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Full text of "The Rainbow Vol. 01 No 1 - Vol 8 No 11"

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The 





£2.25 



THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MA 






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Tandon40 Track Ml 


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Model III 48K 


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Under the Rainbow 




Feature Articles 



28 






COVER acrylic © 1983 by Fred 
Crawford. 



Flashy Program, By Thunder/ John Plaxton 16 

Graphics A bolt from the CLS3. 
Save Your Chips/ William Clements Jr 18 

Hardware Install a "Power On" light. 
Tick Tock, CoCo Clock/ Alexander B. Trevor 20 

Home Control Your computer becomes a timepiece. 

First Saturday In May/ Rob Becker 28 

Game Horse racing for CoCo — Just in time for the 
Kentucky Derby. 

A Capital Program/ Chuck Faessler 34 

Education Can you name all 50 state capitals? 
CoCo Cabinet/ Curtis Bauter 36 

Construction One man's answer of "where to put it." 
The RAINBUG Monitor I Dan Downard 44 

Utility The first of four parts aimed at developing our own 

monitor program for you. 
Iowa Lemonade/ Paul French 60 

Simulation Can you make money operating a lemonade stand? 
Graphics Grid/ T. Gray 73 

Graphics Use a magic slate to sketch pictures. 
The New Shell Game/ Robert W. Ericson 74 

Home Management Spectaculator shells can enhance your use 

of this program. 

Keytones Help Input/ James Provost 77 

Utility The keys are alive with sound. 

Right Justify Numbers/ Mike Hall 77 

Help Lining 'em up. 
Modems Can Be Your Friends/ Harry Hardy 78 

Communication Let's communicate. 

What's Going On In There?/ Richard Krankoski 82 

Utility Looking at memory in real time. 

Smile, CoCo!/ Bruce Rothermel 88 

Pictures Photographing your screen. 
Build A Light Pen/ Ted Hasenstaub 90 

Hardware With charts to aid you. 

Tie An ASCII Border 'Round CoCo/ Ray Gauvreau 104 

Graphics And your screen will love you. 

Micro-Meltdown/C/im Latham & John Erickson 112 

Simulation Our feature program features your own nuclear 
reactor. 

Know When To Hold 'Em . . ./Joseph Kohn 162 

Game Colorful Draw Poker. 
Offset Easy / Edgar Poulin 172 

Help How to offset load — higher or lower. 

Living With One Disk/ Me Ivin Hefter 174 

Tutorial The best of times, the worst of times. 

Unhexing Hex/ Jim Schmidt 178 

Tutorial If hex has you hexed, this will help you hexorcise it. 

Three Easy Pieces/ Stephen Lai 188 

Graphics The animator's art. 

Patch The Patch/ Roger Schrag 194 

Utility Refinements to the author's EDTASM + Patches. 

Well, Treble My Clef/ Larry Konecky 218 

Music Repeat these notes. 

Crunch These Numbers/ Mark Laessig 234 

Statistics And make graphs, too. 



Departments 

Letters To Rainbow/ Our Readers 6 

Rainbow Scoreboard 12 

PRINT #-2,/ Lawrence C. Falk 13 

Editor's Notes. 

Building A Rainbow/ Jim Reed 14 

A many-hued preview to this month's issue. 
CoCo Counsel/ Tom Nelson 56 

The legalities of marketing software. 

Corrections 86 

Education Notes/ Ste ve Blyn 96 

A vowel checker uses strings. 
Assembly Corner/ Dennis Lew and ow ski 98 

Let ML handle BASIC'S chores. 
Using Graphics/ Don Inman 106 

Let's make some regular polygons. 

About Your Subscription 126 

Education And CoCo/ Paul Kimmelman 224 

Looking at LOGO. 

Submitting Material To Rainbow 132 

Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano 146 

Reduce that RF interference. 

The Pipeline/ S7<# 158 

The Dragon's Byte/ Bill Nolan 170 

Better monster management. 

Received And Certified/ Staff 198 

Basic Trtimngl Jose ph Kolar 200 

Care to share? 

Back Issue Information 202 

Bits And Bytes Of Basic/ Richard White 210 

Cassette file management technique. 

RAINBOW Info 216 

GameMaster's Apprentice/ Bob Albrecht 226 

Different dice make different programs. 
Advertiser Index . . ♦ 




Product Reviews 

3D Tic Tac Toe/ Kenneth Peters . . .52 

64K Screen Expander 100 

Android Attack 232 

Bar Zapper 136 

Beyond The Cimeeon Moon 152 

Bridge Tutor I 148 

Catch 'Em 72 

Conquest of Kzirgla 105 

Crystal Revenge 160 

Death Star 150 

Doubleback 72 

Eight-Bit Bartender 208 

Electricity Consumption 

Monitor 26 

File Cabinet 134 



Kamikaze 42 

LLIST-Rite 204 

Panostyk ; .214 

Preschool Packs 1, 2, 3 192 

Protectors 102 

Robot Battle 140 

Shark Treasure 144 

Space Race 24 

Spanish One 40 

Speak Up! 132 

Spectrum Switcher 207 

Super "Color" Disk Zap 138 

Super Pro Keyboard 81 

Synther-7 156 

Weather Watch 80 



NEXT MONTH: The printed word will be featured in next month's edition of the 
Rainbow. 

We'll have a bunch of word games to amuse you — and to help illustrate some string 
handling techniques. Plus, some word processing information and — for the first time — the 
world's most comprehensive chart for converting control codes from one printer to another. 

AND . . . More games, more tutorials, the Scoreboard, and more information and reviews 
on CoCo than you can find anywhere else. It is all coming in next month's Rainbow! 



AN IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT CONCERNING SUBSCRIPTIONS IS 

ON PAGE 79 



The 




¥ $ :¥ 

■■ • j_ - - r 




.Falk 



Editor 



James Reed 
Managing Editor 

Courtney Noe 
Associate Editor 

Sally Nichols 
Art Director 

Jerry McKiernan 
Assistant Art Director 



■ 



Suzanne Kurowsky 
Editorial Assistant 

Bob Albrecht 
Steve Blyn 
Don Inman 
Joseph Kolar 
Paul Kimmelman 
Dennis Lewandowski 
Bill Nolan 
Charles Roslund 
J Dick White 
attributing Editors 




; 




Patricia H. Hirsch 

General Manager 



:,;:..>;, 



m 

Customer 




KJeier 

roe Manager 

Donna Shuck 
Bookkeeper 

Monica Wheat 
Research Assistant 

Wendy Falk 
Transportation 



■ 



The Rainbow is published ©very month of the year 
by FALSOFT. INC., 9529 U.S. Highway 42, P.O Box 
209 H Prospect KY, 40059, Phone (502) 228-4492 
The RAINBOW and the Rainbow logotypes are * 
Trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc 

Entire contents ® by FALSOFf, Inc, 19S3. The 
RAINBOW is intended for the private use and plea- 
sure of Its subscribers and purchasers and repro- 
duction by any means is prohibited. Use of informa- 
tion herein is for the Single end use of purchasers 
and any other use is expressly prohibited. AH pro- 
grams herein are distributed in an "as is" 
without warranty of any Kind whatsoe 

Basic, Extended 
Scripsit and Program Pak are « trademarks of. the 



rve is a * Trademark ;of 





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'. ■»; v v A ■¥" A- ¥s ■ 




letters to 

RAINBOW 



THE HAZARDOUS LENS STATEMENT 

Editor: 

AHA! On page 7 of the February 1983 
issue, upper-right corner, you said that 
nothing you enter from the keyboard can 
hurt your machine. That ain't what the 
repair technician told me when I entered a 
glass of lemonade into the keyboard! And,\ 
completely eliminated all the key-bounce 
problems that I'd been having. They went 
down and stayed down. No bouncing there. 

Pete Jikeen 
Red Bank, TN 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

I have been told a major national maga- 
zine published an article on the hazards of 
using color TVs older than 10 years with 
microcomputers. I have not read the article, 
but apparently the danger would be expo- 
sure to harmful radiation. If this is the case 
then I have something else to worry about 
besides wierdos doctoring up my aspirin 
because — yes — my CoCo is hooked up to an 
ancient RCA. Cansomebodyset my mind at 
ease, because my mother is worried about 
me. 

Now you know who told me. 

Charles H. "Sam " Muncy 
Grafton, WV 

Editor's Note: Sorry, Sam, we have 
not heard about this article. Are you 
sure your Mom doesn't just want you 
to have more fresh air and sunshine? 



Editor: 

Thanks to SIR RANDOLPH OF THE 
MOORS I havedecided to expand my 16K 
computer to 32K and get Rainbow on Tape. 

Although the program could have been 
rewritten and shortened considerably I can 
tell from the listing that it should be an 
enjoyable game. My Congrats to the author 
and winners of your contest. 

So far, I think you have a great magazine 
and find myself checking the mailbox anx- 
iously for the next issue(s). 

Could you possibly tell me how to merge 
or (concatenate) BASIC programs? The rea- 
son I ask is I had agreed with a friend to type 
in half of Randolph on my 16K and he the 
other half on his 32K and then we would 
merge the two halfs into one program on his 
computer. We tried PEEKING and POKE- 
wgstartand end address but it did not work. 
Finally, after about an hour of useless 
attempts, I decided to convert my Mr. Edit 
program and just read the first half in in 
ASCI I and then the second half in ASCI I all 



into one buffer. After saving my buffer on 
tape I was able to reload the two halves as 
one program and RUN it. There must be an 
easier way! 

George W. Chaffee 
Lowell, MA 

Editor's Note: There are several pro- 
grams available to merge Basic list- 
ings and we've printed one routine in 
the Rainbow. 

Editor: 

I have had my Color Computer for a 
month and a half now and am very pleased 
with its capabilities. Until I came across your 
magnificent magazine I was at a total loss of 
information on where to go for help. Your 
magazine has really helped me in getting 
started. 

I guess the real reason why I'm writingyou 
is for advice on upgrading my memory. I 
currently have 16K Extended BASIC, but 
want to go to 64K (if possible). I've seen 
advertisements for do-it-yourself kits which 
go up to 32K and also ads that sell chips for 
64K expansion (E-Board). Is it possible for 
me to upgrade my system to full 64K, or can 
I only have a certain amount at a time? Also, 
how can you tell which type of board you 
have in your color computer? (i.e., D,E, . . .) 

I'd appreciate very much if you could give 
me an answer. 

Lor en J. Dickey 

Tuscon, AZ 

Editor's Note: You can tell which 
board you have by looking at the 
serial number (through the air holes 
on the right side— use a flashlight). 
Your 64K is really two banks of 64K, 
but you can move the operating sys- 
tem to RAM and get more memory. 
It, however, is not a full 64K of open 
RAM— more like about 48K. 

Editor: 

Can you persuade Roger Schrag to do for 
Radio Shack's Color File what he did for 
EDTASMYl By using Micro Technical 
Products ROML, I have Color File on disk, 
but must still use tape for storage. I'm a 
duffer at assembly language, so am not yet 
able to discover the patches necessary to do 
the change from tape to disk storage for 
myself. I just bought Radio Shack's Person- 
afile on disk, but Color File seems much 
more versatile in some ways, since it allows 
sorts in seven fields instead of the two in 
Personafile. 

One more thing. Jorge Mir's program for 
using 64K is interesting, but when I tried to 
use it with his Vnidatfl I kept getting an OM 
error in the line that clears string memory, 
even when I CLEARS only 22,000. I 



bought the tape of his Vnidatfl directly from 
him last summer, and I haven't yet tried to 
upgrade it as suggested by Arnold Weiss in 
his December article. 

See you in April at Rainbowfest! 

Max Shank 
Chicago, IL 

Editor: 

I've acquired a DWP-410 and interface 
for my 32K (upgrade) CoCo. I'd love to hear 
from anyone with a similar setup to compare 
notes. The vendors I've used — Computer 
Plus and Jarb — have been excellent. 

Finally, keep it comin', Rainbow. There's 
no other single source I learn as much from. 

Alan Jay Weiss 
Summit, NJ 

Editor: 

I am glad that the Rainbow is doing so 
well, but sad that so many back issues are 
out of stock. I am a newcomer to the Color 
Computer and am glad to see so much avail- 
able for it. I would appreciate hearing from 
any readers who might be able to supply me 
with back issues (Vol. I #1 1, Vol. II #'s 1-7). 

Notwishingtospend all of my timestudy- 
ing BASIC, I quickly purchased an Adven- 
ture game: Raaka-tu, Wow! As a United 
Methodist Minister interested in ecumenical 
affairs, I was not prepared to be the sacrifical 
object on the high priest's altar — and so 
many times. I have not made it past this 
point and would appreciate some pointers 
(ouch! The statue's arrows are sharp, too!) 
or suggestions on where to go from here. 

Finally, I have obtained an Axiom 
EX800, 80-column printer and would like 
some help in hooking it up to the Color 
Computer. I can get it to work, but the 
resulting printed page is not what I type into 
the computer. Help! 

Thank you for a very fine publication. I 
have received much better service from you 
than any other publication for the Color 
Computer and I appreciate it very much. 

Rev. Richard A. Lochner 
Topeka, IN 

Editor: 

I love your magazine and don't see how I 
could get along without it. 

There is one thing I need to know. I have a 
16K CoCo and want/ need 32K. Trouble is I 
have Color and Extended Color BASIC, 
version 1.0, and A "D" board. 

Is there any way I can piggyback 16K 
chips? Do I only have to replace Color 
BASIC with version 1.1? Or is more 
involved? I don't have the $ for 32/64 MOD 
either from Radio Shack or myself. 

Dave Smallman 
Strongsville, OH 



6 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




Editor: 

The characters given below were printed 
on the CGP-1 15 Color Graphic Printer by 
means of Telewriter (version 1 .0)'s direct 
entry mode, the entries being @0 through 
@9 and then AO through F3, with approp- 
riately interspersed 1 3's for a line feed. I can 
see no way of writing them directly from 
BASIC, nor any particular value in them to 
Occidental users: But do you suppose 
anyone in Fort Worth knew they were there? 

R. W. Odlin 
Sedro-Woolley, WA 



BOUQUET AND BRICKBATS 

Editor: 

In the January edition I noticed a letter by 
Harvey A. Dapeer which praised a software 
product by Snake Mountain Software called 
The Solution. I was extremely pleased to see 
this letter as I had just ordered a copy of The 
Solution myself. I now wish to wholeheart- 
edly endorse his favorable opinion of this 
product. The documentation is first class 
and, in my opinion, this is the best software 
to make use of the CoCo more enjoyable. 
The PMODE 4(1) screen is a delight to work 
with. I would be most interested if you could 
review their ROM Pack version of The 
Solution 

John Lester 
Tampa, FA 

Editor: 

I want to thank you for the integrity and 
honesty you have shown in publishing a 
negative report on one of your major adver- 
tisers. It proves that you are looking out for 
your subscribers. 

About two weeks ago, Bob Rosen called 
inreferenceto mycomplaintabout the Spec- 
trum Joystick. He was very apologetic 
explaining that he had never received my 
original letter and the first he had heard of it 
was in your letters column. His sincerity 
made me feel that the great letter jam, better 
known as the Post Office, had struck again. 
He asked if I wanted a refund or replace- 
ment. I opted for a replacement and I'm glad 
I did. It is a great improvement over the 
original and I am very satisfied. 

I would like to thank Mr. Rosen for his 
call and a very fine product. It is nice to 
know that he stands behind his products. 

I hope you print this letter to set the record 
straight. Keep publishing THE Color Com- 
puter Magazine. 

John M. Heinz 
Katy, TX 



Editor: 

I would like to extend our thanks to Gerry 
Schechter and the Rainbow for the kind 
review of our ROML program (February 
1983, page 197). I would, however, like to let 
your readers know that ROML does indeed 
load ROM Pak software successfully, from 
either tape or disk. Apparently, Mr. Schech- 
ter did not have a 64 K system upon which to 
try this feature of ROML. Also, we would 
like everyone to know that every purchaser 
of ROML receives two user's manuals, one 
for ROML and one for TA P2DSK{which is 
a utility program that comes with ROML). 

Roger L. Degler 
Micro Technical Products, Inc. 

TELEWRITER COLORS 

Editor: 

This letter is in response to the letter from 
Herbert B. Ridge in the February issue. Mr. 
Ridge wanted to know ho w to get rid of the 
"red, blue, and green"characters when using 
Telewriter. I have a fix that works with the 
cassette version. After CLOADMing the 
program, do a POKE &H2FDF, &HF0 
then EXEC normally. This causes Telewri- 
ter to use color set 0 for the screen, which is 
black/ green instead of black/ buff. 

If you want to save a copy of Telewriter 
with the "green screen" modification, do the 
following: 

CLOADM"TELEWRIT" 

POKE &H2FDF, &HF0 

CSAVEM^TELEWRIT", &H 1 E28, 
&H3767, &H1E2E 
I found this out with the ZBUG monitor 
in the EDTASM-\- cartridge. Actually, I 
blundered into it while messing around try- 
ing to figure out how they did the 50-by-24 
screen format. 

Gregory Douglas 
Boulder, CO 
Editor's Note: Drew Shorter, whose 
letter follows, offered the very same 
solution as well as some additional 
comments. 

Editor: 

For those with Okidata 82A and similar 
printers, location &H341E may be changed 
to an &H0A to enable double and triple 
spacing with a line feed in place of a carriage 
return. 

The new version of Telewriter — 
Telewriter-64 — allows you to choose either 
green or buff background and has many 
other enhancements. 

The red and blue colors come from a phe- 
nomenon known as "aliasing." Many excel- 
lent high-resolution games take advantage 
of this effect to create multicolor displays. 
Some computers such as the Apple use alias- 
ing exclusively (so I read) to get multiple 
colors. For some reason, aliasing occurs 
when you have a buff background and not 
with green. 

I'm afraid I can't help with the page 
header problem. 

Anyway, keep up the good work. You 
have created a great magazine that we read 
from cover to cover as soon as we get it every 
month. 

Drew Shorter 
Cuyahoga Falls, OH 



CLARIFICATION 

Editor: 

A recent letter to Rainbow from Duff 
Kennedy, though praising our word proces- 
sor, Telewriter, complained of unanswered 
support letters from Cognitec and went so 
far as to imply that we do not support our 
product. 

This hurts me very deeply, as 1 have spent 
literally thousands of hours on the phone 
answering questions about Telewriter. As I 
explained to Mr. Kennedy in a letter in July 
1982, it is often impossible to answer ques- 
tions asked in letters when insufficient 
information is given. It is very time- 
consuming and very frustrating, and the 
most frustrating part is that, frequently, the 
question asked has already been answered in 
the manual. 

So, yes, some letters have gone unan- 
swered, for this reason, and for the other 
Murphy-reasons that afflict any business. 
But the majority of support letters have been 
answered (despite the inherent frustration). 
Calls, of course, are answered, and we do 
our best to help. I used toanswerthe phones 
myself 50 hours per week, but it's clear I can 
no longer continue to do this if I am ever to 
write another piece of software. 

The people who do answer now, have used 
Telewriter extensively and can help you with 
a lot of questions — if you give them con- 
crete, precise information about what's 
wrong. If they can't help, they will tell you 
when you can reach me. 

Howard Cohen, President 

Cognitec 

Editor: 

This is in reply to Mr. Hilton Wasser- 
man's letter in February's Rainbow. The 
first part of "How Much Will it Cost to Buy 
on Time?" computes payments based on a 
specified length of time at some rate of inter- 
est. The second part of the program is to 
show what advantage may be gained by 
making payments somewhat more than the 
amount calculated in the first part, plus 
some random amounts at random times. 
Therefore, the last payment will be the bal- 
ance remaining. It would be pure luck if the 
new monthly amount and the extra pay- 
ments happened to work out such that there 
is a zero balance! 

Francis Sherwood 
Ft. Pierce, FL 



TRAFFIC CONTROLLER 

Editor: 

1 recently bought the new program car- 
tridge Poltergeist. It is the best game in my 
collection along with being the one played 
the most. The only problem with this excit- 
ing game is that you get sent back to screen 
one after everytime you lose a man. 

To combat this problem, my brother,- 
Mike, (the most avid game player) disco- 
vered that pushing the fire button while on 
the first screen prevents the cars from 
appearing. Once this is done, one can get 
past screen one fairly easy. 

Keep up the fine work on your excellent 
magazine. 

Kari Hogan 
Cedar Falls, I A 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 7 



IT AINT VEGAS 

Editor: 

I have a complaint I must voice about 
programmers who offer Las Vegas type 
games such as Craps or Blackjack for sale in 
the pages of your magazine. Before they put 
such a program on tape they ought to at least 
learn the rules of the games as played in the 
casinos. 

For instance I don't know of any casino 
which pays you for five cards and under 21 , 
nor does the dealer win if he holds such 
cards. If the dealer has an ace as an up card 
when the player takes insurance, the game 
should either inform the player that the 
dealer does not hold blackjack and play con- 
tinues, or the hand should be exposed if the 
dealer does and play on that particular hand 
is halted with no cards being dealt to player. 

I have gotten these so-called casino games 
from two of the advertisers in the Rainbow 
and 1 acquired them on the basis that they 
were advertised as true Las Vegas type 
games. Well they ain 7. No serious player of 
Blackjack or Craps would play the games 
the way they are programmed. 

Thank you for putting out an excellent 
magazine for users of the Color Computer. I 
read each issue from cover to cover includ- 
ing the ads. 

Harry Nor kin 
Thousand Oaks, CA 



HINTS n'TIPS 

Editor: 

I have come across a method for achieving 
a PC LEAR 0 effect for Disk Extended 
Color Basic. It is as follows: 

1. On power up, POKE 25, 14 and then 
POKE 26,0 

2. Type NEW and PRINT MEM. There 
should be 12584 bytes free. 

I have not had a failure with this method 
as of yet, and have SA V Ed, LOADed, and 
created disk files with this method. All the 
rules for PCLEAR 0 for non-disk systems 
apply here as well. 

Congratulations on your new format. 1 
was a bit blinded by the glossy pages, but if 
that is the price for beauty, pay it. 

John. C. Roth 
Salem, OR 

Editor: 

In response to the letter by John Schmidt 
(February 1983) concerning how to get the 
audio from SOUND and PLA y commands 
to tape, the solution is quite simple. All 
sounds made by CoCo are automatically 
transfered to cassette if the record button is 
pressed. Thus, all that remains is to type 
MOTOR ON or pull out the small gray plug 
on the tape recorder to move the tape. 

Several people have asked how to put a 
screen print program made for a 16K 
machine into the upper memory of a 32K 
machine (so the memory of a 32K machine 
won't be cut in half). Well, I don't know 
how, but a POKE 25M-NEW will put the 
BASIC program past the screen print pro- 
gram thus giving 16K of memory instead of 
6K (taking into consideration PCLEAR 4 
has been typed in). However, several steps 
must be taken. 



First, all the PCLEAR values in the pro- 
gram must be deleted. Second, the com- 
mands RUN and NEW will give a SYNTAX 
ERROR (except one when POKE 
25,64:NEW is typed in). To operate the 
BASIC program, type GOTO "second line 
number" (typing GOTO "first line number" 
will also result in a SYNTAX ERROR, so 
put in a REMYme before the first official line 
number in the program). Third, be sure to 
type in CLEAR 200,32767 or something 
might go wrong. By the way, all the graphic 
pages are reserved so all the PMODES can 
be used. 

I enjoy your magazine very much. 

Paul Gani 
Marshfield, WI 



OUR ENGLISH CHANNEL 

Editor: 

My interest started one day when I was 
reading (in bed) a British computer maga- 
zine with a review of the Dragon-32, a new 
computer made in Wales. On reading the 
specifications, my eye caught the word "6809 
processor" — the same as the Tandy TRS-80 
Color Computer. 

I suddenly realized the implication and 
jumped out of bed shouting "Eureka." My 
wife thought I had gone mad. 

We get a copy of the Rainbow airmailed 
to us. We hope that Rainbow will continue 
to grow over here. 1 am sure that when the 
Dragon reaches the you in the States that the 
Rainbow will feature Dragon articles. 
Happy computing to you all. 

Harold Berkeley 
Prestwich, Manchester, England 

CLUBS, CLUBS, CLUBS 

Editor: 

In order to get in contact with more CoCo 
owners here in Mexico City, I will found the 
Mexico City Color Computer Club. 1 have 
developed several programs which 1 would 
like to have others benefit from. 

Every time I start up my computer, 1 have 
to turn it off and on until it works properly. 
In the years I've been using CoCo, 1 have 
learned that it only works well when all the 
letters look exactly the same color. I think 
this is'a problem with the electric energy, 
since here in Mexico, it varies very much. If I 
don't turn it off and on I don't get the right 
color, it always hangs up, displaying the 
famous alpha sign (PRINT@). My address 
and phone: Laja # 232, 01900 Mexico D.F., 
Tel. 5-68-78-75. 

Marcelo Lufl 
Mexico City, Mexico 

Editor: 

A CoCo Special Interest Group meets the 
third Saturday of every month at JARB 
Software, 1636 D Avenue, Suite C, National 
City, CA 92050. Interested CoCo users are 
welcome to attend or to contact CoCo SIG 
at (619) 474-6213. 

Joe Bennett 
San Diego, CA 

Editor: 

I would like to thank all companies (espe- 
cially the Rainbow) that have not forgotten 
us Europeans and do ship overseas. For 



example, when I ordered some materials 
from Mark Data Products and Tox Mix 
Software, it took only 21 daysfromtheday I 
mailed my order to the day I received the 
products. That's what I call service! Please, 
all dealers, mark your overseas shipping 
charge on your ads. I'd feel a lot more com- 
fortable about sending my money in if you 
did. 

By the way, Donkey King is an excellent 
program: you can't go wrong with that one. 
How come nobody has translated the origi- 
nal Colossal Cave adventure on the Color 
Computer? It fits in 32K, doesn't it? 

Could you tell me what is the "magic 
number" on Nanos Systems reference card? 
How to disable the auto start on Astro Blast 
and Cave Hunter? 

How come Rainbow on Tape doesn't ship 
overseas? They could at least ship back 
issues. There is no sense in typing an adven- 
ture in. First, you learn most of the tricks 
and solutions; secondly, you are bound to 
get at least one '? SN ERROR' during the 
game. 

If there are any Finnish Rainbow readers 
out there, please call me at (90) 748-521 and 
we'll get together and form a club. 

Lastly, I would like to thank the Rainbow 
for being what it is: The best source of Color 
Computer information and a great compu- 
ter magazine. (I bet you are getting tired of 
hearing that!) 

Timo Talasmaa 
Met Sopurontie 9 A 12 
SF 00630 Helsinki 63 
Finland 

Editor's Note: Some things we 
never get tired of hearing. Thank 
you! And, yes, Rainbow on Tape is 
available worldwide. 

Editor: 

I am interested in helping form a 80C User 
Group in the Chattanooga area. If anyone is 
interested they may contact me at 36 1 7 Cline 
Road, East Ridge, TN 374 1 2 or phone (615) 
867-5682. 

Keep up the excellent work. 

Jim Perkins 
East Ridge, TN 

Editor: 

There is finally a users group just for 
CoCo owners in the Milwaukee area. It is 
called CoCo-MUG (Color Computer- 
Milwaukee Users Group) and it is looking 
for new members. Anyone interested should 
contact CoCo-MUG, c/oTom Fandre, 2420 
Misty Lane, Waukesha, WI 53186, (414) 
542-0600. 

Steve Koszuta, Secretary 
Milwaukee, WI 

Editor: 

We would like to announce the formal 
formation of the Miami Valley Color Com- 
puter Club serving Miami and Shelby coun- 
ties in Ohio. The MVCCC meets the second 
Sunday of each month at the Hayner Cultu- 
ral Center, 301 W. Main Street, Troy, Ohio. 
The club currently has more than 25 active 
members and is growing daily. 

R. Douglas Wales, President 

Troy, OH 



8 the RAINBOW April, 1983 






COLOR AMDISK-III 
COMPATIBLE. 



The AMDISK-III micro floppy disk system is an engi- 
neering breakthrough in disk size, storage capacity, 
media protection and user convenience. It's fully com- 
patible with your Radio Shack*'* Color Computer. En- 
joy a full 624 KBytef (formatted) storage capability 
and the extra convenience of the new 3" hard plastic 
encased diskettes. They fit into a shirt pocket and are 
easy to mail, too. 



The AMDISK-lli drive system is ruggedly constructed 
for years of trouble-free operation, and is backed with 
our 90 day warranty on parts and labor. 

Just circle the reader service number to receive com- 
plete specifications. 

* Radio Shack is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation, 
f Requires recording on both sides. 



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3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Make love not war? Not with these sultry FEMBOTS! What a 
tale you'll tell IF you live to tell it! Cold steel never felt so HOT! 
The color and excitement of ARCADE ACTION combined 
with the sophistication, intellectual challenge and skill of an 
ADVENTURE GAME doesn't fully describe this cosmic 
shoot'em up. 

16K Tape $29.95 32K Disk $34.95 



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The ONLY Ms. game around. A 
must for your PAC-like game 
collection. 

16K Tape $19.95 
16K Disk $24.95 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 




by Kevin Herrboldt & Tim Nelson 
3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

A dead star ... A derlict vessel ... or is it? Trapped 
within you must venture the corridors; defend yourself 
against the mercilessgauntlet of agentsof the machine 
mind. A real-time, high-res, 3-D science fiction 
adventure game of mind-blowing magnitude. 

32K Disk $29.95 



16K Tape $24.95 

Hduenfure 
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3-D GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 

Clash steel with thy foe in the arena of gore. Proved 
worthy, go in quest of the elusive Eye of Dazmor. If ye 
findest the orb, hastyethe might to ward off skem and 
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Goes beyond "DEFENDER" 
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most realistic ARCADE 
simulation possible. Warp 
speed action, multi-colored 
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make this game tops. 
16K Tape $19.95 
32K Disk $24.95 







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by Dan Nelson 
Why fly to VEGAS when you can have a 
casino at home! The VEGAS GAMEPAK is 
five action packed games with great 
graphics & sound. SLOT MACHINE - 
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- CRAPS & KENO. 

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Fast paced maze chase game will 16K Tape $19.95 
entertain the entire family. 16K Disk $24.95 



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AUTHORS' SUBMISSIONS ARE ENCOURAGED 

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by Tom Czarnecki 

Shades of smartbombs and hurtling comets! Defending 
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Disruptor fire is your main defense against the fierce alien 
attacks. 

16K Tape $19.95 32K Disk $24.95 



ORDERING 



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Customer service and product support call (61 2) 881-2777 

Make checks or money orders payable to Nelson 
Software Systems. Personal checks allow 3 weeks. 
MAIL ORDERS: $2.00 U.S. Shipping ($4.00 CANADA 
$10 OVERSEAS) Add $2.00 for C.O.D. 
ORDERS SHIPPED SAME DAY! 



RAINBOW 




Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color 
Computer world your high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best 
effort on record in the Rainbow's Scoreboard column. All entries must be received by the first 
of the month to be eligible for the following month's Scoreboard. 



Score 



Player 



Score 



Player 



Astro Blast 

63,000 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
53,000 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

Avenger 

11,560 *Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
5,000 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

Bustout 

25,510 *Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 

Color Haywire 
10,250 *Pat Downard, Louisville, KY 
9,750 Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 

9,150 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

Color Invaders 
83,000 *Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

Color Meteoroids 
149,000 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

Color Scarfman 
446,000 * Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 
388,060 Michelle Thompson, Milpitas, MS 

315,120 Kim Hansen, Ponoka, Alberta, Canada 

(Level 15) 

Colorpede 

245,723 *Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

Colour Pac Attack 
193,000 *Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

Conquest Of Kzirgla 

10,399 * Scott Sehlhorst, Columbia, SC 
Donkey King 
319,000 *Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma, WA 
217,000 Eric Hemmert, Hasbrouck Heights, NJ 

156,400 Andy Klingler, Sand Deigo, CA 

1 15,600 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

98,000 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

Doubleback 

25,960 * Mary H. Thomas, Louisville, KY 
Dunkey Munkey 
1,099,400 ★ Andrew Herron, High Point, NC 
1,000,500 Wendy Johnson, San Jose, CA 

626,400 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

362,000 Chris Friend, Lake Elmo, MN 

311,500 Sara Hennessey, Golden Valley, MN 

Galactic Attack 
31,780 * Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 
Ghost Gobbler 
825,250 ★ Randy Gerber, Wilmette, IL 



Katerpillar Attack 

10,249 *Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
7,556 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

7,007 Eric D. Hemmert, Hasbrouck 

Heights, NJ 
Mega-Bug 

6,211 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
3,920 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

Pac-Attack 
30,650 * Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

Pac-Droids 
17,000 * Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
Pacet Man 

5,000 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Polaris 

69,455 * Alan Jay Weiss, Summit, NJ 
45,000 Andy Klingler, San Diego, CA 

36,000 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

30,500 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

Pop Corn 

1 10,570 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Protectors 

358,514 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
94,000 Gerry Schechter, Yonkers, NY 

Skiing 

1:04.17 * Andy Klingler, San Digo, CA 

(No Errors) 

1:13.25 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Sky-Defense 
5,200 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Space Assault 
28,850 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

Space Invaders 
62,300 * Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
Space War 
1 16,000 *Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
Starfire 

1,320,150 *Joy Bailey, Lexington, NC 
464,700 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 

Starship Chameleon 
68,500 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Storm 

380,000 * Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
60,265 Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 

Venturer 

1,526,200 ★ Peter Niessen, Carlisle, MA 
313,250 David Glovinsky, Staten Island, NY 



★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ 



We are really getting ready for R AINBOWfest as I write this month's column. 
What has been particularly gratifying is that a large number of you have written 
to say that you will be in attendance. I think I can say, without much qualifica- 
tion, that RAINBOWfest — particularly as a first-time enterprise — will be a 
success! 

One of the things we said about the show a month ago comes up to be even 
more important now. That is the addition of a series of seminars and workshops 
for "CoCo's very first show." We wanted RAINBOWfest to be something more 
than just a trade show — and, thanks to the generous support of a number of 
people — it will be. 

Don Inman has graciously consented to be the guest speaker at the breakfast 
Saturday morning. All of you are well acquainted with the remarkable expertise 
Don has brought in his columns in the Rainbow and the many books he has 
authored. I, for one, look forward to hearing him. 

Aside from Don's talk, the breakfast will offer an opportunity for you to see 
more CoCo owners in one place than you ever have in your life! It has been set 
for the opening of the first full day of the show primarily as a get-together. I 
really hope you won't miss it! 

I've talked in the past about "CoCo Community. "The breakfast is one way we 
can all express that CoCo Community and break bread with one another. I'm 

really excited about it and hope to see many of 
you there. 

And, speaking of CoCo Community, I'd like 
to thank the members of the Northern Illinois 
Color Computer Club for volunteering to con- 
duct the series of seminars we have planned on 
BASIC. This is taking a great deal of planning 
and coordinating. Thank you, NICCC! 

One of our seminar leaders will be a new 
name to many of you, Tom Nelson. Tom is an 
attorney withthestateof Minnesota, a principal 
in Nelson Software and our newest columnist. 
We welcome Tom and believe his commentaries 
on computers, software and the law under the 
heading CoCo Counsel will provide a sig- 
nificant contribution to the Color Computer 
world. 

Others who will be talking include Chris 
Latham, who authored the nuclear power plant simulation which appears in this 
month's issue. He'll talk about machine language animation. Fred Scerbo of 
1MB, E. R. Bailey of Micro Logic and a number of others will also be on hand. 
We think these will be interesting sessions. 

Of some major importance to Color Computer Clubs and User Groups is a 
meeting with me during RAINBOWfest. As you know, one of our major goals 
has been to support these groups, and we hope this meeting will provide us with 
some additional ways to be of help. If you area member or an officer of a Color 
Computer Club or User Group, I hope you will make it your business to see 
someone is in attendance. 

This officially announces the beginning of the Rainbow's first Simulation 
Contest. We've tried to provide a number of simulations in this month's issue to 
give you some idea of what this kind of program can be like. And, I am pleased to 
say we will have some excellent prizes — with the top prize a brand new Epson 
FX-80, 4K serial printer buffer and cable donated by J ARB Software. Total 
value of this one prize alone is more than $800. So, let's get those CoCo's 
working. We will announce more prizes later, but expect them to be well worth 
your valuable programming time. 

The deadline for the contest is July 30. That is a change from what we 
announced in a preliminary way last month. All entries must be postmarked by 
July 30 to be eligible. 

All entries become the property of Falsoft, Inc., and the Rainbow. Decision of 
the judges is final. Your simulation must be an original work — no "conversions" 

(continued on Page 172) 




ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P.O. Box 16842 - Sta. B 
Greenville, South Carolina 29606 
(803) 233-2700 



PRESENTS 




COLOR— STICK 

The ORIGINAL interface for 

\ rheTRS-60* 
Color Computer to let 
you use the fomous: 

ATARI* JOYSTICK' 



Just plug your Atari or Atari like 
joystick (the Color-Stick enables the 
use of most joysticks made for the 
Atari) into the Color-Stick interface 
and then plug the Color Stick into an 
empty joystick port. 

The Color-Stick can improve 
scores 50% and more while making 
some games more exciting and fun to 
play. 

Don't settle for cheap imitations. 
Only the ORIGINAL Color-Stick's 
small inline design allows you to just 
plug your joystick into it and forget it. 
The Color -Stick becomes a part of 
your joystick so it does not interfere 
with your game playing. In addition 
Color-Stick returns a full value of '63' 
for the right and down directions, 
even when using two joysticks and 
even in the diagonal directions, the 
others don't. 

NOW Color-Stick has a 
new low price 

Color-Stick interface $12.95 each 

two for $22.95 (less joysticks) 
Atari joysticks $9.95 each 



«5 



ETTER 

OFTWARE COMPANY 

P.O. Box 16842 — Sta. B 
Greenville, South Carolina 29606 
(803) 233-2700 



Don't miss out order the 
ORIGINAL. Send your check or 
money order or better yet call 
today and order your Color-Stick. 





Add $2.00 per order shipping and handling. Bank cards 
welcomed (please include expiration date). Orders paid 
by cashiers check, money orders, bank cards and 
CO D. are shipped within 48 hours. Personal checks 
please allow 12 weeks. C.O.B. orders add $1.50 extra. 
S.C residents add 4% sales tax. *TRS-80 is a registered 
trademark of Tandy Corp. Atari is a registered 
trademark of Atari, Inc. 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 13 



BUILDING A RAINBOW 

The Simulation Issue . . . 
The Bound-For-Chicago Edition . . . 
The monthly storm before the Rainbow appears . . . 
The Production Express, heading for Printer's Station . . . 



Do all Civil War movies start out 
with the sound of a train 
whistle echoing through the 
station? And, as surely as the 
sweethearts are left behind, won't that 
steam engine soon be puffing black 
smokeand thundering 'round the bend 
just as we catch sight of the mile-high 
trestle? And, at the very last second 
before the tracks trade ground for the 
timber, doesn't somebody always go 
tumbling off the train and rolling down 
the bank? 
I feel like I was pushed. 
True enough, the momentum is 
enough to carry the Production Express 
across the wide chasm and on to 
Printer's Station, but what a time to jump 
off and count the cars! My heart is with 
those still on board as I watch the 
caboose disappear in the distance. 

The analogy is a bit worn, perhaps, but 
putting together a magazine is a lot like 
forming a train. The cargo is produced 
sometimes months in advance. The bill 
of lading— we call it booking— takes 
weeks. A legal-sized clipboard serves as 
our switching yard, and, as on a mail 
train, a relentless pace is kept with only a 
breathless stop before still another train 
pulls out. 



A lot of precious cargo missed the 
train this time. That's because, even with 
244 pages, there's only so much room. 

We do havea mighty trainload foryou, 
though, this month. Dozens of articles. 
Dozens of programs. Who else offers so 
much in one issue just for the Color 
Computer? 

From the creative genius of many "big 
name" contributing editors to the 
enjoyable home style writing of our 
Rainbow reviewers, we truly believe 
there's something for everyone, and 
some things for everybody. We hope 
you agree. 

This is our simulation issue. Along 
with announcing our simulation 
contest — we already have two entries— 
we have two solid examples of 
simulations to show you how it's done. 
More simulations will appear in next 
month's Rainbow, too. 

May I recommend a book? 
Stimulating Simulations by C.W. Engle 
is an excellent introduction to the art of 
creatingand developingsimulations. It's 
published by Hayden Book Co. as part 
of their microcomputer series. 

By the way, if you think this month's 
nuclear power simulation isn't your 



thing, let me point out that one of its 
co-creators is also the author of The 
King for Tom Mix Software. I know Dr. 
Doom loves meltdown-a-minute action. 

Ms. Doom, on the other hand, is 
already addicted to Color Poker, a 
creation of Joseph Kohn's that is a 
delight to play. 

New this month is our CoCo Counsel 
department, featuring Tom Nelson of 
Nelson Software. If you are marketing 
software, or planning to, check out his 
first column this month. Tom will be with 
us in Chicago, too, to hold a special 
seminar at RAINBOWfest. 

Also newthis month is our Received & 
Certified, which spotlights new product 
arrivals at the Rainbow. 

New, too, is our tear-out card to order 
magazine subscriptions, renewals and 
Rainbow On Tape. That brings me to a 
final word: An invitation. 

If you aren't among those who have a 
year 'round pass to the Rainbow's 
trainload of top-flight articles and 
programs, I hope you'll pull out that 
subscription card and climb aboard. 

—Jim Reed 



FILMASTR 



A powerful (DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM for the 
COLOR COMPUTER. If you have been wanting a really 
good data manager at a reasonable price, THIS IS IT! 
FILMASTR combines the best features of the big 
systems to provide a combination of speed, power, and 
simplicity that can't be beat. 

CUSTOM SCREENS - Design input screens with up to 
20 fields. Inverse labels for contrast. 

FORM FILL ENTRY - Non-destructive blinking cursor, 
full screen editing, no garbage collections, copy fields 
from previous record. Keeps up with the fastest 
typist. 

FAST SORT & SEARCH - Machine language sorts the 
entire file in seconds. Sort on any field or fields. Use a 
variety of relational search techniques to select any 
record or group of records that you can define. 

EDIT FILES - Change or delete any record easily. Create 
and save sub-files or append files. 

PRINT FORMAT - Print any field in any order on any line. 
Insert characters or phrases. 

MENU DRIVEN - No special commands to be learned. 
All functions are menu selected and aided by on 
screen instructions. 

CAPACITY - Up to 255 characters per record, 24000 
characters per file. (9000 with 1 6K) 

DOCUMENTATION - A thorough manual with 
examples and explanation of every command. 

1 BK or 32K TAPE $29.95 

EXT BASIC DISC 34.95 



FILMASTR 



TIME & MONEY 

A "WHAT IF?" financial planning tool. T & M is used to 
evaluate the time value of money as an aid in planning 
investments, savings plans, retirement plans, leases, 
loans, mortgages or any other situations that involve 
compound interest. 

The program is menu driven with simple on-screen 
instructions. It uses a unique form fill-in for data entry 
with easy editing. It even accepts simple math expres- 
sions as input. 

Calculated results are automatically enteredas data and 
can be used for further "WHAT IF?" calculation. All 
factors are always on screen, making it easy to 
understand the relationship between TIME & MONEY. 



TIME & MONEY 



16K or 32K 
EXT BASIC 



TAPE $19.95 
DISC 24.95 



=ri if 



UU 



urn 



-i i 



(814] 371-4658 



BOX 1051, DUBOIS PA, 15801 



Add $2.00 Postage & Handling 
PA Residents Add B D /o Tax 
C.O.D. $2.00 Additional 





1 4 the RAINBOW April , 1983 



Celebrate RainbowFest! 



COLOR SCRIPSIT™, TELEWRITER™, 
TELEWRITER 64™ TEXT PRO AND TEXT PRO II™ OWNERS 
CELEBRATE THE RAINBOWFEST WITH THIS LIMITED OFFER! 



The RainbowFest is a time for celebration. We want to help you celebrate by offering you a 
wonderful opportunity to enter the totally integrated and compatible world of the Super "Color" 
Library. Nelson Software Systems has put it all together, all the programs you'll need to solve your 
problems, with all the features you have grown to like, including eight lowercase screen displays WITH 
DESCENDERS. You also getthe elegance, professional quality, power, flexibility and easeof useyou 

have come to expect from Nelson Software Systems products. We want to give you an opportunity to 
trade up to quality. Make the RainbowFest a real time for celebration - trade your word processor i nfor 
the undisputed best, the Super "Color" Writer II Version 3.0, and begin to build your Library of 
essential software! 

All you have to do is send us your Color Scripsit, Telewriter, Telewriter 64, Text Pro or Text Pro II 
program and receive your FULL PURCHASE PRICE (up to $59.95) as credit toward the purchase of 
the brand new gold embossed leatherette bound Version 3.0 64K compatible Super "Color" Writer II! 

Just fill out and sign the coupon below and send it, together with your ORIGINAL program and 
manual plus proof of purchase (receipt, registration card, etc.), the price difference and $3 for 
shipping and handling, and we'll send you the NEW Super "Color" Writer II Version 3.0. Forexample, if 
you wish to trade in your Color Scripsit disk for the Super "Color" Writer II disk, just send in the 
coupon, program, manual and proof of purchase, plus the price difference, $40, and $3 for shipping 
and handling for a total of $43. 

This limited offer is only good through May 15, 1983. Act today! We guarantee same day return 
shipment. 



I want to sign up for my new Super "Color" Library card now. Enclosed are my original 

program and manual, proof of purchase, and money order or 

credit card order in exchange for my copy of the NEW Super "Color" Writer II Version 3.0. 

NAME 

ADDRESS . 

CITY, STATE & ZIP 

Visa # Exp. Date MasterCard # 



■ 



COUPON 




Signature 



A Division of Solllaw Corporation 



NELSON™ 

SOFTWARE 

SYSTEMS 




Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 U. S. A. 



9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 612/881-2777 



* Disk owners may not trade for rompak or tape versions. 

* Personal checks allow three weeks for delivery. 

* Limited to one trade-in per person. 

No C.O.D. accepted. 

Color Scripsit is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 

Telewriter and Telewriter 64 are trademarks of Cognitec. 
Text Pro and Text Pro II are trademarks of Cer-Comp. 



I 
I 

J 





16K 

ECB 


■ 


f she 1 


GRAPHICS 






m mm m 

RAINBOW 



Here's A Flashy 
Little Program, By Thunder 

By John Plaxton 



The following program, Lightning, continually generates 
a single flash of forked lightning across a PMODE4 screen. 
Each flash is different. 

The program is part of a father-soneff ort in generating an 
electronic window display of numerous scenes suitable for 
Halloween. 

You may be interested in trying to devise a suitable 
program for thunder. 

The listing: 



L 

I 
G 

H 

T 

N N 
I I 
N N 

G 




10 9 
20 7 
30 7 
40 7 
50 7 
60 7 
70 7 
80 7 
90 7 
100 7 

110 "define variables, display 
120 DIM X ( 14) , XI (14) , Y(14) , Yl (14 
) 

130 PM0DE4, 1 

140 PCLS 

150 SCREEN 1, 1 

200 'generate initial position 
210 X (0) =150+RND (75) * ( < (RND (2) >1 
)*2)+l) 
220 Y(0)=0 

230 XI (0)=X (0) : Yl (0)=0 

240 LINE(X,Y)-(X,Y) , PRESET 

300 "generate single bolt portio 

n 

310 FOR T=1T0 RND (13) 

320 X (T) =X (T— 1 ) +RND ( 15) * ( ( (RND (2 

) >1)*2)+1) 

330 IF X (TX0THEN X(T)=0 

340 XI (T)=X (T) 

350 Y(T)=Y(T-1)+RND(10) 

360 Yl (T)=Y(T) 

370 NEXT T 

400 "generate forked portion 
410 FOR T=T TO 13 

420 X (T) =X (T-l ) +RND ( 10) * ( ( (RND (2 
) >1)*2) +1) 

430 IF X (T) <0THEN X(T)=0 



440 XI (T) =X 1 (T-l ) +RND ( 10) * ( ( (RND 
(2) >1)*2)*+1) 

450 IF XKTX0THEN Xl(T)-0 
460 Y(T)=Y(T-1)+RND(10) 
470 Yl (T)=Y1 (T-1)+RND(10) 
480 NEXT T 

500 7 display lightning flash 
510 FOR T=1T013 

520 LINE(X(T-1),Y(T-1)>-(X(T),Y( 
T) ) ,PSET 

530 LINE(X1 (T-l), Yl (T-l) >-(Xl (T) 
, Yl (T) ) ,PSET 
540 NEXT T 

550 FOR S=0TO50:NEXT S 

600 7 remove lightning from sky 

610 7 

620 PCLS 7 use this if nothing 
else is on screen, else delete 

630 7 

640 FOR T=1T013 

650 LINE(X(T-1),Y(T-1)>-(X(T),Y( 
T) > , PRESET 

660 LINE(X1 (T-l) , Yl (T-l) )-(Xl (T) 

, Yl (T) ), PRESET 

670 NEXT T 

680 GOTO200 

1000 7 

1010 7 

1020 7 The lightning is generated 
in two arrays, one for eac 

h of two forks, 

1030 7 Fourteen co-ordintaes are 
generated, X and Y being 
independent of each other. 

1040 7 The distance between point 

s is randomly generated. 

the horizontal values can 
be + or -, but the vertica 

1 values are always +. 

1050 7 Initially, a random number 
of points are duplicated i 

n both arrays to give the 

impression of a single 
lightning bolt. 

1060 7 Then, points for each arra 

y are generated to produce 
forked lightning. 



16 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



The Official 



O 



O 



by 



* % 







II 



The game that puts space games in 
perspective. Zaxxon", one of the most 
popular arcade games of 1982, is now avail- 
able for use with your home computer 
system, 

Zaxxon >v technology and creativity present 
a 3-dimens tonal-like playfield which sets 
Zaxxon y apart from other computer games, 

Zaxxon " looks and sounds like aircraft 
flight, and players can soar to new levels of 



home computer entertainment. From the 
daring attack on the enemy's floating for 



tress and the blazing battle against the en 



emy's Tighter fleet to the final showdown with 



the deadly armored robot, Zaxxon chal 
lenges the skill and imagination of every 



player at every level of skill. 



Imagine yourself the pilot, attacking the 
enemy fortress- climbing, diving, strafing to 
score points and extra fuel. The enemy 
fights back with a barrage of missiles and 
gunfire. Then you face a fleet of enemy fight- 
ers in a gripping dogfight of altitude strategy 
and flying skill. Survive this battle and the 
enemy s fortress, defended with laser bar- 
riers, then you've earned the ultimate chal- 
lenge; a blazing confrontation with the pow- 






erful robot, armed with a lethal homing 
missile. 

Zaxxon ,H is the one game that you must see 
to believe. You have to play it to feel its im- 
pact. If you're ready to face the challenge, 
check with your local software dealer or 
send check or money order with $2.00 post- 
age/handling, California residents add 
6 1 /2% sales tax. Available on cassette or 
diskette. Suggested retail price $39.95. 

Available in January on Atari® February on 
Apple * and Radio Shack* Color, and April 
on Tl 99 MA" and NEC 6000 " 



COMPUTER SOFTWARE 
9421 Winnetka Avenue 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 
(213) 701-5161 
P1982 Datasoft ,M Inc. 

Datasolr is a registered trademark ol DalasoU inc." 



Sega" and Zaxxon " are registered trademarks of Sega Enterprises inc. 



HARDWARE 



Install a Chip-Saving 
Tower On' Light 

By William C. Clements, Jr. 

The Color Computer has a lot of nifty features, but one 
that it doesn't have is a power-on indicator. Sure, the 
presence of the green screen on the attached TV will signal 
you whether the computer switch is turned on, but what if 
you turn off the TV and forget the computer is on too? That 
AC switch is hidden on the back, out of the way and out of 
sight, and it's easy to forget it. 

We have seven Color Computers in a student facility here 
in Chemical and Metallurgical Engineeringat the University 
of Alabama, and the students were forever doing just that. 
We have the dust covers on all of them, and believe me, you 
don't want to go off and leave an 80C on overnight with the 
cover in place. That power transformer gets hot enough even 
when it has plenty of ventilation, and the SAM chip and the 
memory ICs get warm under their metal shield, too. After 
that happened a few times, I decided we had to have pilot 
lights. 

I have noticed one commercial device to solve this 
problem. It provides a light-emitting diode(LED) indicator 
lamp mounted in a device that plugs into a joystick port, 
getting power off the +5 volt line provided there. However, 
it's easy (and much cheaper) to do the job right and install a 
first-class pilot lamp inside the case, where it belongs. 

Radio Shack sells a pack of two LED indicators (Stock 
No. 276-01 8) for $ 1 .79. These lamps come in a neat snap-in 




Th. Micro Catalog 



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housing that requires only a 5/ 1 6 inch hole and a little finger 
pressure to produce an installation that looks just as good as 
if it came that way from the factory. 

You can mount the lamp where you like; I put ours just 
above the right edge of the keyboard, as shown in Figure l . 
Unplug your computer and turn it upside down onto a towel 
or other protective surface. Remove the seven screws that 
hold the case together, turn it back over, and lift off the top 
cover. 

Make a small dimple in the plastic case by pressing the 
point of a nail where the light is to go, then carefully drill a 
5/ 1 6 inch (8mm) hole there with an electric drill. Start with a 
small hole and work up to the full size, to keep the hole 
round. Push in the lamp from the top of the case, making 
sure it goes in all the way and snaps securely in place. Solder 
a 1000 ohm, •/i-watt resistor to the longer (positive) lamp 
lead. 

Cut two pieces of insulated flexible wire (I used wire-wrap 
wire here), each about a foot long, and twist the wires 
together. Solder one wire to the free end of the resistor and 
the other wire to the remaining lead of the lamp. Push pieces 
of insulating tubing over each wire and slide them up next to 
the lamp casing, pushing over wire, resistor, and all, to cover 
all exposed metal. 

For circuit boards through Revision E, connect the wire 
from the resistor to the circuit-board wire-wrap pin labeled 
TP9, which is the + 1 2 volt point, and the other wire to TP4, 
which is ground. If you have the newest revision of the 
circuit board (the one with the power transformer mounted 
on the board and having the small tab-mounted RF shield), 
the + l2v. point is the pad labeled TP3, and ground is the pad 
labeled TP2. 

Reassemble the case, taking care that the wires don't get 
pinched anywhere, and you have it done. The whole job 
takes about 20 minutes and costs a total of two dollars, and 
for that price you even have a spare lamp left over to use for 
something else. Now you have no excuse for going off and 
leaving the power on to fry your SAM chip or those brand- 
new 64K memory upgrades! 



18 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



TDP SYSTEM 100* / QUALITY DISCOUNT PRODUCTS / COLOR COMPUTER* 
DISCOUNT PRICES / COMPARE / WE'RE FAST/ ORDERS SHIPPED WITHIN 24 HR 



Software Specials 20% off 



PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 



Flight 


19.95 


15.95 


Magic 


19.95 


15.95 


COMPUTEWARE 






Doodle Bug 


24.95 


19.95 


Pac Tac 


24.95 


19.95 


Rail Runner 


21.95 


17.55 


Storm 


24.95 


19.95 


TOM MIX SOFTWARE 






Donkey King 


24.95 


19.95 


Katerpillar 


24.95 


19.95 


Protectors 


24.95 


19.95 


MARK DATA PRODUCTS 






Astro Blast 


24.95 


19.95 


Space Raiders 


24.95 


19.95 


(Limited quantity. Call for availibility) 






This Month 

SpeciaU 

64K ECB 



PRICKLY 

Viking* 

Gangbuster 

Football 

I Ching 

Numerology 

Tarot 

Trilogy (I Ching, 
Numerology, Tarot) 
Phonics I 
8-Bit Bartender 



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19.95 
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16.95 
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39.95 33.95 
24.95 21.95 
19.95 16.95 



Astrology* 34.95 29.95 

Great Word Game* 19.95 16.95 

Household Helper 19.95 16.95 

Math Pack 1 19.95 16.95 

Pre-Read 24.95 21.95 

Song Book (w/tapes) 29.95 25.95 

Fantasy Games Pk 19.95 16.95 

Fantasy Games Pk 32K 24.95 21 .95 

Phonics II 24.95 21.95 

Las Vegas Weekend 24.95 21 .95 




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64K RAMS 

14V 2 " Tractor Feed (White) 
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Circus 10.00 
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Name That Song 
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4K 

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Wizard 6.00 
Apartment House 

Mystery 6.00 

Eigen Systems 



Basic Aid (cart.) 

Stripper 

Ccead 



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Silly Syntax 19.95 
Additional 

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Fairy Tales 

Sing Along 

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Cosmic Invaders 
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Haunted House 9.95 

Killer Bot 13.95 

Labyrinth 14.95 

Starship Here. 14.95 

Time Trek 14.95 

Escape from Mars 14.95 

Pyramid 14.95 

Quest 14.95 

Trek Adventure 14.95 

Circle World 14.95 

Nuclear Sub 14.95 

Venture 19.95 

Tiny Compiler 24.95 

Tube Frenzy 19.95 

Derelict 14.95 

Caterpillar 19.95 

Space Battler 12.95 

Golf 9.95 

Catchem 19.95 



B5 Company 

Clock 24.95 
Money 19.95 
Math Fact 16.95 
ABC's 9.95 



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Inspector CLUEseau 19.95 17.95 
Stress 19.95 17.95 

Weather Watch 19.95 17.95 



Terms: Cash, money order, your personal checks welcome. 
No waiting to clear on software items. Shipping - $2.50 for 
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Ext. We reserve the right to change prices without notice. 



Warranty: All hardware products are warranted for a period of 
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Desert Software, P.O. Box 502, Cortaro, AZ 85230 

(602) 744-1252 





16K 




r The 






RAINBOW 



I 




CoCo Clock 
An Accurate 
Timepiece 



By A.B. Trevor 
(70000, 130) 



One of the advantages in having your own computer is 
that you can have it do things for you, even when you are not 
sitting in front of it. Of course, your computer must perform 
these tasks on schedule. But how can your CoCo keep 
accurate track of time? Its internal time bases are less than 
one percent accurate — unsuitable for long-term time 
keeping. At least one manufacturer (Basic Technology) has 
attempted to solve this problem, but the solution costs more 
than a CoCo ($379 for a BT-1000 and BT-1020 Clock). 
Fortunately, a very accurate time base can be obtained for 
less than $40 from Radio Shack's Plug 'n Power (TM) 
Remote Controller (Cat. #26-1182). Even if you have no 
interest in controllinglightsand appliances (which this little 
box does very well), the P'nP may be a suitable real time 
clock for your application. 

Last month, we looked at the P 'nP hardware and a 
BASIC program for controlling lights. This month, we shall 
discuss how to use the P 'n P as a time base in a simple 
BASIC program (Listing 1) that calls some interesting 
machine language subroutines. (The sources of these 
routines are too lengthy to be reproduced here, but are 
available to Rainbow subscribers on CompuServe). There 
are some limitations to this implementation, so before 
examining the programs in detail, let's consider some of the 
problems in implementing an accurate clock in the Color 
BASIC environment. 

As any serious student of CoCo anatomy knows, the 6809 
is equipped with three hardware interrupts: the 
nonmaskable interrupts (NMI), the fast interrupts request 
(FIRQ), and the normal interrupt request (IRQ). In our 
favorite machine, the NMI is usable only by cartridges that 
are so inclined (like the Disk Controller), and the FIRQ is 
used (wasted?) for detecting the presence of a cartridge. The 
IRQ, however, can be connected to either one of two 



"clocks" under program control and used to time events 
without tying up the whole processor. 

Of the two IRQ clocks, the horizontal sync clock (HS) 
occurs too often (every 63.5 microseconds) to be efficient in 
a time-of-day clock application. The field sync clock (FS) 
interrupts every 16.667 milliseconds, so it is the preferred 
choice for most timing jobs. FS is used by Color BASIC for 
the SOUND duration, and by ECB for the TIMER 
function. If you have played with TIMER at all, then you 
already know why the FS is very limited as a real time clock: 
it is not exactly 1 / 60th of a second, and has no long-term 
accuracy. 

The Plug 'n Power controller provides a partial answer. 
As mentioned in my February article, this device contains a 
power line frequency detector. Each time the 60 Hz power 
signis accurate over the long term. Unfortunately, the clock 
line is connected to the cassette data input, which cannot 
cause an interrupt in an unmodified machine. An interrupt 
is tantalizingly available on the RS-232 status line, but if we 
modified the Plug 'n Power to use the RS-232 port, then 
where would our printer or modem go? So, with no interrupt 
available, the CPU must spend a good percentage of the 
time just watching the cassette data input to maintain an 
accurate time base using the P'nP. Well, the solution below 
is not ideal, but involves no hardware changes. 

Dual Time Base 

The first time you set the time of day with the USR1 
function (Listing 1), two changes to the BASIC environment 
are made: I) a new IRQ service routine is inserted, and 2) 
BASIC'S keyboard-input-wait routine is modified to count 
pulses from the P'nP box. If your BASIC main program is 
executing (or if the P 'n P is of for disconnected), then time is 
maintained by means of the FS interrupt. Whenever your 



20 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



BASIC program is not running or is waiting for input from 
the keyboard, then accurate time keeping with the P 'n P 
controller is in effect. Accurate time can also be maintained 
if your program calls USR2 to wait for a specified time of 
day. Since most control programs will spend most of the 
time waiting for keyboard input or for some specific time, 
littleaccuracy will be lost by this "dual time base" technique. 
Considerable time will be lost if your program invokes 
BASIC functions that turn off the IRQ— notable I/O. 
Cassette I/O totally shuts down both time bases for the 
entire transfer period, while disk usually causes the loss of 
only a few seconds. In any case, this clock is very accurate 
for many applications, and it is easy to test its accuracy in 
your own programs, since the time is continuously displayed 
in the upper right of BASIC'S text page. 

A magenta colored, non-blinking cursor is used to signal 
that P'nP timing is in effect. If you see BASICS familiar 
multi-color cursor after running the program, then the P 'n 
P is not properly connected or is not switched to "CTRL." 

Program Description 

Listing 1 is a simple BASIC program that loads the clock 
routines, initializes them, and sets the day and time from 
your inputs. Once you run it, the day of the week and the 
time of day will appearcontinuously in the upper right of the 
text screen. Be sure that your P 'n P is switched to "CTRL" 
for maximum accuracy. You can load and run most BASIC 
programs without destroying the clock. 

Two "USR" functions are the heart of the program. 
USROsets the day of the weekfrom an integer argument ( 1 
= Sunday, 2 = Monday, . . .). USR/ sets the hour from the 
high order 8 bits and the minute from the low order 8 bits of 
the argument. The current day or time can be read by calling 
with a negative argument. Note that USR/ returns the time 
as four BCD digits, which is not the same format used to set 
time. Oncetheclock has beenset, time is maintained by calls 
to the machine language TICCLK routine either from the 
IRQ service routine (IRQULK) or from NEWHK. 
NEWHK turns off the IRQ clock and sets the cursor to $EF 
(magenta block). It then loops, looking for pulses on the 
cassette input line (bit 0 in BSRSTA) or for a key. TICCLK 
is called once for each pulse seen. If no pulses are seen in a 
reasonable time, or if a key depression is noticed, the IRQ 
clock is reenabled and control is returned to BASIC. 

A third user callable routine, USR2, (not called by this 
BASIC program), is used to wait for a particular time. It 
returns with a zero value when the specified time is reached, 
or with the value of an ASCII character if a key was 
depressed before the time was reached. If the P ti P is not 
turned on, USR2 returns -1. 

The machine language routines are written in position 
independent code, so may be relocated anywhere in 
memory. For example, 16K machine owners will want to 
delete line 80 of Listing 1 and remove the first apostrophe in 
line 90 to keep the routines within 16K. 

All of these routines are used by the full function home 
control program to be presented in a later article in this 
series. Once again, this month's programs can be 
downloaded from CompuServe. Type "R ACCESS" from 
the PROgrammer's area, then "DOW PNPCLK.CC 
70000,130" for the BASIC program, or "COPY 
X10CLK.M69 [70000,130]" for the assembly language 
sources in MAC69 format. Some changes will be required 
for less powerful assembers such as EDTASM+. 

(Alexander B. Trevor is Executive Vice President 
for Computer Resources at CompuServe.) 



The listing: 

10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 




' *************************** 
P'N'P REAL TIME CLOCK 

<C> A. B. Trevor 1983 

' *************************** 



CLEAR 100,«cH7D00: ' FOR 32K 
'CLEAR 1 00 , &H3D00 : ' FOR 16K 
100 ML=PEEK<39)*256+PEEK<40>+1 
110 DEFUSR0-ML: DEFUSR1-ML+3: DE 
FUSR2=ML+6 

115 IF PEEK(ML+445)«127 AND PEEK 
<ML+2>=145 THEN 200 
120 ' 

130 'READ IN THE M/L CLOCK 

140 CLS: PRINT® 138, "LOADING M/L" 

150 FOR I=ML TO ML+445 

160 READ A: POKE I, A: NEXT I 

170 CLS 

180 ' 

190 ' SET THE DAY AND TIME 
200 INPUT "DAY OF THE WEEK "J A* 
210 DA Y= < I NSTR < 1 , " SUMOTUWETHFRSA 
",LEFT*<A*,2> >+l> /2 
220 X=USR0(DAY) 



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• reverse video • macro buffers for often-used output 

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key is held down • preserve a "window" of any size, 

• enter data offline for new material scrolls through 
later uploading to host remainder of screen 

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Cassette and disk versions included with all orders 
add $5 00 if you want programs on a disk 

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M.O., VISA, M/C (include expiry) 
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Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2X5 CANADA 

*T.M. of Tandy Corp. 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 21 



230 input ,, hour:min ,, ihr,min 

240 X=USR1 <HR#256+MIN> 
250 END 
260 ' 

270 DATA 22,0,145,22,0, 159,22,1, 
9,22 

280 DATA 1,178,79,106,141,0,32,4 
6, 100,48 

290 DATA 141,0,26,134,120,167,13 
2, 166, 130,45 

300 DATA 88,139,1,25,167,132,161 
,6,45,28 

310 DATA 111,132,32,239,255,255, 
255,255,255,0 

320 DATA 0,7,36,96,96,0,255,0,25 
5,0 

330 DATA 106,140,242,141,203,110 
, 156,243,230, 140 

340 DATA 230,88,88,48,141,0,39,5 
8, 198,4 

350 DATA 206,4,20,189,165,154,48 
, 140,213, 141 

360 DATA 10,134,58,167,192,141,4 
, 134,58, 167 

370 DATA 192,166,132,68,68,68,68 
, 138,48, 167 

380 DATA 192,166,128,132,15,138, 
48, 167, 192,57 

390 DATA 19,21,14,32,13,15,14,32 
,20,21 

400 DATA 5,32,23,5,4,32,20,8,18, 
32 

410 DATA 6,18,9,32,19,1,20,32,18 



9, 179 

420 DATA 237,77,45,3,231,140,144 
,79,230, 140 

430 DATA 140,189,180,244,57,140, 
32,55, 190,255 

440 DATA 248,238,1,239,140,135,5 
1, 140, 137,239 

450 DATA 1,52,2,182,255,3,138,1, 
183,255 

460 DATA 3,206,1,106,166,196,174 
,65, 167, 141 

470 DATA 255,111,175,141,255,108 
,134,126,48,141 

480 DATA 0,148,167,196,175,65,13 
4, 18, 167, 140 

490 DATA 200,53,2,189,179,237,77 
,45,22,52 

500 DATA 4,141,26,231,141,255,65 
,53,2, 141 

510 DATA 18,231,141,255,58,111,1 
41,255,55,28 

520 DATA 239,236,141,255,47,189, 
180,244,57,95 

530 DATA 140,203,16,128,10,44,25 
0, 139, 10,52 

540 DATA 2,234,224,57,189,179,23 
7,52,4, 141 

550 DATA 234,231,141,0,60,53,2,1 
41,226,231 

560 DATA 141,0,53,26,16,182,255, 
32, 133, 1 

570 DATA 38,249,142,7,208,48,31, 
39,44, 182 

580 DATA 255,32,133,1,39,245,23, 
254,205,236 

590 DATA 141,254,235,16,163,141, 
0, 17,39, 17 

600 DATA 173,159,160,0,39,215,31 
, 137,79, 189 

610 DATA 180,244,28,239,57,0,255 
,79,95, 189 

620 DATA 180,244,57,204,255,255, 
189, 180,244,57 

630 DATA 50,98,23,254,204,15,112 
, 13, 111, 16 

640 DATA 38,0,70,52,20,174,141,2 
54, 188, 191 

650 DATA 1,13,134,239,167,159,0, 
136, 182,255 

660 DATA 32,133,1,38,249,142,7,2 
08,48,31 

670 DATA 39,31,182,255,32,133,1, 
39,245,23 

680 DATA 254,112,173,159,160,0,3 
9,226, 198,96 

690 DATA 231,159,0,136,48,141,25 
4, 144, 191, 1 

700 DATA 13,53,148,48,141,254,13 
5, 191, 1, 13 

710 DATA 126,161,179,126,161,127^ 



Y PAK Dual Slot Expander 
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EPROMs burned from your CC cassette. 
Write for details. 

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P.O.Box 11099 Dept. RB 
Chicago, IL . 60611 



22 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



DO YOU HAVE A BASIC OR ASSEMBLY PROGRAM TO SELL? 

. . . avoid unreliable cassette tapes and recorders 

and EPROM your program! 



^VVith EPACK, BASIC and assembly routines for color computer can be read from cassette tape and stored onto 2516, 2716 (single supply), 2732, 2532, 2564 1 
and 2764 styled EPROM (21 and 25 volt) These EPROM are then inserted into MMB, a game packlike cartridge that automatically executes your program 
when it's inserted into the color computer just like the game packs 

EPACK is an excellent alternative to cassettes for programs you want to sell and for personal programs you would liketoexecutequickly andconveniently 
from a more reliable medium. 



NOTE: 2732, 2764 and 21 volt capability are available optionally and are not included in the standard EPACK. *' 

EPACK consists of EPG. BROM and MMB for 

ip 

The units in EPACK are sold individually as follows: 



BROM 



$150.00 




Utility fits any memory size color computer. Its function is to process 
BASIC source files into a format that can be written out to EPROM by Con- 
trol Craft Inc.'s EPROM programmer (EPG) ... and still be executed by the 
BASIC interpreter - but from EPROM, not RAM 1 

BROM $25.00 



EPROM PROGRAMMER (EPG) 



• Zero insertion force socket 

• Personality plugs configure programmer to accept 2716(5 volt supply), 
2532 and 2564 style EPROM. 

• Programmer's software is included on the programmer board as firmware. 

• Program sources: 

* read cassette tape files into memory and then write file to EPROM 
(files are in Radio Shack format) 

* write color computer RAM to EPROM 

* read EPROM inserted in programmer into RAM 

* write color computer ROM to EPROM 

• Functions: 

* test EPROM to see if it's unprogrammed 

* read an EPROM into color computer RAM 

* write RAM buffer out to EPROM 

* redefine the location of the RAM buffer 

* verify the programming of an EPROM 

* compare the contents of RAM buffer against an EPROM 

* edit the RAM buffer 

1. Examine/change memory locations 

2. Examine/change start buffer address 

3. Fill RAM buffer with FF hex 

* read blocks from a cassette file into RAM 

• Menu driven operation allows easy use 

• Plastic case enclosed circuitry 

• Gold plated edge connectors 

• Self-contained unit ... no external power supplies are used 

• Unit operates on any memory sized TRS-80 color computer 

EPG $105.00 



MULTI MEMORY BOARD (MMB) 



• Complete with support IC, sockets and decoupling capacitors 
•Accepts 2516, 2716, 2532, 2732, 2564 EPROM (included in EPACK) 

• Accepts 2016, 4016, 6116 static RAM* 

• Max capacity of 6 memory chips 

• Runs on any size TRS-80 color computer 

• Board is jumper addressable to either SC000 or $8000 

• Provisions for write protect switch , or can jumper the board to write 
protect RAM 



Control 



RAFT INC 



19270 North Hills Drive • Brookfield, Wl 53005 • (414) 784-9027 



Name 



Company 
Address _ 



City/State 



Shipping address (if different from above) 



-Zip 



• Jumpers configure the memory type used on the board. Provisions for 
inserting DIP switches in place of the jumpers 

• Gold plated edge connector 

• Each IC or IC socket has decoupling cap installed 

• Plastic case is available extra, at $7.50 (pricing is subject to change 
without notice) (case included in EPACK) 

• RAM may not work with series E or later color computers. 

MMB $30.00 



** UPGRADE (optional for EPACK or EPG) 

2732-25 volt S15.00 2732-21 volt $15.00 

2764-25 volt S15.00 2764-21 volt $15.00 



SDUMP 



OKIDATA owners know that in order to print graphics they lose their 
serial interface . . . 

NOT ANY MORE! 

Now you can print Hi-res Pmode 4 graphics images, full size and detail, 
on your OKIDATA, EPSON and other printers, without dot addressable 
capacity. 

Features , 

• Callable from BASIC routine 

• Runs stand alone with a menu 

• Relocatable 

• Automatically finds the start 
of graphics pages 

• Configurable for several printers 

• Fast 

• Useable on 16 or 32 or 64 K 
machines with or without 
Extended BASIC 

• Documented 

(OKIDATA. EPSON and RS are trademarks) 

Actual graphics printed on an OKIDATA printer (shown reduced) 

SDUMP $20.00 

All prices subject to change without notice. 




mm** *, m ■ 



m w->m -mm m * mm m * +- ■ m. * * * _ * _ _ _ _ _. 



Order Form: EPACK 
BROM 



EPG 
MMB 
SDUMP 
UPGRADE NO. 



@ $150.00 = 

@ $ 25.00 = 

@ $105.00 = 

@ $ 30.00 = 

@ $ 25.00 = 

@ $ 15.00 = 



Wis. residents add 5% sales tax 
Shipping & Handling: # of items x $2.00/item = 

TOTALORDER: $ 



TO ORDER BY MAIL: SEND MONEY ORDER, CERTIFIED CHECK, CASHIERS 
CHECK MASTERCARD/VISA (include card number, inter-bank number, 
expiration date and signature). 

DEALER INQUIRIES WANTED [minimum dealer order Is ID unlit] 



Software Review . . . 

Race Or Demolition Derby 
It Still Gets High Marks 



The KAGRG gives Space Race, by Spectral Associates, 
very high marks for action, graphics and sound. We've 
stepped beyond the "graphics compare favorably with 
arcade games" stage with this one and are now in direct 
competition. 

So who is this KAGRG? They are the videogame 
experts — at least in my house. The Knight Arcade Game 
Review Group consists of one 15-year old son, one 13-year 
old daughter, and — at least in this case — one wife, over 21.1 
use my 6809 machine for word processing and data storage, 
seldom do I venture into saving the cosmos from alien 
eradication. 

I did have a go at Space Race, which in my case was more 
of a demolition derby. I was not quite good enough to be 
erratic, but if they gave points for kamikaze attacks 1 might 
have had a respectable score. Nimble my fingers ain't. 

The Group was impressed. As a machine language 
program — which requires 16K but not Extended BASIC — 
it's extremely fast. Your highly maneuverable craft speeds 
around the rectangular "track" avoiding motionless Mines, 
floating Collectors, missiles from the Swarmers and the 
concerted attack of the Berserkers. 



There is more going on in this game than in the parking lot 
at the Superbowl. Why you can even design a family handi- 
capping system to give everyone a chance at the champion- 
ship of the known universe — until the power goes off and all 
the scores are lost, that is. 

When you first EXECute the program it tries to make 
friends by asking your name. Then it wants to know if you 
want keyboard or joysticks (we started with keyboard but 
quickly gave up — it's a lot easier to have the joystick think 
for you). Then it wants to know what skill level you want. 
With the options from 0 to 15, you have plenty of room to 
grow. Without exception the Group started with 1 — I tried 
out the 0. 

You are given a squadron of four ships and the various 
alien items pay from 25 to 600 points if you shoot 'em down. 
There is no time limit but the speed at which you are 
attacked makes the play go very fast. If you kill a Swarmer, a 
Collector becomes a Swarmer and if you leave a Swarmer 
alone too long it becomes a Berserker and immediately 
attacks you. 

Clearing the screen of bad guys gets you another batch of 
bad guys — except that they get increasingly harder to shoot 
down. Higher level Collectors have to be shot twice and at 
the highest level the race track "infield" goes away leaving 
you no place to hide. At this point it's a literal free-for-all. 
For each 10,000 points scored you get another ship (with a 
limit of five at any one time), but your skill level is automati- 
cally advanced by two. 

If (more like when) you lose your entire squadron the 
program displays the nine highest scores during that power- 
up period and asks if you want to play again. Pressing Y will 
get you another squadron at your original level and a new 
game. 

The N gives someone else a chance to play as it goes back 
to the main menu and asks for name, skill level and joystick 
or keyboard. 

The high score chart shows the name of the player, his or 
her score and the level at which it was earned. With basic 
handicapping skills you could even out the competition for 
all players. 

While the game is designed to be played with joysticks or 
keyboard, we found that the keyboard required more per- 
sonal memory than any of us was willing to provide. Trying 
to remember that "1" is counterclockwise rotation, right 
arrow was fire, left was thrust and clear was reverse made us 
thankful for joysticks. I would guess the ultimate competi- 
tion to be a level 1 5 battle with keyboard on about the sixth 
wave of enemy. 

The game is a winner for action lovers. In fact, even 1 got 
hooked on it, and I generally do not like shoot-'em-ups. The 
KAGRG couldn't even suggest where improvements could 
be made. 

But the documentation could be improved. It is all there, 
even disk save instructions, but the presentation is not very 
logical. For instance, I found the loading instructions about 
two-thirds of the way down the page after the play 
instructions. 

I'm renowned as a videogame cynic, and the worst I can 
say is that the instructions are illogical — this must be a good 
one. 

(Spectral Associates Inc., 141 Harvard Ave., Tacoma, WA 
98466) 

—Glenn B. Knight 



SPECTRAN 



— SPECTACULATOR TO ASCII 




■ W W I I 

— ASCII TO SPECTACULATOR — 

Use Your Word Processing Program 
To Include Spectacul ator Tables In Your 

Reports 

Run Spectacul ator On lata Files Created 
Outside Of Spectacul ator 

Spectran is a easy to use program for unleashing the 
power of Disk Spec tacul ator . ML makes it quick. Works 
with ASCII compatible WP programs on 16K or 32K Disk 
systems. Use spreadsheet tables in your reports- Use 
downloaded data in Spectacul ator . Easy to follow manual 
with examples. On diskette -For $25.00 postpaid. 

DISK UTILILTY PACKAGE 



DIRDUPL - 

Simple program -for protecting and restoring many 
bombed diskettes. 

DISKLOOK - 

-> Disk utility program to examine and change 

data bytes on diskettes. 
-> File analysis. 

— > List granules allocated to a disk -file. 
-> Alter Directory contents. 

-> Simultaneous listing of diskette data contents 

in ASCII and HEX formats. 
-> User friendly. 

The DISK UTILITY PACKAGE including DIRDUPL, DISKLOOK, 
and manuals on diskette for $15.00 postpaid. 

INTRODUCTORY OFFER! 

For a limited time, if you order Spectran at $25.00 we 
will include the DISK UTILITY PACKAGE and manuals at nn 
extra cost. Now that's a bargain! 

CRIMSON SOFTWARE 
The RESEARCH ASSOCIATES Group 
32 Beverly Heights 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35404 



24 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



For the Ultimate in Games, 
Look to Radio Shack's TRS-80 



Exciting Poltergeist Game 
Just Like the Movie 

A Radio Shack exclusive! Unless you complete three 
levels of eerie play, you don't stand a "ghost" of a 
chance of rescuing Carol Anne! First you must dis- 
cover the clues. Next climb the hazardous stairs. 
Then it's time to destroy the poltergeist — if you can! 
(Cat. No. 26-3073, $34.95) 




Enjoy these exciting 
games with Radio 
Shack's TRS-80 Color 
Computer {26-3004, 
$299.95) and joystick 
controllers (26-3008, 
$24.95). Attaches to 
any TV (not included). 



Choose From Over 40 Games Like These! 




O SCORE 
* DDDCIDD 



HICH 

5CJ3HE 

flUDDDil 




Mega-Bug. It's a maze of fun as 
you try to lose and confuse the 
little "buggers" hot on your trail! 
(26-3076. '$34.95) 




Clowns and Balloons. Bounce a 
"monkey-suited" clown high 
enough offthenetto pop the bal- 
loons above. (26-3087, $29.95) 



Monster Maze. Thread your 
way through an evil dungeon to 
find the gold. Beware of laser- 
firing monsters! (26-308 1 , $29.95) 




Shooting Gallery. Hit moving 
targets for points in a whimsical 
carnival atmosphere. Lots of sur- 
prises! (26-3088, $29.95) 



Microbes. You're the disinfector, 
shooting antibiotics at deadly 
germs. 15 levels of nasty diffi- 
culty. (26-3085, $24.95) 

Radio /hack 

The biggest name in little computers' 

A DIVISION OK TANDY CORPORATION 
1 ■ 1 

Send me your free TRS-80 
Computer Catalog today! 

Mail To: Radio Shack, Dept. 83-A-6S9 
300 One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, Texas 76102 

NAME 



ADDRESS 
CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



Retail prices may vary atindividual storesand deal- 
ers. Poltergeist © 1982 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Film 
Co. and SLM Entertainment. Ltd. 



Software Review . . . 

ECM: Your Money's Worth 
And A Basic Bonus 

ECM, Electricity Consumption Monitor, from CoCo- 
DAT A Enterprises offers a lot more than the advertisements 
suggest. In addition to a very neat, compact energy monitor- 
ing routine, it offers a few nice BASIC programming 
techniques. 

The ads that offer full refund if not completely satisif ied 
offer some comfort in purchasing software through the mail. 
This is the claim of CoCoDATA for their product ECM. 
They should have very few claims for refunds. 

The documentation leads you through the setup very 
painlessly. It even includes a short course on reading your 
electric meter. This is the part your computer won't do for 
you. 

The program uses the information from your utility bill 
and from daily readings you make of your electric meter. 
This information must be placed in the body of the program, 
following the format guidlines provided in the instructions. 
The billing information is listed in the program as Line 200 
BI$(l)=date, consumption & amount. 

The meter readings are entered as Line 100DATA date & 
meter reading. The program has sufficient line space set up 
for one year without modification of the program. The 
author has chosen this method of data storage to eliminate 
the use of a separate data file tape. 

Oncetheinformationisentered in the program, RUN and 
computed, you are presented with a menu to select: (1) 30 



"See" Music!! 



•The KALEIDOPHONE allows your Color Computer to "listen to" 
your hi-fi and display what it "hears" on your TV! 
•Built-in interface circuitry lets the computer devote full-time 
to creating the displays, so breath-taking, animated pictures in 
full color are easy to program. 

•Just plug the KALEIDOPHONE into hi-fi and joystick inputs. 

•Do not confuse with imitations — the KALEIDOPHONE 

continuously delivers actual volume signals (64 levels on 

each of 4 channels). Works on any CoCo. 
•Users' newsletter (FREE with purchase) contains dozens of new 
display ideas in each issue — a literally infinite variety of pat- 
terns is possible! 

•The KALEIDOPHONE is something really new. Great for 

parties! Order Now. 1 
•Only '49.95 fully assembled. Kit version: *34.95. Both ver- 
sions include operating software and full instructions. BONUS: 
free issue of KALEIDOPHONICS! 



NEW SALEM RESEARCH 
West Main Street 
New Salem, Mass. 01355 



Kaleid 




PH 




NE 



days consumption in dollars or KWH, (2) Graph of last 60 
days use or (3) Next months bill projected with 20 day trend 
analysis. 

Selecting item one will provide a screen list of the electric- 
ity usage by date in terms of dollars or KWH. It will also 
calculate the high, low and average use for those 30 days. 

Item two presents a nice hi-res bar graph for a 60 day 
period. The graph can be dumped to the printer using one of 
the many screen print routines available such as the one 
from Custom Software Engineering. The graph has a unique 
feature in that it marks the average value of all plots with a 
tic mark just left of the vertical axis. 



□Q 




4- 



hG Dm YE - 



Item (3) will display a trend analysis indicating a percen- 
tage increase or decrease in consumption. 

The extras you get with the program are the author's 
programming techniques. You can learn how he handles 
dated information or draw a nifty little bar graph or how he 
does a trend analysis or how to selectranges in data or how 
to use program insertions for data updates. All of this, plus 
the instruction booklet, includes a few energy conservation 
techniques that you can apply and then monitor theiractual 
effectiveness. 

ECM comes with sample data included to demonstrate 
the program and will run on 16 or 32K Extended Basic. A 
good purchase for your utility library. 

(CoCoDATA Enterprises, 1215 EmeraldaDr., Orlando, FL 

32808, $10.45 cassette) 

— Ed Sehlhorst 



Hint . . 



Saving In ASCII 



When you SAVE programs, CoCo can perform this 
function in two ways, by using binary codes or actual letters 
and numbers (called ASCII and pronounced AS-KEY). 

Although it takes longer, ASCII sometimes is a more 
accurate way to SAVE a program, especially when you may 
be transferring programs between systems — say from a disk- 
based to a cassette-based system. 

To SAVE in ASCII, simple add a comma and an "A" to 
the end of your SAVE instruction, like this: CSAVE 
"PROGRAM",A and the ASCII SAVE will be done by 
CoCo. 



26 



the RAINBOW 



April, 1983 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

• FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616) 364-479> 



THE 
KING 



1982 

32K Machine Language 
$26.95 tape 
$29.95 disk 

ARCADE ACTION • How high can you climb? Four full graphic 
screens. Exciting Sound - Realistic graphics. Never before has 
the color computer seen a game like this. Early reviews say: 
Just like the arcade - Simply outstanding! 



PROTECTORS 




Exciting fast paced arcade 
game that looks and plays like 
the popular arcade game 
"DEFENDER", 

Wave after wave of enemy 
fighters drop bombs on your 
city. Destroy them before they 
destroy your city. Soon the 
mother ships appear firing laser blasts at you. Watch for the 
heat seeking mines. 

Your defense includes your laser cannon plus four smart 
bombs on each of your four ships. A new ship with each 5,000 
points. 

High resolution graphics with four colors make this new 32K 
arcade game the one for others to follow. 

$24.95 TAPE $27.95 DISK 



COLOR GOLF 

Now sit at your computer and play 
nine or eighteen holes. Outstanding 
graphics in the fairway or on the 
green. Helps your game. 
32K EXTENDED BASIC $17.95 

BIRD ATTACK-A fast paced machine language arcade game. 
Shoot the birdmen before they descend upon you. Watch out 
for their bombs! 16K Machine Language $21.95 

MAZE RACE- Maze race is a one or two player game. Play either 
against the built in timer or against your favorite opponent. 16K 
Machine Code $17.95 

SOLO POOL-Now play pool with your color computer. Two 
players. Plays like machine language. Super color. High resolu- 
tion graphics. 16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

OTHER GREAT GAMES 

ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K 

MOON LANDER* Fantastic Graphics. Land on the Moon if you 
can. 2 Programs. Ext. Basic $17.95 

DANCING DEVIL'Watch him dance to music or program him 
yourself. Machine Language. $14.95 

WAR KINGS«Battle to save your castle and king. High resolu- 
tion graphics with outstanding sound make this one a real win- 
ner. 16K Machine Language $17.95 



ADVENTURES 

TREK-16-Travel thru space with Spock and Capt. 
ture. Tough! Ext. Basic. 

SHIPWRECK-Escape from a desert isle if you 
Adventure! Ext. Basic. 



Kirk. Adven- 
$17.95 
can. Great 
$14.95 



ESCAPE FROM SPECTRE (Graphic Adventure)-You are a 

secret agent for British Intelligence sent on a mission to obtain 
the secret nerve gas formula being developed by S.P.E.C.T.R.E. 
to destroy the world. 16K Ext. Basic $17.95 



SPACE 
SHUTTLE 

1983 
32K Ext. Basic 



$28.95 
TAPE 
ONLY 



This program gives you the real 
feeling of flight. Full instrumenta- 
tion complete to the max. Actual 
simulation of space flight. 32K 
Ext. Basic 



3^ 



TRAP FALL by Ken Kalish 

The ' Pitfalls 11 In this game are many. Hidden treasures, jump 
over the pits, swing on the vine, watch out for alligators, 
beware of the scorpion. Another game for the Color Computer 
with the same high resolution graphics as "The King". 
Requires 16K 

Tape 27J5 



KATERPILLAR 
ATTACK 

Outstanding graphics and sound will 
end all of those trips to the arcade. So 
much like the arcade you have to see it 
to believe it. Requires Ext. Basic. 
16K MACHINE LANGUAGE $21.95 
DISK $24.95 

UTILITIES 

COLOR MONITOR-Written in position independent code. (May 
be located in any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 
1174 bytes of memory. Full Featured. Includes Break-Pointing 
of machine language programs, register display and modify, 
memory display and modify, and block memory move com- 
mands. Displays memory in hex and ascii format on one line 8 
bytes long. MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 

ROM-This program is a utility that will move "most" 8K Rom- 
Packs to disk and allow you to run them from disk. Easy to use. 
Requires 64K. $17.95 

SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE-Using your Epson or Microline 
Printer. Print the screen contents on a full size 8V2 x 11 sheet. 
16K Ext. Basic $17.95 

TAPE OUPE— Brand new machine language program that 
copies any tape effortlessly. Completely automatic. $16.95 

DISK TO TAPE-Dump the contents of any disk to tape 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

TAPE TO DISK-Load the contents of any tape to disk 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

MAIL LIST-Maintain a complete mailing list with phone 
numbers etc. Ext. Basic. $17.95 

THE FIXER-Having trouble moving those 600 Hex progams to 
disk? The fixer will help. Completely automatic. $17.95 

TAPE CAT-AM new machine language program lists contents of 
tapes to printer. Make a catalog of your tapes. $17.95 

PROGRAM PRINTER UTILITY-This program will list basic pro- 
grams to your printer in two column format. Saves paper and 
makes your listing look professional. Disk based. $17.95 



ADD $1 .00 POSTAGE & HANDLING • TOP ROYALTIES PAID 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALESTAX • LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 

*TO PLACE ORDERS AFTER 5:00 P.M. CALL OUR BBS AT 616-364-4791 

SEE YOU AT RAINBOW FEST 



GAME 



1 16K 


■ 


' ita 1 


ECB 




RAINBOW 









Tfre Horses Are 
Nearing The 
Starting Gate... 



Program by 
Rob Becker 




Now that springtime has gotten a good foothold around 
and about, the thoughts of some young innocents have 
turned to that traditional befuddler of mind and body 
chemistry called love. But the stars in the eyes of many 
another older (but not wiser) head are there in anticipation 
of the season's parimutuel betting which will be taking place 
on the grounds of this nation's many venerable ovals. 

Particularly, on the first Saturday of May, the attention 
of sporting-minded folk around the world will befocused on 
a patch of turf in the heart of Louisville, which for over a 
century has hosted the world's premier horse race, the 
ultimate championship for three-year-old thoroughbreds, 
the Kentucky Derby. 

The track, of course, is Churchill Downs. And the 
excitement that spring day will be shared on the grounds by 
a community of over 150,000 novices, pros, horsemen, 
innocents and touts — all reaching for the gold ring: that 
winning parimutuel ticket on the big one. 

Whether or not you are so fortunate as to be at "the 
Track" that day, we have here a little racing program in 
honor of the Kentucky Derby with which you might want to 
test your luck. Rob Becker, of Smithtown, New York, didn't 
write this program specifically for the Derby, but at this time 
in Kentucky when folks have just polished up their silver 
julep cups and dusted off their worn copies of Irvin S. 
Cobb's recipe for muddled mintand Bourbon, it's the only 
race that comes to mind. 

The program accepts win, place and show betting, and 
allows you to make your pick from an eight-horse field. The 
day's 'card'contains 10 races, and you may bet any amount 



up to your total holdings on any race. You are spotted $100 
at post time. 

The program is self-prompting, but . . . pssst . . . before 
you go trackside, let me give you a tip: play the filly — she'll 
run her heart out. 

— Courtney Noe 



80 

210 

310 

430 

END 



03EB 
0747 
0B30 
0F5D 
1534 



_ 



The listing: 

1 * HORSE RACING *** 

2 * BY ROB BECKER 

10 BL*=CHR* ( 128) : Bl$="horse" : B2* 
=" racing " : B3»»"by" : B4*="rob" : B5* 
= n becker " : F0RX=1T015: CL=RND (8) : C 

LS(CD :print@106,bi*;bl*; B2*; :so 

UNDX*3, 1 : NEXT: CLS0: PRINT© 106, Bl* 

; BL*; B2*; : PRINTG265, B3*; BL*; BL*; 

B4*; BL*; B5*; : SCREEN0, 1 

20 ht=0:forjk=ito7:ht=ht+16:h*<j 

K) =CHR* ( 143+HT) : NEXT: H* (8) ="G" : H 
C=0 : FORHN= 1 T07 : HC=HC+ 1 6 : H 1 * ( HN ) = 
CHR* ( 128) +CHR* ( 131+HC) +CHR* (142+ 



28 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



HC ) : H2* ( HN ) =CHR* ( 1 28 ) +CHR* ( 1 36+H 
C ) +CHR* ( 1 36+HC ):NEXT:H1*(8) =CHR* 
(128) +CHR* ( 131 ) +CHR* ( 142) 
30 FORX=160TO189:PRINT@X,H1*(7) ; 
:PRINT@X+32,H2*<7) ; :SCREEN0, l:FO 

RY=1TO100: nexty: nextx 

40 H3*=CHR*(128)+CHR*(128) :H4*=C 

HR* ( 1 28 ) +CHR* ( 1 28 ) : H2* ( 8 ) =CHR* ( 1 

28 ) +CHR* ( 1 36 ) +CHR* ( 1 36 ) : P0KE6549 

5,0:CLS:PRINT"*** HORSE RACING * 

** " : PR I NT " BY ROB BECKER " : PR I NT : I 

NPUT"DO YOU WANT I NSTRUCT I ONS 11 ; I 

*: IFI*="Y"THENGOSUB410 

50 PRINT: INPUT " HOW MANY PLAYERS ( 

1 -8 ) " ; PL : I FPL< 1 OR PL >8THEN50ELS 

EFORX= 1 TOPL : DD ( X ) = 1 00 : NEXT 

60 FORX=l TOPL: PRINT: PR I NT "BETTER 

";x; '"S name"; : inputa*<x> : next 

70 1 FRA= 1 0THEN320ELSEFOR X= 1 T08 : M 
V=RND (7) : H ( X ) =MV: NEXTX : CLS0: RA=R 
A+l: PRINT"*** HORSE RACING ***": 
PR I NT " RACE # " ; RA : PR I NT " HORSES " 
80 FORX=1TO8:P=RND(0) :SH=RND(0) : 

P=P+l:SH=SH+2:PRlNTX") ";H*(X) ; " 
"; :PRINTUSING"*##.##";H(X) ; :PRI 

NT" "; :PRINTUSING"*##.##";H(X)/P 

; : PRINT" " ; :PRINTUSING"*##.##";H 

(X) /SH: NEXT 

90 I FR A > 1 THE N 1 00ELSEFOR X = 1 TOPL : G 
OTO140 

100 PRINT641, "*":PRINT@73, "*":PR 

I NT643, "RESULTS OF RACE #";RA-1: 

PRINT675, "1ST. " ; H* (HP ( 1 ) ) ; " 2ND 

. ";H*(HP(2) ) ; " 3RD. ";H*(HP(3)> 

: PA=0: FOR X=l TOPL 

110 I FDD ( X ) =<0THENNEXTX 

1 20 FOR 1=1 TOPL : I FDD ( I ) >0THEN 1 40E 

LSENEXTI 

130 GOTO320 

140 PRINT@384,A*(X) "' S BET" : PR IN 
T"YOU HAVE "; : IFDD(XX100THENPRI 
NTUS I NG " *### . ##" ; DD (X) ELSEPR I NTU 
SING"* ###.##" ;DD(X) 
150 F0RS=448T0479:PRINT@S,CHR*(1 
43 ) ; : NEXTS : PR I NT@448 , " WH I CH HORS 
E"; : INPUTBB(X) : IFBB(X) >8 OR BB(X 
) < 1 THEN 140 

160 PRINT6448, "1-WIN 2-PLACE 3-S 
HOW"; : INPUTWS(X) : IFWS(X)<1 OR WS 
(X) >3THEN160 

170 F0RY=448T0479:PRINT@Y,CHR*(1 
43) ; : NEXTY :PRINT@448, "MONEY (1-"; 

:printusing"###.##";dd<x) ;: print 

") "; : INPUTMN(X) : IFMN(XX.01 OR M 

N(X) >DD(X) THEN170ELSENEXTX 

180 CLS0:FORX=62TO63:FORY=0TO31: 

SET ( X , Y, 5) : NEXTY, X : L=0: FORX=0TO5 

11STEP64:L=L+1:PRINT@X,H1*(L) ; :P 

RINT6X+32, H2* (L) ; : NEXT 

1 90 FORX= 1 TO 1 000 : NE X T : PLAY " L4T50 



2CFA03L8CT7P8CP64CP64CP802T5L8AT 
7P8AP64AP64AP8T5L8 . F03C02FL 1 CL4P 
2CFA03L8CT7P8CP64CP64CP802T5L8AT 
7P8 AP64 AP64 AP8T5L8 . CP64CP64CL IF" 
200 A=0:B=128:C=192:D=256:E=320: 
F=384: G=448: HH=64 
210 X=RND(8) 

220 ON X GOTO 230,240,250,260,27 
0,280,290,300 

230 I F A=29THENPR I NT@ A+ 1 , H3* ; : PR I 
NT6A+33, H4*; : GOTO210ELSEIFX=1THE 
NS=RND (8) : I FS< H ( 1 ) THEN21 0ELSE A= A 
+l:PRINT@A,Hl*(l) ; :PRINT@A+32,H2 
*(1) ; : IFA=29THENZC=l:GOSUB400 
240 I FHH=93THENPR I NT6HH+ 1 , H3* ; : P 
RINT6HH+33, H4*; : GOTO210ELSEIFX=2 
THENS=RND (8) : I FS< H ( 2 ) THEN2 1 0ELSE 
HH=HH+l:PRINT@HH,Hl*(2) ; :PRINT@H 
H+32,H2*<2) ; : IFHH=93THENZC=2:G0S 
UB400 

250 I FB= 1 57THENPR I NT6B+ 1 , H3* ; : PR 
I NT6B+33 , H4* ; : G0T02 1 0ELSE I F X=3TH 
ENS=RND (8) : IFS<H (3) THEN2 1 0ELSEB= 
B+l : PRINT6B, HI* (3) ; : PRINT6B+32, H 
2* (3) ; : IFB=157THENZC=3:GOSUB400 
260 I FC=22 1 THENPR I NT@C+ 1 , H3* ; : PR 
INT6C+33, H4*; : GOTO210ELSEIFX=4TH 
ENS=RND (8) : IFS<H(4)THEN210ELSEC= 
C+l:PRINT@C,Hl*(4) ; :PRINT@C+32,H 




Use Color Power. 

Co I or ZAP uses the power 
of the Color Computer to prt> 
vide both rapid scanning and 
full screen modification capabilities. 

• Recover killed and clobbered files. 
• Find unreadable disk sectors. 
• Modify nibbles in hexadecimal. 
• Copy sectors to same or different drive. 
Use color power to scan disk data. 

Here's what the reviewers said... 

About the program: "ColorZAP i s a powerful program 
that allows you to see what is on the disk, modify it and, if 
possible, recreate it. Menu-driven, ColorZAP is extremely 
easy to use and well-documented... A good offering " — 
The RAINBOW, September 1982 

About the manual: "A 24-page manual is included that 
describes program operation in detail. It also provides 
valuable information on the important disk system pa- 
rameters," - MICRO, December 1982 

For the TRS-80 Color Computer. Available on disk with an accom- 
panying manual from Software Options, 19 Rector Street, New 
York, N Y. 10006. 212-785-8285 Toll-free order line: 800-221-1624. 
Price: $49.95 (plus $2.00 per order shipping and -^aayj^ 
handling). New York State residents add sales 
tax. Visa/Mastercard accepted. 




April, 1983 the RAINBOW 29 



We're the Source 

for Your 
Courseware 




128 Full-time Audio 
Talk/Tutor Programs! 

In color, with pictures 
and text! 

All our TRS-80 Color programs have easy to 
understand professional announcer narration, not 
synthesized, robotic voices. All text is displayed in 
easy to read upper- and lower-case characters. 
Video clearly illustrates key concepts in each frame 
of the program. 

Programs for your TRS-80 Color Computer: 

LANGUAGE ARTS 

Spelling (16 programs) 

Level 3-4 (16 programs) 

(words in context with definitions and synonyms) 



Phonics 

English as a Second Language 

MATHEMATICS 

Level 1-6 Numbers 
Basic Algebra 

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 

Physics 



(16 programs) 
(32 programs) 

(16 programs) 
(16 programs) 

(16 programs) 



Only $4.95 per program! ($9.90 for 2, one on each 
side). $79.00 for 16 in an album $59.00 for 16 in 
a box. Send $1.00, refundable, for catalog of 1000 
programs for Atari, Mod III, etc. 



DORSETT 

Educational Systems, Inc. 

(405) 288-2300 

Box 1226. Norman, OK 73070 





VfSA 



2* (4) ; : IFC=221THENZC=4: GOSUB400 
270 IFD=285THENPRINT@D+1,H3*; : PR 
I NT6D+33 , H4*; : G0T02 1 0ELSE I FX=5TH 
ENS=RND(8> : IFS<H(5)THEN210ELSED= 
D+1:PRINT@D,H1*(5> ; : PRINT6D+32, H 
2* (5) ; : IFD=285THENZC=5:GOSUB400 
280 I FE=349THENPR I NT6E+ 1 , H3* ; : PR 
I NT6E+33 , H4* ; : G0T02 1 0ELSE I FX=6TH 
ENS=RND (8) : IFS<H(6)THEN210ELSEE= 
E+1:PRINT@E,H1*(6> ; : PRINT6E+32, H 
2* (6) ; : IFE=349THENZC=6: GOSUB400 
290 I FF=4 1 3THENPR I NT@F+ 1 , H3* ; : PR 
I NT6F+33 , H4*; : G0T02 1 0ELSE I FX=7TH 
ENS=RND (8) : I FS< H < 7 ) THEN2 1 0ELSEF= 
F+1:PRINT@F,H1*(7> ; : PRINT6F+32, H 
2* (7) ; : IFF=413THENZC=7:GOSUB400 
300 IFG=476THENPRINT@G+1 , H3*; : PR 
INT6G+33, H4*; : GOTO210ELSEIFX=8TH 
ENS=RND (8) : IFS<H(8)THEN210ELSEG= 
G+1:PRINT@G,H1*(8> ; : PRINT6G+32, H 
2* (8) ; : IFG=476THENZC=8: GOSUB400 
310 GOTO210 

320 CLS:PRINT"*** HORSE RACING * 
** " : PR I NT " GAME O VE R " : PR I NT : PR I NT 
"FINAL SCORES :": PRINT: F0RY=1T08 

00:next:forx=itopl:printa*<x) ; " 
*" ; dd < x ) : fory=ito800: nexty: nextx 
:end 

330 FORQ= 1 TOPL : I FWS < Q ) = 1 THEN340E 

LSE I FWS < Q ) =2THEN360ELSE380 

340 I FBB < Q ) =HP < 1 ) THENDD < Q ) =DD < Q ) 

+MN < Q ) *H < BB < Q ) ) / 2ELSEDD < Q ) =DD < Q ) 

-MN <Q> : NEXTQ: GOTO70 

350 NEXTQ: GOTO70 

360 IFBB(Q)=HP<1) OR BB(Q)=HP<2) 
THENDD <Q) =DD <Q> +MN <Q) *H (BB (Q) ) /P 
/ 2ELSEDD < Q ) =DD < Q ) -MN < Q ): NEXTQ: GO 
TO70 

370 NEXTQ: GOTO70 

380 IFBB(Q)=HP<1) OR BB(Q)=HP<2) 
OR BB(Q)=HP (3) THENDD <Q)=DD(Q)+M 
N <Q) »H (BB (Q) > /SH/2ELSEDD (Q) =DD (Q 
) -MN (Q) : NEXTQ: GOTO70 
390 NEXTQ: GOTO70 

400 PA=PA+l:HP(PA)=ZC: IFPA=>3THE 
N330ELSERETURN 

410 CLS:PRINT"*** HORSE RACING * 
♦♦" : PRINT: PRINT" YOU ARE GIVEN * 
100 TO START OFF THE GAME. ON 
CE THE GAME HAS STARTED, YOU WIL 
L SEE THE LIST OF HORSES, AND H 
OW MUCH THEY PAY OFF . " 
420 PRINT" EACH HORSE IS NUMBERE 
D, SO WHEN YOU CHOOSE THE HO 

RSE YOU WISH TO BET ON, TYPE T 
HE NUMBER THAT REPRESENTS THAT H 
ORSE. YOUR HORSE IS IDENTIFI 

ED BY IT'S COLOR. ' G* REPRES 

ENTS GREEN ON THE CHART." 

430 A*= I NKEY$ : I FA*= " " THEN430ELSE 



the RAINBOW April. 1983 



FINALLY! 



A REAL SPREAD-SHEET PROGRAM FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



Business people use spread-sheets to organize columns and rows of figures. 
DYNACALC simulates the operation of a spread-sheet without the mess of paper and 
pencil. Of course, corrections and changes are a snap. Changing any entered 
value causes the whole spread-sheet to be re-calculated based on the new 
constants. This means that you can play, 'what if?' to your heart's content. 

But DYNACALC isn't just for accountants. DYNACALC can be used for just 
about any type of job. Not only numbers, but alphanumeric messages can be 
handled. Engineers and other technical users will love DYNACALC's s ixteen-d i g i t 
math and built-in scientific functions. There's even a built-in sort command, 
so you can use DYNACALC to manage small data bases - up to 256 records. 

DYNACALC will let your computer do just about anything you can imagine. 
Ask your friends who have VisiCalc, or a similar program, just how useful an 
electronic spread-sheet program can be for all types of household, business, 
engineering, and scientific applications. 

DYNACALC is designed to be used by non-programmers, but even a Ph.D. in 
Computer Science can understand it. Built-in HELP messages are provided for 
quick reference to operating instructions. 

DYNACALC has a beautifully simple method of reading and writing FLEX data 
files, so you can communicate both ways with other programs on your system, such 
as the Text Editor, Text Processor, Sort/Merge, RMS data base system, or other 
programs written in BASIC, C, PASCAL, FORTRAN, and so on. 

Except for a few seldom-used commands, DYNACALC is memory-resident, so 
there is little disk I/O to slow things down. The whole data array (worksheet) 
is in memory, so access to any point is instantaneous. DYNACALC is 1 00% 6809 
machine code for blistering speed. 

Color Computer DYNACALC works with the FLEX operating system from Frank 
Hogg Laboratory (64k required). If you aren't already using this powerful 
operating system, we have a special deal for you: order DYNACALC (regularly 
$200)- and FHL Color FLEX (regularly $99) together for only $250. 

To order, see your local DYNACALC dealer, or order directly from CSC at the 
address below. We accept telephone orders from 10 am to 6 pm, Monday through 
Friday. Call us at 314-576-5020. Your VISA or MasterCard is welcome. Be sure 
to specify that you want the Color Computer version. 




TM 



ORDER YOUR DYNACALC TODAY! 



Computer Systems Center 
13461 Olive Blvd. 
Chesterfield, MO 63017 
(314) 576-5020 




RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

★ UNIVERSAL PROGRAM 1(UP-1) * 

Known as the Program Stacker, UP-1 allows several 
programs to be loaded until the memory is fill ed . Quickly 
jump from one program to another or compose new 
programs while retaining the old ones. Programs are 
included for patching damaged programs. Allows data or 
machine language programs to be stored and retrieved 
from a cassette. Programs are included for writing values 
or characters to memory, and displaying memory con- 
tents. Blocks of memory can be relocated. UP-1 can be 
used as a Word Processor by allowing textto be stored in 
memory and printed onthescreen oran external printer. 
UP-1 Cassette $14.95. 

★ DISASSEMBLER-ASSEMBLER (DISASM) ★ 

Using English mnemonics and Decimal Locations, 
DISASM is an easy way to learn to assemble machine 
Language Programs or Subroutines. Subroutines can be 
used with Basic Programs and called by either USR or 
EXECcommands. For CC compatibility, all locationsare 
given in Decimal Values eliminating the confusion asso- 
ciated with using HEX. All commands are Menue 
oriented and the user provides the particulars for the 
commands without having to remember command for- 
mats. The Disassembler can be used to Analyze Machine 
Language Programs as well as the Basic and Extended 
CC ROMS. Example programs are included. Cassette 
$19.95. 

★ TERMINAL PROGRAM (DYTERM) ★ new 

DYTERM is designed to convert a Color Computer into 
a terminal. Use it to send and receive information from 
another computer, another terminal, or use it to provide 
the software needed for sending and receiving informa- 
tion over telephone lines with a MODEM. DYTERM is a 
BASIC program with Machine Languate Subroutines. 
Cassette $14.95. 

EXTENDED BASIC is not REQUIRED. All programs 
require a 16K Computer and are DISC compatible. 

HARDWARE ITEMS 

Increase your computer's memory with the following 
Memory Expansion Kits. Soldering is not required but 
your waranty will be voided by removing the cover. The 
kits carry a one year warranty. 

ME-1 upgrades 4K to 16K $19.95 

ME-2 upgrades 4K to 32K $59.95 

ME-3 upgrades 16K to 32K $39.95 

ME-4 upgrades all CC to 64K $99.95 
Note: A 1.1 ROM is required for ME-4 

6809E Microprocessor Chip $19.95 
6821 Peripheral Interface Adapter $6.95 
EXTENDED BASIC ROM $85.00 

WE REPAIR COMPUTERS 

★ PUTYOURPROGRAMSINAPROM PACK ★ 

We will put your Machine Language and/or BASIC 
Programs in a Cartridge. Send us your program on a 
Cassette and we will return a Cartridge with your pro- 
gram in it. The cost is $19.95 for up to 4K and $29.95 for 
up to 8K. Add $2 for shipping. 

ATTENTION SOFTWARE PROGRAMMERS: We are 
looking for good original programs and are willing to pay 
high ROYALTIES for them. Write or call for details. 

DEALERS INQUIRIES INVITED 

Checks, VISA & MC Cards Add $1 shipping 

DYNAMIC ELECTRONICS INC. 



P.O. Box 896 



Hartselle, AL 35640 



(205) 773-2758 



CLS: PRINT " THE ROWS OF PRICES, R 
EPRESENT THE AMOUNT OF MONEY YO 
U WIN FOR THAT HORSE- ROW 1 TELL 
S YOU HOW MUCH MONEY YOU WIN, IF 
YOUR HORSE COMES IN FIRST." 

