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T a S Hirixanx
Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User
2002 SUMMIT ST. PORTSMOUTH, OHIO 45662
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Help By: Tracy Norris
Numerical Analysis By: Ken Lewis
Creating and Saving Files
By: Bill Johnson
Technical Tips By: Tracy Norris
Uninterruptible Power Supply
T-S Horizons is published monthly. The
Subscription Rate is $12.00 for twelve issues
(one year), from 2002
Memotec Printer Package
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662.
Best of Sync, Volume 1
Search for the Holy Grail
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either for pay or
LOW, LOW AO RATES
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Write for details.
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Affordable Quality for the Timex Computer User
2002 SUMMIT ST. PORTSMOUTH, OHIO 45662
e„come to the first issue of T-S Horizons. How ever you came to hold this magazine in
your hands, we present it to you with pride. We are committed to bringing you usable and
in eresting information about your computer - the TS-1000/ZK81 - at an affordable price
wi 11 0 find°that 1 X sT ^ *“ Ve many M8 projects in the w °rks, and I think you’
Ljuter! " beneflt ^ than ^ ° ther ma S azi " a the Sinclair
First of all, I would like to thank the folks who have placed ads in this issue As vou
Xhfse adVartiSlng in a new ’ ^proved magazine is at best a risky proposition
«: "LTfL ; r 1 ; co ' pan ‘ es ’ - ‘ ny j » at
■ f,ith in the * daa ““ » - -
Now I believe introductions are in order:
naybe some of you have heard of Tracy Norris. Tracy hails from Louisiana. He is the
official Technical Advisor for T-S Horizons, and he tells me he's in fol the d^tUn
ZTio Tei \ PreSlden V £ the GUlf C ° aSt SinCl3ir User ’ S Grou P- He is the owner of Norris
TS1000 I" r ?H 1CS# ^ aUth ° red two mannnoth technical manuals for the ZX81 and the
you himselfT 8 ° °“ lraCy ’ S m ° deSty W ° Uld be offended ‘ (Besides he'd rather tell
aboard. jUSt With ° Ut ^ ^ ^ be 3 T ' S a " d - welcome him
Ken Lewis has agreed to write a continuing series of articles on numberical analysis and
TlZ b3ChniCal ap P lications for the TS/ZX computers. Ken is a nuclear engineer and he
subiect T 01 ° Ur 38reeS ’ If you know an y °ther Timex users who are interested in this
ubject please give them the word. This series promises to be very useful.
on'thfzxsi" s 1S 3 7“ archltect in Cincinnati. He has written several programs
proSl fornix h may ^ Printed h6re ln the fUtUre * He has wr itten a budget
slZZe :r B a ir 8ram t0 CalCUlate the SOlar heat ^ 0f a " Planned
of Bill s mam interests is "user-friendliness" in computer programming.
TsTe er Bm d0h 7 n . (wb ° 8068 by C - W * Joh " s °" here) has written an article for this
up his Till T 30 uninterru Ptible power supply for the Sinclair, which is right
F P .. SlnCe he 1S an elect ncal power coordinator for a large industrial plant
Expect to also see some software from Bill in the future. P
ina ly we come to the last Bill for T-S Horizons. (I wish!) Bill Moreland is the owner
of Magic Castle Video in Columbus, Ohio. Magic Castle is a fascinating little store. If
you re ever in Columbus, stop by. In the back part of the store. Bill sells about every
videotape you can imagine. But the front half is devoted exclusively to
limex-Sinclair-related products. He has three ZXSl's with keyboards set up all the time
where you can try out almost any of the software you've ever seen advertised for the
Sinclair. Bill has reviewed about 90% of the book/hard/software available (which is of
course, a tremendous amount) and his store carries only the cream of the crop. Special
thanks to Bill for his contribution to this and future issues.
Special thanks to Ed Simpson, publisher of Cottage Computing magazine for helping to get
us off the ground. Also to my nephew Jason, special consultant for "Kids Page." Also to
Dad and Mom and Jeff and Debbie and Randy for their encouragement and advice. (Boy this
is dragging on, isn't it?) Especially, I want to thank my partner in this endeavor,
Carolyn Duncan. Thanks, babycakes.
Stay with us gang. We need you. With a monthly schedule we need all the help we can get
We encourage our readers to submit articles for publication. We want to be very
accessible to you. Please fill out this issue's reader survey. And don't miss our
special Christmas gift to you in our December issue.
Rick Duncan, Publisher
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COMPUTER INDUSTRY UNSETTLED
Computers for the home are the hottest retail
electronics being sold these days. The
industry is in an explosive phase, with
hundreds of new products being introduced on
a monthly basis. Things are moving so fast
that the computer makers themselves cannot
keep track of the market place. And therein
lies a story.
Every company that announced a new home
computer at the Summer Consumer Electronics
Show is late in delivering their products.
You might think the tardy deliveries are
caused by the huge consumer demand (parts
shortages, production problems, or
distribution difficulties). Yet in the face
of this overwhelming consumer interest, some
of the companies are rumored to be
withdrawing from the market altogether. The
list of companies with problems is
impressive, since it includes some of the the
"giants" of the fledgling industry.
Atari has reported hundreds of millions in
losses, starting last fall with an
announcement that drove the stock markets
wild. Mattel is reported to be considering
withdrawal from the home electronics market
because of its continuing financial losses.
Commodore has been rumored to be in a
similar situation. Texas Instruments has
reported similar problems, yet has undertaken
new initiatives in advertising and rebate
programs to bolster sales.
Only two companies have apparently escaped
the huge financial loses. Coleco and Timex
are said to be in better financial shape, but
both are late in delivery of new products and
seem to be having the same kinds of
management difficulties that plague the
These financial and management problems are
brought about by the computer companies *
attempts to gain a competitive edge by
increasing their market share. Price
have cost them millions of dollars both
directly (losses on each sale) and indirectly
(national advertising isn't cheap).
Corporate thinking has been inclined to
believe that giving away the razor to sell
the razor blades (at a handsome price) is the
way to maximize profits. Thus huge deficits
now will lead to huge profits later, as
buyers buy software for their low-priced
On first thought, all the rebate programs,
price cutting, and promotional advertising
being used by the industry appears to be to
the benefit of the consumer. With basic home
computers priced at one-third the level they
were just one year ago, it appears that
average Joe or Jane Citizen is getting a good
deal. Unfortunately, the apparent good deal
has turned into a huge headache for many.
For example, people who bought Atari, Texas
Instruments, Commodore, or Timex computers
last year at this time paid as much as 500%
more than they would pay now. We have all
seen recent, extremely attractive ads for
computers from various discount stores.
Buying now seem to be very compelling. Yet
several of these low price machines have been
discontinued by the manufacturers. And
replacement new products will not necessarily
be compatible with old programs or
peripherals. Substantial investments in
libraries of programs to fit a new or old
computer could be very risky for the
neophyte, since the machine they are using
could be obsolete before they get it home.
More particularly, in the haste to save
money, the consumer may buy programs or
hardware from discount sources that do not
know what they are selling, with the
consequence that the new wiz-bang or
thing-a-magig won't work with their computer.
Mail order purchases are particularly risky
that reason. The razor blade can be
Jjpfarp for both the corporate giants and the
A second problem with the emphasis on
discount pricing is the tendency towards
buying machines that are inappropriate for
the use the consumer has in mind. In
striving to make a "good" buy (more megabytes
per buck), the consumer may be misled by the
promise of easy-to-use, user-friendly
programs or operating systems that in fact
require a genius to interpret. For example,
one of the more common mistakes is the
purchase of a cheap computer that is not
designed for handling large amounts of data,
yet the cost conscious buyer tries to apply
the device as a list manager or number
cruncher. Even small payrolls or mailing
lists can tax the capacity and capability of
small home computers.
Saving $50 to $300 on the purchase makes good
sense, but only if it means not having to
spend hundreds of hours or dollars making the
machine do what you want it to do. Some
people don't have the time to become
programmers, nor do they necessarily want to
learn the details of the electronics involved
in interfacing the computer to a printer or a
disk system or a modem.
All of these problems lead to frustration on
the part of the average computer buyer, with
many people simply giving up. It would be
hard to find out but interesting to know how
many computers are gathering dust on closet
shelves because of frustration and anger.
Indeed, over the long run it may be the
ultimate irony of the present boom in the
computer business that the larger the number
of computers sold, the less computer literate
we as a society become. Let's hope not.
(Editor's Note: Bill's articles was written
shortly before the announcement that Osbourne
Computer Corporation had filed for
/I |\ PIONEER
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THE BEST STEREO IN SIGHT
Come in and
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Sunday Noon-6 p.m.
WE DON’T PLAYGAMES
If you're looking for Pdoman or Asteroids,
then I suggest you move on to another ad.
We offer powerful 16K ZX81/TS1000
software for the serious student or
EOUCATIONAL ’Fully Interactive
•Sinclair Basic Master
•ZX/TS Machine Code Master
FUNCTIONAL •Put your Sinclair to work
Algebra Solver Physics Solver
Calculus Solver -Circuit Analysis
Oill Eq Solver -Flight Assistant
-Matrix Math -Finance Management
24 Is.ms R,|
M.ii l)U*h(M<l, MA
on other systems
ITEM: Hardware and software from an unusual
source! The Electronic Supermarket of Lynn-
field, Mass, sells a wide assortment of items
from speaker components to telephones and
about anything you can think of, mostly
surplus and closeout items. The most recent
quarterly catalog advertised two offers of
special interest to TS-1000 users.
