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COCO DOES YOUR INCOME TAX 

Volume 2 Number 8 

February, 1983 
$2.95 

£1.95 (U.K.) 



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The Month' 



ter Users 





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REFERENCE CARDS 

For Models I, II, III, Color, Pocket 
and Apple II & II Plus 






' tRS-80 Is a Registered Trademark of Tandy Corp 
Computer picture reprinted permission Tandy Corp 



APPLE is a registered trademark ot Apple Computing, Inc 



CEHIiriCAHOh 
SEAL 



Each card is a complete summary of the relerence manuals and the microcomputer. Cards are two or more colors, printed on BO pound Beckett Antique cover stock or a comparable stock, stretch 
wrapped in plastic lor shipping They are accord ion toldup cards, in the same style as the traditional IBM reference cards used on the major computers tor years. Fold-up size (s eight and one-half 
by three and three-quarter inches, so they will fit easily into the shirt pocket These cards provide a complete summary of the manuals plus many extras at your fingertips 



MODEL I 



BASIC: Buff & Blue 
5 Panels, 10 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

Memory Map. 

Easy Graphics 

Basic Statements. 

Basic Functions. 

Basic Facts. 

Special Characters. 

Basic Commands. 

Edit Subcommands. 

PRINT USING Examples. 

Message & Codes. 

Reserved Words. 

Special Keys. 

Ascii Character Chart, 

with Space Compression Codes. 

Control Codes. 

Basic Internal Codes 

Hex/Dec Conversion Chart. 

Screen Line Layout 

BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Buff 

8 Panels, 16 Pages 

(For the Pro) 

Complete Z80 Instructions. 
Assembler Instructions, 
Commands. Operators. 
Editor/Assembler Commands, 
and Edit Subcommands. 
Flags, Conditions, & Chart. 
Internal Routines. 
Assembler Error Msgs 
Plus Most items in the Basic Card 



POCKET 

BASIC: Purple 
5 Panels, 10 Pagit 

Operating Characteristics 

Memory Types and Limitations 

Modes of Operation. 

PRO Mode 

RUN Mode 

RESERVE Mode 

DEF Mode. 

Fixed Variable Facts and 
References. 
System Function Keys. 
Math and Logic Function Keys 
Normal Character Keys 
Special Characters and 
Function Keys 
Basic Commands. 
Cassette Interface Commands 
Reserved Words 
Math and Numeric Functions- 
Derived Functions. 
Basic Statements. 
Error Messages and Codes 
USING Statement Examples 
and more. . . . • 

A pocket card for your 
pocket computer. 



MODEL II 

BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Green 
10 Panels, 20 Pages 
(For the Business) 

Small Memory Map. 

Screen Layout. 

Easy Graphics. 

Complete Z80 Instructions. 

Series-1 Assembler Instr. 

Commands, Operators, and Edit 

Subcommands. 

Assembler Error Msgs. 

Power-up Error Msgs. 

Flags, Conditions, & Chart. 

Wild Cards, DOS Messages. 

SVC Procedure Panel. 

Host Logon Panel. 

Version 2.0 Lib Command Formats 

and System Utility Formats. 

Basic Functions & Statements. 

DOS File Naming Convention. 

Basic Commands & Edit 

Subcommands. 

Special Keys. 

Basic Internal Codes and 

Reserved Words. 

Basic Msgs. & Codes. 

PRINT USING Examples. 

Special Characters. 

"DO" Utilities & BASiC Command. 

Ascii Character Chart with SVC 

Names and Numbers. 

Control Codes. 



MODEL 



BASIC: Blue & Buff 
6 Panels, 12 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

Special Characters 
Kana Characters. 
Euro-Characters. 
Memory Map. 

Special Keyboard Functions. 
Ascii Char. Chart w/Space 
Compression Codes. 
Control Codes. 
Cassette Loading Err Msgs. 
Basic Commands, Edit 
Subcommands, Special Chars., 
Basic Statements, Facts, 
Functions, Derived Functions, 
Special Operations (POKEs). 
PRINT USING Examples. 
Basic Msgs. & Codes. 
Basic Internal Codes. 
Reserved Words. 
Screen Line Layout 
BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Blue 
10 Panels, 20 Pages 
(For the Pro) 

Complete Z80 Instructions. 
Assembler Instructions, Commands, 
Operators. 

Series I Editor/Assembler 
Commands & Edit Subcommands. 
Flags, Conditions, & Chart, 
Hex/Dec Conversion Chart. 
Assembler Error Msgs. 
Internal CALL Routines. 
Break Processing Procedure. 
Plus all items in the Basic card 



COLOR 



BASIC S EXTENDEO: 
Grey + 9 Colon. 
8 Panels 16 pages 
(For In* Artist) 
All Color Graphics 
System Commands 
PRINT USING Examples. 
Special Characters 
Special Keys. 

Cassette Loading Err Msgs 

Basic Functions & Statements. 

Playing Music. Making a Circle, 

and Drawing Panels 

Derived Functions. 

Messages & Codes. 

Musical Notes, by Octave, in 

Color, Including Rests and Time. 

Memory Map 

Reserved Words. 

Internal Codes. 

A Page ol Tips. 

Ascll Char Codes Chart. 

Including Inverse Graphics 

and Color Graphics. 

Control Codes. 

Color Group Chart 

Pmode Information Summary. 

Screen Line Layout. 

Extended Graphics Pmode 

Illustrations. 




Please send me: Card Price 

Copies of MODEL I BASIC & ASSEMBLER $4.95 
Copies of MODEL I BASIC-ONLY 2.95 
Copies of MODEL II BASIC & ASSEMBLER 5.95 
Copies of MODEL II SvC 2.95 
Copies of MODEL II COMMANDS & UTILITIES 395 
Copies ol MODEL III BASIC & ASSEMBLER 5 95 

Copies of MODEL III BASIC-ONLY 3.95 
Copies of COLOR BASIC AND EXTENDED 4 95 

Copies of POCKET BASIC 2.95 
Copies of APPLE II & II PLUS BASIC 3.95 
Copies ol APPLE II & II PLUS BASIC S 6502 4.95 
Copies ol Z80 4.95 
Copies of ZX80/81 & TIMEX-SINCLAIR 1000 5.95 

NAME: 

ADDRESS 



Wholesale prices available 
in quantities over 24 



Send Check or Money Order to: 
NANOS SYSTEMS CORP. 
BOX 24344 

SPEEDWAY, IN 46224 
(317) 244-4078 



Indiana Residents Please Add 5 Percent Sales Tax 



From Computer Plus to YOU . . . 
PLUS after PLUS after PLUS 




Model 16 128 K 

1 Drive $4199 

2 Drive $4799 



Color Computer 16K $235 
w 16K Ext. Basic $305 
W/32K Ext. Basic $420 




Okidata 60 $320 
Ok id at a 82A $399 
Okidata 92 $510 




Color Computer Disk Drive 
Drive 0 $470 Drivel $315 




BUY DIRECT 



Here are just a few of our fine offers . 
call TOLL FREE for full information. 



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w/extended basic 
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w/extended basic 

Pocket Computer 2 

ModeM61DR128K 

Model 16 2DR 128K 

DT-1 Data Terminal 

PT-210 Portable Terminal 
MODEMS 

Lynx Direct Connect Ml/Mill 
Hayes Smart Modem II 
Hayes Smart Modem 1200 
R.S. Acoustic Coupler AC-3 



R.S. Modem I D.C. 
$2675 R.S. Modem II D.C. 
599 Signalman Modem 
799 PRINTERS 

864 Daisy Wheel II 
DWP-410 

1899 Smith CoronaTPI Daisy Wheel 

235 Epson MX80 

Epson MX80 FT 

305 Epson MX100 
CGP-115 

420 DMP-100 

230 DMP-200 
4199 DMP-400 
4799 DMP-500 

599 Okidata 80 

779 Okidata 82A 
Okidata 83A 

235 Okidata 84 Parallel 

235 Okidata 92 

599 Okidata 93 

134 P. C. Plotter Printer 




We have the lowest possible 
Fully Warranteed Prices AND 
a full complement of Radio Shack 
Software. 



Prices subject to change without notice. 
Not responsible for typographical errors. 
TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 




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DISK DRIVES 

R.S. Model III 1ST-Drive 
Tandon 40 Track Ml 
Color Computer Drive 1 
Color Computer Drive 0 
Primary Hard Disk Mil 
Primary Hard Disk Mill 
ETC. 
CCR-81 recorder 
C. C Joysticks 

16K RAM N.E.C. 200 N.S. chips 
64K Ram Chips 
Color Computer Flex D.O.S. 
Brand Name Software • 

Send for listing. 
R.S. Software 10% off list 

iColor Computer 64K requires 
Disk 0 and D.O.S. 



TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 



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com 



P.O. Box 926 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 
617-486-3193 



plus 

I Write for your 
free catalog 



Under the Rainbow 




E <4 A JAA Department of th 

I 1 Q4UA U.S. Indivi 


Um 

IRS 
label. 

Other- 
win, 

print 
or type. 


Your first name and initial (if jolr 


Present home address (Number an 


City, town or post office. State an 


Presidential |» Do you want 
Election Campaign w if joint returr 


- »_* 1 •* — o«. 



- — *•«»« 18 




Feature Articles 



COVER watercolor by Fred 
Crawford. 



Spectaculator Statistics/ Judd Posner 10 

Use Spectaculator to do analysis of variance. 
Stay Alive At Outpost Five/ Dr. Laurence Preble 34 

And watch out for the marauding aliens. 
Render Unto IRS/ Dr. Lane P. Lester 18 

Our feature program allows you to prepare your income tax 

on CoCo. 

Hang 'Em Up/ Douglas C. L'Hommedieu 40 

We've received a bunch of "Hangman"games and this one is 
the best! 

Work On Your Grammar/ R. Bartley Bens 48 

This program will help you, or your child, learn the parts of 
speech. 

How 'Bout A Date? /Jorge Mir 58 

To keep your files straight, that is. 
And Now. ..Haunted House Adventure/ Geoff Wells 64 

Final part of the create-an-Adventure series. 
Flow Gently, Sweet Listing/ Kenneth G. Deahl 74 

Control the speed your listings scroll on the screen. 
A Catalog For Your Tape/ Steve Sullivan 96 

List the contents of tapes to screen or printer. 
Cheat At Adventure/Dr. Michael J. Keyes 99 

Look at all the secrets hidden in ML Adventure games. 
Solving Parts Of The Yxo\Azm/ Robert L. Crooks 102 

This program will deal with fractions. 
CoCo Knows All The Callsigns/5w/7o« B. Witham Jr 110 

A utility for Ham operators. 
Non-Standard Interfaces/Da« Downard 118 

A close look at the RS-232 port. 
CoCo As An Educational Bargain/ Dr. Paul Kimmelman & David 

Macali 124 

Your favorite computer offers your favorite school more 

byte for the buck. 

Vroom — Now That's A Decision!/ StanPeppenhorst 132 

Victor Vroom's decision-making process is applied to 
CoCo. 

Five Year's Worth Of Income Tax/7. D. Ray 148 

Evaluate your return — and in high resolution, too. 
Inside JDP/Bob Rosen 154 

Is this insight to CoCo's future? 
Control Your Home/ Alexander B. Trevor 160 

Using the Plug 'N Power Controller. 
Once Again With Adventure//;/?? Reed 200 

A reprise on our Adventure Contest, with some hints to help 

you win the next one! 
Marquee de Fin/ Morton Goldberg 204 

What a way to end things up! 
Change Those PRINTs To PRINT #-2s/Ted Blatt 207 

A ML utility to make life easier. 



Departments 



Letters To Rainbow/ Our Readers 6 

PRINT #-2,/ Lawrence C. Falk 8 

Editor's Notes 

Education Notes/ Steve Blyn 14 

Using Random numbers to select test questions. 
GameMaster's Apprentice/ Bob Albrecht 26 

Details on how to create game characters. 
Basic Training/ Joseph Kolar 56 

Getting those tape files organized. 
Bits And Bytes Of Basic/ Dick White 88 

An in-depth look at variables and their use. 

The Pipe]ine/.S7aj7 130 

Back Issue Information 146 

Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano 156 

A finger-saving rapid-fire circuit. 
The Dragon's Byte/ Bill Nolan 179 

Getting down to cases on the construction of a character 

record file. 

Corrections 180 

Using Graphics/ Don Inmari 186 

Screen graph plotting techniques. 

Submission Guidelines 192 

Assembly Corner/ Dennis Lewandowski 194 

A look at Editor/ Assemblers. 

Advertiser Index 210 

Charlie's Machine is not included in this month's issue, 
due to the burden of work on Mr. Roslund. A machine 
language utility column will return shortly. 



Product Reviews 



Addition Concepts 77 

Alphabet Soup 192 

Assembly Language Graphics 94 

Battle of Gettysburg 54 

Bird Attack 178 

Blackjack 184 

C.C. Mailer 158 

C.C. Ca\c I Stuart Hawkinson 62 

CCEAD/ Gary E. Epple 170 

Checking Account 169 

Dice 198 

Five Exciting Games 86 

Flight 182 

Foxygraf 84 

Joystick LED Kit 36 

Las Vegas Weekend 100 



Light Pen Fun-Pak 32 

Master Disk System 77 

Maze Race 168 

Millborn 159 

Poltergeist 82 

QTax:82 180 

ROML 197 

TP-1 Printer 86 

Spectrum Light Pen 32 

Star-DOS 60 

Stripper 182 

Text Pro II/ Ed Lowe 176 

Virtual Memory Loader 198 

Warrior & The Wizard 180 

Wet T-Shirt Contest 92 



NEXT MONTH: Now that you have spent all your money paying your income tax, it is 
time to save. We'll offer a super utility bill program that will help. 

Also, something a little bit different. The theme for next month is still a secret — but it will 
be out of the ordinary for sure! 

PLUS . . . More programs, more tutorials, more information and reviews on CoCo than 
you can find anywhere! Don't miss the March issue! 



The Rainbow 



Lawrence C. Falk 

Editor 

James E. Reed 
Managing Editor 

Courtney Noe 
Associate Editor 

Sally Nichols 
Art Director 

Anne Yeiser 
Production Coordinator 

Bob Albrecht 
Steve Blyn 
Don Inman 
Joseph Kolar 
Dennis Lewandowski 
Bill Nolan 
Charles Roslund 
Dick White 
Contributing Editors 

Patricia H. Hirsch 

General Manager 

Ivanka Kleier 
Customer Service Manager 

Monica Wheat 
Research Assistant 

Wendy Falk 
Transportation 



The Rainbow is published every month of 
the year by FALSOFT, INC., 9529 U.S. 
Highway 92, P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY, 
40059. Phone (502) 228-4492. The RAINBOW 
and the Rainbow logotypes are * Trademarks 
of FALSOFT, Inc. 

Entire contents ® by FALSOFT. Inc , 1983. 
The RAINBOW is intended for the private use 
and pleasure of its subscribers and 
purchasers and reproduction by any means is 
prohibited Use of information herein is for 
the single end use of purchasers and any 
other other use is expressly prohibited. All 
programs herein are distributed in an "as is" 
basis, without warranty of any kind 
whatsoever. 

TRS-80, Color Basic, Extended Color 
Basic. Scripsit and Program Pak are « 
trademarks of the Tandy Corp. CompuServe 
is a ® Trademark of CompuServe Inc. 

Subscriptions to the RAINBOW are $22 per 
year in the United States. Canadian and 
Mexican rates are U.S. S29. Surface mail to 
other countries is U.S. $39, air mail U.S. $57. 
All subscriptions begin with the next 
available issue 

Limited back issues are available Please 
see notice for issues which are in print and 
costs. Payment accepted by VISA, 
MasterCard, American Express, Cash, Check 
or Money Order in United States currency 
only. 



letters to 

RAINBOW 



HEY, JARROD — LOOKIT THIS 

Editor: 

In response to Jarrod Hollinghead's letter 
in the January, 1983, issue: Yes, 1 had 
214,500 on Dunkey Munkey when a phone 
call forced me to let all eight of my extra men 
perish while I talked on the phone. Since 
then, I have had neither the time nor the 
patience to try to beat this score. 

Jim Herries 
Florrissanl, MO 



WHY NOT DONKEY TRON? 

Editor: 

I just bought Donkey King by Tom Mix 
Software. I do believe it is better and harder 
than the arcade one. If they can come out 
with Donkey King, why not Troril Please let 
me know when a software company offers a 
good version of Tron. 

Allen Barker 
Wellford, SC 



INFORMATION, PLEASE 

Editor: 

I have a problem that might be answerable 
by some of the Forth and CoCo people out 
there. During the summer, 1 purchased a 
Forth package for my computer from a 
company called K & H Software Systems. 
Everything seems to work fine except the 
tape SA K£and LOAD commands. It's very 
possible that I'm doing something wrong, 
but the company seems to have gone out of 
business (there is no response when 1 write 
them and I haven't seen any ads from their 
company since I bought the package). 

I would appreciate hearing from anyone 
who has the same Forth package with their 
LOAD and SAVE commands working 
properly. Thanks again for your help and for 
a fine publication. 

Glen Eric Montgomery 
Mountain View, CA 

Editor: 

I am writing about the article by Francis 
Sherwood in the 10/82 issue: "How Much 
Will it Cost to Buy on Time?" 

I have found that the first part of the 
program works perfectly. However, 
Program Two terminates with a balance 
due. There would seem to be a problem with 
the logic of the formula, or am I having a 
unique problem with it? I find this result 
whether "additional payments" are used or 
not. 

So far, I have been unsuccessful in finding 



a fix. Perhaps you have heard from other 
readers with a fix? 

Hilton Wasserman 
Little Neck, NY 

Editor: 

I have access to a Centronics 101 and a 
306. They both use the same interface board, 
using current loops for Data and Demand. 

I am interested in learning if anyone has 
been able to get one to run with the CoCo. 
Enjoy your magazine tremendously. 

Paul E. Sanders 
Apalachia, NY 

Editor: 

I bought my Color Computer about a year 
and a half ago, and through reading your 
magazine and others I have gathered several 
machine language programs that are 
POKEd into high memory, such as LF and 
CR for the printer, a program called 
LAZKEY (ML) from Chromassette 
magazine and others. 

My question is how could I merge these 
programs and CSA VE or CSA VEM as an 
initialization tape for my machine? 

Also, is there a general rule to follow 
which will tell me how much change a 
program must undergo in order to not cause 
a violation of copyright? For example, 
converting Basic programs for the CoCo, 
enhancing graphics, adding sound, etc. I 
think this may scare a lot of people away 
from submitting material for publication. A 
good example is the Falk Word Processor, 
then Falk j Millican Word Processor, then 
Falk j Millicanj Becker Word Processor, 
then ??? Assuming Falk Word Processor is 
copyrighted, where would your original 
program lose its identity in the 
modifications? 

Thank you for a fine magazine for the 
Color Computer. Many thanks from 
beginning programmers like myself. 

Jerry Gatcomb 
Chicopee, MA 

INSPIRATION, PLEASE 

Editor: 

Can you tell me who to ask or how to get 
my 32K TRS-80 CoCo to output the play or 
sound command with an audio signal to the 
cassette output? I am working with a 
musician and we are multitracking 
computer music. The sound quality of the 
earphone jack from the TV is very poor. 

John Schmidt 
Arcada, CA 

Editor: 

I have a ML tape copy for Compuserve, 
and since I purchased it, 1 have graduated to 



32K and one disk drive. Can anybody send 
me (or publish) a short program to enable 
me to transfer it to high memory so that I can 
use it with my disk system? My address is 357 
June St. 

Ed Donovan 
Worcester, MA 



GAFF ZAPPER 

Editor: 

We thank you for the thorough review of 
The Graph Zapper in the December, 1982, 
issue of the Rainbow. 

The review was accurate in all respects 
except one. The 32K disk version saves data 
and graphs to disk only, not to tape as the 
review implied. However, the tape version 
will work with 16K or 32K and make use of 
all the available memory. 

Thomas J. Ernst 
Southern Software Systems 
Merrill Island, FL 



THANKS, ROGER 

Editor: 

My thanks to Mr. Roger Schrag for his 
article "Patch EDTASM+ to Disk" 
{Rainbow, December 1982). This article met 
my requirements exactly. I have especially 
missed ZBUG since changing to 
Microworks' Macro-80C. 

Of special interest in this article is the 
author's use of the Disk Basic I / O routines. I 
believe that information concerning the 
routine addresses and entry/exit conditions 
for using the Basic OPEN, CLOSE and I/O 
routines for both tape and disk would be of 
interest to neophyte M / L programmers. An 
article on this subject would be appreciated. 

Barry Walker 
Willowdale, Ontario Canada 



WELL, THANK YOU, BARRY 
Editor: 

Regarding my article, "Patching 
EDTASM+ to Disk" in the December issue 
of the Rainbow, a note to users of the patch: 
If you press reset while using EDTASM+, 
interrupts will be disabled and the disk drive 
will no longer shut off properly. 

To fix this, go into ZBUG and store a $35 
at location SFF03. If you have any other 
problem or questions, drop me a line at 2054 
Manning Avenue (zip 90025). 

Roger Schrag 
Los Angeles, CA 



6 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



ANY COCO PALS OUT THERE? 

Editor: 

1 am 10 years old and have a Color 
Computer. I have all the Adventures that 
Radio Shack supplies for it, and 1 would like 
to talk to (by mail) some other kids who have 
these Adventures. We can exchange ideas on 
how to solve them. 

Nathan Miller 
3309 SW Malcolm Ct. 
Portland, OR 97225 



BOUQUETS AND BRICKBATS 

Editor: 

I think it is about time someone put in a 
good word for Radio Shack dealers. 

I recently purchased a new D MP- 100 
printer for my Color Computer. It wouldn't 
work! The store manager (Brookwood Mall 
in Birmingham) personally took charge and 
very definitely went "above and beyond the 
call of duty" to help me solve my problem, 
doing several things he didn't have to. 

1 am using my new printer to type this 
letter, so you can see they solved my 
problem. Needless to say, 1 am more sold 
than ever on both Radio Shack and the 
Color Computer! 

Dennis J. Duke 
Bessemer, AL 

Editor: 

1 recently purchased a Spectrum Stick 
from Spectrum Projects, based on your 
recent review and the Rainbow certification 
seal. Well to say I am disappointed with it is 
an understatement. It performs worse than 
the original Radio Shack joysticks. 

I wrote Spectrum and informed them of 
my disappointement, but to date they have 
not replied. I had originally felt that I may 
have received a defective stick, but from the 
(Spectrum Projects') silence I feel that 1 have 
been taken. I'm also disappointed that you 
recommended their products. It's a shame 
that a company like Spectrum gets away 
with taking people. 

Ill also be interested in seeing if you 
publish only GOOD letters about 
advertisers. 

John Heinz 
Katy, TX 

Editor: 

You have a superlative magazine. I truly 
enjoy every article but I would like to see 
more utilities. Things that are useful and 
make my hobby just a little easier. 

I use Telewriter and have red, blue, and 
green characters. I have tried it on five 
different color TVs and three different Color 
Computers, all .with the same results. I 
would be delighted to know how to solve this 
problem. 

If any readers use the version of Telewriter 
that (due to a bug) does not print the header 
on the second page may try using an (up 
arrow) immediately following the header 
and before the text. This works for me and 
gives me the header on the second page 
without fail. It wastes a sheet of paper, but 
saves a lot of headaches and reprinting entire 
manuscripts. 

Herbert B. Ridge 
Colorado Springs, CO 



Editor: 

I recently purchased a Tiny Compiler 
from Aardvark-80, and was very 
disappointed. While it lived up to its claims 
of speeding up my program, it is still 
unusable except under very special 
circumstances. Neither Aardvark's 
advertisement nor Rainbow's review 
prepared me for the incredibly inefficient 
code this program produced. 

I wrote a machine language subroutine 
that required 500 bytes of memory. Then I 
rewrote it, using the Tiny Compiler. It took 
over 2,000 bytes! I've heard of inefficient 
compilers, but this is ridiculous! 

Kenneth Van Camp 
Sparta, NJ 

Editor: 

Concerning the review in December of 
Micro-Script (page 1 56), it would be a good 
experience for anyone to purchase it for no 
other reason than to rewrite the complete 
program — really it had to be the poorest 
"professional" job of a program I've seen 
yet. 

I spent a few hours refining it to a good 
Basic program which should have been done 
before it was sold. By that, I mean it should 
have INKEYS's instead of ENTER for every 
mode change and a simple "SOUND 50,5" 
in line 1642 which alerts you that you've 
reached the end of the line without having to 
look up every few seconds as was mentioned 
in the review. But, it was a learning 
experience to rewrite the program. 

Keep up the good work. As I've said 
before, our magazine is growing and keeps 
getting better. 

William M. Carroll 
Weir ton, WV 



ARE YOU READING THIS, AL? 

Editor: 

I am a teacher in junior high and good 
software is very hard to get. I know that your 
education column is good, but little is ever 
seen for older kids. Do you think you could 
help me out here? 

Also, a good friend of mine moved out of 
the area quickly this last summer. I have not 
been able to get his new address. I know 
you're reading this, Al. Will you contact me, 
please! 

I would like to start a Color Computer 
club in my area. Whether you use the CoCo, 
the 80C, or the Color Computer I would be 
interested in getting together with you to 
share ideas. 

Paul N. Lue 
Durand, MI 



POKE SALLIT 

Editor: 

I really enjoy the Rainbow. It has many 
good and exciting programs for the CoCo. It 
has many good hints and secrets. But, in 
your December 1982 issue, you hinted how 
to double the basic speed with POKE 
G5495,0. There was one problem. What we 
didn't know was that if you POKE and use 
sound with it, it can cause considerable 
damage to your computer. It cost us about 



$50 to repair and a new keyboard. All you 
have to do is POKE 65494,0 before every 
sound statement to POKE it back to normal 
speed and POKEaher the sound statement. 
Also, you should hit RESET or POKE to 
normal speed before you save a program. 
Here is an example of "upP0A"ing:" 

b—POKE 65495,0 
10— X=RND(8) 
20— CLS(X) 

30— POKE 65494,0: SOUND 1,1: POKE 
65495,0 
40 — GOTO 5 

With this program it runs fast but does not 
hurt your computer at all. 

Brian Hansen 
Potomac, MD 

Editor's Note: I don't know who told 
you it hurt the CoCo, but that person 
is wrong. Nothing you enter from the 
keyboard can hurt your machine, 
including POKEs. You can, of course, 
get some unpredictable results — but 
you cannot hurt the hardware. 



CLUBS, CLUBS, CLUBS 

Editor: 

I have two things to ask you about users' 
clubs. First, may we have your permission to 
reprint certain articles in our newsletters? Of 
course, anything that is reprinted will receive 
full credit as having been published in a 
specific issue of the Rainbow. Your 
comments on this matter would be most 
appreciated. 

Secondly, would you be interested in 
publishing a list of all the users' clubs and 
contact people. This might be done on an 
annual or maybe even a semi-annual basis. 
The purpose of this would be twofold. It 
could provide information for new owners 
as to where the clubs are. 1 It could also be a 
method by which clubs could contact each 
other to exchange newsletters (if they 
publish them), ideas, and even gossip. I have 
contacted several clubs and found that the 
response was always good. 

Here's our formal club details: 

K — W Color Computer Club 

c/o Peter Karwowski 

23 Hudson Cr. 

Kitchener, Ontario N2B 2V7 

(519) 579-2953 (after 7:00 p.m.) 

The Rainbow is, by far, the BEST 
magazine for the CoCo around. I'm 
especially looking forward to the hardware 
column. Keep up the fantastic work. 

Peter Karwowski 
Kitchener, Ontario 



Editor's Note: We have always given 
clubs permission to reprint material 
from the Rainbow provided they 
include notice of copyright. As many 
of you know, it has been our policy 
from the beginning to support clubs. 
We also hope you will note that the 
RAINBOW CHECK program is 
available to any and all clubs (as well 
as other publications) with the same 
minimal requirement. 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 7 



Editor: 

I would like to clarify a point for your 
readers. The clubs referred to in both my 
letter to the Rainbow (September 1 982) and 
Andy Nul man's the following month are one 
in the same. We are not the Rhode Island 
Tandy Users Group, but we do work with 
that club. We regret our errors and hope you 
will print this update. 

New England COCONUTS now claims 
over 50 members from Rhode Island and 
Massachusetts. Those interested in the club 
can contact me by writing: 

100 Kerri Lyn Road 
Warwick. RI 02886 
or call (401) 739-8743. 

Robert J. Sullivan 
New England COCONUTS 

Editor: 

We wish to announce the formation of the 
New England Color Computer User's 
Group (NECCUG). For more information 
about NECCUG, we may be reached at the 
following addresses. Please send a S.A.S.E. 
to either Chris Sweet at P.O. Box 255 or 
Tom Heim on Ayer Road. Both are in 
Harvard, MA and our Zip code is 0 145 1 . If it 
is more convenient, our phone numbers are 
(617) 456-8291 or (617) 772-4316. 

Christopher E. Sweet 
Thomas A Heim 
Harvard, MA 

Editor: 

Recently you had an article on copyright 
material and the problems of software theft. 
I was a skeptic that it even existed, but have 
now seen it with my own two eyes. You 
failed to cover the problem of what to do 
after you found somebody doing it. 

I am planning a different club, for honest 
users of the great Color Computer: 

Color Computer Club of Central 
Oklahoma 

c/o Doug Moller 
1402 Allen 
Yukon, OK 73099 
(405) 354-3342 

In all of this rush, I haven't mentioned the 
great job you are doing. You deserve 
mountains of credit for your work. This is 
being typed on your word processor. It is so 
simple that I will probably modify it instead 
of buying a new one. 

Doug Moller 

Editor: Yukon, OK 

There is a Color Computer Users Group 
now forming in the Morgantown, WV, area. 
Owners of CoCos and TDP-IOOs can receive 
more information by writing to me at: 

P.O. Box 295 
Granville, WV 26534 
or calling (304) 599-4493. 

Donald G. Barber, Jr. 
Editor: Granville, WV 

I am pleased to announce the formation of 
the TRS-80 Users Group of Charlotte. 

We are three months old with an active 
membership. Any Color Computer user 
interested in learning more about CoCo and 
sharing experiences should call (704) 365- 
3653 or write to 6613 Summerlin PI., 
Charlotte, NC 2821 1. 

John Becker 
Charlotte, NC 



PRINT #-2, 



8 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



First and foremost, I want to thank all of you who have written in to us at the 
Rainbow to say so many good things about our magazine. And, too, I would like 
to thank you for what has obviously been a great deal of pass-along information 
to friends, relatives and acquaintances about us. 

Our subscriptions and other sales have increased tremendously in the past 
couple of months with no letup in sight. And, of even greater interest, so have 
our renewals. They are running better than 90 percent. That seems to be telling 
us that, generally, you like what you are seeing. We're gratified. We are not only 
what we believe you consider the premier magazine for CoCo users, we are also 
by far the largest in terms of circulation. We intend to continue to work to 
improve the quality each month — and as we do, past history shows the size will 
take care of itself. 

I mentioned last month that 1 saw the CoCo as something more than just a 
"personal computer" — more like a community of people all interested in a 
common goal. And, while I can only applaud that general affection for this 
machine, it does also cause me a bit of concern. 

The concern is simply that as more people see CoCo as a "popular" personal 
computer, more and more will be getting into the act. In many areas this will only 
be good — competition only breeds better quality. But, it also opens the doorfor 
a bunch of quick-buck artists, too. CoCo is now a "hot" commercial machine. 
That means you will be seeing mo re software, more hardware, more publications 
and the like "devoted" to CoCo in the future. 

Basically that is, as I said, good. But I still maintain CoCo is a special personal 
computer. 1 hope that the many people who will be entering the CoCo world 
(and whom we welcome) will recognize it as such. 

I do wish to call your attention to the Rainbow Seal of Certification once 
again. This Seal is our way of trying to help keep you from being ripped off. It 

does not certify the suitability of a product, 
but it does certify the existence of one. 

You should know, too, that the Seal is not 
an advertising device. It is available to anyone 
who has a commercial product available for 
CoCo, whether they advertise in the Rainbow 
or not. It is purely a protection device and 
once the Seal is awarded, a firm may use it on 
any advertising it employs — in publications, 
in flyers, instructions, pamphlets or whatever. 
We do encourage you to let us know of 
instances when you may suspect a violation of 
the Seal. We will not only investigate, but will 
inform you when we do find violations. 

As a general rule, you should know that 
certification for the Seal is awarded after we 
check a product. But, we do not "test" it and 
we do not review it at that time. We just insure 
that it is what it purports to be. Because of 
that, we are instituting an "added" 
qualification for publications, a major part of which is their ability to deliver 
their product on a regular basis. 

You will not see a Seal awarded to any publication or tape service as soon as it 
appears on the market. We will insist upon receiving at least three issues of such a 
publication in a timely manner before we can award a Seal. We do this because 
we consider delivery of the publication on time an essential part of the quality of 
the product. We think you do, too. 

Wayne Green wrote me the other day to say that he did not mind my 
mentioning him and allowed how "attacks" on him might be good for the 
Rainbow's circulation. I never thought about that. I do feel that Wayne Green 
Publications has given the CoCo short shrift for two years now and that many of 
his "predictions" have been far off base and detrimental to CoCo's growth. 

I say this by way of introduction to another "attack" on another magazine, 
Time. We can all applaud their selection of the Computer as the "Machine of the 
Year." 

But did you see any mention of CoCo in Time? I didn't. They grouped the 
TRS-80 Model III in with the less expensive computers. Foo. 

That only says to me that Time was sloppy in its research and reporting — 
especially on its most important story of the year. There is no excuse for that and 
I cannot understand it. And you should know this conspicuous omission of 

(Continued On Page 167) 





One thing has puzzled me as I use Spectaculator more 
and more. Where did they get that name? I mean, just look at 
the names the Shack has given its software for the 80C. 
What do they call theirtennisgame? Tennis, of course. And 
if you can't guess what's on the Personal Finance Rom Pak 
you probably don't need it. Dino Wars is not, as you might 
have guessed, about giantfrogs. As myf inalexample, I offer 
a Rom Pak called Skiing - enough said. No one ever can 
accuse the good people at Tandy of inflating the price of 
their software due to large outlays for Madison Ave. 
pizzazz. Then where in the world did they get a name like 
Spectaculator! The name conjures up to me a Texas oil 
wildcatter in string tie and snakeskin boots. But that's not 
the straight-ahead message they are tying to send. The only 
thing that makes any sense to me is that the name was left 
over from a game Pak, which never worked out, about a 
large reptile with glasses. 

In any case, whatever the name means, it is a very useful 
little gadget. A use of Spectaculator to do statistics is 
presented in the back of the manual which is supplied with 
the Rom Pak. As you would imagine, the application of 
statistics, in turn, is largely confined to scientific research, 
but that need not be the only use to which it is put. For 
example, 1 recently used a scheme such as will be outlined 
here to adapt my wife's favorite cookie recipe to the 
microwave. Basically what we will be using is called an 
ANOVA (ANalysis Of VAriance) by statisticians. 
(Statisticians are not very imaginative about names, either.) 
It allows one, either to analyze data already collected for the 
important factors influencing the observed outcomes, or 
more powerfully, to design a meaningful set of experiments 
to find out which variables are important and how each 
affects the final result. ANOVAs come in various shapes and 
levels of complexity. The one we will be looking at is a 
simple one. I could show anybody how to do one, 
mechanically, in about 10 minutes. The difficult part is to 
understand why you are performing the various steps 
outlined, and what the results mean and how to use them. 
This particular ANOVA is called a two-level factorial with 
center points. That means that we are going to examine each 
factor at two levels (a high and a low level), and at the 
midpoints. 

As for why one would choose this method in preference to 
any other, let's use the cookie problem as an illustration. 
Suppose you had to decide what power setting, length of 
time and water content gave the best cookies when adapting 
a recipe from a regular oven to the microwave. Most people 
would simply try various combinations and hope for the 
best. Those of a more logical bent would try holding two 
variables (for the sake of argument, let's assume they are 
water content and time) constant and varying the third. This 
is a shade better than the blunderbuss approach of the first 

10 the RAINBOW February, 1 983 



Spectaculator Gives 
Spectacular Statistics 

By Judd C. Posner 



group but, I think I can convince you, it is not likely to get 
you to the optimum result either. In the first place, unless 
you are a very good guesser, the particular combination of 
water content of the batter and baking time you choose may 
not be the best ones. In fact, if you are a bad guesser, they 
may never yield edible cookies at any power setting you use. 
It is not hard to see that there is essentially an infinite 
number of potential combinations of water content and time 
from which one could start and no way to decide which is the 
best. Furthermore, if there were interactions between any of 
the factors, such as, for example, temperature and time, you 
would never discover that fact using the "hold everything 
constant and vary one factor" approach. 

An example of an interaction in the field of the culinary 
arts is the following: Suppose it takes two hours to cook a 
roast at 350 degrees, would you expect that it would take 4 
hours at 1 75 degrees? I would think not! In fact it may take 
all day at 175. There is, therefore, a strong interaction 
between temperature and time in this example. Three-way 
interactions are also possible, although they are quite rare. 
One example which comes to mind will almost certainly get 
me in trouble with women's groups, but I cite it only as 
hearsay and in no way endorse its sentiments. I once asked a 
friend from New York whom he thought was the world's 
worst driver, and he answered, "A lady doctor from New 
Jersey." To this day I cannot find a better example of a 
three-way interaction. 

Suppose you have chosen the three factors you think are 
the ones to be looked at to solve your particular problem 
and the particular ranges for each. The next steps are to 
decide how many experiments to perform, how to do them, 
and what to do with the results to be able to interpret them. 
Since we have three factors, each with a high and low value 
as we mentioned previously, you will have to do a minimum 
of two "cubed" or eight experiments to cover all possible 
combinations of the factors, and add a few experiments to 
cover the midpoints; the midpoint experiment consists of 
running a trial at (high+low)/2 for each factor - hence, the 
name, midpoint. The question of how many replicates, or 
how many times to repeatthesameexperiment is noteasyto 
answer. It depends on the magnitude of the effects and the 
error associated with each measurement. Without going 



Template 



1-1 1-1 t 

1 -1 -1 -1 -1 

1 1-1-1 1 

1 1 1-1-1 

1-1 1 1-1 

1-1-1 1 1 

1 1-1 1-1 
11111 



FIGURE1 



Table Of Column And Row Formulas 



Col# 


CF 


Row# 


RF 




4 


< C2+C3>/2 


1 1 


SUMR2 




5 


< C2-C3) *< C2-C20/2 


1 2 


R 1 1 /4 




8 


SQR< < C7+C6>/1 1 > 


1 3 


Rl 2/2 




? 


1 . 1 *C8 


1 8 


SUMR1 4/4 




1 0 


1 . 23*C8 


1 ? 


CR18-R14)*<R18- 


Rl 4> 


21 


C4*C1 1 


20 


<R18-R15>*<R18- 


Rl 5) 


22 


C4*C1 2 


21 


<R18-R16)*<R18- 


Rl 6) 


23 


C4*C1 3 


22 


< Rl 8-R1 7) *< R18- 


R 1 7 ) 


24 


C4*C1 4 


23 


SUMR19 




25 


C4*C15 


25 


R24-R1 8 




26 


C4*C1 6 








27 


C4*C1 7 








28 


C4*C18 









Table 1 

into the problem in great detail, it turns out that for most 
purposes, it is only necessary to do each experiment twice, 
and replicate each midpoint four times. All of the discussion 
to follow will assume that this number of experiments has 
been chosen. So as not to introduce a bias in the experiments 
resulting from the order in which they are done, they should 
be randomized. Each of the eight different combinations of 
factors (i.e. low, high, high, -low, low, low, etc.) is assigned a 
number, called a trial number. The assignment of trial 
numbers to the condition of the factors is encoded in 



columns 2, 3 and 5 of Figure 1 , the template. This template 
should be copied exactly as it stands for each ANOVA. 
These factors encoded as - 1 correspond to the low level for 
that factor; those encoded as =1 correspond to the high 
value. Thus trial #1 would have low, low, low for factors 1 ,2, 
and 3 respectively. Trial #2 would correspond to 
high, low, low for those factors, etc. The trial numbers are 
usually randomized by using tables of random numbers. 
That would be a waste of the valuable talents of your 
computer, which has a built-in random number generator. 



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Questions & Answers 
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Katy (Houston), Texas 77450 



To Order 
1-800-231-3680 
800-231-3681 



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February, 1983 the RAINBOW 11 



Trial # 


XI 


X2 


AV X 


VAR 


1 


9 


1 1 


10.00 


2.00 


2 


36 


30 


33 . 00 


18.00 


3 


14 


20 


17.00 


18.00 


4 


38 


48 


43.00 


50 .00 


5 


99 


91 


95.00 


32.00 


6 


125 


129 


1 27.00 


8.00 


7 


1 55 


155 


155.00 


0.00 


8 


177 


179 


178.00 


2.00 
130.00 



63 
67 
72 
60 

65.50 CENTER PT AVG 

6.25 

2.25 
42.25 

30.25 2 

81 . 00 SUM (X(AV)-X(I)) 

82.25 13,21 

16.75 CURVATURE 



FIGURE 2 



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AN EXTENSIVE LIBRARY in assembly language source is 
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Min Min'C 
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A quick and elegant way of generating two random sets of 
all the numbers between one and eight, inclusive (eight runs 
replicated once), was suggested by my neighbor, Dick 
White. It goes as follows: 

10 FOR J = l TO 2 

20 R = RND(8):R$=STR$(R):I=INSTR(I,A$,R$):IF 1=0 

THEN A$=A$+RS 

30 IF LEN(AS) 16 THEN 20 

40 PRINT A$:A$="":NEXT 

A typical example of the result of running the above is: 

4 3 8 2 16 5 7 
7 13 4 5 2 8 6 

The midpoints are coded as nines and need to be spread 
evenly throughout the trials. Since we have 16 + 4 = 20 
entries, the nines should be placed every 20/4=5 numbers. 
Therefore the final order of trials would be: 

9438291657971349528 6. 

The order, of course, would be different every time except 
for the position of the nines. 

Having coded and randomized the trials, it is now a 
simple matter to enter the observed results on the 
Spectaculator worksheet. The worksheet itself is set up 
using the column and rowformulasfound in Table 1 . It must 
be stressed that this set of calculations assumes that the 
ANOVA is run exactly as shown, i.e. four center points, and 
eight trials duplicated once. The statistics are set up to 
demonstrate significance at the 95% confidence level for 
only this combination. A treatment of how to do an 
ANOVA using less or more experiments, or at a different 
statistical confidence level, is beyond the scope of this article 
and the reader is advised to consult any standard text on 
experimental design. The principals are the same, but the 
worksheet and the formulas will be different. 

Figure 2 shows the areas where the results are entered. 
What are entered here, once more, are the observed results 
from running the experiments under the conditions of the 
ANOVA. They may be expressed in any consistent units, i.e. 
%, color, yield, or even goodness of taste, if an objective 
judgment can be made. The results from the center points 
are entered in column 2, rows 15 through 18. The other 
results are entered in the appropriate row in columns 2 and 3 
corresponding to the trial number in column 1. In the 
example presented, for example, results of 9 and 11 were 
obtained when the conditions were low, low, low, and they 
were obtained in the seventh and thirteenth experiments; 
results of 1 25 and 1 79 were obtained in the eighth and 
nineteenth runs under conditions of high, low, high and 
high, high, high respectively. There are a total of 20 entries 
to be made at this point. Then enter the CA command and 



12 the RAINBOW February, 1 983 





MEAN 


Fl 


F2 




F1F2 




F3 




F1F3 




F2F3 




F1F2F3 




10.00 


- 1 0 .00 


-10. 


00 


1 0 . 


00 


-10. 


00 


1 0 . 


00 


1 0 . 


00 


-10.00 




33 . 00 


33 . 0 0 


-33 . 


00 


— 33 . 


00 


— 33 . 


00 


-33 . 


00 


33 . 


00 


33 . 0 0 




17.00 


-17.00 


1 7 . 


00 


-17. 


00 


-17. 


00 


1 7 . 


00 


-17. 


00 


17.00 




43 . 00 


43 . 00 


43 . 


00 


43 . 


00 


-43 . 


00 


-43 . 


00 


-43 . 


00 


-43 .00 




95. 00 


-95.00 


-95. 


00 


95 . 


00 


95 . 


00 


-95 . 


00 


-95 . 


00 


95.00 




127.00 


1 27.00 


-127. 


00 


-127. 


00 


127. 


00 


1 27. 


00 


-127. 


00 


-127.00 




1 55 . 00 


- 1 55 , 00 


1 55 . 


00 


- 1 55 . 


00 


1 55 . 


00 


-1 55 . 


00 


1 55 . 


00 


-1 55 . 00 




1 78 . 00 


1 78 . 00 


1 78 . 


00 


1 78 . 


00 


1 78 . 


00 


1 78 . 


00 


1 78 . 


00 


1 78 . 00 


Dilference 


ojOiUU 


1 U H . U U 


1 

1 jLO ■ 


n n 
u u 


O ■ 


u u 




u u 


o . 


u u 


O A 


u u 




Effect 


164.50 


26.00 


32. 


00 


-1 . 


50 


113. 


00 


1 . 


50 


23. 


50 


-3.0 0 




82 . 25 



























FIGURE 

wait. Spectaculator has a lot of calculations to make so it 
takes a while. Three values obtained in this calculation now 
have to be transferred to open positions in the worksheet. 
The places into which the numbers are to be transferred are 
at row 2, columns 6 and 7 and row 24, column 2. These 
locations are denoted on the worksheet by a set of two 
numbers which refer to the row and column respectively 
from which the value is to be transferred. A second 
calculation is now done, and the mathematics is complete. 
All that remains is the interpretation. To determine which 
factors and interactions were statistically significant, you 
need only compare the number in the row labelled "Effect" 
in Figure 3 under each of the factors and combinations of 
factors (F1,F2,F1F2,F3,F1F3,F2F3, and F1F2F3) with the 
value found in the column marked "Min"(Column 9). Any 
value greater than Min is significant. The higher the 
absolute value of the effect, the greater is its effect on the 
observed result. A negative value for a single factor (main 
effect) means that increasing that factor leads to a decrease 
in the observed result. A negative interaction means that 
increasing the second factor will increase the low level of the 
first factor more than it will the high level. A positive 
number means the reverse. In the example presented, factors 
Fl,F2,F3 and interaction F2F3 were found to have 
significant effects; all others did not. Factor 3 had the 
greatest effect. The curvature, found in row 25, column 2 is 
significant when compared with the value of "Min C" in 
column 10. A significant curvature means that the 
progression from low to high values is not linear. If there 
were no significant curvature, we could, in fact, write an 
equation for the observed behavior in terms of the factors 
studied. In this case we will have to be content with finding 
the significant main effects and interaction which govern the 
outcome. 

One word of caution. In using your results, remember 
what was said about the assumptions on which the ANOVA 
model was based. It is statistically undeniable, for example, 
that everyone who inhales air dies. Before you jump to the 
conclusion that air is toxic remember what was said about 
beingsure you included all the important factors bearing on 
the outcome. 

Lastly, a word about formatting the Spectaculator 
spreadsheet. When starting out, everything should be blank 
except for the captions for the rows and columns and the 
template. Those of you with sharp eyes may have wondered 
why certain parts of the sheet are blank when there should 
by all rights be figures in them. An example is row 1 1 of 
columns 1 through 4. The secret lies in the judicious use of 



the ET (enter text) command. Since I have no further 
mathematical use for the trial numbers, they are entered as 
text rather than numbers, analogous to converting them to 
strings in Basic. The figures in columns 2-4, however, need 
to be used mathematically so they must be entered using the 
EN command. The secret to why there are no unneeded 
figures in row I 1 is that Spectaculator will not write over 
text with numbers. I think it looks neater (probably as a 
result of too much early toilet training) not to have all those 
extraneous figures around, so 1 enter blank text characters 
where I don't want numbers. It really takes very little effort, 
since they can be entered up to 28 at a time, although it does 
take a little planning. 



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February, 1983 the RAINBOW 13 



EDUCATION NOTES 





■ 


the 


4K 




• mm* 

i RAINBOW 






-7- -U 




"Random" Often Needs 
A Helping Hand 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Random numbers are the building blocks of many 
programs and games. Without the element of random 
occurrences, we could all too easily predict outcomes. 
Random keeps us all guessing. 

Educational as well as recreational programs often need 
random numbers selected to make the program challenging. 
Random numbers can easily be picked out by any of the 
CoCos using the RND(num) function. We can easily have 
the computer select a random number between one and 10 
by keying in X=RND(10). 

If we do 10 occurrences of X=RND(10), then we will have 
10 random numbers between one and 10. This is quite 
sufficient for many recreational games. It is, however, not 
always correct for many educational game purposes. 

Let us suppose that we wish to construct a test for 10 
opposites of 1 0 presidents, state capitals, homonyms, or any 
other educational topic. The program will present the 
subject with 10 examples. Do we really care if the questions 
repeat within the series of 10? 

The answer is — of course we do. If any of the questions 
are repeated, then some will necessarily be left out. We will 
not get a true test of the 10 items unless each one is used 
once. 

Let's check this out with a short program 
5 CLS 

10 FOR T=l TO 10 
20 X=RND(10) 
30 PRINT X 
40 NEXT T 

When you run this program, you will notice that in an 
overwhelming majority of runs, some of the numbers will be 
repeated and some omitted within any group of 10. 

Although it isn't exactly what we need, we certainly don't 
want to throw out our X=RND(10). We still need the 
randomness to insure that the order of questions is different 



each time. If the questions do not occur randomly, then the 
subjects may memorize the questions and answers. What we 
really need is a way to have the questions appear randomly 
and also not to repeat or leave out any items during each 
round. 

Here is another short program that will resolve both of 
our requirements. 

5 CLS 

10 DIM N(10) 
15 L=10 

20 FOR X = l TO 10: N(X)=X:NEXT X 

30 R=RND(L):T=N(R) 

40 N(R)=N(L):L=L-1 

50 PRINT "L=";L;"R=";R;"T=";T 

60 GOTO 30 

Lines 10, 15, and 20 dimension and set an array of 10 
elements. 

Line 30 chooses a random element from the array. 

Line 40 is our key line. It removes the element chosen by 
replacing it with the last element in the array. The array is 
then decreased by one element. The element chosen cannot 
be picked again because it is no longer in the array. 

Line 50 will print out our results. The "T" becomes our 
random non-repeating number. 

Line 55 will end the program after all of the numbers are 
picked. 

Line 60 goes back to pick the next random number if all 
have not been used yet. 

Here is a printout of a typical run of this program. 

L=9 R=4 T=4 
L=8 R=5 T=5 
L=7 R=4 T=10 
L=6 R=2 T=2 
L=5 R=5 T=9 
L=4 R=5 T=6 



14 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



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RESPOND — Branching, and looping insure learning. 



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Skilled linguistics have developed our series of second language programs. The lessons utilize the power of programmed 
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to nouns and adverbs, including plural forms and inversions. Noun structure using definite and indefinite articles, and regular 
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' 



L=3 R=l T=l 
L=2 R=l T=8 
L=l R=2 T=7 
L=0 R = l T=3 

Look down the"R"column. Ifwe merely used R=RND(L), 
notice all of the repeats that we would have had. Now look 
down the "T" column. These are our random, non-repeating 
numbers. 

Let's follow some of the action. On the first trial, the 
number 4 was picked, and 4 quite naturally occupied the 
number 4 slot. Line 40 now removes 4 from the number 4 
slot and replaces it with 10. Also line 40 now removes the 
number 10 slot leaving nine slots, with 10 occupying the 
number 4 slot. On the third trial, the number 4 was picked 
again, but this time it contained a 10. In this manner, all of 
the numbers get picked and none can repeat. 

This is but one method of accomplishing this task. There 
are several others that we are familiar with, but this was 
Computer Island's favorite. We, of course, would enjoy 
hearing from you with your favorite method. 

The program that follows uses this method to test for 10 
homonyms. The logic is similar to the program we just 
reviewed. Please feel free to alter the data to your purposes 
and use the program in any way that it may be helpful to 
your children. 

The program, as is, will run on Extended Basic. To run on 
a non-extended computer, delete line 40. 

(Mr. Blyn, who leaches both exceptional and gifted children, holds 
two Master s degrees in the field of education and has won an award 
for the design of a computer program to aid handicapped children. 
He and his wife, Cheryl, own Computer Island.) 



The listing: 




40 H=RND (-TIMER) ' THIS LINE IS 

FOR EXTENDED BASIC USERS ONLY 

50 CR=0 'CORRECT EXAMPLES 

60 L=10 '# OF EXAMPLES 

70 DIM A*(L) ,B*<L) 

80 FOR W= 1 TO L 

90 READ A*(W),B*(W): NEXT 

100 R= RND(L) 

110 IF L=0 THEN 300 'NO MORE EXA 
MPLES 

120 A*=A*(R) :B*=B*<R) 
130 A*(R)=A*(L) :B*(R)=B*<L) 
140 L=L-1 ' REMOVES THE PREVIOUS 
EXAMPLE 

150 CLS RND<8) : PRINT© 12, "homonym 
s"; 

160 PRINTQ96, "A HOMONYM FOR "A* 
;" IS"; 

170 FOR T=200 TO 250 STEP10: SOU 

ND T,2:NEXT T 

180 INPUT C* 

190 IF C*=B* GOSUB 220 

200 IF C*OB* THEN GOSUB 260 

210 RESTORE: GOTO 100 

220 PRINTQ237, "CORRECT" ; : CR=CR+1 

230 SOUND200,8 

240 PRINTQ386, "PRESS < ENTER > TO 
CONTINUE"; : INPUT E* 
250 CLS: RETURN 

260 PRINT@224, "SORRY, THE ANSWER 
IS ";B* 

270 SOUND 50,5 

280 PRINT@386, "PRESS <ENTER> TO 
CONTINUE"; : INPUT E* 
290 RETURN 

300 CLS0:FOR T=80TO10STEP-5:SOUN 
DT, 1 : NEXTT 

310 PRINTQ70, " THIS ROUND IS OVE 
R "; 

320 PRINT@I98," YOU HAD ";CR;" C 
ORRECT"; 

330 PRINT@358," PLAY AGAIN <Y/N) 
"; : INPUT F* 

340 IF F*="Y" THEN RUN ELSE IF F 

*="N" THEN 350 ELSE 330 

350 CLS: PR I NT "BYE FOR NOW" 

360 DATA HORSE, HOARSE 

370 DATA SAIL, SALE 

380 DATA HERE, HEAR 

390 DATA KNIGHT, NIGHT 

400 DATA RIGHT, WRITE 

410 DATA SEE, SEA 

420 DATA NEW, KNEW 

430 DATA NOSE, KNOWS 

440 DATA THROUGH, THREW 

450 DATA BLUE, BLEW 



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16 the RAINBOW February. 1983 



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FEATURE PROGRAM 


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»»• 

RAINBOW 
_7- -.\ 





i toclaf " r 



Render Unto Seizure 



By Lane P. Lester, Ph.D. 



The arrival of a new year with its promise of new 
challenges and opportunities also heralds the approach of 
April 15, the deadline for each taxpayer's opportunity to 
"render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's" and not 
one penny more! If you are using the Internal Revenue 
Service as a non-interest-bearing savings account and look 
forward each year to a big refund check, you'll want to use 
INCOMTAX to help that check be as large as legally 
possible. On the other hand, if you prefer to place your 
savings in an account with a better return, you'll find the 
program useful for quarterly evaluations of your tax 
liability to insure that your withholding (or payment, if self- 
employed) is kept at a minimum. 

At the end of each quarter, receipts, checks, etc. are 
grouped by category. Although the program includes the 
addition of new items to existing totals, I have found it 
easiest to use a calculator for totaling stacks of records. 
After all records are entered, the "Tax Computation" option 
provides an estimate of one's tax liability to date, based on 
the assumption of continued earnings at the same rate for 
the rest of the year. After each new quarter it is only 
necessary to enter new records to the totals that have been 
saved previously. At year's end you will have to consult the 
appropriate tax table for the exact amount due you or the 
IRS. 

Tax calculation and line descriptions are provided for 
Form 1040 and its Schedules A and C. Additional forms can 
be added by simple changes in the "Calculate Tax," "Form 
Selection," and "Line Descriptions" sections of the 
program. The tax table used to calculate the tax liability is 
taken f rom Form 1 040-ES, " 1982 Declaration of Estimated 
Tax for Individuals." I used Schedule Y for married 
taxpayers filing joint returns. If your situation differs, I 
believe you'll find it easy to make the appropriate changes in 
Lines 390-500. 

Both tape and disk storage are provided, and output may 
be by screen (32-column) or printer (80-column). Two sets of 
line descriptions are provided for this purpose. Epson MX- 
80 printer codes are used and may need to be changed for 
other makes. The following commentary on program logic 
may be useful for either customizing the program or 
introducing you to some technique you might find useful. 

Line 30: ENTRIES is the total number of lines of all forms 
and would need to be changed if you add or subtract forms. 

Lines 40-50: These are the formats for various 
PRINTUSINGs. 

Lines 60-70: These reflect my personal preference for only 
one PRINT per line. Notice the more efficient use of two 
commas as opposed to another PRINT or CHR$(I3). 

Lines 90-140: By using the variables DEV and TRS a brief 
routine serves the functions of input and output to tape or 
disk. 

Lines 740-880: Both the "Enter Data"and "Review Data" 
options use the "Form Selection" routine. This has been 
generalized to allow adding other forms with ease. SKIP is a 
factor that allows all lines of all forms to be part of a single 
sequential array L, and still allow the display of the line 
numbers for each form. PAGES, FIRST, and LAST are 
variables used f or the screen display of each form, indicating 



how many screen "pages"are required and what statements 
go on each "page." This provides a logical display of related 
items rather than just a screenful each time. 

Lines 1 50-1 80: The program is designed to be as helpful as 
possible to the user. Display of form name, line number, line 
description, total before entry and new total guard against 
erroneous entries. 

Lines 190-630: All form lines that are calculated from 
other lines are taken care of by the program. This is 
accomplished before and- after the "Tax Computation" 
routine. The four columns of thejxprogram tax table 
correspond to columns 2-5 of the IRS schedules. Because 
the I RS considers income in multiples of $ 1 00, this factor in 
Line 510 simplifies the Tax Table. A screen summary of tax 
liability is provided at the end of this option. 

Lines 640-700: As mentioned earlier, both screen and 
printer review of the data are available. Rather than 
minimize programming in accomplishing both functions by 
just changing thedevice number, I chose to provide the most 
useful displays of the two very different formats. 



The listing: 



10 



? » TKJP 



MCOMeTAX* 



Ar 260 


05D9 


fir 690 


0DDE 


1040 


16D2 


1220 


1D5A 


END 


2640 



20 GOTO 1490 MPCLEARl) 
30 CLEAR 1 000: CLS: ENTR I ES= 140: 
DIM L(ENTRIES) ,D1* (ENTRIES) ,D2* 
(ENTRIES) , FIRST (7) , LAST (7) : GOSU 

& 900 

40 Fl*="**##, F2*="**##, 
###.##+": F3*-"##.7." + STRING*(1 
6." J') + "7.**##.###. ##" 
50 F4*=STRING*(10, " ") + 7. 
H f STRING* (32, " ") + "7. $*##,## 

60 CLS: PR I NT "PRESS NUMBER OF DE 
SIRED FUNCJION1. INPUT RECORDED 
DATA", "2. ENTER DATA",, "3. CALCU 
LATE TAX " 

70 PRINT"4. REVIEW DATA"., "5. RE 

CORD DATA", , "6. END" 

80 K=VAL(INKEY*> : IF K< 1 OR K>6 

THEN 80 ELSE CLS: ON K GOSUB 90, 

160,200,650,90,1480: GOTO 60 

90 'Recorded Data Routine 

100 PRINT"PRESS 1 FOR DISK. 2 FO 

R TAPE" 

110 DEV=VAL ( INKEY*) : IF DEV< 1 OR 
DEV>2 THEN 110 ELSE IF DEV=2 TH 
EN DEV=-1 

120 IF K=l THEN TR*="I" ELSE TR* 
= "0" 

130 OPEN TR*,DEV, "TAXRECRD": IF 
K=5 THEN FOR 1=1 TO ENTRIES: PR I 



18 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



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NT#DEV,STR*(L(I) > : NEXT: CLOSE: 
SOUND 200,2: RETURN 
140 FOR 1=1 TO entries: INPUT#DE 
v, l*: l(I)=val(l*) : next: close 

: SOUND 200,2: RETURN 

150 'Enter Data 

160 GOSUB 750: PRINT SKED* 

170 printq32, "which line number, 
'0' to stop";: input l: if l=0 

THEN RETURN ELSE I=L+SKIP: PRINT 
@32,D2*<I): PRINTUSING F1*;L(I> 
180 INPUT "AMOUNT"; AMOUNT: L ( I ) =L 
(D+AMOUNT: PRINTUSING F1*;L(I): 
GOSUB 720: PRINT@64, STRING* (97, 
" " ) : GOTO 1 70 
190 'Calculate Tax 

200 INPUT "WHICH QUARTER IS BEING 

EVALUATED" ; QUAR 
210 'Business Income 
220 L(110)=L<108)-L<109) : L<112) 
=L<110)+L<111) : L(139)=0: FOR 1= 
113 TO 138: L(139)=L(139)+L(I): 
NEXT: L<140)=L(112)-L<139) 
230 'Total Income 

240 L(11)=L(140) : L<21)=0: FOR I 
=7 TO 20: L(21)=L(21)+L(I) : NEXT 
250 'Income Adjustments 
260 L(30)=0: FOR 1=22 TO 29: L(3 
0)=L(30)+L(I) : NEXT: L<31>=L<21) 



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L(9 
THE 



-L<30) 

270 ' Itemized Deductions 
280 L(69)=.01*L<31 ) : IF L(69)>L( 
68) THEN L<70>=0 ELSE L(70)=L<68 
) -L<69) 

290 L<73)=L<70)+L<71)+L<72) : L<7 
4)=0.03*L(31 ) : IFL<74) >L(73) THE 
N L(75)=0 ELSE L (75) =L (73) -L (74) 
300 L(76)=L(67)+L(75) : L(82)=L(7 
7)+L(78)+L(79)+L(80)+ L(81) : L(8 
6)=L(83)+L(84) +L(85) 
310 L(90)=L(87)+L(88)+L(89) : 
3)=L(91)-L(92) : IF L(93)<100 
N L(94)=L(93) ELSE L(94)=100 
320 IF L(93)>L(94) THEN L(95)=L( 
93)-L(94) ELSE L(95)=0 
330 L(98)=L(96)+L(97) : L(99)=L(7 
6) :L(100)=L(82) : L(101)=L(86> : L 
(102)=L(90) 

340 L(103)=L(95) : L ( 104 ) =L (98) : 
L ( 105) =L (99) +L ( 100) +L ( 101 ) +L ( 102 
)+L(103)+L(104) 

350 IF L(106) >L(105) THEN L(107) 

=0 ELSE L(107)=L(105)-L(106> 

360 'Tax Computation 

370 L(32)=L(31)-L(107) : L(33)=L( 

6)*1000*QUAR/4: L(34)=L(32)-L(33 

) 

380 



390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 



'Tax 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



Table 

34, 

55, 

76, 
119, 
160, 
202, 
246, 
299, 
352, 
458, 
600, 
856, 



Y (Joint) 



0, 0, 0 
0, 12, 34 
252, 14, 55 
546, 16, 76 
1234, 19, 119 
2013, 22, 160 
2937, 25, 202 
4037, 29, 246 
5574, 33, 299 
7323, 39, 352 
11457, 44, 458 
17705, 49, 600 
L=L(34)*4/QUAR/100: RESTORE 
READ W,X,Y,Z: IF L<=W THEN T 
=X+Y*(L-Z) ELSE 520 
530 L(35)=T*QUAR/4: PRINT "TAX FR 
OM TAX TABLE": PRINTUSINB Fl*; L 
(35): INPUT "ENTER ADDITIONAL TAX 
ES";L(36): L(37)=L(35)+L(36) 
540 'Tax Credits 

550 L(46)=0: FOR 1=38 TO 45: L(4 
6)=L(46)+L(I) : NEXT: L(47)=L(37) 
-L(46) 

560 'Other Taxes 

570 L(54)=0: IF L(ll)=>32400 THE 
N L (48) =3029. 40 ELSE L (48) =.0935 
*L ( 1 1 ) 

580 FOR 1=47 TO 53: L(54)=L(54)+ 

L(I): NEXT 

590 'Tax Payments 

600 L(62)=0: FOR 1=55 TO 61: L(6 



20 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



2)=L(62)+L(I) : NEXT 

610 'Refund or Balance Due 

620 X=L(62)-L(54) : IF X<0 THEN L 

(63) =0: L(64)=0: L(65)=0: L(66)= 

X*-l ELSE L(63)=X: L (64) =L (63) -L 

(65): L(66)=0 

630 FOR 1=63 TO 66: PRINTUSING F 

3*; i; D2*(i); L(i);: next: gosu 

B 720: RETURN 
640 'Review Data 

650 GOSUB 750: PRINT SKED*: PRIN 
T" PRESS 1 TO DISPLAY REVIEW", "PR 
ESS 2 TO PRINT REVIEW " 
660 K=VAL( INKEY*) : IF K< 1 OR K>2 

THEN 660 ELSE IF K=l THEN 690 
670 PRINT#-2, CHR*(18)CHR$(13)CH 
R*(14)TAB(8)SKED*;CHR*(13) : FOR 
I=FIRST(1) TO LAST (PAGES) 
680 PRINT#-2, USING F4*;I;D1*(I+ 

skip) ; l ( i+skip) : next: print#-2, 

TAB (14)"* = COMPUTER ENTRY "CHR*( 
12) ; : RETURN 

690 FOR N=l TO PAGES: CLS: FOR I 
=FIRST(N) TO LAST (N) : PRINTUSING 

F3«; i;d2*(I+skip) ;L(I+skip) ; : n 

EXT I 

700 GOSUB 720: print: next n: re 
TURN 

710 'Pause 

720 PRINT@485, "PRESS 1 TO CONTIN 
UE"; 

730 IF INKEY*<>"1" THEN 730 ELSE 
PRINT@485, STRING* (19, " " ) ! : RET 
URN 

740 'Form Selection 
750 PR I NT "PRESS NUMBER OF DESIRE 
D FORM 1. FORM 1040",, "2. SCH 
EDULE A ",,"3. SCHEDULE C" 
760 K=VAL ( INKEY*) : IF K< 1 OR K>3 
THEN 760 ELSE CLS: ON K GOSUB 7 
80, 820, 860: RETURN 
770 'Form 1040 

780 SKED*= " FORM 1040": SKIP=0: P 
AGES=6 

790 FIRST(1)=7: FIRST(2)=2l: FIR 
ST (3) =31: FIRST (4) =37: FIRST (5)= 
47: FIRST (6) =54 

800 LAST(l)=2l: LAST (2) =31: LAST 
(3) =37: LAST (4) =47: LAST (5) =54: 
LAST (6) =66: RETURN 
810 'Schedule A 

820 SKED*=" SCHEDULE A": SKIP=66: 
PAGES=4 

830 FIRST(l)=l: FIRST(2)=ll: FIR 

ST (3) =21: FIRST (4) =33 

840 LAST(1)=10: LAST (2) =20: LAST 

(3) =32: LAST (4) =41: RETURN 

850 'Schedule C 

860 SKED*=" SCHEDULE C": SKIP=107 
: PAGES=3 



870 FIRST(l)=l: FIRST (2) =5: FIRS 
T(3)=20 

880 LAST(1)=5: LAST(2)=19: LAST ( 

3) =33: RETURN 

890 'Line Descriptions 

900 FOR 1=1 TO 12: READ W,X,Y,Z: 

NEXT ' (Skip Tax Table) 
910 FOR 1=7 TO ENTRIES: READ Dl* 

(I): next: for i=6 to entries: r 
EAD D2*(I): next: return 
920 'Form 1040 

930 DATA "Wages, salaries, tips, 
etc. ", Interest and dividends, Re 
funds of state and local taxes, A 
1 i mony received 

940 DATA Business i ncome*, Capi ta 
1 gain, 40V. capital gain not on 1 
ine 12, Suppl emental gains, Fully 
taxable pensions & ann. 
950 DATA Part, taxable pensions 
& ann., "Rents, royalties, etc.", 
Farm i ncome, Unempl oyment compens 
at ion, Other income* 
960 DATA Total i ncome*, Movi ng ex 
pense, Empl oyee business expenses 
, Payments to IRA, Payments to Keo 
gh, Interest penal ty, Al i mony paid 
970 DATA Disability income, Other 



8 NEW from ~ ~ 



c 
c 

L 

C 

c 
c 
e 
c 
c 

8 

c 

L 

C 

o 
c 
u 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 
c 




CoCoHut 

THE ULTIMATE STRATEGY CAME,,,, 

zarconian 
mTrble 

1 or 2 players 

Match wits with the computer 
16 K Ext. Basic required 
Cassette 19.95 Disk 2i.95 

Send check or money order to. 

COCOHUT /^^\ 



P. 0. BOX 2US1 
HOUSTON TX. 77015 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

g 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



C □□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□ 3 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 21 



adjustments, Total adjustments*, 
Adjusted gross income*, Adj. gr. 
inc. - deductions* 
980 DATA Exemptions X $1000, Taxa 
ble income*, Tax -from Schedule Y* 
, Additional taxes, Total (lines 3 
5 & 36)* 

990 DATA Contributions to candid 
ates, Credit -for the elderly, Chil 
d care expenses, Investment credi 
t, Foreign tax credit 
1000 DATA Work incentive credit, 
Jobs credi t , Resi dent i al energy c 
redit, Total credi ts*, Bal ance (li 
ne 37 - line 46)* 
1010 DATA Self -employment tax*,M 
in i mum tax, Tax from invest, cred 
it recomp. , Soci al security on ti 
ps,Tax on IRA 

1020 DATA Adv. earned income ere 
dit, Total tax*, Income tax withhe 
Id, Estimated tax payments, Earned 

income credit 
1030 DATA Amount paid with Form 
4868, Excess Social Security tax, 
Credit for fuels tax, Reg. invest 
. co. credi t , Total tax payments* 
1040 DATA Tax overpai d*, Overpaym 
ent to be refunded*, Overpayment 



1982 Interactive "What If 



TAX Analysis 

PROGRAM - 1040 - SCHED. A 
for the TRS-80 Color Computer™ (16K) 



OPTIMIZE TAX RETURNS 

Makes It Easy & Simple To: 

• MODIFY Tax Data & Receive IMMEDIATE 

RECALCULATION of Return. 

• SAVE /Restore Tax Data 

RAINBOW 

• Menu Driven/Tree Structured S/W -~ 



ONLY $19.99 



si 



Add $1.00 postage 

Plus $1.50 if C.O.D. 

In VA, add 4% sales tax 



SYSTEMS 



7602 SEOANE COURT 
FALLS CHURCH, VA 22042 



to credit next year, Balance due 
IRS* 

1050 'Schedule A 

1060 DATA Half of insurance prem 
iums, Medicine and drugs, "IV. oF F 
orm 1040, Line 31*", Line 2 - Lin 
e 3*, Balance of insurance premiu 
ms 

1070 DATA Other medical & dental 
expenses, Total (Lines 4-6)*, "Z7. 
of Form 1040, Line 31*", Line 7 

- Line 8* 

1080 DATA Total medical & dental 
expenses, State & local income t 
axes, Real estate tax, Sales tax,P 
ersonal property tax, Other taxes 
1090 DATA Total taxes*, Home mort 
gage i nter est , Credi t and charge 
card interest , Other interest, Tot 
al interest expense* 
1100 DATA Cash contr i but i ons, Con 
tributions other than cash, Carry 
over from prior years, Total cont 
ributions*, Casualty or theft los 
ses 

1110 DATA Insurance or other rei 
mbursement , Li ne 25 - Line 26*, Sm 
aller of *100 or Line 27*, Total 
casualty or theft losses* 
1120 DATA Tax return expenses, Ot 
her deducti ons, Total miscellanea 
us deducti ons*, Total medical & d 
ental expenses*, Total taxes* 
1130 DATA Total interest expense 
*, Total contributions*, Total cas 
ualty or theft 1 osses*, Total mis 
eel 1 aneous*, Total Lines 33-38* 
1140 DATA Zero bracket amount, To 
tal deductions* 
1150 'Schedule C 

1160 DATA Sross receipts or sale 
S,Cost of oper at i ons, Gross profi 
t*, Windfall tax credit, Total inc 
ome*, Adverti si ng , Amortization 
1170 DATA Bad debts, Bank service 
charges, Car and truck expenses, 
Commi ss i on s , Dep 1 et i on , Dep r ec i at i 
on, Dues and publications 
1180 DATA Employee benefit progr 
ams, Frei ght , Insurance, Interest o 
n business debts, Laundry & clean 
ing, Legal & professional expense 
s 

1190 DATA Office supplies & post 
age, Pension and profit-sharing p 
lans,Rent on business property, R 
epairs, Suppl ies, Taxes 
1200 DATA Travel and entertainme 
nt, Utilities and tel ephone, Wages 
, Windfall Profit Tax withheld, Ot 



22 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Four smart ways 
to make your Atari 400/800, 
TRS-80 COLOR, VIC-20 and Commodore 64 

much more intelligent. 



4 



The Color Accountant pays 

for Itself. This complete per- 
sonal financial package is 
designed to make your money 
easier to manage. Included are: 

/. Checkbook Maintenance 

2. Chart of Accounts 

3. Check Search 

4. Income/ Expense Statement 

5. Net Worth Statement 

6. Color Graph Design Package 

7. Home Budget Analysis 

8. Color Payments Calendar 

9. Mailing List 

10. Decision Maker 

This unique menu-driven pack- 
age requires less than one hour 
data input per month. The Color 
Accountant has over 60 pages 
of documentation including 
examples and step-by-step 
instructions. TRS-80 COLOR 
requires Ext. Basic and 16K for 
cassette, 32K for diskette; Atari 
400/800 requires 24K for cas- 
sette, 32K for diskette; VIC-20 
requires 16K Expander. Now 
available for Commodore 64. 

S74.95 cassette: 
$79.95 diskette 



The Tax Handler makes 
April 15th just another day. 

This is the perfect complement 
to our Color Accountant. The Tax 
Handler will help prepare your 
tax returns and probably save 
you money. Included are; 

/. Form 1040 (Long Form)— filing 
status, exemptions, income, 
income adjustments, com- 
putation of tax, tax credits 
and payments or balance/ 
refund due. 

2. Schedule A (Itemized Deduc- 
tions)— medical and dental 
deductions, taxes, interest 
expenses, contributions, 
casualty /theft losses, miscel- 
laneous deductions and 
summary. 

3. Schedule G (Income A ver ag- 
ing)— base period income and 
adjustments, computation of 
averageable income and 
computation of tax. 

Additional schedules or altera- 
tions to the tax codes will be 
available separately in our 
monthly magnetic magazines. 
Atari 400/800 requires 24K for 
cassette, 32K for diskette. VIC-20 
requires 16K Expander. Now 
available for Commodore 64. 

$34.95 cassette; 
$3935 diskette 



You'll love your computer 
with The Magnetic Maga- 
zine Our magnetic magazines 
will entertain, inform, educate, 
challenge and delight you. Each 
issue contains 4 to 7 ready-to- 
use quality programs, all fully 
listable. Every issue includes a 
newsletter containing instruc- 
tions, tips on programming 
techniques and a line-by-line 
examination of the feature 
program. And starting with issue 
number 8, the first in a series of 
tutorials on machine language 
programming, Database I with a 
new application every following 
issue and a new utility in our 
Utility-of-The-Month section. And 
word processing is coming soon! 

A full year's subscription 
consists of 10 issues— over 50 
programs a year at a mere 
fraction of their cost. Available 
for TRS-80 COLOR Ext. Basic. 
Atari 400/800; all require 16K. 
Back issues available. 

One year subscription: 

$50.00 cassette: 

$75.00 diskette 

Half year subscription: 

$30.00 cassette: 

$45.00 diskette 

Sample issue: 

$10.00 cassette: 

$15.00 diskette 

VIK VIDEO issue 1 available 

for VIC-20; $12.95 cassette 



The Learning Center 
teaches and enlightens 
children. Our exceptional 
educational programs are class- 
room designed and tested. These 
unique packages have been 
invented to introduce 3 to 9 year 
olds to the ease of computer 
learning. Through the use of 
basic concepts such as colors, 
shapes, numbers and letters, 
children understand counting, 
math and language skills. Each 
program is designed to develop 
a specific skill, rewarding each 
correct answer with music and a 
happy face. Most are compatible 
with our new Edumate Light 
Pen $34.95. 

Available for Atari 400/800, 
VIC-20 and Commodore 64; all 
require 8K for cassette, 1 6K for 
diskette. Also available for 
Timex/Sinclair 1000 and TI-99. 

Please ask about programs 
available and their prices 
for P re-School. Kindergar- 
ten and Grades 1 & 2 
Prices range from $8.95 
for a single cassette to 
$79.95 for a complete set 
on diskette. 



Order now! See your local dealer or order direct. New catalog $2.00. Visa and MasterCard accepted— 
please add $2.00 for postage and handling. 
Call toll free! 

1-800-334-SOFT 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



programmer's 

a division of FUTURE HO' 




a division of FUTURE HOUSE — dept. r 
p.o. box 3470, chapel hill, north Carolina 27514, 919-967-0861 



her expenses, Total deductions* 
1210 DATA Net pro-fit* 
1220 'Form 1040' 

1230 DATA "DEPENDENTS", "SALARIES 
, ETC. ", INTEREST & DIV.,REF. S & 

L TAXES, ALIMONY RECEIVED 
1240 DATA BUSINESS INCOME, CAPITA 
L GAIN, 40'/. CAPITAL GAIN,SUPPL. G 
AINS,F. T. PENS. & AN. 
1250 DATA P. T. PENS. & AN. , "REN 
TS, ROY., ETC.", FARM INCOME, UNEM 
PLOY. COMP. , OTHER INCOME, TOTAL I 
NCOME 

1260 DATA MOVING EXPENSE, EMPLOYE 
E BUS. EXP. , IRA PAYMENTS, KEOGH P 
AYMENTS , I NTEREST PENALTY , AL I MONY 
PAID 

1270 DATA DISABILITY INCOME, OTHE 
R ADJUSTMENTS, TOTAL ADJUSTMENTS, 
ADJ. GROSS INCOME, AG I - DEDUCT 10 
NS 

1280 DATA EXEMPT. X *1000,TAXABL 
E INCOME, TAX FROM SKED Y, ADD IT 10 
NAL TAXES, TOTAL (35 & 36),C0NTR. 
TO CAND. 

1290 DATA CREDIT FOR ELDERLY, CHI 
LD CARE EXP. , INVESTMENT CREDIT, F 
OREIGN TAX CREDIT, WORK INC. CRED 
IT, JOBS CREDIT 

1300 DATA RES. ENERGY CREDIT, TOT 
AL CREDITS, BALANCE (37-46) , SELF- 



EMPLOY. TAX, MINIMUM TAX 

1310 DATA INV. CR. REC. TAX,SOC. 

SEC. ON TIPS, TAX ON IRA, ADV. IN 
C. CREDIT, TOTAL TAX, INC. TAX WIT 
HHELD 

1320 DATA EST. TAX PAYMENTS, EARN 
ED INC. CREDIT, AMOUNT FORM 4868, 
EXC. SOC. SEC. TAX, CREDIT FUELS 
TAX 

1330 DATA INV. CO. CREDIT, TOTAL 
TAX PAYMENTS, TAX OVERPAID, AMOUNT 
TO REFUND, AMOUNT TO CREDIT, BALA 
NCE DUE IRS 
1340 'Schedule A 

1350 DATA 1/2 INS. PREMIUMS, MEDI 
CINE AND DRUGS, "17. OF F. 1040, L. 
31", LINE 2 - LINE 3, BAL. OF INS. 
PREM. 

1360 DATA OTHER M&D EXPENSES, TOT 
AL (LINES 4-6), "37. OF F. 1040, L. 
31", LINE 7 - LINE 8 
1370 DATA TOTAL M&D EXPENSES, ST. 
&LOC. INC. TAX, REAL ESTATE TAX,S 
ALES TAX, PERSONAL PROP. TAX, OTHE 
R TAXES 

1380 DATA TOTAL TAXES, MORTGAGE I 
NTEREST, CR, CARD INTEREST, OTHER 
I NTEREST , TOTAL I NTEREST 
1390 DATA CASH CONTRIBUTIONS, OTH 
ER CONTR I BUT. , CARRYOVER, TOTAL CO 
NTR I BUT I ONS , CASUALTY LOSSES 
1400 DATA CASUALTY RE I MB., LINE 2 
5 - LINE 26,SMALLER-*100/L.27,TO 
TAL CASUALTY 

1410 DATA TAX RET. PREP. FEE, OTH 
ER DEDUCT I ONS, TOTAL MISC. DED. , T 
OTAL M&D EXPENSE, TOTAL TAXES 
1420 DATA TOTAL INT. EXPENSE, TOT 
AL CONTR I BUT. , TOTAL CASUALTY, TOT 
AL MISC. DED., TOTAL LINES 33-38, 
ZERO BR. AMOUNT, TOTAL DEDUCTIONS 
1430 'Schedule C 

1440 DATA GROSS RECEIPTS, COST/OP 
ERATIONS,GROSS PROFIT, WIND. PROF. 
CREDIT, TOTAL INCOME, ADVERTISING, 
AMORTIZATION, BAD DEBTS 
1450 DATA BANK SERVICE CHG.,CAR 
EXPENSES, COMMISSIONS, DEPLETION, D 
EPRECIATION,DUES & PUBL ., EMPLOYE 
E BENEFITS, FREIGHT, INSURANCE 
1460 DATA BUSINESS INTEREST, LAUN 
DRY, LEGAL & PROF . EXP. , OFF ICE SUP 
PLIES, PENS I ON PLANS , RENT , REPA I RS 
, SUPPLIES, TAXES, TRAVEL, UTILITIE 
S 

1470 DATA WAGES, WINDFALL TAX, OTH 
ER EXPENSES, TOTAL DEDUCTIONS, NET 

PROFIT 
1480 CLS: END 

1490 PCLEAR l: GOTO 30 /m 



p J- SI rfl 

j THE COMPOSER J ' 

SPEECH SYSTEMS , A MANUFACTURER OF SPEECH, HUSIC, AMD SOUND EFFECT 
SYNTHESIZERS FOR THE SS-50 BUS, INTRODUCES THE COMPOSER FOR THE 
COLOR COMPUTER. THE COMPOSER IS A 1 VOICE MUSIC "COHP ILER WHICH 
ALLOWS ONE TO EASILY DEVELOP MUSIC. EACH VOICE USES ITS OWN 
WAVESHAPE TABLE. BOTH A BASIC AND A MACHINE LANGUAGE PROGRAM ARE 
INCLUDED, NO ADDITIONAL. HARDWARE IS NECESSARY. THE COMPOSER 
ALLOWS THE ORG IN AL. MUSICAL. SCORE TO BE SAVED. IN ADDITION, THE 
COMPILED MUSIC MAI BE SAVED AND BEST OF ALL IT MAY BE PLAYED 
WITHOUT ANY OTHER SOFTWARE. EXAMPLES OF HOW THE COLOR COMPUTER 
CAN BE USED TO REPRODUCE SOUND EFFECTS ARE ALSO INCLUDED. YOU 
HAVE TO HEAR THE DIFFERENCE TO REALLY COMPARE, BUT JUST LOOK AT 
SOME OF THESE FEATURES: 



THE RADIO SHACK 

COMPOSER MUSIC 

PRICE *2U.95 *29.95 

VOICES 1' 2 

OCTAVE RANGE T « 

WAVESHAPES 1 1 

MANUAL 25 fall. Passs 16 mini-pages 

MUSIC INCLUDED YES NO 

TEMPO (SPEED ) 20* 1 

POTTED NOTE YES YES 

DOUBLE DOTTED YES NO 

TRIPLETT YES NO 

QUARTER NOTE TRIPLETT.. YES NO 

EIGTH NOTE TRIPLETT.... YES NO 

THIRTY SECOND NOTE YES NO 

SOUND EFFECTS YES NO 



Requires 1 6K Extended BASIC 

CASSETTE VERSION (211.95 

DISK VERSION *29 .95 

CALL OR WRITE TO ORDER. 
WE ACCEPT CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA, AND MASTERCARD. 
ILLINOIS RESIDENTS PLEASE INCLUDE 5f SALES TAX. 
INCLUDE $1.50 FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING. 

DEALER INQUIRES INVITED. 

^SnoorL Vjj/ojmJ 38 W 255 DEERPATH ROAD 

speech «WJ (312)879-6880 BA J A VIA, IL 60510 



24 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

•FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER • 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 (616)364-4791 

DONKEY 
KING 

©1982 
32K Machine Language 
$24.95 tape 
$27.95 disc 

ARCADE ACTION — How high can you climb? Four full graphic screens. Exciting sound - Realistic graphics. Never 
before has the color computer seen a ga me like this. Early reviews say: Just like the arcade - Simply outstanding 

PROTECTORS 





w. 



a 



Exciting fast paced arcade 
game that looks and plays like 
the popular arcade game 
"DEFENDER", 

Wave after wave of enemy 
fighters drop bombs on your 
city. Destroy them before they 
destroy your city. Soon the 
mother ships appear firing laser blasts at you. Watch for the 
heat seeking mines. 

Your defense includes your laser cannon plus four smart 
bombs on each of your four ships. A new ship with each 5,000 
points. 

High resolution graphics with four colors make this new 32K 
arcade game the one for others to follow. 

MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 TAPE $27.95 DISK 



SOLO POOL 




Now play pool with your col- 
or computer. Two players. 
Plays like machine 
language. Super color. High 
resolution graphics. 
16K Extended Basic $17.95 



BIRD ATTACK 

A fast paced machine 
language arcade game. 
Shoot the birdmen before 
they descend upon you. 
Watch out for their bombs! 
16K Extended Basic $21.95 



OTHER GREAT GAMES 

ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K 
ML= MACHINE LANGUAGE B= BASIC 
MOON LANDER* Fantastic Graphics. Land on the Moon if you 
can. 2 Programs. B $15.95 

DANCING DEVIL'Watch him dance to music or program him 
yourself. ML $14.95 

WAR KINGS* Battle to save your castle and king. High resolu- 
tion graphics with outstanding sound make this one a real win- 
ner. 16K MACHINE LANGUAGE $19.95 

ADVENTURES 

TREK-16-Travel thru space with Spock and Capt. Kirk. Adven- 
ture. Tough! B 19.95 
SHIPWRECK-Escape from a desert isle if you can. Great 
Adventure! B $14.95 



KATERPILLAR 
ATTACK 

Outstanding graphics and sound will 
end all of those trips to the arcade. So 
much like the arcade you have to see it 
to believe it. 

16K MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 
DISK $27.95 





COLOR GOLF 

Now sit at your computer and play 
nine or eighteen holes. Outstanding 
graphics in the fairway or on the 
green. Helps your game. 
32K EXTENDED BASIC $16.95 





Er3 



MAZE RACE 

Maze race is a one or two 
player game. Play either 
against the built in timer or 
against your favorite oppo- 
nent. 

16K MACHINE CODE $14.95 



UTILITIES 

COLOR MONITOR-Written in position independent code. (May 
be located in any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 
1174 bytes of memory. Full Featured. Includes Break-Pointing 
of machine language programs, register display and modify, 
memory display and modify, and block memory move com- 
mands. Displays memory in hex and ascii format on one line 8 
bytes long. MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 

TAPE DUPE— Brand new machine language program that 
copies any tape effortlessly. Completely automatic. ML$16.95 
DISK TO TAPE-Dump the contents of any disk to tape 
automatically. ML$19.95 
TAPE TO DISK-Load the contents of any tape to disk 
automatically. ML $19.95 

MAIL LIST-Maintain a complete mailing list with phone 
numbers etc. B $19.95 

THE FIXER-Having trouble moving those 600 Hex progamsto 
disk? The fixer will help. Completely automatic. ML $16.95 
TAPE CAT-AM new machine language program lists contents of 
tapes to printer. Make a catalog of your tapes. ML $17.95 
PROGRAM PRINTER UTILITV-This program will list basic pro- 
grams to your printer in two column format. Saves paper and 
makes your listing look professional. Disk based. B $19.95 

_ SPEC IAL~PACK AGE " 

j 10 PLUS PROGRAMS FOR $20.00 

■ All Basic Programs less than $2.00 each. A real I 
^bargain for the beginner. Requires Extended Basic. | 



■ADD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING»TOP ROYALTIES PAID- 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX • LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 



[aster's Apprentice 



the 
RAINBOW 



Creating Characters 
For Fun And Adventure 

By Bob Albrecht and George Firedrake 
Rainbow Contributing Editors 



FANTASY ROLE PLAYING GAMES 

Millions of young people, and many not-so-young, are 
playing fantasy role playing games: Dungeons & Dragons, 
RuneQuest, Tunnels & Trolls, Worlds of Wonder and many 
others. 

A role playing game is a game in which one or more 
players create and control characters (adventurers) who live 
their imaginary lives in a specially made game world. The 
game world is created, managed, and operated by a game 
master, also called a referee, adventure master, or dungeon 
master. 

Most people who play role playing games use a formal 
system of rules. Some of the best known fantasy game rule 
systems are listed below. 

Dungeons & Dragons (D&D). From TSR Hobbies, 
P.O.Box 756 Lake Geneva, WI 53147. 
RuneQuest (RQ). From Chaosium, P.O. Box 6302, 
Albany, CA 94706. 

Tunnels & Trolls (T&T). From Flying Buffalo, 
P.O. Box 1467, Scottsdale, AZ 85252 
Worlds of Wonder (WOW). From Chaosium, 
P.O.Box 6302, Albany, CA 94706 

Beginners Beware! Most rulebooks are very difficult to 
understand. Some are almost incomprehensible. If you are a 
beginner, first try Tunnels & Trolls or Worlds of Wonder. 



Remember, our 
abbreviations: D&D, RQ, 
T&T, and WOW. 




CREATE A CHARACTER 

If you want to play, instead of just watch, you must creae a 
character, an adventurer whom you guide in the 
GameMaster's world. In "GameMaster's Apprentice," we 
will show you how to create characters for RuneQuest, 
Worlds of Wonder, and Adventurer's Handbook: A 
Beginner's Guide to Role Playing Games * 

Your character begins with seven basic characteristics: 
Strength (STR), Constitution (CON), Size (SIZ), 
Intelligence (INT), Power (POW), Dexterity (DEX), and 
Charisma (CHA). These characteristics are similar to the 
characteristics in other game systems, such as Dungeons & 
Dragons or Tunnels & Trolls. The following table shows 
approximate equivalents. 



Adventurer's Handbook, 
RuneQuest, or 
Worlds of Wonder 

Strength (STR) 
Constitution (CON) 
Size (SIZ) 
Intelligence (INT) 
Power (POW) 
Dexterity (DEX) 
Charisma (CHA) 



Dungeons & Dragons 

Strength (STR) 
Constitution (CON) 
Done Differently 
Intelligence (INT) 
Wisdom (WIS) 
Dexterity (DEX) 
Charisma (CHA) 



Tunnels & Trolls 

Strength (STR) 
Constitution (CON) 
Done differently 
Intelligence (IQ) 
Luck (LK) 
Dexterity (DEX) 
Charisma (CHR) 



Yes, you can modify our programs for D&D or T&T. In 
fact, we will ask you to do so. 

You create a character by rolling three six-sided dice for 
each characteristic. If you have been reading 
"GameMaster's Apprentice," you know we use the 
abbreviation "3D6" to mean "three-sided dice." 

f~ Ah! 14 is a 
f better than average 
^ . roll 

3D6 



Oh, you don't have 3D6. Never mind. ..use your friendly 
CoCo to roll up a character and display the numbers on the 
screen. Our program follows. We think it will work for the 
CoCo, and also for the TRS-80 Models I and III 





Listing 1 



REM ** CREATE A CHARACTER 



100 
199 : 
300 REM 
310 CLS 
399 : 
500 REM 
RISTICS 
510 GQSUB 
GOSUB 
GDSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 
GOSUB 



520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
599 
700 
710 
720 



** CLEAR THE SCREEN 



** ROLL & PRINT CHARACTE 



9101 
9101 

910: 
910: 
910: 
910: 
910: 



PRINT 


"STR" 


> 


DICE 


PRINT 


"CON" 




DICE 


PRINT 


"SIZ" 


* 


DICE 


PRINT 


"INT" 


t 


DICE 


PRINT 


"POW" 


t 


DICE 


PRINT 


"DEX" 


9 


DICE 


PRINT 


"CHA" 


t 


DICE 



REM ** TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
PRINT 

PRINT "TO DO AGAIN, PRESS AN 



* Adventurer's Handbook is a book in progress by Bob 
Albrecht and Greg Stafford, to be published in 1983 by 
Reston Publishing Company. 



26 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Y KEY" 

730 IF INKEY* = 

310 
799 : 

900 REM ** DICE SUBROUTINE 
910 Dl = RND (6) 
920 D2 = RND (6) 
930 D3 = RND (6) 
940 DICE = Dl + 
950 RETURN 



THEN 730 ELSE 




As usual, we wrote our program in blocks. Each block 
begins with a REM statement. You don't have to type the 
REM statements into your CoCo — they are there to help 
you understand our program. 

Last time, we showed you two RUNs, which began the 
lives of Barostan and Joleen. Here they are again. 



STR 


17 


Barostan is big and strong. 


CON 


17 


but not too bright. He is good 


SIZ 


13 


to have on your side in a fight, 


INT 


8 


if someone will tell him who to 


POW 


7 


hit. He acts first, then thinks 


DEX 


15 


later, if at all. 


CHA 


6 





STR 


13 


Joleen is a clown, mime, acrobat. 


CON 


1 1 


dancer, or whatever else might 


SIZ 


7 


enterain an audience. She wants 


INT 


13 


to travel with a troupe of 


POW 


8 


wandering entertainers, and perform 


DEX 


17 


at fairs and festivals. She will 


CHA 


13 


charm you. 



Use our program to create a character, your character. 
Look at the characteristics. Who is your character (she or 
he)? Describe your character. A party game? 

Yes, a game. Two or three or more people get together and 
use the CoCo to create characters. Each person writes down 
the characteristics of his or her character (oh, you have a 
printer?... Wonderful!). 

Describe the character and give her or him a name, 
a history, a personality. How old is she or he? 
After everyone has a character, let them all interact. 
Play the roles! 

Hmmm... imagine a conversation between Barostan and 
Joleen. Or, you create two or more characters, then imagine 
them in a conversation. You, of course, play all the roles. To 



keep track of your characters, start a character sheet for 
each one. Here are the top parts of character sheets for 
Barostan and Joleen 



CHARACT R S AMI 



fit SOt A R AC t Hvmof\ 



IT 



SIR 



Damage 



r-ltn I 7 

SIZ H 

IM i. Idea 



3 4 5 S 7 8 g 10 



I] 12 1.1 14 15 It. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 



Almoin. 



Dodge 



POWPTS. (II .' .1 4 5 <i 7 8 g 10 
II 12 I » 14 If. !! 17 18 19 20 21 Q :j m 



( II SHU I I (t NAME J p/San A(ih_ZA_M > ^ I Uitmnr, 

BACKGROl Np/'llojgr ij,yn,^ A,4.,r.^T^ce.r 

STR — '-2 Damage Hi I PTS. 0 I 2 3 4 5 «. 7 8 .5 10 



cm II 
siz Z_ 



II 12 13 14 15 l(. 17 18 ig 20 21 22 23 24 25 



I S I L2. Idea _ 

Pmv y Luck _ 

DEX — LZ »odge_ 

lilt II Persuade. 



POW PTS II I 2 ) 4 £■ "i 7 K 9 HI 
II 12 13 14 r- li r is V) 20 21 22 21 24 25 



Next time, we will tell you more about the character sheet. 
If you want a head start, get the Worlds of Wonder boxed set 
from Chaosium, P.O.Box 6302, Albany, CA 94025. $16.00 
plus $2.00 postage and handling. California residents add 
6% or 6'/2% sales tax. In the meantime, here is a part of a 
blank character sheet you can copy and use to record 
information about your characters. 




Color Power. 

ColorZAP uses the power 
of the Color Computer to pro- 
both rapid scanning and 
full screen modificotion capabilities. 

1 Recover killed and clobbered files. 
• Find unreadable disk sectors. 
Modify nibbles In hexadecimal. 
• Copy sectors to same or different drive. 
Use color power to scan disk data. 

Here's what the reviewers said.. 

About the program: "ColorZAP isa powerful program 
that allows you to see what is on the disk, modify it and, if 
possible, recreate it. Menu-driven, ColorZAP is extremely 
easy to use and well-documented...A good offering." — 
The RAINBOW, September 1982 

About the manual: "A 24-page manual is included that 
describes program operation in detail. It also provides 
valuable information on the important disk system pa- 
rameters" - MICRO, December 1982 

For the TRS-80 Color Computer. Available ondiskwithan accom- 
panying manual from Software Options, 19 Rector Street. New 
York, N Y. 10006. 212-785-8285. Toll-free order line: 800-221-1624. 

Price: S49.95 (plus S2.00 per order shipping and 
handling). New York State residents add sales 
tax. Visa/Mastercard accepted. 



SOFTWARE 



CM 

OPTJONSJNC. 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 27 



CHARACTER NAME AGE SEX RACE. 

BACKGROUND 



INT Idea . 

POW Luck . 

DEX Dodge. 



STR Damage HITPTS. 0 I 23456789 10 

CON n 12 13 14 15 It 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 

SIZ 



Armour. 



POWPTS. 0 1 2 3 4 5 h 7 8 9 10 



CHA Persuade I I '2 13 14 15 l(. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 



Information about a character can change, so use a pencil 
when you write on a character sheet. 



COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

Adventure games 
- THE ALCHEMIST'S LABORATORY - $14.95 

mix the ingredients that will 
turn lead into gold. 

- LOKAR'S MAGIC STAFF - $14.95 

can you unlock the deadly secrets of LOKAR'S magic staff? 

- MEGAMAZE - $14.95 
a wild, five dimensional space maze adventure. 

- SQUEEZE - $14.95 
arcade style game where aliens close in from both sides at 
once. 

- GRAPHIC SCREEN EDITOR - $16.95 

create pictures on the screen using joysticks or arrow keys- 
save on tape, erase, paint, and many other features. 

- COLOR SHOW DISPLAYS - $8.95 

five graphics programs that create endless changing pat- 
terns. 

all programs 16-K extended basic cassette only. 
Send for free catalogue. We accept checks, money orders, 
Visa and Mastercharge. (no C.O.D. 's) Please add $1 .00 for 
shipping. Send to: 

REAL SOFTWARE CO. 

