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T fr o ■ 

■5 Himinj 

Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User 



MARCH 


TIMEX Takes A Licking 


Keeps Ticking 


But SINCLAIR 


BANK SWITCHING FOR THE TS 1000 Part 1 


Expand To 96K 

PROGRAMMING 

ERROR RECOVERY 
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS 
SIMPSON'S RULE 


- by Paul Hunter 

REVIEWS 

Games for the TS 2068 

CONVERTING TO T/S BASIC 

I BULK RATE I 
Portsmouth I US POSTAGE I 

Ohio I PAID I 

45662 IPERMIT#151 I 

I_I 







Extend your ZX81/TS1000/TS1500. 
Add Memory that won’t Forget! 



s BUILD UP A LIBRARY OF MACHINE 
LANGUAGE SUBROUTINES 


✓ UP TO 8K NONVOLATILE RAM 


DESCRIBED IN R«MSI@ 
JULY/AUGUST1983 EICCtfMiCS 


^ ADD YOUR OWN SYSTEM UTILITIES 


plus $1 95 shipping ana handling 


^ USE HM6116LP CMOS RAM 
OR 2716/2732 EPROM 


^ COMPATIBLE WITH 
16K RAM PACKS 


► READ THE REVIEWS: 

What a super product!...conceived and executed very nicely...and with quality components 

(SYNTAX QUARTERLY Winter 82) 

8K Nonvolatile memory is a gem! It has so many possible uses...! recommend this board most heartily. 

(OKLAHOMA S.U.G. Newsletter 1/3) 

We found the documentation to be far superior to that (of) most hardware we’ve received 

(S.U.N. Newsletter Nov/Dec 82) 

For versatility this is even better than an EPROM.. ranks quite high on the list of “must-haves” . 

(SYNC Magazine Mar/Apr 83) 

Provides the user with instant software . an extremely versatile memory extension ... 

(Z-WEST June 83) 


INTRODUCTION 

This memory board is designed to fill the transparent 8K block 
of memory (from 8K to 16K) m a ZX81-16K system This area of 
memory is an ideal place to store, either permanently or tem¬ 
porarily, machine language routines or data which are to be 
used by the BASIC system 

Sample utilities are included with the kit 

The use of HM6116LP 2K CMOS RAM memory 1C s with their 
own reserve power supply means that routines stored in the 
RAM are nonvolatile — the RAM retains its memory even 
when the ZX81 is switched off or reset Moreover, being RAM, 
the routines you store in the memory are easily modified The 
lithium cell supplied with the board will maintain sufficient 
reserve power for almost ten years 


ASSEMBLY 

Complete step-by-step instructions m a 20 page manual 
make assembly of the board easy The kit (pictured above) is 
complete with a siikscreened solder masked printed circuit 
board all capacitors, resistors, transistors, sockets, connec¬ 
tors integrated circuits, and the lithium cell The board is sup¬ 
plied with one 2K CMOS 6116LP-3 RAM - it will accomodate 
three more for a total of 8K 


Complete kit with one 2K 6116LP-3 $32.95 

Additional three 6116LP 3 $18.00 

Bare pc board & manual $13.05 

Kit for EPROM use only $22.95 

Assembled & tested with 2K $47.95 

Assembled & tested with 8K $65.95 

Shipping & handling per order $ 1.95 


Send check or money order to the address below 


HUNTER, 1630 FOREST HILLS DRIVE, OKEMOS, Ml 48864 







T-5 Harkins 

Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User 
2002 SUMMIT ST. PORTSMOUTH. OHIO 45662 


Table of Contents 


NEWs Analysis 
Reader INPUT 
Hardware Hints 
by Paul Hunter 
Numerical Analysis 
by Ken Lewis 
Bank Switching 
by Paul Hunter 
Error Recovery 

by Bill Johnson 
Reviews 

Converting to T/S BASIC 
BASIC Handbook 
DK'Tronics 16K Memory Board 
Games tor the TS 2068 
Kids' Page 
TS NEWs 


FORMAT 
Full page 
2/3 page 
5 1/2 page 

8 

10 1/3 page 

10 1/4 page 

1/6 page 
12 1/9 page 

2 inch 
15 1 inch 


18 CLOSING DATES: 15th of month pre- 

19 ceeding issue date. 

21 FREQUENCY: Monthly. 

22 CIRCULATION: 4000. 


SIZE* 

IX 

2X 

6-1/4 x 9 

$125 

$119 

4-1/2 x 9 

100 

95 

6-1/4 x 4-1/2 

75 

71 

3x9 

4-1/2 x 4-1/2 

65 

62 

2x9 

3 x 4-1/2 

35 

33 

2 x 4-1/2 

29 

21 

2x3 

17 

16 

2x2 

12 

11 

1 x 2 

6 

5 

for ad reduction, 
tack and white only. 

Ads 

oduced from an 

ad in 

an- 

cation. 


Th* r «'s something NEW on the hori 


2 on e 


QUALITY, UTILITY, ACCESSIBILITY, AFFORDABILITY. 
This the combination you've been waiting for. 
Don't miss an issue. Subsribe NOW! 



$20.00 other fore 


Name ___ 
Address 
Cit/_ 


Hai1 form with check or aoney order to: 
T-S Horizons 
Subscription Ocpt* 

2002 Sunni t St . 

Portsmouth, OH 45552 


SUBSCRIPTION FORM 




Dear Readers; 


As you may know by now, Timex is no longer in the computer business. 
Apparently, they were afraid of taking a "licking" in the home 
computer market this year (for more details see NEW s analysis). I 
suppose many of you are wondering what this will mean for the future 
of T-S Horizons. 

Actually, we are fairly confident of the future of TS Horizons and 
Sinclair computing in general. Sinclair Research which, of course, 
markets the Sinclair computers that the Timex computers are derived 
from, is going strong and actively developing new prodducts. We 
expect them to take up the reins dropped by Timex and actively market 
their computer products in the U.S. 

Our circulation has grown slowly but steadily as more and more people 
are becoming aware of TS Horisons, and as we grow, we are able to 
provide you with more useful information. 

So if you're happy with your computer, whether of the ZX or TS 
variety, there is no reason you should let the demise of the Timex 
Computer Corporation affect your enjoyment of Timex (or Sinclair, 
whichever) computing or of TS Horizons. 


Sincerely, 

■&&.0 



Rick Duncan 


WHIZ THROUGH THIS YEAR’S INCOME TAXES 

() 1983 FEDERAL INCOME TAX PROGRAMS: Three 16K programs in this Menu-driven 

package support the Sinclair ZX81/TS1000 or TS1300 computers, and can produce 
instant hardcopy printouts of all results using an optional Timex 2040 printer. 


Contained are Forms 1040, 2441, and Schedules A, B, G, W. Mathematical compu¬ 
tations are calculated by your computer. Quickly loaded from cassette tape. 

Instructions are included. Works for every filing status. $11.93* 

() SPEED READING: Four integrated programs, this master course was designed by a 2,000 

words-per-minute speed reading record holder. Helps improve reading skills, speed & 
efficiency. Auto-tests to gauge your progress. $14.95* 

OCHECKS & BALANCES $8.95* ()2-PR0G. AD PACKAGE $25.95* OSCRAMBLE $11.95* 

OSTARSHIP INVASION $11.95* () ATTACK FORCE $11.95* ()MAZE $11.95* 

OC0MPUTER STORIES: V0LS 1,2, or 3 (specify). For the TS1000 ($11.95*) or TS2068 ($14.95*). 

NOTE: * Shipping & Handling is $1.50 per order. New York State residents please add sales tax. 
COMPUTER-WEAR SOFTWARE P.0. Box 1059, Dept. 2, Riverdale, N.Y. 10471 





As the mil street Journal put it in a 
February 23 headline, "Timex, 
Anticipating Market Upheavals, 
Discontinues Sale of Home Computers". 
While market trends rray have been an 
important factor in Timex's decision, 
the report missed some other 
considerations that may have been more 
immediate reasons for Timex's with¬ 
drawal. The Journal report calls Timex 
"a victim of the price war it helped 
launch." 

