$5.00 
.$2.00 



Illinois residents purchasing the STEREO COMPOSER or THE VOICE please add 
5 1 /4% sales tax. 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



SPECIALISTS IN SYNTHESIZERS 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER AND TDP-100. 



It Si 



peecn ^judtemA 

38W255 DEERPATH ROAD 
BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 

(312) 879-6880 



RAINBOW 



CALL ANY DAY, ANYTIME TO ORDER. YOU MAY ALSO ORDER BY MAIL. 



CoCo COUNSEL 



Got 

Get 






rog ra m • 




M 



ar 



ket! 



By lorn Nelson 



Springtime! The creative spirit, welcome or not, has 
invaded our bodies. It's time to get the lead out and 
make that great idea into a best-selling program. To 
those of you with ihat affliction, I offer a discussion of 
considerations f or making that program a block-buster. My 
approach this month will not be so much legal as it will be a 
mixture of common sense and experience. 

Programs, programs, programs- There are many kinds of 
programs you can write and, maybe, sell. Before writing, 
however, you must first caref ully research to determine what 
you should write. After all, there are some things that just 
won't sell. 

So where do you start researching? You start with the 
computer for which you intend to write. You have to find 
out a number of things about the computer: How many are 
there on the market; how many will there be; and, how long 
will this computer be "viable,"* i.e., how many years will it be 
around? You must also assess the technological status of the 
computer. Is it old technology, or is it at the razor's edge? Do 
its features, including display, memory capacity and hard- 
ware expandability, meet the developing consumer needs 
and tastes, compared to those offered by other equivalent 
computers? None of these questions is easy to answer, but 
you at least have to make an educated guess and then 
compare your findings with the features of other competing 
computers. 

You next have to consider the market structure of the 
software industry associated with the computer, This 
includes the number and nature of the hardware and soft- 
ware houses, the software and hardware distribution net- 
work, and the packaging and pricing structure of the 
market. These considerations are very important since they 
control the number of units you can expect to sell and the 
price that you can command, 

(The information given in this article is not legal 
advice. If you have legal questions you should 
see competent legal counsel.) 



Let's look at the Color Computer in light of these essen- 
tially marketing questions. 1 don't know the number of units 
sold or to be sold, or the projected life span of the Color 
Computer. The TDP-100 is just now beginning to be dis- 
tributed, as is the Dragon-32 and the Sampo, a Japanese 
version. Also, it should be noted that Apple (tm) computers 
of 1978 vintage are still alive and well. As to the relative 
quality of the Color Computer, we all know that the Color 
Computer is an excellent computer, or we wouldn't own 
one, right'? Still, the prospective sof tware author must objec- 
tively compare its features to those of other similar compu- 
ters in light of both what they can really do and in light of 




164 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




^Computers produced ofter ap- 
proximately October, 1982 require 
on additional keyboard plug 
adapter — please add $4 L 95. 




• Affordable Price— Only $69.95. 

• A must have for all serious computerists. 

• Highest quality— U.S. made. 

• Direct replacement— same key layout 

• Professional appearance and operation. 

• Fast, simple installation. 

• Complete instructions included. 

• In stock now. 

AT YOUR FAVORITE DEALER OR DIRECT FROM 



Mark Data Products 



24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 226, MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 

We pay shtppingonall orders in the continental U,S,and Canada. Overseas add $500forshipptngandhandling. Foreign orders 
pjease remit U.S. funds, California residents, please add 6*'b sales tax We accent MasterCard and VISA. We are always looking 
for quality machine language programs Contact us f#r details. 



what the machines are perceived by the public as being able 
to do. How much memory will be a minimum requirement 
in the future, especially as people demand more and more 
"user friendly" programs which take more and more 
memory? What will be the future of bit-mapped graphics 
which also requires memory and a fast microprocessor to 
process the screen so that it is updated to a tolerable speed? 
What degree of resolution and sound will b6 expected by the 
consumer? These and many other questions must be a part 
of your objective analysis. 

The distribution network is also well worth considering. 
The Color Computer presently is sold primarily through 
Radio Shack stores, although the TDP-100 and the Dragon- 
32 are being sold in other outlets. Until very recently, Radio 
Shack stores were not allowed to sell or recommend soft- 
ware from outside authors, nor were outside vendors 
allowed to sell Radio Shack computers. Tandy has recently 
opened somewhat its software marketing policies, soliciting 
submissions from independent developers to judge whether 
it will allow the software to be recommended to Radio 
Shack customers. These programs will not be marketed by 
Radio Shack; Radio Shack merely allows them to be 
recommended to customers. Of course Tandy, like all soft- 
ware houses, will always give submissions consideration for 
potential license or purchase. Thus, if you feel that your 
program is what they're looking for, don't hesitate to submit 
the program for purchase, license or recommendation. 

If Radio Shack will not distribute your program, how do 
you get it sold? Outside of the Radio Shack outlets, a distri- 



bution network is growing somewhat because of the TDP- 
100 and the Dragon-32. Software houses are increasing in 
number and distributors are slowly beginning to become 
interested in the Color Computer. Still, this distribution 
network is very immature compared to that of other compu- 
ters. Do not go into the effort required to create a program 
without considering how it will be marketed and how many 
people can be reached through the distribution network. 

Closely related to the question of the technological status 
of the computer is the question of the programming lan- 
guage the computer uses. Before going on with this discus- 
sion, I must say the obvious. To be salable, most kinds of 
programs will have to be written in machine language. This 
is primarily mandated by two things: memory and speed. 
Machine language is much, much faster than the alternative 
for the Color Computer, BASIC. Also, machine language 
programs take up a fraction of the memory used by BASIC, 
The Color Computer currently comes in two models, a 16K 
and a 32K. (64K is also available with some modifications to 
the other computers, and Tandy must surely be working on 
a 64K model by now.) Since many people own 16K 
machines, to sell well, programs must be workable in 16K 
machines. These memory constraints absolutely require that 
machine language be used for programs of any great size or 
complexity. There are also the considerations of program 
protection, flexibility and total control of the system. Thus, 
only very limited applications allow the use of BASIC. In 
reality, the customer also expects the speed and quality 
associated with machine language programs. 



In Texas, Orders, 
Questions & Answers 
1-713-392-0747 




INDUSTRIES, INC. 

2251 1 Katy Freeway 
Katy (Houston), Texas 77450 



To Order 
1-800-231-3680 
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JOE McMANUS 
pi 



1454* 



166 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



The Color Computer uses 6809 machine language 
(assembly language). You must consider the value of learn- 
ing 6809 assembly language, and the routines particular to 
the input and output specifications of the Color Computer, 
versus the assembly languages and routines of competing 
computers. What languages are similar? You also must con- 
sider the feasibility of transferring your programs to other 
computers to broaden your customer base. How many 
"popular" 6809 computers are there, and what are the simi- 
larities of their configurations, versus, say, machines based 



"To be salable, most kinds of pro- 
grams will have to be written in 
machine language. This is primarily 
mandated by two things: memory and 
speed. 



on the 6502 or 8086? Since you now own a Color Computer, 
you probably are aware of the number of machines based on 
the 6809 chip. You should assess the transferability of your 
program and the breadth of your potential customer base. 

Many programmers become tied to a particular kind of 
microprocessor, and there are good reasons for this. Most 
assembly language programmers pref er to program the 6809 



over the 6502 because of its greater flexibility. Although this 
is a good reason to choose to program a 6809 over a 6502 for 
your personal use and pleasure, it should not be a limitation 
on your choice of computer. For example, perhaps the 
Z8000 chip is the easiest and "funnest" chip to program 
ever — I really don't know if it is or isn't — but how many 
machines are there with the Z8000 chip? Your new word 
processor written in Z8000 may not sell more than a hand- 
ful. You must be flexible if you are going to make the right 
choice. 

Once you have decided on your computer, you have to 
decide on the type of program to create and how exactly to 
create it. Of course, the type of computer you have chosen 
will dictate to some extent the kind of program you will 
develop. Some computers are primarily "game" machines. 

The language to use has already been discussed. Of 
course, you also must choose the right type of program to 
create. This is done by carefully assessing the market before 
taking the plunge. You must look at what is already availa- 
ble, generally and specifically, and, most importantly, what 
do your potential customers really want. 

This last question is very important. All programmers get 
caught up to some extent, after a while, programming what 
they themselves like or feel is important, as limited by the 
constraints of the machines. This is a very logical way to 
develop programs for yourself, but the public is not, and 
cannot be, so limited in its expectations. Your buyer will 
not, nor should he or she, understand the limitations or 
special capabilities of the computer; he or she usually will 





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June, 1983 the RAINBOW 167 



not be deeply schooled in the subtleties of the area covered 
by the program. What the purchaser has are legitimate 
expectations of what a product should be, expectations 
often created by playing dedicated arcade games or working 
with other larger computers. These expectations, however, 
based on more powerful computers or dedicated game 
machines, cannot be ignored. The programmer who creates 
the greatest program of its kind in the world, making use of 
every capability of the Color Computer to the fullest, but 
without finding out and implementing the features that the 
consumer feels are important is likely to lose to the less 
meticulous programmer who has determined the customer's 
wants and actual needs and adequately responded to them. 
This point cannot be overemphasized. 

As to particular kinds of programs to develop, you must 
first assess what kinds of programs you like to write, and 
have sufficient experience to write. If you have trouble 
filling out your own tax returns, and hate every minute of it, 
a tax preparation program is not for you. Within this 
framework, you must assess the marketability of particular 
types of programs. Should you create another Donkey 



"A 11 programmers get caught up to 
some extent, after a while, pro- 
gramming what they themselves 
like or feel is important, as limited 
by the constraints of the machines. 
This is a very logical way to 
develop programs for yourself , but 
the public is not, and cannot be, so 
limited in its expectation. 99 



Kong? Aside from the copyright violation problems, what of 
the market. How many kong-alikes are there, and what 
chance have you got of convincing a dealer to sell yours 
rather than that which his or her customers are asking for? 
Of course, if you avoid "knocking off" a game or other 
program, you have to assess the likelihood that you can sell 
it to a possibly saturated public. You still have to compete 
with the kong-alikes and the pac-alikes for the purchaser's 
dollar for games, for instance. Still, we're all waiting for 
more and better utilities and games. Software is always 
getting better, and the new blood and ideas are what will 
make it so. 

If you have decided to develop a game, great! Games are 
always an area for rewards. There's also the chance that you 
will hit it big. There are several things you must consider in 
developing a game. First, games are low ticket items with 
very high marketing costs. They cannot be sold for a lot of 
money, but it costs quite a bit to sell them. Therefore, if your 
program proves to be a small seller, the profits will be very 
small. Moreover, games, although good sellers all year 
round, sell best just before and after Christmas. Thus, you 
may want to time the introduction of your program just 
before the Christmas season rather than in April. Another 
aspect is that games are more and more a fad item. A few 
nationally advertised games are of interest and the others 



have a hard time competing. The temptation to "knock off" 
a copy of a nationally popular game is great, and frequently 
succumbed to, with obvious potential legal consequences. 
Even if you choose to create a new game, the games played in 
arcades have set the standard for quality and consumer 
expectations. You must, therefore, do a real quality job on 
your game so that your customer's expectations are satis- 
fied. Even with all this, games can be very profitable and can 
be very fun to write, so good luck. 

Utilities, such as word processors, on the other hand, do 
not sell like games since purchasers usually must have peri- 
pherals such as a printer and maybe a disk drive to use them. 
Many, maybe most, Color Computer owners do not fall into 
this category. Moreover, utilities sell best if part of a pack- 
age of compatible software. You might therefore consider 
looking f or a niche in the utility market not satisfied by other 
software authors. Still, good quality utilities of all kinds are 
always needed and welcomed by the consumer. 

Once you have decided on what kind of program you wish 
to create, you have to decide how you are going to market it. 
This will strongly influence how you will write the program. 
Up until now, the assumption has been that you will be 
sending the program off to some software house so they can 
assume the marketing costs and you can reap the royalties. 
Don't forget that you can also market the program yourself 
and join the ranks of software houses. Welcome to the 
crowd. Self -marketing brings its own problems which, 
although not discussed here, must be dealt with. 

In whatever manner you intend to market your program, 
be prepared for work, hard work. Contrary to popular 
belief, programming is extremely hard and complicated, 
especially the final 10 percent of the program. The concept 
and initial programming can be relatively easy. It is the 
finishing touches which are time consuming and frustrating. 
Many of us have several "almost done" programs laying 
around which we will "get to real soon." The truth is that the 
work to finish, really finish, these programs, is what takes 
stamina. Once you think you are done, you must let novices 
try out your program and criticize it. Your "done" program 
soon develops bugs only the new user could find. Moreover, 
some of the criticisms are more substantial, such as that 
game that you have been slaving over f or the last six months 
is boring to play I Now what do you do? You should always 
plan in this kind of revision. And those bugs must be fixed. 
Sure, you can get used to this glitch or that bug, but the 
purchaser shouldn't have to. Bugs, like cockroaches, will 
never be eliminated from the face of this earth, but if your 
program has too many, your customer will get the itch to go 
elsewhere, and a software house will look askance. As best, 
the sale of your program will be delayed because you failed 
to do the whole job. Therefore, you have to be a very harsh 
critic of your own work, a perfectionist. It's either you 
kicking yourself or your customers doing it for you, over 
and over and over. 

These are some of the basics you must consider when 
developing your software. I hope that this discussion has 
provided some food for thought. Your work is cut out for 
you, but properly planned, you will reap the rewards of hard 
work and success. 

In my next column, I will discuss the submission of soft- 
ware to a software house from a practical and legal stand- 
point. Until then, good luck with your programming. 



168 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




i 




* 




} •: 



Micronix 

Proudly Introduces Our New 

Premium Keyboard for your 

Color Computer 

All the features of our popular 
Professional Keyboard: 

* No gluing, soldering, or cutting — plugs right in 

* Four function keys complete the matrix 

* High quality construction assures years of 
trouble-free operation 

* Complete documentation included 

PLUS these exciting new features: 

* Attractive low profile 

'II * Extended Radio Shack layout 

* Silk-smooth feel — 
uses ALPS keyswitches 

Our Versakey software enhances 
f the keyboard's utility 

* Auto-repeat, n-key rollover and 
type-ahead 

* FI becomes DEFINE, 
F4 becomes CTRL 

* May define up to 128 keys (including 
their SHIFT, CTRL, and SHIFT-CTRL 
combinations) as strings of up to 80 
characters each. 

* Supplied on cassette, may be copied to disk 





"Have Josie ship yours toiay!" 



The Premium Keijboarcl $89.95 

The Professional Keyboard $69,95 

Versakey software $9.95 

Both keyboards carry a 90-day limited warranty. 

Please specify your computer's PC board type if known. Otherwise, specify the complete catalog number 
and serial number. 

Micronix Systems Corporation 

# 7 Gibraltar Square 
St. Charles, MO 63301 
(314) 441-1694 

Terms: Prepaid check or money order, Mastercard or Visa. 
Shipping Charges: U.S. $2.00, Canada $5.00, COD $3.50 {No COD 1 s to Canada), 



INSIMB: Helpful 
ML Programming Tool 

Computer hobbyists tend to be almost fanatical about 
their machines. Color Computer owners are no exception. 
Most of us have seen or participated in rather heated discus- 
sions that revolve around the 6809 microprocessor being 
superior to a Z-80 or 6502. Without a doubt, the best way to 
win an argument of this nature is to develop a real apprecia- 
tion of how the CoCo works and how its 6809 brain thinks. 
To do this requires an understanding of the microproces- 
sors' native language — machine code. 

In learning machine language, there are several pro- 
gramming tools which are helpful and sometimes absolutely 
necessary. These tools are not built into the Color Computer 
but must be added in the form of software. 

INSIMB is one of these tools which can be used to learn 
the operation of the 6809. INSIMB is described as a 
"machine code instruction simulator." It is used to write and 
debug hexidecimal machine code programs. 



INSIMB allows the following primary functions: 

M — Memory examine and change. This allows you to 
examine and change the hex code stored in memory. The 
machine language program being examined is either read 
into the computer before executing INSIMB ox is entered 
one instruction at a time in hex code using this command. 

D — Disassemble code. This is a mini-disassembler 
which decodes the hex numbers stored in memory into 
the microprocessor command code mnemomics. 

R/ C - Display the contents of the simulated 6809 regis- 
ters. Allows you to change the registers. 

P — Allows protection of a portion of memory so that 
it cannot be accidentally written to or executed by the 
simulator. 

S/ G/ J — Single step(S) or continuously (G) simulate 
execution of a specified amount of code. With the "J" 
option the value in each of the 6809 registers are dis- 
played after each program step. This is the heart of the 
program. Combined with the allowed "breakpoints" you 
can examine in detail the execution of machine code. This 
is useful in learning how the code works as well as trying 
to debug a program. 

An additional feature allows the output of the disas- 
sembler or simulation to go to either the screen or the 
printer. 

Although this program is referred to as an "instruction 
simulator," it provides most of the functions commonly 
found in a monitor. The disassembler and the ability to 
single step through the execution of a program are not 
always found in a typical monitor. There are a few short- 
comings as well, the most obvious is the inability to load and 
save code from within the program. This requires you to hit 
the reset button to go to BASIC in order to save or load a 
routine. Also, the simulation of a program is very slow. To 
give you a feel for it's speed (or lack of), a short routine to 
clear the screen by loading &H8E into the text screen 
addresses is instantaneous (i.e., less than one second) if 
executed as a normal ML routine. The same routine simu- 
lated using the "G" option takes about four minutes. 

INSIMB is a relocatable machine language utility which 
requires a Color Computer with at least 16K. It works with 
disk or tape. INSIMB normally loads at &H0600, you need 
to offset load it by &H1000 when using disk. It uses about 
8K memory — this is a lot considering that a 'typical' monitor 
often uses less than 2K. The documentation which comes 
with this program is quite marginal. It describes each of the 
functions provided, but could spend more time with a gen- 
eral overview. In fact, given a better description I may have 
gotten a warmer feeling for the advantages of an instruction 
simulator over a monitor/ debugger. 

The bottom line here is that the very detailed examination 
of machine language program execution and the level of 
debugging achieved by INSIMB trade off against its slow 
speed and large memory requirements. If you already own a 
monitor/ debugger, this program may not contribute much 
additional utility. If you're thinking about learning machine 
language, this may be the place to start, but be aware that 
with this program you write hex code directly, and not the 
wordlike mnemonics used with an assembler. 

(B.C. Engineering, P.O. Box 768, Manchester MI 63011, 

$39.95) 

—Thomas Szlucha 



T 



C.C.Calc *25 

Our own Electronic Spreadsheet for the Color Computer is a 
very sophisticated but easy to use planning tool. 
"Iipressive... just right for the casual user... a rial 
worksaver..." (Rainbow, Feb' 83). 32K Cas. or Disk. 
C.C-Fil* *7 
A nifty little data base package with lots of uses. "Hy 
favorite electronic notebook 1 (Scott Nonan, 80 Micro 
April' 83) and just $7 for both Cassitti and Disk. 
C. C. Writer *30 
"Sieple and straightforward to use* (Color Computer 
Magazine, April '83) but includes right justification, 
global couands, file chaining, multiple copies, etc. 
Works with any printer. 16-32K Cas, 32K Disk. 
C. C. Mailer *20 
Hailing list data base for CoCo and any printer. 4 Star 
Rating (80 Hicro, Jan'83). Froe 90 to over 1000 records 
depending on your systei. The C.C.Herger option eerges 
Naie and Address with C.C. Writer letters. Up to 4 line 
Address. Disk or Cassette. Kith C.C.Herger-$25 



194 Lockwood 
Bl oomi ngdal e, IL 60108 



170 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



A WORD FROM THE SPONSOR 

Number five in these chats, and it is still too early to judge the 
results in our Name the Column contest. But I have received some 
excellent entries, and will have the winner next month. Stay tuned. 

At this point, I'd like to thank a few more magazines for giving our 
products great reviews in the past few months — in March, Color 
Computer News reviewed NEWTALK and Rainbow reviewed 
REMOTERM, while in April 80 Micro reviewed STAR-DOS. They 
all loved them . . . naturally. 

This month I thought you might be interested in some of my 
cassette procedures. 

While a number of outfits make leaderless computer cassettes, I 
distrust them. From my audio days, I know that the beginning and 
end of a reel-to-reel or cassette tape tend to get crinkled and 
develop dropouts. This can destroy a program copy, and so I 
wouldn't use the beginning of a leaderless tape anyway. In that case, 
why pay extra for leaderless tape when you don't use it? 

Instead, I buy 10-minute C-10 cassettes. These cassettes are 
available from a variety of sources, and cost about 50 to 80 cents 
each. I prefer to use one cassette per program, rather than put 
many programs on one tape and then have to search for them. 

All of these tapes have a leader, and so when you use them you 
must be careful not to record your program on the leader instead of 
the tape. Using fast forward to get past the leader may leave a bit of 
an old program on the tape just before the new one, and CoCo will 
have trouble separating them. Instead, my method is to do the 
following: First, make sure the tape is fully rewound. Then place 
the recorder in RECORD, and type the command MOTOR ON on 
the computer. This starts the recorder motor, so that you are 
recording although the computer is not yet writing anything to tape. 
This erases the beginning of the tape. In the meantime, type your 
CSAVE or CSAVEM command, but do not hit ENTER until you 
see that the tape is well past the leader. I usually give it about ten 
seconds before typing ENTER. This procedure not only makes sure 
that I get past the leader, but also guarantees that there is blank 
space before the program to make reading it easier. Works every 
time. 

For the disk users among you, I would like to announce two new 
products: STAR-DOS 64 and STAR FLEX. Both are disk 
operating systems for 64K computers. STAR FLEX is the famous 
FLEX system by Technical Systems Consultants, adapted for the 
CoCo, while STAR-DOS 64 is our own STAR-DOS, but modified 
for 64K computers. Both come with high resolution screens and 
have many features for the more advanced disk user. STAR FLEX 
is, of course, compatible with the large amount of software 
developed over the years for FLEX systems. STAR-DOS 64 will 
also run much of that software, but its big advantage (besides the 
fact that it is cheaper) is that its disk format is the same as Radio 
Shack's. 

If you do not have a 64K system, then by all means consider the 
original STAR-DOS. The upgrade from STAR-DOS to STAR-DOS 
64 is just the price difference between the two, so you can upgrade 
at any time. (But before getting any DOS for your CoCo, read our 
February advertisement!) 

That's it for this month. Until June, just remember: On a Clear 
Disk, You Can Seek Forever. 



SPELL 'N FIX 

Regardless of whose text processor you use, let SPELL 'N FIX find 
and fix your spelling and typing mistakes. It reads text faster than 
you can, and spots and corrects errors even experienced 
proofreaders miss. It is compatible with all Color Computer text 
processors. $69.29 in the Radio Shack disk or cassette versions; 
$89.29 in the Flex version. (20,000 word dictionary is standard; 
optional 75,000 word Super Dictionary costs $50 additional.) 

HUMBUG — THE SUPER MONITOR 

A complete monitor and debugging system which lets you input 
programs and data into memory, list memory contents, insert 
multiple breakpoints, single-step, test, checksum, and compare 
memory contents, find data in memory, start and stop programs, 
upload and download, save to tape, connect the Color Computer to 
a terminal, printer, or remote computer, and more. HUMBUG on 
disk or cassette costs just $39.95, special 64K version for FLEX or 
STAR-DOS 64 costs $49.95. 

STAR-DOS 

A Disk Operating System specially designed for the Color 
Computer, STAR-DOS is fully compatible with your present Color 
Computer disk format — it reads disks written by Extended Disk 
Basic and vice versa. STAR-DOS for 16K or 32K systems costs 
$49.90; STAR DOS 64 for 64K systems costs $74.90. 

STAR FLEX 

The best implementation of FLEX for the Color Computer. 
Complete with all utilities, text editor, macro assembler, and 
HUMBUG debug monitor, $250.00. 

ALL IN ONE — Editor Etc. 

Three programs in one — a full function Editor, a Text Processor 
and a Mailing List/Label program. All this for just $50. Requires 
STAR- DOS and 32K, or STAR-DOS 64, or FLEX, specify which. 

DBLS for Data Bases 

DBLS stands for Data Base Lookup System. A super-fast system 
for searching for a selected record in a sequential disk file. Supplied 
with SPELL 'N FIX's 20,000 word dictionary as a sample data file — 
lets you look up the spelling of any word in under FOUR seconds. 
Priced at $29.95. Requires STAR-DOS. 

CHECK 'N TAX 

Home accounting package combines checkbook maintenance and 
income tax data collection. Written in Basic for either RS Disk or 
Flex, $50. 

REMOTERM 

REMOTERM — makes your CoCo into a host computer, operated 
from a remote terminal. $19.95. 

NEWTALK 

NEWTALK — a memory examine utility for machine language 
programmers which reads out memory contents through the TV 
set speaker. $20. 

SHRINK 

SHRINK — our version of Eliza, in machine language and 
extremely fast. $15. 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

Introduction to Numerical Methods — college level course on 
computer math, $75.00. 

We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY State 
residents please add appropriate sales tax. 



1 **Xk*c S4omr(<^ 



Star-Kits 



P.O. BOX 209 - R 
MT. KISCO, N.Y. 10^49 
(914) 241 0287 




CPP Does It With Style 
(And In Color, Too) 



Being the adventurous type, 1 decided to buy the 
Radio Shack Color Graphics Printer as soon as 1 
could get my hands on one. It seemed to me, at the 
time, to be a logical extension of the capabilities of 
my CoCo. After all, if my computer could produce 
nice colorful displays, why shouldn't my printer be 

able to do the same thing? Maybe 1 haven't 
been trying hard enough, but 1 have yet to get my 

CGP-1 1 5 to produce anything other than cute drawings and 
colorful listings. Every time 1 thought that 1 would sell it, 1 
always figured that I would eventually teach myself how 





exactly to program it. The other day, a review assignment 
arrived from the Rainbow, Now I'm glad 1 kept it. 

Color Picture Plotter, CP Pi or short, is a utility program 
designed to produce color pictures on the CGP-1 15 plotter. 
Aside from the obvious, it also has several additional fea- 
tures that provide flexibility in deciding how the pictures 
should be produced. 



FLY AN F-161 

Very Realistic 
Instrument Flight 

Fully Instrumented 
Beginner or Expert 



32K cassette $19.95 disk $21.95 



KRT Software 

P.O. Boot 41395 . 9t. 



( 113 > -121-2140 
, fL 3370 . 



CPP is written in BASIC with machine language sub- 
routines. It uses the Auto Run loader(by Sugar Software), 
and is therefore started with a CL0A DM. It will produce a 
three-color picture from a Pmode 3 screen, and it is recom- 
mended to use color set 1 for best results. In order to 
accommodate the full screen, the picture is drawn length- 
wise by rotating the screen image f I degrees to the left. 
Drawing is done one color at a time, and it is sort of like 
watching a Polaroid picture develop. The time it takes to 
print a picture varies considerably. A simple picture, with 
only two colors, can be printed in 10-15 minutes. A more 
complex one, with three colors (not counting the back- 
ground color), can take an hour or more. 

The first thing that C^asks is whether youhavea tape or 
a disk system. It then asks if you would like to print alternate 
lines. This allows you to choose a high density picture, with 
each horizontal line plotted twice, or a low density picture, 
withevery other line plotted once. Although thehigh density 
mode produced the best results, 1 found the low density 
mode to be very good, and used it most of the time because 
of the additional time required in the high density mode, 

Another nice feature of CPP is the ability to make up to 
nine copies of your picture if it is already in memory. The 
way you do this is to first run your program, Break it, and 
then run CPP. You can also load a picture in from tape. If 
youselect this option, you are asked how many files areto be 
printed. Using this feature, you can save several pictures to 
tape, and then print them one right after the other. Due to 
the printing speed of the CGP-1 15, you can enjoy a nice 
night out on the town while printing your collection often or 
so pictures. 

CP Pis a great utility that is not only unique, but very easy 
to use. The documentation explains everything you need to 
know in order to run it, except for how to save your pictures 
to tape. It also comes with a sample picture of the American 
flag, so you can check it out as soon as you load it. If you 
own a CGP-1 15 plotter, and would like to add some color to 
your life, make out your check now and run straight to the 
Post •ffice. Also, while you are oui, don't forget to pick up 
some new pens for your plotter. You will need them. 

(All-Amcrican Ultralight Industries, 1144 Kingston Lane, 

Ventura, C A 93001, $14.*5 on tape) 

— Gerry Schcchter 



172 the RAINBOW June, 1983 





NEW 

for your 
COLOR 
COMPUTER 



Switchable Expansion Is Here 



CoCo HAS A COMPANION!! 

GOOD NEWS Switch over to more versatility with the new 
BT-2f#0 COMPANION, Save CoG)*s connector with the best 
COMPANION it will ever have. 

• Load 5 cartridges into the COMPANION and avoid the hassles 
while enjoying the benefits of push-button selection. 

• Push a Button or select from your keyboard to turnon one of your 
5 selections. Handy indicator lights let you know at a glance which 
cartridge is connected. 

• No More Turn-Offs. Just switch to the next cartridge in your 
COMPANION, Push a button to Restart without turning off the 
power. 

• Plug-in. Fill one to five slots for flexible programming, game 
playing or both. Choose ROM Packs, serial ports, parallel ports, or 
disk drives. Then do what you like to dobest. The most powerful 
and cost effective expansion you will find for just $249.95. 

FOR THE ADVANCED USER OR 
EXPERIMENTER 

• The utmost in expansion power and versatility is the BT-1000 
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8 ITS MID 8VTES OF 8RSIC 



Developing A 

Program 



In previous articles we looked at data input from key- 
board and files and data output to files. A next obvious 
step is to discuss data output to the screen and printer. I 
was considering what examples would make a good article 
when another idea presented itself. I was working a local 
bulletin board and had a message typed in and nearly ready 
to save when the phone connection was lost, along with the 
message. There are advantages to composing messages off- 
line when the terminal package being used supports sending 
preloaded files a line at a time. An ASCII file can be loaded 
into COLORCOM/E and sent in this way. To do this, one 
would not need a full word processor, and it might be fun to 
try writing one for preparing messages for bulletin boards. 
Besides, the project would provide some good examples for 



"Message entry and editing on most 
bulletin boards are grim at best. Line 
lengths are limited, generally to 64 
characters, and the number of lines in a 
single message are limited. 99 



"Bits and Bytes." Let's call it Communications Word Pro- 
cessor or COMMWP for filing. 

The next idea was to write the first draft of the columns 
while the program was being written. The objective was to 
provide a more complete discussion of both the codeand the 
thinking that went into it. Thinking has to start with what a 
program is to do. What are the needs and what restrictions 
must be observed? 

Message entry and editing on most bulletin boards are 
grim at best. Line lengths are limited, generally to 64 charac- 
ters, and the number of lines in a single message are limited. 
Message entry is line at a time, and don't make the line too 
long or it will be chopped in mid-word or rejected entirely. 
Editing is generally by retyping the entire line. Line length 
and number of lines restrictions are clear enough, and edit- 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

ing must be worlds better than retyping the line, so I made a 
list of needs and wants. 

1 ) Be configurable to different bulletin boards i n terms of 
number of lines and line lengths. 

2) Display lines used and lines left. As finally imple- 
mented, this became lines used and lines allowed. 

3) Allow user to scroll up or down through the message 
using the arrow keys. 

4) Edit or delete the bottom line displayed. 

5) Be able to insert new or copied line between others. 

6) The editor will be a phrase substitution type where the 
user types the material to be removed and then the new 
text. 

7) Provide word wrap so lines longer than the limit can be 
typed and the excess from the last space before the limit 
will be moved into an additional line or added to the 
next line as appropriate. This was expected to be tricky 
and I listed some additional thoughts for later reference. 

a. If we use LINE INPUT, very long lines can be 
entered and the program has to deal with these. 

b. The same goes for the insert mode. Will this be 
different from adding lines at the end of the 
message? Things like this need to be recognized 
early and dealt with before they force time wasting 
rewrites. 

c. What happens when a user edits an existing line to 
longer than the limit. Obviously, the program has 
to detect this and add the excess to the next line 
which then may become too long. 

8) In addition to arrow key control, how about other 
control keys like "T" for top of message, "B"for bottom 
of message and "G" to GOTO a particular line. "G" was 
not implemented due to screen space limits. 

9) We have mentioned copying a line. Combined with 
ability to delete messages we have a move function as 
well. 

10) We need a print routine so hard copy proofs and final 
drafts for file can be made. 

1 1) There should be a main menu to serve as the crossroads 
from printer to entry to cassette/ disk load and save. 

12) And lastly, there are the save and load routines which 
need to offer a cassette or disk option. 

I had written code for some of these functions for other 



174 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



programs and would need only to copy and modify. In other 
cases, new code would be written. And as the program 
develops, some limits will be encountered and opportunities 
recognized. Expect details of the plan to change. 

The next step is to convert our outline to program 
modules or sections and allocate blocks of line numbers to 
them. I like to deal in blocks of 50 or 100 lines to make it 
easier to remember what is where. It's easier to remember 
that input starts at 100 and edit starts at 200 than to 
remember lines like 120 and 175. Single use or infrequently 
used code goes to the end of the program so the Interpreter 
does not have to look through it all the time. Speed sensitive 



toron: forx-ito600: next: next: moto 

RDFF * END 

11000 pcleari:qoto2000 

In 2000, string space is cleared and A$(I) is dimensioned 
to 50. This means space is provided for 50 lines of text. Since 
bulletin boards typically allow 16 or 24 lines there will be 
ample space, unless you are preparing data for something 
like an IBM TSO system. Anyway, you know where the 
limits are defined and can easily change the program to meet 
your needs. Default values for characters per line, CL, and 



COMMWP MODULES AND NUMBER BLOCK ASSIGNMENTS 



Lines 


Module 


Comments 


5-99 


Subroutines 


Frequently called subroutines used by more than one routine 


100-199 


Enter Message 


Enter fines at bottom of message 


200-249 


Edit 


Phrase substitution editor 


250-299 


Insert 


Put new text between existing lines 


300-399 


Wordwrap 


Cut over limit text and add to next line 


400-500 


Delete 


Delete line and renumber those above 


500-600 


Copy 


Copy line into temporary variable and insert at new location 


600-700 


Printer 


Hard copy for proof or file 


900-1000 


Save/Load 


Disk or cassette option 


1000-1050 


Main Menu 


Select primary functional choices 


1050-1100 


Configuration 


Configure limits to specific bulletin board requirements 


2000-2100 


Initialization 


Read strings and enter key variables into table 


10000 


Auto-save 


Run past leader and save two copies to tape 


11000 


PCLEAR1 


Avoid SN Error 



Table 1 



sections and frequently used sections go to the beginning. I 
like commonly used subroutines to be between 5 and 99 with 
the main routines starting at 100. You can see these rules 
play out in Table 1. 

This table turned out to be very handy during program 
development and you should have numerous occasions to 
refer to it if you follow the text closely. I will try to avoid 
repeating what is in the tableexcept to elaborate or reinf orce 
the information. 

The first thing I put in was the initialization, auto-save 
and PCLEAR 1 code. For you newer owners, there is a bug 
in Extended BASIC that produces an SN ERROR if you 
PCLEAR to a smaller number than currently set at the 
beginning of a program. Putting PCLEAR 1 in the last line 
of the program avoids this. 

0 GOTO 11000 

2000 CLE AR5000 : D I MA* ( 50 ) 

2010 cl-64:lm»16:a-0:b-0:k-0 

2100 GOTO 1000 



lines per message, LM, are defined in 2010 along with A, B, 
and K which were entered when the delete section was 
written. The program now moves on to the main menu. 

Screen formatting was one of the hardest things for me to 
get a handle on. The objective is to provide a neat text 
arrangement that is readily understood and to which the 
user can easily respond. Ours will use PRINT@ X, and the 
";" which holds the cursor at the end of the last character 
printed. There are 512 locations for "X" where printing can 
start on CoCo's screen. Zero is the upper left hand corner. 
Then count across to the upper right hand corner which is 
31. That's 32 characters or printing positions on the line. 
Computers like to start with zero even if people don't. The 
second line starts with 32 and continues to count up. There 
are charts showing the screen positions on page 277 of 
"Getting Started With Color Basic" and on the Nanos Sys- 
tem Reference Card. The last location on the screen is 5 1 1 at 
the bottom, right-hand corner. Now let's look at the menu 
code. 

