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SYNTAX 


Serving Timex-Sinclair 
Personal Computers 


A PUBLICATION OF THE HARVARD GROUP 


VOL.4 NO.8 


ISSN 0273-2696 


AUG., 1983 


IN THIS ISSUE 

8K Programs 

Archer.18 

Return on Investment... 6 
Spelling Word Game....15 
Book Review 
The Timex Personal 
Computer Made Simple . 
Mastering Your Timex 
Sinclair Personal 


Computer . 15 

Classified Ads.22 

Dear Editor.12 

Dueling Devices.21 

Hardware Review 

Winky Board II.10 

New Products.2 

News. 1 

POKE Down And 


Abbreviated SAVE/LOAD.18 
Program Clarifications..3 
Program Improvements.... 3 


Set RAMTOP 

Automatically.9 

Software Review 

Copy Katt.14 

Timex Makes 

Medical Waves.16 

TS2068 Specs.6 

User Friendly 

Legal Advice.14 

Users' Groups.4 

Vendor Report 
And Notes.20 


Index of Advertisers 


Byte-Back. 17 

E-Z Key. 15 

Loeser, William M.D....19 

Memotech. 11 

Mnemosyne. 7 

Random Access.9 

Suntronics. 5 


TIMEX: 16K TS2000 SCRAPPED; SOFTWARE DEALS 

Timex will produce only 48K RAM versions of 
the TS2000, called the TS2068, says Timex 
spokesman Carl Folta. The $199 TS2068 will 
experience further delays, with release now 
set for the middle of September. Folta gave 
no reason for the plan changes. In other 
news, Timex will offer a software deal—buy 
two, get two free, starting in August. 

ZX84 IN THE WORKS 

Sinclair Research plans in mid-1984 to intro¬ 
duce the ZX84, a new microcomputer using Sin¬ 
clair's flat 8" CRT and microdrives, reports 
the Dutch periodical Elektronica (6/1/83). 
Later this year, Sinclair plans to introduce 
the $60 microdrive, a new type of memory that 
can store more than 100K bytes of data; up to 
eight drives can run on one computer. Sin¬ 
clair may also offer the microdrive to Spec¬ 
trum users. Sinclair Research denied comment 
on the news, saying the info is classified. 

EXCUSE ME r THAT'S SIR CLIVE 

Queen Elizabeth II of England knighted Clive 
Sinclair on June 11, honoring his accomplish¬ 
ments as inventor of the ZX/TS computer. Sir 
Clive said the event inspires him to achieve 
further success for Britain. 

GOODBYE, SQ 

SQ and SYNTAX staffers regretfully announce 
that SYNTAX QUARTERLY magazine has ceased 
publication, due to financial difficulties. 

We express sincere appreciation and thanks to 
all who contributed to, read and supported 
SQ. We hope you will extend this support to 
SYNTAX, so we can continue to provide ZX/TS 
users with a high-quality publication. Sub¬ 
scribers will shortly receive a letter offer¬ 
ing valuable product alternatives to SQ. 


1 
























NEW PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 


INVENTORY program for small busi¬ 
nesses or collectors. Keeps track 
of assets. Tape, instructions $10. 
MAGIC WORLD SOFTWARE, POB 1184, 
Olympia, WA 98507. 

Consulting services for software 
marketers: contract negotiations, 

product packaging advice, legal 
assistance. Electronic Media Asso¬ 
ciates, 161 W. 15th St., Suite 7E, 
NY, NY 10011, 212/620-3964. 

Expect new TS books this fall. New 
American Library and dilithium 
Press contracted for a new computer 
book series, including .51 Game Pro¬ 
gra ms for the TSl000 &. 1500 by Tim 
Hartnell (due in Sept., $2.50) and 
Things to Do w ith Your TS200 0 by 
Jerry Willis and Merl Miller (due 
in Nov., no price set). 

Floating point extension for XFORTH 
available in Sept., $15 +$1 P&H, 4% 
AR res. tax. XFORTH XCHANGE, forum 
for XFORTH, FORTH-79 users, free 
with HAWG WILD product info. Send 
ideas, questions. XFORTH XCHANGE, 
c/o HAWG WILD Software, POB 7668, 
Little Rock, AR 72217. 

Aircraft Performance charts climb 
rate vs. airspeed to compare per¬ 
formance with varied altitude, 
weight, power, $7.95. 16K listing, 

specs for 250 aircraft from Bob 
Fingerle, POB 7793, Fremont, CA 
94537-7793. 

TS1000 64K RAM under $100. Glad¬ 
stone Elec., 1585 Kenmore Ave., 
Buffalo, NY 14217, 716/874-5510. 

Programmer's Pipeline maintains 
software listings for buyers and 
sellers. Buyers—$150/yearly for 
mailings and database access. Sel¬ 
lers—$20/listing. Ask for free 
Checklist for Program Authors (send 
large SASE, mention SYNTAX). Pro¬ 
grammer's Pipeline, POB 666, Glen¬ 
dora, CA 91740, 213/914-4317. 


Free info on producing instruction 
manuals for software, electronics. 
Manual printing/production services 
also available. Rudy Molho, Coun¬ 
sel Press, 30 E. 40th St., NY, NY 
10016, 212/689-1303. 

MATH TEACHER drills students 
through jr. high level. Covers the 
four basic math operations. Needs 
16K RAM. $29.95, CompuTech, Dept. 
TS-MT-STX, POB 7000-309, Redondo 
Beach, CA 90277, 213/375-6391. 

World Users Exchange collects and 
sends ideas, info, to users groups. 
Publishes reports, newsletter. 

Free, World Users Exchange, POB 
12132, Roanoke, VA 24022. 

Family Health Records program keeps 
medical records, 16K, 64K versions. 
$12.95 includes P&H (83^ tax NY 
res.). Pyramid Software, POB 813, 
Pearl River, NY 10965. 

LODAB merges 2 BASIC programs, oc¬ 
cupies 1.4K. BASIC area memory 
chart displays memory used and 
remaining. BDLS deletes, copies 
blocks of BASIC lines, occupies 
3/4K. Both in ML, self-starting, 
automatically reset RAMTOP, need 
16K. Use together or separately. 
$18.00 ea., THE ULTIMATE BLACKWOOD, 
POB 7427, Santa Cruz, CA 95061. 

MIJID Software trade show for per¬ 
sonal computers in Cannes, France, 
Oct. 3-7. U.S. rep. Harvey Seslow- 
sky, 100 La Fayette Dr., Syosset, 

NY 11791, 516/364-3686. 

SyncWare News bimonthly newsletter 
for TS electronic/math/physics ap¬ 
plications, with focus on technical 
program listings, tutorials on com¬ 
puter use, tech, subjects, hardware 
mods. $15/yr. SyncWare Co., POB 
5177, El Monte, CA 91734. 

Chemistry Tutor teaches intro 
chemistry concepts. 16K, cassette 
$16. H.R. Brady, 301 Pine St., 
Neptune Beach, FL 32233. 


2 





PROGRAM CLARIFICATIONS 


Computer graphics conference "Ap¬ 
plications on the Leading Edge," 
Oct. 24-25. Presentations for en¬ 
gineers, architects, artists, doc¬ 
tors. For info contact Conference 
Secretary, 2nd Annual Pacific 
Northwest Computer Graphics Confer¬ 
ence, 111 Susan Campbell Hall, U. 
of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1204, 
503/686-5555. 

