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PREMIER ISSUE 


T a 5 Hiriiini 

Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User 



NO. 1 


i $1.25 


NOVEMBER 


hardware 

Repeat Key Module 
Uninterruptible Power Supply 


REVIEWS 

Memotech Printer 

Best of Sync 


PROGRAMMING 

Creating Files 


User Friendliness 


PLUS 

Kid's Page 


EXCLUSIVE SPECIAL OFFER TO OUR READERS 
8-inch Disk Drive + Interface for under $200. 
See page 24 for details. 


and MUCH MORE 













Learn how to cash in on the $100 billion computer industry 
(even if you don’t own a computer) 

How To Get Rich With Your Microcomputer 

Reveals the facts you need to make your microcomputer pay for itself! 


Today there are no greater Opportunities to make money fast than 
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has never seen an industry grow so quickly and this growth will 
continue well into the 1990's. Now is the time for you to take advan¬ 
tage of these fabulous moneymaking opportunities. Thousands of 
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Many computer related businesses can be operated from the 
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how to get your share of the dollars being made? 

SECRETS REVEALED 

The computer industry is filled with success stories in which 
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You can apply these same techniques and watch your business ex- 


WHAT OTHERS SAY 

Here is proof of the value of HOW TO GET RICH WITH YOUR 
MICROCOMPUTER. These are actural reader comments and their 
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“I found it enjoyable and it gave me some new ideas.” - Triangle 
Software 


This book actually tells you how to make money with your 
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NO EXPERIENCE NECESSARY 

You do not need to be a computer expert to make money in this in- 
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CONTENTS 

This book is packed with detailed examples of how 
money with a microcomputer related business. Contains 
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•Word processing service 
•Software publishing 
•Selling computer supplies 
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•Computer games 
•Newsletter publishing 
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GUARANTEE 

You must be satisfied or return my manual within 90 days for full 


















T a S Hirixanx 

Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User 

2002 SUMMIT ST. PORTSMOUTH, OHIO 45662 


TABLE OF CONTENTS 


STAFF 


Moreland*s Memo 

4 

Publisher/Editor 

Richard Duncan 

TS News 

6 

Technical Advisor 

Tracy Norris 

Help By: Tracy Norris 

10 

Production Assistan 

Randall Duncan 

Numerical Analysis By: Ken Lewis 

17 

Editorial Consultant 

Edwin Simpson 

Creating and Saving Files 


Contributors 

Bill Johnson 

By: Bill Johnson 

20 

Tracy Norris 

C.W. Johnson 

Technical Tips By: Tracy Norris 

23 

Jason Setters 

Ken Lewis 

Kid*s Page 

14 

Edwin Simpson 

Bill Moreland 

Uninterruptible Power Supply 




By: C.W.Johnson 

26 

T-S Horizons is published monthly. The 

REVIEWS 


Subscription Rate is $12.00 for twelve issues 



(one year), from 2002 

Summit Street, 

Memotec Printer Package 

22 

Portsmouth, Ohio 45662. 


Best of Sync, Volume 1 

12 



Search for the Holy Grail 

15 

T-S Horizons welcomes article contributions, 



either for pay or 

for advertising 

LOW, LOW AO RATES 


considerations, from knowledgeable writers. 

Write for details. 





There's something NEW on the horizon. 

QUALITY, UTILITY, ACCESSIBILITY, AFFORDABILITY. 
This the combination you've been waiting for. 
Don't miss an issue. Subsribe NOW! 



PAGE 1 















T-5H 


■nun/ 

Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User 

2002 SUMMIT ST. PORTSMOUTH, OHIO 45662 


Dear Reader, 


e„come to the first issue of T-S Horizons. How ever you came to hold this magazine in 
your hands, we present it to you with pride. We are committed to bringing you usable and 
in eresting information about your computer - the TS-1000/ZK81 - at an affordable price 

wi 11 0 find°that 1 X sT ^ *“ Ve many M8 projects in the w °rks, and I think you’ 

Ljuter! " beneflt ^ than ^ ° ther ma S azi " a the Sinclair 

First of all, I would like to thank the folks who have placed ads in this issue As vou 
Xhfse adVartiSlng in a new ’ ^proved magazine is at best a risky proposition 

«: "LTfL ; r 1 ; co ' pan ‘ es ’ - ‘ ny j » at 

■ f,ith in the * daa ““ » - - 

Now I believe introductions are in order: 

naybe some of you have heard of Tracy Norris. Tracy hails from Louisiana. He is the 
official Technical Advisor for T-S Horizons, and he tells me he's in fol the d^tUn 

ZTio Tei \ PreSlden V £ the GUlf C ° aSt SinCl3ir User ’ S Grou P- He is the owner of Norris 
TS1000 I" r ?H 1CS# ^ aUth ° red two mannnoth technical manuals for the ZX81 and the 

you himselfT 8 ° °“ lraCy ’ S m ° deSty W ° Uld be offended ‘ (Besides he'd rather tell 

aboard. jUSt With ° Ut ^ ^ ^ be 3 T ' S a " d - welcome him 

Ken Lewis has agreed to write a continuing series of articles on numberical analysis and 

TlZ b3ChniCal ap P lications for the TS/ZX computers. Ken is a nuclear engineer and he 

subiect T 01 ° Ur 38reeS ’ If you know an y °ther Timex users who are interested in this 
ubject please give them the word. This series promises to be very useful. 

on'thfzxsi" s 1S 3 7“ archltect in Cincinnati. He has written several programs 

proSl fornix h may ^ Printed h6re ln the fUtUre * He has wr itten a budget 

slZZe :r B a ir 8ram t0 CalCUlate the SOlar heat ^ 0f a " Planned 

of Bill s mam interests is "user-friendliness" in computer programming. 

TsTe er Bm d0h 7 n . (wb ° 8068 by C - W * Joh " s °" here) has written an article for this 
up his Till T 30 uninterru Ptible power supply for the Sinclair, which is right 

F P .. SlnCe he 1S an elect ncal power coordinator for a large industrial plant 

Expect to also see some software from Bill in the future. P 



ina ly we come to the last Bill for T-S Horizons. (I wish!) Bill Moreland is the owner 
of Magic Castle Video in Columbus, Ohio. Magic Castle is a fascinating little store. If 
you re ever in Columbus, stop by. In the back part of the store. Bill sells about every 
videotape you can imagine. But the front half is devoted exclusively to 
limex-Sinclair-related products. He has three ZXSl's with keyboards set up all the time 
where you can try out almost any of the software you've ever seen advertised for the 
Sinclair. Bill has reviewed about 90% of the book/hard/software available (which is of 
course, a tremendous amount) and his store carries only the cream of the crop. Special 
thanks to Bill for his contribution to this and future issues. 


Special thanks to Ed Simpson, publisher of Cottage Computing magazine for helping to get 
us off the ground. Also to my nephew Jason, special consultant for "Kids Page." Also to 
Dad and Mom and Jeff and Debbie and Randy for their encouragement and advice. (Boy this 
is dragging on, isn't it?) Especially, I want to thank my partner in this endeavor, 
Carolyn Duncan. Thanks, babycakes. 


Stay with us gang. We need you. With a monthly schedule we need all the help we can get 
We encourage our readers to submit articles for publication. We want to be very 
accessible to you. Please fill out this issue's reader survey. And don't miss our 
special Christmas gift to you in our December issue. 


Sincerely, 

Rick Duncan, Publisher 


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PAGE 3 

























MORELAND’S MEMO 


Bill Moreland 


COMPUTER INDUSTRY UNSETTLED 

Computers for the home are the hottest retail 
electronics being sold these days. The 
industry is in an explosive phase, with 
hundreds of new products being introduced on 
a monthly basis. Things are moving so fast 
that the computer makers themselves cannot 
keep track of the market place. And therein 
lies a story. 

Every company that announced a new home 
computer at the Summer Consumer Electronics 
Show is late in delivering their products. 
You might think the tardy deliveries are 
caused by the huge consumer demand (parts 
shortages, production problems, or 
distribution difficulties). Yet in the face 
of this overwhelming consumer interest, some 
of the companies are rumored to be 
withdrawing from the market altogether. The 
list of companies with problems is 
impressive, since it includes some of the the 
"giants" of the fledgling industry. 

Atari has reported hundreds of millions in 
losses, starting last fall with an 
announcement that drove the stock markets 
wild. Mattel is reported to be considering 
withdrawal from the home electronics market 
because of its continuing financial losses. 
Commodore has been rumored to be in a 
similar situation. Texas Instruments has 
reported similar problems, yet has undertaken 
new initiatives in advertising and rebate 
programs to bolster sales. 

Only two companies have apparently escaped 
the huge financial loses. Coleco and Timex 
are said to be in better financial shape, but 
both are late in delivery of new products and 
seem to be having the same kinds of 
management difficulties that plague the 
others. 

These financial and management problems are 
brought about by the computer companies * 
attempts to gain a competitive edge by 
increasing their market share. Price 

PAGE 4 


have cost them millions of dollars both 
directly (losses on each sale) and indirectly 
(national advertising isn't cheap). 
Corporate thinking has been inclined to 
believe that giving away the razor to sell 
the razor blades (at a handsome price) is the 
way to maximize profits. Thus huge deficits 
now will lead to huge profits later, as 
buyers buy software for their low-priced 
toys. 

On first thought, all the rebate programs, 
price cutting, and promotional advertising 
being used by the industry appears to be to 
the benefit of the consumer. With basic home 
computers priced at one-third the level they 
were just one year ago, it appears that 
average Joe or Jane Citizen is getting a good 
deal. Unfortunately, the apparent good deal 
has turned into a huge headache for many. 

For example, people who bought Atari, Texas 
Instruments, Commodore, or Timex computers 
last year at this time paid as much as 500% 
more than they would pay now. We have all 
seen recent, extremely attractive ads for 
computers from various discount stores. 
Buying now seem to be very compelling. Yet 
several of these low price machines have been 
discontinued by the manufacturers. And 
replacement new products will not necessarily 
be compatible with old programs or 
peripherals. Substantial investments in 
libraries of programs to fit a new or old 
computer could be very risky for the 
neophyte, since the machine they are using 
could be obsolete before they get it home. 
More particularly, in the haste to save 
money, the consumer may buy programs or 
hardware from discount sources that do not 
know what they are selling, with the 
consequence that the new wiz-bang or 
thing-a-magig won't work with their computer. 
Mail order purchases are particularly risky 
that reason. The razor blade can be 
Jjpfarp for both the corporate giants and the 
aVerage customer. 


wars 


A second problem with the emphasis on 
discount pricing is the tendency towards 
buying machines that are inappropriate for 
the use the consumer has in mind. In 
striving to make a "good" buy (more megabytes 
per buck), the consumer may be misled by the 
promise of easy-to-use, user-friendly 
programs or operating systems that in fact 
require a genius to interpret. For example, 
one of the more common mistakes is the 
purchase of a cheap computer that is not 
designed for handling large amounts of data, 
yet the cost conscious buyer tries to apply 
the device as a list manager or number 
cruncher. Even small payrolls or mailing 
lists can tax the capacity and capability of 
small home computers. 

