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is (1 000 12068 ), 


Issue *15, July/Augusl 
Byte-Mapped Scroll (2068 

Plus; Hew features, Rntiws, 
Telecommunications + much more. 

“K'-'-'' vim, r i WUI c 

(1000), Quick Balance, Logic Families, 
Sinclair World, News and Reviews. 

All Bock 
Issues of 

Issue *1. November 1983 
Creatlng/saving.FIles (W. 5. Johnson), 
Repeat Key and uninterruptible Power 
Supply Projects, Numerical Analysis, 
Load/Save problems, Reviews, and morel 

Issue *2, December 1983 
Matrix/Cursor Input (WSJ). User- 
Friendliness, Reset Switch Project, 
Memoiy Reduction, Rule of 78, ZX Cash 
Register, Graphics Tutorial, Etc. 

Issue *3, January/February 1984 
Two Animation Programs, Simple Loading 
Aid Project (Young), Tape File Protection, 
Differential Equations, Ham Radio 
Reviews, User Group Help, and morel 

Issue *4, March 1984 
The Death of TIMEX, TSIOOO Bank Switch- 
ing Part I (Hunter), Error Recovery (WSJ), 
Edge Connector Schematics, Simpson's 
Rule, Reviews, Reader Input, and Morel 

Issue *5, Apr 1 1 /May 1984 
"WORM" Word Processor (Young) Part I, 
Least Squares Method. TS 1 000 GRaphlcs 
Program, TS 2068 Future?, Bank Switch 
Pt.2, Program Tips, Reviews, and More. 

Issue *6, June 1984 
TSIOOO as Church Aid, Interfacing Books, 
Numerical Analysis, Hardware Tips, 
•WORM" -2, Swltchlng-3, Good News, Six 
Reviews, and Morel 

Issue *7, July/ August 1984 
Telecommunications issue, 2068 Program 
Tips, How a Compiler Works, Rotating 
Globe, Byte-Back Modem Telecommun- 
ications for Beginners, Swltchlng-4, 
WORM-3 (concluded), and Morel 

T-5 Hiriianj 

Mon«H Outfy to N Tim.. ConpgMt UH> 


Issue *8, September 1984 
TS 1000 Music Program (White), 2068 
Plotter, 2068 Character Set (Young), 
Address Program, Nine Reviews, Tele- 
Communlcatons Column, Etc. 

Issue *9, October/November 1984 

ANNIVERSARY ISSUE, 2068 Spirograph, 
Hlggenbottom Interview, FORTH for TS 
Computers, Spectrum Section, Swltch-5, 
Telecommunications, Reviews, etc. 

Issue *10, December 1984 

OL. TSIOOO Program Tips, Christmas 
Program, RSIOO vs. TSIOOO, MTermll 
Horizon Awards, Swltch-6, TSUGs, Moi 

ore Still 


Issue *14, May /June 1985 
Keyboard Add-on, ZX8 1 Rampacks on the 
2068, Surge Suppressor Project, User 
Group Report, OL Report, Cassette Tips. 

vnuv, niuiuv 

column Printer! 1000), Machine Code 
(1000), 8 Reviews. OL, Etc. 

Issue *16, November 1985 
2068 Line Renumbering (Bell), MTerm on 

Issue *11, January 1985 
40 PAGES, Lower Case on the 
TS 1 000/ZX8 1 (2040 printer), 2068 Word 
Processor Evaluation Pt. I (Perrebee), Bar 
Graph Program. Experimenting with Byte 
Back Modem, Switchlng-7, INDEX of Issues 
I - 1 0, Revlws and More. 

Issue *12, February /March 1985 
2068 Mass Storage, Software from 
England, TSIOOO Program Tips, 2068 Word 
Processor Eval.-2, Bank Switching 
Concluded, MTerm Patches, 2068 Tutorial. 

Issue *13. April 1985 
Complete 2068 Word Procssor Listing, 

TS 1 000 Simulated READ-DATA, WORM 
Enhancements (1000), User Defined 
Graphics (2068), ‘Try These,’ Changing 
Fonts (2068), and Morel 

Issue *17, February /March 1906 
FastBox Trilogy (1000), Banta KeyFinder, 
2068 Screen Save (Bell), 3D Fractals 
(2068), 2068 Little Goodies. INDEX - 
Volume 2, Issues 11-16, Reviews. 

Issue *18, April 1986 
Software Protection, Partial Pascal 
Review with Program (1000), Etch-Ah- 
Sketch (2068), Mlkrodrlve Backups, Filler 
UpdOOO), Pixel-by-Plxel Screen Scroll,. 

Issue *19, May/June 1986 
2068 Video Modes. Revising Hunter Board, 
New Wafadrlve Column, Quadratic 
Equations, 2068 Bank Switching Part I, 
Zebra Designer Tips, IrOLIngs, etc. 

Subscription/ Bock Issue Order Form 

— 9-issue subscription $15 (U S ), t 
$21 Canada, $25 Other Foreign 

— Bock Issue 9 $2 00 each |_ 

— *1 *2 *3 *4 *5 

— *6 *7 *8 *9 *10 

— 'II — *12 *13 *14 *15 

— '16 *17 *10 *19 

1 otal enclosed $_ 

Address: _ 


State. Zip: 

Send to: TS Horizons, 2002 Summit St. 
Portsmouth OH 45662 

Use This Form or a Copy Or Write Out Your Order On a Supurute 

Sheet of Paper to Avoid Defacing Magazine 


July-Aug. 1986 ITS SQ®[f*3 a® E1S Issue No. 20 

Back Issue/Subscription Order Form 2 

Table of Contents 3 


Letting Tex Out of the Bag, Computer 
Fest, Convicts, Reader input 

Another TS Horizons first 
Real "Classified'' Ads 

Try These - Reader Submissions 7 

B. Bush, John Copps, D. Richardson, Dave 
Johnson, Joe Jenkins, and R. Watts 
"In Spec" - Spectrum/ Wafadrlve 8 

Column by Frank Davis 
Rotronlcs Toolkit Review 
Bridging The Gap Between Sinclair and 9 

IBM -for theTS 1000 

Bank Switching the TS 2068, Part 2 12 

by William J Pedersen 


GOSUBS - Book, Review by Art Gindin 1 4 

For the TS1000/ZX8I 

Applied Sinclair... by R. Booth 16 

Rev. by K.D. Lewis, Ph D. 

RMG Printer EPROM 17 

Reviewed by Art Gindin 

Pixel Sketch and Graphics Editor 1 8 

Lemke Software (for 2068) 

Reviewed by Richard Watts 

Designer Graphics 19 

More fun from Bill Ferrebee 

Smart-Text TS-2068 - by Bill Jones 20 

An integrated Software Package for 2068 
Review By Tex Faucette 

More BiTS - by Joe Smith 


" Ad Index 

Comin g in the Next Issue of TS Horizons: ^^ 


~ — F U N N 1 E m S , ... G d r th 206 . A Special Collection 

From George. Mockridne of Graphics Programs 
Walter Komlosy’s for the 2068 by Bernard Bush 

“The mfl MM OTTPra ZX8 1 “ 

Bill Pedersen's 

-ZX 81 News And Resources" Bank Switchin g Article 
by Peter McMullin Returns Concludes with Parts III & IV 


TS Horizons '19, page 14 
"Revising a Hunter Board to Hold 32K. . .' 

Waller Komlosy has informed us of an error in 
the program listing of his article. The mistake 
was ours, not Mr. Komlosy's. 

The line numbers after 200 should have read 
210, 220, and 230, 

Instead of 1 10, 120, and 130. 

PS. Don't miss Walter's new article in the next 
issue of TS Horizons, "The Ultimate ZX8 1 “ 
TSH *21 is our special, super-size, catchup 


Many top-quality programs from 
BEYOND and QUICKSILVA. Prices from 
$3.00 plus S&H. Also SOFTAID tape 
(10 games) $8.75 including S&H. 
Lists of available programs from 

14307 BEN BRUSH 
Tel: (512) 492-8054 



Dear Readers, 

I always like to hear from 
Tex. Tex Faucette has been 
a faithful supporter of TS 
Horizons trom almost the 
beginning. Many of you 
know Tex as Oscar Sensa 
baugh from Compute, 

Trader Magazine, where he 
writes a regular Timex 
etc., column he call 
"Computin' in the Country. 

Yes, I'm letting the cat out 
of the bag They are one 
and the same That must 
be a surprise to many of you 
who are familiar with his "country-style" 
reviews and discussions in CTM. While his CTM 
articles are full of Texas slang and humor, his 
TSH reviews are written in virtually perfect 
grammar and spelling. The one thing that ties 
Oscar and Tex together is the clarity and 
thoroughness of his reviews and the humor he 
brings to his writing. 

