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The RAINBOW 
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Page 4 



the RAINBOW December, 1 982 



Under The Rainbow 



FEATURE ARTICLES 



* 10 PLAYING COCO FOR THE HOLIDAYS Sara Nolan 

The author explains how to translate music into CoCo Play 
commands and provides some Christmas and Chanakah 
songs for your enjoyment 

29 PATCHING EDTASM+ TO RUN ON DISK Ik^. Roger Schrag 

Now enjoy the convenience of a disk version of Radio Shack's 
Editor/ Assembler with these patches. 

* 34 A CHRISTMAS EVE FIREPLACE . . Peter Stumpf 

This one will decorate your house, and just in the (St) Nick 
-@r : ' of time, to£5 ; } . ^ , 

* 54 LET'S LOOK AT MEMORY . ... Lester Hands 

A way to get inside your RAM m 

61 ADVENTURE REPORT \ « X 4-1* - — • ■ — rmr ' Staff 

An update on the big Adventure Contest 

* 62 LETTERS EVERY WHICHWAY ^ . ! Joseph Kolar 

Vertical letters can do neat things for your screen displays 

* 66 LET'S WRITE SOME MUSIC | Larry Konecky 

Move over Beethoven, CoCd doesn't even need paper m 

* 76 PARACHUTE OR FREE FALL? Joe Bennett and C E. Laidlaw 

This month's game has its ups and downs— mostly the tatter 

* 85 MOVING GRAPHICS . . . . . SL. - John W. Dana 

This short program gMI all sorts of "different' 1 graphics 

* 98 DRIVING TOWARD ADVENTURE . . . . Geoff Wells 

Here's a way to plug in your own tricks into an Adventure 

* 110 THREE DISK UTILITIES ip| . . . . . , Paul Selig 

These programs will help you make your media mind 

* 114 UNIDATFL REVISITED? W Arnold Weiss 

Our data base programs gets spiffed up and more versatile 
in this update 

* 124 KEEP A HAM RADIO LOG B. B. Witham 

Why do all that work yourself when CoCo is ready, willing 
and able? 

* 130 SEARCH FOR WORDS- ANY WORDS Timothy O'Donnell 

Create your own Word Search puzzles forfun and amusement 

* 136 GRAPHICS WORD PROCESSING Ross Chamberlain 

For LP VII and LP VIII: Make your own character sets and print 
them out 

146 SOFTWARE IN THE CLASSROOM Paul Kimmelman 

and David MacAli 

The importance of good educational software is discussed 



* All programs marked with star are included in the December edition of Rainbow On Tape. 



December, 1 982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 5 

The Rainbow 



DEPARTMENTS 



+ 



106 

112 
37 

86 

171 

56 

50 
168 

6 
96 
8 

161 
41 



ASSEMBLY CORNER Dennis Lewandowski 

Our ML Graphic Game Gets Some Targets 

Back Issue Information 

BASIC TRAINING Joseph Kolar 

Our Newest Series Has Hints For Beginners 

CHARLIE'S MACHINE Charles J. Roslund 

This Month, Formatted Listings 

Corrections 

EDUCATION NOTES Steve Blyn 

Sustain Interest In Educational Programs 

THE DRAGON'S BYTE Bill Nolan 

What Does That Dungeon Look Like? 

GAMEMASTER'S APPRENTICE Bob Albrecht 

and George Firedrake 

Meet Three New Friends This Month 

LETTERS TO RAINBOW Our Readers 

THE PIPELINE Staff 

PRINT #-2 Lawrence C. Falk 

Editor's Notes 

Submission Guidelines 

USING GRAPHICS Don Inman 

Looking At High Resolution 



PRODUCT REVIEWS 



Across The Rubicon 141 

Bulletin Boord Software 142 

ccForth 148 

A Tutorial By Larry Preble 

CGP-1 15 Printer 168 

With A Listing By Bill Nolan 

CoCo Cooler 39 

Color Forth 148 

Colorpede 144 

Colorshow 171 

Craps 112 

DragonQuest 162 

Enchanted Forest 74 

Frog Man 1 73 

Game Writer 84 

Gangbusters 161 

Worksaver 



Graph-16/32 75 

Graph Zapper 53 

Household Expense Manager 36 

Intergalactic Force 49 

Laser Tank Duel 174 

LOGO 88 

In-Depth By David Hunt 

J ARB Memory Kit 92 

Micro Script 156 

In-Depth By James Reed 

Rail Runner 173 

Reversi 1 73 

Semi-Draw B 44 

Telewriter Disk "56 

Tower Castle Adventure 154 

Wordclone 156 

82 



NEXT MONTH 

The January, 1983, issue ot the Rainbow will focus on Adventure 
games. The winner of our Adventure Content, and that winner's 
program, will be featured. 

ALSO: A program to make banners on any printer, another game, our 
regular features, product reviews, and much more! Don't miss the 
January, 1983, issue of the Rainbow, the premier magazine for the Color 
Computer, TDP-100 and Dragon-32! 



Lawrence C, Falk 

Editor 



Courtney Nog 
Associate Editor 

Anne Yeiser 
Production Coordinator 

Bob Albrecht 
Steve Blyn 
Don Inman 
Joseph Kolar 
Dennis Lewandowski 
Bill Nolan 
Charles Roslund 
Contributing Editors 



Patricia H. Hirsch 

General Manager 

Ivanka Kleier 
Customer Service Manager 

Monica Wheat 
Research Assistant 

Wendy Falk 
Transportation 



The Rainbow is published every month of 
the year by FALSOFT, INC., 5803 Timber 
Ridge Drive, P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY, 
40059. Phone (502) 228-4492. The RAINBOW 
and the Rainbowl ogotypes are ® Trad emarks 
of FALSOFT, lnc> 

Entire contents © by FALSOFT, Inc., 1982. 
The RAINBOWis intended for the private use 
and pleasure of its subscribers and 
purchasers and reprod u cf ton by any means is- 
prohibited. Use of information herein is for 
the single end use of purchasers and any 
other other use is expressly prohibited. All 
programs herein are distributed In an M as is 11 
basis, without warranty of any ktnd 
whatsoever. 

TRS-80, Color Basic, Extended Color 
Basic, Scripsif and Program Pek are ■» 
trademarks of the Tandy Corp. CompuServe! 
is a ® Trademark of Dow Jones, Inc. 

Subscriptions to the RAINBOW are $22 per 
year in the United States, Canadian and 
Mexican rates are U.S. $29. Surface maif to 
other countries is U.S. $39, air mail U.S. $57. 
All subscriptions begin withi the next 
available issue. 

Limited back issues are available for U.S. 
$2 for numbers 1-7 (January, 1982), U.S. 
$2.50 for numbers 8-14 (August, 1982) and 
U.S. $2.95 for 15 upward except October, 
1982, which is out of print. Shipping and 
handling costs of $3.50 must be added for 
UPS (please furnish street address only) or 
U.S. $6 for U.S. Mail (and to points outside the 
United States). Payment accepted by VISA, 
MasterCard, Cash, Check or Money Order in 
United States currency only. 



Page 6 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



letters to 

RAINBOW 



WE REGARDED IT 

Editor: 

You may well elect to disregard the 
Reader Survey form that I have enclosed 
because it is a photocopy. That, certainly, is 
your option. However, before you take that 
decision, permit me to explain. You brought 
it on yourself!! 

In my humble opinion, the Rainbow 
ranks number one against all the 
competition in uniqueness, helpfulness, 
practicality, range and scope of topics and 
(to a lesser extent) advertising — with the 
painful exception of some excruciating 
spelling. 

Because I value the Rainbow so highly, I 
am loath to eviscerate any issue and risk 
losing other pages thereby, let alone the 
advertiser's index printed on the reverse of 
the form. Therefore I hereby certify, 
warrant, and guarantee that this 
photocopied Survey Form is the sole and 
only copy you will receive- from my 
subscription. I beg you to accept it. 

Keep up the good work! 

Townsend P. Coleman Jr. 
West Palm Beach, FL 

Editor's Note: Accepted. And 
thank you for your kind words. 
There's nothingh worse than an 
eviscerated Rainbow. 



WRONG AGAIN 

Editor: 

My program in the October issue is called 
ULAMMALU, not U AM M ALU as 
printed. 

For more about cellular automata, see 
Martin Gardner, Scientific American, 
February, 1971. 

Chris Reid 
New York City 

Editor's Note: Napoleon is reputed 
to have once made the palindromic 
comment "Able was I, ere I saw Elba." 
If we would have been able to notice 
the palindrome Mr. Reid used as a 
title we would have seen our mistake. 
Sorry, Chris. 



MOTORING ALONG 

Editor: 

Below you will find a method to have 
voice in programs. I find it very 
useful/ interesting. It is a rather crude 
method, but compared to paying $50 to 
$100, it is good. 

The AUDIO ON and MOTOR ON 
commands are all that are really used in this 



method. I will give a layout of the required 
statements: 

??? A=(A number of seconds): GOSUB 
6000 

6000 AUDIO ON: MOTORON: FOR 1=1 
TO 410* A: NEXT I 
6010 MOTOR OFF: RETURN 

That is all you need. Add Line ??? 
whereever you want some voice in your 
Basic program. What you must do for the 
voice is this: 

1. Record what you want said and time 
yourself. The amount of time becomes 
variable A. Make sure you record what you 
want said about half a second after the 
program ends or so. This way, when the 
program ends, you won't have to switch 
cassettes. It will follow the program. 

2. Turn the volume all the way up. This is 
necessary so the voice can be heard. 

3. Run the program. As long as it has the 
voice play system in it. 

This method has added a whole new field 
of programming for me. Voiced 
instructions, demonstrations and so forth. I 
hope it gives you as many ideas as it gave me. 

Doug Toombs 
Rochester, NY 



CLUBS 

Editor: 

Recently I came across your fantastic 
magazine and was amazed at hoe much you 
have grown. I was very much overwhelmed 
with this much support! And, it took me 
over three hours just to complete your 
magazine. 

Are there any user's groups in the Orlando 
area? I would like to hear from other 80C 
owners. Write me at 3085 N. Goldenrod Rd., 
Orlando, FL 32807. 

Jae Nam Noh 
Orlando, FL 

Editor: 

Is there a CoCo user group in the Portland 
area? If anybody has some information or 
wants to form one, please contact me at P.O. 
Box 5907, Mortland, OR 97228. 

Greg Sexton 
Portland, OR 



PMODE4 COLORS 

Editor: 

I think your magazine is the best thing 
that ever happened to the Color Computer. 
Here is a short program that will produce 
many colors in PMODE4: 



10 PMODE4,l: =1: FOR C=l TO 8 

20 CLS: SCREEN 1,1 

30 FOR 1=1536 TO 7678 STEP 2 

40 J=J+0.01: POKE I,J 

50 POKE I+I.J: NEXT I: NEXT C 

50 GOTO 60 

Anyone interested in a Color Computer 
Club in the Jacksonville area contact me at 
241 1 Hirsch Ave., Jacksonville, FL32216 or 
call at (904) 721-0282. 

Bill Brown 
Jacksonville, FL 



JOYSTICKS & TAPES 

Editor: 

I felt that it was time to contribute some 
information to my fellow readers from 
whom I have received a lot of valuable hints 
and suggestions in the past. 

A short time ago I encountered some 
difficulty with the Radio Shack joystick. 
The problems did not occur all the time, but 
made the joysticks quite unreliable. 
Suspecting that the pots were at fault, I 
dismantled the controller and used an OHM 
meter for tests. My testing revealed that the 
problem was not the pots, but the cable 
itself. This appears to be caused by the sharp 
bend the cables are required to make while 
entering the case. The solution, of course, is 
to either shorten the cable or, as in my case, 
purchase new five-wire braded cable and 
resolder the connections. This turned out to 
be an easy task because the wires are color 
coded and the pots are not especially critical 
to heat, as are IC chips. 

The second problem for which I have 
found a cure is regarding cassette-based 
programs which I have ordered and found 
that they refuse to load in. I simply connect 
my computer recorder to a good quality 
cassette recorder and copy one cassette to 
another in the midrange volume. In the two 
instances which I tried this, I was able to 
load the new cassette with no problem. 

With tapes which are recorded at too low 
a volume, you can pick up the sounds by 
turning up the volume of the computer 
recorder, but then the distortion of the 
sound tends to cause I/O errors. 

Gerald Casey 
Prince Rupert, B.C. 



BASIC BASIC 

Editor: 

I really do like your magazine. The only 
thing I wish you would change is this: Please 
print more programs for the CoCo (my 
favorite nickname) that require regular 



December, 1982 

Basic, not Extended Color Basic and 4-1 6K. 
Thanks. 

Mai Lynn 
Shreveport, LA 



PROTECTED SOFTWARE 

Editor: 

As a responsible, consumer-oriented 
publishing company, you and your fellow 
magazine publishers can solve the problem 
of "protected software"by refusing to accept 
ads from companies with protected 
software, unless you receive with such an ad 
an unlock routine and permission to publish 
same in the event of the demise of the 
company or its inability to furnish service to 
owners of said software. 

Spencer Trimble 
Tallahassee, FL 

Editor's Note: We take the position 
that firms have a right to purchase 
advertising space from us if they are 
responsible and act in good faith. We 
do police our advertisers and one 
section of this column is usually 
reserved for reader comment on 
vendors. Firms which protect 
software against piracy could furnish 
us with the "key" to the lock if they so 
desired, and we would be pleased to 
hold them for possible publication in 
the event of the firm's "demise." 
Howewer, the issue of a firm's 
"inability to furnish service" is an 
interesting legal point that, I am sure, 
the many attorneys among our 
readership would love to argue about. 



SIMULATIONS 

Editor: 

The Rainbow is looking more 
professional all the time — you have reason 
to be proud of the overall quality you have 
attained in this type of publication. You 
have hit the right compromise between 
beginner and experienced hobbiest. You let 
the reader know in understandable terms 
just what is happening in the world of the 
Color Computer. 

Requests: If anyone happens to submit a 
realistic simulation, please publish it. I'm 
absolutely starving for good, high quality 
educational simulations such as operating a 
nuclear power plant, running a country 
( Viking is a step in the right direction), or 
fighting an insect infestation. 

Please give more information in your 
reviews. Usually there is not enough to 
determine whether I would be happy with a 
purchase. 

I hope the Rainbow will continue to aim 
more at the mainstream Color Computer 
owner. 

Complaint; Your emphasis of Dungeons 
and Dragons-type software is a bummer. It 
would seem that one article per month 
would be adequate for this type subscriber. 

Bob Pokes 
Forestville, CA 

BEING SURE 

Editor: 

Whenever I save a program to tape, I 
always make three copies of it. That way, if 
the first copy fails to load or if the tape 



the RAINBOW 

breaks, I don't lose my program. At the end 
of all by Basic programs I add lines 6990- 
7030 (below) to make it easy to make three 
copies without having to type CSA VE three 
times. 

6990 END 

7000 FOR A=l TO 3 

7010 CSAVE "FILENAME" 

7020 FOR B=l TO 1000: NEXT B 

7030 NEXT A 

Remove the motor control from the tape 
recorder, type RUN 7000, put the recorder 
in record and press ENTER. The program 
will be saved three times. Line 6990 keeps 
these lines from being run until you want 
them to be. Line 7020 will insert a space 
between the program saves so it will be easier 
to tell where one copy ends and the next one 
begins. 

Dennis Duke 
Bessemer, AL 

Editor's Note: For those of you 
impatient to know where you are, you 
can always add: 

7005 PRINT "ON SAVE NUM- 
BER" A 



WAY TO LEARN 

Editor: 

I would like to see more materials on how 
to use the CoCo. Something to make me a 
better programmer — to teach me how to 
better write my own programs, such that I 
can write my own utilities, machine 
language, games, home use programs, etc. 

All the programs I can buy or key in from 
your magazine are nice, but I get the most 
fun bashing about while writing my own 
creations. The old saying "You get more 
enjoyment from the getting there than the 
arriving..." holds for me. 

So, the more I can learn from the 
Rainbow about the innards of the CoCo's 
routines, etc., or better use of the Basic 
language, the more good you will do me. 

Also, please, keep business programs out 
of the Rainbow, please. 

Bill Frank art 
Spokane, WA 

Editor's Note: Bring out the old 
soapbox again. The best way to learn 
programming is by keying in 
programs and doing so from a 
learning perspective. Certainly, we 
know you don't have time to key in 
everything— that's why we supply a 
Rainbow On Tape for those who want 
it. 

But, for those of you who want to 
learn a specific point, take a program 
from any issue that addresses that 
particular area of interest and key it 
in. No, don't just key it in, study it as 
you do so. That's what I did early in 
my experience with CoCo— and, I 
wish I had a dime for all the times I 
said to myself "Oh, that's how he did 
that!" 

Another thing: If you are using a 
book to learn, be it the "official" 
manuals or the excellent books from 
the likes of Bob Albrecht and Don 
Inman, don't do a hop, skip and jump 



Page 7 

through them. Start at the beginning 
and make way to the end. There's a lot 
in all of them, even if the subject seems 
out of your area of interest. 

As to business programs, we get an 
awful lot of requests for them and 
plan to continue to provide them. But, 
there will always be other programs, 
too. 

And now, as a friend is wont to say, 
we plan to fold up our tent, put the 
soapbox away, and steal off for at 
least another month. 



ROM PACK MODIFICATION 

Editor: 

I recently purchased a copy of the Disk 
Color Scripsit. One of the advantages of this 
program over the earlier ROM Pack version 
is the ability to change the printer Baud rate. 

Since I have an Epson MX-80, I was 
delighted to find that selecting a Baud rate of 
2400 worked very well and speeded things up 
immensely. 

My only concern was whether the other 
programs which I have which utilize the 
printer could easily be modified for the new 
Baud rate. Of course, all Basic programs 
could be modified by including a line 
containing POKE 150,18 before any 
printing takes place. 

The only other problem was two ROM 
Packs, Spectaculator and Edtasm+. To my 
relief, I discovered both of these programs 
can be easily fixed. Turn the computer on, 
without the ROM Pack in, and type POKE 
65315,54: POKE 150,18. The first POKE 
disables the cartridge auto-start. The second 
sets the Baud rate (as described in "Going 
Ahead With Extended Color Basic", pages 
209-210). Now, insert the cartridge and type 
in EXEC &HC000. This starts the program 
but leaves your selected Baud rate intact. 
Unfortunately, this does not work with the 
Color Scripsit ROM Pack. 

Lester Hands 
Sylvania, OH 

Editor's Note: Before you insert a 
ROM Pack into a powered-up CoCo, 
we suggest you read the letter 
immediately following. 



WARNING LETTER 

Editor: 

I urge you to print this letter or in some 
other way warn your readership of the 
dangers associated with using non-Radio 
Shack design ROM packs. Although no 
ROM Pack should ever be plugged in or 
removed from the computer's port while the 
computer is on, and although one is so 
warned in the instructions, many owners 
and dealers commonly ignore this warning. 

If the ROM Pack in question is a Radio 
Shack one, the dangers are less. But others 
are less precisely built and much more likely 
to wobble on insertion and removal. Both I 
and a fellow 64K fellow computer owner 
have burned out well over $70 worth of chips 
each by accidentally plugging in a non- 
Radio Shack ROM Pack when the machine 



Page 8 

was on. 

Please urge your readers to be careful. 

Martin H. Goodman, M.D. 

Berkeley, CA 

Editor's Note: Yes, you can easily 
fry a set of chips. Every ROM Pack 
manufacturer we know of, including 
Radio Shack, warns against 
unplugging the ROM Pack when 
CoCo is turned on. This is the reason. 



VIDEOTEX ROMPAK 

Editor: 

I would like to pass along some details 
about Radio Shack's Videotex Rom Pack 
for the Color Computer. 

I found out after a few days of 
experimentation and investigation that the 
current (1.1) version of this software cannot 
recognize the 32K computer model. It seems 
upon checking for memory size and finding 
it is not 16K, Videotex defaults to 4K of 
storage of a session's text. 

Also, is seems necessary to unplug the 
modem cable from the serial I/O port to 
activate offline scrolling. An enhanced 
version (1.2) is expected to correct these 
problems so I would advise prospective 
buyers to check the product before 
purchasing. 

Eric Bennett 
Port Hope, Ont. 



EDUCATION ISSUE 

Editor: 

I have enjoyed watching your magazine 
grow and change. Top notch all the way! 

The education issue is much appreciated. 
Except for the negative feedback Mr. Wells 
gives the student in his Math Drill, it is a 
useful program (perhaps someone could let 
us know how to right justify the numerals so 
they line up in the proper column). I am sure 
Mr. Wells included this type of 
reinforcement light-heartedly, however, as a 
teacher, I cannot justify telling a student he 
"must have Jello for brains." I do not want 
this to be taken as negative criticism, for 
such lines are easily changed. 

Perhaps this type of constructive criticism 
is needed, if only to remind adults that we 
must be especially careful to make 
computers in education user-friendly. 
Indeed, I applaud Mr. Wells for his 
instructive program. It is well explained and 
has taught me some useful routines (like 
avoiding a remainder in division). 

Another recommendation for educational 
software would be to disengage the BREAK 
and CLEAR keys. A fellow member of the 
Sudbury & District Color Computer Club 
pointed out a routine on page 268 of Radio 
Shack's "Getting Started With Color Basic" 
that will disengage the BREAK key. Now, 
what about CLEAR! 

Finally, my experience with using 
computers in primary classrooms has 
invariably proven Murphy's Law to be 
correct. Therefore, I must join those who 
await the day when subroutines to disengage 
all unnecessary keys are routinely included 
in all educational programs. The lower the 
grade level, the more they are needed. 

Jim Pratt 
Espanola, Ont. 



the RAINBOW December, 1 982 

Editor's Notes. . . 

PRINT #-2, 



I was seriously thinking about enjoying the opportunity to write this end-of- 
the-year Holiday column. I was going to use it to reflect back on a year's 
happenings for the Color Computer and the Rainbow. CoCo has come a long 
way, baby. And it will be going even further, I am sure, in the next 12 months. 

What I was going to do was to first look at CoCo and then the magazine. 
Then, I planned to offer a Holiday wish list of things I really hope to see in the 
next year. I'll still do that but, I fear, some of the enthusiasm for all that is spoiled 
by a column I just finished reading in another computer publication. 

Almost a year ago, we CoCo owners were "treated" to what was alleged to be 
some "inside information" that our favorite computer was soon to be scrapped 
by Radio Shack. I refer, of course, to Wayne Green's column in the February 
issue of 80 Micro. Well, I guess Wayne and 80 Micro have decided that CoCo is 
going to be around, because we are seeing more about the 80C in 80 Micro again 
this month (December). What is being said now is that Mr. Green fears that 
Tandy is allowing the CoCo to die on the vine because of lack of support from 
Fort Worth. 

In what is one of the longest-running feuds in the computer industry, Mr. 

Green again lambasts Radio Shack for what 
he considers poor merchandising, lack of 
support and the like. Sure, we agree that 
Tandy is not perfect. Neither, however, is the 
Apple Computer Co., Inc., International 
Business Machines, Commodore, etcetera, 
etcetera. 

Mr. Green wants more "cooperation" 
between Tandy and outside suppliers of 
software, hardware and firmware. In his case, 
cooperation means selling 80 Micro in Radio 
Shack's stores. O.K., we'd love to have the 
Rainbow sold in Radio Shack stores, too. But 
we're not in the position of blasting anything 
and everything Tandy does simply because 
they have yet to fly to Louisville and beg us to 
supply 30,000 copies of our magazine to them 
every month. 

Mr. Green asks "What would be the result if (the CoCo were) supported by the 
enormous accessory and peripherials industry that has sprung up around the 
TRS-80 system?" Well, Mr. Green, the result might be that Tandy would be 
selling thousands of Color Computers, that there would be a large — and 
growing larger daily — support industry already in place and that there would be 
a lot of happy people out there — both users and Tandy-ites. 

The truth of the the matter is that Tandy is selling thousands of Color 
Computers every day. The truth of the matter is that there is a very large support 
industry built around CoCo. The truth is that it seems there is more (let's call it) 
affection lavished on CoCo by its users than on any personal computer we have 
seen. 

Perhaps Mr. Green is judging reaction to CoCo by reading his own pages too 
much. After all, the same issue of 80 Micro which carries his column this month 
also gives some advice in its "Feedback Loop" section to a CoCo owner that the 
magazine for Color Computer owners is 80 Micro, the same magazine that 
predicted the demise of the 80C just a few short months ago. 

What does "Feedback Loop" say? It tells this reader "Your best source of 
information on the Color Computer is 80 Micro (this isn't just a plug for this 
magazine, it's the truth). 80 Micro has more companies advertising products for 
the Color Computer than either of the two publications specializing in the Color 
Computer." 

Hogwash and balderdash! We counted 39 firms advertising Color Computer 
products in 80 Micro. Another publication primarily aimed at CoCo had a 
handful more than they did. And the Rainbow had 107 total firms advertising in 
November (and there are another 15 or so this month). We won't even go into a 

(Continued On Page 154) 






Call or write ANTECO 




4220 Clay Avenue 
Ft. Worth, TX 76117 
(800) 433-7631. 





uj3.au 

division of 

Antenna Electronics Company 



Page 10 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Music 






U J J li 



MICRO-MAESTRO: 
Using CoCo's Play Statement * 



by Sara Nolan 



(Mrs. Nolan is a principal in Prickly-Pear Software and the author of 
their Big, Big, Big Songbook program.) 




{sf ff&SSS Sik* 





Converting music to play on the 80C is not difficult. In 
fact, I find it a lot of fun. In this article I will try to explain 
some basic music symbols and terms. With this knowledge 
we will try converting a song to play on the Coco ourselves. 
Pay close attention, because there may be a test later. There 
are just a few musical symbols that you must learn to 
interpret. You don't need to be a musician or even have a 
great knowledge of music, and one thing nice about teachng 
your computer to play is that you don't have to worry about 
how fast your're going. There are no other instruments to 
keep up with and you can take as long as you like when 
typing in a song — an hour or two weeks. I find it convenient 
that the 80C uses the same names for the notes as are used in 
music. Once you learn the names of the notes in music, it's 
easy to remember the code used in the PLAY statement on 
the Coco. 

First things first, you must have some sheet music of the 
song you wish to convert. Rather than have everyone run 
right out and purchase music, I've included two songs in this 
article. Normally you will want to purchase music written on 
the treble cleff. 



This symbol at the beginning of the staff lets you know the 
music was written for the treble cleff. You will only be 
putting the melody line into the PLAY statement. Coco 
cannot produce harmonics (two notes played at the same 
time) in BASIC. I find music written for a C instrument, 
such as a flute or saxaphone, easy to use. If you check with 
someone at a music store, you will find them willing to help 
and usually intrigued by the ideas of teaching a computer to 
play. 

Now we need to figure out what all those notes are. The 
following illustration lets you see where each note is on the 
staff and its letter name. 



-e- 



The staff consists of five lines and four spaces. If you 
remember that the notes on the spaces, starting at the 
bottom, spell out F-A-C-E. You will find it easy to 
extrapolate the other notes. The notes on the lines, starting 
at the bottom, are E-G-B-D-F. The staff is divided into 
measures by a bar, a vertical line across the staff. Each 
measure will take the same length of time to play. We will 
cover this shortly. The notes continue above and below the 
staff. Immediately below the bottom staff line is a D note 
and the next note down with a line drawn through it is 
middle C. Centuries ago the bass and treble cleffs were 
combined with no deliniation between them. Having a staff 
of eleven lines made it difficult sometimes for musicians to 
remember where they were. This difficulty was solved by 
eliminating the middle line between the bass and treble cleffs 
and indicating it with a short line drawn through middle C. 
This made it much easier to see when you werecrossing into 
the treble cleff and vise versa. 

Music must count the same in each measure. This is 
indicated at the beginning of the staff with a time signature. 
Two numbers will be printed. The top one shows the number 
of beats per measure, while the lower one tells what kind of 
note takes one beat. This means that if at the beginning of 
the staff we see "3/4", then quarter notes get one beat and 
there arethreebeats to a measure. There would then have to 
be a total of three quarter-notes per measure. Thesecould all 
be quarter notes or combinations of half, quarter, eighth, 
sixteenth notes etc. All this is not critical for converting 
music to the 80C. Just a bit of esoteric knowledge. 

Since notes start at C (the lowest note in an octave) and go 
to B (the highest) and then repeat several times, there must 
be a way to tell the difference between a high C and a low C. 
This is where octave changes come in. The first octave is 
found on the bass cleff and the notes are very low. The next 
octave bridges the bass and treble cleff s and the notes have a 
higher sound. Each octave changes at the same note name. 
Logically you would think it should be when you go from G 
to A, but who ever said humans were logical. Music changes 
octaves when going from B to C. The note B will end one 
octave and C will start the next. The bass cleff is octave 1 on 
Coco, and at middle C it becomes octave 2. In the middle of 
the treble cleff, at the third space, it becomes octave 3. To do 



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Page 1 2 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



an octave change on the computer you type capital O and 
the number of the new octave. It is very important that you 
make sure that you use the capital letter O, not a zero, 
otherwise you will get an error. 

Some notes can be sharp or flat. If a note is going to be flat 
throughout the song there will be a symbol like this at the 
beginning of the staff. 




This indicates that the note on that line or space will be 
flat throughout the song. There will only be one indicator, 
even though it means all notes of that name are sharp or flat 
in all the octaves. To type a flat note into the computer you 
need to put a minus sign (-) after the note. For example: 
PLAY "AE-CDE-". 

In the note is sharp this symbol will be found at the 
beginning of the staff. 



All notes of this name in all octaves will then be sharp and 
to type a sharp note into the computer it will be necessary to 
put a pound symbol (#) sign after the note. For example: 
PLAY "AD#FGD#". 

Sometimes a note will only need to be sharp or flat for a 
short time, so instead of putting the symbol at the beginning 




i ir 




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RAINBOW 

MM 



of the staff, it will be just in front of the note it is changing. 



This means that all notes on that line or space are changed 
to sharps (or flats) for this measure only. At the end of the 
measure (when you come to a vertical line), the note will 
revert to its original state. Only the note it is in front of is 
affected. Notes of the same name in different octaves will not 
change. This type of thing is also used to change a note that 
is sharp or flat to a natural (not sharp or flat). 




Again, this means that the note with the natural sign in 
front of it is changed. It is natural for this measure only and 
reverts at the end of the measure to a sharp or flat. 

The Coco's PLAY statement doesn't use B sharp or C flat. 
Too Bad. If you fnd these in the music you are converting, 
you must make a B sharp into a C (an octave higher) and a C 
sharp into a B (an octave lower). 

Notes are held for different lengths of times. In music the 
note symbols mean the following: 



TYttOLE NOTE 



HALF NOTE 



QUARTER NOTE 



EIGHTH NOTE 




LENGTH 1 



LENGTH 2 



LENGTH 4 



LENGTH 8 



LENGTH 16 NOTES HAVE 
2 TAILS, LENGTH 32 
HAVE 3i ETC, 



They are typed into the computer using L and a length 
number. The length of the note is typed into the computer 
before the name of the note. If you had a half note A and a 
quarter note D it would look like this: PLAY"L2AL4D". 
Most often you can use the same lengths on Coco that are 
used in music, but every once in a while it is necessary to use 
odd lengths. For example, if you find a series of three notes 
that are bracketed together with a three, you must play these 
three in the same time as you would play two. These are 
triplets and I have found it necessary to make these lengths 
an odd amount. L6 works for three quarter-notes. If you 
have three eighth-notes then use L13 (see Havah Nagilah in 
the program below). 

If on the staff you see a note like this: 



You just add a period after the length number like this: 
PLAY "L2. GL2DL4.D". A dotted note means that the 
length of the note is increased by one half. You can dot a 
note more than once and each time it will be increased by 
one half its original length. On the 80C once you have 



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FLEX $295.00 



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FLEX $295.00 



Uses dauble-entry posting to reduce off-balance 
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■ 



UTILITIES 



AUT0TASK 



w/source $129.95 



Consists of a set of memory resident commands 
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Written in assembler for 6809 FLEX 



TOOLKIT #1 



Object only 
w/source 



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Add EDIT to TSC BASIC'S, along with DEC0MPIL 
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Written in assembler for 6809 FLEX 



TOOLKIT #2 



Object only $49.95 
w/source $69.95 



A package of utilities and programs developed 
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Written in assembler for 6809 FLEX 



EXTENDED UTILITIES: 



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A set of 12 utilities that add the final touch 
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Written in assembler for 6809 FLEX 



PLOT: 



w/source $44.95 



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Written in TSC XBASIC for FLEX 

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SPBP like the above is from the Osborne book. 
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Object only $69.95 
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Written in assembler for 6809 FLEX 



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FLEX $100.00 
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Debug Uniflex assembler programs using TSC 
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OS-9 SIMULATOR for FLEX: 



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Debug OS-9 assembler programs using TSC Debug 
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■ 



HELP 



Object only $29.95 
w/source $49.95 



A data retrieve utility designed to save you 
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Written in assembler for 6800 or 6809 FLEX 



JOB CONTROL PROGRAM 



Object only $49.95 
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Allows you to enhance every other program you 
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Written for 6800 or 6809 FLEX 

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A package of additional FLEX utility commands 
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Will read TRS-80 Level II BASIC tapes and 
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LABORATORY 



THE REGENCY TOWER 
SUITE 215, 770 JAMES STREET 
SYRACUSE, NY 13203 (315) 474-7856 
TELEX-646740 



STYLOGRAPH 



6809 WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 

AVAILABLE FOR FLEX™ UniFLEXJ" and OS-9™ 



The STYLOGRAPH text processing system is a very easy to use but powerful 
method of creating and printing text. It allows the operator to type text ontheCoCo, 
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means that any portion of the text may be worked on by moving the cursor to that 
point. Dynamic screen formating means that the text is formated on the screen in 
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FULL FEATURED TEXT EDITING 

A full array of commands help in the creation and modification of text. The text 
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moved to any page or to any specified series of letters or words. The cursor itself 
can be moved left, right, up, down, to any tab position, or to the extreme left or right. 
Any block of text can be moved, copied or deleted. The operator may also do a 
global replace so that all occurrences of a given string will be replaced with or 
without a "prompt" asking if the item should be replaced. 



OPERATOR CONVENIENCE 

Files longer than memory can be edited. The operator can move forward through 
a long text file by selectively dumping text to the disk or filling from the disk. 

The supervisor mode is menu driven and self prompting so that the operatordoes 
not have to remember the syntax of commands. This makes it easier for new opera- 
tors to use the system. 

An "assist" or "help" function makes it easy to learn the system since it is nor- 
mally not necessary to consult the manual to learn the commands. This function is 
menu driven and lists all of the keyboard functions and the formating commands. 

At the beginning of the text the operator normally types in a few simple com- 
mands indicating the line length, left margin, and so forth, and then enters the 
header and footer as they should appear. After that the operator need not worry 
about formating since it is taken care of automatically. Words that extend beyond 
the end of the line are automatically removed and placed on the next line. Headers 
and footers are automatically inserted so that the operator always knows what por- 
tion of the page is being worked on. Ghost hyphens can be entered so that if the 
word falls at the end of a line, and a ghost hyphen has been inserted, the hyphen 
will automatically be added. 



Control codes may be embedded in the text for special applications. For exam- 
ple, some printers require special control sequences for double width, graphics or 
boldface. These sequences may be embedded in the text for those users that have 
these printers, tn conjunction with this, it is possible to cause the printer to stop in 
the middle of a print out for changing printwheels. A backspace feature allows 
overstriking. 

OPERATING SYSTEM COMPATIBILITY 

STYLOGRAPH is compatible with the FLEX, UniFlex, and OS-9 disk operating 
systems. Text files prepared using STYLOGRAPH are directly usable by other soft- 
ware such as BASIC and the assembler. (This significantly aids software develop- 
ment since cursor-based editing allows full viewing of the text being worked on, 
thereby reducing errors and decreasing programming time). File size is limited only 
by the capacity of the disk system. Files may be loaded into the text at any point 
making it possible to rapidly create "boiler plate" documents using portions of text 
that have been previously saved to a text file. Any portion of a text may be saved to 
a text file for use at a later point. The printer output may be directed to a disk file for 
later print spooling. Most operating system commands are directly accessible 
without leaving STYLOGRAPH. 

FULLY ADAPTABLE TO MOST PRINTERS 

STYLOGRAPH is easily configured by the user for most terminals so there is no 
need to send for updates as equipment changes are made. Source code of the ter- 
minal interface is supplied so that users with unusual equipment configurations 
may adapt it to their systems. The source code for all of the "prompts" is also sup- 
plied so that foreign language versions may be easily constructed. 

Printers currently included as standard are: Diablo, Qume, Starwriter, NEC 
5515/25, NEC 5510/20; CENTRONICS 737/739; TTY type printer with backspace func- 
tion; TTY type printer without backspace function. 



COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS 

A special tutorial section is included in the manual so that people with little or no 
computer experience can easily learn to use STYLOGRAPH in a few hours. A text 
file is included which demonstrates most of the features of STYLOGRAPH and 
allows the operator to practice most of the functions. The logical arrangement of 
the commands and the immediate display of the results greatly simplifies the learn- 
ing process. In addition there is an "assistance" command which helps the new 
operator learn the commands. 



FLEXIBLE DISPLAY 

Lines longer than the screen width are allowed. STYLOGRAPH can scroll right 
and left on the screen so that tables can be constructed and appear on the screen 
exactly as they will appear on the print out. 

A command allows viewing of the formating commands on the screen. Another 
command allows the operator to see which characters will be modified at print out 
by underlining, superscripting or boldface. A page status command shows the cur- 
rent format values and other useful information. 



COMPLETE FORMATING CONTROL 

The text of individual lines may be centered, left justified, right justified, or right 
and left justified. Tabs can be set or cleared at any point. Spacing of the lines on the 
page is under complete operator control with end of page, spacing and vertical tab 
commands. 

While entering text, it may be specified that the characters have some kind of 
modification when they are printed, such as underlining, superscript, boldface, 
overline, or subscript. These character modifications are done with "control" key 
strokes. For example, to start underlining characters, simply hold down the "CTRL" 
key, hit the "U" key and continue entering text. To stop underlining, hit the "DEL" or 
"RUB" key. 



STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 

A major option of STYLOGRAPH is the related MAIL MERGE program. This pro- 
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The second important capability of the MAIL MERGE program allows many 
STYLOGRAPH text files to be appended at print out time. This allows files to be 
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STYLOGRAPH SPELLING CHECKER 

Another majoroption of STYLOGRAPH is the related SPELLING CHECKER pro- 
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for later editing, corrected on the spot, skipped, or added to the dictionary. Words 
may be added to or deleted from the dictionary to create unique vocabularies for 
particular applications. 



POWERFUL PRINTING OPTIONS 

Underlining is supported on TTY type printers. For those people who have 
specialty printers there are a variety of additional capabilities including: 

1.5 line spacing 
BOLDFACE 

superscript 1 STYLOG RAPH for the Color Computer FLEX 195.00 

. subscri P^ STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 125.00 

underline, overline, 

or any combination STYLOGRAPH SPELLING CHECK 145.00 

Right and left justification of text is accomplished by incremental printing on TTY 

type printers. True proportional spacing is supported on the specialty printers. STANDARD FLEX Version 295.00 

FRANK 
HOGG 

LABORATORY 




THE REGENCY TOWER* 770 JAMES ST. • SYRACUSE, NY 13203* TELEX 646740* (3 15) 474-7856 



$0 



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Page 18 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



established the length of a note it will be that length until you 
change it. If you had a series of quarter notes ADDFGE and 
then a half note you would type it like this: 
PLAY"L4ADDFGEL2A". All the notes before the L2 
would be quarter notes. I should mention at this time that 
you can put semi-colons between the notes but this uses a lot 
of memory and is optional. 

Every once in a while musicians like to take a short rest 
during their playing. After all, blowing horns is tiring. 
Actually some songs need the rest or pauses to sound right. 
To cover this need, music has a series of musical rests of 
different lengths. The symbols for these are as follows: 



WHOLE REST 



PAUSE 1 



HALF REST 




PAUSE 2 



QUARTER REST 



EIGHTH REST 




PAUSE 4 



PAUSE 8 



LENGTH 16 PAUSES HAVE 
2 TAILS. LENGTH 32 
HAVE 3, ECT. 



Semper Fideles with a series of notes of the same length and 
pauses of a different length, you don't need to keep typing in 
the note lengths after you type in the pause. 

Now let's cover the speed of play, called tempo in music. I 
find this is one of the disadvantages of the Coco's PLAY 
statements. When they decided on the tempo range for 
Coco, the programmers who wrote the BASIC didn't leave 
enough leeway in the bottom end. When going f rom tempo I 
to tempo 2 your music will be twice as fast. The same from 
going from 2 to 4 and from 4 to 8. Maybe you only need to 
increase it half as much. It is particularly noticable at the 
slower tempos. We could really use a tempo 1.5! The only 
way I find to get a good tempo is to experiment until I find 
one that is closest to the speed I want. This means that songs 
written for the 80C will be close, but not always at exactly 
the right tempo. You put the tempo in the play statement, 
usually only once at the very beginning. For example PLAY 
"T202L4EDL2A#". 

Well, we've covered a lot of ground and there are just a 
few more things we need to discuss before we can start 
converting our first song. If you see this symbol: 




it means go back to the symbol that looks like this: 



The computer thinks of these as pauses in play, and you 
use a P and a length number to indicate them in your PLAY 
statement. For example: PLAY"L4ADFP2L2A". Pauses 
do not change the length of the note. If you have a song like 



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and play it over again. You might need to do this more than 
once, depending on the number of verses in the song. After 
repeating it as many times as necessary, you can then 
continue on to the end. Another possibility is a song that 
repeats only a portion of the song and has different endings. 
They will be numbered 1, 2 etc. The first time through you 
use ending one, and the next time you skip the first ending 
and insert the next one, and so on until you have done all of 
them. Then you continue on to the end. 

We need to learn a little Latin here before we continue. 
Sometimes instructions will be written above the staff. Some 
of these are "D.C. (Da Capo) al" which means repeat from 
the beginning of the song to the word "Fine" or to these 
symbols: 



Or, it might be "D.S. (Dal Segno) al" which means repeat 
from this sign 

K 

to the word "Fine" or to "Coda". If we see "To Coda," it 
means go from here to the section marked "Coda." If we 
have a song with "D.S. al Coda", and a symbol "To Coda 
and Coda." written above the staff, this means you go back 
at this time to the sign, repeat the song until you come "To 
Coda," and then skip down to a section of music that will be 
by itself beginning with "Coda," and then continue to the 
end of this section. This confuses me, too! 



The lastsymbol weneedtolearnabout is called a tie. It is a 
curved line from the head of one note to the head of another 
note. If the notes are the same then you combine the lengths 



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Page 20 



the RAINBOW 



together and play them as only one note. If the notes are 
different then you have to treat them as two seperate notes 
on the computer. 

I have not been able to cover all the various symbols and 
words that are found in music; only the most common. This 
is a verycursury coverage of the subject. There are many fine 
books in the library or bookstores on the reading of music. I 
only hope you will find this helpful when you are converting 
songs to the 80C. 

Now we need to put into practice what we have been 
learning. The following song is a popular Christmas carol, 
and we are going to translate it into code which Coco will 
understand. Each part is numbered to make it easier to 
follow the example. 



IT CAME UPON THE MIDNIGHT CLEAR 




1 



2 3 I 

Moderately* 



f'Tj i 



7 8 



10 n 



13 ±M 



Words by EDMUND H. SEARS 
Music by RICHARD S. WILLIS 



JZZE 



3 



* 2 TeCoda^i^ 16 17 18 19 20 



It 



Came Up - on 



Mid - night Clear that glo-ri-ous song—, of 



an - gels bend - ing near the earth to 
world i n ?A a °l ~ emn still -ness lay to 

23 1^25 26 




old,. 



36 37 38 



From touch their 

39 40 41 



harps of 



gold. 



i 



Peace 

42 43 44 4,5 4 6 4.7 48 49 



on the 

50 51 

D S.alCoda ft 




earth— good - will 
YCodi 



men 



i 



fc 



55 



from heav-en's all gra - cious 

56 57 58 59 60 



King,. 



hear 



the 



an - 



gels 



61 



i 



slag 



Let's start typing a PLAY statement into the 80C. Put a 
line number in front of it so that you can save it when we are 
done. #1 — our treble cleff symbol. #2 — the notes that are to 
be flat throughout the song are indicated here. These are B 
and E. Remember, all B's and all E's are flat, even if they are 
in a different octave. #3 — the first note is a quarter note on 
the first space, which means it isthe note F in octave two. We 
start our statement PL AY"T202L4F". The tempo is just a 
guess now and can be changed later if necessary. 

#4 — we have the first half of a repeat sign, so we know we 
will be coming back here later. #5 — the second note in the 
song is a half note D, and since we have gone past B on the 
staff it is in octave 3, which we must indicate in our PLAY 
statement. The next section in our statement is "03L2D". 
#6 — the next note has gone back below C, so it is back in 
octave 2, and the note length has gone back to a quarter 
note. We have then "02L4A" to add to our statement. 

#7 and #8 are two quarter-notes connected by a tie, but the 
notes are different. We treat them as two separate notes. The 
first one is C which is an octavechangeto 3. The next note B 
is an octave change back to 2. This note B is flat and we must 
indicate it in our statement with a minus sign. We add 
"03C02B — " to our statement. We do not need to indicate 
note length as they are both the same as the preceding ones. 

#9 is a quarter note G. It is the same length as the previous 
notes, so we don't have to put in a length statement. #10 is a 



length change to a half note F. #1 1 is back to a quarter note 
G. #12 is a length 2 F. #13 is a length 4 F. We can put the 
following into our statement: "GL2FL4GL2FL4G". 

# 1 4 is the first ending. # 1 5 and 1 6 are tied notes. They are 
still length 4 but are a G and A, so they are treated as two 
separate notes. #17 is a length 4 1, so it is flat and a min«s 
sign must be added to it. We add "GAB — "to our statement. 

#18 and #19 are tied again in the same way but this time 
there is an octave change between them, so add B flat, 4 C to 
our statement like this: "B-03C". 

#20 is still in octave 3 and is a length 4 D. #21 and #22 are 
tied notes that are the same, so we treat them as one note. A 
dotted half note plus a half note comes out to be L2... C, 
because we must have five beats. ( Remember, a quarter note 
gets one beat, so a half note gets 2, and a dotted half note gets 
three.) #23, an F, is an octave change back to 2 and a length 
change back to 4, so we put "DL2...C02L4F" into our 
statement. 

#24 is the second half of our repeat symbol, and tells us to 
return to our first repeat symbol at #4 and repeat the notes 
#5 through #13. When we reach #13 again we go to the 
second ending which starts at #25. Put the notes from #5 
through #13 into your PLAY statement again. 

#26 is the first note in the second ending and is a length 2 
G. #27 changes to a length 4 G. #28 and #29 are tied quarter 
notes that are different — an A and a G. #30 is still a quarter 
note, F. We add "L2GL4GAGF" to our PLAY statement. 

#31 and #32 are tied notes that are the same, so we treat 



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Page 22 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



them as one note only. We add a half note dotted B to a half 
note B to come out with a half note dotted three times. Put 
"L2...B — " into our statement. 

#33 — a D, has changed octaves to 3 and changed length to 
4. #34 is still in octave 3 but is a length 2 D. #35 goes back to 
octave 2 and a length 4 D, so we put "03L4DL2D02L4D" 
into our statement. 

#36 is still a quarter note, and is a D tied to #37, which is a 
quarter note E. Now, E is supposed to be flat in this song, 
but this note has a natural symbolinfrontof it, so weleaveit 
alone. Do not add a minus sign to make it flat. #38 is an F. F 
has been natural so far, but there is a sharp symbol in front 
of this note. For this measure only, octave 2 Fs are sharp. 
We add "DEF#" to our statement. 

#39 — this G note has a length change to 2. #40 is length 4 
A. #41 is a length 2 B Hat. So we add "L2GL4AL2B — " to 
our song. 

#42 is an octave change to 3 and length 4 D. #43 a length 4 
C. #44 is an octave change to 2 and is a B flat. #45 is still a 
quarter note and is an A. Put "03L4DC02B-A" into our 
melody. 

#46 and #47 are two different notes tied together. They are 
quarter notes G and A. #48 is a length 4 G. #49 and #50 are 
two notes tied which are the same. One is a length 2 dotted F, 
and the other is a length 2 F. Together they become a L2 F 
dotted three times. #51 is a length change to a 4 and note F. 
We add "GAGL2...FL4F" to our tune. 



#52 "D.S. al Coda" means go back to the sign (#4) and 
repeat the notes through #13, (Put them in the PLAY 
statement.) where we find #53 which is "To Coda." We skip 
down to #54 (which is the "Coda") and which starts our next 
section. #55 is the first note in the coda, a half note G. #56 
has a length change to 4. The note is still a G. #57 and #58 are 
two different notes tied together; an A and a G. We add 
"L2GL4GAG" to our carol. 

#59 is a quarter note F. #60 and #61 are tied notes that are 
the same. We have a dotted half note (B flat) tied to a B flat 
half note. This is it, and if we add "FL2...B — " to our 
statement the song is finished. By the way, all the quotes 
except the one at the very beginning and the one at the very 
end are not used. 

You can now type, RUN and listen to your computer 
play. The name of the song is "It Came Upon A Midnight 
Clear." I hope you were able to recognize it when the 
computer was playing. Edit the PLAY statement and 
change the tempo. Run it again. Do this a couple of times. 
See which speed it sounds best to you. 

The following song is a popular Hanukkah hymn. This is 
your test. Now we'll see how well I explained thngs. Go 
ahead and try converting it yourself. Try not to cheat, but if 
you get stuck I have included it in the following listing. The 
only difficulty with this song is that in some places there are 
two notes together. The note the computer needs will be the 
top one. Ignore the other one and only use the one on top. 




Ma- oz Tsur 



Rock of Ages, let our song praise Thy saving power; Furious chey assailed us, but Thine arm availed us, 
Thou amidst the raging foes, wast our shelt'ring tower. And Thy word broke their sword 

When our own strength failed us. 

Traditional Hymn of Chanuka 

And&nte_ 

7 a 




Ma - oz tsur y r - shu - a - tt 



cha -na - eh l'-sha 




ti - kon beyt t' 



sham to da n'- za 



, i 

f j i- f t 




let ta-chin mat 



ha-m na-bt — ach 




az eg'-mor b' 



shir miz-mor cha 



nu - kat ha - miz 



be 



ach. 



Well, this has been fun. I hope the pointers I have tried to 
give you will allow you to build a collection of songs for 
Coco. For your enjoyment during this holiday season, I 
have included a few melodies to start your collection. 

Just type the program (VERRRY carefully) and run it. 
There are 1 7 tunes included. All you do is enter the number 
of the one you want, and listen to it PLAY. If you want the 
computer to play along unattended, make the following 



changes: 

Delete line 20 

Change line 10 to read: 10 FOR X = I TO 17 
Change line 30 to read: 30 CLS3:ON X GOTO .... 
Change line 430 to read: 430 FOR Y=l TO 400:NEXT 
Y,X 

If you want them to repeat over and over, add a line. 440 
GOTO 10. 



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FUN & GAMES 



PAC ATTACK 






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PAC ATTACK 

Bring arcade fun to your 
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EL DIABLERO 

You awake, dazed and 
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cassette. . .$19.95 
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STQRfTI 




STORM! 

A tempest of a game, Storm 
is an exciting & colorful 
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Rainbow Raiders and you 
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milibars! 

cassette. . .$24.95 
disk. . .$29.95 



DOODLE BUG 

In high resolution graphics 
your lady bugs hussle 
through an intricate maze 
of barriers & turnstyles, 
trying to earn points by 
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hearts. Enemy bugs buzz 
after you! Exquisite sound 
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cassette. . .$24.95 
disk. . .$29.95 




RAIL RUNNER 




RAIL RUNNER 

Watch Out!! Your railroad 
engineer must scurry over 
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switchyard ever, dodging 
speeding trains & handcars, 
to rescue the poor little 
hobos on the wrong side of 
the tracks! And the clock 
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cassette. . .$21.95 
disk. . .$26.95 



STARSHIP 
CHAMELEON 

Your intergalaxian vessel 
must defend your planet 
against evil Gabalatok 
attack. You have the unique 
ability to change color at 
the push of a button to 
destroy oncoming bombs 
and anti-matter. Watch out 
for the semi-intelligent 
aerial mines that home in 
on you! Nine levels of play, 
cassette. . .$24.95 
disk. . .$29.95 



COLOR NVbDERS 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 



COLOR INVADERS 

You are at the controls of 
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steller ships and invading 
critters. Ships burst in air 
with explosive noise. Alien 
critters march across the 
screen dropping bombs & 
screaming as life is zapped 
from their fried bodies, 
cassette. . .$19.95 
disk. . .$24.95 



TO ORDER: 

Add shipping of 
$2 surface or $5 
air/Canada. Visa 
& MasterCard 
accepted. 



Dealer Inquires Invited 




COMPUTERWARE® 



Computerware is a trademark of Computerware. 



call or write 
Box 668 

Encinitas, Ca. 92024 
(714) 436-3512 



Page 24 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



Now you can sit back and enjoy. Have a wonderful 
holiday! 
The Listing: 

1 0 CLS3 : PR I NT© 1 00 p THE SONGBOOK " 
; : PR I NT© 163, " INPUT YOUR CHOICE 0 
F SONGS"; : PR INT6227, ,,M ; : INPUT X 
20 IF X<0 OR X>16 THEN 10 ELSE C 
LS3 

30 ON X GOTO 40,60,80,100,120,14 
0, 160, 190, 210, 240, 260, 280, 300, 34 
0,360,380,400 

40 PR I NT© 162, "ANGELS WE HAVE HEA 
RD ON HIGH"; 

50 PLAY " T202L4BBB03DL4 . DL8C02L2B 
L4BAB03DL4. 02BL8AL2GL4BBB03DL4. D 
L8C02L2BL4B AB03D02L4 . BL8 AL2G03L2 
DL8EDC02B03L2CL8DC02BAL2B03L8C02 
BAGL4 . AL8DL2DL4GAB03C02L2BL4AP40 
3L2DL8EDC02B03L2CL8DC02BAL2B03L8 
C02BAGL4 . AL8DL2DL4GAB03C02L2BAL 1 
G":GOTO 430 

60 PR I NT© 162, "AWAY IN THE MANGER 

It m 

9 

70 PLAY " T202L4DGGL8B AL4GGDEGEL2D 
L4DGGABB03DD02BGL2AL4DGGL8BAL4GG 
DE03C02EL2DL4DGGAB03DC02BDF#L2G" 
IGOTO 430 

80 PR I NT© 162, "DECK THE HALL"; 



90 PLAY " T303L4 . C02L8B— L4AGFGAFL8 
GAB-GL4. AL8GL4FEL2F03L4. C02L8B-L 
4 AGFG AFL8G AB-GL4 . AL8GL4FEL2FL4 . G 
L8 AL4B-GL4 . AL8B-03L4C02GL8AB03L4 
CL8DEL4FEDL2CL4 . C02L8B-L4AGFGAF0 
3L8DDDDL4 . C02L8B-L4AGL2F " : GOTO 4 
30 

100 PR I NT© 162, "THE FIRST NOEL"; 
110 PLAY " T202L8EDL4 . CL8DEFL2GL8A 
B03L4C02BAL2GL8ABL403C02BAGAB03C 
02GFL2EL8EDL4 . CL8DEFL2GL8ABL403C 
02BAL2GL8AB03L4C02BAGAB03C02GFL2 
EL8EDL4 . CL8DEFL2G03L8C02BL2 AL4 AL 
2. G03L4C02BAGAB03C02GFL IE" : GOTO 
430 

120 PR I NT© 162, "GOD REST YOU MERR 

Y , " ; : PR I NT© 1 94 , " GENTLEMEN " ; 

1 30 PLAY " T302L4DDAAGFEDCDEFGL2 . A 

L4DDAAGFEDCDEFGL2. AL4AB-GAB-03CD 

02AGFDEFL2GL4FGL2AL4B-AAGFEL2DL8 

FEL4DL2GL4FG AB-03CD02 AGFEL ID" : GO 

TO 430 

140 PR I NT© 162, "HARK THE HERALD A 
NGELS SING"; 

1 50 PLAY " T302L4DGL4 - GL8F#L4GBB AO 
3DDL4. DL8C02L4BAL2BL4DGL4. GL8F#L 
4GBBA03D02AL4 . AL8F#L4F#EL2D03L4D 
DD02G03C02BBA03DDD02G03C02BBA03E 
EEDC02B03L2C02L4AL8B03CL4 . D02L8G 



PARALLEL 

PRINTER 



INTERFACE 



FOR THE RADIO SHACK COLOR COMPUTER 




* RUN ANY STANDARD PARALLEL PRINTER FROM THE COLOR COMPUTER SERIAL I/O PORT 

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* SWITCH SELECTABLE BAUD RATES FROM 300 to 9600 

The Color Computer is capable of 9600 Baud — Poke 150, 1. 

Running at 9600 Baud greatly increases the printing speed of some printers. 

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The ORACLE is completely position independent and re- turn GNT on or off with simple Basic POKE statement. GNT comes 

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Page 26 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



L46AL2B03L4EEEDC02B03L2C02L4AL8B 
03CL4 . D02L8SL4S AL2S " : GOTO 430 
160 PR I NTS 162, "HAVE YOURSELF A M 
ERRY L I TTLE " ; : PR I NTS 1 94 , " CHR I STM 
AS"; 

170 PLAY " T202L4CE603C02L86FEDL4C 

DCE603C02L2 . 6P4L4E603CEL8DC02BAL 

46FL 1 EL2 . EP4L4CE603C02L86FEDL4CD 

CE603CL2 . 026P4L4E603CEL8DC02B AL4 

G#B03L 1 CCL4EEEL8DC02B03CL2DL8C02 

BAB03L2C02L4BL2 . BP403L4CCC02L8BA 

GAL2BL8GAB03CL2D02L4DL2. 6P4L4CEG 

03C02L86FEDL4CDCEG03C " 

1 80 PLAY " L2 . 02GP4L4E603CEL8FEDC0 

2L4B03DL 1 EL2 . EL4EE02F A03CL8EDC02 

BL4AB03L1C":G0T0 430 

190 PR I NTS 162, "I SAW THREE SHIPS 
ii • 

200 PLAY " T202L8DL4GL8GL4AL8B03L4 
D02L8BL4A03L8C02L4BL8GL4GL8BL4AL 
8F#L4DL8DL4GL8GL4AL8BL403D02L8BL 
4 AL803C02L4BL8GG ABL4 . AL4G" : GOTO 
430 

210 PRINT8162, "JINGLE BELLS"; 
220 PLAY " T402L4DB AGL2 . DL8DDL4DBA 
GL2 . EL4EE03C02BAL 1 F#03L4DDC02AL 1 
BL4DBAGL2. DL8DDL4DBAGL2. EL4EE03C 
02B A03DDDDEDC02 AL2 . GP4L4BBL2BL4B 
BL2BL4B03D02L4 . GL8AL 1 B03L4CCL4 . C 



L8CL4C02BBL8BBL4BAABL2A03D02L4BB 

L2BL4BBL2BL4B03D02L4 . GL8AL 1 B03L4 

CCL4. CL8CL4C02BBL8BB" 

230 PLAY"03L4DDC02L4AL1G":G0T0 4 

30 

240 PR I NTS 1 62, "0 CHRISTMAS TREE" 

■ 

» 

250 PLAY " T202L4CL8 . FL 1 6FL4FGL8 . A 
L 1 6AL4AAL8GAL4B-EGFCL8 . FL 1 6FL4FG 
L8 . AL 1 6AL4AAL8GAL4B— EGF03CL8C02A 
03L4. DL8CC02B-L4. B-L8B-B-G03L4. C 
02L8B-B- AL4 ACL8 . FL 1 6FL4FGL8 . AL 1 6 
AL4AAL8GAL4B-EGF " : GOTO 430 
260 PRINTS162, "SILENT NIGHT"; 
270 PLAY " T202L4 . GL8AL4GL2 . EL4 . GL 
8AL4GL2. E03L2DL4D02L2. B03L2CL4C0 
2L2. GL2AL4A03L4. C02L8BL4AL4 . GL8A 
L4GL2. EL2AL4A03L4. C02L8BL4AL4. GL 
8AL4GL2. E03L2DL4DL4. FL8D02L4B03L 
2. CEL4. C02L8GL4EL4. GL8FL4DL1C" : G 
OTO 430 

280 PR I NTS 162, "UP ON THE HOUSE T 
OP"; 

290 PLAY " T303L4CL8CDL4C02AFA03L2 
CL4DDC02AG03CL2CL4CL8C0L4C02AFA0 
3L2CL4DDC02AG03C02L2FL4B-B-03L2D 
L4CL8CC02L2AL4GGL2B— L4A03L8CC02L 
2F03L4CL8CDL4C02AB-03CL2DL4CL8CD 
CC02L4AG03C02L2F " : GOTO 430 




tware 



Silly Syntax 

a sensational and educational version 
of a popular party game for the TRS-80* 
Color Computer . . . 

For 1 to 1 0 players. Load a story into 
the computer. The players are asked to 
supply a noun, verb, part of body, ce- 
lebrity, etc. which the program uses to 
complete the story. The story, which is 
displayed when all words are entered, 
will be hilarious. Silly Syntax requires 
16K Extended Basic (32K for disk ver- 
sion). For $19.95, you get a user guide 
and a tape containing the Silly Syntax 
game and 2 stories. You can create your 
own stories or order story tapes from 
the selection below. 

Silly Syntax stories — Ten stories 
per tape. 

SS-001 - Fairy Tales 
SS-002 - Sing Along 
SS-003 - X-Rated 
SS-004 - Current Events 
SS-006 - Adventure/Sci-Fi 
SS-007 - Potpourri 

Each story tape is $9.95. 1 0% off for 3 
or more story tapes. Disk is $24.95 for 
Silly Syntax and 2 stories or $49.95 for 
Silly Syntax and all 62 stories. 



Introduces 

Auto Run 

Auto Run is a utility program for the TRS- 
80* Extended Basic Color Computer. It 
is used to add convenience and profes- 
sionalism to your software. 

Auto Run will create a tape which will 
consist of a machine language loader 
followed by your Basic or machine lan- 
guage program. With this tape, a simple 
CLOADM command will load and start 
the loader which will load and start your 
program. You may design a title screen 
with the graphics editor which will dis- 
play as your program loads. Also you 
may record a vocal or musical introduc- 
tion preceding your program. The Auto 
Run loader will control the audio on/off. 

Basic programs can be set to load 
anywhere in memory above $600 (the 
PCLEAR 0 page). 

Software authors: The Auto Run pre- 
fix may be appended to your software 
products. 

Auto Run is $14.95 and includes 
complete documentation and an as- 
sembly source listing. 



TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 
(614) 861-0565 

CIS orders EMAIL to 70405,1374 



Tape Information Management 
System 

a user-oriented, easy to use personal 

database management system with 

these outstanding features: 

'keeps files of programs, names, ad- 
dresses, birthdays, recipes, class or club 
rosters, anything 

'variable record and field lengths 

'phrase substitution editor 

'up to 8 user-definable fields 

'ML sort (up to 3 fields), search and de- 
lete functions 

*2 search modes — range and item 
'user-definable printer format, for any 
printer 

For $24.95 you get the database 
management system, our full documen- 
tation which includes a reference guide 
and a programmer's guide, and our 1 981 
Bibliography of articles relating to the 
Color Computer. Requires 16K Ex- 
tended Basic. 32K recommended. 

Add $1 .00 per tape or disk for postage 
and handling. Ohioans add 5.5% sales 
tax. COD orders are welcome. Dealer 
inquiries invited. 



RAINBOW 




You must vaporize the pests with your laser 
and pesticide bombs. Pest control is a never- 
ending "task in this space simulation. Be quick 
about it. If you take too long to clear a wave of 
pests, the AVENGER appears and homes in 
on your PestiCraft. 



relentless assault on your ship. AVENGER is 
joystick compatible. 

AVENGER is available for the TRS 80 H Color 
Computer at your favorite software dealer 
MasterCard & Visa orders accepted. $19.95 
taoe. $1 r^o shiooina and handlina champs 



u\i yuuf resu^ran. 

A random Vengence Encounter throws you 
into a world with droid-filled birds. You have 
to destroy them, but every time they burst, a 
myriad of droids are released and begin a 



tape, $1.F0 shipping and handling charges. 

The Corfisoft Group 

6008 N, Keystone Avenue 
Indianapolis. IN 46220 (317) 257-3227 




t 






AVENGER copyright 1982 The Cornsoft Group 



TRS 80' Color Computer is a registered trademark of the Tandy Corporation. 



Page 28 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



300 PRINT© 162, "HAVAH NA6ILAH"; 
310 PLAY " T502L2EL 2 . EL4G#FEL2G#L2 
. G#L4BAG#L2AL2. A03L4C02BAL2G#L6F 
EFL 1 G#L2EL2 . EL4G#FEL26#L2. G#L4BA 
G#L2 AL2 . A03L4C02B AL26#L6FEFL 1 EL4 
G#L2G#L4FEEL2EL4FL2FL4EDDL2DDL4. 
FL8EL4DDL2 AG#L6FEFL 1 G#L4G#L2G#L4 
FEEL2EL4FL2FL4EDDL2DDL4. FL8EL4DD 
L2 AG#L6FEFL 1 G# A AL2 A A A A " 
320 PLAY"T502L8AAL4A03L4. C02L8BL 
4 A03C02B AL8 A AL4 A03L4 . C02L8BL4 A03 
C02BAL8BB " 

330 PLAY " L4B03L4 . DL8C02L4B03DC02 
BL8BBL4B03L4 . DL8C02L4B03DC02BL8B 
BL4B03L2EP 1 02L4 . EL8E03C02B A6#L 1 A 
L2EL2. EL4G#FEL2G#L2. G#L4BAG#L2AL 
2 . A03L4C02B AL2B#L6FEFL 1 E " : GOTO 4 
30 

340 PRINTS! 62, "MA-OZ TSUR"; 
350 PLAY " T202L4FCFB-AGFP8L803CL4 
CD02GL8AB-L4AGL2FL4FCFB-AGFP8L80 
3CL4CD02GL8 AB-L4 AGL2F03L4 . CL8CL4 
DEL2FCL4FEDCL8C02B-AB-L2GL4 . AL8B 
-03L4C02AL4 . GL8AL4B— P8L8B-L4AGFB 
-AGL2F":G0T0 430 

360 PR I NTS 162, "CHANUKOH, OY CHAN 
UKOH"; 

370 PLAY " T202L4DL8AAAA03DD02AAL4 
AL8GFL4GL8FFAAAA03D002AAL4AL8GFL 
4GFL8FGAGL4FFGL8FEL2FL8FGAGL4FFG 



L8FEL4DDAL2AL40AL2AL4DAL8AAL4B-L 
8AGL2. AP4L4AL8AAL4B— L8A6L4AL8AAL 
4B-L8 AGL4FL8FFL4GL8FEL2 . D" : GOTO 
430 

380 PR I NTS 162, "MARCH OF THE TOYS 



II 



390 PLAY " T403L8CD02A03CL2 . 02DEL4 

AL8FL2DL8CL4EL8DL 1 DL8CGEDL 1 DP803 

L8CD02A03CL2 . 02DEL4FL8GL2AP8L8 AO 

3L4EL8DL4C#02L8A03L4EL8DL4C#02L8 

A03FEDL 1 AP8L8CD02A03C02L2 . DEL4AL 

8FL2DL8CL4EL8DL 1 DL8CGEDL 1 DP803L8 

CD02A03C02L2 . DEFGL8AB-03C02 AGFL4 

AL8DL4GL8CL IF": GOTO 430 

400 PRINT© 162, "SEMPER F I DELES"; 

410 PLAY " T402L8F#L4GL8AL4BP8L2BL 

8AGFGADP8DAP8AGP8GEP8EFP8F03CP8C 

02BP8BAP8AGP8G03EP8EDP8DCP8C02L4 

BP8L2BL8AGFGAEP8EAP8AGP8GEP8ED01 

B02DGDGBG AB03CC#DP8L8FDC0 1 AG02GA 

B03CDL4 . EG02AB03L40L8CL2CL8CECEC 

02L4B02L8FL2F02L8B03D02B03D02BL4 

03CL8EL2E02L8GAB03CDL4. EG 

420 PLAY " 02L4 . AB03L4DL8CL2CL8C02 

B03CDD#EGECECL 1 02GL8AL4BL8G03L4C 

P802L4. CL1 AL8FA03L4C02L8A03L2. CO 

2AL 1 FL8CFL4 AL8FL2 . CL4. C03L4. C02L 

1 AL8FA03L4C02L8 A03L2 . C02AL 1 CL8FA 

03L4C02L8CL IF": GOTO 430 

430 GOTO 10 ^ 



STOP- 



TheMERZOIO 
/A/SAS/ON... 

BEFORE THEV PLUAtDER AMD DESTROY tit 
sVOMEWORLJD CCHLOAS/^ES , OmlV THE STAR- 
3 A TTL ELSHiP u OA*£GA H STANDS A CHANCE... 
CAME. FEA-rU*6S; MO\f/UG ENEMY SHIPS, COMPUTE* 
GAUM M*P, SYSTEMS DAMAGE, COM nuNtCAT/ortS 
*V/ TH ENC/a/FER/a/^ EfUEM V PlRGSHiP ™32K /91>V, 
REAL-TJPfE ACTtotJ (wrrH Short pauses to lit voy 
eve com*\«nos)£/SF LASERS AND fJOCLEAR SP4CE- 

togp^oos to £>ssT#oy T*£ fa/e:mv.../ 

/<oU Uoaj-DISK VERSION SimilAA To 3Z\C HoViCE LEV Li 
#GTH tfERS/OfJS ON SA/ne TAPS, or SPECIFY DlSK 

color Star Pil or * 



DISK SYSTEM 




* PRICES 
MARKED- 

v EFFECT 

^Q- Til JftMlffi 



'PLEASE 

SAVE 



AAEL . -BEGS THE PRINCESS 



iT'S NO FUN BEING HELD 
CAPTIVE, BY AN EVIL 
TROLL.. . HE TELLS ME 

HIS -FOREVER. SUREL^ 
IN ALL THE THERE 
ONE BRAVE F1CHTER, SMHtTEHoOCH 
F/CUR£ OUT THE MAVF /" 
'T HOLD OUT MUCH concer n* t 



TO 

"I CAN 




the Great Dung edm Maze rr: 



FULL 



32K ONLY/- SPECIFY DM** TAPE 



THE EDUC(lTSDD\SK-FlUE. t 
A* JAiC&CASiNG Ni/MMMML 

of Disxs warn awa/v program on Files oh each 

ttAVES YOU GU£SS/NG..':WHEA£ DID I PITT TH#T F11E.V 

5 File Search Methods I ust empty disk* 

LIST ALL FILES ON fi CE4T4/N DISK - LIST ALL FiCEsL 
ON ALL DISKS -LIST DlSK dAMES and NUnecfisJiM 

Find a target filename on all disks. « 

RECOVER DJ/2ECTOR.Y CRASHES* OF 

ALL D/SATS Ft LSD l/A>DFR /? A?j9STEX . . . 
32 K SORT INCLUDED -OUTPUT To SCREEN o* PfUrJTER 
WILL EASILY BE VOUK W5T mPOfTTANT P&GAAM J 




THE AlAZE /S THE 
T**CKY F*RRT:. . 
CAfJ oa/lv 3E0OMZ UfruCERW/N MAGtC ITEMS. 




FILE IQO DISKS Pe* MASTER- ZSJSOO PER SYSTEM^g^ 



MASTER DISK SYSTEM *2935*^cy 

EDITOR. -TEXT PROCESSOR* 24 .95 £2g,*?292F 
- JO FUNCT. DATAtmNACEMZHTSHott 
DlStCFiX -G&T PAtrjALOSE FRofli PMVSjCWJLY 



U/ITW SAO K*A*tVL££ $ * 

CATALOG ON TXP£ %Z B&HQS WPQiAKiS *3 £JB 

CIRCLE CITY P.O. Box 30166 O 

SOFTWARE Indianapolis, In. 46220 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 29 



* 



v 



Patch EDTASM+ To Disk To End Those Cassette Blues 



* 
* 



•V 



By Roger Schrag 



************ 



Radio Shack's EDTASM+ package is a powerful, well- 
written programming tool. But f or people with disk drives, it 
is very agonizing to have to go back to using cassettes to 
store source code files. There are editor assemblers on the 
market that do support disk drives, but they are usually 
much more expensive, and sometimes require the Flex 
Operating System, or something else that not everyone 
owns. 

What I have put together here is a series of patches that 
make EDTASM+ use the disk drive instead of the tape 
recorder for mass storage. The finished product requires 
only 16K Extended Basic and one drive. 

Patching EDTASM+ to use disks is relatively easy to do. 
The first thing is to move it into RAM so that we can alter 
bytes of code and thus alter its operation. The move can be 
accomplished by typing in U C000 1000 27FFfrom Zbug. 
To save a copy of it on tape, enter P EDTASM 1000 37F|L 0 
1000. Since it was written entirely in position independent ^ 
code, it can reside anywhere in memory, and function 
without modification. 

The next step is to enter the source code shown in the 
listing. Assemble it onto tape directly after the copy of 
EDTASM+ you made from Zbug. You'll probably also 
want to save the source code for future use. 

Now you are ready to load in the files you have saved on 
the tape. First, you will want to insert your disk cartridge so 
that the finished product can be saved on disk. Type 
CLOADM to load the RAM version of EDTASM+, but 
don't execute it yet. Next, load in the patches you keyed in 
by typing CLOADM again. Parts of EDTASM+ will now 
be overwritten with new code, and a block of additional 
subroutines will be added on. 

You may save the finished program onto disk by typingin 
SAVEM "EDTASM+0 &HE80, &H37FF, &HE80. Now 
whenever you want to use your editor assembler, just enter 
LOADM "EDTASM+":EXEC. 

with the disk version of EDTASM+, the L,W,A, and V 
commands will work differently than they used to. To load 
source code, simply press L and enter. The computer will ask 
for a filename. Type in a standard filename as you would in 
Basic. If you don't specify an extension, none will be 
assumed. The file will then be loaded. The W command 
works in the same way. 

To assemble a program, type in A and any assembly 
switches you would like to use. Unless you choose the IM or 
NO options, you will beaskedf or the filename. As the listing 
scrolls across the screen, the computer will stop from time to 
time to write a sector to the disk. If you press Break, you may 
have to wait a moment for the computer to close the file. 

The V command will merely open a file and close it again. 
This verifies that a file is listed in the directory and that there 
are no problems with its structure. 

On a 16K machine, you will have 1.5K for your text 
buffer. A 32K machine will offer 17.5K. For those of you 
who have source code files on tape, you may transfer them to 
diskette with the Basic program I have included. 



EDTASM+ uses ASCII codes that Basic doesn't recognize. 
Therefore INPUT#-I can't be used to read the source code 
file from the cassette. A machine language routine is 
necessary. 
Listing 1: 

00001 ##HH#m#H#HH##m## 

00002 * EDTASM+ HITS THE DISK * 

00003 ###HH#m#m#m#mH 

BY ROGER SCHRAG 
10/15/82 



00005 



00008 
00009 



00011 
00012 
00013 



00015 
00016 



00019 
00020 
00021 
00022 
00023 



MAKE SURE INTERRUPTS ARE ENABLED 
SO THAT THE DISK DRIVE WILL 
SHUT OFF PROPERLY 

ORG $1516 

LBSR INTRPT 



CHANGE FILENAME HANDLING SYSTEM 
TO ALLOW THE USER TO ENTER FULL 
DISK FILE NAMES: FILENAME/EXT: D 

ORG I15E0 

LBRA FNAME 



CHANGE REFERENCES TO DEVICE f-1 
(TAPE) TO DEVICE II (DISK) 



00025 
00026 
00027 
00028 
00029 
00030 
00031 
00032 
00033 
00034 
00035 
00036 
00037 
00038 
00039 



ORG 


$1547 


LDB 


il 


ORG 


$1574 


LDB 


111 


ORG 


$15AD 


LDA 


il 


ORG 


$15CD 


LDA 


#1 



00041 
00042 
00043 
00044 
00045 



* 
* 

*MAKE SURE THE DISK FILE HAS BEEN 
CLOSED WHEN ACCESS TO IT IS COMPLETE 

ORG $1B52 

LBSR CLOSE 

* 

*AT THE RIGHT TIME, CALL A ROUTINE 
*T0 OPEN THE DISK FILE, INSTEAD OF 
*A ROUTINE TO OPEN THE TAPE FILE 

ORG $15BA PATCHES INTO 
LDU 3ASSEH "A B COMMAND 



Page 30 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



00046 
00047 
00048 
00049 
00050 
00051 
00052 
00053 
00054 
00055 
00056 
00057 
00058 

00059 
00060 
00061 
00062 
00063 
00064 
00065 
00066 
00067 
00068 
00069 
00070 
00071 
00072 
00073 
00074 



ORG 
LDU 
ORG 
LDU 
ORG 
LDU 



$15BF 

ILOAD 

$15C4 

IWRITE 

I163A 

ILOAD 



PATCHES INTO 
B L" COMMAND 
PATCHES INTO 
"W" COMMAND 
PATCHES INTO 
T COMMAND 



ft 



♦ALTER ERROR HANDLING SYSTEM TO 
♦ACCOUNT FOR NEW ERROR MESSAGES 



ORG 

LBSR 

CLR 

CLR 

LBSR 

LBRA 



$1721 
ERR0R1 

<$1 
<$4 

ERR0R2 
$172F 



# 
# 

* 

* 



ORG 



$E80 



♦NEW ENTRY AREA TO EDTASM 

START LDX H1E00 WE MUST FIRST 

LDA #$AF FIX THE THREE 

STA ,X+ BYTES THAT 

LDA i$5A BASIC CLOBBERS 

STA ,X+ WHILE LOADING 

LDA #$26 EDTASM+ INTO 

STA ,X MEMORY 



Accept the challenge of 



TOWER CASTLE 



Fight with sword, magic and 
cunning to recover the treasure. 
You will need all your guile, wit 
and senses because the 
adventure changes each time 
you enter the castle. Experience 
the intrigue with mus 
on your TRS-80*. 




I 






//Ty\ 




Requires 32 K Extended Basic 
Cassette $17.95 (post paid) 
CA residents add 6% sales tax 

MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay Laboratory 

316 Castillo Street 
Santa Barbara, CA 93101 

* TRS-80 Registered Trademark Tandy Corp. 



00075 




LDA 


i$38 


NEXT SET THE 

1 ™ mm r 1 1 mm mm 1 111 mm 


00076 

V v V f W 




STA 


>$FF 


LOW MEM POINTER 


00077 

VWI 1 




LBRA 


$1005 


ENTER PROGRAM 


00078 

VWI u 


# 








00079 

VWI 1 


* 








00080 


♦SUBROUTINES CALLED BY THE PROGRAM 


00081 


♦PATCHES TO ENABLE THE NEW FEATURES 


00082 


ft 








00083 


♦ 








00084 


♦ENABLE ALL INTERRUPTS SO THAT THE 


00085 


♦DISK DRIVE WILL SHUT 


OFF CORRECTLY 


00086 


♦AFTER 


TWO SECONDS OF 


NOT BEING USED 


00087 


INTRPT 


CLRB 




CLEAR B 


00088 




TFR 


B,DP 


CLEAR DP 


00089 

•r Mr mr mm t 




ANDCC 


10 


ENABLE INTERRUPTS 


00090 




RTS 




RETURN TO PROGRAM 


00091 


ft 








00092 


ft 








00093 


♦CLOSE 


FILES & RETURN 


TO PROGRAM 


00094 


CLOSE 


JSR 


ICA3B 


CLOSE FILES 


00095 




LBRA 


$1377 


RETURN TO PROGRAM 


00096 


ft 








00097 


ft 








00098 


♦ROUTINE TO ALLOW YOU 


TO ENTER A 


00099 


♦NAME FOR THE 


DISK FILE 


00100 


FNAME 


PSHS 


U 


SAVE U 


00101 




LEAX 


PROMPT, PCR "FILENAME?" 


00102 




LBSR 


$1221 


PRINT PROMPT 


00103 




LBSR 


$1EC6 


GET USER INPUT 


00104 




LDB 


<$12 


GET LENGTH OF INPUT 


00105 




LDX 


<$13 


GET ADDRESS OF INPUT 


00106 




PSHS 


DP 


SAVE DP 


00107 




CLRA 




CLEAR A 


00108 




TFR 


A, DP 


CLEAR DP 


00109 




LEAY 


BACK, PCR SAVE A RETURN 


00110 




PSHS 


Y 


ADDRESS ON STACK 


00111 




CLR 




LOWER STACK 


00112 




LDA 


$95A 


SET DEFAULT 


00113 




STA 


$EB 


DRIVE NUMBER 


00114 




LDY 


#$94C 


NAME STORAGE AREA 


00115 




LDA 


i$20 


ASCII SPACE 


00116 


ERASE 


STA 


,Y* 


ERASE FILENAME 


00117 




CMPY 


#$957 


STORAGE AREA 


00118 




BNE 


ERASE 




00119 




JMP 


$C8A4 


GO GET FILENAME 


00120 


BACK 


PULS 


DP 


RETRIEVE DP 


00121 




PULS 


U 


RETRIEVE U 


00122 




RTS 




RETURN TO PROGRAM 


00123 


PROMPT 


FCC 


♦FILENAME?* 


00124 




FCB 


$A0 


TERMINATOR 


00125 


ft 








00126 


ft 








00127 


♦ROUTINES TO OPEN A DISK FILE 


00128 


♦NOTE THAT THERE ARE SLIGHT DIFFERENCES 


00129 


♦FOR LOAD, WRITE, AND ASSEMBLE 


00130 

VV 1 wv 


LOAD 


LDA 


#$49 


U)NPUT MODE 


00131 




LDX 


I$1FF 


ASCII FORMAT 


00132 




BRA 


OPEN 


GO OPEN FILE 


00133 


WRITE 


LDA 


#$4F 


(OUTPUT MODE 


00134 




LDX 


I$1FF 


ASCII FORMAT 




NO W SHIPPING! 




*• -r ■ - 



COMPARE THESE FEA TURES! 

RS DISK COMPATIBLE — NO modification required 

64K Memory access circuit (for 32K Rev-E computer) — NO modification needed 
Parallel PI A port — Drives printer or I/O — leaves RS-232 available for modem, etc. 
Expansion port — selects up to 7 more peripheral cards 

Aluminum chassis — saves space — computer slides under — TV on top 

— Room for Expander Card and up to 4 peripheral cards. 

Additional I/O cards . . . available January 1983 

• CX-2010A Quad Parallel I/O Port (2 M6821 PIAs) $99.95 

• CX-2016A Speech Synthesizer (Votrax phoneme system) $129.95 

. . . more peripheral cards on the way! 

CX-2001 A EXPANDER CARD (REQUIRES CX-2401A) $139.95 

CX-2401 A EXTENSION RIBBON CABLE $29.95 

CX-3001 A ALUMINUM CHASSIS (IDEAL FOR STAND ALONE USE) $49.95 

CX-P1- INTRODUCTORY OFFER — PACK AGE PRICE $199.95 

PA RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX 
INCLUDE $3.50 FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING WITHIN THE CONTINENTAL U.S. ADD $1.50 FOR C.O.D. CHARGES. 

