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The Mobazine For All Commodore Computer Users, 



issue No. 25 

Butterfield In Flight 

* with Sublogic's Flight Simulator II 


. Introducting Punter Net 
-. - : -.» A low-cost BBS network 

* . 1571 Burst Mode 
Part 3 of a series 

Tlsgasi 13 

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feature: Complete educational library ]LsC- 
ing explained. Also: Cummodorc silver 
anniversary; Programming Function Keys; 
(1-64 Logo. 

feature: Canadian bulletin board numbers 
Also: Computers and copyright; Disk inner 
secrets (Jim Buttcrticld ); Computer Colours: 
( C ) T5 documentation. 


Feature: Commodore SX-64. Also: Report 
on Winter CES Show: COMAL; 1650 
Modem; (C) T6 documentation. 

TPUG MAY 1984 

Feature: Vic RolMit; CompuServe VidtcX; 
S28 Vicmodem; SuperPET supersoftwarc; 
Startrek VI; Forecasting with the 8032, part 
1; (V)F1. (C)T7. (C)T8 documentation. 


Feature: MSD Dual Disk Drive. Also: The 

beginner and the disk, part 1; Fast .Save by 
Liz Deal: Ml. Monitor. Forecasting with the 
8032. Part 2; SuperPET 6809 assembler, 
(C)M5 documentation. 


Feature: Computer aids for the disabled. 
Also: TPUG COMAL course; Hie beginner 
and the disk, part 2; Forecasting with the 
8032: pan 3 SuperPET 6809 assembler, part 
2: NOS tape translator: (V)T9, (P)T9, 
(C)T9. (C)M6 documentation. 

Feature: TPUG conference presentations. 
Also: TPUG COMAL course, part 2; The be- 
ginner and the disk, part 3: Menu handling, 
pan I; SuperPET 6809 assembler, part 3; 
(C)M7, (C)M9. (C)MA, (C)MB, <C)SD, 
(V)'FA, (S)TE (P)TA documentation. 

Feature: laser art and technology. Also: Rel- 
ative files (Chris Bennett), The beginner 
and the disk, part 4; Menu handling, part 2; 
TPUG COMAL course, part 3; SuperPET 
6809 Asemblcr. part 4; Using the user port, 
part 1: Forecasting with the 8032, part 4. 


Feature The C-16 and the Plus/4. Also: 

Software theft (Jim Biittcrficld ); Software 

reviews; Buscard 2 review; (C)U2, (C)U3, 

(C)TB. (I')TB, (S)TH » 

documentation. ^ „^* 

Feature: TPUG columns return; The 
beginner and lite disk, part 5; COMAL 
course, part 4; Menu handling, part 3: I sing 
the user port, part 2; Forecasting with the 
8032, part 5; SuperPET software; (V)TB. 
(CW4. (P)TC, (S1TI documentation. 

Sorry — SOLD OUT 
Feature: World Of Commodore II report. 
Also: Foolproofing your 4040 drive: Fore- 
casting with the 8032. Pan 6: Super-OS 9 — 
the ultimate SuperPET operating system; 
Save/Load t\pe-in program; (VVTD. (C)T'D, 
(CITE, (OSS, (C)SH, (C)MC, (C)MD, 
(P)TE, (S)'FK documentation. 


Feature: Commodore 64 chess showdown. 
Also: Computer comfort (Jim Buttcrfield); 
Winter CES 1985: Interview with Dave 
Neale; What is a database?; (V)TE, (C)TE 
(P)TE IS)'I"L documentation. 


Feature: Star Trekking and computer 
simulations. Also: Memory maps (Jim 
Buttcrfield): A beginner's BBS guide (Ian 
Wright); VIC 20 custom characters; 19K5 
TPUG conference; Super-OS'9 similar to 
Unix; (C)TG, (C)F1. (P)TG, (V)TG, (S)TM 

TPUG MAY 1985 

Feature: The world of TPUG. Also: In praise 
of the VIC 20 (Jim Butlerfield); Disk errors; 
A Ix-gtnners UBS guide, pan 2; ( C )TH, ( C )S9, 
(C)SD, (C)J1, (C)H1. (OI14. (V)T1I, (S)TG, 
(S)T"N, ( 1') 111 documentation 


Feature: Writing your own adventure 
(Steven Darnold). Also: BASIC 70 key 
words; Exploring die C- 1 28; A beginner's 
BBS guide, part 3: Using Koala pictures in 
programs; (C) II. (P)'FI documentation. 


Feature: The amazing Amiga. Also: Spaghetti 
code (Jim Buttcrfield); Spooling on the B- 
128 (Liz Deal): A beginners BBS guide, part 
4; Programmable characters; (V)TJ. (P)TJ, 
(PJTK, (S1TP (S)TQ, _^ 'wm 

(S)TR. (S)'|-S. (SITU. (SVIY. (S)Tw'. (S)T> 
(S)TY. (C)TJ. (OTK documentation. 


Feature: Telecommunications. Also: C-121 
music (Jim Bullcrficld): CI protocol, part 
(Steve Punter); Wireless computing, part 1 
<C)TL (P)TL, (V)TK (S)TK (SIT 


Feature: Computer music. Also: C-128 M 
(Jim Buttcrfield); Wireless computing, par 
2; CI Protocol, part 2 (Steve Punter 
Revival of the SuperPET; (V)TL. (P)TM 
(C)TM documentation. 


Feature: C-64 and C 128 Graphics (Jin 

Buttcrfield). Also: Drawing with the Amig: 

mouse; Amiga pull-out reference: BASIC/0! 

under Super-OS'9; (C)TN, (P)TN, (C)51 



Feature: Artificial intelligence (Dougla 
Hofstadter interview, etc). ALso: Punier BB: 
commands pull-out reference; Amiga db 
patches: (P)TP, (V)G2. (V)TP, (B)l 


Feature: Exploring the C-J2K. Also: Getlin; 
started with CPM; More on C-64 music; ( 
128 pull-out memory map (Paul Blair 
( V)AA, (C)TQ, (V)TQ documentation. 


Feature: Computers in education, Alsc 
Commodore- magazines reviewed; 512K ex 
pansion for the C-64; Educational soltwar 
pull-out section, Amiga screen magic (Qui 
Johnson); (Z)AA, (Z)AB documentation. 


Feature: computer languages. Also: Lay 
man's guide to the 1 571 burst mode (Miklo 
Garams^eghy ); Super-OS/9 bug repot 
(Avygdor Mouse); ESCape (i 2 (Adar 
llerst); (Z)AC, (S)TZ, (Y)AB, (V)TR, oli 
SuperPET disks documentation. 

rtla&tf* 13 



TPU3 Hagasins 

Publisher: Bruce Hampson 

Ed/for: Nick Sullivan 

Assistant Editors: Tim Grantham 

Adam Hers; 
Production Manager: Astrrd Kumas 
Editorial/Production Assistant: Iwona Sukiennik 
Advertising Sales: Bruce Hampson 
Cover Illustration: Thorn K. Wu 
Creative Direction (Cover): Steve MacDowall 
Cover Scan and Assembly: LK Graphics 
Typesetting: Noesis, Toronto 
Printed in Canada by: Delta Web Graphics 
Scarborough, Ontario 

TPUG Magazine is published 10 times a year by 
TPUG Inc. All rights to material published in TPUG 
Magazine are reserved fay TPUG inc., and no 
material may be reprinted without written permis- : 
sion except where specifically stated. 

Correspondence.- Send change oi address and 
subscription enquiries to: TPUG Inc.. Address 
Changes, 101 Duncan Mill Road. Suite G7, Don 
Mills. ON, Canada M3B 1Z3. TPUG Magazine 
welcomes freelance contributions on all aspects of 
Commodore computing. Contributions should be 
sent on disk, though accompanying hardcopy is 
welcome. Be sure to include return postage if you 
wish materials returned. Please indicate on the disk 
label which Commodore disk format and word pro- 
cessing program you have used. Payment for art- 
icles published is $30.00 per page if the author re- 
tains the copyright, and $40.00 per page if the 
copyright is assigned to TPUG Magazine. Payment 
is made on publication. All contributions are sub- 
ject to editing for length and readability. Address 
editorial contributions and related correspondence 
to: The Editors. TPUG Magazine, 101 Duncan Mill 
Road, Suite G7, Don Mills. ON. Canada M3B 1Z3. 

Circulation: 20.000 
ISSN #0825-0367 

VIC 20, Commodore 64 and SuperPET are 
trademarks of Commodore Electronics Ltd. PET is 
a registered trademark of Commodore Business 
Machines Inc. CBM is a registered trademark of 
Commodore Electronics Ltd. 

Subscriptions to TPUG Magazine may be obtained 
by joining the Toronto PET Users' Group (TPUG) 

Regular member (attends meetings) $35.00 Cdn. 
Student (full-time, attends meetings) $25.00 Cdn. 
Associate (Canada) 
Associate (U.S.) 

Associate (Overseas .— sea mail) 
Associate (Overseas — air mail) 

For further membership information, please contact: 

TPUG Inc. Membership Information 

101 Duncan Mill Road 1552 Hertel Avenue 

Suiie G7 Suite 144 

Don Mills. ON Buffalo, NY 

Canada M3B 1Z3 USA 14216 

TPUG Telephone Numbers 
Business Office (416)-445-4524 
Magazine Office (416)-445-4524 
Advertising Sales (416)-445-4524 

$25.00 Cdn. 
$25.00 U.S. 
$30.00 Cdn. 
$35.00 U.S. 
$45.00 U.S. 



TPUG Magazine 


Feature: Flight Simulators 

6 Flying Pleasure by Jim Butterfield 

8 Flight Simulator Mathematics by Ken Tucker 

10 Coming Home on FSIl by Jim Butterfield 


1 2 ESCape G 2 by Adam Herst 

14 Amiga Dispatches by Tim Grantham 

16 A Layman's Guide to Burst Mode: Part 3 

by Miklos Garamszeghy 
20 Dot-matrix Printer Basics by Ranjan Bose 
22 Nodular Programming by Steve Punter 
26 Tape-To-Disk Transfers by Miktos Garamszeghy 
Micro Processes 
28 DIR And LIST Under AmigaDOS by Betty Clay 

28 Automodems: Auto Chaos by Phil Kemp 

29 Building A $20 Utility Stand by Edward K, Grossman 

30 Power for Cardco Printer Interfaces by John Timar 

36 Jet by Hank Aviles 

37 Flight Simulator Adventures by Jtm Butterfield 

38 MicroRyte joystick by Jim Butterfield 

40 Programming the C-64 by Malcolm O'Brien 

41 C-128 Programmer's Reference Guide 

by Miklos Garamszeghy 

41 Computers 128 Programmer's Guide 
by Miklos Garamszeghy 

41 The Black Book of C-128 by Miklos Garamszeghy 

42 Out-Think by Adam Herst 

43 ComputeS's VIC 20 Collection by Roger Burge 

43 Two VIC 20 Books for Beginners by Roger Burge 

44 The Halley Project by Tim Grantham 

45 Carriers At War by Dave Dempster 


2 Inside Information 

4 Line Noise 

13 TPUG Library Programming Contest 

21 Marketplace 

32 Additions to the TPUG Software Library 

33 BBS Password for May and June 
35 TPUG Software Order Form 

46 Products Received by Astrid Kumas 

47 Bulletin Board 

48 TPUG Magazine Distributors 
48 TPUG Contacts 

48 Index of Advertisers 

Inside Information 

Flight simulators, in particular 
subLOGIC's versions, have been in- 
strumental in establishing the credibili- 
ty of the microcomputer. The debut of 
any new machine is greeted with "Does 
it run Flight Simulator?" as often as 
"Does it run Lotus 1-2-3?". There is no 
doubt that, for many people, the C-64 ver- 
sion alone justified the purchase of the 

In this issue, you will find no less than 
four articles by Jim Butterfield about 
Flight Simulator II. Jim has spent many 
hours flying the user-friendly skies, and 
shares his joys, insights, and frustrations 
with this remarkable software. In addi- 
tion, Ken Tucker outlines the fundamen- 
tals of the mathematics used in all flight 

To our chagrin, serious flaws have ap- 
peared in two hardware projects publish- 
ed recently by TPUG Magazine. Colin 
Haig, a member of TPUG and owner of 
Terran Technologies, has pointed out a 
number of errors in the schematic 
diagram of the General Purpose En- 
vironmental Device presented in Malcolm 
Macarthur's article 'Personal computers 
and the handicapped' (Issue #22): 

• The transistor should be a 2N2222. not 

• The diode should be a 1N914, not 
1NB14. In fact, for better circuit protec- 
tion, a 1N4002 should be used. 

• The integrated circuit, Ul, should be a 
74ALS573. In addition to the pin connec- 
tions shown, pins 1 and 10 should be tied 
to ground and pin 20 (incorrectly labelled 
RD in the diagram) should be connected 
to +5 V (pin 2 on the user port). 

• The 12 VAC adaptor should be rated at 
500 mA or better for safest operation. 

• It is not explicitly stated that the relays 
Kl, K2, K3, K4 and K5 should be 12 VDC 
coils, with 120 VAC contacts rated at 3 

In addition , there are a number of typos 
we belatedly discovered: 

• All the 'No's should be 'On's; 

• The Tump's should be 'Amp's; 

• 'RC and 'PC should read 'AC. 

We thank Colin for the corrections. We 
would like to apologize to those of you 
who may have encountered problems and 
remind those wishing to construct this in- 
terface to use proper construction pro- 
cedure — you are working with full line 

2 Issue 25 

voltages. In addition, make sure that both 
the software and hardware have been 
separately tested before attempting to 
use them together. Those who would like 
additional information can write to Col- 
in at 1270 Indian Road, Mississauga, On- 
tario, Canada L5H 1S1. 

Secondly, despite explicit instructions, 
the printer failed to flop the background 
of the printed circuit diagram shown in 
Ronald Byers article 'Expand your VIC 
(Issue #24, page 8): both the the IC and 
the wires now go to the wrong connec- 
tions. The correct version is on page 24 
— the view is from the top side, as though 
the fiberglass board were invisible. Thus 
you are seeing a mirror image of the 
etched side of the board, with the IC and 
the wires in the correct position. The top- 
side and bottom-side edge-connector pads 
are out of alignment, but this should have 
no effect on construction. 
Transposition error: In the program ac- 
companying Mike Garamszeghy's Micro 
Process 'Merging Program Files', there 
is a line 300 that actually belongs to the 
program found in his article 'Fun with 
function keys'. 
We have received a wonderful disk con- 

taining arrangements of the music of 
Bach, complete with erudite comment- 
ary. If we have deciphered the signature 
correctly, these were transcribed by Eric 
S. Fern. This disk will be made available 
to the TPUG C-64 library. However, we 
do not have a return address, so Eric, 
please let us know so that we can send 
some software in return for your 
generous donation! This disk is highly 
recommended to fans of the Goldberg 

Birth mode, part 2 

Tristan Scott Sullivan is pleased to an- 
nounce his recent arrival at the home of 
TPUG Magazine editor Nick Sullivan and 
his wife Susan Scott. Tristan comes on 
board with impressive credentials, in- 
cluding blue eyes, plenty of brown hair, 
a cherubic smile, and a mass of 3681 
grams. We have it on good authority that 
junior partners Corwin and Graham are 
eager to collaborate with Tristan in the 
development of new child/parent 
strategems. Our congratulations to Nick 
and Susan. 

The Editors 


acCROTCO 2001 


^£=^^==?^==r/£z=/=:f THIS MONTH'S SPECIALS \— \-Ar-\--V- A ^- 

— 7- 7^ /- /~ - / / PRICES IN EFFECT UNTIL AUGUST 31 ,1986 \ \- — X _>Z Z±$^=: 

g=rz=^^_- /W / — __- — l^^^^ggg 


FOR C-64 

'*** $14.95 \ * 3695 








128 Version Only 






Ta^cnoreo 2001 ltd? 

mtm ^ Name _ 
/ Address 

"- Check or money order enclosed 17 Visa L.' MasterCard C Amex 
Acct# Exp. Dale Signature 

5529 Yonge Street, Willowdale, Ontario M2N 5S3 

Tel: (416) 229-2700 

Note: All prices In Canadian Funds. Phone and mall orders welcome. 

Ontario residents add 7% sales tax. 

Add 5*k lor ihlpplng (minimum charge $4.00) 

■as bb> ^a 10W discount 1or TPUG members on regular 

fiff J ■■» *a»a* priced software, accessories and magazines. 

TPUG Magazine invites you to ex- 
press your views on Commodore 
computing by writing to: 

Line Noise 

TPUG Magazine 

101 Duncan Mill Road, Suite G7 

Don Mills, Ontario MSB lZS 


Magnum Load and Megasoft 

I am writing to you as a last resort. A 
year ago I purchased an MSD1 (1541 
compatible?) single disk drive. It works 
fine for standard disk routines but is just 
as slow as the 1541 itself. For the past 
year I have been looking for a program 
that will speed up loading of files. After 
exhausting many possibilities of pro- 
grams that work with the 1541 but not 
with the MSD drive, I came across an ad 
in Compute's Gazette for a company nam- 
ed Megasoft Limited. This company 
claimed to have a product called Magnum 
Load, a replacement Kernal ROM for the 
C-128 and MSD disk drives, which would 
load programs up to 5 times faster than 
normal . After ordering and receiving the 
ROM, I installed it and found that it 
would not work with my MSD drive. 
Every time a load was attempted, the 
disk drive would lock up and the com- 
puter would have to be reset. I sent this 
product back to Megasoft. A replacement 
ROM arrived last week. After installa- 
tion, it was found to do the same thing 
as the previous one. 

To make a long story short, and after 
seeing Megasoft starting to advertise in 
your magazine, I wondered if: 1) any 
other readers have had similar problems ; 
2) how reputable is this company; and , 3) 
is there any other product around that 
does work with MSD drives. Any help 
would be very much appreciated. 

Gord Staples, 

Owen Sound, Ontario 

P.S. It appears that MSD has now gone 
out of business. 

The July "86 issue of The Pittsburgh 
Commodore Users Group Newsletter con- 
tains a review of Magnum Load by 

Antony Marsh, in which he also reports 
problems with this product. The first chip 

Megasoft sent him was the wrong one, and 
the second one did not work reliably. If 
anyone else is having problems with either 
this product or Megasoft's customer ser- 
vice, let us know. 

Homewriter 10 

Paul Blair's article 'Dot's Nice . . . ' 
(Jan/Feb 1986) is fine as far as it went, 
but I feel he left some things out. He did 
not spell out that Epson's Homewriter 10 
printer does not support underlining, 
superscripts, subscripts or italics. I have 
tried to use it with Bank Street Writer 
and Paperback Writer 128 and the above 
mentioned extras will not work. 

As a neophyte in the home computer 
market, I bought a Homewriter mainly 
on Epson's reputation. I just assumed it 
would do everything since it was fully 
compatible with the C-128. 

The bottom line is that I'm selling mine 
as soon as I can find a buyer. At the very 
least it should underline. Most dealers 
that I'm aware of (Computer Odyssey, for 
example) will not touch it for the 
previously stated reasons. I hope you will 
put a short note in your next issue outlin- 
ing the above problems with this printer. 

Kirk Girard 
Dunnville, Ontario 

A call to Epson Canada confirmed Kirk's 
information. In fairness to Paul Blair, we 
must point that the printer has these 
capabilities — it's Epson's plug-in inter- 
face/or Commodore computers that will 
not pass on the necessary escape codes, 
even if the word processing software can 
send them! This was done to ensure com- 
plete 1525 compatibility — the 1525 can- 
not underline or print in italics, either. 
The only way around the problem is to 
purchase the Centronics interface ftiot the 
C-64 interface) for the Homewriter, and 
connect the printer to your Commodore 
computer with one of the regular parallel 
printer interfaces, such as the Cardeo G- 
Wiz or the Xetec Super Graphic. An 
awkward solution, but one that Maurice 
at Epson assured us would let you use the 
features built into the Homewriter 10. 

Roland printer 

I noticed two pieces of misinformation in 
the Roland PR- 1011 printer review that 

were not in my submitted manuscript. My 
submission stated that Roland and 
Panasonic pinters were almost identical 
and never implied that Roland markets 
Panasonic printers! If you look closely, 
there are cosmetic differences in the two 
lines of printers. The Panasonic paper 
cover is slightly higher than the top sur- 
face of their printers, while the Roland 
top surface is angled and flush with the 
paper cover. Secondly, Roland PR-1011 
is similar to the new Panasonic KXP-1080 
and not the KXP-1091 as stated (Roland 
PR-Ill 1A was like the 1091). 

The truth probably is that both Roland 
and Panasonic buy their printers from the 
same original equipment manufacturer (if 
there ever was a misnomer?). I shall ap- 
preciate if you will print the above por- 
tion of my letter in your Line Noise sec- 
tion to set the facts straight. 

Ranjan Bose 

Winnipeg, Manitoba 

C-64 coverage 

I would like to bring to your attention, 
in the spirit of constructive criticism , the 
lack of information on the C-64 in TPUG 

May I offer to the editors a suggestion 
to reprint articles on the 64 that you have 
published in the past (for example, the 
C-64 memory map by Jim Butterfield)? 
This would spark an interest in those who 
have recently joined TPUG as new 
members, and would be of benefit to 
other members as well . 

Ross A. Groombridge 
Woodbridge, Ontario 

We feel that it is the primary responsibili- 
ty of TPUG Magazine to provide infor- 
mation that is not available elsewhere, be 
it news about the latest products, or fresh 
perspectives on the current ones. Con- 
sidering the variety of Commodore prod- 
ucts, and the limited number of pages 
available in the magazine, we do not feel 
it would be in the interest of the majority 
of TPUG members to reprint past articles 
about any product, much less articles 
about the C-64, for which a vast amount 
of information is already available. 

You will still find reviews of software 
and hardware for the C-64 in the 
magazine. There will be detailed coverage 
of the new GEOS operating system and 

4 Issue 25 

new peripherals for the C-6J,. But even if 
we had the pages and the editorial man- 
power to publish more C-64 material, we 
would still be limited by the fact that we 
receive very few submissions from C-6U 
users like yourself. Continued support of 
any product requires continued input 
from owners — ideas, articles, programs 
— something that has been notably lack- 
ing among TPUG's C-64 members. 

You are right, of course, regarding new 
owners and the useful information to be 
found in past issues. For those who do not 
wish to spend their hard-earned cash on 
the many books in print, we are making 
available back issues of T PUG Magazine, 
See the ad on the inside back cover for 

1650 modem service 

I think your readers might be interested 
in the following information for the repair 
of the Commodore 1650 modem. This 
modem was not sold in Canada and units 
with problems must be returned to Com- 
modore U.S.A. for replacement. The 
FCC in the States does not permit repair 
of modems, only replacement. 

Send the 1650 modem with a $35.00 
U.S. money order to: 


Westchester, Pa. 
U.S.A. 19380 

Put a Canada Customs sticker on the 
securely-wrapped package indicating 
'Made in USA' and 'returned for repair'. 
An exchange unit will be sent to you. 

Paul Gunter 

Weston, Ontario 

CP/M and CP 

I'm on both sides of the fence as far as 
copy protection and copy programs is 
concerned. I don't mind copy protection 
if the vendor sells back-up copies. Some 
software companies don't. Sending in for 
a replacement copy takes too long if you 
are dependent on the software. Com- 
panies sometimes go out of business so 
a replacement is not possible, I've bought 
copy programs to defend myself. On the 
other hand, I'm a strong supporter of 
copyright laws. I like to encourage soft- 
ware companies that develop good pro- 
grams. It disturbs me when people buy 
a computer so they can copy all the pro- 
grams their friends have. 

I now see the same problems with 
CP/M software. If a person has an old 
CP/M computer, it is probably all right 
to copy the software to C-128 format. 
Most people who have a C-128 do not 

have a CP/M computer. Many of them are 
copying Wordstar, dBase II, et cetera, 

from their friends' computers. There is 
no reason for this because there is a lot 
of good public domain software and good 
inexpensive CP/M software advertised in 
computer hobbyist and CP/M user group 
magazines. Computer stores that sell 
CP/M computers and software are will- 
ing to order anything a customer wants 
and even translate 8 inch disks to the 5 
1/4 inch format that a C-128 can read. 
I've had no problem obtaining CP/M soft- 
ware for my C-128. The title of one arti- 
cle in issue #21 of TPUG Magazine, 'A 
Scrounger's Guide to CP/M : How to beg, 
borrow and otherwise obtain CP/M soft- 
ware for the C-128', surprised me because 
of your strong stance against stealing 

Glynn E. Stafford, Jr. 
Waldorf, Maryland 

Copyrights and their enforcement through 
copy protection have long been a conten- 
tious issue. While a strong case can be 
made against copy protection, we at 
TPUG Magazine are firm believers in an 

author's right to profit from the fruits of 
his or her labour. We do not, nor will we 
ever, condone the illegal copying of pro- 
grams or documentation. By 'otherwise 
obtain', we did not mean 'steal'. We don't 
have an. official stance against begging or 

While many very good CP/M programs 
were available even a few short years ago, 
that supply has become harder to find, 
along with dealers who will carry these 
programs. Many programs are no longer 
produced or supported by their manufac- 
turer, and, new, legal, copies are imposs- 
ible to purchase. This fact, combined with 
the absence of copy protection, encourages 
the technically illegal practice of copying 
them. Unfortunately, this situation is 
unlikely to change unless CP/M machines 
expei'ience a resurgence of commercial 
support. The only workable solution 
would seem to be the release of these pro- 
grams as shareware or freeware. Along 
with the benefit to users, this could pro- 
vide a source of income for the manufac- 
turer from what would otherwise be a 
dead product, D 



expert with 
'flight simulator: 

1 >^- 


TPUG Magazine 5 

Flying pleasure 

Going aloft with 
Sublogic's Flight Simulator II 

by Jim Butterfield 

Copyright © 1986 Jim Butterfield. Per- 
mission to reprint is hereby granted, pro- 
vided this notice is included in the 
reprinted material. 

There are many programs that simulate 
flying an airplane, but I have a special af- 
fection for Flight Simulator II, by 
Sublogic. The thing is, it's not a game. 
It's real . . . sort of. 

You're at the controls of a real plane 
{a Piper Cherokee Archer) and you're fly- 
ing over real territory (say, San Diego to 
Los Angeles). The coastlines, geographic 
features, and runways are real ones: if 
you decide to land on runway 4 left at 
Chicago's O'Hare airport, it will be there 
in the simulator as it is in reality. Should 
you decide to fly Seattle to Olympia, it 
will take the same time as a real flight in 
the same plane. 

There is no high score, no specific ob- 
jective. Fly where you wish. Use instru- 
ments, or go visual . Choose summer or 
winter, day or night, clear weather or 
cloudy. On long flights, you can get 
slightly bored. Fly in easy mode, or 
choose 'reality mode'; make your plane 
have less than 100 per cent reliability and 
take your chances. 

And while all the information is there 
in the manuals, about the only direct help 

you get at the controls is how to get the 
plane up and off the runway. The rest is 
there, scattered around the two manuals. 
but you have to dig for it. There are a 
series of flight lessons that are concerned 
more with control and navigational pro- 
cedures than with how to go barn- 
storming around the countryside. Good 
discipline, good for learning real flight 
procedure, but the flying hacker (flapper? 
flacker?) may find it a little confining. If 
your object is at least in part to get out 
and enjoy the scenery, you'll find the 
Champaign topography a little confining. 
Start researching (yes, there's an index) 
and learn how to crash in your own style. 
I have never flown a real plane, but I've 
cross-examined pilots as to whether or 
not the things I've discovered on FS II 
correspond to real flight. In the main, 
they do. Yes, the plane tends to 'porpoise' 
(oscillate up and down) if you do anything 
too sudden. Yes, turns become more slug- 
gish if you put the flaps down. But I'm 
told that a real plane is much easier: you 
get extra cues, such as the feeling of mo- 
tion as you turn, and the speed indication 
given by the sound of air flow past the 
cockpit. And the C-64's visual resolution 
is poorer than reality: it can be hard to 
line up on a runway. 
You have four scenery areas. One covers 
the area from Chicago to Champaign 
(about 150 miles); another goes from New 

York to Boston; a third covers San Diego 
to Los Angeles; and the fourth, the Puget 
Sound area from Olympia to north of 
Seattle. Most airports are shown (about 
20 are typically available in each area), 
with accurate runway configurations. 
Some landmarks are included. For ex- 
ample, in the area of New York City, you 
can fly by and inspect the Empire State 
building, the twin towers of the World 
Trade Centre, the Manhattan Bridge, and 
the Statue of Liberty. 