Seme of us forget that Timex is (was) 
not just a computer company. The watch 
and clock business is the mainstay of 
Timex and the company has had great 
difficulty in recent years in that area 
due to fierce foreign competition. 

Timex began making inexpensive and 
durable watches in the 1950's. The 
company soon became the world' s largest 
watch maker and by the late 1960's, 
Timex had more than 50% of the U.S. 
watch market, and 20 of the world 
market, with the remainder being 
supplied by analler American companies 
and Swiss and other European companies. 
This made Timex a target for foreign 
competition. 

In the late 1970's, the Japanese became 
a powerful, eventually, dominant force 
in the watch business and introduced a 
flood of cheaper watches in the U.S. 
and around the world. with cheaper 
labor and electronic technology, 
Japanese watch [takers easily undercut 
Timex and its bulky, mechanical watch 
technology. 

Recently though, Hong Kong watch makers 
have entered the market with even lower 
labor costs than Japan and have forced 
many Japanese companies out of 
business. The situation has led to a 


major glut of watches of all price 
ranges. in 1983, Hong Kong alone 
produced nearly 300 million watches, 
WThich estimated to egual the entire 
annual world demand. 


Timex has had to make major adjustments 
to survive corporately. All of its 
watch-making has been moved to Asian 
plants. Thousands of American workers 
have been terminated. Timex recently 
sold its gyroscope business to Bendix 
Corporation for $15 million. In 
January, 1984, it sold its headquarters 
building in Middlebury, CT, then leased 
back a portion of it. Seme industry 
analysts have predicted that the 
ccmpany has little chance for survival. 

Timex began assembling Sinclair 
computers in 1980. m an effort to 
diversify, they made an agreement with 
Sinclair to market the Timex-Sinclair 
line of computer in North America. 
Timex had also been developing a line 
of health care products (Health Chex) - 
digital blood pressure and pulse 
gauges, thermometers, and bathroom 
scales. In this area, it is said they 
have been somewhat successful. 

Timex introduced the TS 1000 in 
September 1982 and sold more than a 
half million at about $99.95 each in 
the fourth quarter. In 1983, they sold 
1.2 million computers for the whole 
year (which includes the TS 1500 and TS 
2068, but mostly the TS 1000) but the 
price for the TS 1000 had dropped as 
low as $29.95, due to strong 
competition from Texas Instruments, 
Oormodore, and Radio Shack who lowered 
prices on their home computers. 

Tb aggravate the situation, Timex was 
notoriously slow at introducing new 




products. Even the TS 2068, which has 
recently been receiving excellent 
reviews, was not widely available to 
computer shoppers by Christmas 1983, 
although it was supposed to be on sale 
by mid 1983. Timex had difficulty in 
recruiting mass merchandisers to market 
the new computer. 

In 1983, Timex lost 100 million 
dollars, with revenues of $400 million. 
A Business Week article (February 20, 
from which many of the above figures 
were taken) states that "The company's 
strategy is to rebuild its watch market 
and make itself less-vulnerable by 
broadening its base with heme health 
care products and home computers". 
However, it appears that Mike Jacobi, 
the new Vice-President of fterketing at 
Timex, vas mostly concerned about the 
watchmaking business. Refering to the 
company's watches, Businessweek quotes 
him, "We were thick, fat, ugly, over 
priced, and behind in technology." 
Upon taking charge at Timex, he 
inmediately combined the three sales 
divisions - timepieces, computers, and 
health products into one - and Ban 
Ross, former Vice-President of 
Operations for Timex Computer 
Corporation resigned. 

Qi February 21, Jacobi announced Timex 
was out of the computer business. His 
analysis was that the home computer 
"industry is on a kanakaze path," to 
market upheavals and price wars, and 
his prognosis of the market for 1984 is 
poor. (He seems to follow Wall 
Street's "concensus" that IBM will be 
the only computer company by 1990). He 
also stressed that the "prized 
relationship* 1 between Timex and its 
retailers had to be protected from 
g instability . 


Timex did decide not to abandon its 
fledgeling heme health care products, 
however, presumably because there is 
less competition in that field, and due 
to its established network of drug and 
discount store outlets, which would 
provide an excellent market for such 
products. 

Sinclair's decision not to market its 
new 32-bit business-oriented computer, 
the QL, through Timex, was taken as a 
reflection on Timex's poor performance 
with other Sinclair related products. 
Parhaps, Sinclair had gotten wind of 
Timex's decision to drop computers, 
even before the announcement. 

Jacobi has premised that Timex will 
honor all service under warranty and 
provide after-warranty service. The 
Timex hot line (1-80O-24-TIMEX) will be 
maintained as long as they receive 
sufficient calls to justify keeping it 
up. Jacobi has said that Timex will 
reduce its prices (possibly to under 
$100 for the TS 2068) they won't just 
dump the inventory at "fire-sale" 
prices. 

Although comparisons of Timex with 
Texas Instruments are inevitable, I 
don't believe Timex users should 
despair that there will be a drying up 
of software and peripherals for the TS 
1000 or the 2068. 

Don't forget that Sinclair was around 
in England long before (relatively) 
anyone heard of the TS 1000. Sinclair 
is still actively marketing the ZX-81 
and Spectrum computers around the 
world. With the withdrawal of Timex, 
there is nothing to step Sinclair frcm 
marketing computers in the U.S. There 
is also a vast third-party industry of 
software and peripherals makers for 
Timex and Sinclair computers. Perhaps 
the worst effect is that the future of 
the TS 2068 is uncertain. While the 
2068 is a definite imporvement over the 


Sinclair Spectrum, Sinclair nay not be 
able to or may not have the desire to 
obtain the rights to the 2068 frcm 
Timex. 

The TI 99-4A was a computer with a lot 
of inherent limitations, very little 
third-party support, not much software, 
and a very low performance-to-price- 
ratio. Yet there are still runors that 
companies are negotiating for the 
rights to the 99-4A, and Atari and 
others are making software for the 
computer. With all the advantages of 
the TS 2068, a new company may seek 
rights to Timex/Sinclair Technology. 

The final analysis, what have we 
lost-if Sinclair or another company 
actively market ZX-81 and Spectrum-type 
computers and peripherals in the U.S. 

1) The Timex hot line. 

2) Timex Ramblinqs newsletter (no 
great loss from what I've seen). 

3) The apparently ineffective 
marketing and long 
development times of the 
people at Timex. 

4) And perhaps most 
sustantially, Timex and 
Sinclair users in Arerica, 
as a whale, stand to lose 
sore anrcxnt of respect from 
other ocnputer users. 


Ive already had friends who 
have said to me, "See, I told 
you Timex would never make 
it," and "You ought to charge 
the name of yxr itagazine to 
TRS-aCHramre ." Sate people 
can only respect big names 
like IBM, Apple, and Radio 
Seek. 

As far as I'm concerned, 
that's not much of a loss. 




25% OFF 

THE BOOK THAT MAKES 
YOUR COMPUTER AS 
SIMPLE AS IT WAS 
MEANT TO BE 



Programming Your 
Timex/Sinclair 1000 in BASIC 
by Mario Elsenbacher 

An easy-to-digest format leads you 
through hands-on examples of pro¬ 
grams in early chapters, then helps 
you develop skills you need to grasp 
and execute more complex pro¬ 
grams. At each new level of under¬ 
standing you get a vocabulary with 
definitions; a short, fancy program to 
run; practice programs; exercise 
problems with answers; examples of 
errors along with explanations of how 
to prevent and solve them; and a sum¬ 
mary of what you've learned. 

Prentice-Hall 

























Dear Rick, 

Thank you for your letter and the issue #2 of 
T-S Horizons. You were correct in assuming my 
reservations (about 7-S Horizons) had to do with 
Tracy Norris and it came as no surprise that his 
much heralded disk drive did not materalize. 