- "[A] large quantity of dependable computer
keyboards with cases that can be hard-wired
to...your Times-Sinclair ZX81." Said to be
"from a $5,000 computer, with micro-switches
of gold plated cross point types." They say
the ZX81 can be mounted inside the case.
Construction data included. $27.77 plus
postage and handling. Catalog No. D3N0278
Sinclair software package for $10.00.
Cassette #1, a IK games pack. Cassette #2,
Junior Education, 16K, math and spelling.
Cassette #5, Junior Education, IK, math.
Cassette #6, Family Quiz, 16K. $2.88 each or
$10 for four plus postage and handling.
Specify Cassette # when ordering. Catalog
Electronic Supermarket, P.O.Box 988,
Lynnfield, MA 01940, (617)532-2323. Accept
Visa, MC, American Express.
"Timex Computer Family Sourcebook." Over
1000 programs and accessories for the TS
1000. From Atlantic Computer, Box 936,
Norfolk, VA 23501. $8.95 plus $1.25 postage
- I wonder if either of the above books list
E. Arthur Brown's directory. Their address
is 1702 Oak Knoll Drive, Alexandria, MN
56308. Their 1983 directory sold for $5.00.
ITEM: This may be the most important an¬
nouncement in this column. If you are one of
the thousands of TS1000 owners who are tired
and frustrated with tape storage and long for
a high quality dependable disk drive for your
computer, DO NOT MISS THE DECEMBER ISSUE OF
T-S HORIZONS! Tracy Norris, Technical
Advisor to T-S Horizons, will be unveiling a
new 8-inch disk drive especially designed for
use with the TS-1000. The price? Let's just
say you will literally be amazed. Tentative¬
ly, under $200 for one (includes interface).
Under $110 for the second. Don't miss T-S
Horizons special Christmas gift to you. In
the December issue.
ITEM: Since E. Arthur Brown Company
published its "Timex-Sinelair 1983 Directory,
early this year, at least two other companies
have come out with something similar.
"The Timex/Sinclair Source Book" is put
out by Micro Design Concepts, P.O.Box 280,
Carrollton, TX 75006. With over 600
listings, using the book is said to be
"almost like shopping in a department store
devoted exclusively to the TIMEX/SINCLAIR
computer." $6.95 plus $1.25 postage and
ITEM: Keyboards. At least two companies
that had primarily been middlemen for larger
companies that sold Timex-related products,
have come out with their own keyboards in the
last couple of months. They seem to be good,
reasonably-priced items, with nice extra
E. Arthur Brown's product is the "MKIV
Keyboard." There are forty keys, all
labelled like the Sinclair keyboard, plus a
space bar. The keyboard has a port to add a
numeric keypad which is not available at
press time. $89.95. Address is 1702 Oak
Knoll Drive, Alexandria, MN 56308.
The Sinclair Place is featuring their
"Compact Keyboard" with enlarged DELETE and
FUNCTION keys, two SHIFT keys (also
enlarged), a space bar, and a numeric keypad
included. We don't know if the keys feature
the Sinclair legends or not. $88.80.
Sinclair Place, P.O.Box 2288, Redmond, WA
ITEM: A reader in Pennsylvania would like to
form a network of Sinclair Spectrum users.
If you have a Spectrum and are interested in
communicating with other Spectrum owners
nationally, please drop us a line. (Send it,
Attn: Spectrum User Group)
ITEM: Here are three
magazines for Timex computer
users that you may not know
- Sync Ware News, P.O.Box 5177, El Monte, CA
91734. Sync Ware concentrates on "Electronic
and Other Technical Application of Timex
Computers" A few clever program listings
(not all that technical) and lots of in-house
ads. Doesn't seem to be worth the $15 per
year (6 issues) subscription rate (but then I
may be prejudiced).
- TS User, P.O.Box 155, Vicksburg, MI 49097.
TS User (not to be confused with Timex
Sinclair User) is eight pages per month,
about half of which is a series of quick
hardware, software, and book reviews. The
remainder is composed of programs and program
tips, hardware hints, editorials and
"GOZZIP." GOZZIP has "inside info" on
developments at Sinclair, Timex, and other
major marketers. Also they have no advertis¬
ing so they aren't afraid to alert buyers to
"crooked, lazy and stupid" dealers or to
praise reliable dealers. The writing style
is choppy and not very "user friendly", but I
would recommend it if you plan to buy a lot
of software or hardware. $16.95 for 12
- Busyness, P.O.Box 421773, San Francisco, CA
94101. "Business/Professional Applications
for Timex/Sinclair users." Haven't seen a
copy yet, but it might be just what some
users are looking for, if the quality is
good. $12 for 6 bimonthly issues.
(By the way, in case you didn't know by now,
Syntax Quarterly has bitten the dust. Small
wonder! $5.00 per issue is just too much.
However, Syntax Newsletter seems to still be
alive and kicking.)
ITEM: Intercomputer has come out with a neat
gadget called the Intercohtroller. It is a
computer-controlled HV bus. Plug the power
cord in the wall and the interface into the
ZX/TS, enter a few lines of BASIC, and up to
four appliances can be plugged in, all under
computer-control. Home, office, lab, and
scientific applications. Intercomputer,
Inc., P.O.Box 90, Prudential Center, Boston,
\general systems consulting /
\ 2312 Rolfing Rock Drive /
\ Coolcv, G«OT 9 * 30027 /
1 CASSETTE SOFTWARE
0m Ml TIMEX SINCLAIR 1000
mS LM TIMEX SINCLAIR 1500
DESIGNED TO HELP MONITOR YOUR FINANCES
16K MINIMUM FOR T/S 1000 4c ZXJ1
CMAUCt MV, OVISA OHC 7“ '-'---— —- '
BANK STATEMENT BALANCER
DEPRECIATION STRAIGHT UNE
DEPRECIATION DECLINING BALANCE
HOME EQUITY EVALUATION
REAL ESTATE INVESTING
SAVINGS INVESTMENT ANALYSIS
IRS 1040 LONG FORM
IRS IOWA SHORT FORM a 1040 EZ
INCOME TAX PROJECTIONS
TOTAL YOUR PRICE
ITEM: As mentioned in the box below the
computer language FORTH is now available for
the TS-1000 from at least three sources.
Gary Smith, of Hawg Wild Software, has
created a special forum for XFORTH users,
called the XFORTH XCHANGE. Gary seems to be
an all out FORTH fan. He is a member of the
well-known FORTH Interest Group (F.I.G.) and
ALTERNATIVE COMPUTER LANGUAGES
The first computer language most people learn
is BASIC. It’s easy for beginners to learn.
It s powerful and versatile enough to do just
about any programming job that might arise.
The BASIC dialect that Clive Sinclair
developed and incorporated into the ZX81 is
both sophisticated and compact. Also the
fact that it is built in as ROM, means that
the BASIC language does not take up any of
the RAM area. In most other computers, like
the Apple, the BASIC is stored on a disk and
must be loaded into the RAM, taking up
valuable memory space.
BASIC has been the mainstay of personal
computers since they came into existence.
However, BASIC, whether Sinclair's or someone
else's, has some inherent weaknesses, mainly
slowness and lack of rigor. It is easy to
write a sloppy, disorganized BASIC program.
There are other computer languages and a few
are gaining a lot of popularity in the world
of computing. While most experts feel that
BASIC is here to stay, because of its
simplicity and the extent to which it has
established itself, it is clear that many
users are tiring of BASIC and going on to
newer, faster, more sophisticated languages.
So where does that leave you and me - the
loyal Timex-Sinclair users, with our 8K
Sinclair BASIC ROMS built right in? Does a
TS-1000 owner have to go out and buy a big
expensive machine to satisfy his lust for
promotes national FORTH conventions. XFORTH
XCHANGE is a newsletter published irregularly
that prints comments and suggestions from
XFORTH users and alerts users to new articles
and books on FORTH-related topics. The price
is right. (Free) Write to:
XFORTH XCHANGE, c/o HAWG WILD, P.O.Box 7688,
Little Rock, AR 72217.
We at TS-Horizons were glad to learn that
several new companies have developed two of
the more popular alternatives to BASIC for
Here we'd like to present a quick overview of
the new products, (Longer more in-depth
articles will appear in later issues.)
1210 W. High Street
Bryan, Ohio 43506
Hawg Wild Software
Little Rock, ARK 72217
1451 N. Union Street
Middletown, PA 17057
FORTH was designed to make the best possible
use of the computer's memory and speed, two
cruicial elements in a personal computing.
FORTH is becoming very popular, due primarily
to efforts of a small but growing group of
computer users, the FORTH Interest Group, or
FIG. FORTH is fast, about ten times as fast
as BASIC. FORTH is multi-tasking. In other
words while BASIC can perform only one
operation at a time, FORTH can handle up to
10, or even more in some systems.
FORTH is available for the Apple II, Heath,
IBM-PC, PDP-11, and TRS-80. Now it is
available for the Sinclair (XC81, TS-1000,
TS-1500) from three sources. All three are
based on FORTH-7 9 which is. the current
standard developed by FIG.
