Skip to main content

Full text of "Sinc Link"

See other formats


SINC - LINK 





September - October 1986 vol. 











SINC-LINC IS A PUBLICATION INDEX 
OF THE TORONTO TIMEX- 
SINCLAIR USERS CLUB AND IS 
ISSUED 6 TIMES A YEAR. 
COPIES OF THE NEWSLETTER 
ARE $1.50 EACH FOR NON- 
MEMBERS, MEMBERS RECEIVE A 
FRRE COPY AS PART OF THE LARKEN DISK DRIVE 

$20.00 ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP 2068 ROM ROUTINES 

FEE. 10 FUNCTION DISPATCHER 


11 QSPELL REVIEW 


THE HACKER SCARE 

BOB'S NOTEBOOK 

TRS-80 CONVERSION 

SDS ASSY. INSTRUCTIONS 
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 


wh‏ هی ی يو ف 


NEWSLETTERS ARE EXCHANGE 
FREE OF CHARGE WITH OTHER AND OTHER TIDBITS HERE AND 
TIMEX-SINCLAIR USERS THERE... 
GROUPS. 


ALL MATERIAL IS IN THE 
PUBLIC DOMAIN AND CAN BE 
REPRINTED, PLEASE CREDIT 
THIS PUBLICATION AND THE 
AUTHOR IF YOU COPY 
MATERIAL. 


SEND CORRESPONDENCE TO: 
SINC-LINC 

C/O SEAN WENZEL 

757 VICTORIA PRK. AVE. 
STE. 302 

TORONTO, ONTARIO 

M4C 8 


FOR SALE: 


2 Word Processing Systems COCO compatible 


32k tape based, parallel print output, $120 
64k w/ 2 drives, parallel print output, $400 
Add $50 for 300 baud modem 

Contact Ian Singer at (416)699-6380 


TORONTO TIMEX - SINCLAIR USERS CLUB 


P O. Box 7274 Stn. ል Toronto, Ont., MSW |።3 
Canada 





medicine, law, or engineering, etc.-- really well anc 
can be “asked" to answer questions in these subjects); 
and the first time-sharing system which made computers 
more accessible to programmers. They also developed the 
first TV-like screens for computers which are so common 
today. Previously programmers basically had a typewriter 
with continuous paper to do their programming on. As 
Strange as it may sound, an activity which these 
programmers enjoyed partaking in was the deliberate 
"crashing" of their computer systems, This usually meant 
temporarily putting the machine out of order through 
clever means. The purpose of which was to find flaws in 
the system so as to correct it afterward. 

In the 1970's, 8.1.1. hackers were stil} around, but 
there was yet another type of hacker which grew into 
existance, In his book, “OUT OF THE INNER CIRCLE", 84171 
Langreth gives a very interesting adcount of the 
telephone hackers of the 70's, and their importance to 
the hackers of the 80's. The popular name given to these 
hackers at the time was phone phreak. The phreaks had a 
great interest in exploring the world-wide telephone 
network without paying the cost of making the calls. How 
was this possible? Around 1950 AT&T decided to base 
their long-distance switching system on a 
multi-frequency system, whereby audible tones were used 
to perform various functions such as opening lines, 
switching from local to long-distance trunks, and many 
other tasks which human operators used to do. Soon 
afterward, a blind 8-year old boy by the name of Joe 
Engressia discovered that by whistling at different 
frequencies to his phone, he was able to make it switch 
to a long-distance line, and he was able to make long 
distance calls for free. He did this for years, and in 
college he whistled up phone calls for his friends, Soon 
word got around about what Joe was doing, and others 
Started doing it. As a result phreaks started to spring 
up from everything from pipe organs to flutes to tape 
recorders. The activities of these phone phreaks were 
not entirely unlike the activities of the hackers of the 
80's which we will look at shortly. 

In looking at the hackers from these various decades 
one can see similarities in ali of them. They were 
usually young individuals who had a rebellious nature 
about them, They tended to stray from the confines of 
societal rules and regulations and can be viewed as 
somewhat mischievous. 1980's hackers are no differert 
than their predecessors in this sense. 


From SLUG, the St. Louisville Users Group newsletter, 
retyped by GFC 


TS 2068 SOUND ROUTINES 


GUNSHOTS: 
10 SOUND 6,15;7,7;8,16;9,16310,16:12,16;13,0 
20 PAUSE 60 
30 GOTO 10 


WHISTLING BOMB: 
10 SOUND 7,62;8,15 
20 FOR I = 50 TO 100 
30 SOUND O,1; PAUSE 3 
40 NEXT I 


“computer break-ins" 


THE HACKER SCARE 
by John T. Nguyen 
Part 1 of 3 

Back in 1983 it seemed like everywhere | turned I 
would find an article on kids breaking into computer 
systems, These stories were not limited to just 
magazines and newspapers. Television also gave these 
Stories a fair amount of air time. Being an avid 
computer enthusiast myself, I read and watched with 
interest at the illegal, but yet colorful activities of 
these kids (known as “hackers") and marvelled at how 
they had brought national attention to themselves, 
Everyone including government officials (Caspar 
Weinberger in particular) took notice of these teen 
agers and seriously looked at the threat they posed to 
the security of computer systems across the nation. 

Groups like the 414's made headlines by breaking into 
the computer systems of government installations and 
corporate agencies. From 1982 to 1985, these hackers 
received a great deal of publicity from the media. They 
were praised, criticized, and at times, feared. The 
public, by and large, did not understand the crimes 
these teenagers committed. As a result the nation as a 
whole had mixed feelings of fear and doubt about 
computer security and about computers in general. The 
period from 1982 to 1985 spans this period of 
"electronic uneasiness" or more specifically, the period 
of the “hacker scare”, 

If anyone has read an article about these teenagers 
they undoubtedly have stumbled on the word “hacker”, a 
term used to describe these kids wno break inte computer 
systems. 

