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SYNTAX 

A PUBLICATION OF THE HARVARD 



VOL.5 NO.IO 


ISSN 0273-2696 


OCT. 1984 


IN THIS ISSUE 


SINCLAIR CONSIDERS SELLING SPECTRUM+ IN 


US 


8K Programs 

Towers of Hanoi.12 

TS2068 Programs 
Towers of Hanoi.12 


Book Reviews 
Practical Guide to 
Machine Language 
Programming on the 


Timex/Sinclair.8 

Key Finder Card.10 

Classified Ads.20 

News.1 

New Products and 
Services.2 

RAND USR 8 39/7.2 

Software Articles 2068 
ROM Atlas Spectrum to 

TS2 068.3 

VAL$ on 2 06 8.10 

Syntax Errors.2 

Index of Advertisers 

TS Horizons.14 

The Harvard Group/Syntax 

Books.13 

Connector.8 

DeadSoft tm.19 

Mindware.4,8,15 

Sinclair.10 

Sof tSync.6,13,17 


UK sales of the Spectrum with a QL keyboard, 
began upon its announcement. According to 
Nigel Searle, Managing Director, ZX Spectrum+ 
"consolidates & enhances our long-established 
position as market leader in the UK, where 
over 1 million Spectrums have been sold. 

With significant production volumes available 
immediately, this new computer will make a 
major impact world-wide in the 1984 Christmas 
market and beyond." 

Spectrum-r offers full compatibility with 
existing Spectrum software and peripherals. 
Seventeen additional keys plus a space bar 
let many operations be performed with a 
single keystroke. Besides the real keyboard. 
You also get a reset button to clear the 
computer without unplugging the power. 

With the ZX Expansion System, you end up 
with a microdrive, RS-232, and LAN. 

Sinclair informs SYNTAX that they are 
considering selling Spectrum+ in the US. UK 
pricing is L180 with Tasword 2, VU-3D and 
four games. Interface I comes with 4 Micro¬ 
drive cartridges containing a database 
manager, utilities and other programs at a 
cost of £99 in the UK. 

To encourage Sinclair to sell this 
machine here, write to Sinclair Research, 
Ltd., 50 Staniford St. Boston, MA 02114. 

SINCLAIR DEVELOPS 1-MBYTE MEMORY WAFER 

According to reports in EE Times, Sinclair 
Radionics has developed wafer-scale, serial- 
access memory with battery backup using a 12- 
year-old technique to connect low-power NMOS 
dynamic RAM cells in a redundant logic struc¬ 
ture. Sinclair Radionics plans to bring 
these to market during 1985. Plans call for 
a 4-in square, 1-in thick, 1 Megabyte memory 
with battery backup. EE Times suggests that 
the price could be as low as $25 0—competing 
strongly with conventional disks. 


1 

































SYNTAX ERRORS: RAND USR 8 39 will 
not function as we said. To LOAD 
without autorun, select FAST mode 
and use RAND USR 837 instead. 
LOADing stops with report C/0 and 
you then LIST or SAVE the program. 
Thanks to H. K. Olsen of Prince 
George, BC for the correct method. 

NEW PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 

$CRYPTIC GOLD$ combines a 2K BASIC 
program, a gameboard, answer data, 
a program listing and a tape on 
which to save your program. This 
trivia game generates the next 
question from the correct answer to 
the previous one—but wrong answers 
garble the following question. Tex 
Micro plans tournaments with cash 
prizes around major holidays, with 
"GO" codes published in a national 
daily newspaper. Between contests, 
use the question generator to make 
your own puzzles. About $30, from 
Tex Micro Inc. 3700 S. Hopkins, 
Titusville FL 32780. 305/631-1715. 

Want to understand the Fifth Gener¬ 
ation babble you hear in computer 
circles? Looking for a layman's 
introduction to Artificial Intell¬ 
igence? Could PROLOG be someone's 
epilogue? Try THE FIFTH GENERATION 
Artificial Intelligence and Japan's 
Com puter Challenge to the W orld. 
ISBN 0-451-13153-3 $3.95 US $4.95 
in Canada. 

ZX-CALC accounting model comprises 
a set of templates to prepare ten 
fundamental financial reports for 
sole proprietorships. Available on 
ZX-CALC cassette with built-in 
templates for $19.95, or a printout 
from which you enter the templates 
to your copy of ZX-CALC and save 
the resulting program—$8.00. Add 
$1.50 S&H per item. Use with ZX/TS 
with 32K RAM. From AFR Software, 
1605 Pennsylvania Av, #204, Miami 
Beach, FL 33139 305/531-6464 

Budget Robotics & Computing 
purchased the rights to make and 


sell the Computer Continuum 
Buffered Buss Development Board. 
Bare board with documentation and 
parts list, $40 PPD. Works with 
all ZX/TS including ZX80. 

RX81 boards also available for 
use with Buffered Buss Board or to 
plug direct to ZX/TS or 2068. Get 
8 I/O's per board, can use several 
Bare board plus documentation: $10 
PPD. Budget Robotics & Computing, 
Box 18616, Tucson, AZ 85731. 

Graphics Tablet for 2068 consists 
of a tablet by Koala Technologies, 
ZebraPainter Cassette software, and 
the Zebra Graphics Interface. Lets 
you draw hi-res pictures into your 
2068 in extended color mode. All 
hardware and software plus manual 
$119.95 From Zebra Systems, Inc., 
78-06 Jamaica Av., Woodhaven, NY 
11421 718/296-2385. 

Centronics cable with 16K printer 
buffer for only $119.95 plugs 
between printer and interface to 
give the effect of a very high¬ 
speed printer. Digital Devices 
Corp., 4 30 Tenth St., Suite N2 05 , 
Atlanta, GA 30318. 800/554-4898 

(in GA, 4 04/872-4430) 

Writer's Digest Books offers its 
new edition— 1985 Progra mm er's M ar¬ 
ket —edited by Brad McGehee. We 
checked, and find 17 listings for 
Timex-Sinclair software markets. 

If you also write for some other 
machines, you'll find a total of 
700 markets here, plus articles and 
guides to the freelance business. 
$16.95 + $1.50 S&H. Writer's Digest 
9933 Alliance Rd, Cincinnati, OH 
45242. CC orders call 800/543-4644 

Monitor tuners let you use TV 
signals on your monitor. Connect 
several computers on different 
channels to a single monitor, or 
take a break and watch the news. 
Model MT/1 offers 60 channels with 
remote control ($200) while model 
MT/2 tunes manually on all VHF/UHF 
channels ($100). Available in many 


2 





computer stores. Illustrated 
literature from CARDCO, INC., 300 
S. Topeka, Wichita, KS 67202. 

Oddball Soft w are t m M agazine will 
publish programs of use to limited 
audiences. It solicits submissions 
of software for any computer, and 
subscriptions. MC/VISA $15/6 iss. 
Meninges Publishing, POB 1385, 
Pittsfield, MA 01202. 

Interface Designs stopped selling 
HS-1 interfaces for TS1000'S, but 
is developing 2068 products. 

The Canadian Copy Store is alleged 
to be at it again—now with pirate 
copies of UPLOAD. (The 2068 loader 
commissioned by SYNTAX (Dec.83) as 
FIRSTLOADER by David Ornstein, & 
sold legally on tape (in 40 84) as 
UPLOAD by E-Z Key, Zebra Systems, 
Ramex Inti., & E. Arthur Brown.) 

COMPARATIVE ROM ATLAS: 

FROM ZX SPECTRUM TO 2068 

To convert SPECTRUM software 
to the 2068, you need the location 
and function of ROM routines in 
each. You can buy the annotated 
ROM disassembly from Melbourne 
House or Zebra Systems. Timex 
sells the 2068 technical manual. 

Our cross-index links the two ROMs. 

This atlas lists routines in 
order of their hex address in the 
SPECTRUM ROM and provides the hex 
address for the corresponding 2068 
routine. Labels and names for the 
SPECTRUM routines come from The 
Complete Spectrum ROM Disassembly 
by Ian Logan and Frank O'Hara. All 
labels and names for 2068 functions 
come from Corcoran and Branigin's 
Timex 2068 Technical Manual . 

To disassemble the TS2068 Home 
ROM and 8K Extension ROM (EXROM), 
you will need a program like HOT Z 
(Reviewed in SYNTAX May 84). HOT Z 
has a large names file which you 
can load along with the program to 


provide subroutine names and some 
labels for the disassembly. HOT Z 
self-starts in disassembly mode, to 
display the Home ROM from 0000h. 

In order to disassemble or use 
EXROM routines, you must enable the 
bank-switching logic, perform the 
desired task, then de-activate the 
EXROM. The 8K EXROM overlays the 
first 8K chunk of the 16K Home ROM. 

To illustrate, the following 
code copies EXROM to RAM at 8 000h, 
from which you can disassemble or 
display it. 

DI 

LD A,01 
OUT (F4),A 
IN A,(FF) 

SET 7,A 
OUT (FF) ,A 
LD HL,0000 
LD DE,8000 

Headscan (SYNTAX Sep.84) MC is 
an example of EXROM use. If you 
want to change the header storage 
location in RAM, change LD IX,FA3C 
to , say, LD IX,8000. 