TREE-FORTH has a chip-based system, that
plugs right into your Sinclair PCB, and your
computer can be switched from BASIC to FORTH,
by an external switch. TREE-FORTH is
resident on a chip, so there is no wait for
the system to load. Also, since EPROM*s, can
be reprogrammed the chip can be returned to
SoftMagic for revisions, to meet any future
standards. TREE-FORTH*s introductory price
for the chip is $49.95 plus $2.00 postage and
XFORTH is a cassette-based system, and is
said to contain a very full FORTH vocabulary.
It also can be returned to BASIC, by a simple
keyboard command. Gary Smith of Hawg Wild
Software promotes XFORTH with XFORTH XCHANGE,
a special newsletter for XFORTH users. Hawg
Wild is continually revising XFORTH to create
new versions. The price is $25.00 and $1.00
shipping and handling.
ZX-FORTH from the FORTH Dimensions is also
cassette loaded. Some of its features are:
auto-repeat on keys, pixel graphics,
customized backups, and full screen editing.
It comes with two programs: a breakout game
and a simple word processor. $42.95 plus
$2.00, Postage and Handling.
1569 Brittany Court
Wheaton, IL 60187
Semper Software has introduced what they call
"Partial PASCAL." Educators are really
pushing PASCAL, because
students. For instance, in a PASCAL program,
all variables are defined and dimensional at
the beginning. This requires the user to
carefully think through his program. Pascal
uses "block structioning" in which groups of
related statements are organized into blocks.
Many educators feel the students should learn
PASCAL before being exposed to such sloppy
languages as BASIC and FORTRAN.
In PASCAL and some other language, you have
"integers**, which are all the whole numbers
from -32768 to +32768 and take up 16 bits of
memory, and you have "real" numbers which
take up 32-bits and include fractions.
Partial PASCAL leaves out real numbers and
all the commands that deal with reals. In
integer arithmatic all fractional parts are
dropped; thus 7/2 = 3 exactly. By being
restricted to integers (and for other
reasons). Partial PASCAL is much faster than
BASIC. However the lack of fractions, makes
it difficult to use in some scientific
applications. Of course, integers are
adequate for program counters and make
Partial PASCAL usable for games and other
Partial PASCAL*s tape handling system appears
very attractive. Data saved on tape can be
accessed by other programs, unlike Sinclair
BASIC in which data are locked into each
It is quite encouraging to see such
developments as alternative languages appear
for the Sinclair. We will be presenting more
information on the subject in the future. In
the meantime if anyone hears of a ZX81 with a
LISP or a TS-1000 with a LOGO, be sure and
let us know.
SEND 9.95 FOR CASSETTE
and manual. Gives
[pleasure and helps
[your thinking. 16K.
CIRCLE CHESS, Box 63
Des Plaines, IL 60017
This Tiny Ad
announces Partial Pascal lor the ZX81, Timex
Sinclair 1000 and 1500. Partial Pascal is a
subset of ISO Pascal without records, sets,
labels, got os and reals.
16K required $30 postpaid
1569 Brittany Court Wheaton, IL 60187
By: Tracy Norris
Hello, 1*111 glad you could join us this month!
This is the premier issue of TS-HORIZONS,
probably the best computer magazine on the
market for the Timex line of personal comput¬
ers. TS-Horizon's owner Rick Duncan has
asked me, Tracy Norris, to write a few
columns each month for the Horizon and I
heartily agreed for several reasons. 1)
TS-Horizons is staffed by people who put
their pants on one leg at a time, just like
you and me. 2) Since it is a new publica¬
tion we all have a chance to put our 2-cents
in as far as the kind of magazine it should
be. 3) Rick has selected the choice few who
know what they are talking about to write
regular columns in this magazine. Note:
This does not exclude YOU! Obviously, if you
have the intelligence to order a subscription
to such a fine publication then you have the
quality it takes to write for it. Let me
tell you a little about myself. My name is
Tracy Norris, owner/operator of T-tech
Industries, a subsidiary of Norris Radio and
Electronics. My firm specializes in only one
line of computer, the Timex 1000 & 2000
series of personal computers. I repair,
modify and offer advice on the Timex. If
your computer falls apart you know where to
send it for a repair!!! Enough of the
talkity-talk, lets get on with what this
article is really about.
This column "HELP!" is for you, the Timex
user to get your questions about the Timex
answered. All you have to do is send me a
question and I will do everything possible to
publish it in TS-Horizons along with an
answer. If you do not feel like waiting
every month for an answer, just send your
question with a SASE and I will send a speedy
reply back to you. I am sorry to say that I
am only an intermediate program so I think it
would be best to keep "HELP!” related to
hardware questions only. You may think that
your question is too small or too large for
me to answer. HOGWASH! I don't mind sending
an answer one page long or 3000 pages long
(.in the latter case you supply paper &
pencils!). As for your questions being
answered in this column, I think it would be
best to ask for pertinent information only,
due to the limited space available. Here's a
good question sent from a regular customer of
Tracy, I am having major problems trying
to SAVE and LOAD on my TS-1000. I am using a
CTR-31 tape deck from Radio Shack, a Timex
1016-16K RAM, and the ZX printer. Can you
give me a clue as to what might be causing my
Don Hughes, Erie, Colorado
Yours is not the first question of this
sort that I have come across. There are a
few things that must be kept in mind when
trying to SAVE and LOAD. A portable tape
recorder is a device that is intended for
voice or music recording and playback. The
unit need not be very precise to accomplish
that particular task. But nowadays the small
inexpensive tape recorders are being used to
SAVE and LOAD computer programs, a highly
precise task indeed! Did you know that one
bad bit in 16000 being read from tape can
destroy a LOAD? That bad bit can be caused
by several things, for instance: piece of
dirt or smudge on tape caused by touching the
tape with the fingers, something magnetic may
have been placed near the tape causing a
portion of the data to be erased, a wobbly
tape head not positioned at the right READ
YOU'VE GONE TO THE REST
Now Come To The Best
NORRIS RADIO & ELECTRONICS
TRACY NORRIS. Owner
1 44 TERRY DRIVE
SLIDELL, LA. 70-458
or WRITE angle on the tape (azimuth adjust
out of whack), 60 Hz hum coming from a bad
filter circuit in the recorder (need to run
unit on batteries), clock noise coming from
the ZX printer (need to place 5mfd capacitor
across 5 volt line on the edge connector),
using inferior tapes, or leaving the MIC and
EAR plugged in at the same time when SAVEing
or LOADing causing feedback to be recorded
on the tape with the data. I hope that of
these causes you can find your problem.
The Partial Pascal programming package
includes a full screen editor, Partial Pascal
compiler, example programs, run-time in¬
terpreter and user manual.
16K ZX81, TS1000, TS1500 rqd. $30 ppd.
1569 Brittany Court Wheaton IL 60187
MAKE YOUR COMPUTER PAY FOR ITSELF!
Learn how you can make money with your
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secrets you need.
SUBSCRIPTION: $12.00 year SAMPLE: $1.00
Ad rates: $5/inch
HOME BUSINESS NEWS
12221 Beaver Pike
Jackson, Ohio 45640
Don’t Mist A Singh Imm
ONLY $12 FOR 12 ISSUES!
LET YOUR 2X81 /TIMEX lOOO
WORK FOR YOU!
PERSONAL AND BUSINESS PROGRAMS:
Are on cassette, are menu driven, run with or without a printer and save
on tape automatically
SALES FILE 16K or 64K:
Holds (150 16K) (600 64K) products w wholesale and retail prices —
Shows separate wholesale and retail totals and amount of profit m up
to (25 16K) (100 64K) different accounts — Records inventory automat¬
ically or manually — Totals sales tax — Cash register mode totals,
identifies, adds sales tax. and keeps records for your bookkeeping —
Prints a list of products, accounts, inventory and sales slips with printer
**'A must for any small business**' $19 95
CHECKING 16K or 64K:
Lists (25 16K) (100 64K) deposits showing amount and date entered
— Lists (80 16K) (500 64K) checks and displays check number, date
and payee — Lists by account total of checks written — Keeps running
total of checks written and balance left in account — Adds interest and
subtracts service charges. — Search for a check by number, name,
date or amount Print a list of deposits, accounts, and checks with printer
"'Great for tax records '** $9 95
INVENTORY 16K or 64K:
May be used for everything from keeping an accurate inventory for your
business to your personal record collection. — Holds up to (150 16K)
(750 64K) items w comments for each — Comments may be used for
serial numbers, dates, prices or location — Lists all items, search for
single item, change or delete any item. — Sort items in alphabetical or
numerical order — Prints a list of items, quantities and comments
"‘Everyone should have an inventory of household items in case
of fire or theft .*" $9 95
MAILING LIST 16K or 64K:
Holds (100 16K) (425 64K) names, addresses and telephone numbers
— Search by name, city, zip code, or phone number — Will sort by
name city, or zip code m alphabetical or numerical order - Lists all
names, changes or deletes — Prints list of names or names and
addresses or address labels if they are available for your printer
"*A valuable tool for your home or business'** $9 95
APPOINTMENT CALENDAR 16K:
May be used for everything from reminding you of birthdays to business
appointments. — Just enter the date and list up to ( 8 ) appointments per
day for up to (31) days. — Lets you change or delete any appointment
— Print a list of appointments for day or month Save all appointments
"'Keep a permanent record of past appointments'" $9 95
FINANCIAL RECORD KEEPER 16K:
User can define and use 20 files of income and or expenses which may
be noted as tax deductible for future reference if applicable — Informa¬
tion may be reviewed in various ways — Includes ability to correct or
change information already entered without knowledge of computers or
programming. At end of year you have a complete overview of cash
flow for the preceding year and a list of tax deductible expenses —
Prints all information with a Timex or compatible printer $14 95
FINANCIAL RECORD KEEPER PLUS - 4SK:
Does everything the above 16K version does, plus keeps up to 500
checking transactions and it automatically reconciles the checkbook with
the bank statement
"'A complete finance package"*. $19 95
GRADEBOOK 16K to 64K:
A sophisticated, friendly and flexible grade management program for
teachers of all levels — Ranks students by weighted or unweighted
average — An example of the program s capacities with 16K 50 stu¬
dents may have up to 40 exams — GRADEBOOK is limited only by
'"Wntten by an instructor at Purdue University'*'. $9 95
A program designed to keep track of and print invoices for the small
business. — Is self-adjusting to memory size. — Will hold (2016K)
(120/64K) invoices of up to (5 16K) (10 64K) lines each — Review or
change any invoice, list all invoices, list invoices with an open balance,
enter additional payments and review invoices written to a particular
account. Prints your company name and address on each in¬
Send for free catalog of personal, business & educational programs such
as “CASH REGISTER," MULTIPLICATION TABLES, MATH QUIZ and
FLASH SPELLING at $9 95 each — C-10 blank cassettes packaged in a
hard plastic box 10 pack $8.50 - 5 25" Diskettes sinale side double-density
soft sectored with hub nngs 10 pack only $18 00 —add $2 per 10 pack
shipping for tapes and diskettes.