P.O. BOX 401 • HOPEDALE, MA 01747 

(617) 393-6281 

CIS orders EMAIL to 71505,430 
Mass. residents add 5% sales tax Dealer inquiries welcomed 



VARIATIONS 

Our program rolls a number from 3 to 18 for each and 
every characteristic. Alas, a character with SIZ 15, STR3, 
and DEX 5 will never make it in the Game Master's world. 

So, Your Turn. Replace the DICE SUBROUTINE with 
any of the following, allowed by a compassionate 
GameMaster. Each of these is a simulation (imitation) of 
what might happen when rolling dice in an actual game. 

►900 REM ** DICE SUBROUTINE 

Roll 3D6. If DICE is less than 6, 
assign 6 as the value. Your character 
may not like a characteristic of 6, 
but will have to live with it. 

►900 REM ** DICE SUBROUTINE 

This GameMaster is even more generous. 
If DICE is less than 6, add 3. 
Hmmm...this time, a roll of 5 is better 
than a roll of 6! 

►900 REM ** DICE SUBROUTINE 

We hear rumors that D&D Dungeon Masters 
Allow players to roll 4D6 and take the 
best 3D6. That is, if you roll 



you can discard 



9 




and take 



28 the RAINBOW February, 1983 





NEW 

for your 
COLOR 
COMPUTER 



Release the potential 

of your Color Computer. . . 

Use up to 5 compatible Color Computer cartridges at the same 
time with the BT-1000 Expansion Interface Unit. 

• The BT-1000 is limitless combinations. Plug in your disk 
controller, memory boards, Real Time Clock/Calendar, 
printer interface, experimental boards — all at one time. 

• The BT-1000 is adaptable. Up to five functional peripheral 
cartridges, in your choice of combinations, will run with 
any configuration, any size memory of the Color Computer. 

• The BT-1000 is flexible. Four 24-pin sockets hold up to 
8K static RAM or EPROM (can be supplied with an 
extra 8K RAM). 

• The BT-1000 is safe. It will not overload, overheat or 
damage your Color Computer in any way. 

1. Has own built-in power supply. 

2. Effectively isolated by a buffered cable. 

That's not all Basic Technology has to offer. . . 

Record date and time on all programs, files, letters, with the 
accurate, programmable BT-1020 Real Time Clock/Calendar. 

• Plugs into your BT-1000 or directly into the Color 
Computer expansion slot. 

• Adds day, date, month, year, hours, minutes, seconds 
(12/24 hr.) 

• Includes internal NiCad battery, crystal controlled to 
0.001 % accuracy (charges when your computer is on) 

• Has 50 bytes of battery backed general purpose memory 



All Basic Technology components 
are first-line quality. 

• gold board-edge connectors 

• glass epoxy PC boards 



180-day full parts and labor 
warranty on all components 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Your Basic Technology components arrive assembled, tested, 
ready to plug in and turn on. A comprehensive User/Service 
Manual is included with complete schematics, PC component 
layouts, parts lists and hints on mapping your peripheral add- 
ons anywhere in the CPU addressable memory. Write for free 
brochure. 

BT-1000 incl. cable $270 BT-1020 Clock/Calendar $109 

BT-1000 w/8K RAM $300 

Add $5.00 shipping & handling for BT-1000, $2.50 for BT-1020. 
Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. Shipping & handling for 
residents of Canada, Hawaii, Alaska is $10.00. Overseas 
orders add 15%. Check, money order, VISA, MC (give account 
no., expiration date, phone no.). Personal checks allow 2-3 
weeks to clear. COD charge $2.00 (requires certified check or 
money order). 



"Watch for more peripherals from Basic Technology." 
|3SiC Dept. Q P.O. Box 511 Ortonville, Ml 48462 



Technology 



(313) 627-6146 



for a total of 13. Do it! Write the 

DICE SUBROUTINE to roll 4D6 and set DICE 

equal to the sum of the highest three dice. 

THERE IS ALWAYS ANOTHER WAY 

Here is another program to roll a character. This time, we 
read the characteristic abbreviations from DATA 
statements (lines 560 and 570). 



Listing 2 

100 REM ** CREATE A CHARACTER 
199 : 

300 REM ** CLEAR THE SCREEN 
310 CLS 
320 RESTORE 
399 : 

500 REM ** ROLL & PRINT CHARACTE 
RISTICS 

510 FOR K=l TO 7 

520 : READ CHAR* 

530 : GOSUB 910 

540 : PRINT CHAR*, DICE 

550 NEXT K 

560 DATA STR, CON, SIZ, INT 
570 DATA POW, DEX, CHA 
599 : 

700 REM ** TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
710 PRINT 

720 PRINT "TO DO AGAIN, PRESS AN 




TEXT PROCESSOR FEATURES 



• Character Fill 

• Programmable Footer 

• Right Justify Line 

• Multiple Footnotes 

• Three Indent Modes 

• Three Programmable Headers 

• Ten Programmable Tab Stops 

• Margin Justification Left and Right 

• Decimal Align, Center, Left and Right 
Justify On Tab Column 

• Displayand Input From Keyboard 

• Change Formatting During Processing 



TEXT EDITOR FEATURES 

• Single Keystroke Edit Command 

• Append Files From Tape Or Disk 

• Fully Integrated Disk FileJHandler 

• Edit Or Process Files Larger 
Than Memory 

• (No Conversion Required) Fully ASC II 
Compatible 

• Full Featured Line Oriented 
Screen Editor 

• Search And Repalce Any 
Character Pattern 

• Copy, Move or Delete Lines 
Or Blocks of Text 

• Edit Basic, Text, Or Assembler Files 



TEXT PRO II Features Over 70 Commands in All! y^^v 

Key In Formal Command Or Text At Runtime! //rvrt 
Compatible With All Major Printers On The Market! 
Multiple Copy or Repeat All Of Or A Portion Of The Text! 

16K Or 32K Systems DISK '79.95 

64K Version Now Available-FLEX Not Required 



CER-COMP 



5S66 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 891 10 



All Orders Shipped From Stock 
Add '2.50 Postage 



Y KEY" 

730 IF INKEY* = "" THEN 730 ELSE 

310 
799 : 

900 REM ** DICE SUBROUTINE 

910 Dl = RND (6) 

920 D2 = RND (6) 

930 D3 = RND <6) 

940 DICE = Dl + D2 + D3 

950 RETURN 

And yet another way. Change only Block 500, as follows 
Listing 3 

500 REM ** ROLL 8c PRINT CHARACTE 
RISTICS 

510 READ CHAR* 

520 IF CHAR* = "ZZZ" THEN 710 

530 GOSUB 910 

540 : PRINT CHAR*, DICE 

550 GOTO 510 

560 DATA STR, CON, SIZ, INT 
570 DATA POW, DEX, CHA, ZZZ 

Your Turn. Modify any or all of our programs to roll a 
D&D or T&T character. Which program is easiest to 
modify? 

ANNALEE ROLLS 3D6 

Last time we asked you to modify Annalee's program to 
count the number of ways each 2D6 outcome can occur. We 
asked you to modify her program so the CoCo computes 
and shows the number of ways each 3D6 outcome can occur. 
We did it like this. 



Listing 4 



100 
110 
1 19 
300 
310 
320 
330 
399 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
499 
600 
610 
620 

II m 
9 

630 
24) 
640 
650 



REM ** ANNALEE SHOWS THE WAY 
DIM C(18) 

REM ** SET COUNTS TO ZERO 
FOR K=3 TO 18 
: C(K) = 0 
NEXT K 

a 
■ 

REM ** COUNT OUTCOMES 

FOR Dl=l TO 6 

: FOR D2=l TO 6 

: FOR D3=l TO 6 

: SUM = Dl + D2 + D3 

: C(SUM) = C(SUM) + 1 

: NEXT D3 

: NEXT D2 

NEXT Dl 

REM ** TELL WHAT HAPPENED 
CLS 

PRINT "OUTCOME" TAB (8) "WAYS 

PRINT TAB (16) "OUTCOME" TAB ( 
"WAYS" 

FOR K= 3 TO 18 STEP 2 
: PRINT K TAB (8) C <K) ; 



30 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



660 I PRINT TAB (16) K+l TAB (24) 

C(K+1) 

670 NEXT K 

699 : 

999 END 

RUN the program to find the number of ways to get 3, or 
4, or 5, or any possible outcome up to 18, when you roll 3D6. 

This type of information can perhaps be shown more 
clearly in graphical form. Here is a bar graph showing the 
number of ways each number can be obtained. 



27 27 



25 



21 



15 



10 



25 



21 



1 5 



1 0 



I 



I 



3 4 5 



6 7 8 91011121314 151 6 17 18 

Possible Outcomes For 3D6 



Some of you may see a resemblance to the "bell shaped 
curve" of statistics. 

GAME CONVENTIONS 

One of the best ways to savor the flavor of fantasy role 
playing games is to go to a game convention— watch or j ump 
in and play. Here are some upcoming Game Conventions. 

Jan.22-23 

Winter Campaign II. Get info from Winter Campaign, P.O. 
Box 14630, University Station, Minneapolis, MN 55414. 

Feb.11-13 

Warcon IX. Info from Texas A&M University, MSC 
Recreation, P.O.Box J-I, College Station, TX 77844. 

Feb. 18-21 

Dundracon. Info from Dundracon, Inc., 386 Alcatraz, 
Oakland, CA 94618. 

Feb. 26-27 

Game Faire. Info from Channon Ahem, Book and Game 
Company, West 621 MAUon, Spokane, WA 99201. 

Mar. 18-20 



Mar. 26-27 

NOVA 8. Info from The Order of Leibowitz, Oakland 
University, Rochester, MI 48063. 

Mar. 31, 
Apr. 1-3 

Science Fiction Weekend. Info from Fantasy Publishing, 
Inc., 1855 W. Main St., Alhambra, CA 91801. 

Jul. 14-17 

Origins '83. Info from Metro Detroit Gamers, 2616 
Kenwyck, Troy, MI 48098. This one is BIG. 

COMING ATTRACTIONS 

Surely, but slowly, we will explore the following things: 
» The elusive RND 

# GameMaster's Dice 

# Looking up stuff in files. First, files of information in 
DATA statements and arrays. Next, cassette files. 
Eventually, disk files. 

# Whatever else comes to mind, or is suggested by you. 

What do you want? If it fits into the general idea of 
"GameMaster's Apprentice," we might do it. Send your 
suggestions, complaints, kudos, requests, whatever. ..to 
George & Bob, P.O.Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 94025.^ 




oo 

10* 



fl PROGRAM TO TERCH CHILDREN TO COUNT COINS 



1* 



LEUEL 0 



Cassette $19.95 

TRS-80 Color Computer 
Requires 16K Extended Basic 

Ohio Residents Add 5%% Sales Tax 'Trademark of Tandy 



APPEALING GRAPHICS, FUN REWARDS AND SOUND 
Used Successfully In Classrooms and In Homes 



ALSO AVAILABLE— CASSETTES 
Clock $24.95 Mathfact 

Add-Carry $19.95 ABC's 

Subtract/Borrow $19.95 Spelling 

Question $19.95 Hangword 



$16.95 
$ 9.95 
$16.95 
$14.95 



WRITE FOR FREE DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE 
DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 

B5 SOFTWARE 

1024 Balnbrldge PI. Columbus, OH 43226 

(614) 276-2752 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 31 



Software Review... 

Light Pen, Fun-Pak 
A Good Combination 

In reviewing a light pen from Moses Engineering several 
months ago, the Rainbow commented that the hardware 
had potential but the software available left a lot to be 
desired. 

Now, happily, comes some good software from Computer 
Island, along with a new light pen from Spectrum Projects 
which seems to be a little more sensitive than the earlier 
model from Moses. 

Light pen Fun-Pak from Computer Island contains some 
introductory programs for this interesting device with the 
promise of more on the way. In truth, a light penca/i be like, 
to quote the instructions, "a magic wand for your 
computer." Lightpen Fun-Pak shows some of the 
possibilities. 

The instructions begin with a brief introduction and a 
four-line introductory program. This illustrates how the 
light pen does, indeed, read light levels. Armed with this 
demonstration, you are ready to load in the three programs 
contained on the cassette tape. 

Pen-Etch allows you to move a low-res cursor around the 
screen, using a trail of color, simply by pointingthe light pen 
at a coded place on the screen. This works fine and is, 
happily, a nice application of this device. One can see all 
sorts of applications already. 

Then there is Space Pen, a shoot-'em-up with aliens. This 
time, though, you either cover or uncover the end of the light 
pen to fire off a shot. Again, one sees the possibilities. 

The program which captured my imagination the most 
was Gaspump, which was an original game idea and 
combined light pen technology. A white dot appears at 



random locations in the screen and you have to point the 
light pen at the dot before it moves away in order to "catch" 
it. When you do, your car fills with gas and you are able to 
drive it a little closer to home. Then, you have to catch the 
white dot again to move further. This is played against a 
timer. 

To be honest, none of the three programs are super-great 
in and of themselves. But, as an introduction to the light pen 
they do a good job. The instructions are written as are most 
all from Computer Island, clearly and easy to understand. 
They do open a whole range of possibilities for 
programming. 

The pen itself is a simple photo cell housed in a black 
plastic case. It connects to the joystick port and the readings 
from the cell are then translated to the computer. The 
program calls for certain readings, and this is how a light pen 
works. 

This one worked with no difficulty. It is considerably 
smaller than the one offered by M oses Engineering, and thus 
quite a bit easier to handle. It also has the advantage of 
plugging right into the joystick pot while the Moses version 
required you to do some soldering (although not a great deal 
of it) on the joystick itself. 

These items, the hardware and the software, are available 
separately or as a package. We think they make as fine 
introduction to light pen technology and, while not fancy, 
do begin to open up the door to a whole new range of 
options available for CoCo. In short, we see the beginnings 
of a new area of sophistication for CoCo in this 
combination. 

(Lightpen Fun-Pak, Computer Island, Dept. R, 227 
Hampton Green, Staten Island, NY 10312, $14.95; Light 
Pen, Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, 
NY 11421, $19.95 plus $2 s/h; Both software and 
hardware combination, 39.95) 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST EARNED A MATH DEGREE! 




MATHMENU 

Developed by an engineer, Mathmenu is a 
powerful menu-driven system to turn your 
Color Computer into an intelligent, flexible 
tool for mathematics and engineering. 
Mathmenu takes the tedium out of math, 
leaving your full brain power to attack the 
"meat" of your problems. By rapidly mani- 
pulating matrices and vectors, performing 
integration and differentiation, solving 
quadratic equations, plotting user defined 
functions and much more, Mathmenu can 
help simplify the most complex problems. 
Whether you are a student or a professional, 
if you use math, you need Mathmenu. 



FEATURING: 

• 3D SURFACE PLOTTING — Plots a user defined equation on an 
X,Y,Z coordinate system in the High-Res graphics mode. Planes, 
surfaces of revolution, statistical surfaces, etc. can be easily plotted. 
Surfaces may be saved to disk or tape. We believe this is the only program 
of its kind commercially available for the Color Computer. 

PLUS: 

• Complete MATRIX Operations • 2D Function Plotting 

(up to 8 x 8) • Rectangular to Polar Conversions 

• Complete VECTOR Operations • Base Conversions 

• Numerical Differentiation • Large Number Addition and 

• Numerical Integration Multiplication 

• Least Squares Curve Fitting • Reverse Polish Logic Calculator 

• Binomial Expansion with Hexadecimal 

• Prime Number Expansion • Quadratic Equation Roots 

• Main Menu with Single-key Selection and Return (Disk Only) 

Complete documentation of all functions is included. 

For32KDisk $49.95 „. ... „ „ , . . DACT ~ 

For 16K Cassette $44.95 P '°" ,ng ReqmreS Extended BASIC 

Documentation only $2.00 (refundable with purchase) 

Or write for free brochure. 

Inter <^>cAction 

113 Ward Street • Dept. R • New Haven, CT 06519 • (203) 562-5748 



'32 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Searching for Service? 

It's Here. 



TRS-80 

HARDWARE & SOFTWARE 

13% OFF 




13% LIST PRICE 




13% 

OFF 
LIST PRICE 



FEATURING THESE ITEMS: 

VERBATIM DISKS $27.95 

ELEPHANT DISKS $26.95 

WICO COMMAND CONTROL JOYSTICK $29.95 

WICO COMMAND CONTROL ADAPTER $19.95 

ALSO SOFTWARE BY: 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES • MARK DATA 

PRICKLY PEAR • TOM MIX • ANTECO 



TOLL FREE 
1-800-251-5008 




VISA 




P. O. BOX 897 

GILSVILLE FAMILY CENTER 

SMYRNA, TENNESSEE 37167 

615-459-2636 

NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE 254-0088 





16K 




the 






ECB 




*™« 

RAINBOW 
J.- :V 





Stayin' Alive 
At Outpost Five 

By Dr. Laurence D. Preble 




What do you do on a frosty winter's evening? Well, 
assuming the wife isn't nearby for some quiet time by the 
fireside, I like to write programs. Is that so strange? 

A 1981 winter's-eve programming effort consisted of my 
first attempt at learning Extended Color Basic. With all 
those neat graphics to try out, I couldn't help myself; a game 
program was inevitable. 

Imagine yourself the field commander of five Federation 
outposts. The outposts rest in syncronous orbit above planet 
four in the Omega system. Fifteen marauding aliens in 
saucer ships bombard your outposts kamikaze style. 

From your remote station, you control the fire power of 
the outposts. Your battle computer gives you the simluated 
view of the attack. You use your joystick to position the 
cross hairs over the attacking saucer. The button is pressed. 
Blam! You missed. The alien has deviously engaged a semi- 
random flight path. BOOM! The outpost on your screen is 
annihilated in a ball of expanding energy. This is not going 
to be easy! The view screen switches. Only four outposts lef t. 
Another alien plots a zig-zag course. You fire. Missed! This 
time you use the smart bomb! Your hand flashes to the 
keyboard of your terminal. You're not sure which key was 
pressed but it doesn't matter. Your only smart bomb for this 
outpost has done its job. The saucer disappears in clouds of 
expanding vapor. 

Don't rest yet. Another wave is coming! 



The listing: 



046E 
1000 07F3 
END OB94 



10 POKE 65495, 1 

20 CLS 0: PCLEAR 4:PM0DE 1 , 1 : PCLS 

3 

30 PRINT @64,"WHAT IS YOUR SKILL 

LEVEL (1-10) ";: INPUT SLICLS 0 
40 PRINT @70,"YOU HAVE 5 OUTPOST 
S"; 

50 PRINT @ 135, "DESTROY INVADERS" 

■ 

» 

60 PRINT @ 164, "TO SAVE THE FEDER 

AT I ON" ; 

70 TR=15-SL 

80 AS=5 



90 DIM S(20, 10) 

100 SP=5:SX=127: IX=5: IY=5: IZ=1:S 

1=5 

110 GOSUB 650 
120 SCREEN 1,0 

130 PCOPY 3 TO 1: PCOPY 4 TO 2 

140 GOSUB 560 

150 X=JOYSTK(0)*3+33 

160 Y=J0YSTK(l)*2+33 

170 GOSUB 250:H=0:REM NOT HIT 

180 IF INKEY*< >" "AND SB>0 THEN 

S=l: GOSUB 860:SB=SB-1 

190 F=PEEK (65280) 

200 IF F/2=INT(F/2) THEN GOSUB 3 
10 

210 IF H=l THEN SOUND 100,1:X=SX 
:Y=SY: GOSUB 840:SY=10:SX=RND(255 
)+l: IX=(RND(20)+5) : PCOPY 3 TO 1 : 
PCOPY 4 TO 2:FORX=1TO900:NEXTX:H 
S=HS+l: GOSUB 1260: FOR X=1TO2000: 
NEXTX: SCREEN 1,0 

220 RN=RND(2):IF RN=2 THEN IX=IX 
*- 1 

230 PCOPY 3 TO 1: PCOPY 4 TO 2 
240 GOTO 140 

250 REM DRAW CROSS HAIRS 
260 C*="C4" 

270 R*=C*+"BM"+STR*(X)+", "+STR*( 
Y) 

280 DRAW R* 

290 DRAW "N;U9NR9ND9NL9" 
300 RETURN 

310 REM FIRE ROUTINE 

320 LC=4 

330 COLOR LC,3 

340 LINE(120,95)-(X,Y) , PSET 

350 LINE(134,95)-(X,Y) , PSET 

360 C*="C1": GOSUB 270 

370 LC=l: COLOR LC, 3 

380 PLAY"V3l;T25505C04BAG" 

390 GOSUB 520: REM CHECK HIT 



34 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



400 RETURN 

410 REM DRAW A SAUCER 

420 SZ=SZ+IZ:IF SZ>20 OR SZ<5 TH 

EN IZ=IZ*-1 

430 CIRCLE <SX,SY> ,SZ,4, .3 
440 PAINT <SX,SY),4,4 
450 RETURN 

460 REM CHECK FOR SMARTBOMB HIT 

470 FOR J=SX-9 TO SX+9 

480 IF PPOINT(J,SY)=LC THEN H=l: 

RETURN 

490 NEXT J 

500 H=0 

510 RETURN 

520 REM CHECK FOR HIT 
530 H=0 

540 IF ABS(X-SXXTR AND ABS(Y-SY 

XTR THEN H=l 

550 RETURN 

560 REM MOVE ARRAY 

570 IF ABS(SX-127)<20 AND ABS(SY 

-95X20 THEN GOSUB 970: SY=30: SX= 

RND<205) +25 

580 SX=SX+IX:SY=SY+IY 

590 IF SY<30 THEN IY=RNDU5>+5 E 

LSE IF SYM80 THEN I Y= (RND < 15) +5 

)*-l 

600 IF SX<25 THEN I X=RND ( 20) +5: S 
X=25 

610 IF SX>240 THEN I X= <RND (20) +5 
) *-l : SX=240 

620 IF SY<25 THEN SY=25 

630 GOSUB 410 

640 RETURN 

650 REM STARS 

660 PMODE 1,3 

670 PCLS 3 

680 SB=l:REM ONE SMARTBOMB PER 0 
UTPOST 

690 FOR X=l TO 255 STEP 3 

700 PSET (RND (255) +1, RND (191) +1,2 

) 

710 NEXT X 

720 CIRCLE (127, 95), 9, 2 

730 PAINT (127,95) , 1,2 

740 CIRCLE (127, 192) , 100,2, .5 

750 PAINT (127, 162) ,2,2 

760 FOR X=l TO 5 

770 J=RND(255) :K=RND(50) :Y=RND(2 
0) 

780 CIRCLE (J, K) , Y,2 
790 PAINT (J,K) ,2,2 
800 NEXT X 
810 PMODE 1, 1 
820 SCREEN 1,0 
830 RETURN 

840 REM FIRE2 ROUTINE 
850 S=2 

860 SCREEN 1 , 1 

870 SOUND 1,5: SCREEN 1,0 



880 C=l 

890 FOR E=l TO S 

900 FOR R=l TO 100 STEP 7 

910 CIRCLE(X,Y) ,R,C 

920 NEXT R 

930 C=3 

940 NEXT E 

950 GOSUB 460: REM CHECK HIT 
960 RETURN 

970 REM STATION BLOWS UP 
980 AS=AS-1 

990 PLAY " T255 ; 04CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC 

CCCCC" 

1000 CLS 0 

1010 C=4 

1020 X=127:Y=95 

1030 FOR K=l TO 2 

1040 ST=1.5 

1050 J=l 

1060 J=J+ST:ST=ST+.05 
1070 CIRCLE (X,Y) , J,C 
1080 IF J<53 THEN 1060 
1090 C=3 
1100 NEXT K 

1110 FOR K=l TO 500: NEXT K 

1120 SCREEN 0,1: CLS 4: GOSUB 1150 



New! For Your 
Color Computer 

FROG-TREK 

(the arcade game) 
You may be able to guide your frog through 6 lanes 
of rush hour traffic, but that isn't enough! You 
must also cross the river by jumping on togs and 
turtles to get Froggie safely to his home on the other 
side. But watch out for the snake! And don 't jump 
on the industrial waste. 

A great M/L game at a great price $14.95. Uses hi- 
resolution graphics and requires 16K. Arrows on 
keyboard move frog- no joy-sticks required. 

Send check or money order for $16.50 (includes 
shipping) to: 

OELRICH PUBLICATIONS 
4040 N. Nashville 
Chicago, IL 60634 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 35 



: GOSUB 1280: GOSUB 650 
1130 SCREEN 1,0 
1140 RETURN 
1150 RM=RND (5) 

1160 ON RM GOTO 1170,1190,1210,1 
230, 1240 

1170 PRINT @ 229, "TOO BAD SPACE 
CADET ! " ; 
1180 RETURN 

1190 PRINT @ 236, "GOTCHA! 
1200 RETURN 

1210 PRINT @ 233, "BITE THE DUST! 

ii ■ 
j 

1220 RETURN 

1230 PRINT @ 235, "YOU BLEW IT!"; 

1240 PRINT @ 229, "GONE BUT NOT F 

ORGOTTEN ! " ; 

1250 RETURN 

1260 REM PRINT SCORE 

1270 CLS 3 

1280 PRINT @ 360, HS; "ALIENS DEST 
ROYED"; 

1290 PRINT @ 391, AS;" OUPOSTS RE 
MAINING" ; 

1300 PRINT @420 , SB ; " SMART BOMBS 

IN ARSENAL"; 

1310 K*=INKEY*:K*=" M 

1320 IF AS=0 THEN PRINT @453, "AL 

I ENS HAVE DESTROYED YOU" ; : GOSUB 

1350 

1330 IF HS=15 THEN PRINT @449, "Y 
OU HAVE SAVED THE FEDERATION";: 
GOSUB 1350 
1340 RETURN 

1350 SCREEN 0, 1 : FOR X=l TO 1000: 
NEXT X 

1360 SCREEN 0,0: FOR X=l TO 2000: 
NEXT X 
1370 CLS 3 

1380 PRINT @ 230, "ANOTHER MISS 10 

N (Y/N) "; : INPUT C* 

1390 IF LEFT* (C$, 1 ) <>"Y" THEN PO 

KE 65494,0: CLS: END 

1400 HS=0:AS=5:SB=1 

1410 PRINT @64, "CHANGE SKILL LEV 

EL (1-10) ";: INPUT SL:TR=15-SL 

1420 RETURN ^ 



Hardware Review... 

Let Your LED'L 
Light Shine 

CoCo owners I've talked to agree; it would be handy to 
have an on/ off indicator on our machine. Even though one 
reader tells us he's had his CoCo on continuously, ever since 
he bought it, with no apparent effect, many of us shudder 
when we discover we've left our CoCo on all night long. 
Could this be the fatal oversight that leads to our SAM 
chip's demise, or who knows what other dreaded, expensive 
eventuality? Certainly, an on/ off light would help us avoid 
the unknown consequences of forgetting to turn off our 
machine. 

If you're a "hardware hacker," then adding an LED 
somewhere on the chassis is no big deal. You just buy a 
couple of whatzits at your local Shack and wire them into 
the circuitry. Of course, it took you eight years to learn 
enough to know where to wire it in, you had to find the right 
parts, and in the process, you probably voided the warranty 
by opening up CoCo's "innards." Well, now the rest of us 
can catch up with you electronics wizards and talk about 
how we modified our unit, too. All Color Software (ACS) 
has a little package that explains how to add an on/ off 
indicator without voiding the warranty and, best of all, 
everything you need is contained in the package — all f or five 
bucks. 

It looked so easy when I took a look at the package that I 
concluded even I could manage this bit of home handiwork. 
Yes, me, the guy who once rented a steering wheel puller in 
order to change a burned-out dashboard light in my car. 
Almost without fail, when I begin a project, of any kind, I 
find that 1 don't have the right sized screwdriver or even the 
right screw. If I buy a kit, there usually seems to be a piece 
missing. This time was to be the exception. 

Now, that's not to say that I managed to add my on/ off 
indicators without help, or in a single session. No, I have my 
own ways of making things hard. My first mistake was 
getting Dr. Doom to help me; a small hobbyist's vice would 
have been more usef ul, and it wouldn't have sneered at me as 
I fumbled around dropping everything there was to be 
dropped. 

ACS provides two LED's of the correct type and the kind 
of instructions I've longed for all my life. They assume you 
know nothing and give you a step-by-step run-through of 
installing the red-colored LED's onto each joystick — thus 
avoiding any need to open up your CoCo. Rather than 
simply saying "remove the bottom cover of your joysticks," 
ACS tells us: "On the bottom of your R.S. joystick are four 
(4) screws, two (2) are slightly larger than the others. These 
two screws hold the top cover of the joystick in place. 
Remove these 2 screws." The next instruction tells how to 
grip the box and pull it open. An illustration accompanies 
each instruction. 

Dr. Doom insists on drilling the single hole required in 
each joystick housing and also decides that, while ACS 
recommends using a 1/4-inch drill bit, we will use a 7/32- 
inch bit. I marvel that I can actually find one in my tool kit. 
He explains, condescendingly, that this will give a tighterfit. 
Then, he proceeds to start drilling the hole in the joystick 
housing — using his knee as his workbench. .With the kid 
gloves approach I use with Doom, especially when he holds 
an instrument of violence in his hand, I suggest to him that if 
he doesn't watch out, he's going to bust through the plastic 
housing and drill a hole in his knee. For once, he accepts my 
advice as being sound, and together, we sort of hold 



ATTENTION PROGRAMMERS 

Do you wish you could run 200K programs on a 4K Color Computer — without discs? Thai's 
right — 200K; or oven more! Imagine being able to write programs of unlimited length and 
making them run on a CoCo of any size memory. With the Memory Loader (formerly the Vir- 
tual Memory Loader) from Little Bits you can use any standard cassette player to store your 
program "overlays." When you run your program, the overlays will automatically load & un- 
load from cassette. Some minor changes must be made to your program, but no hardware 
modification is necessary. And althougn Extended BASIC is required of the programmer, the 
users of your programs don't need it unless your original programs required it. And users 
don't need a Memory Loader of their own . Your programs will pause during eiecution while 
new overlays load ing but otherwise there is no change in run lime. Optionally use endless- 
loop tapes to jump to the ehd or return to the beginning without pressing a button During 
execution, the Memory Loader takes up less than 30 bytes of memory. Ideal for Adventures, 
as well asserious softwa re. Works for either BASI C or Assembly. Dealer inquiries invited. 

MEMORY LOADER $12.95 /«\ 

Add $1.50 shipping and handling per order. NJ residents add 5% sales lax. *umm 
1» , ,1 1^*^. P.O.BOX396 — E~ 

llttlC OltS computing services Hibemia, nj q?842 

Color Computer is a trademark of the Tandy Corp. 



36 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Meet the 
mputerware Clan! 




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from home management 
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to programming tools 



OS9 Random BASIC 
OS9 Macro Assembler 
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Also available on FLEX and RS DOS 





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Dealer Inquiries 
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Call or write to: 





to fun and challenging video 
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Computerware*' 
P.O. Box 668 
Encinitas, CA 92024 
(619) 436-3512 




ROCCI FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 




5V 651 N. Houghton Road 
^Tucson, AZ 85748 
(602) 296-1041 



The author of ASTROLOGY and ANCIENT WISDOM 

TRILOGY (Copyright PricklyPear Software) now offers 
quality programs for the 80-C. 

Inspector CLUEseau 

Sherlock Holmes/Agatha Christie fans-It's finally here— 
A murder mystery game for the 80-C! Mr. Goodbody has 
been killed in his mansion and you must solve the 
mystery. WHO committed the murder, WHERE did it 
occur and HOW was it done! Question suspects, find the 
secret passage, and break the code to get clues. Hi-Res 
graphics enhances this excellent game. The computer 
records the clues you obtain on a clue inventory screen 
and also provides suspect descriptions at the touch of a 
finger. A fast, fun game that will sharpen your deductive 
skills. Every game is different! 

32K Extended $19.95 

Stress Evaluator 

Assess your present level of stress and how it affects 
your potential for illness. Evaluate the amount of life 
change you can effectively handle in the future. The 
Stress Evaluator is a valuable tool for recognizing, 
measuring and managing stress. The program also 
provides a Coping Ability Test which shows your ability 
to handle stress in general. Provides goal setting 
exercises and meditation graphic screens to help 
achieve stress-alleviating goals. All results output to 
printer. 

16K Extended $24.95 

Weather Watch 

If you really care about the weather, this program is for 
you. Three programs provide you with National Weather 
Service approved statistics in a monthly report format. 
Input of daily high and low temp, and rainfall outputs a 
report of monthly average temps, and range; high and 
low averages; high and low tempJor month; total rainfall; 
days rain> .1 in.; heating and cooling degree days; days 
high > 90; days low < 32; days low temp. 
< 32 and > 0; days low< 0; day of highest range. Also 
retrieves a single day from data file for review. All data 
outputs to printer. Well documented. 
16K Extended $24.95 

Include $1 .50 for handling for each program, /g&v 
Az. Residents add 4% Sales Tax. SZnbS? 



Quantity Discounts to Dealers. 

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT: Computer Software 
Documentation / Graphics / Consultation 



everything in mid-air and drill our way through; it's even 
cleanly done. 

There are f our solder connections to make. We make the 
first in record time, only to discover that we f orgot to put the 
LED in its newly drilled hole first. So, we unsolder and redo 
it. We share a great feeling of accomplishment when we 
reattach the cover and turn on CoCo and see our little light 
shine. For added wonder, when we depress the fire button it 
goes out momentarily. Looking good. We exhange a "high 
five" and immediately attack the other joystick. 

In his "rm-the-scientist-you're-the-dummy"bit he lays on 
me whenever we work together, Dr. Doom tells me that an 
LED is "much like a photocell in reverse, in that electricity 
impinging on the semiconductor materials causes light to be 
emitted f rom their junction." As we solder the second LED 
in place, he advises me, with a smirk, that I won't have to 
change any tiny little light bulbs because "LED's, for all 
practical purposes, don't burn out unless excessive voltage is 
applied to the device." I pretend I knew it all along. 

All done, we turn on CoCo to see two brightly lit LED's, 
one on each joystick. At least, that's what we expect to see. 
Instead, we see one lit and one not lit. "I knew it. I knew it," I 
mutter mostly to myself. We decide that we have managed to 
burn out one of the LED's by gettingthesoldertoocloseand 
not using pliers to absorb the heat. After resoldering the 
joint a few times, we pack it in for the night. 

The next day I go out and buy "one of these things, please" 
at my nearest Radio Shack. After being led to the LED's, I 
also see some yellow ones, so I get them, too. Meanwhile, 
Dr. Doom is elsewhere in the city, also buying LED's. I get 
back first though, and following my ACS instructions, 
remove the joystick's back coverall by myself. I decide it will 
be cute to have one red LED and one yellow LED — that way 
I can tell the left joystick from the right one. Step-by-step, I 
follow the instructions to the letter. The yellow one won't 
light. I read the package. Yes, the yellow one has different 
specs than the red one. I have screwed up again. For lack of 
anything else to do, I reattach the LED we burned out the 
previous evening. This time it works. I am really not very 
surprised. I don't know why it didn't work before, but now it 
works. I am not one to question why — at least until the cover 
is safely reattached and the LED's are both still working. 

Why didn't it work? Well, I am told that LED's have 
polarity and that even though there are only two wires to 
hook up, Dr. Doom and I managed to hook it up 
backwards. I grab the instructions. Nowhere in the 
instructions does it say "Don't hook it up backwards!" ACS, 
that's my only criticism. Your illustrations are well done. 
The parts are all provided. The instructions are clearly 
written. You just need a line that says "If you make the 
connection and it doesn't work, reverse the wires and 
reconnect." 

I smile every time I go by my CoCo and see my two LED's 
brightly glowing. I even switch it on now and then just to see 
the results of my handiwork. I'm thinking about writing an 
electronics book. Life is more meaningful now, thanks to 
ACS. 

(ACS, All Color Software, P.O.Box 15235, Plantation, 
FL 33318, $5.00) 

— Jim Reed 

What ROM Have You? 

All CoCo's come up with a message which says you are 
operating with version 1 .0 of the operating system. How can 
you tell whether you have a version 1.0 or 1.1 of the Basic 
ROM chip? 

The answer is a simple one: Just type in EXEC 41 175 and 
the version of your ROM will appear on the screen. 



38 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



PftOGftflm 



Our Best Seller List 

For The TRS-80 Color Computer 



PftOGftflm 

k /TORE „ 



101 Color 
Computer 
Programming 
Tips & 
Tricks 



| U | Computer 

Programming 
Tips STricks 



ss- ...» 



By Ron Clark from ARCsoft 
Handy collection of practical, easy-to-follow techniques 
and shortcuts for your color computer. Each of 101 tips 
features a complete, pre-tested, ready to run program. In- 
cludes graphics, sound, games, text on text, number 
crunching. 

Sbftcover, $7.95 



The Color 

Computer 

Songbook 




By Ron Clark from ARCsoft 

Ready for a sing-along? Forget the piano or guitar- 
just gather 'round your color computer, and vocalize! 
These 40 song programs are sure to please, including: 
"Oh! Susanna", "Amazing Grace", "Greensleeves", 
"Down By the Riverside"; Christmas carols; Bach, 
Beethoven, and Brahms. Plus hints for composing your 
own. 

Softcover, $7.95 



TRS-80 

Programs and 
Applications 
for the 
Color 
Computer 

By Alfred Baker from Reston 
Handy guide to your Color Computer: how to play 
games, balance your checkbook, use your computer 
as a teacher, etc. With chapters on color and sound, 
art and music. Helpful for beginning or experienced 
computer users. 

Softcover, $14.95 




Color Computer 

Programs For The 

Home. Schools Office 

srr- 




55 More 55 more 
Color 
Computer 
Programs 
For the 
Home, 
School & Office 

By Ron Clark from ARCsoft 

An all-new and different collection of tested, ready to 
run software, usable by the beginner or advanced user. 
Science and history for students and teachers; market- 
ing, investment and invoicing for the businessperson; 
poetry, games and art for the family; music for 
everyone. 

Softcover, $9.95 

Companion volume also available: 

55 Color Computer Programs 
for Home, School & Office 

By Ron Clark from ARCsoft 
Softcover, $9.95 



Color 
Computer 
News 
1981 
Back 
Issues 

This is the complete collection of articles appearing in 
the first 4 issues of Color Computer News (May to 
December of '81). 37 different topics are covered, plus 
continuing features like "REMarks", Kid's Page, and 
New Products. 
Softcover, $9.95 




TRS-80 
Color Basic 




By BobAlbrecht from John Wiley & Sons 
Step-by-step guide to the unique color, sound and 
graphic capabilities of your new Color Computer. No 
previous experience is required. Teach yourself 
BASIC— there's a whole chapter on typical program- 
ming problems and solutions. 
Softcover, $9.95 



TRS-80 
mini) nriMDiiHB 



m 



TRS-80 Color 
Computer 
Graphics 

By Don Inman with Dymax from Reston 
Learn the fascinating graphics capabilities of Extend- 
ed Color BASIC— how to create graphics to enhance 
your programs and how to write your own graphics 
programs. Includes: coloring; lines and circles; using 
joysticks; switching from graphics to text mode; 
sound. With sample programs and 5 appendices. 
Softcover, $14.95 



6609 

MICROCOMPLTO 
PROGRAMMING 



INTWAON6 




6809 
Micro- 
computer 

Programming 
and Interfacing 
with Experiments 

Ed. by Staugaard from Howard W. Sams 
This book offers a complete description of how to pro- 
gram and interface the 6809 microprocessor. Topics 
include; chip structure and basic 6809 concepts; ad- 
dressing modes; registers and data movement In- 
structions; arithmetic, logic and test Instructions; 
branching; input and output signals; Interfacing and 
applications. Review questions and answers for each 
chapter, plus 4 appendices. 
Softcover, $14.95 



6809 

Assembly 
Language 
Programming 




By Lance Leventhal from McGraw Hill 
This comprehensive book covers 6809 assembly 
language programming in detail. The entire instruc- 
tion set is presented and fully explained. The book 
contains many fully debugged, practical program- 
ming examples with solutions in both object code and 
source code. Discussion of assembler conventions, 
I/O devices, and interfacing methods is also included. 
If you've never before programmed in assembly 
language, this book will teach you how. If you're an 
experienced programmer, you'll find this book an in- 
valuable reference to the 6809 instruction set and pro- 
gramming techniques. 
Softdover, $16.95 



For Information 
Call: 1202) 363-9797 



To Order 

Call Toil-Free: 800-424-2738 



/^R^pftocflAm none ssstW* ,k ' MM 

©1983 The Program Store Inc. Visit our other stores: Seven Comers Center, FallsChurch, VA • W. Bell Plaza, 6600 Security Blvd., 

Baltimore, MD • 829 Bethel Rd., Columbus OH • White Flint Mall, Rockvllle, M D • Coming Soon to Boston. 

r 1 

' MAIL ORDERS' S8nd check or money order for total purchase price, plus $2.00 postage & handling. D.C., MD. & VA.: add sales tax. ■ 
I Charge Cards: Include all embossed Information. I 

| THE PROGRAM STORE* Dept. 24-02-3 •Box 9582*4200 Wisconsin Avenue, NW •Washington, D.C. 20016 1 

• Item Tape/ Disk/Book Price Postage $2.00 Name | 

■ . Total Address 

| □ CHECK □ VISA City State Zip 

I □ MASTERCARD Card# Exp 

■ Computer 



GAME 




16k 




the 
• M* 

RAINBOW 
lJ- -.\ 


ECB 





Hang Around, 
You'll Enjoy This 

By Douglas C. L'Hommedieu 



Though capital punishment might seem a severe penalty 
for failure to ascertain a certain quantity of deliberately 
withheld information, millions of otherwise normal folks 
seem to be dying to put their lives on the line in just such a 
quest. In fact, striving to satisfy such sadistic demands has 
long been a favorite pasttime. 

Now, CoCo has joined the ranks of those diabolical 
inquisitors with numerous variations of this heartless 
scheme we all know affectionately as "Hangman." 

In this particular version, Hangman has the capability of 
accepting ten-letter words and allowing nine wrong guesses 
before being hanged. It contains the following options: One 
or two people can play; duplicate letters can be displayed 
when guessed; the program can display the wrong guesses. 

With the first option, two friends can take turns guessing 
each other's words, or the computer will randomly generate 
words from its 122-word vocabulary. With the second, you 
can either be forced toguesseach letter, or the computer will 
identify duplicates. For example, one way the computer 
would identify only one "m" in swimmer, and in the other, 
both would be identified. With the third option, you can 
have your wrong guesses displayed, or the computer will 
keep them a secret. 

The program's vocabulary can easily be changed by 
modifying the words in lines 1990-2060. If you decrease or 
increase the number of words, lines 130 and 530 will need to 
be changed correspondingly. 

No ENTERs are needed except to terminate a word being 
input. All other responses are one letter responses satisfied 
by INKEYS. 

In a Y/N/ C decision, Y is for yes, N is for no, and C is for 
change. Change takes you back to the beginning of the 
program, and all options will again be available. 

Now, type this one in and RUN. Havingfun? Well, I'll be 
hanged. 



The Listing: 



480 05E3 

930 09FC 

1380 0E08 

1600 10A4 

1970 1419 

END 17A4 



HANGMAN 
DOUG L'HOMMEDIEU 



5/8; 



11," HANGMAN " : PR I NT 

1 - ONE PLAYER (COMPUT 

THE WORDS) " 

2 - TWO PLAYERS (TAKE 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 ' 

60 DIM WRD*<10> ,GWRD*<10> ,BAD*<9 
) 

70 WRITE=0 
80 CLS 
90 PRINT @ 
100 PRINT 1 
ER PICKS 
110 PRINT ' 
TURNS) " 

120 PRINT @ 160, "TYPE 1 OR 2" 
130 P*=INKEY*: CPICK=RND(122) : I 
F P*="" GOTO 130 
140 PLRS=VAL<P*> 

150 IF PLRS <>1 AND PLRS <> 2 GO 
TO 120 

160 IF PLRS = 2 GOTO 230 

170 PRINT "COMPUTER WILL RANDOML 

Y PICK A" 

180 PRINT "WORD HAVING FROM 2 TO 

10 LTRS. " 
190 PRINT "YOU MUST GUESS THE WO 
RD. " 

200 PRINT "YOU CAN HAVE NINE WRO 
NG GUESSES" 

210 PRINT "BEFORE YOU ARE HUNG!! 
■ ii 



40 the RAINBOW February, 1 983 



SOFT CJTY 

■ Your finest single source for TRS-80®COLOR COMPUTER / TDP 

SYSTEM 100 compatible software. 

■ We offer one of the largest and most comprehensive selections of 

software available anywhere. These major programs have been 
developed by some of the leading software houses, and are sold at 
fully competitive prices. Save yourself time and trouble! 

■ Our latest catalog offers word processing, terminal packages, 
educational software, and a full selection of utilities for both disk 
and tape. Many superb games - adventure, arcade, and board style 
are also available, demonstrating the powerful Hi-Resolution 
capabilities of the Color Computer. We also carry a number of 
peripherals and supplies for your system. 

■ Our catalog is yours free for the asking! 



We are dealers for: 

□ COGNITEC 

□ COMPUTERWARE 

□ EIGEN SYSTEMS 

□ MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

□ SKYLINE SOFTWARE 

□ SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

□ SUGAR SOFTWARE 

□ TOM MIX 

□ VERBATIM 

□ ETC., ETC.... 



□ COMPULINK 

□ CORNSOFT 

□ FRANK HOGG LABORATORY 

□ PRICKLY PEAR SOFTWARE 

□ SOFTCORE SOFTWARE 

□ SPEECH SYSTEMS 

□ TDP ELECTRONICS 

□ U.S. ROBOTICS 

□ YORK 



ALL ITEMS SHIPPED FROM STOCK 

MASTERCHARGE AND VISA WELCOME 

10% discount on orders over $50.00! 

Phone orders may be placed at: 
(312) 260-0929 (Our voice line), 
or, if you have a modem, you may order through our 
METROWEST BBS at: 
(312) 260-0640 
Mail orders and requests for catalogs should be sent to: 

SOFT ODTY 
442 Sunnyside 
Wheaton, II 60187 



7 



330 PRINT " 
RS APPEAR) " 
340 PRINT " 
EVERY LTR) 
350 PRINT @ 



1 - EASIER (DUP. LETTE 



HARDER (MUST GUESS 



OR 2" 



360 
370 
380 
EN 



448, "TYPE 1 
E*=INKEY*I IF E*="" GOTO360 
EASY=VAL(E*) 

IF EASY <>1 AND EASY <> 2 TH 
350 



220 GOTO 320 

230 CLS I PR I NT @ 1 1 , " HANGMAN " : PR I 
NT 

240 PRINT "PLAYER #1 INPUTS A WO 
RD - A" 

250 PRINT "LETTER AT A TIME (2 TO 

10 LTRS) " 
260 PRINT "AFTER THE LAST LETTER 

SIMPLY" 

270 PRINT "PRESS < ENTER >.": PRINT 
280 PR I NT "PLAYER #2 TAKES OVER A 
T THAT" 

290 PRINT"TIME TO GUESS THE WORD 
. PLAYER" 

300 PR I NT" #2 CAN HAVE NINE WRONG 
GUESSES" 

310 ^R I NT " BEFORE HE IS HUNG !!!" 
320 PRINT" 



- HELP REMEM 



390 PRINT @ 352, 

400 PRINT @ 384, "1 
BERING WRONG LTRS" 

410 PRINT @ 416, "2 - NO HELP RE 
MEMBER I NG" 

420 PRINT @ 448, "TYPE 
430 H*=INKEY*: IF H*=" 1 
440 HELP=VAL(H*> 
450 IF HELP <> 1 AND HELP 
OTO 420 
460 CLS 

470 FOR 1=1 TO 10: WRD*<I)=" " : 

GWRD*(I)=CHR*(128) : NEXT I 

480 IF PLRS=2 GOTO 640 

490 REM ***COMPUTER PICKS WORD** 

* 

500 PRINT @ 172, "COMPUTER" 



1 OR 2" 
GOTO430 



<> 



510 PRINT 
520 PRINT 



@ 203, "IS PICKING" 
@ 236, "THE WORD" 



ENTER THE FASCINATING WORLD OF 

GAME WRITER™ 

A SIMPLE TO USE PROGRAM FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 



For writing super-action video games with 
motion and sound 

For creating high resolution animated 
graphics scenes 

For experimenting with color, shapes, 
motion and sound 

For amateur or professional cartooning or 
commercial game authoring 
For the absolute beginner and for the 
expert programmer 




GAME WRITER is a programming language with all the 
features you need to write great VIDEO GAMES. It includes a 
built-in screen oriented text editor, high resolution color 
graphics support, any number of player-shapes (SPRITES), a 
shape pattern editor, full TURTLE GRAPHICS, sound effects, 
support'for joy sticks and much, much more. Each player- 
shape can be given a program to run which tells it what to do. 
All the player programs run simultaneously to create fan- 
tastic game effects. GAME WRITER IS GUARANTEED EASY 
TO USE. Even if you have never written a program of any kind 
you will amaze your family, your friends and yourself with the 
fantastic things you can do with it. The package includes a 
GAME WRITER rom pak, a complete easy to read manual and 
a set of sample programs ready to run. GAME WRITER is a 
great programming language for a child or an adult. GAME 
WRITER requires a minimum of 16K. Extended BASIC is not 
required. 



PRICE $129 

Orders must be prepaid via check, 
money order or major bank card. Phone 
orders accepted for bank cards only— 
COD orders not accepted. Quantity dis- 
counts available. Orders outside U.S. 
add $5 shipping. WA state residents 
add 6.3% sales tax. Add 2 weeks for 
delivery if paid by personal check. 



WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES 

3028 SILVERN LANE 
BELLINGHAM, WA 98226 
1 (206) 734-8248 



42 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



530 CPICK = RNDC122) 

540 FOR 1=1 TO CPICK 

550 READ CWORD* 

560 NEXT I 

570 RESTORE 

580 KNT=LEN ( CWORD* ) 

590 FOR I = 1 TO KNT 

600 WRD*(I> = MID* (CWORD*, I, 1) 

610 NEXT I 

620 GOTO 850 

630 REM ***PLAYER #1 PICKS WORD* 
** 

640 PRINT @ 6, "INPUT THE WORD, 
ONE LETTER AT A TIM 

E" 

650 PRINT " TYPE < ENTER > WHEN 

DONE": PRINT 
660 FOR I=1T0 10 
670 PRINT "LETTER "; 
680 WRD* ( I) = I NKEY* : I F WRD*(I)="" 

THEN GOTO 680 
690 IF 1=1 AND WRD*(I)=CHR*(13) 
GOTO740 

700 IF 1=2 AND WRD*(I)=CHR*(13) 
GOTO740 

710 FOR K=65 TO 90 

720 IF WRD*(I)=CHR*(K) OR WRD* ( I 
)=CHR*(13) GOTO 750 
730 NEXT K 

740 PRINT "LETTERS ONLY": GOTO 6 
70 

750 PRINT WRD*(I) 

760 IF WRD*(I)=CHR*(13) GOTO 780 
770 NEXT I 
780 KNT=I-1 

790 PRINT: PRINT"THE WORD IS - " 
5 

800 FOR 1=1 TO KNT: PRINT WRD* 

Z 810 PRINT: PRINT" 

- RIGHT ? (Y/N) " 
820 YN*=INKEY*: IF YN*="" G0T082 

0 

830 IF YN*="N" GOTO 460 
840 IF YN*<>"Y" GOTO 800 
850 CLS 

860 FOR 1=1 TO 9: BAD* ( I > =CHR* ( 1 
28) : NEXT I 

870 PRINT @ 7, "HANGMAN" 

880 FOR 1=35 TO 387 STEP 32 

890 PRINT @ I, STRING* ( 16, CHR* ( 1 

28) ) 

900 NEXT I 

910 PRINT® 449, CHR* ( 128) ; " "; 
920 FOR 1=2 TO KNT: PRINT CHR* (12 

8);" ";:NEXT I 

930 PRINT: MISS=0 

940 REM ***MAIN LOOP*** 

950 IF HELP=2 GOTO 1040 'NO HEL 

P REMEMBERING' 

960 INDX=0 



970 BAD* (MISS) =GS* 
980 PRINT @ 214, "-WRONG-" 
990 FOR I=0TO128 STEP 64 
1000 FOR K=278T0284 STEP 3 
1010 INDX=INDX+1 

1020 PRINT @ (K+I), BAD* ( INDX ) 

1030 NEXT K: NEXT I 

1040 PRINT @ 480, "GUESS LETTER-" 

■ 

1050 GS*=INKEY*: IF GS*="" GOTO 1 
050 

1060 FOR N=l TO KNT 

1070 IF WRD*(N)OGS* GOTO 1180 

1080 FOR IS=1T03 

1090 FOR IK=227T0245 STEP 9: SOU 
ND IK, 1: NEXT IK 
1100 NEXT IS 

1110 IF GWRD*(N)OCHR*(128) GOTO 
1180 

1120 GWRD*(N)=WRD*(N) 

1130 FOR K=l TO KNT 

1140 PRINT @(449+( <K-1) *3) ) ,USIN 

G" 7.7. ";GWRD*(K) 

1150 NEXT K 

1160 WRITE=1 

1170 IF EASY=2 GOTO 1200 'NOT T 
HE EASY WAY' 
1180 NEXT N 

1190 REM ***END MAIN LOOP *** 
1200 IF WRITE=0 THEN GOTO 1320 



Chattanooga Choo Choo Software 

..sp***" Your One Stop Station 

O For Computer Programs 

1*- 



Intellectronics 

Dunkey Munkey (32K) $19.95 



•"teco c . 
""^a/ac 0 "*^ 



p Spectral Associates 

Mark Data Products Trj|ogy (3 games Qn , , ape) 

•Astro Blast, Cave Hunter Qhos , GoDb , eri Cosmic leaders and 

and Haywire $24.95 Space War $54.95 

Planet Invasion, Defense and 



Tom Mix Software 

' 'Protectors (32K) $24 95 
Katerpillar Attack $24.95 



GallaxAttax$20.95 

Pricktey-Pear Software 15% off 

•Viking. Football $:pOS $16.95 
Preread 1 .2 and 3 $2>r35 S21 .20 



— 1 

«tf rCard 



*Also available on disk (32K) at extra charge 
All programs 16K on cassette unless otherwise stated. 
Send for free complete catalog and descriptions! 
We pay postage within the U.S. and Canada 
TN. residents add 6.25% sales tax 
C.O.D. orders add $1.00 
Call Anytime! 



(615) 87S-8656 

P.O. Box 15892 lfj|iiH| 
Chattanooga, Tn 37415 V^AJUJJ 



#L0BT 




February, 1983 the RAINBOW 43 



1210 WRITE=0 

1220 FOR 1=1 TO KNT 

1230 IF GWRD*(I)=CHR*(128> GOTO 

1040 

1240 NEXT I 

1 250 PLAY " 04L8CEGL405C04L8GL405C 

II 

1260 PRINT @416,"Y0U WIN. PLAY A 
GAIN? (Y/N/C) " 

1270 YN*=INKEY*: IF YN*="" GOTOl 
270 

1280 IF YN*="Y" GOTO 460 
1290 IF YN*="C" GOTO80 
1300 IF YN*<>"N" GOTO 1270 
1310 END 

1320 MISS=MISS+1 

1330 FOR I=50TO2 STEP -8: SOUND 
1,1: NEXT I 

1340 ON MISS GOTO 1360,1390,1520 
, 1570, 1610, 1670, 1710, 1750, 1810 
1350 PRINT "ERROR": END 
1360 REM **BASE** 

1370 PRINT @ 388, CHR* (223) ; STRIN 

G* (5, CHR* (220) >; CHR* (223) ; STRING 

*(8,CHR*(128) ) 

1380 GOTO 940 

1390 REM **UPRIGHT** 

1400 PRINT @ 359, CHR* ( 175) ; STRI 

NG*(11,CHR*(128) ) 

1410 PRINT @ 327, CHR* (175) ; STRIN 



Add S2.00 per order shipping and handling. Bank cards welcomed {please 
include expiration date). Orders paid by cashiers check, money orders, bank 
cards and C.O.D. are shipped within 48 hours. Personal checks please allow 1 -2 
weeks. C.O.D. orders add $1.50 extra. S.C. residents add 4% sales tax. 
•TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. Atari isa registered trademark 
of Atari, Inc. 



G*(11,CHR*(128>) 

1420 PRINT @ 295, CHR* ( 175) ; STRI 
NG*(11,CHR*(128) ) 

1430 PRINT @ 263, CHR* ( 175) ; STRI 
NG*(11,CHR*(128) ) 

1440 PRINT @ 231, CHR* (175) ; STRI 
NG*(11,CHR*( 128) ) 

1450 PRINT @ 199, CHR* (175) ; STRI 
NG*(11,CHR*(128) ) 

1460 PRINT @ 167, CHR* ( 175) ; STRI 
NG*(11,CHR*(128) ) 

1470 PRINT @ 135, CHR* ( 175) ; STRIN 
G*(11,CHR*( 128) ) 

1480 PRINT @ 103, CHR* ( 175) ; STRI 
NG*(11,CHR*(128) ) 

1490 PRINT @ 71, CHR* ( 175) ; STRING 
*(11,CHR*(128) ) 

1500 PRINT @ 39, CHR* ( 175) ; STRING 

*(11,CHR*(128) ) 

1510 GOTO 940 

1520 REM **TOP/NOOSE** 

1530 PRINT @ 40, STRING* (6, CHR* (1 

72) ) 

1540 PRINT @ 46, CHR* ( 175) ; STRING 
* (4,CHR*(128) ) 

1550 PRINT @ 78, CHR* ( 175) ; STRING 

* (4, CHR* (128) ) 

1560 GOTO 940 

1570 REM ** HEAD ** 

1580 PRINT© 109, CHR* ( 150) ; CHR* (1 

56) ; CHR* (153) ; STRING* (3, CHR* (128 

) ) 

1590 PRINT @ 141, CHR* ( 153) ; CHR* ( 
147) ;CHR*(150) ; STRING* (3, CHR* (12 

8) ) 

1600 GOTO 940 
1610 REM **BODY»* 

1620 PRINT @ 174, CHR* ( 191 ); STRIN 
G* (4, CHR* (128) ) 

1630 PRINT @ 206, CHR* ( 191 ); STRIN 
G*(4,CHR*(128) ) 

1640 PRINT @ 238, CHR* ( 191 ); STRIN 
G*(4,CHR*(128) ) 

1650 PRINT @ 270, CHR* ( 175) ; STRIN 

G*(4,CHR*(128) ) 

1660 GOTO 940 

1670 REM **LEFT LEG** 

1680 PRINT @ 301, CHR* ( 166) ; STRIN 

G*(5,CHR*(128) ) 

1690 PRINT @ 332, CHR* ( 150) ; STRIN 

G* (6, CHR* (128) ) 

1700 GOTO 940 

1710 REM **RIGHT LEG** 

1720 PRINT @ 303, CHR* ( 169) ; STRIN 

G* (3, CHR* (128) ) 

1730 PRINT @ 336, CHR* ( 153) ; STRIN 

G*(2,CHR*(128) ) 

1740 GOTO 940 

1750 REM **LEFT ARM** 

1760 PRINT @ 204, CHR* (150) 





a C€LCC-STICr m 

V 'HERE AT LAST 1/ 

ajte Finally an interface for the 
'9 W ^ TRS-80* Color Computer ' 
to let you use the famous: 

'ATARI* JOYSTICK' 

Just plug your Atari or Atari like (the Color-Stick 
enables the use of most joysticks made for the 
Atari) joystick into the Color-Stick interface and 
then plug the Color-Stick into an empty joystick 
port. 

The Color-Stick can improve scores 50% and 
more while making some games more exciting 
and fun to play. 

Color-Stick interface $19.95 each OR 

Two for $34.95. (less joysticks) 

Atari Joysticks $9.95 each. 

petter 

■Software Company 

P.O. Box 2770 

Greenville, South Carolina 29602 
(803) 295-3648 



44 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



FLEXPLUS DOS 

A powerful, easy-to-use disk operating system! 



BEST PRICE ANYWHERE 

FLEXPLUS $69.95 

SUPERCHARGER 40.00 

EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 40.00 

Total FLEXPLUS Package 
ONLY $149.95 

FLEXPLUS is a powerful, easy-to-use disk operating system. 
Spectral Associates has adapted TSC's FLEX to the best DOS 
completely compatible with Radio Shack software for use on the 
Color Computer. Eliminate the need for Radio Shack's TRS 
DOS - use FLEXPLUS with Editor/ Assembler and have the 
options of a full range of utilities. FLEXPLUS works on the 32K 
Radio Shack disk system with 64K memory chips with a High 
Resolution multi-screen format that supports a 24 line by 51 
character display! Also included are special enhancements to 
Radio Shack's Disk system when you are running FLEX with 
single or double sided, single or double density, 35, 40 and 80 
track drives. 

SUPERCHARGER 

Allows machine language access to all 64K RAM in a Series E 
PC board. No hardware mods. 

$39.95 

ULTRA 80CC (Editor /Assembler) 

Features: 

• TRS CC DOS compatible 

• Macros 



Advantages of FLEXPLUS DOS 

• Best price anywhere 
•Wealth of existing software 

•Easy start-up — just type "RUN FLEX + " 
•Print Spooling — print while editing, assembling, etc. 
•Allows you to save RS compatible binary disk files from FLEX- 
PLUS 

•NO HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS NEEDED 
•Warranty will not be voided — no need to open computer 
•All FLEX compatible software will run including INTERRUPT 
DRIVEN SOFTWARE 

• Requires Supercharger board 

•$149.95 for FLEXPLUS, Editor/ Assembler and Supercharger 

GREAT BASIC GAMES 



ALCATRAZ II 
C-TREK 
GAME PACS 
GAMBLIN GAMES 
PIRATES AHOY 
DESERT GOLF 



ESCAPE FROM PRISON CITY 
SUB HUNT 
LASER COMMAND 
SPACE TRADERS 
BATTLE FLEET 
LOTHAR'S LABYRINTH 



Library Files 
Conditional Assembly 



Most powerful disk-based editor/assembler for the Color Com- 
puter available (requiring 32K) and a "must" for anyone con- 
sidering the development of machine language programs. Com- 
plete with 68-page documentation. 

FANTASTIC PRICE 

$49.95 

ORACLE (Graphic Monitor) 

Tired of writing machine language programs with no way to 
debug them easily? Your problems are solved, the ORACLE is 

here - only $29.95 



KEYS OF THE WIZARD 

Best new adventure game! Over 200 rooms filled with creatures, 
tricks, treasures and magic spells. Cassette save feature built-in. 

$19.95 

MAGIC BOX 

Special utility design to load MOD I/III Level II 500 baud BASIC 
programs into color computer. ^ _ _ _ 

SUPER PRICE $Z4.*J5 

For orders only, call toll-free 

1-800-426-1830 

Except WA, AK, HI 

Business Office and Information 
CaU 206-565-8483 

Office open 8:30-4:30 P.S.T. 

We accept VISA, MASTERCARD, AMERICAN EXPRESS. 
Add 3% for shipping. NO C.O.D. 
All prices U.S. FUNDS. 



SPECIAL LOW PRICE 



FLEXPLUS with SUPERCHARGER $89.95 



with EDITOR/ASSEMBLER $149.95 



ARCADE GAMES • ADVENTURE GAMES 
BASIC GAMES • UTILITIES • BOOKS 
HARDWARE • MODEMS 
Call or write for a complete catalog. 



Quality Hardware 

and Software Support 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 
TOP SYSTEM 100 
DRAGON 32 



SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

143 Harvard Avenue Tacoma, WA 98466 



1770 PRINT @ 205, CHR* (188) 
1780 PRINT @ 206, CHR* (191) 
1790 PRINT @ 207, STRING* (4, CHR* ( 
128) ) 

1800 GOTO 940 

1810 REM **RIGHT ARM - HUNG!** 
1820 PRINT @ 207, CHR* (188) ; STRIN 
G* (3, CHR* (128) ) 

1830 PRINT @ 208, CHR* ( 153) ; STRIN 

G* (2, CHR* (128) ) 

1840 IF HELP=2 GOTO 1870 



1850 PRINT @ 
1860 PRINT @ 
1870 PRINT @ 
1880 FOR K=l 
1890 PRINT @ 

ING ""/.■/."; 

1900 NEXT 



212, " -ALL WRONG-" 
412, GS* 

416, "YOU'RE HUNG! "; 
TO KNT 

(449+((K-l)*3)) , US 
WRD*(K) 
K 



1910 PLAY "01 L2GFEDC " 

1920 PRINT @ 428, " PLAY AGAIN? 

(Y/N/C) " 

1930 YN*=INKEY*: IF YN*="" GOTO 
1930 
1940 
1950 
1960 
1970 
1980 
1990 



IF YN*="Y" GOTO 460 
IF YN* = "C" GOTO 80 
IF YN* <> "N" GOTO 1930 
END 

REM *** 100 WORD LIST *** 
DATA NOTEBOOK, NEWSPAPER, HOR 



SE , POOL , S W I MM I NG , COMPUTER , CRAFTS 
MAN , BOOK , FLOWER , P I ANO , SONG 
2000 DATA PICTURE, GLASS, STOVE, MI 
CROWAVE, OVEN, TYPEWRITER, CASSETTE 
, ELEPHANT , POTS , K I TCHEN , VASE 
2010 DATA CHURCH, SUIT, TENNIS, FOO 
TB ALL , BASEBALL , TELEVISION, TELEPH 
ONE, BIBLE, CHRISTIAN, TENT, GIRAFFE 
, TOWEL , PA I NT , WATCH , SOAP , RE I NDEER 
2020 DATA ELECTRICITY, CHECK, HOLI 
DAY , SHUTTLE , CHA I R , COOK I E , PANCAKE 
, WAFFLE , SODA , L I GHT , L I ON , DOLLAR , G 
AME , P I LLOW , NUMBER , NAME , SCHOOL 
2030 DATA CANDLE, TABLE, SHAMPOO, D 
OG, CAT, COW, FARMER, COOK, BARN, DOUG 
HNUT , B I CYCLE , UN I VERS I TY , JUN I OR , D 
OCTOR , DENT I ST , SPACE , R A I N 
2040 DATA SUNSHINE, DANCE, RAINBOW 
, FLOUR, DRESSES, CLASSROOM, LOCKER, 
ROCKER , CLOCK , CAMERA , Z EBRA , Z 00 , BE 
AR , T I GER , MOUSE , F I SH , AQUAR I UM , MAN 
2050 DATA FISHERMAN, BEACH, PARK, S 
HELL, LOCK, ROCK, OVERHEAD, HEAD, MAC 
HINE, BUSH , RESTAURANT , MONKEY , TRUC 
K , STREET , CLOUD , STORE , SH I P 
2060 DATA SAILBOAT, COUCH, BUILD IN 
G , COACH , TERM I NAL , BOY , G I RL , FR I END 
, ENEMY, HAND, FOOT, LEG, ARM, FINGER, 
SHOE 



SOUTHERN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

SERIOUS SOFTWARE FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
Presenting... THE GRAPH ZAPPER and THE BAR ZAPPER 
Line Graphs and Bar Graphs for the Color Computer 

• THE GRAPH ZAPPER plots line graphs of data and equations - multiple lines with different symbols • mix equations and data on the same graph - 
plots lines or points - "The Graph Zapper is one of the most completely documented pieces of software we have seen . . . The Graph Zapperisan 
outstanding utility and can be a major tool in statistical, business and other uses where graphic representation of numbers is desirable. " The 

Rainbow, Dec. 1982. 

• THE BAR ZAPPER creates bar graphs with multiple bars - plenty of options - shaded or light bars - positive and negative bars - a great companion 
to THE GRAPH ZAPPER - same high quality documentation. 

• Endless applications • electric consumption, stock prices, math class equations, children's height and weight, data analysis, trend indication, ex- 
perimental results, statistical analysis. 

Both ZAPPERS Have All These Features: 



High resolution graphs with on screen numbers & labels, 
with or without grids. 

Sophisticated data editor makes changing data simple. 
Disk version has added features including storing 
completed graphs on disk and menu driven file loading. 
Detailed user's guides for all features. 
14 day money back guarantee. 
Requires Ext. Color Basic and delivered on cassette. 



User friendly, easy to understand. 

Thorough error prevention. 

Save data for later graphing or editing. 

Low cost upgrade from tape to disk. 

Hard copies possible with common screen print programs - 

not supplied. 

Low resolution graphs can't compare. 



$15.95 

for 16K tape versions 

add $1 .00 for shipping 

$29.95 for both tape versions + $2.00 shipping 



$19.95 

for32K disk versions 
send check or money order 

$37.95 for both disk versions + $2.00 shipping 
Florida residents add 5% sales tax 

SOUTHERN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

485 South Tropical Trail, Suite 109 • Merritt Island, Florida 32952 • (305)452-2217 



-J 



46 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



JARB 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



AUX-KEY 

(Auxiliary External Key Board Unit) 

This full size, industrial grade key board 
unit is P.C. Board mounted for trouble 
free operation and years of use. Mounted 
in an attractive aluminum case with a 12 
key numeric pad, Aux-Key comes with a 
long cable for remote location placement 
of your 80C. Requires no soldering to 
your computer, and only about IS 
minutes for installation. Does not affect 
normal operation of your original key 
board. 

Add $4.00 Shipping $134.95 



PEN-E- ARCADE 

(Light Pen & Arcade System) 

This unique system will allow the light pen 
(included) to be used with supplied soft- 
ware for many tasks normally requiring 
key board input. In education, choose 
answers by just touching pen to correct 
screen location. Can be easily interfaced 
to your own programs. All instructions 
supplied. Also includes the JARB arcade 
target gun and target software. Shoot 
targets from across the room. No other 
unit like this is presently available from 
anywhere else for the 80C or TDP-100 
computers. 

Add $4.00 Shipping $74.95 



COMREX CR-6S00 

(13" Color Monitor) 

High resolution display monitor produces 
an incredibly sharp image. Includes built- 
in speaker with audio circuit. Compatible 
with virtually any microcomputer. 
$344.95 



COMREX CR-1 

Compact desk-top daisy wheel 
printer, especially designed for word 
processing. Assures high reliability, 
and produces quiet, high quality 
printing. Complete with RS-232 in- 
terface. 

$810.00 



U.S FUNDS ONLY 

C.O.D. ORDERS ACCEPTED 

Sorry, no C.O.D. on printers and 
monitors. 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



'VIDEO INTERFACE KIT 

Allows the composite video signal to be 
interfaced directly to a B/W or color 
monitor. TV and monitor can be used 
simultaneously. Complete with com- 
prehensive instructions and all parts, in- 
cluding an external sound output. NOTE: 
May not work with monitors requiring 
high input drive - call or write for recom- 
mended monitors, 

$19.95 

DUAL 

rainbow JOYSTICK UNIT 
"™" (D.J.) 

Single unit assembly enhances payability 
of multi-joystick/player games; conve- 
nient press-to-fire buttons 
Add $4.00 shipping $35.95 

EPSON PRINTERS 

MX80FT/Graftrax+ $524.95 

MX100FT/Graftrax+ $699.95 

Serial Interface w/4K Buffer 

Ideal for80Cuse $109.95 

80CTO Epson Cable $19.95 

See shipping Info 



NEW PRICES ON 
DATA CASSETTES 
C-OS CIO 

$ .65 QTY 1-10 $ .70 

$ .60 QTY 11-20 $ .65 

Soft Poly Cases Ea. $.20 

Hard Shelled Cases Ea. $.22 

Cassette Labels (12) Sh. $.36 

Cassette Labels Tractor (1000) $30.00 

Call or write for quantity prices on all 
cassette products. Special lengths avail- 
able, eg., C-02, etc. 

NANOS COLOR BASIC 

AND EXTENDED 
SYSTEM REFERENCE 
CARD 

"The New Industry Standard" 
$4.95 

(We pay postage on this one) 
All types of Nanos cards available 



MEMORY 
UPGRADE KITS 

'4K/I6K MEMORY CHIP SET 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips, 
16K Ram Button, and Upgrade Instruc- 
tions. No Soldering. 

$16.95 



' 16K/3XK 
MEMORY UPGRADE KIT 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips 
with Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, 
Bus Wire, and 32K Ram Button. Com- 
prehensive Instructions. Recommended 
for "D" or earlier, but may be used on 
"E". Only 9 simple solder connections to 
kit. None to computer. 
$25.95 



•64K RAM CHIPS 

Eight 200 NS Factory Prime 64K RAM 
Chips. Allows you to upgrade "E" board 
easily. No soldering needed. 
$69.95 

'Installation of these items will void the 
Radio Shack warranty. Radio Shack is a 
trademark of the Tandy Corp. 



WABASH DISKETTES 

$25.00 per box of 10 

DISK DOUBLER 

$12.95 



CoCo Chips 

Sam, Pia, CPU, Ext. Basic, 
and 1 . 1 Standard Available 



We carry products 
from many manufacturers. 
If you don't see it, ask. 



JARB 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 
(619) 474-6213 



SHIPPING AND HANDLING: Printers 
and monitors add 1%. Unless otherwise 
specified, all other orders $2.00 per order. 
California Residents add 6^0 sales tax. 



EDUCATION 



16K 
ECB 



•.ho 
RAINBOW 



a; 




Here, The Word 
Is 'Grammatical' 

By R. Bartly Betts 

T he Word is an educational program dealing with parts 
of speech. As set up, it reviews nouns, verbs, pronouns, 
adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, articles and conjunctions. 
Each sentence contains a word that matches one of these 
parts of speech. 

The heart of the program prints sentences on the screen in 
which a word is flashed and then highlighted. The parts of 
speech are presented in a menu, from which the student 
chooses the correct answer. If he answers correctly, the word 
"Right" is flashed in a blue box with accompanying sound. 
If he is incorrect, the word "Wrong" is flashed in an orange 
box, with sound, and he is shown the correct answer. 

Unlimited Questions: 

The program listing contains 20 sentences, but could have 
as few or as many as desired by adding to or substituting the 
data appearing at lines 490 to 590. Line 590 must be retained 
as is to end the program. After the student answers ten 
questions he is given his score percentage and asked to press 
ENTER to continue. He is then given the next ten questions. 
This will continue until all of the sentences have been used. 
The program then asks if the student would like to review 
the questions or quit. 

The format f or adding new data lines or changing existing 
ones is quite simple. The first part of the data line contains 
all of the sentence up to the target word, followed by a 
comma. After the comma, and without a space, the 
remaining portion of the sentence is added and ended with 
the proper punctuation. A second comma is then inserted 
followed by the answer (e.g. noun, verb, adjective, etc.). See 
program line 490 for an example. 

Line 335 contains the parts of speech featured in this 
program. These could easily be changed if different review 
questions are desired. To change the number of student 
choices (e.g. to only feature adverbs and adjectives), there 
are several program changes that are necessary. 

The first change will be in line 35. The loop to read the 
parts of speech into WD$ would have to be changed from 8 
to 2. Line 335 should read - 335 DATA 1. ADVERB, 2. 
ADJECTIVE. In line 330 the 8 should be changed to a 2. 



Line 375 should read "ADVERB" instead of "NOUN" and 
line 380 should read "ADJECTIVE" instead of "VERB." 
Lines 380 through 410 should be deleted. In line 370, "8" 
should be changed to "2" and finally, in line 620, the "43" 
must be changed to "41." 

These same lines would also be the major keys to changing 
the program over entirely and using it for a quiz in some 
other subject. 

Color And Sound: 

The program is quite flashy and has a lot of sound. A 
short machine language program is loaded in at the 
beginning, lines 5 through 15, and it is used to flash the title 
graphics through 42 changes. The program was so fastthat I 
had to insert a sound routine into the loop to slow it down to 
something less than one swift blur. The routine is called in 
line 195. By inserting the data lines and the machine 
language driver (lines 5 through 15), this routine could be 
used in other programs for the same effect. 

As written, the program operates in 32K. To run it in 16K 
you will need to change 32384 in line 5 to 16200. Change 
32384 to 16200 in line 15 as well as both occurrences of 32418 
to 16234. 

Unusual Technique: 

For you programmers, there is at least one routine that is 
different. At least, I have not seen it mentioned or used 
elsewhere. Memory location 136 and 137 in the Color 
Computer contain the current print location in screen 
memory. Thus, with a command like PRINT 
PEEK(136f256+PEEK(137), you can get the computer to 
tell you its memory location at any point in a print to screen 
routine. Further, a PRINT PEEK(136)*256+PEEK(137)- 
1024 will give you the screen (PRINT@) location where a 
print is taking place. To illustrate better, type in and RUN 
the following short program: (You can leave out the REM 
comments.) 

10 CLS: DIM SAV<20>: ' YOU CAN 
RECORD THE LOCATION OF UP TO 20 
COMMAS 

20 POKE 137,32: ' SET THE CURSOR 

TO THE SECOND SCREEN LINE 

30 A=PEEK(136): ' STORE THE 

CURRENT SCREEN LOCATION 

40 B=PEEK<137): 'DITTO 

50 PRINT@0,D; :PRINT@8, "Comma 

used at: "SAV(LOOK) ; ' PRINT THE 

SCREEN LOCATION IN THE LEFT HAND 

CORNER AND THE LOCATION OF THE 

LAST COMMA USED 

60 C=A*256+B: ' CALCULATE THE 
SCREEN MEMORY LOCATION 
70 D=C-1024: " CALCULATE THE 

SCREEN LOCATION 

80 IN*=INKEY*: ' SET UP LOOP TO 
GET KEY INPUT 

90 IFIN*=" " THEN 80: ' IF NO KEY 
BOARD INPUT LOOP AGAIN 
100 IF IN*^'V THEN LOOK-LOOK+l: 
SAV(LOOK)=D: 'IF COMMA IS USED 



48 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



THEN RECORD LOCATION IN THE SAV 
(LOOK) ARRAY 

110 IF IN*="." THEN 200: * IF 
PERIOD IS USED THEN END INPUT 
AND JUMP TO LINE 200 
120 PRINT@D,IN«; : * PRINT 
KEYBOARD INPUT TO SCREEN 
130 GOTO 30: ' DO IT ALL AGAIN 
UNTIL TYPIST GETS TIRED 
200 PRINTS255, " Commas were us 
ed at locations:": FOR T=l TO LO 
ok: print sav(T) ": ":next: 'print 
out all locations where commas 
were used 

210 print: input" location to cha 
nge m ;l: * select one of comma 
locations given in line above 
220 line input" punctuation to i 
nsert: ";c*: ' type punctuation 
you want to substitute for comma 
230 poke l+1024,asc(c*)+64: * 
poke new punctuation to screen 
location containing comma 
240 goto 200: ' keep it up as 
long as you like 

Now, begin typing and use a lot of commas. You should 
only type in two or three lines. If all is well, you should get a 
printout at the top left corner of the screen telling you the 
location of each character you type on the screen and the 
location of each comma (shades of a word processor). When 
you want to end, type a period. The program then allows 
you to change the commas to any other punctuation. 

This is the basic procedure I used to find the location of 
the target word so that I could flash it on the screen. I simply 
stored the screen memory location being used when the 
target word was printed, in variables Pand Pi (see line 275). 
I also used the technique to find the proper place to put the 
rolling cursor before the prompt statement (see line 345). 

The PLA K command in the cursor routine is used to slow 
it down so that it rolls and doesn't just blur. The volume is 
set to 0 in line 350 so there is no distracting noise while the 
student is contemplating the answer. It also takes less 
memory and is easier to issue a PLA Y command than to use 
a FOR-NEXT loop to create a delay. 

Program Flow: 

For those who want to follow the program flow, here is a 
description of the steps: 

-LINES 5 through 25 protect memory, clear for string 
space, load the machine language program and clear the 
screen. 

-LINES 30 through 40 prepare the screen for the title and 
load V$,W$,H$,I$,J$,G$, and T$ with the values needed to 
print the graphics and produce the sound for the title. 

-LINES 45 through 210 print the title, print a border 
around it, call the machine language program to flash the 
title, make all the appropriate sounds and set up the 
program to ask for the users name. 

-LINE 255 is used to wipe out the old sentence from the 
screen in preparation to printing the new. 

-LINE 230 nulls the strings used in the program answer 
selection so there will be no confusion. 

-LINES 245 through 360 print the display to the screen, 



flash the target word, present the menu, ask for an answer 
and flash the prompt cursor in an INKEYS loop to await the 
reply. 

-LINES 365 through 420 accept the answer, compare it 
with the correct reply and jump to the appropriate line. ..425 
for "Right" and 435 for "Wrong." 

-LINES 455 through 475 provide the score and are 
jumped to from line 240 when ten questions have been 
answered. 

-LINES 490 through 590 are the data lines containingthe 
sentences of the quiz. 

-LINES 595 through 625 provide the end of the program 
routine and allow the student to quit or start over again. 

-AS, B$, and C$ contain the first part of the sentences 
used, the second part (including the target word), and the 
correct answer, respectively. 



V/ 150 


0498 


300 


0863 


485 


0E2E 


END 


141B 



The Listing: 

5 CLEAR 50, 32384: CLEAR500 

10 DATA 8E,4,0,C6,80, A6, 84, 81, 60 

,26,2,E7,84, A6, 80, 8C, 6 , 0, 26 , F 1 , 8 

E,4,0, A6,84,8B, 10, A7, 80, 8C, 6, 0, 2 

6,F5,39 

15 FOR X=32384 TO 32418: READ PP* 
: B= V AL ( " &H " +PP* ) : POKE X , B : NEX T : DE 
FUSR0=32384 
25 CLS 



PARENTS & TEACHERS 

of children ages 3 to 8 
Software written by School Director to utilize computer 
as an aid in teaching Early Childhood Concepts. Puts 
fun & excitement into learning. 

Requires 16K ext. basic & Joysticks. 

COMPUTER LITERACY $14.95 

introduces computer age terms & concepts to parents & teachers. Audio/visual. 

CREATE $9.95 

Use of colors & sounds fascinates all ages. Uses Joysticks to DRAW. 

HAND/EYE COORDINATION $14.95 

Guide spaceship thru maze. 13 learning levels. Challenge to all ages. 

RECOGNITION $14.95 

Child learns to recognize "like" figures. 2 separate games. Many learning levels. 

Following Programs USE VOICE RECORDED 
EXPLANATIONS & GAMES IN FUN & EXCITING WAY: 

PERCEPTION $14.95 

Teaches antonyms, i.e. left/right, first/last, etc. 



$14.95 



NUMBER CONCEPTS 

Teaches meaning of numbers. 

ADDITION CONCEPTS $14.95 

Teaches basic arithmetic skills. 

20% discount tor 3 or more programs; 175 tor all 7 programs. 

Send Certified Check or money order lor immediate delivery; otherwise 

2 weeks. 



PROGRAMS BY MR. BOB 

P.O. BOX94 
MONTROSE, CA 91020 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 49 



30 PRINT632 

35 FOR T=l TO 8: READ WD* (T): NEXT 
40 V*=CHR*<175> :W*=" " : H*=" AG" : I 
*= "GA " : J*= " FE " : G*= " EF " : D I MX ( 200 ) 
: T*=H*+ 1 *+ J * : PLAY " V25 ; 05 ; T 1 50 ; L2 
55" 

45 PLAY T* 

50 PRINT TAB (5) STRING* (6, 175) W*V 
*V*W*W*W*V*V*W*STR I NG* ( 5 , 1 75 ) 
55 PLAY T* 

60 PRINT TAB (7) V*+V*+W*+W*+W*+V* 

+V*+W*+W*+W*+V*+V*+W*+V*+V* 

65 PLAY T* 

70 PRINTTAB (7) V*+V*+W*+W*+W*+V*+ 
V*+V*+V*+V*+V*+V*+W*+V*+V*+V*+V* 
75 PLAY T* 

80 PRINT TAB (7) V*+V*+W*+W*+W*+V* 

+V*+W*+W*+W*+V*+V*+W*+V*+V* 

85 PLAY T* 

90 PRINTTAB (7) V*+V*+W*+W*+W*+V*+ 
V*+W*+W*+W*+V*+V*+W*+V*+V*+V*+V* 
+V* 

95 PLAY H*+J*+I* 

100 PRINT 

105 PLAY H*+J*+I* 

110 PRINT TAB (2) V*+V*+W*+W*+W*+V 
*+V*+W*+V*+V*+V*+V*+V*+V*+W*+V*+ 
V*+V*+V*+V*+V*+W*+V*+V*+V*+V*+V* 
115 PRINT TAB(2)V*+V*+W*+W*+W*+V 



*+V*+W*+V*+V*+W*+W*+V*+V*+W*+V*+ 
V*+W*+W*+V*+V*+W*+V*+V*+W*+W*+V* 
+V* 

120 PLAY T* 

125 PRINT TAB (2) V*+V*+W*+W*+W*+V 
*+V*+W*+V*+V*+W*+W*+V*+V*+W*+V*+ 
V*+W*+W*+V*+V*+W*+V*+V*+W*+W*+V* 
+V* 

130 PLAY T* 

135 PRINT TAB(2)V*+V*+W*+V*+W*+V 
*+V*+W*+V*+V*+W*+W*+V*+V*+W*+V*+ 
V*+V*+V*+V*+V*+W*+V*+V*+W*+W*+V* 
+V* 

140 PLAY T* 

145 PRINT TAB (2) V*+V*+V*+V*+V*+V 
*+V*+W*+V*+V*+V*+V*+V*+V*+W*+V*+ 
V*+W*+W*+V*+V*+W*+V*+V*+V*+V*+V* 
150 PLAY H*+J*+I* 

155 FOR T=1024 TO 1055IPOKE T, 14 

7: NEXT 

160 PLAY T* 

165 FOR T=1055 TO 1535 STEP 32: P 
OKE T, 154: NEXT 
170 PLAY T* 

175 FOR T=1024 TO 1505 STEP 32: P 
OKE T, 149: NEXT 
180 PLAY T* 

185 FOR T=1505 TO 1534:P0KE T, 15 
6: NEXT: PLAY T* 




PARALLEL 

PRINTER 

INTERFACE 

■FOR THE RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER 



* RUN ANY STANDARD PARALLEL PRINTER FROM THE COLOR COMPUTER SERIAL I/O PORT 

* WORKS WITH : EPSON MX 70/80/100, NEC PC8023, CENTRONICS, C-itoh, OK I DATA, 

SMITH CORONA DAISY WHEEL, RADIO SHACK, OR ANY OTHER PRINTER WITH A 
STANDARD PARALLEL INPUT. 

* SWITCH SELECTABLE BAUD RATES FROM 300 to 9600 

The Color Computer is capoble of 9600 Baud — Poke 150, 1 . 

Running at 9600 Baud greatly increases the printing speed of some printers. 

* COMPLETE - ALL CABLES AND CONNECTORS INCLUDED 

* PRICE : $69 plus $3 for shipping and handling. Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. 



BOTEK INSTRUMENTS 

4949 HAMPSHIRE 

UTICA, MICHIGAN 48087 

313-739-2910 Dealer inquiries invited 



50 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



190 PLAY"V0" 

195 POKE 65494,0: FOR T=l TO 31: A 

=USR(0):PLAY "V+"+H*:NEXTT 

200 FOR T=l TO 400: NEXT: PLAY "GGG 

GFFFFFEEEEEDDDDDDCCCCCBBBBBAAAAA 

II 

205 T1=1024:T2=1504 

210 FOR T=0 TO 511 STEP 32: PRINT 

@T, " " : PLAYI*+H*+J*: NEXT 
215 POKE 65494,0 
220 CT=0:CO=1 

225 FOR T=64 TO 192 STEP 32: PR IN 
T@T;PLAY"V20; 05; A" : NEXT: PRINT@0, 
5 

230 D*=STRING* (32, 131 ) : K*=" " : CH* 
=" " : CH=0: P*="V20; L255; 03; AAA A" : Q 
*= " BBBB " : C 1 *=CHR* (175) 
235 IF 00=1 THEN PR I NTT AB ( 10) "TH 
E WORD: ":PRINTD*; : PRINT: PRINT " 
YOUR NAME ";: INPUT NM*:CLS:CO=0 
240 IF W+R=10 THEN GOTO 450 
245 PRINT " NAME THE PART OF 

SPEACH: ":PRINT D*; 

250 CT=CT+ 1 : CT*=STR* ( CT )+".": PR I 
NT CT*" "; 

255 READ A*, B*,C*: A*=A*+" " 
260 IF A*="END " THEN GOTO 595 
265 A=INSTR(B*," ")-l:IF A<5 AND 

A>0 THEN 270 ELSE IF A=< 1 THEN 
A=INSTR(B*, ". ")-l ELSE IF A=< 1 T 
HEN A= I NSTR ( B* ,"!")- 1 ELSE IF A= 
<1 THEN A= I NSTR ( B* , " ? " ) - 1 
270 L*=LEFT*(B*, A) 
275 PRINT A*; : P=PEEK (136) : P1=PEE 
K(137) :PRINT B* 

280 PRINT@485, "RIGHT="R" WRONG= 
"W; 

285 FOR T=l TO A 

290 X (T)=PEEK(P1+1023+T) 

295 NEXT T 

300 POKE 65495,0 

305 FOR F=l TO 2 

310 FOR T=l TO A: POKE P1+1023+T, 
X(T) -64: NEXT: PLAY Q* 
315 FOR T=l TO A: POKE P1+1023+T, 
X (T) : NEXT: PLAY P* 

320 FOR T=l TO A: POKE P1+1023+T, 

X(T)-64:next:next f 

325 POKE 65494,0 

330 PRINT@218:F0R T=l TO 8 STEP 
2: PRINT TAB(1)WD*(T) ; TAB (17) WD* ( 
T+l ) : NEXT 

335 DATA 1. NOUN, 2. VERB, 3. PRON 
0UN,4. PREPOSITION, 5. ADJECTIVE, 
6. ADVERB, 7. CONJUNCT ION, 8. ART I 
CLE 

340 PR I NT : PR I NT@384 . D* ; 
345 PRINT" "; :Q=PEEK(137) :Q1=P 
EEK(136): PRINT "PRESS NUMBER OF 
YOUR CHOICE" 



350 PRINT D* ; : BL*= " V0 ; L 1 ; A " 
355 Y= ( 1024+Q) +254 

360 K*=INKEY*: POKEY, 128: PLAY BL* 
: POKEY, 202: PLAY BL*:POKE Y, 197: 
PLAY BL*: POKEY, 128: IF K*="" THEN 
360 

365 CH=VAL(K*) 

370 IF CH<1 OR CH>8 THEN 360 
375 IF CH=1 THEN CH*="NOUN" 
380 IF CH=2 THEN CH*="VERB" 
385 IF CH=3 THEN CH*=" PRONOUN" 
390 IF CH=4 THEN CH*="PREPOSITIO 
N" 

395 IF CH=5 THEN CH*=" ADJECTIVE" 
400 IF CH=6 THEN CH*=" ADVERB" 
405 IF CH=7 THEN CH*=" CONJUNCT 10 
N" 

410 IF CH=8 THEN CH*=" ARTICLE" 
415 IF CH*=C* THEN 425 
420 IF CH*OC* THEN 435 
425 PRINT@357, STRING* (21, 175) ; :P 
LAY " V20L50O5 " + I * : R*= " R I GHT " : R 1 * 
="right":FOR T=l TO 8:PRINT@365, 
R*; :PRINT@365,S*; :PRINT@365,R1*; 
:playg*: NEXT: FOR T=l TO 200: NEXT 
430 R=R+1 : GOTO 225 

435 PRINT@357,STRING*(21,255) ; :S 
OUND 10,2: W*= " WRONG " : W 1 *= " wr ong " 
:FOR T=l TO 8:PRINT@365, W*; :PRIN 




PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 



QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR 80C 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR 
TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



Flight 

If you'd like to fly a plane then this is what you've been 
waiting for. A really good graphics oriented flight simulator 
in high resolution. Four difficulty levels let you go from 
student level to a difficult instrument-only landing. In front 
of you on the screen are your instruments, and above 
them are two representations of your plane in relation to 
the flight path (top and side views). At the higher levels all 
you have to go by are the instruments. Can you put it down 
on the runway to hear the synthesized voice from the 
tower say "perfect landing"? It's tough! You use your 
joystick just like the control stick on a plane, and the action 
is realistic indeed. This program was written by a pro- 
fessional flyer — a pilot for a major United States air carrier, 
and the high standards of professionalism really show. 
Just CLOADM and take to the skies!! Requires 32K 
extended. TAPE is $1 9.95 - DISK is $24.95 



Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping 
free on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 4% 
sales tax. Orders shipped within two days. 

Stocked by Quality Dealers, or send order to: 

PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

9822 E. Stella Road 
Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 51 



T@365 , S* j : PR I NT@365 , W 1 * ; : SOUND 1 
, l:NEXT:FOR T=l TO 200: NEXT 
440 CLS0:LK*=LEFT*<C*, 1) : IF LK*= 
"A" OR LK*="E" OR LK*="I" OR LK* 
="0" OR LK*="U" THEN AN*=" AN " E 
LSE AN*="A " 

442 PRINT@128," " A*; B*: PRINTD*; : 
PRINT TAB <2) NM*" : ".■PRINT" <";L*"> 

is "AN*;c*:print:printd*; :print 

TAB (2) "PRESS < ENTER > TO CONTINU 

E "; : INPUT Z* 

445 W=W+l:CLS:GOTO 225 

450 CLS:PRINTTAB<7)NM*"'S ";"SCO 

RE: ": PRINTD*; 

455 PRINT" THAT IS" R" RIGHT OUT 
OF" R+W" QUESTIONS" 
460 PRINT 

465 PRINT" YOUR PERCENTAGE IS"R/ 

<R+W)*100"7." 

470 PRINT D* 

475 PRINT" PRESS < ENTER > TO CONT 
INUE "; :LINEINPUTZ* 
480 W1=W1+W:R1=R1+R: W=0:R=0 
485 GOTO 225 

490 DATA TO, COIN A PHRASE YOU NE 
ED SOME CENTS. , VERB 

495 DATA ROSCO RESCUED THE, RAVI S 
HING REDHEAD. , ADJECTIVE 

500 DATA THE RAIN IN, SPAIN FALLS 
MAINLY ON THE SPANISH., 



8 



ooooooo©ooooooooooooooooooo<*ra»* 

BATTLE of GETTYSBURG 
A Strategy Game 
for mature Players 



DOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



STOP REBEL INVADERS 




o 

tt> o 
CD CD 
~ CJ1 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



5©FTWR1DE 

P.O. Box 3504 
Austin. Texas.- 78764 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



52 



(512)444-6135 
iiiuimiii mmm 



NOUN 

505 DATA PINTOS ARE, SPOTTY 

PERFORMERS. , ADJECTIVE 
510 DATA YOU CAN FINISH THIS QU 
I Z , OR FLUNK THE COURSE ! , CONJ 

UNCTION 

515 DATA RED RYDER HAS , HORSE SC 
ENTS. , ADJECTIVE 

520 DATA HE SAID THE MINE WAS, MI 
NE. , PRONOUN 

525 DATA HERBIE WENT BANANAS AND 
WOW WHAT, A FRUITCAKE! , ART I C 

LE 

530 DATA, HOPE SPRINGS ETERNAL IN 

THE WORLD., NOUN 

535 DATA COME TO ME WITH, ZEAL ! , 
ADVERB 

540 DATA THE SPINX SWORE THE SPH 
ERE WAS SWAYING, SWEETLY. , AD 

VERB 

545 DATA STANLEY WASHED AND, DRIE 

D THE DISHES. , VERB 

550 DATA "HE HITS, HE RUNS,", HE 

SLIDES HE RIPS HIS PANTS !, PRO 

NOUN 

555 DATA ,SICK BEARS GET HIVES., 
ADJECTIVE 

560 DATA CREEPY CRAWLING CRITTER 
S CATCH, UNDER GARTERS., PR 

EPOSITION 

565 DATA I, BEL I EVE YOU DON'T ALW 
AYS CARE FOR GRAMMER. , VERB 

570 DATA TERINA TOOTH-FAIRY FLEW 

FOR FREEDOM ON A 
, POWDER-PUFF. , NOUN 
575 DATA RED RYDER BRINGS HORSE 

SCENTS, WITH HIM.,PREPOS 

ITION 

580 DATA THE MISSING MISSLE WASN 
'T , MISSING ME! , VERB 

585 DATA I THOUGHT THE THOUGHT H 
E THOUGHT WAS A THOUGHT, OF 

ME. , PREPOSITION 
590 DATA END, END, END 
595 CLS:PRINT@192,D*5 IPRINT " TH 
AT'S ALL THE QUESTIONS 
600 PRINT" TOTAL RIGHT="R+R1 ; " T 
OTAL WR0NG="W+W1 

605 PRINT" TYPE 'R' TO REVIEW QU 
EST IONS AGAIN OR PRESS 'ENTER 
' TO END" 
610 PRINT D* 

615 IN*=INKEY*: IF IN*="" THEN 61 
5 

620 RESTORE: FOR T=l TO 43: READ X 
X*:NEXT 

625 CT=0:CLS:IF IN*="R" THEN PLA 
Y T*+P*+Q*:R1=0: W1=0:GOTO 240 
630 CLS: PRINT@234, "THE END";: SOU 
ND 50, 2: SOUND 1,5: END /fF$S 



codooooooooooo 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



GIVE YOUR CHILD 
AN UNFAIR 
ADVANTAGE 




Don't just depend on others to provide 
the basic education your child needs to 
succeed in tomorrow's world. While test 
scores of others may go down, your 
child's scores can improve 
dramatically when you provide him 
or her with individualized 
MICRO SCHOOL PROGRAMS, 
in Reading, Math, English Usage, 
Spelling, and Games that Teach. 
Learning at home can be fun. 



He or she can master basic 
skills, using a MICRO SCHOOL 
PROGRAM, in just minutes each 
day if you have an APPLE, ATARI, 
TRS-80, TRS-80 COLOR or TDP 
personal computer at home. 



ASK FOR MICRO SCHOOL 
PROGRAMS BY NAME at your 
local computer store. 





BERTAMAX INC. 

101 Nickerson #202 

Seattle, WA 98109 

(206)282-6249 

© 1982. Bertamax, Inc. 




BERTAMAX INC. 



PERSONALIZED INSTRUCTION ON PERSONAL COMPUTERS 



Software Review... 



Battle of Gettysburg 
A Good, Tactical Challenge 



As the Union commander at the Battle of Gettysburg, the 
first and most critical decision you must make is which 
Southern general to pit your forces against. General Pickett 
is reported to be a man of direct action who sends his men 
straight toward the objective, although low morale or 
exhaustion seem to have made his troops prone to break in 
combat. General Lee is a more mobile commander. He gives 
you less time to react, and his troops are made of sterner 
stuff. Jackson is their best. His well-tuned chain of 
command allows the rebels to sweep across the battlefield, 
giving you little time to react, and treating your veteran 
troops as if they were still green farm boys. Make your 
choice with care, as once the battle is engaged, timef orslow 
pondering of alternatives is past. 

