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Vol.4 No. 3 


TIEX-STHCLRIR USERS CLUB AND I MED 


TIMES A 









ANNUAL NEMEERSHIP FEE, 


NEVELETTERS BRE EXCHANGED, FREE OF CHARGE, 
WITH OTHER TIPEX-SIMCLRIS USERS GROUP: 


ALL MATERIAL D 
CAN BE REPRINTED, 


PRTERIRL, 


PARE Se =", 
CRETE RARE IU: 


E 


Attention: SINC-LINK Editor 
TORONTO. TIMEX-SINCLAIR USERS CLUB 
P.0,Box 7274 Stn. A, Toronto MSW 1X9 


EXECUTIYE OFFICERS 











PRESIDENT: 


TREASURER: 
TAPE LIBRARIANS: 





PUBLICATION AND THE AUTHOR F HU ORY 


SINC - LINK 


SINC LING IG ñ PUBLICATION OF THE TORONTU 


š 


YEAR. COPIES OF THE NEWSLETTER ARE 
BLDG EACH FOR NON-MEMBERS, CLUB MEMBERS 
RECETLE A FREE COPY AS PART OF THE Saa, 


at 


TH THE Pi Bu NORE A i 


TORONTO TIMEX - SINCLAIR USERS CLUB 


LENSLOK DESCRIPTION........ 


MAY/JUN 1986 


NEWSLETTER INDEX 


PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE...... PG 


PASSWORD ROUTINE... eee PG 


CONTROL CODES,.............PG 
ZX81 TIPS,...... e.o... ......P.G 
SINCBITS,.... aoaaa... eO PG 
ZX81 RESOURCES... PGS 
QUILLing ON THE QL.......PG 
BOB'S NOTEBOOK.... eee PG 
TS2068 TIPS...... een eO PG 
TS2068 WITH AN EXERCYCLE...PG 
LARKEN USER NOTES,.,....... PG 
ZX81 SCREEN ADDRESSING.....PG 
2068 SCREEN ADDRESSING.....PG 
THE HACKER'S ESCAPE........PG 
MURPHY'S LAWS... . eese see FG 
DISK DROPPINGS...... es PG 
TS2068 KEYBOARD LAYOUT.....PG 
NOVELSOFT AD...............PG 
PG 


George Chambers (416) 751-7559) 

14 Richome Court Scarborough, Ont MIK 2Y1 
Charles Urban 
"Robert Rosenzweig, 


Brian Milne 


PAPER LIBRARIAN: John Burns 

HOUSE CHAIRMAN: Help Wanted!! 

ACTIVITY DIRECTOR: Help Wanted!! 

LIAISON OFFICER: (Out-of-Town Members) George Chambers 
NEWS EDITOR: John Roach 


P. 0. Box 7274 am A Toronto, Ont., MSW IX9 









£ 
GD EDS seh. OY Su ee CIS: c T N 





PAGE 1 


PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE CONTROL CODES 
BY Barry Lindstrom 
This September will mark the near completion of our l 


4th year of club operation, It was in November 1982 The 2068 has a series of control codes that can 
that our club had it's beginnings. A lot has happened be easily used by the BASIC programmer, They are 
in that time. The club has grown from an original listed in the owner's manual on pages 239 and 240, 


dozen members to a current membership of about 130. and deal with the screen display. 

Where the club was originally composed of members 

from the Toronto Area, we now have about 55 members They can be used in two ways. First and 
living outside of Toronto. In that time also we have easiest, is to use them in the CHR$ statement; to 
built up an extensive paper and tape library 4n the Change the paper color to RED, for example, you 


club. Our newsletter has grown from it's initial 6 would print CHR$17 + CHR$ 2. Notice that 17 is the 
pages to the present 14 or 16 pages. We have moved character code for "PAPER CONTROL" and 2 is the 
several times in that period. number of RED (on your keyboard). You could even 


assign these to a string variable for convenience: 
What does the future hold for us? For one thing, Let A$ = CHR$ 17 + CHR$ 2, followed by a PRINT A$ 
there is a move in the works, Present indications are would do the same thing. 
that the new premises of the North York Memorial 


Centre will be ready in January. Coupled with this is The second way to use them is in a DEF FN 
an indication that the rent will rise by $20. This statement. If I had names or -some other 
may mean an increase in dues, or else a change in information stored in string variables and 
premises. I sometimes wanted them to "FLASH" when I printed 


One other troubling aspect is the difficulty in them, I would have DEF FN D$(NS) = CHR$ 18 + CHR$ 1 
getting members to take an active role in the club + N$ + CHR$ 18 + CHR$ 0 somewhere early in my 
operations. This problem is of course common to all program, The CHR$ 18 deals with "FLASH"; CHR$ 1 
organizations, However in the case of a self-serving turns it on, and CHR$ O turns it back off again, To 
organization such as ours, if there is a lack of use it, print FN O$("HELLO"), or what ever the 
interest in participating in the club operation it message is. 
brings into question the merit of the club's 
existance. : If you are careful you can combine quite a few 

Keep this in mind when the September annual meeting of these contro! codes in a string variable (or 
with it's election of officers rolls around. Offer function). Just remember to turn off any functions 
your services. you turned on, 


The following demonstration program shows each 
of the control codes that can be' used. 