1 000 CLS3 : PR I NTQ4 1 , 11 COMMUN I CAT I O 
NS" | : PRINT873, "WORD PROCESSOR " I : 
PRINT8109," VERSION 1.0 "|:PRIN 
Tai97,"nEW MESSAGE "|:P 
RINT8229, "CURRENT MESSAGE 
I 



10000 AUDIOON: INPUT "RUN PAST LEA 
DER Y/N"| I*: I F I *■ " Y " THENMOTORON : 
FORX-1TO6000: NEXT 

1 00 1 0 FORC- 1 T02 : CSAVE " COMMWP " : MO 



100S PR I NT826 1 , " bULLET I N BOARD L 



June, 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 75 



IliIT8 >> |:PRINTQ293p M pRINT MESSAGE 

"I : PR I NT 1 325, al sAVE /LOAD 
MESSAGE " I : FOR J-0TO0: Z*« I NKEY 

*: J- ( z*«" " > : next: z-instr < "NCBPS" 

p Z«> : IFZ-0THEN1000 



1010 ONZ GOTO 1020, 100,1030,600,9 



Screen graphics can be like a suit and tie. They add class 
and make the user more comfortable about the program. 
We will add a little special touch to our menus with different 
colored backgrounds and control printing, but not spend 
much extra time on code. The main menu should show 
program name, version, give the choices and hint how to 
select them, and perhaps report a f e w key pieces of inf orma- 
tion about work in progress. The last item might be lines 
used and lines available, but we will leave that for possible 
inclusion later. 

The above code centers the program name on the second 
and third lines, the version on the fourth line and then skips 
two lines to start choices. These are centered, justified left 
and have added space to square off the right side of the green 
text block on the blue background. Each choice starts with a 
different letter and is chosen by keying that letter. This is 
signaled by putting the selection letters in reverse video. 

Since single keystrokes make the choice, an INKEY% 
routine is the natural input statement. Credit Richard 
Metzler writing in the January 1983 80 US Journal, page 42, 
with the code in line 1005 to do this. In Microsoft BASIC, an 



NEW FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

GRAF PLOT 

HIGH RESOLUTION DATA GRAPHING 



assignment statement like (Z$="") that has equal values on 
both sides of the equal sign returns a — 1 for true. If values 
are not equal, a zero is returned. As long as no key is pressed, 
Z$=""and J is set to — 1. When the NEXTis encountered, J 
is incremented to zero which does not exceed the limit, zero, 
set after TO and the program loops back to have another 
look at INKEY%. When a key is pressed, Z$ equals some- 
thing, J is set to zero and then to +1 by NEXT, the limit is 
exceeded and the program goes on to the INSTR statement. 
An alternative is to use a subroutine and replace the code in 
1005 with a subroutine call. 



5 Z*-INKEY* :IF Z*> 
E RETURN 



THEN 5 ELS 



When a program uses numerous INKEY% inputs, the 
GOSUB 5 approach saves code at the expense of some 
clarity. For this program we will go for clarity, but you may 
choose to use the subroutine if you wish. The subroutine is a 
tad faster. You can prove this with the following test lines. 
RUN 100 then RUN 200 and note the slight difference. 
TIMER reports 1 / 60 seconds. 

100 TIMER-0 IFOR X-l TO 10 :GOSU 

B5 : NEXT: PRINT TIMER : END 

200 TIMER-0 :FOR X-l TO 10 :FOR 

J-0 TO 0 :z*»inkey« :J-(Z*- ,,M ) : 
next :next: : print timer :end 

Going back to line 1005, the Z$ is tested in the statement 
Z=/MST#("NCBPS",Z$) :IFZ=0 THEN 1000. If Z$ equals 
one of the letters in the string "NCBPS," the count up the 
string to that letter is assigned to Z. Otherwise, £=0 and we 
go back for another try. A valid choice yields a number 
between 1 and 5 which ON Z GOTO in 1010 can react to. 

1020 FORI-1TO50: A*(I)» M,, :NEXT: I- 

0: IH»0 



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1050 CLS3: PR I NT070, "BULLETIN BOA 
RD LIMITS" I : PR I NTS 166, " CHARACTER 
S/LINE "CL|:PRINT0198, "1INES/ME 
SSAGE "LM| :PRINT0230, "oK AS I 
S "| : FOR J-0TO0 : Z »- I N 

key*: J- < z*-" " ) : next: z-instr < m clo 

",Z*):ONZ GOTO 1060, 1070, 1080 

1055 GOTO 1050 

When New Message is chosen, line 1020 nulls the text 
strings, sets current line, I, to zero and does the same for 
lines in the message, IH. The user is given the option to reset 
the then-current characters per line and lines per message 
limits. Here a bit different method is used to handle the 
incorrect entry. ON Z GOTO does not respond to a zero so 
control goes to 1055 which loops back to 1050 for another 
try. 

1060 C»- ,,H :PRINT01G4, " " J : FORK" 
0TO1 : FORJ-0TO0: Z*« I NKEY*: J- ( Z**>" 
") :NEXT:PRINT01G4+K, Z*| :C«-C*+Z* 

: next: cl-val <c«) : GOTO1050 



176 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



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1070 c*- m " : print8216, " " i : fork- 
0to1 : forj-0to0: z«-inkey«: j- ( z*-" 
m > : ne x t : pr i ntq2 1 6+k , z*| : c«-c« + z * 
: next: lh-val <c«> : goto 1050 

If the user wants to change the number of characters per 
line, 1 060 is called. Its purpose is to erase the current charac- 
ters per line value from the screen and get two digits printing 
them as they are entered. The digits are added to form C$ 
and its value obtained by CL=VAL(C$). The program then 
loops back to 1 050 to give the user another choice. Line 1 070 
does the same thing for number of lines. 

1060 I F I H-0THEN 1 00ELSE I F I H >LM TH 
ENCLS3 : PR I NTS 1 66 9 11 CURRENT MESSA6 
E" I SPRINT8299, M HAS MORE LINES 11 
|:PRINT«232,"THAN LIMIT 8ET."|:P 
RINT8296," PRESS ANY KEY "|:PRIN 
T«326 f " TD CONTINUE "|:FORJ-0TO 
0: J- < INKEY*-" " ) : NEXT 

1 090 I - 1 : 6OSUB300 : 60T0 1 00 

When limits have been properly set, the user presses "O" 
for okay as is and the program goes to 1080. If this is a new 
message, IH will be zero and control goes to line 100 for 
message entry. If we are reconfiguring a current message to 
new limits for a different board, there may be too many lines 
or the lines may be too long. In the first case, the best we can 



do is to send a message that there are too many lines and let 
the user decide what to edit out. Here the user has the option 
to use the message as is and send it as two messages from the 
terminal package program. Finally, the Word wrap subrou- 
tine is called to check for overlength lines and correct them. 
This is the GOSUB 300 call. 

300 FORJ-I TOIH:F1-0:IFLEN(A«(J) 
XCL THENNEXT: RETURN 

305 F-INSTR(Fl+l f A*(J) f ■ ">:IFF< 
CL ANDF< >0THENF 1 -F : 8OTO305ELSEC* 
-RIGHT* (A* ( J) 9 LEN ( A* ( J > > -Fl ) : A* ( 
J)-LEFT*(A«(J) f Fl) 

Since Word wrap has been used, let's finish this month 
with a discussion of how it works. First, we need to check 
each line from I which does not have to be one, but is when 
we have reset board limits to the last line in the message, IH. 
That is what the FOR TO statement in 300 does. The varia- 
ble Fl must be reset for each new line tested. Then, if the 
length of the line is less than limits, the NEXT goes back f or 
another. The RETURN is there for when the last line of the 
message is found. If the line length is equal to or greater than 



"Screen graphics can be like a suit and 
tie. They add class and make the user 
more comfortable about the 
program. " 



CL, the limit, we go to 305. There, the program loops 
through the INSTR statement looking for either a space 
after the line length limit or a zero. In either case, the 
variable F carries the information while Fl holds the loca- 
tion of the last space found before the limit. If there are no 
spaces in the line, this code is in a world of hurt. We need to 
refine this for Version 1.1. Fl indicates where the excess to 
put into C$, a temporary variable, starts while the left hand 
portion is put back into A$(I). 

310 IFJ<IH ANDA*<J+1 )<> ,,M ANDLEFT 
* (A* < J+l ) f 1 ) <>" "THENA* ( J+l ) «C*+ 
,J "+A*<J+1> : NEXT: RETURN 

315 IFJ-IH THENA* CJ+U-C*: RETURN 

In line 3 10, we check if conditions are right to add C$ to 
the next line. First there must be a next line, then that line 
must not be a blank and lastly it must not start with a blank. 
These last two conditions may exist for message formatting 
purposes that should not be disrupted. If all is in order, C$ 
and a space are added to the beginning of the next line. The 
NEXT sends us back to line 300. If we are working with the 
last line of the message, a new line is created in line 315 and 



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178 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



J ARB 



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SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



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Eight 200 IMS 4116 Factory Prime Chips, 
16K Ram Button, and Upgrade Instruc- 
tions. No Soldering. 

$16.95 



• 16K/3XK 
MEMORY UPGRADE KIT 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips 
with Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, 
Bus Wire, and 32K Ram Button. Com- 
prehensive Instructions. Recommended 
for M D M or earlier, but may be used on 
"E". Only 9 simple solder connections to 
kit. None to computer. 
$25.95 



°*4K RAM CHIPS 

Eight 200 NS Factory Prime 64K RAM 
Chips. Allows you to upgrade "E" board 
easily. No soldering needed. 
$69.95 

^Installation of these items will void the 
Radio Shack warranty. Radio Shack is a 
trademark of the Tandy Corp 



WABASH DISKETTES 

$25.00 per box of 10 

DISK DOUBLER 

$12.95 



CoCo Chips 

Sam, Pia, CPU, Ext. Basic, 
and 1 . 1 Standard Available 



We carry products 
from many manufacturers. 
If you don't see it, ask. 



JARB 



i 

N 

C 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 
(619) 474-6213 



SHIPPING AND HANDLING: Printers 
and monitors add 3ft. Unless otherwise 
specified, all other orders $2.00 per order. 
California Residents add Wi sales tax. 



C$ put there. If C$ is larger than CL, the problem will need 
to be handled from the message entry mode. Here is another 
place for refinement in Version 1.1. 

320 FORJ1-IH TO I STEP-1 : A-VARPTR 
(At <J1) > : B-VARPTR ( A* (Jl+l > > : FORK 
-0TO4: POKEB+K, PEEK ( A+K> : NEXT: NEX 

t: ih-ih+i : A* < ji+i ) -c«: next 

Line 320 is the code to insert a new line between two 
existing ones. We start with the last line of the message, 
move its variable table listing up one and repeat the process 
moving up the message one line at a time until space above 
A$(I) is opened for the new line. The key thing to know when 
using variable pointer techniques is that any variable used 
must first have been defined and be in the variable table. 
A$(0) to A$(50) are there because of DIM A$(50) in 2000. 
We put K=0, A=0 and B=0 in 2010 for this purpose. If we 
had not done this and obtained A= VARPTR ( A$( J 1 )) then 
B=VARPTR (A$(J+l)), B would be entered into the varia- 
ble table, the listing for A$(J1) would move up to make 
room and A would become meaningless. Next, we can 
PEEK the five byte length and address for A$(J) and POKE 
it to A$(J+1) location. Finally the number of lines in the 
message is increased by one and C$ is put in A$(J+1), which 
is the same as A$(I+ 1 ) when the FOR TO NEXTloop for J 1 
is satisfied . NEXTsends us back t o line 300 1 o look again f or 
excess length lines. 

Anyone had enough for this month? I have, and TELE- 
WRITER is full. We have covered a lot of meaty material. 
The best way to digest it is to type in each piece and study 
how each works. The type in and test is the best debugging 
method anyway. Next month we will finish the program. 




Hebrew Utility Good, But 
Requires Programming Ability 

If you have ever had the desire or need to create Hebrew 
greeting cards or Hebrew calendars, flash cards, etc., this 
may be a program you might want to consider. Hebrew 
Bulletin Board by Computer Island, is written for 16K 
Extended BASIC and is intended to be used as a utility when 
Hebrew or both Hebrew and English is desired in a 
program. 

After loading it easily into my CoCo and RUNning it, I 
was able to see three examples of the way the program can be 
utilized. After reading the well written documentation, I 
found that in order to continue I needed to change a line in 
the program. The change enables the user to bypass the three 
demos and create his or her own material, allowing 200 lines 
of original programming. It quickly became evident that, in 
order to use this program, the user must have considerable 
knowledge of programming. Each letter or series of letters 
must be placed on the screen with a DRA W statement, 
which must include X and Y coordinates, where the letters 
are to begin and at least, in the first line of programming, the 
color, rotation and size of the letters must be set. Finally, the 
STRINGS representing the letters are added to the line. 
Although it might seem complicated to the novice, it's not. 
With some practice, it's not too difficult, but very time 
consuming. Since Hebrew is written from right to left and 
English from left to right, care must be taken not to let the 
letters crash. 

In running my completed program, I found the Hebrew 
letters (in PMODE 4) to be accurate representations of the 
accepted alphabet. I did however have difficulty lining up 
the vowels under the appropriate letter. It seems that after 
three consecutive vowels, they begin to move left, eventually 
winding up under the wrong letter. This might not be a 
problem for some people, since vowels are often omitted by 
those fluent in the language. 

The applications of this program are limited only by the 
imagination of the user. I see it to be a good teaching tool. 
Flashcardsand work sheets come to mind immediately. The 
letter size can be easily adjusted to meet the needs of the age 
group. Of course, you'll need a graphics screen print pro- 
gram and a printer with graphics capabilities to get hard 
copies. You might get ambitious and translate a contempor- 
ary short story or novel to stimulate students' interest. 

All in all, Hebrew Bulletin Board does what the publisher 
claims it will do. If you have a need to use the Hebrew 
alphabet, this will adequately fill the bill. 

(Computer Island, 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, NY 

10312, $15.95 tape) 

—Stephanie Snyder 



("I CAN TALK!") talk processor 

Quick and easy to use. No programming required. Has 
26 common words, Just type in 2-letter codes and make 
hundreds of statements in 3 voices. Uses digitally 
recorded human speech. "Extremely clear". Rated good - 
Rainbow Nov. 82 16K Ext. Basic $14.95 

"ADD-A-VOICE" - to your own Basic programs. 

4 

A machine language utility (uses4K). Generate digitized 
human speech with just a few simple Basic commands. 
GAME SET(I, WIN, GOT, YOU, etc.) and QUIZ SET (YES, 
NO, RIGHT, GOOD, etc.). You get both sets - 25 words 
total. Specify 16K or 32K. Needs no Ext. Basic. $14.95 

SUB-MISSION - HI-RES COLOR ACTION GAME 

for16KExt. Basic. BONUS: Order Sub-Mission and get 
"Missle Attack Underground" game FREE. 
JOYSTICK REQUIRED $12.95 

For immediate shipment send certified check or money order. 
Personal check orders shipped in 2 weeks. Send to H.I.B., 3505 
Hutch Place, Chevy Chase, MD 20851. Phone 301 656-1825 after 
6 p.m. Add $1.00 for shipping. 



, . , — RAINBOW 

H.I.B. SOFTWARE K ~' 



SEAL 



FOR THE TRS 80 COLOR COMPUTER 



180 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



PRETTY PRINTER 

This M/L utility program will allow you to write your 
code in as compact a form as you wish, but list it to 
the screen or printer in an easy to read 'PRETTY 
PRINT format. Turn this: - 

1 □ PRINT" EXAMPLE": FORX-ATO M:FQRY=STO 
P:Z=X + Y:PRINTZ:NEXTY:NEXTX 

Into this: - 1 □ PRINT "EXAMPLE": 

FOR X = A TO M: 
FOR Y= STQ P: 
Z = X + Y: 
PRINT Z: 
NEXT Y: 
NEXT X 

With one simple command. 

CAT. NO. DM001 16K Ext $12.95 

P.U.F.F. 

Say the magic word and P.U.F.F. your print formatting 
problems dissappear. The Printer Utility File Format- 
ter turns any word Processor (that produces ASCII 
text files) into a super printer formatter. Embedded 
codes wi I perform the following functions: - 

* Send control codes to your printer. 
Set left and right margins at any time. 
Set headers and footers. 
Left, Right and Fill Justify. 
Centre the next'n' lines. 
Temporary indent (neg or pos). 
Plus many other features, 

CAT. NO. DM002 16K Ext $24.95 
KEYBOARD OVERLAYS 

Many programs are supplied with keyboard overlays 
to help you keep track of the various commands 
used by the program. Now you can add overlays to 
your own programs or to commercial programs 
thatdid not come with this feature. Die cuttofitthe 
standard Color Computer keyboard. Dealer inquir- 
ies for blank or custom printed overlays are invited. 

CAT. NO. HW002 99C each 



□ATAMAIL 

The ultimate cassette based mailing list program 
for home or business use. Fully customized data 
collection screen allows you to set your own field 
lengths and field titles. Fast machine language sort 
by any column in any field. Save all or any block of 
files for latter reading by DATAMAIL or your own 
letter program. Merge two or more lists, search by 
record number or key word in any column. One key 
commands for Input, Kill, Change. Print single 
records or any block of files, 1,2,3 or 4 across. 32K 
holds about 300 files. 

CAT. NO. DM003 16K Ext $14.95 
FIRST SAMPLER 

Six programs for the price of one. All have been 
published in popular computer magazines and are 
now available on one tape at this special price. 

* MATH Improve your mental math skills 

* WORD Make words from the supplied letters in 
this game for the whole family. 

* CONVOY Can you sink the computers convoy 
before it sinks yours? 

* BAGIT Train your memory to remember the 
things you put in the bag. 

* VECTORS Row your boat across the river with- 
out going over the falls. 

* AHHA Find the treasure chest in Another 
Haunted House adventure. Don't get caught by 

the Old Miser's ghost. 

CAT. NO. DM005 16K Ext $9.95 
COCOCOPY 

This all M/L Program will copy BASIC or M/L 
programs including most Auto Start Programs. It 
will supply the beginning, ending and offset addresses 
and allow you to change the load address for M/L 
programs. I/D errors are ignored so that bad tapes 
can be corrected. Programs can be renamed and 
the motor/audio functions are controlled from the 
keyboard. 

CAT. NO. DM004 16K Ext $12.95 



SEND $2.00 FOR OUR 25 PAGE CATALOGUE 



Refunded with first order, 



We are dealers for the following fine companies: - 



1 



ARK ROYAL GAMES 
COMPUTER ISLAND 

DSL COMPUTER 
PRODUCTS 

DYNAMIC ELECTRONICS 

FRANK HOGG 
LABORATORIES 

HOMEBASE COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 

HOME RUN COMPUTER 
PRODUCTS 

LITTLE BITS COMPUTING 
SERVICES 

BOOKS from 
SYBEX * BYTE * OSBORNE * RESTON 



ADD 3% SHIPPING — MINIMUM 2 1 



• MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

•NELSON SOFTWARE 
SYSTEMS 

• RAINBOW CONNECTION 
SOFTWARE 

•SPEECH SYSTEMS 

•SUGAR SOFTWARE 

•THE PROGRAMMERS 
GUILD 

•TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

•WEST BAY COMPANY 




Box n 431, Sta. B 
Hamilton, Ontario 
Canada L8L 7W2 
1-416-529-1319 



ALL PRICES 
IN CANADIAN 
DOLLARS 



PRINTER UTILITY 





H 


f the" " 


ItiK 




w ^™ % 

t RAfNBOW 1 









AFORMATR For The Gemini 



By Bill Bohne 



The purpose of the program which follows is to allow 
formating of the Star Micronics Gemini 10/15 printers. 
It is compatible with Epson printers with the exception of 
"Vertical Tab" and "Proportional Characters," which 
Epson does not use, and n/ 144 inches which Epson substi- 
tutes with n/216 inches in the Line Feed Length mode. 

With some modification, the program can be used with 
other printers using similar control codes. The Baud rate is 
set to run at 600. Line 100 contains the Baud rate value and 
may be changed to accommodate the appropriate value for 
the printer used. 

On typing CLOAD "FORMATR" and RUN, the user 
will be prompted to put the printer "On line." He will then be 
prompted to enter the size of printer width. This will set the 
maximum column size for format variables. 

NOTE: From this point on, the user may ENTER "X"as a 
response to any question the program asks. This will return 
the user to the menu. 

The program makes use of 25 printer format parameters 



"See" Music!! 



•The KALEIDOPHONE allows your Color Computer to 'listen to" 
your hi-fi and display what it "hears" on your TV! 
•Built-in interface circuitry lets the computer devote full-time 
to creating the displays, so breath-taking, animated pictures in 
full color are easy to program. 

•Just plug the KALEIDOPHONE into hi-fi and joystick inputs. 

•Do not confuse with imitations — the KALEIDOPHONE 

continuously delivers actual volume signals (64 levels on 

each of 4 channels). Works on any CoCo. 
•Users' newsletter (FREE with purchase) contains doxens of new 
display ideas in each issue — a literally infinite variety of pat- 
terns is possible! 

•The KALEIDOPHONE is something really new. Great for 

parties! Order Now! 
•Only $ 49.95 fully assembled. Kit version: $ 34.95. Both ver- 
sions include operating software and full instructions. BONUS: 
free issue of K ALEIDOPHONICS! 

NEW SALEM RESEARCH 
West Main Street 
New Salem, Mass. 01355 



Kaleid 




contained in a menu format. The user selects the appropriate 
value from the menu for the format he wishes to set. The 
menu contains basically three types of modifiers. Each 
modifier appropriately prompts the user for any required 
additional information. 

There are eight Format modifiers. Format modifiers 
allow alteration of printer parameters controlling page for- 
mat. These include Skip Over Perf, Header Size, Left and 
Right Margins, Form Length (set by lines or inches), Line 
Feed Length, and Horizontal and Vertical Tab Sets. 

There are 12 Character modifiers. Character modifiers 
either modify characters directly or select alternate charac- 
ter sets. Characters include Slashed Zero, Underline Mode, 
Double Strike, Italic Characters, Proportional Characters, 
Superscript and Subscript Modes and 10, 12, 17 and 
Expanded Character Modes and Emphasized Characters. 

There are five Utility modifiers. Utility modifiers select 
certain printer functions. They include Unidirectional Print- 
ing Mode, Print If Paper Out, Form Feed, Software Reset 
and Exit Program. 

The program is useful in setting up printer conditions for 
programs that require horizontal or vertical tabbing, page 
formatting or alteration of text font or emphasis. With some 
creative thinking, it can be used with Radio Shack's Disk 
Spectaculator to generate data forms in a condensed test 
format that display in excess of the normal 80-column 
width. This requires formatting the printer to use the left 
side of the page first, back scrolling to the top of the page, 
then reformatting to use the right side of the page. This 
yields rather impressive results, quite similar to that 
achieved with substantially more expensive spread sheets. 



For those who have print- 
ers other than Epson and 
Gemini, this program can be 
easily modified with the aid of 
OLir printer control code Con- 
version chart, which appears 
on page T56. 



The listing: 



Y 360... 


. . 0393 


680... 


. . 0783 


890... 


. 0AC0 


1070 . 


. . 0D28 


1300 . 


. . 10A0 


1480 . 


.. 1350 


1700 . 


.. 1650 


1930 . 


.. 1994 


2170 . 


. 1C0B 


END . 


..1F3E 



10 'GEMINI 10/15 PRINTER FORMAT 
TER 

20 ' COPYRIGHT 19G3 

30 ' WILLIAM BOHNE 

40 ' ELGIN, ILLINOIS 

50 'THIS IS A MENU ORIENTED PROG 

RAM 

60 'DESIGNED TO FORMAT GEMINI 10 
/15 



182 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



70 'PRINTERS. 
80 * 

90 *****SET BAUD RATE TO 600**** 

100 POKE 190,87 

110 CLEAR 500 

1 20 Z-27: Z»-CHR» ( Z ) : L-0 

130 OOTO2040 

1 40 CLS : PR I NTS7 1 , B« : RETURN 
150 ' 

160 '****IF INPUT-X BREAK TO FOR 
MAT**** 

170 I-VAL(I«): IF 1-0 AND I«-"0" 
THEN RETURN ELSE IF 1-0 THEN SOU 
ND50 f 5: SOTO 2180 ELSE RETURN 
180 ' 

190 * ****ERRORS**** 

200 PRINT" LEFT MARGIN >- RIG 

HT": L-0: RETURN 

210 PRINT" RIGHT MARGIN <- L 

EFT": RETURN 

220 PRINT" CAN'T USE 0 OR 128 O 
R >-" | B+l: RETURN 

230 PRINT: PRINT" CAN'T USE TH 
AT VALUE": RETURN 
240 ' 

250 '****8END BELL**** 



260 SOUND230,5 

270 PR I NT#-2 , CHR» ( 7 ) : RETURN 

280 ' 

290 '****2 SEC TIMER**** 
300 FORT-0TO960 : NEXTT: RETURN 
310 ' 

320 '****SET MAXIMUM COLUMNS**** 
330 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" IS PRINT 
ER 80 OR 132 COLUMN?" 
340 PRINT: INPUT" 80 OR 1 

32 " | B* : B-VAL < B« ) : I «-B« : GOSUB 1 60 
350 IF B-80 THEN B-127: R-B: RETUR 
N ELSE IF B-132 THEN B-255:R-B:R 
ETURN 

360 GOTO330 
370 ' 

3G0 '****CHECK VALUE ' N ' **** 
390 PRINT: PRINT" (N-l T 

O 127)": PRINT 

400 INPUT" N-"|It:GQ 
SUB 160 

410 IF Kl OR I>127 THEN 60SUB23 
0:QOTO3G0 ELSE RETURN 
420 ' 

430 '****ON OR OFF?**** 
440 print: PRINT: PRINT" 



r 



V 



>- 
lD 

I. 

O 




KAMIKAZE 



ARK 

ROYAL 

GAMES 



P.O. Box 14306 
Jacksonville, FL 32238 



Prices on All same: 
include shipping. Florida 
Resident add 5% tax. 

All Programs require Color 
ComPuter™ (Tandy Corp) or 
TDP System !00 ComPuter™ 
(RCA) ' 



KAMIKAZE 32K EXT — Fight off Takijiro Onishi's Kamikazes, find and destroy 
his suicide fleet before it finds you. Hi/res action graphics include; radar, search, 
mapscreen, fighter vs fighter, torpedo & divebomber, bomber vs ship, Kamikaze 
attack, and more. Hit table, repair, ready planes, target data, ship vs ship, Joystick 
option. 4 Levels. 

RAINBOW 

$24.95 



KAMIKAZE I6K EXT — Not as extensive as its big brother but with enough 
'boardgame' strategy to make it more than another shoot-em-up. Using your 12 
ships and 68 fighters, search & destroy Kamikazes. Joystick option, play levels. 

$19.95 



ACROSS THE RUBICON I6K EXT or NON EXT - The popular WWII 
wargame. Break thru the Huertgen Forrest using infantry, heavy and light tanks, air 
& artillery strikes Paratroops. Graphics, terrain modifiers, unit designators and 5 
minute conversion instructions for I6K NON EXT. State system when ordering. 



RAINBOW 



$19.95 



From STRICTLY COLOR SOFTWARE 

MISSION EMPIRE! A strategic wargame/strategy game. Starting with one 
planet, incomplete intelligence and limited resources, you must conquer tie rest of 
your galaxy. Play takes 2-5 hours and is DIFFERENT EVERY TIME! All versions of- 
fer GAME SAVE option. Specify 32K disc or 1 6K-The 32K versions require Extend- 
ed Basic, the I6K does not. The disc version is shipped on a cassette with instruc- 
tions for transferring to disk. If you want disc, add $3.00. 

$19.95 



RAINBOW 



June, 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 83 



ON - 1" 

430 PRINT" OFF - 0" 

460 PRINT: INPUT 11 SELECT O 

N/OFF" VI*: Q08UB 1 60 : RETURN 
470 9 

480 B»-"»»1-SKIP PERF**":Q08UB14 
0 

490 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT' 1 YOU MAY 8 

ELECT 0 TO 127 LINES 11 

900 PRINT: INPUT" SKIP HOW NAN 

Y LINES"! I*: OO8UB160 

910 IF Kl GOTO 930 ELSE IF I>12 

7 QO8UB230: QOTO490 

920 Q08UB 290:PRINT*-2 9 Z* >> N"CHR* 

(I) : RETURN 

930 OO8UB290 : PR I NT#-2, Z • " O " : RETU 



940 9 

990 B»-"»»2-SET HEADER** 11 :808UB1 
40 

960 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" YOU MAY 

SELECT 1 TO 16 LINES" 

970 PRINT: INPUT" HOW MANY HEAD 

ER LINE8"|I*:QO8UB160 

980 IF Kl Q08UB 230:QOTO970 ELS 

E IF I>16 G08UB 230:OOTO970 

990 G08UB 290:PRINT*-2 9 Z*"R"CHR* 





HARMONYCS INTRODUCES... 
NEW if MATHWAR An addition and substraction game. The 
game is played by jumping one tie-fighter over another until 
only one is left on the screen. Each time a jump is selected a 
math problem must be answered. There are four selectable 
levels of math difficulty: Level 1— Uses numbers up to 19 but 
no problems are given that require carrying or borrowing. Level 
2— Numbers up to 99 with no carrying or borrowing. Level 3— 
Numbers up to 1 9. Carrying and borrowing problems are given. 
Level 4— Numbers up to 99. Carrying and borrowing problems 
given. The student's interest is held by the graphics, sound and 
fun of this thinking game. Wrong answers do not receive a 
negative response from the computer. The program is FUN 
for young AND old. 

requires 1 6K and EXTENDED BASIC $1 1 .95 

NEW * PIE-CHART written by Mick Murray 
PIE-CHART allows you to enter up to 20 items and display the 
resulting hi-resolution PIE-CHART. The data or the chart screen 
itself may be saved to cassette. An additional feature allows 
you to read the piecharts or OTHER HI-RES GRAPHICS 
SCREENS back in from tape and flip quickly from one screen 
to the next. You could save a large series of screens to tape 
and "flip" through them much as might be done in a slide 
presentation. 

requires 16K and EXTENDED BASIC $10.95 

* DISK MONEY MINDER permits you to set up and maintain 

a family budget. 32K and DISK required $19.95 

it MONEY MINDER II is a cassette version of DISK MONEY 
MINDER 16K and COLOR BASIC REQUIRED ..,.$14.95 
if PRESCHOOL PAK contains two preschooler learning drills. 
Alphabet drills the preschooler in alphabet recognition. Counter 
drills the child in counting up to 10. They're fun! 

16K and EXTENDED BASIC required $8.95 

HARMONYCS @> 

P.O. BOX 1573 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 841 10 




(I) : RETURN 

600 B*-"**3-BET L MARGIN**" IQ08U 
B140 

610 L-0: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" YOU MA 

Y SELECT" V L| : PRINT"TO" V R» : PRINT" 
COLUMNS" 

620 PR I NT: PR I NT" HOW MANY 

COLUMNS" 

630 input" to the left mars i 
N"il*:l-val<l*> : i*-l*:bobubi60 
640 if l-0 then goto6b0 
650 if l<0 then go8ub230: l-0: got 
0610 else if l>b then go8ub230:g 

OTO610 

660 IF L>R THEN GO8UB200: GOTO610 
670 GO8UB230: PRINT#-2, Z*"M"CHR* ( 
L) : RETURN 

680 BO8UB250 : PR I NT«-2 , Z*"M " CHR* ( 
0) : RETURN 
690 ' 

700 B*-"**4-8ET R MARB IN**": B08U 
B140 

710 R-B: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" YOU MA 

Y SELECT" I L| :PRINT"TO"|R| : PRINT" 
COLUMNS" 

720 PR I NT: PR I NT 11 HOW MANY 

COLUMNS" 

730 INPUT" TO THE RIBHT MARB 

IN" V R»: It-Rt: BOSUB160: R-VAL <R*> 
740 IF R<L THEN BOSUB210:BOTO710 

ELSE IF R>B THEN 710 
750 BO8UB250 : PR I NT«-2 , Z*"Q" CHR* ( 
R): RETURN 

760 6O8UB250 : PR I NT«-2 , Z*"Q" CHR* ( 
0) : RETURN 
770 ' 

780 B*-"**5-F0RM LENGTH** " : 608UB 
140 

790 PR I NT: PR I NT: PR I NT 11 BET FORM 

BY LINES OR INCHES?" 
800 PRINT: INPUT" (L OR 

I>"|Q* 

B10 IFQ*-"X" THEN 8OUND50,5: BOT 
02180 ELSE IFQ*<>"L" THEN A-32 E 
L8E A-127:CL8 

820 IF A-32 THEN CL8:BO8UB140:PR 
I NT: PR I NT: PR I NT 11 YOU MAY SELECT 
1 TO 32 INCHES" ELBE GOTO G60 
G30 PRINT: PRINT" HOW MANY 

INCHES": INPUT" (WHOLE INTE 

6ER)"|I*:BO8UB160 
840 IF I>A THEN BO8UB230: BOTO830 

ELSE IF I< 1 THEN BO8UB230: 60T0B 
30 

850 6O8UB250: PRINT#-2, Z*"C"CHR* ( 
0 ) CHR* ( I ) : RETURN 

860 BO8UB140: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" 
YOU MAY SELECT 1 TO 127 LINES" :P 



184 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



TRS 80 COLOR COMPUTER 



ADVENTURES 



16K CIRCUS ADVENTURE $9.95 
A child's adventure game with many songs, graphics, 
and surprises. Meet all of your circus favorites while 
searching for the popcorn man. Great family fun for all 
ig«. 

16K SCHOOLMAZE ADVENTURE 511.95 

While in search of a lost computer tape, you travel in a 
school and draw pictures, compose songs, play basket- 
ball, and use the keyboard to travel in the hallways. 



BOOK 

A BYTE OF COLOR BASIC 
by Steve Blyn 



A work-text containing - instruction, examples, 
illustrations, programs, arid many practice exercises. 3 
Units - Basic, Graphics, and Sound. 24 chapters to 
teach you what you need to know to begin reading, 
understanding, and writing your own programs. 
Answer Key included with each book. Great book for 
beginners. $495 





DOLLARS AND SENSE 16K Ext. $11.95 

Learn to make purchases. Graphic displays of items 
kids love. Player buys using dollars and coins to prac- 
tice using money correctly. Solutions given. 

McCOCO'SMENU 16K Ext. $11.95 

America's favorite pastime — going out to eat! Learn 
to buy and add up your purchases from a typical fast 
food restaurant menu. Gain skill in using money. Dif- 
ferent prfc« each time. 

MONEYPAK 32K Ext. $22.95 

2 Programs teach the use of money to purchase items 
displayed and to buy from a fast food menu. Includes 
play money. 

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 16K $1 1.95 
Menu driven, 2 level program provides practice in 
adding or subtracting 2 digit numbers. Vertical format 
for proper entry of digits in the answers. Report card 
scoring. 



★ 



NEW!! 



LONG DIVISION TUTOR by Ed Guy 

16K Ext. Basic $14.95 
A tutorial that takes the child through all steps of the 
example. Includes HELP tables, cursor aids, and 
graphic aids. Input your own numbers, or let the com- 
puter choose the example. Three levels of difficulty. 
Great teaching program! 

MULTIPLICATION TUTOR by Ed Guy 

16K Ext. Basic $14.95 
Similar type tutorial to the above. All carries indicated. 
Teaches examples from one to three place multipliers. 

DEALERS INQUIRIES INVITED 

FREE set of BINARY DICE, including full directions, 
with orders of 2 or more items. 



Computer Island Presents 

THE BEST IN 
SOFTWARE FOR KIDS! 



TOP SYSTEM 100 



THE WIZARD NOW SPEAKS 

THE TALKING WIZARD 16K Ext. $19.95 

A talking version of our popular WIZARD game. This is 
a child size (Eliza-Freud) type game. Input any ques- 
tion and the WIZARD writes and now SPEAKS (through 
the T.V. speaker) an amusing answer. Great for reading 
practice or just plain fun. 

voice by-Classical Cofftoutirm Inc. 



LEARNING PROGRAMS 
FOR HOME OR SCHOOL 



FOREIGN LANGUAGE GAMES 16K or 16K Eit $11.95 




NO EXTRAS NEEDED wmwvm* 
Instructions are included enabling you to modify these 
programs for additional vocabulary or verb practice. 
Create your own future versions!!! 

FRENCH BASEBALL - Score base hits or home runs 
for correct answers. You're out if wrong. Correct 
answers supplied. Fun way to learn and practice 
vocabulary. 2 levels. 200 questions 
SPANISH BASEBALL - Same game using Spanish 
vocabulary words. 

ITALIAN BASEBALL - Same game using Italian 
vocabulary words. 

PLEASE SPECIFY LANGUAGE AND VERSION 



*** 



NEW 



*** 



BEYOND WORDS 32K Ext. $19.95 Each 

3 Part menu driven program with tutorials and grade 
appropriate subtests and reviews. Over 400 questions, 
800 words, modifiable. 

* Beyond Words I • Grades 3-5 

* Beyond Words II • Grades 6-8 

* Beyond Words III • Grades 9-12 

VOCABULARY BUILDERS 32K Ext. $19.95 Each 

4 Part multiple choice format. 200 questions, 1000 
words. User modifiable. 

* Vocab. Builder I • Grades 3-5 

* Vocab. Builder II • Grades 6-8 

* Vocab. Builder III - Grades 9-12 

On Disk 

Beyond Words I and Vocab. Builder I $38.95 

Beyond Words II and Vocab. Builder II $38.95 

Beyond Words III and Vocab. Builder III $38.95 



READING AIDS 4-Pak 16K Ext. $19.95 

A 4 part menu driven program for the Elementary 
school child to create his own original reading 
material. Includes the 4 popular programs — POETRY, 
SILLY STORIES, SILLY SENTENCES and WIZARD, now 
expanded to 16K Extended Basic. 