As a wargamer with over 20 years of gaming experience, I 
have commanded or been part of a team commanding 
paper, plastic, or metal armies from Baltimore to West 
Point, the problem being that sometimes you must travel 
that far just to find an opponent. When the CoCo came into 
my life last June, it seemed that the perfect opponent had 
arrived. On call 24 hours a day, it never has to be home by 
midnight, or get up the next day to support the wife and 
kids. The only trouble was that in June of '82 all it could do 



r 



VJ54* 



PREMIUM SOFTWARE 
FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

SISI (16K EXT. BASIC) $9.95 
Sisi the fortune telling computer uses data 
that you input to determine a character 
reading for you. 

COLORHYTHM (16K EXT. BASIC) $9.95 
Plots your biorhythm in hi-res graphics 
for 1 5 days. 

PRESCHOOL PAK (1 6K EXT. BASIC) $8.95 
Two preschooler learning drills. Contains 
ALPHABET & COUNTER. Makes use of 
hi-res graphics and sound. The kids think 
it's a game! 

MONEY MINDER II (16K) $14.95 
A cassette based personal finance pro- 
gram. Up to 56 user definable budget 
categories. Printout capability. Menu 
driven— easy to use. 

DISK MONEY MINDER 
(32K plus disk) $19.95 
Similar to MONEY MINDER II but for use 
with disk. Easier and faster to use. 



HARMONYCS 

P.O. BOX 1573 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84110 



was shoot down spaceships. A test of hand/ eye 
coordination, not tactical skill. 

Battle of Gettysburg is a re-creation of that battle, played 
with simple high-res graphics on a screen-displayed map of 
the battlefield. The game is in "real-time" — in that once you 
begin play, the computer moves when it wants to, and you 
move when you can. Starting with two brigades against six, 
you must slow the rebel advance until Union reinforcements 
allow you to turn the tide. If you fail to slow them, or lose 
too great a portion of your holding f orce in the attempt, they 
will sweep you offthe field, destroying your army piecemeal. 

A neat 1 2-page instruction book (cover, 1 1 pages of text, 
and one page of maps) is supplemented by an instruction 
program on side two of the tape. A print subroutine allows 
you to print a hard-copy of the taped instructions for 
reference during play. 

While there are no loading instructions given in either the 
book or tape, the program loaded easily with my Radio 
Shack CTR-80A recorder. It proved difficult to load with 
my non-Radio Shack backup recorder. As the backup cost 
less than half of the price of the CTR-80 A, this may be more 
proof that you get what you pay for than a problem with the 
program. 

Speaking of backups, making a backup may prove a 
difficult project with Battle of Gettysburg. Parts of the 
program are protected, primarily by use of DATA 
statements and ASCII format storage for the map and 
instruction sections. The body of the program is copyable, 
to allow saving of modified versions. The author, James 
Woodruff, offers a number of simple changes to modify 
play. One changes the odds a bit in your favor, another 
provides for a stiff er opposition (I felt as if half my troops 
had been re-armed with puffballs) and another tells how to 
give yourself more time to move or speed up the game. Both 
the latter are highly recommended. 

Playing time against Pickett, the easiest opponent, is 
about one hour. Lee is more difficult, lasting 90 to 120 
minutes. Jackson can run either shorter or longer; the 
shorter games being the ones you lose. There is no game- 
save option, but the games are short enough for this not to 
be a problem. 

Using 16K and Extended Basic with a joystick control, 
this game provides the best "feel" of any tactical game I've 
played so far on the Color Computer. Others have the same 
excitement of challenge, but the real-time aspect in Battle of 
Gettysburg provides the pressure that changes a cool, 
deliberative exercise into an intense, heart-pumping 
experience. My only complaint is the limited use of sound, 
with only a short, rising, irregular beep indicating combat, 
and final victory (or defeat) being indicated by The Battle 
Hymn of the Republic, or Dixie. 

I'll close with some tactical hints. Remember, the 
Confederate forces "home in" on your Command Post (CP). 
Use your CP to force them to attack your strongest defense. 
First, move your two brigades to block the Rebels, then 
move the CP to the town itself. This takes several moves, 
even on the road. Keep checking your blocking forces. Try 
not to engage more than one or two enemy units at a time, as 
you lose control during combat. If your line is still holding 
when the last block of Union troops enters on Baltimore 
Pike, you are well on your way to victory! 

(SOFTWRIDE, P.O. Box 3304, Austin, TX 78764, 
$20.95) 

— Nevin J. Templin 



54 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 




ftware 

k 



AUTO DUN 



^37 



Auto Run is a utility program for the TRS-80* 
Extended Basic Color Computer. It is used to add 
convenience and professionalism to your software. 

Auto Run will help you create your title screen 
with the graphics editor. The graphics editor allows 
you to choose a background color and border style. 
Using the arrow keys and several other commands 
you can draw pictures, block letters and also include 
text. 

Auto Run will generate a machine language load- 
er program to preceed your program on the tape. 
Then, to start up your program, simply type 
CLOADM to load in the Auto Run loader program, 
which will then automatically start itself up, display 
your title screen, load your program and then RUN 
or EXEC it. 

Also you may record a vocal or musical introduc- 
tion preceding your program. The Auto Run loader 
will control the audio on/off. 

Basic programs can be set to load anywhere in 
memory above $600 (the PCLEAR 0 page). 

Software authors: The Auto Run prefix may be 
appended to your software products. 

Auto Run is $14.95 and includes complete docu- 
mentation and an assembly source listing, 
Requires 16K Extended Basic. 



Galactic Hangman 




G ii 

A great new twist to the popular, educational word 
guessing game for the Color Computer. Large (700 
words) and sophisticated vocabulary. Or enter your 
own words, your child's spelling list, foreign 
language vocabulary, etc. 

Outstanding high resolution graphics, animation 
and sound effects. 

For $14.95 you get both the 16K and 32K versions 
of Galactic Hangman. 



5^ 




Tape Information 
Management System 

A user-oriented, easy to use personal database 
management system for the TRS-80* Color Com- 
puter with these outstanding features: 
'keeps files of programs, names, addresses, birth- 
days, recipes, class or club rosters, anything 
'variable record and field lengths 
*phrase substitution editor 

* up to 8 user-definable fields 

* ML sort (up to 3 fields), search and delete functions 
*2 search modes — range and item 

* user-definable printer format, for any printer 
*up to 230 characters per record 

For $24.95 you get the database management 
system, our full documentation which includes a 
reference guide and a programmer's guide, and our 

1981 Bibliography of articles relating to the Color 
Computer. Requires 16K Extended Basic. 32K 
recommended. 

1982 TIMS Bibliography — $9.95 



Sill 



Syntax 




A sensational and educational version of a popular 
party game for the TRS-80* Color Computer . . . 

For 1 to 10 players. Load a story into the com- 
puter. The players are asked to supply a noun, verb, 
part of body, celebrity, etc. which the program uses 
to complete the story. The story, which is displayed 
when all words are entered, will be hilarious. Silly 
Syntax requires 16K Extended Basic (32K for disk 
version). For $19.95, you get a user guide and a 
tape containing the Silly Syntax game and 2 stories. 
You can create your own stories or order story tapes 
from the selection below. 
Silly Syntax stories — Ten stories per tape. 
SS-001 - Fairy Tales SS-004 - Current Events 
SS-002 - Sing Along SS-006 - Adventure/Sci-Fi 
SS-003 - X-Rated SS-007 - Potpourri 

Each story tape is $9.95. 1 0% off for 3 or more story 
tapes. Disk is $24.95 for Silly Syntax and 2 stories or 
$49.95 for Silly Syntax and all 62 stories. 



RAINBOW 




*TRS-B0 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 
(614) 861-0565 

CIS orders EMAIL to 70405, 1374 



Add $1 .00 per tape or disk for 
postage and handling. Ohio- 
ans add 5.5% sales tax. COD 
orders are welcome. Dealer 
inquiries invited. 



BASIC TRAINING 



Let's Organize 
That Jumble of Tapes 



By Joseph Kolar 



At some point in time, you will have saved a lot of 
programs on your cassette recorder. You find you have a 
bunch of programs on various tapes lying around. You 
discover that you have difficulty in recalling just what some 
of your program titles signify. You can't put your hand on 
the right tape when you want it. 

When you want to show off, and demonstrate some of 
your goodies to a friend, it gets especially frustrating. Not 
much fun being the proud owner of a bunch of disorganized 
tapes. You can't have fun computing if you are unable to 
keep track of the results of so many long hours at the 
keyboard. 

The solution is to organize your tapes. No w is a good time 
to do it! 

Let it be known here that you shouldn't be intimidated 
into coughing up $3.69 for a Radio Shack 20 minute 
leaderless tape. Any inexpensive tape is good enough to 
store programs. You need a batch of three-pack 60-minute 
tapes, some plastic cassette storage boxes, three for $ 1 . 19 
(from you know where), and a packet of 20 title cards to list 
programs. I prefer to customize my own title cards. 

Identify each side of your tapes, by printing 'side 1 ' or 'side 
2' with a black felt-tipped pen. 

Beginners pay attention! You more advanced 
programmers can peek. 

When you decide to tape a program, assign it a name that 
means something to you, if it is your own creation or is 
untitled. However, if you are copying one that is titled, don't 
change it. 

When you tape a program that you have in memory, 
always make two copies. If possible, one copy each on two 
different tapes. Do not wipe out of memory the program 




that you are taping until you have saved it for the second 
time. After inserting a fresh tape in your cassette, rewind it 
and reset the tape counter to 000 and fast-forward it to 003 
to get past the leader. CSA VE the tape, noting the counter 
number. If it is betwixt and between numbers, use the higher 
number. 

When you type a second program on the same tape, 
rewind the tape to the beginning and reset the counter to 
000. Note the ending number of the last program and fast- 
forward it about six to 1 0 numbers past the ending. This will 
be your starting location. The reason for this is that you may 
have occasion to revise, correct or add to an existing 
program. You have this safety factor of spaces between 
programs. When you erase a program, you start a few 
counter units before the beginning of the program and erase 
until you reach a f ew units past the end of the program. This 
allows a nice clean area for retaping. 

Always rewind your tapes; reset the counter to 000 and 
start your calculations from 000, whether you are taping, 
erasing, retaping or loading a tape. 

Here is the way to erase a program on tape in your cassette 
recorder when at the same time you have the revised 
replacement tape in the computer's memory. Rewind the 
tape to beginning, set the counter to 000, find the starting 
and ending numbers of the program in question. Fast- 
forward to about two counter units before the beginning of 
the starting number, put the dummy plug that comes with 
the CTR-80A into the microphone jack, press "break," set 
the recorder to record (record/ play), key. in CLOAD, 
ENTER. Watch the counter, and when the counter is about 
two units past the end of the program you are erasing, stop 
the recorder. Be careful! You do not want to run into the 



56 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



next program and destroy it. 

Now, pay close attention! Remove the dummy plug and 
press the reset button in back of the computer. You will get a 
black screen with an "OK." Your program will be safe, but 
press RUN to double check. Rewind to the start of the tape, 
reset the counter to 000 and fast-forward to the location 
where your erased program began. You're in business. Now, 
you can CSA VE the revised program in the routine, but run 
it a few times and you will get the feel of it. If you have the 
dummy plug, tie a baggie tie-wire or ribbon tightly around 
the groove. (The plug is easy to misplace or overlook.) You 
will want to copy this routine into your reference notebook 
and refer to it until that happy day when you commit the 
routine to memory. 

Get a 3 /g" X 3 /g" piece of gummed label. Stand a plastic 
cassette tape box on end, so that the bottom is to the left and 
the left side is up. Press the gummed square on the top 
corner nearest to the hinge. M ake sure it is centered so that it 
doesn't overlap the ends of the box. If it does, it will get dog- 
eared from use. Take your felt-tipped pen and letter the 
square, "A." The next box will be"B,"and so on. If you have 
the recommended rotary cassette caddy, and slip the box in 
a slot, the identifying "A" will stick out prominently on top. 
You will know you followed instructions correctly. 

Do you have the Radio Shack title cards? If you'd rather 
create your own, send a S.A.S.E. and I will send you a free 
print-out on how to go about it. Back to the Radio Shack 
cards: extend the blue line down through the long, oblong 
square, dividing it into two equal segments. 

Make it a point to organize your programs into 
categories. For instance: fun games, music, tutorials, utility, 
color graphics, kid stuff, you name it! Make up a 
demonstration tape to show off your favorite programs. Use 
one side of a tape for programs that fit into one category. 

When you have determined your personal requirements, 
and picked a name to identify the type of program on the 
first side of a tape, neatly print, vertically, the category of the 
contents in the top half of the oblong space. When you figure 
out what kind of material your second side will contain, 
print it on the lower oblong. Now, when you store the 
cassettes, the top will show the "A" and the face will show 
the category. 

Discard any title pages that may come with cassette tapes. 
If you use only one kind of title card, you get a satisf yingly 
professional look. 

There is no rule saying that you have to fill a 60 minute 
tape with programs. After you run to about 200 or 250 
counter units into a tape, it becomes time-consuming to 
rewind and locate the higher numbered programs. Start a 
new tape! 

What have we wrought? Each program has a home with 
an address. "A" means the program is on side one of tape 
"A." *C2" means the program is on side two of tape "C." 
(More on this is the next article.) 

Following is an example of how to list four programs on 
side one of tape "A:" 

START NAME END 

3 CAMELOT 17 

24 PLUNK 31 

38 RED-BOX 40 

46 CANYON 62 

You would enter the above information in black or blue 
ink in the top four lines. Note that we left ample space 
between programs. 

Occasionally, you will need special instructions for some 
programs. For example: PC LEAR 1, or you may require 
joysticks to operate a program. Insert a coded symbol that 



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PRINTERS 

EPSON MX80 $499. 
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OKIDATA 82 $459. wfe* 
STAR GEMINI- 10 $379. 
PROWRITTER $519. 



16K CHIP SET $14.95 
HAYS STACK SMART MODEM $239\ 
KRAFT JOY STICK $49.95 
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COMPUKIT 

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February, 1983 the RAINBOW 57 



has meaning to you between the starting number and the 
name. Make up your own code! 

Congratulations! Doesn't it make you feel good to have 
your tapes under control? Next time, we will establish a 
"tape register." For now, organize your tapes, and use that 
notebook you were asked to purchase. And, as I've said 
before, don't forget to have fun! 



PROGRAMMING UTILITY 



16K 



The Latest Program? 
Here's A Dating System 

By Jorge Mir 

If you are like me, you're probably never satisfied with a 
program. There is always that little change required to 
satisfy our fancy, to add that subroutine that is missing, to 
improve the print statements so it looks better, etc., etc., 

Ever since I added the disk system, 1 hardly ever erase an 
old program until 1 just need additional room in the disk. As 
a result, I end up with copies of thesame program at various 
stages of development and usually have a hard time 
determining which of the copies represent the latest revision. 

The program listed below solved my problem rather 
simply, since it forces me to indicate the latest date of the 
revision. This way, I can list the various versions of the 
program and immediately select the latest one. 

Here is how the program works: 

When you first load and RUN the program, it recognizes 
that it is the initial run, so it bypasses the "dating" 
subroutine. Before it starts EXECuting the regular 
program, it records the Basic pointers that indicate the end 



CUBE SOLVER 

A GRAPHIC SPECTACULAR 




MORE THAN FOUR 
COLORS IN HIGH 
RESOLUTION GRAPHICS 
MACHINE LANGUAGE 



Humiliate the frustrating little puzzle. 

This Program will: 

Let you solve a cube on the screen. 

Solve the cube for you or mix it up. 

Let you mix it up and solve it for you. 

Print all solutions to screen, tape or printer. 

Play a little music to get you started. 

Save your challenges on tape. /^^v 

1 6K Extended $19.95 Postage Paid (v^w 



Moreton Bay 




Software 



MORETON BAY 
SOFTWARE 

316 Castillo Street 
Santa Barbara, CA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

C A Residents Add 6% Sales Tax 



of the Basic program (records them at locations &H200 and 
&H201). 

If you make any changes in the program and try to run it 
again, it compares the new Basic pointers to those recorded 
initially and recognizes a change has been made which then 
causes the program to ask you for a new date. 

Once you ENTER the new date, it is actually imbedded in 
the program itself so that next time you list the program you 
can see the new date appearing as part of the program. 

Whenever I am going to start a new program, I simply 
load the program listed below, change the program name 
appearing at the beginning of the program and start typing 
the new program at step 10 through 9999. 

One word of caution: If you make changes in the 
program, but the length of the program does not change, it 
will not recognize that changes have been made and the 
dating subroutine will be bypassed. For an example, if you 
add a new line with 10 characters and delete an old line also 
with 10 characters, the length of the program will not change 
and the dating subroutine will be bypassed. 

Those of you who have the same problem I had in 
recognizing latest versions of programs might find this 
program useful. 



END 02DD 



The Listing: 

5 GOSUB 10000 

6 ' **************************** 

7 ' STEPS 10 THROUGH 9999 ARE 

8 ' RESERVED FOR YOUR PROGRAM 

9 ' **************************** 

9999 END 

1 0000 A=PEEK ( 27 ) *256+PEEK ( 28 ) 
10010 B=PEEK(&H200)*256+PEEK(&H2 
01 ) 

10020 IF A=B THEN RETURN 

10030 POKE&H200, PEEK (27) : P0KE&H2 

01 , PEEK (28) 

10035 IF B<&H600 THEN RETURN 
10040 X=VARPTR (DATE*) 
10050 CLS: PRINTS 168, "LATEST REVI 
SIDN: " 

10060 PRINT TAB(ll) DATE* 
10070 PRINT@481 , " (PRESS <ENTER> 
FOR NO CHANGE) " ; 

10080 PRINTS264, "ENTER NEW DATE: 

11 

10090 PRINT TAB ( 1 1 ) " " j : LINE INPU 

T D*: IF D*=" "THEN RETURN 

10100 IF LEN<D*)<8 THEN D*=D*+" 

":GOTO10100 

10110 IF LEN(D*)=8 THEN 10140 
10120 PRINT : PRINT TAB (11) "TRY AG 
AIN! " 

10130 SOUND200, HFOR D=1TO5*0:NE 
XTD: SOUND200, 1 : GOTO 10050 
10140 Y=PEEK(X+2)*256+PEEK(X+3) 
10150 FOR X=1T08:P0KE Y,ASC(MID* 
(D*, X, 1) ) : Y=Y+l:NEXT 

10160 RETURN ^ 



58 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Computer Island Presents 

THE BEST IN 
SOFTWARE FOR KIDS! 




16K CIRCUS ADVENTURE S9.95 

A child's adventure [ime with many songs, graphics, 
and surprises. Meel all ol four circus favorites while 
searching for the popcorn man. Great family fun for all 
ages. 

16K SCHOOLMATE ADVENTURE JU.95 

While in search of a lost computer tape, you travel in a 
school and draw pictures, compose songs, play basket- 
ball, and use the keyboard to travel in the hallways. 



n 




COCO-JOT by Steve Greenberg 

16X SI 1.95 

A new version of the famous lotto word game. A guess- 
ing game using your powers of reasoning and deduction. 
1 or 2 player game. Different levels of play. Ages 8 to 
adult. User modifiable. 



"FROG MAN" by Carsten Uwrenz 
16KEit. Basic SI 1.95 

Lively, action packed, joystick controlled game. 7 
levels ol difficulty and timer. Best score displayed. Get 
your frogs safely home through several interesting 
obstacles. 



»»» NEW »*» 
StTTVWE FDR SPECTRUM'S LI6HTPEN 

FlK-PflK : THIS 3 PROGRAM BANE SET 
MILL ENTERTAIN YOU WITH A 'GREAT' 
FEU DIMENSION FDR VDUR COMPUTER. 
FUN-PAH TAPE 16-K Ext. $14.95 
LIBHTPEN AND TAPE $34.95 




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RAINBOW 



FOREIGN LANGUAGE GAMES 16K Ext. 01 16K S9.95 
FRENCH BASEBALL - Score base hits or home runs 
for correct answers. You're out if wrong. Correct 
answers supplied. Fun way to learn and practice 
vocabulary. 2 levels. 

SPANISH BASEBALL - Same game using Spanish 
vocabulary words. 

ITALIAN BASEBALL - Same game using Italian 
vocabulaiy words. 

User Modifiable. 

PLEASE SPECIFY LANGUAGE AND VERSION 



HEBREW ALPHABET 16K Eil. Basic $9.95 

Learn to recognize the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. 
Each letter graphically displayed. Help command, 
vocabulary words included. 

HEBREW BULLETIN BOARD 
16K EXT. $15.95 
A utility -men Mill enable YOU 
to create Hebrew, or Hebrew/English 
idordSi flash cardsr sentences, etc. 
Easy to learn-Full dcrcu»entation. 
It can also use any screen duwp. 



DOLLARS AND SENSE 16K Ext 111.95 ■ 

Leain to make purchases. Graphic displays of items 
kids love. Player buys using dollars and coins to prac- 
tice using money correctly. Solutions given. 

McCOCO'S MENU 16K Ext. SI 1.95 

America's favorite pastime — going out to eat! Learn 
to buy and add up your purchases from a typical fast 
food restaurant menu. Gain skill in using money. Dif- 
ferent price* each time. 

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 16K Jl 1.95 
Menu driven, 2 level program piovides practice in 
adding or subtracting 2 digit numbers. Vertical format 
for proper entry of digits in the answeis. Report caid 
scoring. 

READING 2-PAK 4K S9.95 

POETRY and SILLY SENTENCES: Any child can create 
his own original reading material about familiar 
people and things through user input. 

READING GAMES 2 Pack 4K S9.95 

Silly Stories and Wizard: These games provide practice 
in reading simple stories and phrases. User input 
make these games personal and fun and keep your 
child interested in reading the results. 



A BYTE OF COLOR BASIC 
by Stevr Bl,n 



A work text containing - instruction, examples, 
illustrations, programs, and many practice exercises. 3 
Units - Basic, Graphics, and Sound. 24 chapters to 
teach you what you need to know to begin reading, 
understanding, and writing your own programs. 
Answer Key included with each book. Great booTfor 
beginners. J4.95 NEW LOW PRICE plus 50t postage 

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NAME THAT SONG GAMES 
16K Extended S9.95 each 

1. 72 children's popular songs. 2 levels of difficulty. 
Timer. Many hours of fun. 

2. 72 all time pop, country, and movie melodies from 
the last three decades. 

3. 60 Broadway Show tunes to test you on past 
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V 



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PRESCHOOL PACK 1 by loseph Kolar 

16K Ext. $11.95 
Clown and Fish-Num: Two programs to help your child 
recognize and count the words and numbers 1 - 10. 
Hi-res graphics and lively songs help to attract and 
keep attention. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 2 by loseph Kolar 

16KEH. ' $11.95 
Count Kids and Add Penny: Two programs to help your 
child count and add up to 10. Beautiful hires 
graphics. 

PRESCHOOL PACK 3 br loseph Kolar 

16KEH. JU.95 
Alpha-Byte: Programs designed to teach recognition 
and identification of the alphabet. Attractive hires 
graphics. 



MUSIC MARVEL 16K Ext. Basic $9 95 

Play 2 familiar children's songs. Large graphic 
displays. No reading or musical ability needed. Great 
for pre-schoolers. 16K version also available. Please 
specify. 



Software Review... 

A Powerful DOS 
For Basic Inflexibility 

By Dr. Laurence D. Preble 

They didn't finish! They could have. There was enough 
room. But they just didn't finish the job. (No, not you, Mr. 
Stark.) I am talking about Radio Shack's Disk Operating 
System (DOS) for the Color Computer. 

I don't mean to be overly critical. Radio Shack gave us a 
fine computer, after all. In the beginning, maybe the folks at 
Radio Shack just didn't realize that people would want to 
use their nifty new Color Computer for things other than 
Raster Blasters and the like. You and I know better. Sure! 
Games are fun. But our little CoCo is capable of much more: 
word processing, spelling-checker programs, spreadsheet 
business analysis, telecommunications. All of these and 
more are possible. 

Radio Shack's Disk Basicdoesallowyoutoloadandsave 
files, initialize a disk, read or write individual sectors, 
manipulate random access files and do many of the things a 
good DOS should do. But here's the rub: while Radio 
Shack's Disk Basic allows you to perform many of the 
functions of a real DOS, the major drawback is that it only 
works from Basic. Machine language programs must all be 
called from Basic. There is no simple way for powerful 
business programs to use the DOS unless they are at least 
partly written in Basic; so you are limited in power and 
speed. 

A good DOS should provide a friendly environment for 
the user. The DOS environment should provide numerous 
means of manipulating disk files and should provide a 



flpMr* THE MOST COMPLETE LIST OF 
EDUCATIONAL COLOR COMPUTER"" 
PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES 




per cassette 



A partial list — 

• Add • Biology 

• Algebra • Weather Forecaster 

• Alphabet • Physics 

• Planetary Positions 

• Flash cards for German, French, 

Spanish, States and Capitals 

Programs for — TRS 80 Color Computer, 
VIC 20, Atari 400, Timex-Sinclair 

Many more! From Kindergarten through graduate 
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simple means of invoking machine language programs. In 
addition, there should be available detailed instructions for 
incorporating the various DOS capabilities into your own 
machine language programs. 

In previous months, you have seen my articles on FLEX 
(TM of Technical Systems Consultants). If you missed any 
particular issue, I understand that the Rainbow is happy to 
sell you back issues while they last. FLEX is a complete and 
powerful DOS; however, your computer must be modified 
to accept 64K of RAM before you can use FLEX. Also, 
programs that run under Radio Shack DOS will not run 
under the FLEX DOS without modification. 

STAR -DOS To The Rescue 

Peter A. Stark, who- has previously offered useful 
additions to CoCo's repertoire such as SPELL 'N FIX 
(TM), is now offering STAR-DOS (TM). 

When I received STAR-DOS for review, I was pleasantly 
surprised to find that it easily meets my aforementioned 
definition of a good DOS. .S7>17?-.DO.Siscompleteand user 
friendly. Machine language programs can be called into 
action by simply typing the file name of the program. For 
example, STAR-DOS comes with a machine language 
utility called BUILD/ BIN. This utility allows you to type in 
and save text to disk. Suppose we want to make a text file 
called NOTES/TXT. We would invoke BUILD/BIN by 
typing: BUILD NOTES. Note that default file extensions 
need not be entered. Now start typing your notes. When 
finished type a '#' as the first character on a line. 
NOTES/TXT is saved to disk leaving you back in the 
STAR-DOS operating system. 

STAR-DOS comes with a number of DISK RESIDENT 
commands like BUILD. There is a LIST command to allow 
you to list the text files you have built. There is a DIR 
command to get you a directory printout of the files on a 
particular drive. You can also make your own commands. 
Any machine language program can be considered a 
"command." 

STAR-DOS also has a few memory resident commands. 
Memory resident commands are invoked the same way as 
disk resident commands except that there is no need to wait 
for a memory resident command to load in. 

One of the more interesting memory resident commands 
is PNS which stands for Printer Non-Standard. This 
command allows you to use a printer which has no status 
line (handshaking) and which needs its own line feeds after 
each carriage return. Baud rates can also be altered. 

Unlike FLEX, STAR-DOS is completely compatible 
with programs written for the Radio Shack DOS. The file 
structure is the same. Nonetheless, I have a strong suspicion 
that Mr. Stark was influenced by the design of the FLEX 
DOS. The two operating systems are very similar in many 
respects. In fact, Mr. Stark provides some helpful 
instructions for converting existing FLEX programs to run 
under STAR-DOS. 

Getting into STAR- DOS itself is easy; but first make a 
backup copy of the supplied disk. I wouldn't want to witness 
your reaction if your disk drives suddenly decide to chew up 
your only copy of the software. Next, type RUN "STAR- 
DOS. " STAR-DOS signs on and asks you for today's date. 
STAR-DOS is ready for your commands. When you want 
to get back to Basic, just type BAS. ZIP! You're back. Nice. 

(STAR-KITS, P.O. Box 209, Mt. Kisco, NY 10549, 
$49.95) 



60 the RAINBOW February, 1 983 




Ned Systems Software • P.O. Box 3558 • Chapel Hill. NC 27514 
TO ORDER. CALL: 1-800-334-5470 



Software Review... 

C.C.Calc: Impressive 
'Spread Sheet' For CoCo 

C.C.Calc is an electronic spread sheet program designed 
especially for the Color Computer. It incorporates many of 
the features found in the popularspread sheet programs like 
VisiCalc and SuperCalc running on some of the more 
expensive micros. C. C. Calc does a good job of providing the 
basics in an inexpensive package. If you have never used a 
spread sheet or matrixing- type program, this program will 
provide a good introduction to their operation and use. 

An electronic spread sheet allows you to easily establish 
the relationships between items in a table. For example, you 
might have a column of prices, another of margins 
(percentages), and a third column giving the profit in dollar 
amounts. Additionally, you might want totals for columns 
one and three, and the average margin on these figures. The 
program does the actual calculations and fills in the derived 
values in the table. Furthermore, it takes very little extra 
work to add or change figures. The results of any changes 
are immediately incorporated into the table. These features 
make it possible to engage in 'what if problem solving, once 
the spread sheet is set up. 

C.C.Calc is designed to perform the common arithmetic 
operations — addition, subtraction, multiplication and 
division. Also available are exponentiation (raising a 
number to a power), summation, absolute value, and 
truncation to integers. Within formulas using these 
operations, you can also reference any cells in the matrix. 
This allows you to set up almost any type of calculation 



ordinarily done with a calculator, pencil and a pad of paper. 

In C.C. Calc's 26 by 26 matrix, each cell is referenced by a 
column and row designation (using the letters A-Z). A 
cursor can be moved from cell to cell by using the arrow keys 
or by specifying a two-letter column-row address. Each cell 
in the matrix can have three items associated with it: values, 
formulas, and labels. This feature is unique to C.C.Calc. 
Other spread sheet programs allow only values and 
formulas to be associated with a particular cell. Labels must 
be put in separate cells. C.C.Calc makes it possible to hide 
intermediate calculations 'under' labels. This effectively 
provides more usable space. 

The instructions furnished with C.C.Calc lead you 
through simple examples using most of the features and 
commands available. Good illustrations of actual screen 
displays are provided with each of the examples. These were 
created with C.C. Calc's screen print option. The manual 
also has a command summary and an index, making it easy 
to look up specific operations. The disk version, that I 
reviewed, is supplied with two sample spread sheets, a Form 
1040 A medical deductions sheet and a simple household 
budget sheet. These examples illustrate ways to set up 
particular relationships and calculations. 

I was impressed with the effective handling of disk files. 
Each C. C. Calc data file has / CCC as an extension. Both the 
SAVE and LOAD options allow you to scan through the 
directory of such entries to locate the desired filename. The 
manual contains a short but adequate description of the 
data storage format. This would allow an experienced 
programmer to write his own Basic programs to access the 
data for report generation and other processing. I liked the 
simple approach of directly addressing elements in the 
matrix. The facility for replicating whole columns or rows of 
relationships is a real worksaver, one that is sometimes 
difficult to accomplish using programs like VisiCalc. 

Unfortunately, there were also a few things that were hard 
to get used to. The order for referencing elements in the 
matrix is reversed from the standard convention! Normally, 
matrix elements are referenced by (row, column), but 
C. C. Calc uses first column, then row. In addition, care must 
be taken when entering formulas. C.C.Calc evaluates 
expressions from left to right, without regard to 
parentheses. This can lead to some unusual results. For 
example +2*(AA+AB) is evaluated as +2*AA+AB. Both 
matrix calculation and the writing of disk files are 
annoyingly slow, due mainly to the limitations of Basic. It 
takes about eight seconds to scan the 676 matrix cells; 
writing the relevant information to disk takes much longer. 

Two important functions are missing from C.C.Calc. 
These are the ability to count the number of elements in row 
or column (useful for calculating averages), and the ability 
to set up windows for displaying different parts of the 
matrix. This latter feature might not work too well on the 
limited size of the CoCo display. Further, C.C. Calc displays 
only three columns by thirteen rows. Moving the cursor past 
the display boundary results in a few seconds delay for the 
display to scroll to the new position. 

My overall impression of C. C. Calc is very favorable. This 
inexpensive program, designed to operate in 32K, provides 
most of the essential features of a spread sheet program at a 
modest cost. The carefully designed display format and 
simplified keyboard response is just right for the casual user. 
C.C.Calc is not designed for extensive business use, but it 
certainly will fill the bill as a friendly introduction to the use 
of electronic spread sheets. 

(Transformation Technologies, 194 Lockwood Lane, 
Bloomingdale, IL 60108, $25.00 disk or tape) 

—Stuart Hawkinson 



MORETON BAY 
SOFTWARE 

For TRS 80 Color Com puter & TD P 1 00 

PLANETARIUM ■ a five program astronomy 
package. See constellations, stars, moon and 
planets 16K extended $16.95. 

FILE CABINET ■ a multipurpose information 
management program set. Create mailing lists, 
recipies, inventory tax records, etc. 
16K extended $25.95. 

TOWER CASTLE ■ a classic thematic adven- 
ture with music and color, tough but honest 
(Reviewed December 1982 Rainbow) 
32K extended $17.95 /j^^ 

RAINBOW 

MORETON BAY 
SOFTWARE 

316 Castillo Street 
Santa Barbara, CA 93101 
(805) 962-3127 

Software CA Residents Add 6% Sales Tax 

TRS 80 * Tandy Corp. 




62 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



A WORD FROM THE SPONSOR 

Hi again. This is Month Two in my series of short chats about 
various Color Computer subjects in these Star-Kits ads. Hope you 
will find them interesting and useful. 

Judging from several phone calls I've received, there seems to be 
some confusion as to what a DOS (Disk Operating System) can do 
for you. One recent caller summarized it best when he said, I'd like 
to buy your STAR-DOS. Can you tell me how it will help me write 
better Basic programs? My answer must have shocked him, 
because I told him not to buy any DOS. In fact, I myself have talked 
about a dozen potential STAR-DOS purchasers out of buying it. I 
don't know whether other DOS vendors have done the same, but 
I'm convinced that there are many readers among you who have 
bought a DOS (hopefuly not ours) and have absolutely no use for it 
whatsoever. Let me explain. 

To use a disk you need the hardware (a disk drive and controller) 
and the software (a disk operating system or DOS). In most 
computers, the controller can do little by itself except load the DOS 
from the disk into memory. Hence, without the DOS, the disk 
system is useless. But the Color Computer is unique — its 
controller has an 8K ROM (Read Only Memory) which acts as an 
extension to Basic and lets Basic access the disk directly without 
needing a separate DOS. 

Thus, in other computers, you either need a separate DOS on 
disk to load Basic in the first place, or at least to tell Basic how to 
access the disk. In the Color Computer, Basic knows how to use 
the disk as soon as you plug in the controller. Hence, if you only run 
Basic programs, you have absolutely no need for a separate DOS. 
(In fact, a DOS just gets in the way of Basic!) So what does a DOS 
do, you ask? 

A disk operating system lets you run machine language 
programs which use the disk. These can be purchased programs, 
or programs you write yourself. 

But here's another catch. On most other computers, since you 
must have a DOS to use the disk, everyone writing disk programs 
simply uses the DOS for the disk functions, since they just assume 
that everybody has one. But Color Computer disk operating 
systems are very new. Hence many software suppliers, figuring you 
don't have a DOS, have gone to great pains to include enough 
functions in their programs so that you don't need a DOS to run 
them. (For example, our own SPELL 'N FIX has its own disk 
routines and does not need any additional DOS.) 

So when should you buy a DOS? There are really only two cases: 
( 1 ) You intend to write your own programs to use the disk, and need 
some simple way of interfacing to the disk, or (2) there is some 
specific program you want to run which requires a DOS. For 
example, if you want to run our DBLS or Disk Sort-Merge (oops . . . 
we won't announce that 'till next month), then you will need STAR- 
DOS. 

So, if one of these two cases applies to you, by all means buy one. 
But don't get one unless you have a real need. And that applies to 
our STAR-DOS as well as others. 

By the way ... did you hear the one about the program to 
translate English to Russian? To test it, they translated The spirit is 
willing but the flesh is weak. The Russian translation came out 
something like The vodka is amenable, but the meat tastes bad. 

See you next month. 




SPELL'N FIX 

Regardless of whose text processor you use, let SPELL 'N FIX find 
and fix your spelling and typing mistakes. It reads text faster than 
you can, and spots and corrects errors even experienced 
proofreaders miss. It is compatible with all Color Computer text 
processors, including Telewriter and Radio Shack's Scripsit! (See 
the review in 80 Micro, November 1982.) $69.29 in the Radio Shack 
disk or cassette versions; $89.29 in the Flex version. (20,000 word 
dictionary is standard; optional 75,000 word Super Dictionary costs 
$50 additional.) 

HUMBUG — THE SUPER MONITOR 

A complete monitor and debugging system which lets you input 
programs and data into memory, list memory contents, insert 
multiple breakpoints, single-step, test, checksum, and compare 
memory contents, find data in memory, start and stop pr rams, 
upload and download, save to tape, connect the Color Computer to 
a terminal, printer, or remote computer, and more. HUMBUG on 
disk or cassette costs just $39.95. 

STAR— DOS 

A Disk Operating System specially designed for the Color 
Computer, STAR-DOS is fully compatible with your present Color 
Computer disk format — it reads disks written by Extended Disk 
Basic and vice versa. But with STAR-DOS you can use machine 
and assembly language programs to do things Basic can't. Just 
$49.95. 

ALL IN ONE — Editor Etc. 

Three programs in one — a full function Editor for text or program 
files; a Text Processor for formatting and printing text riles with 
centering, justification, and paging, and a Mailing List and Mailing 
Label program which can even generate individually adressed 
letters for each person (or selected persons) on your mailing list. All 
this for just $50. Requires STAR-DOS and 32K. 

DBLS for Data Base* 

DBLS stands for Data Base Lookup System. A super-fast system 
for searching for a selected record in a sequential disk file. Supplied 
with SPELL 'N FIX's 20,000 word dictionary as a sample data file — 
lets you look up the spelling of any word in under FOUR seconds. 
Priced at $29.95. Requires STAR-DOS. 

CHECK 'N TAX 

Home accounting package combines checkbook maintenance and 
income tax data collection. Written in Basic for either RS Disk or 
Flex, $50. 

REMOTERM 

REMOTERM — allows full operation of the Color Computer from 
an external terminal. $19.95. 

NEWTALK 

NEWTALK — a memory examine utility for machine language 
programmers which reads out memory contents through the TV 
set speaker. $20. 

SHRINK 

SHRINK — our version of Eliza, in machine language and 
extremely fast. $15. 

oxxo 

OXXO — our version of Othello, also machine language and fast. 
$15. 

We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY State 
residents please add appropriate sales tax. 



Star-Kits 



P.O. BOX 209-R 

MT. KISCO, N.Y. 10549 

(914) 241-0287 





32 K 


■ 


Ihe 




ADVENTURE 


ECB 




RAINBOW 





AHHA! Another 
Haunted House Adventure! 

By Geoff Wells 



In this third and final installment of the general all 
purpose adventure driver (GAPAD) program, we 
present the changes and additions necessary to run 
yet another haunted house adventure. This is the 
complete program for AHHA, so those of you who have 
already typed in GAPAD need only make a few 
changes and add some of the data. 

The mysterious old miser has been dead for many 
years, but the fortune, said to be hidden somewhere in 
his old mansion, has yet to be found. Many people have 
entered the mansion to search for the treasure, but 
none has ever returned. There are stories of the old 
man's ghost being too mean to leave the money 
behind, and strange cries of anguish have been heard 
from those who have tried to steal it. 




the RAINBOW February, 1983 



The Listing: 

0 ' AHHA**ANOTHER 
DVENTURE 



' 180 


03D6 


320 


0864 


800 


0D57 


2000 


1422 


4002 


1A43 


END 


25EC 



HAUNTED HOUSE A 



' GEOFF WELLS 
'21-12 EAST AVE N. 
' HAMILTON— ONTARIO 
' CANADA— L8L 5H2 
' (416) 529-1319 
'SPRING 1982 
CLEAR 1000 



3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
10 

*(39) 



DIMMC*(3,6) , IN*<4) ,FW*<40) , SW 
,FC*<40) , SC*<39) ,0L(14, 1) ,0 



D*<14) ,0K*<14) 
20 
30 
40 
F) : 
50 
F) : 
60 



F0RNF=1T04: IN* <NF) ="*" : NEXTNF 
FORNF=1TO60: READDUMMY*: NEXTNF 
FORNF= 1 TO40: READFW* <NF) , FC* < N 
NEXTNF 

FORNF= 1 T039 : READSW* < NF ) , SC* < N 
NEXTNF 

FORX= 1 T03 : FORY= 1 T06 : READMC* ( X 



, Y) : NEXTY, X 

70 FORNF= 1 TO 1 4 : READOL < NF , 0 ) , OL ( N 
F, 1) ,OD*<NF) , OK*<NF) : NEXTNF 
90 X=l:Y=6 

100 gosub4000:d*=mid*(mc*(x,y) , 1 
,6) :li=val<mid*<mc*(X,Y) ,7,2) ) :l 
2=val<mid* <mc* (x, y) ,9,2) > : l3=val 
<mid*(mc* <x,y) , 11,2) ) :l4=val<mid 

*(MC*(X,Y) , 13,2) ) 
110 RESTORE: L*=" " 

120 F0RNF=1T04: READDUMMY*: I FL1=N 
F THENL*=DUMMY*: NEXTNF ELSENEXTN 
F 

1 30 FORNF= 1 TO 1 5 : READDUMMY* : I FL2= 
NF THENL*=L*+DUMMY*: NEXTNF ELSEN 
EXTNF 

1 40 FORNF= 1 TO 1 8 : READDUMMY* : IFL3= 
NF THENL*=L*+DUMMY*: NEXTNF ELSEN 
EXTNF 

150 FORNF= 1T023: READDUMMY*: I FL4= 
NF THENL*=L*+DUMMY*: NEXTNF ELSEN 
EXTNF 

160 ob*=" ":f0rnf=1t014: ifol<nf,0 
)=x andol (nf, 1 ) =y thenob*=ob*+"- 
"+od*(nf) : nextnf elsenextnf: ifob 
*=""thenob*=" nothing special" 
170 cls:p*="You are "+l*:gosub50 

0 

180 P*=" I SEE"+OB*:GOSUB500 

190 PR I NT "POSSIBLE DIRECTIONS " 

191 IFMID*(D*, 1, 1 ) = " N " THENPR INT" 
NORTH "; 

192 IFMID*(D*,2, 1 ) = " S " THENPR I NT " 
SOUTH "; 



193 IFMID*(D*,3, 1 ) = " E " THENPR I NT " 
EAST "; 

194 IFMID*(D*,4, 1 ) = " W " THENPR I NT " 
WEST "; 

195 IFMID* <D*, 5, 1 ) = " U " THENPR I NT " 
UP "; 

196 IFMID*(D*,6, 1 ) = " D " THENPR I NT " 
DOWN "; 

197 PRINT:PRINTSTRING*<32, "*") ; 

200 G=RND(10) : IFX=1ANDY=40RX=2AN 
DY= 1 THENG=G+4 

201 I FG >9THENPR I NT " THE MISERS GH 
OST IS HERE" 

202 INPUT "WHAT NOW BOSS";C* 

210 IFC*="N"THEN601ELSEIFC*="S ,, T 
HEN602ELSE I FC*= " E " THEN603ELSE I FC 
*= " W " THEN604ELSE IFC*="U" THEN605E 
LSE I FC*= " D " THEN606ELSE I FC*= " LOOK 
" THEN 1 60ELSE I FC*= " HELP " THEN650EL 
SEIFC*="SAVE"THEN700ELSEIFC*="LO 
AD " THEN800ELSE I FLEFT* ( C* , 2 ) = " GO " 
THENC*="*GO" 

211 I FLEFT* < C* , 3 ) = " INV " THEN6 1 1 EL 
SE I FC*= " SCORE " THEN3600 

212 I FG >9THENPR I NT " THE GHOST CLA 
IMS ANOTHER VICTIM" : END 

220 S=0 : SP=0 : FORNF= 1 TOLEN < C* ) : I F 
MID*(C*,NF, 1)=" "THENS=NF:SP=SP+ 
l: NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF 
230 I FS=0THENPR INT" 



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Use your credit cord or send check & we poy the shipping. 

215-837-0700 

Out of state, order toll free 
800-523-9685 > TWX 510-651-2101 

PA Res. add &% soles lax • for COD odd S3.00 + shipping 'dealers invited 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 65 



WHAT? " :GOTD200 

240 I FSP > 1 THENPR I NT " ONLY TWO WOR 
DS PLEASE": GOTO200 

250 LC*=LEFT* ( C* , S- 1 ) : RC*=R I GHT* 
(C*,LEN(C*)-S) : IFRC*="UP"THENRC* 
="*UP" 

260 fc*(0)="*":fornf=1to40: i flef 

t*(lc*,3)=fw*(nf>thenfc*(0>=fc*< 

nf>:nextnf elsenextnf 

270 iffc* (0) ="*"thenprint" i don' 

t recognize the verb" : goto200 

280 sc*(0)="*":fornf=1to39: iflef 

t* ( rc* , 3 ) =sw* ( nf ) thensc* ( 0 ) =sc* ( 

nf) : nextnf elsenextnf 

300 ifsc*(0>="*"thenp*="i don't 

know what a "+rc*+" is" : gosub500 

: GOTO200 

310 m=0:fornf=itolen(SC*(0) ) : ifm 
id*(sc*(0> , nf , 1>=fc*(0)thenm=99: 
nextnf elsenextnf 
320 ifm=0thenp*="i don't know ho 
w to "+lc*+" a " +rc* : gosub500 : go 

TO200 

330 ONASC(FC*(0> > -64GOSUB1000, 11 
00, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700 
, 1800, 1900,2000,2100,2200,2300,2 
400, 2500, 2600, 2700, 2800, 2900, 300 
0, 3100, 3200, 3300, 3400, 3500 
340 I FR= 1 THENR=0 : GOTO 1 00ELSE200 



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500 IFLEN(P*> >32THENP1*=LEFT*(P* 

,32) :P2*=RIGHT*(P*,LEN(P*> -32) EL 

SE I FLEN ( P* ) =32THENPR I NTP* ; : RETUR 

NELSEPR I NTP* : RETURN 

510 IFLEFT*(P2*, 1 >=" "THENP2*=RI 

GHT*(P2*,LEN(P2*)-1) :PRINTP1*; IP 

*=P2*:GOTO500 

520 IFRIGHT*(P1*, 1)=" "ANDLEN (PI 
*) =32THENPRINTP1*; : P*=P2*I GOTO50 
0ELSEIFRIGHT*(P1*, 1 )=" "THENPRIN 
TP 1 * : P*=P2* : GOTO500 
530 P2*=RIGHT*(P1*, 1 ) +P2* : P 1 *=LE 
FT*(P1*,LEN(P1*)-1) :GOTO520 

601 IFMID*(D*, 1, l)="N"THENY=Y-l: 
GOTO100ELSE607 

602 IFMID*(D*,2, 1 ) ="S"THENY=Y+1 : 
GOTO100ELSE607 

603 IFMID*(D*,3, 1 ) ="E"THENX=X+1 : 
GOTO100ELSE607 

604 IFMID*(D*,4, 1 ) =" W"THENX = X-1 : 
GOTO100ELSE607 

605 IFMID*(D*,5, 1 ) ="U"THENY=Y-3: 
GOTO100ELSE607 

606 I FM I D* ( D* , 6, 1 ) = " D " THENY=Y+3 : 
GOTO 100 

607 PR I NT "YOU CAN'T GO THAT WAY" 
: GOTO200 

611 in*(0)="":fornf=ito4: ifin*(N 
fx>"*"thenf0ri = 1t014: ifin* (nf) = 
ok*(i)thenin*(0)=in*(0)+"-"+od*( 
i ) :nexti: nextnf elsenext i : nextnf 

elsenextnf 

612 ifin*(0)=""thenin*(0)="you a 
re not carrying anything "else in* 
<0)="you are carrying"+in* (0) 

6 1 3 p*= in* (0) : gosub500 

614 GOTO200 

650 IFX=2ANDY=1THENP*="WHAT WAS 
WRITTEN IN THE BEGINNING MAY BE 
OF SOME HELP HERE" ELSEP*="I CAN 

BE OF NO ASSISTANCE HERE" 

651 GOSUB500: GOTO200 

700 CLS: INPUT "READY TAPE<PLAY S< 
RECORD >ENTER" ; E* 

710 OPEN"0",-l, "GAPADFIL" : PRINT# 

-l, x, y,sc,f:fornf=ito4:print#-i, 

IN*(NF) : NEXTNF: F0RZ=1T03IF0RW=1T 
06: PRINT#-1 , MC* ( Z , W) : NEXTW, Z : FOR 
NF=1T014: PRINT#-1 , OL (NF, 0) , OL (NF 
, 1 ) : NEXTNF: CLOSE: GOTO 100 
800 CLS: INPUT "READY TAPE< PLAY >EN 
TER" ; E* 

810 OPEN" I ",-1, "GAPADFIL": INPUT# 

-l, x,y,sc,y:fornf=ito4: input#-i, 
in*(nf) : nextnf: f0rz=1t03:f0rw=1t 
06: input#-1,mc*(z,w) :nextw, z:for 
nf=1t014: input#-1«ol (nf,0) ,ol<nf 
, 1) : nextnf: close: goto100 
1000 in*(0)=" ":fornf=ito4: ifin*( 
nf)=rc* thenin*(0)="you already 



66 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



TRS-80 COLOR 



OSI 



AARDVARK 
VIC-64 VIC-20 SINCLAIR TIMEX 




TUBE FRENZY 

(by Dave Edson) 
This is an almost indescribably fast action 
arcade game. It has fast action, an all new 
concept in play, simple rules, and 63 levels 
of difficulty. All machine code, requires 
Joysticks. Another great game by Dave 
Edson. TRS 80 COLOR ONLY. 16k and 
Joysticks required. $19.95. 



QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMES! Different from all the others. 
Quest is played on a computer generated 
map of Alesia. Your job is to gather men 
and supplies by combat, bargaining, explor- 
ation of ruins and temples and outright 
banditry. When your force is strong enough, 
you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable 
in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different every 
time. 16k TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Sin- 
clair. 13K VIC-20. $14.95 each. 




ADVENTURES!!! 

These Adventures are written in BASIC, are 
full featured, fast action, full plotted ad- 
ventures that take 30-50 hours to play. (Ad- 
ventures are interactive fantasies. It's like 
reading a book except that you are the main 
character as you give the computer com- 
mands like "Look in the Coffin" and 
"Light the torch.") 

Adventures require 16k on TRS80, TRS80 
color, and Sinclair. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on Vic-20. Derelict takes 12k on 
OSI. $14.95 each. 

ALSO FROM AARDVARK - This 
TRS-80 Color and OSI ), business 



CATERPILLAR 

O.K., the Caterpillar does look a lot like a 
Centipede. We have spiders, falling fleas, 
monsters traipsing across the screen, poison 
mushrooms, and a lot of other familiar 
stuff. COLOR 80 requires 16k and Joy- 
sticks. This is Edson's best game to date. 
$19.95 for TRS 80 COLOR. 

PROGRAMMERS! 

SEE YOUR PROGRAM IN THIS SPACE!! 

Aardvark traditionally pays the highest com- 
missions in the industry and gives programs 
the widest possible coverage. Quality is the 
keyword. If your program is good and you 
want it presented by the best, send it to 
Aardvark. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS 

(by Rodger Olsen) 
This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANET. You'll have to explore a Martian 
city and deal with possibly hostile aliens to 
survive this one. A good first adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 
This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. 
It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of 
problems. Exciting and tough! 

HAUNTED HOUSE (by Bob Anderson) 
It's a real adventure— with ghosts and ghouls 
and goblins and treasures and problems — 
but it is for kids. Designed for the 8 to 12 
year old population and those who haven't 
tried Adventure before and want to start 
out real easy. 

DERELICT 

(by Rodger Olsen & Bob Anderson) 
New winner in the toughest adventure from 
Aardvark sweepstakes. This one takes place 
on an alien ship that has been deserted for a 
thousand years — and is still dangerous! 




Please specify system on all orders 

is only a partial list of what we carry. We have 
programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. 



CATCH 'EM 

(by Dave Edson) 
One of our simplest, fastest, funnest, all 
machine code arcade games. Raindrops and 
an incredibe variety of other things come 
falling down on your head. Use the Joy- 
sticks to Catch'em. It's a BALL! — and a 
flying saucer! — and a Flying Y!— and so 
on. TRS 80 COLOR. $19.95. 

BASIC THAT ZOOOMMS!! 
AT LAST AN AFFORDABLE COMPILER! 

The compiler allows you to write your 
programs in easy BASIC and then auto- 
matically generates a machine code equiv- 
alent that runs 50 to 150 times faster. 
It does have some limitations. It takes at 
least 8k of RAM to run the compiler and it 
does only support a subset of BASIC— 
about 20 commands including FOR, NEXT, 
EN D, GOSUB, GOTO, IF, THEN, RETURN, 
END, PRINT, STOP, USR (X), PEEK, 
POKE, *,/,+, -, > , < ,=, VARIABLE 
NAMES A-Z, SUBSCRIPTED VARIABLES, 
and INTEGER NUMBERS FORM 0-64K. 
TINY COMPILER is written in BASIC. It 
generates native, relocatable 6502 or 6809 
code. It comes with a 20-page manual and 
can be modified or augmented by the user. 
$24.95 on tape or disk for OSI, TRS-80 
Color, or VIC. 

i lot of other games (particularly for the 
Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 



AARDVARK - 80 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 
v (313)669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 



9% 



HAVE THE "+RC*: NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF 
1001 IFIN*(0)O""THEN1050 
1005 IFRC*="BOOK"THENP*="IT CRUM 
BLES TO DUST AS YOU TOUCH IT" : GO 
SUB500: OL (3, 0) =-1 : OL (3, 1 ) =-1 : B=- 
1 : RETURN 

1010 F0RNF=1T04: I F I N* (NF ) = "*" THE 
NIN*(0)=STR*(NF) : NEXTNF ELSENEXT 
NF 

1 020 I F I N* ( 0 ) = " " THEN I N* ( 0 ) = " YOU 
CAN'T CARRY ANY MORE " : GOTO 1 050 
1030 F0RNF=1T014: IFRC*=OK* (NF) AN 
DOL(NF,0)=X ANDOL (NF, 1 ) =Y THENIN 
*(VAL(IN*(0) > )=OK*(NF> :OL(NF,0)= 
-1I0L(NF, l)=-l: IN* (0)="": NEXTNF 
ELSENEXTNF 

1035 IFRC*="CHEST"THENMC* (2, 1 ) =" 
1111 223 " 

1 040 I F I N* ( 0 ) = " " THENR= 1 ELSE I N* ( 0 

)="I DON'T SEE A "+RC* 

1050 PRINTIN*(0) : RETURN 

1100 IN*(0>=" ":F0RNF=1T04: IFIN*( 

NF)=RC* THENIN* (0)="*": IN*(NF)=" 

*":F0RCK=1T014: IFOK*(CK)=RC* THE 

NOL(CK,0)=X:OL(CK, 1>=Y:NEXTCK EL 

SENEXTCK: NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF 

1110 IFIN*(0)= M,, THENPRINT"YOU AR 

E NOT CARRING THAT " : RETURNELSER= 

1 : RETURN 

1 200 IFX=2ANDY=2ANDRC*= " WALL " THE 
NCLS:PRINT@40, "THIS ADVENTURE" : P 
RINT@106, "WRITTEN BY " : PR I NT@ 1 69 , 



H I B 



presents 

SOFTWARE FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
TALK PROCESSOR I CAN TALK!' 

Quick and easy to use. Has over 2 dozen 
common words. Make up hundreds of state- 
ments in 3 voices. Uses digitally recorded 
human speech for a more natural sound. 
16i( Ext. Basic $ 14.95 

SUB-MISSION 

HI-RES Color Action Game. Dive into the 
Hole' and retrieve the black boxes, but avoid 
mines and falling depth charges. Elapsed 
time line, on screen scoring, good sounds, 3 
levels and bonus points. Joysticks required. 

16K Ext. Basic $ 12.95 

BONUS: Order submission and get 
Missile Att ack Underground game Free. 

For immediate shipment send certified check or 
money order. NO C.O.D. Personal check orders 
shipped in 2 weeks. Send to HI B, 3505 
Hutch Place. Chevy Chase, Maryland 
20815. Add $1.00 for shipping. 
Maryland residents add 5%. 



"GEOFF WELLS ": PR I NTQ229, "21-12 E 
AST AVE NORTH" : PRINTQ295, "HAMILT 
ON ONT AR I 0 " : PR I NT@360 , " CANADA L8 
L 5H2":PRINT@424, " (416) 529-1319 
": PRINT: RETURN 

1 20 1 IFX=3ANDY=2ANDRC*=" BUTT0N"T 
HENPRINT" IT SAYS **WARNING** DO 
NOT TOUCHTHIS BUTTON !!!": RETURN 
1210 PRINT" I DON'T HAVE MY GLASS 
ES ON": RETURN 

1300 PRINT"USE N S E W U D FOR D 

IRECTIONS" : RETURN 

1400 GOTO3700: 'OPEN 

1500 GOTO3700: 'CLOSE 

1600 GOTO3700: 'HIT ATTACK KILL 

1700 GOTO3700: 'LOCK 

1800 GOTO3700: 'UNLOCK 

1 900 I FRC*= " DRESSER " THEN 1 9 1 0ELSE 

I FRC*= " BAG " THEN 1 920ELSE I FRC*= " CH 

AIR" THEN 1 930ELSE I FRC*= " BUTTON " TH 

EN1940ELSE3700 

1910 I F X = 1 ANDY=2THEN 1911 ELSEPR I N 
T"I DON'T SEE A DRESSER" : RETURN 

1911 MID*(MC*(1,2) , 1, 1)="N":MID* 
(MC*(1,2) , 13,2)="03":R=l:RETURN 

1920 I F X = 1 ANDY= 1 THEN 1921 ELSEPR I N 
T"I DON'T SEE ANY BAGS HERE": RET 
URN 

1921 MID*(MC*(1, 1) ,3, 1)=' , E":MID* 
(MC*(1, 1) , 1 1,4)=" 1822" :R=l:RETUR 
N 

1930 I F X=3ANDY=6THEN 1 93 1 ELSEPR I N 
T" I'D BE GLAD TO IF IT WAS HERE" 
: RETURN 

1931 MID*(MC*(3,6) , 1 1 , 2)=" 17" : OL 
(14,0)=3:OL(14, 1 ) =6 :R=l: RETURN 
1940 I F X=3ANDY=2THENNEWELSEPR I NT 
" WHAT BUTTON " : RETURN 

2000 GOTO3700: 'CLIMB 
2100 GOTO3700: 'PLAY 

2200 IFX=2ANDY=1 ANDRC*=" AHHA"THE 

N2201ELSEP*="OK ' "+RC*+"' NOT 

H I NG HAPPENED " : GOSUB500 : RETURN : ' 
SAY 

2201 R=l:MC*(2, 1)="***W**0111121 
5": RETURN 

2300 IFX=1 ANDY=5THEN2301ELSEPRIN 
T"I CAN'T SEE IT FROM HERE" : RETU 
RN 

2301 IFB=0THENP*="IT SAYS — 'KNOW 
LEDGE OF ESCAPE IS A WEIGHTY SEC 
RET' " : GOSUB500: RETURNELSEP*= " ALL 

I SEE IS A PILE OF DUST":G0SUB5 
00: RETURN 

2400 GOTO3700: 'RUB 

2500 IFX=2ANDY=5THENMI1 *(MC*(2,5 
) , 1 , 1 ) ="N" : R=l ELSEPR I NT "YOURS OR 

MINE": RETURN 

2501 IFF=0THENMID*(MC*(2,5) , 13,2 
) = " 1 0 " : RETURNELSE I FF=- 1 THENM I D* ( 



68 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



MC*<2,5) , 13, 2)= "11": RETURN 

2600 GOTO3700: 'TOUCH 

2700 GOTO3700: ' ASK 

2800 GOTO3700: ' JUMP 

2900 GOTO3700: 'SWIM 

3000 GOTO3700: 'KICK 

3100 GOTO3700: 'SMASH 

3200 I FX = 1 ANDY=2THEN320 1 ELSEPR I N 
T"WHAT MIRROR?": RETURN 

3201 M=0:FORNF=1TO4: IFIN* (NF)="T 
0WEL"THENM=99: NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF: 
I FM=0THENPR I NT "WITH WHAT? " : RETUR 
N 

3202 MID*(MC*<1,2) ,2, 1>="S":MID* 
<MC*<1,2) , 11 ,2) ="03": R=l: RETURN 

3300 IFX=1ANDY=4THEN3301ELSEIFX= 
3ANDY=4THEN3304ELSEPR I NT " ON WHAT 
" : RETURN 

3301 IN* (0)="":FORNF=1TO4: IFIN* ( 
NF) =" PRYBAR " THEN I N* ( 0 ) = " * " : NE X TN 
F ELSENEXTNF 

3302 I F I N* ( 0 ) = " " THENPR I NT " YOU DO 
N'T HAVE ONE": RETURN 

3303 P*="YOU HAVE DISCOVERED THE 
ROTTING CORPSE OF THE OLD MISER 

. THE SHOCK HAS SCARED YOU TO DE 
ATH ! ! " : GOSUB500: END 

3304 IN*(0)="":FORNF=1TO4: IFIN*( 
NF ) = " FUSE " THEN I N* ( 0 ) = " * " : I N* ( NF ) 
="*": NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF 

3305 F=-l:MID*(MC*(2,5), 13, 2) ="1 
1 ": PR I NT " OK " : RETURN 

3400 IN* (0)="":FORNF=1TO4: IFIN* ( 
NF )=" CHEESE " THEN I N* ( 0 )="*": NE X TN 
F ELSENEXTNF 




All Color Software 



Nam ! from ACS 



3401 I F I N* ( 0 ) = " " THENPR I NT " YOU DO 
N'T HAVE ANY CHEESE" : RETURN 

3402 PRINT" IT WAS POISONED" : END 
3500 GOTO3700 : ' DR I NK 

3600 IFX=1ANDY=6ANDSC=100THENPRI 
NT "CONGRATULATIONS- YOU HAVE WON" 
: ENDELSEPR I NT " YOUR PRESENT SCORE 

iS";sc:GOTO200 

3700 PR I NT "I AM NOT PROGRAMED FO 
R THAT": RETURN 

4000 IFX=1ANDY=3THEN4001ELSEIFX= 
2ANDY=4ANDF=0THEN4002ELSERETURN 

4001 M=0:FORNF=1TO4: IFIN* (NF)="C 
HEST " THENM=99 : NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF: 
I FM=0THENRETURNELSE Y=6 : SC= 1 00 : PR 
I NT "THE FLOOR GIVES WAY- YOU ARE" 
: FORNF= 1 TO 1 4 : PR I NT " FALL I NG ! ! ! !" : 
NEXTNF: RETURN 

4002 PR I NT "YOU HAVE FALLEN AND B 
ROKEN YOUR NECK": END 

10000 DATA IN A ,ON THE , AT THE 
, IN THE 

10010 DATA LARGE CLOSET. THERE I 
S A COBWEB IN THE CORNER , SMALL 
BEDROOM. THERE IS A , SMALL , BRIG 
HT & SUNNY CONSERVATORY , FRONT P 
ORCH OF A , BOTTOM , PANELED HALLW 
AY , LARGE DAMP BASEMENT. , UPPER 
LANDING , LONG , DUSTY , SMALL STUF 
FY CLOSET , MASTER BEDROOM. 

10011 DATA LARGE AIRY KITCHEN ,L 
ARGE LIVING ROOM. THERE IS A POR 
TRAIT HANGING ON THE WALL AND 
10020 DATA WITH A , VERY DUSTY MI 
RROR ON ONE WALL , LARGE DARK OPE 



Post Office Box 15235 
Plantation, Florida 
333 1 8 



G ± \s& tjouir CoCq an /^^\ 

Qn/Qff Mg h t for *5 r 00 ! ■ R *^T 

Mill NOT Void Warranty! 

Now for only *5 you can have an on/off light for your CoCo, without 
voiding your warranty!! If you own a Joystick, can drill ONE hole, and 
make TWO connections, then you are ready for this simple Do- It -Yourself Kit!! 

This simple kit comes with the parts to modify 2 Joysticks, and clearly 
written instructions on the procedure, which takes only 10 minutes on the 
average. 

Note: This modification Does NOT impede Joystick performance. This kit 
works with any Joystick, and is equally easy to install in each. 

ORDER NOW ■ ■ NO Extra Shipping Charges!! 

Florida residents add 5'/. sales tax. Note s Custom Joysticks still available. 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 69 



NING WHERE THE MIRROR USED TO BE 

, SECRET ROOM., STUFFY , SINISTER 
, OF A , FOOTPRINTS IN THE DUST LE 
AD TO , THERE IS A WINE RACK ON T 
HE FAR WALL AND , OF THE RICKERTY 

, NARROW CORRIDOR. , DINGY 
10021 DATA A HUGE FOUR-POSTER BE 
D , BATHROOM. , NARROW DINING ROOM 
. ,A CHAIR , AN OVERTURNED CHAIR 
, AND A PASSAGE TO THE EAST 

10030 DATA HUGE SPIDER SITTING I 
N THE CENTRE., AND AN UGLY DRESSE 
R OPPOSITE. , AND A DRESSER BESIDE 

AN OPEN CLOSET., THE FLOOR CREAK 
S LOUDLY AS YOU WALK ACROSS IT. , 
FLAGSTONE FLOOR. , LIBRARY. , OLD MA 
NSION. , WINDING STAIRCASE ., THE NO 
RTH. 

10031 DATA A DARK HOLE IN THE NO 
RTH WALL., A LIGHTED PASSAGE RUNN 
ING NORTH., A PILE OF BONES NEAR 
THE ENTRANCE. , OLD ST A IRS., YOU FE 
EL CLOSE TO SOMETHING IMPORTANT. 
, ATTIC FULL OF OLD BOXES. , SINGLE 

SHELF AT EYE LEVEL. , DOMINATES T 
HE ROOM. 

10032 DATA THERE ARE RED STAINS 
IN THE TUB., TABLE IN THE CORNER 
AND A FUSE BOX ON THE WALL. , THER 



E ARE SIX CHAIRS AT THE TABLE. S 
KELETONS ARE SEATED AT FIVE OF T 
HEM., IN FRONT OF THE FIREPLACE., 
HIDDEN IN THE REAR. 
10033 DATA ATTIC FULL OF OLD BOX 
ES. THE EXIT HAS SUDDENLY CLOSED 
. YOU ARE TRAPPED. WHAT DO YOU S 
AY ABOUT THAT. 

20000 DATA GET, A, TAK, A, DRO, B, PUT 
,B,LOO,C,EXA,C,RUN,D, WAL,D,*GO,D 
, OPE , E , CLO ,F,HIT,G, ATT ,G,KIL,G,L 
OC,H,UNL, I, MOV, J,LIF, J, TIL, J,TWI 
, J, PUS, J,PUL, J,SHO, J,CLI,K,PLA,L 
, SAY, M, REA, N, RUB, 0, TUR, P, TOU,Q, A 
SK,R, JUM,S,SWI,T,KIC,U,SMA, V, WIP 
, W , TRY ,X,USE,X, EAT , Y , DR I , Z 

30000 DATA CLO,C,COB,CQ,SPI,CGQ, 
MIR, C JQW , DRE , CJQ , FLO , CQ , PED , CJQV 
, BOO, ACEJNQ, MON, CQ, AHH, M, WAL, CNQ 
,STA,CK,BON,CJQSU, WIN, CQVZ , RAC, C 
JKQV, CHA, CQV, FLA, CJU, BAG, CEJQ, HE 
A, CJPQ, PRY, ABCJQUWX, CHE, ABCEFJQV 
, CHA, CJQV, POR, CJQV, KEY, ABCJQUX , S 
KE, CGJQUV, TAB, CJOQUVW 

30001 DATA BUT, CJOQ, SHE, CQV, BED, 
C JQUV , CHE , ABCEFH I JQUVY , FUS , ABC JN 
QX , TOW, ABCQ, KNI , ABCJQ, NOR, D, SOU, 
D , EAS , D , WES , D , *UP , D , DO W , D 

40000 DATA *S****01010101,**E*»* 
0 1 020202 , N*»***0 1 030404 , ******0 1 
040105, N*E***01030506, **E***0205 
0607 

40001 DATA ***W**0U11215,*SEW** 
01101114, N*E**D0209 1013, *S***»0 1 
080912, *SEW**0 1070809, N***U*0306 
0708 

40002 DATA *S****0U20116,NS*W** 
04131317, N**W**0 1 03 1 4 1 8 , »S****0 1 
1401 19, NS*W**01 101520, N*****01 15 
1621 

50000 DATA 1 , 1 , A BLACK GARMENT B 
AG HANGING IN THE BACK, BAG, 1 , 4, A 

LOOSE FLAGSTONE IN THE CORNER, F 
LAGSTONE, 1,5, A PEDESTAL WITH A T 
ATTERED BOOK LYING OPEN ON IT, BO 
OK 

50001 DATA 2,1, A HEAVY SEA CHEST 
STUFFED FULL OF MONEY, CHEST, 2, 2 

, SOMETHING SCRALLED ON THE NORTH 
WALL, WALL, 2, 4, A RUSTY PRYBAR, PR 
YBAR,2,5,A MANGY MOOSE HEAD ON T 
HE NORTH WALL, HEAD, 2, 6, A FABULOU 
S CRYSTAL CHANDELIER, CHANDELIER 

50002 DATA 3,1, A SHINY NEW FUSE, 
FUSE, 3, 2, A BIG RED BUTTON BESIDE 

THE BED, BUTTON, 3, 3, A TATTERED S 
CRAP OF TOWEL, TOWEL, 3, 4, A BLOODS 
TAINED KNIFE, KNIFE, 3, 5, A LARGE W 
EDGE OF CHEDDAR CHEESE, CHEESE, -1 
,-l,A SMALL BRASS KEY, KEY /}^\ 



COCO — ACCOUNTANT 

USE THE POWER OF YOUR 32K COCO TO HAKE INCOHE TAX A 
BREEZE! KEEP TRACK OF HOUSEHOLD EXPENSES USIN6 DATA 
FROH UP TO 450 CANCELED CHECKS. LOOK AT THESE 
FEATURES: 

* LIST EXPENSES BY MONTH 

* LIST EXPENSES BY ACCOUNT (YEAR OR MONTH) 

* LIST EXPENSES BY PAYEE (YEAR OR MONTH) 

* YEAR-TO-DATE SUMMARY BY ACCOUNT 

* FLA6S & TOTALS DEDUCTIBLE EXPENSES 

* COMPUTES SALES TAX YOU PAID ON PURCHASES 

* UP TO 24 USER-DEFINABLE ACCOUNTS 
t SORTS CHECKS BY DATE 

* SAVE DATA ON TAPE (EASY DISK MOD.) 

* LISTS TO SCREEN AND PRINTER 

PAYS FOR ITSELF AT TAX TIME! REQUIRES 32K. $15.95 

KOKOMATH • 

KIDS BORED WITH EDUCATIONAL PR06RAHS? LET KOKO THE 
MATH CLOWN MAKE ARITHMETIC A JOY! SET 10 PROBLEMS 
RIGHT AND 6IVE HIM A BATH! ADD, SUB., MULT. , 
DIVIDE. THREE DIFFICULTY LEVELS. 16K EXT. $B.95. 
KOKO KITH COMPUTER TIC-TAC-TOE $11.95. 

FEDERAL HILL SOFTWARE 

825 WILLIAM ST. 
BALTIMORE, MD. 21230 



70 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Turn your 
color computer on 
to the power of 

FLEX 

NOW FROM THE WORLDS LARGEST SUPPLIER OF SOFTWARE FOR FLEX 
COMES FHL COLOR FLEX. JUST LOOK AT THESE FEATURES: 



IF YOU'RE TIRED OF 
NO DISK SOFTWARE, 

THEN FHL Color FLEX 
IS THE ANSWER! 



FLEX is the world's most popular operating 
system for the 6809 and with over 100 
programs, we are the largest supplier of 
software for FLEX. These programs are 
NOT games but serious programs for your 
Color Computer. They range from word 
processors thru business applications to 
software development tools. Many Fortune 
500 companies use our software. 
FHL Color FLEX turns your Color computer 
into a powerful system more capable than 
systems costing several times as much. 

Get on our mailing list, call or send 
tor our complete catalog of over 100 
products for FLEX. We're doing 
exciting things with your color 
computer! 




FLEX NOW ONLY S99 

• HI-RES screen formats 

• 16x32 and 24x51, upper and lower 
case characters 

• 24 x 64 and 32 x 64 upper case 

• Full ASCII keyboards 

• Easy start-up— just type RUN "FLEX" 

• Online assistance just type HELP 



and printer 

Advance disk I/O and terminal 
capabilities 

NO additional hardware required 
We have supported FLEX with 
more software than anyone else in 
the world for more than 2 years! 




SPECIAL 

1. DBASIC, RS Disk Basic 
under FLEX with a utility to 
copy RS to FLEX disk $30. 

2. ED/ASM line and screen 
editor and macro assembler, 
both more powerful than 
TSC's, and at the same cost, 
only $100. 

3. UTILITIES, a set of 12 
utilities especially designed 
for FHL Color FLEX $50. 

4. STYLOGRAPH full word 
processor. Special for FHL 
Color FLEX only. $195.00 




THE REGENCY TOWER 
770 JAMES ST. - SYRACUSE, NY 1 3203 




H 




FRANK 
HOGG 

LABORATORY 


TELEX 646740 •(315) 474-7850 

'FLEX is a trademark of Technics 




nsultants Inc. 





NOW. . . FROM THE 
WORLDS LARGEST 
SUPPLIER OF 
SOFTWARE . . . 

COMES THE 
WORLDS LARGEST 
SOFTWARE 
CATALOG 

SEE THE LATEST REVIEWS 
OF OUR SOFTWARE 




November '82 MICRO 

"FLEX and the TRS-80 Color Computer' 

by Ronald Anderson, Page 23. 

November '82 80 MICRO 
"Color Forth" 

by Jake Commander, Page 45. 

November '82 68 MICRO JOURNAL 

"CC FORTH" 

by James Perotti, Page 19. 



October '82 RAINBOW 

A comparison of FHL Color Flex to 68 Micro 
Journal's (Data-Comp) FLEX, Page 64. 

February '83 80 MICRO 

Read the review of our DBASIC for 

FHL Color FLEX! 

March '83 80 MICRO 

FHL Color FLEX will be the 

feature review! ! ! 



SEE OUR ADS IN 



Color Computer News 

(5 pages) 

REMarkable Software 
P.O. Box 1192 
Muskegon, Ml 49443 
US $21.00 per year 



The Rainbow 

(5 pages) 

5803 Timberridge Dr. 

P.O. Box 209 

Prospect, KY 40059 

US $16.00 per year 

US $22.00 Canada/Mexico 

US $31.00 Foreign - surface mail 

US $49.00 Foreign - airmail 



System 68 

(2 pages) 
P.O. 310 

Conyers, GA 30207 
US $24.00 per year 



80 Micro 

(1 page) 

80 Pine Street 

Peterborough, NH 03458 

US $25 00 per year 

US $27 97 Canada/Mexico 

US $44.97 Foreign 



68 Micro Journal 

(1 page) 

5900 Cassandra Smith 
P.O. Box 849 
Hixson, TN 37343 
US $24.50 per year 
US $42.50 per 2 years 
US $64.50 per 3 years 





J FRANK 




1 HOGG 


FH 


m LABORATORY 







THE REGENCY TOWER • SUITE 2 15 • 770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE, NY 1 3203 

PHONE (3 15)474-7856 • TELEX 646740 



TYLOG 



6809 WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 



AVAILABLE FOR FLEX;" UniFLEX™ and OS-9 



The STYLOGRAPH text processing system is a very easy to use but powerful 
method of creating and printing text. It allows theoperatorto type text on theCoCo, 
modifying and correcting it as it's typed, and then print it out. The STYLOGRAPH 
SYSTEM is cursor-oriented with dynamic screen formating. Cursor based editing 
means that any portion of the text may be worked on by moving the cursor to that 
point. Dynamic screen formating means that the text is formated on the screen in 
the same way it will appear on the printed copy. The display is continuously up- 
dated to show how the text will appear. This is a very important feature and is nor- 
mally available only on very expensive commercial word processing systems. It 
significantly reduces the time required to produce a finished copy. 



FULL FEATURED TEXT EDITING 

A full array of commands help in the creation and modification of text. The text 
displayed on the screen may be moved up, down, left or right. The cursor can be 
moved to any page or to any specified series of letters or words. The cursor itself 
can be moved left, right, up, down, to any tab position, or to the extreme left or right. 
Any block of text can be moved, copied or deleted. The operator may also do a 
global replace so that all occurrences of a given string will be replaced with or 
without a "prompt" asking if the item should be replaced. 



OPERATOR CONVENIENCE 

Files longer than memory can be edited. The operator can move forward through 
a long text file by selectively dumping text to the disk or filling from the disk. 

The supervisor mode is menu driven and self prompting so that the operator does 
not have to remember the syntax of commands. This makes it easier for new opera- 
tors to use the system. 

An "assist" or "help" function makes it easy to learn the system since it is nor- 
mally not necessary to consult the manual to learn the commands. This function is 
menu driven and lists all of the keyboard functions and the formating commands. 

At the beginning of the text the operator normally types in a few simple com- 
mands indicating the line length, left margin, and so forth, and then enters the 
header and footer as they should appear. After that the operator need not worry 
about formating since it is taken care of automatically. Words that extend beyond 
the end of the line are automatically removed and placed on the next line. Headers 
and looters are automatically inserted so that the operator always knows what por- 
tion of the page is being worked on. Ghost hyphens can be entered so that if the 
word falls at the end of a line, and a ghost hyphen has been inserted, the hyphen 
will automatically be added. 



Control codes may be embedded in the text for special applications. For exam- 
ple, some printers require special control sequences for double width, graphics or 
boldface. These sequences may be embedded in the text for those users that have 
these printers. In conjunction with this, it is possible to cause the printer to stop in 
the middle of a print out for changing printwheels. A backspace feature allows 
overstriktng. 



OPERATING SYSTEM COMPATIBILITY 

STYLOGRAPH is compatible with the FLEX, UniFlex, and OS-9 disk operating 
systems. Text files prepared using STYLOGRAPH are directly usable by other soft- 
ware such as BASIC and the assembler. (This significantly aids software develop- 
ment since cursor-based editing allows full viewing of the text being worked on, 
thereby reducing errors and decreasing programming time). File size is limited only 
by the capacity of the disk system. Files may be loaded into the text at any point 
making it possible to rapidly create "boiler plate" documents using portions of text 
that have been previously saved to a text file. Any portion of a text may be saved to 
a text file for use at a later point. The printer output may be directed to a disk file for 
later print spooling. Most operating system commands are directly accessible 
without leaving STYLOGRAPH. 

FULLY ADAPTABLE TO MOST PRINTERS 

STYLOGRAPH is easily configured by the user for most terminals so there is no 
need to send for updates as equipment changes are made. Source code of the ter- 
minal interface is supplied so that users with unusual equipment configurations 
may adapt it to their systems. The source code for all of the "prompts" is also sup- 
plied so that foreign language versions may be easily constructed. 

Printers currently included as standard are: Diablo, Qume, Starwriter, NEC 
5515/25, NEC 5510/20; CENTRONICS 737/739; TTY type printer with backspace func- 
tion; TTY type printer without backspace function. 



COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS 

A special tutorial section is included in the manual so that people with little or no 
computer experience can easily learn to use STYLOGRAPH in a few hours. A text 
file is included which demonstrates most of the features of STYLOGRAPH and 
allows the operator to practice most of the functions. The logical arrangement of 
the commands and the immediate display of the results greatly simplifies the learn- 
ing process. In addition there is an "assistance" command which helps the new 
operator learn the commands. 



FLEXIBLE DISPLAY 

Lines longer than the screen width are allowed. STYLOGRAPH can scroll right 
and left on the screen so that tables can be constructed and appear on the screen 
exactly as they will appear on the print out. 

A command allows viewing of the formating commands on the screen. Another 
command allows the operator to see which characters will be modified at print out 
by underlining, superscripting orboldface. A page status command shows the cur- 
rent format values and other useful information. 

COMPLETE FORMATING CONTROL 

The text of individual lines may be centered, left justified, right justified, or right 
and left justified. Tabs can be set or cleared at any point. Spacing of the lines on the 
page is under complete operator control with end of page, spacing and vertical tab 
commands. 

While entering text, it may be specified that the characters have some kind of 
modification when they are printed, such as underlining, superscript, boldface, 
overline, or subscript. These character modifications are done with "control" key 
strokes. For example; to start underlining characters, simply hold down the "CTRL" 
key, hit the "U" key and continue entering text. To stop underlining, hit the "DEL" or 
"RUB" key. 



STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 

A major option of STYLOGRAPH is the related MAIL MERGE program. This pro- 
gram adds "form letter" capability to STYLOGRAPH. Variables such as names ad- 
dresses, dates, may be taken from a disk file or the keyboard at print out time and 
inserted into the text. Successive letters may be printed out without operator in- 
tervention. 

The second important capability of the MAIL MERGE program allows many 
STYLOGRAPH text files to be appended at print out time. This allows files to be 
edited in smaller, more convenient blocks and then appended at print out time so 
that the page numbers will remain consecutive and the headers and footers will 
automatically be retained through all of the print out. 



STYLOGRAPH SPELLING CHECKER 

Another major option of STYLOGRAPH is the related SPELLING CHECKER pro- 
gram. This program reads through a text file and compares the words in the file with 
a dictionary. Words that are not found in the dictionary may be marked in the text 
for later editing, corrected on the spot, skipped, or added to the dictionary. Words 
may be added to or deleted from the dictionary to create unique vocabularies for 
particular applications. 



POWERFUL PRINTING OPTIONS 

Underlining is supported on TTY type printers. For those people who have 
specialty printers there are a variety of additional capabilities including: 
1.5 line spacing 
BOLDFACE 

superscript STYLOGRAPH for the Color Computer FLEX 195.00 

unde^n 8 e?o P ver.lne, STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 125.00 

or any combination STYLOGRAPH SPELLING CHECK 145.00 

Right and left justification of text is accomplished by incremental printing on TTY 

type printers. True proportional spacing is supported on the specialty printers. STANDARD FLEX Version 295.00 

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^ m ^^BH LABORATORY 



THE REGENCY TOWER • 770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE, NY 1 3203* TELEX 646740«(315) 474-7856 



UTILITY 



Joyfully Humanize CoCo 
With Joylist 

by Kenneth G. Deahl 

Almost from the beginning, about a year ago, I have been 
trying to find some way to slow down the speed of LISTing 
of a program. When I finally tackled Assembly Language, 
progress occurred, but it wasn't easy, let me tell you! 

In this article, you will enjoy the fruits of my labor, and be 
spared the many agonies suffered during my quest. £ 

OK, the first attempt went like this: 



LISTING #1 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 



FOR X=1000 TO 101 
READ A: POKE X , A 

360, 3: POKE 361,23 
52, 16, 142,0, 1 
189, 167,211,53 
16, 126, 130, 1 15 



NEXT 
POKE 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
NEW 



iff 

* w 



Type in (or load) this program, and RUN it. There will be 
no noticeable effect until you change the value in Memory 
Location 1003(decimal). 

POKE 1003, 0 gives normal speed listings, and 
POKE 1003, 225 gives the slowest... 

As you POKE values higher than 32 into 1003, you'll 
notice that the keyboard seems sluggish. This is because the 
program allows the user to determine the amount of delay 
between the printing of each and every character to the 
screen; the bigger the value, the longer the delay. The 
keyboard scan routine in ROM still works normally; you 
won't see the character 'till after the delay, and, until you do 
see it, the keyboard is 'dead.' 

Line 80 erases the Basic program from memory, but the 
routine will stay in effect until you power down the 
computer. The portion of memory used by the routine is 
unaffected by Basic's normal activities, including any of 
Extended Color Basic's graphic page allocations. 

For those interested in Assembly Language, I've included 
an assembled source listing, below. 

Note: These memory locations must contain the 
following, first: 



NOTICE 



Due to unfortunate circumstances, Desert 
Software will not be able to handle Daury 
Educational Software. We regret any 
inconvenience we may have caused any of our 
customers and want to assure all of you that we 
will, in the future, be bringing you the best software 
in terms of quality at prices you can afford. 

DESERT SOFTWARE 

P. O. Box 502 
Cortaro, CA 85230 



$0167 = $7E $0168 = $03^) $0169 = $E8 



X save register 

* 1 law limit far loop 

«A7D3 delay routine. in RDM 

X restore register 

$8273 detour completed 



03E8 34 10 PSHS 
eiJEfi BE 0001 LDX 
03ED BD A7D3 JSR 
03F0 35 10 PULS 
03F2 7E 8273 JMP 
END 

The comment column gives a fair picture of what 
happens, but is brief, by necessity. What we are doing is 
inserting a programmable delay in the routine that outputs 
each character to the screen (or printer and cassette, for that 
matter). This routine, referred to as console out, has a RAM 
'hook' in it. In other words, before any character is 
outputted, console out checks with a memory location in 
RAM for any last-minute instructions. This particular hook 
is set to the code to jump to location*$8273, which is in 
Extended Color Basic. There it finds more code instructions 
that involve resetting some of the Video Display Generator 
registers, checking for 'DLOAD,' and otherwise keeping 
you in the alphanumerics mode, if the output 'switch'(not an 
actual physical one, though) indicates Screen. 

Well, being in RAM, this little hook can be changed, and 
we have done so, by POKEing a different address into it. 
Instead of 7E 8273 (JMP $8273), we have diverted it to 
$03E8 (1000 decimal). There is where our little nugget is 
stored. ..First off, we PSHSX, or take the contents of the I S- 
bit X register, and hide it safely away, up on the stack, so we 
can reuse the register for our own purposes. Next we LDX 
#1, meaning we tell the register to take on the immediate 
value of "1," which will be our lowest limit for the delay 
loop. 

OK, now we JSR $A7D3, or Jump-to-SubRoutine, 
located at address $A7D3, which is in ROM. By the way, 
part of the structure of the instruction JSR automatically 
saves the place you jumped from, so it knows where to 
return, later; sort of like GOSUB/ RETURN, right? 

At $A7D3 is a nifty little routine — quite popular, well- 
liked, often sought and utilized by many other routines. It 
takes whatever value that is then in X register and 
decrements that value to zero, one unit at a time, checking 
for zero each time through the loop. When, finally, the X 
register is flat-out empty, the loop terminates, and an RTS 
(Return to SubRoutine that called this one) transfers 
control back to where you were. 

We can now PULS X, or Pull from the Stack (our hiding 
place) the original contents of the X register, and put them 
back into it. Then we JMP $8273, as our last instruction, 
since our detour is finished. The computer goes on its way 
until the next character is to be output, the console out 
RAM hook is checked, and off we go! 

Now, about that lowest limit of one: if the X register had 
contained a zero when we entered the delay loop at $A7D3, 
the first decrement would make the value in X register a 
negative number, which is below zero. A situation, similar to 
"wordwrap" or" wraparound", in word processors, then 
occurs. The "-1 "gets changed to $FFFE, or one less than the 
highest hex number our eight-bit computercan manage. We 
"wrapped-a round " f rom the bottom to the top, so to speak. 
Well, now with X register holding $FFFE, we will have to 
wait till the loop decrements 65534 times to get to zero 
before we can get out of it. So, by pre-setting the lower limit 
to one, we won't get any surprises. As far as the upper limit is 
concerned, that is what the POKE 1003 (any value) is for. 
1003 contains the Most Significant Byte, and 1004 has the 
Least Significant Byte of the value you place into X register 



74 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



before JMPing to the delay loop. 

Well, fine and dandy and all that, but in order to change 
the speed of LISTing, you have to POKE a new value in 
1003 each time. Not quite what I wanted, yet not too shabby, 
either... My second attempt allows you to insert the delay 
two times, in each line during a LISTing. The characters for 
each complete line are output at normal speed, but there is a 
pause before every line number, and again after every line 
number is printed. The line itself whips right along, as usual. 

In Listing 2, note that two different RAM hooks are used. 
both checked by the L/Srcommand, at different stages of 
the execution. Also, the same delay routine is called twice, 
with your chosen value both times. Using both of the RAM 
hooks this way tends to give more control over the overall 
smoothness of scrolling. 

LISTING #2 
210 FOR X=1000 TO 1010 

220 READ A: POKE X, A: NEXT X 

230 POKE 383, 126: POKE 384, 3: POKE 

385,232 **3<> 5 

240 POKE 422, 126: POKE 423, 3: POKE 

424,232 frW* 

250 DATA 52,16,142,0,1,189 

260 DATA 167,211,53,16,57 

The Assembly Source Listing would be the same as for 
Listing #1, except in the last instruction. Instead of J MP 
$8273 (in decimal, the last three Data bytes in line 70 are 
126,130, and 115), Listing #2 replaces this with RTS 
(decimal 57, the last Data byte, here, in line 260). Please note 



your control is still the same: POKE /00J,0=normal speed of 
listing, and POKE 100 3,2 5 5 -the. slowest speed. As before, 
the Basic program can be erased (after RUNing); the routine 
stays in memory. However, the keyboard scan routine is not 
affected this time, so that's an additional improvement. 

Well, I still wasn't happy; so back to the EDTASM+ 
cartridge... 

The third and Final listing is IT! All my wishes fulfilled; 
the Dream now a Reality; the end of the Rainbow! (Sorry, 
Lonnie... unintentional pun.) The 'Fruits of my Labor' had 
arrived, overflowing a huge cornucopia! Joylist at 
last. ..Read on, my friends. 

Listing #3 

300 JOYLIST ******* 

301 '** K.DEAHL - 9/06/82 ** 

302 ' *********************** 

303 FOR X=1000 TO 1015 

304 READ A: POKE X, A: NEXT X 

305 POKE 360, 3: POKE 361,232 

306 DATA 52,86,189,169,222 

307 DATA 190,1,91,48,1,189 

308 DATA 167,211,53,86,57 

309 END: ' or NEW, i i you like 

Type this in, plug in your Right Joystick, and RUN the 
program. Then pull the Joystick back, type LIST and 
ENTER; do it again, perhaps with a longer program of your 
own, and slide that joystick up and back while you 'Joy- 
List. ' Is that neat, or what? 




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COLOUR PAC ATTACK 
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$30.95 
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^3 



Prism Software 

CHOPPER RESCUE "By Prism Software" This game puts 
you at the controls of a rescue helicopter. Your mission: rescue 
as many victims as possible from a burning city before it is 
reduced to ashes. (Extended BASIC) $13.95 

LAS VEGAS "By Prism Software" This game adds a new twist 
to the old game of Blackjack. Can you beat the computer and 
break the bank. A variety of colours and realistic sound effects 
makes this the best high resolution game of its kind. 
(Extended BASIC) $11.95 

RAIDERS "By Prism Software" In this adventure you must 
deal with voodoo curses, alligators, ancient traps and hostile 
natives. This adventure begins in the confusion of a large city 
and ends (maybe toosoon if you're not careful) in a dangerous, 
dense jungle in South America. 

(Extended BASIC) $16.95 

THE ALIEN "By Prism Software" You are the sole survivor on 
a huge starship, but you are not alone. A savage ALIEN is 
stalking you. Can you find a way to destroy it and escape the 
derelict starship? With numerous sounds 
(Extended BASIC) 



Prism Software 

779 Queen St., 
Box 1360, Kincardine, 
Ontario, Canada. NOG 2G0 
Tel:(51 9)396-8224 



$13.95 



Add 5 n lor shipping 

No C.O.D. 

VISA or Mastercard accepted 
Ontario residents add 7% sales tax 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 75 



Here's the Assembled Source Listing. Note: These memory 
locations must contain the following, first: 





$0167 = 


$7E 


$0168 


= $03 


$0169 = $E8 


03E8 


34 56 


START 


PSHS 


U, X , B. A 


save registers 


03EO 


BD A9DE 




JSR 


*A9DE 


get joystick 

readi ngs 


03ED 


BE 015B 




LDX 


*015B 


hi limit- 

R . Vert :L. Hon : 


03F0 


30 0 1 




LEAX 


1 , X 


ensure lo 

limit > 0 


03F2 


BD A7D3 


DELAY 


JSR 


*A7D3 


routine in ROM 


03FS 


35 56 




PULS 


A, B, X , U 


restore 

regi sters 


03F7 


37 




RTS 
END 




de t our 

comp 1 ete. 



All right, let's go over this new one. First, we saved the 
affected registers (PSHS U,X,B,A). Then we called the 
routine to read in the four Joystick values into RAM, from 
$015A through $015D (JSR $A9DE). These four bytes 
represent the right horizontal, right vertical, left horizontal, 
and left vertical positions of each Joystick. When the right 
Joystick is all the way forward, $015B will contain a zero, 
and when you pull it all the way back, the value becomes 63. 
In Binary notation, 63 Decimal is equal to 001 1 1 1 1 1 , or, 
only the six least significant bits are set, of the eight bits our 
computer normally handles. The routine at $A9DE is 
involved in a sort of six-bit A/D (Analog-to-Digital) 
conversion, taking in the smooth variations from 0 VDC to 
+5 VDC, reflecting the Joysticks' relative position(s), and 
chopping them up into 64 little pieces. (Yes, I said '64;' 
counting from and including zero you get 64.) 

We want to use the right-vertical Joystick, so we put the 



values at $0 1 5B and $0 1 5C into the X register ( LDX $0 1 5 B). 
Remember, X is a 16-bit register; two eight-bit consecutive 
bytes. However, this means X will have the right-vertical as 
its MSB, and the left-horizontal as its LSB. There would be 
no problem until the left Joystick was all the way over to the 
left, and the right Joystick was all the way forward. Then, 
$015B and S015C would both contain zeros, and when you 
go to the delay routine with 0000 to start with, you'll have a 
long wait, as we saw before! We can prevent this by adding 
"one" to the X register, after loading it with whatever's in 
$015B and $015C. 

(LEAX 1,X) does this for us very nicely. It Loads the 
Effective Address into X, the value that was in X, plus one. 
(My compliments to the designer(s) of the 6809 CPU forthis 
one...) OK, now we zoom up to the delay routine (JSR 
$A7D3), come back and put everthing back into place 
(PULS A,B,X,U), then get back on the main road. Again, all 
of this goes on before each and every character gets 
displayed, (or sent to the printer and cassette ports), but you 
can vary the delay, while it's happening! 

It's ironic; humans admire computers for the speed they 
have, among other things, yet here we are, saying "Whoa." 
Which reminds me; the original idea for Joylist came from 
an article in Microcomputing, OCT-1980, called "Whoa, 
Apple," by Terry Edward Phillips. I have lusted after the 
concept he presented for quite some time, now. And 
speaking of speed, do you realize the TRS 80 Color 
Computer outputs characters to the screen at a blinding 
1800 per second? Unreal! (I actually clocked it.) With 
Joylist, and your right Joystick up, we're down to a more 
civilized 360/ sec, and, with the 'Stick' back, a mere five 
characters appear each second. Joy! 



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76 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Software Review... 

Addition Concepts Has Some 
Minuses As Well As Pluses 

Unlike the steady progress of sophisticated arcade games 
for home computers, much of the educational software is 
still in its infancy. 

Addition Concepts is an educational program to teach 
younger children simple addition facts for the numberszero 
to nine. The program is menu driven to pick three items: 
number of correct answers before progressing to the next 
level, which of four sets of numbers to use, and whether or 
not verbal instructions are wanted. 

At the three lowest levels, Mr. Bob, the author, explains 
the addition of numbers zero to three by counting boxes 
shown below the numbers. After each explanation, the 
student is drilled on the facts just taught until the 
predetermined number of correct answers is reached. The 
correct answer is chosen from three choices by "flying a 
space ship" to it, using the right joystick. 

After the number three, Mr. Bob explains that the rest of 
the numbers through nine are treated the same and no 
further instructions are given. If further repetitions of the 
lowest numbers are needed, the tape has to be returned to 
the appropriate counter number before running that 
segment. 

Technically, the program is well done, with liberal use of 
graphics and sound, and, one unique feature, the actual 
verbal instructions on tape to the student from Mr. Bob 
himself. 

The graphics use higher resolution to create large, easy to 
read numbers on the screen. Correct answers are rewarded 
with a short graphics display and sound. 

The printed instructions included with the program are on 
only one side of a sheet of paper and are not adequate. 
Nothing is said about which age group is targeted by this 
program, and only incidentally mentions the need for adult 
supervision. Half the sheet is spent explaining how to keep 
track of the verbal instructions on the tape, and the other 
half includes somewhat confusing instructions on how to 
use the program. 

With the aid of my three children, ages six, nine, and 1 1, 
the program was "user tested," and some glaring problems 
cropped up. 

The first noticed, and a very annoying thing, was the 
audio level difference between Mr. Bob's spoken word and 
the computer generated sound. The TV audio had to be 
turned up quite loud to hear the spoken word, but when the 
program started, the audio was too loud, necessitating a 
frequent raising and lowering of the volume control. 
However, you do have the option of eliminating the audio 
feature altogether. 

Another problem was with the use of the joystick. All 
three kids had some trouble getting the rocket to the correct 
answer (even though the two older ones are arcade game 
players). The problem might be lessened if the student could 
first position the rocket over the correct answer and then 
push the"fire"button. But, unfortunately, thefire button is 
used to interrupt the program at any time to start over. This 
also caused problems because all three kids tended to push 
the "fire" button now and then by accident, stopping the 
program in the middle of a sequence. 

At the start of each drill, the rocket has to be moved 
"blindly" to the upper left-hand portion of the screen while 
the correct answer graphics is being displayed. The kids were 
usually too busy watching the graphics to remember to do 



this, and were reminded with a somewhat annoying barrage 
of sound and a message telling them to do it. The answer 
rocket is small and flickering, making it difficult to see and 
work with. 

Lastly, the two older kids found the program boring, not 
surprising since they are long past addition facts. The 
youngest, who is halfway through first grade, knew the 
addition facts but still enjoyed doing the practice drills. 

Having had the experience of helping three kids in school 
to learn their addition facts, I feel Mr. Bob's approach is 
valid and useful. The major flaw with the program is his 
failure to adequately user test it with his intended audience 
(whichever that might be). Correcting the "mechanical" 
problems would make this a much better program. 
(Programs by Mr. Bob, P.O. Box 94, Montrose, CA 
91020, $14.95) 

— Chuck Pilipauskas 



Software Review... 