TimeWare product line—8 books, 7 
game tapes, 6-vol. cassette series 
to teach kids math. Software needs 
16K, runs on TS1000, 1500. Reston 
Publishing Co., 11480 Sunset Hills 
Rd., Reston, VA 22090, 800/336- 
0338, or TS stores and bookstores. 

FYLIT tm provides user-generated 
custom database applications—file 
configuration, multi-field sorting. 
Requires 64K, CAI P40 printer, CAI 
Exatron stringy floppy. 50-ft. 
wafer $30. Free catalog. BIOCAL 
SOFTWARE, 167 Wilson St., Petaluma, 
CA 94952, 800/237-8400 x70. 

Fantasy Plaza software "shoppes" 
include TS software, hardware. Or¬ 
der by modem (1-213-244-1100), 
phone plaza operator #12, (800/824- 

7888, 800/824-7919 AK, HI) or shop 
by mail. Fantasy Plaza, POB 6055, 
Burbank, CA 91510. 

GRADEBOOK records grades, weights 
scores, does statistical analysis. 
Tape $12.95. EPHEMERIS V planet 
finder reports location of any 
celestial body, computes lunar 
phases, includes graphics. Tape 
$14.95. Both 16K. S&H $1.25/ 
order, $10/Express Mail. Robotec, 
59 C St., Ampoint Industrial Pk., 
Perrysburg, OH 43551, 419/666-2410. 

M icrocomputer Programs in Print 
software reference guide, includes 
Timex and independent TS software. 
Includes 280 software categories. 
Money back guarantee. Ppbk., 208 
pp. $22.25 includes tax, S&H. 
Postroad Press, Inc., POB 1212, 
Roanoke, VA 24006, 703/342-9797. 


GOLF PARTNER (Jul.83) does not com¬ 
pute golf handicaps (lines 735-745) 
according to US Golf Association 
guidelines. The USGA formula aver¬ 
ages the ten lowest differential 
scores (gross golf scores minus 
course ratings) of your last 20 
rounds, muliplies the average by 
0.96, and rounds off to the nearest 
whole number. Rev. Glass' formula 
averages the ten most recent gross 
scores, subtracts 72, multiplies 
the difference by 0.85, and rounds 
down to the nearest whole number. 

John Carson, Jr., Takoma Park, MD 

Substitute GOTO 80 for GOTO 75 in 
line 60 of WEATHER FORECAST (Jul. 
83) for proper programming tech¬ 
nique. Although the program lacks 
a line 75, the listing as printed 
works. ZX/TS computers jump to the 
next higher line (80) when they 

PROGRAM IMPROVEMENTS 


As noted in Jun.83, my BASIC Syn¬ 
tactic Sum (Feb.83) can give a 
different result than the MC ver¬ 
sion when checking long programs. 
This improvement gives the same 
result as the MC version, whatever 
the program length. 

Just enter these lines at the 
end of your program, then GOTO 9600 
to calculate the Syntactic Sum. 



If you want to use this pro¬ 
gram with different line numbers, 
first enter it by itself , using 
your line numbers and replacing the 
10310 at the end of line 9607 with 
a single 0. RUN it and jot down 


3 










the value of S. Then enter the 
following program, using the S 
value you wrote down for the value 
of D in line 10: 





Make sure your machine is in FAST. 
RUN, then go dry the dishes or walk 
the dog. When you return, the com¬ 
puter should show a 0 in the right 
column. Substitute the correspond¬ 
ing number in the left column for 
the 0 in the next-to-last line of 
Syntactic Sum. DELETE the second 
program and RUN Syntactic Sum. Now 
S should equal 0. 

If the second program never 
gives you a 0, press BREAK. (If no 
numbers appear on the screen, enter 
CONT and press BREAK again later.) 
Pick the smallest absolute value in 
the right column. Divide it by 3 
and reverse the sign (multiply by 
-1). Change the three K variables 
in lines 9602 and 9606 to the let¬ 
ter that number ahead of or behind 
K in the alphabet. For example, if 
the number is +2, change K to M (K 
+2 letters = M). Revise the next 
to last line as explained in the 
previous paragraph (substitute the 
corresponding number...). 

Lloyd Painter, Quakertown, PA 

To execute 8K MC Video Invert (Jun. 
83) more easily, enter this loader 


program (line 1 contains 28 charac¬ 
ters after REM): 



RUN, then input the decimal numbers 
from Jun.83, p.21. After the last 
number, delete lines 10-70. To use 
the routine, enter RAND USR 16514. 

Stephen Brothers, Aurora, CO 

ZX/TS USERS 1 GROUPS 

To list your group or find one in 
your area, call or write SYNTAX. 

Portsmouth, OH: R. Arthur Gindin, 
1823 Kinneys Ln., Portsmouth, OH 
45662, 614/354-2525. 

Cincinnati, OH: Timex/Sinclair 
Users Group of Cincinnati, Rick 
Johnson, 11 Funston Ln., Cincin¬ 
nati, OH 45218, 513/825-1449. 

Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh Area 
Computer Club, Special Interest 
Group—Timex/Sinclair. New address 
and leader: Ed Mihalo, 152 Deer¬ 
field Dr., Pittsburgh, PA 15235, 
412/795-7694. 

Oologah, OK: Billy Casebeer, T/S 
Users Group, POB 372, Oologah, OK 
74053. Interested in hearing from 
ZX/TS owners in any area. 

Sheridan, WY: John E. McWilliams, 
Sheridan Microcomputer Users Group, 
Rt. 2, Box 511, Sheridan, WY 82801, 
307/674-4954. Includes ZX/TS users. 

Newark, DE: Julio C. Bezerra, 371 
Moir St., Newark, DE 19702, 302/ 
834-6565. 

S. Bound Brook, NJ: Amateur Compu¬ 
ter Group of New Jersey, POB 319, 
South Bound Brook, NJ 08880. 


4 






















































FULL SIZE KEYBOARD 

A ■ « nAI A Wk 1 

V/Uiv vcnoiura 


FOR 

YOUR 

ZX-81/ 

TS-1000 


EASY TO 


If you’re tired of not knowing whether your data got entered or tired of pok¬ 
ing data in with one or two fingers, then it’s time to upgrade your ZX-81 to 
a full size, professional keyboard. The SUN KD-81 KEYBOARD offers all 
the ease and comfort of inputting your programs and text on a fast and ef¬ 
ficient professional-sized keyboard! 

KD-81 FEATURES 


INSTALL 

• No Soldering 

• No Modifications 


• Full size keyboard with 41 keys 

• Two color silk-screened key tops 
for easy reading 

• Key tops have commands and 
graphics spelled out the same as 
ZX-81 

• Extra shift key for real keyboard- 
style typing 

• Full size space bar 

• Allows touch typing 

• Rear cutout allows any RAM or 


expansion module to be plugged 
in 

• Keyboard comes with own cables 

• Keyboard case holds both 
keyboard and computer with room 
to spare 

• High impact plastic case with 
vaporized metal shielding 

• Easy assembly — no soldering, 
no modifications 

• Measures 10%" x 7 V/' x 2 Vs" 

1/ES WELCOME 



GET A BETTER PICTURE WITH SAMWOO MONITORS 



SAMWOO provides a much better picture for your Sinclair 
Computer than your TV monitor. Simple modification pro¬ 
cedure includes easy-to-follow instructions. 


