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Vol.8 No.2 Mar-Apr 790 


è uwija - EK 
واج اند‎ es MD Een 


SINC-LINK IS A PUBLICATION OF 
THE TORONTO TIMEX-SINCLAIR USERS 
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TREASURER: BILL LAWSON ( 444-8772 ) 
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TORONTO TIMEX-SINCLAIR USERS CLUB 


Editorial 


Ready for a couple of scary be running articles about 
words? Hardware projects! projects we think you'll be 
Doesn't that send a shiver down interested in. Is there 
your spine? Does the thought of something you'd especially like 
taking a red hot soldering iron to see? Let us know. Have you 
to the innards of your precious built something that you'd like 
computer make you break out in to share your experience with 
a cold sweat? Good. us? We'd like to hear from you. 

Now that I've had some fun, After all this is your 
let me point out that ordinary newsletter, so make your 
people just like yourself are interests known. 
busy soldering and snipping and Hope to hear from you. That's 
building hardware projects for all for now... 


Timex-Sinclair computers every 
day and nothing awful happens to 


them. Unless you think that J.T. 

gaining a little knowledge or 

enjoying that glow of 

satisfaction. you. gel from FOR SALE FOR SALE FOR SALE 
creating something that works is 

so awful. 1 ZX81 Computer, with P/S, 


Just look at yours truly. I am 
hardly what you'd call a 
computer whiz. I'm really just Best offer 
a user. I can barely program in Call S. Speirs (416 485 5496) 
BASIC, know no machine code, 37 Donegall Drive 
don't understand how the Toronto, Ont M4G 3G6 
computer works and think that 4 
electronics are black magic. 
But, I am curious as to what my 
computers are capable of. If I 
can attach a gizmo that allows ` 
me to talk to other computers at 
1200 baud or enhance the quality 
of my video display or expand 
the storage capacity of my 
computer then I think that's 
really neat. I'm just an average 
user who has a lot of 
curiousity. Am I so different 
from you? I don't think so. 

To date I have added a 
keyboard and an internal static 
RAM to my TS1000, built a serial 


16K RAM, cords, tapes, books, etc. 





interface cable and an RGB 

buffer for my QL, and assembled 

an RS232 interface and an 

internal RGB buffer for my 

TS2068. And I'm working on a 7 ‘ 

video digitiser right now. Why? Eis in uem مور پیر‎ S 
Because all these hardware 

projects improve the ضر‎ w EE 


capabilities of my computers and 
who doesn't want that? 
In the next few issues we'll 


SINC-LINK 





BOB” GS NS TE Bote 


Here is a utility for the Larken DOS which will read the header information for each file on a disk and give uou the 
first track number, start address, the length, and in the case of BASIC programs, the autostart line number. 

I usually make a copy of this information for each disk and tuck it inside the sleeve; it comes in very handy when 
you need to know this data and you have a program loaded that you are working on. For example, you might be putting in 
a line to save a particular code file and have to indicate the start address and length. Finding it on the slip inside 
the sleeve will save some time and frustration. 

The first listing is the boot file to load and control the code. The second listing is the BASIC ready for the 
compiled program you will make using Timachine. The program was first written by George Chambers and I have made some 
minor adjustments to provide space for track numbers with three digits as with Quad Drives and to show the word ‘none’ 
when there is no autostart line number in a BASIC program. 


Type both of these in carefully and save them a couple of times before doing the compilation. I have included some 
notes after some lines; of course, these are not to be tuped in. 


Listing #1 (Header Reader Boot File) : COMMENTS 
10 REM reader boot. Designed for use with wide printer. 
cO RANDOMIZE USR 100: LOAD 'reader.Cc'CODE 40000 ‘load compiled code 
100 OUT 127,15 ‘set condensed mode 
110 RANDOMIZE USR 100: OPEN #4, "dd" iset LKDOS PRINT #4 command 
120 PRINT #4: CLOSE #3 ‘close LKDOS stream #3 
130 PRINT #4: OPEN $5,"lp" "open stream #5 to wide printer 
140 PRINT #4: POKE 16090, 39 ‘set width of line to 40 
150 PRINT #4: POKE 16094,8 iset left aargin at 8 
160 INPUT "drive? (0-3) "idrv ‘pick a drive 
170 PRINT #4: 60 TO ۷ 
180 RANDOMIZE USR 40000 ‘activate header reader code 
200 INPUT "another? (1-ues ü-no) "jan ‘do another or quit? 
210 IF an THEN GO TO 140 
220 IF NOT an THEN PRINT #4: GO TO 4: PRINT #4: NEW ‘if NO then load RAMDISK autostart file (see note) 
300 PRINT #4: SAVE "reader.Bi" LINE 1 ‘GO here to save. 


Alt you want to quit to some other drive number, just adapt this line to your needs. Just remember: 
PRINT #4: NEW means load the autostart in the disk drive selected. 


Listing #2 (Header Reader File ready for Compilation) 


90 REM 'USR 40000 ‘forces compilation to start at add. 40000 

100 REM ' OPEN # :Timachine Command e 
170 RESTORE 210 

180 FOR n-VAL "63000" ۲۵ VAL "43077" ipokes code in lines 210-280 


190 READ a: PORE ma tinto addresses 63000 to 43077 


200 NEXT n 


210 DATA 195,43,246,195,72,246,195,104,246,243 ‘this code loads/saves directory 
220 DATA 205, 98,0, 201,58, 100,0, 251,201, 205 itrack contents from disk to 
230 DATA 33,246,58,176,92,50,29, 212 3126 tbuffer area at 57500 


240 DATA 0,205,123,0, 33, 112, 32, 17,1564 224 
250 DATA 1,0,20,237,176,195,38,246,205, 31 
260 DATA 246,58,175,92,50,29, 32,33, 156,224 
270 DATA 17,112,32,1,0,20,237,176,205,150 
280 DATA Û, 205, 12650, 205,120, 0, 195, 38, 246 


290 DIM c$(448) ‘array to make 14 blank lines 
300 DIM 1(100) tarray to store 100 numbers 
310 DIM d$(100, 10) ‘array to store 100 names 

320 LET trac=23728: LET loadbuf=43000 

330 LET oo=0: LET oa=1: LET ob=2: LET oi isome variables to save memory 


SINC—LINK 


LET coza: LET کہ‎ LET 0۶:۵۰ 
LET fang: LET 20 
740 LET name=57688: LET bufferz57500 
350 BORDER oa: PAPER oa: CLS 
340 PRINT AT ob.oe; INK og; PAPER oai" LARKEN DISK 
UTILITY "IAT od,obi'Header Reader by G. Chambers" "Al 
af,odi'Compiled by Bob Mitchell" 
770 INK og: PLOT ہہ‎ ۷۸ "108": DRAW oo, VAL 
"42": DRAW VAL '255'.00: DRAW oo,VAL “-62": 
DRAW VAL '-255',00 
200 INK og: PLOT VAL "8", VAL "114": DRAW oo, VAL 
ngg": DRAW VAL "238",o0: DRAW oo,VAL ۰-۶ 
DRAW VAL '-218',00: INK og 
385 INPUT ‘printout? y/n ': LINE u$ 
386 LET s=2 
397 IF u$z'u* OR u$z'Y* THEN INPUT "J=TS2040 S=WIDE 5 
388 PRINT 5 
390 INPUT "Enter No. k Date (max 14)'' LINE g$: 
TF LEN g$314 THEN LET g$=9$( TO 14) 
195 PRINT #0;"Place disk to be read in correctdrive 
then press a key'': PAUSE oo 
400 FEM Get names from Trk 0 
410 POKE trac,oo: RANDOMIZE USR loadbuf 
420 PRINT AT of*oc,oo:c$( TO 320) 
440 FOR n-oa TO 100 
450 LET en 
450 IF PEEK (nametoc)=oo THEN LET e=n-oa: LET n=100: 
GQ TO 530 
470 IF PEEK (name*oa)2254 THEN LET name=namet+J4: 
G0 TO 460 
480 FOR m=oa TO 9 
490 LET d$(n,m)=CHR$ PEEK (name+m) 
500 NEXT m 
510 LET 1(n)=PEEK (nametil) 
520 LET nameznametJ4 
5 NEXT n 
540 CLS : PRINT #5;°DISK HEADER DATA: 9 
545 PRINT $63 ۲ مت‎ orien 
550 PRINT #s;"TRACK NAME — START LENGTH S/Ln' 
570 PRINT fs 
590 PRINT #0;"(M returns to menu)": PRINT AT 0:٥ 
&20 FOR tzoa TO e: 
630 IF PEEK 23689(og THEN 60 TO 830 
650 POKE trac, l(t: RANDOMIZE USR loadbuf 
670 IF PEEK (buffer+oa)(:oo THEN 
580 IF PEEK (buffertoa)=oo THEN GO TO 0 
&85 PRINT #s;PEEK (buffertoa);TAB odi 
490 FOR a=(buffertob) TO (buffer*10) 
700 PRINT #5;CHR$ PEEK a; 
710 NEXT a 
720 LET start=oo! FOR a=(buffertob) TO (buffer+i0): 
IF PEEK a=46 AND (PEEK (atoa)=67 OR PEEK (atoa)=65) 
THEN LET start=oa 
730 NEXT a 
740 PRINT #5;TAB 14;PEEK (buffer+12)+256#PEEK 
(buffer+13) 5 
750 PRINT #5; TAB 215PEEK (buffer+22)+256#PEEK 
(buffer+23)4 
750 LET len=PEEK (buffer+17)+256#PEEK (buffer+18)+oa 
770 IF len=65535 THEN LET len--! 


‘buffer starts 3 57500; file names 188 bytes later 


‘variable <s> is display device 

tif s=2, data goes to screen 

tif بت‎ to TS2040; if s=5, to wide printer 
tput in I.D. 


:chooses trk 0 and loads it to buffer 
tprints 10 blank lines 


tcounts names found 
tif PEEK=0 then search ends 


tif PEEK=254 then look for next name 


‘this loop gets the name 


‘gets first track number 


:S/Ln=Autostart Line $ 


:this loop loads first track of each file name 
:from each file to get required data 


sprints track # 
sthen the prog. name 


tidentifies BASIC files as 'D* 
‘others as "1" 

tprints start address 

tthen file length 


tgets the autostart line 
tmakes it -1 if 45535 


SINC—LINK 


کے 


780 IF start=oo AND len<>-1 THEN PRINT #s;TAB ۰ tif a BASIC file with an autostart line 


60 TO 800 


:then print line # 


785 IF startzoo AND len=-1 THEN PRINT #s;TAB 27i'none': ‘if no autostart line, print "none" 


60 TO 800 


790 PRINT 5 


300 IF INKEY$='a" OR INKEY$="M" THEN STOP 


810 NEXT t 


tif menu called, STOP; ie, BREAK into BASIC 


820 PRINT TAB od; PAPER ob;"Last file on the disk": ‘finally, some on-screen 5 


LET f=oa 


825 IF s<>2 THEN PRINT "7" 

830 IF z=oo AND NOT f THEN PRINT AT 19,0a;” Press any 
key to clear screen' 

B40 IF z-oo AND INKEY$="" THEN GO TO 840 

860 IF INKEY$="m° OR INKEY$="M" THEN STOP 

870 PRINT AT od,oo0;c$;AT ؛ مم وہ‎ ۶: PRINT AT oc,oo 
880 GO TO 430 

1010 IF INKEYSO 'a* OR INKEYSO'M* THEN CLS : 

PRINT AT 09,0a;"Press any key for next record": 
PAUSE 0: GO TO 350 


8900 REM ' CLOSE $ :Timachine Coamand 


9000 RANDOMIZE USR 100: SAVE "reader. Bp" :50 here to SAVE. 


CHANGING THE NAME OF A DISK 


When you format a new disk, you can assign a name to the 
disk. But it is impossible to change that name after the disk 
has been formatted unless you reformat the disk and all the data 
on this disk uill be lost. 

The following program ( by Real Gagnon of (QL DOC >) will 
correct this situation. You can now rename a disk uithout having 
to reformat the disk. 

When you run the program, you will be asked for the number 
of the disk drive ( e.g. 1, 2, 3 or 4 ( . This program will 
only work with disk "" floppies TP and you cannot rename 
microdrives. The program will then display the name of the disk 
and will ask you for the proposed name. The limit is 10 
characters. 

As usual a copy of the program will be available from the 
librarian H. Howie. 





Louis Laferriere 


100 REMark Disk_RE_Name 

110 REMark by Real Gagnon 

120 : 

130 REPeat loop 

140 PRINT #0, “Disk #. "!; 

145 d$=INKEY$(-1) 

150 IF d$ INSTR '123456789':PRINT $0.d$: EXIT loop 
160 END REPeat loop 

165 : 

170 OPEN#10, "flp"&d$&"_*D2D" 

180 : 

190 GET#10\1.a$ 

200 PRINT#0, "Present name :"!a$(5 TO 14) 
210 INPUT#O, "New name :"in$ 

220 LET a$(5 TO 15)-n$ 

230 PUTH#1ON2.a$ 

240 : 

250 0 


SINC—LINK 


Revised from last issue 
QLIPS 


We nave ail sad that "crashing 
experience witn the QL, and i 
4onder how often the crash is our 
own fauit? My own little beast 
> Durden had a problem at one 
time, out after some operation on 
its innards, the crashing was not 
quite so frequent, until recently 
that is, when I installed a 
plastic Carpet saver under my 
chair. This, combined with our 
present day mixture of wool and 
man-made fabrics, both in our 
upholstery and our clothing, made 
an ideal breeding ground for 
STATIC. 