Saving $50 to $300 on the purchase makes good 
sense, but only if it means not having to 
spend hundreds of hours or dollars making the 
machine do what you want it to do. Some 
people don't have the time to become 


programmers, nor do they necessarily want to 
learn the details of the electronics involved 
in interfacing the computer to a printer or a 
disk system or a modem. 

All of these problems lead to frustration on 
the part of the average computer buyer, with 
many people simply giving up. It would be 
hard to find out but interesting to know how 
many computers are gathering dust on closet 
shelves because of frustration and anger. 

Indeed, over the long run it may be the 
ultimate irony of the present boom in the 
computer business that the larger the number 
of computers sold, the less computer literate 
we as a society become. Let's hope not. 

Caveate Emptor. 

(Editor's Note: Bill's articles was written 
shortly before the announcement that Osbourne 
Computer Corporation had filed for 
bankruptcy.) 


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Sunday Noon-6 p.m. 


WE DON’T PLAYGAMES 

If you're looking for Pdoman or Asteroids, 
then I suggest you move on to another ad. 
We offer powerful 16K ZX81/TS1000 
software for the serious student or 
professional. 


EOUCATIONAL ’Fully Interactive 


-French Tutor 
German Tutor 
Spanish Tutor 
•Italian Tutor 
-Math Tutor 


Math Tutor-Advanced 
Physics Tutor 
•Electronics Tutor 
•Sinclair Basic Master 
•ZX/TS Machine Code Master 


FUNCTIONAL •Put your Sinclair to work 


Algebra Solver Physics Solver 
Calculus Solver -Circuit Analysis 
Oill Eq Solver -Flight Assistant 

-Matrix Math -Finance Management 


All Programs 

CREITECH 

24 Is.ms R,| 

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01945 


$9.95 


Also available 
on other systems 


PAGE 5 










T-S NEWS 


ITEM: Hardware and software from an unusual 
source! The Electronic Supermarket of Lynn- 
field, Mass, sells a wide assortment of items 
from speaker components to telephones and 
about anything you can think of, mostly 
surplus and closeout items. The most recent 
quarterly catalog advertised two offers of 
special interest to TS-1000 users. 

- "[A] large quantity of dependable computer 
keyboards with cases that can be hard-wired 
to...your Times-Sinclair ZX81." Said to be 
"from a $5,000 computer, with micro-switches 
of gold plated cross point types." They say 
the ZX81 can be mounted inside the case. 
Construction data included. $27.77 plus 
postage and handling. Catalog No. D3N0278 

Sinclair software package for $10.00. 
Cassette #1, a IK games pack. Cassette #2, 
Junior Education, 16K, math and spelling. 
Cassette #5, Junior Education, IK, math. 
Cassette #6, Family Quiz, 16K. $2.88 each or 
$10 for four plus postage and handling. 
Specify Cassette # when ordering. Catalog 
No. 3M0214 

Electronic Supermarket, P.O.Box 988, 
Lynnfield, MA 01940, (617)532-2323. Accept 
Visa, MC, American Express. 


"Timex Computer Family Sourcebook." Over 
1000 programs and accessories for the TS 
1000. From Atlantic Computer, Box 936, 
Norfolk, VA 23501. $8.95 plus $1.25 postage 
and handling. 

- I wonder if either of the above books list 
E. Arthur Brown's directory. Their address 
is 1702 Oak Knoll Drive, Alexandria, MN 
56308. Their 1983 directory sold for $5.00. 


ITEM: This may be the most important an¬ 
nouncement in this column. If you are one of 
the thousands of TS1000 owners who are tired 
and frustrated with tape storage and long for 
a high quality dependable disk drive for your 
computer, DO NOT MISS THE DECEMBER ISSUE OF 
T-S HORIZONS! Tracy Norris, Technical 
Advisor to T-S Horizons, will be unveiling a 
new 8-inch disk drive especially designed for 
use with the TS-1000. The price? Let's just 
say you will literally be amazed. Tentative¬ 
ly, under $200 for one (includes interface). 
Under $110 for the second. Don't miss T-S 
Horizons special Christmas gift to you. In 
the December issue. 


ITEM: Since E. Arthur Brown Company 
published its "Timex-Sinelair 1983 Directory, 
early this year, at least two other companies 
have come out with something similar. 

"The Timex/Sinclair Source Book" is put 
out by Micro Design Concepts, P.O.Box 280, 
Carrollton, TX 75006. With over 600 
listings, using the book is said to be 
"almost like shopping in a department store 
devoted exclusively to the TIMEX/SINCLAIR 
computer." $6.95 plus $1.25 postage and 
handling. 


ITEM: Keyboards. At least two companies 
that had primarily been middlemen for larger 
companies that sold Timex-related products, 
have come out with their own keyboards in the 
last couple of months. They seem to be good, 
reasonably-priced items, with nice extra 
features. 

E. Arthur Brown's product is the "MKIV 
Keyboard." There are forty keys, all 
labelled like the Sinclair keyboard, plus a 
space bar. The keyboard has a port to add a 
numeric keypad which is not available at 
press time. $89.95. Address is 1702 Oak 
Knoll Drive, Alexandria, MN 56308. 


PAGE 6 



The Sinclair Place is featuring their 
"Compact Keyboard" with enlarged DELETE and 
FUNCTION keys, two SHIFT keys (also 
enlarged), a space bar, and a numeric keypad 
included. We don't know if the keys feature 
the Sinclair legends or not. $88.80. 
Sinclair Place, P.O.Box 2288, Redmond, WA 
98052. 


ITEM: A reader in Pennsylvania would like to 
form a network of Sinclair Spectrum users. 
If you have a Spectrum and are interested in 
communicating with other Spectrum owners 
nationally, please drop us a line. (Send it, 
Attn: Spectrum User Group) 


ITEM: Here are three 
magazines for Timex computer 
users that you may not know 
about. 

- Sync Ware News, P.O.Box 5177, El Monte, CA 
91734. Sync Ware concentrates on "Electronic 
and Other Technical Application of Timex 
Computers" A few clever program listings 
(not all that technical) and lots of in-house 
ads. Doesn't seem to be worth the $15 per 
year (6 issues) subscription rate (but then I 
may be prejudiced). 

- TS User, P.O.Box 155, Vicksburg, MI 49097. 
TS User (not to be confused with Timex 
Sinclair User) is eight pages per month, 
about half of which is a series of quick 
hardware, software, and book reviews. The 
remainder is composed of programs and program 
tips, hardware hints, editorials and 
"GOZZIP." GOZZIP has "inside info" on 
developments at Sinclair, Timex, and other 
major marketers. Also they have no advertis¬ 
ing so they aren't afraid to alert buyers to 
"crooked, lazy and stupid" dealers or to 
praise reliable dealers. The writing style 
is choppy and not very "user friendly", but I 
would recommend it if you plan to buy a lot 
of software or hardware. $16.95 for 12 
monthly issues. 


- Busyness, P.O.Box 421773, San Francisco, CA 
94101. "Business/Professional Applications 
for Timex/Sinclair users." Haven't seen a 
copy yet, but it might be just what some 
users are looking for, if the quality is 
good. $12 for 6 bimonthly issues. 

(By the way, in case you didn't know by now, 
Syntax Quarterly has bitten the dust. Small 
wonder! $5.00 per issue is just too much. 
However, Syntax Newsletter seems to still be 
alive and kicking.) 

ITEM: Intercomputer has come out with a neat 
gadget called the Intercohtroller. It is a 
computer-controlled HV bus. Plug the power 
cord in the wall and the interface into the 
ZX/TS, enter a few lines of BASIC, and up to 
four appliances can be plugged in, all under 
computer-control. Home, office, lab, and 
scientific applications. Intercomputer, 
Inc., P.O.Box 90, Prudential Center, Boston, 
MA 02199. 


\general systems consulting / 

\ 2312 Rolfing Rock Drive / 

\ Coolcv, G«OT 9 * 30027 / 

1 CASSETTE SOFTWARE 

SH 

(404)433*7143 
(404) 243-7369 

SINCLAIR ZXi! 

0m Ml TIMEX SINCLAIR 1000 

mS LM TIMEX SINCLAIR 1500 

DESIGNED TO HELP MONITOR YOUR FINANCES 

16K MINIMUM FOR T/S 1000 4c ZXJ1 

CMAUCt MV, OVISA OHC 7“ '-'---— —- ' 

AMORTIZATIONS 

14.95 


BARCHARTS 

15.96 


ANNUITY EVALUATION 

14.95 


FILE MANAGER 

14.95 


BANK STATEMENT BALANCER 

14.95 


.CHECKBOOK SIMULATOR 

1435- 


DEPRECIATION STRAIGHT UNE 

1435— 


DEPRECIATION DECLINING BALANCE 

15.95 


DEPRECIATION ACRS 

~TM5 


DIET PLAN 

12.95 


HOME BUDGET 

“7335— 


HOME INVENTORY 

14.95 


HOME PAYABLES 

~E35 


HOME EQUITY EVALUATION 

14.95 


REAL ESTATE INVESTING 

t5.95 


SAVINGS INVESTMENT ANALYSIS 

"15:95 ' 


IRS 1040 LONG FORM 

29.95 


IRS IOWA SHORT FORM a 1040 EZ 

24.95 


INCOME TAX PROJECTIONS 

16.95 


IRA ANALYSIS 

14.95 



TOTAL YOUR PRICE 


Anrwrat 

POSTAGE/HANDLING 

3.00 

OTY/STAT1 

TOTAL PRICE 



PAGE 7 






















































ITEM: As mentioned in the box below the 

computer language FORTH is now available for 
the TS-1000 from at least three sources. 
Gary Smith, of Hawg Wild Software, has 
created a special forum for XFORTH users, 
called the XFORTH XCHANGE. Gary seems to be 
an all out FORTH fan. He is a member of the 
well-known FORTH Interest Group (F.I.G.) and 


UNKNOWN TONGUES 

ALTERNATIVE COMPUTER LANGUAGES 

The first computer language most people learn 
is BASIC. It’s easy for beginners to learn. 
It s powerful and versatile enough to do just 
about any programming job that might arise. 
The BASIC dialect that Clive Sinclair 
developed and incorporated into the ZX81 is 
both sophisticated and compact. Also the 
fact that it is built in as ROM, means that 
the BASIC language does not take up any of 
the RAM area. In most other computers, like 
the Apple, the BASIC is stored on a disk and 
must be loaded into the RAM, taking up 
valuable memory space. 

BASIC has been the mainstay of personal 
computers since they came into existence. 
However, BASIC, whether Sinclair's or someone 
else's, has some inherent weaknesses, mainly 
slowness and lack of rigor. It is easy to 
write a sloppy, disorganized BASIC program. 