Features: 

• Composite Video 
Input/Output 

• Switchable Input 
Impedance 75 or 
lOKohm 

• 750 Line Resolution 
at Center and 500 
Lines at Corners 

• Dimensions are 


9" 18Mhz BANDWIDTH 12" 12Mhz BANDWIDTH 12.13" x 11.34" x 


Green.$121.00 Green.$130.00 11.65" for the 12" 

Orange.125.00 Orange. 134 00 model and 8.66" x 

8 54" x 9 05" for thp 

Add $7.50 Shipping and Handling for this item. ° iur mt; 

9" model 



Simple installation 
steps included 
with 
each 
kit. 


RAM MODULES 

> Built-in output connector for piggyback 

> Lip for mounting on ZX-81 & KD-81 

> High-impact plastic case with vaporized met 
shielding 

>6.6" wide, 3.2" high, 1.08" deep 

16K $49.95 MX-16KP 

64K $119.00 mx-64kp 



sumowcs co„ INC. 

12621 Crenshaw Blvd., Hawthorne, CA 90250 

STORE HOURS: MON.-FRI. 9:00 am to 6:30 pm 
SATURDAY 10:00 am to 5:00 pm 


CALIFORNIA OUTSIDE CALIFORNIA TOLL FREE 

213 - 644-1149 1 - 800 - 421-5775 

(for Tech Info and Calif, orders) (Order Desk Only) 

Mail Order — Minimum Order $10. Send Money Order or Check to P.O. BOX 1957 — 
HAWTHORNE, CA 90250. VISA or Mastercard (please include expiration date). 
Add $4.00 postage and handling to order. CA residents add 6% sales tax. 










TS2068 SPECIFICATIONS 

Although Timex's new TS2068 
will appear shortly, they have kept 
most specs under close wraps. 

SYNTAX gathered this information 
about the new machine. 

Onboard you'll find a Z80A 
processor with a new design for 
multimegabyte bank-switchable RAM. 

A new Sinclair flat-pak logic chip 
with 68 pins is bonded directly to 
the board. General Instruments' 
AY38912 sound chip provides three 
voices and a single envelope. 

Timex has sent the ROM for 
manufacture. They now await 500 
prototype units, so expect release 
within the next couple months. 

Electronically, the keyboard 
works like the TS1000, but mechani¬ 
cally it resembles the Spectrum. 
Keys with indented tops and home- 
row dots on two keys allow easier 
touch-typing. Large moveable keys 
give tactile feedback; an internal 
speaker provides audio feedback. 

Six of the buffered edge con¬ 
nector pins provide red, green and 
blue video output plus intensity 
and ground. Modulated video goes 
to your TV through a coaxial con¬ 
nector like the TSl000's. 

Timex plans to make several 
unspecified languages available. 

According to our report, the 
cassette input has automatic level 
control and works reliably at 1200 
baud, adjusting for recorder speed 
using a tone header. 

Your TS2068 will use a full 
bit-mapped graphics display of 256 
xl92 pixels, with one bit of attri¬ 
bute per pixel (yielding 6K of 
attribute memory and 6K of pixel 
memory). It has a 64-column mode. 
You can get 512x192 pixels by set¬ 
ting up two display files, and an 
80-column display is possible. The 
hi-res video copies character pic¬ 
tures onto a hi-res screen (a meth¬ 
od used by Apple's Lisa). 

All driven by a hefty power 
supply with 1A extra power and 
still under $200. 


RETURN ON INVESTMENT—8K/16K 

What percentage return do your 
investments earn? If you play the 
stock market or own mutual funds, 
you may not know the rate of return 
from multiple investments. This 
program computes compounded annual 
rates of return on single invest¬ 
ments and monthly annuities. RE¬ 
TURN calculates up to 20 single and 
four annuity investments, which you 
can make at different times. 

RETURN works by calculating a 
figure based on a trial rate of 
return. It then compares this 
number with your investment's cur¬ 
rent value. If the difference is 
greater than 0.1%, the computer 
picks another trial rate and re¬ 
peats the computation. This itera¬ 
tive process (repeated adjusted 
trials until arriving at the cor¬ 
rect response) is a perfect time¬ 
saving application for computers. 

Type in the program and RUN. 
For your first entry, don't re¬ 
evaluate loaded data (previous en¬ 
tries) when asked. Hit N for No 
and the program asks you for the 
month, date, year and amount of 
your first single investment. Hit 
0 then ENTER to exit this data in¬ 
put section when desired. After 
you exit the single investment sec¬ 
tion, the program asks for monthly 
annuities. After you ENTER infor¬ 
mation on these, hit 0 then ENTER. 
The screen then blanks as the com¬ 
puter calculates. Be patient, and 
you will see your rate of return 
and ending balance displayed (the 
margin of error). An ending bal¬ 
ance of $1 on a $1000 investment 
means your investment may actually 
fall between $999 or $1001. 

Press Y when asked if you want 
to SAVE the data to tape. Then, 
you can recalculate your return 
rate later with a new monetary 
value of your investments. The 
program self-runs after you SAVE 
your data. You cannot enter more 
info if you SAVE and recalculate 
existing data. 


6 



Hit N if you don't want to 
SAVE your data, generating report 
code 9 (STOP). Press RUN to start 
another round of investments. 

If you want to enter more than 
20 single investments, change the 
number 20 in lines 1240 and 1320 to 
the number desired. To enter more 
than four annuities, change the 
first numeral four in line 1250 to 
the number of annuities desired, 
and change the numeral four in line 
1530 to the same quantity. 

Program limitations: calcula¬ 
tions stop if the rate of return is 
less than 1%. The program computes 
only gains, not losses. Computa¬ 
tion time can take awhile, partly 
because the program accurately cal¬ 
culates the number of days between 
two dates (lines 30-150, 300-420, 
510-630) for more exact results. 

To achieve a greater accuracy 
than 0.1%, first convert the de¬ 
sired accuracy to a fraction. For 
example, represent 0.05% accuracy 
with the fraction 5/10,000. Then 
multiply this fraction by the term 
in line 690. The line reads as 
follows, with changes highlighted: 
690 IF ABS (C(4)-Y) <5C(4)/10 r 000. 

Russell Crum, Canton, MI 



MNEMOSYNE 

601 West Cliveden Street 
Box A206 

Philadelphia, PA 19119 

WHY PAY $49 ? ? 

T/S 1000 — ZX81 
ASSEMBLER/SOURCE EDITOR/LOADER 

Assembler handles all source statements & lists 
to TV or printer. Editor features move/delete block, 
find string/tag & scroll functions. Loader (650 baud) 
saves source files & your machine programs indepen¬ 
dent of BASIC. And your programs can access 
load/save routines. . . 

send 

$14.50 

(cheque or money order) 

inquiries welcome 



7 





































8 



























SET RAMTOP AUTOMATICALLY 


This progam automatically sets 
your machine up for machine code 
routines in high memory by moving 
RAMTOP. I don't like to figure a 
new RAMTOP by hand, then POKE the 
right number into the right loca¬ 
tion. This program does it for 
you, displaying the new RAMTOP and 
the two numbers to POKE. To POKE 
RAMTOP yourself, write down the 
numbers in the box and POKE them, 
following the example on pp.124-5 
(Chap. 25, Using Machine Code) of 
the Timex manual. Or the computer 
will POKE them for you. Enter and 
run AUTO RAMTOP before entering 
your other programs. 

Another handy use: suppose 
your program uses 4K RAM. To speed 
it up, enter the number of bytes 
not used (subtract the number used 


from 32768 if you have 16K) or en¬ 
ter 1024 times the number of K not 
used. For example, your program is 
4K bytes long; you have 16K RAM. 
Enter 1024*12. Then LOAD and RUN 
your program—it runs faster. 