Why have I let the secret out now? Actually he 
has dropped hints before, and I hope he does 
mind me doing this without asking, but Tex had 
an accident not too long ago. Nothing tragic, but 
he had a nasty fall from the back of a semi 
trailer and spent most of the summer 
recuperating. This kept him away from his 
computers and the Cincinnati Computer Fest. 
When he finally was able to compute again, he 
accidentally let a test prod slip during a 
hardware project and he blew up his 2068. 
Anyway he's still taking physical therapy, but 
he’s a lot better. I'd like to suggest those of you 
who have come to appreciate ms writing take a 
minute to jot down a note or send a nice get- 
well card and tell him you wish him and his 
family well. (He rambles on about his grandkids 
and his XYL- that's "ex-younq lady" or wife- 
endlessly in CTM). His adaress'is: 

Tex Faucette (or Oscar, whatever) 
801 N. 7th St, Ballinger TX 76821 

Thanks. (I hope he doesn't kill me for this.) 

Spe aking of Computer Fests 

Some people have written to say that they 
would have liked to see more on the Cincinnati 
in the last issue; Oscar/Tex being one in 
particular For that reason, we pirated the 
following article from the latest LISTing, the 
Long Island User Group newsletter: 

Review of A Happening in Ohio 
by John Sampson 

Well I finally got to go to an honest to goodness Timex/ 
Sinclair Computer Fest. I missed the one the/ had in Boston in 
November of 1983, so when I heard about this affair, I said 
"Self- -you better get to this one. '' 

I flew to the Cincinnati airport (which is in Kentucky by the 
way) early Saturday morning, stayed over night at the 
Ramada Inn where the ComputerFest was held, and’ flew back 
to New York late Sunday night, after two very nice days at the 
affair. Between plane fare, car rental, motel room, food, and 
miscellaneous expenses, it cost me about $250.00 not 
counting the little I spent for the goodies. 

Well I wasn't disappointed. I am told almost 300 people from 
all over the country attended, and they had a good showing of 
about 30 suppliers of TS products. I got to meet and talk with 
Tom Woods, Bill Russell, Jerry from Aerco and Tom Bent to 
name a few. They had a good array of T/S products on display 
I would estimate that there was about 40* QL, 20* 2X8 ! 
and 40 * TS2068 and/or Spectrum. 

In addition the people who ran the show scheduled ten hourly 
seminars, five on Saturday and five on Sunday. These 
seminars were free and covered such topics as Machine Code 
Programming, Forth, Using Data Bases to name a few, and 
were very interesting. I attended five of them , and I got a few 
answers to some questions. The only negative thing I could say 
about the Computer Fest is that the Ramada Inn was ahout 30 
miles from the airport and they did not arrange inexpensive, 
reliable transportation for the incoming guests. I don't know 
if it was the fault of Ramada or the organizers but I chose to 
rent a car so I was not inconveniencd at all. 

Now that I look back on it, it was great. The weather was 
beautiful, everything went smoothly and I brought back some 
software I didn’t have before, a brand new 1500, some back 
issues of CTM and a new Aerco DOS. If there is another 
Computer Fest being held somewhere, I advise all of you to 
attend. You probably won't regret it. 

I don't remember Mr. Sampson from the Fest but 
his reactions were very typical. No matter how 
far people came or how much money they had or 
how computer-proficient they were, A GOOD 
TIME WAS HAD BY ALL & that's not just a cliche. 

Speaking as a member of the Computer Fest 
Board, it was a success that exceeded our fond- 
est hopes. Here was a group of regular guys, 
none of whom had ever attempted anything like 
this before, trying to pull off a major event 
based on a computer that is no longer being 
made, with no funds. It was really unprece- 
dented. At the beginning we had no commitment 
from any TS-supportinq companies. We were 
wondering if we could fill one meeting room (or 
if worse came to worse a large tent) and if we 
could pay for it. When the event finally came 
we had a hard time squeezing everything ar.c 
everyone into two adjacent conference rooms, a 
separate room for seminars, and about 50 or 60 
feet of adjacent hallway. 

So how did we pull it off? First, we thought, 
about what we'd like to see if we were going to 
a TS Fest; this involved a lot of brainstorming 
and then picking out what we were capable of. 
Second, we tapped into the already-existing TS 
network: newsletters, magazines, BBSs, user 
groups, word of mouth, mailing lists, and any 
thing else we could think of. The most 
important thing was organization: everyone had 
a job to do and everyone did his job. 

Of course we made mistakes. We wanted a 
location that was easy to get to for people 
driving in and far enough from the city that 
costs were reasonable. Unfortunately, we 
underestimated the number of people who 
would be flying in and we got too far from the 
airport. Other mistakes were minor ones. 

Future Fests 

The point I am trying to make above is that user 
groups in other areas should consider trying the 
same thing. I know it’s being talked about for 
the New York area, Florida, and Texas, and when 
and if something definite is established you'll 
read about it in TS Horizons. The Second 
Midwest TS Computer Fest is scheduled for 
the first weekend in May (in Indiananapolis, 
this time) and the money that is used to start 
it will come from the money left over from 
admissions and vendor fees from the '86 in 
Cincinnati. For more information contact Frank 
Davis, see "In Spec" for his address. 

This money is also available to help other 
reputable individuals and groups. Also our 
groups "acquired wisdom" has been collected 
and written down and should be available for 
others to use. The Milwaukee User Group made a 
video tape of the Fest and copies are available 
for a minimal fee ($2 postage and a blank tape, 

I think). All these things would be very valuable 
and are available. And you can be sure of vendor 
support after the response we received. 

Think about it. 

Apologies Are In Order 

In certain letters I have mailed out soliciting 
companies for advertisements I made some 
claims that may have appeared in TS Horizons 
in the past, I can't remember. One unfortunate 
claim l made was that TS Horizons is the oldest 
TS-specific magazine still being published. Not 
too long ago I received a very irate, but very 
justified letter from Fred Nachbaur of 
Syncware News. Among his other matters of 
concern, he rightly called me on the carpet for 
claiming implicitly that T5H is older than 
Syncware. To set the record straight, SWN was 
published nearly a year before the first issue of 
TS Horizons, why the mistake? I wish I could 
plead senility, but I don't think I could get away 
with it at 28. Actually, I didn't hear of or see a 
copy of SWN until after the first issue of TS 
Horizons was published, and when I wrote the 
ad copy my memory failed me and I made a 
dumb mistake. That's no excuse but it is a 
sincere apology. Another question Fred had was 
about an exchange advertising arrangement we 
apparently made way back in the old days. I had 
forgotten about it and they never sent me an ad 
to use anyway (unless my memory has failed me 
again). So anyway, Fred and everyone else at 
Syncware News, consider this an apology. You 
guys deserve a lot credit for a great publication 
Tactually two, counting “Quantum Levels") and 
for being the oldest surviving American TS 

his release. There are still a number of inmates 
interested in T/5 computing, and we ask that 
you please continue to send copies of your 
newsletter to these men. In the future send 
your newsletter to: 

Mr. William Kassel 
Pre-Release Supervisor 
215 East Bonanza 
Las Vegas NV 89158 

Mr. Kassel will see to it that your N/L gets 
distributed to the inmates interested in T/S 
computing. THANKS FOR CARING." 

Dear Rick, I guess it's time to cough up a 
renewal fee. I never expected to get this much 
milage out of my original subscription. I never 
expected to qet such value out of it either. 
Please accept my thanks for scaling back your 
expectations back to your possibilities and 
stubbornly sticking with through what must 
have been some discouraging times (and may 
still be). Thanks also for giving me outstand- 
ingly useful, thought provoking reading It 
would be cheap at twice the price... You've 
rejected frills in exchange for honest work- 
manship and conscientious grit. 

Greg Feig, Havre MT 

Dear Rick, I am going to take you up on the offer 
you made to give me a list of all the TS 
subscribers in my area. I'd like them for the 
state of Iowa which I think would be zip codes 
50000 to 52899. I am trying to start a T5 users 
group locally. I also run a TS sub-board on a 
local BBS. Many thanks, and keep putting out 
that great magazine. 

Dave Youngquist, 1321 NE 43 Ave., 
Des Moines I A 50313. 

Dear Dave, The requested list is now on 
its way to you. By the way that offer 
still stands for anyone who wants to 
start a new group, or pump some new 
blood into an old one. Just write and let 
us know what zip codes you want. 

The abortion controversy has generated a lot 
of mail, and several people have written in 
to say that it makes interesting reading. I 
think the following sampling or letters is 
representative of what we've received so 
far. In the interest of saving space, only the 
briefest of excerpts are presented here. I am 
especially sorry to reduce Fred Nachbaur's 
and Bob Hartung s letters so drastically. 

