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SINC  LINK 


VOL.8  NO. 6 


NOV  -  DEC  '90 


SINC-LINK  IS  A  PUBLICATION  OF 
THE  TORONTO  TIMEX-SINCLAIR  USERS 
CLUB  AND  IS  ISSUED  6  TIMES  A 
YEAR.  COPIES  OF  THE  NEWSLETTER 
ARE  SI.  50  EACH  FOR  NON-MEMBERS. 
CLUB  MEMBERS  RECEIVE  FREE  COPIES 
AS  PART  OF  THE  920.00  ANNUAL 
MEMBERSHIP  FEE.  A  NEWSLETTER 
SUBSCRIPTION  ONLY  IS  AVAILABLE 
FOR  SI  2. 00. 

NEWSLETTERS  ARE  EXCHANGED,  FREE 
OF  CHARGE,  WITH  OTHER 
TIMEX-SINCLAIR  USERS  GROUPS. 

PLEASE  CREDIT  THIS  PUBLICATION 
AND  THE  AUTHOR  IF  YOU  COPY 
MATERIAL. 

THE    CLUB    MEETS    ON     THE  FIRST 
WEDNESDAY    OF    EACH    MONTH  AT 
FOREST        HILLS  COLLEGIATE 
INSTITUTE,   7Z0  EGLINTON  AVE.   W. , 
TORONTO.  START  TIME:   7:00  PM. 

SEND  CORRESPONDANCE  TO: 


Attention:  SINC-LINK 
TORONTO  TIMEX-SINCLAIR 
CLUB,         14  RICHOME 
SCARBOROUGH,  ONTARIO, 
CANADA  M1K  2Y1 

EXECUTIVE  OFFICERS: 

PRESIDENT; 
TREASURER; 
SECRETARY 
ACTIVITIES: 
TAPE  LIBRARIAN  ZX81 : 
TAPE  LIBRARIAN  2068: 
TAPE/DISK  LIBRARIAN  QL: 
PAPER  LIBRARIAN: 
NEWSLETTER: 
LIAISON  OFFICER: 
(  Out-of-town  members  ) 


EDITOR 
USERS 
COURT, 


TORONTO  TltlEX-SINCLAIR 
USERS  CLUB 


(Area  Code  416) 
RENE  BRUNEAU  (  531-9749  ) 
BILL  LAWSON  (  444-8772  ) 
GEORGE  CHAMBERS  (  751-7359  ) 
RENE  BRUNEAU  (  531-9749  ) 
LYMAN  PAQUETTE  (  482-4479  ) 
RENATO  ZANNESE  (  635-6536  ) 
HUGH  HOWIE  (  634-4929  ) 
JEFF  TAYLOR  (  244-8583  ) 
JEFF  TAYLOR  (  244-8583  ) 
GEORGE  CHAMBERS,  14  RICHOME  COURT, 
SCARBOROUGH.  ONTARIO.  M1K  2Y1 
(  416-751-7559  ) 


TORONTO  T  I  M£K-S  I  NCLrA  I  R  USERS  CLUB 


Editorial 


I  recently  came  upon    a  happy 
discovery  for  club  members  with 
modems.  A  BBS    devoted  entirely 
to    Timex-Sinclair    2068s  and 
running  on    TS    modem  software! 
I'm  talking  about     "SIR  CLIVE'S 
CASTLE"  running  out    of  Ottawa, 
Ontario  at     (613) -745-8838 .  The 
system  runs  at  300  and  1200  baud 
and  uses    Larry    Kenny's  MAXCOM 
terminal  software.  You  can  call 
in    using    any    of    the  modem 
programs  available  for  the  2068. 
I  believe  this  phone    number  is 
more  current  than  the  one  listed 
in  the  article  about    this  BBS. 
I  got  on  using  the  number  above 
the  week  of  October  31. 

I  cannot  stress  how  important 
it  is  to  register  and 
participate  in  making  this  BBS 
grow.  It  doesn't  cost  that  much 
to  call  Ottawa,  especially  late 
at  night.  The  BBS  is  free  and 
runs  24  hours  so  what  more  do 
you  want?  As  the  saying  goes, 
"If  you  don't  use  it,  you  lose 
it".  Let's  encourage  the 
sysops. 

Also,  don't     forget    that  the 
there  is  a  TS  file  area    on  the 
TIBM  WIZARD  BBS     in    Toronto    at  - 
(416) -743-6703.  Get  Modeming. 

That ' s  all  for  now  . . . 

J.T. 


Laricen  Disk  Library 
by  G.  Chambers 

Most  of  the  disks  in  our  Larken  Disk 
Library  have  a  HELP  file.  Usually  this 
cosnsists  of  a  Tasword  file  which  is  displayed 
on  screen  in  64  column  format. 

This    is    a    very    handy    way    of  providing 
documentation  about  the  programs  on  the  disk. 
Often  though,  it  is  desirable    to    print  this 
out  to  hard  copy  rather  than    simply    read  it 
on-screen.  We  may  sometime  decide  to  put  in  a 
"print  to  paper"  option  in  the  disk  menu. 
However,  in  the  meantime  here  is  an  easy  way 
to  obtain  printouts  to  a  large  printer. 

Assuming  that  you  have  a  large  printer 
hooked  up  to  your  2068  this  is  the  procedure 
you  may  follow i 

1.  AUTOSTART  the  disk  to  bring  up  the  menu. 

2.  Break  out  of  the  program  and  enter  the 
commandi     PRINT  USR  lOOi  OPEN  #4  3."lP" 

(This  opens  a  channel  to  the  large  printer, 
a  channel  which  the  command  LPRINT  can  access) 

3.  LIST  the  program  to  find  the  LINE  which 
prints  out  the  "help"  file.  It  will  have  a 
command  very  much  like  this  PRINT  #4  i  PRINT 
"help.CT" 

or  RANDOMIZE  USR  lOOi  PRINT  "xxxxxx.CT" 

4.  Change  the  PRINT  command  to  LPRINT. 

4.  Load  your  printer  with  paper,  and 

activate  it. 

5.  RUN  the  menu  program  and  select  the  HELP 
file  option.  Printing  should  ensue. 

That* 8  all  there  is  to  it. 


Does  anyone  have  the  documentation 
for  WORD  SYNC  version  3? 
Please  contact  the  Editor- 


of 


I    1   0  N  A  R  V 

Instruct  ions 


Adapted  from  Tori  Baker's  book 
"Mastering  Machine  Code  on  the 
ZX81"by  Bob  Mitchell  966916. 


NOTE :  

Throughout  these  instructions 
the  operand  <r>  denotes  a  single 
register  A,B,C,D,E,H  or  L,  a 
numerical  constant  or  an  address 
pointed  to  by  (HL) ,  (IX+d)  or 
(IV+d);  the  operand  <s>  denotes 
any  register  pair  BC,DE,HL,SP,IX 
or  IV. 


CPS 


ADC 


Two  forms  ADC  A,r  and  ADC 
HL, s;  ADC  A,r  is  a  single  byte 
instruction  which  calculates  the 
sum  of  A+r+carry  flag  and  stores 
result  in  A.  ADC  HL,s  is  a  two 
byte  instruction  which 

calculates  HL+s+carry  flag  and 
stores  result  in  HL.  ADC  A, A 
does  the  same  thing  as  RLA  but 
ADC   alters   all    the  flags. 

ASS  Similar     to     ADC  except 

carry  flag  is  not  used  in  the 
initial      calculation  but  is 

altered  by  the  final  result. 
Differences  from  ADC:  ADD  HL,s 
is  a  one  byte  instruction;  ADD 
IX, s   and   ADD    IV, s   are  allowed. 


AND 


AND  r  is  only  form.  The  A 
register  is  altered  one  bit  at  a 
time.  If  the  bit=6  it  goes 
unaltered.  If  the  bit~l,  it 
takes  on  value  of  corresponding 
bit  of  r.  AND  FF  leaves  A 
unchanged;  AND  alters  all  flags 
with   the   carry   flag   reset    to  0. 


BIT 


Finds  the  value  of  a  bit 
in  a  register.  BIT  5,B  returns  a 
zero  or  non-zero  which  can  be 
used  to  exploit  using  JR  Z  for 
example,  or  RET  NZ.  BIT  does  not 
alter  the  value  of  any  of  the 
registers  nor  change  the  carry 
flag. 

CALL  Like  GO  SUB.  PUSHes  return 
address  onto  the  stack  and  JUMPs 
to  the  call  address.  The  return 
address  is  used  by  the  RET 
instruction.  The  subroutine  must 
not  alter  the  stack  unless  any 
PUSH  in  it  is  followed  by  a  POP 
before  the  RET.  CALL  has  several 
forms  (eg,  CALL  Z,pq  which  means 
CALL  pq  (an  absolute  address)  if 
the  last  calculation  was  zero 
otherwise  continue  with  the  next 
instruct  ion. 

CCF  Complement  Carry  Flag.  If 
zero  then  it  becomes  one  and 
vice  versa. 

CP  ComPare.  CP  r  is  the  form 
and  will  calculate  A-r;  the 
result  is  not  stored  anywhere 
nor  is  A  or  r  changed.  It  alters 
all  the  flags.  CP  r  followed  by 
JR    Z    will    JUMP    if  A=r. 


This  is  like  CP(HL)+DEC 
HL+DEC  BC.  Zero  flag  is  changed 
as  if  a  single  CP<HL>  had  been 
executed.  P/V  flag  is  altered 
thus:  If  BC  becomes  zero  then 
P/V=Q;  if  BC  not=0  then  P/V=l. 
So  JP  PO  will  JUMP  only  if  BC=6. 
JP  PE  will  JUMP  only  if  BC 
not  =0.  Carry  Flag  is  not  altered 
by  CPD. 

CPBR  Same  as  CPD  but  with 
automatic      loop.  Stands  for 

ComPare  with  Decrement  and 
Repeat.  Loop  ends  when  A=HL<zero 
flag   set)    or   BC   reaches  0. 

CP  I       As  CPD  but  Incremented. 

CPIR     As  CPDR  but  Incremented. 

CPL       ComPLement.    A     is  altered 
bit    by   bit.    6   becomes    1    and  vice 
ver sa .  1 1 0  1  0 1 0  1    becomes  00101010. 
No   flags   or   other   registers  are 
altered. 

Decimal  Adjust  Accumulator 
Changes  hex  number  to  decimal. 
Flags   changed  appropriately. 


DEC 


Two   forms.  DEC 
register),    or      DEC  s 
pair).     In   DEC   r,    r  is 
by  one,    carry   flag  is 
and     zero     flag  is 


r  (single 
(register 
DECr eased 
unchanged 
changed 


appropriately;  in  DEC  s,  the 
zero  flag  is  not  altered  nor  are 
any  others.  Thus  DEC  BC  followed 
by  JR  NZ,-3  is  either  an 
infinite   loop  or  has  no  effect. 


Jump 

If 
f  0 
then 
i  on . 
s  a 

Aft 
,  if 
then 
from 
that 
D  JNZ 


Relet 
B  =  7, 
then 


Disable  Interrupts. 

BJHZ    Decrement  B  and 

ive  if     Hot  Zero, 

then    it      becomes     6;  i 
it    becomes   FF.    If  B=0 
action   JUMPs   to   new  destinat 
Form    is   DJNZ     e     where     e  i 
single   byte.    If   e    is  between 
and  2E_,    the   JUMP    is  farwapds 
between      88     and  FF 
backwards.    Start    the  count 
the     next      instruction  so 
DJNZ   00=   DEC   B,    except  that 
does   not    alter   any  flags. 


EI  Enable    Interrupts.    See  IM 

for   more  information. 

EX  Exchange     values  between 

register   pairs.      AF , AF '  DE , HL 

(SP),HL  (SP),IX  (SP),IV.  No 
flags  are  altered.  Uith  the  last 
three,  the  old  value  of  HL  (or 
IX  or  IV)  is  pushed  onto  the 
stack  and  at  the  same  time,  the 
old  value  at  the  top  of  the 
stack  is  popped  and  loaded  into 
HL.  The  position  of  the  stack 
pointer  is  therefore  unchanged. 
AF'  called  AF  dash  is  a  register 
pair  distinct  from  the  real  AF 
and  this  is  the  only  instruction 
that    uses  it. 


As   well    as   A  F ' 
also   BC '        DE '  and 


there  are 
HL'  which 


are  a  set  of  six  new  registers 
or  three  register  pairs.  These 
can  only  be  accessed  by  this  one 
sin9le  instruction.  Useful  in 
preserving  the  values  in  the 
main  registers  while  calling  a 
ROM  routine  which  relies  on  ft 
but      wipes     out  the  °  t.  ner 

registers.  The  examp 1 e  1 s  < EXX > 
<  CALL   ROM   subrout 1 ne  >  <EXX>. 


lit 


Three  forms:  IM  0  IM1  and 
IM2.  If  zero,  the  interrupt 
device  itself  must  supply  an 
instruction  to  be  executed.  If 
one,  the  instruction  RST  38  is 
executed.  If  two,  the  interrupt 
device  must  supply  one  byte  of 
data  which  is  the  low  byte  of  an 
address.  Register  I  is  used  to 
supply  the  high  byte  of  the 
address.  The  computer  then  looks 
up  this  address  and  should 
a  second  address  store  there  and 
this  is  used  as  a  subroutine 
call.  But  note:  The  .Jf20^ 
requires  the  use  of  a  table  of 
257  bytes  to  do  this  job 
properly. 


IN 


IMput    with   two      forms:  IN 
A,<n>      where      n      refers      to  an 

external  device  «lin    .  a 

different  n  for  each  device, 
nne  byte  is  read  from  device  n 
and  loaded  into  A.  No  effect  on 
flags.  IN  r,<C>  where  the  C 
register  specifies  the  clevice 
and  the  number  input  is  loaded 
into  rj    the  flags  are  altered. 


1KB 


IHput  with  Decrement =  IN 
<HL>,<C>  +  DEC  B  +  DEC  HL.  The 
carry  flag  is  not  altered  but 
the  zero  flag  is  altered  o  show 
whether  B  has  decremented  to 
zero  . 


IHBR 


like    IND   with   Repeat  until 
B   reaches  zero. 


INI 


like    IND   except    that    HL  is 
Incremented. 


that  HL 


IHIR      like    INDR  except 
is  Incremented. 

INC  INC  r  IHCreases  the  value 
of  r  by  one.  All  flags  but  the 
carry  flag  is  altered.  INC  s 
where  s  is  a  register  gfir  will 
not  change  any  of  the  flags  If 
s  is  FFFF  it  will  zoom  around  to 
9000  and  carry  on.  Do  not  use  a 
check  for  zero  ffter  INC  s  1g  l\ 
will  not  work.  INC  HL  +  JR.  Z 
means  jump  if  the  instruction 
before  INC  HL  came  to  zero,  not 
if  HL  has  reached  zero.  INC  H  + 
JR   Z   does  work. 


JP 


JumP   is    like   GO  TO  but  to 
an   address.    JP      NZ,      4300  means 

.iump    to   4300    if  «r°TPl*<m  ? 

zero   flag    is   not    set  >  .  JP 
allows  for  variable 

destinations,  but  no  conditions 
here.  Destination  variablescan 
be  in  HL,  IX  and  IV  and  these 
are   powerful    instructions   for  HL 


can      be      the  result  of 

calculation,    even   at  random. 


JR 


Jump  Relative  and  one  byte 
shorter  than  JP  Four  condition* 
JR  Z,  JR  NZ,  JR  C  and  JR  NC. 
Urite  the  instruction  as  JR  e 
where  e  is  a  single  by:*;, 
forward  if  e  is  0-7F,  backward 
if  88-FF. 


LB 


Loa9.  Transfers  data  from 
one  place  to  another  Simplest 
of  many  forms  is  LD  rl,r2  w,here 
reregister.  LD  A,<BC>  and  LD 
ft,(DE)  are  legal  and  are  one 
byte      codes;  these  ,prva£e 

^oupr^able  ,      eg,  LD  tlft^H. 

REMEMBER  THAT  THE  BRACKETS  MEAN 
TurrnNTFNTS  OF  THE  ADDRESS  BC 
(or  DE>.  Two  special  registers  R 
and  I  may  be  loaded  to  and  f rom 
A  as  in  LD  A, I  LD  A,R  LD  I, A 
LD  R , A  <but  only  A>.  R  is  the 
memory  refresh  register  used  for 
outputting  to  the  screen,;  I  is 
used  in  IM.  Reg i st er .  pa l rs  may 
all      be      loaded  with  either 

numerical  constants  or  tne 
Contents  of  absolute  addresses 
e<a,  LD  s,mn  or  LD  s,<P«l>.  LD 
<?q>,i  is  like  a  double  POKE  in 
BASIC.  The  register  pair  SF>,  the 
stack  Pointer,  can  be  loaded 
directly  with  either  HL,  IX  or 
IV  5ou  can  say  LD  SP,HL  but  not 
LD  HL,SP. 

Decrement . 
DEC      DE  + 
go.  Carry 
sign  flag 
P/V  fla9 

becomes  zero  i f  BC  becomes  zero, 
one  otherwise.  JP  PO  will  jump 
only  if  BC  is  zero  after  the 
instruct  ion. 


LoaD  with 
LD<DE> , <HL>+   DEC  HL+ 
DEC   BC     all      in  one 
flag,    zero   flag  and 
are     unaltered  but 


  Like   LDD   but    Repeats  until 

BC   reaches  zero. 


LBI 


  Like   LDD   but    DE   and   HL  are 

both  Incremented. 

and  HL 


LBIR 


Like   LDDR   but  DE 
are   both  Incremented. 


NE6 


Alters  the  accumulator  and 
ail  flags.  It  HEGates  A.  If  A 
lontainl  1  then  NEC  will  change 
it  to  minus  1  or  FF.  it  h 
contains  -6  <FA>  then  NE*  £lL 
alter  it  to. +6  <%f>-^  feme  effect 
achieved  using  CPL  +  INC  A  but 
this  does  not  affect  the  carry 
flag   as   NEG   does.    NEG    is  faster. 


NOP 


Ho  operation.  Uastes  time. 
Like  a  REM  statement  in  BASIC 
but  you  cannot  put  messages 
after  it.  Use  it  also  to 
overwrite  previous  machine  code 
when  debugging. 


OR 


OR   r    is   opposite   of   AND  r. 
If   a   bit    is   one   then    it    will  be 
unaltered   but    if     zeV°     tJj?n   t  ±1 
will    take   on   the      value      ofT rth* 
corresponding   bit      in  r 
contains   00   then     OR     r      is  the 


same  as  LD  A.r  (except  for  the 
flags).  If  A  contains  FF  then  OR 
r  will  not  change  it.  All  the 
flags  are  changed  and  the  carry 
flag    is   reset    to  zero. 


