Skip to main content

Full text of "Sinc Link"

See other formats


MAY-JUNE  92  VOL  lO  #3 


SUPER     SUMMER      1  S»  9  2  XSSUE 


page  2  Club  Stuff  page  26 

page  3,5  Bob's  Notebook  page  27,30 

page  6,8  Questions  &  Answers  (2068)  page  31 

page  9,14  Beginners  Corner  (QL)  page  32,33 

page  15,16  64K  SRAM  Memory  (ZX81)  page  34 

page  17  Bill  Harmer's  News  page  35,36 

page  18,21  QL  Success  (QL)  page  37 

page  22,23  Britain's  Spectrum  Scene  page  38 

page  24  4x  Times  Screen$  (2068)  page  39 

page  25  AO  REM  Generator  (ZX81)  page  40 


Locked  Out?  How  to  Recover  (2068) 

ZX91  Magazine  (ZX81) 

A  Tape  Index  (2068) 

Steve  Gunhouse  Writes  (2068) 

Tool  Kit  2  Notes  (QL) 

A  Challenge  to  Programmers 

QLips  (QL)  &  Printer  Reset 

Tight  Security  (ZX81) 

Disk  Drive  Tips 

Graphics  Page 


TORONTO  T I MEX- SINCLAIR  USERS  CLUB 


MAY- JUNE  '92  VOL  lO  #3 


SINC-LINK  IS  A  PUBLICATION  OF 
THE  TORONTO  TIMEX-SINCLAIR  USERS 
CLUB  AND  IS  ISSUED  6  TIMES  A 
YEAR.  COPIES  OF  THE  NEWSLETTER 
ARE  SI. 50  EACH  FOR  NON-MEMBERS. 
CLUB  MEMBERS  RECEIVE  FREE  COPIES 
AS  PART  OF  THE  $20.00  ANNUAL 
MEMBERSHIP  FEE.  A  NEWSLETTER 
SUBSCRIPTION  ONLY  IS  AVAILABLE 
FOR  $12.00. 

NEWSLETTERS  ARE  EXCHANGED,  FREE 
OF  CHARGE,  WITH  OTHER 
TIMEX-SINCLAIR  USERS  GROUPS. 

PLEASE  CREDIT  THIS  PUBLICATION 
AND  THE  AUTHOR  IF  YOU  COPY 
MATERIAL. 

THE    CLUB    MEETS     ON     THE  FIRST 
WEDNESDAY    OF    EACH     MONTH  AT 
FOREST        HILLS  COLLEGIATE 
INSTITUTE,    7Z0  EGLINTON  AVE.    W.  , 
TORONTO. 

SINC-LINK  IS  PRODUCED  ENTIRELY 
ON  SINCLAIR  AND  TIMEX-SINCLAIR 
COMPUTERS. 


SEND  CORRESPONDANCE  TO: 

Attant i on:       SINC-L INK 
TORONTO     TIMEX-SINCLA IR 
CLUB,  14  RICHOME 

SCARBOROUGH,  ONTARIO, 
CANADA  M1K  2Y1 

EXECUTIVE  OFFICERS: 

PRESIDENT 
TREASURER 
SECRETARY 
ACTIVITIES 
QL  CONTACT 
NEWSLETTER 
LIAISON  OFFICER: 
(  Our-cf-Tiown  members  ) 


EDITOR 
USERS 
COURT, 


TORONTO  TMEX-SINCLfilR 
USERS  CLUB 


(Area  Code  416) 
RENE  BRUNEAU   (   531-9749  ) 
BILL  LAWSON   (  444-8772 
GEORGE  CHAMBERS   (  751-7559 
LOUIS  LAFERRIERE   (  820-3725 
HUGH  HOWIE   (   634-4929  ) 
JEFF  TAYLOR   C   244-8583  ) 
GEORGE  CHAMBERS.    14  RICHOME  COURT 
SCARBOROUGH.   ONTARIO .  M1K  2Y1 
(   416-751-7559  ) 


TORONTO  TIMEX-SINCLAIR  USERS  CLUB 


SINC-LINK 


SINO,l  INK  CONTENTS 

Each  entry  is  prefixed  with  the  year  and  first  month  of  issue  (eg,  8501  =  Jan/Feb  1985.  9203  =  Mar/Apr  1992); 
and  with  the  volume  &  number  (eg.  3/1  =  volume  3  number  1)  These  are  usually  followed  by  the  ( first ) 
page  number  of  the  entry. 


1985 


8501  3/1  p.4  COLOUR  ADJUSTMENTS  ON  TS2068RGB  Monitor  details.  Comments  by  George  Chambers. 

Pot  adjustments  are  given  in  careful  detail. 

8501  3/1  p.8  EPROM  Burner  program  by  Virgin  Roman  (ZX81) 

8503  3/2  p.  1 1  Use  of  IN  function  by  George  Chambers.  Sample  ETCH-A-SKETCH  to  demo  the  IN  function. 
Also  erasing  tapes  by  Fred  Schakel  London.p.12  Pin  Connections  for  Spectrum,  TS2068  and  ZX81 
8505  3/3  Sincbits  by  Ian  Robertson.  NOTE:  This  column  in  TTSUC  newsletter  contains  too  many  items  to 
catalogue  in  this  file.  LOAD  file  <sincb>  for  separate  listing 
8505  3/3  p.7  Keyboard  notes  C.  Hayne:  IN:  value  table 
8505  3/3  p.8  Keyboard  notes  J.Roach;  port  address  table 
8505  3/3  p.9  Monitors  RGB  F.  Schakel 
8505  3/3  p.  1 0  Cursor  Joystick  F.  Schakel 
8505  3/3  p.  10  Keyboard  problems  TS2068p.10  F.  Schakel 
8507  3/4  p.8  Printer  interface  2040C.  Hayne 

8507  3/4  p.9  Bob's  Notebook  HEX  to  DEC  conversion:  COPY  24lines;  increasing  array  size  without  losing  its 
contents;  ON  ERR  how  to  use:  screen  save  in  machine  code 

8507  3/4  p  i  0  J  Bums  Telecommunications  see  also  Telecomputing  TT  851 1  p.6  D.Ridge  TT  8509  p.1 0 
8507  3/4  p.12  Keyboard  customization  L.  Crawford:  printer  codes  ESC;  circuit  diagrams 
8509  3/5  p.2  SCROLL  outwards  P.McMullin 

8509  3/5  p.6  Bob's  Notebook  Interrupts  IM2:  sample  autoline  program 
8509  3/5  p.  1 1  Larken  Disk  Drive  review  G.  Lloyd 
851 1  3/6  p.2  Text  Manipulation  enhance  display  of  text  S.Pocock 
851 1  3/6  p.8  Tape  signal  booster  L  Crawford;  circuit  diagram 

851 1  3/6  p.10  Bob's  Notebook  Quicksort  «erratum:  I.  9625  should  read  IF  q0>p  Title  line  in  display; 

machine  code(with  examples 

851 1  3/6  p.1 1  String  input  and  use  of  LINED.  Mosher 


1986 


8601  4/1  p.2  Larken  Disk  Drive  boot  tape  construction  G.Chambers 
8601  4/1  p.6  Tape  copying  A.Frailich 

8601  4/1  p.7  QL  Comer  E.  Gardonio  ICE;  Disk  Drives:  Cartridge  Doctor:  QL  Toolkit 
8601  4/1  p.8  Bob's  Notebook  Binary  Search  subroutine 
8601  4/1  p.  10  PLOT  CLS  SCROLL  on  TS2068C.  Hayne 

8601  4/1  p.1 1  Built-in  Clock  in  TS  2068F.  Schakel;  also  use  of  IN  to  sense  multiple  keys 

8601  4/1  p.1 2  Disk  Droppings  G.Lloyd;  Larken;  power  supply:  controller 

8603  4/2  p.6  Bob's  Notebook  Fontmaker 

8603  4/2  p.10  Larken  Disk  Drives  P.Hacksel;  power  supply 

8603  4/2  p.1 1  QL  tip  All  Caps 


SINC-LINK 


SINK-UNK  CONTENTS 


2 


8603  4/2  p.1 2  Spectrum  Emulator  Zebra  Systems  Cartridge  D.  Lindhorst 
8603  4/2  p.12  Spectrum  emulator  Omni-Emu  review  D.  Lindhorst 

8603  4/2  p.1 2  Customized  ROMs  2068  &Spectrum  LCrawford:  EPROM  burner;  added  routines:  2068  has 
tape  copy  and  Oliger  NMI;  Spectrum  has  renumber,  header  reader,  tape  copy;  details  on  EPROM  r  rning 
and  mounting  them 

8605  4/3  p.2  Sin    sts  I.Robertson;  repairs;  Tasword;  Timachine 

8605  4/3  p.4  U   an  Disk  System  P.McMullin;  also  EPROM  programmer  (burner 

8605  4/3  p.6  Qu.iling  with  QL  L  Sadler,  tips 

8605  4/3  p.7  Bob's  Notebook  compactor  converts  all  numbers  to  VAL  expressions;  machine  code;  Lr  *en  tips 
on  REM  DOS,  disk  menus;  saving  arrays 

8605  4/3  p.9  Larken  Notes;  CRC  errors;  spectrum  stack;  CLEAR61 000;  UDGs;  LDOS1 6.C5:  LPRINT  USR  to 

print  directory:  machine  code  between  23552&  VARS  is  saved  with  LDOS 

8605  4/3  p.  10  Screen  addressing  TS2068.  M  Lemyre 

8605  4/3  p.1 2  Disk  Droppings  G.Lloyd;  Larken 

8605  4/3  p.1 2  Keyboard  codes  2068Diagram  of  top  row  F.Schakel 

8607  4/4  p.2  Purge  blank  spaces  in  arrays;  utility 

8607  4/4  p.3  Sincbits  I.Robertson;  cassette  booster,  spectrum  emulator 

8607  4/4  p.4  Larken  Disk  Copier  Utility  G.  Chambers 

8607  4/4  p.6  TS2068  Reset  &  Initialization  Problems  C.Urban;  circuit  diagram  for  reset 

8607  4/4  p.8  Bob's  Notebook  Spectrum;  ON  ERR  and  block  delete  machine  code  routines 

8607  4/4  p.9  Bob's  Notebook:  Spectrum  items  Larken  Rename  utility  program 

8607  4/4  p.10  Disk  Droppings  Printer  DMP 105;  Tasman;  Larken:  modem;  Tasword;  cheap  disks;  fast 

programming 

8607  4/4  p.1 1  Telecommunications  hints  and  tips;  BBS;  Tinyboard;  Mterm 
8609  4/5  p.2  Hacker  scare  JT  Nguyen 
8609  4/5  p.3  Bob's  Notebook  Font  Loader 

8609  4/5  p.4  Mterm  tips  G  Uoyd  MTERM  Ramtop;  change  Buftop;  Auto  run  Ram  ex  MDOS:  Read  saved  files 
with  loop 

8609  4/5  p.5  TS2068  repairs  G.Chambers 

8609  4/5  p.7  Expert  Systems;  Artificial  Intelligence 

8609  4/5  p.8  Larken  Disk  Drives  P.Hacksel 

8609  4/5  p.9  ROM  routines  G.  Uoyd 

8609  4/5  p.10  Disk  Droppings  G.Uoyd;  erratum 

8609  4/5  p.10  Function  Dispatcher  M.  Lemyre 

8609  4/5  p.1 1  QL  review  of  OS  pell  L  Sadler  not  recommended 

861 1  4/6  p.5  Hacker  Scare  JT  Nguyen 

861 1  4/6  p.7  Signal  booster  amplifier 

8611  4/6  p.9  Larken  utilities  list  Hacksel;  Chambers;  Michaud  Lloyd;  McMullin;  Mitchell;  tips  by  C.  re  RAMTOP 
LDOS16 

861 1  4/6  p.10  Mterm  for  transmitting  D  Gray 
861 1  4/6  p.1 1  Bob's  Notebook  ONERRtips;  passwords:  id 
861 1  4/6  p.1 2  QL  Comer  R  Cottle  Notes  on  support  available 
861 1  4/6  p.1 3  BBS  item;  communications  Mterm  specterm-64 

861 1  4/6  p.1 3  Communications  TS2050  Modem  Mterm  II  Zterm  64  Specterm  64  Xmodem  protocol  R  Mulder 

1987 


8701  5/1  p.2  Hacker  Scare  JT  Nguyen 

8701  5/1  p.3  QL  in  Sincbits  I.  Robertson  magazines:  QUANTA;  QUANTUM  Levels;  QL  World 
8701  5/1  p.6  QL  Comer  R  Cottle  Summary  of  QL  events  in  1 986 
8701  5/1  p.7  QL  notes  QUANTA;  Sharp's  (QL  World) 

8701  5/1  p.10  Disk  Droppings  G  Uoyd  Tasword;  Larken:  USR  calls:  big  printer  control  codes 

8701  5/1  p.1 1  Bob's  Notebook  Timachine  tips 

8701  5/1  p.1 2  TS2068  colour  adjustments  F.  Shakel:  use  of  VCR 

8701  5/1  p.14BBSforTS2068 

8701  5/1  p.1 4  Printer  SC  Fastext  80  G.  Chambers;  graphics  mode 

Prepared  by  Bob  Mitchell  920307 

SINC-LINK 


SINK-LINK  CONTENTS 


3 


8701  5/1  p.14  ROMSWITCH  Spectrum  emulator  R.  Zannese 

8701  5/1  p.14  Sound  enhancement  using  Radio  Shack  amplifier;  BEER  SOUND 

8703  5/2  p.4  TS2040  printer  C. Urban;  description 

8703  5/2  p.5  Calling  USR  routines  D.  Mosher  machine  code 

8703  5/2  p.6  Communications;  RMulder;  modems;  casboard  2068  K.  Casby;  BBS 

8703  5/2  p.7  Attributes;  Change  without  affecting  display  TT 

8703  5/2  p.7  BBS  for  TS  Users;  modems 

8703  5/2  p.7  Headeiiess  file  saving  G.  Chambers 

8703  5/2  p.8  Larken  Power  Supply  G.  Chambers 

8703  5/2  p.8  Screen  saving  on  Larken  drive  G.  Chambers 

8703  5/2  p.10  Printer  Smith  Corona  Fastext  80  review  R.  Mulder 

8703  5/2  p.1 1  QL  block  printing  saving  and  loading  with  QUILL  software  <§>  $15  CDN 

8703  5/2  p.12  Bob's  Notebook  organizing  program  info 

8703  5/2  p.13  Printer  ribbons:  re-inking 

8705  5/3  p  3  QL  in  SincBits  I.Robertson  QLWP  QUILL;  Schonkeyboard;  Disk  Control lerWDI  770  should  be 
replaced  byWD1 772-02 

8705  5/3  p.1 3  QL  Wayfarer  ex  QL  Corner  R.  Cottle  .  QL  Library  kicks  off 

8707  5/4  p.2  QL  in  SincBits  Ian  Robertson  software:  Spellbound;  Desktop  Publisher  Front  Page  Extra;  CP/M 
Emulator  updates  to  Taskmaster  The  Editor;  Turbo;  Supercharge;  QLiberator;  Eye  -Q;  Super  Media 
Manager;  QL  TrumpCard  768K  RAM;  Thor  cartridge  68020  CPU  16.7  Mhz.  3.5"  drives;  20Mb  hard  drive 
8707  5/4  p.5  QL  in  Disk  Droppings  Greg  Lloyd  QUILL=Word  Processor:  printer  i/f  needs  CoCo  II  serialcord; 
Superbasic;  DD  via  Cumana  with  3"  Amdek  disk  drives 

8707  5/4  p.1 1  Bob's  Notebook  Chart  of  Control  Code  used  with  Fastext  80.Dot  Matrix  Printer  Copy  of 
SCREENS  (22  lines) 

8707  5/4  p.1 3  QL  programs  Sound  experimenter;  Easel  print  Epson  printer  only(?) 

8709  5/5  p.3  QL  in  SincBits  Ian  Robertson  TEXT  87  WP;  modems;  CP/M;  RS232;  QLTERM  2.0;  QUILL 

Columnizer 

8709  5/5  p.5  Bob's  Notebook  Hacksel  printer  code  modified  for  Spectrum.  Timachine  shortcuts 

8709  5/5  p.8  QL  Wayfarer  R  Cottle  Sharp's;  ROM  fixes;  toolkit  Qflash;  EPROMs;  G_SAVE  G_LOAD;  Hex 

Loader;  Clone;  QUILL  mailmerge;  Labeller;  Merge  File;3.5  inch  disk;  microdrive;  Rod  Gowan 

871 1  5/6  p.2  Disk  droppings  by  Greg  Lloyd.  QL  info.  Ramdisk  notes 

871 1  5/6  p.3  QL  notes  from  Bill  Lawson 

871 1  5/6  p.4  Timex  repairs  by  George  Chambers  Also:  on  small  computers  by  Edward  Abisdris.  And:  Help 
wanted  on  Hacking  Spectrum  Games  by  Douglas  Jeffery 

871 1  5/6  p.5  Larken/TS2068  Autostart  Menu.  Disk  Menu  listing.  By  George  Chambers 

871 1  5/6  p.6  Bob's  Notebook  PEEKing  and  POKEing  About  Disk  Indexer  shows  current  status  etc 

871 1  5/6  p.7  Digital  Imagizing  Part  II  by  Eric  Michaud.  Circuit  diagram  and  details 

871 1  5/6  p.9  TS2068  tutorial  on  Input  Monitoring;  tape  header  formats.  Save,  Verify,  Load  and  Merge,  from 
Long  Island  group 

871 1  5/6  p.1 1  Larken  DSK400  Disk  Operating  System.  Review  by  George  Chambers 

871 1  5/6  p.1 2  Larken  and  the  Hunter  by  Mel  Richardson:  diagrams  and  details 

871 1  5/6  p.1 3  Coloured  SCREENS  dumps  for  the  TS2068  by  Jeff  Taylor. VIC-1 520  pnnter/plotter;  J 

McMichael's  PIC-PLOT 

871 1  5/6  p.1 4  A  few  words  from  the  new  president  Eddie  Maybe. 
End  of  Part  1  of  3  parts. 

This  file,  comprising  1 7  pages,  can  be  provided  on  an  IBM  compatible  disk  in  Word  Perfect  5.1  format  or 
straight  text  format  It  could  be  downloaded  to  a  TS  2068  on  request 
Bob  Mitchell  920307. 


Prepared  by  Bob  Mitchell  920307 

SINC-LINK 


NOTES   FROM  MY  CORRESPONDENCE 
by  George  Chambers 

It  was  suggested  at  one  of  our  meetings  that  we  should  devote  a  part  of 
our  newsletter  to  questions  and  answers  from  our  members.  A  good  idea 
indeed.   I  thought  maybe  these  excerpts  take     from  a  letter  that  I  wrote  to 
one  of  our  members  might  prove  interesting.   I  hope  you  like  it! 

PEEKING  THE  LARKEN  LKDOS 

Now,  to  answer  one  of  your  questions;  the  one  about  being  unable  to  POKE 
values  into  the  Larken  LKDOS  RAM.  From  looking  at  the  values  you  give  in 
your  letter,   i.e.   16090,8  and  16094,14  I    :an  see  that  you  are  PEEKing  the 
2068  ROM,  not  the  Larken  RAM. 

If  you  look    at  Larry  Kenny's  instructions  it  will  become  clear.   I  can 
see  that  you  know  how  to  POKE  a  value  into  The  LKDOS  RAM,  but  you  do  not 
know  how  to  PEEK  the  LKDOS  addresses.  The  values  you  are  getting  are  from 
the  2068  ROM,  not  the  LKDOS  RAM.  What  you  have  to  do  to  PEEK  the  LKDOS  is 
first  place  a  pointer  into  the  LKDOS.  Do  this  by  the  command  PRINT  USR  100: 
POKE  8200,xxxxx,  where  xxxxx  =  the  address  you  wish  to  PEEK,  such  as  16090. 
Having  done  that,   then  enter  the  command  PRINT  USR  110.   You  will  get  the 
value  contained  in  the  LKDOS  RAM,   not  the  2068  ROM.   In  his  manual  (middle 
of  page  6,   in  my  copy),  Larry  K.  has  a  routine  to  print  the  first  10  bytes 
of   the  LKDOS  EPROM. 

THE  OMNIBUS  PROGRAM 

I  rather  think  that  the  OMNIBUS  did  nor  provide  for  changing  the  LF 
on/off  function.  A  bit  of  an  oversight,   I  think.  The  LKDOS  defaults  to  a  LF 
with  CR,  and  probably  our  printers  happen  to  need  the  LF.   I  could  give  you 
a  change  for  the  OMNIBUS  if  you  would  like  to  be  able  to  vary  it  from  the 
menu,  or  the  program  could  be  modified     to  automatically  give  you  no  LF.  A 
line  in  OMNIBUS  in  the  vicinity  of  1200-1230  which  read  "PRINT  #4:  POKE 
16092,0"  would  give  you  a  NO  LF  condition. 

MODEMS 

The  TS2050  modem  plugs  directly  into  the  rear  of  the  2068.  Requires  no 
other  interface  circuits.   It  is  powered  by  much  the  same  power  supply  as 
was  used  on  the  TS1000.   If  you  were  to  use  a  regular  modem,  then  you  would 
need  a  RS232-type  serial  interface.   Such  as  the  ZSI/0  board  that  was  put 
out  by  Ed  Grey. 

I  have  a  retired     Bell  System  modem  and  it  required  a  serial  i/f  board.  The 
advantage  of  this  modem  over  the  2050  is  that  it  give  me  a  choice  of  300 
baud  or  1200  baud.  Nowadays  300  is  almost  passe,  even  amongst  bulletin 
boards . 

I'm  interested  in  your  reference  to  Bill  Jones'   SMART  TEXT  and  Daisy  6. 
Bill  talks  about  how  marvellous  a  program  it  is;  how  many  copies  have  sold. 
But  Bob  Mitchell  and  I  are  not  that  taken  with  it.  Seems  to  be  just  too 
convoluted,  and  difficult  to  get  into.  Our  question  is,  well  maybe  that's 
how  many  copies  have  sold,   but  how  many  are  being  actually  used.  A 
different  story,   I  rather  suspect.  Let  me  know  if  it  becomes  your  standard 
management  system.   Incidentally,   I  see  an  advert  in  the  Indiana  T/S  user 
newsletter  by  Bill  Jones,   selling  off  what  appears  to  be  his  complete  2068 
equipment,   for  $750.  He  seems  to  be  getting  out  of  the  2068  field.  He  was 
into  the  QL,  and  I  don't  see  any  of  that  part  for  sale. 

LARKEN  RAMDISK 

You  ask  about  the  RAMdisk.  There  is  really  no  mystery  about  it.   I'll  try 
to  keep  it  simple.  The  easiest  way  to  use  it  is  to  simply  treat  it  as  a 
solid-state  drive,  having  48  tracks.  Though  you  can  format  it  without 
having  to  load  any  formatting  software;  you  simply  "PRINT  USR  100:  FORMAT 


SINC-LINK 


"3", (for  the  number  of  chips  you  have  on  the  board),   and  that's  it.  Then 
you  SAVE,  LOAD,   ERASE,   etc., the  same  way  as  with  a  regular  drive. 

You  ask  about  the  merits  of  using  the  Larken  disk  Editor  program  to 
format  the  RAMdisk.   I  suspect  they  are  both  the  same,    just  that  the  Editor 
may  have  some  extra  frills.   I've  never  done  it  any  other  way. 

However  you  can  do  bank-switching  with  it.  That  is  what  Larry  Crawford 
has  done.   He  bank-switches  one  RAMdisk  chip  at  a  time   (which  amounts  to  5 
tracks,  incidentally).  What  happens  is  that  the  upper  part  of  the  2068 
memory,   from  addresses  32768  to  65535  is  swapped  with  any  selected  RAMdisk 
chip . 

Larry  C.'s  program  is  able  to  do  this  automatically  as  required,  swapping 
banks  back  and  forth,  as  needed  by  it's  SEARCH  and  SORT  routines.  The  BASIC 
part  of  his  program  must  stay  below  the  32768  cut-off,  or  that  part  of 
Basic  above  32768  would  be  switched  as  well,   with  disaster  ensuing.   If  you 
look  at  his  basic  listing  you  might  see  some  OUT  244,7' s  and  other 
suchlike.  Those  are  the  bankswitching  commands. 

Larry  C.'s  program  does  a  SAVE  of  the  RAMdisk  banks  before  making  use 
of  them  for  the  database.   The  program,   as  a  first  order  of  business,  saves 
the  RAMdisk  to  a  disk  in  your  choice  of  drive.   It  then  loads  the  database 
data  into  the  RAMdisk.   Whether  it  formats  it  first,   I'm  not  sure.   I  suspect 
that  it  simply  bankswitches  a  bank,   then  with  this  bank  effectively  in  the 
2068,   it  fills  up  the  memory,   swaps  another  RAMdisk  bank,   and  so  on  until 
all  the  data  is  loaded.   In  the  case  of  L.   C.'s   "movie  title"  demo,   I  think 
it  is  only  one  bank.  But  I  think  Bob  Mitchell  had  a  "colour  slide"  database 
that  used  a  second  bank  (chip)  of  the  RAMdisk. 

Now,  when  you  are  finsihed  with  the  database  you  have  to  execute  a 
graceful  exit,   so  that  the  program  restores  the  RAMdisk  with  the  programs 
that  were  initially  saved.   It  does  work,   I  tried  it,  but  I  would  caution 
you  to  also  have  a  spare  RAMdisk  copy,   since  I  seemed  to  frequently  exit 
ungracefully;   i.e.  turn  off  the  computer,  and  then  be  unable  to  restore  the 
RAMdisk  contents  I  had  saved  on  disk. 