A couple of incidents impressed me. I 
was in Vancouver and, in showing FS II, 
had selected an area near Seattle. A 
viewer who had never seen FS II before 
exclaimed, "Hey . . . that's Mercer Island. 
Turn west and follow that highway [he 
identified it as 1-5] and you'll come to 
downtown Seattle and the Space 
Needle!" I made the turn, and sure 
enough. . . there it was. 

More recently , I was visiting my niece 
in Santa Cruz, California. She and her 
husband were going to ground school and 
she was actively studying the principles 
of flight. I was amazed to find myself ex- 
plaining the purpose of an artifical 
horizon, and the relative merits of the 
gyrocompass (needs frequent resetting) 
as opposed to the magnetic compass (sub- 
ject to short term swings and drifts). 
Goodness! I'd picked that and other stuff 
up just by roaming around on FS II. 

6 Issue 25 

It's fun just to cruise around. It's also 
interesting to in ^stigate navigation, or 
try your hand at finding your way 
somewhere. You can also set yourself 
goals: Can I fly across the uncharted ter- 
ritory from New York to Chicago? 
(Answer: yes, if you can figure out how 
to get around the fuel problem. And be 
prepared to yawn over four hours of dull 
scenery on the way). 

It's something of a do-your -own-thing 
program. The interest level lasts much 
longer than for games. And it's a heckuva 
lower price than buying your own plane. 

— that would be nice in FS II, especially 
when you're trying to line up with a run- 
way. But this high performance aircraft 
goes out of control quickly if you press 
the wrong button, and the instruments 
are sparse compared to those of FS II. 
It's easy to get lost when you've in- 
advertently turned the wrong way, 
especially with no navigation aids. And 
it's hard to muster good control over 
speed and rate of descent: there are no 
instruments or indicators that help much 
other than visual judgement (and things 
happen fasti). 


Jet, which is reviewed in detail in this 
issue by Hank Aviles, can use the same 
scenery as FS II. So if you want to fly 
past the Statue of Liberty at Mach 2, you 
may do so. It may be a good way to look 
over the territory — you can fly from 
New York to Boston in twenty minutes 
or so — but it's unsatisfying to use for 
'sightseeing flying'. 

The scenery moves by too fast, even 
though the screen refresh is still done at 
a relatively slow rate: you can be past 
things before you get a really good look 
at them. The fuel sites at the scenery air- 
ports don't work on Jet; fortunately , you 
are automatically tanked up in 'practice' 
mode when your fuel level drops below 
10 per cent. 

There is a 'zoom' feature that allows 
you to get a close-up view of scenery in 
the four directions {no diagonals in Jet) 

There's a tendency for Jet to fail at the 
instant it brings in a new batch of 
scenery. That was true to a lesser extent 
in FS II, especially (for some reason) in 
the Puget Sound area. If you touch a con- 
trol at the same instant as you move into 
a new region, the system may give up. 

Jet may be a fine chase-and-destroy 
game, and it's technically interesting to 
fly a machine so highly powered that it 
can accelerate going straight up. But to 
me it doesn't seem as rich and interesting 
a flying machine as good old FS II. 

Scenery disks 

'Scenery' may be the wrong word for 
these FS II extensions. They function 
more as aids to territory familiarization 
and navigation. There are no hills or 
mountains, no buildings, no bridges — 
everything is in two dimensions. You'll 
see rivers and lakes, coastlines and roads, 

and there will be lots of airports with 
associated navigation aids (although I've 
seen no Instrument Landing Facilities). 
But there's no Golden Gate Bridge, no 
Alcatraz or Yosemite Park, and nothing 
to compare to the Empire State Building 
as viewed in the scenery of the main pro- 
gram. You won't find anything to fly 
under, around, or between. 

A typical scenery disk covers three or 
four regions. For example, scenery disk 
3 covers the San Francisco, Los Angeles 
and Las Vegas areas as three separate 
'scenes'. These cover all of the states of 
California and Nevada, overlapping 
slightly into Arizona. There appear to be 
no detail areas such as FS II has for 
selected airports or for the Statue of 
Liberty. No fuel is available at any air- 
port, but it's easy to fake refuelling. 
When you get to the edge of one area, 
there will be a disk load and you (the pilot) 
must pull out the detail documentation 
for the new region. There is some overlap 
of navigational beacons between maps to 
allow you to plot a journey, but the 
scenery edges don't fit together too 
smoothly. If you fly completely out of the 
scenery area, you'll be put into a gross 
map of the USA. In principle, you can fly 
across the country with only one scenery' 
disk, but you'll have to do it without 
navigational instruments. You can follow 
the main US highways; and if you want 
to try a flight from Toronto, start up with 
co-ordinates 18200N and 19248E. 

The detailed documentation for each 
area includes a map and loose-leaf air- 
port/navigation data. The map contains 
small print, some of it black on grey, and 
you may need perfect vision to read it. 
It's hard to distinguish between the digits 
5 and 6 in the frequencies shown on the 
map. But other documentation give the 
information again in finer print, and 
great detail on runway configurations is 

The 'Star' disks, not yet available, may 
contain the kind of detail suitable for 
sightseeing; the scenery disks don't. They 
do cover a great deal of territory. A flight 
from Chico, California, via San Francisco, 
Los Angeles, Las Vegas and Reno will 
take about eight hours. Allow suitable 
stops for (hypothetical) refuelling, snacks 
and miscellaneous other activities, and by 
the time you get back to Chico you'd bet- 
ter be ready for a night landing. □ 

For another perspective on Jet, see Hank 
Aviles's review on page 36. Be sure aiso 
to read Jim's reviews in this issue of 40 
Great Flight Simulator Adventures and 
40 More Great Flight Simulator Adven- 
tures (page 87), and the Microflyte custom 
joystick (page 38). 

TPUG Magazine 7 

Flight simulator mathematics 

by Ken Tucker 

Copyright © 1986 Ken Twker 

Behind the fancy graphics of flight 
simulator programs are complex algor- 
ithms controlling the parameters of 
flight. While complex, an examination of 
this subject should be of interest to ail. 
This article, while trying to maintain a 
layman's approach, includes enough 
mathematical detail to allow a program- 
mer with some knowledge of vectors and 
trigonometry to experiment with flight 
simulation programming. 

A flight simulator program may be con- 
sidered as two separate sections: one sec- 
tion for parameter calculation and 
another for visual representation. The 
aerodynamic calculations software deter- 
mines the aircraft's position, speed, direc- 
tion and orientation. The cockpit view 
software then uses this data for determin- 
ing the appearance of the environment, 
and the instrumentation read -outs. 

Flight simulation 

The primary forces operating on an air- 
craft are gravity, lift, thrust and drag. By 
adding the magnitudes and directions of 
these forces, a single net force is obtain- 
ed. We can simplify the math involved by 
setting the weight of the aircraft to one. 
and by considering force and acceleration 
to be the same thing. The net accelera- 
tion is the vector sum: 

A = G+L+T+D 

This could be accomplished in a program 
through the use of arrays, storing the X- 
axis component of A in A(l) and using 
A(2) and A(3) for the Y and Z axes (we 
will take the three axes as respectively 
corresponding to longitude, latitude and 

The other 4 vectors, each with 3 com- 
ponents, can similarly be represented, 
and the sum would become, 

for n=1 to 3 

A(n) -G(n) +TC rt) +D( n] 

next n 

As an example, consider an aircraft while 
it is motionless on the runway. The force 
of gravity downward is equal in 
magnitude but opposite in direction to the 
lift achieved by the wheels. The state of 
the airplane can be described as: 

G - -Ik 

L = 1k 

T = D = 

A = 

In our programmers' notation this is 
represented by: 

G( 3] =-1 : LC3J-1 

All other array elements are equal to 0. 
With the acceleration of the aircraft 
known, it is very simple to determine the 
appropriate velocity (speed and direction) 
and position with a computer. The pro- 
cess by which this is accomplished is 
known as integration. When a force (ac- 
celeration) acts for a period of time, the 
velocity changes and, while the aircraft 
is moving, the position is changed: 


V + At 
P + Vt 

where V is the velocity, t is the time in- 
crement, and P is the position. 

In a computer program the time incre- 
ment (t) can be of any duration, but is 
usually set so that the program runs in 
real time. This is accomplished by deter- 
mining how long it takes the computer to 
complete one loop through the equations 
and setting t to that duration. 

Wing forces 

A wing produces lift through the move- 
ment of air, mainly over the top surface 
of the wing, resulting in upward suction . 
Actual forces are usually determined by 
experimental means in a wind tunnel. 
Recently, computers have been able to 
achieve theoretically calculated results 
that approximate experimentally derived 
results very closely. 

Lift actually depends on such broad 
considerations as wing shape, size and 
texture, humidity and air density, but air 
speed and angle of attack are the most 
important. The greater the angle of at- 
tack, the bigger the 'bite' the wing takes 
from the air, displacing more air 
downward and producing more lift. All 
other conditions being equal, if one 
doubles the air speed the lift is quadrupl- 
ed. Since the characteristics of the wing 
itself are fixed for any given aircraft we 
choose to simulate, we can combine the 
characteristics for that aircraft into a 
wing constant W. Then, where V is the 
airspeed (the magnitude of the velocity 
vector), and a is the angle of attack, we 
can derive w, the force on the wing, with: 

w = V*Wsina 

provided that -10° < a < 18°. If the wing 
takes too large a 'bite' (that is, the angle 
of attack falls outside the specified 
range), a 'stall' occurs and w becomes 
zero — there is no lift on the wing. The 
angle of attack is adjusted by the pilot 
moving the control column back and 
forth. This action changes the elevator 
flap which, in turn, points the aircraft's 
nose up or down in relation to the wind. 
The force acting on the wing is mostly 
upward (lift), but a comparatively small 
backward force is also present. This is 
termed drag. The lift occurs in an upward 
direction relative to the aircraft, while the 
drag occurs in the direction opposite to 
that of the aircraft's movement. If u is 
the unit vector upwards relative to the 
aircraft's motion, and v is the unit veloci- 
ty vector (V/V), then the lift L and the 
drag D can be determined with: 

L = w cosa u 

D = -w sin a v 

Determining drag 

The result for drag in the last equation 
is only approximate. The fuselage and 
stabilizer fins, among other factors. 
create further drag, known as parasitic 
drag. Attempts to eliminate parasitic 
drag resulted in the famous flying wing 
experiments. A more accurate value for 
total drag can be obtained by incor- 
porating a co-efficent of drag, cj in the 
equation. This coefficient is determined 
from the real aircraft's maximum level 
speed at maximum thrust: 

D = (-wsina + c^V^Jv 


Thrust on an aircraft results from either 
a propeller or a reaction engine such as 
a turbo jet. A jet engine's thrust 
magnitude is set by the pilot. The thrust 
direction is the direction the aircraft is 
pointed in. We'll assume here that the 
direction of flight is the direction the air- 
craft is pointed in. Normally this is true, 
but there are exceptions. In the famous 
aerobatic manoeuvre known as the 
hammer-head stall , the airplane is pointed 
up, while travelling down. Another 
famous exception is the Harrier jump jet, 
whose thrust direction is variable. Ignor- 
ing these exceptions, thrust becomes 

6 Issue 25 

T = Tv 

As an illustration, remember that the air- 
craft's weight is one. The actual weight 
of an F-104A Starfighter is about 20,000 
pounds, and it has a maximum thrust of 
13,000 pounds. The maximum T in this 
case is 13,000/20,000 or 0.65. A most 
familiar unit expressing this is 'g' force; 
at full thrust, this force is 0.65 g. 

Determining the thrust of a propeller 
driven aircaft is more complex. The pilot 
is setting the horse power (Hp) of a 
reciprocating engine from which thrust 
magnitude must be derived by the 
T s Hp/V 

From this equation it's easy to see why 
a propeller-driven aircraft performs bet- 
ter at low speeds. The lower the speed, 
the greater the thrust for the same 
power. Compare the ease with which a 
helicopter takes off vertically to a 
Harrier, which requires relatively huge 
engines to generate more than lg of up- 
ward thrust for vertical take-off. In real- 
ity, of course, if the speed is zero (V = 
0), thrust is not infinite, as our equation 
would suggest, since the propeller is still 
moving. One must refer to experimental 
data to determine thrust at full power 
with brakes on. A workable simulation is 
achieved with: 
T - Hp/(Vp + V) 

where Vp is prop speed under these 

Aircraft orientation 

Pitch, yaw and roll is not a new sport. 
It is the dance aircraft wiggle to when fly- 
ing. Pitch is the up and down motion of 
the nose, while yaw is the left to right mo- 
tion of the nose. Roll refers to rotation 
around the direction of motion. Of these 
three movements, only roll is directly con- 
trolled by the pilot, (Strictly speaking, 
minor changes to yaw and pitch can be 
introduced directly with the rudder and 
elevator respectively, but we need not 
take this into account). This allows con- 
siderable simplification with only minor 
penalty. Letting V be ground speed, 
and using 8 for the pitch and 5 the 
heading (which , because of our simplifica- 
tion, is the yaw angle), we find: 



v y =) 

B - tan- 1 (V«/V,] 

5 = tan-HV./V y ) 

where V x , V y and V u are the aircraft's 
speed along the three axes. 

Most real airplanes use a steering 
wheel. Turning the wheel left or right 
causes the aircraft to roll left or right. 

The specific response of the aircraft to 
this control input is highly individual. 
Transportation aircraft are designed to 
be very stable with a comparatively large 
resistance to barrel rolling. Fighters 
however, need maximum manouverabili- 
ty, and are often designed unstably to this 
end. The result: a barrel roll at the flick 
of a wrist. 


An aircraft flying straight and level has 
a lift force of equal magnitude but of op- 
posite direction to the force of gravity. 
As mentioned earlier, the lift force is up- 
wards relative to the aircraft. If the air- 
craft is banked (rolled 30 degrees, say) 
the up vector will now be pointed to the 
side of the aircraft, resulting in a turn 
(see diagram). Notice that the 'lift op- 
posite gravity' decreases as the aircraft 
is banked. In real aircraft, as in 

Lift opposite gravity 

Turning force 

simulators, the pilot will increase the total 
lift by increasing the angle of attack. This 
keeps the 'lift opposite gravity' force con- 
stant so that no change in attitude will 
occur while turning. 

Those readers who are mathematical 
masochists may enjoy confirming how 
our little unit 'up' vector expands to: 

+ cos£isinT 


u 3 =cosScosT 

where T is the roll angle. 


A proper treatise on flight simulators can 
fill a text book. Here we have examined 
a 'first approximation' simulator that is 
realistic 95 per cent of the time. The next 
step (second order approximation) re- 
quires consideration of the aircraft's 
moments of rotation, fin stabilizing 
geometry and so on, to enable the simula- 

tion of spins, stalls and minor lags 
resulting from the difference in the direc- 
tion of flight and the direction the aircraft 
is pointed. As the software grows more 
complex, the loop time increases, with the 
projected result becoming increasingly 
accurate but too slow for comfortable use. 
All real-time flight simulators must make 
a trade-off between speed and precision; 
the product of these two factors is a 
measure of the brute hardware power of 
the machine running the program. 

When one considers the additional com- 
puter time required for the view 
simulator, instrumentation and possible 
statistical updates, the advantages of 
parallel processing become clear. Flight 
simulators have a natural affinity for 
parallel systems of two or three pro- 
cessors. One complex task, the flight 
simulation, passes only six numbers to the 
next complex task, the view simulator. 
With three axes of position and three 
angles of orientation, the view of an en- 
vironment can be calculated. Without 
doubt, as hardware capability expands, 
an entirely new class of simulators will 
become practical and accessible to the 
home user for both entertainment and 
education. □ 

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TPUG Magazine 9 

Coming home on FS II 

by Jim Butterfield 

Copyright © 1986 Jim Butterfield. Per- 
mission to reprint, is hereby granted, pro- 
vided tkis notice is included in the 
reprinted material. 

It's not hard to take off using Sublogic's 
Flight Simulator II — give the motor 
lots of power and put the nose up a bit 
and you'll go up. Once you're a safe 
distance up, you can meddle with controls 
(gently!) and still come out OK — keep the 
plane right side up, nose slightly up, 
enough power, and eventually the plane 
will sort itself out even if you can't. But 
as the drunk who jumped off the CN 
Tower said, "Flying's great, but I haven't 
got the trick of the landings yet." 

The C-64 version of FS II doesn't like 
sudden motions, such as sharp turns, 
dips, or rises. If you want to bring your 
craft in, you must do it smoothly — don't 
panic. It's hard to see the runways with 
sufficient clarity to zip in there: the 64's 
resolution doesn't quite make it. 

And the rules change. To descend in 
normal flight, you tip the nose of your 
plane down a bit, and down you go. But 
that increases your speed. So in the final 
stages of a landing, you must change the 
technique and reduce engine power in 
order to descend; in fact, you might tip 
the nose slightly up so as to reduce speed. 
How is a poor flying hacker to cope? 

FS II has a not-well-known 'training 
mode' to help you on landings: the Instru- 
ment Landing System (ILS). It seems like 
an advanced feature . . . but the beginner 
can use it to help bring the plane in. 
Here's my recommendation. 

An instrument landing 'walks you in' 
and teaches you a bit about descent rates, 
and how the screen should look as you're 
coming in. Mostly, take it easy. Every 
time you make a small adjustment, the 
screen will bob around a little as the plane 
settles into its new attitude. I'm told this 
particular craft is known for its 'porpois- 
ing' and can be vexing to fly. If you react 
too quickly, you'll exaggerate the effect 
and fly into a disaster. 

Go to the editor and set the following 








North position 
East position 



Leave the editor (press e). You are now 
20 miles out from Martha's Vineyard, 
passing over Cape Cod. If you don't know 
your way around the instruments, press 
p to freeze everything. When you're 
ready, restart (press p again), select n for 
navigation and set frequency NAVl to 
108.70. You'll see your distance from 
destination under DME. The upper right 
hand circular dial should have a left/right 
needle, and it should be centred. (Don't 
worry about the horizontal needle yet; it 
will tell you when to start coming down). 
You should be able to see the island 
ahead. You should be in level flight at 
2000 feet. Let it fly. If you feel cocky , call 
the control tower (COM frequency 121,4) 
and get a weather report. 

Press the s key. The screen will flicker 
momentarily. Novv you have logged a 
'restart point': if you crash, or if you 
decide to retry this part (by pressing the 
+ key), you'll come back to this position. 

Watch the left/right needle on the up- 
per left dial. If it's centred, it tells you 
that your position is exactly lined up with 
the runway. You may be flying in totally 
the wrong direction (although if you're on 
bearing 235 to 240 you're heading in), but 
your position is right in line. Now — if the 
needle drifts to left of centre, it's telling 
you that you're a little off the runway 
line. In that case, you'll want to change 
your course a bit to the right (say, bear- 
ing 250) to get back in line; as the needle 
comes back in, return to bearing 235 to 

So watch the needle. If it moves to right 
of centre, bank the plane right (gently!); 
if it goes to the left, bank left. As the 
needle comes back to centre, resume your 
original course of 235 to 240. You have 
lots of time; enjoy the view. Your altitude 
can drift a little; if you make a correction, 
do it gently, preferably using the throttle. 
As you get within eight miles of the air- 
port, watch the horizontal needle on the 
same dial: that's the glide slope indicator. 
It's pinned at the top right now, but as 
the glide slope comes down you'll want 
to follow it. Somewhere near six miles 
out, the glide slope pin will be about 

centred. Drop motor power about four 
notches; that wilt start you dropping at 
a rate of about 5, or 500 feet per minute . 
If the glide slope indicator is below 
centre, drop a little faster until you catch 
up ; if it goes above the centre line, reduce 
your rate of descent by adding a little 
extra motor power. 

Six miles is a magic number. Normal- 
ly , you'd get a beeping sound, which is the 
'outer marker', when you pass this point, 
but you're over water so it's not there. 
Tap the n button once to drop flaps and 
slow yourself down. Look for an airspeed 
(upper left dial) of 80 to 90 knots. Give 
everything time to settle. If you're going 
too fast, take the nose up with b. . . 

Your rate of descent (the dial below 
ALT) should still be about 5, for 500 feet 
per minute. You're controlling this on the 
throttle. And remember: if the glide path 
indicator is below the centre line, let 
yourself drop a bit faster (reduce power) 
and readjust when you catch up. You 
have been keeping yourself lined up 
left/right, haven't you? By the time you're 
four miles out, forget the left/right nee- 
dle and fly directly toward the closest end 
of the runway — don't try to line up, just 
get to the end. Keep on the glide path. 

About 0.8 miles out, you'll hear a beep- 
ing noise — the middle marker. If you're 
not too busy, touch n again for a little 
more flap and expect your airspeed to set- 
tle in at about 70 to 80. By now you may- 
fly mostly visually. Keep your rate of des- 
cent at about 5. When you get to the run- 
way , bring the nose up again by touching 
b and cut the motor as you land . Use the 
space bar to brake, of course. After 
you've landed, pick up your flaps by 
pressing y a few times. 

If there's a part you can't get right, 
press s as you are going into any tricky 
bit during the flight to signal that you 
want to come back there after you crash; 
if you don't crash but want to try it again, 
press the + key. When you can get it 
down, use the editor to set up clouds at 
1000 feet and come in blind. Then try a 
night flight. 

After a few tries, you'll get a feeling 
for the whole landing thing. Then you can 
try other airports that don't have Instru- 
ment Landing Systems. Happy landings! 


10 Issue 25 

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Esc G2 

by Adam Herst 

In this edition of esc g 2, the last until 
the fall , I want to reflect on the first year 
of the C-128. With three separate modes, 
each with its own unique characteristics, 
the resolution of a programming or prod- 
uctivity project can be accomplished in 
many different ways. Let's take a quick 
look at how the different modes are stack- 
ing up. What follows are my impressions 
after having worked with the 128 for 
close to six months. 

The most used mode of the C-128 is 128 
mode. This is probably because of its 
similarity to the C-64. If you can use a 
C-64 you should have no trouble starting 
up in 128 mode. With a similar operating 
system and a version of BASIC that is a 
superset of BASIC 2.0, many of the 64 
programming tricks and techniques will 
work in 128 mode. While billed as a single 
mode, extended use has convinced me 
that 128 mode should really be considered 
as two modes: a 2 MHz, 80 column, fast 
mode, and a 1 MHz, 40 column, slow 
mode. The two modes are radically dif- 
ferent in their characteristics and 
capabilities and should be used for dif- 
ferent types of programs. 

Slow mode is a graphics mode. It sup- 
ports low and high resolution graphics, 
multicolour and sprites, all accessible 
through BASIC. With its 40 column 
screen, however, it is not particularly 
well-suited to text-only applications. 
Given this, there is absolutely no reason 
to use 40 column , slow mode for anything 
other than graphics. In contrast, the 80 
column fast mode is well suited to text 
manipulation — so well suited, in fact, 
that the computer provides no support for 
graphics manipulations in this mode. 
Combined with its faster speed, the 
manipulation of large text and data files 
becomes effortless. 

The ability of the C-128 to run the 
CP/M operating system with no add-on 
chips or boards, and the inclusion of all 
the necessary software in the C-128 
package, undoubtedly convinced many 
small businesses and offices to purchase 
this machine. With its built in Z8Q chip, 
80 column screen display and multiformat 
disk drive, many of the problems 
associated with CP/M on the C-64 have 
been alleviated (many, not all — more on 
this later). 
CP/M Plus, also known as CP/M 3.0, is 

the latest version of CP/M available. The 
latest version, it includes many utility 
programs that were considered extras in 
earlier versions, as well as enhancing ex- 
isting programs . Next to AmigaDOS, it 
is probably the most powerful DOS 
offered with a Commodore computer. Un- 
fortunately, this may also be the last ver- 
sion of CP/M. As mentioned last issue, 
DRI has classified CP/M as a mature 
product and will no longer actively sup- 
port it. According to information pub- 
lished in Micro/Systems Journal, in the 
face of this abdication of responsibility, 
support for CP/M has been assumed by 
(forced onto?) the SIG-M CP/M users 
group. They will offer the same type of 
support that TPUG offers for the Com- 
modore computers. 

The C-128's CP/M operating system 
has undergone a number of changes since 
its release. Fortunately this is not as 
major an issue as bug fixes to operating 
systems such as Commodore DOS. Unlike 
changes in Commodore DOS, updates to 
the CP/M operating system are easily 
implemented on existing systems — one 
advantage of a disk-based system over a 
memory -resident system! The upgrades 
to the CP/M system — the most recent 
of which is dated December 8, 1985 — 
corrects important ommissions in the 
original release. If you haven't acquired 
this upgrade yet, it is available from many 
users' groups and online information ser- 

To add the new features to the upgrade 
systems, a rewriting of the CP/M code 
was required. One effect of this rewrite 
has been to reduce the size of the TPA 
(Transient Program Area) — the area of 
memory into which programs are loaded 
— from a size of 59K to 58K. This reduc- 
tion, while minor, has proven to be suffi- 
cient to cause a few formerly C-128 com- 
patible CP/M programs not to run. If you 
run up against this problem, your only 
recourse is to contact the manufacturer 
and plead for a rewrite of the program. 
If that doesn't work, you can either run 
the program under the old CP/M system, 
or abandon it. 

As I said, the disk-based nature of 
CP/M on the 128 is a strength, in that up- 
dates and improvements are easy to imp- 
lement. It is also a weakness because, like 
previous Commodore computers, the 128 
is just not oriented towards disk intensive 

software. Even with the increased speed 
of the 128, it is the lack of speed that is 
the main drawback of the CP/M imp- 
lementation. While the CP/M mode can 
run at 2 MHz, this is slow compared with 
most other Z80 based computers, which 
run the chip at anywhere from 4 to 8 
MHz. This results in program operation 
that is noticeably, if not annoyingly, 
slower than on other CP/M machines. 

While the recommended system con- 
sists of a single 1571, the optimal — 
perhaps even minimal — system required 
to run CP/M programs consists of two 
1571s, and this configuration is expected 
by most CP/M programs. Unlike the pro- 
grams that run on Commodore DOS and 
are loaded completely into memory 
before execution, many CP/M programs 
only load in portions of the program as 
they are needed. 

However, purchasing a second 1571 
may not be the only alternative for prod- 
uctive CP/M use. The long-awaited 1750 
RAM expansion will go a long way 
towards improving the capabilities of the 
128's CP/M mode. Firstly, it will provide 
a nearly 51 2K capacity RAM disk in 
CP/M mode. Support for this RAM disk 
is already built into the CP/M system and 
is available on power-up. By using this 
virtual drive to store either programs, 
data or both, disk shuffling can be 
drastically reduced. The addition of the 
memory expansion will also solve the 
other major problem of CP/M on the 128, 
the slow disk access speeds. By circum- 
venting the slow disk-write speeds, CP/M 
operations that had taken minutes can 
now be performed in seconds. The inclu- 
sion of a RAM disk is a must in an optimal 
C-128 CP/M system. 

Perhaps the most interesting link in the 
C-128 chain is the new 1571 disk drive. Its 
design embodies Commodore's attempts 
to circumvent two of the problems that 
were associated with the 1541 and C-64 
combination. The major problem with the 
latter, as most CBM old-timers know, is 
the unbelievable (in its absence) speed 
with which disk access is performed. The 
second problem, perhaps less well known 
to users, was the inability of the 1541 to 
access the practically universal CP/M disk 
format, MFM. 

Commodore's solution to these pro- 
blems has been to include in the 1571 
design a fast serial data transfer protocol, 

12 Issue 25 

called burst mode. The first problem, 
snail 's-pace disk access, has only been 
partially solved. The normal 128 
operating system takes advantage of 
burst mode during program-file loads 
only (and very speedy loads they are too!). 
For saves, and sequential file accesses, 
however, disk access is as slow, if not 
slower, than with a 1541 (slower because 
the disk log-in procedure takes longer 
with a 1571 and its myriad combinations 
of disk formats). While burst protocol is 
available for these functions, they have 
not been included in the Kernal routines. 
With the presence of burst mode, fast 
DOS programs shouldn't be hard to 
write; however, it is disappointing that 
Commodore didn't have the foresight to 
include these routines in the computer. 