COMPUTER ISLAND 

DEPT. R 
227 Hampton Green 
Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 



GAMES 

COCO-JOT by Steve Greenberg 

16K Ext. $11.95 
A new version of the famous Jotto word game. A guess- 
ing game using your powers of reasoning and deduction. 
1 or 2 player game. Different levels of play. Ages 8 to 
adult. User modifiable. 

NEW!! 

GHOST 16K Ext 

by Sherman Rosen $11.95 
Color Computer version of the famous word game. 2 
levels. Ages 8 to adult. Great Family Fun! 



SPECIA L — CL0SEOUT of Creative Computing's never 
released software for the CoCo. 2 Hi-Res machine 
language, joystick controlled arcade style games. 
PICNIC (escape spider, capture food), TRICKASHAY 
{tank duel in a tricky maze). 1 or 2 players, multi-level. 
16K Ext. Both for an incredible $1 1.95 



NAME THAT SONG GAMES 
16K atenderf™' "~ $9.95 each 

1. 72 children's popular songs. 2 levels of difficulty. 
Timer. Many hours of fun. 

2. 72 all time pop, country, and movie melodies from 
the last three decades. 

3. 60 Broadway Show tunes to test you on past 
musicals. Fun for all trivia buffs. 




PRESCHOOL PACK 1 by Joseph Kolar 

16K Ext. $11.95 
Clown and Fish-Num: Two programs to help your child 
recognize and count the words and numbers 1 • 10. 
Hi-res graphics and lively songs help to attract and 
keep attention. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 2 by Joseph Kolar 

16K Ext. $11.95 
Count Kids and Add Penny: Two programs to help your 
child count and add up to 10. Beautiful hi-res 
graphics. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 3 by Joseph Kolar 

16K Ext. $11.95 
Alpha-Byte: Programs designed to teach recognition 
and identification of the alphabet. Attractive hi-res 
graphics. 

Each of the above Preschool Packs on disk - $15.95 
All three Preschool Packs on disk - $38.95 



MUSIC MARVEL 16K Ext. Basic $9.95 

Play 2 familiar children's songs. Large graphic 
displays. No reading or musical ability needed. Great 
for pre schoolers. 16K version also available. Please 
specify. 



HEBREW BULLETIN BOARD 16K Ext. $15.95 

by Joseph Kolar 
A utility that will enable YOU to create Hebrew or 
Hebrew/English words, flash cards, sentences, 
greeting cards, etc. in Hires. Easy to learn-full 
documentation. For hard copy, use your printer and 
any screen print program. 



(212) 948-2748 

Add $1.00 S/H - N.Y. Add Proper Tax 
Send for catalog of other programs 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SCAl 



Authors: We are seeking quality children's software for 
leisure or learning. Write for details. Top royalties. 




Dragon Slayers, Space Pilots, Witch 
Doctors, Maze Makers, Professors 
and other creative programmers. 

We Want You! 



ELP 
WANTED 



Your original Color Computer Soft- 
ware program is worth money and we 
want to discuss it with you. . . 

Earn Top Buck! 



p M3rk Data Produ c t s 



24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 226 
MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 

(714) 768-1551 



■■■■ 

: * 



COMPUTERS 

Growing Company with lots o^' 




Pom 
expf) 
Req>- 
assii 
kncj 

13' 



r 



Wit' 
lllu 

corr, 
doll| 
mad 
Corij 
posfi 
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If 



HOW MANY LINES"! 



RINT 

870 INPUT" 
I*:8O8UB160 

BB0 IF I>A THEN QOSUB230: 6OTO870 
ELSE IF KI THEN 6O8UB230: GOTO 
670 

690 8O8UB250: PRINT0-2, Z*"C"CHR* ( 
I ) : RETURN 
900 ' 

910 B»-"**6-LN FD LEN6TH** 11 : 608U 
B140 

920 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" SELECT FR 
ON THE FOLLOWING LINE": PRINT" FE 
ED SIZES:" 

930 PRINT: PRINT" 1/6 INCH 



940 PRINT" 7/72 INCH - 1 

950 PRINT" 1/6 INCH * 2 <D 

EFAULT) 

960 PRINT" N/72 INCH - 3 

970 PRINT" N/144 INCH - 4 

960 PRINT: INPUT" SELECT LINE 
FEED SIZE" | I*:OO8UB160: IF I<0 TH 
EN 60T0 960 EL8E IF I>4 THEN 60T 
0 960 

990 IF 1*3 THEN GOTO 1040 ELSE I 
F 1*4 THEN 1060 

1000 GO8UB250: IF 1-0 THEN GOTO 1 
010 ELSE IF 1-1 THEN GOTO 1020 E 



L8E 60T0 1030 

1010 PRINTW-2, Z»"0" : RETURN 

1 020 PR I NT#-2„ Z* " 1 " : RETURN 

1030 PRINT0-2, Z*"2" : RETURN 

1040 BOSUB140: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" 

8ELECT N/72 INCHES" 
1050 8O8UB3B0:8O8UB250:PRINT#-2, 
Z*"A"CHR* < I ): RETURN 
1060 GOSUB140: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" 

8ELECT N/144 INCHES" 
1070 GO8UB380:GO8UB250:PRINT«-2, 
Z*"3"CHR* ( I ) I RETURN 
1080 ' 

1090 B*-"**7-H0R TAB SET**":808U 
B140:H-25 

1100 print:priNt:print m you na 
y set up t0"|:printh|:print"tab8 

M 

1110 print: print" how many t 
ab8 do you": input" want to 

set"it»:t-val(T») : i«-t*:gosubi6 



1120 IF T< 1 THEN GO8UB230:GOTO111 
0 ELSE IF T>H THEN GO8UB230 : GOTO 
1110 

1130 FOR TT-1TOT 

1140 INPUT" SET TAB -"II* 

:6O8UB160: IF I>R THEN GO8UB220 
ELSE IF 1-0 THEN GO8UB220 ELSE I 
F 1-128 THEN 6O8UB220 ELSE 60T0 
11601150 GOTOU40 

1160 x»-chr«<I):y«-y»+x«:next tt 

:IF HA-0 THEN GOTO 1 180 

1170 QO3UB250:PRINT«-2,Z*"D" Y* 

CHR»(0): RETURN 

1180 eO8UB250:PRINT#-2, Z»"P" Y» 
CHR*(0): RETURN 
1190 ' 

1200 B*-"*»B-VERT TAB SET**": 60S 
UB140: HA-0: H-20: 80T01 100 
1210 ' 

1220 B*-"**9-3LA8HED ZERO**": 808 
UB140 

1230 print:print:print m do yo 
u want slashed zero": print" 

on or off?":go8ub430 
1240 if 1-0 then go8ub250: print# 
-2, z*"v"chr» (0) : return 
1250 if ioi then goto 1220 else 

6O8UB250: PRINT#-2, Zr'VCHR* ( 1 ) : R 

ETURN 

1260 ' 

1 270 B«- " ** 1 0— UNDERL I NE»* " : GOSUB 
140 

1260 PRINT! PRINT: PRINT" DO Y 

0U WANT UNDERLINE": PRINT" 

ON OR OFF?":8O8UB430 
1290 IF 1-0 THEN 6O8UB250: PRINT* 
-2* Z*"-"CHR* (0) : RETURN 
1300 IF IOI THEN GOTO 1270 ELSE 



186 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



SELECTED SOFTWARE 



FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



All programs are in 1 6K machine language unless noted. 



# # 



# # 



MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

SPACE RAIDERS New Invader-type game. 
Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. You'll love it. 

ASTRO BLAST Excellent space shooting 
game. Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

COLOR HAYWIRE Classic arcade game, 
rated A + by Color Computer magazines. 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

ANDROID ATTACK Excellent berserk-type 
game. Comes with 1 6K and 32K. 32K version 
will talk. 

MS. GOBBLER (32K) Outstanding Pac Man- 
type game with 4 different mazes and 1 6 skill 
levels. 

WHIRL YBIRD RUN Pilot a chopper over a 
varying terrain while dropping bombs and firing 
missiles to destroy enemy bases, ships and 
missiles. 

GALAX ATTAX Protect your base by 
shooting alien fighter in formation. Excellent 
Graphics and Sound. 

SPACE RACE Maneuver yourself in space 
but alien ships appear and must be destroyed. 
Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

* PLANET INVASION Excellent Defender-type 
game. Highest-Res Graphics and Sound. 

* DEFENSE Defend your spaceships from 
enemy laser beams. 

* SPACE WAR You must break through the 
enemy fighters and the defenses of Death Star. 
Super fast. 

* * SPACE INVADERS Fast action Invader 

game. Excellent Graphics and Sound. 

* GHOST GOBBLER Highly rated Pac Man- 
type game. 1 6 skill levels and lots of action. 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD Super adventure 
game! Great sound! You never play the same 
twice. 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

* DONKEY KING (32K) Just Outstanding! 

* KATERPILLAR Excellent Centipede-type 
game. Highly rated by Color Computer 
magazines! 

* WAR KINGS Battle to save your castle and 
king. Hi-Res Graphics with Outstanding Sound. 

* PROTECTORS (32K) Excellent Graphics and 
Sound. 

MED SYSTEMS 

INVADER'S REVENGE You are the last sur- 
vived space invader. You must revenge! 

PHANTOM SLAYER Enter the deadly cata- 
combs and destroy the phantoms, 3-D Graphics. 

INTELLECTRONICS 

* DUNKEY MUNKEY (32K) Absolutely excel- 
lent Donkey Kong-type game. You'll love it! 

STAR F|RE One of the best Defender-type 
game. Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

INTRACOLOR 

* * COLORPEDE Just like the arcade. 

* ROBQTTACK j us t like the arcade. 

THE PROGRAMMER'S GUILD 

PACDROIDS The most challenging Pac Man- 
type, Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

CHROMATIC SOFTWARE 

THE SPIDER Travel the channels destroying 
the spiders before they get you. Super action. 
Excellent Graphics and Sound. 



$24.95 
$24.95 
$19.95 

$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 



$21.95 

$21.95 

$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 

$17.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 



* # 



$24.95 
$24.95 

$19.95 
$24.95 

$19.95 
$19.95 

$21.95 
$19.95 



$29.95 
$24.95 

$19.95 



$19.95 



# # 



DATA SOFT 
Top Notch Games 

ZAXXON (32K) Maneuver your ship through a $39.95 
battlefield of state-of-the-art missiles, anti-aircraft 
tanks and enemy planes. Survive all that and 
you'll meet the deadly ZAXXOIM Robot! 

MOON SHUTTLE Pilot your moon shuttle $34.95 
through outerspace avoiding man-o-wars, 
meteors, bomb launchers and expandos to meet 
the prince of darkness. But watch out for his 
darkest side. 



$21.95 



$19.95 



COMPUTERWARE 

* DOODLE BUG Just like ladybug in the 
arcade. 

THE CORNSOFT GROUP 

* * FROGGER Just like the arcade. 

ELITE SOFTWARE 

* ZAKSUND (32K) Fly your spaceship through $24.95 
enemy star bases. Avoid guided missiles, lasers 

and firing turrets. Can you reach their leader? 

SOFT SECTOR MARKETING 

MASTER CONTROL II Comes with plastic $ 1 9.95 
keyboard overlay and complete easy to 
understand manual. 

COLOR GRAPHIC EDITOR This program $1 9.95 
permits the creation of graphic pictures on the 
screen that can be sayed to disk for later use. 
Requires extended BASIC or DISK BASIC. 

COLOR BONANZA 50 programs on 6 $39.95 
cassettes stored in an attractive package. Some 
require extended BASIC. 

SUGAR SOFTWARE 
Extended BASIC Programs 

TIMS Excellent personal database management $24.95 
system. 

GALACTIC-HANGMAN Top rated Hang- $ 1 4.95 
man game. Can you find a better one? 

NELSON SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 
SUPER COLOR WRITER II Version 3.0. 

64 K Compatible Tape $69.95 

Rompak $89.95 

SUPER COLOR TERMINAL Version 3.0. 

64K Compatible Tape $49.95 

Rompak $59.95 



UPGRADE YOUR COLOR COMPUTER/ 

Complete solderless kits with easy-to-follow instructions. 
4K-16K $15.95 
4K-32K $49,95 
1 6K-32K $34.95 

64K CHIP SET 

Eight 41 64-200 NS Prime ICs $54.95 
Note: All ICs used in our kits are first quality 
200NS Prime Chips and carry one full year warranty, 



* Requires Joystick * * Joystick Optional 

ORDER 2 ITEMS AND GET 1 0% OFF! 

We pay postage on all orders in the United States 
and Canada. Overseas please add $3.00 
We accept check or money order. 
U.S. funds only for foreign orders. 

Send to: g ELECTED SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 32228, Fridley, MN 55421 

(MN Residents add 6% sales tax.) 



GOSUB250 : PR I NT#-2 , Z • " - "CHR* ( 1 ) : R 
ETURN 
1310 ' 

1320 B*-"**U-DOUBL STRIKE**": GO 
SUB 140 

1330 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" DO YOU 
WANT DOUBLE STRIKE": PR I NT" 
ON OR OFF?" : GO8UB430 
1340 IF 1-0 THEN GO8UB250:PRINT« 
-2, Z*"H" : RETURN 

1390 IF KM THEN GOTO 1320 ELSE 
GOSUB250 : PR I NT#-2 , Z»"G": RETURN 
1360 ' 

1370 B«- 11 ** 12- ITALIC CHARS** 11 : GO 
SUB 140 

1360 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" DO YOU N 
ANT ITALIC CHARACTERS": PRINT" 

ON OR OFF?":GO8UB430 
1390 IF 1-0 THEN GOSUB250: PRINT* 
-2, Z»"5": RETURN 

1400 IF IOl THEN GOTO 1370 ELSE 
GO8UB250: PRINT#-2, Z»"4" : RETURN 
1410 ' 

1420 B«-"**13-PR0P0R CHARS**": GO 
3UB140 

1430 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" DO YO 
U WANT PROPORTIONAL": PR I NT" 
CHARACTERS ON OR OFF?" : GOSUB430 
1440 IF 1-0 THEN GOSUB250: PRINT* 
-2, Z*"Z"CHR*(0) : RETURN 

* 



* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* ALL PROGRAMS FOR CASSETTE & GUARANTEED TO LOAD * 



POWERBYTE SOFTWAREtm 

PrGS6nts 

APPLICATION SOFTWARE 

Business and Home 

for the 

TRS 80 Color Computer 
•TDP-100 Computer 

65 Applications Available including : 



* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

J THE ACCOUNTANT - General Ledger, Income 
J Statement & Balance Sheet 

J ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/PAYABLE - Create 
J Journal for Current Accounts & Record of Paid Accts 

* 



* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



BUSINESS INVENTORY 
ORDER TRACKER 
MY PROFIT MARGIN 
BILLING SOLVER 
CASH FLOW MODEL 
THE CLIENT TICKLER 
INCOME & EXPENSER 
BUSINESS 
APPOINTMENTS 



$19.95 
$19.95 
$16.95 
$19.95 
$16.95 
$19.95 
$1 5.95 
$16.95 



AT HOME INVENTORY 
CHECKBOOK BOOKY 
THE STOCK TICKER 
TAPE 

UTILITY BILL SAVER 
THE BAR CHART 
MOTHER'S RECIPES 
THE MAILMAN 
GRADE MY KIDS 



$29.95 
$21.95 

$12.95 
$12.95 
$16.95 

$12.95 
$8.95 
$12.95 
$12.95 
$15.95 



AND MANY, MANY MORE!! 



* 
* 
* 
+ 

* 
* 



•FREE CATALOG 

WITH INTRODUCTORY SPECIALS 



POWERBYTE SOFTWARE 

2 CHIPLEY RUN 
WEST BERLIN, NJ 08091 
J (609) 346-3063 



f 




■ 




* 
* 

* 
* 



1450 IF IOl THEN GO8UB1420 ELSE 

QO3UB140 
1460 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" BEL 
ECT 1 T0 8 SPACES": INPUT" B 
ETWEEN CHARACTERS" 1 1 
1470 IF Kl THEN GOTO 1460 ELSE I 
F I>Q THEN GOTO 1460 
14G0 GO8UB250:PRINT«-2,Z*"Z"CHR* 
(I) : RETURN 
1490 » 

1 500 B»- " »* 1 4— 8UPERSCR I PT»» " : BOG 
UB140 

1510 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" DO YO 
U WANT SUPERSCRIPT": PRINT" C 
HARACTER8 ON OR OFF?":GOGUB430 
1520 IF 1-0 THEN GO8UB250: PRINT* 
-2, Z»"T" : PRINTtt-2, Z»"H" : RETURN 
1530 IF IOl THEN GOTO 1500 ELSE 
GO8UB250: PRINTW-2, Z*"8"CHR* (0) : R 
ETURN 
1540 ' 

1 550 B»- " #* 1 5-8UB8CR I PT«* " : 808UB 
140 

1560 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" DO Y 

OU WANT SUBSCRIPT": PR I NT" CH 
ARACTER8 ON OR OFF? " : GOGUB430 
1570 IF 1-0 THEN QOGUB250:PRINT# 
-2, Z«"T" : PRINTt-2, Z*"H" : RETURN 
15G0 IF IOl THEN GOTO 1550 ELSE 
GO8UB250: PRINT«-2 V Z*"8"CHR* ( 1 ) : R 
ETURN 
1590 ' 

1600 B*-"**16-10 CHARS/ IN**" :GOS 
UB140 

1610 GO8UB250 : PR I NT : PR I NT : PR I NT " 

10 CHARACTERS PER INCH" 
1620 PRINT«-2 V Z*"B"CHR» ( 1 ) : G08UB 
290: RETURN 

1630 IF 1-0 THEN GO8UB250: PRINT* 

-2,Z*"B"CHR*(1> 

1640 ' 

1650 B*-"**17-12 CHARS/ IN**": 008 
UB140 

1 660 GO8UB250 : PR I NT : PR I NT : PR I NT " 

12 CHARACTERS PER INCH" 
1670 PRINT#-2, Z*"B"CHR* (2) :G08UB 
290: RETURN 

1 6G0 B»- " ** 1 G— COMPRESSED* * " : G08U 
B140 

1 690 GO8UB250 : PR I NT : PR I NT : PR I NT " 

COMPRESSED" 
1700 PRINT«-2 V Z*"B"CHR« (3) :G08UB 
290: RETURN 
1710 » 

1720 B»-"**19-EXPANDED*»": GOSUB1 
40 

1730 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" DO Y 

OU WANT EXPANDED": PRINT" CHA 
RACTER8 ON OR OFF?" 
1740 GO8UB430:IF 1-0 THEN G08UB2 



188 



the RAINBOW J une, 1 983 



ORGANIZE and PROTECT your VALUABLE 
software library the COLORFUL way with 
ZETAPAKS tm from ZETA Computer. 

Mix 'n' match your collection with these rugged-vinyl 
software "safes" in a choice of 4 COLORS. Now you can 
store your media TOGETHER with your instructions on the 
SAME shelf with your computer books. 

$3.50 EACH or 
$38.95 Per DOZEN 
Postpaid 

—COLORS- 
BEIGE 
TAN 
BLUE 
YELLOW 

HOLDS ALL TYPES OF SOFTWARE MEDIA 

Besides holding a 6" x 8V2" manual up to W thick, a 
ZETAPAK can hold 2 audio/digital cassettes 

or 2 stringy floppy cartridges 

or 2 of the new 3" micro disks 

or 6 5W floppy disks 

or 2 ROM cartridges (up to 7 /s" thick) 

Ask you local computer dealer to stock ZETAPAKS or 
ORDER DIRECT: ZETACOM Dept. RB 

P.O. BOX 3522 

GREENVILLE, SC 29608 

•Specify how many of what color. 

•Send Bank or PO Money Order for fastest service. 

*COD is fast but $2 extra. "Please allow 4 weeks delivery on checks. 

"Foreign: US Funds add .50 each for Air Mail. "Purchase Price of 

$3.00 each ZETAPAK REFUNDABLE if returned unopened within 

30 days. "SOFTWARE PUBLISHERS/DEALERS write or call for 

discount schedule. ..(803) 246-1741 after 1 P.M. EST. 

© TM 1 983 ZETA Computer 





50: PRINT#-2, Zt"W"CHRt (0) : RETURN 
1750 IF IOl THEN GOTO 1720 ELSE 
QOSUB250: PRINT#-2 f Z*"W"CHR* ( 1 ) : R 
ETURN 
1760 ' 

1 770 B*- 11 **20-EMPHA8 1 ZED**" : Q03U 
B140 

1780 PRINT: PRINT:PRINT" DO YO 

U WANT EMPHASIZED": PRINT" CH 

ARACTER8 ON OR OFF?" 

1790 OO3UB430:IF 1-0 THEN 008UB2 

50: PRINT#-2, Z*"F" : RETURN 

1800 IF IOl THEN GOTO 1770 ELSE 

8OSUB250: PRINT#-2„ Z»"E" : RETURN 

1810 ' 

1 820 B»-" **2 1 -UN I D I RECT** " : 808UB 
140 

1830 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" DO YOU 
WANT UNIDIRECTION": PRINT" P 
RINT NODE ON OR OFF?" : 8O8UB430 
1840 IF 1-0 THEN 8O8UB250 : PR I NT* 
-2, Z*"U"CHR* (0) : RETURN 
1850 IF IOl THEN 8OTO1820 ELSE 
BO8UB250: PRINT#-2, Z*"U"CHR* ( 1 ) : R 
ETURN 
1860 ' 

1870 B*-"**22-PRNT PPR OUT**": 80 
SUB 140 

1880 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" DO Y 



OU WANT 'PRINT IF": PRINT" PA 
PER OUT' ON OR OFF? " : BO8UB430 
1890 IF 1-0 THEN 8O8UB250: PRINT* 
— 2, Z*"9" : RETURN 

1900 IF IOl THEN BOTO1B70 ELSE 
BO8UB250 : PR I NT#-2 , Z* " 8 " : RETURN 
1910 ' 

1920 B*-"**23-F0RM FEED** " : B08UB 
140 

1 930 BOSUB250 : PR I NT#-2 , CHR* (12): 
8OSUB290: RETURN 
1940 ' 

1950 B»-"**S0FTWR RESET**" : GOSUB 
140 

1960 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" REIN 
ITIALIZES FORMAT 

1970 PRINT" TO POWER UP SETT 

IN88 

1 980 8O8UB250 : PR I NT#-2 , Z • " 8 " : 808 
UB290: RETURN 
1990 ' 

2000 8O3UB250:CL8:PRINT8200, "*** 
*********** 

2010 PRINT8232, "* EXIT * 
2020 PRINT8264, "************** 
2030 8OSUB290:8OTO2300 
2040 CLS 

2050 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" 

8EMINI 10/15": PRINT" PRI 



10-1000 16K basic color computer $call 
10-1010 16K basic/ extended basic $call 




### 



SPECIAL!! 32/64K EXTENDED BASIC *** 

INCLUDES: COGNITEC'S TELEWRITER 64 

Wordprocessor Program 



TOM MIX'S "DONKEY KING" Game!!! 



*#*************##**#**########**##### 

TOM MIX * ANT£CO M DERRINGER 
MARK DATA-* COLOHSOFT *- BOTE K 
COMPOT6RWARE. * BHRTAMAX * 

EPSON DOT MATRIX PRINTERS and COMPUTERS * 
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Emerald Computer Services 

4401 219th S.W. 

Mountlake Terrace, WA 98043 



TOP ■ ATAftl • £PSON • MORROW- 



NOTE: TDP-100 System 100 
PERSONAL COMPUTERS INCLUDE: 
"BUST OUT" Game Cartridge 
Two Joysticks 

Easy to Read Tutorial Manuals 
TV/ Computer Interface Box 
RS-232 INTERFACE 
EXPANSIBILITY 

CUSTOM KE^BOACDS AV/AK-AB*- 6 . 

* VISA / MASTERCARD ACCEPTED * COD * 

OVERSEAS ORDERS WELCOME ! ! ! 

ALLOW 2-3 WEEKS for PERSONAL CHECKS! 

206-778-9826 



1 90 the RAINBOW J u ne, 1 983 



COPYRIGHT 19 



BY BILL BOH 



NTER FORMATTER" 

2060 PRINT" 
93" 

2070 PRINT" 
NE" 

2080 print: print: print: input" 
printer on line <y/n>"|q» 
2090 if q*<>"y" goto 2040 
2100 cls:gosub320:cls 
2110 pr i nt0 102, "make your select 

ION 

2120 PR I NT0 169, "FROM THE MENU 
2130 PRINT0233, "YOUR SELECTION 
2140 PRINT0294, "WILL BE SENT TO 
THE 

2 1 50 PR I NT0364 , " PR I NTER 

2160 PRINT*421,"<'X' RETURNS TO 

MENU> 

2170 GOSUB290 

2180 '*****PRINT FORMAT MENU**** 
* 

2190 RESTORE 
2200 CLS 

2210 PRINT"* * * * * FORMAT MENU 
****«" 

2220 FOR X-32T0416 STEP32 
2230 READA* : PR I NT0X , A* : NEXTX 
2240 FOR X-4BT0432 STEP32 



2250 READA*: PRINT0X, A* : NEXTX 
2260 PRINT: INPUT" SELECT FORMA 
T NUMBER"! A 

2270 IF A<1 THEN21G0 ELSE IF A>2 
5THEN 21G0 

22G0 ON A GOSUB480, 550,600, 700, 7 
80,910, 1090, 1200, 1220, 1270, 1320, 
1370, 1420, 1500, 1550, 1600, 1650, 16 
80, 1720, 1770, 1820, 1870, 1920, 1950 



2290 GOTO2180 
2300 CLS : END 

2310 DATA" 1-SKIP PERF"," 2-SET 
HEADER"," 3-SET L MARGIN"," 4-SE 
T R MARGIN"," 5-FORM LENGTH"," 6 
-LN FD LENGTH"," 7-HOR TAB SET", 
" G— VERT TAB SET" 

2320 DATA" 9-8L ASHED ZERO","10-U 
NDERL I NE " , " 1 1 -DOUBL STR I KE " , " 1 2- 
ITALIC CHARS", "13-PR0P0R CHARS", 
" 14 -SUPERSCRIPT" , " 15-SUBSCRIPT" 
2330 DATA" 16-10 CHARS/ IN", "17-12 
CHARS/ IN" , " 1G-COMPRESSED" , " 19-E 
XPANDED " , " 20-EMPHAS I ZED" ,"21 -UN I 
DIRECT" 

2340 DATA" 22— PRNT PPR 0UT","23-F 
ORM FEED","24-S0FTWR RESET", "25- 
EXIT PROGRAM"," 



NEW 



KODOMO-NO-GO 



Get 5 in a row before your opponent. 19x19 playing 
matrix. This is the favorite relaxation gamef or Japanese Go 
players. Two-player version and 4 computer skill levels for 
one player: also Tic-Tac-Toe on the same tape. 

$1 9.95 32K Ext. Basic cassette only. 

$14.95 1 6K Ext. Basic. Three skill levels plus Tic-Tac-Toe. 

$ 8.95 16K Ext. Basic Tic-Tac-Toe only. 

ALSO CO-EXISTENCE 

Successfully develop your country in a resource-limited 
world. Form a world government, sign treaties, go to war: 
anything goes. This is a two - to six - player game which 
combines computer and board play (board and pieces 
provided). 

$24.95 16K Ext. Basic cassette only. 

AND 5 EXCITING GAMES 

Be a Cosmic Trash Collector, fight a mighty space battle, or 
surround your opponent in Trap'em — all this and more on 
one tape. The RAINBOW says, "Great fare for the family 
with young children." 

$1 5.95 1 6K Ext. Basic cassette. 







i 




T ~ 

•a- 


^ 






-4 








■44- 


i 

|_ 

i i 










RAINBOW 

CCRTIFICATION 
SEAL 




P. 0. Box VOI 6 
Cherry Hill, NJ 0803V 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 191 



CoCoDATA Enterprises 

1215 Emeralda Drive • Orlando, Florida 32808 



Color Computet 16K 
EXKNKO BASIC 



"Low Cost, High Quality Software" 

Color Computer Weekly, March 1 1 , 1983 

"Satisfaction guaranteed or your money back!" 

***** The Product Line ***** 

GRAPHICS PROGRAM 

GENERATOR I $11.95 ~ 

Let your CoCo write "Syntax perfect" graphics programs for you! 
Boxes, circles, arcs, ellipses, paint, and lines can all be created 
while viewing the graphics screen using the arrow keys and a 
few one-key commands. Use either of four color sets in PMODE3. 
Extra features like "erase", "check remaining strings space" and 
optional grid marker pixels. When your graphics are complete, 
GPG I will write a unique program to tape to duplicate the picture 
you've created. This generated program can be edited, added to, 
or merged like any other! Manual details operation. 



RAINBOW 

CCATIflCATION 
«E«l 



GRAPHICS PROGRAM 
GENERATOR II $16.95 

All the features of GPG I plus characters with a self loading 
machine language module! Includes a binary screen save feature 
to reproduce your graphics with text in a later program. Manual 
includes Assembly Language source listing. 



ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BA1NBOW 
MONITOR $10.95 "™ 

Utilize your CoCo to reduce your electric bill! Both text and 
graphic presentations are used to show consumption in either 
dollars or KWH. Extra features include bill projection anytime 
during month c and 20day trend analysis. If you can't measure it, 
you can't manage It! Sixteen page manual includes listing and 
forms to record data. Printer is NOT required. 



HOUSEHOLD BUDGET rainbow 

WORKSHEET $ 6.95 <"»"""• 

Produces an up-dated monthly financial worksheet without files, 
yet contractual loans are automatically up-dated with new 
balances and months remaining. Budget categories and variable 
expenses user defined. Includes provisions for variable income 
like commissions, one time expenses and/or income. Excellent 
manual includes listing, examples, form to list data. Works with 
any printer. ^ 

LLIST-RITE $ 5.95 

Complex, non-commented programs are much easier to follow 
after using this listing utility! Multiple statements and IF. . . 
THEN. . .ELSE statements are logically separated, line numbers 
are set apart from text, page boundries are observed. Works 
with any printer; complete, easy to understand instruction sheet 
included. 



MATCH 2! $7.95 

Our version of concentration. Play against the computer at 
different skill levels or select two player option. Some unexpect- 
ed surprises add more fun, should sharpen memory skills. 

******************* 

Each program ordered must include 75$ for Shipping and 
Handling. 



Software mevim 



Four-Part Composing 
With The Composer 



The Color Computer by itself with either Color BASIC or 
Extended Color BASIC allows the sounding of only single 
melodic lines. This is a very limiting condition for those of us 
who are interested in pursuing musical applications of com- 
puters. Our musical system contains harmonic as well as 
melodic elements and, therefore, to fully explore musical 
applications of computers, harmony as well as melody needs 
to be considered. 

Our CoCo is now receiving good software support in this 
area. The Composer by Speech Systems enables one to write 
up to four-part harmony for playback by the Color Compu- 
ter. The program comes with a well-written, 13-page man- 
ual. (You do not need to read the whole manual to make 
good use of the program.) The manual also contains a handy 
reference chart as an aid to preparing music and nine addi- 
tional pages of musical examples (in DATA statements). 
Included are such favorites as King of the Road, Bio win in 
the Wind, Battle Hymn of the Republic, and Mexican Hat 
Dance, Some time and effort will be needed to key in the 
above examples, but if one of these songs is a favorite the 
time spent could well be worth it. 

The program comes in two versions (tape and disk). The 
tape version requires a minimum of 16 K and disk a min- 
imum of 32K. Both require Extended Color BASIC and 
include the musical selection Raindrops Keep Falling 
already keyed into the necessary DATA statements. So, 
before getting too involved in the manual, you can set up 
some background music for your reading enjoyment. But be 
patient, the DATA statements must be compiled (by the 
program) into a machine language program before playing. 
This process takes approximately three minutes. I found the 
wait worthwhile in order to hear four-part harmony being 
produced by my CoCo. 

The disk version contains an extra program called 
JUKEBOX. Contained within this program is the above 
song (Raindrops) and a version of The Exodus already 
compiled and ready to play. Also included are examples of a 
few sound effects (a phaser, a train, and a plane). 

Listening to the above is possible with no musical or 
programming knowledge. Just follow the directions exactly 
as stated in the manual. It is helpful to be able to interpret 
and understand use of basic music notation in order to use 
the "Preparing Music" part of the manual. The main 
requirements are knowing note-length values and pitch 
names on the grand staff. Along with this, your greatest 
asset is a creative musical imagination. A great feature of 



192 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



" TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER PRODUCTS " 
" THE 1248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER " 

The 1 248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER is a full function unit that is 
compatible with virtually all popular 1 K, 2K, 4K & 8K -by-8, 24 pin, 5 
volt EPROMS. Compatible devices are 2508's, 2758 -O/1's, 
251 B's, 271 B's, 2532's, 68732-0/1 's, 68764's, and 68766's. 
Components 2732, 2732A, 2564, and 2764 are compatible via 
adapters (not supplied). The programmer is totally menu driven by 
resident position independent firmware in EPROM, which makes it 
suitable for experienced computer operators and novices alike. 

Select the device type to be programmedfrom the device menu. 
Next, select the function to be performed from the function menu. 
On your command the 1248-EP will verify EPROM erasure, com- 
pare EPROM contents to specified contents of RAM or ROM, 
program blocks or individual bytes of EPROM memory or copy an 
EPROM's contents to user specified RAM. 

The 1248-EP plugs into the cartridge slot of the Color Computer 
and is invoked by the user with the "EXEC & HCOOD" BASIC com- 
mand. The 1 248-EP contains its own on-board programming power 
supply, and has a quality "Zero Insertion Force" socket. 

The combination of the TRS-80 Jgolor Computer , an editor/as- 
sembler/monitor such as the Micro Works SDSBOC-JHr and the 
1248-EP EPROM programmer, makes a high performance, cost 
effective software development station for MC-6800/6809 
microprocessor based systems. Use the system to storeyour own 
games or utility programs in EPROM's for execution from the cart- 
ridge slot using the CK4 PROM/RAM card described below. 

The cost of the 1248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER, instructions 
and adapter diagrams is just $99.95. 

" THE CK4 PROM/ROM CARD " 

The CK4 works with 2K.4K or 8K-by-8 ROM's or EPROM'sof the 5 
volt only variety in 24 pin packages. In addition, the CK4 may be used 
with 4 static RAM's such as 61 16's to expand the computers 
memory work space by 8192 bytes. Each of the four on-board soc- 
kets can be decoded to any 2K block of the memory map from 
SCOOO through SF800 of the Color Computer. In addition, each 
socket can be configured to respond to address blocks from 2K to 
8K bytes in length, thus accommodating 2K, 4K or 8K-by-8 ROM's, 
EPROM's or RAM's. ROM and RAM can be mixed on the card as 
well. RAM, on thecard.can be written to and then "write protected" 
via dip switches on the CK4 to emulate ROM. 

The instructions include information on how to set up the socket 
decoding circuitry and how to provide battery backup for programs 
stored in CMOS static RAM on the CK4 with the computer off or 
the cartridge removed. 

The popular CK4 PROM/RAM card is now available in three 
versions. 

1) The full featured CK4 remains the standard of cartridge board 
flexibility with the added capability of providing battery backup for 
CMOS static RAM's such as 61 1 B's. Cost of the CK4 is still just 
$29.95. 

2) The CK4-1 is a ROM only version of the CK4 card for use with 
CoCo's with later than "E series" circuit boards. These later ver- 
sions of CoCo are not able to write to cartridge based RAM without 
modification. Cost is $27.95 for the CK4-1. 

3) The CK4-2 is the unpopulated CK4 series circuit board only. Buy 
this version of the CK4 and configure them to meet your specific 
requirements at a price designed to stretch your dollars value. Cost 
is $15.95 each. 

" MORSE EMC ODER /DECODER KIT " 

The MEDK80 Morse En/Decoder Kit consists of a machine code 
software driver on tape, a schematic diagram of the interface cir- 
cuitry, component parts, a printed circuit board (PCB), packaging 
suggestions and complete instructions for building a Morse code 
transmission and reception system that is compatible with 4K 
RAM and up models of the TRS-BQ-Color Computer . 



The transmitter/receiver interface circuitry is totally optically 
isolated and is, therefore, compatible with all receivers and trans- 
mitters. Transmitter and receiver both connect to the interface 
unit and to the Color Computer via the RS-232 port. 

The MEDK80 Morse En/Decoder kit operates at speeds up to 70 
words per minute and automatically adapts to speed variations of 
the sender. When transmitting, words are transmitted only when 
fully formed, i.e., followed by a space, and the transmit text buffer 
gives visual notification to the operator of what word/ character is 
currently being sent. In addition, the text buffer is 512 characters 
deep, which is sufficiently large to keep up with the best of "rag- 
chewers". 