OUT 


Like      IN.      Unlike   OUT  in 
BASIC.  Instruction  OUT(n),A 

where  n  is  a  one  byte  numerical 
constant,  will  transfer  contents 
of  A  to  external  device  n. 
OUT    (  C  )  ,  r  will  transfer 

contents  of  r  to  the  device 
pointed  to       by     register  C. 

OUT  is  used  in  ROM  to  SAVE 
things  and  has  no  effect  at  all 
on   the  flags. 


OUTB 


Output      with  Decrement. 
Carry   flag   unchanged;    zero  flag 
depends   on   the   final      result  of 
E.      OUTD      is     equivalent  to 
OUT(C),(HL)    +   DEC   HL    +    DEC  B. 


OTDR 


Output  with  Decrement  and 
Repeat.  Like  OUTD  but  with 
repeat    until    B  =  0 . 


OUTI 


Li  ke 
Increment  ed . 


OTIR 


Li  ke 
Incremented. 


OUTD      but      HL  is 


OTDR      but      HL  is 


POP 


Remove  two  bytes  of  data 
from  stack  top  and  load  them 
into  any  register  pair  except 
SP.  POP  AF  will  act  on  the  A 
register  and  the  flags  register. 
Low  byte  is  popped  first  then 
the  high.  The  computer  remembers 
that  the  stack  is  now  two  bytes 
shorter  and  alters  the  value  of 
SP  automatically. 


PUSH 


PUSH  s  is  the  opposite  of 
POP  s.  It  stores  the  contents  of 
any  register  pair  (except  SP  but 
including  AF  )  at  the  stack  top. 
It  alters  the  stack  pointer 
accordingly.  The  high  byte  is 
pushed  first  then  the  low  so 
that  the  low  part  is  at  the  top. 
After  a  push  instruction  SP  will 
point  to  the  address  of  this  low 
part  . 

RES  Alters  individual  bits  of 
any  register.  Set  means  change 
to  one;  RESet  means  change  to 
zero,  eg,  RES  3,D  will  Reset  bit 
3  of  D  to  zero.  RES  has  no 
effect    on   the  flags. 


RET 


RETurn  from  a  subroutine. 
It  pops  an  address  from  the 
stack  top  and  jumps  to  that 
address.  This  address  can  be 
altered  by  changing  the  value  at 
the  stack  top,  eg,  POP  HL  +  INC 
HL  +  PUSH  HL  will  increase  the 
return  address  by  one.  Vou  can 
store  one  byte  of  data  right 
after  the  CALL  instruction,  then 
POP  HL  +  LD  A,(HL)  +  INC  HL  + 
PUSH  HL  to  store  that  byte  in  A 
while  at  the  same  time  ensuring 
that  the  subroutine  will  return 
to  the  address  after  that  data. 
Another      trick      is      to      push  an 


artificial  return  address  onto 
the  stack  and  then  JP  or  JR  to  a 
subroutine  instead  of  calling 
it.  Now  it  will  "return"  to 
wherever  you  want  it  to  goi  RET 
may  be  used  with  condtions  if 
needed.  It  does  not  alter  the 
flags. 


RETI 


Used  to  end  an  Interrupt 
subroutine  (see  IM>.  Its 
function  is  the  same  as  RET,  but 
RETI  must  be  used  instead  of  RET 
because  the  chip  does  clever 
things  if  a  2nd  interrupt  occurs 
in  the  middle  of  an  interrupt 
subroutine:  a  DI  instruction  is 
executed  automatically  when  an 
interrupt  subroutine  is  called, 
but  there  are  such  things  as  non 
maskable  (super  high-powered) 

interrupts  that  override  even 
DI.  These  can  cause  confusion 
if   you   don't    use  RETI. 


RETN 


Used  to  end  an  NM  I  .  Its 
function  is  like  RETI  except 
that  the  IM  (altered  by  the  NMI 
in  the  first  place)  is  also 
restored   to    its   previous  value. 


RLA 


Rotate  Left  Accumulator. 
Each  bit  of  A  is  moved  one 
position  to  the  left.  The 
leftmost  bit  is  moved  into  the 
carry  and  the  rightmost  bit 
takes  on  the  previous  value  of 
the  carry, eg, if  A=10010101  S.  the 
carry  was  O  then  after  RLA,  A 
will  be  00101016  and  carry  will 
be  1.  Only  the  carry  fla9  is 
altered   by   this  instruction. 

RL  RL  r  (which  may  be  RL  A 
and  be  taken  in  error  to  be 
RLA).  Like  RLA  but  alters  ALL  of 
the  flags;  RLA  will  only  alter 
the  carry.  RL  may  be  applied  to 
any  register,  not  just  A.  RL  A 
does  exactly  what  ADC  A, A  does 
down  to  the  last  flag,  except 
one  that  you  cannot  get  at:  the 
H  flag.  The  only  way  to  tell  the 
difference  is  by  following  it 
with  a  DA A  instruction.  ADC  A, A 
is   twice   as  fast. 

RLCA  Almost  like  RLA  but  not 
quite.  Each  bit  of  A  is  moved 
one  position  to  the  left  and 
the  leftmost  bit  is  moved  BOTH 
into  the  carry  AND  into  the 
rightmost  position  of  A.  If,  as 
before,  A  started  off  with 
10010101  and  carry  was  zero, 
then  after  RLCA  it  will  be 
80101011.  The  carry  will  also  be 
one.  Only  the  carry  flag  is 
changed  -  the  previous  value  of 
which    is    lost  forever. 

RLC  RLC  r  will  Rotate  Left 
with  Carry  the  register  r  in  the 
same  way  that  RLCA  does  with  A. 
RLC  A  is  a  valid  instruction 
which  is  not  same  as  RLCA.  RLC  B 
is  a  valid  instruction  but  there 
is  no  such  instruction  as  RLCB. 
Always   check  the   spacing.    RLC  r 


will    alter    all    of   the  flags- 

RLB  Rotate  Left  Dec  i  ma  1 .  Do 
not  confuse'uith  RL  D .  RL.D  works 
as  follows:  Urite  the  value  of  A 
and  the  value  of  address  (HL)  in 
hex.  The  second  hex  d  1 9 1 1  of 
(HL)  is  shifted  left  so  that  it 
becomes  the  first  digit.  The 
first      digit  overwrites  the 

second  digit  of  A.  The  second 
digit  of  A  moves  to  the  second 
digit      of      (HL)  .      Thus  if  A 

contains  25  (hex)  and  <HL) 
contains  EB  then  after  an  RLD 
has  been  carried  out  A  will 
contain  2E  and  <HL>  will  contain 
B5. 


RRA 


......       Like   RL  A  except 

bits   are   moved  Right. 


RR 


Like   RL  except 
bits   are   moved  Right. 


that  the 
that  the 


RRCA 


Like   RLCA   except  that 
bits   are   moved  Right. 


the 


RRC 


.........        Like   RLC  except 

bits   are   moved  Right. 


that  the 


RRD 


The  contents  of  (  HL  )  are 
moved  1  hex  ligit  to  the  right, 
the  rightmost  digit  moving  int£ 
the  rightmost  digit  of  A  which 
in  turn  becomes  the  left  01 1  9  1  * 
of  <  HL )  .  If  A  equals  25  hex  and 
<HL>  equals  EB  then  after  RRD,  A 
will  equal  2B  and  <HL>.  will 
equal  5E.  Note  that  RRD  twice  is 
the  same  as  RLD  once  and  vice 
versa.  All  the  flags  except 
carry   are  altered. 


RST 


ReSTart :  like  CALL  except 
that  it  is  only  one  byte  }on9-. 
But  conditions  are  not  legal  and 
only  one  of  eight  specific 
addresses  may  be  called:  RST  0  - 
power  down  and  up;  RST  8  =  error 
number  follows;  RST  16  =  Print 
current  character;  RST  18  ™  9et 
char;  RST  28  =  get  next  char; 
RST  28  =  start  Floating  Po*"* 
Calc;  RST  38  =  make  a  space;  RST 
38  =  frames  counter  and  keyboard 
scan  . 


SBC 


Like  ADC  with  two  forms: 
SBC  A,r  which  will  subtract  r 
from  A  and  then  Sultract  the 
Carry  digit.  SBC  HL,s  which  will 
subtract  both  s  and  the  carry 
flag  from  HL.  SBC  A, A  is  useful: 
if  the  carry  is  one  then  A  will 
be  reassigned  FF  and  the  carry 
will    still    be  one. 


SET 


w-.        The   opposite   of     RES .  SET 

4,H   will    change   the  value   of  bit 

4  of  H  to  one.  Any  bit  of  any 
register   may   be  set. 


SLA 


Shift  Left  Arithmetic.  The 
form  is  SLA  r.  It  is  similar  to 
RL  r  except  that  the  rightmost 
bit  is  automatically  replaced  by 
zero.  It  alters  all  the  flags. 
Note  that  SLA  A  does  the  same 
thing   as   ADD   A, A   except    that  ADD 


A , A    is   faster . 

SRft  Shift  Right  Arithmetic. 
Any  register  may  be  shifted 
right  using  the  forniat  SRA  r. 
The  rightmost  bit  falls  into  the 
carry  but  the  leftmost  bit 
remains  unaltered  Thus  atter  an 
SRA  instruction  bit  6  "It1 
always  be  the  same  as  bit  7uTh? 
effect  of  SRA  is  to  divide  both 
positive  and  negative  numbers  by 
two.  FC  (minus  four)  become  Ft 
(minus  two). 


SRL 


Shift  Right  Logical.  As 
SLA  except  that  the  bits  are 
shifted  right  instead  of  left 
and  the  leftmost  bit  becomes 
zer o . 


SUB 


ww-  SUB  r  =  SUB  A , r .  The  value 
of  r  is  SUBtracted  from  t he  A 
register.  Note  that  unlike  ADD, 
there  is  no  corresponding 
instruction  SUB  HL,s.  If^.you 
wish  to  do  this  you  must  f*rst 
of  all  reset  the  carry  f  la9 
(usually  by  use  of  AND  A)  and 
then   use   SBC  HL,s. 


XOR 


.....  XOR  r  alters  all  of  the 
flags,  resetting  the  carry  to 
zero  and  the  A  register  alone  r 
is  not  altered;  A  is  a^e^g0*  to}* 
by  bit  like  with  AND  and  OR.  If 
a  bit  is  zero  it  takes  on  the 
value  of  the  corresponding  bit 
of  r.  If  on  the  other  hand  a  bit 
is  one  then  its  new  value  is  the 
complement  of  the  appropriate 
bit  of  r.  XOR  A  is  very  useful 
since  in  one  byte  it  zeroes  both 
the  accumulator  and  the  carry 
flag.    So   does   SUB  A. 

HALT  This  definition  belongs  up 
above.  Halt  is  not  the  same  as 
STOP.  It  means  "do  nothing  but 
keeps  repeating  NOP  instructions 
until  it  gets  an  i nt errupt .Use 
EI  before  HALT  but  not  BI  before 
HALT. 

Finally,  I  have  checked  thi5 
summary  against,  the  referenced 
book;  even  so,  it  would  be  wise 
to  consult  a  good  Z88  manual  if 
in  doubt    about    any  definition. 


Ro;g>o:tr-fc    from    QL    L,±to2rs.3rd.s.n  1990 


Last  year  at  this  time  the  QL  membership  was  about  20.  Today,  we  have 
a  list  of  27  QL  members,  some  of  whom  are  admittedly  only  Newsletter 
members,  but  very  important  members  at  that.  Some  of  our  most  active 
people  are  Newsletter_only  members.  Some  of  our  N/L  only  members  are 
our  most  prolific  contributers.  Of  those  27  members,  we  can  count  8  as 
In- town    members,     that    is    those    who    attend    the    meetings    on  a 
reasonably  regular  basis;  which  leaves  19  as  Out-of-Town  members.  I 
think  the  number  of  N/L  members  is  5,  (  or  6)  I  am  not  too  sure  on  that 
figure. 

This  leaves  us  with  19  0/T  members.  I  have  had  contact  by  letter  with 
no  less  than  11,  with  the  occasional  phone  call  thrown  in.  11  out  of  19 
is  I  think,  very  gratifying,  and  indicates  the  amount  of  interest  in  the 
QL  Library.  The  number  of  letters  I  have  received  is  well  in  excess  of 
fifty  in  this  last  twelve-month.  Yes,  I  have  them  all  on  file.  Yes,  I 
have  replied  to  them  all.   (This  does  not  include  internal  club  letters, 
or  my  personal  letters) 

At  this  time  last  year  we  had  about  80  programs  in  the  library.  Our 
library  to-day,  consists  of  over  150  programs.  The  improvement  is  not 
only  in  the  quantity,  but  a  vast  improvement  in  the  Quality.  I  have 
sent  out,  on  request,  about  14  full  disks,  some  of  which  are  80  track 
disks,  and  about  a  dozen  plus  cartridges.     As  a  matter  of  interest,  the 
40  track  disks  are  just  a  little  more  than  the  80  track.  With  a  few  3 
1/2    tossed    in.    I    will    not    try    to    count    the    number    of  programs 
concerned.  I  could,  but  the  end  result  is  not  worth  the  toil  of  counting 
them.  The  most  recent  catalogue  has  generated  a  further  number  of 
requests  already. 

To  go  from  nothing  to  what  we  have  to-day  is  no  mean  accomplishment, 
and  I  would  like  to  extend  my  thanks,  the  thanks  of  this  club,  to  all 
those  people  who  have  contributed  so  much,  in  such  a  short  time,  to 
the  benefit  of  this  club.  Thanks  to  those  who  send  in  material,  and 
thanks  to  those  who  make  use  of  the  library        That  is  my  reward. 

I  am  sometimes  accused  of  being  too  serious,  but  if  I  were  anything 
else,  I  would  not  be  able  to  do  a  good  job.  As  the  foremost  Sinclair  Club 
in  Canada,  and  one  of  the  most  powerful  in  North  America,  I  believe 
that  we  must  be  forever  trying  to  improve  our  position,  and  to  do  that 
means  a  constant  effort  on  the  part  of  every  member,  no  matter  who  or 
where  they  may  be. 

In  Jeff's  editorial  in  the  May  issue,  he  stated  we  were  arguably  the 
strongest  and  richest  club  in  North  America.  That  is  a  very  strong 
statement  to  make,  but  it  is  not  quite  correct.  With  apologies  to  Jeff,  I 
would  like  to  amend  that  statement.  We  are  WITHOUT  argument,  the  BEST 
in  North  America. 

Let's  keep  it  that  way. 

Hugh  H.  Howie. 
October  5/90. 


QT.  TPS 


In    the    current    issue    of  HESQLUG 
Newsletter,  a  Member  Survey  form  was 
included,  and  in  the  process  of  filling 
it  out,  and  adding  a  few  remarks,  I  came 
up  with  an  idea,  and  I  don't  know  why 
someone  has  not  tried  it  before,  and  if 
they  had,  why  it  did  not  work.  Perhaps 
there  is  someone  out  there  who  can  give 
me  the  answer.   All  comments  will  be 
welcome  on  this  subject. 

Ever  since  I  started  using  the  QL,  I 
have  been  looking  for  some  instruction 
on  SuperBasic  Programming.  Ho  one  in  my 
immediate  circle  would  seem  to  have  the 
necessary  knowledge,    and  yet   I  know 
there  is  a  thirst  for  this  instruction, 
I   know   there   is   a   desire   for  this 
instruction. 

Here  is  my  idea,  I  will  throw  it  out  to 
the  winds  and  see  what  blows  back.  I 
will  publish  the  results  in  this  column. 

Is  there  anyone  out  there  willing  to 
start     a     correspondence     course  in 
SuperBasic  ?  Make  a  few  bucks? 

Each  lesson  or  group  of  lessons  would  be 
accompanied  by  a  test  paper.  Payment  of 
say  $5  for  each  test?  Too  much?  Too 
little?  If  you  have  an  opinion  write  and 
let  me  know.  If  you  would  be  willing  to 
provide  the  service,  write  and  let  me 
know.  I  am  willing  to  bet  there  are  a 
number  of  takers  out  there,  but  if  you 
do   not    tell    us   your   opinion,  then 
nothing  will  be  done.  This  may  be  your 
last  chance  to  get  something  going. 

The  idea  may  not  be  viable,  but  if  you 
do  not  take  this  opportunity  to  make 
your  views  known,  you  may  never  get 
another  chance.  Anyone  interested  in  the 
use  and  in  providing  this  service,  would 
you  please   write   me   giving  me  your 
opinion.  Do  you  want  to  learn  SupeBasic? 

As  I  have  said,  the  results  HILL  be 
published  in  the  next  issue  of  this 
Newsletter.  — Don 't  delay — firite  today. 

Hugh  H.  Howie 
QL  Librarian 
586  Oneida  Dr 
Burlington.  Ont. 

L7T  3V3 


From  the 


QL  LIBRARY 


There  are  many  wonderful  little  things 
in  our  QL  Library,  and  few  are  aware 
that  they  are  there.  Here  is  one  of 
those  gens,  complete  with  the  doc  file 
which  goes  with  it. 
Hugh  Howie. 

"DISOE.JAME"       by     Real  Gagnon. 

CHANGING  THE  NAME  OF  A  DISK. 

When  you  format    a  new    disk,  you  can 

assign  a  name  to    the  disk.  But  it  is 

impossible  to  change    this  name  after 

the  disk  has  been  formatted  unless  you 

reformat  the  disk  and  all  the  data  on 

this  disk  will  be  lost. 

The  following    program     will  correct 

this  situation.  You   can  now  rename  a 

disk  without  having   to  reformat  this 

disk-  .„  u 

When  you  run  the  program,  you  will  be 

asked  for  the  number  of  the  disk  drive 

(e.g.  1    or  2    )."  This    program  will 

only  work  with  disk  ""  floppies  ""  and 

you  can  not    rename  microdrive.  "  The 

program  will  then  display  the  name  of 

the  disk    and    will  ask    you    for  the 

proposed   name     The     limit     is  10 

characters. 

100  REMark  DiskJtEJiame 
110  REMark  by  Real  Gagnon 
120  : 

130  REPeat  loop 

140  PRINT  #0,"Disk  Drive  Number  :-  11 ! ; 
145  d$=INKEY$(-D 

150    IF    d$    INSTR      '123456789':  PRINT 
#0,d$:  EXIT  loop 
160  END  REPeat  loop 
165  : 

170  OPEN#10,,,flp"&d$&"_*D2Dn 
180  : 

190  GET#10\l,a$ 

200  PRINT#0 , "Present  name  : " ! a$ (5  TO 
14) 

210  INPOTS0, "New  name  : " !n$ 

220  LET  a$(5  TO  15)=n$ 
230  FOT*10\l,a$ 
240  : 

250  CLOSE#10 


This  is  a  reprint  from  the  last  issue 
because  this  article  was  badly  copied. 
-  Ed. 

