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ANIMATION 
FILE PROTECTION 

HARDWARE 
SIMPLE LOADING AID 


ZX PRO FILE 

HAM HACKER SERIES 

MEMOCALC 

USER GROUP NEWS 


PROGRAMMING 


REVIEWS 


T'5 HirKinj 

Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User 

JAN/FEB NO. 3 $1.25 



Extend your ZX81/TS1000/TS1500. 
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+ DESCRIBED IN 
JULY/AUGUST 1983 ElCCtllllliCS 

add your own system utilities 


^ BUILD UP A LIBRARY OF MACHINE 
LANGUAGE SUBROUTINES 


✓ UP TO 8K NONVOLATILE RAM 

USE HM6116LP CMOS RAM 
OR 2716/2732 EPROM 

^ COMPATIBLE WITH 
16K RAM PACKS 


$32 95 

plus $1 95 shipping ana handling 


► READ THE REVIEWS: 


What a super product!...conceived and executed very nicely . and with quality components 

(SYNTAX QUARTERLY Winter 82) 


8K Nonvolatile memory is a gem! It has so many possible uses...I recommend this board most heartily 

(OKLAHOMA S.U.G. Newsletter 1/3) 


We found the documentation to be far superior to that (of) most hardware we've received 

(S.U.N. Newsletter Nov/Dec 82) 

For versatility this is even better than an EPROM ranks quite high on the list of "must-haves'"... 

(SYNC Magazine Mar/Apr 83) 


Provides the user with instant software an extremely versatile memory extension. . 


INTRODUCTION 

This memory board is designed to fill the transparent 8 K block 
of memory (from 8 K to 16K) in a ZX81-16K system This area of 
memory ts an ideal place to store, either permanently or tem¬ 
porarily, machine language routines or data which are to be 
used by the BASIC system 

Sample utilities are included with the kit 

The use of HM6116LP 2K CMOS RAM memory IC s with their 
own reserve power supply means that routines stored in the 
RAM are nonvolatile — the RAM retains its memory even 
when the ZX 8 f is switched off or reset Moreover, being RAM 
the routines you store m the memory are easily modified The 
lithium cell supplied with the board will maintain sufficient 
reserve power for almost ten years 


(Z-WEST June 83) 

ASSEMBLY 

Complete step by-step instructions m a 20 page manual 
make assembly of the board easy The kit (pictured above) is 
complete with a siikscreened solder masked printed circuit 
board all capacitors, resistors, transistors, sockets, connec 
tors integrated circuits, and the lithium cell The board is sup¬ 
plied with one 2K CMOS 6116LP 3 RAM - it will accomodate 
three more for a total of 8 K 


Complete kit with one 2K 6116LP-3 $32.95 

Additional three 6116LP 3 $18.00 

Bare pc board & manual $ 13.06 

Kit for EPROM use only $22.95 

Assembled & tested with 2K $47^95 

Assembled & tested with 8 K $65 95 

Shipping & handling per order $ -j 95 



Send check or money order to the address below 

HUNTER, 1630 FOREST HILLS DRIVE, OKEMOS, Ml 48864 


T-5 Harinn j 

Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User 

2002 SUMMIT ST. PORTSMOUTH. OHIO 45662 


Table of Contents 


STAFF 


Introduction 

4 

Publ isher/Editor 

Richard Duncan 

Moreland's Memo 

6 

Assistant Editor 

Bill Johnson 

Reader Input 

8 

Production Assistant Randall Duncan 

Library Computer Lending 

9 

Editorial Advisor 

Edwin Simpson 

File Protection-Bill Johnson 

10 



Hardware Project 


Contibutors 

Lien Chi i 

Simple Loading Aid-Gordon Young 

11 


Tex Faucette 

Solving Differential Equations 



Art Gindin 

-Ken Lewis 

12 


Barry Hoi 1 singer 

Page:8-Lien Chii 

14 


Bil Johnson 

Animation-John Marion 

18 


Bill Johnson 

Reviews 



Ken Lewis 

ZX ProFile 

20 


John Marion 

Memocalc vs. Vucalc 

21 


Bill Moreland 

Ham Hacker Programs ("Morse Code" 



Gordon Young 

and "MiniMUF 3.5") 

22 

T-S HORIZONS is 

published monthly. 

T-S News 


Subscriotion rate: 

$12.00 per year <12 

Dan Ross Resigns from Timex 

24 

issues). Back issues and samples: $1.25 

Timex Comix 

25 



USR-User Group News 

29 

T-S HORIZONS welcomes article and program 

Ad Rates 

30 

contributions. 



There's something NEW on the horizon. 

QUALITY, UTILITY, ACCESSIBILITY, AFFORDABILITY* 
This the combination you've been waiting for. 

Don't miss an i ssue ! __Subsrj^e_NQW| MM _ Mi|[i _ 

I want to have T-S HORIZONS delivered to ay heme every aonth. 

1 have enclosed $12.00 for a one-year <12 issue^ subscription. 

$18.00 Canada. $20.00 other foreign. 

Naae _____ 

Address ' _ ' __ 

City_State ______ Zip_ 

Hail fora with check or money order to: 

T-S Horizons 
Subscription Dept. 

2002 Summi t St. 

Portsmouth, OH 45&2 SUBSCRIPTICN FORM 



T*5 Harixanx 

Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User 


Dear Reader, 

After a longer wait than expected (more about that later), we welcome you to 
third issue of T-S Horizons. There have been some new developments around here 
I'd like to tell you about. We are happy to introduce some new writers to these 
pages - some of whom you may already know from their work in other publications. 

Gordon Young has published a newsletter in Vista, California for about two years 
called Z-West. He has had a loyal following of readers from across the United 
States and Canada. Recently I received a letter from Gordon who had gotten a 
sample copy of T-S Horizons and liked it. In his letter he explained that 
Z-West was ceasing publication with the January 1984 issue, and he offered to 
write for T-S Horizons on a regular basis (an offer I couldn't refuse). 

Gordon has writtten articles for major computer publications (e.g., Sync , 
Jan/Feb 1984). Knowing the reputation of Z-West, we expect to see many great 
articles from Gordon. Z-West was known for good machine code and other 
programming articles, as well as reviews and program listings. 

\ 

Through Mr. Young, I was introduced to Tex Faucette, an active TS 1000 user from 
the southern U.S. Tex will be reviewing software and providing other articles 
to T-S Horizons regularly. In this issue he reviews an excellent filing program 
for the TS 1000 called ZX Pro File. 

Beginning in this issue we will be running a series of four articles by Lien 
Chii, a programmer for The Ultimate Blackwood. The first installment is a 
"page-flipping" or computer animation program. This series of articles will be 
useful for a wide range of applications, so don't miss it. 

By coincidence, John Marion contributed another page-flipping program, 

Animate , for this issue. John's approaches different in that it combines an 
on-screen drawing routine with page-flipping, to produce animation. John is a 
member of the Portsmouth Timex user group. 

By the way we hope you enjoy this issue's Timex Comix feature (page 25). It is 
something of a tribute to Dan Ross the Timex Computer executive who recently 
announced his resignation (see page 24). Special thanks to Barry Hoi 1 singer for 
supplying the artwork for thecartoon. 

Bill Johnson introduces an interesting concept in Programming Tips, and he is 
currently preparing a feature article on “error recovery" for a future issue. 
(Note: The format of Programming Tips, and Hardware Hints from last issue, make 
them excellent vehicles for our readers to submit short articles on a wide 
variety of subjects, and we encourage them to do so.) 




Amateur radio enthusiasts should check out the software reviews by Bil Johnson 
(page 22). Art Gindin has written the second of his “Reviews tor the 
Non-Programmer" on page 21. Kids' Page, as well as the second part of last 
issue's graphics tutorial will return in the next issue. 

So much tor the introductions. 


we are still month!; 


Due to technical and other difficulties beyond our control, the publication of 
this issue had to be delayed (hence the Jan/Feb cover date). We apologize but 
it was unavoidable. We did however use this time to get a little better 
organized (we are new at this after all). If you are a subscriber, rest assured 
that your subscription is for 12 issues , not 12 months . 

As I said before we are new at this, and we can make mistakes. If you ever miss 
an issue or don't receive an answer to correspondence, please don't be shy. 

Bring it to our attention. 


Thanks, 


Rick Duncan 


INTRODUCING 


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• Instant page flips with auto repeat • Contents in hex, decimal, and CHR$ 

• Insert code • Cursor control with automatic page flips 

• Delete (Kill) code • Copy pages to most printers 

• Set “LAST” byte affected by inserts/kills • Complete users manual 

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• All functions accessed with single or shifted keystrokes! 


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ZX FRO/FILE Data base with sorting 
ZX DATA FINDER with Basic tutorial 
Z*WRYTER Word processing 

TEACHER’S QRADEROOK 
CHECK REGISTER A BUDGET 
PROFIT FLAN Profit analysis 
GRAPH I A II Equation graphers 
EFHEMERIS V Deluxe planet finder 
EZ HEX 

NFL STXTISTICAL SUMMARY 
RAMPAGER for M/L programmers 
DISTACALC Distance calculations 
METAGRAPHICS Graphic paint brush 
TIMEBLASTERS Machine code game 
TEE Machine code game 
MAZEBALL Machine code game 












MORELAND’S MEMO 


By Bill Moreland 


Theories of mass marketing may be of little 
interest to many readers, but you must be 
aware that companies that sell through 
discount and chain stores depend on selling 
large numbers of their products at reduced 
prices to make their profits. These facts 
have real meaning for the first-time 
computer buyer. 

The choices of what to market, when to 
market it, and the price for the item are 
very different for a mass merchandiser than 
a specialty computer company. While the 
profit motive may stimulate both kinds of 
companies, the mass marketer is more 
interested in selling volume than quality 
and therefore takes a different approach to 
engineering, production and distribution of 
its products. 

The Timex Corporation is a mass 
merchandiser. It sells its products through 
all of the outlets that any mass merchant 
would use. I point these facts out so the 
reader can understand that, while the Timex 
family of computers is superior in many 
respects, the market support from Timex is 
not the same as the support from IBM, for 
example, for its products. 

These facts translate into a very different 
marketing strategy for a retailer. Like the 
mass merchandising company, the retail store 
must sell volume to make profits. 

Unfortunately, this means that support by 
the retailer for the computer is probably 
going to be very limited. (Unless someone 
in the store takes an interest in the device 
on a personal level, very little information 
will be available from the store. After all, 
profits do not come from providing 
information on how to make a toaster oven 
work. Only the sale of the item is of 
interest to that kind of retailer.) 


