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Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User 

DECEMBER NO. 21 





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2 


Issue *1, November 1983 * 

Creating/Saving Files (W.S.Johnson), ] 

Repeat Key and uninterruptible Power I 

Supply Protects, Numerical Analysfs, 
Load/Save Problems, Reviews, and morel ( 

Issue *2, December 1983 I 

Matrlx/Cursor Input (WSJ), User- j 

Friendliness, Reset Switch Project, 

Memory Reduction, Rule of '78. ZX Cash l 

Register, Graphics Tutorial, Etc. 

Issue *3, January/February 1984 
Two Animation Programs, Simple Loading • 
Aid Pro ect (Young), Tape File Protection, : 
Differential Equations, Ham Radio 
Reviews, User Group Help, and morel 

Issue *4, March 1984 
The Death of TIMEX, TSIOOO Bank Switch- 
ing Part I (Hunter), Error Recovery (WSJ), 
Edge Connector Schematics, Simpson's 
Rule, Reviews, Reader Input, and Morel 

Issue *5, Aprll/May 1984 
'WORM' Word Processor (Young) Part I , 
Least Squares Method, TSIOOO GRaphlcs 
Program, TS 2068 Future?, Bank Switch 
Pt.Z, Program Tips, Reviews, and More. 

Issue *6, June 1984 
TSIOOO as Church Aid, Interfacing Books, 
Numerical Analysis, Hardware Tips, 
'W0RM*-2, Swttching-3, Good News, Six 
Reviews, and Morel 

Issue *7, July/August 1984 
Telecommunications issue, 2068 Program 
Tips, How a Compiler Works. Rotating 
Globe, Byte-Back Modem Telecommun- 
ications for Beginners, Swltchlng-4, 
WORM-3 (concluded), and Morel 


T'E HnrKanx 

MKnUUa OuA«y >or M TViw. CorrvuW UM> 


Issue *8, September 1904 
TS 1000 Music Program (White), 2068 
Plotter, 2068 Character Set (Young), 
Address Program, Nine Reviews, Tele- 
Communlcatons Column, Etc 

Issue *9, October/November 1984 

ANNIVERSARY ISSUE. 2068 Spirograph, 
Hlggenbottom Interview, FORTH for TS 
Computers, Spectrum Section, Swltch-5, 
Telecommunications, Reviews, etc. 

Issue *10, December 1984 
40 PAGES, Making Backups of 2068 
Software. Banner Programs ( 1 000 8. 2068), 


Software, Banner Programs ( 1 000 8. 2068 
OL, TSIOOO Program Tips. Christmas 
Program, RSI 00 vs. TSIOOO, MTerml I 
Horizon Awards, Switch-6, tSUGs, Morel 


t \ S,R 

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NOW 

UNDER 

$300 


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CtATHICI PIOCKAU QW1CI PALANC1 

ttviawt NIX. Pn« It P. paacAl. anaapn 


Issue *14, May /June 1985 
Special HARDWARE Issue, TSIOOO 
Keyboard Add-on, ZX8 1 Rampacks on the 
2068, Surge Suppressor Project. User 
Group Report, OL Report, Cassette Tips. 


Issue *11, January 1985 
40 PAGES, Lower Case on the 
TSI000/ZX8I (2040 printer), 2068 Word 
Processor Evaluation Pt. I (Ferrebee), Bar 
Graph Program, Experimenting with Byte 
Back Modem, Switching- 7, INDEX of Issues 
I -10. Revlws and More. 

Issue *12, February /March 1985 
2068 Mass Storage, Software from 
England, TSIOOO Program Tips, 2068 Word 
Processor Eval-2, Bank Switching 
Concluded, MTerm Patches, 2068 Tutorial. 

Issue *13. April 1985 
Complete 2068 Word Procssor Listing, 
TSIOOO Simulated READ-DATA, WORM 
Enhancements ( 1000), User Defined 
Graphics (2068), ’Try These," Changing 
Fonts (2068), and Morel 


Issue *15, July/August 1985 
Byte-Mapped Scroll (2068), Spectrum 
Conversion Notes, VU-CALC with 80- 
column Prlntert 1000), Machine Code 
(1000), 8 Reviews, OL, Etc. 

Issue *16, November 1985 
2068 Line Renumbering (Bell), MTerm on 
Spectrum, 2068 Clover Stopper Program 
( 1000), Quick Balance, Logic Families, 
Sinclair World, News and Reviews. 

Issue *17, February /March 1986 
FastBox Trilogy ( I OOOJ.Banta KeyFInder, 
2068 Screen Save (Bell), 3D Fractals 
(2068), 2068 Little Goodies, INDEX - 
Volume 2, Issues 11-16, Reviews. 

Issue *18, April 1986 
Software Protection, Partial Pascal 
Review with Program (1000), Etch-Ah- 
Sketch (2068), Mlkrodrlve Backups, Filler 
Up(iOOO), Plxel-by-PIxel Screen Scroll,. 

Issue *19, May /June 1986 
2068 Video Modes. Revising Hunter Board, 
New Wafadrlve Column, Ouadratlc 
Equations, 2068 8ank Switching Part I, 
Zebra Designer Tips, InOLIngs, etc. 


All Bock 
Issues of 


TS HORIZONS 


ore Still 
Available 











Back Issues 

ENTER with TS FUNNIES 

'In Spec" - By Frank Davis 

ZX 81 Resources - By Peter McMullln 
2068 Users -something for you, too! 

Totally Safe Machine Code for the TS1000 - By William J Pedersen 

Bank Switching - By William J Pedersen 
Concludes with Parts 3 and 4 

REVIEWS BY BILL FERREBEE 

For the TS 2068- "BYTE POWER' - monthly cassette. 

For the ZX8 1 / TS 1 000 and 2068 - 'KRUNCHER' 


MOW AVAILABLE/ § 

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Now Available! “THE BEST OF SUM, PART II” 


Over 60 pages of program listings, reviews, hard- 
ware projects, hints and tips, and articles. Covers 
TS-1000, TS-2068, and QL. All are reprints from 
the last year of SUM plus a few that didn't make it 
into print before now. 

Articles include Building an EPROM Program- 
mer. Sprites on the 2068, Adding RGB to 2068, QL 
Word Processing, What's Available for TS-1000. 
and much more. Does overlap the "Special Issues" 
advertised to the right. 


The original ‘THE BEST OF SUM" is now in its 
2nd printing. 112 pages of articles going all the 
way back to the beginning of SUM — 3 years 
worth! 

*11.95 postpaid 

QL Special Issue (12/85) — ‘3 95 postpaid. 
TS-1000 Special Issue (5/86) — *3 95 postpaid. 


$ 6.95 postpaid Everything! $ 20.00 postpaid 

FOOTE^ SOFTWARE P. O. Box 14655 - Gainesville, FL 32604 904/462-1086 (6 pm • 9 pm EOT) 



It's been a greet three years. I really hale to come to this. The 
remaining issues will be among are best I hope, and I really want 
to get all nine of the them out in 1 987. 


PLEASE READ! 



Deer Reeders: 


First of all. I am very sorry to be so late with this latest issue. I 
guess TS Horizons has really lived up (down?) to its reputation 
for lateness this time. Although we hove gotten a lot of letters 
complaining about poor service and inconsistency, we still 
receive a lot of patient, supportive letters from readers who love 
us and despite our faults. That makes it hard to say whet I'm about 
to tell you. 

TS Horizons No. 29 will be the last Issue published. 

That's nine more issues including this one. For that reason we 
hove withdrawn all of our advertising In other pub I test Ions. 

OWe will be accepting subscription renewals but for the 
number of remaining issues only (at the rote of $ 1 .80 for each 
issue desired). 

□New subscriptions rsceived will receive refunds by mail 
for issues beyond No. 29. 

□If your current subscription extends beyond issue No. 29 
you may receive back Issues, If desired for the extra Issues. 


NEW TS HORIZONS FEATURE 


The only alternative I see presently Is some sort of partnership 
(either with an existing publication or other individuals who 
would be Interested In sharing the workload or even taking the 
publication over to a large extent - If anyone would happen to be 
Interested In such an arangement please contact me). At any rate 
most of you should know that I would not follow the example of 
several other publications before TS Horizons, that Just dropped 
out sight when the going got rough. 

SLOWEST CATCHUP IN THE WEST 

ANOTHER apology I I was hoping to have an extra large issue of TS 
Horizons this time around. In order to "catch up" a little, but 
unfortunately as you can see this issue is another regular sized 
issue" The Ultimate ZX81", Bernard Bush s Graphics programs, 
and "Little Goodies for the 2068" will appear in the next issue 
(and much more). 

However this Issue, does contain the two concluding chapters of 
Bill Pedersen's Bank Switching Series, the return of Peter 
McMullin, and a brand new (I hope you like It) feature, TS 
Funnies Let us know if you like it and maybe we can run some 
mxeof it (Doyou think Tim Woods of Time Designs can take a 
joke?) 