The  C  Page 

By  Timothy  Swenson 

Last  month  we  looked  at  a  simple  program.  This  month  we 
will  look  at  how  to  do     input  and  output  in  C. 

C  has  no  built  in  input  or  output  commands.  Functions 
are  called  that  per-Form  input  and  output.  Last  month  we  used 
the  function  printf.  This  month  we  will  use  the  function 
getchar.  Getchar  gets  one  character  from  the  standard  input 
channel,  the  keyboard.  The  input  from  getchar  is  assigned  to 
an  integer  variable. 

The  opposite  function  is  putchar.  Putchar  puts  one 
character  to  the  standard  output  channel,  the  screen. 
Putchar  takes  in  a  single  integer  variable. 

Take  at  look  at  program  number  2.  The  program  gets  a 
character  from  the  keyboard,  then  while  the  character  is  not 
a  lower  case  q,  the  character  is  put  to  the  screen  and 
another  character  is  read  in. 

This  program  takes  characters  entered  from  the  keyboard 
and  echos  them  to  the  screen.  Getchar  does  not  echo  any 
characters  by  itself. 

Any  assignment  can  be  used  within  an  expression.  Look 
at  program  number  3.  With  the  assignment  statement  inside 
the  logic  of  the  while  statement,  one  extra  line  can  be  left 
out.  The  assignment  will  be  executed  before  the  evaluation 
on  it  is  performed.  This  shows  you  how  C  can  become  more 
compact  (and  more  unreadable) • 

Since  we  are  on  the  subject  of  input/output,  let's  take 
a  look  at  string  input/output.  C  does  not  have  a  string 
type.  You  have  to  use  an  array  of  characters.  Since  there 
are  no  string  types,  there  are  no  string  manipulation 
commands.     Instead  there  are  functions  to  do  this. 

Look  at  program  number  4.  The  variable  string  is 
defined  as  an  array  of  20  characters.  Now  a  call  is  made  to 
the  function  gets.  Gets  is  short  for  "get  string."  This 
function  gets  a  string  from  the  standard  input  and  assigns  it 
to  the  variable  string. 

Now  in  the  while  statement  a  comparison  is  made  to  see 
if  the  string  is  of  length  0.  Strlen  is  a  function  that  will 
return  the  length  of  the  string.  If  the  length  is  greater 
than  0,  the  string  is  sent  to  the  standard  output  with  puts 
(put  string)  and  another  string  is  inputed. 

A  lot  of  necessary  functions  are  included  in  the 
standard  C  library.  Most  commands  in  basic  have  an  equal  C 
function.  Plus  you  may  write  your  own  functions  and  add  them 
to  the  library.  There  has  always  been  a  problem  that  not  all 
C  libraries  are  equal  and  some  programs  may  not  be  ported 
from  compiler  to  compiler. 

Next  month  we  mil  look  at  how  C  handles  files. 


/*  Program  2  */ 
#include  <stdio  h> 


mainO 

int  c; 

c  —  getcharO; 
while  (  c  •=  *q*)  C 

putchar (c) ; 

c  =  getcharO; 

> 


/*  Program  3  */ 
#include  <stdio_h> 

mainO 
i 

int  c; 

while  (   (c  =  getcharO   )    •=  *q')  < 
putchar (c); 

> 

> 

/*  Prog  4  */ 
tinclude  <stdio__h> 

mainO 

i 

char  stringC203; 
gets (string) ; 

while  (strlen (string)    !=  0)  C 
puts (string) ; 
gets (string) ; 


olume     1,   Number  1 


February  19,  1989 


ARTICLES 


LARKEN  MAXCOH 


A  review  by  Greg  Popovich 
It  has  finally  happened!  Fellow  LKDOS  users,    It  has  finally 
come  to  pass  that  the  2068  has  finally  gotten  not  only  a 
terminal   program  BUT  a  BBS  that  will   bring  us  into  the  90's!!.' 
What  would  you  say  to  a  terminal   program  that  will  handle 
both  the  Z-SIO  AND  the  2050.   Either  recieve  or  send  a  file  up 
to  110K  DIRECTLY  TO  DISK.   Have  a  64  column  display  that  CAN 
handle  1200  baud  without   losing  characters.   Can  move  either 
headerless  (TSXmodem/Mterm2) or  header  type (Specterm  64)  files 
whether  they  be  Basic  or  Code.   With  a  choice  of  128,   512  OR 
1024  byte  block  protoco 1 (Checksum) .   And,   ALSO  display  IBM 
Hercu 1 es (Monochrome ) graphics !   AND  has  a  BBS  built  right  in! 
You'd  say  I  must  be  dreaming!   WRONG!    It  is  TRUE!    It  is 
REAL!    I   couldn't  believe  it  myself.   Being  a  seasoned  modemer 
and  BBS  sysop  I've  gotten  used  to  using  Telix  on  my  Clone  to 
get  around  the  BBS  world.    I've  used  all   of  the  terminal  programs 
that  are  available  for  all  of  the  Timex's,   and   IBM  &  Clones. 
My  tastes  for  terminal   programs  are  sweet.    I   judge  a  program 
not  only  on  how  it  looks,   but  on  how  well   it  performs  and  ease 
of  operation.   MAXCOM  has  it  ALL!   MAXCOM  consists  of  2  large 
Basic  programs   (one  for  the  2050  and  one  for  the  Z-SIO)  as  well 
as  a  7K  code  file.   When   loaded  it  will   display  a  Main  Menu. 
From  there  you  can  go  to  the  Terminal  Mode  or  run  the  BBS. 
Also  from  this  menu  you  receive  and  send  files,   select  Xmodem 
packet  size,    load  the  BBS  message  base,   Catalog  a  drive,  toggle 
duplex,   set  the  modem  parameters,    close  or  open  the  buffer 
(write  to  disk  also!),   dial   the  modem, and  hangup  the  phone. 
You  can,    in  the  terminal  mode,    send  the  full  ASCII  control 
character  table  to  the  other  computer  from  ACK  to  NAK.  The 
terminal   mode  has  a  64  column  display  that  you  can  read  without 
eyestrain.   You  also  have  a  status  bar  at  the  top  of  the 
screen  telling  you  your  setup  and  whether  or  not  you  are 
online.   Also,   an  added  feature  is  that  you  can  access  up  to 
4  MacroKeys  that  you  can  utilitize. 

The  BBS  

Being  a  Sysop  of  a  BBS   (I  use  RBBS  on  a  Clone).    I   can  safely 
say  that  this  BBS  is  one  of  the  most  advanced  BBS's  for  a 
Timex  computer.    I   once  ran  one  on  my  2068  but  soon  found 
that  64K,   3  800K,    1  400K  floppies  and  256K  of  Ramdisk  wasn't 
cutting  it  for  me.    I   started  with  TInyBoard  and  worked  my 
way  up  to  Casboard.    I  also  ran  modified  versions  of 
Casboard  by  James  Rod  1  in  and  myself    (don't  get  me  wrong,  I 
still   use  my  2068!    (Like  typing  in  this  review)   Sometimes  I 
cannot  even  get  on  my  own  BBS!).   Well   MAXCOM' s  BBS  you  can: 


The  Timex/Sinclair  Electronic  NewsLetter 


Volume     1,   Number  1 


February   19,  1989 


Use  300/1200  baud  operation 

Have  Passwords, Security  levels, and  Time  Limits 
Multiple  Messagebases  with  search 

Downloads, and  Uploads  without  memory  constraints 
Help  files  and  Bulletins 
Access  to  LKDOS  from  Remote 

Interrupt  driven  hangup  and  timeout  watchdog 

A  user  log  of   the  BBS  activity 

Dual   Window  monitor  screen 

Can  be  easily  customized  and  expanded 

Some  of  the  features  until  now  you  only  saw  on  the  Big 
till  boards.   Like  the  Watchdog  and  access  to  DOS.   You  can 
Blue  Doar".  t  t     setup  y0ur  opening  screen  and 

Sune^ns'  You "So  have  to  do  some  customizing  to  start  it  up, 
like  let  it  know  how  many  drives  you  have.   But  for  the  most 
plrt  nil  much  has  to  be  done  to  be  on  the  axr   >n  under  an 
Ko„^     To  assist  you  in  setting  up  the  BBS,   Larry  mciuueu 
6     rEdilor^o^etup  your  screens  and  a  deluxe  file  manager 
that  can  MOVE  individual   files  to  different  *lsks  V^!"* 
in  itself).   The  error  trapping   is  the  most  advanced  fea  ore 
o?  the  BBS.   MAXCOM  uses  2  interrupt  traps  to  trap  almost 
anything  that  a  user  can  do  to  crash  a  BBS   (like  dropping 
carMerto  falling  asleep  behind  to  console). 
If  an  error  occurs  the  interrupt  routines  v   1 1   correct  u 
by  e^ing  RUN  9230  (just  as   if  you  ^P«-  i**".^^  er, 
to  reboot  the  system.  These  routines  can  handle  lost 
ti-eout     timeup  and  Basic  crashes.   The  operation  of  the  BBS 
is  simple  to  both  the  Sysop  AND  the  User.   This  BBS  comes  a 

ong  fro.  the  days  of   1  messagebase     20  messages 

Board  and  300  baud  only  operation.   For  the  *25. 00 
you  get  more  than  your  moneys'   worth  -^h  this  projrt.. 
This  program  will  work  with  the  straight  LKDO.  sytem  or 
LKDOS  compatab 1 e  setups.    I've  thoroughly  tested  MAXCOM  and 
—found  it  to  be  100%  bugfree  (but  a  few  minor  mispe 1 1 ings ) . 
The  program  is  available  from: 

Larken  Electronics 

RR  §2,   Navan,   Ontario,   Canada  K4B  1HS 
(613)835-2680 

RMG  Enterprises  (503)655-7484  Noon-10PM 

1419  1/2  7th  Street,   Oregon  City,   OR  970At>  iava*va=> 

Pacific  Time  *  Tue-Sat 
Ed  Grey 

P.   0.   Box  2186,    Inglewood,  CA  90305 
(213)759-7406 

a   ^   or  urite  your  favorite  dealer  at  the  abt 

For  more  information,   call  or  write  yuui 

numbers  or  addresses,   or  myself  ats 

C/08  Thr^S.I  .W.Y.G.   RBBS  FidoNet  1:lB7/564 

^L"9stfssrUo':era(^l>9sI-77«3  <BBS  8-i-N  3../12H/24M  BPS, 

Taken  from  THE  PLOTTER,    the  nil   of  the  Clackamas  County  T/S 
Users  Group 


-fcioax  tB7 

MV  IMPRESSION 

by    hugh  h.  howie. 

A  couple  of  months  ago  I  decided  I 
would  like  to  try  this  wonderful  new  word 
processor,  text87.  So  off  went  my  bucks, 
(dear  dear)  and  back  caste  the  word 
processor. 

Now  I  don't  know  whether  to  laugh  or  cry. 
This  darned  thing  is  so  complex  I  hardly 
know  where  to  start  with  my  diatribe.  It 
is  so  easy  to  get  into  a  rut,  and  this  is 
what  happened  to  me,  I  git  into  the  most 
gol  darnedest  rut  you  ever  saw  or 
imagined,  and  even  now  I  can't  get  out  of 
it. 

This  pesky  text87  (no  capitals  please, 
we're  modest)  is  the  most  habit  forming 
thing  I  have  seldom,  rarely,  ever  come 
across.  It  gets  into  you,  it  gets  under 
your  skin,  it  bugs  you.  Night  and  day  you 
think  about  it,  until  there  is  no  other 
program  on  the  QL  you  want  to  even  look 
at.  You  waken  up  in  the  middle  of  the 
night  and  say  to  yourself,  "I  must  try 
this  in  the  morning, N  you  look  at  the 
clock,  and  by  golly  it  IS  morning. 
(3.15AM)  so  as  it  is  morning,  you  have  to 
have  a  go  at  your  new  toy. 

Type  F3  and  you  have  a  whole  string  of 
commands  at  your  fingertips,  all  operated 
by  the-  initial  letter,  the  reaction  time 
is  instant,  no  waiting.  Each  keypress 
opens  up  a  new  string  of  commands,  and 
then  another.  You  are  gently  led  from  one 
stage  to  the  next. 

To  scroll  from  top  to  bottom  or  bottom  to 
top,  is  adequately  fast,  giving  you  time 
to  have  a  look  at  what  passes  on  the 
screen.  If  you  want  to  get  there  in  a 
hurry,  that  is  how  it  can  be  done, 
instantly.  Select  a  page?  Done.  Select  a 
line?  Done.  Fast  is  the  word  for  text87. 

Change  from  one  fount  to  another  in  mid 
sentence  is  easy.  To  change  an  already 
completed  document  in  part  or  in  whole, 
from  one  fount  to  another,  is  no  problem. 
Even  a  Block  in  the  middle  can  be  changed 
in  like  manner.  You  can  type  a  document 
in  Elite,  and  when  ready  to  print  it,  you 
can  do  so  in  Pica  Italic  Double  Width 
underlined  if  that  is  your    thing.  I  hate 


to  think  how  it  would  look  on ^ paper,  but 
it  can  be  done. 

To  change  from  one  page  width  to  another 
is  done  with  the  Ruler  command,  this  can 
be  a  trifle  tricky  but  with  a  little 
effort  the  way  to  do  it  becomes  second 
nature.  Tabs  and  Margins  are  set  up  from 
the  Ruler  command,  can  be  retained  in 
memory,  and  switching  from  one  to  another 
in  separate  parts  of  a  document  is  only  a 
keypress  away. 

'Tis  a  pity  that  the  Ruler  and  Layout 
commands  are  not  closer  together  so  that 
you  could  set  them  both  up  at  the  same 
time  instead  of  two  separate  procedures. 

Print-out  can  be  obtained  in  up  to  four 
columns,  I  find  that  two  is  ideal  for 
Newsletter  work.  If  your  text  will  not 
fit  inside  the  Ruler  you  have  set  up,  you 
are  told  so  as  soon  as  you  ask  for  a 
print-out;  then  you  have  to  adjust  the 
Ruler  width,  (or  layout  width)  but  this 
is  really  no  hardship  in  the  general  run 
of  things.  After  changing  the  Ruler  width 
you  can  Reformat  the  whole  thing  to 
ensure  proper  spacing  is  maintained. 

On  occasion  you  will  find  that  a  two 
column  width  does  not  go  onto  the  paper 
completely,  leaving  an  odd  line  to  go  to 
the  next  page,  once  again  no  problem.  Go 
to  the  Layout  command  and  alter  the 
length  of  your  page.  text87  makes  all 
other  adjustments  which  are  necessary. 

There  are  so  many  Founts,  and  Options  for 
the  founts,  there  is  no  need  for  other 
founts  to  be  brought  in,  but  this  can  be 
done.  Each  printer  Driver  has  its  own  set 
of  founts,  sufficient  for  most  needs. 

Quill  files,  ASCII  files  or  practically 
anything  can  be  imported  without  too  much 
trouble,  a  little  editing  may  be 
required,  but  so  simple. 

In  the  latest  text87,  the  one  I  have, 
Qtyp  Spelling  Checker  is  included.  Now  I 
don't  like  to  rely  on  spelling  checkers 
as  I  like  to  think  I  do  not  need  one,  but 
when  you  type  a  document  and  edit  it, 
correcting  as  you  go,  then  use  the 
Checker  and  find  an  error  you  have 
overlooked,  then  Qtyp  is  a  very  nice 
thing!  Qtyp,  as  supplied  with  text87, 
will  not  correct  an  error,  just  points  it 
out,     but    the    correction    is    no  real 


hardship.  You-  just  stop,  make  the 
correction,  re-activate  the  checker,  and 
carry  on;  Simple.  You  can  even  make  your 
own  dictionary  if  you  wish. 

I  can  not  cover  all  the  points  of  this 
program,  just  how  I  see  it,  but  there  is 
one  thing  I  have  a  problem  with,  that  is 
the  header  and  footer  section  of  the 
Layout  command.  Perhaps  I  am  a  bit  thick, 
but  I  can  not  surmount  this  problem.  It 
just  don't  work  for  rae,  yet  other  folks 
have  no  problem.  As  soon  as  I  write  this 
the  answer  will  probably  come  to  me.  I 
hope  so. 

It  could  be  my  printer,  but  I  find  that 
in  many  cases  my  printer  head  rattles  and 
jumps  all  over  the  place,  not  in  all 
cases,  just  in  some,  and  this  I  am 
working  on.  The  problem  would  appear  to 
be  when  using  right  justification.  With 
no  justify  the  printing  appears  to  be 
smoother.  Perhaps  I  have  not  hit  on  the 
correct  driver  for  my  printer.  This 
column  is  being  printed  with  FX80DRAFT 
and  the  head  is  bouncing  back  and  forth, 
the  wear  must  be  excessive.  There  are 
ample  drivers  to  select  from.  I  try  to 
use  that  which  works  for  me.  You  see,  I 
have  a  choice.  To  be  perfectly  fair,  I 
oft-times  think  the  problem  is  more  me 
than  thee. 

The  manual  is  not  the  best,  but  then 
again  it  is  by  no  means  the  worst.  I  feel 
that  a  little  time  spent  with  actual 
screen-display-on-page  would  be 

advantageous.  With  a  little  more  detail 
as  to  how  to  achieve  a  certain 
fcject/ target.  The  Commands  and  secondary 
commands  are  not  too  easily  separated  on 
the  page,  so  what  I  did  was  draw  a  line 
down  through  the  Commands,  with  another 
line  down  through  the  secondary  commands, 
then  the  third  commands.  Makes  for  faster 
and  easier  reading. 

My  next  step  was  to  use  text87  to  make  up 
the  commands  in  columns,  First,  second 
etc,  and  quoting  the  page  number.  Printed 
out  in  small  print,  mounted  on  cardboard 
similar  in  thickness  to  the  manual  cover, 
this  can  be  but-mounted  to  the  back  cover 
of  the  manual  using  cloth  tape,  and  be 
used  as  a  foldout  of  the  commands.  The 
way  I  did  it  has  three  foldout  pages,  and 
it  lies  flat  in  front  of  me  as  I  work. 


bound  set  up,  which  lies  flat  at  all 
times,  and  does  not  close  up,  or  the 
pages  curl  up  in  use.  You  see,  Software 
87  have  realised  that  the  manual  will  get 
a  lot  of  use,  and  have  used  a  VERY  heavy 
paper,  almost  light  cardboard.  Really  a 
great  idea,  as  this  manual  is  going  to 
get  a  lot  of  use,  by  me  anyway. 