There are other computer languages and a few 
are gaining a lot of popularity in the world 
of computing. While most experts feel that 
BASIC is here to stay, because of its 
simplicity and the extent to which it has 
established itself, it is clear that many 
users are tiring of BASIC and going on to 
newer, faster, more sophisticated languages. 

So where does that leave you and me - the 
loyal Timex-Sinclair users, with our 8K 
Sinclair BASIC ROMS built right in? Does a 
TS-1000 owner have to go out and buy a big 
expensive machine to satisfy his lust for 
language? 

PAGE 8 


promotes national FORTH conventions. XFORTH 
XCHANGE is a newsletter published irregularly 
that prints comments and suggestions from 
XFORTH users and alerts users to new articles 
and books on FORTH-related topics. The price 
is right. (Free) Write to: 

XFORTH XCHANGE, c/o HAWG WILD, P.O.Box 7688, 
Little Rock, AR 72217. 


We at TS-Horizons were glad to learn that 
several new companies have developed two of 
the more popular alternatives to BASIC for 
Sinclair-based machines. 

Here we'd like to present a quick overview of 
the new products, (Longer more in-depth 
articles will appear in later issues.) 

TREE-FORTH 
SoftMagic Corp. 

1210 W. High Street 
Bryan, Ohio 43506 

X-FORTH 

Hawg Wild Software 

P.O.Box 7668 

Little Rock, ARK 72217 

ZX-FORTH 
Forth Dimension 
1451 N. Union Street 
Middletown, PA 17057 


FORTH was designed to make the best possible 
use of the computer's memory and speed, two 
cruicial elements in a personal computing. 
FORTH is becoming very popular, due primarily 
to efforts of a small but growing group of 
computer users, the FORTH Interest Group, or 
FIG. FORTH is fast, about ten times as fast 
as BASIC. FORTH is multi-tasking. In other 
words while BASIC can perform only one 
operation at a time, FORTH can handle up to 
10, or even more in some systems. 

FORTH is available for the Apple II, Heath, 
IBM-PC, PDP-11, and TRS-80. Now it is 


l 








available for the Sinclair (XC81, TS-1000, 
TS-1500) from three sources. All three are 
based on FORTH-7 9 which is. the current 
standard developed by FIG. 

TREE-FORTH has a chip-based system, that 
plugs right into your Sinclair PCB, and your 
computer can be switched from BASIC to FORTH, 
by an external switch. TREE-FORTH is 
resident on a chip, so there is no wait for 
the system to load. Also, since EPROM*s, can 
be reprogrammed the chip can be returned to 
SoftMagic for revisions, to meet any future 
standards. TREE-FORTH*s introductory price 
for the chip is $49.95 plus $2.00 postage and 
handling. 

XFORTH is a cassette-based system, and is 
said to contain a very full FORTH vocabulary. 
It also can be returned to BASIC, by a simple 
keyboard command. Gary Smith of Hawg Wild 
Software promotes XFORTH with XFORTH XCHANGE, 
a special newsletter for XFORTH users. Hawg 
Wild is continually revising XFORTH to create 
new versions. The price is $25.00 and $1.00 
shipping and handling. 

ZX-FORTH from the FORTH Dimensions is also 
cassette loaded. Some of its features are: 
auto-repeat on keys, pixel graphics, 
customized backups, and full screen editing. 
It comes with two programs: a breakout game 
and a simple word processor. $42.95 plus 
$2.00, Postage and Handling. 

Partial PASCAL 
Semper Software 
1569 Brittany Court 
Wheaton, IL 60187 


Semper Software has introduced what they call 
"Partial PASCAL." Educators are really 


pushing PASCAL, because 

it 

is a 

very 

structured 

language, 

and 

it 

is said 

to 

encourage 

organized 

logical 

thinking 

in 


students. For instance, in a PASCAL program, 
all variables are defined and dimensional at 
the beginning. This requires the user to 
carefully think through his program. Pascal 
uses "block structioning" in which groups of 
related statements are organized into blocks. 
Many educators feel the students should learn 
PASCAL before being exposed to such sloppy 
languages as BASIC and FORTRAN. 

In PASCAL and some other language, you have 
"integers**, which are all the whole numbers 
from -32768 to +32768 and take up 16 bits of 
memory, and you have "real" numbers which 
take up 32-bits and include fractions. 
Partial PASCAL leaves out real numbers and 
all the commands that deal with reals. In 
integer arithmatic all fractional parts are 
dropped; thus 7/2 = 3 exactly. By being 
restricted to integers (and for other 
reasons). Partial PASCAL is much faster than 
BASIC. However the lack of fractions, makes 
it difficult to use in some scientific 
applications. Of course, integers are 
adequate for program counters and make 
Partial PASCAL usable for games and other 
application. 

Partial PASCAL*s tape handling system appears 
very attractive. Data saved on tape can be 
accessed by other programs, unlike Sinclair 
BASIC in which data are locked into each 
program. 

It is quite encouraging to see such 
developments as alternative languages appear 
for the Sinclair. We will be presenting more 
information on the subject in the future. In 
the meantime if anyone hears of a ZX81 with a 
LISP or a TS-1000 with a LOGO, be sure and 
let us know. 



SEND 9.95 FOR CASSETTE 
and manual. Gives 
[pleasure and helps 
[your thinking. 16K. 
CIRCLE CHESS, Box 63 
Des Plaines, IL 60017 


This Tiny Ad 

announces Partial Pascal lor the ZX81, Timex 
Sinclair 1000 and 1500. Partial Pascal is a 
subset of ISO Pascal without records, sets, 
labels, got os and reals. 

16K required $30 postpaid 

Spmnpp Snftwurp 

1569 Brittany Court Wheaton, IL 60187 


PAGE 9 




HELP! 

By: Tracy Norris 

Hello, 1*111 glad you could join us this month! 
This is the premier issue of TS-HORIZONS, 
probably the best computer magazine on the 
market for the Timex line of personal comput¬ 
ers. TS-Horizon's owner Rick Duncan has 
asked me, Tracy Norris, to write a few 
columns each month for the Horizon and I 
heartily agreed for several reasons. 1) 
TS-Horizons is staffed by people who put 
their pants on one leg at a time, just like 
you and me. 2) Since it is a new publica¬ 
tion we all have a chance to put our 2-cents 
in as far as the kind of magazine it should 
be. 3) Rick has selected the choice few who 
know what they are talking about to write 
regular columns in this magazine. Note: 
This does not exclude YOU! Obviously, if you 
have the intelligence to order a subscription 
to such a fine publication then you have the 
quality it takes to write for it. Let me 
tell you a little about myself. My name is 
Tracy Norris, owner/operator of T-tech 
Industries, a subsidiary of Norris Radio and 
Electronics. My firm specializes in only one 
line of computer, the Timex 1000 & 2000 
series of personal computers. I repair, 
modify and offer advice on the Timex. If 
your computer falls apart you know where to 
send it for a repair!!! Enough of the 
talkity-talk, lets get on with what this 
article is really about. 


This column "HELP!" is for you, the Timex 

user to get your questions about the Timex 

answered. All you have to do is send me a 
question and I will do everything possible to 
publish it in TS-Horizons along with an 
answer. If you do not feel like waiting 

every month for an answer, just send your 

question with a SASE and I will send a speedy 
reply back to you. I am sorry to say that I 
am only an intermediate program so I think it 
would be best to keep "HELP!” related to 
hardware questions only. You may think that 
your question is too small or too large for 
me to answer. HOGWASH! I don't mind sending 
an answer one page long or 3000 pages long 


(.in the latter case you supply paper & 
pencils!). As for your questions being 
answered in this column, I think it would be 
best to ask for pertinent information only, 
due to the limited space available. Here's a 
good question sent from a regular customer of 
mine: 

Question: 

Tracy, I am having major problems trying 
to SAVE and LOAD on my TS-1000. I am using a 
CTR-31 tape deck from Radio Shack, a Timex 
1016-16K RAM, and the ZX printer. Can you 
give me a clue as to what might be causing my 
problems? 

Don Hughes, Erie, Colorado 

Answer: 

Yours is not the first question of this 
sort that I have come across. There are a 
few things that must be kept in mind when 
trying to SAVE and LOAD. A portable tape 
recorder is a device that is intended for 
voice or music recording and playback. The 
unit need not be very precise to accomplish 
that particular task. But nowadays the small 
inexpensive tape recorders are being used to 
SAVE and LOAD computer programs, a highly 
precise task indeed! Did you know that one 
bad bit in 16000 being read from tape can 
destroy a LOAD? That bad bit can be caused 
by several things, for instance: piece of 
dirt or smudge on tape caused by touching the 
tape with the fingers, something magnetic may 
have been placed near the tape causing a 
portion of the data to be erased, a wobbly 
tape head not positioned at the right READ 


YOU'VE GONE TO THE REST 

Now Come To The Best 

NORRIS RADIO & ELECTRONICS 

TRACY NORRIS. Owner 


1 44 TERRY DRIVE 

Authorized Sinclair 

SLIDELL, LA. 70-458 

Service Center 


PAGE 10 




or WRITE angle on the tape (azimuth adjust 
out of whack), 60 Hz hum coming from a bad 
filter circuit in the recorder (need to run 
unit on batteries), clock noise coming from 
the ZX printer (need to place 5mfd capacitor 
across 5 volt line on the edge connector), 
using inferior tapes, or leaving the MIC and 
EAR plugged in at the same time when SAVEing 
or LOADing causing feedback to be recorded 
on the tape with the data. I hope that of 
these causes you can find your problem. 

T. Norris 


It’s Here 

The Partial Pascal programming package 
includes a full screen editor, Partial Pascal 
compiler, example programs, run-time in¬ 
terpreter and user manual. 

16K ZX81, TS1000, TS1500 rqd. $30 ppd. 
Semper Software 

1569 Brittany Court Wheaton IL 60187 


COTTAGE 

COMPUTING 

MAKE YOUR COMPUTER PAY FOR ITSELF! 

Learn how you can make money with your 
computer. Cottage Computing is a new monthly 
publication which reveals the money-making 
secrets you need. 

SUBSCRIPTION: $12.00 year SAMPLE: $1.00 
Ad rates: $5/inch 

HOME BUSINESS NEWS 

12221 Beaver Pike 
Jackson, Ohio 45640 

Don’t Mist A Singh Imm 

SUBSCRIBE TODAY! 

ONLY $12 FOR 12 ISSUES! 


LET YOUR 2X81 /TIMEX lOOO 
WORK FOR YOU! 

