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Pick This Year's NFL Winners 
Create Your Own Adventure 
Machine Language Sorting 
A New Game, Hints & Tips 

PLUS... MUCH MORE!!! 

Over 
A Dozen 
Product Review 






e RAINBOW 
5803 Timber Ridge Drive 

'P./O. Box 209 
Prospect. KY 40059 




I 



DDRESS CORRECTION REQUES' 
FORWARDING & RETURN 




PAID 




Nanos Systems Corp. 

REFERENCE CARDS 

For Models I, II, III, Cotor, Pocket 
and Apple II & II Plus : 




* tRS-80 is a Regtsteced Trademark of Tandy Corp, 
Compute* pactura reprinted pefmisstcvft Tandy Corp. 




r.Ri 



Wtm 




APPLE is a registered trademark o» Apple Computing. Inc. 



RAINBOW 

Cl" T *C4T<H* 

■Hi 



Each card Is a complete summary o« the reference manuals and the microcomputer Cards are two or mo<e colors, printed on 80 pound Beckett Antique cover stock or a comparable stock, stretch- 
wrapped in plastic tot snipping They are accordion fold up cards, in the same style as the iraditionaJ IBM reference cards used on the major computers tor years. rxrfrj-up size ia eight and one-hail 
by three and three-quarter inches, so they will tit easily into the shirt pocket Tnese cards provtde a complete summary ot.the manuals plus many extras at your fingertips. 



MODEL I 



BASIC: Buff & Blue 
5 Panels, 10 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

Memory Map. 

Easy Graphics. 

Basic Statements. 

Basic Functions. 

Basic Facts. 

Special Characters. 

Basic Commands. 

Edit Subcommands. 

PRINT USING Examples. 

Message & Codes. 

Reserved Words. 

Special Keys. 

Ascii Character Chart, 

with Space Compression Codes. 

Control Codes. 

Basic Internal Codes. 

Hex/Dec Conversion Chart. 

Screen Line Layout. 

BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Bull 

8 Panels, 16 Pages 

(For the Pro) 

Complete 280 Instructions. 
Assembler Instructions, 
Commands, Operators. 
Editor/Assembler Commands, 
and Edit Subcommands. 
Flags, Conditions, & Chart. 
Internal Routines. 
Assembler Error Msgs. 
Plus Most Items in the Basic Card 



MODEL II 



POCKET 



BASIC' Purple 

5 Panels. 10 Pages 

Operating Characteristics 

Memory Types and Limitations. 

Modes of Operation. 

PRO Mode 

RUN Mode 

RESERVE Mode 

DEF Mode 

Fixed Variable Facts and 
References 

System Function Keys. 

Math and Logic Function Keys 

Normal Charader Keys 

Special Characters and 

Function Key*. 

Basic Commands- 

Cassette Interlace Commands 

Reserved Words 

Main and Numeric Functions 

Derived Functions, 

Basic Statements 

Error Messages and Codes. 

USING Statement Examples 

and more I 

A pocket card for your 
pocket computer. 



BASIC » ASSEMBLER: Green 
10 Panels, 20 Pages 
(For the Business) 

Small Memory Map 

Screen Layout. 

Easy Graphics 

Complete 260 Instructions. 

Series- 1 Assembler tnstr 

Commands, Operators, and Edit 

Subcommands 

Assembler Error Megs. 

Power-up Error Msgs 

Flags. Conditions, k Chart 

Wild Cards. DOS Messages 

SVC Procedure Panel. 

Host Logon Panel 

Version 5.0 Lib Command Formats 

and System Utility Formats. 

Baste Functions & Statements 

DOS File Naming Convention. 

Basic Commands & Edtt 

Subcommands. 

Special Keys. 

Basic Internal Codes and 

Reserved Words. 

Basic Msgs & Codea. 

PRINT USING Examples 

Special Characters. 

DO" Utilities & BASIC Command 
Ascii Character Chart with SVC 
Names and Numbers 
Control Codes. 



MODEL 



BASIC: Blue & Bull 
6 Panels, 12 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

Special Characters. 
Kana Characters. 
Euro-Characters. 
Memory Map. 

Special Keyboard Functions. 
Ascii Char. Chart w/Space 
Compression Codes. 
Control Codes. 
Cassette Loading Err Msgs. 
Basic Commands, Edit 
Subcommands, Special Chars., 
Basic Statements, Facts, 
Functions, Derived Functions, 
Special Operations (POKEs). 
PRINT USING Examples. 
Basic Msgs. & Codes. 
Basic Internal Codes. 
Reserved Words. 
Screen Line Layout. 
BASIC & ASSEMBLER: Blue 
10 Panels, 20 Pages 
(For the Pro) 

Complete Z80 Instructions. 
Assembler Instructions, Commands, 
Operators. 

Series I Editor/Assembler 
Commands & Edit Subcommands. 
Flags, Conditions, & Chart. 
Hex/Dec Conversion Chart. 
Assembler Error Msgs. 
Internal CALL Routines. 
Break Processing Procedure. 
Plus all items in the Basic card. 



COLOR 



BASIC * EXTENDED: 
Grey + 9 Color*. 
8 Penal* 10 page* 
(For th* Artlttl 
AN Color Graphic* 
System Commands 
PRINT USING Example*. 
Special Characters. 
Special Keys 

Cassette Loading Err Msgs 
Basic Functions & Statements, 

Playing Music. Making a Circle, 

and Drawing Panels 

Derived Functions 

Messages & Codes 

Musical Noies. by Octave, in 

Color, Including Rests and Time, 

Memory Map. 

Reserved Words. 

internal Codes. 

A Page of Tips. 

Ascll Char, Codes Chart. 

Including inverse Graphics 

and Coich Graphics. 

Control Codes 

Color Group Chart 

Pmode Informal Ion Summary 

Screen Line Layout. 

Extended Graphics Pmode 

Illustrations 



APPLE It & II PLUS 

BASIC r fled 4 Pink 
7 Panel*, 14 Pages 
(For the Classroom) 

4BK Memory Map 
APPLESOFT and INTEGER BASIC 
Bawc Statements! 
Basic Function* 
Derived FimctJorn*, 
Special Characters & Operator** 
Syatsm 4 Utility Commands 
Poke*. Peek*, Celt* 
Monitor Commands. 
Kty S Control Functions. 
APPLESOFT Internal CodML 
APPLESOFT Reserved vVorda. 
imager Basic Addressing. 
DOS 13 Command Summary^ 
Color Selection Chart; 
Error Msgs. & Handling. 
Reading Mar. rune Language 
Hex/Dec Conversion Chan 
ASCII Print. Video, 6602, Integer 
and APPLESOFT Code Reference 
Chart, 0-255 
Basic & 0802: Had 
0 Panel*, 18 Paget 
{For the Pre) 

Alt features of the Basic Card, Plus: 
6503 Timing. 

8502 Language Simplified 

Flags & Condition* with Reference 

Chart 



Please send me: 

) 







Card 




Price 


Copies 


of 


MODEL 


I BASIC & ASSEMBLER 


$4.95 


Copies 


of 


MODEL 


I BASIC-ONLY 


2.95 


Copies 


of 


MODEL 


II BASIC & ASSEMBLER 


5.95 


Copies 


of 


MODEL 


III BASIC & ASSEMBLER 


5.95 


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of 


MODEL 


III BASIC-ONLY 


3.95 


Copies 


of 


COLOR 


BASIC AND EXTENDED 


4.95 


Copies 


of 


POCKET BASIC 


2.95 


Copies 


of 


APPLE II & II PLUS BASIC 


3.95 


Copies 


of 


APPLE I 


I & II PLUS BASIC & 6502 


4.95 



Wholesale prices available 
in quantities over 24. 



Send Check or Money Order to: 
NANOS SYSTEMS CORP. 
P.O. BOX 24344 
SPEEDWAY, IN 46224 
(317) 244-4078 



NAME: 

ADDRESS 



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Indiana Residents Add 4 Percent for Indiana Sales Tax 



August, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 3 



Under The Rainbow 



8 CALL JOYIN Bill Nolan 

The procedure for making ROM calls is illustrated with the JOYIN routine. 

9 MACHINE LANGUAGE SORTS OF ALL SORTS Pat Ushnak 

Programs and examples to allow you to sort numeric arrays— fast. 

19 EASY MAIL ORDER William Boston 

Let 80C help you send off orders and avoid mistakes in the process. 

29 ROCKIN' THROUGH THE ROM Bill Clements 

Here are some addresses you can use, and an invitation to contribute some toothers. 

32 A LOOK AT FL£X Laurence Preble 

In two articles, we take a look at the FLEX operating system and see what it really 
takes to make the necessary hardware modification. 

34 BATTLE THE ALPINE ALIENS Fred Scerbo 

Our game of the month takes place in the Alps of a far-away planet. 

39 PMODE 4 AND THE VDG Fred Aldrich 

What is the hardware doing when you get all those "undocumented" colors in 
PMODE 4? 

47 ADVMAKER MAKES ADVENTURES Jorge Mir 

In this last of a two-part series, you have the tools to make your own Adventure games. 

69 SHOWING YOUR COLORS Bill Lopes 

Some interesting graphics from these two programs. 

79 CONVERTING PROGRAMS TO 80C Staff 

What you can— and can't— do to adapt programs from other computers. 



DEPARTMENTS 



REVIEWS 



Assembly Corner 22 

Dennis Lewandowski 

Back Issue Information 73 

Corrections 28 

Education Notes 41 

Steve Blyn 

The Dragon's Byte 62 

Bill Nolan 

Letters To RAINBOW 4 

The Pipeline 44 

PRINT #-2, 6 

Editor's Notes 

Submission Guidelines 73 

Your Subscription 19 



Cover line drawing in pencil by D. Patrick 
Sullivan. Color separations by Kelly Color 
Service. 



Adventure 3-Pak 76 

Alpha Draw 61 

Astro Blast 74 

Basic Aid 27 

Bwindo 27 

Color Computer Graphics 39 

Color Rhythm 61 

Fantasy Gamer's Package 40 

Jarb Joystick 25 

Lander 37 

Mars Adventure 37 

Reference Utilities 74 

Saspus 25 

School Maze 53 

Sky Defense 76 



NOTICE 

A notice about a new, corrected, deadline for the RAINBOW Adventure contest 
appears on Page 46. Those planning to enter the contest (we hope you Willi) should 
read it as an incorrect deadline was printed last month. 

An important notice concerning the RAINBOW SEAL OF CERTIFICATION appears 
on Page 33. We urge every reader to take a moment to look at this short 
clarification. 



The RAINBOW is published by FALSOFT, INC.. 5803 Timber Ridge Drive, Prospect KY 40059. Entire contents © by FALSOFT. Inc.. 1982. The 
RAINBOW and the Rainbow logotypes are ® Trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. Lawrence G Falk. Editor; Patricia H. Hirsch. Office Manager. 

The RAINBOW is intended for the personal use and pleasure of its subscribers and reproduction by any means is forbidden. Use of programs and information herein is for the single 
end use of purchasers and any other use is prohibited. All programs herein are distributed on an "as is" basis without warranty of any kind whatsoever. 
TRS-80. Color Computer and Extended Color Basic are " trademarks of Tandy Corp. 

Subscriptions to the RAINBOW are $16 per year in the United States. Canadian and Mexican rates are US. S22. Surface mail to other countries is U.S. S3 Lair mail U.S. $49. Umited 
back issuesare available for U S $2 for numbers 1-7, U.S. $2.50 for numbers 8 upward. Shipping and handling costs of $3.50 must be added. Payment accepted in cash, check, money 
order, VISA or MasterCard in United States currency oniy. All subscriptions begin with the next available issue. 

The RAINBOW is published every month of the year. 



Page 4 The RAINBOW 

LETTERS TO 



August, 1982 



HA INB OklfW 



A CRUMMY HINT 

Editor 

RAIN BO W ON TA PE is a fine idea and 
the April issue was a good time to start with 
its large number of interesting programs. I 
have enjoyed shooting turkeys, snails and 
ants but 3D MAZE was a refreshing 
innovation in graphics games. 

Unfortunately, I like both the "trail of 
crums" and the more attractive maze, so the 
following changes were necessary to give me 
both: 

170 PMODE3, PAGE : COLOR 5,6 
230 IF XI=IX AND Yl=TY THEN 

CIRCLE (126,CY), CR, 5, .5 : PAINT 

(126.CY), 7, 5 
235 IF M(Xl, Y I )= I . I ANDTL=l THEN 

CIRCLE (126,CY), 5, 5 : PAINT ( 1 26,CY), 

8, 5 

Thanks for dropping the "CoCo" 
nickname and adopting "80C." 

Dr. Lane Lester 
Lynchburg, VA 



"C OCO" v. "80C" 

Editor: 

We are not a post-scripted 80. 
We do noi have a Z-80 or 8080 CPU. 
We have a 6809, the most advanced 8-bit 
MPU available. 
We are Cocos. 

We arc better than TRS-80's. 
COCO POWER! COLOR IS 
BEAUTIFUL! 

J. C. Kirksey 
Houston, TX 

Editor: 

I like CoCo a lot more than 80C. Some 
may say it sounds clownlike and toyish. No 
matter! The name CoCo is warm and 
friendly like a good computer should be. 
Besides, just as a large man can enjoy being 
called " l iny," a 6809 based powerhouse can 
enjoy a name like "CoCo." 

I wish you'd change it back. 

Roger Da mm 
Pheonix, AZ 

Editor: 

l would like to tell you that I enjoy your 
RAINBOW. Usually I sit down and read 
most of the magazine in one shot. That's 
how interesting it is. 

There is something, however, 1 don't like. 
This is your decision to rename CoCo to 
80C. Why 80? How does this beautiful 
machine relate to 80? 

Your justification was because CoCo 
sounds a little bit "clowny." Remember that 
the name does not makethecomputer better 
or worse than it really is. Is the legendary 
"Apple" name anything more serious than 
CoCo? Certainly it isn't. 

In some Latin American countries, "coco" 



means the head, the brain. And that's 
exactly what the Color Computer is, a brain. 
As a matter of fact, it happens to be a very 
good brain, as more users discover every 
day. 

Sergio Zigras 
Paramus, NJ 



LP VII SMARTS 

Editor: 

Prepare thyself for a tongue lashing. 
"NON-INTELLIGENT!" Is that what you 
called my LP VII? Humbug! The Line 
Printer VII is a dot matrix printer just like 
the Epson and Microline, which means to 
me that it is just as smart as the programmer 
behind it. 

Enclosed is a high-resolution picture 
designed by Jim Barringer. Not bad for a 
Line VII "NON-INTELLIGENT" Printer. 

Even this letter, with the help of the 
WORDCC7 word processor by Kathy 
Goebel has been magically produced by a 
LP VII. And beware, this isa WARNING- 
I am sworn to secrecy, but I have seen the 
results of a program which is in development 
that may have you eating your words. 

I hope you have taken this letter in a 
humorous vein because that's how it is 
intended. I know what you mean to say. I 
just couldn't resist the opportunity to defend 
the LP VII. 

Dave Hooper 
Hoffman Estates, IL 

(Editor's Note: We wish we could 
reproduce the graphic printout to which Mr. 
Hooper refers, but its content is a drawing of 
creatures to which a Mr. Charles Schultz 
holds a copyright.) 



FOR POSTERITY 

Editor: 

After speaking with you, I went back and 
corrected the DSK* I N DX program and 
everything works perfectly now. I suspect 
there may be others out there who, like me, 
have just gotten a disk and are going to back 
issues to type in all the disk utility programs. 
You might consider publishing this letter, as 
I have listed the corrections below: 

DSK*INDX, Pages 24-25 of the February 
issue: 

Line 130, "!" should be "DSKIS" 
Line 242, should be "FREE" 
Line 365, "!" should be "KILL" 
DISK DIRECTORY PRINTOUT, Page 
3 1 of the March issue: 
Line 280, should be "FREE" 
I also recommend the SAVEM program 
on pages 42, 44 and 46 of the April issue. 

A. Arnold Weiss 
Philadelphia, PA 

MONITORING MONITORS 

Editor: 

Recently my color TV started dying. 



Rather than buy a new TV, I decided to buy 
a color monitor. A local computer store had 
a good price on an Amdek Color, so I 
bought one. To make a long story short, it 
didn't hardly work at all. 

The first thing I did was to add the rather 
simple circuit suggested by Dennis Kitsz in 
80 Microcomputing. It didn't work. With a 
great deal of help from a friend who is more 
hardware inclined than I, we decided that 
the problem was the output voltage from the 
Color Computer. The Amdek specifies IV 
into 75 ohms. Into that impedence, my 
Color Computer outputs less than 0.7V. 

The solution seemed obvious. Just add a 
video amplifier. So, we built one, using a 
standard circuit and the 5V power supply. 
By cranking it all the way up, we were able to 
get almost IV. Hooking up the monitor, 
colors looked fine but text still looked awful. 
We also got occasional distortion of the 
vertical alignment, which could becorrected 
by turning the gain down and then back up 
again. The conclusion seemed to be that we 
were loading down the power supply too 
much. 

1 took the monitor back and the store was 
good enough to refund the purchase price. 

Least anyone think that I am trying to run 
down either the Amdek or the TRS-80C, let 
me say that the Amdek is a beautiful 
monitor — on an Apple or an Atari or a Vic. I 
was also able to use the Kitsz circuit on my 
computer with a different monitor with 
excellent results. I think that the lesson is 
that if one wants to buy a monitor, be 
careful. If the monitor has only a low 
impedence input and requires a lot of juice to 
drive, be prepared to use a video amplifier 
with an external power supply or go toa less 
demanding monitor. 

David Cochran 
Norristown, PA 



FINDING YOUR WAY 

Editor: 

A prolific programmer can quickly 
become lost in a pile of tapes and program- 
start counters. 1 have found this little 
program (which always begins at 010 on 
each side of a cassette) to be very useful. 

When the program is modified, 1 re- 
CSAVE it at 010, preceeded by MOTOR 
ON with record activated. 

10 CLS 

20 LIST 30 - 

30 4 ... Tape I SIDE A ... 

40 4 PROGRAM COUNTER RE- 
MARKS 

50 4 TRAMPLE 131 BOARD GAME - 4 
60 k READNSAY 050 NEEDS SOUND 
70 1 ETC ETC ETC 

John Plaxton 
Greenwood, Nova Scotia 



August 1982 

FINDING MEMORY 

Editor: 

July was beautiful! Even with 80 Micro's 
increased coverage, they can't touch you. 

One answer to Mr. Kennedy's question 
about amount of memory which is being 
used {Letters, July) is a routine 1 use a lot in 
my programs: 

I CLEAR200 : GOTO 9000 

10 AV=80 : M= MEM -700 : T=INT 
(M/(AV*10)): POKE 1024,T:POKE 1025, 
AV : CLEAR (M-T*50) : T=PEEK (1025) 

20 DIM A$(T) 

9000 PCLEARI : GOTO10 
AV is the average record length. M is the 
available memory after the PCLEAR minus 
a growth factor. Tis one-tenth the calculated 
array slots so the figure is less than 255. 
Memory left is cleared less five bytes for each 
slot (address space) but since T is I / 1 0th you 
CLEAR (MEM-T*50). 
average record length are retrieved from the 
safety of the screen. Under DOS, this is the 
safest place to store these values. 

The routine compensates for those times 
you have a machine language program in 
high memory. I wrote it to get away from the 
memory size question in the earlier versions 
of C.C. WRITER. 

W.L.C. Dye 
Transformation Technologies 
Bloomingdale, IL 



CLUBS 

Editor: 

Are there any local clubs either in 
Manchester, N H , or Nashua, NH? 1 live at 
80 Doris Street in Manchester, but Nashua 
is only 20 miles south of here. 

Jim Goodell 
Manchester, NH 

Editor: 

Please advertise the existance of our club 
in your next issue. I am the secretary of the 
Sudbury & District Colour Computer Club 
and can be reached at 1557 Dearbourne Dr., 
Sudbury, P3A 5E6 or at (705) 560-0314. 

Thank you for making the Colour 
Computer the best. 

T. A. Donnelly 
Sudbury, Ontario 

Editor: 

We are trying to form an 80C user'sgroup 
down here in El Paso. My friend and I 
decided to when we discovered the 80C is 
becoming more and more popular. 

Both of us think your magazine is 
fantastic. We would appreciate your help in 
any way possible because we are just 
teenagers and we want to get off on the right 
foot. 

We are asking for only younger owners of 
the 80C to join because we are a bit skeptical 
of how an older member would act toward 
two teens. 

The title of the group is the Northeast El 
Paso Color Computer Club and people can 
write me at 3640Olympic, or Chance Geurin 
at 8209 Tonto Place. Our zip codes are 
79904. My phone is 757-2422 and Chance's 
is 755-2102. 

Rob Skipper 
El Paso, TX 



The RAINBOW 

Editor: 

I am interested in getting a TRS-80 
Computer User's club started in the 
Hoffman Estates-Schaumberg area of 
Illinois. Please ask anyone interested to call 
me at (312) 885-2573 or to write me at 580 
Milton Lane, Hoffman Estates, IL 60194. 

Richard Ekstrom 
Hoffman Estates, IL 

Editor: 

We started a Color Computer Club in 
Sacramento, CA. We had 20 members at our 
first meeting and expect a lot more at the 
next one. 

We would like to see the RAIN BOW as 
the national magazine for the Color 
Computer. For those who live in the 
Sacramento area, please contact me at (916) 
924-3719. 

Sal Alestra 
Sacramento, CA 

Editor: 

We are starting a user's group for the 80C 
in the Kansas City area and would like to 
have anyone interested in joining contact 
me. The group is the Mid-America Color 
Computer User's Group and information 
can be had by calling me at (816) 833-0367. 

Bob Colin 
Independence, MO 



Page 



GOTO 1 10 
1 10 POKE ZZ+16384, IN 
120 NEXT ZZ 



Ed Krikorian 
Longwood, FL 



MOVE SCREEN PRINT 

Editor: 

The program listed below will relocate the 
Radio Shack screen print program to the 
upper memory of a 32K Color Computer. 
The user, of course, should first purchase a 
copy of the screen print program, load it, 
type in this routine and run it. Once 
execution of the program has been 
completed, type: 

CSAVEM "SCRPT32", 32128, 32688, 
32128 

This will save a copy of the new, revised 
32K version with the proper offsets for 
execution. Any memory address references 
in the manual should now be referenced by 
using the manual's value and adding 16,384 
to it. Before loading, you should type: 
CLEAR 200, 32127 

This will reserve the correct amount of 
memory. By the way, I found that typing a 
shifted up arrow was not a very nice way of 
starting the routine, so I found a way to 
change it. 

This can be done by POKEing &H7DA5 
with the ASCII value of the key you would 
like to use for starting the routine. I 
personally liked a shifted CLEAR key 
(&H5C) because this did not interfere with 
the EDIT function as the shifted up arrow 
did. 

10 REM PROGRAM TO RELOCATE 
20 REM RADIO SHACK SCREEN 
30 REM PRINT PROGRAM FOR USE 
40 REM WITH A 32K TRS80C 
50 FOR ZZ=15744 TO 16303 
60 IN=PEEK(ZZ) 
70 A$=HEX$(ZZ) 

80 IF A$="3F" THEN IN=&H7F : GOTO 
1 10 

90 IF A$="3D" THEN 1N=&H7D : 
GOTO 1 10 
100 IF A$="3E" THEN IN=&H7E : 



HARDWARE HACKERS ARISE 

Editor: 

I am considering writing an article or two 
on things that can be done with the 
expansion port of the TRS-80 Color 
Computer. It would be good if I could get 
some feedback from readers of the 
RAINBOW on what they might be 
interested in. 

These would be construction-type articles 

to include a 16-bit I O port, a hardware RS- 

232 port, an analog to digital or digital to 

analog converter hookup, hooking up a real 

time clock to the Color Computer, or other 

types of articles in which readers might, be ^ . 
. JV , 6 Then T and the 

interested. 

Please write me directly at 6959 Goshen 
Road, Goshen, OH 45122, and if there is 
enough interest on a particular subject, 1 
may write about how to do it for the 
magazine. 

I have been reading the RAINBOW for 
about eight months and am very pleased 
with its contents. 

Leroy Hall 
Goshen, OH 



VIDEOTEX ROMPAK SAVE 

Editor: 

For owners of the Radio Shack Videotex 
ROM Pak, you can save pages to cassette 
and/or print the information. 

By placing a piece of tape over pins seven 
and/oreight of the ROM Pak, the auto-start 
is disabled. Pin seven is the first pin on the 
right of the ROM Pak when viewed from 
above. Pin eight is just below pin seven. To 
run VIDEOTEX after disabling the auto- 
start, just type in EXEC 49152. 

You may have to hit ENTER quickly or 
else the program will sense keyboard- 
bounce and put you in the Advanced 
Storage mode. If this happens, just hit 
BREAK. 

After going "off line," you find that you 
want to save the information on tape, push 
RESET and then type in CSAVEM "", 3072, 
16383, 3072. This dumps memory to tape 
except for the first page. You need the first 
page in ROM to hold the driver program. 

To load the saved information, 
CLOADM and use a driver BASIC 
program to POKE RAM 3072 and up into 
video memory, 1024 to 1535. The February, 
1982 issue of TRS-80 Microcomputer News 
has a program to print VIDEOTEX. If you 
use that program, change Y to 5 12 and X to 
1536. 

The same method to disable the auto-start 
will work on the CHESS ROM Pak and— 
by POKEing 65495,0 before you EXEC 
49152 to start it — you can speed the game 
up. 

I believe a small modification of Dennis 
Lewandowski's machine language column 
program from the June issue could be used 
with the above modification to display all 
pages of memory. The short machine 
language program could be placed at 
decimal 285-337 before running the ROM 

—Continued on Next Page 



Page 6 

Pak, I think. 

James Ali 
St. Albans. WV 

(Editor's Note: Two Videotex print 
routines appeared in the October, 1981, 
edition o f the RA IN BO W in addition to the 
program to which Mr. Ali makes reference 
from TRS-80 Microcomputer News.) 



SUGGESTIONS 

Editor: 

Your magazine improves with each issue! 
I think that a few suggestions would be in 
order. Here they are: 

Firstly, why don't you put an asterisk 
preceeding each listing in the contents that 
will be in RA IN BO W ON TA PE. Also, you 
could take a reader survey to find out the 
different types of equipment us readers have. 
That might help improve what kind of 
programs to give listings of and which to 
review as well as what to write in articles. 

One issue you might try is reader service. 
Or ads from individuals in a "classified"type 
section. I think you should focus on e-x-p-a- 
n-s-i-o-n. Your magazine has the quality, 
now it needs the quantity. I'm an avid 
reader. 

Andrew Nulman 
Providence, Rl 

(Editor's Note: We don't "mark" 
RAINBOW ON TAPE listings in the 
contents because all the program listings are 
usually included in the service. We do mark 
the listings themselves with the RAIN BOW 
ON TA PE symbol. We plan a reader survey, 
but we want one that is comprehensive and 
will do some good. Its important that such a 
survey be more than just a way for you to 
think you have some input. In other words, 
when we do it, well do it right. We've 
explored Reader Service from time to time, 
and will continue to do so. The problem with 
ail reader service programs is the long delay 
between the time you send in the card and 
the time you get an answer. Its certainly 
faster and almost as easy for you to write the 
firms directly. And that way, too, you can 
get more personalized attention. * 

(As to your last point, expansion, we 
grew from four pages to 64 between July '80 
and July '82. This issue is far bigger than last 
month's. A lot of the reason for that— as we 
have said before— comes from our ability to 
attract advertisers. You, our readers, can 
really help by mentioning the RAINBOW 
whenever anything you see here generates 
your interest. And, you might question those 
who do not advertise here. Ask them why. If 
they wish to support the Color Computer, 
this is one way to show it. 

POT REVISITED 

Editor: 

I wrote you quite a number of months 
ago, saying I thought that your magazine 
was a real "Pot of Gold" for us Color 
Computer users. 

Well, I just received the July, 1982, 
"Happy Birthday" issue and I would like to 
revise my comments somewhat. If there is 
anything more valuable than a pot full of 
gold, that's what I feel is the worth of the 
RAINBOW now! 

It is absolutely the best. 

Pete Matthews 
Detroit, MI 



The RAINBOW August 1982 

Editor's Notes... 

PRINT #-2, 

We are extremely gratified here about the reaction to the new format which came 
about in July. The color cover — which, as you see, is going to be a permanent 
happening — and the typesetting have received good comments from many of you. 
For those who did take the time to send along their good wishes, thank you. 

We intend that you will see steady improvement in the RAIN BOW as time goes 
by and we get a little more used to dealing with some of the new-fangled stuff that 
we are now using. Some of those things begin to be in evidence in this issue, such as 
the capability to do charts and the like as accompany the article on ROM 
subroutines. We just could not do that sort of thing before, simply because doing it 
on a line printer took up too much editorial space. Now, they take up so little space, 
relatively, that you will see more of this type of thing as time goes on. 

One of the main advantages of having type rather than dot matrix printer is so 
obvious that it caught me by surprise. That is that type takes up so little space. I 
mentioned this in my column last month, but it really hit me ovcrthe head thistime 
around. 

The reason was simple. When John Waclo's final part of his NFL series came in, 
it was eight and one-half pages, single-spaced, all the way across the page. I was 
immediately worried that we wouldn't have room for much else this month, because 
by the old standards of dot-matrix printing, that would have translated to about 1 1- 
plus pages of copy! 

But, right now, it looks like John's article will be something like three full pages in 
type. Frankly, it led us to look for a couple more things to add to this month's issue, 
which, by the way, is by far the biggest we have ever produced. 

The Waclo article led me to do a little figuring on the 80C (after all, why have one 
if you can't go playing around with figures and things), and by the best estimate that 
I can make, we would be running a magazine of more than 1 20 pages this month if 
we were setting it on the printer as we did in the past. That is even if we took 
advantage of the ability to reduce the pages and set the lines closer together — which 
we did in April, May and June. 

Just setting the lines closer gave us an additional 1 1 lines per column, so, you see, 
we were already getting "more" out of our space than setting it "straight." There are 
so many variables in all of this that we probably wouldn't be getting the RA IN BOW 
out on time this month if I took the time to write a program to figure it all. But, my 
best guesstimate is that this month's issue would be about 1 50 pages if we just ran it 
on a computer printer all the way with no fancy stuff. 

All this excercise is by way of saying that you may feel there is a larger proportion 
of advertisments in this month's issue than ever before. In terms of pages, that is 
true. But, in terms of available information, there is easily more by one-third (and 
maybe closer to one-half) editorial material than in the past. 

The increased space afforded by ( I ) typesetting, and, (2) more advertising means 
we can do things we never even dreamed of before. For instance, you might note 
there were two 32K programs in last month's issue. This time out, note the length of 
Dennis Lewandowski's column, Bill Nolan's effort, the aforementioned Waclo 
story and Pat Litsak's program and listingsfor the machine languagesort.Thereis 
a lot more, but that's hefty stuff. In short, more information about the Color 
Computer, we believe, than in all the rest of the magazines combined. 

By the way, that is not meant to knock the fine people who publish those other 
magazines. Or to knock the magazines themselves. Besides reading David Leinand 
Bob Albrecht, I learned BASIC thanks to Creative Computing, 80 
Microcomputing and 80- U.S. Journal. But a lot of what I learne"d was in converting 
programs for the Model I/ III and the Apple II to the 80C. 

That was some time ago, as the computer world goes. You don't have to do that 
sort of thing any more. I would say that the best programs being written today are 
for the 80C. And, to a large extent, you can get what you want in the way of 
commercial software just by shopping the RA IN BOW's pages. Further, you can 
learn a lot about programming simply by keying in some of our listings. 

If you figure my figures are right, there is something on the order of 80 pages of 
"printer" programs, listings, tutorials, hints and reviews in this August issue. That 
doesn't count the ads, the things such as the Table of Contents and the like. In other 
words, a lot of information. I won't go into saying that I think the non-editorial 
content has value (many of you have written to say you think it does) and I'll only 
note briefly that we got almost I00 letters asking for a Table of Contents. And, 
honestly, those ads pay the freight for the editorial pages. So, mention us when you 
do make orders and inquiries. And, if your local computer store doesn't carry the 
RAIN BOW, ask the people in charge why. 

We started this little project as a means of communicating information about the 
Color Computer (80C or CoCo) and we're not about to lose sight of that. But we 

—Continued on Page 73 



August, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 7 



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Page 8 

Tutorial. . . 



The 



Let s Call JOYIN To 
Learn ROM Call Technique 




By Bill Nolan 



Below is a short program illustrating how to call one of 
the built-in machine language subroutines located in the 
basic ROM of your 80C. 

Line 10 is the critical one, as it tells 80C where to find the 
routine when you call for it (via USR) later in the program. 
The only trick to remember is that 80C uses "indirect 
addressing" with these built-in functions, and the 
instruction book does not make this clear. 

Your manual says that the JOYIN routine is located at the 
address Hex A00A in the memory. Actually, what is located 
at A00A is the address where you go to find JOYIN. 

Think of it like this. A kidnapper tells you to go to 10 
North Main Street, and look under the welcome mat — 
where you will find a note telling you where to drop the 
ransom. 80C does it something like that. You go to memory 
location A00A, look at what's there, and you will find the 
real address for JOYIN. It is slightly more complicated than 
that though, because the address we are looking for is too 
big a number to store in a single memory location. 

Part of the address we seek is located at Hex A00A (the 
most significant byte), and the rest is at Hex A00B (the least 
significant byte). To convert the contents of the memory 
locations to a regular decimal number, you multiply the 
most significant byte by 256 and add the least significant 
byte to it. 

Why 256? Well, 256 in decimal is written 100 in Hex, so it 
is something like this example. Suppose you had 25 boxes, 
each containing 100 computers, and 37 boxes containing I 
computer. To find how many you had total, you would 



RAINBOW August 1982 

multiply the 25 by 100, and add the 37 to it. That's what I do 
in line 10. I take the number in memory location A00A and 
multiply it by 256 (100 Hex), and add the result to the 
number in memory location A00B. 

The rest of the program is easy. We clear the screen to 
blue, then call the JOYIN routine, which reads all four 
joystick pots and stores their values in memory locations 
!5A to 15D Hex. We then read these locations, and set them 
in either blue or orange, depending on which joystick is 
used. Thus, since the screen is blue, we can draw on it in 
orange with one joystick, and erase with the other. 

This program is simple, and not very useful. 1 wrote it to 
illustrate how to call these routines, not as a stand-alone 
thing. I hope you find it useful as an aid in understanding 
how to use those mysterious built-ins. If you have any 
questions, write me at the address below. Please include a 
long S.A.S.E. if you want a reply. 

The Listing: 




9 " GET ADDRESS 

10 DEFUSR0=PEEK(ScHA00A) 1256+PEEK 
(&HA00B) 

20 CLS3 

29 * CALL JOYIN ROUTINE 

30 X=USR(0> 

39 'READ AND SET JOYSTICK VALUES 

STORED IN MEMORY BY JOYIN AT 
15A-15D (HEX). 

40 SET (PEEK (&H15A) , FI X (PEEK (&H15 
B) /2) ,3) 

50 SET ( PEEK ( ScH 15C),FIX( PEEK ( &H 1 5 
D) /2) ,8) 
60 GOTO 30 



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Utility 



The RAINBOW 



Page 




Sort Numeric Arrays Fast With Machine Language 



By Pat Lishnak 



This article concerns the machine language sorting of one- 
dimensional arrays. But, before you BASICusersgroanand 
turn the page — hold on a minute. 

There is also a short demonstration program and a 
BASIC listing that can be used to enter the machine 
language directly into memory, without the need of an 
assembler. Even if, like me, you have no need to do any 
sorting, it is still interesting (hopef ully) to see how and why it 
works. 

The program uses the bubble sort method. In case youVe 
not familiar with it, it works this way: The first data element 
on the list is compared to the second one. If the first is 
greater than the second, then the two elements are switched 
in memory. If the first is less than or equal to the second, 
then the first remains in its position for the time being. 

Next, the second element is compared with the third, and 
so on until you reach the end of the list, one pair at a time. 
After each pass of the entire list, the program checks to see 
whether any switches were made. If there were any, then 
another pass is made through the entire list. The process 
continues until a pass is made that requires no switches, i.e., 
the data is all in order. 

Seeing Is Believing 

You may be familiar with the bubble sort method, but 
have you ever actually seen it taking place? Program Listing 
I is a machine language demonstration sort of the 
computer's video memory. It will arrange the contents of the 
video display in ascending order according to the numeric 
value of each character. 



0001 0600 



Listing I 

NAfl SCRSORT 



0002 0600 

0003 0603 

0004 0605 

0005 060? 

0006 0608 

0007 060D 

0008 060F 
000? 0611 

0010 0613 

0011 0615 

0012 061? 

0013 061C 

0014 061E 

0015 0622 

0016 0624 



8E0400 
8601 

A78D001C 

ECSfl 

3404 

A1E0 

2308 

1E89 

ED1F 

6F8D000C 

8C05FF 

26EB 

6DSD0003 

27DC 

39 



0017 0625 00 



0018 0626 



BEGIN LDX #$0400 
LDA #1 
STA FLG,PCR 

AGAIN LDD J+ 
PSHS B 
ChPA ,S* 
BLS NOT 
EX6 A,B 
STD -1,X 
CLR FLG,PCR 

NOT DIP* #$05FF 
BNE AGAIN 
TST FLG,PCR 
BEQ BEGIN 
RTS 

FLG FCB 0 
END 



tSTART A PASS 



tIS A>8? 
tSWITCH BYTES 



tLAST PAIR 



tSWITCH OCCURED 
(BACK TO BASIC 

tSWITCH FLAG 



This is not necessarily in ASCII order, since some 
characters have different values in the Color Computer. For 
instance, a space in screen memory is represented by the 
number 96 rather than 32. The BASIC command line FOR 
X=0 TO 255: POKE 1024+X, X: NEXT will show the entire 



possible character set in ascending order, including graphics 
blocks. 

In case you are operating without the benefit of an 
assembler, Listing 2 is the BASIC program for entry of the 
machine hexadecimal code. The machine code itself is 
written in relocatable format, so it will work no matter 
where it resides in memory. 

Listing 2 

0 'LISTING 2 

10 INPUT "START ADDRESS" ;S 

20 INPUT "HEX"; A* 

30 B*= LEFT* (A*, 1) 

40 C*= RIGHT* (A*, 1) 

50 B« ASC(B*)-48: IF B>9 THEN B= 

B-7 

60 O ASC<C*)-48: IF C>9 THEN C= 
C-7 

70 POKE S,B*16+C 
80 S=S+1 
90 GOTO 20 

But, it is normally best to store machine language routines 
at the high end of your machine in protected memory. Since 
this is only a demonstration program, it doesn't really 
matter. Using a starting address of 3000 (decimal) will work 
in any machine. 

The first step is to enter the BASIC program and RUN it. 

—Continued nn Next Page 



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Page 10 

ML SORTS — from Page 9 
A prompt will ask you for the starting address in the usual 
decimal form (3000 in this case). After that, you begin by 
entering the hexadecimal code, one double-digit byte at a 
time. 

The hex code is found in the third column of the listing, 
after the line number and the address. For example, type 8E 
and ENTER. Then type 04 and ENTER, 00 and ENTER, 86 
and ENTER and so on. Type BREAK after you have 
entered the last byte. 