With greater ingenuity, the second 
problem, MFM format compatability , has 
been elegantly solved. Through the use 
of burst mode, the 1571 is capable of 
reading many double density MFM- 
formatted disks. These include the for- 
mats of some of the most popular CP/M 
computers: IBM, Osborne, Epson and 
Kaypro. While impressive, these 
achievements apparently barely tap the 
capabilities of the 1571 disk drive. Pro- 
grams already exist that allow the 1571 
to format a disk with these MFM formats . 

The future of the 1571 looks promising. 
Here at the magazine we are investi- 
gating a hardware modification that 
should ultimately allow the 1571 to read 
single density, as well as double density, 
disks. It also appears that the 1571 is not 
limited to accessing CP/M formats. 
Miklos Garamszeghy, a frequent con- 
tributor to TPUG Magazine, has recent- 
ly prepared X-Link, a program that 
allows read and write access to MS-DOS 
formatted disks and the transfer of files 
to CP/M or GCR formatted disks! Look 
for this program to appear in the 
magazine and on library disks later this 

The last mode on the 128 is the poor 
cousin. Intended as a 100 per cent com- 
patible 64, it has succeeded well. In ad- 
dition, many of the 128 enhancements 
can, with a little trickery, be accessed 
from 64 mode: 2 MHz clock speed, out- 
put to the 80 column screen and access 
to the numeric keypad, among others. 
Unfortunately, most of these cannot be 
easily used with commercial programs . In 
my opinion, I don't think you should be 
programming in 64 mode on the C-128 


It certainly is, so I'm going sailing. See 
you in the fall. □ 


TPUG is once again offering you the opportunity to reduce the costs 
of your hobby. The Librarians Committee of TPUG is sponsoring a 
programming contest as a means to encourage you to submit your 
programs to the library. The winner of this contest will be selected at 
random from the names of the submitters of all programs accepted by 
the librarians from the submissions received between the first 
publication date of this notice and Friday, October 31, 1986. The 
more programs you submit, the greater your chance of winning. 


• Submissions must be received on or before the deadline. 

• Submissions must be on diskette (VIC programs may be 
submitted on cassette — two copies, please). 

• Submissions must be original material. 

• Submissions can be for any Commodore machine. 

• Submissions should indicate that they are contest 

• All submissions become the property of TPUG. 

• TPUG general policy of returning a disk of your choice on 
acceptance remains in effect for all submissions. 

• Unaccepted disks will be returned. 

• Freeware submissions will not be accepted for contest 

• Submitter's name must be included in a comment statement 
at the start of the program as well as on the front of the disk. 

• First, second and third prizes will be awarded consisting of 
100, 50, 25 blank disks respectively or 25, 10, 5 disks 
(respectively) from the TPUG libraries. 

The Librarians Committee 

TPUG Magazine 13 

Amiga Dispatches 

by Tim Grantham 

The Toronto area is becoming a hotbed 
of Amiga development. Anakin Research, 
of Rexdale, Ontario, is doing very well 
with a graphics tablet/software combina- 
tion called Easyl. This is a too! for pro- 
fessional artists and designers that plugs 
into the expansion port of the Amiga. 
You can use the Easyl software to create 
IFF (Interchange File Format) drawings 
that can then be imported into other pro- 
grams; alternatively, Anakin provides 
drivers for all the major graphics pro- 
grams, including Deluxe Paint and Aegis 
Draw. The tablet has a resolution of 1024 
by 1024 pixels, more than enough for the 
Amiga and future upgrades thereof. Brad 
Fowles, senior design engineer for 
Anakin Research , told me that they are 
currently developing digital signal pro- 
cessing software that will handle both 
audio and video sources. Brad also told 
me that Musicraft 1.1 is also being com- 
pleted here in the Toronto area, although 
there is some doubt that Commodore will 
ever bring it to market. 

Despite yet another quarterly loss, 
Commodore has something to feel good 
about — Amiga reportedly outsold the 
Atari ST during the period December to 
February. I hope this trend will continue 
with CBM's latest announcement about 
their marketing strategy. It seems that 
when the Amiga 2000 model appears, the 
1000 will be dropped in price to $995 from 
$1295 (US). As reported in last month's 
column, the A2000 will come with 2 
megabytes of RAM, built-in IBM com- 
patibility, and two built-in drives. It will 
also have five internal sockets for expan- 
sion boards and an optional hard drive. 
It will be sold in the $1500 (US) range and 
I wouldn't be surprised if AmigaDOS is 
put into ROM. 

Software news 

John Foust, an Amiga developer and col- 
umnist for Amazing Computers, reports 
that the subLOGIC people told him that 
Flight Simulator for the Amiga would 
be out in August and Jet would be re- 
leased in September. . . Microprose are 
working on a version of Silent Service 
that should be available in the fourth 
quarter, and Firebird (of Elite fame) are 
porting a version of The Pawn, complete 
with digitized sound and voice . . . Charlie 
Heath, author of Txed, announced that 
notices are being sent out to let current 
owners know how to upgrade to the 
recently released vl.3. . . TDI Software 
have announced a bug fix/upgrade disk 
for their well-received Modula-2 compiler, 
available for the cost of diskettes and 
shipping, and three new products: Grid, 
a file access utility; a disk containing 
Modula-2 translations of many of the 
ROM Kernel and Intuition routines; and 
a Modula-2 telecommunications 
package ... I've had a good look at Flow, 
an idea processor, and I was not 
impressed. At $99.95 (US), it appears to 
have fewer features than Kamasoft's 
OutThink ($39.95 US) for the CP/M side 
of the C-128 (see Adam Herst's review 
elsewhere in this issue) and is con- 
siderably more expensive. Of course, 
Flow is much faster and can be multi- 
tasked with other programs, but even the 
speed advantage is lost if you have an ex- 
pansion RAM attached to the C-128. If 
you need this type of program for the 
Amiga, check out Txed, which sells for 
$39.95 (US). I understand you can con- 
figure it to do most of what Flow does, 
and have a full -featured text editor to 

A company called Taurus in England 
has ported their Acquisition database 
management program to the Amiga. The 
program reportedly has full dBASE III 
compatibility, takes full advantage of In- 
tuition, includes a compiler, can file data 
in IFF, wil! speak entries if desired, and 
has an approximation feature for when 
the user is unsure of the correct spelling 
of a search field. They claim that negotia- 
tions with interested distributors are 
delaying release of the product... 
Michael Reichmann of Batteries Included 
has announced that BI's Isgur Portfolio 
System will ship later this summer. He 

also announced the imminent arrival of 
BTS, The Spreadsheet. 

Commodore's Myndwalker video 
adventure game for the Amiga is receiv- 
ing rave reviews and, after seeing a beta 
version, I think the raves are probably 
justified. However, some users are ex- 
periencing a problem with 'broken 
sprites'. It seems that during the brain 
tissue part of the game, some machines 
will not display the Myndwalker 
character, and one of the viruses is 
smeared from the top of the display to the 
bottom. Larry Phillips of ICUG (Inter- 
national Commodore Users Group) in 
Vancouver has found a work-around for 
the problem: simply use the screen posi- 
tioning gadget in Preferences to pull the 
display to the lower right-hand corner. 
Steve Ahl strom, an Amigaforum sysop, 
says that there is a bug in 1.1 of the OS 
(Operating System) that allows sprites to 
be positioned outside of their hardware 
limits. This has been fixed in 1.2, but may 
be the cause of the problem. 

CES (Consumer Electronics Show) in 
Chicago saw the announcement of many 
exciting products. Progressive 
Peripherals were showing versions of 
Superbase and Logistix, an integrated 
productivity program containing a 
database, timesheet and spreadsheet, 
complete with graphics. Electronic Arts 
is now shipping Instant Music and 
Deluxe Video Construction Set; Marble 
Madness, Return To Atlantis and 
Adventure Construction Set will follow 
shortly. Instant Music is a non-MIDI 
composition program for non-musicians 
that creates IFF files that can be in- 
tegrated into other programs like DC VS. 
It apparently does not permit multi- 
tasking. . . Maxiplan from Maxisoft, a 
Lotus-type spreadsheet, appears to be a 
significantly better product than the 
much-trashed Maxicomm. It's apparently 
fast and efficient. 

Metacomco will be releasing a BCPL 
compiler for the Amiga . . . Megasoft has 
released A Filer, a simple database pro- 
gram, and A Term, a terminal pro- 
gram... Datamat, from Transtime 
Technologies, mentioned in last month's 
column is now shipping . . . Mimetics 
MIDI interface and sequencer are on 
dealer's shelves in New York. They have 
also been showing Soundscape, a full- 
featured MIDI and sampled-sound editing 

14 Issue 25 

program. Brad Fowles of Anakin 
Research told me that this is the best pro- 
gram of its kind, offering professional 
capabilities found elsewhere only on 
systems costing many times more , . . 
Aegis Draw from Aegis Development is 
now available. It works best if you have 
more than 512K RAM... Those who 
have seen beta versions of CBM's 
AmigaTerm have been pleased to see 
that it does not suffer from the slow 
screen output of Online! and other term- 
inal programs, and can in fact keep up 
with 19,200 bps (bits per second). . . 
Chang Labs' Rags to Riches accounting 
software has been substantially im- 
proved, now making full use of Intuition 
and multitasking. 


It is rumoured that the Sidecar will ap- 
pear with ports for a keyboard and a 
monitor so that it could be used as a 
stand-alone unit. Also, it may have an ex- 
pansion port extender, so that other 
Amiga peripherals can be plugged into it . 
Full communication between the Amiga 
and the Sidecar has been provided for, so 
that they have access to each other's files. 
A hard disk drive plugged into the 
Sidecar can be partitioned and used by 
both computers. While we're on the sub- 
ject, it seems the Transformer will not 
work with a 68010 installed . . . There are 
persistent rumours that Commodore will 
be producing a DMA (Direct Memory Ac- 
cess) hard disk drive for the Amiga. The 
Tecmar and Microforge drives use soft- 
ware handshaking in their device-drivers 
and are consequently limited in their 
speed. A DMA drive could transfer data 
at typical speeds of 1.5 megabytes per 
second! . . . 

The Agnes, Paula, and Denise chips are 
now available at $70.00 a piece, it 
seems. . . Golden Hawk's MIDI interface 
should be shipping now . . . Roger Powell 
has completed porting of his famous Tex- 
ture music editing/sequencing software 
to the Amiga. He is now working on a bus 
adaptor for use with Roland's MPU-401 
interface or the OpCode interface . . . 
Cardco's Amega, their 1 Meg RAM ex- 
pansion unit, should be available as you 
read this. It costs $549.95 (US), can be 
stacked with other boards and peripher- 
als, and features full auto-configuration. 

Meanwhile, it's good to see that Comspec 
has substantially lowered the price of 
their 2 Meg RAM unit to $1276 (Cdn.) 
from $1450. . . SoftCircuits, Inc. has an- 
nounced the arrival of their plug-in adap- 
tor that enables the use of any standard 
40 or 80 track 5 1/4 inch drive with the 

Amiga. The drive must have its own 
power supply and standard connector 
cable. The interface supports disk in- 
serted/removed . . . Apparently as part of 
a cost -cutting move, some new Atari 
monitors are using lower-quality com- 
ponents, resulting in an inferior picture. 
Many Amiga owners had been buying the 
Atari monitor because it had a superior 
resolution than the 1080 Amiga monitor, 
and was substantially cheaper . . , 

Blits and pieces 

CBM appears to have fumbled with the 
Amiga Theatre at Expo. Seems they 
didn't get sufficient guarantees of ex- 
posure — Ron Troy reported that only 
one machine was on display! Canadian 
artists, though, are very grateful for the 
estimated $250,000 that CBM has poured 
into this project. It looks like the Amiga 
Theatre may continue after Expo 86 has 
finished , and the machine will take on a 
greater importance in its operation. 

While the Intuition and Hardware 
manuals are now available from Addison- 
Wesley, the ROM Kernel Manual has 
been delayed yet again, presumably to 
allow for version 1.2 of Kickstart and 
Workbench. Addison-Wesley here in 
Canada say they have the Intuition and 
Hardware manuals in stock and ready to 
ship to dealers... Rockwell Inter- 
national's space division has purchased 
some 80 Amigas for their engineers and 
designers... The Philadelphia Phillies 
baseball team are using an Amiga and 
Aegis Animator to control the animation 
sequences on the giant screen at 
Veterans' Stadium. . . Ami Project is a 
magazine for anyone interested in pro- 
gramming the Amiga. 

AmigaDOS 1.2 

It is strongly rumoured that Kickstart 
will be put into ROM and thus will not 
have to be loaded from disk. It will also 
feature disk-caching, a more efficient 
directory track allocation algorithm for 
faster disk access, support for the 68881 
math coprocessor, a mount command for 
partitioning, the ability to set the ser: 
device parameters (stop bits, x-on/x-off, 
parity, et cetera), and an interlace mode. 
This last one is interesting: I've seen two 
full-size (medium res) windows placed on 
the screen at the same time. Of course, 
one then has to put up with interlace 
flicker. There are a couple of work- 
arounds to this problem: use Preferences 
to change the colours to ones that flicker 
less (I found that orange on black worked 
well; others suggest green on black); or 
do as Joe Lowery has suggested: put on 
a pair of sunglasses! □ 






First, there was SCRIPT 64. Then 

came SCRIPT 128. And now, there's 
PC SCRIPT for the PC & compati- 
bles! It's available as "User Distrib- 
uted Software", otherwise known as 
Shareware. You may distribute 
copies to other users. After trial-use, 
a manual is available for a modest 
fee. Call for further details... 


VIC 20 USERS You are not forgot- 
ten! See our line of expansion car- 
tridges and get even more mileage 
from your valued unit. 


Don't junk your IEEE and parallel 
peripherals just yet. The necessary 
interface can be had from Rich-Hill 
Telecom international. A beta-test 
model has been installed at the 
TPUG office, and has successfully 
linked an 8050, 4040 and Mannes- 
man Tally printer to the C-128 sys- 


EDUCATORS. ..The success story 
behind the MULTI-LINK networking 
system for Commodore computers 
in the classroom is now history. If 
you're interested in networking, call 
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Phone: (416) 731-1621 

TPUG Magazine 15 

A layman's guide to burst mode 

by M. Garamszeghy 

Copyright © 1986 M. Garamszeghy 

The first two instalments of this four-part 
series on the 1571 burst mode (issues 23 
and 24) covered the general syntax and 
application of each of the commands, and 
the procedure for reading data from the 
disk. This part describes the method for 
writing data in burst mode. 

Part 3: Burst write 

The 1571 disk drive Burst Command In- 
struction Set (BCIS) contains a single 
command for writing data to a disk. The 
burst write command is somewhat 
analogous to the standard Commodore 
DOS block-write (b-w: or u2:) command. 
Unfortunately, there is no/cts( save com- 
mand (corresponding to the burst mode 
fast load command) that would allow you 
to write an entire file in burst mode. 

As with most other burst mode com- 
mands, the write command will work 
with either MFM or GCR disks. Although 
the burst write is faster than the normal , 
Kernal-controlled write to the 1571, the 
difference is not as great as the difference 
in read speeds. The average speed for a 
burst write, using 256-byte sectors, is 
about 600 bytes per second. The cor- 
responding figure in normal 1571 mode 
is about 400 bytes per second, and in 1541 
mode it is about 300 bytes per second. In 
1571 and burst modes, the write speeds 
are a factor of 3 to 5 slower than the cor- 
responding read speeds. Unlike DOS's 
block-write, bu?-st write can also be used 
to write multiple sectors in succession (up 
to one track's worth). 

There are six basic steps to follow for 
a burst mode write operation. These are: 

• log in the disk and send the burst write 
command string; 

• set the serial port to fast output mode; 

• send the data; 

• set the serial port to fast input mode; 

• read the burst status byte (repeat steps 
2 to 5 for a multisector write); 

• restore default I/O. 

The easiest way to log in the disk is to 
use the burst mode inquire disk command 
by sending the command string: 


This command will normally return a 
burst status byte indicating the condition 
on the drive controller. If you are inter- 

ested in its value, the status byte can be 
read using the technique outlined in part 
2 of this series on burst mode (TPUG 
Magazine issue 24). If you are not inter- 
ested in the status byte (that is, you are 
sure of the type of disk in the drive) you 
can ignore it by sending the burst write 
command string immediately following 
the inquire disk command. As outlined 
in part 1 of this series, the command 
string for a burst write is: 

M u0"+ch 


kx) +chr$( track 



sector#) +ch 









where xx can have the following values: 

• 2 for a write to a GCR disk (either side) 
or MFM disk (side 0); stop writing if error 

• 18 same as value 2, but for MFM disk 
side 1 

• 66 same as value 2, but ignore errors 

• 82 same as value 18, but ignore errors 

As with the burst read command, the 
maximum number of sectors that can be 
written is equivalent to one track. The 
actual number depends on the disk for- 
mat (for MFM disks) or the track number 
(for GCR disks). If you try to write more 
than one track's worth of sectors, you will 
overwrite sectors on the same track, until 
the number of sectors specified by the '# 
of sectors' parameter have been written. 
This could hopelessly corrupt your disk, 
so be careful when specifying the number 
of sectors to write. The 'next track' 
parameter is useful if you are writing 
several tracks in succession. Normally, 
before a write or read operation , the disk 
head will return to its 'park' position 
before going to the specified track and 
sector. If you specify the next track 
option, the head will go to this next track 
directly, without going to park first. This 
saves both time and wear and tear on 
your drive, by preventing the head from 
bouncing around like a yo-yo. Both the in- 
quire disk and burst write command 
strings can be sent via either a BASIC 
prints statement or a machine language 
CHROUT routine. 

The second step in the burst write pro- 
cess is to change the fast serial port direc- 
tion from the default input mode (data 
flow from the 1571 to the C-128) to out- 

put mode (data flow from the C- 128 to the 
1571), and to set up the initial clock state. 
This is done with a short machine 
language routine using the new C-128 
Kernal SPIN/SPOUT routine (Serial Port 
INput/Serial Port OUTput). To set the 
mode to output (SPOUT), the routine is 
called with the carry flag set: 





; spin/ 






The last two instructions start the test for 
the system clock state on a high value. 
The label clock refers to any usable RAM 
location (such as zero page $fa to $ff); it 
is used in subsequent steps as a tem- 
porary storage location for testing the 
state of the system clock. 

Once the system has been initialized, 
the data can be sent. As with the read 
protocol discussed in the previous instal- 
ment, data are sent to the 1571 with a 
simple toggle handshake using the 
Acknowledge and Ready for Data (AFRD) 

ldy #0 

;reset buffer ir 


waitl Ida $dd00 

;read AFRD clock 


omp $dd00 

; debounce 

bna waitl 

eor clock 

and #$40 

;check AFRO cloc 

ik state 

beq waitl 

Ida ($fa) , y 

;get RAM buffer 


sta SdcOc 

; send data 

Ida clock 

eor #$40 

jtoggle 'clock' 


sta clock 

waits Ida #8 

bit $dc0d 

;walt until byte sent 

beq wait2 


bne waitl 

16 Issue 25 

This routine assumes that a 256-byte sec- 
tor of data is to be transferred {remember 
MFM sectors can be 128, 256, 512 or 1024 
bytes, while GCR sectors written with 
this command are always 256 bytes. In- 
dexing routines for other sector sizes are 
given in the table accompanying this ar- 
ticle.) The first instruction resets the data 
buffer index. It is assumed that the data 
buffer address is stored in zero page loca- 
tions $fa and $fb in standard low byte, 
high byte format. The next six instruc- 
tions form a wait loop until the serial port 
clock pulse is in the correct phase. The 
next two instructions retrieve the data 
byte from memory and send it to the 
serial port. Because the size of the data 
buffer in bank 15 (the default bank for I/O 
operations) is limited (for reasons outlin- 
ed in part two of this series), the Ida 
($fa),y instruction can be replaced with: 






($fa) ,y 





free RAM as a data buffer. The next 
group of three instructions toggles the 
state of the clock comparison register. 
The three instructions beginning with the 
\vait2 label form a loop until the interrupt 
control register (ICR) of CIA#1 signals 
that the transmission of the data byte is 
complete. The final two instructions in- 
crement the buffer pointer and repeat the 
process for the next byte until a complete 
sector has been sent. 

The 1571 returns a status byte after 
each sector has been written. To read this 
byte, the fast serial port must first be set 
to the read (SPIN) direction followed by 
a ready signal to the 1571. This is done 

c 1 c 

jar $ff4? ;apin/apout 

bit $dc0d ;reset CIA ICR 

Ida $dd00 

ora #$10 ;set clack low 

sta $ddQQ 

Ida #S 

wait3 bit SdcOd 

;wait for byte 

bsq walt3 

Ida $dcDc 

;read status 

sta $fa 

; store ( if requi 


Ida $dd00 

and #$ef 

;set clock hi 

sta $ddOQ 

If more sectors are to be written, the 
whole process starts over again from step 
2 (set serial port to SPOUT) until the 
specified number of sectors has been 

Once all sectors have been written, the 
final step is to restore default input/out- 
put (170) channels: 


jsr $ffec ;clrcbn 

This allows you to use most of bank O's 

The status byte can then be read with a 
standard burst mode read: 

That's all there is to writing in burst 
mode. In the final part of this series, we 
will examine some of the options of the 
various commands in greater detail. □ 

Summary of Assembly Language Burst Mode Write Routines 

General Write-a-burst-byte Routine 
(used by subroutines below) 

Read Status Byte 

(used by subroutines below) 


Ida $dd00 

cmp $ddO0 

bne write 

eor $0dOQ 

and #$40 

beq write 

ldx #$3f 

stx $ffO0 

Ida ($fa) ,y ;get data 

ldx #0 

jdebounce clock 

jawitch to bank 


stx $ffO0 
sta $dcOc 
Ida $0d00 
eor #$40 
sta SOdOO 
Ida #8 
bit $dcOd 
beq wait 
rt s 

;back to bank IS 
; send data 

readst clc 

jsr $ff47 
bit $dc0d 
Ida $ddQ0 
ora #$10 
sta $dd00 
Ida 08 

waitr bit $dc0d 
beq waitr 
Ida $dc0c 
sta stat 
Ida SddOO 
and #$ef 
sta $dd00 

;set SPDUT 
; reset ICR 

;set AFRD input 

;wait for byte 
;get status 
;stash it 

; reset AFRD 

;wait till sent 

More programs overleaf. 

TPUG Magazine 17 

Summary of Assembly Language Burst Mode Write Routines 

Note: Before using any of the following 
routines, you must load zero page 
locations $fa and $fb with the low and 
high bytes of the start of your data 

buffer an.d call the appropriate burst 
mode command. Location $0dQO in the 
RS-232 buffer is used as temporary 
storage for testing the clock phase. 

Write N 128 Byte Sectors 

next s 





of sectors to write 

3 t X 






;# sectors written 





; temp storage 







;set SPOUT 






;end of sector 





; read status 






;last sector? 









; incr pntr 128 byte 





; read next sector 








; clrchn 







; read 







; last 










; read 

next sector 





Write N 512 or 1024 byte sectors 



Write N 256 byte sectors 

ldx #number of sectors 

stx $fc 

ldx #0 

stx $fd 

Ida #$40 

sta $0d00 

nsxts ldy #0 


jsr $ff47 
nextb jsr write 


cpy #0 

;# sectors written 
;temp storage 

;set SPOUT 
;end of sector 


ldx #number 

of sectors 

stx $fc 

ldx #0 

stx $fd 

;# sectors written 

Ida #$40 

sta $0dQ0 

; temp storage 

ldx #sector 


stx $fe 

stx $ff 


ldy #0 


jsr $ff4? 

;set SPOUT 

jsr write 


cpy #0 

;end of page? 

bne nextb 

ldx $fe 


stx $fe 

inc $fb 

cpx #0 

;end of sector? 

bne nextb 

jsr readst 

; read status 

ldx $ff 

stx $fe 

ldx $fd 


stx $fd 

cpx $fc 

;last sector? 

bne nexts 


jsr $ffcc 


18 Issue 25 

A burst mode demonstration 

by M. Garamszeghy 

Copyright © 1986 M. Garamszeghy 

1571 burst copy is a short BASIC program with a machine 
language loader that uses burst read and write routines for 
copying disks on the 1571 drive. The program wiil make an 
exact duplicate of your OCR disks (either normal Commodore 
DOS or CP/M) with only two swaps for a single-sided disk 
or four swaps for a double-sided disk. The program is relative- 
ly fast (about 6 minutes for a single-sided disk or 12 minutes 
for a double-sided disk) and very easy to use — just follow 
the prompts on the screen. I recommend that you cover the 
write protect notch on the source disk to prevent disaster 
from striking if you accidentally mix up the disks during the 
While six minutes may not seem particularly fast (some 

10 poke48,20Q:clr:fari=2B16to3000:readx: 

pokei , x : next 
20 dimsn(35) :fori=1to17: sn( I J =21 :next :f q 

ri=18ta24: sn( i) =19 : next 
30 fori=2Bto30: ant i)=1B: next :fori=31to3S 

: sn( i) -=17: next : graph ice lr 
40 print"<clr><2 down>***1571 burat copy 

##*" :print"<2 down>by m. garamszeghy< 

2 down>" 
50 gasub240:bank15:open15,8, 15, "i" :open8 

,8,8,"#":ff=1 :o=0 
60 print#15,"u1 : " ; 8; 0; 18;0:print#15, "b-p 

70 sd=1 ;print#15,"u1 : " ; B;0;42;0: if dsthen 

80 print "<down>copying"sd+1 "sides . . . <dow 

90 print "reading. . . " :a=52:b=0 :f ori=1 to9: 

gosub270:a=a+21 :next 
100 a=5:b=1 :f ori=10to17:gosub270:a=a+21 : 

110 gosub260:ifffthen print "<down>f ormat 
ting. . . ":prInt#1S,"uO"+chr$(6)+chr$( 
120 printj!MS,"uO"+chr$(4) : prinfwriting. 

. ,":ff-Q 
130 a=S2:b=0:fori=1to9:gaaub280:a=a+21 :n 

8 X t 

140 a=S:b=1 :f ori=10to17:gosub280 :a=a+21 : 

1S0 gO9ub240:print#1S,"u0"+chr$(4) 
160 print "reading. . . " :a*52:b=0:f ori=18to 

2?:gQ9ub270:a=a+sn( i) :next 
170 a=5:b=1 :f ori=28to35 : gosub270 : a=a + snf. 

i) : next 
180 gosub260:print#15,"u0"+chr$(4) :print 

"writing.. ." 
190 a=52:b=0:fori=18to27:gosub280:a=a+sn 

t 1) :next 
200 a=5:b=1 :f ori=28to35:gGsub280:a=a+sn( 

i) :next 

1541 disk copy programs are faster), the program is very sim- 
ple (therefore reliable) and does not resort to sophisticated 
reprogramming of the disk drive. Nor does it blank the screen 
or require that extra devices be removed from the serial port. 
With a full disk, 1571 burst copy is more than twice as fast 
as the 1571 DOS shell disk copying utility. Even though the 
latter copies allocated blocks only, 1571 burst copy will be 
faster for all but an almost empty disk. It is also more ver- 
satile. Because it copies everything on the disk, 1571 burst 
copy can be used to copy C-128 CP/M disks (GCR format on- 
ly — but it can be easily modified to copy MFM disks) and 
disks with unallocated random files, neither of which can be 
copied with the DOS shell program. 

Although the target disk is formatted on both sides, only 
one side is used if the source disk was single -sided, thus main- 
taining full compatibility with the 1541 drive. □ 

210 if sdtheno=35:gosub240:sd=0:goto80 
220 print"<clr><4 down>***done***" :print 

230 input "<2 down>copy another [y/n]";c 

240 print "<down>insert source disk.. then 

<9pace>preas return" 
250 getkeya$: ifa$<>chr$( 13) then250:elser 

260 print"<down>insert target disk,, then 

<space>pre39 return" :£oto250 
270 printdMS, "u0"+chr$[ 64f+chr$( i+o) +chr 

$(0)+chr$( sn( i) } +chr$( i+o+1 ) :9ys2928 

, a, sn( i) , b :return 

280 print#15 

$(0) +chr$( sn( i)) +chr$( i+o+1) :sys2816 


,a,3n( i) 
data 133 
, 133,250 
data 64 
, 116,255 
data 64 
data 255 
, 16,141 
data 220 
data 198 
, 11,234 
data 133 
, 132,250 
data 11 
,250, 142 
data 255 
data 255 
data 141 

"u0"+chr$( 66) +chr$( i+o) +chr 

b : return 
251 , 134,252 
169, 64 

32, 71 

254, 169 

251 , 173 

240, 6 


44, 13 
164, 11 
2, 166 
129, 11 






















+ 1J : 





, 69 




, 165 


. 3 


, 24 


, 173 


, 8 


, 12 


, 141 






, 132 




• 32 



, 32, 

, 198 


, 88 

, 32, 




, 73, 

i 12 



250, 32 



221, 9 



1 1 







TPUG Magazine 19 

Dot-matrix printer basics 

by Ranjan Bose 

When the Commodore 64 computer was 
introduced several years ago, buyers had 
little trouble choosing among peripheral 
devices such as disk drives and printers. 
Only one brand name of compatible 
devices existed — CBM. In the last two 
years, however, several independents 
have launched C-64 compatible disk 
drives and even cassette recorders. While 
Commodore peripherals used to be less 
expensive, this is no longer true. 