Traditionally, however, the word had very different 
meanings. About 20 years back, "hacking" was used by 
early programmers to refer to the process of chopping or 
hacking a program down in size and thus make it more 
efficient at each turn, When “hacking” was used as a 
noun (f.e. hacker), it referred to someone who was 
totally devoted to computers and spent every waking 
moment in the computer room. In the 1970's "hacker" took 
on 8 more general meaning of “someone who works with 
computers in one form or another, more specifically in 
programming". Starting in 1982, “hacking” and "hacker" 
took on stil] another meanina, Reporters who wrote 
Stories about teenagers who broke into computer systems 
referred to them as "hackers". And every time "hacker" 
was mentioned, the connotation of 
was assumed, 


How did the hacker craze get started in the first 
place? To answer this question it will be necessary to 
go back to the early 1960's when the first hackers first 
into existance, These early hackers were young computer 
wizards (many of whome were school drop-outs) who were 
employed by the artificial -intelligence and computer 
research laboratories at ዞ,1,1, Because of their 
expertise, M.I.T. hired them to develop sophisticated 
software and hardware. These hackers were a strange 
group of people who ate and slept at strange hours, but 
their devotion to computers resulted in some of the most 
important advances in computer science. They were 
responsible for writing the first chess-playing 
Programs; the first “expert system” (this was a program 
which was programmed to "know" a Subject «such as 


L 


ft 





ነኛ 


bas مل‎ puk ራዛ 


”لن )( کم ek‏ 
7۰ 


ک ‏ ےج 6 بن 
۔ 410015 


This set 35 then mowed to the 
Hew address and then addresses 
2368677 are POKED with valves 
ish and ጨፍው-፦3» 


Uhen you Wari ٤ use the ١858۶ 
Make sure you pici 5 RAM 5ያፎሠ= 
Which wiii mat ር185585 wath the 
58=5፲ር program or ony ether Bz 
You afre Going te ኒ5=22 55» 


















When your Frog mt 

30u 953 14 ha¥e 2 

Wirth the ۶ئ ج۳‎ ጨ 

the Sint ont‏ ج۶ ۶ئ3 ع3 

ia? 3 Zt is Best #fi¢ 
REE Èr s&t iF 55ኝዓ Program 

YOR ህ5ህ8119 make 3 2384 CG 

This may be done iF ህጊከፍ፣ Foals 
than the ane described sbave. 
For example, wou couid “move 
the COde ic 3 5፤ሂ55፤5 adadretsis 
and Save it iù BR, then “toad” 
it aiong with ጓ ro program ach 
LIME ዛ6ህ USE Bi. OF cauid 
mut the Cede in ሯ state- 
ጠፍካክሂ5ጁ 5894 FOKE ጊ E ጅ፣ቹሯጅፎኗ"ፖ 
address eath ኒቲ 5 Gad yaur 





FUE’ aie 


in the Avgrse z 
about the ON ERR 
Srectrum has af 
Line 5 GF ኗህወኒህጩ 
ع۲‎ 3 {obvi GUS iy? 


br 
ta 
۳ 
i 
an 





In Rename (fame 

Found thst om EZ 
rupi routine? Cai 
aCCGMFEiiShEd bu: 





598 Let ፍ3 35 ard ሂኗቓወቼፍ Gt Lint 
=፳5. This ROB rail if thé fame 
FOr Both TSEBSS and Sreciriwh. 3። 
CHEE you are interested I used 
my EGETGR program icopy 388 Ciub 
tape Library? to search for the 
siring ۳8۹ ithe Erasable inrter- 
rupt bytes. The Brth icak z 
cecand af Sû ia Bie three 
iecatiaons if the tire ROM. 
BOR HITCHELL SEF 35 





45ፍ GF 


you ٤٥٥ 
From ሄ 
{Gad 


ር ur ፣ 


w 


ጄጄ 
ing 
سے بس‎ 
ziz 
ሙዔሙ 
TE ያ 
kæ D 
ጅ5 ኒ53 


፡ 


بک رد 





ቁ سم‎ ወ. 


44.2 


ካሣ 





Woe 


8 ፌኤ ኑ*- 





ዘ 
ا‎ 


fade 


ا6 


malba: 


wo St 


7 


جیا اق ١۰ط ቁሬ‏ ان RE‏ 
ሚ‏ ا سد 
- 


.= رو‎ ٣ ' 


۸.۸ 





MAA ;ጄ (7) 58. 


عم 


bod “1 


AMD ea ie بی‎ 5፡) 


bow the (5: raath je‏ پا ب۳٣٣٣‏ ب۶ 


ዘ 
be boe س۲سزت“‎ pee 





رک 1خ 


am 


“ 


re: 
+ ئ‎ 
LOS 
£ ahd 
= whe 
exifa : 5 
h 211095 code 
different z 
it was grigi 
the Loader m 
E Features tł 
ct 5 Font bł 
direciory = 
318818 ۲: siar 
GU ۔ ع 5ئ 5ع‎ 
T YO input 
5 gddress ai 
GHIZED, ster 
gULGMmalicaii 
፳/5. These 5 
ፍ5ድፎ5 ፎ254ዱ5.ሥ 
the “move” 


hs 


فا 


Lo Ca 


: ا‎ 
aoe Me e 


۳ ضر بج እ"‏ 


RI 


ፓች 


FFF 
Sia 
REN 
ms b 
236 
add 
uk: i 


RO bee O O چا‎ Pat تق‎ eet 


4 


at 


ف۳ اف ط ار ارات ادا .89 تال 


ሁራ 










Conversion for Sinclair is: 
20 GOTO (50 AND X=1)+(60 AND X=2)+(70 AND X=3) 
Type in exactly as written, the AND 15 ANDing a 
memory value and is necessary. 50, 60, and 70 are the 
lines jumped to.....change them to suit your program. 


MTERM TIPS 


I've noticed a lot of M-TERM tips and thought I'd 
list a few: 


#1:**** TO SET M-TERM RAMTOP**** 


When you enter M-TERM with a PRINT USR 54016 it 
CLEARS and sets RAMTOP at 54015, To CHANGE THIS just 
POKE 54024,103 then POKE 54025,191. 


