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20 Products Reviewed Inside 



The RAINBOW 
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P O. Box 209 
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ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED 
FORWARDING & RETURN 
POSTAGE GUARANTEED 



> Mai led 8/31 /BB< 
04523 7/83 
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Sudbury Mft 0177S 



Buik Rate 
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PAID 
Prospect, KY 
Permit No. 18 




'.r&iAtsifre -9 mope* 



NANOC 



YSTEMS CORP 



Nanos Systems Corp. 
REFERENCE CARDS 






COLOR DASJC 
AND EXTENDED 



SYSTEM REFERENCE CARD 

TRS-80- 
BASIC AND 
ASSEMBLER 

LEVEL II SYSTEM REFERENCE CARD 



TRS-80- 
BASIC 



LEVEL II SYSTEM DEFERENCE CARD 



TR5-8-T 
BASIC AND 
ASSEMBLER 



MODEL li SYSTEM REFERENCE CARD 







TRS-MT 
BASIC AND 
ASSEMBLER 



LEVEL II SYSTEM REFERENCE CARD 

0 i>ri,Wm< jL a f AIM- miMQi 





TRS-SO- 
BASIC 



LEVEL II SYSTEM REFERENCE CARD Q] 

MOPE!- Ill >HW ■ > H| ti l . ,| N. i . h f ».-* 

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RAINBOW 

' CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

*TRS-4Q is a O&rjlQierud Trademark ol Tindy Corp. 
Cdmpuior picture repriced pevmtaeion. Tandy Carp. APPLE to t registered iradomnrk of Apple Computing, Inc. ZM Is e registered iredemar* of Z)log ( Inc. 

Each card Is a corViplels summon (he rofercjico manuals and Ihw mlcrqcompotrrl. Cefds are iwo or mora colors* primed on BO pound Beckett Ami que" cow 
■lock or a comptrabtu slock. «treict> wrapped In plastic lor snipping, They are accordion laidup cerds, in the same style el th« imdHlonel IBM lerwcncs c'eids 
uftod on tins major computer* <or years Fold-op cue is eight and one-hall by three and mree-quarter taction. &o ihey will III easily inio Ihe ihirt pocket These cnrds 
provide i complete summary ol the manuals plus many OKlrai el your fingertip*. 



Please send me: 



Card 


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Copies of MODEL 1 BASIC & ASSEMBLER 


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Wholesale prices available 


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Indiana Residents Add 4 Pfirceni irjr Indiana Sales Tax 




September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 3 



Under The Rainbow 



6 



15 



32 



41 



47 



51 



58 



60 



72 



78 



62 



95 



AN ELECTRONIC GRADEBOOK Lane Lester 

Keep track of grades— and more— with this sophisticated program 

NUMBER PICKING p e | Walrath 

Here is how to set up a number memorizing game 

UNUSUAL GRAPHICS ^%JL- • • Har Pe 

GETs and PUTs make some interesting shapes with random patterns 

INTERNATIONAL PING PONG - 



An 80C version of this classic arcade game from Austria r ^ 

AUTO KEY REPEAT ..... 



Tired of pressing keys over and over again? 

THREE PRINTER UTILITIES 

These useful routines can be run from a menu 

FLEX CAN BE FLEXIBLE '• "M^^" 

A further examination of this newly-available system 

RACE THE TRACK !. \"J.. .ji 

Create your own tracks In this game by a race driver 

NON-GRAPHIC PRINTER GRAPHICS 

ft will make banners, tool ' r& V"' r ' \ 

DOG-GONE PROGRAM . .|& , . -tfJp* 
Who's that doggie in the listing? 

HANDY MATH DRILL '^^^i\^jsti\ . . T U%C . « 

Practice math all school year long 

HERE IS A BAG OF LETTERS . . : . ^%FV^, ..M 

A second educational program from Mr. Wells 



Wolfgang Hryzak 




Charles J. Roslund 



Jim Schmidt 



Steve Odneal 



Al Mine 



David Steyer 

James Barringer 



Geoff Wells 



Geoff Wells 



DEPARTMENTS 

Assembly Corner 73 

Dennis Lewandowski 

Back Issue Information 14 

Corrections 94 

The Dragon's Byte 22 

Bill Nolan 

Education Notes 35 

Steve Blyn 

The GameMaster's Apprentice 38 

Bob Albrecht 

Letters To RAINBOW 4 

The Pipeline 56 

PRINT #-2, 6 

Editor's Notes 

Submission Guidelines 94 

Your Subscription 21 

THE COVER 

Rosie Veach heads back to school on 
our Education Issue cover— but not 
without her Color Computer materials, 
too. Photo by Steven Veach. Color 
separations by Kelly Color Service. 




r 



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REVIEWS 

Ancient Wisdom 44 

Bug Chase 90 

Cassette Caddy 49 

Color Zap 44 

Disk Interface 20 

Galax Attax 90 

Geography Pack 49 

Inventory Control 71 

Jungle Trek 43 

Math Drill 20 

Mathpac I 70 

Math Tutor/Spelling Teacher 91 

Mission: Empire 88 

Preschool Pak 70 

Random Basic 36 

RAM Slam 

Reading Two-Pak , / . . 17 

Tiny Compiler 89 

TRS-80 Color Basic 90 

World History 20 



A READER SURVEY IS ON PAGE 105 

We Invite you to participate 



The RAINBOW is published by FALSOFT, INC., 5803 Timber Ridge Drive, Prospect, KY 40059. Entire contents © by FALSOFT, Inc., 1982. The 
RAINBOW and the Rainbow logotypes are ® Trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. Lawrence C. Falk, Editor; Patricia H. Hirsch, General Manager. 

The RAINBOW is intended for the personal use and pleasure of its subscribers and reproduction by any means isforbidden. Use of programs and information herein is for the single 
end use of purchasers and any other use is prohibited. All programs herein are distributed on an "as is" basis without warranty of any kind whatsoever. 
TRS-80, Color Computer and Extended Color Basic are ® trademarks of Tandy Corp. 

Subscriptions to the RAINBOW are $16 per year in the United States. Canadian and Mexican rates are U.S. $22. Surface mail to other countries is U.S. $31 , air mail U.S. $49. Limited 
back issuesare available for US. $2 for numbers 1-7, U.S. $2.50 for numbers 8 upward. Shipping and handling costs of $3.50 must be added. Payment accepted in cash, check, money 
order, VISA or MasterCard in United States currency only. All subscriptions begin with the next available issue. 

The RAINBOW is published every month of the year. 



Page 4 



The RAINBOW 



LETTERS 



September, 1982 




HAPPY BIRTHDAY 

Editor: 

Congratulations on your RAIN BO first 
birthday. Its really a rainbow with a colorful 
cover and beautiful programs and articles 
inside. I really enjoy the RAINBOW and 
look forward to receiving it each month. 

Lee Wai Khin 
Singapore 



KEYBOARD ANYONE? 

Editor: 

I am a new subscriber and 1 want to 
complement you on your magazine. I drool 
at the possibilities of the 80C as I read it and 
I wish 1 had the money to indulge myself in 
software. 

There is one piece of hardware for the 80C 
which I have not seen advertised anywhere. 
However, it seems like a natural. Does 
anyone make a sculpted key keyboard for 
the 80C7 I think such a device would turn the 
80C into a better word processor. 

Clarence PeCoy 

Denver, CO 



VERIFY CHECKBOOKS 

Editor: 

I am 75 years of age and a rank amateur at 
writing Basic programs. I have developed 
the program below because I have trouble 
verifying the balances in my checkbook. 
You are free to use it if it has any value. 

10 ' RE-ENTER LINE 30 WITH THE 
FOLLOWING DATA: 

11 ' OLD BALANCE, -CHECKS, 
♦ DEPOSITS, INTEREST CREDITED, - 
BANK CHARGES 

20 READ C 

30 DATA 504.78, -15, -35.36, -127.73, -16 
40 N = B+C 

50 PRINT "NEW BALANCE IS";N 

60 B=N 

70 GOTO20 

As a tutorial in the use of Basic, I would 
highly recommend the publication Basic for 
Home Computers by Albrecht, Finkel and 
Brown, published by A. G. Wiley & Sons, 
Inc. 

Richard W. Harter 
Leesburg, FL 

Editor's Note: Bob Albrecht, our newest 
columnist whom you mention, is out with a 
new book (reviewed on these pages this 
month) specifically for Color Basic. 



PRAISE 

Editor: 

I like your idea of the RAIN BO W Seal of 
Certification for advertisers. I have always 



been just a little unsure of mail order. 

Micro-80 advertises in your magazine and 
they certainly deserve a Seal. I have used 
Micro-80 C-10 cassettes for some time now 
and have never had any trouble with an 
order. 

Cheryl Whitelaw 
North Salt Lake, UT 

Editor: 

I recently ordered several programs for 
my 32K Color Computer from JARB 
Software. 1 was pleased with both the fine 
program material, which was everythingand 
more than was expected from their 
advertisment, and by thepromptserviceand 
attention that was shown for my current 
postal problems. 

Because of a delay in the shipment of the 
software, JARB sent along a gift and a gift 
certificate. I am very pleased with such 
honest, prompt and attentive service from a 
mail order business. 

Dr. Peter DeMauro 
May wood, NJ 



RELIGIOUS REQUEST 

Editor: 

I am interested in computer graphics 
made for religious use. 

I was fortunate enough to make a contact 
with Arnold Pouch of Superior Graphic 
Software and he very kindly made a 15- 
second spot for me that he called God's 
Commercial. 

If there are any readers who are interested 
in making more God's Commercials they 
may write me and I will send them a free 
computer tape of Mr. Pouch's program, plus 
an explanation of what I am trying to do. 

Also, if they are interested, I am willing to 
make copies of the programs I receive and 
make them available free. I may be 
contacted at Mary Queen of Heaven 
Church, P.O. Box 13, Erlanger, KY 41018. 

Rev. Paul Ciangetti 
Erlanger, KY 



ENVELOPES REVISITED 

Editor: 

The following program, Even More On 
Envelopes, was written to work with an 
Okidata 82A printer: 

10 FOR X=l TO 30: PRINT #-2," ": 
NEXT 

20 PRINT#-2, CHR$(29):PRINT #-2, 

"Robert E. Foiles" 
30 PRINT#-2, "53 Cedar Acres Drive" 
40 PRINT#-2,"Lancaster, PA 17602" 
50 FOR X = I TO 5:PRINT#-2," ": NEXT 
53 PRINT#-2,TAB(45)CHR$(29)"**** F 

IRST CLASS MAIL ♦***" 



55 FOR X=l TO 9: PRINT #-2," ":NEXT 
60 L1NEINPUT "NAME";A$ 
70 L1NEINPUT "STREET ADDRESS"; 
B$ 

80 L1NEINPUT "CITY, STATE";C$ 

85 L1NEINPUT "ZIP";D$ 

90 PRINT#-2,CHR$(31):PRINT#-2, 
TAB (35)A$: PRINT#-2, TAB (35)B$: 
PRINT#-2, TAB(35) C$: P|R I NT#-2, 
TAB(35)D$ 

100 FOR X=l TO 14: PRINT #-2," ": 
NEXT 

110 PRINT #-2,CHR$(30) 

Robert Foiles 
Lancaster, PA 



CRAMMING IT IN 

Editor: 

I would like to reference the July issue of 
the RAINBOW, I ama 16K Extended Color 
Basic user and would like to pass this along 
to others that the ADVENTURE game 
listing in your magazine was designated for 
32K minimum. 

Well, after reviewing the program and 
calculating the memory size needed, I loaded 
it and had about 7K of memory left. 

The secret of making it run is to shorten or 
leave out the REM statements and then do a 
PCLEAR1, which will make the graphics 
portion of the memory usable for this 
program. 

Edward Caslin 
Westminster, CO 



CLUBS 

Editor: 

I would like to start an 80C Club in the 
Hyde Park section of Chicago. 

People can contact me at 5461 S. 
Kenwood Ave., Chicago 60615 if they would 
like to become involved. 

Richard L. Greer 
Chicago, IL 

Editor: 

The Silicon Valley Color Computer Club 
meets regularly on the fourth Tuesday of 
each month at 7:30 p.m. at GTE-Sylvania 
cafeteria, Building #3, 100 Ferguson Drive, 
Mountain View, CA. This is on the corner of 
the Central Expressway and Whisman. 

Those interested can either come to the 
meeting or call me for more information at 
(408) 749-1947. 

Shawn Jipp 
Sunnyvale, CA 

Editor: 

I would like to announce the formation of 
a Color Computer User's Group in the 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 5 



Rhode Island area. 

We are still in the formation stages and 
have no meeting place to date, but anyone in 
the Rhode Island area interested can contact 
me by writing to RITUG, 100 Kerri Lyn 
Road, Warwick, 02886. 

I have found this magazine to be an oasis 
of information in the dry CoCo desert. 

Robert J. Sullivan Jr. 

Warwick, RI 

Editor: 

I have formed a Color Computer Club, 
"Singing River Color Computer Club," here 
on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. We meet the 
2nd and 4th Thursdays at 7 p.m. each month 
at the Gautier Public Library. 

Contact me at 2500 Fairley Road, 
Gautier, MS 39553 or call (601) 497-2505 
(your nickel, please). 

Discussion of inferior brand micros 
strictly prohibited. 

Jerry P. Lowe Sr. 
Gautier, MS 

Editor: 

Good news. The TACC — Tuscaloosa 
Area Computer Club— had its 
organizational meeting August 15. We are 
interested in meeting with anyone who is 
interested in joining. 

Those who are interested should contact 
me at P.O. Box AK, University, AL 35486. 

Ed Rutledge 
Tuscaloosa, AL 

EDITOR'S NOTE: Did anyone ever 
think of calling these groups C 3 's? 



WHAT'S THIS?! 

Editor: 

I got an 80C about two months ago. 
Today I was writing a simple program to 
make my initials out of letters on the screen 
and I typed in CLS(9) instead of CLS(8) by 
accident. 

Instead of a ?FN ERROR I got a regular 
display with MICROSOFT printed in the 
upper left-hand corner. This works with all 
the numbers I tried. They must have ajoker 
designing these microchips. 

Sonja Kueppers 
Bryn Mawr, PA 

EDITOR'S NOTE: No, that is the name 
of the company which wrote the Color Basic 
and Extended Color Basic ROM. Perhaps 
just another way of reminding you who is 
responsible for the great commands built 
into the 80C? 



PRETTY PRINT? 

Editor: 

I read, with interest, your articles and 
letters on "pretty printers," but nowhere do I 
find an indication as to what they are and 
where one might be obtained. Perhaps I 
missed something in an earlier magazine. 

Also, you often stress the importance of 
copying program listings exactly as they are 
printed, and I notice that spaces within the 
program lines are mostly left out, but 



occasionally used. 

Also, I recently bought the Color Pyramid 
from the "Shack." Of course, my first 
disappointment was with the graphics — 
there weren't any. Then, I continually 
circulate around the same two or three 
rooms without seeming to get anywhere. 
Has anyone completed the Pyramid 
Adventure? Is there in fact an end? 

Norman K. Jones 
Newmarket, Ont. 

EDITOR'S NOTE: So-called "Pretty- 
Printing" is not a utility nor is it a printer. It 
is a form of entering programs which some 
believe make them easier to read. For 
instance, the items between the FOR and 
NEXT in a loop are usually indented to 
"pretty-print." It is attractive, but wastes 
memory. 

Which leads us to your second question: 
Why spaces sometimes. First of all, since we 
set the program listings to 32 characters per 
line, if you enter the programs exactly, you 
will be able to tell whether you made a typo 
simply by seeing if one letter on your screen 
lines up with the one above or below it as in 
the printed listing. Second, compressing 
material does save memory. Those spaces 
take up memory, too. Yes, you are right, 
there are some commands which require 
spaces. But, usually, the spaces are put there 
as the programmer wishes, depending on his 
or her own style. 

Finally, Pyramid Adventure is based on 
the "first" Adventure and, yes, there is an 
end— or at least— a way to win. One way to 
avoid going around in circles is to make a 
map. And, too, you need to examine 
everything closely. There are two kinds of 
Adventures, graphic and "word." This is a 
word Adventure. They can be a lot of fun. 



HEATING PROBLEMS 

Editor: 

I saw a letter in your July issue mentioning 
a heating problem with the 80C. A few of the 
members of our computer club have had 
similar problems and it seems to be the SAM 
chip which causes it. 

In some cases the entire screen turns red 
and stays that way until the entire unit cools 
off. In all, there seem to be three cures for 
this problem: 

1 . Install an aluminum heat sink on top of 
the SAM chip (a piece of half-by-two inch 
aluminum, 3/16 of an inch thick with 
hacksaw cuts will do). 

2. Lift up the motherboard and resolder 
all the connections on the base of the SAM 
chip. 

3. Cut out two capacitors which are in the 
circuit. Their locations can be found in the 
Radio Shack service manual. 

I opted for the heat sink since SAM chips 
are practically impossible to get in our area 
of Canada. 

Ed Hemrick 
Surrey, B.C. 



ATTENTION PARENTS 

Editor: 

Congradulations on a superlative 
magazine for the fantastic TRS-80 Color 
Computer! 

I think your readers ought to be made 
aware of our Color Computer Group — 
"Parents And Teachers Extrapolating New 
Technology,"or, simply, P.A.T.E.N.T. It 
has been formed by High-Tech parents, 
highly motivated teachers, administrators, 
domestic engineers and students. 

We will provide a newsletter, swap our 
own software, help in the funding of 
computer systems and do custom Computer 
Aided Instruction programming. 

We all donate our time, energy and, often, 
our own money to this project because we 
feel very strongly that there is an appalling 
lack of computer expertise directed into our 
school system — nationwide. 

Those interested in more information 
should send a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope to P.A.T.E.N.T, care of the 
undersigned, 403 Grand Blvd., Half Moon 
Bay, CA 94019. 

Jerry Begin 
Half Moon Bay, CA 



RAINBOW LABELS 

Editor: 

I recently bought a package of the back 
issues and I found two problems with the 
first five issues and you might be interested 
in how 1 solved them. 

The first is the lack of left margins. I 
solved that by gluing ^-inch of paper with 
cellulose tape. The second problem is the 
lack of dates in the first five issues. I solved 
that by writing the small program shown 
below to be run on an Epson MX-80 printer. 
1 duplicated your type as closely as possible 
and glued the dates on the upper right-hand 
corner. I also glued the volume number on 
your strip at the bottom of the banner, as is 
done in issue number 6 and following. 1 
thought other readers might be interested. 

One other thing that bothers me is the 
misspelling of so many words, e.g., 
hex/decimal should be hexadecimal; the use 
of its instead of it's and vice-versa. I would 
be willing to act as proofreader. 

Other than that, it is an excellent 
magazine. Keep improving it. 

10 E$=CHR$(27) 
20 Y$="1981" 

30 M$(l) = "July": M $(2)=" August 
M$(3)="September": M$(4)="October": 
M$="November" 

40 PRINT#-2,E$"E" 

50 FOR 1 = 1 TO 5 

60 PRINT#-2,E$ CHR$(14); M$(I)+" 
"+Y$ 

70 PRINT#-2 
80 PRINT#-2, 
100 NEXT I 

120 PRINT#-2, "Vol. I No.";I 
130 PRINT#-2 
140 PRINT#-2 

—Continued on Next Page 



Pape 6 



The RAINBOW 



September 1982 



150 NEXT I 

Dr. F.J. Lopez- Lopez 
Chula Vista, CA 

EDITOR'S NOTE: You have a good eye. 
Those are the control codes we used when we 
were using the MX-80. Of course, we have 
also used a Line Printer VII and a Line 
Printer VIII. 

TAPE AND DESK 

Editor: 

As a relatively new subscriber to your fine 
magazine, I want to tell you how much I 
enjoy it and look forward to it each month. 
Having tapes was a gem of an idea. I tried it 
on a three month basis and feel they're really 
worth it. Sign me up for a year. 

I think you should have some sort of 
contest for the most efficient "table-desk" 
setup for the Color Computer, monitor, 
printer, future disk expansion and work 
arrangement. I am trying to use an 
arrangement using file cabinets and a solid 
door for a table top. I would appreciate 
seeing or having a sketch of other ideas. 
Trying to buy (if I could afford it) one is 
almost impossible. 

My last point is an interchange of good 
sources for equipment and software. I, for 
one, would rather read of good buys in 
RAIN BOW than buy a big (in terms of 
number of ads) magazine like Byte. If all of 
us (readers of RAIN BOW) would introduce 
RAINBOW to sources of good buys we find, 
we would have an even better magazine. We 
all know advertisers pay the bill to make an 
outstanding magazine better. 

Austin Smith 
Sutter, CA 

80CS FUTURE 

Editor: 

The July issue is beautiful and I hope you 
will continue in this way. 

I am afraid for the TRS-Color's future 
and I would like your opinion. Is it time to 
change my hardware? Is there much 
software coming for medicine and business? 

Dr. Nelson J. Cunha 
Joao Monlevade, Brazil 

EDITORS NOTE: Things should be 
looking up for the 80C in other countries, 
soon. The distribution to everywhere except 
the United States (even C anada!) was not as 
fast as it could have been, but things have 
speeded up recently. You should be seeing a 
great deal of business software available. As 
to medically-oriented software, we have not 
seen any yet. But, no, I dont believe it is time 
to change your hardware. The80C is still the 
most powerful computer you can buy, 
dollar-for-dollar, in any country. 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR are 
always welcome. Please keep them short if 
possible and we will try to answer some of 
the questions in this column. Others may 
be left open for solutions by other users. In 
order to make space for as many letters as 
possible, we reserve the right to edit 
submissions. 

Letters can be sent to the RAIN BO W, 
P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. 



Editor's Notes... 

PRINT #-2, 

I received a letter from a fellow the other day who said that he was interested in 
the possibility of our handling classified advertising and, if we did, he would like 
to sell some "used" software. I attribute no ulterior motives to this particular 
request, but it did get me to thinking about software and what people do with it. 

I paid a visit to a local computer store, which is primarily an Apple dealer and 
spent some time "shopping" the Apple software to see whether my inclination was 
right about the price of that software. 

It certainly was. Generally speaking, after paying many times the price for a 
complete Apple system as you do for an 80C, you also would end up paying 
something like a third more for any piece of software. Reason? Fairly simply, it is 
software pirating. 

Now, I do not propose to get into a lengthy diatribe about how copying 
software is illegal. I think everyone who owns a computer knows this. What I 
would like to spend a little time with you about is expressing my opinion why, 
aside from the illegalities, it is wrong to get involved in any way with pirated 
software. 

Pirated software costs you money. And, furthermore, it can cost you a great 
deal of enjoyment, too. Let's forget about the company which produces that 
software for a minute and concentrate on how it affects you, alone. 

Suppose I write a program and decide to sell it. How much do I sell it for? As 
Henry Ford proved long ago, the more units you can sell, the less you can charge 
for each item. If I can sell 100 copies of my program, and I have invested so-and-so 
much amount of time, I figure what my time is worth and price my program 
accordingly. 

But suppose the end result is that 1 sell only 33 programs instead of 100. My 
return on my time — and we all know what kind of time it takes to sharpen up a 
program to be just the way we want it — is reduced by 66 percent. If I go to sell 
another program, the simple thing to do is raise the price to match what I want my 
return to be. So, then, my next program costs you more. 

I believe that is what has happened, to a large extent, with the Apple software. 
An author told me some time ago that he believes there are two programs "out 
there" for every one that he sells. The price of his next program will reflect those 
percentages. And it is a pity. Simply because it means fewer people will beableto 
afford his next offering. 

Here is someone who is in this full-time. A professional programmer. How 
about the man or woman who only does it part-time? They might just decide not 
to write another program at all. And, could the next program be some sort of 
super offering that you really wanted? Maybe. 

What I am trying to say here is that the issue is not, on the personal level, purely 
legality or illegality — it is economics and enjoyment. Your economics and your 
enjoyment. No one wants to pay more for a program and the authors don't want 
to charge you more, either. They just want to get a fair return. 

So, the next time a friend asks if he can "copy" a program, tell him no and tell 
him why. Over the long haul, it will be less expensive for him to go out and buy 
that program than for him to drive up the price of programs for himself, you and 
everyone else. Our software is reasonable right now. Let's work to keep it that 
way. 

It is my feeling that most people do not understand the impact of making a 
"little copy" of a program. But it does make an impact. Yes, it is illegal. Don't 
forget that. But, the chances are slim you will be caught. However, you will be 
caught by higher prices and lack of programs. That is where it should hit home to 
you. 

Incidentally, I have heard of some people and firms which pirate software for 
resale. If you know of anyone who does, do impart that information to the 
original producer. These pirates are cheating you in two ways. First of all, they are 
driving up the cost of programs. Second, you may find that fixes and updates for 
your own software won't be handled by the firm which actually produced the 
software in the first place. And the pirate sure can't help you — it would give away 
his "game." It is very important to all of us that we cooperate against people who 
would illegally sell — read that as steal, because that is what it is — someone else's 
programs. 

One of the reasons the Apple programs are more expensive is probably because 
there is quite a bit of "protection" built into many — to prevent copies from being 
made. That takes programming time, too. And time costs money. 

I see prevention of software piracy as an area in which every 80C user can make 
a contribution. I hope you will. -Continued on Page 104 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 7 




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The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



Page 8 

Education. . . 

An Electronic Gradebook Can Make '82-'83 Much Easier 




By Lane P. 

The gradebook is a major nuisance. It steals a lot of the 
time that teachers could better use to become better 
teachers. I have been developing the following program, 
GRADE, for two reasons: To save time and to justify the 
purchase of such an expensive toy as a computer. 

How can I develop impressive MPP graphics programs 
(the RAINBOW 1(9):24 and 1(10): 13) with which to flavor 
my biology lectures unless I can unload some of the boring 
job of grading tests and maintaining a gradebook? GRADE 
provides for test grading with item analysis, storage of 
individual scores and totals, and a means of assigning letter 
grades. 

Although written for 32K with the Radio Shack disk 
drive, it would not be difficult to use it with tape because the 
gradebook file is loaded completely to memory before it is 
used. Meaningful variable names and frequent prompts 
should allow you to make other changesforyour own needs. 
The following discussion provides an explanation of the 
various features of GRADE. 

Having cut my programming teeth on FORTRAN I was 
impressed with the string-handling ability of BASIC and 
GRADE was written as an excercise in string manipulation. 
Each student's name, number, total points and individual 
scores are contained in an individual string STUDENTS. 
Extraneous spaces have been inserted for readability, but 
their elimination allows every numbered statement line to 
LLIST on a single 132-character compressed-type line. 

70 Main Menu 

The menu expects lower-case input as a reminder to set 
the computer appropriately for student and assignment 
names. FILES serves as a flag to determine whether the 
gradebook file needs to be loaded into memory by jumping 
to the "Load File" subroutine. Note the use of commas to 




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avoid repeated PRINT commands, and the use of nested 
IF/THENs. 

130 Grade Tests 

Because it is easier to enter numbers than letters during 
test grading, I have used letters for test questions and 
numbers for the multiple choices. You can rest your left 
hand on the top row of keys and quickly enter a student's 
answers. I never ask more than 26 questions on a test, so if 
you do, you will have to make a few changes, e.g., in 
statement 170. The re-grading option is necessary when the 
item analysis indicates poor questions which should not be 
included in the grading. 

STUDENT$(0) is named "Possible" and contains the 
maximum points for each score. The answers for each test 
paper are entered as a single string, requiring only one 
ENTER. The immediate PRINT of right and wrong 
answers comes under the heading of "bells and whistles"and 
is fun but not very useful. 

280 Item A nalysis 

Test questions that I really like sometimes fail item 
analysis, so this is a useful check on one's question-writing. 
The values used seem to be the best indicators according to 
the educational community. A shell sort is used to arrange 
the students from highest to lowest scores. The printout is, I 
hope, self-explanatory. 

450 Enter Set of Grades 

This subroutine allows the entry of scores for assignments 
that cannot be graded by "Grade Tests." Student number 
(last four digits of Social Security number) and score are 
entered as a single string: 

520 Change Existing List 

Statements 530-570 provide editing functions for 
GRADE. 

740 Print Grades 

This routine prints two copies of the gradebook. One with 
names and numbers for me, and one with numbers only 
which can be posted for the students'inspection. If you have 
a printer other than an Epson, the control codes will have to 
be changed. The following table should help. 

Epson MX-80 Control Codes 

CHR$(12)=Formfeed 
CHR$(13)=Carriage Return 
CHR$(14)=Expanded Letters for one line 
CHR$(27)=Escape Code + 
E"=Emphasized Type 
F"=Cancel Emphasized Type 



890 Gradescale 

My particular style of grading makes this an extremely 
useful routine, but you may find it totally without value. I 
assign no letter grades during the semester, but simply 
accumulate the scores on each test and asssignment. At the 
end of the semester, the totally subjective step of converting 
numbers to letters (similar to converting apples to oranges) 
can no longer be postponed. 

Evidently, Vm either a poor teacher, write bad test 
questions, the subject is hard, the students are dumb, or 
some combination of the four, because I cannot apply a nice, 
neat 90-80-70-60 without flunking too many. What I do is 
reduce the theoretically-possible number of points until I get 
a grade distribution I can live with. "Gradescale" provides 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 9 



me with a list of different "100%'s" and the number of 
students that would get each letter grade. 

As you can see, "Gradescale" is run each time the 
gradebook is printed (no RETURN after "Print Grades"). I 
then determine an interim grade distribution which I give 
the students so that they will know how they are progressing 
during the term. Statement 920 takes care of my personal 
experience that a 90-80-70-60 scale works OK f or upper level 
courses and freshman labs, but that 88-76-64-52 is better for 
freshman lectures. 

980 Record Grades 

As you can see, converting this from disk to tape would 
not be difficult, and you could keep each class on a separate 
cassette. 

1020 Create New Gradebook 

The limitations on points are required by the use of strings 
to store numbers. There are a number of ways to overcome 
this, but it works for me so why bother? 

1100 Locate Student 

This subroutine is called from several of the other routines 
and uses binary search to locate a particular STUDENTS in 
the array. CHECK serves as a flag to indicate whether the 
student was found. 

1160 Sort List 

After creating a new gradebook, adding students to the 
roll, or running the item analysis, this Shell sort arranges the 
gradebook from lowest student number to highest. Why not 
sort them alphabetically by name, you ask? The number sort 
makes it easier to locate their grades on the posted 
gradebook. 

1210 Load File 

Changes would be necessary here if you use tape. 



10 * GRADEbook 

20 'Lane P. Lester, Ph.D. 

30 'Liberty Baptist College 

40 'Lynchburg, VA 24506 

50 GOTO 1260 ' (PCLEAR1) 

60 CLEAR 17000: DIM STUDENT* (255 

) , GRADE* ( 20 ) , ANSWER* ( 30 ) , COUNT ( 3 

0): FILE*="NOT IN" 

70 'Main Menu 

80 CLS: PR I NT "ENTER LETTER OF DE 

SIRED FUNCTION"; " g GRADE TESTS 

",," e ENTER SET OF GRADES"," 

c CHANGE EXISTING LIST" 

90 PRINT" p PRINT GRADEBOOK"," 

r RECORD GRADEBOOK AND END"," 

n CREATE NEW GRADEBOOK": INPUT L 
* 

100 IF L*="g" THEN L=l ELSE IF L 
$="e" THEN L=2 ELSE IF L*="c" TH 
EN L=3 ELSE IF L*="p" THEN L=4 E 
LSE IF L$=V" THEN L=5 ELSE IF L 
$="n" THEN L=6 ELSE GOTO 80 
110 IF L<>6 AND FILE*="NOT IN" T 
HEN GOSUB 1210 

120 ON L GOSUB 140,460,530,750,9 
90, 1030: GOTO 80 
130 'Grade Tests 

140 CLS: PRINT"PRESS '1' FOR FIR 
ST GRADING PRESS '0' FOR RE- 

GRADING" -Continued on Page 11 



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September, 1982 

GRADE BOOK (From Page 9) 
150 K*=INKEY*: IF K*<"0" OR K*>" 
1" THEN 150 ELSE IF K*="0" THEN 
170 ELSE GRADES=GRADES+ 1 
160 LINE INPUT "ENTER TEST NAME (U 
pper & Lower ) " ; GRADE* ( GRADES ) : F 
OR 1=0 TO NUM: STUDENT* ( I ) =STUDEN 
T*(I)+" " : NEXT 

170 TAKING=0: J=GRADES: INPUT "LETT 
ER OF LAST QUESTION "; Q*: QUES=ASC 
(Q*)-64 

180 INPUT "HOW MANY POINTS EACH"; 
WORTH: LS=LEN (STUDENT* (0) ) : IF K 
*="0" THEN PR I NT "ENTER '0' FOR S 
KIPPED QUESTIONS": GOTO 200 
190 SCORE*=STR*(INT(QUES«WORTH+. 
5) ) : L=LEN (SCORE*) -1 : SCORE*=RIG 
HT* ( SCORE* , L ) : MID* (STUDENT* (0) , 
LS+l-L,L)=SCORE* 

200 PR I NT "ENTER ANSWERS AS A SIN 
GLE STRING";: FOR K=l TO QUES: P 
RINT CHR*(64+K);: COUNT=0: NEXT 
K: PRINT 

210 LINE INPUT KEY*: PR I NT "PRESS 
<1> TO CONTINUE,": PRINT TAB (6) " 
<2> TO RE-ENTER" 

220 K*=INKEY*: IF K*< " 1 " OR K*>" 
2" THEN 220 ELSE IF K*="2" THEN 
210 

230 SCORE=0: PR I NT "ENTER STUDENT 
NUMBER": LINEINPUT "ENTER stop T 
0 STOP "; STUDENT*: IF STUDENT**" 
stop "THEN 290 ELSE GOSUB 1110 
240 IF CHECK=0 THEN 230 ELSE PR I 
NT MID*(STUDENT*(I) ,5,20): FOR K 
=1 TO QUES: PRINT CHR*(64+K);: N 
EXT K: PRINT: TAK I NG=TAK I NG+ 1 : L 
I NE INPUT ANSWER* 

250 FOR K=l TO QUES: K*=MID* (KEY 
*,K,1): IF MID* (ANSWER*, K, 1 ) =K* 
OR K*="0" THEN PR I NT "R" ; : SCORE= 
SCORE+WORTH ELSE COUNT ( K ) =COUNT ( 
K)+1:PRINT"W"; 

260 NEXT K: PRINT: SCORE*=STR* (S 
CORE): L=LEN (SCORE*) -1: SCORE*=R 
IGHT* (SCORE*, L) : MID* (STUDENT* ( I 
) , LS+l-L, L) =SCORE* 
270 PR I NT "TOTAL SCORE ="; SCORE: 
STUDENT* ( I ) =STUDENT* ( I ) +ANSWER*: 

GOTO 230 
280 'Item Analysis 
290 CLS: PR I NT "SORTING ENTRIES": 

D=INT(NUM/2) 
300 FOR 1=1 TO NUM— D: N1*=MID*(S 
TUDENT* ( I ) , LS- 1,2): N2*=M I D* ( STU 
DENT* ( I+D) , LS— 1 , 2) : IFN1*<=N2* 
THEN 320 

310 C=l: S*-STUDENT* ( I ) : STUDENT 
* ( I ) -STUDENT ( I +D ) : STUDENT* ( I+D) 
-S* 



The RAINBOW Page 11 

320 NEXT: IF CO0 THEN C=0: GOTO 
300 ELSE IF DOl THEN D=INT((D+ 
l)/2) : GOTO 300 

330 CLS: PR I NT#-2 , CHR* ( 27 ) ; " E " ; " 
Item Analysis for "; GRADE* (J) 
340 PR I NT#-2 , CHR* ( 27 ) ; " F " ; " QUES 

DIFF DISC RESPONSES ";CH 

R*(13) ; TAB (20) "1 2 3 4 5 

II 

350 IL0W=INT(TAKING*.27+.5) : IHI 
GH=INT(TAKING*.73+.5)+l: FOR K=l 
TO QUES: COUNT=0: LOW=0: HIGH=0 
: A 1=0: A2=0: A3=0: A4=0: A5=0 
360 FOR 1=1 TO NUM: IF MID* (STUD 
ENT*(I) ,LS-1,2)=" " THEN 400 EL 
SE COUNT=COUNT+l: A*=MID* (STUDEN 
T*(I) ,LS+K, 1): IF COUNT >ILOW THE 
N 380 

370 IF A*=MID*(KEY*,K, 1) THEN LO 
W=LOW+l:GOTO 390 

380 IF COUNT >=IHIGH THEN IF A*=M 
ID* (KEY*, K, 1) THEN HIGH=HIGH+1 
390 IF A*="l" THEN A1=A1+1 ELSE 
IF A*="2" THEN A2=A2+1 ELSE IF A 
*="3" THEN A3=A3+1 ELSE IF A*="4 
" THEN A4=A4+1 ELSE IF A*="5" TH 
EN A5=A5+1 

400 NEXT I: HL=HIGH+LOW: IF HL=0 
THEN DISC=0 ELSE D I SC= (HIGH-LOW 
)/HL 

410 PRINT#-2,USING" 7.7. #.## ## 
.## ### ### ### ### ###";CHR*(6 
4+K) ;COUNT(K) /TAKING; DISC; Al ;A2; 
A3;A4;A5: NEXT K 

420 PRINT#-2,CHR*(13) ; "Difficult 

y range of 0.4-0.7 is OK." 

430 PRINT#-2, "Discrimination Ran 

ges";CHR*(13) ">0.4 Good"; CHR 

*(13) ; "0.2-0.4 Satisf actory";CH 

R*(13);"<0.2 Poor "; CHR* (12) ; 

440 FOR 1=1 TO NUM: STUDENT* ( I ) = 

LEFT* (STUDENT* ( I ) , LS) : NEXT I : GO 

SUB 1170: RETURN 

450 'Enter Set of Grades 

460 CLS: FOR 1=0 TO NUM: STUDENT 

*(I)=STUDENT*(I)+" ": NEXT: GRA 

DES=GRADES+1: J=GRADES: PR I NT "EN 

TER GRADE NAME (Upper & Lower)" 

470 LINEINPUT GRADE* ( J ) : PRINT"E 

NTER POSSIBLE POINTS": LINEINPUT 

SCORE*: L=LEN ( SCORE* ) : MID* (STU 
DENT* (0) , 28+J«2-L, L) =SCORE* 

480 LINE INPUT "ENTER STUDENT NUMB 

ER AND SCORE (NO SPACE); stop T 

0 STOP "; STUDENT*: IF STUDENT*=" 

stop" THEN RETURN 

490 IF LEN( STUDENT* X 5 THEN PR IN 
T" ENTRY ERROR": SOUND200,2: GOTO 
480 ELSE GOSUB 1110 



-Continued on Page 12 



Page 12 The RAINBOW 

GRADEBOOK (From Page 1 1 ) 

500 IF CHECK=0 THEN 480 ELSE SCO 
RE*=M I D* ( STUDENT* , 5 ) : L=LEN ( SCOR 
^E*> : MID* (STUDENT* (I) , 28+J *2-L, L 
)=SCORE*: SOTO 480 

510 IF INKEY*<>"1" THEN 510 ELSE 
480 

520 'Change Existing List 

530 CLS: PR I NT "ENTER LETTER OF D 

ESI RED FUNCTION";" g CHANGE GRA 

DE"," n CHANGE NAME" 

540 PRINT" s CHANGE STUDENT NUM 

BER"," d DROP STUDENT"," a ADD 

NAMES & NUMBERS"," r RETURN TO 

MAIN MENU": INPUT K* 
550 IF K*="g" THEN K=l ELSE IF K 
*="n" THEN K=2 ELSE IF K*="s" TH 
EN K=3 ELSE IF K*="d" THEN K=4 E 
LSE IF K*="a" THEN K=5 ELSE IF K 
*="r" THEN RETURN ELSE GOTO 530 
560 IF K<>5 THEN L I NE I NPUT " ENTER 

STUDENT NUMBER " ; STUDENT*: GOSU 
B 1110 

570 IF CHECK=0 THEN 530 ELSE ON 
K GOSUB 590,620,650,680,700: GOT 
0 530 

580 'Change Grade 
590 CLS: PRINT LEFT* (STUDENT* ( I ) 
,4) ; " ";MID*(STUDENT*(I> ,5,20): 
I NPUT "ENTER GRADE NUMBER"; J: PR I 



v 



September. 1982 
NT GRADE* (J): I NPUT "ENTER GRADE" 
; SCORE* 

600 L=LEN ( SCORE* ) : S*=" ": MID* 
(S*,3-L,L)=SC0RE*: MID* (STUDENT* 
(I) ,26+2*J,2)=S*: RETURN 
610 'Change Name 

620 PR I NT "CURRENT NAME:": PRINT 
MID* (STUDENT* (I) ,5,20) : MID*(STU 
DENT* ( I ) , 5, 20) =STRING* (20, " ") 

630 PR I NT "ENTER CORRECT NAME": L 
INEINPUT C*: MID* (STUDENT* ( I ), 5, 
LEN ( C* ) ) =C* : RETURN 
640 ' Change Number 

650 PR I NT "CURRENT ENTRY:": PRINT 
LEFT* (STUDENT* (I) ,4) : PRINT"ENT 
ER CORRECT NUMBER": LINE I NPUT C* 
:MID*(STUDENT*(I) , 1,LEN(C*) ) =C* 
660 GOSUB 1170: RETURN 
670 'Drop Student 

680 NUM=NUM-1: FOR 1=1 TO NUM: S 
TUDENT*(I)=STUDENT*(I+1): NEXT: 
RETURN 

690 ' Add Names and Numbers 
700 CLS: PR I NT" ENTER NAMES AND N 
UMBERS; ", "stop TO STOP": FOR I=N 
UM+1 TO 255: A*=STRING* (23, " "): 

L I NE I NPUT " NAME : " ; B* 
710 IF B*="stop" THEN NUM=I-1: I 
=255: GOTO 730 ELSE MID*(A*,1,LE 
N(B*))=B*: LINE I NPUT "NUMBER (4 DI 



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V 



September. 1982 

6ITS):";C*: STUDENT* ( I ) =C*+A* 
720 IF GRADES >0 THEN FOR J = l TO 
GRADES : STUDENT* ( I ) =STUDENT* ( I ) + 
" ": NEXT J 

730 NEXT I: GOSUB 1170: RETURN 
740 'Print Grades 

750 FOR P=0 TO 1: CLS: PRINT#-2, 
CHR*(13) ;CHR*(14> ;CHR*(27) ; "E";T 
AB( 18) "GRADE BOOK " ; CHR* (13) 
760 PR I NT#-2 , " B I OL " ; LEFT* ( CLASS 
*, LEN (CLASS*) -4) ; TAB (32) TERM*; TA 
B ( 65) PROF* ; CHR* (13) 
770 IF P=l THEN PRINT#-2, STRING* 
( 26 , " " ) ; ELSE PR I NT#-2 , STR I NG* ( 
6," "); 

780 PRINT#-2, "T ";: FOR G=l TO 3 
0: IF GRADE* (G)<>"" THEN PRINT#- 
2,USING"###";G; ELSE G=30 
790 NEXT G: PRINT#-2, CHR* ( 13) ; CH 
R*(27) ; "F"; "Poss ";: IF P=l THEN 
PRINT#-2, MID* (STUDENT* (0) ,5,20) 

■ 

800 SUM=0: FOR J = l TO GRADES: SU 
M=SUM+VAL ( M I D* ( STUDENT* ( 0 ) , 26+2* 
J, 1) > * 1 0+VAL (MI D* ( STUDENT* ( 0 ) ,27 
+2*J, 1) ) : NEXT J 

810 SUM*=" ": SM*=STR*(SUM) : L 
=LEN(SM*)-1: SM*=RIGHT* (SM*, L) : 
MID*(SUM*,4-L,L)=SM*: MID*(STUDE 
NT*(0) ,25, 3)=SUM*: PRINT#-2, SUM* 

■ 

820 FOR J=l TO GRADES: PRINT#-2, 
" " ; MID* (STUDENT* (0) , 26+2*J , 2) ; : 

NEXT J: PRINT#-2 
830 FOR 1=1 TO NUM: PRINT#-2,LEF 
T*(STUDENT*(I) ,4) ; " ";: IF P=l T 
HEN PRINT#-2,MID*(STUDENT*(I) ,5, 
20) ; 

840 SUM=0: FOR J=l TO GRADES: SU 
M=SUM+VAL (MID* (STUDENT* ( I ) , 26+2* 
J , 1 ) ) *1 0+VAL (MID* (STUDENT* ( I ) , 27 

+2*J, 1) ) : NEXT J 

850 IF SUM>MAXSUM THEN MAXSUM=SU 
M 

860 SUM*=" ": SM*=STR*(SUM) : L 
=LEN(SM*>-1: SM*=RIGHT* (SM*, L) : 
MID*(SUM*,4-L,L)=SM*: MID*(STUDE 
NT*(I> ,25,3)=SUM*: PRINT#-2, SUM* 

■ 

870 FOR J=l TO GRADES: PRINT#-2, 
" ";MID*(STUDENT*(D ,26+2* J, 2) ; : 

NEXT J : PRINT#-2: NEXT I 
880 PRINT#-2: FOR K=l TO GRADES: 

PRINT#-2,USING " ## ";K;: PRIN 
T#— 2 , GRADE* ( K ) : NEXT K: PRINT#-2 
,CHR*(12) ; : NEXT P * 
890 'Gradescale 

900 PRINT#-2,CHR*(13> ; CHR* (27) ; " 
E"; TAB (20) "GRADESCALE FOR ";"BIO 



The RAINBOW 



Page 13 



L " ; LEFT* ( CLASS* , LEN ( CLASS* ) -4 ) 
910 X=INT (MAXSUM*.9+.5> : Y=MAXSU 
M: Z=INT(MAXSUM*.01+.5) : IF Z=0 
THEN Z=l 

920 PRINT#-2,CHR*(27) "F": IF LE 
FT* (CLASS*, 1>="1" AND MID* (CLASS 
*,5, 1)<>"L" THEN Al=.88: Bl=.76: 
Cl=.64: Dl=.52 ELSE Al=.9: Bl=. 
8: Cl=.7: Dl=. 6 

930 FOR H=X TO Y STEP Z: A2=INT( 
H*Al+.5): B2=INT(H*Bl+.5) : C2=IN 
T(H*Cl+.5): D2=INT (H*Dl+.5) : A=0 
: B=0: C=0: D=0: F=0 
940 FOR 1=1 TO NUM: SUM=VAL(MID* 
(STUDENT*(I) ,25, 1) ) * 1 00+VAL (MI 
(STUDENT* (I) ,26, 1) ) *10+VAL (MID*( 
STUDENT*(I) ,27, 1) ) 

950 IF SUM<D2 THEN F=F+1 ELSE IF 
SUM<C2 THEN D=D+1 ELSE IF SUM<B 
2 THEN C=C+1 ELSE IFSUM<A2 THEN 
B=B+1 ELSE A=A+1 

960 NEXT I: PRINT#-2, USING" 100"/.= 
### A=### ## B=### ## C 
=*## ** D=### ## F= 0 ##" 
;H, A2,A,B2,B,C2,C,D2,D,F: NEXT H 
970 PRINT#-2,CHR*(12) : RETURN 
980 'Record Grades 

990 CLS : VER I F YON : OPEN " 0 " , 1 , CLA 

SS*: WR I TE# 1 , TERM* , PROF* , NUM , GRA 

DES: FOR 1=0 TO NUM: WRITE#1,STU 

—Continued on Page 14 





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Page 14 

GRADEBOOK (From Page 13) 

DENT* (I): NEXT I 

1000 FOR J=l TO GRADES: WRITE#1, 
GRADE* (J): NEXT J: CLOSE: VERIFY 
OFF 

1010 PRINT MEM; "BYTES REMAINING" 
, FREE (0) ; "GRANULES REMAINING": 
END 

1020 'Create New Gradebook 
1030 CLS: PRINT311, "GRADEBOOK " : 
PR I NTS>64 , " INDI VI DUAL SCORES MAY 
NOT EXCEED99 POINTS. "; 
1040 PRINT" TOTAL POINTS FOR THET 
ERM MAY NOT EXCEED 999 POINTS. " 
1050 LINE INPUT "ENTER CLASS NUMBE 

R (101 A)";CLASS*: LINE INPUT "ENT 
ER SEMESTER & YEAR (Fall, 1981)" 
; TERM* 

1060 L I NE I NPUT " ENTER PROFESSOR'S 
NAME (Dr. Lester >" j PROF*: PRINT 
"ENTER NAMES AND NUMBERS;": PR IN 
T"stop TO STOP" 

1 070 STUDENT* ( 0 ) = " 0000Poss i b 1 e " + 
STRING* (12," "): FOR 1=1 TO 255: 
A*=STR I NG* ( 20 , " " ) : PR I NT " NAME 
(20 SPACES):", STRING* (20, "-") : 
LINE I NPUT B* 

1080 IF B*="stop" THEN NUM=I-1: 
FILE*="IN": GOSUB 1170: RETURN 
1090 MID* ( A*, 1 , LEN (B*> ) =B*: LINE 
I NPUT " NUMBER (4 DIGITS):"; C*: S 
TUDENT* < I > =C*+A* : NEXT I: GOSUB 
1170: RETURN 



The RAINBOW 



NEW for the Color Computer TRS-SO 

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PRICES 

1 YKC12 ISSUES) . . $55.00 

6 MO (6 ISSUES) . . $30.00 

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September, 1982 

1100 'Locate Student 

1110 CHECK=1: NM*=LEFT* ( STUDENT* 

,4): LL=0: UL=NUM+1: I = I NT < < UL-L 

L)/2) 

1120 PRINT I; UL; LL: SN*=LEFT* < 
STUDENT* ( I ) , 4 ) : IF NM*=SN* THEN 
RETURN ELSE IF NM*>SN* THEN LL=I 

ELSE UL=I-1 
1130 IF ULOLL THEN I = INT((UL-LL 
> /2+.5>+LL:G0T0 1120 
1140 CHECK=0: SOUND 200,2: PRINT" 
NO STUDENT WITH THIS NUMBER 
PRESS c TO CONTINUE" 
1150 IF INKEY*<>"c" THEN 1150 EL 
SE RETURN 
1160 'Sort List 

1170 CLS: PR I NT" SORTING ENTRIES" 
: D=INT(NUM/2) 

1180 FOR 1=1 TO NUIi-D : N1*=LEFT* 
( STUDENT* ( I ) , 4) : N2*=LEFT* ( STUDE 
NT*(I+D>,4>: IF N1*<=N2* THEN 12 
00 

1190 C=l: S1*=STUDENT*(I) : S2*=S 
TUDENT* ( I+D) : STUDENT* ( I ) =S2* : S 
TUDENT* ( I +D)=S1* 

1200 NEXT: IF CO0 THEN C=0: 60T 
0 1180 ELSE IF DOl THEN D=INT<< 
D+D/2): 60T0 1180 ELSE SOUND 20 
0,1: RETURN 
1210 'Load File 

1220 CLS: LINE I NPUT "ENTER CLASS 
NUMBER (101 LA&B) " ; CLASS* : CLAS 
S*=CLASS*+" /DAT " 

1230 OPEN " I ", 1 , CLASS* : INPUT#1,T 
ERM*, PROF*, NUM, GRADES: FOR 1=0 T 
0 NUM: INPUT#1,STUDENT*(I) : NEXT 
I 

1240 IF GRADES >0 THEN FOR K=l TO 
GRADES: INPUT#1 , GRADE* <K> : NEXT 

K 

1250 CLOSE: FILE*="IN": RETURN 
1260 PCLEAR 1: GOTO 60 



Back Issue Availability 

Back copies of most issues of the RAIN BOW art now 
available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue cover price — which 
is $2 for copies of numbers 1-8, $2.50 for numbers 9-14 and 
$2.95 for numbers greater than 14. In addition, there is a 
$3.50 charge per order for postage and handling. This 
charge applies whether you want one back issue or all of 
them. 

Most back issues are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. All back issues now available would be $28.50, plus 
$3.50 shipping and handling — a total of $32. VISA and 
MasterCard accepted. Kentucky residents please add 5 
percent state sales tax, 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you order back issues 
you want now while supplies last. The issue of April, 1982, 
Volume I, Number 10, is out of print. If it is reprinted, we 
will advise as to its availability at a later date. 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 15 



Tutorial. 



Let's Learn How To Do 
A Number Picking Game 



□ 



By Del Walrath 




This article deals with the writing of a number memory 
game on one level, but will also discuss how that game came 
to be so that readers might get some insight into how this 
sort of operation works. There are all sorts of applications 
which the same principles might apply. 

The game itself works fairly simply. The 80C gives you a 
number to memorize. If you are correct, it will lenghten the 
number and display that. If you are wrong, it will "haze" you 
and ask you to try again. 

The program works easily in a 4K non-extended 80C, 
although it was originally written f or 1 6K. It can be keyed in 
in less than an hour. 

Let's take a look at the program now and compare it to the 
rules, which are few: 

Picking The Number 

This did pose a problem as the 80C can only count up to 
999999999 and then goes to exponential notation. Who 
wants to memorize a bunch of zeroes? We can overcome this 
by using labeled variables and building arrays. 

Here is a routine to do that: 

210 Y=Y+1 

220 NUM(Y)=RND(9) 
230 PRINT @ 99, 
240 FOR I~l TO Y 
250 PRINT NUM(I) 
260 NEXT I 

With this method you must also add a dimension line, as. 
the 80C only saves enough room for 10 labels. It must be 
placed early in the program to avoid an error. 

002 DIM NUM(50) 

This can be set higher if you think you can remember 
more than 50 digits at a time. 

The other method, which I used in the listing below, is to 
treat the digits as a string as in lines 200-3 1 0. Line 240 picks 
the digit by random and adds 47 to it to give use the ASCII 
code. It isthen added to NUM$ alongwith BLN$, whichis a 
blank space, at line 250. 

The 80C then determines how many numbers there are to 
remember and figures out how long to show them to you. 
This is accomplished in lines 270-310, with a GOSUB to 
lines 660-760 to set a value to the variable TM in a timing 
loop in line 300. 

Your Guess Of The Number 

This could be accomplished by another array: 

350 FOR 1 = 1 TO Y 

360 INPUT PI(I) 

370 IF PI(I) < 0 THEN 350 

380 NEXT I 

We would then have to make an addition in line 2: 

002 DIM NUM(50),PI(50) 

But, again, I chose to work with strings as shown in lines 
320-420. Within the FOR/NEXT loop, using INKEYS, we 
build a string whose ASCII codes fall between 48 and 57 (in 
line 390) and whose length is that of NUM$. 

^Continued on Page 16 



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LOGIC l N' REASON: 3 games which aid children in developing 

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FLIPPER: Color Computer version of the OTHELLO™ type games 

MAILING LIST: Cassette or disk files for names and addresses 
with comments. Cross referencing of information and name seaches 
are featured 

PEEK 'N' SPELL: Flashes word or letter on screen for children's 
spelling drill-New word files can be created and stored on 

cassette tape 

MATH DERBY: Math drill in a horse race game for 1 to 3 

players-variable difficulty 

STOCK ANALYZER: Keeps track of stock prices and maintains 
portfolio data base-includes additional program for projecting 

price trends 

COLOR CUBE: CoCo version of the popular cube puzzles. 
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solved puzzle on tape 

DISK BACKUP: Saves Diskette based programs onto cassette 

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FINANCIAL COMBO: Loan Analysis, depreciation (inc'l ACRS), 
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SEND ORDER TO: 

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GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 

* DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED * QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



Page 16 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



Some Plain Talk About a DOS 



or 

Why You Should Use STAR-DOS 

The Disk Operating System, or DOS for short, is a program which acts as a file 
manager for a disk. The DOS acts as a buffer between the disk hardware, and 
the software which uses that disk. It*: .imary function is to maintain a disk 
directory on each disk, fetch program or data files from the disk as needed, and 
store programs or data back on the disk. 

When you buy the Radio Shack Disk System for the Color Computer, a Read 
Only Memory (ROM) integrated circuit inside the disk controller contains 
those parts of a DOS which change Extended Basic into Disk Extended Basic. 
Although this Basic allows you to initialize a disk, maintain a disk directory, 
store and fetch programs and data, and do many other functions of a real DOS, 
it has one major drawback — it only works with Basic. There is no easy way to 
integrate it with machine or assembly language programs, and so you are still 
limited by the speed and power of Basic. 

