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THE LEADING EDGE IN PRINTERS 

ONE GREAT LINE. ONE GREAT WARRANTY 

Finally, there’s one full family of printers that covers every business or word processing application- 
all from C. Jtoh, a company known for packing more product into less price; and all distributed 
exclusively by Leading Edge, a company known for searching out and providing that very thing. 

Which means that one call to one source can get you any printer, any time you need it, for any purpose. 

All backed by a full years’ warranty from Leading Edge. (Try that on any other line of printers.) 

THE PRO’S. 

The Prowriters: business printers— and more. The “more” is a dot-matrix process with more dots. It gives you denser, 
correspondence quality copy (as opposed to business quality copy, which looks like a bad job of spray-painting). 
Prowriter : 120 cps. 80 columns dot matrix compressable to 136. 10" carriage. Parallel or serial interface. 
Prowriter 2: Same as Prowriter, except 15" carriage allows full 136 columns in normal print mode. 

Parallel or serial interface. 


PROWRITER 2 




THE STAR. 

The Starwriter F-10. In short (or more precisely, in a sleek 6" high, 30-pound unit), it gives you more 
of just about everything— except bulk and noise— than any other printer in its price range. It’s a 40 cps letter-quality 
daisy -wheel with a bunch of built-in functions to simplify and speed tip word processing. 

" Ifplugs into almost any micro on the market, serial or parallel. 


STARWRITER F-TO 



THE MASTER. 

The Printmaster F-10. Does all the same good stuff as the Starwriter except, at 55 cps, the Master does it faster. 



PRINTMASTER F-IO 


Distributed Exclusively by Leading Edge Products, Inc., 225 Turnpike Street, Canton. Massachusetts 02021. 
Call: toll-free 1-800-343-6833: or in Massachusetts call collect 1617) 828-8150. Telex 951-624. 




Which would you rather speak? 


fl PIP fl: = B: RCCNT 1. DAT [V] 


Your computers language. 


CP PLUS DISK FILE COPY 

This facility allouus copying of files 
from one disk to another. 

YOUR CURRENT DISK IS DRIVE A. DRIVE TO COPY TO? B 
FILENAME OF FILE TO BE COPIED? ACCNT 1. DAT 


Or your own. 


Hello CP+. Goodby CP/M® techno-jargon. 

Its time you had a talk with your computer— 
in English. With CP+ add-on software, you can. 

CP+ eliminates complicated CP/M® commands, 
and replaces them with simple English messages, 
“menus" and directions. It takes the frustration out 
of CP/M® computing. So even non-technical users 
are guided through all their computer functions, 
including “housekeeping" tasks (such as COPY, 
ERASE, PRINT). 

Put an end to "Terminal Fright." 

CP+ lets people relax at the keyboard, 
without fear of making mistakes. With the CP+ 
Demonstration and Self -Teaching Guide they 
learn fast, and enjoy themselves. As their anxiety 
level goes down, your productivity goes up. And 
speaking of productivity... 

CP+ friendliness sets a faster pace. 

The easier it is to control your computer, the 
more you get out of it. So CP+ offers features 
like single-key program selection. And, among 
many others, print queuing, where you line up 
additional printing jobs while the first one is still 
running. 

Easy to install. Hard to resist. 

You can install CP+ in as little as ten minutes. 
And evaluate it risk-free for up to fifteen days. 
Order it from your dealer, mail in the coupon, or 
call us toll-free — and get acquainted with CP+. 
The $150 add-on Control Program that speaks your 
language. 



800 227-2400™, 

In California, 800 772-2666 X975 


r — n 

Yes! Send me more information. I'd like to read the CP+ 
brochure, and learn how much easier using CP/M® can be. 

Also, send me the name of my nearest dealer. 

NAME 

COMPANY 

ADDRESS 

CITY 

STATE 

ZIP TELEPHONE ( ) 

I DISK SIZE: □ 5tt" □ 8" 

■ NAME and MODEL OF COMPUTER ■ 


to: Taurus Software 

3685 Mt. Diablo Blvd., Suite 251 
Lafayette, CA 94549 
Tel: (415) 283-7222 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 
Software that speaks your language™ 


taurus 


Mai 


CP + runs on all systems using standard CP/M ® VI .4 or 2.2. On receipt of your order, Taurus will call you to confirm your system hardware details. 
CP/M ® is a registered trademark of Digital Research Corp. 




MORE SAVINGS FROM 




MONTOP MONITOR 
STAND 

Custom stand holds monitor 
firmly on top of Osborne and lifts 
monitor off vent of newer 
model. Saves desk space and 
places screen at easy-to-read 
angle. Only $21.95. 



PRINTER STANDS 

Stores paper under printer. 
Keeps paper straight for 
smoother feedthrough. Sturdy 
and attractive. 

Small size (MX-80, OKI 80, 82, 
etc.)-$29.95 

Large size (MX-100, OKI 83, 84, 
etc.)-$34.95 



ONTOP DUST COVER 

NEW! 

Protect your investment with 
durable, clear vinyl dust cover. 
Osborne and monitor $15.95. 
Osborne only $13.95. Available in 
clothbacked leather look for 
$4.00 extra. 



DOUBLE DECKER 

Lifts computer for better viewing 
of small screen. The keyboard 
tucks underneath when finished. 
This spacesaver is reinforced for 
extra sturdiness. $34.95. 


SOFTWARE 


HexPrintR™ by C.l. Software. 
Popular tool enables user to 
access full printer capabilities 
through WordStar^. Easy to use 
and a valuable productivity 
investment. Only $39.00. 


Timin FORTH Release 3 by 

Timin Engineering Company now 
available for Osborne. Includes 
Floating Point \Axabulary, Visual 
Editor and CP/M Utility Package. 
$249.00. 


(VtordStar* is a registered trademark of MicroPro Corp.) 


SGW ENTERPRISES, PO Box 1015, Del Mar, California 92014 714-755-8324 


Please send me: 
Quantity Item 


Total amount enclosed $ 

Add $2.50 shipping & han- 
dling per item. CA Residents 
add 6% sales tax. 

□ Please send catalog 


□ Check enclosed 

□ Money order enclosed 

□ VISA/ MASTERCARD # 

Expiration Date 

Signature 

Send to: 

Name 



Address 

City 

State Zip. 


^ Port able 

urnipamnn 

publisher 

Thom Hogan 

business manager 

Ginger Taylor 

editor 

Jackie Rae 

technical editor 

Brad Baldwin 

special contributor 

Adam Osborne 

contributors 
Gary Cuevas 
Dave Gute 
Mike Iannamico 
Ken Hirsoh n 
Michael McCarthy 
Mike Sanchez 

art direction 

Roeth/Olson Design Associates 

art production 

Cynthia Heier 
Tirza Kaplan 
Ron Walter 
Brendan Ward 

production coordinator 

Meredith Ittner 

advertising/circulation manager 

Deanna D’Zamba 

advertising assistant 

Siobhan Stewart 

user group liaisons 

Frank Morton 
Dave Oates 
Scott Rainey 
John Gaudio 

Illustrations by Larry Baumgardner. 
Cover Design and Direction: 

Steve Yamaguma and Associates 
Cover Photo by C&I Photography: 
Michael Easely 

Typesetting: Type Plus, Palo Alto, CA 

The Portable Companion is published bimonthly by 
Osborne Computer Corporation as an aid in helping Osborne 
1 owners understand and use their computer. 

Send subscriptions, change of address forms, USPS Form 
3579, and any other material to The Portable Companion, 
Osborne Computer Corporation, 26538 Danti Court 
Hayward, CA 94545. (ISSN 9732-7501). Subscriptions are 
$12.50 for six issues. Call for information regarding foreign 
subscription rates. (415) 887-8080. 

The entire contents of this issue of The Portable Compan- 
ion are copyright 1982 by Osborne Computer Corporation. 
All rights are reserved, and duplication of the contents of this 
publication in any form or manner without the prior written 
permission of Osborne Computer Corporation is illegal. 

Osborne 1, Calc Aids, The Wizard of Osborne, From the 
Fountainhead, and The Portable Companion are all 
trademarks of Osborne Computer Corporation. SuperCalc is 
the trademark of Sorcim. dBASF.il is a trademark of Ashton- 
Tate Inc. 

Microsoft, is the registered trademark of MBASIC. Word- 
Star is the registered trademark of MicroPro International. 
CBAS1C and CP/M are the registered trademarks of Digital 
Research. 

Registered Trademarks: THE SOURCE: Source Telecom- 
puting Corporation DOW JONES News/Retrival: Dow 
Jones & Company, Inc. AMCALL: Microcall Services. 

The MicroLink is a copyright of Wordcraft. 


2 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 




It’s amazing how fast things are moving here at Osborne. Some of you might 
not immediately agree with me, so let me explain. 

I’m writing this column in late October, about the same time you should be 
receiving your third issue of the magazine and a letter from Adam Osborne 
describing eight exciting new products for the Osborne 1. I’ve never seen so 
much activity; if things were hectic around here before, we’ve now entered the 
Twilight Zone. 

The products, just in case you’re not on our mailing list of registered owners, 
are double density, 80 Plus columns, COMM-PAC (modem), POWR-PAC 
(battery), START-PAC (training for new users), WORD-PAC (software), 
WARRANTY-PAC (extended warranty), and the Technical Manual. 

But products are only a part of what’s happening. If you buy an Osborne 
modem COMM-PAC, for instance, you’ll find that it’s packaged in a new, very 
distinctive, manner. Our software will be using a variation of this packaging in 
the near future. 

We’re offering a special promotion on dBASE II for new purchasers of 
Osbornes. We’re starting television and radio commercials in many parts of the 
country. We’re in the process of trying to get 40 more software products to 
market; many are programs that are new to the CP/M and Osborne 
marketplace. We’re working with FOG and several other user groups to get a 
national users’ convention together. And we’re producing and shipping over 
2000 machines a week. 

In the midst of all that chaos, I’ve been trying to make sure the magazine 
moves ahead, as well. In this issue you’ll find a mini-catalog of hardware ac- 
cessories you might consider for your Osborne 1. Coming soon, we’ll have a 
complete catalog of software that is available for the machine. 

You’ll notice also that we’re moving towards having a special theme to each 
issue (this issue’s is modems and communications; next issue is word process- 
ing). We’ve added another column, dBasics, to this issue, and more will be pop- 
ping up early next year. We’re also getting very near to the point where we will 
have to make a changeover to monthly publication (so keep telling our adver- 
tisers that you saw their ad in The Portable Companion). 

So why am I telling you all of this? Am I trying to make excuses for occa- 
sionally making a mistake or slipping a schedule by a few days? 

No, the reason is actually quite simple. All the activity around here tends to 
make life one long blur. Therefore, I decided a pep talk was in order. Not for 
you, but for me. . . 

Thom Hogan 
publisher 

P.S. Beginning with this issue we’ve added a number of people to our staff and shifted 
some responsibilities for others. Jackie Rae becomes Editor and is the person to ad- 
dress editorial material to; Brad Baldwin joins us as Technical Editor, coming from his 
previous position with OCC as Technical Support Correspondent and Meredith Ittner 
picks up the post of Production Coordinator. 



Communications ... in this issue we 
explore networking, bulletin boards 
and the Osborne modem. 



Disk Snooping 
Page 50 



On a Clear Day You Can See Siberia 
Page 40 


d sPnrtaUe 

Cumpaimin 



FEATURES 


30 

THE OSBORNE MODEM 


33 

INFORMATION NETWORKS 

Communications 

Novice 

37 

A > FROM AFAR 

Electronic Bulletin Boards. 

Novice 

40 

ON A CLEAR DAY YOU CAN SEE 
SIBERIA 

The Osborne 1 at an Alaskan Outpost. 


42 

BASIC SCREEN DUMP 

Advanced 

43 

USING THE MICRO LINK 

Communicating between the Osborne and the main 
frame computer. 

Intermediate 

44 

I/O, I/O, IT’S OFF TO WORK WE GO. . 

Part 2: Parallel Interfaces 

. Intermediate 

48 

LEARNING THE VALUE OF CBASIC 

Intermediate 

50 

DISK SNOOPING 

Assembly language utility for the curious. 

USERS’ GROUPS 

Advanced 

64 

USER GROUP UPDATE 


64 

TIPS FOR TYROS 

Novice 

67 

USING XDIR TO CREATE A DISK DIRECTORY Intermediate 

71 

TAKING THE MYSTERY OUT OF CP/M 

DEPARTMENTS 

Novice 

3 

START UP 


6 

FROM THE FOUNTAINHEAD 


10 

LETTERS 


18 

WIZARD OF OSBORNE 


54 

INSIDE/OUTSIDE OSBORNE 


74 

NEW PRODUCTS 


80 

dBASICS 


84 

THE PROCESSED WORD 


88 

CALCAIDS 


96 

WHOOPS 



102 SOURCES 


4 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 




SUPPLIERS 


RECORD 

COLLECTIONS 




BIRTHDAYS 




OBSOLETE. 


Now there is a filing system that automatically stores, 
retrieves and displays information typically kept in index 
card files— It’s called CARDFILE™. CARDFILE stores notes, 
summaries of articles and books, recipes and menus, cat- 
alogs of records and tapes. It stores anything you might 
keep on file cards. 

Entries are created using your own text-editor. New entries 
are read into the index when you run CARDFILE. Each file 
record— the equivalent of an index card— can have up to 
21 lines. CARDFILE treats the first three lines as "key” 
or "descriptor” lines that contain words or phrases to be 


searched for. (You can also search for a word or phrase 
in the remaining lines of text.) 

To search the CARDFILE index, the user specifies one or sev- 
eral key words or phrases, depending on the desired breadth 
of each search. The program displays the full text of each 
record that contains all of the words specified. CARDFILE 
can also print selected records, write them to a disk file, or 
delete them. 

If you’re not using CARDFILE, your index card filing system 
is probably obsolete. Price is $89. 

Add $7 for shipping and handling. 


CARDFILE 


NOW AVAILABLE FOR IBM PC 


CARDFILE requires 56K RAM and CP/M, CP/M-86. MP/M, 
or IBM PC DOS; and WordStar, Spellbinder, PeachText, 
SuperWriter or a similar text-editor. 

Formats: 8" SS/SD, 5V4" NorthStar DD, Micropolis Mod 11/ 
Vector MZ, Superbrain 3.0, Apple II with CP/M, 5V4" and 8" 
Xerox 820, Osborne-1 , Televideo, IBM PC (specify DOS or 
CP/M-86) and IBM Displaywriter with CP/M-86. 

Trademarks. Cardfile — Pro/Tem Software, CP/M, CP/M-86, 
and MP/M— Digital Research; WordStar— MicroPro Int’l; 
Spellbinder— Lexisoft; PeachText— PeachTree Software, 
SuperWriter— Sorcim. 

PRO TEM ™ 



THE NEW FILE CARD INDEX 


SOFTI/WE 

SOFTI/WE 

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DIGIT/1 /MARKETING'" 


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(415) 938-2880 • Telex 17-1852 (DIGMKIG WNCK) 

Dealer inquiries invited Dealers outside California call 
(501) 442 0864 Inside California call (415) 938-2883 




\ou Can Mix 
Business 

with 

Pleasure 



VALOR - An arcade game with constant 
mapping. You'll never play the word type again. 
You are in an infinitely tall tower, working your 
way up. High score stored, progressive difficulty. 
$ 20 . 



CATACOMB - Descend if you dare! Aliens have 
left their nest. You are to capture eggs and 
elixers without being destroyed by their 
defenses. $18. 



STARBASE - A day in the life of a starbase. You 
must successfully defend from Klingon attacks, 
navigate through an asteroid field, and dock 
safely at the starbase. Fast action! Top five 
scores stored. Great graphics! $25. 


* All programs in fast machine language. 

* All programs use Osborne graphics. 

* All programs written for the Osborne. 

"All documentation on disk — nothing to lose. 


Add $2 per order P&H. PA residents add 6%. 
Send check or VISA/MC info or call. COD OK. 

Portable Software 

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Dealers inquiries invited. 
Programmers! Let us market your creation! 
Write. 


'pTTeVi^t^ 

: 


What do networking 
and communications 
mean to you? 


Adam Osborne 


To the average microcomputer user 
the words “networking” and “com- 
munications” are buzz words with a 
somewhat unsettling aura about 
them. Surely if everyone is talking 
about networking and communca- 
tions,you need it. And yet you seem 
to be getting on just fine without out 
either. Perhaps you are not even sure 
what networking and communica- 
tions are all about. Are you then 
misusing your microcomputer? Or 
not using it to its full potential? 

While networking and communi- 
cations are very important in the 
world of microcomputing, they 
represent one of the contrary aspects 
of the microcomputer industry: a 
technology which perhaps is more 
talked about then needed. That is not 
to say we do not need networking or 
communications, we do. It is just that 
the need is perhaps less than the talk. 

Communications within the 
microcomputer industry, as the word 
would imply, simply represents the 
ability to transmit or receive informa- 
tion, usually via telephone lines. Your 
microcomputer is at one end of the 
transfer; another microcomputer will 
be located at the other end. A number 
of microcomputers and/or com- 
puters communicating with each 
other constitute a network. 

Information is communicated bet- 


ween computers and/or microcom- 
puters, using very specific data pat- 
terns. These data patterns allow the 
transmitting and receiving ends of the 
transfer to identify the point at which 
information begins and ends, and 
sometimes to identify the type of in- 
formation being transferred. Gener- 
ally, we refer to these codes as com- 
munications protocols. All kinds of 
incomprehensible and arcane ter- 
minology are used to name these pro- 
tocols. 

Before the advent of the micro- 
computer, there were minicom- 
puters — and there were terminals. 
Minicomputers and terminals still ex- 
ist, of course, but the microcomputer 
now straddles the product spectrum 
between these two devices. 

A minicomputer today differs very 
little from a microcomputer. The 
minicomputer is perhaps larger 
physically, or more capable elec- 
tronically, and certainly costs more, 
but that is all. A terminal, on the 
other hand, differs from a microcom- 
puter and a minicomputer, in that the 
terminal cannot be used on its own. 
You use a terminal to access a com- 
puter — using communications. With- 
out communications, therefore, you 
cannot use a terminal. 

Today, many microcomputers are 
used as terminals, communicating 


6 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 


December 1982/January 1983 




with larger computers. When used in 
this fashion, the microcomputer 
needs communications capabilities. 
Many users who have spent years 
working with large mainframe com- 
puters, today use microcomputers as 
terminals and lose sight of the fact 
that all microcomputers are not ter- 
minals. Therefore, all microcom- 
puters do not need communications 
capabilities. 

But you do not have to be using 
your microcomputer as a terminal in 
order to have need for communica- 
tions. A whole range of obvious and 
ingenious uses have been found for 
communications and networking 
within the microcomputer industry. 
Many users transmit information be- 
tween each other, devising their own 
form of electronic mail, or perhaps 



magnifies your Osborne redisplay 
to 3 /4 of full monitor size and 
stores inside the computer. 


GreenScreen is a fresnel lens magnifier 

with a green filter that gives you 

• adjustable magnification up to 
2Vix (screen is same size as moni- 
tor screen — 11-in. diagonal — and 
provides a wide viewing angle) 

• vastly improved contrast and clarity 
as well as greatly reduced reflection 

• easy storage inside computer 

• folding stand to support front 
of computer 

• easy installation in minutes; no 
holes to drill 


IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 

Just send your money order or cashier’s check 
(personal check OK but delays shipment). Or 
Mastercard or Visa. Only $18.95 + $1.00 ship- 
ping. California residents add $1.14 sales tax. 
We’ll ship your GreenScreen promptly by first- 
class mail. 

EVERETT ASSOCIATES, INC. 

429 Olive St, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 . (707) 545-6644 
Outside California call TOIX-EREE (800) 358-8292 


becoming the computer version of 
ham radio operations. Then there are 
information and communications 
services such as THE SOURCE, 
which act as collecting points for 
large numbers of microcomputers. 
These services have not done well 
financially, since only the most 
dedicated microcomputer enthusiasts 
transmit information among 
themselves using such services, while 
the information they provide is 
enough to choke any normal mind. 

Getting carried away with the con- 
cept of communications, newspapers 
have occasionally come up with the 
hair-brained scheme of letting you 
read the news on your computer 
screen, rather than off the printed 
page — only to discover, very quickly, 
what a hair-brained scheme this is. 

Why then has communications 
been so over-sold in certain quarters? 

The answer, very simply, is that 
more and more people are buying 
microcomputers as business 
machines: consumer electronics pro- 
ducts that make typing easier or 
financial calculations less painful. 
Vast new markets are being opened 
up by microcomputers for applica- 
tions that may replace the typewriter 
or the desk top calculator. In all pro- 
bability, the vast majority of micro- 
computers will be sold into such ap- 
plications within the next few years, 
and this vast majority of microcom-, 
puters will have no need for com- 
munications. 

Which is not to say that com- 
munications is unimportant or likely 
to die out. 

The point I wish to make is that the 
microcomputer industry is growing 
so fast, and in so many directions, 
that of necessity many buyers will 
never need communications capabil- 
ities and need not feel uncomfortable 
about doing without. For those who 
do need communications, the hard- 
ware and software is cheap and readi- 
ly available. It is getting cheaper and 
more readily available all the time, so 
don’t worry about it. 





• v ^ 



0> . ff)P Op oQ} 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 7 


"Sure, we can send you 500 widgets tomorrow, and 
with our Trantor hard disk unit we can 



ALL WITHOUT CHANGING DISKETTES!" 


• UPDATE OUR STOCK LIST 

• PUT YOU ON OUR MAILING LIST 

• ISSUE A CONFIRMATION NOTICE 

• UPDATE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

• REVISE OUR BALANCE SHEET 

• MERGE PRINT A SHIPPING TICKET... 


The Trantor TSL-5 and TSL-10 hard disk storage 
units increase the capacity of your Osborne 1* 
computer many times! 

Installation is easy - unpack your disk, plug it into 
the IEEE port, run a simple 5 minute installation 
procedure and you’re ready for use! 

*Osborne 1 is a trademark of Osborne Computer Company 


Comes complete with BIOS, back-up, retreive 
utilities and cable. 


TSL-5 $9QQC TSL-10 $9*201: 

5 MBYTE my* 10 MBYTE J- 5 " 


CONTACT YOUR DEALER, OR: 

TRANTOR SYSTEMS, LTD. 

4432 Enterprise St., Unit I 
Fremont, California 94538 
(415) 490-3441 





PLAY THE SYSTEM THAT MADE KEN USTON THE 
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DONTLOSE OUT 
START WINNING NOW. 


PLAYS LIKE THE 
REAL THING 


Ken Uston’s 
Professional Blackjack 

Dept. OB 10 

Intelligent Statements, Inc. 
Box 600, Holmes, PA 19043. 


WINS LIKE THE 
REAL THING 


lead you through each skill level. At any 
point you can choose to see accurate 
running counts, continuous 
statistical evaluations, discard 
deck totals and instructional 
prompts, complete with sound 
effects. So you develop and 
refine the skills you need 
to win big. 


Ken Uston, familiar to 
millions as the blackjack 
expert featured on CBS’s “60 
Minutes,’’ has won a reputation 
as the world’s foremost black- 
jack player. Now Intelligent 
Statements brings Ken Uston’s 
casino-proven blackjack system to 
your home computer. 


Start winning at blackjack. 
Send $89.95 (plus $2.00 
for shipping and handling) to: 


Ken Uston’s Professional 
Blackjack 1 is the most complete 
and realistic blackjack game you can 
buy. You’ll meet the same playing 
opportunities that you’d face at a real 
blackjack table — at your choice of 
over 70 Nevada and Atlantic City casinos, 
each with its own set of rules and 
variations. Or you can create your 
own casino, manipulating sixteen 
different game parameters to produce 
39 , 813 , 120 different playing 
environments. You can select the 
number of decks in the shoe, vary 
the dealing speed, choose and name 
competing players, set their wallet 
sizes and much more. And all your 
data is accurately displayed, so you 
can play the strategy you like and 
get the feedback you need to win. 


(North Carolina residents 
add 4% sales tax). 
Make checks payable to 
Intelligent Statements, Inc. 
Major credit cards accepted 
over 24-hour toll-free lines at 
1 - 800 - 345-8112 (PA residents call 
1-800-662-2444). Be sure to 
specify your home computer brand. 


IBM PC* requirements: 

48K RAM, disk drive, PC DOS? 

80-character display. 
Color and monochrome versions 
supplied with each package. 

APPLE II** requirements: 

DOS 3.3, 48K RAM, disk drive, 
40-character display. 

Osborne 1 requirements: 

Standard Osborne 1 package. 

Display shows actual photograph 
of IBM PC version. Apple 
color graphics and Osborne 
monochrome graphics are similar. 

Versions for Atari?* TRS-80** and 


Ken Uston’s Professional 
Blackjack is the most thorough and 
authoritative teaching system you 
can buy. Now you can learn all of 
Ken Uston’s computer-optimized card- 
counting strategies, from basic to 
advanced levels. Menu-driven inter- 
active practice drills — augmented 


by superb documentation — 


other brands will be available shortly. 























GRAPHICS ON YOUR OSBORNE 1 IS AS EASY AS 
USING A PENCIL 


CREATE AN ENDLESS ARRAY OF DESIGNS, PIC- 
TURES, DRAWINGS AND GRAPHS FOR WORK 
OR JUST PLAIN FUN. 

CREATE, SAVE, EDIT, REDISPLAY OR USE 
ANYTHING CREATED WITH GRAFIXWRITER IN 
YOUR OWN BASIC PROGRAMS. 

GRAFIXWRITER WILL EVEN PRINT EXACT 
COPIES OF DISPLAYS THAT USE NON-GRAPHIC 
CHARACTERS ON ANY PRINTER. 


GET YOUR FAMILY INVOLVED IN YOUR 
OSBORNE 1 WITH GRAFIXWRITER 
GRAPHICS! 


$29 95 CHECK. MONEY ORDER. OR C O D FROM 



ESCAPE 

ENGINEERING 


2536 S. DIAMOND SANTA ANA, CA 92704 


CALIFORNIA RESIDENTS ADO 6% TAX 


A HIGH QUALITY, EASY TO USE PROGRAM 
DEVELOPED SPECIFICALLY FOR THE 
OSBORNE 1. 


SOFTWARE 
FOR THE 
OSBORIME 


APPOINTMENT 

CALENDAR SYSTEM $80.00 

Maintain your personal or business 
appointment calendar with this amaz- 
ingly flexible system. You define how 
many people the system is to man- 
age; which days of the week, hours 
of the day, and intervals within each 
hour are to be used. Includes auto- 
matic posting to multiple times and 
days, printouts,, and many other fea- 
tures. Runs on single or double den- 
sity or hard disk systems. Complete 
instructions included. 

CASINO BLACKJACK $25.00 

Realistic simulation of casino play. 
Before play, you select options to 
duplicate the rules of any casino: 
number of decks, insurance wager, 
double down. Includes pair splitting. 
Card counts show on demand. 

Order from: 

MARATHON COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS, INC. 

P.O. Box 1527 
San Mateo, CA 94401 
(415) 340-1756 


Idtfer- 


The Cover that Shook the World 

Your premiere issue was sent to the 
former occupant of our address, and 
we were absolutely delighted with 
your cover! Granted your thinking is 
computers, not news coverage, but 
you have done what no major news 
magazine in this country has done, 
and that is a cover featuring the 
freedom fighters of Afghanistan. In 
that you have done a great service. 

We appreciate your bringing, in 
your own special way, an awareness 
of the struggle for freedom and self- 
determination in Afghanistan to your 
readers. 

Karen McKay 
Executive Director 

Committee for a Free Afghanistan 
Washington, D.C. 


User’s Guide Clarification 

On page 237 of the MBASIC sec- 
tion of my User’s "Guide, there is 
mention of the /F:, /M:, and /S: 
commands but no explanation on 
how to use them anywhere in the 
manual. Can you clarify what they 
are and how they are used? 

Martin Murray 
Dallas, Texas 

Those commands are options used 
in the initialization of MBASIC pro- 
grams. 

/F: is the option for setting the 
number of sequential or random disk 
data files that may be open at any one 
time during the execution of a BASIC 
program. If the /F: option is omitted , 
the number of files defaults to 3. 
Each file data block requires 306 
bytes of memory. The maximum 
number of files allowed is 15. 

/M: sets the highest memory loca- 
tion that will be used by MBASIC. 
Programmers use it to reserve space 
for their assembly language sub- 
routines by setting up memory below 
Osborne's reserved memory location 
(CF00). If the /M: option is omitted , 


all memory up to the start of DFOO is 
used. 

/S: sets the maximum record size 
for use with random files. The 
default size is 128 bytes. 


Examples: 

> MBASIC /F:8 

Use 8 files. 

> MBASIC FILE- 

Use 2 

NAMES 

files , ex- 

> MBASIC /M: 

ecute 

FILE- 

NAME 

Use 

&H90A0 

memory 

> MBASIC /S:100 

up to hex 
address 
90A0 
Set max- 

> MBA SIC 

imum 
record size 
to 100 
bytes 


FIL ENA ME / F: 1 2 / M: 

& HAF00/S:512 

Note that decimal , octal (&O), or hex- 
adecimal (&H) numbers may be used. 


A Troubled Reader 

I was about to send my $100.00 off 
for a software package entitled 
“Write Track,” put out by a 
“Gradan Consulting Company,” 
when I noticed that their ad had not 
included a phone number (page 89 of 
the August/September issue). I then 
called information to find out if there 
was any listing for the company. 
There wasn’t. 

Now I ask you, why couldn’t this 
be some flim-flam operator who’d 
just take my money and run? What 
I’m getting at is that I don’t think you 
screen your ads closely enough. Your 
prompt attention to this matter is ap- 
preciated. 

Adam Thomson 
Fayetteville, N.C. 

Mr. Thomson raises an important 
issue. However , he incorrectly iden- 
tifies the “suspect” announcement as 


10 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


an advertisement . In fact , this an- 
nouncement was included in the 
NEW PRODUCTS section. Material 
for this section is culled from 
numerous press releases we receive in 
the mail. 

A disclaimer appears at the end of 
this section stating that we do not edit 
submitted material before publica- 
tion. We think it’s inappropriate to 
edit material submitted regarding the 
release of a new product — to do so 
could lead to judgement calls on our 
part that might not be in the best in- 
terest of our readers (i.e., in the case 
of products that compete with those 
distributed by OCC). Material in this 
section is run on a first-come , first- 
serve, space-available basis, and in all 
fairness we cannot differentiate bet- 
ween products on a subjective basis. 

In future issues we will attempt to 
provide telephone numbers whenever 
possible, however, some manufac- 
turers do not accept phone orders. It 
is always best to write or call the 
manufacturer for complete details on 
the product before purchasing it. 


Printing SuperCalc files 

I entered the expense report Calc- 
Aid published in the August/ 
September issue of your magazine. 
This is a great idea and you should be 
able to publish these for years, but I 
do have one question. How do I print 
SuperCalc files without the column 
and row numbers showing? 

Fred H. Coats 
West Chester, Pennsylvania 
While in SuperCalc, use the se- 
quence of commands /G B as a toggle 
switch to turn the borders on and off. 


dBASE II Controversey 

I have just discovered that new 
purchasers of the Osborne computer 
are receiving a disk of Ashton-Tate’s 
dBASE II, a program that I would 
like to have and would have to pay 


for at well known rates. It seems that 
this offer is supported by head office 
as proof of purchase must be submit- 
ted to head office to quality. 

I can go along with dealers giving 
discounts to attract business, and 
frankly whatever the dealers do to get 
business is up to them. But I must ad- 
mit thst when I see this kind of deal I 
am a little affronted. 

Peter Chapman 
Victoria, B.C. 

This issue has been raised by a 
number of our existing owners and 
we would like to address it head on. 
Osborne Computer Corporation 
prides itself on its aggressive pricing 
and remaining on the leading edge of 
the technology. We introduced the 
first computer priced at less than half 
the cost of our competitor’s pro- 
ducts-and with software to boot! We 
intend to maintain that posture now 
and in the future. The dBA SE II offer 
in one more example of OCC f s ag- 
gressive stance on pricing. 

These kind of sales promotions are 
common in all aspects of retail sales 
and computers are no different. Mr. 
Chapman must also acknowledge 
that as technology is fine-tuned and 
marketed to a wider audience, prices 
usually go down. A recent example is 
the Video Recorders introduced 
several years ago; the price tag on to- 
day’s models is considerably lower 
than when they were first introduced 
AND the technology is better. 

Mr. Chapman ’s computer has un- 
doubtedly paid for itself many times 
over and has certainly not lost value 
due to this sales promotion. On the 
contrary, all Osborne owners will 
benefits from future promotions on 
other software packages (such as the 
WORD- PA C offer advertise by OCC 
in this issue). We will continue to in- 
troduce products like the COMM- 
PAC modem, which is priced signifi- 
cantly lower than modems offered by 
our competitors. 

Whereever possible OCC will con- 
tinue to give consideration to its 
established customer base to “share 



OSBORNE 1 


SOFTWARE 


ACCOUNTING 
DATA BASE 
MANAGEMENT 
ENTERTAINMENT 
LANGUAGES 
MAILING LIST 
MANUFACTURING/ 
RETAIL SYSTEMS 
MEDICAL/DENTAL 
SYSTEMS 

MODELING, PLANNING 
& ANALYSIS 
TELECOMMUNICATIONS 
TIME, BILLING 
& SCHEDULING 
WORD PROCESSING 


Largest Selection 
Of Osborne 1 Software 
Over 50 Programs Total 

Single & Double Density 


Write Or Call For Our List 


CORNERSTONE 

SOFTWARE 


PO BOX 5151 
SAN JOSE, CA 95150 

( 408 ) 972-0515 



OSBORNE 1 IS A TRADE MARK OF OSBORNE 
COMPUTER CORPORATION 

COPYRIGHT c 1981 CORNERSTONE SOFTWARE 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 11 





Introducing 

GRAFIKS 



Low Cos! Professional Graphics 

for only $125.00 


Now it’s easy to create professional bar charts, 
line graphs, scatterplots and pie charts on your 
screen or printer. Custom designed for the Osborne 
1 , GRAFIKS pulls yourstandard software together 
and brings it alive. Create a graph in only minutes 
with our user-friendly menus. Generate graphic 
data with your own CBASIC programs and let 
GRAFIKS produce instant graphic output. We 
even supply sample CBASIC programs. Or, tell 
GRAFIKS to read a portion of your SUPERCALC 
files and transform these numbers into pictures. 
Once you’ve created and proofed your graph on 
the CRT, print it. We support over ten popular 
printers, including Epson, Okidata, MPI, Seikesha, 
and others. Finally, store your graphs on disk for 
later use or update. When your work is finished, 
play with the Osborne. We give you easy access 
to all 32 Osborne graphic characters. So have fun! 


THE ONLY TOTAL GRAPHICS PACKAGE WHICH 
OFFERS: 

• Bar graphs, pie charts, point plots, free form labeling, 
superimposed graphics, autoscaling. 

• Capability of supporting all popular dot matrix printers. 

• The ability to interactively create and edit graphics 
on the CRT. 

• Compatibility with standard Osborne software — 
SUPERCALC files and CBASIC programs. 

• Low cost, professional graphics on both the CRT and 
your printer. 

• User-friendly menus. 

Acquire GRAFIKS from your local dealer or contact us 
directly. Specify single or double density. 

California residents add 6’/2% tax. 

ROBONICS 

901 Manhattan Ave. 

Hermosa Beach, CA 90254 
(213) 376-1750 

Osborne 1 is a trademark of Osborne Computer Corporation; 

CBASIC is a registered trademark of Compiler Systems; 
SUPERCALC is a registered trademark of Sorcim Corporation. 



12 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



the wealth, " as and when we enjoy 
price reductions . In the case of 
dBASE II the contract with the 
author clearly restricted our promo- 
tion's aggressive pricing strategies in 
customers purchasing within a 
restricted period of time. 

In conclusion, we can only remind 
Mr. Chapman that he has benefited 
from Osborne Computer Corpora- 
tion 's aggressive pricing strategies in 
the past, and he will continue to do so 
in the future. 

Georgette Psaris 

Vice President of Marketing 

Osborne Computer Corporation 


All the Details on C-Itoh 

Thank you for The Portable Com- 
panion premiere issue. Although I 
have been enthusiastic about my 
Osborne since last November, some- 
how getting that well-done publica- 
tion finally cinched the deal. If all 
these reasonable, intelligent people 
are choosing this machine, it must 
have been a good move. 

In the first issue you promised to 
send A1 Frank of Santa Monica some 
information on connecting his C.Itoh 
F10-40 to the Osborne 1. Would it be 
possible to shoot me off a copy of the 
same info? For nine months I’ve been 
living with a bidirectional printer that 
won’t! 

Dan Mielke 
Bethel, Arkansas 

We have received dozens of letters 
requesting the information we sent to 
Al Frank, and unless we want our 
copier to die an early death, we better 
print all the necessary interfacing in- 
formation here. 