#2:””።*** TO CHANGE BUFTOT****** 


POKE 61166,70 and POKE 61167, 190 The two byte 
number you want to get 15 a number that WHEN 26710 14 
SUBTRACTED from it, will give the answer of what you 
want your BUFTOT to be. It is a good idea to make it a 
couple of hundred bytes LESS than the actual space 
that's available so that there's WORK-SPACE ROOM to 
use when you exit to BASIC and save to disk or tape, 
It stops the worrying about WHEN to save. Just wait 
unti] the “buffer full” signal.. 


NOTE** THE ABOVE POKE VALUES ARE FOR A RAMEX DISK 
"MDOS;0" BUT... THEY WILL WORK IN ANY SITUATION 


#3:***** TO AUTO=RUN RAMEX “MDOS;Q" پیی٭٭٭‎ 


Usually, when you inittalize the “MDOS;0" you're 
returned to Copyright Message and have to enter your 
next command. To get past this, do PRINT #4: LOAD 
“MDOS80" CODE:: POKE 49647,201: RANDOMISE USR 49644. 
The “201" poke makes it possible to do other commands 
after initializing. .Jike loading “M-TERM"CODE: PRINT 
USR 54016 and then maybe load your REPEAT DIALER 
program or whatever, 


#4: READ SAVED FILES WITH A LOOP 


You don't need to have M-TERM loaded in order to 
read files... A loop like FOR J=26710 to 48999: PRINT 
CHR$ PEEK J;: NEXT J: will do it. The same loop with 
this addition, IF CHAR$ PEEK J = 13 THEN LET J = 8 +6 
(before the PRINT) 15 handy to check on how you are 
doing when preparing FILES with LINE #*s and REM's but 
you have to change the loop start to 26715 (or you'}} 
be off by six) I hope something here will be of help 
to you.... 


Downloaded from Compuserve Data Library August by Greg 
Lloyd 


185-80 TO 2X81 CONVERSIONS 
by George Chambers 
from W.J. Henry material 


CONVERSION FOR READ/DATA: 


Original 80۔۲۸۶‎ sample Program to be converted. 


1000 DATA 1,4,28,123,730,4040 
1010 DIM G(7) 


1020 FOR J =1 TO 7 
1030 READ 6(3) 
1040 NEXT J 


To convert we store the information (data) in a string 
Sample 151000 conversion, 


1000 LET C$ = "000100040060012307 304040" 

{note the zero groups) 

(sets up array) 

(picks out the data items from 
the data groups) 

1040 LET G(J) = VAL A$ (4*፲=33 TO 4*J) 

(the key to the whole operation) 

(gets the next data item) 


1020 DIM G(J) 
1030 FOR = 1707 


1050 NEXT J 
What we have done 15 to take a substring from the 


C$ string containing the data items. 


TRUNCATE: 


To convert the following functions LEFT$, RIGHTS 
MID$, TL$ from TRS-80 to Sinclair. 


Use the following conversions: 


TRS=80 SINCLAIR 
LEFT$(A$,N) A$(1 TO N) OR AS(TO N) 
RIGHT$(A$,N} AS(LEN ጳፄ=ክ+1 TO) or 
A$(LEN A$-N+1 TO LEN A$) 
MID$(A$,M,N) A$(M M+N-1) 
TLS (A$) A$(2 TO LEN A$) or A$(2 TO) 


In all of the above cases, what we are doing is 
simply slicing a string expression mathamatically, I 
believe it is known in the manual as slicing or 
truncating. In LEFT$ conversion this returns the 
first (N) characters, starting at the first character 
from the string A$. A study of the other conversions 
will show a similar procedure. 


JUMPS - Converting the ON GO TO command: 


Conversions for the ON-GO TO statement. 
The ON GOTO statement in the TRS-80 15 in the form: 


ON (algebraic expression) GOTO Nl...eNn , where N1 to 
ዘክ are a list of program line numbers, The expression 

is evaluated, control of the program continues at the 
line number whose position on the list is the integer 


of the expression. 
۲85-80 example... 


20 ON X GOTO 50,60,70 (IF X=1 JUMP IS TO LINE 50, 
IF X=2 JUMP IS TO LINE 60, IF X=3 JUMP TO LINE 70) 


Ré 1 Neg (Brown, Black, Green) 
R7 22K (Red, Red, Oraage) 

RB 4,7۶ (Yellow, Violet, Red) 
፪ፃ ፲፪ (864, Black, Orange) 


Capacitors as smal! as possible 

C1 isut 25V Electrolytic 2 each 

ር2 2201 14V Electrolytic Axial 

ር3 Slat (8.12) 2 each 

ር ۱:7010 Tantalum ፥/- 55 (16886) 2 each 
ር5 #.ፀ47ዘ፥ (473 oF .#47ዘ) 

66 8.82204 (2232 oF §.822) 

ር7 ፅቹ፤ Tantalum ፥/- 55 (488K or 68?) 


IC's and Diodes 

101 555 8 pia 

[ር2 4136 

Di ۱۷4۱498 diode 6 ea 





Miscellaneous 

Jusper wires for PCB 

3,588 panel sount sono earphone jack 3 each 

፲, 588 aono earphone plug oa 12°-16" card 

Cassette case a 

Label 

Circuit Board 

SUS software and manual (included with system only! 





Circuit Boards are available from Integrated Bata Systens, 
38 Srockwount ዘፈ. Toronto ሸዳ 701 tor Sif + PST + 86 
PLH. The complete systen is 858 ¢ PST + ۶1.58 PeH. Otter 
expires 11/38/86, 


TIMEX 2068 REPAIRS 


Quotation from a letter I received from one of our our 
out of town members, Ylad Treka. 