For this reason, many sophisticated Color Computer users are seriously considering switching to another DOS. 
Some of our competitors are marketing a very flexible DOS, long a favorite among users of larger 6809 systems, 
which has been adapted to run on the Color Computer. This particular DOS is quite popular among other 6809 
users, and there are many available programs which run under it. But it has several disadvantages. It often requires 
that you void your warranty by opening and modifying the Color Computer. It is completely incompatible with the 
Radio Shack DOS, and the two cannot read each other's disks. It's also expensive — since you must buy a new 
Basic to make full use of it (normal Radio Shack Basic disk commands don't work with it), you must pretty much 
discard all your existing software and start over — new DOS, new Basic, new editor, new text processor, etc. etc. 




STAR-DOS is the Solution 

STAR-DOS is a real DOS which blends all the best features you want into one DOS. STAR-DOS will run on a 
standard, unmodified 16K or larger Color Computer using the Radio Shack disk system. Its disk format is fully 
compatible with Radio Shack Disk Basic — files written by Basic can be read by STAR- DOS and vice versa. Since 
there is full disk compatibility, you need not throw out your existing programs or files. 

But the beauty of STAR-DOS becomes obvious to the serious user. From the programmer's viewpoint, STAR- 
DOS is just like other standard 6809 Disk Operating Systems. It provides all the standard features you need, such 
as provisions for multiple 320-by te file control blocks, routines to open, read, write, and close named files, rename 
or delete files, read or write single sectors, search or modify the directory, and more. STAR-DOS is so powerful 
that many programs written for other 6809 systems can be run with STAR-DOS just by changing a few addresses. 

STAR-DOS is supplied on a disk with a comprehensive user and programmer's manual, which explains all 
available routines and entry points, along with examples showing how to use them. The manual explains how to 
convert programs running under another DOS to run with STAR-DOS. It also comes with a number of utilities to 
make use of your disk system even easier and faster. It costs just $49.90 and is available NOW. 

Available NOW for STAR-DOS 

ALL-IN-ONE — the super Text Editor/Text Processor/Mailing List/Mailing Label program from AAA Chicago 
Computer Center which can process your text and even print individually addressed form letters from your 
mailing list. Adapted for STAR- DOS and available NOW for just $50. 

SPELL 'N FIX — the spelling correction program now available in the original Color Computer version or the new, 
much faster, STAR-DOS version. Finds and fixes spelling and typo errors fast, and costs $69.29. 

COMING . . .moresoftware running under STAR-DOS is in the works. Write for details, or see last month's ad for 
other programs. 

Above prices include shipping for orders prepaid by cash, check, or money order. We also accept COD, Visa, and 
MasterCard. State residents please include sales tax. 

Star Kits 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



P.O. Box 209— R 

Mt. Kisco, N.Y. 10549 
(914) 241-0287 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 17 



SPELL *N FIX 

Finally Available for the Color Computer! 

Now produce goof -proof text on your Color Computer by letting SPELL 'N FIX find and correct your spelling and 
typing mistakes. Used since 1981 on larger 6800 and 6809 systems, SPELL 'N FIX is now available for your Color 
Computer too. 

* Checks your text against a 20,000 word dictionary and finds your spelling and typing errors. 

* Displays all questionable words, or prints them on your printer for later action. 

* Even corrects errors in your text. Wrong words can be highlighted or changed to their correct spelling. 

* Fast and accurate — reads text faster than you can, spots and corrects errors even experienced 
proofreaders miss. 

* Dictionary can be expanded and customized — technical and even foreign words are easily added. 

* Available for the Radio Shack disc, cassette, or Flex disk operating system. 

* Compatible with all Color Computer Text Processors, including TeleWriter! 

SPELL 'N FIX is available off-the-shelf right NOW, and costs $69.29 in the Radio Shack disk or cassette versions 
(32K RAM required!); $89.29 in the Flex version. (Other versions, including Percom DOS, SSB DOS, and OS 9 
versions also available — contact us.) 

HUMBUG 

Now in a Color Computer Version 

HUMBUG is the famous SUPER MONITOR for 6800 and 6809 systems — you can now use it on your Color 
Computer too. 

HUMBUG is a complete machine language monitor and debugging system which allows access to the full power of 
the 6809E processor in the computer. HUMBUG lets you 

* Input programs and data into memory. 

* Output and list memory contents in various formats. 

* Insert multiple breakpoints into programs. 

* Single-step through machine language programs. 

* Test, checksum, and compare memory contents. 

* Find data in memory. 

* Start and stop programs. 

* Upload and download from bigger systems, save to tape. 

* Connect the Color Computer to a terminal, printer, or remote computer. 

* Learn how the Color Computer works by studying the listing of HUMBUG in the complete manual. 

HUMBUG is available right NOW on disk or cassette for $39.95 for 16K or 32K Color Computers. Special version 
for 64K systems costs $59.29 and is compatible with software for large 6809 systems. 

Other Color Computer Software 

CHECK 'N TAX — Basic programs for checkbook maintenance and income tax reports, for either RS Disk or 
Flex, $50. 

REMOTERM — allows full operation of the Color Computer from an external terminal. $19.95. 

LFPRINT — permits the Color Computer to be used with non-standard serial printers which do not support 

handshaking or automatic line feeds. $19.95. 

NEWTALK - a memory examine utility for machine language programmers which reads out memory contents 
through the TV set speaker. $20. 

SHRINK — our version of Eliza, in machine language and extremely fast. $15. 
OXXO — our version of Othello, also machine language and very fast. $15. 



We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY State residents please add appropriate sales tax. 

Star Kits 

P.O. Box 209— R 
Mt. Kisco, N.Y. 10549 
(914) 241-0287 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Page 18 The RAINBOW 

NUMBER (From Page 15) 

Something that we can do with the INKEYS that we 
cannot do with INPUT is to use keys other than the 
alphanumerics. Line 380 checks to see if the key pressed was 
either the CLEAR or the back arrow, in which case the 
screen is cleared. CIS is then set to nothing and you get to try 
your guess again in line 310. 

Line 390 excludes all keys except those whose ASCII code 
is between 48 and 57, which are the number keys. The 
BREAK key is not disabled as in most Basic games. but if 
this is a must, there is a routine which will allow you to do is 
in the listing for The Track in this month's issue of the 
RA IN BO W. 

Compare The Two Strings 

If we were using arrays, we could compair number to 
number in both arrays like this: 

440 FOR 1 = 1 TO Y 
450 IF NUM(I)< >CI(I) THEN 490 
460 NEXY I 

470 PRINT "CORRECT" 
480 SOUND 229,8: GOTO 220 
490 PRINT "WRONG TRY AGAIN?" 

Comparing strings is a little, bit easier, as will be seen in 
lines 430-650 of my listing. Line 440 compares NUMS with 
CIS, using all the digits at once. If you were correct, control 
is passed to line 620, which can tell you 
"CORECTOM UNDO" and then it is back to line 220 for a 
new number. 

If you were incorrect, the end of line 440 is ignored and 
control is passed line 450, printing "WRONG" and 
depending on the LEN(NUMS), the 80C will either reward 
or chastise you. 

All in all, this is a simple program, easy to follow and just 
waiting for your personal touches. By comparing the two 
forms of writing it, I hope I have helped to show some of the 
alternatives to programming for you to contemplate. 

The listing: 

1 REMARK A NUMBER MEMORY 

EXERCISE 

2 ' 



3 ' 

4 ' 0123456789012345678 

5 ' 90 67 

6 ' 89 MEMORY TEST 23 

7 ' 45 W/ NUMBERS 89 

8 ' 01 78 

9 ' 9012345678901234567 



10 ' 

11 ' 

12 ' 

13 ' 

14 REMarks: 

15 ' Del Walrath 

16 ' Aug. 1981 

17 ' TRS80-C 16K-Ext. 

18 ' 

19 ' 

20 ' 

100 ' »>»»»>»»»»>>>»>>>> 

INSTRUCTIONS 

110 CLS:TM-80 

120 PRINT© 6," — MEMORY TEST — " 



September, 1982 

130 PRINT 

140 PRINT" I WILL FLASH A NUMBER 
ON THE SCREEN, CLEAR THE SCRE 
EN, AND THEN ASK YOU WHAT THAT 
NUMBER WAS. IF YOU ARE CORREC 
T I WILL ADD A NUMBER TO THE EN 
D. " 

150 PRINT 

160 PRINT" FOR EXAMPLE IF I 61 VE 
YOU THE NUMBER: 12 3 4 AND YO 
U ANSWER CORRECTLY I WOULD AND 
ADD A NUMBER TO IT GIVING YO 

U: 12 3 4 5." 

170 PRINT 

180 PRINT " TO START PRESS ANY K 
EY. " 

190 X=RND(0):IF I NKE Y*= " " THEN 1 90 

200 '>»»>>»»»>>»»»»»>> 
TRS80 PICKS # 
210 BLN*=" " 
220 CLS 

230 PRINTS 99," HERE IS YOUR NUMB 
ER: " 

240 X=RND(10)+47 
250 NUM*=NUM*+CHR* ( X ) +BLN* 
260 PRINTS 225, NUM* 
270 LN=LEN<NUM*>/2 
280 GOSUB 660 
290 T I MER=0 

300 IF TIMER< TM THEN300 
310 CLS:CI*="" 

320 '>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 
PLAYER INPUT 

330 PRINT: PRINT " NOW TYPE IN WH 
AT YOU SAW . " 
340 PRINT 
350 FOR 1=1 TO LN 

360 PI*=INKEY*: IF PI*="" THEN 36 
0 

370 PI=ASC<PI*> 
380 IF PI-12 ORPI-8 THEN 310 
390 IF PK48 OR PI>57 THEN360 
400 CI*=CI*+PI*+BLN* 
410 PRINT® 225, CI* 
420 NEXT 

430 '>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 
COMPARE 

440 IF NUM*=CI* THEN 620 
450 PRINTS 65," WRONG**********" 
460 SOUND 110,9:SOUND 43,14 
470 ' 

480 PRINTS 128," THE CORRECT NUMB 

ER WAS ": PRINTS 161, NUM* 

490 PRINTTAB < 1 ) ; CI* 
- 500 NUM*-"": CI*-"" 
510 LN-LN-1 
520 IF LN<15 THEN 550 
530 PR I NT: PR I NT" VERY GOOD YOU R 
EMEMBERED " ; LN 

540 PR I NT "MOVES. YOU SHOULD TRY 

Continued on Page 20 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 19 



From Computer Plus to YOU . . 



PLUS 



after 



PLUS 



after 



PLUS 














XX, — 








Okidata 82A S425 

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Page 20 The 

NUMBER (From Page 18) 
SOMETH I N6 HARDER . " : 60T0 1 70 
550 IF LN<10 THEN 570 
560 PR I NT: PR I NT" GOOD, OR AT LEA 
ST AVERAGE , BUT LETS SEE IF YOU 
CAN DO BETTER THAN " ; LN ; " MOVE 
S":GOTO 170 
570 IF LN<8 THEN 600 
580 PR INT: PR I NT " DID YOU MAKE A 

BOO-BOO. THAT WAS ONLY " ;LN; " 

MOVES . " 

590 PRINT "LETS TRY AGAIN": GOTO 
170 

600 PRINT: PRINT " ARE YOU PLAYIM 
G THE SAME GAME I AM. I KNOW YO 
U CAN DO BETTER THAN " ; LN ; " MOV 
ES. TRY AGAIN. ":GOTO 170 
610 GOTO 170 

620 PRINTS265, "CORRECTOMUNDO" 

630 FOR I=114TO205 STEP7: SOUND I , 

1:NEXT:CLS 

640 CI*="":TIMER=0 

650 IF TIMER<79 THEN650 ELSE220 

660 IF LN>5 THEN 680 

670 TM=80: RETURN 

680 IF LN>9 THEN 700 

690 TM=75: RETURN 

700 IF LN>12 THEN 720 

710 TM=70: RETURN 

720 IF LNM7 THEN 740 

730 TM=65: RETURN 

740 IF LN>20 THEN 760 

750 TM-60: RETURN 

760 TM=55: RETURN 



RAINBOW September, 1982 

Software Review... 

Tape Recorder Capability Is 
Well Used In These Programs 

The tape recorder and the very versatile uses to which it 
can be put with the 80C are used to excellent advantage in 
both Speltest and Wordril. 

One of the problems associated with using a computer to 
teach spelling is that in order to give out the word, one has to 
communicate it in some way to the student. This can pose a 
real problem but it is solved nicely by these two programs. 

Using the tape recorder, both Speltest — which is a 
spelling test program — and Wordril — a words-and- 
definitions program — easily avoid the problem by having 
the teacher create a voice tape on which he or she records the 
words to be spelled or defined. 

The nice part about all this is that there is little guesswork, 
even if the teacher is not familiar with the 80C. An entire 
routine assists the teacher in getting the words on tape, and 
even provides a count-down so there is little change than a 
word will get "clipped off." The time allowed for the 
recording can be varied as well. 

By making a voice and data tape, the teacher then has a 
complete program to run. He or she can merely load in the 
data and have the Wordril or Speltest program take it from 
there. 

We are impressed by the care which has gone into this 
program, assisting the teacher with making the data and 
voice tape. We are also pleased, as we believe you will be, 
with the format of the program itself. 

Spelling tests are difficult to work through a computer 

system but these programs, thanks to some creative 
programming, have solved the problem by using a powerful 
feature of the 80C system. 

(Tom Mix Software, 3424 College N.E., Grand Rapids, 
MI 49505, $19.95 each) 



Hardware Review... 

This Cable Will Make 
Your Life A Lot Easier 

There is one thing we simply hate about the 80C's disk 
system: That is the ROM pack which extends so far out of 
the side. 

If you are like us and are a little cramped for space, then a 
new Disk Interface I Rom pack Extender is just the ticket. 

We know that many of you have bought the work station 
sold by Radio Shack as an easy way to keep as much as 
possible in one place. But, the back of the 80C fits under an 
enclosure, and that means it is hard to get to when you want 
to plug the disk controller (or any ROM Pack) in and out. 

This excellent product fits into the ROM port of your 80C 
in place of the disk controller. Then, all you need to do is 
plug the controller in the other end. It has the advantage of 
giving you three additional feet of space and of saving a lot 
of wear and tear on the BOM port pins as well. 

This is a good product? As with any cable, you must be 
careful not to pull on the cable itself rather than the socket. 
But, with this minor caution you will eliminate a great deal 
of hassel and save your expansion port pins in the process. 

We have been running our disk and ROM Packs with this 
cable for a month now and have had no problems with it 
whatsoever. If cramped quarters are a problem for you, this 
product may be just the ticket. 

(Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86th Drive, Woodhaven, NY 
11421, $29.95) 



Software Review... 

These Programs Leave Much 
To Be Desired Educationally 

By Mark Williams 

(Mr. Williams teaches computer programming to both 
exceptional and gifted children and gives workshops for 
teachers on computer uses in the classroom.) 

Six weeks ago 1 ordered three program tapes from Moses 
Engineering. Each of these programs was priced at $4, as 
indeed, are all of Moses Engineering's programs. 

Four and one-half weeks later, two of the three arrived 
(the third still has not) recorded on C-60 tapes (!) with two 
saves on one side and the remainder of the tape blank. 

The problems began when 1 tried to load the programs. In 
each case, the first recording would not load. Both times, the 
second did. 

A far more serious problem occurred when 1 ran the 
programs. Both of these programs are advertised in Moses 
Engineering's catalog as "College Level." They are of very 
poor educational quality. 

The World History program, which purports to be a 
review of world history from the Sumerians to the present, 
covers very briefly only the barest minimum of information. 
It would in no way be adequate for a junior high school 
history course, let alone college level. 

The format is simply text on a screen. Anyone who uses 
computers in a classroom situation knows that this quickly 



September, \ 1982 The 

becomes boring for students of almost any age. 

There are two graphics frames amidst the lines of text, 
both nicely done. But this kind of review cries out for maps 
and drawings at frequent intervals to keep interest high, and 
this program provides only two for over 8,000 years of 
history. < 

There is no interaction with the user in this program — 
only one question is asked. 

The United States history program is even worse. It opens 
with a partially-obscured map of the U.S. and plays a 
patriotic song (some of the notes aren't right). Then it moves 
into a very brief overview of United States history. This is 
covered in less than eight frames, less than 128 lines! There is 
one map (not badly done), one graphic of an A-bomb 
explosion (poorly done), and, again, only one review 
question. 

Moses Engineering's advertising says "The most complete 
list of EDUCATIONAL TRS-80 Color Computer 
programs in the United States. From kindergarten through 
graduate courses." If these are examples of the level of 
information and the method of presentation on "college 
leveP programs, then I could not recommend them. 

One final note. I realize that these programs cost only $4 
each and that good, well-designed educational software 
costs much more; but my advice would be to forget the 
program and use the tape for something else. 

(Moses Engineering, P.O. Box 11038, Ardmore Hwy. 
Station, Huntsville, AL 35805, $5 each) 

(Moses Engineering replies: "We appreciate Mr. 
Williams' comments just as we have appreciated the more 



RAINBOW Page 21 

favorable responses we have received. We are constantly 
reviewing and revising our programs and will keep Mr. 
Williams ' criticisms in mind as we continue to do so. 

As for the delivery time, we apologize. We were in the 
process of relocating.) 



About Your Subscription 

Your copy of the RAINBOW is sent third class 
mail and, for subscribers in the United States, the 
date of mailing is printed on the label. If you do 
not receive your copy by the 25th of any month, 
send us a card and we will mail another 
immediately via first class mail. 

You must notify us of a new address when you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than 
the 15th of the month prior to the month in which 
you chanae your address. Sorry, we cannot be 
responsible for sending another copy when you 
fail to notify us. 

Your mailing label also shows an "account 
number" and the subscription expiration date. 
Please indicate this account number when 
renewing or corresponding with us. It will help us 
help you better and faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U.S. subscribers, 
there may be a mailing address shown that is 
different from our editorial office address. Do not 
send any correspondence to that mailing 
address. Send it to our editorial offices as P.O. 
Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. This applies to 
everyone except those whose subscriptions are 
through our distributor in Australia. 



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Page 22 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 




Demons In The Dungeon? Let's See 'Em All! 



By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow FRP Columnist 

(Mr. Nolan, an experienced Dungeonmaster in a popular 
fantasy role playing game on a weekly basis, is the President 

of Prickly- Pear Software,) 





As I pointed out last month, in my own campaigns I find 
that whenever I mention the possibility of demons in the 
area, there is a general tendency for the players to have their 
characters leave town in the other direction. This may well 
represent wisdom on their part, because when you run the 
program this month you will see that these are very powerful 
creatures indeed, and have little or nothing to fear from the 
5th or 6th level adventurer. Should they just not be used 
then? I will come back to that question after telling you a 
little more about the program. 

This month's program is simply a way f or you to get quick 
information about a particular kind of demon without 
looking it up. If you use this when stocking your dungeons 
with monsters, it will help you to be faster and more 
accurate. It is quite long, over 12K in fact, so you can see that 
there is simply a lot of information needed when dealing 
with demons. 

Now, back to the question about whether we should use 
demons or not. I personally feel that they add a valuable 
presence to the game. They represent the embodiment of 
chaotic evil, and as such, they give the good adventurer a 
goal. They are the terrible beings that an adventurer can 



hope to face and defeat some day, even if that day is far off. 
They are there to remind the adventurer just what he (or she) 
is fighting against. Sure, they are hard to defeat, but what 
truly worthwhile goal is easily attained? Besides, in the 
meantime there are several ways that they can add flavor to 
your campaign right now. 

Like I said last month, the Succubbi, and their boyfriends 
the Inccubbi, may be one of the easiest to bring in, just for 
their nuisance value. Picture this: A party of five or six 
characters of 4th to 6th level is wandering through a 
dungeon looking for something to steal, when their 
attention is attracted by a series of yells, screams and groans, 
emanating from a cross corridor. Naturally they run right 
down to see what is going on. (Adventurers make their living 
by nosing into other people's business.) Well, sure enough, 
they find a large group of nasty, hideous Ores just about to 
do unthinkable things to a helpless maiden they have 
captured. (Helpless maidens really should be more careful!) 

The adventurers rush right in to engage the Ores in 
meelee. What else would you expect them to do? If they were 
smart, they would have become bankers, or magazine 
publishers, not adventurers. After all, yi j can gel killed 



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-Find speed in mlles/hr., meters/sec, ft/ sec. 
-Do metric conversions 

-Generate split times for goal distances and times 
-Set meaningful goal times for Interval training 
-Calculate calorie usagefora given run. 

RUNCALC was designed for the Tandy Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer, it is 
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September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 23 



fighting Ores. Luckily, these particular adventurers are able 
to route the Ores and rescue the maiden, who is, of course, 
very grateful, havingjust been saved from a fate worse than 
death. So very grateful is this maiden, that she is unable to 
control the well of gratitude which bubbles up inside her, 
and in a fit of total impetuosity, she runs up to each 
adventurer and plants a big kiss. 

Surprise! The maiden is really a Succubbus, the party is 
now a party of 3rd to 5th level, (Succubbi steal life energy 
levels with a kiss.) and the Ores were in cahoots with her to 
dupe the party. Natually, to avoid detection, the Succubbus 
had polymorphed herself into appearing like a regular girl. 
It wouldn't do going around with your wings hanging out. 
That makes people suspicious. Having bestowed her kisses, 
the lady then takes her leave, without saying goodby, as she 
feels that the party may not appreciate these kisses, and may 
even become angry with her for bestowing them. 

After this happens a couple of times, you will find that 
nobody will go near maidens in distress. In fact, maidens in 
distress, formerly quite popular, will be as welcome as 
typhoid. Now that everyone is on their toes, you can have 
them run into a demon of maybe Type IV or VI who is 
guarding that pass in the mountains through which it is very 
necessary for the party of adventurers to travel. This heavy 
duty demon may well demand a large payment in money or 
magic (or both) to allow passage. The party doesn't have to 
pay up; it can always fight, which brings me to may next 
point, which is how to fight a demon. 

Demons aren't all that tough in a rough and tumble, and if 
they were to just stand and hack it out with you, many a 3rd 
level fighter would walk all over them. The physical damage 
they do, with some exceptions, isn't all that bad, and is 
certainly nothing to worry the average party of five or six 
people, as long as they have the magic weapons necessary to 
hit the demons. 

The strong point of demons is their magic ability, and the 
first aim of any group of adventuring characlej^musjt be to 
prevent the use of that magic. Just like their magic-using 
counterparts among the adventuring classes, a demon must 
take a little time to cast a magic spell (the rule books tell how 
long each spell takes) and he must concentrate fully on that 
spell until it is completed. If a successful hit is made on the 
demon with some weapon, his concentration is broken, and 
his spell will be ruined. 

The party should close to weapon rangeas fast as possible 
and start cutting away at the demon. If you can prevent his 
magic use, he won't be all that hard to defeat, so the byword 
is all-out attack. In this fight fitness may be a detriment. And 
remember, if you are losing, /. never hurts to run. "He who 
fights and runs away, may live to fight another day." 

So make use of those demons in your campaign. They add 
a lot of spice, not to mention fire, and brimstone. 

Next month there will be two programs. One will be for 
those disk users out there, and will be a disk menu which will 
automatically run any of may previous programs from this 
column. I will also give instructions on how to add to it as 
you like, or adapt it to any disk you want. The second 
program will be a surprise. 

By thiiway, how do you like the Prickly-Pear Dragon on 
the column head this month? If you have any comments or 
suggestions, be sure to write me at 9822 E. Stella Road, 
Tucson, Arizona 85730. Write in care of Prickly-Pear 
Software. The address above is new. We finally got more 
space. See you next month. 

10 ' **********DEMONAID********** 

20 CLEAR500:GOSUB990 

30 CLS: PR I NT "THIS PROGRAM WILL A 

ID YOU WHEN YOU USE DEMONS IN Y 



OUR CAMPAIGN. THESE POWERFUL CREA 
TURES HAVE SOMANY POWERS THAT IT 
CAN BE HARD TO KEEP TRACK. WHE 
N YOU SELECT A DEMON FROM THE PR 
OGRAM MENU, HOWEVER, ALL OF THA 
T DEMON'S" 

40 PRINT M POWERS AND ABILITIES WI 
LL BE DISPLAYED ON THE SCREEN 
, SO YOU CAN MAKE YOUR CHOICE. 
IF YOU CHOOSE TO TRY A GATE, Y 
OUR COM- PUTER WILL GIVE THE RES 
ULTS, BASED ON THAT DEMON'S C 

HANCE TO SUCCESSFULLY OPEN A GAT 
E . GOOD LUCK ! " : GOSUB 1 000 
50 CLS:PRINT5>34, " 1. DEM I GORGON" 
; : PRINTS)66, 11 2. JUIBLEX 11 ; : PRINTS) 
98," 3. ORCUS"; : PRINTS) 130, " 4. M 
ANES 11 ; : PR I NTS) 162, 11 5. SUCCUBUS"; 
:PRINTS>194, " 6. TYPE I";:PRINT5>2 
26," 7. TYPE II" ; :PRINTS>258, " 8. 

TYPE III"; :PRINTS>290, " 9. TYPE 
IV" ; : PRINTS>322, " 10. TYPE 
60 PRINTS>354, " 11. TYPE VI M ;:PRIN 
TS>450, ""; : INPUT" enter YOUR CHOIC 
E M ;T:SOUND150, 1: IFT< 1QRT>1 1THEN5 
0 

70 ONT GOTO80,220,310,550,570,63 

0, 680, 720, 790, 840, 910 

80 CLS : PRINTS)9, " DEM I GORGON 11 : PR IN 

T 11 THIS DEMON PRINCE IS ONE-OF-A- 
KIND. HE IS AC -8, AND MOVES 
AT 15 RATE. HE HAS 200 HP, 3 
ATTACKS PER ROUND, AND A +2 OR 



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Page 24 The RAINBOW 

FRP (From Page 23) 
BETTER WEAPON IS NEEDED TO HIT 
. HE IS 95*/. MAGIC RESISTANT, HI6 
H" 

90 PR I NT "BEN I US IN INTELLIGENCE, 
AND STANDS 18' TALL. HE HA 

S TWO HEADS, AND THE GAZE OF 
BOTH TO- GETHER WILL HYPNOTISE - 
15 HD ARE NEEDED BEFORE A SAV 
E IS ALLOWED. SEPARATELY, T 

HE LEFT HEAD'S GAZE IS A ROD OF 
BEGUIL-" 

100 PRINT" ING, WHILE THE RIGHT C 
AUSES " : GOSUB 1 000 : CLS : PR I NT " I NS AN 
ITY FOR 1-6 TURNS. HIS F 

ORKED TAIL STRIKES AS A FLAIL 
, BUT DRAINS 1-4 LIFE LE- VELS. 

EACH TENTACLE DOES 1-6 HPDAMAG 
E, AND CAUSES ROT OF A VERYSERIO 
US NATURE . " 

110 PR I NT "DEM I GORGON CAN DO THE 
FOLLOWING AT WILL: CONTINUAL DA 
RKNESS , CHARM PERSON, CREATE I 
LLUSION LIKE A WAND, CAUSE FEA 
R LIKE A WAND, LEVITATE LIKE A 
16TH LEVELMAGE, DETECT MAGIC, RE 
AD MAGIC, READ LANGUAGES, DETECT 

INVISIBLE"; 



Spectral Associates 
Tom Mix Software 
Sugar Software 



Computorware 
Soft Sector Marketing 
Mark Data Products 



These people make some of the best software 
available for the Color Computer anywhere. Now, in 
one stop, you can have all these and more! 

'NEW* Katerplller (Tom Mix Software) $24.95 

Ghost Gobbler (Spectral Assoc.) $21.95 

Color Berserk (Mark Data) $24.95 

Master Control (Soft Sector) $24.95 

Silly Syntax (Sugar Software) $19.95 

Storml (Computerware) $24.95 

Scepter of Kzlrgla (Rainbow Connection) $16.95 

Tne above product mix would require at 
least five letters, five checks and five stamps! 
Why waste your time? Write or call: 

PCLEAR 80 SOFTWARE 

494 Cline Avenue 
Mansfield, OH 44907 
(419) 756-4873 

Note: We also carry the RAINBOW 

Add $2 shipping on orders less than $50, Please add 
$2 for COD. Ohio residents add 5% state sales tax. 



SYMBOL. 
A GATE, 
OF THE 
T DOES, 
OF HIS 



September. 1982 

120 PRINT"OBJECTS, DISPEL MAGIC, 
CL A I RVOY , CL A I R AUD I ENCE , SUGGEST 
, WATER " : GOSUB 1 000 : CLS: PRINT" BRE 
ATH, POLYMORPH SELF, WALL OF ICE 
, CHARM MONSTER, TELEK I N I SE 7,0 
00 GP WEIGHT WITH EACH HEAD, PRO 
JECT AN IMAGE, STICKS TO SNA 
KES, AND GATE. ONCE A DA 
130 PR I NT "HE CAN CAST FEEBLEMIND 
, POWER WORD STUN, AND USE ANY 

IF DEMI GORGON ATTEMPTS 
THERE IS AN 857. CHANCE 
GATE OPENING, AND IF I 
THERE IS A 50*/. CHANCE 
GATING IN A TYPE I-IV 
DEMON, AND"; 

140 PR I NT "A 507. CHANCE OF A TYPE 
V OR VI. HIT AN 'R' TO RETURN T 
0 THE MAINMENU, OR A 'G' TO TRY 
A GATE . " : K*= I NKEY* 
1 50 GOSUB 1 040 : I FK*= " R " THEN50 
160 GOSUB1030:Z=RND(100) :IFZ>85T 
HENPR I NT5>234 , " GATE FAILED";: GOSU 
B1000:GOTO80 
170 IFZ>50THEN200 

180 Z=RND(100) : IFZ<26THENX*="TYP 
E I"ELSEIFZ<51THENX*="TYPE I I "EL 
SEIFZ<76THENX*="TYPE III "ELSEX*= 
"TYPE IV" 
190 GOTO210 

200 Z=RND (100) : IFZ<51THENX*="TYP 

E V"ELSEX*="TYPE VI" 

210 PR I NT3268 , X * ; : GOSUB 1 000 : GOTO 

80 

220 CLS: PRINT5>11, "JUIBLEX": PRINT 
: PR I NT "THERE IS ONLY ONE JUIBLEX 
, AND HE IS FOUL TO BEHOLD. HE 
IS AC -7, MOVES AT A 3 RATE, HA 
S 88 HP, AND 1 REGULAR ATTACK 
FOR 4- 40 POINTS OF DAMAGE. IT 
TAKES A+2 OR BETTER WEAPON TO HI 
T HIM. " 

230 PR I NT "HE IS 657. RESISTANT TO 
MAGIC, 9* TALL, AND GENIUS IN IQ 
. AT WILLHE CAN CAUSE A CIRCLE 
OF DARK- NESS 15' IN DIAMETER, 
FEAR LIKE A WAND, A CIRCLE OF CO 
LD 10' IN DIAMETER, AND REGENERA 
TION AT 2 HP PER ROUND. ": GOSUB10 
00: CLS 

240 PR I NT "ONCE PER ROUND HE CAN 
ALSO DO ONE OF THE FOLLOWING S 
PELLS, BUTONE ONLY: DETECT INVI 
SIBLE, LO-CATE OBJECT, DISPEL MA 
GIC, FLY, ESP, CAUSE INVISIBILIT 
Y WITH A 10' RADIUS, CHARM MONS 
TER, HOLD MONSTER, TELEK I N I SE 15 
,000 GP OF"; 

250 PRINT "WEIGHT, PROJECT IMAGE, 

PHASE DOOR, PUTRIFY FOOD OR 

—Continued on Page 26 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 25 





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Page 26 



WATER , 
ITH MON- 
HE CAN 



The RAINBOW 

FRP (From Page 24) 
CAUSE DISEASE, SPEEK W 
STERS. ONCE PER TURN 
THROW FORTH A BLOB OF 
SLIME THATHAS ALL THE BAD RESULT 
S OF OCHRE JELLY AND GREEN SLIME 
PUT TO- 6ETHER. " 

260 GOSUB1000:CLS:PRINT"THIS BLO 
B HAS A RANGE OF 15', AND A SI 
ZE OF 3 CUBIC FEET. ONCE A D 

AY, HE CAN SPEAK AN UN- HOLY WOR 
D, AND HAS A 70V. CHANCE OF GAT IN 
G IN 1-4 TYPE II DEMONS. HIT 'R' 
TO RETURN TO THE MENU, OR 'G' T 

0 ATTEMPT TO OPEN A" 
270 PR I NT "GATE" 

280 K*= I NKEY*: GOSUB 1040: IFK*="R" 
THEN50 

290 Z=RND ( 1 00 ) : GOSUB 1 030 : I F Z >70T 
HENPRINT5>234, "GATE FAILED"; : GOSU 
B1000:GOTO220 

300 N=RND(4) : X*=STR*(N)+" TYPE I 

1 ":PRINTS>266, X*; : GOSUB 1000: GOTO 
220 

310 CLS:PRINT5>13, " ORCUS " : PR I NT " L 
UCKILY, ORCUS IS NOT A TYPE OF D 
EMON, BUT AN INDIVIDUAL. HE ISA 
C -6, HAS 120 HP, HAS 2 ATTACKSP 
ER ROUND, AND YOU MUST USE A +3W 
EAPON TO HAVE ANY CHANCE TO HITH 
IM. HE IS 85"/. MAGIC RESISTANT, H 



RAINBOW 




A powerful 
utility that 
opens a window 
into the Color 
Computer s disks. 



COLORZAP uses the power of the 
Color Computer to provide both 
rapid scanning and full screen modifi- 
cation capabilities. You can now examine, 
modify, and copy programs or data while 
they're stored on disk. Access them by filename 
or location. 

COLORZAP is programmed largely in BASIC so that 
you can modify it if you'd like but part of it is in machine 
language to provide fast response All accesses to disk are 
performed with standard interfaces, so any standard Color 
Computer disk can be examined. You can directly access 
the disk's directory and control information to examine a 
clobbered disk, recover a killed file, or find parts of a file 
when other parts have oeen lost. With this new window into 
its disks, the Color Computer sheds its image as a toy. Now 
you can use this exciting machine like other powerful 
microcomputers. 

For the TRS-80 Color Computer. Available on disk with an 
accompanying manual from Software Options, 19 Rector 
Street, New York, N.Y. 10006. 212-785-8285. Toll-free order 
line: 800-221-1624. Price: $49.95 (plus $3.00 per S QFT ^ AK E 

order shipping and handling). New York 
State residents add sales tax. Visa/Master- 
card accepted. 

OPTIONS INC 



SOFT WAKE 

N 



TM 



September, 1982 

ISH GENIUS, "; 

320 PR I NT" AND STANDS 15' TALL. HE 
CHOOSES FROM SEVERAL TYPES OFAT 
TACKS, AND DOES 1-4 WITH A SL 
AP, AND 3-13 WITH A FIST. WI 
TH A WEAPON HE IS +6 TO HIT AN 
D +8 DAMAGE . HIS TAIL DOES 2-8 
+ SAVE VS PO I SON AT -4 . " 
330 GOSUB 1 000 :CLS: PR I NT "AT WILL 
ORCUS CAN DO THE FOLLOW- I NG: CO 
NTINUAL DARKNESS, CHARM PERSON, 
CREATE ILLUSION AND FEARLIKE THE 
WANDS, DETECT AND READ MAGIC, R 
EAD LANGUAGES, DETECT INVISIBL 
E, ESP, PYROTECHNICS, " 
340 PR INT" DISPEL MAGIC, CLAIRVOY 
, CLAIR- AUDIENCE, 12D FIREBALL 
, SUGGEST, POLYMORPH SELF, WALL 0 
F FIRE, TELEK I NESE 12,000 GP W 
EIGHT, ANIMATE DEAD AT 19TH L 

EVEL, PROJECT IMAGE, POLYMOR 

PH ANY" 

350 PR I NT "OBJECT, SHAPE CHANGE, 
AND SPEAK WITH THE DEAD AT 20TH 
LEVEL . " : GOSUB 1 000 : CLS : PR I NT " ONCE 

PER DAY, HE CAN DO FEEBLE- MIND 
, USE ANY SYMBOL, AND TIME STOP 
. HIS WAND OF DEATH WILL KILL 

OR ANNIHILATE ANYONE SAVE A"; 
360 PR I NT "PEER OF ORCUS, SUCH AS 

A DEVIL, SAINT, OR GOD. ORCUS 

CAN GATE IN ANOTHER DEMON, OR S 
UMMON UN- DEAD AT WILL. HIT 'R' 

TO RETURNTO THE MENU, ' G' TO AT 
TEMPT A GATE, OR 'S' TO SUMMON 

UNDEAD . " : K*= I NKEY* 
370 K*=INKEY*: IFK*<>"R"ANDK*<>"G 
"ANDK*< >"S"THEN370ELSESOUND150, 1 
: I FK*= " R " THEN50ELSE I FK*= " G " THEN4 
30 

380 CLS4:PRINTS>6, "ORCUS SUMMONS 
UNDEAD" ; : FORX=l TO2000: NEXT : Z=RND 
(4):0NZ GOTO3?0,400,410,420 
390 Z=RND(12)+RND(12)+RND(12)+RN 
D(12) :PRINT3168, Z; " SKELETONS " ; 
: GOSUB 1 000 : G0T03 1 0 

400 Z=RND(8)+RND(8)+RND(8)+RND(8 
) :PRINT3169, Z; " ZOMBIES ";: GOSUB 
1000:GOTO310 

410 Z=RND<6>+RND<6)+RND(6>+RND<6 
) : PRINTS) 168, Z; " SHADOWS ";:GOSUB 
1000:GOTO310 

420 Z=RND(4)+RND(4) :PRINTS168, Z; 
" VAMPIRES "; : GOSUB 1000: G0T03 10 
430 CLS8: PRINT36, "ORCUS GATES IN 

DEMONS " ; : PR I NT366 , " 80*/. CHANCE " ; 
:PRINT5>134, "1. TYPE I ";:PRINT3 
166, "2. TYPE II "; :PRINT5>198, "3. 

TYPE III"; :PRINT3>230, "4. TYPE I 

V " ; : PR I NT3290 , " 50*/. CHANCE " ; : PR I 

—Continued on Page 26 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 27 




Berserk 
Color Trek 
Cave Hunter 
Calixto Island 
Black Sanctum 



i 



Pac Attack • STORM 
Starship Chameleon 
Mazerace • Magicube 
Color Invaders 



Home Money Minder 
SCRIBE Word Processor 

Color Data Organizer 
Communications Programs 

3D Drawing Board 
Address Factory • Finance I 



V 



pOCTSFo* 




Macro Assembler 
PASCAL • Editor 
Diagnostics • Monitor 
FLEX Operating System 
Assembler 




16K/32K/64K Memory Expansions 



CALL 
OR 
WRITE 
FOR 
COMPLETE 
INFORMATION 




COMPUTERWARE 



® 



6809 Specialists 



Dept. C. • Box 668 
Encinitas, CA 92024 



(71 4) 43I3-351 2 



Computerware is a trademark of Computerware 



Page 28 The RAINBOW 

FRP (From Page 26) 

NT5>358,"5. TYPE V " ; : PR I NT5>390, 
"6. TYPE VI 

440 PRINT5>488, "KEY YOUR CHOICE"; 
:K*=INKEY* 

450 K*= I NKE Y1» : K=VAL ( K* ) : I FK< 1 ORK 
>6THEN450ELSIE- SOUND 1 50 , 1: IFK>4THE 
N510ELSEZ=RNI)(100) :GOSUB1030: IFZ 
>80THENPRINTS)233, "SATE FAILED" ; : 
ELSEONK 6OSUK470 , 480 , 490 , 500 : PR I 
NT5>235, X*; 

460 GOSUB1000:BOTO310 
470 X*="TYPE I " : RETURN 
4 80 X*="TYPE 1 1": RETURN 
490 X*="TYPE III":RETURN 
500 X*="TYPE IV": RETURN 
510 Z=RND ( 100 ) :60SUB 1030: IFZ >50T 
HENPR I NT3234 " GATE FA I LED " ; ELSEO 
NK-46OSUB530 , 540 : PR I NT5>237 , X * ; 
520 GOSUB 1 000 : G0T03 1 0 
530 X*="TYPE V": RETURN 
540 X*="TYPE VI" : RETURN 
550 CLS : PR I NT i3 12," MANES " : PR I NT " T 
HESE SUB-DEMONS ARE AC 7, HAE 1H 
D, MOVE AT A 3 RATE, AND GET 3 A 
TTACKS PER ROUND FOR 1-2/1-2/1-4 
(CLAW, CLAW , BITE) IT TAKESA 
+1 WEAPON TO HIT THEM, AND IF K 
ILLED THEY DISSIPATE INTO S 
T INKING GAS. | THEY HAVE T 



September, 1982 

560 PR I NT "SAME SPELL RESISTANCES 
AS UN- DEAD, AND THEY CAN'T 0 
PEN GATES. THEY ARE 3' TALL.":K*= 
I NKE Y* : GOSUB 1 000: GOTO50 
570 CLS : PR I NTS) 10," SUCCUBUS " : PR I N 

T " EACH SUCCUBUS WILL ORDINARILY 

WORK ALONE. THEY ARE AC 0, HA 

VE6 HD, AND MOVE AT 12 WHEN ON T 

HEGROUND, OR 18 WHEN FLYING. IT 

TAKES A +1 OR BETTER WEAPON TO 

HIT THEM, AND THEY GET 2 ATT AC 

KSPER ROUND FOR 1-3/1-3." 

580 PRINT"THEIR KISS DRAINS A LI 

FE ENERGY LEVEL. THEY ARE 707. M 

AGIC RE- SI ST ANT. WHENEVER DES 

I RED THEY CAN CREATE 5' DARKNESS 

, BECOME ETHEREAL, CHARM PERSON 

, ESP, CLAIR AUDIENCE, SUGGEST 

ION, SHAPECHANGE TO SIMILIAR SIZ 

E HUMANO ID";: GOSUB 1 000 : CL 

590 PR I NT" SHAPE, OR OPEN A GATE 

(407. CHANCE). IF THE GATE 

OPENS, A TYPE IV (707.), TYPE VI 

(257.), OR A LORD OR PRINCE (57.) 

WILL STEP THROUGH. HIT 'G' TO T 

RY A GATE, OR 'R' TO GO TO THE ME 

NU. " :K*= I NKEYS: GOSUB 1040: IFK*="R 

"THEN50 

600 GOSUB 1 030 : Z =RND ( 1 00 ) : I F Z >40T 
HENPR I NT3234 , " GATE FA I L ED " ; : GOSU 



Find The 

COLOR COMPUTER INFORMATION 

YOU NEED 

INDEX TO ARTICLES, PROGRAMS, LETTERS 
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REVIEWS 

IN MAGAZINES 

COLOR COMPUTER INDEX © 

MM 

CATALOG LISTING 
VENDORS, HARDWARE, SOFTWARE 
SUPPLIES, PUBLICATIONS 

COLOR .COMPUTER CATALOG 

American Library anc14hformation Services 

Dept. R, 3705 Mary Ellen NE, Albuquerque, NM 87111 

Gentlemen: 

□ Yes! Send me COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1980-1981 at $5 (Canada and Mexico $6) 

□ Yes! Sign me up for COLOR COMPUTER INDEX 1982 (4 issues) for $16 (Canada and Mexico $20) 

□ Yes! Sign me up for COLOR COMPUTER CATALOG 1982 (two issues) for $20 (Canada and Mexico $24) 

Name . 

Address , — 

City : State Zip 



September, 1982 
B1000:6OTO570 

610 Z=RND( 100) : IFZ >95THENX*="L0R 

D OR PRINCE"ELSEIFZ>70THENX*="TY 

PE VI"ELSEX*="TYPE IV" 

620 PR I NT5>236 , X * ; : GOSUB 1 000 : GOTO 

570 

630 CLS : PR I NTS) 1 2 , "TYPE I":PRINT" 
THESE COMMON DEMONS APPEAR IN 
GROUPS OF 1 TO 6. THEY HAVE AN 
AC OF 0, AND MOVE AT 12/18. 
THEY HAVE 8 HD, AND 5 ATTACKS 
PER ROUND FOR 1-4/1-4/1-8/1-8/1- 
6. THEY ARE 507. MAGIC RES IS-" 
640 PRINT" TANT, AND ARE OF LOW I 
NTELLI- GENCE. THEY ARE 8.5' 
TALL. AT WILL, THEY CAN CAUS 

E DARKNESSWITH A 5' RADIUS, DETE 
CT INVIS- ABLE OBJECTS, TELEKINE 
SE 2,000 GP WEIGHT, OR ATTEMPT 
TO GATE IN ANOTHER TYPE I DEMON ( 
107.) . " 

650 PRINT"HIT 'G' TO TRY A GATE, 
OR 'R' TORETURN TO THE MENU.";: 
K*= I NKE Y* : GOSUB 1 040 : I FK*= " R " THEN 
50 

660 GOSUB1030:Z=RND(100) : IFZM0T 
HENPR I NT3234 , " GATE FA I LED " ; : GOSU 
B1000:GOTO630 

670 PR I NT5>236 , " TYPE I " ; : GOSUB 1 00 
0: GOTO630 

680 CLS : PR I NT® 11," TYPE II":PRINT 



Experience the 

Magazine 

of the Future . 



The Programmer's Institute's magnetic magazines 
will entertain, educate, and challenge you. 

Each issue features ready-to-load programs ranging from 
games, adventures, home applications and utilities to personal 
finance, educational, and our unique teaching programs. Our 
magazines include fully lislable programs, a newsletter con- 
taining descriptions and instructions for all programs, and notes 
on programming techniques used. 



The RAINBOW Page 29 

"1 TO 6 OF THESE COMMON DEMONS 
WILL BE FOUND. THEY HAVE 9 HD, 
AC -2, MOVE AT 6// 12, HAVE 557. 
MAGIC RESISTANCE, LOW INTELLI- 
GENCE, ARE 7' + TALL, AND GET 3 
ATTACKS PER ROUND FOR 1-3/1-3/4 



it 



690 PRINT" 16. AT WILL, THEY CAU 
SE DARK- NESS WITH 15' RADIUS, 
CAUSE FEARLIKE THE WAND, LEV I TAT 
E AT 8TH LEVEL, DETECT INVISIBL 
E OBJECTS, TELEK I NESE 3,000 GP WE 
IGHT, OR GATE IN ANOTHER TYPE I 
I (207.) HIT 'G' TO OPEN GATE, 
OR ? R' FORMENU"; 

700 GOSUB 1 040 : I FK*= " R " THEN50ELSE 
GOSUB1030:Z=RND(100) : IFZ>20THENP 
RINTS234, "GATE FAILED"; :GOSUB100 
0: GOTO680 

710 PRINTS236, "TYPE II";:GOSUB10 
00 : GOTO680 

720 CLS:PRINT3>10, "TYPE III":PRIN 
T"THIS UNCOMMON TYPE OF DEMON IS 

9.5' TALL, APPEARS IN GROUPS O 
F 1-6, MOVES AT A 9 RATE, HAS 10 

HD, IS AC -4, GETS 5 ATTACKS F 
0R2-12/2-12/ 1-3/ 1-3/2-5, AND IS 

607. MAGIC RESISTANT." 
730 PRINT"AT WILL, THEY CAN CAUS 
E DARKNESSWITH A 10' RADIUS, FEA 

—Continued on Page 31 




for the TRS-80 COLOR Ext. Basic 



— ORDERING INFORMATION — 
Subscriptions* Cassette Diskette 

Year $50.00 $75.00 

Vi Year $30.00 $45.00 

Trial Issue $10.00 $15.00 

* Add $2.00 postage and handling. 
ALL SOFTWARE REQUIRES 16K. 



"Received my first copy 
. . . it's great! Please 
rush to me one of each 
back issue, so I'll have a 
complete set, " 

R.G., Chicago, IL 



"Not only are the games 
fun and the applications 
useful, but the quality of 
the programs is excellent. " 

S.P., Midwest 
Computer Software Sales 



See your local dealer or order direct: 
THE PROGRAMMER'S INSTITUTE 

a division of FUTUREHOUSE 
P.O. BOX 3191, DEPT. 1-R 
CHAPEL HILL, NC 27514 



FREE CATALOG AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST. 





1-919-489-2198 

10 AM' 9 PM, Mon - Sat 



Page 30 



The RAINBOW 



September 1982 




ELEWRITER" 

lor Computer Word Processor 




TELEWRITER 

Telewriter is the powerful word processor 
designed specifically for the Color 
Computer. It can handle almost any 
serious writing job and it is extremely easy 
to use. It has all the advanced features you 
need to create, edit, store, format and 
print any kind of text. With Telewriter you 
can quickly produce perfect, finished copy 
for letters, reports, term papers, articles, 
technical documentation, stories, novels, 
screenplays, newsletters. It is also a flexible 
and efficient way to take notes or organize 
ideas and plans. 

51 x 24 DISPLAY 

The Color Computer is an incredibly 
powerful and versatile computer, but for 
text editing it has some major drawbacks. 
The small 32 character by 16 line screen 
format shows you too little of the text and, 
combined with its lack of lower case 
letters, bears little resemblance to the way 
text really looks on the page. Reverse video 
in place of lower case just adds confusion. 

Telewriter eliminates these shortcomings 
with no hardware modifications required. 

By using software alone, Telewriter creates 
a new character set that has real lower case 
letters, and puts 24 lines of 51 characters 
on the screen. That's more on-screen 
characters than Apple II, Atari or TRS-80 
Model III. That's more than double the 
Color Computer's standard display. 

FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

The Telewriter editor is designed for 
maximum ease of use. The commands are 
single key (or single key plus control key), 
fast, and easy to remember. There is no 
need to switch between insert modes and 
delete modes and cursor movement modes. 
You simply type. What you type is inserted 
into the text at the cursor, on the screen. 
What you see on the screen is always the 
current state of your text. You can move 
quickly through the text with one key 
cursor movement in all 4 directions, or 
press the shift key simultaneously for fast, 
auto-repeat. You can jump to the top or 
bottom of the text, the beginning or end of 
a line, move forward or backward a page 
at a time, or scroll quickly up or down. 
When you type past the end of the line, 
the wordwrap feature moves you cleanly to 
the next. 

You can copy, move or delete any size 
block of text, search repeatedly for any 



p , . truly a state of the art word processor. . . 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW. .Ian. 1982 



The only one with all these features 
for your TRS-80 Color: 

51 column x 24 line screen display 
Sophisticated full-screen editor 
Real lowercase characters 
Powerful text formatter 
Works with any printer 
Special MX-80 driver 
Runs in 16K or 32K 
Disk & cassette I/O 

requires absolutely 
no hardware modifications 

pattern of characters, then instantly delete it 
or replace it with another. Telewriter gives 
you a tab key, tells you how much space 
you have left in memory, and warns you 
when the buffer is full. 



FORMAT FEATURES 

When it comes time to print out the finished 
manuscript, Telewriter lets you specify: left, 
right, top, and bottom margins; line spacing 
and lines per page. These parameters can be 
set before printing or they can be 
dynamically modified during printing with 
simple format codes in the text. 

Telewriter will automatically number pages 
(if you want) and automatically center lines. 
It can chain print any number of text files 
from cassette or disk without user 
intervention. You can tell it to start a new 
page anywhere in the text, pause at the 
bottom of the page, and set the Baud rate 
to any value (so you can run your printer at 
top speed). 

You can print all or any part of the text 
buffer, abort the printing at any point, and 
there is a "Typewriter" feature which allows 
you to type straight to your printer. Because 
Telewriter lets you output numeric control 
codes directly (either from the menu or 
during printing), it works with any printer 
(LPVII, LPVIM, MX-80, Okidata, NEC 
8023, C. Itoh 85 10, Centronics, C.E 
Terminet, Smith Corona TP-I, etc.). There's 
even a special driver for the Epson MX-80 
that lets you simply select any of its 12 fonts 
and do underlining with a single underline 
character. 

CASSETTE AND DISK I/O 

Because Telewriter makes using cassette 
almost painless, you can still have a 
powerful word processor without the major 
additional cost of a disk. The advanced 
cassette handler will search in the forward 
direction till it finds the first valid file, so 
there's no need to keep retyping a load 
command when you are lost in your tape. 




The Verify command checks your cassette 
saves to make sure they're good. You can 
save all or any part of the text buffer to 
disk or cassette and you can append pre- 
existing files from either medium to what 
you have in the buffer already. 

The disk version can be simply customized 
to the precise number of drives in your 
system. From the disk menu, you can list 
any directory (including free space) to the 
screen or to the printer, rename or delete 
files, set the default drive and return to 
BASIC. 



ASCII COMPATIBLE 

Telewriter turns your Color Computer 
into the most powerful, lowest cost, word 
processor in the world today. But that's 
not all. The simple ASCII conversion 
program provided with Telewriter (for 
both cassette and disk) means you can use 
the full power of the Telewriter editor for 
creating and editing BASIC and assembly 
language programs. It means you can use 
Telewriter to prepare or edit text files used 
with any data communications program. 

Telewriter costs $49.95 on cassette and 
$59.95 on disk. To order, send check or 
money order to: 



Cognitec 

704 Nob Ave. 

Del Mar, CA 92014 



RAINBOW 

C*MT»IC«tlOk 
MM 



Or check your local software store. If you 
have questions about Telewriter, call us at 
(714) 755-1258 weekdays, 7AM-4PM PST. 

And now you can get a complete text 
processing/communications package direct 
from Cognitec. 

Telemaster-I : gives you Telewriter along 
with Colorcom/E, the most flexible smart 
terminal program available for the Color 
Computer. Package price: $94.95. 

Telemaster-2: gives you Telewriter plus Spell 
'n Fix — the professional FLEX spelling 
checker, now available for the Color 
Computer. Package Price: $109.95. 

Telemaster-3: includes Telewriter, Spell 'n 
Fix, and Colorcom/E — all 3 for $154.95. 

Please specify cassetteor disk. For disk 
versions add $ 10.00 to package price. 
Mastercard/Visa accepted. Allow 2-3 weeks for 
personal checks. Add $2.00 for shipping and 
handling. California residents add 6% state tax. 
Send SASE for copies of reviews from major 
Color Computer and TRS-80 magazines. 



. . . one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer / have seen . . . 