At  one  time  if  I  had  been  asked  if  I 
would  purchase  this  program  again,  I 
would  have  said  probably  not.  Now  that  I 
have  persevered  with  it,  and  am  gaining 
confidence,  I  will  state  without  any 
reservation,  yes  I  would  buy  it.  It  is 
not  the  easiest  to  learn,  but  once  you 
start  to  really  get  into  it,  you  find 
that  you  like  it  more  and  more. 

There  is  so  much  flexibility  about 
text87,  I  cannot  imagine  where  the 
variations  stop.  It  is  not  an  editor  or 
DeskTop  publisher,  but  it  comes  close. 
There  is  only  one  way  to  assess  what  it 
does,  you  must  try  it  for  yourself.  Oh 
sure,  you  will  have  to  work  at  it,  but 
the  reward  is  worthy  of  the  toil.  And 
the  more  you  use  it,  the  more  inquisitive 
you  become  about  what  it  can't  do. 

Most  folks  do  a  little  Quill-bashing  when 
discussing  word  processing,  not  me.  I 
like  Quill,  it  is  simple  to  use,  easy  to 
learn.  Not  exciting,  but  does  a  job.  Sure 
it  does  have  problems,  but  I  still  like 
it  because  of  its  simplicity.  But,  if  you 
like  excitement  and  exploring,  you  must 
try  text87.  If  you  like  wide  open  spaces, 
and  room  to  move  around,  versatility, 
control  of  how  you  want  something  done. 
Give  me  text87. 

The  main  thing  is  to  get  to  UNDERSTAND 
the  programme,  and  what  it  is  trying  to 
do. 

Yes  it  is  true,  I  find  myself  using 
text87  more  and  more  and  more. 

Where  did  I  get  this  text87?  Why  from 
EMSOFT  of  course,  and  Peter  Hale  has  been 
most  encouraging  with  help  and  advice. 
Like  the  saying  goes:-  "A  farmer  is  a  man 
OUT  STAND INS  in  his  field" 

So  also,  is  text87.  OUTSTANDING. 


Talking  about  the  Manual.   This  is  a  wire 


FROM  MEMBERS'  LETTERS 

One  of  our  members,  Steven  Gunhouse,  writes  to  me 
with  such  interesting  material  in  his  letters  that  I 
am  excerpting  some  of  it  for  our  newsletter. 

I  have  been  attempting  to  save  NMI^type  programs 
from  disk  to  tape,  and  mentioned  difficulties  I  was 
having*  The  following  is  Steven's  suggestions  on  how 
this  might  be  done.  Some  of  his  ideas  may  prove 
useful  in  other  applications.  G.F.C. 


Since  I  happen  to  have  it  in  front  of  me,  here  is  a  piece 
of  code  that  might  be  useful  for  your  NMl-save  to  tape  copy 
program.     I  had  written  it  for  other  purposes  -  part  of  my  work 
on  transfering  files  from  AERCO  to  LKDOS  -  but  you  will  find  it 
easy  to  use.     Essentiallly  it  is  just  a  modification  on  the 
first  part  of  MOVE  .CI  to  drop  the  headers  and  copy  to  the  right 
place . 


00 : 

F3 

DI 

01: 

CD 

62 

00 

CALL  0062 

04 : 

21 

XX 

XX 

LD  HL,  XXXX 

07 : 

11 

22 

20 

LD  DE,  2022 

OA: 

01 

OA 

00 

LD  BC,  000A 

0D: 

ED 

B0 

LDIR 

OF : 

AF 

XOR  A 

10 : 

32 

20 

20 

LD   (2020),  A 

13  • 

CD 

84 

00 

CALL  0084 

16 : 

3A 

20 

20 

LD  A,  2020 

19  : 

FE 

OA 

CP  #0A 

IB: 

C8 

RET  Z 

1C: 

3E 

0B 

LD  A,  #0B 

IE : 

32 

02 

20 

LD   (2002),  A 

21  • 

CD 

C6 

00 

CALL  00C6 

24: 

21 

45 

20 

LD  HL,  2045 
LD  A,  (HL) 

27: 

7E 

28: 

FE 

F9 

CP  #F9 

2A: 

C8 

RET  Z 

2C: 

22 

YY 

YY 

LD   (YYYY),  HL 

2F: 

32 

ID 

20 

LD   (201D),  A 

32: 

CD 

7E 

00 

CALL  0  07E 

35: 

CD 

7B 

00 

CALL  007B 

38: 

21 

72 

20 

LD  HL,  2072 

3B: 

11 

ZZ 

ZZ 

LD  DE,  ZZZZ 

3E: 

01 

16 

00 

LD  BC,  0016 

41: 

ED 

B0 

LDIR 

43: 

21 

88 

20 

LD  HL,  2088 

46: 

ED 

5B 

7C 

20 

LD  DE,  (207C) 

4A: 

ED 

4B 

7E 

20 

LD  BC,  (207E) 

4E: 

ED 

B0 

LDIR 

B0: 

2A 

YY 

YY 

LD  HL,  (YYYY) 

53: 

23 

INC  HL 

54: 

7E 

LD  A,  (HL) 

55: 

FE 

F9 

CP  #F9 

57: 

28 

17 

JR  Z,  +17 
LD   (2039),  A 

59: 

32 

39 

20 

5C: 

22 

YY 

YY 

LD   (YYYY),  HL 

5F: 

CD 

81 

00 

CALL  0081 

62: 

3A 

39 

20 

LD  A,  (2039) 

(ENABLE  CARTRIDGE) 
(wherever  you  have  the  name) 

(LENGTH  OF  NAME) 

(SET  A  TO  00) 

(FIND  DIRECTORY  ENTRY) 

(FILE  NOT  FOUND  FLAG) 
( RETURN   IF  NOT  FOUND) 


(GET  DIRECTORY  ENTRY) 
(FIRST  ADDR  OF  TRACKS) 


(FILE  EMPTY  I ) 
(POINTER  STORAGE) 
(TRACK  TO  LOAD) 
(SEEK  TRACK) 
(READ  TRACK) 

(START  OF  NAME  IN  HEADER) 
(HEADER  STORAGE) 
(LENGTH  OF  HEADER) 

(START  OF  BLOCK) 

(START  ADDRESS  IN  HEADER) 

(BLOCK  LENGTH  IN  HEADER) 

(TRACK  POINTER) 

(NEXT  TRACK) 
(END  FLAG) 
(IF  DONE,   TO  ??70) 
( STORAGE ) 

(RE-STORE  POINTER) 
(STEP  TO  NEXT  TRACK) 
(GET  TRACK  AGAIN) 


65:  21  ID  20  LD  HL,  201D 

R •  RE  CP    ( HL) 

69 :  20  F4  JR  NZ,   -OC  (NOT  CORRECT  TRACK  -  LOOP) 

6B:  CD  00  7B  CALL  007B  (READ  TRACK) 

6^  18  D3  JR  -2B  ( AND  REPEAT  UNTIL  DONE) 

70i  etc  etc.  (set  up  for  tape  save,  etc.) 

^dresses  vou  will  have  to  choose  to  be 
There  are  three  v ou         are  .  10  bytes  for  the 

some  appropriate  safe  P°^ion.i  ne  £or  a 

name,  22  bytes  for  the  disk  header  into,  an  i  ^ 

pointer.     Of  course     you  c     "  the  »«•        /2  „  tes  of  the 

and  block  header.     I  actually  left  ou  tra£.k  numfaer_ 

block  header,  since  you  von  t  need  th e  ff 

you  will  ne«Vhe\asty2  bytef  of  the  healer  (the  total  length), 
address)  and  the  last  2  bytes  or  ^  stack  is>  or 

Naturally  all  of  this  does  not  or  2Q68  mode.  You 

whatever,  so  it         ;      .  "        get  into  this  routine 

will  have  to  ^ve  the  f        b"£"  £?y  ignored.     Sorry,  change 
regardless,  something  I  "^""P**  aDBr0£riate  branch  to 
all  of  those  RET  Z  commands  to  some  appropriate 

"^For'youfpurposes,  the  whole  point  of  this  routine  is  that 
it  wiU  completely  load  a  file  without  trying  to  run  It. 
Therefore  it  defeats  the  autorun  aspect  of  an  NMI  Save,  and 

TL^8^V5hrsss  «•*?....  and  used 

toll  sort  of  appropriate  description  above. 

I  mentioned  last  time  that  if  you  did  ^f^J^ loader 
NMI  -Save  to  tape  copier,  you  would  ^^^StUn  0n  the 
SLS^SJTiS'SI.'Sitr-  S  hand^bur  I  can  tell  you  what 
Vil1  11  wThThe-copy  to  tape  program    the  first  thin, ,  you  will 
have  to  do  is  put  the  stack  in  .  Pla« '  th™taSS.r<J  tape 

major  difficulty,  however,  since  1£  v°"         1  n,t  £lnd3  on  the 
routines  it  will  print  to  the  screen  whatever  it  f in^  ^ 
tape.    As  usual,  you  have  2  choices .     "J*       t      t0  be  a  blank 
printing  ineffective  by  °«flnln?/v"Kiv  rewrite  whatever  parts 
and  setting  OVER  1.    Or  you  could  "  probably  the 

you  need  and  leave  out  the  printing  to  the  screen     «  ^ 
easiest  way  is  to  presume  the  NMI-save  is  ad  the 

loader,  so  you  won't  need  to  look  for  it,  so  :>ust 

header  and  code  block  directly.  succeed  in 

The  hard  part,  so  to  speak,  is  that  once  y 
loading  it,  you  will  have  to  reverse  all  the  register 

were  done  in  the  original  NMI ~  a.Y*' , j[  a  file  of  length  A826  (at 
coes  automatically  whenever  it     inds  a      le  of  ^g.^  ^ 
ipast  in  version  2,  that  s  now  it 
executes  then  consists  of  the  following: 


ED  7B  FB  57  LD  SP,  (57FB) 

Fl  POP  AF 

Cl  POP  BC 

Dl  POP  DE 

El  POP  HL 

D9  EXX 

Fl  POP  AF 


CI 

POP  BC 

Dl 

POP  DE 

El 

POP  HL 

DD 

El 

POP  IX 

FD 

El 

POP  IY 

ED 

7B 

FD 

57  LD  SP,  (57FD 

F5 

PUSH  AF 

3A 

FA 

57 

LD  A,  (57FA) 

ED 

47 

LD  I,  A 

FE 

3F 

CP  #3F 

28 

02 

JR  Z,  +02 

ED 

5E 

INTMD2 

3A 

FF 

57 

LD  A,  (57FF) 

FE 

FF 

CP  #FF 

20 

01 

JR  NZ,  +01 

FB 

EI 

Fl 

POP  AF 

C9 

RET 

This  is  the  routine  from  LKDOS  at  address  01DD  (hex) 
adjusted  for  the  presumption  that  it  will  not  be  running  in  the 
cartridge. ^  ^  ^  ^  tQ  teU  .  or  presume      naturally  the 
interrupts  will  need  to  be  disabled  before  you  load  from  the 
taps  • 

Turned  out  to  be  rather  a  long  P.S.,  didn't  it.     I  happened 
to  be  examining  the  cartridge  ROM,  and  recognized  this  routine 
for  what  it  was,  and  thought  you  might  need  it.     Then  again,  you 
might  have  already  known  where  it  was  -  the  01DD  is  of  course 
for  this  version,  but  it  is  probably  pretty  near  there  in  yours 
as  well. 


BIDS  DMMSEDDSQ  HMDQ  by  tom  skwinsm 


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^  .  .  '  J 


IHUfCLi 
igd§fF|hiDidmn§pqr,§@u 


OUTLINE 
abOUTL. CS 


JULIUS  CAESAR  said 
'omnia  gallia  est  in 
tres  partes  dWisa'.i.e., 
in  English:  All  Ganl  is 
divided  into  three 


parts. 


CAESAR.  C* 

MCMXC  2  4SEF 


DflTft  italics 
abDHTi.CS 


Light  ABCDEFGHIJ 
KLMNOPQRSTUVWX 

YZ123456789D 
abcdefghijklmnopqrst 

uvwxyz.  A51Z&Z?/ 


mum 


THE  UNITED  STATES 


Some  notes  on  using  uordmaster 
for   its  excellent  graphics. 


The  Seith-Corona  Fastext  80 
rinter   lacks  several  crucial 


ttures  needed  to 


ke 


ORDMASTER  work  proper ly,a 
set;   Printer  reset  ; 


largi 


inadequate  bit  iaage  graphics; 
to  naee  a  few.    If  your  printerl 


siailar  drawbacks,    all  is 


be  eade 


noi    xost.    Graphics  can  ______ 

and   saved,    then   iapprted  into 
Pixel  Print  Professional.  The 
exaeples  above  show  excellent 
large  fonts  that  can  be  used 
to  enhance  desk  tog  publishing 
coluens.    Outline,   Roaan.  lata 
Light   and  Stadiue  are  shown; 
bold  and  italicized  versions 
are  optional.    The  U..S.A.  mmw 
is  froe  Steve  Spalding's  PI X 


col lection 


(RUM  9©©9S5J 


Hints  For  Timex/Sinclair  Users 

by  G.A.  Smith 


The  following  tips,  hints  and  tricks 
are  for  your  T/S  1000  &  ZX81  and  the 
T/S  2068  color  computers. 

T/S  2068  Hints  And  Tips 

The  T/S  2068  can  use  the  bottom  2 
lines  also.  You  use:  PRINT  #0;,  or 
PRINT  #1;,  or  PRINT  #0;  AT  0,7,  or 

PRINT  #0;  TAB  5;.  The  #  symbol  must 
be  used  to  print  on  lines  22  and/or  23. 
A  PRINT  #0;  AT  1,5;,  will  print  on  line 
23,  five  spaces  over.  To  clear  the  bot- 
tom two  lines  only,  use  the  command 
INPUT  "  "  without  the  semi-colon  and 
without  the  variable. 

If  you  miss  the  good  old  automatic 
scrolling  on  your  T/S  2068,  then  here 
is  a  solution  to  your  problem.  Use 

POKE  23692,-1  or  POKE  23692,255 
to  get  an  automatic  scroll  feature.  You 
POKE  23692,1  to  turn  it  off. 

Do  you  have  a  little  machine  code 
program  you  would  like  to  type  into 
the  T/S  2068  for  your  use,  but  don't 
know  where  the  first  available  byte  is 
located  in  your  RAM?  If  you  have  a 
line  number,  then  REM,  the  first  avail- 
able byte  after  that  (and  your  start  loca- 
tion for  your  machine  code  program) 
is  26715. 

On  the  T/S  2068  you  can  "copy  pro- 
tect" your  program  by: 

1  GOTO  3 

2  NEW 

3  program  starts  here. 

Start  your  program  by  using  RUN 
9999,  with  that  line  reading: 

9999  ON  ERR  GO  TO  2  :  SAVE 
"program's  name"  LINE  1 

Did  you  accidentally  "copy  protect' 
a  program  and  for  some  reason  want 
to  look  at  the  LISTing?  Well,  you  can 
load  and  stop  any  BASIC  program  by 
typing:  MERGE  "program  name."  The 
program  will  load  into  memory,  but 
won't  run  automatically. 

On  the  T/S  2068,  if  you  want  to 
duplicate  a  line  in  order  to  slightly 
change  it,  or  even  have  it  as  another 
line  number  too,  then  backspace  to  the 
left  of  the  line  number.  Put  a  single 
quote  mark  "  there.  Move  your  cursor 
to  the  right  of  the  number,  then  rub 
out  the  number  and  replace  it  with  the 
new  one.  This  technique  works  with 
line  number  and  every  command  and 
statement  except  for  the  "THEN"  com- 
mand. "THEN"  just  won't  rub  out! 


T/S  1000  And  ZX81  Hints,  Helps, 
And  Tricks 

Have  you  got  16K  RAM  or  more 
hooked  up  to  your  ZX81  or  T/S  1000 
and  you're  still  using  the  byte  saving 
techniques  you  used  with  only  IK  or 
2K  RAM?  Techniques  like: 

10  LET  T  =  25 

20  LET  Z  =  T 

30LETV  =  T 

Well,  normally  you  will  have  more 
than  enough  memory  to  run  your  pro- 
gram. This  space  saving  technique, 
though  necessary  for  computers  with 
limited  memory,  is  not  needed  for  the 
16K  RAM  and  larger  memory 
machines. 

"If  I  can  save  a  byte,  why  not?"  you 
ask.  Though  you  save  a  byte  or  two, 
you  lose  program  execution  speed!  Your 
programs  will  run  faster  if  you  do  not 
use  the  byte-saver  techniques. 

If  you  want  to  check  to  see  how  much 
RAM  your  program  is  using  in  your 
ZX81  or  T/S  1000  then  type: 

PRINT  (PEEK  16404  +  256'PEEK 
16405)-16509 

Would  you  like  to  use  the  bottom  two 
lines  of  your  display?  POKE  16418,0 
allows  you  to  use  the  bottom  two  lines. 
Be  sure  to  POKE  16418,2  before  you 
use  INPUT  or  SCROLL.  If  you  don't, 
then  you'll  have  a  nasty  display 
CRASH,  plus  you  will  have  to  reboot! 

If  you  have  a  line  number  0  (zero) 
you  cannot  accidentally  delete,  erase, 
or  replace  it.  You  can  have  a  line 
number  zero  by: 

(A)  enter  your  first  line  as  usual,  or 
load  your  program. 

(B)  POKE  16510,0.  Your  first  line 
is  now  zero. 

(You  can  still  POKE  into  line  number 
zero.) 

Try  thisl  Enter  two  or  three  lines, 
REMark  lines  will  be  alright.  POKE 
16509,n  (let  n  =  any  number  from  40 
to  60).  Now  list  your  program.  Look 
what  happened  to  the  last  line  you 
entered!  Enter  another  line.  List  the 
program  again.  Your  "funny"  num- 
bered line  moved!  This  technique  is 
great  for  putting  information  in  your 
program  that  you  don't  want  deleted 
or  erased. 

ZX81  and  T/S  1000  users,  if  you  want 
to  show  off  for  all  of  your  friends,  in- 
stead of  using  the  COPY  command,  use 


PRINT  USR  2153  to  get  the  same 
results! 

Screen  Control  For  The  T/S  1000 
And  ZX81 

You  want  to  control  the  screen  for 
your  program,  right?  In  this  section, 
you  will  learn  how  to  put  the  computer 
into  slow,  clear  the  screen,  then  fill  it 
with  whatever  character  you  want  to 
display,  all  using  super  fast  assembly 
language.  Also,  as  part  of  screen  con- 
trol, you  will  have  machine  code 
routines  to  scroll  the  screen  up,  down, 
left,  or  right! 