The consequence of these observations for 
the first-time computer can be devastating. 
An inexpensive computer with poor 
documentation is almost useless if you can't 
find someone to help you with your 
questions. Programs or peripherals are 
likewise useless unless you know how to go 
about trouble-shooting to find out whether 
they are defective (and can be exchanged). 


Obviously this can lead to a chicken and egg 
situation: if you don't know how the 

computer works, then is the program or 
peripheral really defective? 

Having been a Timex computer dealer for the 
past year and a half, we have experienced 
the thrill of victory and the agony of 
defeat when it comes to support for their 
computers. Also we have been victimized by 
mail order rip-off artists and pleasantly 
surprised by small business people who are 
trying to make a living with honest 
products. Likewise, we have been 
alternately disappointed and happy with 
Timex distribution policies, feeling 
frustration or anger with late deliveries 
while feeling satisfaction (even smugness) 
with superior products. 

Unfortunately, the distribution system for 
the computer and related products is so 
complex and fragmented that it is difficult 
for small dealers to get information. 
Indeed, it is somewhat discouraging to build 
a loyal customer base and not be able to 
find answers from suppliers when questions 
are raised. In short, with the continuing 
shakeout of computer makers canes a process 
of shakedown among the distributors and 
dealers. With profitability being so low on 
the machines, it is unclear who will 
survive. 



The message for buyers of less expensive 
computers is clear: find dealers whom you 
trust and support them, even if it costs a 
little more. The good dealer will find 
answers and provide service and information 
even if it does not provide immediate 
profits. 

It is from among this group of dealers that 
continuing support for the machine will 
come. Let's hope that the next generation 
of computers from Timex stimulates the same 
kind of growth in third party products as 
the earlier models. Maybe next time some 
rationality will make its way into the 
distribution system and make all of our 
lives as computer users easier. 


23S6 Wellesley Lane 

Lane Ave. Shopping Ctr. 

Columbus, Ohio 43221 

(614) 488-1181 

Mm. -Sit. 19 w. ) p.m. 

Sunday Nmo- 9 p.m. 


TIMEX 1000 

BUSINESS 

Budgeting . $9.95 

Inventory Control . $9.95 

Financial Analyzer . $9.95 

Stock Analyzer . $9.95 

Critical Path Analyzer . 12.95 

Bookkeeping. 14.95 

GAMES 

Leap Frog . $9.95 

Star Voyage . $9.95 

Fungaloids . $9.95 

Invaders . $9.95 

Chess . $9.95 

Snakebite . $9.95 

Packman . $9.95 

UTILITY 

Assembler . $9.95 

Disassembler . $9.95 

Compiler . $9.95 

Graph. $9.95 

AND MANY MORE EXCITING PROGRAMS 
CALL FOR FREE CATALOG 
Shipping extra. No tax out of state. 

DISCOUNT SOFTWARE, INC. 

RCU PO BOX 2530, New York, NY 10185 
Tel: (212) 486-0980 


LET YOUR ZX81/TIMEX 1000 
WORK FOR YOU! 

PERSONAL AND BUSINESS PROGRAMS: 

Are on cassette, are menu driven, run with or without a printer and save 
on tape automatically 

SALES FILE 16K or 64K: 

Holds (150 16K) (600 64K) products w wholesale and retail prices — 
Shows separate wholesale and retail totals and amount of profit in up 
to (25/16K) (100 64K) different accounts — Records inventory automat¬ 
ically or manually — Totals sales tax. — Cash register mode totals, 
identifies, adds sales tax, and keeps records for your bookkeeping — 
Prints a list of products, accounts, inventory and sales slips with printer 
"*A must for any small business*** $19 95 

CHECKING 16K or 64K: 

Lists (25/16K) (100 64K) deposits showing amount and date entered 
— Lists (80 16K) (500 64K) checks and displays check number, date 
and payee — Lists by account total of checks written. — Keeps running 
total of checks written and balance left in account — Adds interest and 
subtracts service charges. — Search for a check by number, name, 
date or amount. Print a list of deposits, accounts, and checks with printer. 
'“Great for tax records *“ . $9 95 

INVENTORY 16K or 64K: 

May be used for everything from keeping an accurate inventory for your 
business to your personal record collection. — Holds up to (150 16K> 
(750/64K) items w comments for each. — Comments may be used for 
serial numbers, dates, prices or location. — Lists all items, search for 
single item, change or delete any item. — Sort items in alphabetical or 
numerical order — Prints a list of items, quantities and comments 
’“Everyone should have an inventory of household items in case 
of fire or theft.***.$9 95 

MAILING LIST 16K or 64K: 

Holds (100 16K) (425 64K) names, addresses and telephone numbers 
— Search by name, city, zip code, or phone number — Will sort by 
name city, or zip code m alphabetical or numerical order — Lists all 
names, changes or deletes — Prints list of names or names and 
addresses or address labels if they are available for your printer 
*“A valuable tool for your home or business*** $9 95 

APPOINTMENT CALENDAR 16K: 

May be used for everything from reminding you of birthdays to business 
appointments — Just enter the date and list up to (8) appointments per 
day for up to (31) days — Lets you change or delete any appointment 
—Print a list of appointments for day or month Save all appointments 
on tape 

•“Keep a permanent record of past appointments'".$9 95 

FINANCIAL RECORD KEEPER 16K: 

User can define and use 20 files of income and or expenses which may 
be noted as tax deductible for future reference if applicable — Informa¬ 
tion may be reviewed in various ways — Includes ability to correct or 
change information already entered without knowledge of computers or 
programming. At end of year you have a complete overview of cash 
flow for the preceding year and a list of tax deductible expenses — 
Prints all information with a Timex or compatible printer $14 95 

FINANCIAL RECORD KEEPER PLUS - 48K: 

Does everything the above 16K version does, plus keeps up to 500 
checking transactions and it automatically reconciles the checkbook with 
the bank statement 

***A complete finance package***.$19.95 

GRADEBOOK 16K to 64K: 

A sophisticated, friendly and flexible grade management program for 
teachers of all levels — Ranks students by weighted or unweighted 
average. — An example of the program s capacities with 16K: 50 stu¬ 
dents may have up to 40 exams — GRADEBOOK is limited only by 
memory si 2 e 

•“Written by an instructor at Purdue University***.$9.95 

INVOICE CONTROL: 

A program designed to keep track of and print invoices for the small 
business. — Is self-adjusting to memory size — Will hold (20 16K) 
(120/64K) invoices of up to (5 16K) (10'64K) lines each — Review or 
change any invoice, list all invoices, list invoices with an open balance, 
enter additional payments and review invoices written to a particular 
account. Prints your company name and address on each in¬ 
voice..$14.95 

Send for free catalog of personal, business & educational programs such 
as “CASH REGISTER.’ MULTIPLICATION TABLES. MATH QUIZ and 
FLASH SPELLING at $9 95 each — C-10 blank cassettes packaged in a 
hard plastic box 10 pack $8.50 - 5.25' Diskettes sinole side double-density 
soft sectored with hub nngs 10 pack only $18 00—add $2 per 10 pack 
shipping for tapes and diskettes 


Any three $9.95 tapes for $24 95 DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

Add $1.00 per tape for shipping Indiana res add 5% sales tax Send Certified 
Check, M O , Visa or MasterCard No with Exp. Date 


HEATH COMPUTER SERVICES 
a 950 East - 52 South r~ 
I Green!own, IH 48936 A 


Phono (317) 628/3130 
































Reader INPUT 
Edited by Bill Johnson 

After the premier issue of T-S Horizons was published, I 
received a letter regarding my article “Creating and Saving 
Files.” (TSH#1, p. 20). I mentioned in that article that it was 
important to set the array size large enough to hold all fore¬ 
seeable files that you would want to store there, because re- 
dimensioning the array to a larger size would wipe out all your 
existing information. But the writer of this letter notes that in 
cases where enough memory is available, it is possible to expand 
an array by temporarily storing it in a second array. Below are 
excerpts from his letter. 


There are two ways to find the location of the byte we want 
to change. Whenever I want to make it easy on myself to locate 
arrays in memory, I make sure that the appropriate DIMs 
appear in the program before any other DIMs, LETs or INPUTs 
(assignments). In this way, the System Variable VARS at 
16400 + 256*16401 will always tell me where the first byte of 
the first assignment is. Now, the first element will be offset 
from that first byte depending upon the type of variable; but 
right now I am only interested in changing the name of this 
array, which will be that first byte. So, Pll have to tell you 
that in this case the byte we are looking for will not be pointed 
to by VARS, but by another system variable, DEST at 16402+ 
256*16403. The plot thickens. We have to do the following: 


Let’s say, for instance, that your existing string array is 
DIM AS (30,3). If you later require a larger array (A$(40,4) 
for example) you can DIM B$(40,4) followed by: 

10 FOR N*1 TO 30 
20 LET B$(N,TO 3)-A$(N) 

30 NEXT N 

If plenty of memory is available, re-DIMension A$(40,4) 
to wipe out the original AS array (after moving it to the B$ 
array) and run another FOR-NEXT loop to move everything 
back to the new AS array. 

The alternative is to change the name of the array from B$ 
to AS by poking the first byte of the array. Refer to page 131, 
Chapter 26, TIMEX USER MANUAL for the TS1000. An 
array of characters will be identified in storage by a Letter 
from 198 to 223 Decimal (C6 to DF Hex). Subtract 20 Hex or 
32 Dec and you will find a character Code from 166 for Inverse 
A to 191 for Inverse Z. In this case we would want to change 
the Code from 199 to 198. 


Assuming that B$(l,T03)^“OHI”.PRINT PEEK 16402 + 

256*PEEK16403 AFTER this: LET B$(1,1)*“0”.FROM 

the address resulting subtract (in this case) eight. Then PEEK 
this last result (in this case, it should be 199). 199 minus 32 = 
167 which is Inverse B. POKE that byte with 198. Then, try 
PRINT A$(l) and it should print “OHI”. 

Incidentally, when I use BASIC to delete an array or string 
which I no longer need, I use e.g., DIM K$(l). If I use DIM 
K$(0) I get an Error Code 3; and I do not want to bother my 
user with Error Codes. Machine Code can do a cleaner job; 
but, CLEAR is generally unusable; so the DIM(l)s are a good 
compromise. 

John A. Lyons 
Columbus, Oh 

Obviously this method will not work if there is not enough 
RAM for the two expanded arrays. (In my file program, the 
main storage array T$(700,36) uses over 25K of memory.) 
But if you have enough RAM, this can be a valuable tip no 
matter what computer you are programming on. 


T/S1000 Books That Work For You 


Using 

the 

Timex/Sinclair 
1000 , 



Ralph Colotti 


Special offer! Get both books for just $19.97. 