— Color Computer News. Ian. 1982 



Atari is a trademark ol Atari. Inc : TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp.; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America. Inc 



September, 1982 

FRP (From Page 29) 
R LIKE A WAND, LEVITATE AT 10TH 
LEVEL , PYROTECHNICS, POLYMORP 
H SELF, TELEKINESE 4,000 GP WE 
I6HT, OR GATE IN ANOTHER DEMON 
OF TYPE I -1 1 1 WITH 30'/. SUCCESS 

HIT ' G' " ; 
740 PRINT"TO TRY A GATE, OR 'R' 
TO RETURN TO THE MENU. "; :K*=INKE 
Y* : GOSUB 1 040 : I FK*= " R " THEN50ELSEG 
OSUB 1 030 : Z=RND ( 1 00 ) : I F Z >30THENPR 
INT3234, "GATE FAILED" ;: GOSUB1000 
: GOTO720 

750 Z=RND(3):0NZ GOSUB760, 770, 78 
0:PRINTS>236, X*; : GOSUB 1000: G0T072 
0 

760 X*="TYPE I " : RETURN 

770 X*="TYPE II":RETURN 

780 X*="TYPE III":RETURN 

790 CLS: PRINTS) 10, "TYPE IV":PRINT 

"AN UNCOMMON DEMON APPEARING IN 
GROUPS OF 1-6. THESE NASTIES 
ARE AC-1, 11 HD, MOVE AT 9/12, 
GET 3 ATTACKS FOR 1-4/1-4/2-8, 
AND ARE +2 TO HIT. THEY ARE 
10.5' TALL, 657. MAGIC RESISTANT 



800 PR I NT "VERY INTELLIGENT, AND 
IT TAKES AT LEAST A +1 WEAPON T 
0 HIT THEM. THEY CAUSE DARK 

NESS WITH A 10' RADIUS AT WILL, 
AND ONCE PER ROUND THEY CAN: C 
RE ATE ILLUSION OR FEAR LIKE 

THE WANDS, LEVI TATE AT 12TH LEVEL 
, DETECT" 

810 PRINT"OR DISPEL MAGIC, POLYM 
ORPH SELF , " ; : GOSUB 1 000 : CLS : PR I NT 
"TELEKINESE 5,000 GP WEIGHT, PRO 
-JECT IMAGE, USE A SYMBOL OF FEA 
ROR DISCORD, OR TRY TO OPEN A 
GATE (60'/. CHANCE) FOR A SINGLE 
DEMON OF TYPE I -IV. HIT 'R' TO 



II 



820 PR I NT "RETURN TO THE MENU, OR 
' G' TO TRY OPENING A GATE. ":K 
*= I NKE Y* : GOSUB 1 040 : I FK*= " R " THEN5 
0ELSEGOSUB 1 030 : Z=RND<100) : IFZ>60 
THENPR I NTS>234 , " GATE FA I LED " ; : GOS 
UB1000:GOTO790 

830 Z=RND(4):0NZ GOSUB470, 480, 49 
0,500:PRINT5>236, X*; : GOSUB 1 000 : GO 
TO790 

840 CLS : PR I NT3 11," TYPE V":PRINT" 

A RARE DEMON, THESE FEMALES ARE 
7' TALL, WITH THE BODY OF A 

HUGE SNAKE, AND A TORSO OF A WO- 
MAN WITH SIX ARMS, ALL OF WHICH 
USE WEAPONS. THEY APPEAR IN 
GROUPS OF 1-6, ARE AC-7 ON THE" 
850 PR I NT "SNAKE PORTION, -5 ON T 
HE TORSO AND HEAD. THEY ARE 80 



The RAINBOW Page 31 

'/. MAGIC RESISTANT, OF HIGH INT 
ELL I GENCE , AND IT TAKES AT LEAST 
A +1 WE A- PON TO HIT THEM. THEY 
GET 7 ATTACKS PER ROUND - ON 
E WITH THETAIL FOR 2-8, AND SIX 
WHICH VARY"; 

860 PR INT "DEPENDING ON THE TYPE 
OF WEAPON. "; : GOSUB 1000: CLS: PRINT 
"THEY HAVE 7+7 HD. WHENEVER DE- 
SIRED, THEY CAUSE DARKNESS, 5' 
RADIUS, CHARM PERSON, LEVITATE 
AT 11TH LEVEL, READ LANGUAGES, 
DETECT INVISIBLE OBJECTS, PYRO- 
TECHNICS, POLYMORPH SELF 
870 PR I NT "PROJECT IMAGE, OR TRY 
TO OPEN A GATE (507. CHANCE) . 
IF THE GATE OPENS, THE DEMON 
THAT STEPSTHROUGH WILL BE A TYPE 



I (30*/.), TYPE II (25*/.), TYPE II 
I (157.), TYPE IV (15'/.), TYPE VI 
(10%), ORA LORD OR PRINCE (5%). 

" 5 

880 PRINT"HIT 'R' TORETURN TO TH 
E MENU, OR ' G' TO TRY A GATE." 
: GOSUB1 040 : I FK*= " R " THEN50ELSEGOS 
UB1030: IFZ>50THENPRINTS>234, "GATE 

FA I LED " ; : GOSUB 1 000 : GOTO840 
890 Z =RND ( 1 00 ) : I F Z >70THENGOSUB47 
0ELSE I F Z >45THENGOSUB480ELSE I FZ >3 
0THENGOSUB490ELSE I F Z > 1 5THENG0SUB 
500ELSE I FZ >5THEN X *= " TYPE VI" ELSE 
X*="LORD OR PRINCE" 
900 PR I NT5>23 6 , X * ; : GOSUB 1 000 : GOTO 
840 

910 CLS : PR I NT® 11," TYPE VI": PRINT 

"ONLY 6 OF THESE RARE DEMONS (2 

EACH OF 3 SIZES) ARE KNOWN. 

THEY ARE AC -2, MOVE AT 6/15 

RATE, HAVE 8+8 HD, STAND 12' 

TALL, ARE HIGHLY INTELLIGENT, 
75'/. MAGIC RESISTANT, AND IT WIL 

L"; 

920 PR I NT "TAKE A +1 OR BETTER WE 
APON TO HIT THEM. THEY GET 1 
ATTACK PERROUND, AND USE A +1 SW 
ORD WHICH DOES 2-13 POINTS OF DA 
MAGE. 2/30F THE TIME, HOWEVER, 
THEY WILL CHOOSE TO SURROUND THE 
MSELVES WITH FLAME AND USE THE 
IR WHIP" 

930 PR I NT "TO DRAG THE UNLUCKY IN 
TO THE " : GOSUB 1 000 : CLS : PR I NT " F I RE 
, WHERE THEY WILL TAKE DAM- AGE 
DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF THEDEMO 
N - 2-12, 3-18, OR 4-24. ATWILL 
, THESE DEMONS CAN: CAUSE DARK 
NESS WITH A 10' RADIUS, FEAR"; 
940 PRINT "LIKE THE WAND, DETECT, 
READ, OR DISPEL MAGIC, READ 

LANGUAGES, DETECT INVISIBLE OBJEC 

—Continued on Next Page 




Page 32 The RAINBOW 

FRP (From Page 31) 
TS, PYRO- TECHNICS, SUGGESTION, 

TELEK I NESE6 , 000 GP WEIGHT, OR US 
E A SYMBOLOF FEAR, DISCORD, SLEE 
P, OR STUN. THEY ALSO HAVE 

A 707." 

950 PR I NT "CHANCE OF OPENING A GA 
TE FOR A TYPE III (80*/.), OR A T 
YPE IV (20*/.). HIT 'R' TO RET 

URN TO THEMENU, OR 'G' TO TRY A 
GATE. "; :GOSUB1040: IFK*="R"THEN50 
ELSEGOSUB 1 030 : I F Z >70THENPR I NT5>23 
4 , " GATE F A I LED " ; : GOSUB 1 000 : G0T07 
10 

960 Z=RND ( 1 00) : IFZ >80THENGOSUB50 
0EtSEGOSUB490 

970 PR I NTS>236 , X * ; : GOSUB 1 000 : GOTO 
910 

980 GOTO980 

990 CLS0: PRINT® 170, "RANDOMIZING" 

1000 PRINTS>490, "HIT ANY KEY" ; : K* 
= I NKEY* 

1010 K*= I NKEY* : I FK*= " " THENX =RND ( 
0) :GOTO1010 

1 020 SOUND 1 50 , 1 : RETURN 
1030 CLS0: Z=RND(100) :PRINT5>106, " 
GATE OPEN I NG " ; : FOR X = 1 TO2000 : NE X T 
: RETURN 

1 040 K*= I NKEY* : I FK*< > " R " ANDK*< > " 
G" THEN 1040ELSESOUND 150, 1: RETURN 



September. 1982 

PUT, GET and Random Forms 
Make For Unusual Graphics 



F^C 1^*4 ir^ 



JL i 



Color Computer Software Specialists 
C. C- MAILER 



C.C.Hailer uses dynaeic teiory allocation so the cassette 
version Mill run in 16 or 32K with or without reserved 
space for PTFX or whatever. Disk version holds 720 
records and sorts on ZIP/Naie and cassette holds 90 to 290 
records and sorts on naie. Search/Select routines in 
Update, List, Extract, and Label functions. Four line 
address allowed for those that need thee, holds phone 
nuibers, and the disk version does a ZIP Code-State edit 
so you can at least get close. The extract function lets 
you write your own prograis for all or selected data. 

Available w/C.C.HERBER fjr use with C.C. WRITER text files. 
Writs for full product list and descriptions. Personal 
checks art welcoie too! 

C.C.Hultr-120, n/ C.C.Hirgir-$3S U6-32K Cai or 32k Disk) 



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194 Lockwood 
Bl oomi ngdil m 9 IL 



60108 



The following program is another of those "pretty" 
graphics creations which, if you will study it, shows some 
very interesting ways to handle PUT, GET and random 
graphics. 

There are several different types of shapes which can be 
repeated on the screen with this program, with colors, 
backgrounds, and increments of the shapes chosen 
randomly. But the main feature is the drawing of the figures 
at an "angle" in the background and then PUTting it in the 
middle of the screen straight up and down. 

We believe this is one you will like if you are in to graphic 
demonstrations in any way. /^s 
The listing: \^\/ 

10 REM BY DAVID HARPE 
20 REM ANY QUESTIONS SHOULD BE 
30 REM DIRECTED TO ME AT:" 
40 REM 113 MOHAWK , LOUISVILLE 
50 REM 40214 

60 REM PROGRAM STARTS HERE 
70 SC=0:OC=1 
80 S= 192/256 

70 DIM 6 (50, 50) : SCREEN 0,0 
100 CLS:60SUB 770 
110 SCREEN 0,0:0=51 
120 SS=22 

130 SC=INT (2*RND (0) +1 ) : IF SC=2 T 
HEN SC=1 ELSE SC=0 
140 IF SC=0 THEN OC=l ELSE OC=0 
150 PMODE 4,1:PCLS SC: COLOR OC 
160 A=INT(7*RND(0)+1) 
170 IF SS=A THEN 160 ELSE SS=A 
180 JJ=INT(5*RND(0)+1) :KK=INT(10 
*RND (0) +1 ) / 10: IF JJ<2 THEN 180 E 
LSE JJ=JJ+KK 

170 ON A GOSUB 350,410,440,510,5 
50,650,710 

200 LINE (0,0) -(50, 50) ,PSET,B 
210 Y=0 

220 GET (0,0)-(50,50) ,G,G 

230 PMODE 4,1:PCLS SC: SCREEN 1,1 

240 S=206/142 

250 FOR X=0 TO 255 STEP Q 

260 FOR Y=0 TO 172 STEP Q 

270 PUT ( X , Y) - ( X+Q, Y+Q) , G, PSET 

280 NEXT 

270 NEXT 

300 PUT ( (256/2) -25, (172/2) -25)- 
( (256/2) +25, ( 172/2) +25) , G, PSET 
310 LINE (0, 0)- (256, 172) , PSET, B 
320 FOR U=l TO 2500: NEXT 
330 LINE (0, 0)- (256, 172) , PSET, BF 
340 GOTO 110 

350 FOR X=l TO 50 STEP J J 
360 LINE (X, 1)-(50,X) , PSET 
370 LINE -(50-X,50) , PSET 
380 LINE -(1,50-X) ,PSET 
370 LINE -(X, 1 ) ,PSET 



September, 1982 

400 NEXT: RETURN 
410 FOR X=l TO 25 STEP JJ 
420 CIRCLE (25,25),X 
430 NEXT: RETURN 
440 LINE (1, 1)-(1, 1),PSET 
450 FOR X=l TO 40 
460 A=INT(50*RND(0)+1) 
470 B=INT(50*RND(0)+1) 
480 LINE -<A,B),PSET 
490 NEXT 
500 RETURN 

510 FOR X=l TO 50 STEP JJ 
520 LINE (X, l)-(50-X,50) ,PSET 
530 LINE (1, X)-(50,50-X) , PSET 
540 NEXT: RETURN 
550 FOR X=l TO 50 STEP JJ 
560 LINE (1, 1)-(25,X) , 

(50, 1)-(25,X) 

(1, 1>-<X,2S> , 
(50, 1)-(X,25) , 
(1,50)-(25,X) , 
(50,50) -(25, X) 
(1,50)-(X,25) , 
(50, 50) -(X, 25) 
640 NEXT: RETURN 
650 FOR X=l TO 50 STEP J J 
660 LINE (50, 1)-(X, X) , 
670 LINE (1,50)-(X, X) , 
680 NEXT 

690 LINE - (1,1), PSET 

700 RETURN 

710 FOR R=l TO 10 

720 A=INT(45*RND(0)+1) 

730 B=INT(45*RND(0)+1) 

740 C=INT(10*RND(0)+1) 

750 CIRCLE (A, B) ,C 
760 NEXTR: RETURN 

770 PRINT "RADIO SHACK COLOR COM 

PUTER DEMO " 

780 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

790 PRINT "ORIGINAL PROGRAMMING 

BY D.HARPE" 

800 PRINT " AND CLEMSOFT 



The RAINBOW 



Page 33 



570 LINE 

580 LINE 
590 LINE 
600 LINE 
610 LINE 
620 LINE 
630 LINE 



II 




1^1] 



: I 

wm 



810 RETURN 




1 
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Page 34 The RAINBOW September, 1982 




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September 1982 



math 




Educational Notts., 



f=MC* 



Make The 
Difficulty Level 
Variable 




By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Education Columnist 




(Mr. Blyn, who teaches both exceptional and gifted children, 
holds m o Master 's degrees in the field of education and has won 
an award for the design of a computer program to aid 
handicapped children. He and his wife, Cheryl, own Computer 
Island.) 

Have you ever received a learning program or game that 
was great, but either too easy or too difficult for the child for 
whom it was intended? 

I have been disappointed by receiving several such games 
and have wondered why the programmer didn't include, 
when applicable, a choice of levels. This choice is referred to 
as the MENU part of the program. 

Is it always wise to use one ability level in a program to 
satisfy even a small variety of kids? The ability levels of 
similar aged children vary widely. Even the same child's 
ability will alter as his strength increases in any skill. 

Almost all elementary and many secondary schools have 
levels or groups in some subject areas. This permits all 
students to work at their appropriate level in that skill. 
Usually, there are three levels. The largest group works on 
the middle or current material. Another group does 
remedial work and the third does advanced work on that 
skill. 

The program included gives an illustration of a MENU in 
the skill of multiplication. The program is meant as a review 
rather than a teaching model of multiplication. A true 
teaching program would include only one level in depth and 
be quite lengthy. It would include at least vertical format, 
right to left input, and provision for indicating "carries." We 
will assume that our subjects already have some knowledge 
in the skill of multiplication. 

Four levels were chosen to be used. The first tests only one 
digit numbers. This is similar to Flash Card drill, but using 
the computer makes it more exciting. The second tests two 
and three digits times a one digit number. The third tests two 
digits times two digits. This would most likely be similar to 
the largest group. The last level (Super) tests advanced skills 
of three digits times two and three digit numbers. 

The program begins with the student entering his name 
and choosing the level he wants to first work at. Ten random 
examples will be given on this level. He will receive 
immediate feedback to each. Almost every example will be 
presented so that the second number (B) is smaller than the 
first number (A). This was done to be consistent with the 
way that multiplication is usually presented. The subject 
may of course use pencil and paper to work out these 
examples. 



The RAINBOW Page 35 

After the tenth example, he will get a report telling how 
many right, how many wrong, as well as a grade. With 10 
examples, you only have to keep track of the number of right 
examples. The numnber wrong is 10 minus the rights and the 
per cent is 10 times the rights. Following the report card, the 
subject then chooses if he wants to go on or stop. Although 
there is a choice here, I do not really consider this to be a 
menu too. If he wants to go on, he is returned to the menu. 
Here, he can select which level to go on with depending on 
how he scored on the past 10 examples. 

It's a pleasure that nobody need know what level you are 
practicing at, unless someone is actually looking over your 
shoulder. The computer won't tell. A child who is at the 
easiest level can remain there as long as he needs to without 
anyone being the wiser. This is a big benefit to the slower 
child who is often ridiculed for using a simpler book. With a 
menu, all are working on the same program, only at 
different levels. 

If you wish to use this program in any way that will help 
your children, consider presenting the examples in vertical 
format or adapting the ideas to other math or non-math 
subjects. 

10 * PRACTICE 
20 * S. BLYN- 1982 
30 * COMPUTER ISLAND 
40 CLS0 

50 PRINT5>0, STRING* (32, 246) ; 
60 PRINTS)64, "WHAT IS YOUR NAME" ; 
: INPUT N* 

70 SOUND 120, 3: SOUND 100,3 
80 PRINT5>128, STRING* (32, 246) ; 

90 PRINTS 192, "THIS PROGRAM HAS M 

ULTIPLCATION PRACTICE FOR -"N* 

100 SOUND 200, 3: SOUND 160, 3 

110 PRINT3288, STRING* (32, 246) ; 

—Continued on Next Page 



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Page 36 The RAINBOW 

EDUCATION (From Page 35) 
120 FOR T= 1 TO 200: NEXT T 
130 PRINT3352, " WHICH LEVEL DO YO 
U WANT TO USE- e=EASY m=MI D h=H 
ARD s=SUPER"; : INPUT L* 
1 40 SOUND30 , 3 : SOUND20 , 3 
150 R=0 

160 FOR Z= 1 TO 10 
170 IF L*="S"THEN A=100+RND (400) 
:B=10+INT(RND(A) /2) 
180 IF L*="H" THEN A=10+RND (89) : 
B=10+INT(RND(A) /2) 

190 IF L*="M" THEN A=10+RND (800 
) :B=RND(9) 

200 IF L$="E" THEN A=RND (10) : B«R 
ND(10) 

210 IF L*<>"S"ANDL*<>"H"ANDL*<>" 
M"ANDL*<>"E" THEN 100 
220 SOUND 230,3 



"A; "*"jBj "= 



230 CLS1+RND(7) 
240 PRINT366, "#"Z". 

"; : INPUTW 
250 IF W=AtB THEN PRINT5>236, " COR 
RECT";:60T0 280 

260 IF WOA*B THEN PRINTS>224, "SO 
RRY , THE RIGHT ANSWER IS"A*B:GOTO 
290 

270 '*tt*$ R=R I BHT ANSWERS 

280 R=R+l:FOR T= 1 TO 220 STEP 5 

: SOUND T, 1 : NEXT: GOTO 310 

290 FOR T= 1 TO 5 : SOUND 50, 2: N 

EXT 

300 PR I NTS290 , "PRESS < ENTER > TO 
GO ON"; : INPUT E» 
310 NEXT Z 
320 CLS7 

330 FOR X= 250 TO 10 STEP- 10: SO 
UND X, 1:NEXT 

340 PRINTS40, "REPORT CARD FOR " ; 
350 PRINT© 108, N*? 
360 PRINTS169, "# RIGHT = " R; 
370 PRINT5>233, "# WRONG = ";10-R; 
380 PRINTS326, "YOUR GRADE IS ";R 
$10; "'/." i 

390 PRINTS448, "DO YOU WANT TO TR 

: I NPUT T* 
THEN CLS:GOTO80 



t 



■ 



Y AGAIN (y/n) "; 
400 IF T*="Y" 



410 CLS : PR I NT " BYE FOR NOW ! " : END 

Software Review... 

Random Basic Is Fine 
FLEX System For The 80C 

When you go with an operating system such as FLEX, 
you have an opportunity to load in different computer 
languages and utilities. One of those can be BASIC itself. 

Random Basic is an extremely flexible Basic language 
which you can use with FLEX. We will start right off by 
saying that it does not have any of the graphic commands 
which you get with Color Basic. But it does have a number of 
other things which are part of the system that make using it 



September, 1982 

very easy and enjoyable. 

With the exception of the graphic commands, this is a 
more-than full-feature Basic. It does have some of the things 
that Color Basic is missing, such as error trapping and 
automatic line numbering. Certainly, there are a number of 
utilities available f or auto numbering, but they are separate, 
even if in machine language. Random Basic has this feature 
as a part of its primary system. In other words, you do not 
have to load in something else. 

Another thing we like a great deal about Random Basic is 
its use of variables. While Color Basic allows only the first 
two letters to be unique (that is, a variable named "THAT" is 
seen as the same as a variable named "THIS"), Random 
Basic allows six-letter uniqueness. If you are the sort who 
likes variables to be actual words, this can go a long way. 

Yes, Virginia, there is an editor. It works somewhat the 
same as Color Basic's editor does, in that it is a line editor, 
and, while not having all the subcommands of Color Basic, 
it does have more than enough to do the job. 

In our opinion, the single best feature of Random Basic, 
however, is the debugging tools it offers. Instead of lising a 
line and an error, and making you search for it, Random 
Basic displays the line and points a little arrow at the place 
where your mistake shows up. This is in addition to the error 
message, although the "messages" are numbers rather than 
alphabetical codes. 

Another attractive function is use of "DO"as acommand. 
This allows you to go into your FLEX disk operating 
system, perform a disk operation, and return to Basic. It is 
something like the "SYSTEM" command on Model 16 
Basic. 

Also, there are housekeeping functions such as 
"DIGITS", "LINE" and "PAGE" that allow print 
formatting. DIGITS is especially useful, since it will allow 
you to specify the number of digits to be printed to the right 
of a decimal point. Once this is entered, it remains in effect 
until it is changed. A sort of universal PRINT USING! 

LINE lets you specify the number of characters in a line, 
and will keep words and numbers from breaking up. PAGE, 
combined with SKIP, will give you a neat top-of-form 
command. PAGE simply sets a number of lines you want 
printed on a page and counts that down every time there is a 
line feed. This means you can skip over perforations in your 
printer paper with ease. 

Random Basic also has a f ull range of disk commands and 
a neat extra called FLIST that lists the files stored on the 
disk. The format of this is much different from a directory, 
so you can usually get the entire list on the screen at one time 
(especially with the optional screen displays FLEX can use). 

There are a couple of restrictions to Random Basic not 
found in Color Basic. Line numbers, for instance, may only 
be in a range f rom 1 to 9999 and a line may not contain more 
than 128 characters. Multiple statements on a line are 
permitted, however. 

Our only other complaint was the momentary difficulty in 
transferring Random Basic to the FLEX system disk we 
were using. The instructions in an otherwise extremely well- 
written manual were not very complete. However, we would 
feel anyone with a FLEX system would be able to handle 
this on their own with little trouble. 

Being used to mainf rame Basics which are quite limited in 
scope and figuring Random Basic, as a FLEX program, 
might follow that line, we were very surprised and pleased to 
find such an excellent Basic. If you have FLEX, this is a fine 
Basic to add to your software capabilities. 

(Computerware, Box 668, Encinitas, CA 92024, $75) 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 37 



THE GREAT PUMPKIN ADVENTURE 



GREAT FUN FOR HALLOWEEN PARTIES 




ADULTS AND KIDS ALIKE WILL ENJOY THIS BEWITCHING 

ADVENTURE GAME 



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(requires 16K Ext. BASIC and Joysticks) 



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(see caddy ad in this issue) 



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Visa and Mastercard Accepted 



Page 38 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



The GameMaster's Apprentice . . . 

Let's Venture Into The World Of Let's Pretend 

By Bob Albrecht and George Firedrake 

Rainbow Contributing Editors 



Let's Pretend 

Let's pretend. Let's go adventuring in a world of 
imagination where magic works and great deeds can be 
done. Let's explore, overcome adversity, solve problems, 
and garner fame, glory, and fortune. Let's play a fantasy role 
playing game. 

A role playing game is a game in which one or more 
players create and control characters (adventurers) who live 
their imaginary lives in a specially made game world. The 
game world is created, managed, and operated by a game 
master, also called a referee, adventure master, or dungeon 
master. 

A role playing game is an interaction between players who 
operate (run) characters, and a game master, who runs the 
world in which the adventures occur. Most of the play is 
verbal exchange. The players tell the game masterwhat their 
characters want or intend to do. The game master then tells 
them if they can or may do it or, if not, why not and what 
might happen instead. 

Rule Systems 

Most people who play role playing games use a formal 
system of rules. Some of the best known fantasy game rule 
systems are listed below. 

Dungeons & Dragons From TSR Hobbies, P.O. Box 
756 Lake Geneva, WI 53147 

RuneQuest From Chaosium, P.O. Box 6302, Albany, 
CA 94706 



Tunnels & Trolls From Flying Buffalo, P.O. Box 
1467, Scottsdale, AZ 85252 

Worlds of Wonder From Chaosium, P.O. Box 6302, 
Albany, CA 94706 

BEGINNERS BEWARE! Most rulebooks are very difficult 
to understand. Some are almost incomprehensible. If you 
are a beginner, first try Tunnels & Trolls or Worlds of 
Wonder. 

Game Master's Apprentice 

Role playing games are usually played by people sitting 
around a large table. As you walk into the game area, you 
see people obviously have a good time. Curious, you 
approach. 

The players interact animatedly. Then a player asks a 
question of the game master. Play stops while she digs out 
the appropriate rule book. After some time, she answers, 
" I M \\ HmH» VJ. "play resumes, then stops again while rule 
books are consulted. You notice that much time is spent 
flipping pages in numerous rule books. Slowly, an idea 
forms in your mind. Then . . . AHA! . . . EUREK! . . . I'VE 
GOT IT! Why not use the Color Computer as a. . . 

* Data Base Management System 

* Management Information System 

* Game Master Information System 

it 9 9 9 

™ ■ ■ ■ 

Call it what you will. We call it "GameMaster's 
Apprentice." In this series, we will surely, but slowly, 
explore how to use the Color Computer to help manage a 
fantasy world such as Dungeons & Dragons, RuneQuest, 
Tunnels & Trolls, or Worlds of Wonder. 

Our programs will work best with Worlds of Wonder. We 
encourage you to get the boxed set from Chaosium, P.O. 
Box 6302, Albany, CA 95706 ($16 plus $2 postage and 
handling). 

During the next few months, we will explore the following 
stuff: 

* The Mysterious and Unpredictable RND 

* GameMaster's Dice 

* Looking up stuff in files. First, files of information 
in DATA statements and arrays. Next, cassette files. 
Eventually, files on floppy disks. 

* Whatever else comes to mind or is suggested to you. 

We assume you are a beginner or near beginner or maybe 
an early intermediate. All you need to know is what you 
learned in reading Radio Shack's Getting Started with 
Color BASIC or (blush) Bob Albrecht's TRS-80 Color 
BASIC. Both of these are beginner's books. 

We love to get letters. You can influence what we write. So 
write to us: George & Bob, P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 
94025. If you want a reply, enclose a self -addressed, stamped 
envelope. 

(Bob Albrecht and George Firedrake have been writing 
about computers and Basic programming for many years. 
They are the authors of "TRS-80 Color Basic" 

(Copyright © 1982 by DragonQuest, P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park, CA 
94025. Portions of "GameMaster's Apprentice "are from a bodk-in- 
progress called Adventurer's Handbook: A Beginner's Guide to 
Role Playing Games). 



R - S _ COLOR DISK SYSTEM 
SOFTWARE 

DISK EDI TOR/ ASSEMBLER - This package includes a full featured disk based text 
editor program and a disk to d lsk/t ape/memory assembler. The text editor is an 
easy to learn full featured editor which allows files larger than fflMiory to be 
created and edited with ease. It is compatible with ASCII formatted tape 1 
disk files to allow easy conversion of tape based programs. The assembler 
supports the full 68G9 processor instruction set and will cross assemble 
cede to 6809 object cede. The output object file can be directed to either 
diski tape or memory with overwrite protection. The object listing can be 
output to the screen or printer and versions for printers with or without line 
feeds are provided. DISK EDITOR & ASSEMBLER «79.93 

DISK TERMINAL PACKAGE - A disk based Terminal program for your color computer 
features full text buffering, baud rates from 300 to 9600 baud, programable 
word length, parity bits odd/even/none, stop bits. The buffer size is 
automatically set to the maximum size of your memory. Full control codes can 
be sent, display word wrap is automatic. The text buffer can be saved or 
leaded from/to tape or disk. The contents of the buffer can be sent as a file 
Hith automatic re-entry to terminal mode, also a file can be sent directly from 
disk to another user. The contents of the buffer can be displayed on the 
screen or optionally be output to a printer plugged into the RS 232 port. All 
file formats are directly compatible with our text editor and word processor 
programs. DISK TERMINAL PACKAGE *49. 93 

TEXTPRO I DISK TEXT EDITOR/WORD PROCESSOR - is a complete word processing 
system designed for easy learning arid use. It features a disk based text 
editor for editing files larger than memory and direct processing of text files 
from disk or memory. Some of the editor commands includei copy, move, search, 
replace, delete, line A automatic edit modes allow easy logical commands to 
add, change, insert, delete, skip up/down line, ignore changes made on last 
line, skip to begin/end of line all with easy single keystroke commands using 
arrow keys. The editer can also load, save and append tape or disk files for 
easy conversion of existing ASCII text files. The Word Processor includes over 
29 command* for formatting th* output, some of them include: page length, page 
mode on/off, page numbers on/off, left margin, top/bottom margin, line length, 
center, double width print, single, multiple I special indent, test lines left 
on page, skip to top of page, send control codes I a.sci i data for special 
printer control, justify on/off, page heading, multiple footnotes per page, 
word fill mode on/off, send message to screen, display I input from keyboard 
and more. This is an excellent word processor with many advanced features and 
one of the easiest to learn and use in just minutes. All commands are 
logically oriented in easy to remember and associate 2 character commands. 

DISK TEXTPRO I »49. 95 

TEXTPRO II TEXT EDITOR/ WORD PROCESSOR - Includes all the features of TEXTPRO I 
plus: 18 programable tab stops, can be used with horizontal tab to next 
location, center over tab col umri, decimal allignment on tab column, right 
justify to tab column, tab to programed column. Also tab commands can use 
specific values for tab columns or programmed values. Other additions include: 
character fill, right justify line, programable footer can be centered /right 
justified/double width or almost any processor commands can be used with it, 3 
programable header lines, expanded footnotes and processable keyboard input 
data during word processing. DISK TEXTPRO II .... »79.93 

WMHtettMAiMw CER-COMP M 0n*o SM»M« frm Stock • 

LflVtpt.Mfn4.Hiio (702) 402-0632 M<sin pmihi-mc/viuamsx 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 39 



RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE presents . 



ICTIONS 




Get Ready For 16 Weeks of NFL Action on Your Color Computer! ! ! 
Amaze Your Friends With Your Armchair-Quarterbacking of All the Games! 

CHECK THESE IMPORTANT FEATURES: 

• Simple, menu-driven selection of schedules, ratings, predictions or results by 
team or week, plus division races — seven different types of reports available 
each week. 

Easy once-a-week entry of scores — no hard-to-find stats or spreads needed. 

Predicts all games for remainder of season after each score update. 

Calculates projected won-loss record for any point in season. 

Maintains home field advantage rating and power rating for each team 
throughout season. '• 

Set up new season for years of enjoyment. 

Two-tape set prevents accidental erasure of program or data — fast loads. 

Printer optional (recommended) for dazzling spread sheets and schedules. 
Enhanced printouts available on most printers. 

Current data supplied with order (promptly). 

Memory saving byte-mapping eliminates costly arrays — 32K compacted to 



16K. 




Include $2 shipping 
Minnesota residents add 5% tax 
Dealer inquiries invited 




16K Extended Basic Required 
2 Tape Cassette $19.95 

RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE 
3514 6th Place N.W. 
Rochester, MN 55901 

Not Affiliated With The RAINBOW 



Page 40 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



COLOR SALES FILE 

A Business program for the 
C.C. Keeps inventory for 125 
items in 16K, or 350 in 32K. Both 
versions $21.88 


PACKMAZE 

Eat dots, avoid the 
monsters. Super fast graphic 
arcade fun. Machine 
language. $16.95 

MM 


BUG CHASE 

Robotics or you. Great 
graphics and music. One or 
two player ... or robot mode. 
32K ONLY (Ext.) $15.55 


SHIP WRECK 

Perils aplenty in this 
Adventure. Can you escape? 
There are even treasures to be 
Touna, it you live mai long, i ok 
and up _ $14.95 

j ■ 


GEO-STUDIES 

Educational/Arcade. USA, 
Canada, Europe, Australia, 
and . . . NEW . . . Central 
America. 

NEW LOWER PRICE 

d& $9.95 each 


WORDCC7D 

The popular "easy" text 
processing program goes 
DISK. $24.95 
iape version v>iv.v& 


. . . September Special . . . 

This month only, get the fantastic ML RABBIT for only $9.95! Take advantage of 
this LOW price NOW!! 


Sea Battle $14.95 Dancing Devil $14.95 
Missile Barrage $14.95 Lunar Lander $15.95 
Boxcars $14.95 War Kings $19.95 


/#*\ DSL COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

VDSL/ P '°' BOX 1113 " DEARBORN ' Ml 48121 " (313) 582 - 3406 \DSL/ 

ALWAYS LOOKING FOR GREAT COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE /f^\ 
ADD $1 SHIPPING AND HANDLING - MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% 


Stop Straining The Connectors 

RS-232 
SWITCHER 25* 

Up to three items connect to 
your 232 port. Flig switch for 
different items ana leave the 
plugs alone. 

$3995 

TWO PLUG MODEL 
$2995 


i 

COPY CAT 

The ULTIMATE Tape Backup 

Program 

Make a backup of "ANY" 
tape-based software. Even 
those popular pre-loader 
programs. $19.95 


ADD POWER TO YOUR 
COLOR COMPUTER 

RAM SLAM ™ 

— Solderless Kits — 

4-1 6K $25.00 
16-32K $49.95 
4-32K $74.95 

15 Minute Installation 
One Year Warranty 

"The Easy Way To More K" 


MAILING LABELS I 

480 Tractor feed single 
labels with "Mail List" Basic 
program listing. Great for 
clubs. $5.95 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 41 



Ping-Pong International 
Game For People and 80C 





By Wolfgang Hryzak 



Ping-Pong has been a game of international interest for a 
number of years, so I thought I would submit a Ping-Pong 
game to the RAINBOW to share this international spirit 
with the Color Computer. 

The game, while in BASIC and a bit slow, is a variation of 
the PONG game which has been so popular. It requires two 
players, each with their own joystick and they can move 
their paddles up and down in this way. 

The "ball" bounces off the paddles, of course, but also 
bounces off the "walls" of the screen. As in the original 
arcade game, if it hits in a corner, you may have to do quite a 
bit of angle-judging. 

Those with Color Computers which cannot accept the 
"Speedup Poke" should remove it in Line 7Q. If your 
computer can accept this, then the game will run a little 
faster. 

For those who do not know the German language, a few 
notes will probably be helpful (Editor's Note: We have left 
the instructions in German to retain the game's flavor.). 

In Line 50, "SCH WIERIGKEITSGR AD" means 
"LEVEL" in English; in Line 60 "ERSTER" means 
"FIRST 1 ' and "ZWEITER" means "SECOND, " 
"SPIELER" translates to "PLAYER." 

The word "ERGEBNISLISTE" in Line 340 translates 
"LIST OF PLAYS" while "SPIEL" means "GAME." Line 
370's instruction "JPYSTK TAUSCHEN" is 
"EXCHANGE THE JOYSTICK" and, finally, Line 390's 
"HAT GEWONNEN" means "HAS WON." 

The 80C is beginning to make some inroads into the 
Austrian and European market after a slow start and I look 
forward to continuing to read about its progress in the 
RAINBOW. 

The Listing: 

10 GOTO 500 

20 * WOLFGANG HRYZAK 

BAHNSTRASSE 48 
A-2230 GAENSERNDORF 
AUSTRIA 

30 M*= " L402FB-03CL2DL8CCCCL4C02 A 
L2F" 

40 T*= "PI NG-PONG " : CLS0: PR I NT 5)1 , " 
VON WOLFGANG HRYZAK AUSTRIA " ; 
:LL*=STRING*<28, 144) :Q=14:A=18:G 
OSUB440:FORYY=1TO 2: SOUND 50, 1:F 
0RX=258T0277 : PR I NTdX , T$; : G0SUB45 
0:NEXTX: SOUND 200, 1 : F0RX=277T025 
8STEP-1 : PRINT3X , T*; : GOSUB450: NEX 
TX, YY 

50 LL*=LL*+STRING*<2, 144) : G0SUB4 
80:PRINTS)0, " ******** ";T*; H 
******* •'; :PRINT5)258, " " ; : INPUT" 
SCHW I ER I GKE I TSGR AD (1 - 9)";G:G0 
SUB480:IF G< 1 THEN G=l ELSE IF G 
>9 THEN G=9 

60 PR I NT3258 , " " ; : I NPUT " ERSTER S 
PIELER 



ii 



ii 



ii 



LS*=LEFT* ( LS* , 7 ) : PR I NT3290 , " " ; : I 
NPUT"ZWEITER SPIELER ";RS*:RS*=R 

—Continued on Next Page 




RICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY' PROGRAMS FOR YOUR 80C 

AIL ItK IXTlNCrtO UIIC TAPI UNUSt OTNIBWIH HOTtO 

SEPTEMBER SPECIALS 

FOR BACK-TO-SCHOOL 
10% OFF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS 
TAKE 1 0% OFF PRICES SHOWN 



NEW THIS MONTH 

Preread 1, 2 & 3 

These have been designed to meet the needs of 
parentsand teachers having children just beginning 
to read. 

PRE RE AD 1 presents the names of the letters of the 
alphabet auditorially (by voice on the tape) and asks 
the learner to press the letter on the keyboard which 
corresponds to thatt letter name. 
PREREAD 2 presents the sounds of the letters of 
the alphabet (also by voice) and asks the learner 
to find the correct letter on the keyboard. The 
sounds are presented alone and in the context of 
familiar words. (Fo»r example, "Find the letter that 
says /mmm/ in the work /man/.") 
PREREAD 3 flashes letters visually (at speeds you 
select) and then requires the learner to find those 
letters on the keyboard. 

These programs heive been developed by a practicing 
educator in answer to problems which plague 
teachers of children who cannot read. The dimen- 
sion of voice from the T.V. monitor adds excitement 
and realism! 

PREREAD 1 , 2 it 3 are sold only as a Prereading 
package. Each program comes on a separate tape, 
with complete instructions. $24.95 



Mathpac I #? 

Finally! A totally flexible, menu-driven set of elemen- 
tary math programs for the color computer! MATH- 
PAC I, developed and tested by an elementary 
teacher in his own classroom, allows the user to 
choose the operation (H — */), difficulty level, number 
of problems, and a drill or testing format. This pro- 
gram employs sound educational principles, and 
even includessuggestionsf or classroom use.$1 9.95 

Song book 

The Big, BIG, 80C Songbook — The words and Play 
Statements for over 200 of your favorites. Old songs, 
new songs, children's songs, hymns, patriotic songs, 
classical songs, college songs, Christmas songs, and 
more. These lovely arrangements will provide hours of 
enjoyment. You also get the songbook on tape; a two 
volume set of tapes containing four music programs. 
Just select the song you want by number, and the title 
will appear on the screen while the song plays. Sing 
along with the special arrangements created just for 
your color computer. Book and tapes together are just 
$29.95 + $2.00 shipping. 

Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping 
free on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 4% 
sales tax. Ord ers shipped within two days. 

At your local 'dealer, or send order to: 

PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9822 E£. Stella Road 
Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 




Page 42 The RAINBOW 

PING (From Page 41) 

S*+ n " : RS*=LEFT* ( RS* , 7) : G 

OSUB480 

70 POKE 65495, 0:AN=RND( 10) : IF AN 
<=5 THEN GOSUB 470 ELSE GOSUB 46 
0:GOSUB 470 

80 Q=INT(15-G/2) : A=Q+G:0=Q:L=A:Y 
B=l: XB=1 :D=0: DD=1 

90 GOSUB440 : D«0 : RP=0 : LP=0 : PRINTS 
2,LL*; :PRINT30,LS*;LIP; :PRINTS>16, 
RS*;RP; : GOSUB440 

100 FOR AN=1TO100: NEXTAN: D=D+1:F 
OR AN=1T08: SOUNDAN*30, 1 : NEXTAN: Y 
=10: X=RND ( 20 ) +2 1 : XB=ABS ( XB ) 
110 IF D<6 OR (D>10ANDD<16) OR < 
D>20ANDD<26) OR (D>30AND D<36)TH 
EN GOTO 130 
120 XB=-XB 
130 SET(X,Y,8) 

140 J0=JOYSTK(0) : Jl=JOYSTK(l ) : J2 

=J0YSTK(2) : J3=J0YSTK<3) 

150 IF JK20 THEN GOSUB 400 ELSE 

IF Jl>45 THEN GOSUB 410 
160 IF J3<20 THEN GOSUB 420 ELSE 

IF J3>45 THEN GOSUB 430 
170 RESET (X,Y) 
180 X=X+XB 
190 Y=Y+YB 

200 IF (Y>3 AND Y<30) THEN 240 
210 IF X<3 THEN 280 ELSE IF X>61 
THEN 300 

220 IF POINT <X,Y+1) THENSOUND 12 



September, 1982 

0,1: YB=-YB: GOTO 190 

230 IF POINT (X,Y) THENSOUND 120, 

1 : YB=-YB: GOTO 190 

240 IF X<2 THEN 280 ELSE IF X>61 
THEN 300 

250 IF POINT <X+1,Y> THENSOUND 12 

0, 1: XB=-XB:GOTO 180 

260 IF POINT <X,Y) THENSOUND 120, 

1: XB=-XB:GOTO 180 

270 RESET (X, Y) : GOTO 130 

280 SOUND 200,5:RP=RP+1:PRINTS>24 

,RP;:IF RP>20 AND < (RP-LP) >2) THE 

N 320 

290 IF RP>20 THEN GOTO 490ELSE G 
OTO 100 

300 SOUND 50,5:LP=LP+1:PRINTS>8,L 
P;:IF LP>20AND < (LP-RP) >2) THEN 
320 

310 IF LP>20 THEN GOTO 490 ELSE 
GOTO 100 

320 IF DD=2 OR DD=4 THEN GOSUB 4 
60 

330 IF LP>RP THEN LA=LA+1 ELSE R 
A=RA+1 

340 CLS:PRINT n ERGEBNISL 

ISTE 11 : PR I NT : DD$ ( DD ) =STR 

*<LP)+ M : 11 +STR$ ( RP ) : PR I NT 11 

" ;LS*; n : " ; RS*: PRINT: FOR X= 
1TO DD: PRINT X". SPIEL n ;DD*<X>: 
NEXT: DD=DD+1 

350 FOR AN=1TO3000: NEXTAN: I FDD=6 




TRICTLY 
LOR 

FTWARE 




P.O. BOX 382 
WEST POINT, PA 19486 



THE WAIT IS OVER! 

Do you envy the wall of wargames for the Bleep Computer? 
Are your fingers tired from twiddling a joystick? 
Do you wish you could exercise your mind? 

You need MISSION:EMPIRE 
MISSION:EMPIRE! for disk or cassette $19.95' 

A strategic wargame. Starting with one planet, incomplete intelligence and limited 
resources, you must conquer the rest of your galaxy. The game takes 2-5 hours and is 
DIFFERENT EVERY TIME! Both versions offer the option of saving a game in progress. 

Send check, money order or MasterCard/Visa number (including expiration date and SIGN order). 
Specify disk or cassette version. Both are shipped on cassette (to get the program on disk add 
$3.00). Price includes shipping. PA residents include 6% sales tax. 

*Requires Color Computer (®Tandy Corp.) with 32K, Extended Basic and cassette or disk. 

To introduce you to our game and to SCS, if your order is postmarked before Oct. 1, 

the game will only cost you $15.95. 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 43 



THEN GOTO 380 ELSE CLS0: GOSUB440 
360 IF DD=2 OR DD=4 THEN GOSUB 4 
60 

370 IF DD<6 THENFOR AN=1TO1000:N 
EXTAN: PRINT3257, " JOYSTK TAUSCHE 
N 11 5 :FOR AN=1TO5000: NEXTAN: G0SUB4 
70: GOTO 90 

380 IF LA>RA THEN G*»LS* ELSE G* 
=RS* 

390 POKE 65494,0: PRINT: PRINT: PRI 
NT" ^G*;" HAT GEWONNEN ! ! ! " : PLA 
Y M*:FOR AN=1T0 3000: NEXTAN : PR IN 
T: END 

400 IF 0=4 THEN RETURN ELSE RESE 
T(61,L) :0=0-l:L=L-l:SET<61,0,3> : 
RETURN 

410 IF L=29 THEN RETURN ELSE RES 
ET (61 , O) : 0»0+l : L=L+1 : SET (61 , L, 3) 
: RETURN 

420 IF Q=4 THEN RETURN ELSE RESE 
T(3, A) :Q=Q-1: A=A-1 : SET (3, Q, 3) : RE 
TURN 

430 IF A=29 THEN RETURN ELSE RES 
ET(3,Q) :Q=Q+1: A=A+1:SET(3, A, 3) :R 
ETURN 

440 FORY=3TO31:SET(0, Y,2) : SET (63 
, Y, 2) : NEXTY: FORI=Q TOA: SET (3, I , 3 
) : SET (61, 1,3) : NEXTI : F0RX=1T062: S 
ET(X,3,2) : SET (X, 31, 2) : NEXTX : RETU 
RN 

450 FOR TI = 1TO30:NEXT TI:PRINTa>2 
58, LL*; : RETURN 

460 SP=LP : LP»RP : RP=SP : SS*=LS* : LS 
*=RS*: RS*=SS*: RETURN 
470 PRINTS>289,LS*; " BEGINNT DAS 
SPIEL";: FOR AN*1TO1800: NEXTAN 
480 FOR X=0TO 3:PRINTa>225+X*32,L 
L*; :PRINT5>223+X*32,CHR*(149> ; :NE 
XTX: RETURN 

490 FOR AN»1TO100:NEXTAN:D=D+1:F 
OR AN=1T08: SOUNDANf 30, 1 : NEXTAN: Y 
=10: X=RND (20) +21 : XB=ABS ( XB) : IF D 
/2=INT(D/2)THEN GOTO 120 ELSE GOT 
O 130 

500 PCLEAR2:PMODE0:GOTO30 



Look For 



The, 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Software Review... 

Jungle Treck Is A 
Unique Game Offering 

What appeals to us about Jungle Treck is not those drums 
. . . drums . . . drums at the beginning of the program, but the 
way it handles a game in a new and different sort of way. 

The object of the game is to get from where the 80C places 
you in the jungle to your home base. Or, rather, to get there 
before the lions get you. As in the real jungle (we guess, we 
have never been to the jungle), the lions keep popping up all 
around and you have to steer a path through them. 

All of this is done on the high-res screen and its is 
sometimes a little hairy to find the mane (sorry) route. You 
have to dodge between all these lions, and more of them 
appear up all the time. At the end of the safari, you get a 
score and the high score for the game to date is retained by 
the 80C. 

We like Jungle Treck for two reasons. First of all, unlike 
many games in BASIC, there is no feeling of slowness. The 
joysticks (which are used to make your way) respond 
quickly and accurately. And, the pace of the game is such 
that you really are operating in real time. 

Second, this seems a nice alternative to shoot-'em-up 
games and is easy enough for younger children to not only 
play but derive quite a bit of enjoyment. It is certainly 
challenging enough not to be simple, but not so hard (or 
requiring so much eye-hand coordination) as to be 
frustrating. 

We like Jungle Treck and believe you will, too. 
(Jarb Software, 1169 Florida Street, Imperial Beach, CA 
92032, $14.95 plus $2 shipping) 




ANTECO SOFTWARE. . .A 
NEW DIMENSION FOR 
YOUR COLOR COMPUTER! 






Page 44 

Software Review. 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



Color Zap Is Powerful 
Utility For Disk Owners 

There is nothing quite like a disk. For ease of use, fast and 
accurate storage, and easily-accessed data, they can't be 
beat. 

That is, until something goes wrong. Then, you can just 
stare and stare at your disk and wonder how to really see 
what is on that thing. 

Color Zap is a powerful program that allows you to see 
what is on the disk, modify it, and, if possible, recreate it. 
Menu-driven, Color Zap is extremely easy to use and well 
documented. 

The primary purpose of Color Zap is to look at the sectors 
on a disk. Finding the proper sector is easy, because you 
merely enter a number for the track and sector or, if you do 
not know where the file is, you can simply enter the file 
name. Once you have found a file, you can go through it, 
byte by byte and inspect the contents. 

This, alone, is excellent. It allows you to see just how your 
disk works and what the drive does when it is instructed to 
save a program or data. But there is more, because Color 
Zap also allows you to modify a file. 

This modification ability can save you a great deal of time. 
If, f or instance, there is one piece of data in a file what needs 
a small modification, it might be easier to make that 
modification on the disk than to reload the program, 
manipulate the file and then re-file the data. You have to be 
careful doing this sort of thing, but it can be a real bonus. 

Since this sort of task can cause trouble, Color Zap allows 
you to make another copy of the file without destroying the 
old one. And, if you like, it will even zero out all the data in a 
file to let you start over. 

Additionally, Color Zap, like other programs of this sort, 
will allow you to recover files you may have killed by 



HARMONYCS 



P.O. KM 1573 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 

•4110-1 S7J *? 

QAMEtrri (4K) %1M ~« 
Trir** gam** on on* ca***tt* FRENZY ■ vocabulary buikftng wort) 
0*m*. MASTER COOE fe Mc* Mattar Mmd (tm). S£VE»~£tEVEM 
la a die* oama of akin and chanc*. 0 

MONEY MINDER N (1«0 M M rl 
Mort*yMtad*rHtoaea«**tt*ba**dp*f*on*l financa program. Up 
to 56 uaar d*ftn*bt* budgat catagoriat. Printout capability. Manu 
driv*n~**ay to us*. (4K version avail* bi* - $7.96) tff^ | 

PRESCHOOL PAK (16K EXTENOED BASIC) $6,66 «S 

Two praacnoolar t**mlng gam** on on*e«***tt*. ****** u**of 
resolution graphic* and aound. Tno k Ida Ihtnfc it's a fun gam*. (Mian 

COtORHYTHM (16K EXTENOED BASIC) $6.66 

Btornythmt for tha Color Computar. Exo*tt*nt us* of hf-raa 
graphics. Plots your 15 day biorhylhma. 4ftA 

Wm (16K EXTENOED BASIC) $6.66 

S**i-lh* fortun* tailing computer u*** data that you input lo < 
min* a character reading for you. You might be *urprt*Mfl 

TEE-SHIRT i 7.^5 

Sizea S.M.L. XL Pt*a*e specify. (Allow 3 to 6 weeks for delivery] 
Atoo specify red or blue on while tee-shirt. 

AN programs supplied on 
cassette end shipped post- 
paid. Foreign orders pi**** 
adjust price* for *xchang* 
rata to U.S. dollars. Sorry, 
no COO. 



mistake. That is because your disk operating system does 
not erase a file when you kill it, it merely "removes" the file 
name from the directory, thus freeing up the space for use 
later. If you can go into the disk and remove the code that 
shows a file has been killed, the file comes back to life again. 

Documentation for Color Zap is well and attractively 
done. It gets a bit technical here and there, but this sort of 
manipulation is a bit technical, too. There isn'tanything left 
out, it just requires some concentration. 

Color Zap also provides its share of help, such as 
conversion of hexadecimal and decimal numbers. 

A good offering. 

(Software Options Inc., 19 Rector Street, New York, NY 
10006, $49.95 plus $3 shipping and handling.) 



Software Review... 

Wisdom Abounds In 
These Three Programs 

There are other ways of "telling" the future than 
biorhytms. And older ways, as well. Three programs offered 
either separately or as a package called Ancient Wisdom 
Trilogy will certainly give you a wide choice of advice on any 
question. 

It was the Egyptians who developed the Tarot, which 
combine numbers, astrology and geometric forms to make 
up a deck of 78 cards whichattempt to discover information 
on how nature plays a part in your life. 

The Chinese developed the I Ching, or Book of Changes. 
Again using numbers and forces of nature, the I Ching is 
cast" with yarrow stalks or coins. These are then translated 
into hexagrams, which have various meanings. 

Numerology is, at least partially, founded in the Kabalah, 
a sect of Judiasm. Kabalaists believe that all words can be 
reduced to numbers (this is easier in Hebrew, since all the 
letters have numeric value — sort of an early ASCII) and that 
the numbers have significance. 

Each of the three programs in the Ancient Wisdom 
Trilogy addresses one of these systems. All are used roughly 
the same way, in that you can ask for general information or 
frame a question you wish to have answered. Using the 
various means of the three "fortunetelling" systems, you will 
get an answer. 

We have a nodding acquaintence with all three systems 
and found the programs easy and entertaining to use. Each 
employs an automatic start (with the Auto Run utility from 
Sugar Software) and utilizes some machine language 
subroutines to make things go more quickly. Most 
impressive was the manner in which the programs actually 
gave their "readings" in the context of the particular system 
being used. 

All three programs come with an explanation of how the 
particular system works, which makes them something of a 
learning experience as well. Since all three systems are 
widely known, there are a number of books available on 
them. This is particularly so with the I Ching, which has a 
whole Book of Changes to interpret the castings. 

If you are curious as to what the future holds, you might 
consider consulting these modern versions of ancient 
wisdom. In addition, any of them would be a hit at any 
party. Because some of the machinations with cards, coins 
and the like can take some time, you can get the answers fast 
by allowing the 80C to do the tedious stuff while you (and 
your friends) enjoy the answers. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 3518 S. Randi Place, Tucson, 
AZ 85730, Tarot $17.95; / Ching $16.95; Numerology 
$14.95 or all three for $39.95, plus $1.50 shipping each) 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 45 




PROGRAfll 



Color 

Space War 



From Spectral Associates 

You command the last combat Viper, and must break 
through the defenses of the Death Star while avoiding 
the pull of gravity of the Black Hole. Watch out for 
space mines and enemy ships. Extended BASIC not 
required. Joysticks. 

16K Tape, $21.95 



Cosmic 
Super Bowl 



Galloping 
Gamblers 




By Fred Scerbo 
From Illustrated Memory Banks 
Exciting racetrack game for 1 to 4 players. Each 
player gets $100 to bet. There are 4 horses in each of 
12 races; odds are posted at the bottom of the screen 
for each. The outcome of the race cannot be 
predicted. At the end of the race, the computer 
awards wins or losses. No joystick required; one 
player must enter Information at the keyboard. Ex- 
tended BASIC required. 

16K Tape, $18.95 

Cocobug 

Debugging Monitor for 
TRS-80 Color Computers 

By Allen Gelder From Allen Gelder Software 
COCOBUG is a compact monitor program. "With 
COCOBUG you may examine RAM and ROM In hex- 
adecimal, ASC II or mixed hex and ASC II form. In ad- 
dition, the powerfui MC6809E CPU is made available 
in a pair of 6809 Programming Models that depict the 
CPU features at entry and exit (via a restorable 
Breakpoint) of your machine code string. Byte entry 
and Breakpointlng, plus the ability to direct real-time 
program flow, are made easy and natural through a 
line-entry of addresses, bytes and certain control 
characters." 4 k Color BASIC, 

Tape, $19.95 16K Extended Color basic. 

Co-Resident Editor/ 
Assembler (CO-RES9) 

From Cer-Comp 

CO-RES9 is a M6809 processor machine language 
program for the color computer. You can enter the 
text of your article, letters, or a chapter of your newest 
book; then go back and revise. The tape contains two 
copies of a demonstration program that you can use 
to familiarize yourself with the Editor and Assembler 
entry format. 

Tape, $29.95 



From Spectral Associates 

An excellent simulation of the popular handheld foot- 
ball games, but with a cosmic flavor. You must 
maneuver your player through a field of defenders. 5 
action skill levels. Extended BASIC not required. 

16K Tape, $14.95 

Kosmic Kamikaze 

By Fred Scerbo 

From Illustrated Memory Banks 
Test your reflexes in this arcade-type space game. 
Your fighter craft is armed with automatic laser can- 
nons and rechargeable shields to blast the enemy 
pirate saucers which pop In and out of hyperspace. 
Comets can destroy you and end game unless you hit 
them dead center. 3 levels of difficulty; challenging. 
Extended BASIC, joysticks required. 

16K Tape, $18.95 

6809 

Assembly Language 
Programming 

By Lance Leventhal from McGraw Hill 
This comprehensive book covers 6809 assembly 
language programming in detail. The entire instruc- 
tion set is presented and fully explained. The book 
contains many fully debugged, practical program- 
ming examples with solutions in both object code and 
source code. Discussion of assembler conventions, 
I/O devices, and interfacing methods Is also Included. 
If you've never before programmed In assembly 
language, this book will teach you how. If you're an 
experienced programmer, you'll find this book an In- 
valuable reference to the 6809 instruction set and pro- 
gramming techniques. 

Sofftcover, $16.95 

6809 Microcomputer 

Programming and Interfacing 
with Experiments 

Ed. by Staugaard from Howard W. Sams 
This book offers a complete description of how to pro- 
gram and interface the 6809 microprocessor. Topics 
include: chip structure and basic 6809 concepts; ad- 
dressing modes; registers and data movement In- 
structions; arithmetic, logic and test instructions; 
branching; input and output signals; interfacing and 
applications. Review questions and answers for each 
chapter, plus 4 appendices. 