“To describe my odyssey with the computer repair: 
I sent the computer to Arkansas on June 6, 86 and ! 
enclosed 8 money order for $30 (US). The computer was 
in it's original box, minus the ROM chip, which 
survived the mishap (unplugging the 00), so I kept it. 
I received acknowledgement from Timex on July 18,86. 
Before 1 mailed the computer to Timex | took it to 
Customs Office and I had the serial number registered, 
The computer came back finally on Aug. 25, 86. I had 
to pick it up from Customs, and from the amount spent 
for the repair, $29.95 (US) I paid duty and Federal 
tax = $6.76. The computer looks brand new (probably 
15) and the box contained everything that comes with a 
new computer: book, power adapter, cords, and the 
TV-Computer switch (hook-up)" 
G, Chambers. 


SUPER DATA SAVE 
The SBS filter and software are designed to be used with 
the 2X81 ፲518፪8# to give a save load speed of 16K in 29 
seconds. In addition to this it verifies Saves, saves 
loads data blocks only, loads named programmes or data 
blocks, scans a tape for named programmes or data, gives 
bytes free and renuabers basic programmes, 


SDS FILTER ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS 


Install all resistors, then capacitors, thea diodes then 
T's. Install a jumper in the position sarked J. 


Wire a 3,588 jack to the position earked E, 18 the normally 
closed position, for the monitoring earphone. Wire a ۵8 
jack, in the sormally closed position, for the ፃፃ 
Timex/Sinclair power supply. 


Nodify the cassette case by taking apart and removing the 
two protrusions that keep the cassette in place. Brill a 
hole in each end 2fee from the edge that opens so that the 
jacks can be installed. Drill a Jaa hole 3#፪8 from the edge 
an the right end. Run a wire with 3.5mm plug through the 
hole just drilled and wire to the % points on the PCB. 
Run jumpers fros these points to the ፃህ ሽር output jack 
observing proper polarity. Install the jack om the right 
side of the case. Run a wire with a 3588 plug through the 
computer ear hole in the case and install to the 
appropriate points. Rua a wire with a 3,588 pleg through 
the cassette ear hole in the lett side of the case and wire 
to the appropriate points ዐዘ the PCB. Rua awire with a 
3.5um plug through the computer ear hole in the right side 
af the case aad wire to the appropriate points on the PCB. 
Install the jacks in the case. 


Test the unit. If any problems check all soldering 
connections, wiring and component polarity and positioning. 
Especially check the two diodes at {the filter output as 
these may blow if the filter is powered down before 
removing from the EAR jack on the computer. Insert the PCB 
in the case along with the label, ٣۶55588016 the case and 
seal shat. 


Software and manual copyright P. Hargrave. Filter design 
copyright P. Hargrave with manufacturing rights owned ከሃ 
Integrated Data Systems. Copying of all ar any part of the 
SBS system, or reproducing it withoet our permission, is a 
violation ot copyright laws. 


PARTS LIST FOR SDS FILTER 


Resistors 1: 

Ri {80K (Brown, Black, Yellow) 3 each 
R2 18K (Brown, Black, Orange) 

R3 128K (Brown, Red, Yellow) 2 each 
RA 24K (Red, Yellow, Orange) 

85 5.4K (Green, Blue, Red) 


COMPONENT FIRE) 








/ ሽ zar 
+ 
4 oe ጋ 5.) 
INPUT ሬ42#2፦ፖ2፦ TO 
FROM gue ہے‎ COMPUTER 
CASSETTE  ሬጋሠጋሪፖና 
ZAR 


7e - 
To CASSETTE ጋፍ O COMPUTER FIR 








MOA TORS 
SRR OH CALE TAA 


TVPG th TACH 


IVP- To COMPUTER 






جک ہے سر SPs‏ 


| INT RRATS. PATA ITEMS 


6 


gps Ped PARTS ںہوہہے‎ ፖ 


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 


could write a very smart 
program that could program 


other computers. The 
development and application of 
an AI system that could 


program computers is one of 
the most difficult, and 
fascinating projects facing 
computer scientists in this 
decade. 


The development of an AI 
system would revolutionize 


automation.This type of 
automation would not be 
physical, but mental. In the 


near future, processes that 
require a logical examination 
of many facts, and require 
split second decisions, will 
probably be automated by an AI 
system. We might find this 
type of AI on assembly lines 
of the future. Consider this 
scenario: A GM car assembly 
line experiences a short 
circuit in one of its' robot 
workers. As a result plastic 
sheilding on a high voltage 
wire nearby is accidentally 
ripped and left bare by the 
malfunctioning robotic arm. To 
make matters worse, the 
resulting sparks have started 
a fire in the spray painting 
section, setting off the 
fire-warning-system. Instead 
of allowing thousands of water 
sprinklers to flood the fire 
and the live wires, the 
intelligent 

assembly-line-monitor, directs 
an alternate course of action, 
far less dangerous than the 
former. It sounds the 
evacuation alarm. When ail 
human workers have exited, it 
locks all human accessible 
doorways, sprays the 
electrical fire started by the 
live wires with CO2, and uses 
highly controlled water jets 


It seems that I have always 
been interested in "the study 
of how computers can be made 
to act intelligently," or in 
other words, Artificial 
Intelligence. But I suppose I 
really became interested in 
Artificial Intelligence, or AI 
for short, when I purchased 
my first computer, a Sinclair 
ZX81. I was fascinated by the 
way a computer could solve 


problems and follow 
instructions S0 precisely. 
However, I £ind myself 
becoming increasingly 


dissatisfied with all the new 
"high-tech" computer equipment 
I find myself surrounded by 
each day. What I am talking 
about is the problem of 
computer-programmers-headache. 
This is similar to "tennis 
elbow", or a runner's 
"athletes foot". It's nota 
new dilemma, but it's an 
annoying one. No matter how 
advanced the technology is 
that we work with, there are 
always some tasks that become 
tedious with time. There are 
many ways in which smart AI 
systems can be implemented to 
make life more enjoyable for 
everyone. This technology 
should not be feared, 
computers will always be under 
the control of man. Even 
though man will leave many 
tasks to machines to think 
about and perform, he will 
still have many tasks to 
perform that can't be carried 
out by any computer or 
machine. 