Tracy reviewed my board and kit in his Users' 
Group magazine and gave it a really excellent 
rating so I've no complaints on that score. He 
used to call me collect and ask me questions, which 
made me wonder. His first article in T-S Horizons 
disappointed me quite a lot since it was a direct 
copy of an earlier one published in SYNC magazine 
by George Ingle (Sept/Oct '82) -- even the 
component values are identical. I enclose a copy. 
There is obviously nothing wrong with including a 
repeat-key modification in T-S Horizons since it is 
a useful feature but 1 should like to see some 
acknowledgement of the original. 

Sincerely, Paul Hunter, Okemos, Ml 

Thank you for bringing this matter to our 
attention, Paul. Of course T-S Horizons neer 
intended to copy Hr. Ingle's work, and we had no 
knowledge of the previous article. A personal 
apology is being sent to him. 

Hr. Norris has not responded to several 
letters sent to him by us, and has refused to talk 
with us when we have reached him by phone. T-S 
Horizons is no longer associated with Tracy Norris, 
and we do not endorse Hr. Norris, Norris Radio and 
Electronics, or T-Tech Industries. Ue deeply regret 
having publicized a product which we now feel will 
never become available. Hr. Norris no longer lives 
at the address published in TSHI1, but he is 
currently living and working in Slidell, IA. 



Dear T-S Horizons: 

I am greatly impressed with your small 
3 magazine. As my subscrition to Computers and 


Electronics ran out, I was snowbound by 
subscription offers. Your magazine wasn't a major 
name or as big as most of the rest but from your 
first two issues, 1 realize that it was the one 
that hit closest to home. Keep up the good work. 

Sincerely yours, John Mayer, Whitehouse IX 
Dear Rick: 

Just a quick note here to say good luck on 
your T-S Horizons effort. Your premier issue looks 
good enough for me to say "here's my subscription.” 
1 particularly enjoyed K. D. Lewis' simultaneous 
solutions article. 

3 would encourage you to provide information 
for the advanced users as well as the beginners. 
Too many Times related publications are cluttered 
with games and nothing else. I have many Memotech 
peripherals for my computer and 3 enjoyed your 
review of the 8P500A printer and interface which 3 
am considering purchasing, so that 1 can dash off 
letters iike this 1 

About two months ago 3 founded a user group in 
the Salt Lake City area and will circulate your 
publication among our group. 


Larry Scan!an, 2738 E. 9725 South, Sandy UT 84092 



Good day, 

As an owner of a 36K Timex/Sinclair 1000, i 
would like to extend my gratitude to you for 
publishing T-S Horizons. It is undoubtedly the 
best publication for TS10Q0 owners 3 have seen yet. 

Friendly suggestion: The format of your 
magazine is commendable but the finished product is 
slightly less than polished. The cover and center 
page of No. 3 were fine; however, the rest of your 
book tends to disintegrate and become unreadable 
due to the poorer quality paper used. It would be 
much more asthetical 1 y pleasing if it were of a 
uniform quality. 

Thank you for your time and keep up the good 

work. 

Sincerely, Robert Farley, Jackson, OH 



I 


The quality of paper in each issue of T-S Horizons 
is deternined by the anount of advertising and 
subscription incane. And we haven't been 
overwhelmed by either. However we are always trying 
to improve the quality and format of the magazine, 
and in the near future we think you'll see some 
changes. 



Gentlemen: 

Just received seme newsletter this month as 
you sent last month. What's going on 1 First the 
disk drive then this! You'd better get your act 
together* 


Peter Callinicos, President, Timex Sinclair Users 
Group, Mile High Chapter, 12026 U.'Virginia Place, 
Lakewood, CO 80228 

Peter, I can understand your confusion, with issue 
>3 being late and getting two copies of issue 12. 
We have been mailing sample copies to names on 
mailing lists we have obtained from various sources 
and there may have been some overlap with our 
subscription list. 

Ue really appreciate all the readers who have taken 
the time to write us. It is an intense help to know 
what you like and dislike about T-S Horizons and 
what you want ot see in future issues. Ue try to 
respond personally to any letters that ask for a 
response. Please send a stamped, self addressed 
envelope. 
































Thest schematics for the edge connectors on the TS 

2048 were submitted by Paul Hunter. They are not the tcc dock connector 


included 

in the 

2048 

manual. Figure 1 is for the 







main edge 

connector (rear of machine) and Figure 2 







is for the Command Cartridge port. 

Buffered 

A14 

1 

2 

+5V • 







A12 

3 

4 

A13 

Buffered 

THE MAIN 

EDGE CONNECTOR 



DO 

5 

6 

D7 







D1 

7 

8 

A0 



B 

A 



D2 

9 

10 

A1 


EAR 

1 

1 

TAPE OUT 


D6 

11 

12 

A2 


DAISY IN 

2 ■ 

2 

DAISY OUT 


D5 

13 

14 

A3 


+ 15 

- 

5 

A7R Buffered Refresh 


D3 

15 

16 

A15 

Buffered 




address bit 7 












D4 

17 

18 

MREQ 

Buffered 

PINS 4 through 26 

same a 

s ZX81/TS1000 











Buffered 

lORQ 

19 

20 

A7R 

Buffered Refresh 

exceDt that RAMCS 

'pin 5A 

and ROMCS' 











Buffered 

RD 

21 

22 

mT 

address Bit 7 

Din 26B are NC (not connected). In 











Buffered 

WR 

23 

24 

A8 


addition , 

, +9V is 

no longer available 












A7 

25 

26 

A9 


at pin 5B. 




A6 

27 

28 

A10 


RGB red 

27 ! 

27 

EX ROM Enable for extension ROM 


A5 

29 

30 

All 


RGB green 

28 

28 

ROSCS Enable for external ROM 


A4 

31 

32 

rfsFF 

Buffered 

RGB blue 

29 

29 

— oriented software 

Bank enable BE 

33 

34 

EXROM 

Enable for 

GND 

50 

50 

GND 

External 

ROSCS 

35 

36 

GND 

extension RON 

video 




ROM firmware 





composite 

51 

51 

sound 

select 






GND 

52 

52 

GND 












BOTTOM 

TOP 

(component side) 


BOTTOM TOP (component side) 


Figure 1 Figure 2 


N UHERZCRi- RNPLYSlS 


SIMPSON'S RULE 
by Ken. Lewis 

Frequently, it is desirable to deter¬ 
mine the integral of a continuous func¬ 
tion f(x) over some interval a£x±b. 
A simple and accurate method of doing 
this is to use Simpson's Rule, named 
after the Englishman Thomas Simpson 
(1710-1761). The procedure assumes 
a partitioning which divides interval 
[a,b] into n subintervals of equal 
length h=(b-a)/n, where n must be an 
even number. Effectively, three consec 
tive points, for exanple (Xo, f(Xo)), 
(Xi, f(Xx)), (X 2 , f(X 2 )) are fit to 


a parabola whose equation in 
case can be shown to be: 

f(xi)-f (Xq) 


p(x)=f(Xo) + 


(X-Xq) 


this 

+ 


f(x 0 )-2f(x 1 ) +f(x 2 ) 
2h 2 


(x-x Q ) (x-x 1 ). 


Since p(x) is only a second degree 
polynomial, we can find ( X 2 P(x)dx. 

h 

This will evaluate to P(x)dx = — 

[f(x 0 )+4f(x 1 )+f(x 2 )]. / Ihis later expres¬ 
sion approximates the area under the 
graph of f on the interval [xq,X 2]• The 


10 


same is done for the subintervals 

t x 2» x 4L [*4. .[x n _ 2 » x n ]. 

Each of these indices must be even, 
which makes it necessary for n to be 
even- The sum of the areas under the 
parabolas thus obtained serves as an 
approximation to 

( b b-a 

a ) f(x)dx= — 

+ 4f( x 3 ) + 2f(x n _ 2 ) + 4f(x n _!) +f(x n )]. 