PASSWORD ROUTINE Unfortunately, the “CURSOR UP" and "CURSOR DOWN” 
codes do not work for me. If you figure out how to 
By using the commands "ON ERR" and “GOTO" it is use them like the others, please let me know! ! 
possible to set up a password routine that is, if not 
unbeatable, at least very tough. In the listing This article was reprinted from the TAS BAM Users 
below the "ON ERR" command, which treats both “STOP” Group newsletter KEYBOARDS VOL.4 NO.1; JAN/FEB 1986 


and "BREAK" as errors, sends the computer back to 
line 30 if there are any errors. The program cannot 
be broken into or stopped, unlike if only the "INPUT" 
command was used. For added protection a  "FOR/NEXT" 
loop and "NEW" command has been added, This allows 


for only three attempts at the password before 
erasing the program. The password can be any stráng. 


ZX81 TIPS 


When using the first program line for entering 
machine code, PEEKing the address 16511 will show the 
number of characters in the REM line. If there are 


10 ON ERR GO TO 30 more than 256 characters in the line (a rare 
20 FOR xsl TO 3 occurance) then enter PRINT PEEK 16511 + 256 * PEEK 
30 INPUT "Password please";a$ 16512. 


40 IF a$s"QTS" THEN GO TO 100 
50 PRINT "Incorrect, try again" 


60 PAUSE 60: CLS Use the following line in your program to prevent an 
70 NEXT x accidental screen memory overflow error. 

80 NEW 

90 LIST IF PEEK 16442 < 4 then CLS (or SCROLL) 


100 PRINT "You are now past the Password" 


PAGE 2 SinceLink May/Jun 1986 


SincBits 
Tan Robertson 
Compuserve 72147,3401 


UPDATES: Has anyone tried to return a 2068 (board 
only) io Timex, Little Rock, for repair? Vell I have, orly to 
have it returned, with a note saying that they DU NOT REPAIR 
2088's any aore?! Several of cur club members have returned 
cosplete units to Timex, along with $30.00 (US), and have 
received refurbished units in return, The bottom line must be 
that they do NOT fix individual boards, but that they 20 replace 
one complete computer with another! I would appreciate feedback 
an this watter. “Complete Units? seans that you sest send back 
everything that case with the computer, when you purchased it, 
If you have been putting off buying a colour composite video 
sonitor, you should look at the NEC sodel 1C-1225-NA, presently 
being sold by "Computers For Less" for $199.00 [equivalent to 
$149.00 US). Just remember, that if you use your computer 
primarily for text, that a colour composite video is HOT for 
you. The text readability is not very good. But, on the other 
hand, if you use your computer for games, art work, etc., then 
it is GREAT, Now for a couple of interesting items gleaned troa 
the July issue of Sinclair User. It seems that when Amstrad 
bought the Sinclair Computer rights, that the purchase did not 
include Portugal amd the Eastern Bloc countries, Timex Portugal 
has the rights to them and has just closed a deal with the 
Polish goverament for the supily of 800,000 TC2068's and 300,000 
FDD 3000 twin 2* disc drives (these are the 3° drives soli by 
Zebra Systems), The other item concerns production of the first 
‘Austrad Spectrue’, to be called the Spectrum Pius Twa, 
tentatively scheduled for release this Autumn (whenever that 
is). it will have a built-in cassette recorder amb quite 
probably - a proper keyboard. Sir Clive has already established 
a Seperate company, called Anamartic, to continue working oa his 
vater-scale chip project. 


. SPECTRUM: Ta ay last columa I was very 
enthusiastic about a recently aquired Spectrum utility called 
"Supadrive’. dell, since then I have been lucky enough to 
purchase a similar utility called "M/DRIVE DOCTOR 3.0° troa 
Pipe Systems, 151 Millbridge Rd., Dollis Valley Vay, Barnet, 
Herts, U.K. It has 13 commands which enhance your s/d cospetiag 
pleasure. This is a 9.5 out of 10 product. Another such (highly 
rated) product is "MULTIFACE 1°, from Romantic Robot, which not 
only saves “any’ program at the push of a button, but also 
allows you to goto basic and add pokes, revise, etc. I have beer 
lucky enough to be able to borrow one to experinent with and can 
report that not only does it do all the things claimed, but that 
it is also compatible with both the BETA and the KEMPSTON DDI's. 
If you do à Jot of word processing you should consider a program 
by Seven Stars Publishing, 34 Squirrel Rise, Marlow, Bucks SL? 
JFN, U.K. The program is called TASPRO. When merged with Tasword 
TT it allows your 80 column printer to print out text with 
identical spacing between words on each line, It sells for $8.00 
ippunds sterling), which includes airsail, There is also a 
version for Tasword III, They also have just released a program 
Called "Qualitas", which is supposed to allow your 80 colusa 
printer to print out in NLO. More on that in Wy next column, You 


PAGE 5 


aust tell them which printer you will be using, for amy program, 
when you order, Cameron Hayne, our member in Oxford (UK), has 
just finished his Basic Compiler, which he calis 'TIMACHINE', 
and I can report from first hand experieace - "THAT IT BLOWS 
AWAY ALL COMPETITION FRON ANY OTHER SPECTRUN COMPILER. — When 
Cameron gets it marketed (he is currently negaciating with 2 UK 
software houses), it will be considered A MUST BUY item. 
Cameron has a 2068 version presently being marketed by our own 
neighbourhood software house - Novelsott, 106 Seventh Street, 
Toronto, Ontario NBV 384, The price is $20.00 (US) or $25.00 
cem, i 