Larry  Kenny's  RAMdisk  backup  program  operates  in  the  same  fashion.  He 
switches  each  of  the  RAMdisk  chips  in  turn  into  the  2068  memory,   and  does 
a  5-track  SAVE.  Richard  HURD  has  another  RAMdisk  backup  program  which  saves 
the  RAMdisk  on  an  individual  program  basis.   I  tend  to  like  this  one  better, 
since  it  means  that  I  could  pick  out  a  single  program  if  I  cared  to  load  it 
into  the  computer. 

I  find  that  the  RAMdisk  works  perfectly  OK  when  the  Larken  disk 
interface  is  the  first  add-on  to  the  computer.   I  think  this  is  the  most 
useful  position.  I  never  considered  any  other  position  for  it,  actually.  My 
RGB  monitor  plug  is  situated  at  the  back  and  it  crowds  the  Larken  boards 
quite  severely.  In  fact  I  had  to  remove  the  joystick  jack  and  bring  out  an 
extension  cable  for  it,   in  order  to  give  the  RGB  cable  room.  Incidentally 
I  use  a  VCR  cassette  case,   suitably  trimmed,   to  cover  the  RAMdisk.  I  opened 
the  case  on  one  side,   and  it  simply  drops  over  the  board.  Very  neat.  I 
enclosed  my  LKDOS  board  also,   using  a  case  from  a  Memotech  16K  rampack  for 
the  ZX81.   But  one  could  also  use  a  VCR  cassette  case  for  the  LKDOS  i/f  as 
well . 

EXPANDING  THE  RAMDISK 

You  mentioned  having  a  problem  with  the  RAMdisk  to  backup.   I  think  I  may 
have  an  idea.  Were  you  using  4  chips  on  the  RAMdisk  initially,  then 
upgraded  to  8  chips?  I  had  an  experience  like  that,  where  the  RAMdisk  said 
it  only  had  say,   24  tracks,  when  I  knew  there  was  a  full  complement  of  48. 
The  problem  is  this.  When  you  did  a  disk-save,   i.e.  RAMdisk  Backup  of  a 


SINC-LINK 


7 


4-chip  RAMdisk;   then  added  another  4  chips  to  the  RAMdisk,  then  reloaded 
the  RAMdisk  Backup,  the  directory  track  still  says  there  is  only  24  tracks. 
Even  though  you  may  have  formatted  it  to  a  full  complement  of  48  tracks, 
when  the  RAMdisk  Backup  is  re-installed  it  overwrites  the  Directory  track, 
to  show  24  tracks,  or  whatever.lt  doesn't  know  there  are  now  48  tracks,  the 
LKDOS  looks  at  the  Directory  track,  and  it  says  there's  24. 

What  you  have  to  do  is  save  the  programs  individually  to  disk,  reformat  the 
Ramdisk  to  48  tracks,  then  reload  the  programs  individually.  Then  make  a 
new  RAMdisk  backup. 

This  will  only  happen  when  you  add  chips  to  a  partly-populated  RAMdisk. 
Once  it  is  full  with  8  chips  the  problem  will  not  recur. 

If  one  knew  the  command  to  bankswitch  a  RAMdisk  bank,  it  would  be  a 
simple  matter  to  save  a  RAMdisk  bank  to  disk.   I  have  never  gone  into  the 
OUT  commands  for  that  purpose.  Never  had  a  reason  to  do  so.  If  I  did  I 
would  probably  study  Larry  Kenny's  RAMdisk  Backup  program.  Or  the 
definitive  article  on  the  subject,   by  Larry  Craweford,   in  the  Mar/Apr  '90 
issue  of  Sine-Link  (Vol.8  No. 2).   It  contains  the  necessary  OUT  command 
information. 

Oh,  a  couple  of  things.   I  removed  the  black  line  from  the  bottom  of  your 
SCREEN?  images.   I  did  it  with  the  doctor. Bl  program.   I  determined  which 
tracks  the  offending  black  area  was  located,   loaded  these  tracks 
individually,  and  worked  them  over.   I  broke  into  the  " doctor. Bl"  program 
and  made  a  change  to  the  "alter"  option,   so  that  it  changed  the  code  values 
from  7  to  56.  The  tracks,  when  loaded  into  doctor  reside  at  50000  upwards. 
I  determined  that  the  offending  code  was  at  addresses  51750  to  51845,  so  I 
introduced  a  FOR/NEXT  loop  to  POKE  56  into  these  addresses.  I  then  re-SAVED 
the  track,  and  voila!   the  black  bar  was  gone.  Did  this  to  all  the  SCREEN? • 

Also,  in  the  GYPlOX.Bx  program,   in  line  510  (was  it?)  there  is  a 
variable  that  needs  to  be  changed  from  1  to  2,  to  make  the  program  work 
properly  with  the  Larken  system.  Jack  Dohany  has  used  a  clever  method  of 
making  his  programs  universal  to  all  disk  systems. 

I  shall  close  off  now,  and  get  this  into  the  mail. 

Sincerely, 

George  Chambers 


8 


SINC-LINK 


Q  L  I  P  S 

by  Hugh  H.  Howie 

Some,  time,  ago  when  I  wo*  ba*y  on  another,  matter,  QUANTA 
anjiXvcd  at  my  doon,,  and  I  dtd  not  tahe,  time,  to  loon  at  tt  ion, 
a  month  on,  two,  and  whejn  I  dtd  n,cad  It,  I  i  oand  an  e,x,cclle,nt 
tatonXal  on  Be,gtnntng  V »*.o gnammtng ,  by  Alan  Pywell,  and  I  dtcldci 
to  LonUXe,  asking  him  ion,  penmt**ton  to  nan  the,  +  zn^L<L*  In  S^nc- 
Llnh.     Tht-6  U>  the,  n,e^alt  oi  that  n,ecia<u>t. 

Alan  had  Intended  the,  <6esiteJ>  to  nan  a  btt  longer  than  It  dtd , 
bat  ouolng  to  lach  oi  cncoanagemejvt  he,  dn,oppe,d  the,  ^abject  and 
de^tn,oye,d  the,  dl^h  on  uhlch  had  Aaved  the,  tatonJal,  J>o  I  now 
have,  to  n,e,-type,  tt  >»o  that  you,  the,  deadest,  can  have,  the, 
benefit  oi  hU  wonX.  At  the,  time,  he,  wn,ote,  tht*  he,  wa* 
Soitwaste,  ConOtollen,  ion,  QUANTA,  and  ha*  now  be,ejn  pn,omoteA  to 
Edlton,. 

Thejhe,  l^  a  thln,d  chapter,  panJJiy  completed,  and  Alan  J>ay*  he, 
wtll  tn,y  and  get  bach  to  It.  So  ti  yoa  want  mon,e  oi  thU  type, 
oi  thing,   dn,op  Alan  a  line,  and  let  him  hnow  what  yoa  want. 

Beginners  Corner 

Elementary  Programming  — 

An  occasional  series  for  the  occasional  programmer. 
Copyright     Alan  Pywell  1991. 

Introducing  buzz-word  number  one   The  word  is  'parameters'  -  it's 

a  lovely  one,  provided  that  you  know  what  it  means!.  It  usually  goes  with 
the  word  'passing'  and  becomes  a  'buzz-phrase*  -  'passing  parameters'. 
I've  passed  cars,  exams  and  even  a  pentop  I  accidentally  swallowed  once 
but  you  don't  wish  to  know  about  that. 

Most  programs  ask  the  user  for  input  of  some  kind,  often  to  select  from  a 
menu  of  options.  Let's  have  four  options.  Also  a  rule:-  the  options  will  be 
numbered  so  that  the  user  will  be  asked  to  type  a  number  instead  of  the 
frequently  used  and  untidy-looking  'type  the  initial  letter'.  We  can  then 
painlessly  produce  a  routine  which  can  be  incorporated  easily  into  any 
program  we  care  to  write.  The  menu  will  look  something  like  this:- 

100  print  "Choose  an  option  -  press  a  key  (1  to  4)" 

110  print  "1  Option  1" 

120  print  "2  Option  2" 

130  print  "3  Option  3" 

140  print  "4  Option  4" 

The  above  is  largely  a  matter  of  personal  preference  as  regards  wording 
and  screen  layout.  It  looks  better  than,  say:- 

110  (p)rint  a  page 

120  (s)ave  game 

130  (n)ot  easy  to  read 

Of  course  we  can  have  as  many  options  as  we  need  -  we  have  just  four.  So 
far  so  good,  now  to  get  the  users  choice  

"3eginners"  Page  1  of  6 


SINC-LINK  #^|\# 


9 


Remember  (you  have,  haven't  you?)  that  1NKEY$  will  not  wait  for  a  key- 
press (you  have  to  be  already  pressing  a  key  when  the  program  reaches 
INKEY$.  INKEY$(-1)  will  wait  until  you  press  a  key.  We  also  need  to  check 
that  the  key  pressed  is  valid  and  go  back  to  wait  for  another  key-press  if 
it  isn't.  Our  first  effort  might  look  something  like  this:- 

200  v$-inkey$(-1) 

210  if  v$OT  AND  v$<>'2'  AND  v$<>*3'  AND  v$<>'4'  THEN  GOTO  200 

:REMark  if  user  has  pressed  anything  but  keys  1,2,3,4  go  back  for 
another  keypress  

220  REMark  we'll  be  here  ±  if  a  key  1,2,3  or  4  was  pressed.... 

230  IF  v$  =  'V  THEN  go  to  another  part  of  program 

240  IF  v$  =  '2'  THEN  etc.  etc. 

This  would  work  but  it  does  not  take  advantage  of  SuperBasic's  power. 
The  first  step  is  to  get  rid  of  that  cumbersome  line  210.  We  can  do  this 
very  easily  by  putting  the  allowable  keypresses  into  a  string  and  checking 
if  the  number  typed  is  in  it.  SuperBasic  provides  a  powerful  keyword  for 
this  purpose  -  INSTR  (pronounce  it  *in  string'  or  better  still  'is  in  string'). 
First  put  the  permissible  numbers  into  a  string  -  remember  our  numbers 
are  1,2,3,and  4:- 

190    LET  permitted!  =  "1234" 
200  v$  =  INKEY$(-1) 

210  if  NOT  v$  INSTR  (permitted!)  THEN  GOTO  200:  REMark  read  it  as  if  v$ 
is  not  in  permitted  string." 

It's  looking  a  mite  less  inelegant  and  will  run  a  trifle  faster.  Now  let's  get 
rid  of  the  GOTO.  For  this  we  need  three  more  keywords:- 

REPEAT  END  REPEAT  EXIT  wow! 

200  REPEAT  keys  210  v$  =  INKEY$(-1) 

220  if  v$  INSTR  permitted!  THEN  EXIT  keys:  REMark  (read  as  "if  v$  is  in 
the  permitted  string  then  leave  keys"  i.e.  goto  the  next  line  after  END 
REPEAT  KEYS  in  this  case  line  240 

230  END  REPEAT  KEYS  :  REMark  come  here  when  EXITing  REPEAT 

240  IF  v$="1"  etc.  etc. 

The  END  REPEAT  is  the  magic  bit.  By  the  time  the  QL  reaches  it,  it  "knows" 
whether  the  condition(s)  we've  programmed  have  been  met.  So  END  REPEAT 
either  causes  a  jump  back  to  the  line  after  REPEAT  (210  in  our  case)  or  it 
is  skipped  over,  control  going  to  the  next  line  after  the  END  REPEAT  (240). 
The  bit  between  REPEAT  and  END  REPEAT  is  a  loop.  To  put  it  another  way, 
if  the  condition(s)  are  not  met  then  go  back  to  the  line  after  REPEAT  keys 
(stay  in  the  loop),  but  if  they  are  met  then  don't  loop  but  exit  the  loop 
instead  (skip  over  END  REPEAT). 

So  what  does  all  this  have  to  do  with  passing  parameters?  I  thought  you'd 
never  ask.  Just  for  the  moment  don't  worry  about  what  a  parameter  is  - 
like  British  Rail  I'm  getting  there. 

The  routine  for  getting  the  users  input  isn't  finished  yet  but  I  want  to  di- 
gress for  a  moment....  There  may  be  many  places  in  your  program  where 
you  wish  to  get  an  input.  Instead  of  writing  the  routine  in  every  place  its 
needed  we  can  write  it  just  once  and  call  it  up  from  wherever  we  need  it 
in  the  program.  The  routine  then  becomes  a  subroutine.  The  word  sub- 
routine means  that  it's  not  part  of  the  main  flow  of  the  program. 

"Beginners"  Page  2  of  6 

SINC-LINK 


We  need  another  two  words- 


GOSUB 


RETURN 


GOSUB  means  "go  to  (not  GOTO!)  the  subroutine  but  expect  to  come  back 
eventually"  i.e.  GOSUB  10000  means  go  to  the  subroutine  beginning  at  line 
10000.  The  last  word  in  the  subroutine  must  be  RETURN-  guess  what 
RETURN  means?  It  -  means  to  the  line  immediately  after  the  line  that 
contained  the  GOSUB.  When  our  clever  QL  comes  across  GOSUB  it 
"remembers"  to  where  it  needs  to  return  when  it  eventually  finds  RETURN. 

100  GOSUB  10000 

110  rem  return  to  110  from  subroutine 
120  main  part  of  program 
130  more  of  same  140  etc 

9999  end  of  main  part 

10000  rem  this  is  a  subroutine 

10010  PRINT  "Press  a  key  to  select:-" 
10020  Print  "1 — option  1" 
10030  etc 

10100  RETURN:  remark  QL  mutters  "what's  the  line  after  the  line  that  called 
me?  Ah,  I  remember,  it  was  line  100,  so  I  will  return  to  line  110" 

Using  GOSUB  is  quite  easy  but  I  won't  dwell  on  it  because  YOU  SHOULD 
NEVER  USE  GOSUB!  "Why?"  I  hear  you  cry.  "Because  SUPERBASIC  has  some- 
thing much  better"  comes  the  smug  reply. 

Instead  we're  going  to  give  our  little  subroutine  a  name.  This  is  another 
powerful  feature  of  Super  Basic  -  the  ability  to  give  a  subroutine  a  name 
and  to  call  it  by  name  instead  of  by  line  number.  Let's  call  it  "CHOICE*.  We 
name  a  subroutine  by  use  of  another  keyword.  But  first,  let's  call  our 
subroutine  a  "procedure"  then  we're  really  'with  if!  "Procedure"  is  a 
Buzzword  meaning  'subroutine'. 

The  keyword:-  DEFPROC  (read  it  as  "define  procedure")  Type  in  DEF  PROC 
and  the  QL  knows  you  mean"DEFine  PROCedure",  clever  chap. 

200  DEFine  PROCedure  CHOICE  (minimum,  maximum)  :  REMark  Hey!  Two 
parameters  have  crept  in!  Okay  don't  panic.  At  some  earlier  point  in 
the  program,  just  after  we'd  printed  the  menu,  we  needed  to  ask  the 
user  for  his  choice  of  options  and  we  needed  to  ensure  that  our 
program  will  respond  only  to  keys  1,2,3  or  4.  It  may  come  as  a 
surprise  to  realise  that  1  is  the  minimum  and  4  is  the  maximum!  So  the 
parameters  turn  out  to  be  simply  bits  of  information  that  we  are 
passing  to  our  procedure, 

90  LET  permitted$="  123456789"  :  REMark  let's  go  mad  -  we  might  decide  we 
need  ten  options  somewhere  else  in  the  program.... 

100  PRINT  "SELECT  AN  OPTION" 

110  PRINT  "1  OPTION  1"  etc. 

Now  for  the  juicy  bit.... 
150  CHOICE  1,4 

We're  telling  the  QL  to  go  to  (not  GOTO!)  our  procedure  CHOICE  and^ giving 

it  two  numbers  (parameters)  to  play  with        The  QL  is  telling  itself  "I  must 

remember  where  I  was  when  I  jumped  to  CHOICE  so  that  know  where  to 
come  back  to  when  I've  finished  with  CHOICE>  0  know  I  will  have  finished 
with  line  150  so  I'll  return  to  the  next  line  -  looks  like  line  160  to  me...  and 


"Beginners"  Page  3  of  6 


11 


I'll  need  the  numbers  1  and  4  in  CHOICE  by  the  look  of  it....  Now  what  line 
does  CHOICE  start  on,  I'll  quickly  skim  through  all  the  lines  'til  I  find  it, 
Ah  well,  here  goes...." 

160  some  more  program  

200-DEFine  PROCedure  CHOICE  (minimum, maximum)  We've  passed  two 

numbers  (parameters)  to  the  procedure  and  the  procedure  has  two  par- 
meter  name  in  brackets  after  its  name.  QL  starts  chuntering  to  himself 
again.  "CHOICE  on  line  150  has  sent  me  two  numbers  and  now  I've 
found  two  words.  What  to  do,  what  to  do?  I'm  going  to  call  them 
variables  and  give  them  the  numbers,  that  will  sort  that  out.  The  first 
number  is  1  and  the  first  variable  is  minimum  so  I'll  say  minimum 
represents  the  number  1.  Now  for  the  second  -  I'll  let  the  next  variable 
represent  the  next  number  passed  to  me,  so  maximum  represents  the 
number  4.  And  the  third  variable,  Oh,  there  isn't^a  third  one,  but  if 
there  was. ...think  I'll  call  the  variables  "parameters" 

210     REPEAT  keys 

220  v$=INKEY(-1)  seen  that  before  somewhere. 

230  if  v$  INSTR  (permitted$(minimum  to  maximum))  THEN  EXIT  keys:  REMark 
(read  as  "if  v$  is  in  the  part  of  the  permitted  string  between  the 
mimimumth  and  maximumth  character  in  that  string  i.e.  between  the 
first  and  fourth  (inclusive)  then  fine,  leave  the  REPEAT  loop,  we've  got 
what  we  wanted"  so  QL  chunters  along,  ignoring  all  lines  that  don't  say 
'END  REPEAT'-when  it  finds  it,  it  "exits"  the  loop  (  by  skipping  to  the 
next  line  after  END  REPEAT)  But  if  v$  isn't  in  permitted$  then  loop  (to 
200) 

240  END  REPEAT  keys  (EXIT  finds  this  line  then  goes  here  ) 

250  END  DEFINE       (the  END  DEFINE  ends  the  definition  of  our  procedure 

CHOICE.  It  acts  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  RETURN  i.e.  the  program 

returns  to  the  line  after  the  line  that  invoked  (called)  the  procedure. 

The  QL  mutters  to  itself  "Now  where  was  I   when  CHOICE  was  called? 

Ah,  yes,  I  remember,  line  150  so  I  must  return  to  line  160...." 

We  called  CHOICE  simply  by  putting  its  name  on  line  150  i.e.  150 
CHOICE  replaces  500  GOSUB  line-number-at-start-of-subroutine.  The  line 
□  EFPROC  CHOICE  is  the  same  as  the  above  line-number-at-start-of- 
subroutine.  ENDDEF  is  analogous  to  RETURN(type  ENDDEF  and  QL  knows  you 
mean  END  DEFINE) 

With  named  procedures  the  program  is  easier  to  read  and  understand, 
GOSUB  doesn't  really  tell  you  much.  If  you  leave  a  program  for  a  year  and 
then  decide  to  work  on  it  again  you'll  be  glad  you  used  named  procedures 
(if,  that  is,  you  used  meaningful  names. ..you  will,  won't  you?) 

I  wrote  a  sophisticated  adventure  writing  tool.  Being  accustomed  to  a 
Spectrum  at  the  time  I  used  short  variables  and  procedure  names  (to  save 
a  few  bytes  of  RAM!!!).  I  returned  to  it  after  about  two  years  and  could  not 
fathom  it.  I've  started  from  scratch  again.  Eighteen  months  hard  work 
wasted.  BE  WARNED!.  Another  big  advantage  of  breaking  a  program  into 
procedures  is  that  you  can  write  a  procedure  and  test  it  before  writing 
any  more-  if  there's  a  fault  you  have  to  check  only  a  few  lines  instead  of 
possibly  the  whole  program. 

Let's  recap  and  at  the  same  time  leave  some  lines  for  some  more  program 

and  just  for  a  change  we'll  have  6  options  

10    some  program 
20    some  more 


"Beginners"  Page  4  of  6 


SINC-LINK 


25     LET  v$  =  "1234567890" 

30    CHOICE  1,6:  REMark  6  options  remember 

40      REMark   when  the  procedure  CHOICE  which   we've  just  called  hits  its 

END  DEFINE  it  will  RETURN  to  here  4- 
50     IF  v$=  "1"  THEN  (do  option  1) 
60    IF  V$="2"  (  and  so  on  ) 
100  if  v$="6"  THEN  (do  option  6) 

110  to  9999  some  more  program      (some  more  program) 

4. 

10000     DEFine     PROCedure     CHOICE     (min,max):     REM     min,max     are  still 

meaningful? 
10100  REPEAT  keys  10200  v$=  INKEY$(-1) 

10300  if  v$  INSTR  (permitted$(min  to  max))  THEN  EXIT  keys 
10400  END  REPEAT  keys 
10500  END  DEFine 

If  you  want  9  options  then  30  CHOICE  1,9 

If  you  want  options  3  and  4  only  then  30  CHOICE  3,4 

Now  let's  get  rid  of  all  those  IFs.  To  do  this  we  need  two  more  words:- 
SELECT  END  SELECT 

SELECT  means  "select  one  of  the  following  options"  while  END  SELECT 
means  "there  are  no  more  options".  Imagine  that  you  have  written  four 
procedures  already  and  you  are  satisfied  that  they  all  work.  Of  course 
these  procedures  can  have  any  name  you  care  to  choose.  Let's  suppose 
they  are  called:-         SAVE-GAME.  HISCOREJPABLE,         FINISH  and 

L0AD_£TATEJDF_PLAY  Note  that  spaces  are  not  allowed.  Use  underscore 
instead.  Underscore  is  the  (shifted)  key  between  0  an  =.  Now  instead  of  IF 
v$="1"  then  SAVEjGAME  IF  v$="2M  then  H!_SCORE_TABLE  IF  etc. 

LET  V=v$:  REM  V  takes  the  "value'  of  v$  i.e.  if  v$="7"  then  v=7  SELECT  V 
=  1:SAVEJ3AME     replaces      IF      v#="1"     THEN  SAVE_GAME=2:HISCORE_TABLE 

replaces     IF     v$="2"     THEN     HI  SCORE_TABLE     =3:FINISH     replaces   =4: 

LOAD_STATE_OF_PLAY  END  SELECT  no  more  options. 

I  have  sneakily  replaces  THEN  with  a  colon.  You  may  do  this  anywhere  in  a 
program  to  save  typing.  It  is  obligatory  inside  a  SELECT-END  SELECT  bit. 
The  above  is  called  the  short  form  of  SELECT.  Each  =  and  its  associated 
bits  must  be  all  on  one  line.  If  you  wished  each  option  to  consist  of  many 
instructions  use  the  long  form  of  SELECT, i.e. 

SELECT  ON  V 

ON  V=1:  PRINT  "Make  sure  disk  is  in  FLP1" 
PRINT  "PRESS  SPACE  to  save  game" 
(space  pressed  and  game  saved....) 
PRINT  "Continue  game?" 

and  so  on        all  the  above  lines  will  be  acted  upon  if  v=1 

ON  V=2:  etc. 

As  you've  had  enough  ado  for  one  day,  here  without  more  ado,  is  a  com- 
plete listing  which,  if  I've  done  well,  you  will  understand.  NOTE  how  one 
named  procedure  can  call  another.  This  procedure  MENU_1  prints  a  menu 
then  calls  GETjCHOICE  to  get  a  keypress. 


"3eginners"  Page  5  of  6 


100  permitted$  =  "123456789" 

110  REMark  MENU-1  asks  if  you  want  instructions,  1=yes,2=no 

120  MENU-1:REM  return  here  from  MENU-1 

130  SELECT  V 

140  =1:INSTRUCTI0NS 

150  =2:GAME 

160  END  SELECT 

170  REM  end  of  game  returns  here-  then,  ANOTHER -GAME?, STOP  etc-up  to 

you 

200  DEFine  PROCedure  GAME 
210  REM  start  of  game 
1990  REM  end  of  game 
2000  END  DEFine  GAME 

2010  DEFine  PROCedure  GET-CHOICE  (min,max) 
2020  REPEAT  KEYPRESS 
2030  V$=INKEY$(-1) 

2040   IF   V$   INSTR   (permitted$(min,max))  THEN  EXIT  KEYPRESS:   ELSE  PRINT 

"NUMBER  MUST  BE  BETWEEN  ";min;"  AND  ";max 
2050  END  REPEAT  KEYPRESS 

2060  V=V$:REM  convert  V$  now  instead  of  many  times  in  main  program 

2070  END  DEFine  GET-CHOICE 

2071  REM  divider  for  clarity 

2080  DEF  PROCedure  MENU-1 

2090  CLS:PRINT  "Do  you  want  instructions?" 

2100  PRINT  "1  YES" 

2110  PRINT  "2  NO" 

2120  GET-CHOICE  1,2:REM  this  procedure  calls  another 

2130  END  DEFine  MENU-! 

2131  REM  divider  for  clarity 

2200  DEF  PROCedure  INSTRUCTIONS 

2210  CLS  . 
2220  PRINT  "The  object  of  the  game  is  to  enable  unsuccessful  and  impover- 
ished would-be  authors  to  get  their  names  in  print  by  writing  a  piece  on  a 
specialised   subject,   safe  in  the   knowledge  that  only  a  few   readers  will 
realise  that  it's  a  load  of  old  cobblers," 
2230  PRINT  "Don't  call  us,  we'll  call  you" 
2400  END  DEFINE  INSTRUCTIONS 

!  hope  the  above  will  be  of  some  use  to  those  who  program  only  occasion- 
ally and  therefore  have  not  become  very  familiar  with  SUPERBASIC.  I  would 
appreciate  some  reaction  to  the  content  and/or  style  as  well  as  suggestions 
and  queries  for  possible  future  articles.  Drop  me  a  line  please.  All  letters 
will  be  examined  by  the  bomb  squad.  In  the  unlikely  event  that  I  get  a  lot 
of  feedback  I  will  not  answer  individual  letters  but  will  acknowledge  them 
in  these  pages.  Thankyou  30/5/1991 

Alan  Pywell,  13  Sandyfields  Close,  Sea  Lane,  Saltfleet,  Lines,  LN11  7RP. 
England. 