440 PRINT" ROW 2 TELLS YOU HOW M 
UCH YOU WIN IF YOUR HORSE COME 
S IN 1ST- OR 2ND. AND ROW 3 TELL 
S YOU HOW MUCH MONEY IF YOUR HOR 
SE FINISHES 1ST, 2ND OR 3R 

D. " 

450 A*= I NKEY$ : I FA*= " " THEN450ELSE 
CLS: PRINT" DURING THE TIME YOU A 
RE ASKED TO BET ON HORSE, YOU A 
RE ASKED TO CHOOSE WIN, PLACE 0 
R SHOW. I WILL DESCRIBE THIS P 
ROCEDURE. " 

460 PRINT" WIN — IF YOU CHOOSE W 
IN, YOUR HORSE MUST FINISH FIRS 
T. FOR EVERY *2 YOU BET YOU R 
EC I EVE THE AMOUNT OF MONEY TH 
AT YOUR HORSE PAYS FOR A WIN. 
IF YOUR HORSE DOES NOT FINISH 
FIRST, YOU LOSE THE AMOUNT OF 

MONEY YOUBET. " 
470 A*=INKEY*: IFA*= " "THEN470ELSE 
CLS: PR I NT" PLACE — IF YOU CHOOSE 

PLACE YOUR HORSE MUST COME I 
N FIRST OR SECOND. ALL THE OTH 
ER PROCEDURES FOLLOW THE 

SAME RULE AS ' WIN' . " : PRI NT" SHOW 
— YOUR HORSE MUST FINISH 1ST, 
2ND, OR 3RD. " 

480 PR I NT "ALL OF THE REST OF THE 

PROCEDURES ARE THE SAM 
E AS 'WIN' AND 'PLACE'" 
490 a*= I NKEY$ : I FA$= " " THEN490ELSE 
CLS: PR I NT" REMEMBER : YOU WIN MO 
RE MONEY IF YOU CHOOSE 'WIN' AN 
D YOUR HORSE COMES IN FIRST, 
BUT YOU WIN MORE OFTEN CHOOSIN 
G 'PLACE' OR 'SHOW'. ALSO, A HOR 
SES SPEED DEPENDS ON HOW MUCH A 
HORSE PAYSOFF. " 

500 PRINT" A HORSE THAT PAYS OFF 
*3, IS FASTER THAN A HORSE TH 
AT PAYS OFF *6. THE LOWER THE 
HORSE PAYSOFF, THE FASTER THE HO 
RSE IS. IF YOU RUN OUT OF MONE 
Y, YOU LOSE, AND YOU ARE OUT 
OF THE GAME. " 

510 A*=INKEY*: IFA*=""THEN510ELSE 
CLS: PRINT" IF THERE ARE ANY OTHE 
R PLAYERS IN THE GAME, THE GAME 
CONTINUES. AFTER 10 RACES THE GAM 
E IS OVER AND EVERYONES MONEY LE 
FT IS SHOWN. YOU CAN NOT BET 

MORE MONEY THEN YOU HAVE. " 

520 RETURN 



32 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



: 



GIVE YOUR CHILD 

AN UNFAIR 



ADVANTAGE 




Don't just depend on others to provide 
basic education your child needs to 
succeed in tomorrow's world. While test 
scores of others may go down, your 
child's scores can improve 
dramatically when you provide him 
or her with individualized 
MICRO SCHOOL PROGRAMS, 
in Reading, Math, English Usage, 
Spelling, and Games that Teach. 
Learning at home can be fun. 



He or she can master basic 
skills, using a MICRO SCHOOL 
PROGRAM, in just minutes each 
day if you have an APPLE, ATARI, 
TRS-80, TRS-80 COLOR or TDP 
personal computer at home. 



ASK FOR MICRO SCHOOL 
PROGRAMS BY NAME at your 
local computer store. 



BERTAMAX INC. 

101 Nickerson #202 

Seattle, WA 98109 

(206)282-6249 

© 1982. Bertamax. Inc. 





PERSONALIZED INSTRUCTION ON PERSONAL COMPUTERS 



BERTAMAX INC, 




EDUCATION 





■ 






4K 




mmmm 






RAINBOW 













Pop Quiz 




States and Capitals is a short program which may be 
helpful with your children's homework. It is a question and 
answer drill toaid in the learningof all 50 statesand capitals. 
It also can be easily modified to be used with other question- 
answer drills. 

After the basic program is loaded with CLOAD, type 
RUN. The instructions are then displayed along with the 
first question. If the answer is correct, another question will 
be displayed. The computer allows you two chances to 
answer the question correctly; if you are wrong on both tries, 
it will display the answer and then repeat the question. After 
completing 10 questions, your score is calculated and 
displayed. At this time you are given the opportunity to 
continue or stop. 

The states and capitals can be reversed by changing the 
following: 

Line 80— SWAP STATES AND CAPITALS 

Line 150— REPLACE CAPITAL AND A$(I) WITH 

STATE AND B$(l) 

Line 160— REPLACE B$(l) WITH A$(I) 
Line 380— REPLACE B$(l) WITH A$(I) 

Here is a short description of some important lines: 

Lines 30-60 — Dimension Arrays, read the data into those 
arrays 

34 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Line 80 — Instructions 

Line 100 — Sets # of questions to 10 

Lines 110-130 — Random number generates to select 
questions, checks that the same RND is not repeated 
successively 

Line 150 — Question format 

Line 180 — Sets counter for 2 tries to answer question 
Lines 260-290 — Scoring routine 
Lines 320-360 — Data for arrays 




320 054D 
END 08CD 



The listing: 

10 * STATES AND CAPITALS 

20 ' CHUCK FAESSLER FEB 1983 

25 9 617 CAMERON COURT 

26 ' KENNER, LA. 70062 
30 CLS: CLEAR 1000 

40 DIM A* (50) , B*<50> 

50 FOR 1=1 TO 50 

60 READ A*(I> ,B*(I> : NEXT I 



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Get Your Very Own Pot 0' Gold! I Rainbow On Tape Tops Typing 



Here's your chance to have a Pot O' Gold full of programs, articles and information about C0C0 
every month of the year! A subscription to the Rainbow is only $22 and you won't miss a single 
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As the premier magazine for the TRS-80 Color, TDP-tOO and Dragon-32 computers, the 
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We accept VISA, MasterCard and American Express. Non-U. S. rates higher U.S. Currency only, please. 

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Tired of spending all your valuable computer time typing in those long, but wonderful. Rainbow 
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Subscriptions to the Rainbow are $22 a year in the United States. 
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Air mail U.S. $85. All subscriptions begin with the current issue. Please 
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Subscriptions to Rainbow On Tape are $60 in the United States, U S. $70 in 
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RAINBOW 

THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHY MAGAZINE 

It's called the premier Color Computer magazine for 
good reason. Thfc Rainbow is the biggest, best, 
brightest and most comprehensive publication a 
happy CoCo ever had! Is there any wonder we get 
letters daily which praise the Rainbow, the magazine 
one reader calls "A Pot Of Gold" for his Color 
Computer? 

The Rainbow features more programs, more 
information and more in-depth treatment of the TRS- 
80 Color, TDP System-100 and Dragon-32 computers 
than anyone else. 

Each monthly issue is well over 200 pages and 
contains more than two dozen programs and 30 or 
more product reviews. And advertisments: the 
Rainbow is known as the medium for advertisers — 
which means it has a wealth of information about new 
products every month unavailable anywhere else! 
More than 120 companies advertise in its pages every 
month. 

But what makes the Rainbow is its people. People 
like Bob Albrecht, the master teacher of computer 
programming. People like Don Inman, the world's 
finest computer graphics writer. People like Dick 
White, one of the most knowledgable writers about 
BASIC going. Or Dennis Lewandowski, who has that 
certain knack of explaining assembly language to 
beginners. And award-winning Steve Blyn, the 
Rainbow's, main educational columnist. These people, 
and others, visit you monthly through columns 
available only in the Rainbow. 

Special programs on using Spectaculator. An 
income tax reporting system. Complete Adventure 

§ame& and Simulations. The Rainbow's unique 
coreboard of arcade games. A column on 
educationally-oriented LOGO. The world's first four- 
color computer magazine centerfold! And much, 
much more. 

Join the thousands who have found the Rainbow to 
be the absolute necessity for their CoCo. With all this 
going for it, is it surprising that more than 95 percent of 
the Rainbow's subscribers renew their subscriptions? 

We're willing to bet that, a year from now, you'll be 
among them! 

the Rainbow 

9529 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 209 
Prospect, KY 40059 



70 PRINT61, "**** STATES AND CAPI 
TALS 

80 PRINT@68, "THIS PROGRAM WILL T 
EST YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE 50 ST 
ATES AND CAPITALS. AFTER EACH ST 
ATE (SELECTED AT RANDOM) TYPE IT 
S CAPITAL FOLLOWED BY < ENTER >" 

90 N=0:c=0: w=0: x=0 

100 N=N+l:lF N>10 THEN 260 

110 I=RND(50) 

120 IF X=I THEN GOTO110 

130 X=I 

140 Q=0 

150 PRINT" ": PRINT" WHAT IS T 

HE CAPITAL OF " ; A* ( I ) ; : INPU 

T Z* 

160 IF Z*=B*(I) THEN 190 

170 PRINT"": PRINT" NOT CORRECT ! - 

. -TRY AGAIN": W=W+1 

180 Q=Q+l:lF Q>=2 THEN 370 ELSE 

150 

190 R=RND(5) :C=C+l: PRINT"" 

200 IF R=l THEN 210: IF R=2 THEN 

290: IF R=3 THEN 230: IF R=4 THEN 

240: IF R=5 THEN 250 

210 PRINT" CORRECT- - .YOU'RE A GE 

NIUS! ! ":GOTO100 

220 PRINT" CORRECT ... YOU ' RE EXCE 
PTIONAL! ! ": GOTO 100 

230 PRINT" CORRECT. . .AMAZING ABI 
LITY! ! ":GOTO100 

240 PRINT" CORRECT ... YOU ' RE TOO 
MUCH! ! 11 : GOTO 100 

250 PRINT" RIGHT ON... CARRY ON!! 
" : GOTO 100 
260 T=C+W 

270 CLS:PRINT@6, "♦♦♦♦ YOUR SCORE 
♦♦♦*" 

280 PR I NT664 , C ; " CORRECT " ; W ; " WRON 
G" ; " GRADE" INT (C/T*100) ; 
290 PRINT"-/." 

300 PRINT6290, "DO YOU WISH TO CO 
NTINUE":PRINT@ 325, "< ENTER > YES 
OR NO": PRINT"": INPUT C* 
310 CLS:IF C*="YES" THEN 90 ELSE 
410 

320 DATA MASSACHUSETTS, BOSTON, MA 
INE, AUGUSTA, VERMONT, MONTPEL I ER , N 
EV ADA, CARSON CITY, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 
CONCORD, NEW YORK, ALBANY, NEW JERS 
EY, TRENTON, CONNECTICUT, HARTFORD, 
VIRGINIA, RICHMOND, WEST VIRGINIA, 
CHARLESTON, MARYLAND, ANNAPOLIS, NO 
RTH CAROLINA, RALEIGH 
330 DATA SOUTH C AROL I N A, COLUMBIA 
, FLOR I DA , TALLAHASSEE , GEORG I A , ATL 
ANTA, ALABAMA, MONTGOMERY , ARKANSAS 
, LITTLE ROCK, MISSISSIPPI, JACKSON 
, WASH I NGTON , OL YMP I A , NEW MEXICO, S 
ANTA FE, NORTH DAKOTA, B ISM ARK, SOU 




5 " ; B* ( I 

390 PRINT"": PRINT" 

K YOU AGAIN! " 

400 GOTO 140 
Ala PKin 



I WILL AS 



FOUR NEW PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 

SPDUMP A screen duap routine of 368 bytes of fasti 
relocatable aachine language code. All PMODES, color 
PMODES in A B&U shades, twice size option in PMODES 3 
or A, position duap on paper, inverse iaage option, do 
aore than 1 screen as for HPP graphics. Works on 
DIP2fl0 LPVII etc. Coaes with BASIC instructions. Needs 
BASIC1.1 or an 8bit printer fix. On tape. $16 

CONCPOLY Use this aenu driven prograa to design and 
draw a fantastic variety of intricate and colorful 
patterns, suitable for duap to a printer, includes 
exaaples and instructions. Works in a 16K coaputer, 
EXT. or DISK BASIC. Coses on tape. $8 

SIXFOURK Use your 64K coaputer froa BASIC. This 
prograa allows you to inspect RAM, aove ROM to RAH and 
run it there, disable DISK or EXT. BASIC, and Bake 
setups with graphics, prograa, strings, and USR in 
upper or lower RAM to get the best use of RAM. The 
prograa does the setups and includes tutorials and 
instructions to let you Bake setups. On tape. $20 

ROTWORLD This showy prograa for the 64K coaputer will 
display a rotating color globe of the earth. You get 
20 fraaes of a PH0DE1 globe which is loaded into 60K 
of RAH by a driver prograa plus an instruction prograi 
all on disk to show off your 64K color coaputer. $25 

Free little graphics prograa with order or request for 
our catalog. For fast service send check or MO to: 

SP SOFTWARE, 1102 JILTHORE, LYNCHBURG VA 24502 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 35 



HARDWARE 



i 



CoCo Cabinet: 
Compact, Compatible 

By Curtis J. Bauter 




POWERBYTE SOFTWARE 

Presents 

APPLICATION SOFTWARE 
Business and Home 

for the 

TRS 80 Color Computer 
•TDP-100 Computer 

65 Applications Available including; 



TM 



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THE ACCOUNTANT - General Ledger, Income 
Statement & Balance Sheet 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE/PAYABLE - Create 
Journal for Current Accounts & Record of Paid Accts. 



BUSINESS INVENTORY 
ORDER TRACKER 
MY PROFIT MARGIN 
BILLING SOLVER 
CASH FLOW MODEL 
THE CLIENT TICKLER 
INCOME & EXPENSER 
BUSINESS 
APPOINTMENTS 



$19.95 
$19.95 
$16.95 
$1 9.95 
$16.95 
$19.95 
$1 5.95 
$16.95 



AT HOME INVENTORY 
CHECKBOOK BOOKY 
THE STOCK TICKER 
TAPE 

UTILITY BILL SAVER 
THE BAR CHART 
MOTHER'S RECIPES 
THE MAILMAN 
GRADE MY KIDS 



$29.95 
$21.95 

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AND MANY, MANY MORE!! 
ALL PROGRAMS FOR CASSETTE & GUARANTEED TO LOAD 

•FREE CATALOG 

WITH INTRODUCTORY SPECIALS 

POWERBYTE SOFTWARE 

2 CHIPLEY RUN 
WEST BERLIN, NJ 08091 
(609) 346-3063 



* 
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VI 




* 

} 
J 
I 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
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* 
* 
* 
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* 

* 
* 
* 

* 



To question of how to have organization hold sway 
over the chaos which can develop from the accumulated 
accoutrement of the avid computerist, one man's answer is 
to be found in a piece of custom-built furniture. 

My prime concern was a place to keep everything together 
and yet have a compact piece of furniture when CoCo was 
not in use. 

As you can see, it's built on the lines of a standard 
kneehole desk with a couple of important differences. The 
overall dimensions are 38"L, 20"W, and 33"H. The "drawer" 
that the computer sits on is 25" from the floor (including 
casters), allowing plenty of space to sit comfortably. The 
drawer itself measures I6/2" deep by 18 V2" wide which is 
wide enough to insert ROM Packs with no trouble. The 
additional height that this desk has keeps the monitor and 
CTR-80A at a very comfortable viewing angle. With the aid 
of the attached light, material on the top slide is easily read 
and the three drawers below are holding (so far) all the 
manuals, tapes, papers, and magazines that accumulate. 
The frame was made from oak (for extra weight and 
stability) and covered in half-inch thick plywood. The 
computer drawer is supported by a "full extension drawer 
slide" with a 50-pound load capacity when extended. 

Cables from the computer go through a hole in the back of 
the drawer to a matching hole in the rear of the desk. A 
power outlet is located on the backside of the desk and is 
controlled by a single switch located inside the left front leg. 

This is a fairly easy desk to make and the dimensions can 
be readily changed to suit your own needs. 




36 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Turn your 

color computer on 
to the power of 




NOW FROM THE WORLDS LARGEST SUPPLIER OF SOFTWARE FOR FLEX 
COMES FHL COLOR FLEX. JUST LOOK AT THESE FEATURES: 

KSEURSSL * FLEX wow only ss 

THEN FHL Color FLEX Jf X 




■3 i nc AifdiiBn i 

FLEX is the world's most popular operating 
system for the 6809 and with over 150 
programs, we are the largest supplier 
of software for FLEX, These programs are 
NOT games but serious programs for your 
Color Computer They range from word 
processors thru business applications to 
software development tools. Many Fortune 
500 companies use our software. 




incvv - mi iy cui iur 

» NEW ■ interactive Assembler (Tiny ASM} 
• NEW ■ Machine Language Monitor 
• NEW - Video attributes include status lines, 
protected lines, and inverse video 
* Hi-Res screen formats 
* 16 x 32 and 24 x 5I 5 upper and lower 



See our NEW 32 page catalog in the 
Jarh'83 issue of COLOR COMPUTER 
NEWS featuring over 150 products for 
FLEX, or send $3.00 to us and we will 
see that you receive a copy!! 



Optionally use a standard terminal 
and printer 

* Advance disk I/O and terminal 
capabilities - Supporting 35 T 40, 
and 80 track single or double sided, 
[ single or double density drives 
No additional hardware required 
► We have supported FLEX with 
more than any one else in the 
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SPECIAL 

1. DBASIC, RS Disk Basic 
under FLEX with a utility to 
copy RS to FLEX disk $30. 

2. ED/ASM, line and screen editor 
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both more powerful than TSC's and 
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3. COLOR UTILITIES, a set of 12 
utilities especially designed for 
FHL COLOR FLEX $50. 





THE REGENCY TOWER 
770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE, NY 13203 
TELEX 646740 - (315) 474-7856 




FRANK 
HOGC 

LABORATORY 



'FLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants Inc. 




1. Here is Jeri plugging The Solution into the CoCo. Then she 
will move the main case up close to the CoCo. The cable is 
kept short to prevent noise and interference. The disk con- 
troller can be plugged into the side slot. The power supply 
plugs into a socket on the back of the case. All wires for the 
internal boards exit out the back of the case. 




2. Here Jeri is setting the dip switches in The Solution. The 
hinged top makes the job easy. The switches can be set for 
three different things. Up to four boards can be installed in- 
side the case. 




3. Here is The Solution at work. It makes a very nice addition 4, Here's The Solution all by itself. The heavy aluminum 
to your CoCo with a black anodized top and a silver anodized anodized case is a thing to be proud of. The buffer board can 
main case both made from heavy aluminum stock. be seen to the left of the main case. The LED indicator on the 

front comes on when you turn on the power to your CoCo. 

The Solution needs no on/off switch. 




5. All that's missing from this picture is the plug in the wall 
power supply. You can see the 4K EPROM monitor and the 4 
position dip switch. At the front are four of the five expan- 
sion slots with a disk controller plugged into the fifth slot on 
the side. The power LED is at the lower right front of the 
case. 




6. Here's the real guts to The Solution. IVe took it all apart so 
that you could look at the parts. The 1 amp power supply can 
be seen in this picture. All the connectors are gold as you 
would expect. The small board is the buffer board. The white 
connectors are the same as the CoCo's. 















FR 
HO 
LA 


ANK 

IGG 

BORATORY 











THE REGENCY TOWER«770 JAMES ST>SYRACUSE, NY 13203-TELEX 646740«(315) 474-7856 





THE SOLUTION AND WHY WE BUILT IT 

When we first introduced FLEX for the CoCo in February 
1982 we received hundreds of calls from software and hard- 
ware developers who wanted to use the CoCo because it 
was so inexpensive compared to everything else on the 
market. However there is not enough expansion or I/O In the 
CoCo to make this possible for most of these users. I know 
that the CoCo is viable in most cases, but for many, there 
needed to be more. So that was the original reason for 
designing the expansion box we call "THE SOLUTION." 

The motherboard has the 2K/4K EPROM socket with a 4K 
monitor EPROM in it. Also inside are 4 vertical connectors 
for internally mounted boards or ROM type cartridges. The 
fifth connector is horizontal and is made for the disk con- 
troller, ROM cartridges or additional expansion out the side 
the of The Solution. A four position dip switch allows for 3 
options to be selected. One option will cause the CoCo to 
get its interrupt and reset vectors from the monitor instead 
of RS Basic. 

If you choose to come up in the monitor, then it Is not 
necessary to have RS Extended Basic in the CoCo to boot 
FLEX because the monitor has a built-in boot. This saves 
$100.00 of the cost of The Solution. The power supply is a 
plug-in-the-wall type with a connector in the back of the 
case. The back of the case is open and it is thru this that ail 
the cables for the different cards go. This makes for a very 
neat appearance. 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS 

Bus Structure... Fully buffered Color Computer compatible 
bus. Priority daisy chained arrangement whereeach slot has 
a priority assigned to it. The farther out on the bus that you 
are, the less priority you have. The disk slot (0) has the 
highest priority with slot 1, 2, 3, and then 4 has the lowest. 
The pinout and the timing is the same as the Color Com- 
puters with the exception of the sound line. This Is used on 
the motherboard for the priority line. 

Power Supply... The power supply is a tracking power sup- 
ply which means that the Color Computer itself turns The 
Solution on and off so that there is no need for an on/off 
switch. A LED on the front of The Solution indicates when 
the entire system is on or off. The tracking power supply 
means that The Sol ution's b us voltage wil I be the same as 
the Color Computers to within a very few minnivolts. The 
power supply included with The Solution is a 1 amp supply 
for the 5 volt line only. The +12 and - 12 voltages are taken 
from the Color Computer. 

Dip switch options... 

1) Select the 4K ROM monitor. When this option is 
selected, the system will come up in the monitorand get In- 
terrupt vectors from it rather than the Radio Shack Basic 
ROM. The reason you might want to do this Is so you can 
boot FLEX from the monitor rather than Basic. This will 
allow running FLEX without have to have Extended Color 
Basic in the CoCo. This also ties in with the option on the 
serial card to come up on a terminal instead of the CoCo TV 
set and keyboard. 

2) Disable the disk slot (0). This will allow using ROM 
cartidges in The Solution without unplugginq the disk card. 
When the switch is on, the ROM is active. When It Is off, 
whatever ROM cartridge Is there is active. This infers that 
you could switch back and forth between a cartridge and the 
disk system. This is NOT necessarily true because of the 
need to initialize the disk software In the ROM and this may 
destroy what is in memory. It may be possible under special 
circumstances to do this but it is up to the user to work it 
out. 

3) Select either a 2K or a 4K EPROM. This Is set for a 4K 
EPROM which is included with The Solution. However, it can 
be changed If you have a need. The EPROM Is addressed at 
$E000. 

4) User definable. This means that we didn't use this 
switch for anything, but you can if you want, or we couid call 
it 'reserved for future expansion.' this means that we don't 
have any use for it now, but we may in the future. 

The Solution I/O cards are addressed at either the $FF60- 
$FFBF area OR the $FE00-$FEFF area. 

These prices and specs are subject to change without 
notice. Call for confirmation. 

THE SOLUTION $249.00 

(Price includes case and power supply.) 

CARDS FOR THE SOLUTION 

DUAL SERIAL PORT $130.00 

Two 6551 ACiAs, programmable baud rates 
(110-19,200), full RS-232, DB-25 conn. 

CLOCK and PARALLEL PRINTER CARD $1 10.00 

OKi clock w/battery backup and 1 parallel output 
port 

PROTOTYPE Cards $ 37.00 

3V2 by 9 inch card 

EPROM/RAM Card $ 90.00 

Up to 16K ROM (2732) or 8K static RAM (6116). 
Each device individually addressed anywhere In 
memory 

EPROM programmer $165.00 

Program 2K, 4K or 8K EPROMS. Software included 
either on disk or on board ROM. 

TRIPLE PARALLEL I/O Card $105.00 

Two 6821 's and one 6522 for parallel I/O. 

Note: We are considering several other cards for The Solu- 
tion. Please let us know what you want, if there is enough in- 
terest, we will make it. 



ARE CORDIALLY INVITED TO ATTEND 



THE 

RAINBOWFEST 

APRIL 22-24 



WE, AT FRANK HOGG LABORATORY WOULD LIKE TO INVITE YOU 
TO VISIT US AT THE UPCOMING RAINBOWFEST, APRIL 22-24 IN 
CHICAGO. 

THIS IS THE FIRST SHOW EVER, TOTALLY DEVOTED TO THE 
COLOR COMPUTER!! IT PROMISES TO BE INFORMATIVE, 
EDUCATIONAL, EYE-OPENING AND MOST OF ALL, FUN!!! 

ALONG WITH MANY OF THE BIG NAMES IN THE COCO WORLD, WE 
WILL BE AVAILABLE TO GIVE YOU THE OPPORTUNITY TO VIEW 
OUR SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE, ASK QUESTIONS, MEET THE 
PEOPLE YOU'VE BEEN DEALING WITH, AND MORE OR LESS 
SATISFY YOUR CURIOSITY. 

SO, IF YOU ARE AT ALL INTERESTED IN THE COLOR COMPUTER 
AND WHAT IT CAN DO FOR YOU, COME AND SEE US AT THE 
RAINBOWFEST!! WE LOOK FORWARD TO SEEING YOU!! 





■ FRANK 




■ hogg 




■ LABORATORY 



THE flEGENCYTOWER • SUITE 2 1 5 • 770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE, NY 1 3203 

PHONE (31 5)474-7856 • TELEX 646740 



Software Review 



So So y Senor 



Buenos dias. Me llamo Barbara. Donde esta un pro- 
gramme satisfactorio? 

That is what I was asking when I concluded working 
through Spanish One, a beginner's program for "learning 
elements of the Spanish language," created by the West Bay 
Company of White Stone, Virginia. 

Its introduction says that by using this program, one can 
"quickly ... learn to read and speak Spanish," and that it is 
for "beginners or those persons needing to refresh their 
memory. " The program offers "100 useful words and 100 
useful phrases." 

A person using Spanish One should not expect t o "learn" 
the Spanish language. He/she will learn some vocabulary 
and even some pronunciation. A fairly creative attempt to 
imitate through phonetic representation the sound of the 
language has been made. However, one must learn else- 
where the sophisticated sounds or vocabulary intricacies of 
the Spanish language. 

Moreover, the vocabulary words chosen for study include 
words seldom used in ordinary conversation, such as "ceil- 
ing," "handkerchief," "stocking," "jacket," and "box." 

Teachers hoping to use this program to supplement 
classwork will be dismayed at the number of its inadequa- 
cies. First of all, the basic idea of gender (masculine and 
feminine endings) is poorly handled. Occasional lack of 
information in the questions penalizes the student who 
answers "estrecho" for "narrow" if the feminine "estrecha" 
was the programmed response. If a score were kept, the 



Color 
Computer 
Flex* 
0S-9f 
Users 
Move 
up to 
C 

Language 



"OS 9 is a trademark of Microware 
rFLEX is a trademark of Technica. 
Systems Consultants. Inc. 



DO YOU WANT faster running programs (over 100 times 
faster than BASIC) 9 A high level language that is also a low 
level language? A compiler that runs in less than 32K? 
Assembly language output 9 Position independent code? Ex- 
tensive library functions in source assembly code? Periodic 
newsletters with new library functions? An aid in learning 
assembly language? Liberal version updates? 

C IS DESTINED to become the language of the eighties: A 
compact, highly versatile, easy to use language, excellent 
to use to build games, applications, utilities, operating 
systems, etc. 

DUGGER'S GROWING SYSTEMS with over 21 years of ex- 
perience in computing was first on the market with a 6809 
C compiler. The compiler has been extensively tested, re- 
vised, and proven 

DUGGER'S GROWING SYSTEMS C is a growing subset of 
the standard C. Version 1 contains all the necessary C com- 
mands (while, if, if else, int, char, etc.). Version 2 contains 
additional features (float, long, for, goto, etc.). 

AN EXTENSIVE LIBRARY in assembly language source is 
provided (char, I/O, formatted print, file handling, string 
manipulating, etc.) TRS DOS version also has additional 
functions which use the BASIC ROM functions (CLS. 
POLCAT, floating point, draw, etc.). 



ORDER NOW 

(new low prices) 

TRS DOS C Version 1.2 (disk version) 

Computerware disk assembler 

Computerware Scribe (Editor-text formatter) 

Order all three and save $10 

C Programming Language by 
Kernighan & Ritchie (a must) 

OS-9 C Version 1.2 

Flex 09* C Version 2.3 

C.O.D. & Foreign handling add 15% 

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dugger's GROWinGSiswrems 



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ultimate score could be devastating. 

Sound cues are offered to identify right and wrong 
answers, but perhaps the creator should have used Spanish 
terminology to applaud or admonish responses, rather than 
English. 

Another basic part of "mastering" Espanol is keeping 
track of articles which precede nouns. Gender does some- 
times make a difference for understanding. The handling of 
this, too, is inconsistent. 

Could West Bay have come up with a way to provide 
synonyms alongside the preferred response so that the stu- 
dent would not become so discouraged or even angry? If the 
response one types in is close, somehow he/she should be 
rewarded for that. If "Spanish One "is for beginners, okay, 
they won't know any better, maybe. But students "refreshing 
their memory of the language" will be quickly alienated. 

In addition, the programmer has been careless in the 
presentation of verbs. Inconsistencies frustrate the student. 
Onetime the subject pronoun is required; at other times, just 
the verb is acceptable. And one also "misses" if his/her 
English verb for "toma," for example, is "is taking" instead 
of "takes." Both are actually acceptable and, out of context, 
the student doesn't know which to give. 

Other knowledge of Spanish verbs is required (but not 
taught here), for example with regard to the verb "to be." 
How does the user of this program learn the difference 
between "es" and "esta" for "it is'? Or the subtleties of 
choosing between familiar or formal verbs? 

Another annoyance is the inconsistency in punctuation. 
Occasionally abbreviations or statements will be punctu- 
ated, but often they are not. And the student must hope 
her/ his response is "lucky"enough to be punctuated just so, 
or — Bingo — another "wrong" answer. 

(The program's notes contain a disclaimer that standard 
diacritical marks, such as inverted punctuation marks or the 
tilde, cannot be shown on their computer. Some compensa- 
tion is made for this in the phonetic spelling.) 

As an English teacher with a minor in Spanish, I strongly 
object to errors in plain, old grammar. The creator's state- 
ment "That is between you and me" translates "El esta entre 
usted y yo.""Yo"is the pronoun for"I,"an error which only 
serves to perpetuate a common error in our own sloppy use 
of English. 

There are other ambiguities in the program, but one glar- 
ing error is inconsistency in spelling of vocabulary words. 
Early on I learned that "corbata" means "tie" only to be 
marked wrong later when the required response was 
"cobata." This carelessness is inexcusable. 

The program has its merits. For starters, one can choose 
between English words to be translated into Spanish words 
or vice versa. Likewise, one can practice translating phrases 
from one language to the other. Repetition is a second plus 
as one is randomly called upon to repeat responses so even- 
tually they are learned. Also, the program notes describe a 
method of extending the time a word is on the screen so one 
can "study" it. Finally, the phonetic representation is helpful 
in learning pronunciation. 

West Bay concludes the notes by touting this is a "good 
program. Enjoy!" The program is fairly entertaining and the 
price is very reasonable, but the Spanish wouldn't get you 
very far in South America. (Translation of opening para- 
graph: "Hello. My name is Barbara. Where is a satisfactory 
program?) Hasta luego! 

(West Bay Company, Route 1, Box 666, White Stone, VA 

22578, $8 on tape) 

— Barbara Combes 



40 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Searching for Service? 

It's Here. 



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. .■.'JJ.j-s.-.'j-Jj-j-Jj-.-J-t.- 
J- . J- J- J- J- J- J- J- ■ ■ ■ 

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1 r .^^^^^fc, 1 

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11 ' P ' 






P. O. BOX 897 

GILSVILLE FAMILY CENTER 

SMYRNA, TENNESSEE 37167 

615-459-2636 

NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE 254-0088 



Software Review . . . 

Kamikaze Is Good 
Arcade/ Adventure Hybrid 

Most computer games, in my experience, seem to fall into 
two categories. There are the arcade games, which are basi- 
cally tests of hand-eye coordination and quick reflexes, and 
there are adventure games, which require a bit of thinking, 
but frequently become overly long and frustrating to play. 

So it's refresh i ng to ru n into that ra re game that doesn't fit 
into either mold, Such a game is Kamikaze. 

Like an adventure, Kamikaze requires a bit of strategy, 
and a good measure of luck. Like an arcade game. Kamikaze 
makes good use of CoCo's graphics capabilities to illustrate 
the playing field and ihe battles. 

As the documentation states— and one should always 
begin by reading the documentation, of course — "Kamikaze 
is a naval battle game depicting a Midway-type encounter 
between American and Japanese forces at the close of 
WWII. Player controls the American force of 12 ships and 
78 planes and must destroy the Japanese fleet before it and 
more than 25 kamikaze squadrons find and destroy him." 

The 12 ships are divided among aircraft carriers, battle- 
ships, heavy and light cruisers, and destroyers. They vary in 
their ability to attack and to withstand enemy fire. 

There are several different screens that appear during the 
course of the game. The text screens- "Bridge," "Flag," 
"Target," and "Intelligence" — provide the data you will 
need during the strategy and the combat. The Map screen 
graphically shows your location, and the location of enemy 
planes and ships that you will be able to spot using radar, 




affl 




49 BROOKLAND AVE 

AURORA ONTARIO 

CANADA LAG 2H6 
FAMILY GAMES 
For ISK AND 32K COLOR COMPUTER 
STOCKBROKER.- Up to 6 players can play the stock 
market, For 16K or 32K ECB.The 32K is in High-Res 
Grahicst CQLORHIflD- Up to A players challenge for 
hiddencolors, CRIBBAGE -For 2 or A players. In 
High-Res Graphics'Cfor 32K), CQNCEN -Challenqe the 
computer or a friend to a good oY game of 
concentrationt REMREM -Challenge your friends*Who 
can remember the longest color sequence? 
BATTLE-tJill you get bombed before you can find 
all the ships? An extremely entertaining game for 
the familyi 

ALL GAMES ONLY $20,00 OR ANY TWO FOR $35,00 
ALSO FROM AURORA SOFTWARE 
1 MR.CQFY- A quality copier written in M,L»that 
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search planes, and picket boats. 

When you spot the enemy — or when the Japanese fleet 
sneaks up on you — there are several kinds of battles which 
may result. 

The most graphic battle is a kamikaze attack, which you 
may choose to fight with a joystick or refuse the joystick (in 
which case your ship will fire at random on the invading 
Japanese dive bombers.) 

After playing one game without the joystick — which had 
the effect of making me a spectator at the battle rather than a 
participant — I found I preferred to do my own shooting. It 
may look easy — but you'll be surprised! As author Phil 
Keller explains in the instruction sheet, he has programmed 
in a "random miss factor." (By the way, the documentation 
contains several such insights into the programming of the 
game. More on that in a moment.) 

Another battle is planes against planes. This one isn't 
quite so graphic — just a line-up of yours on one side and 
theirs on the other. Shots are fired at random. 

If your aircraft are ready — and about half the time they 
won't be — when the enemy fleet is in range, then you can 
attack their ships with dive bombers and torpedo bombers. 
You'll have to place the planes over the battle area in the best 
strategic locations. 

Unfortunately, the most decisive battle is not graphic at 
all. The object of the game is, as noted earlier, the destruc- 
tion of the enemy's fleet. When their fleet invades your 
space, you will be engaged, like it or not, in a surface battle. 
What you see looks something like a news wire: "Carrier 
Seminole hit — sinking ... enemy ship hit ... miss ... miss...," 
etc. Your only choice is to stay and fight or try an escape, 
which may or may not be successful. 

Time of the game is divided into eight "days" with four 
turns per day. At the end of that time, you will have one of 
five ratings which range from "disastrous defeat" to "deci- 
sive victory." 

With regard to the documentation, on the whole it seems 
well-written, but the game is not easy to master. (That's all to 
the good — you won't get bored with it rightaway.) There are 
a large number of commands and screens and situations to 
learn, and it will take at least three games to really get into it. 

In addition to six pages of instructions, Mr. Keller has 
included two pages of programming notes. He offers a 
couple of tips on strategy, tells where to put in a speed poke 
if you want one, and even goes into detail as to how he made 
use of the GETand P£/7commands to animate the destruc- 
tion of the kamikazes. 

The game requires 32K and Extended Basic. 

(Ark Royal Games, P.O. Box 14806, Jacksonville, FL 

32238, $24.95) 

—Neil Edward Parks 



Hint 



Speed Up Your CoCo 



You can double the speed at which CoCo operates with a 
simple POKE statement, entered either directly from the 
keyboard or within a program. The statement is POKE 
65495,0. This will speed up your CPU. You can return the 
computer to normal speed again by POKE 65494,0. 

Note that you cannot perform any Input/Output 
operations, such as saving the program to cassette, when the 
speedup is in effect. You may also lose temporary keyboard 
control. If this happens, a simple press of the RESET button 
will bring things back to normal, too. 



42 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 





Flight 



If you'd like to fly a plane then this is what you've been 
waiting for. A really good graphics oriented flight simulator 
in high resolution. Four difficulty levels let you go from 
student level to a difficult instrument-only landing. In front 
of you on the screen are your instruments, and above 
them are two representations of your plane in relation to 
the flight path (top and side views). At the higher levels all 
you have to go by are the instruments. Can you put it down 
on the runway to hear the synthesized voice from the 
tower say "perfect landing"? It's tough! You use your 
joystickjust like the control stickon a plane, andtheaction 
is realistic indeed. This program was written by a pro- 
fessional flyer— a pilot for a major United States air carrier, 
and the high standards of professionalism really show. 
Just CLOADM and take to the skies!! Requires 32K 
extended TAPE is $1 9.95 - DISK is $24.95 



A Partial List of Prickly-Pear Programs 

Astrology, Gangbusters, Household Helper, 
Fantasy Gamer's Package, Viking, Football, 
Preread I, II & III, Mathpac I, Tarot, I Ching, 
Numerology, The Great Word Game, The 80C 
Songbook, Phonics I, Phonics 2, Flight, Las 
Vegas Weekend, The 8-Bit Bartender, The 
Fantasy Master's Secretary, Monsters& Magic, 
Topsy Turvy, Galactic Patrol, Blockade, Sea 
Wars, Jungle, Spanish . . . 



If you are running a disk system, we suggest that you order 
the disk version, because thecassette version will not run 
on a disk system without modification or disconnection of 
the disk controller. The above disk programs require 32K 

RAINBOW 

CWTIFICAtKW 
MAI 



Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1 .50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 
on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 6% sales 
tax. Orders shipped within two days. 




Viking! 

A simulation for 1 to 4 persons. Each begins as a land- 
owner, and by farming their land, buying and selling land, 
expanding their fishing fleet, building on to their manu- 
factory, increasing their population, equiping and training 
more soldiers, and regulating their taxes, each player tries 
to increase their economic power and rank until one 
becomes ruler over all. But beware plagues, rats, raiders, 
revolts, bad weather, and other misfortunes which may lie 
along the road to success. As you progress, seethe map of 
your holdings increase. Playable in 1 to 2 hours, and 
different every time, you may have an addiction problem. 
$1 9.95 tape — $24.95 disk 





Gangbusters 

If you ever wanted to try a life of crime, this is your chance. 
You will start out as a Punk, but by using brains, and a little 
muscle, you can rise to become a Hood, Runner, Bookie, 
Torpedo, Fence, Kingpin, or win by becoming Syndicate 
Boss. Indulge yourself. Bribe a judge, or the District 
Attorney. Pay off the Cops. Take out a contract on another 
player, but watch out, they may be after you. Buy trucking 
companies, bootleg operations, houses of ill fame, but 
remember, if you get caught, you may do some hard time. 
Do you have what it takes to take over? This game will keep 
you close to your rod, get you thinking about bulletproof 
glass in your car, and definitely bring out the worst in you, 
but you'll love every minute of it. For 2 to 6 players, takes 
about 2 hours to play. Every game is excitingly different. 
$19.95 tape — $24.95 disk 



Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Send Order To PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9822 E. Stella Road 
Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 



The Multi-Talented, 
Dancing RAIN BUG 

By 

Dan Downard 



(This month 's article by Dan Downard is the first of a 
four-part series on our new machine language monitor 
being developed by the author.) 

What is a monitor? How does an assembler work? What 
do they do? These are probably the most confusing issues 
that face the beginning computer owner. Everyone talks 
about machine language programs, but what are the advan- 
tages, and disadvantages, of assembly language programs? 
Hopefully, in the next few issues, we will clarify these ques- 
tions and give you the necessary tools to write your own 
programs. Where should we start? First, let us define some 
terms. 

Machine Language 

The 6809 microprocessor inside the CoCo follows a logi- 
cal sequence of operations as it steps through memory. 
Program information in memory tells the processor what 
step to take next. This information in memory is coded in 
sequential order and the processor reads these instructions 
and performs the operation requested. Normally, we like to 
refer to the bytes of instructions as operational codes, or 
op-codes. By learning what op-codes are available and how 
to use them we can make the processor input and output 
data display information on the screen or interface with 
various peripheral devices. Machine language is the only 
language the computer can understand. The Extended 
Color BASIC ROM in your computer is actually a machine 
language program that converts BASIC keywords and 
statements in memory to machine codes. This type of pro- 
gram is called an Interpreter. Programs that can directly 
input machine code into memory are called monitor or 
debug programs. These programs are very important tools 
for the machine language programmer. 

Assembly Language 

Motorola developed a set of mnemonic symbols to 
represent all of the microprocessor instructions. Instead of 
remembering 256 possible numbers representing instruc- 
tions, each set of operations is given a mnemonic code and a 
structured set of symbols to represent the addressing mode. 
These codes are written as a text file representing the sequen- 




tial operation of the processor. A program called an 
assembler is used to translate this file into machine code. 

Why are most of these programs called editor-assemblers 1 . 
The editor gives you the proper software to write your text 
file and is thereby a natural companion to the assembler. 
Programs are also available to convert machine language to 
assembly language. These programs are normally referred 
to as a dissasembler . 

Assembler vs. Machine Code 

Essentially, there is no difference between machine lan- 
guage and assembly language. Both are designed to serve the 
same end purpose. In terms of operating programs, a moni- 
tor would be used to modify or "Debug" an existing pro- 
gram. An assembler would be used to develop new 
programs. 

The easiest way to understand machine language pro- 
gramming is to try to modify a program to suit your own 
needs. After all, you can look through the ads in this issue 
and likely find something similar to what you want to 
accomplish. What about the programs with listings in the 
magazine? How do you input a machine language program 
into memory? I find it very tedious to convert all of the 
hexadecimal instructions into decimal poke statements. 
With a monitor, all you have to do is input the hex numbers 
exactly as they appear. 

At the same time, why use machine language at all? 
What's wrong with Extended Color BASIC? Well, 1 guess 
there is no standard answer to that question other than 
another question. Will BASIC do everything you want it to 
do? 

To paraphrase Getting Started With Color BASIC, 
machine language programs are very fast and require less 
memory than a BASIC program. To give you an example, 
did you know that your TRS-80C executes instructions at 
the rate of approximately 200,000 per second? Why not take 
advantage of it? 



44 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Monitors 

There are several excellent machine language monitor 
programs on the market. Table 1 is a comparison of several 
of the more popular offerings. To me, the prerequisites of a 
monitor are memory examine/ change, tape loading and 



saving of programs, register examine/ change and break- 
points. What is a breakpoint? A breakpoint is a method of 
interrupting a program during operation to examine regis- 
ters, memory, etc. to ensure that the program is operating 
properly. 



Monitor Program Comparison Chart 



Zbug Cbug Colormon Sigmon Humbug 

Radio Shack Microworks Tom Mix Datasoft Star-Kits 



Size 


Rom Pak 


1.5K 


1K 


6K 


4K 


Relocatable 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Examine/Change 












Memory 












Hex 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


ASCII 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Octal 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


No 


Graphics 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Execute Program 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Tape 












Load 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


No 


Save 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Verify 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


No 


Mikbug Load/Save 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Breakpoint 












Set/Reset 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Display 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Continue After BPoint 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Single Step 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Return To Basic 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Print/Change Registers 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Disassemble 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Assemble 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


No 


Search Memory 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Tape Analyzer 


No 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 


Change Baud Rate 


No 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


Non-Standard Printer 


No 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 


Printer On/Off 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Pause Listing 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Dumb Terminal 


No 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


Remote Terminal 


No 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


Change Screen Page 


No 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


Help Command 


No 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 


Move Memory 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Move Monitor 


No 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 


Checksum 


No 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 


Memory Test 


No 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 


Memory Compare 


No 


No 


No 


No 


Yes 


Fill Memory 


No 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


Hex/Dec Convert 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Calculate Mode 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


No 



April, 1983 



the RAINBOW 45 



At the same time, breakpoints are used to isolate certain 
parts of the program for troubleshooting purposes. 

Getting back to the table, one of the terms that may look 
unfamiliar is MIKBUG under tape features. MIKBUG was 
the original monitor for the 6800 computer written by 
Motorola. Tapes in a MIKBUG format were the standard 
for many early 6800 computers. This command gives you 
the facility of loading programs from tapes made by the 
SWTP, EXORCISER, etc. computers. There is a wealth of 
software already written, but undiscovered for the TRS- 
80C. I would recommend any of these programs depending 
on which features you desire. Consult the ads in the maga- 
zine for sources of supply. All of these monitors perform the 
basic functions as defined above. The only real difference is 
in the auxiliary functions. 

RAINBUG 

In an effort to give you an insight into machine language 
programming, we are going to present a complete machine 
language monitor in the next four issues of Rainbow. It will 
affectionately be called RAIN BUG. The Motorola 
ASSIST-09 monitor was used as a guideline as it was readily 
available and has features not contained in other monitors 
on the market. Features of RAINBUG are as follows: 

— Memory Examine/ Change 

— Register Examine/ Change 
— Postbyte Calculation 

— Breakpoints 

— Offset Calculation 

— Single Step 

— Save to Tape 

— Load Tape 

— Verify Tape 

— Expression Calculation 

— Disk Memory Examine/ Change 

At the same time we hope to explain how to write your 
own programs or modify existing programs to suit your own 
needs. Since space is limited, reference material will be 
necessary. The MC6809-MC6809E Microprocessor Pro- 
gramming Manual is available from: 

Motorola Semiconductor Products, In. 

Literature Distribution Center 

P.O. Box 20924 

Phoenix, AZ 85036 
A request for technical information in the form of a letter 
will be sufficient. Motorola will then send you a catalog of 
technical information available and an order form. 

Memory Examine/Change 

Listing 1 contains the assembly source code for the 



64K for $99! 

We will convert any Radio Shack Color Computer to a full 64K for only 
$99.00 plus shipping. (Compare thiswith RS price of $149 + $30 labor 
for 32K upgrade.) No matter what board you have — No matter what 
ROM you have — Typically 24 hour turn around — Includes hardware 
modification toaccessthe entire 64K, with special software and instruc- 
tionson useofthe upper32K. Pack your computer well. Includecashiers 
check, money order, or personal check (allow 2 weeks for personal 
checks) for $104.00 ($99.00 + $5.00 shipping) to PYRAMID. You may 
pay also by Mastercharge or return COD. We will treat your computer 
tenderly and rush it back to you. 

PYRAMID — 527 Hill St. - Santa Monica, CA - 90405 - (2 1 3) 399-2222 



memory examine and change routine of RAINBUG. The 
formats are as follows: 

M (Address) / Initiate memory/ change at (Address). 

Address may be an expression. 
(Address) / Initiate memory change at (Address). Address 

may not be an expression. 
/ Memory/ change at address of last memory/ change. 

After the present byte is displayed, the following com- 
mands can be entered: 

(Byte) Replace present byte with new value. This value 

may be an expression. 

(Space) Print value at next address. 

(,) Go to next address without printing value. 

(1) Print next address and byte value 

(I) Print previous address and byte value. 

(Enter) Terminate command. 

(')TEXT(') Enter ASCII text. 

If the memory is not changed, a question mark will appear 
and the next memory will be displayed. All addresses and 
memory values are displayed in hexadecimal notation. 

Expressions 

Address and byte values may be in the form of an expres- 
sion. Each expression consists of one or more values separ- 
ated by a or " — " operator, meaning addition or subtrac- 
tion. For example entering (4000+2000) would give you an 
address of $6000. This function is very useful when writing 
position independent code, etc. 

Summary 

Next month, we will begin learning the terminology of 
mnemonics and their corresponding op-codes. 

Hopefully, there will be enough information for both the 
beginner and experienced programmer to make it interest- 
ing. At the same time, we will present the initialization 
routines and command table for RAIN BUG. I hope we are 
not getting ahead of ourselves by including this listing, but 
before you can input any machine code into the computer 
you have to have a monitor. The part of RAINBUG pres- 
ented this month will run if you have the facility of inputting 
it into your computer. Once the machine codes are in 
memory perform a CSAVEM 4 RAIN BUG] ",&H3000, 
&H3I9D,&H3000. (An easier way would be to wait for your 
Rainbow on Tape.) After loading, type EXEC and the first 
address you wish to examine. If you accidentally exit the 
program, an EXEC will get you back. 

The listing: 







00100 #RAINBUG-PART 


1 






00110 *DAN DOWNARD 




3000 




00120 


ORB 


$3000 




3006 


00130 CMDBAD 


EQU 


CMEM2 




008C 


00140 SKIP2 


EQU 


sac 




A000 


00150 POLCAT 


EQU 


$A000 




A002 


00160 CHROUT 


EQU 


$A002 






00165 MEMORY 


EXAMINE/CHAN6E 


3000 17 


013C 


00170 CMEM 


LBSR 


CDNUM 


3003 FD 


3197 


00180 CMEMN 


STD 


ADDR 


3006 BE 


3197 


00190 CMEH2 


LDX 


ADDR 


3009 17 


0145 


00200 


LBSR 


0UT2H 


300C 86 


2D 


00210 


LDA 


i$2D 


300E 17 


0169 


00220 


LBSR 


OUTCH 


3011 17 


007F 


00230 CNEM4 


LBSR 


BLDNNB 



46 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 





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00625 


♦PRINT ADDRESS 








00415 *SPACE 


■NEXT BYTE 


306A 

v y w n 


BE 

mm fa 


3197 


00630 

VVU JV 


PRTADR LDX 


ADDR 


101R Rl 

Jl/JD 01 


90 

LV 


00420 CMNOTQ 


CMPA 


#$20 


306D 

vvwv 


34 


10 


00640 

vvuiv 


PSHS 


X 


1011) 9A 


0R 


00430 


BNE 


CMNOTB 


306F 

vV wl 


30 

V if 


E4 


00650 

VVwJV 


LEAX 


»s 


101F BF 


3197 

J 1 7 1 


00440 


STX 


ADDR 


3071 

V V f i 


17 


00F2 

if if 1 fa 


00660 

If V w w If 


LBSR 


0UT4HS 


3042 17 


0125 


00450 CMSPCE 


LBSR 


SPACE 


3074 


35 


90 

1 mm 


00670 

mm mm W r Af 


PULS 


PC, X 


3045 20 


BF 


00460 


BRA 


CMEM2 








00675 


♦UPDATE BYTE 








00465 *DOWN ARROW-NEXT BYTE 


3076 


BE 


3197 


00680 


MUPDAT LDX 


ADDR 






00466 *WITH ADDRESS 




3079 


E7 


80 


00690 


STB 


,X* 


3047 81 


0A 


00470 CMNOTB 


CMPA 


#$0A 


307B 


El 


IF 


00700 


CMPB 


-1,X 



PARALLEL 

PRINTER 

INTERFACE 

FOR THE RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER 




* RUN ANY STANDARD PARALLEL PRINTER FROM THE COLOR COMPUTER SERIAL I/O PORT 

* WORKS WITH : EPSON MX 70/80/100, NEC PC8023, CENTRONICS, C-itoh, OK I DATA, 

SMITH CORONA DAISY WHEEL, RADIO SHACK, OR ANY OTHER PRINTER WITH A 
STANDARD PARALLEL INPUT. 

* SWITCH SELECTABLE BAUD RATES FROM 300 to 9600 

The Color Computer is capable of 9600 Baud — Poke 150,1* 

Running at 9600 Baud greatly increases the printing speed of some printers. 

* COMPLETE - ALL CABLES AND CONNECTORS INCLUDED 

* PRICE : $69 plus $3 for shipping and handling. Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. 



BOTEK INSTRUMENTS 

4949 HAMPSHIRE 

UTICA, MICHIGAN 48087 

313-739-2910 Dealer inquiries invited 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 47 



307D 26 


04 


00710 BNE 


MUPBAD 


30EB 


27 


D5 


01210 




BEQ 


EXPTDI 


307F BF 


3197 


00720 STX 


ADDR 


30ED 


5F 




01220 




CLRB 




3082 39 




00730 RTS 




30EE 


20 


CA 


01230 




BRA 


EXPRTN 






00735 UPDATE BAD 




30F0 


8D 


0B 


01240 


EXPSUB 


BSR 


EXPTRM 


3083 34 


02 


00740 MUPBAD PSHS 


A 


30F2 


34 


02 


01250 




PSHS 


A 


3085 86 


3F 


00750 LDA 


#$3F 


30F4 


FC 


3199 


01260 




LDD 


NUMBER 


3087 17 


00F0 


00760 LBSR 


OUTCH 


30F7 


40 




01270 




NEGA 




308A 35 


82 


00770 PULS 


PC, A 


30F8 


50 




01280 




NEGB 








00775 *SET WINDOW VALUE 


30F9 


82 


00 


01290 




SBCA 


#0 


308C 17 


00B0 


00780 CWINDO LBSR 


CDNUM 


30FB 


20 


DF 


01300 




BRA 


EXPADD 


308F FD 


319C 


00790 STD 


WINDOW 








01305 


♦NEXT EXPRESSION 


3092 39 




00800 RTS 




30FD 


8D 


96 


01310 


EXPTRM 


BSR 


BLDNUM 






00805 EXPRESSION ANALYZER 


30FF 


27 


36 


01320 




BEQ 


CNVRTS 






00806 ♦NO LEADING BLANKS 


3101 


16 


FF02 


01330 


BLDBAD 


LBRA 


CMDBAD 


3093 4F 




00810 BLDNNB CLRA 










01335 


♦BUILD HEX BYTE 




3094 


8C 


00820 FCB 


SKIP2 


3104 


7F 


3199 


01340 


BLDHXI 


CLR 


NUMBER 






00825 ACCEPT LEADING BLANKS 


3107 


7F 


319A 


01350 




CLR 


NUMBER+1 


3095 86 


20 


00830 BLDNUH LDA 


#$20 


310A 


8D 


2C 


01360 


BLDHEX 


BSR 


READ 


3097 B7 


319B 


00840 STA 


DEL IN 


310C 


8D 


13 


01370 


BLDHXC 


BSR 


CNVHEX 


309A 34 


14 


00850 EXP1 PSHS 


X,B 


310E 


26 


27 


01380 




BNE 


CNVRTS 


309C 8D 


66 


00860 EXPDLM BSR 


BLDHXI 


3110 


C6 


10 


01390 




LDB 


#16 


309E 27 


1C 


00870 BEQ 


EXP2 


3112 


3D 




01400 




MUL 








00875 *SKIP BLANKS 




3113 


86 


04 


01410 




LDA 


#4 


30 A0 Bl 


319B 


00880 CHPA 


DELIM 


3115 


58 




01420 


BLDSHF 


ASLB 




30A3 27 


F7 


00890 BEQ 


EXPDLM 


3116 


79 


319A 


01430 




ROL 


NUMBER+1 






00895 ♦TEST FOR M.P OR W 


3119 


79 


3199 


01440 




ROL 


NUMBER 


30A5 BE 


3197 


00900 LDX 


ADDR 


311C 


4A 




01450 




DECA 




30A8 81 


4D 


00910 CMPA 


#$4D 


311D 


26 


F6 


01460 




BNE 


BLDSHF 


30AA 27 


18 


00920 BEQ 


EXPTDL 


3 1 IF 


20 


14 


01470 




BRA 


CNVOK 


30AC BE 


3195 


00930 LDX 


PCNTER 








01475 


♦ASCII 


TO BINARY 


30AF 81 


50 


00940 CMPA 


#$50 


3121 


81 


30 


01480 


CNVHEX 


CMPA 


#$30 


30B1 27 


11 


00950 BEQ 


EXPTDL 


3123 


25 


12 


01490 




BLO 


CNVRTS 


30B3 BE 


319C 


00960 LDX 


WINDOW 


3125 


81 


39 


01500 




CMPA 


#$39 


30B6 81 


57 


00970 CMPA 


#$57 


3127 


2F 


0A 


01510 




BLE 


CNVGOT 


30B8 27 


0A 


00980 BEQ 


EXPTDL 


3129 


81 


41 


01520 




CMPA 


#$41 


30BA 35 


94 


00990 EXPRTN PULS 


PC, X, B 


312B 


25 


0A 


01530 




BLO 


CNVRTS 






00995 *GET HEX NUMBER 


312D 


81 


46 


01540 




CMPA 


#$46 


30BC 8D 


4C 


01000 EXP2 BSR 


BLDHEX 


312F 


22 


06 


01550 




BHI 


CNVRTS 


30BE 27 


FC 


01010 BEQ 


EXP2 


3131 


80 


07 


01560 




SUBA 


#7 


30C0 20 


0C 


01020 BRA 


EXPCDL 


3133 


84 


0F 


01570 


CNVGOT 


ANDA 


#$0F 






01025 *STORE AND CHECK DELIMITER 


3135 


1A 


04 


01580 


CNVOK 


ORCC 


#4 


30C2 AE 


84 


01030 EXPTDI LDX 




3137 


39 




01590 


CNVRTS 


RTS 




30C4 BF 


3199 


01040 EXPTDL STX 


NUMBER 








01595 


♦INPUT CHARACTER 


30C7 7D 


319B 


01050 TST 


DELIM 


3138 


8D 


34 


01600 


READ 


BSR 


INCH 


30CA 27 


EE 


01060 BEQ 


EXPRTN 


313A 


81 


03 


01610 




CMPA 


#$03 


30CC SD 


6A 


01070 BSR 


READ 


313C 


27 


C3 


01620 




BEQ 


BLDBAD 






01075 ♦TEST FOR + OR 




313E 


39 




01630 




RTS 




30CE BE 


3199 


01080 EXPCDL LDX 


NUMBER 








01635 


♦OBTAIN NUMBER 




30D1 81 


2B 


01090 CMPA 


#$2B 


313F 


17 


FF53 


01640 


CDNUM 


LBSR 


BLDNUM 


30D3 26 


10 


01100 BNE 


EXPCHM 


3142 


26 


0A 


01650 




BNE 


CDBADN 


30D5 8D 


26 


01110 BSR 


EXPTRM 


3144 


81 


2F 


01660 




CMPA 


#$2F 


30D7 34 


02 


01120 PSHS 


A 


3146 


22 


06 


01670 




BHI 


CDBADN 


30D9 FC 


3199 


01130 LDD 


NUMBER 


3148 


81 


0E 


01680 




CMPA 


#$0E 


30DC 30 


8B 


01140 EXPADD LEAX 


D,X 


314A 


FC 


3199 


01690 




LDD 


NUMBER 


30DE BF 


3199 


01150 STX 


NUMBER 


314D 


39 




01700 




RTS 




30E1 35 


02 


01160 PULS 


A 


314E 


16 


FEB5 


01710 


CDBADN 


LBRA 


CMDBAD 


30E3 20 


E9 


01170 BRA 


EXPCDL 








01715 


♦OUTPUT BYTE IN HEX 


30E5 81 


2D 


01180 EXPCHM CMPA 


#$2D 


3151 


A6 


80 


01720 


0UT2H 


LDA 


,Xf 


30E7 27 


07 


01190 BEQ 


EXPSUB 


3153 


34 


06 


01730 




PSHS 


D 


30E9 81 


40 


01200 CMPA 


#$40 


3155 


C6 


10 


01740 




LDB 


#16 



48 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



COLORSOFT™ BUSINESS SOFTWARE 



AT LAST! BUSINESS SOFTWARE DESIGNED FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

★ MAKE YOUR COLOR COMPUTER A WORKING BUSINESS PARTNER ★ 
★ ALL PROGRAMS ARE MENU DRIVEN AND USER FRIENDLY ★ 
★ PROFESSIONALLY WRITTEN AND FULLY TESTED ★ 
★ AFTER-THE-SALE SUPPORT ★ 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING PACKAGE. ..Ideally suited for any small business with up to $1,000,000 in an- 
nual sales and 400 accounts receivable and 400 accounts payable. This package provides detailed record keeping on ac- 
counts receivable and payable, sales, purchase orders, and allows input and maintenance of payroll related data. 
Prepares balance sheet and income statement, aging reports, and displays a check register, a listing of sales by date, and 
a listing of individual purchase orders. Included are printer output options. The step-by-step user's manual and the user 
friendly, menu driven format makes this program package fast, efficient, and easy to use. 

REQUIRES SINGLE DISK DRIVE (User's manual without program $20) $149.95 



DEPRECIATION... Determines depreciation values for assets based upon the new accelerated cost recovery system 
(ACRS) and the alternate ACRS methods in addition to the conventional methods. Adjusts for placing assets in service 
during the year. Screen or printer output $22.95 



LOAN ANALYSIS... Evaluate cost of borrowing for capital investments or business expansion. Prints amortization 
schedules and allows user to determine loan status at any point in the term of a loan. Other options allow user to deter- 
mine either principle, interest, payment, or term based upon input of any three. An auto loan option includes trade-in 
allowance and taxes. Screen or printer output $20.95 

A 

ANNUITY... Determine future value of investments, present value of a future amount, compound interest, and 
amount of an individual retirement account (IRA). Screen or printer output $18.95 



EXPENSE ACCOUNT DIARY... Keeps a record of travel expenses for up to 25 trips per year. Performs file searches 
based upon cross-referencing of date of trip, city visited, hotel, or purpose of trip. Screen or printer output. An ex- 
cellent program for the traveling businessman $15.95. 



STOCK ANALYZER... Reviewed in July 1982 RAINBOW. New version provides printer output and is disk compat- 
ible. Maintains a stock portfolio data base of multiple stocks. Can be used to track performance of sales personnel or 
similar applications. Features graphing of data to screen or printer along with analyses that includes projection of data 
trends $21.95. 



INCLUDE $2.25 HANDLING PER ORDER 
ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXT. BASIC 
CUSTOM PROGRAMMING SERVICES AVAILABLE 
Q0LO R WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 

SOFTWARE TELEPHONE ORDERS 

(214) 454-3674 

SERVICES /j^^^ 9 4 Monday " Saturday 

RAINBOW 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE DIV. 
P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 

GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 DEALER INQUIRES INVITED VISA/MASTERCARD 



3157 


3D 




01750 




MUL 




3158 


8D 


04 


01760 




BSR 


OUTHX 


315A 


35 


06 


01770 




PULS 


D 


315C 


84 


0F 


01780 




ANDA 


i$0F 


315E 


8D 


90 


01790 


OUTHX 


ADDA 


#$90 


3160 


19 




01800 




DAA 




3161 


89 


40 


01810 




ADCA 


#$40 


3163 


19 




01820 




DAA 




3164 


20 


14 


01830 


SEND 


BRA 


OUTCH 








01835 


^OUTPUT 


ADDRESS 




3166 


8D 


E9 


01840 


OUT4HS 


BSR 


0UT2H 








01845 


♦OUTPUT 


BYTE 




3168 


8D 


E7 


01850 


0UT2HS 


BSR 


0UT2H 








01855 


♦OUTPUT 


SPACE 




316A 


86 


20 


01860 


SPACE 


LDA 


#$20 


316C 


20 


0C 


01870 




BRA 


OUTCH 








01875 


♦KEYBOARD INPUT 




316E 


34 


15 


01880 


INCH 


PSHS 


X,B,CC 


3170 


AD 


9F A000 


01890 


INCH1 


JSR 


CPOLCAT3 


3174 


27 


FA 


01900 




BEQ 


INCH1 


3176 


8D 


02 


01910 




BSR 


OUTCH 


3178 


35 


95 


01920 




PULS 


X,B,CC,PC 








01925 


♦OUTPUT 


TO SCREEN 


317A 


34 


12 


01930 


OUTCH 


PSHS 


A,X 


317C 


AD 


9F A002 


01940 




JSR 


CCHROUT] 


3180 


35 


92 


01950 




PULS 


A,X,PC 








01955 


♦SEND CR/LF 




3182 




04 


01960 


PCRLS 


FCB 


$04 








01965 


♦CR/LF AND STRING 



NEW FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

GRAFPLOT 

HIGH RESOLUTION DATA GRAPHING 



GRAFPLOT turns your COLOR COMPUTER into a sophisticated 
data plotter, producing professional qua lity graphs of any type 
of X-Y data. GRAFPLOT is perfect for personal, business, statis- 
tistical, scientific and engineering applications. Includes features 
not found in any other COLOR COMPUTER graphing system: 

■ 222x174 pixel on-screen data plotting area. 

■ Complete on-screen labeling for two Y-axes w/200 data 

points per axis leven more points by chaining data filesl. 

■ 9 graphing options: 3 symbols w/2 line types or points only. 

■ Full function data editing: add, change, delete and sort. 

■ Hardcopy w/standard screenprint programs Inot supplied !- 

includes interface for Tandy SCRPRT w/instructions for 
interfacing other printers and screenprint programs. 

■ Unlimited overlays -plot 9 or more data sets per graph. 

■ Graphs output to screen, printer, tape or disk. 

■ Plots any user-defined function, edit 4 program lines. 

■ Built-indata smoothing (moving binomial average). 

■ Built-in integration - calculate areas or evaluate integrals of 

user-defined functions. 

■ Lists data and integrals to screen or printer. 

■ Saves completed graphs for instant reloading. 

■ Menu-driven w/auto-prompt option for fast throughput. 

■ Complete error trapping-GRAFPLOT won t let you make a 

mistake, practically impossible to crash. 

■ Comprehensive manual w/tutorials and sample data. 

GRAFPLOT is available for 16K E.C.B. on cassette l$35l and 32K- 
1disk ($45). Easy upgrade to disk for difference in price (disk 
version reads and writes tape data filesl. Send check or money 
order to: HAWKES RESEARCH SERVICES, 1442 Sixth St., 
Berkeley.CA, 94710. Include $3 S/H on all orders. Manual 
available separately for $10+S/H, refundable with purchase 
of GRAFPLOT. CA residents add state sales tax . 
Dealer inquiries welcome. Quantity discounts available. 



3183 30 


8C FG 


01970 


PCRLF 


LEAX 


PCRLS, PCR 


3186 86 


0D 


01980 


PDATA 


LDA 


#$0D 


3188 8D 


DA 


01990 




BSR 


SEND 


318A 86 


0A 


02000 




LDA 


#$0A 






02005 


♦OUTPUT 


STRING 




318C 8D 


D6 


02010 


PDTLP 


BSR 


SEND 


318E A6 


80 


02020 


PDATA1 


LDA 


,X* 


3190 81 


04 


02030 




CMPA 


#$04 


3192 26 


F8 


02040 




BNE 


PDTLP 


3194 39 




02050 




RTS 








02055 


♦VARIABLE STORAGE 


3195 




02060 


PCNTER 


RUB 


2 


3197 

Will 




02070 


ADDR 


RMB 


2 


3199 




02080 


NUMBER 


RMB 


2 


319B 




02090 


DELIrl 


RMB 


1 


319C 




02100 


WINDOW 


RMB 


2 




0000 


02110 




END 





00000 TOTAL ERRORS 



Following is the listing accidentally omitted from "Smarts 
for a Dumb Terminal. "The listing explains the operation of 



the Color Basic ROM routine. 


/ B AS I C 


ROM SCREEN PRINT 




A30A 


pquq 


X , B, A 


SAVE REGS. 


A30C 


i rvv 
LDX 


*88 


PUT SCRPTR IN X-REQ 


A30E 


CMPA 


#*08 


BACKSPACE? 


A3 10 


BNE 


*A31D 


GO CHECK FOR CR 


A312 


CMPX 


#*400 


BEGINNING OF SCREEN? 


A315 


BEQ 


♦A35D 


RETURN IF YES 


A317 


LDA 


#♦60 


♦60-SPACE 


A319 


STA 




STORE SPACEScDEC SCRNPTR 


A31B 


BRA 


♦A344 


STORE SCRPTRScRETURN 


A31D 


CMPA 


#*0D 


CARRIAGE RETURN? 


A31F 


BNE 


♦A32F 


GO CHECK FOR SPACE 


A321 


LDX 


*88 


PUT SCRPTR IN X-REG 


A323 


LDA 


#♦60 


A-SPACE 


A325 


STA 


,X + 


STORE* INC X-REG 


A327 


TFR 


X,D 


PUT SCRPTR IN X-REG 


A329 


BIT 


#*1F 


END OF LINE? 


A32B 


BNE 


♦A323 


AGAIN UNTIL DONE 


A32D 


BRA 


♦A344 


STORE SCRPTRScRETURN 


A32F 


CMPA 


#♦20 


CONTROL CHAR? 


A331 


BLO 


A35D 


RETURN IF YES 


A333 


TSTA 




GREATER THAN ^80? 


A334 


BMI 


♦A342 


STORE ON SCREEN 


A336 


CMPA 


#*40 


NUMBER OR LETTER? 


A338 


BLO 


*A340 


BRANCH IF CHAR 


A33A 


CMPA 


#♦60 


UPPER OR LOWER? 


A33C 


BLO 


♦A342 


IF UPPER PRINT IT 


A33E 


ANDA 


#*DF 


MASK BIT 6 


A340 


EOR 


#♦40 


CONVERT CHAR 


A342 


STA 


,X + 


STRE CHARMNC SCRPTR 


A344 


STX 


♦88 


STORE SCRPTR 


A346 


CMPX 


#^5FF 


END OF SCREEN 


A349 


BLS 


♦A35D 


RETURN IF NOT 


A34B 


LDX 


#♦400 


X -REG-START OF SCREEN 


A34E 


LDD 


♦20, X 


MOVE CHAR UP 


A351 


STD 


, X++ 


STORE CHARMNC X-REG 


A353 


CMPX 


#^5E0 


LAST LINE? 


A356 


BLO 


A34E 


IF LESS DO IT AGAIN 


A358 


LDB 


#♦60 


B-REG-SPACE 


A35A 


JSR 


♦A92D 


GO TO CLS 


A35D 


PULS 


A,B,X,PC RETURN 


A92D 


STX 


♦88 


SAVE SCRPTR 


A92F 


STB 


,X + 


STORE CHARMNC X-REG 


A931 


CMPX 


#^5FF 


END OF SCREEN? 


A934 


BLS 


A92F 


DO IT AGAIN 


A936 


RTS 




RETURN 



50 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



NOW THERE ARE TWO TOOLKITS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



The software development tools that let you put even more power into the already 
powerful Color Computer. They're full of tools, aids, bells and whistles useful to the BASIC 
or MACHINE LANGUAGE programmer, in friendly, easy-to-use software packages. 

BOTH TOOLKITS CONTAIN . . . 

• light characters on dark background wffh Current Line Highlighting; or normal characters 

• Full Screen Editor with Arrow Key controlled cursor; open up space/delete and close up space 

• Enabling selective Line Renumber/copy/ move/merge; or normal Extended Basic line editor 

• Protect the current BASIC program from being wiped out with a CLOAD, NEW etc.; or from being LISTed 

• Restore a protected BASIC program/Append any number of BASIC programs together easily 

• Tone on keypress or normal silent keys (Tone modifiable by use of Sound an Command) 

• Global Search of command or text strings in BASIC programs with wildcard character and next "." 

• 9 Screen Print Delays with keyboard override (for slow, readable LISTings and DISK DIRectories) 

• Variable Name List/String-Byte memory usage/Range of FREE MEM/Top of memory address display 

• Fast Machine Code to BASIC DATA converter for storing machine code visibly in BASIC 

• (C)SAVEM address/Backup Tool (Last file name, start end and execute address) 

• Recovery of Lost BASIC programs after NEW, BACKUP, DSKINI, etc. 

• Break Key Disable/Enable (Pause keys still available) 

• Modified TRON display (IN replaces (LN) 

THE FULL TOOLKIT ALSO CONTAINS . . . 

□ Merge BASIC with Machine Code routines so machine code is "invisible" and (C)SAVE/(C)LOADable 

□ 9 BASIC RUN delays with keyboard override; Single Step(s) mode with current line number display 

□ Memory Examine/Modify with HEX/ASCII/DEC/Double Decimal output and HEX/ ASCII input 

□ Memory Block Move for relocating machine code programs, DATA blocks, etc.; or the Kit itself 

□ Ten User Defined Function Keys accessable with @/number (BASIC Macros/Block storage) 

□ Automatic linefeed for printers that don't/double space LISTings; or normal PRINT 

□ Delete all spaces (not in PRINT strings, DATA or REMARK lines) 

□ ASCII/HEX memory Dumps to screen or printer 

□ Delete all REMarks (either REM or ' type) 

□ Parallel ECHO of screen output to printer 



THESE FEATURES ARE FOUND ON BOTH VERSIONS . . . 

— Transparent to the user, Install it and forget it until you need it 

— BASIC runs up to one-third faster through the Toolkit (5-10% typical) 

— HELP command lists all Kit commands and current Kit address 

— Same program works with tape or disk and in 16 or 32K 

— Entire system totally removable at any time 

— Compatible with other utility programs 

— Green/Orange text screen capability 

— Easily modifiable command syntax 

The Kits are relocatable programs that load any time without bothering your BASIC program or variables or top of 
memory address. All tools may be turned on or off at will, including the Kit itself. 

The tools are available with simple three or four letter commands entered in the direct mode, with the entire instruction 
set viewable through the HELP command. ^.^^ 

The Colorkit is 5K bytes for $29,95 rainbow The Microkit is 2.5K bytes for $27.95 

Available on disk with handy BASIC Kit loader for additional $5 «^tk» Manual available separately for $5 



THE GOOD LIFE 



$1 6.95 THE DISK COMMANDER 



$19.95 DEER HUNT 



$15.95 



The Classic Game of Life With: 
64x64 color symmetrical display 
3 Selectable birth and old age colors 
15 modifiable pre-programmed 
patterns 

Save/Load life screens to tape/disk 
Speeds from 8 gen/sec to 1 a second 
Joystick or arrow key input 
Written in user-modifiable BASIC 
With machine code LIFE processor 
Help screen command list 
Tape/Disk compatible 
Selectable color sets 



Disk File Utility with; 

One key vlew/copy/load(m) of flies 
Two key kill/rename of flies 
Sort directory on name/extension 
Pack directory so new files put at end 
Directory keyword search of filename 
Print DIR with machine code address 
Recover killed flies 



Arcade shoot-em-up skill game 
Aim only for the deer 
Avoid hitting people, cars, train 
Will not cause tension headache 
BASIC/machlne code hybrid 
Tape/Disk compatible 



ARIZIN 



• Y&X axis wraparound 



P. O. Box 8825 
Scottsdale, AZ 85252 



Software Review 



CoCo Adds Dimension 
Of Fun To Tic Tac Toe 




Tic tac toe program? My first thought was, "Why would I 
want to buy such a simple program?" Then I saw that this 
program was 32K ECB. Wow. . . Why so much memory for 
such an easy game? That was one of the first programs I put 
into my computer! Curiosity made me to it! 

3-D Tic Tac Toe takes almost three minutes to load. 
Running the program brought up some nice introductory 
graphics in hi-res along with some oscillating sound effects. 
(The program runs with the speed-up poke, so if your com- 
puter does not work in hi-speed you should eliminate line 
one. There does not appear to be any annoyingslowdown in 
play if you do have to remove the speed-up.) The next 
prompt is the option to play against the CoCo or another 
person, after which the 3-D board is generated and 
displayed. 




I do drawings part-time in my work and have reproduced 
the board elsewhere in this review, so that you may see how 
the 3-D board is achieved. It's a conventional representation 
of a 3-D cube on a two-dimensional paper (or TV screen in 
this case) and gives the illusion of 3-D. I know some people 
have difficulty visualizing 3-D concepts. If you cannot visu- 
alize the playing board and the potential tic tac toes in the 
drawing then maybe this game would not be for you! Then 
again, it might be just what you need to finally understand 
3-D pictures. 

It is easy to become disoriented while looking at the 
board, though it is well-drawn. Several times I would look 
up and see the illusion of the cube being rotated a quarter- 
turn to the left and upward. However, this reorientation 
does not change the position of the markers nor the playing 
strategy since things are still in their relative locations. I just 
want to point out this in case you have not worked with 
two-dimentional representations of 3-D drawings before. 

The graphics are well done in hi-res. The computer moves 
take from two to four seconds. Human moves (which gener- 
ally take longer) are made through the four arrow keys and 
the ENTER tab. According to the author, there are more 
than 150 possible ways to get Tic Tac Toe, so games are 
generally fast, depending upon the human factor. 

Documentation is quite complete and gives anyone the 
necessary information to play all options. However, I do feel 
the documentation is a little misleading. The programmer 
points out: "We averaged about a 50 percent win in the 
games we played against CoCo. But then we had a fair idea 
of what CoCo was thinking since we told him how to play! 
One thing you can be sure of is that CoCo will not miss a 



New! For Your 
Color Computer 

FROG-TREK 

(the arcade game) 



You may be able to guide your frog through 6 lanes 
of rush hour traffic, but that isn *t enough! You 
must also cross the river by jumping on logs and 
turtles to get Froggie safely to his home on the other 
side. But watch out for the snake! And don 't jump 
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A great M/L game at a great price $14.95. Uses hi- 
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MASTERCARD AND VISA ACCEPTED 



52 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



0 



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Each cassette includes two YORK 10 labels only. Boxes are sold separately. 
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block or a chance to win ... an exciting game and challenging 
... a real teaser ... just when you think you have won, CoCo 
beats you to it." 

After reading the documentation I was all prepared to 
play a 'difficult' game of 3-D Tic Tac Toe. To my disap- 
pointment, I won the first game in four moves, then the 
second game, the third ... until I had won 15 games to the 
computer's one! Not all games were simple four-move wins, 
as the loser of the previousgame starts the next game. I don't 
think I would have been so disappointed had I not read the 
documentation first. After all, I remember the regulargame 
as being easy. 

Another observation I made — or think I made — is that 
the computer did not always catch the blocks! So, I tried 
various combinations and could continuously make CoCo 
miss a block. Then, in all fairness, I thought maybe I had 
overlooked something or had received an earlier version of 
the game and decided to call the author. Both of my disturb- 
ing observations were put to rest. 

First of all, I want to make it clear that the computerdom 
in fact catch all blocks. I was too quick to notice the most 
obvious block CoCo had apparently missed when in reality I 
had at least doublechallenged CoCo and CoCo had decided 
to take a different block than the one I had my eyes on. I had 
looked at the program and thought, "Gee, with all these 
IF/ THEN statements in here, there could easily be a bug or 
logic statement missing somewhere. (There are over 300 




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$16.95 
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1024 Bainbridge PI. Columbus, OH 43228 

(614) 276-2752 



IF I THEN statements to check computer moves/ wins and 
human moves/ wins, etc. I didn't count them ... I took the 
author's word for it! He tried data arrays and other 
methods, but they took much longer for CoCo to react than 
the way the program is currently set up.) 

Concerning the misleading documentation suggesting a 
"challenging" game, I would like to point out the program 
was apparently written with younger people in mind, prob- 
ably in the range of 5-12. This is the general age group I 
thought suitable for this program prior to talking with the 
author. In fact, he said most of his software is aimed at 
younger people. I think the documentation should reflect 
this a little more. 

For the price, 3-D Tic Tac Toe has a lot going for it. If you 
don't have a game like this, it would be a great way to 
introduce or to build upon 3-D concepts for members of the 
family. It also makes an adult think a little more. It has good 
graphics. My older kids will soon be six and nine and they 
seemed to enjoy the game! The six-year-old could even beat 
the computer and understand that one mark on each level 
directly above meant a tic-tac-toe, although the three-level 
diagonals were harder to understand. Welcomed excitement 
rang throughout when he was able to beat CoCo! 

There are a couple of things lacking in this program that 
would increase its usability and enjoyment. After a game is 
won, the screen is immediately erased and set up for a new 
game. There should be either a timer or a prompt included to 
allow the player(s) time to see where the tic tac toe was! This 
change in the program would be most beneficial in helping 
understand 3-D. That feature and the two suggestions fol- 
lowing could be written in by most consumers I think. 
However, you may have to delete some REM statements or 
remove excess spaces throughout the program to get all the 
changes put in, as it's already almost 32K in length. The 
other two suggestions have to do with the two-player option. 

All movements are made using the four arrow keys. When 
two players engage in this game, it becomes confusing! One 
person must use the ENTER to place his marker, while the 
other uses the CLEAR. Since ENTER is the most com- 
monly used key on the keyboard, it is very natural and easy 
for one of the persons to accidently hit ENTER when he 
wanted to hit CLEAR. Needless to say, that game is ruined! 
It's also annoying for two people to keep shuffling around 
the keyboard. If the game has to be played from the key- 
board it would have been nice to designate pushing "0"for 
circles and "X" or X's. I would suggest incorporating the 
joysticks and fire button for two-player response (maybe 
even for one player). 

One last comment about the two-player option is that one 
person can monopolize the play. There is no check or indica- 
tion for whom is to play. One human assumes the role of 
CoCo on the screen's scoreboard, and a person can continue 
to move and mark the board until he wins without the other 
person ever having a chance to play! The only check the 
computer does do is make sure you cannot change a marker 
already in place. It signals you that you cannot make that 
move. 

In general, the program is easy to play, is good for 
younger children, and has potential. An interesting version 
of an old game. 

(Q Soft, 1006 Robinhood Dr., Painesville, OH 44077, $14.95 

tape, $19.95 disk) 

— Kenneth D. Peters 



54 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




TH€ 

PfiOGflflfTl /TDft€ 



Color Computer Collection 



I pftOGRflm nrm 



SCEPTER OF KZIRGLA 

From Rainbow Connection Software 
Real-time graphics adventure game with arcade sound for 
the color computer. 13 floors of dungeon with monsters, 
treasure chests, hidden trap doors . . . even a flying magic 
carpet! All in your quest to find the Scepter of Kzirgla, 
Whatever you do, don't get caught in the poisonous gas 
cloud! Extended BASIC required. 

16KTape, $16.95, 
16K Disk, $21.95 




CONQUEST 
OF KZIRGLA 

The adventure continues, seek out and destroy the enemy 
wizard before his sceptor recharges. While a continuation 
of Sceptor of Kzirgla, you don't have to have the earlier 
program to play Conquest. 

16K Tape $21.95 or 
32K Disk $26.95 




KEYS OF 
THE WIZARD 

by John Gabbard 

From Spectral Associates 

Unlock all the doors! Smart creatures follow you through- 
out hundreds of rooms filled with glittering treasures, 
magic spells, traps, tricks and puzzles. This exciting ma- 
chine language text adventure has great sound. Three skill 
levels allow you to learn easily and work up to expert. 
Cassette save with random features so you never play the 
same game twice! 

16K Tape $19.95 




DONKEY 
KING 

From Tom Mix 

How high can you climb? Use the practice game to test 
your skills. Become an expert at this arcade-style game 
filled with exciting sound and realistic action. For 1 or 2 
players. There are 4 screens: barrels, pins, jacks and con- 
veyors. Reach the hammer if you're fast and strong. 

32K Tape $26.95 



MOON 
SHUTTLE 




FromDataSoft 
Pilot your moon shuttle to meet your destiny — The Prince 
of Darkness. Out maneuver spinning rockets, dodge life 
threatening man-o-wars, meteors, bomb launchers and 
expandos. Suddenly your flight becomes more perilous as 
enemy forces multiply. Test the outer limits of your instinct 
for survival! 




16K Tape $34.95 



ZAXXON 

From DataSoft 

The official Zaxxon, now for home use, combines 3 dimen- 
sional effects, unique color graphics and realistic sound 
effects. Arcade action while you maneuver your ship 
through a battlefield of enemy missiles, tanks and planes 
to meet your match in the deadly Zaxxon Robot armed with 
a lethal homing device. 

16K Tape $39.95 



PLANET 
INVASION 




From Spectral Associates 
Be a defender! Your ships are fortified with smart bombs to 
protect the planet from aliens. Machine-language arcade 
style game with fast action and superior Hi-Res graphics. 
What will be the fate of civilization when you are in control? 
Joystick required. 

16K Tape $21.95 



Bookshelf 



ASSEMBLY 

LANGUAGE 

GRAPHICS 

by Don Inman and Kurt Inman 
From Reston Books 

Improve your skills! Create graphical data displays after 
reading these revealing applications using sound and 
graphics to show you what can be done with an assembler. 
A complete guidebook to assembly language program- 
ming on the Color Computer. 

$14.95 



Over 2500 Programs for TRS-80, 



For Information Call 
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Corner 

BASIC AID 

From Eigen 

Help for the BASIC programmer! Merge command, move 
command and automatic numbering plus 45 common 
BASIC commands — or change keys to your specifica- 
tions. Comes with convenient easy to use plastic keyboard 
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ROM $34.95 

TELEWRITER 64 

From Cognitec 

Now word processing at its best! This machine language 
program uses Hi-Res graphics to draw text. It includes 
advanced features to create, edit, store, format and print 
any kind of text with justification, hyphenation and page 
numbering. Creates a new character set (no hardware 
modifications required) that has true lowercase letters in 3 
display formats 51/64/85 columns x 24 lines. The full 
screen editor is simple to use with single key commands, 
menu driven I/O and formatting. Comes with well written 
documentation and runs on 16K, 32K, or 64K with or with- 
out extended basic. Telewriter surpasses other word proc- 
essors for user friendliness and power. 




Tape $49.95 or 
Disk $59.95 

TYPING 
TEACHER 

by Bob Sleath 
From Spectral Associates 

Do you hunt and peck? For beginners or rusty typists, 
become proficient in touch typing at your own pace. In- 
structional program has 15 lessons stressing eye-finger 
coordination, accuracy and speed. The last lesson points 
out errors so you know which characters you miss. 
Smooth, free-flowing typing is simple with this tutorial. 

16K Tape $19.95 




BREAKTHRU 

From Avalon Hill 
Futuristic racquetball! Knock out five walls at the opposite 
end of the court using joystick to strike or deflect the lively 
ball. Fast action, 3 dimensional, high resolution machine 
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16K Tape $19.95 



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© 1983 The Program Store, Inc. 




THE PROGRAM STORE • Dept. 24-03-3 ■ Box 9582 • 4200 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W. • Washington, D.C. 20016 



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CoCo COUNSEL 



Legal Discussions 
On The Color Computer 

By Tom Nelson 



(The information given in this article is not legal advice. If 
you have legal questions you should see competent legal 
counsel.) 

This month begins a series of columns which will try to 
answer some of the most-asked questions from software 
authors, marketers and consumers. It is a wide open forum, 
and I hope you will feel free to suggest further topics which 
you would like toseeaddressed. By the way,f orthose of you 
able to attend, I will be giving a short seminar at the upcom- 
ing RainbowFest in Chicago on the topic of "How to 
Market Your Software — And Keep Your Shirt." I hope to 
see you there. 

This first column will not be a discursion into some arcane 
area of the law. Instead, because some of you may really be 
in need of some basic legal i nf ormation about your software 
immediately, I thought I'd review a brand new book about 
legal protection for your software entitled "Legal Care for 
Your Software: A Step-by-Step Guide for Computer Soft- 
ware Writers," first published in 1982. It was written by 
Daniel Remer, an attorney, is sold by Addison- Wesley Pub- 
lishing Company, Inc., and costs $19.95 in paperback. 
Instead of giving you a summary of the contents of Mr. 
Remer's book, I intend to whetyour appetite by setting out 
an outline of the general contents of the book. 

I highly recommend this book to anyone considering 
marketing software, from author to manufacturer. Mr. 
Remer, in the span of about 150 pages, presents most of the 
concepts necessary for you to understand what you mustdo 
to protect your software. This book is not legalese. It is 
practical advice. Instead of telling you what such and such a 
court said about some intricate legal doctrine, Mr. Remer 
tells you how to avoid future legal troubles by taking precau- 
tions in advance. This doesn't mean, however, that the book 
is not comprehensive. It is, where it has to be, and Mr. 
Remer freely cautions the reader when he or she must con- 
sult an attorney, such as when a trademark question arises. 

After an overview of the need for legal protection and 
what is available, the author discusses how to practically 
obtain and maintain trade secret and copyright protection, 
currently the two main methods of protecting your software. 
Anything related to a business can be a trade secret, even if 
others have independently developed it. Thus, marketing 
strategies as well as source code can have tradesecretprotec- 
tion. What you want to do is be able to protect these trade 
secrets from others, the purpose of trade secret law. The 
notion of copyrights should be familiar to us all, although 
the finer points are not common knowledge. Mr. Remer 
makes both these concepts more concrete. He also points 
out the present problems of trying to use patents to protect 
your software and the need to obtain trademark protection 
for your program name and company logo. 

The guts of the work, and that which many of you will find 
most helpful, is the discussion of contracts. Contracts are 



the vehicle for all our financial transactions, especially those 
dealing with our "intellectual property." Mr. Remer has 
sought to provide the software author and manufacturer 
with all the necessary contract concepts, including hints on 
how to negotiate good contracts. What's more, he has pro- 
vided sample forms forall of these contracts at the end of the 
book which you can just tear out and use, modified as 
needed. He stresses the need for written agreements to avoid 
future disagreements over terms, and to guide our relation- 
ships with people we often never meet face to face. I must 
applaud Mr. Remer's ability to explain these sometimes 
complicated concepts with ease so that anyone should be 
able to understand them. 

The book introduces you to the concepts of most of the 
kinds of contracts essential for the sale or development of 
software. He first discusses work-for-hire agreements which 
are used to contract with programmers, in~house or not, to 
write software and allow the software house to retain the 
copyright. He then discusses agreements to be used to assign 
your copyright to firms, and license agreements when you 
don't want to sell the copyright, but only wish to give a 
company the right to market the software and pay your 
royalties. He discusses the pros and cons of these two types 
of agreements, and things to watch out for. For the manu- 
facturer, he also provides information on how to create test 
site agreements for outside, independent, pre-marketing 
testing of the software, and information on how to correctly 
limit liability for defective software. His discussions 
of thesetwo types of contractual arrangements are excellent 
and alone are easily worth the price of the book. Finally, Mr. 
Remer discusses remedies available when the contract has 
gonesour, and just as important, practical ways to approach 
legal problems. I particularly appreciated his comment that 
most legal disputes can be resolved with a bottle of wine and 
an apology. 

It is obvious that Mr. Remer has had extensive experience 
in the software field. His practical tips alone are well worth 
the price of the book. The tear out forms, however, are what 
many of the readers will find most valuable. As I mentioned, 
he includes examples of all the contracts he discussed, 
including a trade secret agreement and non-disclosure 
agreement to keep those valuable company secrets, from 
source code to marketing strategy, secret; an assignment of 
copyright agreement for those wishing to sell their program 
to a manufacturer; a work-for-hire agreement for manu- 
facturers to use when hiring staff or outside programmers; a 
test site agreement; a license agreement; and a sample dis- 
claimer of warranty. Each of these documents is fully 
explained in the chapter dealing with the topic, and many 
alternative clauses are offered to suit varying needs. 

The book does, in my opinion, have a few deficiencies. 
The first relates to different philosophies between me and 
Mr. Remer about the advisability of people doing their own 



56 theRAINBOW April, 1983 






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legal work. Mr. Remer feels that if you read the book and 
understand the concepts you should be able to use his forms 
with great success without the aid of an attorney. In general, 
I disagree. 

Although Mr. Remer has done a great job of outlining the 
basicconceptsof contractand intellectual property law, this 
book does not make anyone an expert. These laws contain 
many traps for the unwary, especially trademark law. 
Further, contract law and trade secret law, though similar in 
most states, is still governed, to a large extent, by the laws of 
each state. Each state may have some special requirements 
which may have to be included in a contract, or followed in 
trade secret protection procedures, and the forms provided 
in the book cannot hope to deal with such local 
idiosyncracies. 

The forms provided in the book are not necessarily com- 
plete. In reviewing the forms, I noticed the lack of several 
clauses which I consider standard for any contract. M oreover, 
these forms only cover the usual things put in a contract. 
Which one of us is willing to admit that he or she is usual? 
Rarely is a contract so simple that there is not some special 
set of clauses which must be included, especially relating to 
payment terms. Care must be taken to make sure the clauses 
are written in an airtight manner, and are fully consistent 
with other parts of the agreement. You will never be sure 
that you have done it right yourself because, really, you 
don't have the training. 

Besides, refusing to hire an attorney is a bad form of 
gambling. Your software may be the greatest thing since 
Pac-Man, and worth millions, or it may be a giant flop, or 
somewhere in between. Unfortunately, it is impossible to 
know the end worth of your program when you want to 



present it for marketing. When such money is at stake, it is 
unwise to venture forth into untested waters of contract law. 
Why gamble with such an important agreement? Remember, 
too, that if you commit malpractice with your contract you 
can't sue yourself, but attorneys are insured to cover such 
unfortunate, and quite rare, occurrences. 

It does not cost that much to consult an attorney on a 
contract, especially if you have read this book and are 
familiar with the general clauses, or even have drawn up a 
prototype contract. The more you have done, the less your 
attorney has to do, and so the lower the bill. Your attorney 
will like it too. Contrary to popular belief, most lawyers find 
it a real joy to have a client who has an understanding of the 
basic concepts of the law and of his or her problems. Of 
course, you want to find an attorney who knows a byte from 
a bit and who has done this sort of thing before. Intellectual 
property law is a specialty, and if you are paying for exper- 
tise you should find someone worth the money. 

This advice applies to software houses, too, but I doubt 
many need the advice, since there are so many other things 
one needs an attorney for when starting a business. Such 
things as incorporation or business!" ormation, tax consider- 
ations, basic contracts and the like confront the software 
house from day one. 

A second problem with this book is that, although it is 
rich in legal practical advice, it really lacks information 
about the software market. If Mr. Remer had spent some 
time to research the market to inform the reader about the 
common practices, prices, royalties and contracts used by 
software nouses, big and small, it would be a great help to 
the software writer in need of a market. This absence of 
information is somewhat understandable since, as of yet, the 



SOUTHERN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

SERIOUS SOFTWARE FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
Presenting... THE GRAPH ZAPPER and THE BAR ZAPPER 

Line Graphs and Bar Graphs f orthe Color Computer 



THE GRAPH ZAPPER plots line graphs of data and equations - multiple lines with different symbols - mix equations and data on the same graph - 
plots lines or points - "The Graph Zapper is one of the most completely documented pieces of software we have seen . . . The Graph Tapper is an 
outstanding utility and can be a major tool in statistical, business and other uses where graphic representation of numbers is desirable." The 

Rainbow, Dec. 1982. 

• THE BAR ZAPPER creates bar graphs with multiple bars - plenty of options - shaded or light bars - positive and negative bars - a great companion 
to THE GRAPH ZAPPER — same high quality documentation. 

• Endless applications - electric consumption, stock prices, math class equations, children's height and weight, data analysis, trend indication, ex- 
perimental results, statistical analysis. 

Both ZAPPERS Have All These Features: 

• High resolution graphs with on screen numbers & labels, • User friendly, easyto understand, 
with or without grids. • Thorough error prevention. 

• Sophisticated data editormakes changing data simple. • Save data for later graphing or editing. 

• Disk version has added features including storing • Low cost upgrade from tape to disk. 

completed graphs on disk and menu driven file loading. • Hard copies possible with common screen print programs - 

• Detailed user'sguides for all features. not supplied. 

• 14 day money back guarantee. • Low resolution graphs can't compare. 

• Requires Ext. Color Basic and delivered on cassette. 

$15.95 $19.95 

for 16K tape versions for 32K disk versions 

add $1.00 for shipping . . . send check or money order 
$29.95 for both tape versions + $2.00 shipping $37.95 for both disk versions + $2.00 shipping 

Florida residents add 5% sales tax 

SOUTHERN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS j£™ 

485 South Tropical Trail, Suite 109 • Merritt Island, Florida 32952 • (305)452-2217 



58 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



software market is still a hit-and-miss proposition, with 
neither software house nor author sure what is appropriate. 
There does not yet appear to be any standard contract in the 
software market like there are in the music and entertain- 
ment industries. I plan in a later article to discuss the market 
forces from the perspective of Nelson Software Systems to 
atleastgivesome idea of how onesoftware house copes with 
the market. 

One final failing of the book involves a suggestion for an 
additional chapter. Although Mr. Remer has dealt well with 
the types of contracts he considers essential to the software 
author, he has missed two universally used contracts, the 
software submission agreement and the option agreement. 
A software submission agreement is used by many compa- 
nies, including Nelson Software Systems, to protect itself 
and the author submitting software from future misunder- 
standings. It sets out the conditions under which the soft- 
ware house will agree to look at the software. This is neces- 
sary so that problems don't arise in the future such as a claim 
that a software house stole a program. It also helps clarify 
the terms under which the software will be reviewed so that 
the author can be sure that the software house is reputable. 
Nothing scares a software house more than receiving a 
naked copy of someone's source code for evaluation before a 
submission agreement has been signed. Protect your soft- 
ware by all means, but don't just send it to prospective 
marketers without first asking for a submission agreement. 

An option agreement is a special form of contract in 
which the software house buys the irrevocable right to 
decide whether or not to market the submitted softwarefora 
limited amount of time, for example 60 days. Such an 
agreement allows the software house to feel free to devote 
complete attention to the submission with the knowledge 



that it has the sole right to market the program if it exercises 
its option within the given time. The option is irrevocable 
and, if the software house exercises it, the contract is final, so 
care must be exercised by the author. On the other hand, 
option agreements are also good for the software author. 
The author knows that the software house will take a hard 
look at the software, and that he or she will have an answer 
from the software house within the same amount of time, so 
that the submitted software does not languish in some file 
months with no response. 

I feel that an understanding of these two types of agree- 
ments is essential to the software author and the software 
house seeking programs from outside sources. Therefore, 
both of these agreements will be discussed more in a later 
column. Perhaps Mr. Remer will also include a discussion of 
these in the next edition of his already good book. 

I'm sure that you will find this book a gold mine of 
information which will help you become a success, and help 
you protect yourself at the same time. You certainly will be 
better educated and, unlike other books, you will be back 
many times for more information. 

Next month, I will discuss some basic concepts about 
marketing your programs, including how to time your sub- 
mission, and how to decide what kind of program to 
develop. Until then, good luck with your endeavors. 

Tom Nelson is a Special Assistant Attorney General for the State of 
Minnesota representing various state agencies, and a consultant to Nelson 
Software Systems. Although Tom was trained in Chinese, he turned to law, 
and then to the computer. In his association with NelsonSoftwareSystems 
he has written almost all of the manuals for the programs in the Super 
"Color" Library. He does all his writing on a Color Computer, using— what 
else?— the Super "Color" Writer II version 3.0. 



the RAINBOW'S 

SIMULATION CONTEST 

Write a simulation program in the Rainbow's Simulation Contest. You will have the chance to 
win valuable prizes and to share your simulation with thousands of Color Computer, TDP-100 
and Dragon-32 owners worldwide. 

Your simulation can be about any subject— and can be either graphic or non-graphic. See 
examples of simulation programs printed in the Rainbow. 

A few of the prizes already offered . . . 

A New Epson FX-80 Printer JARB Software 

4K Buffer 

Connecting Cables Value $870 



Hardware Worth $150 Spectrum Projects 

Software Worth $75 Tom Mix Software 

Software Worth $75 Computer Island 

Any Program Custom Software Engineering 

RULES: All programs must beoriginal works, no "conversions." Entries must be postmarked by July 30 and becomethe property of Falsoft, Inc. 
publisher of ff?e Rainbow. Decision of the judges is final. Duplicate prizes will be awarded in the case of ties. Winning programs to be featured in a 
special Rainbow Simulation issue. Mark entries "Simulation Contest Editor" and send to the Rainbow, P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. 

April, 1983 the RAINBOW 59 





Shortly after I got my Color Compu- 
ter, I decided to convert a few programs 
to run on it. Iowa Lemonade is the most 
ambitious of my conversions. The idea 
and logic have been around for quite a 
while and one of the other computer 
manufacturers sends (or used to send) a 
version out on a demo disk with their 
disk drives. It was kind of cute, so I 
decided to develop one for the CoCo. 
Since a 16K cassette system was top of 
the line from Radio Shack at the time I 
started, the program is designed to fit in 
16K Extended Color BASIC. 

The graphics are all low-resolution. 
They are produced with the STRINGS 
statement or by concatenating CHR$ 
together to make strings that are 
PRINTed at the proper screen loca- 
tions. The only exception is the lightn- 
ing (lines 35 1 -362) which is POKEdinto 
screen locations read from DATA 
statements (in lines 365-366). 

The POKEs in lines 367 and 372 take 
care of inverse video blanks and punc- 
tuation marks. I discovered (and have 
since read elsewhere) that there is a dis- 
tinct visual difference between the black 
character that character code 32 produ- 
ces and the black characters that char- 
acter codes 128, 144, 160, 176, 192,208, 
224, and 240 produce. I also found that 
the only way to produce a character in 
the lower right corner of the display 
(PRINT* location 511) without having 
the screen scroll is to POKEthe approp- 
riate value into memory location 1535. 

In a 16K Color Computer, you must 
PCLEAR1 before CLOADing or typ- 
ing in the program, or you will run out 
of memory. I'm sorry for some of the 
lapses in programming style — some of 
the NEXTs with variable names, some 
without — some lines with lots of spaces 
to make them easier to read, a few with- 
out. 1 did try to leave enough comments 
so you get an idea of what's going on, 
and the PLA Kstrings all have longvar- 
iable names so you know what they are. 
If you want to save a bit of memory, 
there are over 700 spaces that can be 
taken out, lots of REM-arks, and the 
variable names beyond two characters 
can be shortened. 

I produced the whole thing on my 
black-and-white TV. Having since seen 
it on a color set, I think it turned out 
pretty well. 



60 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



The game itself? The computer does the bookkeeping 
while you and up to 29 friends (or classmates) run your own 
lemonade stand. It also takes care of the weather and a few 
other items. Each day, each player has to decide how many 
glasses of lemonade to make, how many signs to make to 
advertise, and what the selling price will be for that day. The 
sole goal is to be efficient at making money. It helps to keep 
records so you can see what has worked best for you. You 
can resume a game later, but you have to know what day 
number it was and how much money players had when they 
stopped (even though the computer may not allow it all). 
The gameends when someoneearnsan agreed uponamount 
or on an agreed upon day. 



Editor's Note: Simulation contest entrants should note that 
a computer simulation can be created for most anything, 
from a nuclear power plant to. ..well, a lemonade stand.) 




35 


02F5 


60 


07A4 


100 


0CC7 


145 


11FB 


186 


15D2 


227 


1986 


270 


1DB8 


315 


2197 


353 


258E 


END 


2947 



The listing: 



0 7 iowa lemonade 

1 CLEAR 450 

2 iowasong*="T3; pi ; 03; L16. ; G; A; B 
;04;L2;c;03;L8; a;L2;g;P8;04;L2;g 
;l8;e;l2;g;p8;l8. ;e;L8;g;L8. ;e;l 
8;G;L2;d;P8;L8. ;e;L8;g;L8. ;e;L8; 
g;L2;d;pi" 

3 9 INTRO 

4 CLS0 

5 FOR 1=1 TO 3 

6 FOR J=l TO 13 

7 READ CH 

8 IA*<I)=IA*<I)+CHR*<CH> 

9 NEXT J, I 

10 FOR 1=1 TO 3 

11 FOR J=l TO 28 

12 READ CH 

13 LE*<I)=LE*<I)+CHR*<CH> 

14 NEXT J, I 

15 RESTORE 

16 FOR LO=480 TO -96 STEP -32 

17 CLS0 

18 SOUND 204, 1 

19 IF L0=-32 THEN 24 

20 IF L0=-64 THEN 26 

21 IF L0=-96 THEN 29 



22 PRINT6L0+9, IA*<1>; 

23 IF LO=480 THEN GOSUB 45: NEXT 

24 PRINT6L0+41, IA*<2>; 

25 IF L0=448 THEN GOSUB 45: NEXT 

26 PR I NT6L0+73 , I A* ( 3 ) ; 

27 IF L0=416 THEN GOSUB 45: NEXT 

28 IF L0=384 THEN GOSUB 45: NEXT 

29 PRINT6LO+130, LE* ( 1 ) ; 

30 IF L0=352 THEN GOSUB 45: NEXT 

31 PRINT6L0+162, LE*<2>; 

32 IF LO=320 THEN GOSUB 45: NEXT 

33 PRINT6L0+194, LE*<3>; 

34 IF L0=128 THEN PLAY IOWASONG* 

35 NEXT 

36 FOR DE=1 TO 900: NEXT: GOTO 4 
6 

37 ' CHR* CODES FOR IOWA 

38 DATA 157,152,149,156,157,128, 

, 154, 149, 156, 157 
, 128, 149, 128, 149, 128, 
, 154, 149, 147, 151 
, 146, 149, 147, 151, 128, 
, 154, 149, 128, 149 

CODES FOR LEMONADE 
, 128, 128, 149, 156, 156, 
, 156, 154, 149, 156, 157, 
, 154, 149, 156, 157, 128, 
, 149, 156, 156 
, 128, 128, 149, 146, 128, 
, 128, 154, 149, 128, 149, 
, 154, 149, 147, 151, 128, 
, 149, 146, 128 
, 147, 146, 149, 147, 147, 
, 128, 154, 149, 147, 151, 
, 154, 149, 128, 149, 128, 
, 149, 147, 147 
TO 250: CLS0: RETURN 

46 DIM A(30) ,L(30) ,H(30) ,B(30) , 
S(30) ,P(30) ,G(30) 

47 P9=10 

48 S3=. 15 

49 S2=30 

50 A2=2.00 

51 C9=.5 

52 C2=l 

53 ' DEF MUSIC 

54 MONEYSONG$= " T3 ; 03 ; L8 ; G ; F ; G ; F ; 

L4;e;C" 

55 sunsong*="T4; 03; L4; B-; G; D; E-; 
g;b-;L2. ;04;d-;c;pi;P2" 

56 hotsong*="T3; 04; L4; E; c; Li ; e; l 
8;e;P8;L8. ;D;L16;C;L8. ;d;li6;e;l 
4;c;03;L2; a;L2. ;e;pi" 

57 cloudsong*= "T3; 04;L8; D; c+; L4; 
d;c;c;03;L8;b;L2. ; b;pi;P2" 

58 rainsong*="T2;03;L4;a;L8. ;a;l 
16; a;L8.b-;li6; a;L8. ;G;L16;F;L4. 
; A" 

59 BANKRUPTS "T2 ; 03 ;L8; a; L8. ;A;L 



154, 149, 128 

39 DATA 149 
154, 149, 128 

40 DATA 151 
155, 151, 147 

41 7 CHR* 

42 DATA 154 
128, 158, 157 
128, 159, 128 
158, 157, 146 

43 DATA 154 
128, 154, 149 
128, 154, 154 
154, 128, 154 

44 DATA 155 
128, 154, 149 
128, 154, 149 
155, 151, 152 

45 FOR DE=1 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 



8;e;L8. ;g;l2;a;P8;l8. ;g;l8; a;li6 
;ec;l4;02; a;ls;g;03;C" 

60 9 START OF GAME 

61 ' TITLE PAGE 

62 CLS 

63 PRINT "HI! WELCOME TO LEMONS 
VILLE, IA." 

64 PRINT "IN THIS SMALL TOWN, YO 
U ARE IN" 

65 PRINT "CHARGE OF RUNNING YOUR 
OWN" 

66 PRINT "LEMONADE STAND. YOU C 
AN COMPETE"; 

67 PRINT "WITH UP TO 30 OTHER PE 
OPLE, BUT" 

68 PRINT "HOW MUCH PROFIT YOU MA 
KE IS UP" 

69 PRINT "TO YOU (THE OTHER STAN 
DS' SALES" 

70 PRINT "WILL NOT AFFECT YOUR B 
US I NESS) . " 

71 PRINT: PRINT "IF YOU MAKE THE 
MOST MONEY , " 

72 PRINT "YOU'RE THE WINNER!": P 
RINT 

73 PRINTG416, "IS THIS A NEW GAM 
E <Y OR N) " ; : INPUT A* 

74 A*=LEFT*(A*, 1): IF A*<>"Y" AN 
D A*<>"N" THEN 62 

75 PRINTQ448, "HOW MANY PEOPLE A 



INSIM Instruction Simulator 
Simulates the complete 6809 instruction set. 
Use it to quickly debug assembly programs. 
Use it to find out how other programs work. 
Use it to find out how the basic roms work. 
Output to screen or printer. 

Includes commands to examine and change memory. 
Fven has a mini-disassembler 

16K STANDARD/ EXT ENDED 839.95 



COMPRESS Reduce basic program size. 
Removes spaces and comments, 

OP l6K 



S7.95 



I NTRST1 The interest calculator 
Calculates home mortgage payments or any 
loan payments. 

Calculates interest, total interest, total 
paid, amount due. 

Calculates how much to invest now to retire 
in style in ^0 years. 

This program will calculate future values, 
present values and much more! 

16K STANDARD 812.95 

DEPREC Calculate depreciation using: 
Strait line, production unit, working hours, 
declining balance, sum-of-the-years digits. 
16K EXTENDED 810.95 

B.C. ENGINEERING 

P.O. BOX 768 
MANCHESTER, MO. 630 1 1 

SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER. 
MO. RESIDENTS ADD 5.625% SALES TAX. 



RE PLAYING";: INPUT N* 

76 N=VAL(N*): IF N< 1 OR N>30 THE 
N 62 

77 FOR 1=1 TO N: B(I)=0: A(I)=A2 
: NEXT 

78 IF A*="N" THEN 115 

79 9 NEW BUSINESS 

80 CLS 

81 PRINT "TO MANAGE YOUR LEMONAD 
E STAND, " 

82 PRINT "YOU WILL NEED TO MAKE 
THESE" 

83 PRINT "DECISIONS EACH DAY:" 

84 PRINT: PRINT "(1) HOW MANY GLA 
SSES OF LEMONADE"; 

85 PRINT " TO MAKE FOR THE DA 
Y," 

86 PRINT "(2) HOW MANY ADVERT I SI 
NG SIGNS" 

87 PRINT " TO MAKE (SIGNS COS 
T 15 CENTS"; 

88 PRINT " EACH) , " 

89 PRINT "(3) WHAT PRICE TO CHAR 
GE FOR" 

90 PRINT " EACH GLASS." 

91 PRINT: PRINT "YOU WILL BEGIN W 
ITH *2.00 CASH" 

92 PRINT " (ASSETS) . " 

93 FS=0: GOSUB 367 

94 CLS 

95 PRINT "BECAUSE YOUR MOTHER GA 
VE YOU" 

96 PRINT "SOME SUGAR, YOUR COST 
TO MAKE" 

97 PRINT "LEMONADE IS TWO CENTS 
A GLASS" 

98 PRINT "(THIS MAY CHANGE IN TH 
E FUTURE) . " 

99 PRINT "YOUR EXPENSES ARE THE 
COST OF" 

100 PRINT "THE LEMONADE PLUS THE 
COST OF" 

101 PRINT "THE SIGNS. " 

102 PRINT: PRINT "YOUR PROFITS A 
RE THE DIFFERENCE" 

103 PRINT "BETWEEN THE INCOME FR 
OM SALES" 

104 PRINT "AND YOUR EXPENSES. " 

105 FS=0: GOSUB 367 

106 CLS: PRINT "THE NUMBER OF GL 
ASSES YOU SELL" 

107 PRINT "EACH DAY DEPENDS ON T 
HE PRICE" 

108 PRINT "YOU CHARGE AND ON THE 
NUMBER" 

109 PRINT "OF ADVERTISING SIGNS 
YOU USE. " 

110 PRINT: PRINT "KEEP TRACK OF 
YOUR ASSETS, " 

111 PRINT "BECAUSE YOU CAN'T SPE 



62 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Enter the Wild West Days as you try to carry gold across the 
desert in a stagecoach. Hot in pursuit are the James Gang and of 
course, Indians!! To make matters worse you are responsible for 
the safe journey of Annabelle, the judge's daughter. Hi-Res 
graphic screen plots your progress. Lots of fun surprises await 
you in this game -shootouts, kidnappings and more. Don't miss 
the fun! 

16 K Extended $19.95 



Stress Evaluator 

Assess your present level of stress and how it affects your 
potential for illness. Evaluate the amount of life change you can 
effectively handle in the future. The Stress Evaluator is a valuable 
tool for recognizing, measuring and managing stress. The 
program also provides a Coping Ability Test which shows your 
ability to handle stress in general. Providesgoal setting exercises 
and meditation graphic screens to help achieve stress-alleviating 
goals. All results output to printer. 

16K Extended $24.95 



Weather Watch 

If you really care about the weather, this program is for you. Three 
programs provide you with National Weather Service approved 
statistics in a monthly report format. Input of daily high and low 
temp, and rainfall outputs a report of monthly average temps, and 
range; high and low averages; high and low temp, for month; total 
rainfall; days rain > .1 in.; heating and cooling degree days; days 
high > 90; days low < 32; days low temp. < 32 and > 0; days low < 
0; day of highest range. Also retrieves a single day from data file 
for review. All data outputs to printer. Well documented. 
16K Extended $24.95 

Forecaster & Weather Watch (Disk) 

Forecast general weather conditions with 80% accuracy with this 
fun, simple to use program. Although not meant to replace 
National Weather Service forecasts, this program is informative 
and enjoyable to use. You can even create your own weather by 
setting the variables!! Provides general forecast including pre- 
cipitation probabilities. Includes Weather Watch program also all 
on one easy to use disk. 