This is the famous Simpson's Rule. 
THE PROGRAM 

The program must be changed (statement 
310, right hand side) to incorporate 
the function you want to integrate. 
This should be altered so that the 
right hand side of the equation is 
the integrand of your problem. 

Qice this is * done, then put, the 
program in the "RUN" mode. Only 
two additional pieces of information 
are required at this point, i.e., 
the limits of integration. Input 
first the lower limit, then the upper 
limit of integration. The program 
will lease iterating when two succes¬ 
sive conputations of the integral 
do not differ by more than .00001 
(This can be changed to whatever 
tolerance you desire (line 230)). 

EXAMPLE; 

Suppose we desire to determine the 
integral l 5 ' 6 **. ^ first ^ 

3*5 

is to make sure that the integrand 
(x) is placed on the right hand side 
of the equation in statement 310 
of the program. Then the "RUN" made 
is entered. A prorrpt for the lower 
limit of the integral is given “IN¬ 
POT LCWER LIMIT", and the value 3.5 
is entered. Similarly, the upper 
limit is prompted, and the value 
5.6 is input. The answer is printed 
out, as shown, and is 44.247. 



ZX PRO/FILE 

A machine language information storage 
and retrieval tool for 16-64K. 

* Multi-word search capability 

* Instant file access 

* Ordered displays 

* Definable printer functions 

* Totally flexible file size 

* 59 page tutorial manual 

* Newsletter updates 

THE MOST ADVANCED 
FILE MANAGER YOU CAN 
GET FOR THE TIMEX 

Ask for free specifications or send $16.95 
for cassette and manual to: 

THOMAS B. WOODS 

P.O. Box 64, Jefferson, NH 03583 
Phone: (603) 586-7734 

Visa, Mastercard welcome 













BANK SWITCHING FOR THE TS 1000-Part 1 


by Paul Hunter 


A canon complaint heard about snail computers 
like the ZX81 or V1C20 is that their nenory is too 
linited and that the computers are therefore 
unsuitable tor serious applications. As a result, 
some ot the most popular peripherals have been 
16K, 32K, and 64K RAM packs. The problem is 
particularly acute with the ZX81/TS1000 because 
the active 8AS1C program area is linited to the 
region between UK and 48K. Even then care nust be 
taken to avoid having the display tile bridge the 
32K boundary. 

There are two cases in which more nenory is 
desirable. The tirst is encountered when large 
amounts ot data need to be manipulated. It does 
not take a very long address list, test tile, or 
stock inventory to till up all the available 
nenory in a Z80-64K system. The common solution is 
to provide a secondary memory capability such as a 
disc drive or at worst a cassette tape recorder. 
Fast load utilities like SDS or ZXLR8 aid in 
manipulating data tiles to and tron cassette tape. 
The AERCO DOS (disc operation system) does the 
sane sort ot thing tor data tiles on disc. 

The second case occurs when the program itselt is 
too long. In this case the program needs to be 
segmented in an intelligent way. A similar 
situation arises when two or more programs are 
used to operate on the sane set ot data. 

Larger computers, with newer microprocessors like 
the 6800 or 80186 and with 256K dynamic RAM chips 
like the 41256 can directly address much more than 
64K. Smaller Z80 computers use bank-switching. 
This way the TS2068, tor example, can address up 
to 16 Mbytes (although how is not clear -- its not 
in the manual!). Incidentally, the new SINCLAIR QL 
uses both a 68008 and a 804? with 128K RAM 32K 
ROM, and two 100K microdrives (tor 449?). 

This article is part 1 ot some experimants in 
memory management tor the ZX81/1S1000/TS1500. Both 
sottware and hardware will be discussed and any 
suggestions as we go along will be welcome. 

In this install ment we will look at an overall 
scheme and then examine some ot the sottware 
12 required. In part 2 hardware will be discussed. 


These articles are intended primarily tor the 
experimenter but should enable a TS1000 user to 
put together quite a sophisticated bank-iwitched 
system at a reasonable price. 

The ZX81/TS1Q0Q memory map is shown in Figure 1 
tor reterence. The three main areas in-and-out ot 
which we might like to transter data are: 

LIMITS 


PROGRAM 

16509 

D-tile 

DISPLAY FILE 

D-tile 

VARS 

VARIABLES 

MRS 

E-line - 1 


RAMTOP 

ERR_SP 

stack pointer 

STKEND 

STKBOT 

E_line 

VARS 

D_file 

16509 

16384 

8192 

O 


GOSUB Stack 

Machine Stack 

SPARE 

Calculator Stack 

Work Space 

80hex 

VARIABLES 

DISPLAY FILE 

BASIC PROGRAM 

System Variables 

Transparent Block 

System ROM 


FIGURE 1 





VARIABLES 


DISPLAY 


PROGRAM 



NVM or 

EPROM 

SYSTEM ROM 



Memory 

manager 

Figure 2 


16K RAM 


In the system to be described the primary memory 
will be addressed -form OK to 48K. The secondary 
memory will be addressed from 48K to 64K. This 
location is a logical choice because it cannot be 
used tor BASIC programs directly. 

The secondary memory will be 48K divided into 
three 14K blocks although the number ot these 
blocks can be expanded later. Ot these three 
blocks two will be ordinary dynamic RAM but the 
third will be nonvolatile static CMOS RAM. It is 
this later block which is potentially the most 
usetul although all ot the secondary memory could 
be normal volatile RAM it desired. 

Thus the total system will comprize 8K ROM, 8K 
EPROM or W RAM tor operating routines kand 
utilities, 32K BASIC* primary memory, 16K 
nonvolatile secondary memory, and 32K secondary 
RAM -- a total ot 98K. This system is illustrated 
in Figure 2. 

Note that programs are only stored in the 
secondary memory. To be run they must tirst be 
transterred to the primary memory. The system 
routines required to accomplish these transters 
are essentially: 


RECLAIM 

primary memory (dear designated 


block ot memory) 

LOAD 

into primary memory (includes merge) 

PURGE 

secondary memory (remove unwanted 


data or programs) 

SAVE 

into secondary memory 


Most ot these operations apply to all three areas 
PROGRAM, DISPLAY, and VARIABLES. 

There are some other routines such as search tor 
and locate a tile, list the directory, switch 
memory banks, and others which will be needed. 
First, let's look at some examples. 

Suppose a portion ot the primary RAM needs to be 
cleared to make room tor another program or 
subroutine which is to be loaded trom the 
secondary memory. What's the procedure? 
Fortunately there are several routines in the 
system ROM which make the task easy. The tirst 
we'll experiment with is called LINE-ADDR. It 
tinds the starting location ot any line in a BASIC 
program. 














TRY THIS EXAMPLE: 



Load the machine language into the REM statement: 


Now enter as a direct command RAND USR 16514. The 
BASIC program from Line 20 to the end has been 
erased but the REM statement containing the 
machine code is still there. Try it with another 
BASIC program and try a different line number (use 
LINE-ADDR to find the location — i.e. combine the 
two routines together). 



Now run the BASIC program. When prompted (1ine 
20), enter a line number such as 10. The result 
16509 will immediately appear. Try some other line 
numbers. 


A third system routine we will make a lot of use 
of is called MAKE-ROOM and is located at 2462 
decimal.Its funcion is to generate BC spaces at 
location HL. The fourth routine is not in the 
system ROM so it has to be written. We'll call it 
simply HOME and its function is to move a program, 
display file, or variables into or out of the 
primary memory area. It's convient to divide the 
routine into two for the two tasks -- we'll call 
one MfWIN (into primary) and the other MOMOI/T 
(into secondary from primary). 

We'll continue next month. 


This routine allows us to specify lines in a BASIC 
program to be deleted or moved. Now let's look at 
another system routine called RECLAIM (there are 
two entry points 1 and 2). As its name suggest, 
this routine reclaims space in the memory. 