■ ■ 



kt - r JF . i> ,\ fl 




General Automation 
9600 Roosevelt Blvd«, Suite 1QO-LL 
x philadelphia 9 PA 19115 

(215) 934-3750 * 



Page 32 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



00135 


BRA 


OPEN 


GO OPEN FILE 


00164 


♦LIST OF ERROR CODES 


00136 ASSEH 


LDA 


l$4F 


(O)UTPUT MODE 


00165 


CODES FCB 


$38 DF 


00137 


LDX 


•$200 


BINARY FORMAT 


00166 


FCB 


$32 VF 


00138 OPEN 


STX 


$957 


STORE FORMAT 


00167 


FCB 


$34 NE 


00139 


LDX 


#$100 


RECORD LENGTH 


00168 


FCB 


$3C HP 


00140 


STX 


$97C 


IS 256 BYTES 


00169 


FCB 


$3E FN 


00141 


LDB 


#1 


USE DEVICE il 


00170 


FCB 


$2A FM 


00142 


JHP 


$C468 


GO OPEN FILE 


00171 


FCB 


$0 


00143 * 








00172 






00144 * 








00173 


* 




00145 *ALTER ERROR HANDLING ROUTINE TO 


00174 


♦LIST OF ERROR MESSAGES 


00146 'HANDLE NEW DISK RELATED ERRORS: 


00175 


ERRS FCC 


♦DISK FULL* 


00147 * DF VF NE WP FN FN 




00176 


FCB 


$A0 TERMINATOR 


00148 #IF NOT ONE OF THOSE, 


THE ERROR 


00177 


FCC 


♦VERIFICATION ERROR* 


00149 MS ASSUMED TO BE 10 




00178 


FCB 


$A0 TERMINATOR 


00150 ERR0R1 


EX6 


A,B 


CODE INTO. A 


00179 


FCC 


♦FILE NOT FOUND* 


00151 


CLRB 




CLEAR B 


00180 


FCB 


$A0 TERMINATOR 


00152 


LDX 


ICODES 


LIST OF ERRORS 


00181 


FCC 


♦WRITE PROTECT* 


00153 6ETERR 


CHPA 


B,X 


COMPARE CODES 


00182 


FCB 


$A0 TERMINATOR 


00154 


BEQ 


RET 


RETURN IF MATCH 


00183 


FCC 


♦BAD FILENAME* 


00155 


TST 


B,X 


SEE IF AT END 


00184 


FCB 


$A0 TERMINATOR 


00156 


BEQ 


RET 


RETURN IF SO 


00185 


FCC 


♦BAD FILE MODE* 


00157 


INCB 




GET NEXT CODE 


00186 


FCB 


$A0 TERMINATOR 


00158 


BRA 


6ETERR 


LOOP BACK 


00187 


FCC 


#1/0 ERROR* 


00159 RET 


RTS 




RETURN TO PROGRAM 


00188 


FCB 


$A0 TERMINATOR 


00160 ERR0R2 


LEAX 


ERRS,PCR MESSAGE TABLE 


00189 


END 


START 


00161 


LBRA 


$121E 


GO PRINT MESSAGE 









00162 
00163 



# 
# 



Including SEMI GRAPH I C-8 EDITOR 

+ UTILITIES 
—Disk and Tape utilities 
-Boot from disk or tape 
-Graphics and Sound commands 
—Printer commands 
-Auto— repeat and Control keys 
—Fast task multiplexing 
-Unique TRACE function in kernal 
-Clean INTERRUPT handling 

in HIGH-LEVEL FORTH 
-CPU CARRY FLAG accessible 
-Game of LIFE demo 

-ULTRA FAST: written in assembler 

-Directions included for 
installing optional ROM in 
disk controller or cartridge 

-Free Basic game "RATMAZE" 

FORTH 

Hoyt Stearns Electronics 

4131 E. CANNON DR. PHOENIX, ARIZONA 85028 

602-996-1 71 7 



Listing 2: 

1 'UTILITY TO TRANSFER EDTASM+ 

2 'TEXT FILES FROM TAPE TO DISK 

3 CLS 

4 PR I NT " EDT ASM+ SOURCE CODE" 

5 PR I NT "FILE TRANSFER UTILITY" 

6 PRINT STRING* (32, "=") 

7 CLEAR500 , 1 6308 : DEFUSR0= 16310 

8 FOR X=16310 TO 16318 

9 READ YIPOKE X,Y 

10 NEXT X 

11 DATA 173,159,160,4 

12 DATA 173,159,160,6 

13 DATA 57 

14 PR I NT "ENTER THE NAME OF THE" 

15 LINE INPUT "TAPE FILE: ";I* 

16 PRINT 

17 PR I NT "ENTER THE NAME OF THE" 

18 LINEINPUT"DISK FILE: " ; 0* 

19 AUDIO ON: OPEN" I ",#-1, I* 

20 OPEN"0", #1,0*: GOTO 22 

21 X=USR(0) : MOTOR OFF 

22 IF PEEK(129)>0 THEN 29 

23 IF PEEK (124) =255 THEN 30 

24 X*=CHR* (0) : X=VARPTR (X*> 

25 POKE X, PEEK (125) 

26 POKE X+2, l:POKE X+3,218 

27 print x*; :print#i, x*; 

28 GOTO 21 

29 PRINT"?IO ERROR": GOTO 31 

30 PR I NT "TRANSFER COMPLETE" 

31 CLOSE: END 



Mario jumps into action on the Color Computer! Rolling barrels, ramps, 
ladders, and killer flames must be avoided in order to save the young lady 
from the monkey's grasp. So true to life, you'll try to insert quarters. How 
high can you go? 




MONKEY KONG Color Computer 1 6K cassette $24.95 

Please add $2.00 for shipping and handling 




RAINBOW 

C£RTIf tCATtO* 
SCAL 



Med Systems Software • P.O. Box 3558 • Chapel Hill. NC 27514 

TO ORDER. CALL: I 800 334 5470 



Page 34 




the RAINBOW 



Seaso na] Graphic. 

You'll Log This Program 
For Holiday Merriment 




By Peter Stumpf 

Get ready for the holiday season with this fireplace 
complete with a glowing flame and stockings hung with 
care. The fire flickers brightly without dangerous sparks. 
And, no logs to cut or ashes to clean. ..there is even a little 
music for your enjoyment! 

The listing: 

1 REM ******************* 

2 REM * CHRISTMAS SCENE * 

3 REM ******************* 

4 REM * BY PETER STUMPF * 

5 REM * 1508 APPALOOSA * 

6 REM * MC HENRY, IL * 

7 REM * 60050 * 

8 REM ******************* 



December, 1982 

10 PM0DE4, 1 : PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 1 
12 PM0DE3 

19 REM *** DRAW CHIMNEY *** 

20 LINE <78, 120) - < 178, 192) , PSET, B 
25 DRAW " BM208 , 1 9 1 U 1 0 1 L25L 1 4U72L8 
0 

30 DRAW " BM48 , 1 9 1 U 1 0 1 R30R 1 0U72 

31 PAINT < 100, 20) ,2,4 

32 PAINT < 1, 1), 3, 4: PAINT < 178, 1) ,3 
,4 

33 REM *** DRAW BRICKS ON *** 

34 REM *** LOWER CHIMNEY *** 

35 FOR X=186 TO 120 STEP-6 
40 LINE<48,X)-(78,X),PSET 
45 NEXTX 

50 FOR X=186 TO 120 STEP-6 
55 LINE ( 178, X ) - <208, X) , PSET 
60 NEXT 

63 REM *** DRAW BRICKS ON 

64 REM *** MIDDLE CHIMNEY 

65 FOR X=120 TO 86 STEP-6 
70 LINE<48,X)-<208,X) , PSET 
75 NEXT 

80 FOR X=120 TO 18 STEP-6 
85 LINE<88,X)-<166,X) , PSET 
90 NEXT 

155 LINE<59, 191)-<59,91) , 
160 LINE<68, 191)-<68,91) ,PSET 
165 FOR X=78 TO 203 STEP 10 



*** 
*** 



SOUTHERN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

Presenting . . . THE GRAPH ZAPPER 

Get serious with your 80-C, 
THE GRAPH ZAPPER makes plotting graphs on your 80-C a breeze 

• High resolution graphs with on screen numbers and labels. 

• Plots data such as electric use, stock prices, weight loss, gasoline uses, 
baby's growth, jogging distance. 

• Also plots equations that you supply (remember your old math class?) 

• Multiple lines on one graph - mix equations and data. 

• Save data for later graphing or editing. 

• Sophisticated data editor makes changing data simple. 

• Disk version has added features including storing completed graphs 
on disk and menu driven file loading. 

• Hard copies possible with common screen print programs - not supplied. 

• Low resolution graphs can't compare. 

• More than 1 5 pages of clear explanation of all features. 

• Both versions require Ext. Color Basic, and are delivered on cassette. 

• 14 day money back guarantee. 



$15.95 



$19.95 



for 16K tape version 

Add $1.00 for Shipping 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

SOUTHERN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 



for 32K disk version 
► Send Check or Money Order 

SOUTHERN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

485South Tropical Trail, Suite 109 • Merritt Island, Florida32952 • (305)452-2217 




J 



HOMEBASE™ 

THE 
COMPLETE 
TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER 

DATABASE 



December, 1 982 



170 LINE<X, 120)-<X,91),PSET 
175 NEXT 

180 LINE (189, 120) -(189, 191) ,PSET 
185 LINE (199, 120) -(199, 191) ,PSET 
190 FOR X-98 TO 163 STEP 10 
195 LINE(X,91)-(X, 18) ,PSET 
200 NEXT 

204 REM *** DRAW STOCKINGS *** 

205 DRAW "S2BM110, 1 20D25G 1 5L 1 0H4U 
4E4R6E6U22R12" : PAINT ( 109, 125) , 6, 
4 

210 DRAW "S2BM138, 1 20D25G 1 5L 1 0H4U 
4E4R6E6U22R 1 2 " : P A I NT ( 1 37 , 1 25 ) , 4 , 
4 

215 DRAW " S2BM165, 1 20D25G 1 5L 1 0H4U 
4E4R6E6U22R12": PAINT (163, 122) ,3, 
4 

216 GOTO 275 

219 REM *** DRAW LOG HOLDER *** 

220 DRAW " S4BM98 , 182L4D8R4U8R60D8 
R4U8L4R4E8L 1 G7L67H7R 1 F8 

223 REM *** PLAY * JOLLY OLD *** 

224 REM *** 'ST. NICHOLAS' *** 

225 V 1 ♦= " T303L4AAAAGGL2GL4FFFFL 1 
A" 

230 V2*= " L4DDDDCFL2FL4GFG A " 
235 PLAYV1*+V2*+ ,, L1G" 
240 PLAYV1*+V2*+"L1F" 

244 REM *** DRAW FLAME *** 

245 C0L0R6 : DR A W" S6BM 1 07 , 1 7 1 E6F4E 
4F7E4F6D2L33U5" : PAINT ( 108, 171 ), 6 
,6 

249 REM *** ERASE FLAME *** 

250 C0L0R5: LINE (101, 150) -(160, 18 
0) ,PSET,BF 

254 REM *** DRAW 2ND FLAME *** 

255 C0L0R6 : DRAW " S6BM 1 07 , 1 7 1 E3F4E 
7F5E5F8D2L33U5E2" : PAINT ( 108, 171 ) 
,6,6 

259 REM *** ERASE 2ND FLAME *** 

260 COLOR5:LINE(105,150)-(160,17 
6) ,PSET,BF 

265 GOTO 245 

269 REM *** DRAW THE WORDS *** 

270 REM *** MERRY CHRISTMAS *** 
275 CLEAR 2000 

280 SPACE»="BM+7,0" 

285 A*= " U4 ; E2 ; F2 ; D2 ; NL4 ; D2 ; BM+3 , 

0" 

290 c*= m bm+i , -0; Hi ; U4; El ; R2; Fi ; B 

M+0, +4; Gl ; L2; BM+6, 0" 

295 E*= " NR4 ; U3;NR2; U3; R4; BM+3 , +6 



II 



300 H*= 11 U3 ; NU3 ; R4 ; NU3 ; D3 ; BM+3 , +0 



II 



305 I*="BM+1 , 0; R1NR1U6NL1R1 ; BM+4 

310 M*= " U6 ; F2ND 1 E2D6 ; BM+3 , 0 " 
315 R*="U6; R3; Fl; D1G1L2; NL1 ; F3; B 
M+3,0" 



HOMEBASE™ PROVIDES WORD PROCESSING, DATA- 
BASE MANAGEMENT, AND SPREAD SHEET CALCULA- 
TIONS, IN ONE EASY TO USE PACKAGE. SOME OF THE 
MANYUSEFUL APPLICATIONS OF HOMEBASE™ INCLUDE: 

• Check book management • Ledgers • Grocery lists • 
Shopping lists • Article indexing • Recipes • Disk directories 

• Notes • Memos • Letters • Phone lists • Customer lists • 
Business contact lists • Appointments • Mailing lists • Home 
inventory • Car maintenance scheduling • Income tax prepa- 
ration • Address lists • Charts • Newsletters • Athletic team 
records • Form letters • 

WORD PROCESSING FEATURES INCLUDE: 

— DEFINE 250 screens of text you can search, sort, display, 
■>i print using names you assign or using any word or 

p 1 1 1 ase 

— EDIT text by duplicating, moving, clearing, searching and 
replacing, deleting, or reordering entire records of text or 
any word or phrase. 

— FORMAT labels, memos, letters, and other documents for 
printing with embeded printer controls for paging, skip- 
ping lines, and changing character fonts. Program con- 
trols provide setting; right and left margins, lines perpage, 
page width, horizontal tabs, and line spacing. 

DATA MANAGEMENT FEATURES INCLUDE: * 

— DEFINE 50 data fields, including a comment field, in a 
single record. Dates, time of day, phone numbers and dol- 
lar amounts are automatically formatted. You may also 
define 24 scratchpad data fields. 

— REORGANIZE records by moving data fields within re- 
cords or by moving records within the file. You may sort 
records using names you assign or data. 

— MANAGE files by searching, deleting, clearing, duplicat- 
ing, and displaying any data field or record. Add, subtract, 
multiply, divide, or summarize any data field. Use any 
command on any selected group of data fields and/or 
records. 

— PRINT files using automatic formatting with options to 
print report titles, a report date, page numbers, record 
names, and data field names. Print all or selected data 
fields or records. Use standard or compressed print. Use a 
special print option to print the comment field as a mailing 
label. 

UTILITIES FOR WORD PROCESSING AND DATA MAN- 
AGEMENT INCLUDE: 

• Generating new files from old files • Merging files • Dup- 
licating files • Moving data between files • Summarizing files 

• Moving files from diskette to diskette using one drive • 
Saving files to cassette and reloading from casette • File 
synchronizing • Print disk directory • 

HOMEBASE™ IS EASY TO USE: 

— NO PROGRAMMING REQUIRED. All options are dis- 
played in menus. HOMEBASE™ automatically requests all 
required data and edits every entry. 

— All commands are single key stroke. 

— FULL screen editing for text entry. 

— Complete cursor control for entering names, titles, notes, 
and comments. 

— 100 pages of instructions with complete descriptions of 
each command, and examples. 

— Requires 32K of memory, disk basic and only one disk 
drive. NO equipment modifications required. 

— All programs reside entirely in memory. 

— Fast response to all commands including search and sort. 

ORDER TOLL FREE 

Creditcard holders call toll free: 800-334-0854 extension 887 
In North Carolina Call 800-672-0101 extension 887 

or send a check or money order for $75.00 plus $5.00 
for handling charges to: 
HOMEBASE™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
P.O. Box 3448 
Durham, N. C. 27702 
N.C. residents add 4% for sales tax. Allow 1 to 3 weeks for delivery. 

HOMEBASE'" is a trademark of HOMEBASE'" COMPUTER SYSTEMS, 
a subsidiary of Small Business Systems, Durham, N.C. (919) 544-5408 
'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Radio Shack Inc 



Page 36 

320 S*="Bh+0,-l;FlR2ElUlHlL2HlUl 
ElR2Fl;BM+3,+5" 

325 T*= " Bh+2 , +0; U6; NL2; R2» BM+3 , 6 

II 

330 Y*= n BM+0 , -6 ; D2F2ND2E2U2 ; BM+3 

335 DRAW " BM25 , 1 5S8 " : DRAWM*+E*+R 

$+r*+Y*+SPACE* 

340 DRAWC*+H*+R*+I*+S* 

345 DRAWT*+M*+A*+S* 

350 GOTO 219 rfgfc 



Software Review... 

H.E.M. Can Give You 
An Expense "Handle" 

Is chewing gum food? Or, is it "entertainment?" And, how 
about alcohol? Do David and I really spend $200 a month 
on lunch? And, did we eat more in February than March, or 
did wejustpay morefor thefood weate? Do you mean to tell 
me that so far this year we have spend more on expenses for 
our TDP-100 than we have on groceries? I seem to be getting 
more questions than answers as I review Household 
Expense Manager and try to get a "handle" on our 
household budget. 

My friends tell me I am quite organized and I've always 
more or less agreed with them. I mean, I do have a place for 
everything and like to keep everything in its place. My 
recipes are all on index cards and kept in a neat file. Our 
entire collection of record albums is in alphabetical order. I 
can place my hands on any book we own in a matter of 
seconds. I have every warranty and instruction sheet for 
every item we have purhcased in 14 years of marriage, and 
our basement is even orderly. So, how come I have only a 
wild guess about how much money the two of us spend on 
entertainment each month? 

Household Expense Manager is a set of programs 
designed for creating and maintaining a data file of 30 
household expense categories. It was handed to me to review 
because certain people identified me as a "nautural" since I 
happen to pay for just about everything by check and do 
take pride in exercising a degree of control over my life. This 
review may just blow my image. 

The most significant realization I have come to from 
running H.E.M. is that I have to admit that I simply don't 
know how much we do spend on certain budget items. A 
friend of mine snickered when I entered $40 for lunch for a 
month for both David and myself — we both work. He 
pointed out that we must live on bread and water — and day- 
old bread at that. A bit of mental calculation told me that 
perhaps $200 rather than $40 would be more like it. When I 
put down $15 a month for gasoline and oil, he laughed out 
loud. Again, I came to a radically different sum when I 
acutally was forced into thinking about it. 

There's no doubt about it; H.E.M. makes you think. I 
found the "year to date" and "month to date" options most 
useful, because, if you really sit down and earnestly try to 
acount for where your money has gone, you do learn 
something. After listing as much as I could in every 
category, I saved the data file to tape, erased the "ENTRY" 
subroutine and loaded "LIST." 

With "LIST," I reviewed my totals for the various entries 
and also made montly and yearly printouts. A printer is not 
absolutely necessary, but it sure makes things more orderly. 



December, 1982 

It made me feel a lot more in control to have the itemization 
down on paper. Lastly, I loaded up "ANALYSIS" to see 
what it would do for, or do to, me. 

"ANALYSIS" is a comparison program. For instance, 
with this subroutine, you can compare June's expenses with 
October's and the program runs a colorful bar graph 
indicating the expense ratio. While this is a very impressive 
bit of graphic display, I found that it brought more 
questions to my mind than it did answers. Why is the 
telephone bill twice as much in October as it is in June? Is 
there a pattern or cycle to our telephone expenses? With 
H.E.M. , you can find out things like that. The best thing is 
that H.E.M. gives you a place to start and a plan of action to 
bring your household budget into some kind of respectable 
shape. You still have to dig out all the receipts, old checks 
and such yourself, but you just key in the amounts and 
H.E.M. keeps a running total. 

Household Expense Manager also asks you on certain 
entries if a portion of it is tax deductible and keeps a separate 
subtotal of tax deductible items, but I found that the 
breakdown was not really specific enough to be of much 
value in preparing tax returns. However, the documentation 
points out that H.E.M. is user modifiable, so I guess you 
could modify this portion to suit your own individual needs. 
I found it rather easy to simply replace some of the 
categories that were of little concern to me with budget items 
that we, ourselves, spend a sizable chunk of money on. 

A new one I added, for instance, was "computer 
expenses." I also considered "magazines," a passion of 
David's, and "record albums," a passion of my own. I also 
reconsidered some of my own considerations. For instance, 
when I suggested that "David's paperback books" be a 
separate itemization, he countered with "cat food, toys and 
supplies." If there's a breakout of "shop tools," does that 
entail keeping a close watch on "kitchen appliances?" 
Clearly, things could get sticky if we decided to carry things 
too far. 

A separate subroutine provided in Household Expense 
Manager really is an "other than household expense" 
program. "EXPACCT" provides a means for keeping a 
cassette diary of travel expenses, not than I plan to pack my 
TDP-100 along with me when I go out of town. But, again, it 
does help you organize your travel expenses and even 
subtracts your expenses from your travel advance, in the 
case of business trips, and tells you whether the company 
owes you, or you have to spend more to eat up your advance. 

The best feature of "EXPACCT" is that you can search 
your data files based on cross-reference criteria. That is, if 
you can't remember off the top of your head the date of your 
trip to the Windy City, you can simply key in "Chicago"and 
search the files by city name rather than date. If you spent a 
night at some unmemorable wide place in the road in the 
boonies, and can't remember the date or the location, you 
can search the files by the name of the hotel. If you can't 
recall any of the above, you can still find your data file by 
keying in the purpose of the trip. And, if you still need help, 
well, chances are it is neither reimbursable nor deductible, 
anyway. 

Loading subroutines and saving data files can be quite 
tedious if you're trying to assemble a lot of data and you 
begin to see the value of a disk drive when using H.E.M. if 
you're among those of us who use a cassette recorder. 

Generally, however, I found Household Expense 
Manager to be a helpful program that is easy to operate, one 
that can show you where your money's going and — if the 
shoe fits — where you may be "blowing it." 

(Color Software Services, P.O. Box 1708, Dept. R, 
Greenville, TX 75401, 16K Ext. BASIC, $19.95.) 

— Jenni Khaliel 



The UAINBUW 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 37 



Let's Take 
"Basic" Training 

By Joseph Kolar 

This is the first in a series of articles by Joseph Kolar 
which will be devoted entirely to the beginning computerist. 
Mr. Kolar s compassion for the bewildered beginner is 
expressed in the most earnest and understandable of terms, 
and we feel that if the novice will follow his suggestions and 
advice closely, that day when computing becomes more fun 
than frustration will #frive*%k [ the sooner. 

In the beginning tnffrsfjS&s nothing... .Then there was the 
TRS-80 Color Computer. .■: And then came the newcomer to 
computing. »t 

The purpose of this succeeding articles is to give aid 
and comfort to the be^iijfieOn getting over the rough spots. 
It is one thing to give a person a color computer and the 
"getting started ^ith^eolw-^^p'' manual and wishing him 
luck. Learning ttj^mbute should be a fun thing. 

The newcomer tr/ajtf)putirjg knows that there are certain 
acts of omission and commission in the manual. He senses 
the need for a magazine, such as the Rainbow, to fill in the 
gray areas. This has its limitations. He finds it difficult to 
fathom microcomputer terminology and the attendent 
jargon. 

His requirements are simple: 

"Give me information that I can use, in convenient bites 
and use language that I understand. Be sensitive to my 
bewilderment, and don't overwhelm me or ignore me. 
Above all, let me have fun while I learn. " 

We will not burden him with difficult concepts and 



machine language. We will give help and suggestions, in 
small increments. We will seem to insult his intelligence by 
explaining things in detail. 

The pep talk is over! You have the color computer and 
manual. Fingers are itchy. You are ready to begin. Well, not 
quite! 

The beginner.... You, hereafter, would be well advised to 
organize your work station<-¥ou will save confusion and 
time. Here is an inexpensive,, yet compact set-up: Set up a 
card table. Place your c^pRSfegLOgJt in front of the TV. On 
one side of the compuOT^o'cattj^your cassette recorder. 
Right in back of it, positia^plMK container and fill it with 
a number of pens and^rai^iftV In back of the pencil 
container, keep your stockif fypir^paper, and usable scrap 
paper. Next, at the ot^rswk^ ^i^n\puter , keep lessons, 
magazines and proemp^ voi a^e 'currently copying or 
consulting. In back/9rJl|iis^/ea/^eep a revolving cassette 
holder to store your tapes in a compact, yet accessible area. 



If your TV has a flat top, you can place a plastic, 3 by 5 
note paper dispenser on it. You can use the top of your 
computer for note-taking. A folded piece of typewriting 
paper fits very conveniently between the vents. Keep in mind 
that the air vents are not decorations. Repeat after me, 
"Never cover the air vents." Speaking of never, never drink 
or allow anyone to drink or place beverages in your work 
area. That is a no, no! 

A question! Do you find that your manual flops around 
and is unwieldy and awkward to use? Do you balance it in 
your lap or lay it on the computer and watch the pages 
maddeningly flip over, losing your place? Sure, you have! 
There is a solution that will make Radio Shack richer by 




YOU'VE WANTED ft 
IN A COMPUTER F 
AND MORE 






TDP SYSTEM IOO 

A COMPLETE SYSTEM READY TO PLUG INTO YOUR COLOR T.V. SET 



Features: 

• 16K Memory 

• Expandable to 32K at any TDP Service Center 
Nationwide; and to 32/64K through Southco, 
the Georgia Distributor 

• Designer Cosmetics in White and Black 
High Impact Case 

• Raised Keyboard with Gold Contacts 
to Withstand Constant Use 

• Standard Basic Built— in (Microsoft) 

• RS232 Interface Device Built-in 
(Permits hook up with printer or telephone 
modem without purchase of the RS232, a $200.00 
extra charge on most computers.) 

• RF Interface for Direct Hook Up to any TV Built— in 

• Vast Source of High Resolution Arcade Color Games 

• Inexpensive Telewriter Word Processing 
Applications Available 

• Programming Manual (s) Included at No Charge 

• Bust Out Game Pak Included at No Charge 

• Joy Sticks Included at No Charge 



MODEL 10-1000 




suggested retail 

ONLY $379 



■ 



vrSOUTHCO 

w> SALES CORPORATION 



Dealer Enquiries for Complete Information Call or Write: 
Tommy Thompson or Roy Green (404) 355-2960 
1500 Marietta Blvd. IM.W. Atlanta,Georgia 30318 



Page 38 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



$5.95. Invest in a duplicate manual. Keep the original for 
reference. Cut out the pages from the second manual, by 
chapters. Place them between the vents of the computer. It is 
a nifty place, from where you can conveniently key in the 
programs and follow the lessons presented in the manual. 
After you master each lesson, chuck the chapter in the trash 
can. It is a good trade-off and small price to pay for the 
convenience it will afford. 

In learning to compute and program, typing is the name 
of the game. Nothing happens unless you tickle the keys on 
the keyboard. If you know how to type, good. If you hunt 
and peck, good. It is not important how you hit the keys but 
that you do hit them. 

If you can't type, try this. Place your fingers on the ASDF 
and JKL; keys. Drop your palms to rest on the edge of the 
computer. Keeping your palms in place (resting on the 
computer), lift your fingers. This is your typing position. 
Using any finger you desire, while keeping your palms in 
place, press the keys that spell your name. If you try to use all 
your fingers, you will find that you can do a pretty good job. 
You didn't know you could type did you? 



If hunt and peck is your cup of tea, so be it. Any system 
you use is fine, and speed, though not a requirement, comes 
with practice. 

But, you have to type. Boy, do you have to type! Practice 
typing programs and text and do whatever exercises the 
manual demands. Always type a program rather than cload 
a tape. On the face of it, typing seems to be an unpleasant 
chore. As you progress, you will find it easier and easier. So 



PARENTS & TEACHERS 

of children ages 3to 8 
Software written by School Director to utilize computer 
as an aid in teaching Early Childhood Concepts. Puts 
fun & excitement into learning. 

Requires 16K ext. basic & Joysticks. 

COMPUTER LITERACY $14.95 

Introduces computer age terms & concepts to parents & teachers. Audio/visual. 

CREATE $9.95 

Useof colors & sounds fascinates all ages. Uses Joysticksto DRAW. 

HAND/EYE COORDINATION $14.95 

Guide spaceship thru maze. 13 learning levels. Challenge t»all ages. 

RECOGNITION $14.95 

Child iearnsto recognize "like" figures. 2 separate games. Many learning levels. 

LLJ,BBBBBBI l-lBBBrX-«--lBlpb* + lllP# + "-l"PP"-""-"""""^*""""-"-'""'-*"""""""""»""""'"""""' - 

Following Programs USE VOICE RECORDED 
EXPLANATIONS & GAMES IN FUN & EXCITING WAY: 

PERCEPTION $14.95 

Teaches antonyms, i.e. left/right, first/last, etc. 

NUMBER CONCEPTS $14.95 

Teaches meaning of numbers. 

ADDITION CONCEPTS $14.95 

Teaches basic arithmetic skills. 

20% discount for 3 or more programs; $75 for all 7 programs. 

Send Certified Check or money order for immediate delivery; otherwise 

2 weeks. 



PROGRAMS BY MR. BOB 

P.O.BOX94 
MONTROSE, CA 91020 



RAINBOW 



what if you make mistakes? Join the crowd! You can always 
correct mistakes. 

Be on the lookout for boo-boos you habitually make. For 
instance, you might strike an R instead of a 4; a C instead of 
an X; an S instead of a $; confuse an I for a 1 and an O for a 0 
or vise versa; weakly strike a key and not depress it. See what 
I mean? Check your typing and note the errors you are prone 
to make. When you run a program you typed in, and it 
doesn't work properly, look for the errors that are your 
specialty. 

Programs are very demanding. You must type or key 
them in exactly as they appear right down to the most trivial 
punctuation mark. Keep in mind that every character, 
symbol or punctuation mark is an integral part of the 
program. Leave out so much as a comma, and you will be 
sorry! 



There are three good reasons to practice typing. First, you 
will become proficient, and typing won't be an ordeal when 
you are faced with keying in a long program. When you are 
creating your own programs, you won't lose your train of 
thought. 

Secondly, as you type lines in a program, you will see 
many familiar lines. You will remember their significance 
and they will help you to understand other lines. You will 
find yourself "thinking programming" as you copy the lines. 

Finally, certain combinations of letters and words have 
patterns that your fingers follow. For example: A$="X." 
You will always have the pattern, (shift and press $ with the 
left hand; shift and strike = with the right hand; shift and 
strike " with the left hand; and later shift and strike " with the 
left hand again). That is a hand movement pattern you will 
use thousands of times. Try RND(X) or CHR$(128) and 
you will get different patterns. But, patterns you will repeat 
ad nauseam. Become familiar with these fingering patterns 
and you will execute them automatically and correctly after 
a while. 



Improvise a type easel on which to hold the Rainbow and 
other material to be copied or studied. 

You can purchase the Radio Shack typing easal for 
$15.95. The drawback is that it consumes valuable desk 
workspace. It must, by its nature, be folded up and placed 
elsewhere when space is at a premium, creating clutter. 
Making clutter is not good planning. 

There is an alternative. Put your creative instincts to 
work. Assume that you have a cassette recorder that is 
configured like the Radio Shack CRT-80A. Suppose you 
invested $1 .99 and bought a desk-top calculator stand with 
an adjustable angle. Could you set the stand to the sharpest 
angle? Could you attach the recorder on top of it (centered, 
of course), with a large rubber band just above the row of 
labeled commands? Is it easier to monitor the counter 
without straining or shifting about? 



Suppose you extended the carrying handle and clipped an 
ordinary household, spring-loaded clothespin 
approximately in the middle of the extended handle. If you 
picked out a Rainbow article you wanted to study or copy, 
creased it firmly and placed it on top of the recorder butting 
against the clothespin, would you have a typing easel? 

There is a slight trade-off. The calculator stand partially 
covers the air vents underneath the recorder. But, minimal 
use in csaving and cloading takes, precludes overheating. It 
is fairly stable. For the accident prone, add a block of wood 
or some object under the recorder so it will not tip over. (I 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 39 



use that area as a home for a pocket dictionary.) 

Use your native ingenuity to solve this problem. Need I 
add that wood-butchers among you will have no problem in 
building a suitable stand? Caution! Leave an open area to 
accommodate the air vents. 

When cloading or csaving to tape, you can drop the 
plastic cassette box in the space created by the extended 
carrying arm. The box will be readily accessible in a safe 
place. Clip the clothespin on the right side of the handle or 
on the rim of your plastic pencil holder. 



You have just created (ah, beautiful word) a dual-purpose 
tool and conserved precious desk space. Now, if you had a 
desk lamp in back of the cassette.... 

You may wonder why so much time is being spent yaking 
about typing skills. It is such an essential part of your study 
that it is better to get very friendly with the keyboard now, so 
that later, you can have fun and devote your time and effort 
to programming. 

Do yourself a favor and keep notes on anything you find 
of interest. Keep track of mistakes you commonly make; 
things you find difficulty in understanding; paraphrase 
things you want to remember and write them down. In the 
next article, we will discuss organizing your notebooks. So, 
gather notes and have them ready. 

A f ew random thoughts. Buy an inexpensive pair of metal 
book-ends to store your magazines. 

Never, never throw away your old copies of the Rainbow. 
In fact, make it a point to get the back issues. They contain a 
wealth of information that you will want to have at your 
disposal. As your progress, you will be dipping into these 
invaluable reference materials. In the meantime, get squared 
away and have fun. Remember, we are on your side! 



Hardware Review... 

CoCo Cooler Will A ir 
Out Your Hot Chips 

The one problem that we seem to hearthe most about as 
far as the Color Computer is concerned, hardware-wise, is a 
problem with heat buildup inside the case. Usually traced to 
the SAM chip, high heat can cause all sorts of problems- 
usually just when you don't want them. 

Enter Co Co Cooler, a simple little device that really isn't 
as simple as it appears. It is a fan setup that you can easily 
(yes, really easily) install inside the 80C's case and keep 
things, hey, I mean, you know, cool. 

CoCo Cooler is a small fan attached to the top of the RF 
shield that covers the chips inside the case. You simply pry 
off the old RF shield cover, snap on the one with the CoCo 
Cooler, attach a (supplied) electric wire and you are in 
business. 

Why the electric wire? Well, first of all, there is no way to 
get a plug through the air holes in CoCo's case, so you have 
to do that yourself. Second of all, connecting CoCo Cooler 
to an internal power supply would have required more 
soldering and would have drained the internal power. 

The instructions were simple (fumblefingers Falk did it 
with ease); the results gratifying. And, while we wish it had 
come with an on/ off switch, an online switch can be easily 
purchased at any Radio Shack store and added in a minute 
or two. For those with a power strip, a switch isn't needed. 

Best of all, CoCo Cooler keeps things cool. Our oldest 
80C had some heating problems, but no more. Not 
withCoCo Cooler CoCo Cooling away. 

(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86 Drive, Woodhaven NY 
11421, $49.95 plus $2 s/h) 



23 



STRICTLY 

■LOR 
iFTWARE 




P.O. BOX 382 
WEST POINT, PA 1 9486 



THE WAIT IS OVER! 

Do you envy the wall of wargames for the Bleep Computer? 
Are your fingers tired from twiddling a joystick? 
Do you wish you could exercise your mind? 

You need MISSIONrEMPIRE 



MISSION:EMPIRE! for disk or cassette $19.95* 

A strategic wargame. Starting with one planet, incomplete intelligence and limited 
resources, you must conquer the rest of your galaxy. The game takes 2-5 hours and is 
DIFFERENT EVERY TIME! Both versions offer the option of saving a game in progress. 

Send check, money order or MasterCard/Visa number (including expiration date and SIGN order). 
Specify disk or cassette version. Both are shipped on cassette (to get the program on disk add 
$3.00). Price includes shipping. PA residents include 6% sales tax. 

* Requires Color Computer (®Tandy Corp.) with 32K, Extended Basic and cassette or disk. 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAl 



Page 40 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



w 



.*•..<: * 



a* 



(C) 1982 

32K Machine Language 

$24.95 TAPE 
$27.95 DISK 



ARCADE 
ACTION 

This game con- 
tains all 4 screens 
like the popular ar- 
cade game. The 
actual screen 
photos shown are 
only 2 of the four 
contained in this 
program. 

Actual T.V. 
Screen 
Photos. 



How high can you climb? 
Plays like the popular 
arcade game! 

full graphic screens. 
Exciting sound and realistic 
graphics. Never before has 
the color computer seen a 
game like this. 
Early reviews say simply 
outstanding. 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

For The Color Computer and The TDP-100 
3424 College, N.E., Grand Rapids, Ml 49505 • (616)364-4791 



Add $1.00 Postage & Handling • Top Royalties Paid 
Michigan Residents Add 4% Sales Tax • Looking For New Software 




December, 1 982 the RAINBOW 




Using Graphics . , 



High Resolution Graphics 
Techniques Are Explained 



By Don Inman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 




This is the third article of a series on the graphic 
capabilities of the TRS-80 Color Computer. Last month, 
we investigated the technique of "turning"pages in PMODE 
O AND PMODE 1. In those modes, several pages can be 
used to hold static graphic displays. You can then alternate 
the page(s) displayed to simulate motion. We will move up 
to higher resolution this month. Higher resolution requires 
more graphic pages to fill the screen than lower resolution. 
Therefore, we must change our method to achieve apparent 
motion. 

PMODE 4 

The highest resolution is obtained in PMODE 4. Four 
pages of graphic memory are needed to fill the video display. 
Therefore, we have only two full screens to work with. 



face of the die. All you really see is a square. 



" tm 



page 1 

niiii I 

page 2 



page 3 


page 4 



and 



page 5 

I ll ■ II Pit M ■ »I4 

page 6 



page 7 
■■ " 

page 8 



Imimm ■ w. *« 



Since we have only two screens, we can't create much 
animation by the technique used previously. However, by 
using the SCREEN statement, we can control the pages 
being displayed. We can draw on one set of screens while the 
others are being displayed. If the figures drawn are simple, 
the time used to display one set of pages will be adequate to 
provide relatively smooth movement. 

Planning Your Moves 

The secret of creating sophisticated graphic programs lies 
in one basic fact. Complex programs are just a combination 
of a series of short, simple modules. When put together, 
simple graphic modules form a powerful tool to enhance 
what might otherwise be a dull program. Don't try to create 
a masterpiece in one giant step. You can achieve your goal 
much quicker by using a series of short, well thought out 
steps. 

The first step in planning the graphics portion of a 
program is a rough sketch of what you want to display. I use 
a pad of quarter-inch quadrille paper and go through many 
sketches before 1 think about writing a program. We'll 
demonstrate this approach in developing the first program 
of this article. 

Think of a pair of dice rolling across a gaming table. Now, 
simplify what you see. Imagine you are looking straight on 
and see only the face of the dice. Let's go even farther and 
only consider one die. Don't even consider the spots on the 



the faceless die 



Now, imagine this one, faceless die rolling across the table. 
Although the die moves in a continuous manner, think of 
just the simplest positions that it will pass through. Draw 
one complete revolution, keeping one reference point on the 
die in mind. Figure 1 shows what I came up with. 



Figure 1 — Die Roll 

3 4 5 6 7 



8 



□OnOdOnOn 

Sit back and take a good look at Figure 4. Ignoring the 
reference point, 1 see only two basic positions. 



and 




This looks like the basis for a crude animation. It may be too 
simple for your final die roll simulation, but it is a start. 
Since there are only two positions, we can draw one position 
on each set of four pages. The program will then become a 
series of draw, display, erase, move and redraw instructions. 
The basic die roll will involve these steps. 

1. DRAW □ on pages 1-4 at the left side of the screen. 

2. Display pages 1-4 and DRAW <Q> on 5-8 at a new 
position. 

3. Display pages 5-8 and DRAW □ on 1-4 at a new 
position. 

4. Display pages 1-4 and DRAW <> on 5-8 at a new 
position. 

Repeat until the right side of the screen is reached, 

The Color Computer has all the necessary statements to 
draw the die. 



For the first position 



(XI, Yl) 

DRAW "BM XI, Yl,; U20 R20 D20 L20" 
For the second position 




(X2,Y2) 

DRAW "BM X2, Y2; H14 E14 F14 G14" 

Next, we must consider the X, Y cordinates needed to 
make a smooth movement across the screen from left to 



I 



SPELL *N FIX 

Finally Available for the Color Computer! 

Now produce goof-proof text on your Color Computer by letting SPELL 'N FIX find and correct your spelling and 
typing mistakes. Used since 1981 on larger 6800 and 6809 systems, SPELL 'N FIX is now available for your Color 
Computer too. 

* Checks your text against a 20,000 word dictionary and finds your spelling and typing errors. 

* Displays all questionable words, or prints them on your printer for later action. 

* Even corrects errors in your text. Wrong words can be highlighted or changed to their correct spelling. 

* Fast and accurate — reads text faster than you can, spots and corrects errors even experienced 
proofreaders miss. 

* Dictionary can be expanded and customized — technical and even foreign words are easily added. 

* Available for the Radio Shack disc, cassette, or Flex disk operating system. 

* Compatible with all Color Computer Text Processors, including TeleWriter! 

SPELL 'N FIX is available off-the-shelf right NOW, and costs $69.29 in the Radio Shack disk or cassette versions 
(32K RAM required!); $89.29 in the Flex version. (Other versions, including Percom DOS, SSB DOS, and OS-9 
versions also available — contact us.) 

HUMBUG 

Now in a Color Computer Version 

HUMBUG is the famous SUPER MONITOR for 6800 and 6809 systems — you can now use it on your Color 
Computer too. 

HUMBUG is a complete machine language monitor and debugging system which allows access to the full power of 
the 6809E processor in the computer. HUMBUG lets you 

* Input programs and data into memory. 

* Output and list memory contents in various formats. 

* Insert multiple breakpoints into programs. 

* Single-step through machine language programs. 

* Test, checksum, and compare memory contents. 

* Find data in memory. 

* Start and stop programs. 

* Upload and download from bigger systems, save to tape. 

* Connect the Color Computer to a terminal, printer, or remote computer. 

* Learn how the Color Computer works by studying the listing of HUMBUG in the complete manual. 

HUMBUG is available right NOW on disk or cassette for $39.95 for 16K or 32K Color Computers. Special version 
for 64K systems costs $59.29 and is compatible with software for large 6809 systems. 

Other Color Computer Software 

CHECK 'N TAX — Basic programs for checkbook maintenance and income tax reports, for either RS Disk or 
Flex, $50. 

REMOTERM — allows full operation of the Color Computer from an external terminal. $19.95. 

LFPRINT — permits the Color Computer to be used with non-standard serial printers which do not support 

handshaking or automatic line feeds. $19.95. 

NEWTALK — a memory examine utility for machine language programmers which reads out memory contents 
through the TV set speaker. $20. 

SHRINK — our version of Eliza, in machine language and extremely fast. $15. 
OXXO — our version of Othello, also machine language and very fast. $15. 



We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY State residents please add appropriate sales tax. 

Star Kits 

P.O. Box 209— R 
Mt. Kisco, N.Y. 10549 
(914) 241-0287 




n 

RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
3£*L 



Some Plain Talk About a DOS 

or 

Why You Should Use STAR-DOS 

The Disk Operating System, or DOS for short, is a program which acts as a file 
manager for a disk. The DOS acts as a buffer between the disk hardware, and 
the software which uses that disk. Its mimary function is to maintain a disk 
directory on each disk, fetch program or data files from the disk as needed, and 
store programs or data back on the disk. 

When you buy the Radio Shack Disk System for the Color Computer, a Read 
Only Memory (ROM) integrated circuit inside the disk controller contains 
those parts of a DOS which change Extended Basic into Disk Extended Basic. 
Although this Basic allows you to initialize a disk, maintain a disk directory, 
store and fetch programs and data, and do many other functions of a real DOS, 
it has one major drawback — it only works with Basic. There is no easy way to 
integrate it with machine or assembly language programs, and so you are still 
limited by the speed and power of Basic. 

For this reason, many sophisticated Color Computer users are seriously considering switching to another DOS. 
Some of our competitors are marketing a very flexible DOS, long a favorite among users of larger 6809 systems, 
which has been adapted to run on the Color Computer. This particular DOS is quite popular among other 6809 
users, and there are many available programs which run under it. But it has several disadvantages. It often requires 
that you void your warranty by opening and modifying the Color Computer. It is completely incompatible with the 
Radio Shack DOS, and the two cannot read each other's disks. It's also expensive — since you must buy a new 
Basic to make full use of it (normal Radio Shack Basic disk commands don't work with it), you must pretty much 
discard all your existing software and start over — new DOS, new Basic, new editor, new text processor, etc. etc. 

STAR-DOS is the Solution 

STAR-DOS is a real DOS which blends all the best features you want into one DOS. STAR-DOS will run on a 
standard, unmodified 16K or larger Color Computer using the Radio Shack disk system. Its disk format is fully 
compatible with Radio Shack Disk Basic — files written by Basic can be read by STAR- DOS and vice versa. Since 
there is full disk compatibility, you need not throw out your existing programs or files. 

But the beauty of STAR-DOS becomes obvious to the serious user. From the programmer's viewpoint, STAR- 
DOS is just like other standard 6809 Disk Operating Systems. It provides all the standard features you need, such 
as provisions for multiple 320-byte file control blocks, routines to open, read, write, and close named files, rename 
or delete files, read or write single sectors, search or modify the directory, and more. STAR- DOS is so powerful 
that many programs written for other 6809 systems can be run with STAR-DOS just by changing a few addresses. 

STAR-DOS is supplied on a disk with a comprehensive user and programmer's manual, which explains all 
available routines and entry points, along with examples showing how to use them. The manual explains how to 
convert programs running under another DOS to run with STAR-DOS. It also comes with a number of utilities to 
make use of your disk system even easier and faster. It costs just $49.90 and is available NOW. 

Available NOW for STAR-DOS 

ALL-IN-ONE — the super Text Editor/Text Processor/Mailing List/Mailing Label program from AAA Chicago 
Computer Center which can process your text and even print individually addressed form letters from your 
mailing list. Adapted for STAR-DOS and available NOW for just $50. 

SPELL 'N FIX — the spelling correction program now available in the original Color Computer version or the new, 
much faster, STAR-DOS version. Finds and fixes spelling and typo errors fast, and costs $69.29. 

COMING . . . more software runningunder STAR- DOS is in the works. Write for details, or see last month's ad for 
other programs. 

Above prices include shipping for orders prepaid by cash, check, or money order. We also accept COD, Visa, and 
MasterCard. NY State residents please include sales tax. 

Star Kits 

P.O. Box 209— R 
Mt. Kisco, N.Y. 10549 
(914) 241-0287 





RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Page 44 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



COLOR TERM + PLUS + Look at these features: 
Operates at 110-19200 BAUD: Half or Full Duplex; I or 2 
stop bits; odd, even, or no parity; send and receive 
BASIC & Machine Language programs; word wrap; Edit 
Buffer; Code & Decode buffer using a user defined key 
word; save and load buffer to tape. + PLUS + much 
more! 16k or 32k Reg. or Ext. BASIC. PRICE $29.95 
(tape)* 

TAPENAME Tapename searches tape and stores the 
name of any program or file. You can print the informa- 
tion to the screen, printer or tape. Also checks for load 
errors. 4k, 16k, or 32k Reg. or Ext. BASIC. PRICE $7.95 
(tape)* 

COLOR DISK SAVER Saves a disk to tape. Reloads 
disk from saved tape. Also has tape verify command! 
32k Ext. BASIC Req. PRICE $12.95 (tape)** 

MEMCHECK (Free with purchase of 3 or more pro- 
grams.) Checks memory in minutes instead of hours. 
Fast test and long test. 4k, 16k, or 32k Reg. or Ext. 
BASIC PRICE $4.95 (tape)* 

CURSOR II Hate that blinking cursor? Tired of seeing 
the computer print "OK 1 ' after your program just bomb- 
ed? Cursor II changes the cursor to a solid, non-flashing 
red. Enter any message up to 200 characters in length. 
Your message will be displayed instead of "OK". 4k, 
16k, or 32k Reg, or Ext. BASIC. PRICE $4.95 (tape)* 

SUPER PEEKER This is a BASIC program that will 
allow the user to explore the inside of the color com- 
puter. Explore the possibilities with Super Peeker. 16k 
or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. PRICE $9.95 (tape)* 

DISK DIRECTORY Prints disk directory to screen 
and/or printer. Free with purchase of any program. You 
must ask for it to get it free. 16k or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. 
PRICE $2.95 (tape) 

MODEM CHESS Use your Modem and your Color 
Computer to play chess over tfiepkmne! Has high res col- 
or graphics board and pieces. Make your move, select a 
message to send, press a button— seconds later your oppo- 
nent's board is updated automatically. Has audio alerts, 
lets you know when a move is being made. 16k or 32k 
Ext. BASIC Req. PRICE $39.95 (tape) (Disk 32k only)*' 

COLOR IAGO Based on popular Othello game. Match 
wits with your computer'. Uses high res color graphics. 5 
levels of difficulty. Joysticks required. 16k or 32k Ext. 
BASIC. PRICE $15.95 (tape) 

CLONE ATTACK Blast those nasties as they appear! 3 
skill levels and 9 levels of difficulty. Uses high res color 
graphics. Joysticks required. 16k or 32k Ext. BASIC on- 
ly. PRICE $ 15.95 (tape) (Disk 32k only) 
[Special 32k version $2.00 extra] 

MOON BASE INVASION Nuclear bombs are nearing 
your cities! Can you stop them before they reach you? 
16k or 32k Ext. BASIC Req. High res graphics. PRICE 
$12.95 (tape) 

COLOR LIFE This one shows births and deaths, as well 
as generation number and population levels. 16k or 32k 
Ext. BASIC Req. (FAST!) PRICE $12.95 (tape)** 

Most programs are Disk compatible. Specify Disk when 
ordering and add $5.00 per program. Save money and 
ask that all ordered programs be loaded on one disk. You 
pay only for the one disk! Please add $2.00 shipping and 
handling on all orders. Texas residents add 5% sales tax. 
Allow two weeks for personal checks. Your order will 
usually be shipped within two to three days. We will 
notify you of any problems within one week. Send 
orders to: DOUBLE DENSITY SOFTWARE, 920 Bald- 
win Street, Denton, Texas 76201. Phone 817/566-2004. 

We are looking for quality software. If you have a pro- 
gram you think is a winner, send it to us. If it meets our 
standards, you will be paid TOP royalties. 
* Machine Language. 

Machine Language Subroutines. 



right, or from right to left. I have chosen a left to right roll, 
but you might want to roll from right to left. In this first 
version of the program, let's use a constant Y value of 50. We 
have these limits for X. 



Y+50 . , . , »••».,. X+255, Y+50 




* * ■ » ►■ 



r ■ ■ - 4 h i . t . 




Also keep in mind that we are using a square that is 20 units 
wide. 




-20 



We'll start the die at X=30 and move the die 20 units across 
the screen in each move. The first three positions would look 
like this. 



f note: positions 2 and 3 are drawn 

from the same point 

Since we said the die would be faceless, we'll use the 
PAINT statement to make it so. We'll paint from the 
"center" of the square. The statement varies according to the 
position of the square. 





starting 
position 



(X+10,40) 
center 



(X,50) 
starting 
position 




(x,40) 
center 



Also remember to clear the screen before each drawing. This 
will erase the previously drawn square. 

At last, I think we are ready to write the program. Our 
first attempt looks like this. 

Die Roll 

100 GOTO 270 < go clear pages 

110 PMODE 4,1: PCLS < ready pages 1-4 

120 DRAW "BM30,50; U20R20D20L20" f — DRAW on 
pages 1-4 
130 PAINT (40,40), 1,1 
140 FOR X+50 TO 220 STEP 20 



* * 



i 

t 
i 
i 
t 

! 
I 
f 
I 
I 
I 
( 
I 



BALANC I NO 
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130 entries per month 
Checks/Deposits/Bank Charges 

A marriage saver 
Sl8.95pp Cass/Ext BASIC only 
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December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 45 



150 SCREEN 1,0 « display pages 1-4 

160 PMODE 4,5: PCLS < ready pages 5-8 

170 X$+STR$ (X) < make a string for DRAW 

180 DRAW "BM"=X$='\50; H14E14F14G14 DRAW 

on 5-8 

190 PAINT (X,40), 1,1 

200 SCREEN 1,0 < display pages 5-8 

210 PMODE 4,1: PCLS* — ready pages 1-4 
220 DRAW "BM" =X$=",50; U20R20D20L20' V- DRAW 

on 1-4 

230 PAINT (X= 10,40), 1,1, 

240 NEXT X ^— move it across the screen 

250 GOTO 1 10 < do it again 

260 END 

270 PCLEAR 8: CLEAR 50: GOTO 1 10 < clear pages 

and string space 

Angular Motion 

Instead of moving the die in a purely horizontal 
movement, let's see what we have to do to move it to the 
right and downward. To think this one through, I have to get 
back to my drawing board. 

Position 1 looks like the easiest so I laid out the pattern of 
moves shown in Figure 2. I'll call these the odd positions 
since they are in positions 1, 3, 5, etc. 

Figure 2 — Odd Positions of the Die 

Q 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 

20 f~ 
40 | 
60 I 

80 

100 
120 > 
140 

160 

I * 

180 



The die will rotate while moving to the right and 
downward for position 2, 4, 6, etc. Figure 3 shows the 
even positions of the die. 




Figure 3 — Even Positions of the Die 

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 
II f 




When you put the first positions of Figure 2 and Figure 3 
together, you get something like this: 

II 20 40 60 80 
0 r 




Notice that successive positions of the die are uniform in 
the X direction. This was done for convenience so that the 
FOR-NEXT loop would conform to that in our first 
program. Also notice that a regular pattern was used for the 
movement in the Y direction. The motion in two directions 
combined with the rotation creates a crude simulation of the 
die tumbling through space. The resulting program is very 
similar to the rolling die program. I've moved the starting 
point closer to the upper left corner of the screen to allow for 
more movement. 



Tumbling Die 

1 00 GOTO 500 

110 PMODE 4, 1: PCLS 

120 DRAW "BM10 10; R20D20L20U20" 

130 PAINT (20,20), 1,1 

140 Y=20 < Y set for next DRAW 

150 FOR X=20 TO 160 STEP 20 

160 SCREEN 1,0 

170 PMODE 4,5: PCLS 

180 X$=STR$ (X): Y$=STR$ (Y+4) 

190 DRAW "BM" +X$+ +Y$+ "E14F14G14H 14" 



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Page 46 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



200 PAINT (X+10.Y), 1, 1, 
210 SCREEN 1, 0 

220 Y=Y+10 < move down 

230 PMODE 4, 1: PCLS 

240 X$=STR$(X+10): Y$=STR$(Y) <— move right 
250 DRAW "BM" +X$+ =Y$= "R20D20L20U20" 
260 PAINT (X=20, Y=10), 1,1 

270 Y=Y+10 < move down again 

280 NEXT X 
290 GOTO 110 
300 END 

500 PCLEAR 8: CLEAR 50: GOTO 1 10 

Adding More Realism 

Everyone knows that objects do not fall through space in 
a straight line as in the previous program. Consider our die 
being propelled in a horizontal direction by some initial 
force. Other forces will also act on the die. Gravity will tend 
to pull the die downward. Friction from the atmosphere will 
also effect the movement. We won't present a mathematical 
analysis of the forces, but they act in the following general 

way ■ -□ » 



*7 



air friction 



initial force 



s 



of Figure 4. Once again, we'll have the die rotate as it moves 
through space. 

Figure 4 — Space Travel 



0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 



0 
10 

20 

30 
40 
50 
60 

70 
80 
90 
100 
110 

120 
130 

140 

150 
160 
170 
180 

190 



O 



□ 



O 



□ 



o 

n 



gravity 



The resulting path of the die is shown in the graphic sketch 



NOVA- PINBALL 

AN EXCITING NEW PINBALL SIMULATION FOR THE 
COLOR COMPUTER' WITH ALL THE ACTION THAT S 
MADE IT AN ALL TIME FAVORITE! $20 



r 



HIP 






§ WAPS 



^ FEATURES, 

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COMING ATTRACTIONS 

fall available by December 1982) 



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Page 48 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



We've made one major change in this program. The X, Y 
coordinates for the DRAW statements are READ from 
DATA statements. 

SPACE TRAVEL 

1 00 GOTO 350 

110 FOR N+l TO 6 

120 READ X$,Y$ < origin for odd positions 

130 PMODE 4,1: PCLS 

140 X+VAL (X$): Y+VAL (Y$) we need strings and 

numbers 

150 DRAW "BM" =X$= =Y$= "R14D14L14U14" 

160 PAINT (X=7,Y=7), 1,1 ^smaller square 

170 SCREEN 1,0 

180 READ X$,Y$ 4 origin for even positions 

190 PMODE 4,5: PCLS 

200 X+VAL(X$): Y+VAL(Y$) 

210 DRAW "BM" =X$= =Y$= "E10F10G10H 10" 

220 PAINT (X=7, Y), 1,1 
230 SCREEN 1,0 

240 NEXT N 

250 PMODE 4,1: PCLS ( one more position 

260 DRAW "BM230,176; R14D14L14U14" 

270 PAINT (237, 180), 1,1, 

280 SCREEN 1,0 

290 FOR W+l TO 200: NEXT W < wait a bit 

300 RESTORE: GOTO 110^— restore data and repeat 

310 END 

320 DATA 10, 10, 28, 20, 50, 12, 68, 25 

330 DATA 90, 18, 108, 30, 130, 30, 148, 50 

340 DATA 170, 58, 188, 90, 210, 112, 228, 150 

350 PCLEAR 8: CLEAR 50: GOTO 110 

That's it for now. Coming Next Month — Using PUT and 
GET. 




Listing 1 



100 GOTO 270 

110 PMODE 4, l:PCLS 

120 DRAW"BM30,50;U20R20D20L20" 

130 PAINT (40, 40) , 1 , 1 

140 FOR X=50 TO 220 STEP20 

150 SCREEN 1,0 

160 PMODE 4,5: PCLS 

170 X*=STR*(X> 

180 DRAW"BM"+X*+" , 50; H14E14F14G1 
4" 

190 PAINT (X, 40) , 1, 1 

200 SCREEN 1,0 

210 PMODE 4, l: PCLS 

220 DRAW"BM"+X*+" , 50; U20R20D20L2 

0" 

230 PAINT (X+10, 40) , 1 , 1 
240 NEXT X 
250 GOTO 110 
260 END 

270 PCLEAR8: CLEAR 50: GOTO 110 




Listing 2 



100 GOTO 270 

110 PMODE 4, l:PCLS 

1 20 DRAW " BM30 , 50 ; U20R20D20L20 " 

130 PAINT (40, 40) ,1,1 

140 FOR X=50 TO 220 STEP20 

150 SCREEN 1,0 

160 PMODE 4,5: PCLS 

170 X*=STR*(X> 

1 80 DRAW " BM " +X*+ " , 50; H14E14F14G1 
4" 

190 PAINT (X, 40) ,1,1 

200 SCREEN 1,0 

210 PMODE 4,1: PCLS 

220 DRAW " BM " + X * + " , 50 ; U20R20D20L2 

0" 

230 PAINT (X+10, 40) , 1, 1 
240 NEXT X 
250 GOTO 110 
260 END 

270 PCLEAR8: CLEAR 50: GOTO 110 




Listing 3 



100 GOTO 500 

110 PMODE 4, l: PCLS 

1 20 DRAW " BM 1 0 , 1 0 ; R20D20L20U20 11 

130 PAINT (20, 20) ,1,1 

140 Y=20 

150 FOR X=20 TO 160 STEP 20 

160 SCREEN 1,0 

170 PMODE 4,5: PCLS 

180 X*=STR*(X>: Y*=STR*(Y+4) 

190 DRAW"BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"E14F14G1 

4H14" 

200 PAINT (X+10, Y) , 1 , 1 

210 SCREEN 1,0 

220 Y=Y+10 

230 PMODE 4, l: PCLS 

240 X*=STR*(X+10> : Y*=STR*(Y> 

250 DRAW"BM"+X*+", "+Y*+"R20D20L2 

0U20 M 

260 PAINT (X+20, Y+10) , 1, 1 
270 Y=Y+10 
280 NEXT X 
290 GOTO 110 
300 END 

500 PCLEAR 8: CLEAR 50: GOTO 110 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 49 



Software Review... 

Inter galactic Force 
Thrills "Dr. Doom" 




f i * 




"Dr. Doom" is what we call him around these parts. He's 
one of those types who subscribes to Soldier of Fortune 
Magazine, has a gun for every purpose and knows seventeen 
ways to kill you before you can even call for help. We count 
ourselves f ortunate that Dr. Doom is a f riend; we don't need 
enemies of his caliber or guage. 

When we were introduced to Intergalactic Force, a 
graphics space battle game by C.J. Roslund, we thought 
immediately of Dr. Doom, f or if you had to pilot an X- Wing 
fighter ship into a channel, fending off Imperial fighters and 
avoiding the Laser beam, all the while, as you maneuvered 
to drop a photon bomb into the ventilation shaft opening on 
the Death-Star, Dr. Doom is the man to do it. Now, Dr. 
Doom isn't any video avenger of great renown, but he did 
just purchase a TDP-100 home computer, and he does have 
a long-standing taste for the kill. Besides, keeping Dr. Doom 
indoors and occupied with Intergalactic Force would make 
the streets safer for everyone else. 

It takes about a minute to load Intergalactic Force. When 
the title page appears, an organ music rendition of a very 
familiar tune plays a few moments to whet your appetite. A 
hint of a smile — or is it a grimace — crosses Dr. Doom's face 
as we listen to the very well done musical prelude. Perhpas it 
isn't a smile; it's hard to read someone's fact with only the 
light of the video screen reflecting off his mirror sunglasses. 

With a joystick in one hand, Dr. Doom strokes his salt- 
and-pepper beard with the other — he's even taken off his 
gloves by the time the screen action begins. Dr. Doom is 
ready to deal video death! 

Die! Die! Die! Die! Die! Die! And then, it's over. The 
Force: 6, Dr. Doom: 0. The Merchant of Menace mutters 
and then goes back into action. This time he draws blood 
and is rewarded with a satisfying "Phhhulll" as he blows an 
Imperial fighter to smithereens. But before he can lick his 
chops, he's shot down twice in a row. Then, in a Kamikaze 
attack, he succeeds in ramming the Imperial fighter and 
demolishing both ships; the TV monitor audio produces a 
sort of a fizzle which causes Dr. Doom to wrinkle his nose in 
disgust; the fizzle sound is hardly the way to die with glory. 
Pausing to light up a Lucky, Dr. Doom heads back to the 
battle. 

Intergalectic Force is in machine language, and the 
graphics do give you the feeling of movement. Dr. Doom 
complained that he couldn't "shoot up" at the Imperial 



fighters and "lay some bombs" on the ventilation shaft all in 
the same moment, but that shouldn't be much of a drawback 
for most of us who'll be busy enough just staying out of the 
way of the laser beam. 

While Intergalectic Force keeps a running score, notes 
how many ships you have left and has a bar-graph guage to 
remind you how many photon bombs you have left (you can 
fly off and reload when you're low), a feature that 1 found 
added a nice touch was a constant background noise that 
sounds like an engine room, sort of what you might expect 
the sound of a space vehicle to be making as it zooms 
through the void. 

There are three levels of difficulty, and the going really 
gets tough on Level III when the Imperial fighters not only 
shoot faster at you, but deftly dodge your bursts of fire. We 
found the action to be highly responsive to thejoystick — no 
play in the steering as is sometimes encountered in graphics 
games — and we found nothing really to criticize. While Dr. 
Doom's personal endorsement is unprintable in a family 
magazine such as the Rainbow, we noticed he was smiling at 
us as he put our cassette into the thigh-level pocket of his 
leathers and headed for his "hog." It's always a pleasure to 
have Dr. Doom visit and leave smiling. No brokenfurniture 
is an endorsement we've come to appreciate. In our view, 
Intergalectic Force is with it. 

(Anteco Software, 4220 Clay Avenue, Ft. Worth, TX 
76117, $24.95.) 

— Jim Reed 



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Page 50 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 




The Dragon's Byte 



Pressed for Time? Paint a Dungeon! 

By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

( Mr. Nolan, an experienced Dungeonmaster in a popular fantasy role 
playing game on a weekly basis, is the president of Prickly-Pear 
Software.) 



f 





his month I will tell you how to usethe graphics ability 
of the 80C to speed up the actual play of a fantasy game. One 
facet common to all of these games is the exploration of 
some ruin or underground dungeon complex by the players, 
and a great deal of time is spent by the referee in describing 
these rooms to the players as they enter them. 

Even if the room is small and simple, it still takes times to 
describe it properly. For example, suppose that the group of 
players had been proceeding north up a corridor when the 
corridor ended in a door. They succeed in entering the door, 
and go north into a room. As referee you then have to say 
"you have just entered a room which is 30 feet from east to 
west, and 60 feet from north to south. The door by which 
you entered is in the middle of the south wall, and seems to 
be the only door in the room. "Even this simple description 
will take a lot of time away from play when you multiply it 
by the 50 or 100 rooms in the average dungeon, and that was 
the most simple room possible to describe. It was a box with 
only one door and nothing of special note inside. Besides, 
how did the players know it was exactly 30' by 60'? Did they 
get out a tape and measure it? I hate to give away 
information which the players might not necessarily know. 

In real life, if you walk into a room you can estimate the 
size, but you won't know it exactly, and neither would your 
fantasy characters. Since they are tryingto estimate by torch 
or lantern light it will be even harder f or them. On the other 
hand, you can't really say "you just entered a room, but I 
can't tell you how big it is." And remember, that was a very 
simple room! 

What if you have a lot of complex rooms, like this next 
one? "You have just entered a large room, via a door in the 
south wall. The door you entered is about 10' from the west 
wall. The west wall goes north for 60' and then turns to the 
east. It goes east for 30', with a door in the middle of that 
section, and then turns south. It goes south 10', and then east 
again for 20', where it turns north. The wall goes north 40', 
with a door right in the middle of that section, and then turns 
east again. It goes east 50' with two doors in that section 
equally spaced, and then turns south. After going south for 
90', it turns back west and goes 80' to rejoin the door you 
entered. There are three deep pools of water in this room, 
each 30' in diameter, and they are located in the southwest, 
southeast, and northeast sections of the room. 

That took a while to describe, and you probably still don't 
really know what that room looks like. I finally got tired of 
wasting all this time and wrote a program, which you can 
expand upon fairly easily. The program uses DRAW, 
CIRCLE, and PAINT statements to make a map of the 
room on the PMODE 3 screen. Then, all you have to do is 
select the room by its number, and there it is, right on the 
screen! Believe me, this will save you time, and you can save 
even more if you make a good map of each of the rooms on 
white paper and trace them to make a dungeon map. You 
will really be amazed at how many different dungeons you 
can make by reusing the same rooms in different ways. 

I gave you a start with 19 rooms in the program below, 
and you will be able to fit more in easily. With 1 6K, you can 
have about 100 in memory, and a lot more with 32K. You 



will find that 100 will be enough for literally thousands of 
different dungeons. By the way, both of the rooms described 
above are among the 19 I have given you. 

Now, let's see how the program works. Line 5 defines f our 
strings — U$, R$, D$, and L$. Each of these strings is the 
DRAW statement for a standard dungeon door 10' wide, 
and each is used when your DRAW line is moving in a 
different direction — up, right, down, and left. Each replaces 
a 10' section of wall. Thus, if you want to draw a 30' section 
of north/ south wall starting from the bottom, and with a 
door right in the middle, it would look like this: 
"U10XU$;U10". When used in a DRAW statement, this 
would draw up 10, exit to the up door string, which uses 10, 
and then draw up 10 more. If you compare the DRAW 
statements in the program below with the rooms they draw, 
you will get the idea pretty quickly. 

Line 6 clears the screen to blue, and asks you for a room 
number. There are 19 rooms in the program I have given 
you, so it asks for a number from 01 to 19. If you add more 
rooms, you will have to change the "19" to the number of 
rooms in your program. Line 7 gets a single character from 
the keyboard using the INKEYS statement, and stores it in 
K$. Line 8 gets another character from the keyboard and 
stores it in KK$. The second part of line 8 then 
concantenates K$ and KK$. Remember, if we have two 
NUMBERS, 1 and 2, and we add them together, we will get 
a NUMBER 3. However, if we have two STRINGS, 1 and 2, 
and we concantenate them, we will get a STRING "12". 
Both operations use the plus sign. 

Line 9 uses the VAL function to turn the STRING K$ into 
a NUMBER, K. It then goes on to check the number to 
make sure it is a number from 1 to 19 (because that's how 
many rooms there are). If it finds that K is less than 1 or 
greater than 19, it sends the program back to line 6 to get 
different characters. If you key in letters instead of numbers, 
the VAL function will return a 0. If the number K is f ound to 
be in the correct range, line 9 then does a GOSUB to line 1 2, 
where the PMODE 3 screen is set up and cleared. When this 
RETURNs, the program goes on to line 10, which uses the 
ON GOSUB statement to send the computer to the line 
indicated by the room you have selected. When it gets to the 
room line, it DRAWs and PAINTs the room and then goes 
to 13, which makes it wait until you press any key (except 
BREAK). When you press a key, the computer does a 
RETURN. Remember, we did a GOSUB from line 10, so 
that's where it returns. At the end of line 10 is a GOTO 6, 
which sends it back to line 6 to start over again. 

If you add additional rooms, you will have to change the 
1 9 in line 6, which I mentioned above. You will also have to 
change the 19 in line 9, and add additional line numbers to 
line 10. If you run out of space on line 10, (about 50 rooms) 
you will have to put the additional numbers (and another 
GOTO 6) on a new line, number 1 1 . You will also have to put 
some logic at the end of line 9 to test K. Suppose you have 50 
line numbers on line 10. At the end of line 9 you would insert 
:IF K is greater than 50 THEN K=K-50:GOTO 11. If you 
have more or fewer than 50 line numbers in line 10 you 
would have to substitute the actual number for the number 




V 



MACRO-BOC 

The Micro Works is pleased to announce the release of 
its disk-based editor, macro assembler and monitor, writ- 
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The powerful 2-pass macro assembler features conditional 
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tables. Macro-80c supports the complete Motorola 6809 instruction set in 
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The screen-oriented text editor is designed for efficient and easy editing of 
assembly language programs. The "Help Key" feature makes it simple 
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you can use the arrow keys to position the cursor anywhere in the file. 
Macro-80c allows global changes and moving/copying blocks of text. You 
can edit lines of assembly source which are longer than 32 characters. 

DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows examining and 
altering of memory, setting break points, etc. 

The editor, assembler and monitor — as well as sample programs — 
come on one Radio Shack compatible disk. Extensive documentation 
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YOU NEED 

COLOR FORTH!! 

Why? 

•Forth is faster to program in than Basic 
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Forth is a highly interactive language like Basic, with 
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that of Assembly Language. The Micro Works Color 
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Color Forth consists of the standard FORTH Interest 
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most of F0RTH-79. It has a super screen editor with 
split screen display. Mass storage is on cassette. 
Color Forth also contains a decompiler and other aids 
for learning the inner workings of this fascinating lan- 
guage. It will run on 4K, 16K, and 32K computers. 
Color Forth contains 10K of ROM, leaving your RAM 
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The Micro Works Software Development System (SDS80C) is a complete 6809 editor, assembler and 
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assemblers/editors, the SDS80C is non-volatile, meaning that if your application program bombs, it can't 
destroy your editor/assembler. Plus it leaves almost all of 1 6K or 32K RAM free for your program Since 
all three programs, editor, assembler and monitor are co-resident, we eliminate tedious program loading 
when going back and forth from editing to assembly and debugging 1 

The powerful screen-oriented Editor features finds, changes, moves, copys and much more. All keys have 
convenient auto repeat (typamatic). and since no line numbers are required, the full width of the screen 
may be used to generate well commented code 

The Assembler features all of the following: complete 6809 instruction set; conditional assembly: local 
labels: assembly to cassette tape or to memory; listing to screen or printer: and mnemonic error codes 
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The versatile monitor is tailored for debugging programs generated by the Assembler and Editor. It 
features examine/change of memory or registers, cassette load and save, breakpoints and more. SDS80C 
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VIA YOUR MOOEM! 

Nowyoucan useyour printer with your modem 1 Your computercan be as s 
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display text stored in memory. Dump to a cassette tape, or printer, or both. 
Microtext can be used with any printer or no printer at all. It features user- 
configurable duplex/parity for special applications, and can send any ASCII 
character You II find many usesfor this general purpose module 1 Microtext 
is available in PJMPACK. ready-to-use. for $59.95. 



PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE — Serial lo parallel converter allows useaf all 
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Berserk — Have fun zapping robots with this Hi-Res game by Mark Data Products. Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 
Adventure — Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by Mark Data Products. Each cassette requires 16K. Price: $19.95 each. 

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Also Available, 



Machine Language Monitor ★ 2-Pass Disassembler ★ Memory Upgrade Kits ★ We Stock 64K Chips 
★ Parts and Services * Books * Call or write for information 



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California residents add 6% tax. 



GOOD STUFF! 

P.O. BOX 1110, DEL MAR, CA 92014 [619] 942-2400 



Page 52 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



50 in both places in the example above. Line 1 1 would be just 
like line 10 except for the line numbers following the ON K 
GOSUB. 

The SOUND statements in lines 7, 8, and 13 are there to 
give you a key beep, so you will know f or sure when you have 
pressed a key. Because of the method used to get the 
numbers, room numbers lower than 10 will have to be put in 
with a 0 in front of them (03, 06, 04, etc.). 

When you use this program, your players will not have to 
be told room sizes. They willbeableto estimate, just like real 
life, because the rooms are to scale, and the doors are known 
to take up 10' of wall space. This way, there is no need to give 
away information. If the players want to know exactly how 
large a room really is, let them buy a measure and take the 
time to use it! By the way, because the pixels on the color 
computer screen are not exactly square, a square room will 
appear on the screen to be slightly higher than wide. If that 
causes any estimating problems, attribute it to the poor 
light. 

Well, that about covers this program. If you have any 
questions, write to me at Prickly-Pear Software, and 
meanwhile, I want to wish all of you a very wonderful and 
safe holiday season. May all your Dragons have a bow on 
them! 

The listing: 

5 U*="L1U10R3D10L2BU10" : R*="U1R1 
0D3L 1 0U2BR 10": D*= "L1D1 0R3U 1 0L2BD 
10": L*= " D2L 1 0U3R 1 0D 1 BL 1 0 " 

6 CLS3: PRINT<§98, "KEY THE DESIRED 
ROOM NUMBER " ; : PR I NT© 1 30 , " ( FROM 

'01' TO ' 19' >"; :PRINT@194, "PRICK 
LY-PEAR SOFTWARE " ; : K*= I NKEY* 

7 K*=INKEY*:IF K*="" THEN G0T07 
ELSE SOUND 150, 1 

8 KK*=INKEY$: IF KK*="" THEN GOTO 

8 ELSE K*=K*+KK*I SOUND 1 50, 1 

9 K=VAL(K*):IF K<1 OR K>19 THEN 
6 ELSE GOSUB 12 

10 ON K G0SUB14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,2 
0, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 
32,33:G0T06 

12 PM0DE3, UPCLS: SCREEN 1,0: COLOR 
6, 5: RETURN 

13 K*=INKEY*:IF K*="" THEN 13 ELS 
E SOUND 1 50, l: RETURN 

14 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U60R30D60L 1 0 X L* ; 
L10" : PAINT ( 130, 90) , 7, 6: G0T013 

1 5 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U 1 5XU* ; U 1 5R30D40 
L30" : PAINT (130, 90) , 7, 6: G0T013 

1 6 DRAW " BM60 , 1 20U2 1 NR 1 0C8U2R 1 0D3 
C6R10NR20U50R60D50L20D20L60" : CIR 
CLE (95, 67) ,8:CIRCLE(125,87) ,8: PA 
INT (62, 118) ,8, 6: PAINT (95, 67) ,7,6 
: PAINT (125, 87) ,7,6:G0T013 

1 7 DRAW " BM60 , 1 00U90R30XR* ; XR* ; R7 
0D90L120" : CIRCLE ( 130, 60) , 35: PAIN 
T (62, 98) ,8, 6: PAINT (130, 60) ,7,6: G 
0T013 

18 DRAW"BM128, 96D10L10NU10L4NU10 
L4NU 1 0L4NU 1 0L4NU 1 0L4U 1 0NR20U 1 0R 1 
0U20XR* ; D20BL 1 0XR* ; R 1 0D 1 0XL* ; " : G 
0T013 

1 9 DRAW 1 1 BM60 , 1 00U 1 0NU30R 1 0U30L 1 0 



U 1 0R40ND50R5ND50R5ND50R5ND50R5ND 
50R5ND50R5ND50R 1 20D20XD* ; D20L55X 
L*; L25XL*; XL*; L80" : PAINT (62, 98) , 
7, 6: PAINT (62, 80) , 8, 6 : PAINT ( 160, 6 
2) ,7,6:G0T013 

20 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U20XU* ; U20R50D50 
L20XL*; L20" : PAINT ( 130, 90) , 8, 6: GO 
T013 

2 1 DRAW " BM60 , 1 40U 1 0X U* ; U 1 0R50U60 
R80D10XD*; D10L50D60L80" : PAINT (65 
, 135) ,7,6:G0T013 

22 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U70R25 XR* ; R25D70 
L25XL*; L25" : PAINT ( 130, 90) , 7, 6: GO 
T013 

23 DRAW "BM 130, 120U25XU*; XU*; U25G 
36F35": PAINT (128, 116) ,8,6:G0T013 

24 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 96U 10XU$; U10R1 0XR* 

;R10D10XD*;D10L10XL*;L10": paint ( 

135,92) ,7,6: G0T013 

25 DRAW"BM128, 96U20XU*; U20R10XR* 
; R10XR*; R10D39XD*; XD*; D40L80XL*; 

L 1 0U60R 10XR$; R10D1 0R20 " : C I RCLE ( 1 
53, 121) , 15: CIRCLE (153, 71 ) , 15: CIR 
CLE (103, 121) , 15: PAINT (135, 90) ,8, 
6: PAINT (153, 121 ) , 7, 6 : PAINT ( 153, 7 
1) ,7, 6: PAINT (103, 121) ,7,6:G0T013 

26 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,30: DRAW"BM123, 
125XR*; ": PAINT (128, 96) ,7,6: GOTOl 
3 

27 CIRCLE (128,96) ,25: CIRCLE (128, • 
96) ,50:DRAW"BM123, 145XR*; ": PAINT 
(128,96) ,7, 6: PAINT (128, 140) ,8,6: 
GOTO 13 

28 DRAW " BM80 , 1 1 0U 1 0XU* ; U 1 0E30R 1 0 
XR*; R10F30D10XD*; D10G30L10XL*; LI 
0H30 " : P A I NT ( 1 28 , 96 ) , 7 , 6 : GOTO 1 3 

29 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 1 40H30U 1 0XU* ; U 1 0E3 
0F30D 1 0XD* ; D 1 0G30 " : PA I NT ( 1 28 , 96 ) 
,8,6:G0T013 

30 DRAW"BM50, 1 80U20NR 1 60U20NR 1 60 
U20NR 1 60U20NR 1 60U20NR 1 60U20NR 160 
U20NR 1 60U20R20ND 1 60R20ND 1 60R20ND 
1 60R 1 0 XR* ; ND160XR*; Rl 0ND 1 60R20ND 
1 60R20ND 1 60R20D 1 60L70XL* ; X L* ; L70 
":FOR X=60TO180STEP40:FOR Y=30TO 
150STEP40: PAINT (X,Y) ,8, 6: NEXT Y: 
NEXT X 

31 FOR X=80TO200STEP40:FOR Y=50T 
O170STEP40: PAINT (X, Y) ,8, 6: NEXT Y 

:next x:for x=60TO180STEP40:fory 

=50TO 1 70STEP40 :PAINT(X,Y),7,6:NE 

xt y:next x:for x=80TO200STEP40: 

FOR Y=30TO150STEP40: PAINT (X,Y) ,7 

,6:next y:next x:gotoi3 

32 DRAW"BM70, 120E40R60F40L60XL*; 
XL*; L60" : PAINT ( 128, 96) , 8, 6: GOTOl 

3 

33 CIRCLE (128, 96) , 70, 6, . 5: DRAW"B 
M123,60XR*; ": PAINT (128, 96) ,7,6:G 
0T013 ^ 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 53 



Software Review... 

Fine Graphs Are Easy 
With The Graph Zapper 

We suppose the biggest disappointment with the VisiCalc 
program is its total inability to do graphs, except by the most 
simple means — using asterisks in a line. Yet, graphs can 
depict trends like almost nothing else. 

But, darn it, constructing graphs freehand on CoCo (or 
any other computer graphic screen) are difficult. You need 
to position levels, label lines, figure out the hatch marks and 
so on and that takes a lot of time and trouble. When, we 
asked, will someone come up with a good general-purpose 
graph program. 

Well, someone has. Graph Zapper has a whole lot of 
options and the like, but the bottom line is that it will create 
fine, nay, excellent graphs easily and quickly. You have the 
advantage of concentrating on the data you are inputting 
into the graph rather than on drawing the graph itself. 

This program allows you to either plot points or connect 
them (and with different kinds of lines, too), to title the 
graph, to label the two axes and to decide how many "hatch 
marks" should be on each axis. In addition, you can 
determine whether you wish the graph to be just plain (as 
most are), whether you wish to have dots at the intersecting 
points of the hatchmarks or whether you want a whole grid. 
These latter options can be turned off and on quickly. And, 
with a screen print program (not supplied with this 
package), you can print your graphs out on paper. 

Graph Zapper allows you to load graphs from tape or 
disk, or to load graph formats and then simply change the 
data. And, most powerful of all, it allows you to input data 
to the graph in either of two ways. 

Using method one, you just simply load in the data you 
wish to have at any given point. This is pretty simple 



(although an editing feature is provided to change any or all 
elements as you wish). This is excellent for those quick-and- 
dirty graphs you want to see. You can have a sophisticated 
looking graph in a couple of minutes. 

Method two uses equations. Excellent f or generating data 
from a set of given circumstances. Say, for instance, you 
wanted to show what sort of dollar volume you might expect 
from a business that would grow at the rate of 10 percent a 
month over a year's period. That is a simple equation to 
write, and you can use it to generate a series of points on a 
graph with no trouble at all. 

Graph Zapper is one of the most completely documented 
pieces of software we have seen. The tape version has 19 
pages — the disk version two more. 

The primary difference between the cassette ( 1 6K) version 
and the disk (32K) is the use of a menu to load previously- 
created disk graphs. The 32K version will work with cassette 
and provides, obviously, more space to store data points. 

Graph Zapper is an outstanding utility and can be a major 
tool in statistical, business and other uses where graphic 
representation of numbers is desirable. 

(Southern Software Systems, 485 Tropical Trail-Suite 
109, Merritt Island, FL 32952, $15.95 for 16K tape, 
$19.95 for 32K disk plus $1 s/h) 



Hint 



Painting Must Be Accurate 



When you issue a PAINT command, be sure that you set 
the point at which the PAINTing is to begin within the area 
that is to be P AINTed. If you set the position on a line which 
encloses the area, the PAINT will not work. 

Also, when using PAINT, be sure that your area is fully 
enclosed, or the PAINT will leak out and cover the entire 
screen. 



TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER* 

-16K Extended Basic, Menu-Driven, Wei I- Documented, Easily-Modified. 
-For either cassette or diskette systems (Be sure to specify). 
-Place an order of at least $40 and get one extra of your choice free. 
-Orders shipped on cassette - Add $5 for shipment on diskette. 



FURST- niihBcw 
Date Element Dictionary driven File Update and 
Retrieval SysTem. Create and maintain files according 
to your specifications. Ideas for applications in- 
cluded $25 

-MAILING LABELS- 

Generate and maintain mailing label records. Selective- 
ly print desired quantities. Can keep several label files if 
desired. Designed for Printer VII, easily modified. $20 



-REPORT WRITER- 

Used in conjunction with FURST to selectively format 
reports on your printer. Includes headings and total 
capabilities $15 

-EXERCISE PLANNER- ™«™ 

Build and maintain complete exercise schedule for 
regular and/or weight programs. Display guides you 
through daily-calculated routines. Print complete 
schedule if desired $15 

>tf I- J • m. 



-DISK DIRECTORY PRINT 

For diskette users only. Get hard copy of disk directories on your printer for easy use and reference. Only $5 

Send check or money order to: 

LAND SYSTEMS 

P.O. Box 232 
Bellbrook, Ohio 45305 



*TRS-80 and COLOR COMPUTER 
are Trademarks of Tandy Corp. 





Page 54 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Memory Exam: 



Where Does it Start? 



By Lester Hands 



MEM EXAM is a machine language 
program that helps you rapidly examine 
memory and determine the address of items of 
interest. For example, if you have a disk 
system, the graphics pages are allocated 
dynamically. After running a special high-res 
design program that took several hours to 
create, you decide to save the screen as a 
machine code file. The only problem is, where 
does the display page start? With this 
program, that is a simple question to answer. 

If you have an editor-assembler, use listing 
1 to enter the program. Note that it is written 
in position-independent code. For this reason 
it may be placed at any location in memory. 
Line 360 should be changed to "RTS" if you 
wish to access this program from Basic. The 
entry point is at "START." 

Listing 2 allows you to enter the program 
via a Basic program. First, CLEAR 100, 3805 
for a 4K system, or CLEAR100, 16093 for 
1 6K. Enter the program. After running it, you 
will get an out of data error message. Ignore 
this and type "EXEC" followed by the 
starting address: 3805 for 4K, or 16093 for 
16K systems. 