2068: If you have been thinking about ordering 

a Kempston compatible joystick from the U,K., make sure you 
order one which has a 46 pin connector (same as the 2X81/751000) 
aad NOT the 56 pin connector commoh to the Spectrum. Chances are 
the 56 pin model will not work with the 2069. Cheetah and Datel 
both have such aodels tor sale. The other way around this is to 
order one of the "Kampston Compatible’ IF's from either JOHN 
DLIGER (you aust have his expausion board), Zebra Systems or 
Russell Electronics. Latest on the John Oliger Disk Drive 
Interface (DBI). Version 1.22 of his BOS, called SAFE 00S, 
includes screen copy to printer (80 columa or 2040) and allows 
the user to exit to basic by pressing the NMI button and then 
pressing 'C*. John says that both he and Ray Kingsley are 
presently working on a ‘full blown" business type DOS for his 
DDI. I have been busy putting ay JLO expansion board system in a 
metal case, in order to reduce RFI and to improve it's 
appearance. The case contains the 2 boards for the DDI, printer 
IF and Kempston joystick IF. 12 aiso has LEDs and switches on 
the front, with joystick and disc connectors sxounted on the 
bark. One of the switches on the front is to select ose of twn 
Eproms acunted on Dan Roman’s eprom/enulator board. The case is 
painted to match the 2068, and connects to the 2048 via a 2* 44 
conductor ribbon cable, which has gold connectors at each end. 
All connections on this system are gold, for reliability. 
Remember that the JLO DOI is compatible with the 2068 while it 
is in the Spectrum node. You should see some of those Spectrum 
games and Attworr, version 1.1, im colour! Remember, I aa the 
guy that used to say “COLOUR IS MOT REALLY NECESSARY FOR THE 
2068", 


TS1000/ZX81: Just a reminder that some very 
resarkable software/hardware items are available from Frei 
Nachbaur, Silicon Moustain Computers, C-12, Mta. Stm, Group Box, 
Nelson, BC VIL SPI, Canada. Write for a Catalogue, but include a 
large SASE. When ay JLO video upgrade was working (before the 
Wuch-dreaded-static-zap] I was running Fred’s JÜ-BASIC and can 
say fros first hand experience that this is indeed an 
experience. Fred also sells fully assembled/tested video 
upgrades for those not so dedicated to the soldering iron, 
Another great new item is the LARKEN DDI, from — Larken 
Electronics, R.R.12, Navaa, Ontario K4f 1H9, Carada. It comes as 
either a single drive or a double drive controller. It sells tor 
379.00 plus $4.00 for the drive cable and 55.00 shipping (us 
funds). There are either 2 or 3 club aembers running this system 
and the two that I know of are VERY HAPPY about their purchase, 
When ordering specify that you require either the single drive 
or the double drive DDI. 


Sine-Link May/Jun 1986 


peep QIIIA RESOURCES — se 


*H BY PETER MCMULLIN 


Y 


I must confess to be = ane of the culprits behind the 


lateness af this issue. The demands of ay “real job” and 
other obligations have dett ae with virtually zero tiae for 
computer activities over the past several weeks. 


Things look a little better for the rest of the year, 
though (I have same holiday tiae coming), and we should be 
back on schedule by the Sent-Oct issue. 

2058 USERS TAKE NOTE: 
single topic in this aonth’s 
computer, too! 


Mill wonders never cease! Every 
1X81 Resources applies to your 


LARKEN DISK SYSTEM 
After using the Larken for a couple of sonths now, I 
must say it meets or exceeds all expectations. The DOS 
(131-LDOS) is certainly the sost sophisticated available for 
the 7381, but its operation is simple, logical, and well 
documented. LDDS lends itself extresely well to user-written 
003 utilities f amaged-track recovery, etc. The ability 
Save k Load BASIC, ARRAY, ar CODE files up to 47K long 
es Winner, providing programeed data manipulation 
fore possible. The DOS commands & disk 
to the 2088 version, so CODE written on 


81 
or daa 
BASIC 
toa winner, pr 
ilitisz never je 

3 iCal 


r 
IDENT E 









ed on a 2088 Larken disk aay be loaded by 4 
he sale “tise: 
stam has been 100% reliable without exception, 


d 
24, is ür di db delivered, it remains an 
B oaplets review, discussion af the 
À i a comparison with the AERCO 
loup in an upcoming issue. The s 
n Electronics, RR&2 Havan, Ont 


m 


EFROM. SERVICES PROGRAMMER 
I recently received a sample unit of the EPROM SERVICES 
ROBRAMMER HK.i, sent tor evaluation by club meaber Larry 
fhavari 5 at Ottawa, fint. 
er using this device, i decided I liked it enough to 
order one for myself, Although the unit is costly ccapared 





pragraamer, the features justify the price. 