TRY THIS EXAMPLE: 

Enter any BASIC program such as: 



Now enter the machine code into the REM statement. 






twoof 

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ERROR RECOVERY 


by Bill Johnson 

The phrase “Error Recovery" refers to features, 
within a computer program, that allow the user the 
ability to easily change specific data items that 
have been errantly keyed in without re-entering 
all of the data. It is a programming concept that 
is often ignored, especially when we've been 
raised on the squeeze-everything-into-2K 
mentality. But, assuming we learn efficient 
programming techniques from using limited RAM, we 
need to use the memory that we do have to make our 
programs accessible and usable. An Error Reovery 
(E.R.) is one of the most effective (after 
coherent inpdt/display techniques) methods of 
achieving the goal of software usability. If an 
end user knows that what he has keyed-in can 
always be re-entered or altered, this gives them a 
greater degree of psychological and actual control 
over the software. 

There are 2 primary components of efficient E.R.: 

1. That it be accessible at the appropriate times. 
The user must be able to use it when he is most 
likely to need it. After program exection is not 
an appropriate place for E.R. It would serve a 
function, but not the intended one. 


entering the 2nd piece of data will move the 
program back to the initial entry. If this 
technique was used with a long series of data 
entrys, you could actually step back through all 
the data. 



If the second entry is null (no data), line 8045 
sends the program back a step to 8005 which blanks 
out the second data inquiry as it returns to the 
first. 

This type of E.R., though, is limited in scope. It 
serves a useful purpose for a very specific type 
of error, but as the only E.R. it can be awkward. 
Its exclusive use would force the user to check 
his/her overall data after each entry, even if it 
is entered correctly. This much mental jumping 
around is annoying and defeats the purpose of the 
E.R. feature: to facilitate use of your software. 


2. That it require few, if any, additional 
keystrokes either to access this feature, or 
bypass it. If it interrups or substantually slows 
the data entry process, it becomes 
counterproductive. Ideally, if it is desirable to 
notice the E.R., ft would require a single 
keystroke to bypass, and if it is desirable to 
have the E.R. go unnoticed, it would require a 
single keystroke to access the feature. 

The simplest form of E.R. (we'll look at a more 
difficult one later) would allow changes to each 
entry only imediatly after they were keyed-in. 
This would be helpful for errors made by too-quick 
hands that are recognized immediatly. In the 
following short example the two pieces of data can 
be entered normally, but if the 1st is entered 
incorrectly, hitting the return (enter) without 


The most natural time to check data for 
inconsistencies is when the program data (or a 
subset of the data) has been imput into the 
computer and is displayed on the screen. At this 
point the mental tendency is to scan the 
information for errors. If all of that information 
is easily accessible, the control that has been 
gained is enormous. It allows the data entry 
process to be quick and efficient, with access to 
all of the information for review and correction. 

Access to all screen information presupposes an 
organized input/display format, because if there 
is no structure to the way the data are 

stored/displayed, the programing becomes 
hopelessly inefficient. In the December '83 issue 
of TS Horizons I presented this idea of a 
structured display under the name Matrix/Cursor 15 







Input. Now f at the risk of losing those of you 
who have not read that article, I'd like to dredge 
up the programming example that I used and expand 
it to include a comprehensive E.R. capability. 



The data in that example is input by columns, with 
a set of seven data items filling up the column 
before moving to the second column. When the last 
item is entered into the data set, the question 
“ERR?" is printed 2 lines below in order to prompt 
the user to review for errors. If there are none, 
hitting the "N" key only (no return) will continue 
the program. But the "Y* key will place a cursor 
adjacent (on the left) to the data item at the top 
of the column. You may then step down the rows of 
data with the “RETURN" key, entering data only 
where the mistake was made. The "ERR" will 
continue to appear after each data correction 
until you leave that mode with the "N" key. 

The first half of the following listing (lines 
4000-4195) is from my article MATRIX/CURSOR INPUT 
which carries a detailed explanation of that 
section. You can obtain a copy (Dec.'83) by 
sending the cover price to TS Horizons. The E.R. 
is nested inside the second (outer) loop (lines 
4200-4275), and comes into play at the bottom of 
each column of the seven-row, four-column matrix. 

VARIABLES 

1(4,7) - array that stores all glass data. 

Y - print position variable that indicates 
column 

X - print position variable that indicates 
row 

NO - number of glass areas 
N - loop variable, indicating which column is 
operating. 

B$ - Alphanumeric variable to read-in 
single-key entrys. 



I 
























As an even more complex alternative, you could 
write an E.R. feature that accesses the whole 
matrix at the end. The important point to emember 
is that you're trying to make the software easy to 
access, so the E.R. has to be located where it is 
needed. Location, Location, Location as they say 
in real estate. This can get us beyoud just 
elegant programming, into software that's 
elegantly easy to use. 


book review 

By Rick Duncan 
Converting to Timex 

Sinclair Basic 
by Stuart Bird 
Wayne Green Books 
Peterborough, NH 03485 



This book is a guide to "Translating" 
BASIC programs written for other 
microcomputers to Sinclair BASIC. The 
format of "Converting" is said to be 
"dictionary" style. Hundreds of BASIC 
commands are cataloged in various 
chapters, e.g. String Functions, 
Numeric Fuctions, loops. Direct Memory 
Address, Graphics, Matrix Statements, 
etc... Bach contains a dozen or so 
entries. Thus for each BASIC word in 
the program you wish to convert, the 
word is located in the index and the 
reader if refered to the page where the 
entry is found. 


Each entry is formatted as follows: 

1. A heading, which contains the BASIC 
word plus any synonyms. 

2. A brief description of the use and 
operation of the word in its cwn 
version of BASIC. 

3. The TS 1000 replacement, i.e., an 
expression, program line, or more 
often, a short subroutine, in a 
generalized form, which exactly or 
nearly duplicates the action of the 
non-Sinclair word. 

4. Discussion of application. The 
discussion is generally quite 
thorough and considers various 
cases where the replacement may (or 
may not) work, where modifications 


are required and other factors. 
This section includes a specific 
example of the use of the 
replacement. 

Reading through the bewildering array 
of functions and commands from the 
various BASIC dialects makes one 
appreciate the Sinclair system of a 
strictly limited number of keywords, 
easily found on the Sinclair keyboard. 
Its relatively snail vocabulary is not 
necessarily a drawback, as Mr. Bird 
points out, given the power and 
versatility of Sinclair BASIC. In the 
STRING FUNCTION chapter, he states: 
"(The) Sinclair BASIC 
string slicer is easily 
the most powerful and 
convenient string 

manipulation scheme 
available...While the 
Timex/Sinclair 1000 string 
slicer gobbles up 
expression such as 
X*2+3+sinX-VAL Q$ like 
PAC-MAN... most BASICS 
only spit these string 
function arguments back 
with error codes... 

While the book does cover a large 
number of cotrmon BASIC commands, it 
isnot exhaustive. Ebr instance, some 
common commands, like HOME (from 
Applesoft, Cbmmodore, and others) are 
not included. 

My favorite replacement is for DEF-FN 
in which the function is entered into 
the program as a string and the VAL 
command extracts the function value, by 
a short subroutine. 


17 










BOOK REVIEW 


The book's oover promotes "Converting" 
as the "answer to your software 
shortage," which puts "an almost 
endless supply of programs... at your 
fingertips". However, if you're 
expecting to use the book to chum out 
hundreds of programs by mechanical 
substitution of BASIC instructions into 
programs from back issues of COMPUTE! 
and BYTE,. I think you'll be 
disappointed. There are some inherent 
difficulties in translating programs. 

1. Extensive use of PEEK and POKE. 

2. CALL and USR. 

Such programs require memory maps 
and thorough knowledge of both 
computers. In some cases, 
conversion may be impractical in 
terms of time and energy. 