Potential purchasers of this product should have previous kit 
building experience. However, this is not a kit of great complexity, 
and is well within the abilities of those actively involved in amateur 
radio or electronic hobbies to construct. To reduce the chance of 
wiring errors, component placement is indicated on the PCB and 
detailed assembly instructions are included. 

The cost of the MEDK80 software, parts, and instructions is 
$39.95. 

" COCO" GETS A BREADBOARD 

The COCO BREADBOARD is a circuit board thatplugsdirectly into 
the cartridge slot of the Color Computer and provides theuser with 
1 6 square inches of predrilled breadboarding area for circuit de- 
velopment, interfacing experiments, motherboard implementation, 
or whatever your imagination conjures up. The plated thru holes in 
the breadboard are wirewrap pin compatible and on 0.10 inch 
centers. 

The COCO BREAD BOARD brings all of the data, address, and con- 
trol signals available at the cartridge slot outside of the body of the 
computer and the signal lines are appropriately labeled to facilitate 
error free wiring of breadboards. A ground plane is provided on the 
top side of the board and solder pads are provided on the bottom of 
the board, thus facilitating circuit grounding and point-to-point 
wiring. In short, the COCO BREADBOARD was designed with the 
experimenter in mind. 

The COCO BREADBOARD is attractively priced to justify its use 
for even the lowest budget projects. It is an ideal vehicleforlearning 
interfacing techniques. Buy extras to have on hand for those rainy 
weekends. 

The COCO BREADBOARD costs just $1 9.95. Price for two (2) or 
more is $1 6.95 each. 

FACTORY FRESH COMPONENTS : 



JTEM 

2716 EPROM 
2532 EPROM 
6821 P 
74LS156 
Socket 



DESCRIPTION 

2K by 8 Bit, 350 ns 
4K by 8 bit, 350 ns 
P.I.A. 

Open collector decoder 
ZIF, 24 pin, Aries 



PRICE 

$4.50 ea. 
$6.50 ea. 
$3.50 ea. 
$1.70 ea. 
$7.95 ea. 



Minimum component order: $25.00 

Add $3.00 to all orders to cover shipping and handling. Allow two 
weeks for personal checks. Canadian residents add 5°/o to cover 
special handling. Arizona residents add 4°/o sales tax. Sorry! No 
charges accepted. All items shipped UPS. 



Make checks payable to: 



COMPUTER ACCESSORIES OF ARIZONA 
5801 E. VOLTAIRE DRIVE 
SCOTTSDALE, ARIZONA 85254 
(602) 996-7569 



TRS-80 is a trademark of TANDY CORP. 
■W-H- S0S80C is a trademark of the MICRO WORKS. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 



this program is that you do not need to be a skillful per- 
former in order to enjoy the results of your efforts. 

Music is prepared for playing by adding DATA state- 
ments to the main program as follows: 
3010 DATA R1R1R1C2Q 
3020 DATA C5G4E4C2H 
Each statement above represents a group of four voices and 
a note length. In the first statement shqwn the Rls stand for 
rests and C2 as C directly below the bass clef. The Q indi- 
cates that the group will be sounded as a quarter note. In this 
statement a single note will be played, as three notes are 
indicated as rests. The second statement will sound a C 
major chord. The letters stand for pitch names and numbers 
for octave placement. The H stands for a half note. Inclusion 
of sharps and flats, and a variety of note lengths are possible. 
The manual contains an easy to use chart showing the 
appropriate symbols and numbers for keying in of pitches 
and lengths. Key and tempo variations may also be keyed in. 
Contained in the manual are a number of examples illustrat- 
ing various possibilities. Up to 230 four-voice chords are 
possible with a 16K CoCo and 720 for 32K. 

After DATA statements are prepared, your music must 
be compiled into a machine level program before playing is 
possible. This is done automatically through the program's 
main menu and takes approximately one second for each 
group of four voices. An excellent feature available is that, 
once compiled, the prepared music may be saved as a self- 
contained program for instant playback. This feature also 
allows the music to be incorporated into other programs. 

Do not expect the sound produced to match the quality of 



your component hi-fi system. This is not the fault of the 
program being reviewed, though. In order to produce 
sound, the CoCo uses a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) 
to convert number values to varying voltage levels. This 
results in a stepped waveform driving the speaker being 
used. The Color Computer contains a six-bit DAC which 
allows a maximum of 64 step levels in a 5-volt range. An 
eight-bit DAC would allow a maximum of 256 steps in the 
same 5-volt range resulting in a much better quality sound. 
A musician seriously interested in musical applications of 
computers requires a minimum of an eight-bit DAC for 
acceptable sound quality. Hopefully, the rumored new 
Color Computer will have an upgraded digital to analog 
converter. 

Other features of The Composer include editing aids, 
recording sounds directly to tape, and addition of low reso- 
lution random graphics. There are some capabilities such as 
loudness and softness control, and tone color controls which 
I would have liked to have seen. However, these features 
would normally be found only on a more expensive pro- 
gram. In fact, similar programs to this program for other 
computers generally cost much more and often require addi- 
tional hardware expenses. Again our CoCo comes vhrough 
by demonstrating an amazing versatility f or a low cost. This 
program is well worth the price and if you have disk drive 
and 32K, definitely do spend the little extra for the disk 
version. 

(Speech Systems, 38W255 Deerpath Road, Batavia, IL 
60510, $24.95 on tape or $29.95 for disk) 

— Larry Konecky 



inal FLEX for Color Computers 



* Upgrade to 64K 

* RS to FLEX, FLEX to RS file transfer ability 

* Create your own character set 

* Automatic recognition of single or double density and single or 
doubled sided 

* All features available for either single or multiple drive systems 

* Settable Disk Drive Seek Rates 

* Faster High Resolution Video Display with 5 different formats 

* Save RS Basic from RAM to Disk 

* Move RS Basic to RAM 

* Load and save function on FLEX disk 

* 13 Support Commands 8 with Source Text 

Languages Available 
Pascal, Fortran, RS Basic, RS Assembler, TSC Basic, TSC Assemb- 
ler, Relocating Assembler, Macro Assembler, Mumps 

If you are tired of playing games on your TRS-80C" Color Computer, or find that you are 
handicapped by the limitations of the RS BASIC in trying to write a Program that will allow you to 
actually USE the Color Computer as a COMPUTER, YOU ARE READY TO MOVE UP TO THE 
FLEX9 " Operating System. If you want to have REAL PROGRAMMING POWER, using an 
Extremely Powerful Business BASIC, PASCALS, C Compilers, a full-blown Macro Assembler 
with a Library capability so you are not continuously "reinventing the wheel ", YOU ARE READY 
TO MOVE UP TO THE FLEX9 v Operating System. If you would like to see if YOU REALLY 
COULD USE A COMPUTER IN YOUR BUSINESS, or begin to make your Computer start 
PAYING IT S OWN WAY by doing some Computer Work for the millions of small businesses 
around you, such as Wordprocessing, Payroll, Accounting, Inventory, etc., then YOU ARE 
READY TO MOVE UP TO THE FLEX9" Operating System. How?? DATA-COMP has the way! 

DATA-COMP's FLEX9 '" Conversion for the TRS-80C" Color Computer was designed forthe 
SERIOUS .COMPUTER USER; with features like greatly increased Display Screens, WITH 
Lower Case Letters, so you can put a FULL Menu on ONE Screen, or see SEVERAL Para- 
graphs at the same time; with features like providing a FULL Keyboard so you have FULL 
Control of your Computer AND it's Programs NATURALLY, without needing a chart to see what 
Key Combination will give you what function; with USER ORIENTED functions to make using 
the Operating System natural, like having the Computer AUTOMATICALLY determine what 
type of Disk is being used in what type of Disk Drive and working accordingly, rather that you 
have to specify each and every thing for it, or like having the Computer work with the Printer you 
have been using all along without you having to tell the new Operating System what is there; etc., 
etc., etc. 



DATA-COMP has everything you need to make your TRS-80C v Color Computer WORK 
for YOU; from Parts and Pieces to Full, Ready To Use SYSTEMS. DATA-COMP designs, 
sells, services, and SUPPORTS Computer SYSTEMS, not just Software. CALL DATA- 
COMP TODAY to make your Computer WORK FOR YOU! 

System Reguirements 

FLEX9 Special General Version x/Editor & Assembler (which normally sell for $50.00 

ea.) $150.00 

F-MATE(RS) FLEX9 Conversion Rout, for the RS Disk Controller 

when purchased with Special General FLEX9 Sys. $69 95 

when purchased without the General FLEX9 Sys. $79.95 

Set of Eight 64K RAM Chips w/Mod. Instructions $39 96 

Color Computer with 64K RAM and EXT. BASIC $499 95 

Color Computer with 16 K RAM $239 95 

Color Computer with 16K RAM and EXT. BASIC $389 95 

SPECIAL SYSTEM PACKAGES 

64K Radio Shack COLOR COMPUTER, Radio Shack COLOR DISK CONTROLLER, a Disk 
Drive System, Special General Version of FLEX9 \ F-MATE(RS) " and a Box of 10 
Double Density Diskettes; a COMPLETE, ready to run SYSTEM on your Color TV Set. 

$1249.95 

DISK DRIVE PACKAGES, etc. 

These Packages include the Radio Shack Disk Controller. Disk Drives with Power Supply and 
Cabinet, and Disk Drive Gable: 

PAK #1 — 1 Single Sided, Double Density Sys. $499.95 
PAK #2 — 2 Single Sided, Double Density Sys. $769.95 
PAK #3 — 1 Double Sided. Double Density Sys. $599.95 
PAK #4^2 Double Sided, Double Density Sys. $949.95 

PAK #5 — 2 Qume Thinline Double Sided Double Density Sys. $764.95 



PARTS AND PIECES 

Radio Shack Disk Controller 
1 Tandon Single Sided, Double Density Disk Drive 
1 Tandon Double Sided, Double Density Disk Drive 
1 Qume Thinline Double Sided, Double Density 

Single Drive Cabinet with Power Supply 

Double Drive Cabinet with Power Supply 

Single Drive Disk Cable for RS Controller 

Double Drive Disk Cable for RS Controller 

Micro Tech. Prods.. Inc. LOWER CASE ROM Adapter 

Radio Shack BASIC Version 1.1 ROM 

Radio Shack Extended Basic ROM 



S179 95 
$249.95 
$349 95 
S279 95 

$89.95 
$109.95 
S24.95 
$34.95 
$74.95 
$34.95 
S69.9S 



194 



DATA-COMP 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



P.O. Box 794 HIXSON, TN 37343 
1-615-842-4601 




Software R&vtew '^M^mM. M mm Software Rev&w 



Adding With Carry 
Gets Positive Response 

When personal computers first appeared, they seemed to 
have the potential to revolutionize education. That hasn't 
happened yet, but many good educational programs have 
appeared. Carry, from B5 Software, is among them. 

Carry gives practice in addition in which carrying, or 
regrouping, is required. There are four levels of difficulty. 
The easiest gives two-digit numbers to add with no carrying 
required, and the hardest gives three-digit numbers with 
carrying. The problem is displayed in large numbers that are 
easy for small children to read. You enter the answers from 
right to left, just as you would on paper. When a carry is 
required, pressing the 'C key draws a box above the prob- 
lem, in the right place for the carry to be entered. You then 
type the 1 T to be carried, and add the next column. Typing in 
the carry is optional, by the way; you may just carry 
mentally. 

Af ter each correct answer, a happy face appears at the top 
of the screen. If any wrong number is entered, a sad face 
appears, and a low tone is sounded — and the incorrect 
answer does not appear on the screen. When the correct 
answer is finally entered, the sad f ace disappears. Af ter each 
set of ten problems, a little "pac-face" chomps across the 
screen and eats a numeral. 

The program is very carefully and professionally done. 
Graphics and sound are used effectively throughout, and 
help hold the child's interest. The program comes with a 
well-prepared, 12-page booklet, which describes the opera- 
tion of the program, and give some useful tips on helping 
your child learn addition. 

The program is designed for children in grades two 
through four. My six-year old son enjoyed the program, and 
played it several afternoons, in preference to watching TV! 
When I asked his advice about this review, he said, "Tell'em 
it's a good program." It is a good program. 

(B5 Software, 1024 Bainbridge Place, Columbus, OH 43228, 

$19.95, 16K) 

—David Finkel 



Soooper Pac — 
Super Program 

Soooper Pac is a pac-maze game to use with your TRS- 
80C or TDP-100 systems. It takes 16K non-extended 
BASIC. 

When loading Soooper Pac, you first load in a small 
BASIC program. This program clears enough memory 
space for the game and automatically loads the machine 
language program which is the game. The game then starts 
automatically. 

The main object, as in most other similar games, is to get 
as many points as possible. 

You have several game options such as: which mazes you 
want (1, 2, or 3), what skill level you want for each maze 
(with the exception of the first), the choice of using joysticks 
or your keyboard to control the Soooper Pac. You can also 
control how often the monsters change their pattern of 
attack, the speed of all moving objects (1-6), and how long 
you have to eat the monsters after eating one of the large 
objects in the corners of each maze. There are a total of 30 
skill levels. 

If you are skillful enough to master two mazes, you will 
get to see an intermission in which a monster chases a 
Soooper Pac across the screen which is very much like the 
arcade game. Then play will resume. 

The three-page instruction booklet is rather skimpy in 
explaining the game, as it just gives the facts on it. I was 
really disappointed in this, because someone could buy the 
program and never understand it. 

The graphics were similar to the arcade game and the 
sound effects were good, too. 

Despite the instruction booklet, I think the game is good 
and I recommend it for your software library. 

Good luck with Soooper Pac. 

(Bear Bones Software, Inc., G-3117 Corunna Road, Suite 
108, Flint, MI 48504, $21.95 for cassette) 

—Wayne Shepherd 



AUDIO AND VIDEO 
INTERFACE 

Provides SWITCHED color or monochrome 75ohm, 1 volt p-p video from CoCo. 
If you wish to use a high resolution monitor this interface is a must. 
Separate enhancements are provided for color and monchrome outputs. 

This is not a simple emitter-follower add-on. 

'UNIT DOES NOT REQUIRE SOLDERING 
'INTERFACE IS ASSEMBLED AND TESTED 
MOOmw AUDIO @ 8 ohms 
*TWO YEAR WARRANTY 

Price $49.95 (Includes Shipping) FREELAND ENG. 7503 N. Kerby, Portland, OR 97217 



June, 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 95 



EDUCATION 



Peripherals For The Color 
Computer Joystick Dilema' 



By David M acali 
Rainbow Education Writer 

In our never-ending search to find quality equipment for 
the Color Computer we believe we have found the best 
joysticks available. 

Equipment purchased for use in schools must meet the 
demand of constant use. We have found what we believe to 
be the best joysticks available for the Color Computer: the 
Wico Command Control Joystick system. Wico Corpora- 
tion is the largest designer and manufacturer of control 
devices for commerical arcade games. Wico has now deve- 
loped the command control system for use in schools and 
with home color computers. Owners can enjoy all the excit- 
ment, challenge and durability found only at the arcade until 
now. 

Wico has developed three joysticks, a trackball and a 
Color Computer adapter. The three joystick models are 
Joystick 15-9714, Joystick Deluxe 15-9708, and Famous 
Red Ball Joystick 15-9730. 

These joysticks are designed for superior control, pin- 



^3 EpH 1^5^ 



49 BROOKLAND AVE 
AURORA ONTARIO 
CANADA L4G 2H6 

R" AM II Y GAMES 

For 16K AND 32K COLOR COMPUTER 
STQCKBPQKER -Ud to 6 players can play the stock 
market.For 16K or 32K ECB.The 32K is in High-Res 
Grahicst CQLQRMIND -Up to 4 players challenge for 
hiddencolorsi CRIBBAGE -For 2 or 4 players.In 
High-Res GraphicsKfor 32K),CONCEN-Challenge the 
computer or a friend to a good oY game of 
concentrationiREMREM -Challenge your friends. Who 
can remember the longest color sequence? 
BATTLE-Will you get bombed before you can find 
all the ships? An extremely entertaining game for 
the family. 

ALL GAMES ONLY $20.00 OR ANY TWO FOR $35.00 
ALSO FROM AURORA SOFTWARE 
MR. COPY- A quality copier written in M.L.that 
will make backup tape copies.MR.COPY is capable of 
making up to 99 copies in one loading! $25.00 

I HOMDISK- If you have a modified 32K C.C. machine 
$20.00 ROMDISK will allow you to load your R.S.Roni 
Pack* from a disk! $20,00 



point firing accuracy and durability. In addition, Wico joy- 
sticks are backed by a one-year limited warranty. 

Each command control joystick has two fire button loca- 
tions; one at the top of the stick and the other on the base. 
Fire buttons are activated by a base-mounted switch. A long 
five-foot cord is standard for the joystick but extension 
cords are also available in six- or 12-foot lengths. 

The handles on the regular and deluxe model are extra- 
long arcade-style that allow for smooth movement into all 
eight standard positions. The red-ball model is designed like 
the arcade-type joystick. All joysticks are made with a 
heavy-duty plastic base. A feature which we found to be 
beneficial is the use of rubber stops on the bottom corners. 
This eliminates the problem of sliding and falling joysticks. 

The Command Control Trackball features a phenolic ball 
that enables 360° movement with an infinite number of 
positions. The Color Computer trackball seems only to lack 
quality programs. If anyone is aware of any exciting pro- 
grams what would work well with a trackball, please write: 
David Macali, 3269 Driftwood, Nortown, Ohio 44203. 

The adapter necesary to connect the joysticks to the Color 
Computer has a unique feature. All Wico adapters are fac- 
tory adjusted to a center point of thirty-one. However, the 
Wico adapter can be readjusted to accommodate variations 
in computer hardware. This is accomplished by typing in a 
simple ten-line program and opening the adapter to locate 
the four trimpots. Pictures and directions to complete this 
procedure are simple, concise and included with the manual. 

We highly recommend the use of the Wico Command 
Controls for educational or home use. They have passed all 
of our tests with excellent ratings. In fact, we have found 
only two minor concerns. 

First, it would be beneficial is Wico supplied a method to 
hook the adapter to the computer table. (We've found that 
masking tape alleviates the problem.) 

The second concern exists because the Wico System(s) are 
of the switch-type and give only directional readings. This 
means they work with software that uses direction only. The 
joysticks will not work with programs that require joysticks 
which look for screen position. This limitation has caused us 
difficulty only in accessing Math Bingo. However, Wico has 
assured us that they are developing a potentionmitor joy- 
stick that is to be released this spring. 

The potentiomitor joystick should alleviate the software 
problem, and if the quality of their new command control 
joysticks are equal to current models, we believe they will be 
the finest available. 



(Mr. Macali is coordinator of instructional services 
with Norton City Schools, Norton, Ohio.) 



1 96 the RAINBOW June, 1 983 



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GRAPHICS 



Print It Bigger 

This Character Graphics 

Your Printer Into 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

Signs began as a set of letters done in DRA FFcommands. 
It was an interesting challenge. But when the letters 
were done at the first cut level, and some code to put 
them on the graphics screen had demonstrated that the 
system worked, I moved on to other things. David Steyer's 
article on "Non-graphic Printer Graphics" in the Sep- 
tember, 1982 Rainbow caught my interest. This program 
could print the letters from the P MODE 3 screen, but the 
results weren't what I wanted. Basically, David had his 
program start at the right side of the screen and, using 
PPOINT, looked at each pixel to see what it was set. The set 
value was then converted to a printer character like "* ," "$," 
"." or a space and added to a string. When the proper string 
length was reached, the string was set to the printer and the 
process repeated one line of pixels to the left until the entire 
screen had been transfered. (Steyer's Banner and Sign were 
featured in the January, 1983 Rainbow. White's Signs pro- 
duces an in-between sign.) 

PMODE 3 is 128 pixels across so the picture covers 
almost two I I-inch sheets. It takes three such sheet pairs to 
handle the full screen vertically. The sheets can be taped or 
glued together to form a sign or poster. If PMODE 4 had 
been tried, the full width would have been over 40 inches. 
But, just a minute. My line printer VIII supports half line 
feeds as do some others. In PMODE 4, at half line feeds, a 
sweep across the screen can be done on the two sheets of 
paper. One routine in Signs does just this. 

I was talking about this to Lonnie Falk and he mentioned 
that he would like to print large letters on an %Vi x 1 1 f or title 
and cover sheets. Here was another good idea, right up there 
with the Bird Wash. It is implemented using condensed type 
and half linefeeds. Unfortunately, when all is done, a 32K 
machine is needed. If you only have 1 6K, check the ads and 
get more memory. Signs also needs a printer that supports 
half line feed or its equivalent. 

On RUN, Signs is initialized and goes to the main menu 
where options to start a new screen, return to the old screen, 
go to the printer, load from tape and save to tape are offered. 



A ">" points to START NEW SCREEN. After a RUN, 
there is no old screen and there is nothing to print, but you 
may have a file on tape. You may load a picture or diagram 
made by another program with the GRAPHICS SCREEN 
ONLY choice or load a Signs generated file with GRA- 
PHICS SCREEN & TEXT. The characters for each line 
that Signs puts on the screen are saved in a string which is 
read to obtain cursor position inf ormation. The strings need 
to be saved and read in if the screen is to be edited later. If 
you are saving the screens to be part of a series of screens for 
say, a presentation, you would want to save only the graph- 
ics onto the presentation tape, though both files might be 
saved on another tape for later reference. In any case, make 
your choice by using the up and down arrows to move the 
">" next to the option you want and press ENTER. 

When you select START NEW SCREEN, you will be 
asked letter scale for the first line. The IX letters will be 
about % inch tall on the printed sheet and the others scaled 
as indicated. All letters on a single line must be the same 
scale, but each line can be scaled to your choice. You choose 
the same way as on the MAIN MENU, move the ">"and hit 
ENTER. After choosing the scale, you are asked if you want 
a 22 INCH WIDE SIGN or an 8!/ 2 x 1 1 SHEET. The 22-inch 
choice uses the whole screen. The area available for the Wi x 
1 1 is more limited. 

You are now presented a bordered screen with a single 
pixel flashing cursor in the upper left. This always marks the 
upper left corner of the next letter. The space bar moves the 
cursor right and ENTER moves it down. The left and right 
arrows move the cursor over previously entered letters. The 
up arrow moves the cursor to previous lines while ENTER 
moves it back down. Whenever you move the cursor to a 
new line for the first time, you have the option to change 
scale. If you choose not to change scales by either typing 
letters, spaces or ENTER to move down again, the scale of 
the previous line is used and can no longer be changed for 
that line. 

To change scale, press shift and the up-arrow. This sends 



198 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



Than You Can 



Print Program Can Turn 
A Sign Maker 



you to a menu that offers MAIN MENU, PRINT SIGN and 
CHOOSE NEW SCALE if this is allowed. If you choose a 
scale, even the current one, you are returned to the graphics 
screen. 

Letters are entered by typing at a modest rate. A skilled 
typist can out-type the code, particularly at the larger scales. 
There are some tick marks along the borders to help you 
format your sign. The top and bottom marks are placed 
every 10 pixels across. The tick marks on the side show the 
bottom of the first and second sheets when printing 22 
inches wide. There are three letter widths with 7, /, /, i, :, ;, 
and . in the narrow category. W, M, and & are extra 
wide. The rest are the same mid-size. 

Editing is done by erasing the line from the cursor point to 
its right end. Position the cursor at the beginning of the 
portion you want to delete and press the "@" key. 

When you are ready to print results, use the shift and 
up-arrow and choose PRINT SIGN. The Print Routines 
menu tells you the current computer baud rate setting. If you 
choose RESET BAUD RATE and press ENTER you will 
be asked to enter the baud rate wanted. You may choose 
300, 600, 1200, 2400, and 4800— just type in the rate and hit 
ENTER. You can choose to print the test strings in normal 
type as a reference to content of signs on tape. 

To print a sign, set the print head just below the top of the 
paper, make sure the printer is on and choose PRINT SIGN. 
Sign printing takes time, so you will have a chance to get a 
beer or sweep the floor. After printing, control returns to the 
PRINT ROUTINES menu. Get to other portions of the 
program through the MAIN MENU option. 

You are offered a choice of characters to use in making the 
sign. This could be any character that can be entered from 
the keyboard. I like the "0," the "$" works well as does 
and "*." The program is initialized with the "0" as print 
character. Printer codes in Lines 650 set the LPVIII to 
half -space data processing mode so each carriage return 
causes half a line feed while codes in Line 692 set the printer 
back to full line feeds. Codes in Lines 685 and 690 set the 



printer to condensed (132 characters per line) and back to 
normal 10 pitch characters. Many printers support these 
features, but have different print codes. You will have to 
work out how to change these lines to fit your printer. (A 
printer control code conversion chart appears in this issue of 
the Rainbow.) 

The BASIC INSTR command was invaluable in develop- 
ing both the ">" operation on the menus and in reading and 
reacting to keystrokes in the graphics mode. On the Main 
Menu, we want to be able to position the ">"atcertainlines 
and not others depending on the value of the count variable 
CT. When ENTER is pressed, CT is then used in an ON CT 
GOTO statement to send the program to the chosen func- 
tion. CT should range from 1 to 7. Using INSTR in Line 
1010, a multiplier LO is found that is used to calculate a 
PRINT* position corresponding to the text that CT repre- 
sents. This basic method was used in all menus except the 
print character choice. 

In the graphics mode, the input character was used in an 
INSTR statement to obtain a number. Depending upon the 
range the number falls into, the program may move into 
tests to move the cursor or go directly to entering a character 
on the screen. If the number returned by INSTR represents a 
character, it also tells whether the character is narrow, aver- 
age or wide so the cursor can be properly advanced. The 
same technique and string is used in the backspace subrou- 
tine to control cursor movement back over the text. Consult 
Lines 30 and 145. ST$ is defined in Line 2110. 

When we were writing TIMS, Gary Davis of Sugar Soft- 
ware wanted a way to change baud rate up to 4800. Rather 
than using a lot of space consuming IF THEN statements, 
we merely provided a means for the user to type in the value 
to be POKEd to set the higher rates. In Signs, I have worked 
up a code to convert a PEEDed value to the then set baud 
rate and print it on the menu. If a new baud rate is selected, it 
is converted to the appropriate value and POKEd into 150. 
IF THEN is not used but INSTR is. The code is in Lines 
600-625. Have fun figuring it out. 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 199 



36 .0296 

400 0720 



610. . 
667. . 
1000. 
2030. 
2100. 
END. 



0B48 
0F51 
13A9 
177E 
1C3A 
1F3E 



The listing: 

0 GOTO10100 
1 0 CLEAR2900 : PCLEAR4 : PT*-8TR I N8* 
(37, "*" > : DIMS* ( 100) , SC* ( 19) : G08U 
B2000: GOTO 1000 

17 IFZS#60>TIMER THEN 17 ELSE RE 
TURN 

18 PRINT"###*TO PROCEED TOUCH AN 
Y KEY****"! 

19 Z9-INKEY*: IFZ*-""THEN 19 ELSE 
RETURN 

20 PRINT"TO SET TAPE RECORDER AN 
D POSITION TAPE TO SAVE O 
R LOAD, PRESS ANY KEY FOR MOTOR 
ON ON ANDTHEN ANY KEY FOR MOTORO 

FF" 

21 OOSUB19 

22 AUDIOON : MOTORON : BOSUB 1 9 : MOTOR 
OFF: RETURN 

30 I*-MID*(SC*(LN),CC+DR, 1):I-IN 
STR(1,ST*, I*) : IFI-0THENXI-IC#7*S 
C ELSEIFK18THENXI-IC*4*3C EL8EX 
I-IC»9*SC 

31 I F X+X I >254THEN8C* ( LN ) -LEFT* ( 8 



NOW a good used line printer 
ENTRONICS SS© 



138 ch«r«ct«r» p»r lin« 

Sprocket feed - Adjustable width 

Dot Matrix 5X7 

Print rate 88 char, per second 

One line buffer 

H = 13-3/4" D = Sl-2/3" 

W = 3£" Weight = 98 lbs. 

CENTRONICS 538 (used) serial 600 
Baud, with 4 pin DIN plug $315.80 

CENTRONICS 588 (used) parallel feed 
44 pin edge card *£75.00 

All prices F. O. B. Henderson, Tx. 

Terms: Cash, check or COD 

Tx. residents add 456 sales tax 

LEADER SALES CORPORATION 
P. O. Box 1££0, Henderson, Tx. 75653 
Ph. £14-657-7800 after 6 PM 
Discounts available to CC Clubs and 
volume buyers. 



C* (LN) , LEN (SC* (LN) > -1 ) : OV-1 : RETU 
RN 

32 CC-CC+IC:X-X+XI:X*-STR*(X)+", 
" : Y*-STR* (Y) : I FLT— 1 THENRETURNELS 
EDRAW " BM " +X*+Y* : RETURN 
34 CC-0 : LN-LN+ I C : I *-LEFT* ( SC* ( LN 
) , 2) : SC-VAL ( I*) : Y-Y+2*IC+IC*8*3C 

: x-2: x*-str* ( x ) +" , " : y*-btr* ( Y) : d 

RAWBH-'+Xt+Y*: RETURN 

36 IFX >2THENIC— 1 : DR-2: BOTO30EL8 

ERETURN 

38 I FLEN ( SC* ( LN ) ) >CC+2THEN I C- 1 : D 

R-3 : BOTO30EL8ERETURN 

40 I FLN > 1 THEN I C— 1 : B0T034ELSERET 

URN 

42 I FLEN (SC* (LN+1 ) >0THENIC-1 : GOT 
034EL8ERETURN 

44 I C- 1 : I FLEN ( SC* ( LN+ 1 ) ) -0THENSC 
* (LN+1 ) -LEFT* (SC* (LN) , 2) : G0T034E 



46 I *-LEFT* ( SC* ( LN ) , 2 ) : SC-VAL ( I * 
) : SH*— LEFT* (SC* (LN) , CC+2) : YE-8*S 
C: LS-LEN (SC* (LN) ) : Y*-STR* ( Y) : X*» 
STR* ( X ) : H*-STR* ( SC*4 ) 
48 I*-MID*(SC*(LN),CC+3,1):I-IN8 
TR(1,8T*,I*):IFI-0THENXI-7*8C EL 
8EIFK 18THENX I-4*8C EL8EX I-9*3C 
50 YE*-8TR*(YE):XI*-8TR*(XI-1):D 
RAW " C 1 S4" : FORK— 0TOX I - 1 : DRAW "D"+Y 
E*+" R 1 U " +YE* : NE X T : CC-CC+ 1 : 1 FL 8 >C 
C+2THEN4BELSECC— LEN ( SH* ) -2 : SC* ( L 
N) -SH»: DRAW"BM M +X*+" , "+Y*+"C08"+ 
H*: RETURN 

100 fork-itoi9:sc*(K)- m,, :next'TA 
rbet line 

110 print:print:bosub400:dm-0:pm 

0de4, 1 : pcls1 : draw "c0 11 : 8o8ub190 

1 20 pm0de4 , 1 : screen 1,0: color0 , 1 : 

ln-1 : sc* ( 1 ) -str* (sc) 

1 25 x-2 : y-2 : draw " bm2 , 2 " +sc* 

130 pokehp,0:pp-ppoint(x,y) 

1 35 p-ppo i nt ( x , y ) : i fp-0thenpset ( 

x,y, 1)el8epset(x,y,0) 

140 i*-inkey*:fork-ito5:next: ifi 

*- " " then 1 35elsepset ( x , y , pp ) : a-as 

C(I*) 

145 I— INSTR ( 1 , ST*, I*) : IFI >0ANDI< 
10THENONI 808UB36, 38, 1 10, 44, 160, 
40, 450, 160, 46: SOTO 130 
150 DR-3:SC*(LN)-SC*(LN)+I«: IC-1 

: lt-1 : GOSUB30 : lt-0: ifov-0THENDra 

WG* (A) : GOTO130ELSEOV-0: GOTO 130 
160 RETURN 

1 90 I FFO-0THENDRAW "S4BM0, 0 | D79R 1 
L1DB0R1L1D32" : F0RW-1T025: DRAW 11 Rl 
0U1D1 " : NEXT: DRAW " R5U32L 1 R 1 U80L 1 R 
1U79L5" : F0RW-1T025: DRAW"D1U1L10" 
: NEXT: RETURN 

195 DRAW"84BM0,0|D132 II :FORW-1TO1 
3: DRAW"R10U1D1 " : NEXT: DRAW "R3U 132 



200 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



Quality Software Is The 
Number One Priority At 

K&KCOMPUTORS 




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SHOOT TO SPELL AND FLASH MATH • An educational 
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SPACE HARVEST • Pilot your spacecraft above the 
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alien guards. Machine language Only $19 95 . 

SERIAL TO PARELLEL CONVERTER - Have a printer 
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BLACKJACK - A casino game that puts two players 
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TAPE INDEX • Trouble keeping track of what programs 
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POLARIS - You are under the ocean in a submarine, 
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7PP 




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SKY DESTROY • Planes and helicopters are coming from 
all directions, they must bestopped!Thisgame issimilarto 
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Machine language. Only $19 95 . 

BOWLING SCORED FOR DOLLARS - Do your leagues 
bowling averages, This program will keep individual 
scores, team totals, individual averages, team standings, 
and print all this information to your line printer. On 
cassette and disk, specify on order. Only $1 9 95 . 

INVENTORY CONTROL - This program contains all the 
necessary features required for all types of inventories: 
sort inventory by stock number, list stock number, 
description, amount in stock, cost, wholesale, profits. Only 

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P.O. BOX 833 • STERLING HEIGHTS, MICHIGAN 

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Telephone: 13 JM3) 264-7 345 





l3" : f0rw-1t013: draw"d1u1l10" : nex 
t: return 

400 cls: print046, "signs",,," 
letter scale (1st line) " , tab (6) " 
ix", ,tab(6) "2x", ,tab(6) "3x":ct-1 

:FG-0:GO8UB490 

410 PR I NT0LP p "X"| :PRXNT0260, "PAP 
ER FORMAT" m TAB (6) "22 INCH WIDE 

SIGN" , TAB (6) "8 1/2 IN. X 11 IN. 

SHEET ":CT-0 
420 LP- (CT+10) #32+2: PRINT0LP, " >" 
I : 808UB19: PRINT0LP, " " | ! IFZ*-CHR 
•(10) AND CT-0THENCT- 1 : 8OTO420EL8 
EIFZ*-CHR*(94)AND CT-1THENCT-0: 8 
OTO420EL3EIFZ*< >CHR* ( 13) THEN420E 
L8EF0-CT : RETURN 
490 CLS: PRINT046, "SIBNS" , , , " 
MAIN MENU",,,," PRINT SIGN",, 

p p I : cm-2: CT-i : iflen <sc* <ln> ) -2AN 

DSC* ( LN+ 1 ) - " " THENPR I NT " CURRE 
NT SCALE IS"SC*(LN)"X"," CHOO 
8E NEW SCALE" p TAB (6) "IX", ( TAB (6) 
"2X " , , TAB (6) "3X " : CM-5 
460 Z*-HEX*(CT):L0-IN8TR(" 1 2 

345" p Z«) : LP-L0#32+2: PRINT0LP, " 
>"i:eO8UB19:PRINT0LP," "| 
465 IFZ*-CHR*(10)ANDCT<CM THENCT 
-CT+1 : QOTO460EL8EIFZ*-CHR* (94) AN 
DCT >1 THENCT-CT- 1 : GOTO460EL8E I FZ* 



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<>CHR«(13)THEN460EL8EONCT GOTO 10 
00 f 600 

470 ct-ct-2 : i fct< 1 thenscreen 1,0: 
boto130el8ego8ub49s: sc* (ln) -str* 
<8c) : screen 1,0: goto 130 
490 lp- ( ct+3 ) *32+2 : pr i nt0lp , " > " i 
:gosubi9:print«_p," ",:ifz*-chr* 
(10) andct<3thenct«ct+1 : 8oto490el 
8eifz4-chr* (94) andct > 1 thenct— ct- 
1 : goto490el8e i f z *< >chr* ( 13 ) then4 

90 

495 8C-CT*4 : 8C»- 11 3 " +STR* ( SC ) : 8C- 
CT : DRAWSC* : RETURN 
600 * TARGET LINE 

605 P0KE65494 , 0 : BP-PEEK (150): BU- 
INSTRd, "61841 87 180", RIG 

HT* (STR* (BP) , LEN (STR* (BP) ) -1 ) ) : B 
U-4800/BU 

610 CLS : PR I NT073 , " PR I NT ROUTINES 

CURRENT BAUD RATE — BU, 
TAB (6) "RESET BAUD RATE",,," P 
RINT SIGN",,,," PRINT TEXT 8T 
RING",,," MAIN MENU":CT-1 
615 CT*-RIGHT*(STR*(CT),1):LP-IN 
STR (I," 12 3 4",CT*):LP-LP#3 
2+2: PRINTGLP, 11 >" I : G08UB19: PRINTS 
LP, " "| : IFZ*-CHR* ( 10) ANDCT< 4THEN 
CT-CTT+1 : Q0T0615EL8EIFZ*-CHR* (94 
) ANDCT > 1 THENCT-CT- 1 ; G0T06 1 5EL8E I 
FZ«< >CHR* (13) THEN6 1 5EL8E0NCT GOT 
0620 , 640 , 630 , 695 

620 PRINT 11 "| : INPUT "ENTER NEW BA 
UD RATE" | BU* : BU*— LEFT* ( BU* , 1 ) : BL 
-IN8TR ( 1 , "36124", BU*) : IFBL-0THEN 
PR I NT "baud rat* error ": SOUND 100, 
50:GOTO605 

625 BU(l)-lS0:BU(2)-87:BU(3)-4l: 
BU (4) -18: BU (5)-6: BU-BU (BL) : POKE1 
50, BU: GOTO605 

630 F0RK-1T019:PRINT«-2,8C*(K):N 

ext:goto610 

640 cls:print073,"print graphics 
",,," current print character 
"," is "a*,,,," key your c 
haracter or"," < enter > for "a 
*: g08ub19: ifz*— chr* ( 13) then650el 

8EA*-Z* 

650 PM0DE4 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 0 : PR I NT0-2 , 
CHR* ( 19) CHR* (27) CHR* (20) : DRAW "CI 
" : G08UB 1 90 : DRAW " C0" : I FFO- 1 THEN6S 
5 

660 FORU-255TO0 8TEP-l:POKEHP,0: 
B*— STR I NG* (G0, 32) : FORV-0TO79: IF1 
-PPOINT (U, V) THENMID* (B*, V+l , 1 ) -" 
" : ELSEM I D* ( B* , V+ 1 , 1 ) -A* : CT-V+ l : 
C-l 

664 NEXT:POKE65494,0: IFC— 0THENPR 
INT0-2, " " : NE X TEL8EPR I NT#-2 , LEFT 

*(B*,ct):c-0:next 

665 cls : prints 194, "press 'c to 



202 the RAINBOW June, 1983 





AT LAST - REAL ARCADE ACTION 

Just plug in our odoptor (below) ond use your ATARI® JOY5T1CKS, or for REAL 

ARCADE AGlON...get one of ours! 
ByWICO* 

COMMAND CONTROL odoptor Radio Shock* TRS80® Color Computer 1 7 95 
Use one or two Joysticks • Adaptor needed for oil Joysticks. 