SAVE the program before it 
RUNS to avoid the line 995 wipeout. 

Variables 
RT RAMTOP 

BYTES How many bytes in routine 
(number to subtract from RAMTOP) 

NA New Address to locate RAMTOP 
RE Remainder after dividing NA by 
256*A (See lines 60&230) 

A Whole number to multiply by 256 
and add to RE to get NA 
Graphics and Inverse Video 
line 800 graphics E 17 graphics 7 
graphics R 

line 810 graphics 5 graphics 8 
line 820 graphic W 17 graphic 6 
graphic Q 
line 960 "DONE" 


Todd Montague, Graham, WA 



HDMR-12 VIDEO MONITOR/RECEIVER $99.95 


THE HDMR-12 IS THE PERFECT COMPANION TO THE SINCLAIR ZX-81/TS1000, A 
FLIP OF A SWITCH CHANGES IT FROM A NORMAL 12" B & W RECEIVER TO A HIGH 
DEFINITION MONITOR, INPUT IMPEDANCE IS 75 OHMS WITH A SENSITIVITY OF 
1.0 VOLT PEAK TO PEAK. INTERFERENCE FROM LOCAL T.V. STATIONS IS 
TOTALLY ELIMINATED IN THE MONITOR MODE AND CHARACTER DEFINITION IS 
ASTOUNDINGLY SHARP. ADD $8.50 SHIPPING AND HANDLING PER MONITOR. WE 
CANNOT SHIP MONITORS OUTSIDE THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES. ARIZONA 
RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX ( $6.00 ). WE CANNOT ACCEPT COD OR CHARGE 
CARD ORDERS. ALLOW 4 TO 6 WEEKS FOR DELIVERY. CERTIFIED CHECK 0R^ 
MONEY ORDER SPEEDS DELIVERY. 

RANDOM ACCESS PHOENIX.°ArSzONA 85080 j 


9 










































HARDWARE REVIEW 


Product: Winky Board II tape 

filter and duplicator 
From: G. Russell-Electronics 

RD 1 Box 539 
Centre Hall, PA 16828 
Price: $19.95 assembled 

$14.95 kit + $1 S&H 

Winky Board's designer bills 
it as a tape sound conditioner that 
lets you save bad tapes and copy 
any ZX/TS tapes, but Winky copies 
better than it saves. 

Proper matching of the imped¬ 
ance of two recoders results in the 
board's duplicating success. Out¬ 
put for most cassette decks is 4-6 
volts at 8 Ohms (speaker). Desired 
input is typically in millivolts at 


600-1000 Ohms (microphone). Winky 
Board matches these, letting you 
exactly duplicate any tape. 

While the duplicating feature 
works all the time, the SAVE fea¬ 
ture is only marginal. Two LED 
indicators show when your recorder 
reaches proper recording levels. 

On really poor tapes, the light is 
hard to discern. If neither LED 
lights even a little, your tape is 
too bad even for Winky to save. 
Winky helped me load about 50% of 
my extensive bad tape collection. 
Some of the unloadable ones con¬ 
tained speed distortions; the 
board cannot do anything for those. 
Winky Board filters the tape data 
to eliminate computer or RAM pack 
interference frequencies. 

Kit assembly seems improved 
over Winky Board I; you need to 
solder only 3 joints in this pas¬ 
sive device. Considering its sim¬ 
plicity, I recommend you buy the 
kit. You get a simple high pass 
filter (resistors and capacitors), 
two indicator LEDs and an impedance 
matching network of resistors. One 
miniplug and three jacks provide 
input, load and duplicate output 
levels and an eavesdropping point. 
Manufacturer Bill Russell enclosed 
the jacks to correct an initial 
problem in Winky Board I of a loose 
jack touching exposed metal. 

Despite its drawbacks, this 
product can pay for itself with one 
use if you save an otherwise un- 
saveable program. 

Paul Donnelly, Centerport, NY 

We found Winky II helps find the 
correct LOADing volume because the 
LED lights at that point. You can 
shorten LED#l's life by turning the 
volume too high. It doesn't blow, 
but it gradually burns out. 

LOADing instructions were good 
and easy to follow, but the other 
procedures were a bit sketchy. For 
example, we weren't sure in the 
double-SAVE hook-up diagram where 
to connect the computer.—RWK 

1 O 






































































mmmn 


The Direct Connection 

is Here .. . 


. . . foryour Timex-Sinclair computer. Memotech can now connect you to CompuServe 
with our new modem package. With this introductory offer you get a 300 Baud J-Cat 
Modem by Novation. . . RS232 serial interface with built-in communications software 
and all connecting cables. PLUS, you get a CompuServe Demopak, password, I.D. and 
log on/off procedures for a free two hour demonstration of the CompuServe Information 
Service. 

Memotech, the leader in add-on Timex products, introduces the modem package for 
only $199.95 + $6.95 shipping/handling. (Suggested value $290.00). 

Simply plug in our direct connect add-on products to the back of your Timex computer. 
The Memopak 1 6K sells for $49.95 *. . . 32K Memopak is $99.95 * and our best seller 
64K Memopak is $149.95 *. 

The Memotech keyboard is priced at $99.95 *. The Centronics parallel interface sells 
for $74.95 * including software, and the RS232 interfaces are $99.95 *. Printer 
packages are also low, low priced. 

Order at no risk (10 day money-back guarantee); Call 1-800-662-0949 
(Colorado 1 -303-986-1 51 6). Or send your name, address, phone number and a 
check/money order/Visa or MasterCard number with expiration date to: 

Memotech Direct Sales Division 
7550 W. Yale Avenue, Denver, Colorado 80227 

* Shipping/Handling $4.95; Colorado Residents add applicable sales tax. 

















DEAR EDITOR: 


know of some way to modify my JRS 
to open up the 8K-16K area? 


During the hot summer months, 
store your ZX printer aluminum 
printouts in a dry place. My pro¬ 
gram printouts developed black 
spots when kept in a humid base¬ 
ment, making them unreadable. 

Richard Bryan, Falmouth, MA 


I discovered an easy fix to an 
annoying problem. One of my ZX81 
keyboard's foil tracks broke be¬ 
tween the keyboard and its connec¬ 
tor; a likely consequence of some 
recent modifications to my comput¬ 
er. Using the schematic in SQ 
(Winter82 p.47) I located the bad 
track, and replaced the missing 
section with aluminum foil. First, 
I placed some tape on the foil to 
provide enough stability when trim¬ 
ming. I taped this foil bridge 
over the defective track with plen¬ 
ty of overlap on the good portion 
of the conductor. 

My keyboard works like new, 
and I saved myself the hassle of a 
repair charge. 

Ken Hartgrove, Miami, FL 


Do you know of any products to 
reduce or eliminate interference? 

My video display wavers when cars 
drive past, or when someone runs a 
large appliance. 

Myron Felckowski, Stevens Point, WI 

Any number of things could fix this 
problem. Try separating your com¬ 
ponents, buying power backup sup¬ 
plies (SYNTAX Jul.83 p.7), using a 
different TV, or hooking up a moni¬ 
tor instead of a TV.—KO 


Operating manuals for the CAI 
Interface Module and ESF Stringy 
Floppy indicate that the 8K-16K 
memory locations must be available 
for the system. It works fine with 
my 16K Sinclair RAM module, but not 
with my JRS 64K RAM pack. Do you 


Jim Alderson, Santa Paula, CA 

Prevent the RAM CS from selecting 
the memory in these address spaces. 
See the decoding description for 
64K RAM packs in SQ Summer 83.—KO 


Three other ZX/TS owners and I 
discovered an unusual way to solve 
our LOADing problems. When replac¬ 
ing all four tape recorder batter¬ 
ies failed to fix bad LOADS in my 
ZX81 kit, I used two new and two 
weak batteries in my GE tape re¬ 
corder. I have done this for a 
year with no problems—whenever the 
batteries need changing, I leave 
the two most recent batteries in 
and add two new ones. 