An extra bonus is that the C.Itoh 
F10-40 and Transtar 140 serial daisy 
wheel printers are identical to each 
other with respect to components and 
even outward appearance, so the 
following interfacing information ap- 
plies to both. (We kill two printers 
with one stone.) 

For simplicity, the cable is stan- 


dard RS232 fare using pins 1-8 and 
pin 20 connected straight across. 
Three data protocol systems are 
jumper selectable inside the printer: 

1) RDY/BSY; 

2) XON/XOFF; 

3) ETX/ACK 

The printer is usually shipped new 
with RDY/BSY preselected. We 
recommend staying with this pro- 
tocol. As you may already know 
from reading your printer manual, all 
six jumpers should terminate on 
“N" lettered pins for RDY/BSY 
protocol. Do not assume they are 
properly set! 

The next item of interest are the in- 
ternal DIP switch settings on the 
printer: 


SW 

401 CLOSED 

402 OPEN 

403 OPEN 

404 CLOSED 

405 OPEN 

406 CLOSED 

407 SW protocol 

408 CLOSED 


SW 

411 OPEN 

412 OPEN 

413 CLOSED 

414 OPEN 

415 CLOSED 

416 OPEN 

417 OPEN 

418 CLOSED 

419 OPEN 

420 N/A 


Now, use SETUP to configure the 
printer for 1200 baud and SERIAL 
printer. There is a way to get micro- 
justification, super /subscripting, and 
bi-directional printing. Run Word- 
Star's INSTALL program and use the 
“QUME SPRINT 5 DRIVER" op- 
tion located on the printer menu. The 
F10-40 requires the 45 CPS patch 
given in the next letter ! 


I have a C.Itoh Starwriter which I 
cannot get to bidirectionally print, or 
do super/sub scripts and microjustifi- 
cation. Any suggestions? 

John S. Mercer 
Amesbury, Massachuesetts 
We'll assume you want information 
on the C.Itoh Starwriter FP-1500 
25/45 or the C.Itoh F 10-40 (which uses 
the 45 CPS patch on the next page). 

The C.Itoh Starwriter 25/45 is not 
seen too often anymore, but they do 
generate quite a few inquiries. There 


MODULAR TAX 

TAX PLANNING AND 
TAX PREPARATION 
QUALITY SUPERCALC™ 
TEMPLATES 


• Investment Planning 

• Unique Tax Forms 

• Tax Deductible 

• CDP Developed and Field 

Tested 

Organize returns, income, 
expenditures, and tax journals. 

Order the tax deductible 
MODULAR TAX software 
package, and establish 
financial freedom and 
ultimate financial success for 
yourself and others! 


ORDERING 

INFORMATION 

FEDERAL INDIVIDUAL 
TAX MODULES: 

SIO per form 
($20 for 1040). 

INDIVIDUAL TAX 
PACKAGE: 

$50, 1040 (sched. AB.C.D.E). 
2441, 3903, 4562, and 5695. 

INDIVIDUAL TAX PRO: 

$120, all 30 valuable forms. 

FEDERAL PARTNERSHIP 
TAX PACKAGE: 

$50. form 1065 and 
schedules. 

FEDERAL CORPORATION 
TAX RETURNS: 

$50, form 1120 and schedules. 

STATE TAX RETURNS: 

Ask about availabilities. 
Please enclose payment 
with order and send to: 

MODULAR TAX 

P.O. Box 3361 
Stamford, CT 06905 

Order & Information: 

(203) 322-1171 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 13 


T 


I CVfl-1 1 

Compo/iTE 
Video 
Adapter . . . 

lets you connect any standard 
video monitor to your 
OSBORNE for an easier to see 
display. Rts all OSBORNES. 

Just plug it into your com- 
puter and connect your 
monitor. 

Retains HALF - INTENSITY; 
duplicates all internal screen 
attributes and internal display 
still operates. 

CVA-1 s small enough to I 
remain installed, even when 
you pack up your computer! 

Just $ 34.95 plus $2.50 
shipping and handling. (C O D 
additional $2.50 ] 

wl 

Dealer inquiries invited. 

[Ask about our other products 
for your OSBORNE.] 

integrated systems, inc. 

125 Sharon Avenue. Houghton. Ml 49931 

(906)482-2305 




f SURVEYORS ' 

do it 

in the field 

with a portable Osborne 1™ 

and DISCO-TECH software. 

Civil and structural engineers and archi- 
tects, too. DISCO-TECH’s SURVEY 80 
package contains eight professional 
programs for both field and office: 
CoGo, FiNDeR, EDM/Topo, Verti- 
Curve, PLOTTER. Horizontal Curve 
Staking, STADIA, and MapCheck. 
Excellent screen format and easy-to- 
follow documentation. 

Also civil and structural engineering 
programs and DISCO-SPECS specifica- 
tion-writing package. 

Get SURVEY 80 for your 52- 
column Osborne 1 NOW! When 
the 80 column Osborne becomes avail- 
able, we’ll update your diskettes FREE. 

Write or call DISCO-TECH today for 
free brochures and sample printouts. 

disco-) microcomputer 

products 

VilV 11 a division of 
Morton Technologies, Inc. 

600 B Street / P.O. Box 1659 
Santa Rosa, CA 95402 
707/523-1600 or 527-8500 



are two models: the 25 CPS and the 
45 CPS units . (CPS = characters per 
second .) This printer requires the 
following WordStar patches in order 
to get all the things you want: 

25 CPS model: Change ad- 

dresses 0797 and 
07 A 1 from 7E 
to 63 

45 CPS model: Change ad- 

dresses 0797 and 
07 A 1 from 7E 
to 7 A 

Use INSTALL to select “Qume 
Sprint 5 9 from the printer menu. Use 
the Osborne configuration program 
SETUP to configure the disk for 
XON/XOFF or ETX/ACK pro- 
tocol. The cable is standard RS232 
fare. 


More on Double Density 

The next issue of The Portable 
Companion ought to contain a full 
and complete explanation of the cir- 
cumstances surrounding the delay of 
“Dual Density (double density) Disk 
Controller Option.” You have loyal 
customers and owners who have 
waited patiently through several an- 
nouncements. 

D.M. Hurst 
A full explanation of the reasons 
behind the delay in releasing the Dou- 
ble Density Option was included in 
the WHOOPS section of the August/ 
September issue (page 94). A letter 
has also been sent to all registered 
Osborne 1 owners from OCC, ex- 
plaining the procedure for upgrading 
to the new 80 Plus Column and Dou- 
ble Density options (see NEW PRO- 
DUCTS for announcements). 

If you did not receive a letter it may 
be that your warranty card was not 
properly registered. Write to OCC 
for the proper documentation to in- 
clude your name on our mailing list 
(serial 4 must be included) at: 

User Registration 
Osborne Computer Corp. 

26538 Danti Ct. 

Hayward , CA 94545 


Has anyone gotten WordStar to 
print superscripts and subscripts on 
the Epson with Graftrax-Plus? I have 
tried modifying (via INSTALL) 
subroutines USR1: through USR4:, 
ROLDOW:, and ROLUP:, and have 
so far been unsuccessful. 

Jenifer Robertson 
Derby, Kansas 

The Epson printer manual is in error. 
The hex codes listed from decimal 81 
to 87 are incorrect. 5D should be 53, 
5E is actually 54, and so on. 



THE PORTABLE COMPANION 
NEEDS YOU! 

We’re on the look out for writers, 
photographers and reviewers to con- 
tribute to The Portable Companion. 
Please send in your hardware and 
software reviews, features, and ap- 
plications stories on the Osborne 1. 
(include your diskette for a fast 
response) We are also soliciting 
material on using the computer in a 
business environment. Write for a 
copy of our “Writer’s Guidelines” 
at: 

Editor 

The Portable Companion 
26538 Danti Court 
Hayward, CA 94545 


14 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 




SOFTWARE PACKAGES 
ARE GATHERING M 
SAN FRANCISCO 

Moscone Center 
San Francisco 
Friday-Sunday 

January 21-23, 1983 

Sponsored by 

H DIGITAL RESEARCH 

The Creators of CP/M 


CP/M ’83 is an International Exposition and Conference for 
the CP/M industry and CP/M users. The exposition portion 
of the event will be the largest presentation of CP/M based 
hardware and software ever assembled. Nearly three hun- 
dred companies using over six hundred exhibit displays, will 
showcase the full spectrum of application packages, devel- 
opment aids, peripherals, accessories, publications and 
services for CP/M based computers . . . making CP/M ’83 
the largest first year computer event ever. 

CP/M ’83’s Conference and Seminar program will include 
noted leaders from the industry including Gary Kildall, Pres- 
ident, Digital Research Inc.; Sol Libes, Editor, Micro Sys- 
tems Magazine; Christopher Morgan, Editor-in-Chief, Byte 
and Popular Computing Magazines; Adam Osborne, Presi- 
dent, Osborne Computer Corporation; Tony Gold, Founder 
CP/M Users Group and Lifeboat Associates; Ben Rosen, 
President, Rosen Research; Portia Isaacson, President, 
Future Computing; Maggie Cannon, Editor in Chief, Info- 
World; David Crockett, Senior Vice-President, Dataquest; 
and Gordon Eubanks, Vice-President Language Div., Digital 
Research. CP/M '83’s conference, seminar and workshop 
program is designed for computer tradespeople and users. 
The individuals listed above, plus dozens of others, will 
conduct informative discussions exploring CP/M applica- 
tions, technical information, development aids, venture 
capital programs and software distribution. End user 
workshops will show users how to get the most from their 
CP/M computer. 


CP/M ’83 is sponsored by Digital Research Inc., the Crea- 
tors of CP/M. Over 650 different companies support CP/M 
and more than 5,000 companies produce CP/M application 
packages. . .All of these firms will be represented at CP/M 
’83 . . . so attendees will see and try out application pack- 
ages forevery profession, plus state-of-the-art programs 
for word processing, telecommunications, graphics and 
data base management. Also on display or as workshop 
subjects are development aids to help you program faster, 
plus hundreds of CP/M compatible products appropriate for 
your applications. 

At CP/M '83 you can explore the entire world of CP/M under 
one roof and learn more in three days than you could in six 
months, any other way . . . and everything which is on 
display is for sale. 

Registration is $10 for one-day exhibits-only ticket, or $20 
for a three-day ticket which includes admission to work- 
shops, seminars and conferences. Attendees can pre- 
register thru the mail or purchase tickets at the door. To 
pre-register, send check payable to CP/M ’83 to Northeast 
Expositions, 822 Boylston Street, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167, 
Telephone 617-739-2000. Call or write for the schedule of 
seminars, workshops and conferences plus San Francisco 
hotel information. All persons attending CP/M '83 can 
obtain very low, special convention hotel rates. 

For information on exhibiting or attending call or write 
Northeast Expositions. 


Name 

Company (if any) 

Address 

City State Zip 

Telephone (Area Code) 

Check applicable box— Make checks payable to CP/M ’83. Payment must accompany ticket orders. 

□ Send me one-day exhibits-only tickets @ $10 each per day. 

quantity 

□ Send me three-day exhibits and conference tickets @ $20 each. 

quantity 

□ Send me seminar, conference & workshop schedule along with San Francisco hotel reservation information. 

□ My company may be interested in exhibiting, send me information. 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 15 




The Strobe Graphics System: $795. 
You can pay more but you can’t buy more. 



How to chart your company’s fortune without spending 
one. It’s a fact. A single chart or graph can tell you instantly 
what it takes hours to interpret from printouts or other raw data. 

Now, with the Strobe 100 Graphics Plotter and Software 
package, you can create superb hardcopy graphics directly 
from your computer. And you can do it for a cost of only 
$795.00. 

The Strobe System transforms complex data into dynamic, 
colorful visuals with a few simple 
commands from your computer. 

Charts and transparencies that 
once took hours to produce are 
plotted within minutes. Informa- 
tion can be presented as bar 
charts, pie charts, curves or iso- 
metrics in a variety of colors. And 
with a resolution of 500 points per 
inch, the Strobe 100 matches or 
surpasses the quality of plotters 
costing thousands of dollars more. 


You can also save and modify your graphics through 
Strobe’s menu-driven programs. A broad selection of soft- 
ware is now available. 

When the Strobe Graphics System is interfaced to your 
computer, an &Vi x 11 inch sheet of paper can speak anyone’s 
language — visually. Visit your local dealer and learn how to 
start charting your fortunes today. Because a perspective on 
the present can also be your window on the future. 


*For Apple, Osborne and Commodore computers. 
For serial interface, add $ 100.00. 


I.R.E.T. INFORMATICA SPA 
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Tel. 52-2-32643 
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Tel. (02) 476 2700 
Telex No. 24527 


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Tel. (206) 630-1991 

DAVID JAMISON CARLYLE 
CORPORATION 
2049 Century Park East 
Los Angeles, CA 90067 
Tel. (213) 277-4562 


The Strobe Graphics System 

Seeing is believing 






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WordStar is a registered trademark of f 
Praxis is a registered trademark of Olivetti Corporation. 


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Tougher and Tougher 

Thom Hogan 


The questions to the Wizard are 
getting tougher all the time. I take 
that to mean one of two things: either 
this magazine and other support ef- 
forts of Osborne have had some ef- 
fect on getting rid of the simpler ques- 
tions, or you’re all out there trying to 
find one that will stump me; I sure 
hope it’s the former and not the lat- 
ter. 

I must start this column with an 
apology to many of you. Most of 
July and August I was out of the of- 
fice, both on vacation and making 
the local lecture circuit. Unfortunate- 
ly, this coincided with the onslaught 
of mail that arrived due to the ap- 
pearance of the first issue of The Por- 
table Companion . When I finally got 
around to tackling my correspon- 
dence in September, I found that I 
had a stack of over 500 letters to 
answer. 

Here it is mid-October (as I write 
this — you should be reading this in 
December) and I find that I still have 
a way to go to finish answering the 
letters that just cried out for an 
answer. My apologies to everyone 
who wrote expecting a quick answer. 

Now, on with the show. . . 

By now all of you should know 
about the status and availability of 
double density. One persistent ques- 
tion I’ve already received is Why wait 
until January? 

There’s no simple answer to this 
question. Some of the factors that are 


involved are: 1) We had already 
planned a move to new facilities in 
mid-November. Have you ever tried 
to move 300+ employees 
simultaneously while still maintain- 
ing the business status quo? It was felt 
by all the decisionmakers at Osborne 
that to attempt to update machines in 
the middle of this move would be in- 
sane. 2) Many of the dealers we ap- 
proached asking about how to get 
double density out smoothly in turn 
asked us to avoid requiring them to 
handle updating or shipping 
machines in the middle of their 
Christmas rush. November and 
December are traditionally the two 
biggest “selling” months of the year 
for computer dealers. 3) Our supplier 
of parts could not promise us enough 
parts to satisfy all the demand for 
double density if we began shipments 
as early as November. We used the 
extra two months as “buffer” time to 
allow us to build an adequate supply 
of the boards before starting the up- 
date process. 

These are only some of the factors 
we had to take into account. I’m not 
trying to give you a glib sidestep of 
the issue, as some of you have ac- 
cused me of doing about previous 
statements concerning our policies 
and decisions. Personally, I wanted 
to get double density out the door 
quickly. 

What I find fascinating is that I’ve 
received at least a dozen letters 


18 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


recently that accuse us of deliberately 
withholding double density and 
80-columns from the marketplace. 
What in tarnations for? I can’t think 
of one rational reason for that at- 
titude. Double density and 
80-columns are MONEY-MAKERS 
for us, so why would we want to hold 
off shipping them? Does anyone real- 
ly believe that we want to dissatisfy 
current customers while attempting 
to win over new ones? Hogwash. 

When printing from WordStar onto 
my General Electric Terminet 300 
(albeit old, but reliable) printer, the 
only way I can create a blank line on a 
single-spaced page is to fill a line with 
spaces or tab the cursor to the far 
right and put a period or other char- 
acter in front of a carriage return. 
What’s the problem? 

Without having a Terminet around 
to test my theory on, I can’t give you 
a definitive answer, but I’ll take a 
stab or two at some possibilities. 

The first possible explanation is 
that the Terminet is not “seeing” the 
carriage returns. This could be due to 
any number of causes. It does see a 
carriage return when it follows 
spaces, however, I hope this doesn’t 
mean that the Terminet never prints 
consecutive carriage returns (actually 
line feeds followed by carriage 
returns to the computer, but those of 
us schooled in typewriter notation 
speak of a carriage return as the en- 
tire action of going down one line and 
returning the carriage to the left 
margin). If the Terminet won’t print 
consecutive carriage returns, your 
solution is probably as good as any. 

A more likely possibility is that the 
action of moving the print head to the 
left margin and going down a line 
takes more time than it takes to “see” 
the next character. In short, the Ter- 
minet never sees the next carriage 
return because it was too busy mov- 
ing the print head. The reason that it 
works to add spaces is that the Ter- 
minet must have some sort of buffer 
to store an entire line before printing 


it, although this is not absolutely 
necessary for this explanation to be 
correct. 

If this second explanation is the 
correct one, there is a simple solution: 
send the printer characters that it will 
ignore before ever sending a carriage 
return; these are normally referred to 
as “null” characters, since nothing 
happens when they are received. 
Adding nulls works because it takes 
time to receive them, and time is what 
the print head needs to get back into 
position. 

So, how do you send the printer 
more nulls? You use the INSTALL 
program as described in this issue’s 
Processed Word column, and change 
the value at LABEL PSCR: (location 
06A1) from its present value of 02, to 
something higher. If you haven’t in- 
stalled WordStar so that it recognizes 
how to do half-height line feeds, you 
can make the value as high as 0C 
(that’s 12 in decimal). If you have in- 
stalled the half-line feed function, 
you may only enter numbers up to 06. 

How can I change the PIP 
filename[n] function so that it prints 
the number of every fifth line in the 
left margin, instead of printing every 
line number? 

Most legal documents use the for- 
mat you describe. Neither PIP nor 
Enumerator (a program sold under 
the Approved Software program) 
provide the results you want. 

Fortunately, a program is coming 
that answers your needs: Lawmate. 
Lawmate is a combination of Docu- 
mate, Enumerator, and some other 
ideas put into one complete package 
for use by lawyers. Modifications of 
the Enumerator function are made to 
accommodate the change you re- 
quest. It is not yet known whether a 
new version of Enumerator will be 
made incorporating the changes. 

Fve found that there is a difference in 
the performance of my Osborne 1 
when plugged into a grounded circuit 
in the addition to my home versus 


NEED 

MORE 

PORTS? 



Add a dozen or more RS-232 
ports by “daisy-chaining” TNW 
serial interfaces to your 
Osborne- l rM IEEE-488 bus port. 
Since 1978, TNW Corporation 
has been producing inexpensive, 
flexible., and reliable IEEE-488 
to RS-232 interfaces. 


(~ j 

OTHER 
BIT RATES? 

Want to use an electric 
typewriter or other serial device 
that can’t run at the standard 
speeds supported by the 
Osborne- l’s RS-232 port? 
TNW’s serial interfaces provide 
110, 134.5, 200 or any other 
baud rate you need between 110 
and 9600 bits per second. 


TNW’S 

SERIAL 

INTERFACES 

TNW offers the output-only 
TNW- 1000, the input/output 
TNW-2000, and the 
two-channel TNW-232D. Also 
available: auto-answer, auto-dial 
TNW- 103 IEEE-488 Bus 
Modem, and TNW’s brand new 
OPERATOR, a calling unit that 
provides auto-dial/answer 
capabilities for users who now 
manually dial and answer phone 
calls using acoustic couplers or 
modems. 

All units complete with 
cabinet, documentation, and 
full one-year warranty. Priced 
from $129-389. Details from 
George Masters. 

•TNW 

CORPORATION 


Dept. 0, 3444 Hancock Street, 

San Diego, CA 92110 
(714) 296-2 1 1 5 • TWX 910-335-1194 


V. 


VIS A/ MasterCard 
Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 19 


Do Your OWN 

PERSONAL 
INCOME TAX 

microTAXPAD™ wqj^Twith your’ 
OSBORNE 1™ apd^SUPERCALC™. 
microTAXPMVdoes all the math and 
immediate^aisplays the effect of 
each enjtfy or change you make on the 
bottom line: your tax refund or bal- 
anqe due. 

Includes all commonly used forms 
^nd schedules for personal Income 
■tax: FORM 1040, Schedules A, B, D, E, 
f G, FORMS 2106, 2119, 2441 , 3903. 

Immediately analyzes the bottom line 
effect of potential tax shelters/credits. 

OSBORNE Single Density format only: 
$39.95. Fla. residents add 5% sales tax. 
Low cost annual revision service 
available. (Purchase price may be tax 
deductible.) 

APPLICA TION ENGINEERING 
2238 Grey Fox Court 
Orange Park, FL 32073 
(904) 264-4619 

2-3 weeks for delivery. 

1982 tax year version shipped after 1/15/83 


OSBORNE 1 tra 

SUPERCALC traaerr>acKOT sorcim 
microTAXPAD trademarlTofApplication 


fl & WvLlll'td' 




T-PILOT 

KCC’s implementation of the popular instructional 
language PILOT provides the CP/M system programmer 
with an extremely versatile means of creating computer 
aided instructional programs. The simple syntax of 
T-PILOT provides an excellent introduction to elemen- 
tary programming techniques to the novice as well as 
providing the experienced programmer with an easy 
means to construct interactive programs. T-PILOT's 
powerful string-matching featureallows for convienient 
programming of the “Question/Answer’' type of 
instructional program. Also included are sample pro- 
grams and a comprehensive documentation package. 

KCC T-PILOT $39.95 

LUCIDATA PASCAL 

POLYBYTES’ versatile implementation of Lucidata’s 
field-proven Pascal system provides the CP/M program- 
mer with a powerful language system which is fully 
compatible with his/her current operating system. 
Pascal’s data structures and programming constructs 
combined with Lucidata's 9-digit REALs, and extensions 
such as program chaining and random disk file access, 
give this system the sophistication to handle the most 
complex programming tasks. 

LUCIDATA PASCAL VERSION 3.8 $145 

KCC's products are available for CP/M version 2.0 and 
higher, and can be shipped on Osborne’s single-sided, 
single-density format. (CP/M is a registered trademark of 
Digital Research Corporation.) Send check or money 
order to: 


KELLER CONSULTING CORP. 
BOX 163 

VINTON, IA 52349 


" SYSTEM DEFINITION 
> CUSTOM HARDWARE 
‘ CUSTOM SOFTWARE 


319-472-2842 

319-369-9154 


plug it into the non-grounded 
circuit in the main part of my older 
home. this normal? 

It’s hard to give you an accurate 
answer without seeing your home. I, 
too, have an older house (built in the 
30’s) tnat has been added onto. I’ve 
never had any troubles with the elec- 
trical/circuits here, despite the fact 
that, /at times, I’ve had as many as 
four/Osbornes, a hard disk, and a 
:er, all plugged into the same cir- 
(not my normal mode of opera- 
—I was helping test some new op- 
tions that day). Theoretically, the 
perage I had plugged into the cir- 
uit should have blown the 20-amp 
fuse, but it didn’t. 

On the other hand, I lived in a 
newly-rewired home in Indiana for 
two years, where I had nothing but 
problems with the electrical circuits. I 
had to turn my computer off and not 
use it anytime the air conditioner was 
on, or anytime electrical (thunder) 
storms approached the area. I in- 
stalled a line filter, which helped 
some, but not entirely. 

Let’s attack the problem from a 
theoretical, not anecdotal base, 
however. Your Osborne is looking for 
115 volts of alternating current, and 
wants them to be transient (noise) 
free. You should have at least 4 amps 
of voltage available. These three fac- 
tors can be compromised in many 
ways. 

The assumption that you have 115 
volts coming into your house is one 
that isn’t always correct. I once in- 
stalled a computer system that had no 
end of problems, until we one day 
happened to measure the line voltage 
coming in and found it to be 92 volts! 
The solution in this case was to put a 
voltage regulator into the building. 
This only solved half the problem, 
however, as the voltage regulator 
can’t cope with voltages that get too 
low, like in the low 80’s. If you 
suspect this is your problem, the 
power company in your area is your 
best source for help. 

Transient-free lines are hard to 


find. You’ve all seen the TV screen 
break-up when someone nearby runs 
a drill or other motor-driven device. 
Think of the same effect coming 
through your electrical cabling as 
spurious noise in addition to the 115 
volts. We’ve installed a line filter into 
the computer to take care of some of 
this problem, but again, the quantity 
or severity of the problem can over- 
ride this feature. The biggest creators 
of transients are large appliances, 
especially if old, or typewriters. If 
you get BDOS errors infrequently, 
and they seem to only occur at one 
location (i.e., if you plug it into a dif- 
ferent circuit and everything 
ALWAYS works fine), look to see 
what else is operating in your house. 

Last, the amperage draw of the 
Osborne must be looked at. The stan- 
dard circuit breaker in most homes is 
either 10, 15, or 20 amps. The 
Osborne, as worst case, draws 4 of 
those amps. If you have two 
Osbornes and a printer plugged into a 
circuit with only 10 amps rated load, 
you should expect unpredictable 
results, or worse yet, frequent shut 
off of the current when the circuit 
breaker does its job. 

To put my answer into a series of 
things you should consider doing, 
here’s what I would try if I suspected 
electrical problems interfering with 
the operation of my computer; I list 
these items in order in which I would 
attempt them: 

1) Make sure the computer is 
grounded. 

2) Isolate the computer on its own 
circuit. 

3) Plug the computer into an add- 
itional line filter. 

4) Try turning off major appli- 
ances when computing. 

If any of these four things have any 
effect on the problem, I would pro- 
bably consult with an electrician to 
have my home checked for possible 
wiring problems. 

The Wizard of Osborne 

c/o The Portable Companion 

26538 Danti Court 

Hayward, CA 94545 


20 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



ALPHABETICAL LISTING 
OF COMMANDS 
EASY TO READ 
QUICK ACCESS 


&■/ immediately visible 

<&/ PROGRAM COMMANDS 
&/ for the 

"V OSBORNE l~ COMPUTER 


• DURABLE PLASTIC 

• NON GLARE SURFACE 

• COLOR COORDINATED 

• FITS INTO CASE 


KLEERTEX™ TEMPLATE 

CREATIVE 
COMPUTER 
PRODUCTS 


ONLY $19.95 


TH 


OSBORNE I is a trademark of the Osborne Computer Corporation. WORDSTAR is a registered trademark of the Micro Pro International 
Corporation. D BASE II is a trademark of AshtonTate, Inc. M BASIC is a registered trademark of Micro Soft. Supercalc is a trademark 
of SORCIM, Inc. Creative Computer Products is an independent company, specializing in Sophisticated Solutions for computer 
operators. 


■CUT HERE- 


Please send me the following KLEERTEX™ TEMPLATE(S) at $19.95 each plus $1.75 postage and handling charge: 
(California residents add 6% sales tax.) 

WORDSTAR® Commands SUPERCALC® Commands DBASE II® Commands M BASIC® Commands 

I WANT TO PAY FOR KLEERTEX™ TEMPLATE(S) AS FOLLOWS: 


For Model: 


□ Check Enclosed 

□ Master Card 


□ VISA 

■C Money Order 


CARD NO. 
SIGNATURE 

NAME 

ADDRESS _ 
CITY 


□ Beige/Black 
D Gray/Blue 

{PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY) 

— EXP. DATE — — Mail Order Form Today To: 

Creative Computer Products 


P.O. Box 85152 • MB134 
San Diego, CA 92138 

(619) 268-0793 


STATE 


ZIP _ 


Dealer inquiries welcomed. 


□ Please send your FREE catalog of products for the OSBORNE 1’ 


©CREATIVE COMPUTER PRODUCTS™ 1982 







Stop Program “Zaps” due to 
Power Outages or use your 
Osborne 1 from Automobile 
Agtronics Power Supply Models 


WH-1, no frills $59 

WH-2, fancy bargraph display $88 

Batteries, gel type $35, up 

Charger for batteries $40, up 

Complete system starts at $125 

Shipping & handling 5% 


Send check or for more information: 

Agtronics Associates, Dept. PS 
1305 E. 2050 N. 

N. Logan, Utah 84321 


THE OSBORNE'S 
SCREEN 

JUST GOT BIGGER 

AS AN OSBORNE OWNER, 

WHEN DID YOU LAST HEAR: 
“HOW CAN YOU STAND 
THAT SCREEN - IT’S TINY”? 

Well, your tiny screen just got bigger. About 50% 
bigger, actually. COMSOL, the computer solutions 
company, has just introduced a screen enlarger for 
your Osborne Personal Computer. 

Like the Osborne 1 ,m the Screen Enlarger is a high 
quality product at a reasonable price. It’s also port- 
able. Just $19.95, complete. 



COMSOL 

P.O. Box 206, Pt. Richmond, CA 94807 

Name 

Street 

City/State/Zip 

Calif. Residents add $1.30 Sales Tax 
Money back guarantee 


Do You Use a Printer 
or Modem? 



The average microcomputer "moves" data at 
120,000 characters a second. A typical disk drive 
transfers it at 27,000 CPS. Most printers however 
plod along at 100 CPS and many modems squeak out 
30 CPS. That's quite a drop in efficiency not to 
mention a waste of 
computing power! 


We've broken 
this bottleneck 
with a smart little 
"white" box called the PRINTER OPTIMIZER' that 
features a 64,000 to 256,000 character memory 
buffer. Now you can "print" your inventory in 2 
seconds instead of 10 minutes, and no longer will 
your computer be tied up transmitting or receiving 
modem transmissions. The OPTIMIZER is smart 
too. You'll notice a keypad and display in our 
picture. You can tell the OPTIMIZER to convert 
data, send control sequences, pause on cue, and 
more. For example: access all of your printer's 
capabilities (graphics, font size, forms control, 
special symbols) with the ease of selecting a 
station on a pushbutton car radio. Use it to adapt 
an XYZ printer to your ABC computer running a 
PDQ word processing program. Run a serial print- 
er or modem from a parallel port. If you can afford 
and justify a disk drive, then you certainly need 
our OPTIMIZER to bring your printer, plotter or 
modem "up to speed" with the rest of your system. 


If You Need A Letter 
Quality Printer 

. . .then consider our affordable 
yet high quality alternative. Our MEDIAMIX ETI 2 * 
converts an IBM Electronic Typewriter (and some 
other brands) into a computer printer. Every 
office needs a typewriter. So for example, you can 
buy an IBM Model 50 ET that costs about $1200 and 
have a superior typewriter, and then with our 
ETI 2 have a printer that produces probably the 
highest quality printed image available. You can 
even do typesetting like this ad! And for financial 
printing you can't beat a wide carriage IBM ET. 
It’s a truly cost effective investment. There are a 
number of arguments in favor of choosing this 
route over a single use computer printer, and we 
have an article on this subject you should read. 

We apply technology creatively, with insight 
and with respect for the non-technical end user. 
Feel welcome to write or call our toll free number 
for more information. 

APPLIED 

CREATIVE 

TECHNOLOGY, INC. 

2723 Avenue E East, Suite 71 7 
Arlington, Texas 76011 
[81 7]-261-6905 
[800J-433-5373 

COPYRIGHT 1982 



22 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 




o 


si JP* i§ Department c,f Treasury — Internal Revenue Service 

1 040 U.$. individual income Tax Return uei ©2 


For the year January l-December 31, 1932, or other tax year beginning 

nwr™T , l WW I iW IITT ■ II T'" n 1l l r— 1 11 M >msm»/smsama^mma^mmM 


Use 

label. 
Other- 
wise, 
piease 
print 
or type. 


Your first nan 


NOW. A NEW SELF-TEACHING PERSONAL 


present home address (Number and street, including apartment number, or run* 


City, town or post office. State and UP code 


SYSTEM 


Presidential 
Election Campaign 


FOR YOUR OSBORNE COMPUTER 


Do you want $1 to go to this * 
_tf joint return, does your sp' 


Filing Status \ 

Check only 3 

one box. 


Single 

Married 

Mar 


HomeTax" 

by Learning Shack™ 


5 


Exemptions 

Always cher* 
the box •' 
Your?' 


Here's how you can get the first self-teaching personal 
Federal Income Tax preparation system for your home 
computer featuring AutoLearn™. 


Ch 


Prepare Your Tax Returns 
with HomeTax’" 


Your Computer System 
may be Tax Deductible 


Imagine how easy it will be to prepare your 1040 Income Tax 
Return on your own computer using the Learning Shack™ 
HomeTax™ system. You don't have to be a tax expert and you 
don't need to purchase tax books or pay outside tax 
preparation fees. You don't even need a documentation 
manual with your HomeTax™ system because the user-friendly 
program will ask you all the questions that the professional tax 
preparer would ask, right on the CRT screen! You simply enter 
the answers and the program goes to work for you. It uses your 
computer to process the information and print the completed 
return on plain paper. A special 1040 transparency is included 
with the program which is placed over the printout and your 
finished tax return is made on a copy machine ready for your 
signature. 

Your Personal Tax Planning System 

In addition to helping you prepare your income tax return, 
your HomeTax™ program can be used in a "what if" mode to 
help you with tax planning. A "Tax Planning Strategies 
Manual" that you can use to project the tax consequences for 
different situations is included with your program. This can 
save you many times the cost of the HomeTax™ System! 

Your HomeTax™ program is also compatible with another 
user-friendly system available from the Learning Shack™ 
called HomeRecord™ — a system that allows you to record 
current expenses throughout the year and provides you with 
monthly financial information which automatically flows into 
the HomeTax™ system at the end of the year. 

A Toll-Free Number to 
Answer Your Tax Questions 

When you use the HomeTax™ system, you get more than a 
computer program. You get a complete tax service! If you 
have any questions regarding the preparation of your income 
tax return when using the HomeTax™ system, just give us a call. 
Our technical staff will be on hand to answer any tax questions 
you may have. In addition you will receive periodic news 
releases concerning important changes in the tax laws. 

What About Next Year? 

Every year there are revisions in the tax laws. Learning 
Shack™ will provide you, for a nominal charge, with annual 
renewal diskettes to update your HomeTax™ system which will 
reflect these new tax laws. 

OSBORNE IS A TRADEMARK OF OSBORNE COMPUTER. INC. 

CP/M IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH 


Your HomeTax™ system is tax deductible. Also, if you 
purchased your computer system in 1 982, you may be able to 
write off a substantial part of the entire system if it is used for 
assembling data and preparing taxes. Included with your 
HomeTax™ system is a description of many tax deductible uses 
for your computer. 

Hardware Requirements 

HomeTax™ runs on most CP/M computers with dual disk 
drives and with at least 48k RAM. (Apple II requires Softcard.) 
Contact us if you have any questions regarding compatibility 
with your system. 


Order by Mail 
or by Telephone! 

Order your HomeTax™ system today! The price is only $95.00 
plus $2.00 for shipping and handling. Remember, you can 
deduct this amount from this years taxes if you order now 
before the end of the year! The time and taxes you save may 
even pay for the entire cost of the system! 

To order by telephone call (800) 782-8678. (In California 
call (714) 966-6631.) Use your Master Card or Visa (we 
need your card number and expiration date). 

To order by mail please enclose your check for $95.00 
(California residents add 6% sales tax) plus $2.00 shipping 
and handling. Send payment to: 



Learning Shack’Ync. 


17981-J Sky Park Circle 
Irvine, California 92714 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 


10 reasons why you 

should call DataSource 

for hardware. 


L 

Z 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 


Competitive Prices Our volume 
enables us to offer you prices which 
are consistently competitive. 
Compare for yourself, then call us 
toll-free 800-328-2260. 

Express Service: 7 days per week, 24 
hours per day You can place orders 
any day of the week at any hour of the 
day or night. Your order will be 
processed and shipped within 24 
hours for all products in stock. 

Discount Structures We offer 
significant discounts to any individual, 
organization or user's group 
purchasing in quantity. 

Key Account Program For 

corporations and institutions, we offer 
a comprehensive program: volume 
discounts, complete maintenance 
packages with an on-site option, 
specially staffed technical support, 
tailored training programs and 
creative financing options. 



Toll-Free Technical Support We 

service what we sell. Our customers 
have direct access to our technical 
staff on a toll-free basis. 800-328-2260, 


National Maintenance Network We 

offer a variety of maintenance 
agreements for hardware products. 
Call for more information. 



Flexible Payment Options We 

accept all major credit cards, checks 
and money orders, as well as 
purchase orders from corporate 
accounts. 



State-of-the-Art Software and 
Hardware We carry a broad range of 
what we believe to be the best in 
software plus carefully selected 
hardware products and accessories. 


Unconditional Money-Back 
Guarantee We stand behind 
everything we sell. If you are not 
completely satisfied with your 
purchase, return the item within 60 
days and receive a full refund. 



The Personal Touch Computers may 
not be human, but we are. Whenever 
you need answers, help or advice, 
we're as close as your phone. Call 
toll-free 800-328-2260 ( in Minnesota, 
612-544-3615). 