The  T/S  1000 and  ZX81  don't  allow 
DATA  statements.  By  carefully  study- 
ing the  machine  code  loader  program 
you  will  leam-how  to  simulate  READ/ 
DATA  statements!' ' 

You'll  need  to  make  your  first  pro- 
gram line  a  REM  statement  line  with 
as  many  characters  in  it  as  the  assembly 
routine  you  plan  to  use.  At  the  begin- 
ning of  the  program  area  is  where 
machine  code  is  stored  for  our  purposes. 
This  REM  statement  line  will  need  24 
characters  in  it.  Or  you  could  use  the 
formula  PRINT  LEN  A$/2  to  findout 
how  manv  to  use. 

First,  the  machine  code  program  sets 
the  computer  to  the  "slow"  mode,  clears 
the  screen,  then  fills  the  screen  with  in- 
verse spaces.  You  may  change  this 
character  and  I'll  show  you  how. 

Let's  get  the  "machine  code  loader 
program"  into  our  computer.  Your 
machine  code  loader  program  is  as 
follows: 

10  REM  12345678901234567890- 
123456789012 

20  LET  A$  =  "CD280FCD09863E- 
80061720Q70DC2884005C28640C9" 

30  LET  A  =  16514 
40  FOR  Q  -  1  TO  LEN  A$-l  STEP  2 
50  POKE  A,  16*CODE  A$(Q)  + 
CODE  A$(Q  +  l)-476 
60  LET  A  =  A  +  1 
70  NEXT  Q 

Line  20  is  your  "DATA"  statement 
line.  As  much  as  I  hate  HEX  numbers, 
I've  had  to  use  them  for  this  applica- 
tion. Some  of  the  numbers  are  single, 
double,  and  even  triple  digits,  POKE 
VAL(A$(I))  can't  be  used. 

The  string  assigned  earlier  to  A$  is 
the  machine  language  routine.  The 
CD280f  calls  the  slow  routine  from  the 
ROM.  The  CD0986  calls  the  "CLS" 
screen  routine  from  the  ROM.  The  rest 
of  the  routine  fills  the  screen  with  the 


inverse  space.  If  you  want  to  fill  it  with 
the  period,  POKE  16521,  23.  On 
POKEs,  use  the  decimal  value,  never 
HEX.  POKE  the  code  of  the  character 
you  want  to  fill  the  screen  into  16521 
then  "call"  the  routine.  (Use  any  of  the 
methods  shown.) 

In  your  programs  use  PRlls  i  usn 
16514,  RANDOMIZE  USR  16514,  or 
LET  A  =  USR  16514  to  call  the  routine. 
All  will  give  you  the  same  results.  Just 
one  word  of  caution  though,  if  you  are 
using  the  variable  A  in  your  program, 
then  one  of  the  other  methods  may  be 
better  suited  for  your  program  since  the 
value  of  A  will  be  changed. 

Would  you  like  to  know  what  char- 
acter is  at  the  next  print  position?  Here 
is  a  routine  that  you  can  use  to  do  just 
that.  Let  line  number  20  be  A$  =  2A- 
0E404E06C9"  and  use  the  machine 
code  loader  program. 

Have  a  program  with  lines: 
PRINT  AT  X,Y; 
A  =  USR  16514 

[PRINT  LEN  A$/2  will  tell  you  how 
many  characters  this  routine  needs.  You 
have  to  adjust  the  address  (16514)  if  you 
use  previous  screen  fill  routine.  If  you 
did  use  it,  then  your  REM  statement 
would  have  to  have  36  characters  and 
use  the  following  as  A$: 

A$  =  "CD280FCD09863E800617- 
20D70DC2884005C28640C92AOE4- 
04E06C9"  you'd  use  USR  16533  to  ac- 
cess the  next  place  routine.] 

The  PRINT  AT  X,Y;  (use  your 
variables  for  "X"  and  "Y")  is  needed 
Re  sure  to  put  the  semi-colon  at  the  end 
of  the  "PRINT'  statement!  The  variable 
"A"  will  be  the  CODE  of  the  character 
at  position  X,Y  on  your  screen.  Your 
program  will  then  decide  if  the  next 
character  is  a  "safe"  spot,  or  whatever. 

You've  got  this  great  idea  for  a  game, 
right?  The  onlv  thing  holding  you  back 
from  writing  it,  is  the  fact  you  can't 
move  the  screen  sideways,  or  up,  or 
down.  Well,  here  are  four  programs 
to  help  with  just  that! 

You'll  need  to  make  your  first  line 
a  REM  statement  line  with  as  many 
characters  in  it  as  the  program  you  plan 
to  use.  The  up-scroll  uses  24  bytes,  the 
down-scroll  uses  29  bytes,  the  right- 
scroll  uses  21  bytes,  and  the  left-scroll 
uses  26  bytes.  In  case  your  solar 
powered  abacus  is  on  the  fritz,  that's 
a  grand  total  of  100  characters  You 
could  tell  vour  computer  to:  PR1N 1 
24  +  29  +  21  +  26  to  get  the  same 
answer.  Try  it! 


Use  the  previous  machine  code  loader 
program  to  convert  the  REM  line  into 
assembly  language. 

I  generally  use  PRINT  USR  to  ac- 
cess the  machine  code  routine.  That 
doesn't  mean  that  you  cannot  use  LEI 
A  =  USR  16514,  or  RANDOMIZE  USR 
16514.  One  works  just  as  well  as  the 
other.  However,  when  you  use  a  routine 
that  is  to  return  a  value  to  your  BASIC 
program  (in  this  case  the  variable  A), 
such  as  the  next  print  position  routine, 
then  you  will  have  to  use  the  form:  L±-i 
A  =  USR  16514  to  get  the  value  into 
your  variable  so  your  BASIC  program 
can  work  with  it.  Of  course  this  USR 
address  "call"  is  not  16514;  that  address 
wtsSd  only  as  an  example.  Eachstep 
of  the  way  I'll  tell  you  the  correct^ ad- 
dresses to  use  for  each  assembly  routine. 

A$Sr4£c4023E51l2^ 
02EDR0EB062036OO2310FBC9 


A$S-"Sil4300ED52E511210 

0010FBC9" 

Scroll  right: 
A$  =  "2A0C400616C506203E00234- 
F7E7110FA23C110F1C9" 

Scroll  left: 
A$  =  "2A1040114300ED520616C50- 
6203E002B4F7E7110FA2BC110F1C9" 

You  can  use  any,  or  all,  of  these 
routines  to  move  the  screen  as  you  wish. 
Rut  remember  to  put  enough  characters 
in  your  REM  line  and  to  use  the  cor- 
rect address  for  the  routine  you  want. 
If  you  were  to  use  all  four,  then: 

PRINT  USR  16514  would  scroll  the 
screen  up  one  line. 

PRINT  USR  16538  would  scroll  the 
screen  down  one  line. 

PRINT  USR  16567  would  scroll  the 
screen  right  one  space. 

PRINT  USR  16588  would  scroll  the 
screen  left  one  space. 

If  you  have  these  four  routines,  then 
tack  on  the  screen  filler  at  the  end  and 
next  print  position  routines,  you  11  have 
136  characters  in  the  REM  statement 
line.  The  screen  filler  would  be  accessed 
by:  PRINT  USR  16614  and  the  next 
print  position  routine  will  be  Lb  l 
A  -  USR  16621. 

With  these  programs  in  place,  you 
should  be  able  to  do  just  about  anything 
you  want  to  with  the  screen  on  your 
T/S  1000  or  ZX81.  Now,  can  you  come 
up  with  the  applications  to  use  them. 

May  you  have  many  hours  ofhap- 
py  computing  with  your  T/S  1000  oi 
ZX81. 


COMPUTER  SHOPPER,  SEPTEMBER  1988 


Press  Enter  BBS  SOFTWARE  BY  LARKEN  ELECTRONICS 


SIR  CLIVE'S  CASTLE  BBS 


TIMEX/SINCLAIR 


QWERTYUIOP 
ASDFGHJKL  RET 
ZXCVBNMSSP  ! LKDOS 


NOTE:  (613)-745-8838  -  Ed. 


NOW  RUNNING  AT  1200  AND  300  BAUD 

Ctrl-S  to  Pause,  Ctrl-Q  to  Restart,    (Cap  Shift)  Z  to  Abort 

WELCOME  ! 

Special  Welcome  New  Members:     Rod  Humphreys,   Robert  Cazares, 

Greg  Popovich,   Charlie  Day, 
and  Bruno  Gagnon! 

Sir  Clive's  Castle  BBS  is  dedicated  to  all  serious  users  of  Sinclair  computers  and 
provides  upload  and  download  facilities  for  the  Timex/Sinc lair  2068,  ZX  Spectrum 
emulating  Timex/Sinc lair  2068  and  the  Timex/Sinc lair  206e  running  the  Zebra  OS-64 
Column  Board. 

Your  sysops  are:  Michael  Dove  —  BBS  Hardware  And  David  Solly  —  SIG's  &  Library 
This  BBS  operates  free  of  charge,  however;  complete  access  is  restricted  to 
registered  and  verified  members  only.  Membership  applications  and  enquiries  should 
be  made  at  the  Sysop's  Message  Base  or  in  writing  to:  Sysop,  Sir  Clive's  Castle 
3BS,   1402-1545  Alta  Vista  Drive,  Ottawa,   Ontario,   Canada.  K1G  3P4 

Hours  of  Operation  Sir  Clive's  Castle  BBS  is  in  operation  24  Hours  A  Day 
BBS  Software:  LARKEN  MaxBBS  for  the  Timex/Sinc lair  2068. 
Supplied  by  Larry  Kenny  of  LARKEN  Electronics 

RR  #2,  Navan,  Ontario 

Canada  K1B  1H9 

Tel:  (613)835-2680 


20  June  1990  SYSTEM  NEWS  AND  WHO  FILES 


Two  information  files  are  now  available  on-line  and  may  be  read  from  the  Main  Menu 
by  using  the  " (P)rint"  command  or  downloaded  by  using  the  (D)ownload  command. 

""hese  files  are:  NEWS.CT:     System  news,  Bulletins  and  Announcements; 

and,  WHO.CT:      The  current  Sir  Clive's  Castle  BBS  User/Membership  list. 
:?EN  ACCESS   ===========For  a   short  time   I   shall   be   opening  the   system  with  a 

special   log-on  and  password  so  that  all  callers  may  have  access  to  the  messages 

bases  and  the  up  and  download  area. 

When  asked  for  your  name  type:  Special  Guest 

When  asked  for  your  password  type:  Clive 

"f  you  have  already  been  assigned  a  log-on  and  password,  please  use  it.  u  you 
•ike  this  BBS  and  plan  to  be  a  regular  caller,  please  apply  for  an  individual 
password  which  will  allow  me  to  identify  callers  and  to  keep  the  stats  necessary 
for  efficient  running  of  the  system.  ^  . 

How  long  this  BBS  remains  open  and  whether  this  becomes  a  permanent  se--up  aepencs 
solely  on  the  conduct  of  the  callers  —  I  sincerely  hope  that  that  is  enougn  saic 
cn  the  topic . 

Meanwhile,  Enjoy  your  visit.  —  David  Solly,   Sysop        20  August  1990. 

User  list:  BOULT,  MARC EL \ BRANDON ,  ALVARO\ CAZARES ,  ROBERT \ DAVIS ,  MIKE\DAY , 
"HARLES \DOVE ,  MICHAEL  ( SYSOP) \DOVE,  SYDE\FOSS ,  LEO\GAGNON,  BRUNO\ GAGNON , 
^EAL\HARMER ,     EILL\HILL,      PAUL\HOLDEN,     CLEM\HUMPHRES ,     ROD  \  KEN  NY ,     LARRY\KENN"i  , 


JOHN\SCHIMX£,  ROBERT\ SHADE ,  ROBERT \ SOLLY ,  DAVID  (SYSOP)\TEN  HOLDER,  IRIS\WARD,  Tin 
L.\YEO,  LORETTA 


File  Library  Help 


An  option  called  "File  (L)ibrary"  has  been  added  to  -.he  1 h.lp  files  J*ieh  ~y  be 
reached  by  typing  "H"  at  the  Main  Menu.  This  option  prints  a  detailed  1 isting  of 
all  the  files^ava^ilable  for  downloading  at  the  time  of  posting.  The  file  itself  may 

£3  2  ssss  «'rir  as»E?aS5  Hi 

Upload/Download  disk. 

Pascal  Programming  SIG 

David  Solly,  your  f r "end ly=sysop=at=Sir^ live' s  Castle  BBS,  would  like  to  create 

TxTp/c^  U.^l^'S  hP  f 
best  to  exploit  the  HiSoft  Pascal  package,  programming  problems  specific  to HiSoft 
Pascal!  and  Pascal  programming  itself.    Those  of  you  "^"interested  may  leave 
a  message  at  the  Sysop's  Message  Area  or  in  writing  to:    By sop.  Sir  Clive  s  Castle 
BBS,   1402-1545  Alta  Vista  Drive,  Ottawa,  Ontario,   Canada,   K1S  3P4 

A  reminder  that  there  are  a  number  of  Pascal  source  c°*\J\}%%r£t\fs\%°n  *** 
Up/Download  disk.     Pascal  files  can  be  recognized  by  their     .PS  extension. 

TS  1000  File  Transfers 

The  svsons  would  like~to~welcome  any  of  you  who  have  called  the  system  using  the 
Timex/Sinclair  1000  or  2X81.  He  regret  that  at  the  moment  we  can  not  supply  you 
wi?h  fuTtrWei facilities  and  would  like  to  make  a  special  request  that  you  do 
"J  .£*„Lt  to  do  file  transfers  using  the  unmodified  version  of  Wymil  Mini-X-Mode 
Sfhlve'tLVed  th/ K^muTini-X-Mode  'package  extensively r  on  this :  BBS  and ^ave f  ounc 
that  not  only  will  it  not  transfer  files  but  is  more  than  likely  to  cause  a  sy-tem 

We"ave  also  had  little  luck  with  Fred  Nachbaur's  ZX-Term*60  modem  package  which 
uses  a  high  resolution  SCRAM  board.  Although  we  have  been  able  to  get  programs  to 
usino  ZX-T»rm*80  we  have  not  been  able  to  download  anything.  If  any  of  you 
know  of a  fix for'either  one  of  the  above  packages  or  know  of  a  new  modem  package 
for  the  TS  1000  we  would  "like  to  hear  from  you. 

UPDATE !  MAGAZINE 

Update!  Maaazine  is  still  alive  and  well  although  Bill  Jones  has  stepped  do.n  a. 
publisher."   The  new  publishers  are  Frank  and  Carol  Javls; 

Subscriptions  to  Update!  are  US$13  ana  should  be  mailed  to. 

Update  Magazine 

P.O.  Box  1095 

Peru,  In 

USA  46970 

This  i«  about  the  last  of  the  great  Timex/Sinclair  magazines,   folks!    When  it 
is  gone  there  wUl  be  no  more  so  show  Frank  and  Carol  your  support  ny  subscribing 

and  mailing  in  those  articles  and  programs^     ^  ^  .  * 

*.  — 

Taken  from  the  Oct   1990   issue  of  SWYM,    the  newsletter  of  the 
Seattle  Area  T/S  Users  Group. 


IDefauli  dwiea  on  the  oil 
Say  you  are  writ ting  a  program  and  It  Is 
Important  to  know  from  which  device  the 
user  l«  running  It.  What  can  you  do? 

If  tht  uttr't  QL  It  equipped  with 
TOOLKIT  II,  then  It  Is  possible  to  set 
the  default  devices  for  the  program  and 
the  data  and  retrieve  them  with  the 
functions  PROCDS  and  OATADi.  But  If  the 
user  don't  set  default  devices  then  we 
are  out  of  luck. 

One  solution  to  this  problem  Is  to  look 
In  the  system  variable  area  to  determine 
from  which  device  the  QL  was  booted.  The 
following  function,  B00T.DEUICE*,  will 
retrieve  that  information. 

DEFlne  FuNctlon  BOQT.DEUICE* 
po Inter 1-PEEK.L (164096) +16 
po Inter2-PEEK_L  <po lnterl>  +36 
length-PEEK_U<polnter2> 

FOR  i«8  to  length 

bt-bSfcCHRS (PEEK  < 1+ leng th+po in ter2) > 
END  FOR  I 
RETurn  bin." 
END  OEFine 

The  first  variable,  P0INTER1,  contains 
SU.FSDEF  which  give  us  the  address  of 
the  file  system  physical  definition. 
From  this  address,  we  read  the  variable 
P0INTER2,  called  FS.NMLEN  In  the  QL 
TECHNICAL  GUIDE.  This  word  gives  us  the 
length  of  the  boot  device  name.  From 
that  point,  all  we  have  to  do  Is  to  read 
the  device  name  with  the  PEEK  function. 

Type  in  the  function  B00T.DEUICE5  and 
try  the  following  command  to  test  Iti 

PRINT  "QL  booted  from  " |B00T.DEUICEl 

For  txample,  the  BOOT.DEVICES  function 
can  be  used  In  a  menu  program  to  detect 
from  which  device  the  QL  was  booted 
from. 


IflL  Tipl 

To  load  a  machine  code  file  In  memory, 
we  have  to  proceed  in  3  steps i 

1 .  reserve  some  RAM  w I th  RESPR 

2.  load  the  file  with  LBYTES 

3.  execute  the  machine  code  with  CALL 

For  example,  we  have  a  game  called  YOYO, 
which  represents  5080  bytes.  To  start 
the  gams,  we  typei 


by: 

Real  Gagnon 
8286  St-Hubert 
Montreal  <Que> 
CANADA  H2P  123 


a-RESPR <5000> 
LBYTES  mdvl.YOYO.a 
CALL  a 

It  is  possible  to  do  the  same  thing  with 
only  1  or  2  commands. 

-with  TOOLKIT  III 

LRESPR  mdvi.YOYO 
-without  TKII i 

LBYTES  md v 1 .YOYO , RESPR (3000) : 

CALL  RESPR (0) 

that  way  we  don't  have  to  declare  any 
variable  and  It  Is  faster  to  type. 

I  Special  ejects  with  £51251 

The  appearance  Is  Important,  even  with 

software.  Let's  see  some  techniques  to 

make  the  look  of  our  programs  more 

pretty. 

The  command  CSIZE  Is  used  to  change  the 
character  size.  The  syntax  Is  simp  lei 


CSIZE  [channel] , width, he igth 

The  width  parameter  can  be  0,1 ,2  or  3. 
The  he igth  parameter  can  be  8  or  1. 

Uhen  used  alone,  CSIZE  Is  boring  but 
with  a  judicious  comblnaison  of  INK  and 
PAPER  the  result  can  be  quite 
Interesting.  Try  thlsi 


i.7 


0PEN#3 , scr_200x30al 93x23 
PAPER#5,8i  INK#5,7i  BORDERS, 
CLS#5 

CSIZE#3,2,1:  INK#5,4? 
PRINT#3,"fhe  Quebec  Link" 

Ok,  now  If  we  use  the  OVER  function  and 
the  CURSOR  command,  the  result  Is  a 
totally  unexpected  and  very  good 
looking! 