Master Disk System 
A Good Librarian 

The addition of a disk drive to a system is usually done to 
increase the efficiency of that system. However, with the 
advent of disk drives comes the problem of maintaining 
some sort of order to data stored on them. In other words, 
what program is on which disk and where did I last put it. 
The Master Disk System from Circle City Software is 
designed as an answer to which program is on what disk. 



COLOR — FORTH 

Including SEMI GRAPH I C-8 EDITOR 
+ UTILITIES 

—Disk and Tape utilities 

-Boot from disk or tape 

—Graphics and Sound commands 

—Printer commands 

—Auto— repeat and Control keys 

-Fast task multiplexing 

-Unique TRACE function in kernal 

-Clean INTERRUPT handling 
in HIGH-LEVEL FORTH 

-CPU CARRY FLAG accessible 

-Game of LIFE demo 

-ULTRA FAST: written in assembler 

—Directions included for 
installing optional ROM in 
disk controller or cartridge 

-Free Basic game "RATMAZE" 



FORTH 

Hoyt Stearns Electronics 

4131 E. CANNON DR. PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85028 
602-996-1717 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 77 



Unfortunately; there is nothing besides a little personal 
organization which will help you keep track of where you 
put the disk. 

I presently have 25 disks in use, and found it took only 
about 20 minutes to get them all cataloged with Master Disk 
System. The program comes with six sheets of 
documentation and the standard disclaimer. The 
instructions are straightforward and easy to understand. 

The entire process does require some playing to become 
familiar with it. The programs will run on a 1 6K disk system, 
but the sort function will be unavailable. It requires a 32K 
machine to perform a sort, a minor item since it is easy to 
locate files without the sort function. 

The Master Disk System is a collection of two main 
programs and two utilities. The two main programs will 
catalog the contents of 100 separate disks onto one master 
disk for easy reference. The contents of the individual disk 
directories are placed in the data base on the master disk. 
The disk directory just read will then contain an entry in it 
indicating on which master disk its directory is cataloged. 
Besides obtaining the directory, the disk fileallocation table 
is also copied into the master data base. More about that 
later. For those who have more than 100 disks, the system 
will support up to 255 master disks, with each master 
containing 100 entities. Now that's a lot of disks. 

The first of the main programs prepares a master disk for 
use and is called "Diskinit. "The second program is the work 
horse of the system and provides all the necessary services. 
The "Master" program is menu driven and does a very good 
job of leading you through all the required steps. The master 
program contains nine options which provide all the 



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functions necessary to maintain the master data base. 

The data base can be displayed on a singular disk basis. If 
you want to know what is on disk "two," it will display the 
contents of just disk two. If you would like to search the 
entire data base lookingfor a match on a group of characters 
it will do that also. A little experimentation with this 
powerful list function will bring out its hidden value. I use 
the extended part of the file name to indicate the class of file 
being stored. Assembly source files are cataloged with a 
"/txt" extended file name. The assembled version of the 
same file is cataloged with a "/Bin" extended file name. 
Entering just the first eight characters of the file name allows 
me to find all occurrences of the file plus any back-up copies. 
All this with one list operation. A very nice feature. The 
displayed data will show the entire file name in which the 
match was found plus the disk name and ID on which it 
resides. 

The list option offers selected lists of just Basic programs, 
data files or binary files. Answer "yes" to all three of the 
prompts and you will get a list of the entire data base. There 
is just one catch: the selected list function would not display 
or list any of the files created by Radio Shack's 
Spectaculator or Scripsit. A minor problem since the 
directory search does handle them properly. 

If your system has a printer, and the printer is turned on, 
the option of printing the data rather than displaying it is 
offered. If the printer remains off, all data is automatically 
displayed on the screen. 

The utilities consist of a sort program and a recovery 
program which will replace the allocation table of a disk 
which has crashed. The documentation claims that if either 
the disk directory or the file allocation table are scourged, 
the "restore" program will replace them, thus making at 
least a partial recovery of the data on the disk possible, if not 
all of it. 

I purposely destroyed the directory on a copy of one of my 
library disks, which was cataloged in the master data base. 
Running the recovery program restored the disk completely. 
I tried selectively destroying sectors in the directory. Each 
time, the destroyed sectors were restored. 

I believe that the entire directory track is stored in the 
master data base, although I did not go into the program to 
verify it. This means that, as programs are added, changed 
or deleted, it becomes important to ensure that the master 
data base is also properly updated. Otherwise, only partial 
recovery of the disk will occur with the running of the 
recovery program. 

The sort function provides for a displayed or printed list 
of all the files in the data base, sorted by file name, 
alphabetically. The display to the screen is held once the 
screen is full, and scrolled only upon command from the 
keyboard. Sorted listings to the printer are printed in 
groups. Each group corresponds to a used letter of the 
alphabet as the first letter in a file name. 

I like Master Disk System and the manner in which it was 
written. It is menu driven, and walks the userthroughall the 
necessary steps. Error checking is performed where possible 
to avoid inadvertent destruction of needed data. The 
programs are well done, and reflect the thought that must 
have gone into them. Any disk library of five or more disks is 
a candidate for this product. The ability to be able to restore 
a disk if the directory or allocation tables are zapped, is in 
itself worth the purchase cost, if only needed once. I consider 
these programs a worthy addition to any library. 

(Circle City Software, P.O. Box 30166, Indianapolis, IN 
46220, $29.95) 

—Frank J. Esser 



78 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



THE NIBBLER & MS. NIBBLER A tast maze chase game featuring the nibbler man and three bumbling prBdHors. Written in machine 
code and joystick compatible, this fun packed game is enjoyed by all. MS. NIBBLER is similar to THE NIBBLER described above but features a 
different maze and MS. NIBBLER for the ladies 



..Ml 



<nL — • 




COMBAT GAMEPACK 3 action packed games featuring lifelike graphics and sound. EXTENDED BASIC required 2-1-0 TANK COMBAT 

pits two players against each other in 5 different terrains. STELLAR BATTLE lets you pilot a flexwing fighter through deep space fighting dorian 
squadrons GALACTIC BLOCKADE is a favorite two-player arcade game of speed and skill. 

j^P.^SS^jSS^^ ALL GAMES ARE $24.95 for^K^assette; S29.95 for 32K Disk. 

■,<.-..: '■ ff^^g^^WS^^ £8m lnclude *3.00 for shipping in the U.S. & Canada. $6.00 lor Foreign orders COD add $2.00 

m '"'l^jf . KMBMBMM AVAILABLE AT DEALERS EVERYWHERE. IF NOT, ASK WHY! 



il^iirtiMiii \MMmms^M NELSON [■ ■=] \wm\ 

VEGAS GAMEPACK The thrills of a Las SOFTWARE 1Mb ™™ 

Vegas casino at home! Extended BASIC required. SYSTEMS /WSSSStStW ^ \ 9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 612/881-2777 

CASINO CRAPS, 21, ONE ARMED BANDIT, UP . 

AND DOWN THE RIVER, & KENO. A bank tracks Corporation Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 U. S. A. 

players winnings from game to game. « - «~ >* 



For Orders Only-Call Toll Free: (800) 328-2737 



Supe 



r "Color" Writer II" 

A "ROLLS ROYCE " FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER rZnbow 



rXMrwCAtiott 



If you are contemplating buying a word processor tor your TRS-S0C 
Color Computer or TDP System 100 Personal Computer, look no further! [ 
The Super "Color" Hriter is the most powerful and most versatile word 
processor available. This user- friendly program gives you many times 
the power and speed, and MORE MEMORY than any other word processor for 
your computer. The Super "Color" Hriter does it all I 

No other program lets you fully use every capability built 
into your printer, fiND HITH EASE/ Emphasis, italics, double 
strike, normal mode, compressed, el ongated — compressed mode, and 
£L. OMGf* T£Z> fWPWPS/ZEO I T f*t_ ICS are at 

your fingertips, all within JUSTIFIED text. Underlining is a 
breeze! All the parameters for proper page formatting (margins, 
page length, etc.) are fully alterable. Yet, without changing a 
single thing you can print text perfectly the first time. 

Don't think for a minute that the Super "CqIqi." Writer II 
won't work with your letter quality printer. There's-^no reason 
you can't give H-O its proper name or have footnotes. As for 
bold print, underlining . proportional spacing, super bold or any 
other printer-controlled function - if your printer has it, the 
Super " Color * Writer U can do it! You can also freely exchange 
thimbles or daisy wheels to change to italics, or to a totally 
different typeface with the pause print feature. 

And the Super "Color" Hriter II has the exclusive WINDOW to make 
your formatting pleasant and perfect. Enter the window to view your 

whole text as it will be sent to the printer, whatever your margins, 
from 1 to 200 or more! No longer will you be tied to seeing only 32, 
51, 64 or whatever number of characters on a line. You can see that 

your text is centered, headers and footers are always properly placed, 
and your columns are correct. 

With the Sap^er "Color" Hriter screen editing is a snap; the 

commands are powerful and hard to forget. You can edit all your BASIC 
PROGRAMS TOD! With all these features, you must surely agree that 
this is the "ROLLS , ROYCE" of word processors. To learn more, refer to 
the Nelson Software Systems ad in this magazine. And don't forget 
that the Super "Color" Hriter II is only one important part of the 
Super "Color" Library, which includes the Super "Color" Terminal , the 
Super "Color" Mailer, the Super "Color" Bisk-ZHP and the soon to be 
released Super "Color" Calc and Super "Color" Database. No other 
company gives you such outstanding products and support. You can buy 
theirs now and ours later, OR you can save your money and get the best 
from the very start ! 

This document was prepared using a TRS-80(TM) Color Computer, the 
Super "Color" Hriter II „ an Epson MX-80 Braftrax Plus ( , and an NEC 
Spinntriter 3510 <TM) to illustrate the great flexibility in formatting 
allowed by the Super "Color" Hriter II. 



Spinxriter is a trademark of NEC Information Systems, Inc. MX-80 Braftrax Plus is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 
TRS-80 and TDP System Mi Personal Computer are trademarks of the Tandy Corporation. 



THE ULTIMATE IN COLORCOMPUTING 

For the TRS-80 Color Computer and TOP System 100 Personal Computer 

Super "Color" Writer II rg Super "Color" Terminal 

By Tim Nation : / B V Dan Nel>on 

The Rolls Royce of Word Processors The Ultimate in Smart Terminals Eras 



Super "Color" Writer II m 

By Tim Nelson fcfc* 

The Rolls Royce of Word Processors 

The Super "Color" Writer is a FAST, machine code, lull featured, 
character (screen) oriented word processing system for the TRS-80'" 
Color Computer and ANY printer. The video display is styled after a 
professional phosphor (green characters on black background) display 
for hours of use without eye fatigue (optional orange on black) The 
unique print WINDOW frees you from 32. 51 or 64 character lines 
FOREVER! This window can be moved anywhere in the text file, up, 
down, left or right to display the text as it will be printed without wasting 
paper. You can create or edit Super "Color" Terminal files. ASCII files, 
BASIC programs or Editor/Assembler source listings. It's simple enough 
for beginners with 4K and . . for the professional writer with a 32K disk 
system and a lot to say. there's plenty of room to say It! 

COMPARISON CHART SUPER COLOR WRITER THE COMPETITION 

System Size 4K 16K 32K 4K 16K 32K 

TAPE Text space N/A 7K 23K N/A 2K 18k 

ROMPAK Text space 2 5K 16K 31K N/A N/A N/A 

DISK: Text space N/A 5.5K 21.5K N/A 0.5K 16.5K 

Right Justify YES NO 

Video Window YES NO 

Edit any ASCII File YES NO 

Programmable Function YES NO 

The figures speak for themselves and with professional features like 
PROGRAMMABLE function string commands to perform up to 28 
commands automatically. PROGRAMMABLE text file chaining, 
PROGRAMMABLE column insert & delete, and right hand 
JUSTIFICATION with punctuation precedence, the choice is clear but 
there's still more! In their September '82 issue, "80 MICRO" says. "The 
Color Computer has finally come of age Nothing illustrates that coming 
of age better than this offering (SUPER "COLOR" WRITER) by Nelson 
Software ". The Super "Color" Writer takes full advantage of the new 
breed of "smart printers" with Control codes 1-31. 20 Programmable 
control codes 0-255 for special needs. Works perfectly with all Epson. 
Radio Shack. Okidata, NEC. IDS. Centronics. Citoh, Smith Corona, 
Diablo Etc.. Matrix, or Letter Quality Printers. 

CHECK THESE FEATURES!! 
User friendly • Easy commands • 32K Compatible • Window • Key beep • 
HELP table • 128 character ASCII & graphics • Mem left and Mem used • 
Full cursor control • Quick paging • Scrolling • Word wrap around • Tabs 
• Repeat all functions • Repeat last command • Insert character & line • 
Delete character, delete to end of line, line to cursor, line & block • Block 
move, copy & delete 'Global Search, Exchange & Delete • Merge or 
Append files • Imbed Control Codes in text • Underline • Superscripts • 
Subscripts • Headers. Footers & 2 Auxiliary footnotes on odd. even or all 
pages definable position • Flush right • Non-breakable space • 4 
centering modes: 5, 8.3. 10 & 16.7 (CPI) • Full page & print formatting in 
text • Single sheet pause • Set Page length • Line length, Line spacing. 
Margins, Page numbers • Title pages • Printer baud: 110. 300, 600. 1200, 
2400 • Linefeeds after CR • Soft & hard formfeed • Works with 8 bit 
printer fix • and more! 

Super "Color" Writer II Disk 

The Disk version of the Super "Color" Writer works with the TRS-80C 
Disk System and has all the features listed above plus many more! Use 
with up to four Disk Drives. Includes an extended HELP table you can 
access at any time. Call a directory, print FREE space. Kill disk files and 
SAVE and LOAD text files you've created all from the Super "Color" 
Writer. Print, merge or append any Super "Color" Terminal file, ASCII 
file, BASIC program or Editor/ Assembler source listing stored on the 
Disk or tape. The Super "Color" Writer Disk version has additional for- 
matting and print features for more control over your printer and 
PROGRAMMABLE chaining of disk files for "hands off" operation. Print 
an entire BOOK without ever touching a thing! Includes comprehensive 
90 plus page Tutorial manual. 

TAPE $49.95 ROMPAK $74.95 DISK $99.95 

Tutorial only $15.00 (Refundable with purchase) 

ORDERING INCLUDE $3.00 for shipping In the U.S. & Canada, 
$6.00 for Foreign orders. C.O.D. add $2.00. 



NELSON 
SOFTWARE 
SYSTEMS 



STdltlVIa /"■—■■ S3 9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 612/881-2777 
A Division of Softlaw Corporation Minneapolis, Minnesota 55420 U. S. A. 



The Super "Color" Terminal turns the Color Computer into a Super-smart 
terminal with all the features of VIDEOTEX'" plus much more 
COMMUNICATE with Dow Jones & Compuserve and with computers like 
the TRS-80'" MODEL I. II. III. APPLE etc., via moden or RS-232 direct! 
Save the data to tape or print it! Reduces ON-LINE cost to a minimumi 
FEATURES 

10 buffer size settings from 2-30K • Buffer full indicator • Prints buffer 
contents • Full 128 ASCII keyboard • Compatible with Super "Color" 
Writer files • UPLOAD & DOWNLOAD ASCII files, Machine Language & 
Basic programs • Set RS-232 parameters • Duplex: Half/Full • Baud Rate: 
110. 300. 600. 1200, 2400, 4800 • Word Lengths 5. 6, 7 or 8 • Parity: Odd, 
Even or None • Stop Bits: 1-9 • Local linefeeds to screen • Tape save 8. 
load for ASCII files. Machine code & Basic programs • Unique clone 
feature for copying any tape. 

Super "Color" Terminal Disk 

The disk version of the Super "Color" Terminal works with the TRS-80C 
Disk system and has all the features listed above plus many more! Use 
with up to four Disk Drives • Call a directory, print FREE space, kill disk 
files, save and load text files or BASIC programs • Echo ability in full 
duplex • Lower case masking • 10 Keystroke Multiplier (MACRO) buffers 
that can be saved on disk to perform repetitive log-on tasks and send 
short messages (up to 250 characters each) • Programmable prompt or 
delay lor send next line • Selectable character trapping • Set printer 
Baud rate to 110, 300. 600. 1200. & 2400 • Operators Manual. 
TAPE $39.95 ROMPAK $49.95 DISK $69.95 

Operators manual only $10.00 (Refundable with purchase) 

Super "Color" Mailer 

** Correspondence-Mailmerge 

The Super "Color" Mailer is a powerful multi-purpose file merging 
program that uses files created by the Super "Color" Writer II. One of 
Super "Color" Mailer's most popular uses is producing customized form 
letters — at a fraction of the time and expense of individually typed 
letters. With Super "Color" Mailer you can combine a Super "Color" Writer 

11 file containg a form letter with a tile containing a list of names and 
addresses You can even insert special words and phrases — unique to 
each addressee — into the body of the letter Other Super "Color" Mailer 
uses include creating invoices, printing mailing labels, addressing 
envelopes, and producing "boiler plate" legal documents out of many 
different paragraphs. Features include: the ability to selectively print 
mailing lists by any of up to 10 user definable fields • automatically prints 
current date • address • salutation • closing • P S. etc. • prints any ASCII 
file • justification 

TAPE $39.95 DISK $59.95 

t>K w Super "Color" Disk-ZAP 

* The Ultimate in Disk Repair Utilities 

A must for ALL Color Computer Disk system owners. A high-speed 
machine code Disk Utility that can copy sectors and tracks • repair 
directory tracks and smashed disks, etc Super "Color" Disk-ZAP has a 
special screen display that displays sector, track and memory contents in 
HEXADECIMAL and ASCII at the same time with double cursors that can 
be moved in any direction. With Super "Color" Disk-ZAP you are able 
to verify or modify disk sectors at will You can even type right onto the 
Disk! You can send sector contents to the printer or any other RS-232 
device in either ASCII or HEXADECIMAL listing. Search the entire 
Diskette for any ASCII or HEXADECIMAL string. Comes complete with 
comprehensive manual 

DISK ONLY $69.95 

c o**5jK Super "Color" Calc 

S° Electronic Spread Sheet 

The finest electronic spread sheet and financial modeling, program 
available for the Color Computer — A sophisticated yet easy to use. 
calculating and planning tool. Project figures into the future to answer 
the "What if?" questions you face. Create files compatible with the 
Super "Color" Writer II. Combine spread sheet tables with your 
documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical & financial reports 
& budgets. 

AVAILABLE AT DEALERS EVERYWHERE. IF NOT. ASK WHYII 

TRS-80 Is a registered trademark ol the Tandy Corp. 



For Orders Only— C all Toll Free: (800) 328-2737 



RAINBOWfest To Be In 
Chicago April 22-24 

The very first national show and exhibition f or CoCo will 
be held in Chicago April 22-24, sponsored by the Rainbow. 

RAINBOWfest will be at the Hyatt-Regency Woodfield, 
west of the downtown area. The RAINBOWfest site is 
adjacent to Woodfield Mall — the world's largest shopping 
center. 

According to preliminary plans, a large number of 
software and hardware firms will be on hand to exhibit their 
products. The meeting will also feature a great deal of fun 
and conversation about CoCo. 

We urge you to make plans to attend. A special hotel rate 
can be secured by mentioning the Rainbow. 

Admission will be $7.50 for all three days through an 
advance sale, or $5 per day for a single day. Tickets at the 
door will be $1 1 for the entire session or $7.50 for a single 
day. 

Other events are planned and will be announced shortly. 



1' 



RAINBOWfest 
Chicago April 22-24 



Software Review... 



Poltergeist Is 
Good, Spirited Fun 



Poltergeist is a new program cartridge from Radio Shack 
based on the movie of the same name. At $34.95 it was not a 
purchase I made impulsively, but it has proved to be a sound 
investment in challenging, quality entertainment. 

The object of Poltergeist is to rescue the little girl, Carol 
Anne, from the clutches of an evil and elusive spirit. The 
play progresses through three screens, each of which by itself 
would be considered a fun game. Combined, they require 
substantial skill and concentration in order to achieve the 
objective. 

Screen one has you dashing up and down the streets of 
Westhaven gathering objects you will need to defeat the 
poltergeist. Your progress is impeded by heavy traffic and 
you must maneuver from house to house while avoiding 
being hit by a car. Not a simple task! 

Screen two places you at the bottom of a staircase. You 
must get to the top without bumping any of the objects 
which the poltergeist has placed in motion upon every step. 
Watch out! If you move too cautiously the ghost himself will 
appear and attack you. Failure at Screen two puts you back 
at the beginning of the game. 

Screen three is a shooting gallery with a f rightening twist. 
Out of the blackness at the center of a violent force field, a 
tiny dot of light emerges, growing into the hideous face of 
the poltergeist. You must successf ully destroy eight of these 
to rescue Carol Anne. But, horrors! Sometimes the dot of 
light is the young girl herself, mockingly revealed by the evil 
spirit. You will have only a split second to makethedecision 
to shoot or hold your fire. Fail here, and you begin all over 
again in Westhaven. 




TEXT EDITOR 

By John Waclo 



WORD PROCESSOR FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



The bottom-line in Word Processors is printed 
output flexibility and TEXT EDITOR has it. TEXT 
EDITOR has Variable Text, Multi-Copy, and 
right-side Justification! Features that are hard 
to find in other widely advertised Word 
Processors. With Variable Text, you can 
repetitively generate the same text with 
predetermined changes in each output. Merge 
form letters with mailing lists using Variable 
Text. TEXT EDITOR'S Multi-Copy command 
automatically does your letters and file copies. 50 
copies of your address on mailing labels is a snap 
with Multi-Copy. Give your text that 
"professional" look with even right-side margins. 
It's easy, just select Justification on the Output 
Menu. 



16K - Special screen display, Save text, Add to 
text, Find locations of any word. Edit, Insert, 
Delete, Replace any line of text. Plus Auto Line- 
Centering! Output to any printer with full control 
over Left Margin, Right Margin, Line Spacing, 
Paging, Length of Form, Number of Copies, and 
right-side Justification. Re-format entered text; 
Menu driven. Draft of text; full or partial. FREE 
upgrade to 32K software...and more. 

32K - ALL of the above PLUS... More text storage, 
Auto-Key Repeat, Global word or phrase 
exchange, and Automatic Letter Headings. Move, 
Duplicate or Delete blocks of text. User 
changeable Printer Format menu and text 
imbeded printer control codes. Plus, Exclusive 
Variable Text feature ...and more. 



ELITE Software 



$49.95 Tape — £59.95 Disk t Includes Manual t Extended Basic required 

Box 1 1 224 Pittsburgh, PA 1 5238 (41 2) 795-B492 



82 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST GOT WHEELS! 




REVOLUTION! 



You accelerate hard down a long straightaway, 
braking heavily at the end for a hard corner. 
You slice smoothly through the esses, and then 
boldly keep the power on for a fast sweeper. 
The Ferrari drifts dangerously near the edge, 
but you make a tiny correction in the steering, 
and you are through. 

The finish line flashes by, and suddenly you 
are in the pits. The car falls silent. You see your 
lap times being held up. Your final lap was a 
new lap record! At last, you permit yourself 
a small smile. 

You have mastered this powerful car on a 
difficult track, driving with the assurance and 
precision that comes only from long hours of 
practice. 

You are driving an authentic race car. You are 
playing Revolution! 

FANTASTIC ACTION 



Revolution uses high resolution, machine language graphics 
for action that is smooth and fast. The emphasis is on 
authenticity in the control and motion of your car. As in 
driving a real race car, accuracy and precision in your driving 
are what counts. Frills and non-essentials have been left out. 

PURE COMPETITION 



Like a real race driver in practice and qualif y ing sessions, you 
compete against the clock and against the existing lap record 
for that track. Revolution records the lap records and the 
name of the person who set the record, so you always know 
who reigns supreme on your favorite track! 

DESIGNED WITH YOU IN MIND 

Revolution is menu-driven, and self explanatory. Informa- 
tion screens tell you what you need to know. When you're 
ready to play, a menu of the names of all your tracks is 
displayed, along with the lap record for each track and the 
name of the person who set that lap record. You select a track 
with a single keystroke, and Revolution takes you there. 



A NEW CONCEPT 

Revolution is a unique game, because it allows you to create 
the most important part of any race game: the track itself. 

The first time you run Revolution, you will be able to choose 
from several tracks and cars which are included with the 
game. 

But, with Revolution, this is only the beginning! You can 
create as many tracks as you like. You can make each new 
track as difficult or as easy as you wish. You can make easy 
ones to begin with, and tougher ones as you become more 
skilled. You may find creating tracks to be almost as much 
fun as driving on them! 

You can save your favorite tracks to run on again whenever 
you wish. Revolution will automatically add these new tracks 
to the menu. And you can exchange your f avorite tracks with 
other Revolution owners. 

Be caref ul, though, about lettingyour f riends play this game. 
They may not want to let you have your computer back! 

THE EARLY REVOLUTION 

A prototype version of Revolution was published in the 
September, 1982 issue of Rainbow magazine, under the 
name The Ttack. The response to The Track has been terrific. 

Revolution has all the features that have made The Track a 
favorite, and Revolution's fast, high-resolution machine 
language graphics are dramatically improved over the 
prototype's. 

REVOLUTION NOW. 



The original Revolution for the TRS-80™ Color Computer 
requires 32K and one disk drive. A new cassette version has 
action just like the disk version, and similar track-saving 
features excluding a menu of available tracks. The cassette 
version will run on a 16K Color Computer or TDP-100. You 
can upgrade to the disk version later, too, for a nominal fee. 



REVOLUTION 






For 32K Disk 


$24.95 


Requires Joysticks 


For 16K Cassette . . 


. $21.95 


& Extended BASIC 



Connecticut residents add 7!/2% sales tax. 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



Inter 0^0 (^Action 

113 Ward Street • Dept. R • New Haven, CT 06519 • (203) 562-5748 



Whether you just got your CoCo for 
Christmas or you've been in it since the 
beginning, PCLEAR 80 has the software you 
need. 

We still carry the finest games... 

Tom Mix 



DONKEY KING (j>2K) *New* $24.95 

PROTECTORS (32K) $24.95 

KATERPILLAR $24.95 

SOLO POOL *New* (E.B.) $17.95 

Spectral Specials 

GALAX ATTAX $19.95 

PLANET INVASION $19.95 

GHOST GOBBLER $19.95 

WIZARD'S KEYS (Adv) $18.95 

Other Great Games 

DUNKEY MONKEY (32K) (intell) $22.95 

STARFIRE (Intellectronics) $19.95 

ASTROBLAST (Mark Data) $24.95 

HAYWIRE (Mark Data) $24.95 



AND MANY OTHERS... 
....BUT WE'RE SERIOUS, TOO! 

Busi ness & Utilities 



TELEWRITER-64 (Cognitec) cass. $49.95 

disk $59.95 

T.I. M.S. (Sugar Software) $24.95 

Write for info on disk version! 

WORKSAVER (Platinum Software) $30.00 

MASTER CONTROL (S.S.M.) ** $21.95 ** 

TAPE DUPE (Tom Mix) $16.95 

DISKUTIL (A.M. Heam) $49.95 

CALL OR WRITE FOR LATEST CATALOG TODAY! 

S£ PC LEAR 80 SOFTWARE 4$ 

494 Cline Avenue 
Mansfield, OH 44907 
(419) 756-4873 / ^ 

Note: We also carry the RAINBOW ™?«2? 

■C4L 

Add $2 shipping on orders less than $50 Please add 
$2 for COD. Ohio residents add 5% state sales tax 



The game allows you three chances at rescuing Carol 
Anne. Even if you do not succeed you can compete forfun 
with yourself or another on total score. The scoring 
mechanism is based on a sophisticated formula involving 
time spent, number of chances used and screen level 
achieved. 

Poltergeist requires I6K, though not Extended Basic. 
You will need one joystick, but you had better have two on 
hand. You just might wear out the first one trying to win. 

"Poltergeist" is a trademark of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 
Film Company and SLM Entertainment Limited. The 
Poltergeist program is copyrighted by these companies and 
Tandy Corporation. 

(Available at Radio Shack stores for $34.95) 

— Robert Kelly 



Software Review... 

Foxygraf Does 'What 
Tandy Didn't Tell You' 

If you've suspected that there might be more to CoCo's 
graphics than Tandy has told you about, then Foxygraf 'is 
for you. Requiring a minimum 16K Color Basic system, 
Foxygraf is a graphics development package for the 
assembly language programmer. Foxygraf gives you easy 
access to all the possible graphic modes, including those 
unavailable through Extended Basic, and allows you to set 
up graphic pages anywhere in RAM. There are routines for 
saving machine language programs, drawing lines and 
drawing circles or ellipses that are especially helpful for 
those without Extended Basic. The arrow keys are used for 
drawing and setting the limits for lines and ellipses. Screen 
graphics can be saved to tape in different graphic modes, 
and when loaded back in, the graphic mode will 
automatically be set, ready for viewing. 

Foxygraf is a very friendly program. A list of all 
commands with definitions and a full page of data about the 
current graphic page are always just a keystroke away as you 
create your picture. Any mistake in keying in commands or 
data simply returns you to the command routine with no 
hassles or complications. Foxygraf is relocatable, and can 
move itself to any position in memory that you find 
convenient, leaving the rest of RAM available for graphics. 

The manual is easy to read, starting with a simple 
background on graphics, and going to a more complex 
discussion of how the various graphic modes are set up. It 
takes you through your first session, step-by-step, 
explaining the different commands. Details on each of the 
graphic modes is sketchy, (you are encouraged to explore on 
your own) but you are given enough inf ormation to find out 
whatever you want to know. 

If you are a hard-core assembly language programmer, 
the manual tells you how Foxygraf works, gives technical 
data, information on how to customize the program, and 
lists addresses of useful subroutines. 

This program has been carefully designed to be a tool to 
explore all the graphic modes and abilities of your machine. 
If you are interested in assembly programming, trying out 
unusual graphic modes, or exploring the possibilities of 
your machine, then you will like Foxygraf. BUT, if you are 
dead set against assembly, hex, or binary notation, or if you 
are only interested in drawing on the screen, then there are 
drawing and painting programs available that are easier to 
use. 

(Computerware, P.O. Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, 
tape $29.95, disk $34.95) 

—James Ventling 



84 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-100 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



NEW THIS MONTH 

The Fantasy Master's Secretary 

This program will be greatly appreciated by the many 
peopletrying to run a fantasy game! It's not easy to keep 
track of hit points, charges in magic items, monsters, game 
time, armor values, and a lot more, all while trying to 
conduct a meelee and listen to 8 peopletalking at once. If 
you everthought you needed a secretary, this is it 1 It keeps 
track of all the above and more, and even has a help file in 
case you forget how to use it. It also figures the experience 
points of monsters while keeping an electronic eye on 
value and weight of treasure found. You'll truly wonder 
how you got along without it!!! If you quit before the 
campaign is completed, you can save the whole thing to 
tape (or disk) and take up right where you left off next time 
you play. At the beginning it will ask you whether or not the 
players can see the screen, and set its displays up accord- 
ingly. Remember, this isn't a game — it's an aid to use with 
a fantasy game. $1 9.95 tape — $24.95 disk. 




Gangbusters 

If you ever wanted to try a life of crime, this is your chance. 
You will start out as a Punk, but by using brains, and a little 
muscle, you can rise to become a Hood, Runner, Bookie, 
Torpedo, Fence, Kingpin, or win by becoming Syndicate 
Boss. Indulge yourself. Bribe a judge, or the District 
Attorney. Pay off the Cops. Take out a contract on another 
player, but watch out, they may be after you. Buy trucking 
companies, bootleg operations, houses of ill fame, but 
remember, if you get caught, you may do some hard time. 
Do you have what it takes to take over? This game will keep 
you close to your rod, get you thinking about bulletproof 
glass in your car, and definitely bring out the worst in you, 
but you'll love every minute of it. For 2 to 6 players, takes 
about 2 hours to play. Every game is excitingly different. 
$1 9.95 tape - $24.95 disk 

Viking! 

A simulation for 1 to 4 persons. Each begins as a land- 
owner, and by farming their land, buying and selling land, 
expanding their fishing fleet, building on to their manu- 
factory, increasing their population, equiping and training 
more soldiers, and regulating theirtaxes, each player tries 
to increase their economic power and rank until one 
becomes ruler over all. But beware plagues, rats, raiders, 
revolts, bad weather, and other misfortunes which may lie 
along the road to success. As you progress, seethe map of 
your holdings increase. Playable in 1 to 2 hours, and 
different every time, you may have an addiction problem. 
$19.95 tape — $24.95 disk 

Phonics I 

This classroom-tested program is the newest in our Phonics 
series. Written by the same elementary school teacher, it 
takes up where PREREAD I, II, & III leave off. Actually two 
programs (on separate tapes), the TUTORIAL teaches all 
22 of the consonant blends using on-screen graphicsand 
voice (controlled by the computer and played through the 
TV speaker). The TEST program asks for the letters in 
these blends(again using voice through t the speaker), and 
checks the keyboard input for the correct answer. Again, 
on screen graphics are used as an aid to learning, and 
immediate feedback to the learner is given. 

Phonics II 

Similar to Phonics I in concept and execution, but Phonics 
II teaches consonant digraphs. Again there are two pro- 
grams (on different tapes) for the TUTORIAL and TEST 
modes. 



Both Phonics I and Phonics II are well documented, and are 
sold separately on TAPES for $24.95 each. They are also 
available as a package — only on DISK for $44.95. 



Eight-bit Bartender: 

This will light up your next party! Over 100 great drink 
recipes are stored by the bartender and called up at your 
command. Ask for them by drink name, main liquor used, or 
class of drink (highball, cocktail, etc.). These were gathered 
from the favorites and house specialties at famous pubs 
and taverns across the US. It outputs to the screen, printer, 
or both! At your next party let the guests browse through 
the Bartender. Needs32K. TAPE $1 9.95 — DISK $24.95 



Astrology 

Truly a classic, this program will accurately cast your 
complete horoscope. You just enter the date, time, and 
place of birth. The sun sign, rising sign, mid heaven (MC), 
lunar nodes, and planetary influences including houses 
and aspects between the planets will all be calculated, and 
a full chart drawn. You can also do progressed charts and 
transits. It will even tell you the day of the week you were 
born. The accompanying book will help you interpret this 
chart of your horoscope. The extent of the documentation 
is tremendous, even by our exceptionally high standards, 
and no previous knowledge of the subject is required. You 
can share in this wisdom which has been used for thou- 
sands of years in many cultures. This program was written 
by a professional Astrologer. Please specify 1 6K or 32K 
system. $34.95 tape — $39.95 disk 



if^^i ALL Programs in this ad, including disk versions, 
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Software Review... 

Five 'Nice' Games... 
But Cosmic Trash Collector? 

When a cassette comes labeled "Five Exciting Games," 
you can't help but, well, get excited about the prospects for 
an evening of fun on the homefront. After loading and 
playing them, however, I wondered whether something like 
"Five Nice Games" would have served as well. 

What you have is a nice-ish assortment of games, ranging 
from Cosmic Trash Collector, Space Fight, and Intercept — 
all space games — to Trap Em, a line game, and Line Dance, 
a random graphics program. 

I found Space Fight to be the most interesting, primarily 
because of the sound effects that opened ("Reveille") and 
closed ("Taps") the game. It's an adventure game, which can 
be played by one or two players, in which you try to knock 
the other ship out of existence, usinga set of five commands 
and directional signals. 

Trap 'Em consists of two moving lines (yours and a 
friend's or the computer's) and the object is to make your 
line last longer. I found that the computer has an advantage 
over you; it can run into walls, you can't. 

In Cosmic Trash Collector (I knew you were waiting for 
this one), you control a "space trash ship" and your mission 
is to rid the universe of space baggies. You may move your 
ship up and down, using various keys of the keyboard, but if 
you're not careful, you'll be shot down by an evil laser ship. 
In Intercept, you attempt to escape a guided missile, which I 
found to be fairly easy (in fact, I had to maneuver to get a hit 
a couple of times). 

Actually 1 believe this set of gameswould be great fare for 



the family with young children that wants to familiarize 
them with the computer through game-playing. My young 
son had a difficult time tearing himself away from the 
games, saying something to the effect that "these are for 
me!" 

(Intercept Enterprises, P.O. Box 4016, Cherry Hill, NJ 
08034, $15.95 on tape, 16K E.C.B.) 

— Charles Springer 



Hardware Review... 

TP-1 'Daisy Wheel' Printer 
Good Home Word Processor 



The Smith-Corona TP-1 printer is probably the most 
affordable daisy wheel printer available, and any review of it 
must take into account the price. 1 will come back to the 
price in a moment. 

A daisy wheel printer (or typewriter) uses a round wheel 
with the letters on the end of little arms that look something 
like petals. In use, the machine rotates the wheel until the 
correct letter is in position, and then hits the back of the arm 
with a hammer. (It's a small hammer.) The letter is on the 
front of the arm, and it hits the ribbon and makes the 
impression on the paper. 

Compared to the dot-matrix printers, daisy wheel printers 
are slow, noisy, and more expensive, but the image 
produced on the paper is as good as that made by top quality 
typewriters. In fact, there is no way to tell by looking 
whether a document was typed by hand on a typewriter or 
by a computer using a daisy wheel printer. Thus, forall their 
disadvantages, if you want letters or reports to look typed, 




STRICTLY 

COLOR P.O. Box 382 

SOFTWARE West p oint PA 1 9486 



MISSION:EMPIRE! 

NOW FOR 16K 
Does NOT require Extended BASIC 

Some of the cute is gone, but none of the excitement and 
payability which made "The RAINBOW" say about the 32K version that 

"We recommend MISSION:EMPIRE!" 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
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MISSION: EMPIRE! for disk or cassette $19.95 

A strategic wargame/strategy game. Starting with one planet, incomplete intelligence and limited resources, you 
must conquer the rest of your galaxy. The game takes 2-5 hours and is DIFFERENT EVERY TIME! All versions offer 
the option of saving a game in progress. 

Specify 32K disk, 32K cassette or 1 6K version - the 32K versions require Extended BASIC, the 1 6K version does 
not. The disk version is normally shipped on a cassette with instructions for transferring to disk. If you want the 
program shipped on a disk add $3.00. 

Send check, money order or Mastercard/Visa number (including expiration date and SIGN order). Price includes shipping. PA 
residents include 6% sales tax. 

•All programs require Color ComputenM (Tandy Corp.) or TDP System 100 ComputerTM (RCA Corp.). 



86 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



HOMEBASE™ 

THE 
COMPLETE 
TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER 

DATABASE 



you need a daisy wheel printer. 

Smith-Corona has been making a typewriter that uses 
daisy wheels for some time, and last summer they 
introduced their computer printer. It uses many of the same 
parts as the typewriter, and is thus not really a new product, 
as many of the parts have been tested and proved in use on 
the typewriter. Another nice thing is that both the ribbons 
and daisy wheels are the same as used by the typewriter, and 
are stocked by most officesupplystores, often at discounted 
prices. At full price, the daisy wheels are only $5.00, which 
makes them only about one-sixth the cost of daisy wheels f or 
other machines. The ribbons are also relatively inexpensive, 
and come in several colors and qualities. 

The printer itself shows its typewriterancestry. When you 
buy it, you specify either Pica (10 characters per inch) or 
Elite ( 12 characters per inch), just as you would do a with a 
typewriter. Also, the paper carriage will be very familiar to 
typists, and you loadsinglesheetsoftypingpaperjustasyou 
would on any office typewriter. 

As you would expect f rom this, the ability to handle single 
sheets is excellent, but there is no tractor, and thus the 
manufacturer does not recommend fan-fold or roll paper for 
use in the printer. 

This is a printer for word processing, period. It was 
conceived and built to convert a computer into a really neat 
typewriter, and if you have the need for a true letter quality 
printer, this is not a bad choice. You can do listings on it, but 
it doesn't have all the characters you need, such as greater- 
than and less-than, which may be a problem. Also, if the 
program is long, it will run off the bottom of the single sheet, 
and you will have to read the platten. (I know people who 
are successfully using fan-fold paper in the TP-1 , but Smith- 
Corona won't guarantee it will work. It has a tendency to get 
crooked after a while.) 

Now, back to price. This printer has a suggested retail 
price of $895. This is already the lowest price for a daisy 
wheel printer, and I have seen it discounted to below $600 
right here in the Rainbow. People will tell you there are lots 
better daisy wheels, but you'll find them selling for near 
$2,000. This printer is fairly slow — only 12 characters per 
second — and lacks the tractor and other bells as mentioned 
above, but it is inexpensive and very reliable. Sure, if you are 
running an office you need a bigger one, but this was 
designed with the personal, private computer owner in 
mind. If that's you, take a good look at this printer. 

By the way, when you order you must choose between a 
serial and parallel interface. The CoCo and TDP-100 have a 
serial interface standard, so unless you want to get an 
adaptor, stick with the serial. Also, keep in mind that you 
will need a cable, and a standard Radio Shack serial cable 
won't work because the jack on the printeris different. If the 
dealer where you buy the printer can't supply you with a 
cable for the CoCo, you can get one from Petrocci Freelance 
Associates. (See their ad in this magazine for the address.) 

To summarize, the TP-1 has its drawbacks, but if all you 
want is a typewriter quality printer for home use, this may be 
it -Bill Nolan 



Him - . . 

Painting Must Be Accurate 

When you issue a PAINT command, be sure that you set 
the point at which the PAINTing is to begin within the area 
that is to be PAINTed. If you set the position on a line which 
encloses the area, the PAINT will not work. 

Also, when using PAINT, be sure that your area is fully 
enclosed, or the PAINT will leak out and cover the entire 
screen. 



HOMEBASE " PROVIDES WORD PROCESSING, DATA- 
BASE MANAGEMENT, AND SPREAD SHEET CALCULA- 
TIONS, IN ONE EASY TO USE PACKAGE. SOME OF THE 
MANY USEFUL APPLICATIONS OF HOMEBASE™ INCLUDE: 

• Check book management • Ledgers • Grocery lists • 
Shopping lists • Article indexing • Recipes • Disk directories 

• Notes • Memos • Letters • Phone lists • Customer lists • 
Business contact lists • Appointments • Mailing lists • Home 
inventory • Car maintenance scheduling • Income tax prepa- 
ration • Address lists • Charts • Newsletters • Athletic team 
records • Form letters • 

WORD PROCESSING FEATURES INCLUDE: 

— DEFINE 250 screens of text you can search, sort, display, 

■ - nil using names you assign or using any word or 

— EDIT text by duplicating, moving, clearing, searching and 
replacing, deleting, or reordering entire records of text or 
any word or phrase. 

— FORMAT labels, memos, letters, and other documents for 
printing with embeded printer controls for paging, skip- 
ping lines, and changing character fonts. Program con- 
trols provide setting; right and left margins, lines per page, 
page width, horizontal tabs, and line spacing. 

DATA MANAGEMENT FEATURES INCLUDE: 

— DEFINE 50 data fields, including a comment field, in a 
single record. Dates, time of day, phone numbers and dol- 
lar amounts are automatically formatted. You may also 
define 24 scratchpad data fields. 

— REORGANIZE records by moving data fields within re- 
cords or by moving records within the file. You may sort 
records using names you assign or data 

— MANAGE files by searching, deleting, clearing, duplicat- 
ing, and displaying any data field or record. Add, subtract, 
multiply, divide, or summarize any data field Use any 
command on any selected group of data fields and/or 
records. 

— PRINT files using automatic formatting with options to 
print report titles, a report date, page numbers, record 
names, and data field names. Print all or selected data 
fields or records. Use standard or compressed print. Use a 
special print option to print the comment field as a mailing 
label. 

UTILITIES FOR WORD PROCESSING AND DATA MAN- 
AGEMENT INCLUDE: 

• Generating new files from old files • Merging files • Dup- 
licating files • Moving data between files • Summarizing files 

• Moving files from diskette to diskette using one drive • 
Saving files to cassette and reloading from casette • File 
synchronizing • Print disk directory • 

HOMEBASE™ IS EASY TO USE: 

— NO PROGRAMMING REQUIRED. All options are dis- 
played in menus. HOMEBASE™ automatically requests all 
required data and edits every entry. 

— All commands are single key stroke. 

— FULL screen editing for text entry. 

— Complete cursor control for entering names, titles, notes, 
and comments. 

— 100 pages of instructions with complete descriptions of 
each command, and examples. 

— Requires 32K of memory, disk basic and only one disk 
drive. NO equipment modifications required 

— All programs reside entirely in memory. 

— Fast response to all commands including search and sort. 

ORDER TOLL FREE 

Credit card holders call toll free: 800-334-0854 extension 887 
In North Carolina Call 800-672-0101 extension 887 

or send a check or money order for $75.00 plus $5.00 
for handling charges to: 
HOMEBASE"" COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
P.O. Box 3448 
Durham, N. C. 27702 
N.C residents add 4% for sales tax Allow 1 to 3weeks for delivery 

HOMEBASE'" is a trademark of HOMEBASE" COMPUTER SYSTEMS, 
a subsidiary of Small Business Systems. Durham. N.C (919) 544-5408. 
'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Radio Shack Inc 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 87 



8 ITS RriQ 8'JTES GF 8R5IC 



Weil-Defined Variables 
Produce Clarity, Conservation 

By Richard A. White 



In a high level language like Basic, variables are 
provided to organize and reference the data being used in the 
program. A variable is simply a name given to a particular 
piece of data. Data should be thought of as being assigned to 
a variable, and not as the variable equaling the data even 
though the equal sign is used to make the assignment. Early 
Basics emphasized the assignment idea by requiring the use 
of LET. One had to write LETX = 10 or LET\% = "Hello." 
Color Basic does not allow the use of L£Tthough it is an 
optional statement in Extended Color Basic. You may see 
LET used in older Basic programming books. 

In Color Basic you may use any one or two letter 
combinations, except reserved words, for a variable. What is 
a reserved word? It is one that is also a Basic statement or 
function command. ON, TO, GO, and FA' are examples. 
When the computer encounters an OA', it starts looking for a 
variable representing a number to use in a following 
GOSUB or GOTO action. If your statement had been 
ON-2Q, no variable comes next, the computer gets confused 
and registers a complaint as a SN ERROR. You may also 
use a letter then a number like XI for a variable name. 

Extended Color Basic allows you to use whole words as 
variables, but only the first two letters are recognized. The 
objective is to allow writing clearer programs, but thereare 
drawbacks that keep people from using the capability. First, 
there is the added memory used, one byte for each added 
letter each time the variable is used. Secondly, the number of 
reserved words (Basic commands, remember?) become 
much more numerous. Lastly, is the trouble in devising 
meaningful words which always are different from any other 
in the first two letters. If I had two F OR- TO-NEXT loops, 
one within the other, I might like to name the variable 
COUNTTWO. Since the first two letters are the same the 
computer cannot tell the difference and the loops won't 
work the way you expect. So, we will try ONECOUNT and 
TWOCOUNT instead. The first two letters are different, but 
ONECOUNT contains ON, a reserved word and SN 
ERROR results. Another loser is TWO-COUNT. The 
computer sees it as the subtraction TW - CO without a 
variable to assign the result or an equal sign. The result is S N 
ERROR. 

There are two basic types of variables used by Color 
Basic, real and string. Real variables represent numbers, and 
are used directly in equations making calculations resulting 
in some number. Some Basic dialects let you define whether 
a variable will be an integer, a single-precision, floating 



decimal number or a double-precision decimal number. The 
higher the precision, the more memory that is necessary to 
store the number. CoCo will accept positive or negative 
numbers up to 10 to the 37th power and will display nine 
significant digits. This isfinefornearlyall programming you 
are likely to do. I miss the ability to define integer variables, 
and the benefit from the memory saving that result. Simple 
counting and other integer number operations are 
encountered all the time. Where a wealth of integer data is to 
be used, it can be put into strings and recovered using 
methods discussed elsewhere. 

A string variable references a string of characters. The 
string may contain any character and may be up to over 240 



Data should be thought of as 
being assigned to a variable, and 
not as a variable equaling the 
data . . . 



characters long. Here, I admit to being fuzzy since there 
appear to be differences between the 1.0 and 1! Basic 
ROMS with regard to buffer sizes, and perhaps string 
lengths as well. If you keep your strings to 240 characters or 
less you will have no trouble. Of course, the z"$"foIlowing 
the variable defines it as a string. In the assignment 
statement for a string variable, characters must be between 
quotes or defined using CHR$(XX) or STR$(Y). Here XX 
is the ASCII number for the character. Y is a real variable 
that is converted to a string having a leading space. 
Examples are A$="THIS IS AN example" B$=CHR$(191), 
which is a solid red block, and N$=STR$(20). 

Strings can be added to each other in a process called 
concatenation. C$=A$+"FOR THE ARTICLE ON 
VARIABLES." Now C$ represents "THIS IS AN example 
FOR THE ARTICLE ON VARIABLES." If we 



88 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Color Computer 
Expansion Interface 



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• RS DISK COMPATIBLE — NO modification required 

• 64K Memory access circuit (for 32K Rev-E computer) — NO modification needed 

• Parallel PIA port — Drives printer or I/O — leaves RS-232 available for modem, etc. 

• Expansion port — selects up to 7 more peripheral cards 

• Aluminum chassis — saves space — computer slides under — TV on top 

— Room for Expander Card and up to 4 peripheral cards. 

• Additional I/O cards . . . available January 1983 

• CX-2010A Quad Parallel I/O Port (2 M6821 PIAs) $99.95 

• CX-2016A Speech Synthesizer (Votrax phoneme system) $129.95 

more peripheral cards on the way! 



CX-2001A EXPANDER CARD (REQUIRES CX-2401A) $139.95 

CX-2401A EXTENSION RIBBON CABLE $29.95 

CX-3001 A ALUMINUM CHASSIS (IDEAL FOR STAND ALONE USE) $49.95 

CX-P1- INTRODUCTORY OFFER — PACKAGE PRICE $1 99.95 

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J 



concatonate C$ with B$ like this D$=C$+B$ we would get 
the same string as before but with a red block after the 
period. Enter this program and run it. 

10 A$="CHARACTERS" 

20 FOR X=l TO 10: A$=A$+CHR$(8): NEXT 

30 PRINT A$ 

OK, you ran it and nothing printed. We know there are 
characters in AS, but they don't print. The trick is that 
CHR$(8) is the backspace or left arrow character. As soon 
as "CHARACTERS" was printed, 10 back spaces were 
printed which erased "CHARACTERS." This may not be 
good f or much, but it does give f ood f or thought. There is a 
"watch-out" here in that you can add non-printing 
characters to strings that give unexpected results. Also note 
the A$=A$+CHR$(8). A$ appears on both sides of the 
equation. We can also write A=A+1 0. This comes back to the 
assignment idea. The right side is evaluated and the result is 
assigned to the variable on the lef t. The computer finishes its 
work on the right portion using whatever A or A$ represent 
initially before it redefines them. 

Both real and string variables can be viewed as either 
global or local. Actually Basic variables are always global 
since they can be used anywhere in a Basic program. In some 
languages, variables can be defined so they have only a value, 
in a particular subroutine and are in fact local. Further, in 
these languages, the same variable name will mean one thing 
in the main program and another in a subroutine. We 
cannot define our variables like this, but we can view how we 
use them as local or global. In a file program, the variables 
that refer to the data records are global in that they are 



defined in the input section, changed in the editor, saved in 
another section to tape or disk, used in search and sort 
sections and in various subroutines. A variable used in a 
FOR- TO- NEXT loop in a subroutine means nothing in the 
program once you exit that subroutine, and may be reused 
elsewhere. 

There is a savings of memory if certain variable names are 
prechosen and used only for local purposes. They can be 
redefined and used again and again in other parts of the 
program. This serves to help clarify the program if it is 
known that J and K are always used locally, generally serve 
counting purposes and never have meaning once the using 
routine is lef t. This will work well with some earful discipline 
and I think is much better than trying to find an unused 
variable each time a loop is needed. You should also define 
string variables and other real variables for local temporary 
data holding purposes. Just make sure all local variables are 
defined when they are first used in the routine and do not 
contain data needed elsewhere when the routine is exited. 

Have you noticed the computer stop f or a few minutes in 
the middle of a program and then continue on its way? When 
this happens, it's cleaning "garbage" out of thestringstorage 
area. To understand what garbage is, we need to understand 
how the computer stores string data, and finds it. when your 
program wants it. If you or the program does a CLEAR 
2000, 2000 bytes of memory are reserved for string storage. 
When you first turn the computer on, 200 bytes are reserved 
so you have some space to get a program started. Each time 
a string is defined, the computer writes the string into the 
CLE A Red memory area starting at the top. The second 
string defined is written just below the first one in memory, 
and so on. When you redefine a string, the new data is 
written just below the last string defined and the old string 
up in the memory is forgotten. But the old string is still there 
taking up space. 

Eventually, the C LEA Red string space gets full and the 
computer must stop and do some housekeeping. It starts at 
the top of string memory and checks if the string there is 
shown in the variable table. Ah, a variable table! The 
variable table keeps track of all variables that have been 
used in the program. For strings, it keeps the length of each 
string and where it starts in the string space. When the 
computer finds a string of bytes in the string space that is not 
listed as a string in the variable table, it moves the next lower 
listed string up into that area and changes its address in the 
variable table. Think of it as a bunch of shelves with stuff in 
boxes and you with a list of what is in each box on each shelf. 
But, you have emptied some of the boxes and now come 
with a new full one to put on the shelves only to find the 
shelves full. You have to stop and pull off the empty boxes to 
make room and change your list of what is on what shelf. 
Housekeeping is much the same in the computer and in the 
house. 

While you may not need to consult the variable table very 
frequently, Extended Color Basic gives you a way to do so 
with the VARPTR function. VARPTR gives you a way to 
know where the data in the variable table for a variable can 
be found in memory. This is most useful in sorting routines 
where string lengths and addresses can be swapped length 
and address in the variable table without disturbing the 
listings in the string space. Considerable program speed can 
be obtained. To use VARPTR, some things must be known 
about the variable table. 

A Basic program starts just after the last graphics page 
reserved with PC LEAR and is written from lower to higher 
memory. If you have Color Basic only, the program starts at 
1536, just after the text screen memory. At the end of the 
program there are three null bytes (zeros in memory) and 



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90 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



then the variable table starts. Real variables come first, each 
with two bytes of the variable name (in ASCII) from Basic 
and then five bytes which carry the value of the variable. 
Next come the string variables. The first byte of a string 
variable is the ASCII value of the first variable letter, and 
the second byte is the ASCII value of the second letter plus 
128. This is the way the ocmputer knows that it has a string 
listing. The next byte is the length of thestringfollowed bya 
null byte. Then comes the two-byte address of the string in 
string space and the fifth byte is another null. 

VARPTR gives you the address of the length byte of a 
string variable. To recover the actual address of the variable 
in string space, the following code could be used. 



VARPTR(A$(0)) > A$(0)LENGTH 



100 V=0 : AD=0 
110 V = V ARPTR(AS) 
PEEK(V+3) 



AD = PEEK(V+2)*256 + 



The first byte of the address is the most significant byte and 
is multiplied by 256. Note that V, the address of the length 
byte, and AD, the address of the string, are defined (set 
equal to zero) bef ore the operation. If this is not done, and V 
and AD had not been used before, Basic adds them to the 
real variable table when they are first used movingthe string 
variable portion of the table up. The address of A$ in the 
variable table (not in string space) changes and the wrong 
address AD for A$ in string space is found. 

As we noted before, you may only want to swap string 
addresses in the variable table. You could use the following 
code. 

100 A=0 : B=0 : X=0 : AA=0 : BB=0 

110 A=VARPTR(A$) : B=VARPTR(B$) 

120 FOR X=0 TO 4 : AA=PEEK(A+X) : BB=PEEK(B+X) 

130 POKE B+X,AA : POKE A+X,BB : NEXT 

Again, all variables used were entered into the variable table 
before we started by setting them equal to zero. 

After the regular variables come the array, or subscripted, 
variables in the table. The entry for the A$( 10) would look 
like this. 



-7 


ARRAY 


55 


-6 


NAME 


128 


-5 


DISPLACEMENT 


VX 


-4 


TO NEXT ARRAY 


YZ 


-3 


# OF DIMENSIONS 


1 


-2 


NUMBER OF 


00 


-1 


ENTRIES 


1 1 



A$(0) 



ADDRESS 



VARPTR(A$(1)) > A$(l) LENGTH 



A$(l) 



ADDRESS 



VARPTR(A$(10))>A$(10) LENGTH 



A$(10) 



ADDRESS 



The array for A(N) is similar except the value for each 
member of the array is in each five-byte block. When a 
subscripted variable is first used, an eleven-entry block is 
established in the variable table for that variable. Note that 
A$(0) is a member of the array. If you need more entries, you 
must dimension the variable: e.g. DIM A$(100) or DIM 
A$(X). You can also have multi-dimensioned arrays in 
Extended Basic. A$ could be dimensioned DIM A$(50,I0). 
Note that such arrays use memory space. A$(50, 10) requires 
7 + 50*5*10 or 2507 bytes of memory for the variable table 
alone. Finally, if you know you are only going to use a few 
members of an array, say four or five, then dimension the 
array to keep memory table use for only what you really 
need. ^ 



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February, 1983 the RAINBOW 91 



Software Review. 



MISADVENTURE GAMES are slightly ribald and risque 

PLtVEO IN THE AO VENTURE-FO R* A T 

MISADVENTURE H9 1 MADAM ROSA'S MASSAGE PARLOR 

IN THIS PARTICULAR MISADVENTURE THE PLAYER HAS TO MAKE 
HIS WAY FROM THE SLEAZY DESERTED WHARFS. GAIN ADMITTANCE 
TO THE ANCIENT SPEAKEASY AND ATTEMPT TO DISCOVER THE 
HIDOEN PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE POLITICIANS BEAUTIFUL DAUGHTER 1 
BRAVE THE DEADLY ALLEYS HALLWAYS AND TRAPS AVOID THE 
BOUNCER AND OTHER CHARACTERS OF QUESTIONABLE REPUTATION 
PLAY IN THE RIGGED CARO GAME IF YOU DARE 1 DISCOVER WHY THE 
OLD MAN DIED WITH A SMILE ON HIS FACE 1 Find OUT WHY THE 
WINO PREFERS CHEAP BOOZE 1 ABOvE ALL TRY TO ESCAPE WITHOUT 
NEEDING ANY INJECTIONS OF PENICILLIN!!! 



ADVENT UR 

IN THIS 



N9 1 WET 



AWAKENS ONE MORNING 
IHuGS ENTER AND DEMAND THAT VC 
OWED TO HIM TONIGHT'"" 

YOU MUST SURVIVE THE MAI 
FOUNO IN THE OVER 100 LOCATIONS 
WAY TO SOLVE YOUR PROBLEM - 



IRT CONTEST 

HTY MISAOVENTURE THE PLAVER 

OUD POUNDING ON THE DOOR 1 

YOU PAY THE BOSS THE MONEY 



INTERESTING SITUATIONS 
THE SCIENTIST MAY HAVE A 
YOU SOLVE HIS PROBLEM! 



PERHAPS THE PRIZE HONEY FOR THE WET T-SHIRT CONTEST 

Will If ENOUGH 

ALTHOUGH VERY CHALLENGING. THiS IS A FUN SAME. SO BE 
PREPARED TO ENJOY YOURSELF 111 

MISAOVENTURE Nv J SEWER OF MOSCOW 

IN THIS PARTICULAR MISAOVENTURE THE PLAYER S MISSION 
REGARDLESS OF WHETHER HE ACCEPTS IT OR NOT IS TO ELIMI- 
NATE THE IMMEDIATE POSSIBILITY OF WW m I BEWARE OF THE 
TREACHEROUS SEWER) WATCH OUT FOR THE SWIFT SUBWAY VEHI- 
CLES! AVOID T HE LOYAL COMMUNISTS! THERE ARE OVER TO LOCA- 
TIONS. SO BE VERY CAREFUL NOT TO GET LOST OR KILLED IN 
THIS MISADVENTURE. 

THE BEAUTIFUL SPY YOU FIND TIED S PRE A O - E A G L E 0 TO A 
8 E 0 HOLDS THE KEY TO THIS MISADVENTURE, BUT 8E VERY 
CAREFUL WHAT YOU DO TO HER 

THIS IS THE HARDEST MISADVENTURE YET 1 

MISADVENTURE Hi* CASINO OF PLEASURE 

CASINO OF PLEASURE MISADVENTURE IS AN EXCELLENT 
PROGRAM FOR THE SERIOUS ADVENTURER WHO ALSO ENJOYS 
TO GAMBLE 1 

YOUR FIRST PROBLEM WILL BE FINDING THE HIDDEN CASINO! 
THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED BV USING TRADITIONAL ADVENTURE- 
T v P E METHODS 

IF (AND WHEN) VOU MAKE IT TO THE CASINO WITH THE 
MONEY YOU MUST INCREASE IT SO THAT YOU HAVE ENOUGH 
MONEY NEEDED TO PAY-OFF THE GANGSTERS WHO AWAIT YOU 
AT THE CASINO EXITS' BEWARE OF PIT BOSS' DON'T HAVE TOO 
MANY FREE DRINKS BROUGHT TO YOU S V SEXY YOUNG HOSTESS- 
ABO V E ALL ENJOY THE MANY GAMBLING DEVICES 



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Wet T-Shirt Contest 
Teases the Imagination 



I must admit that certain sorts of visions bounced around 
in my easily-activated imagination when I received my 
review copy of Wet T-Shirt Contest from the Rainbow. I 
gave thanks for the thoughtfulness of the editors, marveling 
at their understanding of my "basic" instincts. 

I had no way of knowing then that my mind's-eye would 
be stretched to the limits for the next four evenings, 
especially after viewing the slightly ribald (or perhaps, 
tacky) graphic on the cover of the accompanying 
instructions. 

I was to need a lively imagination over the four days it was 
to take me to get through the review because Wet T-Shirt 
Contest turned out to be a very difficult adventure game. I 
knew I was in for a challenge when it took two hours just to 
get to the first page. 

After two days of watching her husband swearing never 
again to take on an adventure game, my English-teacher 
wife and crossword fanatic joined me at the keyboard, 
combining her common-sense approach with my voyeur's 
instincts. She was to open all kinds of doors for me within a 
few hours, offering hope where there had been despair. 

The Wet T-Shirt Contest is a slightly ribald and risque 
game, but never really dirty. And, until these adventure 
games take on the graphic displays that I had originally 
expected, parents should have no fears about playing the 
game with young children in the same room (my 7-year-old 
son, Stevie, had been sent to bed early the first night), but I 
certainly wouldn't let them play it. 

In this adventure, you play a slightly sleasy character who 
awakens one morning to a loud pounding on the doorof his 
hotel room. Some nasty gangsters rough you up a bit, 
demanding that you pay the Boss the money owed to him 
tonight or there will be no tomorrow! 

You stumble out of your room into a seemingly endless 
maze of corridors beset with muggers and "piles of smelly 
trash" as you wander aimlessly about trying to figure out 
how to raise the needed money. Along the way you visit a 
video arcade but, until you get some dough, you can't even 
afford to play Pac Man. 

If you wander into the IRS office, you can be penalized 
for not filing a return. 

You can try to get a loan from the bank, but the teller is 
likely to laugh in your face. 

Eventually, if you are persistent, you will wind up in the 
lobby of the K & K Corporation with its 2l-floor elevator. 
Be caref ul about which button you push, though; you could 
be electrocuted or, even worse, be confronted by 10 vicious 
Doberman Pinchers. You'll run into a suspicious-looking 
scientist on two or three of the floors and you'll find he's a 
gas. 

He's also into transfiguration experiments and guess who 
becomes an unwilling volunteer? 

Suffice it to say that after you leave the laboratory, you 
are a changed person. From there you head for the Voom- 
Voom Room where a wet T-shirt contest is being conducted, 
with the outcome determining your future! 

As a newcomer to the world of CoCo and computers in 
general, I'll have to admit that I found my foray into the Wet 
T-Shirt Contest to be pretty exasperating. Yet, I must 
admire the genius of the authors, Bob Krotts and James 



92 the RAINBOW February, 1983 




INTERNATIONAL 
COLOR COMPUTER CLUB 

Main Office 
2101 E. Main St., Henderson, Texas 75652 
Canadian Branch 
96 Carleton Dr. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7H-3N6 

WORLD'S LARGEST COLOR COMPUTER CLUB 



HERE ARE SOME GOOD REASONS FOR JOINING 



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Good programs written by our members are contained in the library, 
in the newsletter, and on the new member tape. 

A "magazine" sized newsletter (last issue 56 pages), with programs, tips 
data, reviews, articles and much more. 

A tape of all the programs appearing in the newsletter is available from 
the library for $2.00 (to members) 

The club maintains a library of programs, books and Radio Shack ROM- 
packs. The programs are member written and are yours to keep, there is 
a small fee to cover postage and tape ($2.). The books and ROMpacks 
may be checked out for 3 weeks at a time, (extencions possible) 

get large discounts on many software and hardware items for CoCo 
from some of the MAJOR companies. Also discounts on subscriptions 
to the RAINBOW, CCN and Chromasette magazines. 

Members may place ads of up to % page per issue in the newsletter 
FREE. (The ad must be computer related) 

Don't wait weeks for the parts to come in from Radio Shack! Just 
check them out of the Clubs Parts library and return when yours arrive. 

You receive a "New member" package containing many useful items. 

This is the worlds largest Color Computer Club. With members in almost 
every field of expertise. So if you have a problem with the Color 
Computer, we can almost always get you the answer. Put your problem 
on the Clubs Bulletin Board, write, or call. 

As a new member, you will receive a list of the members in your area 
whom you may contact for CoCo talk. 



HOW TO BECOME A MEMBER: 

Write to the club for an application, there are no conditions for membership other than 
agreeing to obey the rules, being interested and paying the dues. The membership dues are 
$30.00 per year and we believe you get more than your moneys worth. You can save more 
than the $30.00 in discounts the club offers you. Example: Subscription to the RAINBOW, 
25% off of regular subscription rates. Some members have told me that the new member 
tape alone is worth the $ 30. it contains 10, very good programs. Some of the programs 
contained in the library are. Accounts Receiveable, General ledger. Inventory, Sales file and 
ticket program with automatic Inventory update (for 32 K with 2 disc.) 



Nunke, and the obviously careful work that they have taken 
to make this a challenging game even for the oldtimers. 

I found an ever-present beep-beep-beep-beep audio 
prompt to be pretty annoying, however, turning the volume 
down early in the game. 

Actually, when you consider the simple commands that 
are really necessary, the game is not as difficult as some — 
like me — tend to make it. At any rate, as I discovered, the 
authors have a hint sheet available, which you can obtain for 
another dollar and a self-addressed, stamped envelope. 
(The Softcore Software Company, 9 Southmoor Circle, 
Kettering, OH 45429, cassette $15.00) 

— Charles Springer 



Book Review... 

New AL Graphics Book 
Should Be Valuable Resource 

Many of you have been looking for a book detailing 
assembly language programming dedicated to CoCo. Well, 
the wait is over! Don and Kurt Inman have teamed up to 
present us with just such a book. 

The book, Assembly Language Graphics, is published by 
the Reston Publishing Co., Inc., and is available from 
Dymax, Owl-Ware, and computer stores all over the 
country. 

Don and Kurt use a different approach to present 
assembly language techniques. Instead of the mathematical 




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approach, as used in most other assembly language texts, 
they use sound and graphics. In this book, as in Don's 
previous book, TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics, a test is 
available at the end of each chapter. The answers for the 
odd-numbered questions are given. You are left to ponder 
the answers to the even-numbered questions. In his earlier 
book, Don gave an address one could write to for answers 
not given in the book. This time he did not give an address 
(ouch!). 

I think wecan all agree that for most purposes, Microsoft 
Extended Basic is a very powerful tool. But if you are 
interested in graphics displays, assembly language is a must 
to obtain the speed required for hi-res games. This book will 
give you the inf ormation you need to transf orm that "great 
idea" you have into the ultimate computer game. 

Included in the book is a utility program that you may use 
to create graphic figures. After the figure is created, a table 
of data values that show the data necessary to create your 
figure, and the memory locations to place the data to display 
the figure, is created. As well as being useful, you can have 
some fun with this program. However, this book goes 
beyond teaching you how to design graphic figures for 
games. It also instructs you how to integrate a sound routine 
into your program, how to design a joystick program and 
how to enhance your animation using the paging technique. 

Also included in the book is a text editor program. While 
this is not a full-blown word processor, it can be the basis for 
a tool that you can modify using your newfound 
programming skills. 

The book provides a character set for graphics in 
assembly language, and also tells how to locate them on a 
graphics screen using assembly language. Also provided are 
instructions on how to access this character set from your 
Basic programs. 

Since Don and Kurt used the CBUG monitor and the 
SDS80C editor assembler debugger to develop the routines 
in this book, it might be less confusing to the beginning 
programmer if he used these same utilities. The book goes 
into some detail describing the expected output from these 
programs. These programs are produced by The Micro 
Works of Del Mar, California. Also mentioned in the book 
is an EPROM programmer available from Spectral 
Associates of Tacoma, WA. I must say that I am intrigued 
by the idea of producing my own EPROMS. 

Lastly, the book has a full array of useful information in 
its several appendixes, such as saving and loading programs 
using tapes, ASCII and screen codes, graphic mode 
description, screen offsets, and tables to determine forward 
and backward branches, and the 6809 instruction set. 

In conclusion, if you desire to learn assembly language 
programming, this book can be a valuable addition to your 
library. Not only is it very informative, but it is a book that 
reads well when compared to some of the other assembly 
language texts. I can definitely recommend that you 
purchase a copy. 

(Assembly Language Graphics, Reston Publishing 
Company, $14.95) 

—Stan Saunders 



Light Bulbs Anyone? 

Do you know how many computer programmers it takes 
to change a light bulb? 

None. That's a hardware problem! 



94 the RAINBOW February, 1983 




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• CCEDT9 Disk Text Editor • Disk Text Processor I 



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Editor/Assembler CO-RES9 I System Monitor TRSMON 




CO-RES9 is a Co-resident Editor/Assembler that 
will allow you to create, edit and assemble 
machine language programs for the color com- 
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TRSMON is a 2K machine language monitor pro- 
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Monitor is a program which allows the user to 
directly manipulate the computer. Small pro- 
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ram and executed. Program execution can be 
stopped at any point by using breakpoints to see 
if it is functioning properly or check its status. 
TRSMON provides all of the standard functions 
found in most system monitor programs as well 
as a printer/terminal driver package, printer and 
Terminal modes can be used at rates varying from 
300 to 9600 baud and can be changed at any time. 

TRSMON on tape w/manual $19.95 





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• Save & Load Text Buffer To Tape Or Disk 

• Send Files Directly From Buffer Or Disk 

• Full Disk Support For Disk version 

• Printer Baud Rates 110-4800 

• Send control codes From keyboard 

• ASCII Compatible File Format 


• Display On screen Or Output Contents Of Buffer 
To Printer 

We also have a disk version available called "DISkPACk." 
It includes all the commands mentioned plus com- 
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Skip All That Skipfing 
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by Steve Sullivan 

Are you one of those people who insists on putting more 
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tired of SKIPFing over hundreds of programs just to find 
where a certain one is? If so, your wildest dreams have come 
true. This program, which in a spasm of originality I have 
entitled "TAPE CATALOG," will list out the contents of a 
tape either to a printer or the screen. Sound too good to be 
true? Read on. 

When I first purchased the Radio Shack 
Editor/ Assembler (in my opinion, an excellent piece of 
software), it was my first real attempt at working with 
machine language. After some piddling around, I decided 
that a catalog program for the cassette system was 
something that I sorely needed. I dug into the Getting 
Started manual and came up with the addresses of the ROM 
routines for cassette operation. After some 
experimentation, I got the hang of how the system worked. 
The program I came up with is very straightforward. Either 
type in the Basic driver or the assembled version; save it, 



Genesis Software 

presents 
Color Computer Programs 

+Bigfoot 

Hunt Big foot in a hidden maze of caverns and 
twisting tunnels that are displayed in hi-res graph- 
ics as you move. Seek out the lair of Big foot while 
avoiding perils along the way. Features multiple 
levels and many options of play. Each hunt takes 
place in a new, randomly generated maze. Chal- 
lenging and fun. Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) #21.95 

* The Enchanted Forest 

The BIG adventure in hi-res graphics is here! Move 
through more than 50 scenes on a quest to rescue 
the captive princess. Decisions are made according 
to visual clues, not text. This is a sophisticated 
computer adventure - a real challenge. Requires 
32K extended basic. 

Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

* The Game Show 

A four-game pack in which two teams compete 
against the clock to name items in a ca tegory. Color 
graphics and sound. Requires 16K extended basic 
and joysticks. 

Tape cassette (postage paid) $19.95 

GENESIS SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 936, MANCHESTER, MO. 6301 



Personal checks are welcome - no delay. 



11^ 



then run it. If you are using the assembled version, make 
sure you change the RTS in line 7 10 to an SWI. If the output 
is not appropriate, check the program you saved for errors. 
When the program is running and the tape is going, the 
computer should print the name of each file at the top-center 
of the screen, and at the end of a list of all of the programs 
encountered so far at the left of the screen. If the location 
16127 (3EFF for you hex buffs) contains 225, the computer 
will print the name out to the printer also. One thing to 
remember: this program will NOT tell you any I/O errors. If 
one occurs, the computer simply skips over it. A file will be 
printed out as long as its name is encountered. Thus, if you 
have a printer, you can put a tape in, run the program, and 
go do whatever you want until the tape is finihsed. When 
you want to stop you can either press reset or 'BREAK.' If 
you press 'BREAK.,' hold it down. If you are between files or 
at the end of the tape nothing will happen, and you will have 
to press reset. If you are in the middle of a file, it will break 
within one or two seconds. 

Program operation is as follows: 

At the start, the screen is cleared, and locations 7E and 7F 
are loaded with IDA, the place in memory where I want the 
block of text from the cassette to be placed. The cassette is 
then started and a block is read in (a block is a string of data 
up to 255 bytes long). If there is an error in the cassette input, 
the Z flag in the CC register is set; thus the BNE command in 
1 10. If the block is OK, the computer checks to see of the 
'BREAK' key is being pressed. If it is, control is sent back to 
Basic. If it isn't, the block type is checked. If the block is an 
End Of File, the name in the top-center of the screen is 
erased and another block is read in. If the block is a header, 
the name is printed in the top-center of the screen and at the 
bottom of the list. Location 3EFF (16127 for you decimal 
buffs) is checked for the value of 255. If the value is 255, a 
printout of the name is also executed. The program then 
goes back to get another block. The comment lines in the 
assembled program should be sufficient f or explaining every 
detail 

This program has saved me, literally, hours by eliminating 
the need to either continue searching every time a program is 
needed, or to take a week and write down all of the titles of 
the programs. I hope it will be as useful for you. 




10 CLS: PRINTQ202, "TAPE CATALOG" 
20 PRINTS271, "BY" 
30 PRINT@329, "STEVE SULLIVAN" 
40 FORX=0TO154:READA:POKEX+16128 
, A: NEXT 

50 CLS:PRINT@225, "DO YOU WANT A 

PRINTOUT? (Y/N) ": A*=INKEY* 

60 A*= I NKEY* : I F A*= " Y " THENPOKE 1 6 1 

27 , 255ELSE I FA*= " N " THENPOKE 1 6 1 27, 

0:GOTO100ELSE60 

70 PRINT@192:LINEINPUT" WHAT'S T 

HE TITLE OF YOUR TAPE? >> " ; A* 

80 PRINT#-2,CHR*(31>:REM CHR*(31 

) is the control code for large 

characters on the LP. VII 

90 PRINT#-2, A*:PRINT#-2 

100 CLS:PRINT@231, "PRESS <&> TO 



96 the RAINBOW February, 1983 




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THE GENERAL® 

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Word CC7 (Tape) $19.95 
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Dancing Devil (Tom Mix) $14.95 
Lunar Lander (Tom Mix) $15.95 
War Kings (Tom Mix) $19.95 
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If you are an officer in a club primarily for 
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newest addition - CCCS! 



GEO- 
STUDIES 

THIS PACK CONTAINS 




CANADA 



AUSTRALIA 



EUROPE 

Learn geography the fun way! 
USA-Canada-Europe- 
Australia $9.95 each 




gg mm 

2S3l! ^^^^^ 



Stop Straining The Connectors 

RS-232 
SWITCHER 




Up to three items connect to 
your 232 port. Flip switch for dif- 
ferent items and leave the plugs 
alone. $39.95 
TWO PLUG MODEL $29.95 



ADD POWER TO YOUR 
COLOR COMPUTER 



RAM SLAM 

- Solderless Kits - 



4-16K $25.00 
16-32K $49.95 
4-32K $74.95 
15 Minute Installation 
One Year Warranty 
"The Easy Way To More K" 




YUM-YUM PAv 



Machine language arcade 
fun! $16.95 




Stranded and alone with 
Adventure and treasure! 

$14.95 




Ultimate tape backup pro- 
gram. Get the cat! $19.95 



begin" :a*=inkey* 

110 a*=inkey*: ifa*<>"vthen110 

120 cls:defusr0=16128 

130 A=USR0(0) 
140 END 

150 DATA 189,169,40,142,1,218,15 
9, 126, 173, 159, 160,4, 173, 159, 160, 
6,38,250, 173, 159, 160,0, 129,3, 16, 
39,0, 121, 150, 124, 129,255,39,99, 1 
29,0,38,230, 134,52, 183,255,33, 15 
,111, 142, 1,218, 198,8, 166, 128, 173 
, 159, 160, 2, 90, 38, 247 
160 DATA 134,13,173,159,160,2,14 
2, 1,218, 16, 142,4, 13, 198,8, 166, 12 
8, 189,63, 118, 167, 160,90,38,246, 1 
82,62,255, 129,255,38, 173, 134,254 
, 151, 111, 142, 1,218, 198,8, 166, 128 
, 173, 159, 160, 2, 90, 38, 247, 134, 13, 
173, 159, 160,2, 126,63,8, 129,96,34 
,5, 129,64,37,4,57, 128 
170 DATA 96,57,139,64,57,134,96, 
198, 8, 16, 142, 4, 13, 167, 160, 90, 38, 
251, 126,63,8, 134,52, 183,255,33,5 
7 



3F28 87 


FF21 


00210 


STR 


&6331? 


the cassette off 


3F2B 0F 


6F 


00220 


CLR 


*6F 


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3F2D 9E 
3F30 C6 
3F32 A6 


01DA 


00230 


LDX 


**1DR 


Load X with *u.ff»r address. 


38 


00240 


LDP 


#!<8 


Loa.d B with Ho. of character* 
Load R with current chara.cter 


80 


00230 LOPS 


LDR 


,X+ 


3F34 AD 


9F A002 


00260 


JSR 


CCHRH 


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3F38 3P, 




80270 


DECB 




Decrement cou.nter 


3F39 26 


F7 


00293 


BNE 


LOPS 


Branch if not finished 


3F38 86 


BO 


00290 


LDR 


#*,13 


Load R with carriaSe return 


3F3D AD 


9F FI002 


00300 


JSR 


CCHR3 


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3F41 8E 


01DA 


00310 WRTOP 


LDX 


*tll>R 


Load y. with buffer bef-innln* 


3F44 1B8E 


040D 


00320 


LDY 


WM037 


Loa.d V with screen Position 


3F4B C6 


08 


00330 


LOB 


#&B 


Load B with No. of char-acte rs. 


3F4fl A6 


80 


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3F4C BD 


3F76 


00330 


JSR 


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3F4F A7 


R0 


00360 


STR 


Y+ 


Store R i'o current Position 


3F31 3A 




00370 


DECS 




Decrement counter 


3F32 26 


F6 


00380 


BME 


LOP 


Branch if not finished 


3F34 96 


3EFF 


00390 PRINIT 


LDR 


*3EFF 


Loa.d R with Printout fl*S 


3F37 81 


FF 


00400 


CMPA 


#S<23S 


Is * Printout in order'? 


3F59 26 


RD 


00410 


BNE 


STRPT 


If not ■ read rus-xt block 


3F5B 86 


FE 


0^420 


LDR 


#*FE 


If so, »et 


3F8D 97 


6F 


00430 


ST* 


*6F 


device to *2 


3F3F 8E 


01DA 


30440 


LDX 


#*1DR 


Loa.d X with Wuffer be-Mrml W3 


3F62 C6 


08 


00430 


LDB 


**,8 


Load B '-jith No. of characters 


3F64 A6 


80 


00460 LOPP 


LDR 


, X+ 


Loa.d R with current character 


3F66 AD 


9F R002 


00470 


JSR 


CCHR3 


Print it 


3F6A 3R 




80480 


►EC 8 




Decrement counter 


3F6B 26 


F7 


00490 


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3F6D 86 


Bp 


00300 


LDR 


#8.13 


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3F6F AD 


9F R002 


00310 


JSR 


CCHR3 


Print it 


3F73 7E 


3F08 


00320 


JMP 


STPRT 


Go r ea.d another b 1 ock 


3F76 81 


60 


00330 CHRFIG 


cnpn 


#3.96 


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3F78 22 
3F7A BL 


03 
40 


00340 

00530 
00360 


BH1 
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SUB 
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3F7C 25 


04 


BLO 


ROC-64 


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3F7E 39 




00370 


RTS 


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3F7F 80 


60 


00380 SUB 


SUBR 


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3F81 39 




00390 


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3F82 88 


40 


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3F84 39 




69610 


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3F83 86 


60 


00620 END 


LOR 


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3F87 C6 


08 


80638 


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3F89 108E 


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3FBD A7 


A0 


00630 EMDLOP 


STR 




Clear cur-rent location 


3F8F 3fl 




00660 


DECB 




Decrement counter 


3F90 26 


FB 


00679 


SHE 


EHDLOP 


Branch if not finished 


3F92 7E 


3F08 


00680 


JMP 


£;TRRT 


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3F93 86 


34 


00690 RTS 


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#*„32 


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motor off 
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3F97 B7 


FF21 


09700 


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3F9fl 39 


3000 


09710 

00720 


RTS 
END 





30000 TOTRL ERRORS 

RDD64 3FB2 

BLKIN R006 

CHR R002 

CHRFIG 3F76 







00010 




ORG 


t3F00 






R002 


00020 


CHR 


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B000 


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POL 


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3FB9 BD 


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JSR 


*R928 


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3F03 BE 


01DA 


00070 




LDX 


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3F06 V 


7E 


00080 




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3F0B RD 


9F RB04 


00090 


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00100 


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3F10 26 


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3F12 RD 


9F A000 


00120 




JSR 


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3F16 81 


03 


00130 




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3F18 1027 


0079 


00140 




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3F1C 96 


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3F1E 81 


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3F20 27 


63 


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3F22 81 


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3F26 86 


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CST 
END 
ENDLOP 
LOOP 
LOP 
LOPP 
LOPS 
POL 

PRINIT 

RTS 
START 
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A004 
3F83 
3F3D 
3F0C 
3F4A 
3F64 
3F32 
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3F54 
3F93 

3F41 



CZAP 



COPYTAPE CATALOG 



A disk inspect/modify 
routine. Learn how disks 
work, fix problems on 
your disks. $9.95 

NEATDIR 

Places the file names in 
your disk directories in 
alphabetical order. Keep 
your disks in order. $6.95 

TREK80C 

The classic game. Real 
time, moving Klingons and 
action graphics. $14.95 



Copy, merge, and backup 
your tape based software 
Works even with popular 
pre-loader tapes. $9.95 

BACKUP 

Speed up disk backups, 
recover crashed disks. 
Bypass I/O errors and 
fix your disks. $9.95 



Send Check or Money Order To: 

A. M. Heom Software 

602 S. 48th St.- Dept. R 
Philadelphia, PA 19143 

Write For Free Catalog 



An automatic disk file 
cataloging system. File 
the directories of your 
disks. $9.95 

OFFLOAD 

Create tape backups of 
your disks. A disk to 
tape, tape to disk copy 
system. $9.95 



WWIII 



Write for free catalog of these and other products. Dealer 



Save the world from 
nuclear destruction. Try 
to win the all out war 
with the USSR. $9.95 

inquiries invited. 'SSSS 



98 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



UTILITY 



Help for AD-DICTS 
Just for the ASCIIng 

By Michael J. Keyes 



For those of you who are frustrated with the latest 
Adventure game, or who would rather have the computer do 
the hard work, I have devised a program which looks into 
the bowels of (almost) any machine language program and 
prints out all of the letters, words and figures contained 
within. In order to use this program a printer and 32K of 
memory are necessary, although the PRINT #-2 statements 
can be altered to allow the output to go to the screen. 

To use A D-DICT, CLOAD and fit/TV the program. The 
screen will ask for the name of the adventure. After you have 
typed in the program name, you will be asked to place the 
machine language tape into your tape recorder, press play, 
and ENTER. That's all you have to do; the computer will do 
the rest. The first items printed out will be the start, end, and 
entry addresses (they have to be figured anyway, so why not 
give them to you) and then your printer will begin to print 
out the "dictionary" consisting of garbage, messages, and 
command words. 

The program works by offsetting the machine language 
by 10000 in line 20, and then findingthe start, end, and entry 
addresses in lines 50-110. Lines 170-210 search the 
appropriate locations for ASCII characters and send them 
to the printer. All ASCII characters are included because it 
gives greater separation of key words. 



The Listing: 



2 X=RND (-TIMER) 

9 CLSIPRINT" ENTER ADVENTURE NAM 
E": INPUTNM*: IF LEN(NM*>>8 THEN N 
M*=LEFT*(NM*,8) 

10 CLS: INPUT "PLACE TAPE, PRESS P 
LAY, &< ENTER >" ; X$ 

17 CLS: PR I NT "LOADING " 

20 CLOADM" " , 10000 
50 F0RX=474T0481 

60 Y=PEEK(X):IF Y=32 THEN Y=143 
70 POKE X+559,Y 
80 NEXT X 

90 A=PEEK(487)*256+PEEK<488) 
100 B=PEEK(126)*256+PEEK<127)-1 
110 C=PEEK<157)*256+PEEK<158> 
115 CLS:PRINT"PRINTING ADDRESSES 
FOR ";NM*:PRINT#-2, , , "ADDRESSES 
FOR "NM*:PRINT#~-2:PRINT#-2 
120 PRINT#-2, , , " DECIMAL", 
" HEX" 

130 PRINT#-2, , , " ", 




140 PRINT#-2, ,, "START: 
EX* (A) 



"A, " 



"H 



160 PRINT#-2„ "ENTRY: "C-10000, 
"HEX*(C-10000) 

163 forp=i to 4:print#-2:nextp:p 

RINT#-2, , , "DICTI0NARY":PRINT#-2: 
PRINT#-2 

165 CLS: PR I NT "SEARCHING RAM 

PRINT@416, "FROM "A+10000"TO "B 
170 FORI=A+10000 TO B 
180 AA=PEEK ( I ) 

185 PRINT@240,CHR*(RND(128)+127) 
190 IF AA=32 THEN PRINT#-2, CHR* 
(AA) ; 

200 IF AA>32 AND AA< 122 THEN PR 
INT#-2, CHR* ( AA) ; :PRINT@480, "ADD 
RESS= " I j : SOUND 1 00 , 1 
210 NEXTI 

220 CLS:PRINT"DICTIONARY COMPLET 
E" 

225 END /^\ 



Hint 



Get The Most Memory 



You can get the most memory available on your CoCo by 
entering the command POKE 25,6: NEW. This, in effect, is a 
PCLEAR0 on your system. 

This command will not work with a disk installed. It will, 
instead, clobber the disk operating system. If that happens, 
simply RESET CoCo. 



150 PRINT#-2, , , 

"HEX* (B-l 0000) 



END: "B-l 0000, 



FAMILY GAMEES 

For l&K COLOR COMPUTER 

•* « STOCKBROKER*-* 

Up to 6 player s can play the? 
atac-kmarket --hours cf fun ( 

-»■-«--*- C O l_. O R M . I M O * *f 

Up to b playorE cha 1 lenqe far 
hidden colors = hours ot fun! 

1. Game f-20, LD3 
2- Garret i?5 . CP 

ALJROR^n E O ( TU'A Rt 

4-9 Brook 1 arid Aver. 
AURORA OtJTARIO 
CANADA L^G—2H6 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 99 



Software Review... 

Las Vegas Weekend Offers 
Excitement and Relaxation 

For most of us a trip to Las Vegas is a rare experience, 
something we dream about while socking away a few 
dollars. We know full well that when and if we ever get to 
that fabulous city, we'll blowevery hard-earned penny. Still, 
the dream persists that we just could be among the few for 
whom the slot machine runneth over. 

Those dreams can be at least a lot more graphic now, 
thanks to the addition of The Las Vegas Weekend to the 
stable of fantasy-fulfillment games. "Head out to the desert 
and plan nine holes of championship golf," say the 
instructions. "After your shower, head into the casino for 
some exciting draw-poker action." 

A fascinating concept, I think, as I load golf into my 
CoCo after a hard day at the office. A vivid title page, 
accompanied by the tune of "Auld Lange Syne," fills the 
screen, followed by a set of complete instructions and, as the 
game progresses, nine brilliantly-designed and colorful 
fairways. Each of them is unique, peppered with sandtraps, 
streams and waterholes, and ranging in difficulty f rom easy 
to very difficult. 

At each hole, you mustfirstselectyourclub,thenindicate 
how hard you want to hit the ball before you get around to 
the action — something that takes a little getting used to at 
first. It probably would take the average person about five 
holes, in fact, to get the feel of the course, not to mention the 
delicacy of maneuvering the joystick. Don't be too surprised 
if you average anywhere from 1 0 to 15 strokes on your first 
run. 

After that the fairways are fairly manageable. It's the 

CANADIANS! 
GET YOUR SOFTWARE 
HEREIN CANADA 

No Hassle, No Duty and 
No Converting the Dollar 



Soft Sector Marketing 

GALAX ATTAX $26.95 

SPACE WAR $26.95 

COLOR SPACE INVADERS $26.95 

METEOROIDS $26.95 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD $24.95 

WAR KINGS $24.95 

MOON LANDER $20.95 



All Prices In Canadian Dollars 

We also have Computerware and 
Mark Data Products 

Order Now or write for our 
complete software list. 

TABBY ENTERPRISES 

Box 1353 R.R. 1 
Yarmouth, Nova Scotia 
B5A 4A5 
(902) 649-2965 

100 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



greens you have to worry about: the holes are so small that 
you have to excel on the fairway to come in with a 
respectable score on that hole. After playing the game 
several times, I would recommend that the hole be enlarged 
a bit. (I seem to remember thinking something like that on 
an actual golf course, however.) 

The tape recorder remains in the "play" position 
throughout the game, loading a new hole into the computer 
after you finished one. But the wait is made easier by the 
display of comparative scores on the screen in the meantime. 

The pace of the game, unlike that of others with the 
constant beeping and flashing and the hurry-up activity, was 
really to my liking, actually relaxing, giving me a chance to 
slow down, catch my breath and enjoy the challenge that 
golf makes possible. Having played the Odyssey version of 
golf with its funny little men, I found that The Las Vegas 
Weekend had more of me involved in the game than another 
cartoon character. 

One person can finish a nine-hole round in 30 minutes. U p 
to eight can play, however, so plan on a block of time if 
you're planning on inviting others to join you. 

I also found Poker — the second part of the two-game 
package — to be an engaging game, resembling the poker 
machines in Las Vegas. You are playing against the 
computer and what you are trying to do, of course, is to win 
some money. A pair of Aces is the lowest winning hand, 
paying one point for every one point you bet. 

(The game is a little contagious, so don't expect to control 
the keyboard for long if you have company.) 

When you have bet as much as you like, you hit the space 
bar to see your cards. If you don't like what you see, you 
throw away any and all cards and you can be dealt 
replacements. That's right, you can ask for five new cards, 
instead of your regular limit of three in "everyday" poker. 

When you win, there's a lot of noise and the screen flashes 
for several seconds. 

I was a little disappointed that I couldn't increase my bet 
after seeing the first five cards, but found the game very 
engaging. I was ready for it after nine holes of golf. 

As a package, I found The Las Vegas Weekend a total 
success with all members of the family, from a young child to 
my soon-to-be-retired father-in-law. The graphics and 
sound effects on both games are of high quality, the cassettes 
load easily, and they lef t me wanting to come back for more. 
(Prickly-Pear Software, 9822 E. Stella Road, Tucson, 
Arizona 85701, $24.95 on tape, or $29.95 for disk) 

—Charles Springer 

RAINBOWfest To Be In 
Chicago April 22-24 

The very first national show and exhibitionf orCoCo will 
be held in Chicago April 22-24, sponsored by the Rainbow. 

RAINBOWfest will be at the Hyatt-Regency Woodfield, 
west of the downtown area. The RAINBOWfest site is 
adjacent to Woodfield Mall — the world's largest shopping 
center. 

According to preliminary plans, a large number of 
software and hardware firms will be on hand to exhibit their 
products. The meeting will also feature a great deal of fun 
and conversation about CoCo. 

We urge you to make plans to attend. A special hotel rate 
can be secured by mentioning the Rainbow. 

Admission will be $7.50 for all three days through an 
advance sale, or $5 per day for a single day. Tickets at the 
door will be $1 1 for the entire session or $7.50 for a single 
day. 

Other events are planned and will be announced shortly. 



Quality Software Is The 
Number One Priority At 

K & K 
Computorware 




LUkumik. 

LASER TANK ■ Pit yourself in a game of strategy and 
excitement against the computer. You must defend your 
flag from attacking tanks and destroy them before they 
destroy your flag or you!!! High resolution graphics and 
four levels of difficulty Only $1 495 

GAZON ■ A machine language game that is surpassed by 
none on the market. The deadly Gazonians are trying to 
steal your supplies and you must stop them by shooting or 
ramming them. Action increases as fleets of Gazonians are 
destroyed. Only $1595 

SHOOT TO SPELL AND FLASH MATH - An educational 
package that helps kids learn to spell and educate them on 
elementary math. An absolute must for adults with school 
aged children. Joysticks required. Only $1 2 95 

SPACE HARVEST - Pilot your spacecraft above the 
Planetoid Voltar stealing spacefruit and trying to avoid 
alien guards and the ground. Fast action machine 
language programs with high resolution graphics. Only 

$1 495 

HORSE RACE - Can you pick the next Secretariat among 
our thoroughbreds? High speed, life like action for people 
of all ages. High resolution graphics. Only $1 2 g 5 

SERIALTOPARELLELCONVERTER- Have a printer with 
a parellel port? Tired of waiting for a line list? With this 
little hardware device you can make your color computer 
run at any baud rate between 300 and 9600. Let K & K help 
your printer to go much faster!!! Only $69 95 





■■BLACKJACK 



♦ 

♦ S 

BLACKJACK - A casino game that puts two players 
against the beady-eyed dealer of the house. This dealer 
deals the cards as good or even better than Intellivision. If 
you have any gambling blood at all this game is a must! 
Same rules as any Las Vegas casino. High resolution 
graphics. Only $1 295 



POLARIS - You are under the ocean in a submarine, 
attacking planes and enemy destroyers dropping depth 
charges attempting to destroy your sub. Can you destroy 
them before they destroy you? This is an extremely fast 
action machine language program with high resolution 
graphics. Only $1495 



-J fU\ .&Jo /uy 



A 



ft* 




■ Si 

SUPER ZAP ■ Enemy spaceships are attacking from all 
sides and your mission, should you choose to accept it is 
to defend your starbase from the deadly Armada of Pyruss. 
This will be a dangerous mission since the Pyruss Armada 
has never been defeated by any humanoid. Action 
increases as the game progresses. Only $1 4 9 5 

HOME HELPERS - Have problems balancing your 
checkbook, remembering important dates or phone 
numbers, and your mailing lists. Let K & K and your color 
computer help you. Only $1 4 g 5 

BOWLING SCORED FOR DOLLARS - Do your leagues 
bowling averages. This program will keep individual scores, 
team totals, individual averages, team standings, and print 
all this information to your line printer Minimum 1 6K disk 
required (on cassette tool). Only $1 4 g 5 

INVENTORY CONTROL - This program contains all the 
necessary features required for all types of inventories, 
such as sorting of inventory by stock number. This program 
will list stock number, description, amount in stock, cost, 
wholesale, profits. Minimum 16K disk required. Only 
$3995 

PROPERTY INVENTORY- This program lists inventory by 
department, date purchased, and property numbers. 
Minimum 1 6K disk required. Only $2995 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND RECEIVABLE - These two 
programs will control the incoming and outgoing money 
flows for all your business accounts. Only $59 g 5 



ALL GAME PROGRAMS - require 1 6K extended (prices are set for cassette, add $400 for disk, except business) 
PROGRAMMERS!!! ■ K & K pays the highest royalties for your programs. If your program is good, send it to K & K and receive 

the best possible coverage! 
TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER USERS - New programs are added each week. Send 
$1 00 for our complete catalog. 

HHE) K & K COMPUTORWARE 

37326 Gregory Drive • Sterling Heights, Michigan 48077 
Telephone: (313) 264-7345 



A Common Denominator 
For Math Study And Ease 

By Robert L. Crooks 



Fraction was written after spending several hours on 
several different days checking my daughter's math 
homework. She had just started fractions in school, and 
even though I'm at home with numbers, it was still a large 
time sink. While in the process of devising a routine for 
simple checking of simple fractions, it was but a short step 
(in concept anyway) to the attached routine. 

This routine will check problemsforyou which you input. 
Problem types that can be checked are reduction of a 
fraction to lowest terms, finding a common denominator, 
adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing fractions. 
You specify the number of fractions in the problem (1/2 + 
1/3 + 1/6 has three, for example) and format (mixed, 
common, improper, etc.). All decisions which are required 
on your part are menu-driven, so it's pretty difficult to make 
a mistake. The routine will then give the correct answer. If 
the answer is greater than one, the program gives the answer 
both as a mixed fraction and as an improper fraction. 

The routine also will make up fractions so that the kids 
can practice during the long tedious summer. Any of the 
types of problems that can be checked (see above) can also 
be generated by the program for test purposes. The routine 
then prints the "guessed" answer and also the correct 
answer. The routine keeps track of right answers, and after 
10 problems it gives you your score. 

A drawback or two exists in the program which can be 
readily overcome, except that 1 got tired of fiddling with it. 
Drawback number one is that all user input must be in 
fraction form. In other words, if you want to input the 
number "21 ," it will have to be entered as "21 / 1 ."The screen 
instructions specify this but you should be forewarned. 

The other drawback is that the only way to exit the 
current format of problem is to "break." If you are zipping 
along doing addition problems and you want to change to 
multiplying, you have to "break" then RUN and start over. 
Again, the screen instructions are clear, but I just thought I 
would warn you. 