Finally, a note concerning the 
cassette routines of the 2068. All 
are located in the EXROM, but use 
subroutines and RST's in the Home 
ROM. When a call to the Home ROM 
or RST occurs, bank switching must 
take place. This adds code to the 
SPECTRUM documented by Logan. 

Corresponding to every CALL or 
RST in SPECTRUM cassette routines, 
you find, in the TS2068 EXROM, a 
23-byte code segment which starts 
with PUSH IX and ends with POP IX. 
This code preserves and sets up 
registers and calls the service 
routine at 0F99h in the EXROM. The 
service routine transfers the calls 
to the bank switching code in 2 068 
RAM, which in turn completes the 
call to the Home ROM. 

N. A. Pashtoon, Port Jefferson, NY 


uD ^ r AY)\0V) 

LDIR 

XOR A 

OUT (FF),A 
OUT (F4),A 
El 
RET 


3 





Closeout of old stock—NOT QUICKLOAD—tapes unlabeled, manuals photo¬ 
copied. Originally priced from $10-40. $8 ea, $21/3, $25/5 PPD. 

GULP Run for your life, pursued by the hungry ogre. I 


Everybody’s favorite game of maze pursuit and counterpur¬ 
suit. Try to escape from the relentless ogre through five dif¬ 
ferent maze formats. At the same time, accumulate points 
as you gulp everything in your path. 

The more you gulp the angrier your pursuer gets and the 
faster he chases you. Nine game speeds and nine levels of 
difficulty let you set the pace, from moderate to frantic! 
Quick reflexes are a must! Caution though, highly addictive. 
Hardware requirement — 16K. 

SPACE INTRUDERS Play the world famous arcade game! 

The intruders are coming! 40 alien ships in each squadron! 
You must defend your position with the three laser guns 
under your command. There’s no time to rest. After you 
defeat one squadron, another will follow, just as determined 
to land. 

Four bases protect you, but disintegrate under the constant 
bombardment of the intruders. Action speeds up as the 
game progresses. The full score is displayed on the screen. 
For a change of pace, you can set the automatic option and 
watch the machine play itself. Hardware requirement — 
16K. 




STOCK MARKET Are you a bull or a bear? Find out in a 
continually fluctuating market with up to four players. You 
could make a bundle or lose your shirt! 

The ZX81 stock market is no place for the faint-hearted. 
Prices of shares change continuously and randomly, and 
you have only a short time to decide whether to buy, sell, or 
pass. 

“Buy low and sell high” is the object, but don’t let the value 
of your portfolio drop to zero. You’re out of luck — and out 
of the game — once you’ve lost your “stake.” Fast, enter¬ 
taining, educational, and enlightening. Hardware require¬ 
ment — 16K. 



TEXT EDITOR A sophisticated word processor for an 
unbeatable price! The program includes a text editor and a 
formatter/printer. Unlike some word processors, training 
time on TEXT is minimal; an inexperienced operator can be 
producing perfect documents in no time at all. 

The speed and convenience of on-screen editing and for¬ 
mat planning is yours with TEXT. Lets you rewrite copy, cor¬ 
rect errors, check spelling, change numbers — make it 
perfect — before you print your document. The format¬ 
ter/printer justifies it and formats according to commands. 
Hardware requirement — 16K. 

STATISTICS Tired of doing math by hand? Here are three 
programs for computing statistics rapidly and accurately. 

There are three programs on the cassette. Program 1 has 
three parts: (1) Statistics — Calculates the current mean 
and the standard deviation after each value is entered. (2) 
Regression — calculates the current mean and the stan¬ 
dard deviation of the X and Y values and the intercept and 
slope of the regression line. (3) Trend — calculates the cur¬ 
rent mean and standard deviation of the X and Y values and 
the intercept and slope trend lines. Program 2 enables you 
to perform a Chi Squared Text, and Program 3, Graphs plot, 
plots a graph of data entered from the keyboard. Hardware 
requirement — IK. 





ORDER FROM SYNTAX 


ORDER FROM SYNTAX 





























© 1984 


SPECTRUM 

TS 

2068 

SPECTRUM 

TS 

2068 

LABEL, 

ROM 

ROM 

LABEL, 

LABEL, 

ROM 

ROM 

LABEL, 

NAME 

Addr 

Addr 

NAME 

NAME 

Addr 

Addr 

NAME 

START 

OOOO 

0000 

PLUGIN 

CL-ATR 

0E89 

09C3 


ERROR-1 

0008 

0008 


CL-ADDR 

0E9B 

09D6 


PRINT-A-l 

0010 

0010 

WRCH 

COPY 

OEAC 

0A02 

K-DUMP 

GET-CHAR 

0018 

0018 


COPY-BUFF 

OECD 

0A2 3 

DUMPPR 

NEXT-CHAR 

0020 

0020 


CLEAR-PRB 

OEDF 

0A3 5 

CLPR 

FP-CALC 

0028 

0028 


COPY-LINE 

0EF4 

0A4A 

PRSCAN 

BC-SPACES 

0030 

0030 


EDITOR 

OF 2C 

0A82 

EDIT-K 

MASK-INT 

0038 

0030 


ADD-CHAR 

0F81 

0AE7 

INSA 


004F 

004F 

PHLAF 

ED-EDIT 

0FA9 

OBI 2 


ERROR-2 

0053 

0053 


ED-DOWN 

OFF 3 

OB 5 9 


ERROR-3 

0055 

0055 

LE 3 

ED-LEFT 

1007 

0B6B 


RESET 

0066 

0066 


ED-RIGHT 

100C 

0B73 


NO-RESET 

0070 

0070 


ED-DELETE 

1015 

0B7B 

DELSYM 

CH-ADD+1 

0074 

0074 

NEXTCH 

ED-ENTER 

1024 

0B8 A 


TEMP-PTR1 

0077 

0077 

NC-HL 

ED-EDGE 

1031 

0B97 


TEMP-PTR2 

0078 

0078 

TC-HL 

ED-UP 

1059 

OBBF 


SKIP-OVER 

007D 

007D 


ED-SYMBOL 

1076 

OBDC 


TOKENS 

0095 

0098 

TOKENS 

ED-ERROR 

107F 

0BE9 


KEYTBL 

0227 

0245 


CLEAR-SP 

1097 

OBFE 

DEL-K 

KEY-SCAN 

028E 

02B0 

K-SCAN 

KEY-INPUT 

10A8 

OCOE 

IN - K 

KEYBOARD 

02BF 

02E1 

UPD-K 

ED-COPY 

HID 

0C83 

ECHO 

K-REPEAT 

0310 

0336 


1 REMOVE-FP 

11A7 

ODOD 

DESLUG 

K-TEST 

031E 

035C 

K-BASE 

NEW 

11B7 

0D1D 

K-NEW 

K-DECODE 

0333 

0371 

CHCODE 

START/NEW 

11CB 

0D31 

IN IT 

BEEPER 

03B5 

03F 3 

PARP 

RAM-SET 

1219 

0D7F 

NEW 

BEEP 

03F8 

0436 

BEEP 

MAIN-EXEC 

12A2 

0E28 


PRINT-OUT 

09F 4 

0500 

SEND-TV 

MAIN-1 

12A9 

0E2F 

LED18 

PO-BACK-1 

0A2 3 

0 5 3 A 

P-LFT 

MAIN-4 

1303 

0ED8 

LED4 

PO-RIGHT 

OA 3D 

0554 

P-RT 

REPORT-MSG 

1391 

0F65 


PO-ENTER 

0A4F 

0566 

P-NL 

MAIN-ADD 

155D 

1158 


PO-COMMA 

0A5F 

0576 


CH-INFO 

1 5AF 

11AA 

CHINIT 

PO-QUEST 

OA 69 

0580 


INIT-STR 

15C6 

11C1 

SMINIT 

PO-TV-2 

0A6D 

0584 


WAIT-KEY 

1 5D4 

11CF 

RDCH 


0A9B 

0 5B2 

SET-AT 

INPUT-AD 

1 5E6 

11E1 

INCH 

PO-ABLE 

0AD9 

05F0 


OUT-CODE 

1 5EF 

11EA 

PUTDIG 

PO-STORE 

OADC 

05F 3 

STTVCU 

PRINT-A-2 

15F2 

11 ED 

SENDCH 

PO-FETCH 

0B03 

061A 

LDTVCU 

CHAN-OPEN 

1601 

1230 

SELECT 

PO-ANY 

0B24 

063B 


REPORT- 0 

1 60E 

12 3D 

ERRO 

PO-ALL 

0B7F 

06B4 


CHAN-FLAG 

1615 

1248 

SEL-HL 

PO-ATTR 

OBDB 

0710 

ATTBYT 

CHAN-K 

1634 

1 29 A 


PO-MSG 

OCOA 

073F 

PUTMES 

CHAN-s 

1642 

12A8 


PO-SAVE 

0C3B 

0776 

PR - TV 2 

CHAN-P 

1 64D 

12B3 


PO-SEARCH 

OC 41 

077C 


ONE-SPACE 

1652 

12B8 

INS1 

PO-SCR 

OC 5 5 

0790 

TVFUL? 