Any three $9.95 tapes for $24 95 DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED
Add $ 1 .00 per tape for shipping Indiana res add 5% sales tax Send Certified
Check, M.O., Visa or MasterCard No with Exp Date
MEATH COMPUTER SERVICES
950 East - 52 South
Qreentown, IN 46936
Phono (317) 628/3130
By: Rick Duncan
Best of Sync, Volumn 1
Creative Computing Press
39 E. Hanover Ave.
Morris Plains, NJ 07950
Recently I was looking for a good book on the
TS-1000/ZX81. I wanted something that was
strong on programming skills and featured a
lot of program listings. When I came across
"The Best of Sync" , Volume 1, thinking this
was what I'd been looking for, I quickly
bought it. After all it was filled with game
listings, articles about things like
graphics, programming techniques, machine
language, and hardware projects. Plus it had
about twenty pages of product reviews thrown
in for good measure. Here was a chance to
buy a whole years worth of Sync magazine for
just $9.95, I couldn't go wrong! Right?
Well, maybe half-right. What I didn't
realize but should have was that in 1981, the
year that Sync began publishing, the magazine
was written mostly for users of the ZX80
computer. The more advanced ZX81 was not
introduced until October 1981. Thus most of
the contents of The Best of Sync , Volume 1,
refer to the ZX80 and its applicability is
severely limited for ZX81 and TS-1000 users.
Most people who ordered the ZX81 from
Sinclair when it first came on the market
received a special issue of Sync which
contained reprints of articles from the first
year specifically applying to the ZX81.
Those articles listed below that were
featured in that special insert are indicated
by an asterisk (*).
One of the best features of The Best of Sync
is the games section (Chapter 1). Most were
written for the ZX80 but have been converted
by the editors to run on either the ZX80 or
ZX81. All games are for IK to 2K. The
assortment is nice. It has widgets and
herkles, detectives and masterminds, chessmen
and taxmen, Tic Tac Toe, hangman, and a
wordsearch puzzle generator. However the
games are all simplified. For instance, in
one game, motorcycles are represented by a
black square and a grey square.
The mathematical applications chapter (#2)
does have some utility. It tells you how to
use your computer to set up bar charts*,
factor to prime numbers, score tests, plus
some others that are not-so-hot. One is an
18-line program to calculate square roots on
the ZX80, which does not have the SQR
function (or trig functions, or EXP, or LN,
The graphics chapter (#3) was a bright spot.
It includes tutorials on game-creating, on¬
screen picture drawing, and high-resolution
Also of interest is Chapter 4 (Useful
Programs). "An Inventory System" * is a very
usable program and probably compares with
programs sold by software companies. The
remaining articles are of limited interest.
(Two on music generation using the ZX80 and a
radio, and a "Billboard" program).
Chapter 5 on programming techniques is about
75% material that is of no use to ZX81
owners. The concepts behind "Using Key and
Token Expression," * "Expression
Evaluators", * and "PEEK and POKE," are
probably already familiar to most Sinclair
Personally, the most disappointing chapter
was the sixth one, on program conversions. I
have been doing some research on converting
BASIC programs written for other computers to
Sinclair BASIC. I had hoped to find some
useful information in this section. However
all of the articles deal with the ZX80
version of BASIC, except one which discusses
converting ZX80 programs to run on the ZX81.
Chapter 7, Machine Language, was another sore
spot. "An Introduction to Machine Code" was
edited to apply to the ZX81, but most of the
other articles in the chapter applied solely
to the ZX80.
Chapter 8, Hardware Theory and Projects,
included several good projects for the ZX80
and MicroAce computers. In most cases
applying the instructions to the ZX81 and
TS-1000 shouldn’t be too difficult.
I am still trying to figure out why Sync
included Chapters 9 and 10. Chapter 9 is a
compilation of all the product reviews from
the first year. I don’t think any of these
items, except one book are still available.
The others apply strictly to ZX80 related
products. ’’Resources,” Chapter 10 is another
dubious section. At least half of the
marketers listed here are no longer in
business and the rest are no longer offering
the products listed.
If you own a Sinclair ZX80 and you plan to
use it quite a bit, then I recommend you buy
this book (unless you have the first six
issues of SYNC). It may be the last book
ever published on the ZX80.
But if you own the ZX81 or TS-1000, I warn
you that The Best of SYNC , Volume 1, is not
as good a deal as it first appears. Maybe
you just ought to wait for The Best of SYNC ,
Integrated Data Systems
11 Brighton Avenue,
Canada M4M IP3
We are pleased to announce the new easier to read version of our
catalogue. Some prices have been lowered and you will find that
we are competitive on the 500 items listed. Here are a few examples
#339 Dk'Tronics full sized keyboard with numeric pad. $81.80
Designed for UHF units so needs an extra hole if
VHF. Has a motherboard that lets you install some
brands of memories inside. Also has regular bus
but Memotech will not fit without ribbon cable.
#340 Dk'Tronics 64K RAM with 8-16K switchable. Fits
inside keyboard if its case is slipped off. $100.00
#029 Kayde or #483 Dk’Tronics 4K Graphics Board. $44.20
Gives 495 characters with their inverse and has a slot
for a 4K Toolkit EPROM.
#345 Q-SAVE loads 16K in 29 seconds and verifies too. $42.10
#473 Video Command Joystick. Tall, slim, self centering
and needs only 1 hand. Use alone or with #471. $16,00
#471 AGF Joystick Interface for 1 or 2 sticks with 8
directions each plus fire. $36.00
Many brands of software including the full line of EZRA GROUP II,
Bug-Byte and Dk'Tronics. Add $1 50/order for Postage and Handling.
For faster service phone with VISA number. If stock ships next day
otherwise allow 4-6 weeks.
♦ALLOWS UF TO 20 PROPERTIES
♦FILES 15 OPERATING EXPENSES
♦CALCULATES MONTHLY MORTGAGE
FROM 3 SOURCES OF FINANCING
♦DETERMINES CASH FLOW
16k CASSETTE 4 TEXT
12.95 (p4h included)
P.0. BOX 1752
(NYS residents add 7% tax)
• Uninterruptable power supply
for ZX80, ZX81, and T/S1000.
• No memory loss when AC fails,
• Allows portable computing
7 hrs normal, 4V 2 hrs with 16K,
• Completely rechargeable with
your computer power pack.
• No wiring, simple plug-ins.
• Safe, easy to use, economical.
• Ask for WITWATT 1000.
$36.50 plus $3.50 shipping/
handling, CA residents add 6%
sales tax. Send money order or
check to: WT ASSOCIATES,
3808 Rosecrans St., #262, San
Diego, CA 92110._
Use Your TS1000 or ZX81
To Save Money
*PAY0FF* analyzes Credit
Card and Charge Accounts
Do Y'ou have an account
char will take 10, 20
years to pay off? Cost
thousands in interest?
- Monthly Finance Charges
- Minimum Payments
- Years/Months to pay
- Total Interest Cost
Gives Printouts, On
cassette for 16K, $12.95
ACE 'SOFTWARE, 2 E, Oak
Moorestown, N.J, 08057
ATTENTION ALL KIDS
10 LET A$="
T-S Horizons has a special
section just for you. KIDS'
PAGE! Every month we print a
special story showing how you
can have more fun with your
TS-1000 computer. These
stories will be written by
Jason Setters who, at 13 years
old, is probably the youngest
computer writer in the world.
And you can send in your
letters and stories, too.
(Note to parents: Reviews of
programs like "Quest for the
Holy Grail," will be
invaluable in helping you find
software you and your family
Plus KIDS' PAGE will have
special programs that you can
type in yourself and amaze
your fiends and relatives.
Even our grown-up readers will
like these clever programs.