The major portions of the program are as follows: 

For checking problems 

240-300 Specify type of problem (variable M) 
380-390 Specify like or unlike (variable C) 
530-640 Specify format of problem (variable A) 
650-760 and 

800-880 Read in fractions to check 

770 Branch to subroutine that actually performs the math 
790 Send program to output routine. 
2210-2420 Main output routine. Checks for mixed fraction, 
reduces to lowest terms, displays the answer. NU and CD 
are the answer numerator and denominator, and they may 
have been formed by any of the six math subroutines. 



For making up problems: 
240-390 Same as above 

410-520 Generate denominators (BN) and numerators 
(AN). Size of fractions is checked. 
770-2420 Same as above 

2700-2890 Counter to keep track of problems and number of 
correct answers. 

Any further itemizing of the program will just get wordy. I 
made liberal use of REMs so the program listing should be 
fairly easy to follow. Feel free to make any modification. If 
there are any questions, you may write or call. The listing is 
fairly long, but it's worth it. It will run in the 16K. machine, 
and for people who don't like to type I'll make a tape copy of 
my backup for $8. 



The Listing: 



Y 180 


0240 


750 


0880 


1150 


0C1D 


1700 


10CE 


2420 


1887 


END 


1D1A 



100 REM FRACTIONS PROGRAM— ALLOWS 

USER TO SELECT 
110 REM WHETHER THE COMPUTER WIL 
L MAKE UP PROBLEMS 

120 REM OR MERELY CHECK PROBLEMS 
. VARIABLES USED ARE N(#OF FRACT 
IONS PER PROBLEM), NU (NUMERATOR 
OF INTERMEDIATE OR FINAL FRACTIO 
N) , 

130 REM CD (DENOMINATOR OR COMMON 
DENOMINATOR) , W (WHOLE NUMBER PAR 
T OF FRACTION) , AN (NUMERATOR INPU 
T) ,BN (DENOMINATOR INPUT) 
140 REM COUNTERS USED ARE: 
150 REM ZZ (ARRAY FOR AN AND BN) X 
T (AVOID REPEAT OF INSTRUCTIONS) K 
, L (LOCAL LOOP COUNTERS) TA, TB, AA ( 
INTERMEDIATE VALUES FOR NU AND C 
D) 

160 REM R*, DUMMY VARIABLES 

170 REM B (MAKE UP OR CHECK) 

180 REM C(LIKE OR UNLIKE) 

190 REM M PROBLEM MODE (ADD, SUB, M 

UL , D I V , COM DENOM , REDUCE ) 

200 IF XT>0 THEN 400 



102 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



"WANNA FIND OUT 
WHAT FUN REALLY IS?" 

THE KIND OF EXCITEMENT YOU GET OUT OF YOUR SYSTEM DEPENDS ON 

WHAT GAMES YOU PUT I NTO IT. 

If You Want to Find Out What it's Like to Use your Computer to its Fullest....Then These are the Games 
You'll Need! for your trs-so color computer 

ftjnke/Munkey 

32K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 




ON THIS SCREEN: 
Pop the Rivets and Fight Fires 



ON THIS SCREEN: 
Jump Barrels and Ride the Elevator 



We're sure you already know 
the rules to this game 1 As game 
progresses so does the diffi- 
culty level. 

Cassette $24.95 

Diskette $29.95 

ULTRA-FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE ■ HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS ■ SPECTACULAR SOUND EFFECTS 



STARFIR€ 

16K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 




Plays like popular arcade game 
Defender" including: 

• Hyperspace 

• Smart Bombs 

• Radar Scanner 

Cassette $21.95 

Diskette $26.95 

IntEllEC tranics M 

22 Churchill Lane 
Smithtown, N.Y. 11787 
(516) 543-6642 



0. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Give your Color Computer^ 
a New Image! 




DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



SCREEN - 64 

64 Characters X 32 Lines 
Upper & Lower Case 

16K EXTENDED BASIC NOT REQUIRED 



1. Load in SCREEN-64 

2. Type EXEC 

3. You're Back in BASIC with a 64 x 32 
Screen plus. .. 

FEATURES: 

• Slow/Fast Scroll Selectable 

• Window Capabilities 

• Text & Graphic on same screen 

• Superscript/Subscript 

• Reverse Screen/Reverse Video 

• No Hardware Modification Needed 

Cassette $19.95 

Diskette $24.95 



We pay all shipping. All orders shipped in 
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tax. Canadian orders please send M.O. in 
U.S. funds only. 




AT LAST 

Real Arcade Joysticks For Co -Co 



Just plug in our adaptor ("below) and use 
your ATARI® joysticks or for REAL ARCADE 
action. .. .get one of ours! 

W Made by WICO® ^ 

COMMAND CONTROL adaptor 1995 

Radio Shack** IRSSC* Color Computer 

COMMAND CONTROL joysticks 

1 Injection-molded modular construction and 6 leaf-type molded 
switches — identical to the best commercial arcade models. 

1 Two fire button locations, activated by a base-mounted slide 
switch. 

Extra-long 5' cord. 



Joystick 15-9714 29 95 

• Extra-long arcade-style bat handle grip that moves 
smoothly and easily into all 8 standard positions. 

■ Low-profile, heavy-duty plastic base. 

Famous Red BaH™ Joystick 1 5-9730 34 9 5 

• Arcade-type red ball handle that moves smoothly and 
easHy into all 8 standard positions. 

• Low-profile, heavy-duty plastic base. 




COMMAND CONTROL trackballs' 



6595 

Features injection-molded modular construction. 
Phenolic ball provides unique 360 degree movement 
to an infinite number of positions; can also be used 
to vary the speed of on-screen objects. 
• Quick-action fire button next to the ball, for smooth, two-handed 

control. 
AC power supply included. 

COMMAND CONTROL extension cords 

12' length-15-1756 g9S 
6' length-15-1755 595 
All backed bv a full one-year limited manufacturer's warranty. 

SOFTWARE * * * * 



from SHELL 
DEATH STAR "An Adventure" 32K/ECB 

A text adventure that's different 
SUB-HUNT Arcade type 16K/ECB (Low Res.) 

from ACESOFT 
GAMER 4-PAC 16K/ECB 
DISK BUSINESS PACKAGE 16K/ECB 
Master File, Minicalc, Supergraph 



199* 
995 

19 95 

1 4 95 



from TOM MIX 
DONKEY KING 4 full screens, Just like 24 95 
the ARCADE - Super ! ! 

(FREE 16K Adv. game with $50 order ^ 
Orders under $50-add 1.50 shp/hnd $ 

Write for other software available. 

VISA/MC, CK, MO 

9 to S EST (30S) 894-1887 

S & S ARCADE SUPPLIES 

8301 Sarnow Dr. Orlando, Fl 3280? 
Eh (305) 275-8^90 Evenings 
-Fla res. add % sales tax- 



210 CLS: PRINT@72, "F R A C T I 0 
N" 

220 PRINTQ200, "BY CROOKS, 2/82" 

230 FOR P=1TO2000:NEXT 

240 CLS:PRINT:PRINT"WHAT KIND OF 

PROBLEMS?" 
250 PRINT" 1 -ADDITION" 
260 PRINT"2-SUBTRACTI0N" 
270 PRINT"3-MULTIPLICATI0N" 
280 PRINT"4-DIVISI0N" 
290 PRINT"5-FIND COMMON DENOMINA 
TOR" 

300 PRINT"6-REDUCTI0N TO LOWEST 

TERMS" : PRINT: PRINT 

310 INPUT "WHICH ONE";M 

320 CLS: PR I NT "AM I GOING TO MAKE 

UP PROBLEMS" 
330 PRINT"OR CHECK YOURS. TYPE < 
1> FOR ME" 

340 PR I NT "TO MAKE UP PROBLEMS OR 

<2> FOR" 
350 PR I NT "ME TO CHECK YOURS" 
360 INPUTB 
370 IF M=6 GOTO 400 
380 PRINT: PRINT"WILL THESE BE LI 
KE OR UNLIKE?" 

390 INPUT "1=LIKE 2=UNLIKE";C 
400 XX=0:ON B GOTO 410,530 
410 BN<1)=RND(8) : AN < 1 ) =RND < 6 ) : RE 
M MAKE UP MODULE 

420 BN(2)=RND(10) : AN(2)=RND(9) 
430 N=2 

440 IF C=l THEN 500 

450 IF AN(2)/BN(2) >AN(1)/BN(1) T 

HEN BN (2) =BN (2) *2: GOTO 450 

460 IF M=6 THEN AN ( 1 ) =AN ( 1 ) *RND ( 

6>*2 

470 IF M=6 THEN BN ( 1 ) =BN ( 1 ) *RND ( 
4) 

480 REM 3 PREVIOUS STATEMENTS GU 
ARANTEES SIZE OF FRACTIONS 
490 GOTO 760 

500 IF AN (1 KAN (2) THEN AN ( 1 ) =AN 
<1>*2:G0T0 500 
510 BN(2)=BN(1) 
520 GOTO 760 

530 REM READ IN FRACTIONS 

540 CLS: IF XTO0 THEN 620:REM SK 

IP INSTRUCTIONS 

550 PR I NT "WHICH FORM ARE YOUR PO 
RBLEMS?" 

560 PR I NT "1 -COMMON FRACTIONS (LI 
KE 1/2)" 

570 PRINT"2-IMPR0PER (LIKE 9/4)" 
580 PRINT"3-MIXED (LIKE 3 4/7)" 
590 PRINT" ALL OF YOUR FRACTIONS 
HAVE TO" 

600 PR I NT "BE THE SAME FORM." 

610 INPUT "WHICH FORM" ; A 

620 CLS: PR I NT "HOW MANY FRACTIONS 



104 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



IN" 

630 INPUT "THIS PROBLEM" ; N 

640 IF N>4 OR N<1 THEN 860 

650 ZZ=l:REM READ IN NUM AND DEN 

OM IN ARRAY 

660 IF A=3 THEN 800 

670 IF ZZ=1 THEN 730 

680 INPUT"GIVE ME THE NEXT NUMER 

ATOR";AN(ZZ) 

690 INPUT"GIVE ME NEXT DENOMINAT 
OR";BN(ZZ) 

700 IF ZZ=N THEN 760 
710 ZZ=ZZ+1 
720 GOTO 660 

730 INPUT "GIVE ME THE FIRST NUM 
ERATOR"; AN<ZZ) 

740 INPUT"GIVE ME FIRST DENOMINA 

TOR";BN<ZZ) 

750 GOTO 700 

760 REM END OF ARRAY FORMING 
770 ON M GOSUB 1160,1320,1440,15 
70, 1710, 2130: REM M=MODE 
780 XT=XT+1 

790 GOTO 2210: REM PRINT ANSWER 

800 REM READ MIXED FRACTIONS 

810 IF ZZOl THEN 840 

820 INPUT "GIVE ME THE FIRST WHOL 

E NUMBER" ;W(ZZ) 

830 GOTO 670 

840 INPUT "GIVE ME NEXT WHOLE NU 

MBER";W(ZZ) 

850 GOTO 670 

860 CLS: PR I NT "INPUT ERROR. YOU E 
ITHER PUT" 

870 PR I NT "A WRONG NUMBER OR A NU 
MBER" 

880 PR I NT "GREATER THAN 4. SORRY. 
":GOTO 620 

890 REM GET COMMON DENOM FOR ADD 

OR SUBTR 
900 IF N<>2 THEN 990 
910 IF BN(l)OBN(2) THEN 940 
920 IF C=l THEN DN=BN ( 1 ) 
930 RETURN 
940 DN=BN(1)*BN(2> 
950 AN(1)=BN(2)*AN(1) 
960 AN(2)=BN(1)*AN(2) 
970 BN(1)=DN:BN(2)=DN 
980 GOTO 930 
990 IF N>3 THEN 1070 
1000 IF BN(1)=BN(2) AND BN(2)=BN 
(3) THEN 930 

1010 DN=BN(1)*BN(2)*BN(3) 
1020 FOR L=l TO N 
1030 AN (L)=DN*AN(L) /BN(L) 
1040 NEXT L 

1050 BN(1)=DN:BN(2)=DN:BN(3)=DN 
1060 GOTO 930 

1070 IF BN(1)=BN(2) AND BN(2)=BN 
(3) AND BN(3)=BN(4) THEN 930 



1080 DN=BN(1)*BN(2)*BN(3)*BN(4) 

1090 FOR L=1T0N 

1100 AN (L) =DN*AN (L) /BN (L) 

1110 NEXT L 

1120 FOR L =1 TO N 

1130 BN ( L ) =DN 

1140 NEXT L 

1150 GOTO 930 

1160 REM SUBROUTINE TO ADD 

1170 NU=0:CD=0 

1180 IF BOl THEN 1230 

1190 CLS:PRINT:PRINT"HOW MUCH IS 

" ; A N ( 1 ) ; " / " ; BN ( 1 ) ; " + " ; AN ( 2 ) ; " / " 
;BN(2) 

1200 PR I NT: PR I NT: PR I NT "YOUR ANSW 
ER?" 

1210 INPUT " NUMERATOR= " ; NN 

1220 INPUT "DENOMINATOR =";NP 

1230 GOSUB 890 

1240 FOR K=l TO N 

1250 IF A=3 THEN GOSUB 1300 

1260 NU=NU+AN(K) 

1270 NEXT K 

1280 CD=DN 

1290 RETURN 

1300 AN(K)=W(K)*BN(K)+AN(K) 
1310 RETURN 

1320 REM SUBROUTINE TO SUBTRACT 
1330 IF BOl THEN 1380 



MICRgDOC 

• Just what the Doctor ordered 
for: EQUIPMENT CONTROL 

DATA FILE CONTROL 
PROGRAM CONTROL "~ 

• An easy-to-follow documentation 
system which will help both 
beginners and experienced 
professionals organize their 
micro-computer installations 

• Includes manual and complete set 
of documentation forms 



Send only $12.95 to: 

MICRO-DOC 
97 Montowese Trail 
Wallingford, CT 06492 



Send check, or money order only 

No CT residents add 74% 

COD sales tax 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 105 



1340 cls:print:print"hdw much is 
";an<i >;"/"; bn<i> ; "-";an<2) ; "/" 
; BN(2) 

1350 PR I NT : PR I NT " WHAT IS YOUR AN 
SWER?" 

1360 INPUT "NUMERATOR=";NN 
1370 INPUT "DENOMINATORS' ;NP 
1380 GOSUB 890 

1370 IF A=3 THEN K=l: GOSUB 1300 

1 400 NU=AN ( 1 ) I CD=BN < 1 ) 

1410 IF A=3 THEN GOSUB 1300 

1420 NU=NU-AN(2) 

1430 RETURN 

1440 REM SUBROUTINE TO MULTIPLY 
1450 IF A=3 THEN K=l: GOSUB 1300 
1460 NU=AN ( 1 ) I CD=BN ( 1 ) 
1470 IF BOl THEN 1520 

1480 cls:print:print h how much is 
■' ;an(1) ; ,, / ,, ;bn(1 ) ; "X";an(2) ; ,, / ,, 
;BN(2) 

1490 PRINT: PRINT"YOUR ANSWER, PL 
EASE" 

1500 INPUT"NUMERATOR=";NN 

1510 INPUT "DENOMINATORS' ; NP 

1520 FOR K=2 TO N 

1530 IF A=3 THEN GOSUB 1300 

1540 NU=NU*AN(K) :CD=CD*BN(K) 

1550 NEXT K 

1560 RETURN 



TAKE THE GUESSWORK OUT OF 

STOCK & FUND 
INVESTING 

FUNDGRAF is a new computer program which not 
only graphs and analyzes funds or stocks, but also 
makes decisions on when to buy and sell. Use your 
TRS-80 Color Computer (TM Tandy Corp.) as a valu- 
able investment tool. 

• GRAPHS the progress of your funds or stocks 

• SUPERIMPOSES for comparisoni 

- a line of constant percent growth 

- a graph of any other fund 

• CALCULATES over any given time spam 

- percent price change 

- the moving average 

• INDICATES BUY and SELL signals 

Tapg version compares*^* * 

stocka or funds in 
groups of seven for 
up to 70 weeks. 
— $<*9.95— 

Dlsk version compares 
any 36 funds on one 
disk for up to 200 
weeks. 
—$69.95- 



FUI ICCRRF - n STOCK 

MARKET RHHLVS1S 
PROCROM FOR 16K fcX 
TPtS-e«J COLOR COMPUTf 



T 



I 



T 




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L 



I ■ I I 1 



-Sample data and detailed instructions furnished. 
-Both versions require 16 K Extended Basic. 
-For more information send S.A.S.E. 
-For your FUNDGRAF program send the price indi- 
cated above plus $2.00 handling toi 

PARSONS GOFTwriRE 
113 WOODSHIRE DRIVE 
pflRKERSBURG/ WV 26lOl 



1570 REM SUBROUTINE TO DIVIDE 

1580 IF A=3 THEN K=l: GOSUB 1300 

1590 K=K+l:lFK>N THEN 1620 

1600 GOSUB 1300 

1610 GOTO 1590 

1620 IF BOl THEN 1680 

1630 cls:print:print"how much is 

"; an(1) ; "/";bn<i> ; " divided" 
1640 print tab(9);"by ";an(2);"/ 
";bn(2> 

1650 pr i nt: pr i nt: pr i nt "your answ 

ER?" 

1660 INPUT "NUMERATOR=";NN 

1670 INPUT "DENOMINATORS' ;NP 

1680 NU=<AN<1>*BN<2> 

1690 CD=BN(1)*AN(2> 

1700 RETURN 

1710 REM FIND A COMMON DENOM 

1720 CLS 

1730 IF B=l THEN 1910 

1740 cls:print:print m give me you 

r denominators" 

1750 if zo0 then 1800 

1760 pr i nt "please give them to m 

E IN" 

1770 PR I NT " ASCENDI NG ORDER. THAT 
MEANS" 

1780 PR I NT "LOWEST FIRST AND HIGH 
EST LAST. " 

1790 PRINT"LIST ONLY DENOMINATOR 
S. . . " 

1800 INPUT "ARE YOU READY " ; R* 
1810 IF LEFT* <R*, 1 ) ="N" THEN 180 

0 

1820 FOR K=lTON 

1830 print m denominator-";k; "=": I 
nput;bn(K) 

1840 NEXT K 

1850 IF BN(NXBN(N-1) THEN PRINT 
"NOT ASCENDING ORDER! REDO.": GOT 
O 1830 
1860 cls:x=i 

1870 ON N GOSUB 1970,1970,2030,2 
080 

1880 IF XX=1 THEN PRINT" I CAN'T 
FOR THOSE NUMBERS" 
1890 CD=BN(N>*X 
1900 RETURN 

1910 PRINT" WHAT IS THE COMMON" 
1920 PR I NT " DENOM I NATOR FOR 1 / " ; B 
N(l); n AND 1/";BN(2) 
1930 PRINT: PRINT 



1940 INPUT "YOUR ANSWER= 



NP 



1950 X=l 

1960 GOTO 1870 

1970 IF(X*BN(2)/BN(1) )=INT(X*BN( 
2) /BN<1> > THEN 2020 

1980 X=X+1 

1990 IF X>BN(1)*BN<2) THEN 2010 

2000 GOTO 1970 



106 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



■0- 



Macro-BQc 

The Micro Works is pleased to announce the release of 
its disk-based editor, macro assembler and monitor, writ- 
ten for Color Computer by Andy Phelps. THIS IS IT — The 
ultimate programming tool! 

The powerful 2-pass macro assembler features conditional 
assembly, local labels, include files and cross referenced symbol 
tables. Macro-80c supports the complete Motorola 6809 instruction set in 
standard source format. There are no changes, constraints or shortcuts in 
the source language definition. Incorporating all of the features of our 
Rompack-based assembler (SDS80C), Macro-80c contains many more 
useful instructions and pseudo-ops which aid the programmer and add 
power and flexibility. 

The screen-oriented text editor is designed for efficient and easy editing of 
assembly language programs. The "Help Key" feature makes it simple 
and fun to learn to use the editor. As the editor requires no line numbers, 
you can use the arrow keys to position the cursor anywhere in the file. 
Macro-80c allows global changes and moving/copying blocks of text. You 
can edit lines of assembly source which are longer than 32 characters. 

DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows examining and 
altering of memory, setting break points, etc. 

The editor, assembler and monitor — as well as sample programs — 
come on one Radio Shack compatible disk. Extensive documentation 
included. Macro-80c Price: $99.95 




YOU NEED 
COLOR FORTH!! 

Why? 

•Forth is faster to program in than Basic 
•Forth is easier to learn than Assembly Language 
•Forth executes in less time than Basic 
Forth is a highly interactive language like Basic, with 
structure like Pascal and execution speed close to 
that of Assembly Language. The Micro Works Color 
Forth is a Rompack containing everything you need to 
run Forth on your Color Computer. 

Color Forth consists of the standard FORTH Interest 
Group (FIG) implementation of the language plus 
most of FORTH-79. It has a super screen editor with 
split screen display. Mass storage is on cassette. 
Color Forth also contains a decompiler and other aids 
(or learning the inner workings of this fascinating lan- 
guage. It will run on 4K. 16K, and 32K computers. 
Color Forth contains 10K of ROM, leaving your RAM 
for your programs! There are simple words to 
effectively use the Hi-Res Color Computer graphics, 
joysticks, and sound. The 112-page manual includes 
a glossary of the system-specific words, a full 
standard FIG glossary and complete source listing. 
COLOR FORTH ... THE BEST! From the leader in 
Forth. Talbot Microsystems Price: $109.95 



SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

The Micro Works Soltware Development Syslem (SDS80C) is a complete 6809 editor, assembler and 
monitor package contained in one Cotor Computer program pack 1 Vastly superior to RAM-based 
assemblers/editors, the SDS80C is non-volatile, meaning that it your application program bombs, it can t 
destroy your editor/assembter. Plus it leaves almost altoll6Kor32KRAM tree lor your program. Since 
alt three programs, edilor. assembler and monitor are co-resident, we eliminate tedious program loading 
when going back and lorth from ediling to assembly and debugging 1 

The powerful screen-oriented Edilor features finds, changes, moves, copys and much more All keys have 
convenient auto repeat (typamalic). and since no line numbers are required, the lull width of the screen 
may be used to generale well commented code. 

The Assembler lealures all ol the following: complete 6809 instruction set: conditional assembly: local 
labels: assembly to cassette tape or to memory: listing to screen or printer: and mnemonic error codes 
instead of numbers 

The versatile monitor is tailored lor debugging programs generated by the Assembler and Editor. It 
leatures examine/change of memory or registers, cassette toad and save, breakpoints and more. SDS80C 
Price: $89.95 



MICROTEXT: COMMUNICATIONS 
VIA YOUR MOOEM! 

Now you can use your printer wilh your modem 1 Your computer can be an 
intelligent printing terminal Tatk to timeshare services or to other personal 
computers: print simultaneously through a second printer port: and re- 
display text stored in memory. Dump to a cassette tape, or printer, or bolh. 
Microtext can be used with any printer or no printer at all. It leatures user- 
configurable duplex/parily lor special applications, and can send any ASCII 
character. You'll find many uses tor this general purpose module 1 Microlext 



PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE - Serial to parallel converter allows use of all 
standard parallel printers PI80C plugs into Ihe serial oulpul port, leaving your 
lack slol Iree You supply the printer cable P180C Price S69.95 



GAMES 

Star Blaster — Blast your way through an asteroid held in this action-packed Hi-Res graphics game. Available in ROMPACK: requires 16K. Price: $39.95 
Pac Attack — Try your hand at this challenging game by Computerware. with fantastic graphics, sound and action 1 Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 
Berserk — Have fun zapping robots with this Hi-Res game by Mark Data Products. Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 
Adventure — Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by Mark Data Products. Each cassette requires 16K. Price: $19.95 each. 

Cave Hunter — Experience vivid colors, bizarre sounds and errie creatures in hot pursuit as you wind your way through a cave maze in search ol gold treasures. This 
exciting Hi-Res game by Mark Data Products requires 16K tor cassette version. Price: $24.95 



Also Available: Machine Language Monitor * 2-Pass Disassembler ★ Memory Upgrade Kits + We Stock 64K Chips 
★ Parts and Services ★ Books ★ Call or write for information 



THE 



TOLAS' 



MasterCharge/Visa Accepted 
California residents add 6% tax. 



P.O. 



GOOD STUFF! 

BOX 1110, DEL MAR, CA 92014 [619] 942-2400 



2010 PRINT"ICAN'T FOR ";BN<1);"A 
ND" ; BN (2) : XX=1 
2020 RETURN 

2030 IF <X*BN(3)/BN<1> >=INT(X*BN 
<3>/BN<l)> AND ( X*BN (3) /BN (2) ) =1 
NT<X*BN<3> /BN(2) ) THEN 2070 
2040 X=X+1 

2050 IF X>BN(3)*BN(2)*BN(1) THEN 

XX=1IG0T0 2070 
2060 GOTO 2030 
2070 RETURN 

2080 IF(X*BN(4)/BN(1) )=INT)X*BN< 
4)/BN(D) AND ( X*BN (4) /BN (2) ) =IN 
T(X*BN(4)/BN(2> ) AND (X*BN<4)/BN 
(3) )=INT(X*BN(4) /BN(3> ) THEN 212 
0 

2090 X=X+1 

2100 IF X>BN(4)*BN(3)*BN(2)*BN<1 
) THEN XX=l:GOTO 2120 
2110 GOTO 2080 
2120 RETURN 

2130 CLS: PR I NT .'PRINT "REDUCE TO L 

OWEST TERMS" : PRINT: PRINT 

2140 PRINT AN (1) ;"/"; BN (1) 

2150 PRINT:PRINT"YOUR ANSWER, PL 

EASE?" 

2160 INPUT "NUMERATORS' ;NN 
2170 INPUT "DENOMINATOR^' ;NP 
2180 XT=1 

2190 NU=AN(1) :CD=BN(1) 
2200 RETURN 

2210 REM PART OF PROBLEM M0DULE6 
0001 REM AND OUTPUT ROUTINE 
2220 REM THIS PORTION REDUCES TH 
E COMPUTER'S ANSWER TO LOWEST TE 
RMS 

2230 IF XX=1 THEN GOTO 2460 

2240 IF M=5 THEN 2550 

2250 IF NU<=CD THEN AA=NU ELSE A 

A=CD 

2260 FOR K=2 TO AA 

2270 IF NU/K=INT (NU/K) THEN 2640 
2280 NEXT K 

2290 REM CHECK FOR MIXED NUMBER 

2300 IF NU=<CD THEN 2340 

2310 TA=I NT <NU/CD) : REM TA IS WHO 




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LE NR PART OF FRACTION 

2320 TB=NU-TA*CD: REM NEW NUMERAT 

OR 

2330 ZA=HREM ZA IDENTIFIES A WH 

OLE NUMBER PRESENT 

2340 IF B=l THEN 2530 

2350 IF ZA=0 THEN 2400 

2360 IF TB=0 THEN 2670 

2370 IF B=2 THEN CLS ELSE GOTO 2 

400 

2380 print:print:print"the FINAL 
answer should" 
2390 print "be " ; ta; tb; " / " ; cd; " 0 
r in other form" 
2400 if nu=0 then 2690 
2410 print:print: if cd=i then pr 
int:print"the answer is ";nu:got 

O 2430 

2420 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT"THE ANSWE 

r is ";nu;"/";cd 

2430 REM PROBLEM COUNTING ROUTIN 
ES 

2440 GOSUB 2700 
2450 ZA=0 

2460 FOR LL=1TO2000:NEXT 

2470 GOSUB 2800: REM ENDING ROUTI 

NE 

2480 PR I NT .'PRINT .'PRINT "PRESS <BR 
EAK> TO STOP" 

2490 PRINT"OR CHANGE PROBLEM TYP 
E" 

2500 FORML=1TO1000: NEXT: GOTO 400 
2510 IF LEFT* (R*, 1 ) ="Y" THEN XT= 
XT+l:GOTO 400 

2520 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"THE END": 
END 

2530 CLS: PRINT: PRINT"YOUR ANSWER 

is ";nn;"/";np 

2540 GOTO 2350 

2550 CLS: PR I NT :PR I NT 

2560 PRINT :PR I NT "YOU SPECIFIED " 

; N; " DENOMINATORS" 

2570 PRINT"THEY WERE:" 

2580 FOR K=1T0N 

2590 PRINT"D-";K; "=";BN(K) 

2600 NEXT K 

2610 PR I NT "THEIR COMMON DENOMINA 
TOR IS"; CD 

2620 PR I NT :PR I NT "YOUR ANSWER WAS 

";NP 

2630 GOTO 2430 

2640 IF CD/K=INT(CD/K) THEN 2660 

2650 GOTO 2280 

2660 NU=NU/K:CD=CD/K:GOTO 2260 

2670 PR I NT :PR I NT: PR INT "THE ANSWE 

R IS ";ta 

2680 GOTO 2430 

2690 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT"THE ANSWE 

R IS ZERO" : GOTO 2440 

2700 REM CORRECT ANSWER COUNTER 



1Q8 the RAINBOW February, 1 983 



PROBL 



K 



CD=NP THEN K2 



IF TA=NN THEN 



CD=NP THEN K; 



2710 IF BOl THEN 2790 
2720 Kl=Kl+l:REM NUMBER OF 
EMS IN THIS SET 
2730 IF ZAO0 THEN 2770 
2740 IF M=5 THEN GOTO 2880 
2750 IF NU=0 THEN IF NN=0 THEN 
2=K2+1 : GOTO 2790 
2760 IF NU=NN AND 
=K2+1 : GOTO 2790 
2770 IF TB=0 THEN 
K2=K2+1 : GOTO 2790 
2780 IF NU=NN AND 
=K2+1 : GOTO 2790 
2790 RETURN 

2800 IF K1O10 THEN 2870 

2810 FOR TY=1TO1000:NEXT TY:CLS: 

PR I NT: PR I NT "THAT CONCLUDES TEN P 

ROBLEMS . " : PR I NT : PR I NT " YOU GOT "; 

K2i " OF THEM RIGHT ! " 

2820 FOR Ll=l TO K2 

2830 SOUND 1 00+RND ( 1 00 ) , 4 

2840 NEXT 

2850 K1=0:K2=0 

2860 PRINT: PRINT: INPUT "PRESS <E 
NTER> TO CONTINUE" ;PO 
2870 RETURN 

2880 IF NP=CD THEN K2=K2+1 

2890 GOTO 2800 /^\ 



PANS 
K 



T 



C.C.Calc *25 
Our oitn Electronic Spreadsheet for the Color Coiputer is a 
sophisticated but easy to use calculating and planning 
prograi. C.C.Calc takes the drudgery out of budgeting, 
taxes, and other financial or planning activities. Hide 
reports can be printed in sections. 32K Cas. or Disk. 
C.C.File *7 
A nifty little data base package with lots of uses. A 
Best Buy" at just $7 for both Cassette and Disk. 
C.C. Writer *30 
A quick to learn and easy to use word processor. Right 
justification, Global coiiands, etc. Works with any 
printer including daisy wheels. 16-32K Cas, 32K Disk. 
C.C. Mailer *20 
Hailing list data base for CoCo and any printer. Froi 90 
to over 1000 records depending on your systei. The 
C.C. Merger option lerges Naie and Address with C.C. Writer 
letters. Creates salutations too. Up to 4 line Address. 
Disk or Cassette. Kith C.C.Herger-*35 
Mailer/Merger/Writer Pkg. *50 

TransTek 
194 Lockwood 
Bl oomi ngdal e , IL 60108 



* * * * SELECTED SOFTWARE * * * * 

FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
All programs are in 1 6K machine language 
unless noted. Extended basic not required. 

MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

** SPACE RAIDERS New Invader-type game. Super $24.95 
Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. You'll love it. 

* ASTRO BLAST Excellent space shooting game. $24.95 
Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

* COLOR HAYWIRE Classic arcade game, rated $24.95 
A+ by Color Computer magazines. 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

* GALAX ATT AX Protect your base by shooting $21.95 
alien fighter in formation. Excellent Graphics and Sound. 

* * SPACE RACE Maneuver yourself in space but $21 ,95 

alien ships appear and must be destroyed. Hi-Res 
Graphics and Sound. 

* PLANET INVASION Excellent Defender type $21.95 
game. Highest-Res Graphics and Sound. 

* DEFENSE Defend your spaceships from enemy $ 21 .95 
laser beams. 

* SPACE WAR You must break through the enemy $21 .95 
fighters and the defenses of Death Star. Super fast. 

** SPACE INVADERS Fast action Invader game $21.95 
Excellent Graphics and Sound. 

* GHOST GOBBLER Highly rated Pac Man-type $ 1 9.95 
game. 16 skill levels and lots of action. 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD Super adventure $ 1 9.95 

game! Great sound! You never play the same twice. 

MADNESS AND THE MINOTAUR $ 1 9.95 

Challenging adventure game, different everytime. 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

* DONKEY KING I32K) Just Outstanding' $24.95 

* KATERPILLAR Excellent Centipede-type game. $24.95 
Highly rated by Color Computer magazines' 

* WAR KINGS Battle to save your castle and king. $ 1 9.95 
Hi-Res Graphics with Outstanding Sound. 

* PROTECTORS I32K) Excellent Graphics and Sound. $24.95 

MED SYSTEMS 

INVADER'S REVENGE You are the last sur- $ 1 9.95 
vived space invader. You must revenge! 

PHANTOM SLAYER Enter the deadly cata- $ 1 9.95 
combs and destroy the phantoms, 3-D Graphics. 

INTELLECTRONICS 

* DUNKEY MUNKEY (32K> Absolutely excellent $21.95 
Donkey Kong-type game. You'll love it' 

STAR FIRE One of the best Defender type game. $ 1 9.95 
Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 

INTRACOLOR 

** COLORPEDE Just like the arcade $29.95 

THE PROGRAMMER'S GUILD 

* * PACDROIDS The most challenging Pac Man-type. $ 1 9.95 

Super Hi-Res Graphics and Sound. 



UPGRADE YOUR COLOR COMPUTER! 

Complete solderless kits with easy-to-follow instructions. 
4K-16K $15.95 
16K-32K $29.95 



* Requires Joystick ** Joystick Optional 

Write for complete listings 
Buy 2 items and get 1 0% off 
We pay postage on all orders 
Send check or money order to: 

SELECTED SOFTWARE 
P.O. Box 32228, Fridley, MIM 55421 

(MN Residents add 6% sales tax.) 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 109 



Who Knows All Those 
Callsigns? CoCo Knows! 

By Burton B. Witham, Jr. 



Where in the deuce is "UOS?" How often 1 have reached 
for the cajl book, thumbed through the pages and read all 
that fine print to locate a callsign! Nobody could remember 
them all. But CoCo can! Ergo, I wrote a program to do itfor 
me. 

PREFIX is an international amateur radio call prefix 
locator. The operation and coding of the program is pretty 
straightforward — input arguments of either a call prefix (to 
locate the country), or a country (to locate the proper 
prefix), is permitted; and the read-out provides the answer. 

The number of data elements (lines 240 and up) will 
depend on the memory available, and can be adjusted as 
needed. As written the program requires about 12K. 



The Listing: 



40 0362 
270 072B 
420 0F4A 
END 15F5 



10 '************ 

12 '* HAM RADIO 
14 '* PREFIX 
16 '* LOCATOR- 
IB '* BY: W4CNZ 
20 '*B.B. WITHAM 
22 ' * 3501 
24 ' *SEA GULL RD 
26 '* VIRGINIA 
28 '* BEACH, VA 
30 '* 23452 
32 '*804-3402628 
34 '* ALL RIGHTS 
36 '* RESERVED 
38 ' ************ 

40 CLEAR700: DIM N* (350) , Q* (350) , 
B*(350) 

45 '* PGM SELECT 

50 CLS:PRINTSTRING*(32,255) :PRIN 
T" CALL PREFIX LOCATOR": PR I 



ntstring* (32,255) : sound180, 1 

60 c*="":f*="":print@130, "callsi 

gn prefix or country (p or 



C) 



FORTM=l T0999: NEXT:PRINT@1 



30, "CALLSIGN PREFIX OR 

(p OR )?";:FORTM=l TO500:NE 
XT: PRINT@130, "CALLSIGN OR 
COUNTRY ( OR c)?";:FORTM= 

1 TO500:NEXT 

70 A*=INKEY*: IFA*="" THEN60 

80 IFA*="P" THENPRINTS193, " INPUT 

PREFIX:-": INPUTC*:GOTO110 
90 IFA*="C" THENPRINTQl 93, " INPUT 

COUNTRY: -" : INPUTF*: GOTOl 10 
100 IFA*<>"P" OR A*<>"C" THENSOU 
ND10, 5:GOTO60 
105 '* READ DATA 

110 POKE65495,0:FORN=1 T0295:REA 
DN*,Q*,B* 

120 IFC*=N* OR F*=Q* THEN 160 
130 IFN*="END" AND Q*="END" ANDB 
*="END" THEN 150 
140 NEXTN 

150 CLS: RESTORE: S0UND5, 5: PRINT@1 
36," NOT FOUND! " : PRINTSTRI NG* (3 
2, 128) :GOTO170 
155 '* READ OUT 

160 CLS:PRINT@1, "FILE #:";N:PRIN 
T@165,N*5 "=-";Q*" — ":PRINT@198, " 
BR5 . - " ; B* : FORTM= 1 T03 : SOUND 1 80 . 1 : 
SOUND200, 1 

170 POKE65494,0:PRINT@262, "ANOTH 
ER ENTRY (Y/N) ?"; 



110 the RAINBOW February, 1983 




CoCo's Very First Show! 



CoCo has grown up and it's time for 
CoCo's very first show. Sponsored by 
the Rainbow, the premier magazine for 
the TRS-80 Color, TDP System-100 and 
Dragon-32 computers, RAINBOWfest 
will be the place to be this Spring. 

Exhibits will abound. Information will 
flow. New products will be shown and 
introduced. Many of the "names" in the 
CoCo world will be in attendance. It all 
boils down to three days of fun, 
excitement and learning for everyone 
lucky enough to own a CoCo (or those 
who just wish they did)! 

The place is the Regency-Hyatt 
Woodfield, located on the western 
outskirts of Greater Chicagoland, within 
easy access to highways and O'Hare 
International Airport. 
The dates are April 22-24. 
The times are 7-10 p.m. Friday; 9 
a.m. — 8 p.m. Saturday; and 10 a.m. — 5 
p.m. Sunday at the Grand Ballroom. 

The cost is only $7.50 for a three-day 
ticket in advance or $11 for a three-day 
ticket at the door. One-day tickets are 
$5. in advance or $7.50 at the door. 



A Saturday "let's make friends" 
breakfast is also planned. Cost of $10 
includes breakfast and a speaker — 
someone well known in the world of 
Color Computers. 

Rooms are available at the Regency- 
Hyatt Woodfield for a special 
RAINBOWfest rate of $43 per night, 
single or double occupancy. 

Admission tickets, breakfast tickets 
and reservation cards for the hotel can 
be secured directly from the Rainbow. 
Mail the form below to the Rainbow, P.O. 
Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. Advance 
sale tickets will be sent by return mail up 
until April 15. After that, they will be 
available at the door. 

Oh yes. ..for the "others" who (perish 
the thought) don't get into CoCo like 
you do, Woodfield Shopping Center 
directly adjacent to RAINBOWfest is the 
world's largest enclosed shopping mall. 
And, you are only a short drive from 
downtown Chicago's museums, 
theatres, aquarium and shops. 

RAINBOWfest has it all! Don't miss 
CoCo's very first show! 




Make checks payable to: 



MAIL TO: 
RAINBOWfest 
P.O. Box 209 
Prospect, KY 40059 



YES, I'm coming to CoCo's very first show! Please send me: 

three-day tickets at $ total 

one-day tickets at $ 



breakfast tickets at $10 



total. 



handling charge $1.00 

TOTAL ENCLOSED (U.S. FUNDS ONLY, PLEASE)$ 

- Also send me a reservation card for the Hyatt-Regency Woodfield. 

NAME 



STREET & NUMBER. 

CITY & STATE 

TELEPHONE 

COMPANY 



ZIP CODE. 



Advance Sale ends Thursday, April 21. 



, OMAN , 050 , A5 , BHUTAN , 20, A6, UNI TED 
ARAB EMIRATES, 50, A7, QATAR, 50, A9 
, BAHRAIN, 50, B, CHINA, 344, BV, TAIWA 
N,344 

250 DATA CE, CHILE, 175, CM, CUBA, 20 
3, CO, CUBA , 203 , CN , MORROCO , 80 , CP , B 
□L I V I A , 1 70 , CR9 , MACAO , 344 , CT , PORT 
UGAL , 64 , CT2 , AZ ORES , 70 , CT3 , MAD I ER 
A, 72260 DATA CX , URUGUAY, 1 63 , C6, B 
AHAMAS, 190, DA, W. GERMANY, 47, DL, W. 
GERMANY, 47, DU, PHILIPPINES, 339, EA 
, SPAIN, 62, EI , IRELAND, 41 , EL, LIBER 
IA, 1 15, EP, IRAN, 95, ET, ETHIOPIA, 80 
270 DATA F, FR ANCE, 5 1,FC, CORSICA, 
56 , FG , GUADALOUPE , 1 35 , FM , MART I N I Q 
UE , 1 35 , FO , CL I PPERTON , 235, FP , ST. P 
IERRE-MIQ. , 45, FS, ST. MARTIN, 135, G 
, ENGLAND, 40, GO, ISLE OF MAN, 40 
280 DATA GI,N. IRELAND, 38, GJ,JERS 
EY, 40, GM, SCOTLAND, 35, GU, GUERNSEY 
, 40 , GW, WALES , 40 , HA, HUNGARY , 38, HB 
, SUISSE, 51 , HB0, LICHTENSTIEIN, 40, 
HC, ECUADOR, 184, HC8, GALAPAGOS, 200 
, HG, HUNGARY, 38, HH, HAITI , 175 
290 DATA HI , DOMREP, 175, HK, COLUMB 
I A, 176, HL, KOREA, 335, HM, KOREA, 335 
, HP , PANAMA , 1 95 , HR , HONDURAS , 205 
300 DATA HS, THAILAND, 0,HV, VAT I CA 
N, 55, HZ, SAUDI ARABIA, 96, H4, SOLOM 
AN IS. ,283, I, ITALY, 55, IS,SARDINI 
A, 57, IT, SICILY, 55, J A, JAPAN, 331, J 
T, MONGOLIA, 5, JW, SVALBARD, 12, JY, J 
ORDAN, 95, J2, DJ IBOUTI , 60 
310 DATA J3, GRENADA, 140, J6, ST LU 
CIA, 140, J73,D0MINICA, 140, J8,ST.V 
INCENTS, 140, K, USA, XX 
320 DATA KA,US IN JAPAN, 331 , KB6, 
HOWLAND/ BAKER, 280, KH1 , HOWLAND/BA 
KER , 280 , KC4 , ANT ARCT ICA, 180, KC4 , N 
AVASS A , 1 70 , KP 1 , N A V ASS A , 1 70 , KC6 , C 
AROLINE IS., 315 

330 DATA KG4,GTM0, 200, KG6, MARIAN 
AS , 325 , KH6 , HAWAII 1 , 283 , KH7 , KURE , 2 
75, KJ6, JOHNSTON, 284, KL7, ALASKA, 3 
23, KM6, MIDWAY, 275, KP4, PUERTO RIC 
0, 140 

340 DATA KP6, JARVIS/PAL. , 238, KH5 



CO-EXISTENCE 

Tired of *alchlng?Two to a I X 
player* manage their 
countries In a poor world, 
(map provided with markers) ^ 




$24.75 

Also Five Exciting 
Games for $ 1 5.95 



P. 0. Box V0I6 
Cherry Hill, \J 0803V 



, JARVIS/PAL. , 238, KS6, AM. SAMOA, 2 
41, KH8, AM. SAMOA, 241, KV4, VIRGIN I 
S. , 160, KP2, VIRGIN IS. , 160, KW6, WA 
KE, 280, KH9, WAKE, 280, KX6, MARSHALL 
S, 278, LA, NORWAY, 36, L J, NORWAY, 36, 
LU, ARGENTINA, 165 

350 DATA LX, LUXEMBURG, 40, LZ,BULG 
ARIA, 42, Ml, SAN MARINO, 55, N, USA, X 
X, OA, PERU, 181 

360 DATA OD, LEBANON, 93, OE,AUSTRI 
A, 40, OH, FINLAND, 33, OK, CZECH, 46, 0 
L, CZECH, 46, ON, BELGIUM, 40, OX, GREE 
NLAND, 30, OY, FAROES, 36, OZ , DENMARK 
, 38 , PA , NETHERLANDS , 46 , PZ , SUR I NAM 
,140,P2,NEW GUINEA, 281 
370 DATA SJ, SWEDEN, 38, SM, SWEDEN, 
38 , SP , POLAND , 40 , ST , SUDAN , 8 1 , SU , E 
GYPT,56 

380 DATA SV, GREECE, 52, S2,BANGL AD 
ESH, 40, S79, SEYCHELLES, 63, S8, TRAN 
SKEI, XX,S9,SA0 TOME/PRIN. , 135, TA 
, TURKEY, 40, TC, TURKEY, 40, TF, ICELA 
ND, 35, TG, GUATEMALA, 213 
390 DATA TI, COSTA RICA, 197, TJ , CA 
MEROON , 95 , TL , C . AFR . REP . , 90 , TN , CO 
NGO, 92, TR, GABON, 92, TT, CHAD, 88, TU 
, IVORY COAST, 95, TY, BENIN, XX 
400 DATA TZ,MALI,90,T2,TAVALU, IX 
X,T3, KIRIBATI, X X , UA, USSR, 36, UB5, 
UKRAINE, 38, UC2, WH. RUSSIA, 36, UD6, 
A Z ERB A I DZ HAN , 38 , UF6 , GEORG I A , 38 , U 
G6, ARMENIA, 38, UH8, TURKMEN, 36 
410 DATA UI8, UZBEK, 36, UJ8,TADZHI 
K, 35, UL7, KAZAKH, 35, UM8, KIRGHI Z , 3 
5, UNI , KARELO/FIN. , 34, U05, MOLDAVI 
A, 35, UP2, LITHUANIA, 36 
420 DATA UQ2, LATVIA, 35, UR2, ESTON 
I A, 35, VE, CANADA, XX , VK, AUSTRALIA, 
260, VOl , NEWFOUNDLAND, 35, V02, LABR 
ADOR, 15, VP1,BELIZ,213,VP2,LEEWD/ 
WINDWD IS. , 135, VP9, BERMUDA, 100, V 
S6, HONGKONG, 344, VU, INDIA, 33, VY1 , 
YUKON, 324 

430 DATA W, USA, XX, XE, MEXICO, 235, 
XF, MEX ICO, 235, XT, VOLTA, 92, XU, CAM 
BODIA,05, XV, VIETNAM, 00 
440 DATA XW, LAOS, 00, XZ, BURMA, 08, 
Y A, AFGHAN I STAN , 30 , YB , I NDONES I A , 3 
55, YC, INDONESIA, 355, YD, INDONESIA 
,355, YI, IRAQ, 45, YK, SYRIA, 48, YN, N 
ICARAGUA, 200, YO, RUMANIA, 45 
450 DATA YS,ELSALVADOR,220, YU,YU 
GOSLAVIA, 80, YV, VENEZUELA, 160, ZA, 
ALBANIA, 82, ZB2, GIBRALTER, 68, ZC, B 
R.CYPRUS, 50 

460 DATA ZD7, ST. HELENA, 1 16, ZD8, A 
SCENSION, 116, ZD9,TR D CUNHA, 135, 
ZE, ZIMBABWE, 110, ZF, CAYMAN IS. , 19 
0,ZK1,COOK IS. , 253, ZK2,NIUE IS., 
253 



112 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



**NEW** ADVANCED 
**NEW** ADVANCED 
**NEW** ADVANCED 




STAR*TRENCH 

Even if you've tried our short saiple version of this game, 
you will have to own this advanced, highly graphic version 
of STftR*TRENCH WARFARE, his High-Res Color Sue has the 
■ost elaborate graphics of any Color Computer Gate created 
to date. Me thought it Mould take 32K to give you the 
detail of this dazzling simulation, but we've actually 
craned it into 16K and added the wst rewritable speed and 
flicker free animation found in ANY Extended Basic progra*. 
(You will not believe this prograa is really in Basic, plus 
you can always list our prograa to learn the programing 
techniques- that take our software stand out froa ALL the 
other basic programs available.) 
ADVANCED STAR*TRENCH WARFARE includes a loving trench, 
cockpit perspective, o_n 'screen rapid scoring, energy and 
ship gauges, automatic high score tally, joystick control, 
and a recharge and crash sequence you'll have to see to 
believe. Pop on a pair .of 3D glasses and MM 1 !!, your Color 
Cosputer wiil juap to life with an even greater sense of 
depth with 3D-like color graphics. (3D glasses are not 
included, and are not required for you to enjoy this fine 
gane. ) You'll surely want this remarkable gaie as part of 
your software collection. Buy it and you'll see that color 
software doesn't have to be Machine Language to be the 
best!!!!! 

I WARFARE 



ADVANCED STAR*TRENCH WARFARE AVAILABLE AS 
**»*16K EXTENDED BASIC GAME ON CASSETTE *18.95»*** 

TRY= 




18.95 




Color Word Clone makes word processing simple. This program can be used with 
tape or disk and provides you with real UPPER and LOWER CASE letters with 
descenders. PLUS ... 50 letters by 23 lines on the screen at one time! Why pay more 
when this is all you need? JUST $18.95 supplied on tape (minimum system 16K 
Extended Basic). USER MODIFIABLE! ! ! ! 

16K Extended Color Basic Tape Programs 

CREATAVADER — Create your own targets or choose from a menu of 
predesignated four-color targets. 

GA TOR ZONE — Battle against alien "preppy gators" before they eat your 
shirt! An 1MB original. 

KOSMIC KAMIKAZE — Our best-selling high-res, deep space arcade game 
which the RAINBOW called "...the best spaceship graphics we have seen in a 
non-machine language program." 

MANY MORE TITLES available, including STAR SIEGE PLUS, GAL- 
LOPING GAMBLERS, SELECT-A-GAME, STARBASE ATTACK, 
METEOR STORM, plus new releases coming. 

illustrated memory banks 

P.O.BOX 289 

WILLIAMSTOWN, MA. 01267-0289 
VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED 
CALL (413) 663-9648 3-7 PM. EST 

SPECIAL OFFER : Mention this magazine ad and select 
a FREE propram for every two programs you order ! ! 





470 DATA ZL P NEW ZEALAND, 251 , ZP, P 
ARAGUAY, 161, ZS,S. AFR. , 116, ZR3,NA 
MBIBIA, 110, 3A, MONACO, 55, UA9, ASIA 
N USSR, 10, UA0, ASIAN USSR, 10 
480 DATA 3B8, MAURITIUS, 90, 3C, EQU 
ATORIAL AFR. , 89,3D2,FI JI IS., 260 
, 3D6 , SW AZ I LAND ,110,3V, TUN IS, 75, 4 
K1,USSR ANTARCTIC, 180, 4S, SRI LAN 
KA, 10 

490 DATA 5R, MADAGASCAR, 90, 5T,MAU 
RITANIA, 88, 5U, NIGER, 80,5V, TOGO, 9 
2, 5W, W. SAMOA, 260, 5X , UGANDA, 80, 5 Z 
, KENYA, 78, 60, SOMALI , 70, 6W, SENEGA 
L, 94, 6Y, JAMAICA, 190, 70, S. YEMEN, 5 
0,7P, LESOTHO, 90 

500 DATA 7X, ALGERIA, 65, 7Z, SAUDI 
ARABIA, 45, 8P, BARBADOS, 135, 8Q, MAL 
DIVE, 45, 8R, GUYANA, 137, 9G, GHANA, 9 
3, 9H, MALTA, 61 

510 DATA 91, ZAMBIA, 100, 9 J , ZAMBIA 
, 100, 9K, KUWAIT, 40, 9L, SIERRA LEON 
E, 100, 9M2, W. MALAYSIA, 0, 9M8, SARAW 
AK, 355, 9N, NEPAL, 20, 9Q, ZAIRE, 100, 
9U, BURUNDI , 100, 9V, SINGAPORE, 0, 9Y 
, TRINIDAD-TOBAGO, 150 
520 DATA VP2A, ANTIGUA/BARBUDA, 14 
8, VP2K, ST. KITTS, 148, VP2M, MONTSER 
RAT, 145, VP2V, BR. VIRGIN IS., 140, 3 
Y , NORWEG I AN ANT ARCT I CA , 1 80 , I C , CA 
PRI/ISCHIA, 56, JR6, OKINAWA, 330, 8J 
, JAP. ANTARCT I CA , 1 80 , CE9AA , CH I LEA 
N ANTARCTIC, 180 

530 DATA CE0A, EASTER IS.,195,D2, 
ANGOLA, 100, D4, CAPE VERDE, 102, EA8 



, CANARY, 85, FY, FR. GUI ANA, 140, H4, 
SOLOMON IS. ,275, I A, TUSCA, 70, IC,C 
APRI, 70, JR6, OKINAWA, 320, VK9,CHRI 
STMAS IS., 255 

540 DATA VP5, TURKS, 135, VP8,FALKL 
AND, 175, 4U, UN-NEW YORK, 10, 5A, LIB 
YA, 45, 5B, CYPRUS, 40, 5H3, TANZANIA, 
85, 5L, LIBERIA, 100, 5N, NIGERIA, 90, 
3X, GUINEA, 100, END, END, END 



About Your Subscription 

Your copy of the RAINBO W is sent third class mail 
and, for subscribers in the United States, the date of 
mailing is printed on the label. If you do not receive 
your copy by the 25th of any month, send us a card and 
we will mail another immediately via first class mail. 

You must notify us of a new address when you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than the 
15th of the month prior to the month in which you 
change your address. Sorry, we cannot be responsible 
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may be a mailing address shown that is different from 
our editorial office address. Do not send any 
correspondence to that mailing address. Send it to our 
editorial offices at P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. 
This applies to everyone except those whose 
subscriptions are through ourdistributorin Australia. 



P.O. Box 513 
LASALLE QUE. 
H8P 3J4 
CANADA 



We are Canada's largest importer of 
software for the Color Computer! 

★ Avoid the hassles and surcharges of 
importing directly from the U.S. 

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Tax 

CATALOGS: 

Send $1 (refundable on first order), 
we'll send you our present catalog and 
we will insert you in our mailing list for free 
future updates. 



! CANADIANS ! 
F & T SOFTWARE 



This Month F&T Features 
NEW! SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 
KEYS OF THE WIZARD 

Super new text Adventure game, three 
skill levels and a cassette save feature. 
An Extremely challenging and gripping 
game! Clues provided on request. 
16K Cassette CDN $26.00 

NEW! 

GALAX ATT AX 

Fast, challenging action game with 
rows of alien attackers swooping down 
on your ship! Bonus ships. Highest 
resolution. Machine Language, 
16K Cassette CDN $28.00 

SPACE WAR 

Command only remaining combat 
viper and break through enemy fighters 
and the Death Star! Highest resolution. 
Machine Language. We consider it a 
classic! 

16K Cassette CDN $29.50 



Inquiries and Orders 
Call (516) 365-5392 
Between 1-7 p.m. 
(EST.) 



UTILITIES 

Compuvoice 
Soundsource & Cable 
Bugout Monitor 
Magic Box 

GAMES 

NEW 

Planet Invasion 
Defense 
CCThello 
ALSO 
Laser Command 
Cosmic Super Bowl 
Minotar 
Ghost Gobbler 
Graphic Animator 



CDN $55.00 
CDN $33.00 
CDN $28.00 
CDN $33.00 



CDN $28.00 
CDN $28.00 
CDN $21.00 

CDN $1 7.50 
CDN $22.00 
CDN $27.50 
CDN $29.50 
CDN $17.00 

BOOKS 

Spectral -The Facts CDN $22.00 

McGraw-Hill— 6809 Assembly 

Language Programming CDN $24.00 
ArcSoft— 101 Program Tips & 

Tricks for the Color 

Computer CDN $14.00 



FREE SHIPPING & HANDLING - NO HIDDEN CHARGES - CANADIAN $$ 



114 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



r 



TAKE A CLOSER LOOK 
THERE'S SOMETHING For EVERYONE 



SOFTWARE 

CCM#3 

by Charles Santee, Ed.D. 

This program allows total communication 
for special persons and does this with only 
one joystick. Easy to use, and also recom- 
mended for young children; can help 
teach spelling and sentence structure. Ex- 
cellent documentation. 
32K EXT $32.95 

BIGNUM £t 

If you dislike seeing numbers like 1 .23045 E 
23, and wish you could have all the ac- 
curate digits instead, then BIGNUM is for 
you. Add, subtract, multiply, divide and 
raise BIG numbers to BIG powers and get 
totally accurate results. Even if you are 
satisfied with an approximation, without 
this program the Color Computer would 
return an "OV ERROR" with this problem: 
34^45. BIGNUM returns the entire 68 digit 
result! Accurate to 1,024 digits in 16K & 
about 3,068 digits with 32 RAM. 
16K $9.95 

SKY-DEFENSE © 

Can you survive the first wave of attack? 
Or the next? Or the next? Only your joy- 
stick will ever know! Features horizontal 
flight in highres graphics, and fast-paced 
action. Machine language; joystick re- 
quired. 16K $18.95 

THE WALL 

Here is a 9 color joystick game that isn't 
another "Breakout" but a new idea. You 
are a brick shooting Bricks at the WALL to 
get the brick on the other side! (strange 
plot) This one's unique. Time limit on play. 
Joystick required. 

16K $6.95 



HARDWARE 

AUX-KEY 

by JARB 

(Auxiliary External Keyboard Unit) 
Thisf ull size, industrial grade keyboard unit 
is P.C. board mounted for trouble free 
operation and years of use. Mounted in 
an attractive aluminum case with a 19- 
key numeric pad, AUX-KEY comes with 
long cable for remote placement of your 
80C. No soldering required for installa- 
tion. Will not affect normal operation of 
the original keyboard $134.95 

16K-32K UPGRADE KIT 

Kit includes 8 200 ns #41 1 6 Factory Prime 
Chips, piggybacked sockets, SAM socket, 
and "32K" button to replace the 16K on 
your computer's case. Easy to remove. No 
soldering to computer $25.95 

64K RAM CHIPS 

200 ns #4164 chip set will upgrade your 
"E" board easily. Factory Prime Chips. 
(Compare the price elsewhere!). .$69.95 



Nanos Reference Cards 

Model I BASIC & ASSEMBLER $4.96 

Model I BASIC ONLY 2.95 

Model II BASIC & ASSEMBLER 5.95 

Model II SVC 2.95 

Model II Commands & Utilities 3.95 

Model III BASIC & ASSEMBLER 5.95 

Model III BASIC ONLY 3.95 

Color Computer & TDP-100 

Color BASIC & EXTENDED 4.95 

POCKET BASIC 2.95 

APPLE II & II+ BASIC 3.95 

APPLE II & II+ BASIC & 6502 4.95 

Z-80 ■ 4.95 



Add $1 .50 per software order and $2.00 per hardware order for postage and handling. 
California residents add 6% Sales Tax. 

QUASAR ANIMATIONS 

1520 Pacific Beach Drive, San Diego, California 92109 
(619) 274-2202 



SPECIAL REPORT 



Consumer Electronics Show 
Has It All . . . And Then Some 



By Lawrence C. Falk 
Rainbow Editor 



There was, indeed, something for everyone at the 
Consumer Electronics Show last month in Las Vegas. We 
almost said that there was a little something for everyone — 
but that would have been untrue. There was a lot of 
something for everyone. 

CES is the biggest single electronics show in the world. 
Just about everyone who manufactures any hardware-type 
product was in attendance, either at a booth or just 
"working the show" to see what there was to see. CoCo 




devotees were present as well and, although the booths were 
few (they are very expensive) quite a number of people were 
in attendance. 

And, as usual in a show of this type, rumors abounded. 
But, to a large degree they were overshadowed by the sheer 
volume of what was on display. 

Frankly, if it was electronic, it was at CES. There were 
computers of all kinds, shapes and descriptions (including 
CoCo, of course, although Tandy does not display at the 
show, most likely because they have their own company and 
dealer outlets). There were also hi fi systems, TV sets, 
telephones, burglar alarms, earth stations, printers and 
sof tware houses. The game machines were in f ull f orce, too. 

Some interesting things were happening that will have an 
effect on CoCo. One of them was the rumor of a new series 
of printers from Epson America that will have a serial 
interface built in. The CoCo influence? Perhaps. Look for 
this new line to be announced soon. 

Data Soft was showing some new software, including a 



Zaxxon game, according to Dennis Wallin. It looks like a 
good version. Datasoft has spent a great deal of time writing 
programs for Radio Shack in the last year but will bring 
Zaxxon (and, we hear, some other products) to market 
under its own name. 

Anteco was in attendance as well. Business appeared brisk 
at their booth and marketing director Dick Hatcher says 
plans to put all their software on ROM Pack are moving 
ahead. Expect them to be available at dealers soon. 

A new printer, a Star, is about ready to make some real 
waves. It is manufactured by a firm which makes parts for 
Epson, and should be priced lower than the Epson — and 
with more features, according to people at their booth. 

A couple of firms were showing joysticks and other 
products designed for CoCo. You can expect to be seeing 
and reading about them in the coming months as they move 
to market. 




The Sampo firm, which is planning on manufacturing a 
CoCo "workalike,"was in attendance, but with no computer 
to show. We understand that it is in the final development 



116 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



stage — with a little more modification on the memory map 
system still to be done. The other CoCo "workalike," the 
Dragon-32, was respresented at the show but notdisplayed. 
Two people from the English firm were at CES and we heard 
that there are plans to manufacture a U.S. version of this 
computer. 

Radio Shack people were out in force, with the marketing 
division led by vice president Jon Shirley. A host of other 
people, including the top CoCo people, were also on hand. 

So was the other part of the Tandy Tandem, the TDP 
contingent. Jerry Congdon led the forces. 

Others represented at the show were Moreton Bay Labs, 
Elite Software, Electronic World and a number of others. 

New Computers 

But the biggest news on the CES front-was the number of 
electronic games and new personal computers. Atari had a 
mammoth display and unveiled a new computer; Mattel got 
into the computer business and several other firms were 
showing computers either for the firsttime or new models of 
present versions. All the "big names" were showing a host of 
games. 

Examination of the "new" computers, frankly, left quite a 
bit to be desired vis-a-vis CoCo. Most of the new entries are 
designed toward the "low end" of the market, and our 
concern is that many people will buy these computers based 
solely on price and will then become frustrated with their 
inability to add memory, other hardware or the like. We also 
found some "sneaky" things, such as the cost of tape 
recorders (because of special cables and the like) being all 
out of proportion to the computers. 

We are convinced that CoCo remains a top notch buy f or 
anyone interested in personal computing. Friends who ask 
for your insight would be well advised to check the cost of an 
entire system and not be wooed too heavily by the initial cost 
of a particular computer itself. 

Another important factor must be how versatile a system 
might be. For instance, the new Atari computer uses an 
interesting daisy-chain system to hook up printer, recorder 
and other devices. It appears that, if the owner does not like 




to program all those gee-whiz things. For most of the new 
personal computers, it appears you need to go into machine 
language for many of the things you can do quite well in 
Basic with CoCo. 

The Game Scene 

Everyone seemed to have a game or two. And, frankly, we 
saw more Atari game machines than any other single piece 
of hardware at CES. All the game cartridge makers were 
plugging Atari versions heavily and using Atari game 
machines to display them. 




YV» 1 

pi 

Many were quite good. But, frankly, we saw none that 
were better than the top of the line CoCo products. Data 
Soft's Zaxxon was top notch, Anteco's Intergalactic Force 
attracted a crowd. 

Much of the talk was of the fall-off in game sales f or the 
game machines. This happening came about when Atari 
reported less-than-expected sales of cartridges just before 
Christmas — a news item which sent the stock market into a 
brief tailspin. 

Talk at CES focused on this, and much of what we picked 
up centered around the difference between game machines 
and personal computers. 

Much of this thinking goes like this: If you have a game 
machine and people get tired of games, then you have 
problems. Game machines are, after all, game machines. 
The hardware is configured to games. 

But personal computers like CoCo are much more than 
game machines. They have the ability to provide 
educational help, to perform many home and small business 
functions, play music, entertain and allow you to write 
programs to meet your own very specific needs. Thought is 
that the game machines will eclipse somewhat in the coming 
years as computers surge. 

And, so, what sort of computer. As one observer of the 
market said: "It is important to consider the orientation of 
the computer. 

"Take your Color Computer, for example. It was 
designed by Radio Shack, which makes computers. Then, 
look at the Atari or Mattel. It was designed by people who 
are into games. 

"The subtle difference really isn't very subtle at all and 
will, sooner rather than later, be recognized by the 
consumer." rf^. 



displays on some other computers. The key is how easy is it 



February. 1983 the RAINBOW 117 



HARDWARE 



The Rewards Of 
Non-Standard Interfacing 

By Dan Downard 



Some of us would rat her play with hardware instead of 
software to explore the real capabilities of our personal 
computers. I remember the first day with my TRS-80C. I 
quickly un-boxed my new 4K standard basic unit and 
proceeded to void the warranty in two hours by installing 
my own 15K chips. 

After experimenting for several years with non- 
commercial 6800 systems I am pleased to finally have a 
system that offers a realm of software and hardware to the 
user, really only limited by your ingenuity. As you will find 
out by reading the Rainbow and other publications, the 
capability of expansion is already built in to your unit by 
means of an R S-232 i nterface, joystick ports and an external 
bus/ cartridge slot. 

How can we find out how to use theseexternal ports? The 
best way I know is, out of necessity, to interface non- 
standard devices to your computer. Everything is fine if you 
buy a Radio Shack printer, disk drive, etc., but what if you 
already have an old model 28 or 33 teletype machine, or have 
access to one at a great priceless than $ 100.00)? By showing 
this simple interface, one can hopefully understand how the 
RS-232 port works and modify a non-standard printer to 
function. At the same time, for assembly language 
programming or many applications a printer is almost a 
necessity. 

The RS-232 Interface-Hardware 

A simplified version of the internal logic in the color 
computer is shown in Figure I . According to Radio Shack 
the functions of P2 (Serial I/O) on the rear of the computer 
are as follows: 

PIN 1. CD 
PIN 2. RS2321N 
PIN 3. GROUND 
PIN 4. RS2320UT 

Input Status Line 
Serial Data Input 
Zero Voltage Reference 
Serial Data Out 

Unfortunately, these PIN designations are only for Serial 
I/O and can be redefined as follows for printer operation: 

PIN 1. 

PIN 2. HANDSHAKE 
PIN 3. GROUND 
PIN 4. RS2320UT 

Not Used 

Printer Handshake 
Zero Voltage Reference 
Serial Data To Printer 

Since we are mainly concerned with printer interfacing in 
this article, we will discuss how this particular logic works. 
RS-232 defines a "high" (Logic I ) as a voltage from +3 to + 12 




l 15 









i 




741 




PIA 


OPAMP 










U4 






6821 






PAl 




10 




/■ 


PB 0 



LM339 



COMPARATOR 



FIGURE 1 



PAI = PORT A BIT 1 
PB0 = PORT B BIT 0 



volts D C. Similarly, a "low"( Logic 0) is defined as a voltage 
from -3 to -12 volts D.C. These levels hold true for both 
inputs and outputs. As you can see the signal f rom U4-PIN 3 
(PAl) is amplified through U 15 such that when U4-PIN 3 is 
high (+5 volts), P2-P1N 4 is +12 volts. 

On the other hand, if U4-PIN 3 is low (0 volts), P2-PIN 4 
is - 1 2 volts. Similarly, U 1 4 senses high or low inputs to P2- 
PIN 2 and converts the +1 2 or -12 volt signal to the +5 or -5 
volt signal necessary for input to U4-PIN 10 (PBO). U4 is a 
6821 PIA (Peripheral Interface Adapter) with the addresses 
of FF20 through FF23. Data written to $FF20-Bit 1 will 
provide output to the RS-232 port. Data read at $FF22-Bit 0 
will provide a printer status signal to the appropriate 
software. 

The RS-232 Interface-Software 

Listing I is a commented version of the printer driver in 
the color basic ROM. As you can see, it is located at SA2BF, 
with the character to be output in the A-register. This 
routine is called as a subroutine from the character output 
routine at SA282 after checking the status of $6F, the printer 
flag. Several additional comments are necessary. A baud 
rate constant must be poked into address $95 to provide the 
proper time delay for character output. The formula for 
figuring your own constant is shown in Figure 2. Also, after 
reading Radio Shack literature you may get the impression 
that you can set the line printer width by poking the proper 
value into $9B. This value simply tells the color computer 
that a CR/LF is being output by the printer and a delay is 
necessary. The computer does not output a CR. Also, as 
mentioned in several previous articles, the software only 
outputs a CR at the end of a line. The printer must generate 
the LF. The character output routineat$A282firstjumpsto 



118 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



(55930 \ 
I -5 
BAUD RATE / 

EXAMPLE: 110 BAUD T-DECIMAL H-HEX 



55930 \ 

-5 = 503T = 01F7H 

110 J 

01H - IT 
F7H = 247T 
POKE 149,1: POKE 150,247 

FIGURE 2 



a RAM hook at $0167 which is initialized as an RTS. Any 
user routine may be inserted by replacing the RTS with a 
JSR to his particular character output routine. 

Universal Teletype Interface-Hardware 

Figure 3 shows a simple interface that I use to convert the 
+ 12 volt or -12 volt RS-232 signal to a 20 milliamp current 
loop required by most teletype machines. Some teletype 
machines already have the RS-232 interface built in, but 
trying to find the wiring diagram is sometimes impossible. In 



addition, I prefer the optical isolation provided by this 
circuit as safety from any stray voltages appearing in the 
computer. Be sure io wire this interface directly to theSMD 
(Selector Magnet Driver) card in the rear of the machine, as 
various other devices may be ahead of this circuit, 
preventing proper operation. The SMD cards are found on 
model 33 and 35 machines. For interface to model 15 or 28, 
machine wire the interface directly to the magnets on the 
right side of the machine. Make sure the magnets are wired 
in parallel for 20 milliamp operation. 

Model 33/35 Teletype Interface-Software 

Model 33/35 teletype machines are ASCII encoded, that 
is, they accept the output language of the color computer. 
Unfortunately, they are not as sophisticated as some of your 
more modern printers, and are not usually equipped with 
auto line feed - nor can they print lower case characters. 
They usually are set up for 1 10 baud operation, and provide 
very cheap, reliable hard copy. 

Software to drive a teletype machine must satisfy the 
following criteria: 

1. The baud rate must be set. 

2. A LF must be output after a CR. 

3. A CR/LF must be output after 72 characters. 

4. The RAM hook at $0167 must point to the new routine. 

Listing 2 shows a software driver that is loaded into the 
computer at powerup and remains until you turn it off. The 
program is written for a 32K machine and may be relocated 
as noted for other systems. Be sure to note the jumper shown 
in Figure 3 between P2-P1N 2 and one of the joystick ports- 





ELECTRICITY 
CONSUMPTION 
MON ITER ... 

16 OR 32K EXTENDED BASIC REQUIRED 

DID YOUR CoCo HELP SAVE YOUR MONEY TODAY? IT COULD HAVE WITH WITH "ECM", AN EASY 
AND ENTERTAINING TO USE HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION MON ITER FOR TRS-80C*. 
THE SIXTEEN PAGE MANUAL EXPLAINS EACH STEP IN FULL DETAIL WITH PLENTY OF EXAMPLES. 
ECM CAN SHOW YOUR DAILY USAGE IN DOLLARS OR KILOWATT HOURS FOR THE LAST THIRTY 
DAYS WITH AVERAGE, HIGH AND LOW DAYS. IT CAN GRAPH THE LAST SIXTY DAYS IN KWH 
WITH AVERAGE INDICATOR, PREDICT YOUR NEXT BILL ANYTIME DURING THE MONTH WITH 
SURPRISING ACCURACY AND MORE! HELPING YOU MANAGE YOUR ELECTRICAL CONSUMPTION IS 
A JOB YOUR HOME COMPUTER SHOULD BE DOING : THE INTRODUCTORY PRICE OF $6.95 
INCLUDES A PROFESSIONAL MANUAL, CASSETTE TAPE, AND 'NEAT' PROGRAM LISTING, 
PRINTER IS NOT REQUIRED. SPECIAL PRICE EFFECTIVE THRU MARCH 1, 1983 ONLY, A 
SAVINGS OF 1.50 OFF THE REGULAR PRICE! FULL REFUND IF NOT COMPLETELY SATISFIED! 



□ Send me "ECM"! ($9.70 = 8.95 + 75* S&H) MAIL TO: CoCoDATA Enterprises 

1215 Emeralda Drive 

□ Information! (Tell me more about ECM) Orlando, Fla. 32808 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 119 



HI 




L-0 
to TTY magnets 
or SMD card 



r 



PI HUBBELL 5664 PLUG-120 VOLT 

P2A SERIAL I/O PLUG-RADIO SHACK 

IC1 4N33 OPTICAL ISOLATOR WITH SOCKET 

Tl 120V PRIMARY — 24VCT SECONDARY TRANS- 
FORMER 



Rl 220 RESISTOR-/, WATT- OHMITE RC20 

R2 1000 RESISTOR-1 2 WATT-ADJUST ABLE OHMITE 1023 

FU1 FUSE -BUSS AGC-I WITH BUSS HKP HOLDER 



MISC CABINET, TERMINAL STRIP, HARDWARE, 
POWER CORD, WIRE, ETC. 



D1,D2 IN400I DIODE-50 PRV-1AMP 

CI lOOOul CAPACITOR-25WVDC -SPR AGU E TVA 1 2 ! I 

FIGURE 3 



NOTE CONNECT P2/P2A PIN2 (HANDSHAKE) TO +5 
VOLTS D.C. OR JOYSTICK-PIN 5. 



PIN 5. This disables the handshake, since we are sending 
data at the same speed that the teletype machine is printing. 

Be careful while using this driver with machine language 
routines. Two things have happened. One program put the 
user stack pointer at the same location as my printer driver, 
requiring relocation. Another program called the 
subroutine at SA2BF for printer output, instead of at 
SA282. The RAM hook was no longer effective. For the 
second problem, you will have to change the RTS 
instruction at the end of the driver routine toaJMP$A2BF, 
and change all program JSR $A2BF's to JSR $ (driver 
address). 

Model 15/28 Teletype Interface-Software 

Model 1 5 and 28 machines are baudot machines. Baudot 
is a five level code that preceeded ASCII. By slowing down 
the baud rate of the computer and sending highs (Logic I) 
for the last three of eight bits, we can simulate baudot code 
by a conversion process in software. 

Listing 3 is a commented machine language baudot driver 
for the TRS-80C. Note that baudot cannot print all of the 



Cartridge to Tape Back-up 



RELOCATOR makes automatic tape copies of the Color 
Computer cartridges. Allow changes to be made to the 
program such as (Print-out 'Videotex, change band rate in 
•Scripsit, etc.) Requires either 64K mod. or 4 to 8K of 
cartridge memory expansion in the address range of 
&COOO to &DFFF (64K requires some program changes.) 



Requires 16K min 
Cassette $29.00 
plus $1.00 shipping 

•Trademark of Tandy Corp. 



Transition Technology 
1458 W. Birchwood Ave. 
Chicago, IL 60626 



ASCII character set. The following symbols are among 
those excluded: 

* + < z > & 

The driver routine inserts a space whenever these characters 
are encountered. As you can see, they are commonly-used 
math symbols in Basic programs. Well, you can't have 
everything. Also, the most common speed for baudot 
machines is 100 words per minute, or 75 baud, considerably 
slower than the ASCII machines. Load in the program with 
C-BUG or EDTASM + , etc. Listing 3 shows the program 
located at S3F00, or near the top of 16K memory. For 32K, 
change the ORG statement to S7F00, and f or4K, change it 
to S0F00. This assumes you are using an assembler. If you 
are not, extended addresses will have to be changed. When 
the program is in memory, run the short Basic program in 
Listing 4. This program will initialize the baud rate and set 
the Basic RAM hook to point to the new routine. Anytime a 
P RINT #-2 statement is encountered, Basic will now output 
to your printer. 

Summary 

Teletype machines provide a cheap method of hard copy 
for occasional users, and really give you an insight into the 
operation of the computer. In the future, I hope to explain 
the operation of the ROM port by interfacing a parallel 
printer by means of an external PIA. There are so many 
things you can do if you have a good understanding of both 
the hardware and software aspects of microcomputers. I 
might suggest, for an in-depth discussion of this subject, that 
you purchase "6809 Microcomputer Programming and 
Interfacing" by Andrew Staugaard, Jr. (SAMS #21798). 
This book not only explains assembly language 
programming, but how to use the 6809 with peripheral 
devices, such as a PIA. 

Good luck — and let's be careful out there. 



120 the RAINBOW February, 1 983 



" TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER PRODUCTS " 
" THE 1248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER " 

The 1 248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER is a full function unit that is 
compatible with virtually all popular 1 K, 2K.4K &8K -by-B. 24 pin. 5 
volt EPROMS. Compatible devices are 2508's. 2758 -O/1's, 
251 B's. 271 B's. 2532's, 68732-0/1's. B87B4's. and B8766's. 
Components 2732. 2732A. 25B4. and 27B4 are compatible via 
adapters (not supplied). The programmer is totally menu driven by 
resident position independent firmware in EPROM, which makes it 
suitable for experienced computer operators and novices alike. 

Select the device type to be programmedfrom the device menu. 
Next, select the function to be performed from the function menu. 
On your command the 1 248-EP will verify EPROM erasure, com- 
pare EPROM contents to specified contents of RAM or ROM, 
program blocks or individual bytes of EPROM memory or copy an 
EPROM's contents to user specified RAM. 

The 1 248-EP plugs into the cartridge slot of the Color Computer 
and is invoked by the user with the "EXEC & HCOOO" 8ASIC com- 
mand. The 1 248-EP contains its own on-board programming power 
supply, and has a quality "Zero Insertion Force" socket. 

The combination of the TRS-80 Color Computer , an editor/as- 
sembler/monitor such as the Micro Works SOS80C-::->r and the 
1248-EP EPROM programmer, makes a high performance, cost 
effective software development station for MC-680G76809 
microprocessor based systems. Use the system to store your own 
games or utility programs in EPROM's for execution from the cart- 
ridge slot using the CK4 PROM/RAM card described below. 

The cost of the 1248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER, instructions 
and adapter diagrams is just $99.95. 

" THE CK4 PROM/ROM CARD " 

TheCK4 works with 2K.4K or 8K-by-8 ROM's or EPROM'softhe5 
volt only variety in 24 pin packages. In addition, the CK4 may be used 
with 4 static RAM's such as 611 B's to expand the computers 
memory work space by 81 92 bytes. Each of the four on-board soc- 
kets can be decoded to any 2K block of the memory map from 
SCOOO through $F800 of the Color Computer. In addition, each 
socket can be configured to respond to address blocks from 2K to 
8K bytes in length, thus accommodating 2K, 4K orBK-by-8 ROM's, 
EPROM's or RAM's. ROM and RAM can be mixed on the card as 
well. RAM, on the card, can be written to and then "write protected" 
via dip switches on the CK4 to emulate ROM. 

The instructions include information on how to set up the socket 
decoding circuitry and how to provide battery backup for programs 
stored in CMOS static RAM on the CK4 with the computer off or 
the cartridge removed. 

The popular CK4 PROM/RAM card is now available in three 
versions. 

1) The full featured CK4 remains the standard of cartridge board 
flexibility with the added capability of providing battery backup for 
CMOS static RAM's such as B1 1 B's. Cost of the CK4 is still just 
$29.95. 

2) The CK4-1 is a ROM only version of the CK4 card for use with 
CoCo's with later than "E series" circuit boards. These later ver- 
sions of CoCo are not able to write to cartridge based RAM without 
modification. Cost is $27.95 for the CK4-1. 

3) The CK4-2 is the unpopulated CK4 series circuit board only. Buy 
this version of the CK4 and configure them to meet your specific 
requirements at a price designed to stretch your dollars value. Cost 
is $15.95 each. 

"MORSE ENCODER /DECODER KIT" 

The MEOK80 Morse En/Decoder Kit consists of a machine code 
software driver on tape, a schematic diagram of the interface cir- 
cuitry, component parts, a printed circuit board (PCB), packaging 
suggestions and complete instructions for building a Morse code 
transmission and reception system that is compatible with 4K 
RAM and up models of the TRS-BQ Color Computer . 



The transmitter/receiver interface circuitry is totally optically 
isolated and is, therefore, compatible with all receivers and trans- 
mitters. Transmitter and receiver both connect to the interface 
unit and to the Color Computer via the RS-232 port. 

The MEDK80 Morse En/Decoder kit operates at speeds up to 70 
words per minute and automatically adapts to speed variations of 
the sender. When transmitting, words are transmitted only when 
fully formed, i.e., followed by a space, and the transmit text buffer 
gives visual notification to the operator of what word/ character is 
currently being sent. In addition, the text buffer is 512 characters 
deep, which is sufficiently large to keep up with the best of "rag- 
chewers". 

Potential purchasers of this product should have previous kit 
building experience. However, this is not a kit of great complexity, 
and is well within the abilities of those actively involved in amateur 
radio or electronic hobbies to construct. To reduce the chance of 
wiring errors, component placement is indicated on the PCB and 
detailed assembly instructions are included. 

The cost of the MEDK80 software, parts, and instructions is 
$39.95. 

" COCO" GETS A BREADBOARD 

The COCO BREADBOARD is a circuit board that plugs directly into 
the cartridge slot of the Color Computer and provides theuserwith 
1B square inches of predrilled breadboarding area for circuit de- 
velopment, interfacing experiments, motherboard implementation, 
or whatever your imagination conjures up. The plated thru holes in 
the breadboard are wirewrap pin compatible and on 0.10 inch 
centers. 

The COCO 8READ BOARD brings all of the data, address, and con- 
trol signals available at the cartridge slot outside of the body of the 
computer and the signal lines are appropriately labeled to facilitate 
error free wiring of breadboards. A ground plane is provided on the 
top side of the board and solder pads are provided on the bottom of 
the board, thus facilitating circuit grounding and point-to-point 
wiring. In short, the COCO BREADBOARD was designed with the 
experimenter in mind. 

The COCO BREADBOARD is attractively priced to justify its use 
for even the lowest budget proiects. It is an ideal vehicle forlearning 
interfacing techniques. Buy extras to have on hand for those rainy 
weekends. 



The COCO BREADBOARD costs |ust $1 9.9^ 
more is $1 6.95 each. 



Price for two (2) or 



FACTORY FRESH COMPONENTS : 

HEM DESCRIPTION PRICE 

271 6 EPROM 2K by 8 Bit, 350 ns $4.50 ea. 

2532 EPROM 4K by 8 bit, 350 ns $6.50 ea. 

BB21P P.I.A. $3.50 ea. 

74LS15B Open collector decoder $1.70 ea. 

Socket ZIF, 24 pin. Aries $7.95 ea. 

Minimum component order: $25.00 

QRPERIN6 IMFgRIVIAT|0|y= 

Add $3.00 to all orders to cover shipping and handling. Allow two 
weeks for personal checks. Canadian residents add 5% to cover 
special handling. Arizona residents add 4% sales tax. Sorry! No 
charges accepted. All items shipped UPS. 



Make checks payable to: 



COMPUTER ACCESSORIES OF ARIZONA 
5801 E. VOLTAIRE DRIVE 
SCOTTSDALE, ARIZONA 85254 
(602) 996-7569 



TRS-80 is a trademark of TANDY CORP. 
#tt SOS80C is a trademark of the MICRO WORKS. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 



Listing 1 



A2B F 


PSHS 


X B A C C 


SAVE RESISTORS 




GRCC 


*$50 


DISABLE I NTERRUPTS 


a^r i 


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S END START 31 TS 




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g 




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A2C 8 






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A-3I TO INTO CARRY 


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RESTORE 3IT COUNTER 


A 2D4 


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A2D5 


B NE 


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IF NOT ZERO SEND ANOTHER 


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A2F3 


SEND S TOP B I TS 


A2D9 




CC A 


RESTORE SOME REGISTERS 




CMP A 


M JOD 


CARRIAGE RETURN? 




BEQ 


A2E7 


JO TO WIDTH ROUTINE 


A2Dr 


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$9C 


INCREMENT WIDTH COUNTER 


A2E1 


LDB 


$9C 


COUNTER TO B REG 


A 2E3 


CMPB 


$9B 


fciQUAL TO WIDTH? 


A2E5 




A2ED 


IF LOWER BRANCH 


A2E9 


BSR 




IF EQUAL THEN DELAY 


A2EB 




A305 


DELAY AGAIN 


A2 ED 


LDB 


FF22 


CH EE K HA NDSHAK E 


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g 


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A2F1 




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LOOP IF NO SIGNAL 


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# 12 


SETBIT1 IN BR EG 


A2FD 


STB 


FF20 


SE ND IT 


A300 


BSR 


A302 


BRANCH TO DELAY 


A3 02 


LDX 


$95 


LOAD BAUD RATE 


A304 






DUMMY INSTRUCTION 


A305 


LDX 


$97 


LOAD LI NE DELAY 


A3L)7 


JMP 


A7D3 


iiOTO DELAY 


A7D3 


LEAX 


-1 ,X 


DECREMENT X REG 


A7D5 


BNE 


A7D3 


AGAIN IF NOT ZERO 


A 707 


RTS 




RETURN 


>9 5 






BAUD RATE CONSTANT 


$9 7 






LINE DELAY CONSTANT 


£93 






PRINTER WIDTH CONSTANT 



Listing 2 

100 -POINTER DRIVER-DAN D Otf NA R D 

110 'REV I 12/32 FOR 32K TRS-80C 

I2G CLEAR25.32 71 8 

130 'FOR 4K CHANGE 32713 10 4046 

140 TOR I 6K CHANGE 32718 TO 16334 

150 DAIA52, 20, 246,0, I 11 , 193,254 

160 DA TA38, 20, 246,0, 156, 92,241 

170 DATAU, 155, 39, 14, 129, 13,33 

180 DATA 7,190, ) 60,2, ) 73, 3, I 34 

190 DATAIO, 53, 20, 57, 52,2,134 



200 DATA 13 ,190,1 60, 2,1 73, 3, 134 

510 DA TA10.1 73 , 3 , 53 , 2 , 32,2 3 6 

220 FOR a:32 719TOJ2767 

230 '4K-F0R Dr 404 7 TO 4095 

240 'I6K-F0R D=IS335 TO 16383 

250 READ E: P OK E D,E: NEXT D 

2S0 P0KE102I , PEEK (359) 

270 P0KE1022,HEEX (360) 

280 P0KE1023,PEEKC361) 

2 9C P0KE359,12 6:POKE360, I27:P0KE3 6I,207 

300 P0KE149,2:P0KE150,0 

310 POKEI55.72 

320 P0KE15I ,64:P0KE152,0 

330 END 



Listing 3 







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t 



GET YOUR BUGS 

OFF YOUR HANDS 





Bugs 'flpFl in your programs can really get under your skin. Especially when they've 
been bugging you for longer than you'd like to think. SJ^L 
So get your bugs off your hands. And onto somebody else's. &f^T 
Pack them off to DeBug. (On cassette, thank you.) With a description of where you 
were going. And where you got stuck. If it's an interesting enough program, we'll send it to 
people who like to stomp on other people's bugs. 

If somebody can get all the bugs out of your 16K Extended Basic CoCo program, 

we'll try to sell it. And everyone shares the profits 

Send $5 per entry. Or $9 for a sample cassette of 
20 or so very buggy programs. Or $12 for both. 

114 West Central St. 
Natick, MA 01760 




DEBUG 



122 the RAINBOW 



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#$20 


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C tIPA 


# $FK 


COMPARE TO LAST CHAR 


3F71 27 


1 6 


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IF SAflE SHIFT SEND 


3F73 23 


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B LS 


LT3S 




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20 


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LDA 


#i20 


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F8 


01060 




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# $FB 


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3F7F 20 


08 


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3F81 7F 


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LTRS 


CLR 


LAST+1 


STORE LTRS FLAG 


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01 100 




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#SFF 


SEND LTRS SHIFT 


3F86 3D 


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01 11 0 




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OUT 




3F.89 A 6 


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01 120 


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3F83 33 




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END 






00000 TOTAL ERRORS 












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3f 50 












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3F6F 












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A2BF 












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3F4S 












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3F8? 












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3K69 












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3K61 












TABLE 


3F00 












TEST 


3F40 













Listing 4 



1 CIO 'INITIALIZE BAUDOT DRIVER 

110 'DAN DOYNARD 12/82 

120 'FOR 16K TRS-80C WI TH 

130 'ROUTINE LOCATED AT $3 F00 

140 CLEAR25.I 6127 

1 50 P0KE102I ,PEEKC359> 

160 P0KE1022,PEEK(3S0> 

1 70 P0KEI023,PEEK(361) 

180 P0KE35 9, I2 6:P0KE360, 63 : P OK E36I , 64 

190 P0KE149,2:P0XEI50,247 

200 POKEI51,64:P0KE152,O 

210 END 



Hint 



Painting Must Be Accurate 



When you issue a PAINT command, be sure that you set 
the point at which the PAINTing is to begin within the area 
that is to be PA IN Ted. If you set the position on a line which 
encloses the area, the PAINT will not work. 

Also, when using PAINT, be sure that your area is fully 
enclosed, or the PAINT will "leak" out and cover the entire 
screen. 



MASTER DIRECTORY 

Put order in your life! Have your diskettes tultiplied 
and now are out of control? MASTER DIRECTORY will sort 
out your problems and locate all of your prograis. 
Only takes seconds to add all of the files on one 
diskette to the taster directory. 

t Master listing by diskette nuiber with description. 

) Master listing of all your programs in either 
diskette sequence or prograi sequence. 

t Basic for easy custonizing: fast each lang sort 

t Requires 32k with printer 

% Only $20 



Other C0C0PR0 products: (All tachine language) 



FULL SCREEN EDITOR -- 
Adds arrow-key 
programs. 



control for editing of 



REVERSI 

•Othello" 



EXPANDED DIRECTORY 

Saves 120 files on one diskette. 



COLOR DIRECTORY - 
Fantastic DIR! 



$15 

basic 



$9 



$15 



$12 



C0C0SL0TS 

Las Vegas at hoie. 



$9 



CASSETTE DIRECTORY 

List program naae, length of basic prograa or 
start, end and transfer addresses for aach lang 
program. FREE with all orders if requested or send 
$2.50 for program on cassette. 



>> FREE CATALOG 
Send SASE 



Send check or loney-order to: 

C0C0PRO 
P.O. BOX 37022 
ST LOUIS, MO 63141 



<< 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Postage paid on all pre-paid orders in continental U.S. 
HO residents include 5. 625X sales tax. 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 123 



EDUCATION 



The Color Computer 
And Our Schools 

by 

Dr. Paul Kimmelman, 
Assistant Superintendent 

and 
David Macali, 
Coordinator of Instructional Services 
Norton City (Ohio) Schools 

Educational Network 

We are currently working on a Color Computer 
educational network. Radio Shack has agreed to include 
our efforts in a future Microcomputer News. When a 
significant list has been assembled, the Rainbow will publish 
information on how to obtain a copy. 

If you are currently using the Color Computer in your 
schools or for an educational purpose, please send the 
following information to: 

Dr. Paul Kimmelman 
Norton City Schools 
Norton, Ohio 44203 

A. Computer Coordinator's Name 

B. School District 

C. Address 



START 




COMPUTER PROGRAMS 
TRS-BB MODEL 1/3 I6K LEVEL II 
TRS-80 16K COLOR 

f3 FROG PACE f3 

DEMO PROGRAM FROG RACE COMES ON CASSETTE WITH fl 
REFUND COUPON TO USE ON YOUR NEXT ORDER. 
FROG RACE CASSETTE «3. WITH CATALOG 



DUO-PAKS ARE 



«10 EACH. 



PAK NO. 

DUO-PAK-1 

DUO-PAK-2 

DUO-PAK-3 

DUO-PAK-4 

DUO-PAK-3 

DUO-PAK-S 

DUO-PAK-7 

DUO-PAK-B 

DUO-PAK-9 

DUO-PAK-ia 

DUO-PAK-1 1 

DUO-PAK-1 2 

DUO-PAK-13 



1 



PROGRAM SIDE 

GONE FISHING / 

CRAPS ✓ 

STARSHIP / 

TANK ATTACK / 

NUMBER GUESS / 

IN-BETWEEN / 

SAFARI / 

MORTAR BATTLE / 

TEASERS ' 

PT BOAT / 

CHEK-CHES / 

THINK / 
TREASURE ISLAND / 



DUO-PAK-300 DC-OHMS LAW 
DUO-PAK-501 IC-TIMER-I 



PROGRAM SIDE 2 

CONCENTRATION 

SLOT-MACHINE 

SHERLOCK HOLMES 

ASSOCIATION 

DICE ROLL 

SHELL GAME 

STARSHIP-2 

PUZZLE 

MOUSE 

TURTLE RACE 
STARSHIP-3 
LUCK I LOGIC 
RESCUE 
FLC-FRC 
IC-TIMER 2 



*t**t*tt************************* ************** 
SYSTEM PROGRAMS fie EACH 

SU1 CASSETTE COPY ✓ CASSETTE COPY 

ORDERS WILL BE SENT BY FIRST CLASS MAIL PPD. 

SORRY NO COD'S 
BE SURE TO SPECIFY WHICH COMPUTER YOU HAVE. 
B. ERICKSON P.O. BOX 11099 

CHICAGO, IL. 60611 



D. Educational use of Color Computer 

E. Software being used and evaluations 

Radio Shack Logo 

With all due respect to the many software distributors, it 
must now be said that to obtain maximum and proper 
utilization of computers for educational purposes, Logo is 
number one. While the technical Logo "purists" have 
registered some criticisms of the Radio Shack Logo version, 
it can easily be said that Radio Shack Logo with the Color 
Computer in elementary schools is the most significant step 
Radio Shack has made toward computer literacy with the 
Color Computer for younger children. 

We are not about to condemn some of the outstanding 
software available, especially Moptown and Bumble Games 
from Follett, and some of the programs from Tom Mix, but 
Logo is the one elementary program that makes the student 
run the computer and not vice versa. In the near future we 
hope to provide the readers with a recommended Color 
Computer Logo Learning Lab and curriculum. In the 
meantime, the wait for the Radio Shack Logo ROM pack 
will be well worthwhile. 

Questions 

We have received many calls and questions concerning 
"Why a Radio Shack Color Computer instead of an Apple 
or some other brand?" Again, we don't intend to make any 
value judgments about other brands of computers because 
we are exclusively Radio Shack. 

When you consider the initial cost of the Color Computer 
in comparison to the Apple it is apparent that, at least for 
elementary school use, you can get more hardware for your 
money. Further, with Follett condensing 48K Apple disk 
programs into I6K Color Computer cassettes, software 
costs will be reduced as well. 

All of you are also well aware of the many fine third party 
software distributors that advertise in the Rainbow. Clearly, 
there is no shortage of software for the Color Computer. 

It would be our opinion that when weighing the value of 
the Color Computer service, dollar-for-dollar, schools can't 
go wrong if it is properly utilized. 

Future Articles 

We are looking for your questions and ideas for future 
articles. The educational implementation of the Color 
Computer has many facets. Soon to come: a great joystick, 
furniture, books, curriculum, modems, and "problems." 



What's A CoCo? 

CoCo is the affectionate nickname which the Rainbow, 
many users and, even Radio Shack, has adopted for the 
TRS-80 Color Computer. 

As used in the Rainbow, CoCo also means the TDP 
System-100 and, generally, the Dragon-32 computers as 
well. Since the TRS-80 Color and TDP System-100 are the 
same computer, with the exception of the case design, all 
programs in the Rainbow will run equally well on both. The 
Dragon-32 is slightly different in memory mapping, but the 
vast majority of our Basic programs will run with no 
modification. 

For this reason, we use the term CoCo to describe all three 
computers. Others may use 80C, 80CC or TRS-80 Color 
but, unless specifically noted, these terms all refer to all three 
computers as well. 



124 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



=== BASIC AID ===== 

AT LAST! Help for the BASIC programmer. BASIC AID is an indespensable addition to the Color 
Computer. It will save you valuable time and effort. If you write or modify BASIC programs, 
you need BASIC AID. 

You get 43 Common BASIC commands available as single Control Key inputs. Greatly 
speeds up program entry. 

A powerful feature is the ability to redefine any or all of the keys to your own specifications 
PLUS you get invaluable features such as a MERGE command, Move Line command and 
Automatic Line Numbering. 




MERGE— Insert programs stored on 
. cassette into your Basic program. 

You can even assign new line 

numbers tothe program you read 

in. Great for creating your own 

tape library. 

^ MOVE— Lets you move and renumber any 
part of your Basic program. GOTOs 
and GOSUBs are automatically 
changed. 

Redefine any or all keys! Put in your most 
frequently used commands. Then save 
them to tape for use another time. 

"An excellent program 
and fine utility." — 
— RAINBOW review, 
August, 1982, Page 27 



BLANK SET -AUTOHUU- 
MEROE HOVE ON/OFF SUH> USER ON/OFF SET TRACE EIEC RUM CLEAR r CLEAR COHT 



□ ! 

CHRS 

□! 

□ I 



i i 
i i 



i i 
• i 



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i ■ 



STRING READ 
I I 



RIGHT THEM QOSUR IMKET INPUT OREM 
TA FOR OPTO HEX' JOTSTK SOUND UST POKE 

!□□□□.□□□□ 

SAVE CLOAD 

!□□! 



PEER CIRCLE PflAW PAIMT 



I I 



' PAI 



AUDIO CSAVE CLOAD STEP RETURN HE»T MOTOR 
II II II II 



LIME 

]□ 



I I 
PRINT MEM 



' I 



I I 



I I 
I I 



-1 l_ 



BASIC AID 



All of this in a convenient ROM cartridge which is available instantly on power-up. And, it 
uses almost none of your valuable memory! Comes with a convenient, easy to remove, 
plastic keyboard overlay. 

BASIC AID CARTRIDGE $34.95 




Add $2 Shipping and Handling 
SPECTRUM PROJECTS 



93- 1 5 86th DRIVE (2 1 2) 441 -2807 (VOICE) RAINBOW 

WOODHAVEN. N.Y. 1 1421 (21 2) 441-3755 (DATA) certification 



CHECK OUT OUR COLOR BBS' AT (21 2) 441-3755 & 441-37* 



66_ 




from SPECTRUM PROJECTS 





The must CoCo book 
for 1983. Contains a 
myriad of peeks and 
pokes, ROM and RAM 
upgrades, machine 
language backups, 
printer potpouri and 
more! Make your 
computer do things it 
never did before. 
$14.95 



COCO COOLER— Internal cooling 
system. Prevent heat buildup 
inside your Color Computer. 
"CoCo Cooler keeps things 
cool."— Rainbow Review, Dec, 
1982, Page 39 $19.95 







CT3 












I I 






C~3 






I 1 






[ 1 






1 1 






1 1 






I 1 






I ] 










DISK INTERFACE/ROM PACK 
EXTENDER — 3 FEET. Move your disks 
and ROM packs where you want 
them. Gold plated contacts 
eliminate corrosion. $29.95 $19.95 



LIGHT PEN-Plugs right in to 
your joystick port and reads 
the colors off your screen. 
Includes four demo pro- 
grams and is completely 
compatible with Computer 
Island's Fun-Pak software. 