Upon entry, the program will display the 
title "MEM EXAM/PRESS ANY KEY." 
After a key is pressed, this screen will 
immediately display $600-$800 in the alpha- 
numerics mode. What the program does is to 
transfer that block of memory to the standard 
display page at $400-$600. Pressing the up or 
down arrow keys decrements or increments th 
display page. When you see the data that you 
want to determine the address of, press either 
the right or left arrow key. A blinking cursor 
will appear, which can be manipulated in any 
direction with the arrow keys. When the 
cursor is over the byte you want, press the 
"break" key and the address of that byte will 
appear at the bottom of the screen in a hex 
f ormat. Press any key now, and the screen will 
readjust so that the marked byte is now at the 
left upper corner. You are back in the page 
mode, where the up and down arrow keys can 
be used. If the "break" key is pressed in this 
mode, the program will return you to Basic 
(or your monitor if line 360 of listing 1 is 
"SW1"). 

The comments of listing 1 should help you 
understand how the program works. 
Probably the most interesting part is the hex- 
to-ASCH conversion routine starting at line 
810. 

Happy sleuthing! 




List/ ng 



1/ 
r 

y 

\J 
\J 
\j 
\J 

i 

■4 



OOIOO 
00110 
00120 
00130 
00140 
00160 
00170 
001 BO 
00190 
00200 
00210 
00220 
00230 
00240 
00250 
00260 
00270 
002B0 
00290 
00300 
00310 
00320 
00330 
00340 
00350 
00360 
00370 
00380 
00390 
00400 
00410 
00420 
00430 
00440 
00450 
00460 

OO470 
004B0 
00490 
00500 
00510 
00520 
00530 
00540 
00550 
00560 
00570 
005B0 
00590 
00600 
00610 
00620 
00630 
00640 
00650 
00660 
00670 
006B0 
00690 



* ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE LISTING 

* OF M MEM EXAM" 

♦THIS PROGRAM ALLOWS YOU TO EXAMINE MEMORY BY DISPLAYING 

* IT PAGE BY PAGE; A CURSOR MAY BE MANIPULATED AND THEN THE 
« ADDRESS OF THE CURSOR DETERMINED. 



START 



PR I NTT 



WAIT 



BEGDIS 
DISPLA 
DISPL1 



CMND 



DECPAG 



I NCPAG 



CURSON 



MOVCUR 
MOVCR1 



LEFT 



RIGHT 



UP 



00700 

00710 

00720 

00730 

00740 DOWN 

00750 

00760 

00770 

007B0 

00790 

00800 



LEAX TITLE, PCR 

BSR PRINTT 

BRA BEGDIS 

LDA ,X+ 

BEQ WAIT 

JSR C*OA0023 

BRA PRINTT 

JSR C*0A0003 

TSTA 

BEQ WAIT 

RTS 

LDX **600 
LDU **400 
LDD , X++ 
STD ,U++ 
CMPU #*5FE 
BLE DISPL1 
BSR WAIT 
CMPA #3 
BNE DECPAG 
SWI 

CMPA **5E 
BNE I NCPAG 
LEAX *FCOO,X 
BRA DISPLA 
CMPA **0A 
BNE CURSON 
BRA DISPLA 
CMPA #B 
BEQ MOV/CUR 

CMPA #9 
BNE CMND 
LDU **510 
LBSR CURSOR 
JSR C*0A0003 
TSTA 

BEQ MOVCR1 
CMPA #B 
BNE RIGHT 
LEAU -1,U 
CMPU #*400 
BGE MOVCR1 
LDU **400 
BRA H0VCR1 
CMPA #9 
BNE UP 
LEAU 1,U 
CMPU #»5FF 
BLE MOVCR1 
LDU #*5FF 
BRA M0VCR1 
CMPA **5E 
BNE DOWN 
LEAU »FFE0,U 

CMPU #*400 
BGE H0VCR1 
LEAU *20,U 
BRA M0VCR1 
CMPA **0A 
BNE BREAK 
LEAU •20,U 
CMPU #*5FF 
BLE MOVCR1 
LEAU *FFEO t U 
BRA MOV/CRl 



LOAD X WITH THE TITLE LINE ADDRESS 



LINE FINISHED IF DATUM-0 
OUTPUT CHARACTER TO SCREEN 

WAIT UNTIL A KEY IS PRESSED 



X IS THE MEMORY POINTER 

U IS THE DISPLAY PAGE POINTER 

DISPLAY A PAGE OF MEMORY 



COMMAND MODE: 
BREAK? 



GET COMMAND CODE 



RETURN TO BASIC 
UP? 

DECREMENT X BY 400 
DOWN? 



LEFT? 



RIGHT? 

U BECOMES THE CURSOR POINTER 
BLINK CURSOR UNTIL KEY PRESSED 



MOVE CURSOR TO THE LEFT 



CURSOR OFF PAGE; PUT BACK ON 



MOVE CURSOR RIGHT 



CURSOR OFF THE PAGE; PUT BACK ON 



MOVE CURSOR UP 



CURSOR OFF PAGE; PUT BACK ON 
MOVE CURSOR DOWM 



CURSOR OFF PAGE; PUT BACK ON 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 55 



WO X \J 




Of»f M WO 


ftftaoft 




PTC nC3 I nn 


AAOTA 










Irn Up U 


rij*>n~n 

WD3v 




i cav rv v 


WOOv 




LUH W»UU 


/VVJ7H 




iap rAftAftft^T 
«JOr\ LVVHUUZJ 


AAOQA 

WoaU 




CTV Art 
9 1 A »U 


WOW 




1 HA Art 


AAOAA 

w~w 




1 QRA 


W71U 




1 CPA 


ftft9"?ft 




1 QRA 






1 CPA 
L3nH 






ACQ UF Y PPT 
Don ncArn 1 


VA/7JU 




i *ft 






amtia itnp 

f WWX/rl W w\sr 


ftft97ft 




pep LC vppT 






1 HA ftl 

i_i#ri v x 






1 CPA 


ft 1 ftftft 




1 CPA 


ftlftlft 
viviv 




1 QRA 
UPnrl 


ftlftlft 




1 QRA 


Olft^ft 




pep LcyppT 
Don nc a i rv i 


ft 1 ftAft 




1 DA ftl 


ft 1 ft^ft 




AMDA # «ftF 


ft 1 ft Aft 




pep LcyppT 


ft 1 ft 7ft 




1 POP fat ATT 
Loon NHl 1 


ft i naft 




1 RPA DTQPI A 

LDnfi Lf X OTLn 


01090 


l-^XPRT 


ADDA A490 


Oil oo 




DAA 


ftl 1 1ft 
VX A 1 V 




ADPA itAD 


ftl 15ft 

w X X^ w 




DAA 


Ol 130 




UOn L fvnwXJ 


Ol 140 




RTS 


01150 


RESTAR 


CMPA #*3F 


01 160 




LBNE MO VCR 1 


01 170 




1 BRA START 


O 1 ISO 


CURSOR 


PSHS X 


01190 




LDA . U 


01200 




PSHS A 

¥ ej&w w^J Ww 


01210 






01220 




STA U 


Ol 2TO 




1 DY IMAftft 

l_L/ A WVtW 


i-\ « <5*a 


DAI ICC 


1 CAV _ 1 V 

LbHX ~" 1 t A 


01250 




BNE PAUSE 


01260 




PULS A 


01270 




STA ,U 


012B0 




LDX #*300 


01290 


PAUS1 


LEAX -1,X 


01300 




BNE PAUS1 


01310 




PULS X 


01320 




RTS 



BREAK: DISPLAY CURSOR ADDRESS 

RESET X TO START OF CURRENT DISPLAY PAGE. 

INCREMENT X BY U SO THAT 

X POINTS TO THE CURSOR POSITION 

LINE RETURN 



SAVE X AT 
PRINT THE 



*0 

MSB 



OF FIRST BYTE 



PRINT LSB OF FIRST BYTE 



PRINT MSB OF 2ND BYTE 



PRINT LSB OF 2ND BYTE 



CONVERT HEX NUMBER IN A TO ASCII 



PRINT ASCII NUMBER 



KEY-? 



DISPLAY CURSOR 



ERASE CURSOR 



HO 
So 
bo 

10 

8° 



10 DATA 48, 
2, 18, 166, 
, 160, 2 
20 



141, 1, 1, 141, 2, 3 
128, 39, 6, 173, 159 



PD& 20 DATA 32, 246, 173, 159, 160, 

ree/vens***/ **■ 249 ' 57 ' 142 ' 6 ' 0 ' 2 

TC& $oP 30* DATA 236, 129, 237, 193, 17, 

/flR£5S4f)*l0]f/ 131 , 5, 254, 47, 246, 141, 230, 

pes O 
evp ST*ZT 



94, 38, 6, 48, 
226, 129, 10, 3 



8, 
3, 



39, 
16, 



4, 129, 
23, 0, 



0, 77, 39, 246 
51, 95, 17, 13 



206, 4, 
13, 51, 



0, 32, 
65, 17, 



217, 206, 5, 25 
94, 38, 14, 51, 




129, 3, 38, 1 
40 DATA 57, 129, 
137, 252, 0, 32, 

8, 2, 32 

50 DATA 220, 129, 
9, 38, 225, 206, 
151, 173 

60 DATA 159, 160, 
, 129, 8, 38, 13, 
1, 4, 0 

70 DATA 44, 234, 
229, 129, 9, 38, 

131, 5 
80 DATA 255, 47, 
5, 32, 212, 129, 

200, 224, 17 
90 DATA 131, 4, 0, 
200, 32, 32, 194, 
4, 51, 200 

100 DATA 32, 17, 131, 
, 181, 51, 200, 224, 

9, 3, 38, 61 

110 DATA 48, 137, 250, 0, 31, 
, 48, 139, 134, 13, 173, 159, 
0, 2, 159, 0 

120 DATA 150, 0, 68, 68, 68, 68, 

141, 26, 150, 0, 132, 15, 141, 
20, 150, 1 

130 DATA 68, 68, 68, 68, 141, 12 
. 150. 1. 132. 15. 141. 6. 23. 2 



44, 

129, 



199, 51, 
10, 38, 1 



3, 

32, 



255, 
176, 



47 

12 

48 
16 



r, 67, 22 
140 DATA 255, 75, 139, 144, 25, 
137, 64, 25, 173, 159, 160, 2, 5 
7, 129, 63, 16 

150 DATA 38, 255, 105, 22, 255, 
26, 52, 16, 166, 196, 52, 2, 136 
, 255, 167, 196 

160 DATA 142, 4, 0, 48, 31, 38, 
252, 53, 2, 167, 196, 142, 3, 0, 
48, 31 

170 DATA 38, 252, 53, 16, 57, 13 
, 13, 77, 69, 77, 32, 69, 88, 65 
, 77, 13 

180 DATA 80, 82, 69, 83, 83, 32, 

65, 78, 89, 32, 75, 69, 89, 0 
200 INPUT" STARTING ADDRESS" I A 
210 READ D 
220 POKE A+AA, D 
230 AA-AA+1 
240 80T0 210 




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Page 56 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



Education Notes... 




Sustain 

Children's Interest 

By Expanding 
Relevance 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



( Mr. Blyn, who teaches both exceptional and gifted children, holds 
two Master's degrees in the field of education and has won an award 
for the design of a computer program to aid handicapped children. 
He and his wife, Cheryl, own Computer Island.) 

There will most likely come a time in most childrens' 
experiences when they look at their home or classroom 
computer and finally say "what can I do with it besides play 
games or learning programs? 

This can be either a bad or a wonderful time for the child 
and the adult to whom this question is addressed. Too often, 
children's initial interest in computers is soon lost because 
they do not see its relevance to themselves. Games usually 
can sustaininterestforalimitedamount of time. Bothadults 
and children soon learn to expect the computer to begin to 
do things for them. If the adult cannot motivate and show 
the child some practical uses of the computer, then we run 
the risk that the child's interest will want. 

This would be the perfect opportunity to show how the 
computer can do some meaningful work for the child. Every 
kid has hobbies and collections. Children collect all sorts of 
objects. Examples are rocks, stamps, bugs, coins, their tests, 
their schoolwork, pictures, records and, of course, computer 
tapes. Any of these can be organized by the child on any of 
the CoCo computers. Catalogs, records of collections, or 
happenings relevant to the child can be a way of interesting 
him/ her in data processing. The child can learn to do simple 
manipulations of the data to locate or categorize parts of the 
whole list. This can be a fascinating learning experience for 
anyone. Of course, the addition of output to a line printer 
would greatly add to the excitement. 

Although my sons pressured me to produce a baseball 
card data program, I have chosen to keep the column in an 
educational realm and will illustrate a book report's 
program. This program would be suitable for an 
individual's, or an entire class's, record of book reports. The 
reports can be grouped by title, author and any other 
additional categories. My students have always been 
encouraged to rate the books that they have read. That way, 
other children will know beforehand whether their peers 
liked or disliked a particular book. The information input, 
therefore, will be TITLE, AUTHOR, and RATING for 
each book. 

The three types of information will be contained on 
DATA lines. Each book gets one DATA line including all 
the information separated by commas. Line 60 tells the 
computer the maximum number of books. Any value for X 
greater than your total of items is suitable. Lines 80 to 110 let 
the computer read all of the DATA lines and store them in 
its memory before the program begins. You may have as 
many DATA lines as you have items, beginning on line 560 . 

Lines 120 to 160 prompt you to determine whether you 
have to, or want to, use a printer. Hard copy of this type of 
information is sure to impress youngsters. 




The manner in which you want the inf ormation processed 
and formatted is determined on lines 180 to 250. There are 
three possible formats in this program, but you, of course, 
may decide on more or less choices, depending on the type of 
items you are categorizing. 

I personally felt it important to contain each item's total 
printout to the 32 character limitation of the Color 
Computer. Some children cannot handle reading printouts 
that break up onto two lines. Therefore, lines 300, 380, and 
460 only permit printing of the first 17 characters of the title. 
You may change this to suit your own program's needs. 
Since printers permit 80 characters per line, no modification 
of A$'s length was needed on lines 310, 390, and 470. 

This program was meant to be the framework or guide to 
simple data manipulation for children. Let the child select 
his own objects to be used and his own categories for sorting. 
This will provide a new avenue of use for computers for the 
child. We, at Computer Island, are always interested in how 
children make use of the various programs we write for 
them. Please drop us a line from time to time and keep us 
informed. 

The Listing: 

10 REM" STEVE BLYN" 
20 REM" COMPUTER ISLAND" 
30 REM "COLLECT" 
40 CLS 

50 REM" X IS ANY NUMBER GREATER 
THAN THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF BOOKS" 
60 X=50 

70 DIM A*<X) ,B*<X) ,C*<X) 
80 FOR T=l TO X 
90 READ A*<T) ,B*<T) ,C*<T) 
100 IF A*<T)="XXX" THEN 120 
110 NEXT T 

120 PR I NT "DO YOU HAVE A PRINTER" 
; : INPUT P* 

130 REM"***PL* WILL DETERMINE IF 

YOU HAVE A PRINTER" 
140 PL*=LEFT* <P*, 1 ) 
150 PRINT 

160 IF PL*="Y" THEN PR I NT "BE SUR 
E TO TURN ON YOUR PRINTER" 
170 PRINT 

180 PR I NT "CHOOSE HOW YOU WANT TO 

SEE BOOKS" 
190 PR I NT "YOU MAY- 1. 
E BOOKS" 

2. 



SEE ALL TH 



CHOOSE ANY 



3. CHOOSE BY 



ENTER 1 OR 2 OR 3" 



200 PRINT" 

AUTHOR " 
210 PRINT" 
ANY RATING" 
220 PRINT" 
; : INPUT A 

230 IF A>3 THEN 220 

240 IF A=2 THEN 340 

250 IF A=3 THEN 420 

260 CLS 

270 GOSUB 510 

280 FOR T= 1 TO X 

290 IF A*<T)="XXX" THEN 490 

300 PRINTTAB <0) LEFT* < A* <T) , 17) TA 

B<18)LEFT*<B*<T) , 12) TAB <29)C* <T) 



AARDVARK 



TRS-80 COLOR 



OSI 



VIC-64 VIC-20 



SINCLAIR 



TIMEX 




QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMES! Different from all the others. 
Quest is played on a computer generated 
map of Alesia. Your job is to gather men 
and supplies by combat, bargaining, explor- 
ation of ruins and temples and outright 
banditry. When your force is strong enough, 
you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable 
in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different every 
time. 16k TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Sin- 
clair. 13K VIC-20. $14.95 each. 




ADVENTURESS! 

These Adventures are written in BASIC, are 
full featured, fast action, full plotted ad- 
ventures that take 30-50 hours to play. (Ad- 
ventures are interactive fantasies. It's like 
reading a book except that you are the main 
character as you give the computer com- 
mands like "Look in the Coffin" and 
"Light the torch.") 

Adventures require 16k on TRS80, TRS80 
color, and Sinclair. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on Vic-20. Derelict takes 12k on 
OSI. $14.95 each. 

ALSO FROM AARDVARK - This 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business 



CATERPILLAR 

O.K., the Caterpillar does look a lot like a 
Centipede. We have spiders, falling fleas, 
monsters traipsing across the screen, poison 
mushrooms, and a lot of other familiar 
stuff. COLOR 80 requires 16k and Joy- 
sticks. This is Edson's best game to date. 
$19.95 for TRS 80 COLOR. 

PROGRAMMERS! 

SEE YOUR PROGRAM IN THIS SPACE!! 

Aardvark traditionally pays the highest com- 
missions in the industry and gives programs 
the widest possible coverage. Quality is the 
keyword. If your program is good and you 
want it presented by the best, send it to 
Aardvark. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS 

(by Rodger Olsen ) 
This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANET. You'll have to explore a Martian 
city and deal with possibly hostile aliens to 
survive this one. A good first adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 
This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. 
It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of 
problems. Exciting and tough! 

HAUNTED HOUSE (by Bob Anderson) 
It's a real adventure — with ghosts and ghouls 
and goblins and treasures and problems — 
but it is for kids. Designed for the 8 to 12 
year old population and those who haven't 
tried Adventure before and want to start 
out real easy. 

DERELICT 

(by Rodger Olsen & Bob Anderson) 
New winner in the toughest adventure from 
Aardvark sweepstakes. This one takes place 
on an alien ship that has been deserted for a 
thousand years — and is still dangerous! 




TUBE FRENZY 

(by Dave Edson) 
This is an almost indescribably fast action 
arcade game. It has fast action, an all new 
concept in play, simple rules, and 63 levels 
of difficulty. All machine code, requires 
Joysticks. Another great game by Dave 
Edson. TRS 80 COLOR ONLY. 16k and 
Joysticks required. $19.95. 




CATCH'EM 

(by Dave Edson) 
One of our simplest, fastest, funnest, all 
machine code arcade games. Raindrops and 
an incredibe variety of other things come 
falling down on your head. Use the Joy- 
sticks to Catch'em. It's a BALL! - and a 
flying saucer! — and a Flying Y!— and so 
on. TRS 80 COLOR. $19.95. ' 

BASIC THAT ZOOOMMS!! 
AT LAST AN AFFORDABLE COMPILER! 

The compiler allows you to write your 
programs in easy BASIC and then auto- 
matically generates a machine code equiv- 
alent that runs 50 to 150 times faster. 

It does have some limitations. It takes at 
least 8k of RAM to run the compiler and it 
does only support a subset of BASIC— 
about 20 commands including FOR, NEXT, 
END,GOSUB, GOTO, IF, THEN, RETURN, 
END, PRINT, STOP, USR (X), PEEK, 
POKE, *,/,+,-, > , < , = , VARIABLE 
NAMES A-Z, SUBSCRIPTED VARIABLES, 
and INTEGER NUMBERS FORM 0-64K. 

TINY COMPILER is written in BASIC. It 
generates native, relocatable 6502 or 6809 
code. It comes with a 20-page manual and 
can be modified or augmented by the user. 
$24.95 on tape or disk for OSI, TRS-80 
Color, or VIC. 



Please specify system on all orders 

is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $ 1 .00 for our complete catalog. 




AARDVARK -80 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313) 669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 



Super "Color" Writer ll_ 

A "ROLLS ROYCE" FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER rZnbow 



CEKTJRCATION 
SEAL 

.C 



If you are contemplating buying a word processor tor your TRS 
Color Computer or TDP System 100 Personal Computer, look no further! ! 
The Super "Color" Mr Iter is the most powerful and most versatile word 
processor available. This user- friendl y program gives you many times 
the power and speed, and MORE MEMORY than any other word processor for 
your computer. The Sa^er "Color" Mr Iter does it all! 

No other program lets you fully use every capability built 
into your printer, AND MITH EASE/ Emphasis, italics* double 
strike, normal mode, compressed, elongated-compressed mode, and 
££- &hiG>& T£J? £Mf*H&S Z Z El T? Z T Z C S are at 

your fingertips, all within JUSTIFIED text. Underlining is a 
breeze! All the parameters for proper page -formatting (margins, 
page length, etc.) are fully alterable. Yet, without changing a 
single thing you can print text perfectly the first time. 



won't work with your letter quality printer. There's-^o reason 
you can't give H 2 0 its proper name or have footnotes. As for 
bold print f underlining . proportional spacing f super bold or any 
other printer-controlled function - if your printer has it f the 
filBfiX "fiolQX" Writer U can do it! You can also freely exchange 
thimbles or daisy wheels to change to italics, or to a totally 
different typeface with the pause print feature. 

And the Sa^er "Color" Mr iter II has the exclusive WINDOW to make 
your formatting pleasant and perfect. Enter the window to view your 

whole text as it will be sent to the printer, whatever your margins, 
from 1 to 200 or more! No longer will you be tied to seeing only 32 „ 
51, 64 or whatever number of characters on a line. You can see that 

your text is centered, headers and footers are always properly placed, 
and your columns are correct. 



With the Super "Color" Mr iter II screen editing is a snap; the 
commands are powerful and hard to forget „ You can edit all your BASIC 
PROGRAMS TOO! With all these features, you must surely agree that 
this is the "ROLLS ROYCE" of word processors. To learn more, refer to 
the Nelson Software Systems ad in this magazine. And don ? t forget 
that the Super "Color" Mr iter II is only one important part of the 
Super "Color" Library 9 which includes the Super "Color" Terminal 9 the 
Super "Color" Mailer, the Super "Color" Disk-ZAP and the soon to be 
released Super "Color" Calc and Super "Color" Database. No other 
company gives you such outstanding products and support. You can buy 
theirs now and ours later, OR you can save your money and get the best 
from the very start ! 



This document was prepared using a TRS-80(TM) Color Computer, the 
Super "Color" Mriter II, an Epson MX-80 Braftrax Plus ( TM> , and an NEC 
Spinwriter 3510 (TM> to illustrate the great flexibility in formatting 
allowed by the Super "Color" Mriter II* 



Spinwriter is a trademark of NEC Intonation Systeis, Inc. Braftrax Plus is a trademark of Epson Aierica, Inc 

TRS-80 and TDP Systei 100 Personal Computer are trademarks of the Tandy Corporation. 



THE ULTIMATE IN COLORCOMPUTING 

For the TftS-80 Color Computer and TOP System TOO Personal Computer 



Super "Color" Writer II g 

By Tim Nation fe.ii 

The Rolls Royce of Word Processors 

The Super ''Color* Writer is a FAST, machine code, full featured, 
character (screen) oriented word processing system for the TRS-60 1 " 
Color Computer and ANY printer. The video diaplay is styled after a 
professional phosphor (green characters on black background) display 
for hours of use without eye fatigue (optional orange on black) , The 
unique print WINDOW frees you from 32, 51 or 64 character lines 
FOREVER! This window can be moved anywhere In the text file, up. 
down, left or right to display the text as it will be printed without wasting 



paper. You ct 
BASIC prograi 
for beginners 1 
system and a 



>r edit Super "Color" Terminal files. ASCII files. 
sr/Assombler source listings, it s simple enough 
id ♦ . . for the professional writer with a 32K disk 
. there's plenty of room to say It! 



COMPARISON CHART SUPER COLOR WRITER THE COMPETITION 

System Size 4K 16K 32K 4K 16K 32 K 

TAPE: Text space N/A 7K 23K N7A £K 1SK 

ROMPAK: T<sx| space 2,&K 16K 31 K N/A N/A N/A 

DISK: Tent apace N/A 5.SK 21.6K N/A 0 5K 1B.&K 

Right Justify YES NO 

Video Window YES NO 

Edit any ASCII File YES NO 

Programmable Function YES NO 

The figures speak for themselves and with professional features like 
PROGRAMMABLE function string commands to perform up to 28 
commands automatically PROGRAMMABLE text file chaining* 
PROGRAMMABLE column insert & delete, and right hand 
JUSTIFICATION with punctuation precedence, the choice is clear but 
there's still more! In their September 82 issue, "80 MICRO" says, "The 
Color Computer has finally come of age. Nothing Illustrates that coming 
of age better than this offering (SUPER "COLOR" WRITER) by Nelson 
Software". The Super "Color" Writer takes full advantage of the new 
breed of "smart printers" with Control codes 1-31, 20 Programmable 
control codes 0-255 for special needs. Works perfectly with all Epson, 
Radio Shack. Okidata, NEC. IDS, Centronics. Citoh, Smith Corona, 
Diablo Etc , Matrix, or Letter Quality Printers. 

CHECK THESE FEATURES!! 

User friendly ■ Easy commands* 32 K Compatible • Window ■ Key beep • 
HELP table • 128 character ASCII & graphics • Mem left and Mem used • 
Full cursor control * Quick paging * Scrolling ■ Word wrap around • Tabs 
* Repeat all functions ■ Repeat last command • Insert character & line ■ 
Delete character, delete to end of line, line to cursor, line & block • Block 
move, copy 4 delete *Global Search, Exchange & Delate * Merge or 
Append files • Imbed Control Codes in text » Underline * Superscripts * 
Subscripts * Headers. Footers h 2 Auxiliary footnotes on odd, even or all 
pages definable position • Flush right * N on -breakable space • A 
centering modes: 5, 8.3, 10 & TS.7 {CPI) • Full page & print formatting In 
text ■ Single sheet pause * Set Page length * Line length, Line specing. 
Margins, Page numbers • Title pages * Printer baud: 1 10, 30D h 600, 1200, 
2400 ■ Linefeeds after CR ■ Soft & hard formfeed • Works with 6 bit 
printer fix ■ and morel 

Super "Color" Writer II Disk 

The Disk version of the Super "Color" Writer works with the TRS-80C 
Disk System and has all the features listed above plus many more! Use 
with up to four Disk Drives. Includes an extended HELP table you can 
access at any time. Call a directory, print FREE space, Kill disk files and 
SAVE and LOAD text files you've created all from the Super "Color" 
Writer. Print, merge or append any Super "Color" Terminal file, ASCII 
file. BASIC program or Editor/Assembler source listing stored on the 
Disk or tape. The Super "Color" Writer Disk version has additional for- 
matting and print features for more control over your printer and 
PROGRAMMABLE chaining of disk files for "hands off operation. Print 
an entire BOOK without ever touching a thingl Includes comprehensive 
BO plus page Tutorial manual. 

TAPE $49.95 ROMPAK $74.95 DISK $99.95 

Tutorial only $15.00 (Refundable with purchase) 

ORDERING INCLUDE $3.00 for shipping In the U.S. & Canada, 
$6.00 for Foreign orders, C O,D. add $2.00. 



THE COMPETITION 



16K 

N/A 

NO 
NO 
NO 
NO 



32 K 
1SK 
N/A 
18 5K 



NELSON 

SOFTWARE 

SYSTEMS 

A Division of Sof I 




Super "Color" Terminal 

By Dan Nelson 

The Ultimate in Smart Terminals EBj 

The Super "Color" Terminal turns the Color Computer into a Super-smart 
terminal with all the features of VIDEOTEX™ plus much more, 
COMMUNICATE with Dow Jones 4 Compuserve and with computers like 
the TRS-BQ™ MODEL I, II, Ml. APFLE etc., via moden or RS-232 direct! 
Save the data to tape or print It! Reduces ON-LINE cost to a minimum! 

FEATURES 

10 buffer size settings from 2-30 K • Buffer full indicator • Prints buffer 
contents • Full 128 ASCII keyboard * Compatible with Super "Color" 
Writer files * UPLOAD & DOWNLOAD ASCII files, Machine Language & 
Basic programs • Set RS-232 parameters 'Duplex: Half/Full * Baud Rate: 
110, 300, 600, 1200. 2400, 4800 • Word Lengths 5, 6> 7 or 8 • Parity: Odd, 
Even or None * Stop Bits: 1-9 * Local linefeeds to screen * Tape save & 
load for ASCII files. Machine code & Basic programs * Unique clone 
feature for copying any tape. 

Super "Color Terminal Disk 

The disk version of the Super "Color* 1 Terminal works with the TRS-60C 
Disk system and has all the features listed above plus many morel Use 
with up to four Disk Drives • Call a directory, print FREE space, kill disk 
files, save and load text files or BASIC programs * Echo ability In full 
duplex * Lower case masking * 10 Keystroke Multiplier (MACRO) buffers 
that can be saved on disk to perform repetitive log-on tasks and send 
short messages (up to 250 characters each) • Programmable prompt or 
delay for send next line * Selectable character trapping » Set printer 
Baud rate to 110, 300. 600, 1200. & 2400 • Operators Manual 

TAPE $39.95 ROMPAK $49.95 DISK $59.95 

Operator! manual only $10,00 (Refundable with purchase) 

gflW Super "Color" Mailer 

Correspondence-Mailmerge 

The Super 'Color" Mailer Is a powerful multi-purpose file merging 
program that uses files created by the Super "Color" Writer IL One of 
Super "Color" Mailer*! most popular uses is producing customized form 
letters — at a fraction of the time and expense of individually typed 
letters. With Super "Color Mailer you can combine a Super "Color" Writer 

11 file cental ng a form letter with a file containing a list of names and 
addresses. You can even insert special words and phrases — unique to 
each addressee — Into the body of the letter. Other Super "Color" Mailer 
uses include creating Invoices, printing mailing labels, addressing 
envelopes, and producing "boiler plate" legal documents out of many 
different paragraphs. Features include: the ability to selectively print 
mailing lists by any of up to 10 user definable fields * automatically prints 
current date • address * salutation • closing • P S etc. * prints any ASCII 
file * justification. 

TAPE $39.95 DISK $59.95 



9072 Lyndale Avenue So. 612/681-2777 



Minneapoli 



>ta 55420 U. S A. 



Super "Color" Disk-ZAP 

* The Ultimate in Disk Repair Utilities 

A must for ALL Color Computer Disk system owners, A high-speed 
machine code Disk Utility that can copy sectors and tracks * repair 
directory tracks and smashed disks, etc. Super "Color" Dlik-ZAF has a 
special screen display that displays sector, track and memory contents in 
HEXADECIMAL and ASCI I at the same time with double cursors that can 
be moved In any direction. With Super "Color Dlik-ZAP you are able 
to verify or modify disk sectors at wilt. You can even type right onto the 
Disk! You can send sector contents to the printer or any other RS-232 
device in either ASCII or HEXADECIMAL listing. Search the entire 
Diskette for any ASCII or HEXADECIMAL string. Comes complete with 
comprehensive manual. 

DISK ONLY $69.95 

c °oO** Su P er "Color Calc 

s ° Electronic Spread Sheet 

The finest electronic spread sheet and financial modeling program 
available for the Color Computer — A sophisticated yet easy to use, 
calculating and planning tool. Project figures into the future to answer 
the "What if?" questions you face. Create files compatible with the 
Super 'Color 11 Writer II. Combine spread sheet tables with your 
documents to create ledgers, projections, statisiical & financial reports 
& budgets. 

AVAILABLE AT DEALERS EVERYWHERE. IF NOT, ASK WHYfl 

TRS-M) li a regiitered trademark ol the Tandy Corp. 



Page 60 the RAINBOW 

310 IF PL*="Y"THEN PR I NT#-2 , TAB < 
2)A*<T)TAB<30)B*<T)TAB<50)C*<T) 
320 NEXT 
330 GOTO 490 

340 CLS: PR I NT "WHICH AUTHOR'S BOO 

KS DO YOU WANT": INPUT H* 

350 GOSUB 510 

360 FOR T«l TO X 

370 IF A*<T)="XXX" THEN 490 

380 IF B*<T)=H* THEN PRINTTAB <0) 

LEFT* <A$<T),17) TAB < 18) LEFT* <B* < 

T),12) TAB<29)C*<T) ELSE 400 

390 IF PL*="Y" THEN PRINT#-2,TAB 

<2)A*<T)TAB<30)B*<T)TAB<50)C*<T) 

400 NEXT T 

410 GOTO 490 

420 CLS: PR I NT "WHICH RATING DO YO 
U WANT TO SEE": INPUT R* 

430 GOSUB510 

440 FOR T= 1 TO X 

450 IF A*<T)="XXX" THEN 490 

460 IF C*<T)=R* THEN PRINTTAB <0) 

LEFT* < A* < T ) , 17)TAB<18)LEFT*<B*<T 

) , 12)TAB<29)C*<T) ELSE 480 

470 IF PL*="Y"THEN PR I NT#-2 , TAB < _ 

2)A*<T)TAB<30)B*<T)TAB<50)C*<T) 

480 NEXT T 

490 END 

500 REM "THIS PART PRINTS HEADING 
S" 

510 PR I NT: PR I NTT AB<2) "NAME OF BO 



December, 1 982 

0K"TAB<18) " AUTHOR " TAB < 26) "RATING 



■I 



520 PRINT" 



ii 



<2) " 
TAB < 
540 



560 
570 



B 

590 
L,A 
600 
610 
620 
C 

630 
640 



A 

660 



IF PL*="Y" THEN PRINT#-2,TAB 
NAME OF BOOK " TAB < 30) "AUTHOR" 
50) "RATING":PRINT#-2, " " 
RETURN 

REM "ENTER YOUR DATA HERE" 
DATA SHERLOCK HOLMES, DOYLE, B 
DATA HAUNTED BRIDGE, KEENE, C 
DATA HUCKLEBERRY FINN, TWAIN, 

DATA ENCYCLOPEDIA BROWN, SOBO 

DATA TOM SAWYER, TWAIN, A 
DATA KEYSTONE KIDS, TUNIS, A 
DATA THE FOOT BOOK, DR. SEUSS, 

DATA IRON DUKE, TUNIS, B 

DATA CAT IN THE HAT, DR. SEUSS 

DATA BUNGALOW MYSTERY, KEENE, 

DATA XXX, Y,Z ^ 



Look For 
The 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 




All Color Softwar 




i on t t 

333 1 8 



Are you tired of trying to control two joysticks at once? Would 
you like to use FOUR paddles at once? Would you like to move your Joysticks? 
printer? or tape recorder farther away from CoCo??? If you answered yes to 
any of these questions? then ACS is for you!! We carry a line of quality 
Joysticks? Paddles? and DIN cable extentions. These paddles and joysticks 
offer fast? accurate readings? and hair trigger responce on the 'fire' buttonl 
All our cables are pre-tested at our own location before they are sent to 
you- And our products are made with the best materials possible to ensure 
long life. 

Now? for a limited time only? Double Helix II is at an all time low 
prices only $10! ! ! Yes? that great Hi-Res game where you try to destroy 
those genetic invaders before they get your DNA! ( 16K E.C.B. Req. ) 

Order before 12/31 and get a special bonus program FREE!!! 



Price lists 



Double Pot Joystick 
Two (2) ACS Paddles 
Double Helix II 



$40.00 
$25.00 
$10.00 



Single Pot Joysticks $20.00 
All DIN extentions s $10.00 
(Specify s Cass? Print ? Joy . All are 



10 feet) 



No shipping charges! 



ORDER NOW f f ! 



December, 1982 

Contest Update... 



the RAINBOW 



Rainbow's 
Adventure 
Contest Results 

Next Month 



Keep your fingers crossed. 
The Rainbow Adventure Game Contest deadline for 
entries has now passed . . . but the jury is still out. We can 

report that the judges are still scratching their heads, jotting 
down notes ana otherwise studiously reviewing tne games 
we received. 

Yes, we had promised to publish the results earlier, but we 
simply underestimated the amount of time (and the number 
of entries) it would take for judging. So, we will now 
announce the winners — and the honorable mentions — in 
next month's (January) issue. 

It is taking a concentrated effort to meet the deadline. But, 
we intend to fully and fairly review every entry and 
January's issue is as early as we can realistically do that. And 
a job it is too, a mixture of both fun and frustration. 

The entries represent a wide variety of games. Some are 
written for 4K but most for 16K or 32K. Knock on wood. A 
couple have had loading problems. As of this writing, we are 
trying again. If you think there might be trouble, you could 
rush us another copy. Those of you who took the trouble to 
make several saves were smart to do so. 

While we have yet to see all the entries in action, we can 
report that some are quite good and rank right along with 
those commercially available. Others require some patience 
and persistance on the part of the judges. Yes, some have 
bugs. 

If you submitted an entry, you should have long since 
received an acknowledgement of our having received it. 

Due to the support of our advertisers, winners, runners- 
up and honorable mentions will all receive prizes. Stay 
turned. The list will be printed next month. 

Some comments about our judging philosophy might be 
in order. We are looking at the entire package from the 
consumer's point of view, not from the technical side. That 
is, your programming technique may well add to the game's 
creativity, responsiveness and entertainment value, but you 
don't win any special points for "pretty printing," variety of 
techniques used, or other technical mastery unless it's 
evidenced in the actual running of your Adventure. We are 
not reading the listing as a part of the judging excercise. 

In judging, we also feel you should not have any special 
computer knowledge in order to play and enjoy the game. 
Your Adventure should be simple enough that most people 
can play it without assistance from the household's 
computer expert. For this reason, we have selected judges 
with varying levels of computer expertise, including one 
judge who has almost no knowledge of computers 
whatsoever. We think this is an important consideration and 
hope that our contestants were through enough to try their 
games out on other people before sending them in. 

Other considerations we are looking at are creative use of 




Page 61 



sound, colors, vocabulary, traps, surprises and variety in 
action. 

While Rainbow has provided the judges with a 
standardized scoresheet and provided space for the judges to 
make individual comments, we have asked the judges to 
weigh heavily the"playability"and entertainment value — as 
well as the game's "addictiveness." That is, we believe the 
game should "grow" on people — not be played just once and 
shelved. 

The winning Adventure will be featured in next month's 
Rainbow. So, everyone will benefit from this game. And, 
remember, we will announce details for a Simulation 
Contest next month as well. 

Meanwhile, have patience. Remember, the judges are 
dying a thousand deaths in an effort to meet their deadline. 





FAMII — Y G^MB"S 

Far IcK COLOR COMPUTER 



* ^STOCKBROKER 



Up to 6 f 1 <a y e- r s ca n p 1 a. y t h e 
stmok market — hours of fun ( 



m *COLORM I IVJ O -a* *r * 

Up to A players challenge for 
hidden co}ors ~ hour- ot fun! 

!. Game $20 > 

2> Games $35 - 0$ 

Al_iRORA SOFTWARE 

49 Er oo k 1 a n d Ave . 
AURORA ONTARIO 
CANADA L4G-4'H6 



Page 62 

Graphics... 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



On Printing Alphanumerics In Eight Directions 



1 p •■- 



www 



By Joseph Kolar 




Do you have a need to print alphanumeric 
characters vertically on your Hi-Res graphic page? 
Do you love to concatinate? Would you like to set 
the A (angle mode) of the draw statement in 
operation? Do you want it simple? Then this is for 

You might want to review the draw statement i 
the extended color manual. 

For brevity,"*" will be used for concatination 
(linking together in a series) in this article 
hereinafter. 

The purpose of this program is to allow you to 
print alphanumeric characters in any of the eight 
motion directions as used in the draw command. To 
wit: U=UPWARDS, L=TO THE LEFT, R=TO 
THE RIGHT, E=UP AND TO THE RIGHT, 
F=DOWN AND TO THE RIGHT, G=DOWN 
AND TO THE LEFT, H=UP AND TO THE 
LEFT. D is not used since it is the default direction. 

The draw command: Draw "AS8BMH,V" must 
be used to locate the area where the first character 
will be situated. A is the angle option (more on this 
later). S8 is the size used in this program which 
generates a 15 by 15 locating matrix. H means 
horizontal, and V means vertical. 

Sizes larger than S8 work well but allow less 
lettering on the screen. 

The alphanumeric variables are easy to 
remember. The letter A=LA$, B=LB$, and so forth 
through Z which=LZ$. The numerals run from 
0=NO$, 1=N1$ through 9=N9$. P$ is the one 
punctuation mark. 

The seven directional variables are 
U$=UPWARDS, L$=TO THE LEFT, R$=TO 
THE RIGHT, E$=UPWARDS AND TO THE 
RIGHT, F$=DOWNWARDS TO THE RIGHT, 
G$ = LEFT AND DOWNWARDS, H$ = 
UPWARDS AND TO THE LEFT. There is no 
variable for a downward direction since it is the 
def ault direction. Finally, S$=an empty space and is 
used to separate words in any direction. 

The program works in locating the starting 
position on the screen via draw "AS8BMHY." 
Then "+" the letter that will be in that position. If 
you are heading vertically downwards merely "+" 
each additional letter. However, if you change 
direction "+" the desired directional variable and 
then "+" the next character variable. Each time you 
are in a direction other than vertical, you must 
preface each character variable with a directional 
variable. 

There you have it! It shouldn't take you much 
time to memorize the variables or the method of 




tl A 1 ! 



Mi 



Vn\\v\ 



keying. It is all +, +, +ing! The only time you would 
use anything but a variable would be when you were 
starting from a new location. 

My purpose for this program is to append it to 
another program, create with it, and then delete all 
variable lines not used in the main program to 
conserve memory, The program starts at line 10000 
to avoid the need to renumber the program. There 
are no dim statements or read/ data routines to 
complicate the linking of this program to the 
graphic program. 

Remember as you that if your string runs 
over 225 characters, you will get OS error message. 
Simply chop off the last few variables and start 
them on the next line in a draw statement. 

The characters of the alphanumeric variables 
were created sideways on a 4 by 4 matrix, A or A 1 is 
inserted in the draw statement to rotate the 



charact c rs 90 degrees clockwise to stand up. For the 
heck of it, run the program examples without the A 
option and you will get gift-wrapped garbage! 

Key-in the program and run it. What you have on 
the screen is the first example. This demonstrates 
printing in four directions in a counter clockwise 
direction with just one locating statement. Note 
that as you go vertically you do not need directional 
variables due to it being the default direction. 
Merely "+" the character variables. To change 
direction "+" the desired directional variable and 
then "+" a character variable. 

The rule is, "+" directional variable "+" character 
variable, except when in the vertical downwards 
mode where the rule is character variable. 

change line 10585 to read draw G$+LJ$ and you 
will have made a complete circle and put a J on top 
of the first character that was printed in line 1 05 10. 
To prove the point, change line 10585 to draw 
G$+LX$ and you will superimpose an X over the 
verticle J. Change line 10585 back to 10585 GOTO 
10585. 

You can easily visualize the "+ing" in the first 
example by following each "+." Look at line 10560 
and say to yourself, "GO UP PRINT O GO UP 
PRINT J GO UP TO THE LEFT." Then line 
10570, "PRINT R, GO LEFT PRINT A." 

Delete line 1 0585. The second example will be "+" 
to the first program. When I +, I +! This will give 
you a nice idea of how effortlessly you can create 
vertical lines of print. Note that there are no 
directional variables required due to the default 
mode. Just "+" one character after another and 
separate the words with "+" S$. 

Insert line 10645 GOTO 10800. This"+"thethird 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 



PREMIUM 

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COMPUTER GRADE 
100% ERROR-FREE 
FULLY GUARANTEED 




'LENGTH 12-PAK 24-PAK 

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C-30 1.19 1.09 

C-60 1.49 1.39 

C-90 1.79 1.69 

* CASES 21 .20 

■Cases recommended 1o prorecl sensitive .cassettes 






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extension 3005 
In Arizona 

1-800-352-0458 

Extension 3005 

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Oak Harbor. WA 98277 
— Distributors Wanted — 



example to the first example. This shows off 
diagonal lettering. Note that when print is in an 
upward or left direction, you have to work 
backwards. To wit: "+" directional variable "+" last 
letter of word "+" directional variable "+" next to 
last letter in word, and so forth to the first letter in 
the word. 

Before you append this program, or when you 
master the system, delete lines 10490 through 1 0900 
and change line 10000 to read 10000 REM. After 
you are finished with your creative effort, you may 
want to delete the lines of any variables you did not 
use, to conserve memory. 

This is a very simple, easy to use appendable 
program to create title pages or enhance your hi-res 
graphics. Or, you can use it as a stand-alone 
program. Surely, you creative programmers will 
dream up other uses. So, have fun! 

The Listing: 

10000 DELETE LINES 10490-10 

900BEFORE APPENDING THIS PRO- GR 
AM!******SEE REM AT END****** 
10010 * LA* TO LZ* =ALPHABET 
10020 ' N0* TO N9* =NUMERALS 
10030 * P*= PUNCTUATION 
10040 R*="BM-6,-8" 'CHANGE FROM 
VERICAL TO HORIZ. 

10050 L*="BM-6,+8" ' FROM VERT I C 

AL TO HORIZ. LEFT 

10060 U*="BM-12,0" 'CHANGE HOR. 

TO VERT. (UPWARDS) 

10070 S*="BM+6,+0"' EMPTY BLOCK 

10080 F$= " BM+0 , -8 " ' VERT DOWN TO 

HORIZ RIGHT 

10090 E*="BM-12,-8' , 'H0RIZ RIGHT 
TO VERT UP 

10100 G*="BM+0,+8"'HORIZ LEFT TO 

VERT DOWN 
10110 H*="BM-12,+8"'VERT UP TO H 
ORIZ LEFT 

1 0 1 20 LA*= " BRNR3HU2ERND4R2BD4BR2 



ii 



10130 
10140 
10150 
10160 
10170 
10180 
10190 
10200 
10210 
10220 
10230 
10240 
10250 
10260 
10270 
10280 
3" 

10290 
10300 
10310 
10320 



LB*= " NR4U3EFND3EFD3BR2 " 

LC*= " BRNR2HU2EBR2FD2GBR3 " 

LD*= " NR4U3ER2FD3BR2 " 

LE*= " NU3R2NU2R2NU4BR2 " 

LF*= " NU4R2NU2R2BR2 " 

LG*= " NR4U4BR2NDRFD3BR2 " 

LH*= " R2NR2U4NL2R2BD4BR2 " 

LI$=" BU2R4BD2BR2 " 

L J *= " BU4R3FD2GLBR4 " 

LK*=' , NR4BU4F2ND2E2BD4BR2" 

LL*="R4NU4BR2" 

LM*= " NR4E2H2R4BD4BR2 " 

LN*= " NR4E4NL4BD4BR2 " 

LO*= " BRNR2HU2ER2FD2GBR3 " 

LP*= " NR4U3EFD3BR4 " 

LQ*= " BRNR2HU2ER2FDNLNRDGBR 

LR*= " NR4U3EFND3BDE2BD4BR2 " 
" BU3NED2FEU2EFD2GBR3 " 
" U2NU2R4BD2BR2 " 
" NR3BU4R3FD2GBR3 " 



LT* 
LU* 



Page 64 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 




EAST TEXAS COLOR 
COMPUTER CLUB 

2101 E. Main St 
Henderson, Texas 75652 



THE WORLDS LARGEST COLOR COMPUTER CLUB 
HERE ft RE 10 GOOD REftSONS TO JOIN 

1) . FREE PROGRftMS. Good programs 

written by members are yours. 
(These alone are worth a years 
worth of dues ! ) 

2) . Subscription to the RftlNBOW, 

a Magazine devoted entirely 
to the Color Computer. 

3) . Uft« of a Library, with books, 

and FREE member-written programs, 
(you must send a blank tape) 

4) . ft club "magazine sized" news- 

letter with tips, programs, 
reviews, articles and more! 

5) . Buy, sell & trade with your ad 

(up to l/4th page per issue) 
in the newsletter, FREE! 

6) . Discounts on many software & 

hardware items for the 80-C. 
Save from 5 to 40* from some 
of the MftJOR COMPftNIES. 

7) . ft "new member package" with 

many USEFUL items. 

8) . Discounts on subscriptions to 

CCN and Chromasette magazine. 

9) * ft PftRTS Library where you may 

borrow parts & save "downtime". 

10) . Join the WORLDS LftRGEST Color 

Computer Club, Where you can 
get help from the many members 
who are master programmers. 
(Some are electronic experts) 




10330 
10340 
10350 
10360 
10370 
10380 
10390 
10400 
10410 
10420 
10430 
10440 
10450 



LVS= 
LW*= 
LX*= 
LY*= 
LZS= 
P*=" 
N0*= 
Nl*= 
N2*= 
N3*= 
N4*= 
N5*= 
N6*= 



" NR2BU4R2F2G2BR4 " 

" NR4BU4R4G2F2BR2 " 

"E4BL4F4BR2" 

" BU4F2NG2R2BD2BR2 " 

"U4F4NU4BR2" 



ii 



LO* 

"BEHR4BD2BR2" 
" U3EFD3R2NU4BR2 " 
" U3EFND2EFD3BR2" 
" BU3NR4F3NU4BR3 " 
" NU4R2U3EFD3BR2 " 
" BU3NED2FR2HU2EFD2GBR3 



H 



10460 N7*="U4RF3BD2BR2" 

1 0470 N8*= " BRHU2EFND2EFD2GHGBR5 " 

1 0480 N9*= " BRHU2ENR2FD2GBR2EU2HB 

D4BR3" 

10490 " EXAMPLE # 1 

10500 PM0DE4, 1IPCLS I SCREEN 1,0 

10510 DRAW "AS8BM76,62"+LJ*+L0*+ 

LS*+LE*+LP* 

10520 DRAW LH*+F*+LK* 

10530 DRAW R*+LO*+R*+LL*+R*+LA* 

10540 DRAW R*+LR*+E*+LH* 

10550 DRAW U*+LP*+U*+LE*+U*+LS* 

10560 DRAW U*+LO*+U*+LJ*+H* 

10570 DRAW LR*+L*+LA* 

10580 DRAW L*+LL*+L*+LO*+L*+LK* 

10585 GOTO 10585 

10590 FOR X= 2 TO 14 STEP 2 

10600 CIRCLE(124,96) ,X, 1 

10610 NEXT 

10620 FOR X=14 TO 2 STEP-2 

10630 CIRCLE < 124, 96) , X,0 

10640 NEXT 

10650 ' EXAMPLE #2 

10660 DRAW "BM20,20"+LJ*+LU*+LL* 

+LY*+S* 

10670 DRAW N 1 *+N0*+S*+N 1 *+N9* 

10680 DRAW N8*+N2* 

10690 DRAW "BM220, 16"+LI*+LN*+LV 

*+LE*+LR*+LN* 

10700 DRAW LE*+LS*+LS*+S*+LF* 

10710 DRAW LL*+LA* 

10720 GOTO 10590 

10800 ' EXAMPLE # 3 

1 0820 DRAWBM6 ,2" +N1*+F*+N9*+F*+ 

N8*+F*+N2* 

1 0830 DRAW " BM6 , 1 80 " +N 1 *+E*+N9*+E 
*+N8*+E*+N2* 

1 0840 DRAW " BM244 , 2 " +N2*+G*+N8*+G 
*+N9*+G*+Nl* 

10850 DRAWBM244, 180"+N2*+H*+N8* 

+H*+N9*+H*+N1* 

10860 GOTO 10590 

10890 '***TO VIEW 2ND EXAMPLE, D 
ELETE LINE 10585. 

10900 ? ***TO VIEW 3RD EXAMPLE IN 
SERT LINE 10645 GOTO 10800 ^ 




S A 





COLOR COMPUTER 





This Month Only 




MASTER CONTROL 

Copyright °1981 Soft Sector Marketing, Inc. 
- Written by A. Schwartz 



Requires 16-32K 

1 . 50 preprogrammed command keys. Standard 
and Extended command. 

2. Direct control of motor, trace and audio from 
keyboard. 

3. Automatic line numbering. 

4. Programmable Custom Key. 

5. Direct Run Button. 

6. Keyboard overlay for easy program use. 

7. Easy entry of entire commands into computer. 

Load Master Control into your machine then 
either type in a BASIC program or load one in 
from tape to edit. Cuts programming time by 
50% or more. 

$24.95 



For The Radio Shack 
Color Computer* 



Written by E.R. 

50 PROGRAMS 

In One Package 

"The Color Computer is a product of Radio Shack, 
division of tt-ie Tandy Corporation. 



$49.95 



ghost gobbler! j ape Directory 

16K - JOYSTICK I K » ... / 



$21.95 



Copyright ®1982 



7 



up V 



Creates index 
of your 

programs 
for each 

tape . 

To screen 

or printer. 



MACHINE LANGUAGE 



FOR 4K COLOR USERS 



^Color 



A MUST FOR ALL 
COLOR COMPUTER 
USERS! 



iT GREAT GRAPHICS 

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Only $19.95 



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$14.95 



- DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME - 




SOFT SECTOR MARKETING, 

INCORPORATED 

6250 Middlebelt • Garden City, Michigan 481 35 
Order Line 800-521-6504 

Michigan Orders & Questions 313-425-4020 



■ ■"in. 



[ : \ f i PA VM ENT- paynrien i o ccepted bye narge. personoi chec k 

VISA' "25^1 1 or CO.D only. undeHhe toi lowing coot t hons Charges 

B^^^H - ^ V ""* | processed when snipped. usoall v wi thin 4fl nou rs Personal 

" Ctwcfcs delay' Eh ipping. pending 3 weeks locfeor COD. 

orders ore certified check or cosh only odd Si 50 Ml resident must add 4% safes lax 
SHIPPING * HANDLrNG - Shipping Charge* Sena the larger amount. 2% or 525fl unless 
stipularedotherv/ise Any order received without shipping and handling will be sNpped freight 
collect Air Mail Shipping! outside of North America please send the larger amount 10% or 
$10 DO Overpoyntenf will be relunded 



The Quality Continues . 



Page 66 

Music... 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 




w 



This Is Just Like Music To Your Eyes 




By Larry Konecky 




The Music Processor, which was written as a visual aid f or 
music theory classes, could well become a valuable tool in 
the library of the musically-inclined computerist. 

Provisions are made in the program for saving and 
loading examples to and from tape storage, and a screen 
print program may be used f or printing assignments or short 
music examples. 

The Music Processor itself is menu based, but the menu is 
not displayed on the screen. After the program is loaded and 
"RUN" entered, all that will appear on the screen is the 
grand staff on a black background. Upon the staff may be 
drawn notes, rests, time signature, bar lines, accidentals, 
slurs, fermatas, and pointers. Below the staff may be placed 
symbols for figured bass and roman numeral identification 
of chords. Control for the placement of the various symbols 
is obtained by positioning a blinking cursor with the right 
joystick and pressing various keys. Figure 1 is a chart of the 
menu and functions of the keys. 

The main menu containes nine functions. "C" is the first 
function listed. Position the cursor at the desired location by 
adjusting the right joystick control and press "C." The 
cursor will stop blinking and the functions within the chalk 
menu may now be chosen. (The keys in the chalk menu will 
be discussed later.) Pressing "R" will pass control to the 
erase menu. To ensure proper erases of previously drawn 
symbols the cursor must be set as close as possible to the 
original cursor position used for drawing the symbol to be 
erased. Pressing "K" will save to tape all symbols that 
appear on the screen and also any that have been improperly 
erased. Before pressing"K" you must be surethat the tape is 
properly positioned, the recorder set for record, and the 
volume level properly adjusted. Pressing "M" will clear the 
screen and memory of present symbols, will load the next 
example stored on tape, and will draw the example onto the 
screen. Just as with "K" the tape must be properly 
positioned and the recorder properly adjusted f or loading of 
data. Pressing the up arrow, down arrow, OR lrft arrow 
keys will allow drawing of stem up or stem down notes or 
rests without having to press "C/"Pressing"CLEAR"erases 
the screen, erases memory, and redraws the grand staff. 
Pressing "Z" provides a memory check and/ or redraw 
function. The screen is cleared and the musical symbols are 
redrawn as if they had been loaded f rom tape. Remember to 



position the cursor before pressing "C," "R," or any of the 
arrow keys. If the cursor is in the incorrect location, press 
"ENTER" and control is returned to the joystick and main 
menu. 

The chalk menu consists of two parts (staff and below 
staff). Use of either part is automatically selected by the 
position of the cursor. If the cursor moves below the fourth 
ledger line below the staff control is shifted to the below staff 
menu. 

The staff keys, "S" for sharp, "F" for flat, "X" for double 
sharp, and "N" for natural are used by placing the cursor on 
the desired line or space and pressing the proper key. To 
place a bar line, position thecursor inthedesired horizontal 
position anywhere vertically on the staff and press "B." For 
time signatures position the cursor in the desired horizontal 
position anywhere vertically on the staff, then press "T," 
following immediately with four numbers. The numbers will 
be placed in the horizontal position of the cursor moving 
vertically f rom the top of the grand staff to the bottom of the 
staff. The dot "." will appear just above the present cursor 
position. The slur ":" may be used along with the dot to draw 
a fermata. The pointer right arrow is provided for 
instructional purposes. 

Each of the stem or rest keys moves control to a menu 
allowing selection of whole, half, quarter, and eighth notes 
or rests. Provisions are made to automatically draw up to 
three ledger lines above or below both treble and bass staffs. 
Pressing "C" is optional with either of these three arrow 
keys. 

Below the staff, placement is limited to four vertical 
positions for figured bass symbols and two for Roman 
numerals. Refer to Figure 2 for three examples of where 
symbols are placed . Markers are provided at each side of the 
screen at the upper Roman numeral position for the user's 
convenience. 

The erase menu contains two parts (staff and below staff). 
To erase stem up or stem down notes or slurs, use the 
corresponding arrow key for the notes, and either one for 
the slur. "N" will erase accidentals, rests, dots, and pointers. 
To erase the bar, position the cursor in the original 
horizontal position and press "B." (Any vertical position 
within the staff will work.) To erase the time signature, 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 67 




"DOWN ARROW 1 =? Stem Down 
LEFT ARROW ^ Rest 



SiSEC 



: : : : : : : :•: :•: : :■: : :«.:•:■:•: >:■: 



: :: : : : : : : :-y. : : : :i\ \' : y. :-::U :: . : . : :\:V 

":■ V: : . :: : :::::?::::: ::::•: ::: : : :': : :o: :': :: 



F CLEAR* ~ Erase Screen and Memory 



7/ - Memory Cheek and Redraw 



:: ■': 



£1 



:'.;•>: ::::•:<■-•:• 



tliialk Menu 



:::x8::x:::*::x:.::::::: 
: 



cSrSio:::::^:: 



:.,.:::::V:.::::v-:-:::::;:, : ,: : ::: : :;:: :: : 
:: yyUliyy^ :«>W"::-: 

,:: : 



STAFF 
V a Slur 
'RIGHT' = Pointer 



Below Staff 
(4 Bnes) 



:rcw:-:- 



Sharp 
•*F"'> Fiat 

lill Double Sharp 
W - Natural 

: - Dot 

* Bar 
V - Time Signature 



m:mmm 



mry\ % : :mzm$ v ^ 
W - Numbers 



yyy^t 



S£Si 



y^yyy^y- 
y : yl ':':;V" : -.>::::i 



: {: : : be 



VMS.l . -ft. 



top to bottom) 



OP"- 'DOWN- or 



^S' = Sharp 
T I Flat 

*X' = Double Sharp 1 
|N*= Natural 

■ 

= o 



ooowxewc.;;: 



' " . ' :,, 

\-^.'''-'-'-y'y'-.y '■>y}yyy- '■ 

■ . ■ ' 

<&»-,if£r..:'.'.v.-: : : : 



?:::«8>i:-::5!s 



:<<85>: 



Erase Menu 
Staff 

^UP-^Stem Up 
'DOWN 1 - Stem Down 

" Accidentals 
'TV- Time Signature 
W ? Bar 

BELOW STAFF 
'I-?* ^ Any Erase 
'ENTIRE Return to 

Main Menu 
^NTER 1 Return to 

#(^m Menu 
(Ail Erases must be do.se to 
original cursor position as 
possible for proper erases.) 



ceo: : : : : : : ■ 



W' = Whole 
H'-Half 

0 = 

'ENTER' - Return to 
Maui Menu 

: ': 



• yy££* 




•V' = V 

::::::: 



'L* - i « 



^::,:::::-:— 



3883 



^ENTER' - Return to 



FIGURE 2 




—- — 



i i I J d 

3 t*t cv <-r± — j~ 



I 



1 1 



1 1 i 



VI 



Vi i I 



X\'SyZf£' 



: : ' : : ■ ■ ■ 



MUSIC PROCESSOR VARIABLES 

N(E) = Symbol indicator (38 different symbols possible) 
A(E) = X axis position (horizontal) 
B(E) = Y asix position (vertical) 
E = Main counter (counts # of symbols used) 

(may be increased to 70 without a screen Print 
loaded.) 

X = JOYSTCK(0)*4 
Y = JOYSTCK(l)*3 

D = Redraw indicator (1 to draw, 0 to ignore) 

K = Loading indicator (1 to draw, 0 to ignore) 

T = Time signature indicator (1 to draw, 0 to ignore) 

Q = Time signature loop counter 

L and M = Roman numeral positions to draw 

P and C - Cursor color indicators 

Z, W, I, F. and H = Loop counters 

J = End of main count indicator 




* — i 



71 , II 



JtL 



- - . 




b - z 

3 Z 



I 12 



Y. vi 



i n| Z i 



Page 68 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



follow the same procedure for positioning the cursor as in 
erasing the bar and then press "T." Pressing "ENTER" will 
switch control back to the main menu and joystick without 
making any erases. 

Erasing below the staff is provided by pressing any one of 
the number keys. In order that proper memory erases occur, 
position the cursor in the original position that the 
particular symbol was drawn. It is possible for the erases to 
overlap symbols not intended to be erased. If this happens, 
press "Z,"and the example will be redrawn with the present 
symbols contained in memory. 

Remark statements have been left out of the program 
because it is rather lengthy and uses up the majority of the 
memory of a 16K machine. If you are not using a screen 
print program, the dimensions in statement two of the 
statement outline may be increased to 70. 



Music Processor Statement Outline 

2-16 Draw Grand Staff 
5-7 Staff 
8-13 Cleft Signs 
17-28 Cursor Control 
29-38 Main Menu 
39-71 Staff Menu 
39-44 Rests 

45-59 Basic Staff Menu 

60-65 Stem Up 

66-71 Stem Down 

72-97 Below Staff Menu 

72-81 Numbers 

82-85 Roman Numerals 



COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

Adventure games 
- THE ALCHEMIST'S LABORATORY - $14.95 

mix the ingredients that will 
turn lead into gold. 

- LOKAR'S MAGIC STAFF - $14.95 

can you unlock the deadly secrets of LOKAR'S magic staff? 

- MEGAMAZE - $14.95 
a wild, five dimensional space maze adventure. 

- SQUEEZE - $14.95 
arcade style game where aliens close in from both sides at 
once. 

- GRAPHIC SCREEN EDITOR - $16.95 

create pictures on the screen using joysticks or arrow keys- 
save on tape, erase, paint, and many other features. 

- COLOR SHOW DISPLAYS - $8.95 

five graphics programs that create endless changing pat- 
terns, 

all programs 16-K extended basic cassette only. 
Send for free catalogue. We accept checks, money orders, 
Visa and Mastercharge. (no C.O.D.'s) Please add $1.00 for 
shipping. Send to: 

REAL SOFTWARE CO. 

P.O. BOX 401 • H0PEDALE, MA 01747 

(617) 393-6281 

CIS orders EMAIL to 71505,430 
Mass. residents add 5% sales tax Dealer inquiries welcomed 



86-97 All Other Symbols 
98-107 Time Signature 

108- 146 Erase Routines 

109- 114 Below Staff 
115-121 Staff 

122-129 Erase and Redraw Staff 

130-136 Adjust Memory 

137-145 Time Signature 

146 Clear Memory 

147-150 Save To Tape 

151-153 Load From Tape 

154-162 Redraw Routine 

163-173 Symbol Positioning and Select 

174-214 Draw Routines 

174-182 Numbers 

183-186 Accidentals 

187-188 Bar and Dot 

189-192 Roman Numerals 

193-198 Other Symbols 

199-210 Notes and Ledger Lines 

211-213 Rests 

214 Slur 



2 PMODE 4„l:DIM N (64) , A(64) , B (64 
) 

3 E=l 

4 PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 1 

5 F0RZ=1TD5:LINE(2, (Z*6+33) >-(25 
0, (Z*6+33) > ,PSET:LINE(2, (Z*6+87) 
) - (250, ( Z*6+87) > , PSET: NEXTZ 

6 LINE(2,39)-(2, 117) ,PSET:LINE(3 
,39)-(3, 117) , PSET 

7 LINE (250, 39) -(250, 117) , PSET: LI 
NE(251,39)-(251, 117) , PSET 

8 DRAW"BM18,33D1L1D33L1D1L1D1L1U 
1L2U1L1U2R2D1L1" 

9 DRAW"BM13,56" 

10 F0RZ=1T02: DRAW"BM+1 , 0H1U1E2R4 
F3D483L5H5U 1 H 1 U2E 1 U 1 E 1 4U4H3G2 " 

1 1 DRAW " BM-7 , +66H 1 NR2U 1 R2H 1 E 1 R6D 
1R1F1D1F1D2G1D2G1D161D1G1D1G6" 

12 DRAW"BM+14,-20DlBM+0,+5Dl" 

13 DRAW"BM14, 56": NEXTZ 

14 PSET(4, 159,5) :PSET(249, 159,5) 

15 1 FD= 1 THEN J=E : GOTO 1 54 

16 IFK=1THEN151 

17 X=JOYSTK(0)*4: Y=J0YSTK(1)*3:P 
=PPOINT(X, Y) 

18 PSET(X,Y,P) 

19 X=JOYSTK(0)*4: Y= JOYSTK ( 1 ) *3 

20 IFX<8THENX=8 

21 IFX>246THENX»246 

22 IFY<15THENY=15 

23 IFY>168THENY=176:G0T027 

24 IFY>159THENY=168:G0T027 

25 IFY>150THENY=159:GOTO27 

26 IFY>142THENY=150 

27 P=PPO I NT ( X , Y ) : I FP=5THENO0ELS 
EC=1 

28 PSET(X,Y,C) 

29 IFPEEK(341)=254THEN45 

30 IFPEEK(340)=251THEN108 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 69 



31 IFPEEK 


(339)=191THEN146 


32 IFPEEK 


(341)=253THEN148 


33 IFPEEK 


(340) =247THEND=1 : G0T04 


34 IFPEEK 


( 343 ) =253THENK= 1 : GOTO 1 4 


6 

35 IFPEEK 


(341)=247THEN60 


36 IFPEEK 


(342)=247THEN66 


37 IFPEEK 


(343)=247THEN39 


38 GOTO 18 




39 IFPEEK 


( 345 ) =25 1 THENN ( E ) =35 : GO 


TO 163 




40 IFPEEK 


( 338 ) =253THENN ( E ) =35 : GO 


TO 163 




41 IFPEEK 


( 339 ) =25 1 THENN ( E ) =36 : GO 


TO 163 




42 IFPEEK 


(343) =254THENN (E) =37: GO 


TO 163 




43 IFPEEK 


(338)=191THEN18 


44 G0T039 




45 IFY<142THEN46ELSE72 


46 IFPEEK 


(341 )=247THEN60 


47 IFPEEK 


(342)=247THEN66 


48 IFPEEK (338) =191THEN18 


49 IFPEEK 


(342)=251THEN N(E)=10:T 


=l:E=E+l: 


G0T098 


50 IFPEEK 


(343)=247THEN39 


51 IFPEEK 


( 34 1 ) =25 1 THENN ( E ) = 1 1 : GO 


TO 163 




52 IFPEEK 


( 344 ) =254THENN ( E ) = 1 2 : GO 


TO 163 




53 IFPEEK 


( 338 ) =247THENN ( E ) = 1 3 : GO 


TO 163 




54 IFPEEK 


( 344 ) =253THENN ( E ) = 1 4 : GO 


TO 163 




55 IFPEEK 


( 344 ) =223THENN ( E ) =34 : GO 


TO 163 




56 IFPEEK 


( 340 ) =254THENN ( E ) =23 : GO 


TO 163 




57 IFPEEK 


( 344 ) =247THENN ( E ) =33 : GO 


TO 163 




58 IFPEEK 


( 340 ) =223THENN ( E ) =38 : GO 


TO 163 




59 G0T046 




60 I F Y > 1 42THEN72ELSE I FPEEK ( 345 ) = 


25 1 THENN (E) =15: G0T0163 


61 IFPEEK 


( 338 ) =253THENN ( E ) = 1 6 : GO 


TO 163 




62 IFPEEK 


( 339 ) =25 1 THENN ( E ) = 1 7 : GO 


TO 163 




63 IFPEEK 


(343) =254THENN ( E ) = 1 8 : GO 


TO 163 




64 IFPEEK 


(338)=191THEN18 


65 GOTO60 




66 IFY>142THEN72ELSEIFPEEK(345)= 


251THENN (E) =19: G0T0163 


67 IFPEEK (338) =253THENN(E) =20: GO 


TO 163 




68 IFPEEK 


(339) =251 THENN (E) =21 : GO 


TO 163 





69 IFPEEK (343) =254THENN(E) 
TO 163 

70 IFPEEK (338) =191THEN18 

71 G0T066 

72 IFD=1ORK=1THEN170ELSEI 
39 ) =239THENN (E) =1 : GOTO 1 63 

73 IFPEEK (340) =239THENN(E) 
0163 

74 IFPEEK (34 1 ) =239THENN (E) 
0163 

75 IFPEEK (342) =239THENN(E) 
0163 

76 I FPEEK ( 34 3 ) =239THENN ( E ) 
0163 

77 IFPEEK (344) =239THENN(E) 
0163 

78 IFPEEK (345) =239THENN(E) 
0163 

79 IFPEEK (338) =223THENN(E) 
0163 

80 I FPEEK ( 339 ) =223THENN ( E ) 
0163 

81 IFT=1THEN72 

82 IFPEEK (339) =253THENN(E) 
T0163 

83 IFPEEK (344) =251 THENN (E) 
TO 163 

84 IFPEEK (342) =253THENN(E) 
TO 163 



=22: GO 



(3 
2 : GOT 
3: GOT 
4: GOT 
5: GOT 
6 : GOT 
7: GOT 
8: GOT 
9: GOT 



=24: GO 
=25: GO 
26: GO 




The 
Home 
Buyer's 
Analyzer 



THE HOME PURCHASER'S 
"WHAT IF" TOOL 
FOR THE 
COLOR COMPUTER 



Program Projects up to 40 Years, and Computes: 

* Mortgage Balance * Mortgage Payment 

* Effective Payments after Taxes and Appreciation 

Displays Year of Purchase & Year of Sale Figures 
Automatically Adjusted FederalTax Schedules in Program 
Considers Balloon (Variable Rate) Mortgages 
Detailed Documentation Booklet Provided • Graph Results 
Stores Input for Future Runs • Printer/Monitor Output 



Requires Extended Basic • Cassette - 32K Required 
Printer Optional • Disk - 1 6K Required 



PRICE $34.95 CASSETTE or $39.95 DISK 

Send Check or Money Order (N.J. Residents Add 5% Sales Tax) to: 

SILVER SPRING SOFTWARE 

1 8 Silver Spring Road, West Orange, N.J. 07052 

(Dealer Inquiries In vited) 



Page 70 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



85 IFPEEK<343)=251THENN<E)=27:G0 
TO 163 

86 IFPEEK<341)=251THENN<E)=ll:G0 
TO 163 

87 IFPEEK<344)=254THENN<E)=12:G0 
TO 163 

88 IFPEEK<338)=247THENN<E)=13:G0 
TO 163 

89 IFPEEK<344)=253THENN<E)=14:G0 
TO 163 

90 IFPEEK<343)=223THENN<E)=28:G0 
TO 163 

91 IFPEEK<341)=223THENN<E)=29:G0 
TO 163 

92 IFPEEK<338)=239THENN<E)=30:GO 
TO 163 

93 IFPEEK<342)=254THENN<E)=31:G0 
TO 163 

94 IFPEEK<345)=223THENN<E)=32:G0 
TO 163 

95 IFPEEK<344)=247THENN<E)=33:G0 
TO 163 

96 IFPEEK<338)=191THEN18 

97 G0T072 

98 F0RQ=1T04 

99 DRAWS4BM0, 155" : F0RZ=lT0X/4: D 
RAWBM+4, +0" : NEXTZ 

100 ON Q GOTO 101,102,103,104 



monthly interest on $5100 (JBF) at the interest rate in FB 
(off screen). Operators are +-/l A SUM, INT and A6S. Full 
9 digit precision display with selectable decimal point, 
File Save and load, screen print, and From~To Column 
Report Print. Requires 32K. 

$25 Disk or Cassette 



194 Lock wood 
Bloomingdale, IL 60108 



101 DRAW"S4BM+0,-104S8 ,, :GOTO72 

1 02 DRAW " S4BM+0 , -92S8 " : G0T072 

103 DRAW"S4BM+0,-50S8 ,, :GOTO72 

104 DRAW"S4BM+0,-38S8 ,, :GOTO72 

105 IFK=10RD=1THENI=I+1 

106 NEXTQ: T=0: DRAW"S4BM0, 155" 

107 GOTO 18 

108 PSET<X,Y,0) : IFYM42THEN109EL 
SE115 

109 F0RZ=338T0345 

110 IFPEEK<Z)=2390RPEEK<Z)=223TH 
ENF0RW=X-4T0X+4: LINE <W, Y-6) - <W, Y 
+6) , PRESET: NEXTW: GOTO 1 13 

111 IFPEEK<338)=191THEN18ELSENEX 
TZ 

112 GOTO109 

113 F0RI=1T0E 

114 IFABS<A<I)-XX4ANDABS<B<I)-Y 
X6THEN134ELSENEXTI : G0T018 

115 IFPEEK<341)=247THEN122 

116 IFPEEK<342)=247THEN123 

117 I FPEEK < 344 ) =253THEN 1 24 

118 IFPEEK<340)=254THEN125 

119 IFPEEK<342)=251THEN141 

120 IFPEEK<338)=191THEN18 

121 G0T0115 

122 F0RZ=Y-15T0Y+4:LINE<X-6, Z)-< 
X+6, Z) , PRESET IGOSUB 127: NEXTZ: GOT 
0130 

123 F0RZ=Y-4T0Y+15:LINE<X-6, Z)-< 
X+6, Z) , PRESET: G0SUB127: NEXTZ: GOT 
0130 

124 F0RZ=Y-7T0Y+4:LINE<X-5,Z)-<X 
+3, Z) , PRESET: G0SUB127: NEXTZ: GOTO 
130 

125 LINE<X,39)-<X, 117) , PRESET 

126 F0RZ=1T05:PSET<X, Z*6+33,5) :P 
SET<X, Z*6+87,5) : NEXTZ: GOTO130 

127 IFZ=390RZ=450RZ=510RZ=570RZ= 
63THENL I NE < X-6 , Z ) - < X+6 , Z ) , PSET 

128 IFZ=93ORZ=99ORZ=105ORZ=111OR 
Z=l 17THENLINE < X-6, Z ) - <X+6, Z ) , PSE 
T 

129 RETURN 

130 F0RI=1T0E 

131 IFN<I)=23AND A < I ) =X THEN 134 

132 IF<N<I-1)=10)ANDABS<A<I)-X)< 
5THEN137 

133 IFABS<A<I)-XX4ANDABS<B<I)-Y 
) < 3THEN 1 34ELSENE X T I : GOTO 18 

134 FORF=I TOE 

135 N<F)=N<F+1) : A<F)=A<F+1) :B<F) 
= B<F + 1) 

136 NEXTF:E=E-l:G0T019 

137 F0RF=I-lT0E+5 

138 N<F)=N<F+5) : A<F)=A<F+5) :B<F) 
=B<F+5) 

139 NEXTF 

140 E=E-5:G0T019 

141 F0RZ=39T063 



Our own Electronic Spreadsheet 



Prompt 1 Calc Order — > 
Cursor Loc & V,F,orL -> 
Column designators — > 
Row designators 

m 

Screen scrolls with 

cursor's location > 

13 Rows and 3 columns 
are Visible at once. 



R 



[DF3 (F)*BF/121FB 
b c 



d 



a INSTALLMENT ANALYSIS 

b 5000.00 PAYMENT 2 100.00 

d C BALANCE PAYMENT INTEREST 

f 

9 

h 



5000.00 
4950.00 
4899.50 



100.00) 

100.00 

100.00 



50.00 
49.50 
49.00 



Most of the Features of V..C. tailored to the CC screen. 
Prompt area shows current input, recalc order (Row or 
Column), recalc indicator ( ( ), cursor location & contents 
(Value, Label, Formula), and messages. 338 cell spread 
sheet (Expandable!) is ceil addressable for flexibility. 
In the partial screen print above, the cursor is at ceil 
DF which contains the formula +8F/12IFB to calculate the 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 



142 LINE (X-5, Z ) - (X+5, Z ) , PRESET: G 
0SUB127 

143 NEXTZ 

144 F0RZ=93T0117:LINE(X-5, Z)-(X+ 
5, Z) , PRESET 

145 GOSUB 1 27 : NE X T Z : GOTO 1 30 

146 FORZ=0TOE+l:N(Z)=0: A(Z)=0:B( 
Z)=0: NEXTZ 

147 I FK= 1 THEN4ELSE3 

148 OPEN "0",-l, "STAFF" 

149 print#-i,e:forz=itoe:print#- 
1,n(z) , a(z) ,b(z) : nextz 

150 CL0SE#-l:G0T018 

151 OPEN" I",-l, "STAFF" 

152 INPUT#-1, J:FORZ=lTOJ: INPUT#- 
1,N(Z) , A(Z) ,B(Z) : NEXTZ 

153 CLOSE- 1 

154 FORI=lTOJ 

155 E=I 

156 X=A(E) : Y=B(E) 

157 IFN(E)=10THENI=I+l:E=I:T=l:Q 

=1 : X=A (E) : Y=B (E) : G0T099 

158 I FQ=4THENQ=0 : T=0: DRAW"S4BM0, 
155": GOTO 160 

1 59 I FT= 1 THENGNQ+ 1 : G0T099 

160 GOTO 164 

161 nexti:k=0:d=0 

162 GOTO 17 

163 A(E)=X:B(E)=Y 

164 I FN ( E ) >9THEN 1 68 

165 IFT=1THEN170 

166 DRAWBM0, 155" : FORZ=lTO ( A (E) / 
4) : DRAW" BM+4,0": NEXTZ: IFYM50THE 
NDRAWBM+0, +9" : I FY > 1 59THENDRAW " B 
M+0, +9" : I FY > 1 68THENDRAW " BM+0 , +9" 

167 GOTO 170 

168 IFY>165THENL=178ELSEL=160 

169 IFY>165THENM=171ELSEM=153 

170 ON N(E) GOSUB 174,175,176,17 
7, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182,72, 183, 184 
, 185, 186, 199, 199, 199, 199,205,205 
,205,205, 187, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193 
, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 188,211,212 
,213,214 

171 IFK=10RD=1THEN161ELSEE=E+1 

172 IFT=1THENFORH=1TO100: NEXTH: G 
OTO105 

173 GOTO 18 

1 74 DRAW " R 1 L4R2U6G 1 " : RETURN 

1 75 DRAW " R2L4E4U 1 H 1 L2G 1 " : RETURN 

176 DRAW"L1H1F1R2E1U1H1E1U1H1L2G 
1 " : RETURN 

1 77 DRAW "BM+l , 0U6G3D 1 R4 " : RETURN 

178 DRAW"L1H1F1R2E1U2H1L3U2R4" : R 
ETURN 

1 79 DRAW " BM~2 , -3D2F 1 R2E 1 U 1 H 1 L3U2 
E1R2": RETURN 

180 DRAW" BM-1 , 0E1U1E1U1E2L5" : RET 
URN 

181 DRAW"R1E1U1H1L2H1U1E1R2F1D1G 



An exciting new game from 
the company that is setting 
the standards. Colorful, high 
scoring, fast action play with 
arcade quality sound effects. 
High resolution, multicolored 
characters on a black back- 
ground. Smooth accurate joy- 
stick control. Demonstration 
mode. Pause feature. 1 or 2 
players. 100% machine lan- 
guage. Requires 16K color 
computer with joysticks. 



Cassette— $29.95 Disc— $34.95 
Add $1.50 for shipping; $3 outside 
U.S.; 4% tax in Mich. VISA, Master- 
card or Money order. Please allow 2 
weeks for checks. 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 



3BB0R3 



9 9 9 

9 99 99 

t • S 



99 <fi 



8 ? 




Page 72 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



1L2G1D1F1L1 " : RETURN 

182 DRAW 11 L 1 R2E 1 U4 H 1 L2G 1 D 1 F 1 R2 " : R 
ETURN 

183 LINE<X-2, Y+l)-<X+2, Y+l) , PSET 
: LINE < X-2, Y-l ) - < X+2, Y-l ) , PSET : LI 
NE<X-1, Y+2)-<X-l, Y-2) , PSET:LINE< 
X + l, Y+2)- < X + l, Y-2) , PSET: RETURN 

184 CIRCLE<X,Y),2:LINE<X-1, Y+3)- 
<X-1 , Y-7) , PSET: RETURN 

185 LINE<X-3, Y-2)-<X+l, Y+2) , PSET 
:LINE<X-3, Y+2)-<X + l, Y-2) , PSET: RE 
TURN 

186 LINE<X-2, Y+l)- <X-2, Y-3) , PSET 
: LINE < X + l, Y-1)-<X+1, Y+3) , PSET: LI 
NE < X-2, Y+l ) - < X + l , Y+l ) , PSET: LINE < 
X-2, Y-l ) - < X + l , Y-l ) , PSET: RETURN 

187 LINE<X,39)-(X, 1 17) , PSET: RETU 
RN 

188 PSET ( X, Y-2) : PSET (X-l, Y-2) : RE 
TURN 

189 LINE<X-1,L)-(X-1,M) ,PSET:LIN 
E (X-4,L)-( X+2, L) , PSET: LINE <X-4,M 
)-<X+2,M) , PSET: RETURN 

190 LINE<X-4,L)-(X+4,L) ,PSET:LIN 
E < X-4, M) - <X+4, M) , PSET: LINE ( X , L-l 
) - < X -2, M+ 1 ) , PSET :LINE<X,L-1)-(X+ 
2, M+l ) , PSET: RETURN 

191 LINE<X-1,L)-(X-1,L-3),PSET:P 
SET ( X-l , L-5, 5) : RETURN 



1982 Interactive "What If" 



TAX Analysis 

PROGRAM - 1040 - SCHED. A 
for the TRS-80 Color Computer™ (16K) 



OPTIMIZE TAX RETURNS 

Makes It Easy & Simple To: 

• MODIFY Tax Data & Receive IMMEDIATE 
RECALCULATION of Return. 



SAVE/Restore Tax Data 
Menu Driven Tree Structured S/W 



RAINBOW 

CWTWCATWW 



ONLY $19.99 



Add $1.00 postage 

Plus $1.50 if C.O.D. 