The RAINBOW 



You've Done It! 



5 



You now have a machine language program entered into 
your 80C, and without an assembler. Yes, an assembler will 
make it easier to do, but this works well. 

The hexadecimal numbers are automaticallyconverted to 
decimal by the program in Listing 2 and then are POKEd 
into memory. The caveat here is to be very careful. It is easy 
to make a mistake while entering the data, and it will be 
difficult to find. So, take a bit of extra time in this. 

By the way, this approach will work with any machine 
language program listings you run across — as long as the 
code is stated to be re-locatable, or if you use the exact same 
addresses as are found in the assembled listing. Entering 
code this way isn't too bad if the listings are short. 

When the program from Listing l is in memory, by 
whichever route (you can also, of course, use an 
editor assembler to load it in) you can EXECute it and 
watch what happens. It makes for a pretty display. 

Note that the program uses the BLS (Branch if Lower or 
Same) instruction. This is what is called an unsigned 
comparison in which 0 is the smallest possible number and 
255 ($FF) is the largest. 

So, graphics blocks go to the bottom of the screen, at 
higher memory, and inverse characters go to the top. 
Different results occur if BLS is replaced with BLE (Branch 
if l ess or Equal). BLE is a signed comparison in which -128 



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($80) is the lowest possible single-byte number and + 127 
($7F) is the highest. In this case, graphics blocks go to the 
top of the screen, since they are all negative numbers 
accoring to twos complement arithmatic. 

Using BHS (Branch if Higher or Same) or BGE (Branch if 
Greater than or Equal) will result in a sort in a descending 
order, respectively signed and unsigned. BASIC users can 
POKE 301 5 with the numbers 47, 36 or 42 to observe the 
different sorting orders. 

One of the main disadvantages of the bubble sort method 
can be easily seen by typing in the command line: CLS: 
POKE 1535,0: EXEC 3000. This sets the entire screen to 
spaces except for the last position, which contains a reverse- 
image "at" sign. In order to put that one out-of -place byte 
into its proper position, the sort must make 512 passes: 
including 511 passes to knock the reverse "at" back once 
each time and the final pass in which no switches are made. 
This is called a worse-case demonstration. 

You can also do side-by-side comparisons with the speed 
that BASIC can provide. Listing 3 is a BASIC program that 
does the same thing as the machine code, in pretty much the 
same way. The difference in execution time is amazing. 

Listing 3 

0 'LISTING 3 

10 FOR X= 1024 TO 1534 

20 A«PEEK(X>: B=PEEK(X+1> 

30 IF A>B THEN POKE X,Bi POKE X+ 

1,A: C=l 

40 NEXT 

50 IF CX0 THEN C=0: GOTO10 



Array Structure 

The first step involved in sorting a Color Basic array lies in 
discovering how the data is structured. Memory locations 29 
and 30 hold the address of the start of the array storage 
space. If we first type DIM A( 10), then Figure 1 shows what 
the first part of the array would look like. 

The first two bytes hold the array's name. If, as in this 
example, the array name is a single letter, then the second 
byte will be equal to zero. The first is 65, which is the ASCII 
value for the letter "A". The next two bytes hold the length 
of the entire array, including all of this descriptive 
information as well as the actual data. The next byte holds 
the number of dimensions in the array (in this case, 1); and 
the next two bytes hold the number of elements in the array. 

The data follows after that, with five bytes of storage 
devoted to each element. That gives us the seven bytes of 
descriptive information plus five bytes by 1 1 elements for an 
array length of 62. Everything checks out so far. 

If we had used DIM A(3,4,5) instead, then things look a 
little bit different. The second part of Figure I contains the 
format. The byte which shows the number of dimensions is 
now, of course, three. After that, therearetwobytesforeach 
dimension, showing the size of each. All of this information 
can be used to mathematically compute the actual position 
of any element in the array. But, that's enough about multi- 
dimensional arrays, since this sort won't handle them 
anyway. 

Next comes the data itself. Its not immediately 
recognizable because it is stored in floating point arithmatic. 
That is the old standard scientific notation, as in 2.14E+3, 
which is the same as 2.14 * 10 3 , which — as anyone with a 
Color Computer can readily tell you — is the same as 2140. 

—Continued on Page 14 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 11 




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The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



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torch.") 

Adventures require 16k on TRS80, TRS80 
color, and Sinclair. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on Vic-20. Derelict takes 12k on 
OSI. $14.95 each. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS 

(by Rodger Olsen ) 
This ADVENTURE takes place on the RED 
PLANET. You'll have to explore a Martian 
city and deal with possibly hostile aliens to 
survive this one. A good first adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 
This is our most challenging ADVENTURE. 
It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid full of 
problems. Exciting and tough ! 

TREK ADVENTURE (by Bob Retelle) 
This one takes place aboard a familiar star- 
ship. The crew has le~ft for good reasons — 
but they forgot to take, you, and now you 
are in deep trouble. 

HAUNTED HOUSE (by Bob Anderson) 
It's a real adventure — with ghosts and ghouls 
and goblins and treasures and problems — 
but it is for kids. Designed for the 8 to 1 2 
year old population and those who haven't 
tried Adventure before and want to start 
out real easy. 

DERELICT 

(by Rodger Olsen & Bob Anderson) 
New winner in the toughest adventure from 
Aardvark sweepstakes. This one takes place 
on an alien ship that has been deserted for a 
thousand years — and is still dangerous! 



VENTURER!— A fast action all machine code 
Arcade game that feels like an adventure. Go 
berserk as you sneak past the DREADED HALL 
MONSTERS to gather treasure in room after 
room, killing the NASTIES as you go. Great 
color, high res graphics, sound and Joystick game 
for the TRS-80 Color or OSI machines, (black 
and white and silent on OSI.) Tape only. $19.95. 

BASIC THAT ZOOOMMS!! 

AT LAST AN AFFORDABLE COMPILER FOR 
OSI AND TRS-80 COLOR MACHINES!!! The 

compiler allows you to write your programs in 
easy BASIC and then automatically generates a 
machine code equivalent that runs 50 to 150 
times faster. 

It does have some limitations. It takes at least 
8K of RAM to run the compiler and it does only 
support a subset of BASIC — about 20 commands 
including FOR, NEXT, END, GOSUB, GOTO, 
IF, THEN, RETURN, END, PRINT, STOP, USR 
(X), PEEK, POKE, *,/,+,-,> , < , = VARI- 
ABLE NAMES A-Z, SUBSCRIPTED VARI- 
ABLES, and INTEGER NUMBERS FORM0-64K. 

TINY COMPILER is written in BASIC. It gener- 
ates native, relocatable 6502 or 6809 code. It 
comes with a 20 page manual and can be modi- 
fied or augmented by the user. $24.95 on tape 
or disk for OSI or TRS-80 Color. 

LABYRINTH - 16K EXTENDED COLOR 
BASIC — With amazing 3D graphics, you fight 
your way through a maze facing real time mon- 
sters. The graphics are real enough to cause claus- 
trophobia. The most realistic game that I have 
ever seen on either system. $14.95. (8K on OSI) 



i 



A 



4 




QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMES! Different from all the others. 
Quest is played on a computer generated 
map of Alesia. Your job is to gather men 
and supplies by combat, bargaining, explor- 
ation of ruins and temples and outright 
banditry. When your force is strong enough, 
you attack the Citadel of Moorlock in a 
life or death battle to the finish. Playable 
in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different every 
time. 16k TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Sin- 
clair. 13K VIC-20. $14.95 each. 




NEW!! 

BREAKAWAY - ALL MACHINE CODE - 
Every computer has some form of BREAK- 
AWAY available. Ours is fast, smooth, has 
15 levels of difficulty — and is a bargain!! 
16k TRS-80 Color only $9.95. 

PROGRAMMERS! 

SEE YOUR PROGRAM IN THIS SPACE!! 

Aardvark traditionally pays the highest com- 
missions in the industry and gives programs 
the widest possible coverage. Quality is the 
keyword. If your program is good and you 
want it presented by the best, send it to 
Aardvark. 



Please specify system on all orders 

ALSO FROM AARDVARK — This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1 .00 for our complete catalog. 



AARDVARK -80 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313) 669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 



^8 



TRS-80 COLOR 



SINCLAIR OSI 



VIC-20 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 13 



AARDVARK - THE ADVENTURE PLACE 

ADVENTURES FOR OSI, TRS-80, TRS-80 COLOR, SINCLAIR, PET, VIC-20 



ADVENTURES — Adventures are a unique 
form of computer game. They let you spend 
30 to 70 hours exploring and conquering a 
world you have never seen before. There is 
little or no luck in Adventuring. The rewards 
are for creative thinking, courage, and wise 
gambling — not fast reflexes. 

In Adventuring, the computer speaks and 
listens to plain English. No prior knowledge 
of computers, special controls, or games is re- 
quired so everyone enjoys them — even people 
who do not like computers. 

Except for Quest, itself unique among Ad- 
venture games. Adventures are non-graphic. 
Adventures are more like a novel than a comic 
book or arcade game. It is like reading a par 
ticular exciting book where you are the main 
character. 

All of the Adventures in this ad are in Basic. 
They are full featured, ful ly plotted adventures 
that will take a minimum of thirty hours (in 
several sittings) to play. 

Adventuring requires 16kon Sinclair, TRS- 
80, and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k on OSI 
and 1 3k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires extended 
BASIC. 

TREK ADVENTURE by Bob Retelle - This 
one takes place aboard a familiar starship and 
is a must for trekkies. The problem is a famil- 
iar one — The ship is in a "decaying orbit" 
(the Captain never could learn to park 1 ) and 
the engines are out (You would think that in 
all those years, they would have learned to 
build some that didn't die once a week). Your 
options are to start the engine, save the ship, 
get off the ship, or die. Good Luck. 

Authors note to players — I wrote this one 
with a concordance in hand. It is very accurate 
— and a lot of fun. It was nice to wander 
around the ship instead of watching it on T.V. 

CIRCLE WORLD by Bob Anderson The 

Alien culture has built a huge world in the 
shape of a ring circling their sun. They left 
behind some strange creatures and a lot of ad- 
vanced technology. Unfortunately, the world 
is headed for destruction and it is your job to 
save it before it plunges into the sun ! 

Editors note to players — In keeping with 
the large scale of Circle World, the author 
wrote a very large adventure. It has a lot of 
rooms and a lot of objects in them. It is a very 
convoluted, very complex adventure. One of 
our largest. Not available on OSI. 

HAUNTED HOUSE by Bob Anderson - This 
one is for the kids. The house has ghosts, gob- 
lins, vampires and treasures — and problems 
designed for the 8 to 13 year old. This is a 
real adventure and does require some thinking 
and problem solving — but only for kids. 

Authors note to players — This one was fun 
to write. The vocabulary and characters were 
designed for younger players and lots of things 
happen when they give the computer com- 
mands. This one teaches logical thought, map- 
ping skills, and creativity while keeping their 
interest. 



DERELICT by Rodger Olsen and Bob Ander- 
son — For Wealth and Glory, you have to ran- 
sack a thousand year old space ship. You'll 
have to learn to speak their language and 
operate the machinery they left behind. The 
hardest problem of all is to live through it. 

Authors note to players — This adventure 
is the new winner in the "Toughest Adventure 
at Aardvark Sweepstakes". Our most difficult 
problem in writing the adventure was to keep 
it logical and realistic. There are no irrational 
traps and sudden senseless deaths in Derelict. 
This ship was designed to be perfectly safe for 
its' builders. It just happens to be deadly to 
alien invaders like you. 




NUCLEAR SUB by Bob Retelle - You start 
at the bottom of the ocean in a wrecked Nu- 
clear Sub. There is literally no way to go but 
up. Save the ship, raise her, or get out of her 
before she blows or start WWI 1 1 . 

Editors note to players— This was actually 
plotted by Rodger Olsen, Bob Retelle, and 
someone you don't know — Three of the nas- 
tiest minds in adventure writing. It is devious, 
wicked, and kills you often. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice sound and special effects. 

EARTHQUAKE by Bob Anderson and Rodger 
Olsen — A second kids adventure. You are 
trapped in a shopping center during an earth- 
quake. There is a way out, but you need help. 
To save yourself, you have to be a hero and 
save others first. 

Authors note to players — This one feels 
good. Not only is it designed for the younger 
set (see note on Haunted House), but it also 
plays nicely. Instead of killing, you have to 
save lives to win this one. The player must 
help others first if he/she is to survive — I like 
that. 

Please specify system on all orders 



PYRAMID by Rodger Olsen - This is one of 
our toughest Adventures. Average time 
through the Pyramid is 50 to 70 hours. The 
old boys who built this Pyramid did not mean 
for it to be ransacked by people like you. 

Authors note to players — This is a very 
entertaining and very tough adventure. I left 
clues everywhere but came up with some in- 
genous problems. This one has captivated 
people so much that I get calls daily from as 
far away as New Zealand and France from 
bleary eyed people who are stuck in the 
Pyramid and desperate for more clues. 

QUEST by Bob Retelle and Rodger Olsen - 

THIS IS DIFFERENT FROM ALL THE 
OTHER GAMES OF ADVENTURE!!!! It is 
played on a computer generated map of 
Alesia. You lead a small band of adventurers 
on a mission to conquer the Citadel of Moor- 
lock. You have to build an army and then arm 
and feed them by combat, bargaining, explora- 
tion of ruins and temples, and outright ban- 
ditry. The game takes 2 to 5 hours to play 
and is different each time. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice visual effects and sound. Not 
available on OSI. This is the most popular 
game we have ever published. 

MARS by Rodger Olsen — Your ship crashed 
on the Red Planet and you have to get home. 
You will have to explore a Martian city, repair 
your ship and deal with possibly hostile aliens 
to get home again. 

Authors note to players — This is highly 
recommended as a first adventure. It is in no 
way simple —playing time normally runs from 
30 to 50 hours — but it is constructed in a 
more "open" manner to let you try out ad- 
venturing and get used to the game before 
you hit the really tough problems. 




ADVENTURE WRITING /DEATHSH IP by 
Rodger Olsen — This is a data sheet showing 
how we do it. It is about 14 pages of detailed 
instructions how to write your own adven- 
tures. It contains the entire textof Deathship. 
Data sheet - $3.95. NOTE: Owners of OSI, 
TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Vic 20 computers 
can also get Deathship on tape for an addi- 
tional $5.00. 

PRICE AND AVAILABILITY: 

All adventures are $14.95 on tape except 
Earthquake and Haunted House which are 
$9.95. Disk versions are available on OSI and 
TRS-80 Color for $2.00 additional. 



ALSO FROM AARDV AR K — This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1.00 for our complete catalog. 




554 




AARDVARK - 80 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313) 669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 



TRS-80 COLOR 



SINCLAIR 



OSI 



VIC-20 



Page 14 The 

ML SORTS — from Page 10 

Of course, in the 80C, it is all done in binary powers, not 
in decimal. But there is no need to go into all of that — you 
don't have to do the conversions back and forth. As it turns 
out (after a little experimentation), these types of numbers 
can be sorted just as if they were "regular" five-byte binary 
numbers. Well, almost. 

I say almost because there is this problem in 
differentiating negative numbers. It is not a simple case of 
twos complements, and the most signbificant bit of the 
number doesn't give a clue. But, and this is a big but, the sign 
bit (that is, bit number 7) of the second most significant byte 
does tell you all you need to know. Determining the sign of 
the data element then becomes a simple matter. If index 
Register U points to the start of the five-byte element, then 
TST I,U following by a BMI instruction will make the 
necessary test. A positive number could look like $82 00 00 
00 00 (which is a 2 in decimal) and a negativenumber would 
be like $82 80 00 00 00 (which is a -2). The only difference is 
that one bit. 

On With The Sort 

The hardest part of all this was figuring out just how the 
data was stored. With that out of the way, how do you go 
about comparing one five-byte number with another? 

On first thought, the answer would be to compare one 
byte at a time. The first byte of array element A could be 
compared to thef irst byte of array element B. If the results of 
the compare showed A to be greater, then the two elements 
would be switched by our bubble sort. On the other hand, if 
the first byte of A were lower than the first byte of B, we 
could move to the next pair since no switch would take 
place. 

But if the bytes f rom A and B were f ound to be equal, then 
the comparison would be carried down to the next deeper 



sIBOW August 1982 

level, and so on down the line. Finally, if the fifth bytes were 
found to be equal, then the entire numbers would be equal. 
In that instance, no switch would occur. Otherwise, that pair 
of equals would be switched again on the next pass, and 
forever after — just flipping back and forth. The sort would 
never end. 

But such a scheme would fail to take advantage of the 16- 
bit instructions available with the 6809 microprocessor 
which our 80C uses. A sort should be fast, and so, in the 
interest of speed, those 16-bit instructions can and should 
be used. We can compare one byte, then two, and then two 
again, giving a maximum of three comparisons per pair 
instead of five. 

We still have to get back to the problem of dealing with 
negative numbers. As I mentioned before, the instruction set 
provides as easy way to test for sign — by using an index 
register with an offset. It is naturally true that any positive 
number is greater than any negative number and vice versa. 

Comparisions between two elements of opposite signs 
are, therefore, made only on the basis of their signs, not on 
their values. However, if both array elements being 
compared are negative, then the tests must be inverted. That 
is because a large negative number (for example -99,000) 
"looks" as if it is greater than -9 when, in fact, it is not. If the 
comparison on two negative numbers were not treated as a 
special case, they would all be in reverse order when the sort 
is done. 

The results of all thisareshown in Listing4. This program 
is also relocatable and since most of the work is done with 
the registers anyway, it only required using PCR notation 
on a few lines here and there. The approach is the same as in 
the screen sort program, with two major differences. 

The first is that the array to be sorted must first be found 
in the array storage space. An index register is first set to 
point to the start of the arrays. If the first name checked is 
not the correct one, then all the program has to do is add the 



TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER* 



-1SK Extended Basic, Menu-Driven, Well- Documented, Easily-Modified. 
-For either cassette or diskette systems (Be sure to specify). 
-Place an order of at least $40 and get one extra of your choice free. 
-Orders shipped on cassette - Add $5 for shipment on diskette. 



-REPORT WRITER- 

Used in conjunction with FURST to selectively format 
reports on your printer. Includes headings and total 
capabilities $15 

-EXERCISE PLANNER- tSSSS 

HI 

Build and maintain complete exercise schedule for 
regular and/or weight programs. Display guides you 
through daily-calculated routines. Print complete 
schedule if desired $15 

-DISK DIRECTORY PRINT- 

For diskette users only. Get hard copy of disk directories on your printer for easy use and reference. Only $5 



-FURST- 

Date Element Dictionary driven File Update and 
Retrieval SysTem. Create and maintain files according 
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cluded $25 

-MAILING LABELS- RA,NBO ~ 
Generate and maintain mailing label records. Selective- 
ly print desired quantities. Can keep several label files if 
desired. Designed for Printer VII, easily modified. $20 



RAINBOW 

1 1 !,(< » 



Send check or money order to: 

LAND SYSTEMS 

P.O. Box 232 
Bellbrook, Ohio 45305 




I MasterCard 1 



•TRS-80 and COLOR COMPUTER 
are Trademarks of Tandy Corp. 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 15 



length of the array to the index so that it will then point to 
the start of the next array, and so on. If the named array is 
not found in present memory, then the error message 
♦ARRAY NOT FOUND is printed on the screen. If the 
array is not single-dimensional, then another appropriate 
error message is displayed. 



mi <tm 



mi 0600 

0003 0600 BDB3ED 

0004 0603 F706CF 

0005 0606 DE1D 

0006 0608 ECC4 

0007 060A 270D 

0008 060C 10A3SD00BE 

0009 0611 273F 

0010 0613 EC42 

0011 0615 33CB 

0012 0617 20EF 



0013 0619 308D000A 

0014 061D A680 

0015 061F 2705 

0016 0621 BDA30A 

0017 0624 20F7 

0018 0626 39 

0019 0627 2A41525241 

0020 0637 0D00 

0021 0639 2A4D554C54 

0022 064B 0D00 



0023 064D 00 

0024 064E 0000 

0025 0650 0000 



0026 0652 EC42 

0027 0654 30CB 

0028 0656 301B 

0029 0658 AF8CF5 



Listing 4 



N Art AIWYSORT 



tFIRST LOCATE THE CORRECT ARRAY 
•BY COMPARING NAMES 

INTCNV EBU $B3ED 



START JSR INTCNV 

STB NAME 

LDU 29 
LI LDD ,U 

BEQ NOGOT 

CMPD NAME,PCR 

BEQ SORT 

LDD 2,U 

LEAU D,U 

BRA LI 



tSTART OF ARRAYS 
•SET NAME 



IFOUND A MATCH 
ISET LENGTH 
•GET NEXT ARRAY 
•TRY AGAIN 



•DISPLAY MESSAGE IF NOT FOUND 



NOGOT LEAX MESS1,PCR 

LOOP LDA ,X+ 
BEQ DONE 
JSR $A30A 
BRA LOOP 

DONE RTS 



•OUTPUT CHAR 



•BACK TO BASIC 



MESS1 FCC /t ARRAY NOT FOUND 

FCB 13,0 
MESS2 FCC /I MULT I -DIMENSIONAL 

FCB 13,0 



mttmtmmmtttttmmtn 



•THIS SECTION PERFORMS THE SORT 



FLAG 

ARBEG 

t 

AREND 
t 

SORT 



FCB 0 IFOR SWITCHES 

FDB 0 tADD OF 1ST 

•ELEMENT 
FDB 0 tADD OF 2ND TO 

tLAST ELEMENT 



LDD 2,U 
LEAX D,U 
LEAX -5,X 
STX AREND, PCR 



tGET LENGTH 
•BET END 
•NEXT TO LAST 



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Foreign orders include shipping at 16 oz. per dozen tapes/9 oz. per 
caddy/13 oz. per dozen boxes. Shipments in U.S. are by UPS (no 
delivery to PO boxes). Add $1.50 per dozen tapes for First Class 
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GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 



★ DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



★ QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILARLE 



— Continued on Next Page 



Page 16 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



ML SORTS - 


from Pane 15 


0030 065B 3344 




LEAU 4,U 


0031 065D A6C0 




LDA ,U* 


0032 065F 8101 




CflPA 11 


0033 0661 2705 




BEQ OK 


0034 0663 308CD3 




LEAX NESS2,PCR 


0035 0666 20B5 




BRA LOOP 


0036 0668 48 


OK 


ASLA 


0037 0669 33C6 




LEAU A,U 


0038 066B EFSCE0 




STU ARBEG,PCR 


0039 066E C601 




LDB 11 


6040 0670 E78CDA 




STB FLAB,PCR 


0041 0673 3732 


TEST 


PULU A,X,Y 


0042 0675 6D5C 




TST -4,U 


0043 0677 2B3F 




BMI MINUS 


0044 0679 6D41 




TST 1,U 


0045 067B 2B13 




BMI SWITCH 


0046 067D A1C4 




CflPA ,U 


0047 067F 220F 




BHI SWITCH 


0048 0681 251E 




BLO NEXT 


0049 0633 AC41 




CflPX 1,U 


0050 0685 2209 




BHI SWITCH 


0051 0687 2518 




BLO NEXT 


0052 0689 10AC43 




CflPY 3,U 


0053 063C 2202 




BHI SWITCH 


0054 068E 2011 




BRA NEXT 



tSET # 0F DIM 



IHULTI ARRAY 
IDOUBLE IT 
ISTART OF ARRAY 



t 1ST IS NE6 

I2ND IS NE6 
tBOTH ARE PLUS 



0055 0690 3432 



IEXCHAN6E ENTRIES 



SWITCH PSHS A, X, Y 



ISAVE 1ST ELEM 



PAC ATTACK 



□ - 

m 



nil ^ 





=i n lF- 



"PAC ATTACK" brought to you for 
COLOR COMPUTER 



Do alar Inquiries Invited 



$24.95 



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^FORMATION 




COMPUTERWARE 



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Dept. C • Box 668 
6809 Specialists Encinitas, CA 92024 • (714) 436-3512 

Computerware i s a trademark o f Computerware 



0056 
0057 
0058 
0059 
0060 
0061 
0062 



0692 
0694 
0696 
0698 
069A 
069C 
069E 



3732 
335B 
3632 
3532 
334A 
3632 
6F8CAC 



0063 
0064 
0065 
0066 
0067 
0068 
0069 
0070 
0071 



06A1 11A38CAB 
06A5 25CC 



06A7 
06AA 
06AD 
06AF 
06B2 
06B5 
06B7 



7C0400 

6D8CA0 

2608 

6CSC9B 

EE8C99 

20BC 

39 



PULU A,X,Y 

LEAU -5,U 

PSHU A,X,Y 

PULS A,X,Y 

LEAU 10, U 

PSHU A,X,Y 
CLR FLA6,PCR 

tTEST FOR END OF ARRAY 

NEXT CMPy AREND, PCR 
BLO TEST 
INC 1024 
TST FLA6,PCR 
BNE OUT 
INC FLA6,PCR 
LDU ARBE6, PCR 
BRA TEST 

OUT RTS 



ICOME HERE IF FIRST ELEMENT 
t IS A NESATIVE NUMBER 



tGET 2ND ELEM 
tSWITCH 2ND 



tSWITCH 1ST 



IPA5S IS DONE 

tSORT IS DONE 
IFLA6=1 



0072 06B8 6D41 


MINUS 


TST i ? U 


0073 06BA 2AE5 




BPL NEXT 


0074 06BC A1C4 




CMPA ,U 


0075 06BE 22E1 




BHI NEXT 


0076 06C0 25CE 




BLO SWITCH 


0077 06C2 AC41 




CMPX 1,U 


0078 06C4 22DB 




BHI NEXT 


0079 06C6 25C8 




BLO SWITCH 


0080 06C8 10AC43 




ChPY 3,U 


0081 06CB 25C3 




BLO SWITCH 


0082 06CD 20D2 




BRA NEXT 


0083 06CF 41 


NAME 


FCC /A 


0084 06D0 00 




FCB 0 


0085 06D1 




END 



12ND IS PLUS 
I2ND IS NEG 



The second difference is the fact that we are dealing with 
five-byte numbers, and that is where the U Register (the 
User stack pointer) comes in very handily. With it, you can 
push or pull all five bytes at a time, which saves on both 
program memory and execution time. This is very useful 
initially in loading the five bytes into registers (A, X and Y) 
so that they can be used for the compare. 

Remember that which bytes go into which register is 
determined by the "stacking order" — a predetermined 
sequence. In other words, the instructions PULU A,X,Y 
and PULU X,Y,A may look different in the source form, but 
they assemble exactly the same and execute in the same 
order with A always being pulled first. Using the U Register 
also shortens the segment which performs the switch of the 
two elements. 

Once the program is assembled and in memory, it is called 
by using the USR command. 1 do not have Extended Basic 
in my 80C, so I could not use the VARPTR statement. That 
meant having to come up with a way to pass the array's name 

—Continued on Page 18 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 17 



/^f\^ Summer Software 

Color 





pftoeftAm 





Voyager I 




From Avalon Hill 
You're on board a spaceship infested with killer 
robots in this graphic science fiction game. You must 
clear the 4-level 144-location ship of robots and arm it 
to self -destruct. Can you do it and escape before you, 
too, are blown up? High-speed graphics are repre 
sented in 3-D perspective representing your eye's 
view; with instant switching to floor plan maps. Ex- 
tended BASIC required. 

16K Tape, $19.95 



Ghost 
Gobbler 





From Spectral Associates 
In this new and exciting version of the popular arcade 
game, use your joysticks to move your Ghost Gobbler 
through the maze, eating dots and power pills to 
score points. 6 bonus shapes, super sound, and 16 
skill levels. Extended BASIC not required; joysticks. 

16K Tape, $21.95 

Creatavader 

By Fred Scerbo from Illustrated Memory Banks 
Create your own antagonist, and fire away! Pick your 
pet target, or use ours: tv sets, killer tomatoes or 
smiley faces. Use the joystick to fire your cannon and 
clear the screen. Look out for the secret target 
defender! Extended BASIC and one joystick required. 

16K Tape, $18.95 

Madness 

and the Minotaur 

From Spectral Associates 

Classic adventure game with 200 rooms, assorted 
friendly and dangerous creatures, 8 magic spells and 
—of course— treasures. The computer obeys two- 
word commands such as "get lamp" to move you 
through your journey. You must enter the castle of 
King Minos, descend into the labyrinth and collect all 
the treasures you can. 

16K Tape, $19.95 

Color 

Computer Blockade 

By Terry Kepner from Interpro 
Compete against a friend or the computer in this real- 
time, full color arcade game with sound effects. Use 
your joysticks to draw a barrier around your opponent 
while avoiding the trap being set for you. Requires 
joysticks 

Laval I 4K/16K or Laval II with Exlanded BASIC 
Tape, $14.95 






Gator 
Zone 

By Scerbo and Jammalo from Illustrated 
Memory Banks 

Revenge on the Preppies at last!! The Preppy Craze 
has gotten completely out of control. You must 
journey to the planet "Preptune" to stop the 'gators 
from invading earth in assorted garment forms. Use 
your shirt shields and lasers to protect you as you aim 
the crosshairs and press the fire button on your 
joystick. Get trie gators before they get your shirts! 3 
levels of difficulty. Extended BASIC required; 
joysticks. 

16K Tape, $18.95 



Moon 
Lander 



By Greg Zumwalt from American Small 
Business Computers 

Pilot your spacecraft over the moon's landscape and 
try to land it amid the mountains and craters. While 
carefully controlling your fuel consumption, use your 
joysticks to maneuver your craft and control your 
velocity against the forces of gravity. Be careful to 
avoid the asteroids drifting through space. 

16K Tape, $14.95 




Robot Battle 



From Spectral Associates 

Can you dodge the never-ending horde of robots 
while avoiding the fatal touch of the Android? 
Realistic voices and 16 skill levels provide a tremen- 
dous arcade type challenge. Does not require Ex- 
tended BASIC; joysticks. 

16K Tape, $21.95 

The Super 
"Color" Terminal 

From Nelson Software Systems 
Time Share, Smart Terminal, High-speed Data Trans- 
fer and Videotex. Turns your Color Computer into a 
Super-smart terminal with all the features of VIDEO- 
TEX plus much more. Communicate with Dow Jones, 
Compuserve and computers like TRS-80 Models I, II, 
III, APPLE, etc. via modemor RS-232 direct. Save the 
data to tape, or print it! Cuts on-line costs to a 
minimum. 

Disk, $69.95 ROM Pak, $49.95 



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TRS-80 Color Basic 

By Bob Albrecht from John Wiley & Sons 
Step-by-step guide to the unique color, sound and 
graphic capabilities of your new Color Computer. No 
previous experience is required. Teach yourself 
BASIC— there's a whole chapter on typical program- 
ming problems and solutions. 

Softcover, $9.95 

TRS-80 Programs 
and Applications! 

for the Color 
Computer 

By Alfred Baker from Reston 
Handy guide to your Color Computer: how to play 
games, balance your checkbook, use your computer 
as a teacher, etc. With chapters on color and sound, 
art and music. Helpful for beginning or experienced 
computer user. 

Softcover, $14.95 

Color Computer 
Scarfman 

From The Cornsoft Group 

Use the keyboard or joysticks to move your Color 
Scarfman through the maze to gobble up little yellow 
dots while avoiding 5 red monsters. If Scarfman can 
eat a yellow plus (+ ), a monster turns blue and can be 
eaten. Each time you clear the screen, the level and 
point value increase. Extended BASIC not required. 

4K Tape, $19.95 



r 



Scepter 
of Kzirgla 




From Rainbow Connection Software 
Real-time graphics adventure game with arcade 
sound for the color computer. 13 floors of dungeon 
with monsters, treasure chests, hidden trap doors . . . 
even a flying magic carpet! All in your quest to find 
the Scepter of Kzirgla. Whatever you do, don't get 
caught in the poisonous gas cloud! Extended BASIC 
ro^uirod 

16K Tape, $16.95, 16K Disk, $21.95 



Master 
Control 




From Soft Sector Marketing 

This is a BASIC language program designed to de- 
crease typing time and error while providing direct 
control of motor, trace, audio and run. With Automatic 
Line Numbering and a custom key you can re-use or 
change at any time; plus 50 preprogrammed com- 
mand keys. Can be used on a 32K system. 

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The RAINBOW August 1982 

ML SORTS — from Page 16 
|t to the subroutine. I made a compromise in that only arrays 
k with a single letter name can be identified. 

With this convention, the second character in an array 
with a two-letter name is ignored, so that a call to sort array 
AB would result in a sort of the first array whose name 
started with an A. It is admittedly not the best solution, but 
it'll do. You specify the array to be sorted by the formula 
D=USR( ASC("F")) in order to sort array F. The D is just 
the "dummy arguement" which is required by BASIC 
syntax. I would imagine that someone with Extended Basic 
could just eliminate the first part of the subroutine (the part 
which locates the array) and use something like D=USR( 
VARPTR(F)) instead; and that would allow for using two- 
letter names as well. 

Testing 

As long as we have gone this far, we might as well test the 
whole thing out. Listing 5 is a BASIC program which will 
create and charge two arrays with random numbers, 
alternately positive and negative. But first it asks for the 
entry address of the sort routine, and sets the USR call 
accordingly. Extended Basic would use DEFUSR instead. 



Listing 5 



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C-20 99 

C-30 1.19 

C-60 1 49 

C-90 1.79 

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0 * LISTING 9 

1 INPUT "ENTRY POINT"; Xx Y»INT(X 
/256> 

2 POKE 275, Y t POKE 276,X-256*Y 

3 L=200 

5 Dili A(L),B(L) 
7 SN=1 

10 FOR X-0 TO L 

20 A<X)-(RND(lE+8)+RND(0) >tSN 

30 B<X)-1/A(X) 

40 SN=-SN 

50 NEXT 

100 FOR X-0 TO L 

110 PRINTA(X) ; : PRINTTAB ( 15) B ( X ) 

120 NEXT 

200 INPUT "ARRAY" ; Z* 
210 D=USR(ASC(Z») ) 
220 GOTO 100 



The entry point is the first byte of the sort program, so if 
you assembled at 16175, then input that address (the code k 
209 bytes long). The first array is filled with large numbers 
and the second with very small ones. It lists them side by side 
on the screen, and then asks which array, A or B, you want 
sorted. 

When the subroutine is called, it increments the first 
position in video memory once for each pass through the 
array. This is done just as a way of letting you know that 
something is going on inside that little silver box and that the 
program is not hung up somewhere. You can eliminate that 
by deleting the instruction INC 1024 in Listing 4. When the 
sort is done, BASIC will regain control and list the arrays 
again, but this time the array you asked to be sorted will be 
in the correct order. 




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August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 19 



The variable L in Line 3 of Listing 5 is used as a way of 
easily altering the length of the arrays so that you can try out 
different sizes. A 200 element random array takes about 
three seconds to sort. One-thousand elements take 
something like 80 seconds and 3000 elements will be done in 
about l 3 minutes. 

Obviously, as the length of the arrays increase, so does the 
sorting time. And it will rise dramatically. There are other 
sorting mechanisms which outperform the bubble sort on 
large arrays, but think of this: If you were using a BASIC 
sort instead, you could start it up and then go on vacation. 
When you came back, it would just be finishing up. 

Well, sort of. 

DIM A (10) 65 0 0 62 1 0 11 Data Follows 
DIMA (3,4,5) 65 02 99 30 605 



Your copy of the rainbow is mailed third class 
mail and, for United States Subscribers, the date of mailing is 
shown on the label. If you do not receive your issue by the 
25th of any month, please send us a postcard and we'll send 
you a replacement out right away, via first class mail. 

You must notify us of your new address when you move, 
and, in order for the current month's issue to be sent to the 
proper new address, that notification should arrive at our 
offices no later than the 15th of the month for the next 
month's issue. Sorry, we cannot be responsible for mis-sent 
magazines for which the change of address arrives later than 
the 15th. 

You can leave a forwarding address with your postmaster 
and guarantee forwarding postage. If you do, your magazine 
will be forwarded to you. We place a notification on the 
magazine stating "forwarding postage guaranteed" to help 
insure you do not miss an issue. You must pay that 
forwarding postage. 

The best way to avoid problems of missing magazines is to 
inform us of a new address in plenty of time before you move. 
Each month we lose" several subscribers because the Postal 
Service returns their magazine marked "moved, left no 
forwarding address." Understand that when that happens, we 
incur the same costs as if you did get your magazine, so if you 
subsequently do update your address, you must pay the 
postage to have "missing issues" sent to you. We absorb the 
cost of the magazine, however, if we have it still in stock. 

All copies of the rainbow now show an account 
number and an expiration date of your subscription on the 
mailing label. Please indicate your account number when 
writing us about your subscription and when renewing. It will 
make our service faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U.S. subscribers, there may be 
a "mailing address" which is different than the home office 
subscription/editorial offices address on your magazine. 
do not send correspondence to that address. The proper 
address to write for any information concerning the magazine 
is 5803 Timber Ridge Drive, P.O. Box 209, Prospect,KY 40059, 
U.S.A. We sometimes use other mailing addresses for non-U.S. 
subscriptions to reduce postage costs. This does not apply 
to subscriptions ordered through our agent in Australia, only. 

If the rain bo w is consistantly late arriving at your 
location, complain to your Postmaster. It can do wonders! 



Communication... 

Here's An Easy Way To 
Place Orders By Mail 

By William Boston 

One of the things that everyone does from time to time is 
order Software and other products through the mail. 1 wrote 
the program below to help me do this with a minimum of 
time and trouble. 

You will see that all you have to do is fill in the inputs and 
the program will print a nice order f orm that is easy f or the 
company to read and act on. It leaves no questions 
unanswered, and even gives you the option of sending cash, 
check or money order or billing to a credit card account. 

Note that all the information called for is by way of the 
INPUT statements, so you will not want to enter any 
commas. If you have Extended Color Basic, you can change 
the INPUTs to LINE INPUTs. If you do not have 
Extended, you will have to eliminate the USING part of the 
PRINT USING statements. 

Also note Lines 43-46 and 48-49 are for your own name, 
address and other information. Just enter the applicable 
information in those Lines as indicated. 

The Listing: 



1 CL5:X=0 

2 INPUT "DATE^D* 

3 INPUT "COMPANY NA«E W ;A$ 



— Continued on Next Page 



BUSINESS SOFTWARE 
FOR THE TRS-80 tm COLOR COMPUTER 



INVENTORY CONTROL II: Features include: Automatic warning when 
stock gets to reorder point, sorting of inventory by stock nuin 
ber, and automatic page numbering. Lists stock number, des- 
cription, amount in sotck, cost and retail of item, gross 
profit %, total cost and total retail, grand total of total 
cost, grand total of total retail. (Disk based) ...$69.95 

JOB PRICING/BIDDING: Calculates the price or bid a product or 
job warrants in accordance with a specified markup %. Also, 
prints a summary of cost table. ...$29.95 

AMORTIZATION: Calculates amortization schedule for a debt, in- 
cluding repayment amounts and remaining balances for the term 
of the debt. • $19.95 

RETURN ON INVESTMENT: Calculates the rate of return for a 
specified cost and income. Prints cash flow table ...$19.95 

JOB COSTING: Calculates component and overall cost for each 
quantity of production scheduled. ...$19.95 

OTHER SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE 
RAM-PACK: An additional 8K of Ram using 4116* s for lower cost. 
Allows Rom cartridge data to be saved to tape, then loaded 
into the Ram-Pack for modification or execution. This is good 
for storing programs or games to tape. Plugs into cartridge 
slot. Schematic and documentation, only ...$ 9.95 

CLOCK: A facinating graphics demonstration program using high 
resolution graphics for maximum realism. Actually shows face 
of clock and keeps accurate time. ...$ 4.95 

Now under development for the Color Computer are programs for 
General Ledger, Accounts Payable and Receivable, and Payroll. 
We do custom programming for the Color Computer. Let us know 
what y ou need and maybe we can help . 