PERSONAL AND BUSINESS PROGRAMS: 

Are on cassette, are menu driven, run with or without a printer and save 
on tape automatically 

SALES FILE 16K or 64K: 

Holds (150 16K) (600 64K) products w wholesale and retail prices — 
Shows separate wholesale and retail totals and amount of profit m up 
to (25 16K) (100 64K) different accounts — Records inventory automat¬ 
ically or manually — Totals sales tax — Cash register mode totals, 
identifies, adds sales tax. and keeps records for your bookkeeping — 
Prints a list of products, accounts, inventory and sales slips with printer 
**'A must for any small business**' $19 95 

CHECKING 16K or 64K: 

Lists (25 16K) (100 64K) deposits showing amount and date entered 
— Lists (80 16K) (500 64K) checks and displays check number, date 
and payee — Lists by account total of checks written — Keeps running 
total of checks written and balance left in account — Adds interest and 
subtracts service charges. — Search for a check by number, name, 
date or amount Print a list of deposits, accounts, and checks with printer 
"'Great for tax records '** $9 95 

INVENTORY 16K or 64K: 

May be used for everything from keeping an accurate inventory for your 
business to your personal record collection. — Holds up to (150 16K) 
(750 64K) items w comments for each — Comments may be used for 
serial numbers, dates, prices or location — Lists all items, search for 
single item, change or delete any item. — Sort items in alphabetical or 
numerical order — Prints a list of items, quantities and comments 
"‘Everyone should have an inventory of household items in case 
of fire or theft .*" $9 95 

MAILING LIST 16K or 64K: 

Holds (100 16K) (425 64K) names, addresses and telephone numbers 
— Search by name, city, zip code, or phone number — Will sort by 
name city, or zip code m alphabetical or numerical order - Lists all 
names, changes or deletes — Prints list of names or names and 
addresses or address labels if they are available for your printer 
"*A valuable tool for your home or business'** $9 95 

APPOINTMENT CALENDAR 16K: 

May be used for everything from reminding you of birthdays to business 
appointments. — Just enter the date and list up to ( 8 ) appointments per 
day for up to (31) days. — Lets you change or delete any appointment 
— Print a list of appointments for day or month Save all appointments 
on tape 

"'Keep a permanent record of past appointments'" $9 95 

FINANCIAL RECORD KEEPER 16K: 

User can define and use 20 files of income and or expenses which may 
be noted as tax deductible for future reference if applicable — Informa¬ 
tion may be reviewed in various ways — Includes ability to correct or 
change information already entered without knowledge of computers or 
programming. At end of year you have a complete overview of cash 
flow for the preceding year and a list of tax deductible expenses — 
Prints all information with a Timex or compatible printer $14 95 

FINANCIAL RECORD KEEPER PLUS - 4SK: 

Does everything the above 16K version does, plus keeps up to 500 
checking transactions and it automatically reconciles the checkbook with 
the bank statement 

"'A complete finance package"*. $19 95 

GRADEBOOK 16K to 64K: 

A sophisticated, friendly and flexible grade management program for 
teachers of all levels — Ranks students by weighted or unweighted 
average — An example of the program s capacities with 16K 50 stu¬ 
dents may have up to 40 exams — GRADEBOOK is limited only by 


memory size 

'"Wntten by an instructor at Purdue University'*'. $9 95 

INVOICE CONTROL: 

A program designed to keep track of and print invoices for the small 
business. — Is self-adjusting to memory size. — Will hold (2016K) 


(120/64K) invoices of up to (5 16K) (10 64K) lines each — Review or 
change any invoice, list all invoices, list invoices with an open balance, 
enter additional payments and review invoices written to a particular 
account. Prints your company name and address on each in¬ 
voice. $1495 

Send for free catalog of personal, business & educational programs such 
as “CASH REGISTER," MULTIPLICATION TABLES, MATH QUIZ and 
FLASH SPELLING at $9 95 each — C-10 blank cassettes packaged in a 
hard plastic box 10 pack $8.50 - 5 25" Diskettes sinale side double-density 
soft sectored with hub nngs 10 pack only $18 00 —add $2 per 10 pack 
shipping for tapes and diskettes. 


Any three $9.95 tapes for $24 95 DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

Add $ 1 .00 per tape for shipping Indiana res add 5% sales tax Send Certified 
Check, M.O., Visa or MasterCard No with Exp Date 

MEATH COMPUTER SERVICES 
950 East - 52 South 
Qreentown, IN 46936 
Phono (317) 628/3130 




PAGE 11 





















BOOK REVIEW 


By: Rick Duncan 

Best of Sync, Volumn 1 
Creative Computing Press 
39 E. Hanover Ave. 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 
$9.95 

Recently I was looking for a good book on the 
TS-1000/ZX81. I wanted something that was 
strong on programming skills and featured a 
lot of program listings. When I came across 
"The Best of Sync" , Volume 1, thinking this 
was what I'd been looking for, I quickly 
bought it. After all it was filled with game 
listings, articles about things like 
graphics, programming techniques, machine 
language, and hardware projects. Plus it had 
about twenty pages of product reviews thrown 
in for good measure. Here was a chance to 
buy a whole years worth of Sync magazine for 
just $9.95, I couldn't go wrong! Right? 

Well, maybe half-right. What I didn't 

realize but should have was that in 1981, the 
year that Sync began publishing, the magazine 
was written mostly for users of the ZX80 
computer. The more advanced ZX81 was not 
introduced until October 1981. Thus most of 
the contents of The Best of Sync , Volume 1, 
refer to the ZX80 and its applicability is 
severely limited for ZX81 and TS-1000 users. 

Most people who ordered the ZX81 from 

Sinclair when it first came on the market 

received a special issue of Sync which 
contained reprints of articles from the first 
year specifically applying to the ZX81. 

Those articles listed below that were 
featured in that special insert are indicated 
by an asterisk (*). 

One of the best features of The Best of Sync 
is the games section (Chapter 1). Most were 
written for the ZX80 but have been converted 
by the editors to run on either the ZX80 or 
ZX81. All games are for IK to 2K. The 
assortment is nice. It has widgets and 
herkles, detectives and masterminds, chessmen 
and taxmen, Tic Tac Toe, hangman, and a 

PAGE 12 


wordsearch puzzle generator. However the 
games are all simplified. For instance, in 
one game, motorcycles are represented by a 
black square and a grey square. 

The mathematical applications chapter (#2) 
does have some utility. It tells you how to 
use your computer to set up bar charts*, 

factor to prime numbers, score tests, plus 
some others that are not-so-hot. One is an 
18-line program to calculate square roots on 
the ZX80, which does not have the SQR 
function (or trig functions, or EXP, or LN, 
etc.) 

The graphics chapter (#3) was a bright spot. 
It includes tutorials on game-creating, on¬ 
screen picture drawing, and high-resolution 
graphics simulation. 

Also of interest is Chapter 4 (Useful 
Programs). "An Inventory System" * is a very 
usable program and probably compares with 
programs sold by software companies. The 
remaining articles are of limited interest. 
(Two on music generation using the ZX80 and a 
radio, and a "Billboard" program). 

Chapter 5 on programming techniques is about 
75% material that is of no use to ZX81 
owners. The concepts behind "Using Key and 
Token Expression," * "Expression 
Evaluators", * and "PEEK and POKE," are 
probably already familiar to most Sinclair 
users. 

Personally, the most disappointing chapter 
was the sixth one, on program conversions. I 
have been doing some research on converting 
BASIC programs written for other computers to 
Sinclair BASIC. I had hoped to find some 
useful information in this section. However 
all of the articles deal with the ZX80 
version of BASIC, except one which discusses 
converting ZX80 programs to run on the ZX81. 

Chapter 7, Machine Language, was another sore 
spot. "An Introduction to Machine Code" was 
edited to apply to the ZX81, but most of the 
other articles in the chapter applied solely 
to the ZX80. 








Chapter 8, Hardware Theory and Projects, 
included several good projects for the ZX80 
and MicroAce computers. In most cases 
applying the instructions to the ZX81 and 
TS-1000 shouldn’t be too difficult. 

I am still trying to figure out why Sync 
included Chapters 9 and 10. Chapter 9 is a 
compilation of all the product reviews from 
the first year. I don’t think any of these 
items, except one book are still available. 
The others apply strictly to ZX80 related 
products. ’’Resources,” Chapter 10 is another 
dubious section. At least half of the 
marketers listed here are no longer in 
business and the rest are no longer offering 
the products listed. 

If you own a Sinclair ZX80 and you plan to 
use it quite a bit, then I recommend you buy 
this book (unless you have the first six 
issues of SYNC). It may be the last book 
ever published on the ZX80. 

But if you own the ZX81 or TS-1000, I warn 
you that The Best of SYNC , Volume 1, is not 
as good a deal as it first appears. Maybe 
you just ought to wait for The Best of SYNC , 
Volume 2. 


Integrated Data Systems 

Department T, 

11 Brighton Avenue, 

Toronto, Ontario, 

Canada M4M IP3 
416-466-5571 

(Answer-phone) . 

We are pleased to announce the new easier to read version of our 
catalogue. Some prices have been lowered and you will find that 
we are competitive on the 500 items listed. Here are a few examples 

#339 Dk'Tronics full sized keyboard with numeric pad. $81.80 
Designed for UHF units so needs an extra hole if 
VHF. Has a motherboard that lets you install some 
brands of memories inside. Also has regular bus 
but Memotech will not fit without ribbon cable. 

#340 Dk'Tronics 64K RAM with 8-16K switchable. Fits 

inside keyboard if its case is slipped off. $100.00 

#029 Kayde or #483 Dk’Tronics 4K Graphics Board. $44.20 

Gives 495 characters with their inverse and has a slot 
for a 4K Toolkit EPROM. 

#345 Q-SAVE loads 16K in 29 seconds and verifies too. $42.10 
#473 Video Command Joystick. Tall, slim, self centering 

and needs only 1 hand. Use alone or with #471. $16,00 

#471 AGF Joystick Interface for 1 or 2 sticks with 8 

directions each plus fire. $36.00 

Many brands of software including the full line of EZRA GROUP II, 
Bug-Byte and Dk'Tronics. Add $1 50/order for Postage and Handling. 

For faster service phone with VISA number. If stock ships next day 
otherwise allow 4-6 weeks. 


REAL ESTATE 
BUYERS/OWNERS 

"APOD" 

♦ALLOWS UF TO 20 PROPERTIES 
♦FILES 15 OPERATING EXPENSES 
♦CALCULATES MONTHLY MORTGAGE 
FROM 3 SOURCES OF FINANCING 
♦DETERMINES CASH FLOW 
♦ALTERABLE DATA 
♦MENU DRIVEN 

16k CASSETTE 4 TEXT 

12.95 (p4h included) 

George Bezushko 
P.0. BOX 1752 
BINGHAMTON,NY 13902 

(NYS residents add 7% tax) 


BATTERY 

BACK-UP 

• Uninterruptable power supply 
for ZX80, ZX81, and T/S1000. 

• No memory loss when AC fails, 

• Allows portable computing 

7 hrs normal, 4V 2 hrs with 16K, 

• Completely rechargeable with 
your computer power pack. 