In VA, add 4 ( /c sales tax 



^1 ^TFlfC 7602 SEOANE COURT 
9191 fixY 1» FALLS CHURCH, VA 22042 



192 LINE<X-l,L)-<X-3,L-5) ,PSET:L 
INE < X-l , L) - < X + l , L-5) , PSET: RETURN 

193 LINE<X-3,Y+l)-<X+3, Y+l) , PSET 
: RETURN 

194 LINE<X-3,Y-l)-<X+3, Y-l) , PSET 
: LINE < X , Y-4) - < X , Y+2) , PSET: RETURN 

195 CIRCLE <X,Y) ,2: RETURN 

196 CIRCLE <X , Y) , 2: LINE < X+2, Y+l ) - 
<X+2, Y-4) , PSET: RETURN 

197 LINE<X-4,Y+5)-<X+4, Y-2) , PSET 
: RETURN 

198 LINE<X-5,Y-l)-<X+3, Y-l) , PSET 
: LINE < X-l , Y-4) - ( X+3, Y-l ) , PSET : LI 
NE < X-l , Y+2) - (X+3, Y-l ) , PSET: RETUR 
N 

199 IFY<34THENLINE<X-6,33)-(X+6, 
33) ,PSET: IFY<28THENLINE<X-6,27>- 
<X+6,27) ,PSET: IFY<22THENLINE<X-6 
,21)-(X+6,21) ,PSET 

200 IFY<88ANDY>68THENLINE<X-6,87 
)-<X+6,87) ,PSET: IFY<82THENLINE < X 
-6,81)-<X+6,81) ,PSET: IFY<76THENL 
INE<X-6,75)-<X+6,75) , PSET 

201 CIRCLE<X, Y) ,4: IFN (EX 16THENR 
ETURN 

202 LINE<X+3, Y)-<X+3, Y-15) ,PSET: 
I FN ( E X 1 7THENRETURN 

203 C I RCLE (X,Y) ,3:CI RCLE (X,Y) ,2: 
CIRCLE <X,Y) , l:P=5: I FN ( E )< 1 8THENR 
ETURN 

204 LINE<X+3,Y-15)-<X+6, Y-12) , PS 
ET: LINE < X+6, Y-12) - ( X+6, Y-9) , PSET 
: RETURN 

205 IFY>68ANDY<88THENLINE<X-6,69 
)-(X+6,69) ,PSET: I FY >74THENL I NE < X 
-6, 75) - < X+6, 75) , PSET: I FY >80THENL 
INE<X-6,81) -<X+6,81) , PSET 

206 IFY>122THENLINE<X-6, 123)-(X+ 
6, 123) , PSET: IFY>128THENLINE<X-6, 
129)- (X+6, 129) , PSET: I FY > 1 34THENL 
INE<X-6, 135) -< X+6, 135) , PSET 

207 CIRCLE <X,Y) ,4: IFN (EX20THENR 
ETURN 

208 LINE<X~3, Y)-<X-3, Y+15) ,PSET: 
I FN ( E X 2 1 THENRETURN 

209 C I RCLE (X,Y),3:CI RCLE (X,Y) ,2: 
CIRCLE <X,Y) , l:P=5: I FN (EX 22THENR 
ETURN 

210 LINE<X-3, Y+15)-<X,Y+12) , PSET 
:LINE<X,Y+12)-(X, Y+9 ) , PSET : RETUR 
N 

211 F0RZ=Y-3T0Y-l:LINE(X-2,Z)-<X 
+2,Z) , PSET: NEXTZ: RETURN 

212 LINE<X-4, Y-8)-(X, Y-4) ,PSET:L 
INE<X, Y-4) -< X-4, Y) , PSET: LINE < X-4 
, Y)-<X, Y+4) , PSET: RETURN 

213 LINE<X-4, Y+4)-(X+3, Y-4) , PSET 
: C I RCLE < X -2 , Y-3 ) , 2 : RETURN 

214 LINE<X-6, Y)-<X,Y-3) ,PSET:LIN 
E < X , Y-3) - (X+6, Y) , PSET: RETURN ^ 




PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR 80C 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 



Astrology 

Truly a classic, this program will accurately cast your 
complete horoscope. You just enter the date, time, and 
place of birth. The sun sign, rising sign, mid heaven (MC), 
lunar nodes, and planetary influences including houses 
and aspectsbetween the planets will all be calculated, and 
a full chart drawn. You can also do progressed charts and 
transits. It will even tell you the day of the week you were 
born. The accompanying book will help you interpret this 
chart of your horoscope. The extentof the documentation 
is tremendous, even by our exceptionally high standards, 
and no previous knowledge of the subject is required. You 
can share in this wisdom which has been used for thou- 
sands of years in many cultures. This program was written 
by a professional Astrologer. Please specify 1 6K or 32K 
system. $34.95 tape — $39.95 disk 



Gangbusters 

If you ever wanted to try a life of crime, this is your chance. 
You will start out as a Punk, but by using brains, and a little 
muscle, you can rise to become a Hood, Runner, Bookie, 
Torpedo, Fence, Kingpin, or win by becoming Syndicate 
Boss. Indulge yourself. Bribe a judge, or the District 
Attorney. Pay off the Cops. Take out a contract on another 
player, but watch out, they may be afteryou. Buy trucking 
companies, bootleg operations, houses of ill fame, but 
remember, if you get caught, you may do some hard time. 
Do you have what it takes to take over? Thisgame will keep 
you close to your rod, get you thinking about bulletproof 
glass in your car, and definitely bring out the worst in you, 
but you'll love every minute of it. For 2 to 6 players, takes 
about 2 hours to play. Every game is excitingly different. 
$19.95 tape — $24.95 disk 



NEW THIS MONTH 



Have you been jealous of your friends when 
they play "Wizardry®" on their high priced 
computer? Your time is coming! Soon you will 
be able to play "Gateway to Glory". This 
incredible adventure, with graphics, is over 
1 60 kilobytes long, and will require a disk drive. 

NOT QUITE READY YET, 
BUT COMING SOON 
TO A COMPUTER NEAR YOU! 



Viking! 

A simulation for 1 to 4 persons. Each begins as a land- 
owner, and by farming their land, buying and selling land, 
expanding their fishing fleet, building on to their manu- 
factory, increasing their population, equiping and training 
more soldiers, and regulating theirtaxes, each player tries 
to increase their economic power and rank until one 
becomes ruler over all. But beware plagues, rats, raiders, 
revolts, bad weather, and other misfortunes which may lie 
along the road tosuccess. Asyou progress, seethe map of 
your holdings increase. Playable in 1 to 2 hours, and 
different every time, you may have an addiction problem. 
$1 9.95 tape — $24.95 disk 



Fantasy Gamer's Package 

Two programs: The first will display your choice of 99 
different rooms in Hi-Res graphics atthe touch of a key. All 
standard sizes, plus some with pools, pillars, stairs, odd 
shapes, etc. Saves lots of game time spent describing 
room sizes, shapes, and door locations. Includes a super 
fast dungeon designing system and a completely keyed 
sample dungeon module — ready to play. The second 
program in the package generates COMPLETE charac- 
ters including abilities, race, classes, hit points, age, thieving 
skills, much more, and also generates monsters. This 
package was developed by an active DM, and has been 
tested in hiscampaign. 20 pagesof documentation. $1 9.95 

Fantasy Gamer's 32K Package 

Similar to our popular Fantasy Gamer's Package, but both 
the Rooms and the Character & Monster Generator are in 
memory at the same time. You make your selection from a 
menu. In addition, you can select the Dice Bag, which will 
roll just about any probability you need. $24.95 tape — 
$29.95 disk 



Ancient Wisdom Trilogy 

Three programs, each drawing on the historical wisdom of 
the ages. 

TAROT Ancient Egyptian deck of cards may reveal much. 
You can read past/present/future, circle of life, or ask a 
specific question. Lots of documentation. $1 9.95 tape — 
$24.95 disk 

I CHING A Chinese wisdom so old its very origin is 
shrouded in the mists of time. The ancient Chinese oracle 
will give an answer to your question. What will the hexa- 
gram reveal? $19.95 tape — $24.95 disk 
NUMEROLOGY What can be learned from the num- 
bers? Do a character analysis, read your destiny, or chart 
your monthly cycles. $19.95 tape — $24.95 disk 
All of thesecomewith ample documentation — ready to be 
used immediately. ALL THREE for just $39.95 tape — 
$44.95 disk. Save almost $20.00 over separate prices. 

ALL Programs in this ad, including disk versions, 
carry the Rainbow certification seal! 



SEND A STAMPED, SELF-ADDRESSED LONG ENVELOPE FOR COMPLETE CATALOGUE 

At Your Local Dealer, or 

Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include Send Order To: PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 9822 E. Stella Road 

on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 4% sales Tucson, Arizona 85730 

tax. Orders shipped within two days. (602) 886-1 505 



Page 74 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Software Review... 

Enchanted Forest Is An 
Enchanting Graphic Adventure 

So far, just about every "graphic" Adventure game we 
have seen has been pretty much like a maze game. That is, 
you wander through a mazeand come across various things. 

Maze Adventures are not bad, by any means, but after a 
while a lot of them start to look the same. They can be 
enhanced with visual clues and the like but they pretty much 
are mazes. 

Not so with Enchanted Forest, which uses the graphic 
screens to show you where you are — in a forest surrounded 
by trees. As the game opens up, there are three green and 
brown trees, a brown patch and a bunch of adventure 
waiting for you. 

Enchanted Forest is written in Basic and the author is wise 
to keep the graphics simple — because they have to be drawn 
with each scene. No problem here, and they are colorful and 
interesting. All in all, they are a very welcome respite from 
the mazes. 

Yes. Nice green grass. Pretty green trees. Purple tree 
frogs. And, oh no. We've broken a rule and told you 
something about the adventure. Yes, that thing is a tree frog. 

Well, we weren't sure what it was. We tried a bunch of 
things and didn't get it right. Finally, we went a-hunting in 
the list of variables (one reason I like Basic Adventures — 
when I get stuck I can cheat) and figured out it was a tree 
frog. And, while I still have not found out what to do with 
the tree frog, at least I know what it is. 

No matter. I liked this Adventure. Its different. The 



graphics really enhance play, and it is not so slow in drawing 
them that it really slows down the game. After all, you 
should think your way through an Adventure — not hack 
and slash about! 

The main way Enchanted Forest operates is to show you a 
scene and then let you press ENTER to get to the text screen 
for an entry. But, except for those "You Can't Go In That 
Direction"-type messages, all the results of your activities 
are shown on the graphic screen. For instance, one time I 
came across a sign but could not quite make out the letters. I 
told the program to "LOOK SIGN" and got a closeup of the 
sign that was easy to read. 

The logic and necessity to think in the Enchanted Forest is 
up to snuff and it is a game to be recommended. We have 
only one major complaint, and it is not so much about the 
Enchanted Forest as it is about a great many Adventure 
games. That complaint is that all these games should try to 
either (1) use the same names for the same kinds of things (is 
it a cage, a cell or a jail?) or (2) there should be some kind of 
list of the unusual verbs and nouns. Let's put an emphasis on 
unusual, but a good Adventure is difficult enough without 
trying to figure out whether the author is calling an object a 
ROCK or a STONE. 

(Some philosophy here, soft drinks are called "Pop" in 
Chicago, "Soda" in New York, "Coke"in Georgiaand, I am 
sure, other things in other places. We ought to have some 
generic words in Adventures, though.) 

Sorry about the digression. Enchanted Forest is a good 
Adventure, has some nice graphics and is fun to play. 
Enjoyable. 

(Genesis Software, P.O. Box 936, Manchester, MO 
63011, $21.95) 



TRS80 color 



From the January 1981 issue of the CSRA Computer 
Club newsletter 

There was some amusement at the Novem- 
ber meeting when the Radio Shack repre- 
sentatives stated that the software in the 
ROM cartridges could not be copied. This 
month s 68 Micro Journal reported they had 
disassembled the programs on ROM by 
covering some of the connector pins with 
tape. They promise details next month. Never 
tell a hobbyist something can't be done 1 . This 
magazine seems to be theonly source so far 
of technical informations on the TRS-80 color 
computer" - . Devoted to SS-50 6800 and 
6809 machines up to now, 68 Micro Journal 
plans to include the TRS-80 6809 unit in 
future issues. 

NOTE: This and other interesting and needed articles 
for the Radio Shack TRS-80 color computer ^ are being 
included monthly in 68 Micro Journal— The Largest 
specialty computer magazine in the world' 

68 MICRO JOURNAL 

5900 Cassandra Smith Road 
Hixson, Tennessee 37343 
615 842-4600 




68 Micro Journal" was established with one objective in 
mind; to provide a Magazine FOR 68xx Users BY 68xx 
Users. Because of a strict advertiser policy, 68 Micro 
Journal 1 " has gained a strong following WORLDWIDE 
because the reader KNOWS what he is getting when 
purchasing from a 68 Micro Journal" Advertiser. It has 
gained a strong User following because most of the 
material published is contribu + ed BY USERS, and, 
therefore, is relevant to the Users needs. 

Currently, and even before the Color Computer"" hit the 
stores, 68 Micro Journal* was devoting more space to 
the TRS-80C Color Computer 1 " and information concerning 
the Motorola 6809 (which is the CPU in the Color 
Computer") than ANY OTHER Computer Magazine* Examples 
include: 

REVIEWS of the three major Disk Control Systems for 
the Color Computer", most of the Monitors, 
Assemblers, and Disassemblers, Word Processors and 
Editors, "Terminal" D rograms (for use with Modems, 
Communications wi+h o+her Compu + ers, etc.), an'd of 
course, Games. 

HINTS for Expanding Memory, Power Supply Cooling, re- 
pairing sticky keyboards, disabling the ROM PAK "Take 
Over", hooking up to Printers, etc. 

DISCUSSIONS of the 688 5 Synchronous Address 
Multiplexer, using the Color Computer 1 " with 64K and 
96K memory (which it is ALREADY capable of handling), 
thoughts on Programming, etc. 

I suggest that you subscribe to 68 Micro JoumaP, SOON, 
as many back issues are sold-out. 

We st" ill, and will con + inue to, lead in the type 
information you need to PULLY UTILIZE the POWER of the 
6809 in the Rtjdio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer". 



Subscription Rates 

USA: 1-year $24.50; 2-year $42.50; 3-year $64.50 
CANADA and MEXICO: Add $5.50 per year to USA Price 
Foreign Surface: Add $12.00 per year to USA Price 
Foreign AIRMAIL: Add $36.00 per year to USA Price 



Sample issue - $3.50 




Bob Nay t. 
Color Computer Editor 



uecemDer, '\voz 



IMfc? KMIIND^JVV 



page /£> 



Software Review... 

Graph Programs Give Fine 
High Resolution Drawing 

Drawing on the high resolution graphic screen can be a 
frustrating experience — especially if you cannot draw very 
well. This being the case, we wondered whether the drawing 
appearing in Zeta Software's advertising was the product of 
a superior program or an outstanding artist. 

The answer is, probably, both. We won't go into talking 
about the artistic merits of the sample program we got with 
Graph-32, but we can say that the program itself is a good 
one that will make up for some of the shortcomings in 
artistic ability. 

Honestly, when we got the CoCo's Extended Basic 
upgrade more than a year ago, one of the things we were 
most excited about was the ability to do some drawing on 
the high res screen. And, even though we cannot draw, we 
figured the computer would be happy to help out. And, 
while we didturnoutsomefairto middlin'graphics, nothing 
was every really good. 

We will not pretend that Graph-32 will turn you into a 
Miro or Picasso (Pablo probably would have loved the 
CoCo), but it will certainly help you let your creative juices 
flow. It is easy to use and the results can be spectacular. 

A character set is included with the program, and that 
allows you to easily type in characters on the graphic screen. 
You've seen this feature before. But Graph-32 goes it one 
step further to let you change the characters at will — and 
even create special characters — to suit your needs. It is one 
of the best implementations of the "writing on the graphic 
screen" programs we have seen. 

Entering lines, circles, boxes and painting is easy with 
one-letter commands, after which you add some parameters 



to fill in choices. And, if you don't like the way the image 
turns out, one key erases what you drew. Reverse images? 
One letter reverses everything you see on the screen. 

The program also gives you a grid to make it easier to 
position things on thescreen. And, the grid can be printed or 
not, depending on your desire. 

Perhaps best of all there is both a fast and slow draw 
command. Since most of the drawing (but not the figure- 
making) is done by using the joysticks, you have the usual 
problem of moving the joystick too fast and creating dotted 
lines. This is true with the slow draw mode, but the f ast draw 
won't give broken lines: It goes fast. 

There is also ability to move images around the screen, 
either by erasing or laying over what was there. This, and the 
grid are only available with 32K. 

Maybe the best feature of all is the program does not lose 
its screens if you BREAK and then restart. Your screen can 
be saved to tape or disk (and printed out with the inclusion 
of a screen print driver not supplied with this package). 

On the negative side, the program divides the screen up 
into smaller blocks and you have to "jump" around from 
one to the other with the arrow keys. This is not as difficult 
as it seems, but does take some getting used to. 

There are 14 half-pages of documentation included — an 
adequate amount for a program like this. We wish some 
sections were a little more clear, but the instructions, on the 
whole, are better than most. 

This is a fine program which does a good job and should 
provide a great deal of enjoyment and utility (at a reasonable 
price) for those who wish to draw either complicated pieces 
or experiment with art on the highest resoulution graphic 
screen. 

(Zeta Software, P.O. Box 3522, Greenville, SC 29608- 
3522, $16.95 for 16K, $19.95 for 32K, $22.95 f or 32K disk 
plus $2.50 s/h)) 



ENTER THE FASCINATING WORLD OF 

GAME WRITER™ 

A SIMPLE TO USE PROGRAM FOR YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 



For writing super-action video games with 
motion and sound 

For creating high resolution animated 
graphics scenes 

For experimenting with color, shapes, 
motion and sound 

For amateur or professional cartooning or 
commercial game authoring 
For the absolute beginner and for the 
expert programmer 




GAME WRITER is a programming language with all the 
features you need to write great VIDEO GAMES. It includes a 
built-in screen oriented text editor, high resolution color 
graphics support, any number of player-shapes (SPRITES), a 
shape pattern editor, full TURTLE GRAPHICS, sound effects, 
support for joy sticks and much, much more. Each player- 
shape can be given a program to run which tells it what to do. 
Ali the player programs run simultaneously to create fan- 
tastic game effects. GAME WRITER IS GUARANTEED EASY 
TO USE. Even if you have never written a program of any kind 
you will amaze your family, your friends and yourself with the 
fantastic things you can do with it. The package includes a 
GAME WRITER rom pak, a complete easy to read manual and 
a set of sample programs ready to run. GAME WRITER is a 
great programming language for a child or an adult. GAME 
WRITER requires a minimum of 16K. Extended BASIC is not 
required. 



PRICE $129 

Orders must be prepaid via check, 
money order or major bank card. Phone 
orders accepted for bank cards only— 
COD orders not accepted. Quantity dis- 
counts available. Orders outside U.S. 
add $5 shipping. WA state residents 
add 6.3% sales tax. Add 2 weeks for 
delivery if paid by personal check. 



WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES 

3028 SILVERN LANE 
BELLINGHAM, WA 98226 



1 (206) 734-8248 



RAINBOW 



Page 76 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Games... 




From Out ojWi 
Comes ^ms Dexterity Tq/kt 

J.E. Bennett and C.E. Laid law 



Parachum Jump is a one-player game whictaffll test your 
manual de^erity with the right joystick on jJf 6K extended 
basic may^ffte. The program uses just overfvK of memory. 

The ojflect of this game from J ARB Software is to land on 
the landing pad, or as close to it a^lii^, while avoiding 
the boml^^roDped by an invisiblTmad bomber. You must 
allow for tTfS ™ in md^m^tmuv decent. 

The score from^^r last jump and your total score are 
shown in the upper left-hand corner of the screen, while the 
wind speed (0-5 MPH), direction, and number of times the 
mad bomber has hit you are shown in the upper right-hand 
corner of the screen. When you are ready, push the joystick 
button to jump, and then control your descent with the 
joystick. Left and right will control your direction, while up 
and down control the speed of your descent (up=slow and 
down=fast). If^puwish^you may let the demo counter count 
down, and tMfeprDgr^fnwTtl^iter the demonstration mode. 
Entering a "fe" at any time wfrtW:ND the program. 

Don't getftoo close to the sideaof the screen or you'll be 
"shocked" byjhe results. Oh yes, oke final warning — beware 
of the occasional lightning bolt wiich cannot be escaped! 

All of you BAsiC programmerllmay feel free to use any 
of the subroutineVJiaff] Pqyyrfylte Jump in your own 
programs. In particular, ytramight take a close look at the 
scoring routine (lines 490-610). Have fun with Parachute 
Jump, and let us know here at J ARB Inc. what you think of 
this contribution. 

For those of you who may not wish to type the program in 
yourself, it is available on cassette from J ARB Inc. for $9.95 
plus $2.00 for shipping and handling. 

The listing: 

1 **************** 

2 * * * 

3 '* PARACHUTE JUMP * 

4 ** BY * 

5 ' * J ARB SOFTWARE * 

6 '* <C) JARB SOFTWARE 1982 * 

7 '* * 
8'*************** 
10 PM0DE4: PCLS 

20 DIMA<78) ,B<78) ,N*<9) ,N<80) , Al 

<4) :ht=40:m=i:dm=0:t=0 

30 GOSUB660 : FOR I = 1 T03 1 : PLAY " 02V " 

+STR* < I ) +" T255GCAE" : NEXT 

40 CLS: PR I NTQ233, "PARACHUTE JUMP 

" : PR I NTT AB < 6 ) " < C ) J ARB SOFTWARE 

1982" : GOSUB690: GOSUB510 

50 SCORE=0:DRIFT=RND<10)-5:H=128 

: V=65 

60 GOSUB470:GOSUB490 
70 GOSUB750 
80 PM0DE4: PCLS 

90 DRAW " A0BM 1 28 , 96U2L3H2U 1 D 1 F2R6 



fe2UlDlG2L3D3G2D2L2R2U2E2F2D2R2 
100 CIRCLE< 128,92) ,2:FORI=1TO20: 
CIRCLE < 128, 78) ,1,1,-8,-5, UNEXT: 
FORI=108TO148STEP6: CIRCLE < 1 , 78) , 
2, 0: NEXT 

110 LINE<110,78)-(123,93) ,PSETIL 
INE<116,78)-<123,93) ,PSET:LINE<1 
i3, 78) - < 123, 93) , PSET: LINE < 128, 78 
- < 123, 93) , PSET: LINE < 128, 78) - < 13 
,93) , PSET: LINE < 133, 78) -< 133, 93) 
, PSET : L I NE < 1 40 , 78 ) - < 1 33 , 93 ) , PSET 
: LINE < 146, 78) -(133, 93) , PSET 
120 GET<95,55)-<161, 101 ) , A,G:PCL 
S 

130 GOSUB1030 

140 LINE<0,22)-<255,22) , PSET 
150 LINE<124, 189)-<132, 191) , PSET 
, BF : DRAW " A0BM90 ,191 U8R2F3G3L2D2B 
R77U8L2G3F3R2" 
160 GOSUB620 

1 70 DRAW " A " +STR* < AN ) + " BM2 1 8 , 6U5G 



1 80 I FSCORE< 0THENDRAW " A0BM67 , 1 5R 
5" 

190 SCREEN 1 , 0: GOSUB1070 

200 IFDM=100THEN220 

210 CIRCLE < 128, 5) ,2, l: CIRCLE (128 

,5) ,3, l: CIRCLE < 128, 5) ,2,0: CIRCLE 

<128,5) ,3,0: IF PEEK < 65280) =127 O 

R PEEK < 65280) =255 THEN 210 

220 PLAY " 03 V30T255EEADDDV20EEADD 

V 1 0EEADDV30DDDDD" 

230 IFDM=100THEN240ELSE250 

240 GOSUB1180:GOTO280 

250 IFDF=3THENH=H+INT < JOYSTK <0) / 

10) -3ELSEH=H+INT (JOYSTK <0) /6- 3) - 

5 

260 IFFDM=100THEN280 
270 V=V+INT<JOYSTK<1)/10)-1 
280 A*= I NKEY$ : IFA$="Q " THEN 1 020 
290 H=H+DRIFT 

300 I FH< 35THEN460ELSE I FH >220THEN 
460 

310 PUT < H-33 , V-4 1 ) - < H+33 , V+5 ) , A , 



320 LB=RND<1000) : IFLB>=999THENG0 
SUB 1090 

330 IFV>90THENGOSUB760 
340 PLAY ,, O1V30T255L255B" 
350 IFDF=3THENV=V-i-3ELSEV=V+2 
360 IFV>=186THEN380 
[,370 GOTO230 
380 H1=ABS<H-128) 

390 SCORE=SCORE+<1000-<H1*10) > :L 
S= < 1000- <H1*10) > +SS: SS=0 
400 IFLS=1000THEN410ELSE420 
410 FORBONUS= 1 T03 : PLAY " O " +STR^ < 2 
+BONUS) +" V30T8L8DEFFGBDDCCEAA" : N 
EXT:GOTO450 

420 IFLS>950THEN430ELSE440 



ExIBMer (NOW RETIRED) 
For the FIRST TIME - Makes available to the PUBLIC 
His personal collection of superior programs for the 

TRS-80 COLOR 

SEE HOW THE PROFESSIONALS DO IT! ! 
ALL PROGRAMS ARE OVER 14K LONG! ! 



TALKING GRAPHIC DEMONSTRATION 

Like no other Computer Program that ever existed! Your CoCo will talk to you with a beautiful musical 
background and tell all about himself while displaying dozens of action packed hi-resolution graphic demon- 
strations. Programs RUN non-stop for 12 FANTASTIC minutes from 1 CLOAD. 
"This demonstration is MANDITORY. You and your CoCo deserve this program. " 

Quote The Rainbow. $24.95T * 

THE DISK DOCTOR — Cure that sick feeling and utter frustration caused by CRASHED I/O 
ERROR and UNREADABLE disks. Will SALVAGE M/L, BASIC, DATA, ASCII, even MPP Pictures. Menu driven for 
easy use. 100% visable operation lets you see what you are doing. 

Automatic SALVAGE to NEW disk. All in OPEN BASIC! $49.95D * 

MPP-TUTORIAL — Programming tool of the professionals — "lets you EASILY create superior 
graphics without using the tedious DRAW, PAINT, LfNE, PSET, CIRCLE, etc. commands. I have seen the results, 
and they are INCREDIBLE — If you want to see and use the full graphic m Art 

potential of your CoCo, this program is — REQUIRED!" Quote Chromasette. $34.95T 0 

EL CASINO — Three STARTLING action packed hi-res graphic games that have received 
reviews. All programmed with MPP. Each game is over 14K long. ^ 
All three games below $49-95T 01 

DICE GAME — The ONLY crap game that allows 4 players to make 
12 Field Bets before every roll 

BLACK JACK - Gives you the FAMOUS CARD COUNTER 

sold for hundreds of dollars elsewhere 



S24.95T o 



SLOT MACHINE — Looks like a $30,000 Casino machine. 

Sounds like one, too. Adjustable pay-off 



$24.95T o 
S24.95T o 



D* 

RAVE 

D* 



-■ 



HAiMftOM 

— ■ A - 



D* ^ 



D* ^ 



★ T=16K EXTENDED 



★ D - 32K-DOS 



★ POSTAGE PAID 



SUPERIOR GBHPHIC 

406 LITTLE MOUNTAIN ROAD - WAYNESVILLE, N. C. - 28786 



Page 78 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



430 FOR 1=1 T025STEP2 : SOUND 1*10,1: 
NEXT:GOTO450 

440 SOUND 10, 1 : SOUND 100, 1 : SOUND 19 
9, 1 : SOUND200, 1 : SOUND201 , 1 : SOUND1 
50,4 

450 HT=40:DRIFT=RND(10)-5:GOSUB4 
70: H=128: V=65: PCLS: GOSUB490: GOSU 
B640: GOSUB850: Q=H+ (RND <6 ) -3 ) : GOT 
0140 

460 EW=EW+ 1 : LS=-500 : SCORE=SCORE- 
500: F0REL=1T015: SCREEN 1 , 1 : SCREEN 
1 , 0: S0UND254, 1 : NEXT: GOTO450 
470 I FDR I FT < 0THEN AN=3ELSE I FDR I FT 
>0THENAN= 1 ELSE AN=0 
480 RETURN 

490 gosub1030: fs*=str* (score) : fo 
ri=2t0len(fs*) : f1*=mid* (fs*, 1,1) 
: p0*= " a0s4bm " +str* ( (1*10) +55 ) + " , 
19":drawpo*+n*(val(fi*) > :nexti 

J.500 RETURN 
510 N*(0)="U7R4D7L4" 
520 N*(1)="R4BL2U7L1G1" 
530 N*(2)="BR4L4U1E4U1H1L2G1" 
540 N*(3)="BU1F1R2E1U2H1L1E2U1L4 



ii 



560 
570 



590 



N* ( 4 ) = " BR4U7BD4L4U4 " 

N* ( 5 ) = " BU 1 F 1 R2E 1 U2H 1 L3U3R4 " 

N$ (6) =" BU7D7R4U3L4 " 

N* < 7 ) = " BU5U2R4D7 " 

N* < 8 ) = " U7R4D3L4BR4D4L4 " 



• • * 
• • 

w 

• * 4 

.'.•I 

• * ■ 

• • ■ 



' • li 
• • 



V." 

• • ■ 

* ■ 

• * • 

• • • 

* * 
ft ■ ■ 

• • • 

* • 

• ft ft 



I * 



* • t 

■ • 
■ • 

* • 

* * 
* • 

• * 

• * 



■ • ■ 

■ • * 

.V 

ft * 
ft ft I 

• • 

■ • * 

■ • * 



■ • • 

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F • * 
• • 

ft • 
ft ■ 

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4 » 



Computer Peripheral 



S V4" Disk Drive Power Supplies 



•Guaiantoed in writing for 120 days 

•Cases accommodate all standard 5W drives 

•Over current and over voltage Protection. 

'■ealer inquiries invited 

•Cnll or wr ite foi quantity discounts 




2 New Shugart Drive 
1 Dual P/S H or V 
1 Two Drive Cable 
$489.95 



Dual Power Supplies 



• Horizontal — 12x12x3 1 / 2 
•Vertical — 7x12x6 . 

•Open Frame — 7x2x3 w/o-case 
•Single Horiz. P/S — 

6x12x3 1 /2 

• Custom 4' 2-Drive Cable 

• 4-Drive Cable 

•Dual Case. Horiz. or Vert. 

(w/oP/S) 

• Single Case, Horiz. (w/o P/S) . . . 
•Shugart 5 Va Disk Drive 

SA 405 — 6ms T-T. SS. SD or DD 



$74.95 
$74.95 
$59.95 

$44.95 
$21,00 
$32.00 

$24.95 
$18.95 

$204.95 



Terms: Personal checks allow 14 days. COD. 
M.D.. Certified Checks. ..Credit Cards add 3°/o 
Shipping and Handling: $3.00 West and $6.00 
East states. All shipping USP surface other 
means extra 

Send to: 

C.P.H. 

P.O. Box 834, or call... 

Oak Harbof, WA 9A277 (206 ) 679 4797 



■ • i 
i • • 
• • i 



I ■ ! 



* • • 

• • • 

.V. 

• • ■ 

• ♦ • 

• • • 



> * l 



■Si 

& 

*>: 



■ i ■ 

s 4 I 

■ > ■ 




600 N*(9)="BU4U3R4D3L4BR4D4" 
610 RETURN 
I 620 I FDR I FT< 0THEND9=DR I FT*— 1 ELSE 
D9=DRIFT 

630 F*=STR*(D9) : P*=" A0C1S4BM225, 
9" : DRAWPS+N* < VAL (F*) > +"BM235, 9U4 

F2E2D4BR4U4R2D2L2D2BR6U4D2R4U2D4 
" : RETURN 

640 I FLS< 0THENMN*= " C4A0C 1 BM67 , 6R 
5"ELSEMN*=" " 

650 LS*=STR*(LS) : F0RI=2T0LEN (LS* 
) : F2*=MID* (LS*, 1,1): Pl*=" A0S4BM" 
+STR* ((1*10) +55) + " , 9 " : DRAWMNS+Pl 
*+N* ( VAL ( F2* ) > : NEXT I : RETURN 
' 660 CLS : PR I NTQ20 1 , " J ARB SOFTWAR 

E " : PR I NT : PR I NTT AB (12)" PRESENTS " 
* 670 FOR I =3 1 TO 1 STEP- 1 : PLAY " 02V " +S 

TR* ( I ) +"T255EDBF" : NEXT 
"680 RETURN 

y 690 FORTD=1TO800: NEXT: CLS: PRINT© 
224, "DO YOU WISH A DIFFICULT GAM 
E OR AN EASY GAME <D OR E>" 

700 A*=INKEY* 

710 T=T+ 1 : PLAY " V30O 1 T255B " : PR I NT 
@ 165," COUNT UNTIL DEMO =";(500-T 

) : ift>500THENDM=100:df=5:t=0:got 

0730 

720 A*=INKEY*: IFA*=" "THEN710ELSE 
I FA*= " D " THENDF=3ELSE I FA*= " E " THEN 
DF=5ELSEGOTO710 
J 730 CLS : PR I NT@224 , " THANKS . . . WE ' L 

L START IN A SECOND" 
j 740 RETURN 
750 Q=H+(RND(6)-3) : DRAW'Cl A1BM12 
8 , 96H2G2F2E2L4H2F2G2 " : GET ( 1 24 , 80 
) - ( 132, 97) , Al , G: PCLS: RETURN 
760 HT=HT+10 

770 IF Q<H THEN Q=Q+1 ELSE IF Q> 
H THEN Q=Q-1 
780 IFHT>191THEN840 
790 I FPPO I NT ( Q , HT X >0THEN800ELSE 
810 

800 I FHT< 1 80THENSCORE=SCORE- 1 000 
: BC=BC+1 : SS=-1000: GOTO830 
810 PUT (Q-4, HT-16)- (Q+4, HT) ,A1,P 



j 



I 



820 RETURN 

830 PUT (Q-4 , HT-16) - (Q+4 , HT) , Al , A 

nd: fore=ito20STEP5: sound i , 1 : circ 
le (q, ht) , e, 1 , 1 : next: fore=1to20: c 
ircle (q, ht) , e, 0, 1 : next: gosub880: 
q=h+ ( rnd ( 6 ) -3 ) : ht=40: return 
840 put (q-4, ht-16)- (q+4, ht) ,a1, a 
nd: f0rtd=1t02: circle (q, ht) ,4, l:p 
lay "01 v30t200ev25e v20e v 1 5e v 1 0e v5 
ev30b" : circle (q, ht) , 4, 0: nexttd: g 
osub880 : q=h+ ( rnd ( 6 ) -3 ) : ht=40 : ret 

URN 

850 I FBC< =0ORBC >3THEN860ELSEFORT 
D=l TO BC:DRAW"C1A1BM"+STR*(210+ 



INSTANT INVERSION 
("photo-negative") 





"Electronic" 
SAMPLE PICTURE 
INCLUDED WITH 
GRAPH PACKAGE 



WHO NEEDS A GRAPHICS TABLET? 



Get GRAPH16 or GRAPH32 and YOU won't! For l/20th the cost, you can have 
10 times the "power" of a tablet and a simple program. 

Most of the 80C's EXTENDED BASIC features are here in 16K: 



and Machine Language: 
n customize at ANYtime 



AND 



*Point SET and RESET 
*LINE and LINE/BOX 
*CIRCLE, oval, and arc 
*PAINT inside borders 
PLUS some extra "goodies" in BASIC 
*§0 HIRES characters that you can 

and put ANYwhere on your "32x24" screen 
*Instant screen inversion ("photo-negative") 
*6x6-point block-erase 
*Fast or Slow "Freehand" 
*Save, Load, or Print your pictures 
in the 32K version, you get these additional features: 
M0x40-po1nt block-move, and 

*A 20x20-point "vanishing" grid overlay for EXACT 
cursor-point positioning. 



GRAPH16 / GRAPH32 
ONLY FROM 



7 ETA 



Software*!* 



Zeta Software 

P.O. BOX 3522 
GREENVILLE SC 



RAINBOW 

COTIFICATION 
SIAL 

29608 



In short, why draw on paper just to enter a HIRES picture into your 80C when 
you can "draw" right on the screen? Again, who needs a tablet? (Especially since 
you'd have to load a program ANYway and make extra room for the hardware!) 



Extended BASIC & joystick required. 
VERSION PRICE 

GRAPH16 16K-cassette $16.95 

GRAPH32 32K-cassette 19.95 

GRAPH32 32K-disk 22.95 

*A11 3 versions use PMODE 4 only, 
so use of a B&W TV is highly 
recommended. Also, to printout 
your pictures, you will need an 
LP VII and Screen Print Routine 
from Radio Shack. 

*Please allow 4 weeks for checks. 



ORDER BLANK 

Enclosed is $ for copy(ies) of GRAPH plus 

$2.50 Shipping & Handling. 
Send the version to: 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY/STATE 



ZIP 



Mail ORDER BLANK (or copy) and payment to: 

ZETA SOFTWARE PO Box 3522 Greenville, SC 29608 



Page 80 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



<TD*7> > +" , 19H2G2F2E2L4H2F2G2" : NE 
XT: RETURN 

860 I FBC< =0THENRETURN 
870 GOTO940 

880 IF V<HT THEN 930 ELSE GET<H- 

33, V-41)-<H+33, V+5) ,B,G 

890 V=V+8: IFVM83THENRETURN 

900 PUT<H-33, V-41)-<H+33, V+5) ,B, 



910 PLAY " O5V20T255EEE A A AEEE " 
920 IFV<183THEN890 
930 RETURN 

940 gosubiii0:fortd=ito500:next: 
cls:print@32, " final game r 
esults":print@96, "total bomb hit 
s =";bc: print: print" total sho 
cks =";ew:print:print h final 

SCORE ="; SCORE 
950 PRINT@288,FE* 

960 PRINT: PRINT"DO YOU WISH TO P 
LAY AGAIN <Y/N)?" 

970 PRINTQ426, "PARACHUTE JUMP":P 
RINTTAB <6) " <C) JARB SOFTWARE 198 
2" 

980 A*=INKEY* 

990 IFDM=100THEN1000ELSE1010 



New! For Your 
Color Computer 

FROG-TREK 

(the arcade game) 

You may be able to guide your frog through 6 lanes 
of rush hour traffic, but that isn't enough! You 
must also cross the river by jumping on logs and 
turtles to get Froggie safely to his home on the other 
side. But watch out for the snake! And don 7 jump 
on the industrial waste. 

A great M/L game at a great price $14.95. Uses hi- 
resolution graphics and requires 16K. Arrows on 
keyboard move frog- no joy-sticks required. 

Send check or money order for $16.50 (includes 
shipping) to: 

OELRICH PUBLICATIONS 
4040 N. Nashville 
Chicago, IL 60634 

^viru Hue 




1 000 FORTD= 1 TO2000 : NEXT : RUN 
1010 A*= I NKEY$ : I FA$= " " THEN 101 0EL 
SE I FA$= " Y " THENRUN 

1020 CLS: PRINT@224, "THANKS ANYWA 

Y BYE FOR NOW":FORI=1TO500:NE 

XT: FOR I =0TO 1 9 : CLS : PRINTQ224+I , "J 
ARB SOFTWARE"; : FORTD=1TO10: NEXTT 
D: NEXT: SOUND 1 , 1 : FORI=19TO0STEP-1 
: CLS: PRINTQ224+I , "JARB SOFTWARE" 

; : fortd=itoi0: nexttd: next: soundi 
, 10: cls: END 

1 030 A$= " A0BM 1 , 1 8BR3U5L2R4BR3D5R 
3U5L3BR6R4BL2D5BR5U5R3D5BU3L3BR6 
U2D5R3BR6R3U3L3U2R3BR3R3BL3D5R3B 
R3U5R3D5L3BR6U5R3D2L3BR 1 F2D 1 BR3R 
3BL3U3R2BL2U2R3 
| 1040 B$="BM9,8U5BD5R3BR3U5R3D2L2 
BR2D3BR3R3U3L3U2R3BR3R4BL2D5BR8R 
3U3L3U2R3BR3R3BL3D5R3BR3U5R3D5L3 
BR6U5R3D2L3BR 1 F2D 1 BR3R3BL3U3R2BL 
2U2R3 

1050 C*="BM185,4D4F1E1U1D1F1E1U4 
BR3D5BR3U5F2D 1 F2U5BR3D5R2E 1 U3H 1 L 
2 

1060 d*="bm185, 18u5d2r3u2d5br4u5 
br3r4l2d5br5r3u3l3u2r3 
1070 drawa*:drawc*:drawb*:drawd* 

I 1080 RETURN 
1090 EW=EW+1 

1100 L1=RND<255) :L2=RND<255) :L3= 
RND <255) : F0RTB=1T04: LINE <0, 24) - < 
LI, 56) ,PSET:LINE-<L2,88) ,PSET:LI 
NE-<L3, 115) ,PSET:LINE-<H,V) , PSET 
: PLAY"01 V30T255D" : LINE- <L3, 115), 
PRESET : L I NE- < L2 , 88 ) , PRESET : L I NE- 
<L1, 56) , PRESET: LINE- <0, 24) , PRESE 
\^T: NEXT: SCORE=SCORE - 1 000 : RETURN 



t 



1110 I FSCORE< = 1 000THENFE*= " BETTE 
R STICK TO WALKING" 
1120 IFSCORE>1000ANDSCORE<=5000T 
HENFE*="FAIR SKILL LEVEL, BUT NO 
T GREAT" 

1130 IFSCORE>5000ANDSCORE<=10000 
THENFE^=" GREAT SCORE, YOU HAVE P 
OTENTIAL" 

1140 I FSCORE > 1 0000ANDSCORE< =2000 
0THENFE$= "EX CELLENT , YOU'RE READ 
Y TO ENTERCOMPET I T I ON , AND MAYBE 
WIN TOO" 

1 1 50 I FSCORE >20000ANDSCORE< =3000 
0THENFE*="YOU SHOULD BE TEACHING 

SKYDIVING" 
1 1 60 I FSCORE >30000THENFE*= " YOUR 
PERFORMANCE IS UNEQUALED" 
1170 RETURN 

1180 IF Q>V THEN V=V+1 ELSE V=V+ 
4 

1190 IF HT>H THEN H=H+2 ELSE H=H 
-2 

1200 RETURN ^ 



NEW for the Color Computer TRS-80 

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*TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY COMPANY 




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T 6 D SOFTWARE P.O. BOX 256-C • HOLLAND, MICH 49420 



Page 82 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Software Review... 

Worksaver Has Large 
Number Of Fine Features 

There are a number of products on the CoCo marketthat 
will provide automatic entry of keywords, auto line 
numbering and the like. Some of them are very good while 
others are only fair. But the Worksaver ranks up there with 
the best of them. 

This fine utility is really a combination of keyword input 
and screen editing utilities. It has most of the features of 
both kinds of programs and, while the instruction set takes 
some getting used to, it does provide a great number of 
options for almost every use in the creation and editing of 
Basic programs. 

Don't expect to sit down in one shot and understand all 
that is available with the Worksaver. It is just not possible. 
On the other hand, there are so many features that there is 
certainly something f or everyone and f or those who finally 
master all the commands, the program will perform 
yoemanlike service. 

Accept as a given that the Worksaver will perform the 
"normal" things you expect from a program of this sort. 
Those things are full screen editing, two-stroke keywords (a 
control key and a letter key) and automatic line numbering. 
A short word about both should be sufficient. 

This program has two control keys, CLEAR and 
BREAK. So, each key can be defined twice. For instance, 
pressing CLEAR and then the letter "R" will generate the 
keyword READ. If you press BREAK and the letter "R" 
instead, you get the keyword DATA. This means a large 
number of commands can be included on the keyboard. 



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$$$ 



As to the full screen editor, this will be a different 
experience for those of you used to Basic's line editor. Want 
to change the line a couple of lines up? Simple use the arrow 
keys to move the cursor to the appropriate place and make 
the change. This is not only a lot easier, it is vastly faster, too. 

Having said that, it is important to bring in some of the 
enhancements afforded by the line editor. Simple things like 
changing line numbers, joining lines together, breaking 
them apart, duplicating them elsewhere. This is heady 
stuff — it is very easy to do with the Worksaver, yet offers 
some very powerful alternatives. 

Before we forget it, you keep all this straight with a 
keyboard overlay. Truth: The Worksaver 's overlay is the 
best we have seen for this type of program. It is light blue 
with colored keywords and the line^making it very easy to 
read (even though it is complicated at first glance). 

Given all of those things, and they are pretty significant in 
themselves, we'll talk about some of the other things the 
Worksaver can handle. 

One of the things which intrigued us the most is a 
capability called dynamic input. We liked dynamic input a 
lot for one simple reason: How many times have you, like us, 
had to input a numerical value that required an arithmatic 
expression, something like 25 plus 33? An input without the 
Worksaver required us to add that figure in our heads — with 
dynamic input, we merely enter the expression as "25+33." 
This works with strings as well. 

Dynamic editing allows you to make corrections to 
programs without losing the value of variables and arrays 
while the program is running. This is a major plus in 
debugging, especially when, in writing a program, you have 
to load data from tape. It can save a lot of time in the data 
loads, alone — not to mention the generation of data through 
inputs. 

The dynamic editing is not all-inclusive and there are 
some catches you will have to observe. For instance, if you 
encounter an error while in the middle of a data read, you 
will have to decide whether to RESTORE the data or not. 
Still, this is a most useful utility. 

A third very useful element is a full screen array editor. 
Yes, we said an array editor. The Worksaver actually lets 
you enter items from tape into an array, edit the items in the 
array, and then save them back to tape. Nifty. 

Oh yes, we should mention the use of a "numeric keypad" 
as part of the program. Several of the keys are redefined to 
be numbers along the lines of the keypads on the model 
11/16 and Model III. However, since, the keys on a 
typewriter keyboard are offset somewhat, you do not have 
the true keypad effect necessary to get a great deal of benefit 
from this feature. 

Documentation for the Worksaver comes in a booklet of 
28 full-sized typeset pages. In addition, there is an 
addendum of two pages from a line printer. The authors 
have done a better-than-adequate job of explaining all the 
features of the program, including a number of good 
examples. A little better layout and consistancy of style 
would have been good, but, on the whole, the instructions 
are above average. 

We were pleased with the quality and professionalism of 
the Worksaver. This is an excellent utility which will save 
you hours of programming time. The many capabilities 
make it appear complicated at first, but a little work with the 
Worksaver will save you hours of work in the writing and 
debugging of your own programs. 

(Platinum Software, P.O. Box 833, Pittsburgh, NY 
12901, $30 plus $3 s/h) 

—John H. Tyler 



" TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER PRODUCTS " 
" THE 1248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER " 

The 1 248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER is a full function unit that is 
compatible with virtually all popular 1 K, 2K, 4K & 8K -by-8, 24 pin, 5 
volt EPROMS. Compatible devices are 2508's, 2758 -O/1's, 
2516's, 271 B's, 2532's, 68732-0/1's, 68764's, and 68766's. 
Components 2732, 2732A, 2564, and 2764 are compatible via 
adapters (not supplied]. The programmer is totally menu driven by 
resident position independent firmware in EPROM, which makes it 
suitable for experienced computer operators and novices alike. 

Select the device type to be programmed from the device menu. 
Next, select the function to be performed from the function menu. 
On your command the 1 248-EP will verify EPROM erasure, com- 
pare EPROM contents to specified contents of RAM or ROM, 
program blocks or individual bytes of EPROM memory or copy an 
EPROM's contents to user specified RAM. 

The 1 248-EP plugs into the cartridge slot of the Color Computer 
and is invoked by the user with the "EXEC & HCOOO" BASIC com- 
mand. The 1 24B-EP contains its own on-board programming power 
supply, and has a quality "Zero Insertion Force" socket. 

The combination of the TRS-BO Color Computer , an editor/as- 
sembler/monitor such as the Micro Works SDS80C-X--X- and the 
1248-EP EPROM programmer, makes a high performance, cost 
effective software development station for MC-6800/6809 
microprocessor based systems. Use the system to store your own 
games or utility programs in EPROM's for execution from the cart- 
ridge slot using the CK4 PROM/RAM card described below. 

The cost of the 1248-EP EPROM PROGRAMMER, instructions 
and adapter diagrams is just $99.95. 



if 



THE CK4 PROM/ROM CARD" 



TheCK4 works with 2K.4K or 8K-by-8 ROM's or EPROM'softhe 5 
volt only variety in 24 pin packages. In addition, the CK4 may be used 
with 4 static RAM's such as 6116's to expand the computers 
memory work space by 81 92 bytes. Each of the four on-board soc- 
kets can be decoded to any 2K block of the memory map from 
$COOO through $F800 of the Color Computer. In addition, each 
socket can be configured to respond to address blocks from 2K to 
8K bytes in length, thus accommodating 2K, 4K or 8K-by-8 ROM's, 
EPROM's or RAM's. ROM and RAM can be mixed on the card as 
well. RAM, on the card, can be written to and then "write protected" 
via dip switches on the CK4 to emulate ROM. 

The instructions include information on how to set up the socket 
decoding circuitry and how to provide battery backup for programs 
stored in CMOS static RAM on the CK4 with the computer off or 
the cartridge removed. 

The popular CK4 PROM/RAM card is now available in three 
versions. 

1] The full featured CK4 remains the standard of cartridge board 
flexibility with the added capability of providing battery backup for 
CMOS static RAM's such as 61 1 6's. Cost of the CK4 is still just 
$29.95. 

2] The CK4-1 is a ROM only version of the CK4 card for use with 
CoCo's with later than "E series" circuit boards. These later ver- 
sions of CoCo are not able to write to cartridge based RAM without 
modification. Cost is $27.95 for the CK4-1 . 

3) The CK4-2 is the unpopulated CK4 series circuit board only. Buy 
this version of the CK4 and configure them to meet your specific 
requirements at a price designed to stretch your dollars value. Cost 
is $15.95 each. 



"MORSE 



Jill" 



The MEDK80 Morse En/Decoder Kit consists of a machine code 
software driver on tape, a schematic diagram of the interface cir- 
cuitry, component parts, a printed circuit board (PCBJ, packaging 
suggestions and complete instructions for building a Morse code 
transmission and reception system that is compatible with 4K 
RAM and up models of the TRS-80 Color Computer . 



The transmitter/receiver interface circuitry is totally optically 
isolated and is, therefore, compatible with all receivers and trans- 
mitters. Transmitter and receiver both connect to the interface 
unit and to the Color Computer via the RS-232 port. 

The MEDK80 Morse En/Decoder kit operates at speeds up to 70 
words per minute and automatically adapts to speed variations of 
the sender. When transmitting, words are transmitted only when 
fully formed, i.e., followed by a space, and the transmit text buffer 
gives visual notification to the operator of what word/ character is 
currently being sent. In addition, the text buffer is 512 characters 
deep, which is sufficiently large to keep up with the best of "rag- 
chewers". 

Potential purchasers of this product should have previous kit 
building experience. However, this is not a kit of great complexity, 
and is well within the abilities of those actively involved in amateur 
radio or electronic hobbies to construct. To reduce the chance of 
wiring errors, component placement is indicated on the PCB and 
detailed assembly instructions are included. 

The cost of the MEDK80 software, parts, and instructions is 
$39.95. 

" COCO" GETS A BREADBOARD 

TheCOCO BREADBOARD is a circuit board that plugsdirectly into 
the cartridge slot of the Color Computerand provides the userwith 
16 square inches of predrilled breadboarding area for circuit de- 
velopment, interfacing experiments, motherboard implementation, 
or whatever your imagination conjures up. The plated thru holes in 
the breadboard are wirewrap pin compatible and on 0.10 inch 
centers. 

The COCO BREAD BOARD brings all of the data, address, and con- 
trol signals available at the cartridge slot outside of the body of the 
computer and the signal lines are appropriately labeled to facilitate 
error free wiring of breadboards. A ground plane is provided on the 
top side of the board and solder pads are provided on the bottom of 
the board, thus facilitating circuit grounding and point-to-point 
wiring. In short, the COCO BREADBOARD was designed with the 
experimenter in mind. 

The COCO BREADBOARD is attractively priced to justify its use 
for even the lowest budget projects. It is an ideal vehicle for learning 
interfacing techniques. Buy extras to have on hand for those rainy 
weekends. 

The COCO BREADBOARD costs just $1 9.95. Price for two (2) or 
more is $1 6 95 each. 

FACTORY FRESH COMPO 



ITEM 

2716 EPROM 
2532 EPROM 
682 1P 
74LS156 
Socket 



DESCRIPTION 

2K by 8 Bit, 350 ns 
4K by 8 bit, 350 ns 
P.I.A. 

Open collector decoder 
ZIF, 24 pin, Aries 

Minimum component order: $25.00 



PRICE 

$4.50 ea. 
$6.50 ea. 
$3.50 ea. 
$1.70 ea. 
$7.95 ea. 



ORDERING INFORMATION : 

Add $3.00 to all orders to cover shipping and handling. Allow two 
weeks for personal checks. Canadian residents add 5°/o to cover 
special handling. Arizona residents add 4°/o sales tax. Sorry! No 
charges accepted. All items shipped UPS. 



Make checks payable to: 



COMPUTER ACCESSORIES OF ARIZONA 
5801 E. VOLTAIRE DRIVE 
SCOTTSDALE, ARIZONA 85254 
16021 886-7568 



-)(- TRS-80 is a trademark of TANDY CORP. 
SDS80C is a trademark of the MICRO WORKS. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 



Page 84 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 




Software Review... 

Game Writer Is An 
Excellent Utility For CoCo 

D o we call this a game o r a utility? W e are not really sure, 
but Game Writer is an excellent program that will provide a 
great deal of enjoyment and has the advantage of being fun 
in both the creating and "final result" aspect of things as 
well. 

For these purpooses, I suppose that Game Writer is a 
utility. After all, it does create things — or allow CoCo to do 
things which it otherwise could not do. Is that the definition 
of a utility? I suppose so. 

If you want to do some game writing, and have the 
advantages of high speed in an almost-assembled format, 
then Game Writer will help a lot. The program is supplied in 
a ROM Cart that plugs into the expansion portandfrom the 
time that you turn the computer on, you are working within 
the Game Writer system. 

There are three modes of operation for the program. The 
first, Control, lets you access the two other modes, permits 



loading and saving to and f rom tape and enables you to print 
out your programs. The second, Run, lets you run 
programs. 

But the fun begins in Edit Mode. That is where you create 
programs. Once a program is created, you exit it and go to 
Run Mode to run. Not as complicated as it sounds. It is a 
simple process of pushing two button's on the keyboard. 

Game Writer reminds us a great deal of the LOGO 
language. That is no surprise, since the author who 
developed it also developed Color LOGO f or Radio Shack 
(see a review on Color LOGO elsewhere in this month's 
Rainbow). And, Game Writer has all the advantages of 
LOGO, high speed, graphics orientation and an easy-to-use 
language. 

Our opinion is that the easiest-to-use part of this program 
is the most difficult in BASIC, the drawing of figures to be 
used in games. The program allows you to define shapes in a 
16 by 16 grid — and all you do is draw that grid with periods 
and X's. Where there is an X, the pixel in your figure will be 
set to "on," a period will have it "off." Using the instructions 
which come with Game Writer, I drew a complicated little 
space invader-like creature in about a minute, and then 
modified it in 30 seconds! 

Once you have defined a shape, you can move it about the 
screen using commands very much like those in LOGO — 
foward, backward, right turn, left turn, set heading and so 
on. An additional neat feature allows you to decide whether 
the object will "wrap" from one side of the screen to the 
other if it goes off the edge, bounce off the side of the screen 
or just disappear if it hits the edge. 

You can define up to 15 shapes in Game Writer, but each 
shape can be used more than one time. And, the shapes can 
"communicate" with each other — which essentially means 



Find The 

COLOR COMPUTER INFORMATION 

YOU NEED 

INDEX TO ARTICLES, PROGRAMS, LETTERS 
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REVIEWS 

IN MAGAZINES 

COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 0 

CATALOG LISTING 
VENDORS, HARDWARE, SOFTWARE 
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COLOR COMPUTER CATALOG 



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Send me COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1980-1981 at $5 (Canada and Mexico $6) 
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December 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 85 



you can let them interact. 

There is a good set of commands for operation of games 
as well— IF, ELSE, LOOP and WHILE. You can control 
movement very well with these commands, and the ones 
which allow you to create variables and perform relational 
operations between them (as in Basic). You can also print 
characters on the screen, control the colors of the shapes and 
the background and the like. All in all, a very complete list of 
things that can be done with games. 

But what is a game without sound? Not much, so Game 
Writer provides 26 different levels of sound (accessed by 
single letters) at variable durations. These are some of the 
best easy-to-produce sounds we have heard for CoCo. 

With all of this at your disposal, you would expect that 
there is a lot to learn. There is. But Game Writer comes with 
a 39-page instruction book that explains things very well 
and is even three-hole punched for your convenience. The 
documentation is clear and includes a number of examples 
which you can type in and run. 

For those of you interested in making your own games, 
Game Writer will be a valuable purchase. In our view, the 
only drawback at this time is that most of the games you 
create will have to be your own — in other words, until this 
system catches on (which it should do), there will probably 
not be much commercial software available for the Game 
Writer system. But, Game Writer does provide a way to 
create graphic games simply and quickly — and you will have 
fun making them as well as playing them. 

(Washington Computer Services, 3028 Silvern Lane, 
Bellingham, WA 98226, $129 plus $5 s/h) 




Graphic 
Traffic 



Here's a little program we think you'll enjoy playing. It 
was sent to us by John Dana of Hamden, Connecticut, and 
can give your CoCo vertigo in just a few seconds. 

Try typing in your name, and then pecking away at the 
space bar. You'll be amused — even as your head begins to 
swim. 

As John points out, these effects can be incorporated into 
games for displays, and when a desirable combination is 
found, it can be preserved in string or data statements. 

Enjoy this. 

5 CLEAR 100 

10 A$=INKEY$ 

20 B$=B$+A$ 

30 PRINT B$; 

40 GOTO 10 



YOUR COLOR COMPUTER JUST GOT WHEELS ! 




REVOLUTION! 



REALISTIC. . . 

Developed by an experienced race driver, Revolution 
reproduces the actual feeling of being behind the wheel 
of an authentic race car. Designed with the utmost 
attention to detail, its unprecedented measure of control 
turns your Color Computer into a challenging test of skill 
and precision. There are no funny monkeys, strange alien 
creatures or creeping oil slicks. Revolution pits you 
against yourself. . . competition in its purest form. 

INNOVATIVE. . . 

Revolution comes ready to run with a selection of cars 
and pre-designed courses. But unlike other -computer and 
arcade games, its basic parameters can be changed by the 
player, making Revolution an unbeatable challenge. 



SOPHISTICATED. . . 

Revolution is fully menu driven and has fast, high 
resolution machine language graphics. PLUS, Revolution 
utilizes the advanced file access capabilities of the Color 
Computer to automatically store and retrieve all of your 
lap records and save the tracks you've designed. 

A COMPUTER GAME AHEAD OF ITS TIME! 

For 32K Disk & Joysticks . . . $24.95 

Inter <y> fiction 



113 Ward Street 



New Haven, CT 06519 



Page 86 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



Format Your LLISTings 
With FLIST 

by Charles J. Roslund 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

(Mr. Roslund is the author of War Kings, Intergalactic Force and 
many machine language utilities for the 80C.) 

Have you ever wished that your program listings (on 
your printer) would skip over the page perforations and 
maybe format the listing a little? There are several good 
utilities on the market that will do this formatting for you, 
but all the ones I've seen require that you first save the 
program in ASCII format to create a data file that the 
formattor reads. This may get to be a bit inconvenient 
(especially if you don't have a disk based system). This 
month's program will automatically skip over page 
perforations and format the printed listing without 
requiring you to make an ASCII save of the program. I call 
this program FLIST . It provides a machine language driver 
that formats the output to the printer when you load a Basic 
program and enter the comand LLIST. You can't get much 
simpler than that. 

To use FLIST, once you get a copy of the accompanying 
program on tape or disk, just follow these steps. 

1. LOADM"FLIST" as you would any other machine 
language program. FLIST is written in position 
independent code so it may be loaded with an offset to keep 
it out of the way of the Basic program you wish to list. The 
listing shows FLIST located as S0E00 which is the beginning 
of the first Graphics page on Disk based systems. S0E00 is in 
the second Graphics page on Extended Basic Computers, 
and this is a safe place for it as long as you don't execute a 



ALL OF US 
HERE AT 

PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE: 

Bill and Sara Nolan 

Daniel and Nathan Nolan 
Paul and Susan Petrocci 
Steve Hrometz 
Keith Dickinson 
David Hunt 

David Yarbrough 

Hazzard and Nipper (the Dogs) 
Poco Diablo (the Ferret) 
Taffy (the Cat) 

Lightfoot (the Rat) 

and Francis (the Turtle) 
wish you and yours a joyous, safe, and peaceful holi- 
day season. May the spirit of thisseason becomea 
permanent part of all your lives. 





0 • 




PCLEAR1 command while you are using FLIST. Color 
Basic users will probably want to reserve high memory for 
FLIST and offset load it. For example: CLEAR200, 15800 
to reserve high memory and CLOADM"FLIST," 12300 
would load FLIST into the reserved memory area. Note, 
these numbers are for a 1 6K Color Basic Computer and they 
waste a few hundred bytes of memory, but they are nice, 
round, easy-to-remember numbers. 

2. After loading FLIST, EXECute it. This will perform 
some initialization and then return to Basic. 

3. Next, if your Basic program is already in memory, just 
enter the standard Basic command LLIST. If your Basic 
program is not in memory, you must load it and enter 
LLIST. 

4. Watch the formatted program listing appear on your 
printer. If you wish to list several programs, you must 
EXECute before each listing to zero the page counter. You 
must also manually advance the paper to a few lines down 
from the "Top of Form" after each listing. 

FLIST provides the following formatting features: 

1. 60 lines per page with six blank lines between pages. 

2. Breaks each line at 75 columns to leave a right margin. 

3. Indents continuation lines so that only line numbers are 
in the left-most columns. 

Note, all of the above features are redefinable and I'll 
describe how to change them while I'm describing how the 
program works. 

PROGRAM INITIALIZATION 

Lines 3 through 12 (refer to program listing for all line 
number references) perform the initialization for FLIST. 
This initialization is similar to that used in the last month's 
SCROLL PROTECT program. The same ROM TRAP is 
used at address $0168. This is the address that is vectored 
through every time a character is printed to any device 
(screen, printer, cassette, etc.) The "A" register contains the 
character to be printed when $0167, which will contain a 
"JMP" instruction. The address jumped to is at $01 68.) Line 
3 (CLR LINCNT, PCR) zero's the location labeled 
LINCNT. This is the line counter used to count carrage 
returns, which is actually counting lines on a page. Lines 4 
and 5 save the old contents of $0168 in OLDVEC. Lines 6 
and 7 install the new vector, NEWVEC, in $0168. This will 
cause the ROM routine that is printing a character, to 
execute the program starting at NEWVEC before printing 
the character. Lines 8 and 9 install a "JMP" instruction at 
$0167. This may sound unnecessary since I already stated 
that $0167 contains a "JMP" instruction. Well, it is 
unnecessary if you have EXTENDED or DISK Basic. The 
EXTENDED and DISK Basic ROMS install a "JMP" at 
$0167 during their initialization of thecomputer. If you have 
regular COLOR Basic, $0167 will contain a "RTS" 
instruction, and installing this "JMP" instruction is 
necessary. Lines 10 and 1 1 put an "RTS" instruction at the 
label START. This assures that the initialization routine 
will move the vector at $0 1 68 only one time (the first time it's 
executed). Every time it's executed thereafter, it will only 
zero the line counter (line 3) and then return. This allows you 
to zero the line counter after one listing is complete, to do 
another listing, if you desire. This is accomplished by merely 
EXECuting FLIST again. Line 12 returns from the 
initialization routine. Control is returned to Basic, and you 
will see the "OK" prompt. 

SYMBOL DEFINITION 

Lines 1 3 and 14 EQUate two symbols to ROM addresses. 
PRNT is the address of Basic's print to the printer 
subroutine. Whatever is in the "A" register is printed when 
this subroutine is called. PRTCOL is the address of Basic's 
printer column counter. This location counts the number of 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 87 



characters printed to the printer since the last carrage return. 
Lines 15 and 16 reserve memory for OLDVEC, where I will 
save the original contents of the vector at $0168, and 
LINCNT, which is used to store the number of carrage 
returns (number of lines) sent to the printer. 

MAIN PROGRAM BODY 

The program starting at line 17 (NEWVEC) is executed 
every time a character is printed to any device. Lines 17 
through 22 save the important registers on the stack, and 
check if the current character is going to the printer (this is 
determined by checking if $6F contains a -2). If the current 
character is going to the printer, you branch to CHKCR, 
otherwise the program pulls all registers that were saved and 
returns to the Basic print routine by JU M Ping to the address 
stored in OLDVEC. 

Lines 23 through 26 check if the current character (in the 
"A" register) is a carrage return. If it is, the line counter is 
incremented, and the program returns to the ROM print 
routine by branching to RETURN. If the current character 
is not a carrage return, the program branches to CHKCOL 
(check column number). Lines 27 through 37 limit each line 
of the listing to 75 characters. Lines 27 and 28 compare 
PRTCOL with the number 75. If PRTCOL is less than 75 , 
the program branches to CHKLIN (check line number). 
Otherwise, in linesx 30 through 36, a carragereturn is sent to 
the printer , f ollowed by f our spaces to indent the next line of 
the listing. If you wish to change the column width of the 

F^l_ I ST 



listing, you may change the #75 in line 28 to any desired 
column width. If you wish to change the number of spaces 
that continuation lines are indented by, change the loop 
counter in line 33 (now a #4) to any desired value. After the 
four spaces are sent, line 37 increments the line counter 
(LINCNT). The program then continues with CHKLIN at 
line 38. 

Lines 38 through 47 check if 60 lines have beenprinted. If 
the line counter is less than 60, line40 branches to RETURN 
to return to the ROM print routine. If 60 lines have been 
printed, lines 41 through 45 send 6 carrage returns to the 
printer to skip over the upcoming end of page. Then line 46 
clears the line counter for a new page, and line 47 branches 
to RETURN. If you wish to change the number of lines per 
page you may modify the #60 in line 39 to be as many lines as 
you want printed on a page, and also modify the loop 
counter in line 41 (now #6) to be equal to the form length of 
your paper (usually 66) minus the number on line 39. 

One important modification required for regular 
COLOR Basic users is: Change the three bytes in line 22 to 
"RTS" ($39, $39, $39) since there is no OLD VECTOR to 
jump to in COLOR Basic computers. You just return to the 
Rom with an "RTS" instruction. 

I use FLIST for just about every program listing since it's 
so quick to use. I would suggest that you save a copy of 
FLIST (located in a covenient reserved area of RAM) so 
that you can load it without an offset. This will make its use 
easier and faster. 



******************************** 

* Formatted LL 1ST: FLIST * 

* Rev. 10/16/82 by C Roslund * 
******************************** 




CHARLIE'S 




0001 


0E00 






NAM FLIST 




0002 


0E00 






ORG *0E00 


GRAPHICS PAGE MEMORY 


0003 


0E00 


6F8D0019 


INIT 


CLR LINCNT, PCR 


CLEAR LINE COUNTER 


0004 


0E04 


BE0168 


START 


LDX *0168 


RAM HOOK 


0005 


0E07 


AF8C1 1 




STX <OLDVEC,PCR 


SAVE OLD VECTOR 


0006 


0E0A 


308C1 1 




LEAX < NEWVEC , PCR 


GET NEW VECTOR 


0007 


0E0D 


BF0168 




STX *0168 


INSTALL NEW VECTOR 


000S 


0E10 


867E 




LDA #*7E 


INSTALL ' JMP' INSTRUCTION 


0009 


0E12 


B70167 




STA $0167 


FOR NON-EXTENDED BASIC 


0010 


0E15 


8639 




LDA #$39 


RTS 


0011 


0E17 


A78CEA 




STA START, PCR 


PUT RTS AT START 


0012 


0E1A 


39 




RTS 


INITIALIZATION DONE, RETURN 


0013 


A2BF 




PRNT 


EQU *A2BF 


SEND A CHARACTER TO PRINTER 


0014 


009C 




PRTCOL 


EOU *9C 


PRINTER COLUMN COUNTER 


0015 


0E1B 


0000 


OLDVEC 


FDB 0 


OLD VECTOR 


0016 


0E1D 


00 


LINCNT 


FCB 0 


LINE COUNTER 


0017 


0E1E 


3417 


NEWVEC 


PSHS A, B, X , CC 


SAVE REGISTERS 


00 IS 


0E20 


D66F 




LDB <*6F 


GET DEVICE NUMBER 


0019 


0E22 


C1FE 




CMPB #-2 


CHECK IF GOING TO PRINTER 


0020 


0E24 


2705 




BEQ CHKCR 


YES 


0021 


0E26 


3517 


RETURN 


PULS A,B,X,CC 


RESTORE SAVED REGISTERS 


0022 


0E28 


6E9CF0 




JMP C OLDVEC, PCR3 


RETURN TO ROM 


0023 


0E2B 


810D 


CHKCR 


CMPA #$0D 


CHECK FOR <CR> 


0024 


0E2D 


2605 




BNE CHKCOL 


NO <CR> 


0025 


0E2F 


6C8CEB 




INC LINCNT, PCR 


INCREMINT LINE COUNTER 


0026 


0E32 


20F2 




BRA RETURN 


RETURN TO ROM 


0027 


0E34 


969C 


CHKCOL 


LDA <PRTCOL 


GET COLUMN # 


0028 


0E36 


814B 




CMPA #75 


CHECK FOR 75 COLUMNS 


0029 


0E38 


2512 




BLO CHKLIN 


LESS THAN 75 


0030 


0E3A 


860D 




LDA #$0D 


SEND <CR> 


0031 


0E3C 


BDA2BF 




JSR PRNT 


SEND TO PRINTER 


0032 


0E3F 


8620 




LDA #$20 


< SPACE > 


0033 


0E41 


C604 




LDB #4 


SEND 4 SPACES TO INDENT 


0034 


0E43 


BDA2BF 


LOOP 


JSR PRNT 


SEND TO PRINTER 


0035 


0E46 


5A 




DECB 


DECREMENT COUNTER 


0036 


0E47 


26FA 




BNE LOOP 


NOT DONE YET 


0037 


0E49 


6C8CD1 




INC LINCNT, PCR 


INCREMENT LINE COUNTER 


0038 


0E4C 


A68CCE 


CHKLIN 


LDA LINCNT, PCR 


GET LINE COUNT 


0039 


0E4F 


813C 




CMPA #60 


CHECK FOR 60 LINES 


0040 


0E51 


25D3 




BLO RETURN 


LESS THAN 60 


0041 


0E53 


C606 




LDB #6 


SEND 6 <CR>'s 


0042 


0E55 


860D 


FLOOP 


LDA #*0D 


<CR> 


0043 


0E57 


BDA2BF 




JSR PRNT 


SEND <CR> TO PRINTER 


0044 


0E5A 


5A 




DECB 


DECREMENT COUNTER 


0045 


0E5B 


26F8 




BNE FLOOP 


NOT DONE YET 


0046 


0E5D 


6F8CBD 




CLR LINCNT, PCR 


CLEAR LINE COUNTER 


0047 
0048 


0E60 

0E62 


20C4 




BRA RETURN 
END INIT 


RAINBOW 



Page 88 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Software Review... 

Logo As A Language 
Children Can Understand 

By David Hunt 

When Seymour Papert set out to develop a language that 
would provide a computer based learning environment, he 
drew heavily on the theoretical influence of Jean Piaget, a 
recently deceased Swiss Child Psychologist under whom he 
studied for many years. 

The result of his efforts was LOGO, an interactive, 
procedure-based language which is easy enough to be used 
by pre-school children, yet flexible enough to provide 
challenges for even the most advanced learners. 

Perhaps the greatest difference between LOGO and other 
computer languages is seen in the way LOGO reflects its 
author's philosophy. Papert believes strongly that people — 
children in particular — should control computers, not the 
reverse. He feels that most computers place learners in a 
position of inferiority to themselves. Standard drill, test and 
practice programs, for example, tell children when are are 
right or wrong. They never know more than the computer 
and are even told that computers never make mistkes — only 
people do that! LOGO puts the shoe on the other foot. For 
example, when told to "SQUARE" (without previous 
programming), the computer responds with "I DON'T 
KNOW HOW TO SQUARE." Now it's the computer that is 
dumb! Obviously the child is smarter than the computer, for 
s/he can easily "teach" the machine how to "SQUARE" by 
writing a short program and naming it "SQUARE." 

Since LOGO is an interactive language, programs, known 



as PROCEDURES, may be executed immediately, without 
having to be compiled. Procedural statements are translated 
by means of the computer's interpreter into machine code 
which it then executes. In this way, it is the same as BASIC. 
Debugging is accomplished very easily by modifying single 
statements or program lines which may be immediately 
tested, again as in BASIC. 

TRS COLOR LOGO 

COLOR LOGO utilizes four different modes— BREAK, 
RUN, EDIT and DOODLE. 

Upon execution, the user finds himself in the BREAK 
mode, from which he may enter the EDIT mode or RUN 
mode by pressing (E) or (R) respectively. Pressing (S) or (L) 
will allow (S)aving programs in memory or (L)oading 
programs from tape or disk. 

In the RUN mode, the user can control the motion and 
direction of a small figure on the CRT called a "turtle." 
Hence, the name "turtle graphics." Basically, the turtle may 
be directed anywhere on the screen by commands, such as 
FORWARD and BACKWARD, with specific distances, 
or, LEFT TURN and RIGHT TURN with specified degrees 
of rotation. 

Abbreviations, such as FD, BK, RT and LT may be used. 
The turtle drags his tail, as it were, leaving tracks indicating 
where he has been, thus producing a graphic design on the 
screen. Other commands, such as PENUP (PU) and 
PENDOWN (PD) may be used to control the designs by 
determining whether or not the turtle leaves a trail. (I 
wonder why they didn't use "TAILUP" and 
TAILDOWN?") In addition, two color-sets are available. 
Within each color set there are four colors. The 
PENCOLOR (PC) and BACKGROUND COLOR (BG) 



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DONKEY 
KING 

©1982 
32K Machine Language 
$24.95 tape 
$27.95 disc 

ARCADE ACTION — How high can you climb? Four full graphic screens. Exciting sound - Realistic graphics. Never 
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PROTECTORS 



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Exciting fast paced arcade 
game that looks and plays like 
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"DEFENDER", 

Wave after wave of enemy 
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mother ships appear firing laser blasts at you. Watch for the 
heat seeking mines. 

Your defense includes your laser cannon plus four smart 
bombs on each of your four ships. A new ship with each 5,000 
points. 

High resolution graphics with four colors make this new 32K 
arcade game the one for others to follow. 

MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 TAPE $27.95 DISK 




SOLO POOL 

Now play pool with your col- 
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Plays like machine 
language. Super color. High 
resolution graphics. 
16K Extended Basic $17.95 



BIRD ATTACK 

A fast paced machine 
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Watch out for their bombs! 
16K Extended Basic $21.95 



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16K MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 



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COLOR GOLF 

Now sit at your computer and play 
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32 K EXTENDED BASIC $16.95 



MAZE RACE 

Maze race is a one or two 
player game. Play either 
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16K MACHINE CODE $14.95 





UTILITIES 

COLOR MONITOR-Written in position independent code. (May 
be located in any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 
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TAPE DUPE— Brand new machine language program that 
copies any tape effortlessly. Completely automatic. ML$16.95 
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MAIL LIST-Maintain a complete mailing list with phone 
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THE FIXER-Having trouble moving those 600 Hex progarn&to 
disk? The fixer will help. Completely automatic. ML $18.95 
TAPE CAT-AII new machine language program lists contents of 
tapes to printer. Make a catalog of your tapes. ML $1 7.95 

PROGRAM PRINTER UTILITY-This program will list basic pro- 
grams to your printer in two column format. Saves paper and 
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Have you ever wanted to place characters on a graphic 
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large character mode for small children or the visually 
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character set may be reversed 

written in machine language, program is relocatable 
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works with both cassette and disk 
includes a 20 page manual with demo programs (a lunar 
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An enhanced version of Pilot for use with Extended Baste 
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SCREEN PRINT PACKAGE 

A package of 2 programs for use with the LPVM LPVIll 
DMP100. DMP200, DMP400. DMP500 The programs will 
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Both programs work with all the standard PMODEs The 
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All orders shipped within 5 working days 



December, 1 982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 91 



may be changed at any time. Portions of a drawing may be 
erased by setting the pen color to the background color and 
drawing over the lines. 

So far, what we have discussed describes the RUN mode 
in much the same way as the IMMEDIATE mode of 
BASIC. Commands are executed as soon as ENTER is 
pressed. Procedures which have been written and saved in 
the EDIT mode may also be executed in the RUN mode. 

In the EDIT mode, procedures and subprocedures may be 
written and stored to be later executed in the RUN mode. 
Procedures are given titles preceded by the word "TO." for 
example, following is a procedure for drawing a square: 

TO SQUARE 

FD 40 RT 90 FD 40 RT 90 

FD 40 RT 90 FD 40 RT 90 

END 

When the word "SQUARE" is typed in the RUN mode, a 
40 unit square will be drawn by the turtle from the HOME 
(center of the screen) position. The use of the command 
REPEAT reduces the SQUARE procedure to: 

TO SQUARE 

REPEAT 4 (FD 40 RT 90) 

END 

The starting position of any graphic may be changed by 
the commands SETX (SX) and SETY (SY) followed by 
screen position coordinates. In addition, the heading of the 
turtle may also be modified by the command 
SETHEADING (SH), followed by a number of degrees of 
rotation. If the values used in any graphic are too large, or if 
the turtle is too close to the edge of the screen, wraparound 
will occur unless NOWRAP is specified. The user may even 
determine whether or not the turtle is visible by using the 
commands SHOWTURTLE and HIDETURTLE. The 
command CLEAR clears the screen. 

Procedures written and stored in the EDIT mode may be 
modified by a full screen editor somewhat similar to those 
used by Apple and Commodore BASIC. 

The final mode available is DOODLE. This mode, 
entered from the RUN mode by pressing "@," allows the 



user to draw directly on the screen using single key entry 
strokes. A keyboard overlay is provided for the top row of 
keys. In this mode, the top row of keys operates the same 
way as INKEYS in COLOR BASIC. CLEAR, HOME, 
PENUP, PENDOWN, RT45, LT45, FD 1, FD 10, RT 15, 
LT 15 are performed with a single stroke of the keys 1 - 0, 
respectively. These moves are also symbolically shown at the 
bottom of the screen. When the BREAK mode is entered, 
the sequence of keystrokes used in doodling is automatically 
recorded as a procedure by a name given prior to doodling. 
This procedure may be seen and edited in the EDIT mode 
and executed by title in the RUN mode. If you don't mind 
giving up the ability to store and edit the drawings created in 
DOODLE, an open-ended one-key (OK) set of commands 
may be designed as single-key entry procedures. (Pressing 
ENTER, however, will now be necessary.) 
PROBLEM SOLVING 

The value of LOGO in problem solving becomes readily 
apparent when larger problems are broken down into 
smaller procedures. 

LOGO'S power is unleashed when procedures are 
combined. Once a procedure has been defined and named, it 
may be "called" to perform in another procedure. For 
example, a four-paned window can be easily constructed by 
repeating the SQUARE procedure. 

TO WINDOW 

REPEAT 4 (SQUARE LT 90) 
END 

Entering the command WINDOW intheRUN mode calls 
up the window procedure which in turn calls up the 
SQUARE procedure. The technique of using a procedure in 
defining another procedure is called RECURSION. 
Procedures may even call themselves! 

COLOR LOGO'S allowance of subprocedures facilitates 
the solution of complex problems, especially when the 
solution indicates repetitive action. Students learn to look 
for patterns which may be broken down and defined by 
short procedures. Logical thinking skills are developed and 
reinforced through problem solving of this type. 



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RAINBOW 



Page 92 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



OTHER FEATURES 

COLOR LOGO provides for simple program saving to 
tape or disk in the disk version. The ROMPAC and tape 
version, however, will only provide f or saving to tape. A disk 
for saving COLOR LOGO programs is divided into 16 
modules of approximately 9K each. The modules are 
designated by the letters A-P. An index of procedures saved 
should be made because the disk directory is not used. 
COLOR LOGO also provides for easy output to a printer in 
single or double spacing format. 

IN ADDITION: 

* Multiple turtles (up to 255) may be created and given 
procedures to perform by the HATCH command. 

* The turtle shape may be modified by means of the 
SHAPE command. 

* The command SLOW puts turtle graphics in slow- 
motion at user-definable speeds. 

* Messages may be sent between turtles using the SEND 
command (messages are numbers in the -32768 to 32767 
range). 

* Arithmetic (+, -, *, /), logical (and, or, not), and 
relational (greater than, less than and equals) operators may 
be used in procedures as well as variables (designated by a 
colon followed by a word of any length). 

On the negative side, COLOR LOGO does not support 
any string or list-manipulating words. Outside of turtle 
graphics, there is little that is offered the more advanced 
programmer. There is no SPRITE mode which would allow 
three-dimensional graphics. Also, multiple commands may 
not appear in a single line in the RUN mode. 

Another disadvantage is that the turtle on the screen can 
only turn in 45 degree increments. It can move and draw in 
increments which are smaller, but the user cannot 
necessarily tell by looking at the screen where the turtle will 
go. In addition, because COLOR LOGO uses only integer 
arithmetic, some jfigures (e.g., circles) are not drawn in the 
way you might think most logical. 

The primary reason for some of these deficiencies is 
obviously the memory limitation of the COLOR 
COMPUTER, hardly something for which we can hold the 
authors of COLOR LOGO accountable. Nevertheless, 
programmers familiar with other versions of LOGO may 
well be disappointed with this limited version 

CONCLUSION 

In conclusion, COLOR LOGO is a fine, but admittedly 
limited implementation of the LOGO language. It is faithful 
to Papert's philosophy of encouraging inquiry and 
discovery. Children, as well as adults, using this language 
will learn through logical experimentation (I even learned a 
great deal through illogical experimentation!) with a feeling 



that they are in control. 

One final note. This review is based on a preliminary 
version of COLOR LOGO. However, it is unlikely that any 
major modifications will be made prior to its release. 




Hardware Review... 

Improve Your Memory 
With This Handy Kit 

Got 32K desire and only 1 6K capability? If that's the case, 
then this upgrade kit from J ARB software could solve your 
dilemma. 

I 'm not an expert on IC's and circuit boards, nor soldering 
techniques, yet I did find this kit fairly easy to install. This 
was in no small part due to the detailed step by step 
instructions provided with the kit. 

To start with, the eight RAM chips and the SAM chip 
must be removed from the computer. An IC removal tool is 
recommended, but I managed to do it with a nail file without 
any problems. Piggy-back chips with a pre-soldered 
connecting wire are then placed in the same sockets. Now, 
the connecting wires from each of these new chips must be 
joined. This is accomplished by soldering all nine connecting 
wires to the separate bus wire. Once that's completed (it's the 
trickiest part) the original chips are re-installed into the 
sockets of the piggy-back chips. That's it! 32K at a 
reasonable cost. 

All in all, it took about 45 minutes to complete the process 
with no hitches. It's also good to know that no permanent 
connections are made to the computer so if removal is ever 
required, it can be done quickly and easily. 

One final note. If messing around inside your computer 
with a soldering iron makes you nervous, or if your warranty 
has not expired, then stay away from this kit. It does require 
some skill and, as you may know, heat or static electricity 
can ruin a chip. 

(JARB Software, 1169 Florida Street, Imperial Beach, 
CA 92032, $25.95.) 

—Robert D. Nunziato Jr. 



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BASIC AID 



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A powerful feature is the ability to redefine any or all of the keys to your own specifications 
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Automatic Line Numbering. 




MERGE— Insert programs stored on 
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You can even assign new line 
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^ MOVE— Lets you move and renumber any 

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Redefine any or all keys! Put in your most 
frequently used commands. Then save 
them to tape for use another time. 

"An excellent program 
and fine utility." — 
-RAINBOW review, 
August, 1982, Page 27 



MERGE MOVE OH/OFF 
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BLANK SET -AUTONUM- 
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T 

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r T~~ 



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Page 96 the RAINBOW 



ARE THERE MORE Color 
Computers coming? It looks like it. This 
page was the first to report about the 
TDP-100 and the Dragon-32, and now 
we give you the Sampo Color Computer 
from the far east. It is our 
understanding that this new piece of 
hardware — which is said to be 
compatible with CoCo — will have a 
Model Ill-like keyboard, four special 
function keys and a number of other 
things. Among them: A "port" on one 
side that has a telephone-looking plug. 
Could there be a built-in modem? We 
don't know, but we'll keep you 
informed. 

By the way, the reason we keep telling 
you all about these new Color 
Computers is simply because they mean 
a bigger hardware and sof tware base f or 
CoCo. As we understand it, all the 
machines we are talking about will run 
Color Basic and Extended Color Basic 
programs. Some programs will require 
modification to run machine language, 
but that is another story. And, it means 
as more CoCos and CoCo-like 
computers are sold worldwide, there 
will be more and more people writing 
software for our own machine. 

****** 

SPEAKING OF WORLDWIDE,/^ 

Rainbow was one of the attractions in 
the "Business To Business" show in 
Bellview, Manchester, England in 
November. This is one of the bigger 
computer shows in the United 
Kingdom. And, it is the beginning of a 
big push for the Rainbow in the U.K. 
and Europe. Did you note the 
additional price on the cover of this 
month's issue, £1.95? 

* * * * * * 

ONE OF THE MORE interesting 
things we have seen is a number of hard- 
ware-type mods using the ROM port. 
First in is one from General Auto- 
mation, but more are said to be ready 
soon. We expect this type of thing will 
be big for our CoCo in 1983. So, watch 
for a number of them. 