s opposed to the JLO unit, which is memory aapped, the 
F/5 programaer is completaly cart qaspa: The programmer, 
like the iLi, is a aale card peripheral designed to plug 
into a motherboard, It aeasures approx. Jaw + 3,0°R, with 
à 28 pin lero Insertion Force socket. An 8-pole MIP switch 
next ta the ZIF socket for the EPROM persits selection of 
Intel type 2718, 2722, 27228, 2784, 27128, and Tl type 2316 
& 2572 PRONG 


rogrammer is centred around an 8255 PIA chip, 
giving port- mapped control of all EPRÜM pins. fn onboard 
switching bocst-regulator provides the 21V or 25V 
programming voltage without the need for a separate power 
supply. Switching af the programming Vp is done 
automatically under software control, Eproms say be inserted 
ar removed safely without powering down, peraitting several 
EPROMS to be propraased without having to power down i 


reload between each one, 


PAGE 4 


SINC-LINK VOL.4 NO.3 MAY-JUNE H6 


E/8 PROGRAMMER, cont. 
The truly remarkable part is the software. iK (1191) ar 
1.5K (Spectrua/2088) in length, the MC software is avalisi 
in 11E-i?7K or 21E-X7K versions far the 2221, and 
ar a2¥-43.5K versions for the Spectrum aor 


2088. 


















a li-option Menu provides choices af; #7037 
à in EPROM with code to be prograasec- 
possibla te averwrite a programmed EPROM), #COMFARE 
af EPROM with an area af genory), #COPY (an area 
inta memory), #CLEAR ian area of aeaory to F 
{see later}, *CLEAN icheck that EPROM 
{program another EPROM, came parame 
s a af EPROM), M DUMP (hex iis 
EIER [lets vou check before RETE; 


her performing a PROGRAM, or any af th 
ations, parameters aust De ente d 
starting address in EPROM, sn 
in hex adeciaal forgat, hen PROGRAMM Ë 
tion is made of EPROM type, parameter 
rogram takes over. First, the parane 
ity. Then the EPROM is TESTed to 
55 sfully progragmed. If all is weli, 
5 Si ha an and programming 
gragramaing, each byte is C 
necessary, and if so, up tn 
it. & varify is ns 
yerification/retry fails, t 
with a report af the ae 
aborted at any tise, with à 
de prograsa@ed. 


monu n 





I have found the EPROM SERVICES Progr 
convenient and reliable, The capability of 
EPROMS with none af the complications 
apmory-mapped prograaser is alzo a defini 
socket, switching flexibility, sel: ta 
fancy software, as well as the ahility to 
the run" makes this a very impressive uni 
doesn’t come tor free, though. 
ite m i sells ar 92 , from EFRON šE 
3 WEDBEXODD DRIVE, LEEDS Loe !EF, ENGLAND. 


MODified Shapes For T75 

This programming feature is adapted (weil OK, 
from the article “MGDitied Shapes for JBM’, i 
1984 issue, written by Paul 4. Carlson, This 
discuss the backoround, and cover 1 af 4 er 
create nifty geometric patterns. 

The program listing provided here wi 
1X81/T81000 with Qliger/T] Video and ili 
JOBASIC or PEXL-ATR. it will alsa run on the 
reduced colour resolution. 

The object of Hr, Carlson's article was to illustra 
sone interesting uses of the MOD (Modula) command in I 
BASIC, 





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Sinc-Link May/Jun 1986 





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QUILLing ON THE QL 
by Harry and Larry Sadler 


R.R. #3 Kingston, Ont. K7L 4və 


nad a Qu for 140 months 
now and thought cther users 
and perhaps other Members 
considering a Qt might be 
interested in my experience so 
far 。 This commentary will be 
restricted to QUILL as word 
processing is the main use I 
have made of my system . For 
the record, my system is 
configured with a JIL te green 
monitor, and a Smith-Corona 
L-10d0d daisy wheel, friction 
Feed, 12 cps printer . The 
printer isn't Fast but it does 
For my prime purposes - 
correspondence . 


I have 


I have been able to use four 


other word processors: 
WordStar, VolksWriter, 
Multimate, and Word Perfect . 
VolksWriter is simpler to use 


but less powerful . The other 3 
are more powerful but harder to 
learn and to use - On a 
performance per dollar basis, 
QUILL wins easily . 


QUILL has the feature that all 
the format intructions are 
Filed with the document . This 
gives rise to the opportunity 
to creat a standard format to 
liking that is different 
From tne default format . For 
example, I like block Format . 
The default Format gives a 
paragaraph indent of S spaces, 
left margin at solumm 18, right 
at column 70, top maragin of 5, 
bottom margin of 3, and it is 
set to print page numbers . I 


your 


prefer, margins at columns 5 
and 75, no page numbers, and 
with a top margin af 1 line . I 
single sheets so I can set 


use 

my top margin at my 
convenience 。 Using a top 
margin of 1 line ensures that 


the print head will locata.to 
the left maragin for the first 
line to be printed . These 


PAGE 6 


changes ars made with tha 
Design command . With the 
format that I like defined, I 
then save the blank document 
(with the new format set) in a 
document I call Setup . Thus to 
start a new document, I simply 
load my saved file called Setup 
and begin my text . IF I am 
keeping the new document, I 
give it a new name when saving 
it to the microdrive . 


Using block format (Left 
maragin and Indent margin at 
the same column} has created 


one interesting problem . IF 
you go to a new paragraph and 
want to indent a faw spaces, 
the cursor will not move . It. 
will respond to characters 
other than the spacebar and you 
can tab into the new 
paragraph . My guess is this 
semi-lockun happens because 
QUILL expects a text character 
as the first character from the 
Indent Margin . This is logical 
in mest cases but not when 
using block format . Another 
problem of getting the cursor 
te go where you want it is when 
I am using a right margin 
greater than 80 columns . 
Sometimes the cursor drops down 
a line instead of proceeding 
accross the former maximum 
screen width . I suspect 
something isn't quite rignt as 
it doesn't happen all the 
time . I get around it by using 
the left cursor key from the 
line below where I was working 
and had the trouble . 