Using the Timex/Sinclair 1000 

by Ralph Coletti 

The book to read after the manual. Put your com¬ 
puter to practical use with home, business, educa¬ 
tional, and scientific applications (program listings 
included). A review of Sinclair BASIC contains 
hints for translating from other BASICs. Common 
mechanical problems and solutions and hardware 
modifications are also covered. Spiral-bound for 
easy computer-side use. Only $9.97. 


Converting to Timex/Sinclair BASIC 

by S. L. Bird 

Translate other BASIC programs to run on your 
T/S 1000. This complete guide covers more than 
200 BASIC instructions, including a description of 
how each T/S replacement works and an example 
of it in use. Just $ 14.95 puts an almost endless sup¬ 
ply of software at your fingertips. Spiral-bound. 

Call TOLL-FREE 1-800-258-5473 for your credit card orders or 
send payment with shipping and handling charges to Wayne Green 
Books, ATTN: Book Sales, Peterborough, NH 03458. Dealer in¬ 
quiries invited. 

f YES, I want T/S 1000 books that work. 

| □ Special offer. Using the T/S 1000 AND Converting to T/S 
BASIC (BK739601) for $19.97 ($2.00 shipping & handling). 

□ Using the T/S 1000 (BK7397) $9.97. □ Converting to T/S 

. BASIC (BK7395) $i4.95. ($1.50 shipping & handling for each) 

□ Payment enclosed □ MasterCard □ VISA □ Amex 


Ci ‘y -—-'__State_Zip _ 

_Wayne GreenJBooks*Peterborough, NH 03458 (T s Horizons) 







CHECKING OUT 

Library Computer Lending 

We have seen indications that progressive 
libraries in the U.S. and Canada have found a 
new way to serve their patrons, thanks to 
Timex computer technology. Shawnee State 
College in Portsmouth, Ohio, has obtained 
three TS-1500's which are available for loan 
to students and faculty. The computer is 
checked out from the library just like a 
book. The library has ordered a TS-2040 
printer for loan with the computers. 

The portability of the TS-1500 and its 
sturdiness (compared to the TS-1000), as well 
as its low cost, make this computer an 
excellent choice for lending. The machines 
are loaned out in a molded plastic carrying 
case for protection. The library leases the 


computers from Scioto Software Systems, Inc., 
Rt. 1, Box 41, Lucasville, Ohio 45648. Also 
available are programming manuals and 
software on cassette. 

A recent issue of Ramblings (a newsletter put 
out by Timex) describes a public library in 
Shrub Oak, New York, that loans out a TS-1000 
and a ZX-81, with 16K RAMs, tape recorder, 
and software cassetes. The program 

instituted there has been quite successful. 
“How to Market Your Timex-Sindair Software" 
by Softmark Associates reports that a 
Montreal library has a similar arrangement. 

We have heard from a few user groups, 
including the Cincinnati Timex Sinclair User 
Group, who are actively encouraging local 
libraries to obtain Timex computers to lend 
to their patrons. 


Partial Pascal 

Bring Tape Under Control 

Partial Pascal makes tape easier and 
more convenient to use. The write state¬ 
ment in your Partial Pascal program 
stores output to tape in buffers in RAM. 
When a buffer is full (or when your pro¬ 
gram indicates it has no more data to 
write). Partial Pascal asks what name 
you want to give it and records a header, 
the name you specify and the data from 
the buffer, releasing it to be refilled with 
more data from your program. The head¬ 
er recorded by Partial Pascal, unlike a 
“header” consisting of silence, allows the 
automatic level control on most cassette 
recorders to stabilize before the name and 
data are recorded, improving reliability 
when the taoe.is tead. 

Partial Pascal is not fussy at all about 
positioning the tape for input. Anywhere 
before the header of the file to be read in 
will do, including in the middle of earlier 
recordings. Partial Pascal keeps you in¬ 
formed of what it’s reading. If it comes to 
a header with a name other than the one 
you’ve asked for, Partial Pascal shows 
you the name it has found and continues 
searching the tape. This makes it easy 
to rediscover, if necessary, all the names 
you’ve used on a tape. If you’ve typed in 
the wrong name, press the space key and 
Partial Pascal will ask you to respecify 
the name. 

The Partial Pascal programming 
package includes full-screen editor, co¬ 
resident compiler, run-time interpreter, 
utility library, example programs and 
user manual. 16K ZX81, Timex Sinclair 
1000 or Timex Sinclair 1500 required. 
$30 postpaid from 

Semper Software 

1569 Brittany Court Wheaton, IL 60187 




CHIRPER module for your ZX81 
or your timex/tinclair 10OO. 


The CHIRPER module lets you enter Key¬ 
board data fast and accurately. A sound can 
be heard when a key is entered enabling you 
to spot a missed entry or a double entry with¬ 
out looking up at the screen. A buzzy-chirp is 
produced when the key entry routine runs on 
a 1 or a 2K machine. A large program in a RAM 
pack produces a continuous tone that changes 
on key entry. 

A program can control the sound. Included 
is a demo program that converts the keys into 
a music keyboard of over two octaves. 

The CHIRPER module installs easily inside 
the Z Xfl 1 case with only three wires to connect. 
Complete installation instructions are included. 

To order your CHIRPER send a check or 
money order. We pay postage in the USA or 
Canada. 


(g @ 0 

3584 Leroy. Ann Arbor. Ml 48103 



SCIOTO 
SOFTWARE 
SYSTEMS, INC. 

Timex Sinclair 1500 
t69,9 5 ♦ 12.50 shipping 

TS-2040 Printer 
♦84.95 ♦ 13.50 shipping 
(Compatible with TS-1000, 
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/ 


PRGGRRM 




FILE PROTECTION 
by Bill Johnson 

Have you ever lost an entire program because of a bad 
SAVE that you weren’t aware of, or a system crash that oblit¬ 
erated your program during a SAVE? This happens because 
most of us SAVE programs repeatedly on the same tape, 
erasing the previous copy of a program every time we store it 
on cassette. If you have had this experience (and what prog¬ 
rammer hasn’t?) you know the value of keeping at least one 
current back-up copy on tape of both programs and software 
that you’re developing. 

This is relatively simple for programs that manipulate data 
but do not require you to SAVE data on a mass-storage device, 
because you never SAVE over the original. 

But what if you haveji program that is used several times a 
week in the course of a few months and is required to accum¬ 
ulate and save data along with the program each time it is used? 
In this case a single bad SAVE in the course of normal use 
could wipe out a month or more of data. One solution to this 
problem is to SAVE the program twice each time you use it, 
but this still would not protect you from the possibility of 
having two bad SAVEs ruin your day and it consumes far too 
much time. 


My solution (a rather simple one with a few embellishments) 
is to SAVE the program on alternating sides of the tape. This 
method only requires you to SAVE the program once each 
time you update it, and if a bad SAVE is discovered when 
the program is next LOADed, there is still a copy of the pro¬ 
gram and data on the other side of the tape (which has inciden¬ 
tally been verified by its use to be a good copy) and all that has 
been lost is the data entered in the most recent session. 

In the following listing I have incorporated: 

1. Instruction to set the computer and tape recorder to mini¬ 
mize human SAVE errors. 

2. Program execution of SAVE (therefore program self¬ 
starting). 

3.Instructions to alternate tape sides. 

Notes On The Listing 

* Line 9990 should be used to GOTO the first line of your 
program to automatically begin program execution. 

* You may want to insert a message at the beginning of your 
program stating that if the program has just been SAVEd, 
rewind the tape to the beginning and store it before shutting 
down the computer. This will prevent confusion as to which 
side of the tape you used last. 



This technique is also applicable when you are developing 
programs. Instead of saving over each successive copy, use 
the opposite side of the tape. You’ll use a few more cassettes 
that way but the peace of mind is worth it. 



U N i HHL FLH Y i_R 
























































“A SIMPLE LOADING AID” 
by Gordon Young 

Rick has allowed me to submit article material for this 
extremely useful publication, and probably the best ‘first* 
item to share with you is a simple loading aid that has become 
a fixed add on in my own system. If you build and use it your¬ 
self for a while, you will find that trying to get along without 
it will be difficult. It first of all incorporates a simple on/off 
switch to eliminate the plug-in connector. Frequent plugging 
in and unplugging eventually wears out the plug receptor jack. 

Loading difficulties arise from a number of reasons and the 
most predominate is that from heating. One of the 40 pin 
chips inside the TS1000 takes the place of a dozen or so smaller 
ones and although it allows the physical size to be much smaller, 
the heat is too much for it alone to dissipate. All new product¬ 
ion units are equipped with a small heat radiator that is perm¬ 
anently affixed to the chip and has, as far as I have seen, done 
away with the majority of loading problems or more specifically, 
crashes. 

Another problem is with the tape player you use. Most that 
I have seen (in our local user group), are cheap and inadequate 
recorders that are a bit poor in rendering not only a good 
output signal, but even other unseen electrical problems such 
as ground loops! This problem was noticed when the player 
was left running with no cassette inside. After touching the 
EAR plug to the EAR jack on the tape player, a very high 
pitched sound was noticed. Almost inaudible, you may or may 



NOTE: 

The SAVSing LED can be 
mounted inside the case. 


not even hear it or see it on the screen. More often than not, 
the computer will not be affected by it but depending on the 
number of devices (MONITOR, PRINTER, COMPUTER, 
TAPE PLAYER, ETC.) you have running, it may become a 
real annoyance. This loading aid will serve to eliminate these 
and other inconveniences you might experience. 

All parts needed for this project may be obtained from 
Radio Shack and very little needs to be said about its constr¬ 
uction. The only interesting component is the Light Emitting 
Diodes. These are connected back to back such that if any 
clipping occurs, it occurs equally among the signals on line. 
They do not begin to conduct until the signal reaches about 1.2 
volts. When conduction occurs, they begin to glow. They can 
glow brilliantly if enough signal is pumped down the patch 
cord by turning the tape player volume up very high. 

Take the plastic enclosure and drill holes to receive th l/8th 
inch female phono jacks. Drill 3 on one side, 2 in the rear and 
one on the left. The lid of the enclosure should be drilled to 
hold the 2 switches, and LEDs . Wire and solder as shown. 

Check your wiring and plug it in to the system. Load a pro¬ 
gram and monitor the brightness level of the LED. I have per¬ 
fect results when it is set such that it just begins to glow. Yours 
may differ, but even with poorly recorded tapes you should be 
able to adjust the tape player volume to cause the indicator 
to turn on. Now, use it for a month and remove the loading 
aid. See if you can conveniently adjust your recorders level 
without it! 