The problem seemed to arise #hen 
I used the printer, I had also 
noticed that when I left the Work 
Station, and returned, I was 
often welcomed with a little jolt 
to my fingers as ] approached the 
QL and/or my Music Centre which 
is within reach of the QL. 


The solution? 

I use a sheet of thick corrugated 
card-board on top of my desk, on 
which my equipment rests, (it is 
easier on the arms than wood). So 
I went to the hard-ware store and 
bought a roll of Aluminum Tape, 
about i 1/2 inches wide, the kind 
used in duct-work. Now don’t get 
the fabric type, get the METAL 
type. I placed a strip along the 
front of my desk, about an inch 
from the edge and along the end, 
to the back of my desk. ۵ 
there, I attached a piece of 
wire, which goes to the caseing 
of my disk power supply, which is 
the nearest ground I could get. 
To attach the wire to the 
aluminum strip, I bare an end of 
wire about two inches back, make 
this into a loose coil, lay it on 
top of the card-board, and place 
the tape on top of the coil. The 
other end is attached to the 
power supply by using one of the 
screws on the cover. 


- SINC—-LINK 


CAUTION: - insure that the 
aluminum tape is cleaned a iittle 
at this point, as the adhesive is 
not aiways conductive material. 


Next step is to get some Scotch 
Tape, about 3/4 inch wide, and 
lay a strip of this along both 
edges of the aluminum tape, 
ensuring you do not cover up too 
much of the width of the aluminum 
tape. The reason for placing 
Scotch Tape along the edge of the 
aluminum tape, is to help prevent 
the edge of the aluminum tape 
from lifting, also, if the 
aluminum tape should wear out a 
bit in the centre, then there 
should always be a complete 
circuit under the Scotch Tape. 
Follow me ? ( Check continuity ) 
You must ensure there is an ample 
width of aluminum tape available 
for hand and arm contact, in the 
middle of the strip. 


To finish this off, solder into 
the wire to ground, a one meg-ohm 
resistor. This will allow the 
static charge to bleed away 
slowly, thus eliminating the 
little jolt you might get when 
you touch the strip. 


Now, when I approach my console, 
my hands MUST pass over or TOUCH 
this strip, grounding myself out. 
When I turn aside to the printer, 
I am always cautious to touch the 
strip, and also when I return to 
the computer, I again touch the 
strip. I do not have to 
consciously do this, as my hands 
have to cross this strip to reach 
ANY equipment on the desk. 


(The least amount of movement can 
set up a static charge.) 


The shiny appearence is a 
constant reminder of a static 
possibilty. 


It costs only a few dollars, but 


can save so much damage being 
done, to nerves and equipment. 


HRH. 


PENETRATOR - a TS2068 game 
Modifying it to the Larken system 
by G.Chambers 


PENETRATOR is an older arcade tame for the 
TS2068, that was put out by Timex in 1983. It 
is readily converted to Larken disk operation. 
Simply use a Header Reader to locate the 
program code; and inspect the front end Basic 
to find the start USR address. 

However the program contains a Landscape 
Editor to allow you to modify the game. This 
Editor also allows you to save the modified 
landscapes code to tape, and to reload it. The 
challenge was to convert this feature to the 
Larken system. 


The program code proved difficult to break 
out of, once the game was started. Often it is 
possible to break out of a m/c program by using 
the NMI-button and either pressing the A key 
or doing a SAVE to a protected disk. However, 
in this case every use of the NMI-button 
resulted in a system crash. This was going to 
make things difficult. 


With Spectrum programs the first thing I 
usually do is to search for a CALL to a LOAD 
routine in the ROM. I do a FOR/NEXT loop 
looking for appearances of a 205, followed by 
an 86 and a 5. In the Spectrum parlance this 
could mean a CALL to address 1366, the start of 
the Spectrum LOAD routine. In this case it was 
a TS2068 program, so that meant complications 
since the SAVE/LOAD routines for the TS2068 are 
in the EXROM. I found that the program could be 
loaded, and would work in both the Spectrum and 
the TS2068 modes. This meant that the SAVE/LOAD 
routines were not in the ROM at all, but were 
imbedded in the program itseif. 


Since there was not likely to be any call 
to address 1366, and the location of the 
LOAD/SAVE routines were unknown, I then looked 
for a LD IX instruction (221) in the code, 
again using a FOR/NEXT loop. The LD IX 
instruction is used as a preface to most every 
SAVE and LOAD instruction. I wrote the FOR/NEXT 
loop so that every time Lt encountered an 
address containing a 221 it would print out a 
value based on the contents of the next two 
addresses. I multiplied contents of the 
higher-numbered address by 256 and added it to 
the contents of the lower address. If there was 
an LD IX used in a LOAD or SAVE routine this 
would give me a starting address. I'm looking 
for clues. 


I found quite a number of promising 
addresses. I Then loaded a disassembler at 
address 48000 (the disassembler "spec48.Cc" 
found on the club Larken disk #17). In loading, 
it overwrote part of the program code, but I 
guessed that the code we wanted to look at was 
below address 48000. If it had been higher I 
would have loaded "spec28.Cc" at 28000. I 
looked over the addresses and identified 
several promising ones. They contained 
sequences of LD A, 0 ; LD IX 47117; and LD DE, 
7376. These are hot prospects for SAVE/LOAD m/c 
routines. 


When I reloaded the program code, and then 
did a series of USR calls to these addresses I 
produced tape LOAD and tape SAVE effects. I 
explored the code further and found a USR call 
that would produce the screen instructions for 
the SAVE and LOAD actions. I was hot on the 
trail! 


My first thought was to have the program 
exit to Basic to do the load and save routines 
from Basic. However I could not seem to exit 
gracefully from the program; my understanding 
of m/c programming leaves something to be 
desired! What I then decided to do was to 
employ a variation of a m/c routine that I had 
used earlier in the program SNODGITS. I would 
arrange that the program, instead of calling up 
the tape routines, would call up my own 
disk-save and disk-load routines. The 
PENETRATOR program code started at 32768, so I 
chose to locate my code at 32000. 


Now, the disk routines require that a name 
be given to the program to be saved. What 
better than to make use of the name that one 
enters at the Editor portion of the program, 
This is fine, but now it was necessary to 
locate where the name was stored in the program 
code. I loaded the program, ran it, went into 
the landscape editor SAVE mode, entered a name, 
and just prior to the tape-SAVE I did an 
NMI-save. I had to do this because there was no 
way that I could break out of a running 
program. What I therefore planned to do was to 
inspect the program using the "doctor.B1' 
program ("doctor.B1" is a Larken utility on the 
club Larken disk #1). 


Now, I had a fairly good idea of where the 
landscape name might be located. Earlier, when 
I did an experimental SAVE of a landscape, and 
had tried to read the header, I found that it 
was an unusual header. I won't go into details 
about it, except to say that I found the word 
"GARBAGE" in it. I therefore did a search for 
this word in the program, using the ASCII 
printout feature of the "spec48.Cc" 
disassembler program. I had located it at about 
address 47126, so I explored that area, with 
"doctor.B1", as I mentioned. And was 
successful. 


I found there was space reserved for a 
6-character name at address 47117. I decided to 
POKE a ",C1" in the three addresses immediately 
following the name. These addresses contained 
the start of the word "GARBAGE" I mentioned 
earlier. I reasoned that this was likely to be 
unused in the Larken mode. I found that the 
program would accept only 6-character names. 
That is to say, when the programs asked for a 
name it would only act on the first 6 
characters. This, added to the ".C1" that I 
placed in the program would make up a proper 
Larken name. 


I also went through the program and 
changed several instruction sequences which 
referred to TAPE, making them DISK. I ignored 
the tape verification routine, though it could 
have been deleted. 


The disk LOAD/SAVE routine used in the 
SNODGIT program had to be modified to suit this 
particular application. I wrote separate disk 
SAYE and LOAD routines; and modified the 
PENETRATOR code addresses 46650 (LOAD), and 
46843 (SAVE) to CALL the appropriate routine. 
Why those two addresses? Well, these were the 
addresses of the CALLs to the tape SAVE and 
LOAD routines, so I simply did a redirect to my 
disk routines. 


Now, the Larken SAVE routine requires that 
the starting address and length of the code to 
be saved (and loaded) be specified. Because of 
the unusual nature of the tape SAVE headers it 
was not possible to determine this information 


SINC-LINK 7 


10 FOR n=32000 TO 32128 

20 READ a: POKE n,a 

50 NEXT n 

!00 DATA -195,.0, 1284.0, 0,0, 2055, 30 
,125,195,0,128,0,0,0 

101 DATA 205,80,125,195,0,128,0 
,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

102 DATA 243,0,205,98,0,33,12,1 
8u,17,34,32,1,10,0, 837 

,205 و32 ,2 ,م5 و 52,11 ,176 DATA‏ 103 
32 ,34,51 ,208 ,33,0 ,0 ,198 

104 DATA 33,208, 28, 34,49, 32,205 
,201,0,58,100,0,251,201, 0 

105 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,243,0,205, 
98,0,33,13,184, 17 

106 DATA 34, 32,1,10,0,237,176,6 
2,11,50,2,32,205, 204, 0 

2 و33 و32 و 51 ما3 ,330,208 DATA‏ 107 
207,0 و205 ,32 ,34,49 ,08,28 

108 DATA 58,100,0,251,201,0,0,0 
,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


47112 79 0 
47113 8e R 
47114 84 T 
47115 41 ) 
47116 0 

47 7 H 

47118 a 

47118 0 

47128 9 

47121 g 

474122 ü 

47123 46 ۰ 
47124 67 C 
47125 49 1 
47126 28 

47127 71 G 
47128 65 A 
47129 8e R 
47132 66 B 
47131 65 ۸ 
47132 71 G 
47133 69 E 
46650 205 

46651 6 

46652 125 

46653 48 

46654 36 

46843 205 

46844 15 

46845 125 

46846 6 

46847 50 


from the tape headers. A close look at the tape 
SAVE routine in the PENETRATOR code showed a LD 
IX, 53248 and a LD DE, 7376. These could 
indicate a starting address 53248 and code 
length of 7376 bytes and seemed promising. The 
code contained other possible numbers, however 
the above were put into the 'disk' code, and 
proved to be correct. 


The Disk code was arranged so that after a 
SAVE or a LOAD function was completed, a JUMP 
was made to address 32768, the start of the 
program. This was similar to the original 
program operation. 


That was about it except to do a SAVE of the 
new code block 32000,33535 that included the 
modified program code plus the two disk 
routines. 

KREEKKKKEEKRKKKKKKKKKKEKKKKKHEKKE 


31999 00 NOP ` 
32000 C30080 JP 32768 
32003 00 NOP 

32004 00 NOP 

32005 00 NOP 


32006 CD1E7D CALL 32030 
32009 C30080 JP 32768 


32012 00 NOP 
32013 00 NOP 
32014 00 NOP 
CALL 32080 





32083 CD6200 CALL 98 

32086 210088 LD HL,47117 
32089 112220 LD  DE,8226 
32092 010A00 LD BC,10 
32095 EDBO LDIR 

32097 08 LD  A,11 
32099 320220  LD (8194), A 
32102 CDCCOO CALL 204 

32105 2100D0 LD 8 
32108 223320 LD (8243) „HL 
32111 21D01C LD  HL,7376 
32114 223120 LD (8241),HL 
32117 CDCFOO CALL 207 

32120 346400 LD A,(100) 


32123 FB EI 
32124 وم‎ RET 
32125 00 NOP 


SINC—LINK 


TRICKS OF THE TRADE 
Left 
Center 
Right 


by Mike Felerski 


Anyone who uses a wordprocessing program has 
done it. Greeting card programs even do it. 
But what if I want to do it in my own 
programs? 


If you are not lost yet, what I am 
speaking of is LEFT, CENTER, and RIGHT 
Justification of text lines on a screen 
display or on a hard copy printout. Left 
justification is when the first character of 
each line of text in a paragraph lines up 
evenly across the left margin of the screen or 
page. For example, this paragraph is left 
Justified. 


Center justification is placing the text line, 
headline or paragraph in the middle of the 
screen or page, like this paragraph. 


Center justification is just placing the 
text line, headline or paragraph in the middle 
of the screen or page, like this paragraph. 


The other evening I found that I needed 
some routines that would allow me to left, 
center, and right justify a string (t$) of 
text for display. The three routineds which 
are discussed here accomplish this by making 
a copy of the text string and then placing 
each character back into the original string 
in the new format (see Listing B). 