MORE CABLES . . . 

Coaxial RF Adapter Cable and 

8 Ft. RG59/u Coaxial Cable $9.95" 

Cassette Recorder Extension $14,95 

SAM Saver (LED On/Off indicator)$14.95 

Joystick Cable Extension $14.95 

Disk Drive Extender $14.95 

Serial Cable (specify printer) $17.95 

Joystick "Y" Adapter $19.95 

Two Drive Cable $29.95 

Parallel Printer Cable $34.95 

Four Drive Cable $39.95 

Customized Cables CALL 

"Replaces gray audio cable to 
help reduce TV interference. 
Direct 75 ohm hookup. 



Add $2 for Shipping 
and Handling 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 



THE SPECTRUM PADDLE- 

Enjoy quicker response and 
higher game scores. Great 
for games with side-to-side 
action like Astro Blast, Space 
Invaders, Shooting Gallery 
and Clowns and Balloons. 
Includes "softtouch" fire 
button. "You have better 
control of the right to left 
movement than with any 
joystick we have seen so 
far"— Rainbow Review, Jan., 
1983, Page 134 $19.95 

GhhQ 

FOUR-PIN MALE TO FOUR PIN 
FEMALE- 15 FEET. Move your 
printer or modem to another 
location— easier use.. .$14.95 



NEW ITEMS . . . 

Color Computer Editor, Assembler 

and Debugger $6.95 

The Stripper (delete REMS, pack lines 

and remove spaces) $7.95 

Deluxe Tape Storage Holders 

48 Cassettes (3 Drawers) $22.95 

96 Cassettes (6 Drawers) $39.95 

Printer Stand $39.95 

Printer Stand w/shelf (LP VII, LP VIII, 

MX-80, Okidata) $49.95 

CoCo Numeric Keypad $99.95 



(Plugs into joystick port) 



93-16 88th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN, N.Y. 1 1421 



(2 12) 44 1-2807 (VOICE) 
(212) 441-3756 (DATA) 



Check Out Our Color BBS' At (212) 441-3755 & (2121 441-3766 24 Hours Every Day ^ 

DEALER/CLUB INQUIRIES WELCOME S 
New York State Residents add appropriate taxes 



Tired of plugging and unplugging 
devices from the RS232 port of your Color 
Computer? Make your life easier. Buy our 
RS232 expansion cable and connect two 
devices at the same time. Just right for 
printers, modems, etc. Anything that plugs 
into the Color Computer will plug into this 
high quality cable. 

RS232 Cable $20.00 



EXPANSION 
CABl E 



COLORCOM/E BONUS! Order 
COLORCOM/E and get the RS232 cable 
for only $15.00. Save $5.00 

32K RAM Button $2.99 

Nanos System Reference Card S3.99 

16K Chips $16.00/set 

64K Chips $64.00/set 



Basic ROM 1.1 

6821 (PIA) Chip 

6847 (VDG) Chip 

6883 (SAM) Chip with heat sink . 
6809E 



CoCo First Aid Kit (Be Prepared) 
(2 682Ts, 6809E, & 6883). 



_$36.00 
_$9.95 
-$17.95 
_$29.95 
$29.95 




.$69.95 



Color Computer Tech Manual 

Epson Printer Interface (Serial I/O Port)_ 

The Extension Interface 

Extended Basic ROM Kit 



64K "E7"F"/TDP Board Upgrade 

64K "D" Board Upgrade w/1.1 ROM_ 

RS Disk Interface (with manual) 

Epson MX-80 w/CoCo Interface 



$7.95 

49.95 

$59.95 

$88.00 

_ $99.95" 
_$149.95" 
_$ 179.95 
_ $499.95 



'Add $6 for return UPS shipping 

STINGER IS HERE! The ultimate maze game. 
Cassette $24.95 Disk $29.95 ROMPak $34.95 



SMART TERMINAL PACKAGE 



WE DIDN'T WAIT for the competition to catch up with us! We've added even MORE 
features to COLORCOM/E, our superb Smart Terminal program for the Color 
Computer. Compare before you buy. NOBODY offers you more! 



Complete Upload and Download Support * 

Online Cassette/Disk Reads and Writes ★ 

1 10, 300. 600, or 1200 Baud ★ 

Full or Half Duplex * 

Preenter Data Before Calling (Saves $$'s) * 

Offline and Online Scrolling ★ 



Automatic Capture of Files 

Send All 127 ASCII Characters From Keyboard 

Word Mode Eliminates split Words 

7 or 8 Data Bits (Including Graphics Support) 

Efficient Data Storage S-t-r-e-t-c-h-e-s Memory 

ROM Pack or Disk 



COLORCOM/E $49.95 

AND, our efficient storage and easy editina of received data 
makes printing to your printer offline a snap. Select any portion of 
the received data for printing. No need to print everything. 



RAINBOW 



Add $2 for Shipping and Handling 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

"Donkey King 

Katerpiller Attack 

"Protectors 



INTELLECTRONICS 

"Dunkey Munkey . 



INTRACOLOR 



Colorpede . 
" Requires 32K 



_ $24.95 
$24.95 
. $24.95 

.$14.95 

_ $29.95 



MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

Astro Blast_ 

Cave Hunter . 



■PC CTRUM PROJECTS 



-$24.95 
.$24.95 
_$24.95 
.$24.95 



•5-16 86th DRIVE 
WOOOHAVEN. N.V. 1 1421 



(212)441-2S07(VO*Cej 
(2121 441-3756 (DATA) 



Color Haywire 

Space Raider's 

ILLUSTRATED MEMORY BANKS 

Star-Trench Warfare $18.95 

LARRY BANKS SOFTWARE 
64K Disk Utility Package $21.95 



Check Out Our Color BBS' At (212) 441-3755 & (212) 441-3766 24 Hours Every Day 

DEALER/CLUB INQUIRIES WELCOME 

New York Stale Residents add appropriate taxes 



The PROFESSIONAL Keyboard 



A direct plug-in 
replacement for your 
Color Computer. 

°Simple Installation 
° Standard Layout 
° Electric Quality 



$8955 



Made by MACROTRON 
Call (or TDP and 
F Color models. 





SWITCHER 



by TJN SYSTEMS 



$99.95 



Have your Disk and Cartridge too! 
Transforms a Color Computer into a dual slot 
system. Comes with extender cable. 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93 15 86th DRIVE WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 

212-441-2807 

all orders plus $2 s/H, N.Y. residents add sales tax 



%# %l# %l# %l# %I# %i» «i« %|# ^# ^ig %t» %1# ato sit *A* gig alg %|g alg alg alg ale alg alg alg alg *>t* *>t* *x* *x* «i* «# 

«jb #1% #1% #|% #|% ^» ^» #|% ^» #|% ^» #|% ^» ^» ^» ^» *i* *|» #j» *i* *|» #i* *|» #!» *p *|» *|» *|» *|» «f» *|» *|» ^» ^» ^» ^» ^» «*• 

* * 



* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 



THE 





STICK INTERFACE 




* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 




Now you can 
hookup two AtaiTtype 
joysticks to your Color Computer 
or TOP SystemlOO for only $19.95 

$39.95 -The Interface with two Atari* joysticks 



?H Interface made by WICO. Atari is 
a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. 



* 



YES! 



PLEASE SEND: 
( ) INTERFACES... $19.95 
( ) STICK/INTERFACE SETs... $39.95 
all orders plus $2 shipping 



NAME 

ADDRESS 

CITY,STATE,ZIP. 



N.Y. residents add sales tax 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93-15 86th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 
212-441-2807 



* 

* 

* 
* 



^# ^# *A* ^# ^0 ^0 %l» ^# ^# ^# ^# ^0 *A* *A* »lg %fe %fe %fe %fe %fe %fe %fe %fe %to sfe %to %fe %fe %fe %fe ^* ^* ^# ^# ^* ^* ^* ^* ^* ^# ^# 

#|» #|» #|S #|» #|» #|» #|» #|» #|S #|» #|S #|» ^» ^» ^» ^» ^» ^» ^» rj> rj> #^ #^ *J> #^ #^ #y» #^ 



PPELCHE 



WHAT IT WAS WAS football. 
CoCo came to the rescue recently in 
determining one of those "Who's 
Number One" controversies in New 
Jersey. It seems the teams from Butler 
and Pompton Lakes had played each 
other for the last 50 years, but did not 
meet this year — the season that, as luck 
would have it, both went undefeated. 
So, editor Harold Ball of Suburban 
Trends set up a playoff — using his 
CoCo and the FOOTBALL game 
marketed by Prickly-Pear Software. 
Ball reports the Butler youngsters are 
better at football than FOOTBALL— 
they lost the "game" 31-0. 

By the way, Ball also reports that 
even though the newspaper has a couple 
of mini-computers, it is CoCo that he 
and publisher Edward C. Slingland use 
to work out newspaper budgets, 
budgeting and a number of projections. 

SPEAKING OF MINIS, the word in 
the computer industry is that they may 
be on the way out. We hear that as 
power grows for micros (there is such as 
thing as a 5 1 2K chip thatcan be plugged 
into CoCo) the minis may become the 
dinosaurs of the computer business. 
Not as powerful as a mainframe, but 
proportionately just as expensive, 
micros may be the computer of choice 
to replace all those minis as time passes. 
The way we hear it, the superfast, super 
big mainframes will always be with us, 
but the micros may well take over for 
the minis in a few years. 

INSTEAD OF SENDING YOUR 

kids to camef or roughing it, how about 
a camp for computers? Now in its sixth 
year, the national computer camps 
announce they will have three locations 
for the summer of '83 — in Simsbury, 
CT; Atlanta, GA; and St. Louis, MO. 
You can get information about the 
National Computer Camps by writing 
Dr. Michael Zabinski, P.O. Box 585, 
West Orange, CT 06477. 

###### 

RADIO SHACK'S EDUCA- 
TIONAL division has set March 15 as 
the deadline for submission of 
instructional software packages in the 
second edition of the Educational 
Softward Sourcebook. The Source- 
book is available through Radio Shack 
stores and computer Centers. The first 



edition was very popular and the new 
one will feature publisher profiles, 
expanded classification of instructional 
software, software user site references 
and supplemental information on the 
instructional use of microcomputers. 
Information on how to be listed can be 
obtained by writing Educational 
Software Sourcebook, Radio Shack 
Education Division, 1400 One Tandy 
Center, Ft. Worth, TX 76102. Or, you 
can call (817) 390-3523. 

###### 

ANOTHER BULLETIN BOARD 

for CoCo users has come on line, this 
one in Wheaton, IL. It operates 24 
hours a day and can be reached through 
(3 1 2) 260-0640. Terry Haas of Soft City 
is the SYSOP for the new system. 

IF YOU SAW THE ADS for 

Spectral Associates' arcade game 
contest, you might be interested in who 
the big winners are. Brett Norman of 
Oklahoma won first prize, and $2000, 
for his program Whirlibird. Second 
place (and $500) went to Tommy 
Keeton of Texas for Storm Arrows 
while third place (and $200) was won by 
John Nakoski of New York for Space 
Sentry. Mr. Norman also wins 
Spectral's Prism Award and his game 
will be published by Spectral. 

IT IS A MOVING experience for 
Micro Technical Products, whose new 
address is 123 N. Sirrine, Suite 106-A, 
Mesa, AZ 85201. New phone number is 
(602) 834-0283. 

###### 

OUR BOB ALBRECHT HAS been a 
busy fellow. He is in the process of 
writing a series of booklets on LOGO 
with Ramon Zamora for Radio Shack 
and a documentary film on which he 
worked with David Shepardson has 
won the Gold Award at the 
International Film and TV Festival in 
New York. The film is titled "Don't 
Bother Me, I'm Learning." 

# # # # # # 

IF YOU ENJOYED OUR racing 
game of a couple issues ago, you will be 
interested to know that it has been 
expanded quite a bit and is being 
marketed as Revolution by 



Inter+Action of 1 13 Ward Street, New 
Haven, CT 06519. It is based on The 
Track by the same author, Al Hine, but 
has a great number of enhancements for 
32K, one disk drive and joysticks. A 
slightly abriged version is available for 
16K cassette. 

RADIO SHACK *IS OUT with a 
whole passel of new programs for 
CoCo. Some of them are quite unique. 
Gin Champion lets you play 16 different 
variations of gin at difficulty levels of 
from one to ten. Crosswords lets from 
one to four plays make up crossword 
puzzles. Another new program is called 
Personafile, a disk version of their 
Color File on Rom Pak. 

There are also a host of new arcade- 
style games — Castle Guard, Monster 
Maze, Robot Battle, and Shooting 
Gallery. In addition, two new 
Adventures grace the RS line now, 
Madness and the Minotaur and Sands 
of Egypt. The latter is billed as an 
"antimated graphics game" and is 
available on disk. 

$ $ He He He He 

WE KEEP HEARING REPORTS, 

all unconfirmed, of a new Color 
Computer. A "bigger" version. This one 
may make its debut soon and would 
have some goodies like built-in disk 
drives — yet sell for a very good price. 
Don't rush out and sell your CoCo, 
through, because it is our 
understanding that any new machine 
would be software compatible with 
CoCo itself. We cannot confirm these 
reports, but where there is smoke may 
mean that there will be some fire. 

Even more interesting is another 
rumor, again just speculation, that there 
may be a "little" Color Computer 
someday, too. If such be the case, it, too, 
would — we hear — be software 
compatible with CoCo. 

If all those did happen, would that 
mean that someday we would be telling 
our kids stories about Tandy and the 
Three CoCos? Humm. 

IS THERE NO END to the games 
that will be adapted to CoCo? Now 
comes Dominoes, an age-old classic. It 
is available from JPR Software, Box 
4155, Winter Park, FL 32793. 

###### 

A NEW SMALL BUSINESS 

inventory package is now available 
from the West Bay Company, Rt. 1, 
Box 656, White Stone, VA 22578. It has 
12 fields and will keep an inventory of 
40 items in 16K or 148 in 32K. 



130 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Spectrum Projects 

YourTDP-100 Dealer 

Trims Down Prices! 



64KTDP100 : : Line Printer I 
with Ext/Basic : : (DMP100) 



$499.95 



$299.95 



Color Graphic 
Printer 



$199.95 



: DC Modem I 
• Communications 



$129.95 



Color Cassette 




$49.95 



:16K TDP-100 
• with Ext/Basic 



$399.95 



CALL 212-441-2807 

all orders plus $2.00 S/H 
N.Y. residents add sales tax 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93-15 86th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 



MANAGEMENT UTILITY 

Make Authoritative Decisions 
With This Situational Model 

By Stan Peppenhorst 

As a person with management responsibility, you are 
constantly being called upon to make decisions. Sometimes 
the proper decision presents itself so plainly that all you 
must do is annunciate it; yet, more often, it seems, there are 
decisions which must be forged from a complexity offactors 
requiring considerable balance and insight. It is this latter 
difficulty the following model addresses. 

Victor Vroom and P. W. Yetton established in 1973 a 




Meanings of the letters and numbers on the flow 
diagram (algorithm): 

Letters represent the questions being asked. 
Numbers represent the methods which may be 
used to solve the problem. 
The circled numbers contain one or more of 
the methods contained in the program (1-5). 

Circled Numbers Methods 

I & 3 & 4 1-5 
2&6&7&16&17 5 

5 1-4 
8 & 13 & 18 4 

9 3, 4 

10 2-4 

I I & 12 2-5 
14 & 15 4, 5 



situational model of leadership involving decision-making 
and leadership style. Texts on management and 
organizational behavior often discuss this process. This 
program contains the eight questions of the model and five 
possible management styles (two autocratic, two 
consultative, and one joint decision making). 

Each question must be answered by a "yes" or a "no" ( Y or 
N), and after the situation has been described, the method or 
procedure which can be used is listed. If more than one is 
listed, then the choice should be made on other 
considerations such as time, pressure, development of 
subordinates, and the leader's preference. When time is 
scarce, f or example, the decision style should be closest to 1 ; 
if time is plentiful, closest to 5. Those closest to 5 also 
provide the greatest potential for developing subordinates. 

Lines 200-270 contain the questions, and lines 300-340 
contain the decision-making styles. Reading time can be 
increased by enlarging the 5000 in line 130 and the 7500 in 
the timer loops of lines 410-430, 510, 520-620, 7 10-1010. 



The listing: 



350 


070D 


END 


0D5D 



30 'BY STAN PEPPENHORST 
40 ' MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE 
60 CLS 

100 print: print" vroom' s deci 
si on process" 

110 print:print:print"this progr 
am aids the manager in making ma 
j or decisions. subordinat 
es may or may not be involved. 

II 

120 print: print: print: print-answ 
er the following questions with 
yes or no by using 'y' 

OR 'N' . " 

130 FOR T=l TO 5000: NEXT T 
140 ' 

200 A*="IS THERE A QUALITY REQUI 
REMENT SUCH THAT ONE SOLUTION I 
S LIKELY TO BE MORE RATION 

AL THAN ANOTHER?" 

210 B*="DO I HAVE SUFFICIENT INF 
ORMATION TO MAKE A HIGH QUALITY 

DECISION?" 
220 C*="IS THE PROBLEM STRUCTURE 
D?" 

230 D*="IS THE ACCEPTANCE OF THE 
DECISION BY SUBORDINATES 
CRITICAL TO EFFECTIVE 
IMPLEMENTATION?" 
240 E*="IF I WERE TO MAKE THE DE 
CIS ION BY MYSELF, IS IT REASONA 
BLY CERTAIN THAT IT WOULD BE 

ACCEPTED BY MY SUBORDINA 

TES?" 

250 F*="DO SUBORDINATES SHARE TH 
E ORGAN- I ZATIONAL GOALS TO BE AT 
TAINED IN SOLVING THIS PROBLEM? 

II 

260 G*="IS CONFLICT AMONG SUBORD 



132 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



LOSING BATTLES WITH A 

GLOOMSTICK? 



PUT THE JOY BACK IN 
COLOR COMPUTING 
WITH A NEW 

SPECTRUM 
STICK 



Features include: 

■ Power on/off LED 
indicator 



Ball joint components 
a true feel of control 

Extra long cables 

Sturdy construction 

Hair trigger response 



Dealer/Club Inquiries Invited 




"More like arcade joy- 
sticks than anything 
we've yet encountered" 
Rainbow review October 
1982, Page 112 




2§ 



please send( ) SPECTRUM STICK(s) at 
$39.95 each plus $2.00 shipping to 

name 

address 



city,state,zip 



N.Y. Residents Add Appropriate Taxes 



"Both the joystick and pushbutton 
should have a considerably longer life 
than the Radio Shack unit since they are 
made of higher quality components"— 
Creative Computing, Feb., 1983, Issue. 



'SPECTRUM PROJECTS 
g|93-15 86th DRIVE 
W00DHAVEN, N.Y. 11421 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



INATES LIKELY IN PREFERRED SOLU 
TIONS? (THIS QUESTION IS IRRELE 
VANT TO INDIVIDUAL PROBLEMS.)" 
270 H*="DO SUBORDINATES HAVE SUF 
FICIENT INFORMATION TO MAKE A HI 
GH QUAL-ITY DECISION?" 
280 * 

300 J*="l. SOLVE THE PROBLEM OR 
MAKE THE DECISION USING THE INFO 
RMATION AVAILABLE AT THE TIME." 
310 K*="2. OBTAIN NECESSARY INFO 
RMATION FROM SUBORDINATES THE 
N DECIDE ON THE SOLUTION TO THE 
PROBLEM. " 

SHARE THE PROBLEM IND 
ALLY WITH SUBORDINATE 
OBTAIN IDEAS AND SUGG 
AND MAKE THE DECISION 



320 L*="3. 

IVIDU- 

S. 

EST IONS 



330 M*="4 
H SUBOR- 
OBTAIN 
AND MAKE 
340 N*="5 
H SUBOR- 
GENERATE 
IVES AND 
GREEMENT 
350 * 



SHARE THE PROBLEM WIT 
DINATES AS A GROUP. 
IDEAS AND SUGGESTIONS 
THE DECISION. " 
SHARE THE PROBLEM WIT 
DINATES AS A GROUP. 
AND EVALUATE ALTERNAT 
TOGETHER TRY TO REACH A 
ON A SOLUTION. " 



400 PRINT.-PRINT.-PRINT A*: INPUT A 
1*:IF A1*="Y" THEN 500 
410 PRINT.'PRINT D*: INPUT D1*:PRI 
NT: IF D1*="Y" THEN PRINT E* ELSE 

430: INPUT E1*:PRINT:IF E1*="Y" 
THEN PRINT J*: PRINT: PRINT K*:FOR 

T=l TO 7500: NEXT T:CLS: PRINT L* 
: PRINT: PRINT M*: PRINT: PRINT N*:F 
OR T=l TO 7500: NEXT T:GOTO 10 
420 INPUT El*: PRINT: PRINT.-PRINT.- 
PRINT: IF E1*="N" THEN PRINT N*:F 
OR T=l TO 7500: NEXT T:GOTO 10 
430 PRINT: PRINT J*: PRINT: PRINT K 
*.-FOR T= 1 TO 7500: NEXT T: PRINT 
L*: PRINT: PRINT M*: PRINT : PRINT N* 
:FOR T=l TO 7500: NEXT T:GOTO 10 
500 PRINT: PRINT B* 

510 INPUT B1*:PRINT.-IF B1*="Y" T 
HEN PRINT D* : INPUT Dl*: PRINT: IF 

D1*="N" THEN PRINT F* : INPUT Fl 
$: PRINT: PRINT: IF F1*="N" THEN PR 
INT J*: PRINT: PRINT K*:FOR T=l TO 

7500: NEXT T: PRINT L*: PRINT: PRIN 
T M*:FOR T=l TO 7500: NEXT T:GOTO 

10 

515 IF B1*="N" THEN 800 
520 IF F1*="Y" THEN PRINT H*: INP 
UT H1*:PRINT.-PRINT.-PRINT J*:PRIN 
T: PRINT K*: PRINT: FOR T=l TO 7500 



COMPUKIDS MAGAZINE 



CompuKids Club 

1 year magazine subscription 
Contests with GREAT prizes 
Free computer advice 
Program exchange 
Educational programs 
. . . and lots more . . . 
One year subscription plus one year membership in CompuKids Club — $24.00 
(Canada — $31.00) 

One year subscription only — $1 6.00 (Canada -$20.00) 

Six month trial subscription — $9.00 (Canada -$11.00) 

Payment enclosed (check or money order) 

Please bill me later (a $1.00 billing fee will be added) 

(Special School and Group Rates Available) 



The Computer Magazine for Beginners 

Educational articles that are easy to understand 
Game programs 
Computer book reviews 
Program problems 



□ 
□ 
□ 
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Name. 



-Age 



-Signature If billing 



Address. 



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Zip Code. 



Mail Check or Money Order to: 
CompuKids Magazine rb 
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Or Phone TOLL FREE: 
1-800-822-KIDS 



134 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



:next t:cls:print l*: print: print 
m*: print: print n*:for T=l TO 75 
00: NEXT T:GOTO 10 

600 IF D1*="Y" THEN PRINT E*: INP 
UT E1*:PRINT:IF E1*="Y" THEN PRI 
NT F*: PRINT: INPUT Fl*: PRINT: PRIN 
T:IF F1*="N" THEN PRINT J*:PRINT 
: PRINT k*:for T=l TO 7500: next t 
: print L*: print: print m*:for t=i 

TO 7500: NEXT T:GOTO 10 
610 IF F1*="Y" THEN PRINT H*:INP 
UT HI*: PR I NT : PR INT: IF H1*="Y" TH 

EN print j*:print:print k*:print 
:for t=i to 7500: next t:cls:prin 
t L*: print: PRINT M*: PRINT n*:for 
T=l TO 7500: NEXT T:GOTO 10 

620 if h1*="n" then print j*:pri 
nt: print k*: print: for t=l to 750 
0:next t:cls:print l*: print:prin 
t m*: print: print n*:for t=i to 7 
500: next t:goto 10 
700 print f*: input f1*:print:if 
f1*="y" then print h*: input hi*: 
print:print: print n*:for t=i to 
7500: next t:goto 10 
710 print g*: input g1*:print:if 
g1*="y" then print m*:for t=l to 
7500: next t:goto 10 
720 print l*: print: print m*:for 

T=l TO 7500: NEXT T:GOTO 10 
800 PRINT C*: INPUT C1*:PRINT:IF 
C1*="Y" THEN PRINT D* ELSE 900:1 
NPUT D1*:PRINT:IF Dl*= n Y" THEN P 
RINT E*: INPUT E1*:PRINT:IF El*=" 
N" THEN 700 

810 print f*: input f1*:print:if 
f1*="n" then print k*: print: prin 
t l*:print:print m*:for t=i to 7 
500: next t:goto 10 
820 print h*: input hi*: print: pri 
NT k*:print:print l*:print:for t 

=1 TO 7500:NEXT T: PRINT M*:PRINT 
: PRINT n*:for T=l TO 7500: next t 
:GOTO 10 

900 PRINT D*: INPUT D1*:PRINT:IF 
Dl*= n Y" THEN PRINT E*: INPUT El*: 
PRINT: IF El*="N n THEN PRINT F*: I 

nput f1*:print:if f1*="n" then p 
rint m*:for t=i to 7500: next t:g 

OTO 10 

910 if f1*="y" then print h*: inp 
ut hi*:print:print n*:for t=i to 

7500: next t:goto 10 
1000 print f*: input fi*:print:if 

f1*="y" then print h*: input hi* 
: print m*: print: print n*:for t=l 

to 7500: next t:goto 10 

1010 PRINT M*:FOR T=l TO 7500: NE 
XT T:GOTO 10 

1100 END /m. 



Pgjutote Pen/ttnj Sgftjjytgjjfg 

COLOR TERM + PLUS + Look at these features: 
Operates at 1 10- 19200 HA III): Half or Full Duplex; I or 2 
stop hits; odd, even, or no parity; send and receive 
HASH' & Machine Language programs; word wrap; Edit 
Buffer; Code & Decode buffer using a user defined key 
word; save and load buffer to tape. +PLUS+ much 
more! 

I Ok or : i2k Reg, or Ext . BASIC. PRICE $29.95 (tape)' 
TAPENAME Tapename searches tape and stores the 
name of any program or file. You can print the informa- 
tion to the screen, printer or tape. Also checks for load 
errors. 4k, Kik, or 32k Reg. or Ext. 

BASIC. PRICE $7.95 (tape)* 

COLOR DISK SAVER Saves a disk to tape. Reloads 
disk from saved tape. Also has tape verify command! 

32k Ext. BASIC Ren. PRICE S 12.95 (tape)" 

COLOR IAGO Based on popular Othello game. Match 
wits with your computer! Uses high res color graphics. 5 
levels of difficulty. Joysticks required. 
Kik or 32k Ext. BASIC. PRICE S 15.95 (tape) 
CLONE ATTACK Blast those nasties as they appear! 3 
skill levels and 9 levels of difficulty. Uses high res color 
graphics. Joysticks required. Kik or 32k Ext. BASIC on- 
ly. PRICE $15.95 (tape) (Disk 32k only) 
[Special 32k version $2.00 extra] 

MOON BASE INVASION Nuclear bombs are nearing 
your cities! Can you stop them before they reach you? 
Kik or 32k Ext . BASIC Req. High res graphics. 
PRICE $12.95 (tape) 

— NEW PROGRAMS- 
COLOR BIORHYTHUM Are you up or down today, 
tomorrow, or years from now? Find out with COLOR 
BIORHYTHUM. Uses high res graphics. Send t he chart to 
printer. Kik or 32k Ext. BASK- Req. 

PRICE $14.95 (tape) 

DD CLOCK Don't forget what time it is when you are 
programming. The time is displayed in the upper right 
corner of your screen. Shows hours, minutes and 
seconds. Beeps every hour. 4k, Kik, or 32k. 
PRICE $9.95 (tape)' Ext. BASIC not required. 

Use your MODEM for something other than a 

dust catcher — play games! 
MODEM CHESS Use your Modem and your Color 
Computer to play chess ore/' the phone! Has high res col- 
or graphics board and pieces. Make your move, select a 
message to send, press a button— seconds later your op- 
ponent's board is updated automatically. Has audio 
alerts, let's you know when a move is being made, 10k 

or 32k Ext. BASK' Req. PRICE $39.95 (tape) 

MODEM CHECKERS Play checkers over the phnw! 
Program allows up to 4 jumps to be made at a time, 
crown pieces, etc. ltik or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. 

PRICE $39.95 (tape)" 

MODEM IAGO Play our version of Othello over the 
phone! Make your move, press a key, your opponent's 
board is updated seconds later! Has a takeback key if 
you decide you don't like the move you made, 
ltik or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. PRICE $39.95 (tape)" 

Most programs are Disk compatible. Specify Disk when 
ordering and add $5.00 per program. Save money and 
ask that all ordered programs be loaded on one disk. You 
pay only for the one disk! Please add $2.00 shipping and 
handling on all orders. Texas residents add 5% sales t ax. 
Allow two weeks for personal checks. Your order will 
usually be shipped within two to three days. We will 
notify you of any problems within one week. Send 
orders to: DOUBLE DENSITY SOFTWARE, 920 Bald 
win Street, Denton, Texas 70201. Phone 817/500-2004. 
We are looking for quality software. If you have a pro- 
gram you think is a winner, send it to us. If it meets our 
standards, you will be paid TOP royalties. 
'Machine Language. 
** Machine Language Subroutines. 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 135 



Many Happy Returns! 
— A Taxpayer's Utility 



By Michael J. Himowitz 




One of the things 1 hate most at income tax time is sorting 
through the year's checks, trying to figure out how much I 
spent on what. 

So, when 1 got my Color Computer I decided to write a 
program that would do that f or me, as well as give me a tool 
to see where the family budget was going. The result was 
Color Accountant. 

Basically, all you have to do is enter the data from your 
canceled checks (up to 200 checks in the I6K version, 450 
checks for 32K machines). If you update every month, it 
should take you no more than 10 minutes at each session. If 
you wait until the end of the year, it may take about 90 
minutes. The program will give you screen or printer 
displays of all your expenditures by account, by payee or by 
month, and total them all for you. It will also give you a 
yearly summary by account and sort your checks by date. 

You can store your data on tape and update it whenever 
you wish, and if you discover an error in one of your entries, 
the program will give you a chance to correct it. 

The listing here will work in a 16K machineand handle 
200 checks. Because it involves large amounts of string 
storage, you must type POKE 25,6:NEW and hit the 
ENTER key before loading it. This clears out the graphics 
memory pages for storage of your data. Before running the 
program, all remark lines should be deleted. 

If you still get an OM error, you may want to get rid of 
some of the less useful routines, such as the listing of 
accounts beginning at line 20000, or the listing of all checks 
beginning at line 18000. 

If you have a 32K machine, the program will easily handle 
450 checks if you make the following changes. A simple 
PCLEAR 1 before loading should clear enough space for it 
to run. 
10 CLEAR 16000 



20 DIM C$(450) 
105 FOR X=A TO 450 
117 IF X 499 THEN 
CHECK!" 



PRINT "THIS IS THE LAST 



The accounts I have set up reflect my family budget. To 
set up your own, you can change the account listings in lines 
920 through 970, 1000 through 1090, and 1170 through 
1260. 1 have 10 accounts, but you can set up as many as 12 
without overflowing the screen display. If you don't care 
about the screen and just want printouts, set up as many 
accounts as you want. 

If you don't want to type in the program, send $7.00 to 
Mike Himowitz, 825 William St., Baltimore, MD 21230, 
and I'll send you a copy. 

Here's how to use the program, which is menu-driven: 

1. ENTER CHECKS FROM KEYBOARD. Just give the 
machine what it asks for. The date should be only month 
and day, i.e. 5/28 (the program is designed to keep records 
for a single year). The check number should be no greater 
than four digits. The payee should be no larger than eight 
letters. If you type in more than eight, the program will only 
remember the first eight. 

For the amount of the check, the limit is $9,999. An even 
dollar amount, such as $24, does not require a decimal point 
and two zeros, although the machine will accept this. When 
you've entered the amount, the computer will ask you 
whether it's correct. Type "Y" or "N." If you type "Y" you'll 
get a prompt for the next check. If you type "N" you'll get a 
prompt for a corrected entry. To correct an entry, you must 
enter all the data for that check again. 

When you're through entering checks, just hit the ENTER 
key when asked for the date. You will return to the main 



136 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



£» 
m> 
Sz 

5 

w 

> 



CD 
M 



JUST GOOD SOFTWARE 

DISK DOUBLE ENTRY - If you have spent hours trying to balance your Debits and Credits, this program is 
foryou! Designedforsmall business, club, and personal use. Entertransactions in ajournal typeformat. 
Program will maintain current account balances, produce Trial Balance, Income, and Balance Sheet re- 
ports and complete Account Ledgers. Will handle up to 300 accounts including report headings and 
totals. Up to 1 400 average transactions on a diskette. Summary reports and four levels of subtotals 
available. REQUIRES 32K and a user understanding of standard double entry accounting con- 
cepts. - $44.95 in BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 

DISK DATA HANDLER - Will allow you to design disk data files for your specific applications. Provides a power- 
ful facility for on-screen input and update, fast selection and sorting, user defined output of reports to 
screen or printer, and output to disk files which may be read by your BASIC programs for any computa- 
tional or special formatting requ irements. You define a basic record of up to 1 4 fields and 246 characters. 
Sort or select records based on any field or combination of fields in this record. Maximum number of 
records you may work with at one time will depend on record size (500 - 23 char records, 50 - 246 char 
records). An optional Extended record linked to the basic record may also be defined. The size of the 
Extended record is not a factor in determining maximum number of records. Disk Data Handler is the 
type of tool which will provide the growth capability needed for your increasingly sophisticated applica- 
tions. REQUIRES 32K. - $44.95 in BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 
NOW - Also available in a 64 K version. More than three times the number of records shown above plus enhanced 

performance and report formatting capabilities. Uses standard ROM's - No special operating system required! 

DISK DATA HANDLER - 64K - $54.95 

DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - Puts you in charge of your schedule! Graphically displays any monthly calendar 
between 1 700 and 2099. You put in up to twelve 28 character memos per day - calendar shows where 
the memos are - call up of day shows details. Use for appointments and a log of past activity. Study the 
chronology of the American Revolution or note the day your mortgage will be paid off. Search capability 
allows you to list or print all memos between two specified dates or only ones meeting key word criteria. 
Date computation shows elapsed time between twodates in days, weeks, months, and years. REQUIRES 
32K in BASIC. 

TAPE DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $16.95 DISK DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $19.95 

(max. 400 memos/tape file) (over 4,000 memos/disk - max. 300 memos/month) 

MATH TUTOR - Five programs that go from math fact (+, -,X,/) drill tofull addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
and division at four levels of difficulty. Provides a step by step approach with error correction and re- Sm 
wards for good performance. - $13.95 in BASIC. 

SPELLING TEACHER - Up to 200 of their spelling words stored on tape or disk are presented in four lively 
study modes including a scrambled word game. - $1 2.95 in BASIC. M 5 

ALPHA-DRAW - A subroutine designed to let you easily add characters to your graphic displays. You define 
X and Y coordinates and a string variable of one or more characters and Alpha-Draw will do the rest. p»> 
Includes all keyboard characters. Comes with instructions for a true line numbered merge of tape files. 
Works great with the Screen Print program! - $8.95 in BASIC. 

GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM - Works in ALL PMODES and lets you shift screen image anywhere 
on the printed page. Relocatable code lets you use all of your 1 6K or 32K machine. Available for both 
Color Basic 1.0 and 1.1. Use EXEC 41 1 75 to see which you have and SPECIFY with order. In Machine Language. 

$7.95 - For TRS-80® LP-VII/VIII & DMP 100/200/400 

$9.95 - For Epson GRAFTRAX®, PROWRITER®, NEC® PC 8023A-C (specify printer type) 
Microline® 82A/83A (with OKIGRAPH® I), Microline 84 
IDS-440/445, Paper Tiger® 460/560, Prism® 80/132 (with dot plotting) 

(Trademarks of Tandy Corp., Epson America, Inc., C-ltoh, NEC America, Okidata Corp., Integral Data Systems, Inc.) 



c 
z 

m 



cow 



a 



> 



ALL PROGRAMS require Extended Color Basic and are delivered 
on cassette. All, except Tape Date-O-Base Calendar, are DISK 
System compatible. 



We want your 
SUGGESTIONS! 



Custom Software Engineering, Inc. 



807 Minutemen Causeway (D-2), Cocoa Beach, Florida 32931 

(305) 783-1083 



For VISA and Master Card orders: 
Include type, account number, expiration 
date, signature and phone number. 
Sorryi No COD'S. 



Add $1 .00 per order for shipping. Florida 
residents add 5% sales tax. Return within 
two weeks if not completely satisfied. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

ALL LISTED 
PROGRAMS 



menu. 

2. ENTER CHECKS FROM TAPE. If you have already 
stored checks on tape and want to load them into the 
machine (you must do this beforeentering new checks from 
the keyboard), just follow the directions. Type "Y" or "N" 
when it asks you "ARE YOU SURE?" If you type "Y" the 
machine will tell you to prepare the recorder to play. Once 
you've done that, hit the ENTER key, and the checks will be 
loaded in. If you type "N" it will send you back to the main 
menu. When the checks are loaded, you will return to the 
menu. At this point, if you want to enter more checks, the 
machine will add them to the file you've already entered. 

3. SAVE DATA ON TAPE. When you're through 
entering checks from the keyboard, use this function, setting 
the cassette recorder to record on clean tape (never record 
over old data). 

4. LIST CHECKS BY MONTH. The machine will ask if 
you're sure you want this, and if you do, type"Y."Then type 
the month and press ENTER. The listing will pop up, 
allowing you to page through the entries if they take up more 
than one screen. 

5. LIST CHECKS BY ACCOUNT. Tell the machine 
whether you want year, month or return to main menu by 
typing the letters indicated (Y/ M/ R). Then type in the 
account code, such as FD for food and hit ENTER. The 
machine will do the work. 

6. LIST CHECKS BY PAYEE. Follow the same 
procedure as for ACCOUNT, except you should enter the 
name of the payee you are looking for, such as SMITH. 
Make sure the entry is identical to the payee entries you have 
made. (The computer thinks that SMITH and SMYTH are 
two different words.) 

7. YEAR SUMMARY. The machine does all the work 
here. 

8. SORT BY DATE. This will sort the checks in date 
order, telling you how many passes through the data the 
machine has made. When it's through, you'll go back to the 
main menu. This can take a while. Your best bet will be to 
enter a month's checks, go to the sort routine, and then do 
the next month. If you enter a whole year's checks at once 
and want the machine to sort them, you'll have enough time 
to read a few chapters in a novel or eat dinner before it's 
through. 

A. CORRECT ERROR. While using the other functins, 
you may spot an error you didn't catch when you entered the 
checks. Merely type in the number of the check you botched, 
and it will prompt you for the correct information. Enter all 
the data for the check, but set it right this time. 

B. LIST ALL CHECKS: This will list all the checks in the 
order the machine has them (sorted if you've used the SORT 
feature, unsorted if not). 

C. LIST ACCOUNTS: This shows you a reminder list of 
all the accounts the program uses and the two-letter codes to 
use when entering checks. 



I hope the use of this program will help make preparation 
of your IRS forms less taxing this year. 



EPROM PROGRAMER 2K-4K-8K-16K-? 



[Mugs into car. Slot of the 80C (16K). 
Program (Ml.) Contains: Erased? - Program- 
Verify - Move Rom or Mem - f< xam/ Change Mem 
Comes with 3 P.M.'s (Please Specify): 
2 5/2716 - 25 3 2 - 273 2 - 2732A - 2564 
E p r o m Eraser - Has a 4 4 Chip Capacity 
Hprora Programer - -5 84.95 P D 
Eprom Eraser - $ 84 . 95 PD 



764 



27128 



INTRONICS 

9 13-422-209 4 



P.O. BOX 13723 
ED WARDS V I LI. E , KS. 



66113 



The Listing: 



130 0468 
463 086C 
990 115A 
10410 1726 
END 1CB8 



1 ' COLOR ACCOUNTANT 

2 ' (C) BY MIKE HIMOWITZ 

3 ' 825 WILLIAM ST. 

4 ' BALTIMORE, MD. 21230 

5 ' FOR PERSONAL USE OF RAINBOW 
READERS ONLY. ALL OTHER COPYWRIT 
E RESTRICTIONS APPLY 

6 'DELETE LINES 1-6 AND OTHER RE 
MARKS BEFORE RUNNING. POKE 25,6: 
HEW BEFORE LOADING 

10 CLEAR 6000 
20 DIM C*(200) 
25 A=l 

30 r=0:t=0:cls:print"COLOR accou 
nt ant ": pr int: print" 1. enter chec 
ks from keyboard" :print"2. enter 

checks from tape" : print"3. save 

data on tape" 
40 print"4. list checks by month 
":print"5. list checks by accoun 
t":print"6. list checks by payee 

II 

42 PRINT" 7. YEAR SUMMARY" : PRINT" 
8. SORT BY DATE" 

45 PRINT "A. CORRECT ERROR": PRINT 
"B. LIST ALL CHECKS" :PRINT"C. LI 
ST ACCOUNTS" 

60 CH*=INKEY*: IF CH*="" THEN 60 

62 IF CH*="B" THEN 18000 

63 IF CH*="A" THEN 14000 

64 IF CH*="C" THEN 20000 

65 ON VAL(CH*) GOTO 100, 200, 30 
0, 400, 500, 700, 900, 12000 

70 GOTO 30 

100 GOTO 105 

105 FOR X=A TO 200 

110 CLS 

115 PRINT "ENTRY NO. "X 

116 PRINT" HIT < ENTER > TO RETURN 
TO MENU" 

117 IF X>199 THEN PRINT "THIS IS 
THE LAST CHECK" 

120 PRINT: INPUT "DATE (M/D ONLY) 
";D*:IF D*="" THEN 160 
123 IF LEN(D*)>5 THEN PR I NT "MONT 
H AND DAY ONLY": GOTO 115 
125 INPUT "CHECK NO. ";CN*: INPUT 
"PAYEE" ;P«: INPUT "ACCOUNT "j AC 



138 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Quality Hardware and Software 
Support for the TRS 80 
Color Computer 



Internationa 



So ftwares ° 



T DP STlhG 



TOP STIX IS A NEW PRODUCT ON THE MARKET PLACE 
THIS INTERFACE WILL ALLOW YOU TO USE THE MOST 
FAMOUS OF JOYSTICKS NAMELY THE ATARI JOYSTICK 
BUT YOU CAN ALSO USE DATASOFT's [_E-StICK NOW 
THAT HAS TO BE VALUE , SO ORDER YOURS NOW, 



r 6~) T0P STIX PRICE 1S A L0W $2995 



THE TRS-80 COLOUR COMPUTER 
JOYSTICK INTERFACE 
Pat : PEnDinG 





DEFENSE 
$27.75 



BATTLEFLEET 

$18,95 



GHOST GOBBLER 
$27.75 





SPACE WAR 

$27.75 



CALL OR WRITE FOR ARE FREE 
CATALOGUE . 



GALAX ATTAX 

$27.75 

LOTHAR'S LABYRINTH $10.75 
PLANET INVASION $27.75 
COLOR COSMIC INVADERS$27.75 
KEYS OF THE WIZARD $25.75 

MADNESS AND THE MINOTAUR $25.75 
AND LOTS AND LOTS MORE, 

TO ORDER SEND CHEQUE OR MONEY ORDER TO ADDRESS BELLOW, WE ALSO TAKE VISA, NO C.O.D.S PLEASE 
WITH CHEQUE PLEASE ALLOW 8 BANKING DAYS FOR CHEQUE TO CLEAR, PLEASE ALLOW 2 TO 3 WEEKS FOR 
DELIVERY, THANKYOU FOR YOUR ORDER, 



INTERN^ 

(604) 474 2271 771, Hockley Ave. 





Victoria. B.C. V 9 B 2V5 



HAPPY NEW YEAR 

Whether you just got your CoCo for 
Christmas or you've been in it since the 
beginning, PCLEAR 80 has the software you 
need. 

We still carry the finest games... 

Tom Mix 



DONKEY KING (32K) *New* $24.95 

PROTECTORS (32K) $24.95 

KATERPILLAR $24.95 

SOLO POOL *New* (E.B. ) $17.95 

Spectral Specials 

GALAX ATT AX 8*9.95 

PLANET INVASION $19.95 

GHOST GOBBLER $19.95 

WIZARD'S KEYS (Adv) $18.95 

Other Great Games 

DUNKEY MUNKEY (32K) (intell) $22.95 

STARPIRE (intellectronics) $19.95 

ASTROBLAST (Mark Data} $24.95 

HAYWIRE (Mark Data) $24.95 



AND MANY OTHERS... 
....BUT WE'RE SERIOUS, TOO! 

Bus i ne s s & Utilities 

TELEWRITER-64 (Cognitec) cass. $49.95 

disk $59.95 

T.I. M.S. (Sugar Software) $24„95 

Write for info on disk version! 
WORKSAVER (Platinum Software) $30.00 
MASTER CONTROL (S.S.M.) ** $21.95 ** 

TAPE DUPE (Tom Mix) $16.95 
DISKUTIL (A.M. Heam) $49.95 

CALL OR WRITE FOR LATEST CATALOG TODAY! 

3 PCLEAR 80 SOFTWARE 

494 Cline Avenue 
Mansfield, OH 44907 

(419) 756-4873 ^ 

Note: We also carry the RAINBOW 'SSSS 

Add $2 shipping on orders less than $50. Please add 
$2 for COD. Ohio residents add 5% state sales tax. 



*: INPUT "AMOUNT *";AM* 
127 P*=LEFT*(P*,8) 

130 PRINT: PRINT" IS THIS CORRECT? 
(Y/N) " 

135 Y*=INKEY*:IF Y*="" THEN 135 
140 IF Y*="Y" THEN 150 
143 CLS 

145 PR I NT " CORRECTED " : BOTO 115 
1 50 C* < X ) =D*+STR I NG* ( 5-LEN ( D* ) , " 
" ) +STR INS* ( 5-LEN ( CN* ) , " " ) +CN*+ 
" "+P*+STRING*(8-LEN(P*) , " ")+" 
"+AC*+" "+AM* 
153 IF CH*="A" THEN 30 
155 NEXT X 

160 x=x-i:a=x+i 

165 GOTO 30 

200 CLS: PR I NT "INPUT FROM TAPE" : G 

OSUB 10000: PR I NT "PREPARE RECORDE 

R": INPUT "AND PRESS < ENTER >" ; PE 

210 OPEN "I", #-1, "CHECKS 82" 

215 INPUT#-1, X 

220 FOR K=l TO X 

230 INPUT #-1, C*(K) 

235 PRINTQ480, "ENTRY NO. "K; 

240 NEXT K 

250 CLOSE #-1 

255 A=X+1 

260 GOTO 30 

300 CLS : PR I NT "SAVE ON TAPE":GOSU 
B 10000: PR I NT "PREPARE RECORDER": 
INPUT "AND PRESS < ENTER >" 5 PE 
310 PR I NT "RECORDING" X "ENTRIES" 
320 OPEN "O", #-1, "CHECKS 82" 
330 PRINT#-1, X 
340 FOR K=l TO X 
345 PRINT#-1, C*(K) 
347 PRINTG480, "ENTRY NO. "K; 
350 NEXT K 

360 CLOSE#-l:GOTO 30 

400 CLS:PRINT"LIST CHECKS BY MON 

TH":GOSUB 10000 

405 T=0 

410 INPUT "MONTH (1-12) ";M 

415 IF M<1 OR M>12 THEN 410 

420 PR I NT "SCREEN OR PRINTER?" 

422 PRINT" (S) OR (P) " 

425 CH*=INKEY*: IF CH*="" THEN 42 

5 

430 IF CH*="S" THEN 435 ELSE IF 

CH*="P" THEN 465 ELSE 425 

435 CLS: FOR K=l TO X 

440 IF VAL(LEFT*(C*(K) ,2) )=M THE 

N GOSUB 10200 

445 IF R>10 THEN GOSUB 10300 
450 NEXT K 

455 PR I NTG336 , " TOTAL " ; : PR I NT @34 

2,USING"#####.##"; T 

460 PR I NT "PR I NT THIS? (Y/N)":GOS 

UB 10400 

463 T=0 



140 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



NEW for the Color Computer TRS-80 

"COCOCASSETTF SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE 



' TP5 60 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY COMPANY 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



ENJOY A MONTHLY COLLECTION OF 8-10 PROGRAMS! 

Including gomes, education, home finance and more,- 

on cassette for as low as $5.00 a month! Add some ac- 
tion and imagination to your Color Computer. . . Best of 
all, we do the work! 

LOOK AT SOME OF THE LETTERS WE RECEIVED FROM OUR SUBSCRIBERS. 

"I just thought I'd let you know that your cassettes arrive in good order, load just fine, and I really enjoy your programs!" 

MARION, OHIO 

"I was extremely impressed by the first tape I receivedfrom you. The added extras are just super." 

WILLOW GROVE, PENNSYLVANIA 

"Seldom do I ever write a fan letter. Usually if something is good, nothing is ever said. I just renew the subscription or buy 
the product instead. T&D is an exception. I subscribe to several 

cassette computer magazines. Yours is certainly the most creative. i PRICES 

The covers are original and clever. The material covered is . . IC ri irr\ f- c c r\/"-\ 

excellent! pine bluff .Arkansas 1 YK ( 1 2 I55UE5) . . JOO.UU 

"I only entered a six-month trial but am already willing to extend my , iccil[~C\ C *1Pl PlPl 

subscription!" ooltew ah, Tennessee O MU lO IjjUtjJ . . fcoU.UU 

SINGLE COPIES. . $ 6.00 



—MICHIGAN RESIDENTS: ADD 4% TO ORDER 
—OVERSEAS: ADD $10 00 TO SUBSCRIPTION AND $1 00 TO 
SINGLE COPIES 



616 396-7577 




PROGRAMS ARE FOR 
EXTENDED BASIC 
MODEL ONLY. ISSUES 
ARE SENT FIRST CLASS. 

SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE 




IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT! 
PERSONAL CHECKS WELCOMED! 
SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 



VISA 



T 6 D SOFTWARE P.O. BOX 256-C • HOLLAND, MICH 49423 



465 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2, "******** 
** ALL CHECKS IN MONTH "M" ***** 
***** " : PR I NT#— 2 

470 cls:print m printing month "m: 

FOR K=l TO X 

475 IF VAL(LEFT*(C*(K) ,2) >=M THE 
N GOSUB 10600 
480 NEXT K 

485 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2, STRING* (2 

2," ") ; :print#-2, using "#####.# 
#";T 

490 PRI NT#— 2 : PRI NT#— 2: GOSUB 1070 
0:GOTO 30 

500 CLS:PRINT"LIST CHECKS BY ACC 
OUNT" : PRINT"YEAR, MONTH OR RETUR 
N (Y/M/R) " 

505 CH*=INKEY*; IF CH*="" THEN 50 
5 

510 IF CH*="Y" THEN 515 ELSE IF 

CH*="M" THEN 570 ELSE 30 

515 PR I NT "ENTIRE YEAR" : INPUT "WH 

ICH ACCOUNT?" ;CA* 

520 CLSIFOR K=l TO X 

525 IF MID* (C*(K) ,21,2) =CA* THEN 

GOSUB 10200 
530 IF R>10 THEN GOSUB 10300 
535 NEXT K 

540 PRINTS336, "TOTAL"; :PRINT@342 

, USING "#####. ##";T 

545 PRINT"PRINT THIS? (Y/N)":GOS 

UB 10400 

548 T=0 

550 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2, "ALL CHEC 
KS TO ACCOUNT "CA* : PRINT#-2 
555 FOR K=l TO X 

560 IF MID* (C*(K) ,21,2) =CA* THEN 

GOSUB 10600 
563 NEXT K 

565 print#-2:print#-2, string* (2 
2," ") ; :print#-2, using "#####.# 
#";t:print#-2:goto 30 

570 INPUT "WHICH MONTH (1-12) " ; M 
: IF M<1 OR M>12 THEN 570 
575 INPUT "WHICH ACCOUNT " ; CA* 
580 CLSIFOR K=l TO X 
585 IF VAL(LEFT*(C*(K> ,2) )=M AND 
MID* (C* (K> , 21 , 2) =CA* THEN GOSUB 



$ STOCK OPTION STRATEGIES $ 



THIS PROGRAM ALLOWS YOU TO DEVISE YOUR OWN 
STOCK OPTION STRATEGIES. COVERED OPTIONS, 
STRADDLES, CALLS AND PUTS. % GAINS AND LOSES 
VS. FUTURE STOCK PRICES GRAPHED IN COLOR. EASY 
TO USE, NO DATA BASE REQUIRED, JUST ENTER FROM 
KEYBOARD. MENU DRIVEN. 16K 



CASSETTE $14.95 jjgt GREENTREE SOFTWARE 
SEND CHECK OR JB**, P.O. BOX 97 

MONEY ORDER TO: j3z. GREENWOOD, IN. 46142 



10200 

590 IF R>10 THEN GOSUB 10300 
595 NEXT K 

600 GOSUB 10800 .'PRINT "PR I NT THIS 

? (Y/N) ".'GOSUB 10400 

605 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2, "CHECKS T 

0 ACCOUNT "CA* " IN MONTH "M.'PRI 
NT#-2 

610 FOR K=l TO X 

615 IF VAL(LEFT*(C*(K> ,2) )=M AND 
MID* (C* (K) , 21 , 2)=CA* THEN GOSUB 
10600 

620 NEXT 

630 GOTO 11000 

700 CLS:PRINT"LIST BY PAYEE". "PR I 
NT"MONTH, YEAR, OR RETURN (M/Y/R 
) " 

705 CH*=INKEY*: IF CH*="" THEN 70 
5 

710 IF CH*="M" THEN 720 ELSE IF 
CH*="Y" THEN 800 ELSE 30 
720 INPUT "WHICH MONTH (1-12) ";M 
: IF M<1 OR M>12 THEN 720 
725 INPUT "WHICH PAYEE" ; CA* 
730 CLSIFOR K=l TO X 
735 IF VAL(LEFT*(C*(K) ,2) )=M AND 
MID* (C* (K) , 12, LEN (CA*) )=CA* TH 
EN GOSUB 10200 

740 IF R>10 THEN GOSUB 10300 
750 NEXT K 

755 GOSUB 10800: PRINT"PRINT THIS 
? (Y/N) ": GOSUB 10400 
758 T=0 

760 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2, "CHECKS P 
AID TO "CA* " IN MONTH "M:PRINT# 

-2 

765 FOR K=l TO X 

770 IF VAL (LEFT * (C* (K) , 2) ) =M AND 
MID*(C*(K) , 12,LEN(CA*> ) =CA* THE 
N GOSUB 10600 
775 NEXT K 
780 GOSUB 11000 

800 INPUT "PAYEE" ?CA*:CLS: FOR K= 

1 TO X 

805 IF MID*(C*(K) , 12,LEN(CA*> ) =C 
A* THEN GOSUB 10200 
810 IF R>10 THEN GOSUB 10300 
815 NEXT K 

830 GOSUB 1 0800 : PR INT" PR I NT THIS 
? (Y/N) ".'GOSUB 10400 
833 T=0 

835 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2, "ALL CHEC 
KS PAID TO "CA*:PRINT#-2 
840 FOR K=l TO X 

845 IF MID*(C*(K) , 12,LEN(CA*) ) =C 

A* THEN GOSUB 10600 

850 NEXT K 

855 GOSUB 11000 

900 CLS: PR I NT" YEAR TO DATE SUMMA 
RY" 



142 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



• ROM L — ROM PAK Loader 

• Save your ROM PAKs (or ANY machine language program) on disk then load and execute with ROML. 

• You no longer need to remove your disk controller to execute your ROM PAK software! 

■ Also allows you to load from disk or tape and execute all machine language programs which are Incompatible with 
the disk system! 

- Includes a utility to copy non-protected tapes to disk. 

- Note— ROM PAK execution requires good 64K RAM system. 

• Copy of article included describing how to access 64K RAM. 

Tape: $25.00 Disk: $29.00 

• PLUS32 

• Unleash the hidden 32K RAM in your 64K system. 

• Runs ROM BASIC from RAM where you can modify it! 

• Will not crash system if upper 32K is defective or not available. 

• Note— Requires good 64K RAM system. 

Tape: $15.00 Disk: $19.00 

• ROMKIL — BASIC ROM disable routine 

• Your choice: 

• Disables DISK BASIC ROM— returning your system to EXTENDED BASIC, or 

• Disables EXTENDED BASIC ROM-returning your system COLOR BASIC. 

• Frees up extra RAM. 

- System stays In the level of BASIC you select even if you press the Reset switch. 

• Turning power off and on returns system to original configuration. 

• Allows disk-incompatible machine language programs to be loaded and executed from tape without removing the 
disk controller. 

Tape: $15.00 Disk: $19.00 

• BANNER 

- Make your TV a moving Marquee with Color BANNERI 

- Enter any message and have it move across the screen in GIANT letters in the colors of your choice. 

■ Control speed, delay and pause from within your message! 

- Great for parties and exhibitions! 

Tape: $19.00 Disk: $23.00 

• PAC ATTACK — from Computerware 

- The most popular game for the Color Computer! 

- Fast action and brilliant colors! 

) - All the fun of the Arcade without the quarters! 

Tape: $24.95 

• Nelson's SUPER "COLOR" WRITER II 

- By far the BEST word processor available for the Color Computer! 

- More Features than any other. 



yjs>. - Supports ANY line printer 



GOOO'- 



- Excellent quality documentation! 

ROM PAK: $74.95 Disk: $99.95 

• LCA-47 — Lower Case Adapter 

- Provides real lowercase letters with true descenders! 

- Compatible with ALL Color Computer Software! 

- Provides bright characters on a dark background! 
Superb User's Manual included. 

- Easy 5 minute installation! 

- Uses NO system memory! 
- 1 year warranty. 

- Hundreds of owners, all happy! 
Assembled and Tested: $75.00 

• SPECIAL — Save $25.00 when you purchase Super "Color" Writer II and an LCA-47 at the 
same time! Order NOW! 

• PP-16 — EPROM Programmer 

- Programs single supply 2516, 2716, and 2758 EPROMs. 

- Program— entire or partial. Auto verify after programming. 

- Transfer contents to RAM for modifying or duplicating. 

- Select Documentation for: Interface to: 

6502 6820 PIA or 6522 VIA 

6800 6820 PIA 

6809 6820 PIA 

8080/8085/Z80 8255 PPI 

• Comprehensive documentation booklet contains schematic, instructions for construction, check-out and use, and a 
well commented assembly listing for the specified MPU. 

• Note— User must supply the specified parallel interface. 

• Specify MPU and computer system when ordering. 
Complete Kit (includes ZIF socket): $45.00 
PC board only (with documentation): $25.00 



= = = = = =====-= 

= S5 - - - - 

S 35 = = = = = = = 



Micro Technical Products, Inc. 

123 N. Sirrine-Suite 106-A 
Mesa, AZ 85201 
Phone: (602) 834-0283 



■Mi 



Add 5% for shipping. Overseas add 10%. Arizona residents 
add 5% tax. MasterCard & Visa welcome. 



904 fd=0:md=0:cc=0:cr=0:ut=0:ph= 
0:mg=0: is=0:mi=0:cs=0 

905 for k=l to x : am=val (mid* <c* < 

K) ,23,8) > 

910 Z*=MID*<C*<K) ,21,2) 

IF Z*="FD" THEN FD=FD+AM 
THEN MD=MD+AM 
THEN CC=CC+AM 
THEN CR=CR+AM 
THEN CS=CS+AM 
THEN UT=UT+AM 
THEN PH=PH+AM 
THEN IS=IS+AM 
THEN MG=MG+AM 
THEN MI=MI+AM 



920 
925 
930 
935 
940 
945 
950 
960 
965 
970 
990 
1000 



"; IPRINTUSI 



■•; :printusi 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 



Z*="MD" 
Z*="CC" 
Z*="CR" 
Z*="CS" 
Z*= "UT" 
Z*= "PH" 
Z*="IS" 
Z*="MG" 
Z*="MI" 
NEXT K 
PRINT"FOOD 



US 



NG"##,###.##";FD 

1010 PRINT" MEDICAL 

NG"##,###.##";MD 

1020 PR I NT "CHILD CARE' 

NG"##, ###.## ";cc 

1030 PR I NT "CREDIT CD.' 

NG"##,###.##";CR 

1040 PRINT-UTILITIES 1 

NG"##, ###.##" ;ut 

1050 PRINT "PHONE 

NG"##,###.##";PH 

1060 PR I NT "MORTGAGE 1 



PRINTUSI 



IPRINTUSI 



: PRINTUSI 



: PRINTUSI 



PRINTUSI 



PRINTUSI 



PRINTUSI 



NG"##,###.##";MG 
1070 PRINT" INSURANCE 
NG"##, ###.##"; IS 
1080 PR I NT "CASH 
NG"##,###.##";CS 
1090 PRINT"MISC. 
NG"##,###.##";MI 
1100 PR I NT "TOTAL 
I NG " ## , ### . ## " ; FD+MD+CC+CR+UT+PH 
+MG+IS+CS+MI 

1110 PR I NT "PR I NT THIS? (Y/N) " 
1120 CH*=INKEY*: IF CH*="" THEN 1 
120 
1 130 
0 

1140 
" ; TD* 

1150 PRINT#-2lPRINT#-2, "******* 
*** YEAR SUMMARY AS OF "TD*" *** 
*»»*»**" : PRINT#-2 
1160 W*= "##,###.##" 
1170 PRINT#-2, "FOOD 
NT#-2, USING W*; FD 
1180 PRINT#-2, "MEDICAL 
NT#-2, USING W*; MD 
1190 PRINT#-2, "CHILD CARE";:PRI 
NT#-2, USING W*; CC 
1200 PRINT#-2, "CREDIT CD.";:PRI 
NT#-2, USING W*; CR 



IF CH*="Y" THEN 1140 ELSE 3 



INPUT "TODAY'S DATE (M/D/Y) 



PRI 



PR I 



Design a training program lo bring you 
to your top speed- with runcalc 



Written by Bill Brown, a former coach and 2:47 marathoner, RUNCALC is an 
invaluable aid to distance runners of all ages and ability levels. 



RUNCALC can help you: 



-Evaluate your training quality 

-Compare performances of different lengths 

-Find pace per mile, per quarter-mile, per meter, etc. 

-Find speed in miles/hr., meters/ sec, ft/sec. 

-Do metric conversions 

-Generate split times for goal distances and times 
-Set meaningful goal times for interval training 
-Calculate calorie usage for a given run. 



RUNCALC was designed for the Tandy Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer. It is 
an easy to use menu-driven program requiring 16K Ext. Color Basic and is supplied on 
cassette with guide for only $12.95 including postage. Indiana residents include 4% 
sales tax. 



M^^k SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 

mnoMe RUN 

Si 'r^l^ jB COMPUTER PRODUCTS Box 511 Dale, Indiana 47523 




144 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



1210 

nt#-; 



PRINT#-2, " UTILITIES 



USING 



1213 PRINT#-: 



W*; UT 
!, " PHONE 



NT#-2, USING W*; PH 



:PRI 



PRI 



PR I 



1220 PRINT#-2, " MORTGAGE 
NT#-2, USING W*; MG 
1230 PRINT#-2, " INSURANCE ";:PRI 
NT#-2, USING W*; IS 
1250 PRINT#-2, "CASH ";:PRI 
NT#-2, USING W*; CS 
1260 PRINT#-2, "MISC. ";:PRI 
NT#-2, USING W*; MI 
1265 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2, "TOTAL 

";:PRINT#-2, USING W*; FD+MD+ 
CC+CR+UT+PH+MG+IS+CS+MI 
1270 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2:G0T0 30 
10000 PRINT" ARE YOU SURE? (Y/N) " 
10010 SR*=INKEY*: IF SR*=" " THEN 
10010 
10020 
10030 
10200 
10201 



IF SR*="Y" THEN RETURN 
GOTO 30 

AM=VAL (MID* (C* (K) , 23, 8) > 
PRINT LEFT*(C*(K) ,23) ; :PRI 



NT USING "####.##"; AM 



10210 
10220 
10230 
10300 
10301 
(M) " 
10304 
10304 
10305 



T=T+AM 

R=R+1 

RETURN 

' PAGING SUBROUTINE 

PR I NT "CONTINUE (C) OR MENU 

CJ*=INKEY*: IF CJ*="" THEN 



IF 



IF CJ*="M" 
10310 R=0 



CJ*="C" 
THEN 



THEN 10310 ELSE 
30 ELSE 10304 



10315 
10320 
10400 
10400 
10410 
E 30 
10600 
10605 
10611 



CLS 

RETURN 

CH*=INKEY*: IF 



CH*= ,,M THEN 



IF CH*="Y" THEN RETURN ELS 



' PRINTER ROUTINE 
AM=VAL(MID*(C*(K) ,23,8) ) 

print#-2, left*(c*(k) ,23) ; 
:print#-2, using ■■#####. ##■■; am 

10620 T=T+AM 
10630 RETURN 

10700 print#-2, string* (44, "*") : 
print#-2: print#-2: return 
10800 print@336, "total"; :print@3 
43, using m ####. ##" ; t: t=0: return 
11000 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2, string* 
(23," ") ; :PRINT#-2, USING "####. 

##";t:print#-2:t=0:goto 30 

12000 POKE 65495, 0:SP=l: CLS: PRIN 
T" SORTING BY DATE" 
12010 T=0 

12020 FOR L=l TO X-l 

12030 F*=LEFT* (C* (L) ,2) : NX*=LEFT 

*(C*(L+1) ,2) : M 1 *=M I D* ( C* ( L ) , INST 



R(C*(L) , "/")+l,2> :M2*=MID*(C*(L+ 
1) , INSTR(C*(L+1) , "/" )+l,2) 
12040 IF 31*(VAL(F*)-1)+VAL(M1*> 
<=31*(VAL(NX*)-1)+VAL(M2*) THEN 
12070 

12050 E*=C* (L) : C* (L) =C* (L+l ) : C* ( 
L+l )=E* 
12060 T=l 
12070 NEXT L 

12080 PRINT@128, "PASS NO. "SP; : 
SP=SP+1 

12090 IF T=l THEN 12010 
12100 POKE 65494,0 

12110 pr i nt .'print "search complet 
ed": input "hit enter for main me 
nu m ;pe:goto 30 

14000 cls: pr i nt "correct an entry 
": input "what check no. " ; nc 
14005 pr i nt "current data" 

14010 FOR K=l TO X 

14020 IF VAL(MID*(C*(K) ,6,7) )=NC 

THEN 14027 
14025 NEXT K 
14027 GOSUB 10200 

14030 PR I NT "CORRECTED ENTRY NO. 
"K 

14035 INPUT" DATE ";DT*: INPUT "CH 
ECK NO. ";CN*: INPUT "PAYEE" ;P*: IN 
PUT "ACCOUNT"; AC*: INPUT "AMOUNT" 
; AM* 



PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR 80C 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED IASIC FOR 
TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



Dear Software Dealer, 

You are participants in the fastest growing pheno- 
menon! in recent retailing history. The software 
customer, once content to order by mail, is seeking 
out local sources to supply software needs. If you 
aren't stocking our software, you are doing that 
customer a great dis-service. 

You aren't doing yourself any good either! We have 
as wide a variety and as high a quality as anyone in 
the industry. Our software is in demand, and your 
customers expect to find it in your store. Just as 
important to you, we have the strongest dealer 
support program in the software field, bar none, and 
our programs are available for the TRS-80 Color 
Computer, the VIC-20, and the Commodore 64. 

Do yourself a favor. Call or write us, and find out for 
yourself that there are a few professional software 
publishers! 

PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9822 E. Stella Road 
Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 




February, 1983 the RAINBOW 145 



COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

* UNIVERSAL PROGRAM 1 (UP-1) * 
Known as the Program Stacker, UP-1 allows several 

programs to be loaded until the memory is filled. Quickly 
jump from one program to another or compose new 
programs while retaining the old ones. Programs are 
included for patching damaged programs. Allows data 
or machine language programs to be stored and 
retrieved from a cassette. Programs are included for 
writing values or characters to memory and displaying 
memory contents. Blocks of memory can be relocated. 
UP-1 can be used as a Word Processor by allowing text 
to be stored in memory and printed on the screen or an 
external printer. UP-1 Cassette $14.95 

★ DISS ASSEMBLER-ASSEMBLER * 
Using English mnemonics and Decimal Locations, 

DISASM is an easy way to learn to assemble machine 
language programs or subroutines. Subroutines can be 
used with Basic programs and can be called by either 
USR or EXEC commands. For CC compatability, all 
locations are given in decimal values, eliminating the 
confusion associated withusing HEX. All commands are 
menu oriented and the user provides the particulars for 
the commands without having to remember command 
formats. The Disassembler can be used to analyze 
machine language programs as well as the Basic and 
Extended Basic CC ROMs. Example programs are 
included. Cassette $19.95 

* DYNAMIC WORD PROCESSOR (DYWORD) * 
DYWORD is designed to handle all the word 
processing requirements of the Color Computer. It 
allows the creation of separate files for recipes, term 
papers, addresses, invoices, etc. Printer controls 
and graphic characters can be easily entered with the 
text. A full screen editor is included with up/down and 
left/right cursor position controls. The whole screen is 
changed as characters are added or deleted to five a 
realtime display. New characters can be written over 
old ones and, at any time, printer or graphic control 
values can be entered. DYWORD's files consist of Basic 
remark statements and can be loaded, saved or modified 
like any other Basic program. Fast machine language 
subroutines allow a printer to print text at its fastest 
speed and control the realtime screen display. 
DYWORD also allows numbers to be processed For 
example, the costs of items can be entered in text in 
DYWORD and the program will convert these characters 
to numbers. Special characters such as CHR$, PRINT#- 
2, or A$(N) are not required. The Basic Control Program 
allows flexibility in processing text between any two 
statement numbers and in any order. Thus, it is easy to 
write the same letter addressed to different people. If 
yoou need a truly flexible word processor at a 
reasonable price then DYWORD is for you. Cassette 
$2495. 

EXTENDED BASIC IS NOT REQUIRED FOR 
PROGRAMS 

* Put Your Programs On A PROM Pack ★ 
Send us a PROM PACK and your Basic or ML 
programs in a cassette and we will put your program in 
the pack We add a sprocket and switch to select the 
original or your program. Total cost is $39 95 for 4K or 
$49.95 for 8K We furnish and program the chips so the 
pack is ready for operation with your programs when we 
return it to you. Additional programmed chips are $20 
for 4K and $30 for 8K. We will reprogram the chips for 
$10. These programs are immediately available on 
power-up and are not lost with power failures or 
programming mistakes. Impress your friends with your 
permanent programs. 

Checks, VISA, MC Cards Add $1 shipping 

DYNAMIC ELECTRONICS 



P.O. Box 896 



Hartselle, AL 35640 



(205) 773-2758 



PRINT" IS THIS CORRECT? (Y/ 



14040 C*(K)=DT*+STRING*(5-LEN(DT 
*)," ">+STRING*(5-LEN<CN*> , " " ) + 
CN*+" "+P*+STRING*(8-LEN<P*> , " " 
)+" "+AC*+" "+AM* 

14045 PRINT-CORRECTED" : GOSUB 102 
00 

14050 
N) " 
14060 
14060 
14070 
030 
18000 
18010 
18020 
18030 
18040 



CM*=INKEY*: IF CM*=' 



THEN 



IF CM*="Y" THEN 30 ELSE 14 



TO X 



CLSIFOR K=l 
GOSUB 10200 

IF R>12 THEN GOSUB 10300 
NEXT K 

INPUT "HIT ENTER FOR MENU" 
; PEIGOTO 30 

20000 CLS : PR I NT " ACCOUNTS " : PR I NT 
200 10 PR I NT "FD=FOOD " : PR I NT " MD=ME 
D I CAL " : PR I NT " CC=CH I LD CARE " : PR I N 
T " CR=CRED IT C ARDS " : PR I NT " CS=C ASH 
" : PRINT"UT=UTILITIES" : PRINT"PH=P 
HONE " : PR I NT " I S= I NSUR ANCE " : PR I NT " 
MG=MORTGAGE" : PR I NT "MI =M I SCELLANE 
OUS" 

20020 INPUT "HIT < ENTER > FOR MEN 
U" ;PE:GOTO 30 



Back Issue Availability 



Back copies of many issues of the RAINBOW are still 
available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue cover price — which 
is $2 for copies of numbers 1-8 (through February, 1982), 
$2.50 for numbers 9-14 (through August, 1982) and $2.95 
for numbers greater than 14. In addition, there is a $3.50 
charge per order for postage and handling if sent by United 
Parcel Service and $6 for orders sent U.S. Mail. UPS will 
no! deliver to a post office box or to another country. This 
charge applies whether you want one back issue or all of 
them. 

Most back issues are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. All back issues now available (Issues out of print 
include August, September, October and December, 1982) 
would be $31.45, plus shipping and handling — a total of 
$34.95 UPS or $37.45 U.S. Mail. VISA and MasterCard 
accepted. Kentucky residents please add 5 percent state sales 
tax. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you order back issues 
you want now while supplies last. 

In addition, copies of the cover only of the July, 1982, 
Anniversary Issue are available separately for $1 each, plus 
50 cents shipping and handling. These are suitable for 
framing. 



146 the RAINBOW February, 1983 




JOYSTICKS 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



AFFORDABLE 

ONLY 
$19.95 

TWO FOR 

$37.95 





RAINBOW 

REVIEWED 

OCT. 1982 



ACCURATE 

SMOOTH 
RESPONSE 

BUILT TO 
LAST 



Tired of broken joysticks? We offer an affordable joystick based on proven components. Each unit is hand 
assembled and checked to ensure reliability. The handles and internal mechanism have proven to be 
extremely rugged and reliable under extensive use with arcade-type games. The pots function smoothly to 
provide excellent cursor/character control. Get your joystick programs working the way they should! Our 
joysticks are backed by a 90 day warranty on material and labor (physical abuse excluded). 



c 



EXCELLENT PROGRAMS FROM LEADING SOFTWARE HOUSES 



PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

15% OFF 

*VIKING $i**T 

Go from peasant to King! 

*GANGBUSTERS $JA«3~ 

Lead a life of crime and win! 

* FANTASY GAMER'S PACKAGE SiMT 

Generates dungeons, characters, 
and monsters and includes 
sample module. 

PANDORA'S BOX %2AA9T 

Includes: "pac" game, "defender- 
type" game, Divebomb, Blockade, 
slot machine, and Squares 
(similar to cube). 

*PREREAD I, II, & III %2AAV 

Prepare your preschooler to learn 
to read 

MARK DATA PRODUCTS: 
HAYWIRE Will drive you BERZERK! 

BLACK SANCTUM 

Challenging adventure! 

ASTRO BLAST New! Fight waves of 
alien attackers 

COLORSOFT: 
*MATH DERBY Fun while learning! 

*STOCK ANALYZER New version 
disk compatable & added printer output. 

KONG IS HERE! 



$16 
$16 
$16 



$21.20Z 



$21.20 _ 

$24.95 H 
$19.95/^ 

$24.95 ! 



$11.95 
$21.95 



COMPUTERWARE 

15% OFF 

DOODLE BUG $24,95' 

New! Like Ladybug. 

RAIL RUNNER $JW 

New! Like Frogger. 

PAC ATTACK $2A£3" 

Bigger maze than the original. 

STORM $2A3S" 

A real Tempest! 

COLOR INVADERS $1AW 

Like the original. 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE: 

KATERPILLAR ATTACK Fast Action! 

SNAK PAK Great arcade action! 
*SHIP WRECK Great adventure! 

WAR KINGS Two player action. 
*MOON LANDER 2 games in 1 
*CASINO 3 Game Pack 

TAPE DUPE Copies any ML tape. 



$21.20 
$16.95 
$21.20 



$21.20 



$16.95 



$24.95 

$24.95 

$14.95 

$19.95 ^| 

$15.95 

$12.95 ~~ 

$16.95 



"ZT? 'Requires 16K Ext. Basic minimum - others 16K Std. Basic minimum. 



Call or write for free catalog. 
WE PAY postage on all software orders. Add S2.00 for shipping 
joysticks (unless purchased with software ■ then we'll pay). 

Please add $1.50 for C.O.D. orders. 
Allow 2 weeks for personal checks to clear. 

ENDICOTT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 12543, Huntsville, AL 35802 



(205) 881-0506 

PHONE OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK! 



★ ★ 32Korner ★ 

TOM MIX'S 

DONKEY KING 

4 Screens • Full action! 

PROTECTORS Brand new Defender type 
So good it had to go to 32K 

PRICKLY-PEAR'S 

*32K FANTASY GAMER'S PACKAGE %2A*S 

Like 16K version, but much more! 



$24.95 
$24.95 



$21.20 _ 

'Requires 32K Ext. Basic Minimum • others 32K Std. Basic minimum 



Five Year Evaluaton 
Of That Ubiquitous Bugaboo 



By J.D. Ray 



I am aware that Income Tax is not everyone's favorite 
subject, however, it does contain certain information that 
can be utilized for interesting financial decisions for the 
average household. This program evaluates five years of 
income tax information (1978-1982). It can be altered to 
evaluate other periods of time. You have ten different items 
on your individual tax form to compare. The most exciting 
feature of this program is the high resolution graphic display 
of the information. Your individual tax information is 
stored in the Data Statements. 

The program summary is as follows: 

10 - 120 Credits and Title 
130 - 240 Data Statements 
250 - 420 Menu Selections 
430 - 600 Information Summary & Display 
610 - 915 Graph plot with alphanumerics 
920 - 970 Line plot 

I chose D A TAj Statements in lines 145-280 to store 
information due to the fact that this information does not 
change once entered. The other methods for entering and 
storing data information, such as setting up a tape file or 
using INPUT lines to enter information each time the 
program is run, did not seem worth the effort in this 
particular program. 

The high resolution graph with alphanumerics is very 
interestingand has many applications. This particular graph 
is actually two different measuring grids, depending on the 
information being displayed. It works in the $0-$50,000 
range and also in the $0-$5,000 range. This is accomplished 
by a variation in the line plot formula in line 610 and 970. 

To Use 

To change the menu listing, adjust line 280 and the 
corresponding REM lines in 145-240. The figures in the data 
lines are for demonstration purposes only. When adding in 
your personal information in the data lines, be sure to use 
commas only to separate the yearly figures. You need to use 
five figures in each data line or use zero. If you use the 
program for less than five figures, you need to change the 
formula in line 550 to: T=T/ number of years you are 
comparing. 

All figures you use should not exceed $50,000. To change 
the program for $0-5100,000 range, you would need to 
change formulas in line 610 and 970 and change 
alphanumerics in lines 720-915. To exit entire program, hit 
any other key. Use C S AV E " TA X* H lST"iov tape storage. 

This program, with a little imaginaton, could be used to 
summarize and visualize household budgets, business sales, 
income, utility costs, and much more. For those with more 
money than time to key in programs, this is available for 
$4.95 plus 50c handling. Send to J.D. Ray, 5065 France 



Avenue, North Charleston, SC 29406 
The listing: 



The Listing: 



270 04CC 
710 093B 
END 1043 



10 '***INCOME TAX HISTORY*** 

20 'BY J. D. RAY 

30 ' 5065 FRANCE AVENUE 

40 ' N. CHARLESTON, S.C. 29406 

50 ' 1-803-554-0637 

60 CLS6: PRINTS100, STRING* (24, "*" 

) ; 

70 PRINTS 132, "** INCOME TAX HIST 
ORY **"; 

80 PRINTS164, "** 
**" ; 

90 PRINTS196, "** BY J. D. RAY 
**" ; 

100 PRINT@228, "** COPYRIGHT (C) 
1982 **"; 

110 PRINTS260, STRING* (24, "* M ) ; 

120 FORX=1TO1000:NEXTX 

130 DIM A(10) ,B(10) ,C(10) ,D(10) , 

E(10) 

140 DIM Z*(10) 

145 'WAGES, PROFIT INCOME (LIST 
FROM 1978-1982) 
150 DATA 8250.00, 



8800.00, 9650. 



00, 12570.00, 



14865.00 
155 'INTEREST INCOME 



160 DATA 300.00, 



600.00, 750.00 



,1200.00, 800.00 

165 ' ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME 

170 DATA 9000.00, 12320.00, 1435 

0.00, 18900.00, 26900.00 

175 'TOTAL ITEMIZED DEDUCTIONS 

180 DATA 3600.00, 4100.00, 3900. 

00, 4120.00, 3175.00 

185 ' INCOME TAX PAID 

190 DATA 240.00, 340.00, 420.00, 

600.00, 1200.00 

195 'BUSINESS PROFIT 

200 DATA 9785.13, 10900.00, 1403 

9.00, 15756.00, 18350.00 

205 'BUSINESS EXPENSES 



148 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



MACROTRON® Presents The 



PROFESSIONAL KEYBOARD 

For the TRS-80® Color Computer 




$89. 95 



FEATURES 

Professional Quality, Full Travel 
Simple Plug-In Installation 
Four User Defined Function Keys 
Complete Documentation Included 




Present version not compatible with Revision F Color and TDP-100 Computers 



Available From 



MICRONIX SYSTEMS 

#7 Gibralter Square 
Saint Charles, Missouri 63301 
(314) 441-0341 

All Orders Shipped From Stock 
COD Orders add $3.50 shipping Check, Money Order add $2 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



210 DATA 2000.00, 2575.00, 3125 

.00, 3600.00, 4120.00 

215 ' SELF-EMPLOYMENT INCOME 

220 DATA 10985.13, 13000.00, 141 

00.00, 13750.00, 15150.00 

225 'SELF-EMPLOYMENT TAX 

230 DATA 889.80, 1189.00, 1231. 

00, 1201.00, 1498.00 

235 'STATE TAX 

240 DATA 110.24, 175.00, 320.00 
, 400.00, 320.00 
250 FORX=1TO10 

260 READ A(X),B(X),C(X),D(X),E(X 
) 

270 NEXT X 

280 DATA WAGES, INTEREST INC., A. 
G. I., TOTAL ITEMIZED DED. , INCOME 
TAX, BUSINESS INC. , BUSINESS DED., 
S.E. INCOME, S.E. TAX, STATE TAX 
290 FORX=1TO10 
300 READ Z*(X) 
310 NEXT X 
320 CLS 

330 PRINTQ69, "WOULD YOU LIKE TO 
SEE" 

340 L=130 

350 FORX=1TO10 

360 PRINT@L, X; Z* (X) 

370 L=L+32 

380 NEXT X 

390 PRINTQ460, " (1-10) " 
400 INPUT X 

410 IFX<0ORX>10THEN400 
420 ON X GOSUB430 

430 CLS: PRINT@6, " INCOME TAX SUMM 
ARY" 

440 PRINT@47-INT(LEN(Z*(X) >/2) , Z 
*(X> 

450 A*=" **##,###.##" 

460 PRINT@100, "1978: ";:PRINTU 

SINGA*;A(X> 

470 PRINT@132, "1979: ";:PRINTU 
SINGA$;B<X> 

480 PRINT@164, "1980: ";:PRINTU 
SINGA*;C(X> 

490 PRINT@196, "1981: ";:PRINTU 
SINGA*;D(X> 



r 



64K for $99! 

We will convert any Radio Shack Color Computer to a full 64K for only 
$99.00 plus shipping. (Compare this with RS price of $149 + $30 labor 
for 32K upgrade.) No matter what board you have — No matter what 
ROM you have — Typically 24 hour turn around — Includes hardware 
modification to access the entire 64K, with special software and instruc- 
tions on useofthe upper32K. Packyourcomputerwell. Includecashiers 
check, money order, or personal check (allow 2 weeks for personal 
checks) for $1 04.00 ($99.00 + $5.00 shipping) to PYRAMID. You may 
pay also by Mastercharge or return COD. We will treat your computer 
tenderly and rush it back to you. 

PYRAMID — 527 Hill St. - Santa Monica, CA - 90405 - (2 1 3) 399-2222 



500 PRINT@228, " 1982: ";:PRINTU 

SINGA$;E(X> 

510 GOSUB 520 

520 T=A ( X ) +B ( X ) +C ( X ) +D ( X ) +E ( X ) 

530 A*="**##, ###.##" 

540 PRINTQ289, "TOTAL: ";: PRINT 

USINGA*;T 

550 T=T/5 

560 PRINT@353, "AVERAGE: ";:PRINT 
USINGA*; T 

570 PRINTS448, "DO YOU WANT TO SE 
E GRAPH? (Y/N) " 

580 R*=INKEY*: IF R*="" THEN 580 

590 IFR*="Y"THEN610 

600 IFR*="N"THEN320 

610 A=INT(A(X)/1000)*3:B=INT(B(X 

) /1000)*3:C=INT (C (X) /1000)*3:D=I 

NT(D(X) /1000) *3:E=INT (E(X) /1000) 

*3: G=D 

614 if am50 then a=150 

615 if bm50 then b=150 

616 if o150 then c=150 

617 if dm50 then d=150 

618 if em50 then e=150 
630 if a<9then gosub 970 

640 cls:pmode3, i :color3,2:pcls:s 

CREEN1,0 

650 F0RY=25T0175STEP15 

660 LINE(50,Y)-(250,Y) , PSET 

670 NEXTY 

680 COLOR 1,2 

690 FORX=50TO275 STEP50 

700 LINE (X, 25) -(X, 175) , PSET 

710 NEXT X 

720 DRAW"S3; C3BM25, 21 L3R5L3U20L3 
R6" ' I 

725 DRAW"C3BM37,21U20F20U20" ' N 
730 DRAWC3BM65, 21R12L12U20R12" 
'C 

735 DRAW " C3BM90 , 2 1 U20R 1 8D20L 1 8 " 
' 0 

740 DRAW "C3BM1 15,21 U20RF8E8D20 " 
' M 

745 DRAW"C3BM140,21R10L10U11R10L 
10U10R10" 'E 

750 DRAW"C3BM180,21U20L6R12" 'T 
755 DRAW " C3BM 1 96 , 2 1 U20R 1 2D 1 0L 1 2R 
12D11" 'A 

760 DRAW"C3BM215,21U4E12U4BL12D4 
F12D4" 

765 DRAW " S3 ; C3BM40 , 1 90U 10" '1 
770 DRAWC3BM48, 190U1 0L5D5R5" '9 
775 DRAWC3BM57, 190U5E6L8" '7 
780 DRAWC3BM65, 190U10R5D5L5R5D6 
L5" '8 

785 DRAWC3BM90, 190U10" '1 

790 DRAWC3BM98, 190U10L5D5R5" '9 

795 DRAWC3BM107, 190U5E6L8" '7 

800 DRAWC3BM120, 1 90U1 0L5D5R5" ' 

9 



150 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



The Platinum 
worksaver 

...Programming Made Easy 

FULL SCREEN EDITING OF 
BASIC PROGRAMS 

With the PLATINUM WORKSAVER'S 
editor, there's no more counting the 
numbers of characters to delete or 
change, orwonderingif you deleted 
too many or too few. You see the 
whole line as it's edited. Changes, 
deletes and inserts are automatic 
and the cursor can be moved any- 
where on the screen. 

FULL SCREEN EDITING OF 
NUMERIC AND STRING ARRAYS 

But that's only the beginning! The 
editor (Written in machine language) 
also comes with a short, two line 
BASIC subroutine that will allowyou 
to use the full screen editor on your 
numeric and string arrays. This is the 
springboard you need for develop- 
ing your own VisiCalc™ or word 
processor. 

SINGLE KEY ENTRIES OF 
BASIC WORDS 

So, the PLATINUM WORKSAVER 
makes it easier to write useful pro- 
grams and edit them, but that's not 
all! Entering programs is a breeze 
with single entry of over 80 basic 
words, on a beautifully designed 
KEYBOARD OVERLAY, color-keyed 
to function. No need to memorize or 
consult a conversion chart to find a 
word. 

PROGRAM CHAINING AND 
DYNAMIC DEBUGGING 

Nowyou can write, enterand change 
programs easily, but what about de- 
bugging? This is the frustrating, time 
consuming aspect of programming 
and frankly, the Color Computer 
doesn'thelpyou much . . . you have 
to start the program over each time 
you make a change. But not with 
the PLATINUM WORKSAVER!! With 
it you can change, delete, add and 
rearrange or join lines. The special 
reserved key is excellent for copying 
or moving parts of lines to other 
lines . . . plus, you can even LOAD 
A WH O LE N EW PROG RAM without 
disturbing the data you've created. 

NUMERIC KEYPAD 

We've solved another Color Com- 
puter weakness. Press a control key 
and letters J, K, L, U, I, O, P become 
number keys 1-7. Numbers 8-0 re- 
main in their normal positions. The 
keypad numbers are clearly labeled 
on the overlay. 

• Over 100 programmable keys • 

• Loads to Disk • 



A COLOR COMPUTER* MACHINE LANGUAGE ENHANCEMENT 
PACKAGE THAT PROVIDES: 

• Dynamic full screen editing of BASIC programs. 

• Dynamic full screen editing of numeric and string arrays. The ad- 
vanced user will be able to write VisiCalc™, word processor etc.! 

• Single key entries for 80 commands and functions. i^^k 
Functionally laid out plastic keyboard overlay. wluuonu/ 

RAINBOW 

Numeric Keypad conversion. cE«™e»T», 

• Automatic line numbering. 

• Best value per dollar than any other enhancement package available. 

With the Platinum Worksaver , programming time 
and hassle can be cut by 50%. You'll spend less time 
typing, more time being creative with your Platinum 
Enhanced 16K Color Computer! 



LOOK WHAT JUST $30 CAN DO FOR 

Platinum Enhanced 16K vs. 
Color Computer 

• Relocate, join, duplicate individual 
and unique sets of lines at the push 
of a button 

• Create the following using only 31 
keystrokes: CLS:A$-Strings$ (15"") + 
MID$ (CL$, 6, 2). To change the - 
symbol to = requires only 3 key- 
strokes!!!! 

• Retain the sequence of commands in 
temporary memory with special re- 
served key 

• One keypush and the right side of the 
keyboard converts to a numeric 
Keypad 

• Correct bugs while your program is 
running, without losing data. 

• Edit programs, data and strings using 
the full screen editor. 



YOUR 16K COLOR COMPUTER: 

Regular 16K Extended 
Color Computer 

• Retype entirely any lines to be moved 
or joined 

• Type that line using 47 keystrokes. To 
change the symbol, Backspace and 
retype using 33 more strokes! 



Retype lost lines! 



Stretch those fingers! 



Oops! Lost data! Retype, Reload and 

Save data while swearing a lot. 

NO CAN DO! 



THE PLATINUM WORKSAVER INCLUDES: 

• Enhancement program, including a sample array Editor, on a high-quality 
Agfa Cassette 

• Fully labeled acetate keyboard overlay, NOT a cheap stick-on 

• Complete instructions 

• Loads in seconds, takes less than 2K 




The PLATINUM WORKSAVER costs $3000 plus 
$3.00 S&H (NY residents add tax). To order 
write: 

PLATINUM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 833 
Pittsburgh, N.Y. 12901 
Phone orders: (518) 643-2650 

VISA. MASTERCARD ACCEPTED. PERSONAL CHECKS TAKE 
2-? WEEKS TO PROCESS. 

16 K min. required 

Includes cassette merge 



platinum 
voftware 

You're Serious About 
Your Color Computer? 
SO ARE WE. 



'Color Computer & TRS-flO are rt'Rptpred tr.iritvrmrks of Tandy Corp. 



805 DRAW "C3BM 140, 190U10" '1 

810 DRAW "C3BM 148, 190U10L5D5R5" ' 

9 

815 DRAW "C3BM 154, 1 90U1 0R6D5L6R6D 
6L6" '8 

820 DRAW"C3BM165, 190U10R6D10L6" 
'0 

825 DRAW "C3BM 190, 190U10" '1 

830 DRAW " C3BM 1 98 , 1 90U 1 0L5D5R5 " ' 

9 

835 DRAW " C3BM205 , 190U10R6D5L6R6D 
6L6" '8 

840 DRAW "C3BM214, 1 90U 10" '1 
845 DRAW"C3BM228, 190U10" ' 1 
850 DRAW " C3BM236 , 190U10L5D5R5" ' 
9 

855 DRAW " C3BM242 , 190U10R6D5L6R6D 
6L6" '8 

860 DRAW " C3BM254 , 190L5U4R5U6L5" 
'2 

865 DRAW"S2;C3BM5, 175U2E8U2BL8D2 
F8D2 " : DRAW " C3BM20 , 1 75U 1 0 " : DRAW " C 
3BM25 , 1 75U 1 0R7D 1 0L7 " : DRAW " C3BM33 
, 175U10R7D10L7": IFG>9THENDRAW"C3 
BM40, 175U10R8D10L8" 'X 1000 
870 DRAW " S3 ; C3BM25 , 1 60R 1 0U5L 1 0U5 
R10" '5 

875 DRAW " C3BM25 , 1 45U 1 0R 1 0D 1 0L 1 0 " 

'0 

880 DRAW" C3BM20, 145U10G3" '1 
885 DRAW " C3BM25 , 1 30R 1 0U5L 1 0U6R 1 0 
" I DRAW " C3BM20 , 1 30U 1 0G3 " '15 



890 DRAW " C3BM25 , 1 1 5U 1 0R 1 0D 1 0L 1 0 " 
: DRAW " C3BM20 , 1 1 5L7U4R7U6L7 " ' 20 
895 DRAWC3BM25, 100R10U5L10U6R10 
" : DR A W " C3BM20 , 1 00L7U4R7U6L 7 " '25 
900 DRAW " C3BM25 , 85U 1 0R 1 0D 1 0L 1 0 " I 
DRAW " C3BM 1 4 , 85R8U6L4R4U5L8 " ' 30 
905 DRAW"C3BM25,70R1 0U5L 1 0U6R 1 0 " 
: DRAW "C3BM14, 70R8U6L4R4U5L8 " ' 3 

5 

910 DRAW" C3BM25, 55U10R10D10L10" I 
DRAW " C3BM18, 55U 1 0G6R8 " ' 40 
915 DRAW "C3BM25, 40R10U5L10U6R10" 
: DRAW "C3BM18, 40U1 0G6R8 " '45 
920 C0L0R4, 2 

930 LINE (50, 175-A)-(100, 175-B) , 
PSET: LINE -(150, 175-C) ,PSET: LINE 
-(200, 175-D) , PSET: LINE- (250, 175- 
E) ,PSET 

940 R*=INKEY*: IFR*=" "THEN940 
950 IFR*="Y"THEN320 
960 END 

970 a=int(a(x)/100)*3:b=int(b(x> 
/100)*3:c=int(C(X)/100)*3:d=int( 
d(X) /100)*3:e=int(E(X) /100)*3:re 

TURN ^ 

The Warrior And The Wizard 
Adventure With Good Graphics 

1 don't know why 1 buy adventures. 1 don't like being 
killed. 1 don't like to have to retype all those instructions 
when I start over. 1 don't like illogical sequences or random 
luck playing an essential part of the adventure. I don't like 
adventures, since 1 have yet to successfully solve a single one. 
Yet, like bees to honey or dressing to salad, 1 am a pushover 
for a new/ different adventure. 

"The Warrior and the Wizard, a 32K disk drive graphics- 
assisted adventure." Hmmm. Sounds interesting. Let's give 
it a try. A "DIR" shows the disk contains 18 pictures and a 
Basic program. Let's RUN it. The introduction allows you 
to choose f rom five characters. You then select your choice 
of weapon or spell and type of armor. These do have an 
effect on the play of the game, according to the 
documentation. You are then shown your character in full 
"Pmode 4" color. Cute, beautiful, ugly, intriguing; the 
pictures are very well done. 

The play is fast enough. Very little delay between input 
and response. In this game, it is almost worth dying just to 
see the pictures. An umberhulk, a dragon, a cobra, all in 
high resolution Pmode 4 color, greeting you 

Thus begins an enjoyable adventure. Did 1 say that? The 
program is a good one and the graphics are excellent. 
However, the documentation leaves a little to be desired. 

The Warrior and the Wizard fills a need and breaks new 
ground through the clever use of graphics. It is worth the 
price. 

I have yet to "solve" my first adventure, but with games 
such as The Warrior and the Wizard, I'll keep on trying. 
(JARB Inc., 1636 D Avenue, Suite C, National City, CA 
92050, $19.95, disk) 

—Bernard Roskoski 



Y-PAK Dual Slot Expander 
for Radio Shack's Color Computer 

Have your Disk and Cartridge too! 
Select between 2 Cartridge slots with one 
switch and control the Auto Start with 
the other switch. 
$70.°-° Complete 

USER-PAK for Color Computer 

Vour own RAM/EPROM Cartridge 

Cartridge holds two 2732s, or any combination 
ot four 2716s/6116s. 
$30.9° less RAM/EPROM 
$90.°° with 8K RAM 

EPROMs burned from your CC cassette. 
Write for details. 

B. Erickson 

P.O. Box 11099 Dept. RB 
Chicago, IL. 60611 



152 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



NOW THERE ARE TWO TOOLKITS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



The software development tools that let you put even more power into the already 
powerful Color Computer. They're full of tools, aids, bells and whistles useful to the BASIC 
or MACHINE LANGUAGE programmer, in friendly, easy-to-use software packages. 

BOTH TOOLKITS CONTAIN . . . 

• Light characters on dark background with Current Line Highlighting; or normal characters 

• Full Screen Editor with Arrow Key controlled cursor; open up space/delete and close up space 

• Enabling selective Line Renumber/copy/move/merge; or normal Extended Basic line editor 

• Protect the current BASIC program from being wiped out with a CLOAD, NEW etc.; or from being LISTed 

• Restore a protected BASIC program/Append any number of BASIC programs together easily 

• Tone on keypress or normal silent keys (Tone modifiable by use of Sound n,n Command) 

• Global Search of command or text strings in BASIC programs with wildcard character and next "." 

• 9 Screen Print Delays with keyboard override (for slow, readable LISTings and DISK DIRectories) 

• Variable Name List/String-Byte memory usage/Range of FREE MEM/Top of memory address display 

• Fast Machine Code to BASIC DATA converter for storing machine code visibly in BASIC 

• (C)SAVEM address/Backup Tool (Last file name, start, end and execute address) 

• Recovery of Lost BASIC programs after NEW, BACKUP, DSKINI, etc. 