Send Check or Money Order to: 
TEAGUE PROGRAMMING AND CONSULTING 
518 N. 30th St. 
P.O. Box 728 
Paducah, Kentucky 42001 
Tel. (502)442-0203 lOam-lOpm 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



Page 20 



The RAINBOW 



OROERS — from Page 19 

4 INPUT "COMPANY STREET ADDRESS" 
;B$ 

5 INPUT 'CITY AND STATE";C$ 

6 CLS 

7 INPUT "QUANT ITY";Q<1,X) 

8 IF 9<1,X)=0 THEN 14 

9 INPUT "DESCRIPTION B ;D$U,X) 

10 INPUT "PRICE EACH B ;PU,X) 

11 T(1,X)=Q(1,X)IP(1,X) 

12 X=X+1:N=X 

13 G0TQ6 

14 INPUT "SHIPPING COST B ;SH 

15 INPUT "(1) CHECK OR (2) CHARG 
E B ;CC 

16 CLS:X=0 

17 PRINT #-2,TAB<50)DI 

18 PRINT l-2,TAB(5)A$ 

19 PRINT #-2,TAB(5)BI 

20 PRINT l-2,TA8(5)C$ 

21 PRINTI-2:PRINTI-2:PRINTI-2JA 
B ( 5> "DEAR SIRS: 8 :PRINTI-2:PRINTI 



August 1982 



nn 

Li. 



PRINT l-2,TAB<5) "PLEASE SHIP 
THE ITEMS LISTED AS SOON AS POSS 
IBLE. I SAW Y0UR":PRINTI-2,"ADVE 
RTISMENT IN THE RAINBOW MAGAZINE 
. I HAVE A TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

a 

| 

23 PRINTI-2 



rainbow 




A powerful 
utility that 
opensawindow 
into the Color 
Computer's disks. 



COLORZAP uses the power of the 
Color Computer to provide both 
rapid scanning and full screen modifi- 
cation capabilities You can now examine, 
.nodify. and copy programs or data while 
they're stored on disk, Access them by filename 
r or location 

COLORZAP is programmed largely in BASIC so that 
you can modify it if you'd like, but part of it is in machine 
language to provide fast response. All accesses to disk are 
performed with standard interfaces, so any standard Color 
Computer disk can be examined. You can directly access 
the disk's directory and control information to examine a 
clobbered disk, recover a killed file, or find parts of a file 
when other parts have been lost. With this new window into 
its disks, the Color Computer sheds its image as a toy Now 
you can use this exciting machine like other powerful 
microcomputers. 

For the TRS-80 Color Computer. Available on disk with an 
accompanying manual from Software Options, 19 Rector 
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26 F*= B 
I 

iw.ir 

27 FOR 2=1 TO N 

28 PRINTI-2,USINGF$;Q(1,X);D$<1, 
X);P(1,X);T(1,X) 

29 TT=TT+T(1,X) 

30 X=X+1 

31 NEXT Z 

32 PRINTI-2, TAB(54) "- — " 

33 TP$= B $$iiin.ir 

34 PRINTI-2, TAB(42) "TOTAL 
;:PRINT1-2,USINGTP$;TT 

35 IF SH=0 THEN 39 

36 PRINTI-2, TAB<42) "SHIPPING " 
;:PRINTI-2,USINGTP$;SH 

37 TS=TT*SH 

38 PRINTI-2, TABM2) "GRAND TOTAL" 
;:PRINTI-2,USINGTP$;TS 

39 IF CC=2 THEN 48 

40 PRINTI-2, TAB(5)"I AM ENCLOSIN 
G A CHECK TO COVER THE AMOUNT. H 

41 PRINTI-2:PRINTI-2:PRINTI-2,TA 
B (5) "THANK YOU" 

42 PRINT#-2:PRINTI-2:PRINTI-2 

43 PRINTI-2, TAB 15) "YOUR NAME" 

44 PRINTI-2, TAB(5) "YOUR ADDRESS" 

45 PRINTI-2, TAB(5)"Y0UR CITY AND 
STATE" 

46 PRINTI-2, TAB(5) H Y0UR ZIP CODE 
» 

47 END 

48 PRINTI-2:PRINTI-2:PRINTI-2,TA 
B(5) "CREDIT CARD TYPE AND NUMBER 
": ? ADD YOUR PERSONAL INFO 

49 PRINTI-2, TAB(13) n EXP DATE OR 
BANK I": 'ADD YOUR INFORMATION 

50 GOTO 41 



Get The Sound Out 



You can send sound from your 80C to any amplifier 
simply by soldering a couple of connections from the RF 
modulator. 

Pin 3 from the RF modulator and any PC Board ground 
will give you audio output that you can send to any outside 
amplifier. 

Incidentally, Pin 3 is the third pin back from the rear of 
the 80C on the RF modulator. 

You should remember than opening the computer case 
will void your warranty. 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 21 




Berserk 
Color Trek 
Cave Hunter 
Calixto Island 
Black Sanctum 



Home Money Minder 
SCRIBE Word Processor 

Color Data Organizer 
Communications Programs 

3D Drawing Board 
Address Factory • Finance I 




Pac Attack • STORM 
Starship Chameleon 
Mazerace • Magicube 
Color Invaders 





0 OCTS F 0/f J 



Macro Assembler 
PASCAL • Editor 
Diagnostics • Monitor 
FLEX Operating System 
Assembler 




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Cassettes • Diskettes 
Ribbon,s • Paper 
Labels • Reference Cards 





Lots of books 
for beginners and experts 
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references and techniques — 
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NEC • Epson 
Centronics • C. Itoh 
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Page 22 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



0 I 0 I 0 0 I I 



flSSEHEU 
BEfllEFfl 



By Dennis S. Lewandowski 
Rainbow Columnist 



(Mr. Lewandowski. an experienced assembly language 
programmer and teacher, is the president of DSL Computer 
Products.) 

Last month we kind of went short on talk and long on 
listing. The program included in last month's article was a 
lot more than just a sample of indexed addressing. It was a 
complete machine language program, as opposed to a 
subroutine or demonstration of a specific function. 

This time out we're going to take a little time to discuss 
some of the things the program from July's issue does. So, 
get the listing and let's go. 

The first four lines are EQUates. This means I wanted to 
usecertainmemorylocationsfordata storage, so 1 EQUated 




HOME FINANCE 16K X-BAS & LPVII 

Print reports of your budget, loans, 
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Menu driven. $9.95 
BARTENDER'S HELPER 16k X-BAS & LPVII 

Enter your inventory & party plans, 
program will tell you the additional 
requirements. (Recipe inquiries also) $9.95 
HOME LIBRARY 16k X-BAS & LPVII 

Organize your library. Sorts & prints 
by Title, Author or Subject. Save data 
for later use. $^.95 
SHOPPING LIST 16K X-BAS & LPVII 

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them to a LABEL. The first real instruction, labeled 
START, is just a ROM subroutine to clear the screen. (By 
the way, the ROM subroutine does use indexed addressing 
as well.) Then, we make sure there is a zero in Register A so 
we can store it in memory location COUNT. Next, we 
display the "prompts" — or output the messages to the 
screen. 

Notice how each time we need an input we use the same 
subroutine? Why write three different subroutines? Just 
store the data in different places. That is what is being done 
just af ter we return f rom the subroutine. Is this the right way 
to do it? That is up to you. If writing three different 
subroutines is what works for you, then that is the right way 
for you. There is no right or wrong. Just what works and 
what doesn't. 

Now, let's consider what is being done with the label SPC. 
Here is an example of a "self-modifying" program. The 
instruction before it is FCB, or Form Constant Byte, which 
is a method of putting a hexidecimal number at that memory 
location. The number chosen was $CI, which just happens 
to be the opcode for CMPB. Compare B to what? The label 
SPC is set to zero on assembly of the program, however, 
once we have the search byte we store it in our program. 
When the CPU executes these instructions, it doesn't really 
care how they got there. 

We do the same thing again, three lines later, except this 
time we use FDB, Form Double Byte, and use hex $108C. 
This is the opcode for CMPY. If we put in CMPY, the 
assembler would think we made an error and assemble it as a 
NOP. The label SEND, or search END, is also set to zero at 
time of assembly and set to the desired value by the program. 

So, are the other two pages of program just to get user 
input? No, there is another place where we use indexed 
addressing. Can you find it? 

How about OUTA? What's happening here is the pointer, 
X, is set by loading the desired message location. Then we 
branch, or jump, to the OUTA subroutine, and use indexed 
addressing to place the message on the video screen. I picked 
a zero as the "terminator" in this routine. So, each message 
must end with a zero. If not, the routine will keep printing 
anything it finds on the screen until it eventually finds a zero. 
The $0D preceeding the zero is a carriage return. This tells 
the video routine (SA30A) to finish that line and start a new 
one. 

If you haven't noticed by now, I have introduced you to 
the wonderful world of "compares." There are 22 times 
when the program must make a decision. By using 
"compare," or "branch if," instructions, we get the program 
to do what we wish. 

Let's follow an input and see what happens. The first 
occurrence of an input is at Line 13 (Line numbers are the 
ones on the far left of the listing). Here, we branch to a 
subroutine called INFOUR, cleverly named (by me) due to 
the need for four keypresses. 

INFOUR (at Line 38) starts by branching to another 
routine, IN HEX. IN HEX then jumps to a routine in ROM, 
which simulates the INKEY$ of BASIC, complete with 
flashing cursor. This routine will repeat until there is a 
keypress, so there is no need to loop. The hex value of the 
keypress is stored in the A Register. 

The first thing that is done with the keypress is to see if it is 
less than an ASCII zero. If it is, we branch to the error 
routine called WHAT. Next it is checked against an ASCII 
nine. If it is greater, we branch to ALPHA, or we continue 
processing it by branching to OUT1. Sounds like an IF, 
THEN, ELSE statement in Basic, doesn't it? 

Let's assume the keypress was the letter B, and continue to 

—Continued on Page 24 



August. 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 23 




PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR 80C 

ALL PROGRAMS 16K EXTENDED BASIC TAPE UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED 



Viking! 

A simulation for 1 to 4 persons. Each begins as a 
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raiders, revolts, bad weather, and other misfortunes 
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Ancient Wisdom Trilogy 

Three programs, each drawing on the historical wisdom 
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TAROT Ancient Egyptian deck of cards may reveal 
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ask a specific question. Lots of documentation. $17.95 
I CHING A Chinese wisdom so old its very origin is 
shrouded in the mistsof time. TheancientChinese oracle 
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NUMEROLOGY What can be learned from the num- 
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your monthly cycles. $14.95 

All of these come with ample documentation — ready to 
be used immediately. ALL THREE for just $39.95. Save 
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Fantasy Gamer's Package ™ 

Two programs: The first will display your choice of 99 
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All standard sizes, plus some with pools, pillars, stairs, 
odd shapes, etc. Saves lots of game time spent describ- 
ing room sizes, shapes, and door locations. Includes a 
super fast dungeon designing system and a completely 
keyed sample dungeon module — ready to play. The 
second program in the package generates COMPLETE 
characters including abilities, race, classes, hit points, 
age, thieving skills, much more, and also generates 
monsters. This package was developed by an active DM, 
and has been tested in his campaign. 20 pages of docu- 
mentation. $19.95 

Fantasy Gamer's 32K Package 

Similar to our popular Fantasy Gamer's Package, but both 
the Rooms and the Characters MonsterGeneratorare in 
memory at the same time. You makeyourselectionfroma 
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roll just about any probability you need. $24.95 

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Your Personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
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free on $50.00 or larger orders). Az. residents add 4% 
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NEW THIS MONTH 

Astrology 

Truly a classic, this program will accurately cast your 
complete horoscope. You just enter the date, time, and 
place of birth. The sun sign, rising sign, mid heaven (MC), 
lunar nodes, and planetary influences including houses 
and aspects between the planets will all be calculated, 
and a full chart drawn. You can also do progressed charts 
and transits. It will even tell you the day of the week you 
were born. The accompanying book will help you 
interpret this chart of your horoscope. The extent of the 
documentation is tremendous, even by our exceptionally 
high standards, and no previous knowledge of the 
subject is required. You can share in this wisdom which 
has been used for thousands of years in many cultures. 
This program was written by a professional Astrologer. 
Please specify 16K or 32K system. $34.95 



Gangbusters 

If you ever wanted to try a life of crime, this is your chance. 
You will start out as a Punk, but by using brains, and a little 
muscle, you can rise to become a Hood, Runner, Bookie, 
Torpedo, Fence, Kingpin, or win by becoming Syndicate 
Boss. Indulge yourself. Bribe a Judge, or the District 
Attorney. Pay off the Cops. Take out a contract on another 
player, butwatch out, they may beafteryou. Buy trucking 
companies, bootleg operations, houses of ill fame, but 
remember, if you get caught, you may do some hard time. 
Do you have what it takes to take over? This game will 
keepyouclosetoyour rod.getyou thinking about bullet- 
proof glass in your car, and definitely bring out the worst 
in you, but you'll love every minute of it. For 2 to 6 players, 
takes about 2 hours to play. Every game is excitingly 
different. $19.95 



Songbook 

THE BIG, BIG 80C SONGBOOK - The words and PLAY 
statements for over 200 of your favorites. Old songs, new 
songs, children's songs, hymns, patriotic songs, classical 
songs, college songs, Christmas songs, folk songs, and 
more. These lovely arrangements will provide hours and 
hours of enjoyment at less than a nickel a tune. The whole 
BIG book is only $9.95 + $1.50 shipping. SONGBOOK 
ON TAPE: If you don't like to type, we have a two volume 
set of tapes that's just the answer! Each has half the 
songs in the book. Just CLOAD, make your selection, 
and listen. That's over 100 songs per tape — over 200 
songs in all! The complete two volume set is only $24.95 
+ $1.50 shipping. Or, order book and tapes together for 
just $29.95 + $2.00 shipping. 

ENVELOPE FOR COMPLETE CATALOGUE 

Send Order To PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

3518 S. Randi Place 
Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 



Probe® is Reg. T.M. of Parker Bros. Scrabble is Reg. T.M. of the Production & Mkt. Co. 



• Page 24 The 

ASSEMBLY - from Page 22 

ALPHA. Again we compare it to an ASCII A. If it was 
greater than nine but less than A we would branch to our 
error routine. Now we compare it to X, our escape button. 
No, still, O.K., keep going. Finally, we compare it to F. 
Since the ASCII value of B islessthan the ASCII valueof F, 
we "fall through" into the routine OUT1. Where would we 
have branched if our keypress had been between 0 and 9? 

At OUT1, the keypress is displayed on the screen at the 
current cursor location. Next, the ASCII is stripped off, but 
there are still those pesky seven characters between 9 and A. 
So, since our keypress is B, we have to subtract seven more 
to get what we need. 

At long last we reach DONE, which is an RTS (ReTurn 
from Subroutine). Where do we return to? The second line 
of INFOUR. 

For all of our troubles, we are sent to a another 
subroutine, MSN HEX, Most Significant Nibble HEX (If 
you don't remember what a Nibble is, get the April '82 
Rainbow). 

Here all we do is clear the carry flag by clearing the B 
Register. And rotate the A Register "through^the carry flag 
four times. Now the Least Significant Nibble is the Most 
Significant Nibble. Yes, I could have used the LSL 
instruction. However, the object of this series is to get as 
much exposure to programming concepts as possible. 

The RTS now puts us at line three of INFOUR (Line 40). 
Here we are storing the "conditioned" data in a memory 
location called VAR, short for variable. 

Now, that seems to have taken a lot of explaination for 
three lines, but look at what the next instruction is. That's 
right, branch to IN HEX again! This is one of the convenient 
features of machine language programming. Just write a 
routine to perform one function and then call (branch or 
jump) to it whenever you need it. 

At this point I'd like to offer a suggestion. Starta folder or 
notebook of machine language routines. Then, when the 
occasion arises, all you have to do is select one — rather than 



RAINBOW 



August 1982 

rewrite and debug a new one. 

Well, back to the salt mines. At Line 42 we OR A with the 
memory location VAR. Why? Well, we stored the MSN at 
VAR, so now the A Register contains the LSN. Once ORed, 
the contents of VAR and the A Register are "combined. " 
This forms the first complete byte of the starting address. 

If we assume the second keypress was a 3, the A Register 
would contain $03. The memory location VAR contais $B0. 
Upon completion of the ORA instruction, the A Register 
now contains $B3, since any number combined with a zero 
will equal that number. 

No, we didn't add the numbers, we ORed them. We will 
get into this type of math in a later article. 

Now, since the A Register contains $B3, what is in VAR? 
Still $03, of course. So the next instruction stores the first 
byte back at VAR. 

The routine starting at Line 44, INTWO, is basically the 
same. The one important exception is that the results are 
now stored in memory location VAR+I. 

Now, think about that. Where did we EQUate VAR+I? 
Nowhere. Most editors will allow simple use of memory 
related to a label. Yes, instead of labeling the byte we use for 
storage SPC, we could have used STA START+59. Since 
START+59 is rather confusing, I chose to assign another 
label. 

In general, if you are using the next memory location, the 
reuse of a label with a + 1 won't cause any trouble. But be sure 
of when that memory location is used and be careful. 

What happens if you use something like a START+59and 
later add only a one byte instruction? That's right. The 
whole program goes out to lunch. 

At the end of this routine, we load the A Register with a 
$0D, which is an ASCII carriage return (the same as the 
ENTER key). Then a jump to $A30A to print it. But how 
can you print an ENTER? We don't really print anything, 
what is output to the screen is a control code. The ROM 
routine will do all the screen updating for us. 




TEXT EDITOR 

By John Waclo 



WORD PROCESSOR FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 



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August 1982 



The 



Finally, we come to an RTS. By now, you're unsure of 
where we should return to. Believe it or not, back to Line 14. 

If we get confused about where to return, how does the 
CPU know? Well, it cheats. It uses the stack. Every time we 
go to a subroutine, the CPU pushes its current location on 
the stack. Every time an RTS is encountered, it will pull that 
address off the stack and place it in the PC (Program 
Counter) Register. 

One word of caution. Jumping to subroutines is fine, and 
I encourage it. However, always be sure of where you came 
from and that the program will somehow be able to get back. 
If not, you have just given the CPU a piece of rope. What 
was it they did to bad programmers in the old west? 

Speaking of lynching parties, if I don't explain what is 
happening at PRINTY, I'll probably have quite a few ropes 
available. 

First, the Y Register is pushed on the stack. When we push 
a register on the stack, it is just "copied" there. The value in 
the register is unchanged. Next, we pull the D Register. 

Say what? Its perfectly legal. What we need is the contents 
of Y some place so that we can "condition" it. The D 
Register can be added too, subtracted from, ANDed or 
ORed (pun intended). We can also work with the A or B 
Registers separately, still maintaining the values placed in 
D. The only problem with indexed addressing is that the Y 
Register is automatically incremented, so Y is pointing to 
the byte after the matching byte found in the search. 

No problem. We decrement the B Register, which is the 
LSB of the D Register. Now we branch to HEXOUT, which 
is just HEXIN in reverse. Then we transfer A with B. 

Hold it. Why didn't we just transfer Y and D? If we 
transferred Y and D, Y would have the contents of D placed 
in it. Where would Y point? I don't know, but it sure would 
not be where we wanted the search to restart. Again, we call 
HEXOUT and then, to keep it neat, we do a DBLSPC 
(Double Space). 

Speaking of which (space that is) mine has come to an end 
for this month. For September, something really different. 
And that is all the hint you get. 

If you have need of further explaination or questions 
about something in the listing, write me either through the 
RAINBOW or at DSL, P.O. Box 1113, Dearborn, MI 
48121. 



Software Review... 

SASPUS Is 80C Version 
Of The WUMPUS Game 

One of the first longer games I ever converted to the 80C 
was WUMPUS, probably because, primarily, the warning 
"/ Smell A Wumpus " seemed interesting at the time. 

I wasn't disappointed with my WUMPUS game, and you 
won't be either with SASPUS, which is an offshoot of it. 

I will spare you a long explaination of the form of a 
dodecahedron {"Look it up yourself and it will be yours 
forever 1 '), which is what — squashed up — makes up the form 
of the caves of the Wumpus (or Saspus). Each room has 
three possible exits, and you have to choose which one you 
wish to take. 

Yes, Virginia, there are all sorts of creatures and pitf alls in 
the caverns of the SASPUS. Bats, poison gas and so forth. 
Then, there is the Saspus itself. You have to shoot it with an 
arrow. 

This version for the 80Cisfunto play and has a few added 
extras thrown in. We won't bother to tell you everything, 
that might spoil some of the intrigue. 



RAINBOW Page 25 

SASPUS is a non-graphic game, that is, it deals with 
words rather than pictures. Nevertheless, it is a classic and 
we are pleased that a version is available f or you to enjoy on 
the 80C. 

(Color Software Services, P.O. Box 1723, Greenville, TX 

75401, $8.95) 

^ — * . ■ — ■ 

Hardware Review... 

This Joystick Package 
Is First Rate 

We, honestly, are lukewarm, at best, about the "official" 
joysticks available for the 80C. For one thing, they tend to 
get in the way, they are pretty light in weight and the cords 
get tangled up with a lot of other things. 

J ARB Software's new Dual Joystick Unit (DJ) takes care 
of most of these problems and offers the advantage of a 
better joystick operating mechanism — called a pot — to 
boot. 

Packaged in a nice plastic case with both joysticks 
mounted on a sloping f ront, the DJ system makes it easier to 
use these indespensable game aids. And, because there is 
some weight to the case, the whole assembly has now found 
a permanent home on my computer table. Before, the light 
"official" joysticks just got pushed aside. In addition, DTs 
cables are heavier, and much less prone to tangle up. That, 
and the fact that I no longer need to move the joystick perse, 
means there is less clutter. 

As to operation, the actual mechanism is by our f riends at 
Radio Shack, but these pots seem to be a cut above those 
you get with the "official" version. And, the fire buttons are 
big and bright. They don't stick either. And, because the 
surface of the DJ is tilted, they are, in my view, much easier 
to use than the hold-in-your-hand variety. 

We liked this product and have already used it to great 
advantage in running copies of game programs for review. 
(J ARB Software, 1169 Florida Street, Imperial Beach, 
CA 92032, $29.95 plus $4 shipping) 



r/IS-00* COLOR COMPUTER 
^ SRBCAU.T, 



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COLORFORTH 




FORTH is a high level computer 
language like BASIC or PASCAL* 
COLORFORTH, a version of 
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the TRS-80C com p"uT e r . 
COLORFORTH execution time is 
as much as 10 times faster 
than BASIC. COLORFORTH 
requires a minimum of 16K ram, 
but does not require either 
Extended Basic or disk system* 
When you purchase COLORFORTH, 
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AUSTIN, TEXAS 78712 




Page 26 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



SPELL N FIX 

Finally Available for the Color Computer! 

Now produce goof-proof text on your Color Computer by letting SPELL 'N FIX find and correct your spelling and 
typing mistakes. Used since 1981 on larger 6800 and 6809 systems, SPELL 'N FIX is now available for your Color 
Computer too. 

* Checks your text against a 20,000 word dictionary and finds your spelling and typing errors. 

* Displays all questionable words, or prints them on your printer for later action. 

* Even corrects errors in your text. Wrong words can be highlighted or changed to their correct spelling. 

* Fast and accurate — reads text faster than you can, spots and corrects errors even experienced 
proofreaders miss. 

* Dictionary can be expanded and customized — technical and even foreign words are easily added. 

* Available for the Radio Shack disc, cassette, or Flex disk operating system. 

* Compatible with all Color Computer Text Processors, including TeleWriter! 

SPELL 'N FIX is available off-the-shelf right NOW, and costs $69.29 in the Radio Shack disk or cassette versions 
(32K RAM required!); $89.29 in the Flex version. (Other versions, including Percom DOS, SSB DOS, and OS-9 
versions also available — contact us.) 



RAINBOW 



HUMBUG 

Now in a Color Computer Version 

HUMBUG is the famous SUPER MONITOR for 6800 and 6809 systems — you can now use it on your Color 
Computer too. 

HUMBUG is a complete machine language monitor and debugging system which allows access to the full power of 
the 6809E processor in the computer. HUMBUG lets you 

* Input programs and data into memory. 

* Output and list memory contents in various formats. 

* Insert multiple breakpoints into programs. 

* Single-step through machine language programs. 

* Test, checksum, and compare memory contents. 

* Find data in memory. 

* Start and stop programs. 

* Upload and download from bigger systems, save to tape. 

* Connect the Color Computer to a terminal, printer, or remote computer. 

* Learn how the Color Computer works by studying the listing of HUMBUG in the complete manual. 

HUMBUG is available right NOW on disk or cassette for $39.95 for 16K or 32K Color Computers. Special version 
for 64K systems costs $59.29 and is compatible with software for large 6809 systems. 



Other Color Computer Software 

CHECK 'N TAX — Basic programs for checkbook maintenance and income tax reports, for either RS Disk or 
Flex, $50. 

REMOTERM — allows full operation of the Color Computer from an external terminal. $19.95. 

LFPRINT — permits the Color Computer to be used with non-standard serial printers which do not support 

handshaking or automatic line feeds. $19.95. 

NEWTALK — a memory examine utility for machine language programmers which reads out memory contents 
through the TV set speaker. $20. 

SHRINK — our version of Eliza, in machine language and extremely fast. $15. 
OXXO — our version of Othello, also machine language and very fast. $15. 

We accept cash, check, COD, Visa, or Master Card. NY State residents please add appropriate sales tax. 

Star Kits 

P.O. Box 209— R 
Mt. Kisco, N.Y. 10549 
(914) 241-0287 



August, 1982 The 

Software Review... 

BASIC AID Is Fine 
Programming Tool 

Probably the most frustrating thing about programming 
in BASIC is that it requires you to repeat the same 
commands over and over again. Now, there is help f or that 
problem, and some other frustrating things as well. 

BASIC AID, a ROM Pack which comes with a great 
number of features, will let you enter BASIC commands by 
pressing just two keys on the keyboard. For instance, if you 
want to enter a command such as CH R$( , all you have to 
press is the down arrow and the up arrow key. The down 
arrow acts as a "control" key that allows you to tap into 
most of Extended Color Basic's commands while the up 
arrow is the symbol for CHR$( . 

This program even includes the open parentheses for 
those commands which require them (such as RIGHTS, 
LEFTS and the like) and gives you an option of whether to 
have spaces between commands or not. In other words, if 
you want program lines in a "condensed" format to save 
memory, you just press a key and the commands from 
BASIC AID will be written that way. 

In these respects, BASIC AID is very similar to the 
Master Control program which has been available for the 
past year or so. BASIC AID is on ROM, while Master 
Control is on tape. As far as things go, this is about the only 
difference between the programs thus far, including a 
keyboard overlay which both supply so that you do not have 
to try to remember what key the program uses to invoke a 
specific command. 

Both programs also allow automatic line numbering, an 
extremely handy utility that was left out of the SOC's 
BASIC. That is too bad, because an automatic numbering 
utility is an excellent addition — particularly when you are 
typing in line after line of DATA statements. And, with 
these programs, it is even easier to do that sort of thing 
because they have a two-key entry for the command DATA 
as well. 

BASIC AID has the added ability to allow you to re- 
define all the keys. You do have programmable key ability in 
Master Control, but you cannot re-define them all. And, 
BASIC AID will also allow you to save your re-definitions 
to tape, so that you can load and use them again as you wish. 

Redefinition is valuable because some programs (such as 
Adventures, data bases and the like) often require series of 
IF/THEN lines, with only a small change in the variables. 
You could save literally hours of programming time by self- 
programming a few keys. 

BASIC AID does not stop there. It has two other 
excellent utilities which, alone, make it extremely 
worthwhile. First, it allows cassette-based systems to merge 
programs (as can be done on disk) and it makes it possible to 
move segments of programs from one place to another. 

Yes, there is a merge technique forcassette programs, but 
it requires some fairly extensive keyboard input and also 
ignores line numbers completely. Say you have a subroutine 
which you wish to merge into several BASIC programs. You 
must be sure the line numbers do not conflict with those 
already in the computer's memory, and you have to add in 
the subroutine at exactly the place you want it, taking care 
that the line numbers are always higher than the resident 
program so you can "tack it on" the end of the code already 
in memory. 

BASIC A ID also requires that you pay some attention to 
line numbers so they do not conflict, but it allows you to set 
the line numbers while making the merge, so that there is no 



RAINBOW Page 27 

manipulation necessary with the programs themselves. And, 
therefore, you really don't have to worry what the line 
numbers in your subroutines might be. You merely set them 
when you load them to anything you want. 

Finally, BASIC AID provides a utility that many a 
programmer has dreamed about — the ability to move 
program lines in memory! Not only are the lines moved, but 
the references to those lines are changed as well. This, all by 
itself, makes BASIC AID an excellent buy. 

The program is easy to use, the instructions are clear and 
concise and we could not discover a single flaw in operation. 
It works with all Color Computers, 4K to 32K. Of course, 
because it uses the ROM port, it will not work with a disk 
system. Yet, the time saved in programming would more 
than compensate the user even were he wanting to make a 
save to tape and then unplug BASIC AID, plug in the disk, 
and then load and transfer a tape to disk. 

In a word, an excellent program and fine utility. 
(Available from Spectrum Projects, 93-15 86 Drive, 
Woodhaven, NY 11421, $34.95) 

Software Review... 

BWINDO Gives A Look 
Into The Basic ROMs 

If you really want to get into the Basic ROMs and see 
what is going on, BWINDO offers you an opportunity to do 
just that. 

This is a special-purpose disassembler. While you can 
only use it for the Basic ROMs, it does an outstandingjob of 
telling you what is there. And, because it does not need to be 
adaptable to any other part of the 80C's memory, it allows 
some conventions that would not be possible in a general 
purpose disassembler. 

If that sounds like gibberish to some, here's what we're 
saying: A general purpose disassembler may have to be run 

—Continued on Next Page 

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Page 28 



The RAINBOW 



BWINDO - from Page 27 

several times because it never knows what it is going to be 
disassembling. So, you run it once, check the code closely to 
hunt for specific types of things, and then run it again asking 
for different types of output. 

An example of this might be actual messages which 
appear as words stored in various memory locations, letter 
by letter. A general run of a disassembler can usually only 
provide output that looks like it might be a message. You 
have to run that section of the disassembly again, asking for 
the letters and numbers to be specifically shown. If you are 
right, you are rewarded with the message. If you are wrong, 
its usually garbage. 

However, because B WIN DO is geared only f or the Basic 
ROMs, it knows where different types of code areformed in 
the first place. It makes these adjustments when doing the 
disassembly, and you get clear accurate code the first time 
with no guesswork. 

That does not mean that all the Basic ROMs secrets are 
easy to find, but they become easier with this program, 
which is a powerful and easy-to-use tool for examining the 
machine language code. 

The program comes with extensive instructions and 
explainations and is a good buy for the programmer who 
understands machine language and wishes to take a through 
look at the Basic ROMs. This is not a program for a 
beginner or one unfamiliar with machine language. 

(Ron Levine Software, P.O. Box 356, Redwood City, CA 
94064, (Price Not Furnished) 




August 1982 

CORRECTIONS 

In Line 1780 of the NFL, Part II, read the line as: "DATA 
8, A, 26, 7, W3U, I9, 9, A, 10, 27, L8U ..."Ted Hansenstaub 
points out that the last entry shown is L8U, not W8U — 
reflecting the team's actual record. 

In the Disk File programs in July, Arnold Weiss points 
out the following corrections and/or refinements: 

Listing I, Line 2I: Change FILEREC/ DAT: I to just 
FILEREC/DAT 

Listing 2, Add Line 5: 5 PCLEARl 
Change Line 55 to D$= "FILEREC/DAT" 
Delete Lines 56 and 28 1 

Add to Line 390: CLOSED I: to beginning of line. Change 
FILEREC/SRT: I to FILEREC/SRT 

For systems with only one disk drive, make the following 
changes: 

Listing I: 
Line 21: Change #2 to #-1 
Line 259, Change #2 to #-I 

Listing 2 
Line 80, Change I to #-1 
Line 110, Change EOF(I) to EOF(-l) 
Line 120, Change I to #-1 

Line 230 and 285, change FILEREC/ SRT: 1 to 
FILEREC/SRT 

Line 330, Change 380 to 390 

Delete Line 380 
For multiple disk systems, change Line 380 to read KILL 
instead of 

For all systems which do not use an Epson printer, delete 
the following code in Line 300: 

CHR$(27) CHR$(69) CHR$(12) and the CHR$(27) 
CHR$(70) 



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August, 1982 

Correspondence. . . 

Rockin' Through The ROM 

By Bill Clements 

Jim Dudgeon and I. both of the University of Alabama, 
are doing some machine language programming and are 
quite interested in documenting the ROM subroutines and 
the lower memory workspace of the 80C. 

As you know, the 6502 Microsoft Basic used by the Apple, 
OSI, Pet and other machines is well documented. While one 
sees mention of the 80C ROM in articles from time to time, 
there doesn't seem to be a very concerted effort to tie 
together in one place all that is known. 

It seems to us that the RAINBOW could offer a real 
service to the 80C community by acting as a clearinghouse 
for this information. I have put together a list of all the 
ROM subroutines and lower-memory use that I have been 
able to find through articles, manuals and the machine- 
language programs to which I have access. 

Jim and I would like to see you publish these lists, along 
with a challenge to readers to work on documenting the 
ROMs and send in corrections or additions to whatever they 
find. You might consider this as a regular feature. 



(Editor's Note: OK, here is the list. We'll be most willing 
to publish whatever anyone wishes to contribute to this 
effort. Please mark your contributions so we can give credit 
to the contributors.) 



Extended BASIC RAM Work Space 
Hex Decimal Function 



The RAINBOW 
7E-7F 

88-89 



19-1 A 



IB-IC 



ID-IE 

1F-20 

41-48 



25-26 



27-28 



29-30 
31-32 
65-72 



6F 

72-73 

74-75 

7C 

7D 



111 

114-115 

116-117 

124 

125 



Address of beginning of BASIC 
Program 

Address of end of BASIC 
Program 

Pointer to variables 

Pointer to start of arrays 

Start and end address in block 

move (see BASIC ROM 

routines ) 

Output device code (Oscreen; 
$FE- Printer) 

Contains S80C0 (entry address 
warm start of BASIC) 

Pointer to end of memory 

Cassette file block type 

Number of data bytes in cassette 
II O block 



8C 

8C 
92 



94 

95-96 

97-98 

99 

9A 

9B 

9C 



9D-9E 



A8-AA 



BC 



10C-I0E 



I0F-11 1 



112-113 



$$6-$$9 
11D-1IF 



15A-15D 

01D2-01D9 

01E7-01E8 

02DC 



02DD-03DC 
601 



126-127 



136-137 



Page 29 

Program end address + / after a 
CLOADM 



140 

142 
146 



148 

149-150 

151-152 

153 

154 

155 

156 



157-158 



168-170 



188 



268-270 



271-273 



274-275 



178-281 
285-287 



346-349 
474-48 1 
487-488 

732 



733-988 
1535 



Pointer to 
position 



current cursor 



Location of sound frequency 

Duration of sound 
Controls length of unmodulated 
carrier preceeding cassette 

no 

Cursor color 

High- and low-order bytes of 
baud-rate code 

Line delay code 

Comma field width 

Last comma field 

Printer line width 

Affects positions of variables 
line-printed in standard 
comma fields 

Transfer address after 
CLOADM 

Contains 7E A A I A (jump 
jump vector to $AAIA) to 
print OK) 

Contains 6 if not disk system, $E 
if it is 

Contains 7 E 89 4 C (jump vector 
to S894C-7E D7 BCif disk) 

Contains 7E AO F6 (jump vector 
to SA0F6) 

High- and low- order bytes of 
timer 

Seed for RN D fun lion 
Contains 7E 84 89 (jump t< 
to $84 89- print OK) 

Joystick readings 

Name of cassette file 

Start address of program after 
CLOADM 

Contains the token for the first 
keyword in a BASIC 
statement 

Keyboard buffer 

Start of BASIC statements 



$807 F 



S80C0 



ROM Subroutines in the Color Computer's BASIC 

(Addresses For Direct Entry) 

Cold start to BASIC, but without memory size search and the RAM workspace initialization. Does 
reset pointers to start of BASIC program. 

Warm start to BASIC. Does not reset pointers to start of BASIC program. 



$A027 



—Continued on Next Page 



Page 30 



ROMs — from Page 29 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



$A027 
$AIBI 
$AICI 

$A282 

SA2BF 

$A30A 

$A390 & 
$A393 

$A46C 



$A70B 



$A77C 

$A7DB 

$A7F4 



$A928 
$A9DE 

$AC20 



$ADl9 
$B3ED 

$B9AC 
$BDCC 
$C0D4 
$D66C 



Performs the reset function (as when the RESET button is pressed) 
Wait for keypress and read keyboard; character returned in A Register. 

Poll keyboard for a character. Z is 1, A is 0 if no key is seen. If key is seen, Zis Oand A is key seen. 
B and X preserved. 

Output a character to device specified by the contents of $6F (0 is screen, $FE is printer). All but CC 
preserved. 

Write character in A to printer. 
Write character in A to screen. 

Read line from keyboard into buffer at S02DD; return X+S02DC; zero byte at end of buffer 

Perform CSA VEM function. Requires start of memory block in S19-S1A and in $01 E7-01E8, end of 
block in $1B-$1 C, transfer address in $01 E5-S01 E6, and the file name in $01 D2-S01 D9. Enter with a 
2 in A and a 0 in X. 

Read a block from cassette. Must be on and in bit sync. $7C contains file block type: 0 is file header, 1 
is data, $FF is end of file. $7 D contains number of data bytes in file (0-$FF). Z is 1, A is 0 if no errors. 
Z is 0, A is 1 if checksum error. Z is 0, A is 2 if memory error. X is buffer start + block length if no 
error, X points to beyond bad address i f error. U and Y are preserved. 

Start cassette and get into biy sync for reading. U and Y preserved. F/RQ and IRQ masked. 
Turn cassette on and write leader. 

Write a block to cassette. Tape should be to speed and leader of $55 's should have been written if this 
is the first block. $7E contains the buffer address, $7C contains the block type, $7 D contains the 
number of data bytes. X is the buffer address, plus the number of bytes. All registers modified. 

Clear screen and home cursor. 

Sample joystick pots and store values (see BYTE 12/81, p. 158) Left joystick up I down is $01 5 A, 
right I left is $015 B; Right joystick up I down is $015C, right /left $015 D. Y is preserved. 