REM Justify It 
REM by Mike Felerski 
LET max-32 
DIM t$(max) 
DIM o$ (max) 
DIM r$(32) 
POKE 23658,8 
GO SUB 300 
LET t$=r$ 
PRINT AT 14,5;"(L)eft" 
PRINT AT 15,5;"(C)enter" 
PRINT AT 16,5;"(R)ight" 
INPUT "Choice? ";c$ 
IF c$="L" THEN GO SUB 400 
0: GO SUB 200: GO TO 110 
160 IF c$="C" THEN GO SUB 4100 
: SUB 200: GO TO 110 
170 IF c$="R" THEN GO SUB 4200 
: SUB 200: GO TO 110 
180 GO TO 140 
200 REM Clear and Print 
205 PRINT AT 8,0;"54321 9876543 
2100123456789 12345" ° 
210 PRINT AT”10,0;t$: RETURN 
300 REM Enter String 
310 PRINT AT 20,0;"Enter String 
";max;" Chars Max" 
320 INPUT r$: LET t$=r$: GO SUB 
200: RETURN 





Listing A 


The routines assume that the text string is 
stored in t$ and that the size of both t$ and 
oS are DIMensioned to max.'o$ is used as the 
temporary string. Listing Aisa demo/main 
routine that let us enter, justify, and 


re-display it. 


4000 REM Left Justify 

4005 LET o$=t$: LET pos=0 

4010 IF o$(pos+1)=CHRS 32 THEN 
LET pos=pos+1i: GO TO 4010 

4020 IF pos=0 THEN RETURN 

4030 FOR x=pos+1 TO max: LET ts( 
1)70$(x): LET i-i*1: NEXT x 
4040 FOR x=1 TO max: LET t$(x)=C 
HRS 32: NEXT x 

4050 RETURN 

4100 REM Center Justify 

4110 GO SUB 4000: LET o$=t$: LET 


pos=max 


4120 IF 0$(pos)<>CHR$ 32 THEN G 
O TO 4150 

4130 LET pos=pos-1: IF pos=0O THE 
N GO TO 4150 

4140 GO TO 4120 

ie LET pos=(INT ((max-pos)/2)+ 
1 

4160 FOR x-1 TO pos- 3: LET t$(x) 
=CHRS 32: NEXT x 

4170 LET ٦ 

4180 FOR x=pos TO max: LET t$(x) 
-0$(1): LET i=i+lt NEXT x 

4199 RETURN 


Listing B 





Once the listings A, B, and C are typed in, 
RUN the program, enter some text, and then 
test the options to see the routines at work. 
If you are using ZEBRA SYSTEMS OS64, Chen try 
replacing line 30 with LET max=64. You may 
also replace the PRINT statement in line 210 
with an LPRINT. 


4200 REM Right Justify 

4205 LET o$=t$: LET pos-max-*! 
4220 IF o$(pos—1)<>CHR$ 32 THEN 
GO TO 4230 

4222 LET pos=pos-1 

4225 IF poszO THEN RETURN 

4227 GO TO 4220 

4230 LET i-max 

4235 FOR x-pos-1 TO 1 STEP -1: L 
ET t$(i)=o$(x): LET i=i-1¢ NEXT 


x 

4240 FOR x-i TO 1 STEP -1: LET t 
$(x)=CHR$ 32: NEXT x 

4250 RETURN 





Listing C 


The theory behind the routines is to find 
the first non-blank character in the string 
whose position is placed in pos. We look left 
to right, to left justify; and right to left, 
to right justify. This is the point at which 
we start to pick out each character and place 
them from o$ into t$, starting at t$(1) or 
t$(max) for left or right justification 
respectively. 


In order to center the string, we first 
left justify the string, using a GOSUB 4000 so 
there is less guess work as to where the first 
non blank character is. Then we count back 
through the string, looking for the first 

: non-biank character, starting from position 
max. We then take this value (pos), divide it 
by two and add 1 (adding 1 is optional per 
programmer's taste). This then gives us the 
starting lefthand position within the string. 
Finally the characters are picked and placed 
just as in the left and right routines. 


Retyped from the I.S,T.U.G newsletter..by GFC 
(with minor revisions to the listings) 


SINC—LINK 9 


10 


MODEMS 


0002 a year ago, it was @entioned that 
Modems were available at a very good price, anc 
soge Reavers got thea. Then in July this year, 
it was announced that more 800885 had been 
rejeaseü ov Beil. The first lot were priced at 
$42, ang the latter at $67.56. The difference 
is tnat the latter lot at $67.58, are Saart 
Modems, Hayes compatible, and are Auto Didi. 
Sc after seeing tne demo Jeff Taylor put on, i 
was hooked, l just had to get one of thee 
things. I sent away for it, and got it back two 
weeks later. Pretty good service. 


The aodes is ۱۵۳ long 6" wide, and about i 1/4 
hign. Nice light-grey plastic with darker 
cover. The lower lip sticks out about an inch, 
and this contains ail the lights, as weli as 
Pressure Membrane switches. There are 5 
numbered switcnes to carry most-used nuabers in 
aemory. Tnere are actually 38 82۵0۲۷ celis in 
che odes. inside, many flip-out chips for ease 
of repair if ever needed. 


Installation was siaple, or should have been. 
When i connected it all up, I could not get à 
dialling tone from the phone, I eventually 
found (with the assistance of Senen Racki), 
that the wall receptacle was sore tolerant than 
the modea, to ay phone plug. After changing 
that plug, | was in business. Such a seall 
thing. 


The ۵0060 operates either in TERMINAL or in 
COMPUTER aode. To switch from Terminal to 
Coaputer Mode, you have to flip off the cover, 
and change a juaper plug over. Takes longer to 
tell than it does to do. 


[n Terainal Mode the controls op the front are 
operative, but not in Computer Mode, as all the 
commands cose íroa the keyboard. The lights of 
course perfora their functions in all aodes. | 
elected for Coaputer Mode. 


| then loaded in "ü-Code Terminal” and 
proceeded to enter some numbers into the 
Directory, in anticipation of going On-Line. Of 
course the first tise I use it I want to use 
the Auto Dial feature, but find that this does 
not work. I can Manual dial through the 
keyboard, and after I get the aessage CONNECT, 
I can press two periods, and get on line that 
way, but that is not Auto Dial. I can go 
through a whole bundle of trial and error, 
whuch is of little interest to anyone , what 
does matter is how I went on Auto, at least how 
i did it. 


SINC—LINK 


in our hurry to get involveo we are 18611060 to 
toss the manual aside, not reading it properly, 
so after a few failures 1 went back to the 
manual, re-read it, and managed to work out 
what works. For ae. 


The answer would appear to de to go to the 
PASSWORDS, and I enter this for each nuaber:- 


--) ۸۲0۲8۸۷8۵۰ (en 


AT Attention (UPPER CASE IS A MUST) 
D Dial (FOR ALL COMMANDS) 

P Pulse. 

i 

nuaber ۰ Nusber to be called 

T Two periods 

M CTRL+H (Carriage return) 


A lot of ay initial troubie was i was using 


Lower Case. 


When you go to Directory ( F3 DÛ You select 
the number you wish to call, press ‘T° and then 
'F2'. You will now hear a lot of beeps clicks 
and clacks from the sodes, dialling tone, and 
ringing tone, and if you are lucky à voice will 
come froa the speaker in the sodes, you then 
pick up the receiver and talk. Should you be 
calling a BBS, the word ‘CONNECT’ will flash on 
the screen, instructions will appear, and you 
don't have to touch the receiver. 


Using on screen cursor select nuaber fros 
Directory, Press 'T' Press F2 


1 have not yet tried to transfer files to or 
fron as yet, as I have only had this for a 
week. The real reason for this 81551۷ 15 to 
let everyone know that there are still some of 
those modeas left, and where to get thea. Both 
aodels are available. 


Rixon 212A data set for $42.66 Plus post. 


BDC 212A/ED* for $57.96 Plus post. 
Fros Mr Croft B. Taylor 

Telecoa Canada 

416 Laurier Ave. ۰ 

Rooa 8 

Ottawa. Ont. KiP 5 
You will find Mr Taylor very helpful if you 
have a probles. Hake reaittance out to Croft 
B. Taylor and NOT to Telecoa. 


Hugh H. Howie. 


PRINTER PROSE 


about three months ago I decided that I had 
been wishing for a printer for long enough, 
agonizing over whether I really NEEDED to 
spend that kind of money on my "hobby". (Sound 
familiar?) I finally talked myself (read 'my 
wife') into it and made the plunge. As a 
resuit, George Chambers asked me to describe 
ny experience (so blame him for this). 


The interface, a Tasman 'B' I think, was 
provided by a former club member through 
George. The first thing I did upon receipt, 
and before reading the instructions, was load 
the Tasman driver software and tried to LLIST 
the BASIC. On the first attempt, I got a 
single line of characters which had been 
overprinted many times. I read the printer 
manual and found a possible solution. It 
required a DIP switch adjustment. That done, 
the LLISTing worked fine. 


I then attempted to print a screen COPY. 
Unfortunately, this time, each pass of the 
print head was separated by a line, I decided 
it was time to read the interface 
instructions. 


Upon doing that I found I was able to specify 
the correct codes for Line Feed and Carriage 
Return for my printer quite easily by 
following the instructions in the BASIC 
program. I also had to reset the DIP switch! 
(The Moral is - READ THE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST!) 


Having cleared the first two hurdles, I 
decided it was time to try out some of the 
fancy fonts of my Panasonic KX-P1180. It was 
possible, after a fashion, to do this from ths 
control panel of the printer. However, I 
wanted the computer to do it! Therefore, I 
looked up the section on sending control codes 
to the printer in the manual and wrote a short 
BASIC program to print text in Enlarged mode. 


You guessed it, it didn't work. 


For several hours, over two nights, I tried, 
using both the Tasman driver and the V3 Larken 
driver, with no luck. I was stumped. I reread 
the interface manual, back issues of this 
newsletter and all my magazines, over and over 
until I was about to give up. Then I saw my 
mistake. 


In all the literature, it stated to send an 
ESC character (CHR$ 27) prior to sending the 
control sequence for the font required. 
However, as I finally discovered, the Tasman 
interface software is different. It requires 
an ESC prior to each code in the escape 
sequence in addition to the original ESC code. 
For example, with my printer, the code 
sequence given in the manual for enlarged text 
is ESC+W+1 in ASCII or CHR$ 27; CHR$ 87; CHR$ 
1 in decimal codes. To get this to work with 
the Tasman software, I had to send the 
sequence CHR$ 27; CHR$ 27; CHR$ 87; CHR$ 27; 
CHR$ 1. Therefore, Moral #2 is - READ THE 
INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY. 


I will now mention something else that may not 
be common knowledge about the Tasman 
interface. It will not work with the Larken 
Disk Interface. According to Larry Kenny, it 
has to do with the addressing of the Tasman 
interface. Apparently it is poorly buffered 
(forgive me if I get this wrong Larry) and 


SINC-LINK- 


interferes with DOS commands. (I now use an 
Aerco type interface.) This leads me into the 
next part of the story. 


Having to load the driver from tape each time 
was getting to be a nuisance so I decided to 
try using the Larken driver on the Version 3 
EPROM. I read the Larken manual and found that 
it requires a POKE to set up the driver for 
the Tasman. That is, POKE 16096, 1. I also 
knew from my past trouble that I didn't want 

a Linefeed with the Carriage Return so this 
required a POKE 16092, O. 


I was now ready to roll. Or so I thought. I 
could send text to the printer all right but 
I still couid not send the control codes with 
the Larken driver. This resulted in another 
period of study of back issues. I finally 
found the answer (but for the life of me I 
can't remember where) in an article fora 
different disk system. Apparently, the writer 
of the article was having the same problem I 
was and asked the designer what the trouble 
was. The solution? Send ASCII characters 
instead of SINCLAIR characters. 


To do this with the Larken you have to bypass 
the routine that sends the SINCLAIR character 
set to the printer. This poke is found on page 
9 of my Larken manual and is POKE 16093, 32. 
When this is done, no SINCLAIR tokens will be 
sent to the printer and ESC sequences will 
work. As a result, the code sequence for 
Enlarged text is CHR$27; CHR$ 87; CHR$ 1. 
Incidentally, the Larken does not require the 
extra CHR$ 27 required by the Tasman driver. 


I am still puzzled by one thing however. I 
have not been able to send control codes using 
the OUT 127,CODE that I have since seen in 
programs published in this newsletter. I have 
checked the values for my computer (using the 
familiar PRINT IN 127) and found them to be 
237 when ready and 233 when not ready. All I 
have gotten so far is widely spaced lines and 
Characters, nothing like the effect I was 
trying for. I intend to keep on trying until 
I can figure it out but if someone already 
knows the answer, please enlighten me. 


That about sums up my experience during the 
first few days with the printer. I hope this 
was a help to someone. 


Lionel M. Keeping 


Update Magazine 


1317 Stratford Ave. 
Panama City, FL 32404 
904 871 3556 


Mews AND New PRODUCTS 


11 


12 


DID YOU KNOW... 2068/Larken tips 

** That Tasword files may be loaded into 
Mscript? Assuming that both use the .CT 
extension and imbedded commands are not used 
the file vill load easily. The-e vill be some 
clean-up required since Tasword doesn't use 
carriage returns. Some words vill end up run 
together and there vill be extra spaces in 
places but it is relatively easy to fix with 
Mscripts ‘insert space' key(1),'delete' 
key(0) and 'delete left' key(9). 