Sofftcover, $14.95 




Cosmic 
Invaders 

From Spectral Associates 
Fast-action invaders-type game, complete with 16 
skill levels, dynamite sound and 4-color hi-res 
graphics. Use the special mobile defense shield to 
help you dodge the invaders' bombs. With Mystery In- 
vader who zooms In and out of hyperspace. Extended 
BASIC not required. 

16K Tape, $21.95 

Starbase Attack 

By Fred Scerbo 

From Illustrated Memory Banks 
You are the lone defender of 3 starbase cities on the 
faredgeof our galaxy in this exciting simulation. Your 
cities are under attack by either alien warheads or 
bombarding asteroids. You only have a limited time to 
evacuate your population. You must ward off attack 
while launching your escape vehicles and your own 
ship. Extended BASIC, one joystick required. 

16K Tape, $12.95 

The Color Computer 
Disassembler 

By Commander from Interpro 
This utility allows you. to gain knowledge of the Color 
Computer ROM to aid you In machine language pro- 
gramming. It will disassemble any portion of the Col- 
or Computer's memory. With BASIC program to help 
you understand how memory is organized and 
disassembled. Extended BASIC required. 

16K Tape, $19.95 

Super "Color" 
Writer II 

From Nelson Software 

Fast, machine code, full-featured, character (screen) 
—oriented word processing system for the TRS-80 
Color Computer and any printer. Movable print win- 
dow displays text In green characters on black 
background for reading ease. Simple enough for 
beginners; versatile enough for the professional 
writer. Features Include: scrolling; exchange/delete; 
footnote position; quick paging; block move, copy 
and delete; merge or append files; underline; 
superscript/subscript and much more! Create or edit 
Super "Color" Terminal flies, ASC II files, BASIC pro- 
grams or Editor/Assembler source listing. 

Tape, $49.95 ROM Pak, $74.95 
Disk, $99.95 




m. 1 . n ■■ ■ and E 



/y4^\' h<k PR0GRAfl) /TORE 4200 Wisconsin Avenu «» NW£Dept.RN209Box 9609 

Visit our other stores: Seven Corners Center, Falls Church, VA • W. Bell Plaza, 6600 Security Blvd., Baltimore, MD 

829 Bethel Rd, Columbus OH • Coming Soon to Greensboro NC. 




■ 



Page 46 



The RAINBOW 



THE ULTIMATE IN COLOR 



P 



September, 1982 



NG 




WORD PROCESSING 

THE SUPER "COLOR'' WRITER II 

The Word Processor that re-wrote trie book on Word Processing 

The Super "Color 1 ' Writer is a FAST, machine code, lull featured, 
character (screen) oriented word processing system for trie TRS-80{TM) 
Color Computer and ANY printer The video display is styled after a 
professional phosphor (green characters on black background) display 
lor hours of use without eyefaiigue (optional orangeon black). The unique 
print WINDOW trees you from 32, 51 or 64 character lines FOREVER! This 
window can be moved anywhere jo the lext file, up, down, left or right to 
display the text as it will be printed without wasting paper, You can create 
or edit Super "Color" Terminal files. ASCII tiles. BASIC programs or 
Editor/Assembler source listings It s simpleenough for beginners wilh 4K 
and for ihe professional writer with a 32K disk system and a lot to say, 
there s plenty of room lo say it! 

COM PARI SON CM A R T SUPER C OLOR WA I TEA THE CO MPE T ITl ON 

System Size 4K 16K 32K 4K 16K 32 K 

TAPE Teal Space N/A 8K 24K \ A 2K 1SK 

ROMPAK Teal apace g.SK T5K 31 K N/A N/A N/A 

DISK Texl space N/A 6.SK 22 5K N/A 0 5K 1G.5K 

Rignt Justify VES NO 

Video Window YES NO 

EdU any ASCII Me YES NO 



THE COMPETITION 

4K 16K 32K 

N/A 2K 1BK 

N/A N/A N/A 

N/A 0.5K 1S.5K 

NO 

NO 

NO 



The figures speak for themselves and with professional features like 
PROGRAMMABLE function string commands to perform up to 28 
commands automatically, PROGRAMMABLE lext file chaining, 
PROGRAMMABLE column insert & delete, and right hand 
USTIFiCATlGN with punctuation precedence, the choice is clear but 
s slill more! 

The Supar "Color" Writer lakes full advantage of the new breed of ' smart 
printers " with Conirol codes 1-31 . 20 Programmable control codes 0-255 
tor special needs and built in Epson MX-80, Centronics 737, 739 and R.S. 
Line Printer IV. VII, VIII drivers. 

CHECK THESE FEATURES!! 

HIGH SPEED & normal operations • 32K Compattbie • Window * Key beep 

• HELP table • 12fl character ASCII & grapbics • Memory left * Lowercase 
■ Full cursor control • Quick paging * Scrolling * Word wraparound • Tabs 

• Repeat all funciions • Repeat last command • Insert character & line • 
Delete character, delete to end of line ime lo cursor, line & block * Block 
move, copy & delete * Global Search, Exchange & Delete * Merge or 

d dies • Imbed Conirol Codes in lexi • Underline * Superscripts * 
• Headers. Footers & 2 Auxiliary footnotes on odd. even or all 
le position • Flush nghi • Non-breakable space * 4 centering 
& 16.7 (CPI) * Full page & prim lormattingin text* Single 
heat pause • Set Page length » Line length, Line spacing, Margins, page 
bers * Title pages • Printer baud: 1 10, 300. 600. 1 200. 2400 * Linefeeds 
ft A hard formfeed • Works wilh 8 bit printer fi« • and more! 

SUPER COLOR" WRITER DISK 

The Disk version of The Super Color" Writer works with theTRS-80C Disk 
System and has all the features listed above plus many more! Use with up 
to four Disk Drives, includes an extended HELP lable you can access at 
any time Call a directory, print FREE space. KjII disk files and SAVE and 

LOAD text Mies you've created all from the Super Color" Writer. Print 
merge or append any Super Xolor" Terminal file. ASCII file. BASIC 
program D r Editor/ Assembler source Nshng stored on ihe Disk oi tape The 
Super "Col Of" Writer Disk version has additional formatting and print 
features for more control over your printer and PROGRAMMABLE 
chaining ol disk hies for "hands off operation Print an entire BOOK 
without ever louchmg a thing 1 ^*-^v 



; 



without e 



TAPE 



Includes com pre! 

95 ROM 

Manual only, $7 00 I 



e operators manual. ^ma^M 

$74.95 DISK $59.95 

jable with purchase. 



Allow 2 exlra weeks lor personal checks. COD orders add 
S2 00 When ordering specHy computer type and add $2 00 
lor S H Mmn residents acid 5% sates tax VISA Mas i^r Ctig 

DEALER INQUIRES ARE INVITED, 



COMMUNICATIONS 

THE SUPER "COLOR" TERMINAL 

Time Share?, Smart Terminal. High-speed Data X ter & Videotex 

The Super "Color" Terminal lurns the Color Computer into a Super-smart 
terminal with all the features oi VIDEOTEX(TM) plus much more 
COMMUNICATE with Dow Jones & Compuserve and with computers like 
theTRS-SO(TM) MODEL I, II, IN, APPLE elc, via moden or RS-232 direct! 
Save the data to tape or print it? Reduces ON— LINE cosi to a minimum! 

FEATURES 

10 butfer size settings from 2-30K * Buffer full Indicator • Lprmts bufler 
contents " Full 1 28 ASCII keyboard ■ Compatible wilh Super "Color" Writer 
files • UPLOAD & DOWNLOAD ASCII hies, Machine Language & Baste 
programs" Set RS-232 parameters "Duplex: Half/Full "Baud Rale: 110. 
300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800* Word Lengths 5. 6, 7 or 8 • Paniy Odd. Even or 
None *Stop Bits; 1-9 * Local linefeeds lo screen * Tape save & load for 
ASCII files, Machine code & Basic programs * Unique clone feature for 
copying any tape. 

i 

Super Color Terminal Disk 

The Disk version offers all the features listed above plus Host abilily in full 
duplex* Lowercase masking* 10 Keystroke Multiplier {MACRO) buffers 
on disk to perlorm repetitive log-on tasks and send short messages (up to 
255 bytes) ■ Programmable prompts tor send next line • Selectable 
character trapping* Set printer line length • Pagination* Linefeed with CR 
option • Primer Baud. iiG r 300, 600. 1200 i 2400 • Documeniation 



TAPE $39. 



ROM PAK $49.95 

ition only. $4 00 Relundable 



$69.95 



COLOR GAMES!! 

FEATURING GREAT GRAPHICS & SOUND! 

ADVENTURE 3- PAK Reg u ires 16K Extended Basic TAPE $24,95 
This TRILOGY OF 3-D FANTASY GAMES takes you to the WORLD 
UNDER THE CJMEEON MOON- Engage in ritual combat wilh Tooamoafh 
Narthokc Monsters and skilled warriors Advance in rank with play 
experience. Then adventure through DAZMAR S UNDERWORLD OF 
DOOM to the forbidden ruins of Castle Argaan Search for the Eye of 
Dazmar while avoiding the sorceror s intrtcate traps Survivors must then 
negotiate the perilous peaks of the Ugrek Mountains to the FORSAKEN 
GULTCH where the wicke H idol awaits restoration. 
VEGAS S-PAK Reguires 16K Extended Basic TAPE $19.95 
The THRILLS OF A VEGAS CASINO at home. Five action packed Vegas 
games for up to four players: CASINO CRAPS * 21 * ONE ARMED BANDIT 
" UP « DOWN THE RIVER * KENO. Bank tracks players winnings from 
game lo game • realistic cards ■ regulation tables • boards *aulhentic 



The THRILL 
games for up 
- UP & DOVt 

game lo gan 



sounds • lively graphics * official rules in each game 

COMBAT 3-PAK Requires 16K Extended Basic TAPE S24.95 

Three action packed two player games featuring lifelike graphics and 
sound Of LASER FlRE r CANNONS and PHOTON TORPEDOES. 
2-1-0 TANK COMBAT live Terrains • the experienced arcade player can 
design combat scenario STELLAR RATTLE pilot a Flex-Wing Figricer at 
incredible speeds in enemy space taking out Dorian Tye Fighters 
defending the Imperial Star Fortress GALACTIC BLOCKADE maneuver 
your craft in a course that boxes your opponent bui avoid cosmic debris 
and hostile space probes! 



COMBAT 3-PAK 



/our y[ 



VISA 



SBFTUHK JOSHES 
SV5TEHI5 / "If IllrP 



TRS-H0 hi ■ 



Corp 




N 55419 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 47 



Utility... 

An Automatic Key Repeat 
Feature Is Handy To Have 




By Charles J. Roslund 



One feature that exists in many larger computers, but not 
in the Color Computer, is Auto Key Repeat. This is a 
function that automatically repeats any key that is held 
down for more than, say, a half second. 

The program listing accompanying this article provides 
this feature. The program is in machine language and is 
position independent code, which means it may be located 
anywhere in available memory. 

Once loaded and EXECuted, you will have Auto Key 
Repeat functioning until the computer is turned off. It will 
be in effect when entering commands or typing in programs 
or when a running program encounters an INPUT or 
INKEYS command. 

The program functions by adding another service routine 
to the 60 cycle interrupt routine. The 60 cycle interrupt 
routine in the Color Computer takes care of updating the 
TIMER function. The first section of my program 
(beginning with the label START) modifies the interrupt 
vector (located at S010D) to point to the beginning of my 
interrupt service routine. 

The program also saves the real interrupt service routine 
start in the location labeled INTHAN. Afterperformingthis 
initialization, the program returns with an RTS function. 

From now on, any time the 60 cycle interrupt occurs, my 
program, beginning at the label ENTRY, will be executed. 
The first thing it does is to check to see if any keys have been 
pushed. CLOOP performs this function by checking the 
seven bytes from $0152 through $0159. If they are anything 
other than $FF, a key is down. Basic uses these bytes to 
perform its keyboard debouncing. 

If no keys are pushed, the program falls through to the 
RELES label and some counters are cleared. Then, at the 
label RET, the program jumps back to Basic's interrupt 
handling routine which, itself, returns to whatever was going 
on before the interrupt occurred. 

If CLOOP detects a key press, however, it branches to the 
routine labeled PUSHED. This routine starts incrementing 
the start counter STRCNT. It is incremented one time, each 
time the 60 cycle interrupt occurs, after which the routine 
branches to RET to return. After STRCNT has been 
incremented to 30 (one-half second) it branches to the 
REPT (repeat) routine. 

The REPT routine uses a counter named REPCNT to 
control the repeat speed in the same manner as PUSHED 
uses the counter STRCNT to control the delay before Auto 
Key Repeat begins. Once REPCNT is incremented to three, 
the program branched to the routine labeled REHIT. 

This routine modified the seven bytes starting at $01 52 to 
turn on any bits that were turned off by Basic's keyboard 
debounce routine. It does this with the ORA #$3F 
instruction. This only turns on bits 0 through 5 of the 
debounce flag bytes, which prevents auto repeat of the 
CLEAR and BREAK keys, which I felt would be 
undesirable. 

This program may be entered into memory with an 
assembler or you may just POKE the hex object code (third 
column of the listing) into memory. A quick Basic program 
to do this is: 

—Continued on Page 48 



COLORQUEST™ proems 
ihe ADVENTURE TRILOGY 

A machine code, high-res Advenlure Game 
for the TRS-flOC " Color Computer 

This' I FtlLOGY OF- 3-D FANTASY GAMES takes yon to tfe* WORLD UNDE 
ClMEEQN MOON Engage m ritual combat wilh Touamoalh pMnrlhokc: Mo 
skilled warriors Advance in rank with play experience Then adventut 
DAZMAFTS UNDERWORLD OF DOOM lolhe lor bidden rums ol Castle Argaan Search 
for 1 ho Eycol Dazmar while avoJdmg the sorcerer's intricate traps Survivors musi Ihen 
negotiate Ihe perilous peaks of I he Ugrek Mouniarns to the FORSAKEN GULCH where 
Ihe wicked idol awails restoration 

16K Tape $24,95 {EjeL Basic no< reqd.) 32K Disk $29.95 



Temm 





0 7 



l he TRILOGY CONTEST * * 

Conquer the TRILOGY and win the new COLORQUEST adventure. 

BEYOND THE ClMEEON MOON 
The GRAND PRIZE, a Super "Color Writer & Super "Color" Terminal 

ROMPAK or DISK program set valued at up to Si 70.00. wiJl be drawn from 
the winning entrres Consult the September issue of COLOR COMPUTEH 
NEWS published by REMarkahle Soltware at 1731 5th Streel. Muskegon, 
Ml 4944 1 . (616)728-9 1 00 for contest riVln \% or suv R ULES wilh ihe game 
Wh*?n ordering include $2 00 for shipping Extra S2.00 lor C O D 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 








■ 















P.O. Box 1 

TR5 




polis, MN 55419 - 612/827-4703 

eg i st e red trademark of Tandy Corp. 



Page 48 

REPEAT (From Page 47) 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



10 CLEAR200, &H3F00: I=&H3F80 
20 PRINT "ADDRESS:"; HEX$(I);: INPUT 
BYTE";B$ 

30 POKE I,VAL ("&H"+B$): 1=1+1: GOTO 20 



The above program assumes a 16K 
Color Computer, but it may be 
modified for whatever you have. After 
getting Auto Key Repeat into 
memory, you may save a copy to tape 
or disk using the address you started at 
for the start address (this is where the 
variable INTHAN is located). The end 
address is the last address that data 
was entered at (S7FEA on my listing). 
The execute address is where the label 
START is located. You should write 
this address down while you are 
entering the code into memory (if you 
are not using an assembler). For the 
addresses my listing is located at, the 
start, end and execute addresses are 
$780, S7FEA and S7F85. 

Auto Key Repeat will work in any 
Color Computer (Color Basic, 
Extended Basic or Disk Basic). Once 
loaded into memory just EXECute it 
and you will have Auto Key Repeat. 

One word of caution: You must 
reserve the memory space the program 
will be located in with the CLEAR 
command and you must never use this 
space f or anything else unless you turn 
your computer off and on to do a cold 
start. (Although, an alternative to 
turning the computer of f is to enter the 



************************** 

* AUTO KEY REPEAT * 

* BY C.J. ROSLUND * 
************************** 



0002 0E00 

0003 0152 

0004 010D 

0005 7F80 0000 

0006 7F82 00 

0007 7F83 00 

0008 7F84 00 



0009 

0010 

0011 

0012 

0013 

0014 

0015 

0016 

0017 

0018 

0019 

0020 

0021 

0022 

0023 

0024 

0025 

0026 

0027 

0028 

0029 

0030 



7F85 
7F89 
7F8C 
7F8E 
7F92 
7F96 
7F99 
7F9A 
7F9D 
7F9F 
7FA1 
7FA3 
7FA6 
7FA8 
7FAB 
7FAD 
7FAF 
7FB2 
7FB4 
7FB7 
7FBA 
7FBD 



308D00 1 1 

BC010D 

270B 

10BE010D 
10AF8CEA 
BF010D 
39 

8E0152 

A680 

81FF 

261D 

8C015A 

26F5 

A68CD9 

8106 

2705 

6C8CD2 

2009 

6F8CCD 

6F8CC8 

6F8CC6 

6E9CC0 



0031 7FC0 A68CBF 

0032 7FC3 81 IE 

0033 7FC5 2705 

0034 7FC7 6C8CB8 



ORG S7F80 
DEBNC EQU *0152 
INTVEC EQU S010D 

INTHAN FDB 0 
STRCNT FCB 0 
REPCNT FCB 0 
PCNT FCB 0 



DEBOUNCE FLAG POINTER 
INTERRUPT VECTOR LOCATION 

INTERRUPT SERVICE START 
START DELAY COUNTER 
REPEAT DELAY COUNTER 
PUSH RESET COUNTER 



CHANGE INTERRUPT VECTOR 



START LEAX ENTRY, PCR 

CMPX INTVEC 

BEQ REENT 

LDY INTVEC 

STY INTHAN, PCR 

STX INTVEC 
REENT RTS 
ENTRY LDX #DEBNC 
CLOOP LDA ,X+ 

CMPA #*FF 

BNE PUSHED 

CMPX #DEBNC+8 

BNE CLOOP 

LDA PCNT, PCR 

CMPA #6 

BEQ RELES 

INC PCNT, PCR 

BRA RET 
RELES CLR PCNT, PCR 

CLR STRCNT, PCR 

CLR REPCNT, PCR 
RET JMP C INTHAN, PCR 3 RETURN TO INTERRUPT HANDLER 

PUSHED LDA STRCNT, PCR 
CMPA #30 
BEQ REPT 
INC STRCNT, PCR 



CHECK FOR 6 NO-KEY-PUSHES 




TEXT EDITOR 

By John Waclo 



WORD PROCESSOR FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



The bottom-line in Word Processors is printed 
output flexibility and TEXT EDITOR has it. TEXT 
EDITOR has Variable Text, Multi-Copy, and 
right-side Justification! Features that are hard 
to find in other widely advertised Word 
Processors. With Variable Text, you can 
repetitively generate the same text with 
predetermined changes in each output. Merge 
form letters with mailing lists using Variable 
Text. TEXT EDITOR'S Multi-Copy command 
automatically iJoes your letters and file copies. 50 
copies of your address on mailing labels is a snap 
with Multi-Copy. Give your text that 
"professional" look with even right-side margins. 
It's easy, just select Justification on the Output 
Menu. 



1BK - Special screen display, Save text, Add to 
text, Find locations of any word. Edit, Insert, 
Delete, Replace any line of text. Plus Auto Line- 
Centering! Output to any printer with full control 
over Left Margin, Right Margin, Line Spacing, 
Paging, Length of Form, Number of Copies, and 
right-side Justification. Re-format entered text; 
Menu driven. Draft of text; full or partial. FREE 
upgrade to 32K software.. .and more. 

32K - ALL of the above PLUS... More text storage, 
Auto-Key Repeat, Global word or phrase 
exchange, and Automatic Letter Headings. Move, 
Duplicate or Delete blocks of text. User 
changeable Printer Format menu and text 
imbeded printer control codes. Plus, Exclusive 
Variable Text feature.. .and more. 



$49.95 Tape — $59.95 Disk t Includes Manual t Extended Basic required 
ELITE Software Box 1 1 224 Pittsburgh, PA 1 5238 (41 2) 795-8492 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 49 



command POKE&H7l,0 and then 
push the reset button. This will do a 
cold start. 

Auto Key Repeat will repeat any 
key that is held down for more than 
one-half second at a rate of 20 
characters per second. If you wish to 
change any of these parameters, you 
can do this by changing two bytes in 
the program. 

To change the delay before Auto Key Repeat starts 
repeating, change the value of the byte located at S7FC4 
(line 32 of my listing). This byte is now a 30 decimal. A 
higher number will give a longer delay (60 gives a one second 



0035 7FCA 20F1 

19036 7FCC A68CB4 

0037 7FCF 8103 

0038 7FD1 2705 

0039 7FD3 6C8CAD 

0040 7FD6 20E5 

0041 7FD8 6F8CAS 

0042 7FDB 8E0152 

0043 7FDE A684 

0044 7FE0 8A3F 

0045 7FE2 A780 

0046 7FE4 BC015A 

0047 7FE7 26F5 

0048 7FE9 20D2 



BRA RET 
REPT LDA REPCNT,PCR 

CMPA #3 

BEQ REHIT 

INC REPCNT,PCR 

BRA RET 
REHIT CLR REPCNT.PCR 

LDX #OEBNC 
RLQDP LDA „ X 

□RA #*3F 

STA ,X+ 

CMPX #DEBNOS 

BNE RLQDP 

BRA RET 



delay). To change the repeat rate, change the value of the 
byte located at S7FD0 (line 37 of my listing). The byte is now 
three. A higher value will give a slower repeat rate (a six will 
repeat at 10 characters per second). 



Software Review... 

Test All Sorts Of Skills 
With Geography Pack 

If you can't tell Colorado from Wyoming or you've 
forgotten what the capital of Belgium is, Geography Pack 
will help you out quite a bit. 

This is one of the better testingprograms we haveseenfor 
the 80C. It shows a map of the country or continent you wish 
and then asks questions. This is done in a very attractive way 
and seems to help reinforce the learning process. 

In all there are five programs — for the United States, 
Asia, Europe, Africa and Central/ South America. Each 
works the same, asking how many states or countries you 
would like to see and, at the same time, giving a choice for 
alternate questions as well. 

Then, the program draws a map of the area in question 
and flashes the state or country it has selected. You can 
select how long the state or country will flash, and whether 
you want the screen to clear afterwards or not. 

You then must name the state or country. Three 
opportunities are given to make a correct answer — 
assuming your answer is close in terms of how the state or 
country is spelled. This, we feel, is a real bonus. 

If you get the answer right, you are told. If you get it 
wrong, you are told the correct answer. 

At this point, if you chose an optional question, it is 
displayed on the screen. For countries, the optional 
questions are capital cities, largest non-capital city, major 
industry and currency. For the states, the date of statehood 
is substituted for currency type. 

Geography Pack will run on a 16K Extended Basic 
machine and is a good way to learn geography. It elevates 



rote drill to a high stage and should be helpful to anyone 
studying this subject. 

(Spectral Associates, P.O. Box 99715, Tacoma, WA 
98466, $9.95 per module; all five for $29.95) 



Review... 

Cassette Holders Are 
A Worthwhile Buy 

It soon gets to be a problem, whereto keepallthecassettes 
of programs you have written and purchased. Certainly, 
they come in little plastic boxes, but you can only stack them 
so high. 

A cassette caddy offered by Color Software Services is an 
excellent buy. Each "smokey brown" plastic unit holds a 
dozen tapes, sans box, and they fit together one on top of the 
other so they stack easily. By eliminating the extra space 
associated with the case, they fit into the smallest area 
possible. 

Each caddy comes with a set of a dozen pre-printed labels 
so that you can stick them on the narrow top of the cassette. 
This helps identify cassettes and get them back in the right 
place. The top is hunged for easy access, too. 

We think this is an excellent product and are pleased to 
report these caddys have gone a long way toward ending the 
clutter in our area. 

(Color Software Services, P.O. Box 1723, Dept. R, 
Greenville, TX 75401, $5.49 plus $1.50 shipping, quantity 
discounts) 



An Amazing Offer 



• # • 



— sea*- COLOR 



COMPU 



* 64 K 



* Extended Color Basic 



LI ROM 



Pull 80-D«y Warranty 



For. ONLYm. €SQQ00 CUFF't COLOR CORNER 

J>*J 7 7 Rt. 4, Box 246 

Floyd'* Knots* IN 47113 



Page 50 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



IF YOU OWN A COLOR COMPUTER 

THEN YOU NEED 
THE COLOR COMPUTER TOOLKIT 

The software development tool that lets you take charge of your personal 
computer. It is full of tools, aids, bells and whistles useful to the Color Computer 
BASIC programmer, in one easy to use software package. 

Just look at these features: 

Light characters on Dark background with Current Line Highlighting; or normal characters 
Screen Editor with: Arrow Key controlled cursor; open up space/delete and close up space 
Enabling Selective Line Renumber/copy/move/merge; or normal Extended BASIC line editor 
Klickon keypress; or normal silent keys (Klick Tone modifiable by use of SOUNDan command) 
Protect the current BASIC program from being wiped out by CLOAD, NEW, etc.; or from being LISTed 
Restore/ Merge a BASIC program with a Protected BASIC program 

Merge BASIC with Machine Code routines so Machine Code is "invisible" and CSAVE and CLOADable 
Global Search of Command or Text strings in BASIC lines, with Wildcards and NEXT"." 
Delete all REMs (either REM or ' type) 
Delete all Spaces (not in PRINT strings or REMarks) 

9 key-control led/abortable Screen Print Delays (slow LISTings, DIRectories) 
9 key-conrtolled/abortable BASIC RUN Delays; Single Step Mode with line number display 
ASCII/HEX memory Dumps to screen or printer 
Memory Examine/Modify with HEX/ ASCII/DEC input or output 
Memory Block Move for relocating Machine Code programs 
Break Key Disable/Enable (Pause still functioning) 

Variable Name List/String-Byte memory usage/ Free/Top of memory address display 
Transparent to the user, install it and forget it until you need it 
Ten User Defined Keys accessable with SHIFT/DOWN ARROW/Number (BASIC Macros) 
Fast Machine Code to BASIC DATA statement Packer for storing Machine Code in BASIC 
Recovery of lost BASIC programs after NEW, BACKUP, DSKINI, etc. 
Automatic Linefeed for printers that don't/Double-space LISTings or normal PRINT 
CLOADM to CSAVEM address/ Backup tool (Name, Start, End, Execute) 
Modified TRON display (IN replaces (LN)) 
Parallel Echo of screen to printer 
HELP command lists all Toolkit commands 
Orange/Green text screen capability 
Entire system totally removable at any time 
Works on tape and/or disk 

BASIC funs up to one-third faster through the Toolkit (5-10% typical) 

The Colorklt is a 5K-Byte Relocatable program that loads any time without bothering your BASIC program or variables or top of memory 
address (It assumes you have cleared enough for it). 

All tools may be turned off or on at will, including the Colorklt itself, and any tool can be used in conjunction with any other tool. 

The tools are available with simple three or four letter commands entered in direct mode, with the entire instruction set viewable by 
the .HELP command. 

VAR .OLD .MMRG .MPRG .BRON .BROF SCON .SCOF .KLON XLOF .MADD DARK LITE PROT 
.REST JXON .TXOF .RDLY .PDLY .DELR .DELS .SNLF .DBLF .DUMP .MEMO .BYE BLOC ECON 

.ECOF .HELP .GBL . (next) 



RAINBOW 

CCRTOCATKM 



The Coiorkit works on 16/32K Extended and/or Disk BASIC systems $29.95 Tape 

$34.95 Disk 

THE GOOD LIFE 

This is the classic Game of life, with several unique features: 

• 64x64 four-color symmetrical display (G1C) 

• Three selectable birth and old age colors 

• Selectable color sets 

• X and Y axis wraparound 

• 15 Modifiable pre-programmed patterns 

• Joystick and/or Arrow Key input A P 1 7 I M 

• Save/Load display screens to tape or disk #%lx I £- 1 Y% 

• Speeds from eight gen/sec to one every second for a full universe n f\ D a %* OOOC 

• Written in user-modifiable BASIC with an "invisible" Machine Code Life processor r . \J • BOX OO^d 

• HELP screen command list 

. Tape and Disk compatible $16.95 on tape SCOttSddle, AZ 85252 



September, 1982 

Utility... 

Here Are Some Useful 
Utilities For Your Use 



The RAINBOW 



Page 51 



3 



By Jim Schmidt 




I thought the program listed below might be of interest to 
a number of your readers because it contains three machine 
language programs and a menu driver that allows the 
running of any one of them — or all three — from the menu. 
These routines are the ones I most often use to "initialize" 
my 80C when I sit down to use it. 

The routines included here are: 



A Line Width Driver 
Am l-Bft Graphics Driver 
A "Speed" Routine 

The line width driver will change the line width of my Line 
Printer VII to any width I choose. It is most handy for 
setting the printer to 32 columns so as to be linear with the 
screen. 

The 8-bit graphics driver was taken from the RAINBOW 
(April), and we all know what it does and why we need it. 
Briefly, if you have a 1 .0 ROM, it allows you to use a screen 
print routine which requires a graphics driver to duplicate 
high resolution screens to the printer. 

The "Speed" routine slows down the 80C variably, 
depending on the value POKEd into 1013. While it does also 
slow down keying and everything else, it is useful when you 
want to LIST a program and have the scrolling slow down 
you you can read it as it "goes by." Try using a value of 50 as 
a start. 

The menu technique is certainly not new, but may be of 
interest to readers who have not used it before. 

There are a few simple rules which must be followed. The 
fact is that these four programs (the three routines and the 
menu) are now one program. Therefore, DATA/ READ 
logic must take into account where the pointer is located. 
DIM and CLEAR type instructions are also vulnerable to 
concatenating programs. 

6 ' JIM SCHMIDT 

7 9 

8 R1=0:R2=0:R3=0 

30 CLS:PRINT5>7, "* DRIVER MENU*" 
40 PRINT 

50 PRINT"<1> = LINE WDTH DRIVER" 
60 PRINT 

70 PRINT"<2> = GRAPHICS DRIVER" 
80 PRINT 

90 PRINT"<3> = SPEED ADJUSTER" 
100 PRINT 

110 PRINT"<4> = ALL IN TURN" 
120 PRINT 

130 PRINT"<5> = E N D " 
140 PRINT 

142 PR I NT " WARN I NG ! ! !" 

143 PR I NT "DO NOT RUN ANY OF THES 
E ROUTINES MORE THAN ONCE.. 



ii 



150 INPUT" 
160 IF (Z=l 
N GOTO 
170 IF 
N GOTO 
180 IF 



OR 

1000 
(Z=2 OR 
2000 
(Z=3 OR 



SELECTION"; Z 
Z=4) AND Rl=l THE 

Z=4) AND R2=l THE 

Z=4) AND R3=l THE 

—Continued on Page 53 



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(Prepare your preschooler to learn 
to read) 

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Allow 2 weeks for personal checks to clear. 

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NEW PHONE NUMBER! 
(205) 881-0506 





Page 52 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

***F0R THE COLOR COHPUTER*** 3424 COLLEGE N . E . GRAND RAPIDSi MI. 49505 (616) 364-4791 





SNAK PAK 



WE THINK THIS IS THE BEST *PAC-MAN* YET. 
MORE ACTIONi BETTER SOUND AND GREATER RE- 
WARDS. AS GOOD AS THE ARCADE. FANTASTIC. 
16K MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 



ARCADE ACTION GAMES 44 



OUTSTANDING GRAPHICS AND SOUND WILL END ALL 
OF THOSE TRIPS TO THE ARCADE. SO MUCH LIKE 
THE ARCADE YOU HAVE TO SEE IT TO BELIEVE IT. 



16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 



$24.95 




COLOR GOLF 




BATTLE TO SAVE YOUR CASTLE AND KING. HIGH 
RESOLUTION GRAPHICS WITH OUTSTANDING SOUND 
MAKE THIS ONE A REAL. WINNER. 
16k MACHINE LANGUAGE $19.95 

OTHER GREAT GAMES 

ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 16K 

ML = MACHINE LANGUAGE B = BASIC 

MOON LANDER- FANTASTIC GRAPHICS. LAND ON 
THE'MOON IF YOU CAN . 2 PROGRAMS. B $15.95 

DANCING DEVIL- WATCH HIM DANCE TO MUSIC OR 
PROGRAM HIM YOURSELF. ML $14.95 



PING PONG- TABLE ACTION. 
CASINO- THREE GAME PAK. 



ML $12.95 
B $12.95 



MAZE RACE- AT LAST<» A MACHINE LANGUAGE TWO 
PLAYER MAZE. YOU'LL LOVE IT. ML $14.95 



Adventures 



TREK- 16- TRAVEL THRU SPACE WITH SPOCK AND 

CAPT. KIRK. ADVENTURE. TOUGH ! B $19.95 

SHIPWRECK- ESCAPE FROM A DESERT ISLE IF 

YOU CAN. GREAT ADVENTURE! B $14.95 



Educational 



EDUCATIONAL- SPELLING TESTi MATH DRILL * 
WORD DRILL. IDEAL TEACHING AIDS FOR ANY 
AGE. B $19.95 EA. All 3 $49.97 

ADD $1.00 POSTAGE k HANDLING 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4* SALES TAX 




KATERPILLAR 



ATTACK 




NOW SIT AT YOUR COMPUTER AND PLAY NINE OR 
EIGHTEEN HOLES. OUTSTANDING GRAPHICS IN THE 
FAIRWAY OR ON THE GREEN. HELPS YOUR GAME. 
32K EXTENDED BASIC $16.95 




Utilities 

TAPE DUPE- BRAND NEW MACHINE LANGUAGE PRO- 
GRAM THAT COPIES ANY TAPE EFFORTLESSLY. 
COMPLETELY AUTOMATIC . ML $16.95 

DISK LIST- MAKE A PRINTED COPY OF THE CON- 
TENTS OF YOUR DISK. PRINTS START t END t * 
EXECUTE ADDRESSES OF PROGRAMS • 1 $19.95 

DISK TO TAPE- DUMP THE CONTENTS OF ANY 
DISK TO TAPE AUTOMATICALLY. ML $19.95 

TAPE TO DISK- LOAD THE CONTENTS OF ANY TAPE 
TO DISK AUTOMATICALLY. ML $19.95 

MAIL LIST- MAINTAIN A COMPLETE MAILING LIST 
WITH PHONE NUMBERS ETC. B $19.95 

THE FIXER- HAVING TROUBLE MOVING THOSE ' 
600 HEX PROGRAMS TO DISK? THE FIXER WILL 
HELP. COMPLETELY AUTOMATIC. ML $18.95 

TAPE CAT- ALL NEW MACHINE LANGUAGE PROGRAM 
LIST CONTENTS OF TAPES TO PRINTER. MAKE A 
CATALOG OF YOUR TAPES. ML $17.95 

PROGRAM PRINTER UTILITY- THIS PROGRAM WILL 
LIST BASIC PROGRAMS TO YOUR PRINTER IN TWO 
COLUMN FORMAT. SAVES PAPER AND MAKES YOUR 
LISTING LOOK PROFESSIONAL. 1 $19.95 

TOP ROYALTIES PAID 
LOOKINt FOR NU SOFTWARE 




September, 1982 

UTILITIES (From Page 51) 
N GOTO 3000 

190 ONZ GOTO 210,460,680,210,200 
200 END 

210 DATA 182,1,103,167,141,0,46 

220 DATA190, 1, 104, 175, 141,0,40 

230 DATA134, 126, 183, 1, 103,48, 141 

240 DATA0, 4, 191, 1, 104,57,52 

250 DATA 2,150,111,129,254,38,16 

260 DATA150, 156, 139, 1, 145, 155,37 

270 DATA8, 15, 156, 134, 13, 173, 159 

280 DATA160,2,53,2, 18, 18, 18 

290 ST= 16320 

300 FOR AD=ST TO ST-i-55 

310 READ CD: POKE AD, CD: NEXT 

340 EXEC ST 
350 CLS 

360 PR I NT "LINE WIDTH DRIVER 
370 PR INT" LOADED 5> 16320" 
380 INPUT "DESIRED WIDTH" ; W 
390 POKE 155,W-i-l 
400 Rl=l 

410 PRINT" WIDTH SET FOR ";W 
420 PRINT 

430 I NPUT " < ENTER > TO CONTINUE" ;P 
440 RESTORE 

450 IF ZO4THEN30 ELSE GOTO 460 
460 CLS:PRINT"8BIT GRAPHICS DRIV 
ER" 

470 PR I NT "SET PRINTER TO 8BIT "; 
480 PR I NT "MODE" 

490 RESTORE : FORQ=0TO55 : READQ* : NE 
XT 

500 I NPUT "< ENTER > WHEN SET";Q* 

510 LD= 16220 

520 FORI=0TO40 

530 READ VL* 

540 PK=VAL("&H"+VL*> 

550 POKE LD-H,PK 

560 NEXT I 

570 EXEC LD 

580 PR I NT "GRAPH ICS 8BIT DRIVER"; 
590 PRINT" LOADED S> 16220" 
600 R2=l 
602 PRINT 

604 I NPUT "< ENTER > TO CONTINUE" ;P 
610 I F Z < >4THEN30ELSEGOTO680 
620 DATA83,00,00,30,8D,00,08 
630 DATA8F,01,68,96,96,97,E6 
640 DATA39,34,04,D6,6F,5C,2B 
650 DATA02 , 35 , 84 , 35 , 04 , 32 , 62 
660 DATA34 , 04 , F6 , FF , 22 , 54 , 25 
670 D AT AF A , BD , 8E , 0C , 35 , 84 

680 * SLOWS DOWN COMPUTER 

690 9 POKE 0-255 IN 1013 

700 ' 0=FASTEST — 255=SL0WEST 

710 DATA52, 16, 142,0, 1,48,31,38 

720 DATA252 , 53 , 1 6 

725 RESTORE 

730 F0RWW*1T097:READWW*:NEXT 

735 CLS 



The RAINBOW 

737 PR I NT "SPEED ROUTINE" 

740 I NPUT "< ENTER > TO LOAD";P 

750 FORX=1010TO1020 

760 READ A: POKE X, A: NEXT X 

790 POKE 1021, PEEK (359) 

800 POKE 1022, PEEK (360) 

810 POKE1023, PEEK (361) 

820 P0KE359 , 1 26 

830 POKE360,3 

840 P0KE36 1,242 

845 PRINT"0=FASTEST-255=SLOWEST" 
850 I NPUT "ENTER SPEED FACTOR" ;S 
860 POKE 1013, S 
870 R3=l 

880 PR I NT "SPEED IS SET AT ";S 
890 PR I NT "POKE 0 (FAST) TO 255"; 
900 PRINT" (SLOW) IN 1013 TO "; 
910 PR I NT "CHANGE — DO NOT RERUN" 
920 PRINT 

930 I NPUT "< ENTER > TO CONTINUE" ;P 
935 IF ZO4THEN30ELSE END 
1000 CLS: PR I NT" LINE WIDTH ALREAD 
Y SET": INPUT "< ENTER > TO RETURN 
TO MENU";P:GOTO30 

2000 CLS: PR I NT "GRAPH ICS 8BIT ALR 
EADY SET": I NPUT "< ENTER > TO RETUR 
N TO MENU";P:GOTO30 
3000 CLS: PR I NT "SPEED ALREADY SET 
- USE POKE 1013 TO CHANGE": I NPU 
T"<ENTER> TO RETURN TO MENU";P:G 
OTO30 



Page 53 



r 



\ 



TREK80C 

The classic computer game written for the 
Color Computer. A real-time game with 
moving Klingons and action graphics. Watch 
your Phaser blasts turn Klingon battle cruisers 
into space debris. Watch the Klingon move 
out of your path as you position for a Photon 
torpedo shot. Wc tch your screens fall during 
battle. Don't leave your station or the 
Klingons may destroy you. May the FORCE be 
with you! 

16K Extended Basic Tape $14.95 
********************************************** 

COPYTAPE Copies any Color Computer tape. 
4K machine language program $9.95 

OFFLOAD Back your disks up to tape, restore 
tape to disk $9.95 

CATALOG creates a system wide catalog of 
your disks. Run programs without knowing 
where they are. $9.95 

Send Check or Money Order To: 

A. M. Heam Software 

602 S. 48th St.- Dept. R 
Philadelphia, PA 19143 

Write For Free Catalog 



-Mr- 



J 



Page 54 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 




from SPECTRUM PROJECTS 






FIVE PIN MALE TO FIVE PIN FEMALE - 
10 FEET. Joystick extension 

$14.95 




FIVE PIN MALE TO (2) FIVE PIN 
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Pen, SAM Saver, etc. $19.95 







c — 1 






1 ] 










m 






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c — 1 




















i j 






i i 




SAM SAVER. Give your Color 
Computer an on/off indicator 
light. Save electricity ($$) and your 
SAM chip. Plugs into the joystick 
port. $14.95 





FOUR PIN MALE TO FOUR PIN FEMALE 
— 10 FEET. Move your printer or 
modem to another location for 
easier use. $14.95 



DISK INTERFACE/ROM PACK 
EXTENDER - 3 FEET. Move your disks 
and ROM packs where you want 
them. Gold plated contacts 
eliminate corrosion. $29.95 



LIGHT PEN. Enter the world of A/D 
circuitry. Use existing software or 
write you r own ! $14.95 



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New York State Residents add appropriate taxes 




Page 56 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 




THERE IS A NEW kid on the block: 
C ailed a TDP System 100. You'll be seeing it 
m a lot of stores and, if it looks a bit like our 
favorite 80C, there is good reason for it. 

The TDP System 100 is Tandy's first 
venture outside Radio Shack stores and will 
be marketed through RCA distributors. It 
appears that means anyone who sells RCA 
products can now sell the TDP System 100. 
And make no mistake, the TDP System 100 
is the TRS-80 Color Computer. 

The differences are a case that's white 
instead of silver, the top is raised up a little 
more and there are more air holes. Other 
than that, it is the same computer. See the 
exclusive photograph on this page. 

What does this mean for us 80C users? 
Well, first of all, a radical departure from 
traditional marketing practices for Tandy. 
They have never sold a product outside their 
own stores before. But it also means 
hundreds of thousands of people will 
probably be exposed to — and buy — an 
"80C" who never were before. Surely that is 
what Tandy is banking on with this new 
venture. 

Of course, it also means the 80C will have 
an even stronger user base than it does even 
now. Result: Even more software and 
hardware support. According to what we 
have learned, there will be disk drives, 
printers, joysticks, a modem and software 
offered for the TDP System 1 00. And, itinial 
sales literature will feature something called 
vt Color Extended Basic." Sound familiar? 

It also probably means that the products, 
once in the hands of retailers, will be 
discounted — much like some of the 
traditional Tandy products are discounted 
by franchised Radio Shack dealers. 

We have been told by insiders that 80C's 
growth has been above all Tandy 
expectations in its first 18 months orso. But, 
now, that growth should easily be surpassed. 
It is a bold venture for Tandy — but one 
which many believe will be successful. 

BY THE WAY, TANDY'S "official" 
announcement of new products for the fall 
will be made the end of this month. We 
already know of one thing coming — a 
graphics tablet that will allow you to draw 
figures which will appear on the 80C screen. 
Hopefully, you will be able to save these 
drawings as well. You'll be able to read 
about the new things in the Pipeline. 



The TDP System 100 




THERE MAY BE AN advertisment for 
the first one this month, but Color Software 
Services is working on a line of seasonal 
programs that you can tie in to parties for 
holidays. First in the line is a program 



tentatively called Pumpkin Adventure, with 
a release date in time for Halloween. 

****** 

TWO NEW REFERENCE publications 
just for the 80C have been announced by 
American Library and Information Services 
of (3705 Mary Ellen NE) Albuquerque, NM 
871 1 1. One is a Color Computer Index that 
will provide background information about 
all stories, articles and so on relating to the 
80C. The other, Color Computer Catalog, 
will have information on products relating 
to the 80C. Together, they provide a sort of 
80C "Yellow Pages" for those seeking 
information about the Color Computer. 

****** 

A NEW DISK OPERATING system is 
now available for the 80C from Star-Kits 
(P.O. Box 209, Mt. Kisco, NY 10549 for 
$49.90). To the user, the STAR-DOS disk 
format is identical with Color Disk 
Extended Basic. However, files written by 
Basic can now be accessed by the DOS. And, 
you don't need to buy another Basic to 
operate STAR-DOS. From the standpoint 
of the system or application programmer, 
this will allow use of all sorts of 6809 
machine language programs to be run on the 
80C just by changing a few addresses. 

****** 

EVER WONDERED ABOUT a brand of 
disk other than that you are using but just 
didn't want to plunk down the cost of a 
whole box to find out whether what was in it 
was good or not? The Program Store (4200 
Wisconsin Ave, Washington DC 20016 and 
other retail outlets in Falls Church, Va., 
Baltimore and Columbus, Ohio) now offers 
a package called DISKOVERY— diskettes 
from six different manufacturers packed 
together. Its a unique concept. 

****** 

YOU CAN LOAD AS MANY programs 
as you have available memory f or with a new 
software package offered by Dynamic 
Electronics (P.O. Box 896, Hartselle, AL 
35640). Called Universal Program- 1, this 
package is said to make it possibleforyou to 
load as many programs as you can intoyour 
memory, select any of them and run them 
separately. You can also jump from one 
program to another. Dynamic is also 
offering a new disassembler. UP-1 costs 
$14.95 on cassette and $24.95 on an 
EPROM. The disassembler is $19.95 on 
cassette, $49.95 on an EPROM. 



A NEW DISK FILE that will hold up to 
50 diskettes is now available from Rem 
Industries (9420 4t B" Lurline Ave., 
Chatsworth, CA 91311). The containers 
have index tab dividers, a locking top and 
are available in walnut wood grain or black 
finish. Cost is $29.95 for 5!4-inch disks; 
$39.95 for 8-inchers. 

****** 

MOVING TO NEW AND larger quarters 
is Prickly-Pear Software. We're sorry, we 
thought "Randi Place" sounded kinda nice. 

****** 

WE WERE VERY INTERESTED in 

seeing an advertisment the other day for a 
light pen for the IBM® Personal Computer. 
Cost of this little gem was $139.95. Spectrum 
Projects offers a light pen for the 80C for 
$14.95, Moses Engineering is selling one for 
$39.95 and we hear Jarb Software will soon 
have one in the same general price range. 
Makes you wonder, doesn't it? 

****** 

YOU CAN REACH OUT AND TOUCH 

another 80C user through CompuServ®, 
Connection-80 of Woodhaven and, now, 
through a couple of new bulletin boards, 
too. The Color Connection is located in 
Elgin, TX, and can be reached by dialing 
(512) 285-5028— use either VideoTex or 
Colorcom/E — while Color 80 can be found 
at (416) 494-1862 in Toronto, Ontario. 

AND SPEAKING OF communications, 
there is a directory of on-line databases 
available from New York Zoetrope (80 East 
1 1th Street, New York NY 10003). You can 
also reach them through CompuServ 
71715,727. 

****** 

WE DO NT USUALLY Dothis, but E.R. 
Bailey of Micrologic suggested we might due 
to our fast turn-around time, so here goes. 
Bailey notes three typographical errors in 
William Barden's machine language sort 
program from TRS-80 Microcomputer 
News and thinks readers would like to have 
the correction. Here they are, from Listing 2, 
Page 16, Vol. 4 Issue 6: In the second line of 
line 130, should read "18, 166, 196, 39, 42, 
166, 196,230,69. . ." The secopnd line in line 
1 50 should read "23 1 , 228, 5 1 , 69, 1 74, 97, 48, 
31, 176, 97, . . ." and in line 200, it should 
read 200 DIM A$(100). The corrected parts 
of the lines are highlighted in this note. 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 57 




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t i 



Page 58 

Hardware ... 



FLEX Can Be A Very 
FLEXible System For 80C 



By Steve Odneal 

(Mr. Odneal is the author of the Data Comp implementation 
package for FLEX on the Color Computer.) 



The RAINBOW September, 1982 

most of the high-level programming languages. Several very 
good data base management packages are available, as are a 
fast sort/ merge, general business programs, and many 
system utility and game programs. 

Editor's Note: This article describes bottf 
FLEX, which is available as a package from 
TSC (see below), and various utilities and the 



The ability to use disks with the Color Computer 

really opens up all kinds of possibilities. The cassette 
tape system is relatively fast and reliable, but not totally 

suited for any serious work with the machine. Disks 
provide very fast program load and save functions, and 
additionally allow program data to be stored and quickly 
retrieved. Radio Shack Color Disk Basic also has a 

function to allow the machine language programmer 
access to the disks via input and output routines in the 
ROM. All in all, Color Disk Basic is a very nice system. 

However, Radio Shack itself has no software to work 
with the disks! Rumor is that they are working on it, but no 
information is being given as to what they will provide. 

There is an alternative, however: The FLEX Disk 
Operating System, from Technical Systems Consultants, 
1 1 I Providence Road, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514. 

FLEX was originally developed in 1976 for the Motorola 
6800 microprocessor. It was then updated for the newer, 
more powerful 6809 in 1979. FLEX does not have the 
reputation of the Disk Operating Systems for other Radio 
Shack computers, but is the most widely used for 6800 and 
6809 processors. 

FLEX gets its name from the fact that it is very 
"FLEXible". A simple, yet powerful, command structure is 
provided, and many facilities are included to allow the 
creation and execution of programs. A large number of 
programs are available for FLEX systems. These include 



implementation routines as provided by Data 
Comp. Readers should be aware there are other 
FLEX packages available. While all use the 
same basic TSC material, they have other 
utilities and the like. Frank Hogg Laboratory 
and Spectral Associates also have FLEX 
systems available. Hardware— chips, drives and 
so forth— are available from Hogg, Spectral, 
Jarb Software, Spectrum Projects and other 
suppliers in addition to Data Comp.) 



The programming languages available include ; 
PASCAL, C, LISP, MUMPS, FORTH and Basic. There 
are several versions of each language, at different costs. The 
most widely used Basic is Extended Basic from TSC. Nearly 
95 per cent of the business programs available for FLEX use 
this version of Basic. 

As implemented on the Color Computer, nearly all of the 
software which is available for FLEX is supported. The 
remaining programs usually require some special video 
display characteristics not yet available on the Color 
Computer. Both single-and double-density disk formats are 
provided, as well as double-sided disk-drives. 

Several useful features are provided with the FLEX 
implementation. Multiple video display formats are 
included, giving the choice of 32x16, 32x24, 42x24, 51x24 
and 64x24. The assembler source-code of the display 
routines is included. You can generate your own 
character-set if you want! A full-function keyboard is 



You've invested a lot of time and money into your computer . . . 

TVs time that investment paidoff! 




THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT 




The Programmer's Institute introduces THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT, the only complete personal financial package 
specifically designed for the TRS-80 COLOR computer. This unique package includes: 

1. Complete Checkbook Maintenance 5. Payments/ Appointments Calendar 8. Home Budget Analysis 

2. Chart of Accounts Maintenance 6. Color Graph Design Package 9. Decision Maker 

3. Income/Expense Accounts (graphs any files) 10. Mailing List 

4. Net Worth Statement 7. Stock Market Analysis 

After the initial setup, THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT requires less than an hour of data input each month. 

The checkbook maintenance program is the key to the entire package. Once your checkbook is balanced, the checkbook summary file will 
automatically update the home budget analysis, net worth, and income/expense statements. You can then graph any file, record bills and 
appointments, make decisions, print a mailing list, analyze various accounts or stocks, and even calculate taxes. 

All programs are menu-driven and allow add /change/delete. Each file and statement can be listed to screen or printer, and saved to cassette 
or diskette. THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT also comes with 40 pages of documentation that leads you step-by-step through the entire package. 
The TRS-80 COLOR Ext. Basic requires 16K for this package. ($74.95 cassette, $79.95 diskette). 

See your local dealer or order direct: 




The perfect supplement to THE COLOR ACCOUNTANT, The Tax Handler includes: 

1. Complete Form 1040 

2. Schedule A (Itemized Deductions) 

3. Schedule G (Income Averaging) 
This year let The Tax Handler prepare your taxes ($24.95 cassette, $29.95 diskette). 



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CHAPEL HILL. NC 27514 





1-919-489-2198 

JO AM - 9 PM Mon - Sat 



September, 1982 The 

standard, giving true Control and Escape functions, and 
there are 12 user-definable keys. These can be used to 
generate any hexadecimal value the user wants. At the most, 
two keys must be pressed to generate any of the possible 
keyboard codes. 

With the FLEX DOS, you receive a large manual which 
describes just about everything you want to know about 
how to use FLEX. There are sections describing the format 
of the file names, how to use the utility commands, complete 
documentation for the Editor and Assembler, and a section 
titled the Advanced Programmers Guide. This section 
defines all user-accessable routines and data-areas in FLEX, 
and gives information concerning the format of FLEX disk 
directories and data sectors. A short program is included 
which is described line-by-line, explaining how the program 
uses many of the file handling functions of FLEX. 

The documentation is quite clear, and very easy to use. 

The manual which comes with the implementation 
package clearly explains the steps required to initially get 
FLEX running. A final disk is thenmade so that a single disk 
is all that is required to execute FLEX. Several appendices 
are included giving information about the video display 
routines and the keyboard functions, a memory map, and 
the required circuit change. Documentation is provided for 
each of the supplied programs, which can be placed in the 
FLEX manual for easy reference. 

Several system utility programs are included with the 
FLEX DOS, and several more come with the 
implementation package. These additional programs 
provide for memory and disk data display and change 
functions, definition of the user-definable keys, 
modification of the Radio Shack Basic interpreters to run as 
normal FLEX programs, a single-disk copy facility, the 
formatting of FLEX disks, and the display of Radio Shack 
Color Computer disk directories by FLEX. 

The standard set of FLEX System Utility programs 
include functions to delete and rename data files, display 
disk directory entries, list text files, direct output of 
programs to a printer or a disk file, assign "system" and 
"work" disk drives, execute predefined sequences of FLEX 
commands, and many others. There are 25 system utility 
programs in all. An extended set of utilities is also available, 
which give an extended disk directory display, a binary 
program mapper, and 15 other useful commands. A 
diagnostic package is available which provides memory test 
functions, and disk and file structure report and repair 
functions. 

The Radio Shack Basic interpreters can be saved on a 
FLEX disk by one of the utility programs from the 
implementation package. A set of patches is provided to 
allow Color Basic and Extended Color Basic to run as a 
FLEX-compatible program. Version 1.0 of FLEX for the 
Color Computer does not provide the additional Basic 
extensions to allow disk access from Radio Shack Basic. 
This is being developed now, and should be available soon. 

To use FLEX on the Color Computer, you will first need 
the Radio Shack disk system. This provides the required 
disk controller hardware and the color disk Basic 
commands used to load FLEX. 64K of RAM is needed. This 
can either be a fully-functional 32K RAM upgrade from 
Radio Shack, or your own 64K RAM chips. A simple 
hardware modification allows the Color Computer to then 
access the upper 32K of memory. 

A "boot" disk is supplied that allows you to execute a 
loader program which in turn loads the FLEX Disk 
Operating System. This is a fully automated function, 
performed by entering the disk color Basic command RUN 
"FLEX." When FLEX is loaded and running, you are asked 



RAINBOW p a ge 59 

Radio Shack color disk basic, and the installation of FLEX 
does not affect any of the standard Color Computer 
functions. 

With the FLEX Disk Operating System running on your 
Color Computer, you can transform a mild-mannered 
machine into a VERY powerful, full function computer 
system. 

The FLEX Disk Operating System, with System Utilities, 
Text Editor and Macro Assembler costs M50 from 
Technical Systems Consultants, 111 Providence Road 
Chapel Hill, NC 275 14 (91 9)493- 145 1 . The implementation 
package is supplied by Data-Comp, P.O. Box 794 
Chattanooga, TN 37343 for M9.95. Their phone number is 
(615) 842-4601. They can also supply the FLEX DOS, 64K 
RAM chips, and perform the required circuit change. 