This month we have "The Timex
Pumpkin" and a surprise
program that you can use on
days like Flag Day and the
Fourth of July. Don't forget
this page is just for you. If
any of our readers have any
short, clever programs, you
can send them to KIDS' PAGE,
T-S Horizons, 2002 Summit
Street, Portsmouth, Ohio
^ v* V
20 LET B$=" f~
30 LET C$: P—11— "|
40 FOR 1=1 co i
50 PRINT A$, B$,,,
60 NEXT I
70 PRINT AT 0,0:C$(T0 11)
80 FOR 1=1 to 4
90 PRINT C$(2 TO 12),,C$
100 NEXT I
Line 10:15 grey
SHIFT-GRAPHICS then H)
Line 20:15 square grey
on top, white on
bottom (Push SHIFT-GRAPHICS then S.)
Line 30: To make inverted stars, push
SHIFT-GRAPHICS, then SHIFT-B. Then push
SPACE to make black square. Then SHIFT-B
again, and so on.
TRICK or TREAT
Here's a real spooky program
just in time for Halloween.
It was written by Mark Hall, a
high school student in
Anacortes, Washington. It's
kind of long but it's a lot of
fun. Now you can have a
jack-o-lantern without having
to buy a pumpkin.
Maybe Mom or Dad can buy some
orange cellophane to put over
the TV screen to make it look
even more scary.
Now let's try out these
This program is a surprise.
Type in all the computer
instructions carefully. Then
push the RUN key and your
computer will draw something
that will make you feel like
FOR D=5 TO 34
LET X=VAL n 30-20*SIN
FOR X=X TO 63-X
PRINT AT 3.D: ,, mr l
PRINT AT VAL "4",D;"
PRINT AT VAL "8",VAL
pyV'}AT VAL "8",VAL "18";"pjn "
60 PRINT AT VAL "12 ,D;" fpq »
65 PRINT AT D,VAL "13";" PTPrry]
RAND EXP RND
PRINT AT D,13;"
RAND EXP RND
GOTO VAL "65"
INVERSE SPACE (2)
INVERSE SPACE (2)
2 , 1 , 2 , 1
2, 3, 1
TIMEX COMPUTING FOR KIDS
"Quest for the Holy Grail"
$17.95 from Softsync, Inc.
In this game you have thing
you can pick up like guns,
machetes, fishing nets, gold
coins and other things. Since
you are in the jungle and you
can be killed by a savage ape,
I suggest you use your gun,
but you can use your own
judgement. Whenever you get
the disease you should find
something to heal it, but I'm
not going to tell you. You
will have to figure it out for
You will have special commands
to use, such as:
GET (object), like a flash¬
USE (object), like you gun.
LIST, shows the objects you
have. You can only carry five
at a time.
This game is an adventure game
for all you kids and
grown-ups, but you have to use
your wits a little and
remember the moves you make.
They have to be very careful.
You start out as you land on a
small island in your plane.
Then you go in any direction
you like, as North, East,
South, and West, and sometimes
Up and Down. There are some
things you have to look out
for. They are savages, apes,
nazi soldiers, quicksand and
some other things.
When you enter a subterranean
tunnel you have to be careful
because you can get killed by
savages or by a disease called
gangrene. You get that by
cutting your arm on a rock of
If you find someone, type in
QUERY , but you may get no
To find the Holy Grail you
must go in the tunnel and
search for something, but I
won't tell you what it is.
But I forgot to tell you one
thing. When you get the Grail
you must get back to your
plane before the volcano blows
up or you will die.
For all the readers of my
column, I highly recommend
this game for you and your
family. In my next article I
will write about "The Elusive
Mr. Big", which is an
adventure game that comes with
"Quest for the Holy Grail."
T/S1000 Books That Work For You
Special offer! Get both books for just $ 19 . 97 .
Using the Timex/Sinclair lOOO
by Ralph Coletti
The book to read after the manual. Put your com¬
puter to practical use with home, business, educa¬
tional, and scientific applications (program listings
included). A review of Sinclair BASIC contains
hints for translating from other BASICs. Common
mechanical problems and solutions and hardware
modifications are also covered. Spiral-bound for
easy computer-side use. Only $9.97.
Converting to Timex/Sinclair BASIC
by S. L. Bird
Translate other BASIC programs to run on your
T/S 1000. This complete guide covers more than
200 BASIC instructions, including a description of
how each T/S replacement works and an example
of it in use. Just $ 14.95 puts an almost endless sup¬
ply of software at your fingertips. Spiral-bound.
Call TOLL-FREE 1-800-258-5473 for your credit card orders or
send payment with shipping and handling charges to Wayne Green
Books, ATTN: Book Sales, Peterborough, NH 03458. Dealer in¬
["YES, I want T/S 1000 books that work.
• □ Special offer. Using the T/S 1000 AND Converting to T/S
. BASIC (BK739601) for $19.97 ($2.00 shipping & handling).
□ Using the T/S 1000 (BK7397) $ 14.95. □ Converting to T/S
BASIC (BK7396) $9.97. ($1.50 shipping & handling for each)
□ Payment enclosed □ MasterCard □ VISA □ Amex
I Card#-_ MC Bank#____
Wayne Green Books
_Peterborough, NH 03458 (T-3 Horizons)
SOFT MAGIC CORP.
1210 W. High Sf.
Bryan, Ohio 43506
25 PROGRAMS FOR TS & ZX
For Entertainment, Education,
Home Management, Business,
and Word Processing, in BASIC.
Send SASE for listing and details.
TREE - FORTH
A FORTH Language Version for the
Sinclair & Timex Computers.
Get out of the BASIC Rut.
10 Times Faster Than BASIC.
Control 10 Simultaneous Tasks.
On a 64K EPROM Plug-in Chip.
For Serious Users and Educators.
Send SASE for Details.
Solution of N x N Simulataneous
By: Gauss Elimination
By: K.D. Lewis
Gauss Elimination is one of the oldest, most
commonly employed, efficient, and straight
forward methods of obtaining the solution of
sets of simultaneous linear equations on a
digital computer. This method is very easily
understood and programmed.
Consider as an example the following set of
This can be written more succincly using
matrix notation as:
_ a 41
This is often abbreviated as AX=B, where A is
called the "matrix of coefficients" and X is
called the "solution vector."
The solution vector to this set remains
unchanged if "elimentary row operations" are
performed on the system, i.e., if
1) any equation is multiplied (or divided)
by a constant, or
2) a given equation is replaced by the sum
(or difference) of that equation and any
other equation in the system.
Gauss elimination is, in a nutshell, a
sequential application of elementary row
operations. The top row is first divided by
a il’ TtlUS
The prime marks [ * ] denote elements which
have been changed from their original values.
The first row is then multiplied by a and
subtracted from the second equation. This
a i 3
The first equation is then multiplied by a
and subtracted from the third, then multi¬
plied by aand subtracted from the fourth.
During these operations, the first row is
referred to as the "pivot row" and a^ is
termed the "pivot element."
Following these operations, the entire first
column below a has now been cleared to zero
and the set appears as
The second row now becomes the pivot row and
a 22* the plvot element. The second row is
divided by a^, the multiplied by a' and
subtracted from the third row. 32
Multiplication of the second row by a /
followed by subtraction of this row from tlie
fourth row then clears the remainder of the
elements of the second column which fall
below the diagonal.
The process is continued with the next rows,
each serving as pivot rows, until the
equations are in the form:
The computer program is a straight forward
application of these ideas.
1) First, N, the number of equation is
prompted and entered. The program
limits N to 10 or less, by the
dimension statements in lines 4, 5, and
6. However this can be increased
depending on the amount of memory
2) Then the matrix A is entered by rows,
i* e *, a 19 > •••£ IN, than a ,
a 22 ,# ** a 2N 5 etc.
3) Finally the column vector B is entered
aS b l* b 2 , ’* ,t> N* From this P oint > the
computer proceeds, and the solution is
printed out as N components.
The system of equations:
3X X * X 3 - 4
The bottom equation of the system now yields
directly the value of x as:
x a = b /
+ 2X 2 + x 3 = -2
3X 1 + 6X 2 + 3^ = 6
In matrix form is written:
The third equation may be solved for x since
x is known. ^
*3 * a 3>4 ' b 3
Repeated back substitution, moving upward,
yields only one new unknown for each
equation, and eventually the unknown vector x
will be completely determined when the top
equation is solved for x .
A chip’s 4 th of July?
No, Partial Pascal’s “device independence”
means programs can write data to tape,
just like to the screen or printer. And
data on tape can be read back in by any
Partial Pascal program. 16K rqd. $30 ppd.
GE 1 8 1569 Brittany Court Wheaton, IL 60187
3 6 3
1) In this case N=3.
2) Then the coefficients are entered as 3,
1> 3, 6, and 3.
3) Then the B vector is entered as 4, -2, 6.
The solution is
, or x x =2 , x 2 =-1 ,X = 2.
REM GAUSS ELIMINATION
PRINT "INPUT N"
FOR 1=1 TO N
FOR J=1 TO N1
PRINT "ENTER B VECTOR"
FOR 1=1 TO N
IF (A(K,K) =0) THEN GOTO 35
LET A1=A(I,K) /A(K,K)
LET B(I) =B(I) -B(K)*A1
LET Ad,J) =A(I,J)-A(K,J) *A1
IF (J>=N) THEN GOTO 29
IF (I> =N) THEN GOTO 32
IF (K>=(N-1)) THEN GOTO 49
IF (A(M,K)<> 0) THEN GOTO 40
IF M<=N THEN GOTO 36
FOR J=1 TO N
REM BEGIN BACK SUBSTITUTION
IF L<N THEN GOTO 57
IF (L<=1) THEN GOTO 62
LET SUM=SUM+A(L, J ) *X( J)
IF J>=N THEN GOTO 53
PRINT "ROOTS ARE."