** That Mscript files may be loaded into 
Tasword? The conversion isn't quite as easy 
as above, but it can be done. Mscript uses 
carriage returns (ENTER) and they will show 
up in Tasword as the graphic found on the WA 
key. That is your clue for paragraphs and 


blank lines. If you work from the bottom of 
the document and come up the paragraphs can 
be separated using  'insert line' (SS-AND). 


The next step is to delete all leading spaces 
for any line. Then the paragraph can be 
reformated with ‘reformat to end of 
paragraph'(SS-STEP). The paragraph will 
probably have some split words, delete extra 
spaces there and reformat again if necessary. 
(Taswords 'What-see-is-what-you -get' format 
makes the load into Mscript easier than 
vice-versa.) 


** That version 3 users can save a block of 
disk space when saving Artist II by adding 
the line: 

1 BEEP 1,1: PAUSE 80 
Enter GOTO 1 and press the NMI button when 
the long beep ends, press SHIFT and 1. 
Version 3 owners can then rename the file by 
MOVE "NMI-S1.CM","artist.B9" 
or whatever name suits you. I use .Bn or .B9 
to indicate NMI saves - the change from .C to 
.B extension avoids adding 'CODE'. I imagine 
there are other programs that can be done 
this way. It also gives you a clean bottom 
line when the load is completed. 


** If you load a program with machine code 
in a 0 REM statement that you shouldn't use 
the OPEN# 4,"dd" command? BytePower programs 
often use 0 REM code, so don't blame the 
program if you have used a ۱00۲۲ program 
with OPEN# 4. The solution is as simple as 
removing 'OPEN# 4,"dd" ' and replacing 'PRINT 
84' with 'RANDOMISE USR 100'. Merely trying 
to CLOSER 4 doesn't resolve this problen. 

This one is in the Larken instructions but 
I forgot!) The lesson here is to reread the 
instructions and past SINC-LINKS every So 
often!) 


** That version 3 owners can make any 
program pause with the NMI button after 
inputting the following one liner: 

RANDOMIZE USR 100: POKE 16100, 201: 
RANDOMIZE USR 100: POKE 8214, 16100 

The program pauses when you press the 
NMI button and may be resumed by pressing the 
"E" key. 


ex That if you all share your tips in 
SINC-LINK we could all profit from it! 
FL USA 


Les Cottrell cocoa, 


DID YOU KNOW... 2068/Larken tips 
** that version 3 users can re-boot from 
within any program with the NMI-F feature? 
This assumes you have an AUTOSTART program 
written in Basic in your booting drive. 
After writing the pause routine earlier to 
stop a game with a count-down clock I 
started considering other ways to use this 
clever feature. I had been adding the GFC 
re-boot routine to my basic programs, but 
many MC programs still required turning off 
the computer. By installing the following 
routine in my RAMdisk boot program I can now 
re-boot from any program. The heart of this 
program is lifted from the instructions in 
the LARKEN Disk Editor instruction manual. 
Once the program is loaded I merely press 
the NMI button, then the "F" key and my 
RAMdisk is selected and booted. Obviously 
the program can be saved independently and 
run from your menu or as you choose. 


The first number in line 5 determines which 
drive is selected: drive 0 1 2 3 4 
2 4 8 16 128 


This program is numbered so that it can be 
merged between lines O and 10. For a stand- 
alone program you may add the following two 
lines: 
99 RANDOMIZE USR 100: NEW 
9000 RANDOMIZE USR 100: SAVE "bo 
oter.B1" LINE 1 


RESTORE 4 
FOR a=16100 TO 16164 
READ b: RANDOMIZE USR 100: 
a,b: NEXT a 
DATA ۱928,20 , ۵ ,2 
DATA 128,50,3,32,0,0,0,0,0, 
33,21,63,11,34,32,1,10,0,231, 116 
,62,11,50,2,32,205, 198,0,42, 124, 
32,34,51,32,42, 134,32,34,49 , 32,2 
05 ,201,0,62,100,251,201,0,0,0 

6 DATA 65,85,84,79 ,83,84,65,8 
2,84,32 

7 RANDOMIZE USR 100: POKE 821 
4,16100 

8 BEEP .5,.5: PRINT "NNI-F RE 
BOOT ACTIVATED": PAUSE 100:CLS 


POK 


OD ھ٤‎ OM A 


How it works: 


16 1XX 

00 243 DI :disable intrpt 

01 205,98,0 CALL 98 :turn on cartridge 
04 62,128 LD A, 128 :select drive 4 

06 50,3,32 LD (8195),A 

09 0,0,0,0,0 :delay 

14 33,27,63 LD HL,16155  :transfer filename 
17 17,34,32 LD DE,8226 :to prognm 

20 1,10,0 LD BD,10 

23 237,176 LDIR 

25 62,11 LD A,11 :set MC load flag 


27 50,02,32 LD (8194),A 

30 205,198,0 CALL 198 :load name 

33 42,124,32 LD HL,(8316; :aestin-start addr 
36 34,51,32 LD (8243),HL istore in temp4 

39 42,134,32 LD HL,(8326) :Totlen-length 

42 34,49,32 LD (8241),HL :store in temp2 

45 205,201,0 CALL 201 :second data 


48 62,100 LD A, 100 :exit cartridge 
50 251 EI senable intrpt 
51 201 RET :return 

52 0,0,0 :not used 
55-64 characters :AUTOSTART 


Les Cottrell Cocoa, FL USA 


SINC—LINK 


-SPECTRUM MOTHERBOARD 

At some time or another, most Spectrum 
owners realise the need to connect several 
devices simuitaneously to the Spectrum's 
expansion bus. The normal method which 
is employed with commercial interfaces is 
simply that of running the bus through the 
interface so that the Spectrum's expansion 
edge connector is duplicated to facilitate 
the connection of other peripherals which 
require access to the bus signals. 

This seems to work reasonably well 
when only one or two interfaces are 
stacked together, however, it can be some- 
what problematic when a large number of 
external boards and devices are present or 
when external modules do not possess a 
“through bus" facility. The obvious answer 


to this problem is the use of a “mother- 
board" which makes connection to the 
Spectrum's edge connector and provides a 
set of identically wired connectors for 
external cards and modules. 

Norman Belham (from Badsey near 
Evesham) has provided a simple but eleg- 
ant solution to the problem of constructing 
a motherboard based on commonly avail- 
able copper stripboard. Norman writes: 

Two pieces of Veroboard are placed 
back to back (so that the track sizes are 
exposed) and heid together by a Veropin 
placed in each corner. A convenient avail- 
able size is 36-strips each with 50-holes 
(127mm x95mm). 

These pieces are large enough to take a 
Spectrum edge connector along one side, 
across the copper tracks, and two or three 
other connectors standing on the surface. If 
more connectors are required, 
Veroboard can be obtained 415. wide and 
up to 19in. long cut to length from J. R. 
Hartley of Bridgnorth. 

According to ^Murphy's Law”, anything 
that can go wrong will and so extreme care 
is needed in construction! The double 
Veroboard (arranged so that the copper 
tracks are outermost) should be inserted 
between the rows of pins of the edge con- 
nector leaving a space, equal to about half a 
pin length, between the edge of the board 
and the body of the connector. 

The pins should be soldered to the cor- 
responding tracks on the top and under- 
neath the board. It is best to solder pins at 
each end first so that the connector is cor- 
rectly located. 

When it has been decided just where on 
the surface of the board the other connec- 


Fig. 


tors are to be placed, it is wise to check that 
they are on the top side when the edge con- 
nector is mated with the Spectrum. The 
pins to be soldered to the top side of the 
board should be bent at right angles to their 
mid-point (see Fig. 1 for details). This will 
make soldering easier when several con- 
nectors are in position. A piece of 0.25in. 
square section beading can be used as a 
bending bar. 

The holes through which the other row 
of pins reach the lower tracks will require 
careful counter-sinking using a small drill 
(1/16in. or smaller). Very light pressure 
and very few turns are all that is required to 
produce an insulating “collar” around each 
hole. 


Although the specified drill is too small 
to cut away the track completely, it is better 
not to drill the hole completely. (If a track 
is cut accidentally, all is not lost as a small 
insulated ^jumper" link can be soldered in 
place). The pins may then be soldered to 
the lower tracks. 

Since only 28 of the tr2cks are used, the 
remaining few on either side may be used 
for other purposes such as an exterríal 
power supply. Rigorous testing with an 
Ohmmeter (multimeter set to the “Ohms” 
range) is essential to ensure tht there is no 
contact between tracks. If, in spite of this, 
an unusual graphic display is produced 


when the board is attached to the Spec- 
trum, there is contact somewhere! 

It is also wise to test for continuity be- 
tween the pins which should be connected. 
With such a large number of soldered con- 
nections, a “dry” joint may slip by! Finally, 
since the board does not rest on the bench 
or table surface when mated with the Spec- 
trum, suitable rubber or plastic feet should 
be fitted. 


The above article also works 
on TS1000s and 2068s. 


This article appeared in the 
July 1989 issue of EVERYDAY 
ELECTRONICS, a UK magazine 
available here. It publishes 
a Spectrum column every month. 


1. Suggested Motherboard 


design from Norman Belham of 


TOPSIDE 


NY SDSS 





Badsey. 


TOPSIDE 


Pace چ‎ = 


UNDERSIDE 


SINC—LINK 


13 


14 








UL 


EDE” S 
Hote book 





gy requires 

ions so that readers 
tand what che author 
to Say. In various 


eramainot 


Lo 
definit 
5 


Shopper, often the writers 
assume that the reader knows 
ati the terms and yargon. Here 
are a few to heip you ta 

find your way through this 
rapidiy growing yungte. 


BANK-5WITCHING. 


This is the ability to use more 
than one set of memory chips 
at different times, uhile 
giving them different 
addresses. This makes it 
possible to fit a Computer 
with more memory than it Was 
designed for; simply store 
some data in one set of chiPs, 
then switch over and use the 
other set. The TS2065 has only 
38652 bytes FREE on start up 
and that’s for program and 
data. By using Static RAM 
Chips mounted in the Larken 
RAMDISK board, it is possible 
to add up to 256 kilobytes of 
extra memory for data. Even 
the IBM PC uses this technique 
to expand its memory from the 
basic 640K. Bank switching is 
also used uith the PC on 
advanced cotour graphics cards. 


CHIPS (integrated Circuits), 


These are electronic devices 
comprising many miniature 
transistors and other carcuat 
elements on a single Silicon 
wafer about 174 inch square. 
A static RAM chip used on the 
RAMDISK board witi store 32K 
of data; aight of these wa LI 
store 256K. 

The ultimate integrated 
circuit is the microprocessor 
which is a Single chip that 
contains the complete 
arithmetic and logic unit 
(central Processing unit) of a 
computer. 


85-232 (Recommended Standard 


2520) defines a standard way 
idc of transmitting serial 
data by wire. A standard RS-252 
Cable can Link tuo pieces of 
equipment only if one of them 
is DCE {pata Communications 
Equipment) and the other is 
DTE (Data Ierminal Equipment). 
Most computer terminals are 
DTE; most modems are DCE. 

CCE uses conductor 2 for input 
and 3 for output; DTE uses 
conductor 3 for input and 2 
for output. 


DESKTOP. 


The, opening 
oriented ope 
catled a des 
a blank spac 
obyects can 
Desktop Publ 
being used t 


SINC-LINK ` 


BUS. 


The bus is the main avenue of 
communications in a computer. 
Tt comprises a set of paratte 
wires to which the CPU, the 
memory and all the input- 
output devices are connected. 
The bus contains one wire for 
each kit needed to giwe the 
address of a device of a 
Location in memory plus one 
wire for each bit af data to 
be transmitted in a single 
step (usually 8 bits), and 
additional wires that indicate 
what operation is being 
performed. The bus sends data 


in either direction between any 


tuo components. Uithout a bus, 
separate wires would be needed 
for ati possible connections 
between components. 


COMPUTER GENERATIONS. 


Computers can be divided into 
fiwe generations: 

First: built in the laté "Der e 
and ear Lu 1-۰56 “Ss using vacuum 
t LI te £. = 

Second: built in the 1956076 
amd 2€9€Q^s using transistors. 

Third: built using chips; 
those with large scale chips 
۱5160 or more gates) are 
often called ۷۲ ۲, - 6۲۱ ۲ 5 1 1 ۲۱ 
computers. 

Fourth: orten viewed at 
advanced third-generaticn. 

Fifth: Mot uet ready tut 
predicted by some ror the 
LAGOS, these wall Process 
knowledge instead af Just 
data, €3, naturai Languages 
such af English and ۳۶ ۶ ۶ 1 
rather than restricted tC 
programming Languages Such af 
BRSIC and afstentiu Languages. 


HARD DISK. 


A storage medium made cor rigid 
aluminum coated with iror 
Cx*xide. Mom sized up to a4e- 
megabutes or higher. the read- 
write head travels across the 
dist on a thin cushion or it 
۱5 ۲۲۱۲۷۲ ever touching the 
dick. WARNING! every hard dick 
im use todau VILL treak dour 
waithanm gust a reu! با‎ ۶ 5 ۶ ۰ zo 
make FLOppYU disk backUPs. 