Printers have lagged behind in this 
respect. Many models of parallel printers 
existed, but none of them could be easily 
connected to the C-64. And these printers 
and the necessary interfaces were expen- 
sive. Commodore printers (152x and now 
the MPS80x series) had limited features 
and barely acceptable print quality, but 
carried very attractive price tags. In the 
last year or so, two things have happen- 
ed on the printer front. Third party 
printers have become more affordable 
and many inexpensive C-64 interfaces 
have been introduced . The prices of Com- 
modore printers have also gone down by 
almost 40 per cent, but the price dif- 
ference between them and a third party 
dot matrix printer, with interface, has 
diminished to the point where buying a 
Commodore printer should not be the 
automatic response. Several manufac- 
turers (Epson, Star, Blue Chip, Riteman, 
among others) have started selling 
Commodore-ready printers with built-in, 
Commodore-serial to Centronics-parallel 
interfaces. Star, for instance, sells the 
SL-10C model, which costs the same as 
MPS802 yet also does graphics, italics 
and NLQ (near letter quality) printing. 

Why parallel? 

Buying a universal, parallel printer 
makes sense for other reasons as well . It 
can be directly hooked up with other com- 
puters (like the Amiga), and the deprecia- 
tion on a parallel printer is far less than 
on a restricted, Commodore-ready 
printer. Economics aside, a parallel 
printer typically offers a vast array of 
features over those offered on 
Commodore-ready printers. To name a 
few: multiple pitches; type styles like 
bold, emphasized, NLQ, italics, under- 
lining, superscripts and subscripts; page 
formatting; horizontal and vertical 

tabulations; international character sets; 
downloadable characters; word-processing 
functions like margin setting, left, right 
(or both) justification, centering and pro- 
portional spacing; and dot-addressable 
graphics from 60 to 240 dots per inch. 
You may never have occasion to use all 
the features such a printer offers; 
however, it is always better to have more 
features than are necessary at the 
moment to leave some room for future 

Most interfaces will let you use your 
printer in a 1525 emulation mode that 
makes available the Commodore graphic 
characters and reverse field printing. 
With a Commodore printer you are 
limited to listing a program in only one 
way. With interfaces you can usually list 
a program so that the control and graphic 
characters are listed as mnemonics, as 
key presses, as ASCII codes or as graphic 
characters. Again, the options possibly 
outnumber your immediate re- 
quirements, but they are there should you 
need them. 

Setting up 

After you have purchased your dream 
printer and interface, you will have to 
connect the serial cable coming out of 
your interface to your computer's (or disk 
drive's) serial port. A thin wire ending in 
an adapter goes either to the Datasette 
port or joystick port for powering your 
interface . A 11 power switches should be off 
when you plug in the adapter unless you 
love blowing-up fuses or even microchips! 
The other connection from the interface 
goes to the Centronics port on your 

The next step is to set the tiny DIP 
(Dual Inline Package) switches on your in- 
terface and/or your printer so that the 
computer, interface and printer can com- 
municate properly. Use a sturdy 
toothpick for this manoeuvre. The DIP 
switches usually control functions like line 
feeds, printer type, interface mode and 
device number selection. Since the C-64 
usually does not send a line feed with each 
carriage return to the printer (unless you 
have opened the file to the printer with 
a file number greater than 127), and since 
the printer DIP switches are usually in- 
convenient to access, you should select 
the setting that allows only the interface 
to send line feeds. You will thus avoid 

overprinting on the same line or un- 
wanted double spacing. The manuals are 
explicit about these very critical settings 
and should be closely followed. 

Your interface can work in three basic 
modes (DIP switch selectable or, rarely, 
software selectable). In the transparent 
mode, all data will go through the inter- 
face unaltered. This is usually used with 
word processors and graphics programs, 
and is sometimes the only way to access 
certain special features of your printer. 
The second mode is ASCII or text only. 
Commodore ASCII, or PETSCII (Com- 
modore's quirky version of the otherwise 
almost universal ASCII code) is con- 
verted to true ASCII in this mode. The 
third mode is the 1525 emulation mode. 
Your printer essentially becomes a 1525 
(except it is usually faster). All non-1525 
codes are blocked by the interface. This 
mode is used with commercial, 
1525-compatible programs. 

Some interfaces (Xetec, for instance) 
have yet another mode, which is a com- 
bination of transparent, ASCII conver- 
sion and 1525 emulation all rolled into 
one. In this mode you can access all the 
special features of your printer and at the 
same time print Commodore graphic 
characters and print in reverse field. 
There are also fancy interfaces with huge 
buffers and multiple fonts. On the other 
hand, there are also lowly interfaces that 
support only text. If you are that hard up, 
you are better off buying a Commodore- 
ready printer or, better still, skip lunches 
and beer and buy a graphics interface 
when you have lost some weight. Most 
newer interfaces have active switches 
that immediately bring into effect 
changes made in the DIP settings. 
Earlier interfaces used to read the set- 
tings on power up; changes in the DIP 
settings could only be instituted before 
switching the power on. 

Once the data signal gets past the inter- 
face, it activates the printer to print 
something or to perform some function . 
A brief description of the major printer- 
features follows 


Dot -matrix printers usually print in a 
field of 9 by 9 dots. By selectively prin- 
ting some of these dots (typically 5 by 7), 
a character shape is generated. These 
character shapes are stored as binary 

20 Issue 25 

code in the printer and interface ROM 
and, in most cases, some of these codes 
can be replaced or new code added to pro- 
vide a custom-designed character-set. 
Printers usually have several character 
sets for printing regular characters, NLQ 
characters, italics, international charac- 
ters, proportionally spaced characters 
and, sometimes, special graphic 
characters (usually IBM compatible). By 
varying the speed of travel of the prin- 
thead, the pitch of the characters can be 
altered to get from 10 to 17 cpi 
(characters per inch). 

The regular characters generate what 
is known as draft quality printout, with 
each of the dots forming a character be- 
ing discernible. The tiny spaces between 
horizontal dots in a character can be 
abolished by printing the same column of 
dots twice while the printhead is travell- 
ing at half speed (at regular speed this 
would produce a double width character). 
This is known as emphasized print. Since 
condensed (17 cpi) pitch already has high 
horizontal dot density , emphasized prin- 
ting is not permitted (nor necessary) in 
this pitch. The tiny gaps between vertical 
dots can be covered by double printing, 
where a line is printed , the paper moved 
by a fraction of an inch, and the line 
printed again. The emphasized and 
double strike modes can be combined to 
give a very dark print. These were 
employed in the pre-NLQ days to improve 
the appearance of the printout. 

Near letter quality printing uses 
multiple-pass printing and special letter 
shapes to produce print that in some 
printers is almost identical to typewrit- 
ten copy. All these enhanced printing 
modes cut down the printing speed by 50 
to 80 per cent and eat up the ribbon 
hungrily. Superscripts and subscripts are 
generated by printing characters so that 
they are compressed upwards or 
downwards to half their normal height. 
These are usually printed in two passes 
to improve readability. 


Many parallel printers allow formatting 
of a printed page. Left, right, top and bot- 
tom margins can be set, and form length 
can be specified in inches or by number 
of lines. The spacing between lines can 
be altered in steps of l/72nd, 1/1 44th or 
l/216th of an inch, depending on the 
printer. There are facilities for setting up 
horizontal tabs (as in a typewriter) or 
even vertical tabs. These help in the prin- 
ting of tables. Some printers also support 
justification, centering, microjustification 
and more. 


In addition to printing text, most dot 
matrix printers also allow you to print 
diagrams and graphic designs. Com- 
modore 1525 printers allow a horizontal 
density of 60 dots per inch and vertical 
density of 7 dots per line. Most other 
printers allow 8 or 9 pin vertical density 
per line and several horizontal densities 
ranging from 60 dpi to 240 dpi . Most of 
these modes are accessed by sending 
special character string codes following 
the escape code. On the Commodore 64, 
pressing ctrl-[ in quote mode generates 
this code. You may also send it as 

Most printers allow you to use both 
single sheets or tractor-driven fanfold 
paper. The printers that push fanfold 
from behind the platen tend to bundle up 
and jam paper at times. Alternatively, 
where the tractor comes after the platen 
and pulls the paper, you get better flow 
of paper but you lose the first sheet, a 
minor inconvenience. Printing speeds 
vary from 100 to 160 cps (characters per 
second) for draft mode, and 20 to 40 cps 
for NLQ mode. Generally speaking, the 
faster a printer, the noisier it is. On some 
printers you can select half-speed prin- 
ting for reduced noise (this feature could 
save your marriage!). 

Most printers use ribbons in easily 
replaceable cartridges, while a few allow 
you to use regular typing ribbon spools. 
The latter method is cheaper, and easily 
available, but is messy to change. The rib- 
bons themselves are made of either car- 
bon film , which gives crisper images but 
has a short life (about 1 million 
characters, or 500 pages of double spac- 
ed text), or inked nylon (about 2 to 3 
million characters). Some of these can be 
re-inked several times. Since the ribbon 
rubs over the printhead and its pins con- 
tinuously, the ink contains special 
lubricants to reduce friction-induced wear 
of the printhead. Never re-ink a ribbon 
with ordinary inks. 

The printhead itself has a life expect- 
ancy of over 100 million characters. Some 
printheads are user-replaceable while 
others are not. Most printers achieve in- 
creased print output by using faster line- 
feeding and bidirectional logic-seeking 
printing. This enables the printhead to 
print from left to right and from right to 
left, starting with whichever edge is 
closer to its current position. Since 
printers have so many moving parts, they 
are potentially prone to breakdowns. 
Warranties range from 90 days to two 
years and should be an important factor 
to consider at the time of purchase. □ 



We buy, trade, sell and repair 
Micro Computers 

. 1541 Alignment S 29.00 

. 4040 or 8050 Drive $795.00 

. 2031 Drive $325.00 

• SuperPET $895.00 
. Wordpro 4+ 4032/8032 S1 50.00 
. VisiCalc $150.00 
. Manager 8032 $150.00 
. IBM Compatibles from $650.00 

• Rentals from $12/week 

1262 Don Mills Road 

Suite 94 

Don Mills, Ontario 

M3B 2W7 
Tel: (416) 446-1035 


The TPUG annual conference will beheld this year 
in conjunction with the World of Commodore IV 
show, December4 to 7, 1986, in the International 
Centre in Toronto, 

The World of Commodore has traditionally 
been the worid's best showplace for Commodore's 
latest products. It is also one ol the largest 
computer shows anywhere, attracting more than 
40.000 people. 

This conference will leature a galaxy of expert 
speakers, and a Saturday night banquet that you 
won't want to miss As usual, there will be a flea 
market and used equipment sale, and a copying 
session where you can pick up TPUG disks at a 
special conference price. 

Free admission to the World of Commodore is 
part of your ticket, but we will also be providing 
alternate programming for guests who might not 
be interested in all aspects of the show and 
conference. Hoteis in the immediate area have 
been booked for your stay. 

Application forms for this year's conference 
will be available in the next issue, but set aside 
the time' now. This will be our best and most 
exciting conference ever. Be there. 

This space 

could be 


your product. 

Call Lois Lackey, 
(416) 445-4524 

TPUG Magazine 21 

Nodular Programming 

by Steve Punter 

I define a BBSer as anyone who spends 
time catling microcomputer-based 
bulletin board systems. Here in the 
Toronto area it's a virtual paradise for 
BBSers, as there can be upwards of two 
hundred, or more, boards operating at 
any given moment. Toronto BBSers have 
little need to contact boards outside the 
toll-free range of their trusty telephones. 

For BBSers in smaller towns or cities, 
however, where there can be as few as 
one or two boards, calling long distance 
can be a fact of life. Do Toronto BBSers 
have it made, or is there something they 
are missing that small town types aren't? 
In my opinion there is: diversity. People 
in Toronto are quite different from peo- 
ple in Chicago, who are quite different 
from people in San Fransisco. 

The phenomenon of mass communica- 
tions has, admittedly, made us a lot more 
alike, but each city has its own set of con- 
cerns and its own viewpoints. By restrict- 
ing our conversations to those living in 
the same region, we effectively limit our 
experiences and close off avenues of dis- 
covery. Of course, if this is all there was 
to it, we'd all run to our computers right 
now and call exotic far away places, but 
we all know why we don't: it costs too 

For example, calls to the Los Angeles 
area are over one dollar a minute from 
Toronto during peak periods. We could 
wait until the evening and get one third 
off or we could become night owls and call 
after midnight when the rates are two 
thirds off. Even then, a 15 minute call to 
a board in Los Angeles would cost near- 
ly $5.25. Were we to do that too often, 
the costs would be enormous. And for 
what? The opportunity of hearing a 
slightly different point of view? 

Even the beginners amongst us know 
that a better way is to get accounts on 
such nationwide mainframe systems such 
as CompuServe or Delphi. We can meet 
all the people we like there, and they will 
most certainly be from exotic, far away, 
places. But these service cost a lot of 
money too, as anyone who has spent 
much time on one will tell you. 

A much better way to approach the 
whole problem would be an honest-to-god 
electronic mail system where, as with 
regular mail, a fixed price is paid to send 
a letter to someone in a far away place . 

A marvellous vehicle for this sort of 
operation would be a free-access, 
microcomputer-based bulletin board 
system. Do such systems exist? The 
answer to that is a resounding yes! 

What is PunterNet 

To any casual caller, there is no apparent 
difference between a non-PunterNet 
BBS64 and a PunterNet equipped 
BBS64. Upon closer examination, 
though, you will find that some of the 
message headers have a new look. For ex- 
ample, a standard message header is a lot 
like this: 

Msg # : 165 - Ref 7009 



Posted : 1422h on 16-May-86 * TPUG 

Subject: A Regular Message 

On the other hand, a message that was 

received over PunterNet will look a lot 

like this: 

Msg # : 166 - Ref 7010 

From : STEVE PUNTER ( + 1) 


Rec'd : 1422h on 16-May-86 * TPUG 

Subject: A PunterNet (tm) Message 

Mailed : 1202h on 15-May-86 * PSI 

Three main differences can be noted. 
The first is the presence of the ( + 1) at 
the end of the sender's name. This infor- 
mation tells the reader which node of 
PunterNet the message came from. 

What is a 'node'? Well, PunterNet is 
made up of a group of BBS64 bulletin 
boards, each an independent system in its 
own right, but capable of something other 
Commodore boards are not: it' talk with 
one other PunterNet boards, automatic- 
ally, without coordination from its sysop 
(system operator). This is the key to the 
entire networking concept. I'll 'go into 
further detail on this later. For now, you 
should know that each of PunterNet 
board is assigned a number. This is its 
node number. In the above example, the 
( + 1) told us that the message came from 
Node I.' 

The second difference concerns the 
label on the fourth line of the header. 
Rather than saying Posted, this line now 
reads Rec'd (short for 'Received'), since 
it's not accurate to call this piece of data 
the posted date. This date is the actual 
time which the message came in over the 

network, and has nothing to do with 
when it was originally posted. 

The third difference you will note is the 
addition of the separate, sixth line, which 
does report when the message was actual- 
ly posted. As you can see, our example 
was posted almost 26 hours before it was 
received, so there is clearly more going 
on here than meets the eye. 

Tale of a message 

A PunterNet message starts life like any 
other message on whatever board it is 
being written. After the sender signs off, 
though, the path to its recipient's eyes 
begins. First off, it is deleted from the 
message base of the sending node, and 
added to a special file along with all the 
other node messages. You can think of 
this file as a mailhox. 

Since telephone rates are cheapest dur- 
ing the wee hours of the morning, it 
would be foolish for one node to contact 
another at any other time. It would also 
be foolish to contact another node right 
away, since there might be other 
messages waiting to go out to the same 
place. Think of this as not sending the 
mail truck around to the mailbox every 
time someone drops something in it. 

Eventually though, the mailbox will get 
full enough, or sufficient time will have 
elapsed, that it will become necessary to 
transmit the message to its destination. 
At that time, the sending node will start 
making attempts to contact the destina- 
tion node. Contact will sooner or later be 
made, and the messages will then be 
transferred under my Cl communications 
protocol, thus assuring error free 

The destination node now adds the new 
mail to its own message base, ready for 
local callers to see (except for private 
messages, which are readable only by the 
sysop and the addressee). This completes 
the process by which a message compos- 
ed by a local caller in a far away city is 
made available to be read locally by 
callers to the destination node. The only 
cost is the long distance call from the 
node of origin to the destination node. 
Most nodes operate at 1200 baud, and can 
transmit all the required data very 

Costs will vary, depending upon the 
locations of the two nodes and the size of 
the data to be transmitted, but overall the 

22 Issue 25 

amounts are extremely low, allowing 
very reasonable postage rates. Early ex- 
perience with the network has suggested 
that the current cost of about 30 cents per 
message may be a little low, but is fairly 
close to a good, realistic value. Very few 
people would argue that even 35 cents 
isn't a good deal. 

Who? Where? Why? 

Let's start with Where? PunterNet is 
quite young, and there is not yet the 
continent-wide coverage that there may 
one day be. Nonetheless, there are 
already 25 active nodes (see box). 

Who and why go hand in hand. Whom 
you talk to and why are most definitely 
up to you. I've encountered quite a bit of 
resistance to joining the net from users 
who cannot conceive of any purpose to 
the whole exercise: PunterNet is a new 
venture, and it will probably take the 
average BBSer a while to see what use 
there is in it all. 

Node sysops have thus far been the 
prime users of the network, yet beyond 
that a definite pattern is developing. 
Users of nodes in cities with few boards 
are jumping on the concept whole- 
heartedly, while users in saturated areas, 
such as Toronto, are showing great reluc- 
tance. This is a shame since it's precise- 
ly that group of people the network will 
benefit most. 

Delving deeper 

PunterNet messages are sent in the same 
way as messages on other systems, ex- 
cept in the way you enter the recipient's 
name. For example, should you wish to 
send a message to me on the TPUG 
board, while signed onto the TPUG 
board, you'd merely address the message 
to steve punter. On the other hand, were 
you signed onto TPUG and wished to 
send a message to me on my board (PSI- 
WordPro), you would address the 
message to 1/steve punter. 

The key to the above entry is the 1/, 
which tells the TPUG board to direct this 
message to Node 1, rather than merely 
putting it up in the message base. Node 
numbers are easily determined on any 
PunterNet board by entering the Bulletin 
Section and calling for a file called nodes. 

In the Toronto area, we are fortunate 
to have about 10 local nodes, amongst 
which messages may be exchanged at no 
charge. Of course, a small charge must 
be levied for messages sent to long 
distance nodes, since the board operator 
must recover the long distance charges 
incurred. This is where PunterNet gives 
you the edge, since at about 30 to 40 cents 
for any long distance message, you come 

out ahead of any other message transfer 
method available. 

Charges for messages are made on the 
basis of a simple formula: a fixed number 
of cents per formatted line with a 
minimum charge. Just about all the nodes 
use my suggested charge structure of one 
cent per line with a 30 cent minimum. As 
mentioned before, local Net messages are 
free of charge. To help you determine 
how much a message is going to cost 
before you begin to enter it, the cents per 
line and minimum charge are presented 
to you just prior to you typing the first 
letter. Once the message has been com- 
pleted and sent, you will be told of the 
total cost. 

Messages are paid for by deducting the 
total cost of each Net message from an 
account you buy from the sysop of your 
local PunterNet node. How large an ac- 
count you purchase will depend on how 
much you expect to use the network. 

What happens now? 

Now that you have signed off, BBS64 
identifies all the PunterNet messages you 
have sent and moves them into a file call- 
ed outfile, then deletes the original 
messages from the message base. Outfile 
is like a mailbox, and will eontain 
messages destined for many different 
nodes. When your message is actually 
transmitted will depend on a number of 
factors. First, if the message was destin- 
ed for a local node, it will be transmitted 
that same night, with only a system 
failure at either end holding it up. Long 
distance messages are another matter. 
Since there is a minimum charge levied 
by the phone company for any long 
distance call, it would be foolish to send 
the message immediately. Instead, the 
board will wait for the accumulation of 
at least four messages for the same node. 
Of course, a seldom used node could con- 
ceivably never accumulate four messages 
and thus cause yours to remain in limbo . 
For this reason, any node messages will 
be sent once they become four days old. 
The catling of other nodes occurs bet- 
ween the hours of midnight and 7 am 
(local time), when long distance rates are 
much cheaper. To guarantee that each 
node is called a sufficient number of times 
to get through, the board will call each 
node for which it has mail after any user 
signs off. On seldom used boards this ap- 
proach may not be good enough, so a ran- 
dom time each hour is selected in which 
to make the calls. In addition , to help get 
through to boards that get huge volumes 
of callers even in the wee hours of the 
morning, a window of 1 hour and 15 

minutes is opened each night when only 
nodes may call in. This window is 
designed to appear at different local 
times in each time zone, thus causing the 
window to open simultaneously, all across 
North America. 

As each node is called, the messages 
destined for it are collected together in- 
to a single file. Once a connection has 
been made to the destination node, this 
file is transmitted in its entirety using my 
Cl protocol. After transmission is com- 
plete, the calling board hangs up and goes 
on to the next node it must call (if any). 

In the meantime, over at the destina- 
tion node, gears start to turn (so to 
speak). First, the received data is append- 
ed to the end of a file called infile, but 
not until it's been processed to remove 
any possibly corrupted data. This is to 
minimize possible damage in the event 
that an intruder has managed to infiltrate 
the system. 

The node now checks if there is enough 
space in it's own message base to store 
the incoming messages. If so, the 
messages in the infile are transferred 
there, ready to be read by the next caller. 
If space runs out, the remaining network 
messages are left in the infile where they 
continue to build up as other nodes cail 
in. Should a user delete messages that 
open up enough space for even one of 
these pending message to be brought in, 
the board will do so right after that user 
signs off. As you can see, the process is 
completely automatic, and is designed to 
cope with most eventualities. 

Local long distance 

In certain circumstances, usually around 
metropolitan areas sUch as Toronto, a 
node might be just outside the local range 
of most nodes. I say most, because 
sometimes one node is so located that it 
is local to all nodes. In the Toronto area, 
for instance, Georgetown, while long 
distance from Toronto, is not long 
distance from Brampton. Brampton, in 
turn, is not long distance from Toronto, 
and provides an opportunity to put some 
fancy computing power to work. 

As it turns out, there is a Brampton 
node (#12), allowing a process known as 
redirection to be implemented. Since the 
Georgetown node (#10) can only call 
Toronto long distance, the sysop redirects 
all messages destined for any of the 
Toronto nodes via Node 12 in Brampton. 
In the meantime, the Toronto nodes 
redirect all their messages destined for 
Node 10 through Node 12 as well. 

What happens is this (we'll use the ex- 

Continued overleaf. . . 

TPUG Magazine 23 

ample of sending a message from Node 
10 in Georgetown to Node 7 in Toronto): 
a user enters a message on Node 10 ad- 
dressed to 7/all. His board checks its in- 
formation on Node 7 and notices that it's 
been redirected via Node 12, and so 
checks its information on that node as 
well. Noting that Node 12 is a locai call, 
the user is informed that his message will 
be free of charge. When the user signs 
off, his network message is placed in the 
outfile mailbox as usual, but is marked 
for delivery to Node 12, not Node 7. 

During the night, Node 10 discovers it 
has data to send to Node 12 (a local node) 
and does so. Upon arrival at Node 12, the 
message is identified as a transient and 
placed into the outfile destined for Node 
7. Since Node 7 is a local node, attempts 
are made to call it that same night. The 
result of all of this is a completely 
automatic system that allows certain long 
distance barriers to be broken. 

Redirection is not limited to a single 
jump, and can be stretched out to any 
length, although the whole process gets 

nightmarishiy complicated. Nevertheless, 
you can't jump through a location which 
doesn't have a node, and you certainly 
can't make jumps all across the country. 
It is impossible to call from one area code 
to another and not incur charges, no mat- 
ter how close the two nodes are, so the 
process is limited to within a single area 

Another good use for redirection is to 
allow long distance nodes to pool all their 
messages for a larger metropolitan area 
with more than one node (like Toronto). 
Of course, sysops should contact the node 
they wish to use for redirection before go- 
ing ahead with something like this since, 
should the board they choose not have its 
redirection flag set, all messages sent will 
be lost. 

PunterNet is still rather young and has 
much growing to do. Part of that growth 
will depend on the level of participation. 
With luck and effort, PunterNet will 
eventually provide a low-cost, user- 
maintained, continent-wide message 
service. n 

Active PunterNET nodes 



East York BBS 1 



Tech Board 

East York BBS 2 




Bradley 3 


Forest City BBS 



Point After BBS 



Mississauga ON 

Mississauga ON 

Toronto ON 

Toronto ON 

Toronto ON 

Toronto ON 

Toronto ON 

Georgetown ON 

Mississauga ON 

Brampton ON 

Toronto ON 

Mississauga ON 

London ON 

Cornwall ON 

Belleville ON 

Anaheim CA 

Highland IN 

Seattle WA 

Commodore/PDX BBS Portland OR 
Keystone C64 BBS Allentown PA 
Prestige Info Net Alta Loma CA 
VCBBS Vancouver WA 

C.U.S.S.H Racine Wi 

H.H.N.L Waukesha Wl 

VIC Expansion 
Diagram Correction 

This is the correct version of the compo- 
nent layout and wiring diagram accom- 
panying Ron Byers' article "Expanding 
your VIC", in Issue #24. The view is from 
the top, as though the fiberglass board 
was invisible. Thus you are seeing a mir- 
ror image of the etched sideof the board 
(in grey in the diagram). The top-side 
and bottom-side edge-connector pads 
are out of alignment in this diagram, but 
this should have no effect on construc- 
tion. Be sure to place the IC so that pin 
#1 is in the sixth hole from the left, fifth 
hole from the top. 

This project was constructed by Assist- 
ant Editor Tim Grantham, and it works. 

CAT "» 276 - 154 A 





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view FROU w3ioe me VIC c iookino out ; 

24 Issue 25 




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Type of Payment 

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□ Visa 
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Amount $ 

Currency □ Can. D US 

Credit Card # 

Expiry Date 


Type of Computer 

□ C 64 

a vie 20 

D PET D 4040 a S050 

DSUPERPET (10 disks) D 4040 □ 8050 

□ CI28 (1541 only) 


D AMIGA (3'/;") (7 disks) D 

Tape-to-disk transfers 

by M. Garamszeghy 

Copyright ® 1986 M. Garamszeghy 

TTD (Tape To Disk) is a simple yet 
powerful program that will automatical- 
ly transfer al! types of program files, in- 
cluding BASIC and non-relocatable 
machine language, to disk with the 
original load addresses intact. All data 
files are transferred as sequential files. 

TTD was originally designed to run on 
a VIC 20. It can also be run on a C-64 or 
C-128 (in C-64 mode) by changing the sys 
addresses. Delete line 30 for a C-64 or line 
35 for a VIC 20. Although TTD will run 
on any size VIC 20, the maximum length 
of a program or data file that can be 
transferred is limited by the amount of 
RAM available. At least 3k of expansion 
RAM is recommended for practical ap- 
plications. Once the program has been 
entered , it is a good idea to save it before 
trying to run it for the first time. Since 
the program uses a number of unconven- 
tional entry points into ROM routines, the 
program could crash or hang-up if an 
error has been made in entering the ML 
addresses. In addition, it changes the nor- 
mal load and save vectors, so you might 
not be able to save it after it has been run . 
It is best to do a hard reset before trying 
to run any other program. 