0PEN1 

PAPEIk    *w.*     ,     ™,-,r      .  .w,wmv, 

CSIZE#5,2,ii  0UER«5,li  CLS#5 
test*-"The  Quebec  Link" 
CURS0R#3,1,1  :  PRINT#5,testS; 
CURSORS, 2, 2  i  FRINTft5,test*f 
0UER«5,-i 

CURS0R#5,1,1  i  PRINT#3, tests j 
CURS0R#5,2,2  :  PRINT#5,test$; 
CSIZE*5,1,0 

Try  to  experiment  with  different  PAPER, 
INK  and  CSIZE  values. 


>ISH  MODES 

The  screen  problem  reported  by  Robin  Beaumont 
in  the  July/Aug  '90  issue  of  Sinc.link  is  really 
due  to  deficiencies  in  the  North  American  NTSC  TV 
system.  If  you  have  ever  visited  Europe  you  will 
probably  have  noticed  that  the  quality  of  the  TV 
pictures  on  quite  ordinary  sets  is  as  good  as  you 
get  over  here  on  a  premium  model  like  the  Sony 
Trinitron  series.  This  is  due  to  better  colour 
handling  (PAL)  and  the  fact  that  there  are  625 
instead  of  525  lines  per  screen,  and  it  is  the 
latter  that  causes  Robin's  problem  (and  anyone 
else's  who  uses  a  QL  with  an  NTSC  TV!).  The 
difference  does  carry  over  into  the  computer  world 
too  since  the  basic  IBM  screen  is  200  lines  against 
256  for  the  QL  or  Acorn  BBC  -  but  most  monitors  can 
cope,  with  a  bit  of  vertical  size  adjustment. 

There  are  differences  between  the  PAL  TV  and 
monitor  mode,  but  they  are  minor  compared  with 
those  on  the  JSU  chip  for  the  NTSC  TV  ««de  (The 
monitor  mode  is  the  same  on  both. )  In  PAL  TV  mode 
the  top  16  lines  and  32  pixels  down  each  side  are 
omitted  since  they  are  not  normally  visible  on  a  TV 
screen,  but  this  is  just  done  by  choosing 
appropriate  WINDOW  sizes.  and  using  larger 
characters  (CSIZE  2.0).  In  line  terms  this  means 
that  there  are  25  lines  on  a  monitor  (with  six 
spare  lines)  and  24  in  TV  mode  since  the  characters 
are  10  pixels  high.  The  screen  memory  is  mapped 
in  the  same  way  for  HON  and  TV,  and  even  if  you 
have  pressed  F2  on  boot  up  you  can  access  the  full 
screen  using  the  WINDOW  and  CSIZE  commands.  Many 
commercial  programs  seem  to  use  the  full  screen  and 
try  to  avoid  putting  anything  too  important 
the  edges  where  TV  users  might  not  see  it.  (The 
small  0.0  characters  must  be  reasonable  legible  on 
most  PAL  TVs. ) 

However.  the  situation  is  much  more 
complicated  with  a  JSU  ROM.  In  NTSC  TV  mode  there 
are  only  192  lines  available.  So.  so  as  to  keep  a 
24  line  screen  the  TV  mode  uses  characters  only  8 
pixels  high,  omitting  the  two  blank  lines  of  pixels 
between  characters  that  normally  appear  in  monitor 
mode,  making  the  text  rather  cramped.  In  fact  the 
JSU  character  set  is  different  from  all  the  others 
to  make  this  easier,  descenders  are  only  one  pixel 
instead  of  two,  and  underlining  runs  over  them. 
In  addition  the  memory  is  mapped  onto  the  screen 
differently  in  TV  and  monitor  modes  and  you  cannot 
restore  the  full  monitor  screen  after  pressing  F2; 
you  can  get  the  full  width,  but  not  the  height. 
This  means  that  programs  not  specially  written  to 
take  this  into  account  behave  in  the  way  that  Robin 
describes,  only  the  top  192  lines  are  visible,  the 
bottom  64  cannot  be  seen.  In  my  experience  the 
Psion    programs  that  come  with     the  machine  are  the 


only  commercial  ones  that  allow  for  the 
peculiarities  of  the  JSU  ROM,  although  it  is  not 
that  difficult  to  write  programs  that  can  adapt  to 
all  three  formats.  (All  the  major  ones  I  have 
written  do ! ) 

As  long  as  you  are  not  in  two  screen  mode  with 
a  MINERVA  ROM  then  PEEK( 163890)  returns  the  value 
of  a  system  variable  SV.TVMOD  that  tells  you  the 
mode:  0  for  monitor,  1  for  PAL  TV  and  2  for  NTSC 
TV,  and  you  can  make  use  of  this.  (Unfortunately 
there  is  a  bug  in  the  JM  ROM  which  corrupts 
SV  TVMOD  when  the  MODE  command  is  used,  but  that's 
another  story,  and  you  can  code  around  it.  I  The 
procedure  in  Listing  1  is  an  example  of  the  sort  of 
thing  I  mean.  It  defaults  to  the  PAL  TV  mode  and 
defines  global  variables  mon,  pal,  ntsc,  and  hcX 
that  can  be  used  elsewhere  in  your  program.  (Make 
all  variables  LOCal  unless  there  is  a  good  reason 
for  not  doing  so!)  A  way  to  avoid  the  JM  bug  is 
also  included.  N.B.  these  are  NOT  Sir  Clive's 
default  windows 

The  variables  mon,  pal  ntsc  and  hcX  are  made 
global  because  they  are  sometimes  useful  elsewhere 
in  a  program. 

There  is  another  screen  problem  with  the  JSU 
ROM.  the  SCALEd  graphics  commands  like  LINE.  CIRCLE 
etc.  use  a  different  vertical  to  horizontal  ratio 
from  all  other  ROMs.  This  means  that  graphics 
mixed  with  text,  or  commands  like  BLOCK  which 
address  pixels  directly  may  not  come  out  in  the 
right  place.  (In  case  anyone  needs  to  know  the 
values  are  0.62659  on  the  JSU  and  0  7380  for  the 
others,  you  can  adapt  programs  to  the  JSU  if  you 
multipy  all  X  parameters  in  the  affected  commands 
by  the  ratio  of  these  two  numbers  -  I  forget  which 
way  up  it  has  to  be,  but  try  0.8490  it  will  soon 
become  obvious  if  it  should  be  the  other  way! 
Tedious,  but  it  does  work;  I  have  converted  a 
couple  of  programs . )  Get  in  touch  with  me  if  you 
want  more  information. 

Vertical  hold  and  flicker  problems  are  due  to 
the  60/50  Hz  difference.  As  far  as  I  can  see  in 
monitor  mode  the  JSU  chip  thinks  it  is  in  Europe 
and  uses  50  Hs.  My  Axdek  300A  monitor  has  a  long 
persistence  phosphor,  and  is  rock  steady,  but 
cheaper  monitors  and  TVs  using  video  input  may 
require  vertical  hold  adjustment  and  may  give  an 
unpleasant  10  Hz  flicker.  Since  TV  mode  is  OK 
this  must  be  60  Hz. 


Howard  Clase, 

Box  9947.  Station  B, 

St  John's, 

Newfoundland, 

CANADA,  A1A  4L4. 


Tel:  <709)-753-6415 


Listing  1 


10  REMark h.   j.  clase  1986.10.11  " 

12  DEFine  PROCedure  Uwindows 

14  REMark  Adjust  windows  for  monitor  or  TV  (European  or  N.  American) 

16  REMark  20  lines  in  windows  #1  &  #2.   hc%  =  height  of  characters 

18  LOCal  i,f ,w%,x%,y%:  mon=0 :   pal=0:   ntsc=0 : REMark  GLOBAL  VARIABLES 

20- WINDOW  512,256,0,0:   PAPER  0:   CLS  :  REMark  

22  f =PEEK  (163890):   SELect  ON  f 

24       =0:  w%=512:   hc%=10:   x%=  0:    y%=  0:  mon=l 

26       =2:  w%=448:   hc%=  8:   x%=32:   y%=  0:ntsc=l 

28       = REMAINDER  :   w%=448 :  hc%=10:   x%=32:   y%=16:  pal=l 
30  END  SELect   :   Moad  8* (NOT  mon) 

32  WIND0W#2, w%,hc%*20+2*mon,x%,y%:   PAPERtf2,4:  INK*2,0 

34  WINDOWS,  w%,hc%*(  5- (NOT  mon)) , x%, y%+hc%*20+6*mon :   PAPERtfO , 2 :    INKttO , 6 

36  WINDOWtfl, w%,hc%*20+2*mon,x%,y%:   PAPER  0:   INK  4: 

38  FOR  i=0,2,l:   BORDER* i, mon* (NOT (NOT  i)),0,6:  CLStfi:  CSIZE#i,0,0 

40  END  DEFine  Uwindows 

42  REMark " -----  -  

44  DEFine  PROCedure  Moad(n%) 
46  REMark  A  nasty  pun  to  avoid  the  JM  mode  bug! 
48  LOCal  v:   v=PEEK( 163890 ) :  MODE  n%:   POKE  163890, v 
50  END  DEFine  Moad 


he 


rjTn   Matt    Kiddo   of   the  Kansas 
u*u   area   T  S  Users   Group  has 
developed   an   overlay  for 
Pixel    Print    Plus  that 
fascinated   me.    First  I 
f>      couldn't    figure   out  how 
;       did   it.    I    wrote   and  he 

sent    me   a   tape   with   the  2 
columns   required.    It    was  done 
using   the   Professional  version. 
I    had   to   duplicate   2  "sideways" 
fonts    in   order   to   make  some 
overlays   of   my   own.     I    have  sent 
G.    Chambers   a   disk   with   the  2 
fonts   and   the   following  overlays 
Pixel    Print,    MScript,  Tasword, 
Artist    2   and   a   blank   one   so  you 
can   make   your   own.  <  V'ou   need  to 
have   RAMdisk<see   note   at  end>,a 
dot-matrix   printer   and   the  PP 
professional  software.) 


YOU 

KNOW 


5jjOU 


Above   is  the  screen  that 
would  see   if. you  had  the  Tasword 
left    screen    in   memory   and  the 
right    screen    in   RAMdisk   by  the 
exchange   command.    Uhen  you  print 
the   two  columns   with   Print -a-Doc 
yoy  ?sk  for  64  column  mode 
and   the   two   columns   are  printed 
touching.    A   nice   overlay   can  be 
made   by  making   a  xerox   copy  on 
card   stock.    Use  different  colors 
so   you  can   easily   identify  them. 
Thanks   go   to  Larry  Crawford 
Mitchell    and   George  Chambers 
Larkenizing   the  software! 
In   this   effort    I    hit    a  sad 
-Stan   Lemke   has   sold  all 
2063   hardware   and  software 
to.  lack   of    interest.    Uhen  I 
him   the   f airfare   fee  he 
I    was   only   the   third  person 


Bob 
for 

note 
his 
due 
sent 
said 


to 


respond. 

WE   SHOULD   SUPPORT   ALL  OUR 
SUPPLIERS.    If  you   are  using 
fair ware   please   send  those 
folks   $ome  encouragement. 
Below    is   a   sample   of  the 
Tasword    left    hand  column. 


2868 
some 
good 


The    "Dip   VOU   KNQU"  icon 
was. made   with   the    ICON  designer 
available   on   the   club  disks. 
Tne..^View     screen   was   made  with 
an   N  M I    screen   save,    and  the 
small    portion   of   the  keyboard 
was. made   using   the   screen  save 
option    in   PPP . 

•    Tbf^H^9!?t    hand   column  MUST 
be    in   RAMdisk   memory   or  you  will 
get    a   completely  black   print. Vou 
should   be   able   to   view   what  you 
are   about    to   print    befor  you 
select    print    from   the   Print  a 
Document    menu.    I    also  noticed 
that    when   you   load   a  document 
defination  file   the   names   do  not 
appear   until    you   have  chosen 
print . 

OTHER    PPP  NEUS 

*      -AMikS   felerski's  Sinclair 
Desktop   Publishing   Journal  will 
be    incorporated   as   a   feature  of 
Update   magazine.    (Refer  to 
sample    issue   in   S-L   vol.8  no. 4.) 
Me   is  no    Longer   taking  new 
subscriptions.   His   column  uui  I  l 
start    in    the   October    1990  issue 
of  Update. 

.        Mike   says   that    the   PPP  is 
still    alive.    He   reports  that 
a   version   6.0   is  a  possibility 
if   enough   interest    is   shown.  If 
you   would   like   to   see   it  kept 
alive   write  to: 
Save  PPP 

The   Sinclair   DT  Journal 
.  14 . Brushwood  Avenue 

45224nnatl'  °H 


I 


J hen  you  order  the 
Customized  PPP  from 
Steve   Spaulding  you 
also  recieve   a  new 
border   f ont - ! border4 
This   is  a  samp  1  e . 


Steve's  improvements  were 
reported  on  pages  33  and  34.  of 
volume   8,    number   4  of  S-L. 


Si*  2 

C  H-H- 


£3      Above  are 
jtti     some  special 
.  r*  characters 
Oro      included  in 
-»0     t  he    !  sybld.  Cf 
font    for  the 
7  keyboard 
o     overlay.  Ask 
r     George  for 
the   disk  no. 


I£~^ou   have   Pixel    Print  and 
no   RAMdisk   you   can   still  make 
the    keyboard   overlays!  Before 
PPP   was.Larkenized    I   made  one 
by  cutting   the   two   columns  out 
and    joining   them   together.  Just 
line   up   the   vertical    lines  and 
glue   or   tape   them   together  and 
run   off  a   xerox   copy    (on  card 
stock,  if  possible).    The  worst 
part    is  cutting   out    42  little 
rectangles   for   the  keys! 

In   town   members   can   see  the 
samples    I    sent  George. 


Les  Cottrell 


Cocoa,  FL 


USA 


ENJOV  !  ! 


TO 

o 


Game  Review  -  "King's  Keep" 


by  Jeff  Taylor 

Most  adventure  games  for  the 
Spectrum  involve  looking  at  a 
non-moving  picture  and  keying  in 
words  until  you  finally  hit  upon 
the  one  which  will  allow  you  to 
move  to  the  next  screen.  This 
can  lead  to  frustration  or 
boredom  very  quickly.  Now  try  to 
imagine  an  adventure  game  which 
allows  you  to  move  around  freely 
using  the  joystick,  picking  up 
and  using  objects  you  encounter 
along  the  way.  A  much  more 
enjoyable  form  of  game. 

King's  Keep  casts  you  as  the 
young  prince  trying  to  escape 
from  your  father's  castle.  You 
are  allowed  to  wander  throughout 
the  castle  acquiring  and  using 
whatever  you  find  in  order  to 
aid  in  your  escape.  Each  room 
contains  either  an  object  or  a 
person  which  will  help  you  if 
you  utilize  them  properly.  Many 
of  the  objects'  uses  are  not 
immediately  evident  so  some 
thought  is  required,  a  feature 
which  should  appeal  to  the 
purists.  There  are  four  rooms  to 
which  entrance  is  forbidden 
until  you  cast  a  spell  to  unlock 
them.  These  rooms  contain  the 
final  elements  you  need  to 
effect  your  escape.  Entering 
these  rooms  before  you  assemble 
the  clues  needed  to  cast  the 
spell  causes  you  to  get  caught 
and  the  game  restarts,  so  don't 
try  it! 

The  game  can  be  played  using 
the  keyboard  exclusively  or  you 
have  the  option  of  using  the 
joystick  (  Kempston  or  Larken 
interface  )  for  movement  and 
keys  1  through  0  for  object 
manipulation.  An  interesting 
feature  is  the  very  effective 
use  of  drop-down  windows  to 
provide  information. 

TS2068  owners  can  play  this 
game  as  well,  however  you  will 
have  to  use  the  keyboard  to  move 
the  prince  unless  you  have  a 
Larken  disc  driver  with  its 
built-in  Kempston  interface. 


King's  Keep  is  an  enjoyable, 
sometimes  infuriating,  action 
adventure  game  which  will  keep 
your  interest  for  days  not  just 
a  few  minutes.  By  the  way,  if 
you  do  get  stuck,  club  secretary 
George  Chambers  has  the  solution 
to  each  clue  but  he  will  only 
give  you  a  couple  at  a  time. 
Just  to  keep  you  guessing. 


SL    ®  ill 


w 


DftMSEL's  BEDROOM 


The  DAMSEL  soys- 
"Oh  Qoodi   Sou  nove  found  »3, 
lucKy  chorroi  Hove. this  shorn  os 
o  toKen  of  roy  grot 1 tude. 


88 

m 

BS 


6TTIC  RIGHT 
The  scroll  has  a  roessoge  written 
on  it-  "To  cost  this  sleep  spell 
the  user  roust  6e  in  possession,, 
of  o  ticKlish  o6^ect  an<5  o  srooi  i 
coin. " 


BBI 


5VVVV 


BS 

us 

BS 

m 

BS 


6RM0UR  STORE 
Ouch  I  The  heat  froro .the  condie 
is  burning  your  t*;e£! 


The  C  Page 


By  Timothy  Swenson 


As  promised  last  month,  I'll  talk  about  how  C  accesses 
files. 

The  simplest  way  to  discuss  how  C  handles  -Files  is  to 
take  a  look  at  a  C  program  that  uses  it.  Look  at  program 
number  5.  This  program  asks  the  user  for  a  file  name.  It 
then  opens  the  -File,  reads  in  a  character  and  prints  it  out 
the  screen.     This  goes  on  -For  the  entire  file. 

The  program  declares  a  character  array  of  size  20  to  be 
hold  the  file  name.  It  then  declares  the  integer  fd  to  hold 
the  file  ID.  When  a  file  is  opened,  C  assigns  a  number  to 
it.  This  number  is  returned  from  the  f open  command  to  the 
variable  fd. 

Note  the  syntax  of  the  fopen  command.  The  file  name  is 
sent  into  the  function  along  with  a  string  that  specifies  if 
the  file  is  for  reading  or  writing.  If  we  wanted  to  open  a 
file  to  write  to,  we  would  have  used  "w"  instead  of  "r". 

The  next  couple  of  lines  checks  to  see  if  the  file  was 
opened  sucessfully.  If  the  file  was  not  opened  (there  was 
some  error  like  a  bad  file  name)  fd  will  be  returned  as  NULL 
(a  predefined  constant). 

Instead  of  using  getch  the  function  getc  is  used.  Where 
getch  defaults  to  the  keyboard,  getc  needs  a  file  ID  to  know 
where  to  get  it's  input.     In  our  case  we  use  fd. 