ThQLSLQL  ujUJI  boL  cunothosL  Ln^taJLxneJit  tn  the.  ylq^xJl  I^allsl,  bmt  do  not 
loJt  tkat  Atop  you,  4iom  d^opptng  Alan  a,  no  to.  cU>hXng  h^im  to 
aJJcojui.      to      yousL      own      pclaJ^LcuMlsl     tntosue^t      on,  n^d. 

Hugh  H.  Howie. 


Beginners"  Page  6  of  6 


SINC-LINK 


ZX8 1     RESOURCES     -     6  4k     SRAM  MEMORY 

Rene  Bruneau    April  1992 


'  Sladestone  64k  leiory  finally  bit  the  dust.  I  didn't 
.-ally  want  to  go  out  and  find  another  one,  so  I  considered 
building  one  with  static  rai.  Toi  Stoddard  wrote  an 
excellent  article  in  Tiie  Designs  for  lodifying  a  ZX81  for 
64k  internal  rai.  I  did  not  want  to  do  anything  with  the  CPU 
board,  so  I  developed  a  printed  circuit  board  usina  Mr. 
Stoddard's  design.  As  with  lost  devices  for  the  ZX81 .  the 
SRAH  board  plugs  into  the  back  of  the  coiputer  with  a  feed- 
through  for  other  units.  In  its  basic  configuration,  the 
SRAH  board  will  replace  a  16k  raipack  with  rai  in  the  8-l6k 
block  for  utilities  or  SHREB  Hirez  graphics. 

THE  HARDWARE 

The  pcb  task,  board  layout,  and  parts  list  are  shown  below. 
As  with  past  pcb  projects  that  I  have  done,  the  pcb  task  is 
a  2X  iirrored  iiage  that  can  be  xeroxed  onto  TEC-200  iylar 
fill  at  SOX  reduction.  TEC-200  is  a  clear  iylar  that  doesn't 
allow  the  xerox  lediui  to  bond  to  it.  A  regular  iron  with 
heat  setting  at  cotton  (hot!)  will  transfer  the  design  onto 
a  clean  copper  blank  which  can  then  be  etched. 

Stuffing  the  board  is  straightforward.  Start  by  inserting 
the  juipers  (13),  note  that  3  juipers  are  under  the  IC 
sockets.  Install  the  sockets,  resistors,  diodes,  and 
switches.  Install  the  capacitor,  being  careful  of  its 
orientation  and  the  transistor  with  the  flat  side  facing  the 
top  of  the  board.  Install  the  edge  connector  allowing  at 
least  3/8'  between  the  connector  and  the  board  for 
clearance.  Check  the  board  for  cold  solder  joints  and  solder 
bridges. 

Install  Ul  and  U2  (pin  1  to  the  top  right  for  both)  and  plug 
he  unit  into  the  coiputer.  Power  up  and  confiri  that  the 
ieiory  board  is  working.  If  the  screen  retains  blank,  power 
down  and  check  your  work. 

At  this  point  you  should  have  a  working  32k  coiputer.  To  get 
64k  you  will  have  to  lount  U3  on  top  of  U2.  Unless  you  are 
very  good  with  a  soldering  iron,  I  would  reconend  that  U3 
be  lounted  in  a  socket  soldered  onto  U2  with  pin  20  bent  out 
at  a  right  angle.  This  pin  is  connected  to  the  pad  provided 
on  the  pcb  adjacent  to  the  socket. 


CONFIGURATION 

Switch  1  is  used  to  enable  the  8-16k  block  for  use  with 
other  peripherals  lapped  to  this  area  such  as  the  Larken 
disk  interface  or  an  eproi  board. 

Note  that  the  traces  connecting  the  data  and  address  lines 
of  the  srai  to  the  cpu  are  not  in  order,  therefore  it  is  not 
possible  to  lount  a  eproi  in  place  of  the  second  srai. 
Though  it  hasn't  been  tested,  an  eeproi  should  work  because 
you  can  prograi  it  in  situ. 

An  optional  feature  is  a  reset  switch  consisting  of  R6  and 
SW3  located  od  the  right  side  of  the  board. 

PARTS  LIST 


Ul  74LS145 

U2,U3  43256-15L,  256k  x  8  SRAH 

D1-D3  1N4148,  signal  diode 

Ql  2N3904,  NPN  transistor 

R1-R5  2.2k  1/4  watt  resistor 

Ct  2.2uf  16v  Tantalui  cap 


1  Z81  edge  connector 

2  28-pin  dip  socket, 

1  16-pin  dip  socket 

2  SPST  switches  (Sill,  SU2) 
RESET  SWITCH  (Optional) 

R6  lk  1/4  watt  resistor 

SW3  SPST  Hoientary  on 

Printed  circuit  boards,  kits,  and  assembled  boards  can  be 
■ade  available  if  there  is  enough  interest. 

INFORMATION 

If  you  are  interested  in  working  with  TEC-200,  it  is 
available  froi 

The  HEADOWLAKE  Corp. 
Dept.  G,  P.O.  Box  497,  Northport  NY  11768 
5  sheets  for  $3.95,  10  sheets  for  $5.95 
add  $1.50  for  postage 


20 


1 


H4- 


64K  SRAM  r^-mooAKD 


Cont. 


SINC-LINK 


15 


1 


o\_0-v  Q 


64K  PCB 


VIDEO  PRIMER 

What  do  you  do  when  you  want  to  upgrade  the  video  display 
for  your  TS1000  or  2068?  Hhen  you  lo  in  the  trade  papers 
and  advertisients  you'll  see  things  e  CGA,  RGB,  EGA,  V6A, 
Composite  Honochroie  or  TTL.  The  ;echnical  jaroon  can 
confuse  even  the  experts.  What  follows  is  a  short  thuab  nail 
dictionary  to  add  to  your  list  of  coiputereze: 

C6A:  Colour  Graphics  Adapter.... this  refers  to  the  video 
driver  card  installed  in  MS-DCS  (ne  IBM  and 
clones).  It  is  capable  of  displaying  four  colours 
in  standard  resolution  iode  and  only  two  colours  in 
high  resolution.  Soietiies  video  lonitors  will  be 
advertised  as  such,  though  technically  they  should 
be  listed  as  RGB  (see  below). 

RGB:  Red/Green/Blue. ...specifically  a  video  lonitor 
capable  of  displaying  up  to  16  colours  (This  is 
what  you  want  to  get  for  your  206B). 

EGA,  VGA:  Extended  Graphics,  Video  Graphics  Array. ..video 

drivers  or  lonitors  for  MS-DOS  lachines.  The  Titex 
Sinclair  computers  are  not  capable  of  working  with 
these. 


r  i 

I         e  o 


03 

-OV) 

° , 


If 

is 


TTL:  A  lonochroie  monitor  that  has  a  siiilar  pinout  to 
the  RGB  •onitor  (except  for  the  colour,  of  course). 
To  date,  we  are  not  aware  of  anyone  who  has 
connected  one  to  a  2068.  With  surplus  prices 
starting  at  $10.00,  this  lay  provide  a  very  clear 
display.  It  bears  investigating. 

Composite;  Either  •onochroie  or  colour,  both  the  TS1000  or 
2068  provide  a   signal   that     will   drive  these 
■onitors  directly  or  with  suitable  circuitry.  Note 
that  the  Colour  lonitor   per  forts  poorly;    an  RGB 
lonitor  is  far  better. 

If  anyone  is  interested  in  tore  information,  contact  George 
Chaibers  or  lyself 


Happy  coiputing 


Rene  Bruneau 


16 


64K  SRAM  Component 
Layout 


SINC-LINK 


Bill  Harmer 
97  Ruskin  St. 
Ottawa,   Ont . 
K1Y  4B3 

April   6,  1992 

Mr.   George  Chambers 
Toronto  TS  Users  Club 

Dear  George.. 

Just  thought  that  I  would  drop  a  little  note  to  you  on  some 
amazing  things  that  are  resulting  from  something  that  your  people 
started . 

The  chain  of  events  began  when  a  note  from  the  German  QL  User 
Club  (about  1000  to  2000  members  strong)   inviting  foreign 
contacts,  was  passed  on  to  be  published  in  the  Toronto  club 
news  letter . 

I  began  exchanging  newsletters  and  letters  with  them  just  for 
fun  and  mentioned  the  contact  information  to  others,  including 
SLIX,   run  by  Bill  Miller  in  Cupertino,   California.  Well,  he  was 
able,   using  some  electronic  address  numbers  passed  on  this  way,  to 
contact  them  by  electronic  mail,   taking   (he  thinks)   5  days.  Mr. 
Franz  Herrman,   a  21  year  old  German  student  and  executive  of  the 
club  replied  and  the  news  is  quite  exciting. 

In  Germany  they  have  been  porting  a  lot  of  interesting  stuff  to 
the  QL  including  the  ZOO  and  LHx  data  compression  utilities 
(formerly  available  mainly  for  IBM  PC's),   and  a  new  experimental 
one,  HAR,   from  Japan,  which,  to  quote  Mr.  Hermann,   "has  been  much 
more  adapted  to  QDOS"  and  "it  is  the  best  archiver  for  the  QL" . 
There  are  enough  QL  users  in  Germany  that  work  for  this  sort  of 
software  has  been  easy  enough  to  get,   so  some  rather  fancy 
software  is  floating  around  there,  a  lot  of  it  in  the  public 
domain  and  obtainable  from  that  club  by  mail. 

German  commercial  products  include  a  hardware  attachment  for  the 
Atari  ST  to  let  it  run  Sinclair  QL  software. 

The  long  chain  of  events  that  got  this  interesting  information 
flowing  to  this  this  side  of  the  Atlantic  is  typical  of  the  reason 
why  we  need  user  groups!   One  person  just  can't  have  the  time  or 
energy  to  find  out  all  these  little  niches  in  which  support  of 
hobby  computers  is  to  be  found. 

SLIX  in  California  also  has  some  interesting  news  of  their  own. 
Their  attempts  to  get  UNIX  on  to  the  disk  interface-equipped  QL  in 
cheap  or  public  domain  versions  has  been  given  a  recent  boost  by 
the  emergence  of  a  sort  of  UNIX  and  AT&T  clone,  LINUX.  Previously 
they  experimented  with  MINIX  and  the  less  elaborate  XINU,   but  both 
were  copyrighted  although  source  code  in  C  language  is  cheaply 
available  for  viewing  and  analysis   (via  Austin  Code  Works,  Austin, 
Texas)   in  Turbo  C  of  Microsoft  C  for  the  IBM  PC. 

Slix  also  mentions  QL  microdrive  innards  at  about  ^20  and  QL 
keyboard  membranes  still  available  from  the  UK,   from  Tony 
Firschman,  TF  Services,   12  Bouverie  Place,   London  W2  1RB, 
England . 

Seeking  out  sources  of  support  overseas  seems  the  way  to  keep 
hobby  computers  going  today.  The  world  really  is  shrinking,   and  to 
the  benefit  of  our  hobby. 

Sincere ly 
Bill  Harmer 


SINC-LINK 


QL  SUCCESS 


Some  time  ago    Real  Gagnon  then    the  EDITOR  and    PUBLISHER  of  ql  DOC 

THE  SINCLAIR  NEWSLETTER  FROM  MONTREAL  C  IN  FRENCH  }  HAD  WRITTEN  AN 
ESSAY  ON  THE  BENEFITS  OF  USING  SUCCESS  ,  THE  CP/M  EMULATOR  FROM  DIGITAL 
PRECISION .  I  WAS  NEVER  SUCCESSFUL  IN  USING  THIS  EMULATOR  ,  BUT  THE 
OBVIOUS  BENEFITS  OF  BEING  ABLE  TO  USE  THE  MULTITUDE  OF  PROGRAMS  WWITTEN 
FOR  CP/M.  ALWAYS  TEMPTED  ME.  I  HAVE  TRANSLATED  THE  ESSAY  AND  IT  IS 
AVAILABLE  EITHER  FROM  THIS  NEWSLETTER  OR  FROM  THE  EDITOR  OF  SINC-LINK. 
IF  YOU  ARE  SUCCESSFUL   IN  USING  SUCCESS  PLEASE   LET  US  KNOW. 

LOUIS  LAFERRIERE 


QL  +      CP/M      =  SUCCESS 

DIGITAL  PRECISION      ,      IS     RECOGNIZED     FOR     THE     QUALITY     OF  THEIR 

SOFTWARE  .    SOME  of  them  have  been    landmarks  to    identify    the  various 

STEPS     IN  THE   HISTORY  OF     THE  QL .   WE  SHOULD     MENTION     SUPERCHARGE    ,  THE 

EDITOR  ,     DESKTOP  PUBLISHER    AND    NOW  THE  CP/M    EMULATOR  SUCCESS.  THIS 

EMULATOR  WILL  OPEN  THE  DOOR  TO  THOUSANDS  OF  PROGRAMS  WRITTEN  FOR  THIS 
SYSTEM.  DON'T  get  CARRIED  AWAY  ,  BECAUSE  the  road  to  SUCCESS  IS  PAVED 
WITH  ROADBLOCKS,  NOT  NECESSARILY  INSURMOUNTABLE  BUT  THEY  ARE  THERE 
ANYWAY . 

1  =  SUCCESS  ,  The  system 

IN  FACT,  THE  HEART  OF  SUCCESS  CONSISTS  OF  A  SOFTWARE  TO  TRANSLATE 
COMMANDS  PRIMARILY  DIRECTED  AT  THE  Z80,  SO  THAT  THE  68008  CAN 
UNDERSTAND  THEM.  THE  CP/M  WAS  DESIGNED  FOR  THE  Z80  OR  8080  CPU.  IN 
ADDITION     SUCCESS  COMPRISES  THE  TOOLS     TO  CHANGE  THE  QL     SO  THAT  IT  CAN 

use    CP/M.  Then  we  have  CP/M  itself.  Each    command  of  the  CP/M  ,  or  any 

PROGRAM  RUNNING  WITH  CP/M  IS  TRANSLATED  INTO  A  COMMAND  FOR  THE  THE 
68008.  NATURALLY  THIS  TRANSLATION  AFFECTS  THE  SPEED  OF  OPERATIONOF  THE 
VARIOUS  PROGRAMS.  THE  QL  WITH  SUCCESS  IS  EQUAL  TO  A  Z88  OPERATING  AT  1 
MHZ  ON  A  MACHINE  WITH   128  K  OR  ABOUT   1  .8  MHZ  WITH  A  MEMORY  EXPANSION. 

YOU  MUST  HAVE  AT  LEAST  ONE  DISK  DRIVE,  OF  728  K  C  1440  SECTORS  ] 
BECAUSE  THE  PROGRAMS  FOR  SUCCESS  CP/M  ARE  ENCLOSED  WITHIN  A  LARGE  FILE 
OF  MORE  THAN  500  K  CALLED  CPMFILES.  SUCCESS  CAN  SUPPORT  6  MEDIA  TO  SAVE 
THE  DATA.  FLP1  AND  FLP2  ARE  CALLED  DRIVE  A;  AND  B;  OF  512  K  EACH,  MDV1 
AND  MDV2  ARE  DRIVE  C  AND  D  OF  1 80  K  EACH,  RAMI  AND  RAM2  ARE  DRIVE  E; 
AND  F;  OF  200  K  EACH  AND  DRIVE  G  CAN  BE  DESIGNATED  BY  THE  USER.  IT 
ALLOWS  THE  READING  OF  DRIVES  FROM  THE  CP/M  COMPUTER.  PLEASE  NOTE  THAT 
THE  DRIVES  A:  TO  F :  WHEN  YOU  ARE  USING  QDOS ,  FOR  EXAMPLE  IF  YOU  CALL 
DIR     MDV1    ,    YOU  WILL  NOT  GET  THE  FILES     CP/M  THAT  YOU  SAVED  THERE  BUT  , 

you    will"only  see  the  file  CPMFILES.  The  CP/M  files  are  only  available 

WHEN  YOU   ARE   IN  CP/M  MODE.  _  n.MnTCI/  TV/of_ 

AS  FAR  AS  RAMI  AND  RAM2  YOU  WILL  NEED  A  PROGRAM  OF  RAMDISK  TYPE 
QFLASH,  BECAUSE  THE  RAMDISK  MUST  BE  FORMAT  "ED  FIRST  UNDER  QDOS  BEFORE 
IT  IS  FORMATTED   UNDER  CP/M. 


9-  SUCCESS-  CP/M 

Version  2.2    of  CP/M  is  offered  with  SUCCESS    ,  it  is  the  most  wid 

DH! AVAILABLE     VERSION.   CP/M  IS  AI  DED  OPERATING  SYSTEM j    THEREFORA"  T  IS 

NOT  THE   EASIEST  TO  OPERAS& 

CP/M  FILES  ARE  IDENTIFIED  BY  A  MAXIMUM  OF  8  CHARACTERS  AND  AN 
EXTENSION  OF  3  CHRS  TO  MARK  THE  TYPE  OF  FILE.  E.G.  IF  WE  HAVE  A  FILE 
CALLED  TOTO.COM,  IT  MUST  BE  A  PROGRAM  BECAUSE  OF  THE  EXTENSION  ".COM 
THEREFORE  WE  CAN  LOAD  IT  SIMPLY  BY  TYPING  A>T0T0  .  THE  "  A>  "  IS  THE 
PROMPT,  IT  IS  THE  DEFAULT  DISK  DRIVE.  IF  "TOTO"  HAPPENS  TO  BE  IN  DRIVE 
B  THEN  WE  WOULD  TYPE  A>B:TOTO  TO  START  THE  PROGRAM.  THERE  ARE  SEVERAL 
EXTESIONS  WHICH  HAVE  BEEN  STANDARDIZED  AND  ARE  LISTED  IN  THE  CP/M 
MANUAL . 

Quite  a    few  of  the  commands    accept  "  wildcards" , allowing  several 
files  to  be    accessed  by    one  command.    for  example    dir  will    list  the 

DIRECTORY  OF  A  DISK,  BUT  IF  YOU  USE  DIR  * . DOC  ,  THEN  THE  DISPLAY  WILL 
ONLY   LIST  THE  FILES  WITH   THE  EXTENSION   ".DOC"    FROM  THE  DEFAULT  DRIVE. 

However  if    you  type  DIR  G  :DB* . *    ,  then  all  the    files  on  drive  G 

STARTING  WITH  "DB"  WITH  ANY  EXTENSION  WILL  BE  LISTED.  THE  CHARACTERS 
"*"  AND  "?"  ARE  USED  AS  "WILDCARDS",  THOSE  FAMILIAR  WITH  MS-DOS  WILL  BE 
ON  KNOWN  TERRITORY. 

Here  is  a  quick  look  at  the  commands  CP/M  : 

DIR     WILL  LIST  THE  CONTENTS  OF  A  CP/M  DISK. 

TYPE  WILL  DISPLAY  THE  TEXT  OF  A  FILE  ON  THE  SCREEN 

REN     WILL  RENAME  ONE  OR  MORE  FILES 

ERA     WILL  ERASE/DELETE  ONE  OR  MORE  FILES. 

These  are  not  loaded    into  memory    ,  they    are  stored    somewhere  ! 
There  are  others  which  must  be  activated  whenever  necessary. 


ASM  IS  AN  ASSEMBLER  8080   "   DO  NOT  CONFUSE  WITH  Z80  " 

DOTZ   IS  A  MONITOR-MACHINE  LANGUAGE    ,    WITH  CP/M  IT   IS  USED  TO  MERGE 

THE  PROGRAMMES. 
ED   IS  A  TEXT  EDITOR  BUT   YOU  CAN  FORGET  IT  AS   IT  IS  VERY 

COMPLICATED  TO  USE. 
PIP   IS  USED  TO  COPY   FROM  ONE  DRIVE  TO  ANOTHER  OR   SEND  TEXT  TO  THE 

PRINTER . 

STAT  WILL  PROVIDE   INFO  ON   A  DRIVE/FILE / SYSTEM . 
IN   ADDITION  SUCCESS   SUPPLIES  SOME  PROGRAMS. 

ANALYSE   IS  USED  TO  CONFIGURE  DRIVE  G:   TO  BE  ABLE  TO  READ/WRITE 

SOME  DISKS  WITH  A  DIFFERENT  FORMAT. 
CAT  WILL   LIST  THE  CONTENTS  OF  A  QDOS  DISK. 
DEFINE  WILL  DEFINE   THE  FORMAT  OF  DRIVE  G:. 
DEFKEY  WILL  DEFINE  THE  KEYS  FOR  FUNCTIONS. 
DELQDOS  WILL  ERASE/DELETE  A  QDOS  FILE. 

FORMAT  READIES  A  DISK/MICRODRIVE/RAMDISK   TO  BE  USED  WITH  CP/M. 
RDQDOS  WILL  COPY  A  FILE  QDOS  TO  CP/M. 
WRQDOS  WILL  COPY  A   FILE  CP/M  TO  QDOS. 


SINC-LINK 


^-SUCCESS:  The  CP/m  programmes. 

There  are  thousands  of  CP/M  programs  but  where  are  they  ; 

Very  few  new  CP/M  programs  are  being  written  to-day.  As  far  as  i 
know  only  the  COMMODORE  128  and  the  AMSTRAD  PCW  are  using  CP/M  today. 
The  programs  can  be  found  only  in  the  PUBLIC  DOMAIN  or  BB, 

"QL_DOC  WILL  GO  TO  ANY  LENGTH  TO  PLEASE  IT  S  CUSTOMERS  WILL  SUPPLY 
A     NUMBER  OF  CP/M     PROGRAMS  READY  TO     USE  WITH  SUCCESS     FOR  THE  ASKING. 

WRITEWITHIF  ^MARTHEREEREARED,A  NUMBER  OF  PROGRAMMING  LANGUAGES : 
MACRO-ASSEMBLER  Z80,  »  C  » ,  TURBO  PASCAL  ^L  WORK  REASONABLY  WELL  WITH 
SllfTFSS  AS  FAR  AS  DATA  BASE  IS  CONCERNED  THERE  IS  DBASE  II.  FOR  WORD 
PROCESSING  THERE  £!  WORDSTAR.  BUT  IT  IS  NOT  VERY  GOOD  AND  IS  VERY  SLOW. 
FOR  COMMUNICATIONS  , THE  VARIOUS  PROGRAMS  DEAL  "RE5™  "IT^  THE 
HARDWARE .  THERE  IS  A  MULTITUDE  OF  SOFTWARE  IN  THE  PUBLIC  DOMAIN, 
WHICH  WILL  DO  EVERYTHING  AND  NOTHING  ALL  AT  THE  SAME  TIME  > 
irrFS'5    •    USING  CP/M  PROGRAMS. 

Once™  havTlocated  your  programs,    they  must  be  transferred  to 

the  SUCCESS  STYLE  BECAUSE  EACH  COMPUTER  HAS  ITS  OWN  CP/M  FORMAT.  YOU 
MUST  USE  THE  G*  DRIVE  TO  READ  THE  DISKS  OF  A  DIFFERENT  FORMAT.  SUCCESS 
HAS  THREE  DIFFERENT  DRIVERS  FOR  THE  G:  DRIVE.  UNFORTUNATELY  THE  FORMATS 
ARE  FOR  BBC  AND  AMSTRAD  PCW,  OF  NO  USE  TO  US  HERE  JjJ^^^s^^^ 
WRITE  OUR  OWN  DRIVER.  WE  HAVE  TO  USE  THE  PROGRAM  ANALYSE  JO  ESTABLISH 
THE  FORMAT  FOR  THE  DRIVE  G:.  BUT  WE  STILL  HAVE  JO  CHANGE  SOM 
PARAMETERS.  I  HAVE  BEEN  SUCCESSFUL  IN  COMPLETING  A  DRIVER  FOR  THE 
FORMAT  KAYPRO  II  WHICH  IS  ONE  OF  THE  MOST  WIDELY  FORMAT  FOR  THE  CP/M . 
HERE  IS  A  LISTING  FOR  THIS  DRIVER:  ^.VDDn  TT 

1    DRIVER  TO  READ  ONLY  DISKS   FORMATTED  KAYPRO  II 

!  by  Real  Gagnon  for  QL_DOC  7/20/88 

40    !    SECTORS  PER  TRACK 

1    !    SIZE  OF  S  AFOR    (    1=1024  BYTES) 

95    !    SIZE  EB! DIRECTORY  MAXIMUN  -1 

192    !    N "    !    ERY   IMPORTANT    ,    FOR  READING  EB  K 

1  !    NUMBER  OF  TRACKS   IN  RESERVE 

PHYSICAL  CHARACTERISTICS 

2  !    NUMBER  OF  DRIVE 
2    !    SIZE  OF  THE  SECTOR 
10    !    NUMBER  OF   SECTORS  PER  TRACK 
40    !    40  TRACKS 

0  !    DISTANCE  BETWEEN  TRACK 

1  !    DOUBLE  DENSITY 
1    NUMBERING  OF  THE  SECTORS 
0 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


SINC-LINK 


Create  a  file  with  your  editor  ASCII  using  the  name  DISKFMTJDRV  on 
your  disk  SUCCESS.  Then  with  CP/M  enter  : 

A>RDQDOS  KAYPII.DRV  FLP1 _DISKFMT_FMT  C  COPY  FILE  QDOS  ->  CP/M  } 
A>DEFINE  KAYPII   C  DEFINE  THE  DRIVE  G:> 

Then    insert  a  disk  formatted  with  KAYPRO  II  into  the  drive  G:  and 
enter    DIR  G:  .    If  IT  all  works  you  should  get  the  content  of  the  disk 

ON  YOU  SCREEN.   OTHERWISE  THERE  MUST  BE  A  MISTAKE  SOMEWHERE. 