Here’s a small sampling of hardware available now from DataSource® 

(If you don’t see what you need, just call us at the number below.) 

Smith- Corona TP- 1 $689 Hayes Smart Modem 300 $230 

C.Itoh Pro Writer $515 Hayes Smart Modem 300/1 200 cauior price 

C.Itoh Pro Writer-Serial $650 Cable $ 40 


Pleas© include 3% for shipping and handling. Minnesota residents, add 5% sales tax. Prices subject to change without notice. 

FOR MORE INFORMATION CALL TOLL-FREE 

1 - 800 - 328-2260 

IN MINNESOTA CALL 612-544-3615 


American Express 
MasterCard 
Visa 


-w ^ ^ Aft 


ROE 

Corp. r= 




DataSource Systems® Corporation. Dept. GB, 1660 So. Highway 100, Minneapolis, MN 55416 


24 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


Computers 
Make Sense at 
The Computer Workshop 51 " 

The Computer Workshop™ consists of four separate centers, each 
dealing in a distinct area of computer products and/or services. 

We do this, so that we can provide you with the full support 
that computer users of today have come to expect. 



RETAIL CENTER 

1 776 Plaza — Store No 1 1 0 
Rockville. Maryland 20852 

(301) 468-04S5 

A full service computer 
store prepared to help you select 
your small computer system, 
peripherals and software. (Along 
with others, we o r fer the 
Osborne I computer.) 


SYSTEMS CENTER 

1776 Plaza — Store No 107A 
Rockville. Maryland 20852 

(301) 468-2399 

A systems house prepared to 
design, integrate, install and 
maintain to your requirements. 
(This center is available should 
you need help with special 
applications for your Osborne I.) 


EDUCATION CENTER 

1776 Plaza - Store No 108 
Rockville. Maryland 20852 

(301) 468-2399 

Education in the use and 
handling of small computer 
systems and software. There are 
regularly scheduled classes on a 
wide variety of computer related 
subjects. (Here, learn how to use 
your Osborne I and its software.) 


SERVICE CENTER 

1 776 Plaza — Store No 1 07B 
Rockville. Maryland 20852 

(301) 468-0901 

A service store prepared to 
repair your small computers and 
peripherals. (We can perform 
authorized warranty service on 
your Osborne I too!) 


Osborne I is a Trademark of Osborne Computer Corporation 

What Other Dealer Can Offer You More? 

We, at The Computer Workshops, want to go over and above. We want 
to help you make sense of it ALL! 

Watch for the opening of our new store in Annapolis! 


1776 Plaza 
1 776 East Jefferson Street 

Rockville. Maryland 20852 

(301) 468-0455 



THE 

COMPUTER 

WORKSHOP" 


A Collection of Specialty Computer Stores 
For Metropolitan Washington, D.C. 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 25 


SOFTWARE & ACCESSORIES for the OSBORNE" 


GAMES #1 

This popular package contains four games 
plus a handy four-function calculator. 

TRAIN puts you at the controls of a runaway 
train gathering speed as it plunges downhill 
between two steep embankments. Suddenly 
the embankments veer left, and you rapidly 
correct the train’s direction, trying desperately 
to preserve the safety of train and passengers. 
For the moment you’ve succeeded. Look out, 
though— the roadway gets narrower up ahead! 
(One to nine players) 

Other games are WAR, BOMBER, and BZZZT! 


GAMES * 2 

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December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 29 


COM MUNI CATIONS 


Osbomemodem 

Now you can talk to the world 


Michael McCarthy 


It’s called the COMM-PAC, it comes in a snazzy blue 
box, and it promises to hook up your Ozzie to the 
telephone so you can tap into national information net- 
works, electronic bulletin boards, and other computers 
around the country. 

So what is COMM-PAC, and what’s so special about 
it? 

COMM-PAC sells for $265 at your local Osborne 
dealer, and consists of a direct-connect telephone modem 
to plug your Osborne into the telephone lines; a software 
package to run the communications; a user’s manual, 
and coupons for special offers from two of the most 
popular and useful information networks in the country. 

In this issue of The Portable Companion staffer Brad 
Baldwin signs on to THE SOURCE and Dow Jones 
News/Retrieval Service to show you what these two 
popular national networks can do for you as a business 
person, writer, researcher or computer novice. 

In a separate article, Thom Hogan checks out the 
burgeoning world of the so-called “electronic bulletin 
board,” where “something for everyone” is more than 
just a slogan. 

Also in this issue (see Sources) is a beginner’s list of a 
few of the more than 500 regional bulletin boards and 
national databases, to get you started in the fascinating 
and expanding field of telecommunications. 

Let’s take a look inside the electric-blue COMM-PAC 
box and see what you get for $265. 

FIRST, there’s the hardware. 

The COMM-PAC modem is a slim package that slides 
neatly into your Osborne’s left-hand diskette storage slot 
(see photo). It doesn’t get in the way when you close up 
the Osborne; so once installed you need never take it out. 
A small cable plugs into the modem port right beneath 
the diskette pocket. 

Just take the telephone jack plug out of your telephone 


30 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


COMMUNICATIONS 


set, and plug the jack into the modem. Your Ozzie is now 
ready to connect up by telephone with hundreds of 
bulletin boards and tens of thousands of other computers 
across the country. 

Because the modem connects directly through the 
telephone jack, there’s no need to fool around with 
acoustic coupler earmuffs (which don’t work with the 
modern “thinline” telephones anyway). It also prevents 
data loss due to external noise, which is more difficult to 
guard against with acoustic couplers. 

And of course the COMM-PAC modem takes up no 
additional room on your desk. 

SECOND, there’s the software, which also comes with 
the COMM-PAC. 

AMCALL is the name of the software, designed by 
MicroCall Services. AMCALL, which sells separately for 
$125.00, is easy to use and very powerful. It can interface 
with almost every kind of communications protocol you 
are likely to run into. As it comes out of the package, the 
software is preset for the same popular protocol used by 
THE SOURCE, Dow Jones and many other national in- 
formation networks, as well as most local electronic 
bulletin boards. 

That means to hook up with Dow Jone’s latest stock 
prices or to get THE SOURCE’S airline reservation ser- 
vice, all you have to do is: 

a. plug the telephone cord into the modem; 

b. load the AMCALL software 

c. press the RETURN key for the menu; 

d. select originate mode from the menu; 


e. Choose the Dow Jones or THE SOURCE phone 
number from your menu by pressing one key; 

f. The Modem dials the number for you. If the 
number is busy, AMCALL lets you know. 

g. Presto. You are online. Now all you need do is try 
to remember your password. 

Of course you have to sign up with THE SOURCE or 
Dow Jones first, which brings us to: 

THIRD: By special arrangement, Osborne brings you a 
nice little bonus: THE SOURCE will waive their $100 
subscription fee, and give you one free hour of prime 
time usage. And Dow Jones will also give you two free 
prime time hours, and postpone the subscription fee for 
a month so you can see how you like the system in ac- 
tion. 

The three free hours together with THE SOURCE’S 
sign-on fee waiver, means you save half the $265 cost of 
COMM-PAC in your first month of ownership. 

The flexibility and power of AMCALL allows Osborne 
modem owners to choose from a list of alternate pro- 
tocols and interfaces. That makes COMM-PAC much 
more flexible than most modem systems. 

You can store onto diskette the information that comes 
in over the wires, to review at your convenience or (in the 
case of public domain software) use. The storage system 
for COMM-PAC is much more convenient than on many 
modems because it lets you dump successive buffers of 
the same data all in the same file. Other modem systems 
put each buffer into a separate file, which you later have 
to string together. 



December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 


31 



COMM U N I C A T i O N S 


BUT WHY would you want a modem for your 
Osborne, anyway? 

Because of what your new communications ability will 
do for you. 

First and foremost, there is information. 

THE SOURCE will give you access to the UPI wire ser- 
vice. Doing articles or research on a current topic? You 
may not have realized it, but the wire service stories you 
see in your newspaper are edited for length — sometimes 
heavily. Through THE SOURCE you get the original 
uncut story, which may be many times longer. You also 
get all the UPI stories that never make it into the 
newspaper. 

Wonderful! More information on more subjects! But 
wait a minute — suppose your problem is not getting 
MORE information, but getting LESS information. If 
only there was a way to get only the news that’s impor- 
tant to you . 

Ah, but you can! Build your own customized 
newspaper by calling for UPI stories by keyword, on 
topics or references you provide. That means you read 
only what is of interest to you — but in far more depth. 

The following story on databases by Brad Baldwin ex- 
plains more about THE SOURCE’S offerings and what a 
typical session with THE SOURCE looks like. It also 
details how to get the Dow Jones stock prices— in fact, 
prices on all the major exchanges, with only the 15 
minute statutory delay. Dow Jones also offers a daily 
summary of the Wall Street Journal transcripts of the 
Popular $ Wall Street Week TV show, and lots of other 
financial services such as historical stock prices and com- 
pany profiles. 

Consumer databases such as THE SOURCE, Compu- 
Serve and NewsNet offer exotic services such as elec- 
tronic magazines — both electronic versions of newsstand 
magazines, and special magazines that can only be receiv- 
ed by modem. (You could actually become the publisher 
of your own electronic newspaper, and get royalties!). 

Then there’s electronic mail. Services like THE 
SOURCE allow you to transfer your electronic files into 
their computers, then send them to another end-user who 
uses the same database. 

Western Union’s database service takes this one step 
further, offering EASYLINK, a service that lets users 
send messages via the COMM-PAC modem to Western 
Union, which then forwards the message by way of Inter- 
national Telex or national TWX lines. That means you 
can send a message at any time, anywhere in the world, 
directly to anyone who owns a Telex machine. 

For a businessman whose Telex traffic is fairly light, 
this might save a lot of money over the alternative of 
buying a separate Telex machine. It might also save on 
the noise that paper-terminal Telexes emit, as well as the 



time and expense of training a special Telex operator. Or, 
if you don’t know anyone with a Telex machine, 
EASYLINK allows you to send mailgrams directly from 
your Osborne. 

We heard of one businessman in Texas who found an 
imaginative way to use these electronic mail services. 

He travels frequently to field offices in Seattle and 
Chicago. Each office boasts its own computer and 
modem. Before departing Texas, he prepares his notes 
and reports on his Osborne, loads the information into 
THE SOURCE, then goes to Seattle and retrieves the 
information. 

This saves him the trouble of carrying along diskettes 
and risking data loss. His secretary is able to add up- 
dated information without having to keep track of his 
whereabouts, since the businessman just taps into THE 
SOURCE when he needs it. 

That’s just one example of the possibilities inherent in 
the world of telecommunications. A world which you can 
join with your Ozzie and your COMM-PAC. 

For a limited time— November 1 to December 24 
— Osborne's versatile Personal Pearl software package 
will be included free with every purchase of COMM-PAC . 
See your authorized Osborne dealer for details. 

(Mike McCarthy is a technical writer /editor with 
Osborne Computer Corporation.) O 


32 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


Information networks 

A sign of the times 


Brad Baldwin 
Jackie Rae 



From the moment that Alexander Graham Bell mut- 
tered “Come here Watson, I need you,” and was 
astonished to find he had been heard through his new in- 
vention, the telephone, communication has been a con- 
suming interest of humankind. The availability of 
modems and affordable microcomputers has created a 
bridge between the tin cans and string of our childhood 
and the amazing potential of telecommunications. Now 
Everyman can talk to anyone about virtually anything, 
anywhere in the world. Pretty heady stuff. 

The ramifications of this sudden burst of interest in 
telecommunications are innumerable and vastly exciting. 
Just as the advent of television profoundly affected mid- 
dle class America, the increase in the use of telecom- 
munications forces each of us to reevaluate the way we 
communicate and receive information in our work and at 
home. Suddenly Marshall McLuhan’s pronouncement 
that “the medium is the message” has new implications 
for Everyman (Everyperson?). The “Global Village” is 
even further compacted. 


In the not-so-futureworld, a typical scenario will go 
something like this. Mom and Pop begin each day by 
surveying the morning paper from a monitor screen. At 
the office, Mom zips off the final draft of a big report to 
the Seattle branch office and directs her secretary to 
make airline reservations for an upcoming business trip 
through THE SOURCE. Across town, Dad plugs into 
the Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service for updates on his 
client’s stock portfolios. 

Meanwhile, after school, Junior rings up THE 
SOURCE for the latest baseball statistics. Later, his sister 
leaves a message on a favorite bulletin board for anyone 
who has information on a dreaded school project and 
Junior advertises his bicycle for sale on the same bulletin 
board. After dinner, Mom and Pop scan the THE 
SOURCE for new job listings in Alaska, hoping to 
relocate the entire family. 

Our futureworld is ripe with possibilities and requires a 
relatively miniscule investment in time and money (if you 
don’t count rising phone bills) to bring to reality. As a 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 33 


COMMUNICATIONS 


matter of fact, Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service and 
THE SOURCE are extending special introductory offers 
to new owners of the Osborne COMM-PAC (modem). 
Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service delays for 30 days the 
$50 start-up fee, and provides two free hours of usage 
time to investigate the many information services they of- 
fer. THE SOURCE waives the $100 start-up fee and pro- 
vides one hour of free usage time (to be used within the 
first two months after purchase). 

So What Does This Mean to You? 

Dow Jones News/Retrieval Service is part of the Dow 
Jones & Company organization, a leader in business 
journalism. They are publishers of The Wall Street Jour- 
nal, Barron’s National Business and Financial Weekly, 
and the Dow Jones News Service. 

News/Retrieval is an interactive information service 
accessed through the Osborne computer, a modem and 
the phone lines. They offer comprehensive and reliable 
coverage of business and financial news as well as general 
news and information. Here is a partial list of some of 
the many services that are provided: 

• The Wall Street Journal Highlights Online. Includes 
major news headlines and summaries of the Wall Street 
Journal’s front and back page stories, descriptions of 
major editorials, and easy to understand market 
summaries. 

• Dow Jones Quotes. Provides current information 
(minimum 15 minimum delay required by law) on stocks, 
options, bonds, and mutual funds from the New York, 
American, Midwest and Pacific Stock Exchanges. The 
service also provides a “historical” perspective of any 
common or preferred stock. Daily summaries go back 24 
days, while monthly summaries are available as far back 
as 1979. 

• Academic American Encyclopedia. The entire 20 
volume Academic American Encyclopedia contains more 
than 28,000 current articles and is updated twice a year. 

• Free Test Search. Includes over 150,000 articles from 
the various Dow Jones publications. You can search 
through the backlog using any combination of words, 
dates or numbers, as far back as June 1979. 

• Media General Financial Services. Provides easy 
access to detailed corporate Financial data on approx- 
imately 3,200 companies and 170 industries. 

Additional services offered by Dow Jones include The 
Sports Report , The Weather Report and Cineman Movie 
Reviews. 

Figure 1 shows what a sample dialog with Dow Jones 
looks like. 

After logging onto their system, you keyboard in the 
command: //CQ, which accesses the current day’s 
quotes. You are queried as to which stocks you wish to 


view and respond with five different “symbols” 
representing the particular stock you want to review: 
YBS DEX EAF IRDV TL (These abbreviations are 
located in the Dow Jones Directory). 

The following is an example of the stock information 
provided: 


DOW JONES STOCK QUOTE REPORTER SERVICE 
STOCK QUOTES DELAYED OVER 15 MINUTES 
* = CLOSE PRICE ADJUSTED FOR EX-DIVIDEND 


STOCK BID ASKED 


YBS 

CLOSE 

12 

OPEN 

14 

HIGH 

LOW 

LAST 

VOL( 100’s) 

DEX 

28 5/8 

28 1/2 

28 1/2 

28 1/2 

28 1/2 

14 

EAF 

IRDV 

11 1/4 
4 1/4 

11 1/8 
4 3/4 

11 1/4 

10 7/8 

10 7/8 

352 

TL 

35 3 Vi 4 

35 1V 2 2 

35 5/8 

35 1/2 

35 1/2 

98 


Dow Jones also boasts an historical quote file, which 
enables you to view how a stock fares over a period of 
time. The print-out is orderly and easy to read: 


DATE 

HIGH 

LOW 

CLOSE 

VO L( 100/S) 

09/14/82 

73 7/8 

72 3/8 

72 1/2 

10189 

09/15/82 

73 5/8 

72 1/2 

73 1/2 

7629 

09/16/82 

75 

73 3/8 

74 1/8 

11966 

09/17/82 

74 3/4 

73 7/8 

74 1/4 

5837 

09/20/82 

74 3/4 

73 3/8 

74 5/8 

6523 

09/21/82 

76 3/8 

74 3/4 

76 3/8 

11566 

09/22/82 

77 5/8 

75 5/8 

75 3/4 

12164 

09/23/82 

76 5/8 

75 1/4 

76 3/8 

9833 

09/24/82 

76 1/2 

75 5/8 

75 1/8 

6301 

09/27/82 

76 7/8 

75 3/4 

76 3/4 

4025 

09/28/82 

77 1/4 

76 1/4 

76 1/4 

6913 

09/29/82 

76 3/8 

74 1/2 

74 3/4 

7123 


Using the News/Retrieval Sports Report is just as easy. 
Call up the baseball statistics menu and you’ll see this: 


BASEBALL STATISTICS 

PRESS FOR 

—NATIONAL LEAGUE— 

1 SCORES AND SCHEDULE 

2 STANDINGS 

3 LINESCORES 

4 BATTNG, PITCHING LEADERS 

—AMERICAN LEAGUE— 

5 SCORES AND SCHEDULE 

6 STANDINGS 

7 LINESCORES 

8 BATTING, PITCHING LEADERS 


34 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



COMMUNICATIONS 


THE SOURCE is another valuable information net- 
work for business and home use from Reader’s Digest 
Association (established in June of 1979). Services of- 
fered include an Electronic Travel Service, Electronic 
Mail/Message system, Job Search services, Consumer 
Aids, Electronic Games, Educational Programs, access to 
UPI news, and CHAT, a feature that allows typewritten 
conversation with another subscriber. 

The Job Search ability of THE SOURCE is one of its 
highlights and provides an excellent example of the 


potential of information networks for the adventurous 
user. You can look for a position by: 

1) Geographic location 

2) Salary 

3) Job type 

4) Keyword search 

We searched for positions in the field of computers, 
with openings in Alaska (AK) and Texas (TX). Figure 2 
represents what we came up with during a sample session 
with THE SOURCE. 


MASTER MENU 
COPYRIGHT (C) 1982 
DOW JONES & COMPANY, INC. 


A DOW JONES BUSINESS 
AND ECONOMIC NEWS 
B FINANCIAL AND INVESTMENT 
SERVICES 

C FINANCIAL AND INVESTMENT 
SERVICES 

D GENERAL NEWS AND 

INFORMATION SERVICES 

INTRO 9/15/82 

WELCOME TO INTRO, FEATURING 
FREE INFORMATION AND ANNOUNCE- 
MENTS ABOUT NEWS/RETRIEVAL. 

1 INFORMATION ON PRICING, 

PREFERRED MEMBERSHIPS 

2 ANNOUNCEMENTS OF NEW DATA 

BASES OR ENHANCEMENTS 

3 INTRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS 

FOR SUBSCRIBERS 

4 OPERATING HOURS, CUSTOMER 

SERVICE INFORMATION 

INTROL 9/15/82 -1- 
PRESS FOR 

1 NEW PRICING SYSTEM 

INTRODUCED 

2 PREFERRED MEMBERSHIP PLANS 

SAVE SUBSCRIBERS 33 1/3% 

INTRO 9/15/82 P100 ENDS AT 103 

NEW PRICING INTRODUCED 

A NEW PRICING STRUCTURE HAS 
BEEN INTRODUCED FOR DOW JONES 
NEWS/RETRIEVAL. 

UNDER THE NEW PRICING 

STRUCTURE, THE DATA BASES ARE ORGANIZED INTO FOUR 


EASY-TO- 

REMEMBER SERVICES, EACH WITH 
ITS OWN PRICE. 

DOW JONES BUSINESS AND 
ECONOMIC NEWS IS PRICED AT 
$1.20 A MINUTE DURING PRIME 
TIME AND 20 CENTS A MINUTE IN 
NON-PRIME TIME. 

DOW JONES QUOTES ARE 90 
CENTS A MINUTE IN PRIME TIME 
AND 15 CENTS IN NON-PRIME 
TIME. 

FINANCIAL AND INVESTMENT 
SERVICES ARE $1.20 IN PRIME 
TIME AND 90 CENTS IN NON-PRINT 
TIME. 

GENERAL NEWS AND INFORMATION 
SERVICES ARE PRICED AT 60 CENTS 
IN PRIME TIME AND 30 CENTS IN 
NON-PRIME TIME. 

DISCLOSURE II STILL CARRIES 
AN ACCESS FEE OF $4 FOR ONE 
COMPANY SEARCH IN PRIME TIME OR 
$2 IN NON-PRIMETIME. 

FREE-TEST SEARCH COSTS 60 
CENTS A MINUTE IN NON-PRIME 
TIME. 

THE ABOVE PRICES APPLY ONLY 
IN THE 48 CONTIGUOUS STATES AND 
ARE FOR 300 BAUD TRANSMISSION 
SPEED. 

A TRANSMISSION SPEED OF 1200 
BAUD PROVIDES DATA UP TO FOUR 
TIMES FASTER, AT A PRICE 1.7 
TIMES HIGHER. 

CONNECT TIMES ARE ROUNDED TO 
THE NEAREST MINUTE. 

PROGRAM AND USAGE COSTS MAY BE TAX-DEDUCTIBLE. CON- 
SULT YOUR TAX ADVISER FOR FURTHER 
INFORMATION. 


Figure 1 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 35 


fair with the AT&T long lines went further — here was 


discretion. You may be trying to sell something, need in- 



COMMUNICATIONS 


— EMPLOY JOBS COMP 

THE COMPUTERS CATEGORY CURRENTLY HAS 158 
JOBS. 

AT THIS POINT, YOU MAY 

1 - PRINT THESE ENTRIES, 

2 - SELECT FURTHER FROM THIS DATA BASE BY SPECI- 

FYING GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION, SALARY RANGE 
DESIRED, OR WITH A KEYWORD SEARCH, 

3 - LOCATE AND PRINT AN ENTRY BY REFERENCE 

NUMBER, OR 

4 - RETURN TO SELECTION OF ANOTHER CATEGORY. 

YOU MAY SELECT ENTRIES FROM THIS DATA BASE BY 
1 - SPECIFYING SALARY RANGE DESIRED 
2- SPECIFYING GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION DESIRED, OR 
3 - WITH A KEYWORD SEARCH 

ENTER 1-3 (OR QUIT): 2 

ENTER LOCATION: AK 
COMPUTERS - JOBS 
SALARY RANGE: ALL 
LOCATION ': ALASKA 

THERE ARE NO ENTRIES WITH THIS LOCATION - TRY 
ANOTHER, OR JUST PRESS RETURN TO CONSIDER ALL 
LOCATIONS. 

ENTER LOCATION: TX 
COMPUTERS - JOBS 
SALARY RANGE: ALL 
LOCATION: TEXAS 

17 ENTRIES SATISFY ABOVE CRITERIA 
JOB 1 of 17 

SALARY RANGE: $20,000 - $29,000 
LOCATION: TEXAS 

JOB TITLE: QUALITY ASSURANCE ADM. 

TYPE OF BUSINESS: MFG 
SIZE OF BUSINESS: BIG 
PRODUCT: OIL FIELD TOOLS 
EDUCATION: BS 
DESCRIPTION OF JOB: 

SUPERVISOR OF CLERICAL PERSONNEL: MAINT. OF 
COMPUTER/MICROFILMING: SUPERV. OF MAINT. OF 
SOFTWARE, COMPUTER APPLICATIONS: BATCH 
RELEASE OF DATA TO MAIN FRAME: USER INTERFACE. 
EXPERIENCE DESIRED - COMMENTS: 

MIN. OF 1 YEAR COBOL PROGRAMMING: CO. WILL 
PURCHASE HOME FOR OUT-OF-TOWN PEOPLE. 

FIGURE 2 


In addition to THE SOURCE and Dow Jones 
News/Retrieval Service, there are a number of other 
information networks operating or springing up across 
the country. 

EASYLINK is a new store-and-forward message 
switching service of Western Union accessible from any 
asynchronous 300 or 1200 baud modem. EASYLINK 
gives the microcomputer owner the ability to com- 
municate via TWX and Telex lines around the world, 
without having to purchase additional telex equipment or 
train special operators. EASYLINK is offered on a 
subscription basis to non-Telex I and II subscribers. 

The following are a few of the features and options 
EASYLINK offers new subscribers: 

• Message switching, from subscriber to subscriber, 
including Telex I and II users, performing all necessary 
speed and protocol conversions to insure message 
delivery. 

• Subscriber listing in Western Union’s published 
directory, which also includes Telex I and II listings. 

• DDD access any place in the contiguous 48 states for 
message routing. 

• Multiple message sending capability on one 
transmission connection as required by the subscriber. 

Contact Western Union for more information on 
EASYLINK. 

CompuServe Information Service is available through 
a local phone call in most major U.S. cities. It connects 
almost any brand or type of personal computer or ter- 
minal to large mainframe computers and data bases. 
CompuServe’s basic service costs $5.00 per hour, billed 
in minute increments to your charge card. Services 
offered include: 

• MicroQuote. Current and historical data on more 
than 40,000+ stocks, bonds and options. Includes 
volumes, dividends, earnings per share, ratings and 
shares outstanding. Updated daily. 

• Commodity News Service. Pricing, news and com- 
mentary on energy, metals, financial instruments and 
agricultural commodities. Also weather, agricultural and 
economic news. 

• Financial pages of major regional newspapers. Elec- 
tronic editions of major daily newspapers including The 
Washington Post, The New York Times and The San 
Francisco Chronicle. 

You can sample CompuServe by stopping by any 
Radio Shack Computer Center and asking for a free 
demonstration. 

Well, there you have it. The telecommunication’s 
pioneer can turn his/her Osborne computer into an open 
line to the world — and have a great time doing it! O 


36 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



C O M M U N 1 C A T 1 O N S 


The A > From Afar 

Playing with electronic bulletin boards 

Thom Hogan 


The month I discovered remote CP/M bulletin boards 
my phone bill tripled. My computer hogged the phone 
most evenings calling such exotic sounding places as Simi 
Valley and Calamity Cliffs. 

I’m usually easily fascinated, but my sudden love af- 
fair with the AT&T long lines went further — here was 
something useful in addition to being interesting. 

So what was it that captured my interest? What hidden 
treasure came to me via the efforts of Alexander Bell and 
descendants? Was I suddenly a member of some secret 
club? 

No, friends, the answers are not as strange as you 
might think. A remote CP/M bulletin board system is 
simply a computer running CP/M that answers the 
telephone and allows remote users to utilize the computer 
while connected via phone lines. 

Most of the microcomputer bulletin boards (there are 
ones for Apple, TRS-80, and other computers as well as 
the more generalized CP/M ones) trace their history back 
to Chicago, where two CP/M wizards, Ward Christensen 
and Randy Suess, wrote a program they called CBBS 
(Computer Bulletin Board Service). 

CBBS allows users to call the remote computer with 
their own, then leave or read messages. CBBS’s became 
extemely popular with user groups, and indeed, 
Christensen authored a great number of public domain 
programs for the CP/M User Group during the past 
several years. 

Messages, huh? Why not just use the phone to call 


another person up and give them the message personally? 
Why not use the mail service, as slow as it sometimes is? 

Computerized bulletin boards act as something akin to 
a network. One computer serves as a “nerve center,” 
where all messages are stored and retrieved at the users’ 
discretion. You may be trying to sell something, need in- 
formation about a specific product or service, or just be 
browsing around for someone to chat with. The reason 
isn’t important, it’s the informality and individuality that 
make computerized bulletin boards so fascinating. 

There are bulletin boards dedicated to one particular 
computer, such as the Osborne; some feature news and 
movie reviews; some are dedicated to subjects; some are 
oriented towards specific sexual preferences. The simple 
fact is that there exists several hundred computerized 
bulletin boards across the country. 

Newcomers to computers often find bulletin boards 
useful to get questions answered relatively quickly and in 
a manner they can understand. Sometimes these pseudo- 
conversations go on for weeks. A novice might leave a 
question on the system about how to hook up printer X 
to computer Y. A veteran user might make a quick 
response, abbreviating the details. The novice might read 
that, then leave another query, this time for details on 
one aspect of the hookup. Yet another user might res- 
pond. And on it can go. The patient user who frequents 
the bulletin boards in time can get all their questions 
answered. 

So what, you say? 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 37 


C o M M U N I C A T 1 O N S 


Well, chatting and exchanging information is in- 
teresting, but at long distance rates, it just might not be 
worth it. A good book or a stop by the local dealer or 
user group might just as effectively answer the question. 

Uploading Experience 

That’s where another trait of most CP/M bulletin 
boards comes in. Almost all the CP/M-based CBBS 
systems feature the ability to upload and download pro- 
grams. Upload and download? What are we doing, mov- 
ing into a fourth floor apartment? 

The term upload comes from the mainframe (large) 
computer environment — those giant IBM’s and CDC 
systems that keep track of our phone bills, for instance. 
To upload something to the computer means to transfer 
it to the computer. To download means to transfer it 
from the computer. If you use the same meanings when 
referring to your own Osborne 1 computer, you’ll 
understand the terms and how they affect you. 

There exist over a 100 Osborne 
diskettes worth of public domain 
software; everything from 
games, to languages, to utility 
programs, to business software. 


What I’m hinting at is that you can transfer programs 
between remote CP/M bulletin board systems and our 
own. A bulletin board system that allows transfer in and 
out of files and information is usually referred to as a 
RCPM (Remote CP/M system), since you get the A> 
prompt from the remote system and are allowed to do 
just about anything on that system that you can do with 
CP/M. 

In the CP/M world a public domain program called 
MODEM ( and its complement, XMODEM) is available. 
The FOG (First Osborne Group) library has this pro- 
gram, although it usually has the name MODEM7.COM 
or MODOS7.COM. This program has all the features 
necessary to transfer programs to your Osborne. The 
basic scenario goes something like this: 


1. Using an Osborne 1 with a modem and MODEM7, 
you call the remote system; MODEM should be in the 
terminal mode at the beginning of the session. 

2. When the remote system answers, press carriage return 
two or three times. 

3. Answer the question about nulls with a 0 (zero). 

4. Read the information the system presents to you, and 
if necessary, type the command that takes you to the 
CP/M prompt (usually, but not always G). 

5. In CP/M find the location of the file you wish to 
receive (i.e., use the DIR command to examine the 
drives). 

6. When you’ve found the file, type: 

XMODEM d:filename.typ 

7. The system tells you how long the file you’ve selected 
is and how long it takes to transfer at 300 baud (the 

most common communications speed). 

8. Get back to the MODEM7 menu and use the R 
(receive) command to receive the file on a blank 

diskette in drive B. 

9. Monitor the progress of the transfer by watching the 
messages displayed on your screen. You should see a 
message indicating transfer is proceeding; sometimes, 
especially over noisy telephone lines, you’ll see 
some error messages. Fortunately, MODEM7 and 
XMODEM know how to correct errors and retry 
until your system gets the right data. 

Okay, now you know how to do it, what kind of pro- 
grams can you expect to find and transfer? 

First, the bad news: no reputable bulletin board (i.e. 
one that is going to be around for very long) EVER 
knowingly allows copyrighted material to be transferred 
from it to you. Thus, don’t expect to be able to get the 
latest Osborne Approved Software program while con- 
nected to a remote bulletin board system. 

Now, the good news: there exist over a 100 Osborne 
diskettes worth of public domain software; everything 
from games, to languages, to utility programs, to 
business software. All of this software is copiable and 
free (except for the phone bill — don’t forget that Ma Bell 
will extract her dues while you’re on a remote system or 
you may get carried away). 

Personally, I found the utility programs available from 
the public domain to be the most useful ones for me. For 
instance, I replaced the DIR command on my CP/M 
with a special XDIR program; I replaced ERA with 
ERAQ, a program that queries me before erasing; I 
replaced TYPE with READ (sometimes found under the 
new SHOW or MLIST), a program that lists only 24 
lines of material at a time — i.e., it doesn’t allow material 
to zoom off the screen before I’ve read it; and I’ve 
replaced PIP with WASH, a menu-driven program that 
performs similar functions, but goes much further than 
PIP and the CP/M command set. 


38 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


Squeezing Files 

While Pm on the subject of file transfers, I should tell 
you about “squeezing” and “unsqueezing” of files. 

Transferring long assembly language or text files at 300 
baud can be quite time-consuming. Pve transferred files 
that took over 30 minutes to receive! As you might ex- 
pect, users got a little impatient with slow transfers. 
Eventually, one such user developed a public domain set 
of programs that takes normal text files and squashes 
them by anywhere from 15 to 45 pecent. The program 
that does this was originally called SQUEEZE.COM, but 
you might find it under a different, more cryptic, name 
that reflects the many revisions it has gone through. 

When you run SQUEEZE on a text file, it creates an 
exact duplicate of the file, compressed as much as possi- 
ble, with the same file name except for a “Q” as the se- 
cond letter of the file type. Thus, if you SQUEEZE the 
file THOMS.TXT, you end up with a shorter file called 
THOMS. TQT. If you’re looking around the bulletin 
board system and are wondering where all the q’s came 
from, those are just files that have been squeezed 
(squozen?). 

Obviously, a file that has been compressed using 
SQUEEZE must be restored to its original state before 
being used. The program to do this is UNSQUEEZE 
(also found under other names, so browse the directory 
for programs with SQ in their name). Remember, the 
SQUEEZE/UNSQUEEZE utility is primarily used to 
reduce the amount of time it takes to transfer a 
file — most RCPMs have compressed all their files except 
for UNSQUEEZE. ASM, which you’ll need to get 
started. 

Speaking of getting started, let me describe to you how 
you’re going to have to go about things to use files that 
have that telltale Q in the middle of their file type: 

1. Log onto an RCPM that has UNSQUEEZE. ASM or 
one of its sequels. 

2. Use MODEM7 and XMODEM (or the Osborne 
modem’s AMOALL in the CP/M-user group pro- 
tocol) to transfer UNSQUEEZE. ASM and the 
documentation that accompanies it to your computer. 
Sometimes you can skip this step if the RCPM hap- 
pens to have an already assembled version of UN- 
SQUEEZE (normally called UNSQUEEZE. OBJ) that 
you can transfer. 

3. Use ASM.COM on your Osborne to assemble UN- 
SQUEEZE, then use LOAD to create an executable 
file. If you received UNSQUEEZE. OBJ, just rename 
it to UNSQUEEZE.COM. 

4. Transfer other files, as you desire. 

5. Use your new copy of UNSQUEEZE.COM to uncom- 
press them. 

If you are going to be sending files to the RCPM, you’ll 


need to make sure that SQUEEZE is one of the first pro- 
grams you receive, so that you can first compress your 
files before sending them. Remember, you’re probably 
calling long-distance, so anything you can do to 
save connect time helps keep costs down. 

Some Rules to Remember 

Many RCPMs exist. There are even a few already that 
are dedicated to Osbornes (refer to Sources). 

Most RCPMs are operated by a computer owner who 
does it for fun; there is no charge (other then what Ma 
Bell collects on her tollway) for using them. It is only fair 
that you use some common sense etiquette while using an 
RCPM: 

1. Stay on the shortest amount of time possible. No one 
wants to deny you the time it takes to do what it is 
you want to do while connected to the RCPM, but 
don’t go out for a cup of coffee while in the middle of 
a session. Remember, others are interested in using the 
system, too. 

2. Leave everything as you found it. Don’t try to 
“crash” the system, move files around, leave garbage 
or other nonsense files, and so on. Most RCPMs are 
pretty secure in that they will not allow you to per- 
form catastrophic acts, but even the best-protected 
system can be broken. 

3. Leave in an orderly fashion. Normal method of leav- 
ing is to type the word BYE when you see the CP/M 
prompt. This allows the system to be turned OFF to 
you in an orderly fashion. 

4. When you first use a system, be sure to read any 
welcoming messages or “overview” files. The time 
you spend reading them will not be wasted, for they 
are almost always invaluable in learning the idiosyn- 
cracies of the RCPM you’re using. 

5. If the system is listed as a “callback” system, this 
means that you should call the number, let it ring 
ONCE, hangup, and call again within 40 seconds. The 
reason this is done is because the phone at the other 
end is used both for the modem and for people. If the 
phone rings once then rings within 40 seconds, the 
computer answers; if the phone rings more than once, 
a human answers. 

Even with all this, I still haven’t covered but a portion 
of what’s available using remote bulletin board systems. 
The Sources section in this issue gives a short list of 
major RCPMs of interest to Osborne owners (most 
RCPMs have lists of other systems that you can read or 
capture). 