MAKE-ROOM 

1655 

12BB 

INSERT 

REPORT-5 

0C8 6 

07C1 

ERR 5 

POINTERS 

1664 

12CA 

REMGSZ 

TEMPS 

0D4D 

0888 

R-ATTS 

LINE-ZERO 

168F 

1 31E 


CLS 

0D6B 

08 A 6 

K-CLS 

LINE-NO 

1695 

1324 

GET-LN 

CLS-LOWER 

0D6E 

08A9 

CLLHS 

RESERVE 

169E 

13 2D 

LCU2 

CL-ALL 

ODAF 

08E A 

CLS 

SET-MIN 

1630 

133F 

CLEL 

CL-SET 

0DD9 

0914 

SET-CUR 

SET-WORK 

16BF 

1 34E 

X-CALC 

CL-SC-ALL 

ODFE 

0939 

SCRL 

REC-EDIT 

1 6D4 

1363 

X-T-HL 

CL-LINE 

0E^4 

097F 

CLS-B 

SET-STK 

16C5 

1354 

RESET 


5 



SoftSync—ORDER FROM SYNTAX 



tfrITUClK'UIO U.V 
miss i • m *\ m »»»» fun 


GRAPHICS KIT 16K 
GRAPHICS KIT 16K 


PROGRAMMERS 
TOOLKIT J6K, 


V-^SE/fRCM bA'(QE j 

• a V ’**• F1P *• , 


Graphics Kit^re Compatible 


Programmers 


PROGRAMMERS’ AIDS 


MOTHERSHIP 

3D GRAPHICS FOR YOUR TS1000? When you 
see yourself peering out of the cockpit of your 
Starlight Fighter, screaming down the Zarway 
« ^5^TTi~ry T^Tk^ space corridor towards the ominous MOTHERSHIP, 

you won't believe your eyes, because the 
are so good. 

:/ ' The enemy MOTHERSHIP is maneuvering out 

^ space preparing to take over your beloved 

planet. She's launching an all out attack, 
sending out wave after wave of drone fighters. 

^ They're pouring down the Zarway - all around you 

^ - firing deadly lasers. You can maneuver in all 

directions to dodge them. Knock off ten and you 
r get a clear shot at the MOTHERSHIP, if she doesn't 

J, ~ get you first! 

MOTHERSHIP is an original arcade game written in machine code with one or two player choices, 
three levels of play, on-screen scoring and fast action - like you've never seen before on your 

16K $16.95 


TS1000/ZX81 


RED ALERT 

Scramble on board your ship, check the 
computer for STATUS - The screen says you've got 
"* plenty of fuel, bombs and missiles. 

^ ^ And you're in the air, dodging oncoming aliens 

‘ -« who are firing rockets at you, skimming above 

E menacing mountains from which rockets are 

being fired at you. You can maneuver up and 
down, shooting the aliens with missiles, five at a 
time and dropping bombs three at a time on the 
mountains below. 

Destroy a ship for ten points, a fuel dump for 15 
‘H^ri A M[1 points and knock down an enemy missile for five 

But watch your fuel rate—if 'empty' appears on 
you're in for it. And if you lose all three of your ships, you're finished, 
g machine code graphics game is rated as the closest Timex 1000 program toan 

16K $14.95 


Licensed from Paul Holmes 


MACHINE CODE TEST TOOL 

We brought some of these MACHINE 
CODE TEST TOOLS back from England for our 

^ programs. 

The 32 page book contains practical examples and 'hands on' experience of using machine 
code programs, ft also examines the TS1000/ZX81 ROM and how BASIC programs are stored in 
RAM. A HEX: decimal conversion routine is contained within the program. 16K $19.95 


NIGHTGUNNER 

You peer into the inky black sky from your 
v JM J\ position as the tail gunner in a bomber plane, 

\« £g " Jb searching for enemy aircraft. Suddenly, from 

// $\ above, a fighter plane swoops down, machine 

/ #/ A r^ \ x . \ \ gun bullets flaring at you. You swing your tail gun 

I / f” \ \ \ into position, line up your sights and fire. "Take 

i \ \ \ that, you dusty little hunchback!" you yell with 

—.— I — i * I < 1 1 I 1, 1 .r-^- j— 1 — satisfaction as the aircraft disappears from the 

I yAMnV VDV / / / sky. But such triumphs are short-lived when you 

\ JjP^Y^ V T g J&I- / • J play NIGHTGUNNER because there are always 

\ ' j more enemy planes coming at you from all 

PWLk\ ' L^yLjfLJL. y Wm directions, weaving randomly. With nimble 

/ fingers you can quickly maneuver your gun in 
any djrec tj 0n anc j f| re But each round gets faster 
and harder. NIGHTGUNNER also features on-screen scoring, high score and ammunition count as 
well as bonus points. 16K $14.95 

Licensed from Digital Integration 


ZX81 is a registered trademark of Sinclair Research Ltd. 
TS-1000 is a registered trademark of Timex Corp. 


ORDER FROM SYNTAX 















© 1984 


SPECTRUM 

TS 

2068 

LABEL, 

ROM 

ROM 

LABEL, 

NAME 

Addr 

Addr 

NAME 

INDEXER 

16DC 

136B 

SEARCH 



1374 

SRCHSC 

CLOSE 

16E3 

1 39F 

CLOSE 


1 6EB 

13A8 

RSTSTR 

CLOSE-2 

1701 

1 3BE 

CLCHAN 

OPEN 

1736 

142A 

OPEN 

OPEN-1 

1756 

145E 


OPEN-2 

1 75D 

1465 

OPCHAN 

CAT-ETC. 

1793 

2 5C8 

CAT 

AUTO-LIST 

1795 

14E1 

LIST 

LLIST 

17F5 

1541 

K-LLST 

LIST 

17F9 

1545 

K-LIST 


1860 

1 5 AC 

LPO 

OUT-LINE 

1855 

1 5A1 

PUT-SR? 

0UT-LINE2 

187D 

1 5C9 

PUT 

NUMBER 

18B6 

1602 


OUT-FLASH 

18C1 

1 60D 

FLASHA 

OUT-CURS 

18E1 

1 62D 

PR-CUR 

LN-FETCH 

190F 

1 65B 

NEXT-L 

LN-STORE 

1 91C 

1668 

DE-HL 

0UT-SP2 

1925 

1671 


LINE-ADDR 

196E 

16D6 

FIND-L 

CP-LINES 

1980 

1 6E8 

CP-BC 


1988 

1 6F0 

SUBLIN 

EACH-STMT 

198B 

1 6F3 

SU3LN1 

NEXT-ONE 

19B8 

1720 

RECLEN 

DIFFER 

19DD 

1745 


RECLAIM-1 

19E5 

1 74D 

DEL-DE 

RECLAIM-2 

19E8 

1750 

DELREC 

E-LINE-NO 

19BF 

1768 

LINENO 

OUT-NUM-1 

1A1B 

1788 

PUT-BC 

OUT-NUM-2 

1A28 

1795 

PU-LN 

OUT-NUM-3 

1A30 

1 79D 


LINE-SCAN 

1B17 

1A2 7 

SYNTAX 

STMT-LOOP 

1B28 

1A44 

LS4 

SEPARATOR 

1B6F 

1AB2 


STMT-RET 

1B76 

1AB9 


LINE-RUN 

1B8 A 

1AD8 

EXCUTE 

LINE-NEW 

1AEC 

1B9E 


REM 

1BB2 

1 BOO 


LINE-END 

1BB3 

1B09 


LINE-USE 

1BBF 

1B15 


NEXT-LINE 

1BD1 

1B27 


STMT-RET 

1B76 

1AB9 

ENDSTT 

CHECK-END 

1 Bee 

1B44 

END? 