LIST OF MATERIALS 

1 - DPDT Mini Switch 
X - SPST Mini Switch ^ 

3 - Light Emitting Diodes w ..\ 

6 - 1/8th inch mini jacks u 0 
1 - 510 OHM resistor 1/4W 1 * J 
i - Small Project box 








-NUMERICAL ANALYSIS- 


Runge-Kutta Method For Solving 
First Order Ordinary Differential Equations 

By: K.D. Lewis 


This article considers 


numerical 


solution of the initial value problem 
y*=f(y,t).(1) 

with 

y(to)=yo. 

One of the more widely used methods of 
obtaining a numerical solution to equation 
(1) with initial condition is to use the 
Runge-Kutta formulas. The classical 
Runge-Kutta formula (i.e. the so-called 
"fourth order" formula) is one which is 
"equivalent" to a five-term Taylor formula: 

y A - y + hy* + hfy" + hV + h 4 y V 


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where the y",y ui and y denote the value of 
the indicated derivative of the exact 
solution to (1) at the point x . By 
"equivalent" it is meant that tfie local 
formula errors in the num erical procedure 
are each propotional to the same power of h 
plus (possibly different) higher order terms. 

The Runge-Kutta formula involves a weighted 

average of values of f(y,t) taken at 

different points in the interval x $ x< x 
t . t n n+1 

It is given by 

y n+l ’ y „ * | (K „1 * 2K „2 * 2K »3 * K J (2 *> 
6 

where K = f(y t ) (2b) 

nl n, n 

K = f(y +3ghK ^ t +hh) (2c) 

n2 n nl, n 

K = f(y +^h K t +^h) (2d) 

n3 n n2, n 

K = f (y +hK ^ t +h) (2e) 

n4 n n3, n 


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The advantages of the Runge-Kutta formula as 
presented here are: 

(i) it has the important advantage of being a 
"self-starting" and a "single-step" method. 
This means that by taking only the initial 
value y(to) as the starting point, the entire 
solution to the problem can be generated. 

(ii) it is easily programmed 

(iii) it has good stability characteristics 

(iv) the step size (called h above) can be 
changed as desired without any complications 
The principal disadvantage is that more 
computer time is required with this method 
than with other methods of comparable 
accuracy. 

The Program : 

In order to use this program, you must 
rearrange your differential equation so that 
it is in the form of equation (1), with only 
the derivative (y 1 ) on one side, and 


everything else, f(y,t), on the other side. 
Having done this, you will need to change the 
function in the program so that your f(y,t), 
obtained from the rearrangment above, is 
written into the program. Once this is done, 
you can put the program into the "RUN" mode. 
In this mode, you will be prompted for tour 
pieces of information. First, the 
incremental step, (i.e. h in the above 
discussion) will be input. Next, the initial 
value of the independent variable (referred 
to as t in the above discussion) is input. 
Following this, the final value must be 
input. Finally, the initial value of y (i.e. 
y (to)) must be input. When this is done, 
the program will generate a solution to your 
differential equation problem. 



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Example 


We wish to solve the f^rst order differential 
equation (dy/dt) + y =1 (or y*+y =1) with 
y(0)= 0, up to a time of 2.2 units, using a 
time step of 0.1. First, we must re-arrange 
the equation so that only the deservati^e 
term appears on the left hand side: y'=l-y . 
Now the right-hand side of statement number 
315 in the program must be changed to 
incorporate the right hand side of this 
equation. Note that the variable y is 
labelled YD and the variable T is labelled TD 
in the program. Thus 1-y would be typed in 
as 1 - YD**2 on line 315. Now the program is 
placed in the "RUN" mode and the time step is 
prompted (0 is entered). Another value, for 
the maximum time is prompted, and t=2.2 is 
now entered. Finally, the initial value of y 
(i.e. y(0)) is prompted, and the value "O'' is 
entered. So we have entered four pieces of 
data, 0.1, 0, 2.2, and 0 in this sequence, 
after each prompt. The program then 
generated the solution. 


10 REfl RUNGE 

30 DIM V £3 3 
23 DIM P£3> 

27 INPUT DELT 
3© INPUT T0 

31 INPUT THPIX 
33 INPUT YS 
3B LET TD=T0 
39 LET YD-rS 
4-2 LET VP =Y0 

4-4- PRINT "TIME V -UfiLUE" 

4-3 GG5UE 3X0 
4.3 LET F £ 1 3 =FYT 

51 LET Y C i ) =YP + £ DELT/2 3 *FYT 
54- LET YD=Y £1) 

53 LET TD=TDtDELT/2 
57 GOoUB 31© 

59 LET F(2)=FYT 

6© LET Y L2) =YP+ (DELT/2> *FYT 
53 LET YD=YC2) 

56 GOSUB 310 

70 L FT V 135 =YP + DELT #FYT 
73 LET F(3)=FYT 
76 LET TD=TD-J-DELT/2 
80 LET YD=Y(3) 

83 GOSUB 310 _ 

85 LET PP=DELT* £ 1/6) +FVT 

86 LET =DFLTifi/3) 1 i F £2> +F £3 

5 

67 LET YN=YP*PP*30 
88 PRINT 

39 PRINT TD." ’*; YM 

9© IF TD < =TMRX THEN GOTO 92 

91 STOP 

92 LET VP=YN 
95 LET YD=YN 

103 GOTO 4.5 

310 REM SUBROUTINE 

312 REM 

313 REM tLLLlH STRTEHEhT 315^^3- 
314- REH i*CH«MGE FUNCTION** 

315 LET FYT=i-YD^^2 

320.JRETJLJRN 


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FEATURE 


PAGE: 8 
By Lien Chii, 

Programmer for THE ULTIMATE BLACKWOOD 

This article will give you a very useful utilities program, and 
will demonstrate and explain its use. 

INFORMATION IS BROUGHT 
INSTANTLY ONTO THE SCREEN 
A PAGE-FLIPPER is a program which will store infor¬ 
mation from the TV screen into the memory of your computer, 
and then allow you to bring it back onto the screen instantly! 
This information may be either text or graphics, or a combi¬ 
nation of both. A PAGE refers to a full screen of information, 
and “PAGE: 8” (see LISTING 1) is a page-flipping program 
which gives you control of eight pages of information. 



“PAGE: 8“ IS SIMPLE TO USE 
AND EASY TO UNDERSTAND 

Beginners and others can easily use “PAGE: 8” within their 
own programs. Menus can be projected onto the screen in any 
order, and fairly simple animation may be done. Before dis¬ 
cussing how the program is used, we will look at what it does 
and how it works. 

Start by entering LISTINGS 1 and 2 into your TS/ZX. 
LISTING 1 is the page-flipper program, and LISTING 2 is a 
program designed to demonstrate the abilities of “PAGE: 8”. 

After entering the LISTINGS, ENTER the command GOTO 
1000. The program begins by creating eight individual pages. 
As you view them, “PAGE: 8” copies these images into the 
storage area. Because the programs are written in BASIC, 
the storage time is long, about 100 seconds per PAGE. It is 
worth it, however. The pages recall instantly onto the screen 
with only two lines of BASIC, and all of your PRINT state¬ 
ments, which originally set up your page, may be deleted! 

While the pages are being stored, read through the rest of the 
article. You will be notified when the demonstration is ready. 




PROGRAM THEORY AND ANALYSIS 

The TV screen obtains its information from the “DISPLAY 
FILE”, an area within the computer’s RAM. To store a page, 
the page-flipper copies the DISPLAY FILE into a storage 
area. To recall the page to the screen, the program copies the 
stored page back into the DISPLAY FILE. 

“PAGE: 8” uses the string A$ for the page storage. In the 
TS1000, a page is 22 lines of 32 characters each. This means 
that 32x22 ( 704)characters per page must be stored. Each 
character occupies one space within the storage area A$, so 
that eight pages require 8x704 <5632} spaces available. This 
explains the top line of LISTING 1: DIM A$ (5632). This 
command should not be entered after any pages are stored 
since they would be erased. This is the reason for entering the 
DIM command with no line number: you will not accidently 
erase your pages. 




























































Lines 10 through 110 form the subroutine which stores the 
pages. Lines 20, 40, and 50 locate the DISPLAY FILE and 
find the 704 characters to be stored. In the TS, each line of 
display ends with an end-of-line marker, 118. This is why, in 
line 50, D runs from 1 to 726, and not 704. There are 22 end- 
of-line markers to account for. Lines 30, 60, 90, 100, and 110 
cause the program to skip these markers. Line 10 finds the start 
of the page within the storage area, A$. The variable PAGE is 
set by the user before entering the subroutine, and must have a 
value of 1 to 8. Later when the pages are ready to be recalled, 
PAGE is assigned to tell the program which page to print. 
Line 70 places the characters in their correct position within 
AS. 

Lines 120, 130 and 140 form the subroutine which prints 
the pages. Once your pages are stored, lines 10 through 110 
may be deleted. Of course you may not use RUN or CLEAR 
without losing AS. 

USING “PAGE: 8” IN YOUR PROGRAMS 

Study LISTING 2 and notice that the image to be stored is 
first printed on the screen. Next, PAGE is assigned, and then 
GOSUB 10 is used. Do not forget to DIM AS first. When the 
demonstration is ready and running, PAGE is again assigned 
and GOSUB 120 is used. If a display is stored with PAGE ss 
5, then assigning PAGE jsc 5 followed by GOSUB 120 will 
recall that same page. These guidelines should make it easy for 
you to use PAGE: 8 within your own programs: 

1. Enter PAGE: 8 into your computer along with your 
accompanying program. 

2. STORING THE PAGES Use standard PRINT and PLOT 
commands to display the pages to be stored. Assign a number 
1 to 8 for each page. AT THE POINT IN YOUR BASIC 


PROGRAM WHERE THE PAGE IS COMPLETELY ON 
THE SCREEN, ENTER THESE THREE LINES: 1) LET 
PAGE is the number assigned to this page. 2) GOSUB 10 
(See LISTING 1). 3) STOP This line is for convenience only. 
When the STOP is reached, the Page is stored and you then 
repeat this procedure for each page. 

When you have completed this procedure, you delete all of 
your print statements and the lines which stored them. I rec¬ 
ommend that you test the results first though. 

3. RECALLING THE PAGES Each page recall requires 
two BASIC lines: 1) LET PAGE =t the number assigned to 
this page 2) GOSUB 200 (See LISTING 1) 

FURTHER SUGGESTIONS 

1. To speed up the page storage, add lines 5 FAST and 105 
SLOW to LISTING 1. 

2. You may use fewer or more pages by changing the 
initial DIM AS statement. 

3. It is possible to store a page using print statements as 
demonstrated, but without the pages being displayed on the 
screen while they are being stored. (Hint: the system variable 
DF-CC would be used.) 