COMMAND CONTROL Joysticks 

• Injection-molded modular construction ond 6 Leaf type molded switches 
— identical to the best commercial arcade models. 

• Two fire burton locations, activated by above-mounted slide switch 

• ExTTQ-long 5' cord 



Joystick 15-9714 29 95 

• ExTro-long arcade slyle 
bat handle grip rhof moves 
smoothly ond easily into oil 
8 standard positions. 

• Low-profile, heovy-duty 
plastic base. 






Famous Red Boll™ 
Joystick 15-9730 34 95 

• Arcode-type fed ball handle that moves 
smoothly ond easily into oil 8 standard 
positions. 

• Low-profile, heavy-duty plastic base. 





ATARI 
Joysticks 



SPECIAL 

$9.50 each/2 for $1 8.00 



TM 




QuickShot 

DELUXE JOY5T1CK CONTROLLER 
Deluxe positive response fire button 
Contour grip design • Extra long feet cord 

Conventional type firing burton • Rubber Suction cup footing ^ w 

for stable one hand operation • Contour groove for sure grip $19 93 ea./34 93 pr. 



TWGA-COMMAND JOY5T1CK5 
H9 95 eo/34 95 pr. 




POIN1MA5TER 17 95 ea/32 95 pr. 

A rugged, tost action joystick for those 
who take their gomes seriously. 



POINTMASTER PRO 28 95 ea./49 95 pr. 

Super Joystick with built in Fire Control 
ond suction base. 




Pro/Writer Printer— 8510 A 



Printer 

Interface 

TDP-100 



LIST 
'495.00 

69.00 



SALE 

'439.95 

65.95 



PACKAGE 

Pockoge 
'499.95 



VTSA/MCadd3% 
Ship/handling 
(y insurance 
odd $10.00 



1 6K Color Computer w/GASIC - $289.00 

16K Color Computer w/Exrended Color BASIC - $389.00 



SOFTWARE 

FROM SHELL 

r^TH5TAR^nooVenture''32k/ecb. '19.95 
o text odvenfure fhars different!! 
(See review in April Issue of Rainbow) r*wboj» 

SUB-HUNT "arcade type" 16k/ecb . . . . ' 9.95 
(FREE in March Issue of Rainbow) 

STAR RAID 'arcade type" 16k ecb . . . '18.95 
a lot of action for 16k 

FEDERATION BOOTCAMP 16k ecb. . . . '18.95 
You've been drafted for 16 wks. 
of rugged training! can you 
become a "spoce coder" ??? 

SONAR SEARCH "arcade type" 16/ecb'18.95 
remember battleship?? you'll 
love this one! 1/2 players 

EXTERMINATOR^orcodetype" 1 6k/ecb ' 1 8.95 
not o "centipede type game" 
this is original! destroy 
the insects with your con 
of "RAID" - lots of fun! 

SNOOPY 6 RED BARON "arcade type" '18.95 
1 6k/ecb - this one is o red 
"dog fight" for 2 players only! 

LUNAR-londer "arcade type" 16k/ecb '1595 
yep, another "lander" gome but 
we think you'll like our version. 
Different each time with 4 levels 
of play! Great Effects!! 

FROM TOM Mix 

DONKEY-KING "arcade type" 32K/mi '24.95 
by far the best "KONG" type 

gdme! 4 full screens, Just 
like the arcode-ASTOUNDING!! 

TAPE TO DISK 'utility" 16k/ml '1995 

load any tope to disk 
automatically 

THE FIXER "utility" 16k/ml '18.95 

having trouble moving those 
600 hex programs to disk? 
the FIXER will help! 

DISK TO TAPE "utility" 16k/ml '19.95 

dump contents of disk to 
tape automatically 

***IF IT'S NOT GOOD, WE DON'T SELL IT*** 
DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 

* ALL ARCADE TYPE IN HI-RES * 

ZAXXONB/Dafaso^ . $39.95 

FREE 16K Adv. game with 
$50 order. 



Orders under $50 - odd $2.50 
_ ship/hnd. Write for complete 

S & S ARCADE SUPPLIES line of software 

8301 Samow Dr./Orlando, FL 32807 Flo. residents odd 5% sales tax. 

9 to 5 EST (305) 894-1 887 - Evenings (305) 275-8490 VTSA/MC odd 3% 



PRINT NEXT"," SCREEN SECTION", " 
PRESS ANY OTHER KEY TO STOP": 8 
08UB19: IFZ«< >"C"THEN692EL8E8CREE 
Nl , 0: FORLH255TO08TEP-1 : POKEHP, 0 

666 FORV-60TO 1 39 : V 1 - V-79 : I F 1 -PPO 

INT<U,V>THENMID*<B*,V1, 1)- EL 

8EMID«<B*,V1, l)-A*:CT-Vl:C-l 

667 next:poke65494,0:ifc-0thenpr 

int#-2 f nex tel8epr i nt0— 2 , left 

•(B*,ct):c«0:next 

670 cl8: print* 194, "press 'c to 

PRINT LAST"," SCREEN SECTION"," 
PRESS ANY OTHER KEY TO STOP": 8 
08UB 1 9 : I FZ0O " C " THEN692EL8E8CREE 
Nl , 0: FORU-235TO0STEP-1 : POKEHP, 0: 
FORV-160TO192 

671 V1*V-1S9:IF1-PP0INT(U,V)THEN 
MID*(B«,V1, 1)-" ":EL8EHID«(B«,V1 

,1>-a«:ct-vi:oi 

674 NEXT : P0KE65494 ,0:1 FC-0THENPR 
INT0-2, " " EL8EPR I NT0-2, LEFT* (B«, 
CT):O0 

675 NEXT:60T0692 

689 PRINT#-2,CHR«<27>CHR*<20>:FO 
RV-0TO131 : POKEHP, 0: B»-" " : CT-0: FO 
RU-0TO131: IFl-PPOINT(U,V)THENB«> 
Bt+" "ELSEBt-B«+A«: CT-U 

690 NEXT:POKE69494,0:PRINT«-2,LE 
FT* (B«, CT+1 ) : NEXT: PRINT0-2, CHR« ( 



27>CHR«<19> 

692 PRINT0-2, CHR« (27) CHR« (94) : 60 

SUB 190:601*0699 

699 GOTO 1000 

900 CL8'***L0AD FILE*** 

910 PR I NTS 103, "LOAD FILES" | : IFCT 

-4THENPRINT01 99* LEFT* (HT* , 21 ) , EL 

8EPR I NTS 1 98 , R I 8HT» (HT*, 23) 

919 P0KE69494 , 0: 6O8UB990: CLOADHC 
L*: IFCT-STHENOPEN" I",#-1,F*: INPU 
T#-l , X , Y, LN, 8C4, 8C: FORK-1TO10: IN 

put«-i , set (K) : next: close- i 

920 PM0DE4, 1 : SCREEN 1 , 0: COLOR0, 1 : 
DRAW "C0" : GOTO 1 30 

990 CL8:'»»*8AVE FILES*** 

999 PR I NTS 103, "8AVE FILES "I S IFCT 

•6THENPR I NTS 1 99 , LEFT* (HT*, 21 ) , EL 

8EPR I NTS 198, RI 0HT* ( HT* ,23) 

960 POKE69494,0:OO8UB990:8O8UB99 

4 : FOR J- 1 T02 : CSAVEHCL* , 1 936, 7679 , 

1 936 : HOTORON : 28-2 : T I HER-0 : 808UB 1 

7: I FCT—6THENNEXTEL8E0PEN" O" , «-l , 

F*: PRINT0-1 , X, Y , LN, 8C«, SC: FORK-1 

T019: PRINT0-1 , 8C* (K) : NEXT: CL06E- 

1 : TIHER-0: HOTORON: 608UB17:NEXT 

969 HOTOROFF:BOTO1000 

990 PRINTS262, " " I : INPUT" FILE NA 

HE" IF*: IFLEN(F«> >7THENF*-LEFT* (F 

*,7) 



The C olor Computer 
Word Processor! 



MASTER WRITER (we changed our name from WORDMASTER) is a profes- 
sional quality full screen oriented word processor for your color computer. Take a 
look at what you get. 

MASTER WRITER'S FULL SCREEN-ORIENTED EDITOR allows you to move 
the cursor any where In your text using the up, down, right and left arrows. Do this 
one character at a time or by line or page, insert, delete or replace text at the cursor 
watching your changes as you make them. Delete or move blocks of text from one 
place to another. Merge in text from other files. 

AUf OMATIC CARRIAGE RETURN after last complete word on each line; with 
this and AUTOMATIC PAGE FEED you don't have to worry about where a line or 
page ends — just type! 

MASTER WRITER runs on a 1 6K, 32K, or 64K color computer, taking advantage 
of all available memory. Use it with DISK OR CASSETTE based systems. EX- 
TENDED BASIC IS NOT REQUIRED for cassette version. 

EASY TO UNDERSTAND MANUAL has you comfortably using MASTER WRI- 
TER In minutes. It Is a USER-FRIENDLY MENU-DRIVEN SYSTEM with single 
lettercommands. Check any command without having to refer to the manual with 
the HELP SCREEN. 

10 PROGRAMMABLE FUNCITON KEYS allow easy insertion of frequently 
used words or phrases. 

MASTER WRITER 



WORKS WITH ANY PRINTER. Take full advantage of your printer's special 
functions such as variable character size and emphasized characters with EASY 
EMBEDDING OF PRINTER CONTROL CODES. 

GLOBAL SEARCH function lets you quickly locate specific strings for replace- 
ment or deletion. 

Customize form letters or standard text with the EMBEDDED PAUSE feature. 
Just "fill in the blanks" when your printer pauses for a personalized appearance. 

LIMITED MULTI-TASKING feature lets you print one file while editing ano- 
ther. 

In addition to regular text you can use MASTER WRITER to CREATE BASIC 
PROGRAMS with the convenience of full-screen editing. It can also be used to 
make and edit simple MAILING LISTS. 

OTHER FEATURES include easy setting of left, right, top and bottom margin, 
printer line width, and lines per page. Also repeat keys, auto line centering, auto 
page numbering and choice of display color formats. 

TO ORDER send $29.95 for cassette version or $34.95 for disk version plus 
$2.50 shipping (Calif, residents add sales tax) to: PYRAMID DISTRIBUTORS, 527 
HILL ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90405 (21 3) 399-2222. 



$29.95 Cassette 
.95 Disk 



204 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



PCLEftR 30 Software. - . 

iThanks RAINBQy readers for the continued support. He had 
to go back to the "endless list" type ad because there's a 
lot of new stuff and He want you to know what we have. 
But the new catalog is going to the printer today. We put 
a few hints and tips in there, including how to PCLEflR 8 
with disk. 

*** NEW ! *** 

HH HHHHHUH t t HWHWHHHWHWHWHHtHWttHWHWtW 

ZAXXON «32K« (Data Soft) $39.95 TP OR DSK 

ROBOTTftCK ( INTRACOLOR) $24.95 TAPE 

$27.95 DISK 

ITRAP FALL (Tom Mix Software) $2L95 TAPE 
IMS. GOBBLER (Spectral Associates) $21.95 TAPE 

$24 95 DISK 

{DEATH TRAP (Soft Sector Mkt.) $19." 95 TAPE 
[COLOR CATERPILLAR (Soft Sector) $19.95 TAPE 



OLD FAVORITES 



THE K I NG *32K# (Tom Mix) 



( Intracolor) 



PROTECTORS *32K* (To* Mix) 



$26.95 
$29.95 
$29.95 
$32.95 
$24.95 
$27.95 



TAPE 
DISK 
TAPE 
DISK 
TAPE 
DISK 



BU SINESS UTILITIES 



TELEWRITER— 64 (Cogmtec) 

T. I. M. S. *E.B.« (Sugar Software) 
WORKSAVER (Platinum Software) 
IT APE TO DISK (Ton Mix) 

TAPE DUPE (Ton Mix) 
FIXER (Ton Mix) 



$49.95 CASS 
$59.95 BISK 
$24.95 CASS 
$35.«« CASS 
$17.95 

$16.95 
$17.95 



ALL PROGRAMS 16K NON-EXT. UNLESS NOTED 

FROGGER MAY BE HERE BY THE TIME YOU READ THIS. 

|l£ HAVE A FEW OLD RAINBOWS (PRE-JULY '82) LEFT AS WELL AS 
)RCH 'A3 ON. SORRY, MAY '62 IS OUT. WE ALSO HAVE THE NEW 
.OR COMPUTER MAGAZINE ($2.95 EA.) 

!ND $.58 IN STAMPS OR COIN FOR YOUR CATALOG TODAY. 

PCLEAR 80 SOFTWARE • 

494 Cline Avenue 
Mansfield, OH 44907 

(419) 756-4873 ^ 

Note: We also carry the RAINBOW 




SI*. 



Add $2 shipping on orders less than $50 Please add 
$2 for COD. Ohio residents add 5% state sales tax 



992 I FF«< > " " THENCL*-F*+ " M " : F«"F« 

+"T" S RETURNELSECL*-" " : RETURN 

994 PRINT: INPUT" RUN PAST LEA 

DER"! Z*: IFZ»-"Y"THENMOTORON: ZS-1 

0 : T I MER-0 : GOSUB 1 7 : MOTOROFF : RETUR 

NELSERETURN 

1000 CLS 'MAIN MENU 

1010 PRINT813, "SIGNS", " STA 

RT NEW SCREEN", 11 RETURN TO OL 

D SCREEN"," PRINTER",,,," 

LOAD FROM TAPE" , TAB (6)MT», , , " 

SAVE TO TAPE" , TAB (6) MT*, , , CH*| : 
CT-1 

1020 Z*-HEX*(CT) :LO-INSTR(l, " 12 
3 49 67" , Z«> : LP-L0#32+2: PRINTS 
LP, " >" | : 

1030 G0SUB19:PRINT0LP, " "i:ifz»- 
CHR* (10) ANDCT< 7THENCT-CT+ 1 : GOTOl 
020ELSE I F Z *«CHR* ( 94 ) ANDCT > 1 THENC 
T-CT-1 : GOTO1020ELSEIFZ*< >CHR* ( 13 
) GOTO 1020 

1040 ONCT GOTO 100, 1050,600,900,9 
00,930,930 

1050 IFSC* ( 1 > -" "THEN 101 0ELSESCRE 

EN1,0:GOTO130 

2000 'LETTER STRINGS SUB 

20 1 0 A»- M 0 " : B*- " " : x -0 : Y-0 : u-0: v- 

0: BI*-"D6R3E1 " : CI«-"BR4BD1H1L2G1 
D4F 1 R2E 1 " I L I " D6R4 " : LE«- " BR3BU6 
11 : G* ( 65 ) ■ " BD6U4E2F2D 1 L4R4D3BR3BU 
6" : G* (66) -BI«+"U1H1L3R3E1U1H1L3B 
R7" 

2020 G» ( 67 ) -C I *+ " BR3BU5 " : G* ( 6G ) - 
B I *+ " U4H 1 L3BR7 " : G« ( 69 ) -L I *+ " BU3B 
L 1 L3U3R4BR3 " : G* ( 70 ) - " D6U3R3L3U3R 
4BR3 " : G* ( 7 1 ) -C I «+" U2L2BU 1 BR5BU2 " 
: G« ( 72 ) - " D6U3R4D3U6BR3 " : G* ( 73) - " 
BR 1 D6BR3BU6 " : G» ( 74 ) - " BD4D 1 F 1 R2E 1 
U5BR3" 

2030 G* ( 75 ) - " D6BR4H3L 1 R 1 E3BR3 " : Q 
» ( 76 ) -L I «+LE« : G* ( 77 ) - " D6U6F3E3D6 
" +LE* : G* ( 7G ) - " D6U5F4D 1 U6BR3 " I Q* ( 
79) -CI»+"U4BR3BU1 " : G* (G0) - " D6U3R 
3E1U1H1L3BR7" : G« (Gl > -CI«+"BL1F2B 
HI BU 1 U4BR3BU 1 " : G» ( G2 ) - " D6BR4H3L 1 
R3E1U1H1L3BR7" 

2040 G*(G3)-"BD5F1R2E1H4E1R2F1BR 
3BU 1 " : G» ( G4 ) - " R2D6U6R2BR3 " : G» ( G5 
) « " D5F 1 R2E 1 U5BR3 " : G» ( 66 ) - " D4F2E2 
U4BR3 " : G» ( G7 ) ■ " D6E3F3U6BR3 " : G» (G 
G) ■ " D 1 F4D 1 BL4U 1 E4U 1 BR3 " 
2050 Q* ( G9 ) - " D 1 F2D3U3E2U 1 BR3 " : G* 
( 90 ) - " R4D 1G4D1 R4BR3BU6 " : G* ( 49 ) ■ " 
BD 1 E 1 D6BR3BU6 " : G« (50) -"BD1E1R2F1 
D 1 G4R4 " +LE* : G* (51 ) -"BR1G1BD4F1R2 
E1U1H1L2R2E1U1H1L2BR6" : G* (52) *"B 
D6BR3U6G3R4BU3BR3 " : G* ( 46 ) -C I »+ " U 
4G4BR7BU5" 

2060 G* ( 53 ) - " BD5F 1 R2E 1 U2H 1 L3U2R4 
BR3" : G* (54) -CI*+"U1H1L3BE1BR6BU2 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 205 



" : Q» (55) ■ " R4D 1 84D1 BR7BU6" : B* (56) 
-"BR1B1D1F1B1D1F1R2E1U1H1L2R2E1U 
1H1L2BR6": 6* (57) -"BD5F1R2E1U3B1L 
2H 1 U 1 E 1 R2F 1 D 1 BR3BU2 " 
2070 B»(32)-"BR7 M :B*(33)- H BR1D3B 
D2D 1 BR3BU6 " : 6« ( 34 ) - " BR 1 D2BR3U2BR 
3" : B* ( 35 ) ■ " BD2R4BD2L4BU3BR 1 D4BR2 
U4BU 1 BR4 " : B« ( 36 ) - " BR4BD2H 1 L28 1 F 1 
R2F 161 L2H 1 BR2D2U6BR5 " 
2060 8«(37>-"DlRlUlLlBR4D184DlBR 
3R1U1L1D1BR4BU6" : 64 (36) -"BF4BR2B 
2L2H 1 E4H 1 L 1 B 1 D 1 F4BR3BU6 " : B* (39)- 
" BR 1 D2BR3BU2 11 : 8* (40) ■ " BR3B2D2F2B 
R4BU6 " : 8* (41 ) -"BR1F2D282BR6BU6" 
2090 8*(42)>"BR2BD1D4BH2R4BU1BL1 
82BU2F2BR4BU4 11 : 8* (43) -"BR2BD1D4B 
H2R4BR3BU3 " : 6* (44) -"BD5BR1L1U1R1 
D261BR4BU7" : 8* (45) — " BD3BR 1 R3BR3B 
U3" 

2100 Bt(46)-"BD6BR1L1U1R1D1BR3BU 
6 " : Bt ( 47 ) - " BR4D 1 B4D1 BR7BU6 ■ : B* ( 6 
1 ) - " BD2R4BD2L4BR7BU4 " : 8C*«"BD2R1 
U1L1D1BD3R1U1L1D1 " : 8« (58) «GC*+"B 
R4BU5" : 8* (59) -QC*+"BR1D1B1BR4BU7 
11 : 84 (60) --BR483F3BR3BU6" : 8* (62) - 
11 BR 1 F3B3BR6BU6 " : 8* ( 63 ) - " BD 1 E 1 R2F 
1 B2BD2D 1 BR5BU6" 

2110 ST«-CHR*<8>+CHR«<9>+CHR*(12 
) +CHR* ( 1 3 ) + " \ " +CHR* ( 94 ) +CHR* ( 95 ) 
+CHR*(10)+"0Il:i !, ' .*m- :MTt-"BR 



APHICB SCREEN ONLY 
APHICB 8CREEN fc TEXT ":CH*-" USE U 
P OR BONN ARROW TO CHOICE AND 
PREB8 < ENTER >" 

2130 DATAD6,6F,C1,FE V 27,03, 7E P 82 
, 73, F6, FF, 22, 54, 25 , FA, 8A, 80, BD, 8 
E,0C,81,BD,27,0B,0C,9C,D6,9C,D1, 
9B, 25, 02, 0F, 9C, 32, 62, 39 
2200 'POKE PRINTER DRIVER 
2210 : RESTORE: BO8UB2220 : FORB-A T 
O ( A+36 ) : RE ADL* : L«- " &H " +L* : L-VAL ( 
L«) : POKEB , L : NEXT: RETURN 

2220 L«- VP-0 : A-0 : B-0: L-0: vp-v 

ARPTR (PT») : A-PEEK (VP+2) *296+PEEK 
(VP+3): RETURN 

1 0000 AUD I OON : P0KE65494 , 0 : 80SUB9 
94: F0RC-1T02: CSAVE"SI6NS" : NOTORO 
N: FORX-1TO600: next: next: MOTOROFF 
10100 CLS: PR I NT099, "********* S 
IBNS *#*#*#**" , , , TAB ( 15) "BY" , , , 
TAB (8) "RICHARD A. WHITE",TAB(U) 
"44 DOW CT. ", TAB (6) "FAIRFIELD, O 
H 45014", TAB (10) "513-829-5163", 
,,TAB(7)"(C) COPYRIBHT 1982":PRI 
NT: PRINT" HIBH SPEED POKE Y/N" 
I 

10110 B0SUB19: IFZ»-"Y"THENHP-654 
95: PRINT" YES " | : SOTO 10 ELSEHP-6 
5494: PRINT" NO" |: GOTO 10 



FOR YOUR COMPUTATION. 

SECRET CODES $9.95 4K. Makes encoding and decoding secret messages easy. 

ENEMY SEARCH $9.95 4K. A very addicting game. We've seenpeople play for hours! 

ADVENTURE CRACKER™ $14.95 ML displays all words in memory, even from 
BASIC programs. 

ALPHABETIC OUTLAWS™ $19.95 16K BASIC. Can you find the words in hiding? 

THE HANGMAN'S WORKSHOP™ $19.95 16K BASIC. Plays Hangman but you can't 
lose. 

^ SPEAK UP!™ $29.95 16K/32K ML. Voice Synthesizer with text to speech! 



SPECIAL OFFER: 
Order 4 or more and take off 20%! 




P.O. Box 12247, Lexington, KY 40582 

800—334-0854 Ext. 890 




206 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



ADVENTURES 

MANSION OF DOOM 

by PAL Creations 

Rescue the Princess Marlena from the 
mysterious Count Von Steinoff and re- 
unite her with the townspeople of her 
village in Transylvania. The Count's man- 
sion has 76 distinct locations for you to 
explore in your rescue attempt. 
32K EXT $14.95 



S.S. POSEIDON 

by Bill <S Debbie Cook 

You are aboard the S.S. Poseidon when it 
is capsized by a tidal wave. It is floating 
bottom-up on the surface and taking on 
water. Will you survive to tell your tale? 
16KEXt $14.95 



THE FINAL COUNTDOWN 

by Bill & Debbie Cook 

You are outside a missile base which has 
just been evacuated because a beserk 
General has started the countdown on a 
nuclear missile — target: MOSCOW. 
Your mission, if you accept it, is to stop 
the missile launch and prevent WWIII. 
16KEXT $14.95 



STALAG & ENO 

by PAL Creations 

1) You are an allied POW in a German 
prison camp in 1944 and were forgotten in 
the hot box when the camp was evacuated 
due to unexpected bombing raids. How 
will you get out ALIVE? 

2) Your eccentric old aunt just died and 
left you a fortune in cash. To prove you 
deserve it, you must decipher the clues 
and find your fortune, which she hid in 
her living room. 

32K EXT Both for $14.95 

BIG NUM 

by Quasar Animation 

$6.95 

THE WALL 

by Quasar Animation 

$9.95 

MYSTERY MAZE 

by Faith Robinson Enterprises 

$14.95 

DOODLE BUG 

by Computerware 

$24.95 

COLORPEDE 

by Intracolor 

< „ $29.95 



JARB 



SOFTWARE 
HARDWARE 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



THE WARRIOR 
& THE WIZARD 

by Jimmy Jones 

Choose your character, weapons and ar- 
mor to battle warlords, pygmies and other 
foes as well as hidden monsters, snakes, 
booby traps and numerous other dangers 
in this disk based graphics assisted adven- 
ture. Beware of the EVIL WIZARD! 
32K EXT Plus one disk $ 19.95 



CCM#3 

by Charles Santee, Ed.D. 

Using only one joystick, CCM#3 allows 
total communication for special persons. 
Contains many features and is easy to use. 
Excellent for young children. Also helps 
teach spelling and sentence structure. Com- 
plete documentation. 

32K EXT $32.95 



rainbow SKY DEFENSE 

C " T *** T, °" By Quasar Animations 

Fight off the attacking waves of enemy 
craft in fast realtime combat. Machine 
language. 

16K $18.95 



BLACK SANCTUM 

by Mark Data 



$19.95 



CALIXTO ISLAND 

by Mark Data 



$19.95 



EL DIABLERO 

by Computerware 



$19.95 



JARB 



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SOFTWARE 



hardware 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 
(619) 474-6213 

Dealer/Author Inquiries Invited 



All programs warranted 60 days from date of purchase 
to original purchaser. Unless otherwise specified, ship- 
ping and handling J2.00 per order. California Residents 
add 6V# sales tax. 



RAINBOW 

ce«t£c*tk» JUNGLE TREK 
Lost in a jungle with wild animals lurking; 
your only survival is to find a safe com- 
pound before you are lunch for lions; 
high resolution; multi-color. 
16K EXT $14.95 



rainbow LAZER STAR 
HELO BATTLE 



1) 2 players avoid destruction by blasts of 
mysterious lazerstar while battling each 
other for possession of Lazerstar 

16K EXT 

2) 1 player /2 joystick combat game to 
blow up 5 blockhouses while watching fuel, 
ammo, and avoiding anti-aircraft fire 
16K EXT Both for $14.95 



RAINBOW 

" , 2 na " JARB CODE 

Encode/decode important messages or 
other information in a virtually un- 
breakable format. 

16K Standard/Extended $15.95 



RAINBOW 

CERTttCATKM 



BIORHYTHM/ 
PSYCHIC APT. 

1) Prints biorhythm charts of nearly 
unlimited length; attractively formatted 
for use on Line Printer VII. 16K 

2) Your psychic ability is determined 
through questions evaluating your psychic 
experiences 

16KExt Both for $15.95 



SCORE-EZ 

From 1 to 6 people can play this excellent 
adaptation of a popular board game. The 
computer keeps score for all players, and 
rolls dice. You can roll again just like the 
original game. Properly position the 
results of each turn for maximum score. 
The only thing you will need besides your 
computer is players. Color graphics and 
sound will entertain you for hours, and 
it's EZ to play. 

16K EXT $15.95 



U.S FUNDS ONLY 

C.O.D. ORDERS ACCEPTED 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



Pro-Color -File 
' Jazzy' File Management 



By Ed Lowe 



I spend a lot of time at my CoCo pounding out 
programs — applications programs. Mostly, data manipula- 
tion programs. My fingertips actually seem to have grown 
mallet-like and I'll bet the wife, kids and friends look upon 
me as some kind of mutant. "Weird Ed" is what I imagine 
they call me as I disappear for hours on end into my inner 
sanctum to commune with my computer. No matter of great 
concern to me, though! 

In the past three months, I have written several programs 
for our young but rapidly growing Color Computer club. 
Among them are one with many features except a record 
deletion capability (optimism) to index information on 
members and a very versatile programs library. Even wrote 
a couple for my wife to let her make up a week's menu in 
advance and do her grocery shopping list in a matter of 
minutes. (Those also served as a way to get her in front of the 
computer.) I also hold a structured programming class for 
the club. I spend a lot of time pounding the keyboard. 



ORTH 



Including SEMIGRAFHIC-8 EDITOR 

+ UTILITIES 
-Disk and Tape utilities 
-Boot from disk or tape 
-Graphics and Sound commands 
-Printer commands 
-Auto-repeat and Control keys 
-Fast task multiplexing 
-Unique TRACE function in kerna] 
-Clean INTERRUPT handling 

in HIGH-LEVEL FORTH 
-CPU CARRY FLAG accessible 
-Game of LIFE demo 
-ULTRA FAST: written in assembler 
-Directions included for 
installing optional ROM in 
disk controller or cartridge 

ic game "RATMAZE" 



FORTH 

Hoyt Stearns Electronics 

4131 E. CANNON DR. PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85028 

602-996-1 71 7 



It occurred to me recently, however, as I launched into yet 
another files management program, that I probably was 
reinventing the wheel a mite too of ten. I decided I needed to 
take a new approach and try to come up with one program 
which would allow me the flexibility to create and manage 
any file from it. Such a program would also have to permit 
generation of a number of different reports from a single file. 
It would be designed to allow any desired number of record 
fields with headings to be stipulated by the user. A really 
jazzy, all-purpose "this is it" files management system. I had 
all its features laid out in my head. But I only got as far as the 
conceptualizing stage before the Rainbow sent me another 
product for review. I could see right away that I had been 
beaten to the punch. The wheel had not only already been 
invented, but perfected! But I don't mind too awfully much 
because such a project would have taken me a long time to 
complete anyway. 

What beat me to the punch is Pro-Color-File, released 
just this year by Derringer Software and already upgraded 
to version 2.0. It is exactly what I had in mind! And this 
system is disk-based for single or multiple drives. 

Pro- Color-File can be described as a complete files man- 
agement system for the Color Computer. With it, one can 
enter, store, search, update, and get various printer reports 
from his information. Club listings, student grades, job 
reports, church funds, mailing lists — the litany could go on 
and on. No longer will you find yourself using those single- 
purpose programs you thought were the ultimate. This one 
is designed to handle it all for you. 

It might be interesting to note that the programs which 
make up Pro-Color-File are all in BASIC! These programs, 
all run and controlled from a master menu, are: 

•Define data segments 
•Define screen formats 
•Define equations 
•Define report formats 
•Pro-Color-Files 
•Enter/ update records 
• Index records 
•Print reports 
•Exit program 

In addition to these system programs, the registered mas- 
ter disk comes with a number of already created demonstra- 
tion files, screens, and reports to be used in the tutorial 
phase. (One of them is a club membership file!) After you 
progress beyond the tutorial stage, you can kill them on your 
backup working diskette, leaving just the necessary working 
programs. 

I would try to describe for you what each program does, 
but because they rarely work in isolation, this wouldn't 
prove very much. Consider each subordinate program as a 
large subroutine or module within the overall program, and 
well have a better chance at perspective. 

The package I received, version 2.0, came with two 
addendum inserts: revisions for owners of 1 .0; and a couple 
of added features for the current version. I also received a 
call advising of another change. All changes can be easily 
made by the owner/ user. 

The manual accompanying the product impressed me a 
lot. Not just because of its polished look — neatly right- 
justified print within a heavy paper blue roll binder — but in 
its layout and approach to instruction. It is apparent that the 
author put as much thought into the manual as into the 



208 the RAINBOW J une, 1 983 



program package. It actually teaches you how to use the 
product, and with a minimum of conf usion and "say what?" 
Repetition is tactfully used throughout to drive points 
home. 

The manual is broken down nicely into a page of "thanks 
for buying my product" and the usual copyright and sales 
contract notices, two pages covering a really comprehensive 
table of contents, and introduction, 3 1 pages of tutorial, a 
good quick reference and some comments on how to get a 
well-functioning data base through planning and proper 
preparation. 

The f ormat of the tutorial section itself is commendable. 
Generally, it follows a scheme of program feature (module) 
introduction, explanation, and then actions f or you to take. 
Bold print is used very effectively throughout. Because of 
this hand-holding approach, I had little real difficulty step- 
ping through the various stages of creating a file. High 
marks for documentation alone! 

Don't get me wrong, though. Pro-Col or -File is not a 
simple "open, load and run" program. It's not the kind of 
program you order the day or week after first getting your 
32K CoCo with disk drive and printer. It couldn't be, given 
the expected results. Pro- Col or- File is for the person with a 
need for a good, sophisticated, user-controllable files man- 
agement system, but that person must have some knowledge 
of what files management is all about. (The author includes 
a short primer on files management in the accompanying 
manual.) 

Some of Pro-Color- File's features, like formatting a 
report using screen "windows" and a unique method of 
defining equations, take some getting used to. But, get used 
to them you will, because you'll find yourself delving into 
this program. And it's not hidden from your view. After 
backing up the master diskette and putting it away for 
safekeeping, you might ask how a program was designed 
which can: 



allow as many as 60 different entries per record (you 



define); 

— index a file by any three fields simultaneously for rapid 
direct access in under 10 seconds f or a 1 ,000 record file (with 
re-indexing possible at any time); 

— have f our screens f or entering inf ormation with optional 
password protection, custom color design and rapid switch- 
ing during entry and review; 

— have five printer report f ormats with built-in features like 
selection of line width, lines per page, page numbering, 
control codes, and password protection; 
— design screen report formats to get totals and averages or 
to review only selected fields; 

— have 14 user-defined math equations to do addition, sub- 
traction, multiplication or division of numeric data; 
— and, allow multiple disk drives for maximum storage. 

If you've got enough printer paper and want to take the 
time, you can look over the program code and perhaps find 
the answers to your questions. In fact, the author encour- 
ages you to adapt PCF to perform special functions by 
LISTmg the appropriate programs and EDITmg them. 

After several days of playing with PCF, I finally printed 
out several reports on my Line Printer VII using different 
formats. When each was exactly as I wanted it, I then went 
back and recorded (saved) that particular format to disk. 
Now all I have to do is call up a specific screen and report 
format and I'm off and running. 

I wanted to try some other printers, notably the MX/ FX- 



80 and Okidata 82 A, to test and verif y the reported ease with 
which they are supported, but, as Murphy's Law would have 
it, I couldn't get my hands on them. Judging by the system 
for embedding control codes in the printer report program, 
though, I have no doubt that Pro-Color-File will in fact 
support all of the popular printers. 

What problems did I meet? Only two. The section on 
defining math f unctions lef t me scratching my head f or a f ew 
days because I could not see exactly what the point was. As 
is usual with us cyberphiles (like that word?), dogged per- 
sistence paid off. The result: ability to enter numerical data 
in records and get some outstanding results with ease. 
(Notice how I keep using that phrase "with ease?") Kind of 
like a spreadsheet within a file. The second? Well, I get kind 
of f umbly-f ingered swapping out system and data disks in 
my single-drive system. No doubt, I'll get used to it fast, 
though, unless Drive 1 drops to below $99.95 (including tax 
byte) soon! 