IF     IT  WORKS  O.K.    ,    WITH  COMMAND  PIP  YOU  CAN  TRANSFER  THE  PROGRAMS 
FROM  THE  DRIVE  G:    TO  DRIVE  A:. 

When  you  receive  a  group  of  CP/M  programs,  generally  they  will  form 

A   COLLECTION .    TO     EXTRACT  THE  PROGRAMS     YOU  WILL  NEED     ANOTHER  PROGRAM  . 

One  is  called  "NULU.COM"  which  is  very  easy  to  use.  Let  us  say  that  you 
have  the  program"SMALLC.LBR" .  This  can't  be  executed  directly  ,  the 
various  programs  must  be  selected  individually  because  "SMALLC.LBR"may 
contain  possibly  10  different  programs. They  were  merged  together  to  save 
space  on  the  disk. 

In  addition  some  programs  have  ben  "squeezed".  They  are  easy  to 
recognized  because  the  extension  contains  a  "Q"in  the  middle. For  example 
"SMALLCDQC"  is  the  squeeze  version  of  "SMALLC.DOC"  and  "SMALLC.CQM"  is 
the  squeezed  version  of  "SMALLC.COM".  To  unsqueezes  the  file  you  would 
need  a  program  such  as  "UNSQ.COM"  or  the  excellent  "NSWEEP.COM". 

Once  the  library  is  extracted  and  unsqueezed,  one  more  feature  need 
to  be  done,  the  video  screen.  Each  CP/M  computer  had  the  bad  habit  of 
having  of  its  own  type  of  video  screen  or  terminal.  This  means  that  a 
CP/M  program  functioning  properly  with  one  machine  would  not  necessary 
operate  properly  with  a  different  computer,  even  if  it  is  a  CP/M 
computer  because  the  terminal  might  be  DIFFERENT.  SUCCESS  USES  THE 
TERMINAL  KNOWN  AS  VT52  ,  WHICH  IS  ONE  AMONGST  MANY  OTHER  TERMINALS.  IF 
YOUR  PROGRAM  WAS  WRITTEN  FOR  AN  OSBORNE  COMPUTER  USING  CONTROL 
CHARACTERS  WITH  THE  SCREEN,  THIS  WILL  GIVE  YOU  SOME  PROBLEMS  BECAUSE  THE 
CONTROL  CHARACTERS  ARE  DIFFERENT  FOR  THE  OSBORNE  AND  THE  VT52 .  GENERALLY 
THE  DOCUMANTATON  WILL  INDICATE  WHERE  SOME  CHANGES  MIGHT  BE  NECESSARY  SO 
THAT  THE  PROPER  CONTROL  CHARACTERS  SHOULD  BE  SENT  TO  THE  TERMINAL.  THIS 
CAN  BE  DONE  WITH  THE  PROGRAM  "D0TZ.COM"  INCLUDED  WITH  SUCCESS.  WITH 
COMMERCIAL  PROGRAMS,  THE  CHANGES  ARE  DONE  WHEN  YOU  INTIALISE  THE  PROGRAM 
3Y  THE   VARIOUS  CHOICES  OF   THE  TERMINALS.    IT   IS  MUCH  EASIER  THIS  WAY. 

IM  WRAPPING  UP  I  WOULD  LIKE  TO  MENTION  THAT  CP/M  PROGRAMS  ARE 
MONOCHROME ,  THAT  IS  NO  COLOUR  .  FRENCH  CHARACTERS  ARE  NOT  INCLUDED 
UNLESS  YOU  CAN  PATCH  THE  FRENCH  ALPHABET.  THE  CP/M  REQUIRES  64K  OF 
MEMORY  BECAUSE  THE  Z80  CAN  ONLY  ADDRESS   64K  OF  MEMORY. 


SINC-LINK 


RrftiBin'g  Spertrum  Scene 
by  Gil  Parrish 

I  had  occasion  to  be  in  Scotland  recently,  and  since  my  tape-based 
2068  had  just  become  a  "Spectrum  compatible"'  (thanks,  Bob!)  after  the  addition  of  a 
small  Zebra  board  and  a  Spectrum  ROM  chip,  I  was  curious  about  the  Spectrum 
scene  m  the  United  Kingdom.  So,  I  went  on  my  very  own  "fact  finding  mission". 

First,  a  few  words  on  the  various  Spectrum  models.  You  may  recall  Sir 
Clive  first  mtro&iced  his  Spectrum  m  England  in  both  16K  and  48K  models.  The 
Timex/Sinclair  2068  later  sold  in  this  country  was  very  similar  to  the  48K  Spectrum 
but  had  a  few  hardware  differences  (eg,  the  2068  had  joystick  ports  while  the 
Spectrum  did  not)  and  would  not  run  Spectrum  machine  language  software  (at  least, 
not  without  installation  of  a  Spectrum  ROM).  After  the  2068  ceased  production, 
Sinclair  went  on  to  introduce  improved  Spectrum  models  in  Europe  including  a  128K 
version  and  the  "Plus"  series.  The  Plus  series  models  all  had  128K  and  improved 
sound,  with  the  differences  being  that  the  +2  and  +2A  versions  came  with  a  built-in 
tape  drive,  while  the  +3  came  with  a  disk  drive. 

Upon  venturing  into  computer  stores,  I  discovered  that  in  some  the 
sales  help  may  tell  you  that  "nobody"  carries  Spectrum  items  anymore.  But  a  trip 
to  the  next  store  may  yield  several  shelves  of  Spectrum  programs.  Mostly,  the 
selection  is  of  inexpensive  games  on  tape  instead  of  disk;  some  "major"  games  are 
available  on  either  tape  or  disk,  but  a  disk  version  tends  to  cost  a  significant 
amount  more  (I  don't  know  why,  unless  game  makers  just  assume  disk  drive  owners 
are  richer)  and  may  be  a  "special  order"  item.  Further,  while  a  few  tapes  in  one 
store  I  visited  required  128K,  almost  all  Spectrum  software  I  saw  worked  with  48K. 
Advice  to  a  Spectrum  48K  owner  considering  upgrading  his  hardware,  as  given  in 
Vnur  Sinclair ,  Britain's  best  selling  Spectrum  magazre  (more  on  this  later),  was  that 
"if  you  only  want  to  upgrade  to  play  better  games,  there's  very  little  software 
available  that  takes  advantage  of  the  extra  memory  or  features  of  the  128K 
machines."  In  other  words,  about  all  that  stands  m  the  way  of  a  2068  owner  and 
"state  of  the  art"  software  is  an  add-on  Spectrum  ROM  chip! 

The  software  available  looked  pretty  decent.  For  instance,  there  was  a 
Spectrum  version  of  the  recent  game  lemmings",  while  popular  on  the  Amiga  aid 
other  advanced  systems,  lemmings"  hasn't  been  made  available  for  the 
Commodore  64  or  other  eight-bit  systems-  except  the  Spectrum!  "Robocop  3 
also  just  made  an  appearance,  as  has  "The  Addams  Family"-  Collections  of  fairly 
recent  software  looked  popular  too;  I  ended  up  buying  a  thrty  game  package  which 
included  Rampage,  Hacker,  Ghostbusters,  EnduroRacer,  Aliens,  Toy  Bizarre, 
Spmdizzy  Space  Shuttle,  and  lots  of  other  titles.  So  software  for  my  2068  is  not  an 
"impossible  dream"  m  BritamL  Yet  what  I  did  not  find  was  non-game  programs;  a 
single  copy  of  "Tasword  Two"  was  the  only  software  I  saw  that  fit  m  that  category. 


SINC-LINK 


Another  area  I  sought  to  explore  was  Britain's  Spectrum  magazine 
situation  I  gather  there  are  several,  but  Your  Sinclair  ("YS")  certainly  appears  to  be 
the  leader  It  is  put  out  by  a  publisher  called  Future  Publishing,  Future  puts  out 
separate  magazines  for  the  Amiga,  Atari  ST,  Sega,  Nintendo,  Commodore,  Amstrad, 
PC's  and  various  other  specialty  topics  (Mountain  Biking  UK  and  Today's  Vegetarian 
are  some  of  their  other  titles),  so  they  must  be  doing  something  right.  Anyway,  I 
bought  Y2.  issue  *76,  meaning  the  magazine  has  been  around  over  six  years.  It's  a 
bright  magazine  with  a  breezy  style;  it  tends  to  refer  to  a  Spectrum  as  a  "Speccy", 
and  to  call  its  readers  and  fellow  Spectrum  owners  its  "Spec-chums'*.  It  contains 
announcements  of  new  software,  reviews  of  software  (with  a  rating  scale  based  on 
addictiveness,  graphics,  instant  appeal  and  "life  expectency"),  tips  and  hints  on 
games  (including  ways  to  get  extra  lives,  etc.),  a  free  classified  advertisement 
section  for  readers  with  both  "for  sale"  and  "wanted"  ads,  commercial  advertising 
featuring  a  lot  of  good  software,  connecting  cables,  disk  drives,  joysticks  (including 
those  Kempston  joystick  adapters  that  tape-based  2068  owners  need  when 
running  Spectrum  software;  disk  systems  tend  to  have  joystick  interfaces  already), 
and  perhaps  best  of  all,  a  cassette  of  Spectrum  games  and  demos  taped  right  to 
the  cover! 

I  guess  I  enjoyed  most  how  tightly  focused  the  magazine  was  on  the 
Spectrum  It  compared  quite  favorably  to  a  Commodore  oriented  publication  I 
picked  up  which  advertised  itself  as  "100%  C64"  but  seemed  to  deliver  page  after 
page  of  British  football  (soccer)  references,  reviews  of  certain  Sega  and  Gameboy 
titles,  rock  music  trivia,  a  pull-out  rock  poster,  TV  and  movie  gossip,  and  plenty  of 
juvenile  humor.  Alas,  YS's  tight  focus  may  not  last  long,  in  reponse  to  a  reader 
comment  about  the  magazine  going  from  90  pages  to  68  pages  in  the  last  couple  of 
years,  the  Editor  stated  that  the  larger  software  houses  were  beginning  to  move 
out  of  Spectrum  software,  the  smaller  houses  didn't  advertise  as  much,  and  to 
attract  more  advertisers  the  magazine  was  'broadening  (its)  horizons  and  looking 
at  life  beyond  the  Speccy  in  the  worlds  of  film,  TV,  radio,  health  and  all  that  kind  of 
thing."  Sure  enough,  the  magazine  contained  some  pages  of  a  lovelorn-type  advice 
column  for  teens,  movie  reviews,  skateboarding  tips,  etc.  And,  it  should  be  noted 
that  some  of  the  humor  is  sufficiently  cultural-based  that  it  went  right  past  me.  Still, 
as  long  as  it  lasts,  the  thrust  of  the  magazine  is  pretty  good. 

I  believe  ¥£  used  to  be  available  at  newstands  in  Canada,  but  I  gather  it 
isn't  any  more.  Anyone  who  wants  to  become  a  ¥£  subscriber  can  certainly  do  so, 
but  it  won't  be  cheap.  The  normal  subscription  rate  is  26.40  British  Pounds 
(something  Ike  $46  U.S.),  but  that  rate  goes  up  to  40.80  Pounds  if  you  live  outside  of 
Britain  in  the  European  community,  and  53.05  Pounds  (around  $93  U.S.)  if  you  live  in 
the  Western  Hemisphere  or  elsewhere  in  the  world  But  if  you're  that  much  of  a 
Spectrum  fanatic,  I  won't  stand  in  your  way;  just  let  me  know  and  I'll  be  glad  to 
supply  you  a  copy  of  the  subscription  form  In  the  meantime,  have  fun  with  your 
Speccy,  Spec-chums! 


SINC-LINK 


M1    T  i  Ffl  E  5     5CP1EE  t-.j  ^ 

Hbed  Kahale.  335  u.  fleupnrt  Rd,  HnffHan  Estates..  IL  B01R5 


Since  my  last  article  on  the  Tandy 
DMP105  printer,  modifications  were  made 
to  screen  dump  4  times  the  normal  size 
to  about  a  half  page  worth.  Also  the 
print  head  is  now  controlled  so  it  can 
plot  to  any  location  on  the  page.  In 
this  case,  the  font  style  controls  the 
width;  ELITE  (12  CP I)  &  Expanded  was 
used  below.  One  half  the  vertical  Pixels 
were  used  for  one  print  head  pass.  The 
program  should  be  apli cable  to  other 
printers  with  proper  modifications. 
To  obtain  a  negative  ''inverse  video)  or 
vice  versa  add  NOT.       NOT  POINT ( C, R-xx) 

1  REM  TANDY  DMP105  PRINTER  DRIVER  by  Abed  Kahale  1/92 

23  RANDOMIZE  USR  100:  OPEN  #3, "LP1 

30  RANDOMIZE  USR  100:  POKE  16092,0:  REM  No  line  feed  (ot 
heruise  double  spacing) 

50  RANDOMIZE  USR  100:  POKE  16093,32:  REM  LPRINTs  &  CHR*s 
sent  to  printer. 

80  LPRINT  CHR$  27;CHR$  23?CHR*  27;CHR$  14;CHR*  18:  REM  E 


Font  by  ZUNK 

90>LPRINT  CHR*  27;CHR*  16;CHR$  0;CHR$  35:REM  Locates  head  (i 
argin)  at  35  pixels  from  the  left. 

95  RANDOMIZE  USR  100:  LOAD  'C.C$*SCREEN$ 

155  FOR  Y=0  TO  175  STEP  4:  LET  R=175-Y:  REM  vertical  pixels; 
twice  for  8-pin  head. 

160  FOR  C=0  TO  255:  REM  Horizontal  pixels. 
170  LET  B=0 

180  LET  B=B+P0INT  (CR-.5):  REM      divided  by  2 
190  LET  B=B+2*P0INT  (C,R-1):  REM  *  ' 

200  LET  B=B+4*P0INT  (C,R-1.5):  REM  1  " 
210  LET  B=B+8*P0INT  (C,R-2):  REM  '  ' 

220  LET  B=B+16*P0INT  (C,R-2.5):  REM  '  ' 
230  LET  B=B+32*P0INT  (C,R-3):  REM  '  " 

240  LET  B=B+64*P0INT  (C,R-3.5):  REM       '  ' 
250  LET  B=B+128 

255  IF  IN  1270236  THEN  GO  TO  255:  REM  Checks  if  READY. 
260  LPRINT  CHR*  B; 
270  NEXT  C 

280  LPRINT  CHR$  27;CHR$  90;CHR$  0:  REM  carriage  return. 
290  NEXT  Y 

300  LPRINT  CHR*  30:  REM  Back  to  character  *>de. 


lite«  Expanded  (Elongated1)  ft  Grapliii.  mode; 


V.V.V 


•  "HI 


I     It"  i"l 


"  ■   ■'J'j  r.'i 


7  •■;■>;•; 


•'V"*^.'.""  *  •***  *  *" ." ""  * ."  *" 

•  -*"  ■  "-■""*-*.""  "  .*  .".-v.- vl,**"'i 

"  «\>  '  1  1  ".  1  "  "  *.*     .*  *  1  1  ,J"  |Yj| 

• "  ".•'§".'         ■  ■  "  •  •  iTi'Kpj 

■  ■  •  1  "|  1  •  •"  ■          '■'.* |TJ 


.■.*■•  i  j 


in.'..       _  .!!..!. 


RMS 


II  I  I  I] 


'I i  *  i  •* i* I fH 
Lid  J  .'•.*•*■•,'"  ■"  ■  ■■ 


m 

ft 

b   it  i  .yi     i-:* " 

rri i ■■■  •( 

ggy  i...i.,,,".:< 

tew;:  '■■ 


24 


SINC-LINK 


ZX8 1  RESOURCES 


A     O     REM  GENERATOR 

Rene  Bruneau        6  Harch  1SS2 


Reading  through  soie  old  issues  of  Your  Coiputer,  I  found 
this  stall  machine  code  utility  for  creating  REM  statements 
of  any  length.  The  original  listing  used  Basic  to  poke  the 
nuiber  of  bytes  required  into  leiory  after  which  the  routine 
was  invoked  by  a  RAND  USR  (address).  Because  the  code  was 
relocatable,  I  wondered  if  there  was  an  easier  way  to  pass 
information  regarding  the  length  to  the  lachine  code  without 
resorting  to  Basic  input.  A  long  tine  ago,  when  we  were 
still  neeting  up  at  the  North  York  Library,  Peter  HcMullin 
had  noted  that  the  RAND  function  conveniently  divided  a 
nuiber  into  Lo  and  Hi  bytes  by  the  coiputer  and  stored  in 
SEED  deiory  locations  16434  and  16435).  This  is  how  we  can 
pass  information  to  a  lachine  code  prograi  directly  froi  the 
keyboard  without  running  a  basic  prograi.  The  original 
listing  was  lodified  and  an  instalation  prograi  added  to 
tranfer  the  code  to  any  location  in  leiory. 

Enter  Listing  1,  RUN  100  to  input  the  ic  data  in  Listing  2. 
On  completion,  enter  S,  and  confiri  that  the  checksui  is 
5307.  You  iay  now  delete  line  100  to  the  prograi  end.  Save 
the  prograi  several  tiies.  On  running,  the  prograi  asks  yon 
for  the  address  where  the  code  will  be  located.  Entering  a 
nuiber  will  relocate  the  ic.  Note  that  if  you  intend  to 
locate  the  code  above  RAHT0P  on  a  standard  lachine,  you  lust 
lower  RAHT0P  before  you  load  the  prograi  into  leiory.  To 
generate  your  REM  stateient,  lake  sure  that  there  is  at 
least  1  basic  line  in  leiory,  10  REN,  for  exaiple,  key  in 


LIST1N6  1 

1  REM  —54  SPACES  

10  PRINT  "ROUTINE  ADDRESS1 
20  INPUT  ADD 
30  FAST 

40  FOR  X=0  TO  53 

50  POKE  ADD+X,  PEEK  (16514+X) 

60  NEXT  X 

70  SLOW 

80  STOP 

100  LET  X=16514 
110  LET  T=0 
120  LET  A$=" 

130  IF  Al=""  THEN  INPUT  A* 

140  IF  Afs'S1  THEN  PRINT  'CHECK  SUM  =  ";T,P 

150  POKE  X.161C0DE  AI+C0DE  A$(2)-476 

160  LET  T=T+  PEEK  I 

170  IF  PEEK  16442<=2  THEN  SCROLL 

180  PRINT  X;'  ";A$(1  TO  2) 

190  LET  X=X+1 

200  LET  As=A$(3  TO) 

210  60T0  130 


LISTING  2 

16514  ED 

16522  09 

16530  09 

16538  C5 

16546  20 

16554  13 

16562  00 


4B  32  40  C5  21  06  00 

E5  CI  21  7D  40  CD  9E 

3E  76  EB  77  3E  17  Ci 

04  2B  77  0D  20  FB  05 

F8  2B  3E  EA  77  01  13 

7A  2B  77  7B  2B  77  3E 

2B  77  2B  77  C9 


RAND  (rei  size),  ENTER 
where  'rei  size'  is  the  nuiber  of  bytes  required, 
LET  L=USR  (ic  location),  ENTER 

When  you  LIST,  there  is  your  REM  stateient  on  line  0. 


HEX  LOADER  FOR   THE  ZX81 

This  hex  loader  is  pretty 
standard .    It  alloys  you  to  enter  as 
many  hex  numbers  at  one   input  as  you 
wish.     When  you  have  finished 
entering  all  the  code  (  in  hex), 
press  the  "S"  key  to  stop. 

1      REM  (FILL    THIS  LINE  WITH  ENOUGH 
CHARACTERS   TO  HOLD   THE  MACHINE  CODE 
10  LET  X=1651U 
20   LET  A$="" 

30    IF  A$=""   THEN   INPUT  A$ 
UO    IF  A$="S"   THEN  STOP 
50  POKE  X,16*C0DE  A$( 1 J+CODE 
A$( 2)-^76 
60  PRINT  AT   11,7;X;"    " , A$( 1    TO  2) 
70  LET  X=X+1 
30  LET  A$=A$(3  TO) 
90  GOTO  30 


From  Your  Computer  magazine  May 

d67 


83 


GFC 


PRINT  FACTORY©  graphics 

More  Pics  &  Lower  Prices/ f 
feQiflciion#-i  gfljaciiflDg2  TstfSsS^S. 

Miscellaneous      Animals       Difttixed  Mbn 
Men/Boys  Funny         F«mk  Faces 

Woman/Girls    Transportation    Mala  Faces 
Dffttissed  Misc.        Sports  Funny 
Computers  Animals 
_  Holidays        Zodiac  Sfns 

/jmu       Food  Holidays 

Xmas  Transportation 
Xmas 

***  [  3  NEW  COLLECTIONS! ]  444 

■gQBwiton#4  CojtecttonffS  SfljBitangg 

Miscellaneous      Men/Boys  Funny 
EHfHixed  Miso    Women/Girls  Animals 
Male  Faces  Xmas 

Sports  Transportation 
Female  Faces  Computers 

Holidays 
Over  ISOptos/ootMflon  -  1 077  pes  in  M! 
Only  97,93  pod.  for  each  collection. 
Available  on  tape  or  5  1/4"  DSDD  LAJUCEN 
or  OLIOER  disk  -  please  specify. 

John  McMichaei  1710  Palmer  Dr, 
Laramie,  WY  82070 

*»3  \#   O  1 


SINC-LINK 


LOCKED  OUT 


HOW     TO     RECOVER ! 


T/S  2068  AND  THE  LARKEN  AND  OLIGER  DISK  DRIVES. 


Submitted  by  Donald  S-  Lambert 

Letter  to  George  Chambers  03  02 
1992. 

In  all  my  computing,   I  h*   e  been 
trapped     by     a    problem  three 
times.  Of  course  it     is     all  my 
fault  but  maybe  there  is     a  way 
out.  And     that     is     on     each  of 
these  times  I  have  either  tried 
to  SAVE  to  a  disk  drive     that  I 
didn't  have  or  on  two  occasions 
I  tried  to  SAVE     when     the  disk 
interface  to  disk     drive  ribbon 
cable  was  disconnected.     Try  as 
I  might  I  have  found  no     way  to 
abort  the  SAVE  and  have     had  to 
turn  off  the  computer     and  lose 
the  file.   It  might     be  possible 
to  plug  in  the  disk  drive  ribbon 
cable  but  there     is     always  the 
possibility        of  zapping 
something.  And  while     I     have  a 
Larken     disk     interface    with  a 
RAMdisk  that  is  full  and  besides 
once  you    have     committed     to  a 
disk  drive     the     computer  hangs 
onto     that    drive     until     it  is 
used.  What  do    you    do     in  that 
situation? 

George  replied  03  14  1992. 

I  have  been  looking  at  your 
letter.  You  asked  about  how  to 
break  out  of  a  computer  lock-up 
when  you  try  to  make  a  SAVE/LOAD 
to  a  non-existant  drive.  You  are 
correct,  I  would  never  plug  a 
drive  in  while  the  computer  is 
powered  up. 

I  thought  I  probably  knew  the 
answer  so  I  shut  off  my 
computer,  disconnected  my  drive 
0.  Then  I  re-powered  and  tried 
saving  an  Mscript  file  to  drive 
0.  Well  all  the  other  drives 
spun  of  course,  but  not  the 
disconnected  drive  0-  The 
computer  was  hung  up.   I  then  did 


what  I  would  usually  do.  I 
pressed  the  NMI-  button  and  then 
the  A  key.  As  I  expected  the 
computer  broke  out  of  it's 
hung-up  condition  with  an  error 
report  at  the  line  in  the 
program  where  the  SAVE  effort 
occured . 

That  is  pretty  simple.  I  thought 
everyone  knew  that.  To  continue, 
if  you  inadvertently     press  the 
NMI-  button  you  can  recover  from 
it  without  harm  by  pressing  the 
ENTER     key.     Also,     if     you  are 
trying  to  breakout  of  a  program 
that  is  heavily     protected,  and 
the  NMI-  and  A  key  routine  does 
not  work,   try  pressing  the     NMI  — 
button  and  then  press  the  1  key; 
i.  e.  do  an  NMI-  type  save  to  a 
protected  disk.  You  will     get  a 
"Protected  disk"     error  report, 
and  you  will  be  back  out  of  the 
lockup.   Sometimes,  depending  on 
the  nature  of  the  protection  the 
computer  simply  crashes  and  you 
get  the    Sinclair     logo.     I  use 
this    method     particularly  with 
Spectrum  games,     which     for  the 
most  part  are  heavily  protected. 