Prepare yourself by getting out your 
tapes and a supply of formatted disks, 
then run the program. After the introduc- 
tory blurb, you will be instructed to in- 
sert a disk into the drive and to press 
PLAY on the tape. At this point, TTD 
takes over and will transfer the entire 
side of the tape to disk. Unfortunately, 
there is no elegant way to stop TTD once 
you reach the end of the tape. The 
simplest way to stop the program is by 
pressing the run-stop/restore key com- 
bination. Disk errors which are detected 
but cannot be corrected by TTD are 
displayed on the screen. If they can be 
corrected by the user, the program can 
be resumed by pressing any key after cor- 
rective action has been taken. When a 
disk full error is encountered, for exam- 
pie, the program resumes by resaving the 
last file loaded. 

TTD works by by-passing the normal 
BASIC and Kernel load and save 
routines and substituting custom 
routines. The TTD program resides in the 
bottom of normal BASIC RAM and is 
completely relocatable, just like most 

other BASIC programs. Line 10 hides 
most of the available RAM from BASIC 
by resetting the top of RAM pointers. 2K 
of RAM is used for the actual TTD pro- 
gram while the remaining RAM is used 
as a 'safe' area for the program and data 
file transfers. Because the entire pro- 
gram or data file being transferred must 
reside in RAM, the maximum length of 
a file which can be transferred is limited 
by the amount of RAM available. In the 
unexpanded VIC, only 1.5K is available. 
However, any amount of expansion RAM 
can be utilized. In the C-64 (or C-128 in 
C-64 mode), over 35K is available. 

. . . TTD can easily be 
converted to run on 

many other Com- 
modore computers. . . 

To understand how the TTD load and 

save routines work, one must have at 
least a rudimentary knowledge of the 
structure of VIC 20 tape and disk file for- 
mats. In simple terms, a tape file contains 
two distinct parts: the tape header, which 
contains data on the file type, filename, 
and in the case of program files, the star- 
ting and ending addresses; and the pro- 
gram or data block. The filename is op- 
tional for tape files. The program or data 
block is located immediately after the 
tape header. Disk files also have two 
elementary parts. The filename and file 
type reside on a special part of the disk 
called the directory track. The starting 
RAM address, however, is contained 
within the first two bytes of the program 
block. Filenames are mandatory for disk 
files. The program and data blocks are 
not located immediately following direc- 
tory entry, but can be scattered 
throughout the remainder of the disk. 
The loading portion of TTD begins with 
line 40. Sysal calls a BASIC ROM 
routine which searches the tape and loads 
the next tape header into the tape buffer 
(beginning at RAM address 828). Address 
828 contains a byte representing the type 
of file, A value of 1 indicates that the file 
is a relocatable program; a value of 3 cor- 
responds to a non-relocatable program; 
while any other value indicates a data file. 

Addresses 829 and 830 contain the low 
and high bytes of the start address of the 
normal load, and 831 and 832 contain the 
ending address . The rest of the tape buf- 
fer contains the filename. Line 40 also 
saves the start address in a safe location 
at the top of the tape buffer (900 and 901). 
These values are needed for later restor- 
ing the start address to its proper value. 
Line 40 is also used to perform a check 
of the type of file because program files 
and data files must be handled in a dif- 
ferent manner. If a data file is detected 
by TTD, the program will branch to line 
200. This will be discussed later. 
Lines 50 to 70 calculate the length of the 
program file and reset the various load 
pointers to the safe area of RAM. The 
SYSA2 in line 70 calls the BASIC ROM 
routine which actually reads the program 
block on the tape. The subroutine in lines 
170to 190 determines the filename from 
the tape buffer, calculates its length and 
prints it on the screen. If a filename is not 
present (filenames are optional for tape 
files but mandatory for disk files), TTD 
will assign a single character name based 
on the value of parameter c, beginning 
with the letter 'a'. 

Lines 80 to 100 are used for setting up 
the various pointers and opening the com- 
munication channel required for the 
modified save operation. The sysaS in line 
110 jumps into the middle of the BASIC 
save routine to save the rest of the pro- 
gram file. A normal BASIC or Kernel 
save would result in an incorrect load ad- 
dress being sent to the disk because the 
program was relocated by TTD. Lines 
120 to 160 perform the disk error handl- 
ing. If everything is O.K., the program 
loops back to line 40 to find the next tape 

Lines 200 to 230 are used to read a tape 
data file. The first part of line 200 is par- 
ticularly interesting because it contains 
a method to allow a data file to be read 
without having to first open the file with 
the BASIC or Kernel open command. 
This trick is necessary because, if an open 
statement was used, the internal ROM 
routines would skip the current file and 
search the tape for the next data file. The 
trick is performed by adding the 'new' file 
characteristics to the tables of open file 
numbers, secondary addresses and device 
numbers beginning at addresses 601, 611 
and 621 respectively, and incrementing 
the byte at address 152 which represents 

26 Issue 25 

the number of open files. This has the ef- 
fect of opening the file without searching 
for the next header. Line 210 clears the 
tape buffer of garbage that results from 
reading the tape header. Lines 220 and 
230 get the data and poke it into RAM. 
Line 240 closes the data file which was 
never opened! 

Although originally written for the VIC 
20 and C-64, TTD can easily be converted 
to run on many other Commodore com- 
puters that use the 1530 datasette tape 
format. Line 30 (for the VIC 20) or line 
35 (for the C-64) contains the addresses 
for the Kernel and BASIC ROM routines 
used by TTD. The only conversion re- 
quired to run on other machines is to 
change the values of Al, A2, A3, A7 and 
A8 to the corresponding addresses for the 
target computer. The following table may 
be of interest to users wishing to convert 
TTD to run on other machines: 
Address ROM Routine 

al Find next tape header 

a2 Read tape load block 

a3 Send secondary address 

(part of BASIC open) 
a7 Reset tape pointer 

a8 Save program bytes 

(part of BASIC save) 
Corresponding addresses for various 
machines can be obtained by consulting 
either a detailed memory map or a 
disassembly of the ROM's. 

Most programs will be ready to run as 
soon as they have been transferred to 
disk. Some programs, however, such as 
multipart BASIC programs and pro- 
grams written to access tape data files ex- 
clusively, will have to be modified slight- 
ly in order to run from disk. First, let's 
deal with multipart programs. At the end 
of the first part (and the second part of 
a three part program), there will be a 
statement similar to load"part2"; or 
simply load. For disk operation, this 
should be replaced with a statement 
similar to load"part2",8. Most commer- 
cial and public domain software can be 
used with either tape or disk data files 
without modification. However, some 
programs which access data files may not 
be able to use disk files without some 
minor modification. For tape file access, 
a BASIC program will contain a line 
similar to openl, 1,1, "filename". For 
disk files, the statement should be 
modified to one of the following forms: 
openl,8,8,"0:" + "filename" + ",s,r" 
(to read a file); or 
openl.8,8,"0:" + "filename" + ",s,w" 
(to write a file). Subsequent get#'s, 
input.T's and print#'s are the same for 
both tape and disk files and can be left 
as is in the original program. □ 

10 print "<clr><rvs>ttd":poke56,peek( 44 )+8:clr:m=peek( 

56) *256+256:pokem-1 ,0 
20 print"<2 down>prepare disk for aave" :m1%=m/256:m2% 

=m-m1%*256:open15,8, 15:c=65 
30 a1=63276:a2=63562:a3=62421 :a4=65457:a5=6S427 :a6=65 


35 a1=63276:a2=63562:a3=62421 :a4=6S45?: aS=6S427: a6=6S 

36 rem delete line 3S for vic-20 or line 30 for c-64 
40 sysal : poke900, peek( 829) :poke901 ,peek(830) :ifpeek(8 

28) =2orpeek( 828) >3then200 
50 pl=( peek( 832) -peekf 830) ) *256+peek( 831) -peek( 829) :m 

60 poke831 ,mh-peek( 832) *256: poke829,m2%: poke830,m1%: 

70 poke194,peek( 830) : gosuh280: sysa2 : i=848 :gosub170 
80 poke780,8:poke781 ,8:poke782, 1 : sys65466 : poke780 , 1 : 

poke781 ,6S:poke782,3 
90 sy s65469: poke 172, pee k( 829) : poke 173, peek( 830) : gosub 

100 poke 194, peek( 830) : poke780, 97 : poke7S2, l:sy3a3:poke 

110 sy saS: poke782, : sysa7 : fori =900 to901 : poke780, peekf 

i) : sysa6 : nex t : sysa8 
120 input#15,e,e$: if e=63t henpoke832+l ,c:c=c+1 : gosub 17 

130 ife=72thengosub160:goto80 
140 if ethenprint "<rvs>disk error" , e$ :end 
150 goto40 
160 print"<rvs>disk full: insert new disk<down> hit a 

<space>key": poke 198,0: wait 198, 1 : return 
170 ifpeek( i) =32theni = i- 1 : if i>833 then 170 
180 l=i-832:ifl=1thenpoke833,c:c-c+1 
190 f$ = "":fori=833t 0832+1 :f$ = f$ + cbr$( peekf i) ) :next : 

printf $: return 
200 poke602, 1 :poke612, 1 : poke622, 96 : poke 152 , 2 :mh-m- 1 : 

print"<rvs> n ; : i=848 : gosub170 
210 fori=S28to1020:pokei,0:next 
220 get#1 ,a$:ifa$=""then220 
230 mh=mh+1 :pokemh,asc( a$) : if st=0then220 
240 closel :open8,8,2,"0:* , +f$ + ",5,w":fori=mtQmh:print# 

8,chr$( peekf i) ) ; : next 
2S0 print#8:close8:input#1S,e:ife=72thengosub160:goto 

260 ife=63thenf$=left$(f$,len(f$)-1)+chr$(c) :c = c+1 : 

270 ife=0then40 
280 poke175,(mh+1) /256 : poke 174, mh+1 -peekf 175)*256: 


TPUG Magazine 27 

Micro Processes 

Under AmigaDOS 

by Betty Clay 

Copyright © 1986 Betty Clay 

Almost anything seems hard until you learn to do it. Then it 
is so simple! And so it was with getting a directory of the files 
on the Amiga drive. 

In the first days with our early Amigas, there was no documen- 
tation available. By experimentation, we learned to get the cur- 
rent directory by typing dir at the prompt in the cli window. 
The directory tends to scroll rapidly, but it can be halted by 
pressing the space bar, and restarted by pressing ctrl-x. When 
developers' kits began to become available, complete with 
manuals, we learned to use the options that go with dir: 

• dir opt a lists the files in the current directory and in any sub- 
directories belonging to the current directory; 

• dir opt d lists only the directory names from the disk; 

• dir opt i lists the files and directories one at a time, with a 
question mark after each name. Proper responses to the ques- 
tion mark are: return (to get the next name); q (to quit the pro- 
gram); b (to go back to the previous directory level); e (used when 
a directory name is displayed to enter that directory and display 
the files and subdirectories under it. It is possible to use e and 
b to toggle between levels); del (to delete the file whose name 
is displayed — if a directory name is displayed, it can be deleted 
only if no files are contained in it); t (to type the contents of 
a file to the screen ; ctrl-c exits the type mode); and ? (to display 
a list of currently valid responses). 

If you want the output from dir to go to a device other than 
the screen (a disk file or a printer, for example), you must use 
the > redirection operator, like this: 

dir >prt: 

The list provided by dir is alphabetically sorted, but does not 
provide detailed information, such as size and creation date. To 
get that kind of information, you need the list command. List 
provides six fields of information for each file or subdirectory: 
filename, size, protection, date, time and comment. 

• filename is the name of a file or directory; 

• size is the number of bytes in the file; 

• protection indicates the access status of a file (usually it is 
'rwed', which means read, write, execute and delete operations 
are all allowed); 

• date and time tell when the file was created; 

• :comment prints a comment made using the filenote com- 
mand, if one was made. 

The list command offers many options. Some examples: 

• list "fonts" to prt: prints directory "fonts" on Monday, 
16-dec-85. Then follows the list of files in the fonts directory, 

with the size, protection, date and time. Notice that you use the 
to keyword with list, not the redirection operator, if you want 
to divert its output to a destination other than the screen, 

• list to prt: fonts keys gives the same information, but also 
provides the block number of each file. 

• list fonts keys nodates displays the list on the screen (actually, 
the current window), but omits the dates and times of creation 
of the files. 

• list fonts keys since monday displays lists only those files 
in the fonts directory that have been created or updated since 
Monday, monday can be replaced with a date in the form 

• list to dfO:oldfonts fonts keys upto 17-dec-85 will list those 
files in the fonts directory that were created or updated on or 
before the specified date. The list is written to the specified file, 
here dfO:oldfonts. 

• list fonts quick displays only the names of the files and direc- 
tories. It is much like dir, but is not alphabetically sorted, and 
is displayed in one column, not two. 

• list to prt: fonts s gar prints only those files whose names 
contain the string 'gar'. 

The syntax for list permits the use of either upper-case or lower- 
case letters in all fields. Commands or names are separated by 
spaces only. Instead of prt: or a disk filename in the commands 
above, you can use the name of another device if you wish the 
list to be sent to the serial part (ser:), the parallel port (par:), 
and so on. As usual in AmigaDOS, filenames can be in quotes 
or without quotes, although the quotes are compulsory if the 
name contains spaces or certain other special characters. □ 

Auto Chaos 

by Phil Kemp 

My new Telewarbler autodial modem won't work with the 
WonderTerm program. Does anyone know why? 

Messages like this keep appearing on bulletin boards; they are 
symptoms of a real disease. The disease is called 'lack of stan- 
dards'; it spreads when independent hardware manufacturers 
choose independent ways to implement the 'automatic' features 
of modems. 

Advertisements, of course, do not call attention to this issue. 
This modem package comes complete with compatible software 
to Jit all your needs. But computer users are often imaginative 
souls, well able to dream of a function that the supplied soft- 
ware just can't do. And there the fun begins. Often, the sup- 
plied software is in machine code: great for efficiency, less great 
for understandability . Mostly, it comes without documentation 
as to how it works. In some cases, the program is copy -protected, 
making it difficult for even knowledgeable users to examine, 
understand and change it. 

28 Issue 25 

:Micro Processes 

There is not just one use of the word 'automatic'. Hayes & 
Clones, Inc. make 'Smartmodems'. These scan the outgoing 
characters for sequences that are recognized as commands. We 
can type in + + + ATDT4218765, then sit back and listen to the 
burps of the autodialling. On the other hand, Commodore and 
its immediate imitators sell less expensive automodems. Though 
physically able to make the right dialling noises, these boxes 
generally need to be told which noise to make, when to start 
making it and when to stop. The 'automatic' part of dialling then, 
is achieved by logic in our terminal program — which is where 
the 'supplied compatible software' comes in. 

We usually connect our modem to the user port of the 64. 
There is general agreement as to which pin of this connector 
is used for output bits, which for input data and so on. Unfor- 
tunately there is no agreement on which pins to use to control 
autodial features. Manufacturers have filled this void with 
diverse schemes. Hence we need a terminal program with logic 
to suit the particular automodem we buy. 

Some programs (the public-domain Universal Modem, for ex- 
ample) have options to suit a range of popular automodems. Does 
it suit the modem I plan to buy? Does the program that comes 
with the modem have all the features I'm likely to want? These 
questions demand answer, before I commit my money to a 

Automodems are desirable and practical items; I plan to ac- 
quire one. Manufacturers are to be commended for making them 
available to us at modest prices. However, be aware of poten- 
tial problems before you buy, and get all the advice you can.D 

Building a $20 
Utility Stand 

by Edward K. Crossman 

None of the commercially-available computer utility stands that 
I could find were quite suitable for my Commodore equipment. 
Either they only had one shelf, or the shelf was not deep enough 
to support a 1541 disk drive correctly. To get a suitable stand 
I would have had to buy an entire desk/stand arrangement 
costing 75 dollars or more. But I already had a table — no need 
to buy another. The stand that I built from necessity, and 
describe in this article, will not only accommodate Commodore 
equipment, but many other computers also. 

If you are the least bit handy with tools, you can build this 
stand in a few hours with very little effort and be proud of the 
result. The two-shelf arrangement is nice because it puts the 
TV (or monitor) at eye level and locates the disk drives where 
disks can be inserted or removed without warping them. Also, 
there is sufficient space both above and around the 1541 drive 
for heat dissipation (diagram 1). The ten thousand cords that 
seem to emerge from the rear of my C-64 fit nicely on the table 
beneath the lower shelf, and are mostly out of sight. 

The two end-pieces (diagram 2) can be made from 3/4-inch par- 
ticle board (not chip board) and are 11 1/8 inches high and 12 
inches wide. The shelves are 3/8-inch plywood (AC grade) and 
measure 18 inches long by 12 inces wide. After cutting the 
shelves and end-pieces, the next step is to rout out channels in 
the end-pieces. The shelves will slip into these channels. To make 
the channels, use a 3/8-inch straight routing blade that will cut 



EIG. ± 

a groove that is flat on all three sides. The channels should be 
no more than 1/4-inch deep, and it is probably best to make two 
passes (1/8-inch cut per pass) rather than a single pass. 

Then, using a 1/8-inch drill bit, drill three equally-spaced holes 
in each slot. Use a countersink bit on the outside of the end- 
pieces so the heads of the woodscrews will be flush with the out- 
side surface. A #6 flathead screw about 3/4-inch long should be 
sufficient to draw the surfaces together while the glue sets. 

If you don't have a router to cut the shelf channels, you could 
always glue and nail a support brace (1/2-inch square by 12 in- 
ches long) on the inside of each end-piece just below each shelf. 
Then apply glue to the end of each shelf, which will butt against 
the end -piece, and to the bottom of the shelf where it rests on 
the support brace. I would still recommend using the 
woodscrews, as they will pull all pieces together to insure a tight 
glue joint. 

Now you are ready to assemble the pieces. Place a good grade 
of wood glue in each slot as well as on the end of each shelf. 
Then place the shelves in the slots and screw the endpieces to 
the shelves. Wipe away any excess glue with a damp rag. After 
the glue dries, sand any rough edges and apply two coats of 
paint. Voila! You're the proud parent of a two-level stand! □ 


4 3/4" 

TPUG Magazine 29 

Micro Processes: 

Power for Cardco 
Printer Interfaces 

by John Tlmar 

The Cardco printer interfaces (Card? A, Card? + G) require a 
source of 5V 150mA power. On the Commodore 64 and its 
peripherals this power is available at two places. One source is 
the power supply; the other is the Datasette port. (The other 
ijV sources can't carry the 150mA load.) To access this second 
source, Cardco provides a connector on the end of a wire. This 





Green wire 

Diagram 1 

f \ strip green wire here 
\ Cardboard 

Diagram 2 

Splice (must be soldered) 

Diagram 3 

To the Datasette 


To the interface 

s~4 Plug 4 Jack Diagram 4 

Reassembled datasette plug 

connector is plugged in between the Datasette and the computer. 
Electrically this set-up is fine, but it makes the Datasette plug 
stick out about 7 cm (nearly 3 inches) — making the Cardco con- 
nector susceptible to breakage. 

The following arrangement eliminates the need for the con- 
nector and, by making the power supply wire longer, allows more 
freedom in locating the computer, the disk drive and the printer. 

• Using a small Phillips (cross-head) screwdriver, open the 
Datasette plug and, with the wires attached, remove the white 
plastic terminal from the plug. There are 7 wires going to the 
6 pins (pin #1 has two wires attached). See diagram 1. 

• Separate the green wire (pin #2) by slipping a strip of card- 
board between the green wire and the other wires. 

• Strip about 1 cm (3/8 inch) of the green wire. See diagram 2. 

• Attach the end of a new wire (length as desired — at least 
10 cm , preferably longer) to the stripped section and solder it. 
See diagram 3. 

• Cover the splice with electrical tape and remove the cardboard. 

• Reassemble the plug. 

• Place a miniature jack on the other end of the wire. 

• Remove the connector on the end of the single wire coming 
from the DIN plug of the interface. Replace it with a plug of 
the same size as the jack used. (To avoid accidental short cir- 
cuits, use the inside terminals of the jack and the plug; on many 
models the outside terminals are exposed.) See diagram 4. 

If you want to ensure that you can use your printer without the 
Datasette , solder another wire to the second terminal of the in- 
terface connector (the terminal the power wire was originally 
attached to) and put another jack on the other end of the wire.D 

Prg SDtlware 1~^ t~\ i-** f—\ 

2Z371B 119 Avenue ImJImJI L~ 

Maple Ridga. B.C. / I \ (j ^ 
V2X 2Z2 -^ 

MONEY MASTER: available now for the Commodore 128 
Fast, flexible, and comprehensive home accounting. Accounts, journal, and budget 
follow similar methods of operation. Enter, edit. load. save, and print are available for 
each. Trial balance sheet, and budget variance reports can be printed Use menus to 
select from thirty functions. Windowing is used with 80 columns to help keep track ol 
what is going on. 

Money Master includes limited mail and telephone support. 
SOURCE LINKER: available 15 July for the Commodore 128 
The program that makes il possible to reuse parts of your last BASIC program without 
rewriting it. Transform programs in a disk to disk operation. 
Join multiple modules, select parts of a program, compress code, rename variables, 
renumber lines, print formatted listing, print variable cross reference, list differences 
between program files, or print line number cross reference. 
Source Linker includes limited mail and telephone support. 
A complete software purchase comes with a disk program "ready to go", a comprehen- 
sive user guide, and an annotated source listing to help you customize the program. 
You don't want tD pay for a source listing if you don't intend to use it. You don't want to 
pay for a user guide if you would rather just load and go and see how it worts. You don't 
want to pay too much for any of them. 

Program Disk 9.95 

User Guide 19 95 

Annotated Source Listing 19.95 


Program Disk 9 95 

User Guide 19.95 

Annotated Source Listing 19 95 

Please include payment in full with order. BC residents must add 7% 
Provincial sales tax 

— 80 column bil mapped graphics 

— database management package 

— BASIC libraries including 

• screen manager 

• multi-keyed disk access, and 

• memory table handler. 

Use them with Source Linker. 

— plot package with 3D coordinate transformations and multi- 
device oulput 

— video store inventory management 

30 Issue 25 





The Tech/News Journal For Commodore Corraiters 

At better book stores everywhere! Or 6 issues delivered to your door 

for just $1 5.00 (Overseas $21 U.S. Air Mail $40 U.S.) 

The Transactor. 500 Steeles Ave. Milton. Ontario. L9T 3P7, 

416 878-8438 

Also check out The Transactor Disk and The Complete Commodore 

Inner Space Anthology - !o us, expansion knows no limits! 

"Cecil's 6502/6510 Conditional Macro Assembler" 

and "Assembly Language Source Code Editor" 

for Commodore 64® or Commodore 128® 

or Commodore SX64® 

A package of programming tools on one 5 '■ DISK created tor every 
assembly language programmer. 

Fully capable lor the professional '"Cecil's Assembler' always EVALU- 
HIGH/LOW byte" 

Cecil's Editor provides easy access to extensive on- line belpscreens tor a 
variety of information about this assembler package. On-line help de- 
scribes the assembler syntax, pseudo-ops and macro instructions, and 
the editor commands 

• Features 10 built-in macro instructions to complete the branch or 
jump on condition instruction sets 

• Labels may be up to 13 characters in length. All 13 characters are 
considered significant. 

• Includes full-screen editor with enhanced DOS commands. 

• Nesls macros to 32 deep 

• Includes 10 pseudo-ops to control the assembly process. 

• Stops on error and'or identifies error type and location. 

• Supports most printers and interlaces and allows multiple disk 

• Prints its own instruction manual. 

ONLY ! 49.95Cdn.or ! 34.95 U.S. by Check, Money Order, 
Visa or MasterCard to: 


Box 2661 

North Canton, Ohio 44720-0661 

( ) English ( } C64- 

( ) German ( ) C12B- in C64- Mode 

( ) French ( ) SX64 

( | Information SI 71 Cdn. S100US 
Or Call 216/497-0736 from 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. EST. 

CommodoreBi*. Commodore 128' and Commodore SX64' areregtslered 
trademarks of Commodore Business Machines 



VIC 20, COMM. 16 AND 

COMMODORE 128 owners 

A complete self-tutoring BASIC programming course 
is now available. This course starts with turning 
your computer on, to programming just about 
anything you want! This course is currently used 
in both High School and Adult Evening Education 
classes and has also formed the basis of teacher 
literacy programs. Written by a teacher, who after 
having taught the course several times, has put 
together one of the finest programming courses 
available today. This complete 1 3 lesson course 
of over 220 pages is now available for the COM- 
MODORE 64, VIC 20, COMMODORE 16 and the 
COMMODORE 1 28 and takes you step by step thru 
a discovery approach to programming and you 
can do it all in your leisure time! The lessons are fil- 
led with examples and easy to understand explanat- 
ions as well as many programs for you to make up. 
At the end of each lesson is a test of the information 
presented. Furthermore, ALL answers are supplied 
to all the questions and programs, including the 
answers to the tests. Follow this course step by 
step, lesson by lesson, and turn yourself into a 
real programmer! You won't be disappointed! 

We will send this COMPLETE course to you at 
once for just $19.95 plus $3.00 lor shipping and 
handling (U.S. residents, please pay in U.S. funds). 
If you are not COMPLETELY satisfied, then simply 
return the course within 10 days of receipt for a 

FULL refund. 

Now available! a 200 page course 
exclusively on sequential and rel- 
ative files using a unique approach 
for those with very limited file programming ex- 
perience - set up your own persona! and business 
records! — disk drive a must — same author — 
same guarantee — same cost — this course for 
all computers except Vic 20. 
Fill in the coupon or send a facsimile. 





ppnv /statf- 


I desire the BASIC program- 
ming course lor: 

Any complete course: $19.95 1 
Postaqe and Handling: S3.00 1 

Commodore 64 □ Vic 20 □ 
Comm. 128 □ Comm. 16 □ 
I desire the FOLLOW-UP D 
course on relative and seq- 
uential files for all above 
computers but Vic 20). 

Total: S22.95 | 

Send Cheque or Money Order to | 
Brantford Educational Services | 
6 Pioneer Place. 
Brantford. Ontario. 
Canada N3R 7G7 

Library Additions 

This month we present our first MS- 
DOS disk, for those of you with PClOs or 
PClO-compatible machines such as the 
IBM PC, and we welcome TPUG's MS- 
DOS librarian, Colin Justason, to the 
pages of the magazine. We'd also like to 
bring to your attention a change in our 
disk-naming convention to four letters 
from the old three — we had at last run 
out of letters under the old system. We 
hope you find it less confusing than we do. 

CP/M disks 
(Z)AAA and (Z)AAB 

Presented by Adam Herst 

Many of the programs in the CP/M 
library are contained in .Ibr (library) files. 
To remove them from the library use (library utility) contained on 
TPUG disks (Z)AB and (Z)AC. Type lu to 
start the program; -o opens a file. Then 
type the library file name. Typing -1 will 
give you a listing of the files cont;. I 
in the library, while -e followed by the 
filename to extract a particular file from 
the library. Wildcards (? and *) can be us- 
ed to extract multiple files. See the ac- 
companying documentation for more 

Some of the extracted files will be in 
a squeezed format. This is indicated by 
a filetype of .xqx where the q indicates 
a squeezed file. Use or to unsqueeze these files. 

Disk (Z)AAA (no relation to disk (Z)AA) 
is a languages disk. Some of them are bet- 
ter documented than others, and none 
has been exhaustively tested on the 
C-128. smalcl.lbr is a version of the 
Small-C C compiler. This is a large 
library of many small and a few not so 
small files. Most of the files have accom- 
panying documentation. Only the .com 
files are included. While the source files 
are available, no one has made them 
available to me. The documentation files 
that are included detail the specifics of 
this compiler; they are not a tutorial in C. 

lllbasic.Ibr contains all the relevant 
files for this BASIC interpreter: source 
code, runtime interpreter and documen- 
tation file. 

Unlike the previous file, this implemen- 
tation of the FORTH language,, comes with nothing but the 
.com file. If you can figure it out and put 
together a documentation file, please 
send it in. 

zaaatype me 
lllbasic lbr 

forth123 com 
smalcl lbr 

Disk (Z)AAB is primarily a disk of 
utilities. For the assembly language pro- 
grammer we have Cpm31ib.lbr, which 
contains a number of CP/M Plus ML 
subroutines. Documentation is included. 
Z80asm.lbr, as the name suggests, is a 
Z80 assembler package. Xref.lbr is an 
ML cross-reference utility program. 
Documentation is included. Neat. lbr con- 
tains programs to tidy up assembly 
language program listings. Documenta- 
tion is included. 