Move block of memory starting at top 
$41, $42 is destination top address 
$43, $44 is Source top address 
$45, $46 is Destination bottom address after move 
$47, $48 is source bottom address 

Execute NEW command 

Convert the number in BASIC'S floating-point accumulator into a 16-bit two 's complement integer, 
which is left in the D Register. Overflow error and return to BASIC occur if number is outside the 
range -32768 to +32767 

Print a space 

Display the decimal value in the D Register 
Warm start to disk BASIC 

Read or write a 256-byte sector from or two disk. See disk manual pp. 60-61 for instructions. 



Peacock Emt . 

: PRESENTS THE NEW i 

: CMRILIST < c > ~ 

J What's a Phone Book; an Rddress Book; a Mail Label Generator arid More? 
: CMRILIST <c>! The mini -data-base for home or business. Price : *19.95 

^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ • 

j CMRILIST <32K> « now SORT ALPHABET I CflLLY < by mne) NUMERICALLY Cby zip > 

: CMAILIST <16K> : -now has all the features of the 32K ProSram 222BwN*~swS^ 

i Features include ■ SEARCH/SELECTIVE PRINT; BATCH PRINTING; AUTO-SAVE; 

j TICKLER FILE; MAILING LABELS; COMPREHENSIVE MANUAL; and MORE!! 

: SPecify 16 or 32K when ordering! 

: ******************************************************* 

: Both CMAILIST 16K & 32K available with sePerate manuals for $24.93 
: CHECK OR MONEY ORDER <shiPPinfl Prepaid) COD <shiPPin9 added) 

■ PEACOCK ENT. PHEASANT RUN BOX 494 RD#3 CANASTOTA, NY. 13632 313-697-7147 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 31 



Mad Systems Is proud to announce Its first major 
software releases for the TRS-80 Color Computer. 
Both games are written In machine-language, 
feature full-color, high resolution graphics, super 
sound effects, and incredible playing speed. Both 
are original games designed and written 
by Kenneth Kallsh, 6809 wizard. 



COLO I 



a ■ a J i-i - 1 , J - . 

, , . . r ,. ...» - ■■.•**►,'_. 



-•■t ■ ■ ► i . ■ : 

1 . 



0 



» t f , t * » . . t , , j 



■ - 



Invader's Revenge 

You are the last space invader. The cursed 
humans have destroyed all your compatriots. The 
human ships now prowl the space lanes, and 
their laser base fires at you with deadly accuracy. 
Your goal... REVENGE! Wipe out as many of their 
ships as you can, avoid the photon blasts, and 
aim for their valuable flagship! Invader's Revenge 
features multiple difficulty levels and one or two 
player game selection. 



Phantom Slayer 

They are the mutant phantoms. You are the Phan- 
tom Slayer. Enter the deadly catacombs and 
destroy the phantoms. Wield your laser pistol, 
and attend to your proximity detector. One touch 
by a phantom is fatal, so if your first shot fails, 
turn and run! Phantom Slayer is a real-time game 
executed with full-screen, three dimensional 
graphics. It features multiple difficulty levels and 
a training mode. 



Invader's Revenge 16K cassette 
Phantom Slayer 16K cassette 

Please add $2.00 for first class postage 
$4.00 for overseas air mail. 

NO EXTENDED BASIC REQUIRED. 



$19.95 
$19.95 



i " ■ * ■ e 



MED SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 3558 CHAPEL HILL, NC 2751 4 
TO ORDER, CALL 1-800-334-5470 



Or see your dealer. 



Page 32 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



FLEX System Is Powerful Addition To World Of 80C 

By Dr. Laurence D. Preble 



Frankly, I'm impressed. 

Several months ago, I purchased a 16K Color Computer 
to use at home, mainly as something little more than to mess 
around with. I was not disappointed. It performs admirably 
as a most interesting and yet potentially powerful machine. 

I was content with my system as it was until this amicable 
fellow fellow named Lonnie Falk handed me a couple of 
disk drives and something called FLEX. "Check it out," he 
said. 

Wow. Suddenly IVe 
got this strange hybrid of 
business computer and 
plaything. You see, I do 
have this serious side to 
me. I am a chiropractor. 
For the past two years I 
have used a "big" 
microcomputer in my 
office to handle various 
chores: Record keeping, 
billing, dietary analysis, 
word processing and so 
on. 

I have been very happy 
with my "big" micro. It 
works hard and uses a 
powerful disk operating 
system called "FLEX." 
Technical Systems 
Consultants (TSC) wrote 
FLEX. Data-Comp 
distributes the operating 
system conversion of 
FLEX that I used with 
the 80C. 

FLEX is neat. With it I 
can read or write 
diskettes formatted in a 
number of different ways: 

single- or double-sided, single- or double-density; FLEX 

takes care of the details automatically. 
FLEX is economical with disk space. Those of you 

familiar with Radio Shack's disk operating system for the 

80C know that disk storage is divided into granules. FLEX 

divides disk storage into sectors. A sector is a much smaller 

chunk of disk storage than a granule. 

With the Radio Shack system, every data file or program 
has to occupy at least one granule. If the data you enter does 
not fill up the entire granule, then whatever is left over is 
wasted. Since FLEX uses much smaller chunks of disk 
storage, less space is wasted if one of these "chunks" is not 
filled completely. 

FLEX has been around for years now, used with a 
multitude of 6809 and 6800 mainframes. There is an 
enormous amount of software written to run under the 
FLEX operating system. Virtually all of that software can 
now be run on the Color Computer. 

A small sample of that software includes an excellentand 
extremely fast Extended BASIC, "C," Pascal, and Forth 
compilers, numerous word processing programs, spelling 
checkers, "VisiCalc® type" programs, assemblers and 
editors. Control keys and user-defined keys are available. 

By the way, you give up none of the fine Radio Shack 



features. With this implementation of FLEX, whenever you 
want it, the normal Radio Shack Disk system is available for 
use. 

"Yes," I hear you say. "But how can I do really serious 
work on a Color Computer with that limited 32x16 
character display?" 

Well, Data-Comp has taken care of that. They have a 
FLEX utility that lets you format the screen virtually any 
way you want. You can have 32x24, 42x24, 51 x24 or 64x24 

characters/ lines in a 
screen. Admittedly, 
64x24 i s a little difficult to 
read on most TV screens. 
But, as a bonus, you get a 
full lower case. 

Data-Comp does this 
much the same way some 
of the n o n - F L EX 
software available for our 
friendly 80C has— by 
using the high resolution 
graphic screen. Thus, no 
extra hardware is needed 
for the special display 
formats. 

It is not fair to say that 
there is no hardware 
modification needed. It is 
necessary to add mem- 
ory. Obviously, you must 
also purchase at least one 
disk drive and a Radio 
Shack disk controller. 
Radio Shack disk drives 
work fine. 

Also, the Basic ROM 
must be the 1.1 version 
chip in order to run 
FLEX. This is not so bad, 
really, and a number of 
firms (check the RAINBOW'S ads) have 64K chips 
available. You have to do some soldering. Other companies 
will do the installation for you. Or, your "official" 32K 
Radio Shack upgrade may actually be made with 64K chips. 
As to FLEX itself, Data-Comp will sell you their F- 
MATE(RS) FLEX9 conversion and TSCs FLEX as a 
package for just under $200. Data-Comp also includes 
TSCs editor and assembler, which normally sell for $50 
each. 

Since I have been using FLEX for quite some time, I 
looked hard to see whether I could find any serious flaws in 
the system as provided. I did not find any major problems. 
Installation instructions were not difficult to comprehend. I 
would like Data-Comp to add one feature that I feel would 
be invaluable — a patch to the Radio Shack Extended Basic 
so that disk files in the FLEX format can be used 
interchangeably with the normal Radio Shack files. 

There is one disturbing aspect of this Color Computer 
enhancement: My "big" computer does not seem so big any 
more. 

My "big" computer system cost several thousands of 
dollars and included 56K of memory for almost $1000. My 
friendly "little" 80C now has 64K of Random Access 
Memory and 24K of ROM for a total of 88K. The extra 



What's A FLEX Anyway 

One of the things readers have asked a 
great deal about is FLEX, and we attempt 
to give you an overview with the two 
articles here. Dr. Preble has been running 
FLEX on a mainframe system for years, 
and gives the "official" review of this 
system. Lonnie Falk, far from a hardware 
whiz, adds a short rundown on what it 
takes to get FLEX "plugged in." Our 
coverage of this system will continue in 
September with a special article written by 
Steve Odneal, who authored the 
documentation for Data-Comp's FLEX 
conversion. We also plan at least one 
review of a FLEX Basic. 

We see FLEX as a significant and 
compatable additional system to your 
Radio Shack disk and will continue to 
provide information and reviews of the 
hardware and software which is available 
for it. 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 33 



memory cost 1 / 10th of what I paid for in my other system. It 
just isn't fair! 

The "little" 80C can now do just about anthing the "big" 
system can — and when it is done working, I can still play 
ASTRO BLAST. 

(Data-Comp, 5900 Cassandra Smith Road, Hixon, TN 
37343-0794, $49.95. Operating system available from. 
Technical Systems Consultants, 111 Providence Rd., 
Chapel Hill, NC 27514, $150. Packages also available 
from Frank Hogg Laboratory, 130 Midtown Plaze, 
Syracuse, NY $3210) 



Hardware Review... 

64K Upgrade Takes A 
Bit Of Know-How 

Those of you who have followed these pages know that 1 
am not what you would call a hardware whiz. I'll admit to 
having some real help with the installation of the 64K chips 
and modification needed to get FLEX up and going. 

We won't go into the details, because anyone who is 
selling 64K chips will furnish you with instructions on 
exactly how to do it. But, we will say that it takes some 
amount of ability with a soldering iron (not gun) to do this. 

Even if you have a Radio Shack upgrade to 32K that has 
"good" 64K chips, you still need some modifications to use 
the full 64K. This is where the soldering comes in. If you 
don't have 64K chips, you have to purchase them, remove 
the chips you have, and put in the new ones. You also must 
have a 1.1 ROM, which Radio Shack furnishes if you have 
their upgrade to 32K. 

Doing the chips is easy, if you are careful. You can use a 
nail file or flat blade screwdriver to wiggle the old chips out. 
If I can do it, you can. Really. 

But the other part of this modification requires some 
expertise with the old soldering iron. You have to run a 
couple of wires from one pin of one chip to another pin of 
another. Its the sort of thing that — like laying carpet — looks 
real easy when someone does it who knows what he orshe is 
doing. 

If you do, then, by all means, attempt it if you want to try 
this upgrade. If you don't have this ability, there are a 
number of people who will do it for you through the mail — 
or you can certainly try someone locally. Most of the 
computer stores which carry the RAIN BOW have a 
someone who can handle this sort of thing. 

We feel it imperativeto tell you that openingthe computer 
cabinet voids your Radio Shack warranty. With that 
knowledge, you can decide whether you want to attempt this 
modification yourself or not. 

You can zap a chip by either heat or static. Too, you have 
to be very careful not to get solder in the wrong places. In 
short, if you do not have confidence in your ability to handle 
some moderately intricate soldering, have someone else do it 
for you! 



Look For 



The. 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



About The RAINBOW Seal 



The RAINBOW SEAL OF CERTIFICATION is a 
program instituted by the RA IN BOW to protect consumers 
from ripoffs and to insure that any program which has 
earned the SEAL does, indeed, exist. Vendors are required 
to submit a copy of each program or other product — and 
each version of each product or program — to us before we 
will award a SEA L. 

However, the existance of a program or product is all the 
SEA L certifies. It does not attempt to judge the suitability of 
a program or product for specific needs, and it in no way 
guarantees you will be pleased with what you get. It is meant 
to insure, however, that you will get what you order. 

In addition, consumers are asked to be aware that there is 
absolutely no relationship between the size of a seal on an 
advertisment or flyer and the"worth, ""utility" or"merit"of 
a program or product. The SEAL itself is furnished to those 
who earn it in various sizes simply to give the vendors 
latitude in laying out their ads, flyers and catalogues. We 
repeat, these is no relationship between the size of the SEA L 
and our recommendation of any program or product. 

Instances of violation of use of the SEAL should be 
brought to the RAINBOWS attention. We will report to 
you, in these pages, any instances of violation of the use of 
the SEAL. 

The SEA L was devised by us to minimize problems with 
mail-order of computer programs and products. Any 
comments or instances of problems you have can be directed 
to us, although we cannot resolve disputes between seller 
and purchaser. 




"STARSHIP CHAMELEON" brought to you 
for COLOR COMPUTER 

Dealer Inquiries Invited $24.95 



CALL 
OR 
WHITE 
FOR 
COMPLETE 
INFORMATION 




COMPUTERWARE 



® 



Dept C • Box 668 
6809 Specialists Encmitas. CA 92024 • (7 14) 436-35 12 



Page 34 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



Feature Game... 




Will The ALPINE ALIENS 
Win. . .Or Will You? 



Now, let us journey to the Alps of a distant moon and see 
whether we will be able to survive an attack by aliens trying 
to get to our base. 

This game, ALPINE ALIENS, is brought to you from 
Illustrated Memory Banks. It pits you, as a defender, against 
the aliens attacking from the skies. 

We remind you that A LPINE A LIENS is copyrighted by 
1MB. You are allowed to use the game for your own 
enjoyment, but may neither make copies f or others nor may 
you use the routines here in any other programs. 

The program is self-prompting in that you need only load 
and run it to see the directions. 

Will the alien saucer annoy your colonists? Or can you 
keep it away? Here, then, is A LPINE A LIENS f or you to 
decide. 

The Listine: 



10 CLEAR500:CLS0 

20 P*=CHR*(128):F0RI=2T014:FQRJ« 
4T013:SET(J, 1,3) :NEXTJ:NEXTI 
30 FORK=0TO11STEP11:FORJ=18TO23: 
SET < J+K, 2, 3) : NEXT J : F0RJ=17T024: S 
ET(J+K,3,3) :NEXTJ:FORI=4T014:FOR 
J«16T025:SET(J+K, 1,3) :NEXTJ:NEXT 
IsNEXTK 




4 

St 
if 



- 



Mr 
H 



* 

*- 

-r 



^ ^ y- jf -H- -Hi- tt ^- 4f t+ + 




C H : 

O 



Taul * n* 



2. h - 

It Q Tl^- 

nk- it 

Z. ► - r, i I 

LJ H » f 

(fc •.•..-> * t- 

> — L L.L. Cj K 

O. 1 f ^ ■'-""i'l. 

j i-i rij ■ r i -i u ■ 



.♦■ Mp *h * •» * >^ H 

GPfiFH LABEL 
F**t'jr*s include! 

Up to 42 0^*»-*Ot*rif 

autr ... si- letters 
•xfcnPl»-q P fcj 9 J 

1 11 4 ?*«-, -. /(3 It 34 3*7891 J >7SWBCDEFGHI 

siwe mountain SDrrucPC 

SPECIAL-GET SOLUTION, 
GRftPH LABEL, SCREEN 
PRINT PACKAGE PGR 

SHIPPING FREE 



40 FORK=0TO7STEP7 : FOR J*39T058 : FO 
RI=2T07: SET (J, I+K, 3) : NEXTI : NEXT J 
:F0RI=3T06iSET(59, I+K, 3) I NEXTI : F 
ORI«4TO5iSET(60, I+K, 3) : NEXTI : NEX 
TK 

50 PR I NT332 1 , P* ; : FOR Y« 1 T028 : READ 

A: PRINTCHR* (A) ; :NEXT 

60 DATA 105,108,108,117,115,116, 

114,97, 116, 101, 100, 128, 128, 128, 1 

09, 101, 109, 111, 114, 121, 128, 128, 1 

28,98,97, 110, 107, 115 

70 PR I NT3393 , P* ; I FOR Y« 1 TO 1 2 I READ 

A: PRINTCHR* (A) ; :NEXT 

*t *■•*-!+■ -rf- -*t h- rf- i* if: *• ;i- -ft- -rf- -rt- .+- 11- «- ^^^if-if.+^-jf-i^-**-^-^-^ 

GIRRF-H L,FieE;U *3.S»?5 t 

PILLOWS THE USER TO PLACE CHARRCTERS ON A GRAPHIC g 

SCREEN. PULL NON-DESTUCTIVE CURSOR CONTROL. HOVE 5 

CURSOR ANYWHERE ON SCREEN. FULL ASCII CHAR, SET , % 

CRN BE USED AS SUBROUTINE OR BY ITSELF. g 

PILOT FOR C , C - 

PILOT IS A SIMPLE LANG URGE WHICH BLLOWS THE 
COLOR COMPUTER TO BE USED FOR C.R.l- 

SUPER PlLQT -$gi.95 - A VERSION OF PILOT FOR EXT. 
"BASIC. HAS FEATURES FOR GRAPHICS AND SOUND. 



4] 



the: SOLUTION — 



THE SOLUTION SOLVES THE PROBLEM OF THE C.C.'S 
SMALL SCREEN SIZE. THIS PRAOGRAM PRINTS 
CHARACTERS ON THE HIGH-RES GRAPHIC SCREEN. 
IT WORKS WITH ALL REGULAR BASIC PROGRAMS AND 
FUNCT I ONS (IE. LIST ■ PR' I NT , CLS , PR I NT TAB 
AND PRINT USING). FEATURES INCLUDE : 

1- FULL. ASCII CHARACTER SET 

?- LOWER CASE WITH DECENDERS 

3- 42 CHARACTERS X 2i LINES DISPLAYED 

4- WORKS WITH ALL 2. COLOR MODES 

5- LARGE MODE FOR SMALL CHILDREN OR THE 
VISUALLY IMPAIRED 

6- SPECIAL MODE WITH 4 LINES OF TEXT AT 
THE BOTTOM OF A GRAPHIC SCREEN 

7- WRITTEN IN MACHINE LANGUAGE PIC 

8- FAST-— PRINTS AT OVER ^CHARACTERS 
PER SECOND 

(. NOTE ; THIS IS AN IMPROVED VERSION OF THE PROGRAM 
WITH SEVERAL IMPROVEMENTS. OLD OWNERS OF THE 
PROGRAM MAY UPGRADE THEIR PROGRAM BY SENDING THE 
OLD PROGRAM AND *3„88 TO US. ) 



BASIC. RUNS ON 4K MACHINES > 
SCREEM F'R I M~T F'RCKRGE 

— - S 1 ^; 

A PACKAGE OF TWO PROGRAMS FOR USE WITH THE LPVII 
AND LPVIII. 1) DOUBLE SIZE PRINT- CREATES AN IMAIGE 
8 X 6.5 INCHES. 2) SCREEN PRINT - REGULAR SIZE 
SCREEN PRINT THAT CAN MOVED ANYWHERE ON A PAGE. 
BOTH PROGRAMS WORK WITH ALL PMODES AND CAN BE LOCATED 
ANYWHERE IN MEMORY . 



RST GRRPHICS — 



SMALL M.L. PROGRAM THAT IS FASTER THAT BASIC. HAS 
DRAW LINES, SET PIXELS, CLEAR SCREEN ROUTINES. 
RUNS ON ALL MACHINES. 

C ALL PROGRAMS FOR 1GK-EXT BASIC UNLESS NOTED 1 

TEEMS- M :£: AND CANADA : CHECK OR MONEY ORDER ONLY. 
INCLUDE *1.00 FOR ONE PROGRAM AND *2.00 FOR MORE 
THAN ONE FOR SHIPPING. FOREIGN- PLEASE INCLUDE 
ENOUGH FOR AIR MAIL POSTAGE. 

MQT E ; F'ROGRAMS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE ON DISK BY 
AUGUST. ADD $4. 00 FOR DISK PER ORDER. 



SNAKE MOUNTAIN SOFTWARE P.O. BOX 5722 • ' RALEIGH . NC 27650 



rt- r*: rt - -*• *^ *t -Mr **T ^ *• ftr rr '*>? »*r --r ft r* 



r*~ H- /+■ -tv- <*• H 



rf- *r it- HE' ri- H 



■■■A- 
H 

8 

- 

n 

*$ 

M 



-rl. 
* 



August, 1982 

80 DATA 98,111,110,117,115,128,1 
28, 128, 103,97, 109, 101 
90DIMA<13>, B(4) : G=0:FORI=33TO2 
25STEP16: G=G+1 : A (G) =1 : NEXT I : G-0: 
F0RI=26T074STEP16:G=G+1 : B <G) -I : N 
EXTI 

100 PM0DE3, 1:PCLSiSCREEN0, 1 
110 M*= "E12F16E1 7F5E8F 1 7E 1 2F9" 
120 N*="F11E8R2F10E9" 
130 0*="E15R2F5" 

1 40 SA«- " L3GU3FUFD2U4FND3UEND5FN 

D4DED4U2EDED3HL3 " 

1 50 SP*= " C5 " +SA* : SE*= " C0 " +SA* 

1 60 DRAM " S4BM0 , 1 1 0 ; C3 " +M*+M»+M* 

170 PAINT(4, 112) ,3,3 

180 CLS0:PRINT3109,CHR*(97)+CHR* 

( 108) +CHR* ( 1 12) +CHR* (105) +CHR* ( 1 

10)+CHR*(101) ; 

190 PRINT©173,CHR*(97)+CHR*(108) 
+CHR* ( 105) +CHR* ( 101 ) +CHR* < 1 10) +C 
HR*<115) ; 

200 PR I NTS239 , CHR* ( 98 ) +CHR* (121) 

■ 

210 PRINT3298,CHR*(102)+CHR*(U4 

) +CHR* ( 101 ) +CHR* ( 100) +P*+P*+CHR* 

(115) +CHR* ( 99) +CHR* ( 101 ) +CHR* ( 1 1 

4) +CHR* (98) +CHR* (111); 

220 FOR I -0TO256STEP2 : L I NE ( I , 1 24- 

RND(10))-(I, 140) , PRESET: NEXT 

230 PAINT (2, 140) ,4,3 

240 DRAW"S2BM0, 134; C2 M +M*+N*+M*+ 

N*+0*+N*+M*+N*+0*+0*+M*+N* 

250 CLS0 : FORY= 1 T086 : READA : POKE 1 1 

51+Y,A:NEXTY 

260 DATA 20,15,32,2,12,1,19,20,3 
2,20 

270 DATA 8,5,32,1,12,9,5,14,19,4 
4,32 

280 DATA 16,18,5,19,19,32,35,49, 
32, 20, 15 

290 DATA 19,8,15,15,20,32,12,5,6 
,20,44 

300 DATA 32,35,50,32,20,15,32,19 
,8, 15, 15 

310 DATA 20,32,3,5,14,20,5,18,44 



The RAINBOW 



Page 35 



320 DATA1, 14,4,32,35,51,32,20, 15 



330 DATA19, 8, 15, 15,20,32, 18,9,7, 
8,20,46 

340 PAINT (2, 140) ,2,2 

350 LINE (0, 150) -(256, 192), PRESET 

,BF 

360 PMODE4, 1 : SCREEN0, 1 

370 FOR 1=1 TO200 : PSET ( RND ( 256 ) , RN 

D(150) ) : NEXT 

380 LINE (0, 150) -(256, 192) , PSET, B 
F 

390 FOR I =2T0256STEP2 iLINE ( I , 156- 
RND (20) ) - ( 1 , 192) , PSET: NEXT _ Contjnued „„ 



COLORSOFT 



TM 



"Quality Software At Affordable Prices 
For the 7/?S-flO™ Color Computer" 

★ Games ★Home/Personal 

★ Education ★Financial 

We Also Offer: ★Custom Programming ★Royalities For Software 

★ ★ ★ Over 50 Software Items Currently Available ★ ★ ★ 
Documentation and a Limited Guarantee with all COLORSOFT™ Software. 

★ ★★ 4K Color BASIC Programs ★★★ 

INVADERS: 10 Skill levels, phaser sound and exploding bombs . . . .512.95 

DUMP: Explore the memory of the color computer-output to screen 

or printer,. l ■ ■jlli j ■jji. 8*95 

TAG: 2 player game of chase. Fast action and fun(joysticks) 10.95 

LOAN: Amortization schedules with breakdown of monthly payments . 9.95 

★ ★★ 16K Color BASIC Programs ★★★ 

CASINO: One-armed bandit, blackjack, and dice games. . S12.95 

DISASSEMBLER: Disassemble machine language programs (screen 

or printer^, + * -t^* * 1 3 » 9 5 

AUTO MINDER: Keep track of fuel usage, tune-ups, oil changes, 

etc., creates and maintains cassette data files for multiple autos 10.95 

ESCAPE: Intermediate advent, with GRAPHICS. Player must find 

and decipher various clues to escape Graphics give player the feel of J 

being there (mach. lang. for fast action) . , .15.95 

★ ★★ 16K Ext. Color BASIC Programs ★★★ 

SASPUS: Beginner's adventure game. Player must find and 
destroy the deadly mutant in a genetic nuclear research center. 

Each game randomized $8.95 

PIRATE TREASURE: Advanced beginner's advanture-the player must 
find the pirate's treasure which is hidden in a cave of over 

40 rooms 11.95 

LOGIC 'N' REASON: 3 games which aid children in developing 

logic and reasoning skills 14.95 

FLIPPER: Color Computer version of the OTHELLO™ type games 12.95 
MAILING LIST: Cassette or disk files for names and addresses 
with comments. Cross referencing of information and name seaches 

are featured , . , 20.95 

PEEK 'N' SPELL: Flashes word or letter on screen for children's 
spelling drill-New word files can be created and stored on 

cassette tape 10.95 

MATH DERBY: Math drill in a horse race game for 1 to 3 

players-variable difficulty 11.95 

STOCK ANALYZER: Keeps track of stock prices and maintains 
portfolio data base-includes additional program for projecting 

price trends 16.95 

COLOR CUBE: CoCo version of the popular cube puzzles. 

Features include solution by computer and saving partially 

solved puzzle on tape , 16.95 

DISK BACKUP: Saves Diskette based programs onto cassette 

and checks for disk errors . . 14.95 

FINANCIAL COMBO: Loan Analysis, depreciation (inc'l ACRS), 

and Annuity (inc'l IRA) , . . . 26.95 

Write for catalog containing full descriptions of all 
available Software. 

Visa and Mastercard accepted (Include expiration date) Orders paid by cashier's 
check, money order or bankcard are shipped within 48 hours. Personal check takes 
1-2 wks. No COD. Some foreign sales are restricted. 

SEND ORDER TO: 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES 

P.O. BOX 1723, DEPT. R 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 

★ DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED * QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



Page 37 



Page 36 



The RAINBOW 



August, 1982 



SALES FILE 

A Business Program for 
the CC Up to 25 
accounts, 125 itn 
inventory in 16K- 58 
accounts, 358 products in 
32K. Both for only 

16K 4 Up (Ext.) $21-88 



PACK MAZE 

Arcarde fun. Best 
version EVER!!! 

Multiple skill 
levels make a never- 
ending challenge. 
Graphic arcade game. 
16K A Up (Ext) $16.95 



GEO-STUDIES 



Educational /Arcade -U5A- 
-WMh -EUROPE- 
-AUSTRALIA- and tEU 
-CENTRAL WCRC1A- 

NEW LOWER PRICE 

$ 9.95 each. 



ML RABBIT 

Back up machine lan- 
guage programs. Don't 
worry about start, end, or 
exec address. Let the 
Rabbit do what it does 
best. 

4K & Up $14.95 



August SPECIALS 



Dane i n De v i 1 
Lunar Lander 
Fun 3 Pac (10 



*12 
only) 



MORE SOFTWARE 
War Kings *19 
WORDCC7 (Tape) *19, 
Missle Barrage 414 
Boxcars (Craps) 414, 
Sea Battle *14 



MAILING LABELS 

480 tractor feed single 
labels with "Mail List 1 ' 
basic program listing. 
Great for clubs. 

$5.95 



BUG CHASE 

The faaous turtle 
experiment is no* a one 
or t*o player gaie. Robot 
■ode as well. Too such 
prograi for 16K! 

32K(Ext.) $15.55 



SHIP WREK 

Perils aplenty in this 
adventure. Can you 
escape? There are even 
treasures to be found, if 
you live that long! 
18K ft Up $14 95 



WORDCC7D 



"easy" 



The popular 
text processing 
program goes DISK. 



R/S DISK ONLY £ 24.95 




DSL COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

P.O. BOX 1113 - DEARBORN, Ml 48121 • (313) 582-3406 

ALWAYS LOOKING FOR GREAT CC SOFTWARE 
ADO $1 SHIPPING I HANDLING • Ml RES. ADO 4% 




STOP STRAINING YOUR 
CONNECTORS. USE . . . 

RS-232 
SWITCHER 

Up to 3 items connect to 
your 232 port. Flip switch 
for different items and 
leave the plugs alone. 



«399s 



TWO PLUG MODEL 



$29.95 



ANNOUNCING... 

COPY CAT 

the ULTIMATE tape 
backup program. 

Make a backup of 
"ANY" tape based 
software. Even those 
popu 1 ar pre-1 oader 
programs. Backup 
ASCII data files 
too. 



$19.95 



ADD POWER TO YOUR 
COLOR COMPUTER 

RAM 
SLAM 

— Solderless Kits — 
4-1 6K $25.00 
16-32K $49.95 
4-32K $74.95 

15 minute installation 
One Year Warranty 

The easy way to more K 



"2"T 



August, 1982 

ALIENS - from Page 35 
400 LINE (0,0)- (256, 160) , PRESET, B 
410 SCREEN 1 , 1 
420 TIMER=0:GOSUB490 
430 GOSUB490 : DRAW " S8 BM " + X * + " C0 " + 
SE* : DRAM " BM " + A*+SP* 
440 IFDB-M0THEN560 
450 FORI=1TO3:PLAY"V31;O5;L220;B 
BC; 03; BBC": NEXT 
460 Q4-INKEY* 

470 I FQ*= " 1 " THEN500ELSE I FQ*= 
HEN5 1 0ELSE I FQ*- " 3 " THEN520 
480 SOTO430 

490 X*=A*:C=RND(13) :D=RND(4) 
STR* (A (C) ) +" , "+STR* (B (D) ) +" ; 
TURN 

500 W=RND (4 ) t L I NE ( 55 , 97 ) - ( A ( 
(D) ) , PSET: LINE- (55, 97 ), PRESET 
SUB530:6OTO430 

510 W=RND(5)+4:LINE(126,97)-(A(W 
) ,B(D)> ,PSET:LINE-(126,97) ,PRESE 
T: BOSUB530: BOTO430 
520 W=RND(4)+9:LINE(1S1,97)-(A(W 
) ,B(D)) , PSET: LINE- (181,97) , 
T: BOSUB530: BOTO430 
530 F0RI=1T02:PLAY"V31;01; 
;05;BCBC":NEXTI: IFA(W)=A(C) 



The RAINBOW 



Page 37 



: A*= 

" : RE 

W) ,B 
:B0 



;E 

THEN 



540 RETURN 

550 DB=DB+ 1 : DRAW " BM " + A*+SE* : PMOD 

E3 , 1 : SCREEN 1,1: FORK= 1 T03 : PLAY " 05 

; L255; 6C6C; 01 ; DD" : NEXTKi PM0DE4, 1 

: SCREEN 1 , 1 : 6OSUB580: RETURN 

560 K-T I MER : PM0DE3 , 1 : SCREEN 1 , 0 1 S 

OUND10,26:CLS0:PRINT9130, "YOU TO 

OK"; : PRINT USING"#***#.#";K/60; : 

PRINT" SECONDS. "; 

570 DB=0:FORI=1TO4000:NEXT:RESTO 

RE: FORI=1TO40: READA: NEXT: PM0DE3, 

1 : PCLS : SCREEN0 , 1 : 60T0 1 60 

580 BH*=STR* ( 5+ ( DB * 22 ) > : DRAW " BM " 

+BH*+", 180; "+SE*: RETURN 

590 REM 'ALPINE ALIENS' BY FRED 

B. SCERBO, 1MB, COPYRIGHT (C) 

1981, ILLUSTRATED MEMORY BANKS, 

P.O.BOX 289, WILLIAMSTOWN, MA., 

01267-0289 



Software Review... 

This Lunar Lander Is 
O.K. For Small Systems 

We've seen a bunch of lunar landers in our time, and, 
considering that this one is available f or a 4K system, it isn't 
really bad. 

It would be unfair to compare it to a 16K lander program 
written in Extended Basic. With that sort of option, you 
have high resolution graphics and many more options than 
are available with less memory and a less powerful ROM. 



But, taken for what it is, LUNAR LANDER is a good 
rendition of the much-done program and is certainly a cut 
above the "readout only" lander programs we have seen. 
(Rainbow Connection Software, 3514 6th Place N.W., 
Rochester, MN 55901, $11.95 cassette with Math Drill; 
$26.95 on cassette with seven other programs; eight- 
program disk $31.95 plus $2 shipping) 



Software Review... 

MARS Adventure Is 
An Entertaining Program 

The setting for MARS ADVENTURE is, as one might 
reasonably expect, on the planet Mars and this one is replete 
with enough good gadgets and other things to keep you 
wondering and working pretty hard at the story line. 

You start out in the control room of a ship and have to 
move on from there. Will you venture outside (you can see 
things through the port)? Will you explore the ship. Just 
what to do? 

In short, this is an entertaining program which handles 
the non-graphic Adventure well. Our only complaint is that 
sometimes words are split on lines. But that is a minor 
annoyance, at worst. The plot is interesting, the setting a 
little different from the usual castle-or-dungeon and the 
responses fast. 

Is someone, or something watching you? You'll see! 
(Aardvark-80, 2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, VII 
48088, $14.95) 



COLOR DISK 
SOFTWRRE 



SYSTI 



DISK EDITOR/ ASSEMBLER - This package includes « full featured disk based text 
• ditor program and a disk to d i sk/t ape/memory assembler. Tha text s-ditor is an 
•asy to learn full featured editor which allows files larger than in ory to be 
created and edited with ease. It is compatible with ASCII formatted tape t 
disk files to allow easy conversion of tap* based programs. The assembler 
supports the full 6899 processor instruction set and will cross assemble 660e 
cede to 6809 object code. The output object file can be directed to either 
disk, tape or memory with overwrite protection. The object listing can be 
output to the screen or printer and versions for printers with or without 1 ine 
feeds are provided. DISK EDITOR t ASSEMBLER *79. 95 



DISK TERMINAL PACKAGE - A disk based Termi 
features full text buffering, baud rat 
word length, parity bits odd/even/none, 
automatically set to the maximum size of 
be sent, display word wrap is automatic, 
loaded from/to tape or disk. The content 
with automatic re-entry to terminal mode, 
disk to another user. The contents of the 
screen or optionally be output to a print 
file formats are directly compatible with 
programs. 



nal program for your color computer 
it from 300 to 9609 baud, programable 
stop bits. The buffer size is 
your memory. Full control codes can 
The text buffer can be saved or 
s of the buffer can be sent as a fill 
also a file can be sent directly from 
buffer can be displayed on tht 
er plugged into the RS 232 port. All 
our text editor and word processor 
DISK TERMINAL PACKAGE •49.95 



TEXTPR0 I DISK TEXT EDITOR/WORD PROCESSOR - is a complete word processing 
system designed for easy learning and use. It features a disk based text 
editor for editing files larger than memory and direct processing of text files 
from disk or memory. Some of the editor commands include! copy, move, search, 
replace, delete, line 1 automatic edit modes allow easy logical commands to 
add, change, insert, delete, skip up/down line, ignore changes made on last 
line, skip to begin/end of line all with easy single keystroke commands using 
arrow keys. The editor can also load, save and append tape or disk files for 
easy conversion of existing ASCII text files. The Word Processor includes over 
29 commands for formatting the output, some of them includei page length, page 
mode on/off, page numbers on/off, left margin, top/bottom margin, line length, 
center, double width print, single, multiple ft special indent, test lines left 
on page, skip to top of page, send control codes ft ascii data for special 
printer control, justify on/off, page heading, multiple footnotes per page, 
word f i 11 mode on/off, send message to screen, display ft input from keyboard 
and more. This is an excellent word processor with many advanced features and 
one of the easiest to learn and use in just minutes. All commands are 
logically oriented in easy to remember and associate 2 character commands. 

DISK TEXTPR0 I **9. 93 



TEXTPRO II TEXT EDITOR/ WORD PROCESSOR - Includ 
plust 10 programable tab stops, can be used 
location, center over tab column, decimal 
justify to tab column, tab to programed column 
specific values for tab columns or programmed v 
character fill, right justify line, program* 
justified/double width or almost any processor 
programable header lines, expanded footnote 
data during word processing. 



es all the features of TEXTPRO I 
with horizontal tab to next 
allignment on tab coluen, right 
Also tab commands can use 
alues. Other additions include! 
ble footer can be centered /right 
commands can be used with it, 3 
s and processable keyboard input 
DISK TEXTPRO II s79.95 



CERCOMP 

(7021 452-0632 



Al 

Si 



SMpft* FrM) Smt* 
- MC/VtM AM 3% 



Page 38 



The RAINBOW 



August, 1982 



COLOR 
COMPUT 





THE POWERFUL FLEX DISK OPERATING SYSTEM WITH 
HUNDREDS OF SOFTWARE PACKAGES IS NOW AVAILABLE! 



Now you can run FLEX, OS-9 and Radio Shack disk 
software on your Color Computer. If you have a 32K Col- 
or Computer with the Radio Shack disk system, all you 
need to do is make a trivial modification to access the 
hidden 32K, as described in the Feb. issue of COLOR 
COMPUTER NEWS and the April issue of '68' Micro. You 
can get FLEX from us right now. OS-9 will be ready by 
summer. Please note that this will only work with the 
Radio Shack disk system and 32KJ64K memory chips 
that RS calls 32K Maybe they put 64K's in yours, too. If 
you don't have a copy of the article, send a legal size 
SASE {40t stamps) and we'll send it to you. 

Using this system to run FLEX and OS-9 has many ad- 
vantages. First, it gives you 48K from zero right up to 
FLEX This means that ALL FLEX compatible software 
will run with NO MODIFICATIONS and NO PATCHES' 
There are no memory conflicts because we moved the 
screen up above FLEX which leaves the lower 48K free 
for user programs. 

What you end up with is 4bK for user programs, 8K for 
FLEX and another 8K above FLEX for the screens and 
stuff We have a multi screen format so you can page 
backward to see what scrolled by and a Hi-Res screen 
that will enable us to have 24 lines by 42 character 
display is on the way That's better than an Apple! 

We also implemented a full function keyboard, with a 
control key and escape key. All ASCII codes can now be 
generated from the Color Computer keyboard! 

We also added some bells and whistles to Radio 
Shack's Disk system when you're running FLEX or OS-9. 
We are supporting single or double sided, single or dou- 
ble density, 35, 4,0 and 80 track drives. If you use double 
sided drives, the maximum is three drives because we 
use the drive 3 select for side select. When you are runn- 
ing the Radio Shack disk, it will work with the double 
sided drives but it witl only use one side and only 35 
tracks Using 80 track drives is okay, but will not be com- 
patible with standard Radio Shack software. You can 
also set each drive's stepping rate and drive type. (SS or 
DS - SD or DO) 

In case you don't understand how this works, I'll give 
you a brief explanation The Color Computer was de- 
signed so that the roms in the system could be turned 



AUTOTASK 

WITH MENU 

AUTOTASK with MENU is a revolutionary new con- 
cept designed to overcome the problems and frustra- 
tions which confront the non-technical when using a 
computer Users are greeted with a series of self- 
prompting interactive menus linking directly to the ap- 
plication Several example menus are provided. You can 
create your own menus from simple text files. 
AUTOTASK with MENU gives you unlimited software 
flexibility by providing a system to coordinate multiple- 
application programs. 