Computers for Convicts 

We recently received the following notice from 
George Mockridge of the Peninsula user group in 
California, "If you were kind enough to send a 
copy of your newsletter to Robert Kelly in 
support of our Prisoner Timex/Sinclair Aid 
Program, you may have had recent copies 
returned with the message that Mr. Kelly is no 
longer there We have just received word that 
he nas finally been granted parole and we hope 
that our help may have played a small part in 

I for one want to be counted among those 
who agree with you 100% in your decision to 
put the Pro-Life ad in TSH *18. I believe 
most, strongly that you have every right as 
an editor and publisher to present this 
material if you so choose, even if it has 
nothing whatsoever to do with computing... I 
also feel that the vast majority of f/S 
users who have benefitted from your 
dedication to TSH consider it a small loss 
that a handful of people see fit to drop out 
of your subscribers because of their pro- 

abortion views. There are some things 
money can't buy. 

Bob Hartung, Huntertown, IN 

Apparantly you are keeping score on the 
basis of how many people write in. If that is 
the case, please consider this a vote for the 
opposition. As a subscriber and avid reader 
of your magazine I found it very offensive. 

D. Lebowitz, Fiossmoor, IL 

By the way your stand on abortion in issue 
19 about abortion (I don't agree with It) was 
very, very good. A man should stand by what 
he believes It was very interesting reading 
those letters, but more so were the 
answers. Luis Ruiz, Miami FL 

Dear Luis, Thanks, but do you disaqree witt. 
abortion or with my stand on it? 

The tempest over Right to Life in *18 made 
very revealing reading. I'm very. Pro Choice 
(former teacher & social worker)... OK, you 
donated space in your own publication & 
took heat from some irate types...Now I'm 
telling you I respect your decent motives 
anyhow. (PS. Just don't fold TSH!) 

J. Kealy, El Paso TX 

It's not a political issue. If anything, it's a 
moral and legal issue that has been handled 
(as so many of our society's issues are) as a 
political football game... in my younger days, 
I casually aborted two (or perhaps, three - I 
can't exactly remember) of my wife's 
pregnancies. 1 say, T did this, because my 
wife was persuaded by my overpowering 
arguments and went along with my 
decisions. These were aborted because they 
were "inconvenient.". ..Your article was not 
some shrill diatribe, but was a calm report 
of some thought-provoking information... 
Please feel free to present such low-key 
treatment. If I don't like it, I don't have to 
read it! Anon 

In the interest of fairness, equal time, etc., 
how about a "pro-choice" ad?- If the 
magazine is going to be a public forum, it 
should be open to all. 

C. Burk, El Cerrito CA 


TS 2068 

For Sale: TS 2068; Aerco FD 68; 2-DS/DD 5-1/4 
Drives; Drive Case & Power Supply, Aerco and 
Tasman CPI; A & J Micro Dr.; All cables, 
manuals and SW. Also CPM Disc; War in the 
East; ProF lie; TasWide; TasWord; Tech Draw Jr.; 
MScript; Fish Locator & others. Most on Disc and 
Tape — Everything for $500. N.G.Robins, Rt. 3 
Box 744, Hayes VA 23072. 

I found the anti-abortion ad in issue *18 to 
be most appropriate. I believe that abortion 
is everyone's problem and will never be 
solved if the truth is not shown to the 
public. Maybe some of your readers should 
wake up and realize that human life is much 
more important than any computer. I 
commend TS Horizons. 

Jon Roketenetz. Cincinnati OH 

Rick, I can agree as Pro Life though like 
some wondered about the TSH medium. 

A1 Francis, Yucaipa CA 

I applaud your courage in expressing your 
views on abortion. Murder by any other name 
is still murder . Let's finally put an end to it. 
We have a world to lose, or a world to gain. 
The choice is ours. Fred Nachbaur, Nelson BC 

I read the ad in issue *18 and at the time I 
thought about the controversy it might 
invoTve. But what kind of person would 
cancel a subscription because of an opposing 
view?...How narrow minded can some people 
be to ramble on about the freedom of choice 
and, at the same time, forget about the 
freedoms of speech and of the press. If they 
prefer to remain ignorant of opposing views, 
maybe they are afraid they will find some 
truth in the ads and be convinced. Whatever 
your beliefs are, you have the right to 
express them of the opportunity exists. 
Congr atulations on your courage. 

David Merchlewitz, Cottage Grove MN 

I do agree with those who feel that a 
computer magazine is not an appropriate 
forum for sucn a divisive subject. 

Thomas Barlch, Oakland CA 

I cannot understand Americans who would 
resent the publishing of opinions in any 
publication. The heritage of our nation is 
freedom of expression. You certainly sup- 
ported that by publishing opposite view- 
points in the May June issue. Fact is, most 
computer publications could be made more 
interesting with a bit of variety... Everyone 
does have a right to an opinion, and a right 
not to remain silent. 

Bill Jones, Panama City FL 

WANTED: Programs for the TS-IOOO to trade 
Send me your list and large SASE. Also 
programs for above 16K RAM. Anyone have a 
copy of Memotech Memopak instruction manual? 
Any information will be appreciated. Richard 
Beier, One Darwin Drive, North Merjck NY 

User Groups Forming. Etc. 

New Western South Dakota Users Group 
forming: For all TS users regardless of 
background. Call or write - Jim Hunkins, RR10 
Box 141, Rapid City SD 57701, (605) 348-2296. 

Harrisburg Area TS Users Group. Meets on 
third Tuesday each month. David Bennett, 329 
Walton St. (Rear), Lemoyne PA 17043. 

Chicago Area Timex Users Group, 210 Bernice, 
Northlake IL 60088. Newly formed by TSH 
author Gary Lessenberry. Calf 312-473-9415. 

1 LLI5T : LPR IN' 
4 LET a =5- LET 

6 INK 2 

7 PRINT AT 2,5: 
3 PRINT AT 2,20 

10 PLOT 225,90 
20 DRflU a , b 
30 DRflU a , -b 
35 INK. 4 
40 DRflU -a , -b 
70 DRflU' -a , b 
90 LET a =a -1 
95 LET b=b-l 
93 INK 4: PAUSE 
100 GO TO 5 

a =-113 

100 CLS 

110 PRINT , ” , U4 

120 FOR 1=1 TO 4 m 

130 PRINT Mt " . U 

140 NEXT I 101 

150 PRINT "gffiiiSi" , • • W" la 

130 FOR 1=1 TO 5 ■■ 

170 PRINT If" 

180 NEXT I It 

190 PRINT " «8i " It 

195 LET Dl = "g^^MMir > "I I It 

197 FOR X = i TO 9 

200 FOR Y = 1 TO 4 ST 

210 PRINT AT 4 + Y , X + 6 ; " "+D*(X+1 =; 

TO X + 6) 

220 NEXT Y 1 

230 NEXT X * 

235 PAUSE 35 ■ 

240 PRINT AT 2, 13; "00" Si 

250 PRINT " X-RAY" 

TS 1 000/ I 500/ZX8 I 

An unusual graphics program using the unique 
graphics of the ZX81, by Daniel Richardson The 
graphics characters for each line can be 
accessed on the following keys; 

I 10: _/_/6/6, _/8/6/3/5, _/8/3/4/5, _/_/Y/T 

130: A/H/H/H/H/A 

150: A/G/G/G/G/A, H/D/D/D/D/H 

170: _/D/5/8/D 

190: _/A/A/H/H 

195: □/□/□/□/□ /□/□/□/□/5/E/1/2/R/8 
Note: □- Graphics- space. 

TS 2068 

John Copps of Mooresboro TN 
submitted this program. 

TS 2068 

I'm afraid I've lost track of who sent in this 
program, but I think it was TSH author Richard 
Watts. It's a very interesting music program: 
play the keys q,w,e,r,t,y,u,t,o,p,2,3,5,6,7,9 and 
0 to play songs. 

10 LET a S = "q2ui3e r 5t 6y 7u i 9O0P " 

20 DIM b (256' 

30 FOR c = 1 TO 17 LET biCODE a 
* (C) +1) =C • 

40 NEXT C 

50 LET d =COD£ INKEY B* 1 

60 IF b(d) THEN BEEP . 5,b(d)-l 

70 GO TO 50 

TS2068/Spectrum or TS1000/1500/ZX8! 

This little program was submitted to Try These 
by Dave Johnson. Listing No. 1 is written for the 
T52068 with the OS-64 cartridge from Zebra 
Systems We haven't tried it on the TS 1 000 but 
the effect on the 2068 is very interesting. 
Also try it without line 21. 