ISDN. 
A 


n ISDN (Integrated services 
Digital Network) ۶ ج‎ ۱١ خ۴‎ ٠١ب‎ ٢٢٢٤ 
Line is an all-digital taire 
crrering the abilitu to SET d 
and receive digital amd voice 
data without a HOER, 


RECORD. | 


E RECORD is a collection cr 
related data items. A 
collection or records i£ a 
FILE. A record can Ee brcker: 
down into FIELDS with one each 
for, Say: name, street, city, 
province, phone number, etc. 

T Gmclude this item because 
come writers get conrused amd 
rerer to records as rilest. 


r am indebted to the Barron's 
Dictionaru of Computer Terms 
Second Edition 1989 

far much of the above 
material. Bob Mitchell. 
900113. 





truaent 
e time ۰ 
c 


5 i ins 
! op tie Ae for quite soa 
take a Miracle Systeas. 


look a 8L MIDI dy 


interfaces allow i 
chines, etc, to te linked toget 
ود‎ te with each other. When 


ma 
۴ D 
e 
= 
<r 2 
m 


t rou 
or sound avallau 
“t stop there. You can 
e piece while you piay 
e computer will merge the 
00 


0۷3۲0۰ But i es 
request that tne coaputer play the 
another part, such as naraony. The 
two parts together kien E back the E 


'aultiple tracking’. Some coaputers 
tracks allowed, but 8 MIDI lets you 
lay track over track until you run out of mewory. With a 
decent sythesizer you can nave a whole orchestra at your 
finger tips. Of course there are many aore functions 
avallaüle, but ۱۳۱۱ concentrate on the ones offered in the 
QL MIDI package Dy Miracle Systeas. 


way. This is called 
lialt the nuaber of 


< 


fioppy is nignly 
ا‎ Aa l'a not sure how auch id ücaüry you 
ABSOLUTELY need, but 1 think 256K should be enough to let 
tne prograa run. The gore you have, the better though! 

i ordered tne 0 MIDI froe ماود‎ late last spring. 
arrived in about 34 weeks with everything I 

eded except the cables to link the instrument. 

nat tiae it costed $137.95 US, and should be about 

(although not advertised in their catalogue,‏ 10۷ تقة 
ink Sharps stili e ۱:۲۰ I bougòt some‏ 

s frog the Shack and was on ay way. With no previous 
ure to MIDI, i didn't know what to expect, so Î just 
0 tite software in anticipation. The Pont A 
iddds an intro screen, che CES fo resei 
08 e, ER رسود‎ 6 lans w with a f 


۶ 2 2 
gè 


Ka 
did 


at I/0 to ñ A 
along with 3 E vērsi 
Works very euch like an ` avironment - you use a 
joystick in CTRLI or cursor keys with space to 
00 bar on the desired option, then press 
it is VERY easy to use. The aanual is supplied 
and explains the functions quite well. 


Ei 
rta 


of raw Am 3‏ و 
(Une 0 id‏ .5 08915 


= 
D er 
Ei 
“ou 
er 
te 
CH 
=r 
:لج‎ 
e 
ge 
el Bwat un 
i eA Ur oe 


- رج سم سہ ہے ہم raise‏ 


75 
1 
.یسم‎ 
Les 
Kid 
a 
r^ 
TI 
om 
« 
"m 
ح-‎ 
m 
ge 


. nen using 1/0, 
o s 50۷ or FLP (1 or 
d to any other device 

3 ad io - mi 5555 AEN) ib 
su 


a de 

Cr 
Dr 

گ5 

mMm ہہ‎ 
kan bé 
zo? 
Oe 


a computers 
t would be à 
ee on d 


Vi ZI» ÉE C. 


nd 
li 


d 
md. 
SK 
bn 
iie 


neagy interface you can j 
BI and network it to n Lè 
i d very good produc 

anybody that pana to nave the 
ré about it, 


a quick tip that anyone with aore than one 8 
yen useful, You can link up your computers 
y described in the user's dalal. when y 
(nat do you do? Sure you can transfe 
ata, Gut is that all? NO? You can 
each computer reaotely by either o 


5۰ oe you Can issue 
t ; 


you 8 
program et 
zi ۱ 


CH muc E 
۱ 
c مم‎ 
93 c 
cr Vi 
fh C^ ہے‎ "EI 
= ca Zi 
I» c 
T 
ci 
f C 
uc 
E 
n 
Wi 
- ہیا‎ 


Cr 

us 

EI 
co 
A 
E) pen: 
Zi D) ra 
m 
&. 
- 


ze e bn zm E senz 


~ Vi 
۰ 
PA 
c 
ہے‎ 
Vi 74 
kolik: 


SINC—LINK 


15 


16 


nette‏ از از از از هر ار :۱ او رز از بر اد از ار ار جر بر از ار ار ×× از ار از از ار از از از کار 


* OTHER USES FOR THE T/S 2068 LARKEN RAMDISK f 
×۱ ۶ ۶ 2 2:۱ 2: ۱ ۱۶ 8 ۱ ×۰ را 8× را از‎ ALARA 
LARRY CRAWFORD 357 REYNOLDS RD 
LONDON ONT CANADA N6K 2P8 


BACKGROUND 


The LARKEN RAMDISK banks are all mapped into the 
DOCK bank of the 2868 even though the board is 
plugged into the back expansion slot. 
Consequently, it is possible to load any of the 
RAMDISK banks with data for a database or 
spreadsheet. This means that up to 256K more 
information can be handled and increases the 
usefulness of the "old workhorse” dramatically. 

It is also possible to load a DOCK bank with code 
Which simulates a BASIC cartridge (AROS) and to 
run that code as a BASIC or m/c program. This is 
What cartridges do. 


LARKEN BANK SWITCHING 


First of all, the 2068's RAM is organized into 8 
chunks of 8K each. Normally, with Display File 1 
in use, the bottom two contain ROM and the next 
one the system variables and ROM routines which 
are moved to RAM on power-up. These 3 chunks 
should not be disturbed. 


The LARKEN RAMDISK board uses the top 4 chunks (4 
to 7) to make up a bank. A bank is made active by 
switching off the HOME RAM chunks 4 to 7 and 
turning on one of the RAMDISK banks. The active 
bank is actually treated as a DOCK bank. Thus the 
RAMDISK board holds up to 8 DOCK banks which can 
be selected from the keyboard. 


HOW? 


Which chunks are active in HOME and which active 
in DOCK is controlled by the Horizontal Select 
Register (HSR) located in PORT 244 (F4 her). The 
individual bits which make up the byte in the port 
determine in which bank the corresponding chunk 
Will be active. ۸ zero bit means the chunk is in 
HOME. Since we want to use the top 4 chunks in 
DOCK, we will load the HSR with 11110900 binary 
(244 decimal). Thus «OUT 244,244» activates the 
DOCK bank. 


WHICH DOCK BANK? 


LARKEN uses PORT 7 to select the one to be 
activated. Actually, any bank less than 8 will 
Work since the address lines are not completely 
decoded. The second page of the LARKEN RAMDISK 
notes gives the code numbers corresponding to the 
banks: Bank ABCDEFGH 

Code 73516249 


Thus «OUT 7,7» will select bank A. Further, LARKEN 


uses bit 6 of PORT 7 to control the WRITE-PROTECT 
circuitry of the RAMDISK board. A zero in bit 6 
puts the bank in the READ-only mode. To be able to 
load data into the bank, we must add 08 
binary (64 decimal) to the bank code number. 
Therefore, «OUT 244,240: OUT 7,71» will permit us 
to put data into DOCK bank A. 


WHAT CAN BE PUT INTO IT? 


Strictly code. I use two of the banks to hold 
records for a database program. It switches the 
banks in or out as needed to add records or to 
Sort them. 

The code, however, can be in the form of an  AROS 
cartridge and therefore be used to hold a BASIC 
program. 


HOW TO SAVE THE RAMDISK BANK 


Any data read into the bank would destroy the 
existing data. To preserve the RAMDISK, enter the 
following: OUT 244,240: OUT 7,7 :RANDOMIZE USR 
100: SAVE "RAMDSK.Cl" CODE 32768,32768. The 
contents of bank A will now be safely on floppy 
and we can mess around with the bank as much as we 
want. The DOCK bank, however, is still active and 
needs to be turned off. 


HOW TO GET BACK TO NORMAL 


The commands «OUT 244,0: OUT 7,0» will do the job. 
With a zero in the HSR via PORT 244, all bits are 
zeros and all chunks of RAM will be active in 
HOME. The zero to PORT 7 will turn return to bank 
H which has a code of zero. This is the normal 
condition for RAMDISK. 


BANK H - ۸ SPECIAL CASE 


When the computer is turned on or NEWed, it checks 
the DOCK to see if an AROS is present. If one is, 
it is automatically activated. Since bank H is 
really bank 0, a simulated AROS loaded into this 
bank will run if the «NEW? key is pressed. If you 
want a permanent AROS in bank zero, install a 
switch in the line running from pin 1 of the 74145 
to pin 20 of the H RAM chip. I have HOT-Z in the 
socket. Without the switch, 107-1 would run every 
time the computer was booted. 

If you wish to put an EPROM in the bank, it would 
be prudent to disconnect pin 28 of the socket from 
the RAM power supply buss and connect it to the 
TTL buss, Otherwise, there would be a heavy drain 
on the backup batteries. 


HOW TO RESTORE THE RAMDISK BANK 


«OUT 244,240: OUT 7,71: LOAD “RAMDSK.C1"CODE> will 


SINC—LINK 


put the RAMDISK bank ۸ back in the RAM chip. Don't 
forget to «OUT 244,0» 


SIMULATING AN AROS CARTRIDGE 


Àn AROS cartridge must have 8 "overhead" bytes 
Starting at 32768 (8090 hex) to give the computer 
the information it needs to run the BASIC program. 
See page 189 of the Tech Manual. 

For our demo we will POKE into bank A the 
following bytes: 1,2,8,128,15,1,0,8. 

The first 1 indicates that this is a BASIC 
"cartridge", 

The 2 signals AROS as opposed to LROS, a Language 
cartridge. 

The 8 and 128 form the beginning address of the 
BASIC program (low byte first). In this case the 
BASIC will be at 8:256*128-32776 or 8008 hex. 

The 15 (99091111 bin) means that chunks 4 to 7 
Will be active in the DOCK bank. This is exactly 
opposite to the format for the HSR. 

The second 1 denotes an Autostart for the program. 
The two zeros reserve no bytes for m/c variables. 
The BASIC program will be loaded as code starting 
at 32716. 


CREATING AN AROS 


l. Save RAMDISK bank A as described earlier and 
then key in OUT 244,0 
2. Key in 18 CLS: PRINT "OK": STOP 
20 OUT 244,240: OUT 7,71 
39 RESTORE: FOR X= 32768 TO 32775: 
READ Y: POKE X,Y: NEXT X 
48 DATA 1,2,8,128,15,1,0,0 
50 OUT 244,4 
3. SAVE as "test. BIN 
4. SAVE as "test.Cl"CODE PEEK 236351256123636,1000 
The peeks simply find the address of the start 
of the BASIC program. It is moved up 5@ bytes 
if the large printer is active. The 1999 is an 
arbitrary number large enough to be sure that 
all of the program is saved. 
5. Now «GOTO 20». This will put the "overhead 
bytes" for the AROS in place. je 
6. Key in OUT 244,240:>L0AD "test.Cl"CODEk OUT 244 
,8. This will put the BASIC program into the 
"cartridge", 
7. Press «NEW? key. This activates the AROS and 
Line 18 of the program should run. 
9. If you saved a RAMDISK bank earlier, 
back in. 


load it 


RUNNING AN AROS (BASIC IN DOCK) 


If DOCK bank n contains an AROS, then «OUT 7,bc: 
NEW» will RUN it (bc is the LARKEN code for bank 
n). It's that simple. 


STORING AN AROS 


If the code is to be left in a DOCK bank and 
maintained with the battery backup, it should not 
be in a bank that was formatted as a RAMDISK bank. 
If the bank is in Drive 4, then keep the AROS on 
floppy and load it in when you need it. 


RUNNING AROS FROM DOCK AND BASIC IN HOME 


Programs can exist in both banks and either one 
can be RUN. Which one is active depends on the 
contents of the aros flag at 23750. A zero at this 
address will allow the HOME bank program to be 
run. À 128 there activates the DOCK program. 

À program in DOCK cannot be listed nor can it be 
edited. So if you attempt to enter a line and 
can't, you know that you are in DOCK and must 
return to HOME. 


Steps to run both: 


1. Boot the DOCK program with «OUT 7,bc: NEW. 
This MUST be done first to let the computer 
know that an AROS is present. 

2. Key in POKE 23750,0 to activate HOME bank. 

. Load in the BASIC program. 

POKE 23750 with 8 or 128 depending on the bank 

wanted and then RUN or GOTO the appropriate 

line number. 


0 
۰ 


SUMMING UP 


The ability to use the RAMDISK banks for other 
purposes expands the usefulness of the 2068 
dramatically. Data that could not be handled by 
the unexpanded machine can now be dealt with 
easily. 

Huge BASIC programs can be broken down into 
segments, stored in DOCK banks, and called into 
action as needed by a short controlling program. 
This would leave most of HOME RAM free for the 
storage of data. 