Bundle several different software packages to pre 
sent a coordinated system to the user AUTOTASK with 
MENU is compatible with all FLEX compatible software. 
It uses very little memory and is easy to learn. 

PRICE S129.90 

Includes source on disk! 
Manual $10.00 



6502 TRANSLATOR 
Translator 6502 code to 6809 
$75.00 

INVENTORY 
with MATERIAL 
REQUISITION PLANNING 
$100.00 

SUPER SLEUTH 
Disassembler for 6800/6809 or Z80 

$99.00 

TABULA RASA 
Electronic Spreadsheet 
$100.00 

UNIFLEX SIMULATOR 
Runs Under Flex 
$100 Flex $110 UniFlex 



off under software control. In a normal Color Computer 
this would only make it go away. However, if you put a 
program in memory to do something first (like boot in 
FLEX or OS-9), when you turn off the roms, you will have 
a full 64K RAM System with which to run your program. 

Now, we need the other half of the 64K ram chips to 
work, and this seems to be the case most of the time, as 
the article states. Of course, you could also put 64K 
chips in. 

Some neat utilities are included. 

MOVEROM moves Color Basic from ROM to RAM. Be- 
cause it's moved to RAM you can not only access it from 
FLEX, you can run it and even change it!! You can load 
Color Computer cassette software and save it to FLEX 
disk. Single Drive Copy, Format and Setup commands 
plus an online help system are included. 



Installing FLEX is simple. Insert the disk and type; 

RUN "FLEX" 

That's all there is to it! You are now up and running in 
the most popular disk operating system for the 6809. 
There are hundreds of software packages now running 
under the FLEX system. Open your Color Computer to a 
whole new world of software with FLEX. 



FLEX $99.00 

INCLUDES OVER 25 UTILITIES'. 



Other languages available include; FORTH, Pascal, For- 
tran77, C,' A/BASIC compiler, plus more. 
Application packages include; A/R, G/L, A/P, Inventory, 
Electronic Spreadsheets, Accounting, Database pro- 
grams and more. SEND FOR LIST. 



TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER COMPLETE WITH 64K 
RAM. 24K ROM, SINGLE DISK DRIVE AND FLEX. SET 
UP AND READY TO RUN FOR ONLY $1,275. Includes 
1 20 day extended warranty If you have a Computer, call 
about RSdisk controllers and drives 



RS-8OCO10R 
COMPUTER 

FORTH FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER DISK SYSTEM 

Trying to get control of your Color Computer?? Tired of 
translating HEX to decimal?? Tired of remembering 
where the VDG and SAM are and how to program 
them''? Want to write machine language code with 
assembly language mnemonics instead of POKES?? 
Want to write programs in half the time?? Want to write 
lots of small pieces of code that you can put together in 
seconds to do BIG JOBS? 0 ? Want a language that is at 
least 5 to 10 times faster than BASIC 7 ?? Want to learn 
everything there is to know about FORTH, with the best 
manual on the market, including lots of examples of 
FORTH applications, and detailed explanations of how 
everything works?? 




FORTH 

Includes Editor, 6809 Assembler 
String Functions, Disk Data File 
Operations and Much Much More! 



is 

THE 
ANSWER' 



99 



95 




FLEX COMPATIBLE 
FORTH 

BY Chuck Eaker, Ph.D. 
X- FORTH NOTES 
Supplied on one 8" disk or 2 5" disks, 
with a 400+ page manual. 
Disk(s) have the source of everything but the core. 

PRICE only $149.95 plus $2.50 S&H 

Manual available separately for S49.95 plus S2.50 S&H 



We Have 




For Flex 
S200.00 



SOFTWARE CATALOG 



PROGRAM 



OBJECT/WITH 
ONLY/SOURCE code 



BILLPAYER 




ioy yo 


x 


PLOT 




A A QC* 


x 


TABULA RASA 




inn nn 


X 


Mailing List 




QQ QC, 

yy yo 


X 


Forms Display 




aq qc. 
4y yo 


X 


Inventory with Material 








Requisition Planning 




inn nn 
1UU UU 


X 


Some Common BASIC Programs 


en nc 

oy yb 


X 


Infomag Data Base 








Management System 


29500 




X 


Osborne Accounts Receivable 


295.00 




X 


Osborne Accounts Payable 


295.00 




X 


Osborne General Ledger 


295.00 




X 


DynaCalc 


200.00 




9 


UniFlex Simulator 




1 1 0.00 


9 


FLEX For Color Computer 


99 00 




9 


X-FORTH (FLEX) 


149.95 




8 & 9 


CC-FORTH (TRS-80 Color) 


9995 




9 


TOOLKIT #1 (BASIC) 


49.95/ 


69 95 


9 


TOOLKIT #2 


49.95/ 


69 95 


9 


AUTOTASK 




129 95 


9 


A/BASIC Compiler 


150.00 




9 


Extended Utilities 


4995/ 


6995 


9 


Password Protection 


69 95/ 


89 95 


9 


CRASMB (X Assembler) 


139.95 




9 


Personality Modules (1 INC) 


25 00 


50 00 


9 ea 


6502, 6800. 6805. 6809. Z80. 8080. 1802 






READTAPE 




54 95 


9 


SPELLTEST 


199.00/ 


299 00 


9 


READIEST 


54 95/ 


74 95 


8 & 9 


ESTHER 


39 95/ 


59 95 


8 & 9 


HELP 


29 95/ 


49 95 


8 & 9 


Job Control Program 


49 95/ 


89 95 


8 & 9 


DYNASOFT PASCAL (FLEX) 


59 95/ 


89 95 


9 


DYNASFT PASCAL {OS 9) 


69 95/ 


99 95 


9 


DYNASOFT Compiler Source 




125 00 


P 


DYNASTAR Screen Editor (OS9) 149 95 




9 


SUPER SLEUTH (6800/6809) 




99 00 


8 & 9 


SUPER SLEUTH (Z80) 




99 00 


8 & 9 


CROSS Assembler Macros for 


TSC ASMB 






6800/1. 6805. 6502. 280. 8080/5 


49 95 


each 




3 FOR 


99 95 




6502 Translator 




75 00 


9 


Debugging Simulators 6805 or 6502 


75 00 


9 ea 


STYLOGRAPH 2 0 


295 00 




9 


STYLOGRAPH MAIL MERGE 


125 00 




9 


STYLOGRAPH Spelling Checker 145 00 




9 


CODE X = XBASIC. 9 = 6809. 8 


= 6800. P = 


PASCAL 





Software by Technical Systems Consultan 

FlexTM (includes Editor & Assembler) 
UniFLEXTM (includes one year 

maintenance and update) 
Editor 
Assembler 

68000 Cross Assembler on 6809 
Text Processor 
Extended Basic 

Basic Precompiler (specify standard 

or extended) 
Pascal (FlexTM) 

Pascal (UniFLEXTM) (Add $75 00 tor 
one year s maintenance and update) 

Soft/Merge Package 

6B09 Flex i M utilities 

Debug Package 

Diagnostic Package 

Software by Microware Systems Corp. 

OS-9 TM Level One 
Operating System 

OS-9TM Level Two 
Oper atmg System 

BASIC09TM 

OS 9™ Macro Text Editor 
OS-9TM interactive Assembler 
OS-9™ Interactive Debugger 

(Disk version) 
CIS Cobol Compiler 
Pascal Compiler 



ts. Inc. 
150 00 

450 00 
50 00 
50 00 

250 00 
75 00 

100 00 

50 00 
200 00 

225 00 
75 00 
75 00 
75 00 
75 00 



200 00 

500 00 
200.00 
125 00 
125 00 

50 00 
895 00 
400 00 



USA add $2 50 for standard UPS shipping & handling 

Foreign orders add 20% Airmail 

Specify 5' or 8" disk and 6800 or 6809 

VISA — MASTER CHARGE — DINERS CLUB ACCEPTED 

OUR SOFTWARE IS GIMIX COMPATIBLE 



FRANK 
LABOR! 


H 


OGG 
IX>RY 


130 MIDTOWN PLAZA 
SYRACUSE, NY 13210(315) 474-7856 



August, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 39 



Followup. . . 

Your Video Display Generator 
And The PMODE4 Colors 

By Fred Aldrich 

After working through Al Curtis 1 article on PMODE4 
(the RAINBOW, June, 1982 J, I was interested in what was 
actually going on in the hardware. I got out my circuit 
diagrams and my Video Display Generator (VDG) specs 
and did some PEEKing. The results were quite surprising. 
But, first, some hardware background is in order. 

The graphic modes of the VDG are controlled by pins 
labeled CSS, GMO, GMI, GM2 and G/A, which are 
connected to bits three through seven of the U4 PIA 4 B' 
Register respectively. These can be set or read by POKEing 
or PEEKing bits 3-7 of location &HFF22. In VDG mode 6C 
(PMODE 3), &HFF22 contains &HEx, where x can be any 
value. In VDG mode 6R (PMODE 4), &HFF22 contains 
&HFx. The VDG can be toggled from 6C to 6R (PMODE 3 
to PMODE 4) by executing the following statement: 
POKE &HFF22, PEEK (&HFF22) OR &H10 

This turns Bit 4 (GMO) on. 

Now, back to the results: 

1. The PMODE statement does not change thestateof the 
hardware. P MODE only sets up sof tware parameters in low 
memory. The SCREEN statement sets up the VDG and 
SAM hardware for the desired graphics mode. 

2. With the exception of Listing 4 with the Line 50 
SCREEN 1,0 added and Listings 6, 7 and 8, Mr. Curtis' 
programs are running with the VDG set to the 128x192 pixel 
four-color (PMODE 3) mode, not the high-res 256x192 
pixel two-color (PMODE 4) mode. This can be 
demonstrated by PEEKing or POKEing &HFF22 
immediately after the PMODE 4 statements. 

3. Listing 4 with the added SCREEN statement and 
Listings 6, 7 and 8 do provide what appears to be two 
different hi-res four-color (PMODE 4) modes. 

The following listing should help explain how the 
additional colors are produced when the hardware actually 
supports only two sets of colors (green/black or 
buff/ black). 

10 PCLEAR 4:PMODE 4:SCREEN I,S:PCLS 

20 FOR Y=48 TO 95 

30 FOR X=0 TO 255 STEP 2 

40 PSET (X,Y) 

50 PSET (X+I, Y+48) 

60 PSET (X,Y+96):PSET (X+l, Y+96) 

70 NEXT X, Y 

80 S=I-S:SCREEN I,S:FOR 1=1 TO 500: NEXT:GOTO 
80 

This routine addresses each of the 256x192 pixels on the 
high-res screen individually in pairs. The screen is initially 
setset to black by the PCLS statement. Line 40 turns on the 
odd-numbered pixels on the second quarter of the screen 
while Line 50 turns on the even-numbered pixels on the third 
quarter. Line 60 turns on pixels on the bottom quarter of the 
screen while line 80 toggles the screen between color sets 0 
and I. 

As noted by Mr. Curtis, turning alternate (odd or even) 
pixels on produces the undocumented gray/ medium green 
or cyan/orange colors. 

Perhaps the hardware types can provide a more complete 
explaination of this phenomenon, but it appears to me that 
the added colors are regulated to the band width of the RF 
modulator and TV set and their inability to accurately 
display pixels which are alternately on or off. 

All the background for this information came from The 
Facts by Spectral Associates. 



Book Review... 

Color Graphics Book Is 
A Real Boon For 80C 

For all of us who have been struggling with the deeper 
intricacies of Color Graphics, author Don Inman has 
written TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics, which explains 
things very well and will help unlock a lot of the secrets. 

Inman starts from the beginning and works through all 
the details of color graphics onthe 80C,evenincludingsome 
extra notes on the SOUND and PLAY commands. The 
style, as with other works Inman has done for other 
computers, is breezy, light and full of information. You 
almost don't even know you are learning — but you are. And 
a great deal, at that. 

In addition, Inmangivesyou several different things to try 
with all of his examples. For some, he gives the answers. 
Others you have to either figure out or write him. 

Since there is more than one way to do almost anything, 
this approach is an excellent one. You may even discover 
something that works better than does the author's 
suggested "correct" answer. 

We are very high on TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics 
and believe it a worthwhile addition to your collection — 
whether you are interested in creating complicated graphics 
or just drawing happy faces. Inman's explainations are 
outstanding and his understanding of how things work 
(based on a number of earlier writings f or the Model 1 / III) 
are quite good. 

We think you will enjoy, read, re-read and learn a lot from 
this fine book. 

(TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics by Don Inman, 
Reston Publishing Co., 11480 Sunset Hills Rd., Reston, 
VA 22090, $14.95) 



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Page 40 

Software Review... 

Even Halflings Will Like 
Fantasy Gamer *s Package 

There is obviously a great deal of interest in fantasy and 
role-playing games like Dungeons and Dragons™ That is 
one of the reasons we carry a regular column on the subject. 

But, in a lot of ways, thesegames can be a bummer. They 
are difficult to get started (lots of characters and monsters to 
create), sometimes slow in the playing (it takes time to 
explain rooms and the like) and oodles of charts and so forth 
to either keep handy or memorize. 

Sounds liker a job for a computer. 

Not only is it a job for a computer, but, in the hands of an 
experienced dungeonmaster and programmer, fantasy and 
role-playing games can be a whole lot more fun. With 
FANTASY GAMER'S PACKAGE, much of the drudgery 
of setting up, playing and the like is eliminated. 

This package comes in both 16K and 32K versions. The 
primary difference between them is that the 32K package 
combines all the parts into one program and adds an 
additional module called Dice Bag, which allows you to 
simulate the roll of poly-sided dice (very much like a 
program printed in the RAINBOW). 

The first module will allow you to display 99 different 
rooms on the 80C's screen. The rooms are all to scale, and 
are complete with colors, doors, steps, pillars and the like. 
The way this works is that the game's referee simply uses a 
set of rooms drawn to scale in the documentation which 
accompanies the programs to create his own "universe. "The 
rooms can then be filled with treasure, nasties, monsters or 
what-have-you. And, as the adventurers enter one of these 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



rooms, the referee merely must type in the room's number 
and it appears on the screen. This can save a lot of 
description time. Besides, you remember what Mao said 
about a picture being worth a thousand words. Quicker, too. 

A bonus! There is a completely mapped-out dungeon 
included, with the numbers of the rooms supplied. 

Module Two allows for the creation of both player and 
non-player characters. This is done in fine detail, as you can 
imagine is required by the dungeonmaster/author of this 
program. In setting up a FRP game, this character creation 
process can be extremely time-consuming. The whole 
complicated mish-mash is done quickly with the 80C and 
this program. 

Our one complaint with the program comes here. We 
believe there should be output to a printer built in. You 
could load a program to allow dual printing to both screen 
and printer, however. 

We really cannot say too much, however, about the 
sophistication of the character-generator program. Those of 
you familiar with the D&D™ series have an idea of how 
many charts may need to be consulted. This handles them all 
quickly and without error. 

No FRP game would be complete without monsters, and 
you can get a variety of them in all their detail with the third 
module. A couple of keys pressed and you have your 
monster, all ready to strike terror into the . . . 

FANTASY GAMER'S PACKAGE is a user-friendly, 
well-conceived and finely executed series of programs. If 
you are "into" FRP games, it is a must which will increase 
your enjoyment of these activities many-fold. 

(Prickly-Pear Software, 3518 S. Randi Place, Tucson, 
AZ 85730, $19.95 for 16K; $24.95 for 32K, plus $1.50 
shipping) 




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August 1982 



The 




Edu cat to nal No tes. . , 



math 

Good 

Reinforcment 
Means 

You Can't 
Frown At Me 




By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Education Columnist 

(Mr. Blyn, who teaches both exceptional and gifted children, 
holds two Master 's degrees in the fieldo f education and has won 
an award for the design of a computer program to aid 
handicapped children. He and his wife, Cheryl, own Computer 
Island.) 

Reinforcement is a very important component of all 
teaching programs. It is a terrific feature of computers in 
that they can provide endless and immediate rewards for 
answers. 

The computer never loses patience or tires of telling us 
whether we were right or wrong. The immediate 
reinforcement given by computers is much more effective 
than the long-awaited reinforcement that teachers can give 
by marking test papers. Often, by the time a test is graded, 
the student has already forgotten which answers he used. 

Reinforcement can be either positive or negative. Positive 
reinforcers are pleasant events that follow a desired 
response. Happy faces and pleasant sounds are good 
examples of this. Their effect is to increase the chances that 
the person will make a similar response again to a similar 
question or situation. 

Negative reinforcers are unpleasant events that follow an 
undesired response. Their effect , however, also increases the 
chance of the desired response. The person tries to escape 
the negative reinforcer and aims for the positive one. 

Sad or unhappy faces are thought to be good examples of 
negative reinforcers. Herein lies the mistake often 
unwittingly put into educational programs! 

When children begin to use new software, they are 
fascinated with the positive reinforcers used by the 
programmer. After a while, however, they sometimes get 
bored or adventuresome and begin to "check out" the 
negative ones. 

It is the natural playf ulness and curiosity of kids that leads 
them down this path. It has nothing to do with whether they 
know the right answers. Often, to everyone's surprise, the 
negative reinforcers are more attractive than the positive 
ones. 

Sad, unhappy, frowning faces are often more amusing to 
see than the happy one. The bad sounds may have become 
more entertaining than the good sounds. When this 
situation occurs the reinforcers are counterproductive and 
learning ceases. 

The important consideration when writing educational 



RAINBOW Page 41 

programs which will help children learn is to keep your 
rewards appropriate to their function. Make certain that 
your positive rewards are enjoyable to the player. Check to 
be sure that your negative reinforcers are not too 
entertaining. Inform the user that he has made a wrong 
response by using appropriate sounds to indicate an 
incorrect answer. 

It is wise to further reinforce the response that you want 
by showing the correct answer to each wrong response. 
Therefore, immediately indicate the correct answer. 
Between the unpleasant noises and the correct answer 
appearing anyway, the user will not be anxious to purposely 
give wrong responses. Your program will then be used in the 
manner in which you intended. 

The accompanying program, OPPOSITES, illustrates 
the use of happy sounds and a happy face for positive 
reinforcement. Incorrect responses receive several 
unpleasant sounds, no picure and the right answer. 

Other positive reinforers might be a well-known song for 
each right answer, or a little game to play after a series of 
right answers. An example of the wrong thing to do would 
be to program the song Taps for an incorrect response. Taps 
is great for a game program, but has no place in a teaching 
program. 

Although this program was designed for antonyms, it can 
just as easily be used for synonyms by changing half of the 
data and some of the program's wording. Other obvious 
uses would be for reading, social studies, science, spelling or 
math vocabulary words and their definitions. 

Experiment with this program. You may convert or 
enlarge it, try various rewards, and make it suit your 
purposes. 

The Listing: 

10 REM* OPPOSITES 

20 REM* BY STEVE BLYN 

30 CLS —Continued nn Pm 46 



WEIRD GAME ORGANIZER 

Designed for the word game writer who believes that the 
computer should do most of the work. 

The Word Game Organizer saves you memory space by 
eliminating duplicate words 

Just type on the screen the words that you want at each 
location and the Word Game Orgenlzer will develop a 
word file end an offset file for each location. After all 
locations are entered, you can transfer by tape the 
source code developed by the Word Game Organizer to 

your editor/assembler or have all files developed Into 
machine code. 

The Word Game Organizer cuts days, even weeks, outof 
even the most efficient writer's programming time. 

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Phone (513) 252-9306 



Page 42 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



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Page 44 The RAINBOW August 1982 



NOW THERE ARE TWO. Bob Rosen 
and Spectrum Projects, which have been 
running the nation's most popular BBS for 
Color Computer users for more than a year 
now, introduce a second BBS to accomodate 
all those people who want to hook up. 

As always, Color BBS I is available at 
(212) 441-3755. But now, you can also call 
(212) 44 1-3766 for Color BBS 2. 

The new BBS is operating on a 32K Color 
Computer with three drives. The software 
was written by Lee Blitch of Atlanta. One 
unique feature of the second BBS is the 
ability to transfer color graphics over the 
telephone lines. And, while users must have 
the Colorcom/ E terminal program to access 
the graphics, a downloading section is 
planned for the future. 

****** 

JUST ABOUT READY TO GO is a new 

book on using Color Basic by Steve Blyn of 
Computer Island. We are told this offering 
will be a "disposable," so that you can write 
your answers to questions in it. 

The title is A Byte Of Color Basic and it 
should be ready for sale in a week or two. 

****** 

SPEAKING OF BOOKS, there are a 
couple of new ones from Radio Shack by the 
very popular authors Bob Albrecht and 
George Fired rake. One of them is My TRS- 
80 Likes Me and the other is Number 
Patterns. 

My TRS-80 Likes Me is a series of 
programming excercises that will introduce 
students to Basic statements and commands. 
This is accomplished through subroutines 
demonstrated in game programs. 

****** 

A 'ROMPACK ELIMINATOR" is 

expected to be offered soon through 
Computer Mate (3300 Don Mills Rd., 
Willowdale, Ont. M2J 4X7) for $21 .95. It is 
in the form of a machine language program 
which will convert a ROM Pack to run on 
disk. As usual, the program ismarketedonly 
as a backup or an alternate running source 
for your own ROM Packs. 

****** 

FROM AUSTRALIA comes the first Color 
Computer program to be marketed in the 
northern hemisphere. DSL Computer 
Products will soon have COPY CAT 
available — a method of making backups of 
machine language programs. This one was 
written by Ron Wright of Melbourne. 

As a matter of fact, the Color Computer is 
gaining a great deal of acceptance in a 
number of countries. We see that through 
inquiries we get about subscriptions and 
advertising and we are pleased to see the 80C 
building up as an "international computer." 
Of course, there are thousands of 80C's in 
Canada, but we note an influx of interest 
from Mexico, Great Britain and a number of 
other places, particularly Saudi Arabia. 



Too, in the next month or so, we plan to 
publish the first non-North American 
program for the 80C. One of our newest 
contributors is from Austria. Youll be 
seeing that evidence of the growing world 
popularity of the 80C soon. 

****** 

A CORRECTION is in order for the 
Universal Data File program which 
appeared recently in the RAIN BOW. Line 
1 100 has one of those "!" that should have 
been a Basic keyword. In this case, substitute 
the "!" with a WRITE. If you use this 
program as a calendar, you will probably 
wish to change the date in Line 1720 to 
"1982." 

****** 

A NEW MODEM is available from 
Hayes Microcomputer Products (5835 
Peachtree Corners East, Norcross, GA 
30092). It is called the Hayes Stack™ 
Smartmodem 1200 and is said to be able to 
allow RS-232 computers or terminals 
communicate over telephone lines at 1200 
bits per second. 

This new modem connects directly with 
the telephone line and the RS-232C port, is 
approved by the FCC and can be used with 
cither Touch-Tone or pulse dialing. It can 
operate at 0-300 bits per second as well as 
1200. Cost is $699 with power pack, cables 
and so on. 

****** 

A FOUR-COLOR PLOTTER will soon 
be available from Radio Shack. The cost is 
pretty low for this sort of hardware, $249.95. 
We have its smaller brother in-house with 
our PC-2 computer, and the printer is a lot 
of f un to watch and extremely versatile. This 
product should be a nice feature to think 
about, as it will print in four colors on 4!/2- 
inch paper and d o all sorts of fancy things. It 
should be available about September. 

****** 

POOR TOM MIX OF Tom Mix 

Software called the other day to tell us about 
a real problem he has. It seems he gets a 
number of calls wondering if he is for real. 
Or. as Tom puts it, "there just aren't a lot of 
people named Tom l\lix around and people 
think its a put-on." AsHaj as we can tell, and 
we've known Tom for some time now, that's 
a real name. Tom's a little put out at his 
mother for causing him some trouble — but 
there isn't much he can do about it. 

By the way, I know few of you will believe 
this, but the first time Tom called us the next 
person to leave a message was a gentleman 
named Jesse James. He wanted a 
subscription. Both Mr. Mix and Mr. James 
are "for real." 

You just never know. . . 

****** 



IN THE AREA OF LANGUAGES, 

Radio Shack is now announcing both 
LOGO and PILOT for the 80C. And, you 
know there are a number of FORTH 
programs available as well from 
independent software houses. 

The LOGO program will use the popular 
"Turtle Graphics" and be available on a disk 
for $99. 

The PILOT program will be available on 
either disk or tape and is a powerful 
programming language which is very useful 
for educators and teachers. The package will 
sell for $59.95 on tape and $79.95 on disk. 

****** 

A NEW DRAWER program to be used 
with joysticks is available from Greathouse 
and Company (P.O. Box 27051, Rancho 
Bernardo, CA 92127). It is said to allow 
quick and easy drawing on the graphics 
screens with more than 40 different 
commands on two menus which will allow 
the construction of lines, rectangles, dots, 
circles and PAINTing. It also comes with 
two complete character sets for writing 
messages on the screen. Price is $19.95. 

****** 

A NEW DESKTOP Printer/ Video stand 
is now being marketed by Effort-Saver 
Products (P.O. Box 5001, Hialeah, FL 
33014) for $39.95. The stand will allow you 
to "elevate" your printer and store the paper 
beneath it. Or, as an alternative, you could 
use it to elevate your monitor. 

****** 

BRITT MONK, OF GAUNTLET and 

BREAK A WA Y fame, has been tapped by 
Avalon Hill Game Co. to convert their 
SHOOTOUT AT THE OK GALAXY 
game from Apple/ Atari to the 80C. Under 
his agreement with Avalon Hill, Britt is 
allowed to sell a small number of "signature" 
editions for $22 from his own offices at P.O. 
Box 802, Elyria, OH 44036. 

****** 

ELECTRONIC SPECIALISTS, INC. 

HAS SET up a toll-free hotline to provide 
assistance for those who have 
microcomputer interference problems. The 
number is 1-800-225-4876, between 9 a.m. 
amd 4 p.m. EST weekdays. 

****** 

WE HEAR MAPLE LEAF SYSTEMS 

(P.O. Box 2190, Station "C", Downsview, 
Ont. M2N 2S9) is working on a multiple-slot 
expansion board for the 80C. No details yet 
other than it is hoped the board will allow 
four cartridges to be connected to the 80C at 
the same time. A similar product, we also 
hear, is under development in the United 
States. No hard and fast information on it 
yet, though. 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 45 




Every day more people learn the name of the one 
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RAINBOW 




Page 46 



The 



EDUCATION - from Page 41 



40 PRINT364, "directions: TYPE IN 
THE WORD THATYOU THINK IS THE OP 
POSITE OF THEWORD YOU SEE ON THE 
SCREEN. " 

50 PRINT 3 192," PRESS ENTER TO BE 

GIN";: INPUT Y* 

60 DIMAS<10) ,B*<10) 

70 F=F+1 

80 IF F>20 THEN 470 

90 X= RND(10) 

100 RESTORE 

110 FOR J=l TO X 

120 READ A$(J>,B$(J> 

130 NEXT J 

140 CLS 

150 PR I NT : PR I NT 11 # 11 ; F ; 11 ■ WHAT WOR 
D IS THE OPPOSITE OF ";A*(X),:IN 
PUTC* 

160 IF C*=B*(X) THEN 320 

170 IF C$OB$(X) THENPR I NT : PR I NT 

: PRINT" SORRY, ";C* M IS NOT": PR 

INT" THE OPPOSITE OF ";A*<X> 

180 PRINT:PRINT:PRINTB*(X) ; " IS 

THE OPPOSI TE OF " ; A* ( X ) ; " . " 

190 FOR T= 1 TO 5: SOUND 50,5:NEX 

T 

200 PRINT3388, "PRESS ENTER TO GO 

ON";: INPUT R*:GOTO70 
210 DATA BOY, GIRL 
220 DATA UNCLE, AUNT 
230 DATA IN, OUT 
240 DATA HOT, COLD 
250 DATA ON, OFF 
260 DATA OPEN, CLOSE 
270 DATA MORE, LESS 
280 DATA WIN, LOSE 
290 DATA UP, DOWN 
300 '***FACE 
310 DATA STOP, GO 

320 K=0:CLS7:FORG«1TO6:FOR Y=(ll 
96+K) TO ( 1203+K) : POKEY, 255: NEXTY 
330 K=K+32 
340 NEXTG 

350 SET (29, 12,5) : SET (34, 12,5) :** 



RAINBOW 

360 

4, 

370 

380 



390 

400 

410 

420 

430 

440 

450 

460 
470 



August 1982 

PRINT3301 , CHR* (246) +STRING* ( 

) +CHR* (249) ; : ' ***MOUTH 
FOR T=l TO 5: ' tttBLINKS 
SOUND 200, 1 : SOUND210, 1 : SOUND 
1 

PRINT3461, " "; 

SET (29, 12, 1):SET(34, 12, 1) 

SOUND 150, 2 

SET(29, 12,5) :SET(34, 12,5) 
PRINTS>461 , "RIGHT ! " ; 
NEXT T 

FOR H=1TO300:NEXTH 
GOTO 70 

CLS: PR I NT "BYE FOR NOW" 



Adventure Contest Deadlines 
Were Incorrect In July Issue 

One of those little "bugs" that sometimes creeps into our 
programs crept into our brain last month when we printed 
information about dates for the Adventure Contest 
sponsored by the RAINBOW. 

And, in addition, we have a longer list of prizes to keep 
you interested. 

First of all, the deadline for the contest is not August I, 
but September 30. The winner will be announced in the 
November issue. Sorry about the confusion. Obviously, you 
would not have had time to write a decent Adventure by 
August 1. 

The contest remains in two divisions, Graphic and non- 
Graphic. First prize in the non-Graphic division is a $125 
gift certificate from Computer Plus. First prize in the 
Graphics division is a $150 gift certificate from JARB 
Software. We have a host of other prizes, in the form of 
merchandise credits and cash from Spectrum Projects, 
Prickly-Pear Software, Superior Graphic Software, 
Custom Software Engineering, Nanos Systems Corp., 
Spectral Associates, Illustrated Memory Banks, Computer 
Island and Transformation Technologies. 

To win, all you have to do is write an Adventure program 
and submit it to the RAIN BOW. A complete list of winners 
will be published in the November Adventure Issue. 

Non-graphics Adventures must not use more than a title 
card and an end-of-game graphic. All entries become the 
property of the RAIN BOW and none can be returned. 

By submitting an entry, the author gives Falsoft, Inc. the 
exclusive right to print, publish or otherwise use both 
program and the author's name. The decision of the judges is 
final. 

We encourage you to enter this contest. 



Uith 51 



• 300 or 1 10 Baud 

• user programmable keys 

• automatic repeat when 
key is held down 

• dump your files to host 

• reverse video 

• partial screen clear 

• 4-way cursor control 

Cassette and Manual $34.95 (as.) $40 



COLORTERM (c) 

Color Conputer* as an in 
or colunns by ?l line 

• any data format (commercial 
systems, TSO, bulletins etc.) 

• memory buffer for incoming 
data— save buffer— scroll 
through buffer 

• preserve a "window" of 
any size; new material scrolls 
through remainder of screen. 



tel I iqent lerni nal 
s and lower case 1 . 

• encode data for more secure 
storage 

• macro buffers for often-used 
output 

• patch the 51 or 64 column 
display to your own programs 
running above 9168 (23 DO hex) 

Visa, Master Charge, Money Order. 



.95 {Canadian} 

Martin Consulting, 94 Macalester Bay, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2X5 Canada 



*T.M OF TANDY CORP. 



August 1982 



Adventure — Part II... 



The 



Now, Make Your Own 
Adventure With ADVMAKER 




By Jorge Mir 
Rainbow Utilityman 



We hope you enjoyed playing RAINBOW 
A D VENTURE last month. We know the listing was pretty 
long, but it does take some amount of code to be able to 
create an Adventure game. 

As we said last month, we are now going to dissect the 
RAINBOW Adventure and show you how to create one of 
your own. 

For one thing, you'll notice that we had a great number of 
REMark statements in last month's program. That was to 
guide you in making your own Adventure. 

This month's program, ADVMAKER is a "canned" type 
of program designed to simplify the programming of 
Adventures written in BASIC. 

It is simple, straightforward and very easy to follow. Also, 
even though it is written in BASIC, it does not suffer from 
the common "slowness" problem. Indeed, it is rather "fast." 

Following is a brief explaination of the various sections of 
the program: 

Lines 10-110: These are the DIMension statements and 
the loops to read the directions, rooms, objects and verbs 
which are entered as DATA statements. 

Lines 120-270: This section indicates where you are, what 
you can see and the directions available. 

Lines 270-999: Here is where the Adventurer's commands 
are analyzed to determine the programmed course of action. 
The various subsections are one word commands(280-300); 
items carried in inventory (310-350); scoring (360-420); 
vocabulary expansion (500-599); moving in various 
directions (710-760); and the "help" section (800-999). 

Lines 1000-2999: Here the program is directed to the 
various verb areas (see Line 600 to find out how verbs are 
identified). REM statements have already been included in 
the various subsections for some of the basic verbs normally 
used in Adventures. 

Lines 3000-6999: DATA statements f or directions (3000), 
rooms (4000), objects (5000), and verbs (6000) are included 
here. 

Lines 7000-7180: Save and load routines. 
Lines 8000-8030: Section to eliminate objects from the 
Adventure. 

There is no limit to the type of conditions, or scenarios, 
which could be dreamed up for an Adventure, so I will not 
attempt to cover them all in detail. Instead, I developed a 
short, simple Adventure so you can become familiar with 
the various statement examples. I called this Adventure 
Rainbow for obvious reasons. 

Please note that with A D VMAKERlhere are added steps 
which must be typed in exactly as shown. Do not renumnber 
any of the steps or it will not work at all. 

The following definitions will make it easier for you to 
follow each of the steps: 

— RM$(#) is the Room description 
— OB$(#) is the Object description 
— OB(#) is the Object number 

— D$(#, 1-6) is the directions of each room 
— D$(l-6) is the various directions available 
— F(#) are flags to indicate various conditions 
— F is the flag used in subroutines 

— MX is the maximum number of objects in inventory 

—Continued on Page 49 



RAINBOW 
4 



Page 47 



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Page 48 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



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August 1982 



The 



ADVMAKER - from Page 47 

— CA is the number currently in inventory 

— O is the object number 

— V is the verb number 
-YOU is the current room number 

It is important that you excercise care in selecting words 
to describe rooms and make sure you you do not have more 
than one object with the same definition. Remember that the 
statement "I AM" will precede the room definition, so define 
your rooms as "inside a building", "on a boat", "in a closet" 
and so on. How objects are defined is not as important, but 
the related abbreviation is, so you have to make sure the 
abbreviation for an object is not repeated. 

The same goes for verbs, so you should avoid similar 
verbs with different meanings. Note that only the first three 
letters of the verbs are used. So, "break" and "breathe" will 
present some problems. 

An example of a DATA statement f or rooms would look 
like this: DATA ON MAIN STREET, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0. The 
numbers indicate the directions available (order is N, S, E, 
W, U, D). So, in the above example, the room is "On Main 
Street" and hasanexit toroom4 on the north and room 6on 
the south. No other exits are available because a zero 
indicates the direction is not used. 

The format for objects is "Object Description, 
Abbreviation, Room Location." For example," DATA A 
SMALL HAMMER, HAM, 5" would indicate the object to 
be a small hammer, identifiable by the three letters "ham" 
and to be located in room 5. 

Now that you know a little about the various f unctions of 
the A DV MAKER program and DATA statement format, 
take a look at the RAIN BOW A DVENTV RE and you will 
see how simple the whole thing is. Just because it is rather 
simple, don't kid yourself. You will always want to tinker 
with it a bit to add some more goodies here and there. 

The REM statements have been added to help you 
determine what each program line is to accomplish. These 
REM statements do not need to be typed in. 

So, now is the time to getgoing. Use A D V MAKER listed 
below and use RAINBOW ADVENTURE from last 
month's issue as a guide. And, create your own Adventure. 

I hope the ADV MAKER will get you involved in the 
fascinating Adventure area. It is a lot of fun. Whenever we 
are planning to have some company over, it only takes me 
about an hour to dream up a quick, short Adventure 
suitable for the occasion and, believe me, it always turns out 
to be a big hit. 