FLEX is a trademark of Technical Systems Consultants 

In£ . 

Hardware... 

The Simple Way To 64K 

Here is the simple way to make the modifications 
necessary to convert your 80C to 64K. This modification, 
from Bob Rosen of Spectrum Projects, requires that you 
have 64K chips and an "E" board in your Color Computer. 

1. Remove capacitors C61, C31, C64, C35, C67, C45, C70 
and C48. 

2. Set the jumper below C44 to the 16K/32K position. Set 
the jumper between U8 and U4 to the 32K position. 

3. Set each of the three jumper plugs located just above the 
keyboard connector to the 32K position. 

4. By U29, solder the middle and "low" pin together. 

5. Solder the two pins to the left of C44 together. 

6. Connect pin 6 of U29 to pin 8 of U29. 

7. Connect pin 4 of U29 to pin 5 of Ull. 

8. Connect pin 5 of U29 to TP1. 



PAC ATTACK 



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"PAC ATTACK" brought to you tor /ffa 
COLOR COMPUTER 



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OR 
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FOR 




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Dept. C ■ Box 658 



Page 

Game. 



60 



The RAINBOW 



I6K 
ECB 



The Track Will Provide 
Hours Of Varied Fun 

By Al Hine 




The Track is a unique game because it allows you to create 
the most important part of any race game: The track itself. 
You can save each of the tracks you create and you can save 
as many tracks as you have disks or tape to save them on. 

In this program, a prototype of a more detailed offering 
now being developed by Interaction Software, you complete 
against the clock and the existing lap record for the 
particular track. The Track records the lap records you set 
on any track you create, along with the name of the person 
who set the record. The Track also checks to see if you have a 
disk. If you do, lap records are recorded automatically. 
When you have no disk, The Track prompts you to position 
the tape to a clear space before recording the track, lap time 
and record holder. 

The Track also checks to see whether you have 1 6 or 32K. 
If you have 16K, it automatically allocates less spaceforthe 
storage of tracks. 

Installation Notes For Disk 

Key in and save all the programs to disk. Be sure to save 
the car programs in ASCII format, i.e., SAVE "VW",A. 

The Track also requires a disk file to save lap records, To 
create this file prior to the first time you run the program, 
execute this statement while in the "OK" command mode: 
OPEN "O", #1, "TRACKS/ DAT": CLOSE mmmm ™ 

Installation Notes For Tape 

If you will never run The Track from disk, omit lines 3 142, 
5000-8090, 8500-8590, 9000-9990. 



September, 1982 

Add these lines: 
5000 RETURN 
7000 ' GET TRACK 

7010 CLS: INPUT "WHAT TRACK";FI$ 
7085 GOSUB 8100: GOSUB 1000 
7090 S = l: RETURN 
9000 RETURN 
9500 RETURN 

Modify the following lines to read: 
60020 CLEAR 2000, &H3EB0: GOTO 60040 
60087 IF PEEK (&H7EA9)=83 THEN D=800 ELSE 
D=500 



The Track has the VW in the main program. If you want 
one of the other cars, simply key in the following lines: 

For A Datsun 

(Linear steering in two steps) 

129 ' DATSUN 

130 J0=JOYSTK(0): A = INT (.5+(J0-31.5) 1 24) 

131 .Jl=JOYSTK(I): IF Jl> 15 THEN A=1NT (.5+(J0- 
31.5) /20) 

1125 CA$=CHR$(239): CM$="DATSUN) 

For A Lotus 

(Very smooth handling at high speed) 

^ 129 V J jjJL -JiaJimB 

130 J0=JOYSTK(0): A=INT (.5+(J0-31.5) 1 27) 

131 Jl=JOYSTK(l): A=A* (J 1/45+1) 

132 ' - 
1125 CA$=CHR$(255): CM$="LOTUS" 

For A Ferrari 

(Very fast with linear steering) 

129 1 

130 J0=JOYSTK(0): A=1NT (.5+(J0-3 1 .5) /20 

131 Jl=JOYSTK(l) 

132 ' 

1125 CA$=CHR$(19L): CM$="FERRARP 

Running The Track 

The first time you run the program, you will have to begin 
by creating at least one track. After that, you can either 
create new tracks or run on tracks you created previously. 

Note that when you run from a disk, a menu of the names 
of all the tracks are displayed in the approximate order of 
difficulty. The number to the left of the track in the display is 
the track's difficulty rating. 

Each car handles differently and has a different top speed. 
The VW may be forced to go very slowly to negotiate the 
sharper turns on a narrow track, because it cannot turn very 
sharply. The Ferrari will go through the sharpest turns at 
full speed. Use the VW for learning, then move up. When 
you have mastered the Ferrari, you will find it a delight. 

When you are finished running the Track, be sure to press 
the zero key (0) to exit the program rather than just turning 
the 80C off. On a disk system, this is the point where the 
program saves any lap records you may have set during your 
session. 

If The Program Crashes 

You can rescue the track currently in memory by 

•GOTO 8600 (This saves the track) I 
•F7=l: GOTO 9500 (This saves the lap records to disk) 
•GOTO 3000 (This reenters the program at the main menu) 

(Mr. Hine is a race driver, enthuiastic programmer and 
president of Interaction Software.) 

—Continued on Page 62 




ANTECO SOFTWARE ... A 
NEW DIMENSION FOR 
YOUR COLOR COMPUTER! 




ANTECO 4220 Clav Ave Ft Worth, TX 
f800) 433-7631 7611 7 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 61 



PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR 80C 

ALL PROGRAMS 16K EXTENDED BASIC TAPE UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED 




Astrology 

Truly a classic, this program will accurately cast your 
complete horoscope. You just enter the date, time, and 
place of birth. The sun sign, rising sign, mid heaven (MC), 
lunar nodes, and planetary influences including houses 
and aspects between the planets will all be calculated, 
and afull chart drawn. You can also do progressed charts 
and transits. It will even tell you the day of the week you 
were born. The accompanying book will help you 
interpret this chart of your horoscope. The extent of the 
documentation is tremendous, even by our exceptionally 
high standards, and no previous knowledge of the 
subject is required. You can share in this wisdom which 
has been used for thousands of years in many cultures. 
This program was written by a professional Astrologer. 
Please specify 16K or 32K system. $34.95 



Viking! " 7 W 

A simulation for 1 to 4 persons. Each begins as a 
landowner, and by farming their land, buying and selling 
land, expanding their fishing fleet, building on to their 
manufactory, increasing their population, equiping and 
training more soldiers, and regulating their taxes, each 
player tries to increase their economic power and rank 
until one becomes ruler over all. But beware plagues, rats, 
raiders, revolts, bad weather, and other misfortunes 
which may lie along the road to success. As you progress, 
see the map of your holdings increase. Playable in 1 to 2 
hours, and different every time, you may have an addic- 
tion problem. $1 9.95 



Fantasy Gamer's Package **** 

Two programs: The first will display your choice of 99 
different rooms in Hi-Res graphics at the touch of a key. 
All standard sizes, plus some with pools, pillars, stairs, 
odd shapes, etc. Saves lots of game time spent describ- 
ing room sizes, shapes, and door locations. Includes a 
super fast dungeon designing system and a completely 
keyed sample dungeon module — ready to play. The 
second program in the package generates COMPLETE 
characters including abilities, race, classes, hit points, 
age, thieving skills, much more, and also generates 
monsters. This package was developed by an active DM, 
and has been tested in his campaign. 20 pages of docu- 
mentation. $1 9.95 

Fantasy Gamer's 32K Package 

Similar to our popular Fantasy Gamer's Package, but both 
the Roomsand the Character & Monster Generator are in 
memory at the same time. You make your selection from a 
menu. In addition, you can select the Dice Bag, which will 
roll just about any probability you need. $24.95 



NEW THIS MONTH 

Pandora's Game Box 

Six games, and all are machine language, for fast execu- 
tion. All use lots of graphics, some high resolution, some 
low resolution. MUNCHMAN: Eat the dots in the maze, 
but don't get caught. SPACE RAIDERS: Defend your 
planet with lasers, smart bombs, and hyperspace. DIVE 
BOMB: Bombs fall from the top of the screen. Can you 
catch them before they hit? 35 skill levels mean even very 
youngchildren can play. BLOCKADE: A uniquegame, and 
one of most challenging we've seen. Can you fill the 
screen with "O's"? It's not easy. SLOTS: Great Hi-Res 
animation in this slot machine. SQUARES: A logic puzzle. 
The computer will scramble the squares, and you must put 
them back. Believe me, it's not easy! Why do we call this 
Pandora's Box? Well, once you open it, you may not be 
able to do anything else for days, and that could be trouble! 
All six games, $24.95 



Gangbusters 

If you ever wanted to try a life of crime, this is your chance. 
You will start out as a Punk, but by using brains, and a little 
muscle, you can rise to become a Hood, Runner, Bookie, 
Torpedo, Fence, Kingpin, or win by becoming Syndicate 
Boss. Indulge yourself. Bribe a Judge, or the District 
Attorney. Pay off the Cops. Take out a contract on another 
player, but watch out, they may beafteryou. Buy trucking 
companies, bootleg operations, houses of ill fame, but 
remember, if you get caught, you may do some hard time. 
Do you have what it takes to take over? This game will 
keep you close to your rod, get you thinking about bullet- 
proof glass in your car, and definitely bring out the worst 
in you, but you'll love every minute of it. For 2 to 6 players, 
takes about 2 hours to play. Every game is excitingly 
different. $19.95 



Ancient Wisdom Trilogy 

Three programs, each drawing on the historical wisdom 
of the ages. 

TAROT Ancient Egyptian deck of cards may reveal 
much. You can read past/present/future, circle of life, or 
ask a specific question. Lots of documentation. $17.95 
I CHING A Chinese wisdom so old its very origin is 
shrouded in the mists of time. The ancient Chinese oracle 
will give an answer to your question. What will the 
hexagram reveal? $16.95 

NUMEROLOGY What can be learned from the num- 
bers? Do a character analysis, read yourdestiny, orchart 
your monthly cycles. $14.95 

All of these come with ample documentation — ready to 
be used immediately. ALL THREE for just $39.95. Save 
$9.90 over separate prices. 



SEND A STAMPED, SELF-ADDRESSED LONG ENVELOPE FOR COMPLETE CATALOGUE 

At Your Local Dealer, or 



Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping 
free on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 4% 
sales tax. Orders shipped within two days. 



Send Order To PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

9822 E. Stella Road 
Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 




Page 62 



The RAINBOW 



TRACK (From Page 60) 



1 ' THE TRACK (C) 1982 BY AL HINE 
,113 WARD ST., NEW HAVEN, CT 065 
19 

10 CLS7:GOTO60999 

81 PRINT0449, "PRESS ANY KEY TO C 
ONTINUE" ; 

82 A*= I NKE Y* : I F A*= " " G0T082ELSERE 
TURN 

83 P=PEEK ( 65280 ) : I FP= 1 260RP=254T 
HENA*= " Y" : RETURN ELSEA*= "N" : RETU 
RN 

100 'BEGIN LOOP 
110 FORLP=lTOL 
115 Nl=l:N2=E-8 
120 FORN=Nl TO N2 

129 'VW-ORIGINAL W/ SLOWER STEER I 
NG & LOW SPEED CORRECTION 

130 J0=JOYSTK(0) : A=INT < . 5+ < J0-31 
.5)/27) 

131 Jl=JOYSTK(l) : J2=J1: IFJ1>30TH 
EN J2=60- J 1 

132 A=A* ( J2/50+1 ) 
141 C=T(N) 

150 OX=X: X=X+A: IFX<0THENX=0ELSEI 

FX>31THENX=31 

160 Y=P0INT(X*2, 15) 

170 IFF1=1THEN SOUND 165, 5: PRINTS 

i92+0X,GR*; ELSE PRINT3192+0X , Rl 

*; 

190 PRINTS)224+X,CA*; 

200 PRINT5)480+C,RD* 

220 PL A YSTR I NG* ( J 1 / 1 0 , "A" ) 

230 I F Y< >5THEN I FF 1 =0THENOC=OC-i- 1 : 

Fl=l ELSE Fl=l ELSE F1=0 

240 NEXTN 

243 IFN2<E THENN 1 =N2 : N2=E : PR I NTS) 
448+C- 1 , CHR* ( 1 9 1 ) ; : PR I NT3448+C+T 
W,CHR*(191) ; :GOTO120 
245 TI=TIMER/60 

250 LT=TI-TP: IFLTXFT THENFT=LT:F 
L=LP 

256 TP=TI 

270 PR I NT5>4 16," LAP " ; LP ; : PR I NT5>44 

8, "TIME"; :PRINTUSINGPF*;LT; 

280 G0SUB83 : I F A*= " Y " THENN=L : L=LP 



September, 1982 

:LP=N:GOTO290 

282 IFTI>900THENN=L:L=LP:LP=N:PR 
INT" OUT OF FUEL 
290 NEXTLP 

295 FORN=1TO600: NEXTN 

300 CLS : PR I NT " L APS= " ; L : PR I NT " T I M 

E= " ; : PR I NTUS I NGPF* ; T I : PR I NT " OFF 

COURSE " ; OC ; " T I MES " : PR I NT 

310 PR I NT "AVERAGE LAP TIME=";:PR 

INTUSING PF*;TI/L; :PRINT" SECOND 

S 

320 PR I NT "FASTEST LAP WAS LAP";F 

L; "AT"; : PR I NTUS I NGPF* ; FT 

325 IFFT<LR GOSUB400 

390 PRINT: GOTO1010 

400 'NEW LAP RECORD 

410 PRINT" NEW LAP RECORD " ; 

420 I FLR=999THENPR I NT " " : ELSEPR I 

NT " BY " ; : PR I NTUS I NGPF* ; LR-FT ; : PR 

INT" ! " 

430 LR=INT< (FT+.005) *100) /100:F4 
=1:LB=LB+1 

440 INPUT "WHAT IS YOUR NAME" ; DN* 

: LH*=DN* 

490 RETURN 

1000 CLS* RUN RACE 

1010 GOSUB1100:PRINT:PRINT"YOU A 

RE IN A ";CM*:PRINT"IN THE PITS 

AT "; : IFFI*<>" "THENPRINTFI* ELSE 

PR I NT "YOUR NEW TRACK" 

1020 IFLR0999THEN PR I NT "LAP REC 

ORD IS " ; : PR I NTUS I NGPF* ; LR : PR I NT 

"RECORD HELD BY " ; LH* 

1030 PR I NT "ENGINE IS RUNNING": IN 

PUT "HOW MANY LAPS" ; L : IFL=0GOTO10 

90 

1040 CLS:FORN=1TO15:PRINTTAB(10) 

RD* : NEXTN : T I MER=6 

1050 GOT 01 00 

1090 GOSUB8600: RETURN 

1100 ' INIT VARS 

1110 N=0: X=13: Y=0:C=10:F1=0: A=0: 
AF=0 : OX=0: J 1=0: OC=0 : TP=0 : T I =0 
1120 R 1 *=CHR* ( 207 ) : RD*=STR I NG* ( T 
W, 207) : GR*=CHR* ( 143) 

1125 CA*=CHR*(175) :CM*="VW" 

—Continued on Page 64 



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CMRILIST $19.93 P.U.P. $9.93 both for $24.93 
SPECIFY 16 or 32K' All c*rr« 'tht Ruinbow' SERL 
Rlso RvtlUblt... 4116 200ns. DYNRMIC RRM8 $13.00 
CHECK OR MONEY ORDER CShiPPin9 Pr#P*id) COD <*hiPPin9 Added) 
PERCOCK ENT. PHERSRNT RUN BOX 4S4 RD#3 CRNRSTOTfl, NY. 13032 313-697-7147 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 



The Platinum 
worksaver 

...Programming Made Easy 

FULL SCREEN EDITING OF 
BASIC PROGRAMS 

With the PLATINUM WORKSAVER'S 
editor, there's no more counting the 
numbers of characters to delete or 
change, or wondering if you deleted 
too many or too few. You see the 
whole line as it's edited. Changes, 
deletes and inserts are automatic 
and the cursor can be moved any- 
where on the screen. 

FULL SCREEN EDITING OF 
NUMERIC AND STRING ARRAYS 

But that's only the beginning! The 
editor (Written in machine language) 
also comes with a short, two line 
BASIC subroutine that will allowyou 
to use the full screen editor on your 
numeric and string arrays. This is the 
springboard you need for develop- 
ing your own VisiCalc™ or word 
processor. 

SINGLE KEY ENTRIES OF 
BASIC WORDS 

So, the PLATINUM WORKSAVER 
makes it easier to write useful pro- 
grams and edit them, but that's not 
all! Entering programs is a breeze 
with single entry of over 80 basic 
words, on a beautifully designed 
KEYBOARD OVERLAY, color-keyed 
to function. No need to memorize or 
consult a conversion chart to find a 
word. 

PROGRAM CHAINING AND 
DYNAMIC DEBUGGING 

Now you can write, enter and change 
programs easily, but what about de- 
bugging? This is the frustrating, time 
consuming aspect of programming 
and frankly, the Color Computer 
doesn't help you much . . . you have 
to start the program over each time 
you make a change. But not with 
the PLATINUM WORKSAVER!! With 
it you can change, delete, add and 
rearrange or join lines. The special 
reserved key is excellent for copying 
or moving parts of lines to other 
lines . . . plus, you can even LOAD 
A WHOLE NEW PROGRAM without 
disturbing the data you've created. 

NUMERIC KEYPAD 

We've solved another Color Com- 
puter weakness. Press a control key 
and letters J, K, L, U, I, O, P become 
number keys 1-7. Numbers 8-0 re- 
main in their normal positions. The 
keypad numbers are clearly labeled 
on the overlay. 



A COLOR COMPUTER* MACHINE LANGUAGE ENHANCEMENT 
PACKAGE THAT PROVIDES: 

• Dynamic full screen editing of BASIC programs. 

• Dynamic full screen editing of numeric and string arrays. The ad- 
vanced user will be able to write VisiCalc™, word processor etc.! 

• Single key entries for 80 commands and functions. 

• Functionally laid out plastic keyboard overlay. 

• Numeric Keypad conversion. 

• Automatic line numbering. 

• Best value per dollar than any otherenhancement package available. 

With the Platinum worksaver , programming time 
and hassle can be cut by 50%. You'll spend less time 
typing, more time being creative with your Platinum 
Enhanced 16K Color Computer! 



LOOK WHAT JUST $30 CAN DO FOR YOUR 16K COLOR COMPUTER 



Platinum Enhanced 16K vs. 
Color Computer 

Relocate 1 , join, duplicate individual 
and unique sets of lines at the 1 push 
of a button 

Create 1 the following using only 31 
keystrokes; CLS:A$-Stnngs$ (15"") + 
MIDS (CLS, h 2) To change the - 
symbol to = requires only 3 key- 
stroke's!!]] 

Retain the sequenc e of e ommands in 
temporary me>mory with spec ial re- 
serves i key 

One keypush and the right side of the 
keyboard converts to a numeric 
Keypad 

Correct bugs while your program is 
running, without losing data. 

Edit programs, data and strings using 
the full screen editor. 



Regular 16K Extended 
Color Computer 

Retype enti rely any li nes to be moved 
or joined 

Type that line using 47 keystrokes. To 
change the symbol, Backspace and 
retype using 33 more strokes! 



Retype lost lines! 



Stretch those fingers! 



Oops' Lost data' Retype, Reload and 

Save data while swearing a lot. 

NO CAN DO! 



THE PLATINUM WORKSAVER INCLUDES: 

• Enhancement program, including a sample array Editor, on a high-quality 
Agfa Cassette 

• Fully labeled acetate keyboard overlay 

• Complete instructions 

• Loads in seconds, takes less than 2K 



FEATURE 


Full 

Screen 
Editing 


Dynamic 
Editing 


Single 

Function 

Keys 


Numeric 
Keypad 


Price 


Platinum Enhanced 16K 












Color Computer 


yes 


yes 


yes 


yes 


S 629.** 


TRS-8r Model III 


no 


no 


no 


yes 


$ 999. 


TRS-8CT Model II 


no 


no 


no 


yes 


S3450. 



The^ PLATINUM WORKSAVER c osts $30. 00 plus 
S3. 00 S&H (NY residents add 7% tax). To order 
write: 

PLATINUM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 833 
Pittsburgh, N.Y. 12901 

Phone orders: (518) 643-2650 

VISA. MAS 1 1 RCARD ACC'II'MD I'lRSONAI CHICKS TAKf 
2- \ Wi 1 KS I O PUCK I SS. All orders shipped wilhin 21 hours 



platinum 
vofiware 

You're Serious About 
Your Color Computer? 

SO ARE WE. 



"t oletr t umiHiN'r \ IkS-HII ,ih' tv#v|i>Tt'tl If^fUftTJ*!^ 1 1\ t.HirK 1 itrp 



v in no plLiv ?, VMt Miw-li d prii i ■ 1 ■ ■ ■ I IhK ( l 1 1 1 1 r ( iimiiiHi-r* tWc do not n-ll lhi< < omtMiti-rv 



Page 64 The RAINBOW 

TRACK (From Page 62) 

1130 FT=999:FL=0:LT=0:LP=0:LO=0: 
PF*= •'###.##" 

1135 IFF2=1GOTO1190 

1140 D I MT ( D ) : GOSUB9000 : F2= 1 : PLAY 

"T25501L1" 

1190 RETURN 

2000 ' SET UP TRACK 

2005 CLS 

2007 PR I NT" YOU CREATE THE TRACK 
USING" : PR I NT" THE RIGHT JOYSTICK 
FOR CONTROL- ": PR I NT "MOVE STICK L 
EFT OR RIGHT TO" : PR I NT "TURN, FOR 
WARD TO GO FASTER. 

2008 PR I NT: PR I NT "WHEN YOU ARE DO 
NE, PRESS 'FIRE' BUTTON TO STOP. 
": PR I NT: PR I NT "PLEASE ENTER TRACK 

WIDTH 

2009 INPUT" (BETWEEN 5 & 10)";TI: 
IFTK5ORTIM0GOTO2090 ELSE TW=TI 
: RD*=STR I NG* ( TW , 207 ) : C= 1 0 : T ( 0 ) =C 
: LR=999 : LB=0 : LH*= " " : FE*= " " : F I *= " 
" : F4=0 

2010 FORN=1TO9:T(N)=C:PRINT5>480+ 
C,RD*: NEXTN 

2015 FORN=10TOD-20 

2020 J0=JOYSTK(0) :DT=INT(.5+(J0- 
3D/20) 

2025 T(N)=T(N-1)+DT 

2026 I FT ( N )< 1 THENT ( N ) = 1 ELSE I FT ( N 
) >21THENT(N)=21 

2030 PR I NT3480+T ( N ) , RD* 

2035 Jl=JOYSTK(l) 

2040 FORM=1TO20+J1:NEXTM 

2050 E=N: P=PEEK (65280) : IF P=1260 

RP=254THENN= 1 000 

2080 NEXTN 

2085 I FT ( E ) >T ( 1 ) THENE=E+ 1 : T ( E ) =T 
( E- 1 ) - 1 : PR I NT3480+T ( E ) , RD* : G0T02 



2086 IFT(EXT(1)THENE=E+1:T(E)=T 
( E- 1 ) + 1 : PR I NT3480+T ( E ) , RD* : G0T02 
086 

2087 FORN=1TO10:E=E+1:T(E)=T(1) : 
PRINT3480+T (E) , RD*: NEXTN 

2089 F3=1:F4=1:GOSUB1000 

2090 CLS: RETURN 
3000 * MENU 
3010 GOSUB1100 
3020 GOSUB3100 
3025 G0SUB82 

3030 IFA*="0"GOTO3090 

3050 A»VAL(A*> : IFA-0GOTO3020 

3060 ON A GOSUB10000,7000,5000,2 

000 , 1 000 

3070 GOTO3010 

3090 GOSUB9500:END 

3100 'MENU DISPLAY 

3110 CLS: PRINTS>38, "T HE T R A 

C K": PRINT 



September, 1982 

3114 PRINT" YOU ARE DRIVING A "; 
CM*: IFFI$< >" "THENPRINT" AT ";FI* 
3120 PR I NT: PR I NT" PLEASE SELECT: 
": PRINT 

3130 PR I NT " 1 . I NFORMAT I ON 
3140 PRINT" 2- GO TO A TRACK 
3142 I FF5=0THENPR I NT " 3. CHANGE 
CARS 

3145 PRINT" 4. CREATE A NEW TRAC 

K 

3147 IFFI*<>" "THENPRINT" 5.C0NT 

INUE AT ";FI* 

3150 PRINT 

3180 PRINT" 0.QUIT 

3190 RETURN 

5000 CLS* SELECT CAR 

5005 IFF5=1THENGOTO5090 

5010 PR I NT: PR I NT" PLEASE SELECT 

A CAR: ": PRINT 

5020 PRINT" l.VW 

5025 PRINT" 2.DATSUN 

5030 PRINT" 3. LOTUS 

5035 PRINT" 4. FERRARI 

5038 PR I NT: PR I NT" 0- RETURN TO M 

ENU 

5040 PR I NT: PR I NT" NOTE: SELECT IN 
G A NEW CAR WILL SEND YOU TO TH 
E TEAM'S": PR I NT" HEADQUARTERS 
5050 G0SUB82: A=VAL(A$> 

5055 IFA*="0"THENGOTO5090 

5056 I FA< 1 OR A >4THENGOTO5000 

5059 GOSUB9500 : CLS : PR I NTS 1 69 , " EN 
ROUTE TO " ; : PR I NT3235 , " " ; 

5060 IFA=1THEN PRINT" WOLFSBURG" : 
LOAD "VW",R 

5065 I FA=2THEN PR I NT " J AP AN " : LOAD 
" DATSUN" , R 

5070 IFA=3THEN PR I NT " HETHEL " : LO A 
D " LOTUS ",R 

5075 IFA=4THEN PR I NT " MAR ANELLO " : 

LOAD "FERRARI ",R 
5090 RETURN 
7000 'DISPLAY 

7010 IFF5=1THEN CLS: INPUT "WHAT T 
RACK " ; F I * : GOTO7085 
7020 ER*="" 
7030 GOSUB7100 

7040 G0SUB82: IFA$="0"GOTO7090 
7050 A=VAL(A$) : IFA$=" "THENS=S+9 
ELSE I FA*= " T " THENS= 1 
7060 I FA >0GOSUB7200 : I FER*= " " GOTO 

7085ELSE I FER*= " " GOTO7040ELSEGOT 
07030 

7080 GOTO7000 

7085 GOSUB8100:GOSUB1000 

7090 S=l: RETURN 

7100 CLS' D ISP TRACKS 

7110 PRINT" # TRACK RECORD 

SET BY": PRINT 

7130 IFS>E2 THENS=1 

—Continued on Page 66 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Paae 65 



■0- 




urn 



NEW 






MACRO-BOC 

The Micro Works is pleased to announce the release of 
its disk-based editor, macro assembler and monitor, writ- 
ten tor Color Computer by Andy Phelps. THIS IS IT — The 
ultimate programming tool! 

The powerful 2-pass macro assembler features conditional 
assembly, local labels, include files and cross referenced symbol 
tables. Macro-80c supports the complete Motorola 6809 instruction set in 
standard source format. There are no changes, constraints or shortcuts in 
the source language definition. Incorporating all of the features of our 
Rompack-based assembler (SDS80C), Macro-80c contains many more 
useful instructions and pseudo-ops which aid the programmer and add 
power and flexibility. 

The screen-oriented text editor is designed for efficient and easy editing of 
assembly language programs. The "Help Key" feature makes it simple 
and fun to learn to use the editor. As the editor requires no line numbers, 
you can use the arrow keys to position the cursor anywhere in the file. 
Macro-80c allows global changes and moving/copying blocks of text. You 
can edit lines of assembly source which are longer than 32 characters. 

DCBUG is a machine language monitor which allows examining and 
altering of memory, setting break points, etc. 

The editor, assembler and monitor — as well as sample programs — 
come on one Radio Shack compatible disk. Extensive documentation 
included. Macro 80c Price: $99.95 



YOU NEED 

COLOR FORTH!! 

Why? 

•Forth is faster to program in than Basic 
•Forth is easier to learn than Assembly Language 
•Forth executes in less time than Basic 

Forth is a highly interactive language like Basic, with 
structure like Pascal and execution speed close to 
that of Assembly Language. The Micro Works Color 
Forth is a Rompack containing everything you need to 
run Forth on your Color Computer. 

Color Forth consists of the standard FORTH Interest 
Group (FIG) implementation of the language plus 
most of FORTH-79. It has a super screen editor with 
split screen display. Mass storage is on cassette. 
Color Forth also contains a decompiler and other aids 
for learning the inner workings of this fascinating lan- 
guage. It will run on 4K. 16K. and 32K computers. 
Color Forth contains 1 0K of ROM , leaving your RAM 
for your programs' There are simple words to 
effectively use the Hi-Res Color Computer graphics, 
joysticks, and sound. The 112-page manual includes 
a glossary of the system-specific words, a full 
standard FIG glossary and complete source listing, 
COLOR FORTH ... THE BEST' From the leader in 
Forth. Talbot Microsystems Price: $109.95 



■ • 



SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

The Micro Works Soltware Developmenl Syslem (SOS80C) is a complete 6809 editor, assembler and 
monitor package contained in one Color Computer program pack 1 Vastly superior to RAM-based 
assemblers/edilors. the SDS80C is non volatile meaning that il your applicalion program bombs, it can't 
destroy your editor/assembler Plus it leaves almost all ot 16K or 32k RAM tree lor your program. Since 
all three programs, editor, assembler and monitor are co-resident, we eliminate tedious program loading 
when going back and lorlh Irom editing to assembly and debugging 1 

The powerlul screen-oriented Edilot lealures linds. changes, moves, copys and much more. All keys have 
convenient aulo repeat (lypamatic) and since no line numbers are required, the lull widlh ol Ihe screen 
may be used to generate well commented code 

The Assembler leatures all ot the lollowing complete 6809 instruction set; conditional assembly: local 
labels assembly to cassette tape or to memory, listing to screen or printer; and mnemonic error codes 
instead ot numbers 

The versatile monitor is tailored for debugging programs generated by the Assembler and Edilor. It 
lealures examine/change ot memory c registers, casselleloadand save, breakpoints and more SDS80C 
Price: $89.95 



MICROTEXT: COMMUNICATIONS 

VIA YOUR MODEM! 

Nowyou can use your printer with your modem 1 Your computer can be .yr-. 
intelligent printing terminal Talk to nmeshare services or to other personal 
computers, print simultaneously through a second printer port, and re- 
display text stored in memory Dump to a cassette lape. or printer, or both 
Microtext can be used with any printer or no printer at all. It leatures user- 
conligurable duDlex/panly for special applicalions. and can send any ASCII 
character. You 'll lind many uses lor this general purpose module 1 Microtext 
is available tn ROMPACK ready-to-use. lor $59.95. 



PARALLEL Pfl I NTER I NTEfl FACE ■ ■ .4 la prirarlH convene* allows use ol all 
standard parcel printers PiflQC plugs into the serial output pon" teaming your 
Romoack slot Iree Vou supply ?ne primer ca&ie P1BCC Prrca- 569 95 



Star Blaster - - Blast your way through an asteroid field in this action-packed Hi-Res graphics game. Available in ROMPACK: requires 16K. Price: $39.95 
Pac Attack — Try your hand at this challenging game by Computerware. with fantastic graphics, sound and action 1 Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 
Berserk - - Have tun zapping robots with this Hi-Res game by Mark Data Products. Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 
Adventure — Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by Mark Data Products. Each cassette requires 16K. Price: $19.95 each. 

Cave Hunter - - Experience vivid colors, bizarre sounds and errie creatures in hot pursuit as you wind your way through a cave maze in search of gold treasures. This 
exciting Hi-Res game by Mark Data Products requires 16K for cassette version. Price: $24.95 



Also Available: Machine Language Monitor ★ 2-Pass Disassembler ★ Memory Upgrade Kits ★ We Slock 64K Chips 

★ Parts and Services ★ Books ★ Call or write tor intormation 



THC $\0©L^o) 



MasterCharge/Visa Accepted 
California residents add 6% tax. 



GOOD STUFF! 

P.O. BOX 1110, DEL MAR, CA 92014 [714] 942-2400 



The RAINBOW 



ii 



Page 66 

TRACK (From Page 64) 
7140 IFS<1THENS=1 
7150 F=S+8:IFF>E2 THENF-E2 
7160 FORN=S TOF 
7170 PRINTUSING"##";N; : PRINT" 
LEFT*(TF*(N) ,27) 

7180 NEXTN 

7181 PRINTS>352,ER* 

7183 PRINT3384, "PLEASE SELECT A 
TRACK #" 

7185 T*=" OR <":IFF<E2 THENPRI 
NTT*+" SPACE > FOR MORE TRACKS "ELS 
E I FS > 1 THENPR I NTT*+ " T > FOR TOP OF 
LIST" 

7188 PRINT" OR <0> TO RETURN T 
O MENU 
7190 RETURN 
7200 * GET TRACK 

7205 N*= " " : ER*= " " : I FF< 1 0GOTO72 1 1 
ELSEPR I NT3408 , A* ; 

72 1 0 N*=A* : G0SUB82 : I F A*=CHR* ( 8 ) T 
HENPR I NT3408 , " " ; : ER*= " " : G0T072 
90 

7211 N*=N*+ A* : N= V AL ( N* ) 

7230 IFN>E2 THENPRI NT3352, "SORRY 
, ";N*;" IS NOT A VALID #";:PRIN 
TS>408 , " " ; : ER*= " " : GOTO7290 
7240 FI*=MID*(TF*(N) ,4,8) : IFFI*= 
" " THENER*= " I NV AL I D NUMBER " : G0T07 
290 

7290 RETURN 

8000 'LOAD TRACK FROM DISK 



CANADIAN 
80C USERS 

AT LAST! YOU GAN SET THE BEST SOFTWARE FOR 
YOUR COMPUTER FRCM A CANADIAN DlSTRIBUrOR 

-Don't worry about the low Canadian dollar. 
-No more taxes or duty to pay. 
-Forget the hassle , that goes with baying 
from the United States • 



CCMPUTERWARE: 

Pac Attack 
Stonu 

Starship Chameleon 

MARK DATA PRODUCTS : 
Astro Blast 
Cave Umter 
Calixto Island 



$ 32.95 
$ 32*95 
$ 32.95 Can* 

$ 32.95 

$ 32.95 

$ 26.U5 Can. 



More tapes are available now. Write for 
our growing lister order direct from 
this ad* 



Save time 
and money 



TABBY ENTERPRISES 

Box 1353 R.R.#1 
Yaraouth,H.S. 

B5A UA5 



September, 1982 

8007 CLS: PRINTS>169, "EN ROUTE TO 

:PRINTS>236,FI*; 
8010 E=0 

8025 FE*=FI*+"/TRK" 

8030 OPEN"I",#l,FE* 

8040 IF EOF(1)=-1GOTO8080 

8050 INPUT#1,T 
8052 E=E+1 

8055 T(E)=T 

8070 GOTO8040 

8080 CLOSE#l 

8082 GOSUB9100 

8085 CLS 

8090 F3=1:F4=0: RETURN 
8100 " LOAD TRACK FROM TAPE 
8102 IFF5=0GOSUB8000:GOTO8150 

8105 E=0 

8106 PR I NT "TO LOAD IN AN EXISTIN 
G TRACK": PR I NT "FROM CASSETTE, ":P 
RINT"POSITION TAPE & PRESS <PLAY 
> " : PR I NT " THEN PRESS ANY KEY":GOS 
UB82 

8110 FE*=LEFT*(FI*,8) 

8115 OPEN"I",#-l,FE* 

8117 INPUT#-1 ,FI*,LR,LH*,TW 

8120 IF E0F(-1)=-1G0T08145 

8125 INPUT#-1,T 

8130 E=E+1 

8135 T(E)=T 

8140 GOTO8120 

8145 CLOSE#-l 

8150 CLS 

8190 F3=1:F4=0: RETURN 
8500 " SAVE TRACK TO DISK 
8503 I FF I *<> " " GOSUB9600 : GOTO8590 
8505 CLS: PR I NT "SAVE TRACK? (Y OR 
N) ":G0SUB82: IFA*="N"GOTO8590: IF 
A*O"Y"GOTO8505 

8510 INPUT "NAME OF TRACK" ; FI*: IF 
FI*=" "GOTO8510 
8520 GOSUB9600 

8522 PRINTS>33,"I AM SAVING THE T 
RACK 

8525 FE*=LEFT*<FI*,8)+"/TRK" 

8530 OPEN"0",#l,FE* 

8540 FORN=lTOE 

8550 PRINT#1,T(N) 

8570 NEXTN 

8580 CLOSE#l 

8590 RETURN 

8600 'SAVE TRACK TO TAPE 

8605 I FF5=0GOSUB8500 : GOTO8690 

8607 IFF4=0GOTO8690 

8610 CLS s PR I NT "DO YOU WANT TO SA 

VE THE TRACK": PR I NT "AND LAP RECO 

RD? " : G0SUB82 : I FA*= " N " GOTO8690 : I F 

A*<>"Y"GOTO8610 

8620 I FFE*="" THEN INPUT "NAME OF T 
RACK " ; F I * : I FF I *= " " GOTO8690 

—Continued on Page 68 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 67 



NEW! FOR THE 

COLOR COMPUTER! 



\*- - " ■- 

j " K - L ■■ r " 




■ ■■ + ■ - 

i r l r 
i 1 



0 



Med Systems is proud to announce Its first major 
software releases for the TRS-30 Color Computer. 
Both games are written In machlnaJanguage, 
feature full-color, high resolution graphics, super 
sound effects, and Incredible playing speed. Both 
are original games designed and written 
by Kenneth Kalish, 6009 wizard 1 . 




Invader's Revenge 

You are the last space invader. The cursed 
humans have destroyed all your compatriots. The 
human ships now prowl the space lanes, and 
their laser base fires at you with deadly accuracy. 
Your goal. ..REVENGE 1 Wipe out as many of their 
ships as you can. avoid the photon blasts, and 
aim for their valuable flagship! Invader's Revenge 
features multiple difficulty leveis and one or two 
player game selection. / 

Phantom Slayer 

They are the mutant phantoms. You are the Phan- 
tom Slayer. Enter the deadly catacombs and 
destroy the phantoms. Wield your laser pistol, 
and attend to your proximity detector. One touch 
by a phantom is fatal, so if your first shot fails, 
turn and run! Phantom Slayer is a real-time game 
executed with full-screen, three dimensional 
graphics. It features multiple difficulty levels and 
a training mode. 



Invader's Revenge 16K cassette 
PhantomSlayer 16K cassette 



■ iii 



$19.95 
$19.95 



Please add $2.00 for first class postage. 
$4.00 for overseas air mail. 

NO EXTENDED BASIC REQUIRED. 







MED SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 3558 CHAPEL HILL, NC 2751 4 
TO ORDER, CALL 1 -800-334-5470 



Or see your dealer. 



Page 68 The RAINBOW 

TRACK (From Page 66) 
8625 PR INT "POSITION TAPE & PRESS 

< RECORD > ; " : PR I NT " THEN PRESS ANY 

KEY M :G0SUB82 

8630 FE*=LEFT*(FI*,8) 

8640 OPEN"0",#-l,FE* 

8645 PRINT#-1,FI*,LR,LH*,TW 

8650 FORN=lTOE 

8660 PRINT#-1,T(N) 

8670 NEXTN 

8680 CLOSE#-l 
8690 RETURN 

9000 'LOAD RECORDS 

9005 IFF5=1GOTO9090 

9010 DIMTF*<60) 

9020 OPEN" I " , #1 , "TRACKS/DAT" 

9030 IF EOF(1)=-1GOTO9070 

9040 E2=E2+1 

9050 L I NE I NPUT# 1 , TF* < E2 ) 

9060 GOTO9030 

9070 CLOSE#l 

9080 GOSUB9900 

9090 RETURN 

9100 'DECODE RECORDS 

9110 GOSUB9800 

9120 IFTF*=""THEN LR=999: LM$=" " : 

CH*=" M :GOTO9190 

9125 LR=VAL (MID* <TF*, 12,7) ) 

9130 LH*=MID*(TF*,20,8) 

9135 CH*=MID*(TF*,28,8) 

9137 LB=VAL(MID*(TF*,36,3) > 

9140 TW=VAL(f1ID*(TF* 1 39,3) > sRD*= 



M 



ARCADE STYLE GAME ( 16K COLOR JOYSTICK-ML) Tape $ 19.95 

Ohio Res. Include 6% Ta« 
Immediate shipment ! Visa, MasterCard Money Orders, or phone 
order. Two weeks personal checks. 

Write today for a FREE GAME and UTILITY 
Catalogue! 

ATTENTION WRITERS 

We review and publish Color Computer programs 

CHROMATIC 

SOFTWARE CO. 

50 Fillmore St reet Dept. 101 
Dayton,OH 45410 (513) 252-9306 



September, 1982 

STRING* (TW, 207) 

9190 RETURN 

9500 * SAVE RECORDS 

9503 IFF5=1GOTO9590 

9505 IFF7=0GOTO9590 

9508 CLS : PR I NT3>33 , " I AM MAILING 

THE LAP RECORDS TO PARIS 

9510 OPEN " 0 " , # 1 , 11 TRACKS/ DAT 11 

9520 F0RN=1T0E2 

9530 PRINT#1,TF*(N) 

9540 NEXTN 

9550 CLOSE#l 

9590 RETURN 

9600 'ENCODE RECORDS 

9605 IFF4=0GOTO9690 

9607 CLS : PR I NT3>33 , " I AM RECORD IN 

G THE LAP RECORD" :F7=1 

9610 GOSUB9800 

9625 TF*=STRING*<49, " '»>+'»/" 

9628 MID*(TF*, 1 , 2 ) =RIGHT* (STR* < I 

NT <LB+1000*LR/E) ) , 2) 

9630 MID*(TF*,4,8)=FI* 

9635 MID*(TF*, 12, 7) =STR* <LR) 

9640 MID*(TF*,20,8)=LH* 

9645 MID*(TF*,28,8)=CH* 

9648 MID*(TF*,36,3)=STR*(LB) 

9650 MID*(TF*,39,3)=STR*(TW) 

9660 TF*(CT)=TF* 

9680 GOSUB9900 

9690 RETURN 

9800 " LOOK UP CURRENT TRACK 
9810 TF*=" M 

9812 IFLEN(FI*><8 THEN FI*=FI*+S 
TRING*(8-LEN(FI*) , " ") 
9820 F0RN=1T0E2 

9830 M*=MID*(TF*(N) ,4,8) : IFM*=FI 
* THEN TF*=TF*(N) :CT=N:N=E2 
9840 NEXTN 

9880 IFTF*=""THENE2=E2+1:CT=E2 

9890 RETURN 

9900 '**SORT*» 

9910 F0RN1=E2 TOl STEP-1 

9920 HI*=TF*(1):HI=1:F6=1 

9940 F0RN=1T0N1 

9950 I FTF* < N ) >=H I *THEN H I *=TF* ( N 
) :HI=N 

9955 IFTF*(NKTF*(N-1)THENF6=0 
9960 NEXTN 

9970 TF*(HI)=TF*(N1) :TF*(N1)=HI* 
<?975 IFF6=1THENN1 = 1 
9980 NEXTN1 
9990 RETURN 
10000 ' INFO 

10010 GOSUB10100:GOSUB81 
10020 GOSUB10200:GOSUB81 
1 0030 GOSUB 1 0300 : G0SUB81 
10090 RETURN 

10100 CLS* **INF01»* 

10101 PR I NTT AB ( 8) "INFORMATION" 

10102 PRINT 



September, 1982 

10103 PRINT" YOU ARE READY TO PL 
AY A" 

10104 PRINT" UNIQUE COMPUTER GAM 
E. " 

10105 PRINT 

10106 PRINT" REVOLUTION GIVES YO 
U CONTROL" 

10107 PRINT" OF A RACE CAR, USIN 
G THE RIGHT" 

10108 PRINT" JOYSTICK FOR STEER I 
NG (LEFT" 

10109 PRINT" TO RIGHT) AND THROT 
TLE" 

10110 PRINT" (FORWARD IS FAST, B 
ACK IS" 

10111 PRINT" SLOW) . " 
10190 RETURN 

10200 CLS' **INF02** 

10201 PRINT 

10202 PRINT" FIRST SELECT A TRAC 
K TO" 

10203 PRINT" DRIVE ON." 

10204 PRINT 

10205 PRINT" THE COMPUTER WILL G 
UIDE YOU" 

10206 PRINT" THROUGH STARTING YO 
UR LAPS. " 

10207 PRINT 

10208 PRINT" IF YOU WANT TO COME 
INTO THE" 

10209 PRINT" PITS, HOLD DOWN THE 
R I GHT " 

10210 PRINT" JOYSTICK'S 'FIRE' B 
UTTON AS" 

10211 PRINT" YOU PASS THE START/ 
FINISH" 

10212 PRINT" LINE. " 
10290 RETURN 

10300 CLS' **INF03»* 

10301 PRINT 

10302 PRINT" THE OTHER SELECTION 
S ON THE" 

10303 PRINT" MAIN MENU WILL ALLO 
W YOU" 

10304 PRINT" TO CHANGE CARS OR C 
REATE A" 

10305 PRINT" NEW TRACK OF YOUR 0 
WN, WHICH" 

10306 PRINT" CAN BE SAVED FOR LA 
TER USE. " 

10307 PRINT 

10308 PRINT" IF YOU PRESS THE WR 
ONG KEY" 

10309 PRINT" ANYWHERE, OR WANT T 
O RETURN" 

10310 PRINT" TO THE MAIN MENU IN 
STEAD OF" 

10311 PRINT" CARRYING OUT THE PR 
ESCRIBED" 

10312 PRINT" ACTION, PRESS <0> 0 

—Continued on Next Page 



The RAINBOW 



Page 69 




- COMPUTER SHACK - 



Color Tape Copy $1 5.95 

By bob Withers 

There have been a few copy programs on the market for the Color Computer 
but none can compare with the ColorTape copy This program is designed 
so that you do not lose any of your valuable programs or data bases. 

It will make a backup of any Color Computer Tape; Machine language, data, 
or a basic program. 

First load color tape copy into your CC. Then it prompts you to put your 
original copy into the tape recorder. After i t loads the program into memory 
it tells you to put a blank tape into the recorder and press the record button. 
It then writes the program to a new tape. 

You'll never have to worry about your little kids destroying your $20.00 
tapes. 

COLOR ENHANCER ™ 

MM. 

Did you ever notice how deep ihe colors are in a 
iircade yame and how the colors on your TV set 
are never lhat deep and dark Did you ever want 
deep dark reds and vivid blues and bmashing 
yellows and % reens > Well you can wilh Computer 
Shacks new color enhancer lor the Color Monitor 

This is a special screen manuraciuredtorCompuier 
Shack. It fits over your TV screen and intensifies 
Ihe colors on your screen I know il is hard lo 
believe but it really works We are so sure you will 
hkethem.that if youorderone andyoudon 1 like it 
you can send it back lor a lull relund (We at 
Computer Shack will always give you a relund il 
you don t like something but we normally char yea 
lO u o restockiny lee. But not on this Menu 

The price is S 1 9 95 tor a normal 1 J X 10 We cany 
the 1 3 X t 0 s m stock and will nuike any diner si^h 
on request Larger one s will cost slightly more 
and lake 2 weeks to make 

COLOR DIRECT 
FILE TRANSFER 

Tape Version $19.95 

By Bob Withers 

Now a program for the Color Computer that allows you to download basic 
programs from Bullet-80 systems. It will also send and receive programs from 
other Color Computers, Model I's and Model Ill's. 

Direct File Transfer (DFT) is a modem program which will handle the direct 
uploading and downloading of machine language, word processor files, text 
files, and basic programs directly to tape with no conversion necessary. It is the 
program you must have todownload from any Bullet 80 system. DFT also has a 
chat mode, and has software controlled half and/or full duplex. 

It also has a unique feature which can save you much time. It automatically 
converts all model I and III tokens. This allows you to run most model I and III 
basic programs just astheyaredownloaded on your color Computer. This also 
allows you to send basic programs to any Model I or III owner who has a copy of 
DFT. (DFT is very popular with the Model I and III). 

Hayes Smart Modem 

The very finest modem you can buy for the Color Computer or any other 
computer. Features include auto dial, auto answer, built it speaker, LED signals, 
auto redial, etc. 

300 Baud $329.00 1 200 Baud $499.00 

This is Computer Shack's first add in the Rainbow but we have been in the Mail 
order business almost two years. We have built aexcellent reputation for quality 
and good service. We take care of our customers. During the last few months 
over 90% ot our orders have been filled within 24 hours. 



GAMES 

Our two favorite games here at Computer 
Shack are StarFire by Intellectronics and 
Ghost Gobbler 

Starfire is a real exciting game based on the 
arcade game DEFENDER" and has excellent 
color, sound and graphics $1 9.95 

Ghost Gobbler is the ColorComputers version 
of P ACM AN" a very good version . .. $19.95 

COLOR SCARFMAN 4K $17.95 

COLOR METEOROIDS $19 95 

COLOR TAPE DIRECTORY $1 4.95 

COLOR MASTER CONTROL $1 9.95 

COLOR DISASSEMBLER $14.95 

COLOR BONANZA $39.95 




COMPUTER SHACK 



1 f-n 1 Ect son 



Pontiac. MicWqan 48054 (31 3) 



Master charge and Visa OK. Please add $3.00 for Shipping in U.S.A. - $5.00 for 
Canada or Mexico - Proper postage outside of U.S. -Canada- Mexico. 

DEALERS: We are distributors for all items in this ad. Write for our catalog and 
price list. 



The RAINBOW 



s 



Page 70 

TRACK (From Page 69) 
R < ENTER >. M 
10390 RETURN 

60000 'BREAK DISABLE 

60001 C*=CHR*<175) 

60006 PRINT© 43, 11 WELCOME" ; 

60007 PRINT© 141, "TO"; 

60008 PRINTS>261,STRING*< 18, C*) ; : 
PRINT© 293,C*;"T HE TRACK" 
;C*; :PRINTS>325, STRING* (18, C*) ; 

60009 PRINT© 453, " (C) 1982 BY AL 
HINE"; 

600 1 0 P0KE&H7EA9 , 83 : I FPEEK ( &H7EA 
9)=83GOTO60030 

60020 CLEAR700 , &H3EB0 : GOTO60040 
60030 CLEAR3000 , &H7EB0 : J=&H4000 : 
J 1 =&H40 

60040 IFPEEK(8cH3EB9+J)<> &H32 TH 
EN F0RI=&H82B9 TO &H831E:P0KE I- 
&H4400+J , PEEK ( I ) : NEXT ELSE 60080 
60050 FOR 1=0 TO 2: POKE &H3EBD+I+ 
J, 18: NEXT: I=8cH3FlE+J 
60060 POKE I , &H26 : POKE 1+1,3: POKE I 
+2 , &H7E : POKE I +3 , &H83 : POKE I +4 , &H2 
2:P0KEI+5,&H7E 

60070 P0KEI+6,&HA4:P0KEI+7,&H4C 
60080 P0KE&H19B,&H3E+J1:RUN 6008 
5 

60085 I FPEEK (188) =6THENF5= 1 : FORN 
=1TO500:NEXTN 

60087 I FPEEK ( &H7E A9 ) =83THEND=800 
ELSED=150 

60090 TW= 1 0 : E=0 : GOTO3000 
60999 PMODE0 : PCLEAR 1 : GOTO60000 

Software Review... 

These Programs Will Teach 
preschoolers Basic Concepts 



Two programs, Alphabet and Counter are contained on a 
Pre-School Pak that can teach your very young children 
important counting and letter recognition skills. 

While both programs seem to be fairly simple in concept, 
they are well-founded in background. The theory is that if 
you can teach a youngster how to recognize letters — or how 
to count — half the battle with reading and arithmatic is won. 

Alphabet displays letters on the high-resolution graphic 
screen. The child must then press the letter on the typewriter 
keyboard which corresponds to the letter displayed. When 
he or she does so, a happy face appears and a pleasant 
musical tone is played, if the keypress is wrong, nothing 
happens. In short, no negative reinforcement. 

Counter uses shapes of various kinds — a bird, a turtle and 
the like — displayed on the high-res screen. The child can 
count the number of shapes and enters the proper number 
from the keyboard. When the correct response is given, the 
proper number is written on a screen, a bullseye appears and 
an arrow moves to hit the target. As in Alphabet there is no 
response for a wrong answer. 

We tried these out on several pre-schoolers and all 
enjoyed playing the "games." In short, the children viewed 



September, 1982 



the letter and number recognition excercises as "playtime" 
rather than "work time.'" An important point with small 
children. 

We believe your children will find these programs 
enjoyable and that they will learn something while playing 
them. 

(Harmonycs, P.O. Box 1573, Salt Lake City, UT 84110- 
1573, $6.95 for both) 



Software Review... 

Mathpacl Has An Fine 
Repeat Feature Built In 



This program allows the user to bedrilled and tested on all 
sorts of mathematics problems. It is a very open-ended 
program in that the person setting it up is given a wide 
variety of parameters from which to choose. 

The set-up includes deciding which mathematical 
operator (addition, subtraction, multiplication or division) 
the student will use and which mode will be used. A "drill 
mode" allows a set of problems to be presented to the user 
while the "test mode" gives a score. There is an option to 
have the score sent out to the printer. 

The teacher is also given the option of deciding the 
number of problems which can be part of a set and the level 
of problem difficulty. This option, however, only allows the 
setting of an upper parameter, so there is no way to "mask 
out" easier problems. 

For instance, if a "5" is selected as the difficulty level, the 
highest number the program can use is a five (as in 5 plus 5). 
However, if you merely wished to test for the 1 1 and 12 
tables in multiplication, there is n o way to eliminate the 1-10 
tables as well. 

Use of an optional "repeat" feature in Mathpacl is a key 
to the use of this program. If the "repeat" feature is added, 
the program will continually cycle through sets of problems 
of the length, difficulty level and mode you choose. This 
could allow you to test or drill an entire class without the 
necessity of re-setting things up on the computer. And, with 
the print option, you would get a listing of the scores as well. 

This program uses a different color screen and has 
positive and negative auditory responses. In addition, an 
incorrect answer is never left on the screen. Students are 
asked to input their names and are recognized by name as 
they progress through either test or drill. 

This seems like a fairly complete program with a range of 
options. Besides the inability of the program to define the 
lower limits of the testing (which could be modified, we 
would assume), we believe there is one other drawback, 
albiet a minor one. That is the use of the asterisk (*) and 
slash mark (/) for multiplication and division signs. While 
perfectly acceptable in a computer environment, we believe 
a simple "X" for multiplication and some form of a division 
sign would have been better visually. 

Mathpacl has many other advantages, however. Chief 
among them is its ability to re-cycle through drill or test for 
an entire group of children. And, since there is auditory 
feedback, the teacher can monitor a student's progress just 
by listening to the tones the computer generates. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 9811 E. Stella Road, Tucson, 
AZ 85730, $19.95, plus $1.50 shipping) 



September, 1982 The RAINBOW Page 71 

Software Review... 

Inventory Control Program 

Has Many Useful Features i 



Inventory is one of the most difficult parts of a business to 
keep straight. In short, it is very much something that 
"should be done by a computer. " Now, you can with your 
80C. 

Inventory Control allows you to keep track of as many as 
1500 items on a disk system. Not only does it keep track of 
merchandise (or anything else) in inventory, but it also sorts 
inventory by stock numbers, provides an easy-to-read 
printout and alerts you when it is time to re-order any item 
you may have in stock. 

The user can "create" an inventory by entering a stock or 
code number for the merchandise, a description of the item 
and the number on hand. The program also prompts for the 
cost of each item, the retail cost and the "re-order 1 ' quantity. 
As each item is entered, you have the option of continuing 
on or stopping. 

Once items are placed in the inventory, you have the 
ability to make changes quickly and easily by calling them 
up by stock number. There are two methods of doing this, 
either through inventory changes and file maintenance. 

Inventory changes are the things you would useevery day 
to record the number of sales and the like. File maintence 
lets you make significant changes— such as your cost or the 
retail cost of the item. 

The reports generated by this program include, of course, 
all the information you input, plus percentage of profit and 
the value of your inventory both at cost and at retail on each 
item. There is also a total profit figure, assuming all 
inventory is sold. 