You’ve got no excuse now. Hook up that modem, get 
a copy of the FOG MODEM7 program, dial one of the 
numbers listed and have at it. ^ 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 39 


On a clear day you can see Siberia 

Meredith Lind 


Recently, two Alaskan businesses, an engineering firm 
(Fryer/Pressley Engineering) and a project management 
firm (JEVAD, Inc.), cooperated in a facility survey of 
school buildings in Eskimo villages throughout northwest 
Alaska. The Bering Strait School District covers approx- 
imately 80,000 square miles along the United States— 
Soviet border, and some villages are so close to Russia 
that on a clear day you can see Siberia. 

In this area the beaches are still snow-covered during 
June and July, power is generally provided by small 
diesel generator sets, and communications are conducted 
over a single village phone through earth station-satellite 
links. Primary access to most villages is by small charter 
plane on dirt runways, while ground transportation 
within villages is by three-wheel all-terrain vehicle or 
snow machine. 

Two teams of electrical and mechanical engineers 
equipped with Osbornes, printers and modems spent four 
weeks in 14 villages surveying bush schools and identify- 
ing major maintenance deficiencies as well as fire, safety 
and building code violations. Using the Osbornes to pro- 
cess data gathered, they generated work orders and 
recommendations for the school district. The Osborne 
was selected for use in this project for several reasons. 

Jim Pressley, Chief of Production for Fryer/Pressley 
Engineering, stated, “We were suitably impressed with 
the versatility of the software, coupled with the power of 
the machine. Once the field work became a reality, por- 
tability determined the selection of Osbornes.” 

Using dBASE II programming, a data base was estab- 
lished consisting of each school’s major mechanical items 
and the associated parts for later transfer to hard disk, in 
order to make the logistics of maintenance within the 
school district more efficient. Data was also collected 
describing future changes required to conform with the 
provisions of new building codes. This data was compiled 
in the form of work orders, and approximately 50 K 
bytes of data were stored per village. 

This programming method required considerable disk 
manipulation causing the disk drives to run almost con- 
stantly. The team members were impressed that the 
Osborne disk drives held up so well under steady use over 
the course of the project. They reported that not once 
was there a gliche in disk I/O operations. Although pro- 
gram development took place in the office, team 
members found the program was easily modified to meet 
unforeseen contingencies in the field. 

It had originally been planned to transfer some of the 
information using the modems during the data collection 
phase. However, most of the villages had only one phone 
on which a five minute limit-per-call is set. In the three 
schools which had separate phones, communication links 
were disrupted or disconnected every few minutes. So in- 
stead copies of data diskettes were sent to the Fryer/ 
Pressley resident project manager, Roy Barkwell, in 
Nome, Alaska. Surge protectors were used, and although 
most of the electrical systems encountered were highly er- 


ratic, only one major failure occurred when a voltage 
spike smoked a monitor coil and transformed the disk 
drives into variable speed devices. 

The majority of the problems had more to do with the 
region’s unpredictable weather and its affect on flying 
conditions. JEVAD team member Craig E. Mills remark- 
ed, “The Osbornes were easy to get around, and once set 
up, they were as easy to use as in the office.” Airport 
security proved to be no problem, partly because only 
Anchorage and Nome had boarding security control. At 
these two points, the security personnel were more in- 
terested in the small screen and “what channels they 
could receive.” A tourist on one flight asked what kind 
of sewing machines the teams were taking to sell to the 
Eskimos. Unfortunately, instead of explaining Osbornes 
to her, the group launched into a discussion of the merits 
of computerized sewing machines and the hardships of 
traveling salesmen in the Alaskan bush. The village 
Eskimos were unsurprised by the Osbornes, being 
familiar with the Apple computers used in most bush 
schools. The most common response was, “Oh, a com- 
puter.” 

The Osbornes took considerable abuse in the course of 
their travels. Travel by Cessna 207 and three-wheeler 
were the least of it. In Gambell one machine was actually 
run over by a three-wheeler while a team member watch- 
ed the arriving plane instead of where he was going. But 
after washing off the tire tracks, the computer worked 
just fine. 

The only real catastrophe came when a defective 
folding table folded up at the wrong time and sent an 
operating Osborne crashing to the floor. The computer 
was returned to the project base in Nome, where team 
member Henry Kallenberg, an electrical engineer who has 
extensive experience with computers, dismantled and 
repaired the Osborne. He used spare parts from a broken 
cassette recorder bought hurriedly at a garage sale and 
soldered them with a screw driver heated over a camp 
stove. This Osborne survived to turn out many more 
work orders and to be saved one last time upon return to 
Anchorage. There an airport skycap swung the baggage 
cart in a sharp turn sending the Osborne flying. Craig 
Mills rescued it with a spectacular mid-air grab, preven- 
ting the need for any further repairs. 

The Osborne’s ease-of-use encouraged the field crews 
to finish work ahead of schedule. Using Osbornes in the 
field also eliminated most of the data shuffling and coor- 
dination associated with such projects and provided on- 
the-spot work orders, reducing the time delay in starting 
repair work by at least six weeks. The use of computers 
on this project resulted in owner savings of approximate- 
ly twenty-five percent (25%) of the total project. Por- 
table computers are already proving their worth in field 
based operations, and even the exigencies of the Alaskan 
bush were ameliorated by the use of Osbornes. 

(Meredith Lind is the Publications Editor for 

Fryer /Pressley Engineering , Inc.) O 


40 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


COMMUNICATIONS 


Squeezing Files 

While I’m on the subject of file transfers, I should tell 
you about “squeezing” and “unsqueezing” of files. 

Transferring long assembly language or text files at 300 
baud can be quite time-consuming. I’ve transferred files 
that took over 30 minutes to receive! As you might ex- 
pect, users got a little impatient with slow transfers. 
Eventually, one such user developed a public domain set 
of programs that takes normal text files and squashes 
them by anywhere from 15 to 45 pecent. The program 
that does this was originally called SQUEEZE.COM, but 
you might find it under a different, more cryptic, name 
that reflects the many revisions it has gone through. 

When you run SQUEEZE on a text file, it creates an 
exact duplicate of the file, compressed as much as possi- 
ble, with the same file name except for a “Q” as the se- 
cond letter of the file type. Thus, if you SQUEEZE the 
file THOMS.TXT, you end up with a shorter file called 
THOMS. TQT. If you’re looking around the bulletin 
board system and are wondering where all the q’s came 
from, those are just files that have been squeezed 
(squozen?). 

Obviously, a file that has been compressed using 
SQUEEZE must be restored to its original state before 
being used. The program to do this is UNSQUEEZE 
(also found under other names, so browse the directory 
for programs with SQ in their name). Remember, the 
SQUEEZE/UNSQUEEZE utility is primarily used to 
reduce the amount of time it takes to transfer a 
file — most RCPMs have compressed all their files except 
for UNSQUEEZE. ASM, which you’ll need to get 
started. 

Speaking of getting started, let me describe to you how 
you’re going to have to go about things to use files that 
have that telltale Q in the middle of their file type: 

1. Log onto an RCPM that has UNSQUEEZE. ASM or 
one of its sequels. 

2. Use MODEM7 and XMODEM (or the Osborne 
modem’s AMOALL in the CP/M-user group pro- 
tocol) to transfer UNSQUEEZE.ASM and the 
documentation that accompanies it to your computer. 
Sometimes you can skip this step if the RCPM hap- 
pens to have an already assembled version of UN- 
SQUEEZE (normally called UNSQUEEZE.OBJ) that 
you can transfer. 

3. Use ASM.COM on your Osborne to assemble UN- 
SQUEEZE, then use LOAD to create an executable 
file. If you received UNSQUEEZE.OBJ, just rename 
it to UNSQUEEZE.COM. 

4. Transfer other files, as you desire. 

5. Use your new copy of UNSQUEEZE.COM to uncom- 
press them. 

If you are going to be sending files to the RCPM, you’ll 


need to make sure that SQUEEZE is one of the first pro- 
grams you receive, so that you can first compress your 
files before sending them. Remember, you’re probably 
calling long-distance, so anything you can do to 
save connect time helps keep costs down. 

Some Rules to Remember 

Many RCPMs exist. There are even a few already that 
are dedicated to Osbornes (refer to Sources). 

Most RCPMs are operated by a computer owner who 
does it for fun; there is no charge (other then what Ma 
Bell collects on her tollway) for using them. It is only fair 
that you use some common sense etiquette while using an 
RCPM: 

1. Stay on the shortest amount of time possible. No one 
wants to deny you the time it takes to do what it is 
you want to do while connected to the RCPM, but 
don’t go out for a cup of coffee while in the middle of 
a session. Remember, others are interested in using the 
system, too. 

2. Leave everything as you found it. Don’t try to 
“crash” the system, move files around, leave garbage 
or other nonsense files, and so on. Most RCPMs are 
pretty secure in that they will not allow you to per- 
form catastrophic acts, but even the best-protected 
system can be broken. 

3. Leave in an orderly fashion. Normal method of leav- 
ing is to type the word BYE when you see the CP/M 
prompt. This allows the system to be turned OFF to 
you in an orderly fashion. 

4. When you first use a system, be sure to read any 
welcoming messages or “overview” files. The time 
you spend reading them will not be wasted, for they 
are almost always invaluable in learning the idiosyn- 
cracies of the RCPM you’re using. 

5. If the system is listed as a “callback” system, this 
means that you should call the number, let it ring 
ONCE, hangup, and call again within 40 seconds. The 
reason this is done is because the phone at the other 
end is used both for the modem and for people. If the 
phone rings once then rings within 40 seconds, the 
computer answers; if the phone rings more than once, 
a human answers. 

Even with all this, I still haven’t covered but a portion 
of what’s available using remote bulletin board systems. 
The Sources section in this issue gives a short list of 
major RCPMs of interest to Osborne owners (most 
RCPMs have lists of other systems that you can read or 
capture). 

You’ve got no excuse now. Hook up that modem, get 
a copy of the FOG MODEM7 program, dial one of the 
numbers listed and have at it. O 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 39 



BASIC screen 
dump for your 

Epson printer 

Tim Kretschmar 

In my work using other computers and in my first ef- 
forts on the Osborne I using WordStar and SuperCalc, I 
became dependent upon the ability to print the contents 
of a file or the video display at my discretion. 

When I began writing my own Microsoft BASIC pro- 
grams, I discovered that no “built-in” function existed in 
either the hardware or software that would permit me to 
selectively generate printouts of my program results with 
my Epson printer. This was frustrating because there 
were times when I needed a printout and other times 
when one wasn’t necessary. I didn’t want to waste paper 
by printing the results of every run. 

My MBASIC options were to either “PRINT” my 
results (send them to video display) or to “LPRINT” 
them (send them to the printer). This either/or choice 
didn’t satisfy my desire for a “sometimes” capability. 

After searching through a number of books, consulting 
local “experts,” and telephoning OCC’s technical 
assistance department and Frank Morton, president of 
FOG, I determined that my problem could be solved 
through programming. 

The “right” way to do it was to write an assembly 
language subroutine. It would be linked to the video soft- 
ware to send the contents of the video display to the 
printer when a special function key was depressed. Bad 
news for a person not familiar with assembly language 
programming but with an immediate need for a screen 
dump. 

The “easy,” workable, considerably less efficient alter- 
native, but the one I k chose to satisfy my short-term 
needs, was to convert a subroutine shown in my Epson 
MX-80 user’s manual to MBASIC. This subroutine 
PEEK’ed at and then LPRINT’ed the contents of the 
video memory. A number of changes were required, 
however, to accommodate the Osborne l’s idiosyncrasies. 

I initially wrote a program that printed the contents of 
all 32 lines of video memory (F000 to FFFF hex) and 
quickly discovered that the first position of the 24-line 
video display wasn’t necessarily the first position of video 
memory. I found that a “wrap-around” feature was used 
to construct the video display. The first display line, for 
example, /might be line 25 of video memory. Memory 
lines 26^-32 and 1—16 would be used to construct the re- 
mainder of the display. To determine the first line of 


memory to print, I found that I could skip over the first 
eight lines past the cursor and begin printing with the 
first position of the ninth line. 

The screen dump subroutine consists of three sections. 
The first section (lines 1000 — 1030) searches through the 
video memory until the cursor (160 decimal) is located. 
The second section (lines 1040 — 1070) counts off the un- 
wanted video memory lines, and the third section (lines 
1080—1150) prints the ASCII value of the contents of 
the video display until the cursor is encountered a second 
time, thus indicating the end of the video display. The 
following variables are used in the subroutine: 

A = The first position of a line in video memory 
B = The length of a line of video memory 
C = the decimal value of “A” being PEEK’ed at 
D = the line counter for unwanted lines 
E = the first position of a line to be printed 
F = the relative character position on a print line 
G = the particular character to be printed 

1000 REM ******** SCREEN DUMP SUBROUTINE ****** 
1010 A = &HF000 : B = 128: D = 1 
1020 C = PEEK(A) : IF C = 160 THEN GOTO 1040 
1030 A = A + B : GOTO 1020 
1040 A = A+ B:D = D + 1 
1050 IF A > &HFF80 THEN A = &HF000 
1060 IF D > 8 THEN GOTO 1070 ELSE 1040 
1070 FOR E = A TO A + 4096 STEP 128 : IF E > &HFF80 
THEN E = &HF000 
1080 FOR F = 0 TO 65 

1090 G = PEEK(E + F) : IF G = 160 THEN GOTO 1150 
1100 IF G < 32 THEN G = G + 64 

1110 IF G > 127 ANDG < 192 THEN G = G + 32 

1120 LPRINT CHR$(15) CHR$(G); 

1130 NEXT F 

1140 NEXT E 
1150 RETURN 

Although it may appear superfluous, don’t forget the 
semi-colon at the end of line 1 120 or you’ll end up with 
one character per line. The semi-colon suppresses a line 
feed until the print line is filled up. 

After you’ve included the subroutine in your pro- 
grams, you can call it into action by using a “GOSUB” 
command as shown in the following sequence: 

100 INPUT “DO YOU WANT A PRINTOUT OF THIS 
( Y / N ) ’ ’ ; P $ 

110 IF P$ = “Y” THEN GOSUB 1000 

There you have it — a simple and effective means of ac- 
complishing a screen dump on your Osborne I. Now 
back to the new book I’m reading, “Everything You 
Wanted To Know About 8080 Assembly Language Pro- 
gramming In 100 Words Or Less.” Hmmmm, I 
wonder .... Q 


42 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 





I/O, I/O 
It’s Off To 
Work We Go 

Brad Baldwin 



Part Two: Parallel 


Interfaces 



(this is the second in a series of articles on interfacing The first question to answer may very well be, “What 

other devices with the Osborne 1). is a parallel interface?” Simply, it is a method of 

connecting one device to another using standard com- 
ponents. At Osborne, we use parallel interfacing to hook 
our computers with hard disk drives, other computers, 
and printers. The actual interface is the cable and plug 
that connects to our IEEE-488 port. The term “parallel 
interfacing” not only refers to those physical components, 
but also to electrical control signals, logic, and timing 
diagrams. First, let’s begin by reviewing binary coding. 

Your WordStar text, SuperCalc spreadsheets, and 
other files are made up of individual units, called binary 
bits. A bit, electrically, is either ON or OFF. Encoding 
information as binary bits makes it easy to transmit over 
a wire; in parallel transmission the computer sends a 
positive voltage signal for a “1” bit and uses zero voltage 
levels for the “0” bits. Universal ASCII (American 
Standard Code for Information Interchange) coding 
breaks down each alphabetic, numeric, and control 
character into its own specific sequence of Vs and 0’s. 

For example, the binary code for “Hello!” is: 

Character 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (Bit#) 

H 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 

e 110 0 10 1 

1 110 110 0 

1 110 110 0 

o 110 1111 

! 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 


44 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 


December 1982/January 1983 



Using The Micro link 

Communicating between the 
Osborne 1 and mainframe computers 

Joey Reagan and Jamie Dinkelacker 


One of the major advantages of owning a microcomputer 
is the ability to access larger mainframes from the con- 
venience of home or office. The two of us find access to 
mainframes indispensible in our work; each of us needs 
to perform statistical analyses on large data bases, to 
store large files, and to use programming languages not 
available for the Osborne 1. Likewise, the mainframe 
allows easy communication with our colleagues. The pur- 
pose of this article is to share some of the problems — and 
their solutions— that we have encountered com- 
municating between mainframes and our Osborne Is. 

We each have an Osborne 1 , a NEC PC-8023 A-C dot 
matrix printer, an Anderson- Jacobson AJ 1234 MODEM 
and The Micro Link communications software package 
(Wordcraft). We use 1200 baud configurations for all 
communications — with both the mainframe and the 
peripherals; the MODEM is connected to the RS232 port 
and the printer is attached to the “IEEE” port on the 
Osborne 1. 

Our communications are used to access the CDC 
Cyber 750 at Michigan State University (MSU) and the 
Amdahl 470V/6 (similar to the IBM 360/67 or 370 at the 
University of Michigan (UM). In addition, we use the 
“Merit Network” to communicate between the two 
mainframes. 

Of course, we first performed the necessary setup 
routines for The Micro Link, although full information 
on configuring the diskette for use is only contained on a 
printed insert to The Micro Link manual. If you didn’t 
get one, write to Osborne or contact your dealer. Im- 
proper setup can impair communications. Once con- 
figured there can be additional problems. 

The following is a list of problems we encountered: 

1. Bits of data may be lost when writing from the main- 
frame to the copy buffer. This results in alteration of 
characters in text, e.g., a space may become a “g.” This 
occurs when screen formatting — or word wrap — (Com- 
mand 8) is ON. Solution: Turn screen formatting OFF. 
(The problem is noted in the manual only for receiving 
non-ASCII files.) 

2. Data are overwritten on the screen. This is the result 
of again having left screen formatting ON but turning 
line feed OFF (Command 7). This condition also occurs 
if fields greater than that specified in Command 15 are 
used with both screen formatting and line feed on. Solu- 
tion: Line feed ON; screen formatting OFF. 

3. The inability to read to the screen or write to the copy 
buffer lines longer than 99 columns, e.g., some output is 
137 columns wide at the mainframe. Thus, output fields 


are truncated and data are lost. Solution: None found. 
NOTE: The Micro Link only reads the first two 
characters of Command 15. Trying 15.110, for example, 
leads to a field width of 1 1 . 

4. A null line is not sent with the <CR> . A double-null 
is used for example, as the “stop” command for the 
EDIT mode on the UM system. Solution: ~C <CR> . 
NOTE: This works at UM only. The usefulness of ^C is 
dependent on the operating commands of the main- 
frame, and~C will not abort a program run. 

5. <ESC > and ~E are the “Attention” commands for 
MSU and UM, respectively, allowing one to abort and 
escape the current run. These are not available a priori 
on The Micro Link. Solution: The Micro Link provides 
Command 19 to alter the command mode character. 
Replace with a little-used keyboard character. For exam- 
ple, 19. 5C provides a backslash for toggling between ter- 
minal and menu modes: <ESC> can then be used for 
abort purposes. 

6. After turning the printer on (command 26), printed 
results may be overwritten or bytes may be lost; data are 
lost when printing a stream larger than the printer buf- 
fer. Solution: none. This seems to be a problem of dif- 
ferences in data send speeds. Follow the suggestions in 
the manual: write to disc and print later. 
We have generally found The Micro Link to be a 

useful communications package and to serve our pur- 
poses quite well with the following menu modifications: 

:7 <CR > (turn OFF line feed) 

:8 <CR> (turn OFF screen formatting/word wrap) 

: 15.99 <CR> (set line width to 99 columns) 

:19.5C < CR> (set command mode character to 
backslash—” \ ”) 

Most solutions involve setting up appropriate format- 
ting when initializing The Micro Link. Other solutions re- 
quire software modifications or the use of alternative 
control commands to “get around” the problem. 
Sometimes it’s just playing with commands (like ~C) to 
see what they will accomplish with the mainframe on 
which one is working. Also keep in mind that these pro- 
blems may be different or others may arise with different 
baud rates or other mainframes. O 

Dr. Reagan is Assistant Professor of Communication 
at The University of Michigan. Dr. Dinkelacker is Presi- 
dent of The Blue Sky Company and is a marketing com- 
munications consultant in East Lansing , Michigan . 

(The Micro Link is licensed from and the trademark of 
Wordcraft , Inc.) 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 43 




becomes HIGH in the following conditions: 

1) During printing. 

2) Off-line mode. 

3) Error mode. 

4) The data buffer is full. 

Pin 13 SELECT 

This is an output signal from the printer that indicates 
whether the printer is in a SELECT or DESELECT state. 
The signal is HIGH under SELECT and LOW under 
DESELECT. The SELECT state occurs when the printer 
is ready to print while the DESELECT mode occurs 
when it is not ready to print, which seems simple enough. 
The latter condition occurs when the printer’s “select” 
switch is OFF, paper is out, or the buffer is full. Those 
signals are the more important ones used in conjunction 
with the Osborne 1 . Grounds were not included in the 
description but are none-the-less important, as we shall 
see later on. 

In summary, parallel data transmission specific to the 
Osborne 1 occurs as follows: 

a) Eight data lines are used. 

b) Data is accepted with a STROBE signal from the 
Osborne. 

c) The BUSY signal output of the printer is used to 
indicate the printer status to the Osborne 1 . The 
busy line is HIGH until there is enough room in the 
buffer for a complete line of characters to be stored 
(on line printers), at which time it will go LOW. (A 


46 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


line printer, in this context, is one that waits for a 
complete line of characters before printing.) 

And It’s Off To Work We Go 

In the movie TRON, characters talked in a sort of “high- 
tech” computer dialect. If the Epson MX-80 and the 
Osborne 1 were connected up and ready to communicate, 
their conversation might go something like this: 

Eppie: Well, Ossie, I’m selected and not busy, so if 
you want to start sending me data, go right ahead 
(Eppie is a line printer). 

Ossie: Okay, here it comes . . . (sends 8 bits or one 
character) 

Ossie: Well, I’ve allowed Vi micro second for all 
the data bits to arrive, so I’ll STROBE it in for 
you. 

Ossie: Here’s another 8 bits 

Narrator: Ossie continues to send DATA to Eppie 
as long as the buffer does not fill up or Ossie sends 
an end of line character. 

Eppie: Okay, I just received an “end of line” 
character so I’m going BUSY— stop sending me 
data while I print out my buffer. 

rip rip rip rip rip rip . . . (Epson printing sounds) 

Eppie: All finished. I’m no longer busy. . .send me 
another line of data. 

Narrator: And the sequence starts again for the 
next line of print. 




(There is actually one more bit known as the high-order 
bit on the left side of the sequence; however, this bit is 
ignored except in special circumstances.) 

In serial communications or data transfer (as described 
in the last issue), one bit follows the other down the same 
pathway, much like a train and its cars moving down a 
track. In parallel transmission, each individual bit has its 
own track or pathway to travel on, much like autos on a 
multi-laned highway. Data bit 1, data bit 2, data bit 3, 
etc. — they all have their own communications line. 

The Gory Details — Let’s Get Technical 

Parallel interfacing is more than just transmitting data 
bits; control signals and proper timing are also required. 
The “Centronics parallel” interface has five types of 
signals concern us most: 

1) Data bits (8) 4) Select 

2) Data Strobe 5) Signal Grounds 

3) Busy 

An understanding of the function of these signals is 
important in understanding the logic behind parallel 
interfacing. A few of them will be discussed now. 

I/O, I/O. . .Signal Explanation And Pinouts 

Printer manufacturers, for the most part, connect their 
parallel signals to standard pins, which helps in interfac- 
ing the wide range of printers on the market today. (The 
Osborne configuration program — known as “SETUP”— 
further facilitates the ease by which parallel printers con- 
nect to the Osborne.) Signal names are not completely 


siaeratron wnencnousmg Detween serial or parallel 

1- • *, r. *i .... • 


standardized, so an understanding of the signal functions 
is helpful when interfacing new or unknown peripherals. 

Pin 1 DATA STROBE 

This is a synchronizing signal sent from the computer 
to the printer for reading (Receiving) the data bit signals. 
The signal is normally HIGH (means positive voltage 
levels, not a drug induced stupor); data is read when the 
host computer changes it to LOW. The eight different 
data bits will not reach the printer at the same time — they 
may be microseconds apart. They are put into a “holding 
tank” as they arrive, and when they are all accounted 
for, the strobe signal allows them to be read in. Most 
printers require a .5 to 1.0 microsecond pulse to “clock 
in” this data. 

pins 2-9 DATA LINES 

These are used to transmit ASCII data in a parallel 
format. 


DATA 1 

Pin 2 

DATA 2 

Pin 3 

DATA 3 

Pin 4 

DATA 4 

Pin 5 

DATA 5 

Pin 6 

DATA 6 

Pin 7 

DATA 7 

Pin 8 

DATA 8 

Pin 9 

HIGH level ( + 5) volts) indicates a 

binary “1 


LOW level (OV) indicates a binary “0”. 


Pin 11 BUSY 

This signal is sent from the printer; a HIGH level 
indicates that the printer cannot receive data, while a 
LOW level indicates that it can receive data. This signal 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 45 
tocols are and why they are important, trickson using 



LEARNING 

THE 

VALUE 

OF 

CBASIC 

J.R. Henry 


I am very, very happy with my Osborne. We average 
about 5 hours a day together, with both drives pleasantly 
grinding data and talking back and forth. I’ve made 
three important purchases in my lifetime, and I consider 
the Osborne one of them. In case you’re the curious 
type, the other two were a 1946 Cessna 120 and a 1954 
Chevy Bel Air. 

I do have a few minor complaints however. I bought 
the Osborne in order to develop some special application 
software, and was fairly confident that Microsoft 
BASIC-80 would suffice. I read through the Osborne 
User’s Guide and was sort of surprised to find 4 pages 
devoted to programming in CBASIC and over 20 pages 
devoted to programming in MBASIC-80. I searched 
through both parts of the manual looking for clues on 
precision. For a while it appeared that values obained by 
MBASIC functions could be made double precision by 
defining them to be. Carefully I searched the manual for 
an explicit discussion of the precision of the MBASIC 
functions. I searched in vain. Finally I wrote a dinky pro- 
gram to generate pi and was amazed the 
pi = 3.141592979431 152! The program which generated 
this (incorrect) number was written using the double 
precision mode for the variables. I must admit, I was a 
bit annoyed that pi was only accurate to six places. I 
know pi to 12 places and so do most $20 pocket 
calculators. Why would they have the so-called “double 
precision” capability if their functions are only worth six 
places? I also soon found that the exponentiation opera- 
tion is only good for six places. (Presumable because it 
uses the log function to generate the power.) I found that 
the MBASIC square root of 1 is 1.41421353816986, when 
obtained by (2 ~ .5). This is incorrect in the eighth place. 

So, it turns out that what you get is double precision 


as long as you don’t do anything but add, subtract, 
multiply and divide. 

By now you’re probably wondering who on God’s 
green earth would WANT pi to more than six places 
anyhow? Surveyors, that’s who. State laws require that 
land surveys have a minimum accuracy. Nowadays 
surveyors use 01 " instruments to measure angles. That’s 
right one second. And depending upon the angle and the 
function, six place accuracy only represents 60 seconds of 
angular precision. 

Needless to say I was a bit depressed over this dilem- 
ma. A (busy) call to the Osborne phones didn’t help 
either. They weren’t even sure what I was talking about. 
As my mind searched for a way out I had a brilliant 
flash: FORTRAN! Familiar ground! I thought I’d just 
get a hold of a FORTRAN compiler and my precision 
problems will be gone. Another call to the Osborne 
phones left me feeling even lower. “We haven’t released 
our Microsoft FORTRAN yet.” 

In my moment of despair I once again buried my head 
in the (Old Black) Osborne User f s Guide . I must have 
slipped into the Twilight Zone because the first page I 
opened to was page 177, and my eyes landed on the 
sentence: “CBASIC programs DO NOT required line 
numbers. . .” Eureka! Looks like FORTRAN! The more 
I read the more I liked it. To be perfectly honest, I’m 
somewhat of a novice at micro programming. Most of 
what I know came from the standard college course 
“FORTRAN for Humans.” 

My next discovery was that CBASIC allows you to 
“toggle” the printer and console by a single statement in 
the program, a feature that I’d learned to appreciate 
when using Northstar BASIC a few years ago. 

I searched the CBASIC part of the manual seeking 
(again in vain) a discussion of function precision. After 
lapsing into a mild coma from flipping pages back and 
forth, I decided to write another podunk program to 
crank out pi, but this time in CBAS2. I carefully follow- 
ed the directions in (measley) Chapter 6 and in no time 
had a program compiled in CBAS2 that gave 
pi = 3. 14159265358979! “Hurray,” I yelled, “That’s 
more like it!” Next I ripped out a few sines and cosines 
and found them to be accurate to 14 places! 

Being semi-sold on CBASIC, I rushed down to the 
local computer store and picked up the book: CBASIC 
USER GUIDE by Osborne, Eubanks, and McNiff. This 
book is GREAT. It tells you want you wnat to know, 
clearly and directly. It covers the subject of CBASIC 
programming completely and inexpensively. 

Some more goodies about CBAS2 came to my atten- 
tion. CBASIC is compatible with CP/M like Rochester 
carburetors are to Chevy s. (Eubanks, who created 
CBASIC, is now the language “Big Wig” at Digital 
Research). As all the CBASIC buffs know, it has the best 
of two worlds: A compiler and an interpreter, real good 
file handling capabilities, and lower memory re- 


48 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



OSBORNE IEEE-488 Port, Centronics configured 


20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 


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Centronics Connector 



Parallel Versus Serial Communication 

Now that both parallel and serial communication 
systems have been discussed, let us compare them listing 
the advantages and disadvantages between the two. 

The distance parallel data transfer can traverse is very 
limited, usually less than 50 feet while serial data can be 
transmitted thousands of feet. Harmful capacitance and 
inductance (electrical terminology for signal — stealing or 
masking effects) with parallel lines is a problem that 
occurs on longer cables, which is why we recommend 
keeping your cables to a minimum length. As the 
distance increases, another important problem called 
“skewing” occurs in parallel data transfer. This is caused 
by larger than normal discrepancies in the length of time 
it takes the 8 individual data bits to reach their destina- 
tion. 

Phone lines could be used to transmit parallel data 
over long distances by transforming parallel data into 
serial data and then back again at the destination site. 
This method requires expensive support hardware and is 
not commonly used with microcomputer systems. 

What makes parallel communications important is its 
faster rate of data transfer. Serial interfacing is no slouch 
in the speed department either, but parallel data paths 
are generally faster, sometimes by magnitude of 10 or 
more. With most printers, speed is not an important con- 
sideration when choosing between serial or parallel 
methods of interfacing; however, it is important when 
interfacing with high speed peripherals such as hard 
disks. Q 


Centronics Cabling 

Centronics-compatible printers require use of a flat- 
ribbon cable wired to a Centronics connector on the 
printer side, and a card-edge connector on the Osborne 
side. The flat ribbon cable is easily connected to the 
IEEE card-edge connector; a round cable increases the 
labor required for construction. 

Unfortunately, a flat cable may lead to problems with 
noise and unwanted signals on the lines when com- 
municating over long distances. Twisted pair grounds in 
a cable reduces the capacitance and inductance of that 
wire set, and generally minimizes unwanted signals. 
(Theoretically, an interfering signal is induced equally in- 
to both lines of the twisted pair producing a magnetic 
field current that cancels out between conductors. 

Whew!) 

Twisted pair flat cable is expensive and difficult to find. 
An alternative is to use standard common, flat ribbon 
cable, and to surround the important lines with “returns 
to ground.” Below is a diagram of such a cable that 
works with the majority of “Centronics”-compatible 
printers. 

Note that on the strobe and select lines, adjacent lines are 
returns to ground. 

In the next issue I’ll discuss what communications pro- 
tocols are and why they are important, tricks on using 
WordStar’s and SuperCalc’s installation programs, and 
generally how to get the most out of your printer. B.B. 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 47 



Disk snooping: 

an 

assembly 
language 

utility 

for 

the 
curious 



(In preparing content for each issue of The Portable 
Companion, we try to find something for both the novice 
and advance computer user. If you're a novice , be advis- 
ed that the following article wasn't intended for you. 

This is an article for the computer literates among our 
readers.) 

Here is a little utility that is both useful and instruc- 
tive. At the same time, it is very dangerous to use; 
because it allows you to access and modify your Osborne 
1 diskettes directly, without regard to CP/M file- 
structure. NOTE: if you are ignorant about the ins and 
outs of diskette input/output and prefer to remain th^t 
way, you’d better skip this article completely. If you do 
read on, be especially sure to heed the warnings at the 
end of the article. 

A diskette is physically nothing more than a piece of 
plastic that has been coated with a type of magnetic 
material and then inserted into a protective jacket. When 
given the proper control signals, your Osborne 1 disk 
drives can read data from a diskette or write data to a 
diskette by influencing the magnetic coating of the 
diskette in much the same way a tape-recorder influences 
the magnetic coating on recording tape. 

The arrangement of data on diskette is an elaborate 
matter. First, the diskette is divided into “tracks.” 

Tracks are merely concentric circles on the disk. Osborne 
1 diskettes have 40 tracks. Next, tracks are divided into 
“sectors.” Sectors are slippery characters on the Osborne 
1 . Physically, there are ten sectors of 256 bytes each on a 
track of an Osborne single density diskette. The diskettes 
do not come this way: they are “soft-sectored,” which 
means that the formatting program decides where the 
sectors are and how they are to be designated. Normally 
these physical sectors are numbered 0, 1 , ...» 9, 
although if you ever try to read your diskettes on a dif- 
ferent make of computer you may find that it is 
necessary to refer to these physical sectors as 1 , 2 ,..., 

10. In any case, you won’t have to worry about all of 
that, because these ten physical sectors are divided into 
twenty “logical sectors.” Henceforth, whenever we refer 
to a sector we will mean logical sector rather than 
physical sector. 

Normally, the user never hears about any of this (ex- 
cept for the “bdos error: bad sector” message he con- 
tends with constantly). CP/M relieves the user of having 
to think about tracks and sectors by dividing disk data 
into “files.” A file is merely a group of sectors that are 
considered as one logical entity. CP/M itself keeps track 
of which sectors belong to which files. It does this by us- 
ing most of track 3 (tracks are numbered from zero) on 
every disk. In the directory, one finds the names of all 
the files on the diskette and information about the alloca- 
tion of disk sectors. 

Brett D. DePaola and Ronald S. Burkey 


umu ;>uivcy:> nave a limuiiiuni atcuiaty. lxuwauays 




quirements. According to the book, “CBASIC conserves 
memory almost as well as a compiler, plus having 
features not available on most compilers.” By the time I 
got to page 3 of the CBASIC USER GUIDE , I was dang 
near sold. Then I read the back cover. “It may be the 
ONLY computer language you’ll ever need to learn.” 

Being the suspicious character I am, I decided to test 
both memory and execution speed compared to 
MBASIC-80. As for memory, CBASIC comes out way 
ahead. After loading MBASIC into memory you have 
29,523 bytes free. After CBASIC (CRUN2) is loaded, 
you have 37,172 bytes free. That’s nearly an 8K (7,650 
bytes +/-) savings in memory. As far as I’m concern- 
ed, that could be critical on a 64K machine. 

As for execution speed, CBASIC doesn’t fare as well 
as expected. To test execution speed I wrote a little pro- 
gram that extracts all the prime numbers from 2 to 1000 
and outputs them to the console. The time includes 
“load time” from the system. 

Here is what I found: 

VARIABLE TYPE MBASIC-80 CBASIC 

(min: sec) (min: sec) 

REAL 1:58 3:50 

INTEGER 1.38 1.57 

It’s interesting to note that when CBASIC is running 
with variables it isn’t even close to MBASIC. No doubt 
because it has to stash reserved space in memory. But the 
fact remains that even when running integers it doesn’t 
beat MBASIC. 

In closing I’ll say that each of the software packs that 
come with the Osborne are excellent. I’m especially glad 
that CBAS2 is included for programmers who want a 
semi-compiler language that is a sort of cross breed bet- 
ween FORTRAN and BASIC, has good file capabilities, 
low memory overhead, and is truly akin to the CP/M 
operating system. Microsoft BASIC is also excellent for 
quick and easy programming because it’s simple to learn 
and easy to use. 

A word of encouragement to programmers who 
haven’t used CBASIC: CBASIC syntax is a little dif- 
ferent than MBASIC. Since it’s compiled you don’t find 
your errors until you get the statistics after compilation. 
Don’t get too discouraged if you have to jump back and 
forth to re-edit then re-compile over and over. Very soon 
you will be writing relatively large, complicated programs 
with the “No Errors Detected” statistic appearing more 
and more. Since most of us have the single-density drives 
it’s best to put WordStar on one diskette (delete the 
SAMPLE.TXT and AUTOST) and CBAS2 and CRUN2 
on another. You can then edit and compile “by simply 
jumping between drives. (WS,CBAS2, and CRUN2 
won’t ALL fit on one disk.) You can program a function 
key to do the tedious stuff, (0:A:WS <CR> LB: <CR> 
>N) will switch drives and go to non-document editing. 
The possibilities for short-cuts are almost endless with the 


nifty SETUP utility. Pretty soon you know most of the 
compiler error message codes by heart. If you donT have 
a printer you can toggle the listing and the creation of the 
intermediate language file. This reduces the time for 
detecting errors considerably. (The command is CBAS2 
PROGRAM SBC.) 