4c 4c 4c 4c 4c 4c 

ONE OF THE MOST IN- 
NOVATIVE displays we have seen in 
the CoCo world is a new one recently 
unveiled by Anteco. Its a counter-top 
display that is in the shape of a Color 
Computer, with the red break key and 
all. Shrink-wrapped programs are in 



boxes where the monitor screen is on 
most of our units. Done up in three 
colors, it is very attractive. 

4c 4( * * * * 

WE'RE REALLY SORRY that we 
messed one up again and printed a 
credit to the wrong program that 
produced last month's cover for the 
Rainbow. We said a new program 
called Foxy Graf being marketed by 
Computerware was the means by which 
the cover was created. Oops. The 
program is marketed by Computer- 
ware, but its name is Semi-Draw (see a 
review in this issue). Our face is double- 
red because the program's very creative 
author, Paul Hoffman, will be doing an 
in-depth article on using Radio Shack's 
new X-Pad for next month's issue. 
Sorry Paul. Sorry Computerware. 

4c 4c 4c 4c 4c 4c 

RUMOR HAS IT THAT there are a 
lot of video game fans among CoCo 
owners. If so, there is a Video Game 
Lover's Calendar available from 
Chattanooga Choo-Choo Software 
(P.O. Box 15892, Chattanooga, TN 
37415). Its $4.95 and has a number of 
cartoons and the like on video game 
themes which will keep you chuckling 
all through 1983. 

4c 4c 4c 4c 4c 4c 

PHONING SOUTHERN CALIF- 
ORNIA for a quick pre-Holiday 
software or hardware order? If so, you 
might wish to check with your 
telephone operator before making a 
direct dial call. An area of the 714 area 
code has been changed to area code 619. 
So far, the Microworks, Cognitec and 
Jarb Software report that their area 
code numbers have been changed. Both 
7 1 4 and 6 1 9 are supposed to work f or a 
couple of months yet. But, if you run 
into trouble the area code change might 
be the reason. 

Speaking of Jarb Software, they are 
among those with a "moving 
experience" this month. New address is 
1636 D Avenue-Suite C, National City, 
CA 92050. The new phone is (619) 474- 
6213. Snake Mountain Software also 
reports a new address at 608 W. 
Johnson Street, Raleigh, NC 27603. 

4c * * * * * 

MID-AMERICANS CAN now dial 
up a new bulletin Board located in the 
heartland, Kansas City. Steve Odneal is 



December, 1982 

the system operator for this new service, 
called the "Mid-America Color 
Computer Network. It can be reached 
by calling (816) 358-6222 and is on-line 
24 hours a day. 

****** 

TEACHERS AND EDUCATORS 

will want to be aware of the Tandy 
TRS-80 Educational Grants program. 
It is designed to encourage and support 
the successful application of 
microcomputer technology in 
educational institutions throughout the 
United States. In all, Tandy will make 
some $500,000 worth of hardware, 
software and firmware available to 
educational institutions through its 
grants program. Deadline for the next 
program — which uses "Unique and 
Innovative Microcomputer Appli- 
cations in Education" as its theme — is 
March 31, 1983. Those interested can 
write to the Radio Shack Educational 
Grands Program, 400 Tandy Atrium, 
Ft. Worth, TX 76102. 

While on the subject of education, we 
know of many people who think one of 
the major focuses of CoCo in 1983 will 
be in the educational field. The 
Rainbow is, of course, running its 
Education Notes programming column 
under the award-winning authorship of 
Steve Blyn. But, we hope you have 
noticed a second feature in recent 
months, from Dr. Paul Kimmelman, a 
highly-respected educational 
administrator, who is addressing ways 
in which faculty and administration can 
bring more microcomputers to the 
classroom. 

****** 

WE HEAR THAT A 64K upgrade of 
a TDP-100 is even more simple than is 
the "E" Board upgrade. Bob Rosen of 
Spectrum Projects says that all you 
need to do to perform the upgrade is 
move two jumpers to the left of U21 and 
another above U28. Another jumper 
must be added, to the left of U 17. Then, 
if you remove capacitors C58, C60, C62, 
C64, C66, C68, C70 and C72 you will 
have 64K. But, please, don't try any of 
these upgrades yourself unless you 
know quite a bit about electronics and 
have some ability in this area. 

****** 

IF YOU ARE INTERESTED in the 

Unix operating system, or the C 
language, you might check out Uni-Ops 
(P.O. Box 5182, Walnut Creek, CA 
94596-1182) for a list of courses. This 
not-for-profit firm has an eight-page 
catalog of short courses available. 



LOSING BATTLES WITH 

GLOOMSTICK? 




PUT THE JOY BACK IN 
COLOR COMPUTING 
WITH A NEW 

SPECTRUM 
STICK 



Features include: 



Power on/off LED 
indicator 




Ball joint components 
a true feel of control 



More like arcade Joy- 
sticks than anything 
we've yet encountered 
Rainbow review October 
1982, Page 112 




Extra long cables 



Sturdy construction 



Hair trigger response 



Dealer inquries - invited. 



. r 




please send( ) SPECTRUM STICK(s) at 
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SPECTRUM PROJECTS 
93-15 86 th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN, N.Y. 11421 



RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Page 98 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 




Go 



Adventuring 



With 



GAPAD 



By Geoff Wells 




I30, you enjoy adventure games. In fact, you like them so 
much you would like to write your own. You're brimming 
with creative ideas, but unfortunately you don't know how 
to put them into properform. If the assumptions we'vemade 
so far are correct, then you will most likely profit by reading 
the three-article series, of which this is the first part. 

Over the next several months, we plan to show you how to 
create your own exciting adventure programs in only a few 
hours. This month we present * GAPAD* the general all- 
purpose adventure driver which, as the name suggests, can 
be the basis for all your original adventure ideas. Next 
month we will tell you how to plug your own scenario into 
the drivers data statements, and the following month we will 
publish the data for a completed original adventure. 

The program as listed below will obviously not run as is, 
but you should type it in and save it in this form so that you 
can use it as a base for your own creations. 

About the only changes you will make to * GAP A D* are 
the values in the FOR NEXT loops. This is because the basic 
structure of most adventures is the same, only the location 
descriptions and stuff you collect changes. All this 
information is read by the program from the data that you 
supply. After you have saved the program as printed, load it 
back in and make the changes listed below. These changes 
will allow you to run the program and check for any typing 
errors. 

While you're waiting f or next month's issue, you can start 
writing your own adventure. You must decide on the 
location, things to find and what a player must do in order to 
win. To design the map of the area to play on you will find it 
helpful to use 4" X 5" cards, one for each room or area. That 
way you can chance the design around without re-drawing a 
complete map. Lay out each card as follows: 



words (lamp, door, sword, gold, etc.) and which words go 
together. For example, if your adventure has a river you 
would not "get river" but you would "get lamp" or "swim 



river 



11 




X= Y= 

LOCATION DESCRIPTION: 
POSSIBLE DIRECTIONS: 
VISIBLE OBJECTS: 
OBJECT KEY WORD: 
COMMENTS: 

You will also need a list of the first words you want to 
recognize (get, drop, open, read, etc.). Possible second 



The listing: 

0 ' GAPAD**GENERAL ALL PURPOSE AD 
VENTURE DRIVER** 

1 * GEOFF WELLS 

2 '21-12 EAST AVE N. 

3 'HAMILTON-ONTARIO 

4 ' CANADA-L8L 5H2 

5 ' <416) 529-1319 

6 'SPRING 1982 

7 CLEAR500: ' ADD MACHINE ADDRESS 

8 'DEFINE USR 

10 DIMMC* <XX, YY) , IN* <7.7.) ,FW*<40) 
,SW*<##) ,FC*<40) ,SC*<##) ,OL<**, 1 
) ,OD*<**> ,OK*<**) 

20 F0RNF=1T02: I N* < 7.7. ) = "*": NEXTNF 
30 FORNF= 1 TO++ : RE ADDUMM Y* : NE X TNF 
40 FORNF=1TO40:READFW*<NF) ,FC$(N 
F) : NEXTNF 

50 FORNF= 1 TO## : READSW* <NF) , SC* < N 
F) : NEXTNF 

60 forx=itoxx:fory=itoyy:readmc* 
<x,y) : nexty, x 

70 fornf=1to**:readol<nf,0) ,ol<n 

f, 1) ,od*<nf) , ok*<nf) : nextnf 

80 'read & poke machine lanquage 

DATA 
90 X=l: Y=l 

100 D*=MID*<MC*<X,Y) , 1,6) :L1=VAL 
<MID*<MC*<X, Y) ,7,2) ) : L2=VAL <MID* 
<MC*<X,Y) ,9,2) ) :L3=VAL<MID*<MC*< 
X, Y) , 11,2) ) :L4=VAL<MID*<MC*<X,Y) 
, 13,2) > 

110 RESTORE: L$=" " 

1 20 FORNF= 1 TO&& : READDUMMY* : I FL 1 = 
NF THENL*=DUMMY*: NEXTNF ELSENEXT 



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light pen, SAM Saver and 
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Value !!! 


Buy a 16K with Extended 
Basic and get two RS 
joysticks, Super Bust-Out 
ROMPACK, Basic Aid, Light 
Pen, SAM Saver and tech 
manual. A $135 value !!! 


Buy a D.C. Modem I with 
ColorCom/E for $199.95 and 
get an RS232 expansion 
cable and a four pin to four 
pin serial cable. A $25 value I! 


Buy the Color Graphic Printer 
and get a printer extension 
cable, two rolls of paper, and 
a four-pin to four-pin serial 
cable. A $30 value !!! 


Buy a Line Printer I (DMP-100) 
and get an RS232 expansion 
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pin serial cable. A $40 value II! 


Buy over $100 of ROMPACK 
software and get a three- 
foot ROMPACK extender. A 
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SYSTEM 100 COMPUTERS: 

10-1000 16K Basic Personal Computer 


$379.95 



10-1010 



1 6K Extended Basic Personal Computer $479.95 



PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT: 



10-1100 
10-1130 
10-1150 
10-1250 
10-1290 
10-1101 
10-1103 
10-1102 
10-1131 
10-1132 
10-1151 
10-1200 
10-1210 
10-1251 
10-1252 
10-1270 

SOFTWARE 

10-1300 
10-1301 
10-1302 
10-1303 
10-1304 
10-1305 
10-1306 



Color Graphic Printer I $249.00 

Line Printer I $399.00 

Mini-Disk $599.00 

Computer Cassette Recorder $59.95 

Modem I $149.00 

Plotter Pens (3 Black) for 10-1100 $2.95 

Plotter Pens (1 ea. Red, Green Blue) for 10-1100 $2.95 

Paper 4% inch (3 rolls) for 10-1100 $4.95 

Paper 9 1 / 2 inch - Line Printer I (500 sh./unit) $7.95 

Ribbon - Line Printer I $8.95 

Diskette 5 % inch $3.99 

RS Joystick $12.95 

Computer Dust Cover $4.95 

Computer Cassette Tape (10 Minute) CT-10 $1.79 

Computer Cassette Tape (20 Minute) CT-20 $3.69 

Cable 4 Pin to 4 Pin $4.95 



Super Bust-Out $29.95 

Space Assault $29.95 

Project Nebula $39.95 

Polaris $29.95 

Micropainter $39.95 

Microbes $29.95 

Shooting Gallery $29.95 



10-1307 
10-1308 
10-1309 
10-1310 
10-1311 
10-1312 
10-1313 



Personal Finance $39.95 

Color File $29.95 

Spectaculator $39.95 

Color Scripsit $39.95 

Learning Lab $49.95 

Videotex $29.95 

Chess $39.95 



BUY DIRECT AND GET: 

90 Day Warranty Parts and Service 
52 Nationwide Service Centers 
No Out Of State Sales Tax 
Free Shipping and Handling 




SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93-1 5 86th DRIVE 
WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 



Page 1 00 



me KMIIMD^VV 



uecemDer, i vb^ 



NF 

1 30 FORNF= 1 TO » : RE ADDUMM Y* : I FL2= 
NF THENL*=L*+DUMMY*: NEXTNF ELSEN 
EXTNF 

1 40 FORNF= 1 TO M : READDUMM Y* : I FL3= 
NF THENL*=L*+DUMMY*: NEXTNF ELSEN 
EXTNF 

1 50 FORNF= 1 TO@@ : READDUMM Y* : I FL4= 
NF THENL*=L*+DUMMY*: NEXTNF ELSEN 
EXTNF 

1 60 OB*= " " : FORNF= 1 TO** : I FOL < NF , 0 
)=X ANDOL < NF , 1 ) = Y THENOB*=OB*+"- 
"+OD* <NF) : NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF: IFOB 
*=""THENOB*=" NOTHING SPECIAL" 
170 CLS:P*="YOU ARE " +L* : GOSUB50 
0 

180 P*="I SEE"+OB*:GOSUB500 

190 PR I NT "POSSIBLE DIRECTIONS " 

191 IFMID*<D*, 1,1) ="N"THENPRINT" 
NORTH "; 

192 IFMID* <D*, 2, 1 ) = " S " THENPR I NT " 
SOUTH "; 

193 IFMID* <D*, 3, 1 ) = " E " THENPR I NT " 
EAST "; 

194 IFMID* <D*, 4, 1 ) ="W"THENPRINT" 
WEST "; 

195 IFMID* <D*, 5, 1 ) ="U"THENPRINT" 
UP "; 

196 IFMID* <D*, 6, 1 ) ="D"THENPRINT" 
DOWN 11 ; 




• Just what the Doctor ordered 
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• An easy-to-follow documentation 
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• Includes manual and complete set 
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Wallingford, CT 06492 




Send check or money order 


only 


No CT residents add 


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COD sales tax 





197 PRINT" ":PRINTSTRING*<32, "*") 
■ 

200 INPUT "WHAT NOW BOSS:";C* 

210 I FC*= " N " THEN60 1 ELSE I FC*= " S " T 
HEN602ELSE I FC*= " E " THEN603ELSE I FC 
*= •■ w " THEN604ELSE I FC*= " U " THEN605E 
LSE I FC*= " D " THEN606ELSE I FC*= " LOOK 
" THEN 1 60ELSE I FC*= " HELP " THEN650EL 
SE I FC*= " SAVE " THEN700ELSE I FC*= " LO 
AD " THEN800ELSE I FLEFT* <C*,2)="G0" 
THENC*="*GO" 

211 I FLEFT* <C*, 3) =" INVTHEN61 1EL 
SE I FC*=» " SCORE " THEN3600 

220 S=0 : SP=0 : FORNF= 1 TOLEN <C*) : IF 
M I D* < C* , NF , 1 ) = " " THENS=NF : SP=SP+ 
l: NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF 

230 I FS=0THENPR I NT " 

WHAT? ":GOTO200 

240 I FSP > 1 THENPR I NT " ONLY TWO WOR 

DS PLEASE ":GOTO200 

250 LC*=LEFT* <C*, S-l ) : RC*=RIGHT* 

<C*,LEN<C*)-S) : IFRC*="UP"THENRC* 

="*UP" 

260 FC* < 0 ) = " * " : FORNF= 1 TO40 : I FLEF 

T* < LC* , 3 ) =FW* < NF ) THENFC* < 0 ) =FC* < 

NF) 2 NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF 

270 IFFC*<0)="*"THENPRINT"I DON* 

T RECOGNIZE THE VERB" : GOTO200 

280 SC* < 0 ) = " * " : FORNF= 1 TO## : I FLEF 

T* < RC* , 3 ) =SW* < NF ) THENSC* < 0 ) =SC* < 

NF): NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF 

300 IFSC*<0)="*"THENP*="I DON'T 

KNOW WHAT A "+RC*+" IS":GOSUB500 

: GOTO200 

310 M=0: FORNF=l TOLEN <SC* <0) ): IFM 
ID* (SC* (0) , NF, 1)=FC*<0)THENM=99: 
NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF 

320 IFM=0THENP*="I DON'T KNOW HO 
W TO "+LC*+" A "+RC*:GOSUB500:GO 
TO200 

330 ON ASC < FC* < 0 ) > -64G0SUB 1 000 , 1 1 
00, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700 
, 1800, 1900, 2000, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2 
400, 2500, 2600, 2700, 2800, 2900, 300 
0 , 3 1 00 , 3200 , 3300 , 3400 , 3500 
340 I FR= 1 THENR=0 : GOTO 1 00ELSE200 
500 I FLEN < P* ) >32THENP 1 *=LEFT* < P* 
, 32 ) : P2*=R I GHT* < P* , LEN < P* ) -32 ) EL 
SE I FLEN < P* ) =32THENPR I NTP* ; : RETUR 
NELSEPR I NTP* : RETURN 
510 IFLEFT*<P2*, 1)=" "THENP2*=RI 
GHT*<P2*,LEN<P2*)-1) :PRINTP1*; :P 
*=P2* : GOTO500 

520 IFRIGHT*<P1*, 1)=" "ANDLEN <P1 

* ) =32THENPR I NTP 1 * ; : P*=P2* : GOTO50 

0ELSEIFRIGHT*<P1*, 1)=" "THENPRIN 

TP 1 * : P*=P2* : GOTO500 

530 P2*=R I GHT* < P 1 * , 1 ) +P2* : P 1 *=LE 

FT* <P1*, LEN <P1*) -1 ) : GOTO520 

601 IFMID*<D*, l,l)="N"THENY=Y-l: 



_ 

THE COLOR COMPUTER SPECIALISTS 



COLORFORTH 



CCITTIFtCATtON 
UAl 



MOVE UP FROM BASIC! Forth is a new, high level language available now for the color computer. 
COLORFORTH, a version of fig FORTH, has an execution time as much as lO to 20 times faster than Basic, 
and can be programmed faster than basic. COLORFORTH is highly modular which make testing and 
debugging much simpler. COLORFORTH has been specially customized for the color computer and re- 
quires only 16K. It does not require extended Basic. When you purchase COLORFORTH, you receive both 
cassette and RS/DISK versions, the standard fig EDITOR and an extensive instruction manual. Both ver- 
sions and manual, all for only $49.95 

ARMADILLO BUG 
MACHINE LANGUAGE MONITOR 

"Armadillo Bug" is an excellent system for beginners to learn to write and debug machine language 
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Just , $14.95 

BIORHYTHMS 

A neat little program you can use to chart the future (or past). Hi-res graphics without extended Basic 
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OTHER ITEMS OF INTEREST 

"Starting Forth", a book by Leo Brodie. The best introductory Forth text available. 384 pages. Soft 
cover $16.00 

"Computers Piss Me Off'. Wear the official programmers badge. Large 2-1/4 inch yellow button says it 
all! $1.50 

"I My Color Computer". White button with black lettering and red heart. 2-1/4 inches. Only . . . $150 

DEALER AND AUTHOR INQUIRIES INVITED 

All items are post paid in U.S Texas Residents add 5 percent 



Armadillo lnt'1 Software 

P. O. BOX 7661 

AUSTIN, TEXAS 78712 PHONE (512) 459-7325 





Page 102 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

Tired of typing? Use the arrow keys to copy anything on 
the screen. Unique buffer window shows the data in the 
buffer as you key, 1-key lode allows keying basic words 
with only one key. LEARN node allows you to define your 
own functions. Stop keying and start copying! Order FSE 
TODAY! 

X Arrow Screen Control with auto-repeat and audible 
response 

X Unique Buffer Window 

I One Key basic key words with user defined keys 
X Automatic incrementing of line nuibers, 
X Fast sachine language for 4k-32k with tape or disk 
I Only $23.95 plus $1.00 postage & handling 



REVERSI 

Delite youself and friends with this exiting and 
challenging predecesor of "OTHELLO". Select one of three 
board displays and tackle the cotputer or coipete with 
your friends. As you select your move the ien you win 
will flash, sound will tinkle and your new score will be 
displayed. 

1 Three different board displays in color with sound 
X Pieces flash as you win thef 
I Eight levels of play 
X Two hu&an players 

X Take back play, Trade turns. Quit gate 

X Super fast iachine language; I6k-32k tape or disk 

X Only $14.95 plus $1.00 postage and handling 



— 



MASTER DIRECTORY 

Put order in your life! Have your diskettes iultiplied 
and now are out of control? MASTER DIRECTORY will sort 
out your problems and locate all of your programs. Only 
takes a iinute to add all of the files on one diskette 
to the master directory. 

X Master listing by diskette nuiber with description 

I Master listing of all your prograis in either 

diskette sequence or prograa sequence. 

X Basic for easy customizings fast sach lang sort 

% Requires 32k with printer 

X Only $19.95 plus postage and handling 



— . — 



SUPER DIRECTORY 

This is the DIR coiiand that you wish you had! Select 
only files starting with ? (1-8 char) or by ext type. 
Unique 64 x 68 line screen; Use the arrow keys to move 
your tv window thru SORTEI directory list. Optional 
display to a printer. 

X Shows 1st 6 granules used, etc 

X Shows load, end, transfer address on mach lang prog 

X Shows length of files 

X Fast machine language 

X Only $14.95 plus $1.00 postage & handling 



VISA or Master Charge-add 3X 
COD-add $3,00 

HO residents include 4.625X tax. 
Add $5 for product on disk 



C0C0PR0 
P.O. BOX 37022 
ST LOUIS, HO 63141 



GOTO100ELSE607 

602 IFMID*<D*,2, 1 ) ="S"THENY=Y+1 : 
GOTO100ELSE607 

603 IFMID*<D*,3, 1 ) = "E"THENX=X+1 : 
GOTO100ELSE607 

604 IFMID*<D*,4, 1 ) ="W"THENX=X-1 : 
GOTO100ELSE607 

605 IFMID*<D*,5, 1 ) ="U"THENY=Y+/ : 
GOTO100ELSE607 

606 IFMID*<D*,6, 1 ) = " D " THEN Y=Y-/ : 
GOTO 100 

607 PR I NT "YOU CAN'T GO THAT WAY" 
: GOTO200 

610 * INVENTORY 

611 IN*<0)= F0RNF=1T07.7.: IFIN*< 

NF)O"*"THENF0RI = lT0**: IFIN*<NF) 
=OK* ( I ) THEN I N* (0) = IN* (0) +"-"+OD* 
< I ) : NEXT I : NEXTNF ELSENEXTI : NEXTN 
F ELSENEXTNF 

612 IFIN* <0)=" "THENIN* <0)="YOU A 
RE NOT CARRYING ANYTHING "ELSE IN* 
<0)="YOU ARE CARRYING"+IN*<0) 

613 P*=IN*<0) ZGOSUB500 

614 GOTO200 

650 PRINT" IT IS NOT IN MY POWER 
TO HELP":GOTO200 

700 CLS: INPUT "READY TAPE<PLAY 8c 
RECORD>ENTER" ; E* 

710 OPEN"0",-l, "GAPADFIL":PRINT# 
- 1 , X , Y , SC : FORNF= 1 TO%% : PR I NT#- 1 , I 
N* ( NF ) : NEXTNF : FORZ = 1 TOX X : FORW= 1 T 
OYY: PRINT#-1 , MC* ( Z , W) : NEXTW, Z : FO 
RNF= 1 TO** : PR I NT#- 1 , OL <NF, 0) , OL (N 
F, 1 ) : NEXTNF: CLOSE: GOTO 100 
800 CLS: INPUT "READY TAPE< PLAY >EN 
TER" ;E* 

810 OPEN" I " , -1 , "GAPADFIL" : INPUT# 
-1,X, Y,SC:F0RNF=1T07.7.: INPUT#-1, I 
N* < NF ) : NEXTNF : FORZ= 1 TOX X : FORW= IT 
OYY: INPUT#-1,MC*<Z,W) : NEXTW, z:fo 
RNF=1T0**: INPUT#-1,OL<NF,0) ,OL(N 
F , 1 ) : NEXTNF : CLOSE : GOTO 1 00 

1000 IN*<0)= F0RNF=1T07.7.: IFIN* 

<NF)=RC* THENIN*<0)="YOU ALREADY 

HAVE THE "+RC*: NEXTNF ELSENEXTN 

F 

1001 IFIN*<0)O""THEN1050 

1010 F0RNF=1T07.7-: IFIN* (NF) ="*"TH 
EN IN* <0) =STR* <NF) : NEXTNF ELSENEX 
TNF 

1020 IFIN* <0) =" "THENIN* <0) ="YOU 
CAN'T CARRY ANY MORE" : GOT 01 050 
1 030 FORNF= 1 TO** : I FRC*=OK* ( NF ) AN 

DOL<NF,0)=X ANDOL ( NF , 1 ) = Y THENIN 
*(VAL(IN*<0) > )=OK*(NF) :OL(NF,0)= 

-l:OL<NF, l)=-l: IN*(0)= NEXTNF 

ELSENEXTNF 

1040 IFIN* <0) =" " THENR= 1 ELSE I N* <0 
)="I DON'T SEE A "+RC* 
1050 PRINTIN*<0) : RETURN 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 103 



1100 IN«(0>-"":FORNF-1TO%%: IFIN* 
<NF)=RC* THENIN*<0>="*": IN*<NF> = 
" * " : FORCK= 1 TO** : I FOK* < CK ) =RC* TH 
ENOL<CK,0)=X:OL<CK, 1)=Y:NEXTCK E 
LSENEXTCK: NEXTNF ELSENEXTNF 
1110 IFIN*<0>= ,,, 'THENPRINT , 'YOU AR 
E NOT CARPING THAT" : RETURNELSER= 
1 : RETURN 

1200 GOTO3700: * LOOK EXAMINE 

1300 PRINT'USE N S E W U D FOR D 

IRECTIONS" : RETURN 

1400 GOTO3700: 'OPEN 

1500 GOTO3700: 'CLOSE 

1600 GOTO3700: 'HIT ATTACK KILL 

1700 GOTO3700: 'LOCK 

1800 GOTO3700: 'UNLOCK 

1900 GOTO3700: 'MOVE LIFT TILT TW 

1ST PUSH PULL SHOVE 

2000 GOTO3700: 'CLIMB 

2100 GOTO3700: 'PLAY 

2200 P*="OK M, +RC$+"' NOTHING 

HAPPENED" : GOSUB500: RETURN: ' SAY 



2300 


GOTO3700! 


: 9 READ 


2400 


GOTO3700! 


: ' RUB 


2500 


GOTO3700! 


: ' TURN 


2600 


GOTO3700! 


: ' TOUCH 


2700 


GOTO3700! 


: ' ASK 


2800 


GOTO3700: 


: ' JUMP 


2900 


GOTO3700! 


: 'SWIM 


3000 


GOTO3700! 


: 'KICK 


3100 


GOTO3700: 


: ' SMASH 


3200 


GOTO3700 : 


: ' WIPE 


3300 


GOTO3700: 


: ' TRY USE 


3400 


GOTO3700: 


: 'EAT 


3500 


GOTO3700 : 


: 'DRINK 


3600 


PR I NT "YOUR PRESENT SCORE IS 


";sc: 


GOTO200 





3700 PRINT" I AM NOT PROGRAMED FO 
R THAT": RETURN 
4000 * LOOP CODES 

'** TOTAL SECOND WORDS 
'** TOTAL OBJECTS 
• '7.7. OBJECTS POSSIBLE TO HOL 



4001 
4002 
4003 
D 

4004 



'tttc TOTAL 1ST LOCATION PHRA 



4005 ' >> TOTAL 2ND LOCATION PHRA 



4006 



9 



TOTAL 3RD LOCATION PHRA 



4007 *e@ TOTAL 4TH LOCATION PHRA 



'YY NUMBER OF ROWS IN MAP 
'XX NUMBER OF COLUMNS IN MA 

'++ TOTAL OF &&+»+ AA +ee 

'/ Y OFFSET FOR UP/DOWN 
* VARIABLE LIST 
"MC^XXjYY) MAP CO-ORDINATE 
S-HOLDS CODES FOR DIRECTION AND 



4008 
4009 
P 

4010 
4011 
4012 
4013 



GOLDLABEL 

BLANK CASSETTES 

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1 DOZEN C-10 LENGTH $8.50 + $2.50 shpg. 

2 DOZEN C-10 LENGTH $16.00 + $3.50 shpg. 

1 DOZEN C-30 LENGTH $12.50 + $2.50 shpg. 

2 DOZEN C-30 LENGTH $23.50 + $3.50 shpg. 

Individual storage boxes (sold only with cassettes) $2.40 per dozen. 
CASSETTE CADDY: $5.49 + $2.00 shpg. 

2 for $10.00 + $3.00 shpg. 

Free shipping on one caddy with each dozen cassettes. 

Foreign orders include shipping at 16 oz. per dozentapes/9 oz. per 
caddy/13 oz. per dozen boxes. Shipped in U.S. by UPS. 

CASSETTE CADDY 

TIRED OF MISPLACED TAPES AND A CLUTTERED WORK AREA? TRY 
OUR HINGED TOP SMOKED PLASTIC CADDY THAT HOLDS 12 TAPES IN 
ONE HANDY LOCATION. EDGE LABELS INCLUDED TO IDENTIFY TAPES. 




RAINBOW 

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Visa and Mastercard accepted (include expiration date) Orders paid by 
cashier's check, money order or bankcard are shipped within 48 hours. 
Personal check takes 1-2 wks. No COD. Some foreign sales are restricted. 
Texas residents add 5% tax. 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES 

P.O. BOX 1708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 

Telephone Orders: (214) 454-3674 9-4 Monday-Saturday 



★ DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



* QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILARLE 



Page 1 04 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



LOCATION DESCRIPTION 

4014 9 I N* <'/.'/.) INVENTORY 

4015 'FW*<40> 1ST WORDS 

4016 'SW*<##> 2ND WORDS 

4017 'FC*<40> FIRST COMMAND ON G 
OSUB CODE LETTER 

4018 'SC*<##> SECOND COMMAND COM 
PATIBILITY CODE LETTERS 

4019 'OB* OBJECTS AT PRESENT LOC 
AT I ON 

4020 'OL<««,0) ,OL<**, 1) X,Y LOCA 
TION OF OBJECTS 

4021 *OD*<**) FULL DESCRIPTION O 
F OBJECTS 

4022 'OK*<**) OBJECT KEY WORDS 

4023 'NF LOOPS 

4024 'D* DIRECTION ALLOWED PRESE 
NT LOCATION 

4025 'L1,L2,L3,L4 POSITION OF LO 
CATION PHRASE IN DATA 

4026 'L* COMPLETE DESCRIPTION PR 
ESENT LOCATION 

4027 'DUMMY* DATA DUMP 

4028 'P*,P1*,P2* PRINTING WITHOU 
T BREAKING WORDS 

4029 'C* COMMAND INPUT 

4030 'LC* 1ST COMMAND WORD 

4031 'RC* 2ND COMMAND WORD 

4032 'S POSITION OF SPACE IN C* 

4033 'SP NUMBER OF SPACES IN C* 

4034 'M CHECK FOR WORD MATCH 

4035 'CK, I LOOPS 

4036 'R SET TO 1 TO SEND PROGRAM 
TO LINE 100 ON RETURN FROM SUBR 

OUTINES 

4037 ' Z,W REPLACES X,Y FOR SAVE 
& LOAD 

10000 DATA FOR LOCATION DESCRIPT 
ION 

20000 DATA GET , A, TAK , A, DRO, B , PUT 
, B, LOO, C, EX A, C, RUN, D, WAL, D, *GO, D 
,OPE,E,CLO,F,HIT,G,ATT,G,KIL,G,L 
OC,H,UNL, I, MOV, J,LIF, J, TIL, J,TWI 
, J, PUS, J,PUL, J,SHO, J,CLI,K,PLA,L 
, SAY, M, REA , N, RUB, O, TUR, P, TOU, Q, A 
SK,R, JUM,S,SWI,T,KIC,U,SMA,V,WIP 
, W, TRY, X, USE, X , EAT, Y, DRI , Z 



FIVE EXCITING GAMES 



LINE DANCE 

COSMIC TRASH COLLECTOR 
SPACE FIGHT 
TRAP' EM 
INTERCEPT 




All on a single cassette 
for your Color Computer. 
I 6K Ext . BAS IC requ i red. 
Some gomes need Joystick. 
Send check or M. 0. for 
$15.95 to: 



P. 0. Box 

Cherry Hi 



I 6 



NJ 0803V 



30000 DATA FOR SECOND WORDS+COMP 
ATIBLE FIRST WORD CODES EG: -LAM, 
ABCJOQV 

40000 DATA FOR DIRECTION ALLOWED 

AND LOCATION DESCRIPTION CODES 
EG: -*SE***02030809 
50000 DATA FOR OBJECTS-X,Y START 
ING LOCATIONS-FULL DESCRIPT I ON-K 
EY WORD EG: -5, 12, A SMALL GOLDEN 
RING, RING 

60000 DATA 'MACHINE CODE TO POKE 



Software Review... 

Reversi is Chip 
Off Popular Old Block 

The computer screen, especially CoCo, with its vivid color 
displays is wonderfully adaptable to the board-game 
format. In the case at hand, an ancient Chinese board game, 
which In modern times has come to be known as Othello,has 
been updated to a digitally-stored board in an 
electromagnetic box and renamed Reversi. Maybe its a sign 
of the times, but the first I ever laid eyes on this age-old 
diversion it was already in its machine-language, electronic 
state. And I thoroughly enjoyed it. 

First of all, I'm especially fond of games that keep the 
rules simple and place the difficulty into playing strategy. 
This must be a fairly universal predisposition, as evidenced 
by Reversi s trek through the ages in its pre-electronicform. 

Reversi is played on a standard eight-by-eight board with 
64 markers that are different colors on each side. Two 
players (the computer can be a player in this case) alternate 
play by laying a marker on an unoccupied square until all 
legal moves have been made. A 'legal' move is placing your 
marker (a blinking cursor) on an unoccupied square with at 
least one of your opponent's markers between your new 
marker and one of your existing markers. You can do this 
horizontally, vertically or diagonally. By entering your 
move (laying your marker) you capture your opponent's 
markers which lie on the direct line between yours; their 
colors reverse, and those markers now belong to you. When 
there are no more legal moves, the game is over, and the 
player with the most markers wins. Simple — and fun. 

Reversi gives you a choice of colors for board, 
background and markers in several combinations, a choice 
of opponents (either CoCo or a human friend), and either 
joystick or keyboard control. After trying both control 
systems, I f ound that this is one of the f ew games I prefer to 
play via keyboard. Your lack of joysticks should be no 
drawback, here. When I mentioned choice of opponents just 
now, I should have counted CoCo as eight separate 
contenders, each one more adroit than the last, as Reversi 
has that many levels of difficulty to choose from. 

Score is kept along the right side of the board, so you 
don't even have to count your markers — unless you're a 
very skeptical loser. I lost to my programmed opponent 
more often than not, and still enjoyed the game. 

All in all, I would say this is a very good show from 
COCOPRO. 

(COCOPRO, P.O.Box 37022, St. Louis, MO 63141, 
$14.95 tape or disk) 

—Courtney Noe 




"THE ALTERNATIVE 



COLOR COMPUTER 
DISK SYSTEMS 



SS 449 95 200 K BYTES 

USER STORAGE 

S 549 95 "Z" 400 K BYTES 



40 TRACK 
DRIVE 



ROM SOFTWARE 

a Full Featured 
Basic Compatible DOS 



USER STORAGE 



JT I VVHKC INCLUDES; TG-99 Disk Controller W/CCMD 9 DOS 
. . ROM • 40 Or 80 Track Disk Drive * Power Supply * 

f hi nnc Case * 2 Dr ' ve Cabfe * 9 Di5k utl,IC V Programs 
npariDie UUb . CCEDT9 Dfsk Text Editor • Disk Text Processor i 

Manufactured under License From Tali Crass Technologies 



Editor / Assembler CO-RES9 system Monitor trsmon 



CO-RES9 is a Co-resident Editor/Assembler that 
will allow you to create, edit and assemble 
machine language programs for the color com- 
puter, it will quickly and efficiently convert 
assembly language programs into machine code 
files. It will output machine object code to either 
cassette tape in a CLOADM' compatible format or 
directly to memory for direct execution. f|Q\|\| 

CO-RES9 editor /assembler tape 

w/manual :^££r#sr $29.95 

R.S. DISK EDITOR & ASSEMBLER Disk 

w/ manual z$^er^ $49.95 

64K Version Now Available— FLEX Not Required 



TRSMON is a 2K machine language monitor pro- 
gram for use in any color computer system. A 
Monitor is a program which allows the user to 
directly manipulate the computer. Small pro- 
grams may be hand assembled and entered into 
ram and executed. Program execution can be 
stopped at any point by using breakpoints to see 
if it is functioning properly or check its status. 
TRSMON provides all of the standard functions 
found in most system monitor programs as well 
as a printer/terminal driver package. Printer and 
Terminal modes can be used at rates varying from 
300 to 9600 baud and can be changed at any time. 

TRSMON on tape w/manual $19.95 



DATA PACK 

TERMINAL PACKAGE 



Full Text Buffering 

Terminal Baud Rates 300 To 9600 Baud 
Automatic word wrap Eliminates split words 
Full/Half Duplex 
Automatic File Capture 

Programmable word Length, Parity & stop Bits 
Automatic Buffer Size At Memory Limit 
Save & Load Text Buffer To Tape Or Disk 
Send Files Directly From Buffer Or Disk 
Full Disk Support For Disk version 
Printer Baud Rates 110-4800 
Send Control codes From Keyboard 
ASCII Compatible File Format 



5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las vegas, Nevada 89110 

RAINBOW 

CtRTtftCATK* 
SEAL 




• Display On Screen Or Output contents Of Buffer 
To Printer 

we also have a disk version available called "DISKPACK." 
It includes all the commands mentioned plus com- 
mands for disk control. They include: Disk Load, Disk 
Save, Directory, Send Disk File and Kill Disk File, as usual 
all files are Basic compatible ASCII formatted files 
which are also compatible with our Text Editor and 
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Datapackon tape w/manual $24.95 

Diskpackfor R.S. disk w/manual $49.95 

DiskpackforcCMD 9 w/manual $39.95 



(702) 452-0632 



All Orders Shipped 
From Stock 
Add $2.50 
Postage 



Page 1 06 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



o_ i o i o a 

Target Practice: 




Let's 
Blast Those 
"Vaders" 



By Dennis S. Lewandowski 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



(Mr. Lewandowski, an experienced assembly language programmer 
and teacher, is president of DSL Computer Products.) 

Last month we made a base with the capability of 
shooting, but nothing to shoot at. This month we are going 
to give you some targets. If you typed in last month's 
program, or if you received Rainbow on Tape, entering the 
program should be no trouble, as this is a continuation of it. 
The added lines are all marked with asterisks. This way all 
you have to do is insert them, rather than retype the entire 
program. What? You haven't entered last month's 
program?! Well, what can I say? You'll just have to type it all 
in to catch up. 

Before we look at this month's listing I have two 
corrections. ONE: The screen dump program in the 
Septmeber '82 Rainbow will not work with STANDARD 
Basic unless you add two lines. 

LDA #$7E JUMP OPCODE 

STA S016A POSITION FOR OPCODE 
Insert these instructions betweeen lines 4 and 5; otherwise 
the screen dump routine will be ignored until you get 
Extended Basic. Yes Virginia, some people still don't have 
Extended! 

TWO: The JOYSTK routine only stores values between 
zero and 63. Rather than zero to 255, 255 is the value of the 
memory location if a joystick is not plugged in. 

This month we are going to set up and use memory 
locations as counters. In the EQUate table we have added 
four new memory locations labeled COUNT, POS for 
position, NWPOS for new position, and HITS. Rather than 
use the method setting a specific value for a routine, we are 
going to set up counters so we may reuse routines for larger 
or smaller data movements. Going down the listing, the next 
step is to zero our new variable locations, as we do in lines 20 
and 22. When should we draw our targets? Probably right 
after we draw the base. The next section we insert, lines 31 
and 40, does just that. First, we set up the counter for the 
number of "vaders" we want per line. Eight "vaders" will 
give us half a line on the screen. Now where do they go? Let's 
leave some space at the top of the screen, say one line. OK, 
the number of targets is stored in the memory location 
labeled COUNT, and the position where we wish to have 
them drawn is stored in POS. 

To display the targets we use a routine called VLOOP, for 
"vader" loop. Before we get too far into VLOOP, I should 
point out that POS, and NWPOS, are variables. In line 35 
we resave the starting memory location, since we are going 
to modify this data while drawing the targets. Next, we load 
the Y register with the VADER graphic. In line 37 we do 



something a little different — we branch to LOOP, the same 
routine we use for drawing the base. Once finished drawing 
the first vader, we DECrement the COUNT memory 
location. Now we only have seven in COUNT, which is the 
same as the number of vaders left to draw. Since COUNT is 
not equal to zero, the test in line 39 fails. We hae to reload 
the X register with the last graphic position, since drawing 
the vader has modified the X register. Now, we add two by 
loading the B register with two, and adding B to X. This 
process is repreated until all eight vaders are drawn. This is 
known as a "down-counter." Once the value of COUNT 
equals zero, the test in line 39 is true, and the program 
branches to GETKEY, the main body of this program. 

Once we get to GETKEY, we find this too has been 
changed. Instead of finding the usual waiting for a keypress, 
we find an INCrement of COUNT. The next line, 68, says 
BEQ M O VE. Time out for a moment. If we Brance (if equal) 
we're looking for a zero. And if we increment, we're adding 
one each time through the loop, so how do we get to zero? 
Once the number of increments reaches 255, what comes 
next? Remember this is an eight bit counter, af ter 255 comes 
zero. The test in line 68 is true, and we branch to MOVE. 
After all, what's the fun in shooting stationary targets. 

At MOVE, line 1 14, we find a need for the starting 
position of the line of vaders. There are eight vaders, each 
one-memory-byte wide, and three bytes in height. Three 
rows of data equal 96 bytes, or $60 hex. This is the value we 
set our next down-counter to. Going through a series of 
loades and stores, we shift the data one byte. During this 
loop you may notice we decrement the count twice, yet only 
perform one test for zero. Since $60 is an even number, we 
can get away with skipping the odd number counts. Once the 
data, vaders in this case, are moved, we have to clean up the 
graphic data in the start position. To do this, we load the A 
register with a zero, and store it in the starting byte. Instead 
of loading X withthe start location, and incrementing it with 
the familiar "X+" instruction, we turn POS into a counter. 
Incrementing POS+ 1 , we are actually adding one to the LSB 
(Least Significant Byte) of the data the X register will use the 
next time this routine is called. 

Well, that's it for this month. I would like to take this 
opportunity to wish you all a Merry Christmas, and a 
Happy, Healthy New Year. 

The listing: 



0001 


0600 






NAM SPACE 




mi 


0600 




HYRES 


EQU $E00 




0003 


0600 




VAR 


EQU $300 




0004 


0600 




NEWPL 


EQU $302 




0005 


0600 




COUNT 


EQU $304 


************* 


0006 


0600 




POS 


EQU $306 


************* 


0007 


0600 




NWPOS 


EQU $308 


************* 


0008 


0600 




HITS 


EQU $30A 


************* 


0009 


0600 




SHOT 


EQU $B0 




0010 


0600 






ORG $1A00 




0011 


1A00 


86C0 


START 


LDA #$C0 


MEDIUM GRAFICS 


0012 


1A02 


B7FF22 




STA $FF22 


SET CONTROL 


0013 


1A05 


B7FFC7 




STA $FFC7 


MOVE SCREEN UP 


0014 


1A08 


B7FFC9 




STA $FFC9 


INTO HIGH MEM 


0015 


1A0D 


B7FFCB 




STA $FFCB 


FOR DISK USERS 


0016 


1A0E 


B7FFC5 




STA $FFC5 


SET VDG 


0017 


1AU 


CC0000 


SCREN 


LDD #0 


PUT 0 IN D 


0018 


1A14 


B70300 




STA VAR 


PUT 0 IN VAR 


0019 


1A17 


FD0306 




STD POS 


ZERO IT******** 


0020 


1A1A 


FD0308 




STD NWPOS 


ZERO IT****** 


0021 


1A1D 


FD030A 




STD HITS 


ZERO HITS***** 



0 <> 




JOYSTICKS 



AFFORDABLE 

ONLY 
$18.95 

TWO FOR 

$35.95 




RAINBOW 

REVIEWED 
OCT. 1982 




ACCURATE 

SMOOTH 
RESPONSE 

BUILT TO 
LAST 



Tired of broken joysticks? We offer an affordable joystick based on proven components. Each unit is hand 
assembled and checked to ensure reliability. The handles and internal mechanism have proven to be 
extremely rugged and reliable under extensive use with arcade-type games. The pots function smoothly to 
provide excellent cursor/character control. Get your joystick programs working the way they should! Our 
joysticks are backed by a 90 day warranty on material and labor (physical abuse excluded). 



c 



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15% C" 

*VIKING 

Go from landowner to King! 

*GANG BUSTERS 

Lead a life of crime and win! 

* FANTASY GAMER'S PACKAGE 

Generates dungeons, characters, 
and monsters and includes 
sample module. 

PANDORA'S BOX 

Includes: "pac" game, "defender- 
type" game, Divebomb, Blockade, 
slot machine, and Squares 
(similar to cube). 

*PREREAD I, II, & III 

Prepare your preschooler to learn 
to read 





$16.95 




SOSES' 


$16.95 




$1*^5" 


$16.95 






$21.20 





COMPUTERWARE 

15% OFF 



$24^5- 



$21.20 



DOODLE BUG 

New! Like Ladybug. 

RAIL RUNNER 

New! Like Frogger. 

PAC ATTACK 

Bigger maze than the original. 

STORM 

A real Tempest! 

COLOR INVADERS 

Like the original. 



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$16.95 
$21.20 



$21.20 



$16.95 



MARK DATA PRODUCTS: 
HAYWIRE Will drive you BEZERK! 
BLACK SANCTUM Challenging adv.! 
ASTRO BLAST New! 

COLORSOFT: 

*MATH DERBY Fun while learning! 

*STOCK ANALYZERNew version 
disk compatable &added printer output. 

KONG IS HERE! 



$24.95 ^ 
$19.95 ^ 



$24.95 



$11.95 
$21.95 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE: 

KATERPILLAR ATTACK Fast Action! 

SNAK PAK Great arcade action! 
*SHIP WRECK Great adventure! 

WAR KINGS Two player action. 
*MOON LANDER 2 games in 1 
*CASINO 3 Game Pack 

TAPE DUPE Copies any ML tape. 



$24.95 < ^ 
$24.95 
$14.95 
$19.95 / Q 
$15.95 rf^i 
$12.95 
$16.95 



•Requires 16K Ext. Basic minimum - others 16K Std. Basic minimum. 



Call or write for free catalog. 
WE PAY postage on all software orders. Add $2.00 for shipping 
joysticks (unless purchased with software ■ then we'll pay). 

Please add $1.50 for C.O.D. orders. 
Allow 2 weeks for personal checks to clear. 

ENDICOTT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 12543, Huntsville, AL 35802 




(205) 881-0506 

PHONE OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK! 




32Korner 



TOM MIX's 

DONKEY KING 

4 Screens - Full action! 

PROTECTORS Brand new Defender type 
So good it had to go to 32K 

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Like 16K version, but much more! 



$24.95 
$24.95 



$21.20 

'Requires 32K Ext. Basic Minimum - others 32K Std. Basic minimum 



Page 108 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



0022 1A20 8E0E00 

0023 1A23 ED81 

0024 1A25 8C1A00 

0025 1A28 26F9 

0026 1A2A 8E19AE 

0027 1A2D BF0302 

0028 1A30 108E1A72 

0029 1A34 8D21 

0030 1A36 8608 

0031 1A38 B70304 

0032 1A3B 8E0E20 

0033 1A3E BF0306 

0034 1A41 BF0308 

0035 1A44 108E1A82 

0036 1A48 8D10 

0037 1A4A 7A0304 

0038 1A4D 273C 

0039 1A4F BE0308 

0040 1A52 C602 

0041 1A54 3A 

0042 1A55 20EA 

0043 1A57 BE0302 

0044 1A5A A6A0 

0045 1A5C 8100 

0046 1A5E 2708 

0047 1A60 8101 

0048 1A62 2708 

0049 1A64 8120 

0050 1A66 2505 

0051 1A68 A780 

0052 1A6A 20EE 

0053 1A6C 39 

0054 1A6D 1F89 

0055 1A6F 3A 

0056 1A70 20E8 

0057 1A72 801E 

0058 1A74 2AAA1E 

0059 1A77 2AAA01 

0060 1A7A 001E 

0061 1A7C 00001E 

0062 1A7F 000001 

0063 1A82 76001E 

0064 1A85 55001E 

0065 1A88 410001 

0066 1ASB 7C0304 

0067 1A8E 2771 

0068 1A90 BDA1C1 

0069 1A93 27F6 

0070 1A95 8109 

0071 1A97 2710 

0072 1A99 8108 

0073 1A9B 2728 

0074 1A9D 8120 

0075 1A9F 2741 

0076 1AA1 8158 

0077 1AA3 1027009E 

0078 1AA7 20E2 

0079 1AA9 BE0302 

0080 1AAC 8C19BF 

0081 1AAF 27DA 





LDX IHYRES 


PCLS 


STD 


,X*+ 




CHPX I$1A00 




BNE 


PCLS 




LDX 


#$19AE 




STX 


NEWPL 




LDY 


IBASE 




BSR 


DRBS 




LDA 


18 




STA 


COUNT 




LDX 


t$0E20 




STX 


POS 


VLOOP 


STX 


NWPOS 




LDY 


♦VADER 




BSR 


LOOP 




DEC 


COUNT 




BEQ 


GETKEY 




LDX 


NWPOS 




LDB 


12 




ABX 






BRA 


VLOOP 


DRBS 


LDX 


NEWPL 


LOOP 


LDA 





CMPA #0 
BEQ OK 
CMPA 11 



PUT START IN X 
DOUBLE TIME 
END OF SCRN 
CLEAR THAT SCRN 
START POS' IN 
SAVE LOCATION 
GET BASE 6RAFIC 
DRAW BASE 
I OF VADERS***** 
SET # ******* 
VADR START** 
SAVE POS*****#* 
SAVE HERE TO* 
GET GRAPHIC* 
DISPLAY IT**** 
8 YET?******* 
OK DONE***** 
GET POS****** 
NEXT POSITION*** 
ADD TWO ********#*# 
TILL DONE**** 
GET BASE POS'IN 
PUT GRAFIC IN A 
CLS GRAPHIC 
LET IT PASS 
ARE WE DONE 



0082 


1AB1 


108E1A7A 


0083 


1AB5 


8DA0 


0084 


1AB7 


7C0303 


0085 


1ABA 


BE0302 


0086 


1ABD 


108E1A72 


0087 


1AC1 


8D94 


0088 


1AC3 


20C6 


0089 


1AC5 


BE0302 


0090 


1AC8 


8C19A1 


0091 


1ACB 


27BE 


0092 


1ACD 


108E1A7A 


0093 


1AD1 


8D84 


0094 


1AD3 


7A0303 


0095 


1AD6 


BE0302 


0096 


1AD9 


108E1A72 


0097 


1ADD 


BD1A57 


0098 


1AE0 


20A9 


0099 


1AE2 


FC0302 


0100 


1AE5 


830020 


0101 


1AE8 


10830E00 


0102 


1AEC 


259D 


0103 


1AEE 


1F01 


0104 


1AF0 


E684 


0105 


1AF2 


2E34 


0106 


1AF4 


8680 


0107 


1AF6 


A784 


0108 


1AF8 


4A 


0109 


1AF9 


26FD 


0110 


1AFB 


A784 


0111 


1AFD 


1F10 


0112 


1AFF 


20E4 


0113 


1B01 


BE0306 


0114 


1B04 


8660 


0115 


1B06 


B70301 


0116 


1B09 


A680 


0117 


1B0B 


E684 


0118 


1B0D 


A780 


0119 


1B0F 


7A0301 


0120 


1B12 


A684 


0121 


1B14 


E780 


0122 


1B16 


7A0301 


0123 


1B19 


26F0 


0124 


1B1B 


BE0306 


0125 


1B1E 


8600 


0126 


1B20 


A7S4 


0127 


1B22 


7C0307 


0128 


1B25 


7E1A8B 


0129 


1B28 


7C030A 


0130 


1B2B 


1F10 


0131 


1B2D 


830040 


0132 


1B30 


1F01 


0133 


1B32 


108E1A7A 


0134 


1B36 


BD1A5A 


0135 


1B39 


B6030A 


0136 


1B3C 


8108 


0137 


1B3E 


1027FEBE 


0138 


1B42 


7E1A8B 


0139 


1B45 


0A71 


0140 


1B47 


7EA027 


0141 


1B4A 





LDY ICLNUP 
BSR DRBS 
INC NEWPL+1 
LDX NEWPL 
LDY IBASE 
BSR DRBS 
BRA GETKEY 
MOVLF LDX NEWPL 
CMPX t$19Al 
BEQ GETKEY 
LDY ICLNUP 
BSR DRBS 
DEC NEWPL+1 
LDX NEWPL 
LDY IBASE 
JSR DRBS 
BRA GETKEY 
FIRE LDD NEWPL 
L00P1 SUBD #$20 
CMPD IS0E00 





BLO GETKEY 




TFR D,X 




LDB ,X 




BGT HIT 




LDA #$80 




STA ,X 


L00P2 


DECA 




BNE L00P2 




STA ,X 

Will I f I 




TFR X.D 

MM n 1 V 




BRA L00P1 


MOVE 


LDX POS 




LDA #$60 




STA VAR+1 

Will Tllli'a 




i nA y+ 

LUn , A~ 


AA 


LDB ,X 




STA ,X+ 




DEC VAR+1 




LDA ,X 




STB ,X+ 




DEC VAR+1 




BNE AA 




LDX POS 




LDA #0 




STA ,X 




INC POS+1 




JMP GETKEY 


HIT 


INC HITS 




TFR X,D 




SUBD #$40 




TFR D,X 




LDY ICLNUP 




JSR LOOP 




LDA HITS 




CMPA #8 




LBEQ START 




JMP GETKEY 


BACK 


DEC $71 




JMP $A027 




END START 



BLANK GRAPHIC 
ERASE OLD POS' IN 
ONE PLACE 
GET POSITION 
GET GRAPHIC 
DISPLAY IT 
DONE 

GET CURRENT LOC 
LF LIMIT 
TOO FAR 
BLANK BASE 
ERASE 
ONE SPACE 
GET LOCATION 
GET GRAPHIC 
DISPLAY******* 
DONE 

GET BASE LOC 
NEXT LINE UP 
TOP OF SCREEN 
BACK TO MAIN 
SWITCH X fc D 
HIT?*********### 
IF DO IT******* 
SHOT GRAPHIC 
DISPLAY SHOT 
SMALL WAIT 
SO WE CAN SEE 
CLEAN UP SHOT 
SWITCH BACK 
TO THE TOP 
GET LINE ADR**# 
# OF BYTES**** 
SAVE I ****** 
BET BYTE******* 
GET NEXT BYTE*** 
MOVE BYTE****** 
COUNTER-1**** 
GET ANOTHER***** 
PUT IN POS'N*** 
ONE DONE***** 
DONE YET?******* 
GET LINE ADR**# 
BLANK GRAPHIC*** 
CLEAN START POS* 
NEW LOCATION* 
GOTO MAIN*** 
I OF HITS***** 
SWITCH X&D***** 
POSITION***** 
BACK IN X****** 
GET BLANK*** 
ERASE VADER*** 
GET NUMBER**** 
ALL 60NE?****** 
GO AGAIN**** 
60T0 MAIN*** 
-1 RESTART VECTOR 
BACK TO BASIC 

MUWOW 



BEQ DONE 
CMPA #$20 





BLO 


OFFSET 


OK 


STA 


,X+ 




BRA 


LOOP 


DONE 


RTS 




OFFSET TFR 


A,B 




ABX 






BRA 


LOOP 


BASE 


FCB 


$80,$1E 




FCB 


$2A,$AA,$1 




FCB 


$2A,$AA,1 


CLNUP 


FCB 


0,$1E 




FCB 


0,0, $1E 




FCB 


0,0,1 


VADER 


FCB 


$76,0, $1E 




FCB 


$55,0, $1E 




FCB 


$41,0,1 


GETKEY 


INC 


COUNT 




BEQ 


MOVE 




JSR 


$A1C1 




BEQ 


GETKEY 



CMPA 19 
BEQ MOVRT 
CMPA 18 
BEQ MOVLF 
CMPA #$20 
BEQ FIRE 
CMPA #$58 

LBEQ BACK 
BRA GETKEY 
MOVRT LDX NEWPL 
CMPX #$19BF 
BEQ GETKEY 



IS IT OFFSET 

THEN DOIT 

IF NOT DISPLAY IT 

NEXT GRAPHIC 

RETURN 

SWITCH A WITH B 
ADD B & X 
CONTINUE 
TOP & OFFSET 
MIDDLE 
BOTTOM 
TOP 

MIDDLE 
BOTTOM 
TOP****** 

MIDDLE*** 
BOTTOM***** 
TIMER******** 
IS IT TIME?*** 
INKEY$ 

RT ARROW? 
MOVE RIGHT 
LF ARROW? 
MOVE LEFT 
SPACE? 
SHOOT SHOT 
X? 

EXIT ******** 
NONE OF ABOVE 
GET CURRENT LOC 
RT LIMIT 
TO FAR 





NEW 

for your 

COLOR 
COMPUTER 



Release the potential 

of your Color Computer. . . 

Use up to 5 compatible Color Computer cartridges at the same 
time with the BT-1000 Expansion Interface Unit. 

• The BT-1000 is limitless combinations. Plug in your disk 
controller, memory boards, Real Time Clock/Calendar, 
printer interface, experimental boards— all at one time. 

• The BT-1000 is adaptable. Up to five functional peripheral 
cartridges, in your choice of combinations, will run with 
any configuration, any size memory of the Color Computer. 

• The BT-1000 is flexible. Four 24-pin sockets hold up to 
8K static RAM or EPROM (can be supplied with an 
extra 8K RAM). 

• The BT-1000 is safe. It will not overload, overheat or 
damage your Color Computer in any way. 

1. Has own built-in power supply. 

2. Effectively isolated by a buffered cable. 

That's not all Basic Technology has to offer. . . 

Record date and time on all programs, files, letters, with the 
accurate, programmable BT-1020 Real Time Clock/Calendar. 

• Plugs into your BT-1000 or directly into the Color 
Computer expansion slot. 

• Adds day, date, month, year, hours, minutes, seconds 
(12/24 hr.) 

• Includes internal NiCad battery, crystal controlled to 
0.001% accuracy (charges when your computer is on) 

• Has 50 bytes of battery backed general purpose memory 



All Basic Technology components 
are first-line quality. 

• gold board-edge connectors 

• glass epoxy PC boards 

• 180-day full parts and labor 
warranty on all components 

Your Basic Technology components arrive assembled, tested, 
ready to plug in and turn on. A comprehensive User/Service 
Manual is included with complete schematics, PC component 
layouts, parts lists and hints on mapping your peripheral add- 
ons anywhere in the CPU addressable memory. Write for free 
brochure. 



BT-1000 incl. cable $270 
BT-1000 w/8K RAM $300 



BT-1020 Clock/Calendar $109 



Add $5.00 shipping & handling for BT-1000, $2.50 for BT-1020. 
Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. Shipping & handling for 
residents of Canada, Hawaii, Alaska is $10.00. Overseas 
orders add 15%. Check, money order, VISA, MC (give account 
no., expiration date, phone no.). Personal checks allow 2-3 
weeks to clear. COD charge $2.00 (requires certified check or 
money order). 

"Watch for more peripherals from Basic Technology." 



>asic 



Dept. Q P.O. Box 511 Ortonville, Ml 48462 



ECHNOLOGY 



(313) 627-6146 



the RAINBOW 




Page 1 1 0 

Utilities... 

Three Disk Utilities 
Give You Filing Help 

By Paul Selig, Jr. 

If you have ever had a program generate a disk file, you 
will probably want to look at that file without loading in the 
main program. This collection of disk utilities will allow you 
to do just that. It is also handy for handlingany file that is in 
ASCII format on disk. The only requirement is that you 
must have a sequential file to work with. However, most files 
generated by your system will be sequential, and these 
programs will work. 

The first program is called FLSRCH, and is the most 
useful. This program will take the file of your choice and 
search through it to find the occurance of the word or phrase 
you specified. It will find every occurance of this word or 
phrase, and will not stop searching until it reaches the end of 
the file, or you press the "up-arrow" key. If you have to 
search for a lower case phrase, do a "shift 0" before running 
the program. If you have run the program and want to know 
what files are on the disk before you type it in, just press 
"enter" at the filename prompt. 

The second listing is of a program called FLPRINT. This 
program will allow you to print out any sequential file on 
disk to the screen or printer. If you choose the screen, type a 
high number for the delay between strings. This will allow 
you to easily read the file. If you are printing the file on a 
printer, use a delay of "1." 

The third listing is of a program called FLCONVRT . This 
file manipulation program is the most complicated, and also 
one of the most useful (when it is needed in such a situation). 
To use this program, take a program that you have on disk 




Use Color Power. 

Col Of ZAP uses the power 
of the Color Computer to pro- 
vide both rapid scanning and 
full screen modification capabilities. 

• Recover killed and clobbered files. 
• Find unreadable disk sectors. 
Modify nibbles in hexadecimal, 
• Copy sectors to same or different drive. 
* Use color power to scan disk data. 

Here's what the reviewers said.., 

About the program: "ColorZAP is a powerful program 
that allows you to see what is on the disk, modify it an d, if 
possible, recreate it. Menu-driven, ColorZAP is extremely 
easy to use and well-documented... A good offering." — 
The RAINBOW, September 1982 

About the manual: "A 24-page manual is included that 
describes program operation in detail. It also provides 
valuable information on the important disk system pa- 
rameters." - MICRO, December 1982 

For the TRS-80 Color Computer. Available on disk with an accom- 
panying manual from Software Options, 19 Rector Street, New 
York, N.Y. 10006. 212-785-8285. Toll-free order line: 800-221-1624. 

Price: $49,95 (plus $2.00 per order shipping and 
handling). New York State residents add sales 
tax. Visa/Mastercard accepted. 




December, 1 982 

that is in upper/ lower case (such as a file by a word 
processor). Use this file as your input file. Use any other 
name for the output file. The program will start to convert 
the upper/ lower case file to all upper case. This conversion 
will take time, and the program is slow, but it does do the 
job. The program will read in the input file, convert it, and 
write out the output file. Now you can kill the input file, and 
rename the output file. I use this program to take data from 
a Honeywell system, which outputs in lower case, and 
convert it to upper case so I can read it on my screen (I don't 
have a printer yet; if you do, this program is not much use to 
you). 

I hope you use and enjoy these programs, and if you have 
any questions, contact me on Compuserve at 70065, 734, or 
at my address: Paul Selig, Jr., 20734 Stanford Avenue, 
Fairview Park, OH 44126. 

Listing 1: 

10 GOTO230 

20 CLEAR 1800: X=0 

30 REMARKABLE PROGRAM BY PAUL SE 
LIG, JR. 

40 REM ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
50 REM 
60 REM 

70 CLS:PRINTSTRING*<32,255) ; :pri 

NTCHR* < 255 ); "DISK TEXT FILE SEAR 

CH UTILITY ";CHR*<255) ; 

80 PRINTSTRING* (32,255) 

90 LINE INPUT "FILENAME TO SEARCH 

(NAME/EXT): "5F* 

100 IF F*=" "THEN DIR:FORX=1TO300 

0:nextx:goto70 

110 cls: print" insert disk in dri 
ve '0' and press <enter>.":li 
neinputz* 

120 cls: line input "word or phrase 
to be searched for: " ; ph* 
130 pr i nt "press to stop": for 
x=itoi000:nextx 

140 OPEN" I", 1,F* 

150 IF EOF<l)=-l THEN 220 

160 IFINKEY*="^"THENGOTO220 

170 LINE INPUT #1, A*:PRINTA* 

180 C=INSTR(1,A*,PH*> 

190 IF C=0 THEN GOTO 150 

200 SOUND 10, 10: PRINTSTRING* (32, 1 

28) : PRINTA*: PRINT: PRINTSTRING* (3 

2, 128) 

210 L I NE I NPUT " < ENTER > TO CONTINU 
E. ";Z*:GOTO150 

220 CLOSE ttl: LINE INPUT "END OF FI 
LE: PRESS < ENTER > TO CONTINUE: 

";z*: cls: run 

230 PCLEARl:GOTO20 

Listing 2; 

10 GOTO 180 

20 CLEAR1800:CLS:PRINTSTRING*<32 

,159); 

30 PRINTCHR*< 159) ; " DISK TEXT FI 
LE PRINT UTILITY ";CHR*<159); 
40 PRINTSTRING*(32, 159) :PRINT:LI 
NE I NPUT "ENTER FILENAME (NAME/EXT 



December, 1 982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 1 1 1 



) : " ; P$ 

50 IF F$=" "THEN DIR: RUN 

60 CLS:LINEINPUT"PUT disk in dri 

VE '0', AND PRESSENTER TO CONTIN 

UE. ";z* 

70 CLS: LINE INPUT "SPEED (1=FAST - 

— 500=slow>: ";s*:s=val<s*> 

80 CLS: LINE INPUT" OUTPUT TO A PR I 
NTER <Y/N)?";PN*: IFLEFT* <PN*, 1) = 
11 Y" THEN PR=1 
90 REM 

100 CLS:OPEN"I", 1,F* 

110 IF EOF <1)=-1 THEN 170 

120 LINE INPUT #1,L*:PRINTL* 

130 IF PR=1 THEN PRINT #-2,L* 

140 FORX=l TO SINEXTX 

150 IF I NKE Y$= " ^ " THEN GOTO 170 

160 GOTO110 

1 70 CLOSE # 1 : PR I NTCHR* < 255 ) " DONE 
"CHR*<255> : LI NEINPUT" PRESS ENTER 

TO CONTINUE. "; A*: RUN 
180 PCLEARl:GOTO20 

Listing 3 
10 CLS: CLEAR 18000 

20 PRINTSTRING*<32,207> ; IPRINTCH 
R*<207>;" DISK TEXT CONVERSION: 



L TO U ";CHR*<207> ; :printstring* 

<32,207) 

30 LI NEINPUT "FILENAME (NAME/EXT) 



";f* 



40 CLS: PR I NT "INSERT DISK IN DRIV 
E '0' AND PRESS THE < ENTER > K 
E Y . " : L I NE I NPUT Z*:CLS 
50 LI NEINPUT "OUTPUT FILENAME <NA 

ME/EXT) : ";of*:cls 

60 PR I NT "CONVERTING FILE PLEA 

SE WAIT! " 

70 OPEN"I", 1,F* 

80 OPEN "O", 2, OF* 

90 IF E0F<1>=-1 THEN 170 

100 LI NEINPUT #1,L* 

110 FORX=lTOLEN<L*> 

120 Z*=MID*<L*, X, 1) 

130 IF Z*=""THEN 150 

140 L=ASC<Z*):IF L>=97 AND L<=12 

2 THEN L=L-32: Z*=CHR*<L> 

150 q*=q*+z*:nextx 

160 write #2,q*:printq*:q*= m,, :go 

TO90 

170 CLOSE #2: CLOSE # 1 : PR I NTCHR* < 
255 ) ; " DONE " 5 CHR* < 255 ) 
175 SOUND100, 10 

180 LI NEINPUT "PRESS < ENTER > " 

;z*:run m> 



From GREAT X-P-T 

for TRS 80 Color Computer 



FOR THE 
GAMBLER 
16k Ext Basic 
High Res. Graphics 

Play Alone 
or Against 
Your Friends 

$10.95 




RAINOOW 

■ i 



GREAT X-P-T 



$10.95' 



PO. Box 921 2 
Livonia, Mi. 48150 



Mich. Res. add 4'/. Sales Tax 
COD- add $100 



CHEAT XPT 




. . ALL THREE FOR '• 




Page 1 1 2 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Software Review... 

Among the Game Crop, 
This One's A Natural 

A bit of background is in order. As much as I love my native 
Kentucky, the mass morality here can be stifling. For 
instance, not so many years ago a certain high-placed 
official in the state's fish and wildlife department decreed 
that, henceforth, the spelling of a popular game fish would 
be "croppie," not "crappie," as it's spelled in the rest of the 
free world. Furthermore, officialdom — and presumably all 
the rest of us in turn — would pronounce it "crop-e," never 
again "krap-e" The reason for all of this, of course, is that 
the new version "sounds nicer." 

As one might expect, a few rebels wondered aloud if that 
meant that small groups of sidewalk sportsmen should now 
be known as "cropshooters," and would rolling "snake eyes" 
or "boxcars" herinaf ter constitute "cropping out?" Playing a 
bit of "crops:" sounds rather British don't you think? 

To carry this whole thing one step further, "proper" 
people in the small town of my childhood years referred to 
crapshooters as "dice players," and it wasn't unheard of to 
run such degenerates out of town. Thus, it would have been 
inconceivable then to think that, three decades later, I would 
be "shooting" Craps in my living room, pitted against, on 
the one hand, some video personality named Fred, and on 
the other, my mother. Mom, we've come a long way, baby. 

Still quite conservative, my mother did consent to try 
Craps recently, but thought I was quite a scamp for betting a 
million dollars on one roll of the dice, even though she well 
knew I had no intention, or chance, of either paying off or 
collecting. So, she would cover maybe $10, and Fred would 




n 



T 



I 



1 ' j J 



1 



I 



Chattanooga Choo Choo Software 




Your One Stop Station 
For Color Computer 




Track 29 



Mark Data Products 

'Astro Blast. Cave Hunter 
and Color Berserk 
$24.95 



Spectral Associates-Trilogy 

(3 games on 1 tape) 
Ghost Gobbler. Cosmic Invaders and 
Space War 
20% off S47.95 
others available at 10% ofl 
• Planet Invasion and Defense 



519.75 



Prickley-Pear Software 15% off 

■Viking, Gangbuster$l>4*> 516.95 Tom Mix Software 

Pandora s Game Box s£<5 $21.20 ^ ' 'Protectors (32K) $24.95 
(6 games on 1 tape) Katerpillar Attack $24.95 

'Also available on disk (32K) 




1983 Video Game Lovers Calandar 
with a different arcade cartoon each month 



$4.95 



All programs 1 6K on cassette unless otherwise staled. 
37 Different Games and Adventures Available. 

Send for free complete catalog and descriptions! 
We pay postage within the U.S. - TN residents add 6.25% sales tax 

(615)875-8656 

P.O. Box 15892 
Chattanooga, TN 37415 



go maybe $300,000. 

In case you haven't caught on, "Fred" is part of the Craps 
program. He's there in case you want to play Craps and 
nobody else is around. You can always play with Fred, who 
makes his own bets and, unlike Mom, will hang right in 
there with any high rollers. Fred not only knows how to bet, 
he also knows whento bet, too. So, don't try to take old Fred 
to the cleaners; unless you don't mind being the "cleanee." 

Though Fred was intended as a competitor for loners, 
quite by accident, I discovered that Fred can also join in 
even when others are playing — if you give him an occasional 
prompt to bet when he doesn't have the dice. 

All in all, Craps is a cute little game. And, while there are 
some crap games you can program just by reading the Basic 
manuals that come with your computer, this video game, by 
Dan Drouillard, has some refinements that make it more 
fun. Craps has its own croupier standing at the end of the 
table; that gives a lot more class than huddling in an 
alleyway. Also, the dice roll down the table and you see them 
displayed on the screen, so you can count the dots yourself. 
While there's no provision for side betting, the program does 
keep track of who owes whom what and prompts the losers 
with reminders like "Fred You're Ahead" and "Pay Up 
Folks!!" 

Personally, I'd like to see a bit more craps lingo 
incorporated into the game. You know, "eighter from 
Decatur," "little Joe from Kokomo,"and all that. A slap on 
the wrist to Dan for never using a comma or an apostrophe, 
too. I had to go deadpan every time "Mom Your Behind" 
popped on the screen. More importantly, though, Craps 
does "wear well," which is to say it is very straightforward 
and has no little quirks that become tiresome on repetition, 
or hold up the game unnecessarily. After all, when "Your 
Behind" is on the screen, you're itching to "roll 'em bones," 
and not about to "crop out." 

(Great X-P-T, P.O. Box 9212, Livonia, MI 48150. 

$14.95.) 

— Jim Reed 



Back Issue Availability 



Back copies of most issues of the RAINBOW are now 
available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue cover price — which 
is $2 for copies of numbers 1-8 (through February, 1982), 
$2.50 for numbers 9-14 (through August, 1982) and $2.95 
for numbers greater than 14. In addition, there is a $3.50 
charge per order for postage and handling if sent by United 
Parcel Service and $6 for orders sent U.S. Mail. UPS will 
not deliver to a post office box or to another country. This 
charge applies whether you want one back issue or all of 
them. 

Most back issues are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. All back issues now available (October, 1982, is out of 
print) would be $36.90, plus shipping and handling — a total 
of $43.35 UPS or $46 U.S. Mail. VISA and MasterCard 
accepted. Kentucky residents please add 5 percent state sales 
tax. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you order back issues 
you want now while supplies last. 

In addition, copies of the cover only of the July, 1982, 
Anniversary Issue are available separately f or $ 1 each, plus 
50 cents snipping and handling. These are suitable for 
framing. 



JOIN THE GROUP! 



Join an active, stimulating and growing group of individuals 
with a common interest in the 80C Computer through the 
TRS-80" Color SIG (Special Interest Group) on CompuServe 
Using the CompuServe Information Service as a 
communications medium. Color SIG members can share 
advice, hints and programs with other 80C users across town 
or across the nation. 

The cost? With local access to the CompuServe Information 
Service (CIS) in more than 300 locations in the U.S. and 
Canada, the service is available for $5.00 per hour, billed in 
minute increments. That's only 8/3 cents per minute! 

CIS has a lot more to offer, too. And you can see that 
CompuServe has the 80C in mind 

• 32 x 16 page size 

• Color SIG (GO PCS-126) 



6809 Cross-Assembler (R MAC69 from command 
mode) 



Down load machine language with error correcting 
protocol (R LODHEX from command mode) NOTE- 
This program requires "B" protocol in your terminal 
emulator - such as Radio Shack's Videotex™ 

CB Simulation - - "talk" in real time to Ms. Rainbo. 
Binary Man. Grey Ghost. Sweet Thing and even Aunt 
Nettie 1 (GO PCS-30) 

EMAIL — Electronic Mail (GO EMAIL) 

Stock Prices even color charts just for your 80C (GO 
FIN-14. then enter VIDPLT at the "Program:" prompt) 

Games — the best Adventure game, plus you can 
travel through a galaxy populated by other intelligent 
beings (not just robots) Space War (GO HOM-60), and 
the new MEGAWAR series will captivate your 
imagination. 

And much, much more like Shop-at-Home; 
programming languages: national and international 
newswires: electronic magazines and reference 
resources: and a free subscription to our UPDATE 
Newsletter plus an introductory subscription to TODAY 
Magazine. 



Your 80C, modem and terminal software will give you access 
to the CompuServe Information Service — a world of 
information for your Color Computer. 



To join us contact or call: 

CompuServe 



Dept. RB01 

5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
Columbus, Ohio 43220 

(614) 457-8650 



RAINBOW 

CERTIf tCATlOM 
SOU. 



Page 1 1 4 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 




UNIDATFL REVISITED: Variations on Mir's Theme 



by A. Arnold Weiss 



I think that I should state that none of the following 
would have been possible if I had not tried Jorge Mir's 
"UNIDATFL" program that was published on pages 57 
through 62, inclusive, of the June, 1982, issue (Vol. I No. 1 2) 
of this magazine. It is the absolute keystone of the system of 
programs discussed in this article. I hope that Mr. Mir will 
approve of the slight modifications I've made to his fine 
program. Although I am including a listing (LISTING 1) of 
the revised version of the program, I suggest that all of you 
who have not tried the original program get out your copies 
of Vol. I No. 12 and enter it into their computers. There is 
one typographical error in the original listing — LINE 1 100 
the "!" should read "KILL." Also, I couldn't find out how to 
use the calendar in LINES 1680 to 1750, inclusive, so I've 
deleted these lines from the revised program. For those of 
you who have already entered the program, LISTING #5 
contains just the deletions and additions to the program. 

The original program is usuable on both tape and disk 
systems. My revisions are usable on disk systems only. I 
hope that those of you who do not yet have a disk will read 
this anyway as I believe it will be instructive. For the cassette 
system user I will now explain why you can't use my 
revisions. You have only one buffer (#-1) available to you, 
and can either read from a tape or write to a tape. With a 
disk system you can open as many as fifteen buffers at any 
one time, thus sending information from the disk to RAM 
and back to disk in a number of combinations. 

I hope that this article will serve two purposes. The first — 
I want to try to help my fellow beginners by explaining, in 
detail, how I went about designing this set of programs. The 
second — I hope that those of you who are more advanced 
will find these programs as useful as I have. Along with my 
word processor I consider this program to be the most useful 
in my library. 

Now for a bit of background. Until I purchased my 80C, 
October of 1 98 1 , 1 had no experience with computers. Prior 
to buying the computer I bought a copy of "Getting Started 
With Color Basic," and then a copy of "Going Ahead With 
Extended Color Basic." I wanted to get a "feel" of the logic 
involved and see if it suited me. I ordered a computer with 
32K RAM, but it was not available at that time, so I got one 
with 16K. I started working with the manuals, and began 
looking for all the magazines that had any useful 
information. I'm very happy that I finally discovered the 
Rainbow. One of the main reasons I wanted a computer was 
to catalog and inventory a stamp collection. I examined the 
Radio Shack Color Computer File ROM Pack and found it 
wouldn't do what I wanted. A majorfault of this ROM Pack 
is that it will accept only upper case lettering, and most 
stamp catalog numbering systems use both upper and lower 
case letters. Also I knew that I couldn't do much until I got a 
disk. Two months ago I upgraded my system to 32K, and a 
month ago I got the disk. As soon as I got the disk I entered 
the "UNIDATFL" program. 

I get very annoyed with much of the technical writing I 
read as many authors forget to define their terms. They seem 
to forget that there are beginners out there who want to 
learn. I'm forever reading "attach the whatchamacallit to the 
dohickey." Not knowing what either a "whatchamacallit" or 
a "dohickey"is, I get thoroughly lost and conf used. To avoid 
this in this article I will now supply a few definitions I will 
use in discussing the files created by "UNIDATFL." File: 
a collection of related records, such as an address book. 
Record: an individual listing in a file, such as one name, 



address, telephone number, and any other related data. 
Item: a section of a record, such as the telephone number. 

I thought that starting out cataloging a stamp collection 
would be too ambitious, so I decided to put my address book 
on file using "UNIDATFL." Along with the usual listings, 
name, address and telephone number, I decided to include 
the names of all the children living at home, along with 
birthdays and anniversaries. See EXAMPLE A. I did this to 

Example A 

Bloom, Bryan & Phillipa 

Danielle, Adam & Ericka 

7 Sandhill Crescent, 

Alwoodley, 

Leeds LS17 8DY, 

West Yorks., 

England 

Tel. 011-44532-689265 

Birth. Bryan 9/26/46 Pippa 5/21/48 Danielle 1/7/71 Adam 

1/23/73 Ericka 9/10/75 
Anniv. 7/2/69 

Rosenfeld, Leonard & Sallie Jane 

Gregg, Kenney & Karen 

1030 Kipling Rd. 

Rudal, Pa. 19046 

885-3057 

Birth Len 6/28 Sallie 8/9/38 Gregg 1/7/67 Kenny 1/5/70 
Karen 4/7/71 

work out any bugs. I began by typing in all the last names 
starting with "A." Then, I returned to the menu and used the 
"sort" function to get all of the A's in alphabetic order. I then 
went back to the menu and used the "add" function and 
typed in all the B's. Then back to the sort, etc. This worked 
out quite well until I got to the letter "L." The list was getting 
so long that the "sort" function was taking about an hour to 
work. 

The obvious solution was to make a file of all the last 
names starting with "A", sort it and save it to disk, then go 
back and make a file out of the "B's," sort it save it to disk, 
etc. Then, go back to "UNIDATFL" and reassemble the 
separate files into a file called "ADDRESS." I had already 
typed in all of the names up to and including "L," and I 
didn't want to retype them, so I wrote a program (GET1) to 
disassemble the existing "ADDRESS"file. See LISTING 2. 

Listing 2 
10 CLEAR 10000 

20 OPEN " I " , #1 , " ADDRESS /DAT " 
30 OPEN " O " , #2 , " * /DAT " 
40 IF EOF<l)=-l THEN 90 
50 INPUT#1,A* 

60 IF LEFT* <A*, 1 )*"*■", THEN WRITE 

#2, A* ELSE 80 

70 PRINT A* 

80 GOTO 40 

90 CL0SE#2 

100 CLOSE #1 

110 END 

I tried this program and nothing happened. I finally 
figured out that the first letter on the last name was not in 
Position LEFTS, 1 . As it wasn't there, I didn't know where it 
was. Here is where I had a bit of luck. I also subscribe to 





This was a big month for us and the Color Computer. We received over 30 programs to test andout of this 30 we decided to add7 
exciting new programs to our line of quality software. Some of the rejected programs were fairly good. But we liked a different 
version better. A good example is Galac attack, a good game, but we all liked Astro Blast better. Every one of the games in this ad has 
been tested by the Computer Shack Crew and all are rated very, very good. In 80 Micro, we publish a top ten list of what we think 
are the bes tg ames f ortheTRS-80. We would like to do the samethingforthecolorcomputer. Butwe need help. Please send usa list 
of your favorite COCO games. 

KATERPI LLAR 

The Color Computer's version of the pop- 
ular arcade hit. This version is by Tom Mix 
Software 

Tape $24.95 Disk $27.95 



A color Varriant of thespace invadergame. 
Best by far. Excellent Hi Res graphics and 
great sound. One ortwo players, all machine 
language and runs in 1 6K. 
Tape version $24.95 

Madness and the Minotaur 

A classic adventure game fort he COCO by 
Spectral Associates. 

Price $1 9-95 

Madam Rosa s Massage Parlor 

An adult misadventure game. The player 
has to make his way from the sleazy deser- 
ted wharfs, gain admittance to the ancient 
speakeasy, and attempt to discover the 
hidden photographs of the politician'sbeau- 
tiful daughter. Different, Fun. 
Tape. $19.95 



OF THE WIZARD 

Best new adventure game availablef orthe 
color computer. Over200 rooms filled with 
creatures, tricks, treasures, and magic spells. 
Are randomized each game so that you will 
never play the same game twice. Novice, 
intermediate and expert levels allows you 
to learn to play easily and slowly work up to 
expert. Great sound' Cassettesave feature 
built in. Tape VCR , . , $1 9.95 



PHANTOM SLAYER 

They are mutant phantoms. You are the 
Phantom Slayer. Enter the deadly cata- 
combs and destroy the phantoms. Wield 
your laser pistol and attend to your prox- 
imity detector. Phantom slayer is a real- 
time game executed with full screen, three 
dimensional graphics. Tape VCR . . $1 9.95 

The very best Defender" type gameon the market 1 



Start ire is a real exciting game based on the 
arcade game DEFENDER'" and has excell- 
ent color, sound and graphics. 
Price $19.95 



This is similarto Pacman v type game but, it 
has some other unique features not found 
in any other game of this kind. It does the 
normal things all Pacman " type games do 
and then some. With its space theme, the 
Super Saucer lays destructo mines and the 
Super Bomb that disintegrates everything 
in your path, right up to the wall. The maze 
changes every 10,000 points as the diffi- 
culty escalates. The game can be played 
with up to four players competing with each 
other. Movement can beaccompiished using 
either the Joystick or keyboard. Super High 
- Resolution graphics, all machine language 
. . .More Sound. More Features, More Action 
than any other COCO game. 
TAPE ONLY $19.95 

GAMES 

COLOR SCARFMAN 4K $17.95 

COLOR METEOROIDS $1 9 95 

COLOR TAPE DIRECTORY $1 4 95 

COLOR MASTER CONTROL $1 9 95 

COLOR DISASSEMBLER $1 4 95 

COLOR BONANZA . $39 95 



Order any two (2) or more programs and take 10% off your order! 



COLOR TAPE COPY $15.95 

By Bob Withers 

There have been afewcopy programson the marketfor the ColorComputer but 
none can compare with ColorTape Copy. This program is designed so that you 
do not lose any of your valuable programs or data bases. 

It will make a backup of any Color Computer Tape: Machine language, data, or 
basic program. 

First load color tape copy into your CC. Then it prompts you to put your original 
copy into the recorder. After it loads the program into memory it tells you to put a 
blank tape into the recorder and press the record button. It then writes the 
program to a new tape. 