We had no difficulty running the program. There are a 
couple of quirks which were not fully explained in the 
documentation — such as a requirement to sort the file 
before running a printout. 

Inventory Control allows seven digits or letters for stock 
numbers (and, in fact, expects leadingzeros or blank spaces) 
and gives 1 1 spaces for item descriptions. Value of items may 
be entered without trailing zeroes ($2.00 may be entered as 
merely "2"). In addition, a special re-order column is shown 
on the printout (which includes date and page numbers) so 
that you can quickly spot items in which your inventory is 
getting low. 

We feel this is a good program which can be helpful in a 
small business environment that does not keep more than 
1500 items in stock at any one time. 

(Teague Programming and Consulting, 518 N. 30th 
Street, P.O. Box 728, Paducah, KY 42001, $69.95) 



About the RAINBOW Seal 

The RAINBOW SEAL OF CERTIFICATION is given to pro- 
ducts which have been sent to us for that purpose. The 
SEAL means only that the product does, indeed, exist— 
and that it will run if a program. The SEAL does not guar- 
antee the product will meet your expectations. It is not 
a "Seal of Approval"— only a seal certifying existance. 

Readers are cautioned not to attach any signifi- 
cance to the size of the SEAL in any advertisment or 
other display. It is furnished in several sizes to advertisers 
who meet our criteria so they may work it into layouts as 
easily as possible. 

We will appreciate knowing of instances of violation 
of use of the SEAL. 



G0LDLABEL 

BLANK CASSETTES 

★ PREMIUM 5 SCREW SHELL 
★ DIGITAL DATA QUALITY ★ LOW NOISE 
★ MADE IN USA ★GUARANTEED 

1 DDZEN C-10 LENGTH $ 8.00 + $2.00 shpg. 

2 DOZEN C-10 LENGTH $15.00 + $3.50 shpg. 

1 DOZEN C-30 LENGTH $11.00 + $2.00 shpg. 

2 DOZEN C-30 LENGTH $20.00 + $3.50 shpg. 
Individual storage boxes (sold only with cassettes) $2.40 per dozen. 
CASSETTE CADDY $5.49 + $1 .50 shpg. II for $10.00 + $2.50 
shpg. /S3.95 with cassette purchase (no shpg. chg. on caddy). 

Foreign orders include shipping at 16 oz. per dozen tapes/9 oz. per 
caddy/13 oz. per dozen boxes. Shipments in U.S. are by UPS (no 
delivery to P0 boxes). Add $1.50 per dozen tapes for First Class 
Mail. 



!!! NEW !!! CASSETTE CADDY !!! NEW !!! 

TIRED OF MISPLACED TAPES AND A CLUTTERED WORK AREA? TRY OUR 
HINGED TOP SMOKED PLASTIC CADDY THAT HOLDS 12 TAPES IN ONE 
HANHY inr.ATIflN 




RAINBOW 



CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Visa and Mastercard accepted (include expiration date) Orders paid by 
cashier's check, money order or bankcard are shipped within 48 hours. 
Personal check takes 1-2 wks. No COD. Some foreign sales are restricted. 
Texas residents add 5% tax. 

SEND ORDER TO: 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES 

P0 BOX 1723, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 

★ DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED * QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



Page 72 

Utility... 



I he RAINBOW 

Missing Graphics? Here Are Graphics! 



September, 1982 




By David Steyer 

Ever since I got my 80C, I have wanted a way to display 
graphics on my 80-column non-graphic printer. I have 
devised such a program and want to share it with other 
users. 

This self-explanatory program prints out three 128-line 
pages that, when taped together side-to-side, create a poster- 
size copy of your graphics screen. 

Since it has the ability to print a poster, I think it will be a 
nice program for the people who have graphic printers as 
well. And, you can even print banners simply by using one 
part of the screen f or the letters that you would like to use in 
the banners. Experiment with this one a bit and I am sure 
you will find all sorts of uses. 

Because of physical limitations, this program cannot 
work in PMODE4. 

Enjoy! 

The listing: 

1 0 PM0DE3 , 1 

20 PCLS 

30 SCREEN 1,0 

35 FOR Z=l TO 20 

40 Q=RND(240) 

50 CIRCLE (30,30) ,Q 

60 NEXT Z 

1000 PMODE 3,1: SCREEN 1,0 

1010 A*="» .**" 

1020 FOR X=255 TO 0 STEP-2 



1030 
1040 
1050 

,1> 
1060 

1070 
1080 

1090 

1100 

1110 

1120 

, 1) 
1130 

1140 

1150 

1 160 

1170 

1180 

1190 

,1) 
1200 

1210 



•i 



"> 




B*=STRING*<24, 

FOR Y=0 TO 55 - -"•"^ 

B*=B*+M I D* ( A* , PPO I NT ( X , Y ) + 1 

NEXT Y:PRINT#-2, B*: NEXT X 
Q=l 

GOSUB 1230 

FOR X=255 TO 0STEP -2 
B*=" " 

FOR Y=56 TO 135 

B*=B*+M I D* < A* , PPO I NT ( X , Y ) + 1 

NEXT Y:PRINT#-2, B*: NEXT X 
Q=2 

GOSUB 1230 

FOR X=255 TO 0 STEP -2 
B*=" " 

FOR Y=136 TO 191 

B*=B*+M I D* ( A* , PPO I NT ( X , Y ) + 1 



NEXT Y:PRINT#-2, B*: NEXT X 
PRINT#-2, STRING* (10, 10) 
1220' END 

1230 PRINT#-2, STRING*(10, 10) 
1240 CLS: PRINT "PAGE NUMBER "Q" IS 
COMPLETE- TEAR OFF PAGE AND P 
RESS < ENTER > TO START PAGE"Q+1 
1250 IF INKEY*OCHR*<13) THEN 12 
50 ELSE SCREEN 1,0: RETURN 




tware 



introduces 



Silly Syntax 



a sensational and educational version of a popular party 
game for the TRS-80" Color Computer . . , 

For 1 to 10 players. Load a story into the computer. The 
players are asked to supply a noun, verb, part of body, 
celebrity, etc. which the program uses to complete the 
story The story, which is displayed when all words are 
entered, will be hilarious. Silly Syntax requires Extended 
Basic For $19.95. you get a user guide and a tape 
containing the Silly Syntax game and two stories. 

You can create your own stories or order story tapes 
from the selection below. 



Silly Syntax stories • Ten stories per tape. 

SS - 004 - Current Events 
SS - 006 - Adventure I Sci-Fi 
SS - 007 - Potpourri 



SS - 001 - Fairy Tales 
SS - 002 - Sing Along 
SS - 003 - X-Rated 



Each story tape is $9.9% 10% off for 3 or more story tapes. 

Ohio Residents add 5.5% sales tax. 
Add $1.00 per cassette for postage and handling. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



RAINBOW 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 
(614)861-0565 




'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 




)l Lware 



Introduces . . . 

Auto Run 



Auto Run is a utility program for the TRS-80* Extended 
Basic Color Computer. It is used to add convenience and 
professionalism to your software. 

Auto Run will create a tape which will consist of a 
machine language loader followed by your basic or 
machine language program. With this tape, a simple 
CLOADM command will load and start the loader which 
will load and start your program. 

You may design a title screen with the graphics editor 
which will display as your program loads. Also you may 
record a vocal or musical introduction preceding your 
program. The Auto Run loader wilt control the audio 
on /off. 

Basic programs can be set to load anywhere in memory 
above $600 (the PCLEAR 0 page). 

Software authors: The Auto Run prefix may be 
appended to your software products. 

Auto Run is $14.95 and includes complete documenta- 
tion and an assembly source listing. 

Ohioans add 5.5% sales tax. 
Add $1.00 per tape for postage and handling. 
C O D. orders are welcome. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



RAINBOW 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 
2153 Leah Lane 
Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 
(614)861-0565 



'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp 




September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 73 




1 0 0 I I 



The Assembly Corner 



Questions . . . Questions 
And Some Answers For 
| Everyone 




By Dennis S. Lewandowski 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



(Mr. Lewandowski, an experienced assembly language 
programmer and teacher, is president of DSL Computer 
Products.) 

Well, here it is September. I started writing this series 
back in April. So, this is the sixth month and I hope you 
have been following it from the beginning. 

Last month I promised something different. I have 
received some interesting questions since the start of this 
series and rather than have them run in the Letters column, 
we thought it would be better if they were answered here. 

I would like to thank all the people who are following my 
series and I hope it is helpful and educational. The errors 
which seem to crop up in the listings I send to the 
RAINBOW were not done intentionally. Rather, the typos 
were made while the articles were transcribed to the 
typesetter (I hope). 

One of the letters I speak of was from a rather surprising 
source, a yery proficient and talented BASIC programmer. 
After all, most of us started out with BASIC. The method I 
have tried to present is to compare BASIC concepts with 
machine language code. I also feel it is necessary to explain 
what the program is doing and why it is doing it. 

What I propose to do is that if there are any questions 
about how or why, I will answer them in the column every 
six months. And, as Lonnie's photocopy machine may not 
be able to take the strain, please send any questions you may 
have to me at DSL Computer Products, P.O. Box 1 1 13, 
Dearborn, MI 48121. I try to answer all mail as quickly as 
possible, so don't worry about having to waitsix months for 
an answer. But then, we will answer questions of general 
interest here, and you will already know your specific 
answer. OK? 

As to the most recent questions. . . 

Question #1: Where are you getting all these ROM calls 
from? How do you know how to get them to work. Will you 
publish a list of them in a future issue? 

Certain ROM calls are taken directly from the back of the 
Getting Started With Color Basic and Going Ahead With 
Extended Color Basic manuals. Also, as you may have 
noted last month, the RAINBOW has started a list of all 
ROM calls as a project to which everyone has been invited to 
contribute. While certain addresses in the manuals are in 
error (if you wish to argue this, find address $ AOOZ!) the first 
14 bytes of the non-extended ROM contain the actual 
addresses of the subroutines. The best method of figuring 
out they work is by disassembling them. Here are the 
routines, and how they are used: 



(A000) or $A1 CI — This is the keyboard scan routine. I 
like to think of it as INKEYS, as it displays no cursor. The 
routine tells the PIA (Peripheral Interface Adaptor) to 
interrogate the keyboard. If the scan comes up empty (no 
keys pressed), the routine loads a zero in the A Register of 
the CPU, If a key is pressed, the ASCII value of that 
keypress is stored in A. This is a one-shot routine. To hold 
the computer in a loop until a key is pressed, use the 
following code: 

LOOP JSR SAICI 
BEQ LOOP 

(A002) or SA282 — This is the "official" character out 
routine. By official, I mean to say it is the routine the writer 
of the ROM chose to disclose. The routine hinges on the 
value of memory location $6F. If $6F contains a zero, the 
character contained in the A register is sent to the screen. If it 
is a -2 (or $FE), then the character goes to the printer. This 
means more code while writing programs. To make things 
easier, I use the routine this routine branches to. SA30A — 
A register goes to the screen. $ A2BF A register goes to the 
printer. 

(A004) or $A77C This routine is the cassette data 
read routine. I have another question which will explain this 
one. 

(A006) or SA708 — This routine loads in a "block"(255 
bytes) of data on cassette tape. The memory location $7C 
contains the block type: 255 (or $FF) if machine language, 0 
if BASIC and 1 if ASCII data. Memory location $7D 
contains the number of bytes you wish to save. If you wish to 
load more than 255 bytes you have to loop and subtract. 
Finally, memory locations $7E and $7F contain the address 
of where the program or data is to go. 

—Continued on Page 74 

^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

COLO* SC«»B6 

W P for tetters , and 

It P'°f e * 'can mcwe , w «g 

entire v . s xt ^tn 

POLOP SCWBE ^^formatt^^ e0ter - 

■ n • Taos, 

in9 '=i ,^„*tftes large' 



" ore - to edit text flea l^ge 

r, crfflBE allocs V 00 .™ of text or prog" 
COLOR SCFJ* ^'programs- 
than memory docurn ent or P 



■Jar 



Fan 



CALL 
OR 
WRITE 
FOR 
COMPLETE 
INFORMATION 




COMPUTERWARE 



® 



Dept. C • Box 668 
6809 Specialists Encinitas, CA 92024 • (714)436-3512 

Computerware is a trademark of Computerware 



\ 



Page 74 



The RAINBOW 



ASSEMBLY (From Page 73) 



(A008) or $A7F4 The opposite of the above IN 
routine. The "block" OUT routine uses the same memory 
locations for the same purposes. 

(AOOA) or $A9DE — This I like to label JOYSTK. It 
performs the same function, readingthe joystick values. The 
routine stores the results in memory locations $15 A to 
$15D. Thevaluesrangefromzero to 255, however, and must 
be scaled down to be usable. 

(AOOC) or $A7D8 This routine writes a leader to 
tape. Then BLOCK IN has to write the file header. 

Question #2: What is the difference between JSR and 
BSR? 

Not really very much. JSR (or Jump to SubRoutine) is a 
situation where the Program Counter's contents (the current 
execution address) is placed on the stack. The PC is then 
loaded with the address of the routine, this routine is 
executed, and upon finding a RTS (ReTurn from 
Subroutine), the original address is pulled from the stack 
and the main program is resumed. Try to think of this action 
as if the CPU were leaving a string to find its way back home 
once it received an urgent call. The BSR (Branch to 
SubRoutine) is a way of saving a byte. The same action is 
used except the CPU knows it is not going very far from the 
main program. 

Question #3: In your listing you make two consecutive 
compare statements. Is this an error? 

NO, the compares you refer to are being made on different 
registers. The first compare is on the A register, to see if we 
found the value we were looking for. The second compare is 
on the X register, to see if we have completed the search of 
the memory in question. 

Question #4: Why does the computer give me SN and OM 
errors once I return to BASIC from some machine language 
programs? 

The registers have confused the Basic interpreter. 
Sometimes to return to BASIC, a programmer will simply 
JUMP to SA027, the restart vector. What the registers 
contain will determine if the machine will "reboot, " and 
perform a cold start. I did this in the July program. To insure 
a cold start, just add the instruction DEC $71. This is the 
restart vector. By DECrementing it, the computer will think 
it has just been powered up and treats all the data in the 
registers as unusable. 

Question #5: What Is ASCII? 

ASCII, or American Standard Code for Information 
Interchange, was developed for the sending of data over 
wires to mechanical remote printing devices (remember 
Western Union?). This was sort of a standard, and, since 
computer designers love preestablished standards, it is used. 
Today, ASCII is the only item most computers have in 
common. This is why most computers are equal over the 
telephone lines. 

Question #6: How do tyle auto-start programs work? 

There are three methods for getting a program to auto- 
start once loaded from tape. Method One is to overwrite the 
stack. This is rather crude, but it works. Filling memory 
locations near the top of 16K memory with the same byte 
(such as $22 if the program executes at $2222), then saved 
from a 32K machine. Once loaded into a 1 6K computer, the 
stack contains all $22. The CPU pulls the PCf rom the stack, 
and, bang, auto-start. 

Method Two is to intercept the get character routine. At 
memory location $9F, the computer keeps a small part of its 



September, 1982 

"get character" routine. Putting the entire program here is 
unwise, as it will clobber many variables used by the ROM. 
A short load routine here which takes control is the best 
method. Load the X register with the memory location you 
wish the program to load at and then jump to the ROM 
routine at $A77C, the cassette read-in. Keep looking until 
EOF (end of file) is reached. The final three bytes should be 
to the execute address of your program and, again, you have 
auto-start. 

The third method will only work with a short utility 
program. Load the entire program into memory starting at 
$164. This must also be the starting address or ajump to the 
starting address. This area is also part of the keyboard scan 
routine. Once the CPU scans the keyboard, bingo, auto- 
start. 

I probably should give step-by-step instructions on each 
of these methods but that would take all the adventure out of 
it. Remember, Lm a firm believer in PLAY! 

Question #7: Why don't my programs work once I save 
them to tape with my Editor/ Assembler package? They 
work fine in memory. 

By leaving out the ORG statement the Assembler 
"assumed" you wanted it to ORiGinate at $0000. The second 
program was properly ORGed, however the last line just 
reads END, rather than END START. The Assembler 
again "assumed" the execution address to be $0000. The 
Editor/ Assembler package is excellent, but the people who 
wrote it "assumed" too much. 1 had the same problem with it 
when I first received it. 

Question #8: Would you put a listing with every 
installment? I learn just as much typing as I do reading your 
series. 

Your wish is my command. To the gentleman who 
requested a screen printer program, this is for you as well. 
This is not position independent code, so you must ORG it 
at either $3FA0 for I6K or $7FA0 for 32 K. Before loading, 



0001 


0600 






NAM HARDCOPY 




0002 


0600 






ORB I3FA0 


FOR 32K I7FA0 


0003 


3FA0 


B6016A 


START 


LDA I016A 


GET INSTRUCTION 


0004 


3FA3 


B73FE6 




STA RETURN 


STORE IN PR6M 


0005 


3FA6 


BE016B 




LDX I016B 


JUMP ADRS LOC 


0006 


3FA9 


BF3FE7 


VAR 


STX RETURN+1 


SAVE IT 


0007 


3FAC 


8E3FB3 




LDX ICHECK 


ROUTINE START 


0008 


3FAF 


BF016B 




STX I016B 


PUT IN PLACE 


0009 


3FB2 


39 




RTS 


BACK TO BASIC 


0010 


3FB3 


B10A 


CHECK 


CMPA #$0A 


SEE IF DUN ARM 


0011 


3FB5 


262F 




BNE RETURN 


IF CONT 


0012 


3FB7 


3416 




PSHS X,D 


SAVE REGISTERS 


0013 


3FB9 


8E0400 




LDX #$0400 


POINT AT SCRN 


0014 


3FBC 


C620 




LDB #$20 


LINE COUNT 


0015 


3FBE 


F73FA9 




STB VAR 


STORE COUNT 


0016 


3FC1 


A680 


LOOP 


LDA ,X* 


GET SCRN DATA 


0017 


3FC3 


8160 




CMPA #$60 


lower case? 


0018 


3FC5 


2C22 




BGE MINUS 


yes FIX IT 


0019 


3FC7 


8140 




CMPA #$40 


UPPER CASE? 


0020 


3FC9 


2F22 




BLE PLUS 


YES FIX IT 


0021 


3FCB 


BDA2BF 


HERE 


JSR IA2BF 


SEND TO PRINTER 


0022 


3FCE 


3404 




PSHS B 


DON'T MESS UP ROM 


0023 


3FD0 


F63FA9 




LDB VAR 


BET CHAR COUNT 


0024 


3FD3 


5A 




DEC B 


-1 FROM VAR 


0025 


3FD4 


C100 




CMPB i$0 


END OF LINE 


0026 


3FD6 


2719 




BEG NXTLIN 


IF SO SEND C/R 


0027 


3FD8 


F73FA9 


THERE 


STB VAR 


PUT COUNT BACK 


0028 


3FDB 


3504 




PULS B 


PUT B BACK 



September 1982 

0029 3FDD 8C0600 

0030 3FE0 2702 

0031 3FE2 20DD 

0032 3FE4 3516 

0033 3FE6 7E 

0034 3FE7 0000 

0035 3FE9 8040 

0036 3FEB 20DE 

0037 3FED 8B60 

0038 3FEF 20DA 

0039 3FF1 860D 

0040 3FF3 BDA2BF 

0041 3FF6 C620 

0042 3FF8 20DE 

0043 3FFA 

reserve memory for 
25,16228 for 16K or 



The RAINBOW 



DONE YET? 
IF SO EXIT 
IF NOT CONT 
RESTORE REGS 
JUMP OPCODE 
STORE ADRS HERE 
MAKE ASCII 
AND PRINT 
MAKE lower 
and print 
PUT C/R IN A 
SEND IT 
RESET COUNTER 
KEEP GOING 



Page 75 



case 



CMPX #$0600 
BED OUT 
BRA LOOP 
OUT PULS X,D 
RETURN FCB $7E 

FDB 0 
MINUS SUBA H40 
BRA HERE 
PLUS ADDA #$60 

BRA HERE 
NXTLIN LDA #$0D 
JSR $A2BF 
LDB #$20 
BRA THERE 

END START 
the routine by entering CLEAR 
CLEAR 25,32672 for 32K. Once 
loaded, type EXEC. Now that was fast! Nothing happened. 
Actually, the program is now poised and waiting to strike. 
Just press the down arrow and the normal screen will be sent 
to the printer. Here is how it works. 

Line #2 tells your Editor/ Assembler which memory you 
have, so be sure to ORG the program to the proper place. 
Line #3 is the START. We load the X register with the value 
of memory locations $16B and $16C. Remember, X is a 16- 
bit register. The value there will be different if you have 
Extended or Non-Extended Basic, that is why we don't just 
skip this step and put in a constant address as the return 
point. Again, we do what we did in July, we self-modify the 
program by storing the value we just got from $16B at 
RETURN+1 . Now we load X with the address of CHECK, 
again no constant address because youmay have either 16 or 
32K. Then we store the address of CHECK at $16B. Take a 
little, give a little. Believe it or not, we're done. We have just 
interfaced our program with BASIC. Every time the 
keyboard is scanned, our routine will check and see what is 
happening. 

OK, now we are in BASIC. The keyboard is scanned and 
our routine is entered at line #8, or CHECK. Bemember, 
BASIC uses the same ROM routines we used in past 
programs, so we know the A register will contain the ASCII 
value of the last key pressed. We compare A to $0 A (or the 
return value of the down arrow). Does it match? No, so we 
branch to RETURN. RETURN is the opcode for JuMP, 
the FDB below is where we stored the original value we got 
from $16B. So, in effect, we bypass our routine and send 
BASIC on its normal course, by jumping to its routine. 

Now, let's say A did contain $0A. The BNE is false, so we 
fall through. Earlier, I mentioned what happens when 
registers are confused in BASIC, so we will push the 
registers we are going to use onto the stack. Remember the 
D register is really A and B combined. 

Getting to the task at hand, we load X with $400, the start 
of the screen. This is a little tricky, most printers have room 
for 80 characters per line, we have only 32 ($20) per line on 
the screen. If we print without adjusting, the hard copy will 
just be scattered gibberish. So, we load B with 32 ($20) and 
store it at VAR. 

Wait a minute, VAR is part of the program. True, butit is 
a part we already used and we will not be using it again. If we 
typed EXEC again, without loading another ML program, 
we would replace the value at R ETURN+1 with the starting 
address of our own routine. The first time the address was 
jumped to, the computer would lock into an infinite loop. 
So, since the code cannot be reused, we recycle it and call it 
VAR. 

Next we start the real work. Load A with whatever the X 

—Continued on Page 78 



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Page 76 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



QUALITY SOFTWARE FOR TRS-80 COLOR AND OSI 

ADVENTURES AND QUEST ALSO FOR SINCLAIR AND VIC-20 




UL-LVLLLLL 




ADVENTURES!!! 
For TRS-80 COLOR and OSI. These Ad- 
ventures are written in BASIC, are full fea- 
tured, fast action, full plotted adventures 
that take 30-50 hours to play. (Adventures 
are inter-active fantasies. It's like reading 
a book except that you are the main char- 
acter as you give the computer commands 
like "Look in the Coffin" and "Light the 
torch.") 

Adventures require 16k on TRS80, TRS80 
color, and Sinclair. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on Vic-20. Derelict takes 12k on 
OSI. $14.95 each. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS 

(by Rodger Olsen ) 
This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANET. You'll have to explore a Martian 
city and deal with possibly hostile aliens to 
survive this one. A good first adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 
This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. 
It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of 
problems. Exciting and tough! 

TREK ADVENTURE (by Bob Retelle) 
This one takes place aboard a familiar star- 
ship. The crew has le" ft for good reasons — 
but they forgot to take, you, and now you 
are in deep trouble. 

HAUNTED HOUSE (by Bob Anderson) 
It's a real adventure — with ghosts and ghouls 
and goblins and treasures and problems — 
but it is for kids. Designed for the 8 to 12 
year old population and those who haven't 
tried Adventure before and want to start 
out real easy. 

DERELICT 

(by Rodger Olsen & Bob Anderson) 
New winner in the toughest adventure from 
Aardvark sweepstakes. This one takes place 
on an alien ship that has been deserted for a 
thousand years — and is still dangerous! 



VENTURER! — A fast action all machine code 
Arcade game that feels like an adventure. Go 
berserk as you sneak past the DREADED HALL 
MONSTERS to gather treasure in room after 
room, killing the NASTIES as you go. Great 
color, high res graphics, sound and Joystick game 
for the TRS-80 Color or OSI machines, (black 
and white and silent on OSI.) Tape only. $19.95. 

BASIC THAT ZOOOMMSM 

AT LAST AN AFFORDABLE COMPILER FOR 
OSI AND TRS-80 COLOR MACHINES!!! The 

compiler allows you to write your programs in 
easy BASIC and then automatically generates a 
machine code equivalent that runs 50 to 150 
times faster. 

It does have some limitations. It takes at least 
8K of RAM to run the compiler and it does oniy 
support a subset of BASIC — about 20 commands 
including FOR, NEXT, END, GOSUB, GOTO, 
IF, THEN, RETURN, END, PRINT, STOP, USR 
(X), PEEK, POKE, *,/,+,-,>,<, =, VARI- 
ABLE NAMES A-Z, SUBSCRIPTED VARI- 
ABLES, and INTEGER NUMBERS FORM0-64K. 

TINY COMPILER is written in BASIC. It gener- 
ates native, relocatable 6502 or 6809 code. It 
comes with a 20 page manual and can be modi- 
fied or augmented by the user. $24.95 on tape 
or disk for OSI or TRS-80 Color. 

LABYRINTH - 16K EXTENDED COLOR 
BASIC — With amazing 3D graphics, you fight 
your way through a maze facing real time mon- 
sters. The graphics are real enough to cause claus- 
trophobia. The most realistic game that I have 
ever seen on either system. $14.95. (8K on OSI) 




QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMES! Different from all the others. 
Quest is played on a computer generated 
map of Alesia. Your job is to gather men 
and supplies by combat, bargaining, explor- 
ation of ruins and temples and outright 
banditry. When your force is strong enough, 
you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable 
in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different every 
time. 16k TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Sin- 
clair. 13K VIC-20. $14.95 each. 





NEW!! 

BREAKAWAY ALL MACHINE CODE 
Every computer has some form of BREAK- 
AWAY available. Ours is fast, smooth, has 
15 levels of difficulty — and is a bargain!! 
16k TRS-80 Color only $9.95. 

PROGRAMMERS! 

SEE YOUR PROGRAM IN THIS SPACE!! 

Aardvark traditionally pays the highest com- 
missions in the industry and gives programs 
the widest possible coverage. Quality is the 
keyword. If your program is good and you 
want it presented by the best, send it to 
Aardvark. 



Please specify system on all orders 

ALSO FROM AARDVARK — This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI ), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1 .00 for our complete catalog. 




AARDVARK - 80 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313) 669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 



TRS-80 COLOR 



SINCLAIR 



OSI 



VIC-20 



September 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 77 



AARDVARK - THE ADVENTURE PLACE 

ADVENTURES FOR OSI, TRS-80, TRS-80 COLOR, SINCLAIR, PET, VIC-20 



ADVENTURES — Adventures are a unique 
form of computer game. They let you spend 
30 to 70 hours exploring and conquering a 
world you have never seen before. There is 
little or no luck in Adventuring. The rewards 
are for creative thinking, courage, and wise 
gambling -- not fast reflexes. 

In Adventuring, the computer speaks and 
listens to plain English. No prior knowledge 
of computers, special controls, or games is re- 
quired so everyone enjoys them — even people 
who do not like computers. 

Except for Quest, itself unique among Ad- 
venture games, Adventures are non-graphic. 
Adventures are more like a novel than a comic 
book or arcade game. It is like reading a par- 
ticular exciting book where you are the main 
character. 

All of the Adventures in this ad are in Basic. 
They are full featured, fully plotted adventures 
that will take a minimum of thirty hours (in 
several sittings) to play. 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, TRS- 
80, and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires extended 
BASIC. 

TREK ADVENTURE by Bob Retelle - This 
one takes place aboard a familiar starship and 
is a must for trekkies. The problem is a famil- 
iar one — The ship is in a "decaying orbit" 
(the Captain never could learn to park!) and 
the engines are out (You wouid think that in 
all those years, they wouid have learned to 
build some that didn't die once a week). Your 
options are to start the engine, save the ship, 
get offtheship, or die. Good Luck. 

Authors note to players — I wrote this one 
with a concordance in hand. It is very accurate 
— and a lot of fun. It was nice to wander 
around the ship instead of watching it on T.V. 

CIRCLE WORLD by Bob Anderson - The 

Alien culture has built a huge world in the 
shape of a ring circling their sun. They left 
behind some strange creatures and a lot of ad- 
vanced technology. Unfortunately, the world 
is headed for destruction and it is your job to 
save it before it plunges into the sun ! 

Editors note to players — In keeping with 
the large scale of Circle World, the author 
wrote a very large adventure. It has a lot of 
rooms and a lot of objects in them. It is a very 
convoluted, very complex adventure. One of 
our largest. Not available on OSI. 

HAUNTED HOUSE by Bob Anderson - This 
one is forthe kids. The house has ghosts, gob- 
lins, vampires and treasures — and problems 
designed for the 8 to 13 year old. This is a 
real adventure and does require some thinking 
and problem solving — but only for kids. 

Authors note to players —This one was fun 
to write. The vocabulary and characters were 
designed for younger players and lots of things 
happen when they give the computer com- 
mands. This one teaches logical thought, map- 
ping skills, and creativity while keeping their 
interest. 



DERELICT by Rodger Olsen and Bob Ander 

son — For Wealth and Glory, you have to ran- 
sack a thousand year old space ship. You'll 
have to learn to speak their language and 
operate the machinery they left behind. The 
hardest problem of all is to live through it. 

Authors note to players — This adventure 
is the new winner in the "Toughest Adventure 
at Aardvark Sweepstakes". Our most difficult 
problem in writing the adventure was to keep 
it logical and realistic. There are no irrational 
traps and sudden senseless deaths in Derelict. 
This ship was designed to be perfectly safe for 
its' builders. It just happens to be deadly to 
alien invaders like you. 




PYRAMID by Rodger Olsen - This is one of 
our toughest Adventures. Average time 
through the Pyramid is 50 to 70 hours. The 
old boys who built this Pyramid did not mean 
for it to be ransacked by people like you. 

Authors note to players — This is a very 
entertaining and very tough adventure. I left 
clues everywhere but came up with some in- 
genous problems. This one has captivated 
people so much that I get calls daily from as 
far away as New Zealand and France from 
bleary eyed people who are stuck in the 
Pyramid and desperate for more clues. 

QUEST by Bob Retelle and Rodger Olsen - 

THIS IS DIFFERENT FROM ALL THE 
OTHER GAMES OF ADVENTURE!!!! It is 
played on a computer generated map of 
Alesia. You lead a small band of adventurers 
on a mission to conquer the Citadel of Moor- 
lock. You have to build an army and then arm 
and feed them by combat, bargaining, explora- 
tion of ruins and temples, and outright ban- 
ditry. The game takes 2 to 5 hours to play 
and is different each time. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice visual effects and sound. Not 
available on OSI. This is the most popular 
game we have ever published. 

MARS by Rodger Olsen — Your ship crashed 
on the Red Planet and you have to get home. 
You will have to explore a Martian city, repair 
your ship and deal with possibly hostile aliens 
to get home again. 

Authors note to players — This is highly 
recommended as a first adventure. It is in no 
way simple —playing time normally runs from 
30 to 50 hours — but it is constructed in a 
more "open" manner to let you try out ad- 
venturing and get used to the game before 
you hit the really tough problems. 



NUCLEAR SUB by Bob Retelle - You start 
at the bottom of the ocean in a wrecked Nu- 
clear Sub. There is literally no way to go but 
up. Save the ship, raise her, or get out of her 
before she blows or start WWI 1 1 . 

Editors note to players — This was actually 
plotted by Rodger Olsen, Bob Retelle, and 
someone you don't know — Three of the nas- 
tiest minds in adventure writing. It is devious, 
wicked, and kills you often. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice sound and special effects. 

EARTHQUAKE by Bob Anderson and Rodger 
Olsen — A second kids adventure. You are 
trapped in a shopping center during an earth- 
quake. There is a way out, but you need help. 
To save yourself, you have to be a hero and 
save others first. 

Authors note to players — This one feels 
good. Not only is it designed for the younger 
set (see note on Haunted House), but it also 
plays nicely. Instead of killing, you have to 
save lives to win this one. The player must 
help others first if he/she is to survive — I like 
that. 

Please specify system on all orders 




ADVENTURE WRITING/ DEATHSH IP by 
Rodger Olsen -- This is a data sheet showing 
how we do it. It is about 14 pages of detailed 
instructions how to write your own adven- 
tures. It contains the entire text of Deathship. 
Data sheet - $3.95. NOTE: Owners of OSI, 
TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Vic 20 computers 
can also get Deathship on tape for 'an addi- 
tional $5.00. 

PRICE AND AVAILABILITY: 

All adventures are $14.95 on tape except 
Earthquake and Haunted House which are 
$9.95. Disk versions are available on OSI and 
TRS-80 Color for $2.00 additional. 



ALSO FROM AARDVARK — This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lotof other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 



AARDVARK -80 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313) 669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted. 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 



TRS-80 COLOR SINCLAIR OSI 



VIC-20 




Page 78 The RAINBOW 

ASSEMBLY (From Page 75) 

register is pointing at. Then we have to turn the data we get 
from the screen to ASCII. So, we subtract 64 ($40) if 
uppercase or add 96 ($60) if lowercase. Yes, even the spaces 
have to be converted. 

Once the conversion is done, we BRanch Always to 
HERE, which is a ROM routinethatsendsthecontents of A 
to the printer. Next we push B because we don't want to 
confuse the ROM routine we are calling. Load B with the 
line count stored in VAR, subtract one by decrementing. 
Check to see if we have reached the end of a line. If not, we 
store B again, pull the original contents, and continue. 

If we have reached . the end of a line, we branch to 
NXTLIN. At NXTLIN we load A with SOD, a carriage 
return, and jump to the ROM printing routine. Once the 
carriage return is "printed," we load B with 32 ($20) and 
branch to THERE, which puts the line count back in VAR. 
Then we start a new line. 

Once we have finally sent the entire screen to the printer, 
we branch to OUT. To keep BASIC happy, we restore X and 
D to their original values, then jump to the routine it wanted 
anyway. There you have it: A working screen print program. 

One final question. Can you use the routines and code 
from my series in your own programs? The answer is YES, 
of course you can. The object of this series is to help you 
explore machine language. By writing your own code, even 
using my routines, you will learn a great deal. Just 
remember, if it can be done, vou can do it! 

See ya next month. 

Foilowup... 

This Is A Dog- 
Gone Interesting Program 

Readers of the June and August issues of the RAIN BOW 
will recall an article on various printers and a somewhat 
heated (if tongue-in-cheek) reply by Dave Hooper of 
Hoffman Estates, 111. 

In his letter, Mr. Hooper referred to a program written by 
James H. Barringer of Taylor, Mich., which reproduced a 
figure of a famous canine through the Line Printer VII. Our 
editorial note attached to the letter was that we wished we 
could have been able to run the screen print Mr. Hooper 
furnished, but were advised not to do so due to possible 
copyright violations. 

In the meantime, Mr. Barringer has been kind enough to 
furnish us with a copy of the program, which he has placed 
in public domain. While we still cannot run the screen print, 
the program listed below should give you an idea of what the 
Line Printer VII can do. You must, of course, load in a 
graphic screen print program (available from Custom 
Software Engineering, 807 Minuteman Causeway, Cocoa 
Beach, FL 32931 or from a Radio Shack store) to get the 
actual printout. Custom Software Engineering also has 
programs which will work with the Epson MX-80 as well as 
both 1.1 and 1.0 ROM 80Cs. The Line Printer VIII will 

work, too. 
Thanks to Mr. Hooper and Mr. 

program. 

The listing: 
10 PM0DE4, 1 
20 PCLS 
30 SCREEN 1,0 
40 LINE<89,59)-<93,67) , 
50 CIRCLE (52, 138) ,54, , 1, .77, .88 
60 CIRCLE (56, 65) ,25, , .80, .26, .70 
70 CIRCLE (29, 65) ,9, , 1, . 18, .85 
80 CIRCLE (60, 98), 54, , 1, .72, .81 



Barringer for this 




31, 

220 CIRCLE (170,0) ,67, , 



,73 



230 CIRCLE (114, 111 
0 

240 CIRCLE (81, 52) , 
250 CIRCLE (93, 61) , 
4 

260 LINE (100, 35) -( 
270 CIRCLE (120, 22) 
8 



CIRCLE (120, 54) 

CIRCLE(159,65) 

CIRCLE (170, 32) 

LINE(166,51)-( 
CIRCLE (125, 104 

CIRCLE(93, 136) 

LINE(117, 147)- 
CIRCLE(142, 152 



370 CIRCLE (136, 143 
380 CIRCLE (90, 134) 
390 CIRCLE (100, 119 
9 



280 

89 

290 

80 

300 

9 

310 

320 

.50 

330 

09 

350 

360 



,20, , 1, .60, .7 

06, 104) ,PSET, 

69,42) ,PSET 
, , 1, .44, .69 



September, 1982 
90 CIRCLE (80, 29) ,20, , 1, . 13, .29 
100 CIRCLE (118, 110 
0 

110 LINE(85, 100)-( 
BF 

120 LINE(107,28)-( 
130 CIRCLE (135, 82) 
140 CIRCLE (123, 83) 
38 

150 CIRCLE (102, 58) 
8 

160 CIRCLE (117, 65) 
170 CIRCLE(103,24) 
37 

180 CIRCLE (150, 34) 
39 

190 CIRCLE (150, 78) 
200 CIRCLE (174, 54) 
38 

210 CIRCLE (152, 79) 



15, 

54, 

24, 
24, 

24, 



12, 



■ 89 , ■ 1 8 , m 

.80, .0, . 1 

1,-70,-88 
.90, .24, . 

. 90, . 28, . 

1, .75, .86 
.80, .23, . 



1 , .79, .91 
,.29,. 



, 1, .74, .8 



4, , 1, .72, .82 
30, , .90, .70, .8 



16 

47 
47 

75 



24 



27 



20) ,PSET 
■ 88, ■ 55, ■ 8 

, . 78 , . 74 , . 

, . 84 , . 73 , • 

.85, .74, .0 

35) ,PSET 
, , . 90, . 38, 

, . 88 , ■ 87 , ■ 



125, 150) ,PSET 
, 17, , ■ 88, . 55, 

, 5, , 1 , . 64, . 99 
52, , 1, .04, . 19 
,19,,1,. 59 , ■ 6 

—Continued on Page 80 



Custom Programming 

BUSINESS AND SCIENTIFIC 

If the program you want can't be found, then we can write 
it for you. Our programming rates are very competitive and 
our customers are guaranteed 100% satisfaction. 

We write programs for the Models II, III and the Color 
Computer . 

If interested, call or write for more information. 

TEAGUE PROGRAMMING & CONSULTING 
518 North 30th Street-P.O. Box 728 
Paducah, Kentucky A2001 (502)442-0203 



September, 1982 



SKY-DEFENSE 



Can You Survive The First Wave of Attack. 

Or The Next. . . 

Or The Next. . . 

(Only Your Joystick Will Ever Know!) 



■ ■ 



gh-Res, High-Speed, Color and Sound 
Machine Language, Of Course 



Fly Horizontally Over Mountains And Terrain and 

Battle the Attackers.. .If You Can! 



16K— Joysticks Required 

Cassette $22.95 plus $1.50 postage and handling 
California Residents please add 6% ($1.38) State Sales Tax 

Allow 2-3 Weeks For Delivery (Money Orders— One Week) 

United States Funds Only, Please! 

RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

Quasar Animations 

1520 Pacific Beach Drive 
San Diego, California 

92109 



Page 80 The RAINBOW 

DOG (From Page 78) 
400 LINE(95, 117>-<89, 127) , PSET 
410 CIRCLE (83, 126) ,6, , 1, -80, -99 
420 L I NE ( 84 , 1 2 1 ) - ( 84 , 116) , PSET 
430 CIRCLE (78, 115) ,6, , 1, -58, -0 
440 CIRCLE (73, 119) ,5, , 1, -20, -82 
450 CIRCLE (72, 126) ,3, , 1, - 13, -82 
460 CIRCLE (94, 127) , 19, -88, -29, -5 
0 

470 CIRCLE (86, 125) , 18, , 1, -07, - 19 
480 CIRCLE (100, 143) ,31, , 1, -49, -5 
9 

490 CIRCLE (83, 121) , 19, , 1-9, -25, - 

37 

500 CIRCLE (87, 163) ,8, , 1, -46, -62 
510 LINE (66, 156) - (80, 166) , PSET 
520 CIRCLE (61, 161) ,8, , 1, -38, -86 
530 CIRCLE (111, 113) ,77, , 1, -28, -3 
8 

540 LINE(93, 172)-(98, 175) , PSET 
550 CIRCLE (101, 182) ,7, , 1, -68, .29 
560 CIRCLE (79, 166) , 14, , 1, -94, -09 
570 CIRCLE(94, 149) , 14, , 1, - 10, -26 
580 CIRCLE(113, 133) ,26, , 1, -21, -3 

0 

590 CIRCLE ( 141 , 191) ,39, , 1, .57, .6 
8 

600 CIRCLE (71, 176) , 17, , 1 , -62, -67 

610 CIRCLE(78, 181) , 17, , 1, -62, -67 

620 CIRCLEU27, 170) , 17, , 1-9, -44, 
-47 

630 CIRCLE (134, 166) , 17, , 1-9, -44, 
-47 




September 1982 
650 LINE (86, 115) -(183, 77) , PSET 

660 LINE (205, 69) -(228, 60) , PSET 

670 LINE(72, 123)-(48, 134) , PSET 

680 LINE(72, 127)-(50, 137) , PSET 

690 LINE(86, 1 19) - (200, 73) , PSET 

700 LINE (210, 69) -(228, 62) , PSET 

710 CIRCLE(47, 137) ,2 

720 CIRCLE (222, 61) ,5, , -60 

730 CIRCLE (232, 61) ,5, , -60 

740 LINE (221, 70) -(228, 61 ), PSET 

750 LINE- (234, 70) , PSET 

770 CIRCLE (197, 66) ,6, , 1- 1,0, -51 

780 CIRCLE (189, 58) ,6, , 1-9, -72, - 1 

7 

790 CIRCLE (186, 43) ,9, , .72, .26, .8 
7 

800 CIRCLE (194, 36) ,4, , 1,0, -35 
810 CIRCLE (210, 62) ,9, , 1, -45, -79 
820 LINE (198, 42) -(200, 46) , PSET 
830 LINE (198, 28) -(200, 35) , PSET 
840 LINE (206, 26) -(206, 33) , PSET 
850 LINE (215, 39) -(222, 35) , PSET 
860 LINE(211,35)-(214,28) , PSET 
870 LINE (215, 46) -(226, 45) , PSET 
880 LINE(212,52)-(218,58) , PSET 
890 LINE(214,49)-(223,52) ,PSET 
900 CIRCLE(186,71) ,3, ,2 
910 CIRCLE (189, 70) ,3, ,2, -65, -33 
920 CIRCLE (178, 124) ,57, , 1, -80, -8 
8 

930 LINE (220, 83) -(225, 79) , PSET 
940 CIRCLE (194, 123) ,55, , 1, -77, -8 
5 

950 LINE (228, 61) -(228, 104) , PSET 
960 CIRCLE (204, 105) ,25, , 1-2,0, -5 
5 

970 CIRCLE (177, 87) ,6, ,2, -66, -20 

980 CIRCLE (172, 83) ,4, , 1, -5 

990 CIRCLE ( 168,85) ,4, , 1-5 

1000 CIRCLE (164, 87) ,4, , 1-5 

1010 CIRCLE( 160,88) ,4, , 1-5 

1020 CIRCLE ( 156,90) ,4, , 1-5 

1030 CIRCLE(152,91) ,4, , 1-5 

1040 LINE(148,93)-(148, 127) , PSET 

1050 CIRCLE (148, 130) ,2 

1060 CIRCLE(151, 137) ,3, ,2-5,0, -6 

9 

1070 CIRCLE(68, 156) ,27, , 1, -34, -4 
1080 CIRCLE(61, 161) ,27, , 1, -39, -4 
4 

1090 CIRCLE(101, 149) ,40, , 1, - 10, - 

20 

1100 CIRCLE(240, 179) ,6, , -69, -70, 
-25 

1110 CIRCLE(240, 185) ,6, , .69, .75, 
.32 

1120 LINE (238, 175)-(238, 189) , PSE 
T 

1130 LINE (238, 182) -(230, 182) , PSE 
T 

—Continued on Page 82 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 81 



COLOR COMPUTER OISK SYSTEM 




We offer a complete disk drive interface system for the color computer, featuring the Tall Grass 
Technologies Double Density, buffered disk controller card. The disk interface board plugs into the color 
computer expansion socket and provides for doubling the storage capacity of single density type disk drives 
by using GCR encoding / decoding techniques. Power may be taken internally from the system or from an 
external power supply (not normally required even with piggyback 4116 s installed) This controller will 
support up to 4 single/double density, single/double sided 5 & 1/4 inch disk drives. These include Shugart 
400 series, Siemens 82, TEAC 50 series, Pertec FD200. MPI B51/52/91/92, Tandon and others. The 
controller uses standard 10 sector diskettes and does not read or write the soft-sectored IBM style formats 
used by TRS-80 or FLEX systems. Two reasons for not using a soft sectored system are cost and reliability. 

The Tallgrass double density format offers more margin for worn diskettes, dirt etc. and less expensive 
single density disk drives & diskettes. All you need to add to have a complete disk system is a disk drive / 
cable. 

DISK OPERATING SYSTEM (ODS) 

The Disk Operating System for the Tallgrass Technologies Disk controller (CCMD + 9) is a full featured 
"BASIC" compatible operating system. It is fully integrated with the ROM basic system already in the color 
computer and automatically is initialized upon system power on much the same as the R.S. disk system 
does. But there is a big difference between that disk system and CCMD + 9. First of all we support any mix 
of 35. 40 or 80 track single or double sided disk drives, which allows a minimum of 4 times the storage 
capacity of the "other" disk system. We also make far better use of the disk storage space by using sector 
allocation for each file instead of the granual method of 8 sector blocks which can waste anywhere from 1 to 
7 sectors for each file on the disk. For example, on their DOS. if 5 files each required only 2 sectors there 
would be 40 disk sectors allocated, a waste of 30 disk sectors or almost 4 ' "granuals". This is not the case 
in our disk system, only the required number of sectors would be used. 

Many other disk systems using a sector allocation system have a problem with file fragmentation and 
excessive seek time after a disk is used over and over adding and deleting files until it becomes so bad that 
the disk must be re-formatted to correct the problem. With CCMD + 9 this is notthe case, as files are deleted 
the disk space is automatically repacked to help keep files from being fragmented and decrease access time. 

The DOS is contained in a ROM on the disk controller the same as the R.S. disk system so you don't have 
to ' 'bootstrap' ' the DOS off of a disk and it doesn't get clobbered easily by a runaway program as most ram 
based systems do. The DOS does "NOT" require Extended Basic and will run on a 4. 16 or 32K system 
without any modifications. CCMD + 9 uses approximately 1 K of ram for the disk system which is taken from 
the top of memory, this allows all previously purchased tape software to function with the disk system, this 
is not so with the R.S. disk system. 

CCMD+9 supports both Basic and Machine language programs. It is easily accessible to the beginner or 
advanced machine language programmer with easy to use and well documented entry points to perform disk 
as well as screen/printer/keyboard input & output. It includes 10 disk file functions to open, close, 
read/write random or sequential files, read specific sector of file, flush sector buffer to file, close & rewind 
file (re-open) and process disk system errors. The screen/printer/keyboard I/O functions include: input 
character, output character, output text string, output carriage return, output 2/4 hex characters, output 
space character and read/write single disk sector. 

The "BASIC" interface system allows Basic and Basic programs to communicate with the disk system 
much the same as the R.S. disk system does with a few added features. It includes both Direct and Indirect 
basic commands, Direct commands can be executed any time and Indirect commands are contained with 
"Basic" programs. The Direct commands inctude: LOAD or SAVE (binary/ASCII basic program disk file). 
CHAIN (load & execute basic program) and CDOS "disk command". The "CDOS command allows you to 
execute a specific disk command from the free standing disk system, these include: LOAD/SAVE machine 
language or memory file. REMOVE one or more disk files. CHANGE disk file name. CHECK disk file for 
errors, ANALYZE disk directory. STRACK set tracks & sides for disk drive. SCMP set compare on/off. RUN 
load & execute machine language disk program. GOTD execute machine language program at specified 
address, and NEW initialize disk. If the "CDOS" command is executed without any command following 
control is passed to CCMD+ 9 where any of the previously mentioned commands can be executed directly 



thus providing total control of the entire system. The command system is easy to learn and remember with a 
minimum of effort on the users part. The BASIC interface system was designed to be compatible with the 
existing I/O commands used with tape files for easy conversion and upgrading to disk. When using Basic 
disk files up to 9 files can be active at once with all disk file memory allocation being done automatically at 
run time, you don't have to resetve file space as with the R.S. disk system. The Indirect basic commands 
include: Open. Print. Input. Line Input (ext. Basic). EOF. Rewind, Close, Print Using (Ext. Basic), these all 
function in the same manner as basic tape file I/O. 

CCMD + 9 has one other unique feature not found in most disk systems. Eash disk initialized by the 
system is assigned a disk label which can be used instead of a disk drive number, the system will 
automatically locate which drive the diskette is on and use it accordingly. This can be very usefull in basic 
programs which use files on multiple disks, you don't have to worry which disk belongs in which drive. 

Part of the power and flexibility of CCMD + 9 lies in the Disk Utility System which allows the system 
commands to be greatly expanded by adding utility or transient disk commands. These commands are 
automatically handled by the system so as not to overwrite Basic programs in memory and can even be 
called by a Basic program in some cases. For example you can perform a disk copy or backup while still 
preserving a basic program currently in memory, no other system that we know of has this ability. We 
currently have a list of utilities available and will be adding to it constantly to improve the system 

SOFTWARE SUPPORT 

This disk system is the most recent one to enter the color computer disk market and is currently the only 
one with any disk software to support it There should be no problem in the future with a lack of software for 
this system because, it is extremely easy to interface software to. We currently have available for the disk 
system: a Disk Assembler which allows files larger than memory to be assembled, a Disk Text Editor which 
makes writing Basic and Assembler programs easy and also will edit files larger than memory, a Disk Text 
Editor/ Processor (WORD PROCESSOR) "TEXTPR01 which is easy to learn and extremely powerful for its 
price range, TEXTPRO II is an advanced version with expanded features: programmable tabs, 3 line 
processable headers, decimal/center/right justify/ horizontal tabs, keyboard input processing and more. A 
Disk Disassembler/Source generator, a Disk system monitor which includes all of the "TRSMDN" monitor 
commands & has access to all of CCMD + 9 disk commands & automatically locates itself at the top of 
memory to stay out of the way, and a full compliment of disk utilities The utility disk includes: full disk 
backup, build disk text file from keyboard, 24 hour screen clock, single or multiple disk file copy, text file 
executive processor. ASCII/HEX file dump/hst/map utility, ASCII file lister/printer, and a disk relabel 
utility. All at prices far below what other disk system software sells for 



TG-99 Disk Controller w/CCMD + 9 DOS ROM 

CCASM9 Disk Assembler 

CCEDT9 Disk Text Editor 

CCDISS Disk Disassembler Source Generator 

CCTPR1 Disk Text Editor/Word Processor TEXTPRO 1 

CCTPR2 Disk Text Editor/Word Processor TEXTPRO 2 

CCUTLY Disk Utilities 

DOSMON Disk system monitor/utility program 

CGAME1 HI-RES Graphic games Space Invaders, Meterioids, Space War 

CGAME2 Mixed games Battle Fleet, Space Traders, Adventure 



$159.95 



34.95 
24.95 
29.95 
39.95 
59.95 
19.95 
29.95 
49.95 
3995 



SPECIAL LIMITED OFFER 



We have a complete disk system package available that includes: a 40 track single sided disk drive with 
power supply, case, 2 drive cable, TG-99 controller w/CCMD + 9 and a disk containing CCUTLY disk 
utilities and CCEDT9 disk editor all assembled and tested for $499.00 
Additional 40 trackdrive with power supply & case tested $300 00 

For double sided drives add $100.00 per drive. Add $5 00 per drive lor shipping. NO COD's on disk drives 
or disk system special. Shipping for disk controller add $2.50. for Disk software only add $1.00 Visa & 
M/C add 3% (this is what the bank charges us). 

Manufactured under license from Tall Grass Technologies. 



CO RESIDENT EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 



RAINBOW 



Co-resident Editor/Assembler that will allow the user to create, edit and assemble machine language 
programs for the color computer. The editor portion of the program is similar to the text editor in TEXTPRO. 
The assembler will output machine object code to either cassette tape in a 'CLOADM' readable format or 
directly to memory for direct execution. The assembly listing can optionally be output to the printer con- 
nected to the RS-232/Printer port on the color computer. All errors are displayed with a full text message for 
easy identification. The assembler supports the full compliment of the M6809 instruction set and also will 
cross assemble 6800 source code to produce M6809 compatible object code. 

C0-HES9 $39.95 



SYSTEM MONITOR 



0^ 

PA.NBtJ* 



TRSMDN is a 2K system monitor program that willallow you to explore the workings of the color computer. It 
features 9 debuging commands, tape load and save compatible with Basic "CLOADM up/down load via 
RS232 port, terminal package that allows the color computer to be used as a terminal at baud rates up to 
9600 baud and a printer driver to direct display output to the printer for memory dumps, disassemblies etc. 
The program is position independent so it can be moved anywhere within the system memory. A very 
powerful tool at a very reasonable price. Commands Include: 

Memory examine & change. Gotodefined address. Load Tape program (w/offset). Load Motorola SI -S9 file 
(RS232). Save Tape program. Send memory file S1-S9 (RS232), Set and/or display breakpoints. Remove 
one or all breakpoints. Define printer/terminal baud rate, Set and/or display registers. Dump memory in Hex 
& Ascii format, Disassemble memory file. Terminal mode & optional buffer. Fill memory. Move block of 
memory. Find memory byte sequence. Exit monitor to Basic. Exit monitor to Rom Pack (JCOOO). Re-initialize 
monitor. Direct output to printer 

TRSMON ON TAPE $19.95 
TRSMON M 2716 Eprom $34.95 



SK COLOR RAM/EPflOM CARTRIDGE HOLDS 4-2716 EPROM or RAM 
2K RAM CHIPS $19.95 

5%" DISKETTES, SOFT OR HARD SECTOR, BOX OF 10 
MOTOROLA 6809 PROGRAMMERS MANUAL 
+ $2.50 SHIPPING 1ST CLASS 



$24.95 

2716 EPROMS $14.00 
$30.00 
$11.95 



TEXTPRO 
TEXT EDITOR/PROCESSOR 



TEXTPRO is a complete text editor & text processing program for the Color Computer. The program in- 
cludes our powerful full function text editor plus the added features of a text processor. The entire program 
utilizes only 6K of memory space including the tape, screen and keyboard buffers. It is extremely fast in 
editing and processing text files and is compatible with Basic ASCII formatted tape files. 

The Editor itself includes 24 commands including string search & replace; line and automatic line edit 
modes which allow you to insert, delete, change or add characters. Automatic line editing allows you to skip 
forward and backward for checking and editing, all screen editing immediately updates the screen so you 
know exactly what you are doing at all times. The Editor also has commands to move or copy single lines or 
blocks of text from one place to another. Some ot the other commands include Tape load, save and append; 
Automatic line numbers, delete line, set input line length and printer output. 

The Text Processor includes 29 commands for formating the output, some of them include: page length, 
left margin, top & bottom margin, line length, justify & fill modes, page heading, center line, double width 
print, margin control, single, multiple & special indent modes, test lines left on page, display & input from 
keyboard and even special control codes can be sent to the printer for different print densities etc. It even 
has a repeat command with a next command to redo all of or a portion of the file as many times as needed. 
TEXTPRO will turn your color computer into a full fledged text processing machine at a price you won't 
believe. Available on 'CLDADM' compatible cassette. 