All in all, QUILL is very 
good . I have sent a few 
suggestions to Sinclair 


Research for the next version of 
QUILL. It will be intersting to 
see what happens next. 


Here's looking forward to 


trials & tribs and solutions! 


you 


Sinc-Link May/Jun 


1986 





d el 


= = : = i i m mo m: 

=e a R mix 

iiidid : i PEGE liit 

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ere if a zhaorti machine code 
raaram that yery auickig 
angerts att ine numbers iii 
program iG URL expressions 
hereby having quite a feu 
gigt. I nave round it veru 
£eruli inen iruing ioc make 
oom n Lang program to add 

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i93 DHT 
22, 35, i87 
253,79,229, 

-24,2312 

iie DATA 34,02 ,2423,280,222,.,11,2 
1:11 197 ,128,218,27,323,12,225,43 
i26 ,254,.,47,4:98,12,£204,45,520,15,2Z 
54.3296 .48,4,254 

ize DATA 23,.,4138,7,35,35,119,43,.4 
S.24,.221,25,254.170c,.,252.54,.24,.,2Z22. 
GO,25,34,34,235,84,23,213,235,235,3 
3,225 ,42 

£38 7,82,08,77 
SER, 22H ,43,493,43,2 
4,75. 3,092.43 ,45,45,34,88, 
G2 ,225,193,.24,4155.3.8,2 

igo TOP 

288 SAVE "CDOHPHCTOR"U: VERIFY UU 
Speaking or few 
Lins tc th nf 
Larian users 
REHDOS mau iti 
First an ta it 
With  anotine the 
MERCI camma 3. 
BE = = th re 
Pree Far ine 
Then cati it using RANDOMIZE USR 
22728. This if ®MGSt üUsefrui when 
ucu arg irying ito Save one oF 
uour nbragrams to disk that hat 
some cade Gr data reziding above 
22808. if Pace if tight, it iz 
here that COMPACTOR may come if 
handa,. freeing up the necessary 
bytes. 
Disk HMEenuz,. 
When ZI bUiid 3 menu for sach oF 
fü dizkz, I tru to zdd a routine 
in  &ach of the programs on that 
dizi that mili asutomaticatiu 
return in Lhe menu ror another 
SELECTION; eg. if the program 
hat a Suil option that results 
in a STOP action, inen replace 
t iin something like 





This is fairiu £284 to accompi- 
ish in BASIC bui noi 50 &azu in 
marching language. Se far I have 
been able io rætur oniy the 
LOGS Leubaoard input: röuting from 
Within  azczembiuy ianguage cade. 
Larry Kenny talks abcUT the DOS 
checking the ¥SLue in addrez- 
22622 and if it iz 255 then ihe 
action is az described above. 
Perhaps  zomeone Wiii Anau the 
£giuti:iün to this Gre. 


















So far, it ha erformed wv 
meti. X have sa¥ed it i80 
Leaving gut the Laga uh: 
frustrating on tape. i paw 
two games into machine code 
excellent rezuitrz. Gtrers 
Lude a fautine të r&giocaie 
to another start address 
Severai calcuisiing rout: 
which move aiong waru quit 
Sa ii seems thet Cameron 
Come up With a Farsi rete ut 
ity program. Conarztz të himi 
SGavina arrays to Disi. 
Be sure 1o usg ong of the RAH 
WEeresians nr LEGS when you are 
ifuing io Save and Lead arrautz, 
iii th the Eprom DOS, arraus must 
be Located first in ine vari- 
bis  afea and if they move is 
a different incationhn When re- 
GiMENnSioned during running, ines 
cannot be Lacatad. The ati 
LDOS ES mii find the arrays na 
Matter where they afe. 
i Aisa, the other LDGS S giliw the 
U£t& OF Farisble namez to ident- 
if the text being zavyed. Saving 
an array tš with a name n pres- 
12S iy derined zz "lipz" wouid 
require a iine: LET ng\a"ts"4ng+ 
w Rx” then a Line, 529: SANDOM- 
IZZ USRA 26720: REH cave na. 
Bob Miicheili Juna 1386. 


IS 2068 TIP 





To change the amount of time needed to hold down a 
key until it repeats, POKE 23561,X, where X may be a 
value between 1 and 35, Intially, on power-up the 
value will be 35. Each lower value will speed up by 
1/60th of a second the interval untilthe key repeats 


To change the amount of time between consecutive 
repeats, once the key starts repeating, POKE 23562,X. 
X will equal a value between 1 and 5. The lower the 
number the quicker the response will be. 


TS 2068 SCROLLING TIP 





The address 23692 is used by the computer to store 
a value used for SCROLL control. POKEing a number 


from 1 to 255 into this address will cause the 
computer to scroll that many ines + 21 on the 


Screen, 


PAGE 7 Sinc-Link May/Jun 1986 


USING THE TS 2068 WITH AN EXERCYCLE MACHINE 
by Fred Schakel — ! "» 


The object of the whole experiment was to play a game 
on a computer (2068 or 2X81) and exercise at the same 
time.(I am in need of both!!) By combining an 
exercise bicycle, a joystick, and a 2068 with a 
special program, I proved that this is very possible. 