1 REM "COOt" 

2 FOR 5=1 TO 20 

5 REM PROGRAM FOR T5-2063 by 
•JOEE JENKINS, 3100 Mockingbird. 
AMARILLO, TX 79109. Date is 11-NO 
U-35. US JEN 

10 REM SPIRAL , a conversion b 
y Ted Knyszek from apple ii to 

UTING FEB 1934 FEB 1934 

15 REM the PI in Line 20 is th 

you see. , - 

20 LET c=COS (PI - 3) 

30 LET s =5 IN (PI/3) 

40 LET Cl=COS IP 1/36) 

50 LET S 1=SIN (PI/36) 

60 LET S f = . 95 fP 

70 let x =95 //rixZvyflK 

30 let y =0 // lmm/lk 

90 LET c x =130 // 

100 LET C u =33 X ll\\Wlm 

110 LET SC=1.16 X UlWiL 

120 FOR j=l TO 43 

130 FOR i =0 TO 5 VCaAlwYWS 

140 LET SX=X*SC-rC YSMm* 

150 LET sy = cy+y 

160 IF i =0 THEN GO TO 190\VOOO 
170 PLOT SXl.syl \ \V0 

180 DRAU (sx-sxll . isy-syl) 

190 LET SXl=SX LET syl=sy 

200 LET xn=XiC-Uii 

210 LET y=x*s+y*c 

220 LET x=xn 

230 NEXT i 

240 LET xn=s f * (x*cl-y*sl) 

250 LET y=sf*(X*Sl+y*Cl) 

260 LET X =xn 
270 NEXT j 
230 STOP 

20 PRINT AT 5,5 

21 PRINT "Hi Robby, you are in 
35 NEXT a 

40 LET 5=0 GO TO 1 


1 REM "COOt" 

2 FOR 5=1 TO 20 

10 PRINT AT 3,a;"HH 

20 PRINT AT 5,5.;" 

21 PRINT "Mi Robby, you 

35 NEXT 5 

40 LET 5=0 GO TO 1 

20 LET A =4 * INT (RND*42) - 
30 LET B =4 * INT <RND*42) + 
40 LET C=4*INT (RND*2) +1 
60 PLOT A , J 

70 PLOT J,fl 
30 PLOT B,J 
90 PLOT J , B 
100 NEXT J 
110 GOTO 20 

TS 1 000/ 1 500/ZX8 T 

This is an early program written by TS Horizons 
author Bernard Bush. We borrowed it from The 
Best of SYNC, Volume 1. Don't miss next issue's 
feature by Mr. Bush, a collection of TS 2068 
graphics programs. 


This program was converted by Joe E. Jenkins 
from an Apple II program. For a different look 
change the upper limit in line 120 to something 
besides 43. 

Program Rotronics Toolkit 
Computer: TS2068 with Wafadrive 

port, but the manual tells you how to easily 
modify this for the RS232 port. The third routine 
Is a printer channel driver, which also offers the 
benefit of correcting the TAB command which is 
not normally interpretted by the Spectrum or 
Spectrum-converted TS2068. 

This fine little wafer, courtesy of Rotronics Ltd., 
the makers of our useful Wafadrives, has got to 
be the sleeper of the year. When someone tells 
me he has a computer toolkit the first thing I 
usually think of is a program to re-number, kill 
REM lines, block delete, etc. Such was not the 
case with the Rotronics Toolkit wafer. 

What this series of programs, available all on 
one wafer, does offer is a variety of useful tools. 
To quote the manual, "The routines are a 
compilation of the most popular programs 
available via the ROTRONICS Information 
Service." All of these programs self-initialize 
upon loading and most are Then called with one 
simple command. Now let us take a look at these 
programs that have me so enthusiastic. 

There is even a routine to de-initial ize the 
Wafadrive operating system so that you can 
re-claim the reserved RAM. One thing to note 
when using this one Is that It performs the 
function or CLEAR* before it de-initializes, 
which means it closes any channels that happen 
to be open. Make sure this Is what you want to 
happen before you use this routine. 

The next routine is a file utility which offers 
such goodies as file re-naming, file positioning 
to allow easier chain loading of programs along 
with moving exactly to where you want to be on 
the wafer tape, extraction of all the file 
attributes (this is more than just a header 
reader), change file type, list free sectors and 
recover lost or corrupted directories. 

[i u riG e nn □ f v sn i n 




Thi* 24K g»m», written entirely- in machine-code 
ever written tor the TS1508. Nine levels, 16 ty| 
spells. Easy to play, difficult to master. Inc 
save in-progress games: time to load entire pi 
Revolutionary TRUE HI-RES puts your TS1508 on a 


The first offers us Wafadrivers copy on Epson 
compatible printers As COPY was one of the 
commands not available to us via the Wafadrive 
Operating System this was a nice routine to have 
at last. Instead of having the keyword COPY it Is 
replaced with DRAW* with three additions not 
available with COPY. You may do your copying in 
three different image sizes, give the paper a left 
hand margin, or change the graphics mode. 

The second of the printer routines available on 
this wafer is one for printing graphics from 
BASIC. This allows you to use the "bit image" 
mode, which will allow you to print high 
resolution graphics with most dot matrix 
brinters. The routine is set up for the Centronics 

The rest of the routines on this wafer concern 
transfer utilities. These include header reader, 
stopping auto-run, display of the memory of a 
program (a monitor program), a routine to count 
bytes, last of all a Kempston search. I have not 
said a lot about these last routines but believe 
me they will be of great use to those wanting to 
back-up their programs or transfer them from 
tape to wafer. I even used thts section to make 
up a back-up copy of my TRANS-EXPRESS wafer, 
which Is one of the best protected British 
programs I have yet encountered. 

You will find this program, which I do 
recommend, available from DAMCO Enterprises, 
67 Bradlet Ct., Fall River, MA 02720, or call 
617-278-2110. TSH 

n3QaiD©ns!J© urnra 


i ©&[? 


For the TS1000/ZX81 
.... '????? 

I finally got my hands on an IBM PC this 
summer. After having worked on a main 
frame for so long, I found the IBM to be a 
pleasant experience. I also discovered that 
the file system on the IBM was similar to that 
of the main frame— though much slower. 
Since I was still hacking away on my ZX 81, 1 
decided to simulate a file system on the 
Sinclair. The following program is what I 
came up with. 

Before getting to the program, I'll answer the 
question some of you are probably asking: 
"What is a file?". A file is a place to 
permanently store information. Programs 
such as text editors and checkbook balancers 
use files to store their text and data, 
respectively. A file is made up of many 
records, each of which contains information. 
The records are stored sequentially (i.e. back 
to back) in the file for easy access. As an 
analogy, think of a file as a page of a book. 
Each record would thus be a single line of text 
on that page. 

The first part of the program is a machine 
code subroutine that is used to allocate space 
for each new record in the file. You'll need 39 
characters in the "REM" statement. 

I REM 1234567890123456789012345678 

10 LET A$="0 1 7, 126,064,042, 127,064,229, 
025,00 1 ,032,000, 1 97,205, 1 58,009, 1 93,225, 
009,034, 1 27,064,042,041 ,064,009,034,041 , 

15 FOR N= 1 65 14 TO 16542 
20 POKE N,VAL A$( TO 3) 

25 LET A$=A$(5 TO ) 

30 NEXT N 

Make sure to double check line 10 before 
running the program. After you have run it, 
delete lines 10-30, making sure not to delete 
line I. Finally, enter the rest of the (BASIC) 
program below. 


1 5 LET WRITER 50 
20 LET READ-200 
25 LET TOP- 1 6553 
30 LET SIZE-32 
35 DIM R$(SIZE) 

45 LET E0F=0 
50 GOTO 5000 
1 00 REM ***CHECK*** 

1 05 LET BOTTOM- 1 65 1 2*PEEK 1651 1 ♦ 

256* PEEK 16512 

I 10 LET E0F-T0P*REC*5IZE>B0 r T0M 
/SIZE)* 1 

150 REM *** WRITE*** 

1 55 FAST 
I60G0SUB 100 

1 65 IF EOF THEN RAND USR 16514 
1 75 POKE R. CODE R$(R-POS* I ) 

180 NEXT R 


1 90 SLOW 


200 REM *xxreaD*** 

205 FAST 


215 IF EOF THEN G010 240 


225 LET R$(R-POS* 1 )=CHR$ (PEEK R) 

230 NEXT R 
235 LET REC-REC* 1 
240 SLOW 

Save the program before running it so you 
have a clean copy to reuse in the future. To 
use the program, first run it. This will 
initialize all of the necessary variables. You 
now have two new commands and one function 
at your disposal. 

1) WRITE command: 

Set REC to desired record number (1,2,...), 
R$ to desired record content and execute 

2) READ command: 

Set REC to desired record number ( 1 ,2,...), 
execute via GOSUB READ and desired record 
will be in R$. 

3) EOF function: 

Check for end-of-file condition while 
reading (i.e IF EOF THEN STOP). 