This concludes the PAGE: 8 article. Write to me with any 
suggestions or discoveries that you make with PAGE: 8.1 have 
a tape available with three machine language versions of a page- 
flipper. Each version uses a different area of memory depending 
upon your needs. Inquire if interested. 

Goodbye for now! 

Lien Chii 

c/o THE ULTIMATE BLACKWOOD 
P.O. BOX 7427 
Santa Cruz, CA 95061 


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ACE SOFTWARE, 2 E, Oak 
Moorestown, N.J, 08057 


ScreenMate 


ScreenMate’s Lightpen and InterFace for the Atari* 
Joystick adds versatility to your ZX81 or TS1000 



> Play Action Games 

» Direct Interaction with 
the TV Screen. 

► Features a "Piggy-back" 
Add On Feedthrough 

• Draw and Doodle 

• Ideal for Educational 
Programs 

» Independent of 
Keyboard 


$39.95 includes 

• Lightpen with Joystick Interface 

• User Guide • 90 Day Limited Warranty 

• All Postage and Handling 


ScreenMate Program Cassette 
$9.95 includes 

• Draw • Doddle • Math Quiz • Master Mind 

• Tlc-Tac-Toe • Word Scramble • Break Out 

• States • Safe Cracker 

Interface Innovations 

4372 Casa Brazilia, Suite 201, St. Louis, Mo. 63129 
Check Money Order MasterCard or Visa Accepted 







FEATURE 


ANIMATION 
by John Marion 

Cartoons, as you know, are made up of many drawings 
which are flipped one after the other. This flippinng or “page 
flipping” as it is called on computers, gives the appearance of 
free flowing movement. Using this same principle, we can do 
cartoon-like animation on our computer. Although, we can’t 
do full length cartoons, we can flip forwards or backwards 18 
pages. 

HOW TO USE 


If no drawings are in memory, and you enter a 1 for the 
menu selection, the computer will ask you how many drawings 
you wish to draw. This is because the program uses arrays and 
in order to save in loading and saving time, you should only 
reserve as many pictures as you will use. Eighteen pages, are 
the maximum that 16k will hold but if you have more memory 
the computer will hold more pictures. 

I. DRAW 

The unshifted arrow keys (5, 6, 7, and 8) are used to move a 
cursor around on the screen. This cursor begins in the lower 
left corner. As the cursor is moved it draws a line. You can 
erase by pressing “9“ and retracing a previous line. Pressing 

9 again allows you to draw again. When the drawing is 
complete, press “Q” to quit. When this is done, the screen 
will go blank for about 30 seconds, after which the menu 
will return. 

II DISPLAY 

To display a picture, enter the page number of the drawing 
you wish to see. After viewing the drawing, press any key but 
break and the computer will ask if you wish to see another or 
return to the menu. 

III ANIMATE 

When you enter this mode, the drawing on page one will 
appear. By pressing the 7 key, the pages will begin to flip 
forwards and will stop at the last drawing. By pressing the 6 
key, the pages will begin to flip backwards and will stop at the 
first drawing. To return to the menu, press Q. 

VI CHANGE 

In this mode, you can call up one drawing, alter it and save 
it as the next drawing. Also you can use it to edit a drawing 
and save it under the same drawing number. After entering 
the numbers, you will be in the drawing mode as before, but 
your drawing will be on the screen. When you are finished, you 
can exit in the same way as before by pressing Q and the menu 
will return. 

Let me know if you like this program and if you have any 
changes or improvements, I would like to know about them. 



msmm 





































S.T. Inc ANNOUNCES 


SPEECH 

JTHESIZER 


ACT NOW: Receive 

ase Finder Program $5. VALUE FREE , 

iis Instruction Manual ’ $10. VALUE FREE 


* TEXT TO SPEECH 

Simple as typing in any word and 
having your computer speak it! M 

NOW AVAILABLE $24.95 

Other products available include 

Talking Poker Game Cartridge - brings excitement to 
the normal poker match between you and your 
computer (R 1S T Speech Synthesizer Required) 
$14.95 ♦ $1.00 S/H 

SPS - 2 Amp Power Supply - UL Listed, the 9v. 2 amp 
supply gives alt the power needed for expanded system 
operation. $24 95 ♦ $2 50 S/H 

HOW YOU CAN MAKE YOUR COMPUTER TALK. 

The PARROT newly introduced by R I S T , gives the 
power of speech to Timem/Sincleir Computers This simple 
to use plug in speech module is capable of generating all the 
sounds in the English language The combination of these 
J will generate an 


Send To: R.I.S.T Inc 
Dept 73 f Fomerly 
Voicetech) 

P.0 Box 499. Ft. 
Hamilton Station 

Brooklyn, N Y 
11209 - (212) 259-4934 


Please send me #_ 

! Parrot(s) Speech Syn- 
! thesizers for my C 
, ZX80 O ZX81 □ 
1 TS1000 at $59.95 ea plus 
! $4 00 sh/hd. 

! l will also receive an exclu- 
! sive phrase finder pro- 
i gram and a 40 page in- 
I struction manual, FREE 

> 15 DAY MONEY BACK 
GUARANTEE/C.OD. 
ORDERS ADD $2. 


sounds, in the order of your choice, 
unlimited vocabulary of words, phrases, and sentences as 
well as an array of sound effects. Piggy-back 

expandability allows other modules (eg memory) to be 
operating with the Parrot simultaneously 
Paul Donnelly had this to say in the April issue of Syntax: 


SEE THE REVIEW IN THE NOV . ISSUE OF SYNC MAGAZINE 




























ZX PRO-FILE 


ZX PRO/FILE (c) Thomas B. Woods, P.O. Box 64, Jefferson, 
NH 03583 Available from Robotec, Inc., 59L St., Ampoint 
Ind. Park, Perrysburg, OH 43551 $16.95 and $1.25 Shipping 
Reviewed by Tex Faucette 

Inside the front cover of the ZX PRO/FILE Manual, Mr. 
Woods dedicates this Program to all Timex and ZX81 owners 
who refuse to believe that their machines are “just a toy”. 
Inside the back cover is an invitation to subscribe to a quarterly 
newsletter, “PRO/FILE UPdates”. 

Between these two covers is found over 50 Pages of the best 
documentation that this reviewer has encountered. Mr. Woods, 
in this documentation, has set a goal which other Programmers 
would do well to strive for. 

The manual begins with a brief statement of the Program 
capabilities and loading instructions, then proceeds through a 
series of paragraphs explaining each function available in the 
program. Following a discussion of printer parameters is a 
section on program modifications which includes one such 
mod to utilize the FASTLOAD program from International 
Publishing and Software. Other suggested modifications include 
File Search/File Count, adaption to RAMs larger than 16k, 
adaption to TIMEX printer, and “do file” which may be used 
to enable a disk or “stringy-floppy”. Appendix I contains an 
annotated Basic listing. Appendix II has both a machine code 
tutorial and a well-annotated machine code listing. 

ZX PRO/FILE reached me already configured for my MEMO- 
TECH parallel interface and Seikosha GP-100 printer. The 
program loaded on the first try, presenting me with the Main 
Search Menu. The main menu gives options to search (by 
single or multi word), add, save, auto search (displays all files). 



or alter print format. It also displays current print status and 
amount of space open. Set for 16k RAM over 10,000 characters 
may be loaded. Individual files may be of any size, with line 
length limited to 27 characters. Entry of a line of over 27 
characters gives a message that the line is too long and requests 
re-entry. Files are separated by use of the star (shift B), which 
is automatically poked into the first line of each file. A file is 
closed when desiring by entering “c”. The first line of each 
file must contain data, but after that blank lines may be reserved 
for later use by entering a period. The cursor moves down to 
the next line when a line is entered, but may be moved up or 
down with the arrow keys (shift 6 or 7) for editing. 

The only slow thing about this program is entering data with 
the Timex keyboard. I entered several individual files of genea¬ 
logical data for test purposes, and discovered that both single 
and multi-word search commands executed almost instantly 
Search command “TAYLOR” called up all the “Taylor” files 
while search command “William” would give me all the 
Williams” regardless of family name. The multi-word 
command “WILLIAM/TAYLOR” would yield the file on that 
individual only. 


Printout was neat and quick. The “DEFP” (Define Pprinter) 
command allows specifying start line, number of lines printed, 
and number of lines between forms. This feature is great for 
such chores as preparing mailing labels, as well as printing out 
the somewhat longer ancestor files. 

In conclusion, it is my opinion that Mr. Woods has done an 
outstanding job with this program in both the areas of perfor¬ 
mance and documentation. I believe that most users, after a 
practice run or two, will agree that it is also User Friendly! 


PLAY CQItlPllBflLL 
New for ZX81/TS1000 
16K BASEBALL 

Name your own teams. Use any names you 
choose. Pit your own team against any op¬ 
posing team you want. 

Continuous and complete display, play pv 
play report of score, inning, balls, strikes, 
outs, men on base, runs scored. 

Batting— hold or swing option, 

base stealing option. 
Pitching— fast balls, curves, sliders, 
slow balls. 

Make your own leagues. 

Hold your own playoffs, World Series 

Cassette.V 95 

N.Y. State residents add 7% sales tax 

Send check or money order to 
COKIPliBflU 

P.O. BOX 122 
Vestal, NY 13850 


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(ZX81/TIMEX 1O00 PLUS 16K PPM) 

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USERS INSTRUCTIONS* US* 25?00° 

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MEMOCALC 


Reviews For The Non-Programmer 
by A. Gindin 

If you have purchased the Hunter Board and the Z-XLR8 
EPROM I recommended last month, you have learned that 
the EPROM will not work with less than 16K of RAM. You 
can probably purchase 16K RAMPAKS cheaply from those 
of us who have connected to 64K. I am presently building 
the Byte-Back 64K memory board and will report on it later, 
but otherwise I have read little to suggest one 16K or 64K mem¬ 
ory over another. 

Most micro-computers today are packaged with a spread 
sheet. Sinclair has had the VUCALC available to some time, 
but my experiences have shown that it is inferior to the Memo- 
tech MEMOCALC. 

The VUCALC is 36 columns across and 26 lines down and 
very easy to use. The cursor is moved instantly by pressing 
the arrow keys. It will repeat a formula across a line and thus 
will compute compound interest with one stroke. However, it 
does only hold about 40 formulae and will only accept the 
simple arithmetic functions +, -, x,£ ; and, since each formula 
can only be one line long, adding^ a column requires two sub¬ 
totals. Also, a zero must be entered in a blank square if that 
box is part of a calculation, or an “error” will result. 