My exercise bike already had a magnetic sensor on 
it, so | wired it in parallel with the FIRE button on 
my cursor joystick, The program displays a crude map 
of the subdivision that ! live in, with a bicycle at 
my home, and several places of interest labelled as 
follows: 

CTC --- Canadian Tire 

MALL -- Shopping Mall 

MOM --- Mother's place 

A & D - Angie and Dwight's place 
PK ---- Park 

CLN --- Cleaners 

MAC --- Mac's Milk store 

H ----- My home 

The blue area is the river 


A machine code routine senses the bike speed 
through the FIRE button, by reading the bit on the 
zero key. This is much quicker than with BASIC, 
Even if the bike is stopped with the magnet on the 
switch, it recognises that the wheel is not turning. 
One may think that this should give a repeating 
"zero" key press, but this is so only in BASIC. 


Getting away from the technicalities, the pink 
locations on the map represent goals to reach. When 
you reach one of them, points are awarded. It is 
also capable of letting you know when you go off the 
road or in the river. Steering is by left and right 
on the joystick, and you need to be moving in. order 
to turn. 

My plan is to involve obstacles such as 
pedestrians, trains, cars, puddies, etc. On the 
hardware end of it, I want to use an I/O port that 
will drive a motor which increases the tension on the 
bike. This would simulate going up and down hills. 


I have included the program for you to try. ( Just 
tap the zero key, and steer with keys 5 and 8 at the 
same time. It takes quite a few taps on the zero 
key to move ahead, depending on your speed. I will 
continue with the software and hardware development 
of thís project, but anyone is welcome to help out. 
I can supply further information on the machine code 
for anyone who wants it, j 

An easy way to convert the speed signal from an 
exercycle to the 2068 is with a simple magnet and 
reed switch, Mount the magnet near the edge of the 
wheel. Put the reed switch on the cycle frame so 
that, as the wheel turns, the magnet passes close by 
the switch without touching it. Wire the reed switch 
leads to the two contacts on the fire button of the 
joystick. The joystick port can now read the speed of 
the wheel similarly to a tachometer. 





| cont'd on next page 
PAGE 8 Sinc-Link May/Jun 1986 





Fred wrote to me about this project, and I thought 
it was so interesting it should be put into the 
newsletter. I am sure Fred would like to hear from 
anyone out there so [ take the liberty of giving his 
address. Fred Schakel, 181 Seawood Ave. London Ont. 


Noy 188 George Chambers 


LARKEN USER NOTES 


These helpful tips on LARKEN DD operation have been 
supplied tọ us by Larry Kenny. 


~ If you have CRC errors usually on the inside 
tracks of your disk, the problem may be that the 
variable resistor on the controller board needs tọ be 
adjusted slightly. This adjustment is to compenate 
for variations on the pulse widths of the "read data" 
on different disk drives. (This trimmer resistor is 
near the 74L500 on the controller board). 

Remember where the adjustment is initially set 
because it should only have to be moved a small 
amount, If it is a single-turn trimmer then you 
should only have to turn it less than 1/4 turn in 
either direction. If it is a 10-turn trimmer (metal 
screw) then you should only have to turn it 1 or 2 
turns. 

- The CLEAR 61000 command before entering the LDOS 
is usually not necessary if you are in the TS2068 
mode. The Spectrum has to have RAMTOP changed by a 
CLEAR command because the 280 stack is there and it 
has to be moved to make room for the LDOS, It is a 
good idea, when saving programs on the Spectrum, to 
always have RAMTOP set in a standard place (e.g. 
61000), This way you won't have to remember a lot of 
different CLEAR commands when loading. After the 
program loads it can set RAMTOP to where it needs it. 


- If your program uses UDG's (user defined 
graphics), you must make sure that the EPROM 1s not 


in the top of memory (shadowing the UDG's memory 
area) by doing an OUT 84,0 command. 


PAGE 9 


- If you have a very large BASIC program (extends 
past 61000) that you would like to put onto disk, an 
easy way is to save a copy of LDOS16 to tape. Then 
Toad in your large BASIC program. If it is an 
auto-run BASIC program, to stop it, MERGE it instead 
of loading it. Then add these lines to the program 
in an appropriate place. 

9000 LOAD "LDOS16": RANDOMIZE USR 
16384: REM save “Sigprg.81" 
9010 GOTO (start) (or RUN) 

Then type GOTO 9000 (or wherever you put it) and 
it will load LDOS16 off the tape, and then save the 
program to disk. I 


= To load the big program, you can't directly use 
the EPROM DOS because the top of the program will 
overwrite the LDOS, so you need a BASIC loader. 
e.g. 
10 QUT 84,64: RANDOMIZE USR 
63488: REM save "Basloa.B1" 
20 RANDOMIZE USR 63488: 
REM Toad "LD0S16.C5* 
30 RANDOMIZE USR 16384: 
REM load "Bigprg.B1* 
This program when run will 
auto-run mode. 


save itself in 


- Note that with Sinclair BASIC you cannot put an 
active command in a line after a REM statement. e.g.: 
RANDOMIZE USR 63488: REM save "xxxxxx.Bl": RUN 
The RUN following the REM statement will be ignored. 


- If you would like to print your directory on the 
printer, you can use the LPRINT USR command instead 
of PRINT USR when entering the LDOS. You won't be 
able to see what you are typing until you press 
ENTER, 

- Sometimes within running programs, you may get a 
"NO FILE" error; maybe because you changed your 
program or disk name. The best way to return to your 
original program is to keep pressing ENTER until the 
"scroll ?" prompt, then BREAK it. This method is 
preferable because if you were going to load a code 
program and then jump to it after it was loaded; if 
the LDOS came up with "NO FILE* and you typed "EXIT", 
the program would crash. 