Here is a sample program to test your new 

5000 REM *** EXAMPLE *** 

5010 INPUT R$ 


5020 LET REC= 1 


5030 IF EOF THEN GOTO 5045 

5035 PRINT R$ 

5040 GOTO 5025 

5045 PRINT "THAT IS ALL..." 

There are a wide variety of things you can do 
with this file system. You can write your own 
text editor, checkbook balancer, or anything 
else that needs to store information. I myself 
wrote a checkbook balancer in a couple of 
days, a program that otherwise would have 
taken much longer to write. 

Here is a list of variables that are used by the 
program. You should not change any of these 
or you'll cause the program to crash. 



A'.SO AVAI L ABLE FO R TH ib T/S 2063 

FOR ZX81, T/S1000 and T/S1500 COMPUTERS 



A WO <0 processor II 10 I computer uw 
what a typewriter is to a typist, except that the 
former has more advantages than the latter 
ZX-Text can operate m 16-64K RAM providing 
from 1300 to 6500 words per document it 
features 6 different options write, read. add. 
print, save and clear text Text is written on a 
par-line basis with quick speed and with 
horizontal back-space and delete capabilities 
being available. You can also access the 
editor directly from write mode and vice-versa 
Text can be proof-read on a per-line basis 
allowing tor enough time to determine it any 
editing is needed The text editor snows a kna 
of text to be deleted, inserted, replaced and 
bated for editing. You may also change a word 
or expression within a line, stop or start text 
while it is scrolling up the screen, begin 
reading text trom the fast ime ol the Me. re- 
enter write mode from the editor, return to the 
mem-menu or create a window so that you 
can read-adit two tiles simultaneously The 
print option takes text displayed in 30-column 
tormet on the screen and outputs to either the 
ZX/TS printer (With Memotechs Centronics 
Parallel Interface 60-column end lower / 
higher - case output is possible ) Files may 
be saved on tape cassette with the use ol 
one single command, or by the same token they 
can be erased trom memory / storage so mat 
the lull capacity of the program can be used 
lor other purposes such as composing letters 
reports, articles, memos:' standard forms, 
instructions, ads graphs, telephone 
directory, lists ol customers, members 
friends etc Also copies of tiles are always 
less expensive and easier to run than using a 
photocopier Other advantages are savings in 
time, paper, ink. correcting mistakes and 
adding afterthoughts more efficiently than 
doing them through either handwriting or 
using a typewriter 

An electronic spreadsheet calculator is the 
fundamental basic tool for summensing.reporting 
and analyzing in matnx form any accounting, 
mathematical or scientific manipulation of nr 
bars ZX-Calc operates m 32-64K RAM and affoi us 
a maximum of 3360 characters /spreadsheet The 
entire matrix consists ot15columns(lettersA-0) 
and 30 rows (numbers 1 -30) with 6 characters/ 
cell Unlike other popular ESCs. ZX-Calc uses in 
calculations and within cells as 1 4 mathfunctions 
on the ZX-81 /TStOOO It offers a unique "SUM • 
function that totals one or more rows/columns 
simultaneously Parenthesis can be used within 
equations There is no fixed limit on how many 
equations may be entered Formulas may be 
stored in all 420 cells ol the spreadsheet The 
display attords 1 5 rows/cotums. Loading of data 
into more than one cell can occur across/down 
one or mote row/column simultaneously With 
vertical windowing you can arrange a set ol col- 
umns m any order, or practice using lixed-vaneble- 
aiignment display formats The menu otters 6 
options enter / erase, move, calculate, print, save 
and clear the spreadsheet Enter /erase allows 
the entering deletion or data alignment within a 
cell through the use ol a mobile cursor With the 
move option you may move around the entire 
sreadsneet to access any row. column or cell 
The calculate option allows you to enter labels 
values or formulas into a cell or write and enter 
equations that wib act upon the data already within 
the spreadsheet You can also enter bar graphs 
into a cell in this option Absolute / relative replica- 
tion. down/acrossa column/row. isalsoailowed 
by this option Also this option allows the auto- 
matic calculation ot the entire spreadsheet with 
one single command Prmtailowsyoutooutputto 
either the IX /TS printer the entire spr eadsheet by 
column-sets and row-pages through use of the 
COPY command The enure spreadsheet may be 
saved on cassette tape ot you may clear all data 
Irom it or erase the program Irom RAM entirely 
The most salient advantage provided by an ESC 
over specifically vertical applications software is 
that an ESC provides a reusable framework with 
which you can compose any specific financial 
model rather than |ust beiimitedtoonly one stati- 
cally fixed lormat tor storing, displaying and 
manipulalmg numerical data 

$ 16.95 


T ime management is an important espect ol 
any serious business and personal agenda 
Planning how to spend our time leavea us better 
prepared before and while we are spending it 
and we remain better organized after we linish 
spending it ZX-Calendar operates in 16-64K 
RAM affording 25 appointments in 16K. 100 in 
32K or 180 in 48K and 64K. Each 
appointment record holds a maximum ot 220 
characters The main menu includes enter, 
search/check/sort. change, save, clear and 
print any and all appointments made on a 
specific date or with any party Output to either 
the ZX/TS printer is permissible This program 
will permit you to remember to do something or 
to be somewhere important by cataloging your 
answers to six questions that you must account 
tor in order not to waste time when it is scarce 
when, with whom, at what time, lor how long, 
where and what are you going to discuss and 
conclude when you get together with someone 
else? The program lets you permanently 
originate, record, classify, search, sort, 
calculate, modify, summarize, obtain a written 
report and store your answers to the preceding 
questions so that you will not lorget whet you 
decide to do with your time. This program 
identities your time according to when you are 
going to spend it and with whom you are going 
to share 4 Through these lorma ol labeling 
appointments you are able 10 verify or modify 
how your time is budgeted without wasting ink. 
paper or more lime trying to remember whot you 
said 10 yourseil or what someone else said to 
you or where you placed certain written 
messages that you now cenl Imd With this 
program you will know where you con find 
exactly what you need to know about where you 
want to and have to be. or where you have been, 
before you gel and alter you got there Thus. ZX- 
Caiendar w4l let you plan your time so that you w* 
never have to worry about what is ahead or what 
came before, lor you w* aiweys know, by using 4. 
to never be caught astray by any time-frame 

$ 16.95 

$ 16.95 

A.F.R. SOFTWARE - 1605 Pennsylvania Avenue, No. 204 - Miami Beach, Florida 33139 


L 1 * 1984 " 


TS 1 500 


Hi, my name Is Joe C. Smith, Jr. I am 
the author of this new column which 
will contain product reviews, stories, 
and program listings for the T/5 line of 

Now a little about myself. I have been 
using computers and writing computer, 
programs since 1978. I am curently 
attending Central Arizona College and 
Emmaus Bible College, which are both 
located in Arizona. I am currently 
writing articles which appear in 
several computer magazines, covering 
Apple computers, T/S computers, Tandy 
computers, and hand held computers. 

This month's program is a game I call 
'SECRET NUMBER.’ The computer holds a 
secret number whose value is anywhere 
between 0 and 50. You have to guess 
that number by using messages as cross 
references. As you enter a guess (input 

a number) the computer gives you a clue 
as to the general area of tne secret 

Listing 1 is the program. (Compatable 
with TSI000/ZX8I and 2068.) Listing 2 
Is a sample run. 

5 LET Y-0 

10 LETZ-50 Listing 1, 

15 LET 1-0 

20 LET X-INT (RND*50) 

30 LET 1-1*1 
40 PRINT Y;7";Z;“:";I 

60 IF N-X THEN GOTO 100 
90 GO TO 30 


0/50:1 25 

25/50:2 33 

25/33:3 29 

25/29:4 27 


Lis ting Z 

zxsi Pascal \Z 

When Niklaus Wirth invented Pascal, he didn't know how to implement it in just 16K of 
RAM. We don't either. But we offer the largest subset of Pascal ever fit into 16K. And for 
those of you with more than 16K, Partial Pascal programs can use up to 48K of RAM. 

We kept your convenience in mind while designing our editor and compiler. They’re 
resident in memory together, so you don't reload anything from tape to switch between them. 
When there's room, we keep your source program in memory while its compiled version is 
executing, just in case you want to make changes when you see your program's output. 

Instead of compiling to Z80 microprocessor instructions, we use a pseudo code. It's much 
more compact than native code but still executes several times faster than BASIC. 

So if you're interested in Pascal in particular or just interested in programming on your 
micro in general, try Partial Pascal from Semper Software. 

Just $30 brings you the Partial Pascal editor and compiler on cassette tape with instruction 
manual. 16K RAM required. No extra charge for shipping anywhere in North America. 

Write or call for free brochure. 