32K Extended Disk $49.95 







r ■ 


VISA* 

■ 




- 



Sherlock Holmes/Agatha Christie fans-It's finally here — A murder 
mystery game for the 80-C! Mr. Goodbody has been killed in his 
mansion and you must solve the mystery. WHO committed the 
murder, WHERE did it occur and HOW was it done! Question 
suspects, find thesecret passage, and break the code to get clues. 
Hi-Res graphics enhances this excellent game. The computer 
records the clues you obtain on a clue inventory screen and also 
provides suspect descriptions at the touch of a finger. A fast, fun 
game that will sharpen your deductive skills. Every game is 
different! 

32K Extended $19.95 



AVAILABLE MAY 1 




HEART -LUNG -CIRCULATORY 
SYSTEMS 




Include $1.50 for handling for each program. 
Az. Residents add 6% Sales Tax. 
Quantity Discounts to Dealers. 

CIS subscribers contact through EMAIL 70435,754 



ROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 

651 N. Houghton Rd. 
!? ^rucson, AZ. 85748 
jj * 602-296-1 041 



ND MORE" 

112 PRINT "THAN YOU HAVE." 

113 GOSUB 371 

114 GOTO 138 

115 ' CONTINUE OLD GAME 

116 CLS: 1=0 

117 PRINT "HI! WELCOME BACK TO" 

118 PRINT " LEMONS V I LLE . LET'S C 
ONTUNUE" 

119 PRINT "YOUR LAST GAME WHERE 
YOU LEFT" 

120 PRINT "IT. DO YOU REMEMBER 
WHAT DAY" 

121 PRINT "NUMBER IT WAS"; 

122 INPUT A*: A=VAL(A*): PRINT: 
IF AO0 THEN 126 

123 A*=LEFT*(A*, 1) : IF A*="Y" TH 
EN PRINT "WHAT DAY WAS IT";: 1=1 
+l: GOTO 122 

124 IF A*="N" OR I>0 THEN 128 

125 PRINT "YES OR NO?": 1=1+1: G 
OTO 122 

126 IF A<1 OR A>99 OR AO INT (A) 
THEN 128 

127 D=A 

128 PRINT "OK - WE'LL START WITH 
DAY" D+l: PRINT 

129 FOR 1=1 TO N: PRINT 

130 PRINT "PLAYER" I "HOW MUCH M 
ONEY" 



131 PRINT "(ASSETS) DID YOU HAVE 



ii 



COMPUT€R 
BUSINESS FORMS 

Continuous forms, labels, paper, checks, 
invoices, statements— all with your 
imprint. Continuous letterhead with a 
perf so fine that you need a magnifying 
glass to tell it's a fan fold sheet. 
Matching envelopes. 

Regular letterhead, business forms and 
cards also. 

Send sample for quote. Send $3.00 
(refundable on first order) for our 
catalog. 

Catalog also includes computer 
furniture. 

DCSCAT PACSS, INC. 

P. O. Box 151 28 
Las Vegas, Nevada 891 14 



132 INPUT A*: A=VAL(A*): PRINT 

133 IF A<2 THEN PRINT "OK - WE'L 
L START YOU OUT WITH *2.00" : A 
=2: GOTO 135 

134 IF A>40 THEN PRINT "JUST TO 
BE FAIR, LET'S MAKE THAT *10 
.00": A=10 

135 A(I)=INT(A*100+.5)/100: NEXT 

136 PRINT: INPUT " ...READ 
Y TO BEGIN"; A* 

137 IF LEFT* (A*, 1)="N" THEN 79 

138 * WEATHER REPORT 

139 SC=RND<0) 

140 IF SCX. 6 THEN SC=2: GOTO 143 

141 IF SCX. 8 THEN SC=10: GOTO 14 
3 

142 SC=7 

143 IF D<3 THEN SC=2 

144 GOSUB 316 

145 CLS 

146 ' START OF NEW DAY 

147 D=D+1 

148 PRINT "ON DAY" D "THE COST 0 
F" 

149 PRINT "LEMONADE IS "; 

150 C=2: IF D>2 THEN C=4 

151 IF D>6 THEN C=5 

152 C1=C*.01 

153 PRINT USING "**.##"; CI 

154 Rl=l 

155 ' CURRENT EVENTS 

156 IF D<>3 THEN 158 

157 PRINT " (YOUR MOTHER QUIT GIV 
ING YOU FREE SUGAR)" 

158 IF D<>7 THEN 160 

159 PRINT "(THE PRICE OF LEMONS 
WENT UP) " 

160 * THINGS HAPPEN AFTER DAY 2 

161 IF D>2 THEN 271 

162 ' INPUT VALUES 

163 PRINT 

164 FOR 1=1 TO N 

165 G(I)=l: H(I)=0 

166 PRINT "STAND" I; TAB (16) "AS 
SETS ";: PRINT USING "**###.##"; 

A(I) 

167 PRINT 

168 IF B(I)=0 THEN 172 

169 PRINT "YOU'RE BANKRUPT! NO 
DECISIONS. " 

170 IF N=l AND A (IXC THEN 312 

171 GOTO 211 

172 PRINT "HOW MANY GLASSES OF L 
EMONADE DO YOU WANT TO MAKE"; 

173 INPUT L(I) 

174 IF L(I)<0 OR L(I)>1000 THEN 
176 

175 GOTO 178 



64 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



The PROFESSIONAL Keyboard 
See review in March '83 RAINBOW, page 20 
No soldering, cutting, or gluing required - plugs right in! 



$89.95 




The 

Color Computer 
Professional Keyboard, with 
full stroke, positive action keyswitches, 
provides a feel normally associated with more 
expensive microcomputers and terminals. The finely 
textured keycaps, gray and black with white lettering, nicely 
complement the Color Computer's sleek appearance. And, the keyboard's high quality construction 
assures years of reliable operation. A 90-day limited warranty is provided. The four function keys, 
occupying the extra positions in the keyboard matrix, are an added bonus. Whether with your own 
software, or with that from vendors who have specially adapted theirs, (such as Frank Hogg 
Laboratories FLEX), the function keys enhance the keyboard's utility. BASIC programming examples 
and assembly language driver listings are included. The keyboard is custom made for the Color 
Computer by Macrotron, an experienced manufacturer of computer components and peripherals. 
Consequently, installation is a simple plug-in operation, requiring no soldering or cutting 
whatsoever. The installation procedure is detailed in an illustrated user's manual, which is included 
but also available separately for $2.00 (refundable with purchase). Two versions of the keyboard 
are available, one for revision E and earlier Color Computers and the other for the revision F(also 
known as A or ET) Color and TDP-100 computers. Please specify which version you have when 
ordering, if possible. Otherwise, include the complete catalog number and serial number. 



Micronix Systems Corporation 

#7 Gibraltar Square 
St. Charles, MO 63301 
(314) 441-1694 

Terms: Prepaid check or money order, Mastercard or Visa. 
Shipping Charges: U.S. $2.00, Canada $4.00, COD $3.50 (No COD's to Canada). 



176 PRINT "LET'S BE REASONABLE. 
TRY AGAIN. 5 

177 GOTO 172 

178 IF L(I)OINT(L(I) > THEN 176 

179 IF L<I)*CK=A<I> THEN 187 

180 PRINT "YOU HAVE ONLY"; 

181 PRINT USING "**###.##"; A (I) 
■ 

9 

182 PRINT " IN CASH. " 

183 PRINT "TO MAKE"; L(I) "GLASS 
ES OF" 

184 PRINT "LEMONADE, YOU NEED"; 

185 PRINT USING "**###.##"; L<I) 
*Ci; : PRINT ". 11 

186 GOTO 172 

187 PRINT 

188 PRINT "HOW MANY SIGNS < " ; : PR 
INT USING "## "; S3*100; : PRINT " 
CENTS" 

189 PRINT "EACH) DO YOU WANT"; 

190 INPUT S(I) 

191 IF S(I) <0 OR S<I) >50 THEN 
193 

192 GOTO 195 

193 PRINT "BE REASONABLE. TRY A 
GAIN. " 

194 GOTO 187 

195 IF S(IX>INT<S<I) > THEN 193 

196 IF S<I)*S3<=A<I)-L<I)*C1 THE 



NOW a good used line printer 

CENTRONICS SO© 



13S character* pur lin« 
Sprocket feed - Adjustable width 
Dot Matrix 5X7 

Print rate 88 char- per second 
One 1 ine buffer 

H = 13-3/4" D = ai-a/3" 

W ■ 32" Weight = 98 lbs. 

CENTRONICS 588 (used) serial 600 
Baud, with 4 pin DIN plug $315. 00 

CENTRONICS 588 (used) parallel feed 
44 pin edge card $£75 - 00 

Al 1 prices F. 0. B. Henderson, Tx. 

Terrns : Cash, check or COD 

Tx- residents add 4% sales tax 

LEPDER SPLES CORPORATION 
P. 0. Box 1££C, Henderson, Tx. 75653 
Ph. £14-657-7800 after 6 PM 
Discounts available to CC Clubs and 
volume buyers. 



N 202 

197 PRINT 

198 PRINT "SORRY, YOU HAVE ONLY" 
■ 

9 

199 PRINT USING "**###.##"; A<I) 
-L<I)*C1 

200 PRINT "AFTER MAKING YOUR LEM 
ONADE- " 

201 GOTO 187 

202 PRINT: PRINT "WHAT PRICE ARE 
YOU CHARGING FOR" 

203 PRINT "FOR EACH GLASS (IN CE 
NTS) "; 

204 INPUT P(I) 

205 IF P(I)<0 OR P(I)>99 THEN 20 
7 

206 GOTO 209 

207 PR I NT: PR I NT "BE REASONABLE. 
TRY AGA IN." 

208 GOTO 202 

209 IF P(I)OINT(P(I) > THEN 207 

210 IF C5=l THEN 211 

211 PRINT: INPUT "WANT TO CHANGE 
ANYTHING"; A* 

212 IF LEFT* (A*, 1)="Y" THEN CLS: 
C5=l: GOTO 165 

213 CLS 

214 NEXT I 

215 C5=0: CLS 

216 IF SC=10 AND RND(0X.25 THEN 
296 

217 PRINT M LEMONS V I LLE FINANCI 
AL REPORT" 

218 PLAY MONEYSONG* 

219 ' CALCULATE PROFITS 

220 IF R2=2 THEN 292 

221 IF R3=3 THEN 301 

222 FOR 1=1 TO N 

223 IF A (1X0 THEN A < I ) =0 

224 IF R2=2 THEN 234 

225 IF P(I)>=P9 THEN 228 

226 N1=<P9-P<I> ) /P9*.8*S2+S2 

227 GOTO 229 

228 Nl=( <P9^2)*S2/P<I>^2> 

229 W=-S<I)*C9 

230 V=1-<EXP<W)*C2> 

231 N2=R1*<N1+<N1*V) J 

232 N2=INT<N2*G<I> > 

233 IF N2<=L<I) THEN 235 'SALE 
S >= PRODUCTION 

234 N2=L(I) 

235 M=N2*P<I>*.01 

236 E=S<I)*S3+L<I)*C1 

237 P1=M-E 'PROFIT 

238 A(I)=A(I)+P1 

239 IF H<I)=1 THEN 296 

240 IF I>1 THEN PRINT " LEMONSV 
I LLE FINANCIAL REPORT" 

241 PRINT 



66 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



JUST GOOD SOFTWARE 

DISK DOUBLE ENTRY - If you have spent hours trying to balance your Debits and Credits, this program is 
foryou! Designedforsmall business, club, and personal use. Enter transactions in a journal type format. 
Program will maintain current account balances, produce Trial Balance, Income, and Balance Sheet re- 
ports and complete Account Ledgers. Will handle up to 300 accounts including report headings and 
totals. Up to 1 400 average transactions on a diskette. Summary reports and four levels of subtotals 
available. REQUIRES 32K and a user understanding of standard double entry accounting con- 
cepts. - $44.95 in BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 

DISK DATA HANDLER - 64K - Designed to use the full 64K RAM, but may also be configured for 32K. Uses 
standard ROM's - No special operating system required! Allows you to design disk data files for your 
specific needs. You define a basic record of up to 1 4 fields and 246 characters. Provides fast selection 
and sorting based on any field or combination of fields in this record. Powerful on-screen input and 
update. User defined output of reports to screen, printer, or disk files which may be read by your BASIC 
programs for any computational or special formatting requirements. Printer reports allow headings, 
page breaks, and page numbering, and let you pass control codes to drive your printer's special 
features. Maximum number of recordsyou may workwith at one time will depend on RAM configuration 
and record size - 64K (32K) 1850 (500) - 21 char records, 179 (49) - 246 char records. An optional 
Extended record linked to the basic record may also be defined. The size of this Extended record is not a 
factor in determining maximum number of records. Will provide the growth capability needed for your 
increasingly sophisticated applications. $54.95 in BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 

DISK DATA HANDLER - 32 K only version - as above, but without report headings, page breaks, or printer 
control codes. $44.95 

DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - Puts you in charge of your schedule! Graphically displays any monthly calendar 
between 1 700 and 2099. You put in up to twelve 28 character memos per day - calendar shows where 
the memos are - call up of day shows details. Use for appointments and a log of past activity. Study the 
chronology of the American Revolution or note the day your mortgage will be paid off. Search capability 
allows you to list or print all memos between two specified dates or only ones meeting key word criteria. 
Date computation shows elapsed time between two dates i n days, weeks, months, and years. REQUIRES 
32K in BASIC. 



TAPE DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $16.95 
(max. 400 memos/tape file) 



DISK DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $19.95 
(over 4,000 memos/disk - max. 300 memos/month) 



MATH TUTOR - Five programs that go from math fact (+, -, X, /) drill to full addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
and division at four levels of difficulty. Provides a step by step approach with error correction and re- 
wards for good performance. - $13.95 in BASIC. 

SPELLING TEACHER - Up to 200 of their spelling words stored on tape or disk are presented in four lively 
study modes including a scrambled word game. - $1 2.95 in BASIC. 

ALPHA-DRAW - A subroutine designed to let you easily add characters to your graphic displays. You define 
X and Y coordinates and a string variable of one or more characters and Alpha-Draw will do the rest. 
Includes all keyboard characters. Comes with instructions for a true line numbered merge of tape files. 
Works great with the Screen Print program! - $8.95 in BASIC. 

GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM - Works in ALL PMODES and lets you shift screen image anywhere 
on the printed page. Relocatable code lets you use all of your 1 6K or 32K machine. Available for both 
Color Basic 1 .0 and 1.1. Use EXEC 41 1 75 tosee whichyou have and SPECIFY with order. In Machine Language, 

$7.95 - For TRS-80® LP-VII/VIII & DMP 100/200/400 (specify printer type) 

$9.95 - For Epson GRAFTRAX®, PROWRITER®, NEC® PC 8023A-C 
Microline® 82A/83A (with OKIGRAPH® I), Microline 84 

IDS-440/445, Paper Tiger® 460/560, Micro Prism® 480, Prism® 80/1 32 (with dot plotting) 
Micro Peripherals, Inc. 88G/99G 

(Trademarks of Tandy Corp., Epson America, Inc., C-ltoh, NEC America, Okidata Corp., Integral Data Systems, Inc.) 

ALL PROGRAMS require Extended Color Basic and aredelivered 
on cassette. All, except Tape Date-O-Base Calendar, are DISK 

System compatible. oUGGfcoI /UNo: 



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Include type, account number, expiration 
date, signature and phone number. 
Sorry' No COD's. 



Add $1 .00 per order for shipping. Florida 
residents add 5% sales tax. Return within 
two weeks if not completely satisfied. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

ALL LISTED 
PROGRAMS 



242 IF B(I)<>1 THEN 245 

243 PRINT "STAND" I "BANKRUPT": 
GOSUB 371 

244 GOTO 267 

245 PRINT " DAY" D TAB (22) "ST A 
ND" I: PRINT 

246 PRINT USING " #### "; N2; : P 
RINT "GLASSES SOLD" 

247 PRINT " *. ";: IF P(I)<10 THE 
N 248 ELSE PRINT USING "## " 5 P< 
I ) ; : GOTO 249 

248 print "0";: print using "# " 
5 p<i>; 

249 print "per glass" 

250 print tab (15) "income";: pri 
nt using "**####.##"; m 

251 print: print using " #### 
l(i);: print "glasses made" 

252 PRINT USING " #### S(i);: 
PRINT "SIGNS MADE" 

253 PRINT TAB (13) "EXPENSES";: P 
RINT USING "**####.##"; E 

254 PRINT: PRINT TAB (15) "PROFIT 

";: print using '•**####. ##'•; pi 

255 PRINT: PRINT TAB (15) "ASSETS 

";: print using '•**####. ##'•; a<i 

) 

256 GOSUB 371 

257 CLS 



258 IF A(I)>C/100 THEN 267 

259 PRINT "STAND" I 

260 PRINT " ... YOU DON'T HAVE E 
NOUGH MONEY"; 

261 PRINT "LEFT TO STAY IN BUSIN 
ESS. " 

262 PRINT "YOU'RE BANKRUPT!" 

263 PLAY BANKRUPT* 

264 B(I)=1 

265 GOSUB 371: CLS 

266 IF N=l AND B(l)=l THEN 312 

267 NEXT I 

268 Rl=l 

269 R2=0 

270 GOTO 138 

271 * RANDOM EVENTS 

272 IF SC=10 THEN 277 

273 IF SC=7 THEN 308 

274 IF RND(0X.25 THEN 283 

275 GOTO 163 

276 IF Xl=l THEN 163 

277 J=30+INT(RND(0)»5)*10 

278 print "there is a";:print us 
ing " ##"; j;: print "% chance of 

RAIN" 

279 Rl=l-J/100 

280 Xl=l 

281 GOTO 163 

282 IF X2=l THEN 163 

283 PRINT "THE STREET DEPT. IS W 
ORKING ON" 

284 PRINT "YOUR STREET AND THERE 
WILL BE" 

285 PRINT "NO TRAFFIC TODAY." 

286 IF RND(0X.5 THEN 289 

287 R2=2 

288 GOTO 290 

289 Rl». 1 

290 X2=l 

291 GOTO 163 

292 PRINT "THE STREET CREWS BOUG 
HT ALL YOUR"; 

293 PRINT "LEMONADE AT LUNCH TIM 
E ! " 

294 FS=l: GOSUB 367 

295 GOTO 222 

296 9 THUNDERSTORM 

297 X3=1IR3=0 

298 SC=5: GOSUB 316: CLS 

299 PRINT "WEATHER REPORT: A SE 
VERE" 

300 PRINT "THUNDERSTORM HIT LEMO 
NSVILLE" 

301 PRINT "TODAY JUST AS THE LEM 
ONADE" 

302 PRINT "STANDS WERE BEING SET 
UP. " 

303 PRINT "EVERYTHING WAS RUINED 
i ii 



jȣ ADVANCED MATH PROGRAMS 

lor 

ENGINEERS • PHYSICISTS • STUDENTS 

FUNCTION GRAPHING MODULE 16K EXT-S19 95 

* HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHS 

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' AUTO-SCALING OPTIMIZES GRAPH SIZE 
- FIND AND COMPDTE FUNCTION VALUES & 
ZEROS 

* INTERSECTION OF FUNCTIONS 

* COMPLETE MANUAL — PROGRAM ON TAPE 

CALCULUS MATH MODULE 32K EXT-S34.95 

* STARTS WITH THE GRAPHING MODULE 
' LOAD UP 9 FUNCTIONS AT ONCE 

* FIND AND COMPUTE MAXIMA & MINIMA 

* NUMERIC INTEGRATION & DIFFERENTIATION 
" COMPOSITE AREAS 

* HANDLES PIECEWISE CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 

* HARD COPIES OF DATA AND/OR GRAPH 

* COMPLETE MANUAL — PROGRAM ON TAPE 

/ CALCSOFT 

A / P.O. BOX 401 
VST. ANN, MO 63074 

CHECK OR MONEY ORDER — $1.00 for 

shipping 



68 the RAINBOW April, 1983 





AT LAST - REAL ARCADE ACTION 

Jusr plug In our adaptor (below) and use your ATARI* JOY5T1CK5, or for REAL 

ARCADE ACTION ...get one af ours! 
ByWICO® 



COMMAND CONTROL adaptor Rodla Shock* TRS80® Color Computer 1 7 95 
Use one or two joysticks - Adaptor needed for all joystick. 



COMMAND CONTROL joystick 

• Injection-molded modular construction and 6 Leaf type molded switdies 
— identical to the best commercial arcade models. 

• Two fire burton locotlons, activated by above-mounted slide switch 

• Extro-long 5' cord 



Joystick 15-9714 29 95 

• Extra-long arcade style 
bot handle grip rhot moves 
smoothly and easily Into all 
8 standard positions. 

• Low-profile, heavy-duty 
plastic base. 





Famous Red Doll™ 
Joystick 1 5-9730 34 95 

• Arcade-type red boll handle that moves 
smoothly and easily into all 8 standard 
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• Low-profile, heavy-duty plastic base. 





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Deluxe positive response fire button 
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TRIGA-COMMAN D JOY5T1CK5 
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POINTMASTER 1 7 95 ea/32 95 pr. 

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POINTMASTER PRO 28 95 ea./49 95 pr. 

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Pro/Writer Printer-851 0 A 



Printer 
Interface 
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LIST 

>495.00 

69.00 



SALE 

>439.95 

65.95 



PACKAGE 

Package 
>499.95 



V1SA/MC odd 3% 
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G insurance 
odd $10.00 



16K Color Computer w/DASIC - $289.00 

16K Color Computer w/Extended Color BASIC - $389.00 




SOFTWARE 

FROM SHELL 



DEATHSTAR "on adventure" 32k/ecb . H9.95 
a text adventure thofs different!! 
(See review in April Issue of Rainbow) 

SUD-HUNT "arcade type" 16k/ecb . . . . J 9.95 
(FREE in March Issue of Rainbow) 

STAR RAID "arcade type" 16k ecb . . . H8.95 
a lot of oction for 16k 

FEDERATION OOOTCAMP 16k ecb.... H8.95 
You've been drafted for 1 6 wks. 
of rugged training! con you 
become a "space cadet" ??? 

SONAR SEARCH "arcade type" 16/ecbM8.95 
remember bottleship?? you'll 
love this one! 1 /2 players 

EXTERMINATOR "orcadetype" 1 6k/ecb H 8.95 
not a "centipede type game" 
this Is original! destroy 
the insects with your can 
of "RAID" - lots of fun! 

SNOOPY G RED BARON "arcade type" H8.95 
1 6k/ecb - this one is a reol 
"dog fight" for 2 players only! 

LUNAR-lander "arcade type" 16k/ecb H5.95 
yep, another "lander" game but 
we think you'll like our version. 
Different each time with 4 levels 
of play! Greot Effects!! 

FROM TOM MIX 

DONKEY-KING "arcade type" 32K/ml >24.95 
by for the best "KONG" type 

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like the orcade-ASTOUNDING!! 

TAPE TO DISK "utility" 1 6k/ml H9.95 

load any tope to disk 
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THE FIXER "utility" 16k/ml H8.95 

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dump contents of disk to 
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DRIVE 0/1/2/3 $869. (dual case) 

WICO COCO TRACKBALL $69. 
WICO JOYSTICK $24.95 
16K CHIP SET $14.95 
64K CHIP SET (8J $64. 
JCAT AUTO/ANSWER MODEM $139. 



Since this ad was formatted in January 

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32: P 




304 FS=l:GOSUB 367 

305 FOR J-l TO N:G(J)-0:NEXT 

306 GOTO 222 

307 IF X4=l THEN 163 

308 X4=l 

309 PRINT "A HEAT WAVE IS PREDIC 
TED TODAY ! " 

310 Rl=2 

311 GOTO 163 

312 FOR 1=1 TO 2000: NEXT: CLS: 
PRINTQ256, "WOULD YOU LIKE TO PL 
AY AGAIN?" 

313 INPUT IN*: IN*=LEFT*(IN*, 1) : 
IF IN*="Y" THEN 47 

314 CLS 

315 END 

316 7 WEATHER DISPLAY 

317 CLS3 

318 PRINTQ416, STRING* (64, 143) 

319 PRINT@144,CHR*<128) ; "lemonad 
e";CHR*(128) ; 

320 PRINT@176,CHR*(128) ; "for";CH 
R*<128) ; "sale";CHR* (128) ; 

321 FOR LO=208 TO 272 STEP 32: P 
RINTQLO, CHR*(165);: NEXT 

322 FOR L0=217 TO 281 STEP 
RINTQLO, CHR*<170);: NEXT 

323 FOR LO-304 TO 400 STEP 
RINT6L0, STRING* (10, 128) ; : NEXT 

324 FOR L0=274 TO 278 STEP 2: PR 
INTQLO, CHR*(159);: NEXT 

325 PR I NTQ480, "WEATHER REPORT:"; 

326 IF SC=5 THEN 344 

327 PRINTG36, STRING* (5, 255) 

328 PRINTQ67, STRING* (7, 255) 

329 PRINT699, STRING* (7, 255) 

330 PRINTQ132, STRING* (5, 255) ; 

331 IF SC<>2 THEN 334 

332 PRINT6496, "SUNNY";: PLAY SU 
NSONG* 

333 RETURN 

334 IF SC<>7 THEN 337 

335 PRINTG496, "HOT AND DRY";: P 
LAY HOTSONG* 

336 RETURN 

337 PRINT651, STRING* ( 10, 207) ; 

338 PRINT682, STRING* ( 12, 207) ; 

339 PRINTQl 16, STRING* ( 1 1 , 207) ; 

340 PRINT6154, STRING* (4, 207) ; 

341 PRINT6186, STRING* (2, 207) ; 

342 PRINT6496, "CLOUDY & COOLER" 
; : PLAY CLOUDSONG* 

343 RETURN 

344 PRINTQ33, STRING* ( 13, 128) ; ST 
RING* (2, 175) ;STRING*(13, 128) ; 

345 PRINTQ67, STRING* ( 12, 128) ; ST 
RING* (3, 175) ; STRING* (12, 128) ; 

346 PRINTQ99, STRING* ( 1 1 , 128) ; ST 
RING* (6, 175) ; STRING* (11, 128) ; 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



347 PRINTQ133, STRING* (8, 128) ; 

348 PRINTQ154, STRING* (4, 128) ; 

349 PRINT© 167, STRING* (5, 128) ; 

350 PR I NTQ496 , " THUNDERSTORMS " ; : 
PLAY RAINSONG* 

351 FOR LO=l TO 2 

352 FOR DE=1 TO 123: READ J: NEX 
T 

FOR DE=1 TO 18 
READ I, J 
POKE I, J 

356 NEXT 

357 FOR DE=1 TO 40: NEXT 

358 FOR DE=1 TO 18 

359 READ I, J 

360 POKE I, J 

361 NEXT 



07, 1211, 175, 1406,207, 1244, 175, 12 
76, 175, 1309, 175, 1341, 175, 1373, 17 
5, 1406, 175 

367 PRINTQ480, "push c to cont 
inue ";: FOR QP=1527T01534: POK 
EQP,32:NEXT : POKE 1508,32: POKE 

1509,27: POKE 1511,29: POKE 151 
2,32: POKE 1515,32: P0KE1524,46: 

POKE 1525, 46: POKE 1526, 46: POKE1 



368 IN*=INKEY*: IF 1N*<>"C" THEN 



363 NEXT LO 

364 RETURN 

365 DATA 1160,207,1192,207,1225, 
207, 1258,207, 1291,207, 1323,207, 1 
356, 207, 1 160, 128, 1389, 207, 1 192, 1 
28, 1422, 207, 1225, 175, 1258, 175, 12 
91 , 175, 1323, 175, 1356, 175, 1389, 17 
5, 1422, 143 

366 DATA 1145,207,1178,207,1211, 
207, 1244,207, 1276,207, 1309,207, 1 
145, 128, 1341,207, 1178, 128, 1373,2 



369 IF FS=1 THEN CLS:PRINT " LE 
MONSVILLE FINANCIAL REPORT" ELSE 

RETURN 

370 FS=0: RETURN 

371 ' 

372 PR I NTQ480 , "push c to cont 
inue e to en";: POKE 1508,32: 

POKE 1509,27: POKE 1511,29: POK 
E 1512,32: POKE 1515,32: POKE 15 
24,44: POKE 1525,32: POKE 1526,2 
7: POKE 1528,29: POKE 1529,32: P 
OKE 1532,32: POKE 1535,4 

373 IN*=INKEY*: DE=RND (-TIMER) 

374 IF IN*="E" THEN 312 

375 IF IN*="C" THEN RETURN 

376 GOTO 373 





® 



Prism Software 



Dultr inquiries tmkomt 
Quality color computer software 
All Software on tape only 
Al puna raovlre 16 Kraft 



ARCADE GAMES 



★ By Spectral Associates * 

GHOST GOBBLER $26.95 ROBOT BATTLE $26.95 

ALCATRAZ II $11.95 PLANET INVASION $26.95 

GALAX ATT AX $26.95 COSMIC INVADERS $26.95 

SPACE WAR $26.95 SPACE RACE $26.95 

WIZARD ™ E $23 " 95 DEFENSE 326 95 

★ By Mark Data Products ★ 

BLACK SANCTUM $28.95 ASTRO-BLAST $30.95 
CAVE HUNTER $28.95 CALIXTO ISLAND $28.95 
BERSERK $30.95 SPACE RAIDERS $30.95 

★ By Computerware ★ 

COLOR PAC ATTACK $30.95 STARSHIP r 
DOODLEBUG $30.95 CHAMELEON $30.95 

RAIL RUNNER $30.95 STORM $30.95 



CHOPPER RESCUE 
LAS VEGAS 
THE ALIEN 



(Extended BASIC) 
(Extended BASIC) 



$13.95 
$11.95 

$13.95 



RAIDERS "By Prism Software" In this adventure you must 
deal with voodoo curses, alligators, ancient traps and hostile 
natives. This adventure begins in the confusion of a large city 
and ends (maybetoosoon if you're not careful) in a dangerous, 
dense jungle in South America. 

(Extended BASIC) $16.95 



4 




OOOO *Bylntracolor* 

COLORPEDE $35.95 

★ By Tom Mix Software ★ 

O DONKEY KING $30.95 



8 




^^^^^^ 



Prism Software 

779 Queen St., 
Box 1 360, Kincardine, 
Ontario, Canada. NOG 2G0 
Tel:(51 9)396-8224 




requires 32 K 



Add 5°o lor shipping 
No CO D. 

VISA or Mastercard accepted 
Ontario residents add 7% sales tax. 



2-3 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 71 



Software Review... 

Catch 'Em Can Be Catching— 
Especially For The Young 

Ever try juggling more than two balls over your head at 
the same time? (Hasn't everybody?) That's the kind of 
feeling you get while playing Catch Em the first few times 
through, except that you're trying to keep up with 16 objects 
wave after wave after wave... 

The game, which requires 16K — no Extended BASIC, is 
deceptively easy through the first five waves, as you 
maneuver your joystick frantically back and forth catching 
the missiles in a barrel. But, as you gain in confidence, you 
also tend to be lackadaisical — and that's when you get in 
trouble! Splat, the missile hits the bottom of the screen, and 
the sound effects, combined with the flashing lights, shock 
you back into reality. 

The assortment of objects in Catch Em includes a crazy 
collection of thimbles, rockets, flying saucers, Thai fighters, 
balls, even a Flying I! 

You are given three opportunities to catch them and, if 
successful, you are rewarded with extra barrels. Your 
running score is displayed at the upper lefthand side of the 
screen. 

If you are not an immediate success, simply pressing the 
"R" key enables you to sharpen your skills with a new game. 

While grownups may want to go on to something "more 
challenging" (especially if they are continually frustrated), 
the youngsters will love Catch Em. For teaching them hand- 
to-eye coordination, or dexterity with the joystick, there's 
no better way than with Catch Em. 

(Aardvark-80, 2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Mi 
48088, $19.95 on tape) —Charles Springer 



TRS-80 COLOR BASIC 

by BOB ALBRECHT 

This entertaining self -instructional book is packed with 
games, experiments, scores of intriguing challenges, and 
activities related to fantasy role-playing games. The 
ideal introductory aid for kids, parents and teachers 
using the Color Computer. 

John Wiley & Sons $9.95 
605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158 



TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

by DON INMAN 

Explore the creative and imaginative blending of computers 
and color. This exciting book will enable you to explore 
all the graphics capabilities of Extended Color BASIC. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 
11480 Sunset Hills Rd„ Reston, VA 22090 




l I V^«J 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS 

FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

by DON INMAN and KURT INMAN 

This book is specific to the TRS-80 Color Computer with 
applications using sound and graphics to illustrate how an 
assembler can be used to perform feats that would be quite 
difficult, if not impossible in the BASIC language. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 



DYMAX, P.O. 310, MENLO PARK,CA 94025 

Dymax orders must be prepaid via check, money order, Visa 
or Mastercard. Sorry, no Purchase Orders or COD orders. 
Please add $2.00 shipping and handling. California residents 
add 6% sales tax. ffl^ft 

AAlNiOW 

liattfKiie. 

MIL 



Software Review . . . 

Doubleback: New 4K Game 
Is Challenging, Fun 

One day in early March, a package which piqued my 
curiosity arrived at the Prospect offices of the Rainbow. My 
sixth sense told me there was something inside of extra- 
ordinary interest. The red and white label told me it was 
from Radio Shack. 

Thumbing through the colorful catalogs, slick, hard- 
bound documentation folders, ROM Paks and tapes, I 
sought to lay hold of that quantity I knew (or maybe just 
hoped) was there. Most of the stuff I had seen before — Color 
SCRIPSIT, Color Disk Spectaculator, Bustout — all good 
programs, too, but where was IT? That bon d' Co Co? An 
instant later I would learn that I was but a handful of 
Sytrofoam pellets away from the answer. 

There it was. Doubleback! 

Doubleback? Could it be? It was a brand new release from 
Radio Shack, but right there on page one of the documenta- 
tion booklet it said all the system it required was 4K RAM 
and joysticks. Not 16K, not 32K, no Extended Color 
BASIC— just 4K. 

Of course, you have to play Doubleback before you can 
really appreciate its economy of programming. It is a thor- 
oughly absorbing — even addictive — game with very nice 
graphics, well-done sound effects that add to the fun without 
getting in the way, a challenging scoring system, and a 
concept that is unique, bizarre and non-violent. It's a great 
game for kids, if the little things can ever wrestle control 
from the clutches of their parents. Fortunately for my 
daughter Laura, two can play the game as well as one, or her 
mother, who may be the world's first Doubleback junkie, 
would never give her a chance to experience more than the 
vicarious, second-hand joy that belongs to the spectator. 

Just what is it that makes this small program such great 
fun? Good question. A part of the answer, I feel, lies in the 
greater sense of control you have over the field of play. 
That's just a guess. It might be the residual trail that you 
trace with your joystick, or the mysterious suddenness with 
which the mystical objects materialize in the field, or the 
progression of difficulty as your score mounts. Whatever it 
is, it is a real quantity. 

To play Doubleback, you patrol the area by moving the 
joystick to trace a colorful, fading contrail on the screen. As 
an assortment of objects pops into view, you attempt to 
circle them, making a complete loop with your trail before it 
fades. Catching two or more objects in your loop derives 
bonus points for your score. 

Your turn is suddenly terminated when you collide with 
an object you're trying to circle, or another which might 
have just popped into your path. Certain objects, like spi- 
ders, move on the screen; others appear only after you have 
reached various threshhold point levels. If you have done so 
well as to have offended the program master, you will 
encounter something to slow you down — skulls. Beginning 
with one and increasing in number up to 10, the skulls 
appear. They have no point value, they're only there as 
obstacles to keep you from circling your quarry and to bring 
your turn to an abrupt halt as you run into them. And, 
although I haven't encountered it, a warning in the docu- 
mentation booklet which comes boxed with this ROM Pak 
states that after 10 skulls you must beware of the unex- 
pected. The context of the word "unexpected" makes me 
very curious, as the game Doubleback is itself a composite of 
unexpected elements. Doubleback is a 4K gem. 
(Available at Radio Shack, Cat. No. 26-3091, $24.95) 

—Courtney Noe 



72 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



GRAPHICS 



Make This Handy Reusable Graphics Grid 



By T. Gray 



Planning and plotting graphics, whether on the 80C or 
another computer, is a time-consuming process requiring a 
number of sketches. Here are some ideas for making this 
programming step a bit easier. 

The most obvious thing to do is to have the PRINT @ 
locations and graphics grid (pages 277-278 in the Color 
Basic Manual) photocopied. A hundred of these will last a 
fair while and will provide for many a program. Since such 

photocopying appears to violate copyright laws, I'm sur- 
prised that Radio Shack doesn't supply these grids in news- 
print pads. 

An elegant solution is to get one of those "magic slates" — 
the kind where lifting the transparent cover erases the image. 
From a stationary store, graphic arts supply house, or 
teachers'store, get a couple of non-washable felt tippensfor 
writing on acetate (transparencies for overhead projectors). 
Use the felt pens to draw your PRINT @ or graphics grid 
onto theacetatecover of the "magic slate. "This will give you 



a quickly erasable practice sheet for sketching graphics, 
centering titles or instructions, etc. 

A third suggestion is to buy a set of washable acetate felt 
pens in the eight colors of your 80C. You can use these in 
either of two ways. If you like, you can have an acetate 
transparency of your grids made (any office with a modern 
photocopier can do this; or try a printing or photocopying 
film). You can then sketch in copy or full-color graphics, 
and erase them with a damp paper towel. An alternative 
method is to simply tape a clear acetate sheet (readily avail- 
able at graphics firms, or as page protectors or photo album 
inserts at drug stores) over the appropriate grid in your 
manual. The image can be easily moved to different loca- 
tions on the grid without the need for redrawing. Complete 
or partial erasure is as simple as a wipe with the damp towel. 

Any of these suggestions can help keep you from erasing 
holes in the grids in your manual! 



EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 
For the Color Computer 
and TOP 100 



SOFTWARE 



3424 College N,E. 
Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 
(616) 364-4791 



SEARCH-A-WORD This Program generates a word search puzzle to our 
specifications. You specify the size of the puzzle and the number of 



words that it is to hide within the puzzle. 16K or 32K Ext. Basic. 
TAPE $17.95 FLEX VERSION $27.95 



CLOCK-With the ever increasing use of digital clocks, more and more 
young people are unpracticed in the use of the "ANALOG" clocks. You 
remember those, the ones with the hands. This program will attempt to 
teach the relationship between the two types of clocks. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC S14.95 

SPELLING TEST is designed to give a standard oral spelling test using 
the audio track of the computer's tape recorder to dictate test words and 
sample sentences. Student responses are typed on the keyboard and 
checked by the computer. Results are displayed on the screen and (if 
connected) on a printer. REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

MATH DRILL is a program designed to help children to practice addi- 
tion, subtraction, multiplication, and division skills on the COLOR COM- 
PUTER. It has several features that make its use particularly attractive. 

•Up to 6 students may use the program at the same time. 

•Answers for addition, subtraction and multiplication are entered 
from right to left, just as they are written on paper. 

•Commas may be included in the answers. 

•Partial products for the multiplication problems may be com- 
puted on the screen. 

•Division answers that have a remainder are entered as a whole 
number followed by the letter "R" and the remainder. 
•There are ten, user modifiable, skill levels. 

•A "SMILEY FACE" is used for motivation and reward. Its size in- 
creases relative to the skill level. 

•Skill levels automatically adjust to the student's ability. 
•A timer measures the time used to answer each problem and the 
total time used for a series of problems. 

•After a problem has been answered incorrectly the correct answer 
appears under (above in division) the incorrect answer. 

REQUIRES 16K EX1 BASIC $19.95 

WORD DRILL is designed to give a multiple choice vocabulary quiz. 
Words and def initionsare entered into the program from the keyboard or 
from a tape file. The computer displays a randomly chosen definition 
and eight word choices. The- student must enter his response before a 
built In timer reaches zero. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 



EDUCATIONAL PACKAGE - SPELLING TEST - 

WORD DRILL - MATH DRILL - ESTIMATE — 
ALL FOR — WSJ 




ESTIMATE is a program designed to help children to practice estimating 
the answers to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division 
problems on the COLOR COMPUTER. It has many features that make its 
use particularly attractive: 

•Up to 5 students may use the program at the same time. 

•There are 5, user modifiable, skill levels. 

•The acceptable percent error may be changed as a student's skill 
improves. 

•A timer measures the number of seconds used to answer each 
problem and the total time used for a series of problems. 

•If a problem has been answered incorrectly, the student is told the 
percent error and asked to try again. 

• If a problem is answered incorrectly a second time, the student is 
told the correct answer and the range of acceptable answers is 
displayed. 

•A report is given at the end of each set of problems that includes the 
number of problems done, the number of problems answered cor- 
rectly on the first try and the averaoe- percent error. 

•The (BREAK) key has been disabled so that a child will not in- 
advertently stop the program from running. 

16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

TEACHERS' DATABASE is a program designed to allow a teacher to 
keep a computerized file of information about his/her students. There 
are many features that make this program particularly attractive. 

• Information on as many as 100 students (or more) may be in the 
computer at one time. 

• Each student may have as many as 20 (or more) individual 
items of data in his/her record. 

• The program will run from cassette or disk. 

• Cassette and disk files are completely compatable. 

• The program is menu driven. 

• Records may be easily changed, deleted, combined or 
added. 

• Information about students may be numerical or text. 

• Records may be quickly alphabetized. 

• Records may be sorted by various criteria. 

• Records may be reordered (ranked) based on test scores or 
other data. 

• Data displayed during a sort may be printed on a printer or 
saved on disk or cassette as a new file. 

• A full statistical analysis of data may be done and sent to the 
printer. 

• Student test scores may be weighted. 

32K EXT BASIC TAPE $39.95 DISC $42.95 



• ADD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING • TOP ROYALTIES PAID • 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX • LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 73 




As a professional management consultant, I use the CoCo 
as a tool in my work nearly every day that I am not on the 
road — and even then, I wish I had it with me. One of the 
most useful software packages available is Spectaculator. I 
have the ROM cartridge, but I understand that the disk is 
even more versatile. 

In order to use Spectaculator efficiently, I found that it is 
best to set up a few "shells" (pre-designed data displays). I 
find that by creating "user friendly" output displays (either 
on screen or printed) I have been able to sell my concepts 
and analysis much easier. 

Included below are three shells that have been the most 
useful. They are a budget layout, a travel estimator and an 
expense report. These are presented as examples, and you 
will want to modify these applications to your own needs. 

BUDGET MODEL 

The budget shell presented in Figure 1 (one page of a 30- 
column budget) is used to estimate projects and model 
alternative budgeting approaches. It saved one client nearly 
$15 million! To use it, one simply loads the shell from a 

Figure 1 



##LABOR*# 



TASK 
ROTE TIME 



TfiSK 



TfiSK 



TOTAL 



COST TIME 



COST TIME 



COST TIME 



COST 



8 
O 

0 

0 

a 

a 
a 
a 



a 

A 

? 
? 

a 

I 

a 
a 

a 
0 



e 



a 
a 
a 
a 
e 
a 



0 
e 
0 
c 
0 
0 
e 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 



TOTAL WAGES 
FRINGE 0 30.00* 
TOT COMPENSATION 
OVERHEAD 9 40* 
TOT COMP. ft OVHD 



•DIRECT CHARGES* 


RATE 


# COST 


# COST 


f 


COST 


I 


COST 






1 


» 






0 








a 


a 






0 








a 


a 






a 








a 


0 






a 








o 


a 
a 














a 






; 








0 


a 














a 


a 






a 








a 


a 






a 








e 


a 






a 








a 


a 


a 




0 








a 


a 


0 




0 








a 


a 


a 




a 





TOTAL DIRECT CHG 
TOTAL PRIME COST 
GftA 9 13* 
TOTAL COSTS 
FIXED FEE 
TOTAL CftFF 



cassette using the LO "load" command. Next, using the ET 
"enter text" command, enter the title of the budget on the 
top and list the direct labor and direct charge items in the 
spaces in column 1. If more space is needed, the IR "insert 
row" command does this quite nicely. Next, one may either 
use the existing task titles or modify them to suit the 
particular budget. I frequently change them to months of the 
year. 

The next step is to use the EN "enter number" command 
to enter the rates and times for each labor item. On direct 
charges, I frequently wish to enter amounts directly and set 
the rate at 1.00. 

SETTING UP THE BUDGET SHELL (12 task/month 
budget) 



ENTER 

Set Column Widths 
CW 
1, 16 

Set Lines and Text 
ET 

(see shell) 



COMMENT 

Enter "column width" command 
Allows 16 letters in column 1 

Enter "enter text" command 
Enter lines or other characters to give 
the desired appearance. Note that 
Column 2 is "rate" Col. 3 is time and 
Col. 4 is cost. This pattern continues 
to repeat itself for the remaining 
months or tasks. Note that Cols. 17 
and 18 are an interim total (see 
formula below). 

The dash (minus sign) is used to 
suppress unwanted calculations. In 
the sample shell, for example, they 
are used to suppress time being 
multiplied by fringe benefits. Any 
non-numeric character will do. 



Enter Column 
Formula 

CF 

(set cursor on 
Column number 
and enter formula 
listed) 

COL. Formula 



Enter "column formula" command 



74 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



4 IC2*C3 Calculates the Cost of task I by 

multiplying the rate by the time of 
task I. (Uses the integer value) 

6 IC2*C5 
8 IC2*C7 
10 IC2*C9 
12 IC2*CII 
14 IC2*CI3 

16 IC2*CI5 

17 IC3+C5+C7+ 
C9+CI2+CI3+CI5 

18 IC2*C17 
20 IC2*C19 
22 IC2*C21 
24 IC2*C23 
26 IC2*C25 

28 IC2*C27 

29 IC17+C19+ This sums up the interim total and 
C21+C23+C25+C27 subsequent data. 

30 IC2*29 



This is needed to calculate an interim 
total due to the limit on formula 
length. 



50 IR48+49 

51 IR50*0.I0 

52 IR50+R5I 

Tips On Use 



Calculate total costs 
Calculates profit or fee (10%) 
Calculates total cost plus fixed fee 



After entering data delete unused columns and rows. The 
formula will be automatically adjusted. It reduces 
calculation time and makes a better looking printout. If you 
want the left hand stub printed on each page, simply delete 
the already printed columns after printing each page. 

Zeroes are entered under each time and # designation on 
this and the other budget shells. This serves two functions. 
The first is to assure the SUM command will work. A gap 
(no entry) causes this command to not function properly. 
The second function is to provide a pointer on where to enter 
data if the column heads are not visible. 

TRAVEL ESTIMATOR 

The travel estimator (See Figure 2) is a very simple yet handy 
shell. To use it I enter the trip plan using the ET "enter text" 
command — for example: "Boston-NY." Then using the EN 
"enter number" command I enter the number of trips, the 
estimated number of ground transportation and perdiem 
required. 

I wanted this to fit on one page so I substantially modified 
the standard column widths. 

Figure 2 



25 ISUMRI0 



26 IR25*0.30 

27 IR25+26 

28 IR27*0.40 

29 IR27+28 
47 ISUMR33 



48 IR29+R47 



49 IR48*0.I5 



Total wages adds all wages from the 
beginning of labor (Row 10) and 
gives the integer value. 

Calculates the fringe rate (30%) 

Calculates total compensation 

Calculates overhead rate (40%) 

Calculates total compensation 

Totals all direct charges from row 33 
down 

Adds labor and direct for total prime 
cost 

Calculates G & A (15%) 



TRI P PLAN 



AIR TRAVEL 



GROUND TRANS 



NQ RATE 



COST NO RATE COST 



0 
0 

e 
0 

0 

0 
0 
0 
B 



e 
a 
0 
0 

0 

? 

ft 
{ 



PERDIEM 

NO RATE 

I 0 
t 0 

1 0 

1 A 
1 A 

1 0 

1 0 

] ? 

] 0 

i & 



TOTAL 
TRAVEL 
COST COST 



TOTAL 



SETTING UP THE TRAVEL ESTIMATOR SHELL 
ENTER COMMENT 



Set Column Widths 




cw 



Enter "column width" command 



Figure 3 



I, 20 
2,4 
3,4 
4,9 
5,4 
6,4 
7,9 
8,4 
9,4 
10,8 

II, 7 

Set Lines and Text 
ET 

(see shell) 



Sets each column width 



Enter "enter text" command 
Note that the dashes (minus signs) at 
the bottom of the Number and rate 
columns are used to surpress data. 



Set Column Form- 
ulas 

CF 

(set cursor on 
column number 
and enter formula 
listed) 

COL. Formula 
4 C2*C3 
7 C5*C6 

10 C8*C9 

11 C4+C7+CI0 

Enter Row Form- 
ula 

21 SUMRIO 



Enter "column formula" command 



Calculate air travel costs 
Calculate ground trans, costs 
Calculate perdiem costs 
Calculates total travel costs 



Provides total by mode of travel and 
grand total costs 

EXPENSE REPORT 

When traveling I often am working for different clients or 
on different projects. This requires a detailed expense report 
allowing trips or charges to be separately charged. To do this 
I use the expense report shell presented in Figure 3. In order 
to keep up with the paper work 1 keep a weekly summary of 
expenses and save it on tape. 1 keep adding to it until theend 
of the month, print it out and submit it (for once without 
math errors — much to my accountant's delight). 



EDUCATIONAL TAPES for your CoCo 
"Extended Basic" 



SPELLER'S TAPE - Spelling words are selected In random 
order - one program contains the states, the other you place 
your own words In - IDEAL FOR THE CLASSROOM. 

(Sound & graphlca) 

MATH I - Addition & subtraction from single digit to three digit 
you decide - complete documentation - easily altered 

MATH II - Addition up to four digit, four numbers & up to five 
digit subtraction. 

Coming - MATH III DIVISION MATH IV MUTIPLICATION 



$14.95 
Written by a teacher 
for teachers 



Educational Programming Service 
1145 S. Park St. 
Shawano, Wl 64166 



EXPENSE 

♦DOTE* **««EXPENSE ITEM 



DETAILED EXPENSE REPORT 
FOR THE PERIOD 
TO 



CHARGE TO THE FOLLOWING ACCOUNTS 

NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER TOTAL 



B 


a 


a 




ft 


B 


& 


a 


ft 


0 


B 


a 


a 


1 


ft 


A 


a 


a 




ft 


ft 


I 


a 


0 


0 


ft 


a 


0 


a 




0 


a 


0 


a 


0 


a 


a 


^ 


a 


0 


a 


a 


a 


0 


0 


a 




a 


■ 


0 


a 




a 


a 


0 


a 


a 


a 


a 


— 

0 


a 


0 


a 


e 4 


0 


a 


a 




a 


0 


a 


1 


a 


0 


a 


a 


ft 




0 


a 


a 


? 


0 


0 


a 


a 




0 


0 


e 


a 


ft 


0 


a 


a 


a 


ft 


0 


a 


a 


ft 


a 


a 


a 


0 


ft 


a 


a 


a 


a 


ft 


a 


a 


a 




ft 


a 


0 


a 


l 


0 


a 


a 


a 


a 


0 


a 


a 


a 


a 


0 


0 


0 


a 


a 


ft 


0 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


0 


a 


a 




a 


a 


& 


a 




a 


0 


a 


a 




0 


0 


a 


a 




0 


e 


a 


a 




0 


a 


■ 


a 




i 


a 




a 


e 




a 


* 


0 


0 


0 


a 


a 


0 


■ 


? 


a 




0 



♦TOTAL* 



SETTING UP THE EXPENSE REPORT SHELL 



ENTER 

Set Column Width 

CW 
2,27 

Set Lines and Text 
ET 

(see shell) 

Enter Column 
Formula 



COMMENTS 



Enter "column width" command 
Allows maximum space for item 
description 



Enter "enter text" command 
Enter titles, lines and information to 
suit individual needs. 



CF 

(set cursor on 
column number 
and enter formula 
listed) 

Col. Formula 

8 SUMC3 

Enter Row Form- 
ula 

RF 

52 SUMRI2 



Enter "column formula" command 



Enter "row formula" command 

Sums all expense items from the 
beginning (Row 1 2) 



If the entry of these shells is more difficult than you may 
wish to attempt, the author will provide them to you on tape. 
Send $15 to Robert W. Ericson, 5 Carriage Dr., Acton MA 
01720. He is also available to set up special shell 
requirements for your personal needs. Please contact him 
directly. ^ 



76 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Utility . . . 

Keytones Provides 
Auditory Feedback 

By James Provost 

Keytones is designed to produce a tone through the TV 
speaker every time a key is pressed. 

The frequency of the tone may be changed using the 
SOUND command (e.g. SOUND 225,1), but the duration 
of the tone is set at one. 

The user simply keys in the program, runs it and beeps 
away. This program is useful when punching in a set of 
numbers. The tone represents positive feedback for each 
keypress. This method eliminates the need to visually check 
the screen each time a number is entered. It thus becomes an 
added utility. 

(At Rainbow, we like the effectcreated when you'vetyped 
in a line and then hit shift and left arrow key.) 

My thanks to Kenneth G. DeahPs article in the February 
1983 issue of the Rainbow. His reference to the RAM Hook 
sparked my inspiration. 
The listing: 

1 REM KEYTONES 

2 REM BY JAMES PROVOST 
10 FOR X=1536 TO 1551 
20 READ A: POKE X,A 

30 NEXT 

40 POKE 360, 6: POKE 361,00 

50 DATA 52, 86, 198, 1, 134, 4, 

61, 253, 0, 141 

60 DATA 189, 169, 86, 53, 86, 57 



Hacker's Helper. . . 

Put Your Numbers 
In A Row 

Mike Hall, of Hartland, WI, offers this programming 
quickie for anyone who needs to right justify numbers (that 
is, line them up properly for adding, subtracting, etc.). As 
written, it is for adding two numbers, but once the simple 
principle is learned, it can be readily adapted to whatever 
your individual needs may require. Just expand the program 
by providing for more number inputs (similar to lines 10 and 
20) and move the celebrated "bottom line," created in line 
120, farther down the screen by using, say, PRINT@ 106 or 
PRINT@ 138, etc. (increments of 32 — or, refer to a 
PRINT@ worksheet). 
The listing: 

1 'RIGHT JUSTIFIED NUMBERS 

5 'USE NUMBERS LESS THAN 100000 

10 CLS: INPUT "FIRST NUMBER"; A 

20 INPUT "SECOND NUMBER" ;B 

30 CLS: C=A: X=10:GOSUB60 

40 C=B: X=42:GOSUB60 

50 FOR Z= 1 TO 999: NEXT: GOTO 10 

60 P=X 

70 IF C< 10000 THEN P^X+1 
80 IF C<1000 THEN P=X+2 
90 IF C<100 THEN P=X+3 
100 IF C<10 THEN P=X+4 

110 print@p,c:print@41, "+"; 

120 PRINT674, " " 

130 RETURN 



TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER* 

-16K Extended Basic, Menu-Driven, Well-Documented, Easily-Modified. 
-For either cassette or diskette systems (Be sure to specify). 
-Place an order of at least $40 and get one extra of your choice free. 
-Orders shipped on cassette - Add $5 for shipment on diskette. 



-FURST- 

Data Element Dictionary driven File Update and 
Retrieval SysTem. Create and maintain files according 
to your specifications. Ideas for applications in- 
cluded $25 

-MAILING LABELS- WE? 

Generate and maintain mailing label records. Selective- 
ly print desired quantities. Can keep several label files if 
desired. Designed for Printer VII, easily modified. $20 



-REPORT WRITER- 

Used in conjunction with FURST to selectively format 
reports on your printer. Includes headings and total 
capabilities $15 



AAINBOW 





-EXERCISE PLANNER- 

Build and maintain complete exercise schedule for 
regular and/or weight programs. Display guides you 
through daily-calculated routines. Print complete 
schedule if desired $15 

-DISK DIRECTORY PRINT- 

For diskette users only. Get hard copy of disk directories on your printer for easy use and reference. Only $5 



RAINBOW 

tin 



Send check or money order to: 

LAND SYSTEMS 

MSA* P.O. Box 232 

Bellbrook, Ohio 45305 



r t i 

[MasterCard! 

LiZJ 



*TRS-80 and COLOR COMPUTER 
are Trademarks of Tandy Corp. 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 77 



COMMUNICATIONS 



Data Communications 
And Your Color Computer 

By Harry Hardy 



In today's world, more and more microprocessor owners 
have a need to go on-line to another computer, usually a 
large mainframe or some of the more powerful minis. 
Maybe they want toaccessa local bulletin board, orevendo 
their shopping and banking at home. There are numerous 
on-line applications, therefore, it is beyond the scope of this 
article to cover them. What I hope to do is explain the 
function of the hardware and software required to get 
on-line. 




"More than likely, you will connect 
your modem to your Color Computer 
and a telephone. This method allows 
you to use what is called the switched 
network. In other words, after you are 
all connected, you use your telephone 
to dial the remote DTE just like a regu- 
lar phone call " 




On-line simply means establishing a direct connection 
between our terminal, i.e., Color Computer, and another 
terminal or computer. 

Throughout this article, I shall refer to both our Color 
Computer and the remote device, whether it be another 
computer or a terminal, as Data Terminal Equipment 
(DTE). 

I'm sure that if you have checked into the requirements of 
accessing some of the local bulletin boards you have found 
out that you need a modem and a special software package 
to run on your Color Computer. Maybe you already have 
these items. Whether or not that is the case, maybe you don't 
understand how modems work. 

Let's take a look at the modem. Why do we need this? Up 
until the last few years, in order to get two or more pieces of 
data terminal equipment (DTE) to communicate with each 
other you had to use your local telephone company's 
switching equipment. 

This equipment was designed to transmit voice or analog 
signals whether across the street or across country. These 
facilities work great for this; however, your DTE puts out 
what is known as a digital signal. This digital signal is 
incompatible with the existing telephone voice network. 

That's where our modem comes in. Modem is an acronym 
for MOdulator, DEModulator. Different types of modems 
can do different things; however, since we are primarily 
interested in what it does for our Color Computer let's just 
say that its primary function is to take your Color 
Computer's digital signal, and convert it to ananalogsignal 



for transmission over the telephone lines. At the other end, 
there is also a modem that takes the analog signal and 
converts it back to the digital signal for the remote DTE, the 
same as our modem will do for any replies from the remote 
DTE. 

There are a couple of ways to connectyour modem to the 
telephone network. More than likely, you willconnectyour 
modem to your Color Computer and a telephone. This 
method allows you to use what is called the switched 
network. I n other words, after you are all connected, you use 
your telephone to dial the remote DTE just like a regular 
phone call. Once the remote DTE answers your call you hear 
a high pitched tone, then you may or may not, depending on 
your modem, simply hang up the telephone and proceed to 
log on to the remote system. 

The other method is to have a "dedicated" telephone line 
between your system and the remote system. This kind of 
connection eliminates the requirement of a telephone to dial 
the remote system, but the hardware to use such a 
connection is expensive. I only mention using dedicated 
lines for those who are unfamiliar with data 
communications so you will know that there are other 
means to establish a direct connection between DTEs. No 
matter which method is used to connect these devices, what 
we now have established is what is known as a data link. 

Once we have established our data link there is a certain 
line discipline or protocol that has to be followed in order to 
communicate with the remote DTE. This is where that 
special software package you have to buy comes in. 

The type of transmission we will be doing between our 
Color Computer and the remote DTE is called 
asynchronous transmission. Asynchronous transmission is 
a type of protocol and is defined as "that type of 
transmission that sends one character at a time and lacks 
any continuous synchronous agreement between the 
DTEs." Normally, this character consists of 8 to 1 1 bits. 

Let's back up a minute for those newcomers who may not 
know what a bit is. A bit is the smallest unit of information 
within a computer system. This unit of information is an 
electrical charge that is either off (0 state) or on (1 state). A 
sequence of seven 0s and 1 s are used to make up a character 
in the Color Computer. These seven bits are referred to as 
ASCII codes. For example, the ASCII code for the letter 
"A" within your computer is represented by the seven bits 
1000001. Please note that not all computers use ASCII 
codes internally to represent characters; however, we will 
not get into those type of codes here. 

Just a bit of history on ASCII. This code was first 
developed in 1963. The letters stand for "the American 
National Standard Code for Information Interchange,"also 
called ANSCII. The version modified in 1967 is called 
ASCII II and is the same code that is referred to as ASCII 
today. 

Our Color Computer uses ASCII code to represent all of 



78 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



its letters, numbers and special characters. 

I heard that. Someone out there said, "Hey, I thought my 
computerstored things inhexadecimalor Hex." Let's take a 
moment to look at that. I don't want anyone to become 
confused between ASCII and Hex. 

Hexadecimal is a numbering system with a base of 16 
characters as opposed to 10 in the more familiar decimal 
system. The numbers0-9and the letters A-Fare used. Eight 
bits, or one byte as it is called, makes up a hexadecimal 
character. Your Color Computer uses the Hex numbers for 
computations and addressing, etc. 

Now suppose we PEEKedat a byte of memory and found 
the Hex character there was a 4 1 . Remember I said each byte 
was made up of 8 bits, well, if you were to look at each bit, 
that Hex 41 would look like this: 01000001. That value, if 
converted to a decimal, would be 65. Now, suppose we 
wanted to print this byte of data, what do you think would 
come out on the printer? Give that personin Baltimorean A, 
for that's exactly what would print, the letter A. Now, 
suppose that location we PEEKed at had a Hex FF in it, and 
we tried to print it, what do you think would happen?That's 
right, nothing would print. Why? Well, that Hex FF, 
although it is a valid Hex character, is an invalid ASCII 
character. So, in essence, we can say that your computer 
stores ASCII characters as if they were Hexcharacters. (For 
a more in-depth look at Hex, see the article, "All You 
Wanted To Know About Hex," in this issue.) 

But wait a minute, I thought thatan ASCII character only 
had seven bits, what about that 0 in bit 8 (counting from 
right to left). Remember, I said that to transmit a single 
seven-bit ASCII character usually 8 to 1 1 bits would be sent 
out over the telephone line. Well, let's see if we can 
understand why. 

I will use for our example the printer driver built into our 
Color Computer. This routine is similar to an output routine 
found in software packages required to communicate with a 
remote DTE. Depending on which version of Color BASIC 
you have, the number of bits sent to the printer is either 9 or 
10. I will be using version 1.1 since it most resembles an 
asynchronous output driver. Our Color Computer will be 
using an asynchronous line discipline when we go on-line 
with a remote DTE. Well, this protocol uses framing bits 
called start and stop bits to surround each character. The 
start bit will precede the character and the stop bit will 
follow the character. Remember, asynchronous protocol is 
"that type of protocol that sends one character at a time, and 
lacks any continuous synchronous agreement between 
DTEs." 

Without getting into the electronics of our modem, let's 
just say that these start and stop bits are used to help get the 
receive modem synchronized with the sending modem. This 
synchronization is required so that bits are not lost before 
we get them. 

These bits are used by the protocol also as framing 
characters. How do they get there and what happens to 
them? Simply put, they are added by the sending end and 
removed by the receiving end. Let's see why. Look at our 
version 1 . 1 printer driver again. This driver sends eight data 
bits preceded by one start bit and followed by one stop bit. 
The start bit is a 0 bit while the stop bit is a 1 . Imagine now 
that our printer is a remote DTE. When the remote DTE 
sees the 0 bit or start bit it knows that the next eight bits 
represent a character that it has to act upon. It will then 
assemble these eight bits and, in our case, print it. The stop 
bit will indicate to our remote DTE the end of the character 
and start monitoring the line for another start bit. (Although 



our driver is sending only one stop bit, two stop bits may be 
more common. In either case, each end will have to be aware 
of the actual number.) 

You may be wondering why even send a stop bit. Why 
can't we just start looking for anotherstart bit, or even better 
yet just assemble each group of eight bits for a character? 
Well, we just can't arbitrarily assemble bits and expect to get 
meaningful data. Suppose our DTE just sent the data bits. 
During this transmission, let's also suppose, for whatever 
reason, that one of these bits gets destroyed. We would now 
start assembling bits from two characters that could cause 
some strange results. 

Now you know what those extra bits are, and what their 
purposes are; well, almost all of them. Remember, I said our 
driver sends eight data bits, not seven. We know that seven 
bits make up an ASCII character. What is that extra bit for? 

That eighth bit serves another purpose in asynchronous 
protocol. That purpose is a parity bit. This parity bit is a 
method of error detection. There are three terms used for 
this parity checking; even parity, odd parity, and no parity. 
The method chosen is up to the designer of the DTE, 
therefore, our communications software must know which 
method is used at the remote end. Let's take a look at these 
methods. 

First, even parity. It has been my experience that this 
method is the most common one used. (I know as soon as 
you read this the first terminal you will see will use one of the 
other two; Murphy's law is sure to get me.) 

What your software does using the even parity method is 
this: it counts the seven data bits of the ASCII character. If 
the total number of 1 bits is an odd number it sets the eighth 
bit to a 1 , thus ensuring an even number of 1 bits. If that total 
is even, it leaves the eighth bit a 0. Look at our letter A again. 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 
ABOUT SUBSCRIPTIONS 

The "May" issue of the Rainbow will carry a cover date of 
June this year. As far as the cover dates are concerned, there 
will be no May issue. 

The reason for this is simply a cosmetic one. We would 
prefer, and think that you would prefer, to get a particular 
issue of the Rainbow in advance of the month which appears 
on the cover rather than in the middle of the month which 
appears on the cover. 

What this means is that your June issue will arrive before 
the first of June, and that our big July Anniversary issue will 
be in your hands before the first of July. 

There will be no "break" in magazines and absolutely no 
change in the number of issues you will receive. This will be 
obvious from next month's (not this month's) subscription 
label — which will show an expiration date one month later 
than the date shown this month. 

You will still get 1 2 issues of the Rainbow with a year's 
subscription. All the change means is that your subscription 
will "expire" one month later than usual. And, you will still 
get a copy of the Rainbow every single month at about the 
same time. The only difference is that it will appear that you 
get your subscription copy "earlier" than before. 

So, you will not be "missing" an issue in May. But the 
issue which arrives in May will carry a June cover date. 
That's actually the only difference — a cosmetic one which 
will make it appear that you get your Rainbow earlier than 
before. 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 79 



The bits f or an A are 1 00000 1 . 1 f we add these up, you can see 
that we have an even number of I bits, theref ore, that eighth 
bit would remain a 0; however, the letter C consists of these 
seven bits, 100001 1. Since these bits will add up to an odd 
number of I bits, we would set that eighth bit to I giving us 
an even number of I bits. 

Odd parity works just the opposite. If the total number of 
I bits is odd, then bit 8 is left 0. If the total is even, the eighth 
bit is set to a 1. 

The last one, no parity, means just that. The eighth bit is 
left as is, 0. This is the method our 1 . 1 printer driver uses. 
After all, it is unlikely, given the short distance a bit has to 
travel from your printer port to the printer, that it would 
ever get destroyed. 

What about the receiving station? It does basically the 
same thing. It counts the seven data bits and, according to 
which method is being used, checks the eighth bit 
accordingly. If it's not what it should be, then we know that 
there was some type of transmission error. As with our 
printer driver, chances are the communications software 
you buy will use the no parity method of transmission. You 
will see why in a moment. The only way you will know if 
there was an error is by one of the oldest methods used. The 
receiving end simply echoes the character it received back to 
the sending end — you. If the character displayed 
corresponds to what you entered, all is okay; if not, you 
know immediately that something went wrong. You can 
probably see the problems with this method. You don't 
know if the bad character was due to an error at your end at 
transmission time, or at the other end, when the character 
was echoed back. 

While parity checking adds to the ability of our system to 
detect errors, it also has its flaws. Consider, if you will, that 
some type of error caused two bits to change value, i.e., 
01000001 was changed to 01000010, we still have a valid 
parity check and even a valid character, but it is not the 
character sent. That 01000001 is the letter A, which is what 
was sent; however, the 01000010 is the letter B. 

What to do about these transmission errors? Well, all the 
software that I'm familiar with, at least for the Color 
Computer, doesn't do anything with these types of errors 
except try to display them on your screen whether they are 
responses from the remote DTE or your transmission being 
echoed back. The reason is simple. The more sophisticated 
error detection methods, especially error recovery, are 
costly to implement and, for the most part — I realize there 
may be exceptions — are not implemented in asynchronous 
protocols for the smaller micros. 

But, really, do we need that type of sophistication when all 
we want to do is access our local bulletin boards? I don't 
think so. Besides, although it may sound like transmission 
errors are a real big problem f or you, they probably are not. 
If you are having some problems, chances are it could be in 
the telephone connection you have. After all, using the 
switched network for data transmission is not the best 
method, but, in our case, we probably would rather sacrifice 
quality for cost. If errors are a continuing problem for you, it 
may be in your modem. Maybe you should have it checked. 

Next month, I will cover ingreaterdetail some of the error 
detection and recovery methods that can be used, and 
introduce you to some new terms describing three modes of 
data transmission. 

I hope you now have a better understanding of what that 
modem and the special software package you must buy, or 
have bought, does for you and your Color Computer. 



Software Review . . . 

A Tine' Weather Program 
Is Weather Watch 

Do you want to track weather trends in your area, or 
study how the temperature affects energy use in your house? 
Weather Watch can help. 1 1 won't predict the weather, or tell 
you when to wear your galoshes, but it does provide a 
convenient file of weather data. 

Weather Watch is a package of three programs. The first, 
Daily Data Entry, allows you to enter each day's high and 
low temperatures, and amount of precipitation, and store it 
on tape. The third program, Daily Entry View, allows you to 
review one day's data previously stored. 

The second program, Monthly Summary, is the heart of 
the package. It reads a month's worth of data from tape, and 
summarizes it in every imaginable way. It repeats the data 
you entered, and gives the daily average, range, and number 
of heating and cooling degree days. Heating degree days are 
the number of degrees the daily average is below 65 degrees. 
Cooling degree days use degrees above 65. These provide a 
good indication of how much you will have to heat or cool 
your house. The program then summarizes monthly totals, 
maximums and minimums. The report is nicely formatted, 
in tabular form, and it is easy to find the data your want. 
You may either display the monthly report on your screen, 
or send it to your printer. 

While the program perf orms all the f unctions described in 
the manual, it has some flaws. The most serious is with data 
formats. In programs I and 3, dates must be typed in exactly 
this format: JUL/03/82. If you type JUL/3/82 instead, the 
program will be unable to find your data later. While a 
regular user would quickly get used to the required f ormat, a 
single error could ruin an entire month's data tape. There's 
really no excuse for not adding the few lines of code neces- 
sary to verify the format. 

In addition to this design flaw, there's an actual bug in the 
second program. If you store two months' data on one tape, 
the program will read the first month's data, regardless of 
which you request. The distributors have assured me this 
bug is being corrected. 

If you study the weather seriously, then you might need a 
more sophisticated analysis than this package provides. But 
if you want to record and summarize daily temperature and 
precipitation data and the other functions provided here, 
this program is "fine." 

(Petrocci FreeLance Associates, 651 N. Houghton Rd., Tuc- 
son, AZ 85748, $24.95) 

—David Finkel 



$14.95 ML Character Set for XPVXI - Real DtMnfan 
^Transparent to user - Specify 16K or 32K 
-ex: Varying Style* Available 

$9.95 MLDISK - Printa H. L. prog. start, Stop, transfer 
>*viT~aa from disk, Extended Basic req'd 

$14.95 Uatnmnt Plight Simxlator -high perf jet, 

easy to use, JOT A GAME, Extended Basic req'd 
Also, for PC-1 m^ktretr $9.95 

WE HAVE GDLCRPECE by Intraoolorl 

KRT SoftV^re <813>-321-2840 
P.O. Box 41395 . St. Petersburg, FL 33743 . 



80 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Hardware Review . . . 

Super-Pro Keyboard Is An 
Excellent Hardware Offering 

The newest entry in the replacement keyboard sweep- 
stakes is a fine piece of hardware f rom Mark Data Products 
called the Super-Pro. It is aptly named — it is super and it is 
professional, too. 

We confess that we always liked the CoCo keyboard. 
Although the numbers of people who said something less 
than complementary about the "flat" and "shallow" CoCo 
keyboard were and are many in number, it always appealed 
to us. In fact, we were able to do some of the fastest typing 
we ever did with the CoCo keyboard. 

But in all honesty, we like the Super- Pro j ust as well. And, 
we are certain, touch-typists will think it a vast improve- 
ment. Here at the Rainbow, those who do touch-type like it 
a whole lot better. 

For our part, the feel is excellent and the keys have the 
proper amount of "give" that make you feel like you are 
getting some feedback from what you put in — but not too 
much. The keytops are gently sculptured and the letters are 
large size. Yes, throughly professional. 

The Super-Pro appears to be very much like (if not 
exactly like) the Model I keyboard — but there is no 
"bounce." We tried to make it bounce, but were not success- 
ful. The keys are all the same color, which may or may not be 
an advantage for you. 

What is an advantage is that the keyboard layout is 
exactly the same as that of the CoCo. So, asidefroma better 
feel and more dressed up appearance, you do not have to 
"relearn"the keyboard. A decided bonus. 

The Super-Pro isadvertisedas a kit, and, in the most strict 
sense of the word, that's what it is. There is a little more to 
the installation than just plugging it it, but not a great deal 
more. 

You install Super-Pro by opening the CoCo case, unplug- 
ging the old keyboard connector, and positioning the Super- 
Pro into the empty space. The keyboard has four little 
adhesive pads which can be used to stick it firmly to the 
bottom of the case. 

The worst part of this whole process was dealing with a 
plastic post that sticks up in the middle of the bottom of the 
CoCo's case. The post has to be partly cut off — for which 
you need some sharp cutters. The Super-Pro instructions 
say that the post is not needed, even if you decide to put the 
old keyboard back in. We were able to confirm that. 

A couple of plastic washers are also supplied to even up a 
dressing panel which "fills in" the space between the CoCo 
case and the Super-Pro when you put your computer back 
together. Dealing with this dressing panel looked like it was 
going to be complicated, but was not. 

All in all, installation took about 15 minutes. And that 
included the time it took to cut off the top of the little post. 
No big deal, not even for someone who is not especially 
handy. Having the dressing panel provided a bonus in that it 
made it easier to plug the Super-Pro into the computer. 

Some Color Computers — those built after about 
October, 1982 — and all TDP-IOCTs require a special adapter 
to mate the keyboard with the computer. This is an easy 
procedure to follow, however, and would add about a min- 
ute to the installation time. 

The Super- Pro has been with us for several weeks now. 
Our touch-typists like it a great deal and those of us who 
hunt and peck also find it to be an improvement over the 
CoCo keyboard. 



In sum, Super-Pro is an excellent and high quality key- 
board that answers a real need voiced by many CoCo 
owners. If you are searching for a replacement keyboard, it 
is an excellent buy. 

(Mark Data Products, 24001 Alicia Parkway, No. 226, Mis- 
sion Viejo, CA 92691, $69.95; adapter, if needed, $4.98 
additional) 

—Lawrence C. Falk 



PoEDIT License... 

BASIC Shakespeare 

By H. Allen Curtis 

Oh what a rogue AND peasant SAVE am I. 

All the world's a SCREEN. 

The PLAYs the thing. 

TO GO OR NOT TO GO. 

My kingDIM FOR a MOTOR. 

Ah, that's the RUN. 

SomeSTRINGS rotten in REMark. 

SOUND AND fury, SGNifying nothing. 

Is that a JOYSTK which I see beFORe me? 

AUDIO, AUDIO, whereFORe art thou, AUDIO? 

RESET damn spot. 

DIMension is the better part of VAL OR. 
All's DEL that ENDs DEL. 
Good-night, sweet PRINTs. 



CANADIANS! 
GET YOUR SOFTWARE 
HERE IN CANADA 

No Hassle, No Duty and 
No Converting the Dollar 



Computerware 

P AC ATTACK II $29.95 

DOODLE BUG $29.95 

RAIL RUNNER $26.95 

SPACE AMBUSH $26.95 

EL DIABLERO $24.95 

Tom Mix Software 

DONKEY KING $29.95 

KATERPILLAR ATTACK $29.95 

WAR KINGS $24.95 

Spectral Associates 

GALAX ATTAX $26.95 

SPACE WAR $26.95 

GHOST GOBBLER $26.95 



Order Now or write for our 
complete software list. 

TABBY ENTERPRISES 

Box 1353 R.R. 1 
Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, 
B5A 4A5 
(902) 649-2965 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 81 



UTILITY 



HI^HIH^^DHHiC 




Paging Down Memory Lane: 

It May Look Like Garbage, But It's Gold 

By Richard Krankoski 



This program gives you a look at memory in real time. It's 
original purpose was to look for command words in a 
machine language Adventure game, but it became a visual 
aid tool used with some CoCo tutorials and "how-it-works" 
articles. By selecting blocks of memory or "pages," you can 
see the buffer areas in low RAM as they are accessed and 
changed, the operation of the stack, the structure of the 
program itself, and the execution or results of many BASIC 
instructions. The program can also be used to examine text 
or graphics of other programs. 

The program works by controlling the video screen dis- 
play offset registers and the display mode registers in the 
SAM and VDG hardware. Lines 160 through 210 control 
the display offset in increments of 512 bytes. Lines 310 
through 360 control the display mode, either text or one of 
the PMODEs in color set 1 . 




"In the text mode, the screen displays 
the contents of 512 consecutive bytes 
of memory in the form of 16 lines by 32 
characters per line. " 




The following control keys are used: 

UP ARROW/ DOWN ARROW— increments or decre- 
ments the display offset by 512 bytes. 
"T"— selects the TEXT mode. 

"O" through "4"— select the graphics PMODE in color 
set I. 

"N" — displays a message to let you specify a particular 
page number. 

"#" — displays the message screen that tells what part of 
memory is being displayed. 

"E" — executes any instructions that you add between 
lines 400 and 500. 

Note that we are defining a page as being 5 1 2 consecutive 
bytes of memory. Page 0 consists of memory locations 0 
through 511. Page 1 consists of memory locations 512 
through 1023. We are referencing the page size to the text 
mode, so don't confuse the pages with those mentioned in 
articles about graphics. In the text mode, the screen displays 
the contents of 5 1 2 consecutive bytes of memory in the form 
of 16 lines by 32 characters per line. 

What you will see displayed in the text mode is a screen 



code equivalent of the value stored in a memory location. 
This is not always the same as the ASCII character. For 
example, a byte value of zero will be displayed as an inverse 
video @ sign. You can find a list of the differences on the 
Nanos System reference card for the Color Computer. To 
see the difference, run the short program in Listing I. 

The reference card is handy for determining the value of 
an address while looking at the screen. Be careful of getting a 
byte value in the buffer areas by PEEKing the address, 
because you are looking at the memory value in real time. If 
you change the running conditions, you may change that 
address's value. 

When agraphics mode is selected, the amount of memory 
displayed increases to 1 536 bytes for PMODE 0, 3072 bytes 
for PMODES I and 2, and 6144 bytes for PMODES 3 and 
4. H owever, the memory page reference will still refer to the 
text screen page size of 512 bytes, and the arrow keys will 
still change the offset by 5 1 2 bytes. Therefore, in a graphics 
mode, the message screen page number will refer to the first 
5 1 2 bytes of memory being displayed and not to a graphics 
page number. 

Listing I: 

SCREEN CODE VS ASCII CODE 

1 CLS 

2 FOR V=0 TO 255 

3 PRINT @ 32, V 

4 POKE 1066,V 

5 PRINT @ 46, CHR$(V) 

6 FOR T=I TO 300: NEXT T 

7 NEXT V 

If you want to follow along on a short guided tour 
through the program and through RAM it will be helpful to 
start from the same point. Before loading in the program, 
turn your computer of f and then back on so that we have the 
same initial conditions and a "clean" memory. Also, if you 
have more than 16K of RAM, do a CLEAR 200, &H3FF.F 
in the direct mode. This will bring the stack and CLE A Red 
area to the top of the 16K space. Certain hardware configu- 
rations such as my piggyback RAMS on a REV D board 
will not display an offset above address S3FFF. 

Load and RUN the program. The prompt will ask for a 
page number from 0 to 3 1 . (Remember, my display limit is 
1 6K whichis 32 pages.) ENTER0. Thenext screen tellsyou 
what part of memory will be displayed. Press ENTER. You 
now see the first 5 1 2 bytes of RAM and can see that there is a 
lot of activity. CoCo is doing a lot more than checking for a 
keypress in the PAGER program. 

If you loaded in from tape you will see the program name 
near the bottom-right of the screen. Trying hitting some 



82 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



keys other than control keys and you will find a keyboard 
buffer. To find the two byte timer, press the shift and "(g)" 
keys at the same time. Everything else comes to a stop. You 
may wanttogetyourcopy of Rainbow, August 1982, which 
has a list and description of some of the addresses in this part 
of memory. It shows the timer addresses as (HEX) 1 12 and 
1 13. Press one of the keys repeatedly and watch addresses 
(HEX) 24 and 26 (decimal 36 and 38) near the start of the 
second line. These locations appear to be some kind of 
keystroke counters. 

If you hit the "E" key you will execute the SOUND 
instruction in line 410. Before moving on, BREAK the 
program and add line 420. 

420 Q=JOYSTK(0):GOTO420 

RUN and go back to pageO, then hit the "E"key. By moving 
the joysticks you will find the four addresses that store the 
joystick pot values. To go on, you will have to BREA K and 
delete line 420, then RUN. 

Go back to page 0, then hit the up arrow. This puts you on 
page 1 , a quieter workspace with a lot of bytesdisplaying the 
inverse video @ sign which is a value of zero. In the center of 
this area is a large I / O buffer. You will probably see a part of 
the program or a part of your keyboard entries here. A few 
addresses have nonzero values that change under certain 
conditions but I haven't found a source that identifies them 
(hex 729-732 and hex 981-991). 

Hit the up arrow again — just one time. It looks like a 
normal text screen. Everything is there except the cursor. 
That's because we moved up to page 2 which is the memory 



area normally used to display text, except that we are not in 
a normal text mode. Therefore, no cursor. We have changed 
the display offset registers but have not executed a text 
screen function such as INPUT A$. What you see is what- 
ever was last displayed in a normal BASIC text mode which 
puts its data into memory locations hex 400 to hex 5FF. If 
you have followed along faithfully the top of the screen 
should say, "PAGE 0 OF TEXT MODE" along with page 
zero's address data. Now, hit the "#" key and the proper data 
is put on the screen along with the cursor. Since you are 
displaying page 2, when you hit ENTER there will be no 
changeexceptthat the cursor will goaway because weareat 
the INKEYS part of our program. 

If you have seen a machine language program that puts a 
display on the screen while it continues to load, you can now 
see how it is accomplished. The program begins loading 
somewhere below page two and the values loaded into 
addresses hex 400 to 5FF are those required to put a 
SET/ RESET graphics block picture together. 

Hit the up arrow again. You will see bands of @ signs and 
bands of orange. A solid orange block results from a byte 
value of 255. This data is put into memory during the 
start-up routine when the computer is turned on. Every 128 
bytes you will see one or two bytes with values other than 0 
or 255. I don't know what their significance is. They are 
different values from one power up to another. 

Now is as good a time as any to introduce the graphics 
modes, so try the "0" through "4" keys. Hit the 4 key to get 
into PMODE 4, then SHIFT #. The screen now tells you 
what part of memory is being displayed. It should say 



WORD PROCESSOR 

for only $9.95! What? 



Yes! That's right, because we want to create some excitement with an intro- 
ductory offer you can't pass up — a professional quality full screen oriented word 
processor that would be a bargain at $50. It's a good one too. Take a look at what 
you get. 

WORDMASTER's FULL SCREEN-ORIENTED EDITOR allowsyou to move the 
cursoranywhere in your text using the up, down, right and left arrows. Do this one 
character at a time or by line or page. Insert, delete or replace text at the cursor 
watching your changes as you make them. Delete or move blocks of text from one 
place to another. Merge in textfrom other files. 

AUTOMATIC CARRIAGE RETURN after last complete word on each line; with 
this and AUTOMATIC PAGE FEED you don't have to worry about where a line or 
page ends — just type! 

WORDMASTER runs on a 1 6K, 32K, or 64K COLOR COMPUTER, taking ad- 
vantage of all available memory. Use it with DISK OR CASSETTE based systems. 
EXTENDED BASIC IS NOT REQUIRED. 

EASY TO UNDERSTAND MANUAL has you comfortably using WORDMAS- 
TER in minutes. It is a USER-FRIENDLY MENU-DRIVEN SYSTEM with single 
lettercommands. Check any command without having to refer to the manual with 
theHELPSCREEN. 

10 PROGRAMMABLE FUNCTION KEYS allow easy insertion of frequently 
used words or phrases. 



WORKS WITH ANY PRINTER. Take full advantage of your printer's special 
functions such as variable character size and emphasized characters with EASY 
EMBEDDING OF PRINTER CONTROL CODES. 

GLOBAL SEARCH function lets you quickly locate specific strings for replace- 
ment or deletion. 

Customize form letters or standard text with WORDMASTER's EMBEDDED 
PAUSE feature. Jusf'f ill in the blanks" when your printer pauses for a personalized 
appearance. 

LIMITED MULTI-TASKING feature lets you print one file while editing ano- 
ther. 

In addition to regular text you can use WORDMASTER to CREATE BASIC 
PROGRAMS with the convenience of full-screen editing. 

OTHER FEATURES include easy setting of left, right, top and bottom margin, 
printer line width, and lines per page. Also auto repeat keys, auto line centering, 
auto page numbering and choice of display color formats. 

And, perhaps one of the best features, but one that won't last long, is WORD- 
MASTER's SUPER LOW INTRODUCTORY PRICE OF $9.95. At this price you 
can't go wrong. Buy it today' 

TO ORDER send $9.95 for cassette version or $ 1 4.95 for disk version plus $2.50 
shipping (Calif, residents add 6% sales tax) to: PYRAMID DISTRIBUTORS, 527 
HILL ST., SANTA MONICA, CA 90405 (21 3) 399-2222. 



WORDMASTER $1495Di8k 



$9.95 Cassette 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 83 



addresses 1 536 through 7679 (hex 600 through IDFF). This 
space comprises the first four graphics pages which are 
reserved as part of the start up routine. For a quick demon- 
stration, BREAK the program and add line 450. 

450 PMODE 3,I:PCLS 

Now, R UN, select page 3, select PMODE 3, then hit the "E" 
key. Line 450 did a PCLS on the first four graphics pages. 
All of the bytes have been set to zero. The key will 
present you with a screen full of inverse @ signs. 
BREAK again and add line 460 and line 470. 

460 CIRCLE ( 100, 100),30,7 
470 PAINT (100,100),6,7 

RUN, get page 3, PMODE 3, and hit "E" again. Try the 
other modes and the arrow keys and repeat the "E" key. This 
should help you to understand some of the graphics 
concepts. 

While paging up and down you probably saw a band of 
hash risefromthe bottom of the screen. Select PMODE 3 or 
4 and page up the hash until it is at the top of the screen, then 
hit the "T" key. You have found the start of theprogramas it 
resides in memory. The"#"key will show you that itstartsat 
address 7680, page 15. 

Increment up a couple of pages to see the rest of the 
program and the variable storage area. Beyond that are 
more bands of zeros and 255s except for page 31 which we 
will get to shortly. For now, let's see how you get more 
memory from the PCLEAR command. BREAK the pro- 
gram and in the direct mode type in PMODE 0 : PCLEAR 1 
then ENTER. R UN and select page 6 in the text mode. You 



"The space above the program hash is 
the area commonly known as the 
PCLEAR 0 area for which there is no 
valid BASIC command. Right now it 
is the only place that you can put high 
resolution graphics, " 



now see that the program has been moved lower in memory 
starting at address hex COO. To get a better perspective 
select PMODE 4. You can see that the program data was 
also left in its original location, but it is no longer serving any 
purpose because the system's pointers have been reset to 
point to the new program area. The address space of the 
original program can be used for other purposes. More 
memory is available for program lines and variables, but less 
is available for graphics. You can see that our picture got 
clobbered. 

Use the "N" key to select page 3 while staying in PMODE 
4. The space above the program hash is the area commonly 
known as the PCLEAR 0 area for which there is no valid 
BASIC command. Right now it is the only place that you 
can put high resolution graphics. Hit the "E" key. The FC 
error appeared because we are now trying to draw in the 
wrongplace in the wrong mode. The area is now reserved for 
programs and variables. Change line 450 to read PMODE 



0,I:PCLS and then RUN, select page 3, PMODE 4, and 
then hit "E." Did you get two circles? Hit the "0" key and 
maybe they will go away. 

By the way, as you may have seen elsewhere, you can use 
that last part of memory for program memory by entering 
POKE 25,6:NEW in the direct mode before loading or 
writing a program. 

The last stop on this tour is the stack area and the CLEAR 
command. Go to the text mode and select page 31 
("N"...etc). If you have 16Koryou executed the CLEAR 
200,&H3FFF instruction at the start of this article, you are 
now looking at the stack area in action. The microprocessor 
uses this area for temporary storage of its register's data. 
Some of what is going on here is related to the activity you 
see on page 0. 

At the bottom of the screen is the area that was reserved 
by the CLEA R command. BREAKthe program and type in 
CLE A R 20 in the direct mode. R UN and get back to page 
31. The space reserved for strings has been reduced, the 
stack has moved up in memory, and program memory space 
has increased. If you have more than 16K RAM, the space 
above page 31 has been reserved for machine language 
programs by the CLEAR XXX,&H3FFF command. 

Note the words "RANGE IN"at the bottom of the screen. 
Now, BREAK, type in CLEAR 10, then RUN, select any 
page, and after the error message LIST line 1 10 and you will 
see the string for which there was not enough room. 

For our last trick we can demonstrate how an improperly 
used GOSUB can bomb a program. BREAK and CLEAR 
200. Add the following lines: 

480 GOSUB 600 
600 GOTO 480 

RUN, select page 3, select PMODE 4, then hit the "E" 
key. Wait a few seconds... Here comes the stack. The stack 
kept building because each execution of the GOSUB com- 
mand added more "temporary" data to it and there was no 
execution of a RETURN command to unstack any of the 
data. No harm was done to this particular program, but that 
is probably an exception. RUN and page through memory 
above the program area. You will see the same data stored 
over and over for each time the GOSUB was executed. 

The rest of the snooping is up to you. Examining other 
programs may be tricky. If a program self-starts, try moving 
the stack down. Load and run the program you want to 
examine, then load in PAGER. You may load on top of a 
part you wanted to see. If so, use the PC LEA R command to 
control where PAGER will load in. 



The listing: 




0275 
052B 



10 REM START OF PROGRAM AREA 
15 G*="9" 

20 CLS: PR I NT "ENTER PAGE NUMBER 0 

TO 31" 
30 INPUT PG 
40 CLS 

50 ST=PG*512:EN=ST+511 

60 IFG*="0"THEN EN=ST+8cH5FF: PR IN 

T6160, "PMODE0 PAGE LENGTH=1535 B 

ytes m :print:print 

70 IFG*="1" OR G*="2" THEN EN=ST 



84 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



1^ , w/+ 4 



4 



By Ken 
Kalish 



Mario Jumps into action on the Color Computer! Rolling barrets, ramps, 
ladders, and killer flames must be avoided in order to save the young lady 
from tt>e monkey's grasp. So true to life, you'll try to insert quarters. How 
high can you go? 



MONKEY KONG Color Computer 1 6K cassette $24.95 

Please add $2.00 for shipping and handling 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Ned Systems Software • P.O. Box 3558 • Chapel Hill. NC 27514 

TO ORDER. CALL: I -800-334-5470 



+&HBFF:PRINT@160, "PMODES 1&2 PAG 
E LENGTH=3072 BYTES" : PRINT: PRINT 
80 IFG*="3" OR G*="4" THEN EN=ST 
+&H 1 7FF : PR I NT@ 1 60 , " PMODES 3&4 PA 
GE LENGTH=6144 BYTES" 
90 PRINT" PAGE "PG" OF TEXT M 
ODE": PRINT 

100 PR I NT " ADRESS RANGE="ST" . . TO. 
. "EN: PRINT 

110 PRINT "RANGE IN HEX= "+"*"HE 
X*(ST) ". .TO. ■ "+"*"HEX*<EN> :PRINT 
120 PR I NT "PRESS < ENTER > TO SEE P 
AGE" 

130 INPUTE* 
140 PRINT 

150 REM DISPLAY NEW PAGE 
160 AD=&HFFC7 
170 FOR X=0 TO 6 
180 BT=PG AND 2^X 

190 IF BT=INT(2^X) THEN POKE AD, 

0 ELSE POKE AD- 1,0 

200 AD=AD+2 

210 NEXT 

220 G=VAL<G*> 

230 IFG<5 THEN A*=G*: GOTO310 

240 REM SELECT ANOTHER PAGE 

250 A*=INKEY* 

260 IFA*=" "THEN 250 

270 IF A*="N" THEN 20 

280 IFA*="^" THEN PG=PG+1 : GOTO 16 

0 

290 IFA*=CHR*<10> THEN PG=PG-1:G 
OTO160 

300 IFA*="#" THEN 40 

310 I F A*= " 0 " THENP0KE&HFF22 , &HB0 : 

POKE&HFFC1 , 0: P0KE&HFFC3, 0: POKE&H 

FFC4,0:G*=A* 

320 IFA*="1" THENPOKE8cHFF22,8cHC0 
: POKE&HFFC0, 0: P0KE&HFFC2, 0: POKE& 
HFFC5,0:G*=A* 

330 IFA*="2" THENPOKE8cHFF22,8cHD0 
: POKE&HFFC1 , 0: P0KE&HFFC5, 0: POKE& 
HFFC2,0:G*=A* 

340 IFA*="3" THENPOKE8cHFF22,8cHE0 
: POKE&HFFC0, 0: P0KE&HFFC3, 0: POKE& 
HFFC5,0:G*=A* 

350 IFA*="4" THENPOKE8cHFF22,8cHF0 
: POKE&HFFC0, 0: P0KE&HFFC3, 0: POKE& 
HFFC5,0:G*=A* 

360 IFA*="T" THENPOKE&HFF22,0:PO 
KE&HFFC0, 0: P0KE&HFFC2, 0: POKE&HFF 
C4,0: G*="9" 

370 IFA*<>"E" THEN 250 

400 REM 400 LINE AREA FOR INSER 

TING EXPERIMENTS 

410 SOUND 2,2 

500 GOTO250 

999 REM END OF PROGRAM AREA. ..V A 
R I ABLE AREA FOLLOWS 



86 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



CORRECTIONS 

In the listing that follows "Hang Around, You'll Enjoy 
This" (February 1983), there was an unexpected hang-up. 
Line 800 had a glitch, or maybe a gremlin, which caused it to 
throw in some dashes and run into line 8 10. Correctly, these 
lines should read: 

800 FOR 1=1 TO KNT: PRINT WRD* ( I ) 

;:next i 

810 PRINT: PRINT" 
RIGHT ? (Y/N) " 

A program line was omitted from a short listing used in 
"Random Often Needs A Helping Hand" (February 1983). 
In the right-hand column on page 1 4,thereshould have been 
a line 55 which reads as follows: 

55 IF L=0 THEN STOP 

In the article "Spectaculator Gives Spectacular Statistics" 
(February 1 983), the "less than" and "greater than" symbols 
were left out of line 30. This line should correctly read: 
30 IF LEN< A$X>16 THEN 20 

In the listing which follows "Power (of Attorney) At Your 
Fingertips" (March 1983), the command PRINT was left 
out of line 60. Correctly, the line (on page 56) should read: 

60 PRINT "FOR GENERAL APPL ICATION" 

Several folks have offered fixes for what appeared to be 
an oversight in our Dungeon A dventure graphics Adventure 
winner program (January 1 983). 1 1 turns out Gregory Rick- 
etts had us covered all along; the oversight was with the 
Rainbow, not the program. Mr. Ricketts reports that "hit- 
ting the 4 Q' key will allow you to exit the fight sequence." We 
managed to omit that bit of information from the story. 

In our February issue, Lane Lester's Income Tax program 
(page 18) contained some inconsistencies with the current 
form. 

The corrected version of Income Tax not only matches 
the current forms but also has some small enhancements, 
several of which were suggested by Justin Snyder. 

For a free print-out of thecorrected listing, drop us a note, 
or call. 

While this program is included in our April Rainbow On 
Tape, you may wish to order directly from the author. 
Anyone wanting a taped copy of this revised program may 
send $5 and their name and address to: Lane P. Lester, 
PH.D., Department of Biology, Liberty Baptist College, 
Lynchburg, VA 24506. 

As written in Burton R. Witharn, Jr.s article, "Among 
The 'Super' This One's a 'Duper'," (January 1983, page 80) 
the program listing will only allow 10 contacts to be logged 
reports Melvin Nelson (W8UNB), Phoenix, AZ. This is 
because the CLEAR 900 statement in line200also clearsthe 
array defined in line 1 00. Also, there is a redundancy in line 
310. 

To correctthese problems, add aline90 and alter lines 200 
and 310 as follows: 

90 CLEAR 900 

200 SOUND230,2:CLS:G=136:H=137:N 
=0 

310 CLS:PRINT@19, "LOG**: 5 :printu 
SING "**####. " ;X:PRINT@64, "CALL-" 

;c*<x) :print@78, "time-":pokeh,83 
: l i ne i nputt* ( x ) : pr i nt@96 , " freq- " 
:pokeh, 101:lineinputf*<x) : print© 
107, "notes-" : pokeh, 1 13:lineinput 
n*<x>:ifx>1 then goto330 




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HOW TO ORDER BY MAIL: Forprompt and courteous 
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CASHIERS CHECK, MASTERCARD/VIS A(inc!udecard 
number, inter-bank No., expiration date and signature). 
PERSONAL AND BUSINESS CHECKS MUST CLEAR 
OUR BANK BEFORE PROCESSING Shipping and pack- 
aging charge of $2.50 minimum must be added to all 
orders in continental US (Canadian orders $5.00 mini- 
mum). Michigan residents include 4% sales tax. 10% 

Hpnn^it rpniiirpfi on C* ("} D orHpr<t 



UTILITY 




Dump to Camera: 
Photographing 

Your Monitor 

By Bruce Rothermel 




You and your Color Computer have just created the 
world's most interesting graphic on the TV screen. Now 
what? How do you save it? How do you use it? 

One option would be to print the graphic screen on the 
printer using a screen print program and a graphics printer, 
but what happened to those breathtaking colors and those 
crisp fine details? All gone. 

Printers are quite limited in their ability to faithfully 
capture the image as it appeared on the screen and you kiss 
your colors goodbye. They're not called Color Computers 
for nothing. 

As an alternative, why not photograph your screen? By 
doing so, you can produce slides or prints of the screen 
which will capture and retain all the detail and color of the 
original. Besides, its a lot easier carrying a photo than a 13" 
TV set. 

Here's What Youll Need: 

1) A 35mm SLR camera with a "normal"^ or 55mm) lens. 
The SLR means single lens retlex — a camera that ensures 
that what you see thru the viewf inder is what you get on film. 

2) A tripod. 

3) A cable release if the camera doesn't have a self timer. 
Here's How To Do It: 

1) Create your masterpiece on the screen. 

2) Adjust the color and contrast settings on the TV set to 
obtain the densest colors available (highest color saturation) 
without color fringing. You may have to reduce contrast to 
do so. 

3) Mount your camera on the tripod and adjust the height 
so the camera lens is level with the center of the screen. 

4) Move the tripod forward and backward until the screen 
image is filling the viewfinder frame vertically (up and 
down). There will be additional space on the sides of the 
viewfinder since the film frame is wider than the graphics 
screen, but that's okay. 

5) Focus. Since you have a fixed image size, you may end up 



Photo by Bruce Rothermel 

moving the tripod forwards or backwards a little. With a 13" 
TV screen, your camera will be about 2.5 ft. away from the 
screen. 

6) Exposure. Now comes the tricky part. Shooting an image 
from a TV screen is different from taking a snapshot of your 
girlfriend on a sunny day. First, the light balance is different. 
Your camera meter wasn't made to be sensitive and accurate 
to this spectrum. Second, the image on-screen is created by a 
continuous series of lines (rasters) which because of visual 
retention look like a solid picture. 

The camera has no such memory behind its lens. So, 
here's what to do: 

Set the shutter speed to I / 1 5 of a second. Any speed faster 
than 1/30 of a second will catch a raster (don't you like these 
tech terms) and you will see the scan line. 

Turnoffthe lightsand eliminate all sources ofglareon the 
screen. A darkened room is best. Take an exposure reading 
of the screen. Using ASA 64 film (more about this later) you 
should have an F-stop of about F/8. 

Use a cable release or the self-timer and squeeze off your 
first exposure. Write down this exposure combination for 
review later. 

7) Bracket your exposures. The trick of the pros is to shoot 
a lot and throw the bad ones away. 

Most of the time, the meter will be misled in making an 
underexposed picture. So, for the second exposure slow 
down the shutter one speed to I / 8 of a second to increase the 
exposure time. Keep the same aperture, or E/stop setting, as 
the first exposure and shoot again. Record this setting. 

Next, slow the shutter one more notch to 1 /4 second and 
shoot again. Record these settings. Just to be sure, go back 
to the original setting (in this example 1/15 sec. at F/8) and 
close the lens one stop to F/ 1 1 . Shoot and record this info. 
(We bracketed in the other direction — more exposure by 
opening the aperture to keep the shutter speed slow. 
Remember those rascal rasters.) 



88 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Here's a summary of what happened: 
1st exposure — 1/15 sec. @ F/8 base exposure setting 
2nd exposure — I /8 sec. @ F/8 2X 1st exposure 
3rd exposure — 1/4 sec. @ F/ 8 4X 1 st exposure 
4th exposure — 1/15 sec. @ F/ 1 1 1 / 2 1st exposure 

8) Get the film developed and look at the results. Most 
likely the second exposure will be most pleasing, but what- 
ever looks best will then be your base exposure. From then 
on you only have to bracket one shutter speed, one F/stop 
on each side of the base setting. 

Remember, always bracket — no matter how good you 
are. Film is cheap. 

9) Speaking of film. Naturally, the type of film you use will 
depend on the results wanted. 

To obtain slides for projection, I would recommend Koda- 
chrome 64 (ASA 64). TV screens tend to photograph blue 
and Ektachrome and Fuji increase this effect. 

For prints, Kodacolor 100 works fine. Plus-X is great for 
black and white (ASA/ ISO 125) and Plus-X negatives can 
be mounted and projected as a reversed slide. Sort of like a 
reverse screen print. This is very useful with graphs and 
charts like those generated by bar zapper. 

There are many exotic high contrast films available, but 
start with these basics and experiment. 

10) Filtration. If the photographs are still too blue add a 
filter to the lens. A sky I A adds a little warmth, an 8 1 A really 
corrects it. 

That's it. The sure fire way to wow 'em with knockout 
photos generated by you and your 80C. 



Hint... 

Which Board Do You Have? 

We've received a lot of calls and letters, too, asking, "How 
can I determine what circuit board I have?"These questions 
come mainly from those contemplating a memory upgrade. 
A good clue is provided by keying in EXECAX 1 75 which will 
tell you if youhavethe 1 .0 or 1 . 1 version of the BASIC ROM 
chip. If you have a 1.1, says Dennis Lewandowski of DSL 
Computer Products, then "there's about a 98 percent chance 
that it's an E board rather than a D or the even newer 
board," which has a small RF shield housing, often called 
the F board. 

Radio Shack says you have to open up your CoCo to find 
out for sure, but here at the Rainbow, we found that a 
flashlight and a "peek," using your own two eyes is quite 
easy. If you will shine a flashlight down into the air vents on 
the right side (the side on which the ROM port is located) 
you can see the model number of the board. Look straight 
down under the first air vent opening (nearest the 
keyboard). Do you see the green numbers on a black 
background? Well, the suffix after the hyphen is the board 
model. You should see a D or an E after the numbers. 

Now, if you have a TDP-I00, you have the latest board 
(a.k.a. F board). If you have a fairly new Radio Shack 
CoCo, take a look inside the ROM port says Ron Krebs of 
Mark Data Products. Just open it up and peer in. If all you 
can see is metal, then you have a D or an E board, but if you 
can see components, then you have the newest board. 



TALK IS CHEAP. 



You want your color computer 
to talk, but how much will it 
cost? 

$50? $100? $200? No. 



$29"? 



Yes! SPEAK UP! ™ from 



is a machine language 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAl 



Voice Synthesizer program for your TRS- 
80 Color Computer. * It is 100% software. 
Nothing else to buy. Best of all, YOU CAN 
MAKE BASIC PROGRAMS TALK! It's 
easy to use, and will say virtually anything. 

SPEAK UP! For $29.95. 

Talk really is cheap! 



P.O. Box 12247 
Lexington, Kentucky 40582 



VISA 




T.M. Tandy Corp. 



16k minimum 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 89 



Why Not 
Build A Light Pen 

By Theodore P. Hasenstaub 



Ready to shed some new light on your CoCo? An easy to 
build (and easy on the wallet) light pen is the answer. A 
simple light pen consists of a photo cell, resistor, and, well, 
hmmm. . . that's it! We will add a switch, "pot," case, cord 
and plug. The CoCo has its own D/A (digital to analog) 
circuitry built right in, so we are ready to go. 

Before we start construction, let's take a closer look at 
what a light pen actually does. A photo cell can be described 
as an electrical device, which, on being exposed to different 
intensities of light, changes its amount of resistance, thus 




JOYSTICK PORT 



PIN 1 
PIN 2 
PIN 3 
PIN 4 
PIN 5 



X CHANNEL 

Y CHANNEL 

GROUND 
** 

5VDC 



** — is used with fire button, when 
pressed, it shorts to PIN 3 



changing the voltage that flows through it. Big deal you say? 
Well, it is, as you will soon see. 

A look at the joysick ports is now in order (Fig. #1). You 
will see that each port has two input channels. The X chan- 
nel reads horizontal positions, and the Y channel reads 
vertical positions (when using joysticks). This is accom- 
plished by using potentiometers. Potentiometers, or pots, 
are simply variable resisters. In other words, their resistance 
can by changed by turning the center knobs one way or the 
other. These two pots are connected together mechanically, 
so that they both move at the same time. Five volts are 
applied to one side, and the other side is connected to 
ground. When the joystick position is changed, it also 
changes the resistance to the applied voltage (five volts). The 
center lugs of the pots are connected to the X and Y input 
channels (Fig. #2). These lines allow the computer to deter- 
mine joystick positions through its D/A circuitry. 

The D/ A circuitry consists of an analog switch, or selec- 
tor, a voltage comparator, and a D/ A converter. The selec- 
tor allows the selection of one of the four input channels 
(two per joystick port). The voltage comparator then com- 
pares two input voltages. One voltage is constant, the other, 
coming in from the X or Y channel, is not. The D/ A conver- 
ter then approximates the voltage from the channel it is 
reading. How does this apply to a light pen? Let's build one 
and see. 

First unscrew the white plastic end from the penlight, and 
remove the bulb and metal contact clip. Now remove the 
push button switch on the other end. This may be accom- 
plished by pushing it down through the body of the pen with 
a small piece of rod (be very careful when working with the 
aluminum body, it is very easy to damage). Next, look into 
the barrel. Here, you will see a black plastic ring. Push this 
ring up toward the open end of the barrel. Gently break off 
the inner part of it, so that all that remains is a ring with a 



hole that is large enough in order to remove the rest of the 
switch. Use a pair of needle nose pliers to do this. Locate a 
point about V/i inches from the open end of the barrel. 
Gently drill a 13/64ths hole at this point. 

Now we will wire the light (Fig. #3). I've seen the photo 
cell in two different cases, one is plastic encased (#276-1 16), 
the other one is in a metal can (#276-1 16A). If you use the 
plastic one, you will have to file its circumference down so 
that it fits easily into the pen barrel. The metal one drops 
right in. Pull the two conductor wires up through the pen 
case and black ring. Strip off about 8 inches of t^e outer 
covering. Cut one lead of the photo cell so there is about 1 
inch, and trim the other to about I Vi inches. Slide two pieces 
of shrink tubing over the cable leads. Solder one lead to the 1 
inch side of photo cell, and the other to one side of the 
switch. Slide another piece of shrink tubing over the other 
photo cell lead. Solder this lead to the other side of the 
switch. Now slide the shrink tubing up overall thejointsand 
heat it, so all the connections are insulated. Strip off 4 inches 
of outer covering on the other cable end. Label the wire that 
you connected to the switch. Now slide the assembly into the 
pen barrel, and guide the switch so that the button catches 
into the hole that you have drilled. A little jiggling around 
and you will be able to get the switch up into the hole. Install 
the switch lock nut. Screw on the white end piece, and wrap 



Figure 2 



FIRE 
BUTTON 





PIN 2 

— PIN 5 

— PIN 1 
PIN 3 

— P1N4 



black electrical tape around it, so no white is showing. 

Now slide the plug cover onto the cable end and wire as 
follows. The line that you labeled is soldered to pin #5 of the 
joystick plug. Cut two pieces of wire about 3 inches long. 
Label them #1 and #3 and solder them to the corresponding 
pins on the joystick plug. Assemble the plug and slide the 
plug cover on. Solder the wire you labeled #3 to the center 
lug on the pot. Trim the other wire so that the pot lays flat in 



90 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Figure 3 




PHOTO CELT 



j SPST 



100K POT 




PIN 5 



PIN 3 PIN 1 



60 PRINTQ230, "STATE CAPITOL QUIZ 



the line, then solder it and the wire you marked #1 to one of 
the outside lugs on the pot. Wrap electrical tape around 
these connections. 

As 1 said earlier, a photo cell changes its resistance on 
exposure to different light levels. The CoCo has nine distinct 
colors that are available. If you expose the light pen to them, 
you will find that each color will return a different value. By 
software control you can use these values as variables, and 
design a program that will use them. 

I have included two programs. One allows you to set your 
own color value tables, and the other will demonstrate the 
light pen. The demo program uses color values as variables. 
I designed the program as a quiz. It will display a question 
and possible answers. A tone will sound, at this point place 
the tip of the pen firmly against the TV screen, to the color 
(answer), you choose. Press the button down and hold it 
down until the next tone. This allows the photo cell to get a 
true value reading of the color. The program then checks 
through a comparison routine to check if the answer is right 
or wrong. This program can be easily modified for any type 
questions you may want, by simply changing a few lines in 
the program. I would be very interested in any input from 
other readers, on other applications, and software, for using 
this device. 