Like anything else, learning CBASIC takes devotion 
and involves a lot of disk drive grinding. Lately, when 
relatives come over and urge me to eat and comb my 
hair — I call them “The Watchcare” — I just look up from 
the monitor and say, “Guess what. I went down to the 
computer store to buy a bunch of software, and the guy 
THREW IN A FREE COMPUTER!” I then ramble on 
awhile about BCD floating point REALS or explain that 
my chaining compiler directive had bad stats which 
dumped me into the system. As I babble this mindless 
jibberish my disk drives are jabbering back and forth 
with the little red lights going on and off. By then the in- 
truders begin to look askance at me, as though I had a 
bad sector. 

I always warn my mother never to give me directions 
which say REPEAT without providing a way out. I mean 
after all, I could spend the rest of my life caught in an in- 
finite loop of some kind. Like the time I went through a 
whole bottle of shampoo in the shower because the direc- 
tions said, “WET HAIR. APPLY SHAMPOO. 
LATHER. RINSE. REPEAT.” Finally, my teenage 
daughter, with her acute sense of Dad’s propensity for 
algorithmic situational dilemmas, leaned inside the 
bathroom door and yelled, “Hey Dad’ GOTO END.” 

Publisher's note : Mr. Henry raises some very good 
points regarding the differences between CBASIC and 
MBASIC . I'd like to elaborate on two of them: 

1) CBASIC always uses an internal representation for 
numbers known as BCD (binary-coded decimal). 

Variable values coded this way take up a bit more room, 
and slower program execution of math functions is 
almost always a side effect. MBASIC uses straight binary 
representation, which makes the storage of values more 
efficient, less precise, and results in greater execution 
speed. Ever wonder why Osborne provides two BASICs 
with our machine? Part of the reason is what I've just 
described: Some people need accuracy, some speed. 

2) Don ’t get hung up on precision unless you need it. 
Henry has a legitimate need. I assume that the infoma- 
tion he puts into his program is of equal precision to the 
results he requires. Most people who use computers don't 
realize the significance of that sentence: what you put in 
should relate to what you want out. consider this absurb 
example: 

2 + 2 = 4.000001 

The statement is absolutely correct, if you strictly follow 
standard use of precision (2+2 cannot even equal 4.0 us- 
ing such rigid definitions). Just remember this simple 
rule: precision is what you make it, and too often people 
make it wrong. — th o 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 49 


DISKMONITOR UTILITY 


RET 


; 

? 

RDSEC 

WRSEC 


SELDSK 

SETDMA 

SETTRK 

SETSEC 

NTRY 


; 

DDTGO: 


COMM: 


WRITE: 


LOOPW : 


READ: 


LOOPR: 


LOOP: 


; 


MEMFIX: 


PRFIX : 


PRCONT : 


; 

; 

ERROR: 


EQU 

0E527H 

;BIOS ENTRY POINT FOR READING A SECTOR 

EQU 

0E52AH 

;BIOS ENTRY POINT FOR WRITING TO A SECTOR 

EQU 

0E51BH 

; SELECT A DISK DRIVE 

EQU 

0E524H 

I SET READ/WRITE BUFFER ADDRESS 

EQU 

0E51EH 

; SET TRACK TO READ/WRITE 

EQU 

0E521H 

;SET SECTOR TO READ/WRITE 

EQU 

0005H 


ORG 

0100H 


JMP 

COMM 


ORG 

0105H 


RST 

7 

; RETURN TO DDT 

THE COMMAND MODE - 

CONTROLS THE MAIN MENU 

CALL 

CHKPRM 

; PRINT THE EXISTING PARAMETER VALUES 

LX I 

D, CMENU 

; READY THE COMMAND MENU 

MV I 

C, 9 

; PREPARE TO PRINT IT 

CALL 

NTRY 

; DO IT! 

MVI 

C, 1 


CALL 

NTRY 

;GET COMMAND 

SUI 

41H 


CPI 

26 

; IF A <> 0, 1,2, ... , 25 

JNC 

COMM 

; GOTO COMM 

CMC 


; CLEAR THE CARRY 

RAL 


;A=0, 2, 4, ... ,50 

MOV 

E, A 

; PUT A INTO DE 

MVI 

D, 0 


LX I 

H, JMPTBL 

*HL= JUMP-TABLE 

DAD 

D 

;HL= JUMP-ADDRESS 

XCHG 


;DE« JUMP-ADDRESS 

LDAX 

D 


MOV 

L, A 

; PUT THE CONTENTS 

INX 

D 

; OF THE JUMP-ADDRESS 

LDAX 

D 

; INTO THE HL 

MOV 

H, A 

; REGISTER PAIR 

PCHL 


; JUMP BY SWITCHING HL AND SP 

SUBROUTINE TO WRITE 

TO THE DISK 

LX I 

D, P5 

; SEND THE PROMPT 

CALL 

STRSND 


CALL 

BTGET 

; READ THE # OF SECTORS TO WRITE 

PUSH 

PSW 

; SAVE THIS NUMBER' 

POP 

PSW 

; REGET THIS NUMBER 

CPI 

00 

; QUIT IF # OF SECTORS =0 

JZ 

COMM 


DCR 

A 

; DECREMENT # OF SECTORS TO WRITE 

PUSH 

PSW 

; RESAVE THIS NUMBER 

CALL 

PREPAR 

; " PREPARE" PARAMETERS FOR WRITING 

CALL 

WRSEC 

; WRITE ! 

CALL 

MEMFIX 

; ADJUST THE BUFFER STARTING LOCATION 

CALL 

PRFIX 

; AND THE SECTOR # FOR THE NEXT WRITE 

JMP 

LOOPW 

; RETURN TO DDT 


SUBROUTINE WHICH PREPARES FOR A DISK READ OR WRITE 


; 


PREPAR: LDA 

KDRV 

; PUT 

DRIVE # IN A (0 IS A>, 1 IS B> ) 

MOV 

C, A 

; A -> 

C 

CALL 

SELDSK 

5 SET 

THE DISK! 

LDA 

KTRK 

; PUT 

TRACK # IN A 

MOV 

C, A 

i A -> 

C 

CALL 

SETTRK 

; SET 

THE TRACK! 

LDA 

KSEC 

; PUT 

SECTOR # IN A 

MOV 

C, A 

! A -> 

C 

CALL 

SETSEC 

; SET 

THE SECTOR! 

LHLD 

KDMA 

; PUT 

THE STARTING ADDRESS OF READ/WRITE 

MOV 

B, H 

; BUFFER INTO A 

MOV 

C, L 



CALL 

SETDMA 

; SET 

THE BUFFER! 

RET 





; SUBROUTINE WHICH DISPLAYS THE CURRENT PARAMETERS 

5 


CHKPRM: 

LX I 

D, STR1 

; SEND DRIVE # MESSAGE 


CALL 

STRSND 



LDA 

KDRV 

; SEE WHAT' S IN KDRV 


CPI 

00 

; IF IT’S A 00 THEN LEAP 


JZ 

ALOOP 

; AHEAD TO ALOOP 


MVI 

E, ’ B’ 

; OTHERWISE PREPARE TO PRINT A "B' 


JMP 

AOUT 

; SKIP AROUND THIS PART 

ALOOP: 

MVI 

E, ’ A 1 

; PREPARE TO PRINT AN "A" 

AOUT: 

MVI 

C, 2 

; PRINT WHATEVER WAS PREPARED 


CALL 

NTRY 



LX I 

D, STR2 

; SEND TRACK # MESSAGE 


CALL 

STRSND 



LDA 

KTRK 

;SEE WHAT’S IN KTRK 


CALL 

GETR 



LX I 

D, STR3 

;SEND SECTOR « MESSAGE 


CALL 

STRSND 



LDA 

KSEC 

,*SEE WHAT’S IN KSEC 


CALL 

GETR 



LX I 

D, STR4 

; SEND BUFFER LOCATION MESSAGE 


CALL 

STRSND 



LDA 

KDMA+1 

;SEE WHAT’S IN KDMA+1 


CALL 

GETR 



LDA 

KDMA 

: SEE WHAT’S IN KDMA 

GETR: 

CALL 

CNVRT 

; CONVERT IT TO 2 ASCII 


MVI 

C, 2 

; CHARACTERS 


MOV 

E, H 

; AND SEND THEM TO THE CONSOLE 


PUSH 

B 

; PRESERVE REGISTERS 


PUSH 

H 



CALL 

NTRY 

; PRINT ! 


POP 

H 

; REGET REGISTERS 


POP 

B 



MOV 

E, L 

; PRINT THE SECOND BYTE 


CALL 

NTRY 



RET 




; 

; SUBROUTINE TO SEND STRINGS TO THE CONSOLE 


SUBROUTINE TO READ THE DISK 


LX I 

D, P 6 

CALL 

STRSND 

CALL 

BTGET 

PUSH 

PSW 

POP 

PSW 

CPI 

00 

JZ 

COMM 

DCR 

A 

PUSH 

PSW 

CALL 

PREPAR 

CALL 

MEMFIX 

CALL 

PRFIX 

CALL 

RDSEC 

CPI 

1 

CZ 

ERROR 

CPI 

0FFH 

JZ 

LOOP 

JMP 

LOOPR 


; SEND THE PROMPT 

;GET THE # OF SECTORS TO READ 
; SAVE THIS NUMBER 
; BEG IN READ LOOP 

; IF THE # OF SECTORS LEFT TO READ 
; IS 0 THEN RETURN TO COMMAND MODE 
; REDUCE THE # OF SECTORS LEFT TO READ 
; BY 1 AND SAVE THIS NUMBER 
; “ PREPARE" PARAMETERS FOR READING 
; ADJUST THE BUFFER STARTING LOCATION 
; AND THE SECTOR # FOR THE NEXT READ 
; READ ' 

5 IF A= 1 THEN THERE WAS A READ ERROR 
: IN THAT CASE PRINT ERROR MSG 
• IF A=FF THEN DISK WAS "BUSY" 

; IN THAT CASE TRY AGAIN 
; RETURN TO DDT 


ROUTINE TO INCREMENT THE BUFFER STARTING 
LOCATION BY 128 BYTES 


LHLD 

KDMA 

LX I 

D, 128 

DAD 

D 

SHLD 

KDMA 

RET 



; PUT THE EXISTING STARTING LOCATION INTO 
; hl 

; THEN ADD 128 TO IT 

; PUT THE NEW STARTING ADDRESS BACK INTO 
; KDMA, THEN QUIT 


SUBROUTINE WHICH UPDATES THE OTHER PARAMETERS 


LDA 

KSEC 

: UPDATE CURRENT SECTOR NUMBER 

INR 

A 



CPI 

20 

; IF IT 

IS = TO 20 THEN SET IT 

JNZ 

PRCONT 

? TO 0 

AND INCREMENT THE TRACK # 

LDA 

KTRK 

: BY 1 

OTHERWISE JUMP TO PRCONT 

INR 

A 

I AND THEN RETURN 

STA 

KTRK 



MVI 

A, 00 



STA 

KSEC 



RET 





SUBROUTINE WHICH PRINTS A READ ERROR MESSAGE AND THE 
CURRENT PARAMETERS WHEN CALLED 


LX I D, MES 

CALL STRSND 

CALL CHKPRM 


; PREPARE TO SEND ERROR MESSAGE 
; SEND IT' 

; DISPLAY PARAMETERS 


STRSND: MV I C, 9 :9 IS SYSTEM FUNCTION FOR SENDING 

CALL NTRY ; STRINGS 

RET 

* 

; SUBROUTINE TO "CONVERT" 1 HEX BYTE INTO £ ASCII BYTES 

; AND STORES THEM IN HL 


CNVRT i 

PUSH 

PSW 

: SAVE THE BYTE 


AN I 

00001 11 IB 

; ZERO THE HIGH NYBBLE 


CALL 

DOVRT 

; CONVERT THE LOW NYBBLE 


MOV 

L, A 

: STORE IT IN L 


POP 

PSW 

; REGET THE BYTE 


RRC 


; MOVE THE HIGH NYBBLE 


RRC 


; TO WHERE THE LOW NYBBLE WAS 


RRC 




RRC 




ANI 

00001 11 IB 

; ZERO THE HIGH NYBBLE 


CALL 

DOVRT 

; CONVERT THE LOW NYBBLE 


MOV 

H, A 

; STORE IT IN H 


RET 



5 

? 

SUBROUTINE TO GIVE THE ASCII FORM OF 


A HEX 

NUMBER 


DOVRT : 

CPI 

0AH 

; IF THE NUMBER IS LESS THAN 


JC 

NUM1 

; 0A THEN GOTO NUM1 


ADI 

37H 

; OTHERWISE ADD 37H 


RET 



NUM1 : 

ADI 

30H 

; ADD 30H TO THE NUMBER 


RET 




SUBROUTINE TO CHANGE 

THE DRIVE 

CHDR: 

LXI 

D, PI 

;SEND THE PROMPT 


CALL 

STRSND 



MVI 

C, 1 

; READ THE DRIVE CHOICE 


CALL 

NTRY 



CPI 

41H 

; IF IT’S AN ’A’ ... 


JZ 

CHDRA 

; THEN JUMP AHEAD 


MVI 

A, 01 

, 'OTHERWISE MAKE IT A ’ B’ 


JMP 

SNDDSK 


CHDRA: 

MVI 

A, 00 

;MAKE IT AN ’A’ 

SNDDSK : 

STA 

KDRV 

; STORE CHOICE IN KDRV 


JMP 

COMM 


; 

SUBROUTINE TO CHANGE 

THE TRACK 

i 

CHTRK : 

LXI 

D, P2 

; SEND THE PROMPT 


CALL 

STRSND 



52 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


So what’s wrong with that? Nothing really, in a perfect 
world (counting curiosity as an imperfection). In a 
perfect world, data always comes in files, and there isn’t 
the slightest reason to access the diskette sector by sector 
(which is what our utility, “DISKMON,” allows you to 
do). The world, however, is not perfect and we must take 
into account several facts: 

1) Try as we might, we cannot pretend that disk opera- 
tions are always smooth. Even the most careful operator 
runs into a power failure during a critical disk write that 
makes lunchmeat of a valuable diskette. Lesser mortals 
suffer more frequent errors, since thay occasionally do 
such things as erasing the current copy of their latest pro- 
gram, or turning off the computer before closing an open 
file. Worse, diskettes sometimes self-destruct for no ap- 
parent reason (though, fortunately, very seldom). The 
knowledgeable user can recover from these mishaps if he 
can access individual sectors of the disk. He can hunt 
through the diskette looking for this lost data or he can 
even repair damaged sectors (that is, sectors with im- 
proper data in them). 

2) Some people have more curiousity than the prover- 
bial cat and must know how data is laid out on the 
diskette simply because the user’s manual strongly 
discourages doing so. 

3) On a system disk, tracks 0, 1, and 2 hold the CP/M 
system. On a non-system disk, these tracks, of course, do 
not hold a system. In fact, they are not used at all. 
However, if you could gain access to these tracks, you 
could use this otherwise wasted space for your own pur- 
poses. Exploitation of these free tracks may be the sub- 
ject of a future article. 

We present the DISKMON (DISK MONitor) utility 
with the foregoing reservations. DISKMON works in 
conjunction with DDT, the useful machine-language 
monitor provided with the Osborne 1 . Basically, 
DISKMON can read a sequence of sectors from disk into 
memory, or vice-versa, and can jump to DDT to allow 
disassembly or modification of what has been read. 

How to use DISKMON: first, of course, you must enter 
the assembly-language listing included with this article us- 
ing the non-document file creation function of WordStar, 
assemble it with ASM.COM, and load it with LOAD. 
COM. How to use DISKMON: first, of course, you must 
enter the assembly-language listing included with this ar- 
ticle using the non-document file creation function of 
WordStar, assemble it with ASM.COM, and load it with 
LOAD. COM. (We have assumed a 60K system, and if 
you are using some smaller system the initial “EQU” 
statements must be changed to reflect that fact.) Run 
DISKMON by typing: 

DDT DISKMON.COM 

(preceding either or both “DDT” and “DISKMON 
.COM” by the appropriate drive name.) At this point, 
you are in DDT and may perform any DDT function ex- 
cept those that will destroy DISKMON. which is located 
at hexadecimal addresses 0100-05FF. In particular, do 
not load any other files using the DDT I and R com- 
mands. To perform somedirect disk input/output type: 



G100,105 

which sends you to the DISKMON command menu. 

Now you can do any or all of the following: 

A) Choose the drive on which future diskette input/ 
output is to occur. 

B) Choose the starting track number for such opera- 
tions. 

C) Choose the starting sector number for such opera- 
tions. 

D) Choose the starting memory address for such 
operations 

Options A-D set parameters to be used when the diskette 
is actually read (option G) or written to (option H). The 
read and write commands, explained below, update the 
sector number, track number, and memory location as 
they work. These parameters are printed on the screen 
every time the command menu is presented. Further op- 
tions are: 

E) Save present parameters. 

F) Restore old parameters. 

Options E-F are a convenience when you are continually 
using the same sector number, track number, and 
memory location. The final options are: 

G) Read sector (s). 

H) Write sector(s). 

I) Go to DDT. 

J) Go to CP/M command mode. 

A typical session might go something like this: set into 
DISKMON as described above. Use options A-D to set 
drive = B, track = 00, sector = 00, memory address = 0600. 
(Incidentally, all numbers in all options are two-digit hex- 
adecimal, except memory addresses, which are four-digit 
hexadecimal.) Now use option E to save this parameter 
pattern. Strictly speaking, theses steps would not be 
necessary in this example, since these are the default set- 
ting. Use option G to read 60 (decimal) sectors. (Option 
G prompts you for the number of sectors, so you request 
3C, which is the hexadecimal equivalent of 60.) You 
would now have tracks 0-2 in memory, starting at 0600 
(hex). Use option I to get into DDT. While in DDT, ex- 
amine and modify. Type G100,105 to get back into 
DISKMON. Use option F to restore the parameter values 
track = 00, sector = 00, memory address = 0600. Use op- 
tion H to save 60 sectors. Use option J to quit. 

Finally , a word of warning! This utility is very 
dangerous, particularly the sector-write operation. Never 
use DISKMON on a diskette for which you have no 
backup unless it is absolutely unavoidable, and only then 
if you know precisely what you are doing. Some sectors 
of the diskette contain valuable information and access is 
not directly allowed by CP/M for just that reason.^For 
example, the sample session above would make the 
diskette involved unbootable, unless you confined 
yourself to innocuous modifications such as changing the 
copyright notice. 

In short, this program can help you fix— or destroy — 
diskettes depending on how you use it. DISKMON pro- 
vides facilities, and though they are included in the Disk 
Doctor package, they are found nowhere in the utilities 
provided free with the Osborne 1. 



December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 51 


Inside/Outside Osborne 


The Tran tor Hard Disk 

Yati Sahae 


It was the summer of 1981. I was undergoing two 
major changes in my life. First, I had quit my job after 
13 years of working in Research and development groups 
of various companies to become a consultant. One of our 
clients was Osborne Computer Corporation. Secondly, I 
was marrying into a family which owned three travel 
agencies, which were managed by my mother-in-law. 

One of the agencies had recently installed a computer 
system, so naturally the new son-in-law “computer ex- 
pert” was eagerly shown this wonderful machine. Of 
course — it couldn’t do this, and they didn’t like the way 
it did that, but all-in-all wasn’t automation wonderful? 
Eager to please my new mother-in-law, I confidently 
asserted that a much better job could be done, and on a 
machine which used standard software. As an added 
bonus the machine could be used to do other functions 
besides meeting travel agency requirements. (The travel 
agency system purchased by my mother-in-law worked 
on a modified Northstar Horizon, so that no off-the 
shelf Northstar DOS or CP/M software could run on 
it — can you imagine?) 

I proposed to develop a menu-driven system using 
dBASE II and an Osborne 1 computer. My mother-in- 
law was taken with the Osborne l’s price and portability, 
so we set about defining the system and implementing it. 
By fall of 1981 we had a travel agency package opera- 
tional and undergoing extensive tests. There was, 
however, one problem. 

Most travel agencies process between 500 and 2000 
transactions a month. The Osborne 1, while suitable in 
all other respects, just did not have enough capacity to 
store more than two weeks transactions online, and 
therefore, could not do simple monthly reports like profit 
and loss statements or cruise sales as required by a travel 
agency manager. We felt that the system could be 
marketed successfully if this problem could be licked. 

The 5 Va " winchesters had recently been introduced in 
the market place. I reasoned that a 5Va " winchester disk 
system could be developed for the Osborne 1, but that it 
would be too expensive if sold for use with the travel 
agency system only. In order to keep the price reasonable 
it would have to be marketed to other Osborne users as 
well. 

After some investigation and a lot of encouragement 
from people within OCC, I felt that a market existed for 
such a product. My next step was to define the develop- 
ment needs of the product and the skills and energy 
needed to manufacture the product and market it. 

Working on my own, and with mostly my own skills, I 
finished development of the Hard Disk System by 
December, 1981. In January of 1982 a Trantor Hard 
Disk prototype, working together with the Osborne and 
the Travel Agency Management Software, was displayed 
at the Travel Industry Automation Fair at the Hyatt 
Regency in San Francisco. This package is now being 
marketed by ATC, Inc. of Palo Alto. 

Several other events occured in January, 1982: 

I asked several people to meet with me to explore 

the possibilities of forming a company to manufacture 


and market the Trantor Hard Disk. The skills and the 
backgrounds of the people meeting that day included 
software development, electrical engineering, 
mechanical engineering, marketing and sales, and 
accounting and finance. The group decided to form a 
company and set about registering it with the State of 
California. On February 22, 1982, Trantor Systems, 
Limited became official. 

A Trantor Hard Disk was delivered to Thom Hogan 
of OCC for further testing in the Beta Test stage. 

Thom is still using that unit. 

Rigorous testing of other prototypes continued 
through January and through March, 1982. 

During the Final stages of testing, some decisions had 
bo be made regarding the hard disk. The size of the 
enclosure that held the components was one. We knew 
that many of our customers would also have an external 
video monitor. Therefore the size chosen was such that a 
monitor could easily be placed on top of the disk drive to 
make effective use of desk space. Another issue was the 
back-up facility. Should additional hardware be added to 
the disk unit, raising its price, to provide backup? In- 
stead we chose to use the existing floppies and developed 
software to archive selected files. 

Initial advertising was modest; a small ad in Infoworld 
appeared in April and ran for several months. As in- 
quiries began to pour in, manufacturing began, with each 
unit being rigorously tested. About this time my wife 
threatened to take drastic action of our productions 
facilities in the dining room, bedroom and garage were 
not moved post haste to a more suitable location. Sales 
were slow, but the market had responded, and Trantor 
felt justified in moving into larger facilities by June 1, 
1982, three months after registration. These are the cur- 
rent facilities at 4432-1 Enterprise Street, Fremont, 
California. 

Advertising and promotion were increasing to include 
a full page ad in The Portable Companion, contact with 
Osborne Dealers in the U.S. and Canada, and contact 
with Osborne User’s Groups. By August 1982, contact 
was made with Distributors of Osbornes internationally. 
As sales and inquiries increased, large scale production 
management began. 

Sensitive to the needs of the marketplace, Trantor con- 
tinues to develop support software designed to make its 
products easy to install and use. The company has also 
begun work on providing increased storage, in the form 
of 16 Megabyte Hard Disks, and development has been 
initiated on its second major product — a network/ 
multiplexor to be used with Osborne Computers. 

At this writing, eight months after registration, Trantor 
Hard Disks are in the hands of users across the United 
States, and in several other countries, with our market 
base growing every day. 

(Yati Sahae is President of Trantor Systems, Ltd. Yati is 
a systems development specialist and has worked for 
several computer companies before forming Trantor. 
These companies include Honeywell, Control Data, and 
Four-Phase.) o 


54 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


CALL 

STA 

JMP 


BTGET 

KTRK 

COMM 


; READ THE TRACK CHOICE 
; STORE CHOICE IN KTRK 


SUBROUTINE TO CHANGE THE SECTOR 


LX I D, P3 

CALL STRSND 
CALL BTGET 

STA KSEC 

JMP COMM 


; SEND THE PROMPT 


: READ THE SECTOR CHOICE 
; STORE CHOICE IN KSEC 


SUBROUTINE TO CHANGE THE BUFFER 
STARTING LOCATION 


LXI 

D, P4 

;SEND THE PROMPT 

CALL 

STRSND 


CALL 

BTGET 

;GET THE MSB OF THE CHOICE 

STA 

KDMA+1 

5 STORE IT IN KDMA+1 

CALL 

BTGET 

;GET THE LSB OF THE CHOICE 

STA 

KDMA 

; STORE IT IN KDMA 

JMP 

COMM 


SUBROUTINE TO READ A 

BYTE FROM THE KEYBOARD 

MV I 

C, 1 

; READ 1 CHARACTER 

CALL 

NTRY 


CALL 

BKVRT 

; CONVERT IT TO A HEX NUMBER 

PUSH 

PSW 

; SAVE IT 

MV I 

C, 1 

; READ NEXT CHARACTER 

CALL 

NTRY 


CALL 

BKVRT 

; CONVERT IT TO A HEX NUMBER 

MOV 

L, A 

;SAVE IT IN L 

POP 

PSW 

; REGET FIRST CHARACTER 

RLC 


; MULT I PLY IT BY 16 

RLC 



RLC 



RLC 



AN I 

11 110000B 

; ZERO THE LOW NYBBLE 

ADC 

L 

; ADD IT TO THE OTHER CHARACTER 

RET 




SUBROUTINE TO CONVERT 

AN ASCII CHARACTER INTO 

DB 

’ I = JUMP TO 

A HEX 

DIGIT 


DB 

’ J=RETURN 




DB 

’ 

CPI 

41H 

; IF THE CHARACTER IS A NUMBER... 

JMPTBL : DW 

CHDR 

JC 

BKNUM 

; JUMP AHEAD 

DW 

CHTRK 

SUI 

37 H 

; OTHERWISE SUBTRACT 37H 

DW 

CHSEC 

RET 


DW 

CHDMA 

SUI 

30H 

; SUBTRACT 30H FROM IT 

DW 

SAVPR 

RET 



DW 

RESPR 




DW 

READ 

SUBROUTINE TO SAVE THE 

PARAMETERS 

DW 

WRITE 




DW 

DDTGO 

LDA 

KDRV 

;GET DRIVE CHOICE 

DW 

QUIT 

STA 

SDRV 

; SAVE DRIVE CHOICE 

DW 

COMM 

LDA 

KTRK 

; GET TRACK CHOICE 

DW 

COMM 

STA 

STRK 

; SAVE TRACK CHOICE 

DW 

COMM 

LDA 

KSEC 

;GET SECTOR CHOICE 

DW 

COMM 

STA 

SSEC 

; SAVE SECTOR CHOICE 

DW 

COMM 

LDA 

KDMA 

;GET BUFFER LOCATION CHOICE (LSB) 

DW 

COMM 

STA 

SDMA 

; SAVE BUFFER LOCATION CHOICE (LSB) 

DW 

COMM 

LDA 

KDMA+1 

;GET BUFFER LOCATION CHOICE (MSB) 

DW 

COMM 

STA 

SDMA+1 

; SAVE BUFFER LOCATION CHOICE (MSB) 

DW 

COMM 

JMP 

COMM 


DW 

COMM 




DW 

COMM 

SUBROUTINE WHICH RESTORES THE PARAMETERS 

DW 

COMM 

SAVED 

BY SAVPR 


DW 

COMM 




DW 

COMM 

LDA 

SDRV 

5 GET SAVED DRIVE 

DW 

COMM 

STA 

KDRV 

; RESTORE DRIVE 

DW 

COMM 

LDA 

STRK 

;GET SAVED TRACK 

DW 

COMM 

STA 

KTRK 

; RESTORE TRACK 

DW 

COMM 

LDA 

SSEC 

;GET SAVED SECTOR 

END 



STA 

LDA 

STA 

LDA 

STA 

JMP 

JMP 


KSEC 

SDMA 

KDMA 

SDMA+1 

KDMA+1 

COMM 

0000H 


; RESTORE SECTOR 

;GET SAVED BUFFER LOC. <LSB) 

; RESTORE BUFFER LOC. (LSB) 

; GET SAVED BUFFER LOC. (MSB) 
: RESTORE BUFFER LOC. (MSB) 


START OF THE DATA BLOCK: 


KDRV: 

DB 

1 


KTRK: 

DB 

0 


KSEC: 

DB 

0 


KDMA: 

DW 

0600H 


SDRV: 

DB 

1 


STRK: 

DB 

0 


SSEC: 

DB 

0 


SDMA: 

DW 

0600H 


MES: 

DB 

13, 10, 

’ READ ERROR’ , 13, 10, ’ *’ 

STR1 : 

DB 

13, 10, 

» SELECTED PARAMETERS:’ 


DB 

10, 10, 

13, ’SELECTED DRIVE IS: ’ , ’ *’ 

STR2: 

DB 

13, 10, 

’SELECTED TRACK IS* ’ , ’ *’ 

STR3: 

DB 

13, 10, 

’SELECTED SECTOR IS: ’ , » *’ 

STR4: 

DB 

13, 10, 

’BUFFER STARTING ADDRESS IS: * , » *’ 

Pit 

DB 

13, 10, 

’WHICH DRIVE (A OR B) ?* , 13, 10, ’ 

P2* 

DB 

13, 10, 

’WHICH TRACK (IN 2 DIGIT HEX PLEASE) ?», 13, 

P3: 

DB 

13, 10, 

’WHICH SECTOR (IN 2 DIGIT HEX PLEASE)?’, i: 

P4 : 

DB 

13, 10, 

’BUFFER STARTING ADDRESS: ’,13, 10, ’ 

P5: 

DB 

13, 10, 

’HOW MANY SECTORS DO YOU WANT TO WRITE?’ 


DB 

13, 10, 

M2 DIGIT HEX PLEASE) ’, 13, 10, ’ *' 

P 6 : 

DB 

13, 10, 

’HOW MANY SECTORS DO YOU WANT TO READ?’ 


DB 

13, 10, 

M2 DIGIT HEX PLEASE) ’, 13, 10, ’ 

CMENU: 

DB 

13, 10, 

10, 10, ’ COMMAND-MODE : OPTIONS’ , 13, 10, 10 


DB ’ A=CHANGE DRIVE’ , 13, 10 

DB ’ B=CHANGE TRACK* , 13, 10 

DB *C=CHANGE SECTOR* , 13, 10 

DB *D=CHANGE BUFFER STARTING ADDRESS’ , 13, 10 

DB *E=PRESERVE PARAMETERS’ , 13, 10 

DB ’ F=RESTORE PARAMETERS* , 13, 10 

DB *G»READ SECTOR (S) FROM DISK TO BUFFER’ , 13, 10 

DB *H=WRITE SECTOR (S) FROM BUFFER TO DISK’ , 13, 10 



December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 


53 





Santa has a problem. He simply does not know enough 
about the many printers, monitors, or hard disks available for 
the Osborne computer. 

Santa was too busy to do any comparison shopping, so he 
had his hard-working elves compile this wish list for wise 
shoppers who own Osborne 1 computers (or will have one 
soon!). 

We're happy to present Santa's list of over 20 different 
printers, 5 kinds of monitors, and 5 manufacturers of Osborne 
1-compatible hard disks. In the next issue of The Portable 
Companion, we'll include another Buyer's Guide describing 
cables, accessories, modems, and various peripheral 
goodies. Happy Shopping. 









2 


llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 


MICRO COMPUTERS OF 
NEW ORLEANS 

The WINCHESTER HELIX is 

available in easy to install 
5. lO. and 15 megabyte 
disk capacties. The data 
transfer rate is 5 megabits 
per second with an ac- 
cess time of 8.3 millise- 
conds. The instructions are 
easy to follow, and all the 
necessary interfacing 
components are included 
with the hard disk pack- 
age. Prices: 5 MB, $2500; 
lO MB, $2800; 15 MB. 
$3000. 


SANTA CLARA SYSTEMS, 
INC. 

SANTA CLARA SYSTEMS 
(SCS) recently added the 
Osborne 1 interface cap- 
ability to their impressive 
line of MINI-MEGA Win- 
chester hard disks offering 
storage capability rang- 
ing from 5 to 15 mega- 
bytes. In January of '83, 
SABRINA 8" Winchester 
drives will be available for 
the Osborne 1 providing 
the user with lO to 120 
megabfye storage. SCS 
disks are all "software 
transparent'', meaning 
that the user merely plugs 
the hard disk into the 
Osborne 1 and does not 
need to alter existing hard- 
ware a software to use the 
system; the software mak- 
ing this transparency pos- 
sible is provided by SCS. 
The SCS hard disk con- 
troller detects and corrects 
errors, using an "Error Cor- 
rection Coding" (ECS) 
system providing more ef- 
ficient data storage, re- 
ducing errors and down- 
time. Non-recoverable er- 
rors are one in one trillion 
bits read. An internal 
diagnostic system oper- 
ates independently from 
the Osborne, making it 
easy for the user to 
separate errors coming 
: from the hard disk and not 
the Osborne. SCS products 
allow fa backup by sta- 
ing on optional separate 
hard disk cartridges, or 


high-densily floppy disks. 

SCS subsystems come 
complete with host adap- 
ter card, drive controller, 
power supply, cabinet, 
cables. Disk Operating 
System software, and 
operating manual. In- 
stallation is quick and sim- 
ple, with easy-to-follow in- 
structions provided. Prices 
fa the Mini-Mega Series 
range from $3,500 to 
$5,000. 


TRANTOR 

The TRANTOR 5 a lO 
megabyte 5% Winchester 
hard disks require a simple 
15 minute one time instal- 
lation to connect it with the 
Osbane. As in the other 
hard disk systems, it con- 
nects with the IEEE port 
(used as a parallel pat, 
not as an IEEE 488 bus) The 
software comes complete 
with BIOS and software 
utilities, cable, and instruc- 
tions. A back-up function is 
included free, and uses 
one a mae floppy disk- 
ettes to archive and re- 
stae hard disk files. Disks 
are software coded and 
cannot accidentally be 
restaed out of ader. An- 
other clever feature is a 
positioning utility moving 
the head beyond the in- 
ner cylinder to protect the 
hard disk during shipping 
a moving. Automatic burst 
erra detection is provided 
with correction up to 11 bits, 
and the specified non-re- 
caverable erra rate is not 
expected to exceed one 
in one trillion bits read 
Price: $3,000 fa 5 mega- 
byte disk, $3,400 fa 10 
megabyte disk. 



Hard disk mass storage 
systems can provide your 
Osborne t with new 
speed, convenience, and 
power. Fa example: A 5 
megabyte system has the 
same storage capability 
as that of 55 floppy disks 
(single density). Imagine 
staing all of your software 
and data on one cen- 
tralized file with room to 
spare! 

The hard disks in this 
guide were chosen fa 
their expressed ease of 
use and compatibility with 
the Osborne 1. All of them 
use the proven reliability of 
Winchester technology: 
The drive is installed in a 
sealed dust-free environ- 
ment, and low-mass read 
write heads skim ova the 
disk without touching it. 


especially userui wirn rne i 


CORVUS 

Winchester CORVUS 
hard disk systems are 
available in 6, 11, and 20 
magabyfe vasions and 
use a microprocessor- 
based intelligent con- 
trolla to minimize the soft- 
ware support required by 
the Osborne. The con- 
troller manages bi-direc- 
tional data transfer bet- 
ween the disk drive and 
the Osborne's interface 
and performs several 
other functions that assure 
accurate, consistent data 
transfer. These functions in- 
clude sector buffering, 
automatic error retries, 
transparent formatting, 
and high-speed transfer, 
using Direct Memory Ac- 
cess to disk controller 
memory. The system con- 
nects easily by using the 
cable from the Cotvus in- 
terface card to the Os- 
bane IEEE port. Corvus pro- 
vides BIOS drivers and a 
linkage program that at- 
taches itself to the CP/M 
operating system. 

Corvus also provides 
CP/M utilities for disk 
diagnostics, controller 
code update, and opera- 
tion of the optional Cavus 
Mirra video tape backup 
and archival storage 
system. Installation Guide 
and User's Guide in- 
cluded. Prices: 6 MB, 
$3195; 11 MB, $4995; 20 
MB, $5995. 


pnospnor screei r is un-i 


DESIGN ONE 

DESIGN ONE Corpora- 
tion recently announced 
its line of 5, lO, 15, and 20 
megabyte portable Win- 
chester hard disk systems 
fa the Osbane 1. The 
Design One disk attaches 
to the IEEE port on the 
Osborne and is compati- 
ble with Osbane 1 soft- 
ware and operating sys- 
tems. The average access 
time is a fast 70 millise- 
conds, transferring data at 
5 megabits per second. 
Each unit comes with 
cable, software utilities, 
handle, head landing 
zone and mota brake. 
Prices: 5 Mb, $3095; lO 
Mb, $3395; 15 Mb $3785; 
20 Mb. $4275. 