Expansion of the 2068 makes economic sense too, 
removing some of the pressure to move on to a 
bigger machine that can't be tinkered with. 

What we need now is a mess of programs that 
exploit this potential. 

For starters, George Chambers has two of mine. One 
is a database and the other a HOME/DOCK program 
handler. Ask him for them. 


Explore and enjoy! Larry C 


SINC—LINK 


17 


18 


TRIVIAL PURSUIT 
Converting to Larken Disk Operation 
by G. Chambers 
Trivial Pursuit is & computer program which 
is played much like the original board version. 
In addition to the initial program load, there 
are 6 further blocks of code which may be 
loaded, to provide additional game questions. 
Capturing the initial program to the Larken 
disk format was relatively easy. Simply a 
matter of doing an NMIstype SAVE. However, the 
matter of modifying the program to load the 
code blocks was more formidable. This article 
will describe the approach taken. 


First, a search was made of the Trivial 
Pursuit program to locate the LOAD code. The 
program was broken into by attempting an NMI 
save to a protected disk. This produced a “disk 
protected” error report, and we were back in 
Basic, though with the TR. PURS. code still in 
the computer. In the possibility that the 
program used a Spectrum call to the LOAD 
routine at address 1366, a short for/next 
program loop was used to look for any sequence 
of 5 and 86 (5*256+86) in the program. As luck 
would have it one was found at address 42932. 
Then a disassembler program was loaded. I used 
a TIMACHINEscompiled Spectramon program 
("spec48.Cc", on club Larken disk #17) loaded 
at address 48000. On the first attempt the 
computer locked up. I retried it, this time 
doing a CLEAR 65000 before loading the 
disassembler. Seems as though the stack was in 
the area where the disassembler went. The CLEAR 
65000 moved it up out of the way. 


I then looked through the code looking for 
JUMPs to the loading call at 42931. I found 
several. The LOAD routine is very involved. It 
is designed to cope with any tape loading 
errors. If & LOAD error occurs the program will 
put out & message to that effect, and get back 
into the LOAD mode again. Hence I found several 
JUMPs to the loading code. After a number of 
false starts I settled on address 42647 to 
insert a CALL to my “disk save" routine. 


I should mention that I had written a 
suitable routine to handle the disk LOAD 
function. I had also located an empty area in 
the TR. PURS. code at about address 65360. The 
starting address for this code would be 65370. 


The address 42647 that I mentioned earlier 
containd a CALL to display a tape load 
instruction on the screen. Immediately 
following it was an instruction which when 
followed led to the CALL to the LOAD routine in 
the Spectrum ROM. I decided to substitute the 
existing call (at 42647) with one that would 
CALL my disk LOAD routine at 65370. 

In trying out this change I found that the 
disk save worked. However it was followed by a 
tape load attempt. The next thing to do was to 
bypass this tape load function. In searching 
the code I found that there were several CALLs 
in the code which led to address à2931, i.e. 
the Spectrum ROM loading routine. After a 
number of false starts I decided to delete the 
actual CALL to the Spectrum ROM. I inserted 
three 0's, starting at address 42931. It 
worked. It seems as though the CALLS to the ROM 
were bypassed, which was what was hoped for. 


Of course I mention that it worked. It was 
not quite so simple as this. I had to save the 
blocks of code (the "questions" code) to disk. 
Although these blocks had & header, the code 


refused to load into the computer on its own. 
Further, none of my header reader programs 
could pick up the header. Nor could they 
identify the starting address. All they could 
identify was the code length. Each block of 
code was a different length, though they were 
all about 16700 bytes long. 


I located the starting address as follows. 
First I made a false header by entering a 
direct command SAVE "test" CODE 30000, 16695: 
and saving the first header part to a separate 
tape. Then I reloaded this header, moved the 
TR.PURS. code tape to just past it's header, 
and loaded the second part of the code. It 
loaded. I then looked at the first three or 
four addresses at 30000, and wrote them down. 

I mention that I had no knowledge of where 
the starting address might be. This is not 
quite correct. In looking at the code with the 
disassembler I had come across several bits of 
code which looked as though they might be part 
of the loading process. The address 43008 was 
included in several places 


The next thing to do, was to confirm that 
this suspicion was correct. I loaded the 
program TR. PURS. into the computer from tape, 
and then loaded the first block of (questions) 
code. Then I broke into the program and 
inspected it for the newly loaded code. The 
first time I tried that I was unsuccessful. The 
sequence that I had written down was not to be 
found. Most peculiar. I suspected that the code 
had been modified in some way or transferred 
immediately after completion of the load. 


On my next try I stopped the computer 
(using the ۵ disk routine) 
whilst in the middle of the tape loading 
process. This time I was successful. I found 
MR goas started at the anticipated address 

3008. 


Now to deal with the code loading routine 
from disk that I had written. If you look at 
the disassembled code you can see that first 
there is a Disable Interrupt instruction at 
65370. This prevents the keyboard from 
interrupting the disk load process. The CALL 98 
calls up the Larken DOS, then there is a m/c 
LDIR routine that transfers the name 
"genus2.Ci" from address 65427 into the Larken 
DOS at address 8226. After the LDIR routine, 
the actual load takes place. Following that, at 
address 65414, there is a routine to increment 
the number "2" in the title "genus2.Ci"(at 
address 65432) to "3". This is so that the 
program will load successive code blocks. These 
code blocks were given the same name, 
"genusx.Cl"; the "x" being "2" for the first 
block, "3" for the next, and so on with the 
last block containing a "7". 

The code loader ends by returning from the 
Larken DOS at 65421, finishing with the RET at 
address 65422 which returned program operation 
back to address 42650 in the TR. PURS. 


4F‏ ¥ جج ج جو جو 4F‏ جر 4F HF HÊ‏ ہو ےر ہر 


SINC—LINK 


TRIVIAL PURSUIT 


Disk Loading Code 









FEATURES... 


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| UP TO 256K RAM for your 2068 


- Expand your 2068 with up to 254K of battery backed up Ras 
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: 65310 F3 DI cassette or disk. Floppy disk not regared ) 
` 65371 00 OP. : 
65372 00 NOP 
65373 00 NOP 
65374 CD6200 CALL 98 
65377 2193FF LD HL ,65427 
65380 112220 LD DE, 8226 
65383 010A00 LD 80,0 
65386 0 LDIR 
65388 3EOB LD A,11 
65380 320220 LD (8194) ,A AERCO RAMEY or OLIGER Disk users can add LKdos for mare 
65393 CDC600 CALL 198 ce PRICE - Cartan Floppy Disk Sates Ze ve 
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65399 223320 LD (8243) , HL 
65402 213D41 LD HL, 16701 - 11-81 Floppy Interface ( 15 (71۰ 
65405 223120 LD (8241; ,HL یں‎ 2 t tareas or iow Sisk IF 
65408 CDC900 CALL 201 سر چو مو نان‎ aa 
65411 346400 LD  A,(100) EE BE AT E CATS O E 
65414 3A98FF LD A, (65432) 
65417 3C INC A 
65418 329877 LD (65432) ,A SHARPS IS THE 
65421 FB EI 
65422 CS RET LARGEST OL 
65423 00 NOP 
65424 00 NOP SOFTWARE AND 
65425 OO NOP 
65426 00 NOP HARDWARE 
65427 103 g 
65428 101 e DEALER! 
65429 110 n e 
65430 117 u 
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COMMANDS. 

-BDONDER FLICKER COLORS 

SELECTABLE. (ANY COLOR AT ALL!) 

Heu COMMANOS SUCH A& NO MESSAGE 
READER! 


ayo RATES FROM 1500 ue ro 0 
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"Computer still 
in the shop, Jenkins?" 


TED TROGDON, SINGER COMMUNICATIONS, INC. 


: SINC—LINK | 19 


20 


QLIPS 


The other day I had a problem and strange 
things were happening. Lockups, crashes, some 
corruption. I evenyaully changed my Disk Drive 
#1 to #2, and #2 to #1, as my problem appeared 
to be when I used a certain disk. In the 
process I had to open them up to make the 
necessary changes, and while doing this I 
noticed a couple of little plugs appeared to be 
sliding off the sockets, tightened them up, and 
this cured my lockup lost-data problen. 


Next day, my problem was somewhat different, 
in the middle of a programme, there would be 
blue flashes crossing the screen. My first 
thought was how the solar flare activity could 
do this to me, so I scrubbed this idea, and 
thinking I had perhaps altered something on my 
Disk change-over, went through all the cable 
connections I could think of. Whatever happened 
the flashing went away. 


Then we had another problem. On power up, the 
screen on my RGB would go GREEN, and that was 
it. At this point I resorted to my old radio 
days when we had all those little bottles 
(called TUBES or VALVES ) inside a receiver or 
transmitter, I gave the table a thump, and 
the monitor a bump, and lines disappeared. 


Later I just happened to come across an article 
in an old CURRY report, and I thought it might 
be of interest to someone out there. The issue 
was Vol. 2 No 11 Dated November 15.1986. and I 
would like to pass this on. 


Here is the QOUTE from page 5 :- 


"The most common ‘downtime problem’ with QL's 
seems to be either bad microdrives or video 
problems. Video is usually confined to faulty 
ram chips or a defective 2X8301. With early or 
‘low’ serial numbers, the 2X8301 chip could be 
‘popped out very easily from its socket. 
Unfortunately with higher serial number QL's, a 
lot of ‘superfluous’ material in the way of 
wires, etc. cover the top of the chip. Needless 
to say, this makes it much harder to replace. 
Generally speaking, if on power up you get a 
"green screen’ it is a problem with ram chips. 
If you power up, get a logo screen, etc and 
then the video goes down (slowly or otherwise), 
it is probably the ZX8301. [ see Service 
Manual] 


For those of you who suspect the ‘lockups’ your 
QL experience is due to the voltage regulator, 
you might try removing the 7805 and replacing 
it with a 7880 aich is bigger and stronger. 
This was mentio: . by a QUANTA member in Kenya. 
You can also add.... a 0.1mf capacitor. This 
sequence does not even need the use of a 
soldering iron. If you open the Keyboard, the 
7805 will be screwed onto the heatsink which is 
located behind the  microdrives. Undo the 
heatsink screws, unplug the 7805 from the 
flying leads, and remove the unit. Then, screw 
a new regulator on and while you are plugging 
the leads back in, you can put the wires from 
the capacitor in that same socket. 


End of quote from Curry report vol. 2 no li. 


So there you are, was my thump on the table 
enough to re-settle the chips to where they 
should be ? I don’t know, but at least the 
blue flashes have not come back, and my screen 
does not go green now. 


By the way, we have a number of the CURRY 
REPORT on hand, if you are interested in 
reading them let me know. Lots of goodies. 


On the subject of QL problems, ( Is there any 
other QL subject?) Say you have a Miracle 512 
expansion, and then a Cumana interface plugged 
into this, you would be well advised to use a 
support at the extreme left end of the ADD-ONs, 
an old microdrive case is juat about the right 
size. It must be remembered that the 
connections are very short and give no support 
Whatever to the extentions, hence the need for 
a little support. 


Another idea is to ensure your QL LEGS are long 
enough. After a period of use, feel the 
underside of the QL, and you will find it is 
quite hot, mine is, and I have a good space 
between the Ql and the table. I Can't imagine 
the build-up of heat if it were not for the 
longer legs. 


H. H. H. 


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21 


۹.۰ Presents 


The 1990 SINCLAIR COMPUTER Exposition 
MILWAUKEE WISCONSIN 


June 2 & 3 /Banquet Friday Night June 1 
SEMINARS, DOOR PRIZES, SWAP SHOP, 
SOFTWARE, PERIPHERALS, HARDWARE, 

AND LOTS OF OTHER STUFF 


Location 


WAUKESHA HOLIDAY INN (414) 786-0460 
Hwy 18 & 194 Waukesha, WI 53186 
There will be a SNUG meeting Saturday Night June 2, 1990 


Ticket Information: 
in advance at the door 
One day : § 4.00 $ 5.00 
Both days : $7.00 $ 9.00 
Banquet  : $16.00 $16.00 Limited seating 
Table : $25.00 (incld. 2 day badge) $25.00 Limited table space 


Tables are 6 feet by 30 inches 
For MORE INFORMATION contact 











Bill Heberlein Neal Schultz 
5052 N. 91st Street Or call 7 - 10pm 
Milwaukee, WI 53225 (414) 353-4522 
for RESERVATIONS mail to: 
Expo Reservations 
P.O. Box 101 
5 Butler, WI 7 
ENS CPU ————————— € 
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Address 
City State Zip 
Please reserve one day badge @ $4.00 each =$ 
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Please reserve 6' x 30" tables @ $25.00 each = $ 
I have included a check/money order for total = $ 


22 SINC—LINK | 








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Jan/Feb 1990 January lith, 1990 
cont'd January 27th, 1990 
Dear Outsofatown members, 


I'm writing this before the newsletter has 
come out, so I can't comment on it directly. But 
from the look of the material that members have 
been sending in, it's likely to be pretty good. 
We do appreciate the work of those members who 
have submitted material. I would like to call on 
those who have not contributed yet, to please do 
80. It helps immensely. 