FOR L=1 TO N
PRINT "SINGULAR EQUATIONS"
1037 Morse Lee
Evanston, WY 82930
DIRECT REVERSE VIDEO
Full sized space'bar
Two shift keys
Mail list maintainence
Sort by zip
Carrier route or
Prints self adhesive labels
64K Billing Program
Use with full sized Printer
New for ZX81/TS1000
Name your own teams, use any names you
choose. Pit your own team against any op¬
posing team you want.
Continuous and complete display, play by
play report of score, Inning, balls, strikes,
outs, men on base, runs scored.
Batting— hold or swing option,
base stealing option.
Pitching— fast balls, curves, sliders,
Make your own leagues.
Hold your own playoffs, world Series.
N.Y. state residents add 7% sales tax
Send check or money order to:
P.O. BOX 122
vestal, NY 13850
for sales professionpls
UOULO YOU LIKE TO OPOPNIZE YOUP
WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOU WHERE YOU
RRE MPKINO YOUR MONEY?
WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOU WHICH
CUSTOMERS TO DROP?
WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOW EXPCTLY
HOW YOU PRE DOING?
IS PREPPRING FORECPSTS PND
SCHEDULES NOT EXPCTLY YOUR
WOULD YOU LIKE TO GO GOLFING OR
FISHING WITH P CLEPR CONSCIENCE?
THEN "SPLES PID 1" IS FOR YOU.
(Zxsi/timex 1000 plus ibk rpmi
PROGRPM ON CPSSETTE ♦ DETPILED
USERS INSTRUCTIONS. US* 35.00
USERS INSTRUCTIONS PLONE, FOR
INFO PND EXPMINPTION: US* 5.00
(WILL BE PPPLIED PGRINST
PURCHPSE OF PROGRPM.)
BROSSPRD , QUE.
CHIRPER module for your ZX81
or your tlmex/sinclair lOOO.
The CHIRPER module lets you enter key¬
board data fast and accurately. A sound can
be heard when a key is entered enabling you
to spot a missed entry or a double entry with¬
out looking up at the screen. A buzzy-chirp is
produced when the key entry routine runs on
a 1 or a 2K machine. A large program in a RAM
pack produces a continuous tone that changes
on key entry.
A program can control the sound. Included
is a demo program that converts the keys into
a music keyboard of over two octaves.
The CHIRPER module installs easily inside
the Z X81 case with only three wires to connect.
Complete installation instructions are included.
To order your CHIRPER send a check or
money order. We pay postage in the USA or
3584 Leroy. Ann Arbor. Ml 48103
CREATING AND SAVING FILES
By: Bill Johnson
One of the best features of the BASIC
language that Sinclair designed into the
ZX-81 (TS-1000) is its ability to SAVE all of
its variables, including arrays, in the
normal course of SAVEing the program onto
cassette tape and reloading the variables
along with the program LOAD. This allows us
to transfer a file, in the form of data,
along with the program to manipulate or
interpret it, to and from tape in a single
In this article, I would like to discuss the
best ways to create, manipulate and SAVE/LOAD
files on the ZX-81 and to point out the
pitfalls as well as the opportunities of
using it as a personal information storage
The questions of how to structure the file
and what type of arrays to use will be
considered later in this article. First I
would like to outline the actual program
steps that are essential to create and
maintain a file.
A. Create File Array - having decided on the
file size, dimension the array
accordingly (i.e: DIM T$ (20,32)).
B. Delete DIMension Statement - since the
file has been DIMensioned in step A, a
re-dimensioning will never be required.
Deleting this redundant statement saves
C. Files - can be inserted/overwritten in
the array at any time, even after the
program has been SAVEd or LOADed .
D. SAVE program and files using SAVE
statement in the course of running the
program, with a GOTO statement following
it, pointing to the beginning of the
9050 PRINT "PRESS RECORD ON TAPE PLAYER"
9060 INPUT X$
9070 PAUSE 450
9080 SAVE ""
9090 GOTO 1
This enables the program to be
self-starting when it is re-loaded from
tape, eliminating a need for either a RUN
statement, which erases the variables and
thus the files, or a GOTO, which is
If a file program is structured this way and
the files are set up accordingly, there is:
A. Full access to the files as set up.
B. Minimum memory usage (no redundant
variable assignments or DIM statements).
C. Minimal chance of erasing files.
As a general rule, the most efficient way to
store file information, from both a program
and variable standpoint, is by using arrays .
Because the file information can be accessed
by its location or address in an array, we
process or access any piece of file
information by referring to its address (i.e.
T$ (20,2)). This allows us, for instance, to
arrange information in a matrix, with a
different type of information in each column,
and a set of information in each row. The
only alternative to using arrays is using a
different variable for each file item. This
process is so unwieldy as to be unworkable in
all but the most limited cases.
The first step in deciding how you want to
pack information into an array is to
A. What information is important and
B. What memory constraints do I have?
C. What display constraints do I have?
For example, in writing a program of my own
to file and process budget/expenses data for
every transaction in a quarterly period, I
determined that, though I would have like to
store more information, four items were
critical: The Date - (mo/dy) of transaction,
Remarks - to indicate the place and item(s),
Transaction - CASH, VISA, check #, etc., and
3 AGE 20
~ - tr y ' the amount spent. I limited each
data set to these four in this case primarily
because of the constraint imposed by the
display. I wanted to be able to list all of
the information on one 32-character line, so
as to be able to display a set of consecutive
entries on the screen in a row/column format.
The memory constraint is no problem, since I
have 64K but you may have to be careful not
to create files that are too large for the
memory that you have available. In that
case, you may have to trade-off file size
against memory size.
To be more specific, the 32-character line of
my budget program consists of the date (5
characters), Remarks (14 characters),
ransaction (4 characters), $Entry (6
characters) and 3 spaces to separate the
items. The act of setting the display format
will force you to be specific about the type
of information you need to store, and this in
turn will give you a clear structure that can
be translated into a programming array
Options in Setting-Up Arrays
There are two sets of options to face in
choosing an array format, the first of which
is between numeric and alphanumeric
If the files you are storing hold
primarily words and symbols, the
string (alphanumeric) array is the
simplest and best solution. You simply
insert the file information into the
array location ( i.e. LET R$ (20) =
"KROGER-MEAT"). But if the file consists
of words and numeric values (or entirely
numeric values) there are schemes
A. You may use multiple arrays, storing
words and numbers in alphanumeric and
numeric arrays, respectively. This
allows for the easiest, most straight
forward manipulation of variables
within the program. Each display
line would be two or more separate
array items printed sequentially.
Thus a statement like
PRINT D$(20);" "j R$(20); » ".
T$(20);" " ; E(20) would yield a line
10/25 KROGER-MEAT 5.26
Unfortunately the time consumed in
r!n r h hlng f0r and printin S all the items
can become too great.,
B. Or you can store all the data for one
entry in a single alphanumberic string.
This has several ramifications. If the
numberical data is to be recalled and
manipulated, then the function VAL must
be applied to the substring after it is
sliced (i.e., LET x=VAL T$ (20.5) (10 TO
14), would return the numberical value).
Then to be reinserted, STR$ must be used
(i.e., LET T$ (20,5) (10 TO 14) = STR$ x
or something similar. The cumbersome
nature of storing numeric values is
compensated by the speed with which they
can be displayed (a line can be printed
with a simple command), and the clarity
of having the variables stored in the
same format as they are displayed. And
if variable-length items need to be
right-justified, then better to do it
once in a string than every time an item
To continue the example of the budget
program, the choice of array was dictated by:
1. The need to display several lines
2. No need to change the files once they
were in place.
3. Numeric values needed to be
I therefore chose to store the entire file in
a single string array variable T$, with each
element (line) being 32-characters long. But
if the bulk of the file you want to establish
consists of numbers and they require
continual re-definition, then, scheme A would
probably be more appropriate.
2. File Dimension
The other set of options to face in
choosing an array format is to set the
number of dimensions of the array and its
size. If the information structure has
been worked out at this point the choice
of how many dimensions you want the array
to have should be quite simple. A
one-dimensional array (like a single
column of items) can be used for a single
string of numbers or, as in my example, a
single alphanumeric co.lumn of
32-character lines. A two-dimensional
array (like a matrix of rows and
columns) can store numbers in a
row-column format. Using this
information along with the chapter in the
ZX manual on arrays, you should be able
to define an array to hold your files.
The main thing to note about setting the
file SIZE is that it is critical to
DIMension the array (file) to the maximum
forseeable size that will be required.
This is akin to filling a file folder
with enough blank sheets of paper to hold
all of the information that you will want
to write into the file. If the array
turns out to be too small to hold all of
the information you later want to store
in it, there is no recourse but to
re-DIMension the array (file) larger, and
wipe out all of the information that you
have already stored there.
The storage of file information on a
ZX-81 can be very useful if the
information is easily accessible and
simple to INPUT. And it*s an excellent
way to experiment with variable
assignments and learn to manipulate
arrays on the ZX-81.
" ; • : /: \ . /
(Editor*s Note: We invite comments and
further articles on the subject of file
creation and manipulation from our readers.)