You ll never have to worry about your little kids destroying your S20.00 tapes. 

HAYES SMART MODEM 

The very finest modem you can buy for the Color Computer or any 
other computer. Features include auto dial, auto answer, built it 
speaker LED signals auto redial, etc. 

300 Baud $229.00 1 200 Baud $539.00 



SoundSource 

A really neat utility to make, adjust and play with the sound routines of the color 
computer.. ... - 




S24.95 Only. 



Tape Version $1 9.95 
By Bob Withers 

Now a program for th Color Computer that allow you to download basic 
programs from Bullet-80 systems. It will also send and receive programs from 
other Color Computers, Model I's and Model Ill's. 

Direct File Transfer (DFT) is a modem program which will handle the direct 
uploading and downloading of machine language, work processor files, text 
files, and basic programs directly to tape with no conversion necessary. It is the 
program you must have to download from any Bullet 80 system. DFT also has a 
chat mode, and has software controlled half ard/or full duplex. 

It also has a unique feature which can save you much time, it automatically 
converts all model I and III tokens. This allows you to run most model I and III 
basic programs just as they are downloaded on your color Computer. This also 
allows you to send basic programs to any model I or III owner who has a copy of 
DFT. (DFT is very popular with the Model I and III) 

BUGOUT 

A compact but very powerful monitor for the 6809 microprocessor 



l l r l i ■ ■ i j ■ ■ I | . ■■■■■■■ 



S19.95 



Computer Shack is a 2 year old company dealing in software for the Radio Shack Computers. In the last few months we have 
filled over 90% of our orders within 24 hours. We pride ourselves on fast service and quality tested products. 

COMPUTER SHACK 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 

Info: (313)673-2224 • Orders: CALL TOLL FREE: (800) 392-8881 

Master Charge and VISA OK Please add S3. 00 for shipping in the U.S.A. - S5.00 for Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. - Canada - Mexico. 
Dealers: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and price list. 



Page 1 1 6 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



"Chromasette," and the June, 1982, issue contains a 
program called "DISKEDIT." This program allows you to 
examine a disk, track by track, sector by sector. I loaded the 
disk with the "ADDRESS" file on it, and started to examine 
it until I f ound the file. Here was the answer: every time you 
hit the "ENTER" key, the "UNIDATFL" program inserts a 
"]" at the beginning of the item. I then revised the "GET" 
program. See LISTING 2A. The asterisks in lines 30 and 60 

Listing 2a 
10 CLEAR 10000 

20 OPEN " I " , # 1 , " ADDRESS / D AT " 
30 OPEN " □ " , #2 , " * /DAT " 
40 IF E0F<1>=-1 THEN 90 
50 INPUT#1,A* 

60 IF LEFT* <A*, 2) =":]*" THEN WRIT 

E#2, A* ELSE 80 

70 PRINT A* 

80 GOTO 40 

90 CL0SE#2 

100 CLOSE #1 

110 END 

should be replaced by one letter of the alphabet at a time. I 
ran the revised "GET1" program and it worked perfectly. 1 
thought, "at last, all my troubles are over," and I can go back 
to "UNIDATFL" and reassemble the file. 

I soon found that my optimism was ill founded. I found 
that if I tried to reassemble the file by adding on a file from 
disk to another file from a disk, I was losing part of the first 
file. You can add a file from disk and then add additional 
records from the keyboard without this problem. I didn't 
think that writing a program to reassemble the file would be 
too much of a problem. After all, if I could take a file apart I 

Across The Rubicon 




Gall it the Huengen Forrest, dubbed the '■death nap" by G. I s, where th e Cermans bore-sighted 
every hill and valley, and tree-bursting shells made diving for cover more deadly than standing tall. 
Too large to outflank, the Huertgen blocked the approaches to Cologne and the Ruhr it had ro be 
taken. But Hitler had sworn that no Invader would ever step foot on German soil, and too many 
pledges had already been broken And there was another reason, known only to Hitter and a hand- 
ful of trusted staff. Delaying the Americans in the HuerTgen would provide time to assemble and 
unleash his attack in the Ardennes 

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should be able to put it back together again. I had a bit of a 
head start on this as I had read an article about using 
multiple buffers. It warned that if you didn't close the 
buffers in the proper order the program would crash, and 
trying to list the file would produce garbage. The article 
suggested that you nest the opening and closing of the 
buffers much like a set of FOR NEXT loops — such as 
OPEN#l, OPEN#2, OPEN#3, CLOSE#3, CLOSE#2, 
CLOSE#l . I then wrote the program "PUT." See LISTING 
3. I ran the program, and not only did it crash and produce 

Listing 3 

10 CLEAR 10000 
20 FILES 3 

30 OPEN" I " , #1 , "A-*/DAT" 
40 OPEN " O " , #2 , " A-*/D AT " 
50 IF E0F<1>=-1 THEN 100 
60 INPUT#1,A* 
70 WRITE#2,A* 
80 PRINT A* 
90 GOTO 50 

1 00 OPEN " I " , #3 , " * /DAT " 

110 IF E0F<3)=-1 THEN 170 

120 INPUT#3,A* 

130 WRITE#2,A* 

140 PRINT A* 

150 GOTO 110 

170 CL0SE#3 

180 CL0SE#2 

190 CLOSE* 1 

200 END 

garbage when I tried to list it, but it started to destroy the 
files on the disk. 1 shut the system down and started to think. 
I remembered something I had learned long ago: when 
trying to solve a problem, don't get fancy, look for the 
simple solution. I then wrote "PUT1" and ran it. See 
LISTING 3A. The asterisk in LINE 30 should be a letter of 
the alphabet, such as "B," and the astericks in LINES 40 and 

Listing 3a 
10 CLEAR 10000 
20 FILES 3 

30 OPEN " I " , # 1 , " A-*/DAT " 
40 0PEN"0",#2, "A-*/DAT" 
50 IF E0F<1>=-1 THEN 100 
60 INPUT#1,A* 
70 WRITE#2,A* 
80 PRINT A* 
90 GOTO 50 

100 OPEN" 1 11 , #3, "*/DAT" 
110 IF E0F<3)=-1 THEN 170 
120 INPUT#3,A* 
130 WRITE#2,A* 
140 PRINT A* 
150 GOTO 110 
170 CLOSE 
180 END 

100 should be the next letter of the alphabet. The revised 
program worked perfectly and 1 now had my "ADDRESS" 
file back. Now that everything was working perfectly I could 
go onto more ambitious projects, such as cataloging and 
inventorying the stamp collection. 

I think I should now give a bit more help to my fellow 



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Page 1 1 8 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



beginners. The "UNIDATFL" program produces an "in 
memory" file system. By "in memory" I mean that the file 
must be small enough to fit in your computer's memory. My 
address file is small enough, but I knewthe stamp files would 
be too large. This started me thinking about a "sub file 
system," and I'll discuss that in the next paragraph. Right 
now, I'd like to give some hints on using the "find"function. 
If you look at EXAMPLE A you'll see that I've added the 
birthdays and anniversaries to the records. I did this as I 
wanted to be able to search the files for these dates. If I want 
to find the dates in August, and just ask for "8," I'll find 
every "8" in the file. If I ask for "8/" I'll find not only the 
month of August, but also 8th, 18th and 28th days. If I ask 
for "(spacebar)8/ " I'll find just the month of August. I've 
written the proceeding to show that careful use of what you 
ask for can save a lot of search time. 

Knowing that I would have to use multiple files to catalog 
the stamp collection, I added an "open new file" command 
to "UNIDATFL". I did this changing LINE 70 to "IF KP=0 
THEN 73" and adding the following: 

71 CLOSE #2 

72 KP=0 

73 GOSUB3500 

155 IF I$^"0" OR I$="o" THEN 3600 

651 IF KP=1 THEN WRITE #2,N$(X) 

3600 KP=1: CLS: INPUT "FILE NAME": KP$ 

3610 OPEN "O", #2, KP$ 

3620 GOTO 100 
For instance, suppose I wanted to make a separate file out of 
the address of just the people living in England. I could use 
the "find" function to search the file for "England" and get 



all the records listed on the screen, or I could print them out 
individually. This would give me a printed record, but I 
wouldn't have a file on it on disk, so I created the "O" 
function. 

The "O" command allows me to make a "sub file" out of 
the original file. To use this command use the following 
procedure: type in "f" to start the find function and type in 
what you want the computer to search f or. If the search finds 
an entry in the file, type "s" to end the search, and go back to 
the main menu. Type "o" and answer the "?" with the new 
file name, and then type "f'to go back to the search, and ask 
f or the same word as you did bef ore. When an entry is f ound, 
press the spacebar, to get to the next entry in the file, until 
you reach the end of the original file, then press "S" to go 
back to the master menu. The computer will record each 
f ound record in the new file and close the buffer at the end of 
the original file. Of course, you can combine the sub files and 
make sub files from them ad infinitum. 

Just to make certain I hadn't put another unexpected trap 
in the program, I tried the revised program to make a file 
called "ENGLAND." To see if all went well, I wrote the 
following program and put the "ADDRESS" and 
"ENGLAND" files through it. 

10 CLEAR18000 

20 INPUT "FILE NAME": KP$ 

30, OPEN "O", #1, KP$+ "/DAT" 

40 IF EOF (1) THEN 80 

50 LINEINPUT#1, A$ 

60 PRINTAS: PRINT: FORX=1T0460:NEXTX 
70 GOTO40 
80 CLOSE#l 
90 END 

Oops!! Another goof. The "]" didn't appear before each 
item in the "ENGLAND" file. Back to the drawing board. I 
found that lines 1050-1 120 of the original program added 
the "]". As "N" was used as a variable in the original 
program, I f elt that it would be better to use another variable 
and changed lines 72 to 4 KP=0:N1=0' and 651 to 'IF KP=1 
THEN 6000' and added the following. 
6000 N1=N1 + 1 

6010 Y=INSTR(N$(X),CHR$(13)): IF Y=0THEN6030 

6020 MID$(N$(X),Y,1)="]" 

6021 GOTO 6010 

6030 WRITE#2,N$(X): GOTO560 
This not only puts the "]"at the front of each item, but it also 
writes all of the records with the selected word 
automatically, and runs very fast. 

The program "PRINT1," LISTING 4, is a program I 

Listing 4 

10 CLEAR 10000 

11 CLS: PRINT: INPUT H FILE NAME " ; K$ 

12 CLS: PR I NT: INPUT" DO YOU WANT 
THIS TO GO TO THE PRINTER <Y 

OR N)";L* 

13 IF L*="Y" THEN 20 

14 IF L*<>"N" THEN SOUND 200, 5: P 
R I NT " I NVAL I D ANSWER " : FORX = 1 TO230 
: NEXT: GOTO 12 

20 OPEN " I " , #1 , " ADDRESS/DAT " 
30 IF E0F<1>=-1 THEN 80 

40 INPUT#1,A* 

41 F*= M 3" 

42 G=INSTR<2,A*,F*> 

43 PRINT G 

50 PRINT MID*<A*,2,G-1)+" - "5 

51 IF L$= 11 Y " THEN PRINT#-2, MID* < 



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A*,2,G-1)+" - » 
60 FOR X-1TO920INEXT 
70 GOTO 30 

80 CLOSE#l 

81 IF L*="Y" THEN PRINT#-2, CHR* < 
13) 

90 END 

wrote for my own use. As I stated earlier, I want to use this 
program to catalog a stamp collection. I have devised a 
system of thirty three character codes to describe all the 
characteristics of a stamp. With this system of programs, I 
can search my files for all the stamps that have any one of 
these characteristics, such as "coils," and open a sub file, 
combine all the sub files, and then print out the resulting file. 
By placing the catalog number at the start of each record, 
and then hitting the "ENTER" key, I can use this program to 
search my "COIL" sub file, and print out just the catalog 
numbers in numerical order. 

There is now only one small problem: what to do if the file 
becomes too large to fit in RAM? The answer: split it. Use 
the "GET1" program and replace the "equals" sign in LINE 
60 with "less than or equal to" marks. Then rerun the 
program and replace the "less than or equal to" with a 
"greater than". Also, remember to give two different names 
to the two new files. This will split the file. 

The only fault left in the program is the slow sort routine. 
As mentioned in the September, 1 982, issue (Vol. II No. 3) of 
the Rainbow, the July, 1982, issue (Vol. 4 Issue 6) of Radio 
Shack's TRS-80 Microcomputer News had a great assembly 



the RAINBOW 



Page 119 

language "string sort" program in it. As was detailed in the 
Rainbow, the program had a lot of typos. The corrections 
for 16K were listed in the Rainbow article. I also struggled 
with the program and figured out the corrections, and then 
went a bit farther and corrected it to work in 32K. I then 
used this program to replace the "sort" section of the "R 
Multiple-Disk Index" Program in the July, 1 982 (Vol II No. 
1), issue of the Rainbow. It works so well that I eliminated 
the sort feature from "UNIDATFL" by deleting lines 140 
and 5030, and adding line 5035, and writing LISTING 5 to 
sort the files created by "UNIDATFL." 

Listing 5 

110 CLEAR 1 8000, &H7EFF 

120 A=0:N=0: 1=0: J»0 

130 DATA 190,127,254,52,16,238,2 
28, 174,94,48,31,79,52, 18, 166, 196 
,39,42, 166, 196,230,69, 160,69,36, 
2,230, 196,52, 1, 174,66, 16, 174,71 
140 DATA 109,69,38,4,50,97,32,41 
, 166, 128, 160, 160,39,4,50,97,32,5 
,90,38,243,53, 1,35,24, 174,66, 16, 
174,71, 175,71, 16, 175,66, 166 
150 DATA 196,230,69,231,196,167, 
69, 234, 69, 234 , 228, 231 , 228, 51 , 69, 
174,97,48,31, 175,97,38, 176, 166,2 
28,50,99, 38, 161,50,98,57 
155 B=0 

160 FOR I=ScH7F00 TO &H7F66 



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the RAINBOW 



Page 120 

170 READ A: POKE I, A 
175 B-B+A 
180 NEXT I 

190 IF BOH172 THEN PRINT" INVAL- 
ID VALUE IN DATA STATEMENTS - CH 
ECK ! " : STOP 
200 DIM T*(500) 

220 CLS : PR I NT : I NPUT " F I LEN AME " ; NM 
*:XM*=NM*+" /DAT" 

221 DEFUSR0=&H7F00 
230 OPEN "I",#1,XM* 

240 PR I NT: PR I NT "READING ";NM* 

250 X=X+1:LINEINPUT#1,T*(X) 

260 IF EOF(l)=-l THEN270 ELSE250 

270 PRINT X;" RECORDS READ":CLOS 

E#l : PRINT: PR I NT " SORT I NG " 

280 N= V ARPTR ( T* ( 0 ) > 

290 POKE &H7FFE, INT (N/256) 

300 POKE &H7FFF,N-INT(N/256)*256 

330 TIMER=0 

340 A=USR0(0) 

350 Tl=INT<TIMER/3600) :T2=INT( <T 
IMER-(T1*3600) )/60) 
360 PRINT: PRINT"SORT FINISHED "; 
Tl; "MIN ,, ;T2; "SECS" 

365 FOR JX=1TO10:SOUND200, 1:NEXT 
JX 

366 PRINT: PRINT"KILLING ";NM* 

367 KILL XM* 

368 PRINT: PR I NT" WRITING SORTED " 
;NM* 

370 OPEN "0",#1,XM* 

380 FOR JK=0TOX-1 

390 IF T*(JK)=""THEN 420 

400 PRINT#1,T*(JK) 

410 NEXT JK 

420 CLOSE#l 

440 END 

In conclusion (Hush out there, I can hear all of you 
saying, "The old windbag is about to shut up!") I hope that I 
have made myself clear to my fellow beginners, and helped 
them to see if a plodder like me can work this out, they can. 
To those of you who are more advanced than I am, I hope 
you find the resulting programs useful. I don't know how 
many of you are interested in my system for cataloging 
stamps. If enough of you ask Mr. Falkfor it, I'll send it on to 
him. To those of you who have not, as yet, added a disk to 
their system — save your pennies to do so. The addition of a 
disk will make your 80C a powerful tool. To all, "happy 
computing!" 



December, 1 982 



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Listing 1 



1 GOTO 4000 

2 DATA BD,B3,ED, IF, 02, 7E, 96, A7 



**** DATAFILE 
BY: JORGE MIR 

CHANGE STEP 60 ACCORDING 
TO RAM SPACE AVAILABLE 



10 ' 
20 " 

30 9 
40 * 

50 * 

51 for i=0TO7:reade*:next:fori=0 
toisireade* 

52 e= v al ( " &h " +e* ) : poke i +&he02 , e : 

NEXT 

53 DATA 8E, 04, 00, A6, 80, 81, 60, 2D, 
04, 80, 40, A7, IF, 8C, 06, 00, 2D, Fl , 39 

54 DEFUSR0=&HE02 

60 CLEAR 18000: D=1000: DIM N*<D> 

70 IF KP=0 THEN 73 

71 CL0SE#2 

72 KP=0:N1=0 

73 GOSUB 3500 
100 CLS<0) : GOSUB 
105 I*=INKEY*: IF 
110 IF I*="A" OR 
120 IF I*="F" OR 
130 IF I*="P" OR 



0 



5000 

I*=""THEN 105 
I*="a" THEN 290 
I *=■'*'■ THEN 530 
I$=»p» THEN 153 



OR 
OR 



I*="e" THEN 990 
I*="o" THEN 360 



-440— *F^T*^ 
W 

150 IF I*="E" 
155 IF I*="0" 
0 

160 SOUND 100, 2: GOTO 105 
290 GOSUB3000: X=0 
310 IF TY=1 OR TY=-1 THEN 860 
320 CLS: PR I NT" (TYPE 9 M WHEN DON 
E OR TO EXIT) " : PRINT STRING* (32, 



ii 



ii 



) 



330 X=X+l:IF N*(X)="" THEN 340 E 
LSE 330 
340 N=l 

350 LINE INPUT I*: IF I*<>"^" THE 
N 380 

360 IF F=0 THEN 480 
370 GOTO 70 
380 N=N+1 

390 IF LEN(N*(X) > +LEN ( I * ) = >250 T 
HEN 410 

400 N*(X)=N*(X)+CHR*(13)+I*:G0T0 
350 

410 N*(X)=N*(X)+"*" 

420 IF N*(X+1)=""THEN470 

430 Y=X 

440 Y=Y+l:IF N*(Y)O" ,, THEN440 
450 N*(Y)=N*(Y-1> :Y=Y-1 
460 IF Y=X THEN 470 ELSE 450 
470 X=X+1 : N* ( X ) =CHR* ( 1 3) +1 * : GOTO 
350 

480 IF N=l THEN 70 
490 PRINT" IS ABOVE DATA CORRECT 
( Y/N) ?" : GOSUB 1150 

500 IF I$="Y" OR I$="y" THEN 320 

501 IF I*="N" OR I*="n" THEN 510 

502 GOSUB 1150 
510 GOSUB 1410 
520 GOTO 580 

530 PRINT ©384, "key word (s) : " 
=USR(0) 

540 LINE I NPUT K* 
550 X=0 : SOUND200 , 2 : PR I NT@490 , 
arching -File"; : Z=USR (0) 
560 X=X + l:IF X=D+1 OR N*(X)= ,,n 



9 - 



ii 




nruoi 



THIS PACK CONTAINS 





Learn geography the fun 
way! USA-Canada-Europe- 
Australia 

$9.95 each 



Ultimate tape backup 
program. Get the cat! 
$19.95 




Yum- Yum 
Machine language arcade 
fun! 

$16.95 




One or two player or robot 
bug against turtle. 32K Ext. 

$15.55 




Color Sales File 
Word CC7 (Tape) 
Word CC7 (Disk) 
Dancing Devil (Tom Mix) 
Lunar Lander (Tom Mix) 
War Kings (Tom Mix) 
Color DFT (Bob Withers) 



$21.88 
$19.95 
$24.95 
$14.95 
$15.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 



Stranded and alone with 
Adventure and treasure! 

This Month 
ONLY $9.95 





DSL COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

P.O. BOX 1113 - DEARBORN, Ml 48121 - (313) 582-3406 

ALWAYS LOOKING FOR GREAT COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 
ADD $1 SHIPPING AND HANDLING - MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% 




RAINBOW 



ining The Connectors 

RS-232 
SWITCHER 



ANNOUNCING CCCS 




Up to three items connect to 
your 232 port. Flip switch for 
different items and leave the 
plugs alone. $ 39 95 

TWO PLUG MODEL 
$2995 



COLOR COMPUTER 
CLUB SERVICES 

If you are an officer in a club 
primarily for the Color Computer, 
contact us about our newest 
addition— CCCS! 




ADD POWER TO YOUR 
COLOR COMPUTER 



RAM SLAM 



— Solderless Kits — 

4-1 6K $25.00 
1 6-32K $49.95 
4-32K $74,95 

15 Minute Installation 
One Year Warranty 

"The Easy Way To More K" 



Page 1 22 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



HEN 780 

570 IF INSTR<N*<X> ,K*)=0 THEN 56 
0 

580 SOUND 1 50 , 1 : CLS0 : PR I NT ©480 , 11 
functions: a c d s p ?" ; : Z= 
USR<0) 

590 PRINT @0, ""; 

600 N=INSTR<N*<X> , "D"> : IF N=0 GO 
TO 620 

610 MID*<N*<X> ,N, 1>=CHR*<13> : GOT 
O 600 

620 N=INSTR<N*<X> , "*"> : IF N=0 TH 
EN 650 

630 PRINT LEFT*<N*<X> , X-l) 
640 X=X+l:GOTO 620 

650 PRINT N*<X> 

651 IF KP=1 THEN 6000 
660 IF I*="N" THEN 670 
665 IF I*<>"n" THEN 690 
670 IF INKEY*="" THEN 670 
680 PRINT:PRINT:GOTO490 
690 GOSUB 1150:F=0 
700 IF I*="D" OR I*="d" THEN 800 
710 IF I*="S" OR I*="s" THEN 70 
720 IF I*="C" OR I*="c" THEN F=l 
: GOSUB 1410 

730 IF I*="P" OR I*="p" THEN GOS 
UB 1190 

735 IF I*="0" OR I*="o" THEN GOS 
UB 3600 

740 IF 1*="?" THEN GOSUB 1290 
750 IF I*="A" THEN PRINT: GOTO 76 
0 

755 IF I*<>"a" THEN 770 ELSE PR I 
NT 

760 PR I NT "SECT I ON TO BE ADDED: 11 : 
GOTO 350 

770 PRINT @ 17, "SEARCHING FILE" : G 
OTO 560 

780 SOUND 200 , 5 : CLS0 : PR I NT@ 1 95 , " 
<no more data on file>":Z=USR 

(0) 

781 IF KP=0 THEN 790 

782 CL0SE#2 

783 KP = 0 

790 GOSUB 1150: GOTO 70 
800 N*<X)= ,IH : PRINT STRINGS <32,CH 
R*<128> > ; : PR I NT "ITEM DELETED FRO 
M FILE" 

810 SOUND 1 50, l: PRINT" (STANDBY WH 
ILE FILE IS UPDATED)" 
820 FOR XX=X TO D-l 
830 N*<XX)=N*<XX+1> :NEXT XX 
840 X=X-1 
850 GOTO 560 

860 IF TY=1 THEN GOSUB 3050 
870 GOSUB 1170:FL*=I* 
880 N=0 

PRICE OF DISC DRIVES 
GOT YOU DOWN? 

Then get your system up! Now you can run programs of any length, using a standard cassette 
player for virtual memory. By adding a few simple lines to your program, "overlays" will 
automatically load & unload during execution. Unique system uses endless-loop tapes so you 
can jump to the end or return to the beginning without pressing a button ! Easy to use on any 
memory size ColorComputer, and Ml. subroutine makes It fast. Ext. Basic required. 

VIRTUAL MEMORY LOADER $12.95 

DAILY MINDER $8.95 >«v 

Add $1.50 shipping and handling per order. NJ residents add 5% sales tax. 



little bits computing svcs. 



P.O. Box 396 
Hibernia, NJ 07842 



Color Computer Is a trademark of the Tandy Corp. 



890 OPEN"I",#TY, I* 
900 N=N+1 

920 INPUT#TY,N*<N> 

930 X-INSTR(N«(N>, "]">: IF X=0 GO 
TO 960 

940 MID*<N*<N),X,1)=CHR*<13> 
950 GOTO 930 

960 IF EOF<TY)=0 THEN 900 
970 CLOSE#TY 
980 GOTO 70 

990 PRINT6384, "do you want to sa 
ve data <y/n) " ; : X=USR <0> 

991 I*=INKEY*:IF I *=" "THEN 991 

992 IF I*="N" OR I*="n" THEN CLS 
IEND 

994 IF I*="Y" OR I*="y" THEN PR 
INT @384, STRING* < 32, " ");:GOTO10 
10 

1000 GOTO 70 

1010 GOSUB3000: GOSUB 1170 
1030 N=0: IF TY=1 AND FL*=I* THEN 
CLS0: SOUND 150, l:PRINT@7*32+5, "o 
Id file being erased": X=USR<0) :K 
ILL FL*+"/DAT" 

1 035 CLS0 : SOUND 1 50 , 1 : PR I NT@7*32+ 
5, "new file being created" : X=USR 
(0) 

1036 X=0 

1037 X=X+l:IF N*<X)O""THEN1037 
1040 OPEN " 0 " , #T Y , I * 

1050 N=N+1 

1060 IF N*<N>="" THEN 1130 

1070 Y=INSTR (N* (N) , CHR$ < 13) > : IF 

Y=0 THEN 1100 

1080 MID*<N*<N) , Y, 1)="D" 

1090 GOTO 1070 

1100 IF TYOl THEN 1115 ELSE WRI 

TE #1,N*<N> 

1110 GOTO1050 

1115 PRINT#-1,N*<N> 

1120 GOTO 1050 

1130 CLOSE#TY 

1140 GOTO 70 

1150 I*=INKEY*:IF 1*="" THEN 115 
0 

1 160 I=VAL < I*) : RETURN 

1170 PRINT:PRINT@448, " file n 
ame: "; 

1171 Z=USR<0) : PRINT" "5 

1172 PRINT @463, ""; ILINE INPUT I 
$ 

1175 IF I*=""THEN70 

1180 Z=USR<0) : RETURN 

1190 CLS: GOSUB 1650: IF 1=1 THEN 
1220 

1200 PR I NTQ230, "PRINTER IS NOT R 

EADY": SOUND 100,5 

1210 GOSUB 1150:GOTO580 

1220 Y=INSTR<N*<X >,"*">: IF Y=0 T 

HEN 1260 

1230 PRINT LEFT*<N*<*> ,Y-1) :PRIN 
T : PR I NT#-2 , LEFT* < N* < X ) , Y- 1 ) 
1 240 PR I NT#-2 , " " : PR I NT#-2 , STR I N 
G*<32, "*") 

1250 X=X+l:GOTO 1220 

1260 PRINT N*<X> :print:print#-2, 

N*(X) 

1 270 PR I NT#-2 , " " : PR I NT#-2 , STR I NG 
*<32, "*"> 
1280 RETURN 

1290 CLS <0) : PRINT" key letters:" 
1300 PRINT: PRINT" a = add dat 



ii 



December, 1982 

1310 PRINT" 
1320 PRINT" 



the RAINBOW 



ii 



1330 PRINT" 
1340 PRINT" 
1350 PRINT" 



c 
d 



P 



correct data" 
delete listing 



ii 



stop search" 
print data" 
prints this li 



key 



1360 PRINT: PRINT " < space bar> c 
ontinues search" 
1370 X=X-1 

1380 PRINT6480, " <press any 
to continued'; : Z»USR<0) 
1390 IF INKEY*="" THEN 1390 
1400 RETURN 

1410 PR I NT: PR I NT "ENTER DATA TO B 

E CHANGED: " 

1420 LINE INPUT Dl* 

1430 D1=INSTR<N*<X) ,D1*) 

1440 IF D1=0 THEN 1410 

1450 PR I NT "ENTER CORRECTED DATA: 



ii 



1460 LINE INPUT D2* 

1470 D2=LEN<D1*) 

1480 C1*=LEFT*<N*<X) ,D1-1) 

1490 C2*=MID*<N*<X) ,D1+D2) 

1500 N*<X)=C1*+D2*+C2* 

1510 IF I*="C" OR I*="c" THEN X= 

X-l 

1520 RETURN 

1530 GOSUB 1650: IF 1=1 GOTO 1560 
1540 PR I NT6485, "PRINTER IS NOT R 
EADY " ; 

1550 SOUND 150, 5: FOR X=1TO500:NE 
XT X:GOTO70 

1560 PRINT6483, "PRESS 'S* TO STO 
P PRINTING"; 

1570 SOUND 100, 5: FOR X=l TO 500: 
NEXT X 
1580 X=0 

1590 X=X+l: IF X=D+1 GOTO 1640 

1600 IF N*<X)=""THEN 1640 

1610 IF INKEY*="S" OR INKEY*="s" 

THEN 1640 
1620 GOSUB 1190 
1630 GOTO 1590 
1640 GOTO 70 

1650 REM*** IS PRINTER READY? 
1660 IF PEEK <65314)/2=INT (PEEK <6 
5314) /2) THEN 1=1 ELSE 1=0 
1670 RETURN 



^EPI^hHRFSBRTING ROUTINE***,* 
1810 FORSl=l TO N-l STEP2 
1820 S2=S1+1 
1830 NEXT SI 
1840 S3=0 
1850 S4=N 
1860 S4=INT<S4/2) 
1870 IF S4=0 GOTO 2060 
1880 S3=S3+1 

1890 PRINT ©490, "PASS #"S3; 
1900 FOR S5=l TO S4-1 
1910 S1=S5 
1920 S2=S5+S4 / 
1930 S6=0 / 
1940 IF N*<S1)<N*<S2)G0T0 1990 
1950 S6=l / 
1960 SS*=N*<51> 
1970 N*<S1)~N*<S2) 
1980 N*<S2/=SS* 
1990 S1=S2 
2000 S2t«2+S4 
2010 IF S2<N GOTO 1940 
2020 IF S6=0 GOTO 2040 

/ 




Page 1 23 



2030 GOTO 1910 
2040 NEXT" S5 
2050 GOTO i860 

0 GOTO 70 
2070 FOR X=l TO 5 
2080 CS A VE " D AT AF I LE " 
2090 FOR Y=l TO 500: NEXT Y: NEXTX 
3000 PRINT @132," device to be 



ii 



d - dis 



3010 PRINT: PRINT" 

k" 

3020 PRINT" t - tape" 

3030 IF I*="A" OR I*="a" OR I*=" 
ADD" OR I*="add" THEN PRINT" 
k - keyboard" 

3040 PR I NT : PR I NT@320 , " yo 
ur choice?"; :X=USR<0) 

3041 I*=INKEY*:IF I*=" "THEN3041 

3042 IF I*="D" OR I*="d" THEN TY 
=1 ELSE IF I*="T" OR I*="t" THEN 

TY=-1 ELSE IF I*="K" OR I*="k" 
THEN TY=3 ELSE IF I*=CHR*<13) TH 
EN 70 ELSE SOUND 50, 2: GOTO3041 
3045 RETURN 

3050 GOSUB3500:PRINT" these are 
the files contained in the dis 
k at this time: ":Z=USR<0) : FOR W= 
3 TO 11 

3060 DSKI*0, 17, W, A*,B* 
3070 C*=A*+LEFT*<B*, 127) 
3080 NAM*<0)=LEFT*<C*,8) 
3090 EXT*<0)=MID*<C*,9,3) 

3100 FOR Z=l TO 7 

3110 NAM*<Z)=MID*<C*,Z*32+1,8) 

3120 EXT*<Z)=MID*<C*,9+Z*32,3) 

3130 NEXT Z 

3140 FOR ZZ=0 TO 7 

3150 IF EXT*<ZZ)="DAT" AND LEFT* 

<NAM*<ZZ) , 1)<>CHR*<0)THEN PRINT 

"NAM*<ZZ) , 
3160 NEXT ZZ,W 
3170 RETURN 

3500 SOUND150,2:CLS<0) : PRINT" 

universal data file" 
3510 PRINT" 

Ii 

3530 RETURN 

3600 KP=l:CLS: INPUT "FILE NAME" ; K 
P* 

3610 0PEN"0",#2,KP* 
3620 GOTO 100 

4000 FOR I=0TO7:READ E*:E=VAL<"& 

H"+E*):POKE I+&HE03,E:NEXT 

4010 DEFUSR0=&HE03 : X =USR0 < &H0E 1 8 

) :gotoi0 

add data" 
find item"; 
print entire 

sort- d a t a-ii4— 
open new f i 1 



ii 



5000 PRINT@134,"a - 
5010 PRINT6166, "f - 



5020 PRINT® 198, 
file"; 

5035 PRINT6262, 



P " 




ii 



?xit to basi 
- exit to basic"; 



5040 PR IN 
c"PRINT@262, 
5050 X=USR <0) : RETURN 
6000 N1=N1+1 

6010 Y=INSTR<N*<X) ,CHR*<13) ) 
Y=0THEN6030 

6020 MID*<N*<X) ,Y, 1 ) = ":]" 

6021 GOTO 6010 

6030 WR I TE#2 , N* < X ) : GOTO560 



IF 



aawmow 



Page 1 24 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 




\ 



Hobbies... 



\ 



j Ham and CoCo: Holiday 
Fare for Duel Hobbiests 



By B.B. Witham, Jr. 




Many ham radio operators seem to take to computers as a 
second hobby. (They seem to go together well.) Anyway, 
such is the plight of my wife! I have been a ham for over 25 
years but got into the computer game only last year, with 
CoCo. 

One of the first projects I undertook was to automate my 
logging of radio contacts. The FCC has reduced the legal 
requirements for logging, but I think that I, like most hams, 
still like to keep a rather full log for my own purposes. My 
first efforts were none too successful, and I must give credit 
to my son-in-law, R.T. Kilpatrick, of Stockbridge, G A (who 
also has CoCo), for his assistance and the suggestion to use 
line input. The program I present here is the culmination of 
my efforts to have a log that would incorporate the f eatures I 
wanted. 

First, I wanted a full feature program with add/ revise/ 
save/ load/ printout, etc. Also I wanted the input to be pre- 
formatted. As can be seen, this program accomplishes all of 
these and has a few nice features. 

The present form takes about 20K and is set up for two 
disk drives and the line printer VII. The program can be 
easily modified to accommodate other peripherals. 

Line 100 — The DIM statement can be modified to fit 
memory requirements. 

Lines 25, 140, 320, 570 — Modify for your own callsign. 

Lines 8 10, 840, 850, 870, 9 1 0, 940, 950, and 970— Modify 
for single disk drive or tape. 

Line 1 170 — Modify with your own station data. 

In running the program, I usually log each day's contacts 
at the end of the day. On succeeding days, the create file 
selection is not used again. The old file is loaded and then the 
add selection is used to continue the file. The revise/ review 



selection can be used any time a file is in memory, either 
bef ore saving or af ter loading, to review or correct. Also, the 
whole file does not have to be reviewed if only a single record 
needs to be seen or corrected. 

In the printout selection, an appropriate header can be 
printed at the first of the log, but need not be repeated for 
each day. 

All in all, I find this program does it all f or me and I hope 
others will be able to use it with as much success. Questions 
regardingthe program will be gladly answered at the address 
given in the header. 

The listing: 



10 
15 

20 



* **************************** 

STATION LOG 
AMATEUR RADIO STATION 
(YOUR CALL) 



' * 
' * 
* * 



30 



40 
45 
50 



60 
65 
70 
75 
80 
85 
90 



* * 
'* 
" * 
" * 

* * 
" * 
9 * 
9 * 



* * * * * * 

BY: B.B. WITHAM JR. W4CNZ 
3501 SEA GULL RD. 
VIRGINIA BEACH, VA. 23452 
VERSION 2.4 9/01/82 



THIS PROGRAM MAY BE USER 
MODIFIED. HOWEVER, THIS 
HEADER SHALL BE RETAINED 
AND THE PROGRAM MAY NOT 

BE RESOLD. 
' **************************** 



9 * 
9 * 
9 * 
* * 



ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE ? 

Tired of typing in all those !ong, but wonderful, programs from each issue of the RAINBOW? Now you can get RAINBOW ON TAPE and 
give those tired fingers a rest! With RAINBOW ON TAPE, you'll be able to spend your time enjoying programs instead of 
typing, ..typing. ..typing them! All you ever need do again is pop a RAINBOW ON TAPE cassette into your recorder, CLOAD and RUN any 

one you want. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE is available as a single issue for $6.50 or on a yearly subscription basis for only $60. It is the perfect complement to 
the RAINBOW itself. 

VISA and MasterCard accepted. All subscriptions begin with the current issue and no back issues of tapes are available at this time. 
.Subscriptions^ sent first class mail to coincide with the arrival of your cunent Issue of lh# RAINBOW. 



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JUST GOOD SOFTWARE 

DISK DOUBLE ENTRY - If you have spent hours trying to balance your Debits and Credits, this program is 
for you! Designed for small business, club, and personal use. Enter transactions in a journal typeformat. 
Program will maintain current account balances, produce Trial Balance, Income, and Balance Sheet re- 
ports and complete Account Ledgers. Will handle up to 300 accounts including report headings and 
totals. Up to 1 400 average transactions on a diskette. Summary reports and four levels of subtotals 
available. REQUIRES 32K and a user understanding of standard double entry accounting con- 
cepts. - $44.95 in BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 

DISK DATA HANDLER - Will allow you to design d isk data files for your specific applications. Provides a power- 
ful facility for on-screen input and update, fast selection and sorting, user defined output of reports to 
screen or printer, and output to disk files which may be read by your BASIC programs for any computa- 
tional or special formatting requirements. You define a basic record of up to 1 4 fields and 246 characters. 
Sort or select records based on any field or combination of fields in this record. Maximum number of 
records you may work with at one time will depend on record size (500 - 23 char records, 50-246 char 
records). An optional Extended record linked to the basic record may also be defined. The size of the 
Extended record is not a factor in determining maximum number of records. Disk Data Handler is the 
type of tool which will provide the growth capability needed for your increasingly sophisticated applica- 
tions. REQUIRES 32K. - $44.95 in BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 

DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR- Puts you in charge of yourschedule! Graphically displays any monthly calendar 
between 1 700 and 2099. You put in up to twelve 28 character memos per day - calendar shows where 
the memos are - call up of day shows details. Use for appointments and a log of past activity. Study the 
chronology of the American Revolution or note the day your mortgage will be paid off. Search capability 
allows you to list or print all memos between two specified dates or only ones meeting key word criteria. 
Date computation shows elapsed time between twodates in days, weeks, months, and years. REQUIRES 
32K in BASIC. 



TAPE DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $16.95 
(max. 400 memos/tape file) 



DISK DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - $19.95 
(over 4,000 memos/disk - max. 300 memos/month) 



MATH TUTOR - Five programs thatgo from math fact (+, — , X, /) drill tof ull addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
and division at four levels of difficulty. Provides a step by step approach with error correction and re- 
wards for good performance. - $1 3.95 in BASIC. 

SPELLING TEACHER - Up to 200 of their spelling words stored on tape or disk are presented in four lively 
study modes including a scrambled word game. - $12.95 in BASIC. 

ALPHA-DRAW - A subroutine designed to let you easily add characters to your graphic displays. You define 
X and Y coordinates and a string variable of one or more characters and Alpha-Draw will do the rest. 
Includes all keyboard characters. Comes with instructions for a true line numbered merge of tape files. 
Works great with the Screen Print program! - $8.95 in BASIC. 

GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM - Works in ALL PMODES and lets you shift screen image anywhere 
on the printed page. Relocatable code lets you use all of your 1 6K or 32K machine. Available for both 
Color Basic 1 .0 and 1 .1 . Use EXEC 41 1 75 to see which you have and SPECIF/ with order. In Machine Language. 

$7.95- For TRS-80® LP-VII/VIII & DMP-1 00/400 

$9.95 - For Epson GRAFTRAX®, PRO WRITER®, NEC® PC 8023A-C, IDS-440/445 (w. graphics dot plotting), 
Microline® 82A/83A (w. OKIGRAPH® I) (SPECIFY printer type.) 

(Trademarks of Tandy Corp., Epson America, Inc., C-ltoh, NEC America, Okidata Corp.) 



ii 



s 
< 



o 
o 

H 



00 
K 



~ JA 

*0 



5(2 



* 



5 

s 



ALL PROGRAMS require Extended Color Basic and are delivered 
on cassette. All, except Tape Date-O-Base Calendar, are DISK 
System compatible. 



We want your 
SUGGESTIONS! 



Custom Software Engineering, Inc. 



807 Minutemen Causeway Cocoa Beach, Florida 32931 

(305) 783-1083 




For VISA and Master Card orders: 
Include type, account number, expiration 
date, signature and phone number. 
Sorry! No COD's. 



Add $1 .00 per order for shipping. Florida 
residents add 5% sales tax. Return within 
two weeks if not completely satisfied. 



RAINBOW 

currmcATK* 



ALL LISTED 
PROGRAMS 



Page 1 26 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



100 cleari2000:dimdd*<ii,61):f=0 

: G=450 : H=482 : L= 1 36 : M= 1 37 : N= 0 : T= 1 

000: v=50: w=700: Y=200 

110 B*=" PRESS < ENTER > TO CONTINU 

E":C*=" ENTRY NR:-":D*=" '#'-RETU 

RNS TO MENU": GOTO 140 

120 A*=INKEY*: IFA*="" THEN 120 EL 

SERETURN 

130 ' SET UP TITLE PAGE**** 
140 CLS:SOUNDY,5:FORJ=1024 TO 105 
5:P0KEJ, 153:NEXTJ:FORJ=1504 T015 
35:P0KEJ, 153:NEXTJ:FORJ=1024 TOl 
504 STEP32 : POKE J , 1 53 : NE X T J : FOR J= 
1055 T01535 STEP32:P0KEJ, 153: NEX 
TJ:PRINT@109, "W4CNZ"; : PRINT© 136, 
"»STATION LOG<<"; :PRINT@169, " — 

... :fortm=i tot: next 

150 ' MENU**** 

160 CLS:SOUNDL, 1:PRINT@42, "MAIN 
MENU" : PR I NT® 1 34, " 1 ) CREATE LOG F 
ILE 2) LIST/REVISE 

FILE 3) SAVE FILE 

4) LOAD FILE 

5) ADD TO FILE" 
170 PRINTQ294, "6) PRINT OUT 

7) EXIT ROUTINE": 
PRINTQ450, "TOTAL ENTRIES IN FILE 
: - " ; N : PR I NTQ482 , " LATEST DATE ON 

file:-";dd*<i,X) ; 

180 GOSUB120 

190 A=VAL < A$ ) : I FA< 1 0RA>7 THENGO 
SUB 120 



COLORTERM I.I 

^ DISK COMPATIBLE VERSION AND 
^ NEW FEATURES INCLUDED — 

NO PRICE INCREASE 



The Color Computer* as an intelligent terminal 

with 51 or 64 columns by 21 lines 
plus true lowercase! All done in software. 

Any data format — 1 6K or 32K — 300 or 1 1 0 Baud 
Print and save host data to cassette 
Encode data for secure storage 

RAINBOW 

User programmable keys a "-'™ 

Much more! 

• reverse video • macro buffers for often-used output 

• partial screen clear • patch the 51 or 64 column display 

• 4-way cursor control to your own basic and assembly 

• automatic repeat when programs 

key is held down • preserve a "window" of any size, 

• enter data offline for new material scrolls through 
later uploading to host remainder of screen 

". . .Very impressed ..." — The Rainbow 
" Very pleased. . .high marks..." — Color Computer News 

"... Easy to use. . .text densities are high enough to allow 
doing some serious work." — 80 Micro 

Cassette and disk versions included with all orders, 
add $5.00 if you want programs on a disk 

$34.95 (U.S.) $40.95 (Canadian) 
M.O., VISA, M/C (include expiry) 
MARTIN CONSULTING, 94 Macalester Bay 
Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2X5 CANADA 

*T.M. of Tandy Corp. 



200 ON A GOTO300,500,800,900, 100 

0, 1100, 1300 

300 * CREATE LOG***** 

310 FORX=l TO60:IFF=1 THENX=N+1 

320 CLS: PR I NT@5, "STATION LOG - W 

4CNZ" 

330 PR I NT@32 , " DATE : " ; " " : 

PRINTQ46, "TM: " ; " ":PRINT@53, 

"FREQ: " " 

340 PR I NTQ64 , " CALL : " ; " " : 

PRINT678, "NAME: " ; " " 

350 PRINTQ96, "QTH: " ; " 



it 



360 PRINT6128, "RST: "; " — ":PR 

INTQ138, "PWR: " ; " " : PRINTQ147 

, "MODE: "; " " 

370 PR I NT© 160, "NOTES: " 



" : PR I NTQ277 , " TMOUT : " ; " 



H 



380 PRINTQ289, "NR. OF ENTRIES: "N 
390 IFN>60 THENCLS:GOTO160 
400 PR I NTQ32 , " da t e " ; : POKEL , 4 : POK 
EM,37:LINEINPUTDD*<1,X) :SOUNDY, 1 

:PRINT@46, "tm: "; " ":PRINT@5 

2, "FREQ: "; " " 

410 POKEM, 49: LINEINPUTDD* <2, X) :S 
OUNDY, 1 : PRINTQ53, "f req: " ; " " 

:pokem,58:lineinputdd*<3, X) :soun 

DY, 1:PRINT@64, "cal 1 ";: POKEM, 69: L 
I NE I NPUTDD* < 4 , X) :SOUNDY, 1: PRINT© 

78, "name: "; " " 

420 P0KEM,83:LINEINPUTDD*<5, X) :S 
OUNDY, l:PRINT@96, "qth: "; :POKEM, 1 
00:LINEINPUTDD*<6, X) :SOUNDY, 1 
430 PRINT® 128, "rst: "; : :POKEM, 132 

:lineinputdd*<7, X) :soundy, i:prin 

T6138, "pwr: "; " ":PRINT@147, "M 

ode: "; " ":pokem, 142:linein 

PUTDD*<8, X) :SOUNDY, 1:PRINT@147, " 
mode: "; " " 

440 POKEM , 1 52 : L I NE I NPUTDD* < 9 , X ) : 

SOUNDY, l: PRINT© 160, "notes: "; " 

" : POKEM, 16 

6:LINEINPUTDD*<10, X) :SOUNDY, 1:PR 

INTQ277, "tmout: "; " ": POKEL, 5: 

POKEM , 27 : L I NE I NPUTDD* < 1 1 , X ) : SOUN 
DY,l:N=N+l 

450 PRINT@256,STRING*<30, 143): SO 

UND V , 1 : PR I NT@4 1 7 , C* ; N : PR I NTQG , D* 

: PR I NT@H , B$; : GOSUB 1 20 

460 IFA*="#" THENN=X: GOTO 160 

470 IFA*OCHR*<13) THEN450 ELSES 

OUNDY, 1 

480 NEXTX 

500 * REVISE/REVIEW FILE**** 
510 CLS:PRINT@129, ""; : INPUT"DO Y 



**NEW** ADVANCED 
**NEW** ADVANCED 
**NEW** ADVANCED 




STAR*TRENCH 

Even if you've tried our short saaple version of this ganei 
you will have to o*n this advanced* highly graphic version 
of STAR*TR£NCH WARFARE. This High-Res Color Gaae has the 
■ost elaborate graphics of any Color Computer Gave created 
to date. We thought it would take 32K to give you the 
detail of this dazzling simulation* but we've actually 
craaned it into 1SK and added the lost retarkable speed and 
flicker free animation found in ANY Extended Basic prograa. 
(You will not believe this prograa is really in Basic* plus 
you can always list our prograa to learn the programing 
techniques that sake our software stand out fro© ALL the 
other basic programs available.) 
ADVANCED STAR*TftENCK WARFARE includes a noving trench, 
cockpit perspective? on screen rapid scoring, energy and 
ship gauges, automatic high score tally? joystick control, 
and a recharge and crash sequence you' 1 1 have to see to 
believe. Pop on a pair of 3D glasses and WON!!!, your Color 
Computer will ju*p to life with an even greater sense of 
depth with 3D-like color graphics. (3D glasses are not 
included? and are not required for you to enjoy this fine 
game.) You'll surely want this remarkable game as part of 
your software collection. Buy it and you'll see that color 
software doesn't have to be Machine Language to be the 
best ! ! ! ! ! 

WARFARE 



ADVANCED STAR*TRENCH WARFARE AVAILABLE AS 
****1SK EXTENDED BASIC GAME ON CASSETTE *18.95**** 





Color WordClone makes word processing simple. This program can be used with $ | O V|*l 
tape or disk and provides you with real UPPER and LOWER CASE letters with | \J m \} \J 
descenders. PLUS ... 50 letters by 23 lines on the screen at one time! Why pay more 
when this is all you need? JUST $18.95 supplied on tape (minimum system 16K 
Extended Basic). USER MODIFIABLE! ! ! ! 

16K Extended Color Basic Tape Programs 

CREATAVADER — Create your own targets or choose from a menu of 
predesignated four-color targets. 

GA TOR ZONE — Battle against alien "preppy gators" before they eat your 
shirt! An 1MB original. 

KOSMIC KAMIKAZE — Our best-selling high-res, deep space arcade game 
which the RAINBOW called "...the best spaceship graphics we have seen in a 
non-machine language program." 

MANY MORE TITLES available, including STAR SIEGE PLUS, GAL- 
LOPING GAMBLERS, SELECT- AG AME y STARBASE ATTACK, 
METEOR STORM, plus new releases coming. 

illustrated memory banks 

P.O.BOX 289 

WILLIAMSTOWN, MA. 01267-0289 
VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED 
CALL (413) 663-9648 3-7 P.M. EST 

SPECIAL OFFER: Mention this magazine ad and select 
a FREE proaram for- every two programs you order ! ! 




RAINBOW 

SEAL 



Page 1 28 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 98S 



□U WANT WHOLE FILE <WF) OR A SP 
ECIFIC DATE <SD)? M ;A* 
520 IF A*<>"WF" AND A*<>"SD" THE 
N510 ELSE IF A*="WF" THEN550 ELS 



ii 



530 CLS:PRINT@129, " " ; : INPUT" inpu 
T DATE WANTED. FORMAT: - MM/ 
DD/YY";SD*<1,0) 

540 N=0 : SOUNDY , 1 : FORR= 1 TOX : I FSD 
*<1,0)=DD*<1,R) THEN570 ELSENEXT 
R: GOTO 160 
550 N=0 

560 SOUNDY, l:FORR=l TOX 
570 CLS: PR I NT@5, "STATION LOG - W 
4CNZ":PRINT@32, "DATE: ";DD*<1,R) : 
PRINTQ46, "TM: "; DD* <2,R) : PRINTQ53 
, "FREQ: " ; DD$ <3, R) : PRINT@64, "CALL 
: " ; DD$ <4, R) : PRINT@78, "NAME: ";DD* 
<5,R) :PRINT@96, "QTH: ";DD*<6,R) :P 
RINTQ128, "RST: " ; DD* <7, R) : PRINTQ1 
38, "PWR: ";DD*<8,R> 

580 PRINT8147, "MODE: ";DD*<9,R) :P 
RINTQ160, "NOTES: " ; BD* < 10, R) : PRIN 
TQ277, "TMOUT: " ; DD* < 1 1 , R) : PRINTQ2 
89, "ANY CORRECTIONS? Y/N";:GOSUB 
120 

590 IFA*="N" THEN630 ELSEIFA*="Y 
" THEN600 ELSE IF A*<>"N" OR A*< 



« * 



AT LAST 
Utilities For Extended Basic! 

#UK2 COLOR KRUNCHER — $9.95 

—Reduces Memory Requirements Of Any 

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— Type In A Program From A Magazine, As Is, 

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Shorter And Faster 
—Includes LN.XREF—Get A Sorted Listing Of 
All Referenced Line #'s — Can Be Used 
Separately — Optional Printer Output 

#UV4 VARIABLE CROSS REFERENCE — $6.95 

—Locates All Variables In Your Extended Basic /$^\ 

Program •^•y 
—Automatic Sort— Optional Printer Output 

#UF2 LLIST FORMATTER — $6.95 

—User-selectable Margins, Page Lengths, Top- 
of -forms and More 

— Optional Space Between Lines— Highlights 

Line Numbers 
—For Most Recent Tandy Printers (can be user 
modified) 

#UT2 TEXT COUNT — $5.95 

—Counts Lines, Sentences, Words, Total 

Characters Of Any ASCII-Saved Extended 
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ALL PROGRAMS WORK ON EXT. BASIC TAPE OR DISK!!! 



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Send Check Or Money Order To: ( Pa. Residents Add 6%) 

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MICROLOGIC 

Box 193, 1st Avenue 
East Brady, PA 16028 



>"Y" THENGOSUB120:GOTO590 
600 SOUNDY, l:PR I NT637, " <1> 

; :print@49, " <2> "; :print@58, " <3> 
"; :print@69, " <4> "; : print© 

83, " <5> "; IPRINTQ100, " <6> ";STRI 
NG*<22,32) IPRINTQ132, " <7> " ; : PR 
INTQ142, " <8> "; :PRINT@152, " <9> 

"; :print@166, " <10) "; strings <19, 

32) :PRINT@283, " <11) " 
610 PRINT@289,STRING*<18,32) :PRI 
NTQ289, " " ; : INPUT" INPUT ITEM NR: " 
; NR : SOUNDY , 1 : PR I NTQ289 , STR I NG* < 1 
8,32) :PRINT@289,DD*<NR,R) : PRINT© 
32 1 , " " : L I NE I NPUT " I NPUT CORRECT D 

ata: ";dc*: sound y, l 

620 DD*<NR,R)=DC* 

630 N=N+1 : SOUNDV, 1 : SOUNDY, 1 : PR IN 

T@418, c*; n: printqg, d*: printqh, b* 

; IGOSUB120 

640 IFA*="#" THEN 160 

700 IFA*OCHR*<13) THEN630 ELSES 

OUNDY, 1 : NEXTR 

710 CLS : PR I NT@65 , " END OF FILE.": 
SOUNDY , 3 : FORTM= 1 TOW : NEXTTM : GOTO 
160 

800 9 SAVE FILE**** 

810 CLS: PRINTQ103, "DISK DRIVE RE 

ADY?": PR I NT® 164, "PRESS < ENTER > T 

O SAVE FILE" ; : PRINT@G, D$: G0SUB12 

0 

820 IFA*="#" THEN 160 

830 IFA*OCHR*<13) THEN810 ELSE8 

40 

840 OPEN"0",#l, "LOG/DAT: 1" 
850 FORO=l TOX:FORZ=l TOll: PRINT 
#1,DD$ (Z,0) :NEXTZ: IFO=X THEN870 
860 NEXTO 

870 CLOSE* l: CLS: SOUNDY, 5: PR I NT@2 
30, "DISK SAVE COMPLETE. ":FORTM=l 

TOW: NEXTTM : GOTO 160 
900 ' LOAD FILE**** 

910 CLS : PR I NT@ 1 02 , "DISK DRIVE RE 
ADY?":PRINT@163, "PRESS < ENTER > T 
O LOAD FILE. "; : PRINTQG, D*: GOSUB1 
20 

920 IF A*="#" THEN 160 

930 IFA*OCHR*<13) THEN910 ELSE9 

40 

940 OPEN " I ",#1, "LOG/ DAT: 1" 

950 FORI=l TO60:FORZ=1 TOll: LINE 

INPUT#1,DD*<Z, I ) :NEXTZ: IFEOF<l)T 

HEN970 

960 NEXTI 

970 CLOSE* 1 : CLS : SOUNDY , 5 : PR I NT@2 
30, "DISK LOAD COMPLETE. ": FORTM=l 

TOW: NEXTTM: X=l: GOTO 160 
1000 ' ADD TO FILE**** 

1010 f=i:n=i:goto310 

1100 * PRINT OUT FILE**** 



DISCOVER J ARB 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



JARB SOFTWARE 



JUNGLE TREK 



Lost in a jungle with wild animals lurking; 
your only survival is to find a safe com- 
pound before you are lunch for lions; 
high resolution; multi-color. 
16K EXT $14.95 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
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LAZER STAR 

HELO BATTLE 



1) 2 players avoid destruction by blasts of 
mysterious lazerstar while battling each 
other for possession of Lazerstar 

16K EXT 

2) 1 player/2 joystick combat game to 
blow up 5 blockhouses while watching fuel, 
ammo, and avoiding anti-aircraft fire 
16K EXT Both for $14.95 



RAINBOW 

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JARB CODE 



Encode/decode important messages or 
other information in a virtually un- 
breakable format. 

16K Standard/Extended $15.95 



RAINBOW 

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BIORHYTHM 
/PSYCHIC APT. 



1) Prints biorhythm charts of nearly 
unlimited length; attractively formatted 
f or use on Line Printer VII. 1 6K 

2) Your psychic ability is determined 
through questions evaluating your psychic 
experiences 

16K Both for $15.95 



SCORE-EZ 

From 1 to 6 people can play this excellent 
adaptation of a popular board game. The 
computer keeps score for all players, and 
rolls dice. You can roll again just like the 
original game. Properly position the 
results of each turn for maximum score. 
The only thing you will need besides your 
computer is players. Color graphics and 
sound will entertain you for hours, and 
it's EZ to play. 

16K EXT $15.95 

U.S. funds only. 

No credit cards accepted. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



PRODUCTS FROM 
OUR FRIENDS 



SKY DEFENSE 



By Quasar Animations 
Fight off the attacking waves of enemy 
craft in fast realtime combat. Machine 
language. 

16K $18.95 



RAINBOW VAMPIRE 

CE«T,F,CAT,ON By Falsof( 

Locked in a 60 room mansion; your only 
escape is to find and destroy dreaded 
Nosferantu before sundown; time play 
averages 6-plus hours. 
32K EXT $14.95 

MYSTERY MAZE 

RAINBOW ^ 

certification Enhanced Version 

SEAL 

By Faith Robinson Enterprises 
Excellent test of nerves and skill; escape 
this 3-D maze without touching the elec- 
trified walls; lose points if you stop to 
look at your map; random start locations 
prevent memorization; play time varies 
from minutes to hours. 
32K EXT $14.95 

NEW PRICES ON 
DATA CASSETTES 
C-05 C-10 

$ .65 QTY 1-10 $ .70 

$ .60 QTY 11-20 $ .65 

Soft Poly Cases Ea. $.20 

Hard Shelled Cases Ea. $.22 

Cassette Labels (12) Sh. $.36 




NANOS COLOR BASIC 
AND EXTENDED 



rainbow SYSTEM REFERENCE 

C6RTIF (CATION 
SEAL 



CARD 



"The New Industry Standard" 
$4.95 

(We pay postage on this one) 
All types of Nano cards available 



JARB 



I 

N 

C 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

1636 D Avenue - Suite C 
National City CA 92050 
(714) 474-6213 

Dealer/ Author Inquiries Invited 



JARB HARDWARE 



* 4K/16K MEMORY CHIP SET 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips, 
16K Ram Button, and Upgrade Instruc- 
tions. No Soldering $16.95 



* 16K/32K 
MEMORY UPGRADE KIT 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips 
with Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, 
Bus Wire, and 32K Ram Button. Com- 
prehensive Instructions. Recommended 
for "D" or earlier, but may be used on 
"E". No soldering to computer. Easy to 
remove $25.95 



*64K RAM CHIPS 

200 NS 4164 Chip Set allows you to 
upgrade "E" board easily. Factory Prime 
Chips $69.95 



* VIDEO INTERFACE KIT 

Allows the composite video signal to be 
interfaced directly to a B/W or color 
monitor. All parts and instructions in- 
cluded for external sound output. Does 
not affect normal operations $19.95 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
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DUAL JOYSTICK UNIT 
(D.J.) 



Single unit assembly enhances playability 
of multi-joystick/player games; conve- 
nient press-to-fire buttons 
+ $4.00 shipping : $35.95 



EPSON PRINTERS 

MX80FT/Graftrax+ $524.95 

MX100FT/Graftrax+ $699.95 

Serial Interface w/4K Buffer 

Ideal for 80C use $109.95 

80CTO Epson Cable $19.95 

COMREX MONITORS 

(works great with video interface kit) 

12" Green Screen Composite .... $159.95 
13" Color Composite Monitor . . . $344.95 

Sorry, no C.O.D. on Printers and Monitors 

Call or write for quantity prices on all cassette pro- 
ducts. Special lengths available, eg., C-02, etc. 
installation o f these items will void the Radio 
Shack warranty. Radio Shack is a trademark o f the 
Tandy Corp. 

All programs warrantied 60 days from date of 
purchase to original purchaser. Unless otherwise 
specified, shipping and handling $2.00 per 
order. California Residents add 6^o sales tax. 
COD orders accepted 



Page 1 30 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



1110 cls:fortm=i to3:soundy,2:ne 
xttm: print@233, 11 is printer on?": 
fortm=l t09: soundv, 1 : nexttm: prin 
t@g , d* : pr i nt@h , b* ; : gosub 1 20 

1120 IFA*="#" THEN 160 

1130 IFA*OCHR*<13) THEN1110 ELS 

El 140 

1140 CLS: PRINTQ355, "DO YOU WANT 
A HEADING? <Y/N) " : PRINTQ397, " " ; : 
PR I NT@G , D* ; : I NPUTE* : I FE*= " # " THE 
NCLS: GOTO 160 

1150 IFLEFT*<E*, 1)="Y" THEN1160 
ELSE 11 90 

1160 CLS : PR I NTQ289 , " " : I NPUT " I NPU 
T START DATE" ;D1*: INPUT" INPUT EN 
D DATE";D2* 

1170 print#-2,chr*<31);chr*<16) ; 
"is";" w4cnz station log": print* 
-2,chr*<30) ; "3501 sea gull rd- v 
irginia beach, va. 23452 op 
erator: b.b.witham jr. ":print#-2 
, "note: -all times in 'utc.";tab 

<30) "START date:-";di*;tab<55) "E 
nd date:-";D2* 

1 1 80 PR I NT#-2 , 11 SI GNATURE : - " : PR 
INT#-2, STRINGS <80, 45) : PRINT#-2: P 
RINT#-2 

1190 FORP=l TO60IIFX>1 AND P=X T 
HENP=60: GOTO 160 

1 200 PR I NT#-2 : PR I NT#-2 , " DATE- " ; D 
D*<1,P) ;TAB<16) "TIME-";DD*<2,P) ; 
TAB<29) "FREQ-" ; DD* <3, P) ; TAB < 42) " 
CALL-" ; DD* <4, P) ; TAB <56) "NAME-" ; D 
D*<5,P) :PRINT#-2, "QTH-";DD*<6,P) 
;TAB<42) "RST-" ; DD* <7,P) ; TAB <54) " 
PWR-" ;DD* <8,P) ; TAB <64) "MODE-" ; DD 
*<9,P) 

1210 PRINT#-2, "NOTES-" ;DD*< 10, P> 
; " TMOUT-" ; DD* ( 1 1 , P) : PRINT#-2: IF 
P=ll OR P=22 OR P=33 OR P=44 THE 
N1220 ELSEIFXM THENNEXTP ELSE F 
ORTM=l T04:S0UNDY,3:S0UNDL, 1INEX 
TTM: GOTO 160 

1220 PRINT#-2,STRING*<8, 13) : IFX> 
1 THENNEXTP ELSE FORTM=l T04IS0U 
NDY, 3: SOUNDL, 1 : NEXTTM: GOTO 160 
1300 " EXIT ROUTINE**** 
1310 CLS: SOUNDV, 6: PRINT® 168, "ARE 

YOU SURE ???":print@g,d*: print® 

H, B$; : GOSUB120 

1320 IFA*="# "THEN 160 

1330 ifa*=chr*<13) thencls: print 
@171," e n d":fortm=i tow:next:e 
nd 





Education. 



Word Search Generates 
Learning as Well as Fun 




Program development 

by 

Timothy J. O'Donnell 



Spelling, as an exercise in rote learning, was never a lot of 
fun, if I correctly remember my childhood conclusion on the 
subject. I enjoyed reading, but vocabulary study seemed 
nearly as dry a process as spelling. Except, of course, when 
Miss Watkins taught us our words in the fifth grade. We 
boys would have gladly done anything for Miss Watkins — 
even study our spelling words! Unfortunately, she married a 
soldier from Ft. Knox and left school in the middle of the 
year. 

We lost-and-pining young souls eventually struggled 
through, but our spelling and vocabulary words once more 
became dark and gloomy items, cloaked in uncertainty and 
hovering vaguely out of reach. 

Of course, teaching methods have improved considerably 
through the years ( Miss Watkins excepted), and the learning 
process governed by today's school systems has, in general, 
become far less tedious. 

Part of the reason for this improvement in the lot of the 
young learner has been the introduction of the computer 
into the classroom, and theaccessability of creative software 
such as the Word Search program recently brought to our 
attention by Timothy J. O'Donnell. 

Mr. O'Donnell is a teacher at Buckeye Valley High 
School in Delaware, Ohio, and used the original version of 
this program in giving spelling and vocabulary instruction. 
To more closely fit his needs, and those of his students, he 
extensively rewrote the program, adapting it to the 80C. 

Word search puzzles, if you happen not to be familiar 
with them, present you with rows and columns of letters, 
within which are hidden words along any vertical, 
horizontal, or diagonal axis, and written either backward or 
forward. As you find them, you circle them with a pen or 
pencil and move on to search for the next. 

This revised version of the Word Search program will 
chart up to 39 characters wide, and columns of any 
reasonable length. You can enter as many words to search 
for as will fit in your chosen format. Also, you can print as 
many copies of your puzzle as you wish, making it ideal for 
the classroom. As you see, now, this program does require a 
line printer. A final, and extremely important aspect of the 
program is its provision for furnishing you an answer key to 
the puzzle. 

H opef ully, many of you will find it entertaining and usef ul 
as an educational family game, or a valuable offering to any 
school which might employ the 80C in their classrooms. 

Even programs such as Word Search can never replace 
Miss Watkins (or Mr. O'Donnell, either, for that matter), 
but they can stimulate learning by making it more fun. Of 
that I know Miss Watkins would approve. Obviously, Mr. 
O'Donnell does. 

The Listing: 

5 CLEAR: CLS: PR I NT 



QUALITY SOFTWARE IS THE NUMBER ONE 
PRIORITY AT K & K COMPUTORWARE 




LASER TANK — Pit yourself in a game of strategy 
and excitement against the computer. You must de- 
fend your flag from attacking tanks and destroy 
them before they destroy your flag or you!!! High 
resolution graphics and four levels of difficulty. Only 
$14 95 . 

TALEGUNNER — High resolution graphics, ex- 
tremely fast action 3-D effects. This one looks as if it 
stepped right out of the arcade!! Are you brave 
enough to defend your ship from attacking rebels? A 
must for your color computer software library. Only 
$14 95 . 

SHOOT TO SPELL AND FLASH MATH — An educa- 
tional package that helps kids learn to spell and 
educate them on elementary math. An absolute 
must for adults with school aged children. Joysticks 
required. Only $11 95 . 

HORSE RACE — Can you pick the next secretariat 
among our thoroughbreds? High speed, life like ac- 
tion for people of all ages. High resolution graphics. 
16K extended or 32K disk. Only $12 95 . 

GUMBALL RALLY — Race on the world's fastest ex- 
pressway and see how fast you can go without 
crashing into other cars or them into you! High 
speed digital speedometer, see how long you can 
break the law without crashing! Only $12 95 . 




VV. V: 



BLACKJACK — A casino game that putstwo players 
against the beedy eyed dealer of the house. This 
dealer deals the cards as good or even better than 
Intelli vision. If you have any gambling blood at all 
this game is a must! Same rules as any Las Vegas 
casino. High resolution graphics. Only $12 95 . 

AUTOBAHN — Pits you against the computer in an 
ultimate battle to capture all the fuel modules before 
the computer gets you!!! Only $14 9S . 



POLARIS — You are under the ocean in a sub- 
marine, attacking planes and enemy destroyers 
dropping depth charges attempting to destroy your 
sub. Can you destroy them before they destroy you? 
This is an extremely fast action machine language 
program with high resolution graphics. Only $14 95 . 

GUNFIGHT — Fast action, quick draw shootout bet- 
ween two players, great for kids and dads. This is an 
old fashioned western fight to the death. High 
resolution graphics. Only $14 95 . 

SUPER ZAP — Enemy spaceships are attacking 
from all sides and your mission should you choose 
to accept it, is to defend your starbase from the 
deadly Armada of Pyruss. This will be a dangerous 
mission since the Pyruss Armada has never been 
defeated by any humaniod. Action increases as the 
game progresses. Only $14 95 . 

SERIAL TO PARELLEL CONVERTER — Have a 
printer with a parellel port? Tired of waiting for a line 
list. With this little hardware device you can make 
your color computer run at any baud rate between 
300 and 9600. Let K & K help out your printer to go 
much faster!!! Only $69 95 . 

ALL GAME PROGRAMS — require 16K extended 
and joysticks, (prices are set for cassette, add $4 0Q 
for disk. 



★ * 



BUSINESS PROGRAMS** 



INVENTORY CONTROL - This program contains all 
the necessary features required for all types of in- 
ventories. Such as sorting of inventory by stock 
number. This program will list stock number, 
description, amount in stock, cost wholesale, pro- 
fits. Minimum 16K disk required. Only $39 95 . 

PROPERTY INVENTORY FOR YOUR BUSINESS — 

This program lists inventory by, department, date 
purchased, property number. Gives line list of inven- 
tory to your line printer, also this program has the 
ability to add and delete items. Minimum 16K disk 
required. Only $29 95 . 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE — This program inputs 
outgoing accounts (name, address, city, state), ex- 
penditure payed and balance owed. You can also Jist 
one account of all accounts to the printer. Minimum 
16K disk required. Only $29 95 . 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE — This program inputs in- 
coming accounts (name, address, city, state), 
capital received, credit limit, date of last payment 
and lists one or all accounts to the printer. You can 
also insert ordelete accounts. Minimum 16K disk re- 
quired. Only $2 9 95 . 

BOWLING SCORES FOR DOLLARS — Do your 
leagues bowling averages. This program will keep 
individual scores, team totals, individual averages, 
team standings, and prints all this information to 
your line printer. Minimum 16K disk required. Only 
$12 95 . 

M ^M^M * 

PROGRAMMERS!!! — K & K pays the highest 
royalties for your programs. If your program is good, 
send it to K & K and receive the best possible 
coverage! 



K & K's DISCOUNT POLICY 

Buy 3 or more programs, get 10% off your purchase order!! 
BLANK CASSETTES — C-10 for $8 00 a dozen, add $2 00 shipping & handling. 

DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOMED 

TRS-80 Color Computer Uses — This is only a small listing of what we have tooffer. New programsare added each week. Send $1.00for 
our complete catalog. 



Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. 



l! 



K & K Computorware 
37326 Gregory Drive • Sterling Heights, Michigan 48077 

Telephone: (313) 264-7345 




Page 132 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



10 PRINTTAB< 13) "PUZZLE" 
40 PRINT 

50 PRINT" WORD SEARCH PUZZLE GE 
NERATOR" 

160 PRINTQ448," PRESS ANY KEY 
TO CONTINUE" 

170 A*=INKEY*:IF A*="" THEN 170 
200 CLSIPRINT 
280 CLEAR 3000 

310 PW=80 : REM PRINTER COLUMN WI 
DTH 

330 PR I NT "WHAT IS TO BE THE WIDT 

H OF THE PUZZLE < " ; PW/2-1 ; "MAX I 

MUM ) " : I NPUTW : MD= W : PR I NT 

340 IF W*2<PW THEN 345 

343 PR I NT "THAT WILL NOT FIT IN"; 

PW; "COLUMNS "I GOTO 330 

345 IF W<1 THEN 330 

348 PRINT 

350 INPUT "WHAT IS TO BE THE LENG 
TH OF THEPUZZLE";L :IFL>W THEN 
MD=L 

355 IF L<1 THEN 350 
358 PRINT 

360 INPUT "WHAT IS THE MAXIMUM NU 

MBER OF WORDS IN THE PUZZLE <M 

UST BE AT LEAST 2 WORDS" ;M 

370 IF M<2 THEN 360 

380 PRINT: INPUT "HOW MANY COPIES 



PLANETARIUM 



A FIVE PROGRAM CELESTIAL PACKAGE 
You command a Computerized Planetarium 

FEATURES 

* 33 Constellations * Moon Phases* 

* 21 First Magnitude Stars * 
* Day or Night Skys * 

* Nine Planets * Celestial Equator * 

* Any Northern Latitude * 

* Charts Planet Locations 
A.D. 0 to A.D. 10,000 * 




Astronomy Package for the Color Computer 
16-K Extended Basic $16.95 postage paid 

Moreton Bay 



MORETON BAY 




Software 

Color Computer TRS 80 Tandy Corp. 



SOFTWARE 

A DIVISION O F MORETON BAY LABORATORY 

316 South Castillio Street 
Santa Barbara, CA 93101 



OF THE PUZZLE DO YOU WANT < 1 

IS THE MINIMUM ) ";NP 

381 IF NP<1 THEN 380 

390 DIM A*<L,W> ,W*<M> 

400 DIM W<M,3> ,DXY<8,2> ,DD<28> 

405 CLSIPRINT 

410 PR I NT "ENTER A HEADING THAT W 
ILL BE PRINTED OVER THE PUZZL 
E ( " ; PW; " CHARACTERS MAX I 

MUM) " I INPUTH*: PRINT 
430 CLSIPRINT 

440 PR I NT "ENTER A WORD AT EACH Q 

UESTION MARK" : PRINT 

450 PR I NT "TO REDO THE PREVIOUS 

TYPE A HYPHEN <-) " :PR 

INT 

460 PR I NT "WHEN YOU RUN OUT OF WO 
RDS TYPE A PERIOD <.) 

" : PRINT 

470 FOR 1=1 TO M 

474 PRINT 

475 IF I=M THEN PRINT"*ONLY ONE 
MORE WORD CAN BE USED*" 

479 PRINT 

480 INPUT T* : IF T*="-" THEN 1= 

i-l : PR I NT "REDO "; w*<l >;"... ":G 

OTO480 

490 IF T*="." THEN 655 

500 IF LEN<T*>=0 THEN PRINT"INPU 

T ERROR; REDO "; W* ( I >;"..." : GOT 

O 480 

510 J=l 

520 TE*=MID*<T*, J, 1) : IFTE*>="A" 

AND TE*<="Z" THEN 570 

525 IF TE*<"A" OR TE*<"Z" THEN 5 

30 

527 NID*<T* P J, 1>=CHR*<ASC<MID*<T 

$,J, D+32) :GOTO 570 

530 IF TE*=T* THEN T*=""I GOTO 5 

80 

540 IF J=LEN<T*) THEN T*=LEFT*<T 
«,J-1>: GOTO 570 

550 IF J=l THEN T*=RIGHT* <T*, LEN 
<T*>-1>: J=J-1 : GOTO 570 
560 T*=LEFT*<T*, J-l ) +RIGHT* <T*,L 
EN<T*)-J>: J=J-1 

570 J=J + 1 : IF J<=LEN<T*> THEN 5 
20 

580 PRINTI; "-";T*; "-" 

600 IF LEN <T$) <=MD THEN 610 

605 PR I NT "TOO LONG, TRY A SHORTE 

R WORD":GOTO480 

610 FOR IZ=1T0 1=1 : IF W*<IZ><> 
T* THEN NEXT : GOTO 630 
620 PR I NT "YOU ENTERED THAT ONE A 
LREADY TRY ANOTHER WORD": GOTO 
480 

630 W*<I>=T* 
640 NEXT I 
655 CLSIPRINT 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 133 



660 PR I NT 11 TH I NK I NG " 

680 FOR 1 = 1 TO M-l 

685 FOR J = I + 1 TO M 

690 IF LEN<W*<I>> < LEN<W*<J>> T 

HEN HZ*=W*<I>: W*(I)=W*(J) :W*(J 

)=HZS 

700 NEXT J : NEXT I 

710 FOR I=1T08IREAD DXY<I,1),DXY 

<I,2) INEXTI 

720 FOR I=1T028 : READ DD<I) : NE 
XT I 

730 DATA 0,1,1,1,1,0,1,-1,0,-1,- 
1,-1,-1,0,-1,1 

740 DATA 2,4,6,8,2,4,6,8,2,4,6,8 
,2,4,6,8,2,4,6,8,2,4,6,8,1,3,5,7 
750 FOR I = 1 TO M 
760 LN=LEN<W*<I> > 
770 NT=0 

790 SD=DD<RND<28) ) 

800 SX=RND<W) : X1=SX+<LN-1)*DXY<S 
D, 1 ) : IF XK1 OR XI >W THEN 790 
810 SY=RND ( L) : X 1 =SY+ < LN- 1 ) *DX Y < S 
D,2)IIF XK1 OR X1>L THEN 790 
820 NT=NT+1IIF NTOW*L*2 THEN 85 
0 

830 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT "COULDN'T FIT 
W*<I) : PRINT" IN THE PUZZLE": PR 

INT 

831 PR I NT "TO CONTINUE MEANS " ; W* 
<I> : PRINT" WILL BE LEFT OUT" 

832 PR I NT: PR I NT "DO YOU WANT TO C 
ONTINUE <Y/N) " 



833 A*= I NKEY* : I FA*= " " THEN833 

834 IFA*<>"Y"ANDA*<>"N"THEN 832 

835 IF A*="N" THEN 5 ELSE PRINT: 
PR I NT " CONT I NU I NG " 

836 W*<I)=" " : GOTO 950 

850 j=sy:k=sx 

860 FOR P=l TO LN 

870 IF LEN<A*<J,K>> AND A*<J,K) 

<> MID«(U«(I),P, 1) THEN 790 

880 J=J+DXY<SD,2) :K=K+DXY<SD, 1) : 

NEXTP 

900 J=SY : K=SX 

910 FOR P=l TO LN : A*<J,K)=MID* 
(W«(I) ,P, 1) 

920 J =J+DXY<SD,2) : K=K+DXY<SD, 
1) : NEXT P 

940 W<I,1)=SX: W<I,2)=SY: W<I,3) 
=SD 

950 NEXT I 

970 FOR I=1T0L 

975 FOR J=1T0W 

980 NZ=RND<90) 

982 IF NZ<65 THEN GOTO 980 

985 IF A*<I,J)="" THEN A*<I,J)=C 

HR*<NZ) 

990 NEXTJ : NEXTI 

1010 FOR 1=1 TO M-l : FOR J=I+1 

TO M 

1020 IF W*<IKW*<J) THEN 1030 

1021 HZ*=W*<I) : W*<I)=W*<J) : W 
*<J)=HZ* 

1025 FOR K=l TO 3: HZ=W<I,K) : W 




TEXT EDITOR 

By John Waclo 



WORD PROCESSOR FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



The bottom-line in Word Processors is printed 
output flexibility and TEXT EDITOR has it. TEXT 
EDITOR has Variable Text, Multi-Copy, and 
right-side Justification! Features that are hard 
to find in other widely advertised Word 
Processors. With Variable Text, you can 
repetitively generate the same text with 
predetermined changes in each output. Merge 
form letters with mailing lists using Variable 
Text. TEXT EDITOR'S Multi-Copy command 
automatically does your letters and file copies. 50 
copies of your address on mailing labels is a snap 
with Multi-Copy. Give your text that 
"professional" look with even right-side margins, 
it's easy, just select Justification on the Output 
Menu. 



1BK - Special screen display, Save text, Add to 
text, Find locations of any word. Edit, Insert, 
Delete, Replace any line of text. Plus Auto Line- 
Centering! Output to any printer with full control 
over Left Margin, Right Margin, Line Spacing, 
Paging, Length of Form, Number of Copies, and 
right-side Justification. Re-format entered text; 
Menu driven. Draft of text; full or partial. FREE 
upgrade to 32K software.. .and more. 

32K- ALL of the above PLUS... Moretext storage, 
Auto-Key Repeat, Global word or phrase 
exchange, and Automatic Letter Headings. Move, 
Duplicate or Delete blocks of text. User 
changeable Printer Format menu and text 
imbeded printer control codes. Plus, Exclusive 
Variable Text feature.. .and more. 



ELITE Software 



$49.95 Tape $59.95 Disk t Includes Manual t Extended Basic required 

Box 11224 Pittsburgh, PA 1 5238 (4 1 2) 795-8492 



- 



Page 1 34 



the RAINBOW 



<I,K)=W<J,K) : W<J,K)=HZ : NEXT 
K 

1030 NEXT J : NEXT I 
1040 GOSUB 2000 
1050 CLS: PR I NT 

1060 PR I NT "DO YOU WANT AN ANSWER 

KEY <Y/N) M 
1070 X*=INKEY*: IFX*=""THEN1070 
1073 IF X*<>"Y"ANDX*<>"N"THEN 10 
50 

1076 if x*="n"then clsiprint: pri 

nt m finished m :end 

1080 h*=" answer key" 

1090 NP=1 

1100 CLS : PR I NT : PR I NT 11 TH I NK I NG 11 
1110 FORI =1T0L:F0RJ=1 TOW: A*<I, J) 

= M . m :nextj:nexti 

1120 FORI=lTOM 

1130 LN=LEN<W*<I> > : J=W<I,2) :K=W< 

1,1) 

1132 FOR P=1T0LN 

1134 A*<J,K)=MID*<W*<I) ,P, 1) 

1140 J=J+DXY<W<I,3) ,2) : K=K+DXY< 
W<I,3) , 1) :NEXTP 

1150 NEXT I 

1160 GOSUB 2000 

1165 PRINT#-2, " " 

1 170 CLS : PRINT: PRINT M FINISHED M : E 
ND 

2000 FOR H=1T0NP 

2010 T=<PW-2*W)/2 

2020 FOR 1 = 1 T03 : PR I NT#-2 , " 11 : NEXT 



THE MOST COMPLETE LIST OF 
EDUCATIONAL TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER" 
PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES 



Only 



$ggo 



per cassette 



Biology 

Weather Forecaster 
Physics 



A partial list — 

• Add t 

• Algebra < 

• Alphabet < 

• Planetary Positions 

• Flash cards for German, French, 

Spanish, States and Capitals 

• Featuring — Computerized Encyclopedia 

48 cassettes ( $ 200 with case) 

Many more! From Kindergarten through graduate 
courses. All cassettes *5® each. Write for free list . 

MOSES ENGINEERING COMPANY 

P. O. Box 11038 • Ardmore Hwy. Station 
Huntsville, Alabama 35805 
(205) 837-3356 




December, 1 982 



MERWl 

• ••••••••• •••%•••• 

onomm 




ii ■ 

9 



2030 PRINT#-2, TAB ( (PW-LEN <H*> > /2 
> ;H* 

2040 PRINT#-2, " " 

2050 FOR J=l TO L 

2060 PR I NT#-2 , TAB < T ) ; 

2070 FOR K= 1 TO W 

2080 IF A*<J,K)=". " THEN PRINT* 

-2,"- "; 

2090 IF A*<J,K) = ". " THEN 2110 
2100 PRINT#-2, A*<J,K) ; " 
2110 NEXT K 
2120 PRINT#-2," 
2130 NEXT J 
2140 PRINT#-2, " 
2150 PRINT#-2, "FIND THESE HIDDEN 

WORDS IN THE ABOVE PUZZLE: " 
2160 PRINT#-2, " " 

2170 FOR J=l TO M: IF LEN(W*<J>> 
=0 THEN 2200 

2180 IF P0S<-2)+LEN<W*<J> ) > PW- 
2 THEN PRINT#-2, " " 
2190 PRINT#-2,W*<J) , 
2200 NEXT J : PRINT#-2," 
2205 NEXT H 
2210 RETURN 



ii 



ii 



ii 



Computer music from ILUME 

Beethoven's Fifth Symphony $9.95 
William Tell Overture $9.95 

You really won't believe the incredible music coming from your Color Computer! It is w ithout a doubt 
the best example of computer music I've ever heard. " (Color Computer News magazine) Now you can 
enjoy these high quality machine language programs at an affordable price. Specify Beethoven or 
William Tell when ordering. 16K & 32K versions on the same tape. 

Christmas Special: Take 15% off all 

products listed below! 

STARS $14.95 

Educational and entertaining, STARS will create a domeof the night sky on yourTV. 
Constellations, stars, and other naked eye objects are drawn using Extended 
Resolution graphics. Special horizon views show the planets after sunset. Detailed 
documentation. 

DATAFILE $19.95 

A unique, multi-purpose data storage system. DATAFILE is a sophisticated, non- 
formatted database with user define categories. It performs string searches, de- 
letes, sorts (with ML Subroutines) and prints in various formats. DATAFILE also 
works with files larger than available RAM! Ideal for name & address lists, catalogu- 
ing, etc. A surprise FREE file is included with each order. Complete documentation. 