Don:  I  had  never  considered  the 
use  of  the  NMI-  button  so  I 
guess  I  am  not  everyone. 

I  have  an  idea  to  try  out,  since 
both  the  Larken  and     the  Oliger 
use  the  NMI-  button  will  it  also 
work  the    same    on     the  Oliger? 
It  works  with  the  Oliger  except 
that  the  A  key  does  nothing  but 
the  1  key  will  allow  you  to  use 
the  BREAK  function     and     get  "D 
Break  -     CONT     REPEATS     0:1M-  I 
don't  know  if  anyone    ever  gets 
locked  out  but  this  is     one  way 
to     recover.     But     here       is  a 
possible  way  out    of     a  dilemma 
that  would  otherwise     result  in 
a  loss  of  data. 


SINC-LINK 


LLJ  «■ 

Ml 

QhHnB 


yn 


ISC 

IMHMWI 


1-1      *■"  (  i-.  '  v,  1 1 1  TSTJ 

I  « i      I  l.i  I  •  III   I  iTi  jS 

•-!  >Xi  X,  X  cu 
!-•-<'+  ut       +-i  u_  4- 

ul  &.  —* 
X  O 

3  P  O     H  Ul  —i 
4-'  4-'  i,'3H 
iti      iTi  O  -i 
f.  •  H.  S7i3 
OJ  ri  Mi  X  T 

01  O  ill  13 
P      X  '4-  N  <~»  X 
•-»  T  rl     'H  r>  O 
^  oip       o  rn 
o  oi  iTi  3 

•-i  •-(  p  ui  TJ 

I JJ  IX  X  P  L.  X  P  OI  a 

>         iil  ij  CX  >-t  P 

O      TJ  — I  — i     P  r> 

X!  TJ  P  wi  X      ~>  O 

'Xi  ixj  >  rj  3  1=  3  <PX| 

X.      OJ  O      k_  ft) 

p  !-  o  -ni  oi  o» 
oj  ri  w  p  — 1  > 
iHOio  •- i >— i  o i— i 

P  I   "H        X  01  JJ  rtj 

P  -C  H  P  >  iU 

01  "«  (/, 


'Xi  <H  --i  £  — i  OJ  •-* 
01  Oi  X  '4-  P  O  X 

x  i  au^  w  p p 
x      in    k_  -1 

rikl    .  ui     i=  oi  m 
Q.—  V'i  !iL    oi  p-*p 

01      'Xi  X  P  01  rJ  i 

•ti  i_  — i    uJ  9i  u-i  at 

O  >ri  P  UJ  X  3  X  P 
P  XX  O  0J  <tl  =3 
lil  iti  P  -Tj  'X  P  O  O 


LU 

o 


ul  CM  £  OJ 
XlCC  XP 


P  £  1= 

0  p  T3 

•tj  ^  Si  a. 

01  =1 
k.  TJ  — I 

_  OJ  tj  g 

•*<  X  x  s. 
_  23  op 

TJ  E  •■■< 
01 

u_  ul  U  O 

oi  oi  a 
p  p  a  n  « 

.3  O  Xi  P 
3  O  5.  0.1 

<+.     i.  —I 

75       -.  =3 
01  Ul  Ui  P  - 
>  P  41  3  U"J 

•h  •-(  uia-ct 

01  is  "1  fij. 
O— 1  X  «P 

at «-« a.P  a: 
_  ^x  o"§! 

PulSco 


ill  Ul  U.I 

P'   .Xi  .Xl 


I-  U  l 
•Tj  P  Tj 

o  ^ 

at  p  o 
pox: 

O  'ti  Ul 
P 


X  01  ii 
ri  iX  P 
O  O  iti 
rr'k.  Xi 


k_  01  o 

oi  p  >  rr « 


01  01 


O  P  01 
01  <xi  01 

.•ti  0J  -xi 
JZ  W  l=  P 
H  Xl  fti  := 
=i  lil  o 
U  l  Xl  U 


O  OI  ilU  iXi 

rri  u_  +-■  Xi 


;=  5  iTj  rr«  eti 


O  ill  - 


£l.  OJ  •-<  i- 

P  »iS  £  IT'  Oi 
lil  Xl  iH  iti  > 

I-  ■— I 

•ii  0J  0.1  ijJ 

l.t'i  X".  ■— i  £  "t5 

lli     f-i  ,tl 

uj  oi    ■  -i  zn 

>  3  H  OJ 
■Xi  <3  -£ 
X:       Ml  H    •  r— 

S  uj 
i.i  .xi   »  >i  • 
=i  ^  !-  i_  O  01 
O  U      OI  --i  o 

nri  o.i  i.i  xi  p'  -H 

X  -    £  P  ^ 

Lj  i_  ~<  .xi  IL 

■X       0'  !=  01 

O      2T*     £_  w 
£H  -xi  u.l  01 

?>       !-  !-  !i.  U  l 

P  .TT'  .xj  O  p 

■  -I  "  iL  JJ.+.-. 

H  ITI  IS  T5  01  S» 

■  ti  «Xi      X  O 

Ul  X'  .Tj  P  'X 


x  oia 

i-  3 

ri  irt 


01 -J 

p 

pen 

o 

._(  jr; 

i?" 

'-1 

P  o 

jdj 

•xiCD 
■-i  flti 

J- 

2.0J 

rti— I 

_  r 


—4  '.'II*-. 

_j  SL  OI 

2  oi  > 

irr 

a  oi 

1.0  iTi  .-i 

o 

-.  L. 
iT  1XT3 
O  != 

3  .Ti 

•■  Ul 

UJ  ui  iL 

3  il  a 

P  -xi  O 
•xj  01  -O 

i.  H  U'l  O 

P      X  H 

o 

P  X 
*-i  -  -I  OJ 

•a  ui  T3  a 

Tl  X  01  — i 


=* 

ffi  »-l  • 


0  ui  H 
_  L.  CO 
Ti  OIX 
^  -PN 

O  U  |  «U> 

cnt.  oi  a» 
^  ^^»^ 

•I  !=  3 

01  OJ  P 
>  p  •-< 


£  OI  01 

Ti  l^ti 

Q  I-  3 
P  O. 
'Xi  .xi  £ 

P  o 
P  P  o 
o  ri 
•-«  o 

PE'+ 

0  o 

0i<4-  ~. 
U  Ul 

rri  w 

£  01  iL 
01  o 
uiXip 
u(  41  — i  -  • 

01  li.  TJ  u  i 

.H  L.  OJ 
01  XTJ 
_,-^P  •- 
T^h  O 

ncop 
o  £ 
O  O  TJ  ixj 
P  P 

iL  TJ  01  • 

9  =!  7» 

3P  rtj  i-i 
.••J3X 


i 


H  O  - 
P  •— ' 

.Tj 

01  P 
iL  O  IL 
Pci  n 
p  o 
oi 

T  t_ 
■xi  -1  ri 
ui  T> 


r5  OP 
o  Jin 
IX  o 


p 

Q 

1-  ot  a 

01  »-i 

-i  p  o 
,01  t-P 
Ix.  oi 

p  ?l 
Oi  v>—> 

a. 

•i  O  01 
HP  S- 

^TJ  O 
01  P 
•-i  —1 
O  CP 

o  o 


CD 
1 


O 
t- 


a 
ix 


H  OI   •    »  ui  i.. 
X  01  rH  'X  01 

i—  u  n  i  oi  > 
u.     •-<  I  TJ  O 

01       +-'•  'Xi 

-•  •  Ot  1  01 
u  i  rri  iTi      i_  'X 
•  •i  *-■<  X  -x  > 
— <  >Xi  !X  O  til 

ri  •■-«  ui 

T>  X  P  ' 

iil  ■-!  IJ  X  >Tj  t: 

01  >  .~:i  >ii 

X  •-<  ui  £t.P  P 

X  TJ  .xj 

4->  p  i/i  ij.1  -X  Ol 

— i  TJ  Xi  OJ  CL 

Efi     •-■»  i--  ill 

— <  iil  X 

P  Ul  X  -i  X< 

Ci  X  O  -i  C.i 
OI  '-f  3  P  P' 
X  P'  01 
01 P  3  U  i  X  Ul 
P  01  O  X  P1  > 
■X  —i  P  OI  >xi 
•X  3  X 
T>  u  i  —i 

-  ■  rr»  oi     -*  +  j 

X'  P  >  "Xi  3:  o 
•-i  P 

x  ul  '.'I 

CT  01  U  O  X  <—* 

3.  0'  O'  » 

H  u-i  X  3  3  -h  X 

P  O  Uj  3  01 

-  •  .tj  p  P  s_  ;.: 
Ui  P  -xj  H  O 
01  P  =5  £ 

•*<  O  O  0'  T  TJ 

rr  It]  at  P  ixi  ixi 


»  rr\  .Xi 
ri  Oi 

a  i 

7i ;; -:;  P 
_  I1  J  w 

oi  oi 

ixj  rri  ■ 

XX  iil 

ui  X'  P  ri 

X  "Xi  U  i 

01  O  ui 

!ti  P  O 
X  U1  P 
n  ui 

4->  XXX 

Ui  +••'  P  "H 

3     '::  '+ 

-p  y 

Oi  CD  *"  X 

►•i  mp. 

p  «:••  x 

-4  P"  OI  P 

p>  o  > 

P  01 

ui  TJ 

-  H  P  01 

X  ri  P« 

£  O  .xj 

P  'Xi  P 

O  01  Ui 

To  O  u  i 
i.i  ij  .xi 
•  -.  <— i 

X  ~i  "~<  X 
p  ,tJ 
01  —i  uj 
Xi  3  Ji 


UJ 

UJ 

0, 

u 

3 

LU 

UJ 

Q 

UJ 

H 

D 

-J 

CD 

LU 

a 

i.n 

UJ 

UJ 

LU 

a 

UJ 

in 

D 

DID 

iu 

a 

H 

Z 

QI 

a 

in 

cr 

UJ 

a 

cr 

X 

UJ 

«. 

o 

o 

NT 

a 

UJ    >  "J 

h 

E 

iu 

z  -ctud 

cr 

o 

10 

crhu 

r 

o 

_i 

CO 

f(  1.0 

H 

i.O 

UJ 

CQQD 

H 

h 

h 

3 

a 

ocxer 

D 

cr 

X 

UJ 

a 

UJCOUJO 

O 

r 

UJ 

T 

o 

DC  hi 

I 

cc 

T 

cr 

o^fcrz 

o 

NT 

Q 

1.0 

i 

zozcr 

> 

U- 

UJ 

H 

u. 

crcooG 

H 

r 

I 

j 

IL 

tx 

H 

h 

LU 

H 

a 

CO 

££ 

Ul 

□ 

cr 

5 

O 

o 

cr 

h 

)iNIl-3NIS  2Z 


H  -— <  +••'  ui  OJ  T3  OJ  OJ  !-  X'  01  H  Ti      H  01  X'  Ui  01  '4!  \x> 

"  0J  X  x  G  X      Ol  O      >  u» 


hi 


S  ui  01     .xi  -ti  M 'i  •-.     o  .ti  o      -  •-• ....  Ol  -h  in  o  e  2  o1  ••+  h  -r1  t»  -  j_.  rv  15 

£     *B  %          -  al  £  01  if •  O  Si  Si     01  J  1  .  Si^i 

(ii  ~;  "Ti      +.1  _^  •::  3  l~i  .xi      h  u  i  X- J*.  'Ti  "■>      J-  '-'  !'~  1  1  '-!  ^ +:  T.  Z- y- 

r  -  n  s"  i"  rt  .•      rv  S  oi  r  n  S  3     ...     oi     .*i      w  ~  O  >■•>  01 4--  oi  nxs  —J        -ti  .xi  _. 

r.        -  --;  n  >x  ti  -rt  -=  s_  T5  oj  H  rrtji  ir.  a;  to  .=  i.  •!+.  >  n  r.i  «x«  >.X  &  u.  u.i  ^-  u.  uj     £  '"  ±:  ,-  .,1  ^        ?=;  .i     •  , 

a!          r  =          L  Ti  ^  !=  z:  oi  .xi  oi       :■■<  oj  oi  o  «s  -h  o  x  "  .j.  u.  a  jU.  u.  u  .-:  -  ^  *  ?  d 

tf           !:r,  L       H  ^  ...  .ti  O  O  UJ^S  Uii       u  >.-.  JZ  w  j:      rr«4.>  .. "  &  < ..."  i-  ui  H  u     -la  ... ...  ,h  ....        +  -  'J 


,  ^             5      5  r      •  ill      i.,  ^4  £_  s  i_  TL,  "Ti>  si  —.  O  U.I+-'U 

%*"  "0  •  ol  oi       ^-^fe  £     L^gL^S  ..;-t:    t;     "       ^  a- 

iTi  OJ  St      !=      !=  -ti  PHTi   .  '4-  17.  Ol  .,,  01  .xj  O  <+  _  -ti  %  u  ^'j-:  m  7  !"  f,  j  ^  rv 

^  oj  £  P,tiO«iL5^    ojo(=x  o  j£  t.  01  .ti  c is  01  yj .-1  j:  ui  y  *       o«  ^  t  - .. .  2 ct 


-til  l.'  l  0' 

^      ^  +J'  O 

O  ±'  i  i 

iij 

■  -<  3  O  a' 

01  • 

C'. 

li_  ill  '•+■ 

■  -i 

0.1  0 

4... 

1*.-  4—'  *.'  i 

C.I  'Tj 

— i  ~i  !—  l.'l 

4.:. 

0.'  !kL.  O  f 1 

l_.t 

+-•'  £  Ik.  .ii 

O 

ni      H  T'i 

C.i  i  .'i 

III  l.'l 

tTj         Tl  Ti 

'-1  CI! 

4.-' 

111         iL.  !L 

01  'Ti  .xi 

oi 

jjS  . -1 

-  1 —  U.I  U.I 

O  1— 

i._.'i 

i-  J  U_  1— 

•— <  u_ 

IJ.I  ~( 

iTi  1 1 1  !— " 

3:  .xi 

F— 1 

j"!  M  Hi 

\Jf 

!—  !-  IT' 

4"-' 

iil  -h  ■  -t 

iij  -1 

\—  i.fi  0  O 

01  "f . 

C.i      i!T' .... 

i.'i 

itf'T*. 

i-H  ^TlF-l  4... 

OJ  !=  — •  Ui 

■Tj 

3  ■-■ <  •••<  i. 

a:  '•■< 

1..,  4J.  •  H 

1.1 

ri  1 ..  ■•+- 

I.I.I 

'.rri 


+  >  01 


;r.ri : 


.Jl  >>i 


111 

ri  a: 
o  u. 


■'■i 

1.1.1 
i'ji 


UI, 
1.1. 


.  01 


„J  "Tl 

o 

Oj 

<r 


'•1  a' 

u  X 
 -<  +•-• 


u. 

i  n  01  >Ti 

UJ 

•Ti  +-'  Ci 

1  '1 
I.LI 

r~*  C.I 

0  £_  y> 

!:!;.J 

ili  H  O 

ri  OJ 

X 

IwL 

Lj 

S  u.i  T- 

O  ~S  !— 

UJ 

•I.  .  ...  I  r.. 

IVl  O 

a: 

I.L. 

■-•4  l,l| 

ri 


- 1  1. 

I.  J  I  +. 


Q  i/i  T5 
4->  'Tl  O 
O 


1=  0" 

•x  :•• 

,  1 


?UTri ' 


Ti  01 


0.1  '-I- 

4->  O 


01 


3  3Ti 

o 


l.'l  ..> 
0.1  'i+- 
I!T' 
■Ti 


(• 1  4-' 
4-^' 

■Ti  01 


01 

.jl  i  .'i 


.  H 

....  "tr, 

OJ  !~  OJ 

...i  .xi  .a 


0'  01  £ 


!=  S  .Tl 
■  Ti  01 

X  01 
...  1  4-i'  ■— < 
!-  Jti 


14M  0.1  . 

Ui  3  IL  Ui 

0|  i/j  O  3 


T> 

.=  Ul-. 
•Ti  i_  -h  OJ 

4-'  := 

Ul  fti 

H 

Ui 

OJ  T>  -« +-'' 
-C  01  J= 
4.:.  ^  i^i 
.-■  iji 

Ol  i_  S 

1. 1  Li  01 

u  OJ  Si 

-1  U.  +■>  ^1  i. 
!•■-■  01  OJ 

i-  i  X  4-i' 

i_  01  T5  4--'  'Ti 

4.:.  ::•  r 
i_.  >Ti  X 
01  JT.     4J-  ri 

p-4  .xi  O 

uj     .  s.  rn 

ri  T. 

S_  O  O  lL 
OJ  T>  O  O 

•Ti  l.i|  -t  Ul 

X  A.  u  i  ^-1  iL 
OJ  •-••-(  OJ 
S  +-':  Xj 

i_  LL  4-'  Ui  0., 
U_  c:  "  fi  U  i  £ 
O  JZ  O  O 


01  01  • 

£  JT.  +-:' 
O      u  i 

i.  'i  -» 

• — » 

4--' 
4--'  L!l 
111  .Tj  - 

.•Ti+J"  I.O 

ir  (x 
O  UJ 
O  O  l~- 
».-'.  U: 
•  o 

ui  a 

i!T'  OJ  L'L 

!--  i.,i 
-i  A.  1.0 
::f.  n 

ii.  .  CJ 

Ui  OJ 

4-i' 


Ul 


Ji!  O  ~» 
"Ti 


o  01 

4J'  A-  +-i' 

■Ti  .i4-  '.'  I 


i.'i  01 
4.:. 
UJ  ::i 
>  £1.. 

j5o 

Ci 

4J' 

UjT3 

isi  ^Ti 


01  ui 

-    J.-'1  !k. 

3  n  01 
O  £l 

z:  s  -  ri 

O  OJ 

a  ti 


ti-  01 

O  in 


111  111 


...I  l_! 

1.0  l/l 


h-  X! 
Ill  I.I  I 
H  !—  i_ 

O  O 

•  -4 
0.1  +•:■  rr> 

O  ri 
-4  ri  J2 
-4  .xi 


OJ  3 
1. — 1  O 
•Ti  4-i' 
Ul 

<+• 
01  O 

" "  "6 

Ti 

01  £ 

x:  c 


.:.r.i  oi 
'  ~> 

1 1—  Ct 
1  X  o 
UJ  01 


UJ 
X 


■H 


Q  4J'  4--'  01 

x:  ri  o  ix 
3  (Li  £i  O 

f-4 

OJ 

— 1  •  o 

01  Ti  !T 
•  Ti  £l  01 
O 

—1  .Hi 

ri  Ol  T5  0.1  ji 
Cj  >  >xi  X!  T> 
^ri  <r  .c  +j>  .Tj 
Ol  ni  !- 
ii     Cj  _  >ii 

ixi  T  £  i::i  " 
X  Ol  C't  ;EH 
u'i  A  C'i 

ui  'if  £1  A.. 

..j  Ol  ;==  -it. 

P  i.  4~'  'Ti 

Ti  O  4-i'  it1 1 
m  x; !~  1. 1 

O  "Ti  "H 

■xi  I  01  i~  •—. 

ui.,  '-I-  A..  'Tj  ■  -H 

i.'i      .Ti  1...1  "Ti 

OJ  i?i 
ui  ui  ri  A. 

h      O  01  iH 

X  31  £  >'fi 
+-•  .Ti  'X 

H 

ai     •■•1  -:: 

ii  01      "ii  OJ 

•Tj  ;==  OJ  u'i 


4... 


Ul 


4-."  1T4  --4  rtj 

H  r  iji  .4.  1.1 
ui  1— 1 .4.  u.i 

in  il.  .ii  St 


OJ 


UJ 


OJ  A.  .  «  !=  cn 
£     rr.Ti  -1 

0'  Ol  Jil  •  "4 
X  4-i'  4-i'  4-:'  i= 

-r,  ixi  ui  — i  O 

Ol  OJ  ri  3  O 

Al  A.  Xi  X 

ii  IT.  4.:' 
Ol  O  ill  A. 

X  >Ti  iil  i  n  X4  O 

Si  iH  •  h  <+■ 

Zf>  T"  +i'  '"I 

£  'il  0'  ^ 

.ii  ;a.  cr.  -4  uj 

•Ti  X"  »-4  T5  3  X 
4-'  OJ  r:  4-:1 

LJ       X  X 

'Tj  '"!?' 


■  4 


Tl 


•H  --1  h  1  £  .'." 

'+  Ti   1 

j"!      a  4...1  f-H 

O  01  H  >Ti 

x  i.'i  oi  x:  ri  u  i 

3       I  +•"'  'X  +i' 

<+.;:■:.  0.1 
h  O  J'  J  Ti  Al  £ 

l~l  iTj   O  "-' 

•Ti  4-  :"  'X  l/l  X  —i 

ui  O 
r>  O  O 
O  i.'  m  4-:'  £  0.1 

rr.    ri    .tj  •— 1 

01  U'i  Ui  X 

ii  X  Ul  Ul  'Ti  « 

C".  4...  ~i  01  (H  S~  U  i 

•Xi          —  ■>  O  X 

X  X  +--'  T.  '.''1  4-> 

I—  4...  I::,  iji  4-:'  .'ri  -r 

 1  OJ  OJ  ri  01  O 

\~  2.:  0.J  i_  & 


X 
X 

l_. 

IX 
UJ 


01  o 


■Ti  ai  o 

_l  3  01 
r;  01 
OJ  X 
•  •-) 

1.0  z. 


CJ  A.  --4 
a  "X 

A.  O  tli 
CJ  +-' 

•  iS    •  D 

'  -  01  4-  > 

+.:>  •  -1 

C|l  r~i  Ti 

£  IX  != 

•Ti 

+  -'  01 

•xi  ix 
0.1  • -4  z 
A.  X 
iTTiQ  !— 

O  O 

.Tl  A-  4-'  >Xi 

,~  ~>  Xi  Uj 
Ci  i"  j  11".  ill 

t>-  4-> 

■x  m-  r». 

Ci  o  OJ 


-Ti  rri 

OJ  !~ 


ill  Ol 


01  CJ 
iXT 


OJ  Ci 


uj  ::- 

'.=  "Ti 

.Ti  s 


OJ  H 
ol  - 


01  -1 

;r.ri4J' 

■Xi  « 

4,.'. 

~S  ....  A- 

."'.  01  ri 

:=  •:  o  j 

OJ  u... 


UJ 


a: 


•x  01  ri  • 

O  A..  C>  U. 

01  -T.  A. 

3  O 
UJ  Ti 

IX       'X  != 

fX  Ti  H  01 
F—  >Ti 

U..  >~h    •  Ci 
O  OJ  >  3 
U'  i  A.  IX  4-> 
H3 
>X  a' 
UJ  'X  ui 
d  O  OJ 
H     UJ  X 
3  O  Z.  4-:- 
u":i  h-  O 
„J  — J  Oi  -X  • 
IX  C 1  iJJ 

3  ill  i"."i  u  i 

U..  •  -4  Ui  Cj 

M  il  4»i'  01  4-i' 

0  Z.  !-::  A.. 
4.:.  M  OJ  T5  £ 

£  Ti  01 
....      'Ti  i: 

Ui  X'  X  4-i' 

A..      4-^  3 
OJ  Ti  •     Oj  Tj 

4-  >  ixi  "  Ol 

01  TJ!  iil  Ui 

r-4  T5    01  X 

cr.  !.-.-.  u.i 

■ni  A..  ui 

ri  ui  'TJ 

Z  't>4-:-  >  0' 

ir  lj  I  ,rj  1-1 

UJ  A-  X  Al. 


H 


H 


Ul 
_J 
UJ 


01  o 


rri 

A.  4-i' 
A-  Ui 
OJ  OJ 
tliiXl 


OJ  - 

lj  uj 
■xi  ::j 

..4  y.. 

al  a 
01  UJ 

A..  1.0 

Ui 

■Ti  'X 


U  i  lex 

a  0.1 


o  01  £ 


^1  o  T.  u  i 
—.  01  x  oi  - 

•h  £  3  u  i  A. 
A.  --i  u  i  01 
•xi  (—  01  X" 
£      OJ  A.  X' 

■h  -r  -13  01 

X  O  T>  '-4 

Al  0>  'Ti  ui 

X  rri  1  3 

4-'  !-  'X  IJJ 
X        "Tj  ■— I  1= 

01  OJ 

X'       O  Ui 
4-i"  T5  4J" 

Oi  :=  -Ti 

"Ti  01  !•., 
Ui       IJJ  !"  CJ 


Ui  01  X 
X  Ci  O  1 
OJ 
X' 
X' 
0.1 

—4 

Ul 

oi  :«  X 


0.1 


x>  ui  .xi 

m:w:  1=  01 

-1 1  J  01  ri 

X  u  i  iX 

X'  01  I.'i 

1=  01  Ui  X  X 

O  X  -1 


iTi  £ 

-4  OJ 

Ti  4-:- 
OJ 

Li 

01  UJ 
iTl  X  X 

a+-' 


1  X  OJ  Ti  s=  Ti 
1  --4  X  X  —t  01 
N  'Ti  >xi  X' 
jXj  U  -  ni 
Z.  Ui  Ti 

Ui  Ui  At. 
a  Ol  ri 
At  '-4 

O  CD 

3  .Ti  X 
I—        O  !-- 

ii  X  X  •- '  -Ti 
A.  CJ  Ci 
'ti      ~  Uj 

OJ     T>  Al 

A.  'X  A.  !~  01 
O  O  CJ  01 


'Tj  1 

X'  ' 
H  01 


ri  01 


CJ 


01  Ti 

x  01 

X'  Ui 


P  iil  Ci  C.i 

0'  £  'X  4-' 
O  Ti 

+.:.  •  — i  Ai.  Ti 

ui  O  A...  4- 

01  X  01  a'  u 


O  <-  Ul 
H  T>  U  J  01  At  1 
Ti  OJ  r-i  Ui  O  ! 