By: B. Johnson
Memotech Centronics Parallel Interface and
the Seibosha GP 100A Printer.
$339.00 + $4.95 plus shipping and handling
E. Arthur Brown Co.,
Alexandria, MN 56308.
1702 Oak Knoll Drive,
Six months ago, after a two month wait due
(ostensibly)’ to delays in shipments of
printers arriving from overseas, the
dot-matrix printer and parallel interface I
had ordered form Memotech arrived on my desk
at work. Opening the box (I didn*t wait
until I got home) I found the type of profes¬
sional - looking products that I expected
from Memotech: the Centronics-type parallel
interface, in a black aluminum case that fits
between the computer and my 64K RAM pack
(also Memotech), and the dot-matrix printer,
a simple but dependable-looking import from
our Japanese friends. Hook-up of the compo¬
nents (when I got home) to the ZX-81 was
simple. As long as you can locate the right
plugs, the assembly of RAM pack-to-interface-
to-computer and interface-to-printer is easy.
But now it becomes necessary to open the user
manual, which is very tiny and contains a
bewildering assortment of information. A
quick perusal of the manual reveals that
approximately half of it is devoted to an
assortment of information unusable by
four-fifths of its end users plus a few
Memotech ads. Not much left for the actual
software instructions that will drive the
printer. So the instructions must be few and
simple, right? Wrong. There are actually no
different commands required other than the
same LPRINT, LLIST and COPY commands that
send information to the ZX-81 printer, but a
full-size dot matrix printer'(as opposed to
either of the ZX/TIMEX printers) requires
more instructions, called "control codes,"
and lack of thorough documentation and a
sufficient number of examples at this point
in the manual leave the user to much frus¬
trating experimentation in trying to get his
control codes right.
Continued on PAGE 25
"TECHNICAL TIPS FOR THE TIMEX"
By: Tracy Norris
This column is devoted entirely to hardware
repair and modifications to the Timex series
of personal computers. In this feature I
will show you on a monthly basis how to
repair, modify, expand, and in general
enjoy the hardware aspects of your personal
Timex computer. In case you have any
doubts as to whether I know what I'm
talking about let me tell you a little
about MY Timex...
I have a full 6.5 Megabytes of storage
available to me on 3-8" floppy disk drives,
of which 2 are running DSDD (Double
Sided-Double Density). The above is of my
own design which will be available to the
Timex user in December. The retail cost will
be under $200 for Drive #1 and under $110 for
Drives 2 & 3. My Timex has 7 controller
boards for controlling lights, hardware,
coffee pot, etc. I have 128KBytes of usable
RAM, of which 64K can be used for program
lines and the other 64K is used for variables
etc. My little venture is worth about
$5,400 at the present time. This is not to
be considered "bragging". I am just
letting you know that much of what your
friends say can't be done with the
"itty-bitty computer" I have already
accomplished. Enough with what my computer
can do. Let's get on with making yours do
more! This month's project is really
something special. Do you remember when your
fellow computerist said that your computer
was inferior compared to his? Maybe it is
now, but it won't be after a couple of issues
of HORIZONS and a few hours per month reading
my articles. I have designed a low-cost
repeat key module that will work with either
the Timex TS-1000 or the SINCLAIR ZX-81 (the
same thing but with different packaging).
95% of all larger computers have repeating
keys as standard equipment, but the Timex
computer does not. So we will now proceed to
upgrade our "little" computer...
NOTE!: T-S Horizons, Norris Radio &
Electronics, T-Tech Industries LTD, their
affiliates, or employees can assume no
responsibility for damages arising out of the
use/misuse of these articles. The reader
must understand that any implementation of
these projects is to be taken at the reader's
Project: Repeat Key Module
Parts needed: 10 K Miniature potentiometer(l)
SPSD Miniature toggle switch(l)
h Watt IK resistor (1)
100 Microfarad electrolytic
tri-state octal bus driver(l)
Tools needed: 25-30 Watt grounded soldering
40/60 Rosin core, fine guage
Desoldering tool (about $7.00
at Radio Shack)
Let's get started! Connect the circuit as
shown in Diagram A-l being sure to make good
clean solder joints. Remove the bottom of
the computer by removing the screws and
rubber feet as shown in Diagram A-2. Set the
screws and the rubber feet aside; you will
need them later. Remove the 2 silver-colored
screws from the P.C. board and lift the board
up and out about k inch. Disconnect the
keyboard ribbon by gently pulling the key¬
board ribbon connector out of its socket.
Place the top and bottom case halves where
they will not be disturbed.
Using a small screwdriver, slowly desolder
and pry out the eight 1N418 diodes from the
PCB and lay them aside. Using the diagram
for a guide, connect the wires from the
74LS244 bus driver to the holes shown in the
diagram that were formerly occupied by the
diodes. Using a volt-ohmmeter, find a +5
volt source on the ZX-81 or TS-1000 PCB.
SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT: COMING IN DECEMBER!
TRACY NORRIS unveils complete plans for a high-quality, 8 -inch DISK
DRIVE for your ZX-81 or TS-1000 COMPUTER. Expandable to FOUR DRIVES.
Tentative price: Under $200 for the first drive + interface 5 under
$110 each for the second, third and fourth.
EXCLUSIVELY AVAILABLE TO T-S HORIZONS SUBSCRIBERS.
Having located it connect all +5V wires from
the repeat module to that source. (Note:
Avoid the +5V trace to the modulator or
severe TV interference will result). Refer
to Diagram A-2 and find the "X" that is in
the picture. It has an arrow pointing to the
solder pad at the end of the little metal
strip. Connect the 2 grounded pins to this
Now for the test...plug in the computer and
place a wire jumper between a metal contact
on the small female keyboard connector (any
one will do) and a metal contact on the large
female connector. A character should appear
and begin to repeat itself. If it doesn’t,
turn the lOKfi potentiometer to different
settings. If it still doesn’t, check all
connections and check all solder joints.
(Note: Make sure the switch is in the
Locate an area on the uppercase half and
mount the select switch. (Note: Make doubly
sure that there is nothing behind the switch
on the PCB that will interfere with the
switch casing.) See the potentiometer at the
repeat rate that suits you best. Disconnect
the wire jumper. Using the 2 silver-colored
screws, mount the PCB back in the uppercase
half. (Did you remember to reconnect the
keyboard?) Replace the bottom case half and
reinstall the 5V screws and 3 rubberfeet. I
hope that you enjoy the use of the repeat
key. (Suggestion: If you need to type in
a long REM statement, place a book on the
space key and the rest is automatic.)
For those of you who are scared by the looks
of a soldering iron, I will build and install
the repeat module for $30.00. Also, for
those of you users who have the above phobia
and a subscription to TS-HORIZONS knock $5.00
off the above price, ($25.00!). If you just
want the module and feel adventurous enough
to install it yourself send $19.00. Well,
until we solder again next month...
144 Terry Drive
Slidell, LA 71458
If you can work out the control code bugs and
finally get the printer to do what you want,
it has several very useful features to allow
you to dress-up your output. It ,has a
double-width, bold • print as well as its
"normal” 10 characters per inch, and it will
also "overprint" a word or words (make
several printing passes) to make them stand
out darker than the rest of the copy. These
features, and the 80 character output width
you have to work with (as opposed to the
Sinclair's 32 characters), give you a
much-improved capability to make the printed
output from your ZX/TIMEX look professional
and readable. The control code problems are
manageable, and keep in mind that once you
have formatted your output, you need never
(well, seldom) fool with it again. And as a
program-development tool the Memotech
interface/Seikosha printer performs well,
cranking out wide, readable listings of
programs at a faster rate than the ZX/TIMEX
printers. A problem though. Nowhere in the
manual is it mentioned that if you attempt to
LLIST lines that contain some of the comput¬
ers* graphic symbols, the interface causes
NEW to be executed, wiping out’ any program
material you have in RAM.
Aside from the glitches that I've mentioned
here (some of which may have been corrected
by now) the printer and interface have turned
out to be very dependable and have needed no
repairs. They have turned out good copy on
8%" x 11" fanfold paper for over six months
now, and show no signs of wear. If you're
willing to spend the time required, it will
be a welcome addition to your ZX periphenals.
Memotech Centronics Parallel Interface and
the Seibosha GP 100A Printer.
BUILD AN UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
HOW TO GET RID OF THE "PROGRAM BLITZER"
By: C. W. Johnson
You've been sitting, intently watching the
monitor as you key in the last few lines of a
program that has been plagued with bugs. You
just know it will run this time. After all,
you have been sitting here for hours and
you've only run it about a hundred times.
Without a doubt it will run this time as you
key in the last entry, when for some unknown
reason the screen goes blank. You have just
experienced the "Program Blitzer". It
completely erases the program.
Has this ever happened to you? If so, then
this U.P.S. device may be the thing to keep
your sanity while programming on the Sinclair
This uninterruptible power supply design
utilizes a Ni Cad battery which series two
purposes 1) A line filter 2) A Power source.
As a line filter the battery will filter out
any noise on the D.C. line input to the
computer. As a power source if the wall plug
or the power jack or both are moved, the
battery continues to supply power to the
computer without interruption.
There are three indicating LES's on the
console. (Ref. to Fig. 1). LED #1, which is
green, lights up as long as there is a D.C.
source from the 9v adapter. LED #2, the
yellow one, is used to indicate charging of
the 9v Ni Cad battery. The last LED #3, red,
indicates D.C. supply voltage from the U.P.S.