I 


R 


N T E R S 


Given the bewildering 
array of printer manufac- 
turers and models that ex- 
ist on the market today, 
choosing the right printer 
can become a most dif- 
ficult task. 

We have listed two 
basic kinds of printers: dot 
matrix and letter-quality. 
Matrix printers generate 
characters by printing 
patterns of dots, while let- 
ter quality (daisy-wheel or 
"spinwriter") printers use a 
print element with fully- 
famed characters em- 
bossed on the petal tips. 
("Converted" typewriters 
such as the IBS Selectric 
and the Olivetti Praxis re- 
quire special interfacing 
and will be listed in the 
next issue of The Portable 
Companion.) 


ANADEX 

Anadex touts their dot 
matrix SILENT/SCRIBE DP- 
9000 A, DP-9500A, and 
DP-9625A series of printers 
as being "soundly de- 
signed for unheard of 
quality." Indeed, the 
sound level at 3 feet is a 
quiet 55 decibels while 
maintaining a speed of 
150 to 200 Characters 
Per Second (CPS). All 
models feature dot- 
addressable graphics, 
parallel or serial ports, 
complete communica- 
tions protocols, easy-to- 
use operator controls, 
and bidirectional/logic 
seeking printing. Carriage 
sizes are 8 a 13 inches,- all 
models are tractor feed 
only. Weight: 38 lbs. Price: 
$1625-$1845. 


BROTHER 

Brother has come out 
with so many different 
printers lately it's hard to 
keep track. First there was 
the HR-1 introduced 
several months ago, and 
now they have the DAISY- 
WRITER daisy wheel 
printer charging into the 
market place. The 
specifications between 
the two appear to be 
identical: 16 CPS, bi- 
directional, logic seeking 
printing; friction feed 
platen is bi-directional; 
uses IBM Selection type 
ribbon cartridges (a uni- 
que feature); accepts 
16 X ' wide paper with 13 " 
printable line; and has a 
full range of operator con- 
trols and levers. The HR-1 
comes in both serial and 
parallel models. The 
Daisywriter also comes in 
two models: the 1500 is 
the parallel unit while the 
2000 is a universal 
model with parallel, serial, 
and IEEE488 interfacing. 
The noise level is about 65 
db. Tractor feed mech- 
anism is optional. Weight: 
35 LBS. Price: HR-1 only, 
$1250 for the serial model 
and $1150 for the parallel 
model. 




All of the monitors de- 
scribed below are 12". 
reasonable priced and 
readily available from 
your local computer re- 
tailer. They all connect 
easily to the Osborne 1, us- 
ing an inexpensive video 
adapter. In addition to the 
Osborne's standard 5" 
monitor fa portable en- 
vironments, a larger moni- 
tor is handy for the home 
or offic. A larger monitor is 
especially useful with the 
Osborne 80-Plus column 
upgrade announced in 
this issue. 


AMDEK 

The AMDEK 300 green 
phosphor monitor has an 
easy-to-read, non-glare 
screen, 18 Mhz band 
width, 80x24 character 
display, and a haizontal 
resolution of 900 lines. 
(Amdek has advertised a 
Video-310A amber 
monitor for the IBM Per- 
sonal Computer. It is not 
known if the monita is 
compatible with the 
Osborne 1 or when Am- 
dek will market general 
purpose amber monitas.) 
$199 


BMC 

The BMC BM-12 green 
phosphor monita has a 
horizontal resolution of 
800 lines and a video 
bandwidth of 20 Mhz. 
(Company recently 
came out with an amber 
monita which we have 
not yet tested.) $200 


NEC 

The NEC PC-8041 green 
phosphor screen is an- 
other popular monitor 
that has been used with 
the Osborne 1. $210 



USI 

With the introduction of 
the Pi-3, USI is the first to of- 
fer advanced amber 
monitas in the U.S. Amber 
appears to reduce eye 
strain-even after long 
periods of use. The 
horizontal resolution is 



lOOO lines and the band 
width 20 Mhz. USI also 
makes a 12" green 
screen monita, as well as 
9" green and amber 
monitors. Prices: $210 
Green; $250 Amber. 

ZENITH 

The ZENITH TVM-121 

features a green phos- 
pha screen. Price: $175. 






6 



EPSON 

Epson needs little in the 
way of introduction, ex- 
cept to say that it is one of 
the most widely used 
printers among Osborne 
owners. All of the models 
are 80 CPS dot matrix 
quality with logic seeking 
functions. Epson pio- 
neered the first dispos- 
able print head- after it 
has reached a life expec- 
tancy of lOO million 
characters, you snap it out 
and pop in a new one. 



The EPSON MX-80F/T uses 
both Friction and Tractor 
feed, while the MX-80 
uses just the tractor. 
Graftrax-Plus is Epson's 
nelw graphics package 
and is standard on all Ep- 
sons. (The MX-lOO differs 
from the MX-80 in that it 
can take wider paper 
and comes standard with 
friction/tractor feed 
mechanisms.) The MX-80 
series is a light printer, 
weighing just 12 lbs. The 
MX-lOO weighs 21 lbs. EP- 
SON MX-80 F/T, $695; 
MX-lOO, $895 


IDS 

The IDS PRISM dot matrix 
printers offer HO CPS cor- 
respondence quality 
printing and 200 CPS op- 
tional draft quality printing 
capabilities. The speeds 
and characters per inch 
are switch or software 
selectable. The interest- 
ing features are the inex- 
pensive cola option and 
semi-automatic cut sheet 
feeder. The color feature 
uses a black, magenta, 
cyan and yellow ribbon to 
mix orange, violet, green, 
and brown. A primary col- 
or ribbon (red, blue, 
green, black) could also 
be used. High resolution 
dot addressable graph- 
ics are optional. The 
printer comes in two 
models: the PRISM 80 and 
132; they are essentially 
the same except for car- 
riage width. The MICRO- 
PRISM printer is the newest 
member of the IDS family. 
This model features selec- 
table print speeds of 75 
CPS and HO CPS, dot- 
addressable graphics. 



and parallel or serial inter- 
facing. Weight: 24.5 Ibs- 
Prism 80; 29 lbs. Prism 132. 
Price: Prism 80, $1300; 
Prism 132, $1500; 

Microprism, $799. 


NEC 

Deviating from the nor- 
mal printing methods are 
the NEC SPINWRITER 
printers which use a print 
"thimble" containing up 
to 128 fully-formed 
characters. Most popular 
for Osborne users are the 
NEC 3500 and 7700 
SERIES SPINWRITERS. the 
latter being the newer 
second-generation 
enhanced performance 
model. Some of the 
features on the 7700 are: 
a 55 CPS printing speed, 
8085 microprocessor 
control, one-piece univer- 
sal power supply, high 
resolution digital position- 
ing system, special word 
processing/graphics op- 
tions, and a full range of 
paper/forms handling 
options. The forms hand- 
ling options include: 
single and dual input cut- 
sheet feeders, vertical 
forms tractor, a bidirec- 
tional forms tractor, a bot- 
tom feed adapter, and 
pin-feed platens. An 
operator can easily and 
quickly change from one 


option to another. Weight: 
45.5 lbs. Prices range from 
$2200 to $2650, de- 
pending upon options. 



NEC also manufactures 
a dot matric printer-the 
NEC 8023A. It offers lOO 
CPS, bi-directional, logic- 
seeking printing, graph- 
ics, parallel interfacing 
(only), and accom- 
modates roll, fanfold a 
cutsheet paper. Warranty: 
90 days on parts and 
labor. Weight: 19 lbs. Price: 
$695. 


OKIDATA 

Okidata is the only 
printer manufacturer to 
take some of the respon- 
sibility fa providing exten- 
sive interfacing informa- 
tion WITH the printer. An in- 
struction package gives 
information for nine 
popular personal com- 
puter systems, including 
(of course) the Osborne 1. 
The Osborne section con- 
tains information on 
cable connections, DIP 
switch settings, and SETUP 




5 


CENTRONICS 

Earlier this year, Cen- 
tronics introduced the 
MODEL 122 GRAPHICS dot 
matrix printer to their well 
known line of printers: the 
Centronics 737 and 739. 



The Model 122 is a heavy- 
duty desk-top printer 
designed fa both data 
processing and business 
processing applications. 
Standard features in- 
clude: 120 CPS bidirec- 
tional/logic seeking print- 
ing, a unidirectional 
graphics mode that is 
switch selectable for 6 a 8 
pins, 132 columns, full 
operata controls, selec- 
table form lengths, and 
selectable lines per inch. 
All Centronics products 
are supported by a 
nationwide sales and ser- 
vice organization, which 
included both on-site and 
walk-in seivice centers. 
Weight: 29 lbs. Price for the 
parallel version is $995 
while the serial version 
sells for $1095. 


I 


C.ITOH 

Cltoh manufactures the 
PROWRITER 8510A dot 
matrix printer, and two 
daisy wheel printers: the 
STARWRITER F-IO and 
PRINTMASTER F-IO. The 
PROWRITER features 120 
CPS high speed matrix 
printing, logic seeking 
bidirectional printing, 
high-resolution graphics, 
parallel or serial ports, 
and two different carriage 
sizes. The PROWRITER also 
comes standard with 
tractor and friction feed 
mechanisms and a one 
year warranty on parts 
and labor. Weight: 18 lbs. 
Prices: $595 for the 
parallel model and $745 
for the serial & parallel 
version. 

The STARWRITER F-IO is a 

40 CPS fully-formed 
character printer featur- 
ing a low profile design 
(6" high) that fits easily in- 
to your system. It also in- 
cludes parallel a serial in- 
terfaces, low noise opera- 
tion, and standard friction 
feed with optional tractor 
feed is available. Price: 
$1995 

The PRINTMASTER F-IO is a 

55 CPS model with the ad- 
ditional capabilities of 
dual cola ribbon and 
multiple copy printing. 
The noise level is less than 
65 db. Weight: 30 lbs. 
Price: $2395 


DIABLO 

A Buyer's Guide on 
printers would not be 
complete without saying 
a few wads about the 
famous DIABLO 630 40 
CPS daisy wheel printer. 
Basic specifications are: 
interchangeable Diablo 
a Xerox plastic and metal 
print wheels (the metal 
wheels impact with a 
greater g-force resulting 
in camera-ready print), 
serial interfacing only, a 
multitude of operator swit- 
ches and controls, and six 
different optional papa 
handling accessories. 
Price: Contact dealer. 

Diablo has recently in- 
troduced a low speed 
economical daisy wheel 
printer-the DIABLO 620. 



The model 620 is design- 
ed to support the low-to- 
moderate output appli- 
cations. It produces letta 
quality text operating 
serially at 300 baud; the 
print speed is a minimum 
20 CPS. It features a new 
88 character plastic print 
wheel with automatic re- 
cognition of print wheel 
type and language, and 
numaous operata con- 
trols and switches. The 
620 uses a standard fric- 
tion feed platen. Price: 
Contact dealer. 






8 


manufacturers 

Amdek 

2201 Lively Blvd. 

Elk Grove Village 
Arlington Heights, IL 60007 


Anadex 

9825 DeSoto Ave 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 

BMC 

20610 Manhattan Place, Suite 112 
Torrance, CA 90501 

Brother Industries 

9-35, Horita-dori, Mizuho-ku, 
Nagoya, Japan 
Distributed by 

Dynax 

16404 Ishida Ave. 

Gardenia, CA 90248 


Corvus Systems 

2029 O'Toole Avenue 
San Jose, CA 95131 


Design One Corporation 

lO Arlive Court 
Rockville. MD 20854 


Diablo Systems, Inc. 

P.O. Box 5030 
Fremont, CA 94537 


Epson America, Inc. 

3415 Kashiwa Street 
Torrance, CA 90505 


Qume Corporation 

2350 Qume Dr. 

San Jose, CA 95131 


Santa Clara Systems, Inc. 

560 Division Street 
Campbell, CA 95008 


Smith-Corona 

Consumer Products, SCM Corp. 

65 Locust Avenue 

New Canaan, CT 06840 

Star Micronics, Inc. 

Computer Peripherals 
1120 Empire Central Place 
Dallas, Texas 75247 


Centronics Data Computer Corporation Integral Data Systems, Inc. 

One Wall St. Route 13 South 

Hudson, NH 03051 Milford, New Hampshire 03055 


Trantor Systems, LTD. 

4432 Enterprise Street, Unit I 
Fremont, CA 94538 


C.ltoh Electronics, Inc. 

5301 Beethoven Street 
Los Angeles, CA 90066 
Distributed by 

Leading Edge Products, Inc. 

225 Turnpike St. 

Canton, MA 02021 


Micro Computers of New Orleans 

4539 1-10 Metairie 
New Orleans, LA 70002 


USI 

71 Park Lane 
Brisbane, CA 94005 


NEC Information Systems, Inc. 

5 Militia Dr. 

Lexington, MA 02173 


Zenith 

llOOO Seymour Ave. 
Franklin Park, IL 60131 


NEC (Monitors) 

65 Cummings Park 
Woburn, MA 01801 


Okidata Corporation 

111 Gaither Dr. 

Mt. Laurel. I\U 08054 



NOTE: The prices listed in this Buyer's Guide are suggested manufacturer's 
retail prices for single unit purchases and may not reflect the true consumer 
list price. Computer retailers or peripheral distributors buy in bulk quanitites 
and often receive discounts from the manufacturer; these savings are nor- 
mally passed along to the consumer. 

We suggest that you check with your favorite computer store or 
peripheral outlet before judging a product based on price alone. 




7 


program configurations. 
Amazingly, a section on 
how to modify WordStar is 
also included. 



OKPflA 


The MICROLINE 82A and 

83A offer 120 CPS bidirec- 
tional/logic seeking print- 
ing. optional graphics 
package, friction and pin 
feed paper handling, 
and optional tractors for 
variable form widths. The 
Okidata 84 offers 200 
CPS draft mode, and 50 
CPS dual-pass, corres- 
pondence quality print 
modes. It also comes 
standard with dot ad- 
dressable graphics. War- 
ranty: 90 days parts and 
labor, one year on print 
head. Weight: 30 lbs. 
Price: 82A. $649; 83A $995. 

Okidata recently an- 
nounced the introduc- 
tions Of its PACEMARK 
2410 dot matrix printer. 
Packed full of rather re- 
markable features, the 
printer includes: print 
modes of 85 (18x18 
character matrix) CPS for 
correspondence quality. 
175 CPS in the draft mode, 
and 350 CPS (9x9 


character matrix) for data 
processing printing,- two 
color printing; resident 
and downline loadable 
alternate character sets 
are standard. A cut sheet 
feeder is available for the 
2410 printer to simplify 
handling anything from 
letterhead to memo 
paper 6' to 14' in width 
and length. This ac- 
cessory stacks 200 
sheets at a time. Warranty: 
90 days parts and labor, 
six months on print head. 
Price: $2850. 


SMITH-CORONA 

The SMITH-CORONA TP-1 

daisy wheel printer de- 
livers fully-formed char- 
acter printout at a speed 
of 12 CPS. The printer is a 
simple, compact, low 
cost unit offering: parallel 
a serial interfacing, drop- 
in ribbon cassettes, dif- 
ferent styles of daisy wheel 
elements, and one front 
panel operator control. It 
prints an 88 character 
ASCII set in either a lO 
character per inch a 12 
character per inch ver- 
sion. The TP-1 is rather 
noisy: decibel measure- 
ments range from 63 to 
69. Service is available 
through ten Smith-Corona 
Service Centers in the U.S. 
Training is also being pro- 


vided to those TP-1 dealers 
who wish to offer their own 
service. Warranty: 90 days 
parts and labor. Weight: 
21 lbs. Price: $895. 



QUME 

The Qume Sprint 9 daisy 
wheel printers come in 
three versions: the SPRINT 
9/35, 9/45, and 9/55. (The 
last two digits of the 
model number indicate 
the print speed in CPS.) 
The 9/45 and 9/55 come 
standard with a friction 
feed platen, full operator 
controls and indicators, a 
multitude of internal con- 
trols, and an overall 
design emphasizing reli- 
ability and ease of ser- 
vice. Options include: “W 
Plot" vyhich increase the 
vertical resolution from 
1/48" to 1/144", bidirec- 
tional forms tractor, and 
cut sheet feeder. Other 
than speed, the SPRINT 
9/35 differs in that it can 
be ordered with a key- 
board to achieve interac- 
tive terminal capability. 
Weight: 38 lbs (with 


keyboard, 42 lbs). Price: 
9/35, $2170; 9/45. $2255; 
9/55, $2795. 


STAR MICRONICS 

Star Micronics recently 
introduced the GEMINI 
SERIES of dot matrix 
printers. Although we did 
not have an opportunity to 
evaluate or test the Gem- 
ini the specifications in- 
dicate it is a lOO CPS, 
9x9 character matrix 
printer. Using the high 
resolution graphics 
mode, the matrix is 
120x144 Prices are 
$500 for the lO' max- 
imum paper width model 
and $645 fa the 15^' 
model. 



IT’S FOR YOU! 


Now both you and your Osborne* can 
communicate with other computers. 
And communicate the simple way — 
through OZMOSIS™. 


Using OZMOSIS, you can communi- 
cate with bulletin board services such 
as Dow Jones or CompuServe, send 
and receive electronic mail, access and 
use a large variety of CPM** software 
not available yet for the Osborne.. .or 
just simply transfer word processing, 
financial spread sheets, sales reports, 
etc. to and from the Osborne and a 
CPM computer at work or at home. 



OZMOSIS is a simple way for you to communicate with local or remote data sources. The program 
is completely menu-driven and is designed for everyone from beginners to experts. 

So why not make your Osborne work for you? Use OZMOSIS, the versatile datacommunications 
package. After all, it’s really for you... OZMOSIS |s a trademark of Acquis Data> Inc . 

’Osborne is a trademark of Osborne Computer Corporation. 

^ **CPM is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 

/W* [W» 1 ACQUIS DATA, INC. 

(_) 17192 Gillette Ave. Irvine, CA 92714 

J 714/545-3732 


-OZMOSI! 


communications software 



□ QUALITY 
products warranted in 
"years," not “days." 

□ AVAILABILITY 
from your local 
computer dealer. 

□ VALUE 

at prices you'll be 
happy to see. 


C.A. PRODUCTS 
INCLUDE: 

□ A full line of cables 
and video adapters 
with setup instructions 
for your specific system. 

□ High resolution 
video monitors in 
Amber and Green 
screen with reverse 
video and both 


120VAC and 12VDC 
drive, color coordi- 
nated to your system 
in Osborne colors. 

□ The POWER 
DIRECTOR for fingertip 
monitoring of power to 
each component in 
your system, with line 
filtration included for 
your Osborne computer. 


See them at your 
local dealers! 

10343 Roselle Street 
Suite C, San Diego, 
California 92121 
619/450-0852 

aa 

computer 

accessories 


PA 

HASWHAT 
YOUVE BEEN 

IN 

wouwixi ml: 

ACCESSORIES! 


56 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



Advertisement 


Announcing a NEW Software Deal for the OSBORNE 


NOW, Your OSBORNE can 
Write Programs for You. 


Your computer is fantastically 
fast. ..once it knows what to do. 
You probably realize that a 
computer is the combination of 
hardware and software, working 
together smoothly, to give you 
what* you want. Either one alone 
is useless. Software is really the 
key.. .the “mind” of a computer 
system. Every project or task 
you want to do requires a new 
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exactly the way you desire. 

Of course you may be able to 
“force fit” your application into 
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results, you need a separate 
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Until now, that meant you 
were forced to pay money for 
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shelf, or if you could afford it, 
have it custom written for you, 
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standard BASIC on your 
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A Brand New Technology 

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Best of all, you do not have to be 
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You do it simply by 
answering easy questions that 
appear on your screen. You 
won’t have to learn any 
Computer commands or special 
Programming Languages. 
Instantly the QUIKPRO+ 
software instructs the computer 
to write efficient, error free, 
BASIC Programs and puts the 
Programs right onto your own 
disk, ready for you to use. 

The resulting custom program 
is truly a separate BASIC 
program. You can list it. You 
can modify it. You can 
customize it to your own liking. 
You can actually see what 
makes it tick. If you want to, 
you can sell the programs you 
create, without having to pay 
royalties or fees. 


Try It and See 

QUIKPRO+ for the OSBORNE 
is available now and can be 
shipped immediately. This 
program has proven itself to 
thousands of CP/M, IBM, and 
TRS-80 users, and now it’s 
available for the OSBORNE. As 
part of a special promotion to 
encourage you to try this next 
generation of computer 
software, you can order 
QUIKPRO+ for the Introductory 
Price of $149 plus shipping and 
handling, and of course there’s a 
guarantee. 


You can order right now by 
phone or mail. If you have 
Visa/Mastercard, call Toll Free 
from: 

All States except CA, AK, HI 

1-800-824-7888, Op. #722 

From California call 

1-800-852-7777, Op. #722 

From Alaska call 

1-800-824-7919, Op. #722 

Operators on duty 24 hours 
daily. Operators cannot answer 
technical questions. For technical 
information, dealer inquiries, or 
orders from other countries, you 
can call by phone (904) 269-1918 
during office hours Eastern Time, 
Mon.-Fri. or Telex 62112700. 

Send mail orders with check, 
money order or credit card 
information to: ICR FutureSoft, 
1718 Kingsley Ave., Box 1446-S, 
Orange Park, FL 32073. 

ICR FutureSoft gives you a 
satisfaction guarantee for 10 days 
from delivery. You can run the 
software yourself in your own 
computer and see with your own 
eyes what it can do. ORDER 
NOW. 


Turn your Osborne into a 



with the 


Design One Hard Disk Drive 



Give your Osborne*the power and "l-O" speed to 
support your full creativity with the Design One 
Hard Disk Drive. Process words and data more 
rapidly than any similar disk on the market, with 
greater convenience and reliability. 


• Portable Winchester hard disk 

• Protects your data 

• Fastest available — 70 millesecond 
seek, 5 1 2 byte sector 

• Available in 5 to 20 MB at 

discount prices 

Call 202-775-8400 

Satisfaction assured by 

ProMicro, Inc. 

Professional Microsystems for Supercomputing 
Suite 1000 

1 100 17th Street, NW 
Washington, DC 20036 

• Osborne 1 is a trademark of Osborne Computer Corporation. 


Give your 
a Custom 
Home! 



Ozzie 


Now you can slide your Osborne 1™ into a handsome oak* veneer cabinet that gives 
you extra floppy disk storage and a level surface for an optional monitor. Ozzie's new 
home is handcrafted and quality constructed. Other features include: 

• lighted on/off switch mounted on the side for the computer 

• satin laquer finish 

• ventilation back and bottom 

• knock down construction (simple assembly required) 

• does not affect portability 



•also available in walnut, price slightly higher 


dealer inquiries invited 

Patent Pending 



00 5k 






Buy the BEST 
for LESS 



BusinessMaster Plus is one of the most comprehensive and profes- 
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Asset accounting package was designed to fit the needs of a San 
Francisco based Financial Investment house. Together, the General 
Ledger, Payroll, and Fixed Asset accounting package provide one 
of the finest Client Writeup packages available at ANY price. 

The package includes General Ledger, Payroll, Fixed Asset Accoun- 
ting, Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable, Inventory and a Mail- 
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trol, integrated, and provide for data entry from fully formatted, fill-in- 
the-blanks data entry screens. 

Most importantly, we have incorporated FABS2 from Computer Con- 
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We know of no other accounting package that offers BTree index- 
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We’ve been told by numerous people that this package should sell 
for at least $5000 but we prefer to take the position that we’d 
sooner sell 10,000 copies at $289 than lOO at $5000. Actually 
we think we’ll sell a LOT more than 10,000! 

(We still have BusinessMaster II + available at $159.) 


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Available for 

All 8” CP/M, CBASIC2 computers including 
S-lOO bus, TRS-80 Mod II, Xerox 820 and 
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Also available for many 5 '//' CP/M, CBASIC2 
computers with 80 x 24 displays and 64k of 
memory infcluding Apple II, Xerox 820, 
Heath/Zenith, Kaycomp II, SuperBrain and 
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The BusinessMaster Plus package includes: 

1- Over 700,000 bytes of compiled code 
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2- An easy-to-use, menu oriented user 
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Send $289 for BusinessMaster Plus 


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ACCOUNTING 

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AVAILABLE NOW FOR YOUR 

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For only $289, get integrated general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts pay- 
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We have been delivering this full feature accounting software to Osborne I custom- 
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density, when available, will be very simple. 


General Ledger-detailed reports for company 
and departments comparative financial state- 
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Accounts Payable - current and aged pay- 
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writing, cash flow management reports. 


Accounts Receivable - instant customer Payroll - all types of employees. Multiple state- 

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SINGLE DENSITY SYSTEM CAPACITIES 

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General Ledger 600 + accounts + transactions* 

Accounts Payable 600 + vendors + transactions 

Accounts Receivable 600+ customers + transactions 

Payroll 200 employees 

*a typical small business has about 100 accounts, leaving room for 500 transactions per month. 


Included with your system is a subscription to TCS Debits and Credits, a quarterly 
newsletter just for you. TCS Debits and Credits contains bug reports and corrections, 
enhancements to make the system more powerful or easier to use, information on 
compatible products, and helpful hints. Also included is Read Me First, written just for 
Osborne I users. No other TCS dealer can offer these two publications. 

Includes source code, sample data, and user manuals (540 pages). 

Requires MBASIC, 132 column printer (MX-80 with compressed mode OK). CA residents add 6 '/ 2 % tax. Individual 
modules available for $109 each. 


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60 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 




DOUBLE DENSITY 

UPGRADES FOR THE OSBORNE1* 

‘OSBORNE 1 is a trademark of the Osborne Computer Corporation. 


OSMOS IV 

Winchester disks. Expand your capacity 
to unprecedented levels! Available in 
5V4, IOV 2 , 15 3 /4 & 21 MByte units 
— a 42 Megabyte max. capacity! 

from $2475 to $3650 


OSMOS III 

Double-sided Double Density/Double Tracking 

Replaces both drives with CDC Double-sided 
Double Density/ Double Tracking drives. 

More than 1 Megabyte of portability! 

$1495 

OSMOS II 

Double-sided Double Density. Replaces one or both 
drives with CDC double-sided Double Density drives. 
Can still read Osborne Single Density disks. 

$335 plus $375 pet drive. (If you replace 

one drive, you still get single-sided DD on the other). 


OSMOS i 

Single-sided Double Density. Uses existing drives and disk 
con :roller. Can still read Single Density Osborne disks. 

$195 Install it yourself and Save $100 on Osborne’s charge! 



OSMOSIS upgrades are supplied as kits for existing units. 

There is a piggyback disk expander board which fits onto the main 
Osborne electronics board, Quick, easy assembly instructions are provided. 



Send checks and^money orders^to: 



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\ \ 


OSMOS & q trademark of OSMOSIS, a division of COMPU-LINE CORPORATION. N 

Purchase and installation of the items advertised may void the warranty on your Osborne computer. 


mm 



At Intelligent Statements,™ we 
sell the kind of sames you like 
to play on your Osborne 1™ 

More importantly, we sell the 
kind of sames you like to write 
for your Osborne 1 . Games 
like Ken Uston’s Professional 
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issue of Portable Companion. 
Games like the ones you 
may be developins 
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Our game is 
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We publish intelligent, 
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There are two ways we can 
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First, if your gameware 
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write for our free Author’s Kit. 

This way we can help 
you get your game ready 
for publication. 

Second, if your 
game is past 
the develop- 
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describe it in writing or 
send us a disk (with your 
personal copyright affixed) 
for confidential evaluation. 

We believe in rewarding 
creativity. On our team, you’ll 
be a big winner. 





Osborne 1 is a Traderrarv 
of Osborne Computer Corporation 




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The Courtyard Suite 21 P.O.Box 2602 Chapel Hill, NC 27514 919-942-0008 




Sight for Sore Eyes 



EASY READER, a screen magnifying lens 
which adapts in minutes to the Osborne 1™ 
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fied by a 6 3 Ax4V2 inch durable plastic 
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can be detached from its mounting bracket, 
folded flat and laid between the keyboard & 
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* California residents add 6% for state sales tax 
Price includes shipment anywhere in the U.S.A. 




User Group Update 

Keeping Our Ear To The Ground 

The number of Osborne User 
Groups is rapidly on the rise and we 
encourage all groups to send their 
submissions to The Portable Compa- 
nion for inclusion in this section of the 
magazine. If you have printed articles 
in your newsletter that would be 
helpful to other users, please pass 
them on for reprint. FOG has gener- 
ously supplied us with most of the 
material published to date and we’d 
like to see that supplemented by 
groups from other parts of the coun- 
try and world. 

Don't forget that the User Update 
included in each issue can be a 
vehicle for making announcements 
and generally getting out information 
that needs to be communicated 
beyond territorial boundaries. 

We would also like to announce 
that future issues will include a 
special section (outside FOG) 
devoted to mini-reviews of software 
hardware, books, etc., for the 
Osborne 1. We encourage all of you 
to submit your opinions (keep them 
short) on products and software you 
have used. Creativity and humor are 
encouraged. 

The following are the latest addi- 
tions to the burgeoning list of national 


Osborne Users’ Groups. Enthusiastic 
and adventurous, most of these 
groups are printing newsletters that 
have become valuable support tools 
to Osborne owners all over the coun- 
try. 

OCC applauds these cooperative 
efforts by Osborne users to 
disseminate helpful information about 
our computer. Please include The Por- 
table Companion on your mailing lists 
for future issues. This enables OCC 
and the staff of The Portable Compa- 
nion to keep abreast of the many pro- 
ductive and exciting programs your 
group is involved in and make an- 
nouncements as necessary to all our 
readers. 

With that said, here are the latest 
additions to the Osborne user’s group 
list: 

John Warner 

Kentucky Osborne Group (KOG) 

219 Burnam Court 
Richmond, Kentucky 40475 

James L. Kerr 

Tidewater Area User’s Group 
Nuclear Medicine Clinic 
NARMC 

Pensacola, FL 32512 

Donald E. Wagner, Controller 
Newark Osborne Users’ Group 
c/o The Central Trust Company 
Drawer AE, 17 N. Third Street 
Newark, Ohio 42055 

Larry Friedman 

Lawrence Osborne Users’ Group 
2819 Tomahawk 
Lawrence, Kansas 66044 

Ruben Mizrahi, President 
Jersey Osborne Group (JOG) 

P.O. Box 61 1 

New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 

BULLETIN: You’ll be happy to hear 
that OCC has appointed Esther 
Massie of our Technical Support Divi- 
sion as User Group liaison. Please 
write directly to her if you have ideas 
or problems that need addressing c/o 
OCC, 26538 Danti Court, Hayward, 
CA 94545. 

d 


Tips For Tyros 

Greg Hinze 

The following article is directed at 
readers who have access to the FOG 
DISK LIBRARY. However, if you are 
not presently involved in FOG, read 
on, as there are a number of helpful 
tips for newcomers. You may want to 
pursue obtaining a copy of the FOG 
library (the contents of which were 
listed in the August/Sept, issue of The 
Portable Companion) by writing direct- 
ly to FOG at P.O. Box 11683-A, Palo 
Alto, CA 94306. 

Here is a learning project for those 
who have just bought their first com- 
puter and have had no previous ex- 
perience. The project will collect four 
game programs available from the 
FOG library on one diskette. NOTE: I 
will use the symbol < CR > to repre- 
sent “carriage return.” To make a 
<CR> press the RETURN button on 
the keyboard. “Type" means to 
physically typewrite (hunt and peck) 
whatever follows. Don’t be afraid of 
mistakes. If a procedure does not 
work, just do it over. In all of the follow- 
ing procedures either disk drive A or B, 
or both alternately, will run. Loading 
the CHESS or CASTLE games may 
take a half minute. In any case, let the 
drive stop and the red light go out 
before removing a diskette from the 
drive. 



64 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 




Writers! We’ve taken the paperwork out of 
writing. The Osborne Personal Business Computer. 

AndWORDPAC: 



Author Peter DeVries once said, "I love 
writing. It’s the paperwork I can’t stand.” 

The Osborne Personal Business Com- 
puter is an outstanding writer’s system, 
because it automates the paperwork of 
writing. Quickly and easily. 

Only $1795 delivers a complete 
computer including WORDSTAR’ 
software for extensive word processing. 

The portable Osborne system fits 
the work style of writers (you can 
take it wherever you want), yet the 
system compares with dedicated 
word processors costing several 
times more. 

Communications options con- 
nect you to a variety of information 
banks, for research or brainstorming, 
or for shipping documents electroni- 
cally, over telephone lines. 

And now, the WORD • PAC brings even 
more efficiency, accuracy, speed and fun to 

Trademarks: WORD*PAC: Osborne Computer Corporation • Spellguard 
Innovative Software Applications • Grammatik: Aspen Software Company • 
Math’: Force Two, Limited • Documate/Plus: The Orthocode Corporation. 
Registered Trademarks: WORDSTAR: MicroPro International of San Rafael, 
California • Footnote: Pro/Tem, Inc. 


the writer using the Osborne Computer. 

Five packages to check your spelling, 
analyze your grammar, handle footnoting, 
indexing, and even arithmetic. 

Osborne. The best thing for writing 
since the invention of royalties. 

For your nearest dealer, call (in 
California) 800 772-3545 ext. 905; 
(outside California) call 
800 227-1617 ext. 905. 


OSBORNE 

COMPUTER CORPORATION 




[ 


Users’ Group 



CARAT", R <cr> ; 5,L0AD“ELIZA 
“,R <CR> : 6, LIST <CR> . I have 
placed a < CR > after each name so 
that when you press a function key, 
the game will run immediately without 
requiring a separate <CR> . Notice 
that each of the BASIC programs has 
its name in quotes and is transferred 
from diskette to computer memory by 
the command: LOAD. 

Copy this list of SPECIAL FUNC- 
TION KEYS onto a piece of paper for 
future reference. Any or all functions 
can be changed in the future by again 
placing CP/M in Drive A the new 
diskette in B, and using SETUP again 
as described. 

Now follow the instructions at the 
bottom of the menu or all is lost. Type 
X twice in succession and the menu 
will display the options: DESTINATION 
(A, B or "X” to exit). Be sure to name 
the drive in which your newly con- 
figured diskette resides. In this case, it 
is B. If you say X for exit, the SFK 
designations will not be saved and all 
will revert to the standard numbers 0 
to 9. When you type B, expect Drive B 
to run for 20 seconds. SETUP is saved 
on the diskette’s system tracks, so if 
you copy this diskette, the SPECIAL 
FUNCTION KEYS will also be copied. 

The project is complete. Remove 
the CP/M disk from Drive A and 


replace it with your new game pro- 
gram diskette. Press RESET on the 
front of the computer and then 
<CR>. Reset erases all data from 
the computer’s memory. 

Each SFK is formed by combining 
the control (CTRL) key with a number 
key. For example, while you are 
holding down the CTRL key, press the 
number 3 and the CHESS game will 
start on the monitor. Type >C when 
you wish to discontinue the chess pro- 
gram. Since all the other games re- 
quire the use of MBASIC, you must 
first load MBASIC into the computer’s 
memory by holding CTRL down and 
simultaneously pressing 1. After the 
disk drive stops, hold CTRL and press 
the number for any game you wish to 
play. 

When you are through playing a 
game and wish to see what the BASIC 
program for that game looks like, 
press CTRL C to stop the game from 
“running.” Then press CTRL 6 for 
LIST. The listing of BASIC statements^ 
will flash across the screen. To stop 
them for closer examination, press 
CTRL S. Press any key to view the 
listing again. LIST works for BASIC 
programs only and therefore will not 
work with the CHESS game. 

If you wish to see the directory of 
your new game diskette, put the CP/M 


diskette in Drive A and your newly 
configured diskette in Drive B. Press 
CTRL C and type XDIR B: <CR>. 
This will display the directory and give 
you the name and size of each pro- 
gram on the diskette. It will also tell 
how much room is available for any 
additonal programs you may wish to 
add. 

Recording five programs on the 
diskette and typing the six SETUP 
statements took a touch-typist less 
than 15 minutes to complete. Have 
fun. jg 

(Greg Hinze is a member of the First 
Osborne Group FOG) 



INDEPENDENT TRAINING PLUS 


Specializing in Service to Users of the Osborne 1 ™ 

Education & Training □ Product Development □ Telephone Consultation 

John Gaudio, creator of the Magic Box and the Static Leash, is helping Osborne 
users from Florida to Canada through telephone consultation. Call for the answer 
you need. In Denver, make an appointment to visit J. Gaudio Company’s Osborne 
Independent Training Plus center for hands on experience. 