PARTS LIST 

Photocell Radio Shack @376-116 or 

#276-1 16 A (see text) @ $1.29 

Penlight Radio Shack #61-2626 @ $1.99 

Switch Radio Shack #275-1571 SPST 

Normal Open, Momentary 

Joystick Plug Spectrum Projects 93-15 86th 

Place, Woodhaven, N.Y. 11421 @ $4.00 
100K pot, 2 Conductor cable (shielded) 



Listing 1: 




350 
650 
END 



032E 
0701 
0AC7 



10 7 LIGHT PEN DEMO 
20 GOTO 660 
30 DIM D*<40) 
40 RESTORE 
50 CLS 



70 print:print:print:print 

80 INPUT "ENTER YOUR NAME >";N 

90 FOR Q=l TO 1380: NEXT Q 

100 FOR N=l TO 40TREAD D*(N):NEX 

T N 

110 W=0:T=0: JY=JOYSTK(0) 
120 N=l 
130 CLS(0) 

140 PRINT632, "WHAT IS THE CAP IT 

OL OF"; " ";d*<N> ; " 



"5" ":n=n+i 



150 PRINT6161, " ";D*<N);" " ; : N=N 

+1 

160 PRINT6257," ";D*<N>;" ";:N=N 

+1 

170 PRINTQ353, " ";D*<N);" "5 
180 FOR V=0 TO 3 
190 FOR H=31 TO 37 

200 SET (H, 9+V,4) :SET(H, 15+V,2> : 

SET(H,21+V,6) 

210 NEXT H,V 

220 GOSUB 490 

230 SOUND 125,5 

240 GOSUB 490 

250 X=0 

260 ' READ COLOR VALUES FROM SCR 
EEN 

270 FOR B=l TO 40 



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April, 1983 the RAINBOW 91 



280 x=x+jy:next b 

290 J=JOYSTK(0) 

300 ' COMPARE COLOR VALUES 

310 IF (N=4) OR (N=12) OR (N=24) 

OR <N=36> THEN BOTO 340 
320 IF <N=16> OR (N=20) OR (N=28 
) THEN GOTO 350 

330 IF (N=8) OR (N=32) OR (N=40) 

THEN GOTO 360 
340 IF (J>21) AND (J<38) THEN GO 
TO 370 ELSE GOTO 410 
350 IF (J>51) AND (J<58) THEN GO 
TO 370 ELSE GOTO 410 
360 IF (J>40) AND (J<51) THEN GO 
TO 370 ELSE GOTO 410 
370 SOUND 125,5 

380 PRINT® 450, " THAT IS CORRECT 

";N*;" ";:t=0 

390 GOSUB 490 

400 N=N+l:IF N>40 THEN GOTO 530 
ELSE GOTO 130 
410 SOUND 125,5 
420 T=T+l: W=W+1 

430 PRINT6450, " THAT IS INCORREC 



ii 



T ";N*;" , 

440 if T=l THEN W=W-1 
450 GOSUB 490 

460 IF T=l THEN N=N-3: GOTO 130 
470 IF T=2 AND N<40 THEN T=0:N=N 




+l:GOTO 130 

480 IF T=2 AND N>=40 THEN GOTO 5 
30 

490 FOR Q=l TO 1000: NEXT Q 
500 RETURN 

510 DATA OH 10, COLUMBUS, CLEVELAND 
, TOLEDO , KENTUCKY , LOU I SV I LLE , PROS 
PECT , FRANKFORT , TEX AS , AUST I N , DALL 
AS , HOUSTON , ALASKA , FA I RBANKS , JUNE 
AU, ANCHORAGE, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, A 
LBANY, SYRACUSE 

520 DATA MONTANA, HELENA, BILLINGS 
, BUTTE , I LL I NO I S , CH I C AGO , SPR I NGF 
IELD, PEORIA, KANSAS, KANSAS CITY,W 
I CHITA, TOPEKA, MAINE, AUGUSTA, BANG 
OR, PORTLAND, MICHIGAN, ANN ARBOR, D 
ETRO IT, LANSING 
530 SC=<10-W>*10 
540 FOR Q=l TO 920: NEXT Q 
550 CLS(0) 

560 PRINTQ226, "YOUR SCORE WAS";" 

";sc; "7."; " ";N*;" "; 

570 FOR Q=l TO 920: NEXT Q 

580 PRINTQ298," GAME OVER "; 

590 FOR Q=l TO 1000: NEXT Q 

600 PRINTQ484," PLAY AGAIN? <Y 0 

R N> "; 

610 Q*=INKEY* 

620 IF Q*="" THEN GOTO 610 
630 IF Q*="Y" THEN GOTO 40 
640 IF Q*<>"N" THEN GOTO 610 

650 cls:end 

660 CLS 

670 PRINTQ6, "LIGHT PEN CALIBRATI 
ON ": 

680 PR I NT "HOLD PEN TIP AGAINST T 
HE COLORED"; 

690 PR I NT "BLOCKS ON SCREEN, SLOW 
LY ADJUST "; 

700 PR I NT "THE POTENTIOMETER UNTI 
L YOU GET "; 

710 PR I NT "READINGS THAT CORRESPO 
ND TO THE "; 

720 PR I NT "ONES IN THE TABLE THES 
E READINGS"; 

730 PR I NT "ARE NEEDED FOR THIS PR 
OGRAM TO "; 

740 PR I NT "OPERATE PROPERLY- THE 
VARIABLES "; 

750 PRINT "IN THIS PROGRAM ARE SE 
T TO THESE"; 

760 PR I NT "VALUES. CHECK ALL READ 
INGS AFTER"; 

770 PR I NT "EACH ADJUSTMENT IS MAD 
E. 11 ; 

780 PRINTQ420, 11 PRESS <C> TO CON 
TINUE " 

790 Q*=INKEY*:IF Q*="C" THEN GOT 
O 800 ELSE GOTO 790 
800 CLS(0) 



92 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



FLEXPLUS DOS $69.95 

A Powerful, easy-to-use disk operating system! 

* FREE * COLOR COSMIC INVADERS- FREE on every FLEX+ DISK 

$21.95 Value. 



FLEXPLUS is a powerful, easy-to-use disk operating system. 
Spectral Associates has adapted TSCs FLEX to the best DOS 
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Radio Shack disk system with 64K memory chips with a High 
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Advantages of FLEXPLUS DOS 

Best price anywhere 
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Requires Supercharger board 

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ii 




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PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR 
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NEW THIS MONTH 




Jungle 



If you are out for a stroll, what better place than a 
jungle? After all, the scenery is nice, and there are all 
those pretty birds and flowers and snakes . . . Did I 
say snakes? I meant to say spiders ... or was it 
headhunters? Anyway, there's always something 
interesting in the jungle! All you haveto do is take a 
little hike from one place to another. Did I mention it 
was quite a distance? That's no problem though, 
because you have 10 bearers to carry your equip- 
ment ... as long as nothing happens to them. That's 
it, then. All you have to do is hike down the trail a 
piece. I never have any trouble in the jungle myself. 
Of course, I've never actually been in the jungle, but 
I'm sure if you talked to any of the people who have 
made this trip, they'd tell you it was just a pleasant 
walk. In fact, if you see any of those people, let me 
know. I always have wondered why we never heard 
from any of them again ... If you are ready for a real 
fun challenge, don't miss JUNGLE. The game is all 
text, but your imagination will provide plenty of 
graphics!! TAPE - $1 9.95, DISK - $24.95 



Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
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6% sales tax. Orders shipped within two days. 



At your local dealer, or send order to: 

PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9822 E. Stella Road 
Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 



YELLOW " ; : PRINT623, " CYAN 
820 FOR V=4 TO 8 
830 FOR H=0 TO 6 

840 SETdl+H, V,4) : SET < 29+H , V, 2) : 
SET<47+H, V,6) 
850 NEXT H,V 

860 PRINT6484," PRESS <D> WHEN D 



ii 



ONE , 
870 PRINTQ245, " 
880 PRINT6257, " 
890 PRINT6302, " 



ii 



ii 



900 PRINT6366, " 

11 ; ; : PRINT 

910 PRINTQ430, " 



VALUES , 
READINGS " ; 
RED >21 & <38 

YELLOW >51 & <58 

CYAN >40 & <51 



ii 



920 Q*=INKEY*:IF Q*="D" THEN GOT 
O 30 
930 X=0 

940 FOR Y=l TO 40 
950 X=X+JOYSTK<0) 
960 NEXT Y 
970 X=X/40 

980 PRINT6356, JOYSTK<0) ; 
990 GOTO920 



Listing 2: 

DEFINE (LIGHT PEN) 



5 * DEFINE NEW COLOR VALUES 

10 CLS<0) 

20 FOR V=l TO 7 

30 FOR H=0 TO 8 

40 SET(5+H, V, 1) :SET(19+H, V,2) :SE 

T (35+H, V, 3) : SET (49+H, V,4) 

50 NEXT H,V 

60 FOR V=17 T023 

70 FOR H=0 TO 8 

80 SET(5+H, V,5) :SET(19+H, V,6) :SE 
T (35+H, V, 7) : SET (49+H, V, 8) 
90 NEXT H,V 

100 PRINT6486, " PRESS <D> WHEN D 
ONE "; 

110 Q*=INKEY* 

120 IF Q*="D" THEN 200 

130 X=0 

140 FOR Y=l TO 40 
150 X=X+JOYSTK<0) 
160 NEXT Y 
170 X=X/40 

180 PRINT6206, JOYSTK<0) ; 
190 GOTO 110 
200 CLS: END 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



THE STEREO COMPOSER 




The STEREO COMPOSER music synthesizer was developed for the true music 
lover. All the features available for the COMPOSER described below are also 
available for the STEREO COMPOSER. However, instead of using the single 6 bit 
digital to analog converter built into the computer and the speaker built into your 
TV, the STEREO COMPOSER uses two 8 bit digital to analog converters which 
drive two audio power amplifiers. These amplifiers supply enough audio power 
to easily drive your own external speakers. If you like, the output may be con- 
nected to your home stereo system to further increase fidelity. Connection is 
provided by two phono connectors. If the music is too loud, two built-in volume 
controls are provided to allow you to control the volume of each of the channels 
separately. The advantage of being able to use external high quality speakers is 
obvious. The use of higher quality digital to analog converters serves to further 
increase music fidelity. 

The STEREO COMPOSER produces music in stereo. Of the4 voices produced, 2 
are directed to each channel. This ability alone increases the realism of the 
music. You can even move the voices between speakers as the music plays. 

The STEREO COMPOSER comes assembled, tested, burned in, with all the 
software and hardware to allow you to immediately start enjoying your music. A 
complete manual and examples are provided to give you everything you need to 
know. 

The STEREO COMPOSER is completely memory decoded so it does not conflict 
with the Radio Shack disk controller. In this way, disk owners with an expansion 
interface such as the BT-1000 by BasicTechnology can produce music from disk 
with the STEREO COMPOSER in one slot and the disk controller in another. In 
fact, you can even have THE VOICE in another slot without any fears that there 
will be memory conflicts. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 
Specify Cassette or Disk 

STEREO COMPOSER (Hardware and Software) $119. 95 




THE COMPOSER 



The COMPOSER is a 4 voice music compiler which easily allows one to develop 
high quality music. Each voice is programmed separately. In addition, each 
voice uses its own waveshape table which means a unique sound foreach of the 
4 voices. 

The COMPOSER features a7 octave range. It supports dotted and double dotted 
notes as well as eighth, quarter, and standard triplet notes. Sixteenth and thirty 
second notes are also supported. 

The COMPOSER allows the music to be played at any tempo and in any key. And 
believe it or not, the tempo and key can be modified as the music plays. This 
gives the user tremendous versatility in developing music. Key modification also 
allows the user to move the music up or down one or more octaves. 

The COMPOSER displays a constantly changing random kaleidoscope pattern 
as the music plays. In addition, the number of the note being played is displayed 
which aids one in finding sour notes during music development. Both of these 
displays can be disabled to allow any screen to be displayed while the music is 
playing. In this way, one can show the words to a song or display a picture as the 
music plays. 

The COMPOSER develops a machine language position independent sub- 
routine that can be Saved, Loaded, and Executed independent of all other 
software. This means that you canshareyourmusicwithfriends.ln fact, you can 
write your own BASIC programs that call and play the music. Software vendors 
may include the music in their own product. 

The COMPOSER is menu driven making it extremely easy and friendly to use and 
operate. A thick operating manual is also provided. Many examples are given to 
aid the user in getting started. All you need is provided, no additional hardware is 
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Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 



THE VOICE 




SPEECH SYSTEMS got its start providing high quality speech synthesizers for 
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THE VOICE should not be mistaken with software speech synthesizers which 
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THE VOICE uses a special large scale integrated circuit, the SC-01 by VOTRAX, 
to reproduce any one of 64 phonemes at 4 inflections. Phonemes are basic units 
of speech which allow one to reproduce any word in English as well as many 
other languages. 

THE VOICE has two outputs. Speech may be heard through the user's TV 
speaker, or the built-in audio power amplifier may be connected to your own 
external speaker. A phono connector is provided for this purpose and if the 
volume is too high, a built-in volume control may be used to adjust it to the 
proper level. 

THE VOICE comes assembled, tested, burned in, with all the necessary 
hardware and software. A complete manual with many examples are provided to 
get you started in developing your own BASIC or machine language programs to 
use speech. 

THE VOICE is completely memory decoded so it does not conflict with the Radio 
Shack disk controller. In this way, disk owners with an expansion interface such 
as the BT-1000 by Basic Technology can produce speech from disk with THE 
VOICE in one slot and the disk controller in another. In fact, you can even have 
the STEREO COMPOSER in another slot without any fears that there will be 
memory conflicts 

We are trying to develop a library of software forTHE VOICE. Toward this end, we 
will be offering substantial royalties to software authors for their work. 

Requires Extended BASIC and Minimum of 16K 
Specify Cassette or Disk 



THE VOICE (Hardware and Software) 



$179.95 



HOW TO ORDER 



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Shipping and handling for all products in the 

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^ the 




EDUCATION NOTES 




RAINBOW 
-J" 'A 





Exercise Your Strings With This Vowel Checker 



By Steve Blyn 
RAINBOW Education Editor 




This month we will investigate further how string manipu- 
lations can help to build language based programs. Strings 
are usually words, and words are the building blocks of 
language. Many Language Arts and Foreign Language pro- 
grams can be developed after a basic knowledge of string 
manipulation is obtained. It has often been stated that 
"without string handling capabilities, a computer is just a 
super calculator." Although exaggerated, there is a lot of 
truth in that statement. 

All strings have a left side, a middle, a right side and a 
length. We can thus examine all portions of the string using 
the string functions— LEFTS, MID$, RIGHTS, and LEN. 
If we set A$ equal to the word computer, then: 

LEN A$ would be equal to 8 
LEFT$(A$,I) would = "C" 
RIGHT$(A$,1) would = "R" 
LEFT$(A$,3) would = "COM" 
RIGHT$(A$,2) would = "ER." 

Let's check this out on your computer. 

10 CLS 

20 A$="COMPUTER" 
30 PRINT LEN(A$) 
40 PRINT LEFT$(A$,1) 
50 PRINT RIGHT$(A$,1) 
60 PRINT LEFT$(A$,3) 
70 PRINT RIGHT$(A$,2) 
80 LIST 
RUN 

MID$ is even more impressive. It can check any portion 
of the string. 



MID$(A$4,2) would = "PU." The 4 tells the computer to 
begin at the fourth letter and the 2 tells how many letters to 
include. 

MID$(A$2,3) would = "OMP." Print MID$(A$,2,3) to 
check this out. Try checking out some of your own combina- 
tions before going on. 

The computer can build up or break down strings in any 
fashion we choose. Let's build up the words COLOR 
COMPUTER adding one letter at a time. 

10 CLS 

20 A$="COLOR-COMPUTER" 
30FORT=0 TOLEN(AS) 
40 PRINT LEFT$(A$,T) 
70 NEXT T 
RUN. 

As the (T) value is increased by 1 in lines 30 and 70, the 
next letter in the word gets added on until the whole word is 
built up to its entire length... LEN (A$) 

The computer can also check out and act on each letter as 
it is going through the list. Let's have it check for any letter 
"0"s. To accomplish this, we will add lines 50 and 60 to the 
above program. 

50 B$=LEFT$(A$,T) 

60 IF RIGHT$(B$,1) = "O" THEN SOUND 220,3 
RUN the program once again. 

Line 50 checks our progress on the string construction 
leftwards, and line 60 makes a sound if an "O" is the right- 
most letter at that time. Thus, every time an "O" is found at 
the right end of the word as it is being built up, a sound is 
made. 



96 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



If the letter "O" can be checked, then so can any other 
characters. The program that follows is a vowel counter. 
The child may INPUT any word, phrase, or sentence that he 
wishes. He is asked to count the number of vowels. The 
program checks for the vowels A, E, I, O, and U. 

The Y i s more difficult t o check because there are quite a 
few cases where Y is or is not used as a vowel. We chose to 
include only one instance when Y could be a vowel — if it is at 
the end of a word and it is not preceded by a vowel, then Y is 
counted as a vowel. This is done on line 0. An example 
would be FLY. Trying to work out additional times when Y 
is counted as a vowel, (such as when there are no other 
vowels in the word), is excellent practice in exercising your 
string muscles. 

By slightly altering the methods outlined here, many other 
Language Arts and Foreign Language exercises can be deve- 
loped. By using LEFT$(A$,2) or LEFT$(A$,3), prefixes or 
foreign language articles can be checked. Using 
RIGHT$(A$,2) or RIGHT$(A$,3) can check for suffixes, 
endings, or plurals. The MID$ function could permit check- 
ing for root words or particular letters as was done in this 
article. 




The listing: 



10 REM "VOWEL COUNTER" 

20 REM "STEVE BLYN-COMPUTER I SLA 

ND 

30 CLS 

40 PR I NT "WHAT IS YOUR NAME";:INP 

UT NA* 

50 N*=LEFT* ( N A* ,12) 

60 x=0:t»0:m»0:h»0 

70 CLS 

80 PR I NT "TYPE IN ANY WORD " ; N* 
90 PRINT: INPUT A* 

100 REM"*** BREAK THE WORD UP IN 
TO SUCCESSIVELY LONGER PORTIONS" 
110 FOR T= 1 TO LEN < A*) 
120 H=H+1 

130 B*»LEFT*(A*,H) 

140 REM"*** CHECK FOR VOWELS- 
ApEpIpOpU" 

150 IF RIGHT* <B«, 1)="A" OR RIGHT 
*<B* P 1>»"E" OR RIGHT*<B«, l)= n I" 
OR RIGHT* <B*, 1)="0" OR RIGHT* <B* 
,1)="U" THEN X=X+l:GOSUB 380 
160 NEXT 

170 REM "CHECK FOR THE NEXT TO LA 
ST LETTER IF THE LAST LETTER IS 
A "Y" 

180 L=LEN(A*)-1 

190 IF L<1 THEN 220 

200 L*=MID*(A*,L, 1) 

210 IF RIGHT* < A*, 1)="Y" AND L*<> 

"A" AND L*<>"E" AND L*<>"I" AND 

L*<>"0" AND L*<>"U" THEN X=X+1:G 

OSUB 380 



220 PRINT 

230 PR I NT "TYPE THE NUMBER OF VOW 

ELS IN THE WORD ";A*;" ";n*;:inp 

UT Y 

240 PRINT: IF Y=X THEN SOUND 1 80, 1 
: SOUND200 , 1 : PR I NT " CORRECT " % N* : G 
OTO 360 

250 REM"*********LET'S KEEP OUR 
GRAMMAR STRAIGHT HERE" 
260 PRINT 

270 PRINT" SORRY, " ; N* 

280 SOUND20,4:SOUND10,4 
290 IF X»l THEN PR I NT "THERE IS"; 
300 IF XOl THEN PR I NT "THERE ARE 



ii 



310 PRINTX; "VOWEL"; : IF XOl THEN 

PRINT"S"; 
320 PRINT" IN THE ": PRINT" WORD - 
"; A* 

330 IF X-0THEN 360 

340 IF X»l THEN PRINT" IT IS - " 

V* < 1 ) : GOTO360 

350 PR I NT " THEY ARE " ; : FORM- 1 TOX 

:printv*(M) ; " , ";:next 

360 PRINT6448, "PRESS < ENTER > TO 
GO ON"; : INPUT EN* 
370 GOTO 60 

380 V*(X)=RIGHT*(B*, 1) : RETURN 



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April, 1 983 the RAINBOW 97 



ASSEMBLY CORNER 



Write An ML Program To Handle BASIC Chores 



By 

D.S. Lewandowski 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



First of all, we should establish that programming in 
assembly language is not the same as machine language. In 
assembly language we use an Editor/ Assembler to enter our 
program into a text buffer. Once finished the Assembler will 
transform our text into a machine language program. 
Learning assembly language has nothing to do with the 
amount of skill you can demonstrate in BASIC program- 
ming, or any other computer language. The finished pro- 
duct, a machine language program, will be as short, or as 
long, as necessary to accomplish a task you have set for the 
computer to perform. There is no magic, or mystery to 
programming in any computer language. Mostly, practice 
will make you proficient with assembly language. It really 
boils down to a logical thought process. Just take your 
programming idea, and break it into sub-tasks (or bite-size 
pieces, if you prefer). Tackle each sub-task one at a time. 
Sometimes a sub-task will be a bit too much so, again, break 
this sub-task into further sub-tasks. On the other hand, you 
may solve two, or more, sub-tasks with one solution. 

Starting this month, our task is going to be: Write a 
machine language program which will perform the same 
task as a BASIC program. So, here is the first BASIC listing: 




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Listing 1: 
10 CLS 

20 I*=INKEY* : IF I*="" THEN 20 
30 I=VAL<I*> : IF I<0 THEN 1=0 
40 IF I>8 THEN 1=0 
50 CLS(I) : GOTO20 



What will this program do? Line 10 will clear the screen to 
the color green. Line 20 will scan the keyboard, and wait 
until a key is pressed. Once a key has been pressed, Line 30 
will take the value of the string variable and convert it into a 
numeric variable (I). Line 30 will also check to see if the 
value of I is less than zero. Line 40 checks the upper limit of 
the CLS command, it checks for a value greater than eight. 
In both cases, if I is less than zero, or I is greater than eight, 1 
is set to zero. Line 50 clears the screen to the color value of I, 
then restarts the routine by going to Line 20. 

Okay, what we need to do is see what we need. We need to 
clear the screen. We need to get a keypress from the key- 
board. We have to check the keypress and see if it falls into 
the range of zero and eight. Finally, we need to clear the 
screen to the color value of a valid keypress, or clear it to 
zero in all other cases. That seems enough sub-tasks. To 
solve the first one, let's remember that BASIC has a clear 
screen routine. The address of this routine is SA928; this 
information is available from sources such as the Rainbow. 
Let's pause a moment and dissassemble this routine, 1 will 
provide the comments. 



A928/ LDB #$60 

A92A/ LDX #$400 

A92D/ STX <$88 

A92F/ STB ,X+ 



A931/ CMPX #$5FF 
A934/ BLS $A92F 
A936/ RTS 



Load the B register with $60 
Load X with screen start 
Update cursor position 
Store the value in B at the 
location X is pointing at and 
increment X by one 
Check for last screen byte 
Loop to STB ,X+ until done 
Return from routine 



Well, this provides us with a simple method of clearing the 
screen. Also, if we load B with the correct value, we can 
simply jump to the routine at $A92A, to put the value in B 
on the screen. That's pretty handy. 

How about getting a keypress? Another ROM routine? 
Sure, why not? The routine which most resembles the 
IN KEY command of BASIC is located at $AICI. This 
routine will return the value of the keypress in the A register. 
The value of the keypress is in ASCII. On an ASCII conver- 
sion chart, zero to eight are represented as $30 to $38. If we 
subtract $30 in each case, we will end up with the correct 
values we need for this task. Hmmm, the graphic blocks 
which correspond to the color values are: CLS(0) = $80, 



98 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



PRETTY PRINTER 

This M/L utility program will allow you to write your 
code in as compact a form as you wish, but list itto 
the screen or printer in an easy to read 'PRETTY 
PRINT' format. Turn this: - 

1 □ PRINT"EXAMPLE": FORX=ATO M:FORY=STO 
P:Z=X +Y:PRINTZ:NEXTY:NEXTX 

Into this: - 10 PRINT "EXAMPLE": 

FOR X = A TO M: 
FOR Y = STO P: 
Z = X + Y: 
PRINT Z: 
NEXT Y: 
NEXT X 

With one simple command. 

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Send control codes to your printer. 
Set left and right margins at any time. 
Set headers and footers. 
Left, Right and Fill Justify. 
Centre the next 'n' lines. 
Temporary indent (neg or pos]. 
Plus many other features 

CAT. NO. 0M002 16K Ext $24.95 
CONVERT 

Have you ever wondered how many cubits there are 
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CAT. NO. 0M006 16K Ext $9.95 



DATAMAIL 

The ultimate cassette based mailing list program 
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letter program. Merge two or more lists, search by 
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AHHA Find the treasure chest in Another 
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the Old Miser's ghost. 

CAT. NO. DM005 16K Ext $9.95 
COCOCOPY 

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CLS(I) = $8F, CLS(2) = $9F, CLS(3) = $AF, CLS(4) = 
$BF,CLS(5) = $CF,CLS(6) = $DF,CLS(7) = $EF,CLS(8) 
= $FF. 

Except f or CLS(O) all the graphic blocks are separated by 
$7F. But the values from one to eight will be too small; we 
need values ranging from $10 to $80, to make this work. 
What we have to do is shift the values four places, which will 
effectively multiply the values within by $10. Okay, I think 
we're ready to program. In Listing 2, you will have the 
program which will operate the same as the BASIC program 



Software Review . . 



in Listing I. 












Listing 2: 












OEOO 






M M 1 MM 




urvo 


<t\ P" ("i ("i 

v C yj yj 


OEOO 


BD 


AQ?D 


C) C) \ 1 f) 


START 


JSP 




0E03 


BD 


H 1 L 1 


MM 1 Tl 




1 SR 


*a 1 r i 


0E06 


27 


FB 


00 1 30 




BED 


WAIT 


0E08 


81 


31 


00 1 40 




CMF : 'A 


#$31 


GEO A 


25 


10 


00 1 50 




BLD 


ZERO 


OEOC 


81 


38 


00 1 60 




CNPA 


#*3B 


OEOE 


2E 


OC 


00 1 70 




BGT 


ZERO 


OEIO 


80 


30 


001 80 




SUBA 


#*30 


OE12 


48 




00 1 90 




LSLA 




OE 1 3 


48 




00200 




LSLA 




0E14 


48 




0021 0 




LSLA 




OE 1 5 


48 




00220 




LSLA 




0E16 


8B 


7F 


00230 




ADDA 


#*7F 


0E18 


IF 


89 


00240 




TFR 


A,B 


OE1A 


20 


02 


00250 




BRA 


CLS 


OE 1 C 


C6 


80 


00260 


ZERO 


LDB 


#$80 


OE1E 


BD 


A92A 


00270 


CLS 


JSR 


*A92A 


0E21 


20 


EO 


00280 




BRA 


WAIT 






OEOO 


00290 




END 


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64K Hits The Market 
With This Word Pro 'Plus' 



To sum a review in one sentence, it appears that the CoCo 
has finally come of age. The 64 K Screen Expander by Com- 
puterware is a cassette based program that requires a 64K 
color computer with Extended BASIC. A CLOADM com- 
mand followed by an EXEC gives you a full 51 characters 
across, 24 lines, upper and lower case screen. The program 
to enable the 64K option is built-in and is automatic. What if 
you hit the reset button? No sweat. The program is protected 
against reset. It works too! What about the PRINT@ 
statement? No problem. 

Actually the 51 x 24 screen is only part of the package. 
Another program supplied is a "Character Set Editor" on 
the reverse side of the tape. Written in BASIC the 
"CHRGEN"gives you the opportunity to design your own 
custom character sets. After a CLOAD and RUN you are 
treated to the entire character set on the top half of the 
screen. The bottom half of the screen has a menu of com- 
mands and a 5 x 8 array of dots. Af ter selecting the character 
you wish to alter you can either use the joystick or arrow 
keys/ spacebar to design your own. After each character, 
you have the choice of whether to quit or continue, or save 
the set to either tape or disk. The custom character set then 
may be used at any time by a CLOAD command after 
running the Screen Expander. 

Now, back to the main package. Even though it is not 
specified, the program resides in high (SF800) memory. I 
think it would have been nice of the authors to tell us exactly 
where so as to prevent any wipeouts, even though it's pretty 
unlikely at that location. Also, no mention is made of 
whether the program is relocatable. At the same time, user 
options are as follows: 

HI-RES SWITCH — Regular or hi-res screen. 
DISPLAY MODE — Normal or inverted characters. 
PRINT@MODE — Modify syntax of PRINT® statement. 
CHARACTER SET POINTER — Start of lookup table. 
COPY TEXT TO GRAPHIC — Copy the hi-res text screen 

to the current graphics page. 
COPY GR APHICTO TEXT - Copy current graphic pages 

to hi res text screen. 
SETUP PAGE 0 AS PMODE 4 — Simulate PMODE 4, 0 
The last three subroutines allow the combination of gra- 
phics and text on a high resolution screen. 

In summary, I recommend this program to anyone as an 
excellent utility for whatever use you have in mind. The 
program seems to be problem f ree and immune to my stand- 
ard accidental "wipeout" procedures. To move the program 
to disk, you may try a SA F£AT t R64K5IC ,, ,&H4000,&H48FF, 
&H4000. It seems to work just fine. 

(Computerware, P.O. Box 68, Encinitas, CA 92024, $24.95 
tape, $29.95 disk) 

— Dan Downard 



100 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



NEW for the Color Computer TIXS-80 

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Places the file nates of your disk directory into 

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Create tape backups of your disks. A disk to tape, tape 

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An error handler for BASIC programs. Allows your 

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Create a directory of your tapes. Lists prograt naie, 

length of prograi, start, end, and transfer addresses 

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TAPELIB $12.95 

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Write for a free catalog of these and other products. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



Software Review . . . 

Protectors Called 
Outstanding Arcade Game 

Video games are really hot these days. To get a shot at 
your favorite game, you will normally have to wait your turn 
in the arcade, and as soon as you are killed, it costs you 
another quarter to play again. With the difficulty and com- 
plexity of today's games, you can very quickly spend your 
entire allowance f or the week in a matter of minutes. Fortu- 
nately, our CoCo is, among other things, a great game 
playing machine, and the major software firms have seen fit 
to translate our favorite games into a language that CoCo 
can understand. 

Protectors is a 32K machine language game which is 
patterned af ter the popular Defender. For those of you who 
are not familiar with the game, the object is to defend your 
city from the waves of enemy fighters who are constantly 
dropping bombs on it. In order to do this, you must zap the 
enemy fighters with your laser cannon bef ore they drop their 
bombs. If you can't manage to do that, you can still zap the 
bombs before they hit your city. Of course, the enemy fighter 
planes are not your only problem. There are heat seeking 
mines, a mother ship that zeros in on you, and a sort of 
mini-ship that you can barely see but you can hear. You also 
have four "smart" bombs per ship and there are three skill 
levels that you can choose from. There is also a pause 
feature, and you get a new ship with each 5,000 points. 

After you load the program and EXEC it, one of your 
ships appears in the upper left hand corner of the screen, and 
begins firing to the right and moving down. As it does, the 
title screen begins to appear. After you select the skill level 
you want, the action begins. 

At first, the action is slow and there are not too many 
enemy fighters or heat-seeking mines. As you complete each 
"attack wave," the action speeds up and there are more 
enemy fighters to contend with. At the same time, the heat 
seeking mines become more difficult to avoid, and the mini- 
ships and mother ship begin to harass you. At about attack 
wave 10, the screen is really becoming full, and some of the 
enemy fighters are turning into kamikaze fighters. Around 
attack wave 15, it is almost impossible to stay alive. There 
are enemy fighters, heat seeking mines, and the like all over 
the place, and everything is moving about with amazing 
speed. Eventually, you are killed off, and you get the chance 
to give your joystick button and your fingers a well deserved 
rest. So far, my best score is just under 95,000, and believe 
me, you will need a rest after scoring that many points. 

Protectors has outstanding graphics and sounds, and the 
attention to detail is truly amazing. One of the things I liked 
most about it, though, was that I was able to out-score my 
brother, Steve, who can regularly double or triple my best 
scores on all the other games that we have played. Protectors 
is one of the finest games that I have ever seen, and it is a 
must for all of you arcade game fans out there. Even if you 
don't like games, you should buy it just to see what CoCo is 
capable of doing in the hands of a master programmer. 

(Tom Mix Software, 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, MI 

49505, $24.95 tape, $27.95 disk) 

— Gerry Schechter 



102 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Superior Graphic St^Ueaic Products 



HOME OF MOTION PICTURE PROGRAMMING 
NATIONALLY ACCLAIMED PROGRAMS FOR THE 

TRS-80 * COLOR COMPUTER * 



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TALKING GRAPHIC DEMONSTRATION 

When someone sees your CoCo and asks Just what does this thing do?" then load TALKING GRAPHIC 
DEMO and let your computer do its own show and tell, complete with musical background and a running 
commentary. As quoted in THE RAINBOW. This is, frankly, better than anything the people who sell the 
machines have. 

Extendedcolor basic Tapeonly $24.95 

THE DISK DOCTOR 

DISK DOCTOR That disk with the vital information you forgot to back up just crashed! Don't PANIC. Take 2 

aspirin, count to 1 0, and put in an emergency gall for THE DISK DOCTOR. This program will salvage machine 
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MPP-TUTORIAL 

MPP- TUTORIAI The programming tool of the professionals. You may not be a great artist, but you too can 

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Extended color basic - specify tape or disk 



EL CASINO 



EL CASINO. ...Three startling, action-packed high resolution graphic games, ideal for den and rumpus room 
parties. Games are programed with MPP graphics, and each is over 14k long. 

DICE GAME.. 

•This is the only craps game on the market that allows 4 players to make any or all of 12 field bets 
before every roll. The graphic banker automatically tracks and displays bets as they are made. True Casino 
action on your CoCo. BLACKJACK.. 

..The famous card counter not only shows the cards remaining in the deck, but computes the 

odds on hitting your hand with the cards remaining. Las Vegas rules apply. 

super sound effects. 

H SLOT MACHINE.. 

..Looks and sounds like a Casino machine, 
(if any) hits the tray with a nice "clunk' 1 . Adjustable odds. ..make it easy on yourself if you like. 
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Paint An ASCII Border 
'Round The 01' CoCo 

By Ray Gauvreau 




Have you got the green screen blues? Want to liven up 
your title pages? Impress your friends? The following is a 
short program designed to place a character border around 
the alphanumeric display screen. This position independent 
code is very short and very f ast and will 'paint' the edges with 
any printable ASCII character, either graphic or 
alphanumeric, reverse field or normal. 

The routine can be created by running the BASIC 
program which POKES the routine into high memory. Once 
created, the code can be saved by typing in 
CSVlF£M"BORDER'\16352, 16380, 16352. You can 
append the BASIC lines 10 through 70 to your own basic 
programs. Once in memory the routine is called by the basic 
command X=USR0(Y). In this form X can be any value 
because it is not used, and Y is set to the ASCII value of the 
character you wish to frame with. 



PAY WHAT YOU WANT 

for home and business software 
RS CoCo and TDP-100 

16/32K Disk or Cassette 
Extended Color Basic Required 



Til explain some of the BASIC program. Line 10 clears 
some string space and then protects high memory beginning 
at 16325. This is where the code is to begin. Line 20 reads the 
values stored in the DA TA statements 50 to 70 and POKES 
these values one at a time into memory. Line 30 tells the 
computer where to go when it encounters the USR0 
command, such as the one used on line 160. The rest of this 
program sets up and calls the routine. First you are asked to 
INPUTa. number, then this is checked to see if it is greater 
than 32767 as this is the largest value the routine can handle. 
Lines 120 and 140 each call the subroutine with a different 
value inside the brackets. The USR0 values don't always 
correspond to the ASCII you would expect. Play with it. 

The listing: 

10 CLEAR200, 16352 

20 FOR R= 16352 TO 16380: READ P:P 

OKE r,p:next R 

30 DEFUSR0= 16352 

40 'THESE DATA STATEMENTS HOLD 

THE MACHINE LANGUAGE ROUTINE 

50 DATA 189, 179, 237, 31, 152, 

142, 4, 0, 16, 142 

60 DATA 4, 31, 237, 137, 1, 224, 

237, 164, 49, 168 
70 DATA 32, 237, 129, 140, 4, 32 
, 38, 240, 57 

80 'TO SAVE THE ROUTINE TYPE 
CSAVEM" BORDER", 16352, 16380, 16352 
90 'THE REST OF THIS PROGRAM IS 
DEMONSTRATION 



100 CLS : INPUT "INPUT THE ASCII 
NUMBER FOR THE BORDER YOU WANT 

" ; BN 

110 IF BN>32767 THEN GOTO 100CLS 

120 CLS RND (8) :X=USR0(BN) 

130 PRINT6168, "IT'S SHOW TIME"; 

140 X=USR0(BN ) 

150 FOR R=l TO I: NEXT 

160 X=USR0(BN-3) 

170 FOR T=l TO I: NEXT 

180 IF I>1 THEN 1=1-1 ELSE 1=50 

190 IF INKEY*=""THEN140 

200 GOTO 100 



BUDGET RECORD 

Income & outlay by 99 categories. Great ten taxes. 32k. 

MAILING LIST 

Makes label* printouts end alphabetized lists. M/L son. 

APPOINTMENT BOOK 

Prim a calendar with any number of memos/day, <32H, Requires 
printer with compressed characters) 

GRADE BOOK 

Make rolls £i grade sheets, complete with stats and totals. 

ALSO AVAILABLE 

Ftione Dock. Sales Record, Cor Repairs. Diet Delight. Grocery List. 

The Fine Print* 

Oder two programs maximum. Send shipping /handling in advance 

(1— &4.0Q; 2 — So. 00), Afte* using the proa/am. pay only what the program 

Is wonh to you. Let s try applying right livelihood to the software industry! 

Specify 16/32K ond type of printer. 



Bruck Associates 
6609 Westmoreland Ave. 
Tokoma Park, MD 20912 
(301 ) 270-5622 

Free catalogue on request 




104 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Software Review . . . 

Kzirgla Has Good Graphics, 
Sound, But Lacks Diversity 

Adventure games are the best thing for microcomputers 
since Space Invaders. They require skill, luck, curiosity, and 
patience. I have played enough Adventures to know that 
skill and curiosity are a necessity. On the whole I play text 
Adventures. But it is my real dream to play graphics Adven- 
tures with hundreds of rooms and zillions of treasures. Well, 
if you are thinking of buying Conquest of Kzirgla for trea- 
sure hunting you can forget that idea right now! 

Conquest of Kzirgla is a 16 K Adventure game made by 
Rainbow Connection Software. You load the game by 
doing a CLOADM\ then, suddenly, a graphics display 
materializes while the game is loading. That is very impres- 
sive. Once loaded, it asks you if the hit point values and 
strength values are to your liking. Usually they are, but it is 
better to have high hit points, in my opinion. Throughout 
the game the text words are expressed in an ersatz Old 
English. That is a nice touch! 

After youanswer"yes v, or"no, , 'you enter the high resolu- 
tion graphics screen. Here you see a maze being drawn 
remarkably fast. I was extremely impressed by the way the 
mazes were constructed and drawn. When the entire maze is 
drawn, two little figures are put on the screen: your charac- 
ter and the wizard. By the way, your goal is to destroy this 
wizard by any means possible. Unfortunately, if you get too 
close to him in the beginning it is automatic suicide! Not 
only do you have to kill him, but you have to do battle with 
his henchmen. 

There are six creatures who have only one goal in mind. 
That goal is to destroy you in any way possible. The crea- 
tures' names are very unusual. The six names are Cellapod, 
Centapor, Mantoid, Jartrex, Cadaver and Tantrite. Each 
monster has its own strengths and weaknesses. As you go 
deeper into the mazes more creatures appear. I have made it 
all the way into level 10 and have seen the next to last 
creature, Cadaver. 

The nice thing about this game is that your character 
moves very fast and has a nice shape. Some games make 
your character look like a dot or a square. You are capable 
of firing fireballs or deathrays. Also, you obtain weapons 
such as clubs and daggers as the game goes on. The only 
catch is that for every fireball, deathray or shield used, you 
use so much energy. The numbers and letters at the bottom 
of the screen flow very smoothly and have a nice look about 
them. 

The instruction manual that comes with the game is very 
informative. It explains your goal and describes the mons- 
ters. I would hate to meet any of them in a dark alley! (Or 
anywhere besides my CoCo screen, for that matter.) Also, it 
gives you a list of commands and what they do. 

This is a well-constructed Adventure game, but I must say 
this: though at first, the adventure is fun and interesting, it 
soon becomes monotonous. All you do is kill. There are no 
treasures to find or special spells to cast. By the time I got to 
level 10, the boredom had overtaken me. 

The next time Rainbow Connection Software makes a 
maze Adventure they should think about putting treasures 
and spells in the game. Also, it would have been nice if they 
had a game save feature in the program. If you are interested 
in purchasing a game for great graphics and fantastic sound, 
this is the game for you. On the other hand, if you want to 
buy a game to search for treasures and use your mind this is 
not the one. 

(Rainbow Connection Software, 3514 6th Place N.W., 
Rochester, MN 55901, $21.95 cassette, $26.95 disk) 

—Ken Ostrer 



MASTER DIRECTORY 

Put order in your life! Have your diskettes multiplied 
and now are out of control? MASTER DIRECTORY Mill sort 
out your problems and locate all of your programs, 
Only takes seconds to add all of the files on one 
diskette to the master directory. 

X Master listing by diskette number with description, 

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diskette sequence or program sequence, 

i Basic for easy customizing! fast mach lang sort 

i Requires 32k with printer 

t Onlv $20 



Qth*r C0C0PR0 products; (All machine language! 



FULL mm EDITOR - 
Adds arrow-key 
programs, 



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control for editing of basic 



REVERSI $9 

"Othello" 

EXPANDED DIRECTORY $15 

Saves 120 tiles on one diskette, 

COLOR DIRECTORY m 

Fantastic D I R ' 

C0C0SL0TS $9 

Las Vegas at home. 



CASSETTE DIRECTORY 

List program name, length o+ basic program or 
start, end and transfer addresses for mach lang 
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ST LOUIS, HO 63141 



RAINBOW 

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Postage paid on all pre-paid orders in continental U.S. 
HO residents include 5.6257. sales ta>.\ 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 105 




USING GRAPHICS 



OLYGONS ! 



By Don Inmnn 



Rainbow Contributing Editor 




This is the seventh of a series of articles on the graphic 
capabilities of Extended Color BASIC on the TRS-80 Color 
Computer. It goes beyond the material that was covered in 
the book TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics. The material is 
copyrighted by Don Inman. 

"A polygon is a plane figure consisting of n points, pi , p2, 

p3, , pn, called vertices, and of n line segments pip2, p2p3, 

...... pn-i p n , p n pi called sides. A polygon of three sides is a 

triangle; of four sides is a quadrilateral, or five sides is a 

pentagon, , of n sides is an n-gon."(From Mathematics 

Dictionary by James and James; D. Van Nostrand Com- 
pany, Inc.) 

In this article, we will restrict our discussion to regular 
polygons. A polygon is regular if its sides are equal and its 
interior angles are equal. 

Examples: 




Triangle 

n-3 




Quatrilateral 

n = 4 





Hexagon 
n = 6 



Pentagon 

n = 5 



In last month's article, a general program was developed 
which drew a rectangle when given its height (H), and width 
(W) and the coordinates of one vertex (corner), XO,YO. It 
was discovered that the rectangle could be rotated by using 



the sine and cosine functions to draw the lines at an angle to 
the horizontal or vertical axes. 



X2,Y2 




XI, Yl 



X0,Y0 



solid line — rotated rectangle 
dotted line — original rectangle 



I) 



2) 
3) 



XI = X0 + COS(A) * L 
YI=Y0 — SIN(A)*L 
X2 = XI — SIN(A)* H 
Y2 = YI — COS(A)* H 
X3 = X2 — COS(A)* L 
Y3 = Y2 + SIN(A) * L 
Since all sides of a regular polygon are equal, it would 
seem that a similar, but simpler, technique could be devel- 
oped for regular polygons. Let's first examine a specific case, 
the regular pentagon. 

Starting at the lower left corner X0,Y0, draw a line of 
length L with no rotation (A = 0) to the pont X1,YI. 

y 



* / 

* i 



t 



X0,Y0 



X1,Y1 



It is clear that X 1 = XO+Land Yl =Y0. But, since the cosine 
of zero degrees equals 1 and the sine of zero degrees equals 0, 



106 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



the relationships could have been stated as: 

XI = XO + COS(O) * L and Y I = YO + SIN(O) * L 
Next, consider the angle A between the extended line 

from X0,Y0 through XI,YI and the line segment from 

XI,YI toX2,Y2. 



X0,Y0 




X1,Y1 

Angle A = 180 - 108 = 72 degrees 

Angle A, as shown in the diagram is called an external angle. 
From what was learned about rotated rectangles last month, 
the coordinates of X2,Y2 can be stated as: 

X2 = XI + COS(72) * L and Y2 = YI + SIN(72) * L 
Turning the next corner through Angle A, we have the 
line segment from X2,Y2 to X3,Y3. The angle of rotation as 
measured from the horizontal is now A 4- A = 144 degrees. 

/ 

/ 

X3,Y3 / 




w 

X0,Y0 X1,Y1 

At this point, I would like to make the conjecture that the 
coordinates for the point X3,Y3 can be stated as: 

X3 = X2 + COS(l I) * L and Y3 = Y2 + SIN(144) * L 
Proceding through point X4,Y4 and back to XO, YO, this 
conjecture would lead to general equations for any coordi- 
nate pair that describes a vertex of the pentagon. 
Given X0,Y0 with N>I, 
Xn= Xn-t + COS({n-I)*A) * L 
Yn = Yn-i + SIN((n-I)*A) * L 



3*A 



4*A 




If this is true, a regular pentagon can be drawn by the 



computer using a BASIC program with two known 
variables: 

L = length of the equal sides 

X0,Y0 = coordinates of one vertex 
Now look at the size of the external angles of the following 
regular polygons. 




n = 6 n = 5 
n*A = 360 n*A = 360 




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April, 1983 the RAINBOW 107 



it appears that the sum of the external angles of any 
regular polygon is 360 degrees. Another way to state this is 
that if you know the number of sides (N) of a regular 
polygon, an external angle can be found by: 
A = 360/N 

If this is true, any regular polygon can be drawn by a 
computer using a BASIC program with three known 
variables: 

N = number of sides 

L = length of one side 

X0,Y0 = the coordinates of one vertex 
Keeping in mind that the angles for trigonometric 
functions must be stated in radians for the BASIC program 
and that 2tt radians = 360 degrees, a single FOR-NEXT 
loop can be set up to do all the work. 
First define some variables: 

N = number of sides 

A = angle in radians 

S = 27r/N the step for the loop 

P = 2tt — S the exit limit of the loop 
With XI = X0 and YI = Y0 as the loop is entered, the 
FOR-NEXT loop becomes: negative to convert dis . 

FOR A = 0TOPSTEPS / p i ay to Cortesian coor- 
X2 = X 1 + COS(A) * L / dinates 
Y2 = YI — SIN(A) * L * .8«— adjustment for screen 

LINE(X I , Y 1 )— (X2, Y2),PSET distortion 

XI = X2: YI = Y2 end point of one line 

NEXT A becomes start of next 

The following program was written so that the pentagon 
drawing portion is a subroutine. In this way, it can be added 
to any program that you wish. The main program is written 
in three function modules. 



1. Input 

This module clears the text screen and then requests the 
inputs N, L, and X0,Y0 in succession. 



Number of sides ? 3 



Number of sides ? 3 
Length of sides ? 80 



Number of sides ? 3 
Length of sides ? 80 
Initial X,Y ? 40,40 



2. Screen Set-up 

This module sets the graphics screen to two-color, high 
resolution and sets the colors to provide black lines on a 
green background. 

3. Program Control 

This module inverts the Y axis so that the first quadrant of 
the Cartesian Coordinate System is displayed. It also allows 
for a correction factor of 0.8 to the Y axis. The drawing 
subroutine is called, and upon return, INKEYS is used to 
hold the graphics screen until a key is pressed. At that point, 
a return is made to the first module. 

The subroutine uses the FOR-NEXT loop, described 
previously, to draw the desired polygon. 




Listing for Regular Polygons 



END 



01C4 



("I CAN TALK!") TALK PROCESSOR 

Quick and easy to use. No programming required. Has 
26 common words. Justtype in 2-letter codes and make 
hundreds of statements in 3 voices. Uses digitally 
recorded human speech. "Extremely clear". Rated good - 
Rainbow Nov. 82 16K Ext. Basic $14.95 

"ADD-A- VOICE" - to your own Basic programs. 

A machine language utility (uses 4 K). Generate digitized 
human speech with just a few simple Basic commands. 
GAME SET (I, WIN, GOT, YOU, etc.) and QUIZ SET (YES, 
NO, RIGHT, GOOD, etc.). You get both sets - 25 words 
total. Specify 1 6K or 32K. Needs no Ext. Basic. $14.95 

SUB-MISSION - HI-RES COLOR ACTION GAME 

for16KExt. Basic. BONUS: Order Sub-Mission and get 
"Missle Attack Underground" game FREE. 
JOYSTICK REQUIRED $12.95 

For immediate shipment send certified check or money order. 
Personal check orders shipped in 2 weeks. Send to H.I.B., 3505 
Hutch Place, Chevy Chase, MD 20851. Phone 301 656-1825 after 
6 p.m Add $1 00 for shipping. 

I - - n RAINBOW 

H . I . D . SO FT WA R E CERT £r oN 
FOR THE TRS 80 COLOR COMPUTER 



100 REM *** INPUT 
110 CLS 

120 INPUT "NUMBER OF SIDES" ; N 
130 INPUT "LENGTH OF SIDES" ;L 
140 INPUT"INITIAL X,Y";X1,Y1 
150 * 

200 REM *** SCREEN SET UP *** 

210 PMODE 4, 1 

220 PCLS1 

230 COLOR 0, 1 

240 SCREEN 1,0 

250 * 

300 REM *** PROGRAM CONTROL *** 
310 Y1=181-.8*Y1 
320 GOSUB 5000 

330 IF INKEY*="" THEN 330 ELSE 1 
10 

340 END 

350 ' 

5000 REM *** POLYDRAWSUB *** 

5010 S=6.2832/N 

5020 P=6.2832-S+.01 

5030 FOR A = 0 TO P STEP S 

5040 X2=X1+C0S<A)*L 

5050 Y2=Y1-SIN<A)*.8*L 

5060 LINE (XI, Y1)-<X2, Y2) , PSET 

5070 X1=X2: Y1=Y2 

5080 NEXT A 

5090 RETURN 



108 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 




Fly your spaceship through 
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L = 80 
X,Y = 40,40 



\ 



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L = 60 
X,Y = 60,40 



/ 



N = 4 
L = 80 
X,Y = 40,40 



N = 5 
L = 60 
X,Y = 60,40 



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Mathematics teachers take great joy in pointing out to 
their students that a regular polygon approaches a circle as 
the number of sides increase and the length of the sides 
decrease. The Regular Polygon program can be used to 
demonstrate that fact. However, by making a few changes, 
you can put polygons alongside each other that differ in just 
that way. The program will automatically increase the 
number of sides and decrease their length as each successive 
polgon is drawn. 

These changes will do the job: 

1. Delete lines 120, 130, and 140 

2. Add these lines: 

250 for N = 3 TO 15 STEP 3 
260 X1 = 18*N-54: Yl =80 
270 L=120/N 

3. Replace lines 330 and 340 with: 

330 FOR W = 1 TO 200: NEXT W 
340 NEXT N 

4. Add: 

350 IF INKEYS = " " THEN 350 ELSE 1 10 

360 END 

370' 

The complete listing follows with a sample screen display 
of its execution. 



Listing for Manypol 

100 REM *** INPUT 
110 CLS 
150 * 

200 REM *** SCREEN 




SET UP *** 



110 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



210 PMODE 4, 1 

220 PCLS1 

230 COLOR 0 , 1 

240 SCREEN 1,0 

250 FOR N=3 TO 15 STEP3 

260 Xl=18*N-54: Yl=80 

270 L=120/N 

280 ' 

300 REM *** PROGRAM CONTROL *** 

310 Y1=181-.8*Y1 

320 GOSUB 5000 

330 FOR W=l TO 200: NEXT W 

340 NEXT N 

350 IF INKEY*="" THEN 350 ELSE 11 



Screen display for Manypol Program 



% i 

t t 



1 I 
1 1 



'A 

1 % 



1 V 

1 t 
« I 



0 

360 END 
370 ' 

5000 REM *** POLYDRAWSUB *** 

5010 S=6.2832/N 

5020 P=6-2832-S+.01 

5030 FOR A = 0 TO P STEP S 

5040 X2=X1+C0S<A)*L 

5050 Y2=Y1-SIN<A)*.8*L 

5060 LINE(X1, Y1)-(X2, Y2) , PSET 

5070 X1=X2: Y1=Y2 

5080 NEXT A 

5090 RETURN 



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April, 1983 the RAINBOW 111 



Micro-Meltdown 

A Nuclear Reactor Simulation 

By 

Chris Latham 
and 

John Erickson 



(Editor's Note: The following article and program, as 
well as others in this issue, are intended to acquaint 
Rainbow readers with the concept of computer Simu- 
lations. NUKE SIM was especially commissioned by 
the Rainbow to help kick off our Simulation Contest. 
In order to ensure that we had a first-rate Simulation 
to serve as an example, we contacted two top-flight 
programmers whose accomplishments — Chris 
Latham, for instance, is the author of Donkey King — 
are too numerous to be listed here. Their NUKE SIM 
program, however, is listed here, in its entirety. I sit a 
good one? Well, here at the Rainbow, we feel like 
patrons of the arts.) 

The obvious first steps to any project based on practical 
engineering are toward research. In this case, the local pub- 
lic library provided the texts (listed below) which became the 
basis for the nuclear reactor simulator program, NUKE 
SIM. 

Another extremely helpful step is the enlistment (or draft- 
ing if necessary) of a kindly engineer conversant with the 
field in question. In this case, engineering advice was pro- 
vided by Mr. Gary Sandburg; who, when suitably bribed 
with a cherry walnetto, proved a marvel at digging out his 
old physics textbooks. 

It would seem prudent to seek a general understanding of 
the operations involved in the selected topic; then press for 
the "what went wong" of it all. This time around, the events 
at Three Mile Island provided most helpful insight into 
operations (and breakdowns) in normal and extremely 
abnormal conditions. 

A final note relates to the accuracy of NUKE SIM'S 
operation. A layman cannot acquire enough practical 
knowledge and understanding within 30 days to design and 
program an accurate-in-all-detail model of such a complex 
power plant. What follows, then, is an approximation which 

112 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




still has many of its own surprising quirks, compounded by 
others more representative of the thermodynamics involved. 
The program, at times, develops a curious disregard for the 
wishes and intentions of the operator — a disregard which 
remains a mystery to its authors. 

The following apparati have been deleted because of 
memory and/ or time constaints: 

1 Steam generator 

3 Primary coolant pumps 
48 Various pumps between the turbines and the secondary 

feedwater pumps 
28 Polishers (mineral filters) 

2 Code relief valves 

1 Pressure relief valve 
1 Let down valve 

3 Core coolant pumps 

And a partridge in a pear tree. 

Workings 

The operation of a nuclear power plant is much the same 
as that of a steam locomotive. A heat source is applied to a 
vessel partially filled with water, producing steam under 
pressure. The steam is used to either turn wheels (the motive 
in locomotive) or electrical generators (the motive in power 
plants). So, the simulator in hand is largely a plain old steam 
plant. A plant fired by oil, gas or coal would function in the 
same manner except, or course, its waste products would 
not require 150,000 years of close arrest. 

The nuclear core in such a power plant is capable of 3,41 1 
megawatts of thermal energy, which is available as 1092 
megawatts of electricity — which amounts to 32 percent effi- 
ciency. This is the coal fire in the steam plant and heats the 
water in the primary loop. The water is kept at 2155 psi and 
580° F to prevent the formation of steam voids in the loop of 
three-foot diameter pipes. Such voids are as effective as 
closed valves in preventing coolant flow. 



The pressurizer is a large vessel connected to the "out" 
side of the reactor core vessel. This is knownas the "hot" side 
ofthe loop since thecoolant is at a high of 613° F. It is in the 
pressurizer that the one and only steam void is allowed to 
form in the primary loop. This void acts as an adjustable 
spring to provide pressure control in the loop; the adjust- 
ment being provided by a value (VI) to release steam and 
thus pressure and a water inlet (V2) which sprays water to 
cool the steam and lower the pressure. 

Farther along the loop is the steam generator where the 
heat from the primary loop is passed to the secondary loop. 
The temperature is thus reduced to 547° F in the primary 
with a corresponding rise in temperature in the secondary. 
The coolant now enters the primary coolant pumps. 

There are two of these pumps for each of the two steam 
generators — and they are of interesting size and power. The 
10,000 horsepower motors can push an aggregate 270,000 
gallons of coolant into the core each minute. Consider for a 
moment the possibilities. You could fill your swimming pool 
in just three seconds, the overspray easily accommodating 
your hot tub. You could wash your car. Away. Forever. The 
possibilities boggle the mind! But 1 digress. 

Also included in the primary loop is the array of pumps 
and valves designed to add "makeup" coolant when neces- 
sary. (This is represented in this program by a single pump 
-P4). 

On to the secondary or auxiliary loop. The steam genera- 
tor "heat sinks" the primary loop and absorbs some 66 
degrees of heat, which raises the secondary coolant parame- 
ters to about 1010 psi and 547° F. The steam thus generated 
is directed, first, to a high pressure and, second, to a low 
pressure turbine and then through a condenser which sinks 
remaining heat to a third coolant loop. It is this third loop 
which finally leaves the buildingand is, itself, cooled in those 
great thumping cooling towers. The secondary coolant, now 
cooled to its lowest temperature, proceeds to the "polishers" 
where unwanted minerals are removed and then back into 
the generator via the feedwater pump. And so on and so on, 
and round and round. 

Operations 

The program graphics are innocent of labels since anyone 
operating this program for a short length of time would soon 
find them redundant and distracting. Operators needing a 
memory refresh are advised to ask for LIST or EXIT after 
pushing (and patiently holding) the down arrow key in order 
to call the prompt — "Directive?". The CLE A R key is used to 
return from the RODS control. 

Pumps are P I ON or P 1 OFF with the exception of pump 
4, which must do double duty and so has the commands 
P4IN and P40UT. 

Valves are likewiseas simple, VI OPEN or VI CLOSE will 
give predictable results. 

In writing this program, it became necessary to have a 
screen dump of the graphics drawing. To do this, a short 
BASIC program was written that sends the upper 120 lines 
ofthe screen to a line printer VII. This short routine remains 
in lines 1460 to 1530, and may be used by typing PRINT at 
the 'DIRECTIVE?' question. Do make sure your printer is 
on. 

Further than this, there is only the random trouble gener- 
ator in line 1030 to warn about. The operator is advised to 
remainalert or introduce the letters REM right after this line 
number. And, of course, STOP is used to end the program. 

One last and very important note: you must CSA F£this 



program immediately after typing it in! 

DO NOT attempt to run it until you have the ML pro- 
gram in place and the whole thing on tape or on disk! Then, 
turn your CoCo off and then on again and CLOAD (or 
whatever). If the program should find an error and dump 
you while still in the graphics mode, you must type 
A=USRI(0) to get to someplace safe. 

The Program 

The program is divided into the following sections: 
10 — 70 Housekeeping 
80—670 Graphics 
680—1150 Operations 
1 160—1800 Commmands 
1810— END Exits 

A real attempt was made to make the variables indicate 
their functions; such as, ET(4) is the Event Timer for Operat- 
ing Condition 4 (OC(4)) and AF(4) is the Alarm Flag for 
alarm condition 4. 

Subroutines were kept as close as practicable to the 
"front" of the program to help speed operation. Wherever 
possible, if an operation was to be used more than once, it 
was configured as a subroutine. 

And that, Bro' Jake, is about as structured as we get. In 
the development of NUKE SIM, it became apparent that 
information in the form of text and numbers needed to be 
displayed on the H I-RES screen along with the graphics. As 
you may know, using DRA f^and LINE is not an adequate 
way of putting characters on the screen, mainly because of 
the slow speed of interpreted BASIC and the memory 
requirements. Therefore, an alternate means was chosen; 
that is, the use of a machine language program. 

This program had two basic requirements. First, it had to 
be invisible to the BASIC program. Second, it had to be 
written in Position Independent Code. The latter so that it 
could easily be added to the end of the BASIC program, 
thereby avoiding two separate loads. Those familiar with the 
6809 microprocessor may already understand that this is 
very easy to do, whereas, with other chips, it is not so easy 
(Hooray 6809!). 

It was decided thatsimple PRINT@ statements would be 
used to put the text on the screen. In other words, it would 
intercept BASIC'S print to the screen routine, draw the text, 
then return control to BASIC. As it turns out, there is a nice 
hook to use for the intercept; the hook at $ 1 67. In Extended 
Color BASIC (which is what NUKE SIM is designed for), 
the byte at $ 1 67 contains a J M P. The next two bytes are the 
location, so a new address is put there; the address of the 
M/L program. 

In reading the listing, you may note that one other hook 
was used, the one at $19A. This allows us to disable the 
BREAK key, thereby increasing the speed of the program. 
This routine is not foolproof; the BREAK key sometimes 
may still break, so 1 advise against pushing it. To exit the 
program, type STOP. This resets the hooks to their old 
addresses so a reset is not required. 

The operation ofthe program will not be discussed here; 
the comments should shed some light. 1 will say, however, 
that an editor/ assembler should be used for entering it, as it 
is 843 bytes long. 

The steps for tying the two programs together are very 
simple. First, type in the BASIC program, checking for 
syntax errors along the way. Line 1 0 is very critical since this 
is where the machine language program is executed. The 
assembly program is ORGed at 0000 as is written in the 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 113 



listing. Now, load the BASIC program and PRINT 
PEEK(21) * 256 + PEEK{2%). This is the end of the BASIC 
program. If this number were 10605, you would type 
CLOADM "HIRESTXT", 10605. The M/L program is 
now at the end of your BASIC program. 

The laststep is to change the pointers at 27 and 28. Take 
your number (in this case 10605), and add 843 to it (843 is the 
length, you'll recall). The new number would be 11448. 
Divide this number by 256 and poke the whole number 
(positive integer) into 27. 1 1448/ 256 =44.71 875 so 44 would 
be put in 27. Now, multiply 44 by 256 and subtract this from 
the original number (1 1448). This leaves 184, so poke this 
into 28. Do not, repeat, do not run the program at this time, 
as other pointers are not set properly. Save this program as 
NUKE SIM. Now CLOAD and have a good time being a 
nuclear engineer. 

This program is intended as an example of a simulation 
program to help contest entrants in the Rainbow's upcom- 
ing event and not as a state-of-the-art mastepiece. Time 
constraints prevented a full debugging, (although the oppor- 
tunity to prove my theory that programs are best tested by 
ninth grade science students was passed up with much 
regret) so there are centain to be flaws in the application of 
the laws of thermodynamics. If the reader should come 
across operational quirks disturbing to the intellect, he 
should on no account contact the authors; who have, with 
the printing of this page, washed their hands of the whole 
mess. 

Bibliography: 

Hodgman, Charles D., M .S. "Handbook of Chemistry and Physics"Cleve- 
land, Ohio: Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., 1957 

Martin, Daniel "Three Mile Island: Prologue or Epilogue?" Cambridge, 
Mass.: Ballinger, 1980 

Nero Jr., Anthony V. "A Guidebook to Nuclear Reactors" Berkeley, Calif.: 
Univ. of Calif. Press, 1979 

Stephens, Mark "Three Mile Island" New York: Random House, 1980 



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The listing: 

1 ******* NUKE SIM ******** 
*NUCLEAR REACTOR SIMULATOR* 
♦VERSION 1.0 COPYRIGHT <C>* 
*1983 BY JOHN ERICKSON AND* 
*CRIS LATHAM WRITTEN UNDER* 
♦CONTRACT FROM THE RAINBOW* 
****** JESUS IS LORD ****** 
10 CLS : CLE AR500 : A=PE;EK ( 27 ) *256+P 
EEK (28) : A=A-843: DEFUSR0=A: DEFUSR 
l=A+33: A=USR0 (0) : PM0DE3, 1 : PCLS (6 
) : GOSUB200: GOSUB210: PRINTQ320, " 
RED SCREEN HIT ENTER 
GREEN SCREEN HIT SPACEBAR" 
20 A=RND ( T I MER ) : A*= I NKE Y* : I FA*= " 
11 THEN20ELSE I FA*=CHR* ( 32 ) THENC 1 =7 
: C2=6ELSE I F A*=CHR* (13) THENC 1 =6 : C 
2=7ELSEGOTO20 

30 CLS : A=USR 1 ( 0 ) : D I MS0 ( 6 ) , S 1 < 6 ) , 
S2(6) ,S3(6) ,54(6) ,S5(3) ,S6(3) ,R1 
(4) ,A*(1) ,V1*(21) , AF(5) , AL*(5) ,0 
C(8) ,0T(8) :FORI=0TO3:READS5(I) ,S 
6(1): NEXT: FORI=0TO21 : READV1* ( I ) : 
NEXT: FORI=0TO5: READAL* ( I ) : NEXT 
40 DATA 78,100,160,79,160,43,212 
, 1 00 , RODS , P 1 ON , P 1 OFF , P20N , P20FF , 
P30N , P30FF , P4 IN, P40UT , P40FF , HEAT 
ON , HEATOFF , V 1 OPEN , V 1 CLOSE , V20PEN 
, V2CL0SE > MON 1 , M0N2 , AL , L I ST , STOP , 
EXIT 

50 DAT ARE ACTOR TRIPPED, PRESSURE 
RELIEF VALVE OPEN, LOW COOLANT IN 
STEAM GENERATOR, PRESSUR I ZER HEA 
TER TRIPPED, SECONDARY FEEDWATER 
PUMP OFF, TURBINES TRIPPED 

60 timer=0:ot=0:rh=32:ctp=97:pp= 

2 1 55 : P 1 =2 1 55 : PT=580 : PW=200 : GW=28 

8: sp=1010: st=547: oc ( l ) =1 : oc (2) =1 

: R=2 1 29 - 9955 : SR=2059 .1161: PV=2 1 2 
1 . 1 : VS= 1 060 . 55 : G V=3700 : TC=547 : TH 
=6 1 3 : A 1 *= " V3 1 L 1 00O4GL5G- " : A2*= " L 
100BL5C" 

70 A3*= " L255 V20O 1 ADCFBP 1 55V3 1 ADC 
FB AGED V 1 5 ADCFB AGED V6 ADCFB V4 AGED " 
: GOTO 11 60 

80 PM0DE3 , 1 : C0L0R4 , 1 : V*= " L2D 1 G 1 D 
4F1D1R2BR1 1R2U1E1U4H1U1L2" : P*="D 



114 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



"h 




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VISA 



1 0L24U 1 0R6E6R6F6 " : FOR I = 1 T04 : PCLS 
1 : DRAWBM24, 6XP*; " : ONI GOTO90, 10 

0. 110. 120 

90 GET (6, l)-(22, 15), S0 , G : DRAW 11 BM 
15, 1D14R2U14":GET(6, l)-(22, 15) ,S 

1, g:next 

100 draw" bm8, 8r14d1l14d1r14" : get 

(6, l)-(22, 15) , S2,G:NEXT 

1 10 DRAW 11 BM 1 1 , 3M+12, +10D1M-12, -1 

0D1M+12,+10":GET(6, l)-(22, 15) , S3 

,g:next 

120 DRAW"BM22, 3M-12, +10D1M+12, -1 
0D1M-12,+10":GET(6, l)-(22, 15) ,S4 

,g:pclsi 

1 30 DRAW " C 1 ; BM0 , 0R2D 1 ; C4D33L2NU3 
3D1 11 : COLORC1 : DRAW" R2" : GET (0, 0) - ( 
3, 35) , Rl , G: C0L0R4: PCLS1 : GOSUB140 
: GOSUB150: GOSUB370: GOSUB400: GOSU 
B160: GOSUB260: GCSUB430: GOSUB510: 
PAINT (31, 112) ,C1,4:GOSUB200:GOTO 
210 

1 40 DRAW " BM73 , 1 07D6L44U 1 0L 1 5U40R 
1 5U58R 1 04D 1 02R74D6L 1 1 0U6R28U96L8 
9D43R28D32R20U6L4H8U2 1 L 1 4U40R6D3 
6R8E8R4U28R6D28R4F8D25G8L4D 1 0L3 1 
U32L22D5R 1 4D40L 1 4D4R35BM80 , 70R 1 4 
D5L 1 4U5BM84 , 0D5R6U5BM255, 107L24D 
6R24BM58, 0D5R6U5" : RETURN 



RANS 



T 



See you at RAINBOWf est ! 

C.C.Calc *25 

Our own Electronic Spreadsheet for the Color Coaputer is a 
sophisticated but easy to use calculating and planning 
prograa. C.C.Calc takes the drudgery out of budgeting, 
taxes, and other planning activities. Reviewers have 
called it "Impressive", "Just Right", and "Powerful". 
You'll call it a Great Value. 32K Cas. or Disk. 
C.C.File %1 
A nifty little data base package with lots of uses. 
C.C. Writer *30 
A quick to learn and easy to use word processor. Right 
justification, Blobal coflwands, etc. Norks with any 
printer including daisy wheels. 16-32K Cas, 32K Disk. 
C.C. Mailer *20 
hailing list data base for CoCo and any printer. From 90 
to over 1000 records depending on your systea. The 
C.C.Kerger option aerges Name and Address with C.C. Writer 
letters. Up to 4 line Address. Disk or Cassette - $20, 
With C.C.Kerger option - $25 (Requires C.C. Writer) 
Mailer/Merger/Writer Pkg. *50 

194 Lockwood 
Bl oomi ngdal e , IL 60108 
(Personal Checks are Welcoae) 



RAINBOW 



150 DRAW 11 BM 124, 100NU80L6H8U65E8R 
6BR8ND80R7F8D3R8U6R8D 1 2L 1 6D 1 4R8D 
6L8D30R8D6L9G8L5BM 1 79 , 24NL8D6R28 
U6R8D 1 2L44U 1 2BM222 , 24D62L 1 2U5H3L 
8ND 1 7L9G3D5L8D6R8D5F3R3NU 1 7R 1 1 NU 
17R3E3U5R20U68L7" : RETURN 
1 60 DRAW " BM 1 78 , 50R26D 1 8R 1 8D6L25U 
1 8L 1 8U6BM255 , 68L24D6R24BM 1 83 , 24L 
32U 1 9R32D 1 9U8NR 1 9U 1 NR 1 9U 1 NR 1 9U 1 R 
1 9U8D 1 9R32U 1 9NL32D8R2 1D1L21D1R21 
D 1 L2 1 BM230 , 40R 1 0D4R 1 5BD4L 1 5D8R 1 5 
BD4L 1 5D4L 1 0BL8L 1 0U24R9 " 
1 70 DRAW " BM 1 80 , 1 6L3G5L 1 5U5L4U3R4 
U5R15F5R4": PAINT (162, 15) ,4,4:DRA 
W " BM232 , 1 6L3G5L 1 5U5L4U3R4U5R 1 5F5 
R4": PAINT (228, 15) ,4,4 
180 DRAW"BM96, 105XP*; BM178, 48XP* 
; BM178, 84XP*; BM230, 105XP*; BM56, 2 

0XV*;BM82,20XV*; ": paint (60,0) ,C2 

, 4: PAINT (60, 20) ,C2, 4: PAINT (218, 7 
3) ,C2,4:PAINT(235,73) ,C2,4:PAINT 
(234, 1 12) ,C2, 4: LINE (215, 51) -(239 
,51 ) ,PSET: PAINT (227, 52) ,C1„4:PAI 
NT(227,50) ,4,4 

190 PAINT(194,35) , 4, 4: PAINT (217, 
52) ,C2,4: PAINT (237, 52) ,C2,4:PAIN 
T (217, 50) ,C 1,4: PAINT (237, 50) ,C1, 
4:C0L0RC1 : LINE (215, 51) -(221, 51 ) , 
PSET:LINE(233,51)-(239,51 ) ,PSET: 
C0L0R4 : RETURN 

200 PRINTG320, STRING* ( 192, " " ) ; : 
RETURN 

210 PM0DE4, l: SCREEN 1, l:PM0DE3, l: 
RETURN 

220 REM RODS UP OR DOWN 
230 I FCTP > 1 00THENRETURNELSERM=F I 
X ( (CTP+l ) /3) : IFRM=RH THENRETURNE 
LSEIFRM>RH THEN250ELSEFORK=RM TO 
RH: GOSUB260: RH=RH-1 : NEXTK 
240 RH=FIX ( (CTP+l) /3) : RETURN 
250 FORK=RH TORM: GOSUB260: RH=RH+ 
l: NEXTK: GOTO240 

260 PUT(20,62-RH)-(23,97-RH) ,R1, 

PSET: RETURN 

270 REM PUMP MOTORS 

280 WP=WP+l: IFWP=5THENWP=1 

290 FOR I =0TO2 : I FOC ( 1+1 ) =0THENGOS 

UB350:NEXTELSEONWP GOSUB310,320, 

330, 340: NEXT 

300 IFOC(I+1)=0THEN350ELSEIFOC(I 

+2)=1THEN0NWP GOTO310, 320, 330, 34 

0ELSEONWP G0T03 1 0 , 340 , 330 , 320 

310 PUT(S5(I) ,S6(I) )-(S5(I)+16,S 

6(I)+14) , SI, PSET: RETURN 

320 PUT(S5(I) ,S6(I) )-(S5(I)+16,S 

6 ( I ) +14) , S4, PSET: RETURN 

330 PUT(S5(I) ,S6(I) )-(S5(I)+16,S 

6 ( I ) +14) , S2, PSET: RETURN 

340 PUT(S5(I) ,S6(I) )-(S5(I)+16,S 

6 (I) +14) , S3, PSET: RETURN 



116 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



350 PUT(S5(I),S6(I) )-(S5(I)+16,S 
6(1) +14) , S0, PSET: RETURN 
360 REM VALVE 1 OPEN OR CLOSED 
370 I FOC ( 7 ) =0THEN380ELSEDR AW "C1B 
M86 , 24R 1 4U3D6BM90 , 24C4R 1 4U3D6 " : A 
=PPO I NT ( 86 , 26 ) : COLOR A : DRAW " BM86 , 
0D4R2U4BD 1 2D 1 2L2U 12": C0L0R4 : RETU 
RN 

380 DRAW "CI BM90 , 24R 1 4U3D6BM86 , 24 
C4R14U3D6" : DRAW"BM86, 0C1D4R2U4BD 
1 2D 1 1 L2U 11": C0L0R4 : RETURN 
390 REM VALVE 2 OPEN OR CLOSED 
400 I FOC ( 8 ) =0THEN4 1 0ELSEDR AW " C 1 B 
M62 , 24L 1 4U3D6C4BM58 , 24L 1 4U3D6 " : C 
0L0RC2 : DRAW " BM60 , 24D26R2NU26R 1 0U 
1L10U1R10": RETURN 

410 DRAW "CI BM58 , 24L 1 4U3D6C4BM62 , 
24L 1 4U3D6 " : A=PPO I NT ( 74 , 48 ) : COLOR 
A: DRAW " BM60 , 25D25R2NU25R 1 0U 1 L 1 0U 
1R10C4": RETURN 

420 REM PRESSURIZER WATER LEVEL 
430 PW(1)=FIX ( (PW-100) /17) : IFPW< 
1 0 1 THEN460ELSE I FP W >400THEN470ELS 
E I FPW ( 1 ) =PW ( 2 ) THENRETURNELSEPW ( 
2 ) =PW ( 1 ) : PW ( 3 ) =0 : C0L0RC2 : G0SUB45 
0: LINE (74, 68-PW ( 1 ) ) - (102, 68-PW ( 1 
) > , PSET : PA I NT ( 86 , 68-PW ( 1 ) + 1 ) ,C1, 
C2: PAINT (86, 68-PW ( 1 ) -1 ) , 4, C2: COL 
0R4 

440 LINE(74,68-PW(1) )-( 102, 68-PW 




PREMIUM SOFTWARE 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

SISI (16K EXT. BASIC) $9.95 
Sisi the fortune telling computer uses data 
that you input to determine a character 
reading for you. 

COLORHYTHM (16K EXT. BASIC) $9.95 
Plots your biorhythm in hi-res graphics 
for 1 5 days. 

PRESCHOOL PAK (16K EXT. BASIC) $8.95 
Two preschooler learning drills. Contains 
ALPHABET & COUNTER. Makes use of 
hi-res graphics and sound. The kids think 
it's a game! 

MONEY MINDER II (16K) $14.95 
A cassette based personal finance pro- 
gram. Up to 56 user definable budget 
categories. Printout capability. Menu 
driven— easy to use. 

DISK MONEY MINDER 
(32K plus disk) $19.95 
Similar to MONEY MINDER II but for use 
with disk. Easier and faster to use. 



HARMONYCS 

P.O. BOX 1573 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84110 



RAINBOW 



( 1 ) > , PSET: GOSUB450: COLORC1 : LINE ( 
84 , 80 ) - ( 90 , 80 ) , PSET : C0L0R4 : GOSUB 
370:GOTO400 

450 DRAW " BM84 , 80L4H8U25E8R4U 1 5R6 
D 1 5R4F8D25G8L 1 0BM80 , 70R 1 4D5L 1 4U5 
" : RETURN 

460 PW (2) =5: I FPW ( 3 ) = 1 THENRETURNE 

LSEPW ( 3 ) = 1 : C0L0RC2 : GOSUB450 : PAIN 

T (86, 79) , 4, C2: C0L0R4 : GOSUB450 : CO 

LORC 1 : L I NE ( 84 , 80 ) - ( 90 , 80 ) , PSET : C 

0L0R4: GOSUB370: GOTO400 

470 PW ( 2 ) =5 : I FPW ( 3 ) = 1 THENRETURNE 

LSEPW ( 3 ) = 1 : C0L0RC2 : GOSUB450 : P A I N 

T (86, 25) , CI , C2: C0L0R4: GOSUB450: C 

OLORC 1 : L I NE ( 84 , 80 ) - ( 90 , 80 ) , PSET : 

C0L0R4: GOSUB370: GOTO400 

480 REM HEATON OR HEATOFF 

490 IF0C(6)=1THENPAINT(87,74) ,C1 

,4:RETURNELSEPAINT(87,74) , 1,4: RE 

TURN 

500 REM STEAM GENERATOR LINE 2 
510 GW(1)=FIX ( (GW-30) /11-4) : IFGW 
< 30THEN570ELSE I FGW ( 1 ) =GW ( 2 ) THENR 
ETURNELSEGW (2) =GW ( 1 ) : IFGW>600THE 
NRETURNELSEGW (3) =0: C0L0RC2: GOSUB 
550: LINE ( 1 13, 86-GW ( 1 ) ) - ( 122, 86-G 
W(l) > , PSET: LINE (135,86-GW(1) >-(l 
44,86-GW(l) ) ,PSET 

520 A=PPO I NT ( 1 46 , 86-GW ( 1 ) ) : I FA=C 
2 ORA=C2-4THEN530ELSEL I NE- ( 1 54 , 8 
6-GW ( 1 ) ) , PSET 

530 PAINT (116, 86-GW (1 )+l ) ,C1,C2: 
PAINT ( 137, 86-GW(l)+l ) ,C1,C2: PAIN 
T ( 1 1 6 , 86-GW ( 1 ) - 1 ) , 4 , C2 : PA I NT ( 1 37 
, 86-GW ( 1 ) -1 ) , 4, C2: C0L0R4: LINE- ( 1 
35,86-GW(l) ), PSET: LINE (113, 86-GW 
( 1 ) > - ( 122, 86-GW ( 1 ) > , PSET: IFPPOIN 
T ( 1 99 , 99 ) =4THENC0L0RC 1 : GOSUB560 : 
PAINT (199, 99) ,C1,C2 
540 I FPPO I NT ( 1 99 , 99 ) =8THENC0L0RC 
2: GOSUB560: PAINT ( 199, 99) , CI , C2: C 
0L0R4: GOSUB560: GOTO550ELSEGOTO55 
0 

550 DRAW "BM 124, 100NU80L6H8U65E8R 
6BR8ND80R7F8D3R8U6R8D 1 2L 1 6D 1 4R8D 
6L8D30R8D6L9G8L5 " : I F AF ( 5 ) = 1 THEND 
RAW " BM 1 54 , 30R8 " : L I NE ( 154, 25) - ( 15 
4 ,29) , PRESET: LINE ( 162, 25) - ( 162,2 
9) , PRESET : RETURNELSERETURN 
560 DRAW " BM222 , 5 1 D35L 1 2U5H3L8ND 1 
7L9G3D5L8D6R8D5F3R3NU 1 7R 1 1 NU 1 7R3 
E3U5R20U41L7" : RETURN 
570 GW ( 2 ) =30 : I FGW ( 3 ) = 1 THENRETURN 
ELSEGW ( 3 ) = 1 : C0L0RC2 : GOSUB550 : PA I 
NT (136, 99) , 4, C2: PAINT (121, 99) ,4, 
C2 : GOSUB560 : P A I NT ( 1 99 , 99 ) , 4 , C2 : C 
0L0R4: GOSUB550: GOTO560 
580 REM PRIM LOOP WATER INLET 
590 IFOC(4)=1ANDOC(5)=0THENPAINT 
(243, 112) ,Cl,4:COLORCl:GOTO600EL 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 1 



SEIF0C(4)=1THENPAINT(243, 112) ,C2 
, 4 : C0L0RC2 : GOTO600ELSEPA I NT ( 243 , 
112) ,C2,4:C0L0RC1 

600 DRAW " BM204 , 1 1 2L70U 1 R70U 1 L70U 
1R70U1L70C4" : RETURN 
610 REM PUMP3 WATER INLET 
620 I FOC ( 3 ) = 1 THENC0L0RC2 : DRAW " BM 
152, 51L4D1 R4D 1 L4D 1 R4D 1 L4 " : C0L0R4 
: RETURNELSEDRAW "BM152, 51L4D1 R4D 1 
L4D 1 R4D 1 L4 " : GW ( 2 ) =60 : G0T05 1 0 
630 DRAW"BM46,6R9F1L12G1R15D1L15 
F1R12BM106,6R13F1L15D1R15D1L15F1 
R13": RETURN 

640 COLORC 1 : GOSUB630 : C0L0R4 : RETU 
RN 

650 COLOR 1 

660 DRAW " BM 1 54 , 25R8D 1 L8D 1 R8D 1 L8D 
1 R8BR8R8U 1 L8U 1 R8U 1 L8U 1 R8BR28R8D 1 
L8D 1 R8D 1 L8D 1 R8BR8R8U 1 L8U 1 R8U 1 L8U 
1R8" : I FPPO I NT ( 1 54 , 25 ) =5THENC0L0R 
4ELSEC0L0R1 

670 DRAW " BM 1 64 , 30D6R2U6R2D6BR48U 
6R2D6R2U6" : C0L0R4: RETURN 
680 PO= (341 1*CTP*. 0032) : IFAF(5)= 
1THENPO=0: RETURNELSERETURN 
690 AT*="":CC=0 

700 A*= I NKE Y* : I F A*= " " THEN700ELSE 
IFLEN (AT*) >10THEN1370ELSEIFA*=CH 
R* ( 13) THENRETURNELSE I F A*=CHR* (8) 

— FORTH 
Including SEMI GRAPH I C-8 EDITOR 

+ UTILITIES 
-Disk and Tape utilities 
-Boot from disk or tape 
—Graphics and Sound commands 
-Printer commands 
-Auto-repeat and Control keys 
—Fast task multiplexing 
-Unique TRACE function in kernal 
-Clean INTERRUPT handling 

in HIGH-LEVEL FORTH 
-CPU CARRY FLAG accessible 
-Game of LIFE demo 
-ULTRA FAST: written in assembler 
—Directions included for 
installing optional ROM in 
disk controller or cartridge 
-Free Basic game "RATMAZE" 



<1 — Elllk 

FORTH 

Hoyt Stearns Electronics 

4131 E. CANNON DR. PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85028 

602-996-1 71 7 



THEN7 1 0ELSE I FA*< CHR* ( 48 ) THEN700E 
LSEAT*=AT*+A*: CC=CC+1 : PR I NT A*; : S 
OUND 1 50 , 1 : GOTO700 

710 I FCC=0THEN700ELSECC=CC-1 : SOU 
ND 1 50 , 1 : PR I NTA* ; : AT*=LEFT* ( AT* , C 
C) :GOTO700 

720 T=FIX< <TIMER+OT>/60>: IFTIMER 
= >60000THENOT=OT+T I MER : T I MER=0 : R 
ETURNELSERETURN 

730 I FP 1< 400THEN I V=l . 17: RETURNEL 
SEIV=. 4: RETURN 

740 PR I NTQ448, USING "Elapsed time 

: #### min ## sec " ; FIX (T/60) ; (T 

-FIX <T/60) *60) : RETURN 

750 I F I NKE Y*=CHR* (12) ORPEEK ( 342 ) 

=247THENRETURN 

760 I FP 1 = >2500THENGOSUB 1 830 : PR I N 
T6320, "**PRESSURE ABOVE DESIGN L 
IMITS** ***SIMULATION OVER** 

*":GOTO1110 

770 IFP1=>2355ORPT>620THENCTP=7: 
GOSUB1420: GOSUB230: GOTO790ELSE I F 
Pl< 1650ANDPT>575THENCTP=7: GOSUB1 
420: GOSUB230: GOTO790 
780 GOTO800 

790 IFAF(0)=0THENGOSUB1840:FORI= 
1 T02 : PL AY A 1 * : PR I NT6480 , " ******** 
REACTOR TR I PPED******** " ; CHR* ( 5 
) ; : PLAYA2*: NEXT: AF (0) =1 
800 IFP1=>2255ANDOC(7)=0THENOC(7 
) =1 : ET (7) =T: GOSUB370ELSE820 
810 IFAF(1)=0THENGOSUB1840:FORI= 
1 T02 : PL AY A 1 * : PR I NT6480 , " ***PRESS 
URE RELIEF VALVE OPEN***" ; CHR* <5 

) ; :playa2*:next: AF(i)=i 

820 I FEM ( 3 ) = 1 THENPW=PW- ( ( T-ET ( 9 ) 
) * . 0 1 667 ) : ET ( 9 ) =T : VS=P V- ( PW*5 - 3 ) 
: GOSUB430 : GOSUB 1 1 30 : GOSUB 1 1 50 
830 G2=G V- ( GW*5 . 72 ) : I FGW< 1 50THEN 
GF=GW/ 1 50ELSE I FGW > 1 50ANDGF< 300TH 
ENGF= 1 ELSE I FGW >300THENGF=GW/300 
840 TC=TH-(CTP*.01*66*GF) 
850 ST=TC: SP= (ST+460) *SR/G2: IFOC 
(2) =0ANDAF (5) =0THENGOSUB650: GOSU 
B 1 840 : FOR 1=1 T02 : PL A YA 1 * : PR I NT648 
0, n ********TURBINES TRIPPED***** 

***";chr*(5) ; :playa2*:next: af<5) 
=1 

860 IFOC(2)=1ANDGW>100ANDAF(5)=1 
ANDSP< 1 1 10THENGOSUB660: AF (5) =0 
870 I FGW< 1 00 ANDAF ( 2 ) =0THENFOR 1=1 
T02 : PLAY A 1 * : PR I NT6480 , " *LOW COOL 
ANT IN STEAM GENERATOR*" ; CHR* (5) 

; :playa2*:next:af<2)=i 

880 IFGW>100ANDAF(2)=1THENAF(2)= 

0 

890 IFPW<101THENOC(6)=0:GOSUB490 
ELSE910 

900 IFAF(3)=0THENGOSUB1840:FORI= 
1 T02 : PLAY A 1 * : PR I NT6480 , " ***PRESS 



118 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



COLOR DFT (Direct File Transfer) 
Disk or Tape 

At last a terminal program for the color computert ha tallows you 
to send and receive machine language programs without any 
conversion routines. Send directly from disk to disk or tape to 
disk. DFT will send and receive any type of program machine 
language, t>asic, text files, datafiles etc. from a color computer, 
Model I, Model II' or a Bullet 80 system. DFT has a chat mode 
and has software controlled half and/or full duplex. You must 
have a modem in order to use DFT. 

Tape Version $24.05 Disk Version $20.05 

COLOR TAPE COPY $15.95 

By Bob Withers 

There have been few copy programs on the marketfor the Color 
computer but none can compare with Color Tape Copy. This 
program is designed so that you don't lose any of your vaulable 
programs or data bases. 

It will make a backup of any Color Computer Tape; Machine 
language, data, or basic program. 

First load color tape copy into your CC. Then it prompts you to 
put your original copy into the recorder. After it loads the 
program into memory it tells you to put a blank tape into the 
recorder and pressthe record button. It then writes the program 
to a new tape. 

You'll never have to worry about your little kids destroying your 
$20.00 tapes. 16K. 



TELEWRITER - 64 

Best word processor for the Color Computer. 
Tape $40.05 Disk 



$50.05 



DRAG0NQUEST 

A new text adventure by Charles Forsythe. You must rescue the 
princess from the Smaaegor Monarch of Dragonfolk. All Machine 
language. Fast, Exciting and only $15.05 

MADNESS AND THE MINOTAUR 

A classic adventure game utilizing two word commands. 

Price $10.05 

BUG0UT 

A compact but very powerful monitorforthe 6809 microprocessor. 
Only $10.05 

MISADVENTURE SERIES 

MADAM ROSA'S MASSAGE PARLOR 

Tape $15.00 

WET T-SHIRT CONTEST 

Tape $15.00 



COMPUTER SHACK'S 
BOOK STORE 



PROGRAMMING THE 6809 

By Rodney Zaks & William Labiak $14.95 

This book explains how to program the 6809 in assembly 
language, covering all aspects progressively and systematic- 
ally. Beginning with the basics of programming, Programming 
the 6809 goes on to explain registers and buses, subroutines, 
the 6809 instruction set, addressing modes, I/O tech niques and 
devices, and finally, data structures. With this knowledge you 
will be able to give your 6809 processor 1 6-bit performance 
with 8-bit economy. No prior programming knowlede is required. 

TRS-80 COLOR PROGRAMS 

by Tom Rugg and Phil Feldman $19.95 

Here are 37 fully documented programs ready to type into your 
color computer. These programs promise to be educational, 
practical, and in almost all cases, fun. 332 pages. 

COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

by Ron Clark $9.95 

The complete handbook on how to do color video graphics, with 
ready to run programs. Learn all about low, medium and high- 
resolution graphics, and how to create each. 1 38 pages. 

TRS-80 COLOR BASIC 

by Bob Albrecht $9.95 

With this book you can teach yourself BASIC, the language of 
the TRS-80 and many other computers. Packed with games, ex- 
periments, programming problems and solutions, this entertain- 
ing self-instructional book is the ideal introductory aid for kids, 
parents and teachers. 378 pages. 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS 

byDonlnman $14.95 

Explore the creative and imaginative blending of computers 
and color using Color Computer Graphics. This book will enable 
you to explore all the graphics capabilities of Extended Basic, 
you will learn how to create interesting graphics to enhance you 
own computer programs. The book also provides application 
programs and useful subroutines. 303 pages 

COLOR COMPUTER S0NGB00K 

by Ron Clark $7.95 

40 of the world's best known songs, scored for easy playing on 
the TRS-80 Color Computer, including many favorite popular, 
classical, folk and seasonal musical selections. Some of which 
include Dixie, Minuet, Greensleeves, Jingle Bells, Yellow Rose 
of Texas, etc. 96 pages 



COMPUTER SHACK 



1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313) 873-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 302-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U,S, - Canada - Mexico 
Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list. 



DOODLE BUG 

DOODLE BUG isa machine 
language high resolution 
graphics game for one or 
two players who move their 
Ladybugs through an ever- 
changing maze gobbling dots 
and other items while avoid- 
ing Enemy bugs and Skulls. 
Excellent Graphics. 
Similar to Lock N' Chase". 
Tape. . . $24.95 Disk. . . $29.95 





PACDROIDS 

With its space theme, the Super 
Saucer lays destructomines and 
the Super Bomb that disinte- 
grates everything in your path, 
right up to the wall. The maze 
changes every 1 0,000 points as 
the difficulty escalates. 1-4 
players. 16K extended basic. 
Tape... $19.95 



MEGAPEDE 

Could this be the best 
Centipede yet? 
Computerwares new addition 
to the field, super graphics 
and sound. 

Tape. ..$21.95 Disk. ..$26.95 



PHANTOM SLAYER 

You must chase the phantoms 
and kill them with your assort- 
ment of weapons. This is a graph- 
ics type maze/adventure game 
with full screen three dimension- 
al graphics. You are armed with 
a laser pistol, and proximity de- 
tector. 1 6K. 

Tape $1 9.95 

SHARK TREASURE 

Dive down through the 
sharks and salvage the gold. 
Armed with special flash 
bombs you fight off the 
sharks. Excellent game. 
Great graphics , sound. From 
Computerware. 
Tape. . . $21.95 Disk. . . $26.95 

GHOST GOBBLER 

Ghost Gobbler is an excellent 
version of Pac-Man M . You must 
gobble all the food dots while 
avoiding the ghosts. There are 
four energizer dots which will 
make the ghosts turn blue and 
become scared. This is the best 
copy of the arcade game. 16K. 
Tape $21 .95 



COLORPEDE 

Colorpede has a variety of bugs 
ranging from a tiny bettle to the 
gigantic colorpede. Colorpede 
has better graphics than Kater- 
pillar but the sound is not as 
good. Colorpede also has a 
more varied and complicated 
play routine. 1 6K. 
Tape $29.95 



DONKEY KING 

Using the four stages from the 
original acrade game, with your 
joystick in hand try to jump the 
barrels, collect the pins, 
manuever your way past the fall- 
ing jacks, and figure out the crazy 
conveyor belts. Written by Tom 
Mix, this ones sure to become a 
classic' 32K 

Tape . . . S24.95 Disk . . . S27.95 



Now you can deduct up to 20% on the price of 
games: buy any 2 games deduct 10%, buy any 3 
games deduct 1 5%, buy any 4 games deduct 20% 
from games prices. 



— TOP TEN 

FOR THE COCO 

1) DONKEY KING 

2) COLORPEDE 

3) DOODLEBUG 

4) PLANET INVASION 

5) SPACE RACE 

6) ASTRO BLAST 

7) SHARK TREASURE 

8) PACDROIDS 

9) HAYWIRE 

10) RAIL RUNNER 




ROBOTTACK 

Manuever your way 
around the screen in a last 
desperate attempt to save the 
human family. As the robots 
grow in number, use your 
lasers to eliminate them and 
your superior manuevering 
to avoid their deadly grip. 

ROBOTTACK is a 100% 
machine, 1 to 2 player arcade 
action game for the entire 
family. 16K CoCo. 
Tape.. $24.95 Disk.. $27.95 



HAYWIRE 

This is Mark Data's version of 
Beserk". Super Colors and dy- 
namite sound effects in this fast 
paced arcade game for one or 
two players. The exciting com- 
bination of angry robots an the 
Indestructible Menace will pro- 
vide hours of action filled fun. 
Tape $24.95 





■ ■ ■ i r" 




•y.' 
























COMPUTER SHACK 



1 691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313) 873-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 302-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U SA - $5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 
Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list 



or our 



20*24 = 




YES THATS RIGHT 20 PLUS 24 EQUALS 1. 
TRANSLATED THAT MEANS 20% DISCOUNT ON 
SOFTWARE ORDERS OF 4 OR MORE ITEMS PLUS 24 
HOUR DELIVERY MAKE US YOUR #1 DEALER. TRY US 
AND SEE! WE HAVE OVER 50 DIFFERENT PROGRAMS 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER. 



ASTRO BLAST 

Your routine space patrol in an 
outer galaxy sector becomes a 
life and death struggle with alien 
invasion forces advancing to- 
wards Earth. Wave after waveof 
attack squadrons challenge you 
in this super hi- res machine lang- 
uage shoot-em-up game. One or 
two players. 16K 
Tape version $24.95 



SPACE RACE 

Maneuver your ship around the 
four cornered "race track" in 
space while destroying hordes 
of alien ships. As you fly around 
the "race track" bouncing off the 
walls, watch out for mines laid by 
the swarmers. Great color and 
sound and a new approach. 1 6K. 
Tape S21.95 



Four great reasons why you should buy from Computer 
Shack (1) We have a toll free line, it costs you nothing to call 
us. (2) We ship all orders out within 24 hours (3) Most of our 
salespeople have color computers and they will be more than 
happy to help you pick out games, books, etc. (4) If you buy 
more than one program we will give you a discount. If you buy 
2 programs you can take 1 0°v off both programs. If you buy 3 
programs you can take 15°< off and if you buy 4 or more 
programs you can take 20°o off the price of all four. 

We are still in need of some additional people to add to our 
top ten panel. If you are interested send us a listing of your 1 0 
favorite games. 

We carry many programs that are not in our ad's, please call if 
there is a special program you want. 



MONKEY KONG 

Once again, Mario jumps into 
action. Avoiding rolling barrels, 
ramps, ladders, and killer flames 
while trying to save the beau- 
tiful girl from the clutches of the 
giant ape. Written by Ken Kalish 
its so much like the arcade ver- 
sion, you might try to insert a 
quarter. 16K. 

Tape i * ' • . • $1 9.95 



RAIL RUNNER 

Something like Frogger". 
But with a difference. 
Excellent hi res graphics and 
exciting play. 
From Computerware. 
Tape. ..$21.95 Disk. ..$26.95 




SPACE TRADER 

Establish vast interstellar shipp 
ing lanes and purchase stock in 
the companies that control 
those trade routes. This is a multi- 
player board game with graph- 
ics. This is a game for the think- 
ers, it takes more than a quick 
hand to win this one. 1 6K 
Tape S21 .95 

PLANET INVASTION 

A great new Defender action 
game, its success insured by its 
spellbinding graphics and mar- 
velous sound, but most of all by 
its controlability. Using both the 
keyboard and the joystick, you 
manuever your way through this 
revolutionary new game. 16K 
Tape $21 .95 

VENTURER 

Fantastic arcade game comes 
to life on your Color Computer 
screen. Upon entering each 
room you'll find new treasures 
and new challenges. Using your 
joystick, get the treasure while 
fending off the attacking crea- 
tures. This great new adaptation 
be Aardvark will put excitement 
back into your Color Computer. 
16K 

Tape ... $19.95 

GOLF 

Aardvark has brought this age old 
game to your Color Computer. 
With sandtraps, trees, water 
holes, and a great sound track, 
you just might mistake it for the 
real thing. Choose yourclub and 
select a swing, if you make it to 
the green you can even putt. 
1 6K extended color basic. 
Tape. ■ $9-95 






COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313) 873-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 392-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3,00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - $5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 
Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list- 



SAVE!!! 

INTRODUCING ARIZONA DISCOUNT SOFTWARE! 

We pledge to bring you the best software and hardware values for your 
Color Computer and TDP-1 00! All software is always at least 1 5% off. 
And we are not talking about "Close Outs" but first line software from 
some of the best Color Computer software manufacturers. Names like 
Tom Mix, Computerware, Prickly Pear, Petrocci and Cognitec!! 

Our name may say software, but we have hardware values too. So 
before you buy anything for your Coco, check with Arizona. We can 
probably get it for you for less!! 

SOFTWARE BARGAINS!!! 

15% OFF 

*32 K Program TAPE DISK 





List 


Our 


List 


Our 




Price 


Price 


Price 


Price 


TOM MIX 










Donkey King 


24.95 


21.20* 


27.95 


23.75 


Protectors 


24.95 


21.20* 


r\ —f r\ r~ 

27.95 


23.75 


Katerpillar Attack 


24.95 


21.20 


27.95 


23.75 


Solo Pool 


17.95 


15.25 






PETROCCI 










Inspector Clueseau 


19.95 


16.95* 






Stagecoach (New!!) 


19.95 


16.95 






COMPUTERWARE 










Synther 7 (New!!) 


21.95 


18.65 


26.95 


22.90 


Shark Treasure (New!!) 


21.95 


18.65 


26.95 


22.90 


El Diablero 


19.95 


16.95 


24.95 


21.20 


Doodle Bug 


24.95 


21.20 


29.95 


25.45 


Megapede 


21.95 


18.65 


26.95 


22.90 


BOUDOIR SOFTWARE 










The Naked Gamer 


21.95 


18.65 


26.95 


22.90 


ARIZIN 










Toolkit (Great utility. Same one 










works on disk or tape) 


29.95 


25.45 






COGNITEC 










Telewriter-64 (New 1 The Best) 


49.95 


42.45 


59.95 


50.95 


20% 


OFF!!! 








MARK DATA (Close Out-Limited Quantities) 






Astro Blast 


24.95 


19.95 


29.95 


23.95* 


Color Haywire 


24.95 


19.95 


29.95 


23.95* 


Space Raiders 


24.95 


19.95 


29.95 


23.95* 


Cave Hunter 


24.95 


19.95 


29.95 


23.95* 


TOM MIX 










Bird Attack 


21.95 


17.55 






Maze Race 


14.95 


11.95 






Trek-16 


19.95 


15.95 






Fixer (Move those tape 










programs to disk) 


18.95 


15.15 







PRICKLY PEAR - All Items 20% OFF 

HARDWARE 



AZDS Drive 0 for Coco includes Rompack Interface 424.95 

R/S Disk Drive Rompack Interface (Needs Cable) 149.95 

Mark Data Professional Keyboard (Typewriter Style) 69.95 

64 K Ram Chips Set 64.95 
Disk Cables Two Drives Four Drives 

Standard 24.95 34.95 

Gold Contacts-The Best 34.95 44.95 

THE COCO SWITCH BY COMPUTER INNOVATION 
This first rate device lets you switch three different devices to your 
RS-232 Serial Port. A quality metal case and a 6footcable make this a 
special value. 

Regular • 39.95 Special • 29.95 

SOFTWARE AUTHORS: We are looking for product!' Send us your 
submissions! 

TO ORDER 

Add $2.00 Postage and Handling. In Arizona, Add 5% Sales Tax. 
C.O.D. $1.50 Extra To: 

ARIZONA DISCOUNT SOFTWARE 

1942 S. Emerson #141 • Mesa, AZ 85202 
Phone (602) 897-6291 



URIZER HEATER TRIPPED*** 1 ' ; CHR* (5 

) ; :playa2*:next:af<3)=i 

910 IFPW>100THENAF<3)=0 

920 TH=TC+<CTP*. 01*66) : GOSUB 1130 

ZGOSUB1140 

930 IFOC<1)=0THENTH=TH+<CTP*.01* 
66) : GOSUB 11 30 

940 I FOC ( 2 ) =0THENGW=GW- ( < T-ET ( 2 ) 
) *2 . 4 ) : ET ( 2 ) =T : G0SUB5 1 0ELSE960 
950 IFAF(4)=0THENGOSUB1840:FORI= 
1 T02 : PL AY A 1 * Z PR I NT6480 , " **SECOND 
ARY FEEDWATER PUMP OFF** 1 ' ; CHR* (5 

) ; :playa2*:next: af<4)=i 

960 IF0C(3)=1THENGW=FIX <GW+< <T-E 
T(3) )*3.03) ) :ET(3)=T:GOSUB510 
970 IFOC(4)=1THEN980ELSE990 
980 I FOC ( 5 ) =0THENPW=PW- ( ( T-ET ( 5 ) 

)*.4) : vs=pv-<pw*5.3) :ET(5)=t:G0S 

UB430: GOSUB1 130: TH=TH+ 1 ELSE I FOC ( 
5 ) = 1 THENGOSUB730 : PW=PW+ ( ( T-ET ( 4 ) 

)*IV) : vs=pv-<pw*5.3) :et<4)=t:gos 

UB430: GOSUB1 130: TH=TH-1 

990 IFOC(7)O0THENP1=FIX (P1*EXP( 

-(T-ET (7) )/106-4) > :ET(7)=T:G0SUB 

1140 

1000 IFOC(7)=1ANDPK2205THENOC(7 
) =0 : GOSUB370 : GOSUB 1 840 : PR I NTG480 
, "Pressure Relief Valve CLOSED"; 
1010 IF0C(8)=1THENPR=TH/P1:TH=TH 
-T+ET (8) : ET (8) =T: P1=TH/PR: GOSUB 1 
140:GOSUB430 

1020 IF0C(6)=1THENPR=TH/P1:TH=TH 
+T-ET ( 6 ) : ET ( 6 ) =T : P 1 =TH/PR : GOSUB 1 
140:GOSUB430 

1030 A=RND ( 100) : IFA=20ORA=40ORA= 
60ORA=80THENONA/20 GOSUB 1770, 178 
0, 1790, 1800 
1040 GOSUB740 

1050 IFPW>401THENPW=401ELSEIFPW= 
< 0THENPW= 1 : I FS V= 1 THEN 1 060ELSEGOS 
UB630:SV=1 

1 060 I FS V=0THEN 1 070ELSE I FOC ( 1 ) = 1 

ANDOC ( 4 ) = 1 ANDOC ( 5 ) = 1 ANDPW >5THENS 

V=0:GOSUB640 

1070 IFGW<1THENGW=0 

1080 FORI=0TO5: IFAF ( I ) =1THENX=X+ 

1 : NEXTELSENEXT 

1090 IFX< >0THENPRINT@0, CHR* (5) ; " 
AL 11 ; CHR* (5) ; : X=0ELSEIFX=0THENPRI 
NTCHR* (5) ; : PR I NT@0 , 11 : PR I NTCHR 
$(5) ; 

1100 PT=<TC+TH) /2: IFPT=>705.2THE 
NPAINT(31, 112) ,4,4:GOSUB1830:PRI 
NT6320, "***CRITICAL WATER TEMPER 
ATURE*** ***SIMULATION OVER* 

** M : PLAY A3*ELSE 1 1 20 
1110 I F I NKE Y*= " " THEN 111 0ELSEPLAY 
A3*: GOTO 1820 

1120 IFINKEY*=CHR*<12)0RPEEK<342 
) =247THENRETURNELSE280 



122 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



1130 P1=R* (TH+460) /VS: RETURN 
1140 IFOC(4)=1ANDOC(5)=1ANDPW<10 
THENGOSUB730:PW=PW+( (T-ET<4> >*IV 
) : VS=PV- ( PW*5 . 3 ) : ET ( 4 ) =T : G0SUB42 
0: GOSUB 1 1 20 : TH=TH-1 : RETURNELSEVS 
=R* (TH+460) /PI : PW= (PV-VS) /5. 3: GO 
SUB430: RETURN 

1150 TH=<P1*VS/R) -460: RETURN 
1160 CLS:PRINT@172, "WARNING": PR I 
NT6227, "NUCLEAR REACTOR SIMULATO 
R-" : PRINTQ258, "CONTENTS MAY BE R 
ADIOACTIVE! ":PRINT@291, "PROCEED 
AT YOUR OWN RISK ! " : PRINTQ362, "aL 
ARM CANCEL " : PR I NT6390 , " cONT I NUE 
SIMULATION" 

1170 FORI=1TO250:NEXT: IFINKEY*=" 
A "THEN 11 90 

1180 PRINT6172, " warn i ng " : PLAYA1 * 

: PRINT® 172, "WARNING":PLAYA2*: IFP 

EEK (339) =254THEN1 190ELSEIFPEEK (3 

41 ) =254THEN1200ELSE1 180 

1190 IFINKEY*O"C"THEN1190 

1200 CLS: PR I NT698, "NUCLEAR REACT 

OR S I MULATOR : " : PR I NT@ 1 60 , " OBJECT 

: PRODUCE 977-+ ELECTRIC" : PR I NTT AB 

(7) "P0WER":PRINT@224, "OBJECT: MAI 

NTAIN PRIMARY LOOP" : PR I NTT AB (7) " 

TEMPERATURE @ 580 DEG F":PRINT@2 

88 , " OBJECT : MA I NT A I N PR I MARY LOOP 
ii 

1210 PRINTTAB (7) "PRESSURE @ 2155 
PSI":PRINT@352, "OBJECT: MAINTAIN 
PRESSUR I Z ER " : P R I NTT AB ( 7 ) " WATER 

LEVEL @ 200 IN": PR I NT6455 , " rEADY 

?" 

1220 IFINKEY*<>"R" THEN 1220 
1230 CLS: PR I NT698, "NUCLEAR REACT 
OR SIMULATOR: ":PRINT@160, "OBJECT 
: MA I NTAIN SECONDARY LOOP": PR I NTT 
AB (7) "TEMPERATURE @ 547 DEG F":P 
RINT6224, "OBJECT: MAI NTAI N SECOND 
ARY LOOP": PRINTTAB (7) "PRESSURE @ 

1010 PSI" 
1 240 PR I NT6288 , " OBJECT : MA I NT A I N 
STEAM GENERATOR " : PR I NTT AB ( 7 ) " WAT 
ER LEVEL @ 288 IN" : PRINTQ455, "rE 
ADY?" 