During normal operation you have the
following conditions. A) LI is on, B) L2 is
off, C) SI is in #1 position, D) L3 is on.
The input D.C. voltage energizes LI, goes
through position #1 of SI, through the
blocking diode Dl, energizes L3 then to the
computer. BT1 (battery) is in the circuit
via position #1 of Sl-B, acting as a filter
and an uninterruptible power source.
"PROGRAM BLITZER" EXTERMINATOR
Move SI to position #2 with the wall
transformer plugged in and it now is a
battery charger for BT1. The D.C. source
energizes LI, then through position #2 of
Sl-A feeds through L2 and charges BT1.
CAUTION NOTE: Do not use a regular 9v
battery in place of the Ni Cad battery. All
parts may be purchased at your local Radio
Shack store. Happy "Program Blitzer"
2 - Silicon Diodes 300 P.I.V.
1 - DPDT Switch
2 - 47052 \ Watt Registers
1 - 22052 \ Watt Register
3 - Light Emitting Diodes (1-Red, 1-Yellow,
1 “ 9 Volt Ni Cad Battery
1-9 Volt Battery Plug
You won’t believe the SPEED *★
■ ■ ■
■ ■ B
The ULTRA FAST
language arcade game
collisions, violent explosions, real-time
acceleration, aliens that fir
e back, and much more
all at a frenzied.
machine code pace 16K
— — — wiauc i CbUl u o ,
Statistical analysis, and more. 16K $12.95
★ NFL*****USFL STATISTICAL SUMMARY
Complete statistics for every team in the
league. 3 versions, USFL ’83, NFL ’81 -’83,
NFL ’82 -’84. NFL covers two seasons. You
update weekly. 16K $14.95
* EPHEMERIS V - ASTRONOMERS!! 16K
Deluxe planet finder and much more. $14.95
First step of construction is to mount the
three LED's and switch. (See Fig. #4) I
chose the upper right hand corner of the
upper case, as this seemed to give the most
room. Remember that during construction
leave enough wire for the Ni Cad battery, as
it will mount beside the heat sink in the
middle of the board. (Refer Fig. #2)
16K $16.95 Mailing Lists etc
The just released, machine code updated
version of ZX DATA FINDER (below)
• Instant searches • Printer compatible
• Multi-word searches •Numeric ordering
* Z WRYTER — WORD PROCESSING $12.95
* PROFIT PLAN — Analyze 5 proposals, 30
variables each. A MUST for entrepreneurs.
* EZ-HEX — Write, edit, test, and save
machine code hex programs. 16K $12.95
* ZX DATA FINDER — Data handling fully
explained. 28 page tutorial manual. 16K
“The most useful and economical program dedicated to the task of
data handling that I have found yet" SYNC. Jan Feb., 1983 $1 4.95
* METAGRAPHICS — Draw and save any
graphic pattern with machine code cursor
control. 16K, $14.95
* CHECKSTUB — Register and Budget.$12.95
59 C Street
Ampoint Industrial Park
Perrysburg, Ohio 43551
VISA 419-666-2410 MC
NEXT DAY EXPRESS MAIL
Shipping & Handling
Ohio Residents 5’ 2 ' Sales Tax
PHONE ORDERS WELCOME
The LED's can be mounted securely, by placing
a drop of epoxy on each led as it is
installed. Using, a very sharp knife, cut
out an opening for the switches. LED's and
switch will be used to mount the rest of the
As the components are mounted be sure to use
heat sinks while soldering, to D1 and D2.
Again using the sharp knife cut the foil on
the circuit board at the power in jack.
(Refer Fig. #3) Interrupt the electrical
data from the tip connection, this is where
power in and power out of the blitzer
connect. Be sure to scrape the foil clean so
as to have good soldor connections.
Make sure that the ground connection of the
U.P.S. is soldored to bottom case strap.
(Refer Fig. #3).
NOTE: Before use be sure to charge the Ni
Cad for about 12-14 hours. Fig. #4 Shows
final component layout
WGE 28 p i q if.
~t~ The Lamb's -1-
Top Quality. 16K Games for
TS 1000 or ZX 81 Owners
HIDDEN MAZE * TREASURES
3-0 NIGHT DRIVER
‘SPACE iNVAOERS' STYLE
BCUNC.NG Ba^.S A RADCcES
THE LAMB’S SOFTWARE
*444 Aalborg Way
Solving CA 43443
WRITTEN IN ENGLAND BY
Sinclair ZX-B1 ‘Timex T/S 1000*
• Very full FORTH-79 sub-set
• On cassette for 16K (or more)
• loods in one pass (unlike some versions
which require up to four extra editor
• Compact coding - 10K* still available for
• Sinclair specific look up tables (uses
Sinclair code instead of ASCII)
• Extra utilities - CIS. PLOT
• BASIC call - return to BASIC with simple,
one word inst.
• Full FORTH restart - No loss of words or
• Only $25.00/tape + $100 P&H. Arkansas
residents add $1 00
• F.P. Enhancement - Now available at
only $1500 ♦ $1.00 P&H
HAWG WILD Software "
P.O. Box 7666 • Little Rock, Arkansas 72217
ScreenMates Lightpen and Interface for the Atari*
Joystick adds versatility to your ZX81 or TS1000
• Play Action Games
• Direct Interaction with
the TV Screen.
• Features a “Piggy-back*
Add On Feedthrough
• Draw and Doodle
• Ideal for Educational
• Independant of
• Lightpen with Joystick interface
• User Guide • 90 Day Limited Warranty
• All Postage and Handling
’Screen Mate Program Cassette
• Draw • Doddla • Math Quiz • Mastar Mind
• Tic-Tac-Toe • Word Scramble • Break Out
• States • Safe Cracker
4372 Casa Brasilia, Suite 201. St. Louis, Mo 63129
Check Money Order MasterCard or Visa Accepted
A few parting comments:
- If you like T-S Horizons, please let us know. We welcome all
constructive criticism, because we do want to become the best Sinclair
magazine you can buy.
If you like us, support our advertisers. And be sure to mention where
you saw the ad.
Most importantly, if you have any bad experiences with our advertisers
- or any company dealing with T-S/ZX related items - please tell us. We
will not print ads from dishonest, unscrupulous companies, or from those
who sell products that do not live up to the advertising.
1 know I’ve said this a lot but don't miss our December issue. Tracy
Norris's disk drive is available exclusively through T-S Horizons.
- We welcome contributions (articles, not money) from any experienced,
knowledgeable Sinclair users. You don't have to be a good writer,
either. (That*s what editors are for.)
- Most of all, if you like us - SUBSCRIBE. The first few issues of T-S
Horizons will be distributed largely for free and on a somewhat random
basis, so the only way to be sure you can get each issue is to
Rick Duncan, Publisher
Extend your ZX81/TS1000/TS1500
Add Memory that won’t Forget!
^ DESCRIBED IN Radio
JULY/AUGUST 1983 EICCtrONCS
ADD YOUR OWN SYSTEM UTILITIES
BUILD UP A LIBRARY OF MACHINE
»" UP TO 8K NONVOLATILE RAM
USE HM6116LP CMOS RAM
OR 2716/2732 EPROM
16K RAM PACKS
► READ THE REVIEWS:
Wha. a super product-conceived and executed very nee* ..and with quality components
(SYNTAX QUARTERLY Winter 82)
8K NOnVOla, " e mem ° ry 15 a 9 em ' " has -any possible uses I recommend th,s board most heartily
(OKLAHOMA S.U.G. Newsletter 1/3)
We found the documentation to be far supenor to that (of) most hardware we've received
(S.U.N. Newsletter Nov/Dec 82)
For versatility this is even better than an EPROM ranks quite h,gh on the l.st of •must-haves-
(SYNC Magazine Mar/Apr 83)
Provides the user w,th instant software an extremely versatile memory extension
Th,s memory board is designed to fill the transparent 8K c
memory (from 8K to 16K) ,n a ZX81-16K system Tims ar,
memory ,s an ,deal place to store either permanently or
T aC £' n ® lf n 9 ua 9e routines or data which are tr
used by the BASIC system
Sample utilities are included with the kit
The use ot HM6116LP 2K CMOS RAM memory 1C s with th.
own r^erve power supply means that routines stored in tr
7 n r 0afc - ,he RAM relains is memory ev C
when the ZX81 is switched ott or reset Moreover beinqRAH
the routines you store ,n the memory are easily modified Th
lithium cell Supplied with the board will maintain sutfoei
reserve power for almost ten years
(Z-WEST June 83)
Complete step by-step instructions m a 20 page manual
™mn, ? m V ® b0a ' a eas> The k " (P'Ctured above) is
complete with a siikscreened solder masked printed circuit
board all capacitors, resistors transistors, sockets, connec
tors integrated circuits, and the lithium cell The board is sup¬
plied w„h one 2K CMOS 61 t6LP 3 RAM - « will accomoS
three more for a total of 8K
Complete kit withone2K6l16LP-3
Additional three 6116LP 3
Bare pc boara & manual
Kit for EPROM use only
Assembled & tested with 2K
Assembled & tested wfh 8K
Shipping & handlirl?} per order
$ 1 95
Send check or money order to the address below
HUNTER, 1630 FOREST HILLS DRIVE, OKEMOS, Ml 48864