• Break Key Disable/Enable (Pause keys still available) 

• Modified TRON display (IN replaces (LN) 

THE FULL TOOLKIT ALSO CONTAINS . . . 

□ Merge BASIC with Machine Code routines so machine code is "invisible" and (C)SAVE/(C)LOADable 

□ 9 BASIC RUN delays with keyboard override; Single Step(s) mode with current line number display 

□ Memory Examine/Modify with HEX/ASCII/DEC/Double Decimal output and HEX/ ASCII input 

□ Memory Block Move for relocating machine code programs, DATA blocks, etc.; or the Kit itself 

□ Ten User Defined Function Keys accessable with ©/number (BASIC Macros/Block storage) 

□ Automatic linefeed for printers that don't/double space LISTings; or normal PRINT 

□ Delete all spaces (not in PRINT strings, DATA or REMARK lines) 

□ ASCII/HEX memory Dumps to screen or printer 

□ Delete all REMarks (either REM or ' type) 

□ Parallel ECHO of screen output to printer 



THESE FEATURES ARE FOUND ON BOTH VERSIONS . . . 

— Transparent to the user, Install it and forget it until you need it 

— BASIC runs up to one-third faster through the Toolkit (5-10% typical) 

— HELP command lists all Kit commands and current Kit address 

— Same program works with tape or disk and in 16 or 32K 

— Entire system totally removable at any time 

— Compatible with other utility programs 

— Green/Orange text screen capability 

— Easily modifiable command syntax 

The Kits are relocatable programs that load any time without bothering your BASIC program or variables or top of 
memory address. All tools may be turned on or off at will, including the Kit itself. 

The tools are available with simple three or four letter commands entered in the direct mode, with the entire instruction 
set viewable through the HELP command. 

The Colorkit is 5K bytes for $29.95 rainbow The Microkit is 2.5K bytes for $27.95 

Available on disk with handy BASIC Kit loader for additional $5 Manual available separately for $5 



THE GOOD LIFE 



$16.95 THE DISK COMMANDER 



The Classic Game of Life With: 

• 64x64 color symmetrical display 

• 3 Selectable birth and old age colors 

• 15 modifiable pre-programmed 

patterns 

• Save/Load life screens to tape/disk 

• Speeds from 8 gen/sec to 1 a second 

• Joystick or arrow key Input 

• Written In user-modifiable BASIC 

• With machine code LIFE processor 

• Help screen command list 

• Tape/Disk compatible 

• Selectable color sets 

• Y&X axis wraparound ~ 



$19.95 DEER HUNT 



$15.95 



Disk File Utility with: 
One key vlew/copy/load(m) of flies 
Two key kill/rename of flies 
Sort directory on name/extension 
Pack directory so new files put at end 
Directory keyword search of filename 
Print DIP with machine code address 
Recover killed flies 



Arcade shoot-em-up skill game 
Aim only for the deer 
Avoid hitting people, cars, train 
Will not cause tension headache 
BASIC/machine code hybrid 
Tape/Disk compatible 



ARIZIN 



P. O. Box 8825 
Scottsdale, AZ 85252 



COMMENTARY 




The New TDP-100 — 
A Glimpse At CoCo's Future? 

By Bob Rosen 

What is a TDP? TDP stands for Tandy Distributor 
Products. It is a new distribution channel for marketing 
Radio Shack merchandise. At the moment, antennas and 
computers are its main products. It involves some 60 
independent distributors of RCA products supplying 2000 




Call it the Huertgen Forrest di*>bed m« "dear* rrap' byG I s. where tne Cermans bore-sjghted 
every hill and valley, and rree-bursflng shetls made diving for covei mote deadly man standing tall 
loo large ro outflank, the Huettgen biockea me approaches ro Cologne arvi me Ruhi it had to be 
taken. But Hitler iiad sworn mat no invader would ever step foot on Ornar soil, and too many 
pledges had already been bro*en And rtiert was another reason, known oniy ro Hirter and a hand- 
ful or rjusred staff Delaying the Ameocans in the Huerxgen would provide time to assemble and 
urveash his attack in the Ardennes 

Each game turn represents about thtee days of the actual battle and rwenry tuns roughly the 
three months it really rook me American forces. Capture the objeenves in twenty turns and DRAW, 
reduce me turns and do what me Amencans were unable to do prevent the bloodiest Amencan 
barne wnce the OvB War — Tnc &arne erf the Bulge 

ARK ROYAL GAMES 

P. O. Box 14806 
Jacksonville, FL 32238 

$16.95 16K Ext Cassette 

Allow 14 Days For Checks Florida Residents Add 5% Tax 



retailers. The TDP-100 is their version of the Color 
Computer. 

All Color Computer software and peripherals will work 
with the TDP- 1 00. But there are differences from the current 
26-3002 and 26-3004 Color Computer models. The most 
obvious is the outside case. Instead of gray (some call it 
"battleship gray"), it is white. The ventilation holes are now 
across the top instead of the sides. With all the heating 
problems of the infamous SAM chip, this is a welcomed 
improvement. The keys are beveled and have a tighter feel. 
There are no more RAM ID buttons, but rather an 
attractive blue TDP label. There is a lip beneath the 
keyboard for resting your palms while typing. Finally, on 
the back of the computer, the letters are raised in the plastic 
instead of being pressed on. 

Now that you know about the outside differences, we'll 
explore the insides of the TDP-100. To start with, it has a 
completely redesigned board. And contrary to popular 
belief of "D" and "E" board owners, it is not marked "F"but 
either "NC" or "ET." This new board has been designed to 
upgrade from 16K to 64 K rather easily. No more cutting 
traces or jumping wires are required. All you need to do is 
remove the RF shield, which is smaller now and covers only 
the memory chips and the 6883. There are seven tabs on the 
bottom of the shield that need to be bent downward to 
remove the shield. Three jumpers exist that need to be 
moved from the 16K position to the 64K. A fourth jumper is 
required to go on two bare staking pins. Finally, eight 
capacitors are to be cut out of the board and voila\ You have 
64K. With the price of 64K chips dropping, it would be a 
wise investment, since many high quality arcade type games 
like Donkey King and Protectors require 32K of RAM. 
Also, the FLEX DOS requires 64K, and many programs are 
being rewritten to take advantage of the added memory. 

Looking closer inside the TDP-100, one finds a new 
cassette relay. Instead of a reed relay, there is now a 1 2-volt 
DC relay. The clicking is more pronounced when the 
computer or tape recorder is turned on. The keyboard PIA 
is now a 6822 which generates less hash during keyboard 
interrupts. The cartridge door is now part of the main board 
instead of the top case, and the power supply is off the 
board, making for easier servicing. You will need a new 
technical manual as the part numbers of the chips have been 
changed. The PIAs are no longer U4 and U8 but U 1 7 and 
U18. The Basic and Extended Basic chips are now towards 
the middle of the board, and there are other minor changes. 

Is this new TDP-100 an improvement over the stock 
Radio Shack Color Computer? I think so, judging f rom the 
above observations. Also, all TDP-100 computers come 
with two joysticks and a Super Bust-out ROM PACK. There 
are 52 nationwide service centers that will repair the TDP- 
100, and a toll-free number to tell you of the closest one to 
you. With its easy 64K expansion and attractive white case, 
many present Color Computer owners will be upgrading to 
it. They will, I feel, be as impressed as I am with it. 



Hint 



Print Out Disk Directory 



If you have a long disk directory and want to see all of it, 
or if you simply wish to have a hard-copy printout of your 
directory, one simple command will allow you to do this 
easily. 

Just POKE 1 1 1 ,254:DIR and the entire disk directory will 
appear on your printer, even if it is too long to be fully 
displayed on the screen. 



154 



the RAINBOW February, 1 983 



At 



GRAND OPENING SALE 




T i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



50 PROGRAMS - 6 CASSETTES IN A HANDSOME LIBRARY CASE 
• SOME 4K • SOME 16K • SOME 32K • 

Truly a bonanza for the Color Computer owner. More than twenty games - Football, 
Bomber, Lunar Lander, Hurdler (this one alone sells for $14.95), Lost Atom and many 
more. 

Educational programs like Hangman, Multiply, Divide and Ohms law, just to name a few. 
A Disassembler, even a Checkbook program to help you manage your budget 

The Color Bonanza has something for everybody. Sure to 
provide you with hours of family fun. 

The six cassettes are easily stored in the handsome vinyl 
library case provided. 

Don't miss the opportunity to get your Color Bonanza at this 
low, low price. Send your order today! Add $2.50 shipping 
charge. 



DON'T MISS THIS 
SUPER BUY! 



$ 34 



95 



Reg. $49.95 

ORDER EARLY . . . QUANTITIES LIMITED AT THIS SPECIAL PRICE! 



TELEWRITER™ 

Telewriter is a powerful word 
processor designed for the 
ColorComputer. It can handle 
almost any serious writing job. 
Extremely easy to use. It has 
all the advanced features you 
need to create, edit, store, for- 
mat and print any kind of text. 
The only one with all these 
features: 51 column x 24 line 
screen display, Full-screen ed- 
itor, Real lowercase characters. 
Powerful text formatter. Works 
with any printer. Special MX- 
80 driver, runs in 16K or32K, 
Disk & cassette I/O, Requires 
no hardware modifications. 

Tape $49.95 

Di sk $59.95^ 

MAGIC BOX 

By Spectral Associates 

Magic Box is a special pur- 
pose utility designed to load 
TRS-80 Model 1 and III 50 
Baud Basic programs into the 
Color Computer. Makes avail- 
able a wide selection of soft- 
ware. Magic Box DOES NOT 
convert Machine language pro- 
grams. Requires 16K Extended 
BASIC 

Reg. $24.95 $21.95 



MASTER 
CONTROL 

By A. Schwartz 

Copyright Soft Sector Marketing 

Master Control is a Machine 
language program designed 
to save typing time and errors. 
Look at all these features: 

• 50 preprogrammed com- 
mand keys, standard and 
extended BASIC commands. 

• Keyboard overlay for easy 
program use. 

• Programmable custom key. 

• Easy one stroke entry of 
entire commands. 

• Automatic line numbering, 
starting point and increment 

alterable. 

• Directcontrolof motor, trace 
and audio. 

• Direct run button. 

Load Master Control into 
your machine then either type 
in a BASIC program or load 
one in from tape to edit. Cuts 
programming time by 50% or 
more. 

Reg. $24.95 $21.95 




DONKEY 
KING 

By Tom Mix Software 
Exciting sound - Realistic gra- 
phics. Never before have you 
seen a game like this foryour 
color computer. Fourgraphic 
screens just like the actual 
arcade game. 

Do you have the skill to rescue 
the girl from the clutches of 
an ape gone ape? Watch out 
for the rolling barrels, the 
flame and other perils How 
high can you climb? 

Cassette $24.95 

Disk $27.95 

► « 

KEYS of the 
WIZARD 

By Spectral Associates 

Keys of the Wizard is a fast- 
action, Machine language ad- 
venture game filled with tricks, 
traps, treasures and creatures 
all of which are randomized at 
the beginning of each adven 
ture so that no adventure will 
ever be exactly the same. Three 
different skill levels to choose 
from. Cassette only. 



Reg. $19.95 



$16.95^ 



CoCo 
c Walehouse 

500 N. Dobson * Westland, Ml 48185 

Phone (313) 722-7957 



HOW TO ORDER BY MAIL Forprompl and courteous 
shipment SEND MONEY ORDER, CERTIFIED CHECK., 
CASHIERS CHECK. MASTERCARD/VISA(includecard 
number, inter-bank No., expiration date and signati 
PERSONAL AND BUSINESS CHECKS MUST CLEAR 
OUR BANK BEFORE PROCESSING. Shipping and pack 
aging charge of $2 50 minimum must be added to all 
orders in continental US (Canadian orders $5.00 mini- 
mum). Michigan residents include 4% sales tax. 10% 
deposit required on C.O.D. orders 



Special . . . Take 15% discount 
from prices shown. 

- All Require 16K- 

MONKEY KONG by Med Systems 
Mario jumps into action on the color compu- 
ter! Rolling barrels, ramps, ladders and killer 
flames must be avoided to save the lady from 
the monkey's grasp. 

Cassette only $24.95 

KATERPIIiAR ATTACK by Tom Mix Soft- 
ware. Katerpillar is a fast-paced arcade game. 
Machine language. Requires joysticks. 
Cassette only $24.95 

GHOST GOBBLER by Spectral Associates 
This is an excellent version of the popular 
arcade game of PAC-MAN. You control 
maze with the right joystick Requires Ex- 
tended BASIC. 

Cassette only $21.95 

WAR KINGS by Tom Mix Software 
Shield your castle from cannonball attacks 
and deflect them towards your opponent's 
castle. Machine language, Ext. BASIC. Re- 
quires joysticks. 

Cassette only $19.95 

PHANTOM SLAYER by Med Systems 
They are the mutant phantoms. You are the 
Phantom Slayer. Enter the deadly catacombs 
and destroy the phantoms. 
Cassette only $19.95 

CAVE HUNTER by Mark Data Products 
Fast- paced action for the Color Computer. 
Super Hi-Res graphics, dynamite sound ef- 
fects. This game will astonish you with its 
detail and quality. 

Cassette only $24.95 

SUB HUNT by Spectral Associates 

Seek and destroy alien subs! Requires Ext 

BASIC. 

Cassette only $14.95 

HAYWIRE by Mark Data 

Have fun zapping robots with fast paced 

action combined with dynamite sound effects 

and super Hi-Res graphics. For one or two 

players. 

Cassette only $24.95 

GALAX ATT AX by Spectral Associates 
Under a constant barrage of enemy fire you 
protect your ground base by shooting alien 
fighters. Use the right joystick to control the 
motion of your ship and right fire button to 
fire. 

Cassette only $21.95 

BATTLEFLEET by Spectral Associates 
This grown-up version of Battleship is the 
toughest thinking game available. There is 
no luck involved as you seek out the com- 
puters hidden fleet. 

Cassette only $14.95 



TURN OF THE SCREW 



Construct A Finger- Saving 
Circuit For Your Joystick 

By Tony DiStefano 

Have you ever played a game on your computer so long 
that your 'fire-button' finger got sore? Well I did, and that's 
what prompted me to do something about it. I was at a 
friend's place the other day and he showed me his new game. 
It was a great game, but when you pressed the fire button 
only one shot came out of the "space cannon." It didn't fire 
rapidly like a machine gun. Every time you wanted to fire 
again you had to let the button go and press it again. After 
an hour of playing, you can bet my finger was numb. Then I 
thought, if I could make an auto-fire button on my joystick, 
things would go a lot easier on my poor ol' finger. So, I set 
out to do just that. After a little drilling, and cutting and 
soldering, I came out with a circuit that I call my "Finger 
Saving Rapid Fire Circuit!" It also has speed adjust. Here's 
the circuit. 

O , 

OUT 




14 13 12 II 10 9 8 
CD 4011 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 




This isn't a very complicated project, but it does require a 
little experience in project building. The first thing you will 
need is a joystick. Any joystick will do, but since this is a 
Color Computer I modified a Radio Shack joystick. The 
next item on the agenda is a parts list. Again, I used Radio 
Shack parts in this project because there's a Radio Shack 
store right around the corner from where I live. It's a lot 
easier than going all the way downtown. If you're a 
hardware hacker like me, you'll probably have all the parts 
in your junk box and won't have to buy any of these parts. 
Here is the list. 

PARTS LIST 



Quantity Description RS Part # 

1 ICCD4011 # 276-2411 

1 Button # 275-8080 

1 Potentiometer # 271-1722 

1 Transistor 2N2222 # 276-1617 

2 Resistors 100k l/4w # 271-1347 
1 Capacitor . 1 uf 50v # 272-0 135 
1 14 Pin Socket # 276-1999 
1 Small Perfboard # 276-1392 



Now that you have all the parts, it's time to put it together. 
First, you must mount the pot (potentiometer) and the 
button. Open the joystick by removing the big screws on the 
bottom of the joystick. In the case of the more recent sticks 
there will be only two screws. Remove the lid. You will need 
a drill and two bits, a 1 / 2 inch bit and a 5/ 1 6 inch bit. Now 
you must drill two holes in the front of the joystick; that is, 
one on each side of the fire button. Don't drill into the lid, 
but rather in the same part the joystick assembly ismounted 
on. If you look at the f ront (looking at the button) with the 
stick pointing upwards, the pot mounts on the right side and 
the button mounts on the left. I did it that way because the 
button doesn't fit on the other side. The button hole size is 
1/2 inch, while the pot hole size is 5/16 inch. Use the 1/2 
inch bit to make the button hole and the 5/ 16 inch bit to 
make the pot hole. A pilot hole, using a 1/8 inch bit, is 
better, but not necessary. Be careful when you drill into the 
plastic, there are wires on the other side and you don't want 
to break them. Mount the pot and the button with the 
hardware supplied. Tighten them well so that they won't 
come loose in the middle of a fierce battle. You may want to 
seal each nut with a little dab of nail polish. Ok, let's put that 
aside for a while and start on the circuit board. 

Cut the perfboard into a piece about 1 1 /4 inches by 3/4 
inches. This should bejust big enough to mount all the parts, 
yet be small enough to fit inside the joystick. Insert the 
socket in the center of the board and to one side. The long 
side of the socket should align with the long side of the 
board. Note that pin # 1 on the socket should match with pin 
#1 of the chip. Pin #1 is the bottom left hand corner of the 
socket — the side with the notch. Also note that the pin 
numbers go counter clockwise around the chip. All pin 
numbers are looking down on top of the chip and are 
reversed when soldering underneath the board. Solder in the 
rest of the components (except the button and the pot) 
according to the schematic drawing. Do not solder anything 
to the points marked with letters just now, I will get to that 
later. Use the long leads of the components as connecting 
wires to the socket. Do not solder onto the chip itself; use the 
socket and make sure that the chip is not in the socket when 
you solder. In fact, you should not insert the chip until all the 
wiring is done and you are ready to test the circuit. This is a 
CMOS chip and is very sensitive to static electricity. 

Now that all the components are in, it's time to solder 
wires to connect to the rest of the circuit. There are five wires 
coming off the board labeled A to E. Each has its special 
place, and I will describe them one by one... 

A) Wire A goes to the center terminal 
and one side of the pot that is mounted 
on the joystick. 

B) Wire B goes to the other side of the pot. 

C) Wire C goes to one side of the 
button which we mounted earlier. 

D) Wire D goes to the 5 volt 
supply. On my joystick it's 

the white wire that comes from 
the main cable. This may not be 
the same on all joysticks, so 
it is best that you trace it from 
the connector. This is pin #5 
on the connector. 

E) Wire E goes to the ground of 
the joystick. This wire is black 
on my joystick, but again it may 
be different on yours. This is 
pin #3 on the connector. 



156 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



COLORSOFT 



ESCAPE 

A 3-D GRAPHICS ADVENTURE WITH SOUND 

(Machine Language for Fast Action) 
This is NOT the usual "find the treasure" adventure. In 
ESCAPE, you are trapped on the top floor of a 
skyscraper and the only way out is by using a very 
unusual elevator. You must give the elevator the 
correct code or else the ride down is a real killer. The 
maze-like halls seem to come to life due to the fantastic 
3-D graphics. Search the halls forrooms which contain 
clues to the correct code. Clues must be deciphered to 
learn the elevator's secret code. Game times depends 
on the skill of the player, but it is typically 8-10 hours. 
ESCAPE is suitable for group play. A mentally 
stimulating experience. 

16K BASIC $18.95 



RECIPE FILE 

A CASSETTE BASED STORAGE AND 
RETRIEVAL SYSTEM 

This program permits storage of your favorite recipes 
for retrieval by your computer. Once a recipe has been 
recalled, then the computer can adjust the ingredient 
measure for serving the desired number of persons. 
Each recipe can contain special comments on 
preparation as well as the full instructions for using the 
recipe. Included is a line oriented text editor for 
creating and editing the variable length files. 
Completely menu driven and very user friendly. Easily 
modified by the user for use in keeping track of record, 
coin or stamp collections or whatever your interest. 
Screen or printer output. 

16K Ext. BASIC $21.95 
SPECIAL: A collection of 30 recipies covering main 
meals to snacks. Only $3.95 with program. 



SQUIRE 

SQUIRE is a challenging game of 
asset management. The player must 
manage a country estate and contend 
with crop failure, investment losses, 
taxes and other such headaches. The 
object of the game is to increase the 
estate's value while providing for the 
peasant workers. The starting assets 
are computer selected so that each 
game offers different challenges. 
Great experience for the kids or 
aspiring executives. 



HOUSE 



16K Ext. BASIC 



$14.95 



HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE 
MANAGER 

This menu driven program package is 
designed for creating and 
maintaining a data file on cassette of 
30 household expense categories for 
a 12-month period. It also keeps 
cumulative totals and a separate total 
of tax deductable expenses. A 
comparative analysis program 
.provides a graphic presentation of 
relative expenses between any two 
months during the year. The user can 
change categories by modifying 
program code. Screen or printer 
output. 

16K Ext. BASIC $19.95 



FLIPPER 

A fun and challenging version of the 
Othello™ type board games. This 
version includes options for play 
solely by the computer, one player 
against the computer, or two players 
against each other. The computer 
can play on four skill levels. Very 
colorful with plenty of sound. Fun for 
kids and challenging foradults. Great 
for parties. 



16K Ext. BASIC 



$16.95 



COLOR 

SOFTWARE 

SERVICES 

P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 



INCLUDE S2.25 HANDLING PER ORDER 
WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 



DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 
9-4 Monday-Saturday 

VISA/MASTERCARD 



There is only one more wire to add. This is the point 
marked "out" on the schematic. One end of the wire comes 
f rom the free end of the button you mounted. The other end 
of this wire goes to the already existing button. There are 
two wires on the existing button. The one you want is the 
one that comes from the connector side, not the side that 
goes to the joystick pot — that's ground. Solder your wire to 
the same spot, but make sure that the original wire does not 
come loose when you do. This completes the wiring. 

Carefully insert the chip into its socket. Make sure that 
pin #1 is in the right place. You are now ready to try out the 
circuit. With the board not touching anything (off to one 
side) plug in the joystick and turn on the computer. Type in 
this program and run it... 

10 CLS 

20 PRINT@0, PEEK (61)280) : GOTO 20 

A number should appear on the screen. Press the regular 
fire button. The number should change. It doesn't matter 
what the number is, just that it changes. Now press the rapid 
fire button. The value you see on your screen should change 
rapidly. Turn the pot on the joystick from one end to the 
other slowly. This is your speed control. You should adjust it 
according to your needs. The number should change from 
slow to f ast. If it does, then all is well and it's time to close up 
the joystick. If it doesn't, then check your work carefully and 
correct the errors. The most common is the pinout of the 
transistor. Make sure that the base and collector are in their 
right places. Before you close up the joystick, put a little dab 
of rubber cement or silicon glue to hold down the board to 
the inside of the joystick. Anywhere that fits will do. Make 
sure that it doesn't touch anything. Close it all up and have 
fun. 



That's about it for this month. I hope my "Finger Saving 
Rapid Fire Circuit" can save a few fingers. 



Software Review... 

C.C. Mailer Is Easy 
And (Small) User Friendly 

The C.C. Mailer is written in Extended Color Basic and 
will operate with I6K or 32K in the cassette version. The 
disk version requires 32K and onedrive, howevertwodrives 
will provide greater flexibility. 

C. C. Mailer is totally menu driven and very user f riendly. 
It is especially suited to personal and hobby use which will 
not require massive mail lists. The tutorial is clearly written 
and will allow the beginner to operate the system easily in 
minutes. 

The program has a graphic title screen which displays 
during the loading of the basic program. After RUNning the 
program, the first prompt appears asking if this is a new file. 
If YES, the program jumps to the main menu. If NO, the 
program will load your file f rom storage. The completion of 
the load will then prompt for a new file revision date. It will 
also show the number of records on file and the last revision 
date. 

The main menu is very straight-forward. Choosing to 
UPDATE the file will take you to another menu which lets 
you select: ADD to the file, DELETE a record, CHANGE 
an existing record, or RETURN to the main menu. 

The program sets up eight strings for each record so that 
the ADD record display is semi-formatted to easeentryand 
correction. There are no edit functions in the program, 
corrections are made by reENTERing the specific string. 
The mechanics for this are very simple and well though out. 

The CH ANGE-an-existing-record option provides a last 
name or a code search to locate the specific record. The 
record is then displayed the same as the ADD screen. 

The PRINT-a-file option on the main menu will print a 
fully formatted record, plus the record code and the 
telephone number, if available. The print routine sendsa top 
of page signal to the printer after the completion of each 
separate code listing. The print routine will not search for 
last names, which is inconvenient if you only want to printa 
few records or labels. The PRINT-labelsfunction essentially 
uses the same routine, except the printing of the sort code is 
optional on the label. The program also provides a test label 
print to allow for manual printer alignment 

The SORT-the-file command will arrange the records in 
alphabetical order by lastname. Theauthordescribesthisas 
a ripple sort from back to front. This routine is quite 
satisfactory for smaller files, however, the time to sort the 
file using Basic tends to extend exponentially as the file size 
increases. 

EXTRACT-from-file seems to have a correctable flaw in 
the program. The default name for the file is 
"CCMAILEX," or you can enter a name. The problem 
arises when you try to load the file back into the program. 
The program loads "MAILFILE." 

A final word about the Sort Code used in the cassette 
program. The author has dedicated one string for the sort 
routine. It is set at a length of ten characters. If you pre-plan 
your codes, it can provide almost infinite sort arguments. 
(Transformation Technologies, 194 Lockwood, 
Bloomingdale, IL 60108, $20.00 tape or disk) 

-Ed Sehlhorst 



JPJRESEiiTS 

. JUMPS . 

Q-SOFT's challenging version of a very old European 
solitaire game by the name of Hl-Q. An ADDICTIVE board 
game in HI-RES graphics. A game for ages 3-99. Also 
available in 4K 

Cassette. 16K E.C.B S70.95 

Cassette. 4K C.B $8.95 

. TIC-T AC-TOE . 

If you thought Tic-Tac-Toe is an easy game, try 
matching your wits against this version Play it with or without 
joysticks. A special "SMALL FRY" level of difficulty is 
provided for those "SMALL PROGRAMMERS" in your house. 
Cassette: 16K CB $10.95 

• CONVERSIONS . 

A 6-way menu driven conversion program that will 
convert DECIMAL to BINARY and vice versa. HEXADECIMAL 
to DECIMAL and vice versa, and BINARY to HEXADECIMAL 
and vice versa. A MUST! 

Cassette: 16K E.C.B $10.95 

. ONE CHECK . 

NEW! 48 "CHECKERS" are placed on the two 
outside rows of a standard checker board The idea is to 
remove as many "checkers" as possible, jumping diagonally 
as in regular checkers It's a real challenge to remove more 
than 35 Play with or without joysticks. 

Cassette: HI-RES GRAPHICS 16K E.C.B $10.95 

Q-SOFT 

1006 ROBINHOOD DRIVE • PAINESVILLE, OH/O44077 

CO D. orders add $3.00 call 216-352-2675 



158 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Software Review... 

Millborn: Fun Racing 
CoCo To The Finish Line 

Pretend that you are driving your car in a long distance 
road race. Your goal is to travel 700 miles before your 
opponent (the Color Computer) does. Of course, in this race 
you are subject to certain rules of the road. Namely: you 
must obey traffic signals and observe speed limits. If you 
have a flat tire or accident, repairs must be made before you 
can continue. If you run out of gas, you must wait for 
gasoline. The fun part is that this is an attack game, which 
means that in addition to trying to reach the 700 mile goal 
first, you try to prevent CoCo f rom traveling that distance. 
This is done by creating chaos for the computer, such as 
causing CoCo's car to have a flat tire, run out of gas, have a 
fender bender, etc. Of course, CoCo can cause the same kind 
of problems for you also. 

Millborn is a non-graphic game, similar to the French 
card game Mille Bornes. To begin each hand, CoCo shuffles 
the cards. It then deals six cards to you and itself. The 
remaining 89 cards are placed in the "draw" pile. There are 
19 different types of cards in this game. Any given card will 
fall into one of four different categories. The categories are 
MILES CARDS (used to accumulate mileage), HAZARD 
CARDS (used to overcome a hazard), REMEDY CARDS 
(used to overcome a hazard), and SAFETIES (used to 
prevent hazards). 

Each player's turn consists of drawing a card f rom the pile 
and either playing or discarding a card f rom his hand. The 
object, of course, is to be the first to reach the 700 mile goal 
by playing MILES CARDS. If you want to play dirty (and 

/ 



believe me, CoCo does) you can play a HAZARD CARD 
on your opponent. A hazard can only be overcome by 
playing a REMEDY CARD or a SAFETY. 

At the end of each hand points are awarded, based on 
your total mileage, plusbonuspointsyoucan accumulate. A 
game is won by scoring 1 0,000 points first. This usually takes 
about five or six hands. 

Apparently CoCo is a real hustler. The first time I played 
the game I nearly had a shut-out, and thought the game was 
going to get boring real fast. After that first game, though, 
CoCo has taught me a lesson or two. 

The display f ormat is similar to a non-graphic adventure 
game. Your hand is displayed on the screen along with your 
and CoCo's current status. If you like to cheat you have the 
option of looking at CoCo's hand. This writer would never 
normally cheat on his CoCo, but being a responsible 
reviewer 1 did just once to make sure the game was all the 
designers said it was. Another feature the game has is the 
ability to see whatthecomputeristhinkingduringitsturnto 
play. 

The only two things 1 don't like about the game are when 
you are trying to cheat and look at CoCo's hand, the 
information scrolls off the screen too fast (this can be 
stopped, though, by pressing the "shift" and "@" keys and 
play is resumed by pushing any key), and, it would be nice if 
there was a provision made to save a game in progress. 

A PCLEAR1 allows you to load Millborn into I6K. 

All in all, this is an easy to play game, requiring some 
strategy and a lot of luck. The four pages of documentation 
are good and can have you playing the game within 30 
minutes. 

(Hume Design, Dept.R., 4653 Jeanne Mance St., 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2V 4J5, $14.95) 

— Michael Hunt 



ALL 



YOU'VE WANTED* 
IN A COMPUTER f 
AND MORE • • • 

TDP SYSTEM IOO 

A COMPLETE SYSTEM READY TO PLUG INTO YOUR COLOR T.V. SET 



Features: 

• 16K Memory 

• Expandable to 32K at any TDP Service Center 
Nationwide; and to 32/64K through Southco, 
the Georgia Distributor 

• Designer Cosmetics in White and Black 
High Impact Case 

• Raised Keyboard with Gold Contacts 
to Withstand Constant Use 

• Standard Basic Built-in (Microsoft) 

• RS232 Interface Device Built-in 
(Permits hook up with printer or telephone 
modem without purchase of the RS232, a $200.00 
extra charge on most computers.) 

• RF Interface for Direct Hook Up to any TV Built— in 

• Vast Source of High Resolution Arcade Color Games 

• Inexpensive Telewriter Word Processing 
Applications Available 

• Programming Manual (s) Included at No Charge 

• Bust Out Game Pak Included at No Charge 

• Joy Sticks Included at No Charge 



MODEL 10-1000 




suggested retail 

ONLY $379 



c SOUTHCO 



«J> SALES CORPORATION 



Dealer Enquiries for Complete Information Call or Write: 
Tommy Thompson or Roy Green (404 ) 355-2960 
1500 Marietta Blvd. N.W. Atlanta, Georgia 30318 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 159 



HOME POWER UTILITY 



the 



RAINBOW 



Bnnr 

Let CoCo Control 

Your Home Power Units 

(Part I Of \ Series) 
B\ A.B. Trevor 




Have you ever wanted to have your house lights turned on 
and off in a different pattern each daywhenyou were out of 
town? Would you like to have various appliances and lights 
shut off after you go to bed each weeknight (but not 
weekends)? How about wateringyour lawn beforeyou wake 
up every other morning? This may sound like another 
impractical "home of the future"story, but all these tasks are 
performed for me without special house wiring by my 80C, a 
few Plug 'n Power components, and the sof tware that will be 
presented in this series of articles. 

PLUG N POWER (X10) SYSTEM 

Let's examine the Plug 'n Power Controller and what it 
can do. This peripheral can extend the powerand usefulness 
of your computer beyond the physical boundaries of your 
computer room, yet it is one of the least expensive and least 
exploited 80C devices. The controller is packaged in a small 
box that plugs into the cassette port. Your cassette cable 
plugs into a jack on the rear of the controller, and a switch 
permits selection of "CTRL" or "CASS" so you can leave 
the device plugged in at all times. The hardware itself is 
extremely simple; it consists logically of two main 
components: l)an 1 20kHz oscillator that can be gated onto 
your home's electric power wiring under computer control, 
and 2) a power line frequency detector that can be read by 
the computer. Under software control, coded signals are 
sent out over your house wiring to various wall switches, 
appliance modules, lamp dimmers and electrical outlets. 
These remote devices constantly look for their own "house 
code" and "device code" on the power line. If a device detects 
its own code, then it will respond to an "ON," "OFF," 
"DIM" or "BRIGHTEN" command. 

Compatible remote modules are available from a number 
of sources, including Radio Shack, Heathkit, Sears, and 
others. Actually, they are all manufactured by BSR (LTD) 
as components of their "XIO" system. X10 uses a fairly 
sophisticated digital encoding scheme (more on that in a 
later article), but suffers from a basic limitation: there is no 



return communications from the remote devices, so there is 
no way f or the controller (or your CoCo) to assure that the 
commanded function actually occurred. In actual practice 
this is seldom a real problem unless you operate other carrier 
current devices (such as FM intercoms) that interfere with 
the XIO signals. Interference can also originate in another 
house on the same power transformer. When the BSR XIO 
system was first released it was somewhat sensitive to 
voltage spikes on the power line, and the failure rate of the 
remote units was quite high. I had two units fail, (one from 
Sears, and one from Radio Shack), but in both cases the 
store exhanged the failed parts on the spot. Since then, I 
have operated 1 1 remote modules for over two years without 
a failure. However, I know of one household that nearly 
gave up on the XIO system because one inhabitant couldn't 
seem to remember not to plug vacuum cleaners, toasters, 
and hair dryers into the 300 watt XIO lamp modules. 

CONTROL SOFTWARE 

Perhaps the biggest reason f or the Plug 'n Power's lack of 
widespread popularity (at least among 80C owners) is the 
lack of good control software. With each controller, Radio 
Shack packs two cassettes containing programs for various 
Mod 1/ III configurations, and one program for the 4K 80C. 
The instruction manual includes Basic control programs for 
three flavors of Mod III, but alas, none for the 80C! At the 
end of this article is a small Basic program that corrects that 
situation. The machine language program that is supplied 
by Radio Shack with the controller has several problems: I) 
there is n o way to save your schedules — they must be typed 
in every time you wish to use them; 2) the clock loses time on 
each event; 3) it won't work on a disk system unless you 
disable the IRQ (see the Rainbow, September, 1982, page 
92), and 4) it crashes occasionally. 

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION 

The Basic program that follows includes a relocatable 



160 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE presents... 



BAIN BOW OOmnOTXOH SOmUtS presents.. 




5 soundeational, colorful, graphic games for your Color Coaputer ineludin«i 
Briokout, B-17 Boabsr, Blackjack, Jackpot and Coaputration * all for the 
price you might expect to pay for Juat on* of theee games! II 
Plus added boaua * Compuaindi guess the ooaputer'a secret oode froa oluee 
provided - a gaae of logic for the whole family; At thia prioe oan your 
library afford to be without then? 

All machine* - Ext. Baeic NOT Required 
819.95 Cassette - «2M3 Disk 



The year ie 2117 and the galaxy haa been invaded by the Xoprith,\ 
a raoe of robota froo a distent galaxy. Tour mission ia to rid the 
galaxy of their various ahipa a quadrant at a time but fuel is preoioua. 
Just ae it seams you're winning the battle they hit you with the ultimate 
weapon - phyoologioal warfare! Hi-rea, real time, aroade sound. 

l6K Ext. Saeic & Joystick 
elV.95 Casa 



RAINBOW CONNECTICUT 807TVARX presents... 



©3f 




RAINBOW COKWECTIOH BOTTWAJtl presents 



XZ3S0C A 




You 'to travaraed the duageone of Kzirgla and reclaimed the almighty Scapter. 
Now you muat uae ita inrinoible powera and all your weapons to alay a myriad 
of monatera and fireballs in your attempt to daatroy the evil wizard. If you 
like the challenge and myatique but not the boredom of text only adventure 
games then this real time, hi -res' sequel to the ever popular Scepter of Kzirgla 
is for you! 

16K Ext Basic Caas - 121.95 
CONQUEST OF KZIRGLA for the Color Computer 32K Diskette - $26.95 



•Reviewed in the RAINBOW 
At last. ..a real-time *raphlca adventure game with arcade sound for your Color Computer! 
If you are bored with silent screens of text but enjoy the challenge and complexity of 
adventure games then SCEPTER OF KZIRGLA ia for you. 



Add 



Include S2.00 shipping. 
Minn, resedents add % tax. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 

Not affiliated with THE RAINBOW. 




16K Ext. Basic Rcq. 
U6.95 cans - 121.95 disk 



RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE 
551^ 6th Place N.W. 
Rochester, KN 55901 



machine language subroutine that generates legal X10 
signals. You can easily modify this program to implement 
control sequences appropriate to your situation. Nearly any 
Basic facility may be used, such as Timer, RND, graphics, 
etc. Of course, you cannot perform cassette I/O, and you 
should avoid other functions that use the A/ D converter — 
specifically, JOYSTK, PLAY, and SOUND. As it is, the 
program prompts for house code (A through P), unit code ( 1 
- 16), and command (ON, OFF, DIMn, BRn, ALL, and 
CLR), then sends the appropriate control sequence. The 
"ALL" command turns on all lights to full brightness, while 
CLR turns them all off. Neither command affects appliance 
modules. The Dl M and BR commands must be suffixed by 
a digit from 1 to 9; they also have no effect on appliance 
modules. 

You will note that a machine lanugage subroutine (USRO) 
is necessary in order to generate the precisely timed XIO 
signals. USRO requires an integer argument whose 16 bits 
are encoded as follows: 



Bits 


Contents 


15 


0 always 


14 


address/ command flag 


11-8 


repetition count 


7-4 


house code 




unit code 



An address packet argument is calculated in line 250 and 
passed to USRO in Line 260; a command packet argument is 



calculated in Line 350. Table BTAB is used to map house 
codes A — P and unit codes 1 — 16 into the actual values 
used in the XIO protocol. Line 1 10 contains the hex values 
loaded into BTAB. The repetition count is set to three f or all 
commands except DIM and BR, which use twice the given 
digit plus one. 

Before using the XIO Basic program, you must be sure 
that the controller switch is in the "CTRL"position; it won't 
be if you just loaded the program from tape! If you forget, 
USRO will hang until you throw the switch. 

DEVICE AVAILABILITY 

Radio Shack's Christmas .Computer Center catalog lists 
the Plug 'n Power controller at only $19.95 — half the 
former price. Of course, such a large price cut probably 
means that they are soon going to discontinue this item; so if 
you have any interest in putting your 80C to work around 
the house, you probably should pick up one soon. Remote 
modules cost from $15 to $22, depending on supplier and 
model. Lamp dimmers and appliance modules just plug into 
an existing outlet; wall switches and outlets are also 
available that can be installed in your walls. Other available 
XIO components include manual control units ($25 — $45), 
a telephone remote controller, a timer control, and a 
sprinkler control valve (from Heathkit, $60). Of course, the 
timer controller has nowhere near the programming 
flexibility of your 80C, and is limited to eight devices (your 
80C can control 256). But, it might be useful on those 
presumably frequent occasions when you want to use your 
80C for something else. 

In the next article I shall discuss how to use the Plug 'n 
Power controller as an accurate, real time clock, the format 



"TRS80 color 

From the January 1981 issue of the CSRA Computer 
Club newsletter: 

There was some amusement at the Novem- 
ber meeting when the Radio Shack repre- 
sentatives stated that the software in the 
ROM cartridges could not be copied. This 
month's 68 Micro Journal repotted they had 
disassembled the programs on ROM by 
covering some of the connector pins with 
tape. They promise details next month. Never 
tell a hobbyist something can't be done' This 
magazine seems to be the only source so far 
of technical informations on the TRS-80 color 
computer " Devoted to SS-50 6800 and 
6809 machines up to now. 68 Micro Journal 
plans to include the TRS-80 6809 unit in 
future issues. 

NOTE: This and other interesting and needed articles 
for the Radio Shack TRS-80 color computer " are being 
included monthly in 68 Micro Journal— The Largest 
specialty computer magazine in the world 1 

68 MICRO JOURNAL 

5900 Cassandra Smith Road 
Hixson, Tennessee 37343 
615 842-4600 





68 Micro Journal* was established with one objective in 
mind; to provide a Magazine FOR 68xx Users BY 68xx 
Users. Because of a strict advertiser policy, 68 Micro 
Journal* has gained a strong following W0RLDWI0E 
because the reader KNOWS what he is getting when 
purchasing from a 68 Micro Joumaf Advertiser. It has 
gained a strong User following because most of the 
material published is contributed BY USERS, and, 
therefore, is relevant to the Users needs. 

Currently, and even before the Color Computer" hit the 
stores, 68 Micro Journal" was devoting more space to 
the TRS-80C Color Computer™ and information concerning 
the Motorola 6809 (which is the CPU in the Color 
Computer") than ANY OTHER Computer Magazine . Examples 
include: 

REVIEWS of the three major Disk Control Systems for 
the Color Computer", most of the Monitors, 
Assemblers, and Disassemblers, Word Processors and 
Editors, "Terminal" Programs (for use with Modems, 
Communications with other Computers, etc.), and of 
course, Games. 

HINTS for Expanding Memory, Power Supply Cooling, re- 
pairing sticky keyboards, disabling the ROM PAK "Take 
Over", hooking up to Printers, etc. 
DISCUSSIONS of the 6883 Synchronous Address 
Multiplexer, using the Color Computer" with 64K and 
96K memory (which it is ALREADY capable of handling), 
thoughts on Programming, etc. 

I suggest that you subscribe to 68 Micro Journal", SOON, 
as many back issues are sold-out. 

We still, and will continue to, lead in the type 
information you need to FULLY UTILIZE the POWER of the 
6809 in the Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer". 



Subscription Rates 

USA: 1-year $24.50; 2-year $42.50; 3-year $64.50 
CANADA and MEXICO: Add $5.50 per year to USA Price 
Foreign Surface: Add $12.00 per year to USA Price 
Foreign AIRMAIL: Add $36.00 per year to USA Price 

** Sample issue - $3.50 




Bob Nay i 
Color Computer Editor 



162 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



of X 1 0 signals, and I '11 provide assembly language listings of 
the clock and XIO routines. In the third article in this series I 
will present a full-fledged control program that displays 
schedules with color bar graphs, has accurate timing, allows 
saving and restoring of schedules to disk or tape, and is 85% 
Basic for your ease of modification. 

This month's XIO program can be downloaded from the 
ACCESS data base on CompuServe. Type "R ACCESS" 
from the PROgrammer's area, then "DOW 
BSR.CC(70000,130)". (Procedures for non-VIDTEX(tx) 
terminal software vary.) 



The listing: 



300 02D4 
END 0575 



**************************** 

BASIC HOME CONTROL 
FOR PLUG'N POWER SYSTEMS 

(C) A.B. Trevor 1982 
**************************** 



10 

20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 ' 

90 CLEAR 100,&H2FFF 

100 DIM BTAB < 16) , CMD* <6) 

110 DATA 6,E,2,A, 1 , 9, 5, D, 7, F, 3, B 

,0,8,4,C 

120 DATA CLR, ALL, ON, OFF, DIM, BR 
130 DEFUSR0=&H3000 

140 FOR 1=1 TO 16: READ A*: BTAB < 
I)=VAL<"8<H"+A*> : NEXT I 
150 FOR 1=1 TO 6: READ CMD* ( I ) : 
NEXT I 

160 FOR I=&H3000 TO &H3076 
170 READ A: POKE I, A: NEXT I 
180 ' 

190 INPUT "HOUSE CODE";H* 

200 IF H*="" THEN 220 

210 HC=ASC(H*)-ASC("A">+1 

220 IF HC<1 OR HO 16 THEN SOUND 

99,5: GOTO 190 

230 INPUT "UN IT " ; UN 

240 IF UN<1 OR UN>16 THEN SOUND 

99,5: SOTO 230 

250 ARG=3*256+BTAB < HC ) * 16+BTAB ( U 
N) 

260 X=USR0(ARG) 

270 INPUT "COMMAND " ; A* 

280 FOR CD=0 TO 5 

290 IF LEFT*<A*,2)=LEFT*<CMD*<CD 
+1) ,2) THEN 340 
300 NEXT CD 

310~PRINT"? LEGAL COMMANDS ARE:" 
320 FOR 1=1 TO 6: PRINT CMD* ( I ) ; 

" ";:NEXT I 

330 PRINT: GOTO 270 

340 IF CD>3 THEN RP=2*VAL (RIGHT* 

(A*, 1) )+l ELSE RP=3 

350 ARG=RP*256+BTAB ( HC ) * 1 6+CD+&H 

4000 



360 X=USR0(ARG) 

370 PRINT" >DONE< ":PRINT 

380 GOTO 190 

390 DATA 189,179,237,237,141,0,1 
13, 132,63, 167 

400 DATA 141,0,106,141,57,141,55 
, 141,53, 141 

410 DATA 46,166,141,0,96,142,0,8 
, 141, 19 

420 DATA 166,141,0,86,73,142,0,1 
, 141,9 

430 DATA 106,141,0,75,38,223,57, 
0,252,73 

440 DATA 37,6,141,13,141,16,32,4 
, 141, 12 

450 DATA 141,5,48,31,38,239,57,4 
9, 140,233 

460 DATA 32,3,49,140,229,52,18,1 
92, 255 p 32 

470 DATA 133,1,39,249,134,52,74, 
38,253, 198 

480 DATA 3,166,164,183,255,32,13 
4, 178,74,38 

490 DATA 253,127,255,32,28,0,90, 
39,8, 134 

500 DATA 248,18,74,38,252,32,230 
,53, 146 

510 END ^ 



SUPERIOR ORACLE SOFTWARE 
PRESENTS 

THE C C QUBE 

A MAGIC CUBE SIMULATION FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



FEATURING: 

* Easy to use commands 

'Fast - uses machine language routines 

* Random mixes 

* Undo moves or random mixes 

* See all 6 faces 

* Save QUBE to tape for later reload 
•Only $14.95 



Send Check or MO. to: 
SUPERIOR ORACLE SOFTWARE 

PO lo. 4JOJ 

Greenwich, Conn. 06130 



Conn, residents add 7 sales tai 
Shipping and handling included 

Personal checks require 
2 weeks to clear 

No CCD s 

Requires 16K Extended Basic 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 163 





ASTRO BLAST 

Your routine space patrol in an 
outer galaxy sector becomes a 
life and death struggle with alien 
invasion forces advancing to- 
wards Earth. Wave after wave of 
attack squadrons challenge you 
in this super hi-res machine lang- 
uage shoot-em-up game. One or 
two players. 16K. 
Tape version $24.95 



MONKEY KONG 

Once again, Mario jumps into 
action. Avoiding rolling barrels, 
ramps, ladders, and killer flames 
while trying to save the beau- 
tiful girl from the clutches of the 
giant ape. Written by Ken Kalish 
its so much like the arcade ver- 
sion, you might try to insert a 
quarter. 16K. 

Tape $1 9.95 




SPACE RACE 

Maneuver your ship around the 
four cornered "race track" in 
space while destroying hordes 
of alien ships. As you fly around 
the "race track" bouncing off the 
walls, watch out for mines laid by 
the swarmers. Great color and 
sound and a new approach. 1 6 K. 
Tape $21.95 



SPACE RAIDERS 

A Classic H i-Res graphics game. 
As the alien raiders descend, 
you must eleminate them while 
avoiding your own destruction. 
This two player, action arcade 
game uses either keyboard or 
joystick control. Written by Mark 
Data. 16K 

Tape $24.95 




SPACE TRADER 

Establish vast interstellar shipp 
ing lanes and purchase stock in 
the companies that control 
those trade routes. This is a multi- 
player board game with graph- 
ics. This is a game for the think- 
ers, it takes more than a quick 
hand to win this one. 16K 
Tape $21 .95 

PLANET INVASTION 

A great new Defender action 
game, its success insured by its 
spellbinding graphics and mar- 
velous sound, but most of all by 
its controlability. Using both the 
keyboard and the joystick, you 
manuever your way through this 
revolutionary new game. 1 6K 
Tape $21 .95 

VENTURER 

Fantastic arcade game comes 
to life on your Color Computer 
screen. Upon entering each 
room you'll find new treasures 
and new challenges. Using your 
joystick, get the treasure while 
fending off the attacking crea- 
tures. This great new adaptation 
be Aardvark will put excitement 
back into your Color Computer. 
16K 

Tape $1 9.95 

GOLF 

Aardvark has brought this age old 
game to your Color Computer. 
With sandtraps, trees, water 
holes, and a great sound track, 
you just might mistake it for the 
real thing. Choose your club and 
select a swing, if you make it to 
the green, you can even putt. 
16K extended color basic. 
Tape $9.95 




Four great reasons why you should buy from Computer 
Shack (1) We have a toll free line, it costs you nothing to call 
us. (2) We ship all orders out within 24 hours (3) Most of our 
salespeople have color computers and they will be more than 
happy to help you pick out games, books, etc. (4) If you buy 
more than one program we will give you a discount. If you buy 
2 programs you can take 1 0°<«i off both programs. If you buy 3 
programs you can take 15°i off and if you buy 4 or more 
programs you can take 20°o off the price of all four. 

We are still in need of some additional people to add to our 
top ten panel. If you are interested send us a listing of your 1 0 
favorite games. 

We carry many programs that arenotinourad'spleasecallif 
there is a special program you want. 



COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 

Info: (313) 673-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 302-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK. Please add $3.00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - S5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 
Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list. 




CAVE HUNTER 



With skill and technique, you 
must guide your hunter robot 
through the maze of caverns in 
search of treasure. But watch 
out, the cave is possessed with 
spooky creatures that'll feast 
upon your robot. You can des- 
troy them by supercharging your 
robot with energy or just try to 
out run them. Written by Mark 
Data. Uses Joysticks, 1 6K. 
Tape $24.95 





PACDROIDS 

With its space theme, the Super 
Saucerlaysdestructomines and 
the Super Bomb that disinte- 
grates everything in your path, 
right up to the wall The maze 
changes every 1 0,000 points as 
the difficulty escalates. 1-4 
players. 16K extended basic. 
Tape $19.95 

Katterpillar Attack 

Modeled after the popular ar- 
cade game, Centipede. This is a 
well written game. It has slightly 
largergraphicsand better sound 
than Colopede. It is also simpler 
to play than Colorpede. 16K. 
Tape . . . $24,95 Disk . . . $27.95 

PHANTOM SLAYER 

You must chase the phantoms 
and kill them with your assort- 
ment of weapons. This is a graph- 
ics type maze/adventure game 
with fullscreenthree dimension- 
al graphics. You are armed with 
a laser pistol, and proximity de- 
tector. 16K. 

Tape $19.95 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD 

A fast action, machine language 
adventure game filled with tricks, 
traps, treasures and creatures 
all of which are randomized at 
the beginning of each adventure 
so that no adventure will ever be 
exactly the same. There are three 
different skill levels. 1 6K. 
Tape $21.95 

GHOST GORRLER 

Ghost Gobbler is an excellent 
version of Pac-Man". You must 
gobble all the food dots while 
avoiding the ghosts. There are 
four energizer dots which will 
make the ghosts turn blue and 
become scared. This is the best 
copy of the arcade game. 1 6K. 
Tape $21.95 




COLORPEDE 

Colorpede has a variety of bugs 
ranging from a tiny bettle to the 
gigantic colorpede. Colorpede 
has better graphics than Kater- 
pillar but the sound is not as 
good. Colorpede also has a 
more varied and complicated 
play routine. 1 6K. 
Tape $29.95 



DONKEY KING 

Using the four stages from the 
original acrade game, with your 
joystick in hand try to jump the 
barrels, collect the pins, 
manuever your way past the fall- 
ing jacks, and figure out the crazy 
conveyor belts. Written by Tom 
Mix, this ones sure to become a 
classic! 32 K. 

Tape . . $24.95 Disk. . . $27.95 



Now you can deduct up to 20% on the price of 
games: buy any 2 games deduct 10%, buy any 3 
games deduct 1 5%, buy any 4 games deduct 20% 
from games prices. 



TOP TEN 

COLORPEDE by Intracolor 

PLANET INVASION by Spectral Assoc. 

DONKEY KING by Tom Mix 

ASTRO BLAST by Mark Data 

PACDROIDS by Programmers Guild 

SPACE RACE by Spectral Assoc. 

VENTURER by Aardvark 

HAYWIRE by Mark Data 

GHOST GOBRLER by Spectral Assoc. 

SPACE RAIDERS by Mark Data 



INVADERS REVENGE 

You, as the last remaining space 
Invader, must battle the human 
shipsthat prowl the space lanes, 
and avoid the laser station that 
seeks to destroy you.A great 
game from Med. Systems. Re- 
verses the roll in space invaders 
you attack the laser bases. 16K. 
Tape $1 9.95 



HAYWIRE 




This is Mark Data's version of 
Beserk". Super Colors and dy- 
namite sound effects in this fast 
paced arcade game for one or 
two players. The exciting com- 
bination of angry robots an the 
Indestructible Menace will pro- 
vide hours of action filled fun. 
Tape $24.95 



E3 



COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313)873-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 302-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK Please add $3 00 for shipping in the U S A - $5 00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 
Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad Write for our catalog and price list. 



- COMPUTER SHACK- 

Computer Shack has been in the publishing business for 2 years publishing software for the TRS-80 Model I and III. We are now 
expanding into the COCO. If you would like a major publisher to handle your software send us a copy for evaluation. We have full color 
packaging, and established dealer network, foreign distributors, and have booths at major computer shows throughoutthecountry, etc. 
We can sell more copies of your programs than any other distributor. If you are a machine language programmer we have some 
programs that run on the model I and III that we would like to convert to the COCO. If you are interested in this send us a sample of your 
programming along with your name and address. 

Our new 32 page catalog (Model I, III and COCO) is hot off the press. It contains software, hardware, and misc. If you live in the U.S. write 
now for your free copy. Due to the high cost of mailing, if you live outside the U.S. please sendSI .00 for your catalog and we will refund 
this on your first order. 

Note our policy of giving a discount for larger orders. We make more money on a big order and we pass the savings along to you. You can 
save 20% on all your software by buying 4 programs. 



PRINTERS & PRINT BUFFERS 

The COCO has a serial print port and to use a printery ou m ust either buy 
a serial printer (they cost more) or buy a converter. Computer Shack now 
has a converter that also stores the data in its memory untol the printer 
is ready for it. This is an outstanding feature as most printers are fairly 
slow. 

16K SertoPar $239.00 

16KSerto Ser $259.00 

X-TRA 16k memory $30.00 

C. Itoh Prowriter Parallel $467.00 

C. Itoh Prowriter Serial $579.00 

Epson MX 80 Ft Parallel $529.00 

Epson MX 80 FT Serial $629.00 

COLOR TAPE COPY $15.95 

By Bob Withers 

There have been few copy programs on the market for the Color 
Computer but none can compare with Color Tape Copy. This program 
is designed so that you don't lose any of your valuable programs or 
data bases. 

It will make a backup of any Color Computer Tape: Machine language, 
data, or basic program. 

First load color tape copy into your CC. Then it prompts you to put 
your original copy into the recorder. After it loads the program into 
memory it tells you to puta blanktape intothe recorderand pressthe 
record button. It then writes the program to a new tape. 
You'll never have to worry about your little kids destroying your 
$20.00 tapes. 16K 

COLOR DIRECT FILE 
TRANSFER 

Tape Version $19.95 

By Bob Withers 

Now a program for the Color Computer that allows you to download 
basic programs from Bullet-80 systems. It will also send and receive 
programs from other Color Computers, Model I's and Model Ill's. 
Direct File Transfer (DFT) is a modem program which will handle the 
direct uploading and downloading of machine language, work pro- 
cessors files, text files, and basic programs directly to tape with no 
conversion necessary It is the program you must have to download 
from any Bullet 80 system. DFT also has a chat mode, and has 
software controlled half and/or full duplex. For modem use only 



TELEWRITER - 64 



Best word processor for the Color Computer. 
Tape $49.95 Disk 



$59.95 



HAYES SMART MODEM 

The very finest modem you can buy for the Color Computer or any other 
computer. Features include auto dial, auto answer, built in speaker 
LED signals auto redial, etc. 

300 Baud $239.00 1 200 Baud. $569.00 

BUGOUT 

A compact but very powerful monitor for the 6809 mircopro- 
cessor. 

Only $19.95 

MADNESS AND THE MINOTAUR 

A classic adventure game utilizing two word commands. 
Price $19.95 



DRAGONQUEST 

A new text adventure by Charles Forsythe. You must rescue the 
princess from the Smaaegor Monarch of Dragonfolk. All Machine 
language. Fast, Exciting and only $1 5.95 



BOOKS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

Programs and Applications for the COCO 

Alfred Baker $14.95 

TRS-80 Color Basic 

Bob Albrecht $9.95 

Color Computer Graphics 

Ron Clark $9.95 

Color Computer Song Book 

Ron Clark $7.95 

TRS-80 Color Programs 

Rugg & Feldman $19. 95 

MISADVENTURE SERIES 

MADAM ROSA'S MASSAGE PARLOR 

Tape $15.00 

WET T-SHIRT CONTEST 

Tape $15.00 



COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 
Info: (313) 873-8700 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE (800) 302-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK Please add $3 00 for shipping in the USA - $5 00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of US - Canada - Mexico. 
Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list 



PRINT #-2, (Continued From Page 8) 

CoCo was certainly not because they had no information. 
Several months ago we queried both their Chicago bureau 
and their headquarters "Computers" department about a 
possible story on CoCo. In short, they had some 
information, knew where to get more, and have in theirfiles 
an open invitation of help from us in preparing an article on 
what we termed the "CoCo Story." 

Many of you may know that my journalism background 
included a decade with United Press International. During 
that time I was lucky enough to cover several of the "big" 
stories of the '60s — the civil rights struggle, the Apollo lunar 
landings and some of the politics of the decade. I usually 
found my perceived versions of what happened were 
different from that of Time's reporters. 

I don't see how you can write a story about personal 
computers without writing about CoCo. I really don't. And 
the grouping of Model III with the Atari, VIC-20 and other 
computers of that ilk seems to me to be evidence of a lack of 
understanding about the computer market in general. 

Things are really shaping up for RAINBOWfest in 
Chicago April 22-24. There is an advertisment inside this 
issue from which you can order advance admission tickets. 
A three-day pass is a bargain at the advance price of $7.50 
and I hope many of you will attend. 

We're billing it as "CoCo's Very First Show." You might 
want to make plans now to attend — and see if you can get a 
group together. We've already heard from a couple of 
groups investigating the possibility of chartering buses for it. 
Note, too, that there is a special hotel rate for 
RAINBOWfest. 

I write this in the middle of a move to a new location. The 
Rainbow, in what I would call the best tradition of the 
personal computer business, started out in an extra 
bedroom of our home and expanded to the entire 
basement — which we renovated into an office. 

We have completely outgrown the basement office (some 
1 200 square feet) and are now in the process of moving into 
commercial space (with about 2100 square feet). As I write 
this, the "business side" of the Rainbow has already 
moved — so our customer services operation is already set up 
in the new location. The editorial part of the operation will 
be moved by the time you read this — as soon as we put this 
month's issue to bed. In short, you should experience no 
interruption in delivery of your magazines, no delays in 
getting subscriptions started or renewed, no waits for back 
issue orders and no problems in handling of Rainbow On 
Tape, RAINBOWfest ticket orders and so on. 

Ever-efficient Pat Hirsch planned this move and it has 
worked like a charm. 

The new location offers several advantages to us: It gives 
us space to continue to expand, it is right next door to the 
Prospect Post Office and it means we will be able to have a 
Pepsi-Cola machine on the premises. That's a "perk" of 
working for the Rainbow, all the free Pepsi you can drink! 

While a certain part of our former offices will continue to 
be devoted to CoCo, it does mean our street address 
changes. From now on it is 9529 Highway 42, Prospect, KY 
40059. Using the Timber Ridge Drive address will only delay 
things for you, but, frankly, the fastest way to communicate 
with us is to continue to use the same post office box (P.O. 
Box 209) f or all your correspondence. 

There are some disadvantages, too. The greatest is that 
my commute to work has become much greater. Is there no 
end to what I will do f or the betterment of the Rainbowl The 
commute now changes from two flights of steps to .8 mile. 
And there is no pizza store of any kind in the new location! 

Our phone number, (502) 228-4492, remains the same. 



In closing for this month, I do also want to thank all of 
you who have volunteered to become members of our 
outside reviewing staff. The response to our invitation has 
been overwhelming and there are a lot of "new names" on 
reviews this month. If you have not heard from us, you will 
in the near future. 

Generally, our new outside reviewers worked very hard to 
meet deadlines and provide a comprehensive look at 
products available for CoCo. Their net contribution will 



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2 DOZEN C-30 LENGTH $23.50 + $3.50 shpg. 

Individual storage boxes (sold only with cassettes) $2.40 per dozen. 
CASSETTE CADDY: $3.95 + $2.00 shpg. 

2 for $7.00 + $3.00 shpg. 

Free shipping on one caddy with each dozen cassettes. 

Foreign orders include shipping at 16 oz. per dozen tapes/9 oz. per 
caddy/13 oz. per dozen boxes. Shipped in U.S. by UPS. 

CASSETTE CADDY 

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February, 1983 the RAINBOW 167 




c 

O 



O 



An exciting new game from 
the company that is setting 
the standards. Colorful, high 
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arcade quality sound effects. 
High resolution, multicolored 
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ground. Smooth accurate joy- 
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mode. Pause feature. 1 or 2 
players. 100% machine lan- 
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computer with joysticks. 



Cassette— $29.95 Disc— $34.95 
Add $1 .50 for shipping; $3 outside 
U.S.; 4% tax in Mich. VISA, Master- 
card or Money order. Please allow 2 
weeks for checks. >«Sv 

RAINBOW 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 



IHBSSq** 25BDR3 ** IE SH 3 

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intracolor 

T COMMUNICATIONS 
SETTING THE STANDARDS 

P.O. Box 1035, East Lansing, Ml 48823 
(517) 351-8537 

TRS 80 Color Computer is TM of Tandy Corp. 



only benefit you more and, we hope, make the Rainbow 
more valuable to you. 

To return to the theme of the beginning of this column, 
the great response to our request f or outside reviewers and 
the diligent way in which those initially selected responded 
to products sent them seems to reinforce my feeling of 
"CoCo Community." 

Yes, 1 do think the people at Radio Shack may have 
soldered in a little heart somewhere in the CoCo's innards. 

— Lonnie Falk 



Software Review... 

A Maze(ing) Race: 
I Once Was Lost, But Now... 

Racing against the clock, at first your movements are 
uncertain. But then your alert mind perceives a way through 
what had seemed an impenetrable maze, and you're off and 
running, nimbly manipulating your joystick. 

"Whaddaya mean, a dead end?! But that means I gotta go 
all the way back to where I came from and. ..(scream)." 

That turns out to be the scenario rather often with Maze 
Race, a new 16K game in machine language from Tom Mix 
Software. Either you find yourself swearing you saw an 
opening which isn't there when you show up, or else you see 
one you needed fifteen seconds ago. 

Playable by one or two people, this game generates one- 
of-a-kind, blue-on-cyan mazes that have over 50 possible 
vertical and horizontal corridors, not counting dozens and 
dozens of obstacles, twists and turns. In fact, with so many 
%" passageways on the screen, you can get downright 
blurry-eyed if you spend too much time in front of the TV. 
You'll get an occasional, relatively easy game, but the next 
one's just as likely to leave you utterly lost and frustrated. 

If you finally make it through a tough one, you can 
request the same maze as many times as you wish in order to 
better your time. The screen will show both your actual time 
and the best time in real minutes and seconds. And, if you 
really get hung up, don't worry about it too much — the timer 
can go as high as 99 hours, 99 minutes and 99 seconds. The 
game's creator must have been trying to teach patience and 
persistence, because I couldn't find any way to get out of a 
totally frustrating game once it had started without 
resetting — and thereby having to reload the tape to 
continue. 

Want to race with a friend? You'll get some rather 
amusing and frantic action this way, which I thought was the 
most fun. 

The tiny blue and red stick-figures move in rapid [ A" up- 
or-down steps in response to your joystick(s). Since the 
Radio Shack joysticks I have are not the world's most 
precise, it took some practice before I could negotiate the 
turns at a fast speed — but it is possible. 

If you're looking f or fancy title pages or lots of bells and 
whistles, forget it. All of the considerable effort here went 
into the mazes. I wish I knew how you write a program that 
generates mazes this complex with only one possible way 
through. They make the ones on the place mats at Pizza Hut 
look like real kindergarten stuff. 

Incidentally, an optional screen-dump would be a good 
addition to this program — you could take along a half- 
dozen printouts as excellent diversions for the kids (of all 
ages) on trips, in waiting rooms, etc. 

The two copies on my tape loaded well, although 1 did run 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



into an I/O error just before the first copy started to load. If 
you happen to run intothe same thing — maybe caused by a 
bad batch of tapes — all you have to do is type another 
CLOA DM. 

If you like to do mazes, you'll probably like this game. 
Our sharp, next-door eight-year-old thinks it's super, so the 
younger set in particular should enjoy it. Besides, it 
probably can help them learn to recognize patterns and 
develop quick eye-hand coordination. That's why you play 
computer games too, right? 

WARNING: The game does leave you with a 
troublesome ethical question — is it ever right to work a 
maze backwards? 

(Tom Mix Software, 3424 College, N.E., Grand Rapids, 
MI 49505. Cassette, $14.95) 

— Warren S. Napier 

Software Review... 

Checking A ccount 
'Credit Where Credit's Due' 

Bankers beware! 

How many of you have argued with a bank manager or 
teller regarding the proper balance in your checking 
account? Did you win or lose? Did the manager start 
laughing and call all of his assistants over to see your 
patented shorthand method of reconciliation of your 
statement? From now on, this embarrassing judgment day 
will be a snap if you use Checking Account by F & G 
Enterprises. 

Checking Account is written in Extended Basic and 
furnished on cassette. The program uses a novel loading 
system. First you load a short Basic program using the 
CLOAD command. After loading, you enter RUN and the 
program sets the data pointers such that the main program 
starts at SH600 and automatically loads the main program. 
For those of us who forget the PCLEAR to conserve 
memory this makes it easy. 

A small !I-page instruction manual is included with 
various examples of program operation. I would say the 
documentation is above average. 

Program features are: 

*Up to $10,000 debit amounts and increment totals 
*Up to $100,000 deposit or interest amounts 

* 1 30 monthly transactions with instructions 
on using the program with more memory 

*Warnings for transaction or memory limits 

* Incremental totals by line 

Main Menu: 

1 -input/add 

entry of month, year, date, check number, 
payable to and amount 
1 1 month/year 
modify month and year 

2 -insert 

add transaction at selected location 

3 -modify 

change data entries 
33 category 
review/ modify data entries 

4 -delete 

5 -list 

6 -create bank statement 

7 -create new active account 

8 -load 

9 -save 



I am no accountant, but, come to think of it, that is what 
this program is all about. The program uses a system of 
checkbook accounting labeled bank transactions and 
account transactions. Bank transactions are the type of 
things you see on your monthly statement such as cleared 
checks. Account transactions are your personal records of 
your balance. What it boils down to is that even though the 
bank may show a balance of $652.00, if your account 
transaction balance shows $152.00, you cannot buy that 
disk drive. You'll have to settle for a new modem. 

The program is professionally written and all screen 
output is in an organized format that is very easy to 
understand. Prompting is adquate and the documentatin 
will explain any problems. I think some means should have 
been included for hard copy of the bank statements. Due to 
the format of the screen, a "screen dump" program would 
rectify the situation. I found the program very easy to use 
with one exception. When I made a mistake, there was no 
easy way of correcting it without stepping through the full 
sequence of entries for a transaction and then deleting the 
transaction. 

In conclusion, I am pleased with Checking Account and 
have dreams of the elimination of drawers of canceled 
checks and bank statements in the future, all replaced by a 
cassette. At the same time, I think a program of this nature is 
more suited to disk operation and the authors should work 
on an advanced version. Maybe add a column with an 
"account" heading for flagging information for tax 
purposes. The program does an excellent job for a cassette- 
based system. I would recommend it for anyone who wants 
to experiment with computerized checking. 

(F & G Enterprises, 3922 Millcreek Drive, Annadale, V A 

22003, $18.95 on tape.) 

— Dan Downard 



NEW SOFTWARE 

forTRS80 Model III 

and the Color Computer 



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■ Church Contribution System 

designed to simplify and facilitate the tedi- 
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■ Single Entry Ledger 

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Write or phone for complete software price list. 



UNIVERSAL 

DATA 
WW RESEARCH 

|gSJ NC 




2457 Wehrle Drive 
Amherst, NY 14221 
716/631-3011 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 169 



Software Review. 



CCEAD Packs Power 
For Low Price 



One piece of the standard software equipment imbedded 
in the CoCo's ROM is a Basic interpreter which translates 
Basic statements into sequences of 6809 machine 
instructions. While Basic is suitable for many applications, 
it seems that there are just as many situations where it proves 
to be unsatisfactory. This may be due to the relatively 
inefficient use of memory space by Basic, the speed, or lack 
thereof, with which Basic routines execute, or the need for 
an operation or function which Basic cannot provide. The 
most obvious alternative is to code directly in machine 
language or in assembly language where each line of code 
corresponds to a single 6809 instruction. This is where 
CCEA D comes in. 

CCEAD, an acronym for Color Computer Editor 
Assembler Debugger, provides three essential tools f or the 
development of machine language routines in one neat 
package. The Editor allows for entry and modification of 
assembly language source code, the Assembler takes the 
source code and produces 6809 machine code and the 
Debugger is a tool for checking out machine language 
routines. 

When my copy of CCEAD arrived, I was pleasantly 
surprised by the quality of the documentation and the 
product itself. The cassette on which the program was 
delivered contained two versions of CCEAD's Basic source 
code, one fully documented and formatted for readability 




the 

Naked Gamer 

If you think strip poker sounds like fun, read on. \ 
Actually, the name of this program package is hot ( 
completely accurate. Only one player will end up com- 
pletely undressed. These games are for the adventurous 
couple!! 

The two games are good by themselves, but in the right com- 
pany they can be terrific. The first is called Strip Tails, and is 
an arcade game played by two players simultaniously. You will 
need quick hands on the joystick and a quick grasp of the tactics 
to win, and if you lose, you could really lose your shirt. The other 
game is called Sex, and is something like Mastermind". Both 
the player and the computer choose a three letter word, and the 
player has to guess the computer's word before the computer 
can guess the player's. 

At the end of each round of either game, the computer will in- 
struct one of the players, by name, to remove a specific item of 
their clothing. Don't worry, there isn't anything obscene in these 
programs. (Remember, you are choosing a THREE letter word.) 
On the other hand, the RESULTS from playing could be inter- 
esting indeed, and the games are really good even if you elect to 
keep your clothes on. Available on TAPE for $21.95, or on 
DISK for $26.95. You will like these!!! 

WE HAVE MORE — WRITE FOR LIST 

Az. residents add 6'. tax. Please add $2. 00 shipping and handl- 
ing per program, and specify your choice of 1st class or UPS. 





Intelligent Adult Software 

P. 0. Box 17421 • Tucson, AZ 85731 
Dealer & A uthor Inquiries Invited 




and the other, stripped of comments and superfluous 
blanks. The stripped version, which is the one normally 
used, occupies about 7600 bytes of memory as opposed to 
the verbose version which requires approximately 12300. 
This program requires 16K Extended Basic to run. 

Prior to CLOA Ding CCEA D, the user is instructed to use 
the PCLEAR command to allocate one or more graphics 
pages f or use as buffer space by the Assembler. It is here that 
the generated machine object code will eventually be placed. 
The space not used by CCEAD and not reserved via the 
PCLEAR command is used as text storage for the assembly 
source code, so it pays to PC LEA R as f ew graphics pages as 
possible. 

Upon running CCEAD, I was immediately greeted with 
the master menu, which presents five options. In addition to 
the options selecting the Editor, Assembler and Debugger, a 
tape read and a tape write option are provided to facilitate 
tape filing of assembly source programs. The option, to be 
selected is specified by entering the option number. Since the 
two tape options are self explanatory, I will discuss only the 
three main utilities. 

The Editor — CCEAD provides the user with a fancy little 
full screen editor which naturally does all of the things one 
would expect an editor to do. By using the ENTER, shift, 
and arrow keys, the user can insert and delete lines, move the 
cursor left or right within a source line, and scroll the screen 
up or down by either one line or screenf ul of lines. Once all 
of the source code has been entered or changes have been 
made, a shift /clear exits the Editor and brings the user back 
to the main menu where the source can be saved to tape, if 
desired. 

The Assembler — Once the source code is in memory as a 
result of tape read of the Editor, CCEAD's Assembler may 
be invoked. Selection of the Assembler option on the main 
menu causes CCEAD to prompt for two items: the listing 
device (screen or printer), and the memory address at which 
the first byte of generated object code is to be placed. After 
the necessary information is provided, CoCo begins to 
churn away, generating object code and the assembly listing. 
On the average, CCEA D takes about five seconds to process 
each source assembly statement, due primarily to its being 
implemented in Basic. Upon completion of the assembly, 
CCEAD returns to the master menu. 

Input to the CCEAD assembler is very similar in syntax, 
instruction and directive mnemonics, and format to the 
three other 6809 assemblers with which I am familiar. Of 
course, all of the instructions and addressing modes inherent 
to the 6809 are supported. In addition to processing 
standard assembly statements, CCEAD supports five 
different assembler directives which tell the assembler to 
change the current location counter for the generated code 
(ORG), reserve blocks of memory (RM B), initialize bytes or 
words of memory (FCB,FDB) and equate values to symbol 
names (EQU). CCEAD contains all of the functions 
essential to any good assembler. 

The assembly listing produced by CCEA D is also similar 
in content and format to other common 6809 assemblers. It 
displays three major pieces of information f or each assembly 
statement: the memory address of the generated code or 
data, the generated code or data itself and finally the 
assembler source statement. The only thing that is missing 
and could be useful is a symbol table listing. 

The CCEAD assembler detects six different errors during 
the assembly process. These are Invalid Syntax, Illegal 
Instruction, Illegal Indexed Instruction, Illegal Index Value, 
Relative Branch Out Of Range, and Undefined Symbol. 
Any error messages appear on the assembly listing 



170 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Color Computer Power! 




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DATAFILE 64k $2995 

All the features of the above with much more memory space. Ideal for small business 
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SCREEN PRINT $14 95 

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TTD $14.95 DTT $14.95 
Transfer your programs to disk or tape effortlessly. 



DISKPRO 



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No more crashed disks! This program can be your lifesaver. DISKPRO creates 
back-ups of your disk directory and allocation tables. A valuable tool to protect your 
software. Comes on disk with documentation. 



Beethoven's Fifth 
William Tell Overture 



$14.95 
$14.95 

You really won't believe the incredible music coming from your Color Computer! "Jt iswithqut a doubt 
the best e xam ple of computer music I've ever heard." (Color Computer News magazine) Now you can 
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SPIDER ATTACK $14 95 

Shoot-em up action! Now you can stop nasty invading spiders with your joystick 
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MILLBORN $1495 

Like to play cards? From France, we bring you this popular card game for CoCo. The 
object of the game is to drive 700 miles, while avoiding accidents, tire blow-outs, 
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COLORSHOIAf 



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Music, Color and your CoCo! Just load in COLORSHOW, connect the 80C to your 
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great with Rock n Roll! 



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Educational and entertaining, STARS will create a dome of the night sky on your TV. 
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immediately after the offending statment and simply consist 
of the message "ERR nn"where"nn"identifies one of the six 
errors. The user is warned in the documentatin that "gross" 
source format errors may cause a Basic error in CCEAD 
which results in the assembly source code becoming 
irretrievably lost. The moral of the story is that source code 
should be saved to tape prior to the first assembly. 

While the CCEAD assembler is very good for its size, the 
more experienced programmer may wish to add features 
such as symbol table listing, enhanced error messages, 
expression evaluation for arguments and maybe even 
conditional assembly and macros. Making these 
enhancements to CCEAD appears to be a relatively 
straightforward propositon, thanks to the commented 
source lising and the in-depth program design information 
in the CCEAD documentation. However, any large scale 
modification probably requires a 32K CoCo. 

The Debugger — After getting an error-free assembly, the 
user is most likely to specify the Debugger option on the 
main menu to try out the new routine. The Debugger, the 
skimpiest of the CCEAD utilities, is primarily a memory 
patching tool with which the user may PEEK and POKEat 
his code and data. 

The only program execution control command in the 
Debugger is the "G" command with which the user causes 
execution to begin at a given address. To set a breakpoint, 
one must patch a subroutine return (RTS) into the 
appropriate place in the code. This is because CCEA D uses 
the Basic "USR" function to implement the "G" command. 
Another unfortunate side effect of the USR implementation 
is that several of the 6809's registers must be saved by the 
code under test and must be restored prior to the execution 



of the breakpoint "RTS." Should this convention not be 
followed, the 6809 branches off into the wilderness, neverto 
return. 

Another very useful function not included in the 
Debugger is the ability to examine and change register 
contents at a breakpoint. I found that the quickest way to 
initialize register contents is to patch Load Immediate 
instructions into the code under test. To examine register 
contents at breakpoints, patching in Push to Stack 
instructions just before the "RTS" seemed to work fairly 
well. 

In light of the delicate nature of the interface between 
CCEAD and the code being tested, it pays to remember 
Murphy's law that says something to the effect that 
"anything that can go wrong, will, usually at the least 
opportune moment." I found the safest and most time 
efficient debug practice was to use CSA VEMXo copy object 
code to tape prior to testing so that reassembly of long 
routines was minimized. 

Conclusions — All in all, CCEAD is a high quality program 
and excellent value. The documentation is clear and 
thorough and the Editor, Assembler and Debugger work as 
advertized, although the Debuggerdid takea little ingenuity 
to use effectively. When used in conjunction with a 6809 
programming book, CCEAD is an ideal tool for learning the 
basics of assembly language programming. With a 32K 
machine and a few enhancements, it is well suited for 
development of large machine language routines. For the 
price, CCEAD is a tool that no assembly language 
programmer can afford to be without. 

(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, NY 

11421, $6.95.) 

—Gary E. Epple 



The Original FLEX for Color Computers 



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172 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



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Software Review. 



Text Pro II: Powerful Tool 
With Weak Documentation 

Ever have one of those days when nothing seemed to go 
right? When even the cat ran away from home? I did one day 
this past December. It started when 1 carefully ripped open 
the envelope containing a copy of Cer-Comp's TEXT P RO 
II, "the Professional's Word Processor." Page one of their 
32 pages of documentation should have warned me. In the 
words of the author: 

"...It should be noted by the user that 
this is a complex program and cannot 
be fully understood with a single 
reading. It will require the user 
many hours of study, usage, and 
experimentation to fully understand 
the power of this invaluable tool." 

Really now! I thought we were past that stage in software 
development for the Color Computer. Sixteen pieces of 
flimsy copier paper dot-matrix printed on both sides with a 
staple in the upper lefthand corner. That's not so bad, but 
start reading and you're off to Confusion Land, 
compounded by syntactical, spelling and structural 
language problems everywhere. That's why this program 
can't be understood in a single reading - you've first gotta 
figure out what they're talking about.! 

It took this reviewer some good old-fashioned head 
scratching and sleuthing — not to mention patience — to 
break through the haze. I think I've got it about 90% 
decoded. And that, my friends, is the major hurdle in 
discovering this otherwise excellent word processor utility. 

The Color Computer is no longer the new hungry kid on 
the block whose owners are begging and scratching for just 
anything, but anything, to show its versatility and power. 
Remember what seems like just a few short months ago 
when so many of us were really worried about software 
support? Well, from what I see on these pages and in other 
magazines lately, we've moved up from the other side of the 
tracks. We don't have to put up with hastily thrown together 
packages. Vendors who expect us to shell out our pesos now 
had better be concerned about competitive packaging — and 
across the board professionalism. Cer-Comp's TEXT P RO 
II is one such package which suffers from its wrappings. 
Sorta like handing your sweetheart a diamond ring in a 
peanut bag! 

An hour after unwrapping TEXT PRO II, I was still 



176 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



completely confused, more than a little lost, and to say the 
least, some mad. The documentation is poorly written. 
They've got a gem of a machine language program here, yet, 
it is accompanied by such amateurish documentation! It 
doesn't take an English major to proof copy before it's 
released. 

Anyway, after trying to make some sense of the manual 
for over an hour, I decided to go for broke, boot up the 
program and see what light might be shed there. Half an 
hour later I was still getting "NE ERROR" and other 
garbage. The manual said that all I had to do was LOA DM 
"TXTPROII" ENTER for R.S.Disk (which I have) or, if 
using Tallgrass Technologies TG-99 disk controller with 
CCMD+9, just enter the drive number followed by the file 
name. Didn't work. I was beginning to think I had a dud or 
had suddenly reached that period in life when the brain just 
stops functioning. 

But wait a minute. Let's think this thing out 
systematically. Let's call up the directory and see what's on 
this quality disk (the one with the elephant logo). D1R 
yielded: 

RSTXPI1 BIN 2 B 3 
RSTXPII2 BIN 2 B 3 
RSTXP1I3 BIN 2 B 3 
TXPDEMO DAT I A 2 

So the filename isn't TXTPROII after all! Let's try again. 
(PCLEAR1 as a delaying tactic. Check the drive with 
another disk to be sure the gobblins didn't zap it overnight.) 
Make a long distance call to Las Vegas? No way. OK, the 
DIR said RSTXPII, and since R.S.Disk demands the 
extension, gotta throw the BIN in, too. 

Voila! Up pops the company screen logo, a READY 
prompt, and a blinking black cursor. No Congrats for 
breaking the code, no nothing. Not even a screen clear. So, 
now what? I'll tell you what: put this thingasidefora while 
and refuel the system with some tuna casserole because 
you're suffering from a case of the "befuddleds and 
bedazzleds" already! 

Turn the Lights Back On, Billy! 

A fresh cuppa coffee, a newplan of attack in mind, and a 
full stack of paper in the LP-VII, and you're ready to tackle 
it again the following morning. Never say die, so you bring 
the program up, hesitantly enter some text and again ask 
that now familiar question, "now what?" You've got some 
text entered but you just can't seem to get started with the 
editor and processor commands. Then, with a stroke of 
genius (that's the way you're feeling this morning) you recall 
the DEMO on the disk. Calling it up for processing by 
guessing at the procedure yields a commercial for 
TEXTPRO, the cassette version. That's nice. Now what? 
Wait! Try listing the DEMO to see how they used the 
commands. Eureka! The key! "A demonstrationfileto show 
how a text processing file might appear. "Now what the heck 
is that doing buried on the disk? Should be in the darn 
manual! 

Life Gets Easier by the Numbers 

It soon becomes apparent, despite the author's "efforts" 
and my increasing negative impressions, that TEXT P RO II 
is really not so complex a program. Even though it helps to 
understand the manual, if you've spent a quarter century in 
the military, you can get around it. The real complexity lies 
in plotting your route around, through, and over the 
manual's poor organization, disjointed syntax and generally 
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Consider: what you finally find yourself with is an 
excellent word processor that'll do almost everything but 
pour the coffee for you. Full justification, special effects 
justification, an elaborate system of tab functions, an array 
of text editor and processor commands that's completely 
out of this world, breezy editing, short keystrokes (most 
commands are no more than four strokes), compatibility 
with two major disk operating systems and tape, as well as 
the capability to control any printer you can hook up to the 
CC, all transparently - and with a typewriter approach to 
upper and lower case. (Just set lower case and use 
shift+letter for upper case. Commands can even be typed in 
lower case!) All that and more! Autonumbering(you set the 
increments), expanded print, centering... The combinations 
go on and on. The real joy is that (once you've broken the 
command code) these functions come out with only a few 
simple keystrokes! 

But there's that implied limitation: it's just not for the 
casual or occasional user. 1 mean, it is NOT a suitable gift for 
the wife whom you're trying to get to finish those short 
stories because it'll most assuredly prolong her "computer 
illiteracy" and delay any literary acclaim. It just ain't the 
epitome of user f riendly to the novice. But, if you're past that 
stage, go for it. You'll find that you have to turn off more 
good features than the average program comes with. 

The Cer-Comp ad lists the majority of its features and 
capabilities. Those that are advertised work with ease. There 
are a couple of things 1 personally haven't figured out yet. 

* 1 definitely haven't gotten a handle on the elaborate tab 
functions yet. (There're six of them with their own 
variations, including tab centering on the decimal!) 

* 1 get a bit queazy about having to print out a whole 
buffer file just to see how a few doubtful lines come out, but 1 
haven't found a way around that yet. 

* On startup, memory size is returned as 21830 for my 32K 
Extended system (without PC LEAR). That implies that 
only 93 bytes are taken out of user RAM (by the logo, 
prompt and cursor) with the program occupying DOS'turf. 
1 don't know for sure because that kind of information is not 
included in the manual. 

Since the program is written in machine language, it is 
extremely fast at doing its thing. For example, there is no 
noticeable increase in time between data transfer to the LP- 
Vll's small buffer and print, even though there is a lot of 
command and control interpretation going on. Practically 
the only thing you'll ever see on the screen, besides your own 
input and the READY prompt, is an occasional INPUT 
ERROR prompted by a syntax error on your part. 

Still worried about buying programs that're all locked up? 
Don't be. The third intelligible thing the Cer-Comp people 
tell you (even encourage you to do) is how to make a copy of 




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your original with the BACKUP command (or the 
appropriate CCMD+9 procedure). 

Your Choice 

If you're the adventurous type who likes to look for that 
super bargain or gem now and then, then this one is foryou. 
You'll have to disregard the current wrappings to get to the 
goodies, but they are there in spades. 

On the other hand, if you're the type who likes to LOAD a 
program and have it lead you by the hand to the finished 
product, this one probably isn't for you. It'll take 
operator/ user practice to get the full benefit from TEXT 
PRO II. 

Who knows? Maybe the author will come out soon with a 
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(Cer-Comp, 5566 Ricochet Avenue, Las Vegas, NV 

89110, $49.95) 

-Ed Lowe 



Software Review... 

May A Mad' Bird 
Attack Your Blahs 

If I had stumbled across Bird Attack and not known its 
origin, I would have bet my left joystick that Mad magazine 
had become a software house. 

Bird Attack is a parody of the space war type of arcade 
game in which the enemy fleet swoops down in random 
attacks and fires missiles at your roving weapon at the 
bottom of the screen. 

To play, do a CLOA DM and EXEC. The instructions are 
simple and complete. 

After you EXECute the program, you are presented with 
a title page and asked to ENTER your name. Once you've 
identified yourself to the program, for comparative scoring 
purposes, you are asked to choose a difficulty level, from 
one to five. 

You get three "men" to start, and an extra one for each 
10,000 points. 

The four-color, high resolution graphics are very good 
and the sound effects match the theme of the game. Joystick 
response is good, but I would prefer a more direct response 
from the fire button. 

As play begins, you are standing on a flat barren plane at 
the bottom of the screen, while above is assembled a large 
flock of rather rude birds with an aggressive tendency to 
behave Jike miscreant bombardiers. As they seem to have 
taken you for a no-good nest robber, they are in no mood to 
compromise just because you (foolishly) brought your 
shotgun instead of an umbrella. Mad magazine aside, this is 
beginning to look like a production of The Birds, had Alfred 
Hitchcock turned the script over to Mel Brooks. 

Bird Attack can stand on its own merits as a shoot-em-up 
style of game, and its humorous theme is sure to evoke a 
series of one-liners when you introduce it to your friends. 
The game operates in 16K and uses machine language to 
enhance action. 

(Tom Mix Software, 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, 
MI 49505, 16K Extended Basic, $21.95) 

— Rich Krankoski 



178 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



DRAGON S BYTE 




This month in the Dragon's Byte, I willbeworkingonthe 
character record program again. If you read last month's 
column you know we were going through the process of 
developing a program, starting at the very beginning. If you 
haven't read last month's column, you will want to do so 
before getting into this one. 

What we have to do now is break our program up into 
segments and decide exactly how we want the segments 
arranged. Let's start by having a menu on the screen, and 
let's put that menu beginning at line 100. A menu is nothing 
more than a list of choices, so let's make our list now. 
Following each item on the list 1 will put a number in 
parentheses. This will be the beginning line number of that 
section. 

1. Load or save our information. (1000) 

2. Print our information on paper. (2000) 

3. Start a new character. (3000) 

4. Update basic information. (4000) 

5. Non-Magical Possessions. (5000) 

6. Magical Possessions. (5000) 

7. Spell Book for Mages. (7000) 

8. Thief abilities if applicable. (8000) 

9. Saving throws. (9000) 

0. Weapon proficiency, armor class and combat 
adjustments. (10000) 

I think that about covers the basic choices, and we will 
start another block at line 1 1000 to use for any subroutines 
which will be called by more than one of the above sections. 
Now let's consider what we will do in each section. 

Numbers 1 and 2 will be the last ones to bedone, as we will 
need to have all of our information formatted before we can 
save or print it. In number 3, we will clear all old information 
and provide for the input of character name, class 
alignment, race, age, height, weight, sex, hit points, and 
basic ability scores such as strength, wisdom, dexterity, etc. 
All of this information could be stored in a single array 
having one dimension. We will store all the information as 
strings, and use the VAL function to convert them to 
numbers if needed. Let's name this array B$ (the B stands for 
Basic information). 

Number 4 in our list will deal with making changes in the 
information already entered into the array B$. Number 5 



Continuing Your 
Character Record File 

By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



will be simply a list of non-magical possessions. We can 
store that list in another array having one dimension. Let's 
call it NP$ (for Non-magical Possessions). Number 6 will be 
the same except for beinga list of Magical Possessions. Let's 
call that array MPS. 

Number 7 will be a list of spells, and these can be easily 
divided into levels. Since there are nine levels of spell power 
in most fantasy games, let's store these in a two-dimensional 
array called SB$ (the SB is for Spell Book). Number 8 will be 
the thieving ability scores. Since we will already know the 
class, level, race, and dexterity score we can let the computer 
figure out the thieving abilities. In my column last May 1 
wrote a program to do just that, so I will just adapt it as a 
subroutine here. 

Number 9 will be a short list of saving throw numbers, and 
we can store them in an array called ST. Number 0 is also a 
list, but some of the items on it are strings, so let's call it CIS 
(for Combat Information). Through the entire program 1 
will use the variable name K$ with the 1NKEYS function, 
the variable K for temporary use with the VAL function, 
and all variables starting with X, Y, or Z for temporary 
storage. 

If any of our sub-programs need DA TA (I know the thief 
skills part will) we will group all of our DA TA lines together 
starting at line 12000. This is a matter of individual 
preference, as DATA statements can be anywhere in the 
program. 1 usually put them at the end, but many people put 
them all at the beginning or put them in various places next 
to the section of the program where they are used. Suit 
yourself. Just remember what Rudyard Kipling said: 

"There are nine and fifty ways 

To construct the tribal lays, 

and every single one of them is right." 

You will remember that we are going to put some 
subroutines at line 1 1000. A couple that come to mind right 
away are two 1 use all the time. One draws a border around 
the screen, and one PR/NTs "HIT ANY KEY TO GO ON" 
across the bottom of the screen and then waits for a key to be 
pressed before going on. 

A couple of times in the past I have included a border 
routine in one of my programs f or this column. These were 
always in Basic, and you could watch it draw around the 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 179 



screen. For this program 1 will give you one 1 wrote that is 
machine language and appears instantly. It is only 36 bytes 
long, and we will include it in the Basic program as a few 
DA TA statements and then POKE '\X into memory when the 
program runs. 

Next month, the complete program will be in this column, 
along with complete instructions f or using it. It will run on a 
16K Extended Basic Color Computer or TDP-100. I will 
include any changes that will have to be made to use it with a 
disk drive, and it will very likely need 32K if used withadisk 
system. 

Let me tell you quickly how I go about writing a program 
like this. After doing the preliminary thinking such as we 
have done above, I write the menu section and the most 
necessary subroutines. 1 then put a RETURN at the proper 
line number for each of the sections. At this point the 
program will run, although it won't do anything except print 
the menu on the screen. However, as I finish each section I 
can RUN the program and test that section. That way, when 
I finish the last section, the program is already debugged, 
and 1 find it easier to debug one small section at a time, 
rather than a whole big program all at once. 

Well, 1 guess that does it for this month. You all have a 
very nice Valentine's Day, and I'll get back to work on the 
program. If you have any questions or last minute 
suggestions concerning the character record keeper, let me 
know right away. You can contact me by writing: 

Bill Nolan 

c/o Prickly-Pear Software 
9822 E. Stella Rd. 
Tucson, AZ 85730 
(602) 886-1505 

(Mr. Nolan, an experienced Dungeonmaster ina popular fantasy role 
playing game on a weekly basis, is the president of Prickly-Pear 
Software.) 



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Software Review... 

QTAX-82 Relieves 
Tax Tedium 



For those who have been searching for a way to convince 
your spouse that your 80C is more than a sophisticated 
arcade game, QTAX-82 is here. After all, what could be 
more serious and down to business than preparing your 
income tax? 

Nature has a way of balancing itself. QTAX-82 and my 
1040 federal income tax form arrived in the mailbox the 
same day. 

QTAX-82, referred to as Tax Analysis in some 
advertising, is a menu driven program which, through a 
series of interconnected, displayed menus, asks you to input 
your status, (filing status, exemptions, over 65, etc.) and 
financial data (income, adjustments, deductions, etc.) 
resulting in a completed 1040 return. 

The menu screens are divided into groups matching the 
sections of the 1040 forms. As data is entered, subtotals for 
each section are displayed, and interact with each other to 
simplify the tax computations necessary to complete the 
1040 and 1040 schedule A. 

For instance, after adjusted gross income has been 
calculated, this amount is carried over and automatically 
enters the one percent of A.G.I, when calculatingdeductible 
medical and dental expenses. QTAX calculates the 1040 
federal form and the 1040 schedule A itemized deductions 
form. Where appropriate, you are referred to other forms 
not included with QTAX. You must then enter the bottom 
line from these forms for the program to calculate your 
taxes. 

Tax programs of this type are most useful prior to the end 
of a tax year. By using QTAX you could easily see the net 
effect of a tax pre-payment on your net taxes prior to doing 
so. After the end of the year, it is often too late to take 
advantage of tax breaks. 

QTAX will quickly determine if it is most advantageous 
to take the standard deductions or to itemize them. 

U nfortunately, QTAX does not have a print option which 
would allow the review of your dataawayfromyour80C. A 
"hard copy" is a handy thing to have at a tax audit. QTAX 
does allow you to save the data on tape and recallitlaterfor 
review or change. 

QTAX is not a CPA, nor does it offer advice; it just 
rapidly calculates your 1040 from entered data. As the 
instruction manual stresses, the results are only as good as 
the entered data. "Garbage in-garbage out." It operates in 
16K. 

(Q Systems, 7602 Seoane Court, Falls Church, VA 
22042, $19.99) 

—Bruce Rothermel 



Corrections 



ADDRESS 



Paul S. Hoffman offers a minor correction for one of the 
listings in his in-depth hardware review, "The Expressive, 
Expeditious, Exhilarating X-Pad!," which ran in our last 
issue. 

On Listing 5, which appears on page 90 of the January, 
1983, Rainbow, changing the "FG" variable in lines 1 100, 
1 120,1140 to "FA" will make the program run smoother, 
says Paul. "FG" was used earlier, back in Listing 2. 



180 



the RAINBOW February, 1 983 



Telewriter-64 

the Color Computer Word Processor 



■ 3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

■ True lower case characters 

■ User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

■ Right justification 

■ Easy hyphenation 

■ Drives any printer 

■ Embedded format and 
control codes 

■ Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

■ Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

■ No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 
The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 
Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 




...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 5 1 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 X 24 and 85 X 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 X 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VIII, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with fvlX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 
Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 




...truly a state of the art word processor... 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 
704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add$2forshipping. Calif ornians add 6*Po stale tax. Allow 2 
weeks for personal checks Send self -addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Micro, 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
information.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



Software Review... 

Flight Is Excellent 
Aircraft Simulator 

Imagine yourself alone at the controls of a Cessna 150 
coming in for your first "solo" landing. The tower gives you 
clearance for "runway three-two" and you acknowledge. 
Well, if your family hears all of this while you're sitting in 
front of your computer they will probably send you straight 
to the funny farm. But just think of all the time you will have 
to play games, especially if they let you take your CoCo with 
you. 

Flight by Dave Hooper and Mark Barnes is an excellent 
aircraft simulator program by Prickly Pear Software. It's 
more of a game than a real time flight simulator, but it 
features excellent graphics and time response. The program 
is written for 32K Extended Color Basic and is supplied on 
cassette or disk. One joystick is required. The cassette 
version uses the "auto-loader" program by Sugar Software 
apd gives you something to look at while loading a total of 
three separate programs with one CIO/lfM command. 
The documentation is quite skimpy, almost to the point of 
being inadequate, but program prompts and operation do 
not really need explanation. I would like to have seen an 
explanation of the method of score calculation and 
operation. 

The game has eight different skill levels and asks 
immediately if you want high or normal speed operation. 
Caution is given in the manual regarding the fact that some 
TRS-80C's will not operate in the high-speed mode. My 



32/64K Extended Basic machine worked fine at high speed 
without any modification. 

The user is then asked which skill level he prefers: 

A — student pilot 

visual landing — no cross wind 
B — private pilot 

visual landing — cross wind 
C — commercial pilot 

instrument landing — no cross wind 
D — airline transport pilot 

instrument landing — cross wind 

Each level is capable of operation in the normal or high- 
speed mode. All pilots (up to five) must use the same level. 
Each pilot is required to log-in his name and asked to fasten 
his seat belt. After a short delay, one of the finer graphic 
screen presentations I have seen appears on the CoCo. The 
screen is divided into thirds. The top display is called the 
"azimuth" and shows the glide path, runway and your plane 
from overhead. The middle display is called the "glide path" 
view, as it shows an elevation f rom the ground. The bottom 
display consists of three real time instruments, two hairlines 
indicating azimuth, and artificial horizon and an altimeter. 
These instruments are very responsive to joystick control 
and very realistic. 