1 250 I F I NKE Y*< > " R " THEN 1 250 
1260 CLS : PR I NT666, "NUCLEAR REACT 
OR SI MULATOR : " : PR I NT@ 1 28 , " CONTRO 
L RODS: RAISE & LOWER WITH": PRINT 
TAB ( 8 ) " ARROW KEYS " : PRINT© 192, " PU 
MPS: SPEC I FY PUMP BY NUMBER &":PR 
INTTAB (8) "DIRECTIVE. EX. 'P10N 7 " 
1270 PR I NT6256, "VALVES: SPECIFY V 
ALVE BY NUMBER": PR INTTAB (8) "& DI 
RECT I VE " : PR I NTT AB (8) "EX. 'VI OPEN 
' " : PR I NT6352 , " PRESSUR I ZER WATER 
HEATER : " : PR I NTT AB ( 8 ) " SPEC I FY D I R 
ECT I VE " : PR I NTT AB (8) "EX. ' HE ATON ' 



Utilities For Extended Basic 

#UK3 COLOR KRUNCHER — $12.95 

—Reduces Memory Repuirements Of any Extended Basic 
Program -Speeds Program Execution Time 

-Type In A Program From A Magazine, As Is, Debug It 
Then Let KRUNCHER Make It Shorter 

--Includes LN,XREF and REM/REMV (#UR2) 

-Includes 'EXTENDED BASIC FASTER' (#F1) 

#F1 'EXTENDED BASIC FASTER' — $3.95 

--The First Published Proven List Of Methods You Can 
Incorporate Into All Your Own Ext. BASIC Programs 
For Maximum Speed Efficiency 
-For Novice or Experienced Programmer 
-For Graphics or Non-Graphi«s Programs 

#UVF4 VARIABLE CROSS REFERENCE — $6.95 

-Locate All Variables And 'Where Used' Line I's In Your 

Extended BASIC Program 
-Automatic Sort — Optional Printer Output 

:#UF3 LUST FORMATTER — $9.95 

-User-selectable Margins, Page Lengths, Top-of-Form, 

Font Size, Line Length and More 
-Title and Date Your Important Listings 
-Optional Space Between Lines— Hilights Line Numbers— 

For Mcst Recent Printers (can be user modified) 

:#UR2 LINE CROSS REFERENCE — $7.95 

-Provides A Sorted Listing Of Referenced Line Numbers 

Optional Printer Output 
--Includes Optional REM, REMV— Removes All Unreferenced 

REM's and Comments 
--Removes Comments From Referenced REM's 

#UD2 DISK DIRECTORY WITH BYTES — $7.95 

-Gives Same Info As DIR, PLUS Individual File Bytes, 
PLUS Free and Used # of Files, Grans, and Bytes, 
PLUS Optional Disk Name,PLUS To Screen OR Printer 
--One Screen At A Time (No More Frantic SFT/a) 

#US2 COPY, SEARCH & REPLACE — $7.95 

-Same as Disk COPY, But to-and-From Disk and Tape or 

Tape and Tape 
-For ASCII Textfiles Or Programs 
-Search OR Search & Replace 
-Excellent For Changing Long Variable Names 
-Great For Changing Spelling Or Capitalization 

#UT2 TEXT COUNT — $6.95 

-Counts Lines, Sentences, Words, Total Characters OF 
An ASCII Extended BASIC Textfile 

#UB2 BYTE/LINE COUNT — $5.95 

-Automatic, Accurate Byte & Line Count Of Any 
Extended BASIC Program 



ALL PGMS (EXCEPT #UD2) FOR EXT. BASIC TAPE/DISK 

Buy Two or More On The Same Order & Take 10% Off 
(Postpaid in U.S. & Canada) (PA Residents Add 6%) 



Send Check or Money Order To: 

MICROLOGIC 

Box 193, 1st. Avenue 
East Brady, Pa. 16028 (412-526 -5781) 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 123 



" : PR I NTQ456 , " r EADY? " ; 

1280 IFINKEY*O"R"THEN1280 

1 290 PL=200 : CLS : PR I NTQ26 1 , 11 SI MUL 

AT I ON BEGINS " : A=USR0 (0) : GOS 

UB80:PLAYA3* 

1300 GOSUB 1 830 : GOTO 1 690 

1310 GOSUB 1830 

1320 PRINTQ320, ; : GOTO 1340 

1 330 GOSUB 1 840 : PR I NTQ480 , ; : 

1 340 PRINT 11 Di recti ve? " ; : GOSUB690 

: D*= AT* : I FD*= " TC " THEN 1 450ELSE I FD 

*= " PR I NT " THEN 1 460 

1350 FORI=0TO2l: IFD*=V1* < I > THENO 
C=l: GOTO 1380 
1360 NEXT 

1370 PRINTQ480, "Di recti ve?INVALI 
D DIRECTIVE " ; : F0RI=1T02: PLA 

Y " L7 V3 1 0 1 CP 1 0 " : NE X T : PR I NT6490 , " 

":PRINT@480, ; :GO 

TO 1340 

1380 ON OC+1GOTO1390, 1540, 1550, 1 

560, 1570, 1580, 1590, 1600, 1600, 163 

0, 1640, 1660, 1670, 1680, 1710, 1720, 

1690, 1750, 1860, 1730, 1820, 1810 

1390 GOSUB1840:PRINT@480, "Contro 

1 Rods-Manual Control " ; 

1400 PRINT6320, USING "Core Therma 

1 Power ### 7. ";CTP 

1410 IFPEEK<341)=247THENCTP=CTP+ 

1 : GOSUB 1 420 : GOTO 1 400ELSE I FPEEK < 3 

42) =247THENCTP=CTP-1 : GOSUB 1 420 : G 

OTO 1 400ELSEA*= I NKEY* : I FA*=CHR* < 1 

2 ) THENGOSUB 1 840 : RETURNELSE 1410 

1420 IFCTP<0THENCTP=0ELSEIFCTP>1 

00THENCTP=100 

1 430 I FCTP >7THEN AF < 0 ) =0 

1440 GOSUB230: RETURN 

1 450 TC*= " " : FOR I = 1 T08 : TC*=TC*+ST 

R* <OC < I ) ) : NEXT: PRINTQ480, TC*; : RE 

TURN 

1 460 A=USR 1(0): A*= " " : PM0DE4 , 1 : PR 

INT#-2,CHR*<18) ;CHR*<13) ; 

1470 FORI=0TO6:P(I)=FIX (2^1) :NEX 

TI 

1480 FORI=0TO118STEP7:FORJ=0TO25 
5: A=128: FORK=0TO6 

1490 IFPPOINT(J, I+K)=0THENA=A+P( 
K) 

1500 NEXTK 

1510 IFJ<200THENA*=A*+CHR*<A)ELS 
EB*=B*+CHR*<A) 

1520 IFJ=255THENPRINT#-2, A*;B*;C 

HR*<13) ; :A*=" ":b*=" " 

1530 NEXTJ , I : GOTOl 820 

1540 OC(l)=l:GOSUB1840:PRINT@480 

, "Reactor Coolant Pump ON";:RETU 

RN 

1550 OC(1)=0:GOSUB1840:PRINT@480 
, "Reactor Coolant Pump OFF";: RET 
URN 



1560 0C(2)=l: AF(4)=0:GOSUB1840:P 
R I NTQ480, "Secondary Feed water Pu 
mp ON"; : RETURN 

1570 OC(2)=0:AF(4)=l:GOSUB1850:G 
OSUB1840:PRINT@480, "Secondary Fe 
edwater Pump OFF" ; : ET (2) =T:RETUR 
N 

1580 0C<3>=1: GOSUB 1 840 :PRINT@480 
, "Auxiliary Makeup Pump ON";: GOS 
UB620: ET (3) =T: RETURN 
1590 OC<3>=0: GOSUB 1 840 :PRINT@480 
, "Auxiliary Makeup Pump OFF";: GO 
SUB620: RETURN 

1600 GOSUB1840: OC (4) =1 : EM (3) =0: I 
FD*= "P4IN " THENOC < 5 ) = 1 : GOSUB590EL 
SE I FD*= " P40UT " THENOC < 5 ) =0: G0SUB5 
90 

1610 IF0C(5)=1THENET(4)=T:G0SUB1 
840: PRINTQ480, "Primary Makeup Pu 
mp ON"; : RETURN 

1620 IFOC(5)=0THENET(5)=T:GOSUB1 
840: PRINTQ480, "Primary Let-down 
Pump ON"; : RETURN 

1630 GOSUB1840:OC<4)=0:EM<3)=0:G 
OSUB590: IFOC <5) = 1THENPRINT@480, " 
Primary Makeup Pump 0FF";:0C<5)= 
0 : RETURNELSEPR I NT6480 , " Pr i mar y L 
et-down Pump OFF";: RETURN 
1640 OC (6) =1 : ET <6)=T: GOSUB1840: I 
FPW< 100THEN1650ELSEPRINTQ480, "Pr 
essurizer Heater ON " ; : GOSUB490 : R 
ETURN 

1650 OC(6)=0:PRINT@480, "Pressuri 
zer Heater TRIPPED" ;: GOSUB490: RE 
TURN 

1660 OC (6) =0: GOSUB 1840 :PRINT@480 
, "Pressuri zer Heater OFF";: GOSUB 
490: RETURN 

1670 0C(7)=2:ET(7)=T:AF(l)=l:G0S 
UB1840:PRINT@480, "Pressure Relie 
f Valve OPEN"; :GOSUB370: RETURN 
1 680 OC ( 7 ) =0 : AF < 1 ) =0 : GOSUB 1 840 : P 
R I NT6480, "Pressure Relief Valve 
CLOSED" ; : GOSUB370: RETURN 
1 690 GOSUB720 : PR I NT6320 , US I NG " Co 
re Thermal Power #### MWth"; < 
CTP*. 01*3411 ) :PRINTUSING"Primary 

Loop Press #### PSI";P1:PRIN 
TUS I NG" Primary Loop Temp ### 
# DEG " ; PT : PR I NTUS I NG " Pr essur i z er 

Level ### IN";PW 

1 700 GOSUB750 : I F I NKEY*=CHR* (12)0 
RPEEK (342) =247THENGOSUB1330: GOTO 
1 690ELSE 1 690 

1710 GOSUB1840:OC(8)=l:ET(8)=T:P 
RINT6480, "Pressuri zer Coolant Sp 
ray ON" ; : GOSUB400: RETURN 
1720 GOSUB1840:OC(8)=0:PRINT@480 
, "Pressurizer Coolant Spray OFF" 

; : GOSUB400: return 



124 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



NEW 



P 



mm 



* 



■ 



Macro-BOc 



The Micro Works is pleased to announce the release of 
its disk-based editor, macro assembler and monitor, writ- 
ten for Color Computer by Andy Phelps THIS IS IT — The 
ultimate programming tool! 

The powerful 2-pass macro assembler features conditional 
assembly, local labels, include files and cross referenced symbol 
tables. Macro-80c supports the complete Motorola 6809 instruction set in 
standard source format. There are no changes, constraints or shortcuts in 
the source language definition. Incorporating all of the features of our 
Rompack-based assembler (SDS80C), Macro-80c contains many more 
useful instructions and pseudo-ops which aid the programmer and add 
power and flexibility. 

The screen-oriented text editor is designed for efficient and easy editing of 
assembly language programs. The "Help Key" feature makes it simple 
and fun to learn to use the editor. As the editor requires no line numbers, 
you can use the arrow keys to position the cursor anywhere in the file. 
Macro-80c allows global changes and moving/copying blocks of text. You 
can edit lines of assembly source which are longer than 32 characters. 

DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows examining and 
altering of memory, setting break points, etc. 

The editor, assembler and monitor — as well as sample programs — 
come on one Radio Shack compatible disk. Extensive documentation 
included. Macro-80c Price: $99.95 



YOU NEED 

COLOR FORTH!! 

Why? 

•Forth is faster to program in than Basic 
•Forth is easier to learn than Assembly Language 
•Forth executes in less time than Basic 

Forth is a highly interactive language like Basic, with 
structure like Pascal and execution speed close to 
that of Assembly Language. The Micro Works Color 
Forth is a Rompack containing everything you need to 
run Forth on your Color Computer. 

Color Forth consists of the standard FORTH Interest 
Group (FIG) implementation of the language plus 
most of F0RTH-79. It has a super screen editor with 
split screen display. Mass storage is on cassette. 
Color Forth also contains a decompiler and other aids 
for learning the inner workings of this fascinating lan- 
guage. It will run on 4K, 16K, and 32K computers. 
Color Forth contains 10K of ROM, leaving your RAM 
for your programs' There are simple words to 
effectively use the Hi-Res Color Computer graphics, 
joysticks, and sound The 112-page manual includes 
a glossary of the system-specific words, a full 
standard FIG glossary and complete source listing. 
COLOR FORTH ... THE BEST' From the leader in 
Forth, Talbot Microsystems. Price: $109.95 



SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SVSTEM 

The Micro Works Software Development System (SDS80C) is a complete 6809 editor, assembler and 
monitor package contained in one Color Computer program pack 1 Vastly superior to RAM-based 
assemblers/editors, the SDS80C is non-volatile, meaning that if your application program bombs, it can't 
destroy your editor/assembler. Plus it leaves almost all of 1 6K or 3 2 K RAM tree for your program Since 
all three programs, editor, assembler and monitor are co-resident, we eliminate tedious program loading 
when going back and forth from editing to assembly and debugging 1 

The powertul screen-oriented Editor features finds, changes, moves, copysand much more All keys have 
convenient auto repeat (typamatic). and since no line numbers are required, the tull width ot the screen 
may be used to generate well commented code 

The Assembler teatures all of the following complete 6809 instruction set: conditional assembly; local 
labels; assembly to cassette tape or to memory, listing to screen or printer, and mnemonic error codes 
instead ot numbers. 

The versatile monitor is tailored tor debugging programs generated by the Assembler and Editor. It 
teatures examine/change of memory or registers, cassette load and save, breakpoints and more. SDS80C 
Price: $89.95 



MICROTEXT: COMMUNICATIONS 

VIA YOUR MODEM! 

Now you can useyour printer with your modem 1 Your computer can be an 
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Microtext can be used with any printer or no printer at all. It features user- 
configurable duplex/parity for special applications, and can send any ASCII 
character. You'll find many uses for this general purpose module 1 Microtext 
is available in ROMPACK. ready-to-use. tor $59.95. 



■ 



* 




PARALLEL Pfll NTER I NT Efl FACE - Serial 1o £>aral lei converter allows use ol M 
siaooarrj paraflef printers PI80C ptugs into (tie ser^i oulput port, leavirkg your 
Rompack 5k>1 liee You supply Ihe punier MOle PIB0C Price: S69.95 



Star Blaster — Blast your way through an asteroid field in this action-packed Hi-Res graphics game. Available in ROMPACK: requires 16K. Price: $39.95 
Pac Attack — Try your hand at this challenging game by Computerware, with fantastic graphics, sound and action 1 Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 
Berserk — Have fun zapping robots with this Hi-Res game by Mark Data Products. Cassette requires 1 6K Price: $24.95 
Adventure — Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by Mark Data Products. Each cassette requires 16K. Price: $19.95 each. 

Cave Hunter — Experience vivid colors, bizarre sounds and erne creatures in hot pursuit as you wind your way through a cave maze in search of gold treasures 1 his 
exciting Hi-Res game by Mark Data Products requires 16K for cassette version, Price: $24.95 



Also Available: Machine Language Monitor ★ 2-Pass Disassembler ★ Memory Upgrade Kits * We Stock 64K Chips 

* Parts and Services ★ Books ★ Call or write for information 



TH $ftO©[^2> 



MasterCharge/Visa Accepted 
California residents add 6% tax. 



P.O. 



GOOD STUFF! 

BOX 1110, DEL MAR, CA 92014 [619] 942-2400 



TAPES & DISKS 





100% ERROR-FREE 
FULLY GUARANTEED 




CRO 80 INC 



The Micro Trac™ Generation 

Used by Software Firms & Computer Hobbyists 
Choice of School Districts Nationwide 




CASSETTES 



STA 

12PAK 24-PAK 



C-05 S .79 

C-10 ,89 

C-20 ...,♦$ .99 

C-30, .,.$1.29 

Custom Cases $ .26 

Cdies recommended to protect sensitive 



$ .59 
$ .69 
S .89 
$1.09 
$ .21 



1 730 GOSUB 1 830 : PR I NT6320 , ; : FOR I = 
0TO20: PRINTV1* < I ) " : " ; : NEXT: PRINT 
"EXIT"; 

1 740 I FPEEK < 342 ) < >247THENG0SUB75 
0 : GOSUB720 : GOTO 1 740ELSEGOSUB 1 830 
: RETURN 

1750 GOSUB720:GOSUB680:PRINT@320 
, USING"Plant Electric Output ### 
# MWe l, ;PO:PRINTUSING l, Secondary 
Loop Press #### PS I " ; SP: PRINTUS 
ING"Secondary Loop Temp #### D 
EG ,, ;ST:PRINTUSING l, Steam Gen Wate 
r Level ### IN";GW 
1760 GOSUB750: IFPEEK (342) =2470RI 
NKEY*=CHR* (12) THENGOSUB1 330: GOTO 
1750ELSE1750 

1770 0C<7)=2:ET<7)=T: AF<l)=l:GOS 
UB370: RETURN 

1780 OC<2)=0:ET<2)=T: RETURN 
1790 IF0C<4)OlTHENEM<3)=l:ET<9) 
=T: COLORC1 : DRAWBM255, 1 1 1L22D1R2 
2" : C0L0R4: RETURNELSERETURN 
1800 RETURN 

1810 A=USR1 <0) :PW<2)=1000:GW<2)= 
1000: GOTO 1200 

1820 A=USR1 <0) :CLS:PRINT@128, ; :L 
ISTl:END 

1830 PRINT6320, STRING* < 192, " " ) : 
RETURN 

1840 PRINT6480, STRING* (32, " " ) ; : 
RETURN 

1850 EM <3)=0: RETURN 
1 860 GOSUB 1 830 : PR I NT6320 , ; : FUR I = 
0TO5: IFAF < I > =1THENPRINT''*''AL* < I ) 
: NEXT: GOTO 1740ELSENEXT: GOTO 1740 



r 

5 l /4 M DISK 


1 

MINI STANDARD 1 
ETlES 5-PAK 10-PAK* 


Soft Sector 
Single Sided 
^S/D Density. 


$14.95 $26.95 j 



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(No. P.O. Boxes please) 
$3.00 per pack 
— Canadian shipping multiply by 2 — 

No. 1 Magnetic Media in the USA! 

— Write for volume prices — 



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(orders only) 

1-B00-528-6O5O /C>^ 
ext. 3005 VS^sJ 
In Arizona State ^<o/ 

1-800-352-0458 
ext. 3005 




■ 




About Your Subscription 

Your copy of theRAINBO Wissent third class mail 
and, for subscribers in the United States, the date of 
mailing is printed on the label. If you do not receive 
your copy by the 25th of any month, send us a card and 
we will mail another immediately via first class mail. 

You must notify us of a new address when you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than the 
15th of the month prior to the month in which you 
change your address. Sorry, we cannot be responsible 
for sending another copy when you fail to notify us. 

Your mailing label also shows an "account number" 
and the subscription expiration date. Please indicate 
this account number when renewing or corresponding 
with us. It will help us help you better and faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U. S. subscribers, there 
may be a mailing address shown that is different from 
our editorial office address. Do not send any 
correspondence to that mailing address. Send it to our 
editorial offices at P.O. Box 209, Prospect, K Y 40059. 
This applies to everyone except those whose 
subscriptions are through our distributor in Australia. 



MICRO-80™ 

E . 2665 Busby Road 
Oak Harbor. WA 98277 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



0001 0600 



NAM HIRESTXT 



* THIS PROGRAM IS TO BE USED 

* WITH NUKE SIM - THE NUCLEAR 

* REACTOR SIMULATOR. 



0052 0076 7EADA5 



JMP $ADA5 CLEAR THE 
t INTERUPT MASKS. THEN JUMP TO 

♦ THE AREA OF BASIC THAT RUNS 
t THE PROGRAM, BYPASSING THE 

# BREAK CHECK ROUTINE. 



0009 0A00 
vvvl fOff 




ORG 0000 


MAKE IT PIC 


0051 
v v JO 


0079 

VV 11 


T41A 

o*too 


HRSTXT PSHS D,X,Y 












0051 

V V J*t 


007 R 

V vi 0 


R1 0R 
Olf 0 


CMPA 18 


BACKSPACE? 


0001 0000 AnflPH 
fffO ffff OUOLOl 


START 


TST (TOGLE, PCR 


NOT 0 


0055 
f f JJ 


007H 

VVIU 


1 0970000 
LVLI vvll 


LBEQ BACKSP 


YES THEN GO 


0004 0001 9 A 1 R 
ffft fffO Z01D 




BNE B8 


NOT ON 


005A 
v v JO 


00R1 
f V 01 


R1 05 
Olf J 


CMPA 15 


INV. CHARS? 


0005 0005 Arflr?r 

fff J fff J OLOL^L 




INC <TOGLE,PCR 


FOR RESET 


0057 

VVdl 


00R1 
v V 00 


9A0A 
*.0P H 


BNE ALPHA 


NO THEN CHR 


000A 000R RF01AR 
ft/ i/O ft' I/O OCflOO 




LDX $168 


GET HOOK 


005R 
f v JO 


00R5 
f f OJ 


PARPAP 
COOLHr 


LDB INVERT,PCR 


FLIP INVERT 


0007 000R AFRP97 
villi/ fffD HrOL^/ 




STX <VEC,PCR 


SAVE IT 


0059 
v v J 7 


00RR 
f f 00 


LOf 1 


EORB il 


FLAG THEN 


000R 000F 10RPAR 
f ff 0 fff L Of OLOO 




LEAX (HRSTXT,PCR NEW HOOK 


00A0 

V VQV 


00RA 
f v On 


C7QPAA 
C/OLHH 


STB INVERT, PCR 


RETURN 


0009 001 1 RF01 Afl 
Vvvi vvll DrflOO 




STX $168 


STORE IT 


00A1 

VV 01 


f f 01/ 


901 A 
L V 1H 


BRA RET 




aa\a qq\a RF019R 

fflf fflt DLVL1D 




LDX $19B 


SET HOOK 


00A7 
vvQl 


00RP 
v V Or 


LOOT 


ALPHA LDB #63 


NUMBER 


0011 0017 AFflT 1 F 

ftf 1 1 vv l I nroLiL 




STX <BRKVEC,PCR SAVE IT 








* OF CHARACTERS USED BY NUKE SIM 


001? flfliA Tflori n 

VVLL Win JVULLU 




LEAX <BRKCLR,PCR NEW HOOK 


00A1 

V V 00 


0091 
V V 71 


11 RH0091 
0 1 OUf V 70 


LEAY LETTA,PCR 


FIRST LETT 


aa\j flflin RF019R 

vvlw VViU OVVLID 


A0 


STX $19B 


STORE IT 


00A4 

V V 0*t 


0095 

V V 7 J 


A1 A0 
n 1 nf 


A8 CMPA ,Yf 


ASCII 


0014 flflOfl TO 
fflt VVLV 07 


DC 


RTS 


TO BASIC 


00A5 
f f OJ 


0007 
vvll 


9770 
Z/Of 


BEQ FOUND 


GOT IT? 


aa i s 0071 AHRP10 

fflJ VVLL OUOLlv 


RESET 


TST <TOGLE,PCR 


NOT 1 


00AA 
ffOO 


0099 
f v 77 


T197 

JLL 1 


LEAY 7,Y 


NO, NEXT 


00IA 0074 ?7FA 

vvLv wli i/rn 




BEQ B@ 


NO RESET 


00A7 
v f 0/ 


009R 
f v 70 


5A 
Jn 


DECB 


ALL 63? 


0017 009A APRrOR 

Wit VVLV OrULfD 




CLR <T06LE,PCR 


FOR SET 


00AR 
Vv 00 


009P 
f f 7L 


7AP7 
^or / 


BNE A@ 


NO, NEXT 


001R (9(179 AFflr^9 

f f 10 VVLI flLOUPT 




LDX <VEC,PCR 


GET OLD VEC 


00A9 

f V 07 


009P 
f f 7C 


PA05 

LOf J 


LDB 15 


5 DESCENDER 


0010 00?r RP01AR 

f V i 7 VVLL or V100 




STX $168 


RESTOR HOOK 


0070 

V V 1 V 


00A0 
f f nf 


A1 Afl 
HI Ho 


Be CMPA ,Y+ 


ASCII 


0070 007F AFRr0A 
vviv vvLv ncobfo 




LDX (BRKVEC, PCR SAME AS 


0071 

ff / 1 


00A7 
v v Hl 


9707 

LlVI 


BEQ DESCEN 


GOT IT? 


(9071 0017 70F9 

VvLL vVOL LVL1 




BRA A@ 


ABOVE STEPS 


0079 

VV 1 L 


00AA 
v v H*t 


71 97 
Olli 


LEAY 7,Y 


NO, NEXT 










007! 

V VI 0 


00AA 
v v HO 


5A 
JH 


DECB 


ALL DONE? 


0077 0014 00 
VVLL VVJ'j W 


TOGLE 


FCB 0 




0074 

v vf l 


00A7 
f f H7 


7AP7 
^Or / 


BNE B@ 


TRY NEXT 


0071 0015 0000 

WLJ V V JJ WW 


VEC 


FDB 0 




0075 

VV IJ 


00A9 

f V M7 


15RA 
0 JOO 


RET PULS D,X,Y,PC 


TO BASIC 


0074 0017 01 

WL1 WOf VI 


INVERT FCB 1 














0075 00 IP 0000 

ff£J UfJO WW 


BRKVEC 


FDB 0 




007A 

VV 1 0 


00AR 

f f HD 


RH77 

QULL 


DESCEN BSR FNDLOC 












0077 

f f / / 


00AH 
f v nil 


PA05 
LOf J 


LDB #5 


5 BLANKS 


007A 001A 1407 
ui/Jn Jtc/ 


BRKCLR PSHS A,B,CC 




007R 
f f /O 


00AP 
v v nr 


P7RH0019 
C/OUf v 07 


STB DRCHARfl.PCR CHANGE PROI 


0077 00ir FA0155 
wli vvov rofijj 




LDB 341 


THE PROGRAM 


0079 

vv 1 7 


00R1 
f v DO 


PA79 
L007 


LDB #$39 


RTS CODE 


007R 001P RAP7 

Ufi.Q ff Jl 001 / 




LDA #247 


NEEDS THE 


00R0 
f f Of 


00R5 
vVDtj 


P7RH005R 
L /OUf f JD 


STB BOT , PCR 


PUT IN STA 


0079 0041 R7PP07 
vvLi vviL ofrrvL 




STA $FF02 


ARROW KEYS 


00A1 

VVQL 


00R9 
V V 07 


OUOf 


BSR DRCHAR 


GO DRAW IT 


0010 0044 RAPP00 
ffOf ff*t*t DOrrff 




LDA $FF00 


BUT WITH 


A0Q9 
VVQL 


00RR 
f f DO 


PA07 
LOf 0 


LDB #3 


RESTORE 


0011 0047 RAR0 
ffOl ffn/ OHOf 




ORA 1128 


BREAK DIS- 


00R! 
f f 00 


00RH 
VVDU 


P7RH009R 
C/OUf f£0 


STB DRCHAR+l.PCR PROGRAM 


0017 0049 Q1F7 
ffO^. ff*t7 air/ 




CMPA #247 


ABLE THE 


00RA 
VVQ^ 


00P 1 
vvL I 


PAA7 
LCH/ 


LDB #$A7 


STA CODE 


0011 004R 7704 
ffOO fftD £/f*t 




BEQ 88 


AREA WHERE 


00R5 
V V OJ 


00PT 
f V LO 


P7RH004H 
C/OUf f*tU 


STB BOT, PCR 


CHANGE RTS 


0014 0fi4n PA0R 
ffOt PB*fU LHfO 




ORB #8 


THE KEYS 


00RA 
f f 00 


00P7 
f V Li 


lvLv 


BRA RET 


GOTO BASIC 


0015 004P 7007 

ffoj ff*tr ^ff^. 




BRA C@ 


ARE READ IS 












001A 0051 P4F7 
ffOO PfJI L*tr / 


B@ 


ANDB #247 


NOT UP- 


00R7 
f PO / 


00P9 
f f L7 


RH04 
OUf *t 


FOUND BSR FNDLOC 






* DATED PROPERLY 




00AR 
ffOO 


00PR 
f f Ld 


RH1P 
OUlC 


BSR DRCHAR 


DRAW IT 


0017 005! F70155 
ffO/ ffJO r/DiJJ 


C8 


STB 341 


SO IT IS 


00R9 
f V 07 


V V LU 


90HA 
LV UH 


BRA RET 


RETURN 


001R 005A PA015A 
ffoo ffjo rofijo 




LDB 342 


DONE HERE. 












0019 0059 RAPP 

fPOT VV J7 oocr 




LDA #239 


TO UNDER- 


0090 
f f 7f 


00PP 

vv Lr 


nrflfl 

ULOO 


FNDLOC LDD <$88 




0040 005R R7PP07 
fftf ff jd D/rrvL 




STA $FF02 


STAND HOW 








♦ CURSOR POSITION KEPT BY BASIC 


f041 vvjt oorrftJ 




LDA $FF00 


THIS WORKS 


VV 71 


ffDl 


o4f4 


PSHS B 


SAVE 0-31 


0042 0061 8A80 




ORA #128 


READ PAGE 


0092 


00D3 


44 


LSRA 


MOVE BIT 0 


0043 0063 81F7 




CMPA #247 


33 OF THE 


0093 


00D4 


56 


RORB 


INTO B REG 


0044 0065 2704 




BED D@ 


COLOR 


0094 


00D5 


54 


LSRB 


NOW MOVE 


0045 0067 CA08 




ORB #8 


COMPUTER 


0095 


00D6 


54 


LSRB 


INTO LOWER 


0046 0069 2002 




BRA E@ 


TECHNICAL 


0096 


00D7 


54 


LSRB 


NYBBLE OF B 


0047 006B C4F7 


D@ 


ANDB #247 


REFERENCE 


0097 


00D8 


54 


LSRB 


REGISTER 


0048 006D F70156 


E§ 


STB 342 


MANUAL. 


0098 


00D9 


860C 


LDA #12 


12 LINES 


0049 0070 3507 




PULS A,B,CC 


RESTORE REG 


0099 


00DB 


3D 


MUL 


PER CHAR. 


0050 0072 3262 




LEAS 2,S 


PULL RETURN 


0100 


00DC 


8620 


LDA #32 


32 BYTES 


0051 0074 1CAF 




ANDCC t$AF 


ADDRESS AND 


0101 


00DE 


3D 


MUL 


WIDE. 



April, 1983 



the RAINBOW 127 



ft 4 /in 

0102 


/i /in P" 

00DF 


1F01 




• p n mm \j 

TFR D,X 


mm mm i j 

TO X 


0144 0146 6C78 




FCB 108,120 


0103 


/I /IP 4 

00E1 


3504 




PULS B 


kinu apt 

NOW GET 






0104 


00E3 


C41F 




ANDB #31 


POSITION 


0145 0148 457E60607C 


E 


FCB $45.126.96.96.124.96.96 

1 WW T lUI 1 LU 1 / U 1 / U I 4t mm I 1 / W 1 / U 


0105 


00E5 


3A 




ABX 


ACROSS 


0146 014F 7E 




FCB 126 


0106 


00E6 


nnnn 

DCBC 




LDD <$BC 


START OF HI 








/I 4 /I 7 

0107 


00E8 


7 /inn 

308B 




LEAX D,X 


RES SCREEN 


0147 0150 467E60607C 


F 


FCB $46,126,96,96,124,96,96 


0108 


00EA 


39 




RTS 


ALL DONE 


Atm a m mm. mm a mm* mm aw 

0148 0157 60 




FCB 96 








* CHARACTERS WITHOUT DESCENDERS 


mm a m Am Am a mm Am m mm mm mm a Am a Am 

0149 0158 473C666060 


G 


FCB $47,60,102,96,96,110,102 








* ARE MADE UP OF 3 BLANK ROWS, 


mm a mm mm mm a mm mm mm mm 

0150 015F 3C 




FCB 60 








* 7 DATA ROWS, 2 BLANK ROWS. 














* DESCENDERS ARE 5 AND 7 


Am a mm a mm a mm m mm «««««« mm mm 

0151 0160 486666667E 


H 


FCB $48,102,102,102,126,102 


a a /in 

0109 


00EB 


C603 


DRCHAR LDB #3 




m A mm mm ft A 1 1 till 

0152 0166 6666 




FCB 102,102 


mm a A mm 

0110 


00ED 


4F 




CLRA 


« nni ir m i a n 

ABOVE CHAR 






0111 


/i n p* p* 

00EE 


6D8DFF45 




TST INVERT, PCR 


1 1 1 1 V P% 1 1 k*\ P* 1 M 9K 

WHICH COLOR 


Am a mm mm mm a Am m mm mm mm a mm a mm a mm 

0153 0168 493C181818 


I 


FCB $49,60,24,24,24,24,24,60 


M J A mm 

0112 


jb mm mm jm 

00F2 


2701 




BEQ C@ 


ft ll PS k J PS 

0 = W ON B 






0113 


/i ft i 

00F4 


A mm 

43 




COMA 


n in n nil 1 1 

FLIP B ON W 


0154 0170 4A06060606 


J 


FCB $4A,6,6,6,6,6,102,60 


0114 


00F5 


7 i /in 

3402 


ce 


PSHS A 


n AI 1 A 1 1 T 1 P" 

SAV AWILE 






0115 


ft ft »■ ^ 

00F7 


a\ A ■ 

A784 


D@ 


STA ,X 


ON SCREEN 


0155 0178 4B66666C78 


K 


FCB $4B, 102, 102, 108, 120, 108 


/l 4 4 i 

0116 


vt vtp*n 

00F9 


308820 




LEAX 32, X 


NEXT ROW 


mm a mm a am a mm mm 4 111 

0156 017E 6666 




FCB 102,102 


mm a a mm 

0117 


00FC 


5A 




DECB 


m i H AtlPM 

ALL DONE? 






JA J J a 

0118 


00FD 


26F8 




BNE D@ 


NO, NEXT 


0157 0180 4C60606060 


L 


FCB $4C, 96, 96, 96, 96, 96, 96,126 


0119 


00FF 


C607 




LDB #7 


7 ROWS TALL 






/V J A* ft 

0120 


0101 


A J A ft 

A6A0 


NXTBYT LDA ,Y+ 


DATA 


am « mm mm. mm a mm mm A mm. t t mm mm mm mm a 

0158 0188 4D667E7E66 


M 


FCB $40,102,126,126,102,102 


0121 


0103 


6D8DFF30 




TST INVERT, PCR 


CHECK COLOR 


mm a mm mm, jm A mm. mm ■ ■ * * 

0159 018E 6666 




FCB 102,102 


0122 


ft A ft*t> 

0107 


2701 




BEQ E@ 


0 = W ON B 






0123 


0109 


43 




COMA 


B ON W 


0160 0190 4E66767E7E 


N 


FCB $4E,102, 118, 126,126, 110 


0124 


010A 


A784 


E@ 


STA ,X 


TO SCREEN 


0161 0196 6666 




FCB 102,102 


0125 


ft a /in 

010C 


308820 




LEAX 32, X 


NEXT ROW 






0126 


010F 


5A 




DECB 


ALL 7? 


0162 0198 4F3C666666 


0 


FCB $4F,60,102,102,102,102,102 


0127 


ft A A ft 

0110 


n i p* p" 

26EF 




BNE NXTBYT 


NEXT BYTE 


ft A i **W A 1 ftp —W §*\ 

0163 019F 3C 




FCB 60 


0128 


/I A A f*. 

0112 


3502 




PULS A 


RETRIEVE A 








0129 


0114 


A784 


BOT 


STA ,X 


BOTTOM 2 


0164 01A0 507C66667C 


P 


FCB $50,124,102,102,124,96,96 


JB A mm J* 

0130 


0116 


A78820 




STA 32, X 


ROWS ALSO 


0165 01A7 60 




FCB 96 


0131 


ft a a n 

0119 


39 




RTS 


ALL DONE 




















0166 01A8 513C666666 


Q 


FCB $51,60,102,102,102,118,108 


a 4 ^n 

0132 


ft A A A 

0 1 1 A 


4 t r rr\n 

17FFB2 


BACKSP LBSR FNDLOC 


WHERE 


mm A 1 mm mm a A mm mm m 

0167 01AF 3A 




FCB 58 


0133 


01 1 D 


7rt 4 F* 

301F 




LEAX -1,X 


BACKSPACE 








0134 


ft A A 

0 1 IF 


—V A AH A J MP* 

318D01CE 




LEAY SPACE+1,PCR BLANK CHAR 


0168 01B0 527C66667C 


R 


FCB $52,124,102,102,124,108 


0135 


0123 


nnn i 

8DC6 




BSR DRCHAR 


PUT IT ON 


mm a I mm, mm a VS 1 lilt 

0169 01B6 6666 




FCB 102,102 


0136 


/l 4 AP 

0125 


4 i ppni 

16FF81 




LBRA RET 


DONE 




















Am a mm mm mm a At mm mm mm mm mm $ mm mm mm 

0170 01B8 533C66603C 


S 


FCB $53,60,102,96,60,6,102,60 








* NOT 


ALL LETTERS ARE 


INCLUDED 












* HERE 


, ONLY THOSE THAT ARE USED 


0171 01C0 547E181818 


T 


FCB $54,126,24,24,24,24,24,24 








* IN THE BASIC PROGRAM 


■ 












* EACH 


CHARACTER IS SEVEN ROWS 


mm a IB mm mm a mm mm mm mm ajjajjaj 

0172 01C8 5566666666 


U 


FCB $55,102,102,102,102,102 








* TALL, THE HEX NUMBER 


IS THE 


0173 01CE 663C 




FCB 102,60 








t ASCII CODE FOR THE COMPARE 












* USED TO FIND EACH DATA BLOCK 


0174 01D0 5666666666 


V 


FCB $56,102,102,102,102,102 














Am a mm mm Am a mm mm Am Am 

0175 01D6 3C18 




FCB 60,24 


0137 


0128 


• 4 4 OTP JJ JJ 

41183C6666 


LETTA 


FCB $41,24,60,102,102 






0138 


A 4 ps r\ 

012D 


TP III! 

7E6666 




FCB 126,102,102 




0176 01D8 5766666666 


w 


FCB $57,102,102,102,102,126 














0177 01DE 7E66 




FCB 126,102 


A 1 TO 

0139 


0130 


427C66667C 


B 


FCB $42,124,102, 


,102,124,102 






ft a a ft 

0140 


0136 


667C 




FCB 102,124 




0178 01E0 5866663C18 


X 


FCB $58,102,102,60,24,60,102 














/lino /ii n l l 

0179 01E7 66 




p" f** r\ i api 

FCB 102 




0138 


433C666060 


C 


FCB $43,60,102,96,96,96,102 








0142 


013F 


3C 




FCB 60 




0180 01E8 5966663C18 


Y 


FCB $59,102,102,60,24,24,24 














0181 01EF 18 




FCB 24 


0143 


0140 


44786C6666 


D 


FCB $44,120,108, 


,102,102,102 








28 


the RAINBOW 


April, 1983 













AUTO DUN 



SEE YOU AT 
RAINBOWFEST! 



Auto Run is a utility program for the TRS-80* 
Extended Basic Color Computer. It is used to add 
convenience and professionalism to your software. 

Auto Run will help you create your title screen 
with the graphics editor. The graphics editor allows 
you to choose a background color and border style. 
Using the arrow keys and several other commands 
you can draw pictures, block letters and also include 
text. 

Auto Run will generate a machine language load- 
er program to preceed your program on the tape. 
Then, to start up your program, simply type 
CLOADM to load in the Auto Run loader program, 
which will then automatically start itself up, display 
your title screen, load your program and then RUN 
or EXEC it. 

Also you may record a vocal or musical introduc- 
tion preceding your program. The Auto Run loader 
will control the audio on/off. 

Basic programs can be set to load anywhere in 
memory above $600 (the P CLEAR 0 page). 

Software authors: The Auto Run prefix may be 
appended to your software products. 

Auto Run is $14.95 and includes complete docu- 
mentation and an assembly source listing. 

Requires 16K Extended Basic. 




Tape Information 
Management System 

A user-oriented, easy to use personal database 
management system for the TRS-80* Color Com- 
puter with these outstanding features: 

* keeps files of programs, names, addresses, birth- 
days, recipes, class or club rosters, anything 

* variable record and field lengths 
*phrase substitution editor 

*up to 8 user-definable fields 

* ML sort (up to 3 fields), search and delete functions 
*2 search modes — range and item 

* user-definable printer format, for any printer 
*up to 230 characters per record 

For $24.95 you get the database management 
system, our full documentation which includes a 
reference guide and a programmer's guide, and our 

1981 Bibliography of articles relating to the Color 
Computer. Requires 16K Extended Basic. 32K 
recommended. 

1982 TIMS Bibliography — $9.95 



Galactic 




an 



1 , , ., , 




H 



A great new twist to the popular, educational word 
guessing game for the Color Computer. Large (700 
words) and sophisticated vocabulary. Or enter your 
own words, your child's spelling list, foreign 
language vocabulary, etc. 

Outstanding high resolution graphics, animation 
and sound effects. 

For $14.95 you get both the 16K and 32K versions 
of Galactic Hangman. 



A sensational and educational version of a popular 
party game for the TRS-80* Color Computer . . . 

For 1 to 10 players. Load a story into the com- 
puter. The players are asked to supply a noun, verb, 
part of body, celebrity, etc. which the program uses 
to complete the story. The story, which is displayed 
when all words are entered, will be hilarious. Silly 
Syntax requires 16K Extended Basic (32K for disk 
version). For $19.95, you get a user guide and a 
tape containing the Silly Syntax game and 2 stories. 
You can create your own stories or order story tapes 
from the selection below. 
Silly Syntax stories — Ten stories per tape. 
SS-001 - Fairy Tales SS-004 - Current Events 
SS-002 - Sing Along SS-006 - Adventure/Sci-Fi 
SS-003 - X-Rated SS-007 - Potpourri 

Each story tape is $9.95. 1 0% off for 3 or more story 
tapes. Disk is $24.95 for Silly Syntax and 2 stories or 
$49.95 for Silly Syntax and all 62 stories. 



RAINBOW 



'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 
(614) 861-0565 

CIS orders EMAIL to 70405, 1374 



Add $1 .00 per tape or disk for 
postage and handling. Ohio- 
ans add 5.5% sales tax. COD 
orders are welcome. Dealer 
inquiries invited. 



0182 01F0 5A7E060C18 Z FCB $5A, 126,6, 12,24,48,96, 126 



0217 02B8 333C66061C N3 FCB $33,60,102,6,28,6,102,60 



0183 01F8 6100003C06 LA FCB $61,0,0,60,6,62,102,62 



0184 0200 6260607C66 LB 

0185 0207 7C 



FCB $62,96,96,124,102,102,102 
FCB 124 



0218 02C0 340E1E3666 N4 FCB $34,14,30,54,102,126,6,6 

0219 02C8 357E607C06 N5 FCB $35, 126,96, 124,6,6, 102 

0220 02CF 3C FCB 60 



0186 0208 6300003C66 LC FCB $63,0,0,60,102,96,102,60 

0187 0210 6406063E66 LD FCB $64,6,6,62,102,102,102,62 

0188 0218 6500003C66 LE FCB $65,0,0,60,102,126,96,60 



0189 0220 663C666078 LF 

0190 0227 60 

0191 0228 6860607C66 LH 

0192 022F 66 



FCB $66,60,102,96,120,96,96 
FCB 96 

FCB $68,96,96,124,102,102,102 
FCB 102 



0193 0230 6918001818 LI FCB $69,24,0,24,24,24,24,24 



0194 0238 6B60666C78 LK 

0195 023E 6666 



FCB $6B, 96, 102, 108, 120,108 
FCB 102,102 



0196 0240 6C18181818 LL FCB $6C,24,24,24,24,24,24,24 



0197 0248 6D0000667E LH 

0198 024F 66 

0199 0250 6E00007C66 LN 

0200 0257 66 



FCB $6D, 0,0, 102,126, 126, 102 
FCB 102 

FCB $6E,0, 0,124, 102,102, 102 
FCB 102 



0201 0258 6F00003C66 LO FCB $6F, 0,0, 60, 102, 102, 102,60 

0202 0260 7200007C66 LR FCB $72,0,0,124,102,96,96,96 

0203 0268 7300003C60 LS FCB $73,0,0,60,96,60,6,60 

0204 0270 7400183C18 LT FCB $74,0,24,60,24,24,24,12 



0205 0278 7500006666 LU 

0206 027F 3E 

0207 0280 7600006666 LV 

0208 0287 18 

0209 0288 7700006666 LW 

0210 028F 66 



FCB $75,0,0,102,102,102,102 
FCB 62 

FCB $76,0,0,102,102,102,60 
FCB 24 

FCB $77,0,0,102,102,126,126 
FCB 102 



0211 0290 780000663C LX FCB $78,0,0, 102,60,24,60, 102 

0212 0298 7A00007C0C LZ FCB $7A,0,0, 124, 12,24,48, 124 



0213 02A0 303C666E7E N0 

0214 02A6 663C 



FCB $30,60,102,110,126,118 
FCB 102,60 



0215 02A8 3118381818 Nl FCB $31,24,56,24,24,24,24,60 

0216 02B0 323C66060C N2 FCB $32,60,102,6,12,24,48,126 



0221 02D0 363C66607C N6 FCB $36,60, 102,96, 124, 102, 102 

0222 02D7 3C FCB 60 

0223 02D8 377E06060C N7 FCB $37, 126,6,6,12,24,48,96 

0224 02E0 383C66663C N8 FCB $38,60,102,102,60,102,102 

0225 02E7 3C FCB 60 

0226 02E8 393C66663E N9 FCB $39,60,102,102,62,6,102 

0227 02EF 3C FCB 60 

0228 02F0 2000000000 SPACE FCB $20,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

0229 02F8 25304A3408 PERCNT FCB $25,48,74,52,8,44,82 

0230 02FF 0C FCB 12 

0231 0300 2718181800 APOST FCB $27,24,24,24,0,0,0,0 

0232 0308 2A10543838 ASTERK FCB $2A, 16,84, 56,56,84 

0233 030E 1000 FCB 16,0 

0234 0310 3A00181800 COLON FCB $3A,0,24,24,0,24, 24 

0235 0317 00 FCB 0 

0236 0318 3F3C66060C QUEST FCB $3F, 60, 102,6, 12,24,0 

0237 031F 18 FCB 24 

* THESE LETTERS COME LAST 

* BECAUSE THEY HAVE DESCENDERS 

0238 0320 673C666666 L6 FCB $67,60, 102, 102, 102,62 

0239 0326 063C FCB 6,60 

0240 0328 6A06060606 LJ FCB $6A,6,6,6,6,6, 102,60 

0241 0330 707C666666 LP FCB $70,124,102,102,102,124 

0242 0336 6060 FCB 96,96 



0243 0338 713E666666 LQ 

0244 033E 0606 

0245 0340 796666663C LY 

0246 0346 3060 



FCB $71,62,102,102,102,62 
FCB 6,6 

FCB $79,102,102,102,60,24 
FCB 48,96 



0247 0348 000000 



0248 034B 



FCB 0,0,0 

* THREE ZEROS ARE NEEDED HERE TO 

* MAKE THIS PROGRAM WORK WHILE 

* TACKED ONTO THE END OF THE 

* BASIC PROGRAM. 

END START 



130 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



The TRS-80* Color-Computer 

DATABASE 

ENHANCED 



Database Management, Word Processing and Spread Sheet Calculations in One Integrated Package 



Business Applications 

Real Estate 
Ledgers 
Mailing Lists 
Single Letters 
Memos 
Phone Lists 
Form Letters 
Charts 

Business Reports 
Inventories 

Income Tax Preparation 
Property Maintenance 
Property Rentals 
Receivables 
Payables 
Order Entry 
Business Contacts 
Appointments 
Client Profiles 
Document/ Article Indexing 
Lab Reports 
Personnel Records 
Student Grades 
Budgets 

Homebase is Easy to Use 

• No programming required. 
All options are displayed in 
menus. HOMEBASE automa- 
tically requests all required 
data and edits every entry. 

• All commands are single key 
stroke. 

• Full screen editing for text 
entry. 

• Complete curosr control for 
entering names, titles, 
notes, comments and all 
other data. 

• Over 100 pages of well 
organized and easy to use 
documentation with complete 
descriptions of every com- 
mand, and examples. 

• Requires 32K of memory, 
DISK BASIC and only one 
disk drive. No equipment 
modifications required. 

• Fast response to all com- 
mands including search and 
sort. 

Enhancement: 

• A tutorial/demonstration file 
with step-by-step instructions. 



Custom Report Writer For Data Management Files 

Merge data management files with text files 
Print one document per data record. 
Print one document for multiple data records by using a 
data field as a key for matching records. 
Use all printer control options. 
Print multiple copies. 
Print selected data records. 
Store multiple formats on a single TEXT file. 
Alter formats while using the REPORT WRITER or TEXT 
PROCESSING program 



Data Management 

• Define 50 data fields, in- 
cluding a comment field, in a 
single record. Dates, time of 
day, phone numbers and 
dollar amounts are 
automatically formatted. You 
may also define 24 scratch- 
pad data fields not contained 
within your data records. 

• Reorganize records by mov- 
ing data fields within records 
or by moving records within 
a file. You may sort records 
in ascending or descending 
order using record names 
you assign or data values. 

• Manage files by searching, 
deleting, clearing, duplicat- 
ing, and displaying any data 
or record. Add, subtract, 
multiply, divide, or sum- 
marize any data field. Use 
any command on a single 
record or selected group of 
records. You may also selec- 
tively process any single 
data field or group of data 
fields. 

• Print files using automatic 



formatting with options to 
print report titles, a report 
date, page numbers, record 
names, and data field 
names. Print all or selected 
data fields or records. 

Enhancements: 

• Variable length alpha/text 
data fields. 

• Use 1 or 2 disk drives. 

• Range search for alpha/text 
data fields and record 
names. 

• Calculator mode for entering 
new data field values while 
performing calculations and 
automatically displaying the 
results of calculations. 

• Extended sort which permits 
sorting on any position 
within a comment alpha/text 
data field. 

• Separate printer drivers for 
NEC and OKI DATA printers. 

Text/Word Processing 

• Define 250 screens of text 
you can search, sort, 
display, or print. Reference 
or select records using 



ORDER TOLL FREE 800-334-0854 



Credit card holders call toll free: 800-334-0854, extension 887 
in North Carolina call: 800-672-0101, extension 887 or send a 
check or money order for $75 + $5 for handling charges to: 
HOMEBASE™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
P.O. Box 3448, Ourham, N.C. 27702 
90 day warranty 

N.C. residents add 4% for sales tax. Allow 1 to 3 weeks delivery. 

HOMEBASE™ is a trademark of HOMEBASE ™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS, 
a subsidiary of Small Business Systems, Durham, N.C. (919) 544-5408. 
"TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Radio Shack, Inc. 



record names you assign or 
by searching for any word or 
phrase within text records. 

• Edit text by duplicating, 
moving, clearing, searching 
and replacing, deleting, or 
reordering entire records of 
text or portions of text 
records. Print the text record 
appearing on the screen to 
review before final print. 

• Format labels, memos, let- 
ters, and other documents 
for printing with embeded 
printer controls for paging, 
skipping lines, and changing 
character fonts. Program 
controls provide for setting; 
right and left margins, lines 
per page, page width, 
horizontal tabs, and line 
spacing. Reuse control set- 
tings or change when 
desired. Print multiple 
copies. Merge text records 
to produce a form letter for 
an address file. 

Enhancements: 

• Use 1 or 2 disk drives. 

• A separate printer driver for 
NEC and OKIDATA printers. 

• Page numbering. 

• Print page headings. 

• Page backwards or for- 
wards. 

Utilities for Data 
Management and 
Word Processing 

• Generating new files from old 
files. 

Merging files. 
Duplicating files. 
Moving data between files. 
Summarizing files. 
Moving files from diskette to 
diskette using a single drive. 
Saving files to cassette and 
reloading from cassette. 
File synchronizing. 
Print disk directory 
Enhancements: 
Rename flies. 
Extended summarize and 
update. 



Software Review 



Speak Up! 
Speaks For Itself 



With today's rapid gains in technology and the resulting 
drop in the cost of electronic components, digitally synthes- 
ized voice is becoming more and more common in our 
everyday lives. We have automobiles with little voices that 
tell us when we have left our headlights on, vending 
machines that talk to us and even computers that deliver 
sales pitches over the phone. Now Speak Up!, a 100% soft- 
ware speech synthesis program, lets the CoCo communicate 
with the real world in a voice of its own. 

Speak Up is a machine language program that is capable 
of reproducing 37 of the most common English language 
phonemes on the CoCo's television speaker. (The phoneme 
is the fundamental unit of speech). The cassette on which it is 
delivered contains both a copy for 16K machines and a copy 
for 32K machines. Both versions take up less than 7K bytes 
of memory and run in one of two modes, ( 1 ) an interactive 
mode where words and sentences to be spoken are typed on 
the keyboard and (2) a BASIC program mode where Speak 
UpFs input is passed in by a running program. 

After a quick pass through Speak Up. r s complete, clear 
and informative documentation, I was ready to fire up my 
CoCo and hear its first ever spoken words. Running Speak 
Up! in the interactive mode, it was with great anticipation 
that I typed at the prompt, those immortal, timeless words, 
"HELLO WORLD!" Sure enough, my CoCo announced 
itself with its newfound voice and I was pleasantly surprised 
by the quality of the voice emanating from the speaker. 



Color Computer Enhancements from Micro Technical Products 



*LCA-47— Lower Case Adapter 

Smart improvement' 

• Compatible with ALL Color Computer 
Software 

• Bright characters on a dark background 

■ Lower Case with true descenders 

■ Comprehensive User's Manual 

■ Easy 5-mm installation 
no cutting no soldering 

- Uses NO system memory 

- 1 year warranty! 

Assembled & Tested $75.00 

*PP-16— EPRDM Programmer 

• 5vo!tEPR0Ms 2516. 2716 & 2758 

■ Read Program. Verify data. Verity erased 

■ Auto verily after programming 
Software available for 6502. 6800. 
6809. 8080. 8085. & Z80 (specify one) 

Note User must provide inlerlace to computer 

Bare PC Board & 

Documentation $25.00 

Complete Kit $45.00 

*PAK ATTACK— 

From Computerware 

Great fun for all "kids ' without the quarters 
Fast action, brilliant colors 

Tape $24.95 

*Super 'Color' Writer II— 

From Nelson 

• Tops ALL word processors tor the 
Color Computer 1 

More features 

Supports ANY line printer 

- Comprehensive documentation 

RDM PAK.. $74.95 Disk. .$99.95 
ORDER 

1 , lfliat.JBtlll.il ■■■*■«■■■< . .- itit-i ■>■■■■■ 

■ ii"i.il.riiiTi~i-h'-HJ ' H-i it- t — i 
i .■■ i i H « ■ ■ ■ 

I-n ..Ll._ ■IBUJ BU.Bl 

Jt 

l-IJi* 

■ . ■ ■-. ■ ■■ ■ ■■■ IJ l.llll 

.l-t.-L 1..L MUN .11. LB 

■ wk l<ni ■ ■ 

i ._ . . . • ■ ■<■■■ • i .. I 

■a-u.i-lt + j-, + ...l hhtM !-■•» ■■■■■ 

MM ' " - -ti.H-.i- I -i-l-H- 

. . - - ■. . i . . ■ ii.iii.ii-r ■ i .1 ■ 

■■■■■» iin.iiir< I .. .k 

nip ■ Bliar mt*m¥ I it ■ •- — - 

• tfmr ■ ■■ 1 1 ■■■ 1 

-nrr 'f-ii -pf • ■-- 
-u" * .i.iri I'" 
' 

— u ■-■ IKIO 

I M44MM UNO. 



*ROML-RDM PAK Loader Program 

Innovative' 

Save your ROM PAKS on disk and run 
WITHOUT removing disk controller (requires 
64k RAM) ^ m> ^ 
Load and run ANY machine language /f^^\ 
program. rainbow 
FREE program included to copy machine ""IT 10 " 
language programs from tape to disk 

Tape. . . $25.00 Disk. . . $29.00 
*ROMKIL-BASIC RDM Disabler 

Disables Disk BASIC ROM or Extended 
BASIC ROM 

• Frees up extra RAM 

System stays in selecled level of BASIC 
even if Reset 

Cycling power restores ail ROMs 

Tape . . $15.00 Disk. . . $19.00 
*PLUS32-64k RAM Enabler 

• Runs BASIC from RAM whereyou can 
modity it 

Allows you to load machine language 
programs above BASIC 

- Requires good 64k RAM system 

Tape . .. $15.00 Disk ... $19.00 

•BANNER— Moving Marquee 
Program 

- Display any message in GIANT 
m__o v i n g letters 

- You choose colors & speed 

Tape ... $19.00 Disk ... $23.00 



ftMNAQW 

v.<- 



♦SPECIAL SAVINGS— $25 oo Off 

when you purchase Super Color' Writer II and 
an LCA-47 together 1 

NOW 



Micro Technical Products, Inc. 

123 N. Sirrine, Suite 106-A2 
Mesa, AZ 85201 (602) 834-0283 

Add 5% for shipping, minimum $2.00. 
Overseas 10%, min. $4.00. Arizona, add 
5% tax. Visa & MasterCard welcome. 



Speak Up! produces meaningful, understandable sounds 
by scanning the words and sentences input to it for certain 
letter pairs and single letters that it can pronounce. For 
example, the letter sequence CH produces a sound such as 
found in the word "chip." Sounds are strung together to 
produce coherent output. Punctuation in the input string 
produces varying periods of silence; a space (like between 
words of a sentence) causes a single, silent pause to be 
output, a comma causes two pauses and a period, three. All 
other characters (i.e. numbers and other punctuation) are 
ignored. 

The author's desire to keep Speak Up! a. reasonable size, 
coupled with the inherent complexities and inconsistencies 
of the English language, make it relatively easy to fool Speak 
UpFs letter to-phoneme mapping scheme. For example, the 
word "champagne" comes out sounding like "CHAMP- 
AG-NN." By the use of a little creative spelling (i.e. 
"SH AMPAYN" in the example above), proper pronuncia- 
tion can be obtained. With the letter-to-sound chart att- 
ached to Speak Up. r s documentation and some practice, I 
was quickly able to figure out alternate spellings for almost 
any word, like COMPYEWTER for "computer" and FIEV 
for "five." 

Running Speak Up! in the BASIC program mode also 
proved to work out well. Thereare clear examples on how to 
interface to both Color BASIC (via "PRINT@0 (DATA)" 
statements) and Extended Color BASIC (via DEFUSRand 
USR functions) contained in the documentation. It was an 
extremely simple exercise to write a program to read text 
files out loud (although enhancement to look for and re- 
spell "problem" words would have added some polish to my 
program). The number of applications for Speak Up! seems 
to be limitless. 

Overall, I am impressed with the quality of Speak Upland 
its documentation andfeel that it is a tool that would make a 
nice addition to any CoCo software library. 

(Classical Computing, Inc., P.O. Box 12247, Lexington, KY 
40582, $29.95) 

— Gary E. Epple 

Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 

Contributions to the RAIN BOW are welcome from 
everyone. We like to run a variety of programs which will be 
useful/ helpful/ fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best 
to make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but we do not have time to key in programs. All 
programs should be supported by some editorial 
commentary, explaining how the program works. We're 
much more interested in how your submission works and 
runs than how you developed it. Programs should be 
learning experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of criteria. 
Those wishing remuneration should so state when making 
submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed infor- 
mation on making submissions, please send a SASE to: 
Submissions Editor, the RAINBOW, P.O. Box 209, 
Prospect, KY 40059. We will send you some more 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently 
submitted to another publication. 



132 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Four smart ways 
to make your Atari 400/800, 
TRS-80 COLOR, VIC-20 and Commodore 64 



much more intelligent. 



1 



The Color Accountant pays 
for itself. This complete per- 
sonal financial package is 
designed to make your money 
easier to manage. Included are: 

/. Checkbook Maintenance 

2. Chart of Accounts 

3. Check Search 

4. Income/Expense Statement 

5. Net Worth Statement 

6. Color Graph Design Package 

7. Home Budget Analysis 

8. Color Payments Calendar 

9. Mailing List 

10. Decision Maker 

This unique menu-driven pack- 
age requires less than one hour 
data input per month. The Color 
Accountant has over 60 pages 
of documentation including 
examples and step-by-step 
instructions. TRS-80 COLOR 
requires Ext. Basic and 16K for 
cassette, 32K for diskette; Atari 
400/800 requires 24K for cas- 
sette, 32K for diskette; VIC-20 
requires 16K Expander. Now 
available for Commodore 64. 

$74.95 cassette; 
S79.95 diskette 



The Tax Handler makes 
April 15th just another day. 

This is the perfect complement 
to our Color Accountant. The Tax 
Handler will help prepare your 
tax returns and probably save 
you money. Included are: 

/. Form 1040 (Long Form)— filing 
status, exemptions, income, 
income adjustments, com- 
putation of tax, tax credits 
and payments or balance/ 
refund due. 

2 Schedule A (Itemized Deduc- 
tions)— medical and dental 
deductions, taxes, interest 
expenses, contributions, 
casualty /theft losses, miscel- 
laneous deductions and 
summary. 

3. Schedule G (Income A wag- 
ing)— base period income and 
adjustments, computation of 
averageable income and 
computation of tax. 

Additional schedules or altera- 
tions to the tax codes will be 
available separately in our 
monthly magnetic magazines. 
Atari400/800requires24Kfor 
cassette, 32K for diskette. VIC-20 
requires 16K Expander. Now 
available for Commodore 64. 



$34.95 cassette; 
$39.95 diskette 



■ 



You'll love your computer 
with The Magnetic Maga- 
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will entertain, inform, educate, 
challenge and delight you. Each 
issue contains 4 to 7 ready-to- 
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techniques and a line-by-line 
examination of the feature 
program. And starting with issue 
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A full year's subscription 
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Half year subscription: 
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Sample issue: 
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VIK VIDEO issue 1 available 
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The Learning Center 
teaches and enlightens 
children. Our exceptional 
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Software Review . . . 

File Cabinet: Excellent 
Utility For The Adventurous 

In search of a versatile filing program with the flexibility 
of a Data Base system, 1 eagerly pored over File Cabinet 
from Moreton Bay Software. 

As I read the narrative, I discovered that the author has 
included two adaptions of the basic program, a Recipe File 
and an Address File, complete with sample data files. 

These additional programs were included to demonstrate 
the versatility of the BASIC program. The documentation 
for this program consists of nine pages of running narrative 
which primarily describes how to find Tomatoes in Salad 
(Salad is the Data File for Recipe). 

I can't wait for the salad, 1 have to get to the meat of the 
program, the File Cabinet. After all, it can't be that difficult 
to set up a file. 

CLOAD, okay. R LWokay. Read the title page and copy- 
right, okay. Next screen, CREATE or LOAD. Since 1 don't 
have a tape file, I select CREATE which then prompts for 
the number of Entries (Fields) per Record, 2-20. After 
ENTERing, the screen proudly displays the number of 
Records available in menory using an average of 10 charac- 
ters per field. Is this enough? A No response automatically 
reduces the average field size to increase the amount of 
available records. This is great. 

The next prompt is for a file name. Then, enter field 
names by prompt. An incorrect entry, what to do? No 
instructions, the Adventure begins. (I begin to thing of File 
Cabinet as sort of a "Utility Adventure," but the command 
TAKE LAM P sheds no light.) At the end of the Field Name 
entry, there is a prompt, "CORRECT Y/N." But, no 
response will have you redo all field names. 

After naming the fields, the ADD or MENU prompt 
appears. At this point, the author wisely suggests that you 
enter a few trial records to develop familiarity with the 
commands and functions. Good Advice. 

We now have a few records with a few fields. The Adven- 
ture continues. Let's examine the MAINTENANCE 
MENU, the most complete I've seen for the CC. 

ADD, simpleenough. SORT, by selected field, great! No, 
wait, danger lurks! The ASCII sort routine thinks a 2 is 
larger than 15 unless you avoid this peril by using leading 
zeros. 

CHANGE and DELETE. Unfortunately, these com- 
mands will only allow access to one record in the file before 
returning to the MENU. 

FIND will locate multiple occurrences in a specified field 
of any character or string. This is very useful to aid in 
locating records for CHANGE and DELETE, but you need 



a scratch pad and pencil. 

LIST, sort of an Inventory command to let you see your 
file "treasures" on the screen — if the record data will fit on 
one screen. You can page through records in sort order or 
return to the menu. 

REMAINING MEM. is a nice featuref orsmall machines 
or large files. Select this option to display bytes and record 
space available. 

MAIN MENU, there are five corridors out of here. 
MAINTENANCE MENU takes you back to where you 
were. SAVE takes you to cassette. QUIT takes you to Basic 
(GOTO 10 will get you back with your data). TOTAL will 
total a field from all or selected records. The total is only 
displayed on screen with a record count and numeric 
average. 

REPORT, the most versatile, yet least described function. 
When you get here, it's like getting through Raaka-Tu with 
only half enough points. The function call is self-prompting, 
but somewhat confusing. The first prompt, Print to Screen 
or Printer, is selected. The output for either option is similar 
except on Screen, you must page through all selected 
records with end of file being your only access back to the 
menu. 

The next prompt is for an arithmetic field. If Y, you are 
prompted for number of 1st entry field. Once done, you can 
select the appropriate math function from +, -, * and / . The 
program then adds a new field to every record and asks for 
the 2nd entry field. This is the numeric value you wish to use. 
This value is placed in the added field. The next prompt is to 
name the (results) field. 

You are then allowed to select which fields will be printed 
and if you want the field heading printed. Each field is 
printed at the left margin which makes it difficult to format 
any type of table. 

The final series of prompts in this routine ask which fields 
to select if you did not select an earlier ALL fields prompt. 
The next prompt, Input search start parameter, was confus- 
ing until I remembered the ASCII trap. You can enter any 
value that will find a match in your selected field. The Input 
end parameter will allow you to select a range of values 
within a field. At last, press any key to print. 

I believe I managed to escape with all the treasures the File 
Cabinet Unility Adventure contains. This filing program is 
the best I've seen for the CC and is very close to being 
outstanding in its function, but the documentation needs to 
be rewritten so that all the functions in this program can be 
fully exploited other than by the trial-and-error, or "Adven- 
ture," method. Now, if we can only get an M L sort routine 
included . . . 

(Moreton Bay Software, 316 Castillo Street, Santa Barbara, 
CA 93101, $29.95 on tape) 

—Ed Sehlhorst 



AUDIO AND VIDEO 
INTERFACE 

Provides SWITCHED color or monochrome 75ohm, 1 volt p-p video from CoCo. 
If you wish to use a high resolution monitor this interface is a must. 
Separate enhancements are provided for color and monchrome outputs. 

This is not a simple emitter-follower add-on. 

'UNIT DOES NOT REQUIRE SOLDERING 
'INTERFACE IS ASSEMBLED AND TESTED 
MOOmw AUDIO @ 8 ohms 
*TWO YEAR WARRANTY 

Price $49.95 (Includes Shipping) FREELAND ENG. 7503 N. Kerby, Portland, OR 97217 



134 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



TM 



7 ETA 

software; 



> 



SINCE 1981 



E3 R: t=l M l> M t£ W Ci R if'"1 E Fl !-••» C> O Hi L "t 



R: o !• •• i 



! la T 



WORMHOLE™ 

by John Bobst 

An original a/ /-machine-language game 
for the TRS80 Color Computer: 

"1 to 4 players (taking turns, 
"in-progress" savable) 

*6 distinct sound effects 
(7 if counting "foosh") 

*1 joystick and 16K either 
BASIC required (average?) 

*8 colors on a black screen 
(Semigraphics 1 2} 

*1 "pause" key, 1 exit key, and 
1 reset key (handy) 

"255,999,999 points possible 
(not @#%&! likely) 

*9 speeds/skill-levels 
(changeable during play) 

*4 copies on 1 cassette 
(disk savable/loadable) 

*1 source only 
(at a "factory direct price") 

A great description for $29.95, but WORMHOLE is a 
great game for only 

ZETA SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 3522 
($20.45) to: Greenville, S C. 29608 




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Zeta Software 

P.O. BOX 3522 

GREENVILLE SC 29608-3522 



Software Review 



Bar Zapper: Well-Documented 
Tool For Color Computer 



Screen Print using the Bar Zapper 
and Custom Software 
Screen Print Program 

Radio Shack w/LP-100 Printer 




100,00 - 
80.00 ■ 

* 

60 ,0 0 - 
$ 40,00 * 
£0,00 
0.00 





FEE MAR APR MAY 
MONTHS IN 81. 82 



JUM 



If a picture is worth a thousand words, what is a high 
resolution bar graph worth? 

Plenty! To anyone who works with numbers, forecasts, 
computations and statistics. 

There is nothing like a graph to convert a series of com- 
parative figures into an instantly understandable visual 
presentation. 

Bar Zapper is the second graph preparation program 
from Southern Software Systems, following their original 
Graph Zapper program. While Graph Zapper creates line 
graphs, Bar Zapper makes bar graphs (logical enough). 

For those unfamiliar with bar graphs, they are the type of 
graphs which represent and compare statistics in the form of 
columns or towers rising or falling (for negative values) from 
a base line. 

Bar graphs allow instant comparisons of values. A taller 
column represents a value greater than a shorter column. 
Easy... 

With Bar Zapper, the Color Computer produces high 
quality bar graphs using data entered by answering a series 
of inquiries generated by the program. 

Bar Zapper allows you to: 

• Add bars to the graph 

• Change bars on a graph 

• Insert bars in an existing graph 

• Delete bars from an existing graph 

• List the data which the CoCo will use to generate the graph 
and allow changes 

• Save and load the data and completed graphs to or from 
disk or tape. 

The user defines the minimum and maximum values for 
the bars, the number of bars and sub-bars (more about that 
later) and if there will be lines crossing the graph or not. 
Using these variables, a custom graph is created. Each axis 
of the graph is labeled and each bar can be titled. A unique 
staircase label option allows longer bar titles by slanting the 
titles downward so they won't run into each other. In addi- 
tion, the entire graph can be labeled with a reversed title 
banner across the top of the screen. 

While the above may seem complex, the program is 
extremely easy to use and is supported by a concise 23-page 
manual which answers most possible questions, including 
what to do if the program aborts. 

The main event is when you zap (print) the graph on the 



screen. The title appears, followed by the bars, followed by 
the titles. Beautiful! 

The graphs are displayed using PMODE4 for the highest 
resolution. So you are limited to a choice of two color 
combinations, either green and black, or buff and black. 
Instead of using different colors to differentiate between the 
bars you have a choice of five different types of bars. While 
different colors would be more desirable, the various designs 
are very unique with little chance of confusing the bars. 

After the graph is zapped, it can be changed or stored for 
future reference. 

In Bar Zapper each bar represents a whole value. Com- 
parisons are made between two or more values by using the 
sub-bar option where a group of bars are presented con- 
nected to each other. In the example, the graph shows six 
bars, each consisting of a bar and one sub-bar. The maxi- 
mum number of bars for Bar Zapper is 24, with up to five 
sub-bars for the 32K version and three sub-bars for the 16K. 
The 32K zapper contains many nice extras which are omit- 
ted from the 16K zapper because of lack of memory. 

After your graph is zapped on the screen, now what? 
Graph Zapper allows the printing of your graph using a 
screen print program and a printer with graphics capabili- 
ties. A set of modifications are included in the Bar Zapper 
instructions to automatically make hard copies using the 
screen print program from Custom Software Engineering. If 
you have a 32K CoCo, this modification allows you to make 
screen prints with the push of a button. 

When Bar Zapper was printed using the Radio Shack 
Screen Print Program (now discontinued), the print 
included a black line across the bottom of the graph which 
wasn't on the graph. Using Custom Software's program, 
there was no such problem. The two programs were 
designed to merge together and I would highly recommend 
doing so to get full use from Bar Zapper. 

In summary, Bar Zapper is a well-prepared and docu- 
mented tool for the Color Computer. (Custom Software 
Engineering has the recommended Screen Print Program. 
They're at 807 Minuteman Causeway, Cocoa Beach, FL 
32931.) 

(Southern Software Systems, 485 Tropical Trail, Suite 109, 
Merritt Island, FL 32952, 16K tape version, $15.95; 32K 
version for tape or disk, $19.95.) 

—Bruce Rothermel 



136 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Q. 

o 




o 



COLORP€D€ 

This truly outstanding engineer designed, 
100% machine language game with multi- 
colored high resolution characters and 
fast action will challenge the most avid 
arcade buff. Can be played by 1 or 2 
players controlled with joy sticks or key 
board. Joy stick control is fast, smooth 
and accurate. As COLORPEDE slithers 
through the toad stools, you attempt to 
destroy the COLORPEDE, knock out the 
menacing Bouncing Bug and eliminate 
toad stools while accumulating higher 
and higher scores. Demonstration mode 
with top 5 scores. Pause feature. For 
16K Color Computer and TDP-100. 



Cassette - $29.95 



Disk -$34.95 



o 

/ 



intracolor 

COMMUNICATIONS 




Actual Photo 

WHAT THEY ARE SAYING ABOUT COLORPEDE 

"... forefront of the pack ..." the Rainbow, Dec. '82 

"... the best graphics and playability of any color 
computer game . . ." McKeesport, PA 

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" ... an outstanding offering." N. Vernon, IN 

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SETTING THE STANDARDS 




Actual Photo 



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DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 



Ultra fast arcade action with colorful 
high resolution graphics. You are the 
super human who must fight off the 
attacking robots and save the remaining 
humans from destruction. You have 
super powers, can shoot in any direction 
and move anywhere on the screen to 
accomplish your vital mission. 

Engineer designed, 100% machine 
language. Can be played by 1 or 2 players 
with joy stick control. Top 5 scores 
displayed. Pause feature. For 16K Color 
Computer and TDP-100 with joy sticks. 



Cassette - $24.95 



Disk -$27.95 



-y 



intracolor 

' COMMUNICATIONS 

P.O. Box 1035, East Lansing, M! 48823 

(517) 351-8537 



FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP-100 



Software Review 



Super "Color" Disk Zap 
Adds The Missing Capabilities 



The Radio Shack Disk Operating System has many capa- 
bilities. With it, you can load and save files and data. You 
can list the files on disk, copy and rename files, and backup 
your disks. At first glance, it would seem that it can satisfy 
all of your needs. But what if the system decides to clobber 
the directory? Or, what if you decide that you want to 
inspect or modify a portion of the disk, or a file on the disk? 
All of a sudden, the system seems to havefewer capabilities. 

Super Color Disk Zap is a machine language disk utility 
program that has many useful features. With it, you can 
inspect or modify your disks in any manner desired. You can 
also display the directory, and print any portion of the disk. 
It also supports the transmitting of files to another computer 
using the RS-232 port. In addition, it has a verify function 
that will find the bad spots on a disk, a copy function to copy 
sectors to any drive and sector, a locate function to find any 
ASCII or hexadecimal string, and a kill function to delete 
any file. It supports up to four drives and even supports 
drives with more than 35 tracks. 

Using Super Color Disk Zap is easy. After you load the 
program, it auto-executes and displays a title screen while 
the rest of the program is being loaded. After the program is 
loaded, the master menu is displayed with a choice of 12 
commands. If I were to completely describe every com- 
mand, and the variations thereof, you would have to spend 
the next half-hour or so reading this review. The purpose of 
a review, I feel, is to provide an overview of the product's 



functions and operating features, and to help you decide if 
you should purchase it or not. With that in mind, let's see 
what Super Color Disk Zap can do. 

The DIRECTORY command, as you might guess, dis- 
plays the disk directory on your screen. The display is for- 
matted into two columns and includes the number of free 
granules. If you have a lot of files on your disk, the display 
will pause when the screen is filled. Pressing any key will 
display the next page or return you to the menu if it is the last 
page. When the program reads the directory, it also checks 
the file allocation table for errors. If it finds one, the file 
name is flagged to warn you of the error. 

The VERIFY command is probably the best of all. When 
it is invoked, it searches the entire disk for errors. If one is 
found, it will pause and display the track and the sector in 
error so that you can attempt to fix it. While reviewing this 
program, I recalled having a disk that I could not backup. 
All I knew was that the backup command gave me an I/O 
error, and I could not load one of my files. This seemed like a 
good test of the VERIFY command, so naturally I tried it. 
When I did, I was not only informed as to where the error 
was, but I was also told what type of error it was. A quick 
glance at the documentation explained exactly how this type 
of error might be fixed. Following the instructions I pro- 
ceeded to "fix" the disk. After that I did another VERIFY of 
the disk and, sure enough, there were no errors. Although I 
had no reason to doubt what the program was telling me 
about my disk, I exited the program and proceeded to load 
the file that was previously bad. Not only was I able to load 
the file and backup the disk, but the file was completely 
intact and did not require any additional changes to be 
made. If you have ever lost an important file or disk due to 
some unknown error, the feature alone is worth the entire 



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138 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



price of the program. 

The FILE ZAP command allows you to display and/ or 
modify any file on the disk. When invoked, a sub-menu is 
displayed. The commands available from this menu include 
finding the first or last granule, as well as reading or writing 
a sector. Browsing through the file is done with the arrow 
keys. You can go forward or backward by sector or granule, 
with the printfunction beingavailableat all times. When the 
MODIFY sub-command is invoked, the screen display is 
broken into two halves. The top of the screen displays the 
data in ASCII and the bottom of the screen displays it in 
hexadecimal. When modifying data, you can do it in either 
ASCII or hexadecimal. The very bottom of the screen 
always displays the track and sector numbers that you are 
working with. This command is very handy when working 
with files, since the program will automatically find them for 
you. 

The DISK ZAP command is very similar to the FILE 
ZAP command. It, too, presents you with a sub-menu. The 
difference here is that you are working with the disk as a 
whole, and not on a particular file. This menu also contains 
the LOCATE function which allows you to find all the 
occurrences of an ASCII or hexadecimal string on the disk. 
You might be wondering why the DISK ZAP command is 
included in the program. Afterall, the sub-commands avail- 
able are essentially the same as those of the FILE ZAP 
command. After pondering this for a while, I realized that 
this would be the only way to get at the directory or the file 
allocation table, since they cannot be accessed by file name. 

The READ and WRITE SECTOR commands are pretty 
self-explanatory. You can read any sector on any drive, and 
then write it out to any sector on any drive. The interesting 
thing about these commands is that you can read and write 
more than one sector at a time. With 32K, you can read or 



write up to 92 sectors at a time. 

Although you could have a lot of fun zipping (or should I 
say zapping) through your disks, Super Color Disk Zaps' 
strength lies in fixing disk problems. The VERIFY com- 
mand will find the error, but what if the error is in the 
directory or the file allocation table or smack in the middle 
of your basic program. How would you go about fixing it? 
Here is where the documentation (52 pages worth) comes 
into play. Needless to say, it fully describes all of the com- 
mands and how to use them. The section of the documenta- 
tion which discusses "Zapping Techniques"goes a long way 
to help you in fixing your disk problems. This section alone 
is 19 pages and covers such things as the disk structure, 
dealing with the various types of errors, reallocating a gra- 
nule, fixing a tokenized basic program, rebuilding files and 
tracks, and recovering KILLed files. I found this section of 
the documentation to be very informative, and even learned 
a few things about the disk system. The program comes on a 
protected disk which you cannot copy or backup. Normally 
this would be a problem, but since you also cannot write on 
the disk, the chances of wiping it out are slim at best. 

By now you might be asking yourself "What can't Super 
Color Disk Zap do?" Well, so far I have been unable to get it 
to shovel my driveway after the blizzard we just had here, 
and it also would not print the disk directory on my printer. 
Super Color Disk Zap is an excellent, well written, and well 
documented disk utility. If you are at all serious about your 
disk system, this program is a must. Mr. Tim Nelson, the 
author, is to be congratulated on a job well done. 

(Nelson Software Systems, 9072 Lyndale Ave., So., Min- 
neapolis, MN 55420, $49.95 disk) 

— Gerry Schechter 



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COLOR MONITOR 29.50 

COLOR ASSEMBLER 36.00 

COLOR EDITOR 36.00 

DISSASSEMBLER 18.00 

BUGOUT (MONITOR) 24.00 

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CATALOGUES: For any of the following mail $1.00 

(Refundable on first order) 

Color — Apple — Atari — TRS 80 I & III 



FREE SHIPPING & HANDLING — FREE INSURANCE — NO HIDDEN CHARGES 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 139 



Software Review . . . 

Robots Maneuver 
Humans Into Programming 

My sons, Peter and Andrew, are 13 and 1 1 respectively. 
At this stage in our family's involvement in computing, the 
main intrigue for them is, of course, the arcade-style games 
they can play. I'd love to have them learn something about 
programming — after all, one of the reasons this creature 
with all its paraphernalia occupies one side of the living 
room is that they need "basic computer literacy" in order to 
grow into the world they will eventually inherit. 

What does this have to do with Robot Battle, a new piece 
of cartridge software from Radio Shack? Well, Robot Battle 
popped into my life at just the right time to serve a particular 
need. I was looking for a language or operating system for 
my 32K Extended 80-C that would be easy and intriguing 
for the kids, and teach them some principles of program- 
ming. Quite frankly, I ended-up ruling out Color Logo, an 
otherwise reasonable choice for a couple of reasons: first, 
being able to draw on the screen with Turtle Graphics is not 
a motivating factor, if you have several other graphic pro- 
grams in the house that take less effort. We have Art Gallery 
and Microprinter (Radio Shack), Semi-Draw (Computer- 
ware), and the XPAD. Oh yes, and Chromasette Magazine 
with DRA WER. See what I mean? The second reason I 
didn't choose Logo as a learning language for the kids is that 
the drawing-on-the-screen motivation is also a little bit 
above their age level. (It's not above mine, but that's another 
story.) Game playing is what they're "into." 

Now we get to Robot Battle (Subtitled "Adventures in 
Programming"). The program presents two tank-like robots 
(one red with a blue gun, the other blue with a red gun) on a 
black field. At the bottom of the screen are a blue and red 
line indicating available energy for each robot. The user's 
objective is to write a program for his/ her robot that will 
help it win against the other robot. Both robots need pro- 



grams, so the game works best if it's played with two players. 
But, there are demonstration programs for both robots, 
either of which could be retained to do battle against. You 
could also use the same program for both robots — at least 
that way they would be evenly matched. 

There is a full-screen editor for entering/ editing your 
programs. It's a little hard to adjust to having the arrow keys 
move the text up and down rather than moving a cursor, but 
that's the only drawback to the editor. After creating a 
program, you return to the beginning menu, from which you 
have these options: NEW, EDIT, SAVE, LOAD, COM- 
PILE and BATTLE. For each option, there is a correspond- 
ing command for either left or right — except BATTLE, 
which obviously involves both robots. 

The "language" you need to master in order to write your 
robots' programs is remarkably Logo-like. In fact, Robot 
Battle might be suitable as a stepping-stone into deeper 
waters such as Game-Writer or Logo. The language of 
Robot Battle is also very easy to learn. Testimonial from my 
1 1 -year-old: "This is easy to program!" 

There are directional movement commands (F,B,R,L,H) 
for forward, back, right, left, and /7tf//;"T"for turn a certain 
number of 45-degree units and "D" for facing a particular 
direction; "M" and "L" for your two weapons, missies and 
lasers, with "X" for execute one of them; "= for "if true and 
"#" for if not true; a random function, "?," to have some 
portion of a program occur only every once in a while; and 
searching abilities with "S" for anything at all in any direc- 
tion or "=M , " ifmissle\ "=R , " if robot "=R , " if robot- "= W, " 
if wall for the particular direction the robot is facing. "#M," 
"#R" and "#W" mean if no missle, if no robot and if no wall. 

At the simplest level, programs can be entered one line at a 
time (no line numbers are used). Multiple commands on a 
line are separated with a colon. The program will automati- 
cally cycle back to the beginning when executing. There is, 
however, a more sophisticated approach available: the use 
of labeled subroutines. You can use any word you want as a 
label, as long as it doesn't exceed six characters. The defini- 
tion of a procedure follows this syntax: LABEL, "greater- 
than" symbol, space, then a string of commands. Once you 
have created a few subroutines, they can be called with C 
(like GOSUB in BASIC) or jumped-to with G (similar to 
GOTO. 

One really fantastic aspect of Robot Battle is that the 
language is fully recursive and re-entrant. "What's that?" 
you ask. It means that you can get into some pretty sophisti- 
cated programming structures by having a procedure call 
itself! The sample programs included here (for robots 
named Fred and Irving) don't make use of this, but recursiv- 
ity helps in creating extremely intelligent programs. 



*FRED 

rob> =r: xl:cmis:crand:grob 

WAL> =W: T5: F4: CROB: GWAL 
RAND> =?:T2:F8 

look> =s:ti:crob:cwal:glook 
mis> =?:xm:cdlay 

DLAY> B2:F3 

start > crob:cwal:F8:=?:ti 

CLOOK 

=?:T~2 

GSTART 



K-2 READING PHONICS 



OLD MCDONALD'S 
FARM VOWELS 



A game like drill program to present long and 
shortvowels with words, pictures and spoken 
messages. Teacher generated for home and 
school Five challenging levels with scoring, 
rewards and reinforcement. 

For COCO Color Computers with 16K Ext. 
Color BASIC & cass. OMF $14.95 + 2.00 ship- 



ping VISA & M C 




RAINBOW 



riirtnriT^ 

11 IL 



TEKSYM CORPORATION 
14504 County Road 15 
Minneapolis, MN 55441 



140 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



A WORD FROM THE SPONSOR 

Welcome to the fourth of my monthly chats with readers. 
Judging from my mail, this is proving to be a popular feature of 
our Star-Kits ads. 

How often have you wished that you could see a program 
work before you bought it? We have come up with a way for you 
to do just that ... if you have a video cassette recorder. 

To show you what our programs do, we have prepared a 
demonstration tape which puts each of our programs through 
its paces so you can see exactly what it does and how. We're 
not professional movie producers so it's not quite up to 
Hollywood standards, but it does provide a complete and 
thorough demo of each of our programs, better than you might 
get in a computer store. 

The tape is available in either VHS or Beta format and costs 
$20. If you return it, you get full credit toward any purchase. If 
you decide not to buy our software (not too likely once you see 
it work), then just erase the tape and reuse it. 

Another way to evaluate products is through magazine 
reviews. Here isa listing of recent reviewsof Star-Kits products: 
HUMBUG Color Computer News in February 1983, 
Rainbow in May 1982, and 68 Micro Journal in June 1982. 
STAR-DOS Rainbow in February 1983, and 68 Micro 
Journal in January 1983. SPELL'N FIX — Rainbow in July 1982, 
80 Micro in November 1982, and 68 Micro Journal in July 1982. 
NEWTALK - - Rainbow in June 1982. You will also find reviews 
in MICRO Magazine, InfoWorld, and elsewhere. 

Here's a note to HUMBUG owners. If you are using 
HUMBUG with a disk system, then single-stepping or 
breakpointing a program may occasionally prevent Basic from 
turning off the disk motor. To avoid the problem, change the 
five bytes beginning at location 3B1A from 10 EF 8D 03 CB to 
A6 E4 IF 8A 12. HUMBUGs shipped after February 1, 1983 
already have this change made. 

One of ourcustomers bitterly complained theother day - - in 
fact, accused us of fraud - - for shipping him Spell 'N Fix on a 
copy-protected disk, but not mentioning it in our ads. After 
taking umbrage at his letter, 1 decided to devote part of this 
column to the subject. 

We all know that "lending" programs among friends is 
common. It's difficult to say "No" to a good friend. The problem 
is that some people can't even say "No" to strangers. I've 
recently come across a salesman in a computer store who is 
giving away commercial programs to total strangers just so he 
can sell more computers. 1 have also seen a computer club send 
out a list of "free" software by mail just so they can sign up a few 
more members. 

Consequently, most software houses now copy protect their 
disks or tapes. We do it with Spell 'N Fix, and so do most of the 
other major software houses that advertise in this magazine. 
Frankly, it costs us time and money to do it, and we don't enjoy 
it. Yet we have to. People who would never steal a $70 watch 
don't hesitate to steal a $70 program. Believe me, from the 
victim's point of view they both hurt equally much. 

Maybe we all need a little more practice saying "No!" 

After all, if God had meant to endorse this kind of thing, He 
would have given us the Ten Suggestions. 

See you next month. 



SPELL N FIX 

Regardless of whose text processor you use, let SPELL 'N FIX find 
and fix your spelling and typing mistakes. It reads text faster than 
you can, and spots and corrects errors even experienced 
proofreaders miss. It is compatible with all Color Computer text 
processors, including Telewriter and Radio Shack's Scripsit! {See 
the review in 80 Micro, November 1982.) $69.29 in the Radio Shack 
disk or cassette versions; $89.29 in the Flex version. (20,000 word 
dictionary is standard; optional 75,000 word Super Dictionary costs 
$50 additional.) 

HUMBUG - THE SUPER MONITOR 

A complete monitor and debugging system which lets you input 
programs and data into memory, list memory contents, insert 
multiple breakpoints, single-step, test, checksum, and compare 
memory contents, find data in memory, start and stop programs, 
upload and download, save to tape, connect the Color Computer to 
a terminal, printer, or remote computer, and more. HUMBUG on 
disk or cassette costs just $39.95. 

STAR-DOS 

A Disk Operating System specially designed for the Color 
Computer, STAR-DOS is fully compatible with your present Color 
Computer disk format — it reads disks written by Extended Disk 
Basic and vice versa. But with STAR-DOS you can use machine 
and assembly language programs to do things Basic can't. Just 
$49.95. 

ALL IN ONE - Editor Etc. 

Three programs in one — a full function Editorfor text or program 
files; a Text Processor for formatting and printing text files with 
centering, justification, and paging, and a Mailing List and Mailing 
Label program which can even generate individually adressed 
letters for each person (or selected persons) on your mailing list. All 
this for just $50. Requires STAR-DOS and 32K. 

DBLS for Data Bases 

DBLS stands for Data Base Lookup System. A super fast system 
for searching for a selected record in a sequential disk file. Supplied 
with SPELL 'N FIX's 20,000 word dictionary as a sample data file — 
lets you look up the spelling of any word in under FOUR seconds. 
Priced at $29.95. Requires STAR-DOS. 

CHECK N TAX 

Home accounting package combines checkbook maintenance and 
income tax data collection. Written in Basic for either RS Disk or 
Flex, $50. 

REMOTERM 

REMOTERM — allows full operation of the Color Computer from 
an external terminal. $19.95. 

NEWTALK 

NEWTALK a memory examine utility for machine language 
programmers which reads out memory contents through the TV 
set speaker. $20. 

SHRINK 

SHRINK our version of Eliza, in machine language and 
extremely fast. $15. 

oxxo 

OXXO our version of Othello, also machine language and fast. 
$15. 

We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY State 
residents please add appropriate sales tax. 



Star-Kits 



P.O. BOX 209 — R 
MT. K1SCO, N.Y. 10549 
(914) 241-0287 



**PEEKS AND POKFS ** 

Hello again. This month we'll have 
some more on peeks and pokes, but first 
the commercial. By the time this ad hits, 
ZAXXON will be available for the CoCo, and 
PCLEAR 80 will have it. Call or write for 
details. 

One excellent use of PEEK is to find 
the addresses of machine language 
programs . PRINT PEEK (157 ) *256+PEEK (158 ) 
to get the start location; PRINT 
PEEK (487) *256+PEEK (488) to get the begin- 
ning; and PRINT PEEK (126) *256+PEEK (127) 
for the ending. 

To save wear and tear on your on-off 
switch, type POKE 113,0 and press the res- 
et button. This will give you a cold- 
start. 

We went to this type of ad this month 
because we thought that you, like us, get 
tired of seeing endless lists of software. 
And, frankly, we're too small to compete 
with the folks taking out full-page ads 
and offering glossy catalogs . But we can 
offer you one thing — total dedication to 
the Color Computer and CoCo owner. 

And we do have a fine list of CoCo 
products to choose from, including DONKEY 
KING, TELEWRITER, PLATINUM WORKS AVER, and 
the only under $200.00 HARDWARE speech 
synthesizer available anywhere. We also 
stock many back-issues of RAINBOv. 

So order from our Feb. ad or send 
$.50 for our full catalog (refundable with 
order). And look for our ad next month for 
some more PEEKS and POKES. 

Special thanks to the International 
Color Computer Club who provided much of 
the info on PEEKS & POKES. 

3EE PCLEAR 80 SOFTWARE • 

494 Cline Avenue 
Mansfield, OH 44907 
(419) 756-4873 ^ 

Note: We also carry the RAINBOW ESSS? 

out. 

Add $2 shipping on orders less than $50. Please add 
$2 for COD. Ohio residents add 5% state sales tax 



* IRVING 

rob> =R: xl:cmis:crand:grob 
wal> =w:t -5:F8:crob:gwal 

RAND> =?:T-2:F6 

LOOK > =S: T-l : CROB : CWAL : GLOOK 

MIS> =?:XM:CDLAY 

DLAY> Bl:Fl:Bl:Fl 

START > CROB : CWAL : F8=? : T-2 
CLOOK 

=?:T2 

GSTART 



The main loop of the program begins at START. Here's a 
translation of Fred's main program loop: Call ROB, call 
W AL, forward 8, once-in-a-while turn 45 degrees right, call 
LOOK, once-in-a-while turn 90 degrees left, then return to 
START. All the searching and firing of missies and lasers is 
embedded in the sub-routines. 

When you've edited a program and are ready to see it 
operate, you must have the computer compile it. Compiling 
is almost instantaneous. When you call BATTLE, your 
robots will be ready to go at the touch of a number key. 
Which key you touch will determine the speed of execution 
of your programs. A number 1 is the fastest available speed, 
while #9 is an absolute snail's pace. You can also single step 
through the routines by using the 0 key. 

Considering that the programs are compiled, I'm sur- 
prised at the relative slowness of movement, even at the 
"fastest" speed. It takes quite a while for a robot to use up his 
available energy (taking hits, firing weapons, bumping into 
things, etc., all use varying amounts of energy), leaving the 
other robot victorious. Two major things I'd wish for in this 
program: faster speed and an option to design your own 
robots. 

The ultimate test is if the program is doing what I thought 
it would do when I bought it. Does it really teach program- 
ming methods and structures? I think so, but only time will 
tell. Does it intrigue enough to draw the kids to it? Well, in 
competition with Donkey Kong and Defender and Centi- 
pede, it doesn't stand too much chance, but the 1 1 -year-old 
is a little more intrigued by the idea of learning program- 
ming than the 13-year-old video-game wizard is, and he has 
spent a couple of self-motivated sessions on it. 

(Radio Shack, Nationwide, cat. #26-3070, $39.95) 

— Paul S. Hoffman 



Hint . . . 

Painting Must Be Accurate 

When you issue a PAINT command, be sure that you set 
the point at which the PAINTing is to begin within the area 
that is to be PAlNTed. If you set the position on a line which 
encloses the area, the PAINT will not work. 

Also, when using PAINT, be sure that your area is fully 
enclosed, or the PAINT will "leak" out and cover the entire 
screen. 



142 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



— 




INTERNATIONAL 
COLOR COMPUTER CLUB 

Main Office 
2101 E. Main St., Henderson, Texas 75652 
Canadian Branch 
% Carleton Dr. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7H-3N6 

WORLD'S LARGEST COLOR COMPUTER CLUB 



4). CLUB LIBRARY. 



5). DISCOUNTS. 



HERE ARE SOME GOOD REASONS FOR JOINING 

1) . FREE PROGRAMS. Good programs written by our members are contained in the library, 

in the newsletter, and on the new member tape. 

2) . NEWSLETTER. A "magazine" sized newsletter (last issue 80 pages), with programs, tips 

data, reviews, articles and much more. 

3) . NEWSLETTER Tape A tape of all the programs appearing in the newsletter is available from 

the library for $2.00 (to members) 

The club maintains a library of programs, books and Radio Shack ROM- 
packs. The programs are member written and are yours to keep, there is 
a small fee to cover postage and tape ($2.). The books and ROMpacks 
may be checked out for 3 weeks at a time, (extencions possible) 

get large discounts on many software and hardware items for CoCo 
from some of the MAJOR companies. Also discounts on subscriptions 
to the RAINBOW, CCN and Chromasette magazines. 

6). ADVERTISE FREE Members may place ads of up to % page per issue in the newsletter 

FREE. (The ad must be computer related) 

Don't wait weeks for the parts to come in from Radio Shack! Just 
check them out of the Clubs Parts library and return when yours arrive. 

You receive a "New member" package containing many useful items. 

This is the worlds largest Color Computer Club. With members in almost 
every field of expertise. So if you have a problem with the Color 
Computer, we can almost always get you the answer. Put your problem 
on the Clubs Bulletin Board, write, or call. 

As a new member, you will receive a list of the members in your area 
whom you may contact for CoCo talk. 



7) . BORROW PARTS. 

8) . SURPRISE. 

9) . GET HELP. 



10). FIND FRIENDS 



HOWTO BECOME A MEMBER: 

Write to the club for an application, there are no conditions for membership other than 
agreeing to obey the rules, being interested and paying the dues. The membership dues are 
$30.00 per year and we believe you get more than your moneys worth. You can save more 
than the $30.00 in discounts the club offers you. Example: Subscription to the RAINBOW, 
25% off of regular subscription rates. Some members have told me that the new member 
tape alone is worth the $ 30. it contains 10, very good programs. Some of the programs 
contained in the library are, Accounts Receiveable, General ledger, Inventory, Sal es file and 
ticket program with automatic Inventory update (for 32 K with 2 disc.) visa 



NfeuterCard | 



Software Review , , . 

Shark Treasure: Unique, 
Challenging Graphics Game 

Not too long ago, obtaining software for your CoCo was 
easy. You either bought what little there was available, or 
you wrote your own. These days, you not only have your 
choice of programs, but you very often will have to decide 
which version of a program to buy. In fact, some new 
programs today are just another version of an existing pro- 
gram. This is not a bad situation, because competition is 
good, but it does make the job of deciding which programs 
to buy a little more complicated. Every now and then, a 
program comes along that does not resemble an existing 
one. 

Shark Treasure is just such a program, and although the 
main theme is tostayalive, this is whereany similarities end. 
The scenario is as follows. You have just found a long lost 
galleon, which was sunk hundreds of years ago. Its cargo 
includes millions of dollars worth of gold and jewels. All you 
have to do, is to send your divers to the ocean floor in order 
to recover the fortune. The only problem is that the waters 
are infested with huge man-eating sharks. Your divers have 
flash grenades for protection, which will temporarily scare 
the sharks away. However, they can only carry three gre- 



nades and/ or treasures at the same time. This is where 
strategy comes into play, because if you have three treasures 
with you, you will have no protection on your way back 
from the ocean floor. 

When the game starts, there are two sharks in the waters, 
and there are five treasures on the ocean floor. At first, I 
thought that the game would be a cinch. The two sharks 
were moving nice and slowly, and it appeared that I could 
easily get by them. Boy, was I ever wrong! As soon as you get 
near a shark, it quickly lunges towards you, and you have 
lost your first diver. This threw my timing off right from the 
start. Setting off one of the flash grenades does scare the 
sharks away for a while but here, too, the timing must be 
right. Each time yo'u recover the five treasures from the 
ocean floor, another shark appears, up to a maximum of six. 
Dealing with two to four sharks is easy, once you get your 
timing right. Getting past five sharks is really tough, and 
getting past six of them requires precise timingand strategy. 
Once you get past the six sharks, they change their swim- 
ming patterns and speed. This throws your timing off again, 
and makes the game a real challenge. 

Shark Treasure is a fun game that will give you a break 
from blasting 'invaders' and the like. If you are looking for a 
game that is unlike any other, it will make a good addition to 
your library. 

(Computerware, P.O. Box 668, Encinitas, C A 92024, $21 .95 
tape, $26.95 disk) 

—Gerry Schechter 



ENTER THE FASCINATING WORLD OF 



'31 



GAME WRITER 



TM 



A SIMPLE TO USE PROGRAM FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 



For writing super-action video games with 
motion and sound 

For creating high resolution animated 
graphics scenes 

For experimenting with color, shapes, 
motion and sound 

For amateur or professional cartooning or 
commercial game authoring 
For the absolute beginner and for the 
expert programmer 




GAME WRITER is a programming language with all the 
features you need to write great VIDEO GAMES. It includes a 
built-in screen oriented text editor, high resolution color 
graphics support, any number of player-shapes (SPRITES), a 
shape pattern editor, full TURTLE GRAPHICS, sound effects, 
support for joy sticks and much, much more. Each player- 
shape can be given a program to run which tells it what to do. 
All the player programs run simultaneously to create fan- 
tastic game effects. GAME WRITER IS GUARANTEED EASY 
TO USE. Even if you have never written a program of any kind 
you will amazeyour family, your friends and yourself with the 
fantastic things you can do with it. The package includes a 
GAME WRITER rom pak, a complete easy to read manual and 
a set of sample programs ready to run. GAME WRITER is a 
great programming language for a child or an adult. GAME 
WRITER requires a minimum of 16K. Extended BASIC is not 
required. 



PRICE $129 

Orders must be prepaid via check, 
money order or major bank card. Phone 
orders accepted for bank cards only— 
COD orders not accepted. Quantity dis- 
counts available. Orders outside U.S. 
add $5 shipping. WA state residents 
add 6.3% sales tax. Add 2 weeks for 
delivery if paid by personal check. 



WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES 

3028 SILVERN LANE 
BELLINGHAM, WA 98226 
1 (206) 734-8248 




144 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




for your 

COLOR 
COMPUTER 



Release the potential 

of your Color Computer. . . 

Use up to 5 compatible Color Computer cartridges at the same 
time with the BT-1000 Expansion Interface Unit. 

• The BT-1000 is limitless combinations. Plug in your disk 
controller, memory boards, Real Time Clock/Calendar, 
printer interface, experimental boards — all at one time. 

• The BT-1000 is adaptable. Up to five functional peripheral 
cartridges, in your choice of combinations, will run with 
any configuration, any size memory of the Color Computer. 

• The BT-1000 is flexible. Four 24-pin sockets hold up to 
8K static RAM or EPROM (can be supplied with an 
extra 8K RAM). 

• The BT-1000 is safe. It will not overload, overheat or 
damage your Color Computer in any way. 

1. Has own built-in power supply. 

2. Effectively isolated by a buffered cable. 

That's not all Basic Technology has to offer. . . 

Record date and time on all programs, files, letters, with the 
accurate, programmable BT-1020 Real Time Clock/Calendar. 

• Plugs into your BT-1000 or directly into the Color 
Computer expansion slot. 

• Adds day, date, month, year, hours, minutes, seconds 
(12/24 hr.) 

• Includes internal NiCad battery, crystal controlled to 
0.001% accuracy (charges when your computer is on) 

• Has 50 bytes of battery backed general purpose memory 



All Basic Technology components 
are first-line quality. 

• gold board-edge connectors 



• glass epoxy PC boards 

• 180-day full parts and labor 
warranty on all components 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Your Basic Technology components arrive assembled, tested, 
ready to plug in and turn on. A comprehensive User/Service 
Manual is included with complete schematics, PC component 
layouts, parts lists and hints on mapping your peripheral add- 
ons anywhere in the CPU addressable memory. Write for free 
brochure. 



BT-1000 incl. cable $270 
BT-1000 w/8K RAM $300 



BT-1020 Clock/Calendar $109 



Add $5.00 shipping & handling for BT-1000, $2.50 for BT-1020. 
Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. Shipping & handling for 
residents of Canada, Hawaii, Alaska is $10.00. Overseas 
orders add 15%. Check, money order, VISA, MC (give account 
no., expiration date, phone no.). Personal checks allow 2-3 
weeks to clear. COD charge $2.00 (requires certified check or 
money order). 

"Watch for more peripherals from Basic Technology." 



iasic 



ECHNOLOGY 



Dept. Q P.O. Box 511 Ortonville, Ml 48462 



(313) 627-6146 



TURN OF THE SCREW 



How To Reduce That RFI On Your Monitor 

By 

Tony Distefano 



First of all I would like to clear up a problem with the 
"Finger Saving Rapid Fire Circuit." The potentiometer in 
the Parts list has the wrong part number. It is not the 
Rainbow's fault, it is mine. You see, when I first made this 
circuit, it was indeed a 100k ohms pot, like the part number 
stipulates. But I thought the firing speed was not variable 
enough, so I changed the pot to 1 Mega ohms. If you have 
already bought the 100k ohms pot, do not despair, it will still 
work. The only difference is that the firing speed will not go 
as slow as the I Mega ohms one will. Radio Shack does not 
have a 1 Mega ohms pot in that package, so I cannot give 
you another part number for it. Almost any other electronic 
hobby shop should have it, though. 

Okay, let's get on with this month's project. One of the 
problems with some of the older Color Computers is that 
when you plug in a disk drive, you get a lot of noise on the 
screen. The type of noise I am talking about is not a buzz 
from the speaker, but a type of wavey, herringbone pattern 
that seems to swim across the screen at a regular rate. Yes, 
that is "RFI." That stands for Radio Frequency Interfer- 
ence. I talked a little about RFI in the January '83 issue of 
Rainbow. It is very annoying to see this noise going back 
and forth on the screen all the time. Fortunately, there are a 
few things you can do to eliminate it. 



One of the things you can do is this. Open the door and 
look inside the cartridge port. On both sides of the connec- 
tor there should be metal clips. If there aren't, your local 
Radio Shack Repair Center can put them in for you. Appar- 
ently they will do this at no charge. I guess you will have to 
find this out for yourself. What this does is, when you have a 
disk controller plugged in, the clips act as extra ground 
connections. This prevents the controller from acting like an 
antenna. 

Another way to reduce the RFI in the Color Computer is 
togetthealuminum shieldfrom Radio Shack (again!). This 
shield fits under the keyboard. It snaps into the main board 
between the plastic standoffs and the board. The rest goes 
under the keyboard without any other connections. This 
extends theground plain that is under the main board to the 
keyboard, too. The third way, and the main topic of this 
month's article, is to modify the TV that you are using with 
the Color Computer. 

Before you start digging into your TV set, I'll give you a 
little background on how the signal gets from the Color 
Computer to the tuner. It starts from the connector in the 
back of the computer. It then goes down a shielded piece of 
wire to the connector box supplied by RS. This is a switch 
box which allows you to connect your antenna to it and 
switch back and forth between regular TV signals and the 
computer without disconnecting anything. TH IS BOX IS A 
BIG SOURCE OF NOISE! Get rid of it immediately! RFI 
can seep through that box like water through a screen door 
on a submarine. It is best to get rid of the wire that RS 
supplies too. You must make your own wire. This is not 
hard. Buy the four-foot white coax cable from RS part 
#15-1529. On one side, push on one of the F-56 connectors 
(supplied with the kit). On the other side install a Shielded 
Phono Plug, RS part #274-32 1 . That is the end that goes into 
the computer. If your TV set has only the two screw type 
terminals you will need a F-61 connector as well, RS part 
#278-212, (more on that later). 

So far, what you have done should reduce the RFI by 
quite a bit, but if there is still RFI coming in you must 
modify the insides of your TV. The next step requires that 
you remove the back of your TV. Only experienced hackers 
should take off the back of a TV. There are high voltages 
present in there. If your TV is like mine and most TV sets, 
the antenna connections are done via a small circuit that 
isolates the ground of the TV to the antenna. This is done to 
prevent electric shocks, because since there is no power 
transformer, one side of the AC line is directly connected to 
the internal ground. Touching the ground of the TV is like 
touching one side of a plug. Nothing will happen until you 
touch a ground point like the third pin of a three-prong plug 
or a water pipe. The Color Computer is grounded with a 
three-prong plug. If you try to connect them, watch out. 
Then you will see all the sparks fly. This is why the manufac- 
turer of the set put a high impedence circuit to isolate the line 
from the antenna input. A small circuit is a lot less expensive 
(and a lot lighter) than a power transformer. Unfortunately 
this circuit is very sensitive to RFI. You have to remove this 
circuit and connect the antenna terminals directly to the 
tuner. 



SUPERIOR ORACLE SOFTWARE 

PRESENTS 

THE C C QUBE 



A MAGIC CUBE SIMULATION FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



FEATURING : 

* Easy to use commands 

* Fast uses machine language routines 

* Random mixes 

* Undo moves or random mixes 

* See all 6 faces 

* Save QUBE to tape for later reload 
•Only $14.95 

RAINBOW 

■J. 

Send Check or MO. to; Conn, residents add 7'i v .,ales tax 

Shipping and handling included 

SUPERIOR ORACLE SOFTWARE Personal checks require 

po box 4505 2 weeks to clear 

Greenwich, Conn. 06830 ^ Q rj 0 D s 

Requires 16K Extended Basic 



146 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




CoCo's Very First Show! 



0 



CoCo has grown up and it's time for 
CoCo's very first show. Sponsored by 
the Rainbow, the premier magazine for 
the TRS-80 Color, TDP System-100 and 
Dragon -32 computers, RAINBOWfest 
will be the place to be this Spring. 

Exhibits will abound; Information will 
flow. New products will be shown and 
introduced. Many of the "names" in the 
CoCo world will be in attendance. It all 
boils down to three days of fun, 
excitement and learning for everyone 
lucky enough to own a CoCo (or those 
who just wish they did)! 

The place is the Regency-Hyatt 
Woodfield, located on the western 
outskirts of Greater Chicagoland, within 
easy access to highways and O'Hare 
International Airport. 
The dates are April 22-24. 
The times are 7-10 p.m, Friday; 9 
a.m.— 8 p.m. Saturday; and 10 a.m. — 5 
p.m. Sunday at the Grand Ballroom, 

The cost is only $7.50 for a three-day 
ticket in advance or $11 for a three-day 
ticket at the door. One-day tickets are 
$5. in advance or $7,50 at the door, 

PLUS 



A Saturday "let's make friends" 
breakfast is also planned. Cost of $10 
includes breakfast and a speaker — 
someone well known in the world of 
Color Computers. 

Hooms are available at the Regency- 
Hyatt Woodfield for a special 
RAINBOWfest rate of $43 per night, 
single or double occupancy. 

Admission tickets, breakfast tickets 
and reservation cards for the hotel can 
be secured directly from the Rainbow. 
Mail the form below to the Rainbow, P.O. 
Box 209 r Prospect, KY 40059. Advance 
sale tickets will be sent by return mail up 
until Aprii 15. After that, they will be 
available at the door. 

Oh yes. ..for the "others" who (perish 
the thought) don't get into CoCo like 
you do, Woodfield Shopping Center 
directly adjacent to RAINBOWfest is the 
world's largest enclosed shopping mail 
And, you are only a short drive from 
downtown Chicago's museums, 
theatres, aquarium and shops. 

RAINBOWfest has it all? Don't miss 
CoCo's very first show! 



Seminars Saturday and Sunday 
on all aspects of CoCo 
BASIC classes for ail 




Make checks payable to: 



thelRainbow 



MAIL TO: 

RAINBOWfest 
P.O. Box 209 
Prospect, KY 40059 



YES, I'm coming to CoCo's very first show! Please send me: 



three-day tickets at $. 
one-day tickets at $_ 



total, 
total. 



(specify day). 



breakfast tickets at $10 



total. 



handling charge $1 .00 

TOTAL ENCLOSED (U.S. FUNDS ONLY, PLEASE)$ 

- Also send me a reservation card for the Hyatt-Regency Woodfield. 



NAME, 



STREET & NUMBER 



CITY & STATE. 



TELEPHONE. 



ZIP CODE. 



COMPANY. 



Advance Sale ends Thursday, April 21. Orders sent after April 15 will be refunds on tickets. 



The first thing you must do before you take out the circuit 
is to add in a transformer to isolate the line. The transformer 
must be a line isolation transformer. Your local electronics- 
store should have one. The power rating of the transformer 
must match the power rating of your TV. It is usually written 
on the back of the set, or in the operating manual. Now, 
remove the back from the TV and mount the transformer 
somewhere inside, with the proper mounting hardware. Cut 
the AC cord that runs inside the set. If your set has a 
removable cord, cut the wires from the internal side of the 
connector. Re-route the AC side of the two wires to the 
input of the transformer and route the output of the trans- 
former back to the TV input. This will isolate the ground 
from the Ac line. I cannot emphasize enough the need for 
this transformer; if you don't put it in and you remove the 
circuit, you stand the chance of burning out your TV and 
your computer. Then you won't have to worry about RFI, 
only fire. Enough of this, now it'stimeto removethecircuit. 

Unsolder the circuit from the antenna terminals. If the 
terminal is not the cable TV type, drill a hole and mount the 
F-61 connector. The other side of the circuit is usually a 
shielded wire that leads to the tuner. Cut the wire as close to 
the circuit as possible. Strip off the insulater and solder the 
inside wire to the tip of the F-61 connector. Solder the shiled 
part to the outer part of the connector. This will connect the 
antenna terminal directly to the tuner i nput. Before you plug 
in the TV, a little check is in order. With an ohm meter, and 
the TV on (but not plugged in) measure the resistance 
between the AC cord and the antenna terminal. Test both 
wires. If they read high impedenceyouare in business, if not, 
then check the wiring again. There should be no shorts 
between the AC cord and the antenna terminals. Replace the 
cover and try it. There you are, a clean picture. 




CAN YOU AFFORD $1 A WEEK? 
The CCW Newsletter will give you this if you can: 

• An issue loaded with program listings of all sorts 
( for just a buck a week— unbelievable) ! 

• Latest news and information — if it happens on 
Monday you'll know about it by Friday 

( for a mere 100 cents a week) ! 

• Mailed out to you first class every week! 

{A t last a reason to live from week to week) ! 

• Free software/hardware manufacturer's directory 

( This alone is worth the price of the subscription, and 
we even send regular updates to subscribers. ) ! 

A 1 1 it takes is ten thin dimes a week to bring meaning to your 
life. Cumulatively we'll take payment in the following ways: 

□ Charge my Visa or MasterCard at once for 
the full amount ($52/year) 

□ Charge my Visa or MasterCard quarterly 
at the rate of $13 every three months 

□ Here's my check for $14 for the first quarter, bill me 

in three months for the next quarter {we have to charge 
you extra to send out those bills) 

□ Here's my check for $52 for the full year 
hurry and send me my first issue 



Name 



Address 
City 



State 



□ Visa □ MC 
Tiny Signature _ 



Exp. Date 



Zip 



Send to: CCW • P.O. Box 1355 • Boston, MA 02205 



Software Review . . . 

Bridge Tutor I: 
This Partner's No Dummy 

Bridge Tutor /is one of the latest offerings from Radio 
Shack in the ROM Pak department. As a former grand 
master of the lunch players bridge society, I was very inter- 
ested to see how I could do against a computer. Well, we'll 
get to that later. 

Bridge Tutor /comes with an 83-page instruction manual 
which makes the package somewhat larger than the stand- 
ard ROM Pak. The documentation is well written and in a 
very well organized format. The manual is divided into four 
sections. The first section tells you how to use the program. 
The second part provides a comentary on each of the 100 
pre-programmed hands. The third sections covers the fun- 
damentals of bidding and playing for novices. The fourth 
part is a summary of operations of keys. No problems were 
encountered with the program, but it is complicated enough 
that you must read the first section of the manual to become 
familiar with the operation. 

The program will run ona4K non-extended basiccompu- 
ter. Joysticks are optional. 

After inserting the ROM Pak and turning on the compu- 
ter, you will see a logo of the hand you are playing. The 
hands are numbered from 1 to 1 00 and arranged in order of 
increasing difficulty. Each hand is supposed to offer a uni- 
que offensive or defensive strategy. The arrow keys control 
the majority of functions, or the joysticks if you desire. 

After picking the hand of your choice ENTER will initiate 
the dealing of the cards. I think this is a program in itself in 
that the cards are dealt into four separate hands and the 
player's hand is sorted for him according to suits and rank. 

The bid is increased by "up-arrow" until the bid of your 
choice is selected by ENTER. An incorrect bid will be noted 
and not accepted. 

The following keys have special functions: "A"-advice, 
"F"-fast deal, "S"-score, "R "-review, and "J"-joystick. 

Af terthe bidding is completed, you are given the choice of 
which hand you wish to play. The game starts automatically 
unless you are in the west position, in which case you have to 
lead. 

Play is continued by picking the card of your choice by 
means of the "left-arrow/ right-arrow." Incorrect plays are 
notedand you arealso congratulated f or"crucialplay." You 
are scored at the end of each game for the percentage of 
correct plays. 