By the way, the strange box- like creature in the comic strips 
below is intended to be the mascot from SYNC Magazine, an 
animated 2X81 with legs and arms. 1 made some changes - like 
adding a face and simplifying the rest of his design - and "hired" 
him to work for TS Horizons. The other character is intended to 



be yours truly, 
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line CAfX.CU.ee> 


I f A , ZtS rAU«.A>JT IW 

■ ■ f — — ; 


♦TWHARC Tfs Atve«ns«- 
A&aw wiKXO>*rnMmrto> ? 
Ktm,-ncir\tt>cAt>xn€ 

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i Sftcifs. V i t nr 


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5 




rKXXXWOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOfXXXXXVt 


I TheWafadriver ttf’IW' " w «fe r Tips" 

Column Ox l-»v/ by Frank Davis 


This issue I thought I would catch all of you up on 
a few tips I have picked up an the subject of 
wafers for the Rotrxics Wafadrive. Many of 
them you may have noticed for yourselves, but 
for those new Wafadrivers they may come in 
handy. 

The first thing is that I recommend that you 
format every new wafer you use several times 
before you trust it to hold a precious program of 
yours. The reason why is that they have a thin 
tape inside the wafer that, like all magnetic tape, 
is subject to a small bit of stretch after a bit of 
use. By formatting the tape a few times you take 
care of some, and perhaps all of the stretch 
before you put a program on tape. This will take 
a small amount of time to do but is better than 
gating a "faulty wafer’ report when your 
favorite program will no longer load for you. You 
should still backup all of your programs on 
another wafer. I use many of my 1 28K Wafers 
solely for keeping backups of my programs. 

Most all of you have noticed that when you format 
a 16K wafer that it will usually format out at 
actually 19 to 2 OK to a wafer. The same is true 
for 64K wafers that fxmet out at around 70 to 
73K to a wafer and the I28K wafers at 130 to 
I35K. nothing is wrong with your Wafadrive. 
The K (which stands for 1024 bytes) given on 
each wafer is the minimum number of K to a 
wafe, not the exact number that you gat. 

The wafers that we use in our Wafadrives are the 
same ones used in the newer ( the majority) of 
the A&J Microdrives. So if you have bith, feel 
free to borrow from the other. However they will 
not be able to run each other's programs 
anymore than a disc for a Commodore will run on 
an IBM. You can feel safe in buying wafers if you 
need them for either machine. Another place x 
two you might look for wafers if you need them is 
a Service Merchandice Store, Labelles, etc.... or a 
local Sith-Oorona dealer . The SCM company has a 
word processing machine that uses the same 
wafers to store text. These wafers usually format 
out at 72 to 74K. 

My last word on the subject of tape stretch: I 


have found that evry once in a while on both my 
A&J and my Rotronics Wafadrive that if I have a 
wafer that after quite a bit of use starts to show 
up with faulty sectors or has to run through pert 
of the program more than once to get loaded, this 
too is due to stretch. What I do is copy the 
program over onto another wafer, then go ahead 
and re- fxmat the once faulty wafer. All but once 
this "cured" the wafer that was giving me 
trouble. 

Many of us who use the Wafadrive have wished 
fx a suitable program fx us to use that matches 
the powx and utility of Pro/File 2068. I HAVE 
RECENTLY HEARD OF TWO PLACES OFFERIN0 
SUCH AN ANIMAL. 

The first place is DEERIN0 Imaginxing, 136 
Nevxbreak Dr., Hender s onville, TN 37075. Mr. 
Dexing will sell you a copy of PRO/FILE if you 
will: 1 ) supply a copy of your xiginel PRO/FILE 
on tape x proof of purchase of the prqr*n, and 
2)send $9.95 ♦.SO postage. I am sure that if you 
just want it x tape to use in Spectrum mode 
without the Wafafr ive he will be able to help you 
in that area also 

Also according to the Sept/Oct isue of SINCUS 
NEWS, "NEWS FROM TIMELINEZ, P 0 BOX 1312, 
PACIFICA CA 94044 has some data via the TAS 
BAM USER'S 0ROUP , P 0 BOX 644 , Safety Hxbx 
FL 33572 - the people at TAS BAM have with 
Tom Wood's blessing modified PRO/FILE to 
operate on the Rotronics Wafadrive system. If 
interestedaend a request fx data with a SASE." 

Check one x both of these out and you could find 
you have an excellent database program ready to 
run on yx Wafadrive. By the way, Damco 
Enterprises is now offxing Campbell's Mastx 
File x Wafx fx those looking fx a good 
database othx than PRO/FILE 2068. 

If you have anything yx would like ot adhere 
with ox fellow users - tips, questions, shxt 
routines - fx the Wafadrive, x a program yx 
wxld like to have reviewed, send these along 
with a SASE to me at: Frank Davis, 51 3 East Main 
St, Pxu IN 46970. T3H 


By Peter RESOURCES 


McMullin 




2068 USERS TAKE NOTE: Will wonders 
never ceasel Every single topic In this 
month's ZX8I Resources applies to your 
computer too. 

LARKEN DISK SYSTEM 

After using the Larken for a couple of 
months now. I must say it meets or 
exceeds all expectations. The DOS 
(ZX-LDOS) Is certainly the most 
sophlsiticated available for the ZX81, but 
Its operation is simple, logical and 
well-documented. LD05 lends itself 
extremely well to user-written DOS 
utilities for damaged track recovery, etc. 
The ability to Save and Load BASIC, ARRAY 
and CODE files up to 47K long makes It a 
winner, providing programmed data 
manipulation capabilities never before 
possible. The DOS commands and disk 
format are Identical to the 2068 version, 
so CODE written on a 2068 and saved on a 
2068 Larken disk may be loaded by a ZX8 1 
from the same diskl 

The system has been 100% reliable 
without exception, and for CDN$ 12400 or 
US$100.00 delivered, it remains an 
outstanding deal. A complete review, 
discussion of the DOS, DOS utility listings, 
and a comparison with the AERCO FD-ZX 
will appear in these pages in an upcoming 
Issue. The system is available from Larken 
Electronics, RR # 2 Navan, ONT Canada K48 
IH9. 

EPROM SERVICES PROGRAMMER 

I recently received a sample unit of the 
EPROM SERVICES PROGRAMMER MK.I, sent 
for evaluation by Larry Chaverie of 
Ottawa, Ont. 

After using this devise, I decided I liked it 
well enough to order one for myself. 
Although the unit is costly compared to 
the JLO Programer, the features Justify 
the price. 

As opposed to the JLO unit, which is 
memory mapped, the E/S Programmer Is 
completely port-mapped. The programmer 
like the JLO, is a male card peripheral 
designed to plug into a motherboard. It 
measures approx. 3.6’w x 3.5'h, with a 


28-pin Zero Insertion Force socket. An 
8-pole DIP switch next to the ZIF socket 
for the EPROM permits the selection of 
Intel type 2716, 2732, 2732A L 2764, 
27 1 28, and Tl type 25 1 6 and 2532 fcPROMs. 

The programmer is centered around an 
8255 PI A chip, giving port-mapped control 
of all EPROM pins. An onboard switching- 
boost regulator provides the 21V or 2bV 
programming voltage without the need for 
a seperate power supply. Switching of the 
programming Vp is done automatically 
under software control. Eproms may be 
Inserted or removed safely without 
powering down, permitting several EPROMs 
to be programmed without having to power 
down and reload between each one. 

The truly remarkable part is the software. 
IK (ZX81) or I.5K (Spectrum/2068) In 
length, the Machine Code software is 
available in 1 1K-12K or 31K-32K versions 
for the ZX8I, and 30.5K-32K or 62K-63.5K 
versions for the Spectrum or Spectrumized 
2068. 

An 1 1 -option menu provides choices of: 
"TEST (compares each bit in EPROM with 
code to be programmed - ft may be 
possible to overwrite a programmed 
EPROM), "COMPARE (an area of EPROM with 
an area of memory), "COPY (an area of 
EPROM into memory), "CLEAR (an area of 
memory to FF hex), "PROGRAM (see later), 
"CLEAN (check tnat EPROM is erased), 
"REPEAT (program another EPROM, same 
parameters), "E.DUMP (hex listing of 
EPROM), "M.COMP (hex listing of memory), 
"PARAMETERS (lets you check before 
REPEATIng), and QUIT (to BASIC). 

When performing a PROGRAM, or any of the 
EPROM checking operations, parameters 
must be entered for start address of DATA, 
starting address in EPROM, and LENGTH or 
data. Entry is In hexadecimal format. When 
PROGRAMing an EPROM, menu selection is 
made of EPROM type, parameters are 
entered, and the program takes over. First, 
the parameters are tested for validity. 
Then the EPROM is TESTed to see If it can 
be successfully programmed. If all is well, 
the programming Vp is switched on and 
programming commences. During program- 
ming, each byte Is checked to see if 



programming is necessary, and If so, up to 
4 attempts are made to program It. A 
verify Is performed after each attempt. If 
the verification/retry falls, the program 
returns to the menu with a report of the 
failed address. Programming may be 
aborted at any time, with a report of the 
address about to be programmed 

I have found the EPROM SERVICES 
Programmer 1 to be very convenient and 
reliable. The capability of programming 
27128 EPROMS with none of the 

complications Inherent with a memory- 
mapped programmer is a definite plus. The 
ZIF socket, switching flexibility, self- 
contained Vp source, and fancy software, 
as well as the ability to chanqe EPROMs 
"on the run" makes this a very Impressive 
unit. All this luxury doesn't come for free, 
though. 