I don't suppose you can fully sense my somewhat under- 
stated enthusiasm for this product. If you can't, then I'll say 
it. I like Pro-Color-File. I like what I can do with it. I like the 
fact that now I won't have to write a program for each 
unique filing problem anymore. I like the overall profes- 
sionalism attained by its creator. And I agree with him when 
he says, perhaps with a little bias, in his full-page ad, "If 
you're through playing games and are ready to get serious 
about software, then Pro-Color-File is for you." I like it and 
think you will too. It's definitely a gigantic step for the 
serious CoCo users. 

(Derringer Software, P.O. Box 5300, Florence, SC 29502, 

(803) 665-5676, $79.95 on disk only) 



Y-PAK Dual Slot Expander 
for Radio Shacks Color Computer 

Have your Disk and Cartridge too! 

Select between 2 Cartridge slots with one 

switch and control the Auto Start with 
the other switch. 

$70.°-° Complete 

USER-PAK for Color Computer 

Your own RAM/EPROM Cartridge 

Cartridge holds two 2732s, or any combination 

Of four 2716s/6116Ts. 
$30.°i> less RAM/EPROM 
$90°P with 8K RAM 

EPROMs burned from your CC cassette. 
Write for details. 

B. Erickson 

P.O.Box 11099 Dept. RB 
Chicago, IL. 60611 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 209 




Outlook Is Bright 
For 'Smart' DMP-200 



By John Fernald 



I feel that it is appropriate for me to preface this review 
with a brief overview of my experience, to assist the reader in 
assessing the relative value of my comments. 

I consider myself to be a rank novice in the field of 
computing, having owned a 32K Extended Color Computer 
for somewhat less than 10 months. My initial "set-up" 
included the computer, the CTR-80A cassette recorder and 
a Line Printer VII. After about six months of operation I 
acquired a Disk 0 system, and several weeks ago I further 
strained my wife's patience as well as the family budget by 
purchasing a new D MP-200. If my "expertise" only matched 
the quality of my equipment, I am certain that this would be 
a much more probative review. The one thing I feel that is 
favorable to my viewpoint lies in the fact that my experience 
level probably equates to that of a sizeable portion of the 
magazine's readership. At any rate, I hope that the f ollowing 
comments will be meaningful, or, more importantly, helpful 
to those readers interested in this hardware item. 

Last week, after what seemed like an intolerable wait, I 
began unpacking the newly arrived object of this submis- 
sion. The first unpacking steps (Numbers 1 -9) are outlined in 
a set of instructions which include an exploded view of the 
printer and the associated packing materials. The directions 
are okay, but I recommend a review of pages 1-5 of the 



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enclosed operator's manual upon reaching unpacking 
instruction number 7. 

When you have successfully released your new "pride and 
joy," set it aside, get a cup of coffee or something and sit 
down with the operator's manual. If you are anything like 
me, afflicted with a terminal case of "I want to see it work"- 
itis, take a deep breath, a tranquilizer or whatever helps, and 
thoroughly read pages 7 though 18 of the manual. This 
activity will take you from a power-up checklist through 
tractor and ribbon installation, paper loading, print func- 
tion and character switch selection, and finally a power-up 
and self test sequence. By the way, if you are using standard 
8!^"-by-l 1" fan fold paper, the "self -test sequence" (which 
requires 10-inch wide paper) will work just fine. A successful 
"self -test" can be used to print sample lines of each type 
character by employing the yellow rotary character selection 
switch on the rear of the printer, but more on this in a 
moment. A completion of the test sequence calls for compu- 
ter hook-up, which is via the standard 4-pin DIN cable (RS 
No. 26-3020) for Color Computers, followed by complete 
system power-up, and you're "off to the races." 

At this point, I think it would be appropriate to provide 
you with a description of the features which make this 
printer a quantum jump ahead of my old Line Printer VII. 
The DMP-200 is a high density, dot-matrix printer, capable 
of creating characters on dot-matrixes ranging from 9X8 to 
a variable 15X9. This flexibility permits construction of 
Proportional spaced, Monospaced (Normal, Condensed 
and Compressed), Correspondence quality, and Graphic 
characters. It does this at print speeds ranging from 120 cps 
(Standard) or 70 cps (Correspondence Quality) to 35 cps 
(Elongated Correspondence Quality) on roll, single sheet or 
tractor feed paper. The DMP-200 will print one original and 
two copies on (11 lb) non-carbon type paper, a significant 
improvement over the LP VII. 

Externally, the 200 is about 50 percent larger than the 1 00, 
and weighs a few more pounds. While the LP VII and 
DMP-100 are conspicuously free of external controls, the 
200 sports several very nice user-operated f unction switches. 
These controls are found in two external areas on the print- 
er. First, on the upper lef t f ront of the device you will find the 
"Paper Feed Switch" and the "Power On" & "Alert Indica- 
tor" lights. The right side of the device houses the "Platen 
Pressure Lever," "Paper Bail Lever," and the "Paper Feed 
Knob." The only other "easily accessible" control, the 
"Power On-Of f Switch," is slightly recessed on the lower left 
side of the unit. 

The balance of the operator controls are f ar less accessible 
and, in my opinion, represent the printer's most undesirable 
characteristic. These controls include the "Function Selec- 
tion (DIP) Switch" and the "Rotary Character Selector 
Switch." The DIP switch is actually a small (very small!) 
panel containing eight (even smaller!) up-down/ on-off tog- 
gle type switches. These switches control the following: (1) 
Carriage Return and Line Feed operation, (2) Data/ Word 
Processing mode, (3) 1200/600 Baud operation (serial inter- 
face mode), (4) Parallel. Serial Interface, (5) European Sym- 
bol/ Japanese KANA mode, while switches (6), (7), and (8) 
are not used. Generally speaking, the user will be faced with 
changing only two of these switches, the "Data/ Word Pro- 
cessing" swich and the "Baud Rate" switch. When the 
printer is connected and ready for use with either roll or 
tractor-feed paper, these switches are virtually inaccessible. 
Af ter turning off the printer and moving the paper or printer 
(or both), you must first position yourself to see the panel 



21 0 the RAINBOW J une, 1 983 



COLOR COMPUTER VOICE SYNTHESIZER 



AK 

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HARDWARE FEATURES 

• A COMPLETE PHONEME BASED VOICE SYNTHESIZER IN A CARTRIDGE STYLE PAK 

• COLORSPEAK HAS ITS PROGRAM IN ROM, SO ITS INSTANTLY THERE ON TURN ON! 

• COLORSPEAK HAS ITS OWN 2K RAM. IT REOUIRES NO MEMORY! 

• USES THE VOTRAX«"» SC01 PHONEME SYNTHESIZER CHIP 

• WORKS IN ALL COLOR COMPUTERS. ANY MEMORY SIZE, EITHER BASIC! 

SOFTWARE FEATURES 

• TEXT TO SPEECH MODE:CONVERTS PLAIN ENGLISH TEXT 10 SPEECH! 

• INFLECTION MODE: ADDS VOICE INFLECTION TO TEXT TO SPEECH MODE 

• PHONEME MODE ALLOWS PROGRAMMING THE SC01 DIRECTLY IN PHONEMES 

• SPELLING MODE: SPELLS TEXT AND PRONOUNCES MOST PUNCTUATION 

USER FR I ENDLY iCOLORSPE AK IS THE EASY TO USE VOICE SYNTHESIZER WITH 
ALL FEATURES EASILY ACCESSIBLE FROM BASIC. SIMPLY PUT THE WORD OR PHRASE 
TO SPEAK IN A STRING NAMED TALKS. THEN CALL THE USR ROUTINE TO SPEAK THE 
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and then use a slender pointed article (i.e. a pen or pencil) to 
reposition the appropriate switch(es). Fortunately, these 
operations can be changed through computer inputs. A 
review of pages 45-47 (Appendix A/ Control Code Sum- 
mary) in the operator's manual indicates a PRINT #-2, 
C HR% 1 9 entry will place the device in the "Data Processing" 
mode, while CHRS20 changes the mode to "Word Process- 
ing/' regardless of the DIP switch setting. Since the 80CC 
defaults to 600 baud on a power-up and in view of the 
printer's ability to operate at 1200 baud or 600 baud, the 
operator must do one of the f olio wing. Set the printer to 600 
baud with the DIP switch and operate in this manner. Set 
the DIP switch to 1200 baud and employ software (i.e. word 
processor or terminal program) which provides for baud 
rate selection. Or set printer to 1200 baud and after compu- 
ter start-up enter "POKE 150,41 "placing your CoCo in the 
1200 baud output mode, allowing you to LLIS T programs 
at 120 cps in the "Standard" mode with no software support. 

The"Rotary Character Selector Switch" is located next to 
the DIP switch panel, between the cable connector and the 
DIP panel. This switch is also quite small and equally inac- 
cessible. It has 10 positions, ranging from 0 to 9, producing 
the following character/ styles; 0-Standard/ lOcpi, 1- 
Compressed (Elite)/ 12cpi, 2-Condensed 16/7cpi, 3- 
Proportional, 4 through 7-Correspondence quality/ lOcpi, 
8-Standard/ lOcpi, and 9*Compressed (Elite)/ 12cpi. 
Although this switch is difficult to reach, with or without 
paper installed, it can be positioned by touch since each of 
the 10 selections has a "feelable" detent position. The printer 
defaults on start up to the rtiode selected, however, as in the 
DIP selector, the character mode can be changed through 
software or user program inputs. As indicated above, the 
print cable connects at the center rear of the printer and 



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ask for Mrcno-oiv. 



212 



cannot help but interfere with tractor-feed paper placement 
and operation. This may also be a problem, albeit a smaller 
one, with roll paper in use. I cannot understand, perhaps 
because I am not a design engineer, why it would be so 
difficult to install the cable connection on the right side of 
the printer where it would be more convenient for a "printer 
on the left" arrangement. Before leaving the area of "exter- 
nal controls" I should mention the f act that the same people 
who put the cable receptacle, DIP and Character Selector 
switches on the back have installed a miniature DIP and 
Character Selector switch instruction sheet underneath the 
printer's top cover. This is a very beneficial feature as it saves 
a lot of looking around for the manual while trying to print 
out a letter or list a program. 

Under the protective cover of the printer we also find two 
additional operator controls. First, the tractor feed assem- 
bly, which can be easily removed or reinstalled as the need 
arises for paper type changes (roll, fan-fold or single sheet). 
Secondly, the "Print Head Control Lever," which controls 
print head to paper pressure during ribbon change and 
printing operations. It must be properly adjusted by the user 
to preclude damage to the print head, resulting from too 
little pressure or print smudging, caused by excessive pres- 
sure. The printer comes with a "ribbon cassette" assembly 
which is easily installed and replaced (RS Refill Pack No. 
26-1489). The ribbon life will depend on the type (graphics, 
text, program listings, etc.) and frequency of printer opera- 
tions. Similarly, the print head life will vary with use but is 
projected by Radio Shack f or 2,000 hours. According to the 
manual, this figure equates to 32 months, with an average 
utilization of two hours per day. I feel that most home 
computer enthusiasts operate their printers at less than a 
two hour per day average and should therefore anticipate a 
print head life in excess of three years. 

The final and perhaps the most important area I should 
like to address centers on the DMP-200's status as one of a 
number of "smart" printers. As a "smart" printer the 200 has 
the ability, through software program control, to change 
virtually all print functions during normal operation. The 
device utilizes a 2,000-byte buffer to store, and transmit to 
the print head, a total of 330 ROM based, dot matrix, 
character patterns, and over 30 printer control codes. 
Appendix A and Appendix B of the manual provide com- 
plete listings of "control codes" and "character sets,*' along 
with their respective decimal and hexidecimal equivalents. 
For example, sending the printer a control code of 
DECIMAL 15 (HEX OF) during print operation will 
immediately invoke the underline function. This function 
will continue until the printer receives a control code input 
of DECIMAL 14 (HEX OE). Each of these functions is 
attainable as long as the printer is functioning in either the 
data or the word processing mode, but not in the graphics 
mode. Some of the more important software control codes 
f ound in the table provide back spacing, variable line feeds, 
print elongation, print head positioning, bold type, reverse 
line feeds, and repeat print. 

In addition to these tools the 200 offers sof tware access to 
the f ull set of ASCII characters, a set of block graphic codes 
and a set of European symbols. This means that in addition 
to all the ASCII characters normally available through 
computer keyboard entry (upper and lower case), a large 
number of other characters are available through software 
or program manipulation. In other words, documents which 
require a "one fourth" fraction, "Pound Sterling," "Trade 
Mark," or "Copyright" symbol can be prepared with prof es- 
sional reproductions of these characters. Many of the char- 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



Color Computer Power! 1 



DATAFILE 



$24.95 

A unique, multipurpose data storage system. DATAFILE is a 
sophisticated, non-formatted type database, with user-defined 
categories. It performs string searches, deletes, sorts, merges 
and prints in various formats. Using your disk drive, DATAFILE 
works with files larger than available RAM. Save and load flies 
from tape or disks. Line edit, change or add data commands. 
Numerically labels all records. Displays remaining memory 
available. DATAFILE is ideal for mailing lists, cataloguing, sales 
files, record systems, etc. Complete documentation, on-screen 
help and a sample file are included. 



DATAFILE 64k 



$29.95 

All the features of the above with much more memory space. 
Ideal for small business applications. Documentation is avail- 
able for $5. and is refundable with your order. 



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■: ■: ■: ■. ■: x ■: x x x x x x : 

x x x x :■ > y\$ i-x^xxx^a 



: :: : :xxxxxxxxx: : :xxxxx 



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DISKPRO 



$29.95 

No more crashed disks! This program could be a lifesaver. DISKPRO 
creates back-ups of your disk directory and allocation tables. Disk 
crashes are easily restored with DISKPRO. Also included is INDEX, a 
directory utility program. Both programs come on disk with complete 
documentation. 



': > x x 
■■xxx 
■. > x x 
■ > > y 
• > > > 



< X X X 

X X X X 

X X X X 

x x x y 

x x x x 

x x x x 

X X X X 
■"XXX 



Draw electronic circuits with our... 

tlectronics 
Drafting ffoartf 

You can design wiring diagrams easily with our Electronics 
Drafting Board. Create complex electronic plans, label com- 
ponents, erase, etc. and then have a finished schematic from 
your printer. Screen print routine and disk I/O included. Comes 
with sample schematic file and excellant documentation. Elec- 
tronics Drafting Board is fun to use and will save you hours of 
work. 

*6 viewing windows on a 480X540 pixel work sheet* Joystick or 
arrow-key control*Text labels components on screen* Ali elec- 
tronic symbols*Complete documentation with onscreen help- 
*Prints finished schematic to any Epson MX (with Graftrax) or 
Radio Shack printer*Dlsk save/load. 

Requirements: 64K Color Computer with Extended Basic, disk 
drive and (optional) printer. $39.95 includes operating manual, 
program on disk, postage & handling. 



■■ > X X X X X 

> > y x x x x 



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-v >■> > xxxx ■: AAfKKX ■: 



/> xxxxxxx 



PAINTPOT 



Bring out the artist in you and your family! With PAINTPOT you can create fast, effortless sketches and 
drawings. PAINTPOTgivesyou joystick or keyboard control on 4 screens. (3 screens on 16K)Thereare4 
cans of paint to play with! A touch of a key starts animation effects flashing from screen to screen. 
Your works of art can be saved or loaded from cassette or disk and, with our Screen Print Program (see 
below) you can have a hard copy on your printer. PAINTPOT comes with complete documentation and a 
help screen is available. Great fun for kids and creative adults! 

$24.95 on cassette, $29.95 on disk. Both 16 & 32K on the same tape/disk. Extended Basic required. 



... ... ... ... .;. ... ... ... 

XXXXXXXX 



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xxx*xxxxS > y > > 
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x x x ■: 

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x x x ■: 

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SCREEN PRINT $14.95 

For use with Epson MX -80/100 printers. Three Drintformats, all versions of Basic, PMODES0,2,3&4. Normal or negative image. 
Complete documentation. Many useful features! 

TTD $14.95 DTT $14.95 

Transfer your programs to disk or tape effortlessly. Allows you to Individually select or mass copy programs. 

SPIDER ATTACK $14.95 

Shoot-em up action! Try to stop our invading spiders with your joy-stick controlled laser gun. Watch out you don't get eaten! 

MILLBORN $14.95 

Like to play cards? From France we bring you this popular card game for COCO. Lots of fun! 

BEETHOVEN'S FIFTH $14.95 
WILLIAM TELL OVERTURE $14.95 

You really won't believe the incredible music coming from your Color Computer! "It is without a doubt the best emampie of computar music I've ever heard." (Color Computer News 
magazine) Now you can enjoy these high quality machine language programs at an affordable price. Specify Beethoven or William Tell when ordering. Two versions, 16 & 32K 




available on the same tape or disk. 

BLACKBOX 



$69.96 each $725.00 for two 



Transmit your programs, machine language, basic or flies over the phone. And you don't need a modem! Switch on BLACKBOX and when you load or save a program, you 
automatically have a copy at a friend's house. Two BLACKBOX's are needed, one for each end of the connection. 



STARS 



$19.95 



Educational and entertaining. STARS creates a dome of the ntatttsky on your TV. Constellations, stars and other naked eye objects are drawn using E tended Resolution graphics. 
Horizon views show planet positions after sunset. Detailed documentation. 

COLORSHOW $14.95 

Music, Color and your COCO! Just load in COLORSHOW, connect the small recorder plug to your stereo (or simply put a musical tape in your computer's tape recorder) and watch the 
fun. Having a party? Turn off the room lights and turn up the music. 



Add $1.50 postage on each software. Programs available on disk for $5. extra. We pay high royalties to software authors. For more information on this or any 
of our products, write! 





Dept. T, 4653 Jeanne Mance St., 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2V 4J5 



* 



acters available will probably not be used by the average 
home or small business operator, but those documents 
which do require them will be much more professional in 
appearance. 

The Radio Shack people have provided us with what I 
believe to be a well constructed and versatile printer, capable 
of producing high quality, dot matrix style documents. 
However, the 200's ability to provide the user with optimum 
support will depend heavily on the type and quality of 
software support employed. At this point, I would like to 
give credit to the company whose software I have employed 
to complete this review. The article, as well as the hardware 
testing functions conducted during its preparation, were 
completed using the Super Color Writer II by Nelson Soft- 
ware Systems. My "SCW" (disk version) is an outstanding 
product, designed to support the "smart" printer through 
use of software selectable control codes, which are easily 
imbedded in the text during document preparation. This 
permits effective use of those characters which are not avail- 
able on the keyboard, as well as functions like underlining 
and bold printing. 

This review has intentionally provided little in the way of 
comparative data between the DMP-200 and other printers 
of similar cost and construction. Those minor comparisons 
with the LP VII and the DMP-100 were provided for those 
readers who, like me, may consider this product as a poten- 
tial replacement for, or alternative to, one of these units. I 
feel that the 200 will prove to be a reasonably priced, fast, 
and dependable printer, having the added benefit of being a 
product of the company which has created the most power- 
ful and reasonably priced personal computer marketed 
today. 



PEACOCK ENTERPRISES 

WE'RE PROUD 

CMAIL1ST IS A GREAT ADVENTURE 
BUT NOT AN ADVENTURE GAME! 

An Address Book, Phone Book, Mail Label Generator 

and a whole lot more. 

CMA1L1ST is a powerful and professional MINI-DATA-BASE 
for home or office use. CREATE, ADD, DELETE, CHANGE, 
INSPECT, SEARCH, SORT, MAILING LABELS, TICKER FILE, 
and INVOICE all so easily, you'll wonder why you waited so long! 

Up to 500 RECORDS containing 10 FIELDS can be stored per file 

(memory and system dependent). 

CMA1L1ST is available in the following versions: 

4.0 Cassette Systems (specify 16K or 32K) $19.95 

5.0 Disk Systems $24.95 
5.1 2 Drive Disk Systems with INVOICing $29.95 

CMAILIST includes an easy to follow Comprehensive Manual 

& 1 year warranty. 

SO JOIN THE GREATEST ADVENTURE OF ALL-YOU WILL BE A 

WINNER! 

$565 serial 



C.ITOH ProWriters $4« h Parallel 

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Prices Include Shipping! COD Accepted on Software only! 
Send check or money orders to: 

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NASHUA, NH 03063 
603-880-8169 Mon-Sat 10-10 



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The Micro-Trac Generation 

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— Write for volume prices — 




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ext. 3005 
In Arizona State 

1-800*352-0458 
ext. 3005 




MICRO-80tm|NC 

E. 2665 Busby Road 
Oak Harbor. WA 98277 
1(206)675-6143 



214 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



TRS-80 COLOR 



AARDVARK 
COMMODORE 24 VIC-20 



SINCLAIR/TIMEX TI99 






QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMES! Different from all the others. 
Quest is played on a computer generated 
map of Alesia. Your job is to gather men 
and supplies by combat, bargaining, explor- 
ation of ruins and temples and outright 
banditry. When your force is strong enough, 
you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable 
in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different every 
time. 16k TI99, TRS-80 Color, and Sinclair, 
13K VIC-20. $14.95 each. 

32K TRS 80 COLOR Version $24.95. 
Adds a second level with dungeons and 
more Que&ting. 




CATERPILLAR 

O.K., the Caterpillar does look a lot like a 
Centipede. We have spiders, falling fleas, 
monsters traipsing across the screen, poison 
mushrooms, and a lot of other familiar 
stuff. COLOR 80 requires 16k and Joy- 
sticks. This is Edson's best game to date. 
$19195 for TRS 80 COLOR. 



ADVENTURES! ! ! 

The Adventures below are written in BASIC, 
are full featured, fast action, full plotted ad- 
ventures that take 30-50 hours to play. (Ad- 
ventures are interactive fantasies. It's like 
reading a book except that you are the main 
character as you give the computer, com- 
mands like "Look in the Coffin" and*"Light 
the torch.") 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, 
TRS-80, and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k 
on OSI and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires 
extended BASIC. Now available for TI99. 
Any Commodore 64. 
$14.95 Tape - $19.95 Disk. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS 

(by Rodger Olsen) 
This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANET. You'll have to explore a Martian 
city and deal with possibly hostile aliens to 
survive this one. A good first adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 
This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. 
It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of 
problems. Exciting and tough! 

DERELICT 

(by Rodger Olsen & Bob Anderson) 
New winner in the toughest adventure from 
Aardvark sweepstakes. This one takes place 
on an alien ship that has been deserted for a 
thousand years — and is still dangerous! 

Dungeons of Death — Just for the 16k TRS- 
80 COLOR, this is the first D&D type game 
good enough to qualify at Aardvark. This is 
serious D&D that allows 1 to 6 players to go 
on a Dragon Hunting, Monster Killing, Dun- 
geon Exploring Quest. Played on an on- 
screen map, you get a choice of race and 
character (Human, Dwarf, Soldier, Wizard, 
etc.), a chance to grow from game to game, 
and a 15 page manual. At the normal price 
for an Adventure ($14.95 tape, $19.95 disk), 
this is a giveaway. 



PLANET RAIDERS - Not just another de- 
fenders copy, this is an original program 
good in its own right. You pilot a one man 
ship across a planetary surface dogfighting 
with alien ships and blasting ground installa- 
tions while you rescue stranded troopers. 
Rescue all the troopers and be transported 
to another harder, faster battle. Joysticks 
required. ALL MACHINE CODE! EDSONS 
BEST! 16K Tape TRS80COLOR $19.95 - 
32K Disk $21.95. 

BASIC THAT ZOOOMMS!! 
AT LAST AN AFFORDABLE COMPILER! 

The compiler allows you to write your 
programs in easy BASIC and then auto- 
matically generates a machine code equiv- 
alent that runs 50 to 150 times faster. 

It does have some limitations. It takes at 
least 8k of RAM to run the compiler and it 
does only support a subset of BASIC— 
about 20 commands including FOR, NEXT, 
END, GOSUB, GOTO, IF, THEN, RETURN, 
END, PRINT, STOP, USR (X), PEEK, 
POKE, *,/,+, -, >, < ,=, VARIABLE 
NAMES A-Z, SUBSCRIPTED VARIABLES, 
and INTEGER NUMBERS FORM 0-64K. 

TINY COMPILER is written in BASIC. It 
generates native, relocatable 6502 or 6809 
code. It comes with a 20-page manual and 
can be modified or augmented by the user. 
$24.95 on tape or disk for OSI, TRS-80 
Color, VIC 20, or Commodore 64. 

SEAWOLFE - ALL MACHINE CODE In 
this high speed arcade game, you lay out 
patterns of torpedoes ahead of the attacking 
PT boats. Requires Joysticks, at least 13k 
RAM, and fast reflexes. Lots of Color and 
Sound. A fun game. Tape or Disk for Vic20, 
Commodore 64, and TRS-80 Color. 
$14.95 Tape - $19.95 Disk. 

Dealers — We have the best deal going for 
you. Good discounts, exchange programs, 
and factory support. Send for Dealer Infor- 
mation. 



WIZARDS TOWER - This is very similar to 
Quest (see above). We added wizards, magic, 
dragons, and dungeons to come up with a 
Quest with a D&D flavor. It requires 16k 
extended color BASIC. $14.95 Tape, 
$19.95 Disk. VIC 20 Commodore 64. 

Please specify system on all orders 



Authors — Aardvark pays the highest com- 
missions in the industry and gives programs 
the widest possible advertising coverage. 
Send a Self Addressed Stamped Envelope 
for our Authors Information Package. 

Adventures and Quest now available 

for TI99 



ALSO FROM AARDVARK — This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 




AARDVARK 

2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 / (313) 669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 

$2.00 shipping on each order 



RAINBOW 

CtfttlFlCATIOM 




Telewriter-64: Big Time, 
'Big K' Word Processing 



The prime goal of a text/ word processor is to facilitate the 
processing of textual data for the purpose of documenta- 
tion, communication or text editing functions. Most text 
editors do an adequate j ob of preparing text files f or input to 
various compilers and assemblers. However, they leave a lot 
to be desired when it comes to perf orming such f unctions as 
documentation and written communication. A good word 
processor will perform both of these functions very nicely. 
Telewriter-64 is a full word processor offering all the stand- 
ard functions expected in a full-sized processor. 

Telewriter-64 comes in either a cassette or disk version. 
The version being used for this review is the disk version. 
The processor comes on a 5!4" floppy. The manual is divided 
into two sections. The first section contains a tutorial on the 
use of Telewriter-64. This section is well written and is 
designed to walk someone, who has had absolutely no expe- 
rience with word processors, through its application. The 
tutorial section is 53 pages long. The first 18 pages are 
dedicated to using the Editor function, the heart of the 
processor. The remaining pages go into a detailed descrip- 
tion of the other processor functions. The tutorial section 
follows the reference manual in layout and provides an 
adequate description of each function and its use. The 
second section is a reference manual designed f or those who 
are already familiar with word processors and need only to 



i - - 

CONVERT YOUR PICTURES 
INTO BARD COPT 

CATCH THAT COLOR PM0DE3 
PICTURE ON PAPER (USING 

A CGP-115 COLOR PLOTTER) 

• Machine language subroutines 
for speed 

•Auto start from cassette 
•Works with Micro Painter 
•Will print pictures from 
cassette 

• Includes sample picture - 
American Flag 

Just $H*95 Plus $1.50 postage 
and handling 

To: All-American Ultralight 
Industries/ (AUI) 
1144 Kingston Ln. 
Ventura, Calif, 93001 



know the command syntax being used. 

Telewriter-64 is a screen editor. A screen editor is one in 
which the data is always present and can be scrolled through 
both backwards and forwards. Thus, if for some reason you 
should decide you want to change a sentence or word in any 
of the text, it is a simple matter to do so. All one has to do is 
position the cursor to the section of text to be modified and 
perform the desired function. Then move the cursor back to 
the original point and proceed. Telewriter-64 offers all the 
standard text processing commands of insert, delete, block 
copy, block delete, block move, paging, string find, page 
forward, and adjustable tab stops. In addition, it also offers 
a speed mode, high density mode, search for special charac- 
ters, global search and replace, and a wild card search. 

The high density function offers three different screen 
displays. The normal display is 51 x 24. That is, each line is 
5 1 characters wide, with 24 lines being displayed at one time. 
The other displays offered are 64 x 24 and 85 x 24. The 5 1 x 
24 is easily readable on a standard TV screen. The 64 x 24 is 
still readable, but has started to lose some of its sharpness. 
The 85 x 24 is very hard to read, but it serves a very special 
purpose. If the document you are preparing is to contain any 
form of tabular data or specially prepared diagrams, the 85 x 
24 display will allow you to examine the display without 
actually having to print it. 

Another departure from other word processors is 
Telewriter-64^ absence of a moving window. Use of the 
different display sizes and the ability to reformat the text at 
any time makes the moving window unnecessary. If you are 
using a line length longer than 85 characters, the editor uses 
a continuation line to show where the right margin is. It 
requires some getting used to, but once you have made the 
adjustment it is very smooth. 

The wild card search allows you to perform a find on a 
given string with I don 't care positions in the string. Suppose 
you wanted to find all occurrences of "thier" or "their. " You 
would specify a wild card search using the caret for the / 
don 't care positions. The search word would be "th(caret) 
(caret) r." The speed mode is used when the text buffer 
becomes quite large and you are typing quite fast. Suppose 
you had a large buffer of data already entered and you 
discovered you had omitted a paragraph way back at the 
beginning. When you go back to perform the insert func- 
tion, and you are entering data at a pretty good pace, you 
may notice that not everything you typed is getting entered. 
The reason for the lost data is Telewriter-64 cannot get the 
large screen repositioned in time to be ready for your next 
character, thus some characters are missed. To overcome 
this problem they have incorporated a speed mode. The data 
is entered, in the case of our paragraph, as if it were the only 
text in memory. When you are finished the entire block is 
entered and the large text buffer is reformatted just once. 

Telewriter-64 performs its own I/O handling. One nice 
feature incorporated into its routines is its ability to handle 
cassette errors. Suppose the tape is in the middle of a file and 
you want to locate a different file you know is further down 
the tape. In BASIC, you are required to continually re-enter 
the SAf/PFcommand until you reach the header record for a 
file. Telewriter-64 knows how to search down the tape look- 
ing for the header record of the file you are looking for. It 
will only "error out" when it cannot find any data on the 
tape, ie a blank tape. The 1/ O f unctions include saving a file, 
partial save to a file, read-in a file, append files and verify a 
file. The last function, verifying a file, is important to 
cassette based systems. The verify command allows you to 



216 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



ELIMINATE 
THE CLUTTER 



n - 1 1 - 













»■ t 



THE ORGANIZER 

ALBUMS TO HOLD YOUR CASSETTES 

Store and organize your cassette library. The Organizer is 
constructed of black vinyl with rigid molded plastic frame to 
prevent crushing. Label holder welded on the spine for quick 
identification of contents. Order albums filled with BASF- 
DPS, C- 10 tapes and get an even better deal! 
Item Price 



Organizer- 1 2 with Tapes 
Organizer- 1 2 without Tapes 
Organizer-6 with Tapes 
Organizer-6 without Tapes 



$12.95 
$6.95 
$8.95 
$4.95 



Shipping: $2.00 for first item + $.50 for each additional item. 



THE COCO-SWITCHER 

A QUALITY PIECE OF HARDWARE 

The CoCo Switcher allows you to hook up three peripherials 
to your RS-232 jack. Connect your modem, printer and any 
other RS-232 compatible peripherial to the CoCo Switcher. 
Select among these peripherials at the flick of a switch on the 
front of the GoGo Switcher or turn them all off. No more 
scrambling around behind your computer. No more risk of 
harming your computer's RS-232 port. An LED on the CoCo 
Switcher shows if your computer is on or off at a glance. 

The CoCo Switcher is contained in a sturdy black anodized 
steel box which sits firmly on rubber feet. 
Dimensions: 2/2" (64mm) xf (102mm) x5 7 /8" (150mm) 
$39.95 plus $2.00 shipping and handling 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Boy Laboratory 

316 CASTILLO STREET 
SANTA BARBARA 
CALIFORNIA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

California Residents, Add 696 Sales Tax to Orders 



THE COCO-WRITER 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE'S NEW 
WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 

(For the TRS-80 and TDP-100 Color Computers) 

EDITING FEATURES 

Pleasant green, white and black display. Full screen editing 
with cursor control. All keys repeat automatically. Tne word 
wrap-around eliminates split words on- the screen. Edit any 
ASCII file, including Basic programs. Use the calculator 
functions of your computer without losing your document in 
memory. 

Insert, delete or type over characters. 
Insert, split, delete or copy lines. 
Insert, copy, move or delete blocks of text 
All insert, delete, move and copy commands are completed 
virtually instantaneously. Instantaneous response to keyboard 
input Even the fastest typist is not likely to out pace the C0C0- 
Writer. Find any word or character string in the document. 
Memory count and status indicators show on the edit screen. 
All 128 ASCII characters can be entered from the keyboard. 

PRINTING FEATURES 

Justify text at right or left margin. Justify text at both margins 
simultaneously for a professional looking document (such as 
this text) . Automatically center text for titles and letter heads. 
Automatically number pages beginning at any number 
between 0 and 255. Print part or all of a document Repeat 
printing of all or any portion of a document up to a 100 times. 
Select single sheet or continuous form printing. Embedded 
printer controls. Change justification, print font, and line 
spacing with commands in the text which do not print in the 
document Print in upper/lower case or all capital letters. 

TAPE FEATURES 

Document memory space with I6K: 7424 characters. 
Memory space with 32K: 23,808 characters. The C0C0- 
Writer has the same features on either a 16 K or 32K system 
and automatically adjusts to memory upgrade. Load and save 
files in ASCII or binary format Load and edit the ASCII files 
produced by other word processors. Save part or all of a 
document on tape. Merge tape file into existing document in 
memory. 

ADDITIONAL FEATURES OF DISK VERSION 

Spool printing feature allows simultaneous editing and 
printing. Menu selections simply and quickly controlled with 
cursor. Control I to 4 disk drives. Load and save files on disks in 
any one of these drives. Split screen disk directory for all disk 
input and output menus. Improved directory scrolling. File 
names do not disappear off the top of the screen. Error 
trapping for all disk file names. If you enter an invalid 
command, the command will be terminated and the system 
will report the type of error. 

CoCo-Writer comes with excellent documentation. The 
clearly written manual includes a table of contents and an 
index. A separate, sturdy, laminated card contains a summary 
of all commands for quick reference. 

CASSETTE VERSION I6K OR 32K EXTENDED BASIC 

$34.95 

DISK VERSION ON CASSETTE I6K OR 32K 

EXTENDED BASIC 
$44.95 

(Protect your investment! Quick and automatic cassette load 
onto disk providing a dependable disk backup.) 



verify the integrity of the file just saved or any other file on 
the tape. It gives the user peace of mind. No surprise drop- 
outs on the tape to be found at a later date. 

Telewriter-64 has three menus. The first is the main menu 
and it is the one the user will see the most of. Its functions are 
to provide general information on the processor operation, 
perform cassette 1/ O functions, lead to disk 1/ O menu and 
the printer f ormat menu. The disk I/O menu handles all the 
disk read/ write functions. It offers the same options as are 
offered for cassette I/O with the exception of the verify 
command. Telewriter-64 also provides for the listing of files 
on disk to either the screen or the printer. You can also 
rename a file as well as kill or delete a file from this menu. 
You are also reminded of the last file accessed, the amount 
of free memory left, the default drive number. The third 
menu is the format menu and is used to set the print parame- 
ters. You can set line spacing, left margin, line length, upper 
margin, lower margin, lines per page, printer baud rate, 
control codes, page numbers, right justification, printer 
queue and header information from this menu. 

Telewriter-64 is a well- written word processor which I 
believe does an excellent job. It is simple to learn to Use and 
has a very desirable format. It provides for upper / lower case 
displays. The lower case descenders are not true descenders 
in that they do not go below the line. However, that is a 
function of the display only, as the output of the printer is 
controlled by the printer itself. 

There is one feature which I found quite nice. Telewriier- 
64 assumes that all text editing should be done in the insert 
mode. That is, when you go back into the text, you are 
automatically in the insert mode. Most other word proces- 
sors will be in an overstrike mode at this point. Thus, instead 
of deleting text and rewriting it, one just types over it. With 
the insert mode, anything entered in previous text is auto^ 



matically inserted, thus there is no lost data because of 
inadvertent overstrikes. It took me a short time to get used 
to it, but once past that initial stage I fell in love with it. The 
response to cursor positioning is excellent. The time it takes 
to scan a line is very good. Cursor movement is smooth and 
consistent. 1 find Telewriter-64 lacking in only one aspect. It 
would have been nice to have an auto-repeat function, 
which, by simply holding a key down, would generate that 
character at a given rate until the key is released. 

I like Telewriter-64, I find it to be an excellent word 
processor and it does perform as described in its advertise- 
ments. The ho window-continuation line concept required 
some getting used to, but the adjustment was minor. The end 
of text is always marked by a large black cursor. The posi- 
tion of the cursor during an edit f unction consists of a single 
underline character symbol. Thus during editing of existing 
text, a character is never hidden under the cursor. 