One of the major problems 
with computers today is that 
they are stupid. They have to 
be reprogrammed to perform 
even the simplest new task. It 
would be ideal if someone 


> 


LARKEN DISK DRIVES 
by Peter Hacksel 
247 Queen St. We, 

Toronto Ont , M5Y 5 
(416) 596=1-663 

Compuserve 73537, 1436 


After a four month leave of absence from the land 
of computers, (And land itself for that matter!) I 
have returned and so plan to resume my column, In ጠሃ 
last article I showed how to set up the Larken Drive, 
Now that you have your computer set up and having read 
the manual you now should be enjoying your drive. The 
Larken Drive is as we know somewhat limited in it's 
range of commands as compared to other drives. For 
example the Larken DOS does not support commands for 
such things as Random Filing, copy disk, etc. However 
there are ways of getting around such things. All it 
involves 15 a little understanding of how the LARKEN 
DOS stores it's information on the disk. 

For those who don't already know, a disk drive 
15 something 
like a cross between a record player and a 
tape recorder. The disk is made of a substance much 
like what is in a cassette tape however it is capable 
of storing a larger amount of information in a smaller 
area. The disk resembles a record in that the 
information is stored in a circular fashion and 15 
read by spinning the disk and placing the head of the 
disk drive onto the disk, The major difference between 
a record and a disk is that a record has one groove 
spiralling in toward the center label whereas the disk 
has a total of 80 tracks (40 on each side.) These 
tracks are separate rings and do not spiral. 

Fach track is labeled from 0-79 and may contain a 
total of 1960 bytes of information. The drive has a 
head on each side of the disk which moves back and 
forth across the disk by jumping from track to track. 

Now to keep track (no pun intended!) of all this 
information the 005 uses the first track (Track 0) 85 
a directory. On this track 15 stored a list of all the 
programs on the disk and where they may be found. 

For example let us say that you want to save a 
program that 15 500 bytes long on a newly formatted 
disk. First of 811 the DOS will check to see if there 
are any programs stored on the disk by looking in the 
directory. It finds that Track 1 1s empty and saves 
the program onto that track. the DOS then records in 
the directory the name of the program and the track to 
which it was saved. (in this example Track 1). Now 
although the program only used 500 bytes of the 1960 
bytes available on the track , the entire track 15 
reserved for that program and no other information may 
be stored there unless that program 15 deleted.Now let 
us say that we would like to save another program 
which is 6500 bytes in length. This will require 4 
tracks to save it.(We say that the program is 4 Blocks 
long) For this program the DOS will check the 


to extinguish the solvent fire 
nearby. After circuit and 
atmosphere tests show that no 
danger to humans remains, the 
doors are unlocked. Later, a 
complete emergency-diagnostic 
report is printed and filed, 
in unvolatile memory, for a 
permanent record of the 
accident. 


Fantasy? No, most of the 
technology described above is 
available now. In fact, 
systems similar to this may 
even be in existence today. 


I hope that this look at 
the advantages, and potential 
of Artificial Intelligence has 
given a greater insight into 
the current and future state 
of technology. We will benefit 
greatly from Al technology. We 
should not be afraid to leave 
a few, or many, decisions to 
machines if we have faith in 


our own intelligence and 
ability. 


ድ Author:Unknown 
* Downloaded from The Ascii Exchange 


SOFTWARE REVIEW 
Game: BOMBJACK Rating 9.5/10 
T/S 2068 with a Spectrum ROM catridge 


BOMBJACK is one of the best games of 1986. The 
graphics are the best I have seen. In BOMBJACK you 
are flying around the screen collecting bombs. You 
have to collect all the bombs before you go on to the 
next screen, There are flying birds that can kill 
you. Robots turn to flying saucers when they reach 
the bottom of the screen, 

After collecting 11 bombs a flying "P" comes out. 
After getting the "P" the birds and robots freeze up 
and you will be able to kill them. 

Once in a while a flying "3" comes out which means 
bonus, and a flying "ع"‎ comes out which gives you 500 
points and an extra Man to play. 

This game is very addictive, Sound effects are 
great, too. 


by Renato Zannese 


CALL 26EE+-DRAW X, ۶ 
The parameters must be stacked, and ۰۶ 
for CIRCLE. 


saved as 


CALL 2813==ዐክለዘ X,Y 
CALL with ABS X in ር, ABS Y in B, SGN X in E, and 
SGN ፣ in 0) and save ዘ'!! as above. 


CALL 2፻70==5፲ለርሂ STRING 

Passes the “parameters" of a string to the 
calculator stack as an argument for string functions. 
At entry, A holds 1 if the string is ‘simle", 0 if it 
is DiMenstoned ዕዮ a slice; DE holds the string 
address; and BC holds the length. 


CALL 2 EB2-<MULTIPLY 16 


This multiplies HL by DE, giving “Out of Memory” if 
the result overflows. 


CALL 2FAF=-UNSTACK STRING 


Retrieves the “parameters" of a string result from 
the calculator stack; address to DE, length to BC. 


CALL 3046H--ALPHANUM 


Returns with CARRY if A holds the code of a 
or digit, NO CARRY otherwise, 


letter 


Returns CARRY if A holds a valid letter code. 


CALL 3009166 


Returns with NO CARRY if CODE *0*ሬ: A>=CODE "9", 


CALL 30፪6--57ለር፪ 


A Converts the integer value in A to floating-point 
and puts in on the calculator stack, 


CALL 30ሂ3==3፲ልር።ጾ 


BC Converts the integer value in ፀር to 
floating-point and puts in on the calculator stack, 


CALL 3160H--UNSTACK BC 


Retrieves the top value from the calculator stack 
and loads it into BC 


CALL 31A1~-PRINT FP 


Prints the top number on the calculator stack. The 
use of the “floating-point calculator” (RST 40) is 
“beyond the scope of this article." Hopefully there 
will be another piece, after I test some of the more 
obscure functions. 


Wm. Linden 


USEFUL ROM ROUTINES IN THE TS 2068 


RST 8 (or CALL 8)-eReport an error. 

This causes the routine to halt, and report the 
error whose code is one MORE than the following byte, 
፻,9, RST 8 DEFB 8 15 a STOP (Error 9). OEFB 9 for 


ERROR A, etc. Useful for programming your own error 
reports. 