The Programmer I sells for £64.95, from 
EPROM SERVICES, 3 WEDGEWOOD bRIVE, 
LEEDS LS8 1EF, ENGLAND. 


MODified SHAPES FOR THEIZ& 

This programming feature Is adapted (well 
OK, cribbed) from the article " MODIfied 
Shapes for IBM", In COMPUTEI. MAY 1986 
issue, written by Paul W. Carlson. This 
month, we'll discuss the background, and 
cover I of 4 programs which create nifty 
geometric patterns. 

The program listing provided here will RUN 
on the ZX81/TS1000 with Ollaer/Tl Video 
and Silicon Mountain's JDBASIC or 
PIXL-ATR. It will also run on the 2068, 
but with reduced color resolution. 

The object of Mr. Carlson's article was to 
Illustrate some Interesting uses of the 
MOD (Modulo) command in IBM BASIC 


Next Issue we'll discuss the use of Modulo 
arithmetic In further depth, and examine 
the operation of the following . 


•Can also be adapted for std. ZX81 or 
TS1000 with Callisto Software’s 
GRAPHICA, or N. Elaaleh’s SN HI-RES. 


1 REH HODified Triangles for Tiaex-Sindair 

2 REH ZXBl: INITIALIZE JOBASIC OR PIXL-ATR VARIABLES 

3 GOTO 40 

5 REH HODULO SUBROUTINE 

6 LET RES=AR6-INT (ARG/HOD) »H0D 

7 RETURN 

10 REH IBH> TJ/206S PLOT SCALING 
15 LET XX1=IXI/1.25)+XSET 


• 2069: USE 
YY1M75-IY1/1.3) 
YY2=175- (Yl/1 . 3) 


20 LET XX2=(X2/1.25)*XSET 
25 LET YY1=191-(Y1/1.1I. 

30 LET YY2=191-(Y2/1. 1) 

35 RETURN 

39 REH TRIANGLE ROTATION 

40 DIH X (3) 

50 DIH Y(3) 

60 DIH Z (3) 

70 DIH T (3) 

80 LET XSET=1 

100 LET SU*.l 
110 LET RUM-SU 
120 LET 11=1 
130 LET CM 
200 FOR J=0 TO 3 
210 LET II=-II 
220 LET JJM 
230 FOR 1=0 TO 6 
240 LET JJ=-JJ 

250 IF KJ OR I >6-J THEN GOTO 1100 
300 IF J<2 OR I >2 THEN GOTO 320 
310 60T0 400 

320 LET AR6=C • ADVANCE COLOUR HOD 3 

330 LET H0D=3 

340 60SUB 5 

350 LET C=RES*1 

400 IF J=3 THEN GOTO 420 

410 GOTO 500 


• LOOP THRU J C0LUHNS 
AND I RONS 


"MOD gives the integer (whole number) 
remainder of an integer division. For ... ang-r 
example, 17 MOD 3 - 2, because 17 divided 420 LET AR ;' C 
by 3 equals 5, with a remainder of 2. jjj ™=resm 

"Although some dialects of BASIC don't joo let xm=o 
include a MOD operator, the INT function 3io let xt2i=39 
can be used for the same purpose. In 520 let i(3i=78 
Microsoft (or Sinclair) BASIC, the 530 let yid=o 
expression K-INT(K/J)*J gives exactly the 540 let Yi3)=o 
same result as the IBM BASIC expression 550 if ii=jj then goto 580 
K MOD J. 


’ADVANCE COLOUR HOD 3 


"One of the most common uses of MOD is to 
test whether a value Is odd or even. The 


560 LET V (2) *-48 
570 60T0 600 
580 LET Y (2) =48 
600 FOR N=1 TO 11 


•CHANGE Y(2) VALUES TO PLOT 
S0HE POLYGONS UPSIDE D0NN 


expression X MOD 2 yields a I If X Is odd, 6l0 LET n= 3 M( 3 >+h 39 
or a O If X is even." . 


•LOOP THRU N ROTATIONS 




620 LET Y1=175-Y(3)-J»48+II»JJ#24 

700 FOR N=l TO 3 .LOOP THRU H SIDES 

710 LET X2=3+X(H)+I#39 

720 LET Y2=175-Y(H)-Jt48+II*JJ#24 

730 LET ARG=C 

740 EOSUB 5 

750 LET ORES+1 

800 EOSUB 10 

802 REN SET INK COLOUR BY VARIABLE C 

803 REN C SEQUENCES H0D3 H, IE 1,2, 3, 1,2, 3,1... 

809 REN DRAN SIDE (JOBASIC): 

810 IF USR V THEN LPRINT D| XX 1 , YY1 ; XX2, YY2 

814 REN DRAW SIDE (2068): 

815 PLOT XX 1 , YY1 : DRAW 1X2-711, YY2-YY1 
820 LET X1=X2 

830 LET Y1=Y2 

840 LET AR6=N 

850 EOSUB 5 

860 LET NJ=RES+ 1 

900 LET Z(N)=RU*X(N)+SU*X(NJ) 

910 LET T(N)=RU»Y(N)*SU»Y(NJ) 

920 NEXT N 

1000 FOR P=1 TO 3 • HOVE RELATIVE COORDS 

1010 LET X(P)=Z(P) FROH "NEXT* ROTATION 

1020 LET Y(P)=T(P) TO "CURRENT* ROTATION 

1030 NEXT P 

1040 NEXT N 

1100 NEXT I 

1110 NEXT J 

1200 IF INKEY$="‘ THEN GOTO 1200 
1210 STOP 


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1 


SyncWare News is a journal by, for and about Sinclair-Timex hobbyists. We bring you projects, listings 
and articles written and developed by fellow hobbyists. We at SyncWare want to stimulate and chal- 
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TOTALLY SAFE MACHINE COOE 
FOR THE ZX81 AND TSIOOO 

by William J. Pedersen. 


Rather than starting by beating a dead horse, the 
answer wit) precede the explanation. 

Here are two templates: 


1 REM I 2 

..3 4 5.. 


6 7 

8 

.9 A 

/, 

2 REM 1 . . 

2 

• •••••• • • • 

.3 A. ... 

J 

....6 7 

• • • 8 ••••••« 


.9 A B 

/. 


Template*! provktee 11 2 bytes of machine oodB 
space. When more than 1 12 bytes are needed 
template *2 is added Template *2 provides 1 22 
of machine code space. When still more space is 
needBd, template *2 is copied to line 3, eta , es 
many times as you like. 

Program memory begins at 10509. The 
following chart shows the memory a ddresse s 
where the template are stored. The addresse s 
***** are especially important. Your machine 
code can be POKEd into the text area of any 
template, with one restriction (but an important 
one). 

Nowhere in your machine coda can CHRt( 1 1 0) 
l -'ENTER”] appear! The computer will inter- 
pret it as the end of the REM statement, with 


AvoidingCHRS (IIS) in your machine code is 
alwa/s possible, but there are sneaky ways ft can 
gat in there without you being aware of it Either 
byte of a two byte CALL or JP address might 
accidentally be CHR$( I IS). The first sneaky 
addresse s in RAM are: 16502, 16750, 
I70M, 17270, etc., by Increments of 256 
bytes. 

Ah hah! The templates hide these under ****«, 
so you do not have to worry about them. Don't 
stop worrying yet thoutft. 

There are two more cases that require caution. 

The first is another sneaky one, but simple to 
avoid. Never use “JR — , *120". Use 
-JR .♦121’andaddaNOP instead 

The other case Is obvious, but harder to fix. 
ID ,118“ and "CP I IS” cannot be used 

For ID ,1 18”, use "LD — ,1 17: INC_“. 

For ”CP US', use “CPL : CP 37 : CPL*. 

In brief , never use: 

”JP , *120”, 

”LD 11 8”. or 

“CP IIS’. 

The result is perfectly safe machine coda which 
can be edited, addad to, and saved to tape. (All 
right, you experts: vou can’t use I/O device 
(N)-1 IS, and you better 
use (HL) when addressing 
ROM routines.) 

HEY! It works! Forget the 
(feed horse. 

The weird doodad ( /• ) at 
the end of the templates is 
simply three NOPs follow- 
ed by JR *6. It comes in 
handy when your coda runs 
into the next template. 

One last hint — keep a 
spare copy of both 
templates. T3H 


disastrous results. 

FORMAT 

MSB LINE* 

LSB LINE * 

LSB LENGTH-4 
MSB LENGTH- -1 
CHR$(234)-"REM" 

START OF TEXT 

END OF TEXT 

CHR$( 1 18)« "ENTER" 

TEXT BYTES 


I REM 2 REM 3 REM 4 REM 5 REM 


16509 

16510 

16511 

16512 

16513 


16627 

16628 

16629 

16630 

16631 


16755 

16756 

16757 
••••« 

16759 


16883 

16884 

16885 

16886 
16887 


17011 

17012 

17013 

••••• 

17015 


16514 16632 16760 16888 17016 


16625 16753 

16626 16754 

"772 V22~ 


16881 17009 17137 

16882 17010 17138 

”722 122 122 

10 


BANK<N> SWITCHING... 