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY PRICE $29.95 
RS. DISK VERSION $49.99 



DATAPACK 
OATA COMMUNICATIONS PACKAGE 

DATAPACK is a Terminal package program for the COLOR COMPUTER, allowing you to use the color 
computer as a buffered computer terminal through a modem to a time sharing network or as a direct connect 
terminal to another computer system at rates up to 9600 baud. This program is more than a standard 
"Videotexf ' type program in that it will allow you to save data stored in the buffer either to cassette tape, or 
output a hard copy to a printer. The data buffer is automatically set to the maximum size of your system 
memory when entered to allow maximum space for saving data. The program includes features to send 
control codes and to enable or disable keyboard echo. When the terminal mode is exited the contents of the 
buffer may be viewed on the screen or saved to tape for later loading. Also the RS-232 port can be used to 
plug your printer back in for sending the screen buffer to the printer. An additional feature is the ASCII 
formatthat is used on tape is compatible with the CER-COMP Text Editor program and BASIC, enabling you 
to edit or delete unwanted information. 

PRICE: $24.95 ON CASSETTE 
RS. DISK VERSION $49.95 



5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 



CER-COMP 

(702)452-0632 



All Orders Shipped From Stock 
Add $1 .00 Postage - MC/Visa Add 3% 



Page 82 

Education... 

A Handy Math Drill 
Package For Your Use 

By Geoff Wells f 

Probably the first program of any consequence that most 
of us write is some sort of math quiz. Unfortunately, the 
beginner is so concerned wit h j ust gett ing the program t o ru n 
that Little attention is given to formatting. Having the output 
of the program scroll from the bottom to the top of the 
screen is not very interesting. 

In this version of a math test, there is an opening title and 
input of the player's name. You are then given a choice of 
problems; addition, subtraction, multiplication, division or 
a mixture of each. By using INKEYS in a printing loop, the 
letters A, S, D, M and X will flash until you press the 
appropriate key. 

Your choice of problems will then be printed inside 
randomly colored blocks which will clear if answered 





DOG (From Page 80) 




1140 


LINE(230, 172)-(230, 


189) ,PSE 


T 






1150 


CIRCLE (225, 178) ,6, , 


3, - 10, .4 


2 






1155 


CIRCLE (90, 123) , 19, 1 


, . 9, . 26, 


.43 






1160 


LINE(221, 172)-(238, 


172) ,PSE 


T 






1170 


GOTO 1170 





The RAINBOW September, 1982 

correctly. You have two chances to get each question right 
before the correct answer is displayed and you are directed 
to the next problem. 

After you have completed all ten questions, your score 
and time are displayed, along with a comment on your 
performance. If you are running the program for children, 
you may wish to edit some of the responses to a less caustic 

message. 

10 * MATH PRACTICE 

20 * GEOFF WELLS HAMILTON ONTARIO 
60 DIM A (10) 'CORRECT ANSWER AR 
RAY 

70 CLS(0) 
80 ' 

90 'TITLE ROUTINE 

100 FOR TA=1 TO 4:PRINT5>0, ""; : FO 
R TB=1 TO 102:SY*=CHR*(RND(10)+4 
7) : PR I NT" math "SY$; : NEXT TB: PRINT 
"m" ; : NEXT TA 

110 FOR X=15 TO 44:SET(X,5,6) :SE 
T(X, 16,6) :NEXT X 

120 FOR Y=6 TO 15: SET ( 15, Y, 6) : SE 
T(44, Y,6) : NEXT Y 
130 GOSUB 1310 ' GET NAME 
140 ' 

150 HA=0:PP=62: XP=384 
160 PRINTTAB(5) "WHAT KIND OF QUE 
ST IONS" 

170 PRINT: PR INTTAB (9) "WOULD YOU 
LIKE" 

180 PR I NT : PR I NTT AB (12) "ADDITION" 

—Continued on Page 84 



FOR I = 1 TO 100 
PRINT "I WILL HOT CRASH 
IN CLASS" 

NEXT I 



Extended 
BASIC 
Color 

Computer 



Has your TRS-80 Color Computer 

READ A GOOD TAPE LATELY? 

Trying to educate your CoCo can be a trying 
experience. Pounding on the keyboard is not 
the positive reinforcement your computer 
needs. CHROMASETTE Magazine is the civilized 
way to introduce your computer to the world 
of good software. 

With CHROMASETTE Magazine, CoCo gets 
both quantity and quality. Every month, 6 to 
8 programs arrive by First Class Mail. No need 
to type them in — CHROMASETTE Magazine 
is a cassette tape with educational, practical, utility, and game programs on it. 
Just load and run. Ah, the life of luxury! Give your computer a cultural lesson. 

Get a subscription to CHROMASETTE Magazine. 





The Bottom Line: 

1 year (12 issues) ... $45.00 

6 months (6 issues) $25.00 

Single copies $5 00 
Calif, residents add 6% to single copies. 
Overseas — add $10 to subscriptions, and $1 to 
single copies Sent AO rate 



The Fine Print: Issues are sent First Class Mai! Ail issues from July 81 on available 
— ask for hst Programs are for the Extended BASIC model only 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp MasterCard/Visa/Gold also welcome 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 




Magazine 

PO. Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 (805) 9631066 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 83 



Spectral Associates 

First Annual 

Graphic Game Contest 

TO WRITE A MACHINE LANGUAGE HIGH 
RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS GAME FOR 

THE COLOR COMPUTER 

First Prize $2,000 

(And the coveted PRISM Trophy) 

The Prism Trophy is a new award which will be much-coveted in years to 
come. The winning game will be published under contract with Spectral 
A ssociates. 

Second Prize $500 
Third Prize $200 

The submission deadline is November 1 5, 1 982. Winners will be notified 
by December 1, 1982. Formal announcement of the winners will be 
made in the January, 1983, issue of the RAINBOW. 

To enter, mail entries to Spectral Associates, P. O. Box 9971 5, Tacoma, 
Wa 98499. Further information available by writing or calling Spectral at 

(206) 565-8483. 

*** Winner to be selected by a panel of respected judges*** 

Employees of SPECTRAL ASSOCIA TES and their families are prohibited from entering the contest! 

Games which are submitted, win prizes and are subsequently published by 
SPECTRAL ASSOCIA TES will receive full royalties and full author recognition 
will be given. Royalties will be paid in addition to the prize money. 



Page 84 _ The RAINBOW 

DRILL (From Page 82) " " 

190 PRINT: PR I NTT AB< 10) "SUBTRACT I 
0N M 

200 PR I NT : PR I NTT AB ( 9 ) "MULTIPLICA 
TION" 

210 PRINT: PRINTTAB( 12) "DIVISION" 
220 PRINT:PRINTTAB( 15) "OR" 
230 PR I NT : PR I NTT AB ( 8 ) "A MIXTURE 
OF EACH" 

240 ' FLASH KEY LETTERS 

250 PRINT3140, "a"; :PRINT5>202, "s" 

; :PRINT5>265, "m"; :PRINT5>332, "d"; : 

PRINT3460, "x"; 

260 A*=INKEY* 

270 FOR T=l TO 80: NEXT T 

280 PR I NTS) 140, "A" ; : PRINT3202, "S" 

; :PRINT5>265, "M"; :PRINT5>332, "D"; : 

PRINT3460, "X"; 

290 FOR T=l TO 80: NEXT T 

300 IF A*="" THEN 250 

310 IF A*="A" OR A*="S" OR A*="M 

" OR A*="D" OR A*="X" THEN 340 E 

LSE 250 

320 ' 

330 ' SET UP SCREEN 
340 CLS(0) 

350 ' 10 BLOCKS & QUESTIONS 
360 FOR D=l TO 10 

370 IF A*="X" THEN P=RND(4) ELSE 
P=0 

380 GOSUB 1490:GOSUB 890:GOSUB 8 
60 

390 IF P=l OR A*="A" THEN 1020 
400 IF P=2 OR A*="S" THEN 1090 
410 IF P=3 OR A*="M" THEN 1160 
420 IF P=4 OR A*="D" THEN 1230 



CQMPUBW I TCH 



TIRED DP W PULLING THE PLUS** TD REWIND DR ADVANCE YOUR CASSETTE "> 



T XME COMPUBW I TCM 



• FOOT OPERATED SWITCH OVER* I DCS COMPUTER CONTROL OF YOUR CA88ETTE. 
BIWLY PLACE YOUR RECORDER IN THE MODE YOU WISH (REMIND, 
FAST FORWARD, ETC. ) AND HIT THE SWITCH. THE RECORDER WILL RUN AS 
LCHB AS YOUR FOOT IS ON THE SWITCH. 



• THE 8INBLE RDST CONVENIENT HARDWARE ACCESSORY YOU'LL EVER OWN. 
ALLOWS FOR MORE EFFICIENT OPERATION. 

• NO HAR W ARE OR SOFTWARE PACIFICATIONS NECE86ARY. JUST PLUS9 
INTO YOUR REORDER. 

• ELIMINATES NEAR AND TEAR ON YOUR CABLE8 AND RECORDER JACKS. 



• E ASY T O UK AND INSTALL (INSTALLS IN LESS THAN A MINUTE WITH 
INSTRUCTIONS INCLUDED). 



• CAN 



USED WITH ANY COMPUTER OR CASSETTE. 



• MILL ALSO TURN VOUR 
WITH 



TE RECORDER INTO A DICTATINB MACHINE 
IINS 



TO 



INQUIRIES INVITED.^ 

SEND 914.V9 PLUS «2.00 BHIPPINB TO: 



1 1 TO 
P. 0. MX 1X3 



44701 



CASHIER 




ALLOW 2-3 



OR ROWY ORDERS ARE THE REST 

MILL DELAY Y OUR ORDER 2-3 
CALL 1-314-223-3373 VISA AND 
FOR DELIVERY. 



OF PAYMENTS. 
SORRY, NO C. 0. D. 
ACCEPTED. 



September, 1982 

430 IF PP=86 THEN PP=184 

440 IF D=5 THEN HA=0: PP=PP+6: NEX 

T D 

450 HA=HB:PP=PP-i-6 
460 NEXT D 
470 ' 

480 R=0:HA=0:C=1:TIMER=0 

490 FOR D=l TO 10: GOSUB 1490: PR I 

NT3384: PRINT3448 

500 D*=STR*(D> 

510 PRINT3320 

520 PRINT3320, "PLEASE ANSWER QUE 

STION"D*"> ";: INPUT AR 

530 IF AROA(D) THEN 1420 

540 PR I NT3320, "CONGRATULATIONS " 

N* 

550 SOUND 89, 5: SOUND 125, 5: SOUND 
147,5 

560 PRINT3384, " THAT'S CORRE 

CT NOW" 

570 R=R+1:TR=0: XP=384 

580 GOSUB 860 ' FILL BLOCKS IF C 

ORRECT 

590 IF D<10 THEN PRINT3448, " 

TRY THE NEXT ONE" 
600 FOR T=l TO 1000: NEXT T 
610 IF D=5 THEN HA=0: NEXT D 
620 HA=HB: NEXT D 
630 TM=TIMER 

640 IF R=10 THEN FOR S=l TO 255 

STEP 5: SOUND S,1:NEXT S 

650 PRINT3320, "**********«YOUR S 

CORE**********" 

660 PRINT3384, " "R* 
10"'/." 

670 IF R=0 THENPRINT3448, " YOU M 

UST HAVE JELLO FOR BRAINS" 

680 IF R=l THENPRINT3448, "I KNOW 

MORONS THAT SCORE HIGHER" 
690 IF R=2 THENPRINT3448, " DO 
YOU REALLY THINK 2+2=5" 
700 IF R=3 THENPRINT3448, " 
GO BACK TO MATH 101" 
710 IF R=4 THENPRINTS>448, " I HO 
PE YOU OWN A CALCULATOR" 
720 IF R=5 THENPRINT3448, 
MUST WORK IN GOVERNMENT" 
730 IF R=6 THENPRINT3448, 
Y USING YOUR TOES TOO" 
740 IF R=7 THENPRINT3448, 

VERAGE FOR A HUMAN" 

750 IF R=8 THENPRINT3448, " NOT B 

AD IF YOU DIDN'T CHEAT" 

760 IF R=9 THENPRINT3448, 
U CAN'T REPLACE ME YET" 
770 IF R=10 THENPRINT3448, 
T YOU CAN'T DO THAT AGAIN" 
780 FOR T=l TO 3000: NEXT T 
790 PRINT3320, "THIS TIME YOU TOO 

K " I NT ( TM / 60 ) " SECONDS " 

—Continued on Page 86 



ii 



ii 



n 



ii 



YOU 



TR 



n 



YO 



I BE 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 85 



BASIC AID 



AT LAST! Help for the Basic prograaaer. Basic Aid is an indispensable addition to the Color Coaputer. It Mill save 
you valuable tine and effort. H you write or todify Basic prograis you need Basic Aid. 

You get 43 Coaaon Basic coaaands available as single Control Key inputs. Greatly speeds up prograa entry. 

A powerful feature is the ability to redefine any or all of the keys to your own specifications. 

PLUS you get invaluable features such as a MERGE coaaand. Hove Line coaaand and Autoaatic Line Nuabering. 



MERGE Insert prograas stored on cassette into your Basic 
prograa. You can even assign new line nuabers to 
the p r ograa you read in. Great for creating your 
own tape library! 



HOVE Lets you aove and renuaber any part of your 
Basic prograa. GOTO's, GOSUB's, autoaatically 
changed, 




Redefine any or all keys! Put in YOUR 
aost frequently used coaaands. Then 
save thea to tape for use another tiae, 



MERGE MOVE 



p: 

I x i 

□I 



1 V 

I I 

r I 
J i- 
LEM 



■7 
I t 
I i 
L 

ST PI NO 



— I 
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1 I 
— I 1— 

LEFT 
r 1 



ON/OFF 
1 1 



PLANK SET — AUTOMUM— 

SUPP USER OM/OFF SET 

T ♦ 



TRACE EXEC 



1 



r 

r I 
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I I 
t I 
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T V 
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RUN CLEAR r CLEAR CONT 
— I I r | 



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t I 
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MID RIGHT 

r 1 i 



THEN 



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OOSUB 

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II li 



HEAP 

1 " r 



DATA 



FOR 



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GOTO 



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INPUT OPEN 

ICO 

JOTSTK SOU WO LIST 

innnn 

J i I L .j j 1 ] I 



PAINT 



PEEK CIRCLE DRAW 
1 | » r -i 

II II l| 

II II || 

J P I I I 

POKE SCR EEN UHt 

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J 



AUDIO CSAVE 



I I 



J L 



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CLOAD STEP 
1 1 



I f 

I l 

J L 



RETUR N 

T 

I » 
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NEXT MOTOR 



I I 
I • 
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DIM EDIT PRINT 

t i i r r 



i i 



i • 

-1 L 



t I 

I I 
-k L 



I i 
I l 

A L 



PRINT MEM 



BASIC AID 



TM 



] 



All of this in a convenient RON Cartridge which is available instantly at power-up. And it uses alaost none of your 
valuable aeaory! Coaes with a convenient, easy to reaove, plastic keyboard overlay. 



BASIC AID CARTRID6E $34.95 

Add $1 for Handling & Shipping 




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WOOD HAVEN, NY. 1 1421 (21 2) 441-3755 (DATA) 

CHECK OUT OUR COLOR BBS' AT (21 2) 441-3755 ft 441-3766 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Page 86 

DRILL (From Page 84) 
800 PRINT3384, " TRY TO DO BETT 
ER NEXT TIME" 

810 PRINT3448, " PRESS ANY KEY 
TO TRY AGAIN" 

820 IF INKEY*="" THEN 820 ELSE 1 
50 

830 END 
840 ' 

850 ' DRAWS BLOCKS 

860 FOR X=HA TO HB: FOR Y=VA TO V 
B: SET ( X , Y, C) : NEXT Y: NEXT X : RETUR 
N 

870 ' 

880 * PICKS A COLOR & CHECKS 
890 C=RND<6)+2 

900 IF HA<14 THEN 930 

910 IF C=POINT (HA- 10, VA) THEN 890 

920 IF HA>48 THEN 940 

930 IF C=POINT (HA+20, VA) THEN 890 

940 IF VA =10 THEN 970 

950 IF C=POINT(HA, 10) THEN 890 

960 GOTO 980 

970 IF C=P0INT(HA,4) THEN 890 
980 RETURN 
990 ' 

1000 ' THE QUESTIONS 
1010 " ADDITION 

1020 F=RND(400)+100:S=RND<399)+1 
00 

1030 F*=STR* (F) :S*=STR* iS) 



The RAINBOW 




Multi-purpose 
data storage system 



• DATAFILE is a sophisticated database 

• User defined categories 

• 16K or 32K system 

• Loads tape or disc stored data 

• Performs string searches 

• Deletes, sorts & prints in various formats 



Personal agenda 
Name & Address file 
Software records 
Library cataloguing 
Recipes, Etc. 



ilume 
design 



$19.95 

+ $1.00 POSTAGE 



CANADIAN 
ORDERS $22.00 
+ $1.00 POSTAGE 

Dept. R, 4653 Jeanne Mance St., 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2V 4J5 



September 1982 

1040 A(D)=F+S 

1050 PRINT5>PP+5,MID*(F*,2) ; 

1060 PRINT3PP+36, "+"MID* <S*, 2) ; 

1070 GOTO 430 

1080 ' SUBTRACTION 

1 090 F=RND ( 499 ) +500 : S=RND ( 400 ) + 1 

00 

1 1 00 F*=STR* ( F ) : S*=STR* ( S ) 
1110 A(D)=F-S 

1120 PRINTaPP-i-5,MID*(F* !( 2) ; 

1130 PRINT3PP+36, " -"MID* <S* , 2 ) ; 

1140 GOTO 430 

1150 ' MULTIPLICATION 

1160 F=RND(89)+10:S=RND<7)+2 

1 1 70 F*=STR* ( F ) : S*=STR* ( S ) 

1180 A<D)=F*S 

1190 PRINT5>PP+5,MID*(F*, 2) ; 
1200 PRINT3PP+37, " X "MID* <S* , 2) ; 
1210 GOTO 430 

1220 ' DIVISION-NEVER A REMAINDE 
R AS QUESTION MULTIPLIED 
1230 F=RND(89)-i-10:S=RND(7)-i-2 
1240 F*=STR*(F*S) :S*=STR*(S) 
1250 A(D)=F 

1260 PRINTS>PP+5,MID*(F*,2) ; 
1270 PRINT3PP+37, " / "MID* (S* , 2) ; 

1289 GOTO 430 

1290 ' 

1300 9 INPUT NAME 
1310 PRINT3104, 



1320 PRINT3136, 
1330 PRINT3168, 
1340 PRINT3200, 
1350 PRINT3232, 
1360 PRINT3480, 



HELLO 



PLEASE TELL ME 

YOUR NAME 
"; : INPUT N*:CLS( 

0) :PRINT5>107, " HELLO! " ; 

1370 PRINT3222-M <32-LEN(N*> ) /2) , 
11 11 N* " " ; 

1380 PRINT3389," LET'S DO SOME M 
ATH "; 

1390 FOR T=l TO 1500: NEXT T:CLS( 

1 ) : RETURN 
1400 9 

1410 ' WRONG ANSWER 

1420 PRINT3XP, "SORRY "N*;AR;"IS 

WRONG": XP=320 

1430 TR=TR+1:IF TR=1 THEN PRINTS 
448," TRY AGAIN": GOTO 

510 

1440 PRINT3384, "THE CORRECT ANSW 

ER IS"A(D) :PRINT5>448 

1450 SOUND 20, 10:SOUND 10,15:FOR 

T=l TO 2000: NEXT T 
1460 TR=0: XP=384:G0T0 590 
1470 ' 

1480 ' IF TOP 5 BLOCKS DONE THEN 

SECOND ROW 
1490 IF D<=5 THEN VA=2 ELSE VA«1 
0 

1500 HA=HA+2:HB=HA+10:VB=VA+6:RE 
TURN 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 87 



DISCOVER J ARB 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



JARB SOFTWARE 



JUNGLE TREK 



Lost in a jungle with wild animals lurking; 
your only survival is to find a safe com- 
pound before you are lunch for lions; 
high resolution; multi-color. 
16K EXT $14.95 



RAINBOW 

CEOT>FiC*riO* 



LAZER STAR 

HELO BATTLE 



1) 2 players avoid destruction by blasts of 
mysterious lazerstar while battling each 
other for possession of Lazerstar 

16K EXT 

2) 1 player/2 joystick combat game to 
blow up 5 blockhouses while watching fuel, 
ammo, and avoiding anti-aircraft fire 
16K EXT Both for $14.95 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



JARB CODE 



Encode/decode important messages or 
other information in a virtually un- 
breakable format. 

16K Standard/ Extended $15.95 

BIORHYTHM 

ce«tific*tioh /PSYCHIC iAPT* 

SEAL 

1) Prints biorhythm charts of nearly 
unlimited length; attractively formatted 
for use on Line Printer VII. 16K 

2) Your psychic ability is determined 
through questions evaluating your psychic 
experiences 

16K Both for $15.95 



NEW PRICES ON 
DATA CASSETTES 
C-OS C-10 

$ .65 QTY 1-10 $ .70 

$ .60 QTY 11-20 $ .65 

Soft Poly Cases Ea. $.20 

Cassette Labels (12) Sh. $.36 

Call or write for quantity prices on all 
cassette products. Special lengths avail- 
able, eg., C-02, etc. 

^Installation of these items will void the 
Radio Shack warranty. Radio Shack is a 
trademark o f the Tandy Corp. 

All programs warrantied 60 days from 
date of purchase to original purchaser. 
Unless otherwise specified, shipping and 
handling $2.00 per order. 

California Residents add 6°lo sales tax 
COD orders accepted 



PRODUCTS FROM 
OUR FRIENDS 



SKY DEFENSE 

RAINBOW 

CE «T,F,cAr,ON By Q uasar An i m ations 

Fight off the attacking waves of enemy 
craft in fast realtime combat. Machine 
language. 

16K $22.95 



RAINBOW VAMPIRE 

cep^atk* By Faho j ( 

Locked in a 60 room mansion; your only 
escape is to find and destroy dreaded 
Nosferantu before sundown; time play 
averages 6-plus hours. 
32K EXT $14.95 



MYSTERY MAZE 
Enhanced Version 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 

By Faith Robinson Enterprises 
Excellent test of nerves and skill; escape 
this 3-D maze without touching the elec- 
trified walls; lose points if you stop to 
look at your map; random start locations 
prevent memorization; play time varies 
from minutes to hours. 
32K EXT $14.95 



BANDITS/NUMBERS 

By Larel Software 

1) Slot machine simulation; low resolu- 
tion graphics with sound effects. 

16K EXT 

2) Try to guess the computer-chosen 
number from 1 to 1000 in 10 or less tries; 
develops mathematical skill. 

16K EXT Bothfor$12.95 



NANOS COLOR BASIC 
/^^\ AND EXTENDED 
rainbow SYSTEM REFERENCE 

CARD 



CERTIFICATION 
S€Al 



"The New Industry Standard" 
$4.95 

(We pay postage on this one} 
All types of Nano cards available 



JARB 
SOFTWARE 

1 169 Florida Street 
Imperial Beach, CA 92032 
(714) 429-5516 

Dealer/ Author Inquiries Invited 



JARB HARDWARE 



*4K/16K MEMORY CHIP SET 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips, 
16K Ram Button, and Upgrade Instruc- 
tions. No Soldering $16.95 



* 16K/32K 
MEMORY UPGRADE KIT 

Eight 200 NS 4116 Factory Prime Chips 
with Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, 
Bus Wire, and 32K Ram Button. Com- 
prehensive Instructions. Recommended 
for "D" or earlier, but may be used on 
"E". No soldering to computer. Easy to 
remove $25.95 



•64K RAM CHIPS 

200 NS 4164 Chip Set allows you to 
upgrade "E" board easily. Factory Prime 
Chips $69.95 



* VIDEO INTERFACE KIT 

Allows the composite video signal to be 
interfaced directly to a B/W or color 
monitor. All parts and instructions in- 
cluded for external sound output. Does 
not affect normal operations $19.95 



RAINBOW 



DUAL JOYSTICK UNIT 
(D.J.) 



Single unit assembly enhances playability 
of multi- joystick/ player games; conve- 
nient press-to-fire buttons 
+ $4.00 shipping $35.95 



EPSON PRINTERS 

MX80/Graftrax + $479.95 

MX80FT/Graftrax + $524.95 

MX100FT/Graftrax + $699.95 

Serial Interface w/2K Buffer 

Ideal for 80C use $99.95 

80CTO Epson Cable $19.95 



COMREX MONITORS 

I works great with video interface kit) 

12" Green Screen Composite .... $189.95 
13" Color Composite Monitor . . . $344.95 



Sorry, no C.O.D. on Printers and Monitors 



Page 88 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



Hardware Review... 

Ram Slam Is An Easy 
Novice's 32K Upgrade 

At $49.95, the Ram Slam upgrade kit from DSL 
Computer Products is one of the least expensive kits of the 
"solderless" type I have seen advertised. 

Yes, I know, you can probably buy the necessary parts to 
solder in for less. But I, for one, would not know what parts 
to buy or where to put them. And I would pay my local 
Radio Shack shop the $149 plus labor to upgrade to 32K 
before I would even consider going inside my computer with 
a soldering iron! So, if you would like to know if an 
inexperienced person can successfully install this upgrade 
kit, read on . . . 

I received the kit late on a Saturday afternoon as it was 
rapidly approaching "Miller Time." And one look told me 
that this was going to be a "Sunday morning/fresh pot of 
coffee" project. 

The kit contains eight separate RAM chips which are 
connected by these tiny, fragile-looking red wires. Also, you 
get eight gummed label white dots on a strip of paper and 
three pages of instructions. 

These people are not artists when it comes to diagrams, 
but with the printed instructions I was able to understand 
what needed to be done to pull this thing off.Here are the 
basic steps and what I encountered implementing them: 

1. Open the computer and remove the RF shield. O.K. so 
far. 

2. Carefully remove the RAM chips. The instructions say 
"Carefully pry them out of their sockets." Hey, those little 
rascals do not just pop out. Well, let's see. ..don't use force, 
just get a bigger hammer or, in this case, a pair of channel 
locks. 

Now I'm sure this isn't the way this is supposed to be done, 
but it was the only thing I could think of at the time. Besides, 
with a little caution and some protective tape on the jaws of 
the channels, it worked quite nicely, thank you. The white 
dot labels in the kit are used to keep track of the direction of 
the chips. 

3. Install the kit chips in the now-empty sockets. I guess I 
was overly concerned about the frail appearance of the little 
red wires. As it turns out, none of them broke loose. A 
couple of the chips offered some resistance to fitting all the 
way down in the sockets, but by this time I was getting more 
brave about being inside my computer. So, a little extra 
force by hand and we're ready for the next step. 

4. Put the original chips back in on top of the new chips, 
which have the appropriate sockets on top of them to accept 
the original chips. (This must mean piggy-back.) 

5. Press a jumper wire connector alongside a pin of the 
SAM chip. The SAM is identified in one of the better 
diagrams in the instructions, as is the proper pin. I took their 
advice here and used tweezers to insert the connector. 

6. Install the RF shield and close up the case. 

The operation took me a little over an hour, but that 
includes the 1 5 minutes or so I spent deciding how to get the 
original chips off the board. Although the instructions do 
not indicate how much memory I should now have, on 
power-up it is 24871 and with the same POKE \ learned to 
use with I6K (POKE 25,6:NEW) it jumps to 31015. 

Not being the technical type, I was very pleased with how 
easy it was to upgrade to 32K without soldering, and 

without frying my computer. 

(DSL Computer Products, P.O. Box 1113, Dearborn, 
MI 48121, $49.95) -Ben Collier 

(Mr. Collier is a member of the Columbus and Central Ohio Color 
Computer User's Group.) 



Software Review... 

Mission Empire Will 
Capture Your Interest 

The truth of the matter is that we like simulation games. 
And Mission Empire is a fine simulation which will hold 
your interest and provide a great deal of enjoyment in the 
process. 

The scene is somewhere in some corner of the galaxy, 
sometime in the future. You have one small planet, named 
appropriately, "Homeworld," and you set out to handle an 
area of space which contains 19 other systems. 

You do not even know their names, how advanced they 
are, or how, exactly, to get to them. But, during the 1000 
years which you have to play the game, you will learn a great 
deal. 

On its primary level, Mission Empire has you zapping 
around the universe, fighting other planets and trying to 
expand your territory. This isn't as easy as it seems, simply 
because, in order to win in interstellar combat, you have to 
have enough troops. And you have to have the right kind, as 
well. 

Although not particularly well documented in the 
instructions, the key to winning is to construct fleets of 
reinforcements and then send them off to other worlds, 
timing their arrival to yours. You can also save a lot of time 
(remember, you only have 1000 years) by sending out scout 
ships. But you have to be where the troops and the scouts 
end up when they get there — or else they perish. Timing all 
this among hops between planetary systems light yearsapart 
is no easy feat. 

But, it is a great deal of fun. And there are enough bells 
and whistles hung onto Mission Empire to easily keep 
interest up throughout a millenium. 

While not heavy into graphics, there is an excellent split 
screen effect which shows a local star map, givesthe date and 
has some other details, including a menu of what your 
options are. One menu leads into another at times, but you 
can always get back to the main one by hitting the"X" key. 
The same key is also used to "break off combat" if you're 
getting the worst end of things. 

There are ways to tell how far it is to other star systems — 
assuming you know their names — and there is also a 
universe-wide map. All in all, lots of different things to make 
play enjoyable. 

This is very much a "thinking" game. You have to plan 
things out in order for everything to work. Once things do 
begin to go well, time starts to run out. Part of this problem 
is caused by the instructions. While more than adequatefor 
basic play, we wish that some of the more complicated 
things were explained in a little more detail. It took us 
several hundred years to figure it all out. 

Fans of Robert A. Heinlein's Starship Troopers will 
appreciate the use of music in Mission Empire. When your 
ship returns to a home base, the 80C plays "When Johnny 
Comes Marching Home" and when you muster in new 
recruits it is "You're In The Army Now." We won't tell you 
all of them, but, in case you get bored with the songs, you 
can toggle the music off — and speed the game up. 

It is available in both disk and tape and, while a long load, 
is worth the time it takes. We recommend Mission Empire. 
(Strictly Color Software, P.O. Box 382, West Point, PA 
19486, $19.95 tape or disk [disk version supplied on 
tape])) 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 89 



Software Review... 

You Can Speed Up Some 
Programs With Tiny Compiler 

The advantages of machine language programming are 
extremely well known, and so are the problems. Machine 
language is extremely fast (because you are speaking to the 
80C in its "native language") but the disadvantage is that it is 
difficult, at best, to learn. 

The answer for those who have not — or don't want — to 
learn machine language is a compiler. A compiler is simply a 
program which will take simple Basic and turn it into 
machine language code. 

At present, there is one compiler on the market, attesting, 
perhaps, to the difficulty of writing a utility of this sort. The 
program is called Tiny Compiler. 

The name is appropriate because the Tiny Compiler does 
not pretend to be a sophisticated big-time compiler that will 
take whatever code you wish to write in Basic and generate 
machine language instructions. Instead, and to the credit of 
Aardvark-80 which markets it, Tiny Compiler is billed as a 
limited compiler which, frankly, can speed up a lot of the 
things that need speeding up in the first place. 

The Tiny Compiler does exactly what it advertises: M akes 
your programs (or subroutines) run much more quickly 
provided you follow its rules. We tried a benchmark 
program, to print out numbers one to one-thousand and 
then print our name out 1000 times. The Basic program 
accomplished that feat in 35.5 seconds. The program was 
then compiled with the Tiny Compiler. Total time, 20 
seconds. A hefty increase in speed. 

In order to get this sort of added productivity for your 
programs, you have to give up some things. Graphics are 
one of them — and so are what the documentation calls 



"multiple commands." A "single statement" is A=B+C. A 
"multiple statement" is A=B+C*D. Multiple DIMension 
statements are allowed, however. 

You can use PEEK and POKE, IF/THEN's, GOTO'sand 
GOSUB's. Also allowed are RETURN, STOP, REM, 
FOR/NEXT/STEP, PRINT, END, DEFUSR, USR and 
CLS. Variables must be one letter only. 

And, while that is about it, that is enough for a great 
number of applications. In addition, the code is relocatable, 
which means it can be moved to other sections of RAM. 

We found the Tiny Compiler easy to work with once we 
got the hang of its requirements. As soon as that was down 
pat, with a couple of simple programs, we were able to write 
Basic programs without thinking too much about whether 
they were right or wrong. Of course, the compiler has a built- 
in error trapping device which stops the compilation and 
tells you which line has a problem. It is up to you to figure 
out exactly what the problem is. 

We see the advantage of Tiny Compiler as a device to 
make subroutines and the like for a great number of 
programs which could stand the speedup. Obviously, 
anything with a card-shuffling routine or the like would be 
greatly improved if it could be run in machine language. 
Writing a machine language routine with Tiny Compiler 
would be easy. 

This program is certainly not all things to all people, but it 
will be very helpful for countless applications. The 
documentation is adequate without explaining everything in 
the greatest detail a beginner might wish. 

(Aardvark-80, 2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, MI 
48088, $24.95) 



TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER* 



-16K Extended Basic, Menu-Driven, Well-Documented, Easily-Modified. 
-For either cassette or diskette systems (Be sure to specify). 
-Place an order of at least $40 and get one extra of your choice free. 
-Orders shipped on cassette - Add $5 for shipment on diskette. 



-REPORT WRITER- 

Used in conjunction with FURST to selectively format 
reports on your printer. Includes headings and total 
capabilities '. $15 



-FURST- "r™ 0 * 
Date Element Dictionary driven File Update and 
Retrieval SysTem. Create and maintain files according 
to your specifications. Ideas for applications in- 
cluded $25 

-MAILING LABELS- 'MX -EXERCISE PLANNER- RA .* B0 ? 

Generate and maintain mailing label records. Selective- Build and maintain complete exercise schedule for 
ly print desired quantities. Can keep several label files if regular and/or weight programs. Display guides you 
desired. Designed for Printer VII, easily modified. $20 through daily-calculated routines. Print complete 

schedule if desired $15 

-DISK DIRECTORY PRINT- ™- B0 * 

For diskette users only. Get hard copy of disk directories on your printer for easy use and reference. Only $5 



Send check or money order to: 
LAND SYSTEMS 

WW* P.O. Box 232 

Bellbrook, Ohio 45305 




'TRS-80 and COLOR COMPUTER 
are Trademarks of Tandy Corp. 



The RAINBOW 



Page 90 

Software Review... 

Galax Attax Has Super 
Color, Sound and Action 

This new arcade action game is one of the better offerings 
we have seen. It f ollows the attackers-in-formation line, but 
has the attackers breaking from their formation for one-on- 
one attacks against your home base at the bottom of the 
screen. 

The play is very similar to that in the arcades. The 
machine language action is fast, the color good and the 
sound of fine quality. In short, it is a game which every 
arcade fan will want to own. 

And with good reason. There are three types of evil 
attackers, all flying in formation at the same time. But, that 
does not last long as the attackers— one by one— break their 
formation and make swooping raids downward. You can be 
hit by their shots or can run into them as they are grounded. 
If they make it to ground, they come back at the top of the 
screen. 

With all this action going on there is little time to think 
about much. Fortunately, joystick response is excellent and 
you can move out of the way of attackers or missiles quickly. 
You need to! 

Each type of attacker carries a different value, and the 
points are doubled if the attacker is diving toward you when 
it is hit. You can get a bonus base for knocking out six 
screensful of attackers, and the number of the screen you are 
on is displayed at the top of the screen by a series of flags. 
The number of ships you have "lef t" is also shown, as is your 
current score. 

You can enter your initials at the beginning of the game 
and, when you finally go down to defeat, your score will be 
displayed. The top five scores will be shown as well. 

This is state-of-the-art arcade action at its best! 



September, 1982 



■ 



STD 



MA 



RAINftOW 

0««l«r Inquiries invited 



"STORM" brought to you for 
COLOR COMPUTER 



$24.9S 



CALL 

OR 
WRITE 
FOR 
COMPLETE 
INFORMATION 



COMPUTERWARE 



® 



Dept. C • eon 668 
6SD9 Spe&iBiisis Encmilas, CA 92024 • (714) 436-3512 

Computerate ts a uademafk ot Computerware 



Instructions for saving Galax Attax to disk are included so 
you can have a much faster load if you have such a system. 
The program does not require Extended Basic since all the 
graphics are handled through machine language. 

(Spectral Associates, P.O. Box 99715, Tacoma, WA 

98466, $21.95 plus 3% shipping) 



Book Review... 

TRS-80 Color Basic A n 
Excellent Learning Guide 

Bob Albrecht wrote the first "popular"computer teaching 
guide — the manual Radio Shack used with its original 
Model I. And, though the years, he has written many other 
popular books which have all been a study in how to explain 
things to beginners. 

In short, Albrecht has done it again with TRS-80 Color 
Basic. Using the same approach which has helped thousands 
learn how to program in BASIC, he applies his considerable 
skills to the 80C in a way that can help anyone get the "hang" 
of our favorite computer quickly and painlessly. 

TRS-80 Color Basic divides the lessons up into "frames" 
and provides space for answers. There are also a lot of 
examples and some pretty unusual ways of looking at 
solutions to problems. 

Each chapter begins with a short explanation of what will 
be learned and ends with a self-test. Answers are given. Most 
of all, the reader is encouraged not to be a reader, but a do- 
er. The hallmark of this book, as Albrecht says early on, is 
that "the Color Computer itself is your best teacher." 

We like Albrecht's style, too. He is witty, spatters in a pun 
or two, and amuses you with words as you read. The is a 
comfortable, enjoyable and throughly excellent book. 

Whether you know Color Basic or not, TRS-80 Color 
Basic will be a boon. For the experienced programmer, it 
offers some offbeat solutions and is a valuable reference. 
For the new 80C owner, it is a tool that can't be beat. 

(John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 
10016, $9.95. Also available in retail outlets.) 

Software Review... 

Bugchase One Of The 
Cutest Games We've Seen 

Now there is this turtle and there is this bug. And, I 
suppose we don't have to explain that the two are natural 
antagonists. The turtle tries to catch and eat the bug and the 
bug tries to get away. 

This is the scenario for Bugchase, which uses high-res 
graphics, but not machine language, to provide an enjoyable 
32K game. The graphics, frankly, leave something to be 
desired (the turtle, for example, is depicted as only a line on 
the screen) but the idea is cute and there are, literally, so 
many options you can't really keep them all straight. 

But no matter. Bugchase is fun to play. For one thing, you 
can decide whether you wish to be the bug or the turtle — or 
whether you want to make a two-player game out of it and 
control both. There is also an automatic mode that lets the 
game play by itself. 

Once those decisions are made, there are a lot of others 
such as speed of the turtle, whether the bug can see and/ or 
smell or just fly around in circles. There are other options, 
too, which really allow the customizing of this game for any 
taste. 

Obviously, the lack of high speed and precision graphics 
leaves a bit to be desired, but some of the other graphics are 



September 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 91 



good, too, and, to be truthful, we like this program's "flare. " 
It is fun to play. 

What do we mean by "flare?" The best example 1 can give 
is the ending. M ost programs, when you answer "Yes" to the 
question of whether you wish to quit or not, just end. This 
one plays a rendition of "Itsy-Bitsy Spider, "complete with a 
graphic representation of the song. It so impressed the 
resident 14-year-old that she started Bugchase up several 
times just to see it end again! 

(DSL Computer Products, P.O. Box 1113, Dearborn, 
MI 48121, $15.55, plus $1 shipping) 



Software Review... 

Math Tutor Has Some 
Excellent Features 

We are very impressed with two of the subprograms in the 
Math Tutor package, Multiply and Divide. While the 
addition and subtraction are fine, too, multiplication and 
division allow problems with visual carrying and real long 
division. 

In multiplication, the student is allowed to show his or her 
carry at the top of the number, and the problem is set up 
much the same as a multiplication problem would be on 
paper. The cursor can be positioned at the bottom of the 
problem, to show results, or at the top where the carry can be 
shown. 

In division, the graphic characters are used as in 
multiplication (but to an even better advantage here) to 
show a "real" long division layout. The student can use the 



same trial-and-error process normally associated with long 
division to find the correct quotient digit. He is allowed to 
start with any digit, and the program will let him continue 
until it should be obvious that his trial quotient digit is 
wrong. 

The trial quotient digit can be changed at any time, by 
using the up arrow key. If the trial quotient is too large, a 
new value must be tried before subtraction begins. If the trial 
quotient is too small, subtraction can continue but a new 
trial quotient must be used before the next number can be 
brought down. 

The Math Tutor program also allows for simple drill 
using the "straight line" display of problems. 

While not quite as "gee- whiz," Spelling Teacher also does 
a good job of teaching students spelling words. 

The method here is to flash words on the screen, and then 
ask the student to spell them. The first time spelling takes 
place while the word is on the screen. After the correct 
answer is given, the word is cleared from the screen and the 
student is asked to spell the word again. If a word is spelled 
incorrectly, it is repeated. 

An optional just for fun segment allows the student to 
unscrable words and spell them. A nice feature of this option 
is that, as the student selects letters from the scrambled 
word, they disappear from the scrambled part of the screen 
and "reappear" where the unscrambled word is being 
formed. 

Words used in lessons are input by the teacher and may be 
recorded on tape. 

(Custom Software Engineering Inc., 807 Minuteman 
Causeway, Cocoa Beach, FL 32931, $13.95 for Math 
Tutor, $12.95 for Spelling Tutor plus $1 shipping each) 



Own a TRS-8D Color Computer? 
Wish you had Lower Case? 

For $75.00 and five minutes of your time you can have full upper and true lowercase (not just reverse 
video) with the LCA-47 lowercase adapter from Micro Technical Products. 

What is it? The LCA-47 is a small PC board (1 .9 x 3.6 in.) that plugs into your computer's main PC board: leaves the expansion con- 
nector free. It doesn't take up any system memory: uses a fast Bipolar Character Generator for guaranteed operation. 

Installation is quick and simple: no cutting or soldering required. 

Fully assembled, tested, and guaranteed for 1 full year. 

Two switches provided on board: one to enable or disable the lowercase. The other to invert the entire screen (light 
characters on a dark background). 



What does it 
provide? 



The 128 characters below: improved upper case and very readable lowercase with descending tails, all available to 
both Basic and machine language programs. 



# * 



. / © 1 £ 3 4 5 6 7 3 9 i 



0 1 £34 5 6 7 8 9 



V "^1 



E a to c d e f ci h i .j k 1 m n o p q r stu m w x y z 
3 R B C DEFGHI J K L M N O P 9. ft S T U V M X Y Z t 




1 t * 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Custom character sets are available as an option, call for a quote. 

Compatibility: The LCA-47 is fully compatible with all TRS-80C software that we know of, including Color Scripsit. It has no effect 

on any semi-graphics or full-graphics modes. Also works great with Micro-Chroma-68 Kits and others using the 6847 
VDG chip! The LCA-47 will not fit under the RF shield if Computerware's "16-plus" memory board is installed. 

How to order: Send $75.00 plus $5.00 shipping in the U.S., $10.00 elsewhere, to: 

Micro Technical Products. Inc. 



814 W. Keating Ave., Dept. A 
Mesa, AZ 85202 



Arizona residents add $3.75 sales tax. 



Phone: 602-839-8902 
MC and VISA welcome. 



Page 92 

Software Review... 

Silly Sentences, Poetry Will 
Help Teach Reading Skills 



This package of two programs is aimed at teaching young 
children something about words and how they go together. 
While they seem like little "nothings" in some ways, both 
help children associate words with their natural order in 
sentences arid, thereby, teach some reading skills. 

Silly Sentences lets the user create sentences from words 
found on two lists. The child is first prompted for certain 
words, such as his name and that of a friend or teacher. 
These words are used in the program. 

After that, a number of word choices will appear and the 
child can take one from List 1 and another from List 2. 
These are then joined together with various other words in 
computer memory to produce a "Silly Sentence." 

But the sentence also lets the child begin to understand, 
through play, how sentences are contructed. While not a 
program with which an adult could have much fun, a 
number of children here liked it and kept playing. As they 
did, they gained some insight to where words should appear 
in a sentence. 

Poetry is somewhat the same, except there are more 
questions. Again, the words input by the child are 
combined — but this time into a sort of free-verse poem. 

In this program, the child is introduced to the concepts of 
parts of speech in a playing environment. The first question, 
"Name a person or thing you know" is obviously prompting 
for a noun. Later on, after moving though adjectives and the 
like, the child is asked "What does (whatever was named in 



The RAINBOW September, 1982 

the first question) do?" This obviously prompts for a verb. 

Once the inputs are all done, there are only eight of them 
to match the child's attention span, the program produces a 
"poem." When the responses are correct, the child's poem is 
more readable and makes some sense. 

We think these two programs are very helpful in teaching 
youngsters something about words and how they become a 
part of sentences and thoughts. They do them in an 
entertaining but, nevertheless, thorough manner. Each fits 
in 4K. 

(Computer Island, 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, 
NY 10312, $10 for both) 




Hint... 

How To Get Non-Disk ML 
Programs To Run With Disk 

By Alexander B. Trevor 

( Courtesy of the Columbus and Central Ohio Color 
Computer User's Group, of which Mr. Trevor is a 

member.) 

Some Color Computer machine language programs, such 
as Radio Shack's own Plug 'N Power™ software, will not run 
on the Color Computer with the disk controller plugged in, 
even though you load the program from cassette and make 
no use of the disk. 

The reason for this is that these programs reside in RAM 
that is used by the Color Computer disk operating system 
IRQ service routine (specifically, hex location 986). The 

—Continued on Page 94 



■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 



From GREAT X-P-T 

for TRS 80 Color Computer 



1 



Color Sound 
High Res. Graphics 
Req. 16k Ext Basic 

$14.95ea. 



GREAT fcP-T 




FOR THE 
GAMBLER 
16k Ext Basic 
High Res. Graphics 

Play Alone 
or Against 
Your Friends 

$14.95 ea. 



GREAT X-P-T 

RO. Box 921 2 
Livonia. Mi. 481 5(> 



SPECIAL BUY... ALL 



Mich, Res, odd 4'/. Sales lax 
C.QD.odd$1.00 





16k 
Color 
Sound 
Graphics 

$14.95 ea. 



FREE CATALOG AVAILABLE 



FOR $39.95 



i 



September, 1982 

COLOR 
COMPUT 



The RAINBOW 



Page 93 




FHL COLOR FLEX, THE MOST POPULAR DOS FOR THE 6809 
FROM THE LARGEST SUPPLIER OF FLEX SOFTWARE IN THE WORLD! 



Now you can run FLEX, OS-9 and Radio Shack disk 
software on your ColorComputer. If you have a 32K Col 
or Computer with the Radio Shack disk system, all you 
need to do is make a trivial modification to access the 
hidden 32K, as described in the Feb. issue of COLOR 
COMPUTER NEWS and the April issue of '68' Micro. You 
can get FLEX from us right now. OS-9 witl be ready by 
summer. Please note that this will only work with the 
Radio Shack disk system and 32K/64K memory chips 
that RS calls 32K. Maybe they put 64K's in yours, too. If 
you don't have a copy of the article, send a legal size 
SASE (40c stamps) and we'll send it to you. 

Using this system to run FLEX AND OS-9 has many 
advantages. First, it gives you 48K from zero right up to 
FLEX. This means that ALL FLEX compatible software 
will run with NO MODIFICATIONS and NO PATCHES' 
There are no memory conflicts because we m^)ved the 
screen up above FLEX which leaves the lower 48K free 
for user programs. 

_ What you end up with is 48K for user programs, 8K for 
FLEX and another 8K above FLEX for the screens and 
stuff. We have a multi screen format so you can page 
backward to see what scrolled by and a Hi-Res screen 
that will enable you to have a 24 line by 51 character 
display. That's better than an Apple! 

We also implemented a full function keyboard, with a 
control key and escape key. All ASCII codes can now be 
generated from the Color Computer keyboard! 

We also added some bells and whislles to Radio 
Shack s Disk system when you're running FLEX or OS-9. 
We are supporting single or double sided, single or dou- 
ble density, 35, 40 and 80 track drives 

MOVEROM moves Color Basic from ROM to RAM. Be- 
cause it's moved to RAM you can not only access it from 
FLEX, you can run it and even change it!! You can load 
Color Computer cassette software and save it to FLEX 
disk. Single Drive Copy, Format and Setup commands 
plus an online help system are included. 

Color FLEX includes an external terminal program 
that lets you use a standard terminal hooked to the 
RS-232 port. This will let you use a full sized keyboard 
with a 24x80 display. Your printer is then hooked to the 
terminal. The system will automatically control the 
printer. No hardware or software modifications are re- 
quired 

Installing FLEX is simple. Insert the disk and type: 
RUN "FLEX" 

That's all there is to it! You are now up and running in 
the most popular disk operating system for the 6809. 
There are hundreds of software packages now running 
under the FLEX system. We have 100 packages our- 
selves. Open your Color Computer to a whole new world 
of software with FLEX. 

FLEX $99.00 
INCLUDES OVER 25 UTILITIES" 

DOES NOT REQUIRE ADDITIONAL HARDWARE! 

OPTIONS 

ED/ASM is a very powerful editor/assembler package. 
ED has all the features of TSC's editor with the addition 
of screen type editing, MACRO capability, and a math 
package. With the math package you can perform sim- 
ple or complex formulas with the answer in HEX. 




0S-9/FLEX MACRO ASSEMBLER 
by Frank Hoffman 

For FLEX or OS-9, Create FLEX or OS-9 binary files 
from eilher FLEX or OS 9 OSM is a MACRO assembler 
like CRASMB. It is compatible with TSC's Assembler, 
but it has more powerful MACROS. OSM makes it easy 
tomoveFLEX programs to OS-9. In OS 9 it gives MACRO 
capability like TSCs assembler and is compatible with 
TSC source files. OSM was used by the author to move 
CRASMB to OS-9 

PRICE $128. OO 

Specify OS-9 or FLEX 



AUTOTASK 

WITH MENU 

PRICE S129.96 

Includes source on disk! 
Manual $10.00 



6502 TRANSLATOR 
Translator 6502 code to 6809 
$75.00 

SUPER SLEUTH 
Disassembler for 6800/6809 or Z80 
$99.00 



DECIMAL and BINARY! In its simplest form it can be us- 
ed for base conversions. You can also create a MACRO 
and pass parameters to it. Works with files larger than 
memory. It has many additional features. 

AMS is also compatible with TSC's assembler. It has 
MACROS and conditionals, it has more powerful 
MACROS than TSC's. ASM was created by taking our 
CRASMB program and making a §{309 only version of it. 
Nothing else was removed. Both programs have been 
set up for FHL Color FLEX and cost ONLY 100.00. 

DBASIC allows the use of the standard Disk Extended 
Color Basic under FLEX. All disk input and output opera- 
tions are done through FLEX and are completely capati- 
ble with the normal FLEX utilities. This means that files 
and programs written to disk by DBASIC may be manip 
ulated by FLEX editors, sort/merge, etc. It also means 
that these files are not compatible with standard Disk 
Color Basic files. However, the cassette files are com- 
patible and provide a means of conversion. Also includ- 
ed is a DBASIC program to read a Radio Shack Disk and 
write to a FLEX disk 

All of the BASIC language components described in 
the Radio Shack manuals are implemented, with the 
following exceptions: 

1. Random files are not supported. FIELD, LSET, 
RSET etc. will be of no use. 

2. BACKUP, COPY, and DSKINI are not implemented 
and will give syntax errors. Use the- equivalent FLEX 
utilities instead. 

3. A new BASIC command called FLEX has been im- 
plemented. FLEX will terminate DBASIC and return to 
FLEX. 

4. DSKI$ and DSKO$ are completely implemented. 

DBASIC is only $30.00 when purchased with Color 
FLEX. $40.00 later. 

Other languages available include; FORTH, Pascal, For- 
tran77, 'C,' A/BASIC compiler, plus more 

Application packages include, A/R, G/L, A/P, Inventory, 
Electronic Spreadsheets, Accounting, Database pro- 
grams and more. SEND FOR LIST. 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER COMPLETE WITH 64K 
RAM, 24K ROM, SINGLE DISK DRIVE AND FLEX, SET 
UP AND READY TO RUN FOR ONLY $1,275. Includes 
120 day extended warranty. If you have a Computer, call 
about RS disk controllers and drives. 



TRS-80COIDR 
COMPUTER 

FORTH FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER DISK SYSTEM 

Trying to get control of your Color Computer?? Tired of 
translating HEX to decimal?? Tired of remembering 
where the VDG and SAM are and how to program 
them?? Want to write machine language code with 
assembly language mnemonics instead of POKES?? 
Want to write programs in half the time?? Want to write 
lots of small pieces of code that you can put together in 
seconds to do BIG JOBS 9 ?? Want a language that is at 
least 5 to 10 times faster than BASIC??? Want to learn 
everything there is to know about FORTH, with the best 
manual on the market, including lots of examples of 
FORTH applications, and detailed explanations of how 
everything works?? 




FORTH 

Includes Editor, 6809 Assembler 
String Functions, Disk Data File 
Operations and Much Much More! 



is 

THE 
ANSWER 1 



99 



95 




FLEX COMPATIBLE 
FORTH 

BY Chuck Eaker, Ph.D. 
X-FORTH NOTES 

Supplied on one 8" disk or 2 5" disks, 
with a 400+ page manual. 
Disk(s) have the source of everything but the core. 

PRICE only $149.95 plus $2.50 S&H 

Manual available separately for S49.95 plus S2.50 S&H 



We Have 




$200.00 



SOFTWARE CATALOG 





OBJECT/WITH 




PROGRAM 


ONLY/SOURCE 


code 


BILLPAYER 




169.95 


x 


PLOT 




44 95 


X 


TABULA RASA 




100.00 


X 


Mailing List 




99.95 


X 


Forms Display 




49.95 


X 


Inventory with Material 








Requisition Planning 




100.00 


X 


Some Common BASIC Programs 


69.95 


X 


Some Practical BASIC Programs 


69.95 


X 


OSM OS-9/FLEX Macro 








Assembler 


125.00 




9 


DBASIC (For Color FLEX only) 


40.00 




9 


Infomag Data Base 








Management System 


295.00 




X 


Osborne Accounts Receivable 


295.00 




X 


Osborne Accounts Payable 


295.00 




X 


Osborne General Ledger 


295.00 




X 


DynaCalc 


200.00 




9 


UniFlex Simulator 




110.00 


9 


FLEX For Color Computer 


99.00 




9 


X-FORTH (FLEX) 


149.95 




8&9 


CC FORTH (TRS 80 Color) 


99.95 




9 


TOOLKIT #1 (BASIC) 


49.95/ 


69.95 


9 


TOOLKIT #2 


49.95 


69.95 


9 


AUTOTASK 




129.95 


9 


A/BAStC Compiler 


150.00 




9 


Extended Utilities 


49.95/ 


69.95 


9 


Password Protection 


69.95/ 


89.95 


9 


CRASMB (X Assembler) 


139.95 




9 


Personality Modules (1 INC) 


25.00 


50.00 


9 ea 


6502, 6800. 6805. 6809, Z80. 


8080, 1802 






CRASMB lor OS-9 


200.00 




9 


Personality Modules 








{6809 included) 


35.00 


35.00 


9 


6502,6800,6805, Z80, 8080, 


1802, 6809 






ED/ASM Editor and assembler 


100 00 




9 


READTAPE 




54.95 


9 


SPELLTEST 


199.00/ 


299.00 


9 


READTEST 


54.95 


74.95 


8&9 


ESTHER 


39.95/ 


59.95 


8&9 


HELP 


29 95/ 


49.95 


8&9 


Job Control Program 


49.95/ 


89.95 


8&9 


DYNASOFT PASCAL (FLEX) 


59.95/ 


89.95 


9 


DYNASOFT PASCAL (OS-9) 


69.95/ 


99.95 


9 


DYNASOFT Compiler Source 




125.00 


P 


DYNASTAR Screen Editor (OS 9) 149.95 




9 


SUPER SLEUTH (6800/6809) 




99.00 


8&9 


SUPER SLEUTH (Z80) 




99.00 


8&9 


CROSS Assembler Macros for TSC ASMB 




6800/1, 6805. 6502. Z80, 8080/5 


49.95 


each 




3 FOR 


99.95 




6502 Translator 




75 00 


9 


Debugging Simulators 6805 or 6502 


75 00 


9 ea 


STYLOGRAPH 2.0 


295.00 




9 


STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 


125.00 




9 


STYLOGRAPH Spelling Checker 145.00 




9 


CODE X = XBASIC, 9 - 6809. 8 


= 6800. P = 


PASCAL 





Software by Technical Systems Consultants, Inc. 