O  r-4. 
T5 

OJ  Ui 


-4  !J. 

01 


<  O  Ci 

j  :=  o 
01  O  •-<  ir 

T.  r-4  3  OJ 


—4  ill  X'  £  T> 

»-4  >  --4  IjJ 

X  OJ 
Ol  3 


£      T.  01  O  &'. 

1-  01  LTim..  UJ 
£  O  X'  "-4  I— 
A.  CJ  "."I  U- 

CJ  X1  OJ  A.  Ci 
■X  X  ri  .ii  Ol  At 

i-  ui       Ti  a. 

O  >Ti  0.1  A.  X  3 
Li  LL  x  c  O  '  o 


I  I  J.I  I.' I  1.1 1 
i  X  ai  —i 


X  OJ 
•Xi  p 


LU 

CD 

a: 

Li. 


4--'  ^ 

itrt  -4  a'i 

x  p  ai 

P'  O  X 
mi  CD 
0,1  i_i  X  OJ 
X      3  4- 
P-X 

•  h  -'-4  0J 

X  > 

0J         OJ  —4 

p.  0.1  i=  p> 
iji    •  •  — «  oj  •— i 

OJ  ai  —*  i= 

P>  Mi  4. 

0.1  Ml  OJ  O 

X  HI  X  4- 
£  4-'-'  P 

Ml  -H 

•h  X 
P  P 
P  O  ai  M  i 

0  v.  —« 
P  P  4.X 
4_  0.1  D  t— 

ai  p 

ai  ai  X 
•-t-  a' 

•r  P'  C I  P' 

01  4-  O 
X  O  "it  'il 
3:  41.  41 4-:' 

0J  m  0J 
PP'X 


0-4 
p  4-  X 


M  l 

-  o  cu 

4.  O  > 
0J  ri  — I 

£  en 

4_  O 
>Ti  P  P 
0J  >-4 


OJ  3  O 
X  X 

4-:*  4-  M  l 

o 

p 

o  o 

'4  "H     «  LU 

P_;C1 
—i  ai  O  UJ 
-<  O  O  X 


0J  P  O  T> 
M  i  •-«  P'  P 

r>  'Ti 

4_  Ot 
rJ'Oi  P  P 

4.  at  oi  a 

O'  •— i  X  X 


DtJ 


4.  Ui 
01  X 


P  01 

HTi  P 
to  ri 
P 
OJ  ai 

x  ai 

p.  4. 

Ml  OJ 

irr 

•-! 

0  p 
Oi 
X 

Ti  -ti 
01 

01  M  l 

'4  •-! 

X  M  l 

O  X 

l_l  p 

01 

Ml  • 

ai  o 

X  Ml 

P  4. 


IJ.I  P  P  0J  4-'"  I*' 
X  iXi  X  O  OI 
(-         p>  OJX 

"4-  P 

4. 

•  ■— •  01  4-  OJ 
4-Ll  P  01  CLOJ 
"4  UJ  O  +-'■  4_ 
0JPX4-  o 

mi  x    ai  4- 

p.|jj         OJ  QJ 

•-4  —     •  XX! 


rrip  *h 

X-  O.P 
u  O  OJ 

i'l  IJJ  =3  Ml 

Mi  O  4-  4_ 

•Ti  O  P  01 
—I  Oi  M  l  > 


O  (=• 

ir  P  p  ai 

■i  01 

i=  — »  o 

-I  —I  X'  Ti 


4~-  IJ.' 

O  itl 
£  P 
•-4  M  l 

£  £ 

Oi 

jfi  &i 
i=  Ci 

■H  4- 

x  4-='  a 

M  ai 

o  s_ 

•-4 

0IT5  Q 


rri  sx  ai  x  p 

<-i  J1 


Ml 

4-'  P  O 

ri  4_  o  m  i 

41  0J  OJ  •— • 

4.-''  4.  Oi 

x  ri  P 
O  41. 0  — i 

■-<  £  O  —4 


i_i  3  O  2; 


-  OJ  O 
4.XT3 
O  O 
4_  ai  Ci 
4-  OJ  ri 

nip  x 


-  •  vp  ri  '4-  ttt  •ti  !— 
Mi  Mi  O  O  XX'  o 

oj  at  XT*   -p  oi 

:■-  st         p  p 

01  O  P  f- 

•      i.  Zfi     OJ  'ti  O 

x  x  cr  'ti  <4-  m-  oi  — < 

W f-J     3  OM-hv 
•ti  U 
01      Ml  S 
X  111  Ml  4J  O  — « 

4-1  t.>  04  OJ  O  «ti 
•4-      O  -H  OJ  P 

o    4.  ij  a   4-  u_ 

Ml  41  ••<  M"l  Ml  »*4  0' 
Ml  -I  "4-  -H  OJ  4-i' 
M  l       CTlCIJ  Ml  Ml 

OJ  C  T.  £  4-  ni 
ir  -  -4  oi  oi  ri  '4- 
3  *    -    x  4.  CJ 

0  :-    _  >Ti  4-^'  CTi  01 

—I  .  :,  O 
M  i  *4-  Ol  4.  'ti 

•-i  4-1      CL  OJ  £ 

01  U'i  P  I-' 
X  X.  OJ  01  01  OJ  4-  O 
P'  OJ  X  4_  X  X  O  4-' 

4.  3  +-«  4. 
rri-i     o  x 
hOCu  4-00 
r~t  en  o  4-^'  X 

It)  p  P' 

I—  4^*  OJ  C*  -h  C  CTi  OJ 
•-»  Vi  <3l4->  ii  O  P  £ 

•4-  O  ai  £•- »-4 

g  4~'  ai  +-*■  O  4. 
X  P  4.  ri  f '  Oi 
P  ai  P  ST'  O  4-1 
CC  0'  >  --4  O  0'  Oi  4--' 

xx  o  4_  :-:  4_  oj 
t—  iti  rri  a.  oj  a:  m 


OX.  4- 
•i  M  OJ  4- 
4-'      3  O 
O  OJ  O 
fin 
4-1  M  i  4-'" 
P 

X  Ol  o 
OPXI4. 
P  -I  "4- 

3 

•-4  P 

4-> 

m  i  ri  3 

— l££j  _  OJ 

r-  ?S  S 
P  ILX 
0.1  OJ  5Ti+_' 
u_  OJ  o 
OJ  4_  4_  4-' 
X  O  4J.X 
+-'  M  l  ?Ti 
•ri  ■- < 
P  4. 
P  O  «4- 

0,1        O  M  l 

X  0'  — < 
3  O  P 

P  O 

0.1  —4  O 
P  i..  a 

o>  oi  ri  x 
OJ  "4-  ox 
4_  *4-  ijJ  0' 

u  --i oi 

M  l  x  OJ  M- 


»  '4-  uJ 
4--'  O  l'  i 

•—I  r 
•ti 

Mi 

OJ  Ol 

oj  ri  x 
(it 

Ml  —4 

Pi: 
X  Ml 
P  l  'i  ai 

•Ij  lj.1  4-' 
O  4-1 

4->  rr.  • 

ri  Ml  Ml  IJJ 

O  Oi  ai  »h 
-fix  uJ  X 

OJ  uJ 

4J'X  P  O 

Oj  4-^'  »Ti  —4 

+5  i|T"  OJ  O 

•-i  o 
3  mi  O  01 
Ci  ri  OJ  4. 
•— i     X  ai 

Ml  X 


m  i'Ji  £  ri 

P  £  Ml 

llj  Iji 

Ml  L  &>  " 

oj  ai  O  OJ 

rn  OJ  4.  X 

ai  _i  ux  4-> 


.  +->   «  j£  : "ii  0.1  ■ 

I  S_  i£  O  4-i"  U.I 

'  O  O  ni  —i  P 
.  41  -Ti  X'  ri  OJ  . 
i  01  X'       'ti  4-  • 
:  4-  X     '4-  01  • 

i  OJ  Mi  "4- 
0'  =•'  "4- 
■4-      .ti  --i 

•  Mi  "O 

i  4_      M  i  O 

0  4-''  X  4-^' 

OJ  OJ 
4_  01  01  iTfi«-4 

01  --4  '4-  P  X 

i.  i  .Tj 
•h  4.  4-'J  OJ 
0.1  '4-  O  P  O 
X  '4-  Mi  -4  --4 
I—  OJ  4.  O  4-;' 

~3  4l  o 
n>  o  p 


.tl  O  4^' 


IJ.I 


U_  4-  ' 

O  ai 


Jd.  'cz 
4-i'  ai 


I—  u_ 
O  41 


ill  4..  '.M  -  ' 
X  C  O  J  —i 
+.:•  '4-  ^[i  0.1 

ill  "  ' 
in  •— i 

•-4  Ml  •— I  3 

4-  ai  Ci 
OJX  P 
4_  4-j  O 

oi  ri 

4-^'  41  01  4_ 
"3  £  ."7'  4.  OJ 
41  O  X  ai  4-' 
£  O  O  ri 
O  X  41 
O  !?i  Zj  £ 
01  P  O  O 
X  'ij  "fi  o 
4..  +■> 


"fi 


l_l  U.  4--'  l-l 
•Ij  U. 


H     ri  ri 


OJ  i?  3 

Ol  ri  O  » 

•ti  QTi  'H  X  4^'  - 
4_  -      .tJ      ■-•<  <ri 
£  * 

^-i  4-  i'  Mi  P 

•—I  ri       4.  4-*  Mi 

•-1  X  .ti  ai  ri 
3         Ol  O 
Ol  <-i  X  o 

4->  M  j  >        "Ti  O 

OJ  OJ  -,4  o 

jjj  f'Hi: 
iil  P  O  ~  -'h 

h  a:  4~>  mx  £ 


.-.  P  o 

— i       4--'  5 

■  ~>  Ml  P  'tj  t— 

r-4.  ai  4.  u'i  0'  OJ  Mi 

"4     •  O 

3          O      X  X  Ol 

rit  >ti  ?ti  >ti  x 

.ij  _.l  iti       I.  "  r-i 

ai    ai  t_    i—  oi  ri 

p  '4-  P 

01  3  4-:'  iXi 

■-(  . .  i—t  i_  0.I  ZT" 

•-I  ai 

O  «-i  O  01  X 
Of'  X'TM 

:=  a  SL  Ol  M  l  ■-■  '4  -4 

'4-  4-''  4- 

iji  O  £      4.  CO  C<  P 

C.l  .".'  Ml  01 

p 

4..  ai  — «  >=;  Ol  X 

C.i 

41  -h  X 

4_  i:;  'Ti  3  01 

X  I'l  ai  >    •  TT.  O 

p 

nj  u_  O  O  O  X 

,  rj  X     4->  P  P  OJ  01 

Ui  Ci  1'  O 

O  O      P  X 

01  ai  P  •  -i  O  lit  4-' 

p  l;i  4-' 

:•-  oj  ^  £ 

I'l  o'    rfi    -4  u. 

O  4-> 

— •  '4-  Mi  Mi  UJ  4->  Ml  4-i' 

Ci 

^Tl  ri  X 

— i  3  41.4-'  ".• 

OJ      X  Lj  Mi 

ui     X  uJ  h-  ri  ijJ  OJ 

rri 

P  O  01 

•Tj  OJ  O  O  1- 

£  Tir  ijJ  p    •  -1 

U..  -i  X  4. 

4.  4->--<X      4.  XX 

lj.1  P  .Tj  .Tj 

i.i  _  41      ai  P 

ijJ  ri  >  i—  X  4-i<  4-i' 

Ci 

X  4.  41 

X  O  O         Mi  Oi 

£  Oi  ";  ij' 

iT  n  ui  x  Hi  al 

X  4.  -■  --4  P  P  X 

r«  ui  O  4. 

LX        -4  0J 

•ti  41  OJ  3  -  --4  4-> 

P     rri  41 

'.4-  4->  H  '-4-  '-4 

rri  ai  OJ  4.  X 

X  P  P  OP 
2:  Ci  O  1 


i  -4-  .jj 
•= 


fjj 

a 

LJ. 


C  _ .  yi  CTi 
O  r-l  — •  P  OJ 
Ml       f -ii 
■Ti       O  U  4-;, 
OJ    •  "Ti 
4-  Mi  Zfi  41 

M  i  P  Ml  <4- 
4.  0.1  •- <  O 
ri  P 

O  +■>  Mi  O 

■4.  iti      -4  CTi 
OJ  -J  4->  P 

OJ  P         <tj  '  "4 

4->      CO  O  -4 

4-'  OJ 
'4-  •-(    >  ri  LL 

o    oi  cr  «.o 

3  r:- 
ai  mi  <-**?>  — 

•  -4  a*  ^ 
>  Xi  4.  • 
OJ      OJ  OJ 
i_  01  41  £  • 
X      ■-•  Ml 
,  rj  4-i'  P  -P  Ti 

O  4.  • 
i'i  Mi  ai  p  Mi 
— i p      3  P 

i_i  P  rri  o 
iji  ri  ai  OJ  -H 
S_  r  J  4_  is  P 
0.1  P'  01  u 
X  0"  M  l  'TTl  0.1  P 

X  P  -Ti  X  ri 
P*  **4  41 P  4- 


Hi  P- 
P' 

ill  X 
P  P 
'ti 


ai  x 

oi  ai 

4.  OJ 

O  4.  .-- — 

>  

0  • 

OJ  P  4.  » — I 

X  01 

p.  _    P  O 

O'l  •  M        »— 41 

4l  -i  ?Ti 

ai  mi  oi  — I 

0  J  Oi  M 

01  I  I 

01 

mi    x  •xr: 

ri  oi  m 

4-:-XX  »0 
••rj  p 

01  TJ 
'4-  P 

01  O  P 
Mi  4.  Mi 
01  '4-  4_ 
X  OJ 
t~  X  X 

ai  ri 


. .  p  =5  Oi  m  i  STi  OJ 
ui  ai  O  X  ai  P  — i 
ZTi  O  rJ'P  3  --i  41 

•ti  M  |  £ 

i.i  P  r>  ■-! 

Mi  'Tj  M  l  Mi       *4-  Ml 
OJ  X  0J--4  4.  P 

£  3  r=     O  Ci 

•  -4      4.  O  P 
•  Ci  OJ  4-  CL 
4_X      P  OJ  OJ 

O  M  |       O  ii 

£  — i  ai  x  mi 

OJ  mi  x  P  OJ  4.  -4 
£  O  X  O 

ijj  iti  ri  o  P  P  P 
X     P  OJ  o 

p  rji    mi  "4 

X         X  P 

•4      P  OJ  O  rj'  'ti 

O  X  Mi  X  — •  O  £ 

OJ  4_  P  X  P  4. 

P  4_<  ««4      3  Oi  O 

ai  ai  4-  X  <+  <± 
St-  P  P 
4-  'Ti  OJ  ai  I—  —i 
O  SIX  -4 
"4-  OJ  f—  OJ  O  Ol 
Mi     X  XX" 

ai       ol    F-  oi 

—4  m  i  4.  O  OJ  P' 
41 4-  OJ  X  •  Oi 
S  a'  —4  4-  £  •  Mi  —4 
■  -iX-^OriXOiul 
m  i  £  41  4-  P  OJ  O  £ 
ri  £  4.  P  P  O 
OJ  P  -h  OJ  O  OJ  O 
X  mi  OJ  OJ  P 
(■--  O      Ol  P  P  P  P 

3  in  x  •-<  oj  oj  r 

X  P  -4  X  M  l  X 


Oi  4.  rri  mi  OJ  p 


0  aj  aj 

ti  p  £  OJ  4- 
O  4-  OJ 

O  OJ  X 


Mi  U 

.-4  .Tj 


01  Mi  .Ti  OJ  • 

4_  x  o  x  oj  p  rji 
ri  p    p  4.  o  p 

4->  .Ti  ri       "ti  i— 

•Tj  £  O  O 

Ol  £  rr>'-4  iz: 

.4.  O     -4  ai  O  J  —1 

O  OJ  iX  4-  4-  41 

i.  Cfi  .Ti  £ 

.-.    o  •  o 

0.1     '4-  £  4.  mi 

r-4  '4-  ai  >ti  cl  a> 
a  0x1  4.    p  Mt 

£         !3^aj  O 
•-4     P  O 

mi     4.  4_  Oi  rr>  m  i 

— '  P  <ti  £Li£  4. 

p  0.1     aj  aj  X 

ri  —4  ?Ti  £  mi  I — 

X  O      P  Ml 

P  £  O  --4  O  OJ  • 

O  aj  p  p  P'  o 

O  p  OJ  o 
ai    mi  ri  rri  P  rri 

M  i     P  4.  4.  p  . 

x  o    <ti  r>  uJ 

OJ      'ti  Mi  M"i 

OJ  P  P'     mi  ai  ri 
X  -1  O  01  OJ  4.  *4- 
H-  £  P  -i-  O  P-  P 
— 4  ri  ai  OJ  X  O 

r-4  4-  £  P  OJ  O 


ai  oJ  'JJ  4-  P  '  "  »  '-iJ  u 

XXX  01  t_  — •      -C  4-  ' 

4...        P'  P  .ti  X  -H  4-> 

P  lj.1  A. 

C I        •  -I  r-4  Mi 

•4-P  O  en     mj     "i  — 1 
Ci     P  OJ  O  uJ  ui  •-»  ai 
X  P  T  >TTi 

1 1 1  X  OJ  "tl  '-4 

-Tir-4  ai    rri  4x  4_  x  4l 
4-:-  ai  4.  Cl  P  £  ri  r-J 
•-4  X  ai     *"4  -h  1..1 

1.1  -4  a  o  uJ  '4 

•i  41  £   "Ol   .  '.'i-V  u 

r-4  O  UJ  r-4  4—'  |"4  4-J 

41  4- C-  4r  uHT  4-J 
£  O  u  is  rri  !- 
.-4      •  £  O     -i  r 

Ml  P  ^        '-  '     "        4*  U 
P^T  IJI--4  i:: 

•4  ri  X  4.  4  '  'M 

Ci  O  ■'t  O  >ti  ri  O 

S  (JD  X  P  4~.  i  '  |  —4 
ai  aj  4-*  O  •  ■<  a;  -4 
i_  .  .  O  — •  01  "tj 
ri  X  P  O  —4  iL  P'  4-  isr. 
4_'  0.1  01  CO  —4       M 1  Mi 

ai  P  Ol  X  <Ti  .4-4-  . 
ui--*  4  Q  -ti  '.J  oJ  'ti 
.4.  £  O  -*  Tj      3  X 

-4  Mi  111  a'  4-'  M  l 

t.  r-4        OJ  OJ  4.  O  ai 

il      Pi.fi:  O  P  X 

•-4  ai  ci  c«    .ti  'ti 

£  X         P  £  '.-r'  P' 

p  p  X  OJ  O  P  Mi  •-• 

OJ  Oi  P  ..  . 

0,1  Mi  iTTirH      P  P 

X  --4  'ti  X  Mi  U_  I'l  P' 

p  ol'  O'  3  >'ri  ••<  i.'! 
,>:  .ti  ir.i  O  O  a'  X  OJ 
r  J  £  OJ  X  X  —4  (—  X 


ai  rri 


.ti  .Ti 
£  Ol 


:-  >ti 

•ti  ri 


ai  O 


•ti  'ti 
£4- 


0.1  4,.  UJ 

Ol  Ci  X  C' 

4.  4...  p. 

X  4...  P* 

P'  iji  P 


OJ  X  O  "ij 
X  (- 

4.j  r-4 
X  r-4 

-    0."  iij 

r-H  nj  i: 

3  Mi 

iji 

■-4  r-4  IjJ   '.' I 

I.::  >::  -I  X  OJ 

01  f  I  'Y  P  4. 


O  ai  >Tj  --4 

Oi      4l  £  "tl 

3  Mi  O  O  £ 

iji  4-  O 

•  ~t  u_ 

rri4->     rri  0 

r-4  --4  I..  1  i_.  '4- 

X  1.1  Ol  'ti 
■  s  --i  rri  iii  iM 

4L  r-4   .T4   Mi  r-H 

.ij  4l  mi  OJ  Hi 

Lt  £  Mi  O  X 

•  -4  01  OJ  -4 


p  Ai  oj  -  mi  u 

hi  P  X.  UJ  ;i  O  4-> 

C.I  •  -4  P'  X 

C"    "r''    rji  o 

itl  T  4  ,  r-l  X 

ui  p      ai  u-  _ 

Iji  r-4   .Tj   l..|  4-'   Ol  :- 

X  -ti  i'i  41  O 

4-'  X  —4  Ci 

P      O  4-  41 

O      X  4i  -4 

•  -4  p  OJ 

ri  ij.1  p>  p  X 

r-4  X  -4  OJ  O  Mi 

(Jl  4..:'  p  X  4->  Tj  4. 
iX  *       4..      TTiri      1--  '-1 
~i      O  P  O 

lf*J['         1. 1        I.  i  Ml  P  41.  Ml 

P  UI      P  '■'! 
iCXji  -1  4.  oJ  OJ  0l£ 

.'-4     ij,i +  p  a'  0' 
1 1  1         rJiX  P'  mi  X  £  i: 
4->  4_:>  .ti         •  -4  <ti 

■  |  I  •-!       X       P  -4"  4-  -' 

„:  —I  01  0'      M  i 

Ljl..      u  ai  mi  XXO'  tJ 

'ti  ri  --4  4.  4-'      .-  i= 

X  fT  Ci 

X  P'  £  'Tr»  mi 
,ji     h  p  mi  Oj  --j 

0.1 4->  O  3  al  X  X 

•4.    P        .  •-»    C.  I  P'  r-4 

•Tj  Ml  P'  —4  l.'j  3  P' 
.|..'   I.. I   ITj  r-4   ljl   C.I  I.I 

ij.i  i,  0.1  r«  'ij  I  A-  01 

X    C.I   O  r-4  4-    I  'i  k. 

P  41  Ci  ai  — 4  P 
£  4_  >  P  U  J  P  O 
-4  41.  HI  H  i'i  "i  '-  ' 


■AJU 


ai  x  oj  oj 

X  P  PX 
P  -Ti  —4  p 
X 

Ml  O 

m  i  P  aj  P 
-4  OJ  S— 1 

P 

=s 

.— .  41 P  rJi 
O  £--4X 
O  O  3 
O  O 
<H  4- 
P  O  P 

Cl  CJ  'ti 
111  X  H  OJ 
£  .ti  i.O  -4 

q: 

p  p  to 


i.  Ij.1  — I  .Tj  . 
I_l  —4         X  M  l 

-       fT«  M  i  4_ 
O  P  HI 
•H  P'  —1  P' 

0  .1    s  0.1  a 

ir-J  iii  oi  ~  X 
P'  P  1.1 
ai  ri  iTTiX 
X  4l  O  P  ST> 
h-  £  P  d  P 
O  41  —1 


ai  P'  r  01  —1 


ijJ  X  O  Ci 

X  ai  l'i  4- 


i:  •-»  O 
O  ai  - 
OP 
X-  4- 
01 

rri  o  mi 

P  Mi 

•ti    ai  • 

4-:-  P  _: 
-  01  P  o 
r-4  01  n  i  ai 
•ti  £  OJ  X 

.-4  PX 

4-  OJ 
OJ  P  0' 
4-i'  I.' 1  4- 

ai  n  ■ 

£  £  iji  X 
4.  P 
>Tj  >ti 

al  P 

41.  OJ  ZTi 
Ci  4-'  X  4-  ' 

41  41. --4  u 


nj  1.1  U 

rri  i'i  --4 

4-  P  P  M  i 

•-4   Cl  P 

r-4  111  - 

•ij  OJ  £  •-• 

ri  P  Oi  rri 

7?  'Tj  4. 