STMT-NEXT 

1BF4 

1B4A 

ENDTEM 

CLASS-01 

1C1F 

1B82 

TEM1 

REPORT-2 

1C2E 

1B91 

ERR2 

VAL-FET-2 

1C59 

1 BBC 

LT22 


SPECTRUM 

TS 

2068 

LABEL, 

ROM 

ROM 

LABEL, 

NAME 

Addr 

Addr 

NAME 

NEXT-2-NUM 

1C79 

1BDC 

DYADIC 

CLASS-06 

1C8 2 

1BE5 

TEM6 

REPORT-C 

1C8 A 

1 BED 

SYNERR 

CLASS-OA 

1C8C 

1BEF 

TEM10 

PERMS 

1C96 

1BF 9 


FETCH-NUM 

1CDE 

1C49 

OPTNO 

USE-ZERO 

1CE6 

1C51 

STK-0 

STOP 

1CEE 

1C 59 

STOP 

IF 

1 CFO 

1C5B 


FOR 

1D03 

1C78 

FOR 

LOOK-PROG 

1D86 

1D28 

SKIP 

NEXT 

1DAB 

1D 5 5 

NEXT 

READ 

1 DEC 

1D96 

READ 

DATA 

1E27 

1E82 

DATA 

RESTORE 

1E42 

1E9D 


RANDOMIZE 

1E4F 

1ED4 

RAND 

REST-RUN 

1E45 

1ECA 

RESTBC 

CONTINUE 

1E5F 

1EE4 

CONT 

GO TO 

1E67 

1EF1 

DUMP 

OUT 

1E7A 

1F04 


POKE 

1E80 

1FOA 


TWO-PARAM 

1E85 

1FOF 


FIND-INTI 

1E94 

1F1E 

FIX-U1 

FIND-INT2 

1E99 

1F23 

FIX-U 

REPORT-B 

1F.9F 

1F29 

ERRB 

RUN 

1EA1 

1F2E 


CLEAR 

IE AC 

1F3 6 

CLEAR 

CLEAR-RUN 

1EAF 

1F39 

CLR-BC 

GOSUB 

1EED 

1F 99 

GO-SUB 

TEST-ROOM 

1F05 

1FBB 

CHK-SZ 

REPORT-4 

1F1 5 

1FCF 

ERR4 

RETURN 

1F 2 3 

1FD4 

RETURN 

PAUSE 

1F 3 A 

1FEF 

PAUSE 

BREAK-KEY 

1F 54 

2009 

BREAK 

DEF FN 

1F 60 

201D 

DEF 

* * * * 

*■*-** 

2128 

SOUND 

UNSTACK-Z 

1FC3 

214F 


LPRINT 

1FC9 

2155 

K-LPR 

PRINT 

1FCD 

2159 

K-PRN 

PRINT-2 

1FDF 

217E 

P-SEQ 

PRINT-CR 

1FF 5 

2194 


PRINT-ITEM1 

1FFC 

219B 


PR-STRING 

203C 

21 DB 


PR-END-Z 

2045 

21E4 


PR-ST-END 

2048 

21E7 

TERM? 

PR-POS-1 

2 04E 

21 ED 


STR-ALTER 

2070 

220F 

STRITO 

INPUT 

2089 

222B 

INPUT 

IN-ITEM-1 

20C1 

226B 

I - SEQ, 


7 





BOOK REVIEW 

Title: 

A Practical Guide to 
Machine Lanauaae 
Proaramminq on the 
Timex/Sinclair 

Author: 

David B. Wood 

Pages: 

250+ii (Softcover) 

Machines: 

ZX80 & MicroAce w/ 8K ROM 
ZX/TS (Usable w/ Spectrum 
and TS2068) 

From: 

SIRIUSWARE, 

6 Turning Mill 

Lexington, MA 02173 

ISBN: 

0-926848-00-3 

Price: 

$14.95 + $1 P&H 


I like this book. It's well 
written, stays on point, applies 
directly to your ZX/TS, includes 
operable program listings and lets 
you learn painlessly. 

Using only 16 chapters and 8 
appendices, Dave takes you on a 
guided tour of the Z80 in Sinclair 
country, distinguishing the CPU 
properties from the system behavior 
with clarity and flair. Your tour 
guide is an expert whose practical 
experience includes writing the 
word processor "WORD*" on which 
this book is written. Appendix 4 
contains Dave's assembler, written 
in BASIC, for you to type in and 
use to try routines. 

Appendix six catalogs the ROM 
routines into nine functional areas 
and then provides address, exit and 
entrance conditions, plus a concise 
operational description for each. 

Other appendices collect wide¬ 
ly available reference material and 
organize it for use with this book. 

From the following list of 
chapter titles you get an insight 
to what's covered: 

1 Bridging the Gap 

2 Locating Machine Code 

3 Software Tools 

4 Organization of Memory 


5 Finding Your Way Around 
BASIC 

6 Getting at the Variables 

7 FAST and SLOW Mode 

8 Manipulating Memory Space 

9 Aborting 

10 Writing to the TV Screen 

11 Communication and Passing 
Parameters 

12 Reading the Keyboard 

13 Scanning BASIC 

14 The Floating Point Calcu¬ 
lator 

15 The INs and OUTs of Tape 
Read/Write 

16 Programming and Debugging 
Hints 

Every chapter contains program 
listings that do real things—for 
example read a tape into a space 
above RAMTOP—that enable you to do 
something more with your machine. 
You don't need a lot of knowledge 
to use these routines, but as you 
use them you'll find other MC books 
making more sense. If you already 
know Z80 code, you'll get the ROM 
environment and utilities straight. 

One of the strongest features 
of this book is it's accuracy. All 
routines were re-entered from the 
galley proofs to make sure they did 
not contain typos. The assembler 
listing came directly from Dave's 
computer and 80-column printer. I 
found only line 6990 difficult to 
enter—use shift Q for the quotes 
enclosing the right parenthesis. 

Privately, Dave told SYNTAX 
that most of the 8K ROM functions 
exist—using the same code—in the 
TS2068. Only the display and tape 
handling differ substantially. He 
figures about half the book applies 
to the 2068. By extension, a like 
fraction should apply to your ZX 
Spectrum or to the emulators. 


COVERED ZX FEEDTHROUGH CONNECTORS 

Connector, extender PC bd., cover w 
side cable exit & screws. $10 ppd 

ORDER FROM SYNTAX 


8 



© 1984 


SPECTRUM 

TS 

2068 

LABEL, 

ROM 

ROM 

LABEL, 

NAME 

Addr 

Addr 

NAME 

IN-ASSIGN 

21B9 

2363 


REPORT-H 

21D4 

237E 

ERRH 

IN-CHAN-K 

21D6 

2380 

NOTKB? 

CO-TEMP-1 

21E1 

2 38B 


CO-TEMP-2 

21E2 

2 38C 

GR-COL 

CO-TEMP-4 

21FC 

23A6 

COLITM 

CO-TEMP-7 

2234 

23DE 

COLOUR 

CO-CHANGE 

226C 

2416 


CO-TEMP-C 

2273 

241D 

HIFLSH 

BORDER 

2294 

243E 

BORDER 

***-* 

*•*** 

24D2 

NEWDEV 

**-** 

**** 

2 5B9 

PASSEM 

PIXEL-ADD 

22AA 

2603 

SCRMBL 

POINT 

22 CB 

2624 

F-PNT 

PLOT 

22DC 

2635 

PLOT 

PLOT-SUB 

22E3 

2 63E 

PLOTBC 

STK-TO-BC 

2 307 

2660 

GETXY 

STK-TO-A 

2314 

2 66D 


CIRCLE 

2320 

2679 

CIRCLE 

DRAW 

2382 

2 6DB 

DRAW 

CD-PRMS1 

247D 

2 7D6 


DRAW-LINE 

24B7 

2810 

DRAW-L 

SCANNING 

24FB 

2854 

EXPRN 

SYNTAX-Z 

2330 

2889 

INTPT? 

S-ATTR-s 

2580 

28D7 

F-ATTR 

S-U-PLUS 

2 5AF 

2 96D 


S-LETTER 

26C9 

2A8 7 


S-FN-SBRN 

27BD 

2B7B 


S-SCREENS-S 

2535 

288E 

F-SCRN 

S-RND 

25F8 

29B6 

RND 

S-PI 

2627 

29E 5 

F -PI 

S-INKEYS 

2634 

29F2 

F-INKEY 

FN-SKPOVER 

28 A3 

2C69 

NXT-HL 

LOOK-VARS 

28B2 

2C7 0 

FIND-N 

stk-f-arg 

2951 

2D0F 


STK-VAR 

2996 

2D 54 

GET-EL 

SLICING 

2A52 

2E10 

SLICER 

STK-ST-0 

2AB1 

2E6F 


STK-STO-1 

2AB2 

2E70 

PSHSTR 

STK-STORE 

2AB6 

2E74 

PAEDCB 

INT-EXP-1 

2ACC 

2E8 A 


DE,(DE + 1) 

2AEE 

2EAC 


GET-HL*DE 

2AF 4 

2EB2 


LET 

2AFF 

2EBD 

LET 

L-ENTER 

2BA6 

2F64 


L-ADD-S 

2BAF 

2F6D 


L-STRING 

2BC 6 

2F84 


L-FIRST 

2BEA 

2FA8 


STK-FETCH 

2BF1 

2FAF 

POPSTR 

DIM 

2C02 

2FC0 

DIM 


J5PECTRUM 

TS 

2068 

LABEL, 

ROM 

ROM 

LABEL, 

NAME 

Addr 

Addr 

NAME 

ALPHANUM 

2C88 

3046 

ALNUM? 

ALPHA 

2C8D 

304B 

ALPHA? 

DEC-TO-FP 

2C9E 

3059 

STKSUM 

NUMERIC 

2D1B 

30D9 

DIGIT? 