The only problem I had with the program is that it 
wouldn't let you make a mistake. As in most everything I do, 
I have my own way of playing bridge. It must be somewhat 
unusual, as I had several occasions where I disagreed with 
the Bridge Tutor /"expert." My neighbors have a competi- 
tor's version of bridge and it doesn't comment on the hands, 
letting you fend for yourself. Fixed bidding, as in Bridge 
Tutor I, is a big advantage for the novice but somewhat 
frustrating for the advanced player. Maybe that's why they 
named it Bridge Tutor instead of Bridge Expert! 

In conclusion, I think the game is fun and interesting. I 
recommend it to novices and experienced players alike. 
Now, if only they would add a synthesized voice that shouts 
"what a play!" or "you dummy!" 

(Available at Radio Shack stores for $34.95) 

—Dan Downard 



148 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



The Programmer's Guild Presents . . . 



PAC — DROIDS 



TM 



BY 

Charles Forsythe 

THE ULTIMATE IN PAC-ACTION 

ONLY $19 95 UP TO FOUR PLAYERS!! 

Unlike Any Other "PAC" Game You've Ever Seen!! 

Hot Machine Language Multi-Color 
High-Res Graphics For All 16K 
TRS-80 Color Computers 



MORE SOUND — MORE ACTION 
MORE FEATURES THAN ANY 
"PAC" GAME IN EXISTENCE!! 




Try PAC-DROIDS™ for the Outer Limit in pure, 

explosive arcade action!! 



SEND $19.95 CHECK/MONEY ORDER or VISA/MC NUMBER 

TO 

THE PROGRAMMER'S GUILD 

P.O. BOX 66 
PETERBOROUGH, NH 03458 

or Call (603) 924-6065 for COD 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



AND GET "FREE" SHIPPING ANYWHERE ON THE PLANET 

EARTH OR HER COLONIES 



Software Review . . . 

Death Star: Recommended 
Adventure, Impressive Package 

You are the rebel fighter given the task of rescuing Prin- 
cess Leah from the Death Star. This one-player Adventure 
gives you the choice of either novice or pro modes (advice: 
novice is playable while pro is guaranteed death even for an 
experienced adventurer). 

This 32K Extended Color BASIC text Adventure is a nice 
introduction to the logic and flow of an Adventure game. It 
is Carl Shell's first attempt at this type of program. The flow 
and play of the game is adequate, but it lacks some of the 
frills of the very best advanced games. The following critique 
is designed both to give a description of the game and to give 
guidelines to players who would like to edit the program to 
suit their own tastes. 

Death Star uses Sugar Software's Auto Run to create an 
appealing title page. After this, however, expect mostly text 
and a few screen color changes. Along with graphics I 
should mention the sound effects. The sounds are pleasant 
at first, but soon become annoying. They remind me of a 
Navy alarm buzzer. 

The game package includes one program tape, one page 
of hints, and one page of instructions (no more instructions 
are needed since the program is self-explanatory). The 5/2" x 
8 '/J" hard vinyl case which stores all of this is very impres- 
sive. It is more appealing to look at a nicely designed case 
than a mere cassette box lying on my desk. It adds a touch of 
professionalism to my library. 



The object of your mission is to find the power pak, rescue 
Princess Leah, and then find the escape module. You have 
eight enemies (four are weak and are used to gain credits, 
while four are strong and are used to hold the princess). The 
power pak and escape module are just lying around. All you 
tumble upon these. Rescuing the princess is another thing. 
You to do is to smust defeat the hard foe who holds her 
captive; however, you do not know which one has her. After 
you find the power pak, rescue Princess Leah, and find the 
escape module you have finished the adventure. 

In the novice mode, you start with 1,000 credits, 300 
hit-points, and 50 units of oxygen. You use your credits to 
buy weaponry, armor, more oxygen, and hit-points, and 
various forms of help from Yoda. Don't expect to buy 
everything at first. You must wait until you do battle and 
earn more credits. You can earn hit-points by spending a few 
nights at the sleep port. 

The first thing you should do afterarriving at the teleport 
gate is visit the weaponry shop. While there you should 
purchase a gravity pak and a weapon. Your choice of wea- 
pon is not important as long as you also buy the enhanced 
weaponry capability from Yoda (hint from Yoda: Do not 
trust your impulses. Trust the force). Next is armor. Use 
your own discretion when buying armor. Enhanced armor is 
nice, but not mandatory. It is very helpful if you seek help 
from Yoda. You can purchase potions to prevent blindness, 
sleep, poisoning, and in some cases, body damage. You may 
also buy a favor from Yoda to collect upon when a tragedy 
befalls you. (A "favor from Yoda" can turn a sure mortality 
into a good laugh. A nice touch!) As for the extra oxygen 
and hit-points, all that can be said is to obtain these when 
you think that you need them. After you play a few times 
you will find a combination that you like best. 

The logic of the game is very simple. Single alphanumeric 
character inputs control all movement and actions. This 
feature makes the game easy enough for children, but in long 
play, it can become repetitious. No map is needed since there 
is not a pattern of events set by the program. Random 
numbers control the play of the game. If Lady Luck is not on 
your side, you could be searching for hours before you 
would find the things you need (here's where you will wish 
that you did need a map). I suggest that if play lasts longer 
than two hours, start over. If you need help, Carl Shell very 
generously offers his phone number in the documentation, 
suggesting you call him between 6:00 p.m. and 1 1:00 p.m. 

In conclusion, I recommend Death Star to either gamers 
who have never played adventures before or to more expe- 
rienced players like myself who would like to edit and adapt 
a BASIC Adventure to their own tastes. 

(S & S Arcade Supplies, 8301 Sarnow Dr., Orlando, FL 

32807, $19.95) 

—John R. Curl 



Hint . . . 

What ROM Have You? 

All CoCo's come up with a message which says you are 
operating with version 1 .0 of the operating system. How can 
you tell whether you have a version 1.0 or 1.1 of the Basic 
ROM chip? 

The answer is a simple one: Just type in EXEC41 175 and 
the version of your ROM will appear on the screen. 



STARTa 




COMPUTER PROGRAMS 
TRS-80 MODEL 1/3 16K LEVEL II 
TRS-80 16K COLOR 

— — -_■ -»~ ' — — — — — 

#3 FROG RACE #3 

DEMO PROGRAM FROG RACE COMES ON CASSETTE WITH I 
REFUND COUPON TO USE ON YOUR NEXT ORDER. 
FROG RACE CASSETTE S3. WITH CATALOG 





DUO-PAKS ARE 


f 10 


EACH. 


PAK NO. 


PROGRAM SIDE 1 


/ 


PROGRAM SIDE 2 


DUO-PAK-1 


GONE FISHING 


/ 


CONCENTRATION 


DUO-PAK-2 


CRAPS 


/ 


SLOT-MACHINE 


DUO-PAK-3 


STARSHIP 


/ 


SHERLOCK HOLMES 


DUO-PAK-4 


TANK ATTACK 


/ 


ASSOCIATION 


DUO-PAK-3 


NUMBER GUESS 


/ 


DICE ROLL 


DUO-PAK-6 


IN-BETWEEN 


/ 


SHELL GAME 


DUO-PAK-7 


SAFARI 


/ 


STARSHIP-2 


DUO-PAK-B 


MORTAR BATTLE 


/ 


PUZZLE 


DUO-PAK-9 


TEASERS 


/ 


MOUSE 


DUO-PAK-10 


PT BOAT 


/ 


TURTLE RACE 


DUO-PAK-1 1 


CHEK-CHES 


/ 


STARSHIP-3 


DUO-PAK-1 2 


THINK 


/ 


LUCK 1 LOGIC 


DUO-PAK-1 3 


TREASURE ISLAND 


/ 


RESCUE 


DUO-PAK-300 


DC-OHMS LAW 


/ 


FLC-FRC 


DUO-PAK-301 


IC-TIMER-1 


/ 


IC-TIMER 2 



SYSTEM PROGRAMS S10 EACH 



SU1 CASSETTE COPY / CASSETTE COPY 

««««««««««««««*««««««««t««*«*«**«**««*««**t***« 

ORDERS WILL BE SENT BY FIRST CLASS MAIL PPD. 

SORRY NO COD'S 
BE SURE TO SPECIFY WHICH COMPUTER YOU HAVE. 
B. ERICKSON P.O. BOX 11099 

CHICAGO, IL. 60611 



150 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



The PROFESSIONAL Keyboard 



A direct plug-in 
replacement for your 
Color Computer. 



♦ Simple Installation 
(No glueing or cutting) 

*Redefinable Keys 
(Free Software Included) 

♦No Extra Charge for TDP/ 
Model 



_, i. 



$8955 



"A Model 1 keyboard 
in a Color Computer case. 
This product is a real gem." 
Rainbow Review, March 1983 j 
* All TDP/F orders please specify 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



SPECTRUM SWITCHER 




by TJN SYSTEMS 



$ 99.95 



Have your Disk and Cartridge too! 
Transforms a Color Computer into a dual slot 

system. Comes with extender cable. 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93 15 86th DRIVE WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 

212-441-2807 



all orders plus $2 S/H, N.Y. residents add sales tax 



Software Review 



Beware of the Fembots 
Beyond the Cimeeon Moon 



If you're a novice at Adventure games, you have to have 
suicidal tendencies to play Beyond the Cimeeon Moon 
because you will experience the agony of death countless 
times. The advanced Adventure game player, on the other 
hand, probably will enjoy the challenge of a game that is 
breaking new ground for CoCo. 

Thegame combines the magnetism of colorful arcade-like 
graphics — along with the need for strong hand-to-eye-to-key- 
board coordination — and the intellectual appeal of an 
Adventure game to create a saga that would make Dr. 
Spock break out in a sweat. 

You are in outer space trapped aboard an alien slave ship 
occupied only by yourself and roving guards, who are there 
to prevent your escape. You are pitted against an omnipres- 
ent machine mind that controls the "fembots" and only 
rapidly typing fingers and a fertile imagination can prevent 
your demise. 

For some reason, the door to your cell has been left 
unlocked and your mind, which has been enslaved for sev- 
eral years, has been freed, so there is finally a remote chance 
of escaping the multi-leveled vessel. There will be many 
times, however, when you will yearn for the comparatively 
safe confines of the cell. 



TAKE THE GUESSWORK OUT OF 

STOCK & FUND 



INV 




ING 



FUNDGRAF io a new computer program which not 
only graphs and analyzes funds or stocks, but also 
makes decisions on when to buy and sell. Use your 
TRS-80 Color Computer (TM Tandy Corp.) as a valu- 
able investment tool. 

• GRAPHS the progress of your funds or stocks 

• SUPERIMPOSES for comparison! 

- a line of constant percent growth 

- a graph of any other fund 



• CALCULATES over any given time spam 

- percent price change 

- the moving average 



INDICATES BUY and SELL signals 

r 



RAINBOW 

IC'L 



T 



T 



FUHDCRflF — Fl STOCK 

riRRKET RMRLYS I S 
PROGRAM FOR 1CK EX 
T R S — & O COLOR COMPUTER 




1 



Tape- version compares 
pTookfl or funds in 
groups of seven for 
up to 70 weeks* 

— 549.95 

Disk version compares 
any 36 funds on one 
disk for up to 200 
weeks . 

— $69.95 

-Sample data and detailed instructions furnished. 
-Both versions require 16 K Extended Basic. 
-For more information send S.A.S.E. 
-For your FUNDGRAF program send the price indi- 
cated above plus $2.00 handling toi 

PARSONS SOFTWARE, DEPT. A 
118 WOODSHIRE DRIVE 
PARKERSBURG, WV 26101 



tXS-M COLOR t0**UTE* -TH TMV CW* 

1 • 1 ■ 1 ■ ' ■ 1 ■ ' 



You quickly discover that the halls are being patrolled by 
fembots and they show up when you least expect them. 
Sometimes they zap you before you've even seen them. Then 
there are times — if you can type quickly enough — when you 
can run right over them, a fact I discovered out of 
desperation. 

A rich assortment of basic necessities have been left 
behind by the aliens, including such things to wear as vac- 
suits, armor, powersuits with armor, and shield belts — 
which can be found throughout the ship if you search long 
enough. There also are such weapons as lasgun lasers and 
mauler rifles, which have been slipped into out-of-the-way 
crannies, as well as some disc decoders. 

As you "tour" the ship you will discover that there are 
many mysterious rooms — a number of which appear to be 
empty at first glance, but which contain items essential to 
your escape, if you know how to search them. Many of them 
are in fact empty but, upon entering them, you're likely to 
find that someone or something has locked the door behind 
you. Don't panic, though, because pressing the shift and 
clear keys simultaneously, along with any other key, will 
teleport you back to your cell. (You will discover this early, 
if your experience is similar to mine.) 

Each floor contains teleportation pads which enable you 
to move from one floor to the next with relative ease. Be 
ready to move quickly, however, when you get to the next 
floor because the fembots are everywhere. 

The creators of the game are kind enough to provide you 
with a series of 1 1 commands that should make playing a lot 
easier. There's an "inventory" command that lets you check 
your energy supply and the equipment you have picked up 
along the way. Your energy supply dwindles every time you 
are shot, but you can be shot eight times before it's used up 
and you are wasted. Thankfully, there are places in the vessel 
where you can have your energy restored. 

Enter a wrong command and all you get is an "Oopie!"or 
"Error" message. I think the "Oopie" signal is supposed to 
add a little levity, but 1 didn't think it was so funny after 
seeing it more than 50 times. Nor did I enjoy the hundreds of 
trips I made up and down the halls searching for the faintest 
clue of a solution to the game. 

I was impressed by the three-dimensional graphics and 
the surrealistic sound effects. You do get the feeling of 
actually being inside the spaceship and it is not difficult to 
find your way around using the arrow keys. I also liked the 
window I found on the third floor of the ship; it was refresh- 
ing to see the stars twinkling after so many blank walls and 
empty rooms. 

There are many solutions to the game and, if you're 
among those lucky enough to find a couple of them, you're 
ready for some of ColorQuest's other 3-D games, such as 
Fembots' Revenge and Adventure Trilogy. If you are smart 
enough to solve Beyond The Cimeeon Moon, that is. On a 
scale of 1 to 10 in Adventure games that I have played, I 
would give this one a "nine." 

If Adventure games are your bag, Beyond The Cimeeon 
Moon is for you. Now, where is that leader. . .? 

(ColorQuest, a division of Softlaw Corp., 9072 Lyndale 

Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55420, 16K tape $24.95, 

32K disc $29.95) 

—Charles Springer 



152 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



BASIC AID 



AT LAST! Help for the BASIC programmer. BASIC AID is an indespensable addition to the Color 
Computer. It will save you valuable time and effort. If you write or modify BASIC programs, 
you need BASIC AID. 

You get 43 Common BASIC commands available as single Control Key inputs. Greatly 
speeds up program entry. 

A powerful feature is the ability to redefine any or all of the keys to your own specifications 
PLUS you get invaluable features such as a MERGE command, Move Line command and 
Automatic Line Numbering. 



MERGE— Insert programs stored on 
. cassette into your Basic program. 

You can even assign new line 

numbers to the program you read 

in. Great for creating your own 

tape library. 

MOVE— Lets you move and renumber any 
part of your Basic program. GOTOs 
and GOSUBs are automatically 
changed. 

Redefine any or all keys! Put in your most 
frequently used commands. Then save 
them to tape for use another time. 




"An excellent program 
and fine utility " — 
-RAINBOW review, 
August, 1982, Page 27 



MERGE MOVE OM/OFF 
• 1 1 I 1 



BLANK SET -AUTO^UM- 
8UPF USER OH/OFT SET 
» f 



I 



J J_ 



TRACE CKEC 

r ' I 



RUN CLEAR r CLEAR CONT 
1 I 1 I 1 I 



CHR3 LEN LEFT 
r T 1 T 1 r 



MID RIGHT 

r i 



THEN 



OOSUB 

T T 



IRKET 



INPUT 



OPEN 



r 



PEER CIRCLE 
1 I » 



DRAW PAINT 

1 f — 



STRING [ READ 

I It ' ' 

I I II it 

1 i i I L 



DATA 



FOR 



HI* JOtSTK 
" » 



SOUND LIST 
T « 



POKE 



J L 



SCREEN 



LINE 



I I 



AUDIO CSAVj CLOAO 



STEP RETURN NEXT 
T f 1 T 



M OTOR DIM EDIT 
» 1 1 I 



PRINT 



_J ' 

PRINT MEM 



BASIC AID 



I M 



All of this in a convenient ROM cartridge which is available instantly on power-up. And, it 
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WOOOHAVEN, N.V. 1 1421 



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Software Review . . . 

Synther-7 Creates 
A Symphony for CoCo 

When wasthelast time you had a chance to play a Hogfife 
or a Krumphorn? Have you ever gone to a late-night jam 
session, only to realize you left your Jninni at home? Well, 
thanks to Computerware's Synther-7 program, you'll have 
these instruments, and more, right on the keyboard of your 
Color Computer. 

Synther-7 is a real-time musical synthesizer which is 
totally controlled by software. It enables you to generate 
musical notes and sound effects from designated keys on the 
computer. These sounds can be modified by several parame- 
ters before they wind up on your TV's audio speaker or 
cassette's audio input. Because the sound is routed to the 
AUX jack, it enables you to record your works right onto 
the cassette recorder, or for that matter, any recording 
device at all. 

The machine language cassette version loads and auto- 
matically executes from tape with one CLOADM com- 
mand. It comes with six pages of easy-to-understand docu- 
mentation, the last page being a summary of all the 
commands. It was only a matter of a few minutes before I 
was creating masterpieces on my new "instrument." 

Upon loading, the top of the screen will show a picture of 
a piano keyboard (two ocatave's worth) and the correspond- 
ing keys on the computer which activate them. The 
"QWERTY"row, including the up-arrow key all the way to 
the CLEAR key, represent the white keys of the piano. The 
number row, from "1" to the BREAK key, corresponds to 
the black keys (sharps and flats) of the piano. While this 
takes somegettingused to, Computerware suggests marking 
the keys which sound notes with cellophane tape. A key- 
board overlay of some sort might have been nice, but it 
wouldn't be difficult at all to make one. I plan to do so, using 
the overlay from Radio Shack's Art Gallery program as a 
template. 

Also pictured on the screen are a block of text labeled 
STOPS (the different preset sounds), a bar graph on the 
lower left which indicates the envelope of the sound, a block 



of text identifying different control keys, and a bar indicator 
of the current pitch range. As these choices imply, there are 
lots of ways to change the nature of sound, and the features 
of this program far exceed those of the regular SOUND and 
PLA Y commands. 

Rather than try to describe the sounds of the five presets, 
suffice to say they range from somewhat natural (Lute) to 
borderline bizzare (Krumphorn). Synthesists will be happy 
to know that you have full control of ADSR (attack, decay, 
sustain and release). Changing the values of these functions 
is achieved by hitting the appropriate keys (which conven- 
iently occupy the third row of the keyboard). Furthermore, 
you can change the vibrato and volume, and even add twang 
and bend to a note. Try doing that when you start with 
Krumphorn as your basic sound! It's music from another 
planet! 

Learning to use Synther-7 is easy because the documenta- 
tion takes you through an example of sound creation. I'm 
partial to documentation that serves somewhat as a tutorial 
because it cuts down on the time it takes to master different 
functions. With most computer programs, it's a matter of 
learning what keys do what, and learning by example is the 
best way. 

After creating several different sounds ( I even wrote a nice 
melody), I experimented with sound effects. It was relatively 
simple to create the sound of an ambulance siren (coming 
after who, I wondered). Then I wanted to see how long I 
could sustain one note. Forever seemed to be the top limit. 

As a recording engineer and musician, I've been some- 
what skeptical of the synthesizer capabilities of the 80C. 
This software program is well thought out, and can provide 
many hours of composition and experimentation with 
sound. "Ah, yes," you say, "but how good it is? Could it be 
used in a real recording situation, or is it more or less a toy?" 

I first wanted to test the S/N (signal-to-noise) ratio of the 
sound output. Although I didn't have any real test equip- 
ment at home, I decided to record onto the cassette, simply 
to see what it sounded like. Playback seemed to contain 
some low-end rumble around 50 or 60 hz. But to be fair, I 
checked further to see whether it was the program or the 
tape recorder that was at fault. Using a "V adaptor (availa- 
ble at any Radio Shack store), I routed the sound output to 
my Technics tape deck. The playback was astonishingly 
clean-sounding over the whole frequency range, but I was 
further surprised by the decent reproduction of low-end 
sounds. 

"What about the pitch?" you argue. I knew from the past 
that the SOUND and PLA Y commands on the CoCo were 
not true-to-pitch. I checked Synther-7 's notes against those 
on my Casio. Before you even suspect the accuracy of the 
Casio, keep in mind that it was turned by a professional 
piano tuner with hightech tuning equipment. I checked one 
against the other, and it was right on! (How did they do 
that?) 

Overall, this is an excellent program, well-worth the list 
price. If there were one feature missing, it would be a save- 
to-tape for any sound creations you might want to have 
later. They suggest that you write these numbers down for 
future use, but I'm lazy, and besides, that's why I got a 
computer in the first place. But enough said, I 'm going to lay 
down different tracks on my Teac Portastudio, another 
marvel of technology. I must not forget my Gamba. 

(Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, $21.95 on 

tape, $26.96 on disk) 

— Bob Safir 



Now a LOGO for the 
COLOR COMPUTER 

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156 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



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THE 



"Recommend to 
anyone who enjoys 
games on his CoCo." 
RAINBOW Review, 
March 1983 




STICK INTERFACE 



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SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93-15 86th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 
212- 441 -2807 

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SOMETHING NEW IS just out 
from Radio Shack and, while it is not 
strictly for the CoCo, we think it is 
something you'll be interested in. It is 
called the TRD-80 Model 100 Portable 
Computer. This is a true portable com- 
puter with built-in functions such as an 
address file, a word processor and 
modem for communications. It even 
has a telephone dialer! 

Most interesting of all, the Portable 
Computer connects easily to any of the 
other Radio Shack models — including, 
of ourse, our own CoCo. You can write 
letters and memos on a plane or while 
riding (but not driving) in a car and 
transfer files to CoCo as soon as you get 
back. Or, you can just call up your 
CoCo and dump information on the 
phone. 

The Portable Computer comes with 
8K, 16K, 24K and 32K. Starts at $799. 
The display is eight lines by 40 charac- 
ters on an LCD screen. Go see it. 

As you know, Radio Shack has 
introduced a number of new computers 
since CoCo. And, while we think the 
machines are good, none of them have 
had the personal appeal of CoCo. Until 
now. We're really enthusiastic about 
this new machine. In fact, we plan a new 
publication for it - - Portable Comput- 
ing Magazine. The first issue is due in 
July and there is a charter subscription 
rate of $23 until July I. If you're inter- 
ested, let us know. 

WE FEEL IT IMPORTANT to call 
your attention to the latest issue of 
TRS-80 Microcomputer Newsand the 
comments made by Jon Shirley, vice 
president for computer merchandising 
for Tandy. Mr. Shirley talks about how 
some manufacturers "rate" the RAM 
available in their machines. Since you, 
as a loyal CoCo owner, might be questi- 
oned about this issue, we thought you 
might be interested in what Mr. Shirley 
has to say. 

And, while he does not mention the 
Commodore 64, we will. Simply 
because we were at a friend's house the 
other day, and he showed us his new 
Commodore. "It has 64K," he said 
proudly. We PRINTed MEM, and 
showed him otherwise. Yes, it has 64K 
of RAM — just like CoCo does — but, of 
course, only some 32K is usable. 

Clearly, we feel Radio Shack's policy 
of properly characterizing CoCo as a 



32K machine is a more accurate descrip- 
tion of its capabilities. And, of course, 
you know you can access all 64K of 
CoCo RAM. 

ARMADILLOS MOVE SLOWLY, 

but they do move. And, so, for Arma- 
dillo Software, which has a new address 
and a new telephone number. You can 
reach them at (512) 835-1088. 

****** 



IN THE "WE GOOFED" area is this 
footnote to the review of the light pen 
software for the Spectrum light pen 
available from Computer Island. The 
package of software and hardware is 
available only from Computer Island. 
Spectrum Projects does not carry the 
software — but does have the light pen, 
of course. 



HERE'S A BULLETIN: There are 
several new bulletin boards now in 
operation, devoted primarily to CoCo. 
Among them are: 

One out of Tom Mix Software at 
(616) 364-4791 . By the way, Tom Mix' 
Donkey King program has a new name. 
Its now known as The King. 

If you want some southern flavor to 
your communications, try Kaleido- 
scope, a 24-hour BBS out of the middle 
Georgia area. Willie Bethay is SYSOP 
and you can connect up at (912) 
923-4679. 

Three bulletin boards at one place? 
Yes, that's what SYSOP Bob Rosen 
announces. He's added a third to the 
present Rainbow Connection. Call 
either (21 2) 441-3755, (2 1 2) 441-3766 or 
(212) 441-5719 24-hours a day, seven 
days a week. 

Queens must be the bulletin board 
capital of the entire northern hemis- 
phere. In addition to Bob's three, there 
is a new one based in that New York 
City borough called CoCo's Nest. It is 
open 24 hours a day and Arnold Schif- 
fman is the SYSOP. Its run by Strictly 
Communications, Inc. 

****** 



IF YOU HAVE A cassette copy of 
Spectaculator, we understand that you 
can get it converted to disk. We've just 
heard this and have not had an oppor- 
tunity to check it out, but we hear that 
Tandy will do it for you if you send the 
original tape to Fort Worth and ask. 



YOU MIGHT WANT TO CHECK 

the continuous checks which a firm 
called Synergetic Systems has deve- 
loped. There is a program to go with it 
and we are told the package of program 
and checks can be purchased as a pack- 
age for $59.95. The firm's address is 
4715 Shepard Road, Mulberry, FL 
33860. Phone is (813) 646-6557. 

****** 

GIMIX, WHICH IS A leader in 6809 
products, has a new 6809 CPU Board 
and software package available. The 
new board is specifically intended for 
use with multi-user multi-tasking oper- 
ating systems. The software, OS-9 
GMX III, is an enhanced version of the 
OS-9 operating system which was writ- 
ten to take full advantage of the new 
CPU Board. Information is available 
from Gimix, Inc., 1337 W. 37th Place, 
Chicago, IL 60609, (312) 927-5510. 

EDUCATORS WILL BE interested 
to know that Radio Shack has 
announced a program called "Ameri- 
ca's Educational Challenge" for all ele- 
mentary and secondary school teachers 
in the United States. The purpose of the 
program is to assist teachers to achieve 
basic familiarity with computers and 
their use in the classroom. Information 
on the program will be mailed this 
month to the principal of every school 
in the United States. Also included are 
free certificates for free classes in 
BASIC at Radio Shack's Computer 
Centers. 

****** 

A NEW LINE OF modems and 
"Speed Select" Modem I/O cards has 
been announced by Universal Data 
Research. The new modems are 
designed to connect any terminal or 
computer with telephone lines. More 
information is available from Universal 
Data Research, 2457 Wehrle Drive, 
Buffalo, NY 14221 (716) 631-3011. 



158 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Spectrum Projects 

YourTDP-100 Dealer 

Trims Down Prices! 



64KTDP100 : : Line Printer I 
with Ext/Basic : : (DMP100) 

$499.95 • • $299.95 



Color Drive : : DC Modem I 

Zero : : Communications 

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Color Cassette : : 16K TDP-100 

Recorder<ccR sd : : with Ext/Basic 

$49.95 • • $399.95 



CALL 212-441-2807 

all orders plus $2.00 S/H 
N.Y. residents add sales tax 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93-15 86th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN,NY 11421 



Software Review . . . 

Humor, Good Graphics 
Make Crystal Revenge Sparkle 

Crystal Revenge is a fine game by Tom Roginski. The 
premise is that you (former galastic imperialists from the 
Crystal World) have been driven back to your homeworld, 
where you are under attack by various races whom you had 
sought to bring under your "enlightened rule." You are a 
space sector defender, and must laser out attackers' ships, 
protecting cities and your supply dump. 

The graphics are excellent. An arc of the planet, its several 
large cities marked on its surface, is at the right of the screen. 
You maneuver a laser firing ring, a sparkly affair controlled 
by the right joystick. You must lock on to the moving target 
before firing. Attacker ships advance one by one across the 
black of space from the left. A fuel bar across the top of the 
screen shows how much laser fuel remains. 

Hits on your planet show on the homeworld and are 
recorded at the bottom right of the screen; attacker ships 
downed are recorded at the bottom left. There is a com- 
plicated point scoring system, providing different levels of 
points for ships hit from succeeding waves, as well as 
bonuses for conserving laser fuel, minimizing hits on your 
planet, saving cities, your supply base, and the homeworld 
itself. Point-scores are calculated and displayed after each 
game, and compared to previous high scores. 

You play for a defined win, as determined by two menu- 
selected difficulty parameters. You can enter a previous high 
score at the beginning, or play against high score made in a 
particular series of games, so that although only one person 
can play at a time, a number of players can compete on 
scores. 



of controlling4 colors in PMODE4 which involves display- 
ing two ships just before a game and asking you to indicate if 
the one on top is red or not. Your answer fixes the false 
colors throughout a game without use of RESET lines. 
Roginski says that "as a by-product of the way the false 
colors are set" red areas of blue ships (or blue areas of red 
ones) are "armored," and hits by laser ring locked onto these 
areas will not knock out the ship. Roginski is writing an 
article about his use and control of false colors in hi-res. I 
look forward to seeing it after this interesting tidbit. Though 
the "armor" may be making the best of a necessary conse- 
quence of the programming method, it provides one of the 
most frustrating — and fascinating — features of the game. 
You lock onto an advancing ship. You got it! You fire! 
Nothing happens, you hit an armored section! Tally Ho, to 
the chase again. 

The ships themselves add a certain funkiness to the game. 
The first wave comes at you one at a time, straight across, a 
bit herky-jerky (emphasized by the sounds they make), but 
not really evasive. They are rather baroque, but definitely 
spaceships — fish-like shapes with armored dorsal and ven- 
tral turrets. Not so the succeeding waves. I can only describe 
those as "critter-like." They come at you hopping, bopping, 
twitching, hula-shimmying; to say their trajectories are 
unpredictable is an understatement. They don't have 
trajectories; they do war dances. Too, as they approach and 
skitter or scoot away from your firing ring, they sneer, jeer, 
fleer and Bronx cheer at you. When you get one, it shudders, 
heaves, changes colors, and disintegrates, singing a little 
deathsong of pathetic defiance (veh-ree organic). 

You have to destroy 10 ships in an incoming wave, and 
from three to five waves to save your homeworld. This is 
quite hard to do, though Roginski has designed the game to 
be winnable at all levels. However, if your supply base is 
destroyed, your laser will not be refueled for the next wave, 
and you will confront those funky little dip-ships impo- 
tently, with a firing ring that will lock on but do no damage. 
Ypu have only 30 shots per wave, so refueling is essential. 

You can cheat a bit in this game. I always look for ways to 
do that, since it expresses my rebellion against arcade-style 
games. You can pause the action with "shift@"and get your 
joystick under control for moving rapidly into best intercept 
position. 

When the planet-destroying number of hits has occurred, 
concentric circles of throbbing red radiation spread from the 
last hit zone to fill all of space. Ciao, Crystal World. Such is 
the fate of would-be enlightened rulers. 

To fit the entire program into 16K, Roginski has made it 
in three modules. The first, with complete instructions and 
well-done title screens (which use semigraphics-24 mode for 
some novel effects), is auto-overlayed by the data and game 
modules. Later, when you want to skip instructions and get 
right onto those fleering critter-ships, you can bypass that 
module and CLOADM "DATA" and "REVENGE." 

A Sugar Software auto-run machine language program 
governs loads. (Sugar licenses its purchasers to use it in their 
own commercial programs. Good deal.) I loved the owl 
logo — you can see it in the Owl-Ware ad in this issue. It's a 
nicely done sketch, smoothly replicating all those curves. 
The owl hoots like a demented canary during loading. 

This program is well worth having, even if you're not fond 
of arcade games, both because of the element of humor and 
because of the graphics effects. 

(Owl-Ware, P.O. Box 116, Martztown, PA 19539, $16.95) 

—Detective Fuzzy 



The colors are excellent. Roginski has devised a method 

^COLONIAL TRILOGY^ 






THREE INCREDIBLE NEW GAMES 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

HI-RES — 3ZK — EXT BASIC 

COLONIAL WARS: two player game on a galactic scale 

WITH HYCOMP'S UNIQUE SPLIT SCREEN CONCEPT-IT'S ALMOST 
LIKE HAVING A SEPARATE MONITOR FOR EACH PLAYERI COLONIZE 
AND BATTLE FOR CONTROL OF AN 11 STAR SYSTEM WHILE 
COMMANDING MASSIVE BATTLECARRIERS, FIGHTER SQUADRONS, 
FREIGHTERS, AND PLANETARY DEFENSE. WITH GAME SAVE(3-8hrs) 

ZYRONlTWO PLAYERS BATTLE WITHIN AN ASTEROID FIELD WITH 
SHIPS BUILT TO THEIR OWN SPECIFICATIONS. TWO SCENARIOS 
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WHILE SEARCHING FOR HIDDEN ZYRON BASES. AN EXCELLENT 
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ONLY $19.95 EACH OR ALL THREE FOR $49,951 
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CHECK OR MONEY AVAILABLE ONLY FROM 

nonco r»kii v P.O.BOX 15331 

8END SASE FOR 'HYCOMP* TULSA, OK 74158 

MORE INFORMATION. (918)266-6452 



160 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



LOSING BATTLES WITH 

GLOOMSTICK? 




"The fooling of this joystick 
is superb 

-80 Micro March 1983 



PUT THE JOY BACK IN 
COLOR COMPUTING 
WITH A NEW 

SPECTRUM 
STICK 



Dealer/Club Inquiries Invited 



Features include: 



Power on/off LED 
indicator 



Ball joint components 
a true feel of control 




More like arcade Joy- 
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Rainbow review October 
1982. Page 112 




Extra long cables 
Sturdy construction 



Hair trigger response 



please 
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name _ 



send( ) SPECTRUM STICK(s) at 
each plus $2.00 shipping to 



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N.Y. Residents Add Appropriate Taxes 



"Both the joystick and pushbutton 
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than the Radio Shack unit since they are 
made of higher quality components"— 
Creative Computing Feb., 1983, Issue. 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 
93-15 86 th DRIVE 
W00DHAVEN, N.Y. 11421 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



A Colorful Game Of Draw 
— That's Color Poker 

By Joseph Kohn 




Color Poker duplicates the electronic draw poker games 
prevalent in Vegas, and requires 16K, Extended BASIC. 
Playing is quite simple. The machine deals you five cards. 
You have the option of keepingall of them or discarding up 
to four to improve your hand. How much you win, if you are 
lucky, is based on the built-in odds for each winning hand. 1 
use the same odds as Las Vegas, except that I don't require 
that a valid pair be jacks or better. 1 don't like losing that 
much! If you want to be more daring, I've included the 
program changes. 

The Color Computer is ideal for providing the card gra- 
phics and colors that make the game visually interesting. 
The speed of the Extended Color BASIC in implementing 
the graphic commands keeps play at a brisk pace. 

The program is composed of four main parts: graphics 
routines (lines 80-870), the actual play of deal and discard 
(lines 880-1320), determining the value of your hand (lines 
1330-1620) and the final tally of your finances (lines 
1630-1710). 

The bulk of the graphics routines are the DRA W strings 
in lines 90-650. These, along with the DRA W subroutine in 
line 670, provide the alphanumeric displays that both 
prompt the player and provide all the necessary information 
for playing. 

These strings are a subset of a very useful library program 
which 1 call Font. This consists of the DRA ^strings for all 
the ASCII characters and provides a source of alphanumer- 
ics for a great many of my high resolution programs. By 
changing scale factors, start positions and colors, many 
interesting effects can be created. The title screen utilizes a 
scale of SI 6, each word is drawn with green, then offset and 
redrawn with blue. 

After displaying the odds for each winning combination, 
play starts by selecting the bet in line 900. I have generally 
■ 

162 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



found that most games requiring you to choose a bet quickly 
become boring. Therefore 1 decided to make the betting 
random, which introduces more chance and interest. Here 
the variable BT is set from $100 to $1000 in $100 steps. The 
bet changes to thousands after you have more than $20,000. 
This is accomplished by using the logical statement 
TT>20000, where TT is your total bankroll. The INT func- 
tion is required because of the inaccuracies of the exponen- 
tial operator, which could produce undesirable digits to the 
fourth decimal place. 

Each deal is from a fresh deck, set in line 930. Five cards 
are dealt at random and the cards are drawn on the screen. 
The card shape uses the LINE command with a filled box. 
The card values are drawn using the DRA W strings, then 
the appropriate symbol is placed on the card face using 
PUT. 

The player enters the numbers of the cards he wishes to 
discard. The discards are indicated by boxes around the 
selected cards. If a mistake is made, the player can cancel his 
entries and start over. 

After being dealt replacement cards, scoring of the hand 
proceeds. This starts with sorting the cards by face value. 
Tests are made for all possible winning combinations start- 
ing with straights, then flushes and finally ending with a 
single pair. 

If the cards do not produce a winning hand, the bet is 
subtracted from the player's bankroll. Winning hands are 
paid off according to the odds stored in the corresponding 
DATA statements, line 850. 

As I indicated, if you wish to define a valid pair asjacks or 
better, do the following: Extend line 1580 with 
:Y=CV(CD(X)). And add line 1605 as follows: 1605 IF 
Y<11 AND Y>1 THEN 1620. 

Good luck! 



COLORSOFT 



TM 



ESCAPE 

A 3-D GRAPHICS ADVENTURE WITH SOUND 
(Machine Language for Fast Action) 

This is NOT the usual "find the treasure" adventure. In 
ESCAPE, you are trapped on the top floor of a 
skyscraper and the only way out is by using a very 
unusual elevator. You must give the elevator the 
correct code or else the ride down is a real killer. The 
maze-like halls seem to cometo lifedueto the fantastic 
3-D graphics. Search the halls for rooms which contain 
clues to the correct code. Clues must be deciphered to 
learn the elevator's secret code. Game times depends 
on the skill of the player, but it is typically 8-10 hours. 
ESCAPE is suitable for group play. A mentally 
stimulating experience. 

16K BASIC $18.95 



RECIPE FILE 

A CASSETTE BASED STORAGE AND 
RETRIEVAL SYSTEM 

This program permits storage of your favorite recipes 
for retrieval by your computer. Once a recipe has been 
recalled, then the computer can adjust the ingredient 
measure for serving the desired number of persons. 
Each recipe can contain special comments on 
preparation as well asthe full instructionsforusing the 
recipe. Included is a line oriented text editor for 
creating and editing the variable length files. 
Completely menu driven and very user friendly. Easily 
modified by the user for use in keeping track of record, 
coin or stamp collections or whatever your interest. 
Screen or printer output. 

16K Ext. BASIC $21.95 
SPECIAL: A collection of 30 recipies covering main 
meals to snacks. Only $3.95 with program. 



SQUIRE 

SQUIRE is a challenging game of 
asset management. The player must 
manage a country estate and contend 
with crop failure, investment losses, 
taxes and other such headaches. The 
object of the game is to increase the 
estate's value while providing for the 
peasant workers. The starting assets 
are computer selected so that each 
game offers different challenges. 
Great experience for the kids or 
aspiring executives. 



16K Ext. BASIC 



$14.95 



HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE 
MANAGER 

This menu driven program package is 
designed for creating and 
maintaining a data file on cassette of 
30 household expense categories for 
a 12-month period. It also keeps 
cumulative totals and a separate total 
of tax deductable expenses. A 
comparative analysis program 
provides a graphic presentation of 
relative expenses between any two 
months during the year. The user can 
change categories by modifying 
program code. Screen or printer 
output. 

16K Ext. BASIC $19.95 



FLIPPER 

A fun and challenging version of the 
Othello™ type board games. This 
version includes options for play 
solely by the computer, one player 
against the computer, or two players 
against each other. The computer 
can play on four skill levels. Very 
colorful with plenty of sound. Fun for 
kids and challenging for adults. Great 
for parties. 



16K Ext. BASIC 



$16.95 



COLOR 

SOFT WARE 

SERVICES — 

P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 



INCLUDE $2.25 HANDLING PER ORDER 
WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 



DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



RAINBOW 



TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 
9-4 Monday-Saturday 

VISA/MASTERCARD 



Table 1. List of Key Variables 
CS— Card suit 
CV— Card value 
CD— Cards dealt 
BT— Player bet 
TT— Player bankroll 
OD— Odds for winning hand 
DC— Discards 

A cassette copy of Color Poker is available from the 
authorfor$5. Send to: Joseph Kohn, 1343 Blossom Avenue, 
Redlands, CA 92373. 




The listing: 

10 GOTO30000 
20 ' 

30 * COLOR POKER 

40 ' JOSEPH KOHN 

50 ' 1343 BLOSSOM AVE 

60 ' REDLANDS, C A 92373 

70 CLS:DIM A*(89) : X=RND(-TIMER) 

80 ' DRAW STRINGS 

90 A*(33)«"U4E2F2D2NL4D2BR3" 'A 
1 00 A* ( 35 ) - " BR3E 1 BU4H 1 L2G 1 D4F 1 R2 
BR4"'C 

110 A*(36)="U6R3F1D4G1L3BR7" 'D 
120 A*(37)«"R4BU6L4D3NR2D3BR7" 9 
E 

130 A*(38)="U6NR4D3NR2D3BR7" 'F 
1 40 A* ( 39 > - 11 BR4BU5H 1 L2G 1 D4F 1 R3U2 
NL1D2BR3" 'G 

150 A*(40)="U6D3R4U3D6BR3" 'H 
1 60 A* ( 4 1 ) - " BU6BR 1 R2L 1 D6L 1 R2BR4 11 

' I 

170 A*(42)="BU1F1R2E1U5BD6BR3" 
9 J 

180 A*(43)«"U6D3R1NE3F3BR3" 'K 

190 A*(44)»"NU6R4BR3" 'L 

200 A*(45)«"U6F2ND1E2D6BR3" 'M 

210 A*(46)-"U6F4U4D6BR3" 'N 

220 A* ( 47 ) - • BU 1 U4E 1 R2F 1 D4G 1 L2NH 1 

BRA" 'O 

230 A* ( 48 ) - " U6R3F 1 D 1 G 1 L3BF3BR4 " 
'P 

240 A*(49)«"BU1U4E1R2F1D3G1NH1NF 
1G1L1NH1BR6" ' Q 

250 A* ( 50 ) = " U6R3F 1 D 1 G 1 L3R 1 F3BR3 " 
'R 

260 A*(51)= M R3E1U1H1L2H1U1E1R3BD 
6BR3" 'S 

270 A*(52)-"BU6R4L2D6BR5" 'T 
280 A* ( 53 ) - " BU 1 U5BR4D5G 1 L2NH 1 BR6 

it ,y 

290 A* (54) -"BU4NU2F1D1F1ND1E1U1E 
1U2BD6BR3" 'V 

300 A*(55)= ,, NU6E2F2NU6BR3" 'W 
310 A* ( 57 ) - " BU6D 1 F2E2U 1 D 1 G2D3BR5 



II 9 y 

320 A* ( 65 > - 11 BU4R2F 1 D 1 L2G 1 F 1 R2NU2 
R1BR3" 'a i 
330 A*(66)="U6D2R3F1D2G1L3BR7" ' 
b 

340 A* ( 67 ) = " BU4BR2NF 1 L2G 1 D2F 1 R2N 
E1BR4" 9 c 

350 A* ( 68 ) « " BU4BR4L3G 1 D2F 1 R3NU6B 
R3" *d 

360 A* ( 69 ) - " BR3L2H 1 U2E 1 R2F 1 D 1 NL4 
BD2BR3" 9 b 

370 A*(72)»"U6D3E1R2F1D3BR3" 'h 
380 A* (73) ■ 11 BU6BR 1 R 1 BD2NL 1 D4L 1 R2 
BR4" 'i 

390 A* (79) ="BU1 U2E 1 R2F 1 D2G 1 L2NH 1 
BR7 " 'o 

400 A*(82)»"U4D1E1R2F1BD3BR3" 9 r 

410 A*(83)="R3E1H1L2H1E1R3BD4BR3 

.i , s 

420 A* ( 84 ) - " BU5R4L2U 1 D5F 1 E 1 BD 1 BR 

3" 't 

430 A*(85)="BU4D3F1R2NU4R1BR3" ' 

u 

440 A*(86)="BU4F1D1F1ND1E1U1E1BD 
4BR3" 'v 

450 A* ( 87 ) = " BU4D3F 1 E 1 NU2F 1 E 1 U3BD 
4BR3" 7 w 

460 A* ( 89 ) = " BU4D3F 1 R3U4D5G 1 L3BU2 
BR7" 'y 

470 A* ( 0 ) = " BR3 " ' SPACE 
480 A* ( 1 ) - " BR 1 R 1 BU2U4BD6BR5 " ' ! 
490 A* (4) ="BR2U6D1R2L3G1F1R2F1G1 
L3BD1BR7" '* 

500 A* ( 12) ="U1R1D1NL1D1G1BU2BR7" 
' COMMA 

510 A*(13)«"BU3R4BD3BR3" 

520 A*(16)«"BU1U4E1R1F1D4G1L1NH1 

BR6 " 9 0 

530 A* ( 1 7 ) - " BU6BR2NG 1 D6L 1 R2BR4 11 
* 1 

540 A* ( 18) S "BU5E1R2F1D1G1L2G1D2R 
4BR3" 9 2 

550 A*(19)«"BU5E1R2F1D1G1NL1F1D1 
G1L2NH1BR6" '3 

560 A* ( 20 ) - " BU2U 1 E3D4NR 1 NL3D2BR4 

II » 4 

570 A* ( 2 1 ) - " BU 1 F 1 R2E 1 U2H 1 L3U2R4B 
D6BR3 " '5 

580 A* ( 22 ) - " BU6BR3L 1 G2D3F 1 R2E 1 U 1 
H1L3BD3BR7 " '6 

590 A*(23)="BU6R4D1G4D1BR7" 9 7 
600 A*(24)="BU1U1E1R2E1U1H1L2G1D 
1 F 1 R2F 1 D 1 G 1 L2NH 1 BR6 11 '8 
610 A*(25)="BR1R1E2U3H1L2G1D1F1R 
3BD3BR3" '9 

620 A* ( 26 ) - " BU6NG 1 D6L 1 R2BR2BU 1 U4 
E1F1D4G1NH1" '10 

630 A*(27)«"U1R1D1L1BU3U1R1D1L1B 
D5E1U1BR6 " 'I 

640 A*(29)»"BU2NR4BU2R4BD4BR3" ' 



164 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



INTERNATIONAL SOFTWARE INC. 



(604) 474 2271 



771 HOCKLEY AVE, V I CTOR I A , B . C , V9B 2V5 



TOP STIX, IS A JOYSTICK INTERFACE FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER , XT WILL ALLOW YOU TO 

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TO ORDER SEND CHEQUE OR MONEY 
ORDER, VISA NO#,AND EXP DATE 
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DEFENSE 

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ROBOT BATTLE 

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Please allow 2-3 
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$27. 95 



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$22 . 95 



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$10.95 



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HELP 
WANTED 



Dragon Slayers, Space Pilots, Witch 
Doctors, Maze Makers, Professors 
and other creative programmers. 

We Want You! 

Your original Color Computer Soft- 
ware program is worth money and we 
want to discuss it with you. . . 

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24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 226 
MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 
(714) 768-1551 



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1 



650 A*(31)«"BR1R1BU2E2U1H1L2G1BD 
5BR7" ' ? 
660 GOTO680 

670 FORX1-1TO LEN(X*) : Y1=ASC(MID 
*(X*, XI, 1 ) ) -32: DRAW" X A* (Yl ) I " : NE 
XT: RETURN 

680 PMODE 1,1: PCLS2 : DRAW " BM36 , 52 * 
S16C1 " : X*»" COLOR" : GOSUB670: DRAW" 
BM40 , 52 % C3 " : GOSUB670 : DRAW " BM72 , 1 
1 2 ; C 1 11 : X*= " POKER " : GOSUB670 : DRAW " 
BM76 , 1 1 2 ; C3 " : GOSUB670 

690 ' CREATE DECK 

700 Z«0:DIMCS(52) ,CV(52) ,DD<52) , 
C<12) ,H<12) ,S<12) ,D<12) 
710 F0RX-1T04 * 1«CLUB,2«SPADE, 3- 
HEART , 4«D I AMOND 

720 F0RY-1T013: z«z+i:cs<z)=x:cv< 

z>-y:nexty, x 

730 9 CREATE SYMBOLS 

740 DRAWBM68, 156; S8C3R1U1R1D1R2 
U2L1U1R1U1R3D1R1D1L1D2R2U1R1D1R1 
D3L1D1L1U1L3D2L1U2L3D1L1U1L1U3" 
750 PAINT (80, 152) ,3, 3: GET (68, 148 
>-<91, 167) ,C,G 

760 DRAW 11 BM 100, 1 56 J C4BR 1R1U1R1U1 
R1U1R1U1D1R1D1R1D1R1D1R1D1L1D1L1 
D1L1D1L1D1U1L1U1L1U1L1U1L1U1" 
770 PAINT (114, 156) ,4, 4: GET (100, 1 
48)-(123, 167) ,D,G 



780 DRAWBM132, 156; C3BR 1R1U1R1U1 

R1U1R1U1R1D1R1D1R1D1R1D1R1D2L1D1 

L1U1L2D3L1U3L2D1L1U1L1U2" 

790 PAINT(146, 156) , 3, 3: GET ( 132, 1 

48)-(155, 167) ,S,G 

800 DRAW "BM 164, 156 J C4BR1U2R1U1R1 
U1D1R1D1R3U1R1U1D1R1D1R1D2L1D2L1 
D1L1D1L1D1L1U1L1U1L1U1L1U2L1" 
810 PAINT(170, 152) , 4, 4: GET ( 164, 1 
48)-(187, 167) ,H,G 

820 SCREEN 1,0: FOR X=1TO3000: NEXT 

830 7 ODDS DISPLAY 

840 PRINTSTRING*(8, "*") "C0C0 CAS 
INO ODDS "STRING* (8, "*") " 
850 DATA 1 ONE-PAIR, 2 TWO-PA 
IR,3 THREE-OF- A-K I ND , 4 STRAI 
GHT , 6 FLUSH , 9 FULL-HOUSE , 25 

FOUR-OF- A-K I ND , 50 STRA I GHT-FLU 
SH,250 ROYAL-FLUSH 
860 FORX=5TO10:READA*(X) :printmi 
D*(A*(X) ,4) ; TAB (24) VAL(A*(X> ) "TO 

1 " : NEXT : F0RX=27T028: READA* ( X ) : P 
RINTMID*(A*(X) ,4) ; TAB (23) VAL ( A* ( 

X) ) "TO i m :next:reada*(29) :printm 

ID* (A* (29) ,4) TAB (22) VAL(A*(29> > " 
TO 1" 

870 PRINTG416, "YOUR INITIAL BANK 
ROLL IS *1000! ! ":TT-1000:PRINT@4 
80, "READY?" I 

880 IF INKEY*«""THEN880 ELSE CLS 
890 * START PLAY 

900 C0L0R2, l:PCLS:BT=INT(100*10^ 
(-(TT>20000) >*RND(10> ) :BT*=MID*( 
STR*(BT) ,2) :DRAW"BM20,20;C4": X*= 
"Your bet is *"+BT*+" ! " : GOSUB670 
910 DRAW " BM20, 40" :X*=" GOOD LUCK, 
PAL ! ! ! " : GOSUB670: SCREEN 1 , 0 

920 ' CLEAR DECK 

930 FOR X=1TO52:DD(X)=0:NEXT 
940 F0RX=1T05 
950 GOSUB1010 

960 Y=12+48*(X-1) : Y*»STR*(Y) 
970 DRAW " BM " + Y*+ " , 62 ; C2 " : X*=CHR* 
(X+48) :GOSUB670 
980 GOSUB 1140: GOSUB 1 020 
990 NEXT: GOTOl 150 
1000 * DEAL 

1010 Z-RND(52):IF DD(Z)=1THEN101 
0ELSECD ( X ) =Z : DD ( Z ) = 1 : RETURN 

1020 ' CARD GRAPHICS 

1030 IF CS(Z)-1 OR CS(Z)-2 THEN 

CC*»"3" ELSE CC*«"4" 

1040 IF CV(Z)>1 AND CV(Z)<11 THE 

N X*«CHR*(CV(Z)+48) 

1050 IFCV(Z)«1THENX*«"A" 

1 060 I FC V ( Z ) - 1 1 THEN X " J " ELSE I FC 

V ( Z ) «12THENX*-"Q"ELSEIFCV ( Z ) -13T 

HENX*-"K" 

1 070 DRAW " BM " +STR* ( Y+4 ) + " , 84 ; S8C 
"+CC*:GOSUB670 



166 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Your largest single source of programs and products for the COLOR COMPUTER / TDP 100 



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Full factory packs, with joysticks and manuals! 
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ASSEMBLY 
LANGUAGE 
STARTER SET 



CCEAD (Eigen Systems) 

This widely acclaimed program may be 
the best software buy on the market. A 
two-pass assembler supporting the full 
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Powerful monitor written in position- 
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ORDERING 
INFORMATION 

ALL ITEMS SHIPPED 
FROM STOCK 



1 080 DRAW " BM " +STR* < Y+24 ) + " , 1 30 " : 
GOSUB670 

1090 ON CS(Z) GOTO 1100,1110,112 
0, 1130 

1100 PUT(Y+8,92)-(Y+31, 111) ,C,PS 
ET: RETURN 

1110 PUT(Y+8,92)-(Y+31, 111) ,S,PS 
ET: RETURN 

1120 PUT<Y+8,92)-(Y+31, 111) ,H,PS 
ET: RETURN 

1130 PUT(Y+8,92)-(Y+31, 111) ,D,PS 
ET: RETURN 

1140 C0L0R2, l:LINE(Y,68)-<Y+39, 1 
35 ) , PSET , BF : RETURN 
1150 ' DISCARDS 

1160 DRAWBM12, 160" : X*="Di scards 

? " : sound 1 00 , 1 : gosub670 

1170 forx=ito4:dc<x)=0:next: a=i 

1180 K*=INKEY*:IF K$=CHR$ (13) THE 
N 1240 ELSE IF K$=" 11 THEN 1 180ELSE 
K=VAL<K*) : IFK<1 OR K>5 THEN 1180 
1190 IF K*=CHR*<13)THEN1240 
1200 IFA=5THEN1180 

1210 F0RX-1T05 :IF DC(X)OK THEN 

NEXT ELSE 1180 
122^ DC(A)»K: A»A+1 

12ZV LINE < 10+48* <K-1) ,48) -(52+48 
*<K-i), 136) , PSET, B:GOT01 180 
1240 DRAW 11 BM 12, 184" : X*="OK?" : SOU 
ND100, l:GOSUP670 



1 250 K*= I NKEY* : I FK*= " " THEN 1 250EL 
SE I FK*= " Y " THEN 1 290ELSE I FK*< > " N " T 
HEN 1250 
1260 GOSUB1320 

1 270 FORK= 1 T04 : I FDC < K ) THENGOSUB 1 
310 

1280 NEXT: GOTOl 160 

1290 GOSUB1320: F0RK=1T04: IF DC(K 
) THEN GOSUB 1310: X=DC < K ) : GOSUB 1 0 
1 0 : Y= 1 2+48* < X- 1 ) : GOSUB 1 1 40 : GOSUB 
1020 

1300 NEXT: GOTO 1330 

1310 LINE(10+48*<DC(K)-1) ,48)-<5 
2+48*(DC(K)-l) , 136) , PRESET , B : RET 
URN 

1320 LINE<0, 140)-<255, 191) , PRESE 
T,BF: RETURN 
1330 * SCORING 

1340 LINE<0, 0)-<255, 67) , PRESET, B 
F 

1350 DRAW"BM12,20": X*="How did y 
ou do?":GOSUB670 
1360 ' SORT 

1370 F0RX»1T04:Z3»X:Z1=CV(CD(X) ) 

:FORY=X T05: Z2=CV(CD<Y) ) 

1380 IF Z2<Z1 THEN Z1=Z2:Z3=Y 

1390 NEXTY:Z4=CD(X) :CD(X)=CD(Z3) 

:CD(Z3)=Z4:NEXTX 

1400 ' TEST STRAIGHT 

1410 S=l : SA=0: F0RX=2T04: IF CV<CD 



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168 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



(X) >+K>CV<CD<X + l> )THENS=0:GOTO1 
440ELSENEXT 

1420 IF CV(CD<1)>=1 AND CV<CD<5> 

)=13 THEN SA=l: GOTO 1440 

1430 IFCV (CD < 1 ) > +1< >CV (CD (2) ) THE 

NS=0 

1440 > TEST FLUSH 

1450 FL=l:FOR X= 1T04: IFCS (CD ( X ) 
) < >CS ( CD ( X + 1 ) ) THENFL=0 : GOTO 1 460E 
LSENEXT 

1460 IFFL AND SA THEN X*=A*(29>: 
GOTO 1630 

1470 IFFL AND S THEN X*»A*(28):G 
OTO1630 

1480 ' TEST 3- OR 4-OF-A-KIND 

1490 T(1)=0:T(2)=0:T(3)=0 

1500 F0RX-1T03: IFCV (CD (X) )=CV(CD 

(X + l) ) ANDCV(CD(X+2) >»CV(CD(X+1> > 

THENT(X)=1 

1510 NEXT 

1520 IF(T(1) AND T (2) ANDFL=0) OR ( 
T ( 2 ) ANDT ( 3 ) ANDFL=0 ) THEN X*=A*<27 
) : GOTO 1630 

1530 IF(T(1) ANDCV(CD(4) )=CV(CD(5 

) > ) OR (T (3) ANDCV (CD ( 1 ) ) =CV (CD (2) > 

) THENX *= A* (10): GOTO 1 630 

1540 IF FL THENX*=A*(9> :GOTO1630 

1550 IF S THEN X*»A* (8) : GOTO1630 

1560 IFT(1)0RT(2)0RT(3)THENX*=A* 

(7>:GOTO1630 



1570 ' TEST PAIRS 

1580 PP=0:FORX=1TO4: IFCV(CD(X) >= 

CV(CD(X+1) )THENPP=PP+1 

1590 NEXT: IF PP=0 THEN 1620 

1600 IF PP=2 THEN X*=A* (6) : GOTOl 

630 

1610 X*=A*(5> :GOTO1630 

1620 IFRND<2)=1THENX*="-1 YOU H 

AVE NOTHING"ELSEX*="-l WORTHLES 

S CARDS" 

1630 9 TALLY 

1640 OD»VAL(X*) : X*=MID*<X*,4>+" ! 



ii 



1650 DRAW"BM12,50":GOSUB670 
1660 DRAW"BM12, 160": IF OD>0 THEN 
X*» " YOU WON " : SC=BT* ( OD- 1 ) : TT=T 
T+SC: F0RX=1T05: SOUND50, 1 : SOUND 15 
0,1: NEXT ELSEX*="YOU LOST " : SC= 

bt: tt=tt-bt: sound50, 5 

1670 sc*="* u +mid* <str* (so , 2) : x* 

=X*+SC*+" ! ": IF OD=l THEN X*="EVE 
N MONEY ! " 

1 680 GOSUB670 : TT*=M I D* ( STR* ( TT ) , 

2) 

1690 DRAW " BM 16, 1 84 " : IF TT<0 THEN 
X*="You owe • " ELSE X*="You hav 
e *" 

1700 X*=X*+TT*+" ! ":GOSUB670 
1710 I F I NKEY$= " " THEN 1 7 1 0ELSE890 
30000 PCLEAR2:GOTO20 ^ 



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ROYAL 

GAMES 



P.O. Sox 14306 
Jacksonville, FL 32233 

Prices on All garnes 
include shipping. Florida 
Resident add 5% tax. 

All Programs require Color 
ComPuter™ (Tandy Corp) or 
TDP System 100 ComPuter™ 
(RCA) ' 



KAMIKAZE 32K EXT — Fight off Takijiro Onishi's Kamikazes, find and destroy 
his suicide fleet before it finds you. Hi/res action graphics include; radar, search, 
mapscreen, fighter vs fighter, torpedo & divebomber, bomber vs ship, Kamikaze 
attack, and more. Hit table, repair, ready planes, target data, ship vs ship, Joystick 
option. 4 Levels. 

RAINBOW 

Cassette 7f. . $24.95 



KAMIKAZE I6K EXT — Not as extensive as its big brother but with enough 
'boardgame' strategy to make it more than another shoot-em-up, Using your 12 
ships and 68 fighters, search & destroy Kamikazes. Joystick option, play levels. 

Cassette , $19.95 

ACROSS THE RUBICON I6K EXT or NON EXT — The popular WWII 
wargame. Break thru the Huertgen Forrest using infantry, heavy and light tanks, air 
& artillery strikes Paratroops. Graphics, terrain modifiers, unit designators and 5 
minute conversion instructions for I6K NON EXT. State system when ordering. 

Cassette • $19.95 

From STRICTLY COLOR SOFTWARE 

MISSION EMPIRE! A strategic wargame/strategy game. Starting with one 
planet, incomplete intelligence and limited resources, you must conquer tie rest of 
your galaxy. Play takes 2-5 hours and is DIFFERENT EVERY TIME! All versions of- 
fer GAME SAVE option. Specify 32K disc or I6K-The 32K versions require Extend- 
ed Basic, the 1 6K does not. The disc version is shipped on a cassette with instruc- 
tions for transferring to disk. If you want disc, add $3.00. /f^\ 

RAINBOW 

Cassette T. . . $19.95 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 169 



DRAGON'S BYTE 



Keeping 

The Loathsome 

In Line 

(Better Monster Management) 



By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

I was looking through my local game shop the other day, 
and I couldn't help but notice that there are at least 20 
different fantasy games being sold. While they have their 
differences, there are similiarities between them. In general, 
they are all horribly complex, badly written, and fun to play. 
The fantasy gaming genre is such a good idea that it rises like 
a Phoenix from the ashes of confusion and contradiction. I 
am truly amazed that anyone ever learns to play these 
games. One of the most popular has five (yes, five — count 
them) large, hard-cover books of rules, and fully two of 
these books are devoted to monsters! 

With all of these monsters, it's no wonder I can never 
remember any specifics about a certain one. How many 
times does it attack? How much damage can it do? How 
tough is its skin? How fast (or common, or large, or smart) is 
it? Look it up — that's what I have to do. 

The other day it came to me in a vision that I had a 
computer, and that it could be possible to keep track of one 
or two hundred monsters, somehow, inside the computer's 
capacious memory banks. ( I hope their claws don't catch on 
the wires!) It seems to me that if the phone company can 
keep track of everyone in the world on their computer, I 
should be able to handle a few dragons and such on mine. 

As I thought about this, I came up with a list of require- 
ments for the program: 

1) It had to be simple enough for me to understand; 

2) It had to be easy to add monsters; and 

3) It had to be able to sort the monsters by any criteria I 
wanted. 

Number one was automatic — if I wrote it it would have to 
be simple enough for me to understand. Number two could 
be solved by putting each monster in its own DA TA line. In 
this way, new monsters could be added by simply adding 
another DATA line to the end of the program. 

Number three was a little more complex. Before I could 
solve this one, I had to decide what information I would 
store about each monster. I came up with the following: 
name, size, hit dice, armor class, number of attacks, damage 
per attack, special attacks, special defenses, magic resist- 
ance, intelligence, and alignment. That was II things all 




together, and what I wanted was a program that would call 
up a monster by name, or would call up — one after the 
other — all large monsters, or all small, or all with six hit 
dice, or all with poison, or all with armor class lower than 
two, or . . . well, you get the idea. 

At this point I could see that the program itself was going 
to be fairly short. Most of the space was going to be for 
DA TA. To accomplish the above goals, I needed to be able 
to search the DA TA on any one of the 1 1 criteria, and print 
any matches to either the screen or printer (or both). This 
record-keeping was starting'to look easy, and 1 began to see 
how even the phone company could do it. I would need a 
menu asking the menu which criteria they wanted to search, 
and then, depending on their choice, I would have to get the 
target values. If you are new to searches, let me explain 
about targets. Suppose 1 have a mailing list, and I want to 
print out all the people named Smith. Smith becomes the 
target, and I go through the list one record at a time and 
compare the last name of the person to the Target. If the 
person's name happens to be Smith, then the search string 
will match the target, and the computer will do whatever you 
told it to do when this happend. 

I wanted to be able to search for not only a specific target, 
but also for a specified range, and that was the hard part, 
since some of my targets would be strings and others would 
be numbers. I decided that the easiest way to do this would 
be to have two completely separate search sections. Next 
month I will give you the complete program. 

This type of program is very flexible. If you don't like 
monsters, you could use it to keep track of a mailing list, or a 
collection, or most any kind of information. This kind of a 
program is called a data base, and I will tell you how to 
modify this one for various uses. Keeping the data in DA TA 
lines is not the best way to handle a data base, but it is easy to 
use and understand, and you can switch to another system as 
your needs become more sophisticated. 

As usual, let me know right away if I forgot anything 
important. I look forward to seeing many of you in Chicago 
at Rainbowfest. 

. ^ 



170 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



"WANNA FIND OUT 
WHAT FUN REALLY IS?" 

THE Kl ND OF EXCITEMENT YOU GET OUT OF YOUR SYSTEM DEPENDS ON 

WHAT GAMES YOU PUT I NTO IT. 

If You Want to Find Out What it's Like to Use your Computer to its Fullest....Then These are the Games 
You'll Need! for your trs-so color computer 

DunkeyMunkey 

32K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 





RAINBOW 

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ON THIS SCREEN: 

Pop the Rivets and Fight Fires 



ON THIS SCREEN: 
Jump Barrels and Ride the Elevator 



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the rules to this game' As game 
progresses so does the diffi- 
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Cassette $24.95 

Diskette $29.95 

ULTRA-FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE ■ HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS ■ SPECTACULAR SOUND EFFECTS 



STRRFIR€ 

16K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 




Plays like popular arcade game 
Defender™ including: 

• Hyperspace 

• Smart Bombs 

• Radar Scanner 

Cassette $21.95 

Diskette $26.95 

IntEllEC trnnics 

22 Churchill Lane 
Smithtown, N.Y. 11787 
(516) 543-6642 



Ltd 



RAINBOW 

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Give your Color Computer 
a New Image! 




DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



SCREEN - 64 

64 Characters X 32 Lines 
Upper & Lower Case 

16K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 



1. Load in SCREEN-64 

2. Type EXEC 

3. You're Back in BASIC with a 64 x 32 
Screen plus.... 

FEATURES: 

• Slow/Fast Scroll Selectable 

• Window Capabilities 

• Text & Graphic on same screen 

• Superscript/Subscript 

• Reverse Screen/Reverse Video 

• No Hardware Modification Needed 

Cassette $19.95 

Diskette $24.95 



We pay all shipping. All orders shipped in 
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PRINT #-2, 

of programs by others are allowed. 

We expect the simulation contest will be a lot of fun. The 
top winning programs will be published in the Rainbow. 
Other winners may be included in a book. 

And speaking of books, we plan to announce shortly the 
publication of our first book, the Rainbow Adventure 
Book. It will contain all the winning Adventures from our 
recent contest. This is in response to requests from many of 
you for a compilation of all the winning programs from our 
recent contest. 

In the way of finally, I have received a couple of letters in 
recent weeks asking whether we plan to have a reader service 
card available in the Rainbow. My initial reaction is "no." 
And the reasons why are simple: 

First of all, readerservice is slow. If you are interested in a 
product, you are interested in it now, not six weeks from 
now. In fact, reader service — to my mind, anyway — is more 
a service to a publication than to the readers (or the 
advertisers). Let's face it, a lot of people who really aren't 
very interested in a product will check a reader service card. 
But, it does make the magazine look good to the advertiser 
to deliver a lot of names and addresses. 

No matter if it takes four to five weeks to deliver those 
names. And, while that does notservethereaderparticularly 
well, it does serve the magazine. I think it is self-serving. 

But it is also expensive. And that is the other reason we 
have not offered reader service cards. 

First, it is expensive for the magazine to print such cards, 
and to operate the reader service system — especially when it 
is contracted to an outside firm, as most are. Who pays for 
that? Not the magazine. And not the advertiser. You do. 
Through increased prices for products. 

In addition to that direct expense, the advertiser then 
must mail something to everyone who fills out a reader 
service card. And, remember, that message arrives five to six 
weeks after the person has expressed an interest. 

We get reader service from several of the publications in 
which we advertise the Rainbow. First of all, response is low 
(if someone is interested, he or she will usually write direct). 
Second of all, we see a great deal of repitition — the same 
persons checking the cards over and over again. And third, 
we see evidence a great number of people check every single 
entry on the card. 

In sum, we think the reader service card is a slow way to 
request information; that it drives up the price of products; 
and that it is often used more as an advertising selling tool 
than as a service to readers. 

But, maybe we're all wet. As always, if you — our readers — 
think a reader service card is that important, then we will 
certainly consider instituting one. I would, as always, 
welcome your input into the issue. 

— Lonnie Falk 

| RAIN BO Wfest 
\ Chicago April 22-24 



Hackers ' Helper . . . 

Canadian Offset 

Edgar Poulin, of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, offers a 
method of using an offset in loading machine language 
programs to disk if this is to be different from the SA VEM 
location. "Instead of calculating the offset, I let my 80C do 
the hard work." 

Ed's method: 

A — If the new location is to be in higher memory than the 
old. 

LOADM "Filename", (new start address - old start 
address) 
Examples: 

LO/4Z)A/"NAME", (&H7000-&H3C75) 
LOADM "NAME", (28672-15477) 

Both will work. 

B — If the new location is to be lower in memory than the 
new. 

LOADM "Filename", (new start address - old start 

address + 65536 
LOADM "NAME", (&H3C75-&H7000) + 65536 
LOADM "NAME", (15477-28672) + 65536 

Again, both will work. 

Use the last number in decimal as 80C will not recognize 
&HI0000 (which is 65536). If anyone insists on only hex, 
65536 can be replaced with &HFFFF + &H1. 

Another little item Ed offers will interest those with a disk 
system in merging and running two programs. 

M ERGE"FILE NAME", R 

"This command will merge the two programs together 
and automatically run them. It is great for header listings to 
the printer," explains Ed, adding that "it is these little 
unknowns that make the 80C a pleasure to work with." 



Hint... 

LISTEN UP 

So, you've got an 10 error on the first save of your favorite 
program, and you can't remember how far in the second 
save is. What to do? Just keep typing CLOAD until the 
second save finally comes up? Steve Lipps of Circle City 
Software has a better idea. If you put a little space between 
your saves, as many of us do, then you can listen for the 
second save. Says Steve, "Just use A UDIO ON: MOTOR 
ON and listen for the silent space. Then you can use 
MOTOR OFF. Even faster than MOTOR OFFis to hit any 
key and then ENTER, creating a syntax error which will 
stop the recorder." Then CLOAD the second save. 

Of course, this isn't something you want to do every time 
you load the program, so use the tape recorder counter and 
note where the first save ends. Now, with the "record" and 
the "play" buttons down, start from the beginning of the 
tape and use MOTOR CWuntil you reach the same spot and 
stop by creating a quick syntax error. This will erase the 
entire listing; it was bad anyway, right? 



172 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



r 





PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-1 00 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 1 6K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



DISK UTILITIES 






The Disk Manager 

If you use a disk drive you NEED this program! It does more 
than any other disk utility. You can use it to rebuild a crashed 
disk easily - two different ways. You can also print a SUPER 
DIRECTORY for a disk that contains such information as 
program size, which granules are used, and the start, end, and 
execute addresses for machine language programs. It will 
also print a menu on the screen for a disk in the drive, and 
when you indicate your choice it will load and either RUN or 
EXEC the program foryou asappropriate. In addition, itcodes 
your files by DATE, and it codes your disks by NAME and 
NUMBER. And, it creates and maintains a file of all your disks 
(and the programs on them) which you can sort and print as 
needed. You can sort a collection of up to 300 disks. Could 
you use a printed list of EVERY program in your collection, in 
alphabetical order? This list tells you which disk has the 
program youneedsoyoucanfindit easily, andallthisisonly 
the beginning. There are so many features we have no space 
to mention them all. Both the 16K and 32K versions are 
included, and we suggest you place a copy of the program on 
every diskette for quick access. You will wonder how you got 
along without this beauty!! Full, easy to follow instructions. 
Requires a disk drive. $29.95 




Monsters & 

The most realistic fantasy role-playing game yet for the 
Color Computer. You start out by rolling up your character's 
basic ability scores and buying equipment. When you are 
ready it's into the dungeon. Your character starts at first 
level, but can rise in levels by garnering experience in the 
fray. If you have role-played fantasy games you wi' 1 be 
amazed at the realism of the combat system. Armor ( ss, 
initiative, and damage by weapon type are all incl 1 3d, 
with over 50 different monsters to fight - each with iff vn 
abilities. As you rise in level you can win treasure an . id 
magic weapons and spells - if you live!! You set the e 
length by telling how many monsters you want to \ jht 
before you reach your final battle to the death against the 
powerful Dungeon Lord. There are 1 0004- place descrip- 
tion combinations in this text based game, and real excite- 
ment in every one! This is a fantasy simulation, and is truly 
not like any adventure game you have ever seen. For 1 
player; requires 32K extended BASIC. TAPE • $19.95, 
DISK - $24.95 



NEW THIS MONTH 
The Disk Master 

This helpful addition to your library performs a whole list of 
great functions. We've seen programs selling for just as 
much that do only one or two of these things, and the 
whole thing is menu driven for ease of use. It provides a 
speed check and adjustment function to get your drives 
into perfect adjustment. It moves programs from tape to 
disk — or disk to tape — or from one drive to another — all 
effortlessly. It prints a directory — with machine language 
addresses — to the screen or printer. It gives you two 
different disk maps. One shows which sectors are used in 
each gran, and the other shows which grans are available. 
It even gives you a way to easily purge a number of files 
from a crowded disk. Why buy a different program for 
every function, when this does so much? Requires a disk 
drive. $24.95 



Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping 
free on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 6% 
sales tax. Orders shipped within two days. 



Astrology 

Truly a classic, this program will accurately cast your 
complete horoscope. You just enter the date, time, and 
place of birth. The sun sign, rising sign, mid heaven (MC), 
lunar nodes, and planetary influences including houses 
and aspects between the planets will all be calculated, and 
a full chart drawn. You can also do progressed charts and 
transits. It will even tell you the day of the week you were 
born. The accompanying book will help you interpret this 
chart of your horoscope. The extent of the documentation 
is tremendous, even by our exceptionally high standards, 
and no previous knowledge of the subject is required. You 
can share in this wisdom which has been used for thou- 
sands of years in many cultures. This program was written 
by a professional Astrologer. Please specify 1 6K or 32K 
system. $34.95 tape — $39.95 disk 



Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Send Order To PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9822 E. Stella Road 
Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 



DISK UTILITY 



Learning To Live With A 

One Disk System 

By Melvin Hefter 



After working, with large and medium size computer 
systems for many years, I know that one never configures a 
computer system with only one disk drive. Even if the total 
on-line storage capacity is not required, ease of disk backup 
makes an extra drive worthwhile. With this knowledge in 
hand, when I got my Color Computer I got it with only one 
disk drive. I knew I could always expand later. 

As I read through the disk manual, I saw that there was a 
backup capability provided, even for single disk systems. 
My disk backup problems were solved! I would just 
routinely use this capability to protect myself. I had only a 
few files on my first disk. I put in the command BACKUP 0 
and was told to put in my source disk. A few whirls of the 
disk and I was told to put in the destination disk. That 
seemed fair enough. A few more whirls of the disk and it told 
me again to put in the source disk. But wait a minute! I know 
my 32K machine can hold all I had on that source disk at one 
time. I dutifully complied, and complied, and complied for 
six cycles. Then it became obvious that the BACKUP 
command must be doing a physical copy; that is, copyingall 
parts of the disk whether used or not, as opposed to a logical 
copy of just the used areas. The physical copy is a valuable 
capability for disks which may be used in a nonstandard 
manner, but I would have liked to have had the other option 
for my few files. 

Being human and recognizing that my disk drive was 
quite reliable, I soon got out of the habit of routinely 
backing up my disks as often as I should. And then, of 
course, I had my first disk I/O error. Not only could I not get 
the file I wanted, I could not list the disk contents with the 
DIR command. I licked my wounds and went back to my 
now too-old backup disk and started to redo what I lost. 

I soon found out that when disk I/O errors occur they 
tend to come in bunches. I got the connection, turned off my 
computer, disconnected all of the connections, reconnected 
them, and my problems went away. Not only did I find that 
most of my disk problems were connector related, I also 
found that when I had a problem, it almost always resulted 



in the disk directory being damaged and the total disk 
content becoming inaccessible. 

Time to go back to the disk manual for some serious 
study. I found that the control and index information is 
contained in track 17 of the disk. I also found that only 
sectors 2-1 1 (out of a total of 18 sectors) were used for the 
needed information and that the rest of the sectors were 
reserved for future use. But I figured that while I was waiting 
for that future use I might get some benefit from those 
unused sectors now. Why not duplicate the directory 
information in those unused sectors so they can be reclaimed 
if the real directory information becomes unreadable? 

Sector 2 of track 17 contains a file allocation table 
showing which granules on the disk are used and how they 
are related to each other. I could duplicate this in unused 
sector I. The other nine sectors (3-11) contain such 
information as the file name and type. 1 have only seven 
sectors of track 17 available (12-18) so two sectors will go 
unduplicated. Actually, this is not a problem since all nine 
sectors of directory information would be used only with a 
full disk and no files taking up more than one granule. The 
56 files which can be kept in seven sectors have been plenty 

I generally use the VERIFY ON command so that I know 
when I have a problem as soon as possible. The program I 
use for duplicating and restoring the needed directory 
information is a simple one that I run in a few seconds 
whenever I add a file to my disk or make any significant 
changes. A RUN command duplicates the information. 
When I have a problem and the DI R command results in an 
I/O error, a RUN 100 command will restore the directory to 
its configuration during the last run of this program. If the 
D/R works OK, do not use this recovery procedure. Just 
accept the loss of one file. I keep a copy of this program on 
each of my disks so that it is easily available for running and 
always conveniently available when I have a problem. 

This procedure is not perfect and will not guarantee total 
recovery of all data. If a file has been changed since the last 
run of the program, you may lose the last few lines or end up 
with garbage at the end. If you have a bad sector in the data 
file, that file may be unrecoverable, but the rest of the disk 
will be accessible. If you actually have a bad spot on the disk 
on the directory track, as opposed to just a bad disk write, it 
may not work. I also supplement this procedure with some 
common sense precautions like storing important files on 
more than one disk, treating the disks with the kind of gentle 
treatment they do require, keeping my connections clean, 
and using the BACKUP command to produce total 
duplicates of disks I cannot afford to lose. 

1 have found that an imperfect procedure used frequently 
is better than a perfect procedure that I do not use! 

( Mr. Hefter ispresident of Custom Software Engineer- 
ing of Cocoa Beach, Florida.) / ^ 
— 



EPROM PROGRAMMER 1K-16K X Q 

PLUGS INTO CAR. SLOT OF THE 80C <16K). PROGRAM (ML) 
ON CASS. CONTAINS: £RASED~>-PROGRAM-VERI FY -MOVE ROM- 
RAM-EXAM /CHANGE MEM. COMES WITH 5~P.M.'S FOR 1 -8K 
EPROMS IN THE 25/2700 SERIES <5V ONLY) $85. OTHER 
P.M. 'S AVAILABLE FOR 1 6K AND 68700 SERIES FOR t5 EA. 
EPROM ERASER FOR *85 HAS A 44-CHIP CAPACITY. SOON TO 
BE RELEASED, A MONITOR THAT WILL TRACE/SINGLE STEP 
RAM OR ROM' 1 ALSO AVAILABLE 28-24 PIN ADAPTERS FDR 
USING 2764 OR 2564 EPROMS IN THE BASIC OR EX. BASIC 
SOCKET 'S3. 50 / 2-*6 (SPECIFY TYPE). ALLOW 2-WEEKS 
FOR PERSONAL CHECKS TO CLEAR BANK. ADD *2.50 FOR 
POSTAGE . 

INTRONICS P.O. BOX 13723 

(913) 422-2094 EDWARDSV ILLE . KS. 66113 



174 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Color Computer Power! 



DATA FILE 



$24.95 



A unique, multipurpose data storage system. DATAFILE is a 
sophisticated, non-formatted type database, with user-defined 
categories. It performs string searches, deletes, sorts, merges 
and prints in various formats. Using your disk drive, DATAFILE 
works with files larger than available RAM. Save and load files 
from tape or disks. Line edit, change or add data commands. 
Numerically labels all records. Displays remaining memory 
available. DATAFILE is ideal for mailing lists, cataloguing, sales 
files, record systems, etc. Complete documentation, on-screen 
help and a sample file are included. 



DATAFILE 64k 



$29.95 

All the features of the above with much more memory space. 
Ideal for small business applications. Documentation is avail- 
able for $5. and is refundable with your order. 



■ 

: i 
: : 

: :£ * ■ 



: ¥• ¥•■ 



¥■■ 



DISKPRO 



$29.95 

No more crashed disks! This program could be a lifesaver. DISKPRO 
creates back-ups of your disk directory and allocation tables. Disk 
crashes are easily restored with DISKPRO. Also included is INDEX, a 
directory utility program. Both programs come on disk with complete 
documentation. 



¥• ■ 

: ¥■■«¥ ■: 
:•■ •> 

¥ ■¥: 
A * • 

S-4 : 

-> ¥: : 



:•:«■■¥: 
: ¥ ¥ 



Draw electronic circuits with our... 

Electronics 
Drafting Board 

You can design wiring diagrams easily with our Electronics 
Drafting Board. Create complex electronic plans, label com- 
ponents, erase, etc. and then have a finished schematic from 
your printer. Screen print routine and disk I/O included. Comes 
with sample schematic file and excellant documentation. Elec- 
tronics Drafting Board is fun to use and will save you hours of 
work. 

*6 viewing windows on a 480X540 pixel work sheet* Joystick or 
arrow-key control*Text labels components on screen*AII elec- 
tronic symbols*Complete documentation with onscreen help- 
'Prints finished schematic to any Epson MX (with Graftrax) or 
Radio Shack printer*Disk save/load. 

Requirements: 64K Color Computer with Extended Basic, disk 
drive and (optional) printer. $39.95 includes operating manual, 
program on disk, postage & handling. 



•*i.¥ : - 





PAINTPOT 



Bring out the artist in you and your family! With PAINTPOT you can create fast, effortless sketches and 
drawings. PAINTPOTgives you joystickor keyboard control on 4screens.(3screenson 1 6K)Thereare4 
cans of paint to play with! A touch of a key starts animation effects flashing from screen to screen. 
Your works of art can be saved or loaded from cassette or disk and, with our Screen Print Program (see 
below) you can have a hard copy on your printer. PAINTPOT comes with complete documentation and a 
help screen is available. Great fun for kids and creative adults! 

$24.95 on cassette, $29.95 on disk. Both 16 & 32K on the same tape/disk. Extended Basic required. 



¥ ¥¥■¥■ 



¥ ¥ & 
¥; « ¥ 
:¥>:¥ ' ¥ 
■¥ 



$14.95 



SCREEN PRINT 

Foruse with Epson MX-80/100 printers. Threeorintformats, all versionsof Basic, PMODES0,2,3&4. Normalor negative image. 
Complete documentation. Many useful features! 

TTD $14.95 DTT $14.95 

Transfer your programs to disk or tape effortlessly. Allows you to individually select or mass copy programs. 

SPIDER ATTACK $14.95 

Shoot-em up action! Try to stop our invading spiders with your joy-stick controlled laser gun. Watch out you don't get eaten! 

MILLBORN $14.95 

Like to play cards? From France we bring you this popular card game for COCO. Lots of fun! 

BEETHOVEN'S FIFTH $14.95 
WILLIAM TELL OVERTURE $14.95 

You really won't believe the incredible music coming from your Color Computer! "It is without a doubt the best example of computer music I've ever heard." (Color Computer News 
magazine) Now you can enjoy these high quality machine language programs at an affordable price. Specify Beethoven or William Teil when ordering. Two versions, 16 & 32K 
available on the same tape or disk. 




BLACKBOX 



$69.96 each $125.00 for two 



Transmit your programs, machine language, basic or files over the phone. And you don't need a modem! Switch on BLACKBOX and when you load or save a program, you 
automatically have a copy at a friend's house. Two BLACKBOX's are needed, one for each end of the connection. 



STARS 



$19.95 



Educational and entertaining. STARS creates a dome of the night sky on your TV. Constellations, stars and other naked eye objects are drawn using Extended Resolution graphics. 
Horizon views show planet positions after sunset. Detailed documentation. 

COLORSHOW $14.95 

Music, Color and your COCO! Just load in COLORSHOW, connect the small recorder plug to your stereo (or simply put a musical tape in your computer's tape recorder) and watch the 
fun. Having a party? Turn off the room lights and turn up the music. 

Add $1 .50 postage on each software. Programs available on disk for $5. extra. We pay high royalties to software authors. For more information on this or any 
of our products, write! 




Dept. T, 4653 Jeanne Mance St., 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2V 4J5 



J 



■ 

Super "Color" Library 7 

For the TRS-80 Color and TDP System 100 Personal Computers 




No matter what kind of problem you are trying to solve with the 
Color Computer, there is a program in the ever-expanding 
integrated, Super "Color" Library that will give you the solution; 
Faster, Better, Smartert 

Every Library program features MEMORY-SENSE to 

determine your computer's memory, from l6to64K, and adjusts 
automatically to maximize work space. Afl programs, except the 
Super "Color 19 Spelter and Super "Color" Disk-ZAP. feature a true 
lowercase display with below line descenders. Each program has 
been written specifically for the Color Computer in fast machine 
code to be totally compatible for optimum performance — 
Something a motley assortment of programs from diverse 
sources or a passel of overpriced, wailet-FLEXing software from 
a bygone era simply can not achieve. 

The Super "Color" Library has aJI the power, speed, 
dependability and compatibility you will ever need so build your 
library a volume at a time or put the full power of the complete 
library of problem solvers to work right away. 



^ _ NEW — 

fc/VVC) Super "Color" Writer II 



TM 



The Super "Color" Writer 1 1 is for t hose who desi re the best. J t is 
the most powerful, fastest, most dependable and versatile word 
processor available for the Color Computer, from 16 to 64K. The 
Super "Color" Wriler II has features for the most demanding 
professional, yet it is easy enough for newcomers to master 

Of course the Super "Color" Writer II has all the features you 
would expect from the highest quality word processor, such as a 
clear, crisp and readable professional display with yourchoiceof 
display colors, 9 display formats; standard 32x16 & 51-64-85x21 
&24 with real lowercase descenders: full 4^way cursor control, 
sophisticated edit commands, the ability to edit any BASIC 
program or ASCII textfile. seven delete functions, locate and 
change, wild card locate, a reai block move A copy, word wrap- 
around, programmable tabs, display memory used and left, non- 
breakable space, multiple headers and footers, dynamic text 
formatting, comprehensive format parameters, use with ANY 
printer at any baud rate from 1 1 0 to 9600 baud, automatic justifi- 
cation, automatic pagination, automatic centering, automatic 
flush right, underlining, superscripts, subscripts, pause print, 
single-sheet pause, optionally print comments, append text files, 
available in a BOMPAK cartridge for maximum work space, but 
that's only half of the story No other program can even begin to 
compare in features with the Super "Color" 1 Writer II. 



VERSION 3.0 By Tim Nelson 

THE INTELLIGENT WORD PROCESSOR 

.sewhodesire the best ..it is Check These Exclusive Features 

l tl jH pi K I n nn i h n irn t t h lidin rj-4 



MEMORY-SENSE adjusts to computer's memory (16-64K) for 
maximum work space; TYPE-AHEAD. TYPAMATIC KEY 
REPEAT and KEY BEEP for the pros; 3 PROGRAMMABLE 
FUNCTIONS: AUTO PHRASE INSERT; COLUMN CREATION; 
TEXT FILE LINKING; HELP MENU; A TRUE EDITING WINDOW 
IN ALL 9 DISPLAY MODES: TRUE FORMAT WINDOW to 
display line lengths up to 255 characters, with horizontal and 
vertical scrolling to replicate the printed page including centered 
lines, headers, footers, page breaks, page numbers, margins, 
giving a perfect printed document every time. Also makes 
hyphenation a snap; TRUE AUTOMATIC JUSTIFICATION for 
neat, even left and right hand margins; Ability to use 
CHARACTER CODES for printing special characters available 
with your printer; freedom to embed as many PRINTER 
CONTROL CODES as desired anywhere in the text, EVEN 
WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT; 90-plus page tutorial manual. 

ADDITIONAL DISK FEATURES: Read a directory. Display free 
granules, Save with Automatic Verification. Load and Append 
ASCII files, and BASIC programs, Kill files, and Link files from 
disk for continuous printing 54K bytes of workspace available 
with a 64 K system. Only the best offers all of these features. 



TAPE $69.95 ROMPAK $89,95 DISK S99.95 

Tutorial only 115.00 (Reiundable wllh purchase) 
Tape & Disk require 32 K lor lowercase display 
Previous Super "Color" Wilier IE owners call tor upgrade policy 



Super "Color" Mailer ™ 

By Tim Nelson 

The Super 'Color" Mailer is a powerful multi-purpose mailing 
list merging and sorting program including lowercase display 
that uses files created by the Super "Color" Writer II. Combine 
files, sort and print mailing lists, print "Boilerplate" documents, 
automatically insert text in standardized forms H address 
envelopes, the list is endless. 

TAPE $39.95 DISK $59.95 

Operators Manual only $10 00 (Refundable with purchase) 



Super "Color" Speller™ 

V? — ^ By Peter A. Stark 

The Super Xolor" Speller is a fast machine-code proofreading 
program to correct Super "Color" Writer files Automatically 
proofreads your documents against a 20,000 word stock 
dictionary, plus your own customized dictionary and corrects 
typos or marks them for special attention 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $69.95 

Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 



NELSON SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 9072 Lyndale Avenue So., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 612/881-2777 



1 



32x1 6 & 51 -64-85x21 &24 Display -i /% CA\£ 
With Lowercase Descenders And I O Thru O^rlxToo! 

/i r^W)Super "Color" Calc™ Super "Color" Terminal™ 



^eVf)Super "Color" Calc™ 

\|^_^/ ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEET By Kevin Herrboldl 
Now you can answer those "What if?" financial projection, 
forecasting, budgeting, engineering and calculating questions 
with precision, speed and power using the Super "Color" Calc, 
truly the finest electronic worksheet and financial modeling 
program available for the Color Computer, from 16 to 64K, Now 
every Color Computer owner has access .to a calculating and 
planning tool rivaling VisiCalc 1 ? containing ail its features and 
commands and then some. You need only change one variable 
and you instantly see how that change affects your assumptions 
You can even use VisiCalc templates freely with Super "Color*' 
Catcl Combine spread sheet tables with Super "Color 1 ' Writer II 
documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and 
financial reports and budgets. 

Features include; 9 display formats; standard 32x16 & 51-64- 
85x21&24 with real lowercase descenders * MEMORY-SENSE to 
adjust to computer's memory (16-64K) for maximum workspace; 
Full-size 63x256 worksheet " Easy to use * HELP Menus to make 
learning faster * Machine code speed and high precision ' Total 
flexibility in calculating * Up to FOUR VIDEO DISPLAY 
WINDOWS to compare and contrast results of changes * Sine 
and Cosine functions, Averaging, Exponents, Algebraic 
functions, and base 10 or 16 entry " Multi-layered Column and 
Row Ascending and Descending sorts * Locate formulas or titles 
in fields * Easy entry, replication and biock moving of frames " 
Global or Local column width control up to 81 characters each ' 
Create titles of up to 255 characters * Typamatic Key Repeat * 
Key beep " Type-ahead ' Print up to 132 column worksheet * 
Prints at any baud rate from 1 10 to 9600 * Print formats savable 
along with worksheet * Enter, control codes for customized 
printing, 

DISK FEATURES: Read a directory; Display free granules; Kill 
files, Save with Automatic Verification; Load files; Append disk 
files for complete worksheet printing, 54K bytes of worksheet 
space available with a 64K system. 

Tutorial and sample templates are supplied with the program. 
ROMPAK $89.95 DI5K $99.95 

Tutorial only S15.QQ (Refundable with purchase) 

Disk requires 32 K lor lowercase display - 

Super "Color" Disk-ZAP™ ( 

By Tim Nelson 

Now the dreamed-of repair of I/O errors is a reality. The Super 
"Color" Disk-ZAP'" is the ultimate repair utility for simple and 
quick repair of ail repairable disk errors. Designed with the non- 
programmer in mind, the Super Color Disk-ZAP " will let you 
retrieve all types ot bashed files, including BASIC and Machine 
Code programs. 

This high-speed machine code disk utility has a special dual 
cursor screen display to show HEXIDECIMAL and ASCII 
displays simultaneously. You are able to; Verify or modify disk 
sectors at will " Type right onto the disk to change unwanted 
program names or prompts * Send sector contents to the printer 
or any Other RS-232 device * Search the entire disk for any 
grouping of characters " Copy sectors " Backup tracks or entire 
disks * Repair directory tracks and smashed disks ' Full 
prompting to help you every step of the way * 50-plus page 
Operators Manual which helps you simply and quickly fix the vast 
majority of disk errors, and teaches the rudiments of disk 
structure and repair. 

AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $49.95 

Operators Manual only $10,00 (Refundable with purchase) 



NELSON 

SOFTWARE 

SYSTEMS 




9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 612/681-3777 



A Division ol Scltlaw Corporation Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 U. S. A. 

TRS-ao is a trademark of Tandy Corp. Visicalc is a trademark of VisiCorp. 

WE TAKE THE COLOR COMPUTER SERIOUSLY. 
AUTHORS 1 SUBMISSIONS ARE ENCOURAGED. 



THE FINEST TERMINAL PROGRAM ANYWHERE! 

Version 3.0 By Dan Nelson 

The best has become even better, with many new features 
including 9 display formats: 32x16 & 51-64-85x21&24 with real 
lowercase descenders, plus compatibility with the 64 K Color 
Computer, This user-friendly program makes communicating 
with ANY computer a breeze even for a newcomer. Communicate 
using your modem with all the popular information services such 
as Dow Jones, Compuserve, The Source, and local BBS's, clubs, 
friends, or the main-frame at work. You can aiso communicate 
directly with other microcomputers, such as the TRS-80 l/l 1 1, II, 
Other Color Computers. Apples. IBM PCs. etc., via RS-232 
without using a modem, Save the information or PRINT IT 1 
FEATURES: MEMORY-SENSE to adjust to computer's memory 
{ 1 6-64K) for maximum work space; Selectively print data at baud 
rates from 1 10 to 9600 * 54K of data storage with 64K disk system 
128 character ASCII keyboard * Automatic graphics mode * 
Word mode (word wrap) for unbroken words * Send & receive 
Super "Color 1 ' Writer II, Dalabase fi Calc files. ASCII files, 
Machine Language & BASJC programs " Set communications 
baud rate from 110 to 9600. Duplex: Halt/Full/Echo. Word length: 
5 6 7 or 8. Parity: Odd/Even or None, Stop Bits 1-9 + Local 
linefeeds to screen * Save and load ASCII fifes, Machine Code & 
BASIC programs " Unique CLONE feature for copying any tape L 
Lower case masking * 10 Keystroke Multiplier (MACRO) bullers 
to perform repetitive pre-entry log-on tasks and send short 
messages * Programmable prompt or delay for send next line " 
Selectable character trapping 1 Files compatible with other 
Library programs, 

ADDITIONAL DISK FEATURES: Works with up to four Disk 
Drives; Call a directory. Pnni free space, Kill disk files. Save wilh 
Automatic Verication and Load textfiles or BASIC programs; 
Save and Load KSMS to the disk. 

TAPE $49.95 ROMPAK $59.95 DISK $69.95 

Operators Manual only Si 0.00 (Refundable wilh purchase) 
Previous Super "Color" Terminal owners call lor upgrade policy. 

^Super "Color" Database™ 

^/ By Dan Nelson 

— ""i his high speed machine language program including (rue 
lowercase displays fills all your information management needs, 
be they for your business or home. Inventory, accounts, mailing, 
lists, family histories, you name it. the Super ' Color" Database 
will keep track of all your data 

The Super "Color 11 Database features MEMORY-SENSE to 
adjust to computer s memory (16-64K) for maximum work space 
It is structured in a simple and easy to understand menu system 
with full prompting for easy operation Your data is stored in 
records of your own design, each divided into as many fields as 
you need. All files are fully indexed for speed and efficiency Kill 
sort of records is provided for easy listing of names, figures, 
addresses, etc, in ascending or descending order. The math 
package performs arithmetic operationsand updates other fields 
which is especially useful when used as an order entry and 
invoicing system You can create reports, or lists for mailings, or 
whatever. Create files compatible with the Super "Color" Writer II 
and Terminal. Up to five different print formats are available, and 
controi codes may be imbedded for customized printing 
AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY $79.95 
Operators Manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 

For Orders ONLY Call Toll F ree 

3S 1-800-328-2737 S 

Customer service and product support call (612) 881-2777. 

MAIL ORDERS: 53 U.S. Shipping {$4 CANADA, $\Q OVERSEAS) 
Personal checks allow 3 weeks. ORDERS SHIPPED SAME DAY! 

Available at Dealers everywhere. 
If your Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 



TUTORIAL 









16K 




mmmm 

RAINBOW 






_7." «-L 



Everything You Wanted To Know About Hex. 



By Jim Schmidt 



One of the more difficult concepts in the world of 
computers is that old devil — Hex! The fact that most of us 
were born with only ten fingers and toes seems to make 
grasping the concept of another number base more difficult 
than it should be. Over the years it has sometimes fallen to 
me to instruct novices in programming on this subject. Most 
professional programmers have their share of trouble with 
Hex. 

The program I offer here is a BASIC version of one I 
wrote in COBOL several years ago. Basically, it allows the 
confused to "play" with Hexadecimal numbers at whatever 
pace is most comfortable. Coupled with independent 
reading on number bases and Hex in particular, it lets the 
concepts involved show themselves through 
experimentation. It's about as painless a way as I've ever 
found to investigate and learn about Hex. It can even be fun! 

I suggest that in addition to running the "Hexerciser" that 
the logic of the program, and especially the two conversion 
commands, be studied. That, plus additional reading on the 
subject, should eliminate any Hex "hex" that may plague 
you. 

For those of you who will be keying this program in, let 
me first suggest that you take advantage of the bargain of the 
century and subscribe to Rainbow on Tape. Now, while 
you're waiting for your first tape, let me save you a little 
trouble. The following lines are mostly cosmetic and can be 
ignored: 

Line 40 

Lines 20000 through the end of the program 
Have fun... 



200 
400 
700 
1000 
1300 
1500 
1800 
8000 
17000 
63005 
END 



01EE 

0435 

06BE 

0986 

0E06 

1107 

1503 

18A5 

1C27 

1F4D 

25EA 



The listing: 

10 ' HEXERCISER 

20 ' COPYRIGHT (C) 1982 J.J. SCH 
MIDT 

30 ' ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



40 GOSUB20000 
50 GOSUB 10000 
100 CLS: PRINT" 
I M A L" 




H E X A D E C 



110 PRINT 

120 PR I NT " HEXADECIMAL OR 'HEX' A 
S IT IS" 

130 PR I NT " USUALLY CALLED IS A BA 
SE 16" 

140 PR I NT " NUMBER SYSTEM ADOPTED 
BY MOST" 

150 PR I NT "COMPUTER SYSTEMS AS A 
HANDY WAY" 

160 PR I NT " TO DEAL WITH THE ARCHI 
TECTURE" 

170 PR I NT "OF COMPUTERS THAT USE 
THE 8 BIT" 

180 PR I NT "BYTE AS A UNIT OF STOR 
AGE. ": PRINT 

190 PR I NT "THE BYTE HAS 8 BITS. 
EACH BIT" 

200 PR I NT "CAN HAVE A VALUE OF '0 

» OR '1'" 

210 PRINT" * 0*»*OFF* AND *l'-'ON' 
■ 

220 PRINT" <ANY KEY>" 

230 P*«INKEY*:IF P*«"" THEN 230 
235 S0UND234,1 

240 CLS : PR I NT "THE BYTE LOOKS LIK 



178 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



E this: ": PRINT 

250 PRINT"P08-> 7 6 5 4 3 2 
1 0" 

260 PRINT"BIT-> X X X X X X 
X X' 0 

270 PR I NT " VAL— > 1 28—64—32— 1 6-8 — 4 
— 2 — 1" 
280 PRINT" 

290 PR I NT "EACH X REPRESENTS A BI 
T IN" 

300 PR I NT "THE BYTE AND THEY ARE 
NUMBERED" 

310 PR I NT "FROM 0 TO 7 AND FROM R 
IBHT TO" 

320 PR I NT "LEFT. BY ADDING THE V 
ALLIES" 

330 PRINT"CF THE "ON* BITS, IT C 



360 PR I NT "HOLD ANY VALUE FROM 0- 



370 PRINT" <ANY KEY>" 

380 P*-INKEY*:IF P*-"" THEN380 
385 S0UND234, 1 

390 CLS: PR I NT "HERE IS A DEMO OF 
THIS. " 

400 PRINT "ENTER ANY VALUE FROM 0 
TO 255" 

410 PRINT" AND I'LL SHOW YOU HOW 
IT LOOKS" 

420 PRINT" IN A BYTE." 

430 INPUT" (0 TO 255) "| A 

440 IF A<256 THEN 808UB 8000 EL8 

E GOTO 430 

445 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

PRINT"POS-> 7 6 5 4 3 2 
1 0" 

PRINT"BIT-> X X X X X X 
X X" 

570 PR I NT" VAL- > 128-64-32- 16-8 — 4 
— 2 — 1" 

600 IF B<1)-1 THEN POKE 1318, 49E 
LSE POKE 1318,48 

610 IF B(2)-l THEN POKE 1321,49 

ELSE POKE 1321,48 

620 IF B(3)-l THEN POKE 1324,49 

ELSE POKE 1324,48 

630 IF B(4)-l THEN POKE 1327,49 

ELSE POKE 1327,48 

640 IF B<5)-1 THEN POKE 1330,49 

ELSE POKE 1330,48 

650 IF B(6)-l THEN POKE 1333,49 

ELSE POKE 1333,48 

660 IF B(7)-l THEN POKE 1336,49 

ELSE POKE 1336,48 

670 IF B(B)-1 THEN POKE 1339,49 

ELSE POKE 1339,48 

675 PR I NT "AGAIN???" 

680 P*- I NKE Y* : I FP*- " " THEN680 

685 I FP«< > " Y " ANDP*< >"N" THEN680 

690 80UND234, 1 



695 IFP*-"Y"THEN390 

700 CLS : PR I NT "SO MUCH FOR THE BY 

TE. " 

710 PR I NT " ONWARD WITH HEX.":PRIN 
T 

720 PRINT" JUST AS A BYTE CAN CON 
TAIN ANY" 

730 PR I NT "VALUE FROM 0 TO 255 (2 
56 VALUES) — DON'T FORGET 0 — " 
740 PRINT"HEX NEEDS TO REPRESENT 
16" 

750 PR I NT "VALUES, I.E. 0 TO 15." 
760 PRINT"SINCE DECIMAL HAS ONLY 
10" 

770 PR I NT "SYMBOLS FOR NUMBERS (0 
-9) , " 

780 PR I NT "HEX EXTENDED THE SYMBO 
LS BY" 

790 PRINT" ADDING A THRU F TO 0 T 
HRU 9." 

800 PRINT" <ANY KEY>" 

810 P*-I NKE Y* : I FP*- " » THEN8 1 0 
815 S0UND234, 1 

820 CLS : PR I NT "HERE ARE THE SYMBO 
LS: ": PRINT 

830 PR I NT "HEX SYMBOL- > 0 12 
3 4" 

840 PR I NT " VALUE IS -> 0 1 2 
3 4": PRINT 

850 PR I NT "HEX SYMBOL -> 5 6 7 



GRAND SLAM BRIDGE 




SHARPEN UP YOUR BRIDGE GAME. COM- 
PUTER BIDS YOUR PARTNER'S HAND AND 
PLAYS THE OPPONENT'S HANDS. RAN- 
DOM HANDS DEALT EACH TIME. CARDS, 
TRICKS, BIDS, AND CONTRACT SHOWN 
ON SCREEN. 
32K 



CASSETTE $19.95 ftr^ 

RAINBOW 



8 



STOCK OPTION STRATEGIES 



$ 



DEVISE YOUR OWN STOCK OPTION STRAT- 
EGIES. COVERED OPTIONS, STRADDLES, 
CALLS, AND PUTS. % GAINS AND LOSSES 
VS. FUTURE STOCK PRICES GRAPHED IN 
COLOR. EASY TO USE, NO DATA BASE RE- 
QUIRED, JUST ENTER FROM KEYBOARD. 
MENU DRIVEN. 

16K CASSETTE $1 4.95 

RAINBOW 
i ■*<««. i. * 
11 «t 



SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 



GREENTREE SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 97 
GREENWOOD, IN 46142 





April, 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 79 



8 9" 

860 PRINT "VALUE IS -> 5 6 7 
8 9": PRINT 

870 PR I NT "HEX SYMBOL- > A B 
C" 

880 PR I NT "VALUE IS -> 10 11 1 
2": PRINT 

890 PR I NT "HEX SYMBOL -> D E 
F" 

900 PR I NT "VALUE IS -> 13 14 1 
5": PRINT 

1000 PRINT" <ANY KEY> 



1010 P*-INKEY*: IFP*«""THEN1010 
1015 S0UND234,1 

1020 CLS: PR I NT "JUST AS ANY OTHER 



•i 



1030 PRINT" (10 OR 2 OR??) HEX CA 
N BE" 

1040 PR I NT " ADDED-SUBTR ACTED— MULT 
IPLIED" 

1050 PRINT "DIVIDED OR CONVERTED 
TO " 

1060 PR I NT "SOME OTHER NUMBER BAS 
E. " 

1070 PR I NT "USUALLY, ONLY ADD «c S 
UB ARE" 

1080 PR I NT "USED FOR MOST COMPUTE 
R WORK. 11 

1090 PR I NT "HOWEVER CONVERSION IS 




POOR MAN'S 
FLOPPY 

HIGH SPEED CASSETTE SYSTEM 

Mow for the TRS-80 Color Computer 

The JPC PRODUCTS High Speed Cassette System, in operation 
for over 4 years, is now available for all versions of the Radio 
Shack® Color Computer. 

• TC-8C — Plugs directly into the expansion port of your 
TRS-80 Color Computer. It is fully compatible with all 
versions of the Color Computer from the standard 4K to 
the Extended 32K. 

P\ST — Twice the speed of the Color Computer System. 
RELIABLE — Less than one error in a million bits. - 
SUPPORTS TWO DRIVES — Software selectable. 
ALL FILE TYPES — BASIC, machine language, data. 
MOTOR CONTROL — Two on-board relays. 
EPROM OPERATING SYSTEM 
SfttRE EPROM SOCKET — 27 1 6 or 2732 compatible. 
OPTIONAL JBUG MONITOR — EPROM or Cassette 

• 6809 Assembler • Memory modify and list 

• 6809 Dis-assembler • Break point traps 
ASSEMBLED and TESTED 



TC-8C 



SI 29.95 JBUG (EPROM) 

JBUG (Cassette) .... S29.95 



$34.95 



TERMS: 

Cash, Master Card or Visa 
Shipping & Handling S3.50|US) 
S5.50 (Canada) S J 5.00 
(Foreign) Technical 
Inquiries: Phone 
5.00 - 6:00 PM MST 




A MUST." 
1100 PR I NT " ASSEMBLERS , MONITORS 
AND OTHER 11 

1110 PRINT"UTILITIES DISPLAY AND 

USE HEX. 11 
1120 PRINT "TWO HEX 'NUMBERS' CAN 

REPRESENT" 
1130 PRINT" ANY BIT COMBINATION T 
HAT A BYTE" 

1140 PR I NT "MAY HOLD. *00 - *FF 
= 0 - 255." 

1150 PRINT" <ANY KEY>" 

1160 P*=INKEY*: IFP*=""THEN1160 
1165 S0UND234,1 

1170 CLS : PR I NT "HERE IS A DEMO OF 

COUNTING" 
1180 PRINT"IN HEX." 

1182 PR I NT "PRESS 'P' TO PAUSE TH 
E DISPLAY" 

1183 PR I NT "PRESS 'R' TO RESUME" 
1185 PRINT"PRESS 'X' TO EXIT" 
1190 FOR I=0TO255 

1200 PRINTS 195," — DEC — 

HEX — ": PRINT 

1205 B«»HEX«(I> 

1210 PRINTG227," M JI 

1212 PRINT@244,B* 

1215 FOR II=1TO500:NEXT 

1217 P*=INKEY*:IF P*="P" THEN GO 
SUB 15000 

1218 IF P*="X"THEN 1230 
1220 NEXT 

1230 CLS:PRINT"DID YOU NOTICE TH 
AT WHEN" 

1240 PRINT "THE RIGHT POSITION OF 
THE HEX" 

1250 PR I NT "NUMBER REACHED 'F' TH 
AT A CARRY" 

1260 PR I NT "OCCURRED? HEX 10, TH 
E" 

1270 PR I NT "NUMBER AFTER HEX F, W 
AS THE" 

1280 PR I NT "RESULT OF THE SAME CA 
RRY THAT" 

1290 PRINT"OCCURS IN DECIMAL FRO 
M 9 TO 10." 

1300 PR I NT "OF COURSE HEX 10 - DE 
CIMAL 16." 

1310 PR I NT " ADD I NG 1 TO HEX F (DE 
C 15)" 

1320 PRINT"GIVES HEX 10 (DEC 16) 
. ": PRINT 

1330 PR I NT "NOW ON TO ADD & SUBTR 

ACT IN HEX.": PRINT 

1340 PRINT" <ANY KEY 

>" 

1350 P*=INKEY*: IFP*=""THEN1350 
1355 S0UND234,1 

1360 CLS : PR I NT "THE BEST WAY TO L 
EARN HOW" 



180 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 



COLO* 




^Computers produced after ap- 
proximately October, 1 982 require 
an additional keyboard plug 
adapter — please add $4.95. 




> Affordable Price— Only $69.95. 

> A must have for all serious computerists. 

• Highest quality— U.S. made. 

• Direct replacement— same key layout 

• Professional appearance and operation. 

• Fast, simple installation. 

• Complete instructions included. 

• In stock now. 

AT YOUR FAVORITE DEALER OR DIRECT FROM 




Mark Data Products 



24001 ALICIA PKWY., NO. 226, MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 

We pay shipping onall ordersin the continental U.S. and Canada. Overseasadd $5.00forshippingand handling. Foreign orders 
please remit U.S. funds. California residents, please add 6% sales tax. We accept MasterCard and VISA. We are always looking 
for quality machine language programs. Contact us for details. 



1370 PR I NT " TO ADD/SUB IN HEX IS 
TO WATCH" 

1380 PR I NT "SOMEONE MHO KNOWS HOW 
- IN" 

1390 PR I NT "OUR CASE THAT 'SOMEON 
E" IS" 

1400 PR I NT "THE COMPUTER. HERE I 
S A DEMO" 

1410 PR I NT "OF ADD/SUB THAT LETS 
YOU TRY" 

1420 PR I NT "FOR THE ANSWER BEFORE 
THE" 

1430 PR I NT "COMPUTER ANSWERS .": PR 
INT 

1440 PRINT" <ANY KEY>" 

1 450 P*« I NKEY* : I FP*« " " THEN 1 450 
1455 S0UND234,1 

1460 CLS: PRINT" ADDITION <A> OR S 
UBTRACT I ON <S>?" 

1470 AS*>INKEY*: IFAS*«" "THEN1470 
1475 IF ASfO-A" AND AStO^SMHE 
N1470 

1477 S0UND234,1 
1480 GOSUB 16000 

1482 PR I NT "PRESS 'A' FOR ANSWER" 
: PRINT 

1490 IF AS*»"A" THEN PRINT"A D D 
I T I O N" ELSE PRINT"S U B T R 
ACTION" 



(Dm 





BOOKS & PROGRAMS 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS 
for the TRS-80 Color Computer 
by DON & KURT INMAN 

280 pages $14.95 ♦Si. 25 postage & handling 



SOFTWARE 16K EXTENDED 
New!!! CRYSTAL REVENGE $16.95 

HI-RES Space War game. The first fully controlled 
color in PMODE aiYou must defend the CRYSTAL HOME 
world from the robot attackers. Planet and multicolor 
attackers remain the same color every game. 