For $15 the VUCALC is a very useful program for perhaps 


a small investment program. However, I abandoned VUCALC 
because it did not have one command which is specified in the 
documentation. It is supposed to copy from the screen to the 
printer, but will not, (at least with my MemoTECH interface 
and Seikosha printer). In fact, it will not even accept the COPY 
command. I have written to Sinclair who asked that I return 
the program. I did, and I have received no answer for several 
months. 

My replacement is the MemoTECH MEMOCALC which 
will print. It will also do more; i.e. do any calculation, do totals 
with one command, and print the months with one stroke. It 
will hold 1800 cells in 16K or 7600 in 48K. It is now selling 
for about $40, due to the presence of the 2068, which is still 
considerably cheaper than one of the more famous spread¬ 
sheets. MEMOCALC is on a prom which means instant “load¬ 
ing” in the 12-16K area. Unfortunately this means that the 
Z-SLR8 has to be removed while it is in use. (I am working on a 
solution for this.) Naturally, as one gets a better product, 
more commands are involved which have to be memorized or 
referred to. Be sure you need all the features before you buy a 
more powerful tool. 

Next month I will discuss a data base manager and perhaps 
some hardware to improve reliability. I would like to hear 
some opinions as to the best word processor for the TS-ZX. 



The Occam™ Measurement System 


Occam™ 
$89 ppd 


Monitor your furnace, appliances, solar collector or house 
and get immediate feedback on energy improvements. Oc¬ 
cam’s model 2900-Z measurement system for your 
ZX-81 or TS-1000 computer measures temperature, 
DC and AC voltages, DC current, and frequency on 
14 channels under software control. 

Continuous zero and slope correction gives 4-1/3 digit 
resolution at a 3-digit price. Built-in ROM eliminates 
messy REM statements, special tapes, PEEKs and 
POKEs. Add real-time measurement to existing pro¬ 
grams in seconds. No knowledge of machine language 
is needed! 

Through-port allows use with other peripherals, RAM 
pack. Gold-plated and bifurcated fingers for no-crash 
operations. Includes temperature probe and 65 page 
manual. 

Typical command: 

LET ANS = USR 15360 AND 3 AND TF 


Occam Research Inc. 

34 Washington Street 
POB 1055 

Trumansburg, NY 14886 
30 day warranty 


TO ORDER , call toll free 
1-800-854-7100 ext. 164 
(order desk only) 

1-800-422-4241 ext. 164 
(for Cal. orders) 

Tech info., call 607-387-5454 


MasterCard, VISA (include name <Sc exp. date) or 
money order. Add $4.00 handling for check or C.O.D. 
NYS add 7% sales tax. Write or call 607 number for 
data sheet. 


(Set ANS to the temperature on channel 3 in degrees 
F.) 


Specifications - Factory Aligned 


Measurement 

Range 

Resolution 

Temperature 

-25..200F 

0.05F 

DC Volts 

-1.5..2.1 

200uV 

AC Volts 

0..1 

150uV 

DC Current 

0..350uA 

0.02uA 

Thermocouple 

-100..1200C 

10C 

Frequency 

0..10KHz 

1 count 



AMATEUR RADIO 


Ham Hacker Programs 
from Hawg Wild Software 
reviewed by C. W. Johnson 

“Morse Code” 

In radio communications, Morse Code is still considered to 
be one of the best modes of communicating in the most adverse 
band conditions. And in band “pile-ups” Morse Code is still 
the one that is easier to filter out than voice communications. 
For emergency communication its the one that’s most reliable 
for messages. 

Whether you’re just learning Code, upgrading or just rusty 
and need more practice, this program is an excellent skill¬ 
building aid. 

This program comes up running with a menu, prompting for 
a choice. The first choice is “WRITE A MESSAGE,” which 
permits you to enter whatever text you wish to practice on. 
The second choice is “RANDOM CODE” which, if selected, 
generates at random code of: specific letters, all characters, 
letters only, numbers only, or mixed letters and numbers, 
according to which one you select. 


“For the DXer” 

If you’re having trouble contacting DX stations, then maybe 
the “MiniMUF 3.5” program from Hawg Wild Software can 
help you. MiniMUF calculates the MUF (Maximum Usable 
Frequency) for each hour of a 24 hour period. 

MiniMUF requires 16K. Upon loading the program comes 
up running with a prompt for viewing the menu or going right 
into the program. The menu explains the format for data 
entry: latitude, longitude, date, and sunspot number. Also the 
menu explains that by getting the solar flux number from 
WWV at 18 minutes past the hour, the sunspot number can be 
derived from the chart from the program. Some interpolation 
may be needed if the solar flux number is not a multiple of ten, 
but this is not a major concern. 

After the solar flux chart, the program prompts for trans¬ 
mitter, receiver, date, and sunspot data. The screen goes blank 
for 1 to 3 minutes. Then program then displays the MUF for 
each hour in GMT (Greenwich Time). 


The third choice is to “SEND CODE” using your choice of 
characters and spell. The text will be either the message entered 
under choice 1 or the random characters of choice 2. The pro¬ 
grams transmits audible signals through the TV set. (Note: 
some tuning is necessary to hear the tone clearly from the TV.) 

The fourth choice is “DISPLAY MESSAGE” which will 
display, for checking your accuracy, what was sent by code. 

The fifth and last choice “SAVE ON TAPE” saves the 
message and practice session for replay later. This choice can 
also be used to make a back up tape. 


This program is recommended for any ham trying to reach a 
specific area at a specific time. The only extra items needed for 
this program are maps with longitudes and latitudes, a radio 
for WWV listening and of course a ham station. Happy DX’ing. 

XFORTH® 

WRITTEN IN ENGLAND BY 
PROFESSIONAL PROGRAMMERS 
Sinclair ZX-81 'Timex T/S 1000* 


There is also a 2K version, in which you enter all characters 
you wish to practice on, included on the tape. 

I highly recommend this form of code practice due to its 
flexibility, and randomness. A fault of tapes and records for 
Code practice is that the text is eventually memorized. 

Happy Brass Pounding, 

Bil Johnson, WB8YIB 


HAWG WILD Software 

SOFTWARE COMPONENTS 

SYSTEMS HARDWARE 

P.O. Box 7668 

Little Rock, Arkansas 72217 


• Very full FORTH-79 sub-set 

• On cassette for 16K (or more) 

• Loads in one pass (unlike some versions 
which require up to four extra editor 
loads) 

• Compact coding - 10K+ still available for 
user code. 

• Sinclair specific look up tables (uses 
Sinclair code instead of ASCII) 

• Extra utilities - CLS. PLOT ... 

• BASIC call - return to BASIC with simple, 
one word inst. 

• Full FORTH restart - No toss of words or 
data 

• Only $25.00/tape ♦ $1.00 P&H. Arkansas 
residents add $1.00 

• F.P. Enhancement - Now available at 
only $15.00 ♦ $1.00 P&H 

HAWG WILD Software™ 

P.O. Box 7668 • Little Rock. Arkansas 72217 


Learn how to cash in on the $100 billion computer industry 
(even if you don’t own a computer) 

How To Get Rich With Your Microcomputer 

Reveals the facts you need to make your microcomputer pay for itself! 


Today there are no greater opportunities to make money fast than 
those presented by the booming microcomputer industry. America 
has never seen an industry grow so quickly and this growth will 
continue well into the 1990’s. Now is the time for you to take advan¬ 
tage of these fabulous moneymaking opportunities. Thousands of 
people have already proved the above statements! You can too! 
Many computer related businesses can be operated from the 
privacy of your own home and with little investment. Why not learn 
how to get your share of the dollars being made? 

SECRETS REVEALED 

The computer industry is filled with success stories in which 
people have soared to great profits in a short period of time. The 
book’s author, Ed Simpson, started his computerized mail list ser¬ 
vice and was reaping profits in 3 short months. This book reveals 
the secrets he and others used to obtain fast, high profit growth. 
You can apply these same techniques and watch your business ex¬ 
pand. 

NO EXPERIENCE NECESSARY 

You do not need to be a computer expert to make money in this in- 
dusty. The author himself had no previous computer knowledge 
before starting his successful business. Often you do not even need 
to own a computer and can start with a very small investment! This 
book does not stop with the descriptions of microcomputer based 
businesses but also reveals the marketing techinques so vitally 
necessary for you to succeed. 

CONTENTS 

This book is packed with detailed examples of how to make 
money with a microcomputer related business. Contains practical 
knowledge. 

•Word processing service 
•Software publishing 
•Selling computer supplies 
•Mail list services 
•Computer games 
•Newsletter publishing 
•Computer repair center 
•Computer rental 
•Marketing techniques 
•Low cost startups 
•Plus much more 

INVEST IN YOUR FUTURE 

You have invested from several hundred to several thousand 
dollars in your personal computer, not to mention your valuable 
time. Now invest in your future and watch your dreams come true! 


WHAT OTHERS SAY 

Here is proof of the value of HOW TO GET RICH WITH YOUR 
MICROCOMPUTER. These are actural reader comments and their 
letters are on file. 

“I found it enjoyable and it gave me some new ideas.” - Triangle 
Software 

"This book actually tells you how to make money with your 
microcomputer.” - M. Shadick 

“This book has been a tremendous help. A great addition to my 
library.” T. Strominger 

ORDER NOW - GET FREE PUBLICATION 

Order now and receive a free sample of COTTAGE COMPUTING, 
the publication which tells you how to make effective use of your 
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GUARANTEE 

You must be satisfied or return my manual within 90 days for full 
refund._ ' 


Please rush my copy of HOW TO GET RICH WITH YOUR 
MICROCOMPUTER and include my free copy of COTTAGE COM¬ 
PUTING. 

Enclosed $12 check or m.o. 

Name. 

Address . 

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Zip. 

Brand of 
computer owned 

(W any). 

Send order to HOME BUSINESS NEWS 

12221 Beaver Pike 
Jackson, Ohio45640 



,mm 










~*T«S NEWS - 


DAN ROSS RESIGNS 

When Clive Sinclair introduced the ZX81 to the British 
computer market, Timex, the watch company, handled the 
production. When Timex obtained the right to market the 
computer in North America (as the TS1000), they formed the 
Timex Computer Corporation. They also hired Dan Ross to 
head the division as vice-president of operations. Within five 
months, sales of the TS1000 accounted for 28 percent of all 
home computers sold in the U.S. 

In a January 23 article, Info World reports that Ross has 
announced his resignation from Timex effective March 1984. 
His position will be taken by Mike Jacobi. The company’s 
executive structure has been in a state of flux since last summer 
when the company began a major reorganization to speed 
introduction of the TS-1500, TS-2068, and related peripherals. 
Another goal of reorganization was the combination of Timex’s 
three sales divisions - watches, clocks, and computers-into one. 