We  exit  the  while  loop  when  the  program  reaches  the  end 
of  the  file  (EOF).  After  the  program  exits  the  while  loop, 
we  use  the  f close  function  to  close  the  file.  We  must  tell 
f close  which  file  to  close.  If  we  do  not  close  the  file,  we 
say  loose  the  file. 

ft  prog  5  */ 
♦include  <stdio_h> 

mainO  I 

char  fileC203; 
int      c,  fd; 

printf ("Enter  file:  ">; 
gets (file) ; 

fd=fopen(file,"r"); 
if  (fd  ==  NULL)  i 

printf ("File  open  Error"); 

abort ( 1 ) ; 

> 

while   (   (  c  =  getc(fd)   )    !=  EOF)  i 
putchar (c) ; 

> 

fclose(fd) ; 


RKGTNNKRS  DON'T  KNOW  WHAT 

—  (it  is) —      THEY  flflWT  WW 


Recently  I  read  a  statement  to  the 
effect  that  "Beginners  don't  know  what 
they  don't  know".  And  after  I  re-read 
the  statement,  I  sat  back  and  thought 
about  it,  and  when  I  applied  the 
statement  to  my  own  situation,  I 
realised  just  how  true  it  was,  and  is. 

In  my  own  case  I  started  into  computing 
fairly  recently,  and  had  the  usual 
problems,  both  with  the  QL  and 
information.  When  I  asked    for  help,  no 
one  could  help  me.  Why?  because  they 
did  not  know  what  I  wanted  to  know. 
Why?  because  I  did  not  know  what  I 
wanted  to  know;  I  did  now  know  what  to 
ask  for,  except    HELP.  So  we  were  back 
where  we  started. 

Then  someone  suggested  to  me  that  I 
start  a  QL  library  in  the  club,  this  I 
did. 

The  programmes  started  to  come  in,  and 
I  was  flummoxed,  bamboozled,  dizzy,  you 
name  it,  I  was  it.  Gradually  in  the 
process  of  trying  out  all  the  stuff 
which  was  coming  my  way,  I  learned  a 
lot. 

I  learned  how  to  get    into'  the  various 
types  of  programmes  and  utilities.  What 
could  and  could  not  be  accomplished 
once  I  was  there;  I  learned  that  the 
way  to  computer  literacy  was  not  an 
easy  one,  or  one  which  could  be  learned 
easily.  Rather  an  ongoing  process  where 
one  obstacle  was  overcome  only  to  have 
another  pop  up  right  in  front  of  you. 

When  I  first  entertained  the  idea  of 
owning  a  computer,  it  was  as  a  tool  for 
record  keeping,  later  I  found  that  this 
was  just  one  of  the  uses  they  had.  I 
also  found  my  interests  were  changing; 
that  there  were  many  more  facets  to  be 
considered. 

Because  of  the  amount  of  material  being 
passed  to  me,  and  the  fact  that  I  was 
DOING  something,  made  me  more  critical 
of  my  actions  and  considerations.  I  had 
to  collect  the  programmes,  put  them  in 


sone  sort  of  order,  and  if  I  were  to 

make  a  catalogue,  I  had  to  know  a 
little  of  what  the  programme  did,  so 
that  a  thumb-nail  description  could  be 
made  tD  tell  others  the  intent  of  the 
programme. 

Soon  I  realised  I  had  to  have  some  form 
of  displaying  the  material  in  catalogue 
form.  This  made  me  look  at  the  Psion 
set  as  supplied,  and  of  course  I  was 
absolutely  forced  to  work  with  them.  I 
may  not  have  chosen  the  best  way  to  do 
it,  but  I  formulated  an  acceptable  form 
of  presentation.  To  me  at  any  rate. 

The  whole  exercise  meant  that  I  had  to 
work,  and  work  hard  at  that.  But  the 
end  result  was  I  had  a  working 
knowledge  of  many  things. 

I  also  realise,  now,  that  'way  back 
then  as  a  beginner,  I  did  not  KNOW  what 
I  WANTED,  or  NEEDED  to  know. 

Therefore,  I  would  advise  all  beginners 
out  there,  to  keep  at  it.  Try  all  the 
wonderful  stuff  there  is  going  around. 
Try  each  and  every  one  of  the  Psion 
set.  Learn  by  hands-on  experience. 

Bet  the  whole  darned  library  and  do  as 
I  did,  try  to  make  sense  out  of  it  all. 
Apply  it  tD  your  own  uses.  In  the 
process  you  will  find  how  to  do 

things  and  all  the  assistance  you 

could  dream  Df  is  there,  just  for 

the  asking. 

Subscribe  to  "UPDATE" ,  probably  the 
best  magazine  in  North  America,  for 
information  for  beginners  and  experts 
alike.  (Apart  from  our  own  NewsLetter 
of  course)  Learn  from  the  experts. 

I  had  a  slight  advantage  I  must  admit, 
I  had  tD  go  through  a  lot  of  stuff 
which  was  duplicated  under  a  different 
title,  was  faulty  in  some  form  or 
another.  In  other  words  I  had  to  be 
critical.  I  was,  and  I  learned. 

We  are  only  beginners  because  we  are 
beginning,  and  we  "Don't  know  WHAT  we 
don't  know" 

Hugh  H.  Howie. 


HARDWARE    Ti  IBRARY 
IX)  WK  HKKD  A  HARDWARE  IiIBRARY  ? 

Tfi  TTTCITC  A  DKSTRE  FOB  ONE  ? 

For  some  time  I  have  been 
pondering  if  there  is  enough 
interest  to  form  a  QL  Hardware 
Library.  If  so,  I  would  be  happy 
to  try  and  set  one  up.  How  do  you 
folks  out  there  feel  about  it? 

My  perception  is  that  it  could  be 
set  up  in  a  similar  manner  to  the 
present  QL  Software  library,  and 
would  be  part  of  that  library. 

All  material  submitted  should  be 
accompanied  with  adequate  printed 
text,  explaining  the  whys  and 
wherefors.  There  would  have  to  be 
a  clear  and  precise  legible 
diagram  with  a  list  of  all  parts 
used,  and  with  values  clearly 
indicated.  Too  often  when  I  read 
some  of  those  articles  I  find  that 
the  clarity  is  far  from  what  it 
should  be. 

As.  I  am  no  Hardware  Hack,  I  would 
not' be  able  to  assess  the  value  or 
accuracy  of  anything  submitted. 
All  inquiries  for  further 
information  would  have  to  be 
directed  to  the  person  submitting 
the  article.  This  would  mean  that 
the  documentation  would  have  to 
contain  the  name  and  address  of 
the  donor /author. 

Owing  to  the  fact  that  there  would 
be  a  considerable  amount  of  Photo 
Copy  involved,  and  travelling  to 
and  from  such  place,  there  would 
have  to  be  a  charge  for  this 
service.  It  must  be  remembered 
that  the  equipment  we  use  is  our 
own.  This  applies  to  our  secretary 
and  our  Editor,  to  every  one  of 
the  Committee,  we  have  to  look 
after  it  and  are  responsible  for 
the  repairs  thereto  ourselves.  Our 
services  are  voluntary. 

My  suggestion  is  a  charge  of  $1 
for  this  service,  (per  project)  as 
the  library  would  all  be  on  paper. 


Submissions  would  in  some  cases, 
who  knows,  perhaps    in  all  cases, 

be  used  in  the  NewsLetter,  as  and 

when  space  permitted. 

As  I  stated  earlier,  the  QL 
Hardware  Library  would  become  part 
and  parcel  of  the  present  QL 
Software  Library,  and  the  contents 
would  be  listed  in  that  catalogue. 

There  are  a  lot  of  projects  out 
there,  and  I  think  it  would  be  a 
good  idea  for  a  clearing  house  for 
them.  Perhaps  I  am  in  error,  but 
who  is  to  know  unless  an  attempt 
is  made  to  gather  them  and  make 
them  available  to  all. 

Comments  (and  projects)  will  be 
welcome. 

Hugh  H.  Howie 
QL  Librarian 
586  Oneida  Drive 
Burlington.  Ont. 
L7T  3V3 


PKKKfi  PKRKS 

With  TK2,  if  you  want  FREEJiEM  you 
type  "Print  Freejnem"      (  85504  ) 

If  you  type  "Print  PEEKJj  (163856 )- 
PEEKJi( 163852)  you  will  get  a 
different  answer.  (  86016  ) 

BUT... Where  did  the  512  come  from? 

With  512K  added  the  figures  are 
600064  &  600576.  A  difference  of 
512K. 

With  a  program  loaded  the  figures 
are  371712  &  372736.  A  difference 
of  1024  ! 

By  the  way,  this  is  an  easy  way  to 
find  Free_Mem  if  you  do  not  have 
TK2. 

H.  H.  H. 


Service  Charges  for  SINCLAIR/TIMEX  Computers  effective  January  1_>  1990 

Prices  no  longer  include  shipping  and  handling  charges. 

Shipping  charges  will  vary  depending  upon  weight,   distance  and  method. 

I  will  ship  via  the  cheapest  method  unless  you  specify  otherwise. 

The  minimum  shipping  and  handling  charge  is  $2.00. 

There  may  also  be  a  surcharge  for  repairing  modified  equiptment. 

The  minimum  surcharge  is  $5.00. 

Definition  of  modified  equipment:   Any  Circuitry  changes  on  the  inside  of 
the  equipment  case  that  involved  the  addition  of  components,  wires, 
integrated  circuits,   or  hardware.   Customers  who  send  in  computer  equipment 
that  has  had  modifications  done  to  it,  which  change  the  manufacturer's 
original  design,  must  pay  the  additional  surcharge  for  repairs. 

1 .     The  following  items  will  be  repaired  for  $5.00  each  ±  parts  &  shipping: 
TS-1000       ZX-81       16k  Ram  Pack       Any  Memotech  Module 


2 .     The  following  items  will  be  repaired  for  $10.00  each  +  parts  &  shipping: 
TS-1500       TS-2040       TS-2050       PC-8300       ZX-80       Any  BYTE-BACK  Module 

Z-SIO 


3 .  The  following  items  will  be  repaired  for  $15.00  each  +  parts  &.  shipping: 
TS-2068      SPECTRUM      A&J  Microdrive       LARKEN  2068  FDI  CUMANA  FDI 

LARKEN  1000  FDI  CST  FDI 

4 .  The  following  items  will  be  repaired  for  $20.00  each  +  parts  &  shipping: 
Rotronics  Wafadrive 


5 .     The  following  items  will  be  repaired  for  $25.00  each  +  parts  &  shipping: 
Sinclair  QL 


For  repairing  add-on  modules,   printers,   monitors,   or  other  computerized 
equipment  not  listed  above  -  write  for  a  price  quote  for  the  items  you 
want  repaired.    I  also  service  ATARI.   COMMODORE.   COLECO,   and  TI  computers. 

For  modifying  or  upgrading  any  computer  or  add-on  module  -  write  for  a 
price  quote. 

Customers  can  expect  a  4-6  week  turnaround  on  most  repair  jobs. 
Upgrades  and  problem  cases  may  take  longer. 

You  will  be  notified  of  any  delays  or  execessive  repair  costs. 

( over ) 


Instructions  for  sending  in  computer  equipment: 


1.  For  repairs,   please  use  a  seperate  sheet  of  paper  to  describe  in  detail 
the  problem  you  are  encountering,   and  whether  or  not  the  problem  is 
intermittent.   List  any  software  or  hardware  that  are  associated  with  the 
problem.   Also  list  any  modifications  that  have  been  done  to  your  equipment. 

2.  For  upgrades,  please  enclose  or  specify  the  magazine  article  or  other 
source  of  information  for  doing  each  upgrade. 

3.  You  may  include  a  check  or  money  order  as  a  deposit  for  repair  costs. 
You  will  be  notified  if  a  balance  is  due.   Over  amounts  will  be  refunded. 

4.  Carefully  pack  and  ship  your  equipment  to  the  address  below  via  UPS  or 
parcel  post.   UPS  is  usually  cheaper,   especially  with  heavy  items. 

DAN  ELLIOTT 
RT  1,    BOX  117 
CABOOL,   MO  65689 

Phone   (314)   739-1712  evenings,   Sunday  through  Thursday  till  10  PM  Central. 
Phone   (417)  469-4571  Saturdays  by  chance  till  11  PM  Central  time. 
VISA  /  MASTERCARD  accepted  with  4%  surcharge. 

(Charge  customers  must  provide  Acct.   #,   expiration  date,   and  name  on  card.) 


WHERE  CAN  YOU  GET  TS1000  SUPPLIES? 

Just  recently  a  young  lady  from  California  sent  an  envelope 
to  ISTUG  wanting  a  TS1000  catalog.  I  had  to  let  her  know  we  are 
a  user  group,  not  a  seller  of  software  and  hardware.  I  did  send 
her  a  small  list  of  places  to  look  for  these  and  hope  this  will 
be  of  help  What  this  brought  to  mind  is  that  it  would  be  a  good 
idea  to  publish  a  short  list  of  places  to  look  for  software  and 
other  items  for  the  TS1000,    ZX81  and  the  TS1500. 

CI)   Charles  Ridgeway  -for  software 
2816  Chestnut 
San  Angelo,    TX  76901 

(2)   SMUG  -has  a  fair  amount  of  stuff  from  Zebras  stock 
P.O.    Box  101 
Butler,    VI  53007 

C3)   RMG  -has  most  anything  you  could  want 
1419  1/2  7th  Street 
Oregon  City,    OR  97045 

<4)   EKSoft  -software  and  connectors 
F. 0.    Box  8763 
Eoston.    MA  02114 

Let  us  know  of  any  others  out  there  that  are  still  doing 
some  business  with  the  TS1000  and  we  will  try  to  get  the  word 
out  to  the  users. 


Bob  Mitchell 
20  Uild  Briar way 
yilloudele  Ontario 
M2J  2L2 
901117 


Dear  Les, 

If  you  load  the  AUTOSTART  on  the  enclosed  disk  and  then  read  the  help  file  you'll  get  the  drift  of  what  this  is  ail 

about,  ..  ,  „  . 

I  call  the  disk  Sideways  Fonts  and  it's  a  follow  up  to  your  work  on  the  overlays.  Hope  you  rind  the  mam  file  (redet.u:.. 

and  its  loadet^redef.Bb)  useful, 

Rp  entering  fpvt  into  the  overlays,  I  found  it  better  to  enter  each  horizontal  line  (or  part  line)  by  the  rather  tedious 
procedure  of  moving  vertically.  This  rather  than  your  option  which  became  confusing  when  I  altered  the  spacing.  So  you 
and  I  will  differ  there,  but  so  what?  Whatever  is  easier  for  the  individual  is  what  counts. 

t  Kh-p  h  roou  of  tsdfe  but  lack  th*  instructions  so  never  explored  it.  George  is  getting  me  a  copy  of  the  ones  you  sent 
him.  I  have  a  variety  of  disassemblers  and  switch  around  amongst  them  as  the  occasion  demands  because  they  all  have 
their  strength*  and  weaknesses.  I  like  to  work  in  decimal  so  I  gravitate  to  Spectramon  which  I  call  Monitor  for  the 
TO068.  1+  ha*  the  advantage  of  being  usable  with  RND/SEQ  filing  since  a  CR  is  sent  at  the  end  of  each  line  thus 
identifying  each  block.  It  doesn't  decode  Floating  Point  code  but  HOT  Z  or  others  will  do  that  if  needed,  it  doesn't 
have  a  search  facility  but  my  Editor  file  will  do  that  (in  hex).  So  there's  usually  a  way, 

George  is  looking  into  the  schematic  thing.  But  the  chip  number  you  wanted  is  74HCTLS-32N.  He  knows  what  is  in  the 
forbidden  area  (96  to  112  hex)  and  says  it  is  not  particularly  useful.  But  ask  him  for  it;  he  said  he  could  send  it  to 
Ken  if  it  would  be  useful  to  him. 

I'm  providing  the  cl»b  library  with  a  copy  of  the  enclosed  disk.  If  you  find  any  bugs  in  it,  let  me  know.  By  the  way  I 
fixed  up  your  "sidew.Cf  in  a  couple  of  spots  where  the  characters  were  too  thin  (eg.  the  letter  Y).  My  version  is  on  the 
disk:  as  !side>.Cf.  I  also  made  the  m  and  the  u  narrower  and  more  like  the  ones  in  Spectrum. 

All  the  best  to  you.  Keep  in  touch. 


Bob. 


Bob  Mitchell 
20  Wild  Er  i  ar way 
Willowdale  Ontario 
M2J  2L.2 
901020 


Dear  Les, 

Thanks  for  sending  along   the  overlays,    a  truly   fine  application 
of   Pixel    Print   Professional.    George  gave  me  a  copy  of  your  most 
recent   disk  with   the  various  columns  so   I   am  ready   to  do  some  of 
these  myself.    I    have  used  my  Exacto  knife   to  cut   out  the 
rectangles.    I   really   know   Tasword  and  Mscript   by   heart  now 
(almost)    but  now  and  then   the  overlays  will    come   in   handy  for 
little  used  commands ,    etc.    It's  the  seldom  used  programs  where 
the  overlays  will   be  most   appreciated.    I'm  thinking  of   Zeus  for 
one?    Profile  and  Vu-Calc  are  two  others   I'll    have  a  go  at.    I  did 
a  modification  of   the  Mscript  overlay   to   include  some  new  stuff 
(H  for   help?    f   for   fullest  after   pressing   C   for   catalogue?   M  for 
move   (alias  Rename)   and  0  4  for  Drive  Select. 

This  turned  out  OK  although   I   must   admit   it's  a  bit   hard  on  the 
neck    leaning  over   to  read  the  sideways  characters.  Just 
k  i  d  d  i.  n  g  !  . 

So  once  again,  applause  for  a  fantastic  job  to  both  you  and  Matt 
Ki  ddo  i 

I    checked  out   the  Mon i tor /Disassembler  which    is  quite  good 
considering   how  few  bytes   it   takes  up.    Have  you  done  a 
conversion   to  2068  ROM  by  any   chance?   If  not,    I'll   have  a  go  at 
that  as   it  would  be  a  useful,  variation. 

ye   had  a  fun   time  getting   PPP   into  working  shape?    Larry  Crawford 
(London  Ont)    did  the  essential   work   to  make  the   bank  switching 
work.    George  and   I   added  some   frills  here  and  there.    We  were 
sorry   to  hear   that  Stan  Lernke  had  abandoned  the  whole  project 
an  d  so Id  off  all   his  T  i  mex  gear. 