The reason our newsletter is late has a bit 
to do with Christmas time, and a lot to do with 
an event in our Editor's life. Through the 
efforts of his wife he is now the proud father 
of a baby boy! Arrived just after Christmas. So 
you can imagine that he has been busy. Jeff now 
has a girl and a boy in his family. 

His address is i Lemonwood Drive, 
Islington (Toronto) M9A 4L3 CANADA. If you are 
inclined, drop his wife a note; she did most of 
the work! 


One of our former members, Ariel Frailich, 
called me a few weeks ago to tell me that he wa: 
interested in clearing out his old Timex stuff. 
I said that I would inquire amongst members and 
see what could be sold. I managed to locate 
enough persons in the local area to take most oi 
the stuff, so one day I went over and picked it 
up. There was & 2068, a Portuguese Disk system, 
an Interface 1 with a twister board and 
microdrive, a 2050 modem, a 2040 printer, a 
monochrome monitor, numbers of books and 
magazines, and 7 tape recorders. 

I managed to clear most of it out at our 
January meeting. Good job too, because it was 
tending to clutter up my basement! I had the twe 
systems up and running, to see how they worked. 
I still have a few odds and ends, if you wish tc 
inquire. 


I mentioned that Ariel was a former member of 
our club. He, along with Dave Ridge were the two 
partners in Novelsoft, the outfit known for 
ARTWORX, ZXPERT, TIMACHINE, THE WORX, and some 
other programs they wrote and used to sell. 


Ariel tells me that he is working on a refined 
version of ZXPERT for use on MSDOS machines. It 
has an application in the educational system as 
a teaching tool. That is, a student works up his 
study subject into a framework of ZXPERT. The 
idea being that in doing so, the facts of the 
subject become fixed in the mind and at the same 
time the student becomes aware of gaps in his 
knowledge of the subject he is studying. Quite 
a number of school boards have been interested 
enough to buy copies of the program. It comes 
with text material for the student and the 
teacher. Rather a neat approach as a teaching 
aid, I thought. 


It is interesting to note that along with 
Dave Ridge and Ariel Fralich, our club can also 
include Cameron Hayne, the author of TIMACHINE, 
as a past member. 


I have not added any disks to our Larken 
library recently. The number stands at i5 disks. 
But I have some disks in progress that you might 
like to see. They include disks on the topics of 
Banners, Menus, Languages, and Calendars. If any 
of members are interested in seeing a copy, drop 
me a line. 7 

Also a couple of items about disk #6, Music A 
Sound. In going over it I found a large number 


of flaws in it. I had to go completely through 
it, to fix up the problems. Mostly they were to 
do with making the programs work from the 
directory. For example I had to put a RESTORE 
function in some programs so the would not come 
up with an ‘OUT OF DATA‘ report. So if you have 
borrowed that disk and thrown up your hands, 
resborrow it. Also, while on that same disk: It 
has several music programs by Joan Kealy. I 
really liked them so I wrote to her, asking if 
I could get some more of them. She has obliged, 
and I am putting them all onto a separate Larken 
library disk. Ask for it; I have not given it a 
library number yet. In addition to sending me 
all these music program, she has taken a 
subscription to our newsletter. Welcome Joan, I 
hope you enjoy the newsletter! 


I also will have a disk with one or two 
versions of the Interbank Data Storage/Sorting 
Utility. This is the program I mentioned in my 
last newsletter; author Larry Crawford. It is a 
huge database file, which bankswitches the 
Larken RAMdisk chipe into the computer memory as 
needed to store access the data. Can hold up 
to 9000 or so 27acharacter records. There have 
been some refinements made to the program since 
I last mentioned it. Bob Mitchell has refined 
the frontgend, making it more usergfriendly; 
while Larry Crawford has done the same, and also 
modified it so that you can specify the record 
length when you start a new file, up to a 
maximum of 128 characters. Also Larry has 
modified the SORT routine so that it will sort 
on any designated column. It has a remarkably 
fast SORT routine, and a fast string SEARCh 
routine builtgin. Bob plans to use one version 
to hold & record of his colour slide 
collection. 


I have learned an interesting thing. I have 
a Smith Corona +1000 printer. I have mentioned 
it Tafors. It fe a daisywheal type printer, very 
ruggedly built. A week ago when I need a new 
printwheel for it, I was unable to do so. 'Not 
available’ they said, and not being manufactured 
any more. I was dumbfounded. I'm told the 
printer is very old; I bought it new in 1985! 
The printwheel that I was asking for was a Red 
Ring Pica 10, the most common type, nothing 
special. They did not have any of them, in fact 
they had no RED RING types at all; no 
printwheels at all for the Lg1000 printer. 

I settled for a White ring Judicial 10 
printwheel. It is not made for the L41000, and 
is not really satisfactory, since the print 
hammer tends to strike slightly ۰ 
iy ous out there own one of these beasts; had 

y suchlike problems? Moral, don't buy any 
SmithaCorona product; you'll get short shrift 
from them. Any ideas, anyone? 


You may see a letter in the newsletter from 
Bill Jones (UPDATE magazine). It responds to a 
column by Hugh Howie, in the previous letter. I 
found it so amusing that I felt it deserved a 
wider audience. There are a couple of 
interesting things about it. 


Firstly, I had to thank Bill for his offer 
to put a club advert in his magazine, but to say 
that we would decline for the present. That I 
had all the members that I could handle just 
now, and that I did not need any more. We are 
still getting queries (and new members) from the 
mention that Bill has put in, in past issues. 
That's interesting, isn't it! I'm just too 
afraid of loosing an avalanche. 


The second thing was Bill's reference to 


'snoring'. Maybe 40 years ago, I had read of 
this technique, and one rainy day I decided to 
give it a try. My wife (I was newlygmarried 
then) looked out the window, and saw me in a 
raincoat, doing the most odd thing. When I tried 
to explain just what it was, she couldn't 
believe what she was hearing. Though I 
maintained at the time that it was very serious 
business, and continue to do so, she, to this 
day, regales all and sundry about that event. 
And nobody really believes my version; they 
won't take my protestations seriously. 

So you see, when I read Bill's letter, I ran 
to my wife, calling out, “Listen to this! listen 
to this!". But she still treats me indulgently, 
and I don’t suppose that she'll ever tire of 
telling that story (her version, of course!). 
And I don't even fish. 


I see where the COMPUTER SHOPPER magazine has 
dropped Michael O'Brien's Timex/Sinclair column. 
When I look further I see an explanation in the 
Editorial (page 197). They have dropped all the 
‘classic computers’ columns from the magazine, 
saying, “We have chosen to discontinue our 
coverage of these machines in favor 
Of...» those systems that more fully 
represent the mainstream of modern computing." 

I suppose that is the consequence of being taken 
over by 217790۸4۷15. Shades of SYNC magazine. 

Further, I see where the Editor, Stan Veit, 
has been kicked upstairs. That is to say, he is 
now called 'Editor in Chief Emeritus'. I call on 
some of you professionals to tell me what that 
really means. I would hazard a guess that he 
wasn't happy with the turn of events, and was 
given the shove. _ 

In their editorial tney continue, to quote, 
‘we hope they (meaning us) continue to enjoy and 
use Computer Shopper as they join their 
computing colleagues and migrate to IBM, 
Mackintosh, Amiga, Atari ST, Apple IIgs, and 
Unix systems’. end of quote 


Bob Mitchell dropped me a line a few days 
ago. He reports that Larry Kenny mentions 

C working on a DOS that will read and write to 
MSaDOS disks, ‘just for transferring programs 
and not for making them run', to quote from the 
letter. (Myself, I rather suspect that it would 
“OL be "xo useful in the transfer of ASCIIatype 
“ text. 
Ge Larry also make mention of the Desk Top 

c Publisher program he is working on, saying it 
C will be ready in a few months. 


i Q 

|J In another club's newsletter, I read that 

\ ~ Radio Shack were discontinuing the paper for 

7^7 their TP40 printer. That is the same paper we 
buy for our TS2040 printers. I checked at the 
local RS store. They had it in stock, and when 
I inquired, they looked up their data base to 
see if it was under review. It was not, so we in 
Canada may be secure for a while yet. I 
understand from them that the Canadian R.S. 
operates independantly of the US operation. 


Our newsletter carries only one mailing 
address in it; mine. There's nothing 
particularly wrong with that but if anyone 
should wish to complain (about me, for example) 
you'd be screened pretty closely!! There haven't 
been any complaints (not recently, anyway!), but 
I'll give the address of our club President, 
Rene Bruneau. It is: 


120 Salem Ave., 

Toronto, Ontario, 

CANADA M6H 3C3 
va 


I think I am pretty much up in my mailings. If 
you feel you have been waiting too long, drop me 
a ped ی‎ I have overlooked you. 

ust a mention of something. If you are 
returning tapes, please be sure to rewind them 
completely. If they are returned otherwise, it 
is quite possible for the tape to get damaged. 
The next person to get the tape will then have 
& problem. 


Being with the club all this time I have 
acquired a great many books, clippings, 
magazines, programs, and just such an array of 
Stuff that it is pretty nearly impossible to let 
you know what I have. If you want information, 
just ask me; chances are that I can come up with 
something for you. That is what a club is all 
about. I have been fortunate in getting a lot of 
Stuff from members over the years, and I really 
would like to share it with you. 


One of our members sent me some small pieces 
of paper off the last package that I sent him. 
I found them very useful. There seems to be 
quite a number of them on packages sent to the 
US. Other members might do likewise!! 


I have revised my Income tax program for the 
tax year 1989. It is suitable for the Canadian 
situation; more specifically it handles the 
Canadian and Ontario Income tax forms. Ask for 
a copy if you are interested. 


I picked out an advert that I thought 
particularly humorous. Sort of a black humor, if 
you will. I'11 tack it onto the letter. Maybe 
because I do voiunteer work for the blind, 
repairing ‘Talking Book Machines' (tape 
players,to you), it struck my fancy! 


$5, TV- n nted prize, ۸۱ w --- 

or VHEJUHF. $45. Coll 481-6088. ` | colle 
— | T.V., 21” b & w, good working] SELA 
9S+| cond., suitable for people with 22292 
n9.| impaired vision. $50. 482-4442. ۶ 
[TYPEWRITER ~- 

I have a member's letter that I want to 
publish in the next n/l, but I'd Like to put a 
query from it right here. I'll paraphrase his 
query: "I have bought a SAMSUNG MZ4571 14" 
monochrome monitor. It is a flat screen, dual 
mode (RGB/TTL) monitor. Since we do not have TTL 
compatibility with the TS2068, I'm using the RGB 
mode. There is one minor problem with it... if 
the border is any color other than black, the 
top four or five display scan lines roll down 
across the screen. I have gotten into the case 
and tried adjusting things but with no success. 
I wonder if a different RGB i/f would help? Any 
ideas?". Any one got any ideas, do drop me a 
line, G.F.C. 


One other thing. I seem to be missing two 
pages from my MSCRIPT manual. They are pages 39 
and 40. Maybe these pages were not part of the 
TS2068 version of MSCRIPT, but the manuscript 
coninuity seems to require them. Can any one 
help me by sending the two missing sheets? 


Sincerely 





News Supplement 71-1990 Jan.,1990 


YS Bulletin 
No.1-1990 


--Pub.by B. Harmer,97 Ruskin, Ottawa, Can, KIT 4B? 