RST (or CALL) 10ዘ==ዞኮ1ስቲ CHR$(A) 

Prints the character whose code 15 in A to the 
current output stream. This can be used with all the 
“control characters" listed in the character set, 
followed by loading any necessary operand or operands 
into A and using another RST 10, I found that TAB 
requires two operands like AT, even though the second 
makes no difference! 


CALL 436 He=BEEP 

[0 do a BEEP X,Y, X and Y must have been 
sucessively placed on the calculator stack with the 
routines for that purpose. E.g. BEEP 1,30 LD A,} CALL 
3086 LD A,30 CALL 30E6 CALL 0436H 


CALL ۴۱۸۲۔73۲‎ MESSAGE 

ለ very useful routine for handling "ragged" message 
tables, The table should be at address TABLE, starting 
with a byte 80H, and with the last character of each 
message “inverted” by adding 128 to its code to mark 
the end, The routine is called with TABLE in DE, and 
the message number in A (The first message 15 "0"). 


CALL 8A6==CLS 

CALL 8A9--CLEAR LOWER SCREEN 
CALL 939H==SCROLL 

CALL 938--PART SCROLL 


Scrolls the bottom “8" lines, 
above intact. 


leaving the screen 


CALL 97F==PART CLEAR 
Similar to the last, but CLEARS the bottom 8 lines. 


CALL A 02--COPY 
CALL DID--NEW 
CALL 1230H--OPEN CHANNEL 


Load into A:l for lower screen, 2 for main screen, 
or 3 for printer and call this routine to direct 
subsequent output. Unless a PRINT or LPRINT statement 


is in the same BASIC line preceding the USR call, the 
lower screen is the "default channel" until another 
one is opened by this CALL. 


Downloaded from Compuserve Data Library August 1986 


by G.Lloyd 


THE FUNCTION DISPATCHER 
by Mike Lemyre 


The routine to call the function dispatcher í 
found on pages 214-216 of the Timex Sinclair 206 
Intermediate Advanced Guide Some people have bee 
unsucessful in finding a use for this uttlity. Howeve 
I was reading an article in the news letter of tr 
Personal Computer Club of Toronto; which dealt wit 
the I.B.M, function dispatcher when calling 0.0.5 
functions f noticed a similiarity between the tr 
utilities. The priciples to keep in mind are: 

1, Initialize machine stack, 

2. Push service code, 

3. Set up registers to function requirements. 
4. Call the dispatcher. 


Compare these routines, 


1.8۷۰ TS2068 

XOF ax,ax LD DE 0 
push dx push DE 
push ax push DE 
mov ah,2h 10 DE 135 
mov d1,38 push DE 
int 0٤8 ld A,38 
ret call 6200 

ret 


Both of these routines print the & character, Sor 
other routines that have been sucessfully called are: 


Service Code Function 
34 cis 
89 plot be 
135 print char 
141 cls 
142 serol? 


I will expand on the uses of subroutines an 
function calls in my next article. 
ERRATUM 
Disk Droppings 
In the last issue of the newsletter (4.4) there were 


8 
couple ዐየ editting errors in the listings in Grec 
Lloyd's article, “Disk Droppings". The two listings 
below are the corrected versions. 

1@>LET i=33282a 

20 IF PEEK i<32 THEN POKE i,32 
: LET i=i+1: POKE i,32: GO To 2g 

34 IF i>52488 THEN STOP 

48 LET i=i+1: GO TO 28 

1Ø>LET i=3328¢9 

28 FOR k= TO 419199 

38 IF PEEK (i+k)<32 THEN POKE 


(i+k), 32: 
AB NEXT k 


POKE ({itk+1),32 


directory and find that Track 1 has been used and that 
the next 4 availiable tracks are 2,3,4 and 5. The 
program is then saved to these tracks and it is noted 
in the directory that these tracks are reserved for 
the second program. When it comes time to load a 
program all the DOS does is simply move the head to 
Track 0, read the directory, find which tracks contain 
the program and then move the head over to the tracks 
and one by one read the program into the computer 
memory, If you decide that you wish to delete a 
program the DOS simply erases the name of that program 
from the directory. This means that if you try to load 
that program again the DOS will look in the directory 
and will not find the name of the program and assume 
that there is no program with that name on the disk 
and will return with a "NO FILE” error report. NOTE: 
When a program is deleted the name is removed from the 
directory but the data 15 NOT erased. This means that 
it is possible to recover this data provided that you 
do not save another program overtop of the data. This 
means that if you accidently delete an important 
program 1t 15 possible to recover the lost data. ۴ 
on this later. 


This should give you a very basic understanding of 
how the information 15 stored on a disk. With my next 
article we will investigate ways of using routines 
from the 00S to manipulate the data and increase the 
powers of the drive enormously. 


SABREWULF 
Some useful POKES for the game SABREWULF: 


Here is how to add these POKES: 

1, Load the first part of Sabrewulf, 
press break. 

2. Type: 

POKE 23756,i:CLEAR 65535 

3, Edit the line, move the cursor to the end and 

delete the 
PRINT USR 23424. 
4, Add line 10 with any of the following POKES: 


stop tape and 


POKE 43575, 255 for infinite lives, one player. 
POKE 45520, 255 for infinite lives, two players 
POKE 45599, 255 for number of initial lives = 
1 to 255. 
POKE 41725, 255 for no limit on gained lives 
5, Next add line 20: 
20 PRINT USR 23424 
and finally Run to load in the rest. 


from the Oct. 1984 issue of YOUR COMPUTER = page 36 


/ሪ 


by Larry Sadler 


The following is a quick review of QSPELL, the 
spellecheck program obtained from Curry Computer in 
Glendale, Arizona 85312-5607. 


QSPELL 15 a program that has a 25,000 word 
dictionary, with room to add an additional 1,000 
words. It has features that allow you to use it to 
solve crossword puzzles, anagrams, or other word 
puzzles that make many words from the letters of 4 
given word. It has patches to hook into Quill so that 
the output of QSPELL can be exported to Quill for 
correction. 