Semper Software 
585 Glen Ellyn Place 
Glen Ellyn, IL 60137 
(312) 790-1253 

1 1 


The TIMEX/ Sine lair 2 


.068 Computer 


by William J. Pedersen 

Welcome backl The first Installment might have the Interest of fairness, a short description Is In 
given you the idea that machine code was order, 
necessary for understanding bank switching. 

Would I do that to you? On occasion, machine Geel This Is kind of embarasssinal Because Timex 
code will be presented to support "fixes", but if never came out with any kind of EXBU, their version 
you don't actually make the fixes you can skip it of bank switching does not exist eitherl Writing 
without any loss. about something that does not exist is called fic- 

tion. Bank switching using standard I/O is totally 
We previously discussed how to fix a statement fictitious. It can be done, but preferably using a 
like: CLOSE'S when new devices had been added, different method than shown in the literature. 

"C" for a Centronix printer is a typical example. 

The OPEN statement pulls an error which can be A BSC reached through memory mapped I/O resides 
trapped with ON ERR. Fixing this type of problem partly inside the SCLD. That part is real, powerful, 
Is quite simple. The error number and location and relatively simple. It is supported in hardware 
are available in the system variables. ’ and ROM (witn some patches needed). 

OPEN *3, "C’ is sufficient syntax if patches have The BSC has a separate data bus it shares with 
been made to the CHANS table, or a new channel joysticks. This consists of four lines from the joy- 
has been inserted. stick port (which transfer “nibbles") for multi- 

plexed data, and one line from the rear connector, 
The complete syntax for OPEN goes beyond this, the function of which is better described later. 

The statement for an EXBU floppy disc drive, 

bearing a BEU chip Is: Bank switching control lines include DZOUT, DZIN, 

and BU5IS0. The buffered address lines AI3 through 
OPEN*7,''D", (parameter list] AI5 tell what to do with the nibbles passed through 

the joystick port IOA. Anyone interested in learning 
The parameter list includes such Information as more about peripheral control can find the IEEE 488 
drive number, disk label, filename, extension, standard in their libraries or In the INTEL manual, 
disk format standard, and file attributes. This 

syntax is common to all bus expansion units. None of the control lines are connected in the 
Different devices require different parameters TS2068. We'll cross that bridge when we come to 
of course. it. For now, we'll assume all signals are available. 

Does this give you the idea that you can read, say Most BEUs need an Identification Number (ID) which 
an IBM formatted disc? Yup, but it won't be easy it recognises. This can be its position in a daisy 
until the interface routines become available. chain harness or any other scheme. No two devices 

can have the same ID. The value 0 is not allowed. 
What an OPEN statement does is to verify the The system polls from 1 to 255, pausing as DZIN is 
presence of the device, then post the offset to sensed.ln this way It finds all attached devices, one 
5TRM5 pointing to either CHANS or 5YSCON as at a time. It returns control to the CPU each time, 
appropriate. In the process, a device dependent 

OPEN routine is generally required - just for The CPU tests the bank for being RAM or ROM and 
CLOSE. The key here is "the presence of the creates an entry for it in the SYSCON table. All RAM 
device". That is where bank switching begins. is treated alike, but ROM is prepared for sorting. 

Before going on, the BEU Is told to recognize its 
When you turn your computer on, it goes through position in tne SYSCON table instead of its ID. 
a lengthy initialization process to make It 

possible to do all those wondr.ous things. Just The XFER-BYTES routine in chunk 3 lets the CPU get 
before the copyright message appears, tne bank data from chunk 0 of the bank into the SYSCON 
switching system Is invoked to search out and table, using bank switching of course. Only one byte 
identify what is connected; and to prepare a is needed to test if it is RAM. For ROM, the first 22 
sorted list of them. That list is the system bytes are copied into SYSCON. If the device is not 
configuration table (SYSCON). an EXBU, these bytes (and others perhaps) belong to 

the BEU chip. The data is used for initialization, but 
Ah! There is more to this than you thoughtl the device is never bank switched. This is the case 
Cartridges which plug into the dock have with most printers and the better implementations 
reserved places at the bottom or SYSCON; one for of DOS systems. OPENing a printer loads its 'kernel'' 
AROS and one for LROS types. Does it make more from EBU chip to RAM. 
sense now, that this article began with I/O? It 

was necessary to out in perspective what bank Those first 22 bytes of ROM carry all the 
switching does, before showlnq how It works. Information needed to identify and operate the 

device. Some devices are not ROM, requiring 
It is still to early to explore how it works, but in additional testing to classify them, e.g., MODEM. 


Once the table Is complete, and all BEUs are Then - the computer is ready to serve you. 
recognizing the new asigned bank numbers (ABN), it 

is sorted according to tne priority read in byte 22, Next we will look a lot more closely at 

lower numbers mean higher priority to be placed 
‘*iar the bottom of the SYSCON tahlp ram i 

, so it is always above an, 

entries. Devices which have handling routines in the 
HOME ROM are at the bottom. It as planned to 
accommodate thirteen different devices, but which 
has not been said. RAM banks are loaded with the 
interrupt handler from the EXROM. 

The IDs are then reassigned to match the sorted 
SYSCON table. The last phase of Initialization is the 
posting of non-EXBUs to CHANS and posting that 
fact back to SYSCON. 

Next we will look a lot more closely at that 
SCLD, examining its power and limitations but 
not now. Yes, tne system, will be summarized, 
but not until the final article in this series. 
Complicated, isn't it? Like life, it's 'vernry 

Part II of this series originally contained an 
example of how easily one could be led astray 
by deliberately misleading data. Though it was 
intended to be a warning to the reader, it led 
to blind acceptance, or rejection of the whole 
presentation. Few recognized my intent. My 
warning still stands. © 1985 Wm. J. Pedersen 








Milliard J. Ptdtrstn 

f 1 1 1 1 fTTlTFrfTTTfi 1 1 iTini 1 1 1 1 1 

fi QJ 


CL y, 

* § 

£ cn 

^ t- 

u a. 

C. Z3 

O in 

£ 5 

r u 

a. a> 
in Cl 
cr> CD 

o O 

- in 
$ w 
in - 

c ., 
ra ~ 


Book Review by Art Gindin 
McGraw Hlll/Byte Books 

[Editor's Note: This review was submitted 
originally as part of Art Gindin's "Reviews for 
the Non-Programmer" series.] 

There are reasons why some of us remain 
non-programmers. For me there has always 
seemed to be a bid gap between the rules and 
the execution. A For-NEXT loop looks obvious 
in a book. It Just doesn't appear as an obvious 
solution when I try to get the computer to "do 
something", l.e., program. A cure for this 
hangup was written some years ago. 
Unfortunately the book GOSUBS by Ewln and 
Shirley Gaby came out about the time Timex 
was going under. It is "A BYTE BOOK" and 
published by McGraw-Hill. Although I have 
known about the book for some time, I was 
only recently able to find one at B. Dalton for 
$9.95. Since they are written for the original 
ZX81 the programs are applicable to the 2068 
as well as the QL. 

The index Is complete but there Is no Table of 
Contents so let's write one The first two 
chapters of introduction show how to write a 
program using GOSUBS to maintain 
organization. We discussed this type of 
programming before in TSH No. 10. Chapter 3 
Is for subroutines of area and volume: 

TS 1000/ZX81 Review 

triangles, polygons, circles, spheres, etc. 
Chapter 4 has conversions of quarts to liters, 
yards to meters, Celsius to fahrenheit, 
decimal to hex, etc. Chapter 5 has statistical 
formulae: means, modes, ranks, varience, 
linear regression, etc. Chapter 6 is for 
business and shows how to enter data into a 
string (directory). Interest and discount, 
depreciation and moving average, etc. 

Chapter 7 has routines for maximum, 
minimum, random numbers, sorts, etc. Chapter 
8 discusses INPUT and SCROLL and is really 
preliminary the to final chapter (10) where 
they show how to make a table (spreadsheet). 
This Is probably a bit more programming than 
most of us can handle and even includes some 
machine language. Chapter 9 shows how to 
construct various types of graphs: point, bar, 
pie, etc. 

The book is clearly worth the money, if you 
can find it, even if you use only one program. 
Many tapes have been sold with less 
information than is contained in one chapter 
of GOSUBS. Such is the history of computing. 


P.O. Box 64 
Jefferson, NH 03583 

SyncWare News is a journal by, for and about Sinclair-Timex hobbyists. We bring you projects, listings 
and articles written and developed by fellow hobbyists. We at SyncWare want to stimulate and chal- 
lenge your imagination. We want to give you ideas and computer know how. We want to take you to 
the core of your computer and show you what makes it tick. You won't get fluff with SyncWare News. 
Instead, you'll go right to your computer's roots with useful enlightening program listings and detailed 
sophisticated hardware improvements. SyncWare brings you KNOWLEDGE. Why not subscribe today. 