STARFIRE $18.95 

Great machine language version of Defenders. Highly 
rated in the Rainbow. Fast action! By Intellectronics 

Software Authors Wanted-Highest Royalties Paid 



$1.25 Per Order 
Postage & 
Handling 

All Orders Receive 
10% Voucher On Order 




OWL-WARE 

P.O. Box 116B 
Mertztown, PA. 
19539 

PA Res. lnclude6%Tax 



1495 PRINT 

1500 PRINT "FIRST FACTOR >"N1*: 

PRINT 

1510 PR I NT "SECOND FACTOR — >"N2* 

1515 PRINT" 

■i 

1517 Q*= I NKEYS : IFQ*= " " THEN1 517 

1518 IFQ*<>"A"THEN1517 

1519 S0UND234,1 

1520 PR I NT " ANSWER IS >"A1* 

1530 PR I NT "AG A IN???" 

1 540 Q*= I NKEY* : I FQ*« " " THEN 1 540 
1550 IFQ*<>"Y" AND Q*<>"N"THEN15 
40 

1555 S0UND234,1 

1560 IFQ*»"Y"THEN 1460 

1570 CLS : PR I NT "HOW DID YOU DO? 

IF THE" 

1580 PR I NT "ANSWER IS SOMETHING L 
ESS THAN" 

1590 PR I NT " GREAT , DON'T GIVE UP! 
HEX IS, " 

1600 PR I NT "AFTER ALL, NOT NATURA 
L TO US" 

1610 PR I NT "WITHOUT 16 FINGERS (0 
R TOES)." 

1620 PRINT"THIS NEXT SECTION WIL 
L HELP." 

1630 PR I NT "NOW WE ENTER THE BRAV 



[DEALERS INQUIRES INVITED 




182 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



E NEW 11 

1640 PR I NT "WORLD OF CONVERSION. 11 
1650 PR I NT " WE COCO OWNERS ARE BL 



1800 PR I NT 11 THE DEC NUMBER IN THE 

().": PRINT 
1810 PRINT" <ANY KEY> 



•i 



•i 



1660 PR I NT" WITH COMPUTERS THAT W 
ILL DO" 

1670 PR I NT "CONVERSION FOR US. M 
ANUAL" 

1680 PR I NT "CONVERSION IS A TAD D 
IFF I CULT" 

1690 PRINT" WITHOUT CONVERSION CH 
ARTS OR" 

1700 PR I NT "OR SOME OTHER AID." 
1710 PRINT" <ANY KEY> 



•i 



1720 P*«XNKEY*:IF P*-" "THEN 1720 
1725 S0UND234,1 

1730 CLS:PRINT"SO, IF YOU HAVEN' 
T ALREADY" 

1740 PRINT "DONE SO. . . " : PRINT 
1750 PR I NT "MEET (FANFARE PLEASE) 
: ": PRINT 

1760 PRINT" HEX*(?>":PR 
INT 

1770 PR I NT "AND ScH????":PRI 
NT 

1780 PR I NT "THE COMMAND: ? HEX*<1 
234) " 

1790 PRINT"WILL RETURN THE HEX V 
ALUE FOR" 



1 820 P*« I NKEY* : I FP*« " " THEN 1 820 
1825 S0UND234,1 

1830 cls:print m the command: ? &h 
abcd will" 

1840 pr i nt " return the dec value 

FOR THE" 

1850 PR I NT "HEX NUMBER AFTER THE 
'KT . ": PRINT 

1860 PRINT'LET'S TRY SOME CONVER 
SIONS. ": PRINT 

1870 PRINT"<H>EX TO DEC OR <D>EC 

TO HEX?" 
1880 Q*»INKEY*:IF Q*=" "THEN1880 
1890 IF Q*<>"H" AND Q*<>"D" THEN 
1880 

1895 S0UND234,1 

1900 IF Q*="H" THEN GOSUB 17000E 

LSE GOSUB 18000 

1910 PR I NT "AGAIN???" 

1 920 Q*« I NKEY* : I FQ*= " " THEN 1 920 

1 930 I FQ*< > " Y " ANDQ*< > " N " THEN 1 920 

1935 S0UND234,1 

1940 IFQ$="Y"THEN 1830 

1950 PRINT" <ANY KEY> 



•i 



2000 Q*- 1 NKE Y* : I FQ*- 11 11 THEN2000 




WEIL FILL YOUR 

MAILBOX WITH BUGS. 

If your idea of a great time is staying up late wrestling with software bugs, 
we can supply you with all you can handle. 

Were DeBug. The company that specializes in 16K Extended Basic CoCo programs 
that don't quite work right. 

People send us programs that are driving them buggy We pick out the most interest- 
ing ones and send them to you. With a J description of where they were going. And 
where they went wrong. (Maybe.) 

if you can fix it, we'll try to sell it. And everyone 
shares the profits. 

Send $9 for a sample cassette of 20 or so buggy 
programs. Or $5 with a program you'd like debugged. 
Or $12 for both. 

114 West Central St. 
Natick, MA 01760 





DEBUG 



April. 1 983 the RAINBOW 1 83 



CoCoDATA Enterprises 

1215 Emeralda Drive • Orlando, Florida 32808 




- * 



^^81 ^Ml ^^fr ^^ft ^Blfc ^b?"'^' ^^Ifc^iBft 

mm ■» *■ 



. . .:,..•. .*. 



All programs require 16K ECB 
"Our prices are low because we are 100% mall order, 
is added to accommodate retailers or distributers". 



.nothing 



"We offer free informational flyers on each of our programs 
prior to purchase -just ask!" 

"Satisfaction guaranteed or your money back!" 

★ ★ ★ ★ ★ The Product Line ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ 
GRAPHICS PROGRAM 

GENERATOR I $11.95 

Let your CoCo write "Syntax perfect" graphics programs for you! 
Boxes, circles, arcs, ellipses, paint, and lines can all be created 
while viewing the graphics screen using the arrow keys and a 
few one-key commands. Use either of four color sets In PMODE3. 
Extra features like "erase", "check remaining strings space" and 
optional grid marker pixels. When your graphics are complete, 
GPG I will write a unique program to tape to duplicate the picture 
you've created. This generated program can be edited, added to, 
or merged like any other! Manual details operation. 

GRAPHICS PROGRAM 

GENERATOR II $16.95 

All the features of GPG I plus characters with a self loading 
machine language module! Includes a binary screen save feature 
to reproduce your graphics with text In a later program. Manual 
includes Assembly Language source listing. 



ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION 
MONITOR $10.95 CIH ;r~ 

Utilize your CoCo to reduce your electric bill! Both text and 
graphic presentations are used to show consumption In either 
dollars or KWH. Extra features include bill projection anytime 
during month and 20 day trend analysis. If you can't measure It, 
you can't manage It! Sixteen page manual Includes listing and 
forms to record data. Printer Is NOT required. 



RAINBOW 

M»l 



HOUSEHOLD BUDGET 
WORKSHEET $ 6.95 

Produces an up-dated monthly financial worksheet without flies, 
yet contractual loans are automatically up-dated with new 
balances and months remaining. Budget categories and variable 
expenses user defined. Includes provisions for variable income 
like commissions, one time expenses and/or Income. Excellent 
manual Includes listing, examples, form to list data. Works with 
any printer. 

■ ■ r%frw- ^ _ M _ RAINBOW 

LLIST-RITE $ 5.95 

Complex, non-commented programs are much easier to follow 
after using this listing utility! Multiple statements and IF. . . 
THEN. . .ELSE statements are logically separated, line numbers 
are set apart from text, page boundries are observed. Works 
with any printer; complete, easy to understand Instruction sheet 
included. 

★ ★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★*** 

Each program ordered must include 75$ for Shipping and 
Handling. 

Our version of concentration with some special 



surprises. 

DKHSMSKSTr IFIM18 Our computer version of the artillery- 
man's ancient problem of hitting a target you can't see. 



2010 CLS: PR I NT " REVIEW MENU:":PRI 
NT 

2020 PR I NT " ENTER- " : PR I NT 

2030 PR I NT "1 -ENTIRE HEXERCISER" : 

PRINT 

2040 PRINT"2-FR0M COUNTING SECT I 
ON": PRINT 

2050 PRINT"3-FR0M ADD/SUB SECT 10 
N": PRINT 

2060 PR I NT " 4— FROM CONVERSION SEC 
TION": PRINT 

2070 PR I NT "5— END HEXERCISER" : PRI 
NT 

2080 PR I NT "YOUR CHOICE ???" 
2090 Q*=INKEY*:IF VAL(Q*> <>1 AN 
D VAL(Q*)<>2 AND VAL(Q*)<>3 AND 
VAL(Q*><>4 AND VAL(Q«><>5 THEN 2 
090 

2092 Q=VAL(Q*> 

2100 ON Q GOTO 2110,1170,1460,18 
60,2120 

2105 GOTO 2100 
2110 RUN 
2120 END 
7900 STOP 

7999 STOP 

8000 h=a:b(1)=0:b(2)=0:b(3)-0:b< 
4)-0:B(5)-0:B(6)-0:B(7)-0:b<8)-0 



9000 


IF 


A=>128 THEN B<1> 


■1 


9010 


IF 


B(l)-1 THEN A-A- 


12 


9020 


IF 


A=>64 THEN B<2>- 


1 


9030 


IF 


B(2)«l THEN A-A- 


64 


9040 


IF 


A->32 THEN B<3>« 


1 


9050 


IF 


B(3)-l THEN A-A- 


32 


9060 


IF 


A*>16 THEN B<4)« 


1 


9070 


IF 


B(4)-l THEN A-A- 


16 


9080 


IF 


A=>8 THEN B(5)-l 




9090 


IF 


B(5)-l THEN A-A- 


8 


9100 


IF 


A=>4 THEN B(6)-l 




9110 


IF 


B(6)-l THEN A-A- 


4 


9120 


IF 


A->2 THEN B(7)-l 




9130 


IF 


B(7)-l THEN A-A- 


2 


9140 


IF 


A»l THEN B(8)-l 




9150 


RETURN 





10000 CLS: PRI NTQ 102, "H E X 
I S E R" 

1 00 1 0 PR I NTQ232 , " COP YR I GHT 



E R C 



(C) 1 



10020 
T 

10030 

10040 

0090 

10050 

15000 

ETURN 

16000 

) 

16010 
N2-S1 



PRI NTG264, "JAMES J. SCHMID 

PRINTQ296, " 196 A ARLENE CT. 
PR I NTG328, "WHEELING, IL. 6 

FOR I-1TO1500: NEXT: RETURN 
R*«INKEY*:IF R*«"R" THEN R 
ELSE 15000 

Nl-RND (32000) : N2-RND ( 16000 

IF NKN2 THEN S1-N1:N1-N2: 
Sl-0 



184 th« RAINBOW April. 1983 



0 



JOYSTICKS 

DEALER & CLUB INQUIRIES INVITED 



^ COME SEE US 
AT THE 

RAINBOWfest 

IN CHICAGO 
APRIL 22, 23, & 24 



AFFORDABLE 

ONLY 
$19.95 



RAINBOW 

REVIEWED 
OCT. 1982 



ACCURATE 

SMOOTH 
RESPONSE 



TWO FOR 

$37.95 



80 MICRO 
REVIEWED 

MARCH 1983 



BUILT TO 
LAST 



Tired of broken joysticks? We offer an affordable joystick based on proven components. Each unit is hand assembled and 
checked to ensure reliability. The handles and internal mechanism have proven to be extremely rugged and reliable under 
extensive use with arcade-type games. The pots function smoothly to provide excellent cursor/character control. Get 
your joystick programs working the way they should! Our joysticks are backed by a 90 day warranty on material and labor. 



EXCELLENT PROGRAMS FROM LEADING SOFTWARE HOUSES 



NEW DISCOUNT ON PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE! 
20% OFF UNTIL MAY 7 



*VIKING 

Go from peasant to King! 

*GANGBUSTERS 

Lead a life of crime and win! 

PANDORA'S BOX 

Includes: "pac" game, "defender-type" 
game, Divebomb, Blockade, slot 
machine, and Squares (like cube). 

*PREREAD I, II, & III (Three tapes; 
Prepare your preschooler to learn la read 

*PHONICS I 

1 tutorial tape, 1 quiz tape. These begin the 
learning to read process. 

*PHONICS II 

Advancement from PHONICS I 





$15.96 






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a2fcw 


$19.96 





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$19.96 

S24^5" $19.96 



MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

SPACE RAIDERS Not just another Invaders game. 

CAVE HUNTER Grab the treasure and outrun 
the creatures. 

HAYWIRE Will drive you BERZERK! 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 
*ESCAPE FROM SPECTRE Graphic Spy Adv. 
*KATERPILLAR ATTACK Look out for spiders! 
*MOON LANDER 2 games in 1 

*CASINO 3-Gambling Package 

TAPE DUPE Copies any ML tape. 

DISK TO TAPE Dump most disks to tape 

TAPE TO DISK Load most tapes to disk 

*SPELLING TEST Provides a standard 
oral spelling quiz. Optional printer output. 



it it 32 Korner it it 

(Requires 32K Ext. Basic) 

TOM MIX'S 

SPACE SHUTTLE Control the Space Shuttle 
DONKEY KING 4 Screens - Full action! 
PROTECTORS Excellent Defender type. 
COLOR GOLF Challenging! Uses full set of clubs. 
PRICKLY-PEAR'S 

FLIGHT Realistic flight simulator $1<U*8~ 
8-BIT BARTENDER Party fun 100+ recipes %}£JW 



$24.95 ^ 
$24.95 



$24.95 



$17.95 
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$17.95 
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$28.95 
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$15.96 
$15.96^^ 



15% OFF 



UNTIL MAY 7 



ANTECO SOFTWARE 

INTERGALACTIC FORCE Experience trench %2*&*' 
warfare in your X-Wing fighter. 



'HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE MANAGER 

Menu-driven with 30 household catagories. 
Screen or printer output. 
*STOCK ANALYZER AND TREND 

Track your stocks. Disk compatible. Optional 
printer output. 

COGNITEC 
TELEWRITER 64 (For 16, 32, or 64K) 
THE word processor for the CoCo 



$21.20 
$16.95^ 

$18.65^^ 



$42.45 



PETROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 

INSPECTOR CLUESEAU (32K ext.) $JA£S~ $16.95 

Find the murderer in this excellent graphic adaptation 
of Clue. 



COLORSOFT 
*MATH DERBY Fun while learning' 



$11.86 



COMPUTERWARE 
MEGAPEDE Most challenging version yet. 
SHARK TREASURE Don't get eaten! 
SPACE AMBUSH Action like Galaxian. 
DOODLE BUG Like Ladybug 
RAIL RUNNER Dodge trains and handcars 
PAC ATTACK II Great gobbler. New graphics. 
STORM A reaf Tempest! 
COLOR INVADERS Like the original 



$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$24.95 
$21.95 
$24.95 (ft 
$24.95 jjRh 
$19.95^ 



Requires 16K Ext. Basic minimum - others 16K Std. Basic minimum. 
ADDITIONAL LISTINGS IN OUR FREE CATALOG. CALL OR WRITE. 
SHIPPING: U.S.A., CANADA AND MEXICO 
WE PAY POSTAGE on all software orders. Add S2.00 for shipping joysticks 
(unless purchased with software • then we'll pay). Please add S2.00 for C.O.D. 
orders (available in U.S.A. only). Allow 2 weeks for personal checks to clear. 

SHIPPING: ALL OTHER COUNTRIES 
Add S2.00 for each software item. Add S3. 00 for each Joystick. Items will be 

shipped air mail. 

ALL PAYMENTS MUST BE IN U.S. FUNDS. 

ENDICOTT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 12543, Huntsville, AL 35802 
(205) 881-0506 



VISA 



PHONE OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK! 



16015 IF AS*« " S " THEN 1 6030 


9, 159, 


159, 159, 


159, 


159, 


159, : 


L59, 


15 


16020 N1*«HEX*<N1> :N2*«HEX*<N2> : 


9,159, 


159, 159, 


159, 


159, 


159,: 


L59, 


15 


A1S«HEX*<N1+N2> 


9, 159, 


159 












16025 GOTO 16040 


63003 


DATA 159, 


159, 


159, 


159,: 


159, 


15 


16030 N1*=HEX*(N1>:N2*=HEX*(N2> 


9, 159, 


159,255, 


159, 


159, 


255,: 


L59, 


25 


A1*«HEX*<N1-N2> 


5,255, 


255,255, 


159, 


255, 


159, : 


159, 


15 


16040 IF LEN(N1*)<4 THEN N1*«STR 


9,255, 


159, 159, 


159, 


159, 


159,: 


L59, 


15 


ING*<4-LEN<N1*>, ,, 0 ,, )+Nl* 


9, 159, 


159 












16050 IFLEN(N2*><4 THEN N2*=STRI 


63004 


DATA 159, 


159, 


159, 


159, ; 


159, 


15 


NQ% ( 4-LEN ( N2% ) , M 0" ) +N2S 


9, 159, 


159,255, 


159, 


159, 


255, : 


159, 


25 


16060 IFLEN(A1*)<4 THEN A1S-STRI 

St ^Jmf^Jmf St ■ ^b^bI^ A Ww St 1 ^ W ■ ■ 1 ^ ■ ■ St I ■ » S> 


5. 159. 


159. 159. 

mm ^mr w m mm w m 


159, 


159. 

mm mm? w m 


255, 


159, 


25 


NG* ( 4-LEN ( A 1 * ) , M 0 ) + A 1 * 


5, 159, 


159, 159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


L59, 


15 


16070 RETURN 


9, 159, 


159 












17000 INPUT "ENTER HEX NUMBER" I HS 


63005 


DATA 159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


15 
25 


17010 HH*«"ScH"+H* 


9, 159, 
5,255, 


159,255, 
255, 159, 


255, 
159, 


255, 
159, 


255, 
159,: 


159, 
255, 


.15 


17020 PRINT"ANSWER->"|VAL<HH*> 


9, 159, 


159, 159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


. 15 


17030 RETURN 


9, 159, 


159 












18000 INPUT" ENTER DEC NUMBER" |D 


63006 


DATA 159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


15 


18010 DD*«HEX*<D> 


9, 159, 


159,255, 


159, 


159, 


255, 


159, 


.25 


1 8020 PR I NT " ANSWER- > " 5 DD* 


5, 159, 


159, 159, 


159, 


159, 


255, 


159, 


.25 


18030 RETURN 


5, 159, 


159, 159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


. 15 


20000 'ENTRY POINT FOR SCREEN 


9, 159, 


159 












63001 DATA159, 159,023,008,001,02 


63007 


DATA 159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


. 15 


0, 159,020,008,005, 159, 159, 159, 15 


9, 159, 


159,255, 


159, 


159, 


255, 


159, 


.25 


9, 159, 159, 159, 159, 159, 159, 159, 15 


5,255, 


255,255, 


159, 


255, 


m mmtwimmm. 

159, 


159, 


i 15 


9, 159, 159, 159, 159, 159, 159, 159, 15 




1 1 


159, 


159, 


1 




1 lw 


9, 159, 159 


9,159, 


159 












63002 DATA159,159, 159, 159,159,15 


63008 


DATA 159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


159, 


.15 


9, 159, 159, 159, 159, 159, 159. 159. 15 


9, 159. 


159.159. 


159.159. 


159- 


159, 


.15 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST EARNED A MATH DEGREE! 




FEATURING: 

• 3D SURFACE PLOTTING — Plots a user defined equation on an 
X,Y,Z coordinate system in the High-Res graphics mode. Planes, 
surfaces of revolution, statistical surfaces, etc. can be easily plotted. 
Surfaces may be saved to disk or tape. We believe this is the only program 
of its kind commercially available for the Color Computer. 



MATHMENU 

Developed by an engineer, Mathmenu is a 
powerful menu-driven system to turn your 
Color Computer into an intelligent, flexible 
tool for mathematics and engineering. 
Mathmenu takes the tedium out of math, 
leaving your full brain power to attack the 
"meat" of your problems. By rapidly mani- 
pulating matrices and vectors, performing 
integration and differentiation, solving 
quadratic equations, plotting user defined 
functions and much more, Mathmenu can 
help simplify the most complex problems. 
Whether you are a student or a professional, 
if you use math, you need Mathmenu, 



PLUS: 

• Complete MATRIX Operations • 
(up to 8 x 8) • 

• Complete VECTOR Operations • 

• Numerical Differentiation • 

• Numerical Integration 

• Least Squares Curve Fitting • 

• Binomial Expansion 

• Prime Number Verification • 

• Main Menu with Single-key Selection 



2D Function Plotting 

Rectangular to Polar Conversions 

Base Conversions 

Large Number Addition and 

Multiplication 

Reverse Polish Logic Calculator 
with Hexadecimal 
Quadratic Equation Roots 
and Return (Disk Only) 



Complete documentation of all functions is included. 

For 32K Disk $49.95 Dl „. D r , . , 

For 16K Cassette $44.95 P!ottmg Reqmres Extended BASfC 

Documentation only $2.00 (refundable with purchase) 

Or write for free brochure. 

Inter <^>cAction 

113 Ward Street • Dept. R • New Haven, CT 06519 • (203) 562-5748 





1 86 She RAINBOW April, 1 983 





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+1 

63025 NEXT 

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55| A| P55I A| P55I A| A| A| 

63031 NEXT 

63032 RETURN 



★ ★ ★ ★ SELECTED SOFTWARE ★ ★ ★ ★ 

FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
Alt programs are in 1 6K machine language 
unless noted. Extended basic not required. 



* * 



* * 



* m 



MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

SPACE RAIDERS New Invader type game Super $24.95 
Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. You'll love it. 

ASTRO BLAST Excellent space shooting game. $24.95 
Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

COLOR HAYWIRE Classic arcade game, rated $24.95 
A + by Color Computer magazines. 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 
GALAX ATT AX Protect your base by shooting $21.95 
alien fighter in formation. Excellent Graphics and Sound. 

SPACE RACE Maneuver yourself in space but $21 .95 

alien ships appear and must be destroyed. Hi-Res 
Graphics and Sound. 

PLANET INVASION Excellent Defender type $21 .95 

game. Highest-Res Graphics and Sound. 

DEFENSE Defend your spaceships from enemy $21.95 
laser beams. 

SPACE WAR You must break through the enemy $21 .95 
fighters and the defenses of Death Star. Super fast. 

SPACE INVADERS Fast action Invader game $21 .95 
Excellent Graphics and Sound. 

GHOST GOBBLER Highly rated Pac Man type $ 1 9.95 
game. 16 skill levels and lots of action. 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD Super adventure $ 1 9.95 

game! Great sound! You never play the same twice. 

MADNESS AND THE MINOTAUR $ 1 9.95 

Challenging adventure game, different everytime. 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 
DONKEY KING (32K) Just Outstanding! $24.95 

KATERPILLAR Excellent Centipede-type game. $24.95 
Highly rated by Color Computer magazines! 

WAR KINGS Battle to save your castle and king. $ 1 9.95 
Hi-Res Graphics with Outstanding Sound. 

PROTECTORS (32K) Excellent Graphics and Sound. $24.95 

MED SYSTEMS 

INVADER'S REVENGE You are the last sur $ 1 9.95 
vived space invader. You must revenge! 

PHANTOM SLAYER Enter the deadly cata $ 1 9.95 
combs and destroy the phantoms, 3-D Graphics. 

INTELLECTRONICS 
DUNKEY MUNKEY (32K) Absolutely excellent $21 .95 
Donkey Kong-type game. You'll love it! 

STAR FIRE One of the best Defender-type game. $19.95 
Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

INTRACOLOR 

COLORPEDE Just like the arcade $29.95 
THE PROGRAMMER'S GUILD 

PACDROIDS The most challenging Pac Man-type. $ 1 9.95 
Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

CHROMATIC SOFTWARE 

THE SPIDER Travel the channels destroying the $ 1 9.95 
spiders before they get you. Super action. Excellent 
Graphics and Sound. 

^ 

UPGRADE YOUR COLOR COMPUTER/ 

Complete solderless kits with easy-to-follow instructions. 

4K-16K $15.95 
16K-32K $29.95 

introductory Offer Ends Soon! Price Will Increase Next Month! 

64K CHIP SET 

Eight 41 64-200 NS Prime ICs 



* * 



* * 



$54.95 



* Requires Joystick # * Joystick Optional 

Write for complete listings. Buy 2 items and get 10% off. 
We pay postage on ail orders. Send check or money order to: 

SELECTED SOFTWARE 
P.O. Box 32228, Fridley, MN 55421 

(MN Residents add 6% sales tax.) 



April, 1983 th« RAINBOW 1 87 



GRAPHICS 



16K 




the 


ECB 




RAINBOW 







Three Easy Pieces: 
One Animator's Art (jf*l 



By Stephen Lai 




Once I had learned the art of animation, which on my part 
took much more effort than simply reading the material 
included about it in the CoCo manuals, I wondered how I 
could apply it to produce beautiful moving graphics. My 
father came up with the idea of using the SIN/ COS func- 
tions which, as you will see, solved the question asked 
above.* 

In these three programs, I use the command PMODE 1 , 
which allows for the maximum use of four graphic pages on 
the 16K CoCo. All three programs have X number of lines, 
curves or leaves protruding from the midpoint of the screen. 
To find the number of degrees a figure rotates at every flip of 
a page, use this formula: 360/ (number of lines, leaves, or 
curves x 4). 

When a program is typed in and RUN, the computer 
prompts you with the question, "ARE THE PAGES 
DRAWN?" (Y/N). If they are drawn, only input "Y" if you 
want to see the same display again. Next, you are asked for 
the number (#) of lines or leaves. 

The two processes these programs consist of are the draw- 
ing process and the display process. The drawing process 
goes through the four pages, one by one, producing a figure 
differing from the figures on the other pages by a number of 
angles. This process varies in time taken according to the 
number of lines, leaves or curves and the specific program. 
After that lengthy process is finished, the real impressive 
stuff flashes across the screen, but not before you INPUTa. 
delay speed. 

Enough for the general; now for the specifics. 

Revolver is the most basic of all three programs. The 
display is similar to the spokes of a wheel. A good first input 
would be 1 5 for the number of lines and 20 for delay speed. 
Twirlers is the most fancy and impressive of the programs. 
The leaves are of random width and color. Four mini- 
twirlers are at the corners of the screen. The drawing process 
is very lengthy, so have a magazine ready to flip through 
while the program gets ready to do its flipping. A sound will 
inform you that the drawing process is done. During the 
display process, you can cause the figures to rotate in the 
opposite direction by pressing the letter "C." A good starting 
input would be 3 for number of leaves and 30 for rotating 
speed. 




Spinner needs no inputs for number of curves or rotating 
speed. There are always four curves and the rotating speed 
changes throughout the display process getting faster to a 
certain point, then slower to a certain point, then faster, 
slower, etc. 

The three programs use the POKE 65495,0 and POKE 
65494,0 commands, which must be deleted to be run on 
some older CoCos. 

* Editor's note: For an in-depth discussion of the 
technique, using sine/ cosine functions, refer to 
Don Inman's Using Graphics column in the March 
1983 issue of Rainbow. 



The listing: 




00FF 
01D1 



1 * REVOLVE 

2 ' BY STEPHEN LAI 

3 * (C) 1982 

10 CLS: INPUT" ARE PAGES DRAWN <Y/ 
N) " ; Z*: IFZ*="N"THENGOTO150ELSEGO 
TO 130 

20 INPUT "NUMBER OF LINES" ; N: PMOD 
El , 1 : PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 0 
30 PI=3. 14159 
40 POKE65495,0 

50 FORP=0TO3: PMODE 1, <P+1)*2-1:PC 

LS: SCREEN 1,0 

60 B=P*PI/<N*2> 

70 FORL=lTON 

80 X=-25*PI 

90 Y=SIN(X/25) 

100 R=SQR(X^2+Y^2) : AA=ATN<Y/X)+B 

: H=R*COS < AA ) : V=R*S I N < AA ) 

110 LINE(126,96)-(H+126, V+96) , PS 



120 B=B+2*PI/N:NEXTL,P 

130 INPUT "DELAY SPEED" ;S 

140 F0RP=1T07STEP2: PMODE 1,P:SCRE 



1 88 the RAINBOW April, 1 983 



TAKE A CLOSER LOOK 
THERE'S SOMETHING For EVERYONE 



SOFTWARE 

DONKEY KING 

by Tom Mix Software 

Four full graphic screens. Exciting sound 
and realistic graphics. Never before has 
the color computer seen a game like this. 



Tape 
Disc . 



■ i i > • i, t f , ■ ,i i a i ► ■ ■ ■ ■ • • » 



i - - - « 



$24.95 
$27.95 



SKY-DEFENSE 

Can you survive the first wave of attack? 
Or the next? Or the next? Only your joy- 
stick will ever know! Features horizontal 
flight in highres graphics, and fast-paced 
action. Machine language; joystick re- 
quired. 16K $12.95 

BIGNUM 

If you dislike seeing numbers like 1 .23045 E 
23, and wish you could have all the ac- 
curate digits instead, then BIGNUM is for 
you. Add, subtract, multiply, divide and 
raise BIG numbers to BIG powers and get 
totally accurate results. Even if you are 
satisfied with an approximation, without 
this program the Color Computer would 
return an "OV ERROR" with this problem: 
34l45. BIGNUM returns the entire 68 digit 
result! Accurate to 1,024 digits in 16K & 
about 3,068 digits with 32 RAM. 
16K 



A 4 ■ ' 



Iff" 



$9.95 



CCM#3 

by Charles Santee, Ed.D. 

This program allows total communication 
for special persons and does this with only 
one joystick. Easy to use, and also recom- 
mended for young children; can help 
teach spelling and sentence structure. Ex- 
cellent documentation. 
32K EXT $32.95 



HARDWARE 

16K-32K UPGRADE KIT 

Kit includes 8 200 ns #411 6 Factory Prime 
Chips, piggybacked sockets, SAM socket, 
and "32K" button to replace the 16K on 
your computer's case. Easy to remove. No 
soldering to computer $25.95 



64K RAM CHIPS 

200 ns #4164 chip set will upgrade your 
"E" board easily. Factory Prime Chips. 
(Compare the price elsewhere!). .$69.95 



Nanos Reference Cards 

Color Computer & TDP-100 

Color BASIC & EXTENDED 4.95 



DATA CASSETTES 

C05 C10 

$ .65 Qty. 1-10 $ 

$ .60 Qty. 11-20 $ 

Soft Poly Cases Ea. $ 



.70 
.65 

.20 



AUX-KEY 

by JARB 

(Auxiliary External Keyboard Unit) 
Thisfull size, industrial grade keyboard unit 
is P.C, board mounted for trouble free 
operation and years of use. Mounted in 
an attractive aluminum case with a 19- 
key numeric pad, AUX-KEY comes with 
long cable for remote placement of your 
80C. No soldering required for installa- 
tion. Will not affect normal operation of 
the original keyboard $134.95 



Add $1.50 per software order and $2.00 per hardware order for postage and handling. 

California residents add 6% Sales Tax. 

QUASAR ANIMATIONS 

1520 Pacific Beach Drive, San Diego, California 92109 

(619)274-2202 



EN1 , 0: F0RDLAY=1T0S: NEXTDLAY , P: GO 
TO 140 

150 PCLEAR8:GOTO20 




1 ' TWIRLERS 

2 ' BY STEPHEN LAI 

3 ' <C) 1982 

10 CLS: INPUT "ARE PAGES DRAWN <Y/ 
N) 11 ; Z$: IFZ*="N"THENGOTO240ELSEGO 
TO 160 

20 INPUT "NUMBER OF LEAVES" ; N: PMO 

DEI, l:PCLS: SCREEN 1,0 

30 Cl=RND(3)+l:C2=RND(3)+l:C3=RN 

D (3) +1 : C4=RND (3) +1 : C5=RND (3) +1 : E 

=1+RND<20>*. 1 

40 PI=3. 14159 

50 POKE65495,0 

60 FORP=0TO3:PMODE1, <P+1>*2-1:C0 
L0RC2, 1 : PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 0 
70 B=P*PI/<N*2> 
80 FORL=lTON 

90 F0RX=-25*PI T025*PI STEP2 
100 D=X/E: Y=D*SIN(X/25) 

BATTLE of GETTYSBURG 

A Strategy Game 
for mature Players 

KXJOUOQUDOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOCOOOOO 



STOP REBEL INVADERS 

OR DIE! 

>ooooooooooooooooooqooooooooooooooo 



■ 




X 


O 


CD 






CO 




> 


CD 


o 





©PfWJtl® 



P.O. Box 3504 
Austin, Texas: 78764 

(512)444-6135 



DOOOOOOOO 



110 R=SQR(X^2+Y^2) : AA=ATN<Y/X)+B 

: H=R*COS < AA ) : V=R*S I N < AA ) 

120 IFX=-25*PI THENG0SUB1 90 

130 PSET <H+126,V+96, CI >: NEXT 

140 B=B+2*PI/N:NEXTL,P 

150 SOUND 1,40 

160 INPUT "DELAY SPEED" ;S 

170 F0RP=1T07STEP2:PM0DE1,P:SCRE 

EN1 , 0: FORDL AY= 1 TOS : IFINKEY*="C"T 

HEN180ELSENEXTDLAY,P:GOTO170 

180 F0RP=7T01STEP-2:PM0DE1,P:SCR 

EEN 1,0: FORDL A Y= 1 TOS : I F I NKEY$= " C " 

THEN 1 70ELSENE X TDL A Y , P : GOTO 1 80 

190 CIRCLE (H/4+208, V/4+150) , 10, C 

3 

200 LINE<48+<-H/3.5>-4, 150+ (V/3. 
5>-4>-<48+<-H/3.5>+4, 150+ (V/3. 5) 
+4 ) , PSET , BF 

210 CIRCLE(-H/6+48, V/6+24) ,2,C4: 

CIRCLE (H/4+48, V/4+24) , 2, C5 

220 LINE(208,24)-(208-H/4,24+V/4 

) , PSET 

230 RETURN 

240 PCLEAR8:GOTO20 




0109 
0219 



1 * SPINNER 

2 ' BY STEPHEN LAI 

3 ' <C) 1982 
10 GOTO170 

20 N=0:L=75:C=RND(3)+l:D=RND<40) 
+10:PI=3. 14159 

30 CLS: INPUT "ARE PAGES DRAWN <Y/ 
N> " ; Q*: I FQ$= " N " THEN40ELSEGOTO1 10 

40 f=i:forn=ito7STEP2:pmode i,n: 
screen 1,0: pcls 

45 POKE65495,0 

50 F0RX=-25*PI TO0STEP2 

70 Xl=X/25: Y=D*SIN<X1> 

80 R=SQR(X^2+Y^2) : A=ATN(Y/X) :B=A 

+N*(PI/16) :H=R*SIN(B) :V=R*COS(B) 

90 PSET <V+ 126, -H+96, C) : PSET (-H+1 

26,-V+96,C) :PSET(H+126, V+96,C) :P 

SET < -V+ 1 26 , H+96 , C ) 

100 NEXTX, N 

110 I=-2:L=50 

120 FOR A=7T01STEP-2:PM0DE1, a:sc 
REEN1 , 0 

130 SOUND 225-4*L,l 

140 FOR DLAY=1 TO L: NEXT DLAY , A 

1 50 L-L+ 1 : I FL< 50RL >50THEN I — I 

160 GOTO 120 

170 PCLEAR8:GOTO20 



190 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



JARB 



I 

N 
C 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



AUX-KEY 

(Auxiliary External Key Board Unit) 

This full size, industrial grade key board 
unit is P.C. Board mounted for trouble 
free operation and years of use. Mounted 
in an attractive aJuminum case with a 12 
key numeric pad, Aux-Key comes with a 
long cable for remote location placement 
of your 80C. Requires no soldering to 
your computer, and only about 15 
minutes for installation. Does not affect 
normal operation of your original key 
board. 

Add $4.00 Shipping $134.95 



PEN E- ARCADE 

(Light Pen & Arcade System) 

This unique system will allow the light pen 
(included) to be used with supplied soft- 
ware for many tasks normally requiring 
key board input. In education, choose 
answers by just touching pen to correct 
screen location. Can be easily interfaced 
to your own programs. All instructions 
supplied. AJso includes the JARB arcade 
target gun and target software. Shoot 
targets from across the room. No other 
unit like this is presently available from 
anywhere else for the 80C or TDP-100 
computers. 

Add $4.00 Shipping $74.95 



COM REX CR-6SOO 

03" Color Monitor) 

High resolution display monitor produces 
an incredibly sharp image. Includes built- 
in speaker with audio circuit. Compatible 
with virtually any microcomputer. 
$344.95 



COMREX CR-1 

Compact desk-top daisy wheel 
printer, especially designed for word 
processing. Assures high reliability, 
and produces quiet, high quality 
printing. Complete with RS-232 in- 
terface. 

$810.00 



U.S FUNDS ONLY 

C.O.D. ORDERS ACCEPTED 

Sorry, no C.O.D. on printers and 
monitors. 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



* VIDEO INTERFACE KIT 

Allows the composite video signal to be 
interfaced directly to a B/W or color 
monitor. TV and monitor can be used 
simultaneously. Complete with com- 
prehensive instructions and all parts, in- 
cluding an external sound output. NOTE: 
May not work with monitors requiring 
high input drive - call or write f or recom- 
mended monitors, 

$19.95 

/f^\ DUAL 
rainbow JOYSTICK UNIT 

crown*. (D.J.) 

Single unit assembly enhances payability 
of multi- joystick/ player games; conve- 
nient press-to-fire buttons 
Add $4.00 shipping $35.95 

EPSON PRINTERS 

MX80FT/Graftrax + $524.95 

MX100FT/Graftrax+ $699.95 

Serial Interface w/4K Buffer 

Ideal for80Cuse $109.95 

80CTO Epson Cable $19.95 

See shipping Info 



NEW PRICES ON 
DATA CASSETTES 
C-OS C-IO 

$ .65 QTY 1-10 $ .70 

$ .60 QTY 11-20 $ .65 

Soft Poly Cases Ea. $.20 

Hard Shelled Cases Ea. $.22 

Cassette Labels (12) Sh. $.36 

Cassette Labels Tractor (1000) $30.00 

Call or write for quantity prices on all 
cassette products. Special lengths avail- 
able, eg., C-02, etc. 



NANOS COLOR BASIC 

AND EXTENDED 
SYSTEM REFERENCE 
CARD 

"The New Industry Standard" 
$4.95 

(We pay postage on this one) 
All types of Nanos cards available 



MEMORY 
UPGRADE KITS 

*4K/I6K MEMORY CHIP SET 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips, 
16K Ram Button, and Upgrade Instruc- 
tions. No Soldering. 

$16.95 



* 16K/32K 
MEMORY UPGRADE KIT 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips 
with Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, 
Bus Wire, and 32K Ram Button. Com- 
prehensive Instructions. Recommended 
for **D" or earlier, but may be used on 
**E". Only 9 simple solder connections to 
kit. None to computer. 
$25.95 



•64K RAM CHIPS 

Eight 200 NS Factory Prime 64K RAM 
Chips. Allows you to upgrade M E" board 
easily. No soldering needed. 
$69.95 

'Installation of these items will void the 
Radio Shack warranty. Radio Shack is a 
trademark of the Tandy Corp. 



WABASH DISKETTES 

$25.00 per box of 10 

DISK DOUBLER 

$12.95 



CoCo Chips 

Sam, Pia, CPU, Ext. Basic, 
and 1 . 1 Standard Available 



We carry products 
from many manufacturers. 
If you don't see it, ask. 



SOFTWARE 



I 

r I HARDWARE 



1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 920S0 
(619) 474-6213 



SHIPPING AND HANDLING: Printers 
and monitors add 3Vo. Unless otherwise 
specified, all other orders $2.00 per order. 
California Residents add 6V» sales tax. 



Software Review . . . 

Preschool Packs: Simple, 
Solid, Successful 

Preschool Packages 1,2, and 3, from Computer Island, 
are designed to teach kids in a fun and simple game format. 
Some of the programs in this collection are more successful 
at this than others. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 1, CLOWN AND FISH NUM 

In Clown, a face appears under one of five triangles. The 
child counts across to find the number of the triangle and 
then presses the number on the keyboard. If incorrect, a sad 
sound is heard and the child then has a chance to try again. 
When correct, a happy sound is heard and then a new 
"problem" is set-up. Number recognition and counting skills 
are reinforced by the use of this program. 

In Fish Num, a random number offish (1-10) appear on 
the screen with the spelling of the number offish above the 
display. The child figures out how many fish are on the 
screen, (by word recognition or by counting), and presses 
the corresponding number on the keyboard. If wrong, you 
hear the sad sound. A correct answer receives a happy sound 
and spells out the correct answer. This program reinforces 
number recognition and counting skills and introduces 
spelling. 

The games, sounds, and graphics are all very simple in 
package number I. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 2, COUNT KIDS AND ADD 
PENNY 

In Count Kids, a random number of kids' faces appear on 
the screen. The child counts the kids and presses the corres- 
ponding number. A wrong answer receives a sad sound, a 
correct answer a happy sound. Of the whole group, this 
program has the most interesting graphics and is the most 
entertaining for children. With this program, counting scat- 
tered objects as well as number recognition are reinforced. 

Add Penny draws large pictures of pennies in two rows. 
This is set up in the same format in which beginning addition 



is presented in school. The child counts the pennies and 
presses the corresponding key. Once again, wrong answers 
receive a sad sound, correct answers receive a happy tune. 
This program reinforces counting and number recognition 
and sets the stage for teaching addition in the future. 

PACKAGE 2 has the best graphics and sounds of the 
group. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 3, A LP HA- BYTE 
Alpha-byte consists of three programs, each covering a 
portion of the alphabet, to help preschoolers recognize the 
letters of the alphabet. All three are played in the same way. 
The letters covered by the particular program are displayed 
on the screen. The program then draws one of the letters 
again under the corresponding letter already displayed. The 
child then presses the appropriate key that matches the 
letter. The usual sad and happy sounds accompany wrong 
and correct answers. The child need not know the alphabet 
in order to play, but can just match shapes and symbols. 

This third package is less interesting, both in play and in 
graphics. 

All the programs in these three packages are easy for small 
children to play on their own without adult help. All answers 
are single key inputs, meaning that you don't use the 
ENTER key. There is no time limit on any of these games. 
Children may play for a long as they wish, using the BREA K 
key to end the program when done. However, there is also 
no score or identification of which problems the child has 
trouble with. 

Of the three packages, pack 2 is definitely the best. It is the 
most interesting for small children to play and has the most 
appealing graphics. All are in 16K ECB. 

These games lack the "extras," but are perhaps more 
suitable for preschoolers because of it. They are all simple 
and unsophisticated games at a good price. 

(Computer Island, Dept. R, 227 Hampton Green, Staten 

Island, NY 10312, Preschool Packs 1, 2, 3 @ $11.95) 

— James Ventling 



All Color Softwar 



Post O^fic 
Plantatic 



Box 1 5235 
, Florida 
$16 



Give your CoCo ^ftf> 

On/Off 1 iqht f C?r r 

HiM NOT Void Warranty! 



RAJN8QW 

QEftTtFCATOW 



Now for only $5 you can have an on/off light for your CoCo, without 
voiding your warranty!! If you own a Joystick, can drill ONE hole, and 
make TWO connections, then you are ready for this simple Do-It-Yourself Kit! ! 

This simple kit comes with the parts to modify 2 Joysticks, and clearly 
written instructions on the procedure, which takes only 10 minutes on the 
average. 

Notes This modification Does NOT impede Joystick performance. This kit 
works with any Joystick, and is equally easy to install in each. 



ORDER NOW ! ! 



NO Extra Shipping Charges!! 



Florida residents add 5"/. sales tax. Notei Cumtom Joysticks still available. 



192 



the RAINBOW April, 1983 




DSL COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

P.O. BOX 1113 - DEARBORN, MI 48121 - (313) 582-8930 



TDP 



Michigan Residents Add 4% Sales Tax to Order 
Please include $1.00 for S & H 
VISA & MASTERCARDS ACCEPTED 



QUALITY SOFTWARE FOR THE 
COLOR AND TDP SYSTEM 100 COMPUTERS 



Specialty 

The General a general 
ledger program holds 
100 accounts with over 
500 transactions per 
account 32K $39.95 

Calligrapher Great 
for designing custom 
posters, invitations 
flyers or name tags 
Two print fonts available 
Old English and Chancery 
for Line Printer VII use 
Disk ONLY $14.95 each 
Please specify print 
font when ordering. 

Color Bonanza 50 program 
package includes business, 
utilities, utilities as well 
as arcade fun. Less than 
$1.00 per program! $49.95 

Arcade Fun 

Packmaze ML 16K 

Bug Chase Ext 32K 

One or two player or robot 
bug against turtle. 

Donkey King •. . . 32K 

Moon Lander 16K 

Dancin' Devil 16K 

War Kings 16K 

Spider 16K 

Cave Hunter 16K 

Haywire 16K 

Astro Blast 16K 



$16.95 
$15.55 



$24.95 
$15.95 
$14.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 
$24.95 
$24.95 
$24.95 



Literature 
Assembly Language Graphics 
$14.95 

Basic Computer Programming 
for Kids $14.95 
TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics 

$14.95 



NOW AVAILABLE 
Nelson Software 

Super Color Writer T. $49.95 

D. $99.95 

Super Color Terminal T. $39.95 

D. $59.95 



INTRACOLOR COMMUNICATIONS 

Colorpede 16K ML T. $29.95 

Rototattack 16K ML T. $24.95 

D. $27.95 

Educational 

Speller 16K $16.95 

Geo-Studies 16K $ 9.95 

USA, Canada, Europe, Aust. 

Word Drill 16K $19.95 

Math Drill 16K $19.95 

Adventures 

Calixto Island 16K ML $19.95 

Black Sanctum 16K ML $19.95 



Utilities 

Copy Cat 16K ML $19.95 

Color DFT 16K ML T. $19.95 

D. $29.95 

Hardware 

Grand Slam Solderless Kit $75.00 

For E or F Board and 1 . 1 Rom 
Please include $10.00 REFUNDABLE 
tool deposit with order 

For All Boards 
Ram Slam Solderless Kit 
16-32K $49.95 

15-minute installation 
ONE YEAR WARRANTY 



UTILITY 



PATCHing The Patch: 
EDTASM+ To Disk Revisited 



By Roger Schrag 



In the December issue of the Rainbow, an article that I 
wrote showing how to patch Radio Shack's EDTASM+ to 
use disk appeared. Since then, I have gotten letters from 
various readers who were worried that they might have 
made a mistake because the "L"and "P" commands of Zbug 
wouldn't work properly. I would like now to explain that 
this is because the patch program as presented in the 
December Rainbow simply does not support the functions 
of Zbug. I have since modified the program slightly, and I 
would like to share my revisions with you. 

First, let me say that if you have any problems, comments, 
or questions you may drop me a line at 2504 Manning 
Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90025. A self-addressed, 
stamped envelope would be helpful. I will do my best to 
reply promptly. 

If you have patched your EDTASM+ to use disk and 
would like to see Zbug also support disk, then read on! The 
process is really quite simple. First insert the disk cartridge 
and turn on your computer. Now dig out your source code 









• 3D TIC-TAC-TOE . 

NEW!! Over 150 possible ways to win. A real challenge. Just 
when you think you won, coco beats you to it. A first for the 
coco. 

Cassette: 32K E.C.B $14.95 

Disc: 32K E.C.B $19.95 

• TIC-TAC-TOE • 

If you thought Tic-Tac-Toe is an easy game, try matching your 
wits against this version. Play it with or without joysticks. A 
speciat "SMALL FRY" level of difficulty is provided. 
Cassette: 16K C.B $10.95 

• JUMPS • 

Q-SOFT's challenging version of a very old European solitaire 
mme- An ADDICTIVE board game in HI-RES graphics. 
Reviewed in Jan. 1983 issue of the "RAINBOW" on page 164. 

Cassette: 16K E.C.B , , $10.95 

Cassette: 4K C.B $ 8.95 

• THE SPIDER . 

By: CHROMATIC SOFTWARE". All machine language. 
Annihilate the spider before he destroys you. Arcade action. 
Joysticks needed. Reviewed in Jan. 1983 issue of the 
"RAINBOW" on page 160. 

Cassette: 16K $19.95 

• ONE CHECK . 

48 "CHECKERS" are placed on the two outside rows of a 
standard checkerboard. Remove as many "checkers" as 
possible, jumping diagonally. Play with or without joysticks. 
HI -RES graphics. 

Cassette: 16K E.C.B $10.95 

QSOFT /^v 

1006 ROB IN HOOD DRIVE • PAINESVILLE, OHIO 44077 

C.O.D. orders add $3.00 Call 2 1 6 352-2675 ""Sr* 



for the program shown in the December article. If it is still 
on tape, transfer it to disk with the BASIC transfer program. 

Next, load disk EDTASM+ and the old source code. If 
you used the same line numbering scheme that I did, then 
line 189 should be the end statement. Delete it. Now insert 
all of the code in the listing presented here from line 189 on. 

If you didn't hold on to your scource code from the 
December article, then you will need to load disk 
EDTASM+ and enter that listing first. 

Whether you have updated your old source code or 
reentered the whole thing from scratch, double check for 
typographical errors. Then save the new source code on 
disk. Assemble it to disk as well. 

Now, return to Disk BASIC. Load your present copy of 
disk EDTASM+, but don't execute it. Now load the new 
patch program that you just assembled. Finally, save the 
new finished product on disk with the command 
SAVEM"EDTASM+",&HE80,&H37FF,&HE80. 

You now own the revised version of disk EDT ASM+. To 
save a block of memory onto disk from Zbug, type "P", then 
the start-address, end-address, execution-address and press 
ENTER. You will be prompted for the filename. Type it in 
as you would in BASIC, but without the quotes. If you don't 
specify an extension, none will be assumed. Your block of 
memory will then be written to disk. 

To load a file under Zbug, simply press L and ENTER. 
You will be asked for the filename, and the file will be 
loaded. By the way, Zbug has the ability to load a file into 
memory offset. I believe Radio Shack forgot to put this in 
the manual. If you want to load a file offset, then use this 
mickey mouse syntax: L XYZ offset. The XYZ is needed to 
keep the Zbug command evaluator from getting confused. 

Finally, there is a patch to cure a problem with the Reset 
button. When you hit Reset, the SAM chip in the computer 
resets the interrupt control register. A patch is therefore 
needed to reprogram this register whenever Reset is pressed. 

Incidentally, if you are wondering how the new Zbug 
patches work, they utilize the ROM routines that normally 
process the LOADM and SA VEM statements in BASIC. 

That about rounds outthe revisions to disk EDTASM+. I 
hope you will find my work helpful. Please feel free to drop 
me a line if you are having difficulties, or if you have any 
suggestions. 

The listings; 

00189 t 

00190 t 

00191 tNEH MATERIAL ADDED TO HAKE ZBUG 

00192 tDISK COMPATIBLE, AND TO CURE A 

00193 tFEW MINOR BUGS 

00194 t 



194 the RAINBOW April, 1983 

■ 



- 



WORKSAVER RECEIVES 

RAVE REVIEWS 

FROM COLOR COMPUTER NEWS AND RAINBOW 



• Fast Entry of 
Basic Programs 

• Over 100 user 
definable keys 

• Enhances all Coco's 
from 16K Non Extended 
Basic to Extended, 64K, 
Disk 

• Available on Disk or 
cassette 

• Built in cassette merge 

• User's Support Service 




■L 



"There are a number of 
products on the Coco 
market... the WORKSAVER 
ranks up there with the 
best of them" 

—Rainbow Dec. '82] 

"undoubtedly the best 
program I have ever 
bought for my color 
computer" 

—Color Computer News 

Jan. '83 

"the main function of the 
program seems to be mak- 
ing things easier and more\ 
functional for the user. It 
succeeds extremely weir 
—Color Computer Newsj 

Jan. 



THE WORKSAVER WILL SAVE YOU HOURS OF WORK. ..WRITING AND DEBUGGING YOUR PROGRAMS" 

— Rainbow Dec '82 

i 

■ 



FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

WANT TO CHANGE the line a 
couple Sines up' ? Simple Use the 
arrow keys to the appropriate 
place and make the change This is 
not only a tot easier, but it is vastly 
faster, too .changing tine 
numbers, /oining tines together, 
breaking them apart, duplicating 
them elsewhere -heady stuff -is 
.very easy to do with the 
Work-saver" (Rainbow) 



DYNAMIC EDITING 

hi, Line ol our users lavonte 
aiti'rt'S When the computer halts 
m tu un error, or you wanl to 
aKe an improvemenl while run 
n{j. you can make changes 
Ihuul losing data "This is a ma 
r plus in debugging it can save 
lot til time in data loads land) 
pr generation of data through in 
jt-, Rainbow Dec tisi 



"The things that this program 
add to the color computer... 

INCREASE ITS 
CAPABILITIES MANIFOLD 

...it should have been incor- 
porated into the original 
MICROSOFT programming (or) 
given out with every color com- 
puter. " 

—Color Computer News Jan '83 



THE PLATINUM WORKSAVER 
INCLUDES: 

• Enhancement program, inducting a 
sample array editor on a high-quality 
Agfa cassette 

* Fully labeled <n;eiate keyboard over 
lay, not a cheap stick on 

* Complete instructions 

• Loads tn seconds, takes 2.2 ft 




•TO 



DYNAMIC INPUT 

Perform numeric calculations 
and chech the contents of ar- 
rays and variables. WITHOUT in 
terrupUng the running of BASIC 
programs: An EXTREMELY 
valuable feature that t use ALL 
the tune " 
-Color Computer News Jan '83 



NUMERIC KEYPAD 

CONVERSION 

' The keys JKLUtOP are defined 
as the numbers t 7 r respective 
fy this mode is a Godsend foi 
long data statements 
Color Computer News Jan b'3 



FULL FEATURED 



4 COLOR 
KEYBOARD OVERLAY 

•'TRUTH: The WORKSAVER 
overlay ts the best we haw 
seen for this type of pfograni 
The Rainbow Dec W2 

"A well designed keybo-tfu 

overlay (NO J a sticker 

— Color Compute* New^ Jjm 

Hi 




GRAB BAG 

GRAB BAG IS THE BIGGEST SOFTWARE BARGAIN 
AROUND* NOT A BUNCH OF SPACE-FILLERS BUT 
HANDY UTILITIES YOU CAN USE EVERY DAY* 
INCLUDES OUR EDITOR AND FILESYS. DISK 
RECOVERY? TAPE UTILITIES? AND MORE \ 
MORE DETAILS IN OUR CATALOG ON TAPE NO 3* 
&m BAG IS $49*95. GET BOTH GRAB BAG 
AND MASTER DISK FOR 69.95. 

MASTER DISK 

TROUBLE FINDING YOUR DISK PROGRAMS? MASTER DISK TO THE 
RESCUE! ONCE YOU TRY IT YOU'LL HONKER HOU YOU EVER GOT 
ALONG WITHOUT IT. NO TYPING REQUIRED ^ MASTER DISK 
CREATES FILES DIRECTLY FROM YOUR DISK DIRECTORIES AND 
SEARCHES THEM IN 5 MODES. READ ANY DIRECTORY WITHOUT 
SWITCHING DISKS. SEARCH ALL YOUR DISKS FOR A DESIRED 
FILENAME. FIND DISKS WITH FREE SPACE. INCLUDES 
ACCESSORY PROGRAMS TO PRINT AH ALPHABETIC LIST OF ALL 
OF YOUR FILES (32K FOR SORT REQUIRED) OR REBUILD A 
CRASHED DIRECTORY. NEW UPGRADED VERSION STILL RUNS 
IN 16K SYSTEMS. $49.95 



DUNGEON MAZE 

TIRED OF READING YOUR WAY THROUGH ADVENTURE 
GAMES? TAKE A STROLL THROUGH THE DUNGEON 
HAZE! SEE THE ROOMS* PASSAGES* AND OBJECT! 
AS YOU PASS THROUGH. SEARCH FOR MAGIC ITEMS 
YOU NEED TO ESCAPE. FREE THE KIDNAPPED 
PRINCESS HELD CAPTIVE BY THE EVIL TROLL* 
BEWARE OF MAGIC TRICKS AND TRAPS! 32K 
EXTENDED BASIC REQUIRED. $24*95 





TAKE A TREK INTO OUTER SPACE TO DEFEAT THE ENEMY FROM 
BEYOND THE 6ALAXY. THIS IS NOT JUST ANOTHER PUSH 
THE BUTTON AND SHOOT GAME. TO FIND AND DESTROY THE 
ENEMY YOU WILL NEED A STEADY HAND AT THE HELM* CLOSE 
ATTENTION TO YOUR CONTROL PANEL r AND A LITTLE LUCK. 
CALL YOUR CREW FOR REPAIRS* TRY A RUSE* OR GO IN FIRING 
TO SAVE OUR GALAXY* "SHIP'S COMPUTER* TELLS YOU SHIP'S 
STATUS OR A MAP OF THE KNOWN GALAXY. 
REQUIRES 16K EXTENDED BASIC AND INCLUDES 16K NOVICE 
VERSION AND 32K VERSION WITH MORE CHALLENGE. $19.95 

THIS IS A PACKAGE OF FOUR SIMPLE GAMES JUNlORl 
FOR CHILDREN* SOME NON-EXTENDED AND GAMUTS 
SOME EXTENDED BASIC. $19.95 up « n 




REDUCED RRICES 

EDITOR $14*95 

FILESYS $9*95 

CATALOG 

OUR LATEST 1 CATALOG ON TAPE (NO 3) REVISED FOR 
LATEST PRICES AND PROGRAMS IS $3* FLIP SIDE HAS 
2 NOVELTY PROGRAMS AND A TAPE UTILITY SIMILAR TO 
THOSE SEEN ADVERTISED FOR TWICE THIS PRICE. 
(SUCH A I€AL!) 

MASTER DISK I GRAB BAG AVAILABLE ON DISK ONLY. 
CATALOG ON TAPE ONLY* ALL OTHERS, TAKE YOUR CHOICE. 
SAME PRICE! NO SHIPPING CHARGE* INDIANA RESIDENTS 
INCLUDE SALES TAX* 

fork feg jfcrftfcan 

P.O. Box 30166 



Indianapolis, Indiana 
46220 




COMPUSERVE EMAIL NO. [71645*5143 



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00196 
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♦REVISION 1 - 01/19/83 
* 

* 

♦CLOSE FILES If RETURN TO ZBUG 
ZCLOSE JSR SCA3B CLOSE FILES 

JMP $1387 RETURN TO ZBUG 

* 
* 

♦ROUTINE TO REINITIALIZE THE 
♦SAM CHIP CORRECTLY AFTER 
♦RESET IS PRESSED 



RESET LDA 


#$35 


FIX INTERRUPT 


STA 


$FF03 


CONTROL REGISTERS 


LDA 


#$34 


OF THE SAM CHIP 


STA 


$FF23 


THEN RETURN TO 


JMP 


$3270 


EDTASMf RESET ROUTINE 



* 
* 

♦MAKE SURE THE DISK FILE IS CLOSED 
♦WHEN ZBUG IS DONE WITH IT 

ORG $2D88 

JSR ZCLOSE 

# 

♦PATCH INTO THE RESET ROUTINE 
ORG S326B 

JMP RESET JUMP TO THE PATCH 

* 
* 

♦FIX INPUT ROUTINE SO THAT IF YOU 
♦RESPOND TO "FILENAME?" PROMPT BY 
♦HITTING BREAK, YOU WON'T ACCIDENTALLY 
♦RETURN TO THE EDITOR 

ORG S1EF0 

LBEQ $172F 

♦ 
♦ 

♦MAKE ZBUG'S "P u COMMAND WRITE 
♦TO DISK, BY USING THE ROM ROUTINE 
♦THAT PROCESSES THE BASIC 
♦COMMAND "SAVEM" 

ORG $16C9 

JMP $CEA2 GO TO ROM ROUTINE 

♦ 
♦ 

♦MAKE ZBUG'S °L" COMMAND LOAD 
♦FROM DISK, BY USING THE ROM ROUTINE 
♦THAT PROCESSES THE BASIC 
♦COMMAND "LOADM" 



ORG 


$1641 




LDU 


ILOAD 


GET THE FILENAME 


JSR 


$15C9 


If OPEN IT FOR INPUT 


PULS 


X 


GET THE OFFSET 


STX 


>$D3 


AND STORE IT 


PSHS 


DP 


SAVE DP 


CLRA 




CLEAR THE 


TFR 


A, DP 


DIRECT PAGE 


JSR 


$CF07 


USE ROM ROUTINE 


PULS 


DP, PC 


RESTORE DP If RETURN 


END 


START 





196 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



6809 • FLEX 



The same system software on FLEX, OS-9, SSB DOS, RS DOS — 
offers portability and easier learning — for Color Computer and SS-50 systems 



RANDOM iviMunv 
BASIC ASSEMBLER 



MACRO 



Many commands 
compatible with familiar 
editors for easy learning. 
Edit files larger than 
memory. 

Many easy line edit 
commands including 
insert, change, delete 
characters within a line. 

Macros for repeated edit 
sequences. 

Merge tiles from disk 

to create programs or 
manuscripts. 

Interfaces with Text 
Processor for word 
processing. 

Great with Macro 
Assembler! 



WHY COMPUTERWARE 



Only Computerware 

offers system software 
on ALL major 6809 
operating systems. 

7 years of 68XX 
experience and 

unmatched expertise. 

As you change 
operating systems, 

there is no need to 
re-learn system 
packages. 

No-one can match the 
quality for the price. 



* Thousands of existing 
programs are now 
transportable to 

other operating systems. 

* Extraordinary File 
Handling Capabilities — 

ISAM, Random, & 
Sequential file structures; 
FAST data file access; 
Very efficient file design 

— records can bridge 
sectors. 

* 11 Digits of precision — 
BCD arithmetic for those 
who need extended 
precision. 

* Flexible User Input 
Commands — Conversa 
tional" programming is a 
snap with commands 
designed for easy user 
input — single character 
or whole lines. 

* Easy Output Formatting 

— Print Using, automatic 
pagination, left & right 
justification, easy 
columnization and decimal 
point alignment. 

* Programming's Fast — 

The interpreter provides 
fast program development 
and debugging — it is 
self-documenting with 
extended variable names. 



★ All Standard 6809 

mneumonics and directives 
supported. 

★ Macros allow you to 
create often-used routines 
only once! 

★ Conditional Assembly 

allows you to build only 
one multi-purpose source 
code to generate several 
versions, reducing 
maintenance significantly! 

★ Repeat Sequences 

eliminate redundant 
coding. 

★ Any Size Source File — 

assembles from disk. 

★ XREF program included 
for easy cross-reference 
listings 

★ Addressing Modes: 

inherent, immediate, 
relative, direct, extended, 
and indexed — all 
addressing modes! 




FLEX is a trademark of TSC 
OS-9 is a trademark of Microware 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



XCOMPUTERWARE e 




6809 Specialists 



Box 668 

Encinitas, CA 92024 • (619) 436-3512 



Computerware is a trademark of Computerware 



CALL 
OR 
WRITE 
FOR 
COMPLETE 
INFORMATION 



RECEIVED & CER TIFIED 

The following products have been recently received by the Rainbow, examined by our magazine staff and approved 
for the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your assurance that we have seen the product and have ascertained that it is 
what it purports to be. 

This month the Seal of Certification has been issued to: 



TRS-80 Programmers Sourcebook, First 
edition, a 67-page (8 Vi x 1 1), soft-cover book 
featuring listings for application software, 
reference publications and computer clubs. 
Edited by J. Bradley Flippen, OCEAN, P.O. 
Box 2331, Springfield, VA 22152, $4.95. 

Basic Programming Primer, a new, ex- 
panded second edition, 368-page ringbound 
soft cover, (9 x 6Vi), primer for those who $22.95 
want to learn BASIC. Written by Mitchell 
Waite and Michael Pardee. Published by 
Howard W. Sams & Co. Inc., P.O. Box 
7092, Indianapolis, IN 46206, $17.95. 



ports. Also available from Universal Data 
Research, Inc., Part I-$99., Part II-$99. 

Moneypak, a 32K ECB learning program 
for home or school which enables youngs- 
ters to gain skill in using money and making 
purchases. Package includes play money 
and is available from Computer Island, 227 
Hampton Green, Staten Island, NY 10312, 



Old McDonald's Farm Vowels, an educa- 
tional vowel drill program for beginning 
readers through second grade. Requires 16K 
ECB. Available from Teksym Corp., 14504 



Pro-Color File,Version 2.0, 32K disk sys- Country Road 15 Minneapolis, MN 55441, 
tern. The 2.0 version is being sold for $79.95; *^ 
however, owners of the 1.0 version should 

Grand Slam Bridge, a 32K card game pro- 
gram. Available from Greentree Software, 
P.O. Box 97, Greenwood, IN 46 1 42, cassette 



have already received letters offering the 
new version for a $20.00 upgrade fee, which 
includes a new manual and diskette. Availa- 
ble from Derringer Software, P.O. Box 
5300, Florence, SC 29501 

Super-Pro Replacement Keyboard Kit, a 

direct replacement professional keyboard 
kit for CoCo and the TDP-I00. It has the 
same key layout as your original keyboard. 
Mark Data Products, 24001 Alicia Pkwy., 
No. 226, Mission Viejo, CA 92691, $69.95. 

Dynacalc, an electronic spreadsheet pro- 
gram with a 41-page manual for Flex users. 
Sold by Computer Systems Center, 13461 
Olive Blvd., Chesterfield, MO 63017, $200. 

Spectran, a program written for the 16 K or 
32K Disk ECB. Allows you to translate 
Spectaculator files to ASCII, or vice versa. 
Availabltffrom Crimson Software, 32 Bev- 
erly Heights, Tuscaloosa, AL 35404, $25. 

Church Contributions Program, software 
and 20-page manual package primarily de- 
signed to facilitate the task of recording 
envelope collections. Maintains its own data 
files. Available from Universal Data 
search, Inc., 2457 Wehrle Dr., Buffalo, NY 
14221, $99. 

Single Entry Ledger, software and a 10-page 




10 handle 
msinesses. 
ipany's Data Ba 
lilable fro 




manual. Desi 
for home ai 
with the 
program. 
Data Reses 

Balanced Billing Program, software and 15- 
page manual provide a menu-driven, billing 
package that maintains its own data files, 
provides reports, and prints invoices and 
mailing labels. Also available from Univer- 
sal Data Research, Inc., $99. 

Data Base Manager, software and manual 
for the TRS-80 Model III and CoCo. This 
program is designed to organize all your 
data and provide you with meaningful re- 



$19.95. 

3-D Tic-Tac-Toe, a game for one player 
against CoCo, or two players against each 
other. More than 150 winning combina- 
tions. On cassette, 32K ECB, $14.95 or 32K 
disk $19.95. Available from Q Soft, 1006 
Robinhood Drive, Painsville, OH 44077. 

Zaxxon, an arcade-style game. Objective: 
you are a pilot of a fighter spacecraft on a 
mission to meet and destroy the deadly 
Zaxxon robot. Available from Data Soft, 
Inc., 9421 Winnetra Avenue, Chatsworth, 
CA 9131 1, cassette or diskette $39.95. 

Zaksund, a "3-D color graphics," arcade 
style game in 32K machine language. Objec- 
tive: fly your spaceship through enemy star- 
bases and avoid guided missles^lasers, and 
firing turrents, and reach their leader — 
Zaksund. KORG Polysix Synthesies sound. 
Available from Elite Software, Box 1 1224, 

(Pittsburgh, PA 1 5238, $24.95 cassette, $27.95 
disk. 

Deprec, Multiple Depreciation Analysis, a 
program that will calculate depreciation 
expense using various methods. Available 
from B. C Engineering, P.O. Box 768. 
Manchester, MO 63011, S 10.95. " 

Intrst I, Home Interest Calculator, a pro- 
gram that will calculate answers for various 
question about loans or money deposited in 
interest bearing accounts. Also available 
from B.C. EneineerinR, $12.95. 

INSIMB, a 6809 machine code instruction 
simulator which uses about 8K. Together 
with Imint (included), will simulate all 6809 
instructions. Also available from B, C. Engi- 
neering, $39.95. 



■■:.•< 



Stock Option Strategies allows you to devise 
your own stock option strategies, covered 



options, straddles, calls and puts, percent 
gains and losses. Graphed in color. No data 
base is required. Menu driven, 16K cassette. 
Available from Greentree Software, P.O. 
Box 97, Greenwood, IN 46142, $14.95. 

Doubleback, Graphics game for 4K and 
joysticks. One or two players. Accumulate 
points by circling an assortment of objects as 
they materialize on the screen. Challenge 
posed by rapidly fading trail and obstacles 
which suddenly appear in your path. Radio 
Shack Catalog No. 26-3091, $24.95. 
The Sands of Egypt, an Adventure game 
with graphics. As you attempt to overcome 
the scorching elements of the desert, you try 
to find the treasure in as few moves as possi- 
ble and claim the treasure. Radio Shack 
Catalog No. 26-3290, $29.95. 
Color Disk SpectacuJator, an electronic spread- 
sheet program that does forecasting, plan- 
ning, budgeting and problem solving. In- 
cludes a 54-page manual divided into five 
parts. Radio Shack. Catalog No. 26-3256, 
$59.95. 

Personafile, is a central filing system for 16K 
or 32K ECB. It allows up to 540 records with 
up to 250 different subjects. Radio Shack 
Catalog No. 26-3260, $59.95. 
Color Disk Scripsit, word processing pro- 
gram. Lets you create correct-free letters, 
themes and reports. Radio Shack Catalog 
No. 26-3255, $59.95. 

Madness & the Minotaur, a 16K Adventure 
game. You are a prisoner in the Labyrinth 
castle and are trying to escape from seven 
creatures with six treasures divided among 
them. Radio Shack Catalog No. 26-3313, 
$14.95. 

TRS-80 Color Computer Quick Reference 
Guide, a 7 1-page ringbound, sof tcover (8 Vi x 
3"/2>, manual. Radio Shack Catalog No. 26- 
3194, $4.95. 

Images II, a data tape packed with pictures 
for the programs Art Gallery and Micro 
Painter. Radio Shack Catalog No. 26-3301, 
$8.95. 

Vocabulary Tutor I, an educational vocabu- 
lary program for ages 8-10. Uses pictures, 
text and recorded speech for the TRS-80. 
Radio ShacldCatalog No. 26-2568, $8.95. 
Color Graphic Printer Package, a series of 
programs including a bar graph and pie 
graph for use with Extended Color BASIC, 
the CPG-1 15 color printer and one joystick. 
Available from Dragonfly Software, 12503 
Davan, Colesville, MD 20904, $18. 
Game Package I, includes Alien, Starship 
and MX Missile Peace Keeper. ECB and one 
joystick. Available from Dragonfly Soft- 
ware, 12503 Davan, Colesville, MD 20904, 
$14. 



The Seal of Certification program is open to all manufacturers of products for the TRS-80 Color Computer, the 
TDP-100, or the Dragon-32, regardless of whether they advertise in the Rainbow. By awarding a Seal, the magazine 
certifies the program does exist, but this does not constitute any guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these 
hardware or software items will be forwarded to the Rainbow's reviewers for evaluation. 

— Jutta Kapfhammer 



198 tht RAINBOW April, 1983 



THE GREATEST 

SOFTWARE DEAL 



ON EARTH 





Tame your computer without breaking your wallet's spirit! Quality 
programs on tape for the price of peanuts 



A subscription to Chromasette Magazine consists of 6 to 8 
ready-to-load useful, practical and fun programs delivered by First Class 
Mail every month. Programs like Curve Fit, Diggem, Graph Text, List Mod, 
Robot Run, House Adventure, and Keep Text. 

Treat yourself to a great show — get a subscription to Chromasette 
Magazine. Or catch a single act and try a back issue. You'll be delighted 
by the tricks your computer will do 



The Bottom Line: 



1 year (12 issues) $50.00 
6 months 

(6 issues) $30.00 
Single Copies $ 6.00 



Calif, residents add 6% to single copies. 
North America — First Class postage 
included. 

Overseas — add $10 to subscriptions and 
$1 to single copies. Sent AO rate. 



The Fine Print: 



All issues from July 1981 available — ask for list. Programs are for the 
Extended BASIC model and occasionally for disks. 




"Qvtomabette. 



MAGAZINE 

P.O. Box 1087 Santa Barbara. C A 93 1 02 (805)963-1066 MasterCard /Visa 



BASIC TRAINING 

Let's Share Some Of Your Useful Hints 

By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Nobody has a monopoly on ideas! You may have found 
an easier, simpler or less expensive way to do something that 
may be of use to Rainbow readers. If it is not too advanced 
or complex, why not sit down and write up your hint, 
observation or innovation? Send it to me at 1 706 Dickinson 
Street, Inverness, Florida, 32650. We, through the Rainbow, 
will share it with others beginners. 

Let's pause and consider some hints and suggestions that 
you may, or may not, find useful. 

Have you noticed all the good ideas and hints that appear 
in the Rainbow? Why not copy the ones that you feel are 
useful or interesting into your personal reference notebook? 
Never cut them out of the Rainbow. You will only be 
chopping up a good reference source. Copy the essence into 
your private reference notebook and if some of them are of 
doubtful value now but show promise for the future when 
you become more sure of yourself, why not reserve a page in 
your notebook, listing the j ist of the hint, the page and issue 
of the Rainbow? Later on, as your horizons expand, you can 
easily locate and refer to it. 

The information in the Rainbow never gets stale and for 
you recent beginners who have just subscribed to the 
Rainbow, it will be wise to consider purchasing the back 
issues. Now, that's a hint! 

You have been having fun making up and saving some 
programs to tape. About every six months, after you have 
absorbed and digested new information and have advanced 
in ability, pull out and review some of the programs that you 
created. They need not be long and involved but they should 
be your own work. 

You will discover thatyou have new insights and expanding 
awareness regarding your programming abilities and will 
see many ways to improve, enhance or expand your earlier 
works. So, what are you waiting for? Rework the program! 

Two things will be verified: I) the extent of your progress 
since you first created the program; and 2) your increased 
ability to utilize your new knowledge. In fact, you may have 
advanced far enough to say, "bye, bye, beginners ! " and head 
for higher ground. 

When you are making up a program, it is best to put in the 
REM after you are finished. You can tack REMS after 
individual lines to clarify what the line contains. Sometimes, 
in your REM you may refer to other line numbers. If you 
decide to RENUM the program lines, the RENUM feature 
will not change the line numbers in the REMs. Often, you 
forget to check the REMs and change the reference to line 
numbers. When running through the listing, those REMs 
will be incorrect, useless and confusing. So, make it a point 
to put in the REMs just before you put it on tape. 

Let's say you have a cassette tape that contains many 
programs, your tape is positioned after the last entry, and 
you want to CLOAD the last program. You can avoid 
wasting time rewinding to the beginning and then fast 
forwarding by doing the following: 1 ) reset counter to 000; 2) 
subtract the ending number of the program from the 
program; 3) rewind until you get the counter back the 



required units. (Example: program is 14 units long. Add 
two, which results in 16. rewind to 984). Cload "XXX" 
ENTER. If you get an I / O message, it means you overrode 
the start of the program. Back up a few more digits and try 
again. Now you know one of the benefits of listing the 
ending counter number on the title card as well as leaving 
ample space between programs. 

Be careful when going into the EDIT mode not to 
absentmindedly key in 1250 instead of EDIT 1250 and then 
press ENTER. This will delete line number 1250 and you 
will have nothing to edit. Likewise if you key in 1250 or 
1250-1280 when you intended to key in LIST 1250 or LIST 
1250-1280 and press ENTER, you will delete line number 
1 250 in both cases. You are likely to make these errors when 
in a frenzy of creativity your hand is quicker than your eye. 

The only real solution is that when you key in EDIT, or 
LIST specific lines, you scan the entry before pressing 
ENTER. If you practice this cautionary action, you will 
soon make it an automatic response. This is one of those 
times when haste makes waste! 

A similar error may occur when you are in the EDIT 
mode and want to press the "X" to get to the end of the line. 
You maypressthe"C"inerror. Again, make ita point when 
pressing the "X" to see that you are really at the end of the 
line. Otherwise, you may wind up doing strange things to the 
line you are editing. 

If you own a LPVII printer and use the screen print 
program (R.S. 26-3021), you may inadvertantly press the 
"shift" and "up arrow" while you are editing your listing and 
the printer is on. This will start your printer clacking away, 
creating an unwanted picture and wasting your time. 

Happily, there is a solution available in your home. 
Search around the house for a bottle cap that is about the 
size that is on an aspirin tablet bottle. Some thimbles may 
fit. Break of f the handle from a plastic coffee measure if it is 
the small size. 

Just place the cap over the "up arrow" key and you can 
edit to your heart's content without worrying about pressing 
that no-no key. 

Remember that spring-loaded clothespin that you use on 
the extended handle of your cassette player to hold work 
that you are copying? That clothes pin can also serve as a 
handy pencilholder. Just press the pencil between the two 
pieces. It will be held firmly and be ready for action when- 
ever you are. 

If you are using an improvised typing-stand as descripbed 
in the first article, you may find that many soft-covered 
books, as well as hard-covered books, will not stay open to a 
desired page. The pages have a tendency to flip over and lose 
your place. 

You can solve this easily. Use the cardboard backing of an 
8V£ x 1 1 writing tablet, a piece of stiff corrugated cardboard, 
a piece of veneer plywood, plexiglass or some other suitable, 
thin-but-firm material. 

Open your soft-covered book to the desired page, clip 
each side of the open book, at the upper right corner and the 



200 tho RAINBOW April, 1983 



TRS-80 COLOR 



AARDVARK 

COMMODORE 24 VIC-20 SINCLAIR/TIMEX TI99 





A* 




QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMESI Different from all the others. 
Quest is played on a computer generated 
map of Alesia. Your job is to gather men 
and supplies by combat, bargaining, explor- 
ation of ruins and temples and outright 
banditry. When your force is strong enough, 
you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable 
in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different every 
time. 16k TI99, TRS-80 Color, and Sinclair, 
13K VIC-20. $14.95 each. 

32K TRS 80 COLOR Version $24.95. 
Adds a second level with dungeons and 
more Questing. 




CATERPILLAR 

O.K., the Caterpillar does look a lot like a 
Centipede. We have spiders, falling fleas, 
monsters traipsing across the screen, poison 
mushrooms, and a lot of other familiar 
stuff. COLOR 80 requires 16k and Joy- 
sticks. This is Edson's best game to date. 
$19195 for TRS 80 COLOR. 



ADVENTURES!!? 

The Adventures below are written in BASIC, 
are full featured, fast action, full plotted ad- 
ventures that take 30-50 hours to play. (Ad- 
ventures are interactive fantasies. It's like 
reading a book except that you are the main 
character as you give the computer, com- 
mands like "Look in the Coffin" and'"Light 
the torch.") 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, 
TRS-80, and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k 
on OSI and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires 
extended BASIC. Now available for TI99. 
Any Commodore 64. 
$14.95 Tape - $19.95 Disk. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS 

(by Rodger Olsen ) 
This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANET. You'll have to explore a Martian 
city and deal with possibly hostile aliens to 
survive this one. A good first adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 
This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. 
It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of 
problems. Exciting and tough I 

DERELICT 

(by Rodger Olsen & Bob Anderson) 
New winner in the toughest adventure from 
Aardvark sweepstakes. This one takes place 
on an alien ship that has been deserted for a 
thousand years — and is still dangerous I 

Dungeons of Death — Just for the 16k TRS- 
80 COLOR, this is the first D&D type game 
good enough to qualify at Aardvark. This is 
serious D&D that allows 1 to 6 players to go 
on a Dragon Hunting, Monster Killing, Dun- 
geon Exploring Quest. Played on an on- 
screen map, you get a choice of race and 
character (Human, Dwarf, Soldier, Wizard, 
etc.), a chance to grow from game to game, 
and a 15 page manual. At the normal price 
for an Adventure ($14.95 tape, $19.95 disk), 
this is a giveaway. 

WIZARDS TOWER — This is very similar to 
Quest (see above). We added wizards, magic, 
dragons, and dungeons to come up with a 
Quest with a D&D flavor. It requires 16k 
extended color BASIC. $14.95 Tape, 
$19.95 Disk. VIC 20 Commodore 64. 

Please specify system on all orders 



PLANET RAIDERS - Not just another de- 
fenders copy, this is an original program 
good in its own right. You pilot a one man 
ship across a planetary surface dogfighting 
with alien ships and blasting ground installa- 
tions while you rescue stranded troopers. 
Rescue all the troopers and be transported 
to another harder, faster battle. Joysticks 
required. ALL MACHINE CODEI EDSONS 
BEST! 16K Tape TRS80COLOR $19.95 - 
32K Disk $21.95. 

BASIC THAT ZOOOMMS!! 
AT LAST AN AFFORDABLE COMPILER! 

The compiler allows you to write your 
programs in easy BASIC and then auto- 
matically generates a machine code equiv- 
alent that runs 50 to 150 times faster. 

It does have some limitations. It takes at 
least 8k of RAM to run the compiler and it 
does only support a subset of BASIC— 
about 20 commands including FOR, NEXT, 
END, GOSUB,GOTO,IF, THEN, RETURN, 
END, PRINT, STOP, USR (X), PEEK, 
POKE, *,/,+, -, > , < ,= VARIABLE 
NAMES A-Z f SUBSCRIPTED VARIABLES, 
and INTEGER NUMBERS FORM 0-64K. 

TINY COMPILER is written in BASIC. It 
generates native, relocatable 6502 or 6809 
code. It comes with a 20-page manual and 
can be modified or augmented by the user. 
$24.95 on tape or disk for OSI, TRS-80 
Color, VIC 20, or Commodore 64. 

SEAWOLFE - ALL MACHINE CODE In 
this high speed arcade game, you lay out 
patterns of torpedoes ahead of the attacking 
PT boats. Requires Joysticks, at least 13k 
RAM, and fast reflexes. Lots of Color and 
Sound. A fun game. Tape or Disk for Vic20, 
Commodore 64, and TRS-80 Color. 
$14.95 Tape -$19.95 Disk. 

Dealers — We have the best deal going for 
you. Good discounts, exchange programs, 
and factory support. Send for Dealer Infor- 
mation. 

Authors — Aardvark pays the highest com- 
missions in the industry and gives programs 
the widest possible advertising coverage. 
Send a Self Addressed Stamped Envelope 
for our Authors Information Package. 

Adventures and Quest now available 
for TI99 



ALSO FROM AARDVAR K — This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 



AARDVARK 

2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 / (313) 669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 

$2.00 shipping on each order 



A4INBCW 



upper left corner with two clothespins. Place it in position 
on your stand and you will be able to type without the 
annoyance of f lipstand and you will be able to type without 
the annoyance of flipping pages. Experiment to get the best 
results for your personal set-up. 

This will also work effectively on hard-covered books and 
magazines provided that they are not too bulky. When not 
in use, clip the clothespins to the desk lamp you have in back 
of your stand or in some convenient place. The clothespins 
make good conversation pieces when you have visitors to 
your work area. 

A neat way to keep the Rainbow open to a desired page 
when you want to key in some listing, is to open the maga- 
zine to the desired page, loosely fold the facing page in back 
of the cardboard/ wood backing and clip it in two places, 
with you know what, on the top edge with the backing in 
between. When finished with that side, it should be no 
problem to clip the other side, except that the loose f old will 
be on the oposite side. 

If you are copying f rom slick paper that reflects light, and 
you use a desk lamp in back of your typing stand, you will 
find by moving the lamp around that the portion you are 
copying can be made reflection-free. 

Finally, if your cassette gets much use, the "play" key may 
not remain depressed because it is worn. As a temporary 
remedy, when pressing the "play" key, wedge one of the 
tapered ends of a clothes-pin in back of the "play" key and it 
will keep it in position so that you will be able to play and/ or 
record until you get it fixed. 

There is a way to fix the "play" key without returning it to 
Radio Shack or buying a new cassette, if it is a CRT-80A. 
Mine has gone out a few times and since it is working fine, 
the rule is: don't fool with it! When it goes again, I plan to 
write up the remedy in detail and off er it as a hint in a f uture 



article. In the meantime, if you are having problems with the 
"play" key on your CRT-80A, drop me a line and I will be 
glad to give you the remedy. 

Keep creating, and if you have some hint to share, let this 
article be your conduit. 



Back Issue Availability 



Back copies of many issues of the RAINBOW are still 
available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue cover price — which 
is $2 for copies of Volume I, Numbers 1-8 (through 
February, 1982), $2.50 for Volume I, Numbers 9, 10 and 12 
(through June except May, 1982) and $2.95 for those issues 
thereafter. In addition, there is a $3.50 charge per order for 
postage and handling if sent by United Parcel Service and $6 
for orders sent U.S. Mail. UPS will not deliver to a post 
office box or to another country. This charge applies 
whether you want one back issue or all of them. 

Most back issues are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. Issues out of print include May, July, August, 
September, October, November,and December, 1982 and 
January, February, 1983. VISA, MasterCard and American 
Express accepted. Kentucky residents please add 5 percent 
state sales tax. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you order back issues 
you want now while supplies last. 

In addition, copies of the cover only of the July, 1982, 
Anniversary Issue are available separately f or $ 1 each, plus 
50 cents shipping and handling. These are suitable for 
framing. 



VOICE RECOGNITION 

For your 16K TRS-80 Extended Basic Color Computer 



Using your cassette recorder's condenser microphone, the COLOR TALK TO A£ software 
package can let you use your own voice as an alternate means of input for any of 
your BASIC programs. Over 200 words can be stored in 16K RAM. With a little 
practice, you can attain from 80% to over 90% accuracy for most applications. 

The COLOR TALK TO A£ Software Package includes: 
-COLOR TALK TO A£ machine language subroutine 

-The BASIC subroutine which can merge COLOR TALK TO A£ with your programs 
-Complete instructions on how to use and incorporate COLOR TALK TO At 
in BASIC proqrams 
-Two application programs: 

1. VOICE CALC- Use your voice to enter arithmetic problems and VOICE CALC 

will display the solution. 

2. SCREEN PAINTER- Say a color and the screen will be painted that color. 

ALL OF THIS ON TWO CASSETTES FOR ONLY $49.95!!! 

Color Soft Software will soon be releasing voice recognition programs which can be 
used once you buy COLOR TALK TO A£. Coming soon: Connect More, Crosswords & more! 

ATTENTION PROGRAMMERS: ColorSoft Software will market original voice recognition 
programs using COLOR TALK TO AC with excellent royalties in return. 



Dealer 
Inquiries 
Invited 



Send check or money order to: ColorSoft Software Co. 
Add $2.00 shipping 11764 Raintree Ct. 

MI residents add 4% sales tax Utica, MI 48087 



202 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



/WE DO BASIC BETTER^ 

Experience High Resolution Graphics 
and Speed Unsurpassed in Color 
Computer Extended Basic Software 



GALLOPING 
GAMBLERS 

Those who have tried It agree that GALLOPING 
GAMBLERS Is eo addictive, so exciting, that you and 
your whole family will alt cheering for your horse to 
win. 

No Joysticks are required for this 4 player game. Place 
your bets on the variable odds and then wait for the 
sound of post time. .arid... they 're off. 
Qame Includes color graphics with score end birds- 
eye view of the race track. Can you last all twelve 
races? 

We dare you to try. 

$18.95 

GATOR ZONE- 

Is the first video computer game that takes a "byte'' 
out of the Prsppy craze! You can finally get even with 
those pesty Ivy League snobs by blasting away at a 
hoat of Preppy Qatore on their home planet of "Prep- 
tune". You have to be quick, or the gators will gob- 
ble up your shlrtel This Is comic arcade fun at Its best. 
Includes high-resolution graphics, on-screen scoring, 
Joystick action, and three levels of play. 
An 1MB original! 

$18.95 
STAR SIEGE PLUS- 

Dlacusted with Space Battle games In which your 
space craft looks Ilka an asterisk? 
STAR SIEQEMt you and your friend (or anemy) pilot 
two high resolution space ships while trading laser 
bleats. The first to tske ten hits loses, but watch out 
for that pesty alien saucerl He wants to see to It that 
you both get vaporized. 

Also Includes two player TANK TORCHER game. 

$18.95 
METEOR STORM- 

If you are bored with space obstacle games that place 
you as a distant observer from a point far off in space, 
then METEOR STORM is for you. Enjoy the thrill of 
bleating the approaching meteors from the cockpit 
of your own spacecraft. Watch the meteors grow In 
size until. . . I 

16K Color Extended Required. Includes sound 
enhanced laser blasts, multl game scoring, and three 
levels of play. 



$12.95 



SELECT-A-GAME- 

combines 3of IMB's finest bonus gsmes In one slm- 
pleload! You can switch back and forth from "ALPINE 
AUENS", "OH, GOBI", snd "ZELDA'S BAT BOTTLE". 
All contsln stunning color grsphlcs snd high speed 
sctlon. Even If you slready own one or more of these 
games, you will wsnt this fine package. 

$18.95 

MICRO-MATH 
SKILLS QUIZ- 

is a fine math drill for students st or below the 3rd 
grade msth level. Includes automatic grade tally, and 
IN KEY entry with large print, high-resolution graphics. 
This Is s must for educators! 

$12.95 

CREATAVADER- 

Now you can design your own "Invader-style" gsme 
for your Color Computer. Includes sit the routines 
needed for customizing the creatures you hate the 
most. Full Instructions Included. Creste your own 
targets or select from s menu of seven predesigned 
four color tsrgets. 

$18.95 

COLOR 
WORDCLONE- 

Turn your Color Computer Into a supertype writer. 
Screen displays 50 characters by 23 lines In real up- 
per and lowercase. User modifiable. Remove our 
character generator and use It in your own basic pro- 
gram. This Is an easy to use word processor. The 
character generator alone is worth the price of the 
tape. Works with tape or disk. 

$18.95 
KOSMIC KAMIKAZE- 

Our best selling high resolution, deep spsce arcade 
game which the RAINBOW called "...the best 
spaceship graphics we have seen In a non-machine 
language program." Battle high speed alien saucers, 
decoy ships, bonus killer crafts and speeding comets. 



ADVANCED 

STAR*TRENCH 
WARFARE- 

This High Resolution Color Qame has the most 
elaborate graphics of any Color Computer Qame 
created to date. You'll be amazed by the remarkable 
speed and flicker-free animation found In this graphic 
space challenge. Program Includes a moving trench, 
cockpit perspective, on-screen rapid scoring, energy 
and shlpgauges,automatic high score tally, joystick 
control, and a recharge and crash sequence you'll 
hsve to see to believe. Use yourown 3-D gi uses and 
add sn amazing sense of depth to this classic game. 
Truly a must for every Color Computer. 



$18.95 




$18.95 



STARBASE ATTACK- 

Why be a loser? Here's an arcade game you can play 
to win. In other space city defense games you play 
until you lose. STARBASE ATTACK Is totally different. 
Your mission Is to clear a path for the escape vehicles 
which will carry your people to safety. Not only that, 
but you must also maneuver your own escape before 
alien warheads or a wave of killer asteroids level your 
dome-covered cities. You control high energy laser 
blasts and expansion shields, but watch outl You 
might end up the one who doesn't escape. 

$12.95 




SUPER DISC WITH ALL 11 PROGRAMS 

A VALUE OF $171.50 JUST $59.95 POST. PAID. 



ILLUSTRATED MEMORY BANKS 
P.O. BOX 289 

WILLIAMSTOWN, MA 01267 
VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED • 
CALL (413) 663-9648 3-7 PM. EST. 



RAINBOW 



MENTION THE RAINBOW AND SELECT ONE FREE PROGRAM FOR 

EVERY TWO $18.95 PROGRAMS YOU ORDER. 



Federal Hill Software 
Coco-Accountant 

Was income tax a chore this year? Use 
the power of your Color Computer to make those 
deductions a breeze. Keep track of household 
or business expenses quickly and easily using 
data from your canceled checks. 16K version 
handles 200 entries; 32K handles up to 450. 
Both versions: 

* List expenses by month 

* List expenses by account (year or month) 

* List expenses by payee (year or month) 

* Sort checks by date 

* List to screen or printer. 

In addition, 32K version flags deductible 
checks, flags checks subject to sales tax and 
computes the sales tax you paid. 16K or 32K 
Cassette $15.95. 32K Disk $21.95. 

Blackjaq! 

This is as close as you can get to the 
real thing without losing your shirt. A full 
casino simulation with five players and dealer, 
up to six decks and lightning fast action. 
Play alone (the computer plays vacant hands 
by card-counting rules) or invite your friends. 
Blackjaq keeps track of everyone's winnings 
and losings, gives card counting pointers, 
and, at your option, prints out the results 
of every hand. Amazing value. 16K EXT. Tape 
$19.95. Disk $24.95. 

Koko Math! 

Are your kids bored with educational 
programs? Let KOKO the math clown make 
arithmetic a joy. Get 10 problems right and 
give him a bath. Colorful graphics and music 
will make this program a hit with your 
youngsters. Add subtract, multiply or divide; 
three difficulty Does not require Ext. Basic. 
$8.95. 



Software Review . . . 

LList-Rite A Handy 
Inexpensive Utility 

You cannot tell a book by looking at the cover. The same 
evidently holds true for looking at software's document. 
When I looked at the documentation for LLIST-RITE I did 
not see anything spectacular that the program was going to 
do for me (this is not saying the documentation is inad- 
equate — I will cover that later), I was in for a pleasant 
surprise. 

First and foremost, you need CoCo, a printer, and a 
cassette. LLIST-RITE comes on a cassette and runs in 16 K 
or 32K Extended BASIC. It can be used to LLIST and 
length BASIC program that is CSA VED in ASCII format. 
The ASCII version can be simply gotten by CSA VE "pro- 
gram name," A. It observes page boundaries, e.g., gives you 
eight character wide left/ right margins and margins at the 
top and bottom of each page. 

LLIST- RITE prints in two columns which saves paper for 
its type of listing. It sets the line numbers apart from the text 
of the program where they can be easily f ound, breaks down 
miltiple statements, and lists IF- THEN- ELS Eon separate 
lines so they logically make sense. It also gives you a screen 
display of the line it is currently working on, so you know 
where the program is at all times. 

LLIST-RITE has only 4,367 characters and therefore 
CLOADS quickly. It is written totally in Extended BASIC 
and has plenty of REM's to help you understand how it 
works and modify it if you desire. I modify most programs I 
buy to make them customized for my use so this was espe- 
cially handy for me. 

LLIST-RITE has a short but adequate documentation 
which states (in part) "If dissatisfied with LIST-RITE return 
package for a full refund." I would like to see this added to 
the documentation of all the software for CoCo. I'm quite a 
dreamer! 

I cloaded LLIST-RITE in my 32K CoCo, picked out a 
program that I had previously CSAVED in ASCII, and 
began to get a listing on my Line Printer VIII, Beautiful! 

LLIST-RITE lists your program in two columns, gives 
adequate margins for storing in a three-ring binder, and 
makes the listing highly legible. Since a picture is worth a 
thousand words. . . 

Here is a sample LLIST of a program using CoCo's 
ROM! 

520 LN=25-J:Q=2: GOSUB 770:IFLEN< 
I*)>2THEN GOSUB 810: LN=LEN < I*) : J 

=-i:l*<I)=l*<I)+" m :goto 500 el 

SE N=0: I *= " " : GOTO700 

Here is the exact same line the way LLIST-RITE says it! 



520 




LN=25-J 


521 


9 


:Q=2 


522 


r 


GOSUB 770 


523 


9 


: IF LEN<I*) >2 


524 


9 


THEN GOSUB 810 


525 


9 


:ln=len<i*) 


526 


? 


: J=-i 


527 


9 


:L*(l)«L*(i>+" 


528 


9 


:GOTO 500 


529 


9 


ELSE LN=0 


530 


9 


: l*=" " 


531 


9 


:goto 700 



Printer Art! 

Turn your printer into an artist with 
this collection of 12 printer drawings. Clipper 
ship, palm trees, witches, Christmas cards 
and other delightful compositions to decorate 
report covers, hang on the wall or amuse your 
friends. Use program as is or pull out drawings 
for subroutines in your own programs. 16K 
EXT. Tape $14.95, Disk $19.95. 

Federal Hill Software 
825 William Street 
Baltimore, Maryland 21230 



204 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




MODEL I 



BASIC: Buff & Blue 
5 Panels, 10 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

Memory Map. 

Easy Graphics. 

Basic Statements. 

Basic Functions. 

Basic Facts. 

Special Characters. 

Basic Commands. 

Edit Subcommands. 

PRINT USING Examples. 

Message & Codes. 

Reserved Words. 

Special Keys. 

Ascii Character Chart, 

with Space Compression Codes. 

Control Codes. 

Basic Internal Codes. 

Hex/Dec Conversion Chart. 

Screen Line Layout. 

BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Buff 

8 Panels, 16 Pages 

(For the Pro) 

Complete Z80 Instructions- 
Assembler Instructions. 
Commands, Operators. 
Editor/Assembler Commands, 
and Edit Subcommands. 
Flags, Conditions, & Chart. 
Internal Routines. 
Assembler Error Msgs. 
Plus Most Items in the Basic Card 



MODEL II 



BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Green 
10 Panels, 20 Pages 
(For the Business) 

Small Memory Map. 

Screen Layout. 

Easy Graphics. 

Complete Z80 Instructions. 

Series-1 Assembler Instr. 

Commands, Operators, and Edit 

Subcommands. 

Assembler Error Msgs. 

Power-up Error Msgs. 

Flags, Conditions, & Chart. 

Wild Cards, DOS Messages. 

SVC Procedure Panel. 

Host Logon Pane 1 . 

Version 2.0 Lib Command Formats 

and System Utility Formats. 

Basic Functions & Statements. 

DOS File Naming Convention. 

Basic Commands & Edit 

Subcommands. 

Special Keys. 

Basic Internal Codes and 

Reserved Words. 

Basic Msgs. & Codes. 

PRINT USING Examples. 

Special Characters. 

"DO" Utilities & BASIC Command. 

Ascii Character Chart with SVC 

Names and Numbers. 

Control Codes. 



MODEL 



BASIC: Blue & Buff 
6 Panels, 12 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

Special Characters. 
Kana Characters. 
Euro-Characters. 
Memory Map. 

Special Keyboard Functions. 
Ascii Char. Chart w/Space 
Compression Codes. 
Control Codes. 
Cassette Loading Err Msgs. 
Basic Commands, Edit 
Subcommands, Special Chars., 
Basic Statements, Facts, 
Functions, Derived Functions, 
Special Operations (POKEs). 
PRINT USING Examples. 
Basic Msgs. & Codes. 
Basic Internal Codes. 
Reserved Words. 
Screen Line Layout. 
BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Blue 
10 Panels, 20 Pages 
(For the Pro) 

Complete Z80 Instructions. 
Assembler Instructions, Commands, 
Operators. 

Series I Editor/Assembler 
Commands & Edit Subcommands. 
Flags, Conditions, & Chart. 
Hex/Dec Conversion Chart. 
Assembler Error Msgs. 
Internal CALL Routines. 
Break Processing Procedure. 
Plus all items in the Basic card. 



COLOR 



BASIC & EXTENDED: 
Grey ♦ 9 Colors. 
8 Panels 16 pages 
(For the Artist) 
All Color Graphics. 
System Commands. 
PRINT USING Examples. 
Special Characters. 
Special Keys. 

Cassette Loading Err Msgs. 

Basic Functions & Statements. 

Playing Music, Making a Circle, 

ana Drawing Panels. 

Derived Functions. 

Messages & Codes. 

Musical Notes, by Octave, in 

Color, Including Rests and Time. 

Memory Map. 

Reserved Words. 

Internal Codes. 

A Page of Tips. 

Ascii Char. Codes Chart. 

Including Inverse Graphics 

and Color Graphics. 

Control Codes. 

Color Group Chart. 

Pmode Information Summary. 

Screen Line Layout. 

Extended Graphics Pmode 

Illustrations. 



APPLE II & II PLUS 

BASIC: Red & Pink 

7 Panels, 14 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

48K Memory Map 

APPLESOFT and INTEGER BASIC. 

Basic Statements. 

Basic Functions. 

Derived Functions. 

Special Characters & Operators. 

System & Utility Commands. 

Pokes, Peeks, Calls. 

Monitor Commands. 

Key & Control Functions. 

APPLESOFT Internal Codes. 

APPLESOFT Reserved Words. 

Integer Basic Addressing. 

DOS 3.3 Command Summary. 

Color Selection Chart. 

Error Msgs. & Handling. 

Reading Macrunfe Language. 

Hex/Dec Conversion Chart 

ASCII, Print, Video, 6502, Integer 

and APPLESOFT Code Reference 

Chart, 0-255. 

Basic & 6602: Red 

8 Panels, 16 Pages 
(For the Pro) 

All features of the Basic Card, Plus: 
6502 Timing. 

6502 Language Simplified. 

Flags & Conditions with Reference 

Chart. 



POCKET 



Please send me: 



BASIC: Purple 
5 Panels, 10 Pages 

Operating Characteristics 

Memory Types and Limitations. 

Modes of Operation. 

PRO Mode. 

RUN Mode. 

RESERVE Mode. 

DEF Mode 

Fixed Variable Facts and 

References. 

System Function Keys. 

Math and Logic Function Keys. 

Normal Character Keys. 

Special Characters and 

Function Keys. 

Basic Commands. 

Cassette Interface Commands. 

Reserved Words. 

Math and Numeric Functions. 

Derived Functions. 

Basic Statements. 

Error Messages and Codes. 

USING Statement Examples 

and more. . . ! 

A pocket card for your 
pocket computer. 



Card Price 

Copies of MODEL I BASIC & ASSEMBLER $4.95 

Copies of MODEL I BASIC-ONLY 2.95 

Copies of MODEL II BASIC & ASSEMBLER 5.95 

Copies of MODEL II SVC 2.95 

Copies of MODEL II COMMANDS & UTILITIES 3.95 

Copies of MODEL III BASIC & ASSEMBLER 5.95 

Copies of MODEL III BASIC-ONLY 3.95 

Copies of COLOR BASIC AND EXTENDED 4.95 

Copies of POCKET BASIC 2.95 

Copies of APPLE II & II PLUS BASIC 3.95 

Copies of APPLE II & II PLUS BASIC & 6502 4.95 

Copies of Z80 4.95 

Copies of ZX80, 81, & TIMEX SINCLAIR-1000 5.95 

Copies of H EATH/ZENITH HDOS for H8/H89/Z89/Z90 5.95 



Ask for them at your store or 

m, ml .m. ■ — — — — — 1 Jkh^h 

DooK&iow or order Trorn 



Wholesale prices available 
in quantities over 24. 



Send Check or Money Order to: 
NANOS SYSTEMS CORP. 
P.O. BOX 24344 
SPEEDWAY, IN 46224 
(317) 244-4078 



NAME: 

ADDRESS 



CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



Indiana Residents Add 5 Percent for Indiana Sales Tax 



Definitely impressive, huh? Notice how missing spaces are 
inserted so the commands are more legible. IF, THEN, and 
ELSE are put on separate lines. The line number is set off 
from the rest of the statement. I am an instructor/ supervisor 
for computer maintenance people and most of my pro- 
gramming endeavors involve word processing. To more 
efficiently use memory, I use a "shrink" program that 
removes all spaces and, for speed, I use multiple program 
statements whenever I can. This insertion of spaces and 
separation of multiple statements certainly complements my 
reading after the writing his "cooled," LLIST-RITE 
numbers and prints a very meaningful heading at the top of 
each page. This is extremely useful in "getting your act 
together" if you save and refer back to listings from time to 
time. 

It certainly makes your listings more legible, storable, and 
your "bugs" easier to find. The program is written in 
Extended BASIC so you can make changes, if necessary. It 
is internally documented with ample REM's which helps 
you to understand how it does its thing. LLIST-RITE is very 
user-friendly. I believe anyone could use it. 

A disadvantage is that it's slow! It took me just over 26 
minutes to LLIST LLIST-RITE which contains 4,367 
memory locations and it used more paper than CoCo's 
LLIST would use. 

The documentation is good. It is short (one page) but 
contains the information neded to be off and running with 
superlative LLISTS. I noticed a couple of typographical 
errors but nothing worth noting. 



I would like to see LLIST-RITE revised to enable the user 
to LLIST sl segment of a program. The way it is now, it is 
either list all or nothing. I found one "bug" which resulted in 
a FC ERROR in 500 when the program was listing a line 
where I had a REM with no statement following it (this, by 
the way, is a very unusual programming tactic). I notified 
CoCo-Data and suggested a fix. They immediately wrote 
back and said they were able to duplicate the problem, tested 
my solution, and it was universal. They also changed the 
master tape so future programs sold will be "bug-free." 

Should you buy it? This is where you must consider the 
sacrifice of time versus the gain in readability and bug- 
finding. Will there be an overall time savings? Just remem- 
ber, they guarantee satisfaction or your money back — even 
the shipping and handling charge is refunded. Not many 
software retailers have that much pride in authorship. I 
really appreciated the timeliness of the response I got when I 
wrote them. In their letter to me, they said they offer pre- 
purchase information sheets (as opposed to selling the man- 
ual) for the asking. LLIST-RIT£?s information sheet has a 
partial sheet of a listed program (using LLIST-RITE) and a 
general overview of the instructions. As you can see in the 
parenthetical data, the price is a small one to pay for an item 
that will make your computing a happier experience. Wha- 
tever your decision, I sincerely hope this review helps you 
make an educated one. 

(CoCoDATA Enterprises, 1215 Emeralda Drive, Orlando, 

FL 32808, $5.95) 

—Herbert B. Ridge 



The Original FLEX for Color Computers 



> 



* Upgrade to 64K 

* RS to FLEX, FLEX to RS file transfer ability 

* Create your own character set 

* Automatic recognition of single or double density and single or 
doubled sided 

* All features available for either single or multiple drive systems 

* Settable Disk Drive Seek Rates 

* Faster High Resolution Video Display with 5 different formats 

* Save RS Basic from RAM to Disk 

* Move RS Basic to RAM 

* Load and save function on FLEX disk 

* 13 Support Commands 8 with Source Text 

Languages Available 
Pascal, Fortran, RS Basic, RS Assembler, TSC Basic, TSC Assemb- 
ler, Relocating Assembler, Macro Assembler, Mumps 

If you are tired of playing games on your TRS-80C" Color Computer, or find that you are 
handicapped by the limitations of the RS BASIC in trying to write a P rogra m that will allow you to 
actually USE the Color Computer as a COMPUTER, YOU ARE RE AD YTO MOVE UP TOTHE 
FLEX9'" Operating System. If you want to have REAL PROGRAMMING POWER, using an 
Extremely Powerful Business BASIC, PASCALS, C Compilers, a full-blown Macro Assembler 
with a Library capability so you are not continuously "reinventing the wheel ', YOU ARE READY 
TO MOVE UP TO THE FLEX9" Operating System. If you would like to see if YOU REALLY 
COULD USE A COMPUTER IN YOUR BUSINESS, or begin to make your Computer start 
PAYING IT S OWN WAY by doing some Computer Work for the millions of small businesses 
around you, such as Wordprocessing, Payroll, Accounting, Inventory, etc., then YOU ARE 
READYTO MOVE UP TO THE FLEX9 lw Operating System. How?? DATA-COMP has the way! 

DATA-COMP s FLEX9" Conversion for the TRS-80C w Color Computer was designed for the 
SERIOUS .COMPUTER USER; with features like greatly increased Display Screens, WITH 
Lower Case Letters, so you can put a FULL Menu on ONE Screen, or see SEVERAL Para- 
graphs at the same time; with features like providing a FULL Keyboard so you have FULL 
Control of your Computer AND it's Programs NATURALLY, without needing a chart to see what 
Key Combination will give you what function; with USER ORIENTED functions to make using 
the Operating System natural, like having the Computer AUTOMATICALLY determine what 
type of Disk is being used in what type of Disk Drive and working accordingly, rather that you 
have to specify each and every thing for it, or like having the Computer work with the Printer you 
have been using all along without you having to tell the new Operating System what is there:etc, 
etc., etc. 



DATA-COMP has everything you need to make your TRS-80C '" Color Computer WORK 
for YOU; from Parts and Pieces to Full, Ready To Use SYSTEMS. DATA-COMP designs, 
sells, services, and SUPPORTS Computer SYSTEMS, not just Software. CALL DATA- 
COMP TODAY to make your Computer WORK FOR YOU! 

System Reguirements 

FLEX9 Special General Version x/Editor & Assembler (which normally sell for $50.00 

ea.) $150.00 

F-MATE(RS) FLEX9 Conversion Rout, for the RS Disk Controller 

when purchased with Special General FLEX9 Sys. &G9 95 

when purchased without the General FLEX9 Sys. $79 95 

Set of Eight 64K RAM Chips w/Mod. Instructions $69 9$ 

Color Computer with 64K RAM and EXT. BASIC $499 .95 

Color Computer with 16K RAM 1289.95 

Color Computer with 16K RAM and EXT. BASIC $339 95 

SPECIAL SYSTEM PACKAGES 

64K Radio Shack COLOR COMPUTER, Radio Shack COLOR DISK CONTROLLER, a Disk 
Drive System, Special General Version of FLEX9 \ F-MATE(RS) " and a Box of 10 
Double Density Diskettes; a COMPLETE, ready to run SYSTEM on your Color TV Set. 

$1249.95 

DISK DRIVE PACKAGES, etc. 

These Packages include the Radio Shack Disk Controller, Disk Drives with Power Supply and 
Cabinet, and Disk Drive Cable; 

PAK #1 — 1 Single Sided, Double Density Sys. $499.95 
PAK #2 — 2 Single Sided, Double Density Sys. $769.95 
PAK #3 — 1 Double Sided, Double Density Sys. $599.95 
PAK #4 — 2 Double Sided, Double Density Sys. $949.95 

PAK #5 — 2 Qume Thinline Double Sided Double Density Sys. $764.95 



PARTS AND PIECES 

Radio Shack Disk Controller 
1 Tandon Single Sided, Double Density Disk Drive 
1 Tandon Double Sided, Double Density Disk Drive 
1 Qume Thinline Double Sided, Double Density 

Single Drive Cabinet with Power Supply 

Double Drive Cabinet with Power Supply 

Single Drive Disk Cable for RS Controller 

Double Drive Disk Cable for RS Controller 

Micro Tech. Prods.. Inc. LOWER CASE ROM Adapter 

Radio Shack BASIC Version 1.1 ROM 

Radio Shack Extended Basic ROM 



< 

< 
< 



< 
< 



$179.95 
1249 95 
S349.96 
$279.95 

$09.95 
1109.95 
£24.95 
$34.95 
£74.95 
S34.95 

m 95 



DATA-COMP 



P.O. Bo* 794 HIXSON, TN 37343 
1-615-842 4601 





c 

< 

K 
< 
< 




206 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Hardware Review . . . 

Spectrum Switcher Gives You 
Fine ROM Pack Flexibility 

The Spectrum Switcher is, by far, the easiest-to-use device 
we have yet encountered to keep two ROM Packs or 
cartridges "on line" at the same time. 

Now, before you get the idea that you can keep two 
cartridge programs in memory simultaneously, let us say 
that such isn't possible to do — at least as far as we know. In 
other words, do not expect to be able to "combine" two 
programs at once. 

But, the big hassle, at least for us, has always been the 
need to plug the disk controller in and out, depending on 
whatever else we might be using. The Spectrum Switcher 
eliminates that problem for once and for all. 

The Switcher is a flat, lightweight plastic case with a cable 
on one end that plugs into CoCo's expansion port. It also 
has two connectors — for two ROM Packs. In addition, 
there are two switches and two sets of LEDs. Everything is 
clearly and attractively labeled. 

You plug one cartridge into one of the ports and another 
into the other. Then, just turn on CoCo and it will start up 
selecting the cartridge in slot B. A simple flick of the switch 
turns off whatever is in slot B and turns on the cartridge in 
slot A. Just in case you can't tell from the screen, there is an 
LED to indicate which slot has been selected. 

The other switch determines whether you want the 
cartridge to auto-start. If you want to make backups of 
cartridges on disk for your own use, this eliminates the 
necessity of taping over the pins in the cartridge. For those 



of us who like to transfer carts to disk to make access 
quicker, this is a major boon. 