STK-DIGIT 

2D22 

30E0 


STACK-A 

2D28 

30E6 

STK-A 

STACK-BC 

2D2B 

30E9 

STK-BC 

INT-TO-FP 

2D3B 

30F 9 

ININT 

E-TO-FP 

2D4F 

3100 


INT-FETCH 

2D7F 

31 3D 

LDDE 

P-INT-STO 

2D8C 

314A 

STDE-U 

INT-STORE 

2D8E 

314C 

STDE-S 

FP-TO-BC 

2DA2 

3160 

FP2BC 

LOG(2tA) 

2DC1 

317F 


FP-TO-A 

2DD5 

3193 

FP2A 

PRINT-FP 

2DE3 

31A1 

OUTPUT 

CA=10*A+C 

2F8B 

334A 


PREP-ADD 

2F9B 

335A 


FETCH-TWO 

2FBA 

3379 

SUMSLD 

SHIFT-FP 

2Fdd 

339C 

SHIFT 

ADD-BACK 

3004 

3 3C3 


SUBTRACT 

300F 

3 3CE 

SUB 

addition 

3014 

3 3D3 

ADD 

HL=HL*DE 

30A9 

3468 

MULT 

PREP-M/D 

30C0 

347F 


multiply 

30CA 

3489 


REPORT-6 

31 AD 

3 56C 

ERR6 

division 

31AF 

356E 

DIVIDE 

truncate 

3214 

3 5D3 

TRUNC 

RE-ST-TWO 

3293 

3052 


multiply 

30CA 

3489 

TIMES 

RE-STACK 

3297 

3656 

FLOAT 

FP calculator start: 



32C 5 

3684 


CALCULATE 

335B 

3 71A 

CTRO 

fp-calc-2 

3 3A2 

3761 


TEST-5-SP 

3 3a 9 

3768 

ROOM? 

STACK-NUM 

3334 

3773 

STK-M 

MOVE-FP 

3 3C0 

377F 

RAMNO 

STK-DATA 

33C6 

3785 


SKIP-CONS 

33F7 

3 7B6 


LOC-MEM 

3406 

37C 5 

ARRAY 

get-mem-0 

340F 

37CF 


stk-zero 

341B 

37DA 


s t-mem-0 

342D 

3 7EC 


EXCHANGE 

343C 

37FB 


series-06' 

346A 

3829 


NEGATE 

346E 

382D 

NEGATE 

sgn 

3492 

3851 


in 

34 A 5 

3864 



9 




BOOK REVIEW 


Product: 
Machines: 
Price: 
From: 


Key-finder Card 

TS2068 

$1.95 

Banta Software 
8088 Highwood Way 
Orangevale, CA 95662 
916/722-4895 


Some things turn out more use¬ 
ful than you would at first think-- 
this card is one of them. When I 
first got it, I stuck it on the 
2068 test setup—what harm could it 
do? But I shift computers all day 
using the entire Sinclair family 
plus Osbornes and TRS-80's. I save 
a few minutes each time I use the 
2068 by finding functions without 
scanning the whole keyboard twice. 


Banta's concept is simple—a 
multi-column reference card with 
functions listed alphabetically, 
followed by the cursor necessary, 
then the key combination that pro¬ 
duces the function. 


Execution of the concept is 
adequate, it's printed on cardboard 
and designed to fit above the 2068 
keyboard. The type is dot-matrix, 
black on matte gray. Consistent 
l.inework on the 7 sections of the 
table keep you from losing your 
place. A score mark helps you fold 
the upper edge to position the card 


This product is so simple, you 
could make one yourself. What you 
could not do is make it for $1.95! 

VAL$ ON YOUR 2068 

To see what VAL$ does, enter: 



RUN the program and see on the 
display what each function does. 

You can use this to print both your 
formula and its number value from a 
string variable. Succinctly put, 
VAL$ gives you the string that VAL 
evaluates, the right-hand side of 
the equation for A$, by returning 
some steps earlier. If you have 
access to a Spectrum manual, you'll 
find its explanation clearer than 
that offered by Timex. 

This feature is one of the 
subtleties implied by the statement 
"Sinclair machines always call the 
expression evaluator", and plays a 
role in the sometimes odd report 
codes that result from failures at 
intermediate steps. 


SINCLAIR SOFTWARE FOR ZX/TS 

We found a relative handful of the 
original Sinclair tapes in an old 
New England mill. All new, in good 
shape. If you don't have these fun 
and useful programs, better move 
quickly. NOT AVAILABLE IN STORES. 
These are classic programs for 
ZX/TS computers. All use 16K RAM. 

Complete your collection, pick up 
what you need now. Just these 
ten titles still available: 

VU-CALC 

VU-FILE 

COUPON MANAGER 
STOCK OPTION ANALYZER 
CHESS (WITH CLOCK.) j 
CUBE GAME > 

BACKGAMMON & DICE 
FLIGHT SIMULATOR 
SUPER MATH 
MIXED GAME BAG 

Now you can buy these for $9 each, 
any 3 for $25. Save BIG, buy 6, 
get all ten—FOUR FREE PROGRAMS— 
just $50. Free offer limited to 
first 180 customers—DON'T DELAY— 
ORDER NOW FROM SYNTAX. 

ZXK still available—get a spare 
lO 





















© 1984 


TIMEX EXROM 


SPECTRUM 

TS 

2068 

SPECTRUM 

TS 

2068 

LABEL, 

ROM 

ROM 

LABEL, 

LABEL, 

ROM 

ROM 

LABEL, 

NAME 

Ad dr 

Addr 

NAME 

NAME 

Addr 

Addr 

NAME 

peek 

34AC 

386B 


SA-BYTES 

04C2 

0068 

W-TAPE 

usr-no 

34B3 

3872 


SA-LEADER 

04D8 

007E 


usr-$ 

34BC 

38D7 


SA-LOOP 

04FE 

00A4 


TEST-ZERO 

34E9 

3904 

TESTO 

SA-BIT-2 

0511 

00B7 


GREATER-0 

34F 9 

3914 


SA-8-BITS 

0525 

OOCB 


NOT 

3501 

391C 


SA/LD-RET 

053F 

00E5 

W-BORD 

less-0 

3506 

3921 


REPORT-D 

0552 

OOFS 


FP-0/1 

3 50B 

3926 

STBOOL 

LD-BYTES 

0556 

OOF C 

R-TAPE 

or 

351B 

3936 


LD-BREAK 

056B 

0111 


no-&-no 

3 524 

393F 


LD-LEADER 

0580 

0126 


str-&-no 

3 52D 

3948 


LD-SYNC 

058F 

0135 


no-1-eql 

3 53B 

3956 


LD-8-BITS 

05CA 

0170 


strs-add 

3 59C 

39B7 


LD-EDGE-2 

05E3 

0189 

RD-BIT 

STK-PNTRS 

3 5BF 

3 9DD 


LD-EDGE-1 

05E7 

018D 

RD-EDGE 

chr $ 

3 5C9 

39E4 


LD-SAMPLE 

05ED 

0193 


val-&-val$ 

3 5DE 

39F9 


SAVE-ETC 

0605 

01AB 

SLVM 

s tr$ 

361F 

3A3A 


REPORT-F 

0642 

0228 


read -in 

3645 

3A60 


SA-NAME 

064B 

0231 


code 

3669 

3 A84 


SA-DATA 

0652 

0238 


len 

3674 

3A8F 


SA-V-OLD 

0672 

029A 


dec-jr-nz 

3 67A 

3A95 


sa-v-new 

0685 

02A9 


DUMP 

3686 

3AA1 


SA-SCR $ 

06A0 

02F2 


jump-true 

368F 

3AAA 


SA-CODE 

06C3 

032E 


end-calc 

369B 

3AB 6 


SA-LINE 

0716 

0447 


n-mod-m 

36A0 

3ABB 

INTDIV 

SA-ALL 

075A 

04C9 


-#--*** 

**** 

3AC 5 

LDMES 

LD-LOOK-H 

0767 

04D6 


in t 

36AF 

3ACA 

INT 

LD-NAME 

07A6 

053D 


EXP 

36C4 

3ADF 

EXP 

VR-CONTROL 

07CB 

058F 

VERIFY 

1 n 

3713 

3B2E 


LD-BLOCK 

0802 

05C6 


ge t-ar gt 

3783 

3B9E 

ANGLE 

LD-CONTROL 

0808 

05CC 

LOAD 

cos 

37AA 

3BC5 

COS 

LD-DATA 

082E 

0606 


sin 

37B5 

3BD0 

SIN 

LD-PROG 

0873 

0673 


tan 

3 7DA 

3BF 5 

TAN 

ME-CONTROL 

08B6 

06E5 

MERGE 

a tn 

3 7E2 

3BFD 

ATN 

ME-OLD-VP 

08F 9 

0752 


asn 

3833 

3C4E 

ASN 

ME-ENTER 

092C 

0799 


acs 

3843 

3C5E 

ACS 

ME-ENT-1 

093E 

07CF 


sqr 

384A 

3C65 

ROOT 

ME-ENT-3 

0958 

0825 


to-power 

38 51 

3C6C 

TO-THE 

SA-CONTROL 

0970 

0851 

SAVE 


*•#•-** 

3C89 

SEPRMT 

SA-l-SEC 

0991 

089A 


(note:SEPRMT are 

1 tape 

msgs. ) 





'spare 1 

386E 

3CDC 

'EMPTY' 

The balance 

or tXKUM contains 

charctr-set 

3D00 

3D00 

CH-SET 

the hunction Dispatcher 

, Bank 





Switching Lode , 

and various 

The Spectrurr 

} does 

. not 

support 

other routines , 

which 

does not 

the followin 

i g r o i j 

1 1ines 

. 

have counterparts 

in the bpectrun 

* ** * 

** *-* 

1 7B5 

AROS 

A total of 

approximately 2K Bytes 

** ** 


17CF 

GETAL 

of EXROM is 

unused. 