The Listing: 



**** ADVENTURE MAKER **** 
BY: JORGE MIR 
(C) 1982 



1 ' 

2 9 

3 * 

4 ' 

5 ' 

6 9 

7 ' %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

10 CLEAR 1000 
20 CLS 

30 DIM RM*<85),0B*<85>,0B(85>,D< 
85, 6) , D* (6) , F ( 10) : MX=5: CA=0 
40 FOR X=1T06:READ D*<X):NEXTX 
50 X=0 

60 X=X+1:READ RMS(X):IF RM$<X>=" 
END" THEN 80 

70 FOR Y=1T06: READ D ( X , Y) : NEXTY: 
GOTO60 



RAINBOW Page 49 

80 X=0 

90 X-X+liREAD OB*<X):IF OB*<X>=" 
END "THEN NO=X-l : GOTO 100: ELSE RE A 
D I*,OB(X) :OB*=OB*+I*:GOTO90 
100 X=0 

110 X-X+liREAD I*: IF I*»"END" TH 

EN 120 ELSE VB*=*VB*+LEFT*(I*,3> : 

GOTO 110 

120 CLS 

130 YOU=l 

140 PRINT" I AM "; 

150 PRINT RM*(YOU) 

160 PRINT"I CAN SEE: ":F=0 

170 FOR 1=1 TO NO 

180 IF INT(OB(I) ><>INT(YOU) THEN 
200 

190 PRINT " "OBS(I):F=l 

200 NEXT: IF F=0 THEN PRINT" NOT 

HING INTERESTING" 

210 PRINT"YOU CAN GO: " 

220 FOR I=1T06 

230 IF D(YOU, I)<>0 THEN PRINT" « 
" D*(I); 
240 NEXT 
250 PRINT 

260 PRINT STRINGS (32, 61 ) ; 

270 INPUT "WHAT SHOULD I DO"; IS 

280 IF IS=""THEN270 ELSE IF IS=" 

LOOK" THEN CLS: GOTO 140 

282 IF IS="QUIT" OR IS="END" THE 

^ END —Continued on Next Page 

^ r for tetters and 

documeots 3^ o9 e. searcj. Vrt* or 

Tout, ^^^^ 

.Versa* &easN-« atic pago9. mucVl 
.ctification. • footings. • 

a od text ed-tor ^5 



CALL 

OR 
WRITE 

FOR 




COMPUTERWARE 




Dept. C • Box 668- 
68£>9 Specialists Encinrtas, CA 92024 • (714) 436-3512 

Compulerware is a trademark of Computerware 



Page 50 



The RAINBOW 



August, 1982 



AOVMAKER - from Page 49 



284 IF I*="SAVE" THEN 7010 

286 IF I*="LOAD" THEN 7070 

287 IF I *=" OBJECT" THEN 9000 

288 IF I*="ROOM" THEN 9100 

290 IF LEFT* (I*, 2) -"60" THEN PRI 
NT "USE SINGLE LETTERS TO I ND I CAT 
E DIRECTION (EXAMPLE, N=NORTH) " 
: GOTO260 

300 IF LEFT*(I*,3K>"INV"THEN 36 
0 

310 PRINT"I AM CARRYING: ":F=0 
320 FOR I-1T0 NO 

330 IF OB(I)— 1THEN PRINT OB* ( I ) 
JF-1 

340 NEXT: IF F-0 THEN PRINT"NOTHI 
NG" 

350 GOTO 260 

360 IF LEFT* < I*, 5) <> "SCORE "THEN 
430 

370 T=0:Y»0 

380 FOR 1-1 TO NO 

390 FOR L=1T0 LEN (OB* ( I ) ) 

400 IF MID*(OB*(I) ,L, 1>»"*"THEN 

T=T+1:IF OB(I)=YOU OR 0B(I)=-1TH 

EN Y-Y+l 

410 NEXT: NEXT 

420 PRINT"OUT OF" ; T; "POINTS YOU 
HAVE" ;Y: GOTO 260 




PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 



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TP-1 

PRINTER 




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Tucson, Arizona 85730 
(602) 886-1505 



THEN 


A*=' 


■GET 


THEN 


A*=* 


'DRO 


THEN 


A*-' 


'EXA 


THEN 


A*=* 


■PUS 


THEN 


A*=' 


'BRE 



430 IF LEN(I*)=1 THEN 710 

440 IF I*="HELP" THEN 800 

450 SP= I NSTR ( I * , CHR* ( 32 ) ) : I F SP= 

0 THEN PR I NT "TRY USING TWO WORD 

COMMANDS. " :GOTO260 

460 V*=LEFT*(I*,SP-1> :0*=MID*(I* 

,SP+1> 

470 A*=LEFT* ( V* , 3 ) : B*=LEFT* (O* , 3 

) 

500 IF A*="TAK" 

501 IF A*= "LEA" 
IF A*- "LOO" 
IF A*- "MOV" 

504 IF A*="TEA" 
600 V=(INSTR(VB«, A*>+2> /3: IF V< 1 
THEN CLS: PR I NT "SORRY, I JUST DO 
N'T KNOW HOW TO": PR I NT V*" ANYTH 
ING. ":GOTO 140 

610 0= ( I NSTR (OB*, B* > +2) /3: IF 0< 1 
THEN CLS: PR I NT "SORRY, I JUST DO 
N'T SEE ANY ":PRINT O*" HERE . " : G 
OTO140 

700 IF LEN(I*)>1 THEN 1000 

710 V=0:CLS:IF I*="N"AND D(YOU,l 

)<>0 THEN YOU=D(YOU, 1) :GOTO 140 

720 IF I*="S"AND D(YOU,2)<>0 THE 

N Y0U=D(Y0U,2) :GOTO 140 

730 IF I*="E"AND D(YOU,3)<>0 THE 

N Y0U=D(Y0U,3) :GOTO 140 

740 IF I*="W"AND D(YOU,4)<>0 THE 

N YOU=D(YOU,4) : GOTO 140 

750 IF I*="U"AND D(YOU,5)<>0 THE 

N Y0U=D(Y0U,5) :GOTO 140 

760 IF I*="D"AND D(YOU,6)<>0 THE 

N Y0U=D(Y0U,6) : GOTO 140 

770 GOTO 1000 

800 ************************** 
810 ****** HELP SECTION ****** 
820 ************************** 

880 PR I NT" TOUGH LUCK! JUST KEEP 

TRYING! ":GOTO260 
1000 F=0:IF OB(0)=YOU THEN F-l E 
LSE IF OB(0)=-l THEN F=2 
1002 ON V GOTO 1100,1200,1300,14 
00, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900,2000 
,2100,2200 

1010 IF LEN(I*)-1 THENPR I NT " I CA 
N'T GO THAT WAY!"tGOTO 140. 
1020 PR I NT "I DON'T UNDERSTAND WH 
AT YOU ARE TELLING ME. " : GOTO260 
1100 '*** GET *** 

1102 IF F=2 THEN PR I NT "I ALREADY 

HAVE IT! ":GOTO260 
1104 IF F=0 THEN PRINT" I DON'T S 
EE THAT HERE. ":GOTO260 
1106 IF CA=>MX THEN PRINT" I CAN' 
T CARRY ANYTHING ELSE ! " : GOTO260 
1199 OB(0>— l:PRINT"OK, I GOT IT 
.":CA=CA + 1:GOTO260 _ Continued on Page 52 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 51 



Spectral Associates 

First Annual 

Graphic Game Contest 

TO WRITE A MACHINE LANGUAGE HIGH 
RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS GAME FOR 

THE COLOR COMPUTER 

First Prize $2,000 

(And the coveted PRISM Trophy) 

The Prism Trophy is a new award which will be much-coveted in years to 
come. The winning game will be published under contract with Spectral 
A ssociates. 

Second Prize $500 
Third Prize $200 

The submission deadline isNovember 15, 1982. Winners will be notified 
by December 1, 1982. Formal announcement of the winners will be 
made in the January, 1983, issue of the RAINBOW. 

To enter, mail entries to Spectral Associates, P. O. Box 99715, Tacoma, 
Wa 98499. Further information available by writing or calling Spectral at 
(206) 565-8483. 

*** Winner f 0 b e selected by a panel of respected judges*** 

Employees of SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES and their families are prohibited from entering the contest! 

Games which are submitted, win prizes and are subsequently published by 
SPECTRAL ASSOCIA TES will receive full royalties and full author recognition 
will be given. Royalties will be paid in addition to the prize money. 



Page 52 



The RAINBOW 



August, 1982 



AOVMAKER - from Page 50 

1200 '*** DROP *** 

1201 IF F=2 THEN PRINT'OK, I DRO 
PPED IT.": C A=C A- 1 : OB ( 0 ) = YOU : ELS 
E PRINT" I DON'T HAVE IT." 

1299 GOTO 260 

1300 »*** OPEN *** 

1301 IF F-0 THEN PRINT" I DON'T S 
EE IT HERE. " : GOTO260 

1399 PR I NT "SORRY, IT DOES NOT OP 
EN. ":GOTO260 

1400 '*** CLOSE *** 

1401 IF F=0 THEN PRINT" I CAN'T C 
LOSE ANYTHING THAT I CAN'T SEE 

OR DON'T HAVE. ":GOTO260 

1499 PRINT" I TRIED, BUT IT DOESN 
'T CLOSE . " : GOTO260 

1500 '*** EXAMINE *** 

1501 IF F=0 THEN PRINT" I DON'T S 
EE ANYTHING LIKE THAT AROUND HE 
RE. ":GOTO260 

1599 PR I NT "NOTHING SPECIAL ABOUT 
IT. ":GOTO260 

1600 '*** PUSH *** 

1 699 PR I NT " NOTH I NG HAPPENED . " : GO 
TO260 

1700 '*** BREAK *** 

1701 IF F=0 THEN PR I NT " NOTH I NG L 
IKE THAT AROUND HERE THAT I CA 
N BREAK. ":GOTO260 



1799 PR I NT "I TRIED, BUT I COULDN 
"T BREAK IT":GOTO260 

1800 '*** ENTER *** 

1801 IF F=0 THEN PRINT" I DON'T S 
EE ANYTHING LIKE THAT AROUND HE 
RE. ":GOTO260 

1899 PRINT"! TRIED TO ENTER BUT 
COULDN' T. " : GOTO260 

1900 '*** READ *** 

1901 IF F=0 THEN PRINT" I DON'T S 
EE I T HERE . " : GOTO260 

1999 PRINT "NOTHING SPECIAL": GOT 
0260 

2000 '*** LOAD *** 

2001 IF F<>2 THEN PRINT" I DON'T 
HAVE IT.": GOTO260 

2099 PRINT " I TRIED, BUT NOTHING 
HAPPENED . " : GOTO260 

2100 '*** RUN *** 

2199 PR I NT " DON ' T BE RIDICULOUS!" 
: GOTO260 

2200 '*** SELL *** 

2299 IF F<>2 THEN PR I NT "I DON'T 
HAVE IT TO SELL . " : GOTO260 
3000 ' *******DIRECTIONS****M 
3010 DATA NORTH, SOUTH, EAST, WEST, 
UP, DOWN 

4000 '****««« ROOMS «>*>«*« 

4999 DATA END 

5000 ****** OBJECTS ***** 



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Wish you had Lower Case? 

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What does it 
provide? 



The LCA-47 is a small PC board {1.9 x 3.6 in.) that plugs into your computer's main PC board: leaves the expansion con- 
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Installation is quick and simple: no cutting or soldering required. 

Fully assembled, tested, and guaranteed for 1 full year. 

Two switches provided on board: one to enable or disable the lowercase. The other to invert the entire screen (light 
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MC and VISA welcome. 



August, 1982 

5999 DATA END 

6000 '****** VERBS ****** 

6010 DATA GET, DROP, OPEN, CLOSE, EX 
AM I NE , PUSH , BREAK , ENTER , READ , LOAD 
, RUN, SELL 

6999 DATA END 

7000 '****« SAVE/ LOAD ******** 
70 1 0 G0SUB7 1 30 : OPEN " O " , DV , " DATA " 
7020 PRINT#DV,YOU 

7030 FOR X=l TO NO 
7040 PRINT#DV,OB<X) 
7050 NEXT X 

7060 CLOSE: CLS: GOTO 140 

7070 G0SUB7 1 30 : OPEN " I " , DV , " DATA " 

7080 INPUT#DV,YOU 

7090 FOR X=l TO NO 

7100 I NPUT#DV , OB ( X ) : NEXT X 

7110 IF EOF<DV) THEN CLOSE 

7120 CLS: GOTO 140 

7130 CLS: PRINT" INDICATE DEVICE T 
0 BE USED: " 

7140 PR I NT: PR I NT" C - CASSETTE 

D - DISK" 
7150 PRINT: INPUT "YOUR CHOICE";DV 
* 

7160 IF DV*="D" THEN DV=1 ELSE I 
F DV*="C" THEN DV=-1 ELSE 7150 
7170 PR I NT: PR I NT "PRESS ANY KEY W 
HEN THE DEVICE IS READY. " 
7180 IF INKEY*=""THEN7180 ELSE R 
ETURN 

8000 ' ***ELIMINATE OBJECT FROM 
8010 ' OBJECT LIST 
8020 MID* (OB*, 0*3-2, 3)=" 
8030 RETURN 

9000 I NPUT " KE Y WORD ( S ) " ; X * 

9010 FOR X=l TO NO 

9020 IF INSTR(OB*(X) , X*)=0 THEN 

9050 

9025 IF OB*(X)="END" THEN PRINT" 
NO SUCH OBJECT" :GOTO260 
9030 CLS: PR I NT "OBJECT NO. "X 
9032 PRINT OB*(X) 
9034 PRINT "IN ROOM NO. "OB(X) 
9036 IF 0B(X)=-1THEN PRINT" IN 
INVENTORY" ELSEPRINT " ";RM*( 
OB(X) ) 

9040 IF INKEY*=""THEN9040 
9050 NEXT X:GOTO260 
9100 CLS: I NPUT " KEYWORD (S) " ; I* 
9110 FOR X=1T0NR 

9115 IF INSTR(RM*(X) , I*)=0THEN92 
00 

9120 PR I NT "ROOM NO. "X ":.".. 

9121 PRINT RM*(X): PRINT STRING* ( 

31, "=") 

9122 FOR D=1T06:IF D(X,D)O0THEN 
PRINT D*<D) ": ": PRINT" "RM*<D< 

X,D)>" - M D(X,D) 

9123 NEXT D 



The RAINBOW Page 53 

9125 IF RM*(X)="END" THEN PRINT" 
NO SUCH ROOM " : GOTO260 
9 1 28 PR I NT : PR I NT " OB JECTS : " 
9130 FOR D=1T0 NO 
9132 IF OB(D)=X THEN PRINT " 
OB* (D) ;: PRINT" -"D 
9134 NEXT D 

9140 IF INKEY*=""THEN9140 
9200 CLS: NEXT X 
9210 GOTO 260 



II 



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The RAINBOW 



Page 54 

Last of A Series... 

Here Is How To Pick The NFL Winners This Season 



August 1982 



By John 

This is it! NFL football has arrived! Pre-Season action 
starts this month and the NFL regular season begins 
September 12. 

Even if you haven't been following our series, this 
concluding part offers some real important information for 
football fans. Maybe we've saved te best for last? 

Anyway, we intend to discuss different prediction 
strategies, and our game picks f or the first few weeks of the 
1982 season. Of course, we are using our 80C to make these 
predictions and we will tell you how as we go along. 

For those who have been following the series, we conclude 
our final part with all the information you will need to 
collect and enter data f or the programs we presened in Parts 
I and II (the RAINBOW, June and July, 1982). I hope you 
have them running by now, because you can practice your 
data collection with the NFL pre-season games. 

From last year, we made the observaton that the NFL 
season seems to play very similar to a chess game. It appears 
to have deinite Opening, Mid-Season, and End-Season 
characteristics. Each has to be treated differently, so we will 
take them one at a time. 

Opening Season Strategy 

(Weeks 1-4) 

Here's what we learned from last season: 

The big power teams from the previous year tend to 

continue their winning during the opening weeks of the 

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For example, the most powerful teamsafterthe 1980 NFL 
season were Philadelphia, Dallas, Atlanta, and Los Angeles, 
in that order. If you watched the performance of these teams 
for the first four weeks of the 1981 season, this is what you 
would have seen: Philadelphia 4-0, Dallas 3-1, Atlanta 3-1, 
and Los Angeles 2-2. As a group, they won 12 out of 16or75 
percent for all games selected for the first month of the 
season. That's not too bad! By the way, these figures also 
include the spread. Will this repeat in the 1982 season? My 
80C wil be watching. 

Favorites also seem to have an advantage during the early 
weeks of the season. At least that's the way it was last year. 
Through the first four weeks of the '81 campaign, the 
underdog only won 38 percent of all games played. 
Favorites won 54 percent and the rest were "even" games. 
Since home teams tend to be favored in the early season, that 
could account for this statistic. 

Home teams also tend to win with a higher percentage 
during the early weeks of the season. When you think about 
it, it is logical. Everybody is psyched up! The home team is 
ready to go. It's the first few weeks of the season. The home 
town crowd is going nuts! It's got to be hard for the visiting 
team in this situation. In the '81 NFLseason, the home team 
won 59 percent of all games through week Four. 

Mid-Season Strategy 

(Weeks 5-13) 

By the fifth week of the season, it's time to start using the 
data you have collected with your 80C from the four 
previous weeks. Opening season strategy can't be used 
anymore because the regular season is well underway by 
Week 5. 

Starting with the NFL REPORT for Week 4, we take 
each Team Summary sheet and pair it with that particular 
team's opponent next Sunday. By Tuesday you can look at 
the sports page of your morning paper and get the "Iine"for 
every game to be played next weekend. 

The first thing we do with the "line" is record it by the 
team name on their summary sheet. For example, if 
Pittsburgh was playing Dallas, and the line was Pittsburgh 
+5, we would mark a +5 by Pittsburgh Steelers on their team 
summary sheet. Next, we would add the "line" to the Power 
Factor shown on the sheet. That will give you Pittsburgh's 
Power Factor for that game. Subtract the Power Factor for 
Pittsburgh from the Dallas Power Factor and you will have 
the Power Factor Difference for that game. Do this for each 
of the 14 games to be played. 

When you have calculated the Power Factor Difference 
for each game, identify the four games with the largest 
number. These are your best games to predict winners. 

In following the above procedure, you have selected four 
games with the largest team mismatch. The process you have 
used took into account the line for that game, the number of 
wins for each team, the total offensive points scored by each 
team , and the total point allowed by each team. It's a 
powerful selection process. 

Does this selection process work? Yes it does. A and you 
can check it. If you have the NFL RE PORT program from 
Part II of this series, including the '81 season data, you could 
sit down and perform this procedure yourself for Week 5 
through 13. If you did, here is what you would find: 

You would have picked 24 winners correctly, 1 1 
incorrectly, and tied I. That's being right two out of every 
three times for nine consecutive weeks! 

—Continued on Page 56 




August 1982 



The RAJNBOW 



Page 55 





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August 1982 

NFL — from Page 54 

Don't try to use this procedure to guess winners for all 
games. It doesn't work. As the Power Factor Difference 
(PFD) becomes smaller, so does your ability to correctly 
pick the winner of a given game. As a rule I feel pretty 
comfortable guessing a winner if the PFD is 10 or greater. If 
the PFD is less than five, I would say the game is too close to 
call. 

We looked at two other mid-season strategies that didn't 
work out. Maybe by discussing them we can save you some 
time. 

Since the NFL REPORT ranks the teams by number of 
spread-wins, one strategy would be to say that the top 
spread winner will continue to win in the following week. It 
doesn't work! If you would have done this for Weeks 5 
through 13, you would have correctly predicted only 48 
percent of the games. That's about as good as a coin-toss. 

Another way to look at the Spread Ranking each week is 
to say that the bottom teams will continue to lose next week. 
That doesn't work either. You would have been 1 l-for-26or 
42 percent correct with this strategy. 

For the moment, it appears that the Power Factor 
Difference strategy is the best to follow. If anyone finds a 
better one, let me know, or give me the phone number where 
you can be reached in the Bahamas. 

End-Season Strategy 

(Weeks 14-16) 

The Power Factor Difference strategy did not hold up 
well in the last three weeks of the season. It predicted only 
five out of the last 12 games selected. 

A number of factors can be attributed to this poor 
performance. Player injuries were taking their toll. Our 
model doesn't see this. Some teams were startng to "pace" 
themselves for the playoffs. Some games were meaningless 
since neither team had a chance for the playoffs. 

The end of the 1981 season played very strange. 
Philadelphia lost three out of their last four games. Dallas 
lost to the Giants in the last week of the season. San 
Francisco didn't cover the spread in a game with the Saints 
in Week 16. Clearly, some "coasting" does occur as the 
teams look ahead to the playoffs. For this reason we are not 
offering a specific end-season strategy, but we do intend to 
make more changes to our model in 1982 that should hep 
develop a strategy for the final weeks of the season. 

For 1982, we are adding a Home Field Bonus. Some 
teams like Detroit, Tampa Bay, and San Francisco played 
very well at home and the present model will be modified to 
reflect this. 

In addition, more calculations will be done using spread- 
win figures rather than straight-up wins since winning with 
the spread is what counts. 

Picks 

Here's the sectionyou havebeen waitingfor. This is where 
we use the 80C*s IC's to predict the future. Have no fear, we 
have technology on our side! Anyway, based on our careful 
analysis of the 1981 season this is what we see. 

In all cases these picks include the spread. We estimated 
what the spread might be for each game before making our 
selectins. Granted, this could cause some errors, but we 
don't think it will. Our selections were made using an 
average point-spread of 4.6 points per game. When the final 
spreads are established for each week, add all points given 
and divide by the number of games to calculate the average 
point spread. If you come out higher, I would look for more 
underdog wins. If lower, look for more wins by favorites. 

Week One — Remember our Opening Season strategy? It 
says go with strong teams early in the season. Go with 



August, 1982 



The 



favorites. Go with home teams. Talk about moons being in 
phase. 

San Francisco, Cincinnati, and Philadelphia — all strong 
teams from last year, all will be favorites, all are playing at 
home for Week I of the season. I've got to go with these three 
for Week !. 

If you are looking for a fourth pick, I like Detroit at home 
against Chicago. Detroit played very well at home last year, 
6-2 with the spread. I will be watching this game to see if that 
trend will continue. 

Why not Dallas? Where is Dallas? They were strong last 
year. They are playing at home. They are playing at home 
for Monday Night football. You said, in Part I that the 
home team won 75 percent of the time on Monday Night 
football last year. Why not Dallas? 

Dallas is an excellent example of a point I want to make. 
That's why I made such a big issue about it. Dallas is always 
a strong team, and last year they were great at home. Great is 
an understatement. Straight-up they were 8-0 last year at 
home. But when you consider the spread, it's a different 
story. Then they were 5-3 at home. That's why you need your 
80C. It doesn't forget. It cranks out those numbers with no 
bias. True, Dallas may win, and cover the spread, but the 
model says the other games are more "predictable". 

Week Two — This week is tough. All the big power teams 
that were playing home openers f or Week I are on the road. 
That gives me an uneasy feeling when making picks for this 
week. Here goes. . . 

I think the best pick is Miami at home to Baltimore. 
Baltimore, with a new coach, will have a very tough time 
playing Miami in their home opener. It's safe to say that 
Miami will win the game, but will they cover the spread? I 
think they will. 

My next two picks might open some eyes. I like Tampa 
Bay, at home, over Washington. I favor Tampa Bay in this 



RAINBOW Page 57 

game f ora surprising reason. Next to San Francisco, Tampa 
Bay had the best at-home performance against the spread in 
the 1981 NFL season. I'm going with that fact. I think they 
will be very tough at home during the early weeks of the 
season. 

For my third pick I like Philadelphia over Cleveland, at 
Cleveland. The first two games for Philadelphia should say a 
lot about their performance for the rest of the 1982 season. 
In these games we will find out if they are on a strong 
comeback, or if their losses at the end of the '8 1 season were 
a sign of things to come. I think they will come back strong. 

If you need a f ourth pick f or Week 2, here is a good one to 
watch. I pick the Jets over New England, at New England. 
Here's an interesting fact that my 80C told me about the 
Jets: They were the most powerful team in the NFL for the 
last half of the '8 1 season. They won more games by a wider 
margin than anybody. The early performance of the Jets will 
also be interesting in the 1982 season. 

Week Three — By this week we can return to the same 
pattern we used in our Week 1 picks. Our top picks are San 
Francisco and Philadelphia. Both of these teams return 
home for Week 3. Like I said before, my 80C likes strong, 
home team favorites in the early weeks. 

For my third pick I have to go with the Jets over 
Baltimore, at Baltimore. I think that Baltimore will improve 
this year, but if the Jets play like they did at the end of last 
season, they will be hard to stop. 

My 80C's calculations really favor Cincinnati over 
Cleveland, at Cleveland, for the third week Monday Night 
game. I will take Cincinnati also, but as my last pick for the 
week. After all, Cleveland did beat Cincinnati once last year. 
This game, with the spread, should be close. 

**** 

Well that's the picks. All 12 of them. You can find out how 
I did by watching the NFL with me. _^ mi Qn ^ p ; 



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Page 58 The RAINBOW 

NFL — from Page 57 

If you want to make your own picks, and don't have 32K 
or a printer, I will send you a copy of the NFL REPORTiov 
week 16 of last year. Send $5.95 to Box 1 1224, Pittsburgh, 
PA 15238. Since it has all the statistics from last season, it 
will be helpful for the first few weeks of the '82 season. If you 
are going to use the programs that were published in Parts I 
and II, it's time to talk about how we collect date for them. 

Data Collection 

In Part I of this series we gave you a program that would 
produce the schedule of gamesfor any week of the 1982 NFL 
season. It's time to show you how we use these schedule 
sheets to collect data. If you do not have our program, you 
can make your won schedule sheet by following our 
instructions. 

Let'sstart with the first week of theseason f oran example. 
First, get a schedule of all games to be played that week, or 
generate one using our program from Part I. Next, check the 
sports page of your local paper, and find the "spreads" for 
the games to be played. These should appear about four or 
five days before the season begins. Using the spread 
information, identify the underdogs (those teams being 
given points) and add this information to your schedule 
sheet. I like to write them next to the team name on my 
schedule sheet. 

If Pittsburgh as an Underdog, being given 5 points, I 
would show, "Pittsburgh Steelers +5" on my schedule sheet. 
Do this for all games to be played. If a game is some 
fractional number of points like +3!/2, I round-up to the next 
highest number, +4. At first I was cautious about doing this 
because I thought it might falsely affect the outcome of a 
game. There is no need to worry. For all 225 games played 
last year, this procedure only caused a conflict in one game, 
and I went back and rounded down instead of up to keep the 
outcome correct. 



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SS-001 -> Fairv Tales SS-004 -> Current Events 

SS-002 -> Sing Along SS-006 -) Adventure/Sci-Fi 

SS-003 -> X-rated SS-007 -> Potpourri 



Each story tape is 19.95, 10Z off for 3 or tore itorv 
tapes. 

Ohio residents add 5.51 sales tax. 

Add 11.00 per cassette for postage and handling. 

Dealer inquiries invited. 

— Sugar Software 

2153 Leah Lane 
Reynol dsbur g, Oh 43068 

(614) 861-0565 



August, 1982 

If the game is shown as "even", I record the letters "EV" 
beside both teams on my schedule sheet. There are usually 
about one or two "even" games every week so don't forget 
this procedure. 

When you have completed the above, it's time to make 
your picks for the week. If you are using my schedule sheet, 
you will see a capital "G" and "S" on either side of the teams. 
This stands for Game and Spread. As you make your picks 
for the week, just circle the appropriate "G"and "S"foreach 
team you think will win the Game and Spread. 

The numbers at the top of the schedule indicate the 
number of games played that week. There is a space to the 
left of each number for you to keep track of how many 
games you have guessed correctly. There are also numbers at 
the bottom of the schedule for you to total the results for 
that week. If you are not using my sheet, you can make one 
and follow these procedures. Good luch with your picks! 

Your next job is to collect the final scores for all games 
played. I either wtch the TV sports updates, or get them 
from the Monday morning paper. Next, I write each team 
score on my schedule sheet. I place the score for each team 
between their "G" and "S" on the sheet. 

Finally, go over your schedule sheet and place an "X" over 
the "G" and "S" for the correct team that won the Game and 
Spread. Do this for all games played. You can tell very 
quickly how well you picked the winners. Any "G" or "S" 
that was circled, and has an "X", is a correct guess. Total 
your schedule sheet and record the numbers at the bottom. 

You have now collected all data that will be needed by the 
NFL REPOR T program. That's the one we gave you in Part 
II of this series. So now, it's time to learn how this software 
accepts data. 

Data Entry 



The NFL REPORT program that was listed in Part II 
also contained all data from the 1981 NFL season. Before we 

—Continued on Page 60 



ITR5-B0 is a trademark of Tandv Corp. 



introduce*. . . 



Auto Run ii futility proqraa for thi TRS-BOt 
Exttndtd Basic Color Coiputtr. It 11 uitd to idd 
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August, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 59 




■pj .... 




puter Word Processor 




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requires absolutely no hardware modifications 



TELEWRITER 

Telewriter is the powerful word processor 
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screenplays, newsletters. It is also a 
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51 x 24 DISPLAY 

The Color Computer is an incredibly 
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text editing it has some major drawbacks. 
The small 32 character by 16 line screen 
format shows you too little of the text and, 
combined with its lack of lowercase 
letters, bears little resemblance to the way 
text really looks on the page. Reverse 
video in place of lower case just adds 
confusion. 

Telewriter eliminates these shortcomings 
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By using software alone, Telewriter 
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FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

The Telewriter editor is designed for 
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— Color Computer News. Jan. 1982 



You can copy, move or delete any size 
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FORMAT FEATURES 

When it comes time to print out the 
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These parameters can be set before 
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. . . truly a state of the art word processor . . t 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



Telewriter will automatically number 
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You can print all or any part of the text 
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Because Telewriter lets you output 
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CASSETTE AND DISK I/O 

Because Telewriter makes using cassette 
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AVAILABLE NOW 

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Telewriter costs $49.95 including shipping 
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MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America. Inc *aiw«o* 



RAINBOW 



August, 1982 



Page 60 The 
NFL — from Page 58 

can use it for the 1982 season, two changes must be made. 
First, change line 690 to read: 
690 NEXT: PRINT#-2, CHR$(12): IF W=0 THEN END 
ELSE GOSUB 795 

Next, we must remove all data for the 1981 season from 
the program. This can be done by doing the following: DEL 
1500-2060. That will do the trick. Your program is now 
ready for the '82 NFL season. 

The NFL REPOR T generates its own data sheets. Each 
week of the season it will produce the REPORT for that 
week and the data sheet you will need for next week. 

To generate the first data sheet for the season, load the 
NFL /?£7>O/?rprogramonyour80Cand type RUN. When 
it asks, "How many weeks are completed?", enter 0 (zero). 
The program will then generate a REPORT for Week 0 
which will only contain a cover page and the data sheet you 
will need for Week I. 

When your schedule sheet for the first week's games is 
complete, you can begin to transfer information to your 
data sheet for Week I. 

Notice how the data sheet assigns the line numbers for the 
DATA lines. It starts with line 1500. Then, for each team, 
you must record the field it played on (H or A), what its 
score was, what the score of its opponent was, whether it 
Won, Lost or Tied (W/L/T) with the spread, the point 
spread for that game, whether the team ws an Underdog, 
Favorite, or Even (U,F,or E), and the team number of the 
opponent it played. 

The next task is to type this information into your 80C. 
Before we do this, get the program listing I gave you in Part 
II Look at line 1500 and see how the first seven lines of the 
data sheet turned into line 1500. You can read line 1500 out 
loud. Team number 1, played at home, scored 33 points, 
allowed 37 points, lost as a 9 point favorite, to team number 
12. team 2, played at home, scored 14 points, etc. 

The way I've structured the data sheet requires most 
information to be entered twice. This redundant data entry 
allows the NFL REPORT program to cross-check your 
data entry. After all, we do not want this program running 
with bad data. 

ERROR MESSAGES 

If you enter data like I do, you will have some 
typographical errors. When the REPORT program finds 
them, you will get one of the following error messages:, 

ARE YOUR WALKING FINGERS GETTING FOOTSORE ? 

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those tired fingers a rest. With RAINBOW ON TAPE, you'll be able to spend your time enjoying programs Instead of just typing... typing... typing 
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***DATA ERROR T(Y) — Y AT WEEK x AND TEAM 
y: The REPORT program knows it will see data for all 28 
teams in the order shown on thedatasheet. It loops through 
the data beginning with Team I. It would then expect to see 
data for Team 5 on the fifth pass. If this does not happen, 
because you left a team out, or got out of numerical order, 
this error message will occur. 

♦♦♦TEAM y PLAYED ITSELF IN WEEK x: This error 
message will be generated it the Team Number and the 
Opponent Number are the same. 

♦♦♦DATA ERROR NO — 406 IN WEEK x: If you look 
at the data sheet under the Opponent Number column, you 
will see all team numbers from I to 28. If you add all the 
numbers f rom I to 28, they equal 406. If they don't, you left a 
number out, or you used the same one twice in that column. 

♦♦♦DATA ERROR ST — SO IN WEEK x: This means 
the sum of the Team Scores does not equal the sum of the 
Opponent Scores. You have the wrong score-pair in there 
somewhere. 

♦♦♦DATA ERROR HG — AG IN WEEK x: This means 
the number of Home Games does not equal the number of 
Away Game. You should have 14 H's and 14 A's in this 
column. 

That's all the error messages. If your data can get through 
these checks it must be good for the program to use. You are 
ready! Bring on the NFL season. 



Final Notes 

The NFL REPOR T program that was listed in Part II 
requires 32K and will not run from disk. 

Every week you will be adding new DATA lines to your 
NFL REPORT program. Be sure and keep a backup copy. 
Trying to recover all that data due to a mid-season mistake 
would be a real job. 

Finally, I want to publicly thank Charlie Roslund, Diane 
Storrick and Lonnie Falk for their discussion, reviews, 
support and comments. Without their valued input, this 
series would not have been possible. 

I hope you have found this series both interesting and 
entertaining. From this side of the keyboard, this series has 
fceen fun. We enjoy football and our 80C. Maybe we've 
helped you to do the same. If we have, this series has been a 
sucess. 



YES! Sign me up for RAINBOW ON TAPE. I want: 

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August, 1982 

Software Review... 

COLORHYTHM A Fine 
Hi-Res Biorhythm Program 

It only takes a little creative programming to make 
Extended Color Basic live up to its potential as an excellent 
way to give graphic display of information. And 
COLORHYTHM is a good example of that sort of creative 
programming. 

Yes, there are a great number of programs out to do 
biorhythms. The calculations lend themselves to a computer 
because they are complicated for humans to do but really 
very easy f or a computer. So, frankly, it is not the getting of 
the information that is difficult — it is the presenting of it in 
an attractive and readable way. 

fh vsi Oil 

i- I'M i i" 1 i iNHI 



The RAINBOW 



Page 61 



LN i'E! 



i i i 



t i. 



i i 1 1. 



+ 1 ► 



♦ ■ • fc i r + ' 4.' 



T I B 3 H B b* 1 W n f \ T 

a a i e? 

D D D ODD D D 1 3 D D U D 

Fl H H H I I H H Fl R H Fi H R 

V Y Y Y V T Y Y Y Y Y Y T 



COLORHYTH Ms display is on the high resolution 
screen, and it gives you the wavy lines of emotional, 
intellectual and physical highs and lows in three colors 
across a grid starting with "today" and ending two weeks 
later. After you digest that, (and it is easy to do with the 
graphic presentation) you are switched back to the text 
screen for an analysis of just how you stand "today." 

It is a nice package. One could easily add a screen print 
routine and have the chart print out on a line printer. 
(Harmonycs, P.O. Box 1573, Salt Lake City, UT 841 10- 
1573, $9.95) 



Coil Out The Interference 

If you have some trouble with interference from your 
printer, disk drives or the like showing up on your TV set 
screen, try making a small coil with the first foot or two of 
the cable that leads from the back of your 80C to the RF 
modulator on your TV. 

Its always best to keep cords and cables out of the way of 
one another, but sometimes you just can't. Even if you can, 
you might have some interference, but making a small circle 
with the TV cable may make things a lot better for you. 

That coil has some sort of technical name, but no matter. 
In a whole lot of cases, it will work to reduce or eliminate 
stray electronic "noise" on your screen. 



Software Review... 

ALPHA -DR A W Routine 
Letters Graphic Screens 

You can produce any of the characters on the 80C 
keyboard by simply loading a routine called ALPHA- 
DRA W. 

This routine can be used from a BASIC program by 
simply calling it with a GOSUB statement. By usinga couple 
of variables which the subroutine recognizes, you can set up 
any letters or characters you wish, have them start or stop 
where you wish and, for that matter, have them go up or 
down the screen. In addition, you can set both color and size 
by use of the options available to you in the DRAW 
command. 

The subroutine comes to you with a demonstration 
program, and it is this program that really helps you 
understand what is going on. We wish the documentation 
were a little longer on the actual how-to of ALPHA- 
DRAW, but, other than that there is no problem with this 
software. 

As an added bonus, you also get a tape merge program 
with ALPHA-DRA W that allows you to merge it (or any 
program or subroutine) with a "main" program. Since 
BASIC does not have a cassette merge, this is a real plus. 

Although it requires you to do a small bit of setting up, 
this utility subroutine is easy to get the hang of and can add 
some extra dimensions to your programming. 

(Custom Software Engineering, 807 Minuteman 
Causeway, Cocoa Beach, FL 32931, $8.95 plus $1 
shipping) 



STDRfTl 





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Page 62 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



The Dragon's Byte.. 

Dragons Are Nice Folks, Too. . .Almost All 1,440 Of Them! 




By Bill Nolan 
Rainbow FRP Columnist 



(Mr. Nolan, an experienced Dungeonmaster in a popular 
fantasy-role playing game on a weekly basis, is the 
President of Prickly- Pear Software.) 




Hello again, and welcome to August. Please take note of 
the brand new name at the head of this column. This was the 
Grand Prize winner in our "Name the Column" contest. 
Like I mentioned when the contest was announced, there 
were no other prizes in this contest. Just like when you fight 
a Dragon, you either win or you don't — there is no such 
thing as second place. 

The winner of this Grand Prize (a $50 gift certificate from 
Prickly-Pear Software) was Todd Pittman of Chittenango, 
New York. Thanks, Todd. And, thanks, too, to the others 
who entered our contest. 





This month I'm going to talk about Dragons. Those big 
guys are sure hard to fight (especially if you're first level), but 
they can be even harder for the Dungeon Master to deal 
with. Why? 

Well, first of all, there are lots of different kinds. The evil 
Dragons come in red, blue, green, white, and black, while 
the good Dragons come in gold, silver, brass, bronze, and 
copper. The colors are for evil Dragons, and the metallics 
are for good. And that's not even counting the one-of-a-kind 
Dragons. 

Naturally each type of Dragon has it's own special 
powers, number of hit dice, and other characteristics. Then 
there is the question of age. Some Dragons are babies, some 
are ancient, and the rest fall somewhere between. The age 
will certainly have an effect on the other characteristics of 
the Dragon, and all this must be calculated after you 
randomly determine the age by random dice roll. 

But, we're not done yet. Not even close. How big is this 
Dragon? Well, each kind (remember all those colors and 
metals?) comes in three sizes — small, average, and huge — 
and this must be randomly decided. Don't forget to make 
the necessary adjustments to the other qualities after you 
check the size. 

Where does all this leave us? Well, that's ten species, eight 
ages, and three sizes of Dragons. My trusty 80C says that 
we're up to 240 possible different Dragons. I guess that 
should cover it! 

Not quite. Some dragons can talk and some can't — so we 
need another random dice roll to find out if this particular 
dragon is one of the gabby ones. The percentage of talking 
dragons is different f oreach species, so you better look it up. 
Now, if this dragon does talk, he may alsohavetheability to 
use spells. ( Did I say hel Maybe we better check the sex on 
this dragon.) I hope you weren't expecting that the 
percentage of speaking dragons that can use spells would be 
the same for all kinds of dragons. Better look it up before 
you roll those percentile dice. 

So, we had 240 kinds, but with two sexes that makes 480. 



Add speaking and non-speaking and you're up to 960. 
Consider magic use and you add another 480. (Why not add 
another 960? Remember, those 480 non-talking dragons 
have no chance to use magic.) 

Unless I've forgotten something, it would take 1,440 
dragons before you would have to create a duplicate. 
Sometimes I think that Role-Playing games can be 
complicated. If only we were through. Actually, though, we 
have what may be the hardest part to go. 

When a character or party defeats the above-1,000 or so 
dragons, (Not hard — see below) an award of experience 
points is earned. How many points? It depends on the 
characteristics of the particular dragon in question. I 
suppose you could figure out each one individually, or you 
could write a table with 1,440 entries and just look it up. I 
didn't want to do that either, and, thus, the program below. 
Behold, DRAGONROLLER! 

You decide which species of dragon you want, or let the 
computer do it — yourchoice. It will then correctly figure out 
age, size, sex, speaking ability and magic ability. It will also 
compute the experience point value of said dragon, which 
should save you some time. Maybe lots of time. 

Once you have entered the program into your 80C, the on- 
screen prompts will lead you through the process of creating 
dragon after dragon. 

You may have noticed I said that it wasn't too tough to 
defeat a dragon. Certainly, if you are a starting first level 
character, a Kobold will give you trouble. But no party 
thinks about killing dragons until they have a few levels 
behind them. If you take a party of six or so 4th or 5th level 
characters into a dragon's lair, you should whip all over the 
poor fellow. Sure, you may not all survive, but the treasure 
for those left would be incredible! 

Everyone knows that dragons sleep on huge piles of 
thousands and thousands of gold coins, not to mention the 
jewels and magic items. Why, one good dragon lair can leave 
a character filthy rich. And the poor dragon, woebegone 
creature, really isn't able to guard all that treasure very well. 

—Continued on Page 64 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 63 



BASIC AID 



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HOVE Lets you wove and renuaber any part of your 
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Page 64 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



DRAGON — from Page 62 

When I play dragons in my dungeons, I make a few 
adjustments to even things out. 

First, my dragons usually live in family groups. After all, 
these are very intelligent creatures, in most cases smarter 
than the players, and they enjoy the company of others like 
themselves. 