The TIMEX/Sinc lair 2068 Compute r 

by William J. Pedersen —————— 


Before discussing the roll of the SCLD In bank 
switching. It Is desirable to summarize the 
known functions. 

1. SCREEN MAINTENANCE 

This Is the highest priority operation. The HOME 
RAM with addresses In chunks 2 & 3 (DRAM) 
belongs to the SCLD. The CPU has to beg 
permission to access It. If access Is not 
granted, when the SCLD Is busy, the CPU clock 
signal Is frozen high, putting the CPU In a state 
of suspended anlmatloa 

There are three screen operating modes. At 
start-up D_F I LE I & A_FILEI are used to create 


f bit 3 happens to be low, some 2068s suffer 
OSS of sound. OUT 254,255 should fix this. 
(White border) 

5. SOUND AND JOYSTICK OPERATIONS 

In this case the SCLD supports no registers but 
does decode port addresses 245 and 246 to a 
pair of signal lines. With both lines active, the 
port 245 wrlte-only steering register (4 bits) Is 
enabled. When only one or the other line Is 
active, a read or write Is enabled for the 


x _ * . 1 1 , O — -w V' vuipviv l 

There are three screen operating modes. At It cannot^e written* 0 ^ When lnf>Ut m<K,e ' 
start-up D_FILEI & A_FILEI are used to create 

the screen display. There are 255 pixels per 6. KEYBOARD INTERRRUPT GENERATION 

active screen line. INK and PAPER colors are ,UPI 

defined for 8x8 pixel character space. Immediately after completing a display frame 

the SCLD Issues an Interrupt (also supplying a 
In extended color mode, there are still 256 pull-up resistor) to the CPU. It can be blockecfbv 

pixels across the screen, but now D_FILE2 Is writing a T to bit 6 of port 255 without 

used to provide INK and PAPER colors for each disabling Interrupts from other sources 
1x8 space. Neither A.FILEI nor A_FILE2 Is used, 

making the space available for other purposes. 7. LOCAL MEMORY SUSPRESSION 

ln a<wltion aS a t£s c ^ i ^, t, 5 , ss E ^r g M 

£«2 *"» -Ode OJ.LE. and D-FILE2 are Sg! BBT 

combined to double the horizontal resoluton to actively reside In chunks » 

512 pixels per line. In this mode the INK, PAPER, 7 

and^BORDER -colors are fixed for the entire 8. HOME MEMORY SELECTION 

Dual screen mode Is the same as normal, except generate 5 f er^bl e 3 s I gna I s°ln blocks 

Fr,| h n e . r A f CM lo 9 D-FILEI and of two chunks each /Unless address contention 
A_FILE1 or D — F I LE2 and A_FILE2. exists, this Is Independent of display generaton 

tk At i , Often two are active simultaneously (It Is 

The display mode code and 64 column mode color possible for the SCLD to redirect the' CPU 

selection are stored In the lower six bits of the reguest to a different block of RAM. This has 

read/write register at port address 255. The subtle Implications.) 

BORDER color is wrlte-only to the lower three 

bits at port address 254. The SCLD does the port 9. EXROM AND DOCK BANK SWITCHING 
address decoding and maintains these two 

registers. Blt7 of port 255 is a steering bit When set, 

_ . _ EXROM will be found, otherwise the DOCK hank 

2. KEYBOARD MONITORING The SCLD decodes port address 244 and 

maintains a read-wrlte register called 
A read-only register Is maintained at port 254. "horizontal select' (HS). Its bits correspond to 
Though all 16 bits of adress are reguired, only chunks. A bit set to *1* means that a CPU 

tme lower eight are decoded. Keyboard data are request to that chunk will find EXROM or DOCK 

read from the lower five bits. Instead of HOME memory. 

3. TAPE INPUT MONITORING The two are mutually exclusive. You cannot have 

m . , , .. . , , EXROM In one chunk and the DOCK in another 

Bit 6 of the read-only register at port 254 Is 

assigned to this function. This limited part of the bank switching system 

4. TAPE OUTPUT AND BEEP 

converter With bit 4 off. bit ^generates the provide the chunk addressde^ b&of Wth?, 

sc wasrAisL watt h? &&&"& « 

generates beeps. II 7 ' 




10. CONTENTION RESOLUTION 


to do with bank switching, but should not be 
prejudged. 


While the SCLD Is busy with screen 
maintenance. It operates an Independent DRAM 


which open address and data gates between the 
CPU and SCLD busses. The data gate is 
bidirectional but the address gate is one-way. 

Contention also exists when the CPU requests 
access to any or the SCLD ports. This is why 
the destqn of 'hyper loaders" must take into 
account the fact that the tape signal cannot be 


sampled more than 15,750 times a second. This 
resolution limits the amount of tape speed error 
permissible during all tape operations. 

1 1. HOME MEMORY MULTIPLEXING & REFRESH 


The SCLD provides this service for the CPU 
concurrent with screen maintenance except 
during contention. It also provides A7R to help 
In external multiplexing. 


This includes all the SCLD functions which have 
been explained adequately if not clearly In the 


1. The 2068 contains a "daughterboard". The 
schematic has an error. The bus connection Is to 
MERQ, not WR as shown. It also shows Jumpers 
G-G and H-H. These are actually cut-and-Jump 
locations. There are no terminals. 

The function of this board Is to remove 
contention when chunks 2 and 3 have been bank 
switched and no longer contain HOME RAM. 

The cut-and-Jump locations become important 
when BU5REQ acts to take over the system bus. 

2. The rear connector pads for DZIN, DZOUT. 
BUSISO, and one unassigned connection are not 
designed for internal wiring. The pads have no 
traces, holes, nor free area to take solder, so... 

a. These signals must be provided by an ex- 
ternal device. 

b. The signals are not needed internally. 

The most likely assignment for the free bus line 
is BUSGRAB. This is the signal line used 
externally to control the direction of data from 
a buffered bus. The source of this signal must 
be the active addressed device being read, no 
matter where It is In a buffered bus network. 


literature. 3 The connec tton marked I0A5 Is shown 

is it Dosslble to discover its other secrets connected to the wrong pin. This can cause 

without I map? Shade? Sf Sherlock Holmes- confusion when reading or writing code. 

lets have a go at It. What evidence do we have? 4 Neither Joystick connector has the ground 

shown on tne schematic, thouqh it can be 


There is physical evidence. Much of it has little 



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12 



Jumped This might have been done to reserve a 
pin for future expansion. It is not hard to pick 
up this ground connection when devices are 
added that use the joystick ports. The *5V is 
present. Pin 5 seems to have been reserved for 
a loystick with a second button if the schematic 
notation at the switching voltage regulator 
means anything. 

5. Address line A 1 3 is connected to the SCLDI 

NONE OF THE DESCRIBED FUNCTIONS USE OR NEED 
ITI 

6 The pull-up resistor on D2 has a simple task. 
It acts as a RESET to the 2040 printer while 
initializing 

7 The pull-up resistor values for RESET 

SB «««£ £ 

s? a** %r r &&ss£tsa 

outnumber those Issuing WAIT. Only a few 
devices can Issue NMI; commonly very fast 
devices. 


There is a very rich body of evidence in the bank 
switching and initialization code. Evenmore 
exists where TIMEX put In roadblocks in ROM to 
keep unsupported features from messing up the 
user. Many of these roadblocks can be removed 
by replacing them with NOPs, but not everything 
Is that simple. Most of them can be Intercepted 
using ON ERR and the GO TO version of the USR 
call 


What Is Important here, is that the roadblocks 
have Interfered with testing how the system 
works. 

At this time. I must digress. The full disclosure 
of how the tlMEX system works takes so many 
pages that it would be unfair to have it bump 
other important articles from publication. It 
would be equally unfair to stretch It out over 
time. 

1 mentioned IEEE 488. There is also the ‘boxes 
and boards’ method used by the AMIGA, the 



protocol makes them all possible. 


Part 4 will describe the basic bank switching 
controller, but Implementing It In hardware 
depends on how far you want to go. 

Half the fun is trying to solve the riddle 
yourself. With that fn mind, I give you a 
starting point. You have already seen a few good 
clues, but clues do not take the place of active 
investigation. Some of you will flounder. Others 
will take this tiger by the tail and twist It. 

The 2068 WILL WORK in all three interrupt 
modes. In IMI (as initialized) the SOLD provides 
the only interrrupt— and that Is used to interro- 
gate the keyboard. Before we can use most 
peripheral devices and bank switching, this 
must change. 

At 3382d in the Initialization Is the code to load 
the Z80 I register. It is followed by six NOPs to 


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13 



2|]°" any 2®vlce that might be listening time to 
digest It The Initial value Is 63. 

Later, at 3480d, we find B11 followed by one 
NOP, partly for the same reason. 

!? the SCLD listening? There Is an old saying. 
TEST. DONT GUESS* (Though my wife said i 
better not). 


did something wrong. Don’t forget to code those 
six NOPs after loading T. 

Because of the 15,750 Hz limit on sampling rate 
(the vector table Is In contention space), these 
Interrupt pointers cannot be used for really fast 
devices. 


f so, entering DiO would require that an 
Instruction be put on the data bus In response to 
the CPU Interrupt read cycle. If nothing 
responds, the data bus will be all ones. This Is 
RST 56 which Is the correct Instruction. It 
might be necessary to add pull-up resistors for 
reliable operation 

This Is the 8080 compatible Interrupt mode. 
Because the SCLD does not need to do anything 
different, this test might not tell us anything. 