My three friends use TS1000S 
and Panasonic or Sony tape decks, 
with similar results. 

Paul G. Allain, Gardner, MA 

If you run the recorder from an 
adjustable DC supply, you'll find a 
range of voltages over which it 
operates well. You can then build 
a fixed regulated supply whose 
voltage equals the square root of 
the product of the maximum and 
minimum voltages at which the ma¬ 
chine loads.—KO 


Hardware tip: The pin jacks 
for power, mic and earphone contain 
very weak springs, sometimes caus¬ 
ing you to lose programs just from 
touching the power cable. I unsol¬ 
dered the jacks and replaced them 
with better ones from Radio Shack— 
ordinary panel jacks. Although I 
had some difficulty wrapping a wire 
around them to solder to ground and 
solder the tab into the circuit, 
this solution works. Result—not 
one power loss in a year, and I can 
pick it up or shake it without fear 
of lost programs. 

Robert Jenkins, Chicago Heights, IL 


12 


After attempting to perform 
some of the floating point examples 
given in Toni Baker's book How to 
Program the ZX81 in Machine Lan¬ 
guage , I realized that some of the 
call addresses given for various 
floating point routines in the ROM 
are incorrect for my ZX81. Can you 
explain this? 

Michael Stokes, Tullahoma, TN 

ZX81s built before late 1981 con¬ 
tained ROM bugs. When correcting 
the problem, Sinclair offset all 
code in the new ROM by three bytes 
after 0EEFh, See SYNTAX (Nov.81 
p.7) for the newer 8K ROM map. We 
know no errors in Toni's book. 
Anyone else?—AZ 


Do you know of an interface to 
connect my ZX81 to the MPI (Micro 
Peripherals Inc.) Mod. 51/52 Flex¬ 
ible Disc Drive with 500K storage? 
It's designed to run with computers 
such as those from IBM, Texas In¬ 
struments, or Radio Shack, which 
have their own power supply and I/O 
cable terminating in 34-pin PCBA 
edge connectors. 

Harry D. Graham, Kingston, NY 

Aerco sells the products you need: 
FD-FX Floppy Disk Interface (plug¬ 
in) for $179, and DP-2 power supply 
for $79. The power supply provides 
the needed voltage for each drive 
of 5V at 1-1/2 Amps and 12V at 2 
Amps. Aerco, POB 18093, Austin, TX 
78760, 512/385-7405.—LFV 


I have two 16K RAM modules 
(one is a TS1016) that can't piggy¬ 
back to form 32K. How can I com¬ 
bine the two to get more memory? 

David Pinto, Jensen Beach, FL 

You must perform some hardware mods 
to merge your RAMs. While we can't 
detail a complete solution, we can 
tell you that a RAM pack knows its 
address by the way address lines 


and RAM CS are connected. If you 
arrange to divert RAM CS from one 
RAM pack to the other, you cause 
the first to be active between 16K 
and 32K and the second to function 
from 32K to 48K. See SYNTAX (May82 
p.5) for circuit hints.—KO 


Can you POKE new lines into a 
program without BREAKing and LIST- 
ing the new line number? I can 
find the address after any program 
line number by PEEKing 16425, but 
attempts to POKE into addresses af¬ 
ter those holding the last charac¬ 
ter in the line causes a crash or 
POKES characters onto a blank 
screen. Any ideas? 

Tim Lichtenwald, San Francisco, CA 

Ideas yes, methods no. We made a 
quick pass at POKEing to the edit 
file, but that didn't work. You 
could create a bank of REM state¬ 
ments with sufficient room to hold 
new names, then automatically POKE 
them to active statements. You'll 
find the basic method for changing 
commands in SYNTAX (Feb.81 p.12), 
but now you have a more complex 
address-finding scheme to develop. 
We know the ROM contains a routine 
to insert BASIC lines, but we don't 
know how to use it. If any reader 
can help us, we'd be grateful.—KO 


How can I convert the English 
ZX Spectrum to US television stan¬ 
dards? Neither Timex, Sinclair, 
or Ferranti carry the part I need 
(Ferranti ULA #114, or equivalent). 
Can you help? 

Rick Barnett, Woodbridge, VA 

We know of no additional sources, 
but you can run your Spectrum in 
black and white on many US TVs. 
Also, you can buy a PAL-standard TV 
or monitor that can accept various 
color standards like the $600 JVC 
TM-14PSN. For the monitor, you 
must also use direct video just as 
you would for a ZX/TS.—KO 


13 


SOFTWARE REVIEW 

Program: Copy Katt 

Purpose: Making backup tapes 
Price: $3/listing 

$l/disassembler listing 
ROM/RAM requ'd: 8K/16K 
Language: MC 

From: Katt's Computers 

Box 162 

Chicago, IL 60411 

Copy Katt lives up to its ad¬ 
vertised claim of being able to 
copy any ZX/TS software, including 
machine code unlistable programs. 

You must enter the 130-byte 
machine code program (sold as a 
listing) into a REM statement. Use 
the short loader program provided 
and you can use Copy Katt in about 
the time it takes to enter 300 
keystrokes. The disassembler list¬ 
ing appears to load the various 
registers with high memory pointers 
(over 32K) and then boots up into 
the high memory areas. 

Copy Katt sets itself up when 
RUNning and begins the ROM tape 
loading subroutine. When the tape 
you want to copy LOADS, COPY KATT 
automatically BREAKS and LISTS it, 
letting you SAVE it the usual way. 

Fast delivery rates an A: I 
received my two-page program list¬ 
ing and instructions in less than a 
week after placing my order. 

Three suggestions for improve¬ 
ment: include the assembly lan¬ 

guage listing as part of the Copy 
Katt package, mention in Copy Katt 
ads that the routine only works for 
16K programs, and include instruc¬ 
tions on adaptation to 2K machines. 

I highly recommend Copy Katt 
and give it a 10 on my 1 to 10 
scale of cost-for-value. 

Paul Donnelly, Centerport, NY 

See the Winky Board hardware review 
and the article "User Friendly 
Legal Advice" for further discus¬ 
sion about copying software and 
related legal concerns.—LFV 


USER FRIENDLY LEGAL ADVICE 

To get the best protection 
against program-idea theft, you 
must construct a patchwork shield 
out of laws governing copyright, 
trade secrecy and licensing or 
sales. Courts usually deny patents 
to computer programs because they 
do not fit the legal requirements 
of being "novel" or "nonobvious." 

By comparison, you can copy¬ 
right your program easily, cheaply, 
and effectively. Simply put the 
copyright symbol or the word "copy¬ 
right," the year and your name on 
the cassette label and in the pro¬ 
gram's first line. (See ARCHER in 
this issue.) You must independent¬ 
ly copyright any documentation you 
write as well. You establish a 
valid copyright the moment you 
place the copyright notice on any 
work. But to enforce your rights 
if you wish to sue for infringement 
on your copyright, you must file 
your copyright with the government. 
Write to the Public Information 
Office, United States Copyright 
Office, Library of Congress, Wash¬ 
ington, DC 20559, and request Class 
TX application forms. Send in the 
completed form with a $10 fee and a 
program print-out. 