[ ] Send me 1 year of SyncWare Ne*s! Enclosed is $16.95 
[ ] 1 -ant the BEST 0E SYNCWARE Volume 1. (109 page book 

for TS1000/TS1500. ONLY $16.95 
[ ] Send me all 6 issues of Volume 2. (includes IS2068, 
TS1000/1500, and QL. Only $16.95 
[ ] Please send me a sample of the current issue for $2.00 




■ 1 year (6 issues) lUa^/O 

add $3.00 postage. All other foreign add $9.00 Airmail (U.S. funds only) 


Finally, real graphics power for your TS 
1000! THRUST, the last word in 
cursor-controlled hi -res graphics for screen 
or printer output, is a software package 
composed of SincArtist HR and SincArtist 
1.3. Examine this sanple for an idea of the 
powerful versitility of THRUST. 


• •' 



—oon trolled nigh -resolution screen graphics. Copy artwork 
SincArtist HR requires a TS 1000 with a socketed 2K RAM, 
r minutes with a soldering iron. Super user-friendly 
d. All modifications are fully transparent to other 
ycu need is the FREE hardware upgrade that we provide! ! ! ! I 

Fully documented with easy-to-follow instructions for the layman 
16IC and 64K versions included 
Ideal for storage in Hunter Board 

Produced on high-quality casette for the ZX 81, TS 1000, ard TS 1500 

BOX 5904 

(Write for a free catalogue of other TS 2068 -and TS 1000 products) 

Boole Review 
by Ken Lewis, Ph. D. 


Review: "Applied Sinclair: 

Subroutines for the Math- 
ematically- Minded" 

Description: Math - Book, 168 pp. 

(Tape Available for 2068) 
Computer: TS 2068, Spectrum, ZX8 1 
TS 1 000/ 1500 

Price: $13 (with 2068 tape, $16) 

From: Richard Booth, Lehigh Univ 

Sherman Fairchild Lab 
Bethlehem PA 18105 
(215) 861-3951 

I have recently had a chance to review 
Richard Rootn's "Applied Sinclair - 
Subroutines for the Mathematically 
Minded." This publication is, in a word, 
"impressive." To complement his 
powerful cadre of sub- routines, which 
are capable of handling some rather 
formidable problems from applied 
math, Booth has also included some 
very elegant plotting routines, which, 
used in conjunction with the numerical 
programs tnrough a (simply written) 
main program will actually plot the 
solution for you. Most of the content of 
Booth's boofc would seem to nave 
particular appeal and usefulness to 
engineering and science students in 
undergrad school, or to practicing 
scientists and engineers whose work 
takes them into the realms of 
differential eouations and matrix 
operations, however the title of this 
book is somewhat misleading, for it is 
definitely not written for the casual, 
uninitiated dabbler - such a person 
would recognize few if any words in 
the table of contents, let alone 
understand what these programs do. 

"Applied Sinclair ..." is neatly packaged 
in a beautiful, orange colored cover. The 
type is, for the most part, dark, clear 
and crisp; however one draw-back is 
that the book cannot be opened flat 
becaus e of the type of binding that is 
used The author is offering the book 
and a cassette tape of the programs as 
a package, all for a very reasonable and 
altogether affordable 16 bucks 
(Although the routines in the book are 
written for both the 2068 and 
ZX8I/TSI000, the cassette is only 
available for the 2068). If you own a 
2068, this is definitely the option to 
take to save yourself a mountain of 
typing. The book alone sells for 13 

Although i did not have occasion to 
review the cassette, along with the 
book, the text appears to complement 
the tape well In sum, Richard Booth 
has produced what may well become a 
classic publication among the liter- 
ature for the T/S faithful. I heartily 
recommend his work to those who can 
appreciate its contents, besides, along 
with Lee lacocca and myself. Booth is 
an alumnus of Lehigh University which 
tells you something. (Good job, Booth!) 


FAHTASTIC SEV PROGRAM! Exciting & Educational 

You've heard of SPRITES. Explore the subject. 
Create Moving Displays and Games. Buy a copy 
for your TS-2068, they belong together. 


professionally written machine code) 

- SPRlTEDRAV Program (Great HEV program makes 
drawing a SPRITE both fun and easy) 

- Operate from BASIC (Utilizes a Machine Code 
Interface. Twelve SPRITE Commands) 

- Operate from Machine Language (VERY QUICK 
Screen Action! Bonus KCSPRITES program) 

- Cassette Tape (Includes demonstrations and 
instructions. Menu driven. Fun to watch) 

- Manual (34 pages written in "user friendly" 
style for all programmers) 

Authors IFTRODUCTORY SPECIAL Includes Postage 
To ORDER: Send Check or Money Order $19.00 To 

1303 Vhitehead St. 37529 Perkins Road 

Key Vest, FL 33040 Prairieville, LA 70769 

*1 havo soon SPRITES 20SS. I hava road It and I htvi taatad It] 
and I cannot say enough good about It. If I had to aua It all 
up. I'd aay that If you HAVE a TS-20SS. you NEED SPRITES 20SS.* 

UanUHlUfl Tun.anltl Bcn'i acn 

525 PAGES 

$5.25 PP 

StlFin MU! 

749 HILL ST. ttG 


I I I I 


Product: Printer EPROM for generating lower 
case letters with true descenders 
on 80-column printers 
Price: J 1 4.95 plus $3 shipping 

From: RMG Enterprises 

1419 1/2 7th St. 

Oregon City OR 97045 

The computer owner is forever a slave to tech- 
nology. Every day some new product arrives which 
will somehow enhance the productivity of our 
wonderful devices. My vote for peripheral that 
does the most is the printer After all, the paper 
product is what survives and is seen by others long 
after the RAM has gone to bed. A good printer 
makes any computer look good. Unfortunately a 
new printer is a major upgrade. Wouldn't you 
really prefer an Apple LaserWriter at $5000* than 
what you have now? If you can't afford a whole 
new printer, maybe you could afford a small 

As you may remember I have a Seikosha GP-IOOA, 
the brother of the Gorilla Banana. Now, what l 
would like is their new model (which actually 
costs less than what I have). But to make do I 
bought a new EPROM from RMG, 1419 1/2 7th St 
Oregon City OR 97045 for $14.95 ♦ $3 shipping, for 
the Seikosha. This Is advertised to provide "true 
descenders" (letters with -tails' like g, j, and p). 
What he has actually done is to move the 5x7 dot 
matrix down one and use the lowest row for the 
descenders. This makes the usual letters one row 
shorter but overall the effect is definitely an 
improvement. In addition they have revised many 
other letters to give the print a much more open 
appearance although they still fit in the same 

I think the chip really does add to the appearance 
of the output at a very reasonable price. Specify 
which letters are on Vour chip when ordering. I 
have included a sample of the new and old 
typestyles so you can compare the two - allowing 
for problems in reproduction. I have included the 
full set of typestyles available on the printer. 
These are easily called up using the Word* 

For those of you who have already upgraded to a 
more modem printer a combination typestyle- 
buffer is available from Carolina Engineering (800 
222-9073) for many printers. Their device offers a 
choice of typestyles and a choice of buffers. 
Naturally it costs a bit more: $169* The medium 
is the message, tsh 


For The 


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Column Printer Output 


2066 Review P5/GE, Vers. 2.0 
Reviewed by "Elvin Magic" 

TS2068 Reviews 

Program: Pixel Sketch and Graphics Editor, 

Version 2.0 
Computer: TS 2068 
Price: $19 95 

Available from: 

2144 White Oak 
Wichita KS 67207 

Having recently written a graphics program 
for tne 2068, I can appreciate all the 
capabilities represented in this program 

relative to the upper-left corner of the 
user-defined window Digitize will analyze an 
8x8 pixel area at a time. 

Using the text/print option allows you to 
choose from four built-in fonts, plus there is 
an additional font (chancery) on the tape 
which can also be used. (See Figure 1.) 

You can also use the "zoom" statement to 
enlarge lettering as seen in Figure 2. 

Figure 3 shows some other functions of the 

The Pixel Sketch and Graphics Editor, Version 
2.0 (or PS/GE, for short) uses the standard 
video mode, the extended color video mode 
with eight times the standard color 
resolution, and the high resolution graphics 
video mode to draw and to print text. This 
versatility is very useful especially if you 
like lots of color or lots of room to work 

The capabilities are great and many It has the 
usual commands like plot, erase (unplot), 
circle, draw, ink and paper colors, bright, and 
flash: But that's not all. What makes this 
program great are functions like zoom, wide, 
mirror image, rotate, move, paint, merge (two 
pictures), inverse, fill/shade, erase, digitize, 
and text/print. Each function helps to show 
the great graphics ability of the 2068 All of 
the above functions, except for paint and 
fill/shade are accessed by a useful (if not 
unique) process called "windowing", in which 
a rectangular window appears on the screen 
which can be made larger or smaller, taller or 
shorter, wider or narrower, and it can easily 
be located on the screen. 