Second, my dragons are never sleeping when the players 
come to kill them. I personally feel that the dragon's lack of 
alertness and tendency to be sleeping is only a rumor, and 
that they actually sleep very little. 

Third, these are very intelligent beings, some near genius 
in I.Q. I play them by asking myself how I would react in a 
given situation. For example, if I think it would be in the 
best interest of the dragon to breathe on the party (and it 
usually is!) then the dragon will breathe. I do not roll dice to 
decide this, because the dragon is plenty smart enough to 
figure this out, so that's the way to play it. 

In general, whenever a monster is intelligent, I find the 
most effective way to play them is to just put myself in their 
place, and havethem do what I would do if I were them. This 
is what role-playing is all about, and I think the DM should 
role-play the monsters. Its really the only way to give them 
the even break which they so richly deserve. 

Monsters, including my friends the dragons, get a lot of 
bad press. The standard party of players will head out at the 
drop of a hat to slay the terrible, horrible, evil monsters in 
their lair. 

Meanwhile, back at the lair, what are the terrible, 
horrible, evil monsters doing? Minding their own business, 
that's what. You know, eating, raising their little families, 
counting their hard-earned treasure. Stuff like that. 



The scenario I see goes like this: A papa Red Dragon, just 
home after a long hard day at work, is sitting down to dinner 
with Mama and the kids when his loving home is invaded! 
Suddenly fireballs are flying, arrows are slaying, the kids are 
screaming. Mama dies beside him. Then a Vorpal Sword 
named Dragonslayer cuts off his head. What a way to end a 
day. I mean, this is really an Excedrin headache. 

Then, to top it off, all these vandals loot the place, carry 
off the inheritance, smash the furniture and, once back in 
town, brag about it all to their friends. The only people 
happy about this are the player-vandals themselves. Oh, and 
of course the maiden who would have been dinner for the 
dragons. Don't you guys ever feel sorry for the monsters? 

There is one thing I have noticed. If I mention to a group 
of players that there is a dragon around, they are on their 
way to kill it. But, if the talk turns to demons in the vicinity, 
the players head out of town in another direction. 

Next month I will discuss the much-maligned demon, give 
you a program, and some ideas on how to \ise demons in 
your next campaign. The Succubiare my personal favorites. 
Delightful ladies! 

Until then, if you have any questions, write me at Prickly- 
Pear Software, 3510 S. Randi Place, Tucson, AZ 85730 or 
call (602) 886-1505. 



5 CLEAR : CLS0 : PR I NTS 1 06 , " RANDOM I Z 
ING" ; : GOTO 9000 

10 CLEAR: XX=229: GOSUB 10000: PR IN 
T340 , " DRAGON SELECTOR " ; : PR I NT07 1 
INPUT YOUR CHOICE"; :PRINTS>104, 
"1. RED" ; *PRINT5>136, "2. GREEN" \ : 



FOR I = 1 TO 1 
PRINT "I WILL NOT CRASH 
IN CLASS 

NEXT I 

^ Extended 



A L BASIC 
% 1 Color 



Computer 



Has your TRS-80 Color Computer 

READ A GOOD TAPE LATELY? 

Tryins to educate your CoCo can be a trying 
experience. Pounding on the keyboard is not 
the positive reinforcement your computer 
needs. CHROMASETTE Magazine is the civilized 
way to introduce your computer to the world 
of good software. 

With CHROMASETTE Magazine, CoCo gets 
both quantity and quality. Every month, 6 to 
8 programs arrive by First Class Mail. No need 
to type them in — CHROMASETTE Magazine 
is a cassette tape with educational, practical, utility, and game programs on it. 
Just load and run. Ah, the life of luxury! Give your computer a cultural lesson. 

Get a subscription to CHROMASETTE Magazine. 




The Bottom Line: 

1 year (12 issues) . $45 00 

6 months (6 issues) $2 5 00 

Single copies $5 00 

Calif, residents add 6% to single copies 
Overseas — add $10 to subscriptions, and $1 to 
single copies Sent AO rate. 



The Fine Print: Issues are sent First Class Mail All issues from July 81 on available 

— ask for list Programs are for the Extended BASIC model only 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp MasterCard/Visa/Gold also welcome 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 




Magazine 

PO Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 (805) 963-1066 



August, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 65 



PRINT3168, M 3. BLUE"; :PRINT3200, " 
4. BLACK"; :PRINT9232, "5. WHITE"; 
20 PR I NT3264 , " 6 - GOLD " ; : PR I NTS>29 
6, "7. SILVER"; :PRINT9328, "8. COP 
PER" ; : PRINT9360, "9. BRONZE"; :PRI 
NT339 1 , " 1 0 . BRASS " ; : PR I NT3423 , " 1 
1 . RANDOM " ; : PR I NT3457 , " " ; : I NPUT 
D: SOUND 150,1: IF D< 1 OR D>11 THE 
N CLS:GOTO 10 
30 IF D=ll THEN D=RND(10) 

32 R=RND(8):IF R<3 THEN S=1:SS=" 
SMALL": GOTO 35 

33 IF R=8 THEN S=3 : S$= " HUGE " : GOT 
0 35 

34 S=2:S*=" AVERAGE" 

35 A=RND(8):IF A=l THEN AS="VERY 
YOUNG" ELSE IF A=2 THEN AS="YOU 

NG" ELSE IF A=3 THEN A*="SUB-ADU 
LT" ELSE IF A=4 THEN AS=" YOUNG A 
DULT" ELSE IF A=5 THEN AS=" ADULT 
" ELSE IF A=6 THEN AS="OLD" ELSE 

IF A=7 THEN AS="VERY OLD" ELSE 
A*=" ANCIENT" 

40 ON D GOTO 500,1000,1500,2000, 
2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000 
500 X X= 191 :GOSUBl 0000: PRINT366,S 
*;" RED DRAGON"; : PRINT398, AS; " 

"; :HD=8+S:HP=HD*A:PRINTHD; "HIT 
DICE"; :GOSUB 8070 

510 PRINT" AC -1"; :PRINTS>162, " 

TREASURE TYPE H, S, T" ; : PRINTS 194, 

"3 ATTACKS 1-8/1-8/3-30"; 

520 PS=76:PM=41: GOSUB 8090 

530 EA=EA+2: SA=2: IF A>4 THEN SA= 

SA+2 

540 ON S GOSUB 8040, 8050, 8060: GO 
SUB 8080: GOSUB 8200: GOTO 9000 
1000 X X= 134: GOSUB 10000: PR I NT366, 
SS ; " GREEN DRAGON " ; : PR I NT398 , A* ; 

'•; :HD=6+S:HP=HD«A:PRINTHD; "H 
IT D I CE " ; : GOSUB8070 
1010 PRINT" AC 2"; :PRINTS>162, " 
TREASURE TYPE H"; :PRINT9194, "3 A 
TTACKS 1 -6/ 1 -6/2-20 " ; 
1020 PS«45:PM=20: GOSUB 8090 
1030 EA=EA+1:SA=1: IFA>4 THEN SA= 



1040 ON S GOSUB 8020, 8030, 8040: G 
OSUB 8080: GOSUB 8200 : GOTO9000 
1500 XX=175:GOSUB10000:PRINT366, 
BLUE DRAGON " ; : PR I NTS>98 , AS ; " 



•i 



"; :HD=7+S:HP=HD*A:PRINTHD; "HI 
T DICE";: GOSUB 8070 
1510 PRINT" AC 2"; :PRINT3162, " 
TREASURE TYPE H, S" ; : PRINTS) 194, "3 
ATTACKS 1-6/1 -6/3-24 " : 



1520 PS=60:PM=30: GOSUB 8090:EA=E 
A+1:SA=1:IF A>4 THEN SA=SA+2 
1530 ON S GOSUB 8030, 8040, 8050: G 
OSUB 8080: GOSUB 8200: GOTO 9000 
2000 X X=200: GOSUB 10000: PR I NTS>66, 
SS ; " BLACK DRAGON " ; : PR I NTS>98 , A* ; 

"; :HD=5+S:HP=HD«A:PRINTHD; "H 
IT DICE";: GOSUB 8070 
2010 PRINT" AC 3"; :PRINT9162, " 
TREASURE TYPE H" ; : PR I NTS 194, "3 A 
TTACKS 1-4/1-4/3-18"; 
2020 PS=30:PM=10: GOSUB 8090: EA=E 
A+ 1 : SA= 1 : I F A >4 THEN SA=SA+2 
2030 ON S GOSUB 8010, 8020, 8030: G 
OSUB 8080: GOSUB 8200 : GOTO9000 
2500 X X =207 : GOSUB 1 0000 : PR I NT366 , 
S* ; " WHITE DRAGON " ; : PR I NT398 , A* ; 

"; :HD=4+S:HP=HD*A:PRINTHD; "H 
IT DICE";: GOSUB 8070 
2510 PRINT" AC 2"; :PRINTS>162, " 
TREASURE TYPE E,0, S" ; : PRINT9194, 
"3 ATTACKS 1-4/1-4/2-16"; 
2520 PS=20:PM=5: GOSUB 8090:EA=EA 
+1:SA=1:IF A>4 THEN SA=SA+2 
2530 ON S GOSUB 8000, 8010, 8020: G 
OSUB 6080: GOSUB 8200: GOTO 9000 
3000 X X= 159: GOSUB 10000: PR I NT366, 
S*;" GOLD DRAGON " ; : PR I NT998 , AS ; " 

"; :HD=9+S:HP=HD*A:PRINTHD; "HI 
T DICE";: GOSUB 8070 

— Cjntinned on Page 67 



HARMONYCS 



P.O. tOX 1573 
SALT LAKE OTY, UTAH 

•4110*1 $79 

QAMfSffTI (4K) S7.M ^5 
Thraa gamaton ona caaaati*. FRENZY • vocabulary building word 
9*7* MASTER COOE la Ifra Matter Mind (tm). S£V*N^€LEWi 
Is a dlca gams of akM and chanca. 4^^a 

MONEY MINDS* N (ItK) M M ^ 
Monay MimSar It Is a casaatfs basad paraonal Wnanca program. Up 
to 56 uaar daflnabla bud gal catagorias. Printout capability. Manu 
drivan-tasy to uaa. (4K varalon availabla - $7.86) 

PRESCHOOL PAK (1SK imNOCO BASIC) $*.** 3 

Two praachoolar laaming gamaa on ona caaaatta. Mafcaa uaa of hi-" 
rasolutton graphics and sound. Tna kkJa mink K'ss fungams. (M Ian 

COLORHYTHM (ItK EXTENOED BASIC) |8.M 

Blorhyihms lor tha Color Computar. ExoaHant uaa of hf-raa 
graphics. PtoU your 15 day bfofhylnms. 

SIM (1SK EXTENDED BASIC) SS.B 
Slsl-tha fonuna tailing computar uaa* data that you Input to < 
mma a charactar reading lor you. You might ba 

TEE-SHIRT $7.93 

Steas S.M.L. XL. Plaaaa spaclfy. (Allow 3 to 6 waafcs for daHvaryF 
Also apaclfy rad or blua on whlta ftaa-shlrt. 

All programs suppllad on 



paid. Foralgn ordan plaa a a 
adjust prtoas for axchanga 
rata to U.S. dollars. Sorry, 
no COO. 





Page 66 



The RAINBOW 



Auaust. 1982 




SA V 




COLOR COMPUTER 

MASTER CONTROL 

Copyright c 1981 Soft Sector Marketing Inc. 
- Written by A. Schwartz 



Requires 16-32K 

1 . 50 preprogrammed command keys. Standard 
and Extended command 

2. Direct control of motor, trace, and audio from 
keyboard. 

3. Automatic line numbering. 

4. Programmable Custom Key. 

5. Direct Run Button. 

6. Keyboard overlay for easy program use. 

7. Easy entry of entire commands into computer. 

Load Master Control into your machine then 
either type in a BASIC program or load one in 
from tape to edit. Cuts programming time by 
50% or more. 



(r This Month Only 



$24.95 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 




For The Radio Shack 
Color Computer* 




Written Dv E T? i 



50 PROGRAMS 
In One Package 

'The Coior Computer is o product of Radio Snack, 
division of The Tanay Corporation 



$49.95 




GHOST GOBBLER 

16K - JOYSTICK 

$21.95 




MACHINE LANGUAGE 



FOR 4K COLOR USERS 

Color Scarf man 

GREAT GRAPHICS 
Machine Language 

Only $19.95 




Tape Directory 



5^ 



Copyright ©1982 




Creates index 
of your 

programs 
for each 

tape . 

To screen 

or printer. 



A MUST FOR ALL 
COLOR COMPUTER 
USERS' 




- DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME - 





SOFT SECTOR MARKETING, 

INCORPORATED 

6250 Middlebelt • Garden City, Michigan 48135 
Order Line 800-521-6504 

Michigan Orders & Questions 313-425-4020 



r I \ nnjn PA ym tNT- payment an: eptoci f> v r two*. > p*" 1 * sonni rh* n ■ » ■ 
VISA' ^ori "mTl. I COD oniy unc^ tlx- foJtowiriq- ctihfl-trfsr, Charges 
BV^B | ■ J \ 'J*}** | prncossod wh<»n snipped Lrti*3iiy wirnrn-18 P*r$ono< 

Check* dp'nv shipping pondmcj \ wook% torir*cir C O O 
ncdPts are? ceiiil*?a check ot cash onty add 31 50 Nfli residents musi odd iolcn ta* 
SHIPPING A HANDLING - Shipping Charges: Send the loroer amount ?% c S J fifl u!**y; 

stipulated dthf?iwr§r Any oToer Fq^fiwf >d withm it shjppma rrnrj nnndiirtrj win ty shipped heighi 
collect Air Ma+I Shipping tnji^TJf' ot North America pk.»osp send the (txqpp arnqunr 1(1% rir 
[i ID ni l U^-ipuyrrrf^ii will U& rolunded 



The Quality Continues 




II 



II 



II 



II 



August 1982 

DRAGON — from Page 65 

3010 PRINT" AC -2" | :PRINT5>162, 
"TREASURE TYPE H,R,S,T";: PR I NTS) 1 
94, "3 ATTACKS 1-8/1-8/6-36"; 
3020 PS=90:PM=101:GOSUB 8090: EA= 
EA+2:SA=2:IF A>4 THEN SA=SA+2 
3030 ON S GOSUB 8050, 8060, 8060: G 
OSUB 8080: GOSUB 8200: GOTO 9000 
3500 XX=216:GOSUB10000:PRINT366, 
S I LVER DRAGON " ; : PR I NT398 , A* 
" ; : HD=8+Sx HP=HD«A: PRINTHD; " 
HIT DICE";:GOSUB 8070 
3510 PRINT" AC -1"; :PRINT5>162, 
"TREASURE TYPE H, T" ;: PRINTS 194, " 
3 ATTACKS 1-6/1-6/5-30"; 
3520 PS=75:PM«75: GOSUB 8090: EA=E 
A+2: SA=2: IF A>4 THEN SA=SA+2 
3530 ON S GOSUB 8040, 8050, 8060: G 
OSUB 8080: GOSUB 8200: GOTO 9000 
4000 X X =255: GOSUB 10000: PR I NT366, 
COPPER DRAGON " ; : PR I NT398 , AS 
"; :HD=6+S:HP=HD« A: PRINTHD; " 
HIT DICE";:GOSUB 8070 
4010 PRINT" AC 1"; :PRINT5>162, " 
TREASURE TYPE H , S " ; : PR I NT5> 1 94 , " 3 

ATTACKS 1-4/1-4 / 5-20 " ; 
4020 PS=45:PM=40: GOSUB 8090: EA=E 
A+1:SA=1:IF A>4 THEN SA=SA+2 
4030 ON S GOSUB 8020, 8030, 8040: G 
OSUB 8080: GOSUB 8200: GOTO 9000 
4500 XX=245: GOSUB 10000: PRINT366 
,S*;" BRONZE DRAGON" ; : PRINT998, A 
*; » :HD=7+S:HP=HD* A: PRINTHD; 

"HIT DICE";: GOSUB 8070 
4510 PRINT" AC 0"; :PRINT5>162," 
TREASURE TYPE H, S,T" ; : PRINT3194, 
"3 ATTACKS 1-6/1-6/4-24"; 
4520 PS=60:PM=60: GOSUB 8090: EA«E 
A+1:SA=2:IF A>4 THEN SA=SA+2 
4530 ON S GOSUB 8030, 8040, 8050: G 
OSUB 8080: GOSUB 8200: GOTO 9000 
5000 XX= 147: GOSUB 10000: PRINT366 
BRASS DRAGON " ; x PR I NT398 , A* 
" ; : HD=5+S : HP=HD * A : PR I NTHD ; " 
HIT DICE";:GOSUB 8070 
5010 PRINT" AC 2"; :PRINT3162, " 
TREASURE TYPE H" ;: PRINTS 194, "3 A 

TTACKS 1-4/1-4/4-16"; 

5020 PS=30:PM=30: GOSUB 8090: EA=E 

A+1:SA=1:IF A>4 THEN SA=SA+2 

5030 ON S GOSUB 8010, 8020, 8030 :G 

OSUB 8080: GOSUB 8200: GOTO9000 

8000 EP=90+5«HP+40«SA+75«EAxRETU 

RN 

8010 EP=150+6«HP+75«SA+125«EA:RE 
TURN 

8020 EP«225+8«HP+125«SA+175«EA:R 
ETURN 

—Continued on Page 69 



The RAINBOW 



Page 67 



ii 



■I 



Spectral Associates 
Tom Mix Software 
Sugar Software 



Computerware 
Soft Sector Marketing 
Mark Data Products 



These people make some of the best software 
available for the Color Computer anywhere. Now, in 
one stop, you can have all these and more! 

*NEW* Katerpilier (Tom Mix Software) $24.95 

Ghost Gobbler (Spectral Assoc.) $21.95 

Color Berserk (Mark Data) $24.95 

Master Control (Soft Sector) $24.95 

Silly Syntax (Sugar Software) $19.95 

Storml (Computerware) $24.95 

Scepter of Kzirgla (Rainbow Connection) $16.95 

The above product mix would require at 
least five letters, five checks and five stamps! 
Why waste your time? Write or call: 

PCLEAR 80 SOFTWARE 

494 Cline Avenue 
Mansfield, OH 44907 
(419) 756-4873 

Note: We also carry the RAINBOW 

Add $2 shipping on orders less than $50. Please add 
$2 for COD. Ohio residents add 5% state sales tax. 




COMPUTER GAMES 
TRS-80 MODEL 1/3 16K LEVEL II 
TRS-80 16K COLOR AND 8K PET 

DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM "FROG RACE" COMIS 
ON CASSETTE WITH A FULL REFUND COUPON 
TO USE ON YOUR NEXT ORDER. 
FROG RACE CASSETTE $3. WITH CATALOG 

DU0-PAK«S ARE $10 DOLLARS EACH. 

NO. PGM SIDE 1 PGM SIDE 2 

1 GONE FISHING CONCENTRATION 

2 CRAPS SLOT-MACHINE 

3 STARSHIP SHERLOCK HOLMES 

4 TANK ATTACK ASSOCIATION 

5 NUMBER GUESS DICE ROLL 

6 IN-BETWEEN SHELL GAME 

7 SAFARI STARSMIP-2 

8 MORTAR BATTLE PUZZLE 

9 TEASER MOUSE 

10 PT BOAT TURTLE RACE 

11 CHEK-CHES STARSHIP-3 

12 THINK LUCK I LOGIC 

13 TREASURE ISLAND RESCUE 

SHIPPED 1ST CLASS MAIL PPD. - NO COD'S. 

SPECIFY WHAT COMPUTER YOU HAVE. 
B. ERICKS0N P.O. BOX 11099 

CHICAGO, IL 60611 



Page 68 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



COLOR COMPUTER DISK SYSTEM 



We after a complete disk drive interlace system for the color computer, featuring the Tall Grass 
Technologies Double Density, buffered disk controller card The disk interlace board plugs into the color 
computer expansion socket and provides for doubling the storage capacity of single density type disk drives 
by using GCR encoding / decoding techniques, Power may be taken internally from the system or from an 
external power supply (not normally required even with piggyback 4 1 1 6's installed) ..This controller will 
support up to 4 single/double density, single/double sided 5 & 1 /4 inch disk drives. These include Shugart 
400 series. Siemens 82, TEAC 50 series, Pertec FD200, MPI B51/52/91/92, Tandon and others. The 
controller uses standard 10 sector diskettes and does not read or write the soft-sectored IBM style formats 
used by TRS-BO or FLEX systems. Two reasons for not using a soft sectored system are cost and reliability 

The Tallgrass double density format offers more margin for worn diskettes, dirt etc. and less expensive 
single density disk drives & diskettes All you need to add to have a complete disk system is a disk drive / 
cable. 

DISK OPERATING SYSTEM (00S) 

The Disk Operating System for the Tallgrass Technologies Disk controller (CCMD + 9) is a full featured 
"BASIC compatible operating system. It is fully integrated with the ROM basic system already in the color 
computer and automatically is initialized upon system power on much the same as the R S. disk system 
does. But there is a big difference between that disk system and CCMD+9. First of all we support any mix 
of 35, 40 or 80 track single or double sided disk drives, which allows a minimum of 4 times the storage 
capacity of the "other' ' disk system. We also make tar better use of the disk storage space by using sector 
allocation for each file instead of the granual method of 6 sector blocks which can waste anywhere from t to 
7 sectors for each file on the disk. For example, on their DOS, if 5 files each required only 2 sectors there 
would be 40 disk sectors allocated, a waste of 30 disk sectors or almost 4 "granuals". This is not the case 
in our disk system, only the required number of sectors would be used. 

Many other disk systems using a sector allocation system have a problem with file fragmentation and 
excessive seek time after a disk is used over and over adding and deleting files until it becomes so bad that 
the disk must be re-formatted to correct the problem. With CCMD+9 this is not the case, as files are deleted 
the disk space is automatically repacked to help keep files from being fragmented and decrease access time. 

The DOS is contained in a ROM on the disk controller the same as the R.S. disk system so you don't have 
to "bootstrap" the DOS off of a disk and it doesn't get clobbered easily by a runaway program as most ram 
based systems do. The DOS does "NOT" require Extended Basic and will run on a 4, 16 or 32K system 
without any modifications. CCMD + 9 uses approximately 1 K of ram tor the disk system which is taken from 
the top ot memory, this allows all previously purchased tape software to function with the disk system, this 
is not so with the R.S. disk system. 

CCMD + 9 supports both Basic and Machine language programs. It is easily accessible to the beginner or 
advanced machine language programmer with easy to use and well documented entry points to perform disk 
as well as screen/printer/keyboard input & output. It includes 10 disk file functions to open, close, 
read/write random or sequential files, read specific sector of file, flush sector buffer to file, close & rewind 
file (re-open) and process disk system errors. The screen/printer/keyboard I/O functions include: input 
character, output character, output text string, output carriage return, output 2/4 hex characters, output 
space character and read/write single disk sector. 

The "BASIC" interface system allows Basic and Basic programs to communicate with the disk system 
much the same as the R.S. disk system does with a few added features. It includes both Direct and Indirect 
basic commands. Direct commands can be executed any time and Indirect commands are contained with 
"Basic" programs. The Direct commands include LOAD or SAVE (binary/ASCII basic program disk file). 
CHAIN (load & execute basic program) and CDOS "disk command". The "CDOS command allows you to 
execute a specific disk command from the free standing disk system, these include: LOAD/SAVE machine 
language or memory file. REMOVE one or more disk files, CHANGE disk file name. CHECK disk file for 
errors, ANALYZE disk directory. STRACK set tracks & sides tor disk drive. SCMP set compare on/off, RUN 
load & execute machine language disk program. GOTO execute machine language program at specified 
address, and NEW initialize disk. If the "CDOS" command is executed without any command following 
control is passed to CCMD + 9 where any of the previously mentioned commands can be executed directly 



thus providing total control of the entire system. The command system is easy to learn and remember with a 
minimum of effort on the users part. The BASIC interface system was designed to be compatible with the 
existing I/O commands used with tape files for easy conversion and upgrading to disk. When using Basic 
disk files up to 9 files can be active at once with all disk file memory allocation being done automatically at 
run time, you don't have to reserve file space as with the R.S. disk system. The Indirect basic commands 
include: Open, Print, Input, Line Input (ext. Basic), EOF, Rewind. Close, Print Using (Ext. Basic), these all 
function in the same manner as basic tape file I/O. 

CCMD + 9 has one other unique feature not found in most disk systems. Eash disk initialized by the 
system is assigned a disk label which can be used instead of a disk drive number, the system will 
automatically locate which drive the diskette is on and use it accordingly. This can be very usefull in basic 
programs which use files on multiple disks, you don't have to worry which disk belongs in which drive. 

Part of the power and flexibility of CCMD + 9 lies in the Disk Utility System which allows the system 
commands to be greatly expanded by adding utility or transient disk commands. These commands are 
automatically handled by the system so as not to overwrite Basic programs in memory and can even be 
called by a Basic program in some cases For example you can perform a disk copy or backup while still 
preserving a basic program currently in memory, no other system that we know of has this ability. We 
currently have a list of utilities available and will be adding to it constantly to irqprove the system. 

SOFTWARE SUPPORT 

This disk system is the most recent one to enter the color computer disk market and is currently the only 
one with any disk software to support it. There should be no problem in the future with a lack ot software for 
this system because, it is extremely easy to interface software to. We currently have available for the disk 
system: a Disk Assembler which allows files larger than memory to be assembled, a Disk Text Editor which 
makes writing Basic and Assembler programs easy and also will edit files larger than memory, a Disk Text 
Editor/ Processor (WORD PROCESSOR) "TEXTPR01 which is easy to learn and extremely powerful for its 
price range. TEXTPRD II is an advanced version with expanded features: programmable tabs, 3 line 
processable headers, decimal/center/nght justify/ horizontal tabs, keyboard input processing and more. A 
Disk Disassembler/Source generator, a Disk system monitor which includes all of the "TRSMON" monitor 
commands & has access to all of CCMD + 9 disk commands & automatically locates itself at the top of 
memory to stay out of the way, and a full compliment of disk utilities The utility disk includes full disk 
backup, build disk text file from keyboard, 24 hour screen clock, single or multiple disk file copy, text file 
executive processor, ASCII/HEX file dump/list/map utility, ASCII file lister/printer, and a disk relabel 
utility. All at prices far below what other disk system software sells for. . 



TG-99 Disk Controller w/CCM0+ 9 00S ROM 

CCASM9 Disk Assembler 

CCEDT9 Disk Text Editor 

CCDISS Disk Disassembler Source Generator 

CCTPR1 Disk Text Editor/Word Processor TEXTPRO 1 

CCTPR2 Disk Text Editor/Word Processor TEXTPRO 2 

CCUTLY Disk Utilities 

DOSMDN Disk system monitor/utility program 

CGAME1 HI-RES Graphic games Space Invaders, Meterioids, Space War 

CGAME2 Mixed games Battle Fleet, Space Traders, Adventure 



$159.95 
S 34.95 
24.95 
29.95 
39.95 
59.95 
19.95 
29.95 
49.95 
39.95 



SPECIAL LIMITED OFFER 



We have a complete disk system package available that includes, a 40 track single sided disk drive with 
power supply, case. 2 drive cable, TG-99 controller w/CCMD + 9 and a disk containing CCUTLY disk 
utilities and CCEDT9 disk editor all assembled and tested for $499 00 

Additional 40 track drive with power supply & case tested. S300 00 

For double sided drives add Si 00 00 per drive Add $5.00 per drive for shipping, NO COO's on disk drives 
or disk system special. Shipping for disk controller add $2.50, for Disk software only add $1 00. Visa & 
M/C add 3% (this is what the bank charges us). 

Manufactured under license from Tall Grass Technologies. 



CO RESIDENT EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 



Co-resident Editor/Assembler that will allow the user to create, edit and assemble machine language 
programs for the color computer. The editor portion of the program is similar to the text editor in TEXTPRO. 
The assembler will output machine object code to either cassette tape in a 'CLOADM' readable format or 
directly to memory for direct execution. The assembly listing can optionally be output to the printer con- 
nected to the RS-232/Printer port on the color computer. All errors are displayed with a full text message for 
easy identification. The assembler supports the full compliment of the M6809 instruction set and also will 
cross assemble 6800 source code to produce M6809 compatible object code. 

C0-RES9 139.95 



SYSTEM MONITOR 



TRSMON is a 2K system monitor program that will allow you to explore the workings of the color computer. It 
features 9 debuging commands, tape load and save compatible with Basic "CLOADM". up/down load via 
RS232 port, terminal package that allows the color computer to be used as a terminal at baud rates up to 
9600 baud and a printer driver to direct display output to the printer for memory dumps, disassemblies etc. 
The program is position independent so it can be moved anywhere within the system memory. A very 
powerful tool at a very reasonable price. Commands Include: 

Memory examine & change, Gotodefined address. Load Tape program (w/offset). Load Motorola S1-S9 file 
(RS232). Save Tape program. Send memory file S1-S9 (RS232), Set and/or display breakpoints. Remove 
one or all breakpoints. Define printer/terminal baud rate. Set and/or display registers, Dump memory in Hex 
& Ascii format. Disassemble memory file, Terminal mode & optional buffer, Fill memory. Move block of 
memory. Find memory byte sequence, Exit monitor to Basic, Exit monitor to Rom Pack (JC000), Re-initialize 
monitor, Direct output to printer. 

TRSMON ON TAPE $19.95 
TRSMON on 2716 Eprtm $34 95 



IK COLOR RAM/EPROM CARTRIDGE HOLDS 4-2716 EPROM or RAM 
2* RAM CHIPS 119.95 

SV4 M OISKETTES, SOFT OR HARD SECTOR, BOX OF 10 
MOTOROLA 6609 PROGRAMMERS MANUAL 
+ $2.50 SHIPPING 1ST CLASS 



$24.95 

2716 EPROMS $14.00 
$30.00 
$11.95 



TEXTPRO 
TEXT EDITOR/PROCESSOR 



RAiNBOW 



TEXTPRO is a complete text editor & text processing program for the Color Computer The program in- 
cludes our powerful full function text editor plus the added features of a text processor. The entire program 
utilizes only 6K of memory space including the tape, screen and keyboard buffers. It is extremely fast in 
editing and processing text files and is compatible with Basic ASCII formatted tape files. 

The Editor itself includes 24 commands including string search & replace; line and automatic line edit 
modes which allow you to insert, delete, change or add characters Automatic line editing allows you to skip 
forward and backward for checking and editing, all screen editing immediately updates the screen so you 
know exactly what you are doing at all times. The Editor also has commands to move or copy single lines or 
blocks of text trom one place to another. Some of the other commands include Tape load, save and append; 
Automatic line numbers, delete line, set input line length and printer output 

The Text Processor includes 29 commands for formating the output, some of them include: page length, 
left margin, top & bottom margin, line length, justify & fill modes, page heading, center line, double width 
print, margin control, single, multiple & special indent modes, test lines left on page, display & input from 
keyboard and even special control codes can be sent to the printer for different print densities etc It even 
has a repeat command with a next command to redo all of or a portion of the file as many times as needed. 
TEXTPRO will turn your color computer into a full fledged text processing machine at a price you won't 
believe. Available on CLOADM' compatible cassette. 

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY PRICE $29.95 
RS. DISK VERSION $49.99 

DATAPACK 
DATA COMMUNICATIONS PACKAGE 

DATAPACK is a Terminal package program for the COLOR COMPUTER, allowing you to use the color 
computer as a buffered computer terminal through a modem to a time sharing network or as a direct connect 
terminal to another computer system at rates up to 9600 baud. This program is more than a standard 
"Videotext" type program in that it will allow you to save data stored in the buffer either to cassette tape, or 
output a hard copy to a printer. The data buffer is automatically set to the maximum size of your system 
memory when entered to allow maximum space for saving data. The program includes features to send 
control codes and to enable or disable keyboard echo. When the terminal mode is exited the contents of the 
buffer may be viewed on the screen or saved to tape for later loading. Also the RS-232 port can be used to 
plug your printer back in for sending the screen buffer to the printer. An additional feature is the ASCII 
format that is used on tape is compatible with the CER-COMP Text Editor program and BASIC, enabling you 
to edit or delete unwanted information. 

PRICE: $24.95 ON CASSETTE 
RS. DISK VERSION $49.95 



5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 



CER-COMP 
17021452-0632 



All Orders Shipped From Stock 
Add $1 .00 Postage - MC/Visa Add 3% 



August, 1982 

DRAGON — from Page 67 

8030 EP-375+10*HP+175*SA+275*EA: 
RETURN 

8040 EP=600+12*HP+300*SA+400*EA: 
RETURN 

8050 EP=900+14*HP+450*SA+600+EA: 
RETURN 

8060 EP=1300+16*HP+700*SA+850*EA 
: RETURN 

8070 PR I NTS) 1 29 , HP ; " H I T POINTS";: 
RETURN 

8080 PRINT3257,EP J "EXPERIENCE PO 
I NTS"; : RETURN 

8090 R-RNDU00) : IF R<PS THEN PR I 
NT3226 , " SPEAKS " ; : R=RND < 100) : IF R 
<PM THEN EA=E A+ 1 : PR I NT " - MAGIC 
USE " ; 

8095 RETURN 

8200 R=RND<2):IF R=l THEN PRINTS 
290, "MALE"; ELSE PRINT3290, "FEMA 
LE"; 

8210 RETURN 

9000 PRINT3453, "HIT ANY KEY FOR 
MENU. ";:K*=INKEY* 

9010 K»=INKEY*:IF K*=»"" THEN XX= 
RND<0):GOTO 9010 



The RAINBOW 



Page 69 



9020 SOUND 150, It GOTO 10 
10000 CLS:FOR X=1024 TO 1055: POK 
E X, XX: POKE X +480, XX: NEXT: FOR X» 
1056 TO 1504 STEP 32: POKE X,XX:P 
OKE X-l, XX: NEXT: RETURN 



Make The Color Computer 
Live Up To Its Name 

For those of you who would like to see the "Color" 
Computer live up to its name, here are a couple of short 
programs 1 have had some fun developing and working 
with. 

10 PMODE4,l:PCLS:SCREENI,l 
20 A=1536:B=I 

30 FOR X=A TO (A+736) STEP 32 
40 POKE X,B: NEXT 
50 A=A+I: B=B+I 

60 IF B=33 OR B=65 OR B=97 OR B= 129 OR B= 161 OR 
B=193 OR B=225 OR B=256 THEN 70 ELSE 30 
70 IF B>=256 THEN 80 ELSE 75 
75 A=A+736:GOTO 30 
80 FOR X=I to 3000: NEXT 

90 PMODE3,l: SCREEN 1,1: FOR X= I TO 3000: NEXT 

100 SCREEN 1,0: FOR X=l to 3000: NEXT 

110 PMODE 4,1: SCREEN 1,0: FOR X=I TO 3000: 

NEXT —Continued on Page 71 




™TRS80 color 

From the January 1 98 1 issue of the CSRA Computer 
Club newsletter 

There was some amusement at the Novem- 
ber meeting when the Radio Shack repre- 
sentatives stated that the software in the 
ROM cartridges could not be copied. This 
month's 68 Micro Journal reported they had 
disassembled the programs on ROM by 
covering some of the connector pins with 
tape They promise details next month. Never 
tell a hobbyist something can't be done! This 
magazine seems to be the only source so far 
of technical informations on the TRS-80 color 
computer ". Devoted to SS-50 6800 and 
6809 machines up to now. 68 Micro Journal 
plans to include the TRS-80 6809 unit in 
future issues. 

NOTE. This and other interesting and needed articles 
for the Radio Shack TRS-80 color computer ,- are being 
included monthly in 68 Micro Journal— The Largest 
specialty computer magazine in the world! 

68 MICRO JOURNAL 

5900 Cassandra Smith Road 
Hixson, Tennessee 37343 
615 842-4600 - 

Subscription Rates 



USA: 1-year S24.50; 2-year $42.50; 3-year $64.50 
CANADA and MEXICO: Add $5.50 p^r year to USA Price 
Foreign Surface: Add $12.00 per year to USA Price 
Foreign AIRMAIL: Add $36.00 per year to USA Price 

** Sample issue - $3.50 




68 Micro Journal" was established with one objective in 
mind; to provide a Magazine FOR 68xx Users BY 68xx 
Users. Because of a strict advertiser policy, 68 Micro 
Journal" has gained a strong following WORLDWIDE 
because the reader KNOWS what he is getting when 
purchasing fran a 68 Micro Journal" Advertiser. It has 
gained a strong User following because most of the 
material published is contributed BY USERS, and, 
therefore, is relevant to the Users needs. 

Currently, and even before the Color Computer"' hit the 
stores, 68 Micro Journal" was devoting more space to 
the TRS-80C Color Computer" 1 and information concerning 
the Motorola 6809 (which is the CPU in the Color 
Computer*") than ANY OTHER Computer Magazine . Examples 
include: 

REVIEWS of the three major Disk Control Systems for 
the Color Computer", most of the Monitors, 
Assemblers, and Disassemblers, Word Processors and 
Editors, "Terminal'' Programs (for use with Modems, 
Communications with other Computers, etc.), and of 
course, Games. 

HINTS for Expanding Memory, Power "Supply Cooling, re- 
pairing sticky keyboards, disabling the ROM PAK ,r Take 
Over", hooking up to Printers, etc. 
DISCUSSIONS of the 6883 Synchronous Address 
Multiplexer, using the Color Computer" with 64K and 
96K memory (which it is ALREADY capable of handling), 
thoughts on Programming, etc. 

I suggest that you subscribe to 68 Micro Journal", SOON, 
as many back issues are sold-out. 

We still, and will continue to, lead in the type 
information you need to FULLY UTILIZE the POWER of the 
6809 in the Rajdio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer*. 



Bob Nay i / 



Nay 

Color Computer Editor 



m m m 



Page 70 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



The Platinum 
worksaver 

...Programming Made Easy 

FULL SCREEN EDITING OF 
BASIC PROGRAMS 

With the PLATINUM WORKSAVER'S 
editor, there's no more counting the 
numbers of characters to delete or 
change, or wondering if you deleted 
too many or too few. You see the 
whole line as it's edited. Changes, 
deletes and inserts are automatic 
and the cursor can be moved any- 
where on the screen. 

FULL SCREEN EDITING OF 
NUMERIC AND STRING ARRAYS 

But that's only the beginning! The 
editor (Written in machine language) 
also comes with a short, two line 
BASIC subroutine that will allow you 
to use the full screen editor on your 
numeric and string arrays. This is the 
springboard you need for develop- 
ing your own VisiCalc'" or word 
processor. 

SINGLE KEY ENTRIES OF 
BASIC WORDS 

So, the PLATINUM WORKSAVER 
makes it easier to write useful pro- 
grams and edit them, but that's not 
all! Entering programs is a breeze 
with single entry of over 80 basic 
words, on a beautifully designed 
KEYBOARD OVERLAY, color-keyed 
to function. No need to memorize or 
consult a conversion chart to find a 
word. 

PROGRAM CHAINING AND 
DYNAMIC DEBUGGING 

Nowyou can write, enter and change 
programs easily, but what about de- 
bugging? This is the frustrating, time 
consuming aspect of programming 
and frankly, the Color Computer 
doesn't helpyou much . . . you have 
to start the program over each time 
you make a change. But not with 
the PLATINUM WORKSAVER!! With 
it you can change, delete, add and 
rearrange or join lines. The special 
reserved key is excellent for copying 
or moving parts of lines to other 
lines . . . plus, you can even LOAD 
A WHOLE NEW PROGRAM without 
disturbing the data you've created. 