سے ہے wm um‏ ہہ Pa‏ سے دہ ہے سے ہہ ہے ep‏ سے emm‏ کے mp mm‏ ص mm‏ سے cum‏ سے جب ست cm vm amm eg‏ ہہ ہے "mb ve‏ ہے wt‏ سے am eng‏ سے سے eg‏ ہے ہے ہے سے am a‏ دہ ہے مت wm‏ ود ہے mp‏ ہے ven reg c‏ ہے ہے ہہ ےہ کے سے em‏ ہے vm vg mg‏ دت vm‏ ہے کے om emm‏ ہے vm em‏ ہہ o‏ ہے ہہ 


News for this year, 1990, may see Sinclair computers out-doing even previous 
glories, Rumours are that Apple Macintosh and NeXT computer emulators for the QL 
are being readied by software developers, to follow the MS DOS and CP/M emulators 
already available, Cambridge is rumoured to have a 34 lb., MS DOS laptop with 34 
inch disk drives and optional hard disk, But the big news is that most of us are 
Still here, looking forward to another year of user group activity. Ottawa-Hull 
TSUG has a BBS now, (613)745-8838 (afterhours), 300 baud, 8/n/1, Xmodem, planned to 
be upgraded to 1200 baud, The writer is still working on photocopy-published 
Sinclair books, including additions to the ZX-81 Assembly Language Booklet and 
Tips, Tricks & Techniques from the User Group Masters for the ZX-81/TS1000.A third 
book, Master Guide to the LDOS ZX-81 Disk System, is winding up final stage of 
preparation, altho it looks like it will be expensive to sell the full-length, 
extended edition, at about lOOpp., for reasons of its size alone (photocopying A 
mailing expenses running over 25). Local group is showing renewed interest in 
Pascal programming and work on a simplified compiler (NOT BASICnor Pascal, but a 
sort of development system macro language) is continuing for the ZX-81/TS1000.The 
QL is still being advertised at US$100 (by Sharp's). New ZX-81 kits are still 
available too from one supplier, The Z-88 notebook computer still looks good in 
comparison to its latecomer competitors, Commodore 64 and Tandy 1000 H? computers 
are almost being dumped on the market at bargain basement boxing day time specials 
(C-€4, $169, Tandy $399). The computer revolution is seeing a new round of dis- 
counting of the cheaper models and an increase in sophistication in the $100C- 
$3000 models. Even Macintoshes are penetrating the $2000 price barrier in Canada, 
Faster modems at 2400 bps are being seen in stores, Radio Shack is calling its 
80286 MS DOS computer its most popular beginner's model (though it is not AT com- 
patible) and laser printers have reached the small business/serious amateur price 
ranges, In the big leagues, the slowness of 03/2 to reach its intended place in the 
market and the IBM PS/Z computers to become the new standard, once touted as the 
success stories of the forseeable future has again proven that the future isn't 
forseeable at all, This year is also the tenth anniversary of the release of the 


Sinclair ZX-80 and the start of the Sinclair saga in computing. 


em p em an em «o سے مہب‎ em سے‎ 


Mailing list updates: Harrisburg Area TSUG(HATS) may be deleted from our 
lists since the Dec.,1989 was the final newsletter and notification of disolution 
of the group, Former members will operate through the Washington, DC group (CATS) 
À new listing in the Computer Shopper has alerted us to the existence of Quantuum 
Leap User Group, c/o Gale Henslee;4411 2nd Ave.,Amarillo, TX,USA 79106. The 
Dallas/Fort Worth users are still zoing strong altho they don't appear to be still 
issuing a newsletter to exchange with other groups. They support especially the 
Aerco TS2068 disk system and the CP/M compatible RP/M operating system, 


News from SNUG is that due to the illness of a member's wife and personal situat- 
ions of others involved in the zroup, work on the newsletter has been delayed and 
all memberships have as a conseauence been extended 6 months (that is into 1990). 
Looks like they will soon have a really terrifically large public domain program 
library for the QL,TS2068 and TS1000, but they are still looking for more donat- 
ions of programs for it. It looks like a good way to consolidate the libraries of 
the local user groups who have tried on a limited basis to amass such programs, 


ZX-81/ TSIOCO Tips: Instead of PAUSE 208 try PAUSE COE "COS" to save memory. hen 
making a cory of your program on tape (without data) redimension arrays, by for ex- 
ample DIM A$(Z,8) to save memory and loading/ saving time, then on program execution, 
redimension them properly to restart the program, A good place to place the DIM 
statement (or GOSUB to more than one DIM statement) to redimension the arrays 
properly is line Ø., In line zero, a RUN statement will redimension the array and 
clear it (the RUN would clear it anyway) but a GOTO l(used to restart without 
clearing array data) won't call the redimensioning (which would clear the data). 


Published-Program Survey of Newsletters: Dominoes-ZX-81 m/c,BASIC line trace 
Nul vector Meret کو ا ا‎ ZX-81 BASIC all in Dec.89-Vancouver TSUG N/L...... 
...Octal/decimal conversion ZX-81 m/c, Sincus, Johnson City,NY N/L.(Nov-Dec,89).. 
... m/c utilities to break any program caught in a loop, to ignore BREAK command, 
invert screen attributes, scroll the screen line to left and wrap it around to 
next line, to flip the screen (horiz, or vert.) TS2068 m/c -Boston Comp, Soc,, 
Sept-Oct n/1 (note: the TSUG there has recently broken off from Boston Comp. Soc.) 
...USA Medicare Income Tax TS2068 BASIC, in Harrisburg TSUG n/1 Sept.89....TS2068 
State Lotto program, Aug & Sept,89 SMUG n/1, Milwaulkee....cryto demo TS 2068 , BASIC 
and Chaos Demo, Oct,89 Vancouver TSUG N/L..... Cube-It (TS2068 game),LasVegas,n/l 
Jane, 199075 


An excellent series of assembly language articles with sample routines is 
being run these days in the Vancouver Saz NT. The articles, by V. Lee, are on 
7-80 assembly language programming with the ZX-81/ TS1000, but should also be a 
help to 752068 users, Note that back issues of this newsletter also have articles 
by Wilf Rigter on m/c routines to Speed up the عو‎ ٥ by modifying the dis- 
play routines, Apparently using these techniques, the ZX- 18 1000 can be made to 
run faster than by merely putting it into FAST mode. Seems like a much better vay 
than brute force acceleration which only boosts execution 15% when you step up the 
ZX-81/ TS1000 clock to 4MHz (from 3iMHz) and avoids the technical complications 
(like setting fire to your tvi). And of course good m/c or assembly language pro- 
gramming speeds up programs too. So can the rewriting of BASIC routines. An 8 
sec, loop was cut down to about li sec, in one of my programs by ingenious rewrit- 
ing of it to avoid going through the loop as many times and replacing looping 


with straight through BASIC code (within a loop that then required fewer times 
through the looping). 


N L Hardware articles continue to appear although the 2-88 cable articles in 
H and the increasing attention given to QL modifications, are starting to re- 
place ZX-81/ TS1000/ TS2068 modifications, The writer hopes to print a lot cf tips 
for hardware modifications of the ZX-81/TS1000 in the next pages of the ' Tips, 
Tricks and Techniques from the User Group Masters for the Z%-81/ 181000 booklet. 

is snou ecome an excellent source of into and references for both the old and 
new ZX-81/TS1000 user. (Yes, new users are coming to the user groups looking for 
ZX-81/ TS1000 lore, They are mainly young students seeking a low cost computer to 
practice the things they are being taught in school about computers since the 
hands-on practice sessions at school are often not quite long enough for them.) 
The writer thinks that not only is the ZX-81/ TS1000 a good "platform for control- 
ler projects like burglar alarm monitors but also a natural as the intelligent 
part of eprom or other programmable chip programmers. One user has made a short 
2x-31/ 7 board, with only the ROM, RAM and eprom (no ULA, keyboard or video) 
so that programs debugged and developed on the full ZX-81/TS1000 can be used on 
the short board, run from an eprom, rather than a full ZX-8,/TS1000.1It's been it 
is said by Donald Lambert of the CRAGIST, used to take pictures from a kite. So 
there is lots of potential left for hardware hackers in the old ZX-81/ 181000. Tip 
fron Donald Lambert for TS2068 LOAD problems caused by heat: take off all unneces- 

` ess Dus/ ex é VAT anti 1 j mer ti as- 

sec on from Dave EE EE EH 


Cartridge i/f for 
it gives Larken DOS & Extended BASIC commands incl. 








A software interface for the video dizitiz for the 132062 and the Ckimate 20 dnp 
sold tnrough TCYS-R-US for*2909, has been produced by John McMicnael,1710 Palmer 
Dr., Laramie, WY,USA 82070 for US$20-reauires IBM parallel Plug m Print cartridge 
The product name is VideoCopy plus ,VideoTex,VideoTex alone avail. separately US $10. 


۔ سے ہے ہے wm‏ سے سے an‏ ہے سے سے سے ہے کے vm‏ ہے ہے کے ہے سے ج سے سے ہی e‏ مو ست wm‏ ست تھا کے x‏ کے کے Tl‏ کے mm‏ سے کے سے سے سے حت سے سے کے سے سے سے م سے سے سے mm‏ س en em zm‏ سے e‏ سے سے rm‏ سے en‏ صت eg‏ لے سے rr ep em‏ چت جم ست ms mm ze‏ " 


D.3 - No, 1-1990 (Jan.) 


EE P مت مت م‎ ee ee ee مت مت‎ eee ewe re mee zeg zm zm mg eg م‎ em کے‎ rn mm mm مت‎ o ze re سے کے‎ ep کے‎ vm zm zm کہ‎ ep em en em om ہے ہے‎ mm wm جب کے سے سے کہ جب سے ہے سے‎ ven vm ہے‎ wm wm wm حم‎ ven سے سے‎ wë سے سے‎ ven 


American Micro Systems, 2175 Aborn Rd., Suite 262, San Jose, Calif.,USA 95121 has 
3 catalogue of at (and Z-88) items, hardware and software, printed in TimeLinez. 
Included are QL:ROM upgrades, Trump Card disk i/f ($312), IBM software emulator 
($ , modem adapter ($69), Front Page desktop pub ($345 CP/M emulator (Success) 
($69) Forth (357), Fortran 77($184), Pascal($57),C Language ($69),Superbasic to 
C converter (needs C compiler)($80), Spellchecker (30,000 word) ($68, needs extra 
RAM), DiscOver (disk file format converter) ($46),Flight Sim.($34), Astrol. ($35+3 
the QL computer itself ($129) ,Lightning (acce lerator software) ($46) ,Serv.Man, ($29) 
30 meg. hard drive coming soon, JSU ROM ($19),membrane keybord($25) all in US$ plus 
Z-88 products, the Z-88 $450, PCtoZ-88 link-up($70),QLtoZ-88($46),Mac to 2-88(8111) 
zterm($90) zBAsE ($120) Superchip($200) ,Modem,1200($130) ,32Keprom($40) plus plus ++ 
their phone no, is (1,08) 270-9730 (voice, ans. mach.) 


Maxcom TS2068 BBS system for LKDOS disk users:""Maxcom is everything and more that 
it's chalked up to be...I've got to tell you, if you haven't gotten it Se vert, 
chase those moths out of your wallet...Maxcom will truly make your day." from a 
column in the Las Vegas TSUG newsletter by Ralph Hammer.Also mentioned is the 
deluxe move utility in Maxcomm that allows transfer of files between disks, etc, 
simply and effectively, RMG handles this system in the USA, Nice to hear such 

good comments. Larry Kenny of Larken is also working on a desktop publisher with 
spelling checker at the moment (Jan.,1990) and is marketing a plotter,engraver, 
light duty plastic-router/miller that will run from an IBM PC and is also working 
on Z-80 controller version of it. The software to run it has been written in 
Hi-Soft Pascal on the TS2068, It will work on a 2'!x2! board to a depth of 4+", At 
an Ottawa-Hull TSUG user group several years ago, a TS2068 user demo'd a system 

in which a plotter applied etch-resist directly on a copper pcb for one-of-a-kind 
CAD/CAM production of pc boards, automatically. There is obviously lots that can 
still be done with the old Timex-Sinclair's, When the writer moves his old ZX-81 
out of the computer den it will be going to the basement, electronics workshop for 
use in eprom blasting/controller experiments. These old models serve on, and ON... 


D e ۰ e ée gé 9286€ 


Fix for Timemachine BASIC compiler, change POKES in line 106 from 32880 to 33880, 
by HL Schaaf printed in Aug.89, CATS & Dec.,1989 Timelinez.... 


Sé ۵ ۵ ۵ ée ée e ée e e 


TDM Magazine, Vol.5,No.2 issued finally. contact TDM BBS at 503-244-2658 (8/1/n) 


9 و‎ ۵ ee ée e ee ée @ 


Jack Dohany has upgraded MScript to version 5.5 according to D.Lambert, CRAGIST 


181000's still available-contact Gary Young, 586 9th Ave. Marion,IA,USA 52302-cheap 
working ones or bad keyboard ones avail., ram packs (18K) and progs, can be incl, 


3 


SZ ge و ه و‎ e ée ی‎ 


Article on using an audio transformer asa cassette load aid (TS1000/T92068), in 
Aug-Dec.,1989 issue of Cragist,D. Lambert, 3310 Clover Dr.S.W.,Cedar Rapids , IÅ 52404 


Source code for TreeFORTH (a romable, TS1000, slightly non-standard FORTH) has been 
released for non-commercial use by author Bob Alsum. A TS1500 with Tree FORTH in 
ROM has turned up on the surplus market, D, Lambert,CRAGIST, reports, 


Disk Library, TS2068 disk utilities program (search,list,delete, update,sort etc.) 
2as been created by RA Hilsman,POB 45, Menomonee Falls, WI,USA 53051 and is avail. 
on cassette for US$5 (or possibly slizhtly more mailed to Canada/for,).It is for 
the TS2068 Oliger system but probably can be adpated for other disk systems by the 
programmer/hacker,  -----kentioned in Sincus n/l Jan.90 & SMUG 1 Apr., l988 


$60 e ۵ ۵ ée ۵ ee ée e ée e 


Sincus N/L from 1229 Rhodes Rd.,Johnson City,NY,USA 13790 continues to run lists 
of TS2068 RCM routines listed different ways, sorted and compared with Spectrum, 


-on Lamen of Sincus continues to submit articles on ۲۹1000 programming, mainly m/c 


۲ : ۳ 5) A 
to Sincus n/l and it is nice to see the TSIOUDO still receiving support like that, 
Zomputer Shopper has discontinued articles on Commodore 64, Sinclair,TI, Atari 8-bit 


much to our disappointment, Latter Sinclair articles were really good. Not much 
reason for me to buy it anymore except for hardware adverts re,PC clones, User Gp. 
listinzs continue however & Sinclair Gps. will pop up listed there, 


Published as an amateur venture by Bill Harmer, 97 Ruskin St., Ottawa, Ont,, Canada 
ZIY LB3. Don't hack, promise, send money or buy without checking info in this Ml 
with a second, independently cualified source, Ycu may photocopy freely for friends 






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