Ross has not announced any plans for after his resignation. 
He has worked in the computer world for nearly twenty years. 
He began at IBM in data processing. Later he worked at Itel 
Corp., and Memorex. He came to Timex in March 1982. 

Next to Clive Sinclair himself, in the minds of many Timex- 
Sinclair users, Ross has been the man most closely identified 
with the Timex-Sinclair line of computers. In the last two years, 
Ross has worked closely with user groups and promoted educa¬ 
tional use of the TS-1000. He implemented the toll-free Timex 
hotline (1-800-24-TIMEX). He recently spoke at the Boston 
Timex-Sinclair Celebration, where he introduced the TS-2068 
and declared Timex’s desire to work with other vendors to 
develop software for the Timex line of computers. 



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16K CASSETTE & TEXT 

12.95 (p&h included) 

George Bezushko 
P.0. BOX 1752 
BINGHAMTON,NY 13902 

(NYS residents add 7 % tax) 


BATTERY 
BACKUP 

• Uninterruptable power supply 
for ZX80, ZX81, and T/S1000. 

• No memory loss when AC fails 

• Allows portable computing 
7'hrs normal, 4V 2 hrs with 16K 

• Completely rechargeable with 
your computer power pack. 

• No wiring, simple plug-ins. 

• Safe, easy to use, economical. 

• Ask for WITWATT 1000. 

$36.50 plus $3.50 shipping/ 
handling, CA residents add 6% 
sales tax.' Send money order or 
check to; WT ASSOCIATES, 

3808 Rosecrans St., #262, San 
Diego, CA 92110. 


The Lamb's 


Top Quality, 16K Games for 
TS lOOO or ZX 81 Owners 


BACTRAC *pacman' style 

EUREKA HIDDEN MAZE * TREASURES 

ROADHOG 3*0 NIGHT DRIVER 

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111 


THE LAMB'S SOFTWARE 
1449 Aalborg Way 
Solving, CA 93443 







ITEM: SYNCWARE. Several readers disagreed with our low 
assessment of Syncware News in the first issue of T-S Horizons. 
Well we were very impressed by issues 2 and 3, which contained 
a lot of good technical applications by knowledgeable writers. 
Consider this a retraction. If you are interested in the technical 
end of your TS1000, Syncware News is definitely worth check¬ 
ing out. $15 for 6 issues. P.O. Box 5177, El Monte, CA 
91734. 

ITEM: Wayne Green Books announces the publication of 
Converting To Timex/sinclair BASIC, by Stuart L. Bird. This 
book explains and demonstrates how to convert programs 
written for other computers to run on the Timex/Sinclair 
1000. Over 200 replacement commands are provided, each with 
a complete description and an example of the command in use. 
The book is organized into 15 chapters by category, in a dict¬ 
ionary-like format. The author also discusses the differences 
among BASICs, as well as cartain problem situations and their 
solutions. $14.95 from Wayne Green Books, Peterborough, 
NH 03458. 

TIP: When your cassette tapes are used over and over, harmful 
noises can accumulate which a portable tape recorder cannot 
completely erase. Erasing tapes for programming on a stereo 
cassette deck can cut down on cassette LOADing problems. 


T \< Ae*'^ cl>4 


ITEM: Ace Software announces two new programs for home 
financial applications: 

PAYOUT is designed to keep trak of your spending. Expenses 
are recorded by category and date, and spending trends are 
displayed on a monthly or quarterly basis. 16k. 

PAYOFF helps you use credit cards and charge accounts 
wisely. Twelve accounts can be figured at once. The program 
tells you pay off periods and amounts, and considers various 
factors such as changing balances, accounts with varying 
interest rates, and adding new purchases. 16k. 

Programs are $12.95 each from Ace Software, 2 East Oak 
Ave., Morrestown, N.J. 08057. 

ITEM: Softmark Associates, 210 Fifth Avenue, New York, 
N.Y. 10010, has published a marketing guide specifically for 
Timex-Sinclair software. Subject matter runs from ideas for 
marketable programs to production and advertising. The book 
is called “How to Market Your Timex-Sinclair Software”, and 
sells for $14.95 - money order, VISA, or Master Card (include 
card number and expiration date.) 




ITEM: Biblical Software. Electronics, 

The following is a list of TS Buffalo, NY 
programs that have biblical themes Avenue Rd. 

offered by several companies. Canada, MSI 


1585 Kenmore Ave., 
14217. In Canada, 1736 
, Toronto, Ontario, 
3Y7. <In Canada the 


“David and Goliath" and "The Ark." 
Biblical questions based on these 
two Old Testament stories. 
Flipcharts included. $12.75 each 
plus $1.50 postage and handling, 
Christian Software, Box 547, St. Rt. 
590, Bettsvi11e, OH 44815. 

"Proverbs." Game format teaches 60 
biblical Proverbs. Six difficulty 
levels. $7.50. DRRP Software, 

P.O.Box 3664, Peabody, MA 01980 

“Bible Books." Drill Old and New 
Testament books, categorize by type 
(history, poetry, epistle, etc.), 

check spelling of books, arrange in 
proper order. $5. <2K version 

3$.) 

"Ten Commandments." Drill and 
practice adding key words to 

complete each commandment, arranoe 
in proper order. $5. 

"Prodigal Son." 2 progr arris. 1) 
Tells story of prodigal with user 
interaction. 2) Role-playing-type 


prices are $99.95, $29.95, and 
$149.95, respectiveiy, and $4.50 
shipping.) 


ITEM: Printer paper. Here are 

several sources for paper for the ZX 
and TS 2040 printers. 

Timex TS 2040 

-Suntronics Co., 12621 Crenshaw, 
Hawthorne, CA 90250. Blue print 
$9.15 for 4 rolls. Black print 
$7.80 for 4 rolls. 

-E. Arthur Brown Co., 1702 Oak 
Knoll, Alexandria, MN 56308. 
Special paper. Similar to white 
stationery paper. Specify blue or 
black print. $5.95 per rol1. 

Sinclair ZX Printer 
Integrated Data Systems, 11 Brighton 
Av., Dept. TS, Toronto, Ontario, 
Canada, M4M 1P3. Silver-colored 
paper for the original ZX printer. 
$11.00 for 3 rolls. 


game based on the Prodigal Son 
parable. $10. 

Marydel Frohme, St. Johns United 
Church of Christ, 601 N. Highway 83, 
Bensenvilie, IL 60106. 


ITEM: 64K kit. 


Gladstone 
RAMs for 
Avai1able 
with case 
includes 
connec tor 
capacitors, 
$29.95. 

Add $3 


Electronics is selling 64K 
the TS 1000 as kits, 
in 3 forms. Complete kit 
$79.95. Bare bones kit: 
case, boards, 44 pin 
(you supply JC's, 
and voltage regulator) 
Fully assembled $99.95. 
shipping. Gladstone 










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ITEM: If you've written a good program for 

your TS 1000 and you think it could be 
marketed, here is an interesting book for 
you-'How to Market Your Timex-Sindair 
Software." Some of the topics covered are: 
buyer profiles, purchasing trends, technical 
considerations, packaging, pricing 
strategies, publisher selection, royalties 
negotiation, mail order and effective 
advertising. $12.95. Available from Softmark 
Associates, 210 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 
10010 . 

ITEM: FREE to Timex-Sindair retailers and 
distributors! Computer-Wear Software is 
making available to qualifying dealers a FREE 
copy of their "DEMO" program, designed by a 
Madison Avenue advertising director 
specifically to help dealers sell more Timex 
hardware and software. "DEMO" is an 
automatic sales program that is "easily 
loaded by a sales clerk once in the morning, 
to provide 10 fast paced minutes of 
self-repeating, hard sell promotion; sure to 
draw a buying crowd." For more information 
contact Computer-Wear, P.0. Box 1059, 
Riverdale, NY 10471. 

ITEM: Just in time for tax season! 

Ksoft, 845 We 11ner Rd., Naperville, IL 60540, 
has produced a set of five programs to help 
with filling out your Form 1040 and Schedules 
A, B, C, D, and E. Data is entered to the 
screen-display copy of the appropriate form. 
The program performs computations and also 
does some error detection - spreadsheet 
style! $14 for TS 1000 (16K) or $18 for the 
TS 2068, plus $1.50 shipping. (The cost is 
tax deductable.) 



SEND 9.95 FOR CASSETTE 
and manual. Gives 
pleasure and helps 
your thinking. 16K. 
CIRCLE CHESS, Box 63 
Des Plaines, IL 60017 


ITEM: 

Gary Smith, of Hawg Wild Software, has 
created a special forum for XFORTH users, 
called the XFORTH XCHANGE. Gary seems to be 
an all out FORTH fan. He is a member of the 
well-known FORTH Interest Group (F.I.G.) and 
promotes national FORTH conventions. XFORTH 
XCHANGE is a newsletter published irregularly 
that prints comments and suggestions from 
XFORTH users and alerts users to new articles 
and books on FORIH-related topics. The price 
is right. (Free) Write to: 

XFORTH XCHANGE, c/o HAWG WILD, P.O.Box 7688, 
Little Rock, AR 72217. 


PER50NAL WEALTH 
ACHIEVER 

DO YOU KNOW THE WAYS TO BUILD VAST 
WEALTH WITH A MINIMUM OF TIME AND 
EFFORT - AND OFTEN LITTLE CAPITAL? 

MOST PEOPLE THINK THEY ARE TOO BUSY 
MAKING MONEY TO EFFECTIVELY MANAGE 
IT; THEY MISTAKENLY BELIEVE THE 
PROCESS OF WEALTH ACCUMULATION IS 
COMPLICATED, MYSTERIOUS, AND TIME 
CONSUMING. AS A RESULT THEiR NET 
WORTH IS ONLY A FRACTION OF WHAT 
IT COULD BE, AND THEIR FINANCES 
ARE IN A STATE OF CONFUSION. 