Copyright laws protect your 
program as a whole, but not neces¬ 
sarily ideas embodied in your pro¬ 
gram, such as subroutines. Protect 
these as trade secrets by including 
a trade secrecy clause restricting 
what a buyer can do with your pro¬ 
gram. A typical trade secrecy 
clause might prohibit the user from 
disclosing the program to any third 
party, by sale or by giving copies 
away. You can take legal action if 
the program's user violates any of 
these requirements. Imposing trade 
secrets if you directly market to 
the public might not be wise as it 
could cut into your product sales. 

Jonathan Wallace, Esq., 51 E. 

42nd St., Suite 1601, NY, NY 10017 
Part II coming in Sept. SYNTAX—LFV 


14 



SPELLING WORD GAME—8K/2K 

As a lazy parent, I devised 
this spelling game to tutor my 
daughter in the words she must 
learn each week for school. 

Type in the program, and RUN 
then ENTER. You'll see an "L" 
prompt; enter five words scrambled 
and then five correctly spelled 
words in the same order. Press 
ENTER after each entry. (No indi¬ 
cator tells when to go from the 
scrambled to correct spellings.) 

The screen instruction then tells 
you to unscramble the word below. 
When you're through with the five 
words, decide whether you want to 
play again. A yes answer lets you 
play using the same words again. 

To begin another round with new 
words, press RUN. 

SPELLING WORD GAME makes spel¬ 
ling practice more enjoyable for my 
daughter; the game provides visual 
encouragement and rewards her with 
more words to try when she's right. 

Adults can enjoy this by play¬ 
ing cryptoquote or other scrambled 
word games. 

Frederic Bogar, Key West, FL 






NOT JUST A KEYBOARD REPLACEMENT 
BUT AN ENHANCEMENT THAT GIVES 
KEYBOARD FEATURES FOUND ONLY 
ON MORE EXPENSIVE COMPUTERS. 


FOR FASTER & EASIER DATA ENTRY 
WITH YOUR E-Z KEYBOARD . . . 

Here at last, is a large 60 key “TACTILE 
FEEL" keyboard that plugs into the same 
connectors as the existing keyboard on 
your ZX81, TIMEX/SINCLAIR 1000 or 1500 

HERE THE CLICK... FEEL THE SNAP! 
for every key pressed (tactile feedback) 

IT’S THE ONLY KEYBOARD WITH ALL OF 
THESE FEATURES: 

• 60 moving keys: solid (not rubber) 

• Legends in three colors on the base (color coded by key functio 

• Molded legends on keytops (no stickers) 

• 8 automatic shift keys (no shifting required) for edit, delete, 
single & double quotes, colon, semi-colon, function and stop 

• 2 shift keys 

• Numeric keypad 

• No wiring required (Just plug in) 

Cables and instructions are included 



above) is available for yc 
Measurements: 

EC-11 (11" X 9“ X 3.5") 

EC-14 (14" X 9" X 3.5”) 
JOYSTICK 

A joystick kit that requiri 
like the arrow keys and C 
Plugs into E-Z Key 60 keyboarc 


$84.95 



E-Z HEV 

Suite 75, Dept. CE 
| 711 Southern Artery 
I Quincy, Massachusetts 02169 
\(61?) 773-1187 


BOOK REVIEW 


Title: 
Author: 
Publisher: 


Price: 


The Timex Personal 
Computer Made Simple 
Joe Campbell, Jonathan 
D. Siminoff, Jean Yates 
Signet/The New American 
Library 
P.O. Box 999 
Bergenfield, NJ 07621 
$3.50 (ppbk., 152 pps.) 


Title: 


Author: 

Publisher: 


Price: 


Mastering Your Timex 
Sinclair Personal 
Computer 

Tim Hartnell and 
Dilwyn Jones 
Bantam Books, Inc. 

414 E. Golf Rd. 

Des Plains, IL 60016 
$3.95 (ppbk., 208 pps.) 


Each of these books costs less 
than other ZX/TS books because of 
their small size and cheap paper. 

I recommend both books for their 
price alone, though Hartnell and 


15 















































TIMEX MAKES MEDICAL WAVES 


Jones wrote a much clearer book 
than Campbell et al. 

As its name might imply. Made 
Simple seems to talk down to the 
reader. The text tries to keep 
things light and breezy, and in¬ 
cludes many cartoons. Despite 
this, I found the book confusing, 
with too much text and too few 
demonstration programs. 

After two short how-to-plug- 
it-in chapters, the book moves 
quickly into five chapters that 
explain some programming concepts, 
then progresses into four chapters 
of programs. The book's six appen¬ 
dices include computer anatomy, re¬ 
sources, a glossary, report codes, 
and troubleshooting. 

Program listings in regular 
type pose problems. For example, 
no slash in numeral 0 confuses it 
with letter 0 in some listings. 

By contrast, Hartnell and Jones 
give you over 65 programs for less 
than $4 with a lot of valuable 
information in Mastering Your Ti¬ 
mex . Their underlying attitude 
seems different from Campbell's— 
they assume you want to learn and 
work hard to help you. As founder/ 
coordinator of the National ZX 
Users' Club of England, Hartnell 
brings to this book his experiences 
working with Sinclair users. 

This book contains short chap¬ 
ters that cover beginning program¬ 
ming concepts, plus such topics as 
PEEK and POKE, MOVING GRAPHICS, and 
converting other BASICS. Hartnell 
and Jones use high-quality illus¬ 
trative programs. Appendices cover 
utilities such as hexadecimal con¬ 
version, bytes remaining, and how 
to simulate 2K memory with more 
memory attached. Program listings 
read exactly like your TV screen. 

Mastering Your Timex Sinclair 
Personal Computer challenges the 
publishing world to provide high 
quality at low cost, just as the 
TS1000 challenges other computer 
manufacturers. 

Bob Rettew, Derry, NH 


Medical science utilizes T/S 
power in a joint venture between 
MIT and Harvard Medical School, 
according to Stephen Burns, techni¬ 
cal director of MIT's Biomedical 
Engineering Center. Burns teaches 
a course called "Biomedical Instru¬ 
mentation Electronics" to both Har¬ 
vard medical and MIT graduate stu¬ 
dents. The course comprises part 
of the joint Harvard-MIT Health 
Sciences Technology program, which 
combines teaching of technology and 
medical sciences. 

Burns and his students use the 
TS1000 as a processor for acquiring 
and analyzing signals from spirome¬ 
ters, used commonly by respiratory 
therapists to measure air flow when 
breathing. The TS 1000 measures 
FEV1, the ratio of total expired 
air volume to the fraction expelled 
in the first second. Combined with 
an analog device, the Timex quanti¬ 
fies signals from a pressure trans¬ 
ducer and stores them in memory, 
using Zilog DMA chips. 

Why did Burns choose the TS 
1000 to illustrate process control? 
"It's cheap, but as powerful as any 
computer available, with function¬ 
ally complete BASIC," Burns said. 

Course members designed an in¬ 
terface and added 2K memory using 
static RAM chips. Future plans may 
include implementing a PROM program 
and using a large scale integrated 
circuit to completely control the 
instrumentation. "The Sinclair may 
allow us to program this chip to 
mediate data transfer and perhaps 
control timing," Burns said. 

Several of his English col¬ 
leagues use the Spectrum as teach¬ 
ing tools and instrument control¬ 
lers, Burns added. 