• No wiring, simple plug-ins. 

• Safe, easy to use, economical. 

• Ask for WITWATT 1000. 

$36.50 plus $3.50 shipping/ 
handling, CA residents add 6% 
sales tax. Send money order or 
check to: WT ASSOCIATES, 

3808 Rosecrans St., #262, San 
Diego, CA 92110._ 


Use Your TS1000 or ZX81 
To Save Money 
*PAY0FF* analyzes Credit 
Card and Charge Accounts 
Do Y'ou have an account 
char will take 10, 20 
years to pay off? Cost 
thousands in interest? 
*PAY0FF* computes: 

- Monthly Finance Charges 

- Minimum Payments 

- Years/Months to pay 

- Total Interest Cost 
AutoStart, AutoSave. 

Gives Printouts, On 
cassette for 16K, $12.95 
ACE 'SOFTWARE, 2 E, Oak 
Moorestown, N.J, 08057 


PAGE 13 











ATTENTION ALL KIDS 


KIDS 

10 LET A$=" 


f 

25 


II 


T-S Horizons has a special 
section just for you. KIDS' 
PAGE! Every month we print a 
special story showing how you 
can have more fun with your 
TS-1000 computer. These 
stories will be written by 
Jason Setters who, at 13 years 
old, is probably the youngest 
computer writer in the world. 
And you can send in your 
letters and stories, too. 
(Note to parents: Reviews of 
programs like "Quest for the 
Holy Grail," will be 
invaluable in helping you find 
software you and your family 
can enjoy.) 

Plus KIDS' PAGE will have 
special programs that you can 
type in yourself and amaze 
your fiends and relatives. 
Even our grown-up readers will 
like these clever programs. 
This month we have "The Timex 
Pumpkin" and a surprise 
program that you can use on 
days like Flag Day and the 
Fourth of July. Don't forget 
this page is just for you. If 
any of our readers have any 
short, clever programs, you 

can send them to KIDS' PAGE, 
T-S Horizons, 2002 Summit 
Street, Portsmouth, Ohio 
45662. 



^ v* V 

20 LET B$=" f~ 

i» 

30 LET C$: P—11— "| 
40 FOR 1=1 co i 

50 PRINT A$, B$,,, 

60 NEXT I 

70 PRINT AT 0,0:C$(T0 11) 
80 FOR 1=1 to 4 


90 PRINT C$(2 TO 12),,C$ 

(TO 

ID,, 


100 NEXT I 


Line 10:15 grey 

SHIFT-GRAPHICS then H) 

squares. (Push 

Line 20:15 square grey 

on top, white on 


bottom (Push SHIFT-GRAPHICS then S.) 

Line 30: To make inverted stars, push 
SHIFT-GRAPHICS, then SHIFT-B. Then push 
SPACE to make black square. Then SHIFT-B 
again, and so on. 

TRICK or TREAT 

Here's a real spooky program 
just in time for Halloween. 
It was written by Mark Hall, a 
high school student in 
Anacortes, Washington. It's 
kind of long but it's a lot of 
fun. Now you can have a 
jack-o-lantern without having 
to buy a pumpkin. 

Maybe Mom or Dad can buy some 
orange cellophane to put over 
the TV screen to make it look 
even more scary. 


Now let's try out these 
programs. 

Patriotic Program 

This program is a surprise. 
Type in all the computer 

instructions carefully. Then 
push the RUN key and your 

computer will draw something 

that will make you feel like 

saluting. 


10 

FOR D=5 TO 34 


15 

0” 

LET X=VAL n 30-20*SIN 

(D/40* 

20 

FOR X=X TO 63-X 


25 

PLOT X,D 


30 

NEXT X 


35 

NEXT D 


45 

LET D=15 


50 

PRINT AT 3.D: ,, mr l 


53 

PRINT AT VAL "4",D;" 

nr 

55 

PRINT AT VAL "8",VAL 

"11";" 


pyV'}AT VAL "8",VAL "18";"pjn " 










60 PRINT AT VAL "12 ,D;" fpq » 

65 PRINT AT D,VAL "13";" PTPrry] 


PAGE 


70 

80 

82 

85 


RAND EXP RND 
PRINT AT D,13;" 
RAND EXP RND 
GOTO VAL "65" 


BOO 


Graphics Notes: 


50 

53 

55 

60 

65 


INVERSE SPACE (2) 
INVERSE SPACE (2) 
2 , 1 , 2 , 1 


1 , 

2 . 


2 

3, 


2, 3, 1 


TIMEX COMPUTING FOR KIDS 

"Quest for the Holy Grail" 
$17.95 from Softsync, Inc. 


In this game you have thing 
you can pick up like guns, 
machetes, fishing nets, gold 
coins and other things. Since 
you are in the jungle and you 
can be killed by a savage ape, 
I suggest you use your gun, 
but you can use your own 
judgement. Whenever you get 
the disease you should find 
something to heal it, but I'm 
not going to tell you. You 
will have to figure it out for 
yourself. 

You will have special commands 
to use, such as: 

GET (object), like a flash¬ 
light 

USE (object), like you gun. 
HELP 

LIST, shows the objects you 
have. You can only carry five 
at a time. 


This game is an adventure game 
for all you kids and 
grown-ups, but you have to use 
your wits a little and 
remember the moves you make. 
They have to be very careful. 

You start out as you land on a 
small island in your plane. 
Then you go in any direction 
you like, as North, East, 
South, and West, and sometimes 
Up and Down. There are some 
things you have to look out 
for. They are savages, apes, 
nazi soldiers, quicksand and 
some other things. 

When you enter a subterranean 
tunnel you have to be careful 
because you can get killed by 
savages or by a disease called 
gangrene. You get that by 
cutting your arm on a rock of 
some kind. 


If you find someone, type in 
QUERY , but you may get no 
reply. 

To find the Holy Grail you 
must go in the tunnel and 
search for something, but I 
won't tell you what it is. 
But I forgot to tell you one 
thing. When you get the Grail 
you must get back to your 
plane before the volcano blows 
up or you will die. 

For all the readers of my 
column, I highly recommend 
this game for you and your 
family. In my next article I 
will write about "The Elusive 
Mr. Big", which is an 
adventure game that comes with 
"Quest for the Holy Grail." 

Thank you. 


Jason Setters 


PAGE 15 
















T/S1000 Books That Work For You 


Using 

the 

Timex/Sinclair 
1000 



Ralph Coletti 


Special offer! Get both books for just $ 19 . 97 . 

Using the Timex/Sinclair lOOO 
by Ralph Coletti 

The book to read after the manual. Put your com¬ 
puter to practical use with home, business, educa¬ 
tional, and scientific applications (program listings 
included). A review of Sinclair BASIC contains 
hints for translating from other BASICs. Common 
mechanical problems and solutions and hardware 
modifications are also covered. Spiral-bound for 
easy computer-side use. Only $9.97. 


Converting to Timex/Sinclair BASIC 

by S. L. Bird 

Translate other BASIC programs to run on your 
T/S 1000. This complete guide covers more than 
200 BASIC instructions, including a description of 
how each T/S replacement works and an example 
of it in use. Just $ 14.95 puts an almost endless sup¬ 
ply of software at your fingertips. Spiral-bound. 

Call TOLL-FREE 1-800-258-5473 for your credit card orders or 
send payment with shipping and handling charges to Wayne Green 
Books, ATTN: Book Sales, Peterborough, NH 03458. Dealer in¬ 
quiries invited. 


["YES, I want T/S 1000 books that work. 

• □ Special offer. Using the T/S 1000 AND Converting to T/S 
. BASIC (BK739601) for $19.97 ($2.00 shipping & handling). 

□ Using the T/S 1000 (BK7397) $ 14.95. □ Converting to T/S 

BASIC (BK7396) $9.97. ($1.50 shipping & handling for each) 

□ Payment enclosed □ MasterCard □ VISA □ Amex 

I Card#-_ MC Bank#____ 

J Name---Signature.___ 


Address_„_ - 

City ___:__ 

Wayne Green Books 


-- State__Zip__ 

_Peterborough, NH 03458 (T-3 Horizons) 



SOFT MAGIC CORP. 

1210 W. High Sf. 

Bryan, Ohio 43506 

419-636-4531 


25 PROGRAMS FOR TS & ZX 

For Entertainment, Education, 
Home Management, Business, 
and Word Processing, in BASIC. 
Send SASE for listing and details. 


TREE - FORTH 

A FORTH Language Version for the 
Sinclair & Timex Computers. 

Get out of the BASIC Rut. 

10 Times Faster Than BASIC. 
Control 10 Simultaneous Tasks. 
Robotic Task. 
Environmental Tasks. 

On a 64K EPROM Plug-in Chip. 
For Serious Users and Educators. 
Send SASE for Details. 


PAGE 16 






















Solution of N x N Simulataneous 

Linear- Equations 
By: Gauss Elimination 

By: K.D. Lewis 

Gauss Elimination is one of the oldest, most 
commonly employed, efficient, and straight 
forward methods of obtaining the solution of 
sets of simultaneous linear equations on a 
digital computer. This method is very easily 
understood and programmed. 

Consider as an example the following set of 
four equations: 


a,. 

x„ 

+ 

a 

+ 

a x 

+ 

a x 

11 

1 


12 


13 3 


14 4 


x„ 

+ 

a _x 

+ 

a x 

+ 

a x 

21 

1 


22 


23 3 


24 4 


x. 

+ 

a x 

+ 

a x 

+ 

a x 

31 

1 


32 


33 3 


34 4 

a, „ 

X, 

+ 

a. 

+ 

a x 

+ 

a x 

41 

1 


42 


43 3 


44 4 


This can be written more succincly using 
matrix notation as: 


a n 

a i2 

a i3 

"14 


x i 


b l 

a 21 

a 22 

a 23 

a 24 


X 2 


b 2 

a 31 

a 32 

a 33 

a 34 


X 3 


b 3 

_ a 41 

a 42 

a 43 

a 44 






This is often abbreviated as AX=B, where A is 
called the "matrix of coefficients" and X is 
called the "solution vector." 

The solution vector to this set remains 
unchanged if "elimentary row operations" are 
performed on the system, i.e., if 

1) any equation is multiplied (or divided) 
by a constant, or 

2) a given equation is replaced by the sum 
(or difference) of that equation and any 
other equation in the system. 


Gauss elimination is, in a nutshell, a 
sequential application of elementary row 
operations. The top row is first divided by 

a il’ TtlUS 


1 

a i2 

a i3 

a i4 


x 1 
_1 


_b ;' 

a 21 

a 22 

a 23 

3 24 


X 2 

= 

b 2 

a 31 

a 32 

a 33 

a 34 


X 3 


b 3 

a 41 

a 42 

a 43 

a 44 


A 


b 4 


The prime marks [ * ] denote elements which 
have been changed from their original values. 
The first row is then multiplied by a and 
subtracted from the second equation. This 
yields: 


1 

<2 

a i 3 

a i4 


-1 

X 

H J 

1 


0 

a 22 

a 23 

a 24 


X 2 

SS 


a 31 

a 32 

a 33 

a 34 


X 3 


b 3 

a 41 

a 42 

a 43 

a 44 


X 4 


b 4 
- — 


The first equation is then multiplied by a 
and subtracted from the third, then multi¬ 
plied by aand subtracted from the fourth. 
During these operations, the first row is 
referred to as the "pivot row" and a^ is 
termed the "pivot element." 