* *** 

1 7E A 

AR-LN 







1 7FF 

AR-NXT 







18C6 

AAROS 






11 



TOWERS OF HANOI—8K/16K & 2068 

This program demonstrates the 
use and manipulation of a 3-dimen¬ 
sional string array, N$(R,C,9), by 
tracking occupancy with a numeric 
array, P(R,C). The program runs in 
slow mode; you can see blocks move. 

Both ZX/TS and TS2068 versions 
operate in the same way, but the 
following analysis refers to line 
numbers in the ZX/TS program. You 
can find the equivalent lines in 
the color version, which has added 
commands to enhance the colors and 
different graphics that use T32068 
color to advantage. 

Line 60 reserves a grid of 230 
spaces (P) , (10 rows (R) of 23 

columns (C)). If P=l, the position 
is occupied. P=0 means vacant. In 
N$, position R,C can be occupied by 
nine-character strings, shown by the 
third dimension of N$, (line 40). 
Five strings (A$—the blocks) will 
be used (line 5 0) and designated 1- 
5 (lines 70-110). 

Lines 130-200 build, and 270- 
320 label, three platforms. Our 
first platform is topped with five 
blocks (lines 210-240). The others 
remain empty, for now. 

FROM loop F (in lines 450-580) 
removes the top block (lines 490- 
510) (P=l) and empties the space by 

resetting variable P=0. 

TO loop T (lines 590-710) 
seeks an empty space (P=0) from the 
bottom up, deposits the block there 
(line 650) and makes P-1 at the new 
position (line 680). 

S (line 430) tabulates moves. 
You need at least 31. How few can 
you use to move all the blocks? 

Enter the program listing as 
shown, then SAVE by using GOTO 820 
for the ZX/TS version or GOTO 760 
on your TS2068. 


When program displays, press 
any key to make the game start. 

Exit the program with BREAK. Re¬ 
start with RUN. 

W. C. Andrews, San Anselmo, CA 

SOLUTION 

MOVE PIECE FROM TO 

1113 

2 2 12 

3 13 2 

4 3 13 

5 12 1 

6 2 2 3 

7 113 

8 4 12 

9 13 2 

10 2 3 1 

11 1 2 1 

12 3 3 2 

13 1 1 3 

14 2 1 2 

15 1 3 2 

16 5 1 3 

17 1 2 1 

18 2 2 3 

19 1 1 3 

20 3 2 1 

21 1 3 2 

22 2 3 1 

23 1 2 1 

24 4 2 3 

25 1 1 3 

26 2 1 2 

27 1 3 2 

28 3 1 3 

29 1 2 1 

30 3 2 3 

31 1 1 3 / 

This program tests your moves to 
see if you placed a larger piece 
atop a smaller one. If so, you are 
chided and told to move it back. 

If you ignore the instruction, you 
can still cheat. In addition, it 
fiendishly refuses to let you put a 
piece back on the pile you took it 
from (line 440). From 1 to 3, 5 
times, lets you win in 5 moves, 
despite the fact that the tower is 
completely inverted. 


12 



SoftSync—ORDER FROM SYNTAX 


REMEMBER—SYNTAX CAN GET THESE BOOKS FOR YOU 


Timex-Sinclair 2068: 

Beginner/Intermediate Guide $9.95 

Intermediate/Advanced Guide 9.95 

ZX/TS: 

ZX-81 BASIC Book 12.95 

Timex-Sinclair 1000/ZX81 User's Handbook 5.95 
Timex-Sinclair BASIC Primer W/ Graphics 9.95 
ZX81,TS1000 Home Computer Book 8.00 

Crash Course in Microcomputers 2d 21.95 


Please add $2 P&H for EACH book ordered 



SPACE COMMANDO 

The amalgamation of friendly planets has 
commissioned you to infiltrate Zircon 12, a space 
colony overtaken by the evil Dr. labor and his 
renegade androids. Here the dreaded Dr. Zabar 
established a home base and research facility 
for his twisted experiments using the native 
populace of Zircon 12 as guinea pigs. 

Your quest is to infiltrate Zircon 12 and defeat the 
forces of evil so that the space fleet can land. 

16K $14.95 


SHARK'S TREASURE 

You are diving in shark infested waters in 
the middle of the Indian Ocean where the last 
known pirate ship lies wrecked on the bottom of 
the sea. The perils of these waters have preserved 
the fabulous* riches that were the pirates' bounty 
over 100 years ago. Find the hidden treasure and 
escape unscathed from the jaws of death. 

16K $14.95 


SoftSync—ORDER FROM SYNTAX 


STRATEGY 


SUPERCHESS 

SUPERCHESS is probably the most advanced 
chess game available for the ZX81 and TS1000 
computers - so good you'll probably start to talk 
to it. SUPERCHESS is an extraordinary player and 
has many features not found in any other 
computer chess game. Some of the features 
include: 

• Ten levels of play. Higher levels are designed for 
extended games and problem solving. • Select 
tactical or positional evaluation. • ANALYZE 
feature allows you to set up and/or change a 
position by adding and removing pieces. • All 
legal moves including castling and pawn 
capture en passant are allowed. • SUPERCHESS 
has a store of standard openings. • Excellent graphic board display includes a coordinate 
system and standard algebraic chess notation. • Up to 15 previous moves displayed. • The 
computer will recommend moves if you're stuck. • SELF-PLAY allows you to watch SUPERCHESS 
play against itself. • Detailed documentation and playing instructions are included. 

Licensed from CP Software ^ ^ $19 95 



MAZOGS 

MAZOGS is one of the cleverest, most 
graphically elaborate games we've ever seen for 
the Timex 1000 and Sinclair ZX81. You enter a 
complex maze which contains a glittering and 
fabulous treasure. But also inside the maze is a 
host of fearsome MAZOGS. 

The program draws a different maze for each 
mission. You can get an overview of the whole 
maze, but while you're playing the game you see 
only the corridors which you will be running 
through (you control a lifelike character that 
actually runs through the maze). As you search 
for the treasure, you pick up a sword to fight off 
the furious MAZOGS and find prisoners (they have dark, flashing eyes) to guide you to the 
treasure. 

MAZOGS has three levels of play, including the adventurous level of Maniac Mobile Mazogs. 
MAZOGS, the only graphically illustrated adventure available fortheTS1000/ZX81, is so much fun 
you'll find it hard to drag yourself away from it. $19 95 

Licensed from Bug Byte 


ROAD TO RICHES 

One minute you're bankrolling a big-time, 
splashy Broadway show, the next minute you're 
on a one-way trip to Palookaville. 

jjjp—«s*i That's the world of high rolling, high finance and 

Y \ that's ROAD TO RICHES, a game in which you're 

^ an instant millionaire and you compete to build 

MJ& your financial empire. 

*■■■■ g — 1 : Up to four players make investments in all kinds of 

The computer carefully weighs each investment 
and your chances for winning or losing. Like real 
life, low risk usually medns (but not always) low 
yield while high risk can mean big bucks or bust. 
How's your financial prowess when it comes to the risk and skill of a true entrepreneur? ROAD TO 
RICHES simulates the fast-moving financial world in an entertaining and educational way. 

16K $14.95 





Most of the error-checking in 
this program can be defeated or 
ignored easily. But the program 
does a good job for an honest, 
cooperative user. 

Many programs offer this style 
of writing to wor.k_*. You should now 
add error traps so that the program * 
can not fail. Be creative in your 
testing—try moving from 1 to 2, 
then from 2 to 1 — this should not 
win the game! Also try from 1 to 
2, 2 to 3, 2 to 3... Hmmmm! 

See if you can find ways to 
make these programs use less array 
space without changing the 10 by 23 
part of the DIM statements. Does 
N$ need 9-character strings? Does 
P need to be a number (7 bytes for 
each location)? 

Can you make the anti-cheating 
loop put the piece back and charge 
you two moves?—KO 



Each issue brings you 32 pages o-f usable in-formation, program 
listings, product reviews, programming articles, harc^are 
projects, and applications -for your computer. T-S HORIZONS 
■features nationally known authors like Paul Hunter, Gordon 
Young, and others. The price is ONLY $15.00 -for a -full year 
(12 issues). AND -for a limited time only, new subscribers 
will receive our special telecommunications issue (#7, see 
below) *FREE* with their subscription. 


IN T-S HORIZONS *7 
Byte Back Modem Review 
2068 Programming Tips 
How a Compi1er Works 
Telecommumications 
■for Beginners 
Book & Game Reviews 
Rotating Globe Routine 
Articles By G. Young 
and Paul Hunter 
Sinclair Into. Network 
TS-1000 Power Supply 
-and more''! 


HORIZONS 

$15 tor _12_mon_thj_ y_ i s sue_s._$2 .00_ samp 1 e or_back ^ssu^es^ _ 

Enclose $15 (US) tor 12-issut , 

subscription, plus *FREE* back NAME - 

issue (while supplies last). 

$21 Canada, $25 other toreign. ADDRESS_ 

Extra back issue/samplei $2.00 

CITY___ 

SEND TO: T-S HORIZONS 

2002 Summit St STATE,Z1P__ 

PORTSMOUTH, OH 45662 



T-S Hariunx 


Time* Compute* US** 



TS-206S IS-1000/1511 

PR0CR A MS BANK SWITCHING 4 

TIPS “WORN "• CONCLUDED 

REVIEWS POWER SUPPLY? 