J. Gaudio Company □ P. O. Box 27826 □ Denver, Colorado 80227 
Telephone (303) 934-1407 □ “SOURCE” TCZ707 

Osborne and Osborne 1 are trademarks of Osborne Computer Corporation. Independent Training Plus and ITP are trademarks of J. Gaudio Company 


66 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



First, place the CP/M System Disk 
in Drive A. Perform a < CR > and the 
A drive will transfer system informa- 
tion from the CP/M diskette to the 
computer’s memory. Then place a 
new diskette in Drive B. When the 
symbol A > appears on the monitor, 
type COPY < CR > and then, as 
stated on the displayed menu, type F 
to format the new diskette in Drive B. 
When the drive stops, two < CR> 
take us back to the system and the 
symbol A>. 

Now get the M BASIC diskette and 
diskettes numbers 004, 015 and 018 
from your copies of the FOG DISK 
LIBRARY. 

Next type PIP < CR > and an aster- 
isk will appear on the monitor screen. 
The asterisk means the computer is 
ready to copy a file from one diskette 
to another. 

Remove the CP/M diskette from Drive 
A and replace it with diskette 004. Do 
NOT execute a < CR > until you are 
through using PIP. Type B: = A:BAC- 
CRAT.BAS[v] <CR > , and when the 
two drives stop spinning, a new 
asterisk will appear on the monitor. 

[v] verifies the correctness of the 
copied file by causing it to be read 
back and checked against the source. 
PIP will work without [v], but why ig- 
nore a safety feature? 


Now type B: = A:ELIZA.BAS[v] 
< CR > . Replace diskette 004 with 
diskette 015 and type 
B: = A:CASTLE.BAS[v] <cr>. We 
now have three files on our new disk. 

When a program is written in the 
BASIC language, it is a convention to 
use .BAS as an extension of file-type, 
added to the filename. As you can see, 
the three files we have copied are all 
written in BASIC. They can be “run” 
by placing the MBASIC diskette in one 
drive and the new diskette in the other 
drive; but now we will copy MBASIC 
onto the new diskette, so we can 
"run” the programs with only this one 
diskette in the computer. Replace 
diskette 015 with the MBASIC diskette 
and type B: = A:MBASIC.COM[v] 
<CR>. 

Just for fun lets add a game pro- 
gram that is not written in BASIC and 
does not require the MBASIC program 
to run. Replace the MBASIC diskette 
in Drive A with diskette 018 and type 
B: = A:CHESS.COM[v] < CR > . 

Now replace the 018 diskette in 
Drive A with the CP/M diskette and 
press the CTRL key while simultan- 
eously typing C. Our books symbolize 
this control C operation with the sym- 
bol > C. Here we have used > C to 
get out of the PIP program, and to tell 
the CP/M operating system that the 


diskette has been changed in drive A. 
Control C does not erase data from the 
computer’s memory. Now type 
SYSGEN < CR > after which the 
monitor asks you to specify the 
SOURCE drive (type A), and the 
DESTINATION drive (type B) < CR > . 
After the drive stops, type SETUP 

< CR >, then type B, and the monitor 
will display a menu. 

Now type E. A new menu will ap- 
pear that is limited to a listing of the 
special function keys for the com- 
puter. After you define these keys, any 
one of ten different program names or 
commands con be requested when- 
ever you wish. 

For the moment, just carry out the 
following steps. Type 1 and then 
MBASIC < CR > followed by pushing 
the escape (ESC) key twice in succes- 
sion. You will see the number 1 on the 
menu replaced with: MBASIC 

< CR > . I remind you that I do not 
mean for you to type the symbol 
<CR>, but to physically push the 
RETURN key. It will be displayed as 
<CR > but function as a RETURN. 
Now, using the same procedure, type 
the other key designations as follows: 
2, LOAD”CASTLE",R <CR>; 3, 
CHESS < CR> ; 4, LOAD“BAC- 

Continued on next page 


C OMPUTER 
ANNERY 


P.O. BOX 23425 . SAN JOSE, CA 95153 • (4081/226-3184 


A MODEM for the OSBORNE™ 
- MODEM PORT - 




MARK V by Anchor Automation 
is designed for the OCC-1 Modem Port. 
This is a Direct'Connect, 300 Baud Modem 



Runs on a 9V battery $129.95 

COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE FOR THE OSBORNE 
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TO ORDER: Send check or money order to: 

(Please add 3% shipping/handling charges — California residents add appropriate sales taxes) 

COMPUTER CANNERY - P. O. Box 23425 . San Jose, C A 95153 . (408)226-3184 



December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 65 


| Users* Group 




You can call up B:XXXXXXXX.DIR 
under WordStar, and it looks just like 
an XDIR.COM display, only you can 
now modify it just like any WordStar 
file. 

There’s more. 

If you command XDIR B:*.* A:XX- 
XXXXXX there will be a file created 
on A with the name XXXXXXXX.DIR. 


Putting This To Use 

Upon discovering the above, I 
developed the following Disk Direc- 
tory routine, which easily solved my 
problem of what to do with all of 
those diskettes and files: 

Start with an empty, formatted 
diskette. This will become your direc- 
tory diskette. We’ll call this diskette 
DD. 

Put DD into Drive B and your 
CP/M System diskette into Drive A: 
Type SYSGEN. When CP/M asks 
which diskette you want to Sysgen, 
tell it B. 

Next copy the following files onto 
DD from the CP/M System diskette 
using PIP. For those of you who 
aren't familiar with PIP, see your 
operating manual under CP/M: 
PIP.COM 
XDIR.COM 

Now change diskettes in Drive A. 
Insert the CP/M Utility diskette, and 
while still in PIP, copy onto DD the 
file: 

AUTOST.COM 

Then, (CTRL)C to exit PIP. 

You should set up the function 
keys on DD to make it easier to use. 
Return the CP/M System diskette to 
Drive A and enter 

A> SETUP(RETURN) 

— which will start the program: 
SETUP.COM. 

At the prompt “Which drive do you 
want to SETUP?’’ enter B. What you 
are going to do now is set up function 
keys that will be handy when using 
DD. When you see the SETUP 
screen, press E so that you can set 
the function keys. Follow the screen 
prompts and you’ll be programming 
your function keys with ease. 


Set the function keys this way: 

0: ERA B: 

1: XDIR A: (CTRL)C 
2: XDIR B: (CTRL)C 
3: 

4: XDIR B:*.* A:- 
5: XDIR B:*.* B:- 
6 : 

7: B: = A: 

8: A: = B: 

9: SAVE 0 B: - 

The (CTRL)C after XDIR is in- 
cluded here because in some ver- 
sions of XDIR your diskette space us- 
ed and space available listing will not 
reset if you use XDIR several times in 
a row. The effect of this is that the 
listed space available for the first 
diskette you XDIR will be listed again 
in each successive new listing and 
you will not get proper space 
available data for the second 
diskette you XDIR. Try XDIR a few 
times on different diskettes. If the 
space counter does not reset, com- 
pensate for the program bug by 
simply pressing (CTRL)C after each 
use of XDIR, or using your function 
key. 

Set the Arrow Keys to CP/M, and 
follow the prompts back out of 
SETUP, saving your work on the B 
drive. 


Diskette Identification 


Your diskettes need to be iden- 


tified both on the outside and inside 
in the data directory. 

You should establish some sort of 


numbering system for your diskettes, 
if you have not already done so. I 
simply number mine in numerical 
order, from 001 to 999. Other people 
use letters 

—A — AA —BA 

— C — AB — BB 

— C — AC — BC. . etc. 


Still others identify the type of file: 


— WS-001 
— WS-004 
— WS— 009 
-SC-001 
-SC-002 
-SC-003 


— BAS-001 
— BAS-002 
— BAS-004 
— G/L-001 
— G/L-002 
— G/L-006 


The choices are wide. Once you 


have figured out the system you are 
going to use, write the identifier of 
each diskette on it’s label with a soft 
tip, permanent marking pen. 

Data Storage of Diskette I.D. 

Many Osborne users are not 
aware that you can put an entry on 
the directory tracks of a diskette, 
without tying up 2K of storage space. 

The command, from CP/M is: 
SAVE 0 B: XXXXXXXX.XXX. 

Just fill in your own disk file iden- 
tifier, up to 8 characters, a period (.) 
and three more characters. 

In practice, don’t use the three 
characters after the period, because 
they can be changed to lose some 
meaning. 

Since XDIR alphabetizes the files, 
if you precede the filename with a 
hyphen (-), your diskette identifier will 
be the first file in the alphabetical 
XDIR listing. This is how most public 
domain software such as the 
CP/MUG and FOG libraries is iden- 
tified. 

The Easy Way To Label Diskettes 

Put your new completed DD disk- 
ette in Drive A and boot it. You should 
see: 

Extended Directory version 3.5 


AUTOST .COM 2K 

PIP .COM 8K 

XDIR .COM 4K 

Specified files: 3 files, 14K bytes 
Disk B: 2K blocks 


Size= 92K, Used= 14K, Space = 
7 8 K 
A > 

Lets say that you will call the first 
diskette that you are going to label 
001. You can fill in any identifier for 
the diskette you want to label, up to 
seven characters (remember the 
hyphen) but for this discussion, let’s 
use 001 . 

Press (CTRL)9 and you should 
A> SAVE 0 B:- 


68 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



Using XDIR To Create A Disk Directory 


You may have shared this ex- 
perience: You suddenly have a lot of 
diskettes containing somewhere bet- 
ween 5, and 40 files each, and you 
are not really sure what those cryptic 
eight character file names really 
mean. 

Perhaps these files are your own 
creations or maybe you suddenly 
had to make sense of a large body of 
files such as the public domain CP/M 
library; or your new job required you 
to make sense of 1 50 diskettes with 
no external labels. 

I was about to go crazy because I 
couldn’t make heads or tails of all of 
the files I had created, and in addi- 
tion had acquired over a hundred 
public domain programs with names 
like: MASTCAT.COM, FMAP.INT or 
SZYMERGY.BAS. What in the H- is 
a mast cat? Some kind of shipyard 
feline? 

Well I finally figured out what was 
what but the next problem was keep- 
ing track of it all. The solution was 
hidden within our old friend 
XDIR.COM. 

In this article, I outline a number of 


Scott Rainey 

procedures that I have not found in 
the OCC documentation. Credit 
should be given to my friend Dennis 
Deck for showing me the XDIR func- 
tion in a Lifelines Newsletter that 
makes this directory routine possi- 
ble. 

I have attempted to keep this arti- 
cle on a level suitable for the new 
Osborne user. Don’t let that scare 
you off if you are an experienced 
hacker. There may be an idea for you 
sandwiched in here as well. 

Where this article instructs you to 
supply your own variables I have 
used X's (XXXXXXXX.XXX) to in- 
dicate places for you to fill in those 
variables. 

XDIR.COM Revisited 

An undocumented feature of XDIR 
allows the creation of WordStar 
readable and modifiable files, thus 
enabling you to create a highly ver- 
satile range of directories. 

You have probably used XDIR. 
COM, which is on all of the supplied 
software diskettes that came with 


later versions of the Osborne 1 As 
you know, XDIR will give you a 
display that looks like figure 1 . 

Figure 1 


Extended Directory verison 3.5 


-004A 


Ok 

3 


6k 

3 

.BAK 

6k 

AO 


4k 

ED3 


4k 

OSBUG 

.001 

24k 

OSBUG 

.002 

2k 

OSBUG 

.BAK 

2k 

XDIR 

.COM 

4k 

STARTREK 

.BAS 

24k 

Specified files: 10 files 

76k bytes 


Disk B: 2K blocks 

Size= 92K, Used = 76K, Space = 14K 


What may be news is that if in- 
stead of typing XDIR B: 

You instead type: XDIR B:*.* 
B:XXXXXXXX. you create a file on 
Drive B with the name 
XXXXXXXX.DIR. 

Continued on next page 



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December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 67 


| Users' Group 



DEBUG .001 
DEBUG .002 
DEBUG .BAK 
XDIR .COM 
STARTREK.BAS 

Specified files: 10 files 
Disk B: 2K blocks 
Size = 92K, Used = 

Space = 

Once the files are copied into 
DISKDIR, you can clean them up a 
bit using standard WordStar editing 
features. It’s a good idea to leave a 
blank line or something between the 
files, and if you want to keep record 
of how much diskette space is used, 
include one of the lines that does this 


24K 

2K 

2K 

4K 

24K 

76K bytes 

76K, 

14K 


of the .DIR files into your DISKDIR 
file, you will want to erase the .DIR 
files taking up 2K each and a file ad- 
dress on your DD Disk. Save your 
DISKDIR file, and exit WordStar to 
CP/M system using (CTRL)KX. 

If you get an error message that 
the diskette is full, you will have to 
delete some files on DD. That’s OK 
because you were about to delete 
them anyway. First display the Disk 
Directory using (CTRL)KF so that you 
can see which files you will be work- 
ing with. The .DIR files will all be 2K 
so you may have to repeat the pro- 
cess. The file deletion command 
from inside a WordStar file is 
(CTRL)KJ. Delete a few files and try 


tes logged into DISKDIR. you can 
use WordStar to go back and put a 
short explanation of what the file is 
all about next to the size of the file. A 
sample from such a file might look 
like: 

CP/ M. SYS CP /M System Diske tte 


AUTOST.COM 2K 
COPY.COM 4K 

FORMAT.COM 2K 
INSTALL.COM 32K 


Auto Start 
from 0-1 Boot 
Combined 
Copy and For- 
mat Program 
Old Format 
Program, 
WordStar In- 
stallation Pro- 
gram 


from the XDIR routine. 


(CTRL)KX again. 

MOVCPM.COM 12K 

CP/M 

A cleaned 

up record might 

look 

When you get to A > or B > erase 



Customiza- 

like this: 


all of the .DIR files on DD with a 



tion routines 

— 004A 

DIR 

2K 

single command using a wildcard 

PIP.COM 

8K 

Peripheral In- 

3 


6K 

asterisk (*) erase command: 



terchange 

AO 


4K 

B>ERA B:*.DIR 



Program 

ED3 


4K 

check you progress if you wish 

SETUP.COM 

4K 

Setup a 

OSBUG 

001 

24K 

using: 



Sysgened 

OSBUG 

002 

2K 

A >XDIR B: 



Diskette 

STARTREK 

BAS 

24 K 

then load DD with more .DIR files, by 

STAT.COM 

6K 

Status of Us- 

Specified files: 6 files 40K bytes 

rebooting DD In Drive A and continu- 



ed Disk 

As mentioned above, your 

Os- 

ing as above. 



Space 

borne 1 has a limit of about 40 files in 


SYSGEN.COM 

2K 

Copy CP/M to 


each diskette directory. If you ex- 
ceed this number you will have pro- 
blems. So, now that you have read all 


The Finishing Touches 

Once you have all of your disket- 


System 
Tracks of 
target 
diskette 


Write your own 
software library. 

Now there's no need to spend 
money on an extensive program 
library for your personal computer. 
You can do it yourself with Personal 
Pearl. 

There's no complicated program- 
ming language to learn and no jar- 
gon to memorize. Pearl speaks 
plain English, which means you have 
instant program -ability. 

All you need to make use of Per- 
sonal Pearl is a 56K RAM microcom- 
puter with CP/M operating system 
Now there is no limit to the programs 
you can create. The amount of 
record storage space and maximum 
file size are determined only by 
your computer s disk capacity 


Here’s how you do it. 

To write a program with Personal 
Pearl, use the screen like a piece of 
paper in the typewriter. Pearl's 
powerful Program Generator allows 
you to type exactly what you want 
your computer to respond to. in the 
way that feels comfortable to you. 
This personal link with the entire pro- 
gram enables you to solve even 
the most compex problems easily 

Personal Pearl also functions as 
a Forms and Reports Generator, so 
documents come out looking just 
the way you want them. You can 
modify formats, add reports, change 
displays or update information 
at any time. In addition. Pearl s Data 
Base Manager helps you sort, 
search, reorganize and analyze as 
quick as a flash! 


Use it to customize 

the software you already 

have. 

Pearl can be used interactively with 
your existing spread sheet or word 
processing programs. You can 
transfer information from Pearl to 
those programs to suit your particu 
lar needs. 


The Personal 
Information System" 


personal 

Relational Systems International Corp. 
P.O. Box 13850 • Salem OR 97309 
503-363-8929 


TM 


70 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



a new file on DD (in B). This will be 
your directory, so name it something 
appropriate like DISKDIR. 

You will probably want to put some 
kind of heading at the top of the file 
like: “DISKDIR: DIRECTORY OF 
FILES ON LIBRARY DISKS." Skip 
down a few lines, and use the Word- 
Star command for “copy from 
another file.” Use a (CTRL)KR to br- 
ing in the-text from all of your .DIR 
files. When you type (CTRL)KR, 
WordStar will ask “NAME OF FILE 
TO READ?” Fill in the name of each 
of your .DIR files, one at a time, 
repeating (CTRL)KR each time, until 
you have copied all of them into 
DISKDIR. 


which should give you XDIR A:. 

If you are going to be passing out 
copies of -001 , or if you want to use 
2K of the diskette space to make 
notes to yourself about what is on 
-001 , you may want to (CTRL)5 (XDIR 
B:*.* B: — ), add 001 and a copy of 
XDIR will be made on B. It will be 
named -001 .DIR and you will be able 
to add notes to it using WordStar. 

The WordStar Part 


After the A> SAVE 0 B:-, enter 
001. Put your file diskette into Drive 
B and press RETURN. 

You should see the A > prompt. 

Press (CTRL)2, which should give 
you XDIR B: and you should see: 
—001 . OK 

as the first entry in your file. 

Repeat this procedure for all of your 
diskettes. 


Making the Directory 


Once you have a data identifier in 
the directory tracks of all of your 
diskettes, you are ready to make 
your directory. 

Boot DD in Drive A, then, place 
each of the diskettes in your library 
into Drive B (one at a time please). 
Press (CTRL)4 (you should see A > X- 
DIR B:*.* A:-). Fill in the diskette 
identifier, which by now you should 
have written on the outside of the 
diskette (e.g. -001 A) and press 
RETURN. What you see on the 
screen should also be stored on DD 
in Drive A under -001A .DIR. 

You can check this using (CTRL)1 


After you have 20-30 .DIR files on 
DD you must combine them. The 
reason for this is that your Osborne 
has a limit of 40 files per diskette, 
and of course, each .DIR file will take 
up 2K. If you already have a couple 
of big files, you may run out of disk 
storage. 

A record of the files that you will 
be combining is handy, so if you have 
a printer, type (CTRL)P then XDIR A:, 
and your printer will print out XDIR 
for DD. 

Reset, and boot up WordStar in 
Drive A. Place DD in B, and change 
the logged drive to B. Create (D or N) 


The printed copy of the files 
comes in handy to verify that you get 
all of the files. I usually work from the 
bottom up. (largest number to 
smallest number) because of the 
way WordStar loads a file that you 
read into a workpiece. 

A typical .DIR file will look like this: 

Extended Directory version 3.5 


-004 

.DIR 

2K 

3 


6K 

3 

.BAK 

6K 

AO 


4K 

ED3 


4K 


Continued on next page 



ucoi * 

IJU / 


GETS 

YOU 


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December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 69 





particular computer. When a pro- 
gram is loaded into the computer by 
CP/M, that program plays the part of 
the salesman; the computer plays the 
part of the office, and the peripherals 
play the parts of the office staff. 

When a program written to run 
under CP/M sends a character out to 
the printer, it doesn’t have to know 
what kind of printer is being used, or 
even the type of computer on which 
it’s being run. CP/M (the office 
manager) knows all that. The pro- 
gram simply sends a character to 
CP/M and tells the "Control Pro- 
gram/Monitor” that this character 
must be sent to the printer. CP/M then 
takes the character, waits until the 
printer is ready, sends the character 
to the printer, and informs the pro- 
gram that the request has been filled. 

This "office manager,” performs 
many tasks in the Osborne 1 in- 
cluding the transfer of characters to 
the screen and printer, the transfer of 
characters from the keyboard (in- 
cluding those programmed on 
special function keys), system resets, 
the opening, closing, and deleting of 
files, and more. Each computer that 
runs a version of the CP/M operating 
system has the option of handling its 
peripheral in whatever way works 
best for that computer. Computers 


like the Xerox 820, Cromemco, and 
Osborne 1 each have their own 
methods of handling printers, disk 
drives, keyboards and screens. CP/M 
simply provides the common ground 
that makes it possible to run one pro- 
gram on any of the many machines 
equipped with a CP/M operating 
system. 

So where do we locate this wonder 
called CP/M? Something called the 
“CP/M image,” a copy of the CP/M 
program is stored on each of the 
diskettes that come with the Osborne 
1. This system image is found on the 
first three tracks of the diskette 
tracks 0, 1 and 2. These are called the 
system tracks. When you first turn 
power on to the Osborne and follow 
the instruction to “Insert disk in Drive 
A and press return,” This CP/M image 
is read from the system tracks of the 
diskette in Drive A and stored in the 
memory of the Osborne 1 . 

Keeping a copy of the CP/M 
operating system on the system 
tracks of a diskette can make life a 
great deal easier. For example, this 
allows you to boot from those disk- 
ettes, that is, to put them into the left 
drive and press the return key when 
you first turn on your Osborne. It also 
keeps you out of trouble when a pro- 
gram you are using tries to access 


the system tracks of another diskette. 
WORDSTAR, PIP, and COPY all do 
this under certain conditions. 

One of the programs found on the 
CP/M System Diskette is SETUP. 
Recall that our office manager, CP/M 
has to be intimately familiar with all of 
the resources available to it. On the 
Osborne, this means that CP/M must 
know all of the details about the 
printer tied to the system; all about 
the keyboard, including the meaning 
of each of the special function keys; 
the speed (or baud rate) to be used by 
the serial (RS-232) port, and more. 
Most of this information was built into 
our version of CP/M when the folks at 
Osborne Computer Corporation 
(OCC) wrote the Basic Input/Output 
System, otherwise known as the 
BIOS. But OCC had no way of predic- 
ting what kind of printer you would 
use, at what speed you want to use 
the RS-232 port, or how you would 
program the special function keys. 
Only you can tell CP/M what you've 
decided to do with your system. 

To make this task easier for you, 
the people at OCC wrote a program 
called SETUP. This program allows 
you to change parts of the BIOS in 
your copy of CP/M by simply answer- 
ing a few questions. You thereby op- 
timize CP/M for your system and your 


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Horizon Engineering Sales 
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New England Alarm Co. 
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Disc Sales 
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Clifford of Vermont 
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'SATISFIED 
USERS ARE OUR 
BEST CUSTOMERS 


72 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



Taking The Mystery Out Of CP/M 

John Qaudio 


XDIR.COM 4K Extended 
Directory Pro- 
gram listing 
programs 
Alphabetically 

Specified files: 1 1 files occupy 
76K bytes 

SAMPLE 

— 004A 


3. 

6K 

Story for 
Vol 2, #3 

AO. 

4K 

Adam 

Osborne 

Bio 

ED3. 

4K 

Draft of 
Editorial 

DEBUG. 001 

24K 

Vol 1 

debugging 
story 

DEBUG. 002 

32K 

Vol 2 

debugging 
story 

STARTREK.BAS 

24K 

Semi- 

Debugged 

Game 


Specified files: 6 files: 92K bytes 
There it is folks, go forth and 
catalog. 

(Scott Rainey is a member of the 
Portland Osborne Business User’s 
Group (OSBUG) and is editor of its 
monthly newsletter.) 

© 


In talking with clients, members of 
the Denver Osborne Group, and 
other Osborne users I find that there 
is still some confusion about just 
what “CP/M” really is, what it does, 
and where it’s likely to be found. 

CP/M is an operating program, ver- 
sions of which run on many com- 
puters including the Osborne 1 . It was 
originally written by Gary Kildall in 
1973 for use with his 8080 micro- 
computer, and has since evolved into 
the most popular operating system 
available for 8080, and Z80 micros. 
The letters “CP/M” stand for “Con- 
trol Program/ Monitor.” 

CP/M loads any one of a number of 
programs into the computer’s 
memory and provides the means for 
that program to communicate with 
peripherals such as the video screen, 
keyboard, disk drives, and printer. It 
functions in the Osborne the way an 
office manager functions in one of 
the branch offices of a large com- 
pany. That office manager brings 
visiting salesmen into the office and 
provides the means for those sales- 
men to communicate with staff 
members such as the secretaries in 


the typing pool and the filing clerks. 

The office manager is specially 
trained to understand the details of 
that particular branch office and sees 
to it that the request, along with the 
material needed to fill that request 
makes its way to the hands of the ap- 
proprite secretaries and/or file clerks. 
The office manager then confirms 
that the request has been filled, and 
reports back to the salesman when 
the job is done. 

This is just the way that CP/M 
works for us in the Osborne 1 , it plays 
the role of the office manager. When 
installed on a computer some parts of 
CP/M* are written only to run on that 
Continued on next page 

* These specially written parts of 
CP/M make up the Basic Input/Output 
System, or BIOS, and are like the 
special training each office manager 
gets for a specific branch office. For 
more on BIOS see page 218 of the 
Osborne CP/M User Guide. 

For more information on the origin 
of CP/M see page 1 of the OSBORNE 
CP/M USER GUIDE by Thom Hogan, 
published by Osborne/McGraw-Hill. 



IJC 07 

7.10 / 


GETS 

YOU 


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December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 71 





OCC is finally ready to make a few 
announcements that all of you have 
been patiently waiting to hear. First, 
as you’ve probably discovered by the 
time this issue reaches your mailbox, 
Double Density has been released. 
After many hours of troubleshooting 
we are confident that we have an ex- 
cellent product that our users can rely 
on. Other OCC new product an- 
nouncements appearing in this issue 
include the long-waited 80 Plus Col- 
umn Option and POWR-PAC, a bat- 
tery pack for the Osborne 1 com- 
puter. 

We also have a number of other 
new products being disbributed by 
outside manufacturers, so without 
further ado . . . 

Double Your 
Pleasure 

As you’ve been advised in our re- 
cent mailing to registered Osborne 
owners, double density is ready to go. 
The new Osborne Double Density 
Upgrade option increases the diskette 
storage capacity of the Osborne 1 to 
184K of data storage. It also allows 
automatic density recognition of 
selected other diskette formats such 
as the IBM PC (CP/M-86), DEC 
VT180, Xerox 820 and Cromemco 
single density. In addition, we’re now 
including (at no charge) the UCSD 
P-System with each double density 
option, allowing you to run almost 
any software created with UCSD 
P-System that is in the universal 
P-System diskette format. 

The charge for the upgrade is 
$185.00 for machines purchased after 
September 15, 1982 (serial numbers 
higher than NA211594 or 
CA1 12438 you’ll find the number 
on the AC power plate on the rear of 
the computer) plus dealer installa- 
tion. Machines purchased before 
September 15, 1982 will be returned 
to the OCC Hayward factory for 
upgrading, at a cost of $295.00, 


which includes installation, (Some 
dealers may opt to install double den- 
sity on these machines, also, but must 
send a representative to Hayward for 
training before doing so). 

Roamin’ Columns 

The Osborne 80 Plus Column Op- 
tion adds a piggyback board to the 
existing Osborne 1 logic board, which 
provides screen widths of 52, 80 or 104 
columns. The various screen widths 
are software selectable through 
the revised CP/M SETUP program 
included. The 80 Plus Column Op- 
tion also includes a composite video 
connector with RCA plug, enabling 
direct connection between the 
Osborne computer and an external 
monitor, eliminating the need for a 
monitor adaptor. 

Benefits/Features 

• Enables full view of screen for 
text editing and other software 
packages commonly designed 
for 80-column screens 

• Eliminates scrolling during 
editing 

• More information displayed on 
screen for packages that can 
utilize 100 columns such as 
SuperCalc 

• Easy to change screen widths so 
the screen can be set at 52 col- 
umns for portable use and 80 or 
100 columns when a larger CRT 
is used 

• Composite video connector 
with RCA plug provided; elimi- 
nates the need for video adapter 
& allows direct connection to 
external monitors 

Price of the 80 Plus Column Op- 
tion is $185.00, if ordered prior to 
January 30th; $250.00 afterwards. 
Dealer installation is extra. NOTE: 
The 80 Plus Column Option can be 
installed by your dealer, or at the 
same time the Double Density Option 
is installed at the factory (at no addi- 
tional installation charge). 


Interface Kit 
Available for Olivetti 
Typewriters 

Selectone’s new Micro-Type inter- 
face kits are designed to convert low 
cost Olivetti Praxis 30 and 35 elec- 
tonic typewriters into letter-quality 
printers for use with most popular 
computers, including the Osborne 1. 



The Micro-Type Models OP-140S 
and OP-150P interface kits are used 
with the popular Olivetti Praxis 30 
and 35 electronic typewriters. The in- 
terface board is entirely self- 
contained within the typewriter, and 
no external box is required. Both RS- 
232C and Centronics parallel ver- 
sions are available. Installation is 
simple and instructions include free 
application notes with detailed hook- 
up instructions for the Osborne. 
Selectone Corporation 
28301 Industrial Blvd., Suite L 
Hayward, CA 94545 
(800) 421-5389 (CA) 

(800) 227-0376 

Getting Started 

A quick self-instruction system has 
been developed by OCC for the Os- 
borne 1 which helps you put the com- 
puter to work quickly and easily. 
START-PAC covers the basics of the 
Osborne’s CP/M operating system, 
WordStar and SuperCalc. 


74 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



FOG 


purpose? In fact, it’s very possible 
that you’ll want many versions of 
CP/M, each stored on a different 
diskette, and each to be used for a dif- 
ferent purpose. For example, if you 
have two printers, one a high-speed 
dot matrix printer (we’ll assume it’s 
connected to the IEEE-488 port), and 
the other a much slower, letter quality 
printer (assume it’s tied to the serial 
RS-232 port), you might want to keep 
a separate WordStar diskette for 
each. The first diskette might be set 
up for the IEEE-488 or the Centronics 
protocol, and you would use it to put 
rough drafts out in a hurry on the dot 
matrix printer. The second WordStar 
diskette might be set up for the stan- 
dard serial option, the ETX/AKN, or 
the XON/XOFF protocol, and used 
when you need material in final form. 

For details on using the program 
"SETUP” see the section entitled 
"Setting Up” in chapter two of the 
blue Osborne Users Reference 
Guide. SETUP reads the CP/M 
operating system from the first three 
tracks of one of your diskettes and 
stores it temporarily in the Osborne’s 
memory. SETUP then helps you to 
modify the stored copy of your CP/M 
system by having you answer a few 
questions. Finally, SETUP allows you 
to save your modified version of CP/M 


on the system tracks of a diskette in 
either drive. SETUP can also be used 
simply to copy a CP/M system from 
one diskette to another. 

Although SETUP handles all of the 
modifications to CP/M that most 
users will ever need, there will always 
be a few of us who aren’t satisfied. 
For those who want to implement 
special features — the oddball printer, 
a null on one of the special function 
keys, or any of a number of other 
special features — the programs 
MOVCPM and SYSGEN are very 
helpful. 

MOVCPM allows us to create new 
versions of CP/M that are designed to 
run in different parts of the machine’s 
memory. SYSGEN is used to move 
the CP/M program from the system 
tracks of a diskette into the com- 
puters memory. While the program is 
stored temporarily in the computer’s 
memory, you can modify CP/M direct- 
ly using a program called DDT that is 
found on your CP/M Utilities diskette. 
You can then use SYSGEN to send 
the modified CP/M to the system 
tracks of one or more diskettes. This 
sort of modification generally re- 
quires a little knowledge about 
assembly language programming, so 
don’t feel bad if you get a bit lost in 
your first attempts. On the other hand 


don’t be afraid to jump in and try us- 
ing these programs. Just BE SURE 
YOU ARE USING ONLY BACKUP 
DISKS THAT YOU CAN AFFORD TO 
LOSE. It’s very easy to accidently 
erase a disk when playing with 
assembly language, even for the ex- 
perienced assembly language pro- 
grammer. 

For more details on these pro- 
grams see Chapter 8, “Revisiting 
CP/M,” of your Users Reference 
Guide. You might also look at the 
manuals put out by Digital Research 
Corporation on CP/M. These can be 
very helpful when trying to piece 
together your own personal version 
of CP/M, but they aren’t written for 
beginners. 

I hope this article has helped to 
clarify some of the mysteries sur- 
rounding CP/M. Remember that 
SETUP should handle almost any 
changes you want to make to your 
operating system, but don’t be afraid 
to play with programs like SYSGEN, 
DDT, and MOVCPM. As long as you 
work with backup copies of your 
diskette, the risk is minimal. 

m 

(John Gaudio is the President of the 
Denver Osborne User's Group 
(DOG)). 



/WAN 
/OFTWARE 

Professional Programs 

for your Osborne* Computer 


MAIL-IT $49.95 

Professional mailing list manager stores up to 500 records per diskette. 

Search and sort on any of 8 fields. Room for 2 names, full address, 
phone and a comment line. Completely adjustable output formats in- 
clude directory, labels, envelopes and custom designs. Produces Mail- 
Merge* compatible files. Handles the new ZIP codes too! 

FILE-IT $49.95 

Simple screen entry form designer makes FILE-IT a joy to use. Just 
type in your form directly on the screen and you’re ready to begin enter- 
ing, sorting, and retrieving data and printing reports. Can be used for 
inventories, indexes, lists, customer or vendor data bases. This is a 
data base manager that doesn’t require a computer science degree 
to use! 



Include card number and expiration date. 
PHONE ORDERS ONLY: 717-627-0504 
Or Write 

Post Office Box 1014 
Columbia, Maryland 21044 


CRYPT-IT $49.95 

Encode your sensitive data files using your own personal encryption 
key. Based on the Federal Data Encryption Standard (DES) developed 
by IBM*. Protect your trade secrets and ease your clients’ fears by 
using this new entry into the fast-growing field of data security. 

All programs include a complete operations manual and master diskette. 

MD residents add 5% tax. 

Manuals only — $10.00 each, refundable upon purchase of program. 


*IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. ’Osborne is a trademark of Osborne Computer Corp. * Mail-Merge is a trademark of MicroPro Int. 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 73 



AD You Need to 
Learn 

MICRO Instructional, Inc., has 
created three, one hour audio instruc- 
tional cassette tapes for the 
newcomer to the Osborne 1 . Written 
in “plain language,” this instruc- 
tional series includes introductions to 
WordStar, CP/M and Super Calc. 
The series consists of condensed ver- 
sions of the User Manual supplied 
with the Osborne 1 computer. 

The instructional tapes permit 
first-time users to gain confidence 
with the hardware “within the first 
hour or two of setup.” Tapes will also 
be available for software in the areas 
of business applications for word and 
number processing, accounting pack- 
ages, database management systems 
and other business-related programs. 
Each audio cassette is priced at under 
$40.00 and tapes are also available 
for other brands of computers. 
MICRO Instructional 
P.O. Box 11854 
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33339 
(305) 584-3133 

HoUday Special 

The Osborne Approved Software 
Team has developed a unique soft- 
ware bundle for the holiday season. 
Called WORD-PAC, it includes five 
software packages designed to 
enhance your word processing ap- 
plications with WordStar. WORD- 
PAC retails for the special holiday 
price of $295, and includes: 

Normal retail price 


SpellGuard $295.00 

Documate Plus 1 25 .00 

Footnote 75.00 

Math* 49.95 

Grammatik 149.00 

Retail Total $693.95 


The special $295.00 price means a 
savings of $398.95. WORD-PAC is 
available from your authorized 
Osborne dealer. 


More Power to Go 

Free your Osborne from the wall 
socket with the new POWR-PAC op- 
tion that gives the user independent 
power and enhances the computers 
portability. POWR-PAC includes: 

• DC Power inverter 

• Minimum one hour continuous 
power on full charged battery 

• Warning buzzer sounds five 
minutes before battery power 
runs out 

• AC charger fully recharges bat- 
tery in 16 hours 

• Sealed spill-proof, lead-lead 
dioxide battery with jellied elec- 
trolyte 

• Weight: 711bs. 5 oz. (1.2 kg) 

POWR-PAC is available from any 

authorized Osborne dealer for 
$345.00. 

Complete Business 
Graphics Plotter 
System 

The Strobe Graphics System has 
been specially priced at $795 now 
through the end of the year. This 
complete system provides everything 
needed, including interfacing, to pro- 
duct professional multi-color bus- 
iness graphics with an Osborne 1. 
Available for an additional $100 is an 
RS-232 intelligent serial interface. 

The hardware is a Strobe 100 
Graphics Plotter with a full 500 
points per inch resolution and 
multicolor capability for repro- 
duceable graphics on any 8 V 2 by 11 
inch paper or transparency material. 
The software program, called the 


Business Graphics Package, produces 
line, bar, and pie charts with simple 
menu-directed commands. 