Telewriter-64 is a f ull-sized word processor offering all the 
features one would expect to find in the more expensive 
processors. Telewriter-64 is a stand alone processor that 
knows how to use all 64K of your system memory should 
you have it installed. There is approximately 16K of free 
memory when running Telewriter-64 on a 32K system. 
Telewriter-64 will produce documents of good quality. I 
believe every home computer system should own a word 
processor of one form or another. Telewriter-64 makes it 
relatively inexpensive to own a first-rate quality processor. 
This review was written using Telewriter-64 and it was really 
a joy to do. 

(Cognitec, 704 Nob Street, Del Mar, C A 92014, $49.95 on 
cassette, $59.95 on disc, add $2 s/h) 

—Frank J. Esser 



TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER* 

-16K Extended Basic, Menu-Driven, Well-Documented, Easily-Modified. 
-For either cassette or diskette systems (Be sure to specify). 
-Place an order of at least $40 and get one extra of your choice free. 
-Orders shipped on cassette - Add $5 for shipment oh diskette. 



-FURST- 

Data Element Dictionary driven File Update and 
Retrieval SysTem. Create and maintain files according 
to your specifications. Ideas for applications in- 
cluded $25 



RAINBOW 

cm Trie* TIC* 



-REPORT WRITER- "-^ 

Used in conjunction with FURST to selectively format 
reports on your printer. Includes headings and total 
capabilities $15 

-EXERCISE PLANNER- 3?™ 

Build and maintain complete exercise schedule for 
regular and/or weight programs. Display guides you 
through daily-calculated routines. Print complete 
schedule if desired $15 

-DISK DIRECTORY PRINT- 

For diskette users only. Get hard copy of disk directories on your printer for easy use and reference. Only $5 

Send check or money order to: 

LAND SYSTEMS 

P.O. BOX 232 l^^P^^F 'TRS-80 and COLOR COMPUTER 

Bellbrook, Ohio 45305 L^^Z * are Trademarks of Tandy Corp. 



-MAILING LABELS- 

Generate and maintain mailing label records. Selective- 
ly print desired quantities. Can keep several label files if 
desired. Designed for Printer VII, easily modified. $20 





218 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 




CO-EXISTENCE 
The Good And The Bad 



CO-EXISTENCE is a geopolitical game for two to six 
players. It runs on 16K and is non-graphic. Each player 
controls the destiny of his country by developing its natural 
resources. The goal is to achieve a stable economy without 
losing population to war or famine. Each player attempts to 
reach stability for his country by developing farms, mines, 
oil wells, steel mills, and factories. The population of each 
country starts expanding immediately as the game begins 
and consumes goods at a predictable rate. 

In addition to worrying about producing enough food 
and other goods for his fellow men to consume, each player 
must develop a transportation system that will support a 
growing economy and train the unskilled workers in order 
to reduce unemployment. This would be enough to keep any 
ruler busy fulltime, but this game has more. 

There are neutral countries and islands that can be used to 
develop additional resources for a country. A player can 
develop his armed f orces to become a bully and take what he 
wants, or at best, defend his own countryfrom being seized. 

If a country has a good foreign policy, it can export and 
import goods with other countries. Two or more countries 
can j oin f orces to overthrow other countries either by peace- 



ful trade boycotts or by using military force. 

The computer, of course, does all the number crunching 
and keeps track of each country's population, resources, etc. 
In fact, it even collects taxes each round. The game is played 
on a game board that has a map showing all the countries 
and locations of development sites. Each player keeps track 
of where he has farms, mines, military forces, factories, etc., 
by placing colored markers on the map. 

Now that IVe given you the good news about CO- 
EXISTENCE, I will tell you what I don't like about it. The 
overall appearance of the materials I received were not 
professional looking at all. The map that was enclosed was 
actually two pieces of a grid-type paper taped together. The 
way the countries were drawn on the paper made it very 
difficult to distinguish borders between countries. The let- 
tering that was done to identify the countries and their 
resources was readable, but not very neat. The documenta- 
tion which is 1 1 pages long is pretty well written, but there 
were a few items which I just could not understand. The 
second screen, displayed when the game starts, has two 
words broken up without any hyphens. I know this may 
sound nitpicky but, at $24.75, I think we deserve higher 
quality. 

If you have a lot of patience and are not concerned about 
the appearance of the game and documentation, then I 
would recommend you buy the game; otherwise, forget it. 

(Intercept Enterprises, P.O. Box 4016, Cherry Hill, NJ 

08034, $24.75) 

—Michael Hunt 




mm 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS 
for the TRS-80 Color Computer 
by DON & KURT INMAN 

280 pages $14.95 + Si 25 postage & handling 

E0TASM+ Radio Shack ROM Pack Assembler $41.95 

■ — 

with purchase of above book [regular price $49.95) 

This is an excellent full featured assembler, monitor 
and editor. We also are including a write up on 
procedures for using the book with this assembler. 

U.S. ROBOTICS MODUM $195.00 + $4.00 Shipping 

Direct connect, auto answer. All the features of 
RS (I modum and more. LED readout of mode. 
Self check of operation. 

Software Authors Wgnted-Hlghest Royalties Paid 




$1.25 Per Order 
Postage & 
Handling 

AM Orders Receive 
10% Voucher On Order 

PA. Res. Include 6% Tax 



OWL-WARE 

P.O. Box 116D 
Mertztown. PA. 
19539 

DEALERS INQUIRIES INVITED 




New!!! CRYSTAL REVENGE $16.95 

HI-RES Space War game. 

The first fully controlled color in PMODE 4! 
You must defend the CRYSTAL HOME world 
from the robot attackers. Planet /Sv 
and multicolor attackers remain W r vki 

the same color every game. ^^SSUSi 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 21 9 



BASIC Programming Primer: 
'Good Reference, Tutor 5 



The book BASIC Programming Primer {Second Edition) 
is a "tool" worth owning. This 368-page, soft-cover book 
serves two functions: it teaches BASIC programming to the 
neophyte, while it also serves as a reference book for the 
experienced programmer. This book is not written specifi- 
cally for the Color Computer; it describes the commonly 
used statements and functions of Microsoft BASIC. 
(Microsoft is the company which wrote most of the BASIC 
versions presently in use— f or Color Computer, the TRS-80 
Models I & III, Apple, Commodore, etc.) Because special 
functions (graphics and sound) and disk input/ output 
procedures differ so greatly between systems, these topics 
are not covered. 

This book is comprised of seven chapters and seven 
appendices (including a removable BASIC Reference 
Card). Each chapter concludes with a series of review ques- 
tions to test the reader's comprehension of the subject mat- 
ter; all answers (with explanations) are included in Appen- 
dix G. The reader begins writing useful programs in Chapter 
1 (a loan amortization program); each subsequent chapter 
expands on the preceding. To give the reader some idea of 
the book's contents, here is a brief summary of the seven 
chapters: 

Chapter One: Basic BASIC. Definitions, system com- 
mands, simple output formatting, direct mode operation. 

Chapter Two: Program Control. Loops, branches, 
simple mathematical functions, subroutines. 

Chapter Three: Getting Organized. Arrays and 
matrices. 

Chapter Four: Adding More Power. DATA/ READ, 



Numeric functions, string functions. 

Chapter Five: Variations. Statements and functions 
that differ from system to system. System commands, 
including debugging aids. 

Chapter Six: Advanced BASIC. Program structure. 
Error handling. Advanced input/ output. Advanced 
string functions. Variable types — integer, single and 
double precision. Number base conversions. 

Chapter Seven: Rubik's Cube. Applies previously 
learned principles to develop a program for the popular 
puzzle. 

The seven appendices explain in detail the following 
subjects: 

Numbering systems 
Numerical conversion table 
Conserving space in long programs 
Speeding up a program 
Removable Reference Card 
Exponential (scientific) notation 
Answers to review questions 
This book is well-organized with a detailed table of contents 
and index to facilitate the location of specific information. 
The authors' style is casual rather than pedantic; their sense 
of humor is displayed throughout the book. Numerous 
illustrations — cartoons, annotated program listings, flow- 
charts, and line drawings — amplify principles presented in 
the text. 

This is an excellent book f or any newcomer who seriously 
wishes to learn programming, and an excellent reference 
book for the experienced programmer. Just keep your 
Radio Shack manuals handy for answers to those specific 
questions concerning disk operation and graphics or sound 
applications. 

(BASIC Programming Primer (Second Edition) by Mitchell 
Waite and Michael Pardee, Howard Sams & Co., Indianap- 
olis, IN, Book No. 22014, $17.95) 

—Jerry Oef elein 



Appendix A: 
Appendix B: 
Appendix C: 
Appendix D: 
Appendix E: 
Appendix F: 
Appendix G: 




Post OFfice 
Plantatio 



All Color Softwar 



» Box 15235 
n» Florida 

333 1 8 



fsjjmi ! from ACS 



<?«P^> mix 



V 



■ 



RAMOtt 



Mill NOT Void Warranty! 

Now for only *5 you can have an on /off light for your CoCo, without 
voiding your warranty!! If you own a joystick, can drill ONE hole, and 
make TWO connections, then you are ready for this simple Do- It- Yourself Kit!! 

This simple kit comes with the parts to modify 2 Joysticks, and clearly 
written instructions on the procedure, which takes only 10 minutes on the 
average. 

Notes This modification Does NOT impede Joystick performance. This kit 
works with any Joystick, and is equally easy to install in each. 

ORDER NON ! ! NO Extra Shipping Charges!! 



Florida residents add 5% sales tax. Note i Custom Joysticks still available. 



220 the RAINBOW June, 1983 





YSTEMS CORP. 



Nanos Systems Corp. 

REFERENCE CARDS 

For Models I, II, III, Color, Pocket 
and Apple II & II Plus 





TRSCO is a Registered Trademark 0 r Tandy Corp 
Compute* picture reprinled permission Tantry Corp. 



APPLE 15 a registered trademark of Apple Compt;rir?g. inc 



RAINBOW 

L t H I 1 1 It. A I uf 

v 4. 



Eiach card 15 a compietei summary ot trie reference manuals and ihe micfQCompLjter. Cards are lwo or more colors, printed on 80 pound Beckett Antique cover stock or a comparable stock, slretch- 
^rapoed m plastic to* shipping. They ;ire accor Jion^oldup cards, in lhe sanie style as trie (raditional IBM reference cards used on the major compuiers for years. Fold-up is eio,h t and one-half 
by three and ihree -quarter mch^s. 50 they -*ill in easily into the snirt pocket. Tnes-e cards provide a complete summary gl the manual plus many extras at your fingertips 



MODEL I 



BASIC: Buff & Blue 
5 Panels, 10 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

Memory Map. 

Easy Graphics. 

Basic Statements. 

Basic Functions. 

Basic Facts. 

Special Characters. 

Basic Commands. 

Edit Subcommands. 

PRINT USING Examples. 

Message & Codes. 

Reserved Words. 

Special Keys. 

Ascii Character Chart, 

with Space Compression Codes. 

Control Codes 

Basic Internal Codes. 

Hex/Dec Conversion Chart. 

Screen Line Layout. 

BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Buff 

8 Panels, 16 Pages 

(For the Pro) 

Complete Z80 Instructions. 
Assembler Instructions, 
Commands, Operators. 
Editor/Assembler Commands, 
and Edit Subcommands. 
Flags. Conditions, & Chart. 
Internal Routines. 
Assembler Error Msgs. 
Plus Most Items in the Basic Card 



MODEL II 



BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Green 
10 Panels, 20 Pages 
(For the Business) 

Small Memory Map. 

Screen Layout. 

Easy Graphics. 

Complete Z80 Instructions. 

Series-1 Assembler Instr. 

Commands, Operators, and Edit 

Subcommands. 

Assembler Error Msgs. 

Power-up Error Msgs. 

Flags, Conditions, & Chart. 

Wild Cards, DOS Messages. 

SVC Procedure Panel. 

Host Logon Pane!. 

Version 2.0 Lib Command Formats 

and System Utility Formats. 

Basic Functions & Statements. 

DOS File Naming Convention. 

Basic Commands & Edit 

Subcommands. 

Special Keys. 

Basic Internal Codes and 

Reserved Words. 

Basic Msgs. & Codes. 

PRINT USING Examples. 

Special Characters. 

"DO" Utilities & BASIC Command. 

Ascii Character Chart with SVC 

Names and Numbers. 

Control Codes. 



MODEL III 

BASIC: Blue & Buff 
6 Panels, 12 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

Special Characters. 
Kana Characters. 
Euro-Characters. 
Memory Map. 

Special Keyboard Functions. 
Ascii Char. Chart w/Space 
Compression Codes. 
Control Codes. 
Cassette Loading Err Msgs. 
Basic Commands, Edit 
Subcommands, Special Chars., 
Basic Statements, Facts, 
Functions, Derived Functions, 
Special Operations (POKES). 
PRINT USING Examples. 
Basic Msgs. & Codes. 
Basic Internal Codes. 
Reserved Words. 
Screen Line Layout. 
BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Blue 
10 Panels, 20 Pages 
(For the Pro) 

Complete Z80 Instructions. 
Assembler Instructions, Commands, 
Operators. 

Series I Editor/Assembler 
Commands & Edit Subcommands. 
Flags, Conditions, & Chart. 
Hex/Dec Conversion Chart. 
Assembler Error Msgs. 
Internal CALL Routines. 
Break Processing Procedure. 
Plus all items in the Basic card. 



COLOR 



BASIC & EXTENDED: 
Grey + 9 Colors. 
8 Panels 16 pages 
(For the Artist) 
All Color Graphics. 
System Commands. 
PRINT USING Examples. 
Special Characters. 
Special Keys. 

Cassette. Loading Err Msgs. 

Basic Functions & Statements. 

Playing Music, Making a Circle, 

ana Drawing Panels. 

Derived Functions. 

Messages & Codes. 

Musical Notes, by Octave, in 

Color, Including Re$is and Time. 

Memory Map. 

Reserved Words. 

Internal Codes. 

A Page of Tips. 

Ascii Char. Codes Chart. 

Including Inverse Graphics 

and Color Graphics. 

Control Codes. 

Color Group Chart. 

Pmode Information Summary. 

Screen Line Layout. 

Extended Graphics Pmode 

Illustrations. 



APPLE II & II PLUS 

BASIC: Red & Pink 

7 Panels, 14 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

48K Memory Map 
APPLESOFT and INTEGER BASIC. 
Basic Statements. 
Basic Functions. 
Derived Functions. 
Special Characters & Operators. 
System & Utility Commands. 
Pokes, Peeks, Calls. 
Monitor Commands. 
Key & Control Functions. 
APPLESOFT Internal Codes. 
APPLESOFT Reserved Words. 
Integer Basic Addressing. 
DOS 3.3 Command Summary. 
Color Selection Chart. 
Error Msgs. & Handling. 
Reading Machine Language. 
Hex/Dec Conversion Chart 
ASCII, Print, Video, 6502, Integer 
and APPLESOFT Code Reference 
Chart, 0-255. 
Basic & 6602: Red 

8 Panels, 16 Pages 
(For the Pro) 

All features of the Basic Card, Plus: 
6502 Timing. 

6502 Language Simplified. 

Flags & Conditions with Reference 

Chart. 



POCKET 



BASIC: Purple 
5 Panels, 10 Pages 

Operatina Characteristics 

Memory Types and Limitations. 

Modes of Operation. 

PRO Mode. 

RUN Mode. 

RESERVE Mode 

DEF Mode. 

Fixed Variable Facts and 
References. 

System Function Keys. 

Math and Logic Function Keys. 

Normal Character Keys. 

Special Characters and 

Function Keys. 

Basic Commands. 

Cassette Interface Commands. 

Reserved Words. 

Math and Numeric Functions. 

Derived Functions. 

Basic Statements. 

Error Messages and Codes. 

USING Statement Examples 

and more. . . . ! 

A pocket card for your 
pocket computer. 



Please send me: 



Card Price 

Copies of MODEL I BASIC & ASSEMBLER $4.95 

Copies of MODEL I BASIC-ONLY 2.95 

Copies of MODEL II BASIC & ASSEMBLER 5.95 

Copies of MODEL II SVC 2.95 

Copies of MODEL II COMMANDS & UTILITIES 3.95 

Copies of MODEL III BASIC & ASSEMBLER 5.95 

Copies of MODEL III BASIC-ONLY 3.95 

Copies of COLOR BASIC AND EXTENDED 4.95 

Copies of POCKET BASIC 2.95 

Copies of APPLE II & II PLUS BASIC 3.95 

Copies of APPLE II & II PLUS BASIC & 6502 4.95 

Copies of Z80 4.95 

Copies of ZX80, 81, &TIMEX SINCLAIR-1000 5.95 

Copies of H EATH/ZENITH HDOS for H8/H89/Z89/Z90 5.95 



Ask lot lham at your siorc or 
bookstore or order from us. 



Wholesale prices available 
in quantities over 24. 



Send Check or Money Order to: 
NANOS SYSTEMS CORP. 
P.O. BOX 24344 
SPEEDWAY, IN 46224 
(317) 244-4078 



NAME: 



ADDRESS 



CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



Indiana Residents Add 5 Percent for Indiana Sales Tax 




M & M Makes A Good 
D & D Introduction 

I, Thorafin Crimsonblade, sword in hand, bravely faced 
the unknown perils that lay before me in my great quest to 
free my people from the evil dungeon lord. Monsters and 
Magic pits your character against many hideous creatures 
that would simply love to munch on your bones for a tasty 
midday snack. 

As a person with three years of Dungeons and Dragons 
(trademark of TSR Hobbies, Inc.) experience, I was delight- 
ed to have been selected to review Monsters & Magic, a 
game that claims to be similar to D&D. 

At the beginning of the game you are given a set of 
characteristics which affect your character's ability to per- 
form assorted spectacular feats. If you do not like your 
"roll," you may easily reroll until you find a character that 
you take a liking to. (Afterall, he's going to be you!) 

Next, you pick your valiant Warriors' name. (I like mine.) 
Af ter you have settled upon the adventurer's name, you will 
be assigned gold pieces, which you will need to purchase 
items at the market. 

The hardy adventurer must then take a trip to the market 
to buy items no true (or smart) gladiator would do 
without — armor and weapons. After your adventurer has 
purchased these needed supplies, he is of f to the dungeon! 

Inside the dungeon the adventurer is given a menu of 
choices to perform in each location of the dungeon. The 
adventurer may fight any monsters that are in the room, 



SPECTKAN 
— SPECTACULATOR TO ASCI 
— ASCII TO SPECTACULATOR — 



* oiitmnw 



RAINBOW 



Use Your Word Processing Program 
To Include Spectaculator Tables In Your 

Reports 

Run Spectaculator On Data Files Created 
Outside 0-f Spectaculator 



Spectran is a easy to use program for unleashing the 
power o-f Disk Spectaculator. ML makes it quick. Works 
with ASCII compatible WP programs on 16K or 32K Disk 
systems. Use spreadsheet tables in your reports. Use 
downloaded data in Spectaculator. Easy to follow manual 
with examples. On diskette for (2S.OO postpaid. 

DISK UTILILTY PACKAGE 



DIRDUPL - 

Simple program for protecting 
bombed diskettes. 



and restoring many 



DISKLOOK - 

-> Disk utility program to examine and change 

data bytes on diskettes. 
— > Pile analysis. 

-> List granules allocated to a disk file. 
— > Alter Directory contents. 

— > Simultaneous listing of diskette data contents 

in ASCII and HEX formats. 
— > User friendly. 

The DISK UTILITY PACKAGE including DIRDUPL, DISKLOOK, 
and manuals on diskette for $15.00 postpaid. 

INTRODUCTORY OFFER! 

For a limited time, if you order Spectran at $25. OO we 
will include the DISK UTILITY PACKAGE and manuals at no 
extra cost* Now that's a bargain! 

CRIMSON SOFTWARE 
The RESEARCH ASSOCIATES Group 
32 Beverly Heights 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35404 



check status, take inventory, go on, search the area, run, 
open anything in the room, or buy supplies. This last choice 
was f ound humorous by some of my f riends because it gives 
your adventurer the ability to buy items in the midst of a 
dungeon. It was often needed, however, because of an evil 
cleric running around with a knack for turning your armor 
into paper. Because of the limited choices that are presented 
on this menu, I would not call this game an adventure, but a 
simulation. 

The reason you are in the dungeon is to try to defeat the 
number of monsters you selected at the start of the game. In 
your quest to defeat the number of monsters, you will prob- 
ably gain a level, which aids in your efficiency against 
monsters. 

While stumbling through the rooms, you will eventually 
be lucky (?) enough to run into one of the fifty monsters in 
the monster gallery. If you choose the fight option, then you 
will be asked to select a weapon from your arsenal. If the evil 
cleric has visited your weapons lately, then you will be 
forced to use your bare hands, which, needless to say, are not 
quite as effective as a sword. Next, you are asked to roll to 
see which one of the contenders goes first — you or the 
monster. Then, depending upon who won the roll, that 
person (thing) rolls to see if he/she (it) "hits" or "misses." If 
you or (gulp!) the monster manages to hit, you (or it) will roll 
f or damage. I did enjoy rolling my own dice on the computer 
and it adds some enjoyment and action to the game. 

If you defeat the number of monsters, you must try to 
defeat the evil dungeon lord in the final confrontation. If 
you manage to defeat the dungeon lord, you have saved your 
people! The Kingdom is, once again, safe! 

My only complaint about the game is one others have remarked 
on: the game does not seem to be a game of skill, but one of 
chance that does not require much sleuthing around. My 
f riends and I believe this because you may only choose your 
actions from a group of choices. This seemed to make the 
game a little too easy. However, this may be seen as an 
advantage as it allows an unexperienced fantasy role-player 
to learn the combat system. My suggestions to the game 
designers would be twofold: 1) create different skill levels, 
and 2) develop individual characteristics among the 
monsters. 

I would not recommend Monsters & Magic to an expe- 
rienced fantasy-game player. However, it would be an excel- 
lent tutorial to the novice game player who is trying to learn 
the combat system. Also, this game, which requires 32K 
ECB, would be right for any one who enjoys a simulation. 
This is a good one; just don't expect a D&D copy. 

(Prickly Pear Software, 9822 E. Stella Road, Tucson, AZ 

85730, $19.95 tape, $24.95 disk) 

—Eric Oberle 



30C VOICE SYNTHESIS \\ 



BUILD YOUR OWN VOTRAI SC-91 SPEECH MODULE THAT PLUGS INTO 
THE SERIAL PORT. JOY THE FUN THAT COMES WITH BEING ABLE 
TO PROGRAM YOUR SYSTEM TO SAY ANY T*3CT YOU WISH. USE IT TO 
ENHANCE GAMES* AS A TEACHING AID* OR TO HELP A DISABLED 
FRIEND. NO SPECIAL TOOLS REQUIRED. SIMPLE STEP BY STEP 
INsTRUCTiriNS USING EASY TO OBTAIN RADIO SHACK STOCK PARTS 

(Exctpt thi VOTRAI chip* for which I providt * supplier's list). 
COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS* INCLUDING SAMPLE PROGRAMS, t5.ee 
* OR * 

CUSTOM MADE PRINTED CIRCUIT SEND CHEQUE OR MONEY 

BOARD. REDUCES WIRING TO A ORDER TO: B.T.PEARCE 

MINIMUM. INCLUDING SAMPLE 763 MULVEY AVE. 

PROGRAMS AND INSTRUCTIONS. WINNIPEG MANITOBA 

ti5.ee PLUSti.ee postage Canada R3M iG4 

Manitoba nsidints include 5% salts tax 



222 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




DSL COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

P.O. BOX 1113 - DEARBORN, MI 48121 - (313) 582-8930 



Michigan Residents Add 4 % Sales Tax to Order 
Please include $1.00 for S & H 
VISA & MASTERCARDS ACCEPTED 



QUALITY SOFTWARE FOR THE 
COLOR AND TDP SYSTEM 100 COMPUTERS 



Specialty 

The General a general 
ledger program holds 
100 accounts with over 
500 transactions per 
account 32K $39.95 

Calligrapher Great 
for designing custom 
posters, invitations 
flyers or name tags 
Two print fonts available 
Old English and Chancery 
for Line Printer VII use 
Disk ONLY $14.95 each 
Please specify print 
font when ordering. 

Color Bonanza 50 program 
package includes business, 
utilities, utilities as well 
as arcade fun. Less than 
$1.00 per program! $49.95 

Arcade Fun 

Packmaze ML 16K 

Bug Chase Ext 32K 

One or two player or robot 
bug against turtle. 

Donkey King 32K 

Moon Lander 16K 

Dancin' Devil 16K 

War Kings 16K 

Spider 16K 

Cave Hunter 16K 

Haywire 16K 

Astro Blast 16K 



$16.95 
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$24.95 
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$19.95 
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Literature 
Assembly Language Graphics 
$14.95 

Basic Computer Programming 
for Kids $14.95 
TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics 

$14.95 



NOW AVAILABLE 
Nelson Software 

Super Color Writer T. $49.95 

D. $99.95 

Super Color Terminal T. $39.95 

D. $59.95 



INTRACOLOR COMMUNICATIONS 

Colorpede 16K ML T. $29.95 

Rototattack 16K ML T. $24.95 

D. $27.95 

Educational 

Speller 16K $16.95 

Geo-Studies 16K $ 9.95 

USA, Canada, Europe, Aust. 

Word Drill 16K $19.95 

Math Drill 16K $19.95 

Adventures 

Calixto Island 16K ML $19.95 

Black Sanctum 16K ML $19.95 



Utilities 

Copy Cat 16K ML $19.95 

Color DFT 16K ML T. $19.95 

D. $29.95 

Hardware 

Grand Slam Solderless Kit $75.00 

For E or F Board and 1 . 1 Rom 
Please include $10.00 REFUNDABLE 
tool deposit with order 

For All Boards 
Ram Slam Solderless Kit 
16-32K $49.95 

15-minute installation 
ONE YEAR WARRANTY 



Only Kind Words 
For 'The Shack's 9 Crosswords 



If you're among those who, in a continuing battle against 
clutter, too quickly rids the house of the daily newspaper 
only to hear about it later from the crossword fanatic in the 
family, your days of searching through the garbage hoping 
that page is unsoiled may soon be over. 

Now, thanks to Radio Shack, you will be able to appease 
your loved ones with an inexhaustible supply of new cross- 
word combinations that will keep them busy morning to 
night, if their appetite for word games is as strong as it 
appears to be upon discovering that "you've doen it again!" 

If you count yourself among the aficionados of the word 
games, you've already guessed that the word f or this game is 
Crosswords, which, as Webster says in his Third New Inter- 
national Dictionary, is a game in which letters "appear in 
such a way that they read across and down and so that 
usually most letters appear as part of two words." 

Theprinciple of Radio Shack's version is the same, except 
for a few interesting variations: you receive no clues and, 



New! For Your 
Color Computer 

FROG-TREK 

(the arcade game) 



RAINBOW 



You may be able to guide your frog through 6 lanes 
of rush hour traffic, but that isn't enough! You 
must also cross the river by jumping on logs and 
turtles to get Froggie safely to his home on the other 
side. But watch out for the snake! And don 't jump 
on the industrial waste. 

A great M/L game at a great price $14.95. Uses hi- 
resolution graphics and requires 16K. Arrows on 
keyboard move frog- no joy-sticks required. 

Send check or money order for $16.50 (includes 
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depending upon your whim, you may play against the clock 
and up to three other players. You also may select f rom two 
modes — combination or single — and use either joysticks or 
the directional keys on your keyboard (which should help 
cut down on the number of pencils found lying around the 
house). It also comes in a convenient ROM format. 

After you have inserted the cartridge and indicated the 
number of players, you type in the name of each player — a 
feature I found very convenient in keeping track of whose 
turn was next, since some letter combinations are likely to 
lead to some long and heated discussions. You then select 
the playing mode: Combination, which allows you to create 
one word per turn by combining seven letters selected by the 
computer with those already on the playing field (each letter 
may be used only once in the eventual word), or Single Plan, 
which begins with a clear field after each turn and your 
challenge is to make up as many words as possible. 

The computer randomly selects seven letters each turn 
and the combination is sometimes mind-boggling. How 
many words, f or example, can you compose from a selection 
of "QQRIETV?" I came up with only "TIER" myself, but I 
would suspect that long-time word-gamers could supply all 
sorts of variations (send your letters to Roy G. Biv, please). 

The player's name appears in the upper left corner. If a 
time limit (30, 60, or 90 seconds) has been selected, a clock 
and score appear in the upper right corner. Below the name 
are the letter list and two arrows (left and right). You create a 
word by using either the joystick or the directional keys (not 
to be confused with the arrows on the screen) to move the 
cursor over the respective letters. Pressingthe fire button or 
the space bar moves the letter to the right side of the screen. 
If you make a spelling error or want to delete a letter, 
moving the cursor over the left arrow and pressing the 
appropriate button or key will move the letter back to its 
original position, allowing you to begin anew. When you've 
completed a word, the cursor is moved to the right arrow, 
the word entered and placed at randomnearthecenter of the 
screen. From this point the game proceeds as each player's 
words are added to the board. Once a word has been 
selected, it cannot be changed. A turn continues until time 
elapses or until a player quits by selecting the right arrow 
with no word on the right side of the screen. 

Upon completion of each turn, the competition is given 
the opportunity to accept or reject the validity of the word 
by positioning the cursor on "OK" or "NO." The rules 
specif y that there should be no proper nouns, f oreign words, 
misspellings or contractions (but it's not difficult to imagine 
those rules being bent). 

Puzzle lovers, who are unaccustomed to time limits, will 
find it a bit difficult in the beginning to adjust to the idea of 
competing against the clock. In addition to needing to think 
fast, some dexterity is required in the use of the joystick 
and/ or directional keys. That's really no problem, however, 
since you do have the option of playing without the timer. 

Crosswords provides an infinite number of challenges, 
including some good educational experiences for children, 
and some lively competition for the gamesman. No cross 
words here for Crosswords. 

(Radio Shack, A Division of Tandy Corporation, Ft 
Worth, TX 76102, $24.95 ROM Pack) 

—Charles Springer 



224 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



UODU1A BASF-DPS 

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For Parcel Post instead of UPS $1 additional 




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Each cassette includes two YORK 10 labels only. Boxes are sold separately. 
Shipments are by U.P.S. unless Parcel Post requested. Boxes, caddies, and 
blank labels are free of shipping charges when ordered with cassettes. When 
ordered without cassettes, shipping charges: Boxes— $1.00/doz., Caddies 
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Colortext: A Powerful 
Programming Utility 

By 

A. Buddy Hogan 

How would you like to be able to create text and graphics 
characters for use in your own programs? Or control the 
scroll speed, or the size of text and graphic characters, access 
the Model 1/ III graphics set, control foreground and back- 
ground colors, have an animation mode at your fingertips, 
and do all of this while mixing text and graphic characters 
with everything in colors selected by you? COLORTEXT 
allows you to do all of this and more. 

COLORTEXT is a very powerful programmer's utility 
developed by Bob Rue for Bertamax, a company that spe- 
cializes in educational software for microcomputers. They 
use the utility to assist in the development of the programs 
that they market (currently there are 46 CoCo titles for 
grade school youngsters and one CoCo title for teachers: 
COLORTEXT). 

COLORTEXTis a graphics-text driver which can be used 
to assist in the development of any kind of program. Game 
developers should be aware, however, that its use is some- 
what limited for them because of a quirk that disables the 




226 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



joystick if the BREAK key is also disabled. More on this 
later. Whether you are a new programmer or an old hand, 
you'll enjoy the ease of use and power of COLORTEXT. 

DESCRIPTION 

COLOR TEXT consists of a series of separate driver pro- 
grams, a PRACTICE program, an edited PRACTICE pro- 
gram, a DEMO program, and a program that allows you to 
edit text and graphic characters and/ or create new ones. All 
COLORTEXTproducts can be incorporated into your own 
program. "But how much memory does all this take?" you 
ask. COLORTEXT is a machine language program that 
occupies slightly more than 1.6K of memory. If you don't 
use the character set, it uses only IK, but that would be like 
eating a peanut butter and jelly sandwich without the bread. 
Added characters take a minimum of 3 bytes, and a maxi- 
mum of 1 4 bytes. Stack use is 30 additional bytes maximum, 
depending upon options in use. 

Upon execution, COLORTEXT links into the standard 
text print and input character drivers, disabling the auto- 
matic resetting of the display to the text screen, and supports 
the translation of all later PRINTed characters onto the 
high resolution page. In its most basic mode, it emulates the 
text screen handling on a PMODE 4 page (including 
PRINT® and scrolling) but allows high resolution graphics 
to be drawn on the same display. Its more versatile modes 
include PMODE 3 support, color text, color background, 
size multiplication, animation and character set switching 
and definition. The default character set is upper / lower case 
(with descenders), with many Model 1/ III control and gra- 
phic codes. With this program, you can also change the 
cursor character to anything you like and you can also 
disable the BREAK key. The program is relocatable, but is 
not exactly ROMable (the options selected at copying 
would be frozen in; it would work but you couldn't change 
the options). A ROMable version is available if you supply 
the exact specifications. 

But how does all this work? All options are activated by 
PRINT ing the graphic control prefix, CHR$(1), followed 
by various characters that define sub-codes and parameters. 
For example, CHRSf l )CHRS(5)CHRS(1 ) increases the size 
of all text and graphic characters on the screen twofold. 
Since you aren't likely going to be ready with a program of 
your own into which COLORTEXT has been inserted, a 
PRACTICE program is provided. Upon execution, it loads 
and executes COLORTEXT and you are ready to follow 
along as the manual takes you step-by-step through the use 
of all the commands and functions. I will summarize these 
briefly. 

DISPLAY COLORS 

You can change foreground and background colors, 
reverse each or reverse all colors in both. You can also 
change display colors within lines as well as between lines. 
All of this occurs while you are mixing text and graphic 
characters. 

CHARACTER SIZE 

The size of all displayed characters may be increased from 
double to 15 times original size. As you can imagine, this 
takes some doing. When you double the size of the charac- 
ters, the cursor disappears and along with it a majority of the 
characters that were on the screen. Their untimely disap- 
pearance is not magic, but occurs because you are really only 
able to see the upper left !4 of the display now. Successively 
larger increases in character size produce smaller screen 



The Color Computer gets serious with 

Computerware® Business Software 



What you should know: 

* It has been in use for over 4 years on many 
6809 systems. This means it is well tested. 

* Complete manuals accompany the systems. 

* User-friendly menus make them easy to use. 

* They are not accounting tutorials. They assume 
you know and use sound accounting principles. 



System Requirements: 

* FLEX Operating System 

* 64K Memory 

* Computerware® Random Basic 

* Dual Disk Drives 

(Payroll requires double-sided drives) 

Now Available: Payroll, Accounts Receivable, Check Ledger, 
Accounts Payable, Check Ledger, Inventory Control 

Write or call for complete brochure from 




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(619) 436-3512 



display windows for viewing. But, not to worry. Even 
though you can't see them, the cursor and the other charac- 
ters are still out there — somewhere. This feature is very 
powerful and makes for magnificent displays of the charac- 
ters that can be viewed. You return to normal size by typing 
in the proper codes even though you can't see the cursor or 
what you are typing. Talk about blind faith! But as soon as 
you hit the ENTER key, you are rewarded with the reap- 
pearance of the regular-size OK and the flashing cursor in a 
sea of oversized characters. 

RESOLUTION 

While all four PMODEs are available, 0 through 3 are not 
generally readable on the display. If you increase the charac- 
ter size, though, PMODE 3 works fine. This is important 
because PMODE 3 gives you the use of four colors instead 
of the two available with PMODE 4 (red and blue). 

GRAPHICS CHARACTERS & UPPER/LOWER CASE 
COLOR TEXThas the standard ASCII character set with 
the upper and lower case option. In addition, it has the 
Model 1/ III character set. So what? Well, if you have a 
library of Model 1/ III programs, you no longer have an 
excuse not to buy a CoCo. You can convert those programs 
to the magic of CoCo with a little elbow grease and the help 
of COLORTEXT, There is an extensive tutorial in the man- 
ual of Model II/ III program translation. This program, 
however, will not load Model 1/ III programs into CoCo. To 
do that you either need a program listing or another utility 
program that allows direct loading. 



SCROLL SPEED 

You can control the scroll speed from a snail's pace to a 
blur. This feature can be used to fill a room slowly with 
"water" while other things are going on in the room. In fact, 
that effect is used dramatically in the DEMO program. 

ANIMATION MODE 

This mode allows you to cause text and/ or graphics char- 
acters to march across the display screen. As they pass 
through stationary characters on the display, they merge 
with them rather than replace them, so that when they have 
passed, the original characters are still there. Does that give 
you some ideas? 

CURSOR 

The flashing cursor in the program is really two characters 
being alternately PRINTed. You may change these charac- 
ters to any text or graphic character(s) you want. Make both 
characters the same if you want the flashing to stop. 