Following these operations, the entire first 
column below a has now been cleared to zero 
and the set appears as 



PAGE 17 





























The second row now becomes the pivot row and 
a 22* the plvot element. The second row is 
divided by a^, the multiplied by a' and 
subtracted from the third row. 32 


Multiplication of the second row by a / 
followed by subtraction of this row from tlie 
fourth row then clears the remainder of the 
elements of the second column which fall 
below the diagonal. 

The process is continued with the next rows, 
each serving as pivot rows, until the 
equations are in the form: 


1 

*12 

*33 

a !4 

0 

1 J 

*33 

a 24 

0 

0 

l 

3 34 

0 

0 

0 

1 


THE PROGRAM 

The computer program is a straight forward 

application of these ideas. 

1) First, N, the number of equation is 
prompted and entered. The program 
limits N to 10 or less, by the 
dimension statements in lines 4, 5, and 
6. However this can be increased 
depending on the amount of memory 
available. 

2) Then the matrix A is entered by rows, 

i* e *, a 19 > •••£ IN, than a , 

a 22 ,# ** a 2N 5 etc. 

3) Finally the column vector B is entered 

aS b l* b 2 , ’* ,t> N* From this P oint > the 
computer proceeds, and the solution is 
printed out as N components. 

EXAMPLE 

The system of equations: 


3X X * X 3 - 4 


The bottom equation of the system now yields 

directly the value of x as: 

4 


x a = b / 
4 4 


+ 2X 2 + x 3 = -2 

3X 1 + 6X 2 + 3^ = 6 


In matrix form is written: 


The third equation may be solved for x since 

x is known. ^ 

4 

*3 * a 3>4 ' b 3 

Repeated back substitution, moving upward, 
yields only one new unknown for each 
equation, and eventually the unknown vector x 
will be completely determined when the top 
equation is solved for x . 

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3 0-1 

-12 1 
3 6 3 


1) In this case N=3. 

2) Then the coefficients are entered as 3, 

1> 3, 6, and 3. 

3) Then the B vector is entered as 4, -2, 6. 


The solution is 


X = 


, or x x =2 , x 2 =-1 ,X = 2. 


/ 



















1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
21 
22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 


REM GAUSS 

REM GAUSS ELIMINATION 
REM PROGRAM 
DIM A(10,10) 

DIM B(10) 

DIM X(10) 

PRINT "INPUT N" 

INPUT N 
LET N1=N 
FOR 1=1 TO N 
FOR J=1 TO N1 
INPUT A(I,J) 

NEXT J 
NEXT I 

PRINT "ENTER B VECTOR" 

FOR 1=1 TO N 
INPUT B(I) 

NEXT I 
LET K=1 
LET I=K+1 

IF (A(K,K) =0) THEN GOTO 35 
LET A1=A(I,K) /A(K,K) 

LET B(I) =B(I) -B(K)*A1 
LET J=K 

LET Ad,J) =A(I,J)-A(K,J) *A1 
IF (J>=N) THEN GOTO 29 
LET J=J+1 
GOTO 25 

IF (I> =N) THEN GOTO 32 
LET 1=1+1 
GOTO 21 

IF (K>=(N-1)) THEN GOTO 49 
LET K=K+1 
GOTO 20 


35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 
61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

68 


LET M=K+1 

IF (A(M,K)<> 0) THEN GOTO 40 
LET M=M+1 

IF M<=N THEN GOTO 36 
GOTO 67 
LET C1=B(K) 

LET B(K)=B(M) 

LET B(M)=C1 
FOR J=1 TO N 
LET Z1=A(K,J) 

LET A(K,J)=A(M,J) 

LET A(M,J)=Z1 
NEXT J 
GOTO 22 

REM BEGIN BACK SUBSTITUTION 
LET L=N 
LET SUM=0 

IF L<N THEN GOTO 57 

LET X(L)=(B(L)-SUM)/A(L,L) 

IF (L<=1) THEN GOTO 62 
LET L=L-1 
GOTO 51 
LET J=L+1 

LET SUM=SUM+A(L, J ) *X( J) 

IF J>=N THEN GOTO 53 
LET J=J+1 
GOTO 58 

PRINT "ROOTS ARE." 

FOR L=1 TO N 
PRINT X(L) 

NEXT L 
GOTO 68 

PRINT "SINGULAR EQUATIONS" 
STOP 


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Continuous and complete display, play by 
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A program can control the sound. Included 
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The CHIRPER module installs easily inside 
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PAGE 1? 


















CREATING AND SAVING FILES 
By: Bill Johnson 

One of the best features of the BASIC 
language that Sinclair designed into the 
ZX-81 (TS-1000) is its ability to SAVE all of 
its variables, including arrays, in the 
normal course of SAVEing the program onto 
cassette tape and reloading the variables 
along with the program LOAD. This allows us 
to transfer a file, in the form of data, 
along with the program to manipulate or 
interpret it, to and from tape in a single 
motion. 

In this article, I would like to discuss the 
best ways to create, manipulate and SAVE/LOAD 
files on the ZX-81 and to point out the 
pitfalls as well as the opportunities of 
using it as a personal information storage 
system. 

The questions of how to structure the file 
and what type of arrays to use will be 
considered later in this article. First I 
would like to outline the actual program 
steps that are essential to create and 
maintain a file. 

A. Create File Array - having decided on the 

file size, dimension the array 

accordingly (i.e: DIM T$ (20,32)). 

B. Delete DIMension Statement - since the 
file has been DIMensioned in step A, a 
re-dimensioning will never be required. 
Deleting this redundant statement saves 
file space. 

C. Files - can be inserted/overwritten in 
the array at any time, even after the 
program has been SAVEd or LOADed . 

D. SAVE program and files using SAVE 

statement in the course of running the 
program, with a GOTO statement following 
it, pointing to the beginning of the 
program, 

i.e.: 

9050 PRINT "PRESS RECORD ON TAPE PLAYER" 
9060 INPUT X$ 

9070 PAUSE 450 
9080 SAVE "" 

9090 GOTO 1 


This enables the program to be 
self-starting when it is re-loaded from 
tape, eliminating a need for either a RUN 
statement, which erases the variables and 
thus the files, or a GOTO, which is 
cumbersome. 

If a file program is structured this way and 
the files are set up accordingly, there is: 

A. Full access to the files as set up. 

B. Minimum memory usage (no redundant 

variable assignments or DIM statements). 

C. Minimal chance of erasing files. 

Arrays 

As a general rule, the most efficient way to 
store file information, from both a program 
and variable standpoint, is by using arrays . 
Because the file information can be accessed 
by its location or address in an array, we 
process or access any piece of file 
information by referring to its address (i.e. 
T$ (20,2)). This allows us, for instance, to 
arrange information in a matrix, with a 
different type of information in each column, 
and a set of information in each row. The 
only alternative to using arrays is using a 
different variable for each file item. This 
process is so unwieldy as to be unworkable in 
all but the most limited cases. 

File Format 

The first step in deciding how you want to 
pack information into an array is to 
identify: 

A. What information is important and 
pertinent? 

B. What memory constraints do I have? 

C. What display constraints do I have? 

For example, in writing a program of my own 
to file and process budget/expenses data for 
every transaction in a quarterly period, I 
determined that, though I would have like to 
store more information, four items were 
critical: The Date - (mo/dy) of transaction, 
Remarks - to indicate the place and item(s), 
Transaction - CASH, VISA, check #, etc., and 


3 AGE 20 
















~ - tr y ' the amount spent. I limited each 
data set to these four in this case primarily 
because of the constraint imposed by the 
display. I wanted to be able to list all of 
the information on one 32-character line, so 
as to be able to display a set of consecutive 
entries on the screen in a row/column format. 
The memory constraint is no problem, since I 
have 64K but you may have to be careful not 
to create files that are too large for the 
memory that you have available. In that 
case, you may have to trade-off file size 
against memory size. 

To be more specific, the 32-character line of 
my budget program consists of the date (5 
characters), Remarks (14 characters), 
ransaction (4 characters), $Entry (6 
characters) and 3 spaces to separate the 
items. The act of setting the display format 
will force you to be specific about the type 
of information you need to store, and this in 
turn will give you a clear structure that can 
be translated into a programming array 
structure. 

Options in Setting-Up Arrays 

There are two sets of options to face in 
choosing an array format, the first of which 
is between numeric and alphanumeric 
variables. 

Numeric/Alphanumeric 

If the files you are storing hold 
primarily words and symbols, the 
string (alphanumeric) array is the 
simplest and best solution. You simply 
insert the file information into the 
array location ( i.e. LET R$ (20) = 
"KROGER-MEAT"). But if the file consists 
of words and numeric values (or entirely 
numeric values) there are schemes 
available: 

A. You may use multiple arrays, storing 
words and numbers in alphanumeric and 
numeric arrays, respectively. This 
allows for the easiest, most straight 
forward manipulation of variables 
within the program. Each display 
line would be two or more separate 
array items printed sequentially. 


Thus a statement like 
PRINT D$(20);" "j R$(20); » ". 

T$(20);" " ; E(20) would yield a line 
like this: 

10/25 KROGER-MEAT 5.26 

Unfortunately the time consumed in 

r!n r h hlng f0r and printin S all the items 
can become too great., 

B. Or you can store all the data for one 
entry in a single alphanumberic string. 
This has several ramifications. If the 
numberical data is to be recalled and 
manipulated, then the function VAL must 
be applied to the substring after it is 
sliced (i.e., LET x=VAL T$ (20.5) (10 TO 
14), would return the numberical value). 
Then to be reinserted, STR$ must be used 
(i.e., LET T$ (20,5) (10 TO 14) = STR$ x 
or something similar. The cumbersome 
nature of storing numeric values is 
compensated by the speed with which they 
can be displayed (a line can be printed 
with a simple command), and the clarity 
of having the variables stored in the 
same format as they are displayed. And 
if variable-length items need to be 
right-justified, then better to do it 
once in a string than every time an item 
is printed. 

To continue the example of the budget 
program, the choice of array was dictated by: 

1. The need to display several lines 
relatively quickly. 

2. No need to change the files once they 
were in place. 

3. Numeric values needed to be 
right-justified. 

I therefore chose to store the entire file in 
a single string array variable T$, with each 
element (line) being 32-characters long. But 
if the bulk of the file you want to establish 
consists of numbers and they require 
continual re-definition, then, scheme A would 
probably be more appropriate. 