I do not recommend QSPELL for routine document 


writing. It is not an integral part of Quill. You 
write the document, save to cartridge, load the 
QSPELL, load the saved file, and choose between 


ignoring, marking, or adding each word of the document 
that is not in the default dictionary. QSPELL then 
creates a new file as named, which is then reloaded 
inte the reloaded Quill. The new document ከ85 
scrambled the words marked by the dictionary so that 
you can delete them and insert the correct word (if 
you can remember what it was!). 


The merit of QSPELL is {t's game and puzzle 
features, and that it can be used te check the 
variables in a program. Another advantage, for some, 
is the fact that you can create customized 
dictionaries of your own = 6.9.፥ jargon for a 
particular industry (computer, electronics, medicine, 
engineering, etc.). 


The demerit is that QSPELL 15 separate from Quill 
and does not provide for editing/correcting from 
within Quill. I suspect that this is because the 128K 
of standard RAM is not sufficient to accomodate a 
version of Quill that integrates a dictionary feature 
(or a Theraurus), The dictionary alone occupies 70K. 
Perhaps when the QL becomes standard with,say, 640K or 
so RAM, a new version of Quill wili be produced. Till 


them get a second opinion on your work before you send 
it out. 


EXPLOSION: 
10 SOUND 6,637,7;8,1639,16310,16312,56313,8 
20 PAUSE 90 
30 SOUND 8,0;9,0;10,0 


// 


133Fe=CLEAR EDIT LINE 
134EeeCLEAR WORK SPACE 
1354H==CLEAR CALCULATOR STACK 
1541]He@LLIST 
CALL 1545108-7 
CALL 15A1--PRINT LINE 
Print the program line whose ADORESS 15 in H Le 


CAL8 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 


CALL 1606+-LINE ADDRESS 
Enter with a program line number in HL. 
line address in HL. 


Returns 


CALL 1745H=<DIFFERENCE 


Loads 86 with HL minus DE, and switches HL with DE. 
Useful for finding string lengths. 





CALL 1788H-=PRINT NUMBER 
Print the number in 8C. 


CALL 1:04-00 ع‎ 
CALL ۸۶۲۔1۶۲‎ 
Pause for BC ticks. 


CALL 21DB-=PRINT STRING 


Print to the current channel a string of length BC 
at address DE. 


CALL 2603-=PIXEL ADDRESS 
Enter with C holding the graphics X coordinate and B 
holding Y coordinate . Returns with HL holding the 


address of the appropriate display file byte, and A 
holding the bit number corresponding to that pixel, 


CALL 263E--PLOT C,B 
Load X coordinate into ር and Y into 8 to do a PLOT. 


CALL ሪ6ፅዐ።። UNSTACK A 
Retrieve top value from calculator stack to A. 


CALL 2686H=--CIRCLE 
To execute CIRCLE X,Y ,Z, the three parameters must 

be sucessively placed on the calculator stack. Also, 
the routine corrupts H'L', which is needed for a 
return from a USR. Thus, it has to be used: 

EXX 
PUSH HL 

EXX 
LO A, X 
CALL 3056 
LD A, 
CALL 6٤6 
LO A RADIUS 
CALL 30፪6 
CALL 2686; CIRCLE X,Y RADIUS 

EXX 
POP HL 

EXX 


SEPT /4, 19284 


You may remember me telling you about getting some 
printer ribbon ink,and. starting to ink my own used 


ribbons. Well, it is working out pretty well. I am 
sometimes a Tittle too generous with the ink on the 
ribbon, but it is really going not too badly. They 


supply me with a pair of plastic gloves to handle the 


ink, I haven't used them, but I must say I should. 
Pretty hard not to get ink on the fingers. 

In the current newsletter there are a couple of 
comments about how disk prices are coming down, I 
bought a package of 10 for $8.28, plus PST a few days 


ago and this is better that either Ian Robertson or 
Greg Lloyd reported in their columns. I bought them 
from INTERNATIONAL MARKETING CORPORATION, 133 Midwest 
Road, Scarborough. (416) 759 6721. 
several 


I have put together folders containing 


material on different topics. There are binders for 
LARKEN, MODEMS, and Hacking, so far, If anyone 15 
interested in borrowing them just drop a Jine, You 


will have to ask you to return them quite promptly, 
because they are proving to be popular among our 


in-town members, but you should be able to Xerox any 
items that you are interested in, and return ît. 
I'm not sure whether you read the item in the 


newspapers quite recently about a new computer being 
It is being produced by 
Hyundai. Yes that's right, the auto-maker (I kid you 
not, to quote Jack Carson), It was in a business 
column. It is to be a sort of IBM clone, but cheaper 
than the other clone competitors. Being handled in the 


USA by the firm, BLUE CHIP ELECTRONICS, and sold 
through discount stores. 
I have mentioned to some members that I have 


made up several copies of tapes that I call "Games 
Tapes“. That is what they are; games for the 152068. 
There are 3 tapes; tapes 1 and 2 are for the Spectrum 
or the TS2068 with a Spectrum ROM; the other. tape 3 
is for the ፲32068,- Ask for one of them, if you are 
interested. I would ask that you not keep them for too 
long though. 


I mentioned in an earlier letter that our 
treasurer had suffered a heart attack. He has since 
had an operation, which was successful, and 15 due to 
go back to work in October, I believe. We have another 
member who has had the same kind of problem. Anthony 
Youatt, from Nipawin, Sask. had much the same trouble, 
8 heart attack, and he was to have been operated on 
about a month ago. I have not heard from him for some 


time, but I must tell you a little story, which left 
me feeling mortified. 


“testmarketed in the USA, 


Dear Out-of-town members, 


Every time that I sit down to compose this 
column I hope to be struck with an inspiration. It 
never happens and this time is no exception. 