FlexTM (includes Editor & Assembler) 150.00 
UniFLEXTM (includes one year 

maintenance and update) 450.00 

Editor 50.00 

Assembler 50.00 

68000 Cross Assembler on 6809 250.00 

Text Processor 75.00 

Extended Basic 100.00 
Basic Precompiler (specify standard 

or extended) 50.00 

Pascal (FlexTM; 200.00 
Pascal (UniFLEXTM) (Add $75.00 for 

one year's maintenance and update) 
Soft/Merge Package 



225.00 
75.00 
75.00 
75.00 
75 00 



6809 FlexTM Utilities 
Debug Package 
Diagnostic Package 
Software by Microware Systems Corp. 

OS-9 TM Level One 

Operating System 200.00 
OS-9TM Level Two 

Operating System 500.00 
BASIC09TM 200.00 
OS-9TM Macro Text Editor 125 00 

OS-9TM interactive Assembler 125 00 

OS-9TM interactive Debugger 

(Disk version) 50.00 
CIS Cobol Compiler 895 00 

Pascal Compiler 400 00 

USA add $2.50 for standard UPS shipping & handling 
Foreign orders add 20% Airmail 
Specify 5" or 8' disk and 6800 or 6809 
VISA-MASTER CHARGE- DINERS CLUB ACCEPTED 

OUR SOFTWARE IS GIMIX COMPATIBLE 



FRANK HOGG 



130 MIDTOWN PLAZA 
SYRACUSE, NY 13210 (315) 474-7856 



Page 94 The RAINBOW 

ML PROGRAMS (From Page 92) 

instruction in the Plug 'N Power software in this location is 
destroyed as soon as an event occurs that causes an IRQ 
interrupt. 

Of course, you can unplug the disk controller, but this 
requires powering down the computer and causes wear on 
the connectors. Instead, you can temporarily change the 
IRQ vector to use the Extended Basic service routine by 
running the following program before loading Plug 'N 
Power (or other cassette-based machine language program). 



September, 1982 



Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 



10 CLEAR 200,12000 

20 DEFUSR(0)=12000 

30 DATA 142, 137, 76, 191, 1, 13, 57 

40 POKE 113,0 

50 FOR 1=0 to 6 

60 READ X 

70 POKE 12000+1, X 

80 NEXT I 

90 X=USR0(0) 

The Plug 'N Power program can then be loaded from 
cassette and executed normally on your color disk system. 
Of course, you cannot use disk with the above patch in 
effect. Simply press RESET to restore the Color disk 
operating system environment. 

CORRECTION 

In the NFL program in the June issue, line 90 is in the 
wrong place. It should be renumbered line 55 to prevent a 
DD ERROR if you loop back for a second schedule 
selection after making a printout of the first schedule. 



Contributions to the RAINBOW are welcome from 
everyone. We like to run a variety of programs which will be 
useful/ helpful/fun for other 80C owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk. We're 
sorry, but we do not have time to key in programs. All 
programs should be supported by some editorial 
commentary, explaining how the submission works. We're 
much more interested in how the program works and runs 
than in how you developed it. Programs should be learning 
experiences. 

We do pay for substantive submissions, based on a 
number of criteria. Those wishing enumeration should so 
state when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed 
information on making submissions, please send a SASE to: 
Submissions Editor, the RAINBOW, P.O. Box 209, 
Prospect, KY 40059. We will send you a list of more 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently 
submitted to another publication. 



Look For 



The. , , , 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 



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ALLOWS THE USER TO PLRCE CHRRRCTERS ON R GRRPHIC J 
SCREEN. FULL NON-DESTUCT JVE CURSOR CONTROL. MOVE -t 
CURSOR ANYWHERE ON SCREEN. FULL ASCII CHAR. SET . J 



CRN BE USED RS SUBROUTINE OR BY ITSELF. 
PILOT ROR C - C - 



full ASCII character *«tr 

I "#*!'.8,' <>*+,-. /01S3436789iJO>?S)A8CDEFGH[ 
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THE SOLUTION SOLVES THE PROBLEM OF THE CCS 
SMALL SCREEN SIZE. THIS PRAOGRAM PRINTS 
CHARACTERS ON THE HIGH-RES GRAPHIC SCREEN . 
IT WORKS WITH ALL. REGULAR BASIC PROGRAMS AND 
FUNCT I ONS (.IE, LI ST , PR I NT , CI..S , PR I NT TAB 
AND PRINT USING),, FEATURES INCLUDE : 

1- FULL ASCII CHARACTER SET 

2- LOWER CASE WITH DECENDERS 

3- 42 CHARACTERS X 21 LINES DISPLAYED 

4- WORKS WITH ALL 2. COLOR MODES 

5- LARGE MODE FOR SMALL CHILDREN OR THE 
VISUALLY IMPAIRED 

6- SPECIAL MODE WITH 4 LINES OF TEXT AT 
THE BOTTOM OF A GRAPHIC SCREEN 

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8- FAST— PRINTS AT OVER 600CHRRRCTERS 
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(. NOTE ; THIS IS AH IMPROVED VERSION OF THE PROGRAM 
WITH SEVERAL IMPROVEMENTS. OLD OWNERS OF THE 
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COLOR COMPUTER TO BE USED FOR C.R.I. 

SUPER PILQT -S9.95 - R VERSION OF PILOT FOR EXT 
BASIC HRS FEATURES FOR GRAPHICS AMD SOUND. 



BASIC RUNS ON 4K MACHINES. 
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A PACKAGE OF TWO PROGRAMS FOR USE WITH THE LPVII 
AND LPVIII. 1> DOUBLE SIZE PRINT- CREATES AN IMAIGE 
8 X 6.5 INCHES. 2:^ SCREEN PRINT - REGULAR SIZE 
SCREEN PRINT THAT CAN MOVED ANYWHERE ON A PAGE. 
BOTH PROGRAMS WORK WITH ALL PMODES AND CAN BE LOCATED - 
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SMALL M.L. PROGRAM THAT IS FASTER THAT BASIC. HAS 
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September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 95 



Education. .. 

A New Way To Make 
Up Words Is Here 

By Geoff Wells 

Some of the easiest-sounding programming projects turn 
out to be much more complicated than first anticipated. But, 
if you take on something a little beyond your programming 
capabilities and succeed, then you have stretched your 
knowledge and abilities. 

This was the case with the program Word below. I wanted 
to produce a game similar to Scrabble™ with a bag of letters 
of various point values, from which I could make words. 
There are several books available the give the frequency of 
letter use in English and these figures are reflected in the 
program's data statements. 

Picking random letters from this list is, of course, quite 
simple, but you must then separate the letters used and put 
the rest back in the bag. It is also necessary to keep track of 
the letters on the screen, their positions, point values, and 
the names of all the players and their scores. 

All this involved several different arrays and switching 
information back and forth between them. 

When you type a letter it is replaced in the letter display 
with a graphic block and the letter appears on the word 
display, along with its point value and the total for the word. 
If you change your mind about a letter, just use the 
backspace arrow to put it back in the letter display and 
remove it from the word. 

All this seemed quite a task as I had had my 80C f or only a 
month. However, after the program was finally running, I 
felt much more satisfaction than I would have had the task 
been easy. 

So, if you have an idea for a program but think it may be 
beyond you — go for it. You have nothing to lose but your 
sanity! 

The listing: 

10 'WORD 

20 * GEOFF WELLS 

30 * HAMILTON ONTARIO 

40 'CANADA 

50 ' COMPLETED APRIL 26, 1981 

60 CLEAR 500: DIM AZ* (200) , TL* ( 10 

) ,PL*(10) 

70 DIM AZ(200) ,CH(10) ,PL(10) 

80 G=128+16*(8-1)+15:BL*= M 

90 CLS(0) 

100 PRINT3107, 

110 PRINT3139, " WORD " ; 

120 PRINT3171, "**********"; 

130 PRINT3384," HOW MANY PLAYERS 

<1 TO 10>"; : INPUT P 

140 IF P=>1 AND P»<10 THEN DIM N 

P* CP) ,PT(P) : ELSE 130 

1 50 PR I NT3448 , " DO YOU NEED I NST 

RUCTIONS"; : INPUT I* 

160 IF LEFT* (I*, 1)="Y" THEN GOSU 

B 1620 

170 CLS(0) 

180 FOR N=l TO P 

190 PRINT3224 

200 PRINT3224, " NAME OF PLAYER "N 
;: INPUT NP*(N) -Continued on Next Page 



jjmrnigntiniiiiittiniimiTiinnminntmtniininiiirti — m~ Miw^^-'ii 

gHERE ARE 1 0 GOOD REASONS TO JOIN| 

§ .1). FREE programs. Good programs written by members 5 
s5 are yours != 

*~ 2). Subscription to the RAINBOW a magazine devoted rz 

MM ~ 

~ " entirely to the TRS ■ 80. Color Computer 5 

= 3). Use of a library of member-written programs that you § 
~ may check out and use for as much as four weeks at a 5 



J5 time 

— 4). A club newsletter, with tips programs and data on CoCo. 

EE 5). Buy, sell or trade with your ad In the newsletter FREE 

r: 6). Discounts on many software & hardware Items for CoCo 

== Save from 7 to 80 percent. 

~ 7}. The new member pagkage, containing many helpful 

~ Items. 

= 8). Discounts on subscriptions to CNN and chromasette 

= mags. 

E: 9). You may borrow parts for the Color Computer from the 

= club and return them when you get the onei you order- 

== ed from RS this will save you down time 

IE 10). You will have someone to ask about problems with soft- 

= ware or hardware. Many members are master programm- 

~ ers, some are electronics experts. 

1 The East Texas Color Computer Club 

1 2101 E. Main St., Henderson, Tx. 75652 

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Huntsville, Alabama 35805 
(205) 837-3356 



Page 96 



The RAINBOW 



210 NEXT N 
220 ' 

230 PRINT3224, " ONE MOMENT PLEAS 
E" 

240 ' 

250 FOR R=l TO 200 
260 READ AZ*<R> 
270 READ AZ (R) 
280 NEXT R 
290 ' 

300 CLS(0) 

310 ROUND=l 

320 'BODY OF GAME 

330 ' 

340 FOR RD=1 TO P 'ROUND 
350 B=RND(100) 

360 IF B>90 THEN B=2 ELSE B=l 

' BONUS 
370 TT=PT(RD) 
380 LS=0:W*= M,, :RT=0 
390 ' 
400 ' 

410 FOR LU=1 TO 10 * PICK LETTER 
420 PICK=RND(200) 

430 IF AZ*<PICK)=CHR*<G> THEN 42 
0 'USED LETTER 
440 ' 
450 ' 

460 FOR CK=1 TO 10 

470 IF CH(CK)=PICK THEN 420 

480 NEXT CK 

490 ' 

500 ' 

510 CH(LU)=PICK 

520 PL*<LU>=AZ*<PICK> 

530 PL(LU)=AZ (PICK) 

540 NEXT LU 

550 ' 

560 * 

570 PR I NT30 , " ROUND " ROUND ; 

580 IF B=2 THEN PRINT320, M B*0*N* 

U*S"; 

590 PRINTS>32+(32-(LEN<NP*<RD) > ) ) 
/2,NP*(RD) ; 
600 PP=0 

610 FOR GB=1 TO 15 'BLOCKS 
620 PRINTS>98+PP,BL*; 
630 PRINTS>226+PP,BL*; 
640 PP=PP-i-6 

650 IF PP=30 THEN PP=32 
660 IF PP=62 THEN PP=64 
670 NEXT GB 
680 ' 
690 PP=0 

700 FOR LT=1 TO 5 

710 PRINT5>131+PP,PL*<LT> ; 

720 PR I NT3259+PP , PL* ( LT+5 ) ; 

730 PP=PP+6 

740 NEXT LT 

750 ' 



September, 1982 

760 ' 

770 PRINT3363, ■'»********» " ; 

780 PRINT3363, W*; 

790 PRINT9448, "LETTER SCORE M LS*B 
; TAB (20) 11 TOTAL" RT 
800 ' 
810 ' 

820 L*=INKEY* 

830 IF L*=PL*(1) OR L*=PL*(2) OR 
L*=PL*(3) OR L*=PL*(4) OR L*=PL 
*(5) OR L*=PL*<6) OR L*=PL*(7) 0 
R L*=PL*(8) OR L*=PL*(9) OR L*=P 
L*(10) OR L*=CHR*(8) OR L*=" " T 
HEN 840 ELSE 820 

IF L*=" 11 THEN 970 
IF L*=CHR*(8) THEN 1180 
IF L*=PL*(1) THEN TL* ( 1 ) =PL* 



840 



860 

( 1 ) : PL* ( 1 ) =CHR* (G) : LS=PL ( 1 ) : GOTO 
960 

870 IF L*=PL*(2) THEN TL*(2)=PL* 

(2) :PL*(2)=CHR*(G) : LS=PL (2) : GOTO 
960 

880 IF L*=PL*(3) THEN TL*(3)=PL* 

(3) :PL*(3)=CHR*(G) :LS=PL(3) : GOTO 
960 

890 IF L*=PL*<4) THEN TL*(4)=PL* 

(4) :PL*(4)=CHR*(G) :LS=PL(4) :GOTO 
960 

900 IF L*=PL*<5) THEN TL*(5)=PL* 

(5) :PL*(5)=CHR*(G) :LS=PL(5) : GOTO 
960 

910 IF L*=PL*(6) THEN TL*(6)=PL* 

(6) :PL*(6)=CHR*(G) :LS=PL(6) : GOTO 
960 

920 IF L*=PL*(7) THEN TL*(7)=PL* 

(7) :PL*(7)=CHR*(G) :LS=PL(7) : GOTO 
960 

930 IF L*=PL*<8) THPN TL*<8)=PL* 

—Continued on Paae 99 



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A MAGIC CUBE SIMULATION FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 
FEATURING: 

• Easy to use commands 

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9 Random mixes 

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• See all 6 faces 

•Save QUBE to tape -for later reload 
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No C.0.D.S 

Requires 16K Extended Basic 



Send Check or M.0. to: 

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27 Church St. West 
Greenwich, Conn. 06830 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 97 



LOSING BATTLES WITH 

GLOOMSTICK? 




PUT THE JOY BACK IN 
COLOR COMPUTING 
WITH A NEW 



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STICK 



Features include: 



Power on/off LED 
indicator 




Ball joint components for 
a true feel of control ^ 



RAINBOW 

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Extra long cables 



Sturdy construction 






Hair trigger response 



Dealer inquries - invited. 



please send( ) SPECTRUM STICK(s) at 
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(N.Y. residents add appropiate sales tax) 
SPECTRUM PROJECTS 
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W00DHAVEN, N.Y. 11421 



Page 98 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



THE COLOR COMPUTER SPECIALISTS 



COLORFORTH ™nbw 



cinriFCAriON 

UAL 



MOVE UP FROM BASICI Forth is a new, high level language available now for the color computer. 
COLORFORTH, a version of fig FORTH, has an execution time as much as lO to 20 times faster than Basic, 
and can be programmed faster than basic. COLORFORTH is highly modular which make testing and 
debugging much simpler. COLORFORTH has been specially customized for the color computer and re- 
quires only 16K. It does not require extended Basic. When you purchase COLORFORTH, you receive both 
cassette and RS/DISK versions, the standard fig EDITOR and an extensive instruction manual. Both ver- 
sions and manual, all for only $49.95 

ARMADILLO BUG 
MACHINE LANGUAGE MONITOR 

"Armadillo Bug" is an excellent system for beginners to learn to write and debug machine language 
programs. This package includes: memory examine and change; move; punch and load; fill commands; 
and more! Does not require extended Basic. Runs in 16K. Comes complete with printed manual. 

Just $14.95 

BIORHYTHMS 

A neat little program you can use to chart the future (or past). Hi-res graphics without extended Basic 
being required. Runs in 16K. You will be impressed! With instructions, only $10.95 

OTHER ITEMS OF INTEREST 

"Starting Forth", a book by Leo Brodie. The best introductory Forth text available. 384 pages. Soft 
cover $16.00 

"Computers Piss Me Off'. Wear the official programmers badge. Large 2-1/4 inch yellow button says It 
all! $1.50 

"I y My Color Computer". White button with black lettering and red heart. 2-1/4 inches. Only . . $1.50 

DEALER AND AUTHOR INQUIRIES INVITED 

All items are post paid in U.S Texas Residents add 5 percent 



Armadillo Int'l Software 

P. O. BOX 7661 




master charge 




AUSTIN, TEXAS 78712 JgH^ PHONE (512) 459-7325 



September, 1982 

WORDS (From Page 96) 

(8) :PL*(8)=CHR*(G) :LS=PL(8) : GOTO 
960 

940 IF L*=PL*<9) THEN TL*<9)=PL* 

(9) : PL* (9) =CHR* (G) : LS=PL (9) : GOTO 
960 

950 IF L*=PL*(10) THEN TL*<10)=P 
L* ( 10) : PL* (10) =CHR* (G) : LS=PL ( 10) 
960 W*=W*+L*:TT=TT+LS*B:RT=RT+LS 
*B:GOTO 690 
970 PRINT3448, " 



ii 



980 PRINT5>448, n IS THIS WORD COR 
RECT"; : INPUT I* 

990 IF LEFT* (I*, 1 ) = " N 11 THEN PRIN 

TS>389, n MAKE YOUR CORRECTIONS";: 

GOTO 690 

1000 PT(RD)=TT 

1010 FOR R=l TO 10 

1020 AZ*(CH(R) )=PL*(R) 

1030 IF PL*(R)=CHR*(G) THEN USED 

=USED+1 

1040 TL*(R)= ,,n :CH(R)=0 

1050 NEXT R 

1060 CLS(0) 

1070 NEXT RD 

1080 'END OF ROUND 

1090 CLS 

1100 PRINT345, "ROUND "ROUND: PR I NT 
: PRINT 



The RAINBOW Page 99 

1110 FOR S=l TO P 

1120 PRINT " "NP*(S) n HAS"PT(S) 

"POINTS" 

1130 NEXT S 

1140 PRINT: IF (190-USEDX5*P THEN 
PRINT" AS THERE ARE ONLY"200-US 
ED "LETTERS LEFT, THIS WAS TH 
E FINAL ROUND": END 
1150 PRINT" PRESS ANY KEY FOR NE 
XT ROUND"; 

1160 IF INKEY*=" "THEN 1160 

1170 CLS (0) :ROUND=ROUND+l: GOTO 3 

40 

1180 IF W*="" THEN 820 
1190 IF RIGHT* (W*, 1)=TL*( 10) THE 
N PL*(10)=TL*(10) :TL*(10)="":TT= 
TT-PL(10)*B:LS=-PL(10) :GOTO 1290 
1200 IF RIGHT* (W*, 1)=TL*(9) THEN 

PL* (9) =TL* (9) : TL* (9) =" " : TT=TT-P 
L(9)*B:LS=-PL(9):G0T0 1290 
1210 IF RIGHT*(W*, 1)=TL*(8) THEN 

PL* ( 8 ) =TL* ( 8 ) : TL* ( 8 ) = " " : TT=TT-P 
L(8) *B:LS=-PL(8) :GOTO 1290 
1220 IF RIGHT*(W*, 1)=TL*(7) THEN 

PL* ( 7 ) =TL* ( 7 ) : TL* ( 7 ) = " " : TT=TT-P 
L(7) *B:LS=-PL(7) : GOTO 1290 
1230 IF RIGHT*(W*, 1)=TL*(6) THEN 

PL* ( 6 ) =TL* ( 6 ) : TL* ( 6 ) = " " : TT=TT-P 

L(6) *B:LS=-PL<6) : GOTO 1290 

—Continued on Page 100 



™TRS80 color 

From the January 1981 issue of the CSRA Computer 
Club newsletter 

There was some amusement at the Novem- 
ber meeting when the Radio Shack repre- 
sentatives stated that the software in the 
ROM cartridges could not be copied. This 
month's 68 Micro Journal reported they had 
disassembled the programs on ROM by 
covering some of the connector pins with 
tape They promise details next month. Never 
tell a hobbyist something can't be done' This 
magazine seems to be the only source so far 
of technical informations on the TRS-80 color 
computer ". Devoted to SS-50 6800 and 
6809 machines up to now. 68 Micro Journal 
plans to include the TRS-80 6809 unit in 
future issues. 

NOTE: This and other interesting and needed articles 
for the Radio Shack TRS-80 color computer >M arebeing 
included monthly in 68 Micro Journal— The Largest 
specialty computer magazine in the wOrld' 

68 MICRO JOURNAL 

5900 Cassandra Smith Road 
Hixson, Tennessee 37343 
615 842-4600 

Subscription Rates 



USA: 1-year $24.50; 2-year $42.50; 3-year $64.50 
CANADA and MEXICO: Add $5.50 per year to USA Price 
Foreign Surface: Add $12.00 per year to USA Price 
Foreign AIRMAIL: Add $36.00 per year to USA Price 




68 Micro Journal* was established with one objective in 
mind; to provide a Magazine FOR 68xx Users BY 68xx 
Users. Because of a strict advertiser policy, 68 Micro 
Journal" has gained a strong following WORLDWIDE 
because tfie reader KNOWS what he is getting when 
purchasing from a 68 Micro Journal™ Advertiser. It has 
gained a strong User following because most of the 
material published is contributed BY USERS, and, 
therefore, is relevant to the Users needs. 

Currently, and even before the Color Computer"" hit the 
stores, 68 Micro Journal" was devoting more space to 
the TRS-80C Color Computer™ and information concerning 
the Motorola 6809 (which is the CPU in the Color 
Computer") than ANY OTHER Computer Magazine , Examples 
inc lude: 

REVIEWS of the three major Disk Control Systems for 
the Color Computer", most of the Monitors, 
Assemblers, and Disassemblers, Word Processors and 
Editors, "Terminal" Programs (for use with Modems, 
Communications with other Computers, etc.), arYd of 
course, Games. 

HINTS for Expanding Memor/, Power Supply Cooling, re- 
pairing sticky keyboards, disabling the ROM PAK "Take 
Over 11 , hooking up to Printers, etc. 
DISCUSSIONS of the 6883 Synchronous Address 
Multiplexer, using the Color Computer™ with 64K and 
96K memory (which it is ALREADY capable of handling), 
thoughts on Programming, etc. 

I suggest that you subscribe to 68 Micro Journal™, SOON, 
as many back issues are sold-out. 

We still, and will continue to, lead in the type 
i nf ormat ion you need to FULLY UTILIZE the POWER of the 
6809 in the Rqdio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer". 




Bob Nay t. 
Color Computer Editor 



** Sample issue - $3.50 



Page 100 The RAINBOW 

■ 

WHY BUY SO MANY THAT DO SO LITTLE? 
YOU ONLY NEED HOMEBASE" TO MANAGE 
YOUR HOME WITH A COLOR COMPUTER. 

HOMEBASE™ PROVIDES WORD PROCESSING AND DATA- 
BASE MANAGEMENT IN ONE INTERGRATED AND EASY 
TO USE PACKAGE. SOME OF THE MANY USEFUL APPLI- 
CATIONS OF HOMEBASE™ INCLUDE: 

• Check book management • Ledgers • Grocery lists • 
Shopping lists • Article indexing • Recipes • Disk directories 

• Notes • Memos • Letters • Phone lists • Customer lists • 
Business contact lists • Appointments • Mailing lists • Home 
inventory • Car maintenance scheduling • Income tax prepa- 
ration • Address lists • Charts • 
WORD PROCESSING FEATURES INCLUDE: 

— DEFINE 250 screens of text you can search, sort, display, 
or print using names you assign or using any word or 
phrase. 

— EDIT text by duplicating, moving, clearing, searching and 
replacing, deleting, or reordering entire records of text or 
any word or phrase. 

— FORMAT labels, memos, letters, and other documents for 
printing with embeded printer controls for paging, skip- 
ping lines, and changing character fonts. Program con- 
trols provide setting; right and left margins, lines per page, 
page width and horizontal tabs. 

DATA MANAGEMENT FEATURES INCLUDE: 

— DEFINE 50 data fields, including a comment field, in a 
single record. Dates, time of day, phone numbers and dol- 
lar amounts are automatically formatted. You may also 
define 24 scratchpad data fields. 

— REORGANIZE records by moving data fields within re- 
cords or by moving records within the file. You may sort 
records using names you assign or data. 

— MANAGE files by searching, deleting, clearing, duplicat- 
ing, and displaying any data field or record. Add, subtract, 
multiply, divide, or summarize any data field. Use any 
command on any selected group of data fields and/or 
records. 

— PRINT files using automatic formatting with options to 
print report titles, a report date, page numbers, record 
names, and data field names. Print all or selected data 
fields or records. Use standard or compressed print. Use a 
special print option to print the comment field as a mailing 
label. 

UTILITIES FOR WORD PROCESSING AND DATA MAN- 
AGEMENT INCLUDE: 

• Generating new files from old files • Merging files • Dup- 
licating files • Moving data between files • Summarizing flies 

• Moving files from diskette to diskette using one drive • 
Saving files to cassette and reloading from casette • File 
synchronizing • 

HOMEBASE™ IS EASY TO USE: 

— NO PROGRAMMING REQUIRED. All options are dis- 
played in menus. HOMEBASE'" automatically requests all 
required data and edits every entry. 

— All commands are single key stroke. 

— FULL screen editing for text entry. 

— Complete cursor control for entering names, titles, notes, 
and comments. 

— Instructions with complete descriptions of each command. 

— Requires 32K of memory, disk basic and only one disk 
drive. 

— All programs reside entirely in memory. 

— Fast response to all commands including search and sort. 

| ORDER TOLL FREE | 

Credit card holders call toll free: 800 621-5809 
In Illinois Call 800-972-5858 

or send a check or money order for $75.00 plus $5.00 
for handling charges to: 
HOMEBASE™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
P.O. Box 3448 
Durham, N. C. 27702 
N.C. residents add $2.25 for sales tax. Allow 1 to 3 weeks for delivery. 

HOMEBASE'* is a trademark of HOMEBASE'" COMPUTER SYSTEMS a subsid- 
iary of Small Business Systems, Durham. N.C 



September, 1982 

WORDS (From Page 99) 
1240 IF RIGHT* <W*, 1)=TL*<5) THEN 

PL* (5) =TL* (5) : TL* (5) =" " : TT=TT-P 
L(5) *B:LS=-PL<5) : GOTO 1290 
1250 IF RIGHT* (W*, 1)=TL*(4) THEN 

PL* ( 4 ) =TL* ( 4 ) : TL* ( 4 ) = " " : TT=TT-P 
L(4) *B:LS=-PL<4) : GOTO 1290 
1260 IF RIGHT* (W*, 1)=TL*(3) THEN 

PL* (3) =TL* (3) : TL* (3) =" " : TT=TT-P 
L(3) *B:LS=-PL<3> : GOTO 1290 
1270 IF RIGHT* (W*, 1)=TL*(2) THEN 

PL* ( 2 ) -TL* ( 2 ) : TL* ( 2 ) = " " : TT=TT-P 
L(2) *B:LS=-PL<2> : GOTO 1290 
1280 IF RIGHT* ( W*, 1 ) =TL* ( 1 ) THEN 

PL* ( 1 ) =TL* ( 1 ) : TL* ( 1 ) = " " : TT=TT-P 
L < 1 ) *B: LS=-PL ( 1 ) : GOTO 1 290 
1290 W*=LEFT*(W*, (LEN(W*)-1) ) 
1300 RT=RT+LS*B: GOTO 690 
1310 ' 
1320 * 
1330 * 



1340 DATA 


A 


,3, 


A, 


3 




.3, 


A 


,3, 


.A, 


.3, 


A, 


3 j Ay 3 9 A p 3 p 


A, 


p3, 


A, 


3, 


p A, 


3, 


A 


>3, 


, A, 


3, 


A, 


3, A, 3 
























1350 DATA 


B. 


p 8, 


B, 


8 




,8 












1360 DATA 






c, 






6, 


C 






6 




1370 DATA 




,5, 






,D, 


5, 


D 


,5, 




5, 


D, 


5,D,5 
























1380 DATA 


E, 




E, 


1, 


»E, 




E 


» 1 j 


E, 


1, 


E, 


1,E, 1,E, 1, 


E, 


• 1» 


E, 


1 , 


,E, 


1, 

r 


E 


» 1. 


E, 


1, 


E, 


1,E, 1,E, 1, 


E, 




E, 


1, 


,E, 


,1, 


E 


9 1> 


Ej 


1, 


E, 


IpEp 1 P E, 1, 


E, 


. 1 




















1390 DATA 


F, 




F, 




,F, 




F 




F, 


6 




1400 DATA 


G, 


.7, 


G, 


7, 


■ G, 


7, 


G 


,7, 


G, 


7 




1410 DATA 


H, 


.5* 


H, 


5i 


.H, 




H 




H, 


5, 


H, 


5,H,5 
























1420 DATA 


I. 


.3, 


I, 


3, 


. I » 


3, 


I 


,3, 


I, 


3, 


I, 


3, 1*3, 1 9 3 9 


I. 


.3, 


I, 


3, 


. I> 


3, 


I 


,3, 


I, 


3, 


I, 


3,1,3 
























1430 DATA 


J. 


,9 




















1440 DATA 


K, 


,9 




















1450 DATA 


L, 


.5, 


L, 




.L, 


5, 


L 




L, 


5, 


L, 


5,L,5 
























1460 DATA 


Mj 


.7, 


M, 


7, 




7, 


M 


>7, 


M> 


7 




1470 DATA 


N, 


3, 


N, 


3, 


N, 


3, 


N 


>3, 


N, 


3, 


N, 


3,N,3,N,3, 


N, 


3, 


N, 


3, 


N, 


3, 


N 


>3, 


N, 


3, 


N, 


3,N,3 
























1480 DATA 


0* 


3, 


0, 


3, 


0, 


3, 


0 


>3, 


0, 


3, 


0, 


3, O, 3, O, 3, 




3, 




3, 




3, 


0 


>3, 




3, 


0, 


3,0,3 
























1490 DATA 


P, 


7, 




7, 


P, 


7, 


P 


,7, 


P, 


7 




1500 DATA 




9 




















1510 DATA 


R> 


3, 




3, 


R> 


3, 


R 


p3, 


R> 


3, 




3 p R 9 3, R 9 39 


R» 


3, 


R, 


3, 


R> 


3, 


R 


p 3, 


R> 


3, 


R, 


3,R,3 
























1520 DATA 


s, 


4, 


s, 


4, 


s, 


4, 


S 


p 4, 


s, 


4, 


s, 


4,S,4,S,4, 


s, 


4, 


s, 


4 
















1530 DATA 


T, 


2, 


T, 


2, 


T, 


2, 


T 


,2, 


T, 


2, 


T, 


2,T,2,T,2, 


T, 


2, 


T, 


2, 


T, 


2, 


T, 


p2, 


T, 


2, 


T, 


2,T,2,T,2, 


T, 


2, 


T, 


2, 


T, 


2, 


T, 


p 2 









September 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 101 




SA V 



- i 




10% 




COLOR COMPUTER 

MASTER CONTROL 

Copyright c 1981 Soft Sector Marketing Inc. 
- Written by A. Schwartz 



Requires 16-32K 

1 . 50 preprogrammed command keys. Standard 
and Extended command, 

2. Direct control of motor, trace, and audio from 
keyboard. 

3. Automatic line numbering. 

4. Programmable Custom Key. 

5. Direct Run Button. 

6. Keyboard overlay for easy program use. 

7. Easyentryofentire commands into computer. 

Load Master Control into your machine then 
either type in a BASIC program or load one in 
from tape to edit. Cuts programming time by 
50% or more. 



This Month Only 



For The Radio Shack 
Color Computer" 




/// 



Written bvERi 

50 PROGRAMS 

In One Package 

'The Color Computer is a product of Radio Shack 
division of the Tandy Corporation 



$24.95 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



$49.95 



GHOST GOBBLER! 

16K - JOYSTICK 

$21.95 



Tape Directory 



Copyright ®1982 



Tft$ 



• • • • 



Creates index 
of your 

programs 
for each 

tape . 

To screen 

or printer. 



MACHINE LANGUAGE 



FOR 4K COLOR USERS 

Color Scarf man 

GREAT GRAPHICS 
Machine Language 

Only $19.95 



A MUST FOR ALL 
COLOR COMPUTER 
USERS' 



Cassette, $14.95 



DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME - 



^Wili SOFT SECTOR MARKETING. 1 
9S9AH INCORPORATED 

6250 Middlebelt • Garden City, Michigan 48135 
Order Line 800-521-6504 

Michigan Orders & Questions 313-425-4020 J 



^^■MB f ~ I f 1 PAYMENT- pnvmonl acceplod charge, personal check 

vrSA' tafc&rt 1 ""S^l I or COD only, under the totowmg conditions Charges 
^■BHH J y f / """ I ctfoc essoo whnn sfi ippea usual ly wVtr i in A fl not j< s Persong I 

Checks delay shipping pending S weeks to clear C.O.D, 
orders are cerlilipa rheck or cosh o*iiy add j< 50 Ml retidenis must ood &% id let tan 
SHIPPING A HANDLING - Shipping Charge*: fenfl the larger crmount. ?% or unless 
stipulated otnerwiv ■ Any rjfaer received wrtnput shipping and handling will be shipped freight 
called Air Moil Shipping ixjTsirio or Morth An*>rjca please send rhe Jorger o mount 1Gft> oi 



The Quality Continues 



Page 102 

WORDS (Continued From Page 100) 
1540 DATA U,7,U,7,U,7,U,7,U,7 
1550 DATA V,8,V,8,V,8 
1560 DATA W,8,W,8,W,8 
1570 DATA X,9 

1580 DATA Y,7, Y,7, Y,7, Y,7, Y,7 

1590 DATA Z, 10 

1600 * 
1610 * 

1620 'INSTRUCTIONS 
1630 CLS 

1640 PRINT311, M ***WORD***" 
1650 PRINT 

1660 PRINT" LETTER DISTRIBUTION 
AND POINT VALUE IS BASED ON FR 
EQUENCY OF LETTER USE- " 



The RAINBOW 



START 

to ' hi 



■ 




COMPUTER PROGRAMS 
TRS-60 MODEL 1/3 16K LEVEL II 
TRS-60 16K COLOR 

S3 FROG RRCE S3 

DEMO PROGRRM FROG RRCE COMES ON CRSSETTE WITH I 
REFUND COUPON TO USE ON YOUR NEXT ORDER. 
FROG RRCE CRSSETTE S3. WITH CRTRLOG 



DUO-PRKS RRE 



1 



$10 ERCH. 

/ PROGRRM SIDE 2 

/ CONCENTRATION 

/ SLOT-MRCHINE 

/ SHERLOCK HOLMES 

/ RSSOCIRTION 

/ DICE ROLL 

/ SHELL GRME 

/ STRRSHIP-2 

/ PUZZLE 

/ MOUSE 

/ TURTLE RRCE 

/ STRRSHIP-3 

/ LUCK 8« LOGIC 

/ RESCUE 

/ FLC~FRC 

IOTIMERM / IC-TIMER 2 

SYSTEM PROGRRMS *10 ERCH 

SU1 CRSSETTE COPY / CRSSETTE COPY 

ORDERS WILL BE SENT BY FIRST CLRSS MRIL PPD. 

SORRY NO COD'S 
BE SURE TO SPECIFY WHICH COMPUTER YOU HAVE. 
B. ERICKSON P.O. BOX 11099 

CHICAGO, IL. 60611 



PRK NO. 
DUO-PAK-1 

DUO-PRK-2 
DUO-PRK-3 
DUO-PRK-4 
DUO-PAK-3 

DUO-PAK-6 

DUO-PRK-7 

DUO-PRK-8 

DUO-PRK-9 

DUO-PRK-10 

DUO-PRK-1 1 

DUO-PRK-12 

DUO-PRK-1 3 

DUO-PRK-300 

DUO-PRK-301 



PROGRRM SIDE 
GONE FISHING 
CRRPS 
STRRSHIP 
TRNK RTTRCK 
NUMBER GUESS 
IN-BETWEEN 
SRFRRI 

MORTRR BRTTLE 

TEASERS 

PT BORT 

CHEK-CHES 

THINK 

TRERSURE ISLRND 
DC-OHMS LRW 



ii 



ii 



September 1982 

1670 PRINT 
1680 PRINT 

ONLY THE 
UPPLIED. " 
1690 PRINT 
E LETTER 
AL WAY - " 
1700 PRINT 

TO SIGNAL 
D. " 

1710 PRINT3448, " PRESS ANY 
O START" 

1720 IF INKEY*="" THEN 1720 ELSE 
RETURN 



ii 



TYPE YOUR WORD USING 
TEN RANDOM LETTERS S 

YOU MAY BACKSPACE ON 
AT A TIME IN THE USU 

USE THE < SPACE BAR> 
THAT YOU ARE F I N I SHE 



KEY T 




n PROGRAM FOR TEACHING CHILDREN TO TELL TIME 



m 



SELECT H OR (71 

TRS-80 Color Computer* 
Requires 16K Extended Basic 




10515 



APPEALING GRAPHICS, FUN REWARDS AND SOUND 
Used Successfully In Classrooms and In Homes 

Cassette $24.95 

ALSO AVAILABLE- CASSETTES 
Counting Money $19.95 
Add-Carry $19,95 
Subtract-Borrow $19.95 



Mathfact 
ABC's 
Spelling 



$16.95 
$ 9.95 
$16.95 



WRITE FOR FREE DESCRIPTIVE BROCHURE 
DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 

B5 SOFTWARE 



RAINBOW 



1024 Bainbridge PI. Columbus, OH 43228 



The l&K Color 
uith 51 or 

• 300 or 110 Baud 

• user programmable keys 

• automatic repeat when 
key is held down 

• dump your files to host 

• reverse video 

• partial screen clear 

• 4-way cursor control 

Cassette and Manual $34.95 tu.sj $40.95 



COLORTERM (c) 

Conputer* as an in 
colunns by ? 1 line 

• any data format (commercial 
systems, TSO, bulletins etc.) 

• memory buffer for incoming 
data— save buffer— scroll 
through buffer 

• preserve a "window" of 

any size; new material scrolls 
through remainderof screen. 



(Canadian) 



tel I iqent terninal 
s and lower case! 

• encode data for more secure 
storage 

• macro buffers for often-used 
output 

• patch the 51 or 64 column 
display to your own programs 
running above 9168 (23 DO hex) 

Visa, Master Charge, Money Order. 



Martin Consulting, 94 Macalester Bay, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2X5 Canada 



*T.M. OF TANDY CORP. 



September, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 103 





a 



THE TRS'80 USERS JIIRML 

If you own a TRS-80® Model I, Model II, 
Model III, the Color Computer, or the new 
Pocket Computer, YOU NEED 80-U.S.! 



The 80-U.S. Journal has 



programs for your enjoyment and enlightenment. 
Every issue contains several Basic or machine 
language program listings. It contains Business 
articles and program listings. No matter where you 
are, there is something for YOU in the Journal! 



and... 



The Journal contains reviews of hardware and software. Our "Evaluation 
Reports" will help you make the best choice in selecting additions to your 
system. 



Save Over 50% 



You can save over 50% off the cover price of 80-U.S. Journal. For the 
remarkably low price of only $ 16.00, a savings of $20.00 (cover price), you 
will receive a wealth of useful information every month. As a special 
BONUS, if you enclose payment with your order, you will receive an 
extra issue for each year of your subscription order. Order three years of 
80-U.S. and receive three extra issues! At no cost to you! 



Is your 
TRS-80 
Lonely? 

Write today for 

our 

"No Risk Offer" 



SEND TO: 

80-U.S. Journal 
3838 South Warner Street 
Tacoma, Washington 98409 
Phone (206) 475-2219 



Name 

Address. 
City 



State. 



7\ 



: Visa/MC 

■ 

■ 

\ Exp. Date. 



□ 1 yr. $16 □ 2 yrs. $31 □ 3 yrs. $45 
Please allow 6 to 8 weeks for your first h 



TRSSO is a Registered Trade mark o/ th* Tandy CW- 




\ v v' 



1 • 




Page 104 



The RAINBOW 



September, 1982 



PRINT #-2, (From Page 6) 



We are very pleased to welcome Bob Albrecht and George 
Firedrake to the RAIN BOW. Bob's credentials as a top- 
notch writer are without question and I know his new series 
which begins this issue under the title of "The Gamemaster's 
Apprentice" will be useful, enjoyable and enlightening to us 
all. Glad to have you with us, Bob and George. 

Readers may be interested to know that Bob styles himself 
as the "perpetual beginner" and writes so it is easy to learn. 
For that matter, you should know the the RAIN BOW, too, 
intends to continue to be the kind of magazine it has always 
been — with its primary emphasis on BASIC and simple 
machine language programming for the Color Computer 
(including the new TDP System 100 because, after all, it is 
the same computer). While we intend to keep up with all the 
interesting happeinings in the 80C world (note the space 
devoted to FLEX recently) but we will not ever lose our 
interest in or direction toward the basics. 

We style ourselves as being f or everyone f rom beginner on 
up, and plan to continue that way. 

As we have done for many months, we include a short 
article on how to submit material to the RAINBOW 
elsewhere in these (108!) pages. In addition, we do have a 
printed set of guidelines on submission of materials to the 
RAINBOW you may wish to read. Please mail us a request 
and we will send it right out. 

We do receive a large number of programs, but we are 
always on the lookout for good ones. And, our rates of pay 
are good, according to the information I have been able to 
gather from other publications. So, we encourage you to 
send us programs, articles and, for that matter, cartoons. If 
you wish it, you will be paid for your contributions. And, 
you will also have the satisfaction of being able to reach 
more Color Computer users than through any other source. 
Our effort is one of communication and we hope you will use 
us to communicate with other 80C users. 

In connection with the subject of communication, please 
note our very first Reader Survey is included in this issue. 
Please take a minute or two to fill it out and mail it back. 

I said, in response to a reader last month, that we would 
not do a survey unless we were able to make it meaningful. 
We believe we now have the ability to compile all the 
information we expect to receive to make the RAINBOW 
even more responsive to your interests than it now is. 



You may notice that the price on this month's cover is 
different — an increase of 45 cents per issue. Given the 
increase in pages, quality and so on, we hope you will agree 
with us that the RAINBOW is worth $2.95. There is no 
increase in the subscription price. 

Note, also, that Rainbow On Tape increases to $6.50 per 
issue and $60 per subscription. To be candid, we simply 
underestimated the person-hours it would take here to 
handle all of this. And, what with the increased number of 
programs appearing in the RAINBOW (and, by definition 
in Rainbow On Tape), we hope you will agree with us that it 
is still a bargain. _ Lonnie Falk 





the. 




Col O - /nagfc - FRe co** 

OA/IV THE ASTUTE CAN HOPE 
71} F/asd 7y/£- My our J 

mm w& z££t 





0 



<4* GfiCAT DUA/Ceo*l MAZE S/W£ & 0 



MASTER DISK 



C/ftCLE c/rx 

#o. ffox 30I6C -/At0/4AW/**/S, IN. 4C220 



ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE ? 

Tired of typing in all those long, but wonderful programs from each issue of the RAINBOW? Now you can get RAINBOW ON TAPE and 
give those tired fingers a rest! With RAINBOW ON TAPE, you'll be able to spend your time enjoying programs instead of 
typing... typing. ..typing them! All you ever need do again is pop a RAINBOW ON TAPE cassette into your recorder, CLOAD and RUN any 
one you want. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE is available as a single issue for $6,50 or on a yearly subscription basis for only $60. It is the perfect complement to 
the RAINBOW itself. 

VISA and MasterCard accepted. All subscriptions begin with the current Issue and no back issues of tapes are available at this time, 
^^gption^ sent first-class mail to coincide with the arrival of your current Issue of the RAINBOW. 



YES! Sign me up for RAINBOW ON TAPE. I want: 

A Full Year for $60 



A Month for $6.50 ( Specify Month 



■) 



Name_ 
Address 
City 



State 



Zip 



□ Payment Enclosed 
Account # 



□ Charge my VISA account 
Signature 



□ Charge my MasterCard account 
. Card Expires Interbank # . 



September, 1982 The RAINBOW Page 105 

RAINBOW MAGAZINE 

First Annual Reader Survey 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please check the boxes or fill in the blanks as appropriate. Where you are asked to make 
rankings, please only rank in the range required. In other words, if you are asked to rank 1-5, please do not add a 
number six. You must use this page to send in your reply— no photocopies allowed. This is to insure we only get 
one reply per reader. 

Mail all replies to: The RAINBOW, Survey Department, P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. 

Thank you f or helping us make the RAINBOW a better magazine for all Color Computer users. 

ABOUT YOUR PRESENT SYSTEM: 

□ 1 4K C. 2 16K □ 3 32K □ 4 64K □ 5 Color Basic □ 6 Extended Color Basic 
ABOUT YOUR PRINTER: 

□ 7 LP VII G 8 LP VIII □ 9 MX-80 □ * MX-80 F/T □ 11 MX 100 □ 12 Microline 82A 

D 13 Microline 83A 14 Microline 84 □ 15 Microline 80 □ 16 Other (Specify) 



ABOUT YOUR DISPLAY: 

C 17 B&W TV □ 18 Color TV 19 B&W Monitor C 20 Color Monitor Brand TV or Monitor 

ABOUT YOUR MODEM: 

□ 21 Telephone Interface II 22 Direct Connect Modem I 23 Direct Connect Modem II 

□ 24 Hayes Smart Modem 25 Lynx Modem □ 26 Other (Specify) 

ABOUT YOUR STORAGE MEDIA: 

□ 25 CTR 80A □ 26 Other Tape Recorder □ 27 1 Disk □ 28 2 Disks □ 29 3 Disks □ 30 4 Disks 
IF YOU HAVE DISKS: 

□ 31 Radio Shack □ 32 Tallgrass/Cer-Comp □ 33 Exatron □ " Other (Specify) 

DISK OPERATING SYSTEM USED MOST: 

□ 35 Disk Color Basic □ 36 FLEX n 37 OS-9 □ 38 Other (specify) 

OTHER HARDWARE ITEMS YOU HAVE: 

□ 39 Joysticks □ 40 Light Pen lJ 41 Other (Specify) 

SOFTWARE I AM MOST LIKELY TO BUY: (Please rank your top five by number, with one as the highest) 

42 Games 45 Utilities . *« Word Processing 

43 Business Applications 46 Education 49 ^il and/or Graphics 

44 Home Uses 47 Hobby 50 Music 

I AM MOST INTERESTED IN ACQUIRING: 51 Other (Specify) 

(Please rank your top five by number, with one as the highest) 

52 More Memory 55 Printer 58 Alternate Operating System 

53 Joysticks 56 Monitor 59 Other (Specify) 

54 Modem 57 Disk Drives 

ABOUT THE RAINBOW 

I rate the RAINBOW □ 60 Excellent □ 61 Good □ 62 Fair □ 63 Poor 
I have bought at least 44 products as a result of RAINBOW advertising. 

I would like to seethe RAINBOW Offer more: (Please rank your top five by number, with one as highest) 

65 Evaluations/Reviews __ 68 Business Programs 71 Tutorials 

66 Games 69 Utilities .72 Machine Language Info 

67 Educational Programs 70 Hardware Modifications 73 other (Specify) 



The BEST thing about the RAINBOW is: 83 . The WORST is 84 

ABOUT YOU: 

Your Age: □ 85 Under 20 □ 86 20-35 □ 87 36-50 □ 88 51-65 □ 89 Over 65 
Your Sex: □ 90 Male □ 91 Female 

Your Occupation: □ 91 Engineer/Technical □ 92 Educator □ 93 Professional 

□ 94 Businessperson □ 95 Skilled Trade □ 96 Student □ 97 Retired 

Education: □ 98 High School 99 Vocational Education □ 100 Undergraduate Degree 

□ 101 Master's Degree □ 102 PhD or Professional Degree 

Household Income: L 103 Less than $io,000 □ 104 $11,000-$20,000 □ 105 $21,000-$30,000 

□ 106 $31,000-$50,000 □ 107 $51,000-$75,000 □ 108 $76,000-$1 00,000 □ 109 Over $100,000 

The Number of persons in our household who use the Color Computer are □ 110 one □ 111 two 

□ 112 three or more 

We primarily use the Color Computer for □ 113 Personal □ 114 Business □ 115 Educational purposes. 
In addition to the Color Computer, we also own 116 personal computers. 



Page 106 



Aardvark 80 76, 77 

A M. Hearn Software 53 

American Library & Info Services 28 

Anteco 1. 43, 60, 80 

Arizin . 50 

Armadillo International 98 

B5 Software 102 

Cer-Comp > , 38, 81 

Chromasette * ♦ 82 

Chromatic Software 68 

Circle City Software 104 

Cliffs Color Corner 49 

Cognitec 30 

Color Products Unalike , t .... 25 

Color Software Services 15,37,71 

CompuServe 10 

Compuswitch 84 

Computer Island 21 

Computer Plus 19 

Computer Shack 69 

Computerware 13, 27, 59, 73, 90 

Custom Software Engineering 12 

DSL Computer Products , 40 

80-U.S. Journal 103 

East Texas Color Computer Club 95 



The RAINBOW 

ADVERTISER'S INDEX 

Elite Software 48 

Endicott Software ., 51 

Erickson, B , . 102 

Great X*P«T 92 

Harmonycs 44 

Home Base Systems 22 

Home Run Software 100 

Frank Hogg Laboratory f , 93 

Illustrated Memory Banks . . 57 

Hume Design 23, 33, 86 

J ARB Software 87 

Land Systems 89 

Mark Data Products IBC 

Martin Consulting „.... 102 

Med Systems Software , . ♦ 67 

Micro-80 33, 75 

Micrologic . 8 

Micro Technical Products 91 



The Micro Works q 65 

Tom Mix Software 52 

Moses Engineering" 95 

Nanos Systems Corp IFC 

Nelson Software Systems 46, 47 

PCLEAR 80 24 



September, 1982 



Peacock Enterprises , 62 

Platinum Software . . 63 

Prickly-Pear Software > . t , 70, 95 

The Program Store . . . 45 

The Programmer's Institute 29, 58 

TS^VS^V t « i ■ 1 1 < 1 1 1 < j j . r T , . . 35 

Quasar Animations 79 

Rainbow Connection Software 39 

Rainbow On Tape 104 

68 Micro Journal > 99 

Snake Mountain Software 94 

Soft Sector Marketing .... 101 

Software Options 26 

Spectral Associates , 83, BC 

Spectrum Projects 54, 55, 85, 97 

Star-Kits 1 6, 1 7 

Strictly Color 42 

Sugar Software 72 

Superior Graphic Software 34 

Superior Oracle Software 96 

Tabby Enterprises 66 

T&D Software 14 

Teague Programming & Consulting ..... 78 

Transformation Technologies ......... t . . 32 

Washington Computer Services 9 



THESE FINE STORES CARRY THE RAINBOW 



Acme Book Co. 

Baton Rouge. La. 

A Computer Store 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Adventure International Store 

Longwood. Ha. 

All-Pro Souvenlers 

Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Amateur Radio Equipment Co. 

Wichita. Kan. 
Apptetree Computer* 

Dekalb. III. 

Atlantic News 

Halifax. N.S. 

Byte by Byte 

Urica, Mich. 

B Daiton Booksellers 

West Jackson St. - Chicago, III. 

N. Walbash St. - Chicago. III. 

Milwaukee. Wise. 

Peoria. III. 

B.I.E.S. Systems 

Oak Park. Ill 

Bill s TV Radio Shack 

Newton. III. 

Bob's In Newtown 

Chicago. III. 

Bob's News Emporium 

Chicago. III. 

Bob's Rogers Park 

Chicago. III. 

Book Market 

East Cedar - Chicago III. 
North Cicero - Chicago. III. 
West Dh/ersey - Chicago, III. 
Peoria, III. 
Champaign, III. 
Danville, III. 
Book Nook 
Usle. III. 
Book Tree 
Milwaukee, Wise. 
Booked Solid 
Wilwaukee, Wise. 
Booktand, Inc. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Campus Computer Corp. 
Nashville, Tenn 



CJtJ Electronics Computer Center 

Richland. Wash. 
Caves Books Co. 
Hong Kong 
Chicago-Main News 
Evanston, III. 
CMD Micro 
Edmonton. Alto. 
Color Products Unalike 
Vancouver. B.C. 
The Computer Center 
New York. N. Y. 
The Computer Store 
Louisville. Ky. 
The Computer Store 
Son Diego. Calif. 
The Computer Store 
Tulsa. Okla. 
Computer Emporium 
Louisville, ky. 
Computer Resource 
Williamsville. N.Y. 
Computer SOS 
Shreveport, La. 
Computerware Store 
Encinitas, Calif. 
Cosmos Computers 
Betrendorf, Iowa 
Crouchet Electronics 
Conroe, Texas 
Dallas Computer Center 
Dallas. Tex. 

Data Byte Computer Center 

Beaufort, SC. 

Data Link 

Dayton. Ohio 

Deiker Electronics 

Smyrna. Tenn. 

Disney's Electronics 

San Diego. Calif. 

Dimensional Software 

San Diego, Calif. 

E. B. Garcia 4 Associates 

Chicago. III. 

The Eight Bit Corner 

Muskegon, Mich. 

Game Preserve 

Indianapolis, Ind. 



Guild books ana Kerioaicais 

Chicago, III. 

Home Computer Store 

Westerville, Ohio 

HW Electronics 

Northridge, Calif. 

John's News Stand 

Medford, Ore. 

Kelly Software Distributors 

Edmondton, Alta. 

Leo's Book ft. Wine Shop 

Toledo, Ohio 

Level fV Products 

Livonia. Mich. 

Levity Distributors 

Hotlywood, Caiif. 

Little Pirofessor Book Center 

Philadelphia. Ohio 

Canton. Ohio 

Madison Books 

Madison. Ala 

Microwest Distributors 

N. Vancouver, B.C. 

Multi-Mag 

London. Ont. 

OPAMP Technical Books 

LosAngeles, Calif. 

Parkwest Books 

Chicago. III. 

Personal Software 

Malvern, Pa 

Printers, Inc. 

Palo Alto, Calif. 

Pro Am Electronics 

Pacific Beach, Calif. 

The Program Store 

Baltimore. Md. 

Falls Church, Va 

Columbus, Ohio 

Washington, DC. 

Programs Plus 

Tukwila, Wash. 

Radio Shack 

El Cajon, Calif 

Radio Shack 

Freehold, N.J. 

Radio Shack 

Paducah, Ky. 



Radio Shock 

Peterborough, N.H. 
Radio Shack 
San Diego, Calif. 
Roinbow Software Services 
Calgary. Alta. 
RftV Sound 
Fortune Calif. 

Road Runner Computer Products 

Glendale, Ariz. 

Salt of the Earth 

Albuquerque, N.M. 

Sandmeyer's Bookstore 

Chicago. III. 

Soft Sector Marketing 

Garden City, Mich. 

Software City 

Fairview, N J 

River Edge, N.J. 

Software Concepts 

Dallas. Tex. 

Software Plus 

Citrus Heights, Calif 

Software Store 

Tampa, Fla. 

Software Unlimited 

Tucson. Ariz. 

Spectrum Projects 

Woodhaven, N.Y. 

Strawtiower Electronics 

Half Moon Bay, Colif. 

Teague Programming & Consulting 

Paducah, Ky. 

T. M. Computers 

Kingston, Ont. 

University of Chicago Bookstore 

Chicago. III. 

University of Illinois Bookstore 

Chicago. III. 

University of Wisconsin Bookstore 

Mil\A/aukee, Wise 
Vldeomat, Inc. 
Chicago. III. 
Willy's Electronics 

National City, Calif. 



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