PERSONAL WEALTH ACHIEVER IS A 16 K, 
MENU DRIVEN PROGRAM THAT WILL HELP 
YOU INCREASE INCOME AND NET WORTH 
WITH LITTLE TIME, EFFORT, OR RISK. 
THIS INTER-REACTIVE PROGRAM HELPS 
YOU, STEP BY STEP, TO GET FINANCES 
UNDER CONTROL AND TO EXPAND YOUR 
EARNINGS CAPABILITY. PROVEN WEALTH 
ACCUMULATORS, WITH GRAPHIC DISPLAYS, 


WILL HELP YOU TO GAIN FINANCIAL 



TS-lOOO; 1500 Kirkland, V.’A 98033 




TAX EXEMPTION FOR TIMEX USER GROUPS 

In a recent newsletter from the Triangle Sinclair Users Group 
of Carrbora, NC, Doug Dewey made the following announce¬ 
ment: 

“We have been granted an initial ruling of tax exemption as j 
an educational and scientific organization~and it is tax exemp¬ 
tion of the most desirable type: qualified to receive public 
charity moneys and gifts for which the giver receives a tax 
deduction. We are proud to announce this special status and 
we will be happy to tell other groups who are contemplating 
an application for this special category of exemption just what 
we went through to justify ourselves as a valuable asset to the 
public. We did all the work ourselves and found the people at 
the IRS particularly helpful, though they were very specific in 
their need for exact details, wording, and information. If you 
are a member of a users* group and you would like to keep the 
“tax-exempt** option open for yourselves, then keep accurate 
records, newspaper articles, agendas, notices of meetings where 
you deal with and benefit the public, dates of adoption of 
constitutions and everybodies signatures on the things you 
adopt as governing instruments-date everything, sign every- 
thing-and all of your organizing documents-there is specific 
wording which must be included in the organizing document 
to meet rigorous IRS standards: write them first and ask for 
the wording so it can be included in your document. Work out 
a budget, project into the future with your budget-at least 
three years-detail all memberships and other contributions of 
money, goods and services. (Evaluate these last two in terms 
of dollars and cents- and keep accurate monthly records). 
Most importantly, think through what you are doing and 


determine in your own mind if in fact you are working more 
in benefit of a small select group or more in benefit of the 
public at large-plan accordingly. 

Of all the computer users’ groups out there, Timex and 
Sinclair groups are going to be among the two or three possible 
groups that will be likely candidates for the very desirable 
tax exemption whereby donors may deduct contributions to 
the group as provided in section 170 of the Code: bequests, 
legacies, transfers, or gifts to a group or for the use of the 
group are deductible for Federal estate and gift tax purposes 
if they meet the applicable provisions of sections 2055, 2106, 
and 2522 of the Code. The advance period is over after a 
years’ time (December 31, 1984), and the ruling itself is based 
on the evidence that our funds and program are dedicated to 
the purposes set forth in section 501(c)(3) of the Code. And to 
assure our continued exemption, we should maintain records 
to show that funds are expended only for those purposes. 

I can tell you that all of us who are supporters of TSUG 
take this public trust seriously and pledge our work to the 
benefit of that public. I feel that we derive a substantial part 
of our strength from the best corporate ideals of the Timex and 
Sinclair companies. It has been in their nature to provide 
versatile utility, great economy of expense and design, and 
innovative technology in a small package. TSUG explores 
ways in which that technology can be put to work in the service 
of man and womankind.** 

If you would like more information, write to Triangle Sinclair 
U.G., 206 James St., Carrboro, NC 27510. 


Below are the addresses of some 
newly formed user groups. For more 
information send a large 
self-addressed stamped envelope; 


Southern Ohio and Northern Kentucky 
Art Gindin 
1823 Kinneys Lane 
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662 

Long Island Timex-Sinc1 air 
Paul Donel1y 
10 Idle Day Drive 
Centerport, New York 11721 


Phi1 ade 1phi a 
Mark Mi 11er 
9573 Wal ley Ave. 

Philadelphia, Penn. 19115 

Oklahoma TSUG 
Billy Casebeer 
P.O.Box 372 
Oologah, OK 74053 

For TS/2X users who are interested 
in Archaeology; 

Archaeological ZX User Group 
c/o Robin Smith 
30 Charles St. W#720 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4Y-1R5 





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SIZE* 

IX 

2X 

4X 

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125.00 

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112.80 

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INSTRUCTIONS: Print or type clearly. Multiple same-size ads to be run in the same or 

consecutive issues qualify for discount rates. 

AD REDUCTION: Because of the reduced page size of T-S HORIZONS, there is no additional 
charge for reduction or enlargement of ads where necessary. 

TERMS: All advertising is payable in advance until an account is established. Ad agencies 
write for discount information. 

FORMAT: Black and white only at present time. Provided that sharp, clean copy is 

available, an ad may be reproduced from an ad in another publication. 

CLOSING DATES: The deadline for all camera-ready advertising is the 15th of the month 
preceding issue date. Example: November 15th is the deadline for the December issue. The 
deadline for noncamera-ready advertising is the 10th. 

PUBLISHING FREQUENCY: MONTHLY. 

P. S. 

Fran the mail we've received it is evident that many TS 1000 owners have bought 
the TS 2068, and they are eager -for any information to help them to use it. 

Well, we are just as eager to provide it. Unfortunately there is a natural time 
lag after the introduction of a product before users become proficient enough to 
write about it. Also currently there are few products on the market associated 
with the 2068 for reviews to be written about. 

So while we are committed to covering the TS 1000, of course (for most of us, 
our "first love"), we especially encourage our readers to share with us as they 
learn more about the new computer. 

Well folks, that's all for issue #3. As always we have big plans for the 
future, and we hope you'll stick with us. 

Sincerely, 

Rkk Duncan, publ isher 





BEYOND 64K... 

Would you believe up to ONE MEGABYTE? 


Memory expansion is only the BEGINNING of the possibilities available through BASICare ... 
expansion system for Timex-Sinclair computers. 

This is a unique flexible ‘Building Block’ expansion system that enables you to expand your system 
choose. 

BASICare modules are what is required to turn any Timex 
Sinclair into a serious computer for business, education, 
industrial, and hobby applications. Your system can grow 
gradually as you can add new functions when and as required. 

In order to open the door to this exciting new world of 
expansions you require a Persona module. It simply (and 
firmly) plugs into your computer. No soldering. No 
modifications of any sort! 

BASICare uses a unique 64 way Organic Bus. This bus is the 
pathway to all modules. You have INSTANT access to all 
modules simply and easily through the PEEK and POKE 
commands. 

Memory can be added AS REQUIRED in blocks of 16K or 64K 
up to one MEGABYTE, This is memory that is INSTANTLY 
AVAILABLE. This is unlike any other system available for a 
home computer and compares in capability to multi-tasking 
systems costing thousands of-dollars! 

You can grow gradually, adding memory or other functions as 
you need them Just think of the added power expandable 
memory will provide! 

The PERICON modules add Input Output functions like driving 
relays, LED s or a Centronics type printer. 

The DROM offers a PERFECT alternative to tedious cassette 
saving and loading by holding your programs and data in non¬ 
volatile RAM. 

These, combined with the other BASICare modules, put YOU 
in complete control. 

PERSONA: 


the ONLY expandable- 


in any configuration you 


GROW UP TO REAL COMPUTING. With BASICare s Modular 
Expansion System the modules will never become redundant. If you 
eventually change to a bigger, more powerful computer, the chances 
are that we will have, a Persona interface to allow you to use your 
modules on the new equipment. 


-Interface 
module to enable BASICare to 
grow on your computer $ 59.95 
MINIMAP: —Memory mapping 
to extend the address space 
beyond 64K to 1 Megabyte 
$ 59.95 

RAM 16:— 16K add-on 
memory. $54.95 
RAM 64:—a TRUE 64K add¬ 
on memory $149.95 
DROM (2K): —Ultra low power 
memory backed by a 
rechargeable battery for non¬ 
volatile storage of programs 
and data $74.95 

USERFONT: —Provides user 
definable characters for DROM 
and TOOLKIT. $17.95 


PERICON a: —A general- 
purpose. user programmable 
device providing 24 lines of 
input output $ 54.95 
PERICON b: —24 lines of 
heavy duty output to access 
and control the outside world 
$ 59.95 

PERICON c: —To drive an 80 
column printer with Centronics 
type parallel interface $ 74,95 
SONUS: —Three voice music 
sound synthesizer with 
independent envelope control 
under BASIC commands 
$ 59.95 

TOOLKIT : —An 8K module of 
utilities in EPROM ROM $4£4i 


BASICare 


ufar Expansion Systems can ‘grow’ on Timex Sinclair; 
TS1000 microcomputers ZX81 
To order call toll-free 800 - 833-8400 In New York call (716) 874-5510. 


The phones are open 9AM - 10PM (E.S.T.) Monday to Friday. Call or write for further information. 

BASICare is available direct from Al OffQT/1 ft, JE ELECTRONICS and from selected d« 
1585 Kenmore Ave., Buffalo, NY 14217 a vffC Dealer enquiries welcome. 


HIGH SPEED 

INTERFACE 



TS1000 TS1000, 

TS1500, 
OR 
ZX-81 


FAST MODE / CONTINUOUS DISPLAY 


PICTURE THIS — 

• CONNECTING THE HS-1 INTERFACE TO A SPARE 
TS1000 CREATES A COMPUTING SYSTEM THAT IS QUICK 
AND RESPONSIVE LIKE MANY OF THE HIGHER PRICED 
PERSONAL COMPUTERS. 

• FAST MODE FLICKER NO LONGER OCCURS WHEN 
ENTERING PROGRAM LINES AND DATA. 

• SCREEN DISPLAYS OF PROGRAM LISTINGS AND OUT¬ 
PUT APPEAR AT AMAZING SPEEDS. 

• SOFTWARE LIKE FLIGHT SIMULATOR WILL HAVE 
RESPONSE TIMES LIKE A FIGHTER JET! 


TECHNICAL SUMMARY: 

THIS UNIQUE SYSTEM USES DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS TO 
COPY THE DISPLAY FILE FROM A FAST MODE COMPUTER 
TO A SLOW MODE TS1000 WHICH THEN PRODUCES THE 
DISPLAY. THE RESULTING SPEED GAIN IS AN IMPRESSIVE 
5.5 TIMES FASTER THAN A SINGLE COMPUTER IN SLOW 
MODE. 


KIT BUILDERS: 

ASSEMBLY IS MADE EASY WITH A SOLDER-MASKED 
SILKSCREENED PC BOARD. HIGH QUALITY 1C CHIPS (WITH 
SOCKETS) AND GOLD PLATED CONNECTORS PROVIDE 
RELIABILITY AND LONG LIFE. OTHER TIMEX/SINCLAIR 
PERIPHERALS MAY BE ATTACHED VIA A REAR CARD-EDGE 
CONNECTOR. INSTRUCTIONS AND SOFTWARE (< 1K) ARE 
INCLUDED. 


MAIL ORDERS TO: 

INTERFACE DESIGN 

P.O. BOX 151 
REXFORD, NY 12148 


HS-1 KIT $78 

HS-1 WIRED AND TESTED $98 

CABLE (9 INCH) $19 

SHIPPING $ 4 


NY STATE RESIDENTS ADD TAX 
PAYABLE BY CHECK OR MONEY ORDER