For information about Burns' 
course (HST70) or further technical 
details, write to Burns at MIT, 
Biomedical Engineering Center, 18 
Vassar St., Rm. 20A-119, Cambridge, 
MA 02139. SYNTAX hopes to publish 
further details.—LFV 


16 



iffg 1 


BYTE-BACK modules 


64-K MEMORY 

With Battery Backup $109. i^IT 


BYTE-BACK UM-64 


W 


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MODEM 

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ASSEMBLED & TESTED $149.95 “ KITi 

With New SMART , Menu Driven SOFTWARE 
included FREE. 

•Send and receive Programs by Phone 
•Copy Information into memory from a Host 
Computer (such as CompuServe), Print it, 
Review it, Save it on Tape, Send Text from 
Memory. 

•Use Timex 2040 Printer or Any RS-232 Printer 
•RS-232 Printer Port provided. 

•No extra memory Required, But with 64-K 
Memory You Can Store Up To 60 Full Screens #1 

COMPUSERVE PACKAGE WITH 5 FREE HOURS ONLY $39.95 ; 

BYTE-BACK’S BB-1 

CONTROL MODULE 

$59 ■KIT In Stock! 

ASSEMBLED & TESTED $69.00 

• 8 Independent Relays 

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• 8 Independent TTL Inputs 

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the “ULTIMATE MEMORY 

UM-64 

FEATURES: 

• Battery Backup - Computer and full 64-K Backed 

• PROM/ROM socket 

• Reset Switch-Reset without destroying Program 

• BYTE-BACK EXCLUSIVE FULL 64-K 

The 0-8K area is available. You can execute a copy routine (provided) to 
copy the TIMEX ROM into the 0-8K area of RAM then flip a switch and you 
have your operating system in RAM. You can modify it and create your 
own customized operating system. Full details, examples & proqrams 
included. 

WHY PAY MORE FOR LESS FEATURES? 

GET THE “ULTIMATE MEMORY” 

BYTE BACK S UM-64 




NEW ZX PRO/FILE 


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S This New Program is what the Timex has been waiting for. % 

At BYTE-BACK we have used & evaluated almost every data organizer & Data File Program on 
the market & we were not really impressed until we tryed Thomas Woods’ NEW ZX PRO/FILE 
Program. It is truly the best piece of software we have seen for the Timex Computer. We now use it 
to help run our business. This program is so FAST that even when the program is full the file you 
want is on the screen within a second. 

The ZX PRO/FILE has features not found on the other Data File programs. It has: FILE 
ANALYSIS function which allows you to count, analyze frequency, %, etc. Capability to create 

FILES OF ANY SIZE in the same program MULTIPLE WORD SEARCH, excellent ADD/EDIT 
features. ORDERED FILE OUTPUT based on any numerical value contained in the files 
DEFINABLE PRINTER FUNCTIONS & AUTO SEARCH. Works with both 16K & 64K memory 

FREE 59 page BOOK. This book alone is worth the purchase price. ZX PRO/FILE’s machine 
language concepts & methods are fully explained. It includes a complete PROGRAM LISING & 
detailed explanation of how the program works & how it can be easily modified. It also includes a 
machine language programming section. 





• By using a single POKE command you 
can change and latch the status of each of 
the 8 relays. 

• Your computer can read the status of all 8 
inputs by the use of a single PEEK 
command. 

• A comprehensive manual is included that 
has complete application details. 

• More than one BB-1 can be used at a time. 


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EXCEPT 
ZX PRO/FILE 












POKE DOWN AND ABBREVIATED SAVE/LOAD 

With a 16K RAM pack, you can't 
help but notice longer SAVE and 
LOAD times compared to a IK or 2K 
machine. And when a program writ¬ 
ten with extra memory attached is 
published, it is often listed as 
16K, regardless of its true length. 

To avoid both problems, try 
this: Before starting a program, 

execute (without line numbers) POKE 
16389,68 and NEW. No matter what 
your RAM, this process makes RAMTOP 
17408, or IK. (The other value 
used to determine RAMTOP at address 
16388 is always 0 unless otherwise 
POKEd.) 

With the computer now limited 
to IK, begin writing. If your 
program fits and runs, it is a IK 
routine. If IK is not enough and 
you have more than IK attached, 

SAVE what you have. Now POKE 
16389,72 and execute NEW. Load 
your SAVEd program. Your computer 
now has 2K (with 16K you can unplug 
or POKE 16389,128 to restore 16K). 

What if you already SAVEd your 
program using 16K? For sure it 
will not LOAD into less memory. 

So, LOAD it into 16K. Then execute 
CLEAR and PRINT PEEK 16396+PEEK 
16397*256. If the number displayed 
is under 17408, the program fits 
into IK; under 18431 fits in 2K. 

Of course, just because it 
fits doesn't mean it will run. IF 
you RUN it and PRINT PEEK 16412+ 
PEEK 16413*256 still yields a num¬ 
ber under 17408 for IK or 18431 for 
2K, it probably will run in that 
memory. The only way to know is to 
LOAD it into IK or 2K and RUN. 

This requires making a IK or 
2K SAVE from your present 16K ver¬ 
sion so you can LOAD it into lesser 
memory. With the 16K version LOAD- 
ed, execute CLEAR and POKE 16389,68 
for IK or POKE 16389,72 for 2K. 

Then SAVE. You now have a IK or 2K 
SAVE. Now execute NEW to set the 
computer to the limited memory, 

LOAD the just-saved routine into 
the smaller memory and RUN. 


As you do this procedure, you 
surely notice the shorter SAVE and 
LOAD times. You can abbreviate a 
SAVE to include just the program 
portion of any length routine by 
executing CLEAR then POKE 16388, 
PEEK 16396 and POKE 16389, PEEK 
16397 then SAVE. The resulting 
shorter SAVE loads into 16K just as 
quickly as it SAVEd. After the 
SAVE, unplug or POKE 16388,0 and 
POKE 16389,128 to restore 16K. 

Rolf L. Miller, Ventura, CA 

ARCHER—8K/16K 

Test your archery skills and 
learn some fundamental physics at 
the same time. ARCHER simulates 
the effects of gravity, angle and 
velocity on bow-and-arrow trajec¬ 
tory. Type in the program and RUN. 
Decide how many arrows you wish to 
shoot (the fewer tries, the higher 
the score if you hit the target). 
ARCHER tells you the target dis¬ 
tance, which varies from round to 
round. Then input the angle and 
velocity you think necessary to hit 
the target. Angles must fall be¬ 
tween 15 and 89 degrees, and veloc¬ 
ity between 50 and 99 feet per 
second. Enter these together; 
i.e., 5060 for angle of 50 degrees, 
velocity of 60 fps. 

ARCHER next draws your target, 
and shoots your arrow with a TWANG. 
It must land within three feet of 
the target. (On-screen, the num¬ 
bers represent the target.) In the 
following example, our assistant 
editor scored a bullseye. 



The computer calculates the 
yardage you over- or undershot, and 
lets you try again until you use up 
your arrows. You can play as many 
times as you like, and many people 

1 8 




DRUGS & BUGS 

An Antibiotic Selection Program 


For Physicians On Tape 


TIMEX-SINCLAIR 16K 


• Fa* • EdteaitoiraaD 


Send name and address with $39.00 to: 
William D. Loeser, M.D. 

1871 Coronado Ave. 

Youngstown, Ohio 44504 


can play; ARCHER lists the high 
scorer as the score to beat before 
each player's turn. ARCHER prints 
the cumulative score at the end of 
each round. (ARCHER does not list 
individual scores for rounds? you 
must subtract previous scores to 
get separate round totals.) 