PAGE 21 








2. File Dimension 

The other set of options to face in 
choosing an array format is to set the 
number of dimensions of the array and its 
size. If the information structure has 
been worked out at this point the choice 
of how many dimensions you want the array 
to have should be quite simple. A 
one-dimensional array (like a single 
column of items) can be used for a single 
string of numbers or, as in my example, a 
single alphanumeric co.lumn of 
32-character lines. A two-dimensional 
array (like a matrix of rows and 
columns) can store numbers in a 
row-column format. Using this 
information along with the chapter in the 
ZX manual on arrays, you should be able 
to define an array to hold your files. 


The main thing to note about setting the 
file SIZE is that it is critical to 
DIMension the array (file) to the maximum 
forseeable size that will be required. 
This is akin to filling a file folder 
with enough blank sheets of paper to hold 
all of the information that you will want 
to write into the file. If the array 
turns out to be too small to hold all of 
the information you later want to store 
in it, there is no recourse but to 
re-DIMension the array (file) larger, and 
wipe out all of the information that you 
have already stored there. 


Conclusion 

The storage of file information on a 
ZX-81 can be very useful if the 
information is easily accessible and 
simple to INPUT. And it*s an excellent 
way to experiment with variable 
assignments and learn to manipulate 
arrays on the ZX-81. 

" ; • : /: \ . / 

(Editor*s Note: We invite comments and 
further articles on the subject of file 
creation and manipulation from our readers.) 


REVIEW 

By: B. Johnson 

Memotech Centronics Parallel Interface and 
the Seibosha GP 100A Printer. 

$339.00 + $4.95 plus shipping and handling 
from: 


E. Arthur Brown Co., 
Alexandria, MN 56308. 


1702 Oak Knoll Drive, 


Six months ago, after a two month wait due 
(ostensibly)’ to delays in shipments of 
printers arriving from overseas, the 
dot-matrix printer and parallel interface I 
had ordered form Memotech arrived on my desk 
at work. Opening the box (I didn*t wait 
until I got home) I found the type of profes¬ 
sional - looking products that I expected 
from Memotech: the Centronics-type parallel 
interface, in a black aluminum case that fits 
between the computer and my 64K RAM pack 
(also Memotech), and the dot-matrix printer, 
a simple but dependable-looking import from 
our Japanese friends. Hook-up of the compo¬ 
nents (when I got home) to the ZX-81 was 
simple. As long as you can locate the right 
plugs, the assembly of RAM pack-to-interface- 
to-computer and interface-to-printer is easy. 
But now it becomes necessary to open the user 
manual, which is very tiny and contains a 
bewildering assortment of information. A 
quick perusal of the manual reveals that 
approximately half of it is devoted to an 
assortment of information unusable by 
four-fifths of its end users plus a few 
Memotech ads. Not much left for the actual 
software instructions that will drive the 
printer. So the instructions must be few and 
simple, right? Wrong. There are actually no 
different commands required other than the 
same LPRINT, LLIST and COPY commands that 
send information to the ZX-81 printer, but a 
full-size dot matrix printer'(as opposed to 
either of the ZX/TIMEX printers) requires 
more instructions, called "control codes," 
and lack of thorough documentation and a 
sufficient number of examples at this point 
in the manual leave the user to much frus¬ 
trating experimentation in trying to get his 
control codes right. 


PAGE 22 


Continued on PAGE 25 







"TECHNICAL TIPS FOR THE TIMEX" 

By: Tracy Norris 

This column is devoted entirely to hardware 
repair and modifications to the Timex series 
of personal computers. In this feature I 
will show you on a monthly basis how to 
repair, modify, expand, and in general 
enjoy the hardware aspects of your personal 
Timex computer. In case you have any 
doubts as to whether I know what I'm 
talking about let me tell you a little 
about MY Timex... 

I have a full 6.5 Megabytes of storage 
available to me on 3-8" floppy disk drives, 
of which 2 are running DSDD (Double 
Sided-Double Density). The above is of my 
own design which will be available to the 
Timex user in December. The retail cost will 
be under $200 for Drive #1 and under $110 for 
Drives 2 & 3. My Timex has 7 controller 
boards for controlling lights, hardware, 
coffee pot, etc. I have 128KBytes of usable 
RAM, of which 64K can be used for program 
lines and the other 64K is used for variables 
etc. My little venture is worth about 
$5,400 at the present time. This is not to 
be considered "bragging". I am just 
letting you know that much of what your 
friends say can't be done with the 
"itty-bitty computer" I have already 
accomplished. Enough with what my computer 
can do. Let's get on with making yours do 
more! This month's project is really 
something special. Do you remember when your 
fellow computerist said that your computer 
was inferior compared to his? Maybe it is 
now, but it won't be after a couple of issues 
of HORIZONS and a few hours per month reading 
my articles. I have designed a low-cost 
repeat key module that will work with either 
the Timex TS-1000 or the SINCLAIR ZX-81 (the 
same thing but with different packaging). 
95% of all larger computers have repeating 
keys as standard equipment, but the Timex 
computer does not. So we will now proceed to 
upgrade our "little" computer... 


NOTE!: T-S Horizons, Norris Radio & 

Electronics, T-Tech Industries LTD, their 
affiliates, or employees can assume no 
responsibility for damages arising out of the 
use/misuse of these articles. The reader 
must understand that any implementation of 
these projects is to be taken at the reader's 
own risk. 

Project: Repeat Key Module 

Parts needed: 10 K Miniature potentiometer(l) 
SPSD Miniature toggle switch(l) 
h Watt IK resistor (1) 

100 Microfarad electrolytic 
capacitor (1) 

74LS244 Non-inverting, 
tri-state octal bus driver(l) 

Tools needed: 25-30 Watt grounded soldering 
iron 

40/60 Rosin core, fine guage 
solder 

Desoldering tool (about $7.00 
at Radio Shack) 

Let's get started! Connect the circuit as 
shown in Diagram A-l being sure to make good 
clean solder joints. Remove the bottom of 
the computer by removing the screws and 
rubber feet as shown in Diagram A-2. Set the 
screws and the rubber feet aside; you will 
need them later. Remove the 2 silver-colored 
screws from the P.C. board and lift the board 
up and out about k inch. Disconnect the 
keyboard ribbon by gently pulling the key¬ 
board ribbon connector out of its socket. 
Place the top and bottom case halves where 
they will not be disturbed. 

Using a small screwdriver, slowly desolder 
and pry out the eight 1N418 diodes from the 
PCB and lay them aside. Using the diagram 
for a guide, connect the wires from the 
74LS244 bus driver to the holes shown in the 
diagram that were formerly occupied by the 
diodes. Using a volt-ohmmeter, find a +5 
volt source on the ZX-81 or TS-1000 PCB. 


PAGE 23 




SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT: COMING IN DECEMBER! 

TRACY NORRIS unveils complete plans for a high-quality, 8 -inch DISK 
DRIVE for your ZX-81 or TS-1000 COMPUTER. Expandable to FOUR DRIVES. 
Tentative price: Under $200 for the first drive + interface 5 under 
$110 each for the second, third and fourth. 


EXCLUSIVELY AVAILABLE TO T-S HORIZONS SUBSCRIBERS. 














































































































































































































Having located it connect all +5V wires from 
the repeat module to that source. (Note: 
Avoid the +5V trace to the modulator or 
severe TV interference will result). Refer 
to Diagram A-2 and find the "X" that is in 
the picture. It has an arrow pointing to the 
solder pad at the end of the little metal 
strip. Connect the 2 grounded pins to this 
point. 

Now for the test...plug in the computer and 
place a wire jumper between a metal contact 
on the small female keyboard connector (any 
one will do) and a metal contact on the large 
female connector. A character should appear 
and begin to repeat itself. If it doesn’t, 
turn the lOKfi potentiometer to different 
settings. If it still doesn’t, check all 
connections and check all solder joints. 
(Note: Make sure the switch is in the 
’’REPEAT” mode.) 

Locate an area on the uppercase half and 
mount the select switch. (Note: Make doubly 
sure that there is nothing behind the switch 
on the PCB that will interfere with the 
switch casing.) See the potentiometer at the 
repeat rate that suits you best. Disconnect 
the wire jumper. Using the 2 silver-colored 
screws, mount the PCB back in the uppercase 
half. (Did you remember to reconnect the 
keyboard?) Replace the bottom case half and 
reinstall the 5V screws and 3 rubberfeet. I 
hope that you enjoy the use of the repeat 
key. (Suggestion: If you need to type in 
a long REM statement, place a book on the 
space key and the rest is automatic.) 

For those of you who are scared by the looks 
of a soldering iron, I will build and install 
the repeat module for $30.00. Also, for 
those of you users who have the above phobia 
and a subscription to TS-HORIZONS knock $5.00 
off the above price, ($25.00!). If you just 
want the module and feel adventurous enough 
to install it yourself send $19.00. Well, 
until we solder again next month... 

HAPPY COMPUTING! 

T. Norris 

144 Terry Drive 

Slidell, LA 71458 


If you can work out the control code bugs and 
finally get the printer to do what you want, 
it has several very useful features to allow 
you to dress-up your output. It ,has a 
double-width, bold • print as well as its 
"normal” 10 characters per inch, and it will 
also "overprint" a word or words (make 
several printing passes) to make them stand 
out darker than the rest of the copy. These 
features, and the 80 character output width 
you have to work with (as opposed to the 
Sinclair's 32 characters), give you a 
much-improved capability to make the printed 
output from your ZX/TIMEX look professional 
and readable. The control code problems are 
manageable, and keep in mind that once you 
have formatted your output, you need never 
(well, seldom) fool with it again. And as a 
program-development tool the Memotech 
interface/Seikosha printer performs well, 
cranking out wide, readable listings of 
programs at a faster rate than the ZX/TIMEX 
printers. A problem though. Nowhere in the 
manual is it mentioned that if you attempt to 
LLIST lines that contain some of the comput¬ 
ers* graphic symbols, the interface causes 
NEW to be executed, wiping out’ any program 
material you have in RAM. 

Aside from the glitches that I've mentioned 
here (some of which may have been corrected 
by now) the printer and interface have turned 
out to be very dependable and have needed no 
repairs. They have turned out good copy on 
8%" x 11" fanfold paper for over six months 
now, and show no signs of wear. If you're 
willing to spend the time required, it will 
be a welcome addition to your ZX periphenals. 



Memotech Centronics Parallel Interface and 
the Seibosha GP 100A Printer. 


PAGE 25 










BUILD AN UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY 
or 

HOW TO GET RID OF THE "PROGRAM BLITZER" 
By: C. W. Johnson 


You've been sitting, intently watching the 
monitor as you key in the last few lines of a 
program that has been plagued with bugs. You 
just know it will run this time. After all, 
you have been sitting here for hours and 
you've only run it about a hundred times. 
Without a doubt it will run this time as you 
key in the last entry, when for some unknown 
reason the screen goes blank. You have just 
experienced the "Program Blitzer". It 
completely erases the program. 