3. Graphics - The lew resolution of 
the Timex display is an inherent 
limitation of program conversion in 
some cases. However, Mr. Bird does 
provide good replacements for cases 
where high resolution is not critical 
and also a program to perform Logo-like 
functions. 

Even when these considerations are not 
problems, word-for-word translating 
generally does not produce efficient 
programs. Every computer and every 
BASIC dialect have their particular 
strengths and weaknesses. In every 
case, the original program needs to be 
broken down and carefully studied 
before the actual "translation" begins. 

At that pxoint, "Converting to 
Timex/Sinclair BASIC" becomes quite 
useful. The discussions of the 
commands helps the programmer to 
understand what the original programis 
intended to do. 

All in all, "Converting to 
Timex/Sinclair BASIC" is a valuable 
reference book, and an extensive, 
though not exhaustive, guide to program 
13 conversion. 


by Rick EUncan 
"The BASIC Handbook 
by David Lien 
Ccmpu soft Publishing 
1050 E. Pioneer Why 
El Cajon, CA 92020 


TheBASJC 

Handbook 

Encyclopedia of >he 
BASIC Computer Language 


by 

David A Lien 



As a companion volume to "Converting to 
Timex/Sinclair BASIC", "The BASIC 
Handbook" would be useful to many 
Timex/Sinclair users. It covers many 
BASIC dialects including Apple, TRS-80, 
Atari, IBM, DEC, TI, etc... and even 
Sinclair (ZX-80). However, the 
copyright date is 1981, thus Timex, 
Commodore (except PET), and other newer 
computers are not covered. 


The format is similar to Converting , 
but the order is strictly alphabetic by 
BASIC word. The book has a feature 
Converting lacks, which is an 
introduction with some useful carments 
on program conversion. The back of the 
book contains short discussions of 
several specific computers, plus an 
index in which the reader can make 
notes on each BASIC carmand as he runs 
across it. 


HARDWARE REVIEW 
by P. Donnelly 

HENs DK'TRONICS UK UNCASED MEMORY BOARD 
FROM* DK, SUFFERN, WALDEN, EN6LAND (799-22159) 
PRICE: $31.95 +S&H (check exchange rale) 

1 no sooner got my big keyboard from DK'Tronics 
ready to use, than 1 plugged in the 16K uncased 
nenory pack. The big advantage of this pack, is 
that it fits neatly inside the DK keyboard. The 
big disadvantage is that nine doesn't work right, 
(nore later) 

The board uses the sane 4116-3 chips used in the 
Sinclair pack, but does its decoding through a 




SOFTWARE REVIEW 
by Gordon Young 

ITEMS FASTLOAD 

FROM: International Publishing and Software. 
PRICE: ♦19.95 

Getting programs into the computers memory is a 
problem we are all too familiar with. It is not a 
problem related to just the TS-1000, but most 
others load at the same rate. The new TS-2008 
however, operates a bit faster so owners of the 
1000 may want to speed this process up. The 
product 'Q-Save* has been known to work for some, 
but I went through 5 units with the same problem 
and eventually withdrew from the effort. CAI has a 
very nice unit called a stringy floppy that uses 
small <matchbook size) cassette wafers and loads 
reliabley and quickly (as fast as some disk 
systems 1 have known). 

Some other alternatives are the software versions 
such as the one I would like to share with you. 
Acopy of 'FASTLOAD' was provided me and this may 
be one you would want to get. It took me 2 tries 
to get the volume set correctly, but after that it 
loaded fine eaverytime (1 monute 37 seconds). The 
documentation included requires an eyepiece for 
those with less than 20/20 vision and you have a 
dozen or so pages to deal with. For me, this was 
more than I cared to deal with since 1 honestly 


7400 and two 74LS157 , s. The special (+12,-5v) 
voltage levels are apparently simulated by using a 
741 op-amp and a simple doubler. Since the board 
is meant to be used inside the DK keyboard it has 
no 'pass through* edge connector as on the various 
Hemotech units. The board could be used on the 
back of a standard TS/1000, but would have to be 
the last peripheral connected. Board construction 
appears professional and 'wobblers less than 
Sinclair:14K pack. 

That big 'disadvantage* is that I can't get the 
pack to work with machine language tapes. 1 called 
DK'Tronics technical line for advise , but was 
told that this is the first (or second) of 20,000 


feel that user friendly software should require 
little more than loading. 

In an hour or so, 1 figured the inductions out 
and loaded what is called a monitor porgram, 
a program that resides in the memorey for as long 
as the computer is on but is not a part of that 
currently beging used. You have to’NEW* the 
machine afterwards and load your regular program 
(and hope that it doesn't use the same part of 
memory that the monitor does). Now you must 
transfer the program back onto tape in the 
■FASTLOAD' form. This is taken care of very fast 
and the monitors screen really goes crazy, 
indicating that everything is working just fine. 

But just how fast is 'FASTLOAD'? One tape I used 
normally takes four minutes 18 seconds and with 
■FASTLOAD' it loaded in 55 seconds. Not bad. Keep 
in mind, the convert all your tapes to the 'FAST 
LOAD' format (and I have 48), will take quite a 
time. Another thing one should mention here is 
that some tapes will use that upper part of memory 
and can not be 'FASTLOADED*. If you have 'THE 
ORGANIZER', 'VU-UALC* or 'FLIGHT SIMULATOR', 
forget it. 

Overall, "FASTLOAD* does pretty much what it 
claims to do and some small changes can be made to 
reduce those 64K loading times. 44K is a lot of 
memory for even the modest user and who really 
enoys spending 15 minutes for it to get 
transferrrd from tape to RAM? 'FASTLOAD' rates an 
8 on my ten scale. 


units which had this problem. Theoretically, at 
least, the fact that the unit works in BASIC means 
it should work just as well in Machine Code. DK 
suggests I return the unit, along with a sample of 
a tape that doesn't run, and they will fix or 
replace it. I will do this, but don't look forward 
to the expense. One last complaint is about the 
lack of a schematic and rather sparse 
documentation. Before sending the package back to 
England I'll probably have to trace out the 
circuits and produce my own schematic in hopes of 
diagnosing the problem. 

For now, I can't recommend this unit, even though 
it has a very attractive price. 


19 


i 


BOOK REVIEW 
by Tex Faucette 

At the tine of this writing, the reviewer has been 
the proud owner of a Tinex Sinclair 2048 for a 
period of about two weeks. Quite a bit of travel 
and visiting with relatives has left little tine 
for studying the T/S User Manual, but has clearly 
denonstrated that the 2068 does not show its full 
potential on just any old color TV. On a well 
adjusted receiver the graphics can be great, and 
on a good color nonitor they night well be superb. 
Quality of color is often a natter of taste, and 
for ny taste sone of the colors leave sonenting to 
be desired. I an expecially unhappy with the 
yellow, which I see as none of an orange hue. 1 
purchased ny 2068 at a discount store for $155.00, 
tax included. 


Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. and sold by Crown 
Books for $5.95 plus tax. The book is printed on 
soft paper, a plus in ny judgenent as it nay be 
read anywhere with no annoying glare fron the 
paper. 

The book contains sone 30 ganes, ranging fron a 
fairly primitive 27 line 'Ship's Attack* to an 
adventure gane containing alnost 400 numbered 
progran lines. Since the 2068 allows several 
statenents per line, this must be quite an 
adventure! Between these two exprenes are a wide 
variety of ganes that display very veil the 
diversity of programing techniques adaptable to 
the 2068. Data statenents, for example, are 
entered using the ‘BIN’ (binary) function to draw 
user-defined graphics directly off of an 8X8 
design grid. But beware! Bugs are there! 


Like all owners of machines new on the market, I 
began to wonder just what 1 was going to run on 
it. I found one answer in a CROWN Book Store, and 
at a very reasonable price. On with the review! 