CHARACTER EDITING/CREATION 

ADDCHR is a powerf ul driver that allows you to redefine 
all but the control characters and to create new characters. 
There are 1 1 single character commands and edits available. 
The result of editing or adding characters to the character set 
is the creation of an edited COLOR TEXT file that is written 
to the disk f or your f uture use. The manual does an excellent 
job of walking you through the use of ADDCHR. 

THE BREAK KEY 

The BREAKkey may be disabled with a simple code. But, 
beware! This code also disables the IN KEYS function and 
the joystick. A subroutine has been included in the program 
to replace INKEYS (it returns the ASCII value of any key- 
board character except theSHIFT key). Entering a "9 "exits 
this subroutine. If you are going to use COLORTEXT in a 
game program requiring the joystick, either do not disable 
the BREA K key or wait f or the necessary U SR promised by 
Bertamax in the next version of COLORTEXT 

DEMO PROGRAM 

This program ties together most of the sophisticated fea- 
tures of COLORTEXT into a "user" program that is quite 
impressive. LISTthe DEMO program to learn just how it is 
done. While you're at it, edit line 32767 to get rid of the IE 
error. 

DOCUMENTATION 

The documentation consists of a 75-page spiral bound 8 Vi 
x 1 1 manual. The program disk i s nicely contained i n a vinyl 
binder page that is bound into the manual. Another conve- 
nient feature is that the back of the manual serves as a ready 
reference card for all of the program commands and func- 
tions. The manual is divided into three major sections: 1) 
Getting Started; 2) COLORTEXT Technical Reference 
Manual; and 3) ADDCHR Technical Reference Manual. 

While the documentation is very well written, let me stress 
that COLORTEXT is not intended for the beginning CoCo 
user with no knowledge of BASIC programming. You don't 
need to be a machine language programmer, but if you don't 
write programs or have any desire to do so, this program is 
not for you. 

Not only does the manual tell you what the program does 
and how you use it, it also tells you in the reference sections 



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ON SCREEN. 

32K CASSETTE $19.95 fwNft 



RAINBOW 

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RAINBOW 



SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 



GREENTREE SOFTWARE 
P O BOX 97 
GREENWOOD, IN 46142 





228 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



INTERNATIONAL SOFTWARE INC. 



(604) 474 2271 



771 HOCKLEY AVE, VICTOR I A ■ B . C ■ V9B 2V5 



TOP STIX, IS A JOYSTICK INTERFACE FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER, IT WILL ALLOW YOU TO 
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how each driver works (in detail). This is disclosure beyond 
the call of duty and will surely be appreciated by the pro- 
grammer who really wants to get into the program. The 
major drawback in the manual is that it did not keep up with 
the development of the program. The most powerful driver, 
ADDCHR, used to be available only as a separate program 
and the manual has not been updated to reflect the fact that 
it is now included with COLORTEXT. There is also a 
tedious program insertion that you are instructed to type 
into PRACTICE to demonstrate the animation mode. 
Upon further investigation, I found a version of PRAC- 
TICE on the disk that had already been modified for this 
purpose. This fact is never referenced in the manual. There 
are also a couple of typographical errors, one of which 
causes a SN error upon program execution. I would still rate 
the documentation above average for its detail and ease of 
use. 

CONCLUSION 

I am quite impressed with the quality and power of 
COLORTEXT (the price is reasonable for what you get) 
and commend Bob Rue and Bertamax for their support of 
CoCo. 

(Bertamax, Inc., 101 Nickerson Street, Suite 202, Seattle, 
WA 98109, $79.80 on disk) 



PAY WHAT YOU WAKT 

for home and business software 
RS CoCo and TDP- 1 00 

16/32K Disk or Cassette 
Extended Color Basic Required 



BUDGET RECORD 

Income 6 outlay by 99 categories. Great for taxes. 32k. 

MAILING LIST 

Moke5 labels, printouts and alphabetized lists, M/L sort, 

APPOINTMENT DOOK 

Print a calendar with any number of memos/doy. (32k Requires 
printer with compressed character) 

GRADE DOOK 

Make rolls & grade sheets, complete with stots ond totcta 

ALSO AVAILABLE 

Fhorve Book Sales Record, Car ftepoifS, Diet Delight, Grocery List, 

The Fine Prlnti 

Order two programs maximum. Send shipping/handling jo odvonce 

CI — $4,00; 2— £6.00). After using the program, pay only what the program 

is worth to you. Let s try applying right livelihood to. the software Industry? 

i r — 

j 

Specify 1 6/32K and type of printer. 




GPG-II Graphics Program 
Is 'Totally Rad, Man!' 



"Wow! That's really rad man!" That is how my younger 
brother, using the truncated form of the word "Radical," 
would say: "Gee, that's interesting" and rad fully describes 
the GPG-II that I have had the opportunity to review. This 
unique graphics program lets you draw on the Hi-Res screen 
with the keyboard. But the really rad part is that this one will 
create a BASIC program to redraw your graphics! I got a big 
kick seeing my doodles redrawn before my eyes. "Like 
Narly!" 

Oneofthemorefun features is the text command. It is an 
ML subroutine that is truly powerful. In the text mode, all 
keys have auto repeatand screen wraparound. Youalsocan 
place the cursor any place on the screen. You have full 
control of the cursor with the arrow keys. This lets you do 
some neat special effects, as you can see in the sample print. I 
do have to point out that this font is a little hard to read. 
Some of the letters, such as 4 N' and 'S,' are a little iffy. But, 
aside from this, the text is very easy to use. 

I wish I had some good things to say about the documen- 
tation. All I ask is to have all the information I need there. 
My biggest shock came when the instructions for the Circle 
Command told me to read the Extended BASIC manual for 
an explanation. Understandably, good documentation takes 
time. But the extra effort and expense will always pay off. 
This is a good tool, but beginners will not find much help 
here. 

One plus I must mention. This package comes with a 
complete listing of both BASIC and M L. This made custom- 
izing very easy (who leaves their programs untouched?). The 
first thing I tried was to have it save to disk. To do so, 
remove the minus sign from lines 333 and 345. Then drop the 
'C from line 329. There is also a chapter on how to make a 
backup of the package. 

When you are ready to save your picture, the fun starts. 
You have the option to save in ASCII or binary. The ASCII 
option will save the commands to draw your graphics. You 
also specify the starting line number. This makes merging to 
an existing program easy. The binary option saves all the 
information on the screen in binary format. This is the only 
way to save the text with your pictures. There is also 
included in the documentation a short program to reload a 
binary screen. 

In summary, I feel the GPG-II is a very good tool to create 
graphics and graphics programs. Beginners will have a 
rough start. But it's not that hard to learn. I would like to see 
a different font for the text. Maybe we will see a GPG-III? If 
anything, get this for the text feature. It really is powerful 
and a breeze to use. 

(CoCoDATA Enterprises, 1215 Emeralda Drive, Orlando, 

FL 32808, GPG-I $11,95, GPG-II $16,95) 

—Walter Seay 



Dnjck Associates 
6609 Westmoreland Ave. 
Takama Park, MD 20912 

(301 ) 270-5822 




Free cotafcjgue on reqtiesi 



230 the RAINBOW June, 1983 




(ft 



0 

|3 
o 



COLOR TERM + PLUS + 

An Intelligent Terminal Program For The ( -olor 
Computer or TOP 1(K). 

Features: 

BAUD RATE - 1 10 to 19200 
Half or Full Duplex 
One or two Stop Bits 
()(5d, Even or No Parity 
Word WRAP 

Turn off lowercase Letters 
Send All Control Characters 
Print Buffer 
Examine Buffer 

Send & Receive BASK 1 or Machine Language Programs 
or Files. 

Editor allows entry of text into Buffer as well as 
Editing of Buffer. 

(Disk Version Has more powerful Editor) 

Special Feature: 

Code & Decode ANYTHING in the Buffer for Secure 
Transmission or Storage I'sing a I 'ser defined key word 

PRICE S29.95 (Tape) S39.95 (Disk) Ink or :$2k lieq. 

Use your MODEM for something other 
than a dust catcher — play games! 

Two tapes and two sets of instructions are includ- 
ed with each MODEM game. 

MODEM CHESS I fse your Modem and your Color Com- 
puter to play chess oivr the phone* Has high res color 
graphics hoard and pieces. Make your move, select a 
message to send, press a hut ton — seconds later your-op- 
ponent's hoard is updated automatically. Has audio 
alerts, let's you know when a move is heing made. 
H)k or :12k Kxt BASIC \\vi\. 
PRICE $39.95 (tape)** D 

PRICK $;19.95 (tape)** D 





UNDERGROUND 

Tired of playing adventure games that have a limited 
vocabulary'' Underground gives a detailed description 
of your surroundings, just like a main-frame adventure! 
There are over 90 separate rooms, passageways, etc. 
Discover what the mysterious machine does, what lies in 
the Egyptian sarcophagus, how do you tame the guard- 
ian of Hell's Gate, where is the fabled golden apple? 
Everything is up to you. You give the orders, you are the 
hero. This adventure is not for the faint of heart! You 
can suspend your game at any time and continue later. 
Takes from ft to 20 hours to play. 
'32K ext. BASIC Req. PRICE $26.95 Disk only 



1^} MODEM CHECKERS 



MODEM IAGO 





o 
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Tapename seanhes tape and stores I he mum- of an> 
program or file You can prim (he information i i (he 
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PRICE S7.95 (tape)' D 



COLOR DISK SAVER 

Saves a disk to tape. Reloads disk from saved (ape \lsn 
has iap^> verify command! M2k Kx( HANK' Hoi| 
PRICK S 12.95 (tape)' " D 

CURSOR II 

Hate that blinking cursor" 1 Tired nl seeing the < innpnlei 
print <>K" after your program just bombed 1 Cursor II 
changes the cursor to a solid, non-flashing red Kntei 
any message up to L? im> characters in length Voui 
message will he displayed Mislead of "UK - 
4k, 10k. or:}:* Reg. or Kxt. BASIC 
PRICK S4.95 (tape)* 

SUPER PEEKER 

This is a BASIC program (hat will allow (he User lo r\ 
plore i he inside of the < ohu combiner Kxploie the 
IKis.sihihtics with Super Pecker. 
16k or 32k Ext BASIC Ren 
PRICE *9.95 (tape)'- 

COLOR BIORHYTHM Are von up <»t down loda\. 
tomorrow, or years from now? Kind out with (*<>!.< lU 
BIOKIIYTIIM. Uses high res graphics Send the ( hart to 
printer. Hik or 32k Kxt MASK' Re<j. 
PRICE SI4.95 (ta|M>) D 

DD CLOCK Don't forget what tune it is when >ou are 

programming. The time is displayed in the upper right 

comer of your screen Shows hours, minutes and 

seconds. Keeps ever.v hour. 

4k. Hik. or 32k. (Exl. BASIC not required ) 

PRICK $9.95 (la|M<)' I) 

AUTO LOAD Auto \ahuI will put any program oi file 
from ta|M' to dink! All nuuhtne language programs that 
load helow lite top of your disk system are modified so 
IhHt they will operate properly with a disk s\ stein! 
Hikor L'k Ext. BASH' Kt-q 
PRICK 112.95 (t;,|H*)* 



IMvICK $39.95 (tape)'* D _ 

COLOR COMPUTER/TDP-100 

SUPER-PRO 

REPLACEMENT KEYBOARD KIT 

ONLY $69.95 



GALACTIC MATH 

Load this game into your computer and start playing! 
This is a math tutor that is really an arcade game! Keep 
those saucers from landing! There are no "happy faces" 
or "funny clowns" in this math program. This is a multi- 
level addition and multiplication quiz. You select the dif- 
ficulty level. This program uses high resolution color 
graphics and shows the score, elapsed time, number of 
hits, number of misses and number of ' bases' ' left to the 
player. Adults may start this game, but the kids will 
finish it! This program has been teacher and kid tested. 
Realistic explosions and laser fire sounds make this pro- 
gram a winner' This program rates an A + . For grades 1 
and up. 16Kor 32 Kxt BASIC Req. PRICE $15.95(tape)D 



COLOR DOCTOR 

Discuss your problems with your computer. Color Doc- 
tor will discuss your problems with you. This is a great 
party program! Your friends will not believe that your 
computer is lutkiiigbackto thentfls it intelligent? It sure 
seems like it! 

MiK ext. BASIC Req. PRICE $15.95 (tape) D 

^(//V/ CLONE ATTACK 

Blast those nasties as they apj>ear! 3 skill levels and 9 
levels of difficulty. Uses • high res color graphics. 
Joysticks required. 16k or 32k Ext. BASIC only. 
PRICE 115.95 (tane)(Disk 32k only) 

*A8Ti moon base invasion 

Nuclear l>omhs are ncaring your cities! Can you stop 
them before they reach you? High res graphics. 
16k or 32k Ext. BASIC Req 

PRICC 112.95 (tape)D 

_________ 

Based on popular Othello game. Match wits with your 
computer! Uses high res color graphics. 5 levels of dif- 
ficulty. Joysticks required. 16k or 32 Ext. BASIC. 
PRICE SI 5.95 (tape)D 



•Stiflware Authors Nolo* 



We are looking for qunlii> software, if you have ; \ pro- 
gram you think is a winner, send it in us. If it meets our 
standards, you will Itc paid Top mystifies 




o 
e 

ffl 



(A 



COLOR KEY COMMAND 

Looking f or a powerf ul programmer's aid, but you don't 
have a fortune to spend? This program is for you! Look 
at these features: two keystroke entry of more than HO 
Basic. Extend Basic, and Disk Basic commands. Select 
the color of your cursor. Select the prompt you want — 
no more "OK' when a program bomhs! Automatic line 
numbering — you select the start line and increment! 4 
custom programmable keys for a total of 64 characters 
each — enter whole lines with two key presses! Copy 
any line with the copy command. Merge ta|>e programs 
together automatically Redefine any or all keys with a 
short ba-sic program we supply. How can you gel all this 
and more for. so little? Because you make the keyboard 
overlay! We give you a template with all commands 
printed on it — you cut it out and use it. That is all there 
is lo it! Note; Not all features are availahle on every 
machine; some require Extended or Disk Basic to work 
properly. 16K or 32K Req. PRICE $18.95 (tape)* D 



O 
O 

c ■ 

£i 
o 

If! 



ft 



* All machine code D Disk Compatible 
' * BASIC with machine code subroutines 

Specify Disk when ordering and add $5.00 per program 
Save* money and ask that all ordered programs l>e loaded 
on one disk. You pay only for the one disk! Please add 
$ J.00 shipping and handling on all orders. No extra 
charge on C< )f) orders, Mastercard and VISA accepted. 
Charge orders add 3*.. Texas residents add o'tr, sales tax. 
Allow two weeks for personal checks. Your order will 
usually In* shipped within two or three days. We will 
notif.v you of any problems within one week. Send 20 
u'ltt stamp for frvv catalog. 

Send orders to: 

DOUBLE DENSITY SOFTWARE 
>»20 Baldwin Street 
Demon. Texas 7620 1 I WS4 
Phono HI 7/506.2004 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 231 



EDUCATION 



Education 
And The Color Computer 



By 

Dr. Paul Kimmelman 



It is amazing to find out how many of you are so en- 
thusiastic about your Color Computer. I have heard 
from several Color Computer users who want their local 
school districts to purchase Radio Shack computer equip- 
ment rather than other brands. 

If we are to continue to help the popularity of the Color 
Computer, it will be necessary to demonstrate to school 
officials the amazing amount of software available for 
school use. One quick review of a copy of the Rainbow 
would support anyone who doubts there is software cur- 
rently available for serious educational use. 

I can also say that Radio Shack is preparing some exciting 
software for Color Computer users. I recently visited Tandy 
headquarters and met with educational director Bill Gattis 
and many other fine people from Radio Shack. The future 
of the Color Computer is exciting. 

Programs such as Color Chemistry, Author I and a new 
Talk Tutor on astronomy are only a small part of a future 
plan to build a Color Computer curriculum. Gattis recog- 




COMPUTER 
WEEKLY 




CAN YOU AFFORD $1 A WEEK? 

The CCW Newsletter will give you this if you can: 

• An Issue loaded with program listings of all sorts 
( for just a buck a week— unbelievable) ! 

• Latest news and information — if it happens on 
Monday you'll know about it by Friday 

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{This alone is worth the price of the subscription, and 
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All it takes is ten thin dimes a week to bring meaning to your 
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nized the potential of the education market and this can only 
solidif y f uture development of sof tware f or those of you who 
work either by yourself or with your children on the Color 
Computer. 

LOGO 

I still believe LOGO is an essential beginning for the 
young computer user. In talking with George Gerhold, one 
of the authors of Color LOGO, I learned more about the 
application of LOGO in schools. Gerhold noted that while 
LOGO is an appropriate language f or young children, its use 
does not restrict it to beginners. As a matter of fact, Ger- 
hold's college students work with LOGO using structured 
programming, problem-solving exercises, recursion, anima- 
tion, and multi-tasking. 

Further, maybe Color LOGO is in a league of its own and 
those who compare it to Apple LOGO are making an unfair 
comparison. Who said Apple should set the standards for 
LOGO software? Interestingly enough, those who use Apple 
LOGO don't have as much user memory as Color LOGO. 
Another criticism may even be a moot point f or elementary 
school use, the floating decimal. 

I am yet to hear an elementary teacher indicate that a 
floating decimal is important or even used. I verified this by 
asking a representative from the Houston, Tex., schools 
who teaches LOGO how many times he has used a decimal. 
His response: "Never." 

Color LOGO is a great program. Every Color Computer 
owner should purchase the ROM version which will soon 
be(if not already) in the stores. Look for Radio Shack to 
follow the ROM LOGO release with teacher and parent rce 
manuals. These manuals are excellent and will assist every 
LOGO user. 

I plan to devote a portion of each monthly column to 
LOGO. Our school district is in the process of establishing 
"Color Computer LOGO Learning Labs." Please send me 
copies of your programs and comments. 

EDUCATION 

One aspect of computer use in the schools that is getting 
some serious attention is word processing. I hope to explore 
this in a future column. 

For now, however, be advised that one of the Rainbow's 
advertisers, Cognitec, is willing to donate some copies of its 
early Telewriter version to schools or charitable institutions. 
If you are interested, send a letter with your request and 
number of copies needed to Howard Cohen in care of 
Cognitec. 

Cohen has indicated that you will be able to reproduce the 
early version and its manual. And, while it may be necessary 
for you to pay shipping and handling, it would certainly be a 
small charge for a generous offer. 



232 the RAINBOW June, 1983 



Software Review 



Colorful Banner 
Can Get Your Message Across 



Want to welcome home a family member or friend who's 
been away? Want to get the crowd's attention at your display 
at the next R AINBOWfest? Want to encourage your kids to 
familiarize themselves with the CoCo's keyboard layout? 
BANNER can do all these things and more. It's described as 
a "Moving Marquee Program" and what it essentially does 
is give you the ability to scroll a message across the screen in 
giant letters. 

The program is written in machine language and requires 
at least 16K ECB to run. It comes with eight full-size pages 
of some of the best program documentation I've seen. 

After loading and executing the program, you are pre 
sented with a title page. One key stroke and you are looking 
at a well laid out command menu. Hit the "G" key and you 
are looking at a demo message that shows all the program's 
capabilities. Hit the BREAK key and you're back at the 
Command Menu. From the Command Menu you can select 
the scrolling rate, the colors used, the number of characters 
on the screen at one time, and the delay time between the 
appearance of each character in the message. You can also 



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call up a set of well written 'Help Pages' in case you can't 
remember what does what. They will help you enter the text 
editor, save a message to tape or disk, or read in a message 
from tape or disk. (The access to disk is limited to the disk 
version only.) You may select from two modes of operation. 
The message mode scrolls whatever message you've entered 
via the text editor and the typewriter mode is a 'fun mode' to 
convert all of your keyboard input into giant letters that 
scroll across the screen. 

The text editor is used to create any message a maximum 
of 5 1 1 characters long. It utilizes the full ASCII set including 
punctuation and lower case. Lower case is input by hitting 
SHIFT/ ZERO to unlock the upper case mode. You can 
add, change and delete characters with its full screen editing 
capabilities. Control codes can be embedded in the message 
to vary the scrolling rate, delay time, colors, line size and 
even make the message pause. The editing commands are 
simple and easy to learn. 

Since the program saves and loads messages in ASCII 
f ormat, messages can be saved on tape or disk for f uture use 
from a short, simple basic program included in the docu- 
mentation. You can even embed the control codes by mark- 
ing them with CHR$(86). 

I can't say enough good things about the documentation. 
It's well written, contains a comprehensive table of contents 
and covers about anything you would want to know about 
the program. There is even a page devoted to how to recover 
from 1/0 errors when reading in messages and what might 
be the probable cause of them. According to the documenta- 
tion, you should be able to recover, with your message 
intact, from any system error by typing EXEC. The program 
will even stop and warn you if you try to load a file if it is not 
in ASCII format. 

I've referred to giant letters. Well, that's an apt descrip- 
tion. They're about two-thirds the height of the screen dis- 
play, and you can have four to six on the screen at the same 
time. Starting and stopping the message is as easy as pres- 
sing the "G" or BREAK keys. You can use any of the eight 
colors, either one at a time or, by entering zero via the color 
selection command, get all eight colors alternating character 
to character. 

The program is easy to use, entertaining and has a myriad 
of applications from parties to advertising in a retail envi- 
ronment. Heck . . . you could even set your CoCo's screen up 
in the picture window and wish all your neighbors and 
passer sby a Merry Christmas. I recommend it highly. 

(Micro Technical Products, Inc., 123 N. Sirrone, Suite 106, 

Mesa, AZ 85201, $19 tape, $23 ) 

—Randall Smith 



EPROM PRGRAMMER 1K-16K X 8 

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INTRONICS 
(913) 422-2094 



P.O. BOX 13723 
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66113 



June, 1983 the RAINBOW 233 



Game Master's Apprentice 




Who Is This 
One Called 'CVCVC ? 



By Bob Albrecht and George Firedrake 
Rainbow Contributing Editors 



Millions of young people, and many not-so-young, 
are playing fantasy role playing games. A role 
playing game is a game in which one or more 
players create and control characters (adventurers) who live 
their imaginary lives in a specially made game world. The 
game world is created, managed, and operated by a 
GameMaster (GM), also called a referee, adventure master, 
or dungeon master (DM). 




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Most people who play role playing games use a formal 
rule system. Some of the best known are shown below. 

Dungeons & Dragons (D&D). From TSR Hobbies, 
P.O. Box 756, Lake Geneva, WI 53147. 
RuneQuest (RQ). From Chaosium, P.O. Box 6302, 
Albany, CA 94706. 

Tunnels & Trolls (T&T). From Blade, Box 1467, 
Scottsdale, AZ 85252. 

Worlds of Wonder (WOW). From Chaosium, P.O. 
Box 6302, Albany, CA 94706. 

BEGINNERS BEWARE! The rulebooks are very diffi- 
cult to understand. If you are a beginner, first try Worlds of 
Wonder or Tunnels & Trolls. 
Also try this excellent book: 

Through Dungeons Deep by Robert Plamondon. 
From Reston Publishing Company, ll 400 Sunset 
Hills Road, Reston, VA 22090. 

True Names and Other Names 

Here is our program to generate random names such as 
ROKAR, BARAK, or MIKOS. These names all have the 
form: CONSONANT, VOWEL, CONSONANT, VOWEL, 
CONSONANT. 

100 REM**RANDOM NAMES 

300 REM**MAKE * PRINT 28 NAMES 
310 CLS 

320 FOR K-l TO 28 
330 : GOSUB 610 
340 : PRINT NAME*, 
390 NEXT K 

500 REM**TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
910 PRINT 

920 PRINT 11 FOR MORE NAMES p PRESS 
SPACE" | 

930 IF INKEY* - 11 11 THEN 310 ELS 
E 930 

600 REM**MAKE A NAME SUBR. 



234 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



610 
620 
630 
640 
650 
660 
670 



810 
820 
830 
840 



899 



910 
920 
930 
940 
950 



NAME* - ■« 
0OSUB 810 
608UB 910 
0O8UB 810 
B08UB 910 
BdSUB 810 
RETURN 

REM** ADD A CONSONANT 8U8R. 

C*»"BCDF0HJKLMNPQR8TVWXYZ " 

RC - RND(2l> 

RC* - MID*(Ct, RC, 1) 

NAMEt ■ NAMC^ + RCt 

RETURN 

■ 
■ 

REM** ADD A VOWEL SUBR. 

V«- N AEIOUY" 

RV - RND(6) 

RV« - MD«(V«, RV P 1) 

NAME* - NAME* ♦ RV* 

RETURN 



We ran several bunches of names. Here are some of the 
ones we like: SYREL, KUMUN, GANYZ, XUMEK, 
TIRIM, JEDUN, ZENIB, ZYRIV, PAXUN, KEZE, 
DORUN, GULUM, DUNAM, LYLAN, JEDOV, and 
SAKEM. 

You can easily modify the program to get names with a 
different consonant-vowel structure. Change only block 



600. However, why not write a program that is more gen- 
eral? For example, it might go like this: 



NAME STRUCTURE? CVCVC 



20 names 




FOR MORE NAMES, PRESS SPACE 
FOR NEW STRUCTURE, PRESS'S' 

If we press the space bar, we get 20 more names of the 
form CVCVC. But if we press the 'S' key, we can enter a new 
structure. 

Game Master's Dice 

Last time, we challenged you to write a program to roll N 
dice, each with S sides. We suggested that a RUN might go 
like this. 

DICE? 3D6 Three six-sided dice 
12 

DICE? 2D6 Two seven-sided dice 
6 

DICE? DD Digit Die (0 to 9) 
4 

DICE? P Percentile roll (0 to 99) 

73 

DICE? D20 One twenty-sided die 
16 

DICE? and so on. 
We are going to use this problem to explore a bunch of 



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June, 1983 the RAINBOW 235 



programming techniques. We will begin with a primitive 
program and explain how it works, piece by piece. Here are 
the first pieces, blocks 100 and 300. 

100 REM**6AHEHASTER'S DICE 
110 CL8 

300 REM** ASK WHAT TO ROLL (D*> 
310 PRINT 

320 INPUT "DICE* I D* 

330 IF LEN(D*>-0 THEN 310 

We expect the user to type something recognizable such as 
3D6 or P or DD or D20 or ... ? Whatever he or she types is 
assigned to the string variable D$. 

First, let's take care of the easy stuff. If you type 'P' and 
press ENTER, we know you want a Percentile roll. If you 
type 'DD' and press ENTER, we know you want a Digit Die 
roll. 

400 REM**PERCENT I LE ROLL 
410 IF D*<>"P" THEN 910 
420 ROLL - RND(100> - 1 
430 PRINT ROLL: GOTO 310 

500 REM**DIGIT DIE ROLL 
910 IF DtO"DD" THEN 610 
920 ROLL - RNDU0) - 1 
930 PRINT ROLL: GOTO 310 



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If you don't type 'P' or 'DD," you get to line 610. Now we 
assume you typed 3D6 or 2D7 or D20 or something similar. 
Remember, 3D6 means three dice, each with six sides. D20 
means one die with twenty sides. 

So, let's find the position of the letter D in D$. Call the 
position PD. 

600 REM**F I ND 'D' IN D* 
610 FOR PD-1 TO LEN < D* > 
620 : X* - MID*<D* 9 PD 9 1) 
630 : IF X»*"D" THEN 710 
640 NEXT PD 

650 PRINT " I DON'T UNDERSTAND 11 
660 GOtO 310 

♦If D$is3D6, then PD is 2 
♦If D$ is D20, then PD is 1 
♦If D$ is 10D8, then PD is 3 

Having found the position of *D' with D$, we move on. 
Next, we want to find out how many dice to "roll." 

700 REM**NUMBER OF DICE , N 

710 IF PD-1 THEN N-l 

720 IF PD>1 THEN N-VAL(Dt) 

Aha! If the first character of D$ is 'D,' we will roll one die. 
Otherwise, we assume someone wants more dice rolled or 
has specified one die, as in 1D6 or ID 10. Of course, you 
people who like to crunch stuff into the smallest memory 
space might combine lines 710 and 720 into one incompre- 
hensible line: 

710 IFPD-lTHENN-lELSEN-VAL(Dt) 




Household 
Expense 



Always feel free to crunch our programs! 

Now we want to find the number of sides (S) f or each die. 
This, of course, is to the right of 'D.' 



600 REM**NUMBER OF SIDES 
810 LD « LEN (DO 
820 S« - RIGHT* <D* f LD-PD) 
830 8 - VAL<8«> 

Here are some examples: 



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DS 


PD 


LD 


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S$ 


S 


3D6 


2 


3 


1 


"6" 


6 


2D12 


2 


4 


2 


"12" 


12 


D6 


1 


2 


1 


"6" 


6 


10D6 


3 


4 


1 


"6" 


6 


D12 


1 


3 


2 


"12" 


12 



236 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



The time has arrived to roll the dice, print the result, and 
go back for another request. 

900 REM*»ROLL ND8 

910 IF N-0 THEN ROLL-0:QOTO 1010 

920 IF 8-0 THEN ROLL-0: GOTO 1010 

930 ROLL - 0 

940 FOR KK-1 TO N 

990 : DIE - RND(8) 

960 : ROLL - ROLL + DIE 

970 NEXT KK 

999 : 

1000 REH**PRINT ROLL & 80 BACK 
1010 PRINT ROLL 

1020 GOTO 310 

There is always another way. We will explore other ways 
to do this program. In the meantime, YOUR TURN: 

•CHARACTER FINDER begins at line 1000. To run 

type RUN and press ENTER. 
•SCAN CHARACTER FILE begins at line 2000. To 

run it, type RUN 2000 and press ENTER. 
•To stop either program, press BREAK. 
•The programs both use three subroutines, located at 

lines 10000, 11000, and 12000. 
•Both programs use a common data base, beginning 

at line 30000. 

Compare these programs with their earlier versions in the 
March and April issues. We have chosen line numbers to 



help you easily compare. If you don't have the March and 
April issues, send a self -addressed, stamped envelope to Bob 
and George, P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 94025. We'll 
send you copies of both programs. While you are at it, let us 
know what you like or don't like about "GameMaster's 
Apprentice." 

First Program: 

1000 REM**CHARACTER FINDER 

1200 REM**WHO* 18 CHARACTER 
1210 CL8 

1220 INPUT "NAME OF CHARACTER" I 
WHO* 

1300 REM##BEQ INNING OF FILE 
1310 RESTORE 

1400 REM**READ RECORD, EOF? 
1410 G08UB 11010 

1420 IF NAYM*-"ENDFILE" THEN 143 
0 ELSE 1510 

1430 PRINT "I DON'T KNOW " WHO* 
1440 GOSUB 10010: SOTO 1210 

1500 REM** I 8 IT WHO* ? 

1510 IF NAYM*-WHO* THEN 1610 ELS 

E 1410 



SINK YOUR TEETH INTO 
A BUNCH OF JUICY BUGS 





When you're getting the bugs0f& out of your own programs, you can feel pretty 
stupid about your mistakes. 

But it can be very satisfying when you squash somebody else's bugs. 
Which is why we put out cassettes full of buggy programs for the 16K Extended 
Basic CoCo. 

People send us promising programs. If you can get the bugs out of their programs, 
we'll try to sell them. And everybody shares the profits. 

Send $9 for a sample cassette of 20 or so buggy 
programs. Or $5 with a program you'd like debugged. 
Or send $12 for both. 




DEBUG 



114 West Central St. 
Natick, MA 01760 





June, 1983 the RAINBOW 237 



1600 REM**TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
1610 BOSUB 12010 



Buy a disk drive for 
your Co-Co that's 
better and saves 
you money! 




7 AND ON 40trk DISK DRIVES 



DRIVE 0 $449. 



DRIVE 1 $249. 



I II 

h 



DRIVE 0& 1 $669. (dual case and power supply)! 

Double Sided 40trk TANDON Drives 
DRIVE 0/1 $549 DRIVE 2/3 $349. 

DRIVE 0/1/2/3 $869. (dual case) 



WICO COCO TRACKBALL $69. 
WICO JOYSTICK $24.95 
16K CHIP SET $14.95 
64K CHIP SET (8) $64. 
JCAT AUTO/ANSWER MODEM $139. 



4 



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Since this ad was formatted in January^ 

printer prices were expected to go 
down, please call our toll free number 
for the latest pricing and availability. 



| 48K 2 DRIVE MODEL III $1695. 
120 Day Warranty 

Visa , MasterCard , Money Orders , Personal Checks 



Require 3 Weeks , and Wire Transfers. 



COMPUKIT 

1-800-231-6671 
1-713-480-6000 

16Z0S0 Hickory Knott Houston, Texas 77059 



1700 REM**TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
1710 GOSUB 10010: GOTO 1210 

Second Program: 

2000 REM**SCAN CHARACTER FILE 
2010 CLS 

2300 REM**BEG INNING OF FILE 
2310 RESTORE 

2400 REM**READ A RECORD 
2410 GOSUB 11010 

2500 REM**D I SPLAY RECORD 
2510 GOSUB 12010 

2700 REM**TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
2710 GOSUB 10010 

2G00 REM**START OVER IF ENDFILE 
2G10 IF NAYM*-" ENDFILE" THEN 231 
0 ELSE 2410 



Three Subroutines: 

10000 REM**DO AGAIN SUBROUTINE 
10010 PRINT 

10020 PRINT "TO DO AGAIN, PRESS 
ANY KEY "| 

10030 IF I NKEY*" " " THEN 10030 
SE RETURN 

11000 REM**READ RECORD SUBR. 
11010 READ NAYM* 
11020 READ STR, CON, SIZ, INQ, 
0W„ DEX, CHA 
11030 RETURN 



12000 
12010 
12020 
12030 
12040 
12050 
12060 
12070 
120G0 
12090 



REM**PRINT RECORD SUBR. 
CLS 

PRINT NAYM* : 
PRINT "STR" 
"CON" 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



"SIZ" 
"INT" 
"POW" 
"DEX" 
"CHA" 



PRINT 
STR 
CON 
SIZ 
INQ 
POW 
DEX 

CHA: RETURN 



Data Base: 



30000 REM**CHARACTER RECORDS 
30010 DATA ALOYSIOUS, 10, 11, 10 
, 12, 10, 12, 9 

30020 DATA BAROSTAN, 17, 17, 13, 



238 



the RAINBOW June, 1983 



Op 7, 15, 6 
30030 DATA BRIDLAp 11, 12, 10, 1 
5, 6, 11, 6 

30040 DATA DERNFARA, 13, 13, Q, 
13, 4, 17, 6 

30090 DATA JOLEEN, 13, 11, 7, 13 
, Q, 17, 13 

30060 DATA ROKANA, 9, 9, 9, 17, 
1Q, 9, 10 

30070 DATA ENDFILE, 0, 0, 0, 0, 



Although we didn't try it, we believe this program will run 
okay on a TRS-80 Model I or Model III. That's why we used 
NAYMS instead of NAMES, which is a reserved word on 
Models I & III. If someone out there checks this out, please 
let us know what happened. 

YOUR TURN - Combine the two programs into a single 
program with a menu that lets the user select which program 
he or she wants. Also modify each program so a user can 
elect to continue to use the program or get back to the menu. 

A run might begin like this: 



YOU CAN FIND A CHARACTER RECORD 
BY NAME OF CHARACTER OR YOU CAN 
SCAN ENTIRE RECORD FILE. 



MENU: 

TO FIND A RECORD, 
TO SCAN FILE, 
TO RETURN TO MENU, 



PRESS '1' 
PRESS '2' 
PRESS '0' 



In each sub-program, use the space bar to continue within 
the program and the zero key 

to return to the menu. Tell the user about this. For example, 
after displaying a record, the CoCo might say: 



TO DO AGAIN, PRESS SPACE 
TO RETURN TO MENU, PRESS 4 CT 

Coming Attractions 

Surely, but slowly, we will explore the following things: 
The elusive RUN. 

GameMaster's Dice. 

Looking up stuff in files. First, files of informa- 
tion in DATA statements and arrays. Next, 
cassette files. Eventually, disk files. 

Whatever else comes to mind or is suggested by 
you. 

What do you want? If it fits into the general idea of 
"GameMaster's Apprentice," we might do it. Send your 
suggestions, complaints, kudos, requests, whatever ... to 
George & Bob, P.O. Box 310 Menlo Park, CA 94025. 



Federal Hill Software 
Coco-Accountant 

Was income tax a chore this year? Use 
the power of your Color Computer to make those 
deductions a breeze. Keep track of household 
or business expenses quickly and easily using 
data from your canceled checks. 16K version 
handles 200 entries; 32K handles up to 450. 
Both versions: 

* List expenses by month 

* List expenses by account (year or month) 

* List expenses by payee (year or month) 

* Sort checks by date 

* List to screen or printer. 

In addition, 32K version flags deductible 
checks, flags checks subject to sales tax and 
computes the sales tax you paid. 16K Cassette 
$15.95. 32K Disk $21.95. 

Blackjaq! 

This is as close as you can get to the 
real thing without losing your shirt. A full 
casino simulation wi