Has this ever happened to you? If so, then 
this U.P.S. device may be the thing to keep 
your sanity while programming on the Sinclair 
ZX-81. 

This uninterruptible power supply design 
utilizes a Ni Cad battery which series two 
purposes 1) A line filter 2) A Power source. 


As a line filter the battery will filter out 
any noise on the D.C. line input to the 
computer. As a power source if the wall plug 
or the power jack or both are moved, the 
battery continues to supply power to the 
computer without interruption. 

There are three indicating LES's on the 
console. (Ref. to Fig. 1). LED #1, which is 
green, lights up as long as there is a D.C. 
source from the 9v adapter. LED #2, the 
yellow one, is used to indicate charging of 
the 9v Ni Cad battery. The last LED #3, red, 
indicates D.C. supply voltage from the U.P.S. 

During normal operation you have the 
following conditions. A) LI is on, B) L2 is 
off, C) SI is in #1 position, D) L3 is on. 
The input D.C. voltage energizes LI, goes 
through position #1 of SI, through the 
blocking diode Dl, energizes L3 then to the 
computer. BT1 (battery) is in the circuit 
via position #1 of Sl-B, acting as a filter 
and an uninterruptible power source. 


"PROGRAM BLITZER" EXTERMINATOR 


Sl-A 

1 »- 


D1 

if 


Sl-B 

— •. 



k 


R3 

1+70 


9 V.D.C. 
Output 

Q 


LED 3 
RED 


PAGE 26 


Fig. 1 
















Move SI to position #2 with the wall 
transformer plugged in and it now is a 
battery charger for BT1. The D.C. source 
energizes LI, then through position #2 of 
Sl-A feeds through L2 and charges BT1. 


CAUTION NOTE: Do not use a regular 9v 
battery in place of the Ni Cad battery. All 
parts may be purchased at your local Radio 
Shack store. Happy "Program Blitzer" 
extermination. 


2 - Silicon Diodes 300 P.I.V. 

1 - DPDT Switch 

2 - 47052 \ Watt Registers 
1 - 22052 \ Watt Register 

3 - Light Emitting Diodes (1-Red, 1-Yellow, 

1-Green) 

1 “ 9 Volt Ni Cad Battery 
1-9 Volt Battery Plug 


CONSTRUCTION 


TYPE 



- 

OF 

G 

Y 

R 

OPERATION 




NORMAL OP 

ON 

OFF 

ON 

CHARGING 

ON 

ON 

OFF 

BAITER OP 




ONLY 

OFF 

OFF 

ON 


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* EPHEMERIS V - ASTRONOMERS!! 16K 
Deluxe planet finder and much more. $14.95 


First step of construction is to mount the 
three LED's and switch. (See Fig. #4) I 
chose the upper right hand corner of the 
upper case, as this seemed to give the most 
room. Remember that during construction 
leave enough wire for the Ni Cad battery, as 
it will mount beside the heat sink in the 
middle of the board. (Refer Fig. #2) 


ZX PRO-FILE 


Inventory Records 
Personnel Files 
16K $16.95 Mailing Lists etc 

The just released, machine code updated 
version of ZX DATA FINDER (below) 

• Instant searches • Printer compatible 

• Multi-word searches •Numeric ordering 

* Z WRYTER — WORD PROCESSING $12.95 

* PROFIT PLAN — Analyze 5 proposals, 30 
variables each. A MUST for entrepreneurs. 

16K $12.95 

* EZ-HEX — Write, edit, test, and save 
machine code hex programs. 16K $12.95 

* ZX DATA FINDER — Data handling fully 
explained. 28 page tutorial manual. 16K 

“The most useful and economical program dedicated to the task of 
data handling that I have found yet" SYNC. Jan Feb., 1983 $1 4.95 

* METAGRAPHICS — Draw and save any 
graphic pattern with machine code cursor 
control. 16K, $14.95 

* CHECKSTUB — Register and Budget.$12.95 


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PAGE 2? 






































The LED's can be mounted securely, by placing 
a drop of epoxy on each led as it is 
installed. Using, a very sharp knife, cut 
out an opening for the switches. LED's and 
switch will be used to mount the rest of the 
components on. 

As the components are mounted be sure to use 
heat sinks while soldering, to D1 and D2. 
Again using the sharp knife cut the foil on 
the circuit board at the power in jack. 
(Refer Fig. #3) Interrupt the electrical 


data from the tip connection, this is where 
power in and power out of the blitzer 
connect. Be sure to scrape the foil clean so 
as to have good soldor connections. 

Make sure that the ground connection of the 
U.P.S. is soldored to bottom case strap. 
(Refer Fig. #3). 


NOTE: Before use be sure to charge the Ni 

Cad for about 12-14 hours. Fig. #4 Shows 
final component layout 



FI Ci. 


FIC V 



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Top Quality. 16K Games for 
TS 1000 or ZX 81 Owners 


BaCTRaC 
EIREKa 
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ARMEGON 
SLBSEaRCH 
BREaKOIT 

Cassettes 56 

<PER GAME 


’PACMAN- STYLE 
HIDDEN MAZE * TREASURES 
3-0 NIGHT DRIVER 
’DEFENDER- STYLE 
‘SPACE iNVAOERS' STYLE 
NAVAL WARFARE 
BCUNC.NG Ba^.S A RADCcES 

Listings 52 

INCLUDED* 




THE LAMB’S SOFTWARE 
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X FORTH® 

WRITTEN IN ENGLAND BY 
PROFESSIONAL PROGRAMMERS 
Sinclair ZX-B1 ‘Timex T/S 1000* 

• Very full FORTH-79 sub-set 

• On cassette for 16K (or more) 

• loods in one pass (unlike some versions 
which require up to four extra editor 
loads) 

• Compact coding - 10K* still available for 
user code. 

• Sinclair specific look up tables (uses 
Sinclair code instead of ASCII) 

• Extra utilities - CIS. PLOT 

• BASIC call - return to BASIC with simple, 
one word inst. 

• Full FORTH restart - No loss of words or 
data 

• Only $25.00/tape + $100 P&H. Arkansas 
residents add $1 00 

• F.P. Enhancement - Now available at 
only $1500 ♦ $1.00 P&H 

HAWG WILD Software " 

P.O. Box 7666 • Little Rock, Arkansas 72217 


ScreenMate 

ScreenMates Lightpen and Interface for the Atari* 
Joystick adds versatility to your ZX81 or TS1000 

• Play Action Games 

• Direct Interaction with 
the TV Screen. 

• Features a “Piggy-back* 

Add On Feedthrough 

• Draw and Doodle 

• Ideal for Educational 
Programs 

• Independant of 
Keyboard 

$39.95 includes 

• Lightpen with Joystick interface 

• User Guide • 90 Day Limited Warranty 

• All Postage and Handling 

’Screen Mate Program Cassette 
$9.95 includes 

• Draw • Doddla • Math Quiz • Mastar Mind 

• Tic-Tac-Toe • Word Scramble • Break Out 

• States • Safe Cracker 

Interface Innovations 

4372 Casa Brasilia, Suite 201. St. Louis, Mo 63129 
Check Money Order MasterCard or Visa Accepted 



P.S. 

A few parting comments: 


- If you like T-S Horizons, please let us know. We welcome all 
constructive criticism, because we do want to become the best Sinclair 
magazine you can buy. 

If you like us, support our advertisers. And be sure to mention where 
you saw the ad. 

Most importantly, if you have any bad experiences with our advertisers 

- or any company dealing with T-S/ZX related items - please tell us. We 
will not print ads from dishonest, unscrupulous companies, or from those 
who sell products that do not live up to the advertising. 

1 know I’ve said this a lot but don't miss our December issue. Tracy 
Norris's disk drive is available exclusively through T-S Horizons. 

- We welcome contributions (articles, not money) from any experienced, 
knowledgeable Sinclair users. You don't have to be a good writer, 
either. (That*s what editors are for.) 

- Most of all, if you like us - SUBSCRIBE. The first few issues of T-S 
Horizons will be distributed largely for free and on a somewhat random 
basis, so the only way to be sure you can get each issue is to 
subscribe. 


Thank you, 

Rick Duncan, Publisher 





















Extend your ZX81/TS1000/TS1500 
Add Memory that won’t Forget! 



^ DESCRIBED IN Radio 
JULY/AUGUST 1983 EICCtrONCS 

ADD YOUR OWN SYSTEM UTILITIES 

BUILD UP A LIBRARY OF MACHINE 
LANGUAGE SUBROUTINES 


»" UP TO 8K NONVOLATILE RAM 

USE HM6116LP CMOS RAM 
OR 2716/2732 EPROM 

COMPATIBLE WITH 
16K RAM PACKS 


► READ THE REVIEWS: 

Wha. a super product-conceived and executed very nee* ..and with quality components 

(SYNTAX QUARTERLY Winter 82) 

8K NOnVOla, " e mem ° ry 15 a 9 em ' " has -any possible uses I recommend th,s board most heartily 

(OKLAHOMA S.U.G. Newsletter 1/3) 

We found the documentation to be far supenor to that (of) most hardware we've received 

(S.U.N. Newsletter Nov/Dec 82) 

For versatility this is even better than an EPROM ranks quite h,gh on the l.st of •must-haves- 

(SYNC Magazine Mar/Apr 83) 

Provides the user w,th instant software an extremely versatile memory extension 


INTRODUCTION 

Th,s memory board is designed to fill the transparent 8K c 
memory (from 8K to 16K) ,n a ZX81-16K system Tims ar, 
memory ,s an ,deal place to store either permanently or 

T aC £' n ® lf n 9 ua 9e routines or data which are tr 
used by the BASIC system 


Sample utilities are included with the kit 

The use ot HM6116LP 2K CMOS RAM memory 1C s with th. 
own r^erve power supply means that routines stored in tr 
7 n r 0afc - ,he RAM relains is memory ev C 

when the ZX81 is switched ott or reset Moreover beinqRAH 
the routines you store ,n the memory are easily modified Th 
lithium cell Supplied with the board will maintain sutfoei 
reserve power for almost ten years 


(Z-WEST June 83) 


MobtMbLY 

Complete step by-step instructions m a 20 page manual 

™mn, ? m V ® b0a ' a eas> The k " (P'Ctured above) is 
complete with a siikscreened solder masked printed circuit 
board all capacitors, resistors transistors, sockets, connec 
tors integrated circuits, and the lithium cell The board is sup¬ 
plied w„h one 2K CMOS 61 t6LP 3 RAM - « will accomoS 
three more for a total of 8K 


Complete kit withone2K6l16LP-3 
Additional three 6116LP 3 
Bare pc boara & manual 
Kit for EPROM use only 
Assembled & tested with 2K 
Assembled & tested wfh 8K 

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