TATALIZING GAMES FOR THE TIMEX/SINCLAIR2000 SERIES 
by Hal Renko/San Edwards is published by 


My favorite gane so far is called 'Kentucky 
Derby*. Three realistic horses, created with 
programmed pixels, vie for the honor of the 
winners circle. Odds are posted before each race, 
and one nay place wagers fron and initial bankroll 
of $100. Ones remaining assets are posted 
following the race, and placing a wager that 
exceeds your assets yields a warning that you are 


a 






FOR VO UR 1000-1500 COMPUTER 


-MACHINE CODE FAST 
-TAB/ RETURN 

-USER DEFINED COLUMN WIDTH 
-TEXT COUNTER 
-UPPER/ LOWER CASE OPTION 
- EDIT & MUCH MORE ! r. 

G. Young 

4616 N. River Road, §27 
Oceanside, CA 92056 



20 




TIMEX COMPUTING FOR KIDS 





QuickSilva, 426 W. Nokoraa, San Antonio, TX 

78216 


ruwtu-uui is a game ot strategy, skill, and 
logic. The object is to rescue Bill and Nora 
Mudroe(worras), and while doing that try to rescue 
Damsels. In order to do that you must avoid 
hitting any invisible nines that lie betore you. 
On each board there are 2 sate areas in which 
there are no nines. Starting at the second screen, 
you can rescue Damsels. Atter you complete each 
screen or get eaten or blown up, it has an action 
replay. You can speed it up by pushing 'S' tor 
speed or stop it by pushing ‘E’ tor end. The high 
score is displayed by the player's initials. It's 
a tun game I like it really well and I think you 
will too. 


Starting on the third screen addtional mines are 
droped but are visible. It's really easier then 
in my opinion. Bugs and Worms also chase you. So 
beware you have one lite. To give you a goal 1 got 
1260 points in one game. Bonus points may be 
accumulated. 



living beyond your means. Untortunately, the 
program contains and incorrect symbol which, until 
located and corrected, will result in an ’integer 
out ot range’ error. (Clue: the error is NOT in 
the line given in the error statement.il burned 
a lot ot midnight oil on that one! 

’Las Megas a Go Go’ is a colortul slot machine. It 
too contains a similar error which I WILL tind, 
someday. 

’New York, New York* places you in a helicopter, 
in control ot numerous trattic signals below. As 
cars approach the signals (which are identitied by 
keyboard synbols) you nust key the proper symbols 
to keep the trattic moving. Once de-bugged this 
will be a good way to became tamiliarwith the 
2068 keyboard. You are working against time, and a 
score is displayed. 


On all ot the programs mentioned, use ot the 
’PRINT FREE’ command indicates that sutticient 
memory remains to ’Polish’ the programs. As an 
example, I intend to add the traditional trumpet 
tantare to start ray Kentucky Derby in place ot 
the existing two ’beeps’, and program in a more 
exciting tempo and tone to the existing hoot 
beats! 


KKLTINORS KEEP (16K) 

A realistic adventure involvihg 
fighting,bribing,strategy and luck. 

Many rooms,levels,weapons ^treasures 
and magic items.Dungeon and objects 
set up RANDOMLY.Packed with suprises* 

On cassette~$6;95.Free catalog with 
order.Send cheque or money order to: 

MILL RESEARCH 32749 Avalon Gres. 

Abbotsford, B.C,,Canada V2T 3W9 

21 


lium/tnHnfumjUWi/tttfitmtmftiiiviiiitmmHmtfutitmmitftiiiiiuutiinttft/mmtif/tmt/utfutnnnitHmm/tmm/t/tmuimtfut/tr 














p 



ITEM: A new business computer front Sinclair will be (which Tex Faucette rated highly in his review last 

available in the U.S. this suimer. It is called month). In it you can find instructions to modify 

the QL (for Quantum Leap) and it is intended to the program for use with different printer 

compete with computers such as athe IBH-PC, Apple interfaces, how to connect it to the AERCO disk 
lie, and similar computers, but its sells for a system, how to make it run with ZXLR-8 or Q-Save. 
fraction of the cost. 'Updates* shows you how to add new search and file 

The QL is based on the Motorola 68008 32-bit management capabilities all designed to make 2X 
processor, with an 8-bit communications bus. It PRO/FILE the most powerful and uniquely personal 
runs Sinclair's proprietary QDOS operating system file manager you can get for your computer, 

and Superbasic, an enhanced version of Sinclair Subscriptions to ZX PRO/FILE are $9.95/year from 
BASIC. It has advanced multitasking abilities and Thomas B. Woods, P.0. Box 64, Jefferson, NH 03583. 
can process up to 20 programs at once. It comes (603) 586-7734. 
with a word processor, spreadsheet, data-base 

manager, and graphics software. ITEM! We've heard a rumor that Mr. Woods is 

The reception by the business and computer press developing a version of PRO/FILE for the TS 2068 

has been reserved, but Derek Stubbs of TS User and Spectrum, 

newsletter got a chance to examine the machine and 

he says it's better than Apple's Macintosh. ITEM: ZX PRO/FILE is now available in EPROM form 

from Rompak, Suite 100, 8206 Blackburn Ave., Los 

ITEM: We just got the TS 1000 version of the ‘1983 Angeles CA 90048. 

Tax Return Helper* from K-Soft. We didn't have 
time for a full review, but we did try it. It works 
really well (a little slow, though), and it can 
take a lot of work out doing your taxes. 014 (018 
for the TS 2068 version) from K-Soft, 845 Wellner 
Rd., Naperville, IL 60540. Add 01.50 shipping. 

ITEM: Timex Sinclair User recently was taken over 
by a new company who has promised to restart the 
magazine with the April issue which will be 
available in late March. 

ITEM: Karl Klotz of Christian Software contacted us 
recently about forming an association of Christian 
programmers. Some possibilities for the group are 
church and missions support, data banks, 
development of Christian software, religious 
instruction, etc. The association may or may not be 
specifically for Timex-Sinclair users. We at T-S 
Horizons would eagerly support such a group. It is 
only in the ‘idea* stage at this point. If 
interested contact T-S Horizons or Karl Klot 2 , Box 
547, Rte. 590N, Bettsville, OH 44815. 

ITEM: PRQ/F1LE Updates is a quarterly newsletter 
that further enhances ZX PRO/FILE, the file manager 

22 


ANALYSIS 

16K RAM, 8K ROM TS-1000/ZX-81/TS-1500/ 
TS-2068. Stock selection guidance. 

Fundamental stock analysis. One-time 
input using data in newspapers or 
library. Make sound BUY/HOLD/SELL 
decisions. Uses Linear Regression 
techniques to forecast expected 
earnings and corresponding market 
price data. 

Send $17.99 plus $1. postage and 
handling for each tape and tutorial 
ordered. 

PORTFOLIO 

16K RAM, 8K ROM TS-1000/ZX-81/TS-1500/ 
TS-2068. Investment portfolio file 
management. Maintain records of shares, 
cost, performance and selling-price- 
targets of up to 50 stocks, bonds, 
mutual funds. Menu driven. List file, 
records; record maintenance or file 
update options. Save data across pro¬ 
gram SAVES/LOADS. Input current market 
prices & program recalculates overall 
portfolio and individual security 
performance as well. 

Send $15.99 plus $1. postage and 
handling for each tape and tutorial 
ordered. 

ORION'S BELT ENTERPRISES 
807 N. Fairway Rd., Glenside, PA 19038 
(PA RESIDENTS add 6 % sales tax) 

Please specify computer model. 