In the way of disk utilities we have 
dir + .com, a file handling program. 
Enter a ? for the command menu. searches disk/files for a 
specified string. Enter find with no 
arguments for usage instructions. searches and recovers lost 
files. produces an extended 
directory listing. 





























In the grab-bag this month we find, which produces formatted out- 
put to the screen or printer. Enter listt 
with no arguments for usage instructions. is a very good text editor. Enter 
ESC ? for the instruction menu. Calc. lbr 
simulates an HP calculator while ex- 
hibiting the internal logic on the screen. 
Documentation is included. The term files 
let you customize installation. 

To finish things up we have a couple of 
games. is a version of the 
popular board game. is a 
version of chess. That's it for this month, 
folks — more than enough to keep you 
busy. Over the summer, I will continue 
to release CP/M disks as the programs 
trickle in. Keep up the submissions and 
have a great summer! 

VIC 20 disks 
(V)AD and (V)AE 

Presented by Richard Best 

Once again we are giving you a little 
more. Disk (V)AD will be the last mon- 
thly disk to be issued before the summer. 
It features some very useful stuff plus an 
excellent Telidon-style graphics demo. 
We also have pods, a statistics package 
prepared by CP/M librarian Adam Herst. 

Disk (V)AD starts out with three 
peculiar demos called brain bender 
numbers 1 through 3. 1 won't spoil your 
fun by telling you what they do. 

The school year is drawing to a close 
— the perfect time for semester calc. 
Teachers with a lot of marks to work in- 
to final grades will appreciate this one. 
It inputs any number of tests, labs and 
assignments and produces a final mark. 
You can then use statistics to analyse 

vie disk ( vj ad 


"list-me (v)-ad/1" 



"liat-me (v)-ad/2" 



"brain benderl.v" 



"brain bender2.v" 



"brain bender3.v" 



"semester calc.v" 



"statistics. v" 



"binary fract.v" 



"rs232 sound. v" 



"screen print. v" 



"vie scrn copy.v" 



"bay street. v12k" 



"500 file.v12k" 



"pix load ii.vsx" 









"amer. flag" 



"amer. flag+" 






"sr-?1+ M 









"can. flag" 



"can. flag+" 






"magnum+ B 



"wolf ii" 



"wolf ii+" 











32 Issue 25 

how the class has done or derive other 
common statistics from a variety of data. 

For you hackers, we have something 
very interesting. Binary fract is a con- 
version program that works on binary 
fractions. A unique program is rs232 
sound, which turns a bit of Bach over to 
the RS232 port. This approach lets you 
play music in the background while 
something else is going on in the 

Screen print is a printing utility that 
will send screen text to the printer. Vic 
scrn copy is a screen dump utility that 
can be added to your programs as a 
subroutine. 500 file is a tape-oriented, 
single-item file manager. It's menu driven 
and very easy to use. It will input, sort, 
print and file up to 500 items. 

Bay street is a stock market 
game/simulation. Up to six investors can 
play along with the VIC, which acts as the 
banker. As stocks fluctuate, their values 
are posted on a chart. 

SuperExpander fans will enjoy the 
demos that make up the remainder of the 
disk. They are accessed through a pro- 
gram called pix loader, which prints a 
menu and loads the eight picture files 
from disk. This graphics display is 

Disk (V)AE contains the program pods, 
which stands for Printer-Oriented 
Descriptive Statistics. It is a statistics 
package that will run on an expanded 
VIC with either tape or disk. The 
disk/tape contains two versions of the 
program. One is in ordinary BASIC, and 
the other is scrunched to run faster. Also 
included is five pages of documentation 
in a sequential file, which you can print 
using your favourite sequential file 

This statistics package is complex. It 
can analyse data at various levels. You 
can also graph your analyses and print 
them on a printer. The whole thing is 
menu driven and will work with files on 
either disk or tape. For the user with ad- 
vanced statistical needs, this could be a 
very useful program. 

The error that was present in p-term22 
has been repaired and the library 
disk/tape has been remastered. If you 
already have this issue and want to use 
the terminal program, see TPUG 
Magazine issue #23 for the correction. 
This program does indeed work and 
seems to do all the things it says it does. 

Finally, to all you VIC fans, have a 
great summer, and do keep writing for 
the VIC. Your contributions to the TPUG 
library are appreciated all over the world. 
(Besides, we'll send you a disk/tape of 
your choice in return for a submission.) 

MS-DOS disk 

Presented by Colin Justason 

This is the first of the TPUG PC disks, 
and I have tried to make it a bit of an all- 
around disk, with something for 
everyone. It is, for the most part, a 
shareware/freeware disk, and I suggest 
that if you are going to use these pro- 
grams you should pay the programmer 
something for his effort if you find the 
program useful. Most of the program- 
mers make contribution suggestions that 
do not seem out of line — in fact most are 
a steal for the quality of their work! 

msdos ( m 















































-clock — 















Back to the disk. The first two pro- 
grams on the disk are fm and ffm, and 
can display two directories or disks at a 
time, great for comparison or copy work. 
Instructions are available at any time by 
using the function key F2 for either pro- 
gram . Fm is very good for monochrome, 
while ffm works best on a colour or hi- 

Library Additions 

res monitor. It includes a show and ex- 
ecution system for running files without 
leaving ffm. 

The next program is for Epson or 
Epson-compatible users who like being 
able to control their printers from the 
keyboard. Please read the nu-epson docs 
for special features; however, the menu 
selection is quite good for a resident pro- 
gram. Popsicle is a resident program 
that is called up whenever you want via 
your selection of keys which, along with 
other options, you assign first by runn- 
ing popsetup. 

Pmap is a neat little program for fin- 
ding out how much memory all these lit- 
tle memory resident programs take up 
and where they are in memory. Read the 
docs for additional features. Ddir shows 
a dual directory and provides an alter- 
native to the dir/w or dir/p method of fin- 
ding out what is on your disk. Use it just 
like you would dir. Rendir stands for 
rename directory and is for those of you 
who are into subdirectory uses. 
Remember to include the path name 
when you go to rename. 

Wpk stands for word processor for 
kids, and it's quite good. Just load and en- 
joy. There are five examples as well as 
the docs so no one should have any pro- 
blems. Clock is a very small memory resi- 
dent program that puts a clock up in the 
top right hand side of your screen . Tired 
is a little program you can leave on your 
machine for snoops. Pc-touch is a typing 
tutor for those of us who never have 
become good at the keyboard (or is my 
18 words a minute okay?). Read the docs 
and give it a try, you may improve your 
speed. That's it for disk (M)AAA; I hope 
you enjoy it and remember the 


The NEW telephone number is: 

(416) 273-6300 

Operating hours: 

24 hours per day 

7 days per week 

The password is. . 


TPUG Magazine 33 

Library Additions: 

C-6'4 disks (C)HF, 
(C)TR and (C)AA 

Amiga disk (A)AAA 

Presented by Paul Kreppenhofer 

These are C-64 disks that have been 
released since January. 

Disk (C)HF contains an assortment of 
pictures drawn using a KoalaPad. These 
pictures can be accessed by loading 

Disk (C)TR, our February monthly 
disk, contains two Ontario income tax 
programs: tax85ont vO.l is a printable, 
standard tax program, while taxcalc 85 
is for more advanced tax applications. 
For utilities this month, there are four 
programs. The first is called 
compiler4.4.c, which will convert your 
basic programs into faster-running 
machine language. Next we have 1541 
saver. c, which helps stop drive rattle. 
Third is a program called calender. c that 
will print calendars in French and 
English. Finally, there is mortgage 
samia, a program that will calculate 
mortgage payments, including lawyers' 

Comma sense. c and patterns. c are two 

educational programs. The former is 
designed to teach you about commas, 
while the latter will teach you about the 
stars. Other files on the disk include 
cards, a game based on the Mille Bornes 
card game; lazy letters.c, which will 
change your computer's character set; 
waveform a. c, which draws waveforms 
with harmonics; and finally, proverbial.c, 
which will give you a few laughs with fun- 
ny sayings and last words. 

The main program of the March disk, 
(C)AA, is a large terminal program call- 
ed dark term. This program contains 
many options and is very good. Dark 
term is loaded by dt2-boot. By way of 
games this month we have q&a 64.c 
which is a trivia-based game. Next there 
is mindbusters.c which , as the name im- 
plies, is a mindbuster, requiring a joystick 
to move patterns around to match other 
patterns. The last game is a shoot'em-up 
program called starscanner.c. where you 
shoot the alien spaceships. A revision of 
the tax program taxcalc85 is also on the 
disk, with tax85ont VO.l added for your 
convience. The last program is 
org.chemistry.c, with which you can 
create new characters for chemistry. 

Presented by Mike Donegan 

This disk was put together by Fred Fish 
of California: see readme. dist. It is 
similar to disks Amigalibl and Phase4 

None of the programs on this disk can 
be run from the Workbench: they must 
be run from the cli. Be sure to specify the 
correct path: for example, if you have the 
disk in drive 1, you must enter 
df l:hello/hello to load and run the hello 
program. The C source code for each pro- 
gram is also included: these files have a 
.c appended to the program filename. 
You cannot run these directly. 

Amigademo is a graphical benchmark 
for comparing Amigas. Amigaterm is a 
terminal emulation program with 
Xmodem upload and download. Balls is 
a simulation of the 'kinetic thingy' with 
balls on strings where only the end balls 
move {quick, can you come up with a bet- 
ter description?). Anyway, it's cute. Col- 

orful shows off the use of hold-and- 
modify mode. Dhrystone is the well- 
known benchmark program. Dotty is the 
source code for the 'dotty window' demo 
on the Workbench disk, Freedraw is a 
small 'paint' type program: free drawing, 
boxes, filled boxes, et cetera. You can 
have fun exploring gadgets with gad. 
Watch your machine's memory usage 
with gfxmem. Cute and useful. 

Halfbrite is a sample program that 
demonstrates the "Extra-Half-Brite" 
mode available on Amigas with the new 
'Daphne' chip that allows 64 colors in low- 
res mode, rather than 32. Hello 
demonstrates the creation of a simple 
window. Latffp shows how to access the 
Motorola Fast Floating Point library 
from Lattice C. It also demonstrates the 
tremendous speedup obtained. Palette is 
a sample program for designing colour 
palettes. Trackdisk demonstrates the use 
of the trackdisk driver — a useful exam- 
ple of 'raw' disk read/write. Requesters 
is a sample program with documentation 
for building and using requesters. 
Speechtoy — you have to see this one. Be 
sure to click the gadget that pops up the 
face. Speech is a stripped down version 
of speechtoy. D 

amiga disk £ a) aaa 


speech .c 





hello. c 




halfbrite, c 

gad[ dir) 




balls. c 



brea .c 

palette .c 

gf xmem( dir) 


amigaterm{ dir) 




gfxmem. c 

trackdiskf dir) 

amigaterm. c 

amigademoC dir) 




trackdisk . c 

colorf ul(dir) 

amigademo. c 

dhrystonef dir) 



dry .c 

colorful .c 



colorful .doc 

menu . c 


colorful . info 

menu . doc 


speechtoyf dir) 





dotty . c 

speechtoy . c 

readme .dist 

speechf dir) 

f reedrawf. dir) 

readme. list 1 





freedraw . c 

tpug-type-me . info 

34 Issue 25 




- form 


TORONTO PET USERS GROUP, 101 Duncan Mill Road, Suite G7, Don Mills, Ontario M3B 1Z3 416-445^524 


To order club disks by mail, send S10.00 for each 
4040/2031/1540/1541 disk (4040 format), discount price 
5-10 S9.00 each, 11 or more S8.00 each; and S12.00 for 
each 8050/8250 disk (8050 format). We do honour 
purchase orders from school boards. 

These disks are for use with a 
Please send me the following: 
3 Letter/No. 

computer and a . 

disk drive. 


4040 or 8050 


Total S 




These tapes are for use with a 

If for a PET computer, what model - 

3 Letter/No. Code Description 

To order VIC 20 or Commodore 64 library 
tapes, send S6.00 for each tape. 
To order PET/CBM or Commodore Educa 
tional Software, send S1000 for each tape. 

computer and a datasette. 

- BASIC - 1.0( ); 2.0( ); 4.0( 

Total S 


The prices indicated include postage and handling as well as 
Ontario Provincial Sales Tax (if applicable) 

□ Cheque/money order enclosed (payable to TPUG) 

□ Visa/Mastercard it 



from subLOGIC 

Flight simulator 

for Commodore 64 

Review by Hank Aviles 

Jet represents the state-of-the-art in 
flight simulation for home computers. 
SubLOGIC has carefully designed this 
program to work around the visibility 
limitations of previous flight simulators 
with a heads-up display that uses over 70 
per cent of the available screen area. 
Other simulators devote roughly 50 per 
cent of the display to the pilot view, with 
the remainder used for instruments, 
weapons status, and so on. 

Aircraft speed is indicated by a vertical 
bar on the left of the pilot display. On the 
right, another bar indicates altitude on a 
logarithmic scale. Throttle, fuel, landing 
gear, speedbrake and weapons status are 
contained in a narrow horizontal screen 
at the bottom of the display. Radar, range 
indicator, and attitude indicator are in- 
dividually selectable and are superimpos- 
ed on the pilot's view. The radar is a small 
square that pops up at the bottom of the 
display. An innovative feature is the abili- 
ty to 'zoom' the pilot's view (like a 
telescope) over a 1 to 8 range. 

You can choose to fly a land-based F-16 
or carrier-based F-18, in either dogfight 
or target strike mode. You can even 
watch the aircraft from the control tower! 
When the pilot ejects, you can watch the 
chute deploy from the tower view. The 
level of difficulty is user-selectable. You 
can even use the Flight Simulator II disk 
as a scenery disk! The program is cramm- 
ed with detail, and exhibits fascinating 
realism. It is also marred by several bugs, 
which may be corrected in future 

Flight debriefing 

Jet is an excellent follow-on and comple- 
ment to FS II. I have always wanted an 
aircraft with more power than the Piper 
Cherokee simulated with FS II. It is a 
sheer delight to perform acrobatics in 
Jet. The dogfight and target strike action 
is more convincing than the WW1 game 
in FS II. For those users who want to 

learn flight physics and light plane opera- 
tion, FS II is still the best choice. For 
those users that want to have more fun , 
more power, more action, Jet is the 
choice. The ability to use FS II as a 
scenery disk is a real plus. I enjoyed buz- 
zing the Statue of Liberty and the Space 
Needle in an F-16 and F-18 jet fighter! 
The best feature of the program is the 
display design. The full-height, square 
screen display, coupled with the ability to 
zoom from 1 to 8 times the view area, and 
front, side, rear and top views give the 
user superb visibility. The flight in- 
struments are very well done, arranged 
around the screen to maintain maximum 
visibility. The ability to select radar, 
range, and attitude indicators in any com- 
bination is great. 

r M i l -". H I 



The control tower view is fascinating 
— almost a second game in itself. It was 
fun trying to fly the aircraft by remote 
control. It gives you the feeling that you 
are flying a radio-controlled model 
airplane. You can even hear the sound 
vary with the orientation of the aircraft 
with respect to the control tower. 

The ejection seat/chute adds a nice 
touch of realism. Watching the pilot eject 
and the chute deploy from the control 
tower is fun. I found myself ejecting right 
after takeoff just to watch it. And, as the 
manual says, you can watch the plane fly 
out from under you in the cockpit view. 

The ability to fly either an F-16 or an 
F-18 is a great feature. The F-16 is 
lighter, and more agile than the F-18. But 
taking off (and trying to land) on an air- 
craft carrier with an F-18 is a thrill . The 
carrier looks very small when you are try- 
ing to land. (I crashed into the carrier 
many times, but never landed 

I really missed the zoom feature of the 
FS II radar, but I found that I could get 

a good imitation by flying inverted at high 
altitude, and using a low zoom factor. 

Jet will not load properly with Epyx's 
Fast Load cartridge even though FS II 
is compatible with this popular accessory 
for the Commodore 64. With Jet I have 
to disable Fast Load, type in load 
"0:*",8,1, and wait three minutes. With 
Fast Load, I can get to the first menu of 
FS II in 60 seconds! A two-key sequence 
will automatically load and run the pro- 
gram , and subsequent disk accesses are 
much faster. Both products are heavily 
copy -protected and rattle the 1541 drive, 
with or without Fast Load. 

On Jet, the engine has a low throbbing 
sound that drowns out the higher-pitched 
turbine tone. With headphones, I was 
barely able to hear the turbine sound 
change as the throttle setting was varied. 
From the speaker on a monitor, the tur- 
bine sound is totally drowned out by the 
throbbing tone. With the afterburner on, 
it is even worse. The weapons make no 
sound when they are fired. Even the tone 
that warns of an enemy missile or plane 
is very faint. 

When in dogfight mode, ground targets 
cannot be engaged, and vice-versa. It 
would be much nicer to be able to have 
dual role sorties, as in the WW1 game in 

At times, especially in free-flight mode, 
both aircraft seemed to become sluggish 
with extended use. This may be a user 
perception and/or due to the limitations 
of the Commodore 64. 

Bug sightings 

After several sorties, including crashes, 
missile strikes on the aircraft, and pilot 
ejection , it becomes impossible to take off 
from the carrier without being in 'easy' 
mode. Immediately upon exiting the ar- 
ming menu, a 'stall' message is superim- 
posed over the 'press 1 to launch' 
message. The altitude bar jumps up to 
25-50 feet, and then the crash screen is 
displayed. The same thing happens in 
'easy' mode, but crashes are ignored and 
the flight can proceed. Exiting to F-16 
mode and then re-entering F-18 mode 
does not correct the problem. The com- 
puter must be turned off/on and the pro- 
gram reloaded. This was not observed in 
F-16 mode. 

When the F-18 is fitted with maximum 
payload in target strike mode, it is im- 
possible to launch from the carrier if the 

36 Issue 25 

range circle, and/or attitude indicator, 
and/or radar features are active. The air- 
craft does not appear to gain enough 
momentum before going off the edge of 
the carrier. It appears to fall off the edge 
into the water. When a launch is attemp- 
ted without any of these features active, 
a successful takeoff can be made. It is 
tricky, and the rotation has to be timed 
well, but it can be done. The algorithm 
that computes the forces acting on the 
plane may be affected somehow by the 
reduced simulation throughput with the 
range/attitude/radar features active. 
Again, this was not observed in F-16 

During F-18 or F-16 target strike 
mode, after all the AGM (Air To Ground) 
missiles have been launched at a target, 
the MK82 bombs will not release after 
they are selected. The cannon appears to 
operate in all cases. Sometimes the bombs 
will release after you cycle through the 
weapon choices once or twice. This pro- 
blem does not occur if the AGM missiles 
are not launched all at once. 

When F-18 free flight mode is selected, 
the free flight area appears to be as 
described in the manual, except that the 
colour of the water the aircraft carrier is 
sitting in is green, not blue as in dogfight 
or target strike modes. The green is the 
land colour used in the F-16 modes. 
Otherwise, this mode appeared to work 

Another bug appeared when using FS 
II as a scenery disk. When a return to 
dogfight mode was selected, the F-18 was 
placed on an expanse of blue. After 
takeoff, flying over the terrain revealed 
that it was the WW 1 game field. The Jet 
program did not detect that the FS II 
disk was present, and did not prompt the 
player to re -insert the Jet disk. The FS 
II WW1 field had black features on a blue 
background. When I tried this in F-16 
mode, I got the same effect, except that 
the WW1 field had black features on a 
green background. I was able to arm the 
aircraft and fire at the background. 

In either F-16 or F-18 mode, stall 
breaks are strange — in fact, non- 
existent. It is possible to get the aircraft 
to slide backwards along its flight path 
without triggering a stall. I did this by 
getting into a 40 to 50 degree climb, then 
cutting the throttle to zero. The airspeed 
decreases to zero, then increases again as 
the aircraft starts sliding backward. I 
confirmed this by using the tower view 
feature. No stall warning was observed. 
It appeared easier to get the plane to slide 
backwards than to get a stall. I did get 
consistent stalls when I tried to climb 
above 100,000 feet. After the plane stall- 

ed at around 100,000 feet, it seemed to 
slide down along the flight path and start 
spinning. I was able to recover from the 
spin after the plane got down to about 
50,000 feet. 

After getting shot down in F-18 target 
strike mode, the tower view is sometimes 
messed up on subsequent flights. The 
crash/ejection scene from the previous 
flight is the only thing visible from the 
carrier control tower. Even a plane on the 
catapult cannot be observed. The view 
from the aircraft still functions correct- 
ly. Sometimes, when the zoom factor is 
changed in the tower view, a plan view 
of the target strike area is superimposed 
on the old sky view . This usually happens 
when you try to zoom the view from the 
tower. I had to reload the program to fix 
this one. This effect was not observed in 
F-16 mode. 

Perhaps this cannot be called a bug, but 
the engine sound is not cut after a crash . 
Actually, about all the sound tells you is 
whether or not the afterburner is on. This 
is the most annoying feature of the 
program . 

As a last word on bugs, the word 
'missile' is misspelled in the armament 

Wish list 

• Show the home base on the radar 
screen. This will make it easier to get 

back to base. 

• Put scale marks on the maps in the 

• Have the aircraft's flight performance 
degrade gradually in combat rather than 
abruptly, perhaps being able to withstand 
one or two hits before having to eject. 

• Add the ability to follow enemy aircraft 
and attack from behind as the enemy 
tries to out-manoeuvre you. Right now, 
enemy planes approach essentially head- 
on then circle the F-16/ 18 in a decreas- 
ing spiral. 

• Include more specifications on the F-16 
and F-18, like performance envelopes, 
distinguishing features, anecdotes, and so 

• Show the landing gear when it is 

• Create a level that is between the O and 
1 levels currently in the program. Right 
now, the level is very easy, but it is dif- 
ficult to hit targets and survive at the 1 
level on a consistent basis. 

• Allow the Jet disk to be used as a 
scenery disk by FS II. 

• No flight editor is provided with Jet, 
unlike FS II. It would be nice to at least 
have the ability to reposition the aircraft 
in 3-D space, and change day /night 

Rev lews 

On a scale of one to five, this program is 
a must have 4.5. 

Jet, $52.95 (Cdn.), from xvhLOGIC Cor- 
poration, 713 Edgehrook Drive, Ch<u>i- 
paign, Illinois 61820. 

40 Great 
Flight Simulator 



40 More Great 

Flight Simulator 


both by Charles Gulick 

from COMPUTE! Books 

Review by Jim Butterfield 

Copyright © 1986 Jim. Butterfield. Per- 
mission to reprint is hereby granted, pro- 
vided this notice is included in the 
reprinted material. 

Each of these two books outlines forty 
flights or challenges to be tried on Flight 
Simulator II. The first book is pleasant, 
and users may find that it solves the 
'what should I do today' problem. The 
second book (40 More . . . ) has a fe'. i prob- 
lems, and doesn't live up to the standard 
set by the first. 

Many owners of Flight Simulator II 
can think up their own flight itineraries. 
Indeed, documentation accompanying the 
program gives a number of training 
flights, and a user can think up many 
other things to do. Flights from New 
York to Boston, Chicago to Champaign, 
Olympia to Seattle and many others can 
be mapped out using the navigation 
charts supplied. But if inspiration doesn't, 
come, these books will offer worthwhile 
suggestions. Instead of drifting around 
the Chicago area, you can now select one 
of the flight itineraries and try your hand 
at it. 

In book 1, the flights are graded in 
order of difficulty. The first few flights 
are just floating around and sightseeing, 
and the last few are difficult flying 
challenges. In between are tutorials and 
curiosities. A couple of the flights don't 
work out on the Commodore 64 version 
of Flight Simulator II; flight 26, 
Pyramid Power, demonstrates a curious 
effect found on IBM versions; and flights 
33 and 40 call for implementing tur- 
bulence, a feature not present on the 64. 

"JG Magazine 37 

Rev Jews 

For each flight, the user is given the fly- 
ing parameters to be entered into the 
editor. When the editor is exited, you'll 
find yourself {after an appropriate disk 
action) at a given location, pointed in a 
particular direction, ready to pick up the 
flight from that point. 

It seems to me that the books have 
three types of flights: sightseeing, skill 
development, and oddities. They are not 
mutually exclusive: a particular exercise 
may be a combination of types. 

The sightseeing aspect is nicely done. 
You're given a feel for the area, and 
details of what's around you. In some 
cases, features are pointed out that can- 
not be seen on FS II — you're told that 
it's down there anyway. The author has 
a nice feel for the countryside, and the 
descriptions are quite good (although the 
Statue of Liberty is not on Ellis Island as 

Skill development is reasonably well 
graded in book 1. Sometimes you're given 
a flight itinerary — start here, go to 
there, perhaps land at a selected location. 
Other times, you're given a challenge: 
land with a 'dead stick' (motor off), fly 
strictly on instruments through fog and 
cloud, or come down within a very 
restricted area. And there's just a 
smidgin of aerobatics in the first book. 
Book two starts off nicely as a sequel: 
the first seven adventures contain 'ad- 
vanced' flight instruction. The Puget 
Sound scenery area chosen is more col- 
ourful than the Champaign Willard air- 
port suggestion in the FS II documenta- 
tion. Considerable attention is given to 
the question of patterns: approach and 
landing patterns are worked through in 
some detail. The 'seven' adventures are 
really no more than two or three flights 
with each flight broken down into phases. 
Unfortunately, book two seems to 
quickly lose its sense of direction. Instead 
of flight itineraries, the user is given 
numerous 'tie-down' points: locations to 
park your aircraft when you're not fly- 
ing, with vague suggestions about where 
you might fly from these points if you 
were so inclined. It's not clear if the 
author is trying to write 'literature' in- 
stead of a user handbook as part of his 
second volume: for example, adventure 
20 is entirely taken up with descriptions 
of how his budgie, with partly-clipped 
wings, has made numerous unsuccessful 
attempts to fly. At the end of the chapter, 
a paragraph notes that the highest air- 
port in FS II is Santa Catalina. 

Even worse: adventure 13 of the se- 
cond volume suggests that you fly due 
north from Arlington, Washington for 
two and a half hours. It doesn't say how 

to avoid running out of fuel (the easiest 
way is to press the s key) and, since 
there's no scenery out there at all, the 
author apparently tries to liven up a dead- 
ly dull trip with idle chatter (the chapter 
runs to ten long pages). There's nothing 
to see on the flight; although the flight 
takes you a little over 300 miles north of 
the USA/Canada border, no scenery is 
available in FS II, no navigational aids, 
nothing to relieve the tedium. Finally, 
you're allowed to let the plane down, at 
which point the book announces that 
you're at the North Pole (within plus or 
minus 187 feet)! This information will 
come as quite a surprise to the residents 
of Prince George, B.C., since that's ap- 
proximately where you really are. 

Oddities are for some people one of the 
joys of computer programs, and FS II has 
lots of them. The books look at many 
strange things such as the peculiar 
ground formation near Sammamish in 
Washington state, and the way Mount 
Rainier disappears when you fly to the 
wrong side of it. Or: what happens if 
clouds are lower than your landing strip? 
Try volume 1, adventure 24 and see. 

Some of the exercises may be too tough 
for a C-64 flyer (the C-64 plane is hard 
to fly). And the C-64 aviator should know 
a few extra facts not covered by the book. 
For one thing, if you crash, you won't 
return to the start of the adventure 
unless you have saved it as a 'resident 
mode', or unless you press the s key as 
the adventure starts. The author found 
that the reliability factor had little ef- 
fect. . . if you set 'reality mode' on the 
64, this factor will become noticeable, 

The books throw in quite a bit of 'fly- 
ing talk'. For those not in the club, it 
would be useful to have a glossary defin- 
ing such terms as 'flying the box', 'classic 
approach configuration', and 'slow flight'. 
The book also assumes you know how to 
handle the controls and navigation in- 
struments — information you can get 
from the Flight Simulator manuals. 

I wish the books came with an index. 
That way, if I wanted details on, say, 
Santa Catalina or Boston airports, I'd be 
able to turn to the chapter where they are 
discussed. In the same vein, I wish that 
the 40 adventures carried the 'adventure 
number' as part of its chapter heading: 
it would make lookup quicker than using 
page numbers. Book two, by the way , in- 
cludes a copy of the navigation charts 
that are included as part of FS II. 

If you think you would enjoy cruising 
around the countryside with Flight 
Simulator II; or if you'd like a graded set 
of exercises to show you how to handle 

your aircraft controls and instruments, 
you'll enjoy the first volume. The second 
book — more adventures — is rather 
weak, as though the author didn't have 
enough information to fill another volume 
and had to pad. 