12 Is a different story. The 
device Is responsible for providing 
vector with bit 0- ’O'. 



The 280 I register (value 63) establishes the 
base of the vector table at 16128— polntlnq to 
the character set In ROM. A crash is assured 
even If the SCLD provides a valid vector. 


Entering If 
Interrupting 
an Interrupt 


For high speed, the non-maskable Interrupt (NMI) 
Is needed. This requires using an external 
Interrupt manager chip. An alternative Is to 
provide additional vector tables outside of 
contention space. It Is simple to switch tables. 

The connection of A13 to the SCLD is explained 
when we examine the code for WRITE_BS_REG 
AT 635Ch and READ_BS_REG at 63 AD. As far as 
the CPU can see, WRITE_BS_REG is a multibyte 
NOP. Though the same cannot be said for 
READ_BS_REG, both routines leave with RAM and 
the PSG In their original states. 

Now THIS Is ’ doubletalk’. The SCLD Is listening 
during this time for its Instructions. How does 
It respond? It sends signals through the 
Joystick port. 

What else does it do? According to published 
information it just about takes over the 
computer. 

DON’T YOU BELIEVE ITI 


Changing the value to 74 puts the vector table 
where it should be: at 5E00h. 

A crash Is still assured unless we build a table 
there. For test purposes, all 128 entries should 
point to the keyboard Interrupt routine at 62AE. 
With this single-minded table, any vector 
supplied by the SCLD will act the same as in 
1MI. 

If it crashes, the SCLD was not listening, or we 


TEST. DON’T GUESS. 

Part IV will explain the basics of real bank 
switching, though it cannot give you actual 
examples of worxlng circuits. As you should be 
aware by now; bank switching Is but one 
element In the larger task of peripheral 
management. It Is a tooL.not an end In Itself. 

© 1986 William J. Pedersen TSH 


PART IV 

!L wa ! .5 aid * t . hat the SCLD outputs signals 
through 10 port A . This Is a perfect example of 
a half truth which can totally misdirect an 
analysis of the true circumstances. It Is akin to 
the text book discussions about the SCLD 
wresting control from the CPU when in fact It 
y/e/ds\L 


buss.) The direction depends on which device Is 
the current BUSS MASTER. In a network of 
computers the 2068 might be boss, but more 
likely It would be an intelligent TEMINAL. As a 
SLAVE, it will never Issue DZOUT, but It will 
respond by completing current operations and 
releasing DZIN. When all the slaves have 
released DZ IN, the BOSS that sent DZOUT takes 
over. 


In the same way, DZIN and DZOUT are 
deliberately misleading as labels, though a 
corporate executive might strongly argue that 
In the view that the TS2068 Is the BOSS, these 
labels could have some validity, but only for 
TIMEX products which were never produced. Such 
being the case, the entire data published about 
the TIMEX bank switching controller Is: 


PURE FICTIONI 

There /77/pVhave been one. One cou/cfoe made to 
those specifications and protocol, but It would 
be meeting corporate goals. 

DZOUT is bidirectional, as is DZIN. Not only 
that, neither signal Implies daisy chaining. 
(They are analogous to IFC and NDAC on the GPIB 


Actually it Is more accurate to say It Is the 
bank switching controller rather than the 2068 
which provides these features, but 'bank 
switching controller’ Is another misleading 
choice of words. ’Peripheral Control Adapter’ Is 
a much better name.... but lacks the pizazz some 
would demand. GPIB Is close, but.. 

The 2068 does contain part of a Peripheral 
Control System. This part Is NOT FICTIONI It Is 
REALI It is there to USEI 

The SCLD permits, or rejects, reads and writes 
to any ports or memory under Its control. It Is 
not in any way the source of signals to 10 port 
’A’, but ft does send interrupt and sync data to 
whatever CPU might be In control of the buss. A 
stop-action DEMO program called ’Sherlock 



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Used ZX81’s, RAM’s, 


etc. 


Working ZXSl with Zebra 1$ day money beck 


quarantee. Does not Include any documentation, cables or power 
supply. *1*°° 

Not Working ZXSl’e (as is, ueually easy to fix) 3 for $25 

ZXSl Power supplies when purchased with a ZXSl (new) $3.00 
Case of SO new ZXSl power supplies $50 It Shipping. 

Video Switch (used, working) $1.00 

Cassette Cables or Video Cable (used) $.50 ea. 

ZXSl Manual (used) * s 00 

UK RAM (used, working) *« 00 

16K RAM (not working, ss is) 13 °° 


BOOK BARGAINS 

Here are sotne excellent books still in stock but not in our catalog 
becouse we only have limited quantities availabls. We'll only take 
phone confirmed orders on these. 

Understanding Your ZXSl ROM by Logan ( SS left) #C105 $5.00 
Machine Language Made Simple for TS1000 (21 left) #C106 $6.00 
The Timex Sinclair 2068 Explored by Hartnell (11 left) $6.00 


Zebra Catalog Updates 

The following are typographical and other 
corrections to Zebra’s 1986B Catalog. 

Page 1 - We do not cary Omnicalc. 

Page 5 - The correct cat# for Profile 2068 is TW02. 

Page 6 - The last sentence of the first paragraph is in error. 
New Alt! TS2068 drives use black, version 1 wafers. 

Page 8 - Th* correct catalog numbers for the following 
cartridges are 07-7400 Pinball, 07-7300 Flight Simulator, and for 
cassettes 06-1000 Vu-Calc, 06-1001 Vu-Fil*, 06-1002 Vu-3D, and 
06-3000 Flight Simulator. 

Page 12 - MTERM II Tap* is currently priced at $24.95 not 
$29.95. MTERM II i* not available on cartridge. We no longer 
•ell Mini Xmod 1.7. 


Page 14 - We are now sold out of 03-3020 Computer Coach, 
and 03-3016 Conversational Spanish. 

Page IS - We are now sold out of the following Softsync 
TS1000 software: SST02 Advanced Budget Manager, SST18 
Mothership. 


TS1000 Joystick 


Adaptors 


Plugs into the back of the TS1000 and 


allows a standard Atari compatible joystick to work on th* 
TS1000. Includes free joystick games tap*. Won't work on th* 
TS1500. This is a closeout. Only 40 left. Cat#C120 $5.00 


SPRITES 2068 


At you may already know, "sprites" are computer graphic 
objects which can be easily and quickly moved around on a 
video screen. Hints of how to write sprite software for the 
TS2068 are given in Timea's TS2068 Technical Manual but it 
is not really adequately explained. 

Now there has been a major breakthrough. After months 
of research, two TS2068 diehards: Vernon Tidwell and Ron 
Ruegg, have n< •• figured out how to use sprites on the 
TS2068. And a .n more importantly, they have written an 
excellent 34 page manual that explains all about it in their 
product called SPRITES 2068. 

It doesn't matter whether you’re a BASIC or machine 
language programmer - with the easy interface of the sprite 
service utility and the superb manual that explaina it, you 
will be able to create your own moving sprite graphics. You 
may want to create complete games or just experiment and 
learn more about computer graphics techniques. In either case 
you'll enjoy the ease and the amazing high speed with which 
your own graphic creations will move. 

SPRITES 206$ consists of the 34 page manual and a 
cassette tape. The cassette includes a 2520 byte machine code 
sprite service utility, a SPRITEDRAW BASIC program for 
defining and moving your own sprites (including twelve sprite 
commands), and exciting sprite demonstration programs. 

Considering the quality of this product, its excellent 
documentation, lit ? fact that there isn't anything else like it 
available, and most importantly what it can do for you on 
your TS2068, this is beauty of a program, and a bargain at 
only S 1 9.00. Be sure to order yours now. 

Order Catalog No. C42I SPRITES 2068 Only $19.00 




SOFTSYNC TS2068 Inventory Liquidation Sale 

Zebr» Syatemj jiut mad* a special purchase of all lh* 

Timex/Sinclair product l.ft in Softsync's warehouse in ord.r to 
bring you th*a* fin* program* at apccial low prie**. Softsync 
atart*d in th« Timex market with excellent product*, bot they now 
focue on IBM, Commodore and other large market*, where they 
eell product* like the Peraonal Accountant for much more money. 

All product ia new and packaged with documentation in 
Softaync'a attractive four-color boxea. Quantitiea are limited, *o 
act now. Theee product* liat at 119.95 to $34.95 and are in our 
regular catalog for $17.95 to $33 95. But now our liquidation aal* 
price* are aa follow*: 



INVENTORY SALE 

PRICES: 

1 

for 

$10 

1st 

$10 

2 

for 

$19 

2nd 

$9 

3 

for 

$27 

3rd 

$8 

4 

for 

$34 

4 th 

$7 

5 

for 

$40 

5th 

$6 

6 

for 

$45 

6 th 

$5 


Zeus Assembler c .«# ssos 

Machine Cod* programming ia mad* eimpl* with Zeua. Thia 
sophisticated programmer*’ aid allow* the ua* of the full Z- 50 
mneumonic instruction aet and cornea with a atep by atep 
inatruction booklet. 