We had a sort of a delay in the publishing of 
our newsletter during the past several months, However 
we now have a push on with.a new editor and we expect 
that we will have two more issues out by the beginning 
of December. That will put us back on track as far as 
6 issues a year goes, Fortunately we have several 
regular columnists who contribute a page, and that 
makes the whole task really quite easy. I pasted up 
the MAY/JUNE issue, and the new editor and myself put 
out this issue. It is only 12 pages this time because 
a couple of columns did not appear on time. However I 
expect that we will have no trouble in Filling 14 
Pages henceforth, 


Quite a bit of our letter jis filled with LARKEN 
stuff. I suppose this is natural because the more 
active members are often the ones who have the Drive, 
and they naturally want to write about it. Mostly, the 
disk systems that are offered for the Timex are really 
just a barebones 00S, without any particular utilities 
to take advantage of it's possibilities. The LARKEN 
system 15 no exception, The difference is that with so 
many active members in our club owning it, we are 
developing quite a suite of utilities to go with it. 

There is a disk DOCTOR program which enables one to 
look at the track makeup and to readily make changes 
On an individual bit basis. Then there is 
to facilitate the copying of programs on a single 
drive system. Bob Mitchell] has written a program to 
make it easy to change the name of a program on a 
disk; also another Program to maintain an index of 
Programs that one has on disk, Altogether a very 
exciting time. I am trying to pursuade someone to 
write a program to be used with the MTERM II program 
to allow for the automatic transfer to disk of the 
MTERM data buffer after it is filled up. This would 
allow for the collection of any amount of data via a 
modem. Just insert a new disk, when that one is filled 
up. Well, you see what I mean, 


a program 


One other thing, I see where I made a typo error in 
the last issue, where I said that 1 could hold 5 files 
on one disk, with the LARKEN, Larry Crawford, one of 
our members from London,Ont., took me up on that 
Saying that that wasn't particularly good; he could 
hold 8 files on his (OLIGER) system. I meant to say 50 
files, that is I have four files used for the Tasword 
program and 50 letter headers, that I call up when I) 
address a letter to an out of town member, That's 54 


files total Sorry about that L 
። arry; 
LARKEN!! f i e 


. “ፍሎ Met 


it 15 


Do any of you out there have a pottery friend. 1 
mean someone who mixes their own glazes, etc. I ask 
this because when I first bought my 2181 I ۱ 0 
programming by writing a masterpiece program to 
perform glaze calculations. Funny thing though, having 
done that, the program just languishes there because I 
know practically no potters to have them use it and 
marvel over it. Really I am dying to get it into the 
light of day, so if you know of someone who would be 
interested in it, gat us together. It was designed 
for the ZX81, and adapted for the 2068, Actually it 
is in the club library too, but I think computer nuts 
don't get turned on by pottery making, 

(I used to throw clay, until I became president of 
this club; now I don’t have time for it!!) 


Another of our members has sent me a letter which I 


understand was produced with a SHARP ርጅ-=515ዞ 
four-colour Printer Plotter. 1 mention this because 
he mentions that they are on sale at Total Office 


Systems, Unit 14, 1050 McNicol! Ave. Scarborough (493 
3575, for $99, Roy writes," I find it to be excellent 
for plotting and for the few letters I write." 

And the price certianly seems right! 


You might take note that Consumers Distributing 
have the COMPUDECK tape recorder in their current 
catalog. It sells for $33, and is very highly 


recommended by all of our club members, and the price 
is right also. It is not suitable as a normal 


recorder, because there is essentially no loudspeaker, 
in the normal sense, 


One of our jintown members, jin fact it is our: 
newsletter edîtor, Sean Wenzel, is setting up a 
bulletin board. It is almost ready to go; he is just 
waiting for a phone line. I hope that we can take 
advantage of it by creating a TIMEX section on it. I 
cannot tell you anymore about it yet but I hope that 
the next newsletter will have lots of information 
about 15. IT 15 not on a 2068, rather, I think 
an IBM clone, but what the hell, we aren't fussy, are 
we! We'll take it. 


Sincerely, 
George C, 


has built a digitizer for the 2068, 


Anthony called me one day, from Winntpeg, I think 
it was. Anyway my opening remark was," I haven't heard 
from you for so long, I thought you'd died.” 
Forgetting that he had written to me a while before, 
telling of his heart attack, I must stop using that 
comment, It was alright when I was younger, but it's 
getting too close to the bone now! ! 


For those of you who are able to make it to Toronto 
you may be interested in a computer show to be held at 
Harbourfront on Saturday, October 18th from 10 a,m, to 
6.pem. It is billed as “the computer show for the rest 
of us", home users, small businesses, teachers, 
students, hobbyists. Cost is $4. admission. I don't 
think our club will be represented; they want $40 for 
a booth, and that seems a bit much. We shall see what 
the membership thinks. But it 15 the sort of show for 
hobbyist types, 

Some of you may be wondering what the going price 
of a 2068 is these days. Well, I have been 
instrumental in getting buyer/seller together on a 
couple of occasions lately, where the selling price 
was $150. For our US members this is in $CAN, 


One of our former members has given me a number of 
old magazines. Seven issues of SYNC, 6 issues of ZX 
COMPUTING, I also have the seven issues of TIMEX/ 
SINCLAIR USER, which I am more relaxed about loaning 
now. So if you are intarested in borrowing a batch of 
them , say the word. Of course it goes without saying 
that you would pay the postage (expensive!); and I 
would like them back! I also have all the issues ዐየ 
YOUR COMPUTER magazine. I think I would send them 4th 
class, and that is quite a bit cheaper, 


One of our members, Eric Michaud, 1269 Andrew Court, 
Sarnia, ONt. 
With it he is able to pick up images from the output 
of another computer, a VCR or TY and capture/display 
them በበ the 2062, He uses the joyetick port ac the 
input connection. 1 mention this project of Ian's, 
because it 15 so fascinating, and because he would ከ8 
interested in hearing from others with a like 
interest. So do drop him a line if you are interested. 
Ha has sant me some of the images on a LARKEN disk, I 
made prints of them on My 2040 printer and took them 
to the club where they created considerable interest. 

Anyone know of a CHEAP video camera? Ian is looking 
for one for an extension to his project.