Ri«m A Gossip Nf Colw _ 


T-S 



Enter ZX/TS Graphics as follows: 

70 3 spaces graphic eight inverse 
one graphic five 3 spaces 
80 3 spaces inverse space 

inverse two inverse space 3 
spaces 

90 2 spaces 2 inverse spaces 

inverse three 2 inverse spaces 2 
spaces 

100 space 3 inverse spaces inverse 
four 3 inverse spaces space 
110 4 inverse spaces inverse five 
4 inverse spaces 
160 graphic eight 7 graphic H's 
graphic five 

170 graphic eight 3 graphic H's... 

3 graphic H's graphic five 
180 graphic eight 7 graphic F's 
graphic five 
930 17 graphic sixes 
940 inverse(space TOWERS space OF 
space HANOI space) 

950 17 graphic sevens 
990 5 space inverse * space... 
space inverse *... 5 space * 
inverse(space NO space NO 
space) * space 

2068 First, remember the light part 
of the key symbol means INK. Also, 
we use SS to mean SYMBL SHIFT—hit 
the black & 3 keys in graphics mode 
to get "SS graphic three." 

70 3 SS graphic eights 1 SS 
graphic five...l SS graphic 
five 3 SS graphic eights 
80 3 SS graphic eights space... 

space 3 SS graphic eights 
90 2 SS graphic eights 2 spaces.. 

2 spaces 2 SS graphic eights 
100 SS graphic eight 3 spaces... 

3 spaces SS graphic eight 
110 4 spaces... 4 spaces 

160 SS graphic eight 7 graphic 
threes SS graphic eight 
170 SS graphic eight 3 spaces... 

3 spaces SS graphic eight 
180 SS graphic eight 7 SS graphic 
threes SS graphic eight 
930 17 SS graphic three 
940 inverse(space TOWERS space OF 
space HANOI space) 

990 17 graphic three 


14 








ogas 

x&hr* 

tVSBKfo ss 

MATRIX 

PLANNER 

An all-purpose 
electronic i 

spreadsheet i 

$22 95 J 






any 3 assorted 


L>t! 1 


,>****$ 


INVENTORY FORECASTING SLIDE SHOW CRITICAL NUMERIC 


kni 2 e A useful word CONTROL GRAPHS 

\ processing Two ways to Analyzes 

m/ program keep track of growth 

$19.95 inventories trends and 

M $22.95 plots graphs 

m $22.95 


SCREEN KIT 

Routines to 


Creates and PATH Solves math ^BrtcutM Routines 

runs video Gets complex formulas and ^Bmmand®r enhance 

display shows scheduling draws graphs ^Brogramm* screen 

$22.95 under control $24.95 ^F$19 95 ® displays 

$19.95 Jr « 219 95 


$39 


plus 

shipping 


SPECIAL 

SPECIAL> 
SPECIAL 


SPECIAL 

MW-100 PLAIN PAPER--15 ROLLS—FOR JUST $10 <SPECIAL 

plus shipping SPECIAL 


GAME SOFTWARE SPECIAL : 

Choose any combination of three from the following nine programs - Retail Value up to $51.85 








GULP LABYRINTH PILOT GRAPHIC G 

Gobble your Can you find Cockpit A challenge 

way through your way controls 18-hole 

mazes, chased through that teach you golf course 

by ogres 3-D corridors’ howto $g 95 

$15.95 $15.95 navigate 

219 95 




any 3 assorted 


* 




GRAPHIC GOLF CROSSWORD ANAGRAMS WORD TEST MULTIPLE 

A challenging Create and play Try to put the All kinds of CHOICE 


your own scrambled questioi 

crosswords words answer 

$15.95 back in order $15.95 

$15.95 


WORD TEST MULTIPLE COSMOS 

All kinds of CHOICE Hyperspace 

question and Can you pick laser battles 

answer tests the correct among the 

$15.95 answer’ stars! 

$15.95 $15.95 


$29 


$5 SHIPPING CHARGE PER ORDER TO ONE ADDRESS 


plus 

shipping 


Phone and written orders gladly accepted. Call or write ; The Harvard Group, Dept. SX 

Money Orders, VISA, MC or checks. D * Box 457 

™ M „ z/ . Harvard, MA 01451 

Phone Number - 617-456-3661 
























































































SoftSync—ORDER FROM SYNTAX 


FINANCIAL 




THE ADVANCED 

**«>* BUDGET MANAGED 

%mm ■■ ■ DWL/N,CI n"«r'***v*CK 

THE ADVANCED BUDGET MANAGER is the 

** ultimate financial program for the Timex 1000 

computer because it combines a financial data 

mm'l base with a forecasting program. 

" You can store a year's worth of projected and 

iMUlifflCnD I actual expense and income for comparison and 

lFLwWJl||li ®05 IRS!? record keeping as well as access this financial 

* data in many useful ways. 

^ ^ ^ 3 ? 5 * There are six income and 24 expense categories, 

- all user defined. Choose from the menu to input 
” or review data, analyze income/expense (pro¬ 

jected and actual) by month, category or total. 
This management program, for both home and business applications, is easy to operate and 
includes clear and comprehensive instructions. Making entries is simple, there is a built-in SAVE 
feature allowing you to update your files and PRINT routine for hard copy. 16K 95 

ISKBi .. ,mm:r .. stock MABKE T 

CALCULATOR 


Iff■KilWL _ _ 

IH1B 


THE STOCK* MARKET CALCl 


If you are currently an investor in the stock 
market or thinking of investing, THE STOCK 
MARKET CALCULATOR will be a valuable aid to 
you. Detailed instructions will take a novice, step 
by step through the process, while also offering 
the more experienced investor a comprehensive 
worksheet. STOCK MARKET CALCULATOR, written 
by an experienced stock market executive, 
actually contains two useful calculating programs. 
The first, "MKT 1", consists of three sections: A NET 
PRICE WORKSHEET which calculates commissions 
on stock and option investments and provides total costs to buy or net from sale. PROFIT/LOSS 
calculates commissions, net dollars and profit/loss based on the sale price of a stock or option. A 
COVERED WRITE WORKSHEET calculates nearly every aspect of buying stock and selling call 
options. 

The second program, "MKT 2", adds a "Write Unwrapper" to the NET PRICE WORKSHEET, which is 
invaluable to option writing investors. 

Both covered writing programs allow you to re-enter any of the variables so you can try different 
investment alternatives. 16K $^95 

PERSONAL 


BIORHYTHMS 

Ever wonder why some days you feel 
physically, emotionally or intellectually drained 
while other days you feel like you're on a winning 
streak? 

According to research, peoples' lives are strongly 
affected by three cycles starting from birth- 
Physical, Emotional and Intellectual. These are 
your Biorhythms and they have both positive and 
negative characteristics. 

By entering your birthdate into the program, 
BIORHYTHMS will graphically illustrate your 
monthly cycles so that you can analyze them 
and take advantage of those days when a cycle 
is on a positive swing and exercise caution when 
a cycle is on a negative swing. Be especially careful during critical periods when a cycle crosses 
from positive to negative. You can also print out your BIORHYTHMS with any ZX81/TS1000 
compatible printer. $1495 


BIORHYTHMS 16K 


2K& IK GAMES 



SPACE RAID/TS DESTROYER 

These two fast moving graphics games, 
written in machine code for the unexpanded 
Ti mex 1000 come together on one cassette. You'll 
be amazed at the incredible speed, detail and 
ingenuity squeezed into these 2 K games. 

SPACE RAID gives you five laser bases which you 
can maneuver below a giant hovering space¬ 
ship containing one big, fearsome alien. Fire 
away at the soft underbelly, knock out chunks of 
the ship until you hit the alien where it really hurts 
- his left foot. Ten levels of play. 

Your TS DESTROYER flys out of hyperspace into 
enemy turf. Waves of enemy warships, missiles 
and meteors are coming from all directions. You 


can shoot and maneuver but you can't outrun the guided missiles. Thirty levels of play. Both 


games on one cassette. 


2K $14.95 


2K GAMES PACK 

Six great, graphically illustrated games on 
one cassette for the unexpanded Timex 
1000 : 

COPTER PATROL - Blow out the enemy 
defense system and rescue the hostages. 

KILLER WHALE - As a hungry whale, you 
must eat as much as possible before you have to 
surface for air. 

ASTROWALK - Can you reunite yourself with 
the Mothership or are you destined to float 
around space forever? 

MONSTER MASHER - The Monster is on the 
loose; you must reach the house before he gets 
you! 

STAR BLASTER - Guide your destroyer ship down the star cluttered galaxy blasting a path to 
your home. DRAGON SLAYER — Escape the hunter - your reputation as a dragon is at stake! 