We like the Spectrum Switcher because it is very easy to 
use, looks nice and, in some pretty extensive testing, worked 
without fault. It also has gold contacts, which help eliminate 
problems associated with poor connections. It also eliminates 
the problem of plugging and unplugging cartridges into 
CoCo itself — which does cause wear on the expansion port. 

We found only one problem with the Switcher, although 

it was minor. That is it is possible to lose a BASIC program 

in memory if you press the reset button on CoCo or switch 

one of the switches. Given the ability to switch back and 

forth between ROM Packs (especially when you have a disk 

drive) and to disable the auto-start function, the Spectrum 

Switcher is a fantastic device you will want to add to your 

setup. If you have a disk drive and are faced with the 

problem of unplugging and plugging it in, the Switcher is 

almost a necessity. 

(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, NY 
11421, $99.95) 



Hint . . . 

Print Out Disk Directory 

If you have a long disk directory and want to see all of it, 
or if you simply wish to have a hard-copy printout of your 
directory, one simple command will allow you to do this 
easily. 

Just POKE 1 1 1 ,254:DIR and the entire disk directory will 
appear on your printer, even if it is too long to be fully 
displayed on the screen. 



Find The 

COLOR COMPUTER INFORMATION 

YOU NEED 

COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 9 
COLOR COMPUTER CATALOG © 



American Library and Information Services 

Dept. R. 3705 Mary Ellen NE, Albuquerque, NM 87111 

Gentlemen: 

Yes! Send me COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1980-1981 at $5 (Canada and Mexico $6) 
7. Yes! Sign me up for COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1982 (4 issues) for $16 (Canada and Mexico $20) 

Yes! Sign me up for COLOR COMPUTER CATALOG 1982 (two issues) for $20 (Canada and Mexico $24) 

□ YES! Sign me up for Color Computer Index 1983 (Six issues for $24— Canada & Mexico $30) 

□ YES! Sign me up for Color Computer Index 1983 (Two issues for $20— Canada & Mexico $24) 

Single Issues: 

Color Computer Index $6 U.S. (Except 1980-1981) 
Color Computer Catalog $12 U.S. 

Nome . ™ 

Address 

City State Zip . 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 207 



Software Review . . . 

The 8-Bit Bartender 
A Versatile, 32K Mixologist 

All of you beer drinkers can skip this review if you like, 
but maybe if you read it you will learn something, like how 
to mix a "Rusty Nail." The 8-Bit Bartender by Prickly-Pear 
Software will be the center of attraction at your next party. 
Written for 32K Extended BASIC the tape version is loaded 
with a CLO A DM and ENTER. As in other popular soft- 
ware by the same company, an auto-run feature takes care of 
the rest and gives you something to look at in the meantime. 
The program is also available on disk. 

After loading the program, you are greeted with a chorus 
of "How Dry I Am" while a bubbling cocktail glass provides 
the animation. With the 8-Bit Bartender, drinks can be 
searched in three fields. You can ask for a drink by name, 
main liquor or category. 

More than 100 various cocktails are in the directory. The 
different categories are color-coded as to the type of glass 



they use. If you ask for a drink not on the menu, the program 
will inf orm you "I don't serve that ! ! ! " The authors claim that 
extensive research was conducted in cocktail lounges in 
major cities to compile the list of 100 different drinks. 

Well, that was just too hard to believe, so I set out on my 
own fact-finding mission. You can actually get all of these 
drinks in any well equipped bar within a short jump from 
your home. But let me warn you, don't ask your neighbor- 
hood bartender for "Velvet Hammer" or a "Dirty Mother" 
or you may be drinking alone with your computer. 

After your supply of booze is exhausted, if you can still 
read or hear, exiting the program will entone a line of "The 
Party's Over." 1 think this novel program will be the talk of 
your next party if you can find someone sober enough to 
type. Now, how about a "Glog," no, make it a "Silver 
Bullet," no . . . 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 9822 E. Stella Road, Tuscon, AZ 

85730, $19.95 on tape) 

—Dan Downard 



ANNOUNCING, 



new f>roou c^r 



I N E PRINTER VII C O V 





THIS REMARKABLE COVER REDUCES THE NOISE BY MORE THAN HALF AND IS 
AVAILABLE IN 6 DIFFERENT COLORS FOR THE LOW PRICE OF ONLY $34.95 ea. 

THE COLOR CHOICES ARE American Walnut, Bark, Oriental Teak, Spanish 
Oak, Palm, and Cherry. SPECIAL COLORS ARE AVAILABLE FOR $5.00 EXTRA 

THESE COVERS ARE MADE OF QUALITY WOOD (COVERED WITH LIQUID PLASTIC) 
AND PLEXIGLAS WITH PRE-CUT SLOTS FOR CORDS AND PAPER TO GO THROUGH. 



SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: A ft PcLEAR4CO. \ 

0 if P.O. BOX 294 

\ ^Pl I HENDERSON, TEXAS 75653-0294 } 

\ *-*!rA Distributors of Quality Color Computer Equipment i 

- 

! Please send LP-VII Covers @ $34.95 in the Color | 

! To 

; Please include S3 for I 

! S & H. per cover j 

! PLEASE ALLOW 3 to 4 WEEKS FOR DELIVERY ICCC MEMBERS 255c OFF* 



208 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Quality Software Is The 
Number One Priority At 

K& K 
mputorware 







LASER TANK - Pit yourself in a game of strategy and 
excitement against the computer. You must defend your 
flag from attacking tanks and destroy them before they 
destroy your flag or you!!! High resolution graphics and 
four levels of difficulty. Only $1 495 

GAZON - A machine language game that is surpassed by 
none on the market. The deadly Gazonians are trying to 
steal your supplies and you must stop them by shooting or 

ramming them. Action increases as fleets of Gazonians are 
destroyed. Only $1595 

SHOOT TO SPELL AND FLASH MATH • An educational 
packagethat helps kids learn to spell and educatethem on 
elementary math. An absolute must for adults with school 
aged children. Joysticks required. Only $1 2 Q 5. 

SPACE HARVEST ■ Pilot your spacecraft above the 
Planetoid Voltar stealing spacefruit and trying to avoid 
alien guards and the ground. Fast action machine 
language programs with high resolution graphics. Only 
$1495 

HORSE RACE - Can you pick the next Secretariat among 
our thoroughbreds? High speed, life like action for people 
of all ages. High resolution graphics. Only $1295 

SERIALTOPARELLELCONVERTER-Havea printer with 
a parellel port? Tired of waiting for a. line list? With this 
little hardware device you can make your color computer 
run at any baud rate between 300 and 9600. Let K & K help 
your printer to go much faster!!! Only $6995 




BLACKJACK 



k mm 



BLACKJACK - A casino game that puts two players 
against the beady-eyed dealer of the house. This dealer 
deals the cards as good or even better than Intellivision. If 
you have any gambling blood at all this game is a must! 
Same rules as any Las Vegas casino. High resolution 
graphics. Only $1295 



- You are under the ocean in a submarine, 
attacking planes and enemy destroyers dropping depth 
charges attempting to destroy your sub. Can you destroy 
them before they destroy you? This is an extremely fast 
action machine language program with high resolution 
graphics. Only $1 4 Q 5. 




SUPER ZAP - Enemy spaceships are attacking from all 
sides and your mission, should you choose to accept it is 
to defend your starbase from the deadly Armada of Pyruss. 
This will be a dangerous mission since the Pyruss Armada 
has never been defeated by any humanoid. Action 
increases as the game progresses. Only $1 4 95 

HOME HELPERS - Have problems balancing your 
checkbook, remembering important dates or phone 
numbers, and your mailing lists. Let K & K and your color 
computer help you. Only $1 4 Q 5 

BOWLING SCORED FOR DOLLARS • Do your leagues 
bowlingaverages.This program will keep individual scores, 
team totals, individual averages, team standings, and print 
all this information to your line printer. Minimum 1 6K disk 
required (on cassette too!). Only $1 4 Q 5 

INVENTORY CONTROL - This program contains all the 
necessary features required for all types of inventories, 
such as sorting of inventory by stock number.This program 
will list stock number, description, amount in stock, cost, 
wholesale, profits. Minimum 16K disk required. Only 
$3995 

PROPERTY INVENTORY - This program lists inventory by 
department, date purchased, and property numbers. 
Minimum 1 6K disk required. Only $2995 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND RECEIVABLE • These two 
programs will control the incoming and outgoing money 
flows for all your business accounts. Only $5995 



ALL GAME PROGRAMS • require 1 6K extended (prices are set for cassette, add $4 00 for disk, except business) 
PROGRAMMERS!!! ■ K & K pays the highest royalties for your programs. If your program is good, send it to K & K and receive 

the best possible coverage! 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER USERS - New programs are added each week. Send 

$1 00 for our complete catalog. 

fS| K & K COMPUTORWARE 

mm 37326 Gregory Drive • Sterling Heights, Michigan 48077 

Telephone: (31 3) 264-7345 




BITS RfID WTES OF BRSIC 



Storing Files To Cassette Tape 

By 

Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The cassette interface is one of many CoCo features that 
sets it apart f rom other microcomputers. In f act, the cassette 
system is so bad in many other systems that disk drives are 
considered mandatory for any serious application, even in 
the home environment. Most serious CoCo owners now 
have only cassettes (as I write this). I expect defections from 
the ranks, myself included, since Radio Shack has taken a 
chunk out of the price of the Disk 0 drive. Still, cassettes will 
be a force and market f or as long as I can see. I can then write 
a column on cassette operations only and know that I am 
addressing the needs of most Rainbow readers. File charac- 
teristics are so similar in cassette and disk operations that 
there is meat here for all. 

There are three separate types of Color Computer files. 
First is the program file, BASIC or machine language. Next 
is the ASCII file which may contain numeric and string data 
or a non-tokenized BASIC Program. Third, there are spe- 
cial files like those generated by Spectaculator which can 
only be read by the program that made them. A pox on the 
house of authors who write these. 

A BASIC or a machine language program file is nothing 
more than a sequential copy of a section of memory in the 
computer. They differ by code in the header that tells the 
computer which type is being loaded so it can handle the 
information properly. The locations of the beginning and 
end of a basic program are kept in menory. When a BASIC 
program is saved, all bytes between these two addresses are 
read to tape. When a BASIC program is reloaded, it starts 
filling memory at the beginning of BASIC then set and 
continues until all the program is in or until it runs out of 
memory when our friend, OM ERROR, appears. In Color 
BASIC, start of BASIC is 1537. In Extended BASIC it's 
7680 at PCLEAR4, but can be changed by PC LEA Ring a 
different number. If you get an OM ERROR when loading a 
long program type PCLEAR1 and try loading it again. 

A machine language file carries its beginning address, end 
address and its execution address in its header and the 
computer copies the code into the defined stretch of 
memory. You can offset the file to a new location in memory 
by adding an offset value to the CLOADM statement like 
this: CLOADM "PROGNAME", 1000 where 1000 offsets 
the code up 1000 bytes. Whether the program will run offset 
is another matter. A pox on the house of authors who write 
non-relocatable code. 

An ASCII file may be thought of as processed data rather 
than a direct memory dump. The data is found, processed in 
some way and copied into a buffer location. When the buffer 
is full, a header is written to tape and the whole buffer is 
copied to tape. The process continues, buffer by buffer, until 
all data is saved and the file is closed. A hand is up in the 
back of the room. What is an ASCII? ASCII refers to a 
standard numeric code representing characters and control 
codes. A carriage return is 1 3 while an A is 65. The whole list 
is in the back of your manuals. You can also ask the compu- 



ter by typing ?ASC(A) and it will respond with a 65. 

A BASIC program may be saved in ASCII format by the 
simple command CSA K£"PROGNAME",A. Why? How is 
this different from the regular save? When a line of BASIC is 
entered into the computer, some machine language code 
called the interperter looks for basic words like PRINT, IF, 
INPUT etc. When it finds a BASIC word, it looks up a 
number or pair of numbers for that word, called tokens, and 
puts the token in memory rather than the whole word. This 
saves memory and speeds program execution. When you 
make an AS VII save, the interperter untokenizes the BASIC 
line putting the BASIC words back in the line and puts the 
line into the buffer as a character string. In this form, the 
program can be read into a running BASIC program as data 
to be used in one way or another. Most terminal programs 
send and receive only ASCII files. The computer is smart 
enough to sort out whether the BASIC program being 
loaded is in ASCII or tokenized format. You will note that 
when loading an ASCII save of a BASIC program, the 
cassette stops and waits after loading each buffer while the 
interperter tokenizes each line and saves it to memory. 

At the outset, I suspect you expected to learn about saving 
and loading data from a BASIC program. Now is the time. 
We already have laid some ground work and you know 
about the buffer and ASCII codes. When you Open a file, 
either out, "O," to the cassette or in, "I, "from the cassette, 
you commit the buffer and start interaction with the 
cassette. 



Statement Action 

OPEN "0V1 "FILENAME" The cassette is turned on and a header with 

tile type and file name are sent to the 
recorder. 

OPEN T,-r Fl LEN AM E" The cassette is turned on a read looking for 

the header with file type and file name. If 
file names match, the first data buffer is 
loaded and the cassette is stopped. 



Data is saved by putting it into the buffer with the PRINTtt- 
7, 1$ or PRINTtt-1, I commands. Either strings or numbers 
may be sent in any order. 1$ and I can be any variable names 
including script variables. Pieces of data are separated in the 
buffer by carriage returns. When the buff er is f ull, it is sent to 
tape; you did remember to leave the recorder on and in 
record mode, I hope. Data can be sent as it is generated or 
collected in memory and dumped all at one time. In a contest 
scoring program, I opened the entrants' file at the beginning, 
and the program saved a buffer every now and then as 
entries were typed in. This assured that if the program 
bombed, data entered to that point could be recovered. Data 
was also kept in memory and a complete second save was 



210 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



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made when entries closed. Care was necessary to assure that 
the second save contained exactly the same data in exactly 
the same order as the first. 

The data loaded back into the cassette buffer from tape 
(or into a disk buffer) must be read into variables for stor- 
age. This is done with the INPUW-I, or LINE INPUW-I, 
statements (disk uses + numbers, i.e., INPUW+l,) which 
takes data from the buffer and moves it to string or numeri- 
cal storage as appropriate. When a buffer is emptied, the 
computer stops, reads in another buffer full anat is on tape is 
only a sequence of pieces of data. No variable names are 
saved. When you reload the data you must write your code 
so that data is INPUW-1, or LINE INPUW-I, into the 
propervariables, both by typeand name. If youchangeyour 
save routine to save another variable, or not save one if that 
be the case, you must make a corresponding change in your 
input code. Further, when you do this, previous files will be 
unloadable. You will need to make a special version of the 
cassette routines to read in old files and save them out in the 
new format. 

Following are two of the simplest file saving routines and 
their corresponding loading routines: 

800 OPEN "0",-l , "STRINGS" :FOR X = 1 TO 
PRINT#-I, A$(X) 
:NEXT :CLOSE-I 

850 OPEN "I",-l, "STRINGS" :X=1 
860 IF EOF THEN CLOSE-1 :GOTO 1000 ELSE 
LINE INPUT#-1, A$(X) 
:X=X+1 :GOTO860 
900 OPEN "O",-I,"NUMBERS":GOTO100 
910 PRINT#-I, A, B, XI, YI, Zl :RETURN 

(The file is opened and control returned to the main 



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routine to get the data. Each time a data set is ready to 
save the line 910 subroutine is called. When done a 
CLOSE-1 could be in the main program. 
950 OPEN "r\-l "NUMBERS" :GOTO300 
950 IF EOF THEN CLOSE-1 :GOTO1000 ELSE 
INPUT/M, A, B, Zl, Yl, Zl :RETURN 
(The file is opened and control returned to the main 
program that calls 950 when it wants data. When end 
of file, EOF, is reached, the file is closed and control 
sent elsewhere.) 
In the Strings code, there wasan array of a known number 
of strings which was sequentially read to tape. When the file 
was loaded the strings were read with a counter X incre- 
mented after each input. LINE INPUT was used instead of 
IN PUT in case there were any quotes, commas or colons in 
the data strings. INPUT has trouble with these. At end of 
file, EOF, the file is closed and control goes elsewhere. In the 
Numbers file, sets of non-subscripted numbers were saved 
until the main program was done and the file closed. The 
PRINTtt-1 , statement is shown as a subroutine, but it would 
probably be better in the main program. The file is read back 
in using an / NPUTtf-1 to enter the same variables in exactly 
the order they were read to tape. 

In the Numbers case there probably was no way of know- 
ing how many file entries there would be. In the Strings case 
we did know and can use the following code: 

800OPEN"O",-I,"STRINGS":PRINT#-I,Y:FORX=l 
TO Y :PRINT#-1 , A$(X) :NEXT :CLOSE-l :GOTO 
1000 

850 OPEN "I" -I , "STRINGS" :INPUT#-1,Y :FOR X=l 
TO Y :LINEINPUT#-1,A$(X) :NEXT :CLOSE-l 
:GOTO 100 

Since we know how many records are on file and read that 
value in first, inputting can be in a simple FOR-TO-NEX1 
loop without a branch. Some like the top down aspect of this 
code better. Just because we have an end of file command, 
we don't have to use it. 

In a complex program like a data management one, a 
number of variables and data arrays need to be saved in the 
file. It is imperative to tightly control the structure of the file 
and duplicate the structures in both output and input 
modes. Fortunately the input code is essentially a copy oi 
the output code with INPUTtt-1 or LIN EINPUTtt-1, substi- 
tuted for PRINTtt-l ,. If you are writing in EDTASM+ or 
using a utility like Toolkit or Basic Aid, you can copy the 
output code and edit it to input lines easily. 

Now for cleaning up the details. Always save the file 
twice! Tape is cheap and the time lost in regenerating a 
program or file will pay for hundreds of double saves 
Cowards can save three times and win occasionally. Since 
many times we are starting a fresh tape, put in code tc 
choose to run past the leader. I always put code in early ir 
the development of a program to save it to tape. 

10000 AUDIOON :INPUT"RUN PAST LEADER":I3 
:IF I$="Y" THEN MOTORON :FOR X=l TO 600C 
:NEXT 

10010 FOR C=l TO 2 :CSAVE "PROGRAME' 
:MOTORON :FOR X=l TO 600 :NEXT :NEX1 
:MOTOROFF 

The advantage of this lies in the ease with which you sav< 
the program, which encourages more frequent saves wher 
programming. All you do is set the recorder to record, typ< 
GOTO 10000 and answer Y or N and ENTER to the RU1> 
PAST LEADER ? question. It is probably time for anothei 
trip to the kitchen anyway, so take a short break. 

In the OPEN "I",- 1, "FILENAME" statement, the -1 i: 



212 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




lbK CIRCUS AO VENTURE S9 3b 

A child's adventure game with many songs, graphics, 
and surprises. Meet all of your circus favorites white 
searching for the popcorn man. Great family fun for all 
ages. 

16K SCHOOLMAZE ADVENTURE 51195 

While in search of a lost computer tape, you travel in a 
school and draw pictures, compose songs, play basket- 
ball, and use the keyboard to travel in the hallways. 




COCO-JOT by Steve Greenberg 

16K $11.95 
A new version of the famous Jotto word game. A guess- 
ing game using your powers of reasoning and deduction. 
1 or 2 player game. Different levels of play. Ages 8 to 
adult User modifiable. 

"FROG MAN" by Carsten Uwrenz 
16K Ext. Basic $11.95 
Lively, action packed, joystick controlled game. 7 
leteh of difficulty and timer. Best score displayed. Get 
your frofs safely home through several interesting 
obstacles. 



*** NEW *** 
SOFTWARE FOR SPECTRUM'S LIGHT PEN 

KID'S FUN-PAK: This 3 program game set will enter- 
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puter. Tutorial included with documentation. 
Kid's Fun-Pak Tape 16K Ext. $14.95 

Light Pen and Tape $34.95 




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A BYTE OF COLOR BASIC 
by Steve Blyn 



A work-text containing — instruction, examples, 
illustrations, programs, and many practice exercises. 3 
Units — Basic, Graphics, and Sound. 24 chapters to 
teach you what you need to know to begin reading, 
understanding, and writing your own programs. 
Answer Key included with each book. Great book for 
beginners. u 95 NEW LQW pR|CE 

SCHOOL DISCOUNTS 



NAME THAT SONG GAMES 
16K Extended $9.95 each 

1. 72 children's popular songs. 2 levels of difficulty. 
Timer. Many hours of fun. 

2. 72 all time pop, country and movie melodies from 
the last three decades. 

3. 60 Broadway Show tunes to test you on past 
musicals. Fun for all trivia buffs. 





*9r 




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LEARNING PROGRAMS 
FOR HOME OR SCHOOL! 



FOREIGN LANGUAGE GAMES 16K or 16K Ext. $11.95 

FRENCH BASEBALL - Score base hits or home runs 
for correct answers. You're out if wrong. Correct 
answers supplied. Fun way to learn and practice 
vocabulary. 2 letek. 

SPANISH BASEBALL - Same game using Spanish 
vocabulary words. 

ITALIAN BASEBALL - Same game using Italian 
vocabulary words. 

(her Modifiable. 

PLEASE SPECIFY LANGUAGE AND VERSION 



HEBREW BULLETIN BOARD 16K Ext. $15.95 

by Joseph Koiar and Steve Blyn 
A utility that will enable YOU to create Hebrew or 
Hebrew/English words, flash cards, sentences, 
greeting cards, etc. in Hi-res. Easy to learn-full 
documentation. For hard copy, use your printer and 
any screen print program. 




DOLLARS AND SENSE 16K Ext. SH-95 

Learn to make purchases. Graphic displays of items 
kids love. Player buys using dollars and coins to prac- 
tice using money correctly. Solutions given. 

McCOCO'SMENU 16K Ext. SI 1.95 

America's favorite pastime - going out to eat! Learn 
to buy and add up your purchases from a typical fast 
food restaurant menu. Gain skill in using money. Dif- 
ferent prfc« each time. 

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 1 6K $11 95 
Menu driven, 2 level program provides practice in 
adding or subtracting 2 digit numbers. Vertical format 
for proper entry of digits in the answers. Report card 
scoring. 

READING 2-PAK 4K 59.95 

POETRY and SILLY SENTENCES: Any child can create 
his own original reading material about familiar 
people and things through user input. 

READING GAMES 2 Pack 4K $9.95 

Silly Stories and Wizard: These games provide practice 
in reading simple stories and phrases. User input 
make these games personal and fun and keep your 
child interested in reading the results. 




PRESCHOOL PACK 1 by Joseph Koiar 

16K Ext. $11.95 
Clown and Fish-Num: Two programs to help your child 
recognize and count the words and numbers 1 - 10. 
Hi-res graphics and lively songs help to attract and 
keep attention. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 2 by Joseph Koiar 

16K Ext. $11.95 
Count Kids and Add Penny: Two programs to help your 
child count and add up to 10. Beautiful hires 
graphics. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 3 by loseph Koln 

16KExt. $11.95 
Alpha-Byte: Programs designed to teach recognition 
and identification of the alphabet. Attractive hi res 
graphics. 



MUSIC MARVEL 16K Ext. Basic $9.95 

Play 2 familiar children's songs. Large graphic 
displays. No reading or musical ability needed. Great 
for pre-schoolers. 16K version also available. Please 
specify. 

Authors: We are seeking quality children's software for 
leisure or learning. Write for details. Top royalties. 



the device number. It tells the computer which buffer to use 
and where to send the buffer when full. If you had a disk, you 
would use a device number from +1 to +15. With the disk, 
you can have a number of disk buffers open at once along 
with a cassette file open. In this situation, files are closed by 
number and there seem to be some tricks on order of open- 
ing and closing. More on this after I have direct experience 
with a disk system. You can substitute a variable for the 
device number. This allows you to put code in to choose 
whether you want a sequential file to go to disk or to tape. 
The filename generally is a variable with code to allow the 
user to enter the file name to be saved and the name of the 
file to be loaded. 

Cassette files are limited to sequential files where data is 
put to tape in sequence and must be accessed in the same 
sequence. Disks support sequential files, but can handle 
random files as well. For example, records can be saved 
individually to disk in random order and then individually 
retrieved in random order. In this way, large data bases are 
essentially on line with the program though little of the data 
is in memory at any one time. Typically, business programs 
require this type of storage to accomodate large data bases. I 
expect to see random access disk programs for CoCo as 
more users decide that their machine should be doing more 
for them than playing games. 

Here is a good 'homework' problem you might want to 
tackle: Take one of your programs that saves a data file and 
convert it to have a run-past-leader option, and save twice. 
Note the MOTORON :FOR X=I TO 600 :NEXT that 
leaves a little space between saves and at the end. If you 
haven't writtena program using datafilesyet, wouldn't that 
be a neat next project? 



Hardware Review . . . 

Panostyk Is A Boon To 
AH You Frustrated Artists 

I admit that I was somewhat skeptical of the Panostyk 
when it arrived the other day. It is unimposing-looking, with 
a sort of wooden board, an accordian-like bunch of metal 
rods and what appears to be a Radio Shack joystick tucked 
into a box on the bottom. 

Looks can deceive. 

What the Panostyk is happens to be a nice way to get 
pictures from paper to the graphic screen. Now, you can do 
this with Radio Shack's X-Pad, but the Panostyk is much 
less expensive. 

The Panostyk comes complete with software, which — 
from a menu — allows you to use either a "sketch, ""crayon" 
or "chalk" mode. The difference between them is primarily 
one of degree, but we felt that each offered a different type of 
drawing opportunity. 

The "sketch" mode uses the high resolution graphics 
screen and is for drawing pictures in fine detail. Using a clear 
plastic circle with a small hole in it (suitable for inserting a 
thin pencil lead) you simply place a drawing under a plastic 
cover and then trace it. A good representation of what you 
have traced appears on the CoCo screen. Since "sketch"is in 
high resolution, you can get some nice drawings this way. 

"Crayon" mode works in much the same way, except it 
uses the four-color mode to make colored lines. "Chalk" 
uses the low-res graphics, and all eight colors, which is very 
suitable for younger children, as well as those of us who do 
not draw too well. 

The software includes an easy circle-drawing routine and 
color one is always an "eraser." In addition, you can "lift" 
the drawing pencil up from the "screen" by pressing a red 
button on the Panostyk. You can also "paint" in areas with a 
single button-press. 

I suspect those of you who are adapt at art — such as Paul 
Hoffman, who has contributed some fabulous programs to 
the Rainbow — would much prefer the possibilities created 
by the X-Pad. But, for those of us who only look at what the 
likes of Paul do and wish, the Panostyk is an excellent way 
to try to transfer some of the things we see on paper onto the 
CoCo screen. 

It is easy to use and comes with a well done software 
package which, for all intents and purposes, is invisible to 
the user. You just load the software, select the drawing mode 
you want, and concentrate on your artwork. And, for 
children, I believe that the "chalk" mode is an excellent way 
for them to have fun with the computer without frustrating 
them. 

In addition to the Panostyk itself and the software, the 
package comes with several sample drawings, with markings 
for colors, circle points and the like. These are good to 
experiment with and are useful in getting the feel of the 
hardware. 

(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, NY 
11421, $79.95) 

—Lawrence C. Falk 



MORETON BAY 
SOFTWARE 

For TRS 80 Color Computer &TDP 100 



PLANETARIUM - a five program astronomy 
package. See constellations, stars, moon and 
planets 1 6K extended $1 6.95. 

CUBE SOLVER - a highly graphic ML program. 
Technically interesting: Program will: solve 
cube on screen, mix it up, print solutions to 
screen, tape or printer. 1 6K extended $19.95 

TOWER CASTLE - a classic thematic adven- 
ture with music and color, tough but honest 

(Reviewed December 1982 Rainbow) 
32K extended $17.95 

Moreton Bay 

MORETON BAY 
SOFTWARE 

A DIVISION OF MORETON BAY LABORATORY 

316 Castillo Street 
Santa Barbara, CA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

Software CA Residents Add 6% Sa ies Tax 

TRS 80 " Tandy Corp. 




214 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

True lower case characters 

User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

Right justification 

Easy hyphenation 

Drives any printer 

Embedded format and 
control codes 

Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen.. 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 X 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/V1I1, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 

Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 




. . . truly a state of the art word processor. . . 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Californians add 6% slate lax. Allow 2 
weeks for personal checks. Send self -addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Micro, 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASEorcall for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
inf ormation.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



RAINBOW Info 



What's A CoCo 

CoCo is an affectionate name which 
was first given to the TRS-80 Color 
Computer by its many fans, users and 
owners. As such, it is almost a generic 
term for three computers, all of which 
are very much alike. 

When we use the term CoCo, we refer 
to the TRS-80 Color Computer, the TDP 
System-100 Computer and the Dragon- 
32 Computer. It is easier than using the 
three "given" names throughout the 
Rainbow. 

In most cases, when a specific 
computer is mentioned, the application 
is for that specific computer. However, 
since the TDP System-100 and TRS-80 
Color are, for all purposes, the same 
computer in a different case, theseterms 
are almost always interchangable. 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



The Rainbow Seal 

The Rainbow Certification Seal is our 
way of helping you, the consumer. The 
purpose of the Seal is to certify to you 
that any product which carries the Seal 
has been physically seen by us and that 
it does, indeed, exist. 

Manufacturers of products — 
hardware, software and firmware — are 
encouraged by us to submit their 
products to the Rainbow for 
certification. We ascertain that their 
products are, in actuality, what they 
purport to be and, upon such 
determination, award a Seal. This lets 
you know that we have seen the product 
and that it does, indeed, exist. 

The Seal, however, is not a "guarantee 
of satisfaction." The certification 
process is different from the review 
process. You are encouraged to read 
our reviews to determine whether the 
product is right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship 
between advertising in the Rainbow and 
the certification process. Certification is 
open and available to any product 
pertaining to CoCo. A Seal will be 
awarded to any commercial product, 
regardless of whether the firm 
advertises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of 
instances of violation of Seal use. 



Using Machine Language 

Machine Language programs are one 
of the features of theRainbow. Thereare 
a number of ways to "get" these 
programs into memory so that you can 
operate them. 

Theeasiestway is by using an Editor- 
Assembler, a program you can purchase 
from a number of sources. 

An editor-assembler allows you to 
enter mnemonics into your CoCo and 
then have the editor-assembler 
assemblethem into specific instructions 
that are understood by the 6809 chip 
that controls your computer. 

When you usean editor-assembler, all 
you have to do, essentially, is copy the 
relevant instructions from ffrefla/'nboiv's 
listing into CoCo. 

Another method of getting an 
assembly language listing into CoCo is 
called "hand assembly." As the name 
implies, you do the assembly by hand. 
This can sometimes cause problems 
when you have to set up an ORIGIN 
statement or an EQUATE. In short, you 
have to know something about 
assembly to hand assemble some 
programs. 

Use the following program if you wish 
to hand assemble machine language 
listings: 

10 CLEAR200,&H3F00:I=&H3F80 

20 PRINT "ADDRESS:";HEX$(I); 

30 INPUT "BYTE";B$ 

40 POKE l,VAL("&H"+B$) 

50 1=1+1 :GOTO 20 

This program assumes you have a 16K 
CoCo. If you have 32K, change the 
&H3F00 in Line 10 to &H7F00. 



Changing Issue Dates 

We will be "skipping" a cover date- 
but not issue of the Rainbow with the 
May issue this year. 

You will still get 12 issues in each sub- 
scription. The change just means that 
you will get an issue "earlier" than it has 
been coming. This starts with the June 
issue— which will arrive at about the 
time that the May issue would normally 
arrive, or about a month early. 

What this means is that next month's 
issue will be dated June. All subscription 
expiration dates will be changed to take 
this adjustment into consideration. 

A full explaination is on page 79 of this 
month's issue. 



The Rainbow Check 

The small boxes which you see with 
programs in the Rainbow are our RAIN- 
BOW CHECK program, which is 
designed to help you type in programs 
accurately. 

The check program itself is a machine 
language program which will count the 
number of characters you type in. You 
can then compare the number the 
RAINBOW CHECK gives you to those 
printed in the Rainbow. On longer pro- 
grams, some benchmark lines are given. 
When you reach the end of one of those 
lines with your typing, simply check to 
see if the numbers match. 

To use the RAINBOW CHECK, type in 
CLEAR 25, 16303 (or CLEAR 25, 32687 
for 32K) and CSAVE the program that 
follows. Then type in the command 
EXEC and press ENTER. 

Now, whenever you press the down 
arrow, CoCo will give you the hexade- 
cimal number of bytes in memory. This 
is to check against the numbers printed 
in the Rainbow. If your number is differ- 
ent, check the listing carefully to be sure 
you typed in the proper BASIC program 
code. 

Type in programs exactly as you see 
them printed in the Rainbow. All BASIC 
listings are printed out 32 characters 
wide, conforming exactly to the CoCo 
screen display. Because the RAINBOW 
CHECKcounts spaces, too, you should 
follow the spacing just as it appears in 
the magazine. 

Here's the program: 

10CLS:IF PEEK(116) = 127 THEN 
X=32688 ELSE X=16304 
20 CLEAR 25.X-1 

30 IF PEEK(116)=127 THEN X=32688 
ELSE X=16304 
40 FOR Z=X TO X+77 
50 READ Y:W=W+Y:PRINT 2,Y;W 
60 POKEZ,Y:NEXT 
70 IF W=5718 THEN 80 ELSE PRINT 
"DATA ERROR":STOP 
80 EXEC X:END 

90 DATA 182, 1, 106, 167, 141, 0, 68 
100 DATA 134, 126, 183, 1, 106, 190 
110 DATA 1, 107, 175, 141, 0, 57, 48 
120 DATA 141, 0, 4, 191, 1, 107, 57 
130 DATA 129, 10, 38, 44, 52, 22, 220 
140 DATA 27, 147, 25, 142, 4, 0, 141 
150 DATA 6, 31, 152, 141, 2, 32, 25 
160 DATA 52,2, 68, 68, 68, 68 
170 DATA 141, 4, 53, 2, 132 
180 DATA 15, 129, 9, 46, 4, 139, 112 
190 DATA 32, 2, 139, 55, 167, 128, 57 
200 52, 22, 126, 0, 0 



216 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



" TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER PRODUCTS " 
" THE 1 248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER " 

The 1 248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER is a full function unit thatis 
compatible with virtually all popular 1 K.2K.4K &8K -by-8,24pin, 5 
volt EPROMS. Compatible devices are 2508's. 2758 -0/1's, 
251 B's, 271 B's, 2532's, 68732-0/1 's, 68764's, and 68766's. 
Components 2732, 2732A, 2564, and 2764 are compatible via 
adapters (not supplied]. The programmer is totally menu driven by 
resident position independent firmware in EPROM, which makes it 
suitable for experienced computer operators and novices alike. 

Select the device type to be programmed from the device menu. 
Next, select the function to be performed from the function menu. 
On your command the 1 248-EP will verify EPROM erasure, com- 
pare EPROM contents to specified contents of RAM or ROM, 
program blocks or individual bytes of EPROM memory or copy an 
EPROM's contents to user specified RAM. 

The 1 248-EP plugs into the cartridge slot of the Color Computer 
and is invoked by the user with the "EXEC & HCOOO" BASIC com- 
mand. The 1 248-EP contains its own on-board programming power 
supply, and has a quality "Zero Insertion Force" socket. 

The combination of the TRS-80 Color Llnmj^ gc an editor/as- 
sembler/monitor such as the Micro Works SDS80C-)<--X- and the 
1 248-EP EPROM programmer, makes a high performance, cost 
effective software development station for MC-B800/B809 
microprocessor based systems. Use the system to store your own 
games or utility programs in EPROM's for execution from the cart- 
ridge slot using the CK4 PROM/RAM card described below. 

The cost of the 1 248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER, instructions 
and adapter diagrams is |ust $99.95. 

" THE CK4 PROM/ROM CARD " 

TheCK4 works with 2K, 4K or 8K-by-8 ROM's or EPROM's of the 5 
volt only variety in 24 pin packages. In addition, the CK4 may be used 
with 4 static RAM's such as B116's to expand the computers 
memory work space by 8 1 92 bytes. Each of the four on-board soc- 
kets can be decoded to any 2K block of the memory map from 
$C000 through $F800 of the Color Computer. In addition, each 
socket can be configured to respond to address blocks from 2K to 
8K bytes in length, thus accommodating 2K, 4K or8K-by-8 ROM's, 
EPROM's or RAM's. ROM and RAM can be mixed on the card as 
well. RAM, on thecard.can bewnttentoandthen"wnteprotected" 
via dip switches on the CK4 to emulate ROM. 

The instructions include information on how to set up the socket 
decoding circuitry and how to provide battery backup for programs 
stored in CMOS static RAM on the CK4 with the computer off or 
the cartridge removed. 

The popular CK4 PROM/RAM card is now available in three 
versions. 

1] The full featured CK4 remains the standard of cartridge board 
flexibility with the added capability of providing battery backup for 
CMOS static RAM's such as 61 1 6's. Cost of the CK4 is still just 
$29.95. 

2] The CK4-1 is a ROM only version of the CK4 card for use with 
CoCo's with later than "E series" circuit boards. These later ver- 
sions of CoCo are not able to write to cartridge based RAM without 
modification. Cost is $27.95 for the CK4-1. 

3] The CK4-2 i s the unpopulated CK4 series circuit board only. Buy 
this version of the CK4 and configure them to meet your specific 
requirements at a price designed to stretch your dollars value. Cost 
is $15.95 each. 

" MORSE 

The MEDKBO Morse En/Decoder Kit consists of a machine code 
software driver on tape, a schematic diagram of the interface cir- 
cuitry, component parts, a printed circuit board (PCS), packaging 
suggestions and complete instructions for building a Morse code 
transmission and reception system that is compatible with 4K 
RAM and up models of the TRS-SQ Color Computer . 



The transmitter/receiver interface circuitry is totally optically 
isolated and is, therefore, compatible with all receivers and trans- 
mitters. Transmitter and receiver both connect to the interface 
unit and to the Color Computer via the RS-232 port. 

The MEDK80 Morse En/Decoder kit operates at speeds up to 70 
words per minute and automatically adapts to speed variations of 
the sender. When transmitting, words are transmitted only when 
fully formed, i.e., followed by a space, and the transmit text buffer 
gives visual notification to the operator of what word/character is 
currently being sent. In addition, the text buffer is 512 characters 
deep, which is sufficiently large to keep up with the best of "rag- 
chewers". 

Potential purchasers of this product should have previous kit 
building experience. However, this is not a kit of great complexity, 
and is well within the abilities of those actively involved in amateur 
radio or electronic hobbies to construct. To reduce the chance of 
wiring errors, component placement is indicated on the PC8 and 
detailed assembly instructions are included. 

The cost of the MEDKBO software, parts, and instructions is 
$39.95. 

" COCO" GETS A BREADBOARD 

The COCO BREADBOARD is a circuit board that plugs directly into 
the cartridge slot of the Color Computer and provides the user with 
1 6 square inches of predrilled breadboarding area for circuit de- 
velopment, interfacing experiments, motherboard implementation, 
or whatever your imagination conjures up. The plated thru holes in 
the breadboard are wirewrap pin compatible and on 0.10 inch 
centers. 

The COCO BREAD BOARD brings all of the data, address, and con- 
trol signals available at the cartridge slot outside of the body of the 
computer and the signal lines are appropriately labeled to facilitate 
error free wiring of breadboards. A ground plane is provided on the 
top side of the board and solder pads are provided on the bottom of 
the board, thus facilitating circuit grounding and point-to-point 
wiring. In short, the COCO BREADBOARD was designed with the 
experimenter in mind. 

The COCO BREADBOARD is attractively priced to justify its use 
for even the lowestbudget projects. It is an ideal vehiclefor learning 
interfacing techniques. Buy extras to have on hand for those rainy 
weekends. 

The COCO BREADBOARD costs just $19.95. Price for two (2) or 
more is $1 6 95 each. 

FACTORY FRESH COMPONENTS: 



ITEM 

2716 EPROM 
2532 EPROM 
6B21P 
74LS156 
Socket 



DESCRIPTION 

2K by 8 Bit, 350 ns 
4K by 8 bit, 350 ns 
P.I.A. 

Open collector decoder 
ZIF, 24 pin, Aries 

Minimum component order: $25.00 



PRICE 

$4.50 ea. 
$6.50 ea. 
$3.50 ea. 
$1.70 ea. 
$7.95 ea. 



9RPERINC INFORMATION: 

Add $3.00 to all orders to cover shipping and handling. Allow two 
weeks for personal checks. Canadian residents add 5°/o to cover 
special handling. Arizona residents add 4°/o sales tax. Sorry! No 
charges accepted. All items shipped UPS. 



Make checks payable to: 



COMPUTER ACCESSORIES OF ARIZONA 
5801 E. VOLTAIRE DRIVE 
SCOTTSDALE, ARIZONA 85254 
C602) 886-7568 



TRS-80 is a trademark of TANDY CORP. 
SDS80C is a trademark of the MICRO WORKS. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 



_>/__v/_ 



GAME 




CoCo Says Repeat This Tune 



By Larry Konecky 
Director CAI In Music 
Alcorn State University 



Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is receiving much 
attention in all areas of education, particularly in subject 
areas where drill and practice exercises are necessary for 
student learning. In music education, ear training is an area 
in which much practice is necessary by many students for 
sufficient development to occur. Also, even though students 
may be in the same music theory classes, or at the same 
performinglevels, their aural discrimination skills may vary 
greatly. For this reason programs which relate to various 
skill levels are necessary. 

The following musical game is intended to give students 
practice in aural note identification at various skill levels. A 
piano keyboard is displayed on the screen upon which the 
computer plays sequences of notes which students must 
repeat by pressing the proper keys on the Color Computer. 
Since the computer keyboard is not like the piano keyboard 
some imagination is necessary to visualize the piano key- 
board onto the Color Computer keyboard. A plastic overlay 
can be helpful by marking on the overlay the bottom row of 
keys ('Z\ X\ 'C\ 'V\ 'B\ 'N\ 'M \ and V) as piano white keys 
and in the next row ('S\ 'D\ G\ fc H\ and 'J') as black keys. 
Also relabeling the computer keys their respective piano key 
names (middle C through C above middle C) can be helpful. 

At each novice level the computer shows which notes are 
being played as well as sounding them before asking 
students to repeat the sequence. In each other level only the 
first note is shown, forcing the player to rely on listening 
ability alone. The game begins with a one note sequence 
which is lengthened by one note after each successful 
completion of up to a maximum of fifty notes. This level can 
be changed by adjusting lines 10 and 755. 

At the intermediate-diatonic level, the intervals between 
successive notes are limited to a maximum distance of a 
fifth. At the intermediate-chromatic level, the randomize 
function is set so that a greater amount of white key notes 
will occur than black key notes. In other levels the notes 
have an equal chance of being selected. 



You may want to change the comments given at the end of 
each exercise or the levels at which they occur. Refer to 
program lines 1300 through 1460 to make the desired 
changes. 

Statement 5 uses a PC LEAR 1 which will give a syntax 
error the first time the program is RUN after it is loaded. 
Just retype RUN, press ENTER and the program will run 
without the syntax error. 



The listing: 



200 
680 
1210 
END 



048F 
098A 
0EF7 
1398 



5 PCLEAR 1 

10 DIM M<50) ,T<13) 

14 ' **************** 

15 ' ** note table ** 

16 ' **************** 

20 F0RB=1T013: READT (B) :NEXT 

30 DATA 89,108,125,133,147,159,1 

70, 176 

40 DATA 99,117,140,153,165 

44 ' *********************** 

45 '** keyboard graphics ** 

46 ' *********************** 

50 W*=CHR* < 207 ) : WL*=CHR* < 202 ) : WR 

*=CHR* < 197) : W2*=W*+W*: W3*=W*+W2* 

: B*=CHR* < 128) : V*»CHR* (175) 

60 C*=W2*+WL*+B*+WR*+W*+WL*+B*+W 

R*+W2*: D*=W3*+V*+W3*+V*+W3* 

70 F*=W2*+WL*+B*+WR*+W*+WL*+B*+W 




218 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



R*+W*+WL*+B*+WR*+W2* : G*=W3*+V*+W 

3*+V*+W3*+V*+W3*: H*=W2*+WL* 

80 Y*=CHR*<159) :R*=CHR*<255) : GR* 

=CHR*<223> 

89 " *********************** 

90 '** introduction page ** 

91 " *********************** 

100 CLS0:PRINT@10, "*SIMON SAYS*" 

- 

i 

110 PRINTQ40, "*PLAY THIS TUNE* " 5 
120 PRINT@96," A TUNE WILL BE DE 
VELOPED ONE NOTE AT A TIME. Y 
OU ARE TO CORRECTLY PLAY BA 

CK THE TUNE BY PRESSING THE C 
ORRECT KEYS. 11 

130 PRINT@256," YOU MUST ANSWER 
QUICKLY! " 

140 PRINT6326, 11 ENTER YOUR NAME 
: " 5 : PR I NT6352 , 5 : I NPUTN* 
150 PRINT6450, 11 PRESS K FOR KEYB 
OARD SETUP 11 ; 

160 PRINT6485, 11 PRESS C TO CONTI 
NUE 5 

170 k*«inkey*:m<i>=rnd<13> : ifk*= 

11 "THEN 170 

1 80 I FK*= 11 K 11 THENC= 1 : GOTO 1 96 
190 IFK*= ,, C ,, THENC«0:GOTO200 

195 GOTO 170 

196 GOSUB800 

197 " ****************** 

198 '** level select ** 

199 * ****************** 

200 CLS4 

210 PRINTQ10, "*SIMON SAYS* 11 ; 
220 PRINTQ40, "*PLAY THIS TUNE*"5 
230 PRINT@96, M SELECT FROM THE F 
OLLOWING: "5 

240 PRINT@163," 1) NOVICE DI 

ATONIC "I 

245 PRINT@195," 2) INTERMED - DI 
ATONIC 5 

250 PRINT@227," 3) EXPERT DI 



ATONIC 5 

255 PRINT@259," 4) NOVICE CH 

ROM AT I C 5 

260 PRINT@291," 5) INTERMED - CH 
ROM AT I C "5 

265 PRINTQ323," 6) EXPERT CH 

ROM AT I C 11 ; 

280 PRINT® 122, 5 : INPUTR 
290 IFR<1ORR>6THEN230 
360 IFC=1THENC=0 
370 GOSUB800 
380 X«l 

389 * ************************** 

390 '** computer note select ** 

391 * ************************** 
400 PRINT638, STRING* (20, 159) 5 
410 PR I NT670 , Y*+Y*+Y*+Y* 11 ***L I ST 
EN*** " Y*+ Y*+Y*+Y* 5 

420 PRINT6102, STRINGS (20, 159) 5 
430 I FR< 4THENM ( X ) =RND < 8 ) ELSEM ( X ) 
=RND(13) 

432 IFX>1ANDR=2THENGOSUB1500 

433 IFX>1ANDR=5THENGOSUB1550 
435 FORZ«1TO960:NEXT 

440 FORY-1TOX 

450 IFX=1ORR«1ORR«4THEN460ELSE47 
0 

460 GOSUB1000 

470 SOUNDT(M(Y) ) ,8 

480 IFX=1ORR=1ORR«4THEN490ELSE49 
5 

490 GOSUB1050 
495 NEXTY 

497 * ******************* 

498 '** answer select ** 

499 * ******************* 

500 PRINT638, STRING* (20, 223) 5 
510 PRINT@70,GR*+GR*5 n ***PLAY BA 
CK!***"GR*+GR*5 

520 PRINTQ102, STRING* (20,223) 5 
530 FORY=lTOX 
540 T=l 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 219 



550 K*=INKEY*:T=T+l: IFT>250THEN1 
200 
560 
570 
580 
590 
600 
610 
620 
630 
640 
650 
660 
670 
680 
690 
700 
710 
720 
730 
740 
750 



GOTO700 
GOTO700 
GOTO700 
GOTO700 
GOTO700 
GOTO700 
GOTO700 
GOTO700 
GOTO700 



760 
797 
798 
799 
800 



IFK*=" "THEN550 
IFK*="Z"THENK=1 
IFK*="X"THENK=2 
IFK*="C"THENK«3 
IFK*="V"THENK=4 
IFK*="B"THENK=5 
IFK*«"N"THENK«6 
IFK*»"M"THENK=7 
IFK*«", "THENK-8 
IFK*«"S"THENK«9 
I FK*« " D " THENK> 1 0 : GOTO700 
I FK*= " G " THENK= 1 1 : GOTO700 
I FK*= " H " THENK= 1 2 : GOTO700 
IFK*="J"THENK=13 
IFM<Y)«K THEN7 1 0ELSE 1 200 
GOSUB1000 
SOUNDT(K) ,7 
GOSUB1050 
NEXTY 
X-X+l 
IFX=51THEN1600 
GOTO400 

7 ************************** 

7 ** print piano keyboard ** 
7 ************************** 

CLS3 




from 



CoCoHu 




THE ULTIMATE STRATEGY GAME 



1 or 2 
players 




4 



p. 



=ri!=HJ!fi^-T: : i 



16 K Ext 

Basic 
required 



Cassette $19.95 Disk $24.95 

Send check or money order to: 

COCOHUT >«\ 
P. O. Box 24451 rrryA 
Houston, TX 77015 



RAINBOW 

C«*T*KUrtO* 



810 PRINT610, "*SIMON SAYS* 11 ; 
820 PRINT640, "*PLAY THIS TUNE*"; 
840 F0RX=1T04: Y=X*32+129: Z=X*32+ 
257 

850 print@y,c*; :print@y+12,f*; :p 

RINT@Y+28,H*; 

860 print@z,d*; :PRINT@Z+12,G*; :P 

RINT6Z+28, W3*; : NEXT 
870 IFC=1THENGOSUB900 
880 RETURN 

897 * *********************** 

898 7 ** computer keyboard ** 

899 ' *********************** 

900 PRINT® 100," COMPUTER KEYBOAR 
D SETUP "; 

910 PRINT6228, "S" ; : PRINT6232, "D" 

; :print@240, "G"; :print@244, "H"; : 

PRINT6248, "J"; 

920 PR I NT6354 , " Z " 5 : PR I NT6358 , " X " 

; :print@362, "C"; :print@366, "V"; : 

PRINT6370, "B"| :PRINT@374, "N"; : PR 
I NT6378 , " M " J : PR I NTQ382 , " , " 5 
930 PRINTQ485," PRESS C TO CONTI 
NUE 

940 K*=INKEY*: IFK*=""THEN940 
950 IFK*="C"THEN RETURNELSE940 

989 ' ************************ 

990 7 ** notes being played ** 

991 ' ************************ 
1000 IF M(Y) M0THEN1040 

1010 IF M(Y) >8THEN1030 

1020 PRINT@M(Y)*4+318,R*; : PRINT® 

M <Y) *4+350, R*; : RETURN 

1030 PRINT@M<Y)*4+160,R*; :PRINT@ 

M < Y) *4+192, R*J : RETURN 

1040 PRINT@M<Y)*4+164,R*; : PRINT® 

M<Y)*4+196,R*; : RETURN 

1047 ' ********************* 

1048 '** return keyboard ** 

1 049 ' ********************* 

1050 IFM < Y) M0THEN1090 
1 060 IFM < Y) >8THEN 1 080 

1070 PRINT@M(Y)*4+318,W*; : PRINT® 

M < Y ) *4+350 , W* ; : RETURN 

1080 PRINT@M<Y)*4+160,B*; : PRINT® 

M<Y)*4+192,B*; : RETURN 

1090 PRINT@M(Y)*4+164,B*; : PRINT® 

M<Y)*4+196,B*J : RETURN 

1 1 97 * ****************** 

1198 7 ** wrong answer ** 

1 199 7 ****************** 

1200 PRINTQ36, STRING* (24, 255) ; 
1210 PRINT@68,R*+R*+R*" THAT NO 
TE WAS: "R*+R*+R*; 

1220 PRINT6100, STRING* (24, 255) ; 

1240 FORZ=1TO10 

1250 GOSUB1000 

1260 SOUND T(M(Y) ) , 1 

1270 GOSUB 1050 

1280 SOUND T<M<Y) > , 1 



220 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE presents. 




5 •ounda«tional,colorful 1 graphic games for your Color Coaputsr ineluding: 
Briokout, B-17 Bomber, Blaokjaok, Jaokpot and Coaputration - all for tba 
prica you might expect to pay for Just one of these games I II 
Plus added bonus - Compumindt guaaa the computer's aecret coda from clues 
provided - a game of logic for the whole family. At thia price oan your 
library afford to be without them'? 

All machinee - Ext. Basic NOT Required 
J19.95 Cassette - S24.95 Disk 

RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE presents... 




You've traversed the dungeons of Kzirgla and reclaimed the almighty Scepter. 
Now you must use its invincible powers and all your weapons to slay a myriad 
of monsters and fireballs in your attempt to destroy the evil wizard. If you 
like the challenge and mystique but not the boredom of text only adventure 
games then this real time, hi-rea sequel to the ever popular Scepter of Kzirgla 
is for youl 

16K Ext Basio Cass - $21.9? 
CONQUEST OT KZIRGLA for -the Color Computer 32X Diskette - 126.95 



RAINBOW CONNEOTION SOFTWARE presents... 




The year is 2117 and the galaxy has been invaded by the Xopri 
a race cf robots from a distant galaxy. Your mission is to rid 
galaxy of their various ships a quadrant at a time but fuel is precioue. 
Just as it seems you're winning the battle they hit you with the ultimate 
weapon - phycological warfaral Hi-ree, real time, arcade sound. 

l6K Ext. Basic & Joystick 
814.95 Cass 

(33 



EiJNBOW [JOMtEallaJ? SDTTlOJiE pnsanti,, 




•Reviewed in the RAINBOW 
At last... a real-time j?ra-phl es adventure game with arc&d e sound for your Color Computer! 
If you are bored with silent screens of text but enjoy the challenge and complexity of 
adventure games then SCEPTER OF K2IRGLA is for you. 




Add 



Include 12.00 shipping, 
Minn, resedents add 5$ tax, 
Dealer inquiries invited. 

Not affiliated with THE RAINBOW. 



49 



l6K Ext. Baeic Raq. 
S16.95 case - 821.95 disk 



RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE 
351 1 * 6th Place N.W. 
Rochester, KN 55901 



GOLDLABEL 

BLANK CASSETTES 

★ PREMIUM 5 SCREW SHELL 
★ COMPUTER DATA QUALITY *LOW NOISE 
★ MADE IN USA ★GUARANTEED 

1 DDZEN C-10 LENGTH $8.50 + $2.50 shpg. 

2 DOZEN C-10 LENGTH $16.00 + $3.50 shpg. 

1 DOZEN C-30 LENGTH $12.50 + $2.50 shpg. 

2 DOZEN C-30 LENGTH $23.50 + $3.50 shpg. 

Individual storage boxes (sold only with cassettes) $2.40 per dozen. 
CASSETTE CADDY: $3.95 + S2.00 shpg. 

2 for $7.00 + $3.00 shpg. 

Free shipping on one caddy with each dozen cassettes. 

Foreign orders include shipping at 16 oz. per dozen tapes/9 oz. per 
caddy/13 oz. per dozen boxes. Shipped in U.S. by UPS. 



CASSETTE CADDY 

TIRED OF MISPLACED TAPES AND A CLUTTERED WORK AREA? TRY 
OUR HINGED TOP SMOKED PLASTIC CADDY THAT HOLDS 12 TAPES IN 
ONE HANDY LOCATION. EDGE LABELS INCLUDED TO IDENTIFY TAPES. 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Visa and Mastercard accepted (include expiration date) Orders paid by 
cashier's check, money order or bankcard are shipped within 48 hours. 
Personal check takes 1-2 wks. No COD. Some foreign sales are restricted. 
Texas residents add 5% tax. 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES 

P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 

Telephone Orders: (214) 454-3674 9-4 Monday-Saturday 



★ DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



^QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



1290 NEXT 
1295 GOSUB1000 

1297 ************ 

1298 '** score ** 

1 299 * *********** 

1300 IFX<6THEN1350 

1310 IFX>5ANDX<11THEN1375 
1315 IFX>10ANDX<16THEN1380 
1317 IFX>15ANDX<21THEN1390 
1320 IFX>20ANDX<26THEN1410 
1330 IFX>25ANDX<31THEN1420 
1340 IFX>30ANDX<41THEN1430 
1345 IFX>40THEN1435 



ii 



H 



N* 



H 



YOU DID P 



n 



YOU ONLY MADE I 



n 



n 



n 



n 



n 



"N$" , YOU CAN D 
00 

"N$" , THAT WAS O 
"N$" , THAT WAS G 
YOU MADE IT TO" 



H 



N* 



H 



1350 PRINT6416, 
OORLY ! " 

1360 PRINTQ448, 
T TO "X-l 
1370 GOTO 1440 
1375 PRINTQ416, 
0 BETTER. ": GOTO 1400 
1380 PRINTQ416, 
-K. M :GOTO1400 
1390 PRINTQ416, 
OOD ! " 

1400 PRINT6448, 
X-1.-GOTO1440 
1410 PRINT6416, 
EXCELLENT ! " : GOTO 1400 
1420 PRINT@416," "N$", 
RE AT! ": GOTO 1400 
1430 PRINT@416," "N$", 
ANTAST ICS": GOTO 1 400 
1435 PRINTQ416, " "N$", 
VABLE! !**": GOTO 1400 
1440 PRINT@485, M PRESS P TO PLAY 

AGAIN " ; 
1 450 K*= I NKEY* : I FK*= " " THEN 1 450 
1460 IFK*= ,, P ,, THEN200ELSE1450 

1497 ' *********************** 

1498 '** intermed routines ** 

1499 9 *********************** 

1500 MX=M(X)-M(X-1) 

1510 IFMX>4THENM(X)=M(X)-5 

1520 IFMX<-4THENM<X)-M<X>+5 

1530 RETURN 

1550 MX-RND<3) 

1560 IFMX=3THEN1580 

1570 IFM(X) >8THENM < X ) =M < X ) -5 

1580 RETURN 

1 597 * *************** 

1598 '** maximum # ** 

1 599 * *************** 



THAT WAS 



YOU ARE G 



YOU ARE F 



**UNBELIE 



n 



H 



N* 



H 



*I GIVE U 



1600 PRINT6416, 
P! !#" 

1610 FORZ=1TO250STEP5:SOUNDZ, l:N 
EXTZ 

1 620 FOR Z - 1 TO 1 0 : SOUND240 , 1 : SOUND 
250, l:NEXTZ 
1630 GOTO 1400 



222 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



LEARN A SECOND LANGUAGE ON YOUR 

COLOR COMPUTER • NEW • exciting • easy 

Creative Courseware using the latest 
technology and Professional Programming 




Fulfill your educational objectives 
Have fun learning a new language 
Expand your children's horizons. 



Improve your job potential 
Young and old can learn 
Affordable, only pennies per hour. 



— High quality visuals, not dotted graphics 
HEAR — High quality audio as spoken by natives 
UNDERSTAND — Through programmed instruction 
RESPOND — Branching, and looping insure learning. 



Our Lessons Teach You to 
HEAR and THINK in a 
Second Language 

These lessons are for you if you: 

• Think you can't learn 

• Have had previous difficulties 

• Want to start out right 

• Want language success 



Lessons Now Available in 
Spanish, English and 
French 

• Color Computer with 16K RAM 
and tape recorder required 

• SLU-1: People, Persons & Family 

• SLU-2: Stand, Walk & Run 

• SLU-3: Smile, Eat & Talk 

• SLU-4: House 

• SLU-5: Open & Closed 

• SLU-6: Furniture & Appliances 

• SLU-7: Meals 

• Vocabulary #1, 2 & 3: 200 words each 



Other Lessons and 
Languages Available Soon 



Special Values 

Special Value #1 

SLU 1 -3, VOCAB 1 , and Lesson Control 

A $129.75 Value for only $99.95. 

SV-1 (specify language desired) $99.95 

Special Value #2 

SLU 1 -7, VOCAB 1-3, and Lesson Control 

A $249.45 Value for only $199.95. 

SV-2 (specify language desired). . . $1 99.95 

Demonstration Lesson (for the doubter) 
DEMO-1 $9.95 

Individual Lessons: 

(specify language desired) 

Second Language Usage (SLU) $19.95 

Vocabulary (SL) $19.95 

Lesson Control: (only one copy needed 

for all lessons and languages) 

LC-CC $49.50 



J 



HOW TO HEAR AND THINK IN a second language 

Skilled linguists have developed our series of second language programs. The lessons utilize the power of programmed 
instruction wherein you are advanced to new material only after satisfactory learning has occurred at the current level. Our 
techniques teach you how to think in a language without initially using any printed text material. No mental translation to your 
native language is required. You learn as a child does, hearing and speaking before reading. The computer both tutors and 
keeps track of progress as it moves you forward (or backward when review is necessary). AUDIO plus VISUALS plus 
INTERACTIVE RESPONSE establish thelearning process.and literally THOUSANDSofvisualshelpseal-inthesound patterns 
of your new language. 

All of our lessons are interactive and user friendly; yet, you are unaware of the complex course structure involved. For 
example: Lesson SLU-1 uses the theme of PEOPLE, PERSONS & FAMILY to teach the use of nouns to name things, to classify 
them into categories, and to identify members of a group. Sentence structure is developed using the verb 'be' and its relationship 
to nouns and adverbs, including plural forms and inversions. Noun structure using definite and indefinite articles, and regular 
and irregular plural forms isalso presented. The other lessonsaresimilarly designed. In addition, each VOCABULARY LESSON 
presents approximately 200 visuals and 200 words that are integrated into the learning process. 

While the foregoing might seem complex, and it is, IT IS ALSO THE REASON OUR COURSEWARE CAN TEACH 
LANGUAGES. If you have tried 'game' or 'tape' language programs you know that they are ineffective. Our programs can teach 
you a language because we have successfully combined expert authoring of programmed courseware with audio & visuals & 
response & branching into a powerful tutorial package. 



DEALER INQUIRIES ACCEPTED 

We have a broad range of Audio 
Visual Computer Aided Instruc- 
tion under development. Some 
users of our courseware might 
include Day Care Centers, 
Schools (public and private), 
institutions in various categories, 
individuals and language tutors. 



ABSOLUTELY NO RISK 

You may examine your 
order for 15 days. If you de- 
cide not to take advantage 
of the lesson(s) simply re- 
turn in good condition for a 
full refund or cancellation 
of credit card charges. 



"\ r 



*WE PAY UPS IN USA 

(street address required for UPS) 
*Add $2.00 if US Mail desired. 

*Add 15% for foreign. APO & FPO 

(Remit in US Funds) 
*Virginia Orders add 4% sales tax 
*Mail creditcard orders please 

include all card information 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA and 
MASTER CARD 

• Money Orders 

• Certified Checks 

• Other Checks {must 
clear before shipment) 



FREE ORDER LINE 

1-800-368-6300 

FOR VIRGINIA ORDERS 
AND OTHER CALLS: 

1-804-463-6300 
* * + 

BASIC PROGRAMS, INC. 

236 Mustang Trail, #102 
Virginia Beach, VA 23452 



EDUCATION 

Education and 
The Color Computer 

By Dr. Paul Kimmelman 
Rainbow Education Editor 

To begin, thanks to all of you who have sent the names of 
your school district's computer coordinators. While the 
numbers have not been overwhelming, we have begun to 
establish an educational Color Computer network. It is 
interesting to see how many people are working with the 
Color Computer for educational purposes and more signifi 
cantly, writing their own educational programs. In the 
future, we will describe some of the programsbeing used. 

We are also becoming more enlightened through the 
number of telephone calls and letters we receive requesting 
more information about the Color Computer and its use in 
the schools. At this point, we are informing everyone who 
asks that our use of the Color Computers has indicated that 
they are durable and from a service perspective they have 
been very reliable. We are also finding that many companies 
are beginning to develop third-party software and peripher- 
al equipment to use with them. 

In the very near future a compact 3" micro-floppydisk 
drive system will be distributed for the Color Computer. 
Some of the features of this system will include a shirt- 
pocket sized disk instead of the traditional 5!4" disk that can 
store up to 1 Megabyte of information. The plastic cartridge 



COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

Adventure games 
■ THE ALCHEMIST'S LABORATORY ■ $14.95 

mix the ingredients that will 
turn lead into gold. 

- LOKAR'S MAGIC STAFF - $14.95 

can you unlock the deadly secrets of LOKAR'S magic staff? 

- MEGAMAZE - $14.95 
a wild, five dimensional space maze adventure. 

- SQUEEZE ■ $14.95 
arcade style game where aliens close in from both sides at 
once. 

- GRAPHIC SCREEN EDITOR - $16.95 

create pictures on the screen using joysticks or arrow keys- 
save on tape, erase, paint, and many other features. 

- COLOR SHOW DISPLAYS - $8.95 

five graphics programs that create endless changing pat- 
terns. 

all programs 16-K extended basic cassette only. 
Send for free catalogue. We accept checks, money orders, 
Visa and Mastercharge. (no C.O.D.'s) Please add $1 .00 for 
shipping. Send to: 

REAL SOFTWARE CO. 

P.O. BOX 401 • HOPEDALE, MA 01747 

(617) 393-6281 

CIS orders EMAIL to 71505,430 
Mass. residents add 5% sales tax Dealer inquiries welcomed 



has a tlip-type head cover to protect it from dust, scratches 
and fingerprints. The system is a double-disk drive, and we 
should have more information on it by the next issue. 

In addition, we are attempting to find monitors to use 
with the Color Computer. The significant advantage will be 
improved resolution for programs that require this type of 
clarity. There is a possibility that one of the problems of 
using the Color Computer with a monitor has been elimina- 
ted through the development of a cable that will enable 
Color Computer owners to use a true video monitor. 

Now for the important part of using the Color Computer 
in our schools. If anything is becoming apparent, it is the 
fact that regardless of whether the Color Computer is being 
used in the home or in the school, the basis for its use should 
be designed to help young people learn more about how to 
control the computer. It is important that everyone realizes 
the basic categories that the computer can be used for with 
students. 

First, many programs are designed to have the student 
respond to problems or questions displayed on the monitor. 
We believe that this type of instruction is important as long 
as it is used in conjunction with regular classroom 
instruction or as a supplemental activity. 

More importantly, however, now is the time to begin 
establishing a basic curriculum for computer use and that 
curriculum must include working with programs such as 
LOGO. The young child who cannot read can very easily 
work with a parent or teacher and use the LOGO doodle 
mode to discover how he or she can make the turtle move 
around the screen. From there, as the child learns to read, 
there can be a gradual evolution of a more sophisticated 
curriculum whereby the child could be required to write his 
or her own programs. Children adapt to LOGO with ease. 

We have heard from some individuals who are critical of 
Color LOGO because of several features that it does not 
include. It seems to me that we should focus on those aspects 
of the program that exist. The features that are not included 
will not affect young children's usage of Color LOGO to any 
significant extent. 

LOGO is rapidly emerging as a popular children's 
language. The ROM pack that Radio Shack will produce 
will be more than adequate for young children who want to 
become familiar with this language. By the time they have 
mastered the components of Color LOGO, they will be 
ready to handle programming with other structured 
procedural languages. 

We believe that we should encourage the use of the 
computers beginning with a child's kindergarten experience. 
Kindergarteners are capable of using joysticks with prog- 
rams such as Popcorn and learn concepts such as directions — 
up, down, right and left. From that point the use of the 
doodle mode in LOGO and many other letter recognition 
programs will enable them to become comfortable and 
competent with the computer. Perhaps the most important 
aspect of computer education is that we develop fun- 
damental skills and build upon them in a sequential manner. 

The last component of the computer program — games — 
is one that is being debated by many educators and parents. I 
believe that games play a significant part in motivating 
students to work with computers. Like anything else, too 
much of any one activity could be counterproductive. 
However, student use of computers with programming 
languages, drill and test routines, and games can all be used 
interchangeably to develop a fundamentally sound com- 
puter literacy curricular program. 

( Dr. Kimmelman is assist ant superintendent of Norton City 
Schools, Norton City, Ohio.) 





224 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




TEXT fiffl CSftFHJCS 
f — 



LARGE CHARACTERS 
FOR SMALL CHILDREN 
□R THE VISUALLY 
IMPAIRED 



123456789012345678901 



ABCDEFGH I FKLMNDPQRSTU 
VWX YZabctle i SJh i Jk 1 mop 
qrstuwxyzl 




SOLUTION ON CARTRIDGE 

The cartridge version of THE SOLUTION has all of the 

features of the tape version and more. It works with all 
of the graphic modes (including 4 colors). It includes a 
51 characters per line feature and the ability to define a 
text window on the screen. All of this and much more 
at the low price of — $34 95 
ROM-PAKS $9.95 

This is an empty Rom-Pak with a PC board. It will hold 
eithera 2716, 2732 or a 2764.Thecase looks very simi- 
lar to Radio Shack's Rom-Pak. Comes complete with 
instructions. 

CUSTOM PROGRAMING 

We will put your program in a Rom-Pak for you for a 

very reasonable fee. The program can be either Basic 
or machine language. Prices start at $19.95 for pro- 
grams up to 4K in length. $29.95 for programs up to 8K. 
Volume discounts are available. Send for a free sub- 
mittal form. 



ft I P $ t f 



$ c i fc a s 

* S € 

i 

♦LICENSEE TO TftNDY CORP. 



* 

i 

* 



1 clear »*e«orrf 

2 edit text 

3 save on i-aPe 

4 load fro* tap* 

5 Pr 1 At 

6 chan3e standards 
(select l-4> 



SCRIPTFX $9.95 

Are you tired of the upper case display of Color Scrip- 
sit? Well then SCRIPTFX is for you. This is a program 
which converts the display of Color Scripsit over to a 
real display of upper and lower case letters with des- 
cenders. The program allows all of the features of 
Scripsit to function and comes with a money back 
guarantee if it does not work. Please specify machine 
type when ordering. Extended Basic is not required. 



SUPER PILOT $9-95 

An enhanced version of Pilot for use with Extended Basic. 
Includes features for math, graphics, and sound. Has a 
feature that makes it easy to create flash card type drill 
programs. Programs are pseudo compiled for faster 
execution. Comes with as 24 page tutorial manual and demo 
programs. Sample program included on tape to get you 
started. 

All programs for 16K, 32K Extended Basic machines unless 
otherwise noted. All programs on cassette. Add $4.00 per 
order for disk. 

DISCOUNT — order 10 or more programs (you may mix 
types) and you will receive a 30% discount on the order. 
Dealer discounts are also available. 

SNAKE MOUNTAIN SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 5722 
RALEIGH, NC 27650 

919-828-6669 

Phone COD orders accepted. 



18 *3e*& of -tfce SOJ/TrON siwirg 43 upper- 
arsct :,y*er case characters pec line, 2i 
l>rx?-s «n tJ**e scwv and fr&hHts. 
W fU?!^ TO 40 STEP 3 
38 €££0X098.- 323,1,9 

^ rcxri 

58 FIRI-32 TO t&7 
m HHMTO*«l>?* *'r 
78 ItKFl 



or 



* ' » # * X %. * < % * * ■ r - , / a i I 3 1 
*• * »ti c al e f 3 h i j k i « n s l» r s 





(Etmgratuiatttmgi 

you made the right choice when you purchased a 

Color Computer. It is a very powerful machine. 

However the standard display format does not do the 
machine justice. The machine is capable of much more than 
16 lines of 32 all capital characters. Now you can give your 
Color Computer the display it deserves. THE SOLUTION 
gives the Color Computer a much better display than it nor- 
mally has, and really makes the machine shine. Its features 
include: 

• provides a screen of 42 characters by 21 lines displayed 

• linked directly to basic — program is transparent to the 
user 

• prints all 96 ASCII characters, lowercase characters 
have descenders, has a slashed zero to avoid 
confusion when programing 

• prints characters on any two-color graphic screen 
graphics and text may be intermixed on the same screen 
special mode with 4 lines of text at the bottom of the 
screen (just like some other famous color machines) — 
great for working with graphics 

large character mode for small children or the visually 
impaired 

character set may be reversed 
written in machine language, program is relocatable 
fast — prints at over 600 characters per second 
works with both cassette and disk 
includes a 20 page manual with demo programs (a lunar 
lander program is included) 

SOLUTION $19.95 



EXTENDER $ 7.95 

Still want more than 42 characters per line from your 
computer. Then the EXTENDER is for you. This program 
when used with THE SOLUTION will give a display of 51 
characters per line by 21 lines displayed. Please include your 
program serial number when ordering. 

GRAPH LABEL $8.95 

Have you ever wanted to place characters on a graphic 
screen but couldn't find an easy way to do it. Well then 
GRAPH LABEL is for you. This program will enable you to 
place characters anywhere on a graphic screen. It will place 
any of 96 ASCII characters on the screen or you may create 
your own characters. It features a cursor that may be moved 
anywhere around the screen with out rubbing out what it 
goes over. Superscripts and subscripts may be used since 
the cursor may be moved vertically and horizontally in steps 
as small as one pixel. Lowercase characters have descend- 
ers. GRAPH LABEL is written in Basic and is therefore easy 
to modify. It may be used by itself or as a subroutine. 

SCREEN PRINT PACKAGE $8.95 

A package of 2 programs for use with the LPVII, LPVIII, 
DMP100, DMP200, DMP400, DMP500. The programs will 
print an image of what is on a graphic screen tothe printer. 
Both programs work with all the standard PMODEs. The 
programs are written in machine language and may be 
moved anywhere in memory. The two programs are: 

1) SCREEN PRINT — will produce a regular size print. The 
image may be located anywhere on a page. 

2) DOUBLE SIZE SCREEN PRINT — this program will 
produce a full size imagethat will fill up a sheet of paper. The 
finished product is 8 by 6.5 inches in size. Your computer 
graphics look really good when they are printed out with this 
program. 

SHIPPING — add $2.00 for ordersless than $20.00. Shipping 
is free on orders of more than $20.00. 
Canadians — please send money orders only. 

All orders shipped within 5 working days. 



Game Master 's Apprentice 



Let's Try 
Fantasy Role Playing Games 



By 

George Firedrake 
and 
Bob Albrecht 



Millions of young people, and many not-so-young, are 
playing fantasy role playing games. A role playing game is a 
game in which one or more players create and control char- 
acters (adventurers) who live their imaginary lives in a spe- 
cially made game world. The game world is created, man- 
aged, and operated by a GameMaster (GM), also called a 
referee, adventure master, or dungeon master (DM). 

Most people who play role playing games use a formal 
rule system. Some of the best known are shown below. 

Dungeons & Dragons (D&D). From TSR Hobbies, 
P.O. Box 756, Lake Geneva, WI 53147. 

RuneQuest (RQ). From Chaosium, P.O. Box 6302, 
Albany, CA 94706. 

Tunnels & Trolls (T&T). From Blade, Box 1467, 
Scottsdale, AZ 85252. 

Worlds of Wonder (WOW). From Chaosium, P. O. 
Box 6302, Albany, CA 94706. 

BEGINNERS BEWARE! The rulebooks are very diffi- 
cult to understand. If you are a beginner, first try Worlds of 
Wonder or Tunnels & Trolls. 

GameMaster's Dice 

Most role playing game systems use dice to determine the 
outcomes of events. Dice are rolled to find out whether 
something happened or didn't happen. Did a character find 
the hidden treasure, or open the secret door, or hear the 
monster sneaking up behind her? Did the character solve the 
puzzle that unlocks the magic chest or read the cryptic 
runes? Who won the melee between the good guys and the 
bad guys? How much damage did our character take when 
he fell out of the tree? Roll dice to find out. 

Dice are used to determine success or failure in using 
weapons. If a weapon attack is successful, dice are used to 
determine how much damage is inflicted. If a character can 
use magic, dice are rolled to determine if a spell is cast 
successfully and what its effects are. In playing a game, you 
spend much time rolling dice and interpreting the results of a 
roll. Fantasy role playing, like life itself, is part skill and part 
luck. 

GameMaster's Dice come in many shapes, from tetrahed- 
rons (4 sides) to icosahedrons (20 sides). We assume you are 
already acquainted with ordinary six-sided dice. We use the 
abbreviation D6 to mean one six-sided die. 



n 



D6 is one six-sided die 
ID6 is one six-sided die 
2D6 are two six-sided dice 
3D6 are three six-sided dice 
and so on. 

We also use less familiar dice, such as: 





D4 



D4 is a tetrahedron, with sides num- 
bered I to 4. The number rolled is the 
one that is right side up after you throw 
the die. 



D8 



D12 



D20 




D8 is an octahedron, with eight sides 
numbered I to 8. 




DIGIT DICE 



D 12 is a dodecahedron, with twelve sides 
numbered 1 to 12. 



D 20 is an icosahedron, with twenty sides 
numbered I to 20. 



A digit die (DD) can be a ten-sided die, 
with sides numbered 0 to 9, or an ico- 
sahedron with twenty sides numbered 0 
to 9 (each number appears twice). 



D6 



We use digit die (DD) to roll a decimal digit, 0 to 9. 
However, sometimes we want to roll DI0, a number from I 
to 10. Easy— roll a DD and use 0 to mean 10. 

REMEMBER: A digit die (DD) is a 10 or 20-sided die 
whose faces are numbered 0 to 9. 

D 100 is a percentage roll, also called a percentile roll, with 
numbers from 00 to 99. To make a percentage roll, use a DD 
(digit die), roll it twice. The first roll is the ten's digit; the 
second roll is the one's d igit. I f you roll a 3 the first time and a 
7 the second time, the number is 37. 

Or use two digit dice of different colors. One color (silver? 
gold? yellow?) is the ten's digit and the other (white? 
copper?) is the one's digit. 

Sometimes, zero zero (00) is a fumble. If you roll a fumble 
... alas ... your character may trip on his sword, drop the 
chest of gold on his foot, fall out of the tree in which he is 
hiding, or suffer another calamity gleefully prescribed by the 
GameMaster. (GameMasters love it, when vow fumble.) 

If you browse the literature of role playing games, you 
may encounter other dice abbreviations. 



226 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




Next time, we will show you our first GameM aster's Dice 
program. In the meantime, keep on rolling. 

True Names, And Other Names 

In role playing games, names are important. If you read 
fantasy, perhaps you know some of these names. 

FRODO GANDALF ARAGORN GIMLI 
ELROND CONAN ELRIC GED 

If you acquire a character to play in a game, you usually 
get to choose the name of your character. You may choose 
any name, including your own name or the name of a friend. 
Any name is OK. 

You might want to give your character a name different 
from the names you are used to, a name that "sounds like" 
the kind of person (human or otherwise) your character is. 
In a future article, we will talk about names that sound 
Gaelic, or Dwarvish, or Elf en, or whatever. This time, we 
will talk about random names that have a certain flavor. 

When you see or hear: 

ROKAR BARAK KUMAN MORAB 



D6+1 



3D4 



D6+D4 



Roll a D6 and add one to the result. 
Possible values are 2 to 7 (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 

7). 

Roll three four-sided dice and add 
them. Possible values are 3 to 12. These 
values are not equally probable. 

Roll one D6 and one D4, then add the 
results. Possible values are 2 to 10. 



Another way to roll D3 isto roll D4. If you get4, ignore it 
and roll again. If you don't have the proper dice, improvise! 

Or, use your CoCo to roll dice. First, we challenge you to 
write a program to roll N dice, each with S sides. Yes, if you 
want, you can roll two-sided dice, or seven-sided dice, or 
13-sided dice, or whatever imaginary dice you create. 
Hmmm ... if you do, think about what they might look like. 
Send us your designs for fair dice with 2, 7, 13, (and so on) 
sides. 

Yup, we wrote a program to roll dice. Here is a RUN of 
our program. 

DICE? 3D6 
12 

DICE? 2D7 
6 

DICE? DD 
4 

DICE? P? 
73 

DICE? D20(Same as 1D20) 
16 

DICE? and so on 




What do you think about them? What kind of characters 
might they be? How about: 



MOSAS 



SOMAL 



RAMOS 



MIKOS 



Without any additional information, pick three of the above 
as people to go adventuring with. 

All of the above names have the form: 

CONSONANT 

VOWEL 

CONSONANT 

VOWEL 

CONSONANT 

We challenge you to write a program to create and display 
five-letter names consisting of: CONSONANT, VOWEL, 
CONSONANT, VOWEL, CONSONANT. We suggest 
your program should display several names, then say "FOR 
MORE NAMES, PRESS SPACE." If someone presses the 
space bar, you see one more line of names. 

Think ahead. Anticipate what we might ask next. For 
example: 



NAME STRUCTURE? CVCVC 
HOW MANY NAMES? 20 




Consonant, Vowel 
Consonant, Vowel 
Consonant. 



TO DO AGAIN, PRESS SPACE 

So, we press the space bar and, 

NAME STRUCTURE? VCCVC 
HOW MANY NAMES? 16 



CoCo prints 
16 names 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 227 



TO DO AGAIN, PRESS SPACE 

With this program, you can try lots of name "flavors!" 

Scan The Character File 

Last time, we showed you a program to look up and 
display the seven basic characteristics for a RuneQuest or 
Worlds of Wonder character. Information on each charac- 
ter is stored, by name of characer, as a record in a file of 
records in DATA statements. You ask for a character by 
name and the CoCo displays the information for that 
character. 

This time, a program to scan the entire file, beginning with 
the first record. To get the next record, you press any key. If 
the CoCo is already displaying the last record, you press any 
key. If the CoCo is already displaying the last record in the 
file (ENDFILE), pressing a key causes it to start over with 
the first record. 

When you RUN the program, first you see: 



NAME: ALOYSIOUS 

STR 10 

CON 1 1 

SIZ 10 

INT 12 

POW 10 

DEX 12 

CHA 9 



FOR NEXT RECORD, PRESS ANY KEY 
So, press a key and see the second record in the file. 



400 REM**READ A RECORD 
410 READ NAME* 
420 READ STR, CON, SIZ, 
, DEX, CHA 



INQ, POW 



500 REM**PRINT CHARACTER'S NAME 
510 CLS 

520 PRINT NAME* 

600 REM**PRINT CHARACTERISTICS 
610 PRINT 
620 PRINT ,, STR M 
630 PRINT "CON" 
640 PRINT "SIZ" 
650 PRINT 11 INT" 
660 PRINT "POW" 
670 PRINT "DEX" 
680 PRINT "CHA" 

700 REM**TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
710 PRINT 

720 PRINT "FOR NEXT RECORD, PRES 
S ANY KEY" 

730 IF INKEY* = " " THEN 730 ELSE 
810 

800 REM**START OVER IF ENDFILE 
810 IF NAME*=" ENDFILE" THEN 310 
ELSE 410 




NAME: BAROSTAN 



STR 

CON 

SIZ 

INT 

POW 

DEX 

CHA 



17 

17 

13 

8 

7 

15 

6 



FOR NEXT RECORD, PRESS ANY KEY 

Keep pressing and eventually you will see the End-Of-File 
record. It looks like this: 



NAME: ENDFILE 

STR 

CON 

SIZ 

INT 

POW 

DEX 

CHA 



0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 



FOR NEXT RECORD, PRESS ANY KEY 

It you now press a key, the CoCo will start over with the 
first record (ALOYSIOUS). 
Here is the program: 

100 REM**SCAN CHARACTER FILE 

300 REM**BEG INNING OF FILE 
310 RESTORE 



1000 REM**DATA FILE 

1010 DATA ALOYSIOUS, 10, 11, 10, 

12, 10, 12, 9 

1020 DATA BAROSTAN, 17, 17, 13, 

8, 7, 15, 6 
1030 DATA BRIDLA, 11, 12, 10, 

15, 6, 11, 6 
1040 DATA DERNFARA, 13, 13, 8, 

13, 4, 17, 6 

1050 DATA JOLEEN, 13, 11, 7, 

13, 8, 17, 13 
1060 DATA ROKANA, 9, 9, 9, 17, 

18, 9, 10 
1070 DATA ENDFILE, 0,0, 0,0,0, 0,0 



You can change the records in the DATA FILE to records 
for your characters, or add your character records to the 
DATA FILE. Remember to put ENDFILE in the last 
DATA statement. 

Next time, we will combine two programs, CHARAC- 
TER FINDER and SCAN CHARACTER FILE, into a 
single program with a menu that lets you select which you 
want to do. 

RND(RND(N)) 

Last time, Hieronymus Heuristicus wrote a program to 
compute a bunch of RN D( RN D(2)) numbers and count 
how many ones and how many twos occurred. One of his 



228 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST GOT WHEELS! 




REVOLUTION! 



You accelerate hard down a long straightaway, 
braking heavily at the end for a hard corner. 
You slice smoothly through the esses, and then 
boldly keep the power on for a fast sweeper. 
The Ferrari drifts dangerously near the edge, 
but you make a tiny correction in the steering, 
and you are through. 

The finish line flashes by, and suddenly you 
are in the pits. The car falls silent. You see your 
lap times being held up. Your final lap was a 
new lap record! At last, you permit yourself 
a small smile. 

You have mastered this powerful car on a 
difficult track, driving with the assurance and 
precision that comes only from long hours of 
practice. 

You are driving an authentic race car. You are 
playing Revolution! 

FANTASTIC ACTION 



Revolution uses high resolution, machine language graphics 
for action that is smooth and fast. The emphasis is on 
authenticity in the control and motion of your car. As in 
driving a real race car, accuracy and precision in your driving 
are what counts. Frills and non-essentials have been lef t out. 

PURE COMPETITION 



Like a real race driver in practice and qualifying sessions, you 
compete against the clock and against the existing lap record 
for that track. Revolution records the lap records and the 
name of the person who set the record, so you always know 
who reigns supreme on your favorite track! 

DESIGNED WITH YOU IN MIND 

Revolution is menu-driven, and self explanatory. Informa- 
tion screens tell you what you need to know. When you're 
ready to play, a menu of the names of all your tracks is 
displayed, along with the lap record for each track and the 
name of the person who set that lap record. You select a track 
with a single keystroke, and Revolution takes you there. 



A NEW CONCEPT 

Revolution is a unique game, because it allows you to create 
the most important part of any race game: the track itself. 

The first time you run Revolution, you will be able to choose 
from several tracks and cars which are included with the 
game. 

But, with Revolution, this is only the beginning! You can 
create as many tracks as you like. You can make each new 
track as difficult or as easy as you wish. You can make easy 
ones to begin with, and tougher ones as you become more 
skilled. You may find creating tracks to be almost as much 
fun as driving on them! 

You can save your favorite tracks to run on again whenever 
you wish. Revolution will automatically add these new tracks 
to the menu. And you can exchange your favorite tracks with 
other Revolution owners. 

Be caref ul, though, about letting your f riends play this game. 
They may not want to let you have your computer back! 

THE EARLY REVOLUTION 



A prototype version of Revolution was published in the 
September, 1982 issue of Rainbow magazine, under the 
name The Track. The response to The Track has been terrific. 

Revolution has all the features that have made The Track a 
favorite, and Revolution's fast, high-resolution machine 
language graphics are dramatically improved over the 
prototype's. 

REVOLUTION NOW! 



The original Revolution for the TRS-80™ Color Computer 
requires 32K and one disk drive. A new cassette version has 
action just like the disk version, and similar track-saving 
features excluding a menu of available tracks. The cassette 
version will run on a 32KColor Computer or TDP-100. You 
can upgrade to the disk version later, too, for a nominal fee. 



REVOLUTION 

For32K Disk ...... $24.95 

For 32K Cassette ... $21.95 



Requires Joysticks 
& Extended BASIC 



Connecticut residents add lYitfu sales tax. 

is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 





VISA* 






Inter <y> eviction 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



113 Ward Street • Dept. R • New Haven, CT 06519 • (203) 562-5748 



RUNs looked like this: 



HOW MANY RANDOM NUMBERS? 1000 

POSSIBLE VALUE NUMBER OF TIMES 

1 758 

2 242 

TO DO AGAIN, PRESS ANY KEY 

H.H. asked for a sample of 1000 RND(RND(2)) 
numbers. He expected to get about the name number of ones 
and twos. Instead, he got about three times as many ones as 
twos. 

Undaunted (and curious), he wrote a new program to 
gether information about RND( RND(3 ) ), RND(RND(4)), 
and so on. Here is his program: 



Now, H.H presses the ENTER key. He waits patiently for 
the computer to do the work, and soon sees: 



FOR RND(RND(N)), WHAT IS N? 2 
HOW MANY NUMBERS? 1000 

POSSIBLE VALUE NUM BER OF TIMES 

1 743 

2 257 

TO DO AGAIN, PRESS ANY KEY 



Seems okay, so H.H. presses the space bar and asks for 
another sample, this time for N=3. 



1 00 REM**RND ( RND ( N ) ) NUMBERS 

200 REM** DIALOG WITH A PERSON 
210 CLS 

220 INPUT "FOR RND (RND (N) > , WHAT 

IS N 11 5 N 
230 INPUT "HOW MANY NUMBERS" ; S 

300 REM**START COUNTS AT ZERO 
310 FOR K=l TO N 
320 : C(K) =0 
330 NEXT K 

400 REM**COUNT RANDOM NUMBERS 

410 FOR K=l TO S 

420 : X = RND (RND (N) ) 

430 : C(X) = C(X) + 1 

440 NEXT K 

500 REM**PRINT RESULTS 
510 PRINT 

520 PRINT "POSSIBLE VALUE", "NUM 
BER OF TIMES" 
530 FOR X=l TO N 
540 : PRINT X, C(X) 
550 NEXT X 

600 REM**TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
610 PRINT 

620 PRINT "TO DO AGAIN, PRESS AN 
Y KEY" ; 

630 IF INKEY* = " " THEN 630 
ELSE 210 



Curious, H.H. typed RUN. 



FOR RND(RUN(N)), WHAT IS N? 2 
HOW MANY NUMBERS? 1000 

He hasn't pressed ENTER yet. 

To check out his program, H.H. first asks for a bunch of 
R N D(R ND(2)) numbers. So he enters 2 as the value of N. In 
response to the computer's query about how many numbers, 
he asks for 1000 numbers. 



FOR RND(RND(N)), WHAT IS N? 3 
HOW MANY NUMBERS? 1000 

POSSIBLE VALUE NUMBER OF TIMES 

1 607 

2 284 

3 109 

TO DO AGAIN, PRESS ANY KEY 



H.H. then tried values of 4 and 5 for N. "Hmmm," thinks 
H. H., "I'm beginning to seea pattern here. "So hetried6and 
7. 

"Aha! Eureka! 1 think IVe got it!" exclaimed Hierony- 
mus. "But why?" So, again, he called on his friend Annalee 
Analyticus to explain the why of the what his experimental 
investigations suggested to him. 

Based on H.H.'s evidence, and more evidence that you 
obtain by running H.H.'s program, answer these questions: 

• For RND(RND(2)), what is the probability of getting 1? 

2^ 

• For RND(RND(3)), what is the probability of getting 
19 t> V 

• For RND(RND(4)X what is the probability of getting 
1? ,2? ,3? ,4? . 

• And so on. Mathophiles please generalize to 
RN D( RN D(N) where N is a positive integer. You will 
love the pattern. 

Coming Attractions 

Surely, but slowly, we will explore the following things: 

•The Elusive RND 
•GameMaster's Dice 
• Looking up stuff in files. First, files of information in 
DATA statements and arrays. Next, cassette files. Even- 
tually, disk files. 

• Whatever else comes to mind or is suggested by you. 

What do you want? If it fits into the general idea of 
"GameMaster's Apprentice," we might do it. Send your 
suggestions, complaints, kudos, requests, whatever ... to 
George & Bob, P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 94205. 



230 the RAINBOW April, 1983 




TRS-80C and TDP lOO® SPECIALISTS 

COLORFORTH® 

IS THERE LIFE AFTER BASIC? Yes! with COLORFORTH, a new, high level language for the color computer. 
COLORFORTH, a figFORTH compiler, has an execution time as much as lO to 20 times faster than Basic, 
and can be programmed faster than Basic. COLORFORTH is highly modular for easy testing and debug- 
ging. COLORFORTH has been specially customized for the color computer and requires only 16K. It does 
not require Extended Basic. When you purchase COLORFORTH.you receive both cassette and RS/DISK 
versions, the figEDITOR and an extensive instruction manual, Both versions and 75 page manual, all for 

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FORTH for the IBM PC®and Zenith Z-lOO® All the features of COLORFORTH, but customized for the IBM 
and Zenith Z-lOO personal computers. Requires 32K and MS/DOS or IBM/PCDOS. On 5-1/4" SSDD 
diskette. Complete with 75 page manual, just $ 59.95 

^ * MASTER MIXOLOGIST® 

^4 The Bartenders' Guide 

This disk based program for the color computer contains recipes for over 150 of your favorite bar drinks- 
both alcoholic and non-alcoholic. MASTER MIXOLOGIST is menu driven for ease of use. Requires 16K 
and one RS/DOS drive. Get this one today, it will be great for your next party $ 19.95 

ARMADILLO BUG® 

MACHINE LANGUAGE MONITOR 

More and more programs are appearing in magazines written in Machine Language. Now with AR- 
MADILLO BUG, you can easily enter Machine Language programs without a lot of time consuming 
"pokes". ARMADILLO BUG is an excellent system for beginners to learn to write and debug their own 
Machine Language programs as well. This package includes: Memory examine and change; Move; 
Punch and Load; Fill commands; and more! Runs in 16K, and DOES NOT require Extended Basic, Com- 
plete on cassette with printed manual. Just P $ 14.95 

COLOR BIORHYTHMS 

This is a neat BIORHYTHMS program you can use to chart the future (or past). Includes High Resolution 
graphics without Extended Basic being required. Runsinl6K. On cassette, with instructions , . .$10.95 

OTHER ITEMS OF INTEREST 

"STARTING FORTH", a book by Leo Brodie. The best introductory Forth text available. 384 pages. 
Soft cover $ 16.00 

figFORTH Installation Manual. Contains FORTH model, glossary, memory map, and 

instructions ■ $ 15.00 

figFORTH 6809 Source Listing. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT IDENTICAL TO COLORFORTH SOURCE). Requires in- 
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Software Review . . . 

Whether Androids or Robots 
This One's A Fun Challenge 

Android Attack (formerly Robot Battle) is a machine 
language, high resolution, arcade-type game from Spectral 
Associates. It pits you against a varying number of relent- 
less, but at times not-too-bright killer androids, and ... if 
you're fortunate enough to have 32K, the game will talk to 
you. I'm sure you're familiar with the genre. The player, in a 
protective suit, wanders from one set of rooms to another 
trying to destroy androids and gather treasure before the 
androids can destroy him. While doing this the player must 
avoid the electrified walls. 

The game comes in two versions on a cassette, a 16K 
version and a 32K talking version. The 'talking' feature is a 
nice touch. The verbalizations are, as you would expect, 
mechanical in nature, but understandable. The mechanical 
aspect of the phrasing fits in nicely with the game's concept 
of man against machine. Both versions loaded easily into my 
32K CoCo. The instructions state that the game will run on 
the CoCo, TDP, and Dragon Data. It requires 16K and 
joysticks. Extended Basic is not required. 

The instructions set up an appropriate scenario and are 
clearly written. The game has 1 6 levels (0-15), and as the skill 
level increases, the androids pursuit, firing speed and accu- 
racy increase accordingly. The names and scores of the top 
ten players for each load are displayed between each game. 
Spectral was also nice enough to include instructions for 
saving the game to disk. 

As to the details of the game itself, you begin each game 
with four units of protection. You gain an additional unit of 
protection for each 10,000 points earned, up to a maximum 
of ten units. Each room is made up of a random series of 
walls with randomly placed exits, and a varying number of 
robots, all intent on shooting you. 

Three sets of information are presented at the bottom of 
the screen: your accumulated score, a somewhat hard to 
understand bar of changing colors that show your remain- 
ing units of suit protection, and a timer that counts down to 



zero. The counter is reset for each room and if you have not 
exited the room before it reaches zero, you are automatically 
destroyed. Each time you exit a room it scrolls off the screen 
and a new and different one takes its place. 

Player control is via the right joystick and is clearly 
explained in the instructions. You can direct fire and move- 
ment in eight different directions, and you also have the 
ability to jump and duck to avoid the androids fire. I found 
this added to the challenge of the game once you had mas- 
tered the steps involved. Each android you destroy turns 
into a mine that must be avoided. These mines, after a period 
of time, turn into ghost androids with the capabilities of 
pursuing you through the walls. 

You get 50 points for each android you destroy, 100 
points for each ghost android destroyed and 100 points for 
picking up the crown in each room. There is also a bonus 
feature. Once you clear a room of all androids and the 
crown, and have exited the room, you get a bonus of the time 
left on the countdown timer added to your score. After 
earning bonus points, the difficulty level of the ensuing 
rooms will increase and the androids will become smarter 
and faster. Your protective suit loses a unit of protection 
each time you come into contact with a wall, mine or 
android. You also lose a unit if you are hit by android fire. 

I found the game quite enjoyable and challenging. 
Twelve-year-old Mike and seven-year-old Jamie, two vete- 
ran gamers, really got into this one. The graphics and anima- 
tion are clear and smooth. The talking feature, while a little 
hard to understand at times, is adequate and adds to the 
enjoyment of the game. My only criticism is of the bar that 
shows how many units of protection you have left. While 
you can figure it out, it's hard to just glance at during the 
course of playing and get much information of a specific 
nature. Every other aspect of the game is top notch, and if 
you enjoy a game that will challenge your hand-eye coordi- 
nation as well as require a little strategy to maximize your 
bonus scores then give Android Attack a try. 

(Spectral Associates, 141 Harvard Ave., Tacoma, WA 

98466, $21.95 ) 

—Randall A. Smith 



ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE ? 

Tired of typing in those long, but wonderful, programs from each issue of the RAINBOW? Now, you can get RAINBOW ON TAPE and give 
those tired fingers a rest. With RAINBOW ON TAPE, you'll be able to spend your time enjoying programs instead of just typing ... typing ... typing 
them! All you need to do ever again is pop a RAINBOW ON TAPE cassette into your recorder, CLOAD and RUN any one you want. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE is available as a single issue for $6.50 or on a yearly subscription basis for only $60. It is the perfect complement f orthe 
RAINBOW itself. 

VISA, MasterCard and American Express accepted. All subscriptions begin with the current issue and back issues are available 
beginning with April, 1982. Subscriptions are sent first class mail to coincide with the arrival of your current issue of the RAINBOW. 

Now . . . 

The Best Color Computer Magazine 
Offers The Best Tape Service 

Think of it! Not 10 or a dozen— but between 20 and 30— programs every month trom 
Rainbow On Tape. All the really good programs from the Rainbow! All the long ones ... so 
you don't have to type them in. Just CLOAD and RUN! 



ORDER RAINBOW ON TAPE TODAY! 

HANDY ORDER CARD BETWEEN PAGES 34 and 35 

232 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



THE TBS 80 USERS JOURNAL 

If you own a TRS-80® Model I, Model II, 
Model III, the Color Computer, or the new 
Pocket Computer, YOU NEED 80-U.S.! 

The 80-U.S. Journal has 

programs for your enjoyment and enlightenment. 
Every issue contains several Basic or machine 
language program listings. It contains Business 
articles and program listings. No matter where you 
are, there is something for YOU in the Journal! 

and... 

The Journal contains reviews of hardware and software. Our "Evaluation 
Reports" will help you make the best choice in selecting additions to your 
system. 



Save Over 50% 



You can save over 50% off the cover price of 80-U.S. Journal. For the 
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GRAPH GRAPHICS 








[ ™ 1 




1 RAINBOW 1 




-/»• -\ 





Curvfitz Is Number Cruncher 

Of The First Order 



By Mark Laessig 



All of us Color Computer owners are hungry for new uses 
for our machines. The following article will show you how to 
do some useful and educational "number-crunching," for a 
little change from games and graphics. What I '11 show you is 
called curve-fitting, which is a process where a computer can 
solve for a mathematical relationship that fits some mea- 
sured data from an experiment with maximum possible 
accuracy. 

Sound confusing? Let me give you a simple example dear 
to the hearts of us programmers. Let's say you've just written 
a new alphabetical sorting program for your Color Compu- 
ter. How would you estimate how many names it would sort 
in a day's execution? Well, you could burn a whole lot of 
electricity, or you could do it much more easily. Instead you 
could time how long it takes to sort some name lists of 
convenient lengths, as in the make-believe data table below: 



Names sorted 

20 

50 

100 

150 

200 



Time-seconds 

2 

6 
13 
22 
31 



and then RUN. You have to PCLEAR4 first due to the DIM 
statements on lines 200-230. You're first asked for the 
number of data point pairs, which in our case is five. You're 
then asked for the order fit you want. Let's try a straight line 
for now, so type one. Notice that you have to have more data 
points than the order fit you want, but this usually isn't a 
problem. You're next asked to input your data, with the X 
and Y prompts having the same meaning as in the relation I 
gave earlier. Since we'd like to eventually solve for names 
sorted, let's have execution time be X and names sorted be 
Y. If you make a mistake in inputting your data, you can 




Now from this data we should be able to make a predic- 
tion if we could use these numbers to make up some easily- 
calculated expression. The program I've given you at the end 
of this article, called Curvfitz, does just that. When you 
input your experimental data, like the five pairs of numbers 
above, Curvfitz will solve for the numbers c(0), c(l), and so 
on for the relation: 

Y=c(0)+c(l)*X+c(2)*X2+c(3)*X3-f... 

where" Y"can bethe number of names sorted and the "X" is 
the program's execution time in seconds. What do the trail- 
ing periods at the end of the equation mean? Well, you can 
solve for as many numbers c(0), c(l), and so on — called 
coefficients — as you like. For instance, if you only solve for 
the first two, you're trying to "fit" your data with a minimum 
of error to the relation 

Y=c(0)+c(I)*X 

which is the equation for a straight line. This is called a 
"first-order" curve fit. Had we decided to solve for three 
coefficients, this would be a second-order fit, and so on. 
Now, many things in nature are governed by "straight-line" 
relations, like the money you make compared to the hours 
you work, for instance. But many are more subtle than that, 
requiring the "higher-order"f its to match the data better. To 
see how good a match to your data a certain fit is, Curvfitz 
will both compare the fit to the data you input numerically, 
and will also plot a graph of both of them for you using 
PMODE4 graphics. 

This will be clearer after we use Curvfitz to solve our 
sorting programexample. Key in Curvfitz, type PCLEAR4, 



cycle through it again and simply change values. When 
you're ready, type "N" in response to the prompt for 
rechecking data and Curvitz will "crunch" for a bit and print 
out your coefficients. If you did everything right, you should 
get c(0)= 1 2.784 and c( 1 )=6. 1 63 . 

Once you've copied these numbers down someplace, hit 
enter and Curvfitz will show you how good a first-order 
straight line fit is by outputting a table of measured X and Y 
values along with the Y values the fit would predict at that 
point. For 13 seconds execution, the fit predicts 92.9 names 
sorted instead of 100, which might be accurate enough for 
you. At this point, Curvfitz will also plot on the screen the 
fitting curve and the measured data. The plot is automati- 
cally scaled to fit on the screen with the low X and Y values 
in the lower left-hand corner. In this way you can see graphi- 
cally whether or not your fit is a good one. 

So how many names would be sorted in a day? Since a day 
is 86,400 seconds, then 

Names sorted = 12.784+6. 163*(86400) = 532,500 names, 

or the size of a medium phone book! 

What about a second-order fit? Well, when you try it 
you'll find that it'll match the data better within the range of 
measurements you've taken, but outside that range things 
might be less accurate than before. Every time you increase 
the order of the fit, you're allowing more "wiggles" to appear 
in your fitting curve, which may have bad consequences. A 
second-order fit on our sorting problem, for instance, tries 



234 the RAINBOW April, 1983 



to fit a parabola your data instead of a straight line, and you 
get a negative number for the number of names sorted in an 
hour! 

I hope you've found this little bit of number-crunching 
interesting. Curve-fitting to experimental data is an easy 
chore for any budding scientist when armed with his Color 
Computer. Good luck and have fun! 




The listing: 



35 0 
750 
950 
END 



039E 
06A8 
08A8 
0B2D 



10 
20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 



PROGRAM=CURVF I TZ 

MARK LAESSIG 
2503 KINGSTON RD. 
CLEVELAND HTS. OH 44118 

PRODUCES COEFFICIENTS FOR 
A BEST FIT TO EXPERIMENTAL 
DATA POINTS. INCLUDES A 
' DISPLAY OF THE RESULTS. 

9 REQUIRES EXTENDED BASIC 

PR I NT "TYPE <PCLEAR 4> BEFORE 



RUNNING. ": PR I NT 1 ' HAVE YOU DONE S 
0<Y,N> M 5 : INPUT Z% 
150 IF Z»<>"Y" THEN STOP 
160 PR I NT" HOW MANY DATA POINT PA 
IRS M ; : INPUT N 

170 PR I NT "WHAT ORDER FIT — " 

180 PRINT" (LESS THAN NO. OF POI 

NT PAIRS) M 5 : INPUT M 

190 IF N<=M THEN 170 

200 DIM X (N) , Y (N) 

210 Ml=M+l:M2=M+2 

220 DIM S<2*M> ,S2(M1) 

230 DIM C(M1,M2) 

240 PRINT: PRINT " IF VALUE IS OK, 
PRESS ENTER" 

250 PR I NT 1 ' OTHERWISE, INPUT VALUE 



ii 



260 PRINT" ALL VALUES INITIALLY 
ZERO. " 

270 PRINT: PRINT" PAIR NO.": PRINT 
"♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦" 

280 FOR 1=1 TO N 

290 PRINT I5 M ==> x:";X(i)5: 
INPUT XX 

300 PRINT" y: "; Yd) 5 : 

INPUT YY 

310 IF XXO0 THEN X(I)«XX 
320 IF YYO0 THEN Y ( I ) «YY 



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G-31 17 CORUNNA RD_, SUITE 108 
FLINT, MICHIGAN 48504 



Enclose Check or Money Order, Allow 
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Money Orders Shipped Immediately. 



BEAR 
ONES 



ORDER FORM 



QTY. 



PRICE 



GHOST GOBBLER 
PLANET INVASION 
GALAX ATTAXX 
SPACE WAR 
DEFENSE 
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KEYS OF THE WIZARD 
SPACE INVADERS 
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INVADERS REVENGE 

SOOPER PAC 
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MS. GOBBLER *32K 
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ORDER TOTAL: $ 
MICH. RES. ADD 4% TAX: 
TOTAL ENCLOSED 



} 



SHIP TO: 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



April, 1983 the RAINBOW 235 



Genesis Software 

presents 

Color Computer Programs 




+ Secret Of The Crypt W 

The BIG adventure continues. The sequel 
to the popular "Enchanted Forest" is here! 
You'll move in more than 50 hi-res, 3-D 
graphic scenes searching for clues in an 
attempt to enter the crypt. But beware, the 
trail to the crypt is beset with puzzlements. 
In fact, the crypt's secret will remain a 
mystery to all but the most adventuresome. 
Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

itBigfoot 

Hunt Big foot in a hidden maze of caverns 
and twisting tunnels that are displayed in 
hi-res graphics as you move. Seek out the 
lair of Big foot while avoiding perils along 
the way. Features multiple levels and many 
options of play. Each hunt takes place in a 
new, randomly generated maze. Challeng- 
ing and fun. Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

it The Enchanted Forest 

The BIG adventure in hi-res graphics. 
Move through more than 50 scenes on a 
quest to rescue the captive princess. Deci- 
sions are made according to visual clues, 
not text. There are many inhabitants in the 
Enchanted Forest — some are friendly, 
some are not. This is a sophisticated com- 
puter adventure — a real challenge. A 
must for your adventure library. Requires 
32K extended basic. 

Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

(The Enchanted Forest was reviewed in the Dec. 1982 
issue of Rainbow). 

* The Game Show 

Now a lively party game where two teams 
compete against the clock to name several 
items in a category. Includes 60 rounds 
with color graphics and sound. Machine 
language routine for fast response. Re- 
quires 16K extended basic and joysticks. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $19.95 

(The Came Show was reviewed in the Jan. 1983 issue 
of Rainbow). 



Genesis Software 

P.O. Box 936, Manchester, Mo. 63011 

Personal checks welcome - no delay. 
Missouri residents add 5.625 percent sales tax. 



330 IF 1 = 1 AND Q*<>"N" THEN XL=X 

x : xh=x x : yl=yy : yh=yy 

340 IF XdXXL THEN XL=X < I ) 
350 IF XH<X(I) THEN XH=X < I ) 
360 IF YdXYL THEN YL=Y < I ) 
370 IF YH<Y(I) THEN YH=Y < I ) 
380 NEXT I 

390 PR I NT " RECHECK DATA< Y, N>" ; : IN 
PUT Q* 

400 IF Q*<>"N" THEN 280 
410 ' 

420 PRINT: PRINT" . . WORKING. .": PR 
INT 

430 'SOLUTION OF SIMULTANEOUS 
440 'EQUATIONS TO GET BEST FIT 
450 ' 

460 FOR 1=0 TO 2*M 
470 FOR J=l TO N 
480 FC=ABS<X<J)^I) 

490 IF(I/2-INT(I/2) > >.01 THEN 53 
0 

500 IF I>0 THEN S(I)=S(I)+FC 
510 IF K=M THEN S2 < I +1 ) =S2 < 1+1 ) 
+FC*Y < J ) 
520 GOTO 550 

530 IF I>0 THEN S < I ) =S < I ) +SGN < X < 
J ) ) *FC 

540 IF K=M THEN S2 < I +1 ) =S2 < 1+1 ) 
+SGN(X <J> >*FC*Y< J) 
550 NEXT J, I 
560 9 

570 'SOLUTION BY GUASSIAN 
580 'ELIMINATION 
590 ' 

600 C < 1 , 1 ) =N 

610 FOR A=l TO Ml 

620 FOR B=l TO Ml 

630 IF A=l AND B=l THEN 650 

640 C<A,B)=S<A+B-2) 

650 NEXT B 

660 C(A,M2)=S2(A) 

670 NEXT A 

680 FOR 1=1 TO Ml 

690 FOR J=M2 TO I STEP -1 

700 C ( I , J ) =C < I , J ) /C ( I , I ) 

710 NEXT J 

720 FOR K=M2 TO I STEP -1 

730 IF 1=1 THEN 780 

740 FOR L=l TO 1-1 

750 C<L,K)=C<L,K)-C<L, I)*C<I,K) 

760 NEXT L 

770 IF I=M1 THEN 810 

780 FOR L=I + 1 TO Ml 

790 CCL,K)=C<L,K)-C<L, I)#C<I,K) 

800 NEXT L 

810 NEXT K 

820 NEXT I 

830 print:print m coeficients: " 

840 PRI NT 11 

850 FOR 1=1 TO Ml 



236 the RAINBOW April, 1983 





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* CCEDT9 Disk Text Editor • Disk Text Processor i 



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Editor /Assembler CO-RES9 



} 



CO-RES9 is a Co-resident Editor/ Assembler that 
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• Three indent Mpfe 
*,Tt*re#^i^ramroaNie Headers' 
%e|i a mm^ife ta & stojis 

• W 3f$m Mstif i cation 
5 Lett s Right 

• Decimal Align, Center, Left & 
Right Justify on Tab Column 

• Display & input from Keyboard 

• Change Formatting During 
Processing 



TEXT EDITOR FEATURffj. 
Single Keystroke Eefit 

Command 
Append fifes firt>m T&pe otftMsk 
Firiiy irtte#$te«J afetf H* 

Edit or Process Files Larger 

Than Memory 
(Mo conversion Required! Fully 

ASC ii Compatible 
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Search and Replace Any 

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Copy, Move or Delete Lines 

or Blocks of Text 
Edit Basic, Text or Assembler 

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TEXT PRO ll Features Over 70 Commands in All. Disk ... $79.95 



DATA PACK 

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Full Text Buffering 

Terminal Baud Rates 300 To 9600 Baud 
Automatic word wrap Eliminates Split words 
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Automatic File Capture 

Programmable Word Length, Parity & Stop Bits 
Automatic Buffer Size At Memory Limit 
Save & Load Text Buffer To Tape Or Disk 
Send Files Directly From Buffer Or Disk 
Full Disk Support For Disk version 
Printer Baud Rates 110-4800 
Send Control Codes From Keyboard 
ASCII Compatible File Format rainbow 




CERTIFICATION 
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5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 




• Display On Screen Or Output contents Of Buffer 
To Printer 

we also have a disk version available called "DlSKPACK." 
it includes all the commands mentioned plus com- 
mands for