Personal Accountant #SS04 

The Peraonal Accountant ia a powerful yet purposefully aimpls 
accounting program for houaehnold and amall business ua*. Uaing 
a time honored accounting practice known as ‘Double Posting 
Book-keeping* the Peraonal Accountant will instantly organise all 
your financial information. 

Open as many account* aa you need, balance your checkbook 
instantly, track loans, charge card purchases, expenses and IRA ‘a. 
Generate financial reports ranging from trial balances to 
profit/loes, expense v*. income and assets* over liabilities. An 
amortisation table can calculate payments and changing rat**, 
generate future value and growth tables. And a built in data base 
keep* names, addresses and other vital data at your fingertip*. 

The Peraonal Accountant is comprehensive yet simple to us* 
with no codes to memoriae and the screen will guide you every 
atep of the way. 


Unique features include: a. full screen editor, automatic line 
numbering and renumbering and mini monitor. Displays current 
registers and single stroke commands save machine code. 

Zeus Monitor and 
Disassembler c ... S so« 

Acclaimed by reviewers as the most comprehensive Monitor and 
DittutcmbUr available. 

Thi* powerful programming tool allows you to translate 
machine code into comprehensible assembly language instructions, 
enabling you to examine the BASIC ROM, to investigate the 
workings of the Timex/Sinclair 2068 or to analyse your own 
machine code routines. 

With the highly versatile Monitor, you get an extensive set of 
facilities to aid the entry, inspection, modification and debugging 
of your own machine cod* programs. 

CYBERZONE Cat# SS02 

Special Feature: Use your voice to activate your laser firel The 
sound of your voice send* lasers shooting at the enemy. 

Imagine yourself pitted against the Cyber's ultra accurate laser 
fir*. The situation is tense as you avoid the swooping, spinning 
fighters coming to get you. 

Can you stay alive long enough to chip away at the floor of 
Cyber's spinning spacecraft? And is your aim deadly enough to 
hit the Cyber’s only vulnerable *pot...his left foot? 

Cyberson* is a fast gam* with five levels of play and exciting 
graphics that place you in the center of the action. 


VOICE CHESS Cat# SS01 

The Most advanced chess gam* available for the Timex/Sinclair 
306* actually talks to you during the gam*. A digitised voice 
speaks through the computer's speaker, advising of its move, 
recommending moves for you and making facetious comments. 

Voice Chess is written in fast machine code so it responds to 
your moves quickly. 

Features include: analyse mode, recommend move, change colors 
or levels at any point in the game, save, reload and print out any 
gam* you play. Displays full Chess board in detail. 


GULPMAN 


Cat# SS03 


The cursed wormoida are out to get control of Culpland, 
chasing its inhabitants out of their apple orchard*. Eat as many 
apples as you can to get bonus points and use your lasers to stun 
the wormoids. 15 different mases. 


Ordering Instructions: include $s.oo SfcH. VISA/MC 
Accepted. 


Zebra Systems, Inc. 

78-06 Jamaica Avenue 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(718) 296-2385 



Dear TS Horizons Reader, 

We were very pleased to bring you our 16-page 
1986B Zebra Catalog as an insert into a previous 
issue of TS Horizons . " That I986B catalog is still 
our current catalog. Now, the three pages of Zebra 
advertising in this issue of Horizons contain a 
short list of catalog updates, plus several new 
product announcements, and sales. 

Particularly exciting are the new bargain 
prices we are able to offer on Softsync's very high 
quality software products, and on our TS2068 
compatible Trackball controllers. We will continue 
to strive to bring you the best support products for 
Timex computers and at the best prices. 

Please accept our best wishes for the Holiday 
season and for a happy and healthy New Year. 

Sincerely yours. 

Jane, Linda. Jeff, Tom, and Stewart 

The Staff of Zebra Systems 



mmm mmmMm 

Zebra Best Sellers 

For those who arc interested, here Is a 
short list of our currently best selling 
products to check out In our Time 
Designs ads and on the various pages In 
our 1986B Catalog. 

TS2068 Trackballs (TD) 

Sprites 2068 (TD) 

Greeting Card/Banner/Stgn Designers (P3) 
TS2068 Technical Manual (PI) 

Tech Draw Jr.(P2) 

OS64 Cartridge (P7) 

Mscrlpt (P4) 

64K TS1000 RAM PACKS (P13) 
Machine Code Test Tool (P15) 
Discounted Books (P10-11) 

TS2050 Modem Boards (P12) 


wwv.v 




\ 


1 


TS2068 
Trackball 
Only $19.95 

Originally sold for $69.95 

Specify Cat# TBTMX02 
Plugs into TS2068 Joystick Port and 
works with all joystick software. 

Bonus Feature: Also works on Commodore 64, 
VIC-20, ATARI 800, nnd more. Contact factory 
for more complete list. 

You can benefit from our recant purchaea of brand now WICO 
Trackball Controller, at cloeeout price. WaVa takan tha model 
WICO originally made for the Texae Inetrument 99/4A and made a 
rery atmpla modification eo It now la fully compatible with the 
Timex TSioeS'a joyatick port. 

WICO la the largaat deeifner and manufacturer of control device# 
for commercial arcade video (arneo. If you've ever played an arcade 
video fame, chance are you've uaed a WICO joyatick or trackball. 
You've experienced the euperior control. The pinpoint firing 
accuracy. The exceptional durability. 

Feature: Phoenollc ball offer# 360-degree movement. Two optical 
encoder# provide eplit-eecond movement. Quick-action fir# button 
for emooth, two handed arcade reponee and fel. Long S’ computer 
connection. Heavy duty pletic cae for long hard ue. 

The WICO warranty he ben voided by our modification. But w# 
give you our 13-day money beck guarantee and a one-year limited 
warranty horn Zebra Syeteme. 



Timex Games $2 Each 


With your order for a T8206S trackball you can purchaea any of the 
following Timex TSJ06S Trackball and Joyatick compatible game# at 
the apodal low price of M.00 each for caaeettae and *3.00 for 


cartridge#. 

CAT# TITLE 
Caeaettee at *3.00 each 
64001 Android) 

64003 Penetrato. 

64004 Caaino I 
64006 Croaafir# 

64006 Circuit Board Scramble 

64007 Dragmaeter 
64009 Guardian 
64013 Pun Golf 


CAT# TITLE 
64014 Hungry Horace 
64011 Horace Goee Skiing 
64019 Horace and the Spider# 
64031 Blind Alley 
64013 Craaybug* 

Cartridge# at 3.00 each 
74001 Android# 

74005 Craaybug# 


$5 Off Tech-Draw Jr. 

You can aava *5.00 on the purchaea -f Tech-Draw Jr. If you 
purchaea It at the earn# time ae a TS306S trackball. Inatead of the 
regular price of 19.96 you can get it for 14.95. See our catalog for a 
complete deecription of Tech-Draw Jr. and a Hat of printer# that U 
aupporte. Order Tech-draw Jr. Catalog# C156. 




Holmes' graphically displays this. (External 
CPUs are not synchronized as Is the HOME Z80.) 

When the CPU tries to read port 'A', It Is 
sometimes detoured to reading a signal from the 
SCLO Instead. The SCLD puns data bit 0 low 
when It Is not busy In case the CPU Issues a 
delayed Interrupt vector request 

This means the keyboard Interrupt vector Is 254 


A simple bank switcher latches nibbles, decodes 
some Instructions, buffers an eight bit output 
buss, and little else. It Is the those BEU chips 
which are the real workhorses. They contain HS, 
Bank* and Status registers as a minimum. They 
decode commands. Issue BE when addressed, and 
often contain EPROM data Whether you want 
serial or parallel polling, or daisy chaining Is 
your choice. Initially, only 10 EXBUs can be 
Implemented In SYSCON. 


BUSISO Is not misleading. It Is a local signal; 
the purpose of which is to prevent interference 
from the Joysticks. There Is no way for the 
Joysticks to generate, nor Interfere with an all 
0’s output on port 'A*. For this reason, Os 
output on 10 AO thru I0A3 Is a trigger signal to 
Invoke BUS 1 50. 

I0A5 (It really is) has another function. When 
BUSISO is triggered. It steers control to either 
of two port 'k devices. The value 0 is assigned 
In the TS2068 protocol for 'mine*. In practice. It 
is useful as a disable signal for the local 
controller when another buss master Is In 
charge; though it Is Just as possible for the 
external buss master to use the same local 
controller. 

When enabled, the 'PCA' receives bytes through 
port “A" as multiplexed ‘nibbles. It also 
receives control signals over address lines AI3 
to A 15. This Is the existing system. Beyond 
that, you can build as elegant a system as you 
wish. This lets you build systems even more 
powerful than IEEE488. Bank switching is a 
typical add-on. It is best to use the bank 
switching protocol already established in the 
2068 RAM code, but It can be changed if you 
want. 