If you hit the ground bef ore the runway you will certainly 
know you have crashed. If you are too high to land, the 
tower will inform you to "go around" and try again. If you 
make a successful landing, a voice synthesization of "perfect 
landing" will congratulate you. As a side comment, this 
game takes advantage of the Radio Shack joysticks. Since 
the response is so quick the game becomes more of a 
challenge. Spring loaded joysticks would make it much 
easier. 

In conclusion, I feel Flight would be anexcellent addition 
to your tape library f or several reasons. The graphics alone 
are excellent. The real time response of the joysticks makes 
the game realistic. Several different skill levels offer 
everyone a challenge from kids to adults. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 9822 E. Stella Road, Tucson, 

AZ 85730, $19.95 tape, $24.95 disk) 

—Dan Downard 



Software Review... 

The Stripper Gives You 
The Bare Essentials 

Sorry guys, this is not an X-rated graphics demonstration, 
but a handy utility that has been designed to reduce the size 
of your Basic programs. This can really be helpful if you 
have ever been hit with the dreaded "OM ERROR." 

The Stripper is a machine language program supplied on 
cassette, and includes two sheets (double-sided text) of 
excellent instructions. It is menu driven, and the following 
commands are available: 1) delete remarks, 2) pack lines, 3) 
remove blanks, and 4) exit. The program can be loaded into 
any protected area of memory and the instructions give 
examples of loading for disk and non-disk users. 

To use The Stripper you should have a good Basic 
program loaded into your computer and have a copy on tape 
of this unstripped version. Next, CLOAD and EXECute 
The Stripper. Another nice feature you'll notice as you're 
presented with the menu is a window showing the amount of 
memory space the loaded Basic program is using. This lets 



TRS-80 COLOR BASIC 

by BOB ALBRECHT 

This entertaining self-instructional book is packed with 
games, experiments, scores of intriguing challenges, and 
activities related to fantasy role-playing games. The 
ideal introductory aid for kids, parents and teachers 
using the Color Computer. 

John Wiley & Sons $9.95 
605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158 



ArrllLb , 



TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS, 

by DON INMAN 

Explore the creative and imaginative blending of computers 
and color. This exciting book will enable you to explore 
all the graphics capabilities of Extended Color BASIC. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 
11480 Sunset Hills Rd., Reston, VA 22090 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS 

FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

by DON INMAN and KURT INMAN 

This book is specific to the TRS-80 Color Computer with 
applications using sound and graphics to illustrate how an 
assembler can be used to perform feats that would be quite 
difficult, if not impossible in the BASIC language. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 



DYMAX, P.O. 310, MENLO PARK.CA 94025 

Dymax orders must be prepaid via check, money order, Visa 
or Mastercard. Sorry, no Purchase Orders or COD orders. 
Please add $2.00 shipping and handling. California residents 
add 6% sales tax. 



182 the RAINBOW February, 1983 




ExIBMer (NOW RETIRED) 
For the FIRST TIME — Makes available to the PUBLIC 
His personal collection of superior programs for the 

TRS-80 COLOR 

SEE HOW THE PROFESSIONALS DO IT!! 
ALL PROGRAMS ARE OVER 14K LONG! ! 



TALKING GRAPHIC DEMONSTRATION 

Like no other Computer Program that ever existed! Your CoCo will talk to you with a beautiful musical 
background and tell all about himself while displaying dozens of action packed hi-resolution graphic demon- 
strations. Programs RUN non-stop for 12 FANTASTIC minutes from 1 CLOAD. 

"This demonstration is MANDITORY. You and your CoCodeserve this program." /\e 

Quote The Rainbow. $24.95T* d> 

THE DISK DOCTOR — Cure that sick feeling and utter frustration caused by CRASHED I/O 
ERROR and UNREADABLE disks. Will SALVAGE MIL, BASIC, DATA, ASCII, even MPP Pictures. Menu driven for 
easy use. 100% visable operation lets you see what you are doing. ^ — ~ 

Automatic SALVAGE to NEW disk. All in OPEN BASIC! 549.95D * 

MPP-TUTORIAL — Programming tool of the professionals — "lets you EASILY create superior 
graphics without using the tedious DRAW, PAINT, LrNE, PSET, CIRCLE, etc. commands. I have seen the results, 
and they are INCREDIBLE — If you want to see and use the full graphic a act i\ 

potential of your CoCo, this program is -REQUIRED! "Quote Chromasette. $34.95T Of D * S 

EL CASINO — Three STARTLING action packed hi-res graphic games that have received RAVE 
reviews. All programmed with MPP. Each game is over 14K long. ^ _ 

All three games below 549.95T Or D * 

DICE GAME — The ONLY crap game that allows 4 players to make — ^-n 

12 Field Bets before every roll 524.95T Or D * ^ 

BLACKJACK — Gives you the FAMOUS CARD COUNTER ( _ 

sold for hundreds of dollars elsewhere 524.95T Or D "A" 

SLOT MACHINE — Looks like a $30,000 Casino machine. A _ . _ 

Sounds like one, too. Adjustable pay-off 524.95T 0( Dir gj 

-r.— 

★ T- 16K -EXTENDED * D= 32K-DOS ★ POSTAGE PAID 



SITE It I OR GRAPHIC SOFTWARE 

406 LITTLE MOUNTAIN ROAD - WAYNESVILLE, N. C. - 28786 



you see how much memory you are recovering as the various 
options are EXECuted. Removing remarks and spaces 
should be done next; this is pretty straightforward and may 
not result in a significant savings of memory. It's the pack 
lines option that really gives the most dramatic results in 
memory savings and program structure. This is done by 
making multiple statement lines from individual statements 
in the Basic program. Of course, line renumbering and 
proper syntax is taken care of in the now-stripped program. 
The next step is to EXECute the exit command; this will get 
you back to the Basic operating system and allow you to 
CSA V E the stripped program. 

How much memory can you save? Well, to find out, I ran 
eight randomly selected Basic programs through The 
Stripper. Some of these were purchased and some were my 
own creations. They varied in length from approximately 
2K to 10K of memory storage. The savings for these 
programs varied from 4% to 34% reduction in memory 
requirements, with about a 25% average. Also, since these 
are now shortened, there may be a slight speed advantage 
when running. 

1 find another advantage of this utility is that it helps me 
write more understandable Basic programs. Now I can load 
up my program with remarks and spaces, CSA VE it, strip it 
for the working version, and go back to the original six 
months from now and easily figure out what I was doing. 

Giveitatryyouwilllikeit! 
(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, NY 
11421, $7.95 = $2.00 s/h) 

— Ronald Hansen 



Software Review... 

Reviewer Stands Pat: 
Blackjack, A Hit 

You'd better be ready for some serious gambling when 
you take on the shifty-eyed dealer in Blackjack because his 
never-changing expression tells you he's out to take you for 
all he can get. 

A heavy silence hangs over the table as the tight-lipped 
dealer ceremoniously shuffles the cards, deals them to you 
and waits f or you to make a mistake. There are no "tah-tah- 
tah-tahs!" when you win, nor does the screen ever flash, 
because the "house" apparently takes losing very seriously. 

Designed for two players, as well as the character 
mentioned earlier, Blackjack is a nicely-conceived game, 
playing-wise and graphically, but requires a lot of 
concentration because there are no sound effects. 

Joysticks are needed and it may take a couple of dry runs 
to get used to their movements (while the dealer, meanwhile, 



takes advantage of your fumbling around). 

After the dealer has given each player two cards, the 
player whose turn it is sees his money flashed to the right of 
the screen, opposite his cards. Then, there's a sequence of 
numbers — 10, 20, 30, etc. on up to 100 — which represents 
the amount of money you want to bet on that hand. To stop 
the sequence and place your bet, you push the joystick 
forward. But first, you will probably want to press your fire 
button to see what's in your hand (at this time, the other 
player is expected to turn his head as a courtesy). If you like 
your hand, pulling the joystick to the left lets you stand pat. 
Want a hit? Pull it to the right. 

More advanced Blackjmck players may find the initial 
action a little too slow. No problem: there's a POKE 
command that allows you to speed up the action. However, 
if you're among those who need a lot of time to make up 
your mind, there's still no rush to place your bet after you've 
seen your hand. Until you pull your joystick to the right or 
left, you are not committed. While you're making up your 
mind, the word "Hit?" is displayed at the upper righthand 
part of the screen. Except f or the dealer's ever-shif ting eyes, 
that's the only message displayed — in the version I played. A 
peek at the listing, however, showed that the dealer was 
supposed to say "Player A (or B) wins, you lose!" I guess, in 
my case, he wasn't as interested in rubbing it in, as he was in 
taking my money. 

The game proved to be very challenging, especially when 
another person besides you and the dealer are involved. The 
dealer, actually, proves to be an honorable type, allowing us 
to win on quite a few occasions. Still, there were those eyes, 
and I couldn't help wondering how much better the game 
would be with a few "tah-tah-tah-tahs!" 

(K & K Computerware, 37326 Gregory Drive, Sterling 
Heights, MI 48077, 16K Ext. Basic, $12.95 tape.) 

— Charles Springer 



j 

! 
! 
! 

RAINBO Wfest j 
Chicago April 22-24 I 



The very first national show and exhibition for CoCo will 
be held in Chicago April 22-24, sponsored by the Rainbow. 

RAIN BO Wfest will be at the Hyatt-Regency Woodfield, 
west of the downtown area. The RAIN BOWfest site is 
adjacent to Woodfield Mall — the world's largest shopping 
center. 

According to preliminary plans, a large number of 
software and hardware firms will be on hand to exhibit their 
products. The meeting will also feature a great deal of fun 
and conversation about CoCo. 

We urge you to make plans to attend. A special hotel rate 
can be secured by mentioning the Rainbow. 

Admission will be $7.50 for all three days through an 
advance sale, or $5 per day for a single day. Tickets at the 
door will be $11 for the entire session or $7.50 for a single 
day. 

Other events are planned and will be announced shortly. 



GAMES FOR THINKERS 

MINEFIELD (*4K) - Follow the clues of your 

mine detector to find your way safely through 
the minefield. 10 levels of play. Tough! 

Gil - $4.95 

WALL STREET (16K) - Buy and sell stocks to 
make your fortune! 1-4 players. Stock & 
market , history charts . Many extras ! Good 
family fun! G12 - $9.85 

We pay shipping. Wa. residents add 6.4% sales tax. 

No C.O.D. Personal check orders ship in 2 weeks. 'JJSJJSSJ' 

«, , , , , f* i • P.O. Box 243 

l/alrjalla tnterprxeee Sumner, w a . 98390 



184 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



JARB 



ADVENTURES 

MANSION OF DOOM 

by PAL Creations 
Rescue the Princess Marlena from the 
mysterious Count Von Steinoff and re- 
unite her with the townspeople of her 
village in Transylvania. The Count's man- 
sion has 76 distinct locations for you to 
explore in your rescue attempt. 
32KEXT $ 14.95 



S.S. POSEIDON 

by Bill <t Debbie Cook 

You are aboard the S.S. Poseidon when it 
is capsized by a tidal wave. It is floating 
bottom-up on the surface and taking on 
water. Will you survive to tell your tale? 
16KEXt $14.95 



THE FINAL COUNTDOWN 

by Bill <t Debbie Cook 

You are outside a missile base which has 
just been evacuated because a beserk 
General has started the countdown on a 
nuclear missile - target: MOSCOW. 
Your mission, if you accept it, is to stop 
the missile launch and prevent WWIII. 
16KEXT $14.95 



STALAC & ENO 

by PAL Creations 

1) You are an allied POW in a German 
prison camp in 1944 and were forgotten in 
the hot box when the camp was evacuated 
due to unexpected bombing raids. How 
will you get out ALIVE? 

2) Your eccentric old aunt just died and 
lef t you a f ortune in cash. To prove you 
deserve it, you must decipher the clues 
and find your fortune, which she hid in 
her living room. 

32K EXT Both for $14.95 

BIG NUM 

by Quasar Animation 

$6.95 

THE WALL 

by Quasar Animation 

:$9.95 

MYSTERY MAZE 

by Faith Robinson Enterprises 

$14.95 

DOODLE BUG 

by Computerware 

$24.95 

COLORPEDE 

by Intracolw 

$29.95 



' [software 
i hardware 

computer products 



THE WARRIOR 
& THE WIZARD 

by Jimmy Jones 

Choose your character, weapons and ar- 
mor to battle warlords, pygmies and other 
foes as well as hidden monsters, snakes, 
booby traps and numerous other dangers 
in this disk based graphics assisted adven- 
ture. Beware of the EVIL WIZARD! 
32K EXT Plus one disk $ 19.95 



CCM#3 

by Charles Sanlee, Ed.D. 

Using only one joystick, CCM#3 allows 
total communication for special persons. 
Contains many features and is easy to use. 
Excellent for young children. Also helps 
teach spelling and sentence structure. Com- 
plete documentation. 

32K EXT $32.95 



RAINBOW 



SKY DEFENSE 



cu».«,>o. By Quasar Animations 

Fight off the attacking waves of enemy 
craft in fast realtime combat. Machine 
language. 

16K $18.95 



BLACK SANCTUM 

by Mark Data 



.$19.95 



CALIXTO ISLAND 

by Mark Data 



EL DIABLERO 

by Computerware 



.$19.95 



.$19.95 



JARB 



SOFTWARE 
HARDWARE 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

1636 D Avenue, Suite C 
National City, CA 92050 
(619) 474-6213 

Dealer/ Author Inquiries Invited 



All programs warranted 60 days from date of purchase 
10 original purchaser. Unless otherwise specified, ship- 
ping and handling $2. 00 per order. California Residents 
add 6°7« sales tax. 



RAINBOW 

JUNGLE TREK 

Lost in a jungle with wild animals lurking; 
your only survival is to find a safe com- 
pound before you are lunch for lions; 
high resolution; multi-color. 
16K EXT $14.95 



rainbow LAZER STAR 
HELO BATTLE 

1) 2 players avoid destruction by blasts of 
mysterious lazerstar while battling each 
other for possession of Lazerstar 

16K EXT 

2) 1 player/2 joystick combat game to 
blow up 5 blockhouses while watching f uel, 
ammo, and avoiding anti-aircraft fire 
16KEXT Both for $14.95 



RAINBOW 

=>"~"°" JARB CODE 

Encode/ decode important messages or 
other information in a virtually un- 
breakable format. 

16K Standard/Extended $15.95 




BIORHYTHM/ 
PSYCHIC APT. 

1) Prints biorhythm charts of nearly 
unlimited length; attractively formatted 
for use on Line Printer VII. 16K 

2) Your psychic ability is determined 
through questions evaluating your psychic 
experiences 

16KExt Both for $15.95 



SCORE-EZ 

From I to 6 people can play this excellent 
adaptation of a popular board game. The 
computer keeps score for all players, and 
rolls dice. You can roll again just like the 
original game. Properly position the 
results of each turn for maximum score. 
The only thing you will need besides your 
computer is players. Color graphics and 
sound will entertain you for hours, and 
it's EZ to play. 

16K EXT $15.95 



U.S FUNDS ONLY 

C.O.D. ORDERS ACCEPTED 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



USING GRAPHICS 



Techniques For Plotting 
Screen Graphs 

By Don Inman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This is the fifth part of a series of articles on the graphic 
capabilitites of Extended Color Basic. Portions of this 
article are taken from the book TRS-80 Color Computer 
Graphics, copyrighted by Reston Publishing Company, Inc. 

Mathematicians, engineers, and some normal people are 
often disturbed by the way that most microcomputers 
reference horizontal and vertical positions on the video 
display. As you know, the Color Computer uses the upper 
left corner of the screen as the zero location for both 
horizontal and vertical positions. The horizontal positions 
increase as you move to the right (0 - 255), and the vertical 
positions increase as you move downward (0 - 191). 
Technically-oriented people usually refer to the graphic 
positions in terms of X,Y coordinates. The screen positions 
used by the Color Computer (and most other 
microcomputers) can be graphically represented by a two- 
ixes system where each position is represented by one X,Y 
:oordinate pair of numbers. 



255 



Computer 
Coordinates 



This system bears a close resemblance to the first 
quadrant of the Cartesian Coordinate System of the 
mathematical world. The one major exception is that the Y 
axis of computer graphic screens is reversed (upside down) 
from the orientation of normal mathematical thought. 
Positive values for Y are thought of as increasing as you 
move upward in the first quadrant of the Cartesian system. 
127 



Cartesian Coordinates 
(first quadrant) 



255 



In this article and others that will follow, we will be 
making use of some equations to improve our graphic skill. 
For this reason, we will use the system that you became 
acquainted with in your high school mathematics. We will 
modify the computer's system to fit the Cartesian system. 
The following equation can be used to turn the Y axis of the 
computer system upside down. 



YG = 191 - Y 



Computer's Y ■ 



-Cartesian Y 



DOUBLE DUTY 



You've spent a lot of money on your computer. Let 
it do double duty and protect your residence when 
you are away . 

DOUBLE DUTY connects quickly to CoCo 1 s ports and 
allows timed on/off control of one or more devices 
such as bel Is, sirens , lights , dialers , even sprinkler 
systems. Any number or combination of dry contact 
magnet ics switches, foil, electric eyes, motion detect- 
or may be connected . Series or paral lei , norm, open or 
closed contacts. 10 foot cord allows remote location 
to avoid wire clutter. 

Software may be user modified or write your own 
short simple programs in BASIC. DOUBLE DUTY will 
work with any COLOR COMPUTER, even 4K ! 

Full documentation included with tips for design- 
ing an effective alarm system layout. 

DOUBLE DUTY plus tape,?39.95 postage included 

BLACKJACK ROYAL E 

More than just a game, but a system to help you win 
at the casinos. High resolution graphics deal real- 
istic cards(10 of diamonds has 10 diamonds) anil pre- 
set rules duplicate 80?; of the world's casinos or 
enter you own to match where you play. 

Full realistic play includes double down, splits, 
surrender , insurance bet , 1-8 decks used, burnt cards, 
shuffle frequency and more. A complete card counter 
option allows entry of any commercial blackjack 
winning system for evaluation . Each card can be given 
any count value and the computer keeps track of how 
many of what cards have been dealt and the total 
remaining deck point value. Teaches the game and 
will train you to count cards and win. 

Play your cards right and this software will make 
you money at the casinos, the author did! 

Requires 32K EB.no joysticks req ' d . 

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186 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



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The equation converts Y values in this way: 
Cartesian Y Conversion Computer Y 



191 YG = 191 - 191 = 0 



100 YG =191 - 100 = 91 



50 YG = 191 - 50 - 141 



YG = 191 - 0 = 191 



0 



91 



141 



% 191 



Next, let's write a program that will draw the X and Y axes 
of the system that will look like the normal Cartesian 
system. We'll add to it later so that we can plot some points 



on it. 



Axes Drawing Portion of Plotter Program 

200 REM DRAW AXES 
210 PMODE 4,1 

220 PCLS1 'BACKGROUND GREEN 
230 COLOR 0,1 'FOREGROUND BLACK 
240 L1NE(0,191)-(255,191),PSET 'X AXIS 
250 LINE(0,0)-(0,191),PSET 'Y Axis 
260 SCREEN 1,0 
900 GOTO 900 




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ENTER and RUN this part of the program. 1 hope your 
video display does a better job than mine does. 1 can't seethe 
X axis on mine. Therefore, I'll change the Y values used at 
the limits of lines from 191 to 181. When I do this, I must 
keep in mind that 1 will have to alter my conversion equation 
to: 

YG = 181-Y 

All you need to do for now, if your video display has the 
same shortcoming as mine, is to change lines 230 and 240 to: 

240 L1NE(0,I81)-(255,18I),PSET 'X AXIS 
250 LINE(0,0)-(0,181),PSET 'Y AXIS 

Now, 1 run the program and see: 



Now both axes show 




Let's add some lines to input two pair of X,Y coordinates 
at the beginning of the program. In addition to this, we'll 
add a subroutine that draws a line between the pair of 
points. Our revised program looks like this. 



PLOTTER PROGRAM #1 



100 REM INPUT END POINTS 
110 CLS 

120 INPUT "COORDINATE l";XI,YI 
130 INPUT "COORDINATE 2";X2,Y2 

200 REM DRAW AXES 
210 PMODE 4,1 
220 PCLSI 
230 COLOR 0,1 

240 LINE(0,18I)-(255,181),PSET 
250 L1NE(0,0)-(0,181),PSET 
260 SCREEN 1,0 
270 GOSUB 1010 



this section 
added 



this is the 
old part 



900 GOTO 900 

1000 REM LINE DRAWER 

1010 Yl = 18 1-Y I : YT=Y2: Y2=181-Y2 

'CONVERT AND SAVE Y2 AS YT 
1020 X1=X2: Y I=YT 'CHANGE 

OLD SECOND POINT TO FIRST POINT 
1030 RETURN 



NOTE: Later we'll want to add a second line which 
will be joined to the first. See lines 1010 and 1020. 



Use PLOTTER PROGRAM #1, 
the following INPUT data. 

Run 1 0,0 to 40,90 
Run 2 0,160 to 180,20 
Run 3 160,0 to 160,160 



make three runs using 



188 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



PRICKLY- PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR 80C 

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Phonics I 

This classroom-tested program is the newest in our Phonics 
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Phonics II 

SimilartoPhonlcs I in concept and execution, but Phonics 
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modes. 



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Gangbusters 

If you ever wanted to try a life of crime, this is your chance. 
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A simulation for 1 to 4 persons. Each begins as a land- 
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Astrology 

Truly a classic, this program will accurately cast your 
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Using this data, we obtained the following results 
Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 




Taking a close look at Run 3, notice that the location of 
the point 1 60, 1 60 looks farther f rom the X axis than it does 
from the Y axis. To show this more clearly, use the same 
inputs as in Run 3, but add the following lines to the 
program. 



280 X2=0: Y2=160 
290 GOSUB 1010 



'DEFINE NEW POINT 
'DRAW A SECOND LINE 



When the program is run with the addition of lines 280 
and 290, the two lines produced on the screen were 
measured. The vertical line on my video screen measured 
14.7 centimeters and the horizontal line measured 11.8 
centimeters. 160,160 



11.8 cm 



14.7cm 



If I should attempt to draw a square with equal X and Y 
values, the figure would be def ormed and would appear as a 
rectangle with unequal sides. If I want things on the screen to 
appear as they are mathematically planned, I must correct 
the deformity produced on my video screen. You should 
conduct a similar experiment with your video display to find 
its deformity. My deformity factor can be expressed as a 
ratio of width to height. 

11.8 _ 

D = 147 ~ 0.8formy screen 

If I multiply the Y coordinates used for graphics in my 
program by 0.8, the corrected values should create the 
desired appearance. This can most easily be done in line 
1010 of the DRA W subroutine. 

1010 Y1 = 181-.8*Y1: YT=Y2: Y2=181-.8*Y2 

When the program is run with this change, I see: 



160,160 

( now it looks like a square 



EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 
For the Color Computer 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 



3424 College N.E. 
Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 
(616) 364-4791 



CLOCK-With the ever increasing use of digital clocks, more and more 
young people are unpracticed in the use of the "ANALOG" clocks. You 
remember those, the ones with the hands. This program will attempt to 
teach the relationship between the two types of clocks. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $14.95 

SPELLING TEST is designed to give a standard oral spelling test using 
the audio track of the computer's tape recorder to dictate test words and 
sample sentences. Student responses are typed on the keyboard and 
checked by the computer. Results are displayed on the screen and (if 
connected) on a printer. REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

MATH DRILL is a program designed to help children to practice addi- 
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• Up to 6 students may use the program at the same time. 
•Answers for addition, subtraction and multiplication are entered 

from right to left, just as they are written on paper. 
•Commas may be included in the answers. 

• Partial products for the multiplication problems may be com- 
puted on the screen. 

• Division answers that have a remainder are entered as a whole 
number followed by the letter "R" and the remainder 

•There are ten, user modifiable, skill levels. 

•A "SMILEY FACE" is used for motivation and reward. Its size in- 
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•Skill levels automatically adjust to the student's ability. 

•A timer measures the time used to answer each problem and the 

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•After a problem has been answered incorrectly the correct answer 

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REQUIRES 16K EXT BASIC $19.95 

WORD DRILL is designed to give a multiple cho'ce vocabulary quiz. 
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REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 



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ESTIMATE is a program designed to help children to practice estimating 
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displayed. 

•A report is given at the end of each set of problems that includes the 
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•The (BREAK) key has been disabled so that a child will not in- 
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16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

TEACHERS' DATABASE is a program designed to allow a teacher to 
keep a computerized file of information about his/her students. There 
are many features that make this program particularly attractive. 

• Information on as many as 100 students (or more) may be in the 
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• The program will run from cassette or disk. 

• Cassette and disk files are completely compatable. 

• The program is menu driven. 

• Records may be easily changed, deleted, combined or 
added. 

• Information about students may be numerical or text. 

• Records may be quickly alphabetized. 

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• Records may be reordered (ranked) based on test scores or 
other data. 

• Data displayed during a sort may be printed on a printer or 
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• A full statistical analysis of data may be done and sent to the 
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• Student test scores may be weighted. 

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190 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



Our experimenting with the screen is over for the time 
being. However, we should change the program so that it is 
more general. Let's fix it so that it has the capability to draw 
any number of straight lines with each line joined to the one 
that preceeded it. The second point of each straight line will 
become the first point of the line that follows. Program lines 
that have been added or changed are marked with an 
asterisk. 



PLOTTER PROGRAM #2 



INPUTS 

N=6 

80,20 
180,20 
220,100 
180,180 
80,180 
40,100 



N 



100 REM INPUT END POINTS 
110 CLS 

* 120 INPUT "HOW MANY LINES" 

* 130 DIM X (N) , Y (N) 

* 140 FOR Z=l TO N 

* 150 PRINT Z;s INPUT "COORDINATE"; X ( Z ) , Y ( Z ) 

* 160 NEXT Z 

200 REM DRAW AXES 
2 1 O PMODE 4 , 1 
220 PCLS1 
230 COLOR 0, 1 

240 LINE (0, 181 ) : (255, 181) , PSET 
250 LINE(O.O)- (0, 181 ) .PSET 
260 SCREEN 1 , 0 

* 270 FOR Z=l TO N 

* 280 GOSUB 1010 

* 290 NEXT Z 

700 GOTO 900 

* 1000 REM LINE DRAWER 

* 1010 Q=Z+1: IF Q=N+1 THEN Q=l 

* 1020 Yl=181-. 8*Y < Z ) : Y2=181-. 8*Y <Q> 

* 1030 L I NE <X (Z) , Yl ) — ( X (Q) ,Y2) , PSET 

* 1040 RETURN 



INPUTS 
N=4 

40,20 
220,40 
200,140 

20,120 



INPUTS 

N=3 

60,20 
220,60 
100,140 



r 



INPUTS 

N=5 

80,20 
140,160 
200,20 

40,100 
240,100 



INPUTS 

N=9 

120,100 
120,120 
160,120 
160,80 
100,80 
100,140 
180,140 
180,60 
120,60 

There are many options that you could add to Plotter 
Program #2. Most apparent are the addition of restrictions 
to the inputs. 

If you are drawing a plane geometric figure, the number of 
lines (N) must be greater than, or equal to, three. Another 
major consideration is that the coordinates for the points 
must lie within the boundaries of the screen. These 
deficiencies can be remedied with the addition of a few lines 
in the INPUT section of the program. 

125 IF N 3 THEN PRINT "I NEED AT LEAST 3 
LINES": GOTO 120 

153 IF X(Z) 255 OR X(Z) 0 THEN PRINT "INPUT 
OUT OF BOUNDS — TRY AGAIN": GOTO 150 

I56IFY(Z) 181 orY(Z) 0 THEN PRINT "INPUT OUT 
OF BOUNDS — TRY AGAIN": GOTO 150 

Another feature that would be useful is to make a new 
drawing without using the "break" key to re-RUN the 
program. The IN KEY function would work nicely at line 
900. 



900 A$=INKEY$: IF A$="" THEN 900 ELSE 1 10 



INPUTS 

N=5 

80,40 
180,40 
180,120 
130,160 

80,20 



Watch next month for USING GRAPHICS — PART VI 
Rotating Figures 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 191 



Software Review... 

Alphabet Soup: 
Educationally Nutritious 

Alphabet Soup is a CoCo variation of traditional 
spelling/ wordplay games like Boggle and Perquacky. From 
a graphics "soupbowl," the program ladles out f rom five to 
fourteen letters of the alphabet, fewer for more skilled 
players, more for beginners. The timer starts, allowing up to 
two hundred seconds for the least skilled players to make as 
many words as they can f rom the assigned letters. Each word 
earns the player the square of the number of its letters, so 
long words earn higherscores. If a playercreates twenty-one 
words from his bowl of soup, he has cleared the board; 
trumpets sound, and he receives a new group of letters to 
work with for the remaining time on the clock. When time 
has expired, the player is asked to identify words he has 
misspelled, or words which he cannot define (usually made- 
up words), and is penalized fifty points per error. 
Identification of mistakes is left up to the individual player 
via the honor system or is the responsibility of fellow 
players. From one to five can play the game, and the 
program will keep each person's score and remind the 
players whose turn comes next. 

Spelling games of this kind are simple enough that players 
of many different skill levels can enjoy them, and this 
program does an attractive job of puttinga spellinggame on 
the computer. Clear rules are built into the program, as are 
warning messages when a player has made certain illegal 
moves, such as using a letter not part of his soup, or using the 
same letter twice. Beeps and bleeps abound — including a 
beeping time clock, tones each time a player presses the 
keyboard, and snatches of the "alphabet song" and the 
Campbell's Soup jingle. I personally found the amount of 
noise distracting and played the game with the sound turned 



down, but my teenaged kids, who spend far more time in 
arcades than I do, had no trouble concentrating on the 
game. It appeared to me that the sound effects 
accompanying each touch of the keyboard slowed the 
response time, as I of ten typed f aster than the program could 
accept, and words I had typed correctly appeared 
incorrectly on the screen. 

I also f ound the concept of difficulty level in this program 
a bit misleading. Level zero players receive fourteen letters 
to work with and two hundred seconds to find words. The 
skilled player gets only five letters and ninety seconds. 
However, I found that when playing level nine I often 
exhausted the possibilitites of five letters quickly, and on the 
whole, it was much more difficult to find all the 
combinations available at the lower, supposedly easier, 
levels. Further, it was just plain more fun to play the game 
with more letters. 1 also wished for some sort of "I Quit" 
function that would allow me to stop playing a round when I 
had exhausted the words in my "soup;"instead, I had to wait 
until the clock had ticked off my full allotment of seconds. 

The penalty system, a flat fifty points off per error, 
presents certain advantages to the person who wishes to 
"take a flier" and gamble with a long word. In fact, any word 
of more than seven letters will result in a gain in score, 
regardless of whether the word is spelled correctly. 

All in all, my family and I found the game a real delight, 
and because the game calls on the player to be imaginative in 
finding words, it is several cuts above some of the "skill and 
drill" spelling programs I've seen on the market. Although 
the instruction manual for Alphabet Soup makes no 
substantial educational claims, any youngsters or adults 
playing the game regularly would, I'm convinced, sharpen 
their awareness of spelling and vocabulary, especially if it is 
played with several players. The program is a hearty stock to 
add to any school or home CoCo program library. 

Alphabet Soup requires 16K with Extended Basic. A 
version for I6K without Extended Basic is also available. 
(Creative Technical Consultants, 16-8 Sangre de Cristo, 
P.O. Box 652, Cedar Crest, New Mexico 87008. Tape, 
$14.95) 

—Stephen Tchudi 

Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 

Contributions to the RAINBOW are welcome from 
everyone. We like to run a variety of programs which will be 
useful/ helpful/fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best 
to make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII f ormat. 
We're sorry, but we do not have time to key in programs. All 
programs should be supported by some editorial 
commentary, explaining how the program works. We're 
much more interested in how your submission works and 
runs than how you developed it. Programs should be 
learning experiences. 

We do pay forsubmissions, based on a number of criteria. 
Those wishing remuneration should so state when making 
submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed 
information on making submissions, please send a S ASE to: 
Submissions Editor, the RAINBOW, P.O. Box 209, 
Prospect, KY 400119. We will send you some more 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently 
submitted to another publication. 



Y-PAK Dual Slot Expander 
for Radio Shack's Color Computer 

Have your Disk and Cartridge too! 
Select between 2 Cartridge slots with one 
switch and control the Auto Start with 
the other switch 
$ 70. °-° Complete 

USER-PAK for Color Computer 

Your own RAM/EPROM Cartridge 

Cartridge holds two 2732s. or any combination 
of four 2716s/6116s. 
$30.0? | ess RAM/EPROM 
$90.op w j th 8K ram 

EPROMs burned from your CC cassette. 
Write for details. 

B. Erickson 

P.O. Box 11099 Dept. RR 
Chicago, IL. 60611 



192 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



80£ 

THE TBS 80 USERS J8HRHU 



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ASSEMBLY CORNER 



Hold The 'Vaders' 
First, Editor/ Assemblers 

By Dennis S. Lewandowski 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



It looks as if those nasty vaders will have to hold on for 
another month! (Sorry.) Toward the latter part of 
November, I received quite a few letters and phone calls, 
f rom people who were typing in the programs. They seem to 
share a common problem; they were entering them into 
Basic, or using a monitor program which was totally 
unsuitable for the task. So for this month we are going back 
to square one, and introducing the Editor/ Assembler. We 
are going to look at the two most popular Editor / Assembler 
packages on the market today. The Micro-Works SDS80C, 
and the Radio Shack EDTASM + . There are differences 
between the two, and it is the differences which are causing 
all the confusion. A small note to all the "experts," while this 
may seem unimportant to you, please try to remember the 
first time you tried to enter a program in your assembler. 
There are quite a f ew people going through that phase now, 
so let's share with them what we learned the hard way. 

What is an Editor/ Assembler? It's a program for your 
Color Computer, which can consist of as many as three 
parts. The Editor is a text handling program, it will allow 
you to enter mnemonic (new-mon-ik) instructions into a 
text buffer, much like entering a program while in the 
command mode of Basic. First let's insert the ROM pack 
into the cartridge slot of the computer. Always powerdown 
your unit, before inserting or removing a ROM pack. If not 
you will KILL your computer. 

To enter the instructions, you must get into the correct 
mode. In the SDS80C package enter the letter "L" for line 
insert. With EDTASM+ enter the letter "I" for inset. The 
SDS80C will tell you which mode it is in using the first line 
of the screen, while the EDTASM+ will put a line number 
(usually 00 100) on the screen. Here comes the hard part, the 
main difference between these two packages is that SDS80C 
is a "line editor," and the EDTASM+ is a "line number based 
editor." As long as the guidelines of each are followed, either 
one is an excellent choice. To enter a line in the SDS80C, or 
the EDTASM+, imagine that you are entering data into a 
FOUR column pad. The first column contains the label, 
since there are no GOTO, or GOSUB statements in 
assembly language, the label marks a point in the text for 
reference. The second column of this pad contains the 
mnemonic, or operational code, for that line. The 
mnemonic is the action the CPU must take when it runs the 
program. (Just to keep the record complete, a mnemonic is 
also referred to as an OP-CODE, and INSTRUCTION.) 
The third column of the pad contains the data field. This 
field can contain a variety of things, a register, number, 
address, or even nothing. The fourth column is left for 
comments; many programmers will enter hundreds of 
programs without ever using this column. Others won't 
allow even one uncommented line. A difference between the 



two packages is that the SDS80C will only allow 32 
characters per line for all four columns, the EDTASM+ will 
allow up to 128. The screen will break up the line, but the 
EDTASM+ will always look at it as one line. 

To insert text, type in the word START with the SDS80C, 
and press the space bar to move to the next column. Using 
EDTASM+ press the right arrow key. The cursor should 
jump about three spaces in either package. Type in LDX — 
this is the mnemonic for loading the X register, the action of 
this line. Again press the space bar for SDS80C, or right 
arrow for EDTASM+. Now type #$0400. This is the data of 
this line. Get to the fourth column by pressing the space bar 
or arrow, and type LOAD X. Now all four columns contain 
some text, so press ENTER. In SDS80C, the cursor will 
move to the next line. In EDTASM+ another line number 
will be displayed. Pressing the Break key will return you to 
the command mode with either package, so do that now. 

When we started, I said Editor/ Assembler; now, what's 
an Assembler? Again, it's a program for the computer, 
however, this one takes the text we just typed in, and 
converts it into a machine language program. Let's try it and 
see. For the SDS80C press the "@" key, then LS and 
ENTER. You will have to press the space bar ratherquickly 
after pressing ENTER or the listing will scroll by before you 
can see it. With EDTASM+ just type in A/WE/NO and 
press ENTER. Don't worry about the error right now. What 
have we here, more columns? Yes, both packages have 
produced a "source" code of the line we entered. Here is 
what my screen displays: 

0001 0600 8E0400 

START LDX #$0400 LOAD X (SDS80C) 

0000 8E 0400 00100 START 

LDX #$0400 LOAD X (EDTASM+) 

Starting with the SDS80C output, the first column 
contains the line number, this line number is just for our 
reference. The second column contains the address in RAM 
memory that this would occupy if it were a valid program. 
The third column contains the actual CPU code and data of 
the text we entered. The second line on the screen is the text 
we entered still in column form. The EDTASM+ did 
basically the same thing, yet slightly different. The first 
column here contains the address of RAM memory. The 
second contains the CPU code. The third contains the data. 
This is followed by the line number and text we entered. This 
slight difference has caused many computer owners to throw 
up their hands, and ignore assembly language due to the 
inconsistencies of listings in magazines. Most listings are 
source code. Source code is the text, or text and code listing 
sent to the printer from the assembler. When you type in an 



194 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



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assembly language program you will ignore the RAM 
addresses and CPU codes, just entering the text. The text 
always starts with the label column. Save the source code 
using the W command, for write, in both SDS80C and 
EDTASM+. Both will allow you to assemble a program in 
memory, and execute it. Wait! Always save your source 
code first. If there is a bug in the program five will get you ten 
that it will clobber your text, or hang up the computer. 

Both SDS80C and EDTASM+ have monitor programs 
built in. SDS80C has ABUG, while EDTASM+ has ZBUG. 
What's with all the bugs? Well, working with assembly 
language, you will encounter a problem or two. Once the 
source code is assembled, there are no syntax errors, just 
hang-ups, and garbage. Careful use of a monitor program 
may be able to pinpoint a problem. Both manuals cover the 
use of the monitor rather well. So we shall move along to the 
reason I brought them up. If you see a listing like this: 

A000 Al CI A2 82 A7 7C A7 OB 

A008 A7 F4 A9 DE A7 D8 10 CE (SDS80C) 

or this: 



A000/ 
A002/ 
A004/ 
A006/ 



0AIC1 

0A282 
0A77C 
0A70B 



(EDTASM+) 

you are looking at the output of a monitor program. If you 
encounter a listing like this, simply type in the second 
column at the memory location contained in the first 
column. This output is known as machine code or object 
code. It is the actual program as the CPU sees it. True, it's 
not as nice as assembly source, since no comments can be 
placed, but if typed in accurately, the program should work. 

Now, about differences, true source code is typically 
portable — meaning it should work in any 
Editor/ Assembler. However, certain functions will vary 
from one to the next. Using the pseudo-op NAM NAME 
into SDS80C, will cause the object code to be written to tape 
with that filename. (A pseudo-op is an operation code for 
the assembler rather than the CPU.) Yet enter NAM into 
EDTASM+, and you will get an error. Using EDTASM + 
you would enter A NAME while in the command mode to 
write the object code to tape using the filename NAME. 



Another pseudo-op which differs is FCB or FDB. Using 
SDS80C you can enter: 

FCB $80,$81,$82 
while EDTASM+ will only accept it: 

FCB $80 

FCB $81 

FCB $82 

When entering strings, or text, you wish outputted: 
SDS80C 

FCC UPTO 21 CHARACTERS PER LINE 
EDTASM+ 

FCC /UPTO 121 CHARACTERS BETWEEN 
SLASHES/ 

How about where the program will start and execute: 
SDS80C 
ORG $600 (optional) 

EDTASM+ 
ORG $600 (mandatory) 

If the ORG, for "originate," statement is left out of the 
SDS80C package it will assume $600. EDTASM+ will 
assume $0000, which when loaded will clobber the pointers 
maintained by ROM in low memory, causing the computer 
to hang up. 

SDS80C 
END (as last line of text) 

EDTASM+ 
END START (mandatory) 

SDS80C will assume $600 as the start of the program, unless 
it is ORGed elsewhere, or END START is used. EDTASM+ 
will assume $0000 as the start of the program, unless END 
START is used. 

SDS80C 

ORG $600 

ORG $E00 (multiple ORG used) 
EDTASM+ 

ORG $600 

ORG $E00 (multiple ORG used) 
SDS80C will fill the memory between $600 and $E00 with 



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RAINBOW ON TAPE is available as a single issue for S6.50 or on a yearly subscription basis for only S60. It is the perfect complementf orthe 
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$3F (code for SWI) rather than update the loading address 
of the code. EDTASM+ will update the loading address of 
the code, and not overwrite the memory in between. This is a 
very handy feature, and certain programs written using it 
cannot be duplicated in any other method. 

Well, I'm sure I have overlooked a multitude of other 
differences but that's it for this month. If you have another 
brand Editor/ Assembler you will have to figure out its 
compatibility with listings in magazines. The best method is 
trying out a strange op-code and seeing what happens. If it 
doesn't work you can always delete that line of text. There 
seems to be as many Editor/ Assembler packages out today 
as there were STAR TREK games in the early days of the 
Model I. Yet not one has a good step-by-step tutorial similar - 
to the Basic manuals provided with the 80C. I know how 
easy it is for a programmer to assume the end-user is well 
versed in the operation of the software he has just written. 
That's the reason I write these articles — to share my 
experiences with you, so you won't lock a fun and useful 
computer in the closet with the video game. 

( Mr. Lewandowski. a n experienced assembly language programmer 
and teacher, is president of DSL Computer Products.) (f^f\ 



Software Review... 

Reviewer Praises ROML As 
'User-Friendly Magic' 

My cassette recorder has become rather dusty since I got 
my disk drive. With it I can load andsaveprogramsatmach 
5 speed compared to tape. But what if I get the urge to load 
one of my machine language games that clobbers the disk 
system? No problem, I just shut off my CoCo, remove the 
disk controller, turn CoCo back on, and wait a minute or so 
for the program to load. Naturally, I have to reverse the 
process when I want to use my disk again. By now you might 
be saying to yourself, "there has to bea betterway." Well, as 
you might have guessed by now, there is. Enter ROML. 
With this package you can load and save these programs 
from disk as if they were designed with the disk system in 
mind. Also, if you have 64K, you can load and save ROM 
Packs from disk as well. If you're still with me, let's find out 
how ROML really works. After all it does sound a little hard 
to believe. 

When you load ROML it auto-executes and asks you for 
the name of the program to be loaded. You then type in the 
name and hit ENTER. It then asks you if the program is to 
be loaded from tape or disk. Wait a minute! If the program is 
going to clobber the disk system, how can I load it from 
disk? What a dumb question. Obviously I don't have any of 
these programs on disk, so I told ROMLXo load from tape. 
After the program is loaded, you are informed that your disk 
ROM has been disabled. What next? Atthis point I'm really 
beginning to wonder about ROM L. The screen now has the 
start, end, and execute addresses of the program I just 
loaded, and I'm being told to "hit any key to start program." 
I'll try almost anything once, so I hit ENTER. Much to my 
amazement, the program is working just like it did before I 
got my disk. 

Now I'm impressed. But what about my disk ROM, and 
what about loading from disk? A quick glance at the 
documentation answers these questions with ease. First, I 
hit the reset button and disk Basic signed on as usual. Then, I 
loaded the "TAP2DSK" program which is supplied along 
with ROML. There is no mention of how to use 



"TAP2DSK" in the documentation, but the program is 
asking me for a name as did ROML. After entering the 
name, the program is loaded, and you are prompted to insert 
a disk into your drive and hit ENTER. After the program is 
saved to disk, you can exit "TAP2DSK" or load another 
program and repeat the process. Now comes the best part of 
all. Load ROM L and tell it to load your program f rom disk. 
As you mighthavealready guessed, the program works after 
being loaded form disk just like it did without the disk. A 
pretty swift piece of work if I do say so. 

One of the additional features of this amazing package is 
for those of you with 64K. With it you can save and load 
your ROM Packs from disk just like you would any other 
program. I was unable to verify this feature, but I have no 
doubt that it works. Although this package will benefit disk 
users the most, those of you with 64K and no disk can still 
use ROML to save and load your ROM Packs from tape. 

Loading and running ROML could not be easier. The 
program always lets you know what it is doing and what it is 
that you should be doing. The programs are so user-friendly 
that you can read the documentation once and then forget it 
exists. The documentation includes a section describing how 
to save your ROM Packs to tape, a section on testing your 
64K, and a section describing how to move the Basic ROMs 
to RAM and run Basic from there if you have 64K. 

If you're like meand can't stand waitingforthosetapesto 
load, then this package is for you. It is well written, easily 
understood, and it works like magic. I think it is done with 
mirrors. 

(Micro Technical Products, Inc., 814 W. Keating Ave., 
Mesa, AZ 85202, $29.00 disk, $25.00 tape.) 

— Gerry Schechter 



COLOR 

COMPUTER 

WEEKLY 




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• An issue loaded with program listings of all sorts 
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February, 1983 the RAINBOW 197 



Software Review... 



This Program Will 
Supersaturate Your Memory 



Do you need more memory, but don't have the money to 
expand to 32K or 64K? Or, if you're like me and just don't 
want to be without your CoCo, even for the time it takes for 
a simple conversion, then this program may be just whatyou 
need. Yes, that's right, with Virtual Memory Loader, you 
can produce programs that are two, three or more times 
larger than the memory of your Color Computer. And by 
using just your standard recorder, too. 

How can that be? Virtual Memory Loader, which is really 
two programs, uses an "overlay" system, and with the 
insertion of a couple of lines to call a new overlay over the 
old one, in almost all cases, the variable values are retained 
from one overlay to the next. 

For test purposes, I made a first overlay containing the 
assigned variables, and then used a second overlay to draw 
and write simple statements. For example, circle (a,b),c 
would be in the second overlay, without any values assigned 
in that particular overlay. 

I then broke and listed my program: lo and behold, all 
lines from my first overlay were gone from my listing. But 
don't break if you want to retain your variables in memory. 
Typing CONT does not let it work without the variables 
from the previous overlay. Simple assigned string variables 
are not carried over, either. 

To use Virtual Memory Loader, first CLOAD Loader- 1, 
which is the basic part of operation. List it, and you will see 
that it contains only three lines. Don't change or overwrite 
them. The spacing in Line 1 is critical to the operating 
procedure. All you need to do now is write your program in 



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the normal manner. When you get near the end of your 
memory, add the f ollowing line:Z$="the name of the overlay 
up to 8 characters": GOT02. CSA VE it with Loader-2. 
Now, if you don't have Loader-2 in memory add it in and 
then EXEC 1728. You should now see the copyright 
statement and P CLEAR. Although the cursor is not seen, 
INPUT the amount that you PCLEARed in your program. 
Striking ENTER is not necessary. Striking ENTER without 
inputting a value defaults to 4. Using any value other than 
that used in your program will result in an error message. 

Next you will see RAM. INPUT either 1 6 or 32. If you 
have 64K enter 32 since the upper 32K is inaccessable under 
normal operation. Now you will see END followed by a 
number. Copy this number and make sure that none of the 
overlays are higher, it can lead to problems. Here is your last 
prompt: NAME .Enter the name you gave to Z$. Now check 
your recorder to save the program when you push ENTER. 
ENTER must be pushed this time. This gives you a machine 
language save of your overlay. If your recorder wasn't ready 
don't worry you can still save the program. 

Virtual Memory Loader comes with four pages of 
instructions, including hints, tips, suggestions and details of 
what must be included in each overlay. 

The only part that really gave me any trouble was that I 
missed making a normal CSA VE of the first portion of my 
test program. The use of Loader-2 saves in machine 
language. If your program has been put together properly, 
only one CLOAD is necessary, no matter how many 
overlays you may call up. 

What I really like about Virtual Memory Loader is that it 
is fairly simple to use. It will let the programmer produce 
programs larger than his computer's memory. And best of 
all, it is not needed to use a program that was made with it. 

Virtual Memory Loader needs at least 1 6K and Extended 
Basic. I 'll be watching the pages of this magazine for ads of 
programs 48 K. or largerformycomputer,sogetbusyallyou 
programmers out there! 

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N.J. 07842, $12.95) 

-Willis Bish 



Software Review... 

Dice Is 
Simple, Straightforward 



Board games are easier to play, thanks to Dice by Q-Soft. 
Do you like to play board games? If you are like me, you do, 
but when you dig the game out of the cluttered closet, you 
examine it only to find that the dice are missing. So, what is a 
person to do? I'll tell you how to solve this problem. There is 
now a high resolution, random dice thrower program, by Q- 
Soft that is excellent as far as graphics, sound and overall 
appearance is concerned. The program is not well 
documented, but it's pretty much self-explanatory on how it 
works. You just load and play. Hitting the space bar, or any 
key for that matter, will trigger a roll of the dice. That's it. 
Straightforward, no-nonsense. 

Dice could be useful in helping young children learn to 
count, but primarily its usefulness is as an adjunct to other 
activities. 

Dice is in I6K ECB. If you would ask me if you should 
buy it, I'd say yes you should. 

(Q-Soft, 1006 Robinhood Drive, Painesville, Ohio 
44077, $5.95 for cassette) 

—Mike Erdy 



198 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



THE COLOR COMPUTER SPECIALISTS 



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AUSTIN, TEXAS 78712 J§llfe& PHONE (512) 459-7325 




COMMENTARY. 



Adventure Round-Up 

By Jim Reed 
Rainbow Managing Editor 

"You are standing on a busy eight-lane highway during 
rush hour." 

"What do you want to do?" 
Is "pray" a CoCo command? 

You find yourself in the dangdest places in computer 
Adventure games. Sometimes any action seems to be the 
wrong one. At other times, it's crazy not to take action. As I 
recall, in Escape from Sparta, one of the Rainbow 
Adventure Contest winners, my first try began immediately 
with a robot shooting at me. I hit "N" for North about eight 
times before stopping to catch my breath in that Spartan 
atmosphere. 

After playing each and every game in the Rainbow 
Adventure Contest several times, and the better ones many 
times, I feel like an old warrior. Yessir, I have a lot of war 
stories. My campaign medals are numerous, too. Purple 
hearts galore, and if there were a special medal f or dying in 
action, I'd have hundreds. Trouble is, there was usually not 
enough left of me to pin a medal on in these armchair- 
keyboard battles. 

We, here at the Rainbow, were so impressed with the 
variety of styles and types of Adventures in our contest, 
mostly non-graphic, that we've decided to publish a 
compendium of the best in book form. We're already 



working on it, in fact. Books take a while, though, so, in the 
meantime, let's reflect on some of what we've learned, and 
share these behind-the-scenes conclusions, not only with our 
entrants, but with everyone who is "into" Adventuregames. 

Our judges were recruited from varied backgrounds. 
Some judged only a game or two, while the "core group," 
who took a crack at most everything, consisted of a 
pharmacist who has a definite violent streak, a psychiatric 
researcher who loves kitty cats, an interior designer who 
loves giant dogs, an aging Frisbee freak, a nationally-active 
"No Nukes" demonstrator with jail time to prove it, and 
yours truly, just a normal all-American guy with no hangups 
at all, except a tendency to seek out weird people. 

That our oddlot assortment of judges spoke with such 
unanimity in their collective conclusions gives, I believe, a 
measure of validity to the observations which follow, and 
which should be helpful to those who are going to enter our 
Rainbow simulation contest. 

First observation: those entries with extensive, well- 
written documentation scored highly. Our two top winners, 
Sir Randolf of the Moors and Dungeon Adventure, both 
had several pages each of instructions, hints and other 
helpful information. We were most taken with those entries 
which had on-screen instructions, but which were also 
backed up with narrative introductory materialand notesto 
improve scores. A number of games were very good, oncewe 
learned what to do by trial and error, but gave us no small 
amount of frustration in just getting started because of lack 
of documentation. Yes, programming takes hours and 
hours of days and weeks over months and months, and the 
sof tware is the centerpiece of your creative work, but please 
give due thought to the total package. 



STOP- 



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P.O. SOX 30166 • INDIANAPOLIS. IN 46220 
SOFTWARE FOR COLOR COMPUTER AND TDP SYSTEM 1 OO ^ 



200 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



FIRST ANNIVERSARY SPECIAL 

That's right people, we have been in business 
for one year. Hence we are having a first 
Anniversary special. Snake Mountain Software is 
pround to announce a new line of products. We 
are going into the cartridge business. Our 
cartridges are very similar to Radio Shack's 
cartridges. Prices good through Jan. 31, 1983. 

PROGRAMS 

An enhanced version of the Solution on a 
cartridge. $29-95 

HARDWARE 

A cartridge case and PC board with a socket. 
Accepts either a 2?l6 or 2732. 

CUSTOM CARTRIDGES 
You send in a program, we send you back a 

cartridge with a program in it. We can do 
either Basic or ML programs. Prices start at 
$19.95. Send for complete details. 

GRAPH LABEL 

Have you ever wanted to place characters on a graphic 
screen but couldn't find an easy way to do it Well then 
GRAPH LABEL is tor you This program will enable you to 
place characters anywhere on a graphic screen It will place 
any of 96 ASCII characters on the screen or you may create 
your own characters It features a cursor that may be moved 
anywhere arourtd the screen with out rubbing out what it 
goes over Superscripts and subscripts may be used since 
the cursor may be moved vertically and horizontally in steps 
as small as one pixel Lowercase characters have descend- 
ers GRAPH LABEL is written m Basic and is therefore easy 
to modify It may be used by itself or as a subroutine. 
$8 95 



Congratulations 



you made the right choice when you purchased a 
Color Computer. It is a very powerful machine. 
However the standard display format does not do the 
machine justice. The machine is capable of much more than 
16 lines of 32 all capital characters Now you can give your 
Color Computer the display it deserves THE SOLUTION 
gives the Color Computer a much better display than it nor- 
mally has, and really makes the machine shine Its features 
include: 

• provides a screen of 42 character* by 21 lines displayed 

• linked directly to basic — program is transparent to the 
user 

• prints all 96 ASCII characters, lowercase characters 
have descenders, has a slashed t*ro to avoid 
confusion when programing 

• prints characters on any two-color graphic screen 

• graphics and text may be intermixed on the same screen 

• special mode with 4 lines of text at the bottom of the 
screen (just like some other famous color machines) — 
great for working with graphics 

• large character mode for small children or the visually 
impaired 

• character set may be reversed 

• written in machine language, program is relocatable 

• fast — prints at over 600 characters per second 

• works with both cassette and disk 

• includes a 20 page manual with demo programs la lunar 
lander program is included) 

SOLUTION $14.95 



EXTENDER 

Still want more than 42 characters per line from your 
computer. Then the EXTENOER is for you This program 
when used with THE SOLUTION will give a display of 51 
characters per line by 21 lines displayed Please include your 
program serial number when ordering $7.95 



PILOT is a language which enables people with little 
knowledge to write educational programs The language 
uses simple one or two letter commands for program 
functions. 

SUPER PILOT 

An enhanced version of Pilot for use with Extended Basic 
Includes features for math, graphics, and sound. Has a 
feature that makes it easy to create flash card type drill 
programs. Programs are pseudo compiled for faster 
execution. Comes with as 24 page tutorial manual and demo 
programs Sample program included on tape to get you 
started $12.95 

SCRIPTFIX 

An ML program that.ehables Color Scripsitto have true upper 
and lower case characters— none of the reversed upper case 
characters. Features solid green background and all normal 
Scripsit functions. No decrease in typing speed. Please specify 
your machine type when ordering. $9.95 



DISCOUNT — order 10 or more programs (you may mix. 
types) and you will receive a 30% discount on the order 
Daalcr discounts are also available 



SNAKE MOUNTAIN SOFTWARE 
P.O. BOX 5722 
RALEIGH, NC 27650 



SCREEN PRINT PACKAGE 

A package of 2 programs for use with the LPVH LPvill 
DMP100, DMP200, DMP400. DMP500 The programs will 
print an image of what is on a graphic screen !C the printer 
Both programs work with all the standard PMODEs The 
programs are written in machine language anj rray be 
moved anywhere in memory The two programs a'e 

1) SCREEN PRINT - will produce a regular size print The 
image may be located anywhere on a page 

2f DOUBLE SIZE SCREEN PRINT - this progran. will 
produce a full size image that will fill up a sheet of paper The 
finished product is 8 by 6 5 inches in size Your computer 
graphics look really good when they are printed out with this 
program. $4.95 

All programs for 16K. 32K Extended Basic machines unless 
otherwise noted All programs on cassette Add S4 00 per 
order for disk 

SHIPPING — add $2 00 for orders less than $20 00 Shipping 
is fre* on orders of more than $20 00 
Canadians — please send money orders only 

Phone C . 0 . D . orders ac d.epted . 



All orders shipped within 5 working days 



919-828-6669 





32K Machine Language 

$24.95 TAPE 
$27.95 DISK 

ARCADE 
ACTION 




This game con- 
tains all 4 screens 
like the popular ar- 
cade game. The 
actual screen 
photos shown are 
only 2 of the tour 
contained in this 
program. 

Actual T.V. 
Screen 
Photos. 






How high can you climb? 
Plays like the popular 
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full graphic screens. 
Exciting sound and realistic 
graphics. Never before has 
the color computer seen a 
game like this. 
Early reviews say simply 
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"This isthebestColorComputer 
program I have ever seenl" 
-Bob Rosen. NVC 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

For The Color Computer and The TDP-100 



"This is a really slick, neat and 
outstanding game." 

—John Brissie, Greenville, SC 



3424 College, N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 • (616) 364-4791 



Add $1.00 Postage & Handling 
Michigan Residents Add 4% Sales Tax 



Top Royalties Paid 
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Along this same line, a couple of notes about the cassette 
tape itself. Quite frankly, we were surprised by the number 
of entries sent in on practically worn-out cassettes. Some 
were on old music tapes, some onrecycledanswering-device 
tapes. When good, brand-new tapes are available for 59 
cents, why risk submitting your best effort on anything but a 
new tape? Some of these entries were also-rans because they 
simply would not load, no matter what we tried. A potential 
winner may have been among them. 

Just as surprising was the fact that a large minority made 
only one save of their entry, when a backup save could have 
fit on the same side or the opposite side of the tape. 

The judges were very charitable and very conscientious in 
trying to review all games, but "no-load" was "no-win" for 
all involved. (Speaking of no-load, take some penalty points 
off the score of this month's Rainbow On Tape. Sir 
Randolph of the Moors was a casualty and was not on some 
of the copies of our tape version of the magazine. We're 
sorry. It will be on all copies of our February edition for 
sure.) 

Thejudges were in agreement that there needs to be some 
standardization of verbs and nouns used in Adventure 
games. At the very least, the author should list the verbs the 
program recognizes in the accompanying documentation. 
Most of our winners did this. We don't think it adds 
anything to the game to guess whether to "push," "pull," 
"throw," "turn," "flip," or "hit" a switch once we've found 
one. The fun part is in flipping a switch with no apparent 
effect, only to find later on that we've killed the lights in 
another area and have to go back and turn them on again, or 
something akin to that. 

Taking inventory was sometimes a chore because we 
didn't know what command to use. A particularly clever 
entrant wrote his program so that hitting the CLEAR 
button would show you where you were, at any time. 

Abbreviations are great and save time — if you provide a 
key to them on a hard copy of the documentation. Most 
entrants used N, S, W, E, U and D for the compass 
directions and "Up" and "Down." Rather than say "Go 
North," you just hit "N" and the ENTER key. We also 
appreciated the thoughtfulness of those entrants who 
explained that you could just key in the first three letters of 
most words to enter a command, EXA for EXAMINE, for 
instance. The more time spent on action than on repetitive 
activities, the better. 

Perhaps the most important observation of all: Test-play, 
or if you prefer, play-test your Adventure game with other 
people who can begin "cold," rather than armed with your 
insights and perspectives. You may have a screen line that 
says, "There is a bag of money sitting on the ground," fully 
expecting the Adventurer to EXAMINE MONEY. 

But, instead, he or she decides to EXAMINE GROUND. 
Well, like as not, CoCo will reply with something like 
"THERE IS NO GROUND." That can cause Adventurers 
to pull their hair out. 

Better to plan for such unexpected commands as many of 
our winning group did, by using a catchall line that says IF 
none of the desired commands are entered THEN PRINT 
something like "Don't Be Silly!" Such an IF/THEN 
command will avoid some rather preposterous situations. 

Play-test and test-play. You'll learn a lot about your 
program's idiosyncrasies, or even eccentricities, and then 
you can alert Adventurers with a few words of explanation 
in the documentation if you wish to preserve a peculiarity, or 
modify the program to eliminate the situation. 

Themore you useotherpeopleto play-test yourcreation, 
the more you'll learn about it. This is good advice even for 
commercial producers, who sometimes rush to production 
before the bugs are fully exterminated. 



High praise went to those who challenged the Adventurer 
with a task to complete rather than just having to plod along 
trying to stay alive. A sense of purpose, an objective, 
stimulates the imagination and makes the Adventure more 
fun. Traps, tricks and other obstacles are great — if they 
make sense and there is some logical method of avoiding 
them in the next life, which is as cheap as RUN. Our winners 
had some novel traps. 

To hold an Adventurer's attention, a program must 
maintain a largedegree of logic. If the only way toget pasta 
wall is to say "Wall Away," a lifetime of logic may never 
solve the problem and the Adventurer may have to BREAK 
into the listing or simply toss your program on the back 
shelf. 

This may seem like a superfluous observation to many 
readers, but we found a high degree of illogical sequences. 
After being totally stumped in an otherwise very enjoyable 
game, we found that the only way to get to a certain spot was 
to first get some dirt and then throw it on the spot. 
Hudathunkit! 

If the Adventurer gets the notion that no logical story line 
is unfolding, he probably will quickly lose interest. He '11 f eel 
like he has no control, so why bother. 

As a group, the judges don't care a bit for mazes even 
though they learned many of the tricks for getting through 
them. Mostly, finding ourselves in a maze, we heaved a sigh 
and then heaved the program too, promising to get back to 
it. 

Yes, I suppose I'm a nitpicky cuss. And, yes, it is easy to 
play the position of Monday morning quarterback. Really, 
all of us enjoyed the homemade Adventures and we felt that 
many could have been commercially packaged and that 
others, with a few repairs, could have been brought up to 
market grade. Polynesian Adventure, for instance, is a 
colorful, musical delight. It alone will make our upcoming 
Adventure book worth the cover price. Collectively, our 
winners' Adventures run the gamut and we're all anxious to 



COLORTERM I.I 



*J^. DISK COMPATIBLE VERSION AND 
NEW FEATURES INCLUDED — 
\* NO PRICE INCREASE 

The Color Computer* as an intelligent terminal 

with 51 or 64 columns by 21 lines 
plus true lowercase! All done in software. 
Any data format — 1 6Kor 32K — 300 or 1 10 Baud 
Print and save host data to cassette 
Encode data for secure storage 
User programmable keys ~~~ 
Much more! 

• reverse video • macrobuffersforoften-usedoutput 

• partial screen clear • patch the 51 or 64 column display 

• 4-way cursor control to your own basic and assembly 

• automatic repeat when programs 

key is held down • preserve a "window" of any size, 

• enter data offline for new material scrolls through 
later uploading to host remainder of screen 

"...Very impressed..." — The Rainbow 
". . . Very pleased . .high marks..." — Color Computer News 
". . .Easy to use. . text densities are high enough to allow 
doing some serious work." — 80 Micro 
Cassette and disk versions included with all orders 
add S5.00 if you want programs on a disk 

$34.95 (U.S.) $40.95 (Canadian) 
M.O., VISA. M/C (include expiry) 
MARTIN CONSULTING. 94 Macalester Bay 
Winnipeg. Man. R3T 2X5 CANADA 

*T.M. of Tandy Corp. 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 203 



compu»sette 

TAPES & DISKS . 
















1" 


14- • lmm - JL 



The Micro-Trac™ Generation 

Used by Software Firms & Computer Hobbyists 
Choice ol School Districts Nationwide 



r 


MINI 


1 

STANDARD 


CASSETTES 


12-PAK 


24-PAK 


C05 


. . ..$ .79 


$ .59 


C 10 


....$ .89 


$ .69 


C-20 


....$ .99 


$ .89 


C-30 


....$1.29 


$1.09 


Custom Cases. . . 


....$ .25 


$ .21 


Cases recommended to pro* eel sensitive cassettes 









r 




1 




MINI 


STANDARD 


5'/." DISKETTES 


5-PAK 


10-PAK* 


Soft Sector 






Single Sided 


$14.95 


$26.95 


^SID Density 



*10 PAK w/custom library case, add $3.00 

— UPS SHIPPING - 
(N o. P.O. Boxes please) 
S3 00 per pack 
— Canadian shipping multiply by 2 — 

No. 1 Magnetic Media in the USA! 

— Write for volume prices — 



publish their creative work so that others can learn how to 
program in winning style. 

Now, more constructive criticism, as we self-styled critics 
like to say. Why, in some Adventures, do I have to die every 
time I commit even the tiniest infraction? One of the many 
enchanting things about the Polynesian Adventure is that 
you may get your nose stung or your fingers burned, but it is 
hard to get killed. With some entries, though, death came 
swiftly and without warning — and we had to start all over 
again. 

I know that the ever-present danger of killing yourself 
does add tension to the game, but we found that suffering a 
wound was, for us, a more pleasant way to be penalized. 
Several wounds and then you die. Can't agrue with that. 

Lastly, the grand finale. Sad to say, most Adventure 
games we reviewed seemed to be anticlimatic at the very 
moment we had finally won. All we usually got was "You 
have saved the princess" printed on the green text screen. 
How much more we enjoyed those games that gave us a song 
and dance routine when we finally successfully completed 
the Adventure. 

When you've survived a RUN through the Valley of 
Death you want and expect and, darn it, deserve flashing 
screen colors, music and all sorts of rewarding hoopla! 

The Rainbow Adventure Contest! Want to play again? 
Well, let's do, next Fall. In the meantime, let's give a special 
round of congratulations to our winners, who were named 
in the January Adventure issue, and special thanks to all 
who entered. Also, we want to mention again the generosity 
of our advertisers who supported the contest by offering 
valuable prizes: 

Gregory Clark, of Syracuse, N.Y., our winner in the non- 
graphics division, received a $125 gift certificate from the 
people at Computer Plus. Gregory Ricketts of Columbus, 
Ohio, won a $150 gift certificate from JARB Software. 
Valuable merchandise credits and selected prizes for our 
other Lucky 13 winners were provided by: 

Spectrum Projects Prickly-Pear Software 

Superior Graphic Software Computer Island 

Custom Software Engineering Nanos Systems Corp. 
Spectral Associates Illustrated Memory Banks 

Transformation Technologies 

What next? A simulation contest! Be looking for an 
announcement of the competition rules in the Rainbow. 



Graphics 



Marquee de Fin 

Ever get to the end of a tough adventure game, with your 
heart pounding with pride from finally winning, and your 
ears flapping violently under your hat, only to receive 
nothing more for your valianteffort than a green screen with 
the tiny words "Want to play again? Y/N"? 

Well, from Morton Goldberg of Newtown, MA, here's 
some medicine for that malady, a way to go out in style when 
the "end" comes. If you're a beginner, remember that the 
program lines beginning with REM are just comment lines, 
or REMarks, about what that section of the program does; 
you need not type these lines in f or the program to work. The 
REM statements will help you if you want to modify the 
program to your own needs. Or, just use Marquee as is and 
tack it on the end of one of your programs. 

Here's a listing that's really "the end": 



204 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



196 022D 
296 0321 
496 04FC 
END 0744 



21 CLS(8) 

26 FOR H=0 TO 63 

31 SET<H,0,3) 

36 NEXT H 

41 FOR V=0 TO 31 

46 SET(63,V,3) 

51 NEXT V 

56 FOR H=63 TO 0 STEP-1 
61 SET(H,31,3) 
66 NEXT H 

71 FOR V=31 TO 0 STEP-1 

76 SET<0,V,3) 

81 NEXT V 

86 FOR H=3 TO 60 

91 SET(H,2,1) 

96 NEXT H 

101 FOR V=3 TO 29 

106 SET(60, V, 1> 

111 NEXT V 

116 FOR H=60 TO 3 STEP-1 
121 SET<H,29,1) 
126 NEXT H 

131 FOR V=29 TO 3 STEP-1 
136 SET (3, V, 1) 
141 NEXT V 

146 FOR H=7 TO 56 STEP 2 



151 RESET (H, 6 ) 
156 NEXT H 

161 FOR V=8 TO 24 STEP 2 
166 RESET (57, V) 
171 NEXT V 

176 FOR H=56 TO 6 STEP-2 
181 RESET(H,26) 
186 NEXT H 

191 FOR V=24 TO 7 STEP-2 

196 RESET (6, V) 

201 NEXT V 

206 REM ("T") 

211 FOR H=9 TO 13 

216 RESET (H, 12) 

221 NEXT H 

226 FOR V=13 TO 18 

231 RESET (11,V) 

236 NEXT V 

241 REM ( "H" ) 

246 FOR H=17 TO 20 

251 RESET (H,15) 

256 NEXT H 

261 FOR V=12 TO 18 

266 RESET (16,V) 

271 NEXT V 

276 FOR V=12 TO 18 

281 RESET (21, V) 

286 NEXT V 

291 REM ("E") 

296 FOR H=25 TO 27 

301 RESET (H,12) 

306 NEXT H 



TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER* 

-16K Extended Basic, Menu-Driven, Well-Documented, Easily-Modified. 
-For either cassette or diskette systems (Be sure to specify). 
-Place an order of at least $40 and get one extra of your choice free. 
-Orders shipped on cassette - Add $5 for shipment on diskette. 



-FURST- ««lNBOW 

Data Element Dictionary driven File Update and 
Retrieval SysTem. Create and maintain files according 
to your specifications. Ideas for applications in- 
cluded $25 

-MAILING LABELS- "'"T" 

Generate and maintain mailing label records. Selective- 
ly print desired quantities. Can keep several label files if 
desired. Designed for Printer VII, easily modified. $20 



-REPORT WRITER- "" NBOW 

Used in conjunction with FURST to selectively format 
reports on your printer. Includes headings and total 
capabilities $15 



-EXERCISE PLANNER- 

Build and maintain complete exercise schedule for 
regular and/or weight programs. Display guides you 
through daily-calculated routines. Print complete 
schedule if desired $15 

-DISK DIRECTORY PRINT- R ^ w 

For diskette users only. Get hard copy of disk directories on your printer for easy use and reference. Only $5 



Send check or money order to: 

LAND SYSTEMS 

P.O. Box 232 
Bellbrook, Ohio 45305 




[MasterCard] 



•TRS-80 and COLOR COMPUTER 
are Trademarks of Tandy Corp. 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 205 



311 


FOR H=25 TO 27 


446 


RESET 


(46 


,V) 


316 


RESET <H, 15) 


451 


NEXT V 






321 


NEXT H 


456 


H=41 






326 


FOR H=25 TO 27 


461 


RESET 


(H, 


12) 


331 


RESET (H, 18) 


466 


H=41 






336 


NEXT H 


471 


RESET 


(H, 


13) 


341 


FOR V=12 TO 18 


476 


H=42 






346 


RESET (24,V) 


481 


RESET 


(H, 


14) 


351 


NEXT V 


486 


H=43 






356 


REM ("E") 


491 


RESET 


(H, 


15) 


361 


FOR H=34 TO 37 


496 


H=44 






366 


RESET (H, 12) 


501 


RESET 


(H, 


16) 


371 


NEXT H 


506 


H=45 






376 


FOR H=34 TO 37 


511 


RESET 


(H, 


17) 


381 


RESET (H, 15) 


516 


H=45 






386 


NEXT H 


521 


RESET 


(H, 


18) 


391 


FOR H=34 TO 37 


526 


REM (" 


D") 




396 


RESET (H, 18) 


531 


FOR H= 


49 


TO 54 


401 


NEXT H 


536 


RESET 


(H, 


12) 


406 


FOR V=12 TO 18 


541 


NEXT H 






411 


RESET (34,V) 


546 


FOR H= 


49 


TO 54 


416 


NEXT V 


551 


RESET 


(H, 


18) 


421 


REM <"N") 


556 


NEXT H 






426 


FOR V=12 TO 18 


561 


FOR V= 


13 


TO 17 


431 


RESET (40, V) 


566 


RESET 


(50 


,V) 


436 


NEXT V 


571 


NEXT V 






441 


FOR V=12 TO 18 


576 


FOR V= 


13 


TO 17 




From GREAT XPT 

for TRS 80 Color Computer 



FOR THE 
GAMBLER 
16k Ext Basic 
High Res. Graphics 
Color Sound W V I P | ay Alone 

High Res. Graphics ^ . * ■ ! or Against 

Req. 16k Ext Basic MM Your Friends 

$10.95ea. MtM Mi> $10 95 ea. 





5ER 
BATTLE 



GREAT X PT 

RO. Box 921 2 
Livonia, Mi. 48150 



Mich. Res. odd A'/. Sales Tax 
C.O.D.odd$I.OO 




16k 

Cotor 
Sound 
Graphics 

$10.95ea. 



FREE CATALOG AVAILABLE 



[HOLIDAY SA LEI 



ALL THREE FOR s 



25.95 




206 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



581 


RESET <54,V) 






586 


NEXT V 






591 


REM (ANIMATION) 




596 


FOR H=5 TO 56 


STEP 


2 


601 


SET<2+H,6,8) 






606 


NEXT H 






611 


FOR H=5 TO 56 


STEP 


2 


616 


RESET<2+H,6) 






621 


NEXT H 






626 


FOR V=6 TO 25 


STEP 


2 


631 


SET<57,2+V,8) 






636 


NEXT V 






641 


FOR V=6 TO 23 


STEP 


2 


646 


RESET < 57, 2+ V) 






651 


NEXT V 






656 


FOR H=56 TO 6 


STEP- 


-2 


661 


SET<2+H,26,8) 






666 


NEXT H 






671 


FOR H=54 TO 5 


STEP- 


-2 


676 


RESET (2+H, 26) 






681 


NEXT H 






686 


FOR V=24 TO 6 


STEP- 


-2 


691 


SET<6,2+V,8) 






696 


NEXT V 






701 


FOR V=24 TO 6 


STEP- 


-2 


706 


RESET (6, 2+ V) 






711 


NEXT V 






716 


BOTO 596 






721 


END 







Print Those Print Statements 
With This ML Feature 



16K 

KC'B 



By Ted Blatt 

Here's a machine language program that changes regular 
PRINT statements into Print #-2's for your printer. And it 
will make the changes without affecting /A'Pt/rstatements. 

The program begins by getting the start pointer of the 
Basic program. From there forward, it searches for a 
PRINT statement. Once it finds a PRINT statement it gets 
the end pointer. From the end of the Basic program, it works 
backwards, taking bytes and moving them up four 
addresses. It stops when it reaches the PR INT statement it 
found previously. Backwards from the PR/NT statement it 
looks for a zero indicating the beginning of a line. Then from 
the beginning of the line it takes the line pointers and 
increments their values and addresses by four. From the 
PRINT statement it adds a #-2 and either a comma or a 
space depending on whether there are any characters ahead 
on that line. From there, it increments the start and end 
pointers by four. The program returns to searching for a 
PR/ NT statement until it reaches the end pointer and ends, 
returning to Basic. 

The Listing: 

50 CLEAR350, 15999 

FORX= 1 6000TO 1 6308 
READA: POKEX , A 
NEXTX 

LINE INPUT "READY CASSETTE / PR 
PLAY AND RECORD / ENTER WHEN 




60 
70 
80 
90 
ESS 

READY" ; B* 
1 00 CSAVEM " PRNTCHS " , 1 6000 , 1 6308 , 
16000 

110 DATA 220,25,253,62,135,32,8, 



Find The 

COLOR COMPUTER INFORMATION 

YOU NEED 

INDEX TO ARTICLES, PROGRAMS, LETTERS 
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REVIEWS 
IN MAGAZINES 

COLOR COMPUTER INDEX © 

CATALOG LISTING 
VENDORS, HARDWARE, SOFTWARE 
SUPPLIES, PUBLICATIONS 

COLOR COMPUTER CATALOG © 

American Library and Information Services 

Dept. R, 3705 Mary Ellen NE, Albuquerque, NM 87111 

Gentlemen: 

□ Yes! Send me COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1980-1981 at S5 (Canada and Mexico S6) 

□ Yes! Sign me up for COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1982 (4 issues) for $16 (Canada and Mexico $20) 

□ Yes! Sign me up for COLOR COMPUTER CATALOG 1982 (two issues) for $20 (Canada and Mexico $24) 

Name 

Address — _ ___ . 

City 



State 



Zip 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 207 



from 

MICRO-80 INC. 




THE 
ULTIMATE 

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MICRO-SCRIPT™ 

A professional word processor at an affordable 
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Regardless of your application, the versitility 
of MICRO-SCRIPT" is makes it the logical 
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Bells and whistles? You bet! MICRO- 
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insertion, correction, mobility, replace and 
deletion; global search and replace; headers 
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line and title centering, name and address 
merging for multiple letters; prints up to four 
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— Distributors Wanted — 



208 



the RAINBOW February, 1983 



18, 18, 18 

120 DATA 18,18,18,18,18,252,62,1 
35, 195,0 

130 DATA 1,253,62,135,166,159,62 
, 135, 129, 135 

140 DATA 39,12,220,31,16,179,62, 
135, 16,39 

150 DATA 1,10,32,227,220,31,253, 
62, 137,252 

160 DATA 62,137,131,0,1,253,62,1 
37,252,62 

170 DATA 137,195,0,4,253,62,139, 
166, 159,62 

180 DATA 137,167,159,62,139,252, 
62, 137, 131,0 

190 DATA 1,16,179,62,135,39,2,32 
, 216,252 

200 DATA 62,135,253,62,141,252,6 
2, 141, 131,0 

210 DATA 1,253,62,141,166,159,62 
, 141, 129,0 

220 DATA 39,2,32,237,252,62,141, 
131,0,3 

230 DATA 253,62,141,166,159,62,1 
41, 129,0,38 

240 DATA 11,252,62,141,195,0,1,2 
53,62, 141 

250 DATA 32,9,252,62,141,195,0,4 
,253,62 

260 DATA 141,236,159,62,141,195, 
0,4,237, 159 

270 DATA 62,141,253,62,141,16,14 
7,31,36,2 

280 DATA 32,235,252,62,135,195,0 
, 1,253,62 

290 DATA 135,134,35,167,159,62,1 
35,252,62, 135 

300 DATA 195,0,1,253,62,135,134, 
172, 167, 159 

310 DATA 62,135,252,62,135,195,0 
, 1,253,62 

320 DATA 135,134,50,167,159,62,1 
35,252,62, 135 

330 DATA 195,0,1,253,62,135,252, 
62, 135,253 

340 DATA 62,137,134,0,183,62,139 
,252,62, 137 

350 DATA 195,0,1,253,62,137,166, 
159,62, 137 

360 DATA 129,58,39,13,129,0,39,9 
, 129,32 

370 DATA 39,231,124,62,139,32,22 
6, 182,62, 139 

380 DATA 129,0,38,4,134,32,32,2, 
134,44 

390 DATA 167,159,62,135,220,31,1 
95,0,4,221 

400 DATA 31,220,27,195,0,4,221,2 
7,220,29 

410 DATA 195,0,4,221,29,126,62,1 
43,57 



THESE FINE STORES CARRY THE RAINBOW 

The retail stores listed below carry the RAINBOW on a regular basis and may have other products of 
interest to Color Computer users. We suggest you patronize those in your area. 



Abacus Computers 

S. Holland, Mich. 
Accplade Distributors 
San Diego. Calif. 
Acme Book Co. 
Baton Rouge, La. 
A Computer Store 
Indianapolis. Ind. 
Act One Video 
Marietta, Go. 

Adventure International Store 

Longwood, Fla. 
All-Pro Souvenlers 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
All Systems Go 

Orlando. Fla. 
Tempe, Aiiz. 

Alonzo Book & Periodical 

Alexanderia, Va. 

Amateur Radio Equipment Co. 

Wichita, Kan. 

Anderson Electronics 

Benton. Ky. 

Appalachian Computing 

Kingwood. W. Va. 
Appletree Computers 

DeKalb, III. 
Atlantic News 

Halifax, N.S. 

Audio Concepts Unlimited 

Denton, Tex. 

Aurora Newsland 

Aurora, Col. 

Bauer Electronics 

Lawrenceburg, Ind. 

B. Dalton Booksellers 

West Jackson St. - Chicago, III. 

N. Wabash St. - Chicago, III. 

Milwaukee, Wise. 

Peoria, III. 

Begley Drugs 

Creslwood, Ky. 

B.I.E.S. Systems 

Ook Park, III 

Bill's TV Radio Shack 

Newton, III. 

Bob's In Newtown 

Chicago, III. 

Bob's News Emporium 

Chicago, III. 

Bob's Rogers Park 

Chicago, III. 

Book Market 

East Cedar - Chicago, III. 

North Cicero - Chicago, III. 

West Diversey - Chicago, III. 

Peoria. Ill, 

Champaign, III. 

Danville, III. 

Book Nook 

Lisle, III. 

Book Tree 

Milv,/aukee, Wise. 

Booked Solid 

Wirwaukee, Wise. 

Booked Solid II 

Milwaukee, Wise. 

Bookland, Inc. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Buffalo Teknologles 

Amherst, N.V. 

Byte By Byte 

Utica, Mich. 

Campus Computer Corp. 

Nashville, Tenn. 

C&J Electronics Computer Center 

Richland, Wash. 

C/C .Computer Systems 

Owosso, Mich. 

Capitol Microcomputers 

Austin, Tex. 

Caribbean Engineering Corp. 
Stuart, Ra. 
Caves Books Co. 

Hong Kong 

Chattanooga Choo-Choo 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chester Electronic Supply 
Kenosha, Wise 
Chicago-Main News 

Evanston, III. 



Chips, Inc. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
CMD Micro 
Edmonton, Alta. 
Coast Electronics 
Morro Bay, Calif. 
Color Computing 
Southgate, Calif. 
Color Products Unalike 
Vancouver, B.C. 
Community News Center 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 
CompuLIt 
Burnaby, B.C. 
Computer Center 
Albuquerque, N.M. 
The Computer Center 
New York, N. Y, 

The Computer Center of York 

York, Pa. 

The Computer Connection 

Boulder, Col. 
Computer Corner 
Lapeer, Mjch. 
Computer Shack 
Pontiac, Mich. 
The Computer Store 
Louisville, Ky. 
The Computer Store 
Pheonix, Ariz. 
The Computer Store 
San Diego, Calif. 
The Computer Store 
Tulsa, Okla. 
The Computer Store 
Casper, ^A/yo 
Computer Emporium 
Louisville, Ky. 
Computer Resource 
Williamsville, N.Y. 
CompServ ol Danbury 
Danbury. Conn. 
Computer Concerns 
Havlock, N.C. 
Computer Services 
Lawrenceburg, Ind. 
Computer SOS 
Shreveport, La. 
Computer Town 
Coral Springs, Fla. 
Computerware Store 
Encinitas, Calif. 
Cosmos Computers 
Bettendorf, Iowa 
Crouchet Electronics 
Conroe, Texas 
Cudahy News & Hobby 
Cudahy, Wise. 
Da lias Computer Center 
Dallas, Tex. 
Data Born 
Renton, Wash. 

Data Byte Computer Center 

Beaufort, S.C. 

Data Concepts 

Scottsdale, Ariz. 

Data Domain 

Schaumberg, III. 

Data Link 

Dayton, Ohio 

Dave's Elect. Radio Shack 

Pennsville, N.J. 

D. Data 

Stillwater, Okla. 
Delker Electronics 
Smyrna, Tenn. 
Disney's Electronics 
San Diego, Calif. 
Dimensional Software 
San Diego, Calif. 
DSL Computer Products 
Daerborn, Mich. 

E. B. Garcia & Associates 
Chicago, HI. 

The Eight Bit Corner 
Muskegon, Mich. 
Electrobrain 
Alwater. Calif 
Electronic World 
Fairbanks, Alaska 



Elex Mart 

Jasper, Ind. 

F.M. Electronics 

Jay. Maine 

Final Edition 

University Cily, Mo. 

Galls Book World 

Hamilton, Ont. 

Game Preserve 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Gopher Hole 

Brooklyn Center, Minn. 

The Green Dragon 

N. Charleston, S.C 

Guild Books and Periodicals 

Chicago, 111. 

Guild News Agency 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Gus-Stan Enterprises 

Pikeville, Ky. 

H&H Co. 

Whitehorse, Yukon 
H&H Electronics 
Woodward, Okla. 
Hands On Computer 

Atlanta. Ga. 

Hawley-Cook Booksellers 

Louisville, Ky. 

Hathaway' s Magazines 

Colorado Springs, Col. 

Hobby Shop 

Hopkinsville, Ky. 

Home Computer Store 

Westerville, Ohio 

Home Brew Computers 

Pheonix, Ariz. 

Hurley Electronics 

Santa Anna. Calif. 

HW Electronics 

Northridge, Calif. 

Indiana News 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Interstate Distributors 

Billings, Mont. 

John's News Stand 

Medford, Ore, 

K&S News Stand 

Winston-Salem, N.C. 

Kona Recreation 

Kailua-Kona. Hawaii 

Kelly Software Distributors 

Edmondton, Alta. 

Kroch's & Brentano's 

South Walbash - Chicago, III. 

West Jackson, Chicago, III. 

835 N. Michigan - Chicago. III. 

516 N. Michigan - Chicago, III. 

Ook Park, III. 

Ook Brook, III. 

Skokie, III 

Aurora, III. 

L&R Electronics 

Grant's Pass, Ore. 

Leo's Book & Wine Shop 

Toledo, Ohio 

Level IV Products 

Livonia, Mich. 

Levity Distributors 

Hollywood, Calif. 

Libra Books 

Eugene. Ore. 

Little Professor Book Center 

Philadelphia, Ohio 

Canton, Ohio 

Lloyd's Radio 

Wichita, Kan. 

Madison Books 

Madison, Ala. 

M&w Electronics 

Harrodsburg, Ky. 

Magnum Computer Products 

Boise, Idaho 

Marklln 

Cincinnati, Ohio 
Merit Micro Software 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 
Micro Byte 

Miami, Fla. 

Microcomputer Software Center 

Manchester, N.H. 

'le, N.J. 



Mlcroconnectlon Software 

Woburn, Wash. 
Mfcrowest Distributors 

N. Vancouver. B.C. 
Micro World II 

Clinton, NJ. 

Mike's Electronics Distributor 

Ft. Lauderdale. Fla. 
Mining's Electronics 
Walbash,. Ind, 
Steven Moreno 
Stockton, Calif. 
Multi-Mag 
London, Ont. 
The News Rack 
Miami, Fla. 
Nlnls Corner, Inc. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
NORMAR 
Wilmington, Del. 
OPAMP Technical Books 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Out Of Town News 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Parkwest Books 
Chicago, III. 
Parkway Drugs 
Chicago 
PCLEAR80 
Mansfieid. Ohio 
Perry's News Shop 
Avondale, Pa. 
Personal Computer Place 
h/esa, Ariz. 
Personal Software 
Malvern, Pa 

Pitt Computer & Software 

Pleasant Hills, Pa. 

Poling Place 

Pinellas Park, Fla. 

South Pasadena. Fla. 

Portsmouth Computers 

Portsmouth, N.H. 

Printers, Inc. 

Palo Alto, Calif. 

Prism Software 

Kincardine, Ont. 

Pro Am Electronics 

Pacific Beach, Calif. 

The Program Store 

Baltimore, Md. 

Falls Church, Va. 

Columbus, Ohio 

Washington, D.C. 

Programs Plus 

Tukwila, Wash. 

Programs Unlimited 

Mayfield Heights, Ohio 

Prospect News & Magazines 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Radio Shack 

El Cajon, Calif. 

Radio Shack 

Freehold, N.J. 

Radio Shack 

Paducah, Ky. 

Radio Shack 

Peterborough, N.H. 

Radio Shack 

San Diego, Calif. 

Rainbow Software Services 

Calgary, Alta. 

R&V Sound 

Fortuna, Calif. 

Recycle Computers 

Houston, Tex. 

Read-More News 

Minneapolis. Minn 

RFI Electronics 

Ft. Worth, Tex. 

Road Runner Computer Products 

Glendale. Ariz. 
John Rollins 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Salt ol the Earth 
Albuquerque, N.M. 
Sandmeyer's Bookstore 
Chicago, III. 

Harry Schwartz Bookshop 

Milwaukee, Wise. 



Sewing Center 

Orlando, Fla. 

Soenen & Wilmoth Books 

Cleaiwater, Fla. 
Soft Sector Marketing 
Garden City, Mich. 
Software Access 
Irving, Tex. 
Software 'n* Suds 
E. Windsor, N.J. 
Soft Shop 
Yuma, Ariz. 
Softwaire Centre 
Torrance, Calif. 
Software City 
Fairview, N.J. 
Midland Pork. N.J. 
Monlvale, N.J. 
River Edge, N.J. 
Summit, N.J. 
Teaneck, N.J. 
Software Concepts 
Dallas, Tex. 

Software Connection 

Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. 
Software, Etc. 
Houston, Tex. 
Software 1st 
Santa Rosa. Calif. 
Software Plus 
Citrus Heights, Calif. 
Software Shop 
Mansfield, Mass. 
Software Station 
Rockaway, N.J. 
Software Store 
Tampa, Fla. 
The Software Store 
Rockville, Md. 
Software Unlimited 
Tucson, Aiiz. 
Software Unlimited 
Orlando, Fla. 

Sound Trader & Computer Center 

Tampa, Fla 
Sound Video Ltd. 

Niles, III. 

Spectrum Projects 

Woodhaven. N.Y. 

Srepco Electronics 

Dayton, Ohio 

Sterl Ing Book Center 

Sterling Heights, Mich. 

Stevens Radio Shack 

Phoenixville, Pa. 

Slrawflower Electronics 

Half Moon Bay, Calif. 

Tobacco Corner Newsroom 

Memphis, Tenn. 

T. M. Computers 

Kingston, Ont. 

Trade 'N Books 

Montgomery, Ala. 

Trl-Count Electronic Radio Shack 

Fenton, Mich. 

Tri-Tek Computers 

Pheonix, Ariz. 

Unicorn Electronics 

Johnson Cily, N.Y. 

University of Chicago Bookstore 

Chicago, III. 

University of Illinois Bookstore 

Chicago, III. 

University of Wisconsin Bookstore 

Milwaukee, Wise 
videomat, he. 
Chicago, III. 
Village Green 

Rochester, N.Y. 

Village Computer & Software 

Cedar Knolls, NJ. 
Wayne Soflware 
Wayne, N.J. 
Willy's Electronics 

National City, Calif. 



RAINBOWfest 

Regency-Hyatt Woodfield Chicago April 22-24 



February, 1983 the RAINBOW 209 




ADVERTISER'S INDEX 

We encourage you to patronize our 
advertisers— all of whom support the TRS-80 
Color and TDP System- 100 computers. We will 
appreciate your mentioning the RAINBOW 
when you contact these firms. 



Aardvark 80 67 

All Color Software 69 

A. M. Hearn Software 98 

American Library & Info Services 

207 

Anteco 9 

Arizin 153 

Ark Royal Games 154 

Armadillo International 199 

Aurora Software 99 

Basic Programs 15 

Basic Technology 29 

Bertamax 53 

Better Software 44 

B5 Software 31 

Botek Instruments 50 

Boudoir Software 1 70 

Bruck Associates 90 

Bumblebee Software 177 

Cer-Comp 30, 95 

Chattanooga Choo-Choo Software 

43 

Chromasette 1 73 

Chromatic Software 92 

Circle City Software 200 

CoCo Data Enterprises 119 

CoCo Hut 21 

CoCo Pro 123 

CoCo Warehouse 155 

Cognitec 181 

Color Computer Weekly 197 

Color Software Services 

17, 157, 167 

Color Soft Software 1 76 

Comp-U-Kids 134 

Compukit 57 

Computer Accessories 

of Arizona 121 

Computer Island 59 

Computer Peripheral Resources 

20 

Computer Plus 3 

Computer Shack .... 164, 165, 166 

Computerware 37 

Custom Software Engineering 

137 

Data-Comp 162, 172 

Data man 16 

Debug 122 

Delker Electronics 33 

Desert Software 74, 198 

Double Density Software 1 35 

Dragonfly Software 108 

DSL Computer Products 97 

Dugger's Growing Systems 12 



Dymax 182 

Dynamic Electronics 146 

80-U.S. Journal 193 

Elite Software 82 

Endicott Software 147 

Erickson, B 124, 152, 192 

Federal Hill Software 70 

General Automation 89 

Genesis Software 96 

Great X«P»T 206 

Greentree Software 142 

Harmonycs 54 

HIB Software 68 

Home Base Systems 87 

Home Run Software 144 

F & T Software 114 

Frank Hogg Laboratory. . . 71, 72, 73 

Illustrated Memory Banks 113 

Hume Design 171 

Intellectronics 103 

Inter+Action 32, 83 

Intercept Enterprises 112 

International Software 139 

Intracolor 168 

Intronics 138 

International Color Computer 

Club 93 

JARB Software 47, 185 

JMN 186 

JPC 188 

Kalglo Electronics 65 

K&K Computorware 101 

Land Systems 205 

Little Bits Computing Services 

36 

Mark Data Products IBC 

Martin Consulting 203 

Marymac Industries 11 

Med Systems Software 61 

Micro-Doc 105 

Micro-80 204, 208 

Micrologic 78 

Micronics 149 

Micro Technical Products 143 

The Micro Works 107 

Tom Mix Software 25, 190, 202 

Moreton Bay Laboratory 58, 62 

Moses Engineering 60 

Nanos Systems Corp IFC 

Nelson Software Systems . 79, 80, 81 

Oelrich Publications 35 

Owl-Ware 13 

Parsons Software 106 

PCLEAR 80 84, 140 



Peacock Enterprises 91 

Petrocci Freelance Associates 

38 

Platinum Software 151 

Prickly-Pear Software 

51, 85, 145, 189 

Prism Software 75 

Programs By Mr. Bob 49 

The Program Store 39 

The Programmer's Guild ... 1 74, 1 75 

The Programmer's Institute 23 

Pyramid Distributors 150 

Q-Soft 158 

Q Systems 22 

Quasar Animations 115 

Radio Shack 19 

Rainbow Connection Software 

161 

RAIN BO Wf est 111 

Rainbow On Tape 196 

Real Software 28 

S & S Arcade 104 

Selected Software 109 

Shauntronics 76 

Silver Spring Software 94 

Snake Mountain Software 201 

Soft City 41 

Software Options 27 

Software Shop 66 

Softwride 52 

Southco Sales 159 

Southern Software Systems 46 

Spectral Associates 45, BC 

Spectrum Projects 

125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 133 

Speech Systems 24 

Star-Kits 63 

Starship Software 1 78 

Hoyt Stearns Electronics 77 

Strictly Color 86 

Sugar Software 55 

Superior Graphic Software 186 

Superior Oracle Software 1 63 

Tabby Enterprises 100 

TASADA 180 

T&D Software 141 

Transformation Technologies ..109 

Transition Technology 120 

Universal Data Research 

Inc 169 

Valhalla Enterprises 184 

Washington Computer Services 

42 

York-10 187 

Zeta Software 195 



210 the RAINBOW February, 1983 



-NEW! 




Not just another invaders type game. 
We think this one is the best- 
great action, great sound, you'll love it!! 

n\ otjcfihiiitin. v 4smi*n «w maamsk cassette (16K) .... $24.95 

^L^fi jsnmma ixHM^f -n\ -xr disk (32K) .... $29.95 

///^ 

A new super hi-res space game. 
Wave after wave of alien attackers, 
each one a different and unique challenge ^ \V 

toyourskills. ||V»^ that pursue 

CASSETTE (16K) .. .S24.95 you as you hunt for 



k%T creat 



DISC (32K 



COLOR 



treasure in a maze of 
cave passages. Lots of 
colors and sounds 1 




They're callin 
thisone a "classic". You'll 
have hours of fast-paced fu 
zapping robots. Super hi-res 
CASSETTE (16K) . S24. 
DISC (32K) . . $29.95 



A challenging puzzle 
"with an occasional twist of humor. 
There's a treasure waiting to be discovered 1 
CASSETTE (16K) $19.95 



(Elje tBlack Sanctum 

For the player who enjoys suspense. . 
You'll encounter the forces of black 
magic in this spooky adventure. 

CASSETTE (16K) . . S19.95 



MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

24001 ALICIA PARKWAY-SUITE 226.MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 



We pay shipping on all orders in the continental U S and Canada. Overseas add $3.00. California residents 
please add 6% sales tax. We are always looking for quality machine language programs. Contact us for details. 

MASTER CHARGE OR VISA ACCEPTED 





BEST SELECTION ANYWHERE 

GREAT UTILITIES 
FLEX* DOS 
BEST EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 
SUPER MACHINE LANGUAGE GAMES 
FANTASTIC BASIC GAMES 
BOOKS 



SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES , 141 HARVARD AVE., TACOMA, WA. 98466 
TOLL FREE FOR ORDERS ONLY: 1-800-426-1830 8:30-4:30 P.S.T. 

Exccpl WA, AK. HI 

BUSINESS OFFICE: 206-565-8483 

We accept VISA, MASTERCARD, AMERICAN EXPRESS. 
Add 3% for shipping. NO C.O.D. All prices U.S. FUNDS. 

To find out about our other products, write or call for catalog. 



Place 
Stamp 
Here 



the RAINBOW 

P. O. Box 209 
Prospect, KY 40059 



Get Your Very Own Pot O' Gold! 

Here's your chance to have a Pot O' Gold full of programs, articles and information about CoCo every 
month! A subscription to the Rainbow is only $22 a year, and you won't miss a single chock-full issue! 

The Rainbow is the premier magazine for the TRS-80 Color, TDP-100 and Dragon-32 personal 
computers. The reason? More of everything you and your CoCo want and need than you can find 
anywhere! Do yourself and your CoCo a favor and subscribe to the Rainbow today! 

We accept VISA, MasterCard or American Express. Non-U. S. rates slightly higher. U.S. currency only, please. 




Name 

Address 

City State Zip 

□ Payment Enclosed 

Charge □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

My Account # Interbank # (MC only) 

Signature Card Expiration Date 



Subscriptions to the RAINBOW are $22 a year in the United States. Canadian and 
Mexican rate U.S. $29. Surface rate to other countries U.S. $39; air rate U.S. $57. All 
subscriptions begin with the current issue. Please allow up to5-6 weeks for first copy. 





















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