2K $14.95 

THIS MAY BE YOUR LAST CHANCE TO GET THESE 

wanted SoftSync Titles for your ZX/TS. The 
manufacturer wants the warehouse space for a 
batch of IBM stuff but we begged for one last 
chance for you to get what you want before an 
unknown buyer can cart them off. All first- 
quality, guaranteed good stuff. PAY NO MIND 
TO THE PRICES IN THE DESCRIPTIONS— YOU PAY 
LESS! Figure your bargain price: Count all 
the great SoftSync tapes you want from these 
pages. Multiply the number of tapes by $10. 
Now multiply the number of tapes by itself & 
divide the result by 5. Those are your extra 
discount dollars! Subtract them (from N*$10) 
to get your price. FREE P&H in N. America. 
Offer expires Feb. 85— Limit 16 tapes/order. 





























































































SYNTAX is published monthly by a wholly- 

owned subsidiary of The Harvard Group. 


Syntax ZX80, Inc. 

RD 2, Box 457, Harvard, MA 01451. 

Telephone 617/456-3661. 


Publisher: 
Editor: 
Consulting Editor: 
Technical Consultant: 


Kirtland H. Olson 
Eric K. Olson 
Ann L. Zevnik 
Kirtland H. Olson 


© Syntax ZX80, Inc., 1984. All rights reserved. 
Photocopying prohibited. ISSN 0273-2696 


OUR POLICY ON CONTRIBUTED MATERIAL 

SYNTAX invites you to express opinions related to any Sinclair or Timex com¬ 
puter or peripheral, or the newsletter. We will print, as space allows, letters discuss¬ 
ing items of general interest. Of course we reserve the right to edit letters to a 
suitable length and to refuse publication of any material. 

We welcome program listings for all levels of expertise, written in either Sinclair 
BASIC or Z80 machine code. Programs can be for any fun or useful purpose. We 
will test run each one before publishing it, but we will not debug programs; please 
send only workable listings. Ptograms submitted on cassette can be tested more 
quickly and with less chance of error. 

In return for your listing, we will pay you a token fee of $2.00 per program we 
use. This payment gives us the nonexclusive right to use that program in any form, 
world wide. This means you can still use it, sell it, or give it away, and so can we. 

We will consider submissions of news and hardware or software reviews. Please 
keep articles short (350-400 words). Again, we reserve the right to edit accepted 
articles to suitable length. We will pay 7 cents per 6 characters, including spaces and 
punctuation, for accepted articles. 

When you send in articles for possible publication in SYNTAX, please include 
the following information: 

• How to operate the program, including what to input if it does not contain 
prompts. 

• Whether you can run the program over again and how. 

• How to exit the program. 

• The Syntactic Sum (program published in June 81; 
send SASE for a free copy). 

• What RAM size program requires. 

• What ROM program uses (8K, 2068, Spectrum). 

• For MC programs, what addresses must change to relocate the code and what 
ROM calls are used. 

We pay for this explanatory text at the same rate as we pay for articles in addi¬ 
tion to payment for the program itself. 

If you want us to return your original program listing or article, please include 
a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Otherwise, we cannot return submitted material. 


DEADSOFT (TM) 

Up to now, hardware freaks had 
all the fun. No more—now software 
junkies get an even break. SYNTAX 
offers you broken software to fix 
or use for parts in your projects. 

"At these prices we can't test 
'em." But it's the software that's 
bad—the tapes are fine. High- 
class stuff by famous authors, but 
production messed up. Load it, fix 
it, get working stuff and save big. 
We'd charge more for educational 
value, but the boss wants these off 
the kitchen floor, so out they go— 
cheap. Buy extras to give smart- 
mouths who call your ZX/TS a toy or 
put down your programming skills. 


TITLE 

FUNCTION 

ORIGS 

VIDEO PLAN* 

SPREADSHEET 

39.95 

INVENTORY 

FILE MANAGER 

49.95 

VIDEO AD 

SLIDE SHOW 

24.95 

BREAKOUT (MC) 

GAME 

11.95 

COMPUTACALC* 

* Reviewed in 

SPREADSHEET 
SYNTAX Mar.82 

39.95 


SPECIFY DEADSOFT (TM) AND NAMES OF 
PROGRAMS WHEN YOU ORDER. 

YOUR PRICE $6/TAPE, $25/5 TAPES PPD 

SYNTAX, Harvard, MA 01451-0667 
MC/VISA/AMEX/DINERS/ACCESS/BARCLAYS 
617/456-3661 

(Cassettes unlabeled and unboxed, 
manuals copied—Royalties prepaid) 


Fill out the coupon below and mail to: SYNTAX, RD 2, Box 457, 

□ My check is enclosed. □ Please charge my □ VISA 

Make checks Payable to: □ Diner’s Club □ Mastercard 

SYNTAX ZX80, Inc. □ American Express □ Access 

□ Carte Blanche □ Barclaycard 

Account number _ 


Harvard, MA 01451 1rtrw 

/ sx!084 


YES! Please send me: 

□ The Combination II (13 issues of SYNTAX and SQ 

Winter 82-Summer 83) . $58 

□ The Catch-up II (SYNTAX Jan. 82-Jan. 84, SQ Winter 

82-Summer 83, plus binder) . $77 


Exp. date _ Bank number (MC only) 

Signature _ 

Name_ 

Address __ 

City _ State _ Zip 

Phone: Day (_) _ Evening (_) 

□ My subscription number is: _ 

□ This is a new subscription 


□ THE WORKS II (SYNTAX Nov. 80-Dec. 83, SQ Winter 

82-Summer 83, plus 2 binders) . $97 

□ 12 issues of SYNTAX . $48 

□ 3 issues of Syntax Quarterly (Winter 82-Summer 83) .. $25 

□ 1 issue Syntax Quarterly □ Winter 82 i □ Spring 83 

□ Summer 83 . $9 

□ 1 Binder . $9 □ 1 issue of Syntax . $5 

Telephone orders call 
617 - 456-3661 

These offers expire 02/28/85 — SUBSCRIBE NOW. 












SYNTAX 


CLASSIFIEDS 

FASTFILE—Best filing program for 
ZX81/TS1000/1500 or money back. See 
ad last issue or write for more 
information: Tom E. Cole, 

1314 Speight #15, 
Waco, TX 76706 

*TEXTWRITER PLUS 64 WORD PROCESSOR* 
USES TIMEX 64 COL DISP. W/2068-FULL 
EDITING-ANY PRINT WIDTH USING AERCO 
I/F. $29.95 CC & MANUAL. TS 2 04 0 
VERSION SOON. BOB FINGERLE, 39639 
EMBARCADERO, FREMONT, CA 94538 

TIM ESCREEN t m (BASIC) $9.00 Z 
Creativity and planning aid. X 

Routines to enter and rearrange 8 
data: 3 screen for m ats: cal endar. 1 
TALK 5 tm (BASIC) $9.00 
Video communication aid for hand- 1 
icap ped. Instruc. to extend ke ys. 6 
LLIST-GP t m (BASIC) $5.0 0 K 
LLIST & COPY ROUTINES for Tandy 

Graphic Printer & Parallel I/F. _- 

VA res. add 4%. Add $1 s&h for one 
cass.& man.; $.50 ea. addl. From: 
HAWC tm 4604 Apple Tree Dr 

_ Programming _ Alex. . VA 22 310 

1984 TAX RETURN HELPER 
Form 1 04 0 & Sch. A,B,C,D,E. TS2 068 
& TS1000 (16K RAM). $18 ($12 for 
previous buyers)+$1.5 0 s&h. From 
KSOFT, 845 Wellner Rd.,Naperville, 
IL 60540 312/961-1250.Check,Visa&MC 


TS-2068 _ PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE 

cable-sw-shipping included $89.90 
BYTE-BACK Rt3 Leesville SC 29070 

INTEGRATED DATA SYSTEMS 
Specials: $40 TS1000, $25 TS 16K, 

$80 TS2 040. P&H $5/ord or $1.50/ 
RAM. Cheque/VISA/M/C. Catalogue $2 
11 Brighton Av Toronto M4M 1P3 

**** GAM ES FOR THINKING PEOPLE **** 
For ZX81 or T/S1000, 16K or T/S1500 
KARTIK tm A crossword card game for 
2-8 players. Words scored across, 
down or diagonally. Lots of fun, 
and educationalI 

TANGLE4 tm A new patented strategy 
game for 2-4 players. Uses board 
with hidden random directions of 
movement revealed by pieces. Will 
test your ability to think ahead. 
INTR SPECIAL $15.00 ea.(reg.$19.95) 
+ 6.5% tax (CA residents) +$2 S/H. 
Cassette or A&J Micro Drive Wafer. 
Check or MO to: Willcocks Research 
Consultants, 6321 W. 78th Place, 

Los Angeles, CA 90045. 

ROMPAK EPROM SOFTWARE CARTRIDGES 
Many products available including: 
ZXPROFILE,OUICKLOAD,TEXTWRITER,etC 
Send SASE for free catalogue 
ROMPAK 1525 Aviation Blvd. # Alll 
Redondo Beach CA 90278 

PLEASE TELL THESE VENDORS THAT YOU 
SAW THEIR ADVERTISEMENT IN SYNTAX. 


H\RV\RD 

GROLP 

Bolton Road, Harvard. Mass 01451 


First Class 


U.S. Postage 

PAID 

Harvard, MA 
) Permit No. 8 
01451