= You may have a machine code utility or routine 
such as a printer driver that you use with your BASIC 
program. If you place it anywhere between address 
23552 (start of system variables) and the address 
of VARS, it will be saved with your program. This 
also applies to any changes to the streams and 
channels tables, 


Retyped by George Chambers 


Sinc-Link May/Jun 1986 


ZX81 SCREEN ADDRESSING 
by Mike Lemyre 


The print position address is found at PEEK 16389 
+ 256 * PEEK 16399, 
If the program area is empty then this address * 
I 16510. 
If this address is POKEd with a character code then 
the referenced character will be displayed at 
position 0,0. 
To print a line, POKE this address with the code 
in increments of 1 to a maximum of 31. 


The 33rd print position must hold code 118 page 
number. 
PEEK 16441 for the X value and PEEK 16442 for the Y 
value to find the current print position. 


To find the PLOT coeordinates: 
PEEK 16438 for X 
PEEK 16439 for Y 


To calculate the address of the screen the 
starting addres can be called X. For the sake of 
argument we will call the starting point 0,0. 

Each additional point will equal X + 1. The 
maximum value to be added = 31. Each additional line 
is 33 bytes from the previous line. An example is: 

Let X = 16510, therefore line 1 would end at 
16541 and line 2 would start at 16543. 16510 is the 
equivalent address as the print at 0,0. 


If a loop is used to fill the screen with digits 
then the loop must have a counter to maintain the 
correct parameters of the print position. 


THE SCREEN ADORESS VALUES 


0,0 0,31 
1,33 1,64 
2,66 2,97 
3,99 3,130 
4,132 4,163 
5,165 5,196 
6,198 6,229 
7,231 7,262 
8,264 8,295 
9,297 9,328 
10,330 10,361 
11,363 11,394 
12,396 12,427 
13,429 13,460 
14,462 14,493 
15,495 15,526 
10,228 16,999 
17,561 17,592 
18,594 18,625 
19,627 19,658 


PAGE 10 


TS2068 SCREEN ADDRESSING 
by Mike Lemyre 


To print a digit on the 2068 you must PEEK 23684 
+ 256 * PEEK 23685. This gives the starting addresss 
of the display file and must be increased by 
increments of 256 up until a value of 2048. To print 
more than one digit you can increase the original 
address after storing it in a register, thus it can 
be referenced jater to allow the print position to be 
altered. 


TO PRINT A DIGIT ON THE 2068 


10 LET nsPEEK 23684 + 256 * PEEK 23685 
20 POKE n,255 

30 LET n = n + 256 

35 IF n>= 18432 THEN STOP 

40 GO TO 20 


PEEK 23688 gives the X value of the print position. 
PEEK 23689 gives the Y value of the pront position. 


Note that the print position 0,0 will have the 
value of 33,24. Position 20,0 will have the value 
of 33,3. 


The screen address coordinates start at 0,0 in the 
lower right hand, and end at 33,24 in the upper left. 


Both the ZX81 and the 2068 have the same display 
file layout. 


10 LET n * PEEK 23684 * 256 * PEEK 23685 
12 LET k = n 

14 LET ç = O 

20 FOR m = 1'TO 8 

30 POKE n,255 

40 LET n = n+ 256 

50 NEXT m 

52 LET c x c + 1 

55 LETn *k*c 

67 IF ¢>=20 THEN GO TO 95 
70 GO TO 20 

95 LET c = 0 
100 LET k = k + 32 
105 LET n =k 
109 IF cz 20 THEN STOP 
110 GO TO 20 


Sinc-Link May/Jun 1986 








WEST Y i 
BUND URS | 





Welcome to the Hackers Escape. A new column 
featuring ways of going about making, back-up copies 
of your precious software, and questions related to 
making: back-up copies of programs. This colum is 
FOR YOUR OWN PERSONAL USE and not for pirating 
programs or distributing them. 


There are four ways of going about making back-ups 
of programs, and each has it's own advantages and 
disadvantages. The first method of backing up a 
program is tape-to-tape, Tape-to-tape is good for 
making back-ups of those long programs that occupy 
the whole memory. But on the other hand it is 
practically useless for making back-ups of fastloaded 
programs. This is usually due to incorrect head 
alignment and/or improper cleaning of playback head, 
erase head, pinch roller and capstan. [t is advisable 
to use two recorders of the same make and model when 
making tape-to-tape back-ups. Sometimes the copied 
program will not even register on the screen, or 
shows an R tape loading error after the loader 
program, 


Dubbing cords or attenuation cords are good, but 
care has to be taken if the cord over- or under- 
attenuates. What the attenuating cord does is take 
the signal coming from the EAR jack of one of the 
tape recorders and reduce it to a preset level 
(depending on the capacitance of cord). This filters 
out any excessive background noise. The signal is 
then filtered, giving a sharper tone (again depending 
on the cord make-up). The other tape recorder then 
records the signal coming in the MIC jack. 
Over-attenuationg cords tend to cut crucial data 
signals that result in program errors. Under- 
attenuating cords dull the sound and allow more noise 
to creep in, 