Try book one: it's pleasant flying. If you 
love the adventures, you might still want 
the second volume despite its weak- 
nesses. On the other hand, maybe forty 
flights will be sufficient to keep you happy 
for quite a while. D 


Joystick System for 

Flight Simulator II 

from Microcube 

Dedicated FSI1 controller 
for Commodore 64 

by Jim Butterfield 

Copyright © 1986 Jim Butterfield. Per- 
mission to reprint is hereby granted, pro- 
vided this notice is included in the 
reprinted material. 

There are two 'standard' ways to fly on 
Sublogic's Flight Simulator II: use the 

joystick, or use keys on the keyboard. The 
keyboard is more precise — tap a control 
key a number of times for a given setting 
— but doesn't seem 'natural' like the con- 
trol column of a real plane. A standard 
joystick's biggest problem is that it's a 
digital device: the system sees only on/off 
signals, and judges how far to move the 
controls by measuring how long a joystick 
postion has been held . This produces ter- 
rifying flights if you have a sticky 

Now Microcube has produced a third 
alternative; an analog joystick that 
measures how far the stick has been mov- 
ed. This requires both hardware and soft- 
ware, but can give a much more realistic 
feeling of aircraft control. 

The joystick assembly is nicely laid out. 
The joystick itself is spring loaded, so that 
it will return to centre position by itself, 
or may be held off-centre by continual 
pressure. Additionally, the two dimen- 
sions (up/down and left/right) each have 
'trimmers' that will add a permanent off- 
set to the joystick settings. Thus, if you 
want to put the nose down without hav- 
ing to hold on to the joystick continuous- 
ly, you can push the trim control forward 

38 Issue 25 

to do the job. I wish the trim controls had 
a little more range to them, though. 

A power light ensures that the 
assembly is plugged in (it connects to con- 
trol port 1), and a reset button centres the 
controls. Well, it doesn't exactly centre 
them — it sets them to a takeoff attitude 
with the nose up. More on this in a mo- 
ment. Two buttons serve as throttle con- 
trols to make it easy to move the power 
up or down, and two more buttons con- 
trol the flaps. After you've landed, the up- 
per flap button also serves as a brake con- 
trol, making the tricky business of taxi- 
ing a little easier. 

The software, MicroFlyte ATC 
Joystick Driver, is a clever preprocessor 
program that doesn't compromise 
Sublogic's program integrity. Load the 
MicroFlyte disk first, and it will tell you 
when to put in the FS II disk. The 
simulator then appears to load normally; 
but once you get going, the joystick box 
is in control. 

The control mechanism is quite in- 
teresting. It's as if the joystick system 
were tapping on the computer's 
keyboard, correcting the settings. 
There's a feedback system involved here. 
If you are holding the joystick at an 'in- 
between' position, you'll see the flight 
control settings ticking back and forth 
between the two nearest fixed settings. 

That's nice, since you can get smoother, 
more precise controls. 

The centre area of the joystick has a 
deliberate 'dead spot'. You have to move 
the joystick a certain distance before 
there's any effect at all . Since the first 
rule of flying the FS II is 'gently, gent- 
ly', it's useful to watch indicators 41 and 
42 (Aileron Position and Elevator Posi- 
tion) to see precisely when your joystick 
movements have taken effect. 

Strong movements of the joystick are 
to be avoided at all costs. You'll find 
yourself upside down, stalling, spinning 
or crashing (or all of the above) very sud- 
denly if you make violent moves. 

The built-in trim that the joystick gives 
to the aircraft is somewhat nose-high for 
cross-country flying, and it's hard to ad- 
just: the trim controls won't pick up 
enough of the difference. But it's 
reasonably good for takeoff s and land- 
ings, which is most of the fun and 

You can fly better using this device; it 
will probably increase your flying enjoy- 
ment. It's cleverly designed and well put 

MicroFlyte Joystick System for Flight 
Simulator II, $59.95 (US), from. 
Microcube Corporation, P.O. Box 4.88, 
Leesburg, Virginia 22075. □ 


Joystick Functions 












The Walker 

1) Insert your COMAL disk in drive*. 

2) Type LOAD "C64 COMAL*" ,8 

3) Type RUN {starts COMAL) 

4) Type AUTO 

(COMAL provides the line numbers) 

5) Enter the program lines shown below 

(COMAL indents lines for you) 

6) Hit RETURN key twice when done 

7) Type RUN 

Watch an animated sprite hobble 
across the screen. Change the (99) 
in line 450 for really fast walking 

0010 setup 

0020 repeat 

0030 walking 

0040 until key*="q" //Q to Quit 

0050 // 

0060 proc setup 

0070 blue:=14; pink:=10 

0080 white:=l; black:=0 

0090 define Images 

0100 repeat 

0110 input "speed (1-10): ": speed 

0120 until speed>=l and speed<=10 

0130 background black 

0140 setgraphic 

0150 spriteback 

0160 spritecolor 1, white 

0170 spritesize l.false.false 

0180 plottext 1,1, "press q to quit" 

0190 endproc setup 

0200 // 

0210 proc define'imageB closed 

0220 dim shape* of 64, c$ of 1 

0230 shape$(l:64):="" 

0240 shapeJ(64):=chr*(l)//multicolor 

0250 c$:z= c hr»(0) 

0260 for x=22 to 63 do shape$(x):=c$ 

0270 c»:=chrj(170) 

0280 for x=l to 21 do shape$(x):=cj 

0290 define 0,shape$ 

0300 c$:=chrj(20) 

0310 for x=22 to 42 do shape$(x):=c* 

0320 define l,shape$ 

0330 define 3,shape$ 

0340 cj:=chrl(60) 

0350 for x=43 to 63 do shape$(x):=cj 

0360 define 2,shape$ 

0370 endproc define'images 

0380 // 

0390 proc walking 

0400 for walk:=l to 319 div speed do 

0410 x:=walk*speed 

0420 y:=100+walk mod 4 

0430 spritepos l,x,y 

0440 identify l.walk mod 4 

0450 pause(99) 

0460 endfor walk 

0470 endproc walking 

0480 // 

0490 proc pause(delay) closed 

0500 for wait:=l to delay do null 

0510 endproc pause 

* If you don't have COMAL yet, order a 
Programmer's Paradise Packare -tl9.95. 
It includes the complete COMAL system 
plus over 400 pages of information. Add 
$5 more to get our 20 interactive lesson 
Tutorial Disk. Add $2 shipping. Visa/MC 
or US funds check accepted. Send to: 

COMAL Users Group USA 

6041 Monona Drive, Room 109 
Madison, WI 53716 
phone 608-222-4432 

TPUG Magazine 39 


Programming the 
Commodore 64 

by Raeto Collin West 

from Compute! Books 
$19.95 (US), 609 pages 

Review by Malcolm O'Brien 

There are a lot of old-timers (PET users) 
who will tell you that Raeto Collin West's 
Programming the PET/CBM is the bible 
of green screen era Commodore com- 
puting. Now West has applied his for- 
midable skills to the task of creating a 
similar volume for the C-64, and it is 
likely to receive the same measure of 
acclaim as his previous work. Program- 
ming the Commodore 64 is an exhaustive 
work, weighing in at 609 pages including 
the index. And those are fat-free pages 
— just the facts with no filler. This book 
is chock-full of information . 

West is authoritative and thorough 
without becoming wordy. Each topic is 
handled in a very concise and direct man- 
ner, often including references to other 
portions of the book where the reader will 
find associated information. These 
references supplement a subdivided table 
of contents, a good index and eighteen ap- 
pendices. Finding what you're looking for 
is a snap. 

One of the very best things about this 
book is the author's approach. At all 
times, you are made aware that you are 
working with a complete computer 
system. It's important to remember that 
your programs do not exist in a vacuum 
and that the environment must be taken 
into consideration if your programming 
is to be effective. You might write a 
superb accounting program , but if it has 
long garbage collection delays, no one will 
use it (not even you!). West has adopted 
a very sensible approach that will be 
appreciated both by neophytes and more 
experienced programmers. In fact, the 
latter may feel that Programming the 
Commodore 64 is the very book they wish 
they had had when they were starting 

Let's look at an example from the 
BASIC Reference Guide in Chapter 3. In 
covering the keywords for ... to ... 
[step], West includes four notes on the 
functioning and use of for-next loops. 
The first note tells how for-next works 
and includes a line of code to demon- 
strate. This line "lists 18 bytes from the 
stack; these are the for token, the two- 
byte address of the loop variable, the step 

size in floating-point format, the sign of 
the step, the floating-point value of the 
upper limit of the loop, the line number 
of the for, and the address to jump to 
when the loop is finished." The second 
note is about loop execution speed; the 
third covers exiting from loops; and the 
fourth gives a method for simulating a 
do-while. This is in addition to the 
keyword's type, syntax, modes, token, 
abbreviated entry , purpose and four ex- 
amples. You may learn more about for 
. . . to . . . [step] in these two pages than 
you will in a year of programming. The 
whole book is like this: telling you 
everything you need to know where and 
when you need to know it, instead of mak- 
ing you find things out the hard way. 

Although the book claims to be written 
"just above the introductory level", I 
would even recommend it to beginners if 
they're serious about learning to program 
their computer. They might only be able 
to use a small part of it at the outset but, 
as they progress, they're sure to find Pro- 
gramming the Commodore 64 to be a 
reliable companion. 

Chapter 1 is a five -page introduction to 
the book. Chapter 2 details the 64's con- 
nectors, its keyboard and a section on 
editing BASIC on the 64. Introductory 
material often ignores editing: many 
beginners (myself included) have found 
themselves in quote or insert mode and 
not known what was happening. It's good 
to see that West has included this infor- 
mation early in the book. Once you've 
learned how to talk to BASIC, you're 
ready for Chapter 3 - the BASIC 
reference section. This includes syntax, 
a keyword dictionary and an error 
message dictionary. Even if you're fair- 
ly familiar with BASIC, this section is 
well worth reading. It includes 'down 
deep' information on such tricky subjects 
as rnd, st. ti and ti$. The examples are, 
for the most part, real world code 
samples demonstrating both standard 
and exceptional usage. 

If you're a coding novice. Chapter 4 
(Effective Programming in BASIC) of- 
fers some assistance in approaches to pro- 
gramming. It introduces such fundamen- 
tal topics as algorithms, flowcharting and 
coding conventions. Though it does not 
pretend to provide exhaustive coverage 
of these topics, the material presented 
here will help ensure that your thinking, 
planning and programming are carried 
out in an organized and efficient manner. 
The chapter also includes several useful 
subroutines and short programs to per- 
form such tasks as dice simulation, card 
shuffling, hex/decimal conversion and 
processing dates. Page 87 is a helpful list 

of 14 points entitled Debugging BASIC 

When you get to Chapter 5, you may 
figure that you're in over your head. This 
chapter covers 64 architecture, including 
such heavyweight topics as: memory con- 
figurations, the 64 schematic diagram, 
PLA's (Programable Logic Arrays), pro- 
gramming the CIA's (Complex Interface 
Adaptors), how cartridges work, and port 
pinouts. Sound complicated? It is. But 
don't let it cause you to throw in the 
towel. Skim through it anyway. I thought 
that this chapter should have come later 
in the book. On the other hand, I 
recognize that it's important to get an 
early overview of memory maps and such 
things as buffers, pointers, vectors, flags 
and the stack. They may not mean much 
at the beginning but their significance 
will increase as you progress. The chapter 
also includes MicroScope, a program to 
display the contents of any section of 

Chapter 6 covers advanced BASIC: 
how BASIC is stored in memory, special 
locations and features of BASIC, and a 
dictionary of extensions to BASIC. Here 
you'll learn about line links, program 
chaining, storage of simple variables and 
arrays and the consequences of BASIC'S 
storage methods. Although I'd heard or 
read about garbage collection often, I 
never quite understood what it was or 
how it worked until I read this book. 
Locations and Features covers buffers, 
the jiffy clock, decoding the keyboard and 
other topics. The extensions to BASIC 
are extremely helpful in innumerable 
situations. Anyone who has used Simons' 
BASIC or something similar will 
recognize that such extensions greatly 
simplify programming in BASIC. 

Chapters 7 through 11 provide a superb 
exposition of machine language program- 
ming on the 64. Once again, West has left 
no silicon unturned. He details the 6510 
instruction set, including (in an appendix) 
the quasi-opcodes, and describes the 6510 
chip (something not found in generic 6502 
books), mixing BASIC with ML, ML 
methods specific to the 64 and much 
more. Chapter 11 is a superb guide to the 
64's ROMs. You won't be groping in the 
dark in these chapters. You'll learn how 
to write professional programs and 
unleash your creativity. Just supply the 
spark of genius and study this book! 

The remaining six chapters look at the 
following topics; graphics, sound, tape 
storage, disk storage, the control ports 
and major peripherals. It's in this last sec- 
tion that you may need to supplement the 
information contained in this book. It will 
not tell you how to make your Mitey Mo 

40 Issue 25 

hang up the phone, for instance, or which 
code to send to your Head Squealer -80 
printer. But if you know what your ex- 
ternal device requires in order to perform 
a specific task, West will show you how 
to get that (or anything else) out of your 

If your computer library is only going 
to contain one book, it should probably be 
this one. That's a strong recommendation 
but it is well earned. Programming the 
Commodore 6k is first class all the way 
in terms of its style, approach and the 
thoroughness of its treatment of the 64. 

Programming the Commodore 64, by 

Raeto Collin West, $19.95 (US), published 
by Compute! Boohs, P.O. Box 5038, F.D.R. 
Station, New York, New York 10150. □ 

C-128 Programmer's 
Reference Guide 

Bantam Computer Books 
744 pages, 1986 

$21.95 (US), $24.95 (Cdn.) 

Review by Miklos Garamszeghy 

Copyright © 1986 M. Garamszeghy 

The Commodore sponsored C-128 Pro- 
grammer's Reference Guide is perhaps 
the most complete piece of documenta- 
tion currently available for the 128. Its 
744 pages are divided up into 16 main 
chapters and 12 appendices. Each 
chapter is crammed with detailed infor- 
mation on how to use one or another of 
the 128's features. BASIC, machine 
language, graphics, sprites, sound and 
the 80-column video chip are all given ex- 
cellent coverage in their own chapters. 
CP/M rates both a main chapter and a 
detailed appendix. Despite the large 
amount of technical data included (detail- 
ed hardware specifications and schematic 
diagrams), the book is very easy to read 
and follow along with its numerous exam- 
ple programs. 

The list of authors includes many peo- 
ple who worked on both the hardware and 
ROM software development for the C-128 
project. Despite this impressive list, the 
book is not without its errors. While some 
of the errors in the explanations of the 
BASIC commands and control codes have 
been corrected from the original System 
Guide, others have not. 

Admittedly, the errors are minor, such 
as reversing the functions of ctrl-l and 
ctrl-k, but they can be very frustrating 

for a novice who has done everything 'by 
the book" and cannot understand why his 
or her program won't work properly. 
Now for my favourite topic: 1571 disk 
drive burst mode. This very powerful 
aspect of the 1571 is barely mentioned in 
passing. Perhaps CBM thought it was 
adequately covered in the 1571 users' 
manual. Anyone who has tried to 
decipher the explanation of burst mode 
in the 1571 manual knows better. 

On the positive side, the C-128 Pro- 
grammers Guide contains very detailed 
(for a Commodore publication) memory 
maps for all three C-128 operating modes. 
Serious ML programmers will like this 
nice touch, along with the detailed ex- 
planation of C-12S memory management 
and the new Kernal routines. Both novice 
and experienced CP/M users will find the 
chapters detailing CP/M mode (complete 
with disk format explanations, CP/M 
BIOS and BDOS routine descriptions) 
very informative and interesting. Hard- 
ware hackers will enjoy the chip specifica- 
tions and pin assignment diagrams. □ 

COMPUTE !'s 128 
Programmer's Guide 

COMPUTE! Books, 1986 
444 pages, $14.95 (US) 

Review by Miklos Garamszeghy 

Copyright © 1986 M. Garamszeghy 

The 444 pages of COMPUTER'S 128 
Programmer's Guide are divided into 7 
main chapters and 6 appendices. The in- 
formation is presented in a clear, easy to 
understand style with plenty of examples. 
In most respects it is quite similar to the 
CBM book, although with perhaps not 
quite so much detail. 

The chapter on peripherals makes an 
attempt at explaining 1571 burst mode 
operation. While the explanation of the 
hardware function itself is adequate, no 
attempt is made to explain the software 
commands used to access burst mode. In 
addition, the example machine language 
program to read a file in burst mode is 
plain wrong and will not work properly 
as listed. (It will appear to work, but you 
will not be able to read the last sector of 
the file.) In addition, the quoted read 
speed of 3840 bytes per second is a bit op- 
timistic for this type of burst mode read, 
which I have timed at more like 2200 
bytes per second. 


The COMPUTE! book does, however, 
have a few features lacking in the CBM 
book. The major one is a better section 
on CP/M machine language, including a 
complete listing of 280 machine language 
mnemonics and op codes. While 65xx ML 
codes should be reasonably familiar to 
most veteran Commodore users, the Z80 
codes used in CP/M mode probably are 
not. The description of BASIC commands 
and functions also includes one which is 
not detailed anywhere in Commodore 
literature: rreg, which is used to read the 
A, X, Y.and P registers of the 8502 pro- 
cessor after it has returned from a 
machine language routine. The CBM 
manual lists rreg as a reserved word , but 
offers no explanation as to its function. 
Perhaps the designers forgot about this 

In terms of price per kg of paper, the 
CBM guide is by far the better deal. It 
appears to be written so that it can be us- 
ed by programmers at all levels, from 
novice to advanced. While novice users 
may find some of the detail confusing, 
they will appreciate this extra detail later 
as they advance and become more 
familiar with the 128. The COMPUTE! 
guide, on the other hand, appears to be 
aimed at the novice to intermediate user 
with its more simplistic explanations and 
lower level of detail , Don't get me wrong. 
Both books are well written and extreme- 
ly informative. Every serious C-128 user 
should have at least one of them. I have 
both. D 

The black book 

of C-128 

by Robert H. Taylor 

and Dell Taylor 

Holland Publishers 
260 pages 

Review by Miklos Garamszeghy 

Copyright © 1986 M. Garamszeghy 

The 'black book' is a small, spiral-bound 
creation, not much larger than a paper- 
back novel, which is intended to be a 
quick reference tool for the C-128 and the 
1541 and 1571 disk drives. Its 260 pages 
are divided into seven colour-coded sec- 
tions, each devoted to a specific topic such 
as* C-64 mode, C-128 mode or CP/M. 

The book contains numerous summary 
tables and memory maps, as well as basic 
information on the machine and its ma- 
jor peripherals. In places it looks like a 

TPUG Magazine 41 

Reviews = 

low budget clone of The Transactor 
magazine's indispensable The Complete 
Commodore Inner Space Anthology. I say 
'low budget' because the book is not 
typeset, but was produced on an NLQ dot 
matrix printer. 

While the book is certainly a handy col- 
lection, none of the information it con- 
tains is new. In fact, most of it appears 
to be garnered from the various Com- 
modore instruction manuals, complete 
with the original errors. (I notice that the 
manuals are listed in the reference sec- 
tion, although no credit is given in the 
text.) For example, the list of C-128 con- 
trol codes on pages 86 to 88 is reprinted 
from the C-128 System Guide, Appendix 
I, including the errors. The chapter on the 
1571 drive does not even mention in pass- 
ing the most powerful aspect of the 
device: burst mode. 

While the 'black book' is a good idea in 
principle, it fails because it contains no 
more information than conies free in the 
manuals with the hardware when you buy 
it! The only semi-novel thing in the book 
is the last section, entitled 'Personal 
Data', which is approximately 30 pages 
of formatted blank spaces for you to 
record everything from equipment serial 
numbers to repair expenses to BBS 
numbers. It even includes several pages 
of suggested disk ID codes starting with 
A A and working its way up. You can tick 
off each one as you use it. Heaven forbid 
if you ever started to duplicate the ID 
codes on your disks! 

from Kamasoft 

CP/M Outline Processor 
for the C-128 

Review by Adam Herst 

There are certain types of software that 
it is almost obligatory to own. There can't 
be many computer users without at least 
one word processor, for instance, and 
database managers are nearly as 
widespread. Such programs have become 
standards because of their ability to take 
advantage of the unique abilities of the 
computer and apply them to everyday 
problem situations. With most of the 
possible refinements to these programs 
already made, it might seem that the 
potential for improvement to information 
processing techniques has been ex- 
hausted. Not so. Prepare yourself for 

what is sure to become the next required 
piece of software. 

Out-Think from Kamasoft is billed as 
an 'outline organizer' or 'thought pro- 
cessor'. Designed to facilitate the 
organization of thoughts in the writing 
process, it combines the features of a 
word processor and a database, resulting 
in a product whose abilities are greater 
than the sum of its parts. As a new con- 
cept in software, comparisons with ex- 
isting products are difficult. Consequent- 
ly this review will focus on the ideas 
behind the software and on the ability of 
Out-Think to perform as advertised. 

Out-Think comes on a single-sided, 
Osborne format disk. The package in- 
cludes two manuals: the User's Guide is 
a soft -cover book, while a separate, read- 
me-first pamphlet contains the installa- 
tion instructions. Also included are two 
command cheat -sheets summarizing the 
commands of the two possible keyboard 

The User Guide is divided into two 
parts: a tutorial section and a command 
reference. The tutorial section is ex- 
cellent. Realizing that they are dealing 
with a new concept in software, the 
authors of the manual have taken the 
time to introduce the concepts behind 
outline organization. They follow this 
with an application tuturial that illus- 
trates all the major capabilities of the pro- 
gram. The Users Guide includes an index 
for quick reference, but it is inadequate. 
Consequently it is difficult to find a 
specific piece of information when you 
need it. 

As with many new versions of CP/M 
programs, the C-128 is offered as a choice 
on the installation menu, resulting in 
quick and simple installation of Out- 
Think. The installation pamphlet recom- 
mends that you make backups of the orig- 
inal disks. This is always a good pro- 
cedure to follow, but is especially so with 
Out-Think, because the installation file 
erases itself during the course of installa- 
tion. If you don't make a backup you will 
not be able to reinstall Out-Think in the 

During installation you will have the 
choice of configuring the keyboard in two 
fashions: either a WordStar emulation or 
an Emacs emulation, whichever you are 
more comfortable with. This choice can 
be changed at any time by re-installing 

Out-Think allows you organize your 
thoughts into topics, sub-topics, sub-sub- 
topics and so on, and finally text. Out- 
Think organizes ideas into three group- 
ings. At the highest level is the topic. 
Structurally, a topic is a file on the disk. 

Underneath topics are various levels of 
sub-topics. At the bottom of the heap is 
the text leaf. The latter two exist within 
a topic disk file. While not difficult to 
grasp, this organization is cloaked in a 
unique terminology that some users 
might find confusing at first. 
Nonetheless, there is method behind the 
madness that imposes a logical order on 
the naming convention. 

Out-Think has three modes of com- 
mands corresponding to the three levels 
of organization. The primary interface is 
the topic manager, which allows 
manipulation of the overall Out-Think 
environment. Using the topic manager, 
you can manipulate and create topics in 
their entirety as well as copying and resiz- 
ing existing topics. 

At the next level down is the Topic 
Editor. This editor, as its name implies, 
allows the creation and manipulation of 
sub-topics within a topic file. In the topic 
editor you can promote or demote a sub- 
topic in importance, extract, copy and 
modify existing sub-topics into new sub- 
topics or even into new, unique topics. 
Also available are various types of 
elementary search and find commands to 
quickly locate strings embedded at any 
level of precedence. As well as the stan- 
dard text string match, the search func- 
tion also operates on a phonetic level. 
This means that a search can be suc- 
cessful even if the search string is 
misspelled or inaccurate. 

At the lowest level is the leaf editor, 
which allows the entry and manipulation 
of textual information within a topic file. 
In function, the leaf editor is similar to 
a word processor, and offers similar func- 
tions, including a full screen editor, block 
operations and formatted printer output. 
Each mode has a unique set of com- 
mands associated with it. A large number 
of commands exist for each mode. Across 
modes, the commands attempt to remain 
consistent in the operations they invoke. 
Some of the commands are single 
keystrokes, while others involve a series 
of Ctrl and esc codes. As an option is 
chosen, subsequent options are displayed 
in a status line at the bottom of the 
screen. At least one help screen is 
available in each mode by pressing 
various combinations of the esc and help 
keys. Unfortunately, these help screens 
are merely online versions of the 
distributed cheat -sheets, and do not offer 
information relevant to a specific prob- 
lem. {Interestingly, the help files are 
themselves an Out-Think topic file.) 

Once you have entered and organized 
your information in the desired format 
you can print either all or part of the 

42 issue 25 

resulting document on a printer, or write 
it to a disk file to further refine it in a 
word processor. A variety of formatting 
commands are available to control output, 
including line spacing, margin control, 
header and footer information, table of 
contents, and WordStar file output. 
Alternatively, text files can be imported 
into Out-Think and transformed into an 
outline format (branches, stems and 

You may be wondering just what you 
would do with a product like Out-Think, 
In the same way, you may once have 
wondered what you could do with a word 
processor. How indispensable has thai 
word processor become for you since 
then? Out-Think or another outline pro- 
cessor is likely to assume similar import- 
ance in your life. Even though it contains 
aspects of many popular types of pro- 
grams, Out-Think proves to be greater 
than the sum of its parts. I have used it 
for all sorts of projects. As an organizer 
for essays and articles, Out-Think 
replaces the old pen and paper outlines. 
From the outline , the text editor can be 
used to produce a more than adequate 
rough draft. The ability to organize and 
do retrieval searches lets Out-Think be 
used as a simple database. In fact, near- 
ly anything that involves organization, 
retrieval and writing can be done effec- 
tively using Out-Think. 

As with any piece of software, Out- 
Think is not without its problems. Unfor- 
tunately, most of the problems can be 
traced back to the characteristics of 
CP/M on the C-128, and are not inherent 
in the software. (This is unfortunate, 
because problems in the software can 
always be remedied, while the remedy for 
hardware problems is usually to buy a 
new computer). 

Most CP/M programs are disk inten- 
sive. This means that the program, the 
data or both are stored on disk and 
brought into the computer only when 
needed. Unfortunately, Out-Think is 
very disk intensive. While the program 
itself is memory resident, the data on 
which it operates (the topics, subtopics 
and text leafs) are all stored on disk and 
called into memory only as required. 
While the C-128/1571 combination offers 
a great improvement in speed over other 
Commodore computers, it still falls short 
of the speed that most other CP/M 
machines are capable of. Consequently, 
Out-Think operations involving disk ac- 
cess (that is, most Out-Think operations) 
can be excruciatingly slow. This is one 
program that will benefit greatly from 
the availability of a RAM disk. 

Nonetheless, even without the RAM 

disk, my recommendation for this product 
is an unqualified 'buy it!'. This is one of 
the most useful and most used programs 
I own . It has become so indespensable to 
me that it is practically the only CP/M 
program that I am using. It works as 
advertised, and I have yet to find any 
bugs. If that isn't enough to convince you 
to buy it, consider these last two points: 
Out-Think costs only $49.00 US and is 
not copy-protected. Can't this company 
do anything wrong? Q 

20 Collection 

from COMPUTE! Books 
335 pages, $12.95 (US) 

Review by Roger Burge 

According to its cover, the articles in this 
volume have not been published before. 
However, many of them have appeared, 
in one form or another, in magazines 
from the same publisher. 

Nevertheless, this is a good colection of 
material for VIC users at the beginner or 
intermediate level. Some intermediate 
users may see some of the programs as 
starting points for their own creations, 
while both groups will find the utility sec- 
tion quite useful. 

Tutorial subjects include custom 
characters, relative files and memory con- 
servation. These subjects will be ap- 
preciated by the novice and experimenter 

Utilities include screen scrolling, 
printer dumping, a micro-assembler, 
joystick decoding and a number of other 
helpful ideas. Many of them include 
machine language ..dbroutines that speed 
things up considerably compared to 
similar BASIC routines. 

While the home applications chapter is 
quite weak, the game section is not. Some 
of these games have been done better 
(and are available from TPUG under 
various titles); the others range from fair 
to excellent. Almost forty games are 

You certainly won't like all the games, 
nor will you find use for all the utilities, 
but there is enough material covered to 
please a wide group of VIC users. The 
well-printed listings will permit you to 
customize the BASIC programs, and 
some may find themselves tempted to 
fool around with the machine language 
subroutines too. 