O  4->  r:i  P 

p  -u-  rr  ,-ri 

C  I  I  j  I  —4 

i'i  4-  i_.i 


•Ti  oj  p  >Ti  oj  p  01  m  P  OJ 

Ol  3      P  OJ  P  X  Ol  X 
Mi  O      OP  •-•     --4  P 
P       X  M  l       P  H  X  Mj 

O  mi  a!  ai  0<  •■<. 
4.  rri        rn  01    P  Oi 

r-4  r-4  rH  £  •Tj  rjl 

P  M  i  X  P     .ti  O  --X 
rT'  'Ti  "-4  OJ  O      P  —4  Mi 

X  OJ        X        OJ  CTlr-4  X 

3  -4     P     X  O  CL  P 
UPaiPPP£OTi 
ai  en  Cl     Cl  O  3  P 
X     X  01  OJ  P     O  Oi 
ijO      P03P00         P  P 
•Tj  P'  O  "4-  OJ  P  OJ  Ml 

1  i~>     P     rT'     iti     X  O  X  i~ 

Ui       4-  Mi      P  P  P  4->  OJ 

iulji     pp  •-»•-•    ri  ox 

0.1  p  4J.      O  CD       -  P 

r_rr     x  ai  p    4~'     •  P'  p  ri 

P  P  OJ  P      »  Oi  P  H 
I —      ri  P  T  — 1     ai  m  o 

0  -4        X  P  .Tj  X     -  _ 

iT  41        r-J  —1  4-'  Mj  mi  u 

Ci  £  O  rri    —4  p      p  p> 

muJ    p.  --4  p  r-4  ai    .ti  x  o 
p  x  p    p  — 1 
r^rr       mi  oj  oj  p1  01  x  ai  p* 

rri--.  —i  4-'  cl  >ti  ox 
Mi  X  4-  P  P  ri  P 
••rj  p  .Tj  O  Ci  P  >Ti  p  ai 
al  --4         4-  O  P  01  P 

ai         •-<  ai  P  M  i  ■ 
P  X   •  i  P         P  X  P 

Mi  01  £00  Ml— 4  'Ti  Oj 
•H  C  O  "4  "Ti  S  Mi  P       OJ  P 

PPXX  P  —~*  T  P  P 
P'  3  P      <ti  ijJ 

H  iTTiX      .ti  Mi      £  X  ZTi 

01  P  O  P  P  P  01  X  O  OJ 
X  <ti  P  X  ■-.  --4  P  >ti  P1  X 


-rip  ai  o  ri  01  01  -  p 

•ti  ai  X  P'  O  X  iTT"  i'i  ill 

3    p    >  p  -ti  a  01 

(I)  CL  O  P 

CTi      p  P'  O 

M  i  .TiP'  OJ    »  Mi  Mi 

-  41  ri  X  41  •  P 
P      O  P  O  P  0'  0' 
•-4  OJ      O  P  OJ  OJ  Ti  X 
P  Mi  X  P  P  P 

O  OJ  P      £  O  >ti 

Ml       P  — 4        ri  Mi  Ml 

—4  -.  ri     O  P  01 

P        M  l  P'  T'  i  " 

X  OJ  — 4  ijJ         OJ  uJ  >ti  !•_ 
N  Ol  *P  P     4'  P     £  0< 
c  — 1  X  P  o  — •  P 

OJ  O  O  r-4  O  --4  "ti  P  P 
X  '''I  P'  —4  P'   I.  I  1-1  "ti 

p.  '  itix  ri  oJ 
r  0.1  r  3     ci   -4 

.4.  o  :=•  -1     +     oj  P;  . 

O  'ti  3  P1  Mi  !—  .ti  a' 
mi  x  o  ai    4-  •  -4  a1  x 

M  l  £  r— I  P  P  r-4  P  P' 
Ml  'Ti  P'  r-4  01  I.O  —4 

al  P  -  O  P  H  P  M  i  v 
p  CTi  P  '1  •  -1  I  4l  uJ  ~  U 

4.-'  O  C.I  r— 4  Jt.  4 

•Ti  P  X  Ol  P  P*  H 

OJ  Cl  X  01  OJ  01  T. 
P  ri  P'  X  41X  4-'  -  'ti 
ZTi  O  P'  rriP1  >Tj  P  ai 
p  P  >  4-  P'  ,Tj  P 
ai  —1  o  01  p  ;'n  oj 
X  P'  •     P'     01  P  — '  o 

P'  Ml  OJ  4-'  "ti  rjl  4.-'  -4  I.  I  4-' 

Ci  — 4  £  X  i-  i  —4  r  P1 

|T  r-4  --4  CTi— 4  CL4LP  Mi  rri 

CI     P  P  Ti  £  £  'ti  -  Mi 

•4-         IjJ  P  —4  O  4-'  4--'  'Tj 

Ci  ai  •-•      i'i  i-i  mi  H  al 


P  i.i  itriP' 
C'i  •-*  P  H 


0J  p.  iTj  p  X 
O  ai  P  OJ  ai 
•ti  X  M  i  X  0' 
41 P  P  £  P 
ri  Oi 

OJ  P 


Ml 


Ci 


Mi 


nj 


4- 


OJ  OJ 

OJ  O  P 

O  O  Ml  4-'  'ti 

III  ljl 

_     Jfl  r-| 

•Tj  ljl  I,'  I  X  I..  I 

X>  P 

ai "    P  ai  X 

X      O  O 

P'  al  3  "i 
X  m  Ol  £ 

p  p.  ai  4-  ■ 

o  i~  oj 

X"4  Ol 

•ti  O  01  O  U- 

X  P'  o 

p    p  I'i 

■Ti  01  4 

xx--  ai  nj 

3  -  -1  Mi  X 

M  i  Mi  M  l  P' 

IjJ  "Tj 

3      P  oi  mi 

Ci  X  P  0' 

X  O  'ti  OJ 

■Tj  IJ.I  4.  'Tj 

ai  P  'Tj  £ 


p.  1, i  x  iTTiX  Hi 
O  n:i  X  ir  nj  X 
P  X  ai  •-•  OJ  P' 


P  ZTi  >ti  Ci 

mi  -  oj  x  ai  o  4- 

P  •-  •  P  3  r-4  P' 

O  H  P  Ol 

•  -4  Cl  --i  ill  CTi 

p'       Zti   -  r-4  nj 

O        OJ  P  Ml  X  P 

P      X  4.  -1  >ti  P 

ri    -      «ti  >ti 

'P  CC  OJ  OJ  ~i  > 

O  X  '-■<  P  T 

1 0  I-  ij.i  •  -4  .ij 

z:  o  j 


nj 


C.i 


I.. I 


•-i  p  X  Mi  i.    ""I  Mi 

P'   Ol   £  -4   Ml  "-I 

•  rj  0 1  TTi  Ci  0'  • 

£  P  Mi  X  P  X  P 

Ol  i_i  £  O  P'  HI 

X  Mi  nj  1'fi      nj  01 


•tl 


ai 


HI 


H|  >ti  C| 


UJ 
Ui 


P"  O 


rii 


HI  P 

X  HI  rri  nj  --4  £  Hi 

1  j  1  1/1  X  £  P'  aj  P 

r^  1 — 1  ai  .Tj  0.1  ri  !—  P 

r-4  — I   P   OJ  X   LL  '-4 

'I  ai  41  4..  P'  £  UJ  rri 
41  II I  —4  nj  O  X  il1 
i'i       nj  £  1  .1  P'  X 


a 


SINC-LINK 


GJ 
Oj 


H 


til 


H 


r  j 
11 

H 
LtJ 

a 

r 


29 


•H 

H 
'•J 


*  IJ-' ! 
,i  'I 


•J  o  £ 
~t  -  -» 
■h  Li  "J 
...  H  ,-i 
~\  O  »ri 
3  "D  to 


0.1  _  ui 
-£  'it 


O  ill  4- 


*j  .Tj 


-i  01  Ti 

:.-  en 

til  O  u  i 

Ji  Mi 

—I  .Ti  0.1 

111  i_ 

u  13 


01 


•il 


LU 

M"J 

I.,  r-1  X 

-i  OJ  M"l 
.-4  i,i  - 


i 

•Tj 
OJ 

13  • 

,rj  0.1 
+-' 

£  P 

O  01 


tfl=i 

o  o 
-H  in 


4Ji  — 

til 

•ti 


O 
13 


r.  h  1. 1 
n  i  •  -t 

.Tj   I  JZ 

:■<  +-' 
ti 

- 

iii  -~< 

■t-> 

■t-1 

oi  oj  s 


4«'  Iii 

-  i  J  "T3 

',•1  iTi  ri 
ijj  !=  U 

—»  O  P 
13  -i 


1/1  •""»  .jS  l»"t 

JCI— 

i_  uj 

0.  1  I.*  oi  a: 

1.  oj-piu 

'2  ^^fc 
£•-« 
n-»o 

Mi  .Tl  Ml  cu 
•ri  WZf 

£  '.=  «D 


13  0J 
:=T3 
oj  .ti 

-  !• J 

'41 "" 

j£  0J 


+  •'  i_i 
OJ 

U  P 

-t  o 

"* 

L 

41  itj 

01  o 
0.1  -4- 
i-  i= 

M-  •-■« 

•Ti  '4- 

O 

Ml 

•-<  I'll 

o 

*->  i- 

H  =i 

O 
Mi 


7*.  L  i 

ill  ij.i 
•  -.  .TTi  - 

••H  £  13  'II 
O  'il 
O  T5  'Tj  ij'i 


>  OJ 

O  13  4-:'  I— 
i.i  .vj  i- 

'4  1 

L.I  'Tj 

13  — « 

>r  -» v.-  u 

O      '  Ti  ■-< 
ii.""i 

■Ti  O 

01  at 

■H+.'  :L.  i. 
d  S_  >Tj  O 
I  .Ti  £ 
X  iL 
N  O  -C 
i_  "Ti  U 

13  O 


ui  01 


■Tj  '1 

OJ  i.i  i~ 
S. 

i.ri  iii  •.'•  *~* 

I/,  ai 


>INI1-3NIS 

::_T_:  -jJBkSlu-I' 

i!i:_i_j_i_ij;ix-jai-i 

IliUJ  J  J!lLUH^-3:J• 

BJ^  J;•i$LUOh 
fuiMI-J  -Jj|LU  dpW 


0£ 


iii -J  -J 

iO-j-j 


r  i.o  d 

ILU-CC 


Hi  .Tj  ...    C.I  — • 

I  S  O  i.  "C  'f 

^_  iL  'i'  Ji 
f  J        !U-  'U  S-  . 


S_     .  Hi  != 

ijl  :+:  r-t  i  .i  4~i'  !— 

4->       O  'Ti  'Tj 

4_.      .<Z  £■  U 

HI  LU  3  ^  „ 

— i  OL  13 

'"  2»        .„  :~ 
21  !-      r'  iTj  * 

ill  IX  S~  !=     .  -Tl 

>r  ill       U-l  'Ti 

•+  i_  :s      OJ  -■ 

ill  O  O  iii      U_  , 

X  4-'  'Il  M-  'i' 

4_.  iL+j  .rj  s  := 

•-*  i_  -C  Ml  — < 
O  Ml  £L       U     ,  >J> 

'4-  4-'  H  v. 
0J  !=  O  "T'  OJ 
i=  ^  _  .  1  :~ 
0J  3  rri+j  r> 
4j  O  13  £L  !=  N4  iss 
l=      01  O  0J  Ul 

O  OI  l-l        V*    •  i- 

u  >-i  n  ^ 

O  13  -Tj      O  31 

iii  M  l  O        Ml  — *  1= 
i_  •P  'Tl 

►~  iii  a  .Ti  _  ;=  _ 
jz  m  x.  i=  aj  i= 

4->  L  4"'  *"i  £  '"^ 


'd 
..,  r 


w  13 

Ml  'Tj 
Ml  !— 
Ill  O  'Tj 

o  z:  o 

OH 

i_  u  i  ■ 

a.  '—I 

T5  o  tu 

o  o  - 

™'  — :  o 
lil- 


ex.  .•?■» 

UJ  u  o 

h-  H 

K-  -         T  lTj  UD 

UJ  ,                                                        in          ul         U-  4_>  H 

■:  I             -J              .,  *                                                                    O         Ul  .ti     If)  H 

^             !H  S      1=                                     H         U          2         "  *>                                            %      °      %             Z  % 

it          fiJ         o  u                         3      iu       Lo  K                              a'    m   r"-  « 

i  2  ^  ^  1%  « §  %  «  3,  |  „r  li|     8f  i«0- 

UJ      ^2  ,         -.„           I;.  £       «      10  — '                «-S         "    .  lUiii  ":-      '4..  "I'*       O                 I'll            *?       '-i1  ^"s. 

s  "  m  rf             ^>  l.§  r»§  ;;i     P  ist 

1    III  m  M  III  'J3      US  ^12  ^5  ^2  8*2  £*8  ^- 


'  Il 
•H 


LU 

I'll 

II 


iiX™» 

H'lfl... 


II  II  II 


=; 


ai 


lUt-J      "I  ■ 


H  i-  .....  V'  iri  ,v;,  O  L  'il 


•  .Qu.    ^,;(         iii     to  ^  al 


W  U:  ;-.i       rl  «  h       h       i-     ^       yi  ^    J$       1^.  -n    ^  o  ^  3  u? 


iiiia  -"'V       -  Jr.    h       r=T  c    nj       .ti    ^         -Ti         <y  9 

w      ■  ^      ...  iii      o-    ui      iSfc  iri  ^  tj   o    £  y 

,— |  -if-l  —I  i~  — '  .  iTl  i_Jl    "O  I       tj  l_l    -  >Q  .:-  U      I y 


S_  iri  -f~-         O  ••  '^ka         ^JU-t         iii-  5E6i£         'D  S 


.Tj  U  'ill 

il  _*                       i—          H          'Ti  -,•■*,       _  lZ,*. •  rf.  ri-:- T5  —I    »  'il  o>o           >:-  U      S  2  — 

y     ,u           •       s=           r- 13  i.O  Tt  ..O.Ti     £  |-u-,x,-r  ,^-7  .TitOChz:  'I           wo   -  !=    5  -'^ 

5  -   *gi,  -sir  sis,  -S2r  j3.  ^  -  -3 

=  8US3  =S2.  *:a|r2  ^3^2  M^-°t  »x2^£  o&«S  ^SSl 

H-;*.I«Jg  Hrtli-Ul  -  .'>i:r,Xi3^  X2t«S  "«-|p|  .  Sng3  ..^m*  K^ii"  h5x*  =X3 

-r-  -  ,       o  in  -S  Q  OS  s_  H  :=  o  a  ~«  UJ  .Ti  O  OJ  .Ti  _l  :-  _i  r-  a.  -.  ^  !-'  J  -u  «f     _  r~  g      j  o  0J 

;i!jSS  hISs!  "5i»S  ...IHiSSS  «SiS£S  h-S^S  -pSd  ^tfS*.  3^-3  m-I 


UJ 


Si  <E 


=i  0)  ri  O  w 

S-  ^  — i  ;•  <j:i  °- 


A  Tape   Index....  By  Les  Cottrell 


In  the   last    issue   of   the   newsletter   it  was   suggested  that  we 
should  write  with  our  problems  and  experiences.    Here   is  one  of 
mine  . 


I   started   looking   for  a  program  recently  that  wouldn't  run 
properly   from  disk.      I   had  started  to   index  my  tapes  a  long  time 
ago   by  using  the  CATALOG   function  in  MSCRIPT.    That  required 
sorting   thru  each  tape   listing.      I  wished  that   I   had  a  program 
like  the  one   I   use   for  disks   -     Bob  Mitchell's   DISK  INDEX 
program.      I   decided  that   I   could  accomplish  what   I  wanted  by 
taking  the  MSCRIPT   file  and  running  Bob's   "mssort"  program. 
First   I   added  any  tapes   I   hadn't  previously  run  into  the  MSCRIPT 
file.   They  come  in  looking  like: 


******************************** 


TYP  NAME 

BAS   Beta  Basic 

BIN  BB 

BAS  BETABdemo 
BAS  BBdemo 

58  Beta  Basic 

58  BB 

58  BETABdemo 

58  BBdemo 

26  Belltower 
36  Belltower 
58  Beta  Basic 


START 
20 
46680 
1 

9800 


LENTH  PROGL 
1568  1529 

18688 
1521  1489 

22345  22313 


After  the  names  are 
loaded   into  MSCRIPT 
the  header  and  other 
unwanted   info  is 
removed  and   it  looks 
like  the  list  under 
the   first  one.   My  list 
was   640  programs  long 
after  removing  some  of 
machine  code  files. 


Since  mssort  can  only  handle  200  lines 
per  pass  I  divided  my  file   into  four 
sections  and  sorted  on  column  four. 
Sample   result  at   the  left. 


Belltower         26,36  After  the  first   four  passes   I  used 

3eta  Basic       58  MSCRIPT  block  file  moves  to  put  all 

A   thru  M  files   from  each  group  together, 
\"   thru  a,    b  thru  p  and  then  q  and  on.      Each  of  these   files  was 
mssort-ed  again  until   my  whole   file  was   in  alphabetical  order. 
Eight   separate   runs  were  used.      The  mssort  part  was   the  quickest 
part  of   the  operation.      (Thanks  Bob) 

The  completed  file  was   scanned  and  a  column  was   selected  so  no 
file  name  would  t   extend   into  the  tape  numbers.      The   final  file 
currently  looks   like   the   last  example.      I  may  add  some  remarks 
on  the   right   side  of   the  page  later. 

The   final   file   is   367   lines   long  after  eliminating  duplicates. 
And   I   can  easily  locate  any  program  I   have  on  tape.    The  bad  news 
is   that   the  program  I   was   searching   for  has  the  same  problem  as 
the  disk  version. 


SINC-LINK 


323  V2  N.  Church  Street 
Bowling  Green,  OH  43402 
February  28, 1992 


Dear  Bob 

Well  as  you  can  probably  tell,  I  got  my  new  computer.  My  dad  splurged  a  bit:  he  cot  me  a 
386SX  portable  with  Windows.  This  is  being  written  on  Microsoft  Write  for  Windows  (not 
Word;  frrite  is  their  bargain  word  processor).  As  of  ^  I^^y  bou^t  any  oto 
programs  for  it,  just  a  printer  cable  and  a  mouse.  I  will  probably  get  some  stuff  for  it  later  though 
-  you  know,  math  stuffand  an  assembler  or  compiler . 

I  had  an  idea  about  how  to  read  DOS  disks  on  our  other  computers  without  getting  a  CRC 
error  every  track.  There  are  2  possibilities.  Either  you  can  format  a  disk  on  toe  2068  and 
artificially  put  the  DOS  first  track  on  it  -  yes,  DOS  can  read  a  disk  properly  formatted  this  way- 
or  you  could  write  or  modifycode  to  read  the  disk  erectly. 

We  discussed  earlier  that  DOS  disks  only  have  9  sectors  on  them,  which  is  what  causes  the 
CRC  error  -  LKDOS  expects  10  sectors  on  every  track.  DOS  will  not  format  a  disk  with  10 
sectors  on  it,  that  just  isn't  an  option  in  the  FORMAT  program.  As  it  turns  out,  DOS  wiU  read 
and  write  properly  formatted  disks  with  10  sectors  per  track.  I've  really  only  tried  it  with  3.5  inch 
disks,  but  it  should  be  true  of  5.25  as  well.  . 

Of  course,  that  raises  the  question  of  what  is  proper  format.  If  we  are  talking  about  a  5.2!> 
disk  with  1 0  sectors  per  track  and  40  tracks,  that  means  we  have  a  total  of  800  sectors  instead  of 
720,  or  400K  instead  of  360K.  Not  a  bad  deal  anyway,  but  the  number  400  becomes  significant 

in  anotoroy^  ^  ^  ^  ^  immediately.  The  boot  sector,  the  first  5 1 2  bytes  of  track  0,  would 
to  contain  the  following  information  (X  means  it  doesn't  matter): 


have  to 


0 
8 
16 
24 


235  60  144     X     X     X     X  X 

X  X  X      0      2      2      1  0 

2  112  0   144      1  253      2  0 

10  0  2XXXXX 


The  rest  of  that  sector  is  "don't  care".  I  haven't  figured  out  why  the  first  3  numbers ;  are 
there,  but  they  are  apparently  necessary.  The  next  2  sectors  from  512  to  1535  are  the  FAT.  On  a 
blank,  formatted  diskthis  would  have  the  numbers  253, 255, 255,  and  the  rest  all  0  Since  we  told 
it  there  were  2  copies  of  the  FAT,  naturally  1536  to  2559  are  exactly  the  same  as  512  to  1535. 
The  direectory  would  start  at  2560,  run  to  1024  on  track  1,  and  should  be  all  0s  on  a  blank  disk. 
If  you  do  this  on  a  disk  with  10  sectors  per  track,  everything  should  work  out. 

The  other  option  is  more  interesting,  though  a  little  more  complicated  Naturally,  the 
routines  in  the  cartridge  can 't  be  changed  to  read  only  9  sectors.  I  have  seen  that  if  you  ignore  the 
CRC  error  it  really  doesn '  t  matter,  but  of  course  you  can '  t  tell  if  there  is  a  real  error  or  just  9 
sectors.  We  could  get  around  this  by  modifying  the  routines  from  Hcode,  the  ml  part  of  the 
LKDOS  format  program.  They    -  not  in  ROM,  and  include  all  of  the  appropriate  routines:  read, 
write,  seek,  step,  Mid  select  (plus    rrnat,  ofco<  ~se).  The  only  problem  is  ma^sure  ypu  have 


the  right  version  of  the  altered  co^  ■  Hcode.Cl  .or  you,  Hcode.Ca  for  my  AERCO  interface.  So 
far,  Ihave  only  found  4  locations  that  would  need  to  be  altered  (I  think).  In  the  Larken  version, 
these  are  at  9CE2h,  9CFBh,  9DD7h,  and  9EBDh.  Of  course,  I'll  check  whether  the 
correspoiiding  changes  (at  different  locations)  work  with  the  AERCO  version.  If  they  do,  then  we 
could  simply  use  the  altered  versions  instead  of  George's  code.  Though  the  fact  that  there  are  at 
least  3  versions  of  the  code  •  one  foryour  Larken  i/f,  one  for  my  AERCO ,  and  one  I  think  tor 
Zebra  -  would  make  things  more  difficult. 

As  you  can  tell,  I  have  both  the  Larken  and  AERCO  versions  of  Hcode,  but  not  any  others. 
I  know  Larry  made  at  least  one  other  cartridge,  but  he  may  have  made  more,  and  each  one  tor  a 
different  disk  i/f  would  have  its  own  version  of  Hcode.  My  Hcode  is  larger  than  yours,  since 


AERCO  used  16-bit  port  addresses,  but  I  would  imagine  the  others)  would  be  almost  identical  to 
one  or  the  other  of  ours. 

Oh,  naturally  I  have  hooked  up  my  good  printer  to  this  machine  and  will  be  using  my  old 
Fastext  with  the  2068  from  now  on.  I  had  to  tell  both  the  computer  and  the  printer  that  it  was  an 
IBM  Proprinter  instead  of  a  Panasonic,  but  that  is  only  a  minor  inconvenience  at  best.  I  had  more 
trouble  hooking  up  the  mouse  for  Windows  - 1  accidentally  erased  the  mouse  driver  and  had  to  use 
the  2068  to  recover  the  file.  That's  why  I  know  reading  or  writing  a  9-sector  disk  is  nothing  more 
than  an  inconvenience  under  LKDOS  read  track  and  write  track.  Write  track  didn't  even  tell  me 
there  was  anything  wrong! 

I'll  check  out  whether  there  are  only  4  changes  to  Hcode  for  AERCO  before  I  mail  this,  so 
you  should  find  out  in  the  P.S.  if  that  is  everything.  That  will  be  it  for  now,  though.  George  has 
my  corrections  to  the  AERCO  printer  software  to  make  it  work  with  a  Fastext. 

Sincerely, 

'•fowtj  y.  omJUuv-' 

P.S.  Yes,  at  least  for  the  AERCO  version  of  LKDOS  FORMAT,  there  were  only  4  places  that 
needed  changing.  I  had  some  old  IBM  5.25  disks  that  I  wanted  to  copy  the  programs  to  my 
laptop,  whicn  takes  3.5  inch  disks,  and  so  used  the  copy  disk  command  on  the  modified 
FuRMAT  to  copy  from  drive  1  (the  5.25)  to  drive  0.  It  didn't  complain  (no  CRC  errors  or 
anything)  and  neither  did  the  laptop.  I  was  able  to  copy  PC-Write  (a  shareware  word  processor) 
and  ISETL  (a  language)  to  my  hard  drive.  Nothing  to  say  about  actually  reading  files  from  one 
computer  on  the  other,  though. 

-  r.-sr*  r-i/i^  \t  Voir  -r  i^A  \l  W&  cifU\v\\t  «t?  optw?Vj  A  ''O'OjiV 


READERS! 

SEND  IN  YOUR  LETTERS,  TIPS, 
QUESTIONS  AND  ANSWERS.  WE 
PRINT  ADS  FOR  FREE  TOO! 


SINC-LINK 


33 


TK2  -  NETWORK  -  DATA_USE  -  \SER  -  ALTKEY 

by  Hugh  H.  Howie 


Recently  I  asked  you  to  do  some  work 
with  TK2  for.  your  self.  I  also  have  been 
trying  things  with  it,  and  have  found  a 
use  I  never  expected  to  find. 

Many  may  ask  what  value  the  DATAJJSE 
function  may  have.  Certainly  once  the 
defaults  are  designated  it  may  be  thought 
that  that  is  the  end  of  that,  but  that  is 
not  necessarily  so;  there  are  many  ways 
in  which  DATAJJSE  may  be  utilised.  The 
same  as  there  are  many  ways  any  given 
TK2  function  may  be  used.  Have  a  look  at 
what  follows. 

I  am  going  to  show  how  the  commands  in 
the  above  header  to  this  article  can  all  be 
combined,  and  used  with  effect. 

I  have  too  many  disks  lying  around  with 
too  much  space  wasted  in  too  many 
backups.  I  know  we  should  all  keep  a 
back-up  of  everything  but  sometimes 
things  get  out  of  hand  and  that  is  what 
happened  to  me,  I  had  too  many  disks 
chasing  the  same  information,  so  I  decided 
to  consolidate  the  contents,  And  that  is 
when  my  trouble  started.  This  is  my  set 
up:- 

QL  #1  -Networked  To-  QL  #2 

1  x  3  1/2  720  Drive  1  x  5  1/4  720  Drive 
1  x  3  1/2  1440    "  1x3  1/2  720  " 

Printer  1x5  1/4  360  " 

I  used  to  have  more  disks  drives,  but 
while  my  fingers  wandered  idly  over  the 
noisy  keys,  my  feet  were  getting  caught 
up  in  pedals,  so  I  removed  some  drives 
from  each  QL.  Sure  cut  down  on  the 
draught  from  all  them  spinning  drives. 