Variables 

G=acceleration of gravity (fps) 
N=number of arrows chosen 
D=target distance (yds.) 

Sl=scaled down distance 
S2=trajectory plot 
L=loop counter 
B$=angle, velocity input 
X=loop counter 
A=angle (convert to radians) 
R=arrow travelling distance 
H=arrow height 
Tl=loop end value 
Kl=factor to plot X-axis 
K2=factor to plot Y-axis 
K3=factor to plot Y-axis 
X=X in plot statement 
Y=Y in plot statement 


T=loop counter 
SCORE=score of round 
FINAL=final score 
Z$=response to prompt 

Lafayette Bagley, Los Angeles, CA 



1 9 
































VENDOR REPORT AND NOTES 

Barlog Software will not offer the 
64K RAM module kit as announced in 
SYNTAX (Jul.83 p.2). Assembled 
RAMs are still available. Barlog 
Software, 401 N. Geyer Rd., Kirk¬ 
wood, MO 63122. 

Free MC wall charts are no longer 
available from Henri Poche, as 
listed in SYNTAX (Feb.83 p.2). 
Contact Henri if you did not re¬ 
ceive one and want a refund of your 
35c postage. Henri Poche, 5751 
River Rd., New Orleans, LA 70123, 
504/733-8575. 

ZX PRO/FILE manuals are delayed 
until early August due to printer's 
illness, reports Tom Woods. Con¬ 
tact Tom at POB 64, Jefferson, NH 
03583, 603/444-5014. 

Biocal Software offers replacement 
tapes to anyone who purchased un- 
loadable tape from them before 
April, 1983. BIOCAL says it cor¬ 
rected the problem with equipment 
upgrades. Send bad tape + $1 P&H 
to receive updated documentation, 
and program on BASF Data-Trac tape. 
Contact Biocal at their new office 
at 167 Wilson St., Petaluma, CA 
94952, 800/237-8400 x70. 

Quicksilva Ltd. of Southampton, UK 
announces the opening of a US of¬ 
fice to handle North American 
Quicksilva software manufacturing 
and marketing. Quicksilva, Inc., 
426 W. Nakoma, San Antonio, TX, 
512/492-8054. 

Memotech's RS232 interfaces, back¬ 
ordered since Mar., are now avail¬ 
able for $99.95 and in plentiful 
supply in the US. Memotech also 
introduces a new direct-connect 
modem, $149.95. Package deal: 

RS232 (includes communication soft¬ 
ware), modem, cable plus two hours 
on CompuServe, $199.95. Memotech, 
7550 W. Yale Ave., Suite 220, Den¬ 
ver, CO 80227, 303/986-1516. 


20 































































DUELING DEVICES 


Many new peripherals for ZX/TS 
computers now use I/O addressing. 
Why? Two main reasons: add-ons 
already use most "good" memory 
areas, and even 2K machines can 
access I/O devices, making them 
usable without extra memory. This 
helps reduce costs significantly. 

But because I/O manufacturers 
keep costs low, they must rely on 
partial decoding of port addresses. 
Z80 processors can address 256 
unique I/O devices (256 inputs and 
256 outputs) using lines Ag-Ay on 
the address bus. Each time we fail 
to use a line to decode, we cut the 
number of assignable ports in half. 
For example, if we do not use Ay as 
part of our device, we can only 
address 128 unique devices. 


A7 A6 L A5 A4 A3 A2 Al A0 


K 


i-L- i . 


(X = not used) 

In the above diagram, we show 
address 127 ,nj, or possibly 255/ D) , 
since we dorrt use Ay. Of course, 
we must also use IOREQ NOT, and ei¬ 
ther RD NOT or WR NOT to tell the 
system we are requesting an I/O 
port. For any port, we must have 
at least two lines in our selection 
logic. To fully decode a port, we 
need eight more lines, totalling 
ten. This could require a fairly 
expensive chip or decoding device. 

To cut costs, we only choose a 
few of the address lines. See the 
following diagram of two currently 
available I/O devices. 


#1 A 7 

A6 

A5 

A4 

A3 

A2 

Al 

A0 

0 

X l 

0 1 

0 

X 

X 

X 

X 

Addresses: 

0 

" 15 d 

and 

64-79 d 


#2 A7 

A6 

A5 

A4 

A3 

A2 

Al 

A0 

0 

0 

0 

X 

X 

X 

X 



Addresses: 0-31 d 


You can decode these devices 
cheaply, but they overlap. Prob¬ 
lems could develop if you attach 
both devices at the same time, 
unless you make sure to use non¬ 
overlapping addresses. Clearly, we 
should not use addresses 0-15 in 
the example shown. You should 
select device #1 using the 64-79 
area, and device #2 should use a 
code from 16 to 31. 

Decoding schemes for devices 
#1 and 2 follow. Implementation of 
this entire decoder in a single 25<(: 
chip, the 74LS28 Quad OR gate pro¬ 
vides one big advantage. But we 
effectively eliminate a large num¬ 
ber of potential addresses—a dis¬ 
advantage. In both examples, we 
lose 31 possible ports to get one. 



Device #1 



RD Device #2 

Although keeping costs low by 
using partial decoding schemes re¬ 
mains important to ZX/TS suppliers 
and consumers, manufacturers should 
provide port address ranges in pro¬ 
duct information and advertising. 

I suggest you contact vendors be¬ 
fore you buy, to determine the 
compatibility of any new peripheral 
with those you already own. 

Paul Donnelly, Centerport, NY 

Remember that the ZX/TS uses all 
even port addresses to read the 
partially decoded keyboard, though 
it's always called as 00FEh.—KO 


21 





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22 



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owned subsidiary of The Harvard Group. 


Syntax ZX80, Inc. 

RD 2, Box 457, Harvard, MA 01451. Telephone 
617/456-3661. 

12 issues, $29. Single issue, $4. 


MY TYPE ..THE touch typing tutorial, 
16K cassette, $8. (ZX-TS) 
BIG-KEY ..Dry-transfers in red&blk. 
LEGENDS for std. keycaps. $7./set. 
/////////////DAYDESIGN///////////// 
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Publisher: Kirtland H. Olson 
Editor: Ann L. Zevnik 
Assistant Editor: Lisa Fass Vivat 
Technical Consultant: Richard Kelly 

© Syntax ZX80, Inc., 1983. All rights reserved. 
Photocopying prohibited. ISSN 0273-2696 


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FULL TEXT EDITING-EASY TO USE. TAB, 
BLOCK SAVE,AUTO TEXT ALIGN,ZX/TIMEX 
PRINTER. $11.95 TAPE-BOB FINGERLE 
BOX 7793, FREMONT CA 94537-7793 

**** TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS **** 
Software for electronic CAD and 
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with comprehensive instructions. 
Send SASE for a list of programs 
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432, Fairport, New York 14450 

AIRPLANE INSTRUMENT FLIGHT SIMULAT¬ 
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Send $12.95 to Amanda Systems, 

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#*#*# DISCOUNTS #*#*# 

TS2000 Color Computer send SASE 
2040 Printer $93;paper 3/$6,24/$44 
SEIKOSHA printer pkg $319; 80 col¬ 
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space bar $66;FASTLOAD $12;MUCH 
MORE..modems,books,TS2000hard/soft 
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23 











SYNTAX 


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################################### 
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Self-addressed stamped envelope to: 
Original Programs, 3763 W. Crocus 
Dr. Phoenix, Arizona 85023 
################################### 


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24 * 


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