I    have  just   finished  doing  some  revisions   to  my  Omnibus  disks. 
One   is  for   those  club  members  who  do  not  sport  a  RAMDISK  and  a 
QUAD  drive  but  who  have  two  drives  one  of  which   is  DSDD.    It  has 
a  neat   trick   built   into   it   that  stores  the   drive  numbers  of  two 
drives   in  addresses  26666  and  26667  and  so  makes  switching  more 
automatic  and,    since   these  addresses  are   in   the  systems  —  - ,.. 

variables  area,    makes  getting   back    to  the  Omnibus  disk-^easier 
(ie,    from  other  BASIC  programs  on   the  disk). 

I    have  not   built   this  device   into  my  Quad  version  of  Omnibus  and 
doubt   that   I   shall.    My   latest  version   is  2.10  and  has  a   lot  of 
niceties  and  other  user -fr i end ly  operations   that  make  the  whole 
disk  easier   to  use.    Many  of   these  frills  are   included   in  the 
DSDD  version. 

Using   the  Larken   Random/Sequential    filing   system    (disk  version) 
enabled  me  to  do  the  2068  ROM  disassembly    (55   tracks   long)  and 
the  exrom.    I    put   these  on   a  Quad   disk   along  with   some  tutorial 
ma  t er  i a I „ 

If   any  of   these   things   interest  you,    let:  me   know  and   I'll,  be 
happy   to  send  you.  copies. 


It's  doubtful,  if  my  wife  and  I  will  be  corning  to  Florida  this 
winter  but  if  we  change  our  minds,  it'll  be  for  a  month.  Will 
let  you  know- 

Meanwhile,    best  regards. 


Bob  M  i tc  he! 1 


7  u RONT  0   "!'  1  \  \\::.  X  ■•  B  1  H  C !  A I  R  LiSE  RB    CL  i  i  B 
0  i :  i  .;  i  L  m;-  r    2D  *  ';  99! J 

14   Richome   Court  * 
S  c  a  r  b  o  r  o  u  g  h  *    0  n  t .    ii  1 K  2  Y 1 

I  e 5    Co   i  •  e  I  i 

I  Q'd   R  i  ,  er    He  Lgh  !  =   Di  i  ve 

f  d< oa,    FL  32922 

L;£:'«;:i  !        LEE  * 

Though    I    have  had  several    letters   from  yen  i  recently?    I    have  not 

replied.  Partly  because  1  have  been  pretty  busy  lately.  But  J  see  that 
1  have  neglected  to  send  several  disks  off  to  you?  that  you  asked  for  * 
Namely  #25,  33!    and  32    (the  Byte  power  disk),.. 

I   also  have  to   thaffl-:   you  for    the  key  boar  d  matrices   that   you  sent  me* 

Bob*    I  arry  ?    and   the   club..    Of   course   the   club  ones  went    like  a  snap  the 

f  t  r  si:   mee  t  i  ng  ' 

Alas..    1    canned.,   make   propei    use  of    them-,    since   I    have  an  auxiliary 
keyboard  on  my   com  pi  iter  *    and   it   sits;  right   over    top  of   the  computer  . 

I    think    that   Bob   is  going   to  write  to  you   to    inquire  about  the 
easiest   way    to  use   the   si  dewi  se  character    set,,    He?   is   coping*    but    is  sure 
there    is  a    t  r  i  ck   of    to   to  using  it,, 

Actually    I    have  not    loaded  your   ma  t  r  i      progr  ams    i  nto   PPPr  „    and  used 
them.    I   simply   made  a   copy   a n  d  sent    it    'to  Bob,,    I    think    I    also  sent  a 

<:;  o  p  y    t  o  I  a  r  r  y   C  v '  a  w  f  (.  *  i  d  *    a  1  s  < „    I    i  i  a  v  e  m  a  c!  e  a  n  e  w   c  1  u  b   1  i  b  r  a  r  y    d  i  s  I ; 

number i    #37.;    which   wi  1  ]    hold  all.    the   data   filers  tub  i  ch  are   common    to   PP  + 
and   PPPr  ,,    Your    ..hi  st  ,    and   i  he    '  f  ont s '    di  st    t  ha  t    is    in   PP+  #10. 

Vi.,:ii.,i   asked  ahocci    the   •.  ompt  i  i  er  ,,    I-IgII,    as   I    said    in    the  newsletter  *  I 
mas   going   to   reduce  the  price  of   things    that   hadn't   sold*    by   25%   in  the 
next   newsletter.    So   I    thin!:    you   can   pick    one  up*    one  of      these  days. 

For    some   reason   both   computers   do  not   output    to  a  morn,  for  ?    i.e.  the 

men  i  tor    Jack   seemed  non  functional*    But    the  TV  output    is   good*    though  I 

am  spoiled  with  an  RGB  monitor  ,  arid  am  not  par  ticuiarly  enchanted  with  . 
the   colors'  1        Both   computers  are  equipped  with  a   reset   switch   which  is 

moun  ted  a  t   the  rear   of   the  computer .  *&Q~4S 

V 

Tire   best    computer    comes    in   it's  original    shipping   case?*    and  seems 

0  t  her wi  se  pei  feet.  I  tried  them  both  out  with  large  programs?  arid  they 
seemed  to  work  properly.  Tj  ieel  them  out  with  a  barken  system*  arid  with 
tape?   recorder  „ 

The   hesi    computer    comes    in    it's   original  J    shipping   case*    and  seems 
othei  wise   pei  fee  t .    no  s  i  yn  of    key  bard  wear*    and  ail    toys    fumed  ion.  Mas 
••••.11    !di>-  at  i  i-'-i ••»<•-!!  j  es    iiiC.luchi.riq  manual  •.    power    supphn    arid  e.orcis. 

^  50-3-1  El 

The<   sec  unci  ccffipu  ter    (the  one   1   originally   pr  i  ced  at   $50 )    has  some 

1  .-ibKifc-  =•  i  r,    f  3  ams »    The   key  boar  d  shows  no  sign   of    wea.t  *    the    I  eg  en  ds   are   i  n 
Bui    there    is  a   hide   in   the  up  pei    case    to   prcrvi.de  access 

sc'j  een   ad.  jus  ting   pert  s  =,    The?   bo !  ter  in   case   a  1  so    is   cut  away 
ua  i    of    h  he   RF   out  put    box .    Not    v  i  s  i  b  1  e    Pr  om    the   front  or 
here's  a  manual    to  go  with    it,    and    the   powei     supply.  I 
e  no   cot  cis    for    the   tape  recorder    err    TV  *    though    there    is  a 


pei  I'  Hi  !.  si •  a i 
i  one  of  t! 
i  :■  g  h  !  ad  M  if 
top,  though, 
i  i  n  h    t  h  e  i  e 


i  ! 


•  r  :i.  g  .i  n< 


I    think    I    have   descr  i  bed   them   fairly    critically,,    Take  25%  off  the 
or  i gin at    prices    w:i  th   each   successive  newsletter. 

I   may   .have   over  pi  iced   the  computers.    They   have  not    sold,,    I  thought 
the   time    the1   prices  were  good-    However-  ?    in   reducing   the  price   in  stages 
we'll    find  out    what   the  going   price  is, 

thf   ,::'( ( j  modem   had   been   modified   to  give    it    a  Sei  i  a  !    pi  m  '  ■>    per  some 
mods    thai    were  published   in  some  past   newsletters-    1    t  ui  neci    i  !    nv&r  to 
Rene  Br  uneau    to  see  what   lie   could  make  of    i  t.,    I    have   noi    5 pel;  en    '  ■■  ■  him 
about    it,,    I    was  not    sure    that    it  was  still      working   as   5  modem*    and  I 
was   not   going   to  gel    into  expei  imenti ng  with    i  t . 

Shall    close  o  f  f    now  and  get    the   disks  off    to  you. 

S  i  iicei  el  y  1 

Go  en  ge  Chambers 


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A*>jruJE\  ..•  Aii  ^oJp 


M  /civ,  M^'-^^^A 


September /October  1990 
September  8,  1990 
Dear  Out-of-town  members, 

All   you  Larken  RAMdisk  owners  may  be 
interested  to  know  that  we  have 
compl eted  the  mod  if  icat  ions  to  the  PIXEL 
PRINT  PROFESS IONAL  program  to  make  it 
compat  ible  with  the  Larken  RAMdisk.^  This 
work  has  bee  done  through  the  combined 
efforts  of  members  Larry  Crawford,  Bob 
M  it che 1 1 ,   and  myself.    It  makes  use  of 
the  first  chip  on  the  RAMdisk. 

The  program  is  on  disk  #28  in  our 
Larken  disk  library.   The  program  is 
"Fa irware" .    That   is  you  are  welcome  to 
use   it ;    if  you  I  ike  it  you  can  send  Stan 
Lemke  a  recommended  cont r  i but  ion.   So  by 
all  means  ask  for  it  and  try  it  out. 

In  connect  ion  with  this,   another  of  our 
members,   Les  Cottrell,   has  sent^  me  a 
keyboard  template  to  be  used  with 
PPProf.   Well,   actually  the  template 
pattern  can  be  used  with  any  program  you 
wish.    You  take  the  pattern,   xerox  any 
number  of  copies,   and  custom  ise  each  of 
them  to  suit  each  program  you  choose.  By 
custom  ise  I  mean  mark  in  the  function  of 
each  key  used  by  the  program.  Ask  for  a 
copy  ( copies). 

The  Indiana  T/S  user  group  have 
created  a  PP+  file  that  prints  out  this 
template.    I  am  hoping  to  get  a  copy  of 
it,    in  the  near  future. 

I'm  not     sure  if  I  mentioned  it  in 
the  last  news  I etter.  Stan  Lemke,  of 
PIXEL  PRINT  fame,   has  sold  off  all  his 
Timex  stuff,   and  has  gone  onto  other 
th ings. 

We  received  an  "offer  to  sell"  in  the 
mail  a  couple  of  days  ago.    It  was  from 
Paul  Bingham,   and  he  was  offering^  to 
sell  a  lot  of  stuff,    including^  Timex 
gear.    You  may  remember  Paul  Bingham  as 
the  author  of  a  series  of  articles  in 
Time  Designs  Magazine,   called  "Classy 
Front  End".    I  think  I  remember  him  in 
the  old  SYNC  magazine,   before  that.^ 
Well,    it  looks  to  me  as  though  he  is 
giving  up  the  candle,  also. 

We  have  another  disk  in  our  library. 
It    is  from  BYTEPOWER,   and  the  programs 
i  on   it  are  written  by  Kristian  Boisvert. 
He  has  placed  them  in  the  public  domain. 
The  programs  are  a  suite  of  Larken  disk 
utilities.   Quite  some  novel    ideas.  Do 
try  this  disk  out. 

Then  there's  another  disk,   #31,  whict 
cont  a  i  ns  a  suite  of  programs  for  doing 
various  electronics  calculations.  The 
programs  for  this  disk  were  supplied  by 
club  member  Ronald  Ginardi. 


,39 

And  another  disk  which  contains  a 
TS2068  ROM  d i sassemb I y ,   prepared  by  club 
member  Bob  Mitchell.     It  makes  use  of 
the  Larken  Sequent  i a  I / Random  Access 
program,   so  you  will  need  to  be  a  bona 
fide  owner  of  the  Larken  LKSR  LBASE  code 
to  make  use  of  this  disk. 

We  also  have  a  disk,    #33,  which 
contains  a  "pull -down"  menu  approach  to 
the  use  of  the  OMNIBUS  program  suite  of 
disk  #2.  Another  work  by  Bob  Mitchell. 
This  " pul I -down  menu"  program  has  also 
been  placed  on  our  "MENUS"  disk  #25, 

I  shall  write  about  these  new  disks 
in  our  next  news  I etter ,   but  this  will 
keep  you  posted  in  the  meantime. 

I  have  been  reading  a  book  by  Scott 
Meu/ler  called  U pgr  ad ing  and  Repai  r  i  ng 
Your  PC.  A  very  readable  book.    It  costs 
$35;   I  borrowed  a  copy  from  the  I  ibrary. 
I  was  most   interested  in  the  section 
about  disk  drives,   but   I  found  the  whole 
book  very  en  I  ighten ing.    The  author  heads 
up  a  service  company,   and  he  writes  in 
a  down  to  earth  manner. 

I  have  quite  a  bit  of  written  material 
about  disk  drives  if  you  are  interested ; 
ask  me  for  some  of  it! 

Our  treasurer  and  I  went  out  to  visit 
a  member  who  suffered  a  stroke  some  time 
ago.   Consider  yourself  I ucky ,be I  i eve 
me.  * 
Anyway,   Bill  and  I  brought  most  all  of 
his  Timex  equipment  back  with  us  to 
dispose  of.    I  have  put  an  advert   in  the 
news  I etter .    If  any  of  you  wish  to  add  to 
your  Timex  equipment,    this  would  be  a 
good  opportunity  to  do  so.    I  have  put 
some  suggested  prices   in  the     advert.  If 
it  does  not  sell,    I  shall    lower  the 
price   in  subsequent  news  I  et  t  ers  by_25%^- 
unt i  I    it  goes.    I  think  that  some  of  the 
prices  are  attract  ive.   Particularly  the 
drives.    They  seem  as  new. 

The  2  computers  seem  to  be   in  working 
order.    They  both  have  reset  buttons 
installed.   No,   both  of  the  computer  have 
the  TV  output  working,    but  the  Monitor 
output  does  not  seem  to  work  on  one  of 
them. 

And  there's  a  load  of  other  smaller 
items  that   I  habve  not  been  able  to 
list.    If  you  are   interested   in  adding  to 
your  collection,    ask  me  about  them.1 
Please  do,    I  don't  want  to  clutter  up 
this  column  with  the  details. 

This  may  be  your   last  chance,  so 
don't  say  I  didn't   warn  you.    I  shall 
quote  from  the  most  recent  C/CATS 
news  I etter,    the  PLOTTER": 


LARK EN  NEWS 
Larry  Kenny  tells  us  that  he  wilt  try 
to  have  another  35  cartridge  boards  made 
up.   He  said  that,    after  almost  two 
years,    he  hoped  that  the  company  that 
made  up  the  PC  boards  would  still   be  in 
business  and  would  still  have  the 
artwork  needed  to  make  the  boards.  If 
they  do,    we  will  have  35  more  systems 
ava  i I ab I e.   Unless  Larken  and  RMG 
Enter pr ises  receive  more  than  50  orders 
within  the  next  three  months,    there  will 
be  NO  MORE  LKDOS  systems  made  by  Larken. 
Maybe  we  can  get  someone  else  to  take 
the  product  on?  We  can  only  hope.  Order 
your  system  today,   or  you  may  be  out  of 
luck. "  End  of  quote. 


Larken  E I ectron  ics 
RR  #2 
Navan  Ont . 

CANADA     KU-B   I H9 

tel   (613)  835  2680 

I  have  a  back-up  Larken  LKDOS  i/f. 
Being  so  involved  with  the  club,  I 
thought   it  would  be  a  disaster   if  mine 
failed,   so  when  a  used     one  came  up  I 
grabbed  it.   well,   a  couple  of  days  ago 
my  system  stopped  writing  to  disk.  I 
have   installed  the  second  board,   and  am 
trying  to  figure  out  the  problem.  By 
chip   interchange  I've  determ  ined  that  it 
is  not   in  the  removeab I e  chips.   Even  the 
big  chip  tests  out  OK.   So  there's  where 
it  stands  at  the  moment.   Any  of  you 
serious  users  might  take  note! 

Another  news  I etter ,    from  the  Indiana 

F//r/n*r  Gr°UP-'   haS  a  *heet  "sting  Dan 
E"io-fs  repair  pricelist,    etc.   We  shall 

Ts't'lftoJ"  Alette":  Terns 

/     be.  clarifications  re  shipping 
charges  <$  minimum  charges;   the  repair 

a  bartaTnl  *»'  really 

I  have  picked  up  the  August   '90  issue 
It  lanV 13  C°m^ter  ^nthly  magazine 
It   looks  good.    Though  they  seem  to  be 
having  some  teething  problems.    They  have 
repeated  a  T/S  article  by  Richard 

'Zren°V',C  that  first  geared   in  the 
April    issue.    Then  one  month  they  put  in 
on  article  by  Bill  Ferrabee,   but  omitted 
a  listing  that  he  made  reference  to.  But 
issue™3  'n  evidence  tne  Allowing 

The  Sinclair  Milwaukee  User  Group 
newsletter,   SMUG.bytes  ment/ons  thQHf 

first    issue  of  the  UPDATE  maaazin* 


the  new  publisher,   Frank  Davis,  nas 
appeared.    The  newsletter  continues  wit, 
the  comment,    "It  has  Just  as  much,  if 
not  more     interesting  facts  and  aU 
on  all  Sinclair  computers" . 

claims  court,    to  trv         Z  small 
r.„.    i  *  •  '  Try  to  recover  some 

royalt.es  from  the  sales  of  his  tool 

of  tht  I*".'    t0  try  to  hoover  control 
of  the  book  so  that  he  can  market  it 

rlf'unn  d  °Tther  ^criber  has  got  a 
refund  as  well  as  the  back   issue*  til* 

oZt  Vf'j  I'-"'   HS  "'"*  *°     "e  orelon 
inform^- 'USt'.cJ-    '  <=<">  give  you  more 
,nformat,on   ,f  you  ulsh  to  fQ,,ow  ^ 

lh,eNoa.St2.  'SSUe  WS  kn°U  °f  »as  V°' 


Oregon  City.  »  VcT/rlT 

Anyone  for  Spectrum  games! I  Ask  for 
my  tapes/disk  listings. 
1  J^orkec 1  this  listing  up  using  Larry 
Crawford's   InterBank  DataBase  program 
on  d  isk  If 30.  y 

Something  else.   Bob  Mitchell  has 
updated  his  Pro/Fi,e  database  of  our 
newsletters.    These  Pro/File  files  now 
contain  all   the  data  for   issues  fro/ 
1985  to  the  present.    I  use  them  quite 
often,    looking  up  material   that  club 
members   inquire  about.     Ask  me  for  a 
copy  of  the  files. 

Also,   maybe   I  mentioned   it  before 
maybe  not.   Another  member  (sorry     /  ' 
can't  credit  him  at  this  moment ;' my 
pern%y',fai'.S,  mG)  haS  ^PPHed  me  with  a 

nSil    IS/J*  WhiCh  '°gs  every  episode 
of  the  STAR  TREK  series.   Any  Star  Trek 
fan  would  find  this  fascinating.    I  find 
it  staggering  that  we  have  a  member  who 
can  go  to  the  trouble  of  getting  all 
th/s   into  a  database  1 1 

Then  Larry  Crawford  says  that  he  is 
going  to  update  the   list  of  movie  titles 
on  his  Interbank  Database  file.  When 
completed   it  will   have  over  2500 
entries,   he  tells  me!   I  understand  that 
these  are  titles  that  he  has  viewed!  How 
he  finds  time  for  the   TS2068  is  beyond 
me  I