--- ■■ — ... 




rTREEN-CALC : 2 - S ; P ' t 9 ; • £ • 
u.ih i ch ho d*• 1005 ciu; c0:• t a 1 - - 
i h 9 s n o letter n 3 fn £ and a n urr> - 
be r . up 1 0 130 u £e r d e f me d 
f unc 1 1 0ns e va l u a t e cells othe* 
f £ a t u res 1 n c 1 u d e 10 0 p s-, 1 f t h e n 
else, surns and av e raqin 9 . Easy 
t0 use menu operation. $19 .95 

Now avsi la b le f 0r £ 066 : sma 1 l e r 
Ve r sion r *0 r 1000 ,1500 . 01 h e •* 

u 11 l i 19 p r0g rams and 9 ames f 0r 
ail TIHEx and ZX c ompu t e * s. 
u rite f0r c 0mp l e t e ca t a 1 03 ue 


8088 Hifhwood Way 
OrangcvaW, CA 95682 
(916? 7224895 


Satisfaction Guaranteed 
or Money Back 


1983 TAX 
RETURN HELPER 


Fast and easy 
income tax preparation. 

• Form 1040 and Schedules A.B.C.D.E 

• Enter and modify data on a screen copy of the 
form. 

Works like a spreadsheet • all the lines 
affected by a change are instantly updated 

• Form 1040 and Schedule A are automatically 
corelated. 

Price is tax deductible. 

Cassette: TIMEX 1000 (16K RAM) $14 

TIMEX 2068 $18 

Repeat customers $5 discount 
(Add $1 50 S & H). Check. MO or credit card. 

KSOFT CO. 

845 WELLNER RD 
“ NAPERVILLE, IL 60540 
(312)961-1250 


Dealer inquiries welcome 


f MUTT U TS IIFTWAIE 
BLACKJACK (The game of 21) (16K) 

Enjoy this exciting game! Up to 6 players may 
play. All hands simultaneously displayed. Las 
Vegas rules apply, with computer holding all 
bets! Allows splitting pairs, doubling down b 
insurance. Great for testing your strategy. 

HBBSiMILI BBSKKIIKB (Menu driven) (16K) 
Provides quarterly graphic display of your bill 
status, with bills due search by desired date. 
Summaries of expenses paid, averages, b 
expense as % of income. Printer option 


CAliRBAI PLASREI (Menu driven) (16K) 
Scratchpad calendar. Up to 200 personal 
events may be filed. Add or delete anytime. 
Files stay in order of date! 12 search modes 
display appointments, auto mant.. Honey 
Do's, jobs, etc. Also allows viewing desired 
week, month, or year. 

$9.96 each includes postage (Ca. res. add 
Sales Tax) 

★ Far Fret Brstlsra Ssa* SMI * 


I MX EITIIPBIKS 
Btx 4IB8 

Laaeitltr.Ca.mM 


259-5450 SCIOTO SOFTWARE SYSTEMS, INC. 778-2748 
N.Rosier tain 102 discount software/books) T.Bostick 
Tiaex-Sindair 1500/1000 carry case 118 
T-S 1500 *70 T-S 2068 *160 T-S thersal printer *89 
Books!!! aachine code, gases, BASIC, hose & business 
CARRY HOME 3 ROLL PAR 240 ft. printer paper *5 
Prices include shipping-Ohioans add 5.52 sales tax 
■Everything for your cosputing needs" 
*m*mm*»mH**ttH***Hmm*»*H**mmH**H 

CAI P-4B PRINTER FOR SALE 

Clean & as-good-as-new, with “is ini'interface. I 
need cash, not a printer. Two new rolls of paper 
plus unfinished first roll! Manual & original 
packaging. Only *75. Must sell. Money order or 
cashier check only. Hooey Cowles, 315 S. Sandusky 
St., Delaware, OH 43615. (614)369-4281. 


\bu have the computer 
\bu ve read the manual 


^^needsomethingjnwe 


You need programs 
that run on your 
Timex/Sinclair 
computer. 

They have the same 
capabilities as bigger 
machines—budget - 
ing, games, inventory’ 
management. But they can’t 
help you without software, and 
not all the software on the mar¬ 
ket will work on your T/S com¬ 
puter. 

The solution is finding a way 
to translate BASIC programs— 
Converting to Timex/Sinclair 
BASIC . 


for other com¬ 
puters for use with 
the T/S 1000 or 1500. 
Most of this book also 
applies to the T/S 2068. 
Ail the directions you 
need are here. 
Included are graphics, 
strings, system commands, 
matrices, advanced logic, and 
more. A description is given of 
each Sinclair BASIC replacement, 
along with details of how it works 
and an example of its use. $14.95 

Also available at your local bookstore. Dealer in¬ 
quiries invited. 

The Clew Choke la 



This book is a guide to modifying 
programs written 


COMPUTER 


BOOKS 

WAYNE GMIN BOOKS 


To order 

To order, call toll-free 
1-800-258-5473 for credit card 
orders. Or mail your order 
with check or money order or 

complete credit card informa¬ 

tion to: Wayne Green Books, 
Retail Sales, Peterborough, 

NH 03458. Please include 
$1.50 for the first book, $1.00 

for each additional book for 

shipping and handling. 
Converting to Stuart L. Bird 
Timex/Sinclair ISBN 0-88006-06S-8 
RA«r RIOftOA 910 


Hiiiiia 

1 Card# 

1 

Expiration date 

| Name 

l.. 

Signature 

| Address 

| 


| City 

State Zip 


Wayne Green Books, Peterborough, NH 0S458 



























THE EXPANSION PACKAGE 

by Minny Electronics 

Introducing the ZX-GR. The “R” In ZX-GR 
stands for 64K Ram (56K usable), fully useful for 
all your programs — fully compatible with all 
your peripherals. Also, one of the few memories 
that is compatible with the TS-1500. 

The “G” stands for Graphics Unit, the Hi Res. 
kind (255 x 192). The Graphics Unit is unique in 
that it does not tie up the memory map, once 
again compatability is preserved and more mem¬ 
ory map is left for other peripherals. 

Graphics units are only as good as the soft¬ 
ware that operates them, as some of you know. 
Our software package is fast, the draw circle 
command takes one second or less, draw line or 
rectangle even quicker. Do you like games? We 
have Sprites 32 x 32 Pixel Frames, 5 graphics 
pages, plus the ability to do foreground-back- 
ground screens. In addition it can merge pages. If 
you’re not into games it is also great for engineer¬ 
ing modeling. Ease of use is its trump suit. 

What is more you can save your graphics to 
cassette and load them back at a later time and 
the 2040 will hard copy any of the 5 screens. 

You have your choice of two modes of opera¬ 
tion: Etch-a-sketch or Manual Mode and Program 
Mode with 18 basic commands. Manual Mode 
can be used to draw screens and sprites manual¬ 
ly with 8 axis control from the keyboard. Once 
again very responsive, in fact our extended soft¬ 
ware package has a magnify mode, in which the 
cursor is slowed down for more meticulous draw¬ 
ing. Program mode provides for the use of the fol¬ 
lowing software commands from within basic 
statements: Plot, Unplot, Draw Line, Draw Rec¬ 
tangle, Draw Circle, Draw ULine, Draw HLine, Se¬ 
lect Pages, Text, Store Sprites, Call Sprites, Start, 
Clear, and Fill. 

By now you’re probably asking, how much for 
all this capability? Well, let us look at the compe¬ 
tition. Today, a 64K Ram can go for as much as 
$150 and the Graphics Unit goes for about $80; 
that’s $230 for a unit without any software and 
can interfere with other peripherals. 

Our unit sells for $149.95 + $5.95 for shipping, 
handling and insurance. Minnesota residents: 
Add 6 percent sales tax. Send check or money 
order to: Minny Electronic Inc. 7332 Douglas Dr., 
Brooklyn Park, MN 55443. Tel. 612-566-2112. 

Other products available: 


Extended Graphics Package $29.95 

ZX-GR Kit Minus Ram Chips *Call* 

Manual for ZX-GR $2.00 

Cross Assembler/6502 MP $29.95 


*A Cross Assembler assembles machine code 
for a different microprocessor (the 6502 used in 
the KIM, VIC, SIM, COM. 64, APPLE, II, II + , HE, 
and the PET) than the host processor (Z-80A) 
TS-1000, -1500. 


Note: This product is also sold by E. Arthur Brown 
Co. as the “MMRY-RES.”