Most of the functions are self-explanatory 
and l didn't have any trouble with them, 
except for "digitize". This function was very 
new to me It is used to "digitize" the picture 
in the user-defined window The digitize 
function displays the decimal and binary 
equivalents of tne screen display file. These 
data can be used (outside the PS/GE) to define 
user-defined graphics characters Each data 
point is defined by its row and column number 

Five different fonts 

Ch an eery 




S t 3 ( 3 CS 

-■in d you can in terming /e the 
f on ts . 

Mo eern Ch r-n c er y 

Modern Bold 

Bold Jtdll'CS, set,., 

*dhe Chancery font is on the tape 

And you can do ob rrao uoy brfk 
mirror images. . £se.«mj loniBi 

Also on the tape is a very useful program that 
changes a 32 column picture into a 64 column 

You can even y -<~ 

Letter ins to suit your taste. 

. 4 nd a// this can fee done on your 

2 0 6 S 

You can a section. 

You can make 
c ire / e s an d 


0 r -*a section 




s h a d e t h ern w i t h 
your own 8 6 i t 
tin ary code, 
this one is 81881010, 

32- 164 

Use this program to convert a 
standard 32 column screen to a 
64. (hi res) column screen. 

Press 1-5 to select an option. 


1) DOUBLE IMAGE (32 => 32 + 32) 




5) LEFT + RIGHT (32 +32 => 64) 


picture. (See menu, Figure 4 .) 
You can do a double imaqe of a 
picture, place it on either the 
right or left side, start it on 
any of the 32 columns, or merqe 
the pictures side by side. 

The booklet accompanying the 
program explains each function 
as well as telling you how to 
make modifications to the 
prqgram for a full-sized 

Beechcra ft 

' 9 '— .... 

program has been on the market 
for over a year now, and for 
those who purchased the old 
version, you can order version 
2.0 by sending $10.95 and the 

original tape back to Lemke 
Software Development. 

PS/GE is simple to understand 
very user-friendly, and overall 
a great graphics program. TSH 

for the 
Zebra Designer 

Here are the last of Bill 
Ferebee's graphic designs 
he submitted for his re- 
views In issues 18 and 19 
of TS Horizons. The pro- 
. grams reviewed are Sign 
Designer, Banner Designer, 
and Greeting Card Designer 







p=Plot osUnp lo t 
Sf'' s= 5t ore graphic 

cs/p=copy screen 
"r,r OUJ Keys to move 
ENTER. next Line 



received my moneys worth with /ust one 


—J. Trenbick 

.iln.iys slop lo read CTM. even though 
most other magazines I receive (and write tor) 
only get cursory examination..." 

— Fred Blechman. K6UGT 

USA S 1 5 00 lor I yea, 

Mexico. Canada S25 00 

F °' e, 9 n S35.00(land) S55.00(air) 

»U S funds onlyl 

Permanent (U S. Subscription) $100 00 

Sample Copy §3 50 


l .’04 Sam Drive • Birmingham AL 35235 
(205) 351 0271 

Use of the "Universal Printer Patch" requires 
entry of certain data obtained from one’s 
printer manual (it should be noted that some 
older printers are sadly deficient In the 
manual department) and also may require 
editing of a few program lines. This operation 
is very thoroughly explained in the SMART 
TEXT MANUAL. Those who have ranted, raved, 
and resorted to strong language trying to 
make a printer behave will appreciate this 

SMART TEXT TS-2068 Is menu-driven. In fact, 
there is an abundance of menus. Fortunately, 
the latest version of the manual has four 
pages of diagrams of menu relationships; a 
veritable “road map” to assist one in arriving 
at Prof iclencyvi lie. Data Is stored in "array 
cells" or "data banks" by menu selection from 
whence il may be recalled in any desired 


Software Review 
by Tex Faucette 


Copyright 1984 by Gulf Micro Electronics, 

1317 Stratford Ave., Panama City, FL 32404. 

/ a \ -i « at i t 

Please note that this a limited review, I began 
with this program some time ago, but before 
my review was completed my 2068 "expired." 

1 hasten to note that the program had nothing 
to do with said demise. 

Many programs may be evaluated and either 
reviewed or rejected in a single session at 
the keyboard. This IS NOT TRUE in the case of 
Bill Jones' SMART TEXT TS-2068. In fact, upon 
first reading the 70-page manual, my reaction 
was, "Egad, he has reinvented Wordstar!" Of 
course I jest. Nevertheless, a mere listing of 
the features and functons approaches the 

Quoting from the attractive cover of the 
latest (and in my judgement, improved) 
70-page manual, SMART TEXT TS-2068 is. 
"Integrated Administrative Software Featur- 
ing Data Base Management, Mailing List, Word 
Processing, Laoel Printing, Auto Letterheads, 
Form Letters, Repeat Print Multi-page 
Manuals [such as the one from which I am 
quoting], Direct Type-Print, Supports all 
Interfaces, Universal Printer Patch.” Versions 
are available for Cassette and all Interfaces, 
Zebra 05-64 Cartridge, Aerco Disk, and A&J 

All the above features would appear to 
stretch the capacity of the un-expanded 2068. 
Bill Jones admits tnat his first version ate up 
all available memory before he had all the 
features he desired, and he was forced to 
"invent” what he terms "DENSE PACK BASIC." 

"DENSE PACK” being Bill Jones’ invention, I 
leave the full tutorial chore to him. And, of 
course, I hope he will write it up for a future 
issue of TSH. In brief, the system utilizes all 
of the memory saving tricks l ever heard of 
plus more that may forever remain "beyond my 
ken." Such things as "PSEUDO-HEX variables 
almost make sense to me, but such things as 
10 conditional IF THEN statements with a few 
VALs thrown in residing in a single program 
line leaves me gasping For breath. Even so, IT 
IS BASIC and c-i be readily modified by 
following instructions contained in the 
manual. In this regard, it behooves one to 
LLIST the program for reference during the 
modifications. It only requires somewhere 
around 12 feet of paper on the 2040 printer, 
and the results may be wrapped around a 
couple of of pieces of broomstick or mop 
handle for manual scrolling. Of course the 
knowledgable user will perform any such 
modification on a "working copy” of the 
program. According to the manual tne original 
program length was 32K. DENSE PACK yielded 
the current program length of only 20K. 

order for furttier printing, or whatever. This 
results in a high degree of flexibility, but the 
rather complex system will require some 
study and usage before maximum productivity 
is attained. 


4t last a eanputer nagazine on cassette 
fop the TIMEH SINCLAIR 2000. Ho longer 
uill uou have to tope in long fastidious 
ppogpans. no nope hugs and headaches... 
...Just load and pun. 

BYTE POWER is the Ultinate nagazlne fop the T320B0. Each cassette 
is full of ppogpans. a peal T320Q0 owner's dpean. 

BYTE POWER is a software based nagazine with over IDO ppogpans 
pep gear. no3t of then in Machine Language. Ppogpans varg fron 
the 4rcade gane to the Ward -Processor. 4nd all that fop... 

LE33 TRW 39 cents 4 PR0GR4M. 

Chased on 1 gear subscription!) 

Plus gou get programing articles. Software and Hardware reviews 
and tips on how to progran better. 

I would like to receive: 

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For TS2068 and SPECTRW 


• Puli-Dovvn Menus 

• Several Brushes 

• Spray 

• AutoFill 

• Zoom 

• Undo 

• Several Text Fonts 

• Cut & Paste Windows 


Auto-Speed Control 
Magnify & Reduce 
Rotate & Mirror 
1 Full Attribute Control 
1 Fully Elastic Shapes including Circle, 
Box Triangle, Ray and Line 
' Fast Ellipse and Arc 

• Includes Spectrum & TS2068 Versions 

• Supports Microdrivers and Kempston 

• Includes GALLERY, the slide 


• 5 Samples of Artwork 

• Excellent Manual 

Unshackle your creativity with ... ARTWORXII 
ARTWORX VI I - $19 95 U S plus J) 00 S 4 It 



The dream of every BASIC programmer has now been realized! 

TIMACHINE will turn your BASIC 
into super-fast machine code, 
running up to 200 times faster! 
Handles floating point operations 
like SIN. COS, IAN 

• Handles all BASIC except I/O 

• Includes an excellent manual and 
4 demonstration programs 

• Compiles up to 27K in seconds 

• Includes Spectrum & 2068 versions 

Super-Charge your BASIC programs with... TIMACHINE! 
TIMACHINE — $19.95 U.S. Plus $3.00 S & H 



i. ft'flMAl tOH I HE fUTUHE 

106 Seventh Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M8V 3B4 • TEE. (416)259-8682 • CompuServe 70416,1435