There Is no stopping the Independent develop- 
ment of great new hardwarel It would be a 
mistake to merely adapt programs and hardware 
designed for the crippled TS2068... not because 
existing products are not excellent, but because 
they have had to work in an unfavorable 
environment. How much more effective It Is to 
start with new goals! Why cling to old 
compromises? Why waste valuable time 
adapting? 


pe® the annotated disassembly listing of 
^ TE-BS_REG for a 9 u,(le t0 Implementing bank 


Though this concludes this series on bank 
switching the 2068, the subject has just begua 
A book on It could weigh several pounds ...far 
outweighing this publication. 


If Jt has Inspired you to not accept a paraplegic 
TS2068 but to go after what you thouqht you 
were buying in the first place, then it has done 
Its Job. TSH 


© 1986 William J. Pedersen 


A small system with the 2068 being the 
BOSS is capable of up to 12 megabytes 
of memory. This is 253 banks of 7 
switch- able chunks of 8192 bytes each. 
(Actually, It Is unlimited when you 
define 'super-banks'.) 

Contrary to published Information, chunk 
3 has the highest priority to be bank 
switched. It fs In contention with DRAM. 
If not switched out, operations In chunk 
3 (and chunk 2) will be a lot slower. 
(This has been discussed for the Spec- 
trum.) A reconfigured memory assign- 
ment using chunk? for the stack and the 
DOCK for SfSCOM could easily be consid- 
ered standard. Oddly, it seems the bank 
switching routines were originally 
written that way before barriers were 
installed. 

A multi-user system could be imple- 
mented with each user owning their own 
personal shadow In chunk 7. 

Going farther, you can relocate BASIC 
out of contention space, with parts of it 
stored in 'overlays' from other banks. 
With proper technique, you don’t have 
any need for FREE. BASIC can USR call 
any bank it needs. 

LONG 


TJU C a. 

TOURIST C 


BfiNK SWITCHING IS HERE! 
BE READY FOR IT. 

Tourist C is rojxLL* an extended bant, suit chi 09 
disassembler and SPY program residing in BRSIC. 
It uses machine code located above "COPYUP" in 
the machine stack. Printing to the 20*0 is not 
usually desirable, so a universal interface is 
included. Uhen used, the appropriate kernel is 
loaded into the printer buffer. Because this 
is an "overlay" it does -haX JMiOUh^thu uii th any 
usage by other banks or peripherals. 

To help convince you of the great features or 
this program, send us no more than 60 bytes of 
any code you like and SA5E. TJu U$P*UP Ca. mill! 
return a disassembly of that code and more inro 
about TOURIST c. Horn * s that for bait? Try it. 


TJu. U 3 D 3 UP Ca. Program 
11BB Herrifield S.E. Order n 
Grand Rapids, Ml *9507 Price 


TOURIST C 
T525PV86B 
$32.50 inc P&H 


18 



WRITE BS REG 


RRR 


HEX 

addr 

Hachine 

instruction 

BUSS 

data 

111 

543 

5 

IOR 

3210 

635C 

PU5H RF 

F/R 

011 

X 

XXXX 

635D 

PUSH BC 

C/B 

011 

X 

xxxx 

635E 

PUSH HL 

L/H 

011 

X 

xxxx 

635F 

LD H , D 

** 

011 

X 

xxxx 

5360 

LD L , 0 

0 

011 

X 

xxxx 

! HL = 0003 





6362 

LD A, (C000) 

Y1 

*110* 

X 

xxxx 

6365 

PUSH RF 

Y1 

011 

X 

xxxx 


Enter with Reg D ■ msb Port Address • QO ■ qqqOOOOO 
Enter with Reg E - data byte - BIN YYYYyyyy 


COiTifuEfi t£ 


6366 

6367 

6368 
636R 
636C 
636E 
636F 
6371 
6373 

6375 

6376 
5373 
537R 
637C 

i 


LD R , (0000) Y2 tqqq* 
PU5H RF Y2 ' 011 

LD fl,7 7 011 

OUT (24.5), R 7 111 

IN R , (246) Y3 111 

LD B,R ** Oil 

LD R,li 14 011 

OUT (245) ,fi 14 111 

IN R , (246) Y 4 111 

LD C , R ** Oil 

LD fl , 7 7 011 

OUT (245), R 7 111 

LD R , 64 64 011 

OUT (246) ,R 64 111 

XXXX = X XXXX i f IOR UJas 
XXXX = 0 0000 i f IOR was 


637E 

LD R , 14 

14 

011 

X 

6330 

OUT (245), R 

14 

111 

X 

63B2 

XOR R 

** 

011 

X 

6333 

OUT (245), R 

0 

111 

0 


xxxx 

XXXX 

xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
X xxxx 

OUTPUT 

INPUT 

xxxx 
xxxx 

XXXX 


Save Reg RF on stac*. 

Save Req BC on stack 

Save Reg HL on stack 

immadi ate data 

Get (C000) 

Save (C000) on stacK 
Get (0000) 

Save (0000) on stack 
Immediate data 
Select P5G Reg 7 
Get (PSG_R7) 

Store CP5GJR7) in Reg B 

Immediate data 

Select PSG Reg 14 

Get (P3G_R145 

Store (PSG_R14) in Reg C 

Imrne diate data 

select PSG Reg 7 

Immediate data 

set Port IOR to OUTPUT 


Immediate data 
select P5G Reg 
Zero Reg R 
Set IOR = 00 


14 


6335 LD fl ,2 2 

6337 LD (C000) ,R 2 


10 o = 
011 
* 110 * 
data 


63BR 

LD R , E 

** 

011 

633B 

LD (0000) , R 

Y2 

*qqq* 

! Y2 = bin YYYYyyyy 


633C 

5RR 

** 

on 

633E 

5RR 

** 

on 

6350 

SRR 

f * 

0ii 

6392 

SRR 

** 

0ii 

6394 

LD (0000), R 

Y2 ' 

*qqq* 

! Y2‘ = BIN 0000YYYY 


6395 

LD fl , 7 

7 

011 

6397 

OUT (245) , R 

7 

111 

6399 

LD R , B 

» « 

011 

639R 

OUT (245) , R 

Y3 

111 


a 0800 immediate data 
0 0010 Reset nibble counter 
to Port IOR on hearing this 


0 0010 

Y yyyy 


Get data byte 
Urite isn 


from Reg E 


yyyy 
yyyy 

Y yyyy 

yyyy 

0 YYYY 


Y 


! z zzzz = 1 1111 i f IOR was 
! z zzzz = x xxxx i f IOR was 
639C LD R , 14 14 011 

63SE OUT (245) ,fl 14 111 

63R0 LD R , C ** 011 

63R1 OUT (246) ,R Y4 111 


0 YYYY 
0 YYYY 
0 YYYY 

Z ZZZZ 
INPUT 
OUTPUT 
Z ZZZZ 
Z ZZZZ 
Z ZZZZ 
X XXXX 


n X UUI *. Ctw/ in 1-v •*>■*•*■ " " " - 

! ion alternate device busy can be dropped 

• > hmm mi- \ < n n* * u* v f •./ 1 / fl o 1 •* < 


Shift right P/.g fl 
Shi ft right '.eg R 
Shi ft right Reg R 
Shi ft right Reg R 
Urite msn 
fh- 

Immediate data 
Select PSG Reg 7 
Retrieve Y3 
Restore Y3 to P5G_R7 


immediate data 
Select PSG Reg 14 
Retrieve Y4 
Restore Y4 to P5G_R14 


63R3 

POP RF 

Y2 

011 

63R4 

LD (0000), fl 

Y2 

*qqq* 

63R5 

POP RF 

Y1 

011 

63R6 

LD (C000) , R 

Y1 

*110* 

63R9 

POP HL 

L/H 

011 

63RR 

POP BC 

C/B 

011 

63RB 

POP RF 

F/R 

011 

63RC 

RET 

OPC 

011 

Addresses *nnn* are memory mapped 

ports. 

The SCID 

gates the write data to IOA. 01 1 and 1 

1 1 are not pons. 

i— T 


Retrieve Y2 
Restore Y2 to 0000 
Retrieve Y1 
Restore Y1 to 
Restore HL 
Restore BC 
Restore RF 


C000 


iney correspona 10 icicnes diw m 

and 7. If IOA is INPUT, the operation Is Ignored. 

BUSISO can be triggered with I0A5 - 1. In this event, It 


XXXX 
XXXX 

xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 
xxxx 

Is an alternative device of your choice. It Is free to 
have Its own rules for drooping BUS| SO,.'£. r J??^ Jh'not 
priority than the bank switching controller (though i not 
limited to bank switching). If I0A5 ■ 0, the bank 
switcher Is enabled and a BUSY state Is seen by the 
alternate device. 


19 



BBEgBm 

i •!■! •Lai aiai •LsttLii ilfi •!•! ti 

9^S9Kts9S959 


PRODUCT: BYTE POWER Some examples (from the first issue) are: 

DESCRIPTION: TS2068 "Magazine- on -Tope' GRAND PRIX - A full-featured clone of Pole 

PRICE: $5.50 / issue. Position. 

$49.90 /year (12 issues) ROBOT - SPACE INVADERS at its best. . and 
AVAILABLE FROM: BYTE POWER better! (My wife is addicted to it!) 

1 748 Meadowview Ave. KNIGHT'S TOUR - A chess- type game. 

Pickering, ONT, CAN L IV 308 EASYTYPE -A simple- to- use Word Processor. 