BLACKBOX $69.95 each $125.00 for two 

Now you can send your programs, machine language or basic, over the phone. And 
you don't need a modem!! Switch on BLACKBOX and when you load or save a 
program, you automatically have a copy at a friend's house. Two BL ACKBOX's are 
needed, one for each end of the connection. 

SPIDER ATTACK $14 95 

Shoot-em up action! Now you can stop nasty invading spiders with your joystick 
controlled laser gun. Written in Extended Basic with machine language subroutines 
for fast action. Watch out you don't get eaten! 

MILL BORN $1495 

Like to play cards? From France, we bring you this popular card game for C0C0. The 
object of the game is to drive 700 miles, while avoiding accidents, tire blow-outs, 
detours, etc. Lots of fun! 

COLORSHOW $1495 

Music, Color and your C0C0! Just load in COLORSHOW, connect the 80C to your 
stereo (or simply put a musical tape in your recorder) and watch the fun. Having a 
party? Turn off the room lights, turn up the music and put on COLORSHOW. Works 
great with Rock 'n Roll! 

DISKPRO $29.95 
No more crashed disks! This program can be your lifesaver. DISKPRO creates 
back-ups of your disk directory and allocation tables. A valuable tool to protect your 
software. Comes on disk with documentation. 



Add $1.00 postage for all software, $2.00 postage for BLACKBOX. Programs avail 
able on disk for $5.00 extra. 




Dept. R, 4653 Jeanne Mance St., 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2V 4J5 



RAINBOW 

CCimRCATIOM 
SEAL 



Page 136 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Word Processing. 



This Graphic Printer Will 
Give You A New Typeface 




By Ross Chamberlain 

The typeface that comes with the Line Printer VII and 
VIII is nice, but it doesn't do everything. For one thing, the 
VII does not have descenders in lower case and both faces 
lack something in their looks. 

I wondered whether these two printers could be 
"converted" to use their dot-addressable graphics to do 
word processing. After a few starts, I came up with the 
program listed below, which I think handles things pretty 
well. 

What we have here is simply a program which allows me 
to write letters in any typeface I want. Of course, each face 
must be programmed in — but I like this one very much. It is, 
admittedly, somewhat slow in the processing, but I do 
believe the results to be very satisfying. 

You will see, also, that you will get a form of 
"justification" to even right hand margins when running this 
program. There is no need to be concerned about where to 
break off a line — just keep typing. When a space or hyphen 
is encountered, the printer will automatically end the line. 
Use the ENTER key for ends of paragraphs (or blank lines). 
This is not perfect, however, and some of the lines tend to 
stick out something like the proverbial lonesome pine. Still, 
I think it is better to have CoCo decide the line length than 
try to figure it out yourself on a 32-characterscreengoingto 
an 80-character printer. 

I hope you will enjoy this program and that it may lead 
you to designing typefaces of your own choosing. I have 
already designed another one — sort of like changing print 





COLOR-STICK 

'HERE AT LAST' 

Finally an interface for the 
TRS-80* Color Computer 
to let you use the famous: 

ATARI* JOYSTICK' 

Just plug your Atari or Atari like (the Color-Stick 
enables the use of most joysticks made for the 
Atari) joystick into the Color-Stick interface and 
then plug the Color-Stick into an empty joystick 
port. 

The Color-Stick can improve scores 50% and 
more while making some games more exciting 
and fun to play. 

Color-Stick interface $19.95 each OR 

Two for $34.95. (less joysticks) 

Atari Joysticks $9.95 each. 

getter 

■Software Company 



P.O. Box 2770 
Greenville, South Carolina 29602 
(803) 295-3648 



Add $2.00 per order shipping and handling. Bank cards welcomed (please 
include expiration date). Orders paid by cashiers check, money orders, bank 
cards and C.O.D. are shipped within48 hours. Personalchecksplease allow 1 -2 
weeks. C.O.D. orders add $1.50 extra. S.C. residents add 4% sales tax. 
*TRS-80 isa registered trademarkofTandy Corp. Atari isa registered trademark 
of Atari, Inc. 



L O A 



wheels in a Daisy Wheel printer. 
The listing: 

1 ' /\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\ 

2 " TYPEFACE II < 

3 ' BY > 

4 ' C. ROSS CHAMBERLAIN < 

5 ' \/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/ 

6 ' 

7 PCLEAR l: CLEAR 2000 

8 DIM A*<91) , A<91) 

9 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" 
DIN G":PRINT:PRINT" 

TYPEFACE III" 

10 A<1)=3:' C SPACEBAR D 

11 DATA 128,128,128 

20 A<2)=2: ' i 

21 DATA 207, 128 

30 A<3)=4: ' " 

31 DATA 135,128,135,128 

40 A<4)=6: ' # 

41 DATA 148,255,148,255,148,128 

50 A<5)=8: ' * 

51 DATA 132,170,255,170,255,170, 
144, 128 

60 A<6)=8: ' •/. 

61 DATA 199,165,147,137,229,211, 
241, 128 

70 A<7)=8: ' & 

71 DATA 176,202,197,205,178,160, 
208, 128 

80 A<8)=3: ' * 

81 DATA 133,131,128 

90 A<9)=4: ' < 

91 DATA 156,162,193,128 

100 A<10)=4: 9 ) 

101 DATA 193, 162 

* 



110 A<ll)=6: 

111 DATA 132 

120 A<12)=6: 

121 DATA 136 

130 A<13)=3: 

131 DATA 208 

140 A<14)=5: 

141 DATA 136 

150 A(15)=3: 

151 DATA 224 

160 A(16)=6: 

161 DATA 224 

170 A<17)=6: 

171 DATA 190 

180 A(18)=6: 

181 DATA 196 

190 A<19)=6: 

191 DATA 226 

200 A (20) =6: 

201 DATA 161 

210 A<21)=6: 

211 DATA 152 
220 A<22)=6: 



149 



136 
176 



136 
■ 

224 

/ 
144 

0 
193 

1 

194 

2 
209 

3 
193 

4 
148 

5 



221 DATA 175,197 



156, 128 
142, 149, 132, 128 
190, 136, 136, 128 
128 

136, 136, 136 
128 

136, 132, 131, 128 
193, 193, 190, 128 
255, 192, 192, 128 
201,201, 198, 128 
201,205, 178, 128 
146,249, 144, 128 
197, 197, 185, 128 







® 



ARCADE GAMES 



★ Dealer inquiries welcome 
★All games require 16 K 

★Quality colour computer 

software 



COLOR PAC ATTACK "By Computerware" (PAC MAN!!) 
An incredibly challenging version of the popular arcade game. 
Can you eat all the food pellets in the maze and avoid being 
eaten yourself! $30.95 
GHOST GOBBLER "By Spectral Associates" Ghosts chase 
your Pac-Person around a twisting maze, trying to eat you. But 
you can turn the tables when you eat an energizer tablet. This 
version includes the TIME TUNNEL like the original arcade 
game. Has 16 levels of difficulty and records the highest 
scores. $26.95 
ALCATRAZ II "By Spectral Associates" Evade the robot 
guards, outwit the dreaded minotaur and avoid deadly laser 
beams in an attempt to escape this well guarded prison! 
(Extended BASIC) $ 11 - 95 
GALAX ATTAX "By Spectral Associates" If you like Space 
Invaders, you'll love Galax Attax! Alien fighters leave 
formation to attack your ground base and you must fight them 
off!! $26.95 
STARSHIP CHAMELEON "By Computerware" Change the 
colour of your starship to mat.cn the colour of the anti-matter 
missiles and then deflect them. Miss one and lose 
points! Watch out for the semi-intelligent smart bombs which 
can destroy you! $30.95 
SPACE WAR "By Spectral Associates" You command a 
combat spacefighter. Your mission: Destroy the dreaded 
Death Star! Watch out for the powerful black hole which can 
even affect your laser bolts' To add to your troubles, you must 
dodge deadly meteors, exploding space mines and a defending 
Tie Fighter!! $25.95 




CAVE HUNTER "By Mark Data Products" Send your hunter 
into a twisting cave infested with savage FLAB DABBLES and 
try to get the gold bars. $28.95 

BERSERK "By Mark Data Products" Your mission is to 
invade a space station guarded by killer robots. Get as many as 
you can with your laser before they get you!! $30.95 

CHOPPER RESCUE "By Prism Software" This game puts 
you at the controls of a rescue helicopter. Your mission: rescue 
as many victims as possible from a burning city before it is 
reduced to ashes. (Extended BASIC) $13.95 

METEOROIDS "By Spectral Associates" You're flying your 
starcruiser through an uncharted sector of space when deadly 
asteroids appear on your scanner. You must act fast to survive 
or it's a grave in space! $26.95 

LAS VEGAS "By Prism Software" This game adds a new twist 
to the old game of Blackjack. Can you beat the computer and 
break the bank. A variety of colours and realistic sound effects 
makes this the best high resolution game of its kind. 
(Extended BASIC) $11.95 

ASTRO-BLAST "By Mark Data Products" Battle to the death 
against fierce enemy aliens. Each attack wave is different. 

Avoid comets that streak past your fighter or be prepared to 
die! Great reviews! $30.95 

COLOR ZAP "By Spectral Associates" Defend yourself as 
enemy starships attack from all sides! Fast machine language 
action. $11.95 



ADVENTURE 



RAIDERS "By Prism Software" In this adventure you must 
deal with voodoo curses, alligators, ancient traps and hostile 
natives. This adventure begins in the confusion of a large city 
and ends (maybe too soon if you're not careful) in a dangerous, 
dense jungle in South America. 

(Extended BASIC) $16,95 

BLACK SANCTUM "By Mark Data Products" Can you 
discover the secret of the old monastery and its sinister 
inhabitants? To win at this game you must dabble in black 
magic and watch out for evil spells. $28.95 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD "By Spectral Associates" An 
incredibly challenging adventure. Explore a fantasyland in 
search of over 30 different treasures. Beware of magical 
creatures and the evil wizard himself! $23.95 

THE ALIEN ' 1 By Prism Software' ' You pre tne sole survivor on 
a huge starship, but you are not aloire. A savage ALIEN is 
stalking you. Can you find a way to destroy it and escape the 
derelict starship? With numerous sounds. 
(Extended BASIC) $13 - 95 



CALIXTO ISLAND "By Mark Data Products" In this 
adventure you must travel to a tropical island and find a 
valuable treasure while outwitting natives and devious traps. 

$28.95 

Prism Software 

779 Queen St., 
Box 1 360, Kincardine, 
Ontario, Canada. NOG 2GO 
Tel:(51 9)396-8224 

Add 5% for shipping 
No C.O.D. 

VISA or Mastercard accepted 
Ontario residents add 7% sales tax. 




_ 



Page 138 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



6 
201 

7 
241 

8 
201 

9 
201 



230 A(23)=6:' 

231 DATA 190 

240 A (24) =6: 

241 DATA 131 

250 A<25)=6: 

251 DATA 182 

260 A (26) =6: 

261 DATA 166 

270 A<27)=3: 

271 DATA 179 

280 A<28)=3: 

281 DATA 211 

290 A<29)=5: 

291 DATA 136 

300 A<30)=6: 

301 DATA 148 

310 A<31)=5: 

311 DATA 193 

320 A<32)=6: 

321 DATA 130 

330 A<33)=8: 
ersion, this 
pyright symbol.) 

331 DATA 156, 162 
, 156, 128 

340 A<34)=9: * A 

341 DATA 192,252 
,255, 192, 128 

350 A<35)=8: ' B 

351 DATA 193,255 
, 182, 128 

360 A (36) =8:' C 

361 DATA 156,162 



,201,201, 178, 128 
, 137, 133, 131, 128 
,201,201, 182, 128 
,201,201, 190, 128 

■ 
■ 

179, 128 



9 

179 

< 
148 

148 

> 
162 

129 

@ 
is 



, 162, 193, 128 
, 148, 148, 148, 
, 148, 136, 128 



,217, 137, 134, 128 
(NOTE — In this v 

as a co 



,221,213,213, 162 



,210, 145, 145,209 



,201,201,201,201 



, 193, 193, 197, 162 



Y-PAK Dual Slot Expander 
for Radio Shack's Color Computer 

Have your Disk and Cartridge too! 
Select between 2 Cartridge slots with one 

switch and control the Auto Start with 
the other switch 

$70.°-°Complete 

USER-PAK for Color Computer 

Your own RAM/EPROM Cartridge 

Cartridge holds two 2732s, or any combination 

of four 2716s/6116s. 
$30. OP less RAM/EPROM 
$90. with 8K RAM 

EPROMs burned from your CC cassette. 
Write for detai Is. 

B. Ericlcson 

P.O. Box 11099 Dept. RR 
Chicago, IL. 60611 



1 A ^ 1 9Q 

, 145, lZD 














3/0 R (3/ / 


—8 ■ 


T"V 
JJ 










3/1 DR 1 R 


1 V3 , 


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255, 


4 OT 

1 V3 , 


4 OT 
1 V3 , 


4 OT 

1 V3, 


4 z_o 
162 
















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— 0 ■ 


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4 07 
1 V3, 


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255, 


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20 1 , 


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00 4 
221 , 


4 OT 

1 V3 


00~7 1 nn 
, 22 / 9 128 














"TOfTI /\ / TO \ 


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r 










TO 4 T\/\.T/\. 
3*7 1 DRTR 


4 Q-y 

193, 


OEE 

255, 


OS3C 4 
201 , 


4 7~7 

137, 


4 E~7 

157, 


4 00 

12V 


4 7 4 4 OO 

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400 R \ 40 / 


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=8; 


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it fx 4 f\ATA 

401 DRTR 


4 E 

156, 


4 i- 0 
162, 


4 O^ 

1 93, 


4 O^ 

193, 


205, 


4 0 
186 


O /5t 4 4 OO 

, 201 9 128 














410 ft (41 / 


— 0 ■ 9 
=91 


1 1 
n 










411 DATA 


193, 


255, 


201, 


136, 


136, 


201 


,255, 193, 


128 












420 R I 42 / 


_ A m 9 

—4 . 


T 
1 










421 DR 1 R 


1 V3 , 


OEE 

255, 


4 OT 

1 V3, 


4 OO 

1 28 






430 R ( 43 / 


— / ■ 


J 










43 1 DRTR 


160, 


4 OO 

192, 


4 OT 

1 V3, 


4 07 
1 V3, 


4 O 4 

191, 


4 00 

12V 


, 128 

440 A (44) 


=9: * 


K 










441 DATA 


193, 


255, 


201, 


132, 


139, 


209 


,225, 192, 


128 












450 A (45) 


=8: ' 


L 










451 DATA 


193, 


255, 


193, 


192, 


192, 


192 


,224, 128 














460 R ( 46 / 


— 4 O ■ 

— 12. 


n 










46 1 DRTR 


4 OT 

1 93 9 


OEE 

255, 


4 OT 

1 V3 ; 


1 130, 


4 T O 

132, 


4 EO 

152 


, 132, 130, 


4 OT 

193, 


OEE 

255, 


4 OT 

1 V3 j 


4 OO 

, 128 






4/0 R(47/ 


— 4 fA ■ 

= 10i 


N 










Jf - 7 4 r\ATA 

471 DRTR 


4 O^ 

193, 


OEE 

255, 


4 OT 

193 j 


4 T/31 

1 130, 


4 TO 

132, 


136 


4 «E OEE 

, 145, 255, 


4 00 
129, 


4 00 
128 










480 R ( 48 / 


=8; 


U 










481 DRTR 


4 E /_ 

156, 


4 z_o 

162, 


4 OT 

193 j 


4 07 
1 193, 


4 07 
193, 


4 t~ 0 
162 


4 C Z_ 4 OO 

, 156, 128 














490 A (49) 


=8: 5 


P 










491 DATA 


193, 


255, 


209 j 


4 A 

1 145, 


145, 


145 


, 142, 128 














500 A (50) 


=8: 


Q 










501 DATA 


156, 


162, 


193, 


1 209, 


209, 


4 M 

162 


OOfll 1 OO 

, 220, 1 28 














510 R (51 / 


_ 0 ■ 9 


0 










E 4 4 f\ATA 

511 DRTR 


4 0^ 
193, 


OEE 

255, 


O/X 4 

201 , 


4 -jr ^ 

1 137, 


4 /I E 

145, 


169 


4 OO 4 OO 

, 198, 192, 


4 00 
128 












EOfTI /\ / EO \ 

520 R ( 52 / 


—8. 


c 
8 










EO 4 T\/\.T/\. 

52 1 DRTR 


4 00 
1 V8, 


4 Z.O 

16V, 


OdOl 4 
201 ; 


0/3C 4 

1 201 , 


O*0l 4 
201 , 


202 


1 -7-7 4 00 
, 1 / / , 128 














E~?/7f /\, / e~? \ 
D30 R % D3 / 


—8 ■ 


1 










53 1 UH 1 R 


131, 


4 O O 

12V, 


4 OT 

1 V3 j 


1 255, 


4 OT 

1 V3 , 


4 00 

1 2 V 


1 74 4 OQ 

, 131, 1 28 














E A fg\ /V / E /| % 

D40 R (54/ 


— 4 a ■ 

— 10i 


U 










1 T\ATA 

54 1 L/R 1 R 


4 00 
12V, 


4 ^0 
1 15V, 


4 /_ 4 

lol; 


4 00 
1 192, 


4 OO 

1V2, 


4 00 
1 V2 


4/4 4 EQ 

, lo 1 , 15V, 


4 00 

1 2 V 5 


4 00 

1 128 










EE 0| /V / EE \ 

550 R ( 55 1 


— 4 a ■ 

— 10i 


V 










551 DATA 


129, 


, 143, 


145, 


. 160, 


192, 


160 


, 145, 143, 


129, 


, 128 










560 A (56) 


= 12: 


: ' W 










561 DATA 


129, 


, 159, 


161. 


, 192, 


160, 


156 


> 160, 192, 


161, 


, 159, 


129. 


, 128 







.4 1 



IBM 

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N T U R E TR I L O G Y A Trl logy of q u ests featuring 3- 0 Mgft-res 

THE CfMEEON MOON, to tost your worthiness as a warrior. Once proven, you will be teteported to Oj 

. The FORSAKEN GULCH is the final arena. 



t4 



■■■■ 



THE NIBBLER 

code and toy 
rent 



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MS. NIBBLER A fast maze chase game featuring the nibbler man and three bumbling preditors. Written in machine 
bt&, this fun packed game is enjoyed by all, MS. NIBBLER is similar to THE NIBBLER described a 



ms 



1 (Hi t'iiti 



COMBAT 

players 



Ml'-; 



By 



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11-^1' JJJL-l'J 



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Page 1 40 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



570 A<57)=9: 

571 DATA 193 
,227, 193, 128 

580 A(58)=10 

581 DATA 129 
, 133, 131, 129 

590 A<59)=8: 

591 DATA 195 
,225, 128 

600 A (60) =4: 

601 DATA 255 

610 A(61)=6: 

611 DATA 131 

620 A<62)=4: 

621 DATA 193 

630 A (63) =6: 

631 DATA 136 

640 A (64) =6: 

641 DATA 192 
650 A (65) =3: 



227,213, 136, 136,213 
' Y 

131, 133,200,240,200 
128 
Z 

225,209,201, 197, 195 



193, 193, 128 
\ 

132, 136, 144, 224, 128 
1 

193,255, 128 
132,255, 132, 136, 128 



192, 192, 192, 192, 192 
CAccent Grave or O 
pen Single Quote — uses Down Arro 
wll 

651 DATA 131, 133, 128 

660 A (66) =7: ' a 

661 DATA 154,170,170,170,188,160 
, 128 

670 A (67) =7:' b 

671 DATA 161,191,168,164,164,152 
, 128 



INTRODUCING: 
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 

AN IMPORTANT NEW STRATEGY GAME 
FROM SOFTWRIDE 



BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG 



SELECT OPPONENT 

(1) GENERAL T. J. JACKSON 

(2) GENERAL R. E. LEE 
(3) GENERAL G. E. PICKET 

BY JAMES WOODRUFF 
COPYRIGHT© 1982 






F1 


rw 




©I 


REQUIRES TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER 16K WITH 
EXTENDED BASIC AND JOYSTICK * tm of tandycorp 






ei w i- 


E— tn 





$19.95 (Quantity discounts available) 
Dealer inquiry invited. 

($2.00 for documentation only) 
Include $1.00 for postage & handling 

POST OFFICE BOX 3504 • AUSTIN, TEXAS 78764 

(512) 444-6135 



680 


A (68) 


=7: 5 


c 










681 


DATA 

) 


156, 


. 162, 


. 162, 


. 170, 


164, 


146 


,12E 
690 


A<69) 


=7: 5 


d 










691 

m* # m> 


DATA 


152. 

M> M^ MM 1 


164. 


164. 

1 * w ■ | 


168. 

* WW ■ 


191 , 

X i X , 


161 

M) M^ M> 


12E 
700 


| 

r 

A (70) 


=7: 5 












701 


DATA 

1 


156, 


, 162, 


, 178, 


, 170, 


164, 


144 


,12E 
710 

/ X TJ 


A (71 ) 

n \ r x / 




1 










71 1 

t X X 


DATA 


164. 

X u~ ■ 


190. 


165. 

X • 


129- 


130- 


128 


720 


A (72) 


=7: 5 


g 










721 


DATA 

1 


236, 


. 210, 

mm m» Mr ■ 


. 210, 

Mm m» Mr ■ 


210, 

Mm Mi Mr ■ 


204, 

Mm Mr ■ ■ 


130 

m> Mr 


,12E 
730 


A(73) 


=8: ' 


h 










731 


DATA 


161, 


191, 


168, 


132, 


164, 


184 


, 160, 128 














740 


A(74) 


=4: ' 


* 

l 










741 


DATA 


164, 


189, 


160, 


128 






750 


A(75) 


=4: ' 


• 

j 










751 


DATA 


192, 

m> m mmi ■ 


196, 

Mi m mm ■ 


189, 

a mm m ■ 


128 

Mi M^b mm 






760 


A(76) 


=7: ' 


k 










761 


DATA 


161, 


191 , 


168, 


150, 


162, 


162 


, 12E 
770 


1 

A(77) 


=4: ' 


1 










771 


DATA 


161, 


191, 


160, 


128 






780 


A(78) 


=10: 


' m 










781 


DATA 


162, 


188, 


162, 


130, 


188, 


162 


, 130, 188, 


160, 


128 










790 


A(79) 


=8: ' 


n 










791 


DATA 


162, 


188, 


162, 


130, 


130, 


188 


, 160, 128 














800 


A(80) 


=6: ' 


o 










801 


DATA 


156, 


162, 


162, 


162, 


156, 


128 


810 


A(81) 


=7: ' 


P 










811 


DATA 


194, 


254, 


210, 


146, 


146, 


140 


,12E 
820 


1 

A(82) 


=7: ' 


q 










821 


DATA 


140, 


146, 


146, 


146, 


252, 


194 


,12E 
830 


1 

A(83) 


=6: ' 


r 










831 


DATA 


162, 


190, 


164, 


130, 


134, 


128 


840 


A(84) 


=7: ' 


s 










841 


DATA 


164, 


170, 


170, 


170, 


170, 


144 


,12E 
850 


1 

A (85) 


=6: ' 


t 










851 


DATA 


132, 


159, 

m» mm m ■ 


164, 

• mm ■ ■ 


164, 


144, 


128 

M> MM) MM 


860 


A (86) 


=8: ' 


u 










861 


DATA 


130, 


158, 


160, 


160, 


144, 

* ' ' 9 


190 


, 162, 128 














870 


A(87) 


=8: ' 


V 










871 


DATA 


130, 


142, 


146, 


160, 


146, 


142 


, 130, 128 














880 


A(88) 


=10: 


' w 










881 


DATA 


130, 


158, 


162, 


144, 


140, 


144 


, 162 


>, 158, 


130, 


128 










890 


A(89) 


=8: ' 


X 










891 


DATA 


162, 


162, 


. 182, 


136, 


182, 


162 


, 162, 128 














900 


A (90) 


=8: ' 


y 











December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 141 



901 DATA 162,198,170,144,138,134 
, 130, 128 

910 A<91)=6:' z 

911 DATA 166,178,170,166,178,128 
920 FOR A=l TO 91 : FOR B=l TO A (A 
) : READ C: A*<A)=A*<A)+CHR*<C) : NEX 
T B, A 

1000 GOSUB 1110 

1010 CLS: PR I NT: PR I NT "READY FOR C 
OPY" 

1020 LINE INPUT A* 

1030 B*=A*:IF B*=""THEN GOSUB 11 

10: GOTO 1020 

1040 FOR A=l TO LEN <B$) 

1050 L*=MID*(B*, A, 1) 

1060 IF L*=CHR*<10)THEN L*=CHRS < 

96) 

1070 B=ASC<L*)-31:PRINT#-2,A*<B) 

; :h=h+a<B) 

1075 IF H<=360 THEN 1090 

1080 IF L*=CHR*<32) OR L*=CHR*<4 

5) OR L*=CHR*<47) THEN GOSUB 111 

0 

1090 NEXT A 

1100 GOTO 1020 

1110 PRINT#-2,CHR*<30) 

1120 H=0:PRINT#-2,TAB<5) ;CHR*<18 

1130 RETURN ^ 



Software Review... 

Across The Rubicon Is 
Good War Game For 80C 

I admit that I am fascinated by war games. And, in my 
time, I have bought a bunch of them: D-Day, Gettysburg, 
Waterloo and the like. I even subscribe to a war game 
magazine, Strategy and Tactics, which provides a different 
game each month. 

Alas. The problem with war games is that you have to 
have another wargamer to play them with you. The idea is 
excellent: That you can (might) be able to change the course 
of history by being much smarter than Gen. Lee or 
Napoleon. Its a perfect "what if" situation. 

What //...Napoleon had brought up his reserves in time. 
What {/!..the German high command had not been 
convinced the landings in out-of-the-way Normandy were 
not the real thing on June 6? What {/!..the Union troops had 
fallen back under Pickett's charge? War games let you play a 
lot of "what ifs." I have always been convinced they are more 
historical than militaristic. 

But, like I said, you need someone to play them with you. 
Some of these games are designed to be played solitare, but 
that takes a lot of the tactics and planning out of them. After 
all, can some dice be as smart as a human? Nope. 

How 'bout a nice, friendly, clear-thinking CoCo? Well, 
that's another story and a worthy opponent indeed is our 
little friend, the Color Computer. 

When Across The Rubicon arrived, the opportunity was 
there to finally play a war game with someone who was as 
interested in it as was I. And the scene of battle was a 



Design a training program to bring you 
to your top speed- with runcalc 



Written by Bill Brown, a former coach and 2:47 marathoner, RUNCALC is an 
invaluable aid to distance runners of ail ages and ability levels. 



RUNCALC can help you: 



-Evaluate your training quality 

-Compare performances of different lengths 

-Find pace per mile, per quarter-mile, permeter, etc. 

-Find speed in miles/hr., meters/sec, ft/sec. 

-Do metric conversions 

-Generate split times for goal distances and times 
-Set meaningful goal times for interval training 
-Calculate calorie usage for a given run. 



RUNCALC was designed fortheTandyRadioShackTRS-80ColorComputer. It is 
an easy to use menu-driven program requiring 16K Ext. Color Basic and is supplied on 
cassette with guide for only $12.95 including postage. Indiana residents include 4% 
sales tax. 




SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 



on/ie RUN 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS Box511 Dalejntfit 



BoxSII Dale, Indiana 47523 





DEALER 
INQUIRIES 
WELCOME 



Mil 

: : : : ; >-:::t.:: : : : : : :-:' 



Page 142 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



challenging one, indeed. The Huetgen Forest, which the 
allies called the "death trap." The forest blocked the 
approaches to the mightly Rhur — the heart of Germany's 
war machine. But there was a trump card, too. Hitler hoped 
to tie the allies down long enough in the woods and hills of 
the Huetgen to gather his forces for the one last battle that he 
expected to win and turn the tide of the war again. This was 
because the Forest was designed as a holding action that 
would precede the Ardennes Campaign — known as the 
Battle of the Bulge. 

Enough of history, except to say Across The Rubicon is 
historically sound. Except that the allied player has the 
option to choose his troops to a degree, the units present in 
the campaign are generally of the same strength as those 
which were present. 

As to the game itself, it is challenging. For those of you 
who have never played a war game before, don't expect a 
page or two of instructions and a great deal of improvision. 
Across The Rubicon boasts 12 pages of instructions and 
even includes hints on movement and strategy. Units can 
move based on their strength and abilities. 

The essential war game elements are all here: The 
necessity for troops to be kept in supply, the use of air strikes 
and artillery. If you "gang up" on enemy troops, you have a 
better chance of winning. There are infantry units, light and 
heavy tanks and parachute drops, too. 

Each unit can move a certain amount of space in a given 
turn — roughly three days in historical time. There are 
certain objectives you must attain to win the game, and they 
must be attained in a certain amount of time. When 
engaging in combat itself, it's not just a "you win/ they win" 
situation — you can lose some of your men and deplete your 




TEXT PROCESSOR FEATURES 



Character Fill 

Programmable Footer 

Right Justify Line 

Multiple Footnotes 

Three Indent Modes 

Three Programmable Headers 

Ten Programmable Tab Stops 

Margin Justification Left and Right 

Decimal Align, Center, Left and Right 

Justify On Tab Column 

Display and Input From Keyboard 

Change Formatting During Processing 



TEXT EDITOR FEATURES 

• Single Keystroke Edit Command 

• Append Files From Tape Or Disk 

• Fully Integrated Disk File. Handler 

• Edit Or Process Files Larger 
Than Memory 

• (No Conversion Required) Fully ASC II 
Compatible 

• Full Featured Line Oriented 
Screen Editor 

• Search And Repalce Any 
Character Pattern 

• Copy, Move or Delete Lines 
Or Blocks of Text 

• Edit Basic, Text, Or Assembler Files 



TEXT PRO II Features Over 70 Commands In All! 

Key In Format Command OrText At Runtime! 
Compatible With All Major Printers On The Market! 
Multiple Copy or Repeat All Of Or A Portion Of The Text! 



DkCtMBt^ 16 K a 32K Systems DISK.. 
gPtCJ ^ 64K Version Now Available-FLEX Not Required 



CBt-COMP 



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Las Vegas, Nevada 891 10 



(702) 452-0632 



All Orders Shipped From Stock 
Add '2.50 Postage 



unit's strength. The unit still exists, but with a lowered 
ability to do anything. 

As to the game itself, it is easy to play, considering the 
complexities of war games in general. CoCo makes things a 
lot easier by keeping track of positions, strengths, supply, 
move factors and the like. By using a map with various 
symbols on it, you get a good picture of what the battlefield 
looks like, although it is somewhat difficult to tell which unit 
is which without any kind of a grid (which is not available 
with a low res game board such as that used here). 

As with anything else as complicated as this, the first run 
through the game is for learning. The second is to play. 
There are four levels of difficulty. 

If you are interested in war games — or think you might 
be — then Across The Rubicon is for you. It is both enjoyable 
and playable and has the added bonus of teaching a little 
slice of history. 

How did we do? We made the mistake of trying to attack 
in three columns, used up our air support too early and 
ended up running out of artillery. We got creamed. But there 
is always next time. Now let's see, what if we... 

(Ark Royal Games, P.O. Box 14806, Jacksonville, FL 
32238, $16.95) 



Software Review... 

Get On The Horn With 
Your Own Bulletin Board 

So, you've been calling bulletin boards around the 
country, hooking up to CompuServe and just having a ball 
with the telephone, a modem and your CoCo. But, once you 
have called them all, what can you do? 

You can call back, of course. And, make a lot of friends 
and learn a great deal of good information. But, what you'd 
really like to do is have people call you\ 

With this bulletin board software, you can have your own 
bulletin board. Now, people can call you and you can 
operate your own system. 

Installation of the bulletin board system is a fairly easy 
one. Disk drives are necessary (two at least, three if you wish 
to allow graphics to be loaded to and from your system). 
You also need an auto-answer modem (see some reviews in 
the November Rainbow), a printer and, last but certainly 
not least, a CoCo. 

Once you have this together, installation of the bulletin 
board is a fairly simple affair. Since the program is in 
machine code, it is not hard to modify, but you will be able 
to choose from a number of options. That being done, call 
your best computer friend and let him or her be the first to 
get "one line" with you. Also, let the Rainbow know about 
your existance — we'll print your number and hours of 
operation. We're dedicated to helping further information 
about the Color Computer and TDP-100. 

The investment in all of this is not inconsiderable, 
especially the hardware. But, you can have a sophisticated 
bulletin board in operation and working with this fine 
software package. 

It provides many of the features you have seen in other 
bulletin boards — menus, message files, log on messages and 
the like. If you always wanted to be a SYSOP (SYStem 
OPerator), we believe you will find this to be an enjoyable 
experience. 

(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86 Drive, Woodhaven, NY 
11421, $149.95) 



The Platinum 
worksaver 

...Programming Made Easy 

FULL SCREEN EDITING OF 
BASIC PROGRAMS 

With the PLATINUM WORKS AVER'S 
editor, there's no more counting the 
numbers of characters to delete or 
change, or wondering if you deleted 
too many or too few. You see the 
whole line as it's edited. Changes, 
deletes and inserts are automatic 
and the cursor can be moved any- 
where on the screen. 

FULL SCREEN EDITING OF 
NUMERIC AND STRING ARRAYS 

But that's only the beginning! The 
editor (Written in machine language) 
also comes with a short, two line 
BASIC subroutine thatwill allowyou 
to use the full screen editor on your 
numeric and string arrays. This is the 
springboard you need for develop- 
ing your own VisiCalc"' or word 
processor. 

SINGLE KEY ENTRIES OF 
BASIC WORDS 

So, the PLATINUM WORKSAVER 
makes it easier to write useful pro- 
grams and edit them, but that's not 
all! Entering programs is a breeze 
with single entry of over 80 basic 
words, on a beautifully designed 
KEYBOARD OVERLAY, color-keyed 
to function. No need to memorize or 
consult a conversion chart to find a 
word. 

PROGRAM CHAINING AND 
DYNAMIC DEBUGGING 

Now you can write, enter and change 
programs easily, but what about de- 
bugging? This is the frustrating, time 
consuming aspect of programming 
and frankly, the Color Computer 
doesn't help you much . . . you have 
to start the program over each time 
you make a change. But not with 
the PLATINUM WORKSAVER!! With 
it you can change, delete, add and 
rearrange or join lines. The special 
reserved key is excellent for copying 
or moving parts of lines to other 
lines . . . plus, you can even LOAD 
AWHOLE NEW PROGRAM without 
disturbing the data you've created. 

NUMERIC KEYPAD 

We've solved another Color Com- 
puter weakness. Press a control key 
and letters J, K, L, U, I, O, P become 
number keys 1-7. Numbers 8-0 re- 
main in their normal positions. The 
keypad numbers are clearly labeled 
on the overlay. 

• Over 100 programmable keys 9 

• Loads to Disk * 



A COLOR COMPUTER* MACHINE LANGUAGE ENHANCEMENT 
PACKAGE THAT PROVIDES: 

• Dynamic full screen editing of BASIC programs. 

• Dynamic full screen editing of numeric and string arrays. The ad- 
vanced user will be able to write VisiCalc™, word processor etc.! 

• Single key entries for 80 commands and functions. /^^V 

• Functionally laid out plastic keyboard overlay. 

• Numeric Keypad conversion. 

• Automatic line numbering. 

• Bestvalue per dollar than any other enhancement package available. 

With the Platinum worksaver® programming time 
and hassle can be cut by 50%. You'll spend less time 
typing, more time being creative with your Platinum 
Enhanced 16K Color Computer! 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SIM. 



LOOK WHAT JUST $30 CAN DO FOR YOUR 16K COLOR COMPUTER: 



Platinum Enhanced 16K 
Color Computer 

Relocate, join, duplicate individual 
and unique sets of lines at the push 
of a button 

Create the following using only 31 
keystrokes: CLS:A$-Strings$ (15"") + 
MID$ (CL$, 6, 2). To change the - 
symbol to = requires only 3 key- 
strokes!!!! 

Retain the sequence of commands in 
temporary memory with special re- 
served key 

One keypush and the right side of the 
keyboard converts to a numeric 
Keypad 

Correct bugs while your program is 
running, without losing data. 

Edit programs, data and strings using 
the full screen editor. 



vs. 



Regular 16K Extended 
Color Computer 

Retype entirely any lines to be moved 
or joined 

Type that line using 47 keystrokes. To 
change the symbol, Backspace and 
retype using 33 more strokes! 



Retype lost lines! 



Stretch those fingers! 



Oops! Lost data! Retype, Reload and 

Save data while swearing a lot. 

NO CAN DO! 



THE PLATINUM WORKSAVER INCLUDES: 

• Enhancement program, including a sample array Editor, on a high-quality 
Agfa Cassette 

• Fully labeled acetate keyboard overlay, NOT a cheap stick-on 

• Complete instructions 

• Loads in seconds, takes less than 2K 




The PLATINUM WORKSAVER costs $30.00 plus 
$3.00 S&H (NY residents add tax). To order 
write: 

PLATINUM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 833 
Pittsburgh, N.Y. 12901 

Phone orders: (518) 643-2650 

VISA, MASTERCARD ACCEPTED. PERSONAL CHECKS TAKE 
2-3 WEEKS TO PROCESS. 

16 K min. required 
Includes cassette merge 




pkkli 

Veftwore 

You're Serious About 
Your Color Computer? 

SO ARE WE. 



'Color Computer & TRS-80 are registered trademarks of Tandy Corp. 



Page 1 44 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Software Review... 

Colorpede Provides 
Bug-Eyed Excitement 

Games for the 80C are becomming more sophisticated by 
the moment, it seems, and in its own splintering, serpentine 
way, Colorpede meanders to the forefront of the pack of the 
slithery play-alikes based on that arcade favorite, 
Centipede. 

I thought the color and graphics of this total machine 
language feature were excellent. The sound effects, though 
not quite the 'arcade quality' advertised in the 
accompanying brochure, were adequate; but even if they 
weren't, there's so much action on the screen it's my bet you 
wouldn't notice. In fact, the first several times I played 
Colorpede I forgot to turn on the sound altogether and still 
thoroughly enjoyed it. 

Of course, of major importance to a game of this sort is its 
'playability,' or response to your commands. Colorpede uses 
either keyboard or joystick input, and both give you 
excellent control. I found this to be true even though my 
keyboard digitation is a bit arthritic. 

Most of you, I'm sure, are familiar with the basic format 
of this game, but I'll give you a general runthrough, anyway, 
and try to point out some of the particulars. 

Colorpede takes about a minute to load f rom cassette (its 
also available on disk) and gives you a display of the action 
automatically while waiting for you to start the game. For 
keyboard control, hit 1 or 2 to determine the number of 
players.The four directional-arrow keys are used to control 
the shooter, and the shift key is used to fire. The game may 



*** RAINBOW READERS! *** 

You bought the best computer! You 1 re 
reading the best computer magazine! Now 
choose from the best software available 
for the 80C (CoCo). 



PROTECTORS *N3//* (Tom Mix) 324.95 

KATERPILLAR. (Tom Mix) $24.95 

ASTRO BLAST (Mark Data) $24.95 
WIZARD'S K2TS *N5W* (Spectral) $19.95 

AUTO-RUN (Sugar Software) $14.95 

T.I. M.S. *NSW* (Sugar) $24.95 

the SPECTRUM STICK $39.95 

CCEAD (Eigen Systems) $ 6.95 

MASTER CONTROL (S.S.M.) $24.95 



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Note: We also carry the RAINBOW ™SE2 

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$2 for COD. Ohio residents add 5% state sales tax 



be paused anytime during play by hitting the space bar, and 
resumed by hitting the shift key. If you're using joysticks, hit 
the left joystick's trigger button to signify one player, the 
right one for two. 

Each player begins with three shooters, which are 
displayed at the top of the screen next to the player's score. 
You're granted an additional shooter for each 1 0,000 points 
you score, up to a total of seven each game. (I'm still looking 
for my fourth shooter, but getting closer!) 

The elements of the game, other than the shooter, are the 
toad stools, a bedeviling bouncing bug (whose points vary 
according to how close he is when you shoot him), the free- 
jointed colorpede's head and body parts, a beetle, who 
roams about planting more toad stools, and a stinger, who 
occasionally runs across the screen poisoning toad stools to 
complicate the game. 

This one doesn't come cheap, but it should pay for itself 
by keeping your kids (or you) out of the arcades f or awhile. 
(Intracolor Communications, P.O. Box 1035, East 
Lansing, MI 48823, $29.95 on tape, $34.95 disk) 

— Courtney Noe 



Software Review... 

Semi Draw Will Give 
You Great Color Sketches 

For those of you who liked the Rainbow's cover 
illustration in November, you can draw pictures just as 
colorful with the same Semi Draw program we used to 
produce it. 

Honestly, creditf or producing the pictureitself must go to 
author Paul Hoffman, who did the rainbow that is included 
as one of the examples in the Semi Draw program package. 
We just added the word "Graphics" and the exclamation 
mark at the bottom of the picture. 

(The cover credit on page 3 in November incorrectly 
identified the program which produced the color picture as 
Foxy Graf, another new offering from Computerware. We 
regret the error.) 

Semi Draw gets its name from the type graphics it uses, 
the semi graphics modes. These are accessed through 
machine language subroutines in a Basic program and have 
the advantage of allowing the user to mix both text and 
graphics by using CoCo's built-in character generator. Also, 
by using screen switching, the user is able to make his 
pictures move. As an example, the entire program used for 
last month's cover actually has the rainbow arcing across the 
screen until it makes a complete arch as shown in the 
photograph. 

Semi Draw is extremely easy to use. By merely pressing 
number keys to indicate colors, you can set or reset pixels in 
any of eight colors. The arrow keys are used to position a 
graphic cursor, or you can use joysticks. The joysticks are 
faster but the arrow keys give better control. 

Each picture can be saved to tape, or, as a matter of fact, 
an entire set of screens can be saved. If you have drawn 
several screens to animate the picture, you can just ask the 
program to page through the screens — and you have 
animation. 

Semi Draw is a high quality program which will alio w you 
to do a great number of things with graphics. It is easy to use 
and understand. In addition, the documentation does a 
good job of describing the program's features. 

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Each cassette includes two YORK 10 labels only. Boxes are sold separately. 
Shipments are by U.P.S. unless Parcel Post requested. Boxes, caddies, and 
blank labels are free of shipping charges when ordered with cassettes. When 
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the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Page 146 

Education. . . 

Education Views the 
Vital Software Connection 

Last month we discussed the educational administrator 
and the color computer. We noted that the color computer is 
a "best buy" for schools. The next problem, once you have 
the computer, is where to obtain software that is appropriate 
for student use. At this point, Radio Shack has not made the 
necessary commitment toward the use of the color computer 
in schools by supplying appropriate software for student 
use. There is a potential solution on the horizon, however. 

Follett Library Book Company has just announced a 
major effort for computer users in the schools. Andy 
Larson, Director, Microcomputer Division, has been 
working diligently on behalf of color computer users. Many 
of the programs thatareavailable for Apple Computer users 
are being converted for the use of Radio Shack color 
computer owners. The new program at Follett is a major 
undertaking, and within the next six months should provide 
schools all the software necessary to implement a computer 
literacy program for grades K-l 2. 

The Follett program should not be interpreted as 
exclusively the only source for color computer software. 
Our school district has f ound that sof tware f rom some of the 
Rainbow advertisers, such as Tom Mix, Sugar Software, B- 
5, and Strawberry, all have programs that can work well in 
the classroom. It should be emphasized, however, that some 
companies are producing material that is not appropriate 
for student use. We cannot emphasize enough the 
importance of reviewing all programs prior to their 
purchase. If, in fact, an educational network is going to be 
established for color computer users, it is important that we 
review the material, have students use it and react, and 
finally, get teacher recommendations. 

In addition, some distributors have materials that are 
excellent for school use. The new book, TRS-80 Color 
Computer, distributed through John Wiley and Sons, 
would be an excellent textbook. Programs with word 
processing, as distributed through Cognitec, can be most 
useful for teachers, and help them make greater use of the 
computer. Further, the new Color Pilot by Radio Shack has 
considerable application for the schools. 

Back to Follett — there are six features to the new Follett 
"Quality Courseware" program. 

First, their representatives are emphasizing that only the 
best software available will be included in their catalog. 
Each of the programs has received positive evaluation and 



By Dr. Paul Kimmelman 
Assistant Superintendent 
Norton (Ohio) City Schools 
and 

David Macali, Coordinator of Instructional Services 

Norton City Schools 

review by educators thoroughly experienced in computer- 
assisted learning. 

Second, the new catalogue will include only programs 
that fit your microcomputer. Catalogues will be printed to 
each school district's specifications and will contain only 
programs compatible with their equipment. 

Third, program listings will be continuously updated and 
printed on demand. What this means is that you can specify 
which month you want your catalogue printed and for 
which hardware. The advantage of this service will be that 
you will get a truly current catalogue. New programs are 
produced, old ones deleted, and updated prices included. In 
essence, school districts will be able to request from Folletta 
monthly catalogue with everything being updated. 

Listings arranged by subject area, with grade levels 
specified, will be the fourth feature of the "Quality 
Courseware" program. To make program selection easy, 
Follett has arranged the catalogue in the order that most 
educators prefer. Selections will be divided by subjects such 
as language arts, reading, math, science, computer literacy, 
etc. Grade levels will be indicated with each program listed. 
Unquestionably, this will be a time-saver for those 
responsible for ordering software. 

Fifth, catalogue kits with custom-printed pockets will be 
available for all courseware. Librarians and media 
specialists have often been disappointed to learn that 
cataloguing was not available for software offered by other 
suppliers. With the new Follett program, complete 
catalogue kits and do-it-yourself cataloguing have been 
developed for the programs in the catalogue. They will even 
print each pocket with your school name, or whatever 
wording you indicate. 

Lastly, all orders will be shipped free whether they are 
prepaid or billed. This is a distinct advantage to financially 
hard-pressed school districts. We think that Follett and its 
new commitment to the color computer will be a 
tremendous boost to school districts using the color 
computer. In the next few months, Follett will be 
distributing programs for pre-school and kindergarten 
children such as "Mop Town" and "Bumble Bugs." Our 
preliminary review of the Bumble Bugs program is that it 
will be outstanding for primary student use. Our hats are 
tipped to the Follett representatives. 



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CrVULIST 5.8 is a DISK based version o-f our -famous CMAILIST program. CMAILIST 
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16K, 32K, 1 or 2 drives. Over 588 RECORDS maybe stored per FILE. ADDED FEATURES 
now include DOUBLE or SINGLE line street address, and the- ability to have a 
TITLE (President; Sales Rep. etc.) -follow the last name. PLUS a host o-f 
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December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 147 



RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE p !••••!» t a.. 




5 soundsational, colorful, graphio games for your Color Coaputar iaoludingi 
Briokout, B-17 Boabar, Blackjack, Jackpot ajid Coaputration - all for tha 
price you might expect to pay for just ona of these gases! II 
Plue added bonua - Compumind: guess the computer'* secret ood* froa cluee 
provided - a gaae of logic for the whole family. At this price oaji your 
library afford to be without them? 

All machines - Ext. Basic NOT Required 
819.95 Cassette - $2^.95 Disk 

RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE presents... 




You 've traversed the dungeons of Kzirgla and reclaimed the almighty Scepter. 
Now you must use its invincible powers and all your weapons to slay a myriad 
of monsters and fireballs in your attempt to destroy the evil wizard. If you 
like the challenge and mystique but not the boredom of text only adventure 
games then this real time, hi-ree sequel to the ever popular Scepter of Kzirgla 
is for youl 

16K Ext Basic Cass - $21.95 
CONQUEST OF KZIRGLA for the Color Computer 32K Diskette - $26.95 



RAINBOW C0NM20TI0N SOFTWARE presents... 



33 jj<UK 




The year is 2117 and th* galaxy has been invaded by the Xoprith, 
a race of robots from a distant galaxy. Your mission is to rid tha ^ 
galaxy of their various ships a quadrant at a time but fuel is precious. 
Just as it seems you're winning the battle they hit you with the ultimate 
weapon - phycological warfare I Hi-res, real tine, arcade sound. 

16K Ext. Basic & Joystick 
51*+. 95 Cass - 519.9? Disk 



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RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE present! 




•Reviewed in the RAINBOW 
At last... a real-time f raphics. adventure game with arcade sound for your Color Computer! 
If you are bored with silent screens of text but enjoy the challenge &nd complexity of 
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RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE 
3514 6th Place N.W. 
Rochester, KN 55901 



Page 1 48 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 




MISADVENTURE GAMES are slightly ribald and risoue 

PLAYED IN THE AO WE N T U R E • F O R M A T 

MISADVENTURE N? 1 MAOAM ROSA'S MASSAGE PARLOR 

IN THIS PARTICULAR MISADVENTURE THE PLAYER HAS TO MAKE 
HIS WAY FROM THE SLEA2Y DESERTED WHARFS. GAIN ADMITTANCE 
TO THE ANCIENT SPEAKEASY. AND ATTEMPT TO DISCOVER THE 
HIDDEN PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE POLITICIANS BEAUTIFUL DAUGHTER! 
BRAVE THE DEADLY ALLEYS HALLWAYS AND TRAPS AVOI0 THE 
BOUNCER AND OTHER CHARACTERS OF QUESTIONABLE REPUTATION 
PLAY IN THE RIGGED CARD GAME IF YOU DARE 1 DISCOVER WHY THE 
OLD MAN DIED WITH A SMILE ON HIS FACE 1 FIND OUT WHY THE 
WINO PREFERS CHEAP BOOZE 1 ABOVE ALL. TRY TO ESCAPE WITHOUT 
NEEDING ANY INJECTIONS OF PENICILLIN!!! 

MISAOVENTURE N 9 J WET T-SHIRT CONTEST 

IN THIS PARTICULAR NAUGHTY MISADVENTURE THE PLAYER 
AWAKENS ONE MORNING TO A LOUD POUNDING ON THE DOOR! 
THUGS ENTER AND DEMAND THAT YOU PAY THE BOSS THE MONEY 
OWED TO HIM TONIGHT 1 1 1 

YOU MUST SURVIVE THE MANY INTERESTING SITUATIONS 
FOUND IN THE OVER 100 LOCATIONS' THE SCIENTIST MAY HAVE A 
WAY TO SOLVE YOUR PROBLEM - IF YOU SOLVE HIS PROBLEM! 
PERHAPS THE PRI2E MONEY FOR THE WET T-SHIRT CONTEST 
WILL tit E N O U G H 

ALTHOUGH VERY CHALLENGING. THIS IS A FUN GAME. SO BE 
PREPAREO TO ENJOY YOURSELF 111 

MISADVENTURE N9 3 SEWER OF MOSCOW 

IN THIS PARTICULAR MISAOVENTURE THE PLAYERS HI4S-10N 
REGARDLESS Of WHETHER HE ACCEPTS IT OR NOT. IS TO ELIMI- 
NATE THE IMMEDIATE POSSIBILITY OF WW m ! BEWARE OF THE 
TREACHEROUS SEWER! WATCH OUT FOR THE SWIFT SUBWAY VEHI- 
CLES! AVOID THE LOYAL COMMUNISTS! THERE ARE OVER 70 LOCA- 
TIONS. SO BE VERY CAREFUL NOT TO GET LOST OR KILLEO IN 
THIS MISADVENTURE. 

THE BEAUTIFUL SPY YOU FIND TIED SPREAO-EAGLEO TO A 
BEO HOLDS THE KEY TO THIS MISAOVENTURE. BUT BE VERY 
CAREFUL WHAT YOU DO TO HER 

THIS tS THE HARDEST MISAOVENTURE YET' 

MISADVENTURE N° 4 CASINO OF PLEASURE 

CASINO OF PLEASURE MISAOVENTURE IS AN EXCELLENT 
PROGRAM FOR THE SERIOUS ADVENTURER WHO ALSO ENJOYS 
TO GAMBLE' 

YOUR FIRST PROBLEM WILL BE FINOING THE HIOOEN CASINO' 
THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED BY USING TRADITIONAL ADVENTURE- 
TYPE METHODS 

IF (AND WHEN) YOU MAKE IT TO THE CASINO WITH THE 
MONEY, YOU MUST INCREASE IT SO THAT YOU HAVE ENOUGH 
MONEY NEEDED TO P A V • 0 FF THE GANGSTERS WHO AWAIT YOU 
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Software Review... 

Going Forth 
With Two Fine Compilers 

By Dr. Laurence Preble 

What's faster than a speeding FOR-NEXT loop? More 
powerful than an interpreter? Able to leap complex 
algorithms with a speed bound? A compiler, naturally. 
Today, I am going to tell you about two new compilers for 
our Color Computer; but first a word about the alternatives 
to compilers. 

Extended COLOR BASIC is a powerful programming 
language. It is easy to learn and comes with the computer. 
Also, it is slow. Notice how much of the really great 
commercial software is written in Assembler code. Any 
interpreter is slow because of the way it works — Each 
program statement is interpreted and executed each time it 
is encountered. A single command may translate into 
dozens of machine codes (the native language of the 
computer). 

Assembler is fast. Assembler is a compact and very 
powerful. Also, it is hard to learn and use. Even those who 
know and love Assembler, will tell you that it takes many 
times longer to write a complex Assembly Language 
program than to write a comparable program in BASIC. 
Assembler is fast because each command translates directly 
into a single machine code. There is a one-to-one 
correspondence. Working with the native language of the 
computer means that very efficient use of the machine is 
possible, hence speed. The difficulty is that every type of 
computer has a totally different native language. Also, 
Assembly language is even more basic than BASIC. If you 
want to print the word"HELLO"in BASIC, youcansimply 
tell the computer PRINT "HELLO" and it does it. An 
equivalent in Assembly Language might go something like 
this: 

LEAX HISTR,PCR 

LBSR PDATA 

JMP CONTROL 
HISTR FCC 'HELLO 

FCB $D, $A, $4 
Many feel that Assembly Language is worth the extra effort 
when they want their graphics to really zip across the screen. 

Enter, the happy medium, the compiler. A compiler 
shares the high level ease of programming like BASIC and 
much of the execution speed of Assembly Language. A 
compiler translates a programming command only once. 
Native machine code is generated and stored for future use. 
Hence a compiler has much of the ease of programming of 
any high level language but also much of the execution speed 
of Assembly Language. 

It is possible to make a compiler for any language. There 
are BASIC, ForTran, Algol, Pascal and many other 
languages implemented as compilers. Forth is a relatively 
new entry. It was designed by an Astronomer, Charles H. 
Moore in 1969. In 1973, commercial distribution and 
support was begun by Forth, Inc. FIG (Forth Interest 
Group) formed in 1978 to promote the use and development 
of the new language. 

Okay, enough history. Let's go Forth] Forth is best 
described as a combination of interpreter and compiler. 
Commands can be translated and executed in one step. 
Commands can also be stored and recalled in their compiled 
form without further interpretation. That is why Forth is 
fast when compared with BASIC. 

Forth is a little odd, though. You see, Forth wasdesigned 
to take maximum advantage of a computer's internal 



December J 982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 1 49 



registers and stack(s). Because of this, it uses a method of 
data entry known as Reverse Polish Notation, RPN for 
short. Some hand calculators like those made by Hewlett 
Packard also use RPN. Our most familiar notation allows 
us to add numbers like this: 2 + 3+7 =12. In BASIC we 
would say: 

PRINT 2 + 3 + 7 (enter) 

And the answer appears below: 

12 

Reverse Polish Notation requires data entry like this: 
2 3 7 + + (enter). 

FortWs rough equivalent of BASIC'S "PRINT" is the"." 
or period. 

So in Forth we would say: 

2 3 7 + + . (enter) 

And the answer appears below: 

12 

Like I said, RPN is a little odd at first glance; but that is just 
because we are not used to it. Practice makes RPN second 
nature. 

The basic unit jof action in Forth is a WORD. There are 
no line numbers to demarcate our instructions. Instead, 
programming consists of defining words to be used by 
Forth. Once a word is defined, it is yours forever (or at least 

until you tell Forth to FORGET it). Let's define a word that 
will multiply any number by two and then print the result: 

: TIMESTWO 2 * . ; 
The colon signifies the beginning of a definition. 
TIMESTWO is the word we are defining. 2 * does the actual 
multiplication. The "." does the printout. The semicolon 
signifies the end of the definition. 

Now we enter: 

7 TIMESTWO (enter) 

And we get: 14 

Once a Forth WORD is defined, it can be used in the 
definitions of more Forth WORDS. Programming begins 
with simple definitions and evolves into the more complex. 
A highly complex program could be embodied in a single 
Forth WORD. To invoke a program, its Forth WORD is 
simply typed in on the terminal. Execution begins. 

Forth, by nature, is a language that is never completely 
defined or "finished." That is because new WORDS can 
continually be defined; once defined, they become part of 
the language. There are several hundred Forth WORDS 
that are considered standard, at present. Nontheless, Forth 
novices are usually surprised by the seeming lack of some of 
their favorite functions. Don't fret! If a function is missing, it 
can nearly always be constructed from the existing Forth 
vocabulary. If super high execution speed is required, Forth 
even has a provision for defining new vocabulary with 
Assembler code. 

I should mention here that integer arithmetic only is 
considered standard with Forth. Surprised? Remember, if 
you really need floating point functions there are available 
methods for making them. Anyway, floating point 
operations are inherently much slower than integar 
operations. Most experienced Forth programmers find that 
they can do without floating point. 

Disk usage by Forth is a little different too. Forth divides 
its data blocks into SCREENS instead of the more familiar 
file structure. A SCREEN is simply all the data that will fit 
on your television screen at one time. Each SCREEN of data 
or Forth definitions is given a number and stored 
sequentially on disk. Each SCREEN may contain numerous 
Forth WORDS. When a SCREEN is LOADed, all the 
vocabulary contained on the SCREEN becomes part of the 
sytem's current vocabulary. It is common practice to use 
several of the initial SCREENS on disk to store an index or 




Page 1 50 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



catalog of the remaining SCREENS which contain the Forth 
vocabulary. 

Mr. Falk has graced me with two versions of Forth 
written for the TRS-80 Color Computer. ccForth was 
written by Charles Eaker, Ph.D and distributed by Frank 
Hogg Laboratory, Inc. Color-Forth was written by Hoyt A. 
Stearns and is distributed by Hoyt Stearns Electronics. Up 
to this point, everything I have said about Forth applies to 
each author's version of Forth. Differences exist mainly on 
three points: (1) Method of installation, (2) Supplied 
documentation and (3) Enhancements or extra Vocabulary. 

Installation 

ccForth is supplied on disk, Color-Forth on tape or 
ROM. Both versions allow disk operations when installed. 
However, Color-Forth by Stearns can also be used on a 
system without disk, programs being stored on tape, if 
desired. 

The installation of ccForth is quite straightforward. First, 
make a backup copy of the supplied disk using BASIC'S 
standard BACKUP command. This is not strictly required, 
but definitely a good idea with any new software. Put away 
the supplied disk in a nice safe place in case something 
terrible should ever happen to your new copy. Put your new 
disk into drive 0 and enter LOADM"CCFORTH" and hit 

the enter key. When your computer says "OK," type EXEC 
and hit the enter key. That's it! Forth comes on with a sign- 
on message and away you go. 

Installation of Color-Forth by Stearns is a little more 
involved but not difficult. Place the supplied cassette in the 
reader and type CLOADM (and hit enter). If you have 
purchased the ROM version, install the ROM according to 
supplied instructions. Next, for those who have disk, place a 
newly-formatted disk in drive 0 and type EXEC (and hit 
enter). This begins construction of a Forth disk. Type TAPE 
90 LOAD (and hit enter). Then hit any key except BREAK 



H I B 



presents 

SOFTWARE FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

TALK PROCESSOR 'I CAN TALK!' 

Quick and easy to use. Has over 2 dozen 
common words. Make up hundreds of state- 
ments in 3 voices. Uses digitally recorded 
human speech for a more natural sound. 
16K Ext. Basic $ 14.95 

SUB-MISSION 

HI-RES Color Action Game. Dive into the 
'Hole' and retrieve the black boxes, but avoid 
mines and falling depth charges. Elapsed 
time line, on screen scoring, good sounds, 3 
levels and bonus points. Joysticks required. 
16K Ext. Basic $ 12.95 

BONUS: Order submission and get 
Missile Attack Underground game Free. 

For immediate shipment send certified check or 
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shipped in 2 weeks. Send to HIB, 3505 
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or F to read SCREEN 90 from tape then hit any key again 
af ter you see "ID" 90. Color-Forth will do the rest. Now that 
a Color-Forth disk has been constructed, future sessions 
with Color-Forth may be initiated by installing the disk in 
drive 0 and typing: 

DSKIS 0,0,1, AS, AS (hit enter) 

EXEC 1536 (hit enter) 

To execute Color-Forth from ROM type EXEC&HE000 
(or &HE002 for cold st irt) and hit the enter key. To execute 
Color-Forth from RAM type EXEC &H988 (or &H98 A for 
cold start) and hit the enter key. 

Extra Color-Forth vocabulry can be loaded from tape or 
disk as desired. 

Documentation 

The package supplied by Stearns will not teach you the 
Forth language if you are a novice. The implementation of 
Forth itself is excellent and has some unique features; 
however, the documentation supplied assumes you either 
already know Forth or are willing to purchase one of the 
introductory books available. Mr. Stearns, in his preface to 
the Color-Forth manual, suggests contacting the Forth 
Interest Group and receiving their magazine: Forth 
Dimensions. The documentation supplied for Color-Forth 
describes mainly the differences and enchancements of 

Color-Forth by comparison to the standard Fig-Forth. 

Frank Hogg and Chuck Eaker took a different tack with 
ccForth. It is assumed that you know zip about Forth. A 
well-written manual of just over 200 pages takes you 
through all the ground work necessary to understand the 
language. The manual makes use of some comparisons to 
BASIC; so it is helpful if you at least know a little BASIC. 

Enchancements 



Both ccForth and Color-Forth are supplied with 
considerable enhancements over the accepted standard 
Forth. Enhancements consist of extra vocabulary. 

Eaker's ccForth includes an Assembler vocabulary, a 
choice of line-oriented, block-oriented or screen editors, a 
disk file access program and a game or two. This version of 
Forth also includes enough string functions to duplicate 
most of the functions allowed by Extended Color Basic. 
WORDS uniquely useful to the control of the Color 
Compter's graphics capabilities are also included. Forth 
WORDS for the composition of computer music and arcade 
sounds are an extra freebie. 

Stearns Color-Forth allows the inclusion of machine code 
within a Forth definition but no standard Assembler 
vocabulary is included. An excellent screen-oriented editor 
is supplied with complete instructions on its use. There are 
some truly unqiue features. Color-Forth handles interrupts 
cleanly in high level Forth. That means interesting time- 
sharing possibilities. A TIME-OUT function is useful in 
debugging your Forth definitions (programs). An interrupt- 
driven timer is set before executing your program. If your 
program goofs and enters an infinite loop, Forth will seize 
control when the predetermined time has expired. Color- 
Forth also includes a useful program execution trace 
function. Type TRON and your computer will show you 
exactly how your program is running. It will even trace the 
execution of Forth itself. Color-Forth also includes several 
WORDS for cotrolling the various graphics features of the 
color computer. 

Both of these Forth compilers have some interesting 
features. Also, remember that nearly any feature found on 
one version of Forth could be duplicated on another version 



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Add, subtract, multiply divide, and raise numbers to powers you never 
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the exponentiated version [8.25184889). 

Store your results in the special Memory register and/or print your results 
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All this for only $ 9.95. 1 6K required. 

SKY-DEFENSE 

Can you survive the first wave of attack? Or the next . . .Or the next. . .? Only 
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battle the attackers in hi-res action. Machine Language. 

16K/ Joysticks required. $1 8 95 

THE WALL 

This 9-color joystick game is not a "BREAKOUT" but a new idea. You are 
shooting down the bricks to get the "enemy" on the other side. But when you 
shoot through "the wall" and miss him, points are subtracted. No "ball and 
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RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 





Page 152 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



of Forth if you are willing to write the definitions needed. 
Benchmarks 

Earlier, we mentioned speed. We know a compiler is 
supposed to be fast; so, how about a race? Let's pit ccForth 
against Color-Forth. Also, in case anyone is interested, let's 
include Extended Color Basic in the lineup. 

In order to have a race, we need a goal. In this case, I chose 
to let the constestants sprint to find all the prime numbers 
less than 300. For those of you who are a little rusty on high 
school math, a prime number is any number than can only 
be evenly divided by 1 and itself. The numbers 3, 5 and 7 are 
a few examples. 

there are many ways of testing to see if a number is prime. 
The most inelegant, brute-force method I know is to simply 
divide the number in question by every single positive 
integer below it except the number 1. For example, to test 
the number 5 we would do the f ollowing divisions: 5/2,5/3 
and 5/4. Since none of the divisors produce a whole number 
quotient, 5 must be prime. Okay, experienced programmers 
and mathematicians, I hear that snickering. Sure, there are 
numerous programming tricks that could be used to 
improve this algorithm by many magnitudes of efficiency. 
Never mind that. This is intended to be an obstacle course, a 
test of brute strength and agility. 

Here is my implementation: 

: TESTPRIME DUP 2 DO DUP I MOD 0 = IF DROP0 
LEAVE ENDIF LOOP ; 

: PRIMES BELL 2 DO I TESTPRIME DUP IF. ELSE 
DROP ENDIF LOOP BELL ; 

TESTPRIME is my Forth definition that tests to see if 
any given integer is prime. PRIMES is my Forth definition 
which allows the user to input a number and then uses 
TESTPRIME to check every integer less than the entered 




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number for membership in the prime number series. 
PRIMES also makes a beep at the beginning of the race and 
sounds a beep at the end of the race. A cheap digital watch is 
used to time the event. To start the race I type: 

300 PRIMEs (and hit the enter key) 

Then I time and wait — but not long! 

Color-Forth comes in first with a time of 13 seconds. 
ccForth comes in second with a time of 22 seconds. 

Now it's time to let BASIC run its laps. Oops, when I type 
in 300 PRIMEs, all I get is SN ERROR! Since BASIC 
doesn't speak Forth we need a reasonably equivalent 
algorithm. To wit. 

10 INPUT N 

20 SOUND 100,1 

30 FOR X=2 TON-1 

40 FOR Y=2 TO X-l 

50 IF X/Y-INT(X/Y) 0 THEN NEXT Y ELSE 70 

60 PRINT X; 

70 NEXT X 

80 SOUND 100,1 

Timing method is the same. Interesting. BASIC took two 
minutes and 36 seconds to complete its task. 

To be fair about it, benchmark programs are not easy to 
design with equity for all compiler or interpreter 
implementations. A given implementation may shine when 
given a benchmark algorithm which takes advantage of its 
most efficient features. The same implementation may do 
poorly when asked to perf orm a less than optimum task. For 
example, BASIC does not include provisions for integer 
arithmetic. That two minutes and 36 seconds race included 
the overhead time required to drag around floating point 
numbers. 

Why Go Forth? 

Is it worth the effort to learn a new language? It depends 
on what you want from your computer. If you want fancy 
interactive game programs where speed is not a criterion, if 
you want to do high precision number crunching with 
floating point and scientific notation then stick with BASIC. 
It was designed to dothejob. However, if speed isyourmain 
requirement or if laboratory systems control is your aim or if 
code compactness is required then Forth is an excellent 
alternative to BASIC or Assembly Language. 

Which Forth implementation is best? Again, that depends 
on your personal requirements. They are both fast. But for 
the highest execution speed I would choose Hoyt Steam's 
Color-Forth. As a novice, I would choose ccForth by Chuck 
Eaker because of the excellent documentation included; 
frankly, my first serious introduction to Forth was Mr. 
Eaker's very complete manual. 

(Color-Forth, Hoyt Stearns Electronics, 4131 E. Cannon 
Drive, Phoenix, AZ 85028, $58.95 for RAM, $123.00 for 
ROM and RAM; ccForth, Frank Hogg Laboratory, The 
Regency Tower, 770 James Street, Syracuse, NY 13203, 
$99.95.) 



Hint 



What ROM Have You? 



All CoCos come up with a message which says you are 
operating on version 1.0 of the operating system. How can 
you tell whether you have version 1.0 or 1.1 of the Basic 
ROM chip? 

The answer is a simple one: Just type in EXEC 41 1 75 and 
the version of your ROM will be printed on the screen. 



/2kv\ Sen 



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omputer 



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Avenger 



From Cornsoft 

Pest control in space is not easy! Your Pesticraft is 
armed with laser and pesticide bombs to vaporize 
the almost-endless wave of pests. Watch for the 
AVENGER that tries to stop you. And the birds- 
filled with attacking droids. Get an extra Pesticraft 
for each 10,000 points. Requires 2 joysticks. 

16KTape, $19.95 



Katerpillar 
Attack 




Color 
Haywire 




From Tom Mix Software 
You don't have to go out for excitement— have a 
KATERPILLAR ATTACK at home! The action, 
graphics and sound are so authentic, it'll be hard to 
believe you're not at an arcade! 

16KTape, $24.95 



From Mark Data Products 
Hostile robots await you in a series of dangerous 
rooms. As you fire your laser gun to destroy the 
robots, be sure not to touch the walls or any objects 
you find— they are all electrified! Don't relax for a 
moment... the Indestructible Menace is lurking 
somewhere, ready to demolish everything in his path 
. . .and he cannot be destroyed. Fast-paced 1 or 2 
player game with great colors and sound. Requires 
joystick for each player. 

16KTape, $24.95 



Scepter of Kzirgla 

From Rainbow Connection Software 
Real-time graphics adventure game with arcade 
sound for the color computer. 13 floors of dungeon 
with monsters, treasure chests, hidden trap doors . . . 
even a flying magic carpet! All in your quest to find 
the Scepter of Kzirgla. Whatever you do, don't get 
caught in the poisonous gas cloud! Extended BASIC 
required. 

16K Tape, $16.95, 16K Disk, $21.95 

101 Color Computer 
Programming 

Tips & Tricks 

By Ron Clark from ARCsoft 

Handy collection of practical, easy-to-follow techniques 
and shortcuts for your color computer. Each of 101 tips 
features a complete, pre tested, ready to run program. In- 
cludes graphics, sound, games, text on text, number 
crunching. 

Softcover, $7.95 

TRS-80 
Color Basic 

By Bob Albrecht from John Wiley & Sons 
Step-by*step guide to the unique color, sound and 
graphic capabilities of your new Color Computer. No 
previous experience is required. Teach yourself 
BASIC— there's a whole chapter on typical program- 
ming problems and solutions. 

Softcover, $9.95 



Ghost 
Gobbler 




From Spectral Associates 
In this new and exciting version of the popular arcade 
game, use your joysticks to move your Ghost Gobbler 
through the maze, eating dots and power pills to 
score points. 8 bonus shapes, super sound, and 16 
skill levels. Extended BASIC required; joysticks. 

16KTape, $21.95 





Invader's Revenge 

By Ken Kalish from Med Systems. 
You are the last space invader— humans have 
destroyed all the others— and you're out for 
REVENGE! Wipe out as many as you can, avoiding 
their lasers and photon blasts. Multiple skill levels; 1 
or 2 players; extended BASIC not required. Machine 
language, hi-res graphics, great sound. 

16K Tape, $19.95 

Also Available: Phantom Slayer 

16K Tape, $19.95 



Cave 
Hunter 




From Mark Data Products K\ 
Vivid colors and unusual sound effects add "spice" 
to this action-filled arcade game for one or more 
players. Guide your CAVE HUNTER through the 
maze of cave passages, filled with scary Cave Crea- 
tures, to find gold treasures. Score points for each 
treasure you bring to cave entrance and for each 
Creature you destroy. Player's score and highest 
game score are displayed. Random "double point" 
mode. Requires joystick. 

16 K Tape, $24.95 



Protectors 




From Tom Mix Software 
You have 4 ships armed with laser cannon and smart 
bombs. They have waves of enemy fighters; their 
mother ships have lasers and heat-seeking mines. 
Get a new ship for each 5,000 points you score. Excit- 
ing arcade action with hi res 4-color graphics. 

32K Tape, $24.95 32K Disk, $27.95 




Voyager I 



From Avafon Hill 

You're on board a spaceship infested with killer 
robots in this graphic science fiction game. You must 
clear the 4-level 144-location ship of robots and arm it 
to self-destruct. Can you do it and escape before you, 
too, are blown up? High-speed graphics are repre- 
sented in 3-D perspective representing your eye's 
view; with instant switching to floor plan maps. Ex- 
tended BASIC required. 

16KTape, $19.95 




6809 

Assembly 
Language 
Programming 

By Lance Leventhal from McGraw Hill 
This comprehensive book covers 6809 assembly 
language programming in detail. The entire instruc- 
tion set is presented and fully explained. The book 
contains many fully debugged, practical program- 
ming examples with solutions in both object code and 
source code. Discussion of assembler conventions, 
I/O devices, and interfacing methods is also included. 
If you've never before programmed in assembly 
language, this book will teach you how. If you're an 
experienced programmer, you'll find this book an in- 
valuable reference to the 6809 instruction set and pro- 
gramming techniques. 

Softcover, $16.95 




©1982 The Program Store, Inc. 



Washington, D.C. 20016 



Visit our other stores: 



Seven Corners Center, Falls Church, VA • W. Bell Plaza, 6600 Security Blvd., Baltimore, MO • Olentangy Plaza, 829 Bethel Rd., Columbus, OH 

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j THE PROGRAM STORE • Pept.RN212« Box 9582 * 4200 Wisconsin Avenue, NW * Washington, D.C.20O1 6 1 

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Page 1 54 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



Software Review... 

Tower Castle Carries Out 
Theme Well In Good Adventure 

The fact is that a lot of work goes in to writing an 
Adventure program. And, it seems to us that as long as the 
author is going to spend a great deal of time getting 
everything straight from the program's standpoint, he 
should carry out the theme, too. 

Tower Castle does this in an outstanding way. First off, let 
us say that it is a fine adventure with some good little tricks 
and the like, but that is programming and not what we are 
really talking about here. Or, more on this later. 

The theme is set in a somewhat long introduction 
program that, we imagine, allows the main program to 
operate with only (?) 32K. By the fine use of knight-like 
language, the introduction sets the theme of the program 
and, at the same time, gives you an opportunity to view the 
castle you will be Adventuring in. This is certainly better 
than watching the little "F" blink while the program loads. 

But, once the program starts it is evident the author took 
great pains to make this a fine excursion in a thematic 
Adventure. Every message in this "word"-type adventure is 
straight out of King Arthur's Court (or at least as we imagine 
King Arthur's Court to have been). The locations, the 
dialogue, the descriptions and the articles you are able to 
pick up along the way are all worked into this general theme 
of Knights of Old. It's an enjoyable experience. 

The Adventure itself is enjoyable, too. There are enough 
twists and turns to keep your mental juices flowing and the 
experience is a good one. Death, of course, lurks in all 





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corners. But there is a way out — usually with magic, 
assuming you figure out how to use it. 

In addition, we liked the display which segments the 
screen into different areas: Things you can see, messages, 
directions you can go and Adventurer's input. All in all, this 
is one of the better Adventures to come down the pike lately. 

(Moreton Bay Software, 316 Castillo Street, Santa 
Barbara, CA 93101, $17.95) 



(From Page 8) 

Editor's Notes. 



PRINT #-2, 

comparison of the number of programs offered by the 
Rainbow and 80 Micro. 

Incidentally, we brought this item to the attention of an 
editor at 80 Micro. He allowed how this item must have 
"slipped by." It will be corrected in the future, he promised. 

This is all beside the point, and we certainly do not wish to 
get into an argument about number of programs, ads, pages, 
words or whatever that are devoted to CoCo in any 
magazine. Rather, we feel you, as a CoCo owner, would be 
interested in some facts. 

First of all, the CoCo has been a true success story for 
Radio Shack and for personal computer owners in general. 
Far and away, it gives the most value for the dollar of any 
personal computer on the market. And, for that matter, 
there is some lack of understanding on the part of Mr. Green 
if he equates CoCo with the Atari 400, VIC-20, Timex-1 000 
and TI 99/4A. And, despite this, Tandy is selling the 16K 
CoCo for $299, quite a bargain! 

Second, Tandy does cooperate. Jon Shirley, vice 
president for computer merchandising, has been most open 
in steering his CoCo customers toward software and 
firmware for the Color Computer. That is true, too, for 
members of his staff. If you simply assess the Color 
Computer's position in the marketplace, it is easy to see that 
Mr. Shirley and his people are doing one heck of a job. After 
all, why do you think the the VIC, Atari, Timex and all the 
others are cutting price under CoCo? Did Volkswagen cut 
prices shortly after its "Beetle" was introduced in this 
country — or did other manufacturers cut their prices to 
meet the competition? 

Third, there is a darn good outside support industry there 
for CoCo. One look through these pages should tell you 
that. Frankly, it is my impression there is more software, 
hardware and firmware available for the Color Computer 
than for the Model III/ 1, which Mr. Green seems to think is 
so well supported. Yes, many of these firms are smaller, but 
they have fine products — as many of you can attest. 

I do read 80 Micro each month to see what it has to say. 
And I have had occasion to speak with Mr. Green about his 
magazines, mine and computers. I find him to be a nice 
person but, on the subject of the Color Computer, I think he 
is all wet and has been for quite some time. So, one of my 
wishes for 1983 is that I hope we'll hear no more about lack 
of support for CoCo from 80 Micro, either by Radio Shack 
or by the many, many firms which have — to my mind and in 
the view of others — done a good job providing you with the 
things you need and want for your Color Computer. 

I personally think the growth and support of CoCo has 
been tremendous in the last year. I see it continuing and I 
think you, as a user who has invested good money in your 
system, see it that way, too. 

And, frankly, since we are the only magazine which is 100 
percent devoted to the 80C and its friends (TDP-100 and 
Dragon-32), it just might be that we're in a better position to 
judge than is Mr. Green, anyway. 



December, 1982 the RAINBOW 



On the subject of the Rainbow, I do want to thank each of 
you for your support in this past year. We've grown from 
quite a few less than 1 ,000 in paid circulation to over 12,000 
as I write this and have increased from 19 pages to 
somewhere in the area of 180. 

Every once in a while I ask you to mention the Rainbow 
when you order anything from these pages. The reason is 
simply that our advertisers do pay the bills f or our continued 
growth and you can help us grow by telling them that the 
money they are spending is paying off. That is important to 
us, but it is important to you, too. Thank you f or every time 
you mention us. It allows us to keep expanding — providing 
more pages, more programs, more information about 
CoCo. 

Last month I said there would be some changes this 
month. Well, here they are. The first should be most 
obvious — a new binding that gives the Rainbow a "spine" 
f or the first time. This process is called perf ect binding, and 
we're using it because we just got too big to be able to 
effectively use staples. 

We have moved printers, too. The firm which now prints 
the Rainbow, Gibbs-Inman Co., is one of the most respected 
magazine publishers in the United States. You may notice 
the colors are brighter and the type cleaner — that is because 
each page of the Rainbow is now varnished and quick-dried 
on leaving the press. You can see the "shine" in the ink. 

You might note the paper is thinner, too. But, it is more 
opaque than bef ore. This is because, f or the first time, we are 
using what is called a "coated" paper stock. No, it does not 
"shine." We have received a large number of requests not to 
use shiny paper because of light reflections that can make it 
difficult to see program listings you are keying in. Shiny 
paper may be "just the thing" for reading-type magazines 
like Time, but the feedback we have received from you 
indicates you believe such paper is a negative in a computer 
magazine. We would like your opinion on this. 

Finally, you will see some changes in the makeup and 
layout coming gradually in the nextf ew months. We want to 
make the Rainbow easier for you to read and find your way 
through. Again, let us know your opinions about these. We 
welcome them. 

Speaking of welcomes, we hope you will welcome Joseph 
Kolar to the Rainbo. Joe starts a new series called Basic 
Training that will be for the beginner to personal 
computing. But, for those of you who have advanced past 
the beginner's stage, I think you will find Joe's contributions 
contain a large number of hints and tips that could improve 
things for you, too. 

And coming up, we will have a new series on advanced 
programming tips. Watch for that in the next couple of 
issues. 

We're planning to start the year with our long-awaited 
Adventure Issue. Frankly, the number of entries was 
overwhelming. We'll let you know who the winners are and 
print the winning Adventure for you to key in. Also in 
January, we plan to report the results of our reader poll. 
Believe it or not, more than 3,000 of you responded to the 
poll. Thank you. It helps us plan for the future. 

In addition, there will be another contest starting next 
month: A simulation contest. The idea is that you must write 
a program with the best simulation of some kind of event — 
operation of a nuclear power plant, a voyage to another 
galaxy, flying a plane around the world, or whatever your 
imagination cooks up. This one should be a lot of fun, so 
plan to set aside some time and enter. The prizes, as usual, 
will be good ones. 



Page 155 

Also coming next month, all the details on the Rainbow 
Connection, the electronic version of the magazine, that we 
mentioned last month. I think you will be excited by the 
prospects, so watch for the information. The Rainbow 
Connection should be on-line by the time you get January's 
issue. 

Did I say that I had a wish list for 1983? Yes, I seem to 
remember that I did several thousand words back. 

Number one on my list is a full-fledged compiler. And, I 
think that is a desire shared by a lot of people. 

I'm also hoping to see more original-type games for 
CoCo. And I truly hope we see more of you bending CoCo's 
fantastic abilities toward educational software — especially 
for exceptional children and adults. 

I would truly like to see someone come up with a first class 
version of the excellent Snapp, Inc. Basic enhancements 
Bob Snapp has produced for the Models II and 1 6. It would 
be a real challenge due to the differences in the machines, but 
a major boon. Snapp's utilities are the absolute finest I have 
ever seen for any microcomputer system. 

Last but certainly not the least, I like to think of the CoCo 
world as a big family ofpeopleall linked to one another with 
a common bond that stretches across countries, oceans and 
time zones. So to each of you, from all of us, have the 
happiest of Holidays and the best for 1983. 

You have our best wishes, I hope we have yours. 

— Lonnie Falk 



GREAT SOFTWARE 

AT AN UNBEATABLE 

PRICE 

GAME PACK 1 (16k Ext ) $8.95 

LEM: New landscape each game. ^ 
PIRATE ADVENTURE: Find the hidden 
treasure. SUPERZAP, and DARTS. 

* GAME PACK 2 (16k Ext) $11.95 

AN UNEXPLORED MANSION: Explore the 

mansion and find the fortune 

- over thirty rooms. MOON PILOT: 
three different landmg choices and 
gravity levels. BALLOONS: Pop the 
falling balloons. 

*4k GAME PACK $6.95 

GLIPPERS (with machine language), 
AIRPLANE ATTACK, and DARTS. 

*Requires joystick. 

All prices include postage and handling. 
Check or money order only please. 
Prices are in U.S. Currency. 

CENTURY SOFTWARE 

I649 Geneva Ave. No. 
St. Paul, MN 55119 



Page 1 56 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Software Review... 

Three Word Processors 
Give You Power, Choices 

Power, that's what it is. And, of course, a great feeling of 
control over your CoCo. That's what you get from using a 
word processing program. 

Let me explain. I'm what is sometimes referred to as a 
"word merchant." We come in a wide variety; myself, I'm the 
news bureau editor at a university and the greater 
proportion of my work day is spent writing news releases 
about whatever is happening on campus. 

My basic work tool is the typewriter. When I finish my 
rough draft, somebody else produces the finished draft 
which is then reproduced and mailed out. While we do have 
a rather sophisticated word processing system, it is in high 
demand and is used mainly for blending long mailing lists 
with form letters and such as that. The office secretary does 
the "word processing" on news releases, which generally run 
no more than three double-spaced pages, and often are only 
one page. 

When I do have the routine form letter to send to a news 
media mailing list, again someone else takes my draft and 
disappears into the word processing room, reappearing 
soon with finished letters all ready for my signature. Not a 
bad arrangement, and when I get a stack of letter-perfect 
documents on my desk, awaiting my approval, I count my 
blessings. Quite candidly, it also makes me feel important. I 
hand someone a few sheets of paper full of strike-overs, 
editing marks, blocks of copy cut out with scissors and taped 



Color Computer Programs 

from 

Genesis Software 

presenting 

* The Enchanted Forest 

The BIG adventure in hi -res graphics is here! Move 
through more than 50 scenes on a quest to rescue the 
captive princess. Decisions are made according to 
visual clues, not text. There are many inhabitants in 
the Enchanted Forest — some are friendly, some 
are not. This is a sophisticated computer adven- 
ture — a real challenge. A must for your adventure 
library. Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21 . 95 

* The Game Show 

Now a lively party game where two teams compete 
against the clock to name several items in a 
category. Includes 60 rounds with color graphics 
and sound. Machine language routine for fast 
response. Requires 16K extended basic and joy- 
sticks. 