My  problem  started  when  I  wanted  a  hard 
copy  of  the  directory  on  a  5  1/4  disk 
which  meant  using  #2  QL  through  #1  QL. 
I  know  there  are  many  ways  to  do  this 
such  as  changing  the  drives  around  etc., 
but  I  didn't  want  to  do  that. 

A  lot  has  been  written  about  the  QL 
Network,  but  I  was  never  able  to  make  too 
much  sense  of  a  lot  of  it,  which  resulted 
in  my  having  to  devise  my  own  methods. 
This  is  part  of  my  experimentation.  (I  like 
that  word  -  it  takes  up  almost  a  whole 
line) 


I  tried  to  use  the  DIR  \SER  and  the 
WSTAT  \SER  in  various  ways  (remember 
told  you  about  them  last  time  out?)  Next 
I  thought  if  I  used  DATAJJSE  command  I 
could  change  the  default  from  #1,  to  #2 
machine,  thus:- 

DATAJUSE  N2_FLP1_ 

It  worked!  I  was  now  able  to  get  the  stats 
of  the  disk  in  #2  flp1_,  to  the  printer  on 
#1  machine. 

Problem  was  I  still  wanted  to  be  able  to 
use  the  default  in  #1  QL,  so  I  decided  to 
put  the  DATAJJSE  on  an  ALTKEY.  In  fact 
I  could  put  two  commands  on  Altkeys,  one 
to  put  me  into  #2  QL  and  another  to  bring 
me  back  to  #1. 

ALTKEY  waVDATA_USE  N2_pLP1J"    To  put 

me  over,  and  :- 

ALTKEY  "kVDATA_USE  FLP1_"  to  bring 
me  back  to  #1. 

In  between  the  two  Altkey  commands, 
could   use  "WSTAT  \SER"  or  "DIR  \SER 

and  this  would  allow  me  to  print  from  #2 
to  the  printer  on  #1.  All  being  done  with 
a  minimum  of  key  strokes.  (I  don't  like  to 
HIT  my  keys,  they  haven't  done  anything 
to  hurt  me!)  (yet) 

So  now  when  I  wanted  a  printout  of  flp1_ 
in  #2,  all  I  had  to  do  was  press  "<ALT>  a" 
and  type  "WSTAT  \SER"  to  get  my  copy, 
then  type  "<ALT>  k"  and  I  was  back  to 
flp1_  of  my  #1  QL. 

Now  I  know  that  it  is  not  often  I  want  to 
do  this  sort  of  thing,  but  if  I  cared  to,  I 
could  incorporate  the  two  ALTKEY 
commands  in  my  boot  program  and  they 
would  always  be  there  when  I  required 
them. 

So  there  you  are,  I  have  done  what  I  set 
out  to  do.  I  have  used  TK2  to  set  up  the 
Network  and  the  Data_use  and  Altkeys, 
and  used  them  all  from  #1  QL,  to  send  a 
D I  Rectory  from  flp1_  of  #2  QL,  to  th~ 
printer  on  #1  QL. 

Now  what  else  can  I  adapt  to  my  needs? 

032692 


SINC-LINK 


11  iZti  1991. 


A  CHALLENGE  TO  PROGRAMMERS  —  i.«#ne««r 
Want  to  play  GOD  and  create  a  solar  system?  Want  to  learn  about 
astronomy?  Want  to  set  up  a  system  to  write  a  story  about?  Want 
to  have  something  more  challenging  than  some  of  the  computer 
games?  This  is  it.  This  is  a  real  challenge  to  a  programmer.  I 
hereby  toss  this  out  for  someone  to  take  it  from  here.  I  would 
tackle  it  myself  but   I  have  too  many  unfinished  projects  now  and 

I  am  not  a  programmer.  But  I  am  sure  that  if  I  tackled  this  I 
would  learn  a  lot  about  programming  and  also  astronomy.  I 
received  a  MSDOS  ASCII  file  disk  from  Kirk  and  I  converted  it 
with  a  program  from  George  Chambers  (Toronto)  to  a  MSCRIPT  file 
and  then  with  a  program  from  Bob  Swoger  converted  the  MSCRIPT 
file  to  a  TASWORD  file.  Some  of  the  material  may  be  missing  but 
that  is  what  happens  when  computers  convert  things.  You  can 
either  get  the  material  from  Kirk  or  myself.  Same  price.  Except 
that  I  can  only  supply  it  in  the  Larken  DOS  since  I  do  not  have 
TASWORD  on  Oliger  and  I  would  need  a  way  to  convert  it  to  Oliger 
from  Larken.    Sorry  about   that,    nothing   is  easy  all   the  time. 

II  01  1991. 

When  I   saw  the  letter  in  Analog   I  could  not   resist   writing  and 
then  sending  a  disk  in  a  SASE  disk  mailer  so  that   I  could  get  a 
copy  of  the  program  in  ASCII   files.    I  do  not  have  programming 
ability  but  I  hereby  challenge  one  of  you  to  take  it  from  here. 
I  do  not  know  if  the  T/S  2®68  has  enough  memory  for  the  program 
but   I  know  that  the  QL  does.   For  those  of  you  that  want  to  work 
from  the  original  material  write  to  Kirk  Thompson  and  get  it 
from  him.   His  price  is  send   in  a  disk  and  SASE  mailer  for  the 
disk  to  be  returned  or  else  send  him  Five  Dollars. 

Why  did  I  wait  so  long  to  get  the  disk?   I  didn't,    as  soon  as  I 
saw  the  letter  in  the  magazine  I   got   a   letter  in  the  mail.  You 
see  I  am  slowly  getting  caught   up  in  my  reading.    That   is  a  sign 
of  a  successful 1   retirement.    Always  have  something  to  do  and 
never  get   it  all  done. 


Cont. 


SINC-LINK 


ANALOG  SCIENCE  FICTION/ SCIENCE  FACT.    MID-DECEMBER  1990. 

I  enjoyed  your  recent  excursions  into  fictional  world  creation 
(Gillette  -  July  '89,    and  Barnes  -  March  '90  issues).    But  one 
thing  which  neither  of  them  touched  on  in  any  depth  was  software 
assistance  in  the  design  process.    I   remember  a  Program  by 
Stephan  Kimmel,    in  June,    '83,    in  the  now  -  defunct  CREATIVE 
COMPUTING     called   "World  Builder."    It   was  written  in  Microsoft 
B  AS I C  for' t he  aust r a 1 op i t hec i ne  Radio  Shack  TRS-80  Model    1,  and; 
dealt  with  the  "physics  and  astronomy"    (to  quote  the  lead-m  to 
Barnes)   of  the  process. 

I   adapted   it   for  my  Neanderthal  Heathkit  CP/M-based  H-909 
system.    It   includes  facilities  to  select   1  of  34  known  stars  or 
"design"  your  own,    create  a  planetary  system,    add  up  to  1© 
satellites  per  planet,    and  draw  some  conclusions  on  indigenous 
life  and  human  habitabi 1 i ty.    Of  course,    the  assumptions   it  uses 
are  simple,    but   it  could  be  used  a  base  for  more  sophisticated 
effort.    Even  so,    it    is  quite  interesting  to  tinker  with. 

If  any  of  your  readers  are  interested,    I  would  be  happy  to 
copy  it   for  them,    along  with  a  short  ASCII  documentation  file.  I 
j ust  ask  that  requests   include  a  FORMATTED  disk  and   postage  - 
Prepaid  return  mailer.    I   can  read/write  a  host  or  CP/  (though 
the  Western  Digital   control  lerchi p  in  ^  J"^1™.  *1MI*»*  ff*  . 
such  as  Kaypro,    to  single  sided)   and  PC-XT  formats.    Sorry,    but  I 
can't  handle  3  1/2  in.    If   ir<  doubt  write  me. 

KIRK  L.  THOMPSPON 

EDITOR,    THE  STAUNCH  8/89' ER  NEWSLETTER 
P.    0.    BOX  548 

#6  WEST  BRANCH  MOB  HOM  VI L 
WEST  BRANCH,    I A  52358 


QL  YOU  MIGHT  LIKE  TO  KNOW  ! ! ! ! 

HOWIE  IN  THE  PAST  FEW  ISSUES  HAS  BEEN  GIVING  SOME 
HINTS  ON  THE  BENFITS  OF  USING  TK2_EXT  WITH  YOUR  TOOLKIT  II. 
SOME  OF  THE  HINTS  ARE  DEPENDANT  ON  THE  VERSION  OF  THE 
TOOLKIT. 

FOR  INSTANCE  I  FOUND  THAT  I  COULD  GET  A  LISTING  OF  A 
PROGRAM  BY  TYPING    :      COPY  XXXXX  TO  SER1 

REMINDS  ME  OF  THE  LLIST  COMMAND  OF  THE  2068. 
LOUIS  LAFERRIERE 


SINC-LINK 


Q  L  I  P  S 

by  Hugh  K.  Howie 

This  little  snippet  of  a  program  is  so 
beautiful  I  cannot  understand  why  we 
have  not  found  it  long  before  this. 

Remember  all  those  windows  we  would  like 
to  get  rid  of  when  we  change  programs? 
The  ones  that  overlap  on  the  new 
windows?    We  do  not  want  to  do  RESET 
as  it  might  spoil  something  else;  well  this 
is  called  WINDEX,  and  just  like  the  name 
of  that  wonderful  blue  stuff  you  are 
given  in  the  spring  and  told 
GIT  OUT  THERE!!!!    This  little  beauty  will 
clean  up  all  those  fancy  windows  for  you; 
well  not  really  all,  but  most  of  them. 

It  will  not  get  rid  of  those  EXEC  windows 
but  is  a  dandy  for  the  S/B  (watch  your 
langwidge)    Fl  windows. 

It  is  not  in  the  Library  yet  as  I  only 
received  it  recently,  but  it's  gonna  be  one 
o'dem  days. 

WINDEX  _BAS 

100  REIark  ============================== 

105  REIark  *****ttt*  flWex_bas  Mttttttt 
110  RMark  ============================== 

115  : 

120  REIark     Restores  Fl  Sereeo  WIIDOIs 
125  REMark        fO,  fl  and  12  to  their 
130  REMark     Normal  ? aloes  if  they  are 
135  REIark  "Trashed"  by  an  unroly  program 
140  REIark     Contributed  by  Ed  Kingsley 
145  : 

150  REIark    Bxtraet  and  add  the  PROCedure 
155  REIark   To  yoor  own  graphic  programs 
160  REIark   &  Games  to  clean  yoor  WIIDOWs 

165  : 

170  REIark  LRU!  fIIDex_bas 

175  : 

200  windez 

202  : 

300  DEFine  PROCednre  windex 

302  REIark   

304  BODE  4 

306  WTWOf#0,512,50,0f206:PAPER#0,0:IlI#0,5: 

CSIZEf 0,0,0 
308  OPEIf 1 , con_256x202a256x0_128 : PAPBRf 1 , 2 : 

Illfl , 7 : BORDERfl ,1,255: CSIZEf 1 ,0,0 
310  OPBIf 2 , con_256x202a0x0_128 : PAPERf 2 , 7 : 

IHf  2 , 2 :  B0RDERf2 , 1 , 255 :  CS  IZEf  2 , 0 , 0 
312  CLSf0:CLSfl:CLSf2 

314  ETC  DEFine  windex  (022192) 


PRINTER  RESET 

If  sosethinq  goes  wrong  during  the  print-out  of  a  docuient 
on  a  big  printer,  often  the  only  way  to  stop  the  print 
operation  is  to  switch  the  printer  off.  This  say  be  a 
useful,  but  certainly  not  an  elegant,  sethod.  A  reset 
button,  on  the  other  hand,  is. 

Nearly  all  printers  with  a  Centronics  interface  have  a  reset 
input  at  pin  31  of  the  Centronics  connector  (consult  the 
tanual).  That  input  is  used  in  lany  systeis  to  set  the 
printer  to  a  defined  starting  state  and  at  the  saie  tiie  to 
eapty  the  buffer. 

The  input  say,  of  course,  also  be  used  to  connect  a  reset 
switch  to.  The  diagras  in  fig.  1  shows  how  such  a  switch  lay 
be  Bade  quite  easily.  The  1  kQ  resister  prevents  a  short- 
circuit  at  the  coiputer  output  when  the  printer  is  being 
reset. 


piu  31  Chf  H 


lkQ 


I 


Retyped  by  R.  Bruneau  frot  ELEKT0R  ELECTRONICS  July  1989 


Early  clock-watchers 


SINC-LINK 


37 


Tight  security 


Andrew  Ho, 
Leicester. 

Ideas  for  maintaining  program  confidenti- 
ality have  been  published  before  in  Basic, 
requiring  the  user  to  input  a  secret  codeword 
before  the  program  will  run.  Such  security 
checks  are  easily  bypassed  in  Basic  by  the  use 
of  Break  or  Stop  keys.  This  code  routine 
cannot  be  circumvented.  The  machine  code  is 
stored  in  a  Rem  statement  containing  50 
characters,  as  the  first  line  of  the  program. 
Since  many  hexadecimal  machine-code 
loading  programs  have  been  published,  it  is 
not  necessary  to  repeat  one  here. 

The  routine  starting  at  16516  prints  a  screen 
prompt,  then  calls  the  key-scan  subroutine  in 
ROM  many  thousand  times,  seeking  for  a 
secret  combination  of  keys  to  be  pressed.  If 
this  is  not  found  within  27  seconds,  it  jumps  to 
the  New  subroutine  in  ROM  and  erases  the 
program,  thus  preventing  unauthorised  access. 
To  be  effective,  this  idea  should  be 
incorporated  in  a  program  which  auto- runs  on 
loading  from  cassette. 

The  line  following  the  program  line 
containing  Save  should  enter  the  machine- 
code  routine  at  16516  immediately,  as 
illustrated  in  the  sample  program.  The  routine 
will  work  in  both  IK  and  16K  machines, 
although  it  will  probably  find  more  use  in  16K 
programs  which  might  store  confidential 
information.  The  screen  is  cleared  and  the 
counter  reset  before  entry  to  the  main 
program,  so  that  further  copies  of  the  program 
will  still  feature  this  security  check. 

The  secret  codeword  may  be  two,  three  or 
any  number  of  any  keys  to  be  simultaneously 
pressed,  thus  making  it  impossible  for 
uninformed  users  to  breach  the  security  check. 


Your  own  secret  codeword  can  be  used  if  you 
understand  how  the  key-scan  routine  operates 
in  ROM.  For  those  who  do  not,  here  are  some 
possibilities: 


16535        16536  codeword 

9D 

Da 

AMU 

7D 

F1 

ACM 

AoM 

7B 

AE 

E6 

Shift  A  /J 

Havs- 

AO Grass 

Uvwll  1 IOI 

Explanation 

uuus 

lob  IH 

PP  fi3 

Set  counter 

3P  28  D7 

3E34  D7 

3E  29  D7 

Print  screen  prompt 

3E2A  D7 

3E  OF  D7 

16531  loop 

CD  BB  02 

Call  Keyscan 

11  9D  D9 

LD  DE,  secret  code 

AF 

XOR  A 

ED  52 

SBC  HL,  DE 

28  0D 

JR  Z,  +13 

16542 

2A  82  40 

LD  HL,  (16514) 

2B 

DEC  HL 

22  82  40 

LD  (16514),  HL 

BC 

CP  H 

20  EB 

JR  NZ,  loop 

C3  C3  03 

JP  NEW 

CD  2A  OA 

Call  CLS 

3E63 

LD  A,  63  Reset 

32  83  40 

LD  (16515),  A  Counter 

16563 

C9 

RET 

Andrew  Ho's  protection  program. 

9000  SAVE  "program  name" 

9010  RAND  USR  16516 

9020  RUN  or  GOTO  start  of  program 

Sample  program. 

SINC-LINK 


Excerpted  from  a  letter  from  member  Harry  Miller 
A  tip  about  the  Larken  system  and  disk  drives 

"By  the  way,   George,    I  have  found  out  what  my  trouble  was,   trying  to 
run  the  three  drives  with  my  DEC  power  supply.    The  DEC  disk  system  has 
2  drives  and  the  power  supply  in  the  case  has  three  four-prong  male 
connectors  for  supply  i  ng  the  disk  drives.     So  I  made  up  a  cable  and 
hooked  up  a  third  drive.      It  worked  for  a  little  while  with  no  trouble. 
The  nejct^t  ime  I  used  the  set-up  it  also  worked  OK  for  a  few  times  and 
then  none  of  the  drives  would  work.     I  would  then  take  the  drives  out  of 
the  cases'  and  try  and  see  what  was  wrong  with  them. 

What  I  was  doing  wrong  was  was  setting  them  up  one  at  a  time  with  a 
separate  power  supply  and  they  would  work.  Well,  at  the  time  I  wanted 
to  use  the  computer  so  I  would  run  with  the  one  drive. 

Now,   this  is  not  the  same  trouble  as  I  had  last  year  when  I  could  not 
get  the  drives  to  load  anyth  ing.    That  was  another  power  supply  problem. 
Then,    the  voltage  would  drift  down  to  2  volts  and  8  volts,   which  was  too 
low. 

Well,  to  make  a  long  story  short  I  presently  have  them  all  going,  now 
using  two  power  supplies." 


Comment  by  GFC...  The  older  drives  (the  full-height  types  many  of  us 
are  familiar  with)  draw  more  power  than  modern  drives.  Therefore  a  power 
supply  that  can  handle  the  newer  drives  may  not  have  sufficient  power  to 
service  the  same  number  of  older  drives.  If  you  exper  ience  drive 
problems  check  the  power  supply  when  the  drives  are  in  operat  ion  to  make 
sure  the  output  voltages  do  not  drop  much  below  the  5V  and  12V  required 
by  the  drives. 

*************************** 


FOR  SALE  FOR  SALE  FOR  SALE 
One  of  our  members,   Richard  Hurd,   has  switched  to  a  PC  clone,  namely 
a  Packard-Be  1 1  Pack-Mate  386  SX.   Consequent ly  Richard  has  some  2068 
hardware  add-on  for  sale. 

-Larken  RAMdisk,   with  8  chips... Make  an  offer. 

-Music  Machine,  a  Sampler / M ID  I  i/f,  Runs  in  Spectrum  mode. . Requ ires  a 
"twister  board "...  Ask i ng  $75  or  bio. 

-ZAD  2068  Ana log-to-D  ig  ita I  converter   i/f  with  Radio  Shack  De  Luxe 
Color  Mouse. .. .Ask ing  $30 

-Two  3- inch  Amdek  disk  dr  i  ves / power  supply,   with  25  d  isks. . .Ask  ing  $30 

-RS232  Video  Terminal   "Linger  Board"  with  many  terminal  emulations. 
Comes  with  IBM  max i sw it ch  keyboard  and  power  supply,   but  no  monitor. 
Monitor  capability  is  very  versatile.  Composite  or  TTL  comes  with  both 
ch  i  ps/ crystals. . .Ask  ing  $50 

Write  to  Richard  Hurd,      1020  S.Columb  ia     #6,   Seaside,   OR  97138  USA. 


SINC-LINK 


39 


May  I  June  1992 


May  15th,  1992 


Dear  OCT  Members, 

The  S INC- LINK  is  ready  to  go  and  1  haven ' 1  a  thing  to  say  I 
I'm  not  sure  that  much  has  happened  that  I  can  report  on. 

Well,     BYTEPOWER  seem  to  have  bitten  the  dust.    I  have  had  no 
response  to  the  two  letters  that  I  wrote  to  them*    I  had  an  early 
letter  from  Kr  i  st  i  an,   a  copy  of  which  I  have  sent  to  several 
members  whose  orders  had  not  been  filled.   One  consolation;  only 
one  member  that  I  know  of  is  out  of  pocket.    I'll  see  what   I  can 
do  for  him. 

1  have  heard  from  a  member  who  wants  to  sell  some  of  his 
gear.  Also  from  a  non-member  who  has  some  TS  stuff  to  sell  as 

we lle   Both  of  them  are  going  Into  MSDOS  et  al.  A  common  refrain! 

I'll   itemise  them  here  because  they  both  came  in  too  late  to 
get   into  the  news  letter «  Here  they  are: 

James  Wilson,    100  Portage  Lake  Drive,   Akron,   Ohio     V-431 9-230U 
A  member. 

Two  TS2068  Computers  $  55  each 

Two  Silver  TOS  Disk  Systems  $125  each 

One  AMDEX  III  Dual  3 11  Drive  $  30 

One  5.25"  drive  w I  power  supply  $  40 

One  TS2050  Modem  in  case,   never  used  $  35 

One  WICO  track  ball  $10 

One  TS2040  Printer  $  15 

************************ 

Steve  Wyman,  2889  St  Clair  Apt  3A,    Toronto,   Ont . 
Steve  is  not  a  member.    I  think  he  received  this  Timex  equ  ipment 
from  a  former  member.    I  rather  think  he  may  have  never  used  this 
TS  stuff,   though  he  days  that  it  all  works. 

2  -  TS-2068  computers  in  good  working  order 

1  -  TS-2068  computer  for  parts,, 

2  -  Jutan  Intern.   Ltd  Tape  recorders 
1  -  OS64  Cartridge  for  2068  deck 

1  -  A  &  J  MicroDr  ive  unit  plus  2  I/F  boards     that  fit  on 

rear  of  2068*    There  is  also  a  Larken  cartr  idge  which 
seems  to  indicate  that  the  there  was  a  Larken  car  ridge 
for  the  A  &  J  system.   I  can't  be  sure  of  that. 
19  -  Microdr  ive  cassettes. 

2  -  5.25"  drives,    full-height,  cased. 

One  case  includes  a  power  supply 
1  -  Tasman  Printer  interface 
1  -  TS20H0  Printer 
1  -  Green  Monitor 
1  -  TS  2050  modem 

6  -  YOUR  SINCLAIR  magazines,   about  year  1986 

12  «  SINCLAIR  USER  Magazines,    in  a  binder, 
probably  about  1986 

Some  good  Spectrum  books,  such  as  "Supercharge  your 
Spectrum",    "Spectrum  Advanced  User  Guiae",    "40  Best  M/C  Routines 
for  the  ZX  Spectrum" , and  some  lesser  ones 

An  Mscript  manual,   and  a  2068  Pro/File  manual. 

A  mess  of  other  papers  pertaining  to  the  TS2068. 


Steve  Wyman  does  not  have  an  asking  price  for  the  above  items. 
When  I  asked  him  he  said  "best  offer".  Note  to  US  members,  that 
this  is  in  Canada,   so  there  may  be  cross-border  problems. 

********************** 

I  have  been  using  the  B Y TE POWER  Utility  "COPY  II"  to  copy 
several  disks.    It   is  a  really  neat  program.    It  loads  about  4  or 
5  tracks  at  a  time,   and  formats  the  new  disk  as  it  goes.  That 
is,   you  do  not  need  to  previously  format  the  disk.   I  will 
probably  use  it  from  now  on,    instead  of  the  Larken  "FORMAT. BL" . 

Our  Larken  library  is  up  to  about  disk  #50  now.    I  have  not 
entered  them  into  a  catalogue  yet.   Too  many  other  things  on  the 
go.  Here  are  the  titles: 

47  -  BobSwoger ' s  LOGICALL  Disk  Management  System 

42  -  A  modified  Tasword  1 1  by  Larry  Crawford 

1*3  -  A  Sampling  of  Widjup  ut  i  I  it  ies.   Out  of  date,   but  novel. 

44  -  2^-pin  graphics  and  screen  copy  package 

45  -  Speech  Synthes  is  for  the  TS2068 

46  -  Language  Tutor,   by  Joan  Kealy.   German  and  French 

47  -  Miscellaneous  2068  programs,   assembled  by  GFC 

48  -  Selected  Spectrum  Board  Games 

49  -  Games  of  Skill  for  the  Spectrum 

50  -  Text  files  from  S INC-LINK,    in  Tasword  format 

************************* 

One  of  our  members,   John  Sampson,  died  recent ly,   of  cancer. 
His  widow  says  that  he  had  4  operat  ions  in  7  months,   and  it 
seemed  to  be  just  too  much  for  his  system.    I'm  sorry  to  lose 
him;  he  had  phoned  me  just  three  weeks  prev  ious I y,   and  we  were 
comment  ing  on  our  respect  i ve  medical  systems.   That  seems  to  be 
a  hot  topic  in  the  US  these  days. 

Oh,    I  know  what  I  should  mention  to  you.    I  had  an  operat  ion  to 
remove  a  cataract  from  one  of  my  eyes.  Actually  they  scoured  out 
the  cataract  material  and  instal led  a  new  plastic  lens.    It  was 
done  under  local  anaest het  i c ;   I  went  in  at  7am,   and  was  home  by 
noon.  Really  a  remarkable  operation.  Sight   is  still  a  bit  fuzzy; 
I'm  told  that   it  will  clear  up  once  they  remove  some  stitches. 
Enough  of  that. 

Our  Pres  ident ,  Rene  Bruneau,   has  more  free  time  nowadays.  You 
may  notice  that  we  are  getting  more  material  about  ZX81  hardware 
in  our  newsletter  from  Rene.    I'm  glad.   Then  the  newsletter  also 
is  carrying  the  ZX-91  news  letter ,   which  is  very  novel  and 
interesting.  Really,   when  I  look  at  our  newsletter ,    I  am  always 
impressed  and  a  bit  amazed  at  how  we  continue  to  put  out  such 
good  stuff.  Maybe  more  to  the  point,   how  members  manage  to  keep 
giving  us  material  to  put   into  it.  Remarkable ! .' 

I'm  going  to  close  now  while  I'm  ahead. 

Sincerely, 


George  Chambers