RENUM - Renumbering utility. 

It’s not every day that you read a review of a 

magazine in ANOTHER MAGAZINE. But BYTE Besides programs, BYTE POWER also includes 
POWER is a “different* kind of T/S magazine. . .it reviews, editorials, end even a classified section, 
comes to you on CASSETTE TAPE! 

Eric and Kristian Boisvert, editors of BYTE 
BYTE POWER comes out monthly from Canada POWER, are to be commended on putting out such 
(home of Bob McKenzie ... the “Greet White fine software. BYTE POWER is bylined as a "1st 
North"). Each issue has over 10 complete Class Magazine*, and I agree, 
programs ready to use. After LQADIng the cover 
screen (which by the way is very well done), the By all means k “P 
Table of Contents describes each program HORIZONS. . but consider adding BYTE POWER to 
contained in the issue. your Nst. 

And what programs! There are games, business ^■|j| 

programs, graphics, utilities, end more! | ===; |; \ ==; = 

The best past is that you don’t have to type them ^ ^ 1 ® ^ 

In. . just LOAD and GO. 

About the programs themselves. . nothing less jVjl 

than top-notch! Any one of the programs could be Ira 

sold by itself on the market. They’re that good! 1 


ST CLASS MAGAZINE 


I UHHY 

ACES 

COWSb 6VTC PQUCR 


::::::::: 


GlfASS ^MAGAZINE: 


.rio Jiofffvort 


20 




REVIEW: THE KRUNCHER 

PROORAM TYPE: Program -Compre ss ion Utility 
PRICE: $9.95 ( 2068 VERSION) 

AVAILABLE FROM: RMG ENTERPRISES 
1419 1/2 7THST 
OREGON CITY, OR 97045 

Picture this; You've been working on THE 
program of all time; one that makes life easier, 
delivers world peace, AND cures the Common 
OokL You're just putting the finishing touches on 
the last few lines, when... 

OH NO! "Out of Memory" appears on the bottom of 
the screen. What do you do? Well there have been 
many articles written with tips on how to save 
memory in a program, like: 

Progj col orcl 

- Replace I with SON PI. rr... 


THE KRUNCHER is a new machine cate, utility 
progr a m from S&K Enterprises (distributed by 
RMG Enterprises). THE KRUNCHER cate is 
totally relocatable, and virtually transparent to 
the user (except when activated). 

Using THE KRUNCHER is simple. LOAD the 
program, and follow the prompts. Select the 
memory location for THE KRUNCHER to reside ( I 
usually use 64000), and then the program 
resets the computer with the code ready to use. 

Then, either LOAD a program you wish to 
compress, or type in a new one. When you are 
ready for THE KRUNCHER to do its job, use the 
command 

irt (original > 


- Replace 0 with NOT PI. 

- Use of VAL statements for 
numerical values (Ex: 
LET X-VAL "6" instead of 
LET X - 6.) 


5 INK 0« PAPER 7i BORDER 7i CLS 
10 FOR c-0 TO 7 
20 FOR 1=9 TO 12 

30 PRINT BRIGHT 1| PAPER c J AT i,c*4s” 

40 NEXT 1 

SO PRINT BRIGHT 1| PAPER 8| INK 9;AT 12,c*4|c 
60 NEXT c 
100 PRINT AT 13,0 


You could go through your entire 
program , using these memory- 
cutting tips, taking valuable 
time, and possibly losing your 
creative train of thought. 


110 FOR v-0 TO 1 

120 FOR h-32 TO 143i PRINT INVERSE vjCHR* hj I NEXT h 
130 PRINT 
140 NEXT V 
200 LET yc-143 

210 CIRCLE 108, yc ,10s CIRCLE 128,yc,lSi CIRCLE 148,yc,10 
220 FOR x-0 TO 12 STEP 3 
230 PLOT x, 17Si DRAW 0,-63 
240 PLOT x+243,1731 DRAW 0,-63 


OR. . . you could let THE 
KRUNCHER do it for you in a 
matter of seconds. 


250 NEXT x 

260 FOR y-112 TO 124 STEP 3 
270 PLOT 0»y: DRAW 235,0 
280 PLOT 0, y+51 : DRAW 23S,0 
290 NEXT y 

300 PRINT AT 2, 2f "Mount ainaar “ ; AT 5, 22| "Sof twar*“ 



! ”U%V.& ' ( ) * 
@fi BCDEFGHIJ 
£abcdefghi 
CK y FREE 


CDEFGH IJKLMNOPORSTUUUXYZ 
■ cdefghijK imnopqrstuvujx 
FREE FI 




21 





Prog: col orchart CKRUNCHER) 
Bytes Free: 3803 ? 


5 INK NOT PI: PAPER VAL "7": BORDER VAL "7": CLS 
10 FOR c-NOT PI TO VAL "7" 

20 FOR i-VAL "9“ TO VAL M 12” 

30 PRINT BRIGHT SGN PI; PAPER c ; AT i,c*VAL “4";" 

40 NEXT i I ». 

50 PRINT BRIGHT SGN PI; PAPER VAL "8"; INK VAL "9" ; AT VAL "12 
",c*VAL "4 M ; c 
60 NEXT c 

100 PRINT AT VAL "13", NOT PI 
110 FOR v=NOT PI TO SGN PI 

120 FOR h=VAL "32" TO VAL "143": PRINT INVERSE vjCHR* h;: NEXT 
h 

130 PRINT 
140 NEXT v 

200 LET yc=VAL "143" 

210 CIRCLE VAL "108",yc,VAL "10": CIRCLE VAL "128",yc,VAL "15": 
CIRCLE VAL " 148” , yc , VAL "10" 

220 FOR x=NOT PI TO VAL "12" STEP INT PI 
230 PLOT x , VAL "175": DRAW NOT PI, VAL "-63" 

240 PLOT x+VAL "243", VAL "175”: DRAW NOT PI, VAL "-63" 

250 NEXT x 

260 FOR y-VAL "112" TO VAL "124" STEP INT PI 
270 PLOT NOT PI,y: DRAW VAL "255", NOT PI 
280 PLOT NOT PI,y+VAL "51": DRAW VAL "255", NOT PI 
290 NEXT y 

300 PRINT AT VAL ”2", VAL "2" ; "Mountaineer "; AT VAL "5", VAL "22"; 
"Software" 


RAND USR xxxx 

(xxxx ■ memory location you selected) 

THE KRliNCHER then goes to work, shaving off 
bytes of your program! As an example I have 
included two listings of a program - Colorchart - 
that prints a screen display like that shown 
below. 


ATTENTION I I I 
SOFTWARE WRITERS I I I 
GRAPHICS ARTISTS I I I 

A while back, I did a comprehensive look at Word 
Processor software for the TS2068. I included a 
chart of all features so that a side-by-side 
comparison could be made. 

I am now planning to do a similar review for 
TS2068 GRAPHIC software. In pest issues, I have 
done reviews on several Graphic programs, but I 
feel a side-by-side comparison is needBd. 

I have already procured the following software; 

ART FOR ALL AGES 
ARTWORX (Version 1.0)* 
ORAFFIST 
MEGA-DRAW 
MICRO-PAINT 
PAINTBOX 

PIXEL SKETCH & GRAPHICS EDITOR 
TECH DRAW (JR.) 
ZEBRAPAINTER 

(*« I need a copy of ARTWORX (Version 1.1)) 


Notice the differences between the listings. Even 
though THE KRUNCHER listing seems longer , it 
uses 185 fewer bytes! Imagine what you'll save 
on a longer program! 

THE KRUNCFCR is a very useful utility for any 
serious programmer, and is availble for both the 
TS2068andTS1000/i500/ZX8i. TSH 

I am looking for submission on two areas to make 
this endeavor complete. 

1 ) Copies of any other Graphic software for the 
TS2068 not mentioned above to include in the 
comparison. 

2) Any graphics produced using any T 5206 8 
Graphics program. 

If you have either, please send cassette copies to 
me at the address below. 

Software should include documentation, and 
graphics should be saved in SCREENS format. 
Include the name of the program used to 
producethe pictures. I plan on printing as many 
contributions as I receive. 

The address is : 

Bill Ferrebee 
749 Hill Street *6 
Parkersburg WV 26 1 04 

Send me your submissions and look for the 
article in TS Horizons in the near future! TSH 
22 


Noiv at last . . . 

The FootePrint * 
Printer Interface 

• for Centronics parallel printers 

• works in both 2068 and Spectrum mode 

• compatible with OS-64 &. Spectrum emulators 

• EPROM socket and on/off switch on board 

• works with both Tasman and Aerco driver software 

• plugs into cartridge dock — door completely 
closes with cable running back under computer 

• frees up rear edge connector allowing other 
peripherals to be used; less chance of a crash 

• print driver software for LPRINT, LLIST, and 
COPY included for 2068 and- Spectrum modes 

FootePrint Interface w/software &. cable .$45 00 
FootePrint with OS-64 option included . .$65 00 

Bare board & instructions only $15 00 

Cable only for use with bare board $15 00 

All prices are pre-paid and include shipping charges. 

FOOTED SOFTWARE 

P. O. Box 14655 — Gainesville. FL 32604 
904/462- 1086 (6 pm - 9 pm EDT) 


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