NUMERIC KEYPAD 

We've solved another Color Com- 
puter weakness. Press a control key 
and letters J, K, L, U, I, O, P become 
number keys 1-7. Numbers 8-0 re- 
main in their normal positions. The 
key pad numbers are clearly labeled 
on the overlay. 



A COLOR COMPUTER* MACHINE LANGUAGE ENHANCEMENT 
PACKAGE THAT PROVIDES: 

• Dynamic full screen editing of BASIC programs. 

• Dynamic full screen editing of numeric and string arrays. The ad- 
vanced user will be able to write VisiCalc™, word processor etc.! 

• Single key entries for 80 commands and functions. 

• Functionally laid out plastic keyboard overlay. 

• Numeric Keypad conversion. 

• Automatic line numbering. 

• Best value per dollar than any other enhancement package available. 

with the Platinum Worksaver , programming time 
and hassle can be cut by 50%. You'll spend less time 
typing, more time being creative with your Platinum 
Enhanced 16K Color Computerl 



LOOK WHAT JUST $30 CAN DO FOR 

Platinum Enhanced 16K vs. 
Color Computer 

• Relocate, join, duplicate individual 
and unique sets of lines at the push 
of a button 

• Create the following using only 31 
keystrokes: CLS:AS-StnngsS (15"") + 
MIDS (CL$, a 2). To change the - 
symbol to = requires only 3 key- 
strokes!. 1 !! 

• Retain the sequenc v of c ommands in 
temporary memory with special re- 
served key 

• One keypush and the right side of the 
keyboard converts to a numeric 
Keypad 

• Correct bugs while your program is 
running, without losing data. 

• Edit programs, data and strings using 
the full sc reen editor. 



YOUR 16K COLOR COMPUTER: 

Regular 16K Extended 
Color Computer 

• Retype entirely any lines to be moved 
or joined 

• Type that line using 47 keystrokes. To 
change the symbol, Backspace and 
retype using 33 more strokes! 



Retype lost lines! 



Stretch those fingers! 



Oops! Lost data! Retype, Reload and 

Save data while swearing a lot. 

NO CAN DO! 



THE PLATINUM WORKSAVER INCLUDES: 

• Enhancement program, including a sample array Editor, on a high-quality 
Agfa Cassette 

• Fully labeled acetate keyboard overlay 

• Complete instructions 

• Loads in seconds, takes less than 2K 



FEATURE 


Full 

Screen 
Editing 


Dynamic 
Editing 


Single 

Function 

Keys 


Numeric 
Keypad 


Price 


Platinum Enhanced 16K 
Color Computer 


yes 


yes 


yes 


yes 


$ 629.** 


TRS-80* Model III 


no 


no 


no 


yes 


$ 999. 


TRS-80* Model II 


no 


no 


no 


yes 


$3450. 



The PLATI N UM WORKSAVER costs $30.00 plus 
$3.00 S&H (NY residents add 7% tax). To order 
write: 

PLATINUM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 833 
Pittsburgh, N.Y. 12901 

Phone orders: (518) 643-2650 

VISA, MASTI RCARO ACCMMm 1'EKSONAI CHIC KS TAkF 
2 - 1 VVl I KS TO TkOCI SS All curlers shipper! within 24 hours 



platinum 

You're Serious About 
Your Color Computer? 

SO ARE WE. 



H'ritof < ftmptrti'J & TKS.Hr> aw n^ttui'tl if,i(l<*n,itk* <il l,m<K t i»rn 



■ ' irt Oil phi- <i Vi't -u^c'-Nnl |irn 1<n 1 fih CGlcM rumpulrrt n,r do not m'II fh* i run putt' 



August 1982 



NAME — from Page 69 



After trying the Listing above, pick any number between I 
and 255 and put it in Line 20 of the program below: 



The RAINBOW 
I 



Page 71 




« 

! II 

! 



Portion of Graphic Screen Display 

10 PMODE 4,1: PCLS: SCREEN 1,1 

20 N= (put your number here) r — On* —\ 

30 FOR X=1536 to 7680 "t® WL7 

40 POKE X,N: NEXT 

50 FOR Y=I TO 90 STEP 5 

60 CIRCLE (128,96),Y,0: NEXT 

70 GOTO 70 

To try another number, just PCLEAR 4 and enter it in 
Line 20 as before. 

—Bill Lopes 




Are you tired of searching the latest magazine for 
articles about your new Color Computer? When was the 
last time you saw a great sounding program listing only 
to discover that it's for the Model I and it's too complex 
to translate? Do you feel that you are all alone in a sea of 
Z-60's? On finding on ad for a Color Computer program 



TREK80C 



1 



The classic computer game written for the 
Color Computer. A real-time game with 
moving Klingonsand action graphics. Watch 
your Phaser blasts turn Klingon battle cruisers 
into space debris. Watch the Klingon move 
out of your path as you position for a Photon 
torpedo shot. Watch your screens fall during 
battle. Don't leave your station or the 
Klingons may destroy you. May the FORCE be 
with you! 

16K Extended Basic Tape $14.95 



COPYTAPE Copies any Color Computer tape. 
4K machine language program $9.95 

OFFLOAD Back your disks up to tape, restore 
tape to disk $9.95 

CATALOG creates a system wide catalog of 
your disks. Run programs without knowing 
where they are, $9.95 

Send Check or Money Order To: 

A. M. Heam Software 

602 S. 48th St. -Dept. R 
Philadelphia, PA 19143 

Write For Free Catalog 



j 



Color compu/ e 




• 



did you mail your hard earned cash only to receive a 
turkey because the magazine the ad appeared in doesn't 
review Color Computer Software? If you have any of 
these symptoms you're suffering from Color Computer 
Blues! 



But take heart there Is a cure! 
It's COLOR COMPUTER NEWS. 

The monthly magazine for Color Computer owners and only Color Computer owners. CCN contains the full range of 
essential elements for relief of CC Blues. Ingredients include: comments to the ROMS, games, program listings, product 
reviews, and general interest articles on such goodies as games, personal finances, a Kid's page and other subjects. 

The price for 12. monthly treatments is only $21.00 and is available from: 




REMarkable Software 

P.O. Box 1192 
Muskegon, Ml 49443 



NAME 



ADDRESS 
CITY 



State. 



-Zip. 



Allow 8-10 weeks for 1st issue. 



Page 72 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



SKY-DEFENSE 



Can You Survive The First Wave of Attack 

Or The Next. . . 

Or The Next. . . 

(Only Your Joystick Will Ever Know!) 



High-Res, High-Speed, Color and Sound 
Machine Language, Of Course 

Fly Horizonally Over Mountains And Terrain and 

Battle the Attackers... If You Can! 



16K— Joysticks Required 

Cassette $22.95 plus $1.50 postage and handling 
California Residents please add 6% ($1.38) State Sales Tax 

Allow 2-3 Weeks For Delivery (Money Orders, Checks — 1 Week) 

United States Funds Only, Please! 



Quasar Animations 

1520 Pacific Beach Drive 
San Diego, California 

92109 



August 1982 



PRINT #-2, — from Page 6 



need your support and help. We're trying to do our best and 
hope you will agree that, sometimes, we succeed. 

We hope you noticed the new logo in six colors. I forgot to 
mention last month that it was the work and creation of one 
Jim "Spider" Cleveland. Thanks, Jim. 

As to what's ahead for the RAINBOW, next month will 
be the debut of our special "Education Issue." And, you will 
see a notice elsewhere that I messed up (badly) on the 
deadline for the Adventure contest, so that has been 
"extended" and the special issue planned for November. 
We're considering a Business Applications issue for October 
and we want to get some super holiday graphics for 
December, but we're loath to call that issue a "Graphics" 
issue. This schedule may well change slightly as we get things 
geared up for 1983. 

The other thing which happened to us last month wasthat 
we finally got some real office space — some 1 500 square feet. 
That makes it easier for us to coordinate everything, keep 
track of it all and the like. It also means that, for the first 
time, we have all our Color Computers together and that we 
can test and run several things at one time. Nope, our 
address stays the same. But, use the Post Office Box if you 
can, because it is faster. At least this month we didn't have to 
lay the RAINBOW out while they were putting up drywall. 

Also, you may note that you are getting your favorite 
computer magazine earlier and earlier each month of late. 
Its partly because we have advanced our internal deadlines. 
But it is also due to the natural mail slowdown in the 
summertime. The "arrival date" will creep back a bit in the 
Fall and will be bad when it conflicts with the holiday mail at 
Christmas. We are trying to to gradually push our deadlines 
up to compensate for that all. 

Almost finally, we would like to hear from you about 
what you want to see in the RAINBOW. We do get a good 
deal of mail, but I read every single letter and card. And do 
contribute programs to us. If you want to support the 80C, 
you can reach more owners on these pages than anywhere 
else in the world. 

For instance, do our programs interest you? What do you 
want to see more of. r We've made it a policy to have at least 
one "game" program, every month. Is that good?Or is it 
getting to be a bore? We have gotten excellent feedback on 
the NFL series and the Universal Data Base. Does that 
indicate you want more sports-related and business-type 
programs? How about educational materials? 

And what about this column? Do you like all 
this talking about the magazine and what's 
happening, or would you prefer pontification on 
various issues (we do do some of that now). 
Should we have a think-piece, something like 
My Turn in Newsweek? 

Ah, yes, finally. I want to share the nice 
surprise I received from Arnold Pouch of 
Superior Graphic Software, the inventor of 
Motion Picture Programming, the other day. I 
wish I could also reproduce the sound track of 
his banjo-strumming from the hills of the Tar 
Heel State, but I can't. I do figure, though, you 
might enjoy seeing Arnold's own "Birthday 
Card" to the RAINBOW. 



— Lonnie Falk 



The RAINBOW Page 73 

Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 



Contributions to the RAINBOW are welcome from 
everyone. We like to run a variety of programs which will be 
useful /helpful/ fun for other 80C owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk. We're 
sorry, but we do not have time to key in programs. All 
programs should be supported by some editorial 
commentary, explaining how the submission works. We're 
much more interested in how the program works and runs 
than in how you developed it. Programs should be learning 
experiences. 

We do pay for substantive submissions, based on a 
number of criteria. Those wishing renumeration should so 
state when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed 
information on making submissions, please send a SASE to: 
Submissions Editor, the RAINBOW, P.O. Box 209, 
Prospect, KY 40059. We will send you a list of more 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently 
submitted to another publication. 



Back Issue Availibility 

Back copies of most issues of the RAINBOW are now 
available. 

All back issues sell for the single issue cover price — which 
is $2 for copies of numbers 1-8 and $2.50 for numbers 
greater than 8. In addition, there is a $3.50 per order charge 
for postage and handling. This charge applies whether you 
want one back issue or all of them. 

Most back issues are available on white paper in a reprint 
form. All back issues now available would be $26, plus $3.50 
postage and handling — a total of $29.50. VISA and 
MasterCard accepted. Kentucky residents please add 5 
percent sales tax. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you order the back 
issues you want now while the supply lasts. The Issue of 
April, 1982, Volume I, Number 10, is out of print. If it is 
reprinted, we will advise as to its availability at a later date. 

In addition, copies of the cover only of the July, 1982, 
Anniversary Issue are also available for $1 each, plus 50c 
shipping and handling. These are suitable for framing. 




T ! I W 

. _ , l ■ i 

.niJ 11 ""' 
M " 



IHIINIIIDMII 



L: l '1 fihj ij , ttttttt*' »»■ '_' * 1 m t 

'l .:! ;. :,; '<;'h 



'- ■ j I I- 

I 1 



r. f ;. 4 













l — 

r ■ i 

p i 

■ ■* 


\ 


1 




1, 



II I i I ' I'' 'i' l.l A. W I I I LI It 'i 



■ j j . . l M "Hlr i 

t " lll JUIIHI M , > »H--L r 

\ i} I I iH .'"'J^iin.VV 

jra" M//vl; h :y 

iivAH.t ■■i:*.!.-' 'lit ifrfflli 

hi i' i i l i i,i i,i 




M 1 U I I 



Page 74 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



Software Review... 

Cross Reference Programs 
Do Top Notch Job 

A new name on the software scene, Micrologic, has 
produced a couple of dandy cross reference programs which 
will be a real boon to anyone programming in BASIC. 

These utilities, VARIABLE CROSS REFERENCE and 
LINE NUMBER CROSS REFERENCE do just what their 
name implies. And, they do it easily and without fuss or 
bother. 

How many are there among you who, on finishing up on a 
program, just couldn't remember where all the GOSUB 
references in your program came from? Or, have you ever 
tried to track down a variable to be certain just where each 
one was? (Yes, I know, we're all supposed to write this stuff 
down so we don't get into messes like this. But precious few 
of us really do it.) 

Enter these fine utilities. LINE NUMBER XREF will 
chart out each of your GOTOs and GOSUBs, THENs and 
ELSEs. In other words, every time you reference another 
line, it will list the reference out f or you. To the screen, or the 
printer, or both. 

A similar situation is true with the VARIABLE XREF 
utility. It will pick up each variable in a program, 
alphabetize them, and list them out with reference to each 
line in which the variable appears. The lines referenced are 
also ordered— numerically in this case. 

Finally, you get a message at the end of the program run 
that tells how many lines are in the program, how many 
variables are used (or lines referenced) and how many times 
the variables are used in toto (or how may times the lines are 
called). 

Both programs require the target program be saved in 
ASCII format (using CSAVE,A) and, since it reads every 
letter of every line, the VARIABLE XREF program takes a 
couple of minutes to do its stuff. But both do it extremely 
well and the programs are self-prompting and adequately 
documented. 

And, we might mention, the price makes them an 
exceptionally good buy. 

(Micrologic, Box 193, 1st Avenue, East Brady, PA 16028, 
$9.95 for both programs) 



Software Review... 

ASTRO BLAST Is An 
Outstanding Arcade Offering 

We are not going to start out this review by telling you 
how ASTRO BLAST looks, what it does or what it is like to 
play it. 

Instead, we want to digress for a moment or two on the 
setting of this outstanding new arcade offering. ASTRO 
BLAST takes place in deep space and you really feel like 
you are there. There are multi-colored stars, all moving at 
different speeds, and they give you a feeling of depth unlike 
any game we have seen for the 80C thus far. Additionally, 
there is so much going on on the screen at one time once the 
game gets started that we almost wonder how a 
microprocessor even as sophisticated as the 6809 can carry it 
all. Yet it does, and does it beautifully. Get this one just to 
see the graphics, if nothing else. 

ASTRO BLAST is the long-awaited newest entry from 
Mark Data Products and it was worth the wait (and obvious 
care) that went into its development. It reaches a new 
plateau in 80C arcade games. Just as simple as that. 

You are the pilot of a ship which must fight off several 
waves of alien attackers. The aliens, of course, are shooting 
at you and jumping around the screen while they do so. In 
addition, there are a number of comets which appear — all 
trailing little tails — which can destroy you as well. Your 
mission is simply to destroy as many aliens as you can. 

You must do so before your fuel runs out. And, in a nice 
touch, you don't deal with several little space ships to make 
this one work — you have a number of shields instead. You 
can take some hits, which will deplete your shields, before 
you are finally destroyed. 

Of course, there is a way to get more fuel (but not more 
shields). If you destroy three waves of aliens, you have a shot 
at the mother ship. And, if you get then you can dock and 
replenish your fuel supply. The refueling is one of the most 
colorful and pleasing aspects of the game — but you have to 
earn it. 

This isn't Space Invaders friends. By contrast, that 
granddaddy of the arcade games is static when compared to 
ASTRO BLAST. The explosions are realistic, the sounds 
are good and the action is non-stop. 

This machine language game is positively outstanding! 
(Mark Data Products, 23802 Barquilla, Mission Vie jo, 
CA 92691, $24.95 tape, $29.95 disk) 



An Amazing Offer* • • 

COLOR COMPU 



64 K * Extended Color Basic * LI ROM 

* Pull 90-Dmy Warranty 



tend dwck, Hny Mi Vtaa or *Mt*rC*rt 

— - — 



• •• <£^QQ00 CUPF't COLOR CORNER 

' ' Rt. 4, Box 248 

Floyd's Kncfcti IN 47119 

M tTratet, T»* Or*. 



August 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 75 



THE ULTIMATE IN COLORCOMPUTIN 

WORD PROCESSING COMMUNICATIONS 



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The Super "Color" Writer js a FAST machine code, full featured, 
character (screen) oriented word processing system tor the TRS-BD(TM) 
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fOf hours ol use wiihoul eye fatigue lopnonal orangeon blackl Theumque 
prmt WINDOW frees you from 32. 61 or 64 character lines FOREVER! This 
window can be moved anywhere in the text file, up, down, left or nght to 
display Ihe text as it will be printed without wasting paper You can create 
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and lor ihe professional writer with a 32K disk system and a Jot to say. 
there s plenty of room to say it! 

COMPARISON CHART SUPER COLOR WRITER THE COMPETITION 

System SfM 4K t6K 32 K 4K 16K 32K 

TAPE Tex i space N, A BK 24 K N.A ?K 16K 

ROM PA K Tent space 2 SK 15K 31K N.A N/A MA 

DISK Tex l space N.A 6 5K 225K N A 0 5K 16 SK 

RiQht Ju«hfv YES N< 1 

YES 



.IK 

12 5K 



N/A 
0 5K 



N, A 
165K 



Right Justify YES NO 

v>deo Winctpw VES NO 

Edit any ASCII Fife YES NO 

The figures speak for themselves and with professional features like 
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move, copy & delete * Global Search, . Exchange & Delete * Merge or 
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Subscripts * Headers. Footers & 2 Auxiliary looinotes on odd. even or all 
pages definable position * Flush right * l\Jon -breakable space * 4 centering 
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sheet pause * Sei Page length • Line length, Line spacing, Margins, page 
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after CR * Soft & hard formfeed • Works with 6 bit printer fix * and more! 



SUPER COLOR WRITER DISK 

The Disk version ol the Super 'Color' Writer works with Ihe TRS-8QC Disk 



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n Pn 



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Page 76 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 



Software Review... 

SKY-DEFENSE Has 
Fast-Paced Action 

Don't mistake SKY-DEFENSE for a copy of the popular 
acrade game Defender. It isn't that, and doen't purport to 
be. 

But it is a fast-paced action game that involves many of 
the features which has made the Defender game popular in 
the arcades. And, it hasnicecolors and sound, good joystick 
control and a feeling of being "there" that will get to you. 

You are in control of a plane which you can fly up and 
down, forward and back across the screen and across 
terrain. Enemy ships fly at you, and you must shoot them 
before they shoot you. There is no "long-range radar, "so the 
enemy just pops onto the screen in various places and 
intervals. They are shooting at you, and you have to get 
them first — or dodge out of the way. 

SKY-DEFENSE is written entirely in machine language, 
and is, thus, fast and extremely responsive to joystick 
control. By allowing you to fly all across the screen, the 
program gives you lots of options to attack. And, a nice 
graphic feature is that when you fly "backwards, "the terrain 
stays in place so that the appearance of movement in the 
forward and backward directions is heightened. 

We believe those who like arcade games will like SKY- 



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Hailing lists are a natural for the Color Computer and you 
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Product names are Trademarks of TransTek 



DEFENSE. So long as you don't expect a Defender copy, 

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Software Review... 

Adventure 3-Pak 
Starts Slow— Gets Better 

At last, we thought, a super graphics Adventure game — 
or series of games. Not quite so, although the graphics are 
better than much of what we have seen and A D VENTURE 
3-PAK does provide some interesting challenges for the 
adventurer. 

This series of programs is loaded in separately. As you 
"pass" through one, you can get to the other. The programs 
are basically written as wandering through a maze, with a 
number of hints, secrets and the like for you to discover. As 
with any Adventure, the play can be rewarding or 
frustrating, depending on how well you do. 

The first segment of the package is probably the poorest, 
although the graphics of the figures are quite good. You 
must battle a couple of enemies, and it is the combat that 
seems almost stilted. The fighting is not in real-time, as in 
seeing the two combatants doing their thing. 

For those who survive the "ritual combat," the next 
program in this series loads a picture of a castle which, after 
walking in, confronts you with a maze. There are stairs, 
walls and doors, and all of this is very good in terms of 
graphics. The reaction to the commands is fast, too, so you 
can move about easily. 

That is about all we will tell you. To delve further would 
ruin the payability of ADVENTURE 3-PAK. Our main 
complaint with the game, basically, is one that would apply 
to many non-disk graphic Adventures, there is just so much 
that you can load into the 80C's memory at one time. With a 
disk, of course, you will be able to load various scenes over 
and over again, giving a much greater variety to the process. 

ADVENTURE 3-PAK is by no means a bummer, but it 
does have its limitations. If you like Adventure games, you 
will probably enjoy it once you get through the first segment. 
(Nelson Software Systems, P.O. Box 19096, 
Minneapolis, MN 55419, $24.95) 





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August, 1982 



The RAINBOW 



Page 77 







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The RAINBOW 



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August 1982 The RAINBOW Page 79 

Rainbow Feedback... 

Converting Programs From Other Computers To Your 80C 

By Lawrerfce C. Falk 



One of the questions that it seems we get asked more than 
any other is how to convert a program from another 
computer to the 80C. 

This usually comes up when someone finds what looks to 
be a really interesting program in some book or magazine 
and wants to make it run on his or her Color Computer. 

First of all, a little background. 

If you have been reading these pages for any length of 
time, you will know that the 80C is operated by a MC6809 
microprocessor. And, while it is not the first 6809-based 
computer system to be marketed, it is by far the most 
popular. For that matter, it is also the first to be widely sold, 
thanks, primarily, to Radio Shack. 

When Tandy decided on the 6809, they chose the most 
powerful eight-bit processor available today. This chip, 
manufactured by Motorola, is a real gem. And, by adding 
the SAM chip to the configuration, Radio Shack, frankly, 
gave the 80C buyer more microprocessing "bang for the 
buck" than anyone else. The technical experts have 
marveled that they packed so much into this little machine. 
And, that is one reason why you seeso much software and so 
many different possible kinds of things becoming available 
f or the 80C. It just has so much power that it can do a great 
deal more than anyone really thought about when it was 
introduced about 18 months ago. 

For that matter, there are mainframes which run on the 
6809. But, all that is another story. 

What is germane to the subject of converting programs is 
that, aside f rom the 80C, there is precious little in the way of 
software for the Microsoft Basic which our favorite 
computer uses. (This is getting to be less and less important, 
by the way, because there is so much new software being 
written for the 80C.) 

But no matter. The two best-selling micro systems over 
the past few years (aside from 80C) have been the Tandy 
Models I, II and 111 and the Apples. Tandy's earlier 
machines were (and are) all based on the Z-80 
microprocessor. Apple's (and the Pet and Ohio Scientific as 
well) are based on the 6502 chip. Even Tandy's newest, the 
Model 16, runs partly on a Z-80 (actually, a Z-80A). But the 
rest of it, the powerful operating system, runs on a 68000 
microprocessor from, you guessed it, Motorola. That is a 
full 16-bit processor. 

All of this does have something to do with the suject of 
conversions, so stay with me for a couple more minutes, 
please. 

How BASIC Works 

A company called Microsoft authored the Basic, both 
Color Basic and Extended Color Basic, for the 80C. But that 
is no matter, because many of the BASlCs available today 
were written by Microsoft. The thing that does matter is 
what it takes to write a BASIC in the first place. 

Remember, all BASlCs — and all "high level" languages 
like it, COBOL, FORTRAN and so on — use an interpreter. 
That's what Microsoft writes. That is so that when you type 
in a keyword like, for instance, PRINT, the interpreter 
analyses it, sees what it says, and converts (or interprets) it 
into machine code. That takes some time. BASIC is an 
interpreted language. That means it goes through this 
process of having the interpreter convert its keywords into 
machine code each time the keyword is sent to the 



microprocessor. 

Now. If you have looked at any machine language 
programs (there are a couple in this month's issue), or 
followed Dennis Lewandowski's Assembly Corner you will 
see that what machine language is made up of is merely a 
bunch of hexadecimal numbers which become instructions 
to the microprocessor in binary form. 

Look at those hexadecimal numbers. They are things like 
06, FF, EF and so on. And, if you wish to load the A 
Register with a number, you send a hexadecimal number to 
the microprocessor, which its native instruction set tells it 
means Load A (that's a $86 in the immediate mode, by the 
way). 

But that is no matter. What is important is that as a 
company like Microsoft develops the BASIC for a 
computer, it has to work within the confines of the 
microprocessor on which the computer will run. So, if you 
decide to start building computers and you contract with 
Microsoft to write the BASIC for you, they will write a 
different set of instructions depending on two things. 

The Plot Thickens 

The first, and probably most important thing, is which 
microprocessor you have decided to use. All of them operate 
differently. So, when you tell a Z-80 to PRINT, the 
instructions that are passed to the Z-80 will be different than 
those that would be passed to an 80C. 

The second consideration is what you want to have 
included in your BASIC. You have the best example of this 
sort of situation sitting in front of you in a little silver box. 
Tandy had Microsoft include a whole range of graphics 
commands in BASIC that, at the time, were not available on 
any other computer system. Little gems that you take for 
granted such as LINE, PAINT, CIRCLE and so forth are 
new keywords written — or "invented" as it were — f or Radio 
Shack. 

Yes, you can draw a circle on an Apple II. But you need 
machine language programming experience (or a whole 
program) to do what you can accomplish with Extended 
Color Basic on the 80C. 

So, these two considerations are the ones which go into 
making a BASIC for a computer. Any computer. The 
person who writes the interpreter must deal first with the 
microprocessor that is being used and, second, with what 
keywords (or, really, functions) the manufacturer wants to 
include. 

Fortunately, you do not have to worry too much about all 
of this. Because, when you type in a BASIC keyword that 
your 80C's BASIC recognizes, you have already put it in the 
format (machine code-wise) that is necessary for your 
interpreter to understand it. 

If Its Yours 

That is provided, of course, that such a keyword exists in 
Color or Extended Color Basic. 

Suppose you find a program which looks interesting, take 
a little time, and decide to enter it in f rom the keyboard into 
the 80C. It is an Apple 11 program, but no matter. Because, 
like we just said, as you physically type it in, it will be 
accepted by your own BASIC. 

— Continued on Page 81 



Page 80 



The RAINBOW 



August 1982 





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August 1982 T 

CONVERT - from Page 79 

Here we go. The first line has some DIMension 
statements in it. O.K., that's easy. Now here's the second 
line, and it has a GOSUB. No problem. And the third, its 
PRINTing the name of the program on the screen. Then, in 
the fourth line there is a FOR/NEXT loop to delay the 
program and keep the words on the screen so they can be 
read. 

Hey, this is really easy. Now, the fifth line. Here we tell the 
80C to HOME. HOME??!! What's HOME? Where the 
heart is? On the Range? Are there deer and other creatures 
playing games inside this machine? 

"Baby, I want to go home. I'm tired and I want to go to 
bed." Whoever heard of this HOME thing. I thought this 
conversion thing was easy. 

HOMEing In On The Problem 

You, my friend, have just HOMEd in on the problem of 
converting programs. As you know, there is no such thing as 
HOME for the 80C. You can type in HOME after the line 
number just like the listing shows. But, its best to stop there 
and run that line. 

See the pretty ?SN ERROR on your screen? 

As my kindergarten teacher, Miss Goosetree, tried to 
teach me not to say, there ain't no such thing as HOME in 
this computer! The ?SN ERROR isthe80C's way of telling 
you it does not recognize such a command. But then, you 
knew it all the time. Right? 

Well, lets just leave HOME out and see what happens. 
Well go on to the next line where the program seems to be 
getting nasty. Its GRrrring at us now. Oh, foo. Let's forget 
the whole thing! What's a GR, anyway? 

We've been a little too graphic in these examples, perhaps. 
But, just f or the record, HOM E is, f or all practical purposes, 
the same as CLS. It clears the screen and HOMEs the cursor 
to the upper left-hand corner of the screen. GR is a 
command that sends the Apple from the text mode into the 
Graphics mode. It also clears the Graphics screen. 

Truth be it known, converting graphics programs from 
any system to the 80C is a bear. In many cases, its pretty 
much an entire re-write. But, let's delve into this just a bit 
further, now that we know what HOME and GR will do. 

How To Convert 

There are a lot of programs you can convert with some 
manner of ease, particularly if you have a good familiarity 
with the syntax of your own BASIC. The easiest programs 
to convert are those for the other members of Radio Shack's 
family, because much of the BASIC is similar. 

You can also upgrade while you convert. For instance, 
Level I Basic doesn't have nearly all the commands that even 
ordinary Color BASIC offers. And, while there are a few 
things that are missing from Extended Color Basic that 
show up in Level II Basic, they are not all that important. 

Those "missing commands" are primarily the error- 
handling routines and the ability to define double and single 
precision numbers. Handy, yes. Essential, not usually. 

For an example of what I mean, let's look at error- 
handling. There is a command which you can use in Level II 
that will tell thecomputer thatif you get a divisionbyzero, it 
should not Break out of the program and print an error 
statement (?/0 ERROR), but should do thus-and-so 
instead. 

That's handy. But you can get around it simply by testing 
the variable in the division formula before you tell the 80C to 
do the division. And, if you would have had a zero as the 
divisor, just have the 80C skip the division step. 

Yes, it is a little more complicated. But it is nothing that 
will prevent you from converting the program. 



RAINBOW Page 81 

But, the further away you get from the BASIC Microsoft 
wrote for the 80C, the more trouble you will have. And the 
more fancy a program, the more chance there will be some 
trouble. 

Pitfalls And Prattfalls 

There are some obvious pitfalls to watch for. We have 
already mentioned one of them: Graphics. No computer 
system has a screen layout like the 80C. If you want to work 
on a Graphic program, go ahead. But don't expect it to be 
easy and plan to do a lot of rewriting from scratch. 

Other things to watch for are USR calls, and anything 
that POKEs or PEEKs. Forget it. The ROMs are where the 
operating system codes are, and they are vastly different on 
different systems. You would have to be throughly familiar 
with the ROM setup in both the 80C and the machine from 
which you were trying to convert the program in order to 
have- a chance to do this properly. 

You will have to do some work with screen formats as 
well. The 32 character line on the 80C is different from any 
of the other systems. I have found the best way to do this sort 
of thing is to use abbreviations and the line to "shorten" the 
heading lines. Also, PRINTUSING can help "crowd" 
information from variables on the screen. 

Look at the CHR$ functions carefully. For instance, a 
CHR$(31) will clear the Model III from the position of the 
cursor to the end of the screen. You can't do that directly 
with the 80C (but there is a way to accomplish the same 
thing). 

Most important of all, look for ways you can enhance a 
program when you convert it to the 80C. You can certainly 
do a lot with the Graphics, but the flexibility of the operating 
system will allow you to do other things as well. For 
instance, you cannot use LINEINPUT with Models I/III 
unless you have disk. It is available with Extended Basic for 
the 80C and is a very powerful command. 

Other Help 

For Model I/III programs, you do not even have to type 
in the listings because there is a utility available from 
Spectral Associates (P.O. Box 99715, Tacoma, WA 98499, 
$24.95) that will allow you to load programs for those 
computers directly into your 80C. It will also help in some of 
the conversion. 

The 80C Color Computer System Card from Nanos 
Systems C<^;p. (P.O. Box 24344, Speedway, IN 46224, 
$4.95) is an in-depth look at the commands, syntax and 
routines for the Color Computer. I have used it to great 
advantage in doing some of my conversions. Also, if you will 
be converting a lot from a specific system, Nanos has system 
cards for all the Radio Shack computers as well as the Apple 
II and Apple II Plus. 

For a comparison of all the statements in all the BASICs, 
7he BASIC Handbook by Dr. David Lein is an excellent 
collection of information about the various (and, 
sometimes, mysterious) commands in the other "dialects." It 
is published by CompuSoft Publishing Co. and may be 
available at your local computer store. 

Armed with these three weapons, you should be able — 
plus your own understanding of the 80C — you should be 
able to convert almost anything that can be converted. 

Have fun and good luck. 



(Apple II and Apple II Plus are trademarks of the Apple 
Computer Co. OSI is a trademark of Ohio Scientific Co. PET is a 
trademark of Commodore, Inc.) 



Page 82 



The RAINBOW 

ADVERTISER'S INDEX 



August 1982 



Aardvark 80 12, 13 

A. M. Hearn Software 71 

Armadillo International 25 

B. Erickson 67 

Cer-Comp 37, 68 

Chromasette 64 

Chromatic Software 41 

Cliff's Color Corner 74 

Cognitec 59 

Color Computer News 71 

Color Products Unalike 80 

Color Software Services 15, 35 

Computer Island 54 

Computer Plus 78 

Computerware 16, 21, 33, 49, 61 

Custom Software Engineering 57 

DSL Computer Products 36 

80-U.S. Journal 77 

East Texas Color Computer Club ... 56 
Elite Software 24 



Endicott Software 27 

Great X«P*T 28 

Harmonycs 65 

Frank Hogg Laboratory 38 

Illustrated Memory Banks 45 

Hume Design 10, 53, 76 

JARB Software 7 

Land Systems 14 

Lissajous Software 22 

Mark Data Products IBC 

Martin Consulting 46 

Med Systems Software 31 

Micro-80 18,47 

Micrologic 39 

Micro Technical Products 52 

The Micro Works 55 

Tom Mix Software 48 

Moses Engineering 56 

Nanos Systems Corp IFC 

Nelson Software Systems 75 



PCLEAR 80 67 

Peacock Enterprises 30 

Platinum Software 70 

Prickly-Pear Software 23, 50 

The Program Store 17 

Quasar Animations 72 

Rainbow Connection Software 8 

Rainbow On Tape 60 

68 Micro Journal 69 

Snake Mountain Software 34 

Soft Sector Marketing 66 

Software Options 20 

Spectral Associates 51, BC 

Spectrum Projects 42, 43, 63 

Star-Kits 26 

Sugar Software 58 

Superior Graphic Software 11 

T&D Software 9 

Teague Programming & Consulting 19 
Transformation Technologies 73 



THESE FINE STORES CARRY THE RAINBOW 



Acme Book Co. 

Baton Rouge. La 
A Computer Store 
Indianapolis. Ind. 
Adventure International Store 

Longwood. Fla 

All-Pro Souvenlers 

Pittsburgh. Pa 

Appletree Computers 

DeKalb. ill 

Atlontlc News 

Halifax. N S. 

B. Dolton Booksellers 

West Jackson St. - Chicago. II 

B. Dolton Booksellers 

N Walbash St - Chicago. Ill 

B. Dolton Booksellers 

Milwaukee. Wise. 

B. Dolton Booksellers 

Peoria. III. 

B.I.E.S. Systems 
Oak Park. Ill 

Bill s TV Radio Shack 

Newton, III 

Bob's In Newtown 

Chicago. Ill 

Bob's News Emporium 

Chicago. Ill 

Bob's Rogers Park 

Chicago. Ill 
Book Market 
East Cedar - 
Book Market 
North Cicero 
Book Market 
West Diversey 
Book Market 
Peoria. III. 
Book Market 
Champaign, 
Book Market 
Danville. III. 
Book Nook 
Lisle. III. 



Chicago. III. 

- Chicago. 

- Chicago. 



Book Tree 

Milwaukee. Wise. 
Booked Solid 

Wilwaukee. Wise. 

Bookland, Inc. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 
Campus Computer Corp. 

Nashville, Tenn. 

CAJ Electronics Computer Center 

Richland, Wash. 
Chicago-Main News 

Evanston, III. 

Color Products Unalike 

Vancouver, B.C. 

The Computer Center 

New York, N. Y. 

The Computer Store 

San Diego, Calif. 
The Computer Store 

Tulsa. Okla 

Computerland of Louisville 

Louisville. Ky. 
Computer Emporium 

Louisville. Ky 

Computer Resource 

Williamsville. N Y. 

Computer SOS 

Shreveport La. 
Computerware Store 
Encinitas, Calif. 
Cosmos Computers 
Bettendorf. Iowa 
Crouchet Electronics 
Conroe, Texas 
Dallas Computer Center 
Dallas, Tex 

Delker Electronics 

Smyrna, Tenn. 
Disney's Electronics 
San Diego, Calif. 
Dimensional Software 

San Diego. Calif. 



E. B. Garcia A Associates 

Chicago. III. 

The Eight Bit Comer 

Muskegon, Mich. 

Game Preserve 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Guild Books and Periodicals 

Chicago, III. 

Home Computer Store 

Westerville, Ohio 

HW Electronics 

Northndge, Calif. 

Kelly Software Distributors 

Edmundton, Alta 

Leo's Book & Wine Shop 

Toledo. Ohio 

Llttte Professor Book Center 

Philadelphia, Ohio 

Little Professor Book Center 

Canton, Ohio 
Multi-Mag 

London. Ont 

OP AMP Technical Books 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

Parkwest Books 

Chicago, III. 
Personal Software 
Malvern, Pa 
Printers. Inc. 
Palo Alto. Calif. 
PCLEAR 60 
Mansfield, Ohio 
The Program Store 
Baltimore, Md. 
The Program Store 
Falls Church. Va. 
The Program Store 
Washington, D.C. 
Radio Shack 
El Cajon. Calif. 
Radio Shack 
Freehold, NJ. 



Radio Shack 

Peterborough, N.H. 
Radio Shack 
San Diego. Calrf. 
Rainbow Software Services 

Calgary, AJta. 
RAV Sound 

Fortune Calif. 

Road Runner Computer Products 

Glendale. Ariz. 

Salt of the Earth 

Albuquerque, N.M. 

Sandmeyer's Bookstore 

Chicago. III. 

Soft Sector Marketing 

Garden City, Mich. 

Software City 

River Edge, N.J. 

Software Concepts 

Dallas, Tex. 

Software Plus 

Citrus Heights, Calif. 

Software Unlimited 

Tucsan, Ariz. 

Spectrum Projects 

Woodhaven, N Y. 

Strawflower Electronics 

Half Moon Bay. Calif. 

Teague Programming A Consulting 

Paducah, Ky. 
T. M. Computers 

Kingston, Ont. 

University of Chicago Bookstore 

Chicago. III. 

University of Illinois Bookstore 

Chicago, III. 

University of Wisconsin Bookstore 

Milwaukee, Wise. 
Vldeomat, Inc. 
Chicago, III. 
Willy's Electronics 

National City. Calif. 



The RAINBOW 
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P. O. Box 209 
Prospect, KY 40059 

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Limited back issues are available for $2 each for issues 1-7, $2.50 each for issues 8 and upward. 
Shipping and handling costs of $2.50 per order must be added. 





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SPACE WAR 

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COLOR ZAP 

Super new space game! You must 
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GALAX ATT AX * 

If you like Space Invaders, you'll love 
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NEW 16K MACHINE LANGUAGE GAMES 

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Best new adventure game available • over 200 rooms filled with creatures, tricks, treasures, magic 
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Like Breakout, you must knock out six layers of blocks using your paddle to prevent missiles from 
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SUPERCHARGER 

If you have a 32K E series printed circuit board, the SUPERCHARGER 
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FLEXPLCIS is a powerful, easy-to use disk operating system Spectral Associates has adapted 
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