Tape cassette (postage paid ) $19.95 

Genesis Software ^ 
P.O. Box 936 ^ 
Manchester, Mo. 63011 



into place in a different part of the story, and all manner of 
messiness; a little while later, it comes back looking 
beautiful. So what do I need with a word processor? 

Now, I know: Power! Yessir, it's a wonderful feeling to 
punch a few keys and watch spelling get corrected, lines 
move to new locations, and messinessjust disappear. Now, I 
know why the support staff never seems to mind going into 
that little windowless room in the back of the office and 
sitting at a small monitor for hours on end. Probably, none 
of them would admit it, but I'll betcha they're hooked. 
They're in command and the word processor does their 
every bidding. They're rewarded with a beautiful finished 
product for their efforts, too. Responds instantly: No back 
talk, no coffee break — Everybody ought to have one. 

You may well think I'm pulling your leg, but I've had as 
much fun "playing" with some word processing programs 
for the Color Computer as I've had with adventure games, 
graphics games and the like. For one thing, you feel in 
command instead of vastly overpowered; word processing 
helps you exercise some control over your computer and 
helps you make it perf orm the kinds of tricky stuff that cause 
your friends to sit up and take notice that CoCo is not a toy. 
I'm writing this rambling review with Telewriter and I think 
I'm in love. Take my games, take my ROM packs, take data 
files, but please don't take my Telewriter. 

Okay, so I got a bit carried away. You know, though, back 
in January of this year, Rainbow reported that there were 
four word processing programs available for the CoCo. 
Today, there are more than we can keep track of — and there 
are still some non-believers out there who (wrongly) think 
CoCo isn't generally suitable for word processing. Recently, 
I took a good look at three of the word processing programs 
that are now available: Wordclone, Micro-Script and 
Telewriter 2.0 (the Disk version). 

Rather naively, I must admit, on looking back, I agreed to 
compare the three, which have little in common, except that 
they are designed to help you produce a finished letter or 
document that is free of errors. All three programs are 
capable of that, and each has its own unique extra features. 

Borrowing from the Rainbow editor Lonnie Falk's in- 
depth review in the January, 1982, issue, I'm going to 
evaluate the word processing programs infiveareas: display 
and input, editing ease, I/O capability, special features, 
and — adding a category of my own — documentation. 

Display And Input 

The screen display is very important, because this is where 
the work is done. Wordclone and Telewriter both use the f ull 
screen. Micro-Script uses the standard screen format that 
appears when you first power up your CoCo. 

Wordclone uses a 50 character by 24 line display and 
Telewriter uses 51 characters by 24 lines. And, even though 
it's the lowest priced of the three, Wordclone uses real upper 
and lower case with true descenders — that is the "g," the "y, " 
and other letters with "tails" do stick below the line. 
Telewriter has a very readable lower case, but no descenders. 
Micro-Script, on the other hand, uses inverse video for 
lower case, and if you're comfortable with that, since that's 
what you use in the Microsoft language that's used in 
CoCo's ROM, maybe that's okay. Personally, I find it very 
distracting. 

As to input, you just start typing with Telewriter and keep 
typing until you're finished. You need pay no attention to 
the end of the line because, if a word won't fit, Telewriter just 
pushes the entire word down to the next line. That's really 
quite a feat, and even later when you insert a word or phrase, 
it simply pushes the rest of the copy down to make room, or 
pulls it back up from lower lines to fill in when you delete a 
word or phrase. Wordclone and Micro-Script don't offer 



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the RAINBOW 



Page 158 
that luxury. 

With Wordclone, you must review each line as you type it 
and then press ENTER and wait f or the line to be typed on 
the printer. It's plainly slow, especially if you're a speed 
typist. I'm not, but I found the required pause at the end of 
every line to be quite disruptive. But, if you are collecting 
your thoughts and composing as you go, it may not be a 
problem. If you're writing a computer program, for 
instance, you may not even notice the slow input. 

Micro-Script is a little better; you can type in two 32- 
character lines before you must hit ENTER, and, you don't 
have to feed to the printer at this point. So, input can be a lot 
quicker. But, if you go beyond the two lines and don't hit 
ENTER you may find yourself typing away and nothing 
appearing on the screen when you look up to check. You 
soon learn to keep a close eye on the screen because of this. 

Editing Ease 

Editing with Wordclone can be tedious. To begin with, 
you must first review your printout for errors and then count 
the lines on your printed copy. To correct an error, you must 
go to the editing mode and key in the line number of the line 
you wish to edit. That line is then displayed by itself and you 
are required to retype the entire line to correct an error. 
Then you repeat the process with any other lines that need 
correcting. Hopefully, since input was so slow to begin with, 
you won't have much correcting to do. 

With Micro-Script, you don't need a hard copy for 
reference, and you can enter the edit mode any time you 
wish. Editing with Micro-Script is still a bit cumbersome 
because of the numerous options you must key in and you 
can do only one line at a time before returning to the main 
menu. Jumping back and forth between main menu, 
submenu and the text itself gets a bit old if you have multiple 
changes, but you can insert, delete, etc. without having to 
retype the entire line. 

Telewriter — of course, it costs twice as much as either of 
the others — edits with ease. You can just "scroll" through 



December 1 982 



J- w 

THE COMPOSER 



SPEECH SYSTEMS, A MANUFACTURER OF SPEECH, MUSIC, AND SOUND EFFECT 
SYNTHESIZERS FOR THE SS-50 BUS, INTRODUCES THE COMPOSER FOR THE 

COLOR COMPUTER. THE COMPOSER IS A 4 VOICE MUSIC COMPILER WHICH 
ALLOWS ONE TO EASILY DEVELOP MUSIC. EACH VOICE USES ITS OWN 
WAVESHAPE TABLE. BOTH A BASIC AND A MACHINE LANGUAGE PROGRAM ARE 
INCLUDED, NO ADDITIONAL HARDWARE IS NECESSARY. THE COMPOSER 
ALLOWS THE ORGINAL MUSICAL SCORE TO BE SAVED. IN ADDITION, THE 
COMPILED MUSIC MAY BE SAVED AND BEST OF ALL IT MAY BE PLAYED 
WITHOUT ANY OTHER SOFTWARE. EXAMPLES OF HOW THE COLOR COMPUTER 
CAN BE USED TO REPRODUCE SOUND EFFECTS ARE ALSO INCLUDED. YOU 
HAVE TO HEAR THE DIFFERENCE TO REALLY COMPARE, BUT JUST LOOK AT 
SOME OF THESE FEATURES: 



THE 

COMPOSER 

PRICE . $24.95 

VOICES % 

OCTAVE RANGE ► 7 

WAVESHAPES H 

MANUAL 4 ♦ + 25 full pages 

MUSIC INCLUDED > YES 

TEMPO (SPEED ) 20 + 

DOTTED NOTE YES 

DOUBLE DOTTED YES 

TRIPLETT YES 

QUARTER NOTE TRIPLETT.. YES 

EIGTH NOTE TRIPLETT ... - YES 

THIRTY SECOND NOTE YES 

SOUND EFFECTS YES 



RADIO SHACK 

MUSIC 

$29.95 

2 

H 

n 

16 mini-pages 
NO 
4 

YES 

NO 

NO 

NO 

NO 

NO 

NO 



Requires 1 6K Extended BASIC 
CASSETTE VERSION ..... 
DISK VERSION 



lrr _____--JI|_LL 
.|.|.|.L._.IJJJ ■ L L I. B ■ I 



$24.95 
$29.95 



CALL OR WRITE TO ORDER. 
WE ACCEPT CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA, AND MASTERCARD. 
ILLINOIS RESIDENTS PLEASE INCLUDE 5* SALES TAX. 
INCLUDE $1.50 FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING. 



RAINBOW 



DEALER INQUIRES INVITED. 



S^pvecli System* 



(312) 879-6880 



38 W 255 DEERPA TH ROAD 
BAT A VIA, IL 60510 



the entire text zipping the cursor up and down, left and right, 
and make massive changes with a minimum of trouble. It's 
really fun to do. Proofing and editing copy is where you can 
exercise the power I mentioned at the beginning of this 
review. 

Basically, while Telewriter can run off and leave the other 
two programs in terms of speed in editing, all three 
programs have the capability to do things almost impossible 
with atypewriter, no matter how good the machine, or typist 
is. 

I/O Capability 

All three programs can be used with either tape or disk. 
Wordclone comes on tape only, though, and must be 
transferred to disk. While Micro-Script can be ordered in a 
disk version, only Telewriter's disk version has a number of 
extra features unique to the disk version. 

With Telewriter 2.0 (disk), you have all that the tape 
version offers plus such things as a RENAME command to 
change the name of a file. Also, PRINT DIR gives you a 
simple way to print the directory to the printer, something 
the Radio Shack DOS doesn't provide. Among other 
features is file chaining. Say you have a document of a few 
dozen pages and it takes up six separate files on disk, with 
the "Q" embedded command on Telewriter 2.0, you can tell 
the print routine to read in and print the file whose name 
follows the Q once it's finished printing the current contents 
of the buffer. 

Another Telewriter 2.0 feature worthy of mention is a 
utility program which may be used to convert Telewriter 
files to standard ASCII and vice versa. This is important 
because Telewriter does not make normal saves in ASCII. 
While this is an extra step, it solves a big headache which 
previously existed for Telewriter owners. 

Obviously, disk is great to have, but there is also another 
facet of I/O capability — that of printer communication. 
This is where Micro-Script shines. With Micro-Script, you 
can jump back and forth between different type sizes with 
ease, and special instructions are provided for tailoring 
Micro-Script to whatever printer you use. You can really 
jazz up your printout once you get the hang of it — even with 
a Line Printer VII, like I have. If your printer is more 
versatile, well just watch you go. 

All three word processing programs allow you to format 
your printout, but Micro-Script seems to be a lot easier to 
use. 

Special Features 

While you may not consider a justified right-hand margin 
a special feature, but rather something you'd expect of a 
word processor, only Micro-Script, of the three we are 
reviewing here, offers this very tidy feature. (In case you 
aren't familiar with "justification" as a printing term, it 
means having a right-hand margin that is "even," like the 
left-hand margin, not ragged, but all lines the same length. 
While this may or may not be important to you, I find that it 
adds a real touch of class to a document. (We understand 
Telewriter-64, which is just out, does offer this feature, but 
we haven't had a chance to try it.) Micro-Script's 
justification works great. 

While Wordclone is a budget word processor, it does have 
a handy extra feature that permits you to use Wordclone as a 
character generator so you can have text in the graphics 
mode without having to go through a bunch of complicated 
commands. 

In addition to having the capability of entering a line, 
which makes for nice titles, Micro-Script also has the ability 
to move line from one section of the text to another. 

both Micro-Script and Telewriter allow you to search 
easily for some key word. Let's say you decide that every 



■ 3 display formats: 51/64/85 
columns x 24 lines 

■ True lower case characters 

■ User-friendly full-screen 
editor 

■ Right justification 

■ Easy hyphenation 

■ Drives any printer 

■ Embedded format and 
control codes 

■ Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

■ Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

■ No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 

The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
TI, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 




...one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer 1 have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24! ! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VII1, DMP-100/200, Epson, Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona, 
Terminet, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) format controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 

Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of files from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 

Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 




...truly a state of the art word processor... 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add $2 for shipping. Calif ornians add 6<Vo state tax. Allow 2 
weeks for personal checks. Send self -addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN, RAINBOW, 
80-Micro, 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Telewriter-64. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
information.) 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



Page 1 60 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



time you used the word "university," you now want it 
capitalized. Well, the search command finds each instance 
of "university" quickly and, on signal then immediately 
searches for the next occurrence. That's an impressive 
feature to use to show off your computer to your buddies. 

Frankly, Telewriter has so many features, I am quite sure 
I haven't even discovered many of them. Automatic page 
numbering is one. The super formatting menu is another. 
Best of all, for me anyway, is the documentation. That's our 
last category of review. 

Documentation 

Wordclone's documentation is contained on a single S l / 2 
X 1 1 sheet of paper f olded in half t o make f our pages. Micro- 
Script' comes to 10 pages of single-spaced information — 
quite a lot by most standards, but Telewriter 2. 0 has 8 1 pages 
and is crammed with all the details anybody is likely to ever 
need. That's not excessively long when you consider that 
Telewriter has some 71 separate commands. 

I prefer to have a manual and, while it took me a long time 
to wade through the Telewriter tutorial, I felt reassured to 
have all the details down on paper. I suppose if you're the 
type who can't wait to get started, Wordclone may be your 
answer; two minutes and you've absorbed it all. If you like 
line-by-line instructions, Micro-Script has what you need. 
But if you want every comment and "what if" explanation 
imaginable, then Telewriter is the one for you. 

Summary 

Which one is the right one? Obviously, that depends on 
your individual needs. (I always hate it when I read that 
"well it depends" kind of statement, but it's unavoidable.) 
Clearly, Telewriter is the streamlined program, but it can't 



justify the right-hand margin while Micro-Script can. 
Similarly, only Wordclone gives you real lower case 
descenders. (A caveat here. While Wordclone and some 
other programs on the market do provide "real" lower case 
on the screen, that doesn't mean your printer will print it 
that way; it just appears that way on the screen. It takes a 
hardware modification to change the way a printer's 
typeface looks.) And, lastly, Telewriter is a very 
sophisticated program — thus it requires a sophisticated 
user; you can't perform all the functions unless you've 
studied the manual. 

It should be noted, too, that both Wordclone and. Micro- 
Script are in BASIC, while Telewriter is in machine 
language. This certainly makes the former easier to 
modify — but it also makes the latter faster. If you think 
you'll be making modifications to the program you'll buy, 
having that program in BASIC is a real plus. 

A final piece of advice. Even if you have enough spare 
change to go out and get all three programs, don't. Get one 
and stick with it. The key to getting results is to standardize 
and stick with a format you're familiar with. This reveiwer 
just about went bananas as he switched from one program to 
another — the commands are quite different, and with the 
same command that cleaned . up overflow lines on one 
program I managed to clean the entire program right out of 
memory when I mistakenly tried it with another. 

But, do try word processing if you've yet to try it. You'll 
find yourself writing to old friends just to be able to use your 
newest toy. 

{Wordclone, 1MB, Illustrated Memory Banks, P.O. Box 
289, Williamstown, MA 01267-0289, $18.95. 
Micro-Script, Micro-80 Inc., 2665 N. Busby Road, Oak 
Harbor, WA 98277, $24.05 (tape or disk) 
Telewriter 2.0, Cognitec, 704 Nob Avenue, Del Mar, CA 
92014, $49.95 (tape) or $59.95 (disk).) 



You've invested a lot of time and money into your computer . . . 

It's time that investment paid off! 





THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT 



The Programmer's Institute introduces THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT, the only complete personal financial package 
specifically designed for the TRS-80 COLOR computer. This unique package includes: 



1. Complete Checkbook Maintenance 

2. Chart of Accounts Maintenance 

3. Income/ Expense Accounts 

4. Net Worth Statement 



8. Home Budget Analysis 

9. Decision Maker 
10. Mailing List 



5. Payments/ Appointments Calendar 

6. Color Graph Design Package 
(graphs any files) 

7. Check Search 

After the initial setup, THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT requires less than an hour of data input each month. 

The checkbook maintenance program is the key to the entire package. Once your checkbook is balanced, the checkbook summary file will 
automatically update the home budget analysis, net worth, and income/expense statements. You can then graph any file, record bills and 
appointments, make decisions, print a mailing list, analyze various accounts or stocks, and even calculate taxes. 

All programs are menu-driven and allow add/change/delete. Each file and statement can be listed to screen or printer, and saved to cassette 
or diskette. THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT also comes with 40 pages of documentation that leads you step-by-step through the entire package. 

The TRS-80 COLOR Ext. Basic requires 16K for this package. ($74.95 cassette, $79.95 diskette). 

See your local dealer or order direct: 



THE PROGRAMMER'S INSTITUTE 

a division oj FUTL REHOUSE. 
P.O. BOX 3191, DEPT. 1 R 
C HAPEL HILL. NC 27514 



The perfect supplement to THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT, The Tax Handler includes; 

1. Complete Form 1040 

2. Schedule A (Itemized Deductions) 

3. Schedule G (Income Averaging) 

This year let The Tax Handler prepare your taxes ($24.95 cassette, $29.95 diskette). 




VISA 



1-919-967-0861 

10 AM - 9 PM. Man - Sat 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 161 



Software Review... 

Gangbusters is "Gangbusters" 
In This Reviewer's Opinion 

If you've ever dreamed of living a life of crime, 
Gangbusters is an excellent way to get started, keeping you 
both safe and innocent! 

First, the documentation gives you a complete glossary of 
the Mafia language, which I had no earthly idea about. 
Secondly, after loading the tape (Pricky-Pear used Sugar 
Software's Auto Run program), it says it is 1920 and the 
prohibition era has begun. Two to six players can play. It 
asks the names of the players and, then, gets started. (There 
are so many bells and whistles in this, I had to write most of 
them down.) 

You start out with $6000, and you can get more by buying 
unions, bootleg operations, limos and the sort. Later on it 
asks you the percentage rate on your operations. There is 
one part I especially like — "Playing the Ponies," or in other 
words, betting on horses. You pick the horse you want, place 
your bet and they're off! I wish there was a graphic 
simulation of this, but you can't have everything. 

Another thing I'll mention is that the Juiceman can get 
you into trouble, but that's all I'll say. I was sent a letter 
about a week after the program arrived saying that 
Gangbusters would not work on a 16K machine because of 
bugs. Fortunately, I had a 32K machine, and it loaded okay. 
I enjoyed Gangbusters very much and think you also will be 
pleased. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 9822 E. Stella Road, Tucson, 
AZ 85730 , $19.95 tape, $24.95 disk.) 

— Andy Peters 



Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 

Contributions to the RAINBOW are welcome from 
everyone. We like to run a variety of programs which will be 
useful/helpful/fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best 
to make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but we do not have time to key in programs. All 
programs should be supported by some editorial 
commentary, explaining how the program works. We're 
much more interested in how your submission works and 
runs than how you developed it. Programs should be 
learning experiences. 

We do pay f or submissions, based on a number of criteria. 
Those wishing remuneration should so state when making 
submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed 
inf ormation on making submissions, please send a S ASE to: 
Submissions Editor, the RAINBOW, P.O. Box 209, 
Prospect, KY 40059. We will send you some more 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently 
submitted to another publication. 



Hint. 



You can double the speed at which CoCo operates with a 
simple POKE statement, entered either directly from the 
keyboard or within a program. The statement is POKE 
65495,0. This will speed up your CPU. You can return the 
computer to its normal speed again by POKE 65494,0. 

Note that you cannot perform any Input/ Output 
operations (such as saving the program to cassette) when the 
speedup is in effect. 



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Page 1 62 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Software Review... 

Dragonquest A Fun, 
Frustrating Adventure 

"Cowards die a thousand deaths, before their deaths, the 
valiant taste of death but once." 

Or, thatis,if they happen to beamong the brave who must 
attempt to fend off every nasty creature imaginable as they 
seek hidden treasures and work to rescue the maiden in 
distress in a wide variety of personal computer Adventures. 
But, every death has its reward; you always learn something 
from the experience. 

"Once killed, twice warned," has become my motto. 
Recently, after having been killed maybe two dozen times in 
Dragonquest!, my latest CoCo Adventure, it was with some 
amusement that I realized that the source of my 
bemusement was my total inability to reach the "Land of the 
Dead." That's right, the only way to reach the Land of the 
Dead is to stay alive; paradoxical, to say the most. 

Dragonquest! offers some new dimensions to my 
computer adventure experience. Among the verbs it 
recognizes are ROW and FLY, for instance. In this 
computer challenge, DRINK is neither a verb nor a noun, 
but you may find yourself in the "drink." 

Dragonquest! creater Charles Forsythe is full of tricks. 
Few things in this adventure are what they first seem to be, 
or to be used as one might first suppose. My best advice is 
"think again" before doing anything that seems logical. But, 
then what do I know? After fairly well conquering a sizable 
portion of the realm, I found myself aimlessly wandering in 
a dark forest with apparently no hope of getting to a 
clearing. 

I just knew that the Land of the Dead mentioned in the 



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documentation had to be somewhere inside that dark forest, 
but, try as I might, I could not find it. So, I cheated. I printed 
the entire listing and went over it with a red marking pen. 
But cheaters never win do they? I did find out that there was 
a big portion of the kingdom that I had not even begun to 
explore — and, even with the listing at my side, I still couldn't 
find it. 

Having already demonstrated that I have no scruples, I 
elected to try another bit of resourcefulness. I called the 
phone number supplied with the instructions and got a 
character who spoke in riddles. Called himself "Captain 80," 
if I heard him right. Must be a cousin of "Commander 80." 
Claimed he wasn't Charles Forsythe, but that he could 
answer any question I might have. 

So, I asked him, "If a tree f rog f alls in the f orest, is there a 
sound?" Well, he mumbled something about "one hand 
clapping" and told me I had two more wishes. So, I wished 
that he would tell me how to find the Land of the Dead. He 
allowed as how that wouldn't be very sporting, but gave me a 
hint or two that sent me off to adventure land again without 
even remembering to use my third wish. I still have his phone 
number though. 

Dragonquest! doesn't have a whole lot of documentation. 
About all you know to start with is that the dragon 
"Smaegor," purportedly the Monarch of Dragonfolk, has 
kidnapped the Princess of the Realm and you have to find 
her and rescue her. Presumably, some sort of quid pro quo 
will follow your daring rescue. 

Well, folks, cheaters do sometimes win. Armed with a 
listing printout and some long distance information, I 
finally succeeded in rescuing that little gal from Samegor's 
evil clutches and got her in my own. The kid didn't know 
when she was well off. Before it was over, I had myself half of 
the kingdom. Forsooth, Forsythe, you've been foiled again! 

Those who are familiar with the adventure genre should 
enjoy Dragonquest! The rest of you may have some heaping 
helpings of frustration. Here's a hint: Adventure game 
authors have absolutely no sense of syntax, and they almost 
always speak in two-word sentences. Don't use any two- 
dollar words, just speakum like this: "Eat food"; "Kill 
shovel"; "Go potty ."You get the picture. Pretend you're in a 
foreign country and you left your phrase book at home. 

Good fun. Send money. Buy game. 
(The Programmer's Guild Inc., P.O. Box 66, 
Peterborough, NH 03458. Tape: $15.95, Disk: $21.95.) 

—Jim Reed 

About Your Subscription 

Your copy of the RAINBO W is sent third class mail 
and, for subscribers in the United States, the date of 
mailing is printed on the label. If you do not receive 
your copy by the 25th of any month, send us a card and 
we will mail another immediately via first class mail. 

You must notify us of a new address when you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than the 
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change your address. Sorry, we cannot be responsible 
for sending another copy when you fail to notify us. 

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and the subscription expiration date. Please indicate 
this account number when renewing or corresponding 
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For Canadian and other non-U .S. subscribers, there 
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correspondence to that mailing address. Send it to our 
editorial offices at P.O. Box 209, Prospect, K Y 40059. 
This applies to everyone except those whose 
subscriptions are through our distributor in Australia. 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 1 63 



For These Three Friends 
The Outcome's a Bit Dicey 

By Bob Albrecht and George Firedrake 
Rainbow Contributing Editors 



We want to introduce three friends. They will assist us 
now and in future issues. Each is a specialist. We want you to 
meet 

• Annalee Analyticus, 

• Hieronymus Heuristicus, and 

• Theodore Theoreticus. 

Who are they? It is difficult for us to describe them. 
Instead, you will get to know them by what they do on our 
pages. Eventually you will know them, perhaps better than 
we. 



2D6 





Last time we said, "If you roll two six-sided dice and add 
the spots (or numbers), you will get a number from 2 to 12." 
Then we asked, "How many ways to get 2, or 3, or 4, or any 
possible number, up to 12?" 




Annalee clarifies, "Think of rolling two dice, one green 
and one red. The gree die can come up 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. 
Independently, the red die can come up 1,2, 3, 4, 5, or 6." 
She pauses, then continues, "Of course, these are very 
independent dice — green knows not what red does, nor does 
red know the predilections of green." 



C Annalee, must you j 
C use such big words? I 



r 



6m_ 



V 



Annalee glowers at Kilroy, then pursues her thought, 
"For each possible role of green, there are six possible rolls 
of red. So, I declare, there are 6 times 6, or 36 ways f or these 
two dice to come up." 

Perhaps because we looked perplexed, she wrote down 
the 36 ways on a Taverna Athena napkin. Later, we were 



able to read some of her inscriptions on the ale-stained 
napkin, and reproduce them here for you. 



SUM (GREEN + RED) 
2 
3 
4 




2 
2 

3 
3 



5 
6 

1 

2 



7 

8 

4 

5 



The rest of the napkin is illegible, stained and smeared. 



Annalee's napkin gave us the idea for the following 
program. It "rolls" all 36 possible combinations for two dice 
and counts the number of times each sum, 2 through 12, 
occurred. 

Annalee shows the way 
Listing GMA 4-1 

100 REM ** ANNALEE SHOWS THE WAY 
110 DIM COUNT < 12) 

300 REM ** SET COUNTS TO ZERO 
310 FOR K=2 TO 12 
320 : COUNT <K> = 0 
330 NEXT K 

400 REM ** COUNT OUTCOMES 
410 FOR GD=1 TO 6 



420 S 
430 : 
440 5 
+ 1 
450 : 
460 NEXT GD 



FOR RD=1 TO 6 
SUM = GD + RD 
COUNT < SUM) = COUNT < SUM) 

NEXT RD 



600 REM ** TELL WHAT HAPPENED 

610 CLS 

620 PRINT "OUTCOME", "NUMBER OF 
WAYS" 

630 FOR K=2 TO 12 

640 : PRINT K, COUNT <K> 

650 NEXT K 

999 END 

As usual, our program is in blocks. Each block begins 
with a REM statement. We usually begin a block with a line 
number that is a multiple of 100. The above program has 
blocks 100, 300, 400, and 600. We try to make our pgorams 



Page 1 64 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



easy for people to read and understand. Let us know if this 
helps you. 

YOUR TURN. Write block 500 to compute the probability 
of each outcome. Then modify block 600 so the CoCo prints 
as follows: 

OUTCOME WAYS PROBABILITY 




Yes, you probably noticed? We want the probability 
rounded to three decimal places. 
Hieronymus Speaks 




"That's very nice, Annalee," says Hieronymus, "and I see 
how that would be true for perfect dice. However, if the dice 
are not perfectly cubical, or perhaps worn a little, the 
probabilities might be slightly different. And, we all know 
about loaded dice! As for me, I like to find out from 
experience, by actually rolling dice, just how they behave." 

Hummmm . . . this got us wondering about how well the 
computer simulated rolling 2D6. So we wrote a program we 
think Hieronymus will like. 

Listing GMA 4-2 

100 REM ** HIERONYMUS ROLLS 2D6 
110 DIM COUNT (12) 

199 : 

200 REM ** TALK TO A PERSON 
210 CLS 

220 INPUT "HOW MANY ROLLS"; SAMP 
LESIZE 

299 : 

300 REM ** SET COUNTS TO ZERO 
310 FOR K=2 TO 12 

320 : COUNT (K) = 0 
330 NEXT K 

399 : 

400 REM ** ROLLDICE, COUNT OUTCO 
MES 

410 FOR ROLL=l TO SAMPLES I ZE 
420 : GOSUB 910 

430 : COUNT (OUTCOME) = COUNT (OUT 
COME) + 1 
440 NEXT ROLL 
499 : 

600 REM ** TELL WHAT HAPPENED 
610 PRINT 

620 PRINT "OUTCOME", "FREQUENCY" 

630 FOR K=2 TO 12 

640 : PRINT K, COUNT (K) 

650 NEXT K 

699 : 

700 REM ** TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 
710 PRINT 

720 PRINT "FOR NEW SAMPLE, PRESS 
ANY KEY" 

730 IF INKEY* = "" THEN 730 ELSE 

210 
799 : 

900 REM ** DICE SUBROUTINE 

910 GD = RND ( 6 ) 

920 RD = RND (6) 

930 OUTCOME = GD + RD 

940 RETURN 

999 END 

This time we used a subroutine to "roll" the dice. This 
allows us to easily change the program to roll different dice. 
We suggest you save this program on cassette or disk. We 
call it GMA 4-2 because it is the second program in part four 
of Game Master's Apprentice. 

Theodore suggests, "For a large SAMPLESIZE, this 
program should produce results compatible with Annalee's 
program. For example, let's try runs of 360 rolls and see if we 
get numbers for each OUTCOME about ten times the 
numbers from Annalee's program." 



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December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 1 65 



So we did. Here are results from three runs. For 
comparison, we also show the numbers obtained by 
multiplying Annalee's numbers by ten. 

TEN TIMES 

OUTCOME 1st RUN 2nd RUN 3rd RUN ANNALEFS 



Theodore suggests, "Compare these PROPORTIONS 
with the PROBABILITIES in Annalee's method (you did 
do that, didn't you?). Try a large SAMPLESIZE, 1000 or 
2000 or even 10000 (that will take awhile!)." 



2 


11 


7 


10 


10 


3 


23 


18 


19 


20 


4 


29 


31 


32 


30 


5 


43 


46 


41 


40 


6 


51 


45 


43 


50 


7 


56 


63 


60 


60 


8 


46 


57 


48 


50 


9 


41 


36 


39 


40 


10 


32 


29 


34 


30 


11 


20 


16 


26 


20 


12 


8 


12 


8 


10 



Your Turn Write block 500 to comute the proportion of 
each OUTCOME during a run. Modify block 600 so the 
information is printed as shown below for our 1st RUN 



above. 






OUTCOME 


FREQUENCY 


PROF 


2 


11 


.031 


3 


23 


.064 


4 


29 


.081 


5 


43 


.119 


6 


51 


.142 


7 


56 


.156 


8 


46 


.128 


9 


41 


.114 


10 


32 


.089 


11 


20 


.056 


12 


8 


.022 




How might unfair dice affect the PROBABILITIES or 
PROPORTIONS? Try an unfair green die. 

• GD + RND(7): IF GD + 7 THEN GD + 5 

• GD + RND(8): IF GD is greater than 6 THAN GD + 4 

• And others suggested by the above! 



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Magazine RO Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 (805) 963-1066 




Page 1 66 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



In many role playing games, you create a Playing 
Character (PC) by rolling 3D6 for each of several 
characteristics, in "Game Master's Apprentice," we will use 
characteristics compatible with the Rune Quest and Worlds 
of Wonder game systems. They are listed below. 

Strength (STR) 
Constitution (CON) 
Size (SIZ) 
Intelligence (INT) 
Power (POW) 
Dexterity (DEX) 
Charisma (CHA) 




Dungeons' & Dragons 
uses similar characteristics 




Rolling 3D6 gives a number from 3 to 18 for each 
characteristic. Expect to roll 9, 10, 1 1 or 12 about half the 
time. These are "average" or "near average" rolls. 

Annallee claims there are 6*6*6, or 2 1 6 ways f or the three 
dice to come up. How many ways to get 3? How many ways 
to get 4? How many ways to get 5? And so on. 
YOUR TURN Write a program to compute the number of 
ways each outcome (3 to 18) can occur when rolling 3D6. 
Use the program called ANNALEE SHOWS THE WAY as 
your guide. While you are at it, you might as well include 
block 500 to compute the PROBABILITY for each 
OUTCOME. 

STILL YOUR TURN Modify the program called 
HIERONYMUS ROLLS 2D6 to roll 3D6 and count 
outcomes. We tink you will have to change only lines 100, 
110, 310, 630, and the DICE SUBROUTINE. Of course, 
you may want to also write block 500 com compute the 
PROPORTION for each OUTCOME. Hieronymus 
encourages you to do so. 

ROLL A CHARACTER Relax, no mugging is intended. 
We suggest you write a program to roll 3D6 for each of the 
seven charactristics STR, CON, SIZ, INT. POW, DEX, and 
CHA. Tell the CoCo to display the results as shown below. 



STR 


17 


Barostan is big and strong, 


CON 


17 


but not too bright. He is good 


SIZ 


13 


to have on your side in a fight, 


INT 


8 


if someone will tell him who to 


POW 


7 


hit. He acts first, then thinks 


DEX 


15 


later, if at all. 


CHA 


6 





STR 


13 


Joleen is a clown, mime, acrobat, 


CON 


11 


dancer, or whatever else might 


SIZ 


7 


enterain an audience. She wants 


INT 


13 


to travel with a troupe of 


POW 


8 


wandering entertainers, and perform 


DEX 


17 


at fairs and festivals. She will 


CHA 


13 


charm you. 



Barostan and Joleen are young and inexperienced. Both 
are 16 years old. They live in a village near the town of 
Triford in Wundervale. 

Next time, we will show you our 3D6 programs in the 
manners suggested by Annalee and Hieronymus. We will 
also show our program to ROLL A CHARACTER. 

What do you want? If it fits into the general idea of 
"GameM aster's Apprentice," we might do it. Send your 
requests to George & Bob, P.O. Box 3 10, Menlo Park, CA 
94025. If you want a reply, enclose a self -addressed, stamped 
envelope. 



mms 





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A 3-D GRAPHICS ADVENTURE WITH SOUND 

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HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE 
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This menu driven program package is 
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program code. Screen or printer 
output. 

16K Ext. BASIC $19.95 



FLIPPER 

A fun and challenging version of the 
Othello™ type board games. This 
version includes options for play 
solely by the computer, one player 
against the computer, or two players 
against each other. The computer 
can play on four skill levels. Very 
colorful with plenty of sound. Fun for 
kids and challenging for adults. Great 
for parties. 

16K Ext. BASIC $15.95 



COLOR 

SOFTWARE 

SERVICES 



P.O. BOX 1 708, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 7540I 



INCLUDE $2.25 HANDLING PER ORDER 
WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 



DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



TELEPHONE ORDERS 
(214) 454-3674 
9-4 Monday-Saturday 

VISA/MASTERCARD 



Page 168 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1 982 



New Color Computer Products 

* Universal Program 1 (UP-1) ★ 

The Program Stacking Program. UP-1 allows 
several programs to be loaded until the memory is 
filled. Quickly jump from one program to another 
or compose new ones while retaining the old ones. 
Programs included for patching damaged 
programs. UP-1 also allows text to be stored in 
memory and printed on an external 
printer. Cassette $14.95 
★ Disassembler-Assembler (DISASM) ★ 

Using English mnemonics and decimal locations, 
DISASM is a quick way to learn to assemble machine 
language programs. Analyze the CC ROMS plus ML 
programs with the disassembler. Cassette $19.95 

★ Dynamic Word Processor (DYWORD) ★ 



Organize text into remark statements with DYWORD's 
machine language subroutine, which quickly prints to 
screen or an external printer. Use the LIST command to 
quickly review the text. Only the start and ending 
statement numbers need be entered for execution. No 
more arrays, CHR$(N), PRINT#-2, or other awkward 
commands are required. Enter exactly what you want 
printed in the statements, including printer control 
commands. Allows printing form letters, purchase 
orders, personal and business letters. No extra memory 
is required and the Basic Control Program is easily 
modified. Cassette $24.95 

16K Computer Required Programs Do Not Require Ext. Basic 

Game Cartridge Modifications 

* Dynamic Interrupt Modification (DIM) * 

This modification includes adding a push button 
which, when engaged, causes an interrupt. The 
computer then runs a machine language subroutine 
after which it returns to its previous task. Examples 
include printing the characters on the screen to an 
external printer and saving the screen to memory. The 
Auto Start feature is disabled and the game is run by 
EXEC 49152. Example programs are included. Send 
Cart & $15.95. 

* EPROM Socket Addition (ESA) * 

This modification involves adding a socketand switch 
to select the EPROM or game. A 4K or less Basic or 
machine language program can be placed in the 
EPROM. Send Cart and $18.95. 

Both DIM and ESA updates to the same cart for only 
$29.95. 

EPROM PROGRAMMING 

You can run your Basic programs from an EPROM 
installed in a game cartridge and save all your computer's 
memory for other purposes. The program cannot be 
destroyed and is instantly avai lable. If your program is 4K or 
less we will program it for $10, plus $10 for the EPROM. 
Reprogramming fee is $10. Send two copies of your 

program on a cassette. 

Programming Service 

We write programs for business, scientific uses or 
educational purposes. Send as much detail as possible pi us 
$10 to cover our evaluation expensesand we will send you a 
quote. 

VISA and MC Cards accepted Add $1 for programs, $2 for mods s/h 

DYNAMIC ELECTRONICS 

P. O. Box 896 (205) 773-2758 

Hartselle, AL 35640 



Hardware Review... 

A Look At The New 
Radio Shack Graphic Printer 

Here at Prickly-Pear Softwear we have a new printer on 
the staff — the Radio S hack model CGP- 1 1 5 Color Graphics 
Printer (stock number 26-1192). It's a tiny little fellow, 
measuring about eight by eight inches, standing less than 
three inches high, and weighing in at less than two pounds. 
The capabilities are not small at all, however, and we have 
been very happy with it overall. 

It isn't exactly a printer in the truest sense of the word, 
because it actually draws everything with teensy ball point 
pens (about an inch long). It really is a plotter, and if you get 
tired of letters and numbers it will also draw circles, boxes, 
or most any other shape you can program. Using it to plot 
like this is very much like plotting on one of the high 
resolution PMODE screens with the DRAW statement. By 
the way, there are four of these teensy little pens, so if you 
tire of black you can select red, blue, or green. With 
considerable effort, you could draw landscapes right on the 
printer in four colors! 

Much of the power of the little printer/ plotter stems from 
the fact that it has its own language built right in, with a 
whole bunch of commands you can use to draw or print in 
any of the four colors, draw letters and numbers in 65 sizes, 
and print in any direction on the paper. It will draw letters as 
small as 80 across a four inch page, or as large as one across 
the same four inches. 

Remember now, this is a printer/plotter, with emphasis 
on the plotter. Naturally it will do listings of programs and 
other such mundane chores, but if that's all you need a 
printer for, you would probably be better off with an 
inexpensive dot-matrix line printer. For ordinary printing 
and listing, the disadvantages of the CGP-115 are several. 
First, it only prints four inches wide, so word processing is 
out unless you want to mail your mother a letter that looks 
like a scroll. Second, it is slow — very slow, and the rated 
speed is overly optimistic, particularly with a serial 
interface. Also, the rating doesn't take into account 
linefeeds, which this printer does very slowly. Third, the 
pens have a fairly short life, and you must remember to 
remove and cap them when you aren't using the printer, or 
they will dry out. 

On the plus side, remember that the printer/plotter was 
never intended to replace a line printer. The quality of the 
printing is very good, and also copies nicely, and the printer 
must be the quietest I have ever experienced. That was a big 
plus indeed to me, as I tend to go for a walk when the line 
printer is busy. For programmers like me, who keep using a 
line number until it is worn out, the buffer in this printer will 
easily handle even a full 255 byte program line. 

All in all, the little guy does a great job with all of its 
graphic functions, and has resolution down to .2 
millimeters. (That's less than 1 / 100 of an inch). It will draw 
any shape you can program, in color, and will even do a 
good job of listings and other line prnter tasks if you are in 
no big hurry. If your needs include word processing or 
address labels (the printer takes it own special roll of paper) 
then forget it, but otherwise, it's a good all-purpose little 
machine, and the least expensive printer (at list) that I've 
seen. Naturally, you could just get several printers for 
different uses. 



® 



PRODUCTS FOR THE 



COMPUTERWARE 

COLOR COMPUTER 



Radio Shack or TDP-100 



HOME & WORK 



HOME & WORK 



HOME & WORK 




3D DRAWING BOARD 

Draw a simple or complex 
object in three dimensions, 
then rotate, change 
elevation, size & distance of 
your object. Educational & 
entertaining. Extensive 
documentation, including 
examples & sample 
drawings, 
cassette. . .$24.95 
disk. . .$29.95 




ADDRESS FACTORY 

Computerize your mailing 
list for church, business, or 
clubs. This stores Name, 
Address, City, State, Zip, & 
Special Code for each 
person. You can add, 
change, or delete 
information and print either 
mailing labels or lists. 255 
names on disk, 125 on 32K 
cassette, or 55 on 16K 
cassette, 

cassette. . .$17.95 
disk. . .$22.95 




THE COLOR 
CONNECTION 

This is the easiest land most 
complete modem package 
available for the Color 
Computer. 

* Supports both full & half 
duplex 

* You designate the 
required parity 

* MACROS for log-on & 
auto dial 

* Requires only 16K 

* Big buffer for upload & 
download 

* Line wrap does not break 
words 

* 300 baud 
cassette. . .$29.95 
disk. . .$39.95 




SEMI DRAW 

Your computer's keyboard 
or joystick draws in 8 colors 
with semi alpha graphics 8, 
12, 24. You can do 
animation and dump your 
screen's picture to a printer 
(Line Printer VII or VIII, 
NEC 8023A). From 6 years 
and up! 

cassette. . .$21.95 




COLOR SCRIBE 
WORD PROCESSOR 

Scribe is the perfect word 
processor as well as a great 
programmer's editor. 
Features include: fast 
change, search, insert, & 
delete; move & copy of a 
line or whole paragraphs; 
text formatting with margin 
justification, automatic 
paging, centering, tabs, 
headings, & footings. You 
can edit files larger than 
memory. Works with LCA- 
47 lower case adapter. 
Radio Shack Disk. . .$49.95 




COLOR DATA 
ORGANIZER 

CDO is a little data base 
system for small inventory 
ideas, remember lists, serial 
numbers, etc. It stores, 
retrieves, sorts, prints, & 
totals whatever you want 
within the two 9 digit 
numeric and two 16 
character string entries, 
cassette. . .$19.95 
disk. . .$29.95 




FINANCE PROGRAMS 

Two great programs, each 
with nine options covering 
loans and investments, 
cassette. . .$17.95 
disk. . .$22.95 




HOME MONEY 
MANAGER 

Organize your income & 
expenses! Not only can you 
balance your checkbook 
but get reports like 
summary of expenses or 
income for the month by 
category. Records up to 480 
transactions by date, "paid- 
to", check number, account 
number, and amount, 
cassette. . .$19.95 



COLOR 
COMPUTER 

Memory Expansion 
Books • Suppllos 
Accossorlos 



TO ORDER: 

Add shipping of 
$2 surface or $5 
air/Canada. Visa 
& MasterCard 
accepted. 



Dealer Inquires Invited 




COMPUTERWARE 



® 



Computerware is a trademark of Computerware. 



call or write 
Box 668 

Encinitas, Ca. 92024 
(714) 436-3512 



Page 1 70 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Our plotter seems well built, and while I'm no printer 
engineer, it has given absolutely no trouble in extensive use. 
For those of you with more than one computer in your 
collection, this one has both RS-232 serial and Centronics 
parallel ports, and will thus interface with almost any 
computer. 

Below is a little program for use with the CGP-115. It 
draws solid and open circles, boxes of various sizes, and 
some fancy bold face lettering. Just RUN the program and 
follow the menu to select the function you want. It will be 
self-explanatory. 

(Available at all Radio Shack dealers and stores) 

-Bill Nolan 

10 PR I NT#-2 , CHR$ < 1 8 ) : FOR X=l TO 

2000:next:print#-2, "m0,-175" 
20 cls : pr i nt@66 , " 1 . boxes " : pr i nt 
©130, "2. circles" : print6194, "3. 
sol i d c i rcles " : pr i nt@258 ,"4. bol 
dface h :k*=inkey* 

30 k*=inkey*:k=val<k*> : if k<i or 
k>4 then 30 else sound 150, 1: on 

K GOTO 1000,2000,3000,4000 
1000 PRINT#-2, "H" 

1010 CLS: INPUT "HOW WIDE A BOX";X 
1020 PRINT: INPUT "HOW LONG" ; Y: Y=Y 

f *-l 

1030 print: input "what type line" 
;t 

1040 PRINT#-2, "L";T 

1050 PRINT#-2, "D";X",0, "X", "Y",0 

, " Y" , 0, 0" 

1060 PRINT#-2, "M0, "Y-250 



DESERT SOFTWARE 



PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 15% OFF ALL LIST 



Viking* 
Gang Buster 
Football 
I Ching 
Numerology 
Tarot 

Tirlogy (I Ching, 
Numerology, Tarot) 



19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 
19.95 



16.95 
16.95 
16.95 
16.95 
16.95 
16.95 



39.95 3395 



Astrology' 34.95 29.95 

Great Word Game* 19.95 16.95 

Household Helper 19.95 16.95 

Math Pack 1 19.95 16.95 

Pre-Read 24 95 21.94 

Song Book (w/tapes) 29.95 25.95 

Fantasy Games Pk 19.95 16.95 

Fantasy Games Pk 39K 24.95 21.95 



Sugar Software 

Silly Syntax 19.95 

Additional S.S. Tapes 9 95 
Fairy Tales 

Sing Along Buy 3 

X-Rated and get 

Current Events 10% 

Adventure OFFI 
Potpourri 

Auto Run 14.95 

Aardvark Products 

Battle Fleet 9.95 

Killer Bot 13.95 

Labyrinth 14.95 

Space Zapper 14,95 

Time Trek 14.95 

Escape from Mars 14.95 

Pyramid 14.95 

Quest 14.95 

Trak Adventure 14.95 

Circle World 14.95 

Nuclear Sub 14 95 

Venture 1995 

AARRGG 12.95 

Tube Frenzy 19.95 

Derelict 14.95 

Breakaway 995 

Space Battler 12.95 

Golf 9.95 

Writing Adventures 5.00 



Computer Island 

Circus 10.00 
School Maze 10.00 
Name That Song 

(I, II, III) 10.00 each 



4K 

Silly Sentences 
Silly Stories 
Poetry 
Wizard 

Apartment House Mystery 

Eigen Systems 

Basic Aid (cart.) 

Stripper 

ccead 



Clock 
Money 
Math Fact 
ABC's 



B5 Company 



6.00 
6.00 
6.00 
6.00 
6.00 



34.95 
7,95 
6.95 



24.95 
19.95 
16.95 
9.95 



JARB Software 

Dual Joystick Unit 35.95 

+ 4.00 shipping 



Terms: Cash, money order, your personal checks welcome. No waiting to clear. 
Shipping - $2.50 per order except where noted. Arizona resident add 4% sales tax. 
We reserve the right to change prices without notice. All programs 16K Ext. except 
where noted. *VIC-20 compatable. State computer when ordering. 

Desert Software 

P.O. Box 502, Cortaro, AZ 85230 • (602) 744-1252 



1070 PRINT#-2, "I" 

1075 PRINT#-2, "L" ;0 

1080 GOTO 20 

2000 PRINT#-2, "I" 

2010 INPUT "WHAT RADIUS" ;R 

2020 FOR Z=-R TO R 

2030 X=Z+R 

2040 Y=SQR<R*R-Z*Z> 

2050 PRINT#-2, "D"; X", "; Y 

2060 NEXT 

2070 PRINT#-2, "H":FOR Z=-R TO R: 
X=Z+R 

2080 Y=SQR<R*R-Z*Z> 

2090 PRINT#-2, "D";X", "; <Y-Y*2> 

2100 NEXT: PRINT#-2, "H" 

2110 PRINT#-2, "M0, "R-250:PRINT#- 

2, "I":GOTO20 

3000 INPUT "WHAT RADIUS" ;R 

3030 FOR Z=-R TO R 

3040 X=Z+R 

3050 Y=SQR<R*R-Z*Z> 

3060 PRINT#-2, "D"; X", "; Y 

3070 PR I NT#-2 , " D " ; X " , " ; < Y-Y*2 ) 

3080 NEXT: PRINT#-2, "H" 

3085 PR I NT#-2 , " M0 , " R-250 : PR I NT#- 

2, "I" 

3090 GOTO 20 

4000 INPUT "LETTER SIZE";S 

4005 INPUT "HOW BOLD < 1-6)"; XX 

4006 IF XX>6 OR XX<1 THEN 4005 
4010 PRINT#-2, "S";S 

4020 LINE INPUT "PR I NT WHAT? ";P* 
4030 FOR X=0 TO XX: PRINT#-2, "M" ; 
X; ",0" 

4050 PR I NT#-2 9 " P " ; P* : PR I NT#-2 , " H 



ii 



4052 NEXT 

4055 PR I NT#-2 , " M0 , -200 " : PR I NT#-2 
ii j ii 

4060 GOTO 20 




DON'T GET CAUGHT BY A 
PRICE INCREASE 

The annual subscription rate for the Rainbow 

will increase on January 1, 1983. You can still 
renew your subscription— and avoid the 
added cost— by sending in a renewal in 
advance. 

Any one-year renewal (or new subscription) 
postmarked by or before December 31, 1982, 
can take advantage of present rates. After 
that, the new rate will be in effect. 

U.S. subscriptions will increase from $16 to $22, 
Canadian and Mexican rates increase $7. 
Other foreign rates will go up proportionately. 




December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 171 



Software Review... 

Colorshow 
Just So-So, CoCo 

Speed kills, they say; and along that same line o f contention, 
mediocrity disappoints. 

It's not that Colorshow is really devoid of merit, but, to 
me, my head full of the anticipation of dramatic graphics, 
building and swirling across my monitor screen in time to 
the strains of a favorite opus, it was ...,well, a bit of a 
letdown. Honestly. 

Colorshow might work well with Rock & Roll, but I don't 
know that. All I had available at the time I ran the program 
was a Hayden cello concerto. 

There were no swirls, or stabs of light to fill the screen, 
but, on a predominately black background, there appeared 
a fairly-repetitious series of rectangles and crossed- 
diagonals, developing and dissolving in a way that, while 
keyed in some fashion to the impulses from my sound tape, 
were not really that much in time with the music. 

Now, even though Colorshow left me less than thrilled, it 
does have some features of interest that I should point out. It 
will respond to any sound coming from the computer 
cassette cable, allowing you to plug into any radio or 
recorder. The instructions warn you, however, to stay with a 
low-level source, such as an earphone jack. The program 
also has variable response sensitivity, allowing you to adapt 
to different sound sources. 

(Hume Design, 4653 Jeanne Mance Street, Montreal, 
Quebec, Canada H2V 475, $14.95) 

—Courtney Noe 



Corrections 

There may have been some misunderstanding on use of 
the S AILDAT program listing f rom the SAILOR program. 
Here is a rundown on the correct way to use it: 

1. Load S AILDAT but do not RUN it. 

2. Place a blank tape in your recorder. Press PLAY and 
RECORD. 

3. RUN S AILDAT. This makes a data tape. 

4. Load SAILOR but do not run it yet. 

5. Put the data tape you just made with the SAILDA T 
program into the recorder. Press PLAY. 

6. Run SAILOR. It will loadthedata from the tape you 
just made. 

Once you have made the data tape, you do not need to 
make another. Just use the data tape when you run the 
SAILOR program, 

This procedure should also be employed with the 
Rainbow On Tape version of the program. 

In the 64K upgrade for the "D" revision Board, the 
instruction which says to jumper pin 9 of U 10 to pin 35 of 
U10 was incorrect. While it will not damage your system, 
you should, instead, jumper pin 9 of the R AMs to pin 35 of 

io. ■■■■■■■■i^HMHl^MMIr , 

In the November issue, the Shades of PMODE 1 and 3 
contains two errors. 

In the title, the number 2 should have been a 3. 

In line 20 of the first short program, the letter L should 
have been the number 1 . 



•••• ••••• ni«»i 

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fitlf til ■ 

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lit **« *+f **•**. i 4 

>•• ••• ••• ••• •••••• • 



p * ■ p 4 p 

■ ■■4* * i * » ■ ■ ■ TTfppir 

• 4*4 ■■■ mwm mmm 
I p * I ■ 1 * 1 * * mmm 

• **4 •*• *«* »•»•*■* 
l#iifi * ■ m ■ ■ * 4 4 ■ p 

■ 4*4*1 tmm *#* *«* 

• ••• ••• ••• • •• 

I 111 t'lim iiiimi 

■ ••• •••••• ••••••• 



• •• 

• •• 

■ • 4 

■ •■ 

pip 

• •• 

• •• 
M m ■ 

1 P P 



•••• ••• 

•••• ••• 



••• 
*4 * 
444 mm 
n» ■ 

>ll 
• • ••• 
■•• ••• 
■ ■»■ •<■» 44* 



•••••• 

p » p 

a ■ ■> 
■ 

HI 

• •• 

• •• 
u lllltl 





••• 
••• 

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... 

• •• 

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••••••••• ••••••• »•• ••• ••••••• 

••••••••• ••••••• •••• •••• 

wmf • + • *■•■•■» »* w U ttW 

muw in fii**fpivii *mm #>«vjfc4i 

mwm llilltl mmm m * d «#■ P *4 * ■ • • ### i ■ 

*■* m i 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

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mm* mmmmmmm mm-m tn i < ■»* 

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9 p*v 



YOU'LL FORGET YOU'RE IN YOUR OWN HOME WHEN YOU PLAY.. . 

OunfeeyMunkey A »° STARFIR€ 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
S£AL 



32K 




To conquer the Munkey: 

Climb ladders, jump girders and fight fires on the first 
screen, jump barrels and ride elevators on the second. 

CASSETTE $24.95 



16K 



Fly around the planet's surface defending it's 
inhabitants from being carried away by alien ships. 
CASSETTE $21.95 



ULTRA-FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE B HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS ■ SENSATIONAL SOUND EFFECTS 



IntellEctranics 



MAKE CHECK PAYABLE TO INTEUECTRQN.CS 

22 CHURCHILL LANE, SMITHTOWN, NY 11787 

N.Y. Residents Please Add Sates Tax. We Pay Shipping. 
Dealer Inquiries Invited. 



z 



FOR YOUR TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 




TNE TRS-80 USERS JOURNAL 

If you own a TRS-80® Model I, Model II, 
Model III, the Color Computer, or the new 
Pocket Computer, YOU NEED 80-U.S.! 



The 80-U.S. Journal has 

programs for your enjoyment and enlightenment. 
Every issue contains several Basic or machine 
language program listings. It contains Business 
articles and program listings. No matter where you 
are, there is something for YOU in the Journal! 



and... 



The Journal contains reviews of hardware and software. Our "Evaluation 
Reports" will help you make the best choice in selecting additions to your 
system. 



Save Over 50% 



You can save over 50% off the cover price of 80-U.S. Journal. For the 
remarkably low price of only $16.00, a savings of $20.00 (cover price), you 
will receive a wealth of useful information every month. As a special 
BONUS, if you enclose payment with your order, you will receive an 
extra issue for each year of your subscription order. Order three years of 
80-U.S. and receive three extra issues! At no cost to you! 



Is your 

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Write today for 



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80-U.S. Journal 
3838 South Warner Street 
Tacoma, Washington 98409 
Phone (206) 475-2219 



State. 



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our 



■ 
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Exp. Date. 



December, 1 982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 1 73 



Software Review... 

Railrunner Flies 
While Frog-Man Hops 

Of these two programs, Railrunner and Frog-Man, 
Railrunner is definitely the handsome prince, while Frog- 
Man is, well, just a frog. 

In all fairness, I must point out that Frog-Man, which 
costs considerably less than the Computer ware off ering, was 
written by a young novice to the commercial software field, 
and does much more to point out his future potential than to 
provide us with a quality game in its current f orm. The areas 
of the game I feel most critical of are its player control (my 
frog got squashed almost every time in the first lane of 
traffic) and graphics (a bit primitive). The sound is good, 
however, and I feel that with a couple of leaps in the 
program, this one could hop on up. Computer Island ought 
to be congratulated for seeking out and encouraging such 
young talent. 

Railrunner, on the other hand, and in my opinion, has 
arrived at the level necessary to be competitive in an ever- 
growing field of quality, arcade-game software. It has 
excellent graphics, good color and sound, and nicely- 
programmed action. 

The action field consists of a series of horizontal tracks, 
endlessly patrolled by train engines and handcars, which the 
Railrunner must decend until he reaches, and zaps, Herman 
Hobo at the bottom of the field. You play against time, while 
trying to dodge the trains and handcars, and are given a 
ticking clock at the top of the screen, along with a score 



display. The four directional-arrows control your moves. 
Railrunner requires 16K to play, and is a machine-language 
program. 

(/?af7ru/i/ierComputerware, Box 668, £ncinitas,CA 
92024,$21.95 on tape, $26.95 disk. 
Frog-Man: Computer Island, 227 Hampton Green, 
Staten Island,NY 10312, $11.95 on tape.) 

— Courtney Noe 



Hint . . . 

Finding ML Addresses 

You can find the address of a machine language program 
by PEEKing several addresses in memory. Those addresses 
are: 

To find the start address, use the command PEEK 
(487)*256 + PEEK(488) 

To find the end address, use the command 
PEEK(126)*256 + PEEK(127)-1 

To fine the execute address, use PEEK (157)*256 + 
PEEK(158) 

With all of these commands, you must ask CoCo to 
PRINT the addresses as well as work out the formula. You 
can use the commands either in a program or in direct mode 
from the keyboard. 



SUPERIOR 



ORACLE SOFTWARE 



PRESENTS 

THE C C QUBE 

A MAGIC CUBE SIMULATION FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



FEATURING 



* Easy to use commands 

•Fast uses machine language routines 

* Random mixes 

* Undo moves or random mixes 

* See ail 6 faces 

* Save QUBE to tape for later reload 
•Only $14.95 



RAINBOW 



Hi 



Send Check or MO to: 
SUPERIOR ORACLE SOFTWARE 

POBo* 450S 

Greenwich, Conn. 06830 



Conn, residents add 7 1 > M >ales tax 
Shipping and handling included 

Personal checks require 
2 weeks to clear 

No C.O.O.s 

Requires 16K Extended Basic 



r 



HARMONYCS 

P.O. BOX 15 73 

SALT LAKE CITY r UTAH 

84110 



CAME SET I <4K & UP) $7.33 
THREE GAMES ON ONE CASSETTE. 'FRENZY'- 
rainbow R WORD GRME. ' MASTERCODE-* - LIKE MASTER 
MINDC tm SEVEN-ELEVEN' ~R DICE GRME 

OF SKILL RND CHANCE. 




9<mrc4itON 



MONEY MINDER II <16K) $8.95 
Z^SfiR CRSSETTE BRSED PERSONRL FINANCE PRO- 
rainbow GRAM. UP TO 36 USER DEFINABLE BUDGET 
""ST" CATEGORIES. PRINTOUT CAPABILITY. MENU 

DRIVEN - EASY TO USE. 

x PRESCHOOL PRK < 16K EXT. BASIC; $6.95 
T WO PRESCHOOLER LEARNING GAMES ON ONE 
rainbow CASSETTE. MAKES USE OF HI -RES GRAPHICS 
AND SOUND. CONTAINS ALHPABET DRILL 8* 
COUNTING DRILL. THE KIDS THINK IT'S A 
GAME. IT IS I 



ClKr*IC*T>ON 
■UL 



COLORHYTHM C 16K EXT. BASIC > 



♦ 9,95 



EXCELLENT USE OF HI -RES GRAPHICS. BIO- 



RHYTHMS PLOTTED FOR 15 DAYS. 



SISI U6K EXT. BASIO $9.95 
SI SI THE FORTUNE TELLING COMPUTER USES 

INPUT TO DETERMINE A 



YOU 



SiSSS? D*TA THAT 

CHARRCTER READING FOR YOU. 



ORDERS SHIPPED POSTPAID. NO COD ORDERS 




J 



Page 1 74 



the RAINBOW 



December, 1982 



Software Review... 

Laser Tank Duel 
A Blast for Two 

*Enemy tank sighted along corridor four. Mayday! 
Mayday!" 

As the message of sudden danger crackles over the 
wireless a great white flash goes off. We've suffered a direct 
hit from the enemy's laser cannon and have been blown to 
smithereens — at least for a split-second. Just as abruptly, 
all's back to normal. Except now, hovering over the field of 
battle is the number T in the enemy's score box. We will 
keep springing back to life like this, to do battle, until one 
side scores eight hits. That ends the game. 

The sound effects, like the radioed distress call, were 
purely imaginary, as Laser Tank Duel runs silently. And 
though some sound would be nice, I found the game to be 
quite absorbing without any. Also, the graphics are in 
stylized form, but well done. 

The main screen consists of a grid of avenues, along which 
the two tanks maneuver through 64 intersections. A varying 
number of 'mines' float through the avenues, absorbing laser 
blasts and rendering them harmless; they do no damage to 
either tank, however. 

Laser Tank plays by keyboard control, with the left player 
controlling vertical moves with the up /down arrows, 
horizontal moves with the C Q' and 'W keys, and cannon fire 
with the 'Z' key. The right player uses the left and right 
arrows for horizontal moves, the *P' and keys for vertical 
maneuvering, and fires his laser cannon with the key. 
Good hand and eye coordination are a must for smooth 
play, but fortunately the difficulty exists in equal degree for 



your opponent. 

Laser Tank Duel is simple, fun, and comes with clear, 
straightforward instructions. 

(Renaissance Game Designs, P.O.Box 1232, Montclair, 

NJ 07042, $15.95 on tape, $19.95 disk.) 

— Courtney Noe 




GET YOU 

OFF.YOU 







Bugs in your programs can really get under your skin. Especially when they've 
been bugging you for longer than you'd like to think. Va *J^L 
So get your bugs off your hands. And onto somebody else's. 
Pack them off to DeBug. (On cassette, thank you.) With a description of where you 
were going. And where you got stuck. If it's an interesting enough program, we'll send it to 
people who like to stomp on other people's bugs. 

If somebody can get all the bugs out of your 16K Extended Basic CoCo program, 

we'll try to sell it. And everyone shares the profits. 

Send $5 per entry. Or $9 for a sample cassette of 
20 or so very buggy programs. Or $12 for both. 





DEBUG 



114 West Central St. 
Natick, MA 01760 



NOW THERE ARE TWO TOOLKITS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



The software development tools that let you put even more power into the already 
powerful Color Computer. They're full of tools, aids, bells and whistles useful to the BASIC 
or MACHINE LANGUAGE programmer, in friendly, easy-to-use software packages. 

BOTH TOOLKITS CONTAIN . . . 

• Light characters on dark background with Current Line Highlighting; or normal characters 

• Full Screen Editor with Arrow Key controlled cursor; open up space/delete and close up space 

• Enabling selective Line Renumber/copy/move/merge; or normal Extended Basic line editor 

• Protect the current BASIC program from being wiped out with a CLOAD, NEW etc.; or from being LISTed 

• Restore a protected BASIC program/Append any number of BASIC programs together easily 

• Tone on keypress or normal silent keys (Tone modifiable by use of Sound an Command) 

• Global Search of command or text strings in BASIC programs with wildcard character and next "." 

• 9 Screen Print Delays with keyboard override (for slow, readable LISTings and DISK Dl Rectories) 

• Variable Name List/String-Byte memory usage/Range of FREE MEM/Top of memory address display 

• Fast Machine Code to BASIC DATA converter for storing machine code visibly in BASIC 

• (C)SAVEM address/Backup Tool (Last file name, start end and execute address) 

• Recovery of Lost BASIC programs after NEW, BACKUP, DSKINI, etc. 

• Break Key Disable/Enable (Pause keys still available) 

• Modified TRON display (IN replaces (LN) 

THE FULL TOOLKIT ALSO CONTAINS . . . 

□ Merge BASIC with Machine Code routines so machine code is "invisible" and (C)SAVE/(C)LOADable 

□ 9 BASIC RUN delays with keyboard override; Single Step(s) mode with current line number display 

□ Memory Examine/Modify with HEX/ASCII/DEC/Double Decimal output and HEX/ ASCII input 

□ Memory Block Move for relocating machine code programs, DATA blocks, etc.; or the Kit itself 

□ Ten User Defined Function Keys accessable with @/number (BASIC Macros/Block storage) 

□ Automatic linefeed for printers that don't/double space LISTings; or normal PRINT 

□ Delete all spaces (not in PRINT strings, DATA or REMARK lines) 

□ ASCII/HEX memory Dumps to screen or printer 

□ Delete all REMarks (either REM or ' type) 

□ Parallel ECHO of screen output to printer 



THESE FEATURES ARE FOUND ON BOTH VERSIONS . . . 

— Transparent to the user, Install it and forget it until you need it 

— BASIC runs up to one-third faster through the Toolkit (5-10% typical) 

— HELP command lists all Kit commands and current Kit address 

— Same program works with tape or disk and in 16 or 32K 

— Entire system totally removable at any time 

— Compatible with other utility programs 

— Green/Orange text screen capability 

— Easily modifiable command syntax 

The Kits are relocatable programs that load any time without bothering your BASIC program or variables or top of 
memory address. All tools may be turned on or off at will, including the Kit itself. 

The tools are available with simplethreeor four letter commands entered in the direct mode, with the entire instruction 
set viewable through the HELP command. 

The Colorkit is 5K bytes for $29.95 rainbow The Microkit is 2.5K bytes for $27.95 

Available on disk with handy BASIC Kit loader for additional $5 "T™" Manual available separately for $5 



THE GOOD LIFE $16.95 

The Classic Game of Life With: 

• 64x64 color symmetrical display 

• 3 Selectable birth and old age colors 

• 15 modifiable pre-programmed 

patterns 

• Save/Load life screens to tape/disk 

• Speeds from 8 gen/sec to 1 a second 

• Joystick or arrow key input 

• Written in user-modifiable BASIC 

• With machine code LIFE processor 

• Help screen command list 

• Tape/Disk compatible 

• Selectable color sets 

• Y&X axis wraparound ~S 



THE DISK COMMANDER $1 9.95 

Disk File Utility with: 

• One key vlew/copy/load(m) of flies 

• Two key kill/rename of files 

• Sort directory on name/extension 

• Pack directory so newfiles put at end 

• Directory keyword search of filename 

• Print DIR with machine code address 

• Recover killed files 



DEER HUNT $15.95 

• Arcade shoot-em-up skill game 

• Aim only for the deer 

• Avoid hitting people, cars, train 

• Will not cause tension headache 

• BASIC/machine code hybrid 

• Tape/Disk compatible 



ARIZIN 
P. O. Box 8825 
Scottsdale, AZ 85252 



COLOR PRODUCTS UNALIKE 



#2931 Euclid Ave. 
Vancouver, B.C. 








Canada V5R-5C5 
(604) 438-2864 




Everything for the TRS-80® Color Computer 




YSTEMS CORP. 
I - 



TRS-80* 
COLOR BASIC 
AND EXTENDED 




SYSTEM REFERENCE CARD 

'NEW* NEW* 
WAR KINGS 



ALL CARDS 

' ggj CANADIANS 

Save the HASSEL.buy in CANADA. 
U.S. COLOR USERS...use your BUYING POWER! 



$24.95 



BERSERK 

$30.95 



SKY DEFENSE 

$18.95 





Remember Warlords? You'll love this one. A challenging 
game for two for your Color Computer. High resolution 
graphics with outstanding sound make this a real treat. 
Machine language (16K Extended Basic) 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

MOON LANDER $19.95 

This one's a real winner. Two programs for the price of one. 
Train on MOON LANDER and then move up to LANDER II. 
Reviewers say just like flying. Outstanding graphics and 
sound. Visitthe moon with your Color Computer. Most realistic 
on the market today. (16K Extended Basic) 

DANCING DEVIL $18.95 

Here's a demon of a deal. Watch him dance to 
preprogrammed routines or program your own music and 
dance steps. Youngsters and adults love him. Rave reviews 
by Color Computer magazines. Machine language (16K) 

ML RABBIT 



CC WRITER SPACE TRADERS 

$35.95 $18.95 

MADNESS AND THE MINOTAR 

$26.95 

BLACK SANCTUM 
CALIXTO ISLAND 

$24.95 each 



EDITOR, ASSEMBLER & 
DEBUGGER 

$11.95 



$18.95 



No serious programmer can afford to pass this up! Make 
copies of any machine language or BASIC program 
effortlessly. Even copies programs that automatically 
execute. Completely automatic. Protect your tapes with ML 
RABBIT. (Caution: Intended to make backup copies only!) 



British Columbia Residents Add 6% sales tax. 
All prices quoted in Canadian Dollars. 

U.S. Orders Discounted 25 Percent 

COLORTERM (c) $4095 

Ihe l&K Color Conputer* as an intelligent terninal 
uith 51 or colunns by 21 lines and louer case! 



**- 4K/I6K JARB 

MEMORY CHIP SET - 

Eight NEC 4116 200 Nanosecond chips with in- 
stallation instructions; no soldering; installs in 
25 minutes $34.95 



**• 16K/32K JARB 

MEMORY UPGRADE KIT - 

Hardware and instructions to convert 16K color 
computer to 32K; minimal soldering required; 
installs in 30 minutes $49.95 



December, 1982 



the RAINBOW 



Page 177 



THESE FINE STORES CARRY THE RAINBOW 

The retail stores listed below carry the RAINBOW on a regular basis and may have other products of interest to 
Color Computer users. We suggest you patronize those in your area. 



Abacus Computers 

S. Holland. Mich. 

Accolade Distributors 

San Diego, Calif. 

Acme Book Co. 

Baton Rouge. La. 

A Computer Store 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Adventure International Store 

Longwood, Fla. 

All-Pro Souvenlers 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

All Systems Go 

Tempe, Ariz. 

Amateur Radio Equipment Co. 

Wichita, Kan. 
Appletree Computers 

DeKalb, III. 

Atlantic News 

Halifax, N.S. 

Bauer Electronics 

Lawrenceburg, tnd. 

B. Dalton Booksellers 

West Jackson St. - Chicago, III. 

N. Wolbash St. - Chicago, III. 

Milwaukee, Wise. 

Peoria, III. 

B.I.E.S. Systems 

Oak Park, III 

Bill's TV Radio Shack 

Newton. III. 

Bob s In Newtown 

Chicago, III. 

Bob s News Emporium 

Chicago, III. 

Bob's Rogers Park 

Chicago, III. 

Book Market 

East Cedar - Chicago, III. 

North Cicero - Chicago, III. 

West Diversey - Chicago, III. 

Peoria, III. 

Champaign, III. 

Danville, III. 

Book Nook 

Lisle. III. 

Book Tree 

Milwaukee, Wise. 

Booked Solid 

Wilwaukee, Wise. 

Bookland, Inc. 

Indianapolis. Ind. 

Buffalo Technologies 

Amherst, N.Y. 

Byte By Byte 

Utica, Mich. 

Campus Computer Corp. 

Nashville, Tenn. 



C&J Electronics Computer Center 

Richland, Wash. 
Caves Books Co. 

Hong Kong 

Chester Electronic Supply 

Kenosha, Wise. 

Chicago-Main News 

Evanston, III. 

CMD Micro 

Edmonton, Alta. 

Color Computing 

Southgate, Calif. 

Color Products Unalike 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The Computer Center 

New York, N. Y. 

The Computer Connection 

Boulder. Col. 

The Computer Store 

Louisville, Ky. 

The Computer Store 

Pheonix, Ariz. 

The Computer Store 

San Diego, Calif. 

The Computer Store 

Tulsa, Oklo. 

Computer Emporium 

Louisville, Ky. 

Computer Resource 

Williamsvllle. N.Y. 

Computer Services 

Lawrenceburg, Ind. 

Computer SOS 

Shreveport, La. 

Computerware Store 

Encinitas. Calif. 

Cosmos Computers 

Bettendorf, Iowa 

Crouchet Electronics 

Conroe, Texas 

Dallas Computer Center 

Dallas, Tex. 

Data Born 

Ronton. Wash. 

Data Byte Computer Center 

Beaufort. SC. 
Data Concepts 
Scortsdale, Ariz. 
Data Domain 
Schaumberg. III. 
Data Link 
Dayton, Ohio 
D. Data 

Stillwater, Okla. 
Delker Electronics 
Smyrna, Tenn. 
Disney's Electronics 

San Diego, Calif. 



Dimensional Software 

San Diego. Calif, 

E. B. Garcia & Associates 
Chicago, 111. 

The Eight Bit Corner 
Muskegon. Mich. 
Electronic World 
Fairbanks, Alaska 

F. M. Electronics 
Jay, Maine 
Game Preserve 
Indianapolis- Ind. 
Gapher Hole 
Brooklyn Center, Minn. 
Guild Books and Periodicals 
Chicago, III. 

GYC Co. 
Yak, Pa. 

Hands On Computer 

Atlanta. Ga. 

Hawley-Cook Booksellers 

Louisville, Ky. 
Home Computer Store 
Westerville, Ohio 
Home Brew Computers 
Pheonix, Ariz. 
Hurley Electronics 
Santo Anna. Calif. 
HW Electronics 
Northridge, Calif. 
John's News Stand 
Medford, Ore. 
K&S News Stand 
Winston-Salem, N.C. 
Kona Recreation 
Kailua-Kona, Hawaii 
Kelly Software Distributors 
Edmondton, Alto. 
Kroch's & Brentano's 
South Walbash - Chicago. III. 
West Jackson, Chicago, III. 
835 N. Michigan - Chicago, III. 
516 N. Michigan - Chicago, III. 
Oak Park, III. 
Oak Brook, III. 
Skokie, III. 
Aurora, III. 
L&R Electronics 
Grant's Pass, Ore. 
Leo's Book & Wine Shop 
Toledo, Ohio 
Level IV Products 
Livonia, Mich. 
Levity Distributors 
Hollywood, Calif. 
Libra Books 
Eugene. Ore. 
utile Pressor Book 
P'n.adeiphia, Ohio 



Canton, Ohio 
Madison Books 

Madison. Ala. 
Micro Byte 

Miami, Fla. 

Mlcrowest Distributors 

N. Vancouver, B.C. 
Multi-Mag 
London, Ont 
NORMAR 
Wilmington, Del. 
OPAMP Technical Books 
Los Angeles. Calif. 
Out Of Town News 
Cambridge, Moss. 
Parkwest Books 
Chicago. III. 
PCLEAR80 
Mansfield. Ohio 
Personal Computer Place 
Mesa. Ariz. 
Personal Software 
Malvern, Po. 
Printers, Inc. 
Palo Alto. Calif. 
Prism Software 
Kincardine, Ont. 
Pro Am Electronics 
Pacific Beoch, Calif. 
The Program Store 
Baltimore. Md. 
Falls Church. Va. 
Columbus, Ohio 
Washington, DC. 
Programs Plus 
Tukwila, Wash. 

Prospect News & Magazines 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Radio Shack 

El Cajon, Calif. 

Radio Shack 

Freehold, N.J. 

Radio Shack 

Paducah, Ky. 

Radio Shack 

Peterborough. N.H. 

Radio Shack 

San Diego, Calif. 

Rainbow Software Services 

Calgaty, Alta. 

R&V Sound 

Fortuna, Calif. 

Recycle Computers 

Houston, Tex. 

Road Runner Computer Products 

Glendale, Ariz. 
Salt of the Earth 

AJbuquerciue, N.M. 



Sandmeyer's Bookstore 

Chicago, 111. 

Soft Sector Marketing 

Garden City. Mich. 
Software Access 
living. Tex. 
Software 'n' Suds 
E. Windsor. N.J. 
Soft Shop 
Yuma, Ariz. 
Software City 
Fairview, N.J. 
Montvale, N.J. 
River Edge. N.J. 
Summit, N.J. 
Tea neck, N.J. 
Software Concepts 
Dallas, Tex. 

Software Connection 

Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. 

Software 1 st 

Santa Rosa, Calif. 

Software Plus 

Citrus Heights. Calif. 

Software Shop 

Mansfield, Mass. 

Software Store 

Tampo, Fla. 

The Software Store 

RockviKe, Md. 

Software Unlimited 

Tucson, Ariz. 

Software Unlimited 

Orlando, Fla. 

Spectrum Projects 

Woodhaven, N.Y. 

Slrawflower Electronics 

Half Moon Bay, Calif. 

Tobacco Comer Newsroom 

Memphis, Tenn. 

T. M. Computers 

Kingston. Ont. 

Trl-Tek Computers 

Pheonix, Ariz. 

Unicorn Electronics 

Johnson Cily, N.Y. 

University of Chicago Bookstore 

Chicago. III. 

University of Illinois Bookstore 

Chicago, III. 

University of Wisconsin Bookstore 

Milwaukee, Wise. 
Vldeomat, Inc. 
Chicago, III. 
Wayne Software 
Wayne, N.J. 
Willy's Electronics 
National City, Calif. 



CHRISTMAS SNEA 



BE A CHRISTMAS SNEAK 



BE A CHRISTMAS SME « 



Sneak Up On Your Favorite CoCo Computerist 

This Christmas! 

Tired of having your favorite computerist tell you that you just don't understand him or 
his machine? Looking for a perfect present that won't be the wrong size, wrong color or 
something like that? 

Now, give the perfect gift for your favorite computer owner— a subscription to the 
Rainbow or to Rainbow On Tape, It comes in eight beautiful colors, can be used with any 
size memory and will delight everyone who is interested in CoCofor 12 whole months of 

1983. 

Best of all, a subscription entered now— in time for Christmas— will still be available at 
the present magazine rate of $16 in the U.S., and $22 in Canada. Those prices go up 
January 1. Rainbow On Tape sells for $60 for a year. 

The Rainbow is the premier magazine for TRS-80 and TDP System 1 00 users. And it is 
your chance to give your computerist a gift that will keep on coming 12 months of the 
year. 

Be A Christmas Sneak! Send in a gift subscription to the Rainbow or Rainbow On Tape 

now. And, you'll even save some money. 



CHRISTMAS SNEAK 



BE A CHRISTMAS SNEAK 



BE A CHRISTMAS 



Page 1 78 

Aardvark 80 57 

All Color Software 60 

A M. Hearn Software 91 

American Library & Info Services 

84 

Anteco 9 

Arizin , 175 

Ark Royal Games 116 

Armadillo International 101 

Aurora Software 61 

Basic Technology 109 

Better Software . 136 

B5 Software . , it . . 118 

Botek Instruments 24 

Bumblebee Software 46 

Century Software 135 

Cer-Comp 105, 142 

Chattanooga Choo-Choo Software 

112 

Chromasette 166 

Chromatic Software , 148 

Circle City Software - 28 

CoCo Pro 102 

Cognitec 159 

Color Products Una like 176 

Color Software Services 

19, 103, 167 

Cornpukif , 55 

CompuServe 113 

Compuswitch 162 

Computer Accessories 

of Arizona 83 

Computer Island 21 

Computer Peripheral Resources 

78 

Computer Plus 3 

Computer Shack 115 

Computerware 23, 117, 169 

The Cornsoft Group 27 

Custom Software Engineering 

125 

Debug 174 

Deserf Software 1 70 

Double Density Software l a 44 

DSL Computer Products , , 121 

Dymax 18 



the RAINBOW 

ADVERTISER'S INDEX 



December, 1982 



Dynamic Electronics , . . . 168 

80-U.S. Journal 1 72 

East Texas Color Computer Club 

62 

Elite Software 133 

Endicott Software 107 

Erickson, B 138, 165 

F&G Enterprises . , 44 

General Automation 31 

Genesis Software 156 

Great X«P*T 111 

Harmonycs . . , 1 73 

HIB Software 150 

Home Base Systems , 35 

Home Run Software 141 

Frank Hogg Laboratory 

13, 14, 15, 16 

Illustrated Memory Banks. 127 

Hume Design 135 

Intellectronics 171 

I nter+ Action i 85 

Intercept Enterprises « , 104 

Intracolor 71 

J ARB Software 47, 129 

K&K Computerware. 131 

Land Systems 53 

Little Bits Computing 122 

Mark Data Products IBC 

Martin Consulting 126 

Med Systems Software 33 

Micro-Doc 100 

Micro-80 63, 149 

Micrologic 128 

Micro Technical Products 17 

The Micro Works 51 

Tom Mix Software 40, 89, 119 

Moreton Bay Laboratory ... 30, 1 32 

Moses Engineering 134 

Nanos Systems Corp IFC 

Nelson Software Systems 58, 59, 1 39 

Oelrich Publications 80 

Owl-Ware . 154 

Parsons Software 82 

PCLEAR 80 144 

Peacock Enterprises 45, 146 

Platinum Software 143 



Prickly-Pear Software 73, 86 

Prism Software 137 

Programs By Mr. Bob 38 

The Program Store 153 

The Programmer's Guild 157 

The Programmer's Institute 

160, 161 

Q-Soft , 12 

Q Systems 72 

Quasar Animations 151 

Deane Rader 92 

Radio Shack 11 

Rainbow Connection Software 

147 

Rainbow On Tape 124 

Real Software 68 

68 Micro Journal 74 

Shauntronics 88 

Silver Spring Software 69 

Snake Mountain Software 90 

Soft Sector Marketing 65 

Software Options , . . . . 110 

Softwride 140 

Southco Sales 37 

Southern Software * , . 34 

Spectral Associates 25, BC 

Spectrum Projects 93, 94, 95, 97, 99 

Speech Systems 158 

Star-Kits 42, 43 

Starship Software 92 

Hoyt Stearns Electronics 32 

Strictly Color 39 

Sugar Software ... 26 

Superior Graphic Software 77 

Superior Oracle Software 1 73 

Tabby Enterprises 1 64 

TASADA 152 

T&D Software 81 

Transformation Technologies ... 70 

Transition Technology 120 

Universal Data Research 

Institute , , 49 

Washington Computer Services 

75 

York- 10 145 

Zeta Software 79 



The RAINBOW 
5803 Timber Ridge Drive 
P. O. Box 209 
Prospect, KY 40059 

Gentlemen: 

YES' Sign me up for a one-year (12 issues) subscription to the RAINBOW. 



THESE RATES GOOD 

Until December 31 
—New U.S. Rate S22— 



Name 



Address 
City 



State 



Zip 



□ Payment enclosed 

□ Charge my VISA Account # 
Sianature 



□ Charge my MasterCard Account # 
Card Expiration Date INTERBANK # 



Subscriptions to the RAINBOW are $16 per year in the United States. Canadian and Mexican rates are 
$22 per year. Surface mail to other countries is $31, air mail to other countries is $49. Non-U.S. rates are 
higher due to postage costs alone. Payment accepted in U.S. funds. 

Limited back issues are available for $2 each for numbers 1-8. S2.50each for 9-13 and $2.95 for issues 15 and up 
(September. 1982 on). Shipping and handling costs of $6 (U , S , Man) a $3 . 5 o (UP S) must be added. 







f *l 

MasterCard 


■JP 





S6 



0 



G 



o' 



NEW! 



ffaiden 



J* 



X 

A new super hi-res space game. 
Wave after wave of alien attackers, 
each one a different and unique challenge 
to your skills. 

CASSETTE (16K) . . . $24.95 
DISC (32K) . . . $29.95 



Not just another invaders type game. 
We think this one is the best- 
great action, great sound, you'll love it!! 



CASSETTE (16K) 



$24.95 



DISK (32K) 



$29.95 



m«~m * Outsmart 



Outsmart the 
creatures that pursue 
you as you hunt for 
treasure in a maze of 
cave passages. Lots of 
colors and sounds! 
CASSETTE (16K) . . . $24.95 
DISC (32K) . . . $29.95 



They'recalling 
this one a "classic". You'll £' 
have hours of fast-paced fun 
zapping robots. Super hi-res action! 
CASSETTE (16K) . . . $24.95 
DISC (32K) . . . $29.95 



I ■ 



0< 



0 



if 



0^ 



<(0 



0* 



0^' 



eft 



A challenging puzzle 
with an occasional twist of humor. 
There's a treasure waiting to be discovered! 
CASSETTE (16K> . . $1995 



1 

She Slack Sanctum 

For the player who enjoys suspense. . 
You'll encounter the forces of black 
magic in this spooky adventure. 

CASSETTE (16K) . . . $19.95 



-MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

23802 BARQUILLA, MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 



We pay shipping on all orders in the continental U.S. and Canada. Overseas add $3.00. California residents 
please add 6% sales tax. We are always looking for quality machine language programs. Contact us for details. 

MASTER CHARGE OR VISA ACCEPTED 



■SPECTACULAR GAMES 

For TRS 80 

COLOR COMPUTER 





TSie largest tuppher of Color Computer loffwart and havo FLEKPLUS DOS, Ultra BDCC (Qito Edfftuom), hardware and utilities. 



141 Harvard 
Tacoma, WA. 
98466 



For Information 

Call 
(206) 565-8483 



If not available at your local dealer atk why not and 

Call Toll Free 800-426-1830 

Except WA., AK„ HI., (8:30-4:30 Mon.-Fri.) 



RAINBOW 

GEOTIrlCiTIOf* 
5CAL