The second method of backing up a program is with 
a tape copier. Tape copiers are very popular for 
making back-ups of software. Care should be taken 
when using a tape copier. The advantage of the copy 
program is that it enables you to copy another 
program by loading it into the computer, and 
simultaneously sending it back to a second recorder 
with a refreshed signal. Copiers are very error-prone 
and should be used with great care, because the copy 
made by the program may not work, or even load 
correctly. Always use.a tape copier with the latest 
features that cope with the software you are using. 
Always be aware of the single long 48K file types 
that cannot be backed up manually. Make sure your 
program can cope with false headers and headerless 
files, 


PAGE 11 


The third method of making back-ups. This method - 
is extremely unique and very easy to use. This type 
is not software, but hardware, The interface TOTALLY 
bypasses all types of copy-protection in the program, 
no matter how heavily it is protected, What it does 
is make a complete dump of the memory to tape, 
without headers. After the SAVE, you simply load in 
the software supplied with the interface, and convert 
the headerless files to tape or to microdrive. 


Finally the fourth method, You may call it a 
method if you are the type that is ambitious and are 
completely familiar with the computer. This method 
involves manually breaking into the program, and 
decoding the file of hidden machine code or hidden 
program lines, This can be very tedious and stressful 
if you are dissecting the program, but always keep in 
mind that there are the other three ways of saving 
programs, 


If you have any questions relating to this or just 
need help, write to Karim Rahamet, 101 White Oaks 
Court, Pent-house #7, Whitby, Ontario, LIP lAl. 


All questions will be answered by mail, or by phone 
if given. 


a RENI l i ilis S is Ë 


MURPHY'S LAWS OF COMPUTING 


People always remember the last mistake you made 
He who hesitates is probably smart. 


The one who does the least work always gets the most 
credit. 


The less a peripheral system costs, the more it costs 
to fix, 


Whatever happens, behave like you meant it to happen. 


Confidence is the feeling you get just before you 
fully understand the problem. 


When you get to the point where you really understand 
your system, it's probably obsolete. 


As soon as you find that your computer is easy to 
use, add some peripherals you don't understand how to 
operate, 


No matter what goes wrong with your carefully planned 
database system, there's always someone who says they 
knew it would. 


It's only when you need to knock on wood that you 
realize that the world it entirely made up of 
aluminum and plastic. 


Sine-Link May/Jun 1986 


DISK DROPPINGS 
by Greg Lloyd 
Compuserve ID 76317,1461 


In the previous column, [ looked at the bits of 


hardware needed for the disk interface. 
we'll look at the whys and hows, 


This time 


First to answer the Whys. Why not! Are you fed up 


with the slow error-prone cassette system Sir Clive 
It doesn't matter how 
careful you are, everyone has lost a program or a. 


bequeathed to his serfs? 
file due to a tape glitch. I'm not saying you won't 
lose any programs on disk, but you will know in a few 
seconds if you have a problem, rather than a few 
minutes on tape. 


Since most of the software written for the 2068 and 
Spectrum uses memory to the fullest, your Disk 
Operating System should use little or no RAM, This is 
the theory, but in practice there are few systems 
that live up to this principle. You have to use your 
noodle to develop ways of fitting tape-based software 
into your disk system, I found that a header reader 
program is a must for any memory-mapping. If you know 
where all the pieces should be, you can fit them all 
together when you save them on disk. A real plus of a 
disk system is that you no longer have to be 
concerned with RAM size. You can write programs that 
use the disk as memory. IBM call this virtual memory 
because if you have enough disks it can go on 
forever. 


Here's an example of how it is done. Imagine à 
filing program that stores all the uses of a dead 
EPROM chip in r$(1000,20). This could mean that you 
are limited to 1000 records, holding 20 characters of. 
data, When that is used, POOF! ERROR 4 OUT of memory. 
But with our clever program that draws it's 
information from the disk, you can have as many 
records as you wish. The other uses of this technique 
are for downloading those big files from Compuserve 
(Groliers Encyclopaedia), or using your Word 
Processor to write the Great White Northern Novel. It 
is possible to wear out your disk drive and your arm 
long before you reach the limits of this technique. 


My system, from Larken Electronics, has the ability 
to load and save an array of data or a block of code. 
This simple fact can be used to implement the virtual 
memory idea, Other systems allow the use of 
sequential and random access files. This is one step 
beyond saving and loading an array or code. It allows 
the records to be stored and retrieved one after 
another sequentially (sometimes slowly), or in a 
partitioned block for easy access randomly (fast). 
For a small file, sequential is probably best. Larger 
files dictate the use of random access. 


The only limits you have with your Disk System are 
the ones you place there, If you let your 
imagination go, your system can do anything you want 
it to do. Ask someone like Peter McMullin (our 
resident 2X81 Forever and Ever and Ever Person) if 
you doubt me. 08/03/86 


SG SN NL EL | LL NEC a NS TE SIDE EE A IE SB A TN EET EY 


This is a page from the British ZX Spectrum manual, which is a 


bit more informative than the TS2068 manual. 


Did you realize 


that the top row of the 2068 keyboard provides 77 functions!!! 


Fred Schakel, 


MODE SHIFT 


Ink 
Bn 
Paper papar Paper 
blue magenta 


PAGE 12 





London T/S Users Group. 


Ink ink Flash Bien ink 
yellow - white otf black 


Sinc-Link May/Jun 1986 


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PAGE 13 Sinc-Link May/Jun 1986 


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Canada 





1986 


Sine-Link May/Jun 


PAGE 14