As with most COMPUTE! books, the 

— Rev lews 

writing style is concise and easy to follow 
or learn from. Unfortunately, as with 
their magazines, some program listings 
include typographical errors that can 
drive you crazy. 

This is definitely a good purchase for 
VIC owners who enjoy learning and 
experimenting. □ 

VIC 20: Easy Guide 

To Home 


by Harold 0. Fisher 

VIC 20 

by Earl R. Savage 

both from Howard W. Sams 

$8.95 (US) each 

Review by Roger Burge 

These two books are published for the 
novice computer user. Unfortunately, 
even new VIC users may be disappointed. 

Games'n'More promises, on its back 
cover, to "expand the use of this machine 
beyond . . . what is available in prerec- 
orded programs . . . inexpensively". 

At $12.95 (Cdn.), however, this is not 
a software bargain. While the author does 
explain his programming techniques as 
promised, and while this can be helpful 
to novices, the average person will be able 
to get as much of a head start by reading 
such magazines as COMPUTE! "s Gazette. 

The games presented here are the same 
ones that have been floating through the 
public domain for years: Battleship, Tic- 
Tac-Toe, Depth Charge, and so on. Vir- 
tually any of them can be had from 
TPUG's VIC 20 library in a much more 
polished and entertaining form. Little use 
is made of the VIC's fine sound and 
graphics features, which are often what 
attracts people to a home computer. 

Easy Guide To Home Applications suf- 
fers from the same problems. More useful 
applications abound in the public domain. 
Moreover, some of the applications are 
not very useful — they can be performed 
more easily with paper and pen. Pro- 
grams like Your Child's Height and Jog- 
ger's Log do not require a personal com- 
puter's power. The applications that are 
more appropriate to a computer are sad- 
ly lacking in power compared to similar 
exercises in TPUG's own library. □ 

TPUG Magazine 43 


The Halley Project 
from Mindscape, Inc. 

Educational game 
for Commodore Amiga 

Review by Tim Grantham 

The Halley Project: A Mission In Our 

Solar System is a victory of style over 
substance. This is by no means a problem 
if the intended audience is of the right 
mental age. And Halley Project does 
have good style. 

It all starts with some very slick 
packaging — a Mission Reference Guide 
contained in a dossier marked 'Top 
Secret', a flight instructions reference 
card, a 'Simple Star Map', and a cassette 
tape containing a recording of the mission 
briefing from P.L.A.N.E.T. HQ. 

Booting the game disk, which is copy- 
protected, brings up a very impressive 
opening sequence, complete with 
animated credits a la Star Wars and a 
digitized recording of Tom Snyder, 
designer of the program, singing the 
theme song. Unfortunately, this 
auspicious beginning is not followed 
through in the program itself. While the 
graphic content is far superior to the C-64 
incarnation of Halley Project, the 
designers have not really taken advan- 
tage of the Amiga's superb graphics or 
sound capabilities. 

All ten missions begin and end at 
Halley's comet. Your objective is to com- 
plete each mission in the shortest poss- 
ible time. Each mission consists of several 
'legs': for example, one might be in- 
structed to fly first to Mercury, then to 
Titania (one of the moons of Uranus), 
then to Earth's Moon and, finally, back 
to Halley's comet. You don't find out 
where the next destination is until each 
leg is completed. Each time you land, you 
are rewarded with a view of the surface. 
These are rather well done, and are an 
indication of what could really have been 
accomplished with the graphics. They 
make one wish the designers had included 
planetary features viewable from space, 
rather than the blank coloured orbs they 
are now. Saturn doesn't even have rings, 
for heaven's sake {pun intended)! 

The entire game is played with the 
mouse — a good feature, I think, for the 
small hands of children sometimes have 
problems with joysticks. To navigate, you 
bring up the radar screen, which presents 
you with a 'bird's-eye' view of the Solar 
System. From here, you determine the 

direction and distance of the destination. 
It might be 300 million kilometres away, 
half way between the constellations 
Taurus and Aries. You then rotate the 
ship so that it is aimed between these two 
constellations in the viewport and accel- 
erate. Pressing the right mouse button 
brakes the ship when you are in the vicin- 
ity of your destination. A 'hyperwarp' 
feature is provided so that you don't grow 
old and die while travelling to Pluto! 

The mission destinations are not usual- 
ly spelled out for you. They are given in 
the form of clues — "Your destination is 
any moon larger than Titania. . ."; or 
"Your destination is any planet colder 

than Jupiter." These are sometimes 
frustratingly vague: "Any planet that is 
smaller and always colder than Earth" 
(my emphasis) should strictly speaking 
rule out Mars as a possibility — 
temperatures at the equator of Mars 
sometimes reach 85 degrees Fahrenheit. 
However, Halley Project accepts both 
Pluto and Mars as answers. Presumably, 
it is average planetary temperature that's 
intended in the clue, but this is not made 
clear, either in the program or the 
documentation. Also, alert students may 
be tripped up by the fact that Halley 
Project has Pluto as the ninth planet; it 
is, in fact, currently the eighth because 
its highly eccentric orbit actually crosses 
inside that of Neptune's. 

None of the clues is particularly 
challenging: even young children need 
only refer to a very basic astronomy book 
to solve them (as they are encouraged to 
do by the documentation). And some com- 
promises in accuracy have been made. 
The designers note that current 
microcomputer technology prevents 
displaying the stars at their correct 
magnitude (brightness); and that to 

enhance playability, all planets and moons 
have been moved to the plane of the eclip- 
tic. I don't agree with either of these deci- 
sions, as regards the Amiga version. The 
real reason, in my view, was simply that 
to include these capabilities would have 
meant spending a little more time in 
development, time that Mindscape 
perhaps felt could be better spent earn- 
ing money in release. 

Still, flying around Jupiter while dodg- 
ing the moons does give a real sense of 
the spatial relationships involved, because 
all moons and planets are moving in their 
actual orbits as the game runs. 

The music and sound effects during 
play quickly became irritating: the two 
bars of music endlessly repeated 
whenever I was within 100,000 
kilometres of a planet or moon soon lost 
its charm; and the hyperwarp warning 
sound went through my head like drill. 

Landing is the only tricky part of the 
game. Once you are within 100,000 
kilometres of your destination, you can 
receive a signal from the landing beacon. 
Once that has been detected, the 
automatic landing sequence can be com- 
menced. However, detecting the signal of 
the beacon sometimes means circling the 
heavenly body in question until it is found. 
As no attempt has been made to simulate 
the effect gravity has on the ship, you 
cannot simply place your ship in a con- 
venient orbit and wait. You must actual- 
ly 'fly' it around the planet or moon. As 
ballistic trajectories are a rather more ad- 
vanced topic than the average student 
can probably handle, this is an acceptable 

Provision is made for a number of dif- 
ferent players to store the results of their 
flights. As times improve, comparisons 
can be made between players. The times 
and positions are saved to the program 
disk, something I find a little disturbing, 
being by nature cautious. But others may 
not share my concern. 

I look forward to a second generation 
version of Halley Project — one that 
would truly exploit the Amiga's 
capabilities. I can't think of a better idea 
for an educational program than an op- 
portunity to explore the neighbouring 

For a limited time, Mindscape is 
making available a secret eleventh mis- 
sion to those who complete the ten mis- 
sions contained in Halley Project. As 
soon as I find out where Iapetus is, I'll 
be on my way. 

The Halley Project: A Mission In Our 
Solar System, $49. H (Cdn.) from Mind- 
scape, Inc., SJM Dundee Rd., Northbrook, 
Illinois 60062. D 

44 Issue 25 

Carriers At War 
from Strategic 

Studies Group 

Nava! combat simulation 
for Commodore 64 

Review by Dave Dempster 

World War II, at sea, in the Pacific — the 
mix of sea room, limited (and suspect) tac- 
tical intelligence, and fast concentration 
against parts of the enemy's fleet — has 
all the elements to produce an exciting 
and interesting game. Two Australian 
gentlemen, Roger Keating and Ian Trout, 
have addressed this challenge in Carriers 
At War, a Strategic Studies Group 
simulation, and it's a beaut! 

The game offers several scenarios from 
Pearl Harbour to the Philippine Cam- 
paign, It is playable both against the com- 
puter (your best option) and against 
another player (though you are not allow- 
ed to peek when the other player is work- 
ing on a move). It also offers the intrigu- 
ing option of the computer playing 
against itself, and even lets you choose 
to control the forces at sea while the com- 
puter handles your land based air forces 
or other fleets. 

The extensive menu system is layered 
four deep. It is logically organized going 
from general to specific and, though it 
looks formidable, works astonishingly 
well. You can step to any menu that your 
command status permits you to access, 
and input commands for Task Group or 
strike/ready commands to aircraft 
squadrons. You can also receive in- 
telligence reports, weather information, 
Task Force status and even individual 
ship/squadron status. 

Once you have given orders and 
garnered information, you sit back and 
watch the action unfold on a large-scale 
strategic map showing, naturally, only 
your units or spotted enemy units. An 
hour passes in about 15 seconds in the 
game (the game clock shows 10 sec inter- 
vals) and the game can be interrupted for 
input at any time. The game will 
automatically stop if a significant action 
occurs (such as spotting an enemy unit or 
being spotted by one). The game becomes 
particularly interesting when you hear 
the sound of aircraft launching yet 
nothing shows on the screen. Raids don't 
show until the radar of your units would 
have spotted them. 

The sounds in the game consist of 
strange 'plunks' and 'whees' that do 

become useful once you understand what 
they signify. The graphics are serviceable 
and the menu displays are well done. The 
dots showing the centres of each hex on 
the large scale map are useful for plann- 
ing (the tactical display shows hexes 20 
miles across). The manuals are explicit, 
complete and concise. 

One feature of Carriers At War that 
places it head and shoulders above any 
other game I have seen is the built-in 
capability to modify scenarios, or to 
create your own. In fact, the data is 
presented for a complete extra game call- 
ed 'Raid on Ceylon', along with detailed 
directions on how to build the game. This 
procedure is not for the faint-hearted; it 
involves considerable time on the 
keyboard. Many details of ship and air- 
craft performance, morale, equipments, 
technical specifications, and even 
weather must be specified. The capabili- 
ty of modifying available scenarios per- 
mits you to play Pearl Harbour with an 
aroused USN or, more interestingly, 
design four variants on a game such as 
Coral Sea, then have someone else pick 
the scenario so you're unaware of the size 
of the opposition. The game designer's kit 
is , by itself, worth the price of the game . 

Carriers At War is a joy to play 
because it calls on you to make the big 
decisions but automatically handles 
routine and tedious tasks such as turning 
into the wind to launch aircraft, launching 
CAP during daylight hours, and verify- 
ing that the aircraft you launch are within 
range of their targets. You designate 
search quadrants for fleets or bases 
reconnaissance capability, and the 
quadrants are searched in accordance 
with the skill and number of aircraft 
available. The result is that Carriers At 
War plays fairly fast. I also found that 
the design encouraged me to think in 
broad strategic terms by relieving me of 
the need to worry about distracting 

What didn't I like about Carriers At 
War? The time required to access the disk 
between game modes can be mildly an- 
noying, though the fault lies more with 
the 1541 disk drive than the game itself. 
Also, you must reboot to switch between 
Create mode and Game mode. My copy 
occasionally erashed in the middle of the 
Create routine, which is very disconcer- 
ting. The authors say to save a develop- 
ing game frequently — good advice. 

I rate Carriers At War as among the 
best of the new type of simultaneous, 
limited-intelligence games. It's excep- 
tional. My answer to the decisive ques- 
tion — "Now that you know it, would you 
still buy it?" - is a loud 'Yes!' □ 

Missing Letter Puzzle 

1) Insert your COMAL diak in drive*. 

2) Type LOAD "C64 COMAL*",8 

3) Type RUN (startis COMAL) 

4) Type AUTO (turn on auto line#'s) 

5) Enter the program lineB shown below 

(COMAL indents lineB for you) 

6) Hit RETURN key twice when done 

7) Type RUN 

Pr-gr-mm-r's P-r-d-s- P-ck-g- 
Programmer's Par? 

0010 dim text* of 39, disk$ of 2 

0020 open file 2,"missing.dat",read 

0030 disk$:=status*; count:=0 

0040 if disk*="00" then 

0050 count'text 

0060 else 

0070 close // no data file found 

0080 ere ate 'text 

0090 endif 

0100 play'game 

OHO // 

0120 proc count'text 

0130 while not eof(2) do 

0140 read file 2: text$ 

0150 count:+l 

0160 endwhile 

0170 close 

0180 endproc count'text 

0190 // 

0200 proc create'text 

0210 open file 2, "missing.dat" .write 

0220 print "input text (or blank):" 

0230 repeat 

0240 input text* 

02EO if text*>"" then 

0260 write file 2: text J 

0270 count:+l 

0280 endif 

0290 until 16x1$="" 

0300 close 

0310 endproc create'text 

0320 // 

0330 proc play'game 

0340 open file 2,"missing.dat",read 

0350 for x:=l to rnd(l,count) do 

0360 read file 2: text* 

0370 endfor x 

0380 close 

0390 for lettert=l to len(textj) do 

0400 if text*(letter) in "aeiou" then 

0410 print"-", 

0420 else 

0430 print textj(letter), 

0440 endif 

0450 endfor letter 

0460 print 

0470 for Jetter:=l to len(textt) do 

0480 while key*Otext*(letter) do 

0490 print "?"+chr*{157), //left 

0500 endwhile 

0510 print texti(letter), 

0520 endfor letter 

0530 endproc play'game 

* If you don't have COMAL yet, order a 
Programmer's Paradise Package -*19,95. 
It includes the complete COMAL Bystem 
plus over 400 pages of information. Add 
$5 more to get our 20 interactive lesson 
Tutorial Disk. Add *2 shipping, Visa/MC 
or US funds check accepted. Send to: 

COMAL Users Group USA 

6041 Monona Drive, Room 109 
Madison, WI 53716 
phone 608-222-4432 

TPUG Magazine 45 

Products Received 

Presented by Astrid Kumas 

The following products have been received 
by TPUG Magazine in recent weeks. 
Please note that -these descriptions are 
based on the manufacturers' own 
announcements, and are not the result of 
evaluation by TPUG Magazine. 

Kermit's Story Maker 

Hermit's Electronic Story Maker, from 
Simon & Shuster, Inc., 1230 Avenue of 
the Americas, New York, New York 
10020. Price $39.95 (US). 

Kermit's Story Maker for the C-64 is in- 
troduced to prospective buyers as "a spin- 
a-word writing kit for beginning readers 
ages four and older". This description 
could be considered misleading by those 
parents whose main concern is to develop 
their chidren's writing skills. Kermit's 
Story Maker does not involve children in 
actual writing: they create their one- 
sentence stories through the use of a 
joystick. What the program does do is 
provide an opportunity to develop a sight- 
reading vocabulary. As fast as children 
can place a word on the screen with their 
joystick, they will see it illustrated. The 
designers of the program use all of the 
capabilities of the computer — colour, 
sound and animation — to make the 
learning experience both enjoyable and 

In Kermit's Electronic Story Maker 
the computer screen represents a blank 
page with a set of white lines at the top 
for words. A young player puts together 
a sentence by moving the cursor up to 
these lines and pressing the joystick but- 
ton to spin through a selection of words. 
As sentences are built, the main 
character, the action and the location are 
determined. At the same time, a picture 
appears in the lower half of the screen: 
it changes as the author selects new 
words to fill the blank lines. Sound effects 
change too. Each location has its own 
special music — very well done indeed! 

While going through the pages of their 
stories, children encounter different 
sentence structures. They are limited in 
number, and after a while may become 
too repetitive. However, before that hap- 
pens, children will spend some time ex- 
perimenting with different combinations 
of words and, undoubtedly, acquire some 
useful language skills. 

The program allows children to flip 
backward and forward through the pages 
of their stories, save them onto a separate 
disk, read them later page by page and 
erase them if they do not seem in- 
teresting any more. 

Keyboard Cadet 

Keyboard Cadet from Mindscape Inc., 
3444 Dundee Road, Northbrook, Illinois 
60062. Price: $39.95 (US). 

Keyboard Cadet is a self -paced typing 
course for Commodore 64 users. The pro- 
gram teaches touch-typing on both 
QWERTY (standard) and Dvorak 
keyboards. Designed as an arcade -style 
game, Keyboard Cadet is easy enough 
for young children to master. However, 
it will also appeal to teenagers and ex- 
perienced typists, who should find the 
three levels of difficulty quite challenging. 

White on the space mission, the user 
undergoes the Basic Cadet Training Pro- 
gram. The goal is to learn to operate the 
control panel (computer keyboard) in 
order to navigate and protect one's 
spacecraft succesfully. The training pro- 
gram consists of fifteen lessons. The first 
twelve lessons follow a similar pattern: 
each lesson begins with practice at typ- 
ing letters (and/or numbers and symbols), 
then moves on to two-letter combinations 
and finally words. In Lesson 13 users 
type words; in Lesson 14 the focus is on 
sentences; and in Lesson 15, paragraphs. 
At the end of Lesson 15, the program 
displays a words-per-minute rate. 

An important feature of the Keyboard 
Cadet is that it teaches proper hand posi- 
tioning. During the first thirteen lessons, 
a picture of the keyboard and a pair of 
hands showing correct finger position is 
displayed on the screen. As each letter, 
number or symbol is displayed, the hands 
move to show the proper finger reaches, 
and the correct key is highlighted on the 
picture of the keyboard . 

The Keyboard Cadet package contains 
a program disk, a back-up disk, a 
Reference Card, a user's guide and the 
teacher's manual. 


Aprospand-64 from Aprotek, 1071-A 
Avenida Acaso, Camarillo, California 
93010, (805) 482-3604. Price: $29.95 (US). 
Insured shipping to Canada is $6.00. 

Aprospand-64 is a four -slot expander for 
the Commodore 64, Plus/4 and Com- 

modore 128. It allows the user to install 
up to four cartridges and use them in- 
dependently or in any combination 
allowed by the function of each cartridge. 
Aprospand-64 has a push-button reset 
switch, allowing a restart without having 
to power the computer off then back on . 
Also, the computer's power line to the 
cartridges is fused to protect the com- 
puter from faulty cartridges. The product 
carries a full-year parts and labour 
warranty . 

Saver Switch 

Saver Switch from Value-Soft Inc., 9513 
S.W. Barbur Bid., Dept. 56, Portland, 
Oregon 97219, (503) 246-0924. Price: 
$29.95 (US). Add $2.00 (US) for shipping 
to Canada. 

Serial Switch is a serial junction box 
with two inputs and one output, allowing 
manually selectable input from two 
sources (although only one source may be 
on line at a time). About the size of a pack 
of cigarettes, the box can be placed 
anywhere in the daisy chain. 




: OfT}p] 


FEATURES include display □( B or 16 lemperflturfl 
channels, range of ■15'°F to *1BD°F at approx. 1 
degree resolution, electronic interface plug* directly 
into the joystick port, rt/oather-prOtected rtn*Oi*. 
menu-driven software capable of 1 1 1 label mg sensor 
location* 121 selecting high or tow alarm set points 
|3) hardcopy printouts (4) selection of data sample 
time intervals lor all channels (15 seconds to 4 hours) 
{5) recording temperature data la disk (optional). 

VERSION 1.0 B Channel , . S99.9& 

Include* 2 sensors, software. tHetiroriic interface, 
and hard cooy 

VERSION 2.0 8 Channel 5119.95 

Includes 2 sensors, so'tv-are, electronic interface, 
hard copy, and dale storage to and from disk 

VERSION 3.0 iBChannel S179.95 

Includes 4 sensors, software, electronic interface, 
hard copy, and data storage to and from disk 
Additional seniors (Eechl 55.75 

Applied Technologies, Inc. 

Lyndon Way, Kittery. ME 03904 
M/C - V ISA accepted (207) 439-5074 

U.S. Dept. of Enircy Award for Energy Innovation. 

(Dealer & Distributor Inquiries Invited 

46 Issue 25 

Bulletin Board 

New Products on Quantum Link 

Robert Baker of Baker Enterprises has announced the crea- 
tion of a new feature that he is managing on the Quantum 
Link telecommunications network. This new area was 
specifically set up for companies to announce information 
on their products for any Commodore computer system. 
Manufacturers can now communicate directly with Com- 
modore users and provide them with up-to-date information 
about their latest products. 

If you have access to Quantum Link, you can post your 
own product description in the special message board pro- 
vided. Otherwise, your printed new-product announcements 
and foliow-up information can be mailed to Robert W. Baker, 
15 Windsor Drive, Atco, New Jersey 08004. Ail material will 
typically be posted on the system within 48 hours after it 
is received. If you would like to send your information in earfy 
but delay the announcement until a specific date, please 
be sure your request is clearly documented. 

The New Product Information message board is located 
in the Meet the Press section of the Commodore Informa- 
tion Network. Just look fa Robert Baker in the Meet the Press 
menu. Quantum Link is planning to create a new expand- 
ed section specifically for New Product Information later this 
summer. This information will then be categorized for easy 
access as more companies participate and the amount of 
information begins to grow. 

Greater Omaha Commodore Users Group 

The Greater Omaha Commodore Users Group, the 

largest Commodore users group in its region, has recently 
moved to another location. The new address is: The Greater 
Omaha Commodore Users Group, P.O. Box 241155, 
Omaha, Nebraska 68124. 

1 986 Midwest Commodore 

The 1986 Midwest Commodore Conference is to be held 
on August 9th and 10th at the Holiday Inn Convention 
Center, 72nd and Grover in Omaha. There will be over thir- 
ty workshops and both local and national vendor support. 
Speakers include: 

• Jim Butterf ield, Mr. Commodore from Toronto, Ontario, 

• Dr. Richard Immers, author of Inside Commodore DOS, 
Detroit, Michigan. 

•Valerie Kremmer, computer language expert, Los 
Angeles, California, 

• Dr. James Alley, art professor {Amiga), Savannah Col- 
lege of Arts and Design, Savannah, Georgia, 

• Pete Baczor, Commodore Users Group Coordinator. 


This space is for the ads of TPUG members. Wanted 
or for sale items only. Cost is 25 cents per word. No 
dealer ads accepted. 

$100.00 or Best Offer. 4-year 4032 with Datasette. War- 
ren Davies. 484-0707. 



I mmnMimmr >■■■■■■ 


The 1985 Canadian 
World of Commodore show was 
the largest and best attended show 
in Commodore International's 
history. Larger than any other 
Commodore show in the World 
and this year's show will be 
even larger. 

World of Commodore is 
designed specifically to appeal 
to the interests and needs of 
present and potential Commodore 

Everything about your 
present or future Commodore 
computer— from hardware to 
software, Business to Personal 
to Educational. Price of 
admission includes free 
seminars, clinics, 
contests and free 

TPUG Magazine 47 

Applied Technologies 
Brantford Educational Services 
COMAL Users Group. USA 
Computer Rentals • 

John Dunlop & Associates 
Eiectronics 2001 
The Guide 
Kobetek Systems Ltd. 
Lattice. Inc. 
Magazine Back Issues 
Midntte Software Gazette 
North Ohio Firmware 

Rainbow Electronics 
Rich-Hill Telecom International 
TPUG (Disk Subscriptions) 
TPUG (Conference) 
The Transactor 
Wilanta Arts 





















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Donald Duck's Playground 

CES Software Showcase A ward Win- 
ner! — Disney animation at its best! 
Children play four games to "earn" 
money to buy playground equip- 
ment. Builds money handling skills. 
Superb graphics. A bestseller! $39.95 
retail value. 

3808 S.E. Licyntra Ct. 
Portland, OR 97222 

Winnie The Pooh 
In The Hundred Acre Wood 

— Players explore the Hundred Acre 
Wood to find lost articles like Ow'ls 
books, Pooh's honey pot and 
Eeyore's tail, and return them to 
their rightful owners. Cheery music 
from the Disney movie caps off this 
computer rendition of the beloved 
classic. $39.95 retail value. 

Omiterm Terminal Program 

— Written by 'JL ^/mi i own Bob 
Richardson. Fully supports the new 
1 660 Modem 300! (The ONL Y com- 
mercial terminal package that cur- 
rently fully supports the 1660!!! 

•Modem controls accessible from the keyboard 
*Punlcr prolocol — upload & download — 
300/1200 baud 

"Ten programmable function keys 
•15 number phone direclory 
•20k receive buffer 
•Tone or pulse dialing 
•Auto dial/rc'dial 
•Half/full duplex 

A $19.95 retail value. 

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Software designed for AMIGA. 

Lattice C Compiler $14995 

With more than 30,000 users worldwide, Lattice C Compilers 
.set the industry standard for MS-DOS .software development. 
Lattice C gives you all you need for development of programs 
on the AMIGA. Lattice C is a full implementation of Kernighan 
and Ritchie with the ANSI C extensions and many addiiional 

AMIGA C Cross Compiler $250.00 

Allows AMIGA development on your MS-DOS system. Price 

includes the ahove product 

Lattice Screen Editor (LSE T ") $100. 00 

Designed as a programmer's editor, Lattice Screen Editor (LSE) 
is fast, flexible and easy to learn. ISF.'s multi-window environ 
mem provides all the editor functions you need including block 
moves, pattern searches and "cut and paste." In addition. ISE 
offers special features for programmers such as an error track- 
ing mode and three Assembly Language input modes. You can 
also create macros or customize keystrokes, menus, and prompts 
to your style and preferences. 

Lattice dBC III Library 1 " $150. 00 

The dBC ill library lets you create, access and update files that 
are compatible with Ashlon-Tate's dliASK system. dBC Ill's C 
functions let you extend existing dBASE applications or allow 
your users to process their data using dBC til or dBASE III. 

Lattice Make Utility (LMK') $125. 00 

An automated product generation utility compatible with UNIX 
Make, Lattice Make Utility (LMK) lets you rebuild complex pro- 
grams with a single command. Once you specify the relation- 
ships of the various pieces of your system in a dependency file, 
I.MK automatically rebuilds your system the same way every 
time, and only compiles program files that have changed. But 
LMK is not limited to updating programs. You can use LMK to 
update documentation or perform any executable command! 

lattice Text Utilities 7 " $75-00 

lattice Text Utilities (LTU) consists of eight software tools to help 
you manage your text files. GREP searches files for the speci- 
fied pattern. DIFF compares two files and lists their differ- 
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the current directory. BUILD creates batch files from a previ- 
ously generated file name list. WC displays the number of 
characters and optionally (he checksum of a specified file. ED 
is a line editor which can utilize output from other LTU soft- 
ware in an automated batch mode. SPLAT searches files for a 
specified character string and replaces every occurrence with 
a specified string. And FILES lists, copies, erases or removes Files 
or entire directory structures which meet the specified 

Lattice Unicalc" 1 Spreadsheet 


Unicalc is a simple-to-operate program that turns your AMIGA 
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Unicalc offers the versatility you've come to expect from busi- 
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the AMIGA. 

« 8192 row by 256 column processing area ■ Comprehensive 
context-sensitive help screens • Cells can contain numeric, 
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and conditional functions • Dual window capabilities • Float- 
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and print capabilities • Unique customization capability for your 
every application • Full compatibility with other leading 

Lattice MacLibrary ™ $100.00 

The Lattice MacLibrary" is a collection of more than sixty C 
functions which allow you to quickly and efficiently take 
advantage of the powerful capabilities of the AMIGA. 
Even if your knowledge of the AMIGA is limited, MacLibrary 
can ease your |ob of implementing screens, windows and 
gadgets by utilizing the functions, examples and sample pro- 
grants included with the package. 

Other MacLibrary routines are functionally compatible with the 
most widely used Apple" Macintosh'" Quickdraw Routines'", 
Standard File Package and Toolbox Utility Routines enabling 
vou to rapidly convert your Macintosh programs to run on 
the AMIGA. 

Panel™ $195.00 

Pani'/ivill help you write your screen programs and layer your 
screen designs with up to ten overlapping images. Panel's screen 
layouts can be assigned to individual windows and may be 
dynamically loaded from files or compiled Into a program. Panel 
will output C source for including in your applications. A mon- 
itor and keyboard utility is also included to allow you to cus- 
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With Lattice products yi>u get Lattice Service including telephone sup- 
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Lack guarantee. Corporate license agreements available. 


Lattice. Incorporated 

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