With a usual price range of $995 to 
$1495, depending on the hardware 
components selected, the special of- 
fer represents up to a 47% price 
reduction. 

Strobe, Inc. 

897 Independence Avenue 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
(415) 969-5130 


Kid’s Stuff 

EDU-DISK 1 contains three educa- 
tional programs for children and 
young adults. ABCS was designed 
for the very young user (age 3 and up) 
to allow them to interact with the 
computer while becoming familiar 
with the alphabet and numbers. 
Osborne graphics are utilized; when a 
key is pressed a letter or number cor- 
responding to the key appears as a 
large graphic character on the screen. 

MATHEST is an elementary 
arithmetic skills program for children 
ages 5-10 and consists of electronic 
flash cards for addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division. Follow- 
ing selection, the child has the oppor- 
tunity answer correctly. A successful 
choice causes the answer to appear on 
the screen in large graphic characters. 

TUTOR is a tutorial program for 
beginning MBASIC users of all ages. 
It defines the various statements and 
functions in elementary MBASIC 
and gives numerous examples. 

All three programs are available on 
diskette for $15.00. 

George H. Taylor 

2625 Samarkand Drive 

Santa Barbara, CA 93105 


76 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


DUCES TECUM 0 


START-PAC begins by taking you 
through the basics of CP/M so you 
can immediately put the computer to 
work for you. It also shows you how 
to create documents with WordStar 
and save them on floppy diskettes, 
recall and rearrange the contents, 
make revisions and print the results. 
START-PAC shows you the way to 
use Super Calc, including how to 
define your spreadsheet, enter infor- 
mation, and modify your assump- 
tions. 

The system includes an easy-to- 
follow instruction guide and friendly 
audio lessons (on standard audio 
cassettes). The entire package, in- 
cluding introductions to all three pro- 
grams, is available at your local 
Osborne dealer for $49.95. 

The Osborne Tech 
Manual is Here 

A new Technical Manual for the 
Osborne 1 is now available for 
$49.95; it includes complete BIOS 
listings and the theory of operation 
schematics for the computer. Also in- 
cluded in the manual are the power 
specifications, Osborne 1 memory 
scheme, and assembly and dis- 
assembly instructions. The manual is 
available at your local Osborne 
dealer. 

Extended Warranty 

Now you can extend the 90-day 
manufacturer’s warranty included 
with the Osborne system to one full 
year. With WARRANTY-PAC, 
you’re protected from the financial 
surprises that complex electronic 
equipment sometimes deliver and 
you’re assured of top priority service 
in case of a failure. Pick up a 
brochure on WARRANTY-PAC 
from your local dealer. 
WARRANTY-PAC is available for 
$285.00. 



MATE 



Bring Justice To Your Documents, Briefs, 
Pleadings and Contracts. 


LAWMATE Features: 

Creates Table of Authorities Cited 
Multiple Document Indexes 
Word Use and Consistency Analysis 
Concordance Generation 
Document Line Numbering 
Wordstar* Compatible 

Legal Aid at an (Almost) Unlawfully 
Low Price. 


Try LAWMATE at Your Local 
Osborne Computer Dealer, or Call 
Us for the Name of the Nearest 
Authorized ORTHOCODE Textware 
Dealer. 


The Textware Company 

THE ORTHOCODE CORPORATION 
P.O. Box 6191 
Albany, CA 94706 
(415) 753-3222 


' LAWMATE is a Trademark of ORTHOCODE CORPORATION 
Wordstar is a Trademark of MicroPro International 


RECHARGEABLE 
H I I BATTERY PACK 

1 1 AND LI.P.S. 

FOR THE OSBORNE™ COMPUTER 

• 4 HOURS "STAND ALONE" POWER TO COMPUTER 

• CONTINUOUS OPERATION AS U.P.S. 

• LESS HEAT INSIDE COMPUTER 

• RECHARGES AND OPERATES FROM VEHICLE 

• POWER IS REGULATED. FUSED, AND SWITCHED 

• 6 3/4 H x 9 1/8 L x 0 1/4" • 13 POUNDS 

BITS BATTERY PACK* S 1 80.00 
OPTIONAL U.P.S. 75.00 Each 

SHIPPING 5.00 per order 

Coll (214) 361-4815 to order by phone. 

BITS 

6456 DANBURY 
DALLAS, TX 75214 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 75 




THE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES introduces an 80 column video system as an add-on to the Osborne 1. The system will 
provide the versatility of an 80 column video screen format on an external monitor without loss of Osborne Vs video 
capabilities or speed. 


★ The TRA video system enhances Osborne Vs video 
capabilities by providing: 

80 character by 24 line window into a 128 
character by 32 line video format 

soft scrolling 

reverse video and blinking of the video display 
composite and TTL video monitor outputs 

★ Information, specifications and 

THE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FOREST HILL 

Osborne 1 Is a trademark of Osborne Computer Corp. 


★ Connection is easily made by any Osborne 1 user. 
Simply plug into the IEEE port and into your external 
monitor. 

★ Parallel printer connection is not forfeited. Plug 
your printer into the TRfl parallel port and begin 
normal printer operation. 

★ The operating system set up procedure is easily 

accomplished by a one-time, automatic disk 
configuration process. The driver software is 
supplied by THE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES. 

price are available by writing to: 

DUNSTPBLE, mflSSfiCHUSETTS 01827 



_ i 

1(Tf 

mrm 

u > 

JqD; 

IdUJJ 


U SOFTWARE 


OSBORNE 1™ COMPATIBLE SOFTWARE 

* = indicates Custom Download. Allow 2-3 weeks delivery. 

(More software available when double density disk drives are released) 


1 LANGUAGES 


■ 


UTILITY PACKAGES 1 



DISK & MANUAL/ 

* 

Z-SID 

Digital Research 

$ 90/15 

PRODUCT 

MANUFACTURER 

MANUAL ONLY 

★ 

DeSpool 

Digital Research 

$ 30/10 

*CB-80 

Digital Research 

$500/30.00 


Edit-80 

Microsoft 

$1 20/NA 

Forth (Z-80 Version) 

SuperSoft 

$149/30 

★ 

Crosstalk 

MicroStuf 

$ 1 50/NA 

Fortran W/Ratfor 

SuperSoft 

$300/35 


Lynx 

Redding Group 

$250/NA 

*‘C’ Compiler 

SuperSoft 

$200/20.00 

TRANS 80.86.65.69 

Sorcim 

$125/NA 

*LISP 

SuperSoft 

Call 


Diagnostics II 

SuperSoft 

$100/20. 

*ADA 

SuperSoft 

$250/NA 


Utilities 1 or II 

SuperSoft 

$ 60/NA 

*CICSOBOL 

Micro focus 

$850/NA 









APPLICATION PROGRAMS 1 





FABS 

Computer Control 

$195/20 




Ultra Sort II 

Computer Control 

$195/25 

1 STATSGRAPH 


■ 

Micro B + 

Faircom 

$259/20 

Use your OSBORNE 1 to perform statistical analysis and 

Mathe Magic 

Int'l Software Marketing 

$ 95/NA 

graphing! Includes pie graph, bar graph, and scatter graph. 

Super M-List 

SuperSoft 

$ 75/NA 

No special graphics hardware needed 

$198.00 

Stats Graph 

SuperSoft 

$198/NA 


ORDERS ONLY-CALL TOLL FREE VISA • MASTERCHARGE 

1-800-854-2003 ext 823 • Calif. 1-800-522-1500 ext. 823 

Outside Continental U S — add $10 plus Air Parcel Post • Add $3 50 postage and handling per each item • California residents add 6% sales tax • Allow 2 weeks on 
checks. C O D $3.00 extra • Prices subject to change without notice All items subject to availability • ® — Mfgs Trademark Blue Label $3.00 additional per item 

THE DISCOUNT SOFTWARE GROUP 

6520 Selma Ave. Suite 309 • Los Angeles. Ca. 90028 • (213) 837-5141 
Int i TELEX 499-0446 DlSCSOFT LSA • USA TELEX 194-634 (Attn: 499-0446) 

TWX 910-321-3597 (Attn: 499-0446) 


78 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 










The Urge to Chat 

Now direct access to three impor- 
tant business communication net- 
works— TWX, Telex and Bell System 
DDD— is possible from your existing 
office equipment, with Chat II. Small 
businesses and branch offices can 
link their word processor, small 
business computer or terminal to full 
telecommunications networks with 
this new interface. Messages can be 
prepared off line, coded and sent at 
the exact time and date you choose to 
take advantage of “after hours’ ’ 
rates. 

Chat eliminates paper tape, 
nonstandard keyboards, special sup- 
plies and costly operator training. 
Further, Chat II sets all character, 
speed, and protocol conversions to 
allow dissimilar equipment to com- 
municate automatically. Incoming 
messages are stored without interrup- 
tion of word processor or computer 
functions. Best of all, Chat’s plug 
compatible design offers unlimited 
flexibility. Choose from a variety of 
options and over 20 different con- 
figurations to match your office com- 
munication needs. Chat II retails for 
$1645 and is available from office 
equipment dealers and distributors. 

Chat Communications 

2438 Wyandotte St. 

Mountain View, CA 94043 


New Product information is derived 
from press releases sent to The Por- 
table Companion by the producing 
companies. Statements of fact or opi- 
nions expressed in the New Product 
announcements that appear in this 
magazine are those of the producing 
company and have not been checked 
for accuracy by Osborne Computer 
Corporation. Before purchasing any 
of the products listed in this section , 
you are advised to check the validity 
of all claims made for the product . 

o 


FREE CATALOG OF NEW 
SOFTWARE FOR 
OSBORNE 1* 

Describes easy-to-use 
software for business 
applications: like our low-cost 
SPELL program that instantly 
converts your word processor 
into a spelling error locator. (No 
more embarassing mistakes in 4 
and reports!) 

Lists software designed for pure fun: like ELIZA— 
a robot “psychiatrist” that dispenses hilarious pseudo 
therapy Great for parties. 

Presents languages for advanced programmers: 
like C compiler, LISP, RATFOR, 8080 and Z80 macro 
assemblers. 


Heath/Zenith and 8" CP/M* owners: catalog also 
lists 21 programs for your system. 



Call or write for your free Software Toolworks catalog. 

'OSBORNE 1 is trademark of Osborne Computer Corp. CP/M is a registered 
trademark of Digital Research. 


G 77£e Software c Tool\Vdrk§ 



14478 Glorietta Drive, 
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423 
(213)986-4885 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



SOFTWARE FOR OSBORNE 1" 

SBACOUNT: Accounting for small business. Tracks all income & outgo, prints 
checks, posts chart of accounts. Prints chart of accounts, trial balance, profit and loss 
statement, & check ledger. Reconciles and prints reconcilation. Generates an Income 
& Expense journal for audit purposes. ONLY $79.00 

MBACOUNT: Accounting for small business. Full general ledger (20 asset, 
20 liability, 20 income, 30 expense & 10 capital accounts all user assigned) PLUS all 
the features of SBACOUNT as above. ONLY $89.00 

PROFBILL: Automatic bookkeeping & invoicing for Doctors, Lawyers and other 
professional people who invoice at various hourly rates. Will handle up to nine part- 
ners/employees. Prints invoice or saves for future billing. ONLY $89.00 

MAILLIST: Mailing list, customer handling, filing program, ten data fields per 
customer. 8 character cust # - user (or dated program) assigned, sorts by'most fields, 
Add, delete or modify any record. Prints all or part on 1, 2 or 3-up labels on 80 column 
printer. ONLY $89.00 

SFINANCE: Personal financial program. Prints checks, posts amount to selected 
budget catagory, posts debits and deposits, prints check ledger, reconciles and prints 
reconciliation statement. Similiar program for charge cards. Extracts and prints list of 
expenditures in selected budget catagories. ONLY $79.00 

TOUCHTYP: Touch typing course, Beginning, Intermediate & Advanced. Tests and 
displays typos and displays final score. ONLY $79.00 

STANFORM: Need to fill out standard or non-standard forms? This program 
generates programs for printing data in the proper location on invoices, gov’t forms, 
insurance claims, any form that will fit into your printer. ONLY $79.00 

MSBCHART: Prints MICROSOFT BASIC programs, prints cross reference list of all 
referenced lines, prints list of variables cross referenced to each line where used. A 
godsend if you modify or debug Mbasic programs. ONLY $79.00 


Price includes disc, manual, and shipment next working day by first class mail. Mail in 
your order today or request detailed program listing. Better yet, if using accepted 
credit card, phone your order or data request to our 7 day, 24 hour phone service. 
Californians must add 6% to all prices. 

(Visa, Mastercharge & American Express cards accepted) 

(Micro-Art Programmers) Innovative Man/Machine Interface 

173 Birch Avenue Cayucos, California 93430 Phone: (805) 995-2329 

OSBORNE 1™ is a trademark of OSBORNE COMPUTER CORP. 

MBASIC* is a registered trademark of MICROSOFT 



December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 77 




A gift from a micro to a user 

Travel expense records with dBASE II 

David Gute 


Recently, I was approached by 
someone at Osborne and asked to test 
out a data base software package 
called dBASE II. After accepting the 
offer, I put the package on a back 
burner and dove back into my daily 
projects. One idle evening, I decided 
to bring the package home and play 
around with it. That was the night I 
stumbled upon the gift from my 
micro. 

I sat down with dBASE II and all 
my preconceived ideas of what a data 
base was. Thinking I would be able to 
use them with slight modifications, I 
rumaged through some of the old 


forms I had designed with other data 
base packages. After a glance 
through the dBASE II documenta- 
tion I immediately found that this 
was not an ordinary micro data base 
package, but a mainframe data base 
that would run on a microcomputer. 
The possibilities were endless. 

Coming from a mainframe en- 
vironment, this discovery sent me 
straight to heaven. Each turn of a 
page left me astounded. I broke out 
my Osborne and went straight to 
work. Around 3:00 a.m., my wife 
came out rubbing her eyes and asked 
if I was coming to bed. This is the 


kind of enthusiasm dBASE II 
generates in any user who is tired of 
the limitations inherent in the average 
micro data base package. 

A few days later, I began to con- 
sider the first-time user and the prob- 
lems that might be encountered dur- 
ing indoctrination to dBASE II. The 
solution, I felt, was to break the 
stigma of “programming” by taking 
the user through an application 
broken down to the simplest level. As 
a result of all these ruminations, this 
column was born. 

This first offering begins with a 
continued on page 82 


Larger Screen for Osborne 

New Easy -View magnifying system is fully portable and stores 
inside the Osborne case without using any diskette storage space. 


TM 


• Larger screen size eliminates eye strain 
and errors 

• Finest optics of high-grade acrylic by 
world leader Bausch & Lomb 

• Light weight and scratch resistant 

• Fully adjustable , up, down, left, right 


Sturdy anodized aluminum bracket mounts instantly 
with “velcro” type fastener 

No flimsy wires to align or accidentally knock down 
Satisfaction guaranteed or your money back 
Full one year warranty and shipping cost included 
in price 


/f=Easy= 

View 


If you have an Osborne , you need Easy-View. 

□ VISA □ MasterCharge □ Check enclosed 


Now only $ 29 . 95 


□ or send for free brochure 


P.O. Box 20595, Portland, Oregon 97220 (503) 256-4244 ext. 4 


80 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


NOW: A COMPLETE CP/M PASCAL FOR ONIY 



fT80\L 


I need the S’/i" diskette for □ Northstar □ Osborne DApple-CP/M 
D Heath, Hard Sector □ Heath, Soft Sector □ Superbrain. 

I need the □ 8" SSSD diskette. 


Send to 

JRT SYSTEMS 
1891 — 23rd Avenue 
San Francisco, CA 94122 


Phone 

415/566-5100 


Name_ 


_ Address. 


O.K. You’ve sold me. Send me JRT Pascal; I understand that if I’m 
not completely satisfied, I can return it within 30 days — with the 
sealed diskette unopened— for a full refund. 

(Please allow 2-3 weeks for delivery.) 


State 

□ Check □ C.O.D. □ MasterCard □ VISA 

(CA residents add sales tax. Add $6 for shipping outside North America.) 


Card #_ 


-Exp.- 


Signature 

*CP/M is a Digital Reserach TM. 


A 56K CP/M system is required. 


HERE’S THE JRT PASCAL YOU’VE BEEN READING ABOUT: 


New 
125-page 
user 
manual 
and 
5%" or 8" 
diskette 


Random files 

to 8 megabytes with 

variable length records 

64K dynamic strings 


Activity analyzer 
prints program use 
histogram 


Extended CASE statement 


AND AT NO RISK! 

When you receive JRT Pascal, look it 
over, check it out. We invite you to compare 
it with other systems costing ten times as 
much. If you’re not completely satisfied, 
return the system — with the sealed diskette 
unopened — within 30 days and your money 
will be refunded in full! THAT’S RIGHT- 
COMPLETE SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 
OR YOUR MONEY BACK! 

In addition, if you want to copy the 
diskette or manual — so long as it’s not for 
resale — it’s o.k. with us. Pass it on to your 
friends! BUT ACT TODAY— DON’T DELAY 
ENJOYING PASCALS ADVANTAGES— AT 
$29.95, THERE’S NO REASON TO WAIT! 


Efficient compiler needs 
only 85K diskette space 


Maximum program 
size more than 
200,000 lines 


More 
than 200 
verbal error 
messages 


Graphing procedures 14 digit BCD 

FLOATING POINT 
Statistic procedures arithmetic 


Separate 
compilation of 
auto-loading 
external procedures 

No limits on procedure 
size, nesting, or recursion 


Advanced assembler interface 


Fast 

one-step compiler; 
no link needed 


“...While ‘there is no such thing as a free lunch,’ JRT Pascal at $29.95 
(which includes postage) certainly allows the user to experience 
champagne and caviar at cafeteria prices..." Nov. '82, 

CREATIVE COMPUTING. 

“...JRT Pascal is following the ex- 
ample set by Software Toolworks 
(Sherman Oaks, CA) of offering 
quality software at extremely low 
price. It will be interesting to see 
if the trend continues..." Oct. ’82, 
INTERFACE AGE. 

$29.95! This astonishing price 
includes the complete JRT Pascal 
system on diskette and the new, 
comprehensive user manual. Not 
a subset, it’s a complete Pascal 
for CP/M*; check the features 
and see. 

THIS IS THE SAME SYSTEM 

From INFOWORLD magazine, August 16, 1982 WE SOLD FOR $2951 

So how can we make this offer? — why the unbelievable deal? 
Very simply, we think all software is overpriced. We want to build 
volume with the booming CP/M* market, and our overhead is low, 
so we’re passing the savings on to you. 


I?ifoWocId 

Software Report Card 


JRT Pascal 
Version | 



£ 

£ 

3 

£ 

Performance 

□ 

□ 

□ 

0 

Documentation 

□ 

□ 

0 

n 

Ease of Use 

□ 

□ 

□ 

0 

Error Handling 

□ 

□ 

□ 

0 



Employee number 

EMP:NO 

Employee name 

EMP:NAME 

Travelers check sequence 

TCHECK:NUM 

Total amount of travelers checks advanced 

TC:ADVANCE 

Date issued 

DATE:TC 

Accounts payable check number issued 

AP:ADVNO 

Amount of issue 

AP:ADV 

Date issued 

DATE:ADV 

Petty cash 

PETTYrCASH 

Date petty cash issued 

DATE:PETTY 

Prepaid amount 

PREPAID 

Total expenses incurred on a trip 

TOT: EXPEN 

Table 1 



simple menu driven routine. Each 
future column will build another 
command file, using different 
features; the object being to enable 
even the greenest user to construct 
and execute a working data base built 
with dBASE II. 

Command files are written in 


dBASE II in order to access data in a 
specific manner, which is defined by 
the user. It is essentially a way of 
custom-designing the method in 
which the data base is to be applied. 
If designed properly, a person who 
has never looked at dBASE II before 
will be able to sit down — issue one 


command— and perform a specific 
operation such as data entry, data 
edit, running a report, etc. 

Before writing a command file, the 
user must have an objective and a 
data base structure. The objective for 
the following program was to create a 
simple data entry routine for travel 
expense information. 

Advances Possible 

* Travelers checks 

* Accounts payable 

* Petty cash 


FLD 

NAME 

TYPE 

WIDTH 

DEC 

Now that an objective has been 

001 

EMP:NO 

C 

006 


established, it is necessary to define 

002 

EMP:NAME 

C 

025 


the data base. A data base includes 

003 

TCHECK:NUM 

C 

015 


data name, type of data (C-Char- 

004 

TC:ADVANCE 

N 

008 

002 

acter, N-Numeric and L-Logical), 

005 

DATErTC 

C 

008 


width (size of data field) and decimal 

006 

AP:ADVNO 

C 

008 


places. A complete data base for 

007 

AP:ADV 

N 

008 

002 

travel expenses would look some- 

008 

DATE:ADV 

C 

008 


thing like Table 1 . Table 2 shows the 

009 

PETTY:CASH 

N 

008 

002 

structure for the data base. 

010 

DATE: PETTY 

C 

008 


The menu in Figure 1 gives 

01 

PREPAID 

N 

008 

002 

the operator two options: enter data 

012 

TOT: EXPEN 

N 

008 

002 

or quit. All instructions necessary to 






enter data are given, without the 



Table 2 



reader having to reference the dBASE 






II manual. 














P 

xj:*x*xvx;x;xjxv:\vxjxj:*x; 

lllliilil 




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- fllJ.C.Q.COp.Q.n eat A & accessories in on e.c.g.s.Q 
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x-xi 


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m 


82 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



d I can drive it aV 32 CPS with an 
le, Osborne, TRS 80 and otherC 7 ^ 


amatically low price 


• 48K buffer for high 
speed throughput 

• Diablo 1640/1650/630 
software compatible 

• Serial and parallel interfaces 

• Serial baud rates to 19.2K 

• Automatic baud rate selection 

• Four CPU's, no cables, belts, 
wheels or pulleys 


Letter quality daisy 
wheel printer 

12 print styles, 15 languages, 
96 char, wheel, standard ribbon 
Automatic bi-directional 
printing 

Proven reliability 100,000 
printer mechanisms produced 


Up to 32 CPS print speed 
in typical applications 

Interconnecting cables for all 
major micro-computers 
Automatic proportional spacing 
Parallel 6K bytes per sec. 
transfer rate 

Optional extras: forms tractor, 
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MONEY BACK 
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ACCOUNTING 

foetheosbORNE 

GENERAL LEDGER ...avail, now.. $100. 
Allows up to 200 accounts and 400 transac- 
tions/mo (per disk). Keeps and displays con- 
cisely mo /end balances for Last Year, This 
Year and Forecast. Transactions and Adjust- 
ing Journal Entries cannot be entered without 
being in balance. Reports include Balance 
Sheet, Income Statement, Annual Summary 
of Last Yr, This Yr, Forecast and Journal 
Report (provides an audit trail). 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE ..avail.ll/30. $100 
Allows up to 400 Invoices and 200 Vendors. 
Records invoices and hand- written checks. 
Writes computer checks for payables or any 
other purpose. Allows partial payment of 
invoices. Check printout format can be 
changed to use most computer checks. New 
vendor name and address are easily entered 
when invoice is entered. 

ACCTS RECEIVABLE..avail.l2/31. $100 
Allows up to 400 Invoices and 200 Customers. 
Invoices can be entered directly or transferred 
from Inventory Module automatically. Cust- 
omer name and address file is indexed for 
quick access and easy review. Statements 
can be printed at any time. Partial payments 
possible. 

INVENTORY avail. 1/31/83 $100. 

Allows up to 600 parts. Calculates snipping 
costs. Keeps 12 month history of unit sales 
as well as year to date. Invoicing section can 
be used as point of sale (prints invoices, han- 
dles cash, prints daily summary of activity and 
cash received.) Reports include Inventory 
Value and Status, Sales History, Price List, 

Daily Summary /Monthly Summary. 

FREE INFORMATION AVAILABLE 
All programs will run on the Osborne. They 
are menu-driven with very good on-screen 
instructions. Disks can be copied for back-up. 

ORDERING: Please send check or money or- 
der with your order. Price includes shipping 
(MN residents add 5% sales tax). Your order 
will be shipped to you by return mail. 
SAMPLE DISK: $15.00 Postage paid. De- 

monstrates program operation, prints reports. 

DEALER/REP INQUIRIES WELCOME 

I RON WOOD 

115 N. First St., Minneapolis, MN 55401 

(61 2)-339-2520 


CABLES!!! 


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6 '-$24.95/1 2 '-$29.95/1 8 '-$35.95 

KEYBOARD EXTENSION CABLE 

PLUGS IN-BETWEEN KEYBOARD 
AND COMPUTER (REMOVABLE) 
6 '-$24.95/1 2 '-$31 .95 

All cables are commercial quality 
with added strain relief & insula- 
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and save! All items are in stock, 
we ship via First Class Mail twice 
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per cable to: 

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P.O. BOX 129 

COMSTOCK PARK, Ml 49321 
(616) 452-3969 


Now that WordStar 3.0 is available 
to Osborne 1 owners through the 
upgrade diskette, many of you pro- 
bably are interested in knowing the 
“magic” locations that allow you to 
customize your copy of WordStar. 

Magic changes, you ask? What do 
I mean by magic changes? 

Let’s take my own case, for in- 
stance. I’ve used WordStar from its 
first appearance on the marketplace, 
and I no longer need any of the help 
messages it presents. Therefore, my 
version of WordStar starts with Help 
level 2, not 3. 1 also don’t like to edit 
with the Insert mode ON, since this 
usually results in “garbage” char- 
acters appearing in front of my cur- 
sor, so I have customized my version 
of WordStar to start with Insert OFF. 

Most of the things that you can 
change or specify during editing can 
be modified so that they are set to 
your preferences when WordStar first 
loads into memory and presents its 
sign-on message. 

How to Do It 

You’ll need a copy of your Word- 
Star diskette to play with (never use 
an original to make changes), your 
CP/M Utility diskette, and this arti- 
cle. Put your WordStar diskette in 
Drive B, your CP/M Utility diskette 
in Drive A (when you get double den- 
sity, you will only need a WordStar 
diskette in Drive A, since the IN- 
STALL program we’re about to use is 


on the double density WordStar, you 
don’t need the CP/M Utility). 

Press RESET and then press RE- 
TURN to start the computer. When 
you see the CP/M A > prompt, type 
INSTALL and press RETURN. The 
INSTALL program identifies itself to 
you and asks if you want “a normal 
installation.” You don’t, so press N 
for “no.” When you are presented 
with the choices available (A-D), 
press D, and then, in response to the 
name of the file to use, type: 

B:WS.COM 

then press RETURN. 

INSTALL first takes you through a 
series of routine questions: what kind 
of terminal do you have, what kind of 
printer, how is the printer connected, 
etc. Unless you’re just now getting 
around to specifying what printer you 
have, reply to each of the four ques- 
tions first with a U, for no change, 
then with a Y to confirm that you 
want no change. If you’re doing 
everything right, so far you’ve typed 
the following: 

INSTALL <cr> 

N 

D 

B:WS.COM <cr > 

U Y 
U Y 
U Y 

Now INSTALL is asking you if all the 
changes have been made. Press N, for 


84 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


The program looks like this: 

1- This command erases the screen. 
Now, only what you want to be seen 
will be displayed. 

2- Setting escape on does just what it 
says. It gives you a method of escap- 
ing from the program in the event 
your program does not work as ex- 
pected (you get stuck in a loop). With 
escape on you can hit the escape but- 
ton and be brought back to the 
dBASE II prompt “.”. 

3- Setting a “switch” is an important 
feature of dBASE II. You can think 
of this as a light switch, either on or 
off. In this statement the switch is on 
as long as “N” is stored in the 
memory variable “proceed”. 

4- WOW . Just look at this command. 
Exclamation point, parenthesis and 
everything, simple enough . . . DO 
WHILE says it is going to do 
everything that follows until it’s 
ENDDO is encountered, as long as 
the switch is on (proceed = “N”). By 
putting a parenthesis around the 
memory variable “proceed” and put- 
ting an exclamation in front of it, we 
told dBASE II to convert anything 
entered into uppercase. Later we will 
give the operator an opportunity to 
change the value stored in in “pro- 
ceed ,, . We no longer have to worry 
about entering a lowercase letter. 

5- Instructions to the operator. This 
should tell the operator all the com- 
mands that might be used by him or 
her. It gives a brief description of 
how to execute a command and what 
the command will do. Now the oper- 
ator does not have to break out the 
manual or spend hours learning the 
package. The operator can sit down 
and start working by reading the 
screen and selecting the option 
“ENTER INFORMATION”. 

6- WAIT TO proceed. Wait until the 
operator enters a key stroke. dBASE 
takes the character entered and stores 
it in memory variable “proceed”. 

7- If the value entered is “Q” the pro- 
gram quits “gracefully”. In other 
words, the QUIT command is issued. 
This closes the file in use and returns 


Figure 1 


*DATA ENTRY PROGRAM 

ERASE ◄ 1 

SET ESCAPE ON 2 

* 


STORE ‘N’TO proceed 

DO WHILE ! (proceed) = ‘N’ 

? 1 INSTRUCTIONS FOR DATA ENTRY’ ^ 

? ’ ........................................................... » 

? 

? ’ When you first select an option below, you will* 

? * see the record # followed by the grid into which to’ 

? ’ enter new information.’ 

? ’ Type in your data in the order you see it on’ 

? ’ the screen, ending each line with (RETURN).’ 

? ’ SKIP over data fields with (RETURN). When the’ 

? ’ last field is filled, the record will be written’ 

? ’ to the file, and the next record grid will be displayed.’ 
? ’ TO END THE SESSION, type (RETURN) in the first’ 

? ’ field of a new record.’ 

? ’ additionally:’ 

? ’ CNTRL-C— Writes the current record’ 

? ’ to disk and proceeds to the next record.’ 

? ’ The arrow keys are functional in this mode to’ 

? ’ correct and modify information’ 

7 

? ’ 1 - ENTER INFORMATION’ 

? ’ Q- QUIT GRACEFULLY’ 

? 

WAIT TO proceed 

ERASE 

IF ! (PROCEED) = ‘Q’ 

QUIT 

ELSE 

IF ! (PROCEED) = T 

USE B:TRAVEL -+ 

APPEND 

ELSE 

LOOP 

ENDIF 

ENDIF *+ 

ENDDO ** 


3 

4 




5 


J 

6 


— 7 


8 


J 


9 


you to CP/M. This assures you that 
the QUIT command is issued without 
the opportunity to forget. Forgetting 
this command could destroy all the 
data in the data base. Another 
justification for a program-driven 
menu! 

If T is entered, the APPEND com- 
mand is issued and you can start 
entering data. 

8- USE opens the DATA BASE called 
“TRAVEL” located on Drive B. 

If anything else is entered the pro- 
gram will loop back to the menu and 
force the operator to enter either 
“Q” or “1”. 

9- Ends the list of commands that fall 
within the DO WHILE loop. 

Now you name this bit of code. Til 
call this ENTRY.CMD (it must have 
a CMD extension). Store this file on 
the A drive, along with dBASE II. 
Put your data disk in Drive B. At 


dBASE II prompt “.” your operator 
enters the command “DO ENTRY’ 
and it’s running. That’s all there is to 
it! Your first program in dBASE II. 
Not very intimidating and it actually 
does something useful. This should 
be enough to get started with. Now 
it’s up to you to experiment on your 
own. You can start by adding dBASE 
option 2 to your menu, with the 
EDIT command. The powers of 
dBASE II go on and on. The only 
limits are in your own imagination. 

Sit back with your Osborne and 
learn to speak dBASE II. You’ll be 
glad you did. 

(dBASE II is licensed from and the 
trademark of Ashton-Tate, Inc.) 
(Dave Gute is a senior technical 
Sysgen analyst at Braegen Corpora- 
tion.) m 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 83 



Through m 
Manual. Now 
Read the book 

In 14 accelerated steps. 

WordStar™ Made Easy lets you 
build word processing skills which 
are applicable to any business 
office. Legal documents, sales 
reports, business letters, manu- 
scripts —all can be generated 
quickly and easily without refer- 
ence to complicated manuals. 
Applies to any version of 
WordStar,™ including version 3.0. 

.An appendix listing CP/M* 
commands and a detachable 
WordStar™ Command Sheet 
are featured for handy refer- 
ence. Spiral bound paper, 

125 pages, S7.95. 


Osborne/McGraw-Hill 
630 Bancroft Way, 

Berkeley, CA 94710 

Call Toll Free: 800-227-2895 Wtl'M 
in California (415) 548-2805 KlP 
Lept.4 STfl 1 1 

□ WordStar Made Easy $11.95 

Name 

Address 

City/State/Zip 

Plus: □ . 75/item 4th class □ $1.50/ 
item UPS □ $2. 50/item Air Mail 

□ $10.00/itein Overseas 

(California residents add applicable tax.) 

Total amount enclosed $ 

or charge my □ Visa □ Mastercharge 

Card # 

Expiration Date 

Authorized Signature 


WordStar 3.0 Internal Labels 

In the following chart,a value of 00 means OFF, a value of FF means ON. 
(WordStar 2.26 addresses in parenthesis where different) 


LABEL NAME 

ADDRESS 

DEFAULT 
VALUE 

EXPLANATION 

ITHELP: 

0360 

02 

Initial HELP level (004)3) 

NITHLF: 

0361 

00 

Displays “for Maximum 
HELP message 

ITITOG: 

0362 

00 

Insert Mode 

ITDSDR: 

0363 

FF 

Directory Display 

INITPF: 

0366 

08 

Line height (in 1/48 ’s) 


0367 

42 

Paper length (lines) 


0368 

02 10 

Paper length (in 1/48’s) 


036A 

08 

Line height repeated here 


036B 

03 

Top margin (in lines) 


036C 

00 18 

Top margin (in 1/48’s) 


036E 

08 

Line height repeated again 


036F 

02 

Heading margin (in lines) 


0370 

00 10 

Heading margin (in 1/48’s) 


0372 

08 

Line height repeated again 


0373 

08 

Bottom margin (in lines) 


0374 

00 40 

Bottom margin (in 1/48’s) 


0376 

08 

Line height repeated again 


0377 

02 

Footing margin (in lines) 


0378 

00 10 

Footing margin (in 1/48’s) 


037A 

08 

Line height repeated again 


037B 

00 

Must be 0 for standard char 
width 


037C 

OC 

Standard char width 
(1/120’s) 


037 D 

0A 

Alternate char width 
(1 /120’s) 


037E 

08 

Page offset in characters 

IN1TLM: 

037F 

00 

Left margin minus 1 

1NITRM: 

0380 

32 

Right margin minus 1 

INITSR: 

0381 

03 

Superscript roll (in 1/48’s) 

INTTWF: 

0385 

FF 

Word Wrap (AOW) 


0386 

FF 

Justification (^OJ) 


0387 

FF 

Variable tabs (^OV) 


0388 

00 

Soft Hyphen Entry (^OE) 


0389 

FF 

Stop to Hyphenate -^B com- 
mands 


038A 

FF 

Control Character Display 
(-OD) 


038B 

FF 

Ruler Display (~OT) 


038C 

FF 

Dynamic Page Break 


038D 

FF 

Show Page Breaks (^ OP) 


038E 

01 

Line Spacing (1-5) 


038F(NA) 

00 

Block Move (^ KN) 

NONDOC: 

0392(0391) 

00 

Enter WS in Non-Document 
Mode 

DECCHR: 

0393(0392) 

2E 

Decimal tab character 
(period) 

DOTCHR: 

0395(0394) 

2E 

DOT command character 
(period) 

DOTSON: 

0397(0396) 

FF 

Enable Dynamic DOT com- 
mand interpretation 

PODBLK: 

03CA 

00 

Disk File Output from print 


03CB 

00 

User Form Feeds during 
print 


03CC 

00 

Suppress page format during 
print 


03CD 

00 

Pause between pages during 
print 

ITPOPN: 

03D3 

00 

Omit page numbers during 
print 


no. INSTALL now prompts: 

YOU MAY NOW MODIFY ANY LOCATION DESCRIBED IN THE LISTING 
ATTHE END OF THE USER MANUAL OR THE CUSTOMIZATION NOTES. 
YOU MAY USE EITHER THE LABEL OR THE HEX ADDRESS TO SPECIFY 
THE LOCATIONS YOU WISH TO CHANGE. IF YOU USE A LABEL 
THEN YOU MAY APPEND AN OFFSET TO THE LABEL (I.E. LABEL: 
+ 31). THE THE NEW VALUE ONLY AS A HEX NUMBER. A LOCATION 
OF ZERO (0) LOCATION TO BE CHANGED (0 = END): o 


What you now wish to do is to type one of the LABELS from the accom- 


86 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


HELIX 


Winchesters Now Available For The Osborne 1 rM 


• Z-80 adaptor 
card leaves 
external ports 
free and 
increases the 
speed that your 
information is 
displayed 


10 MB 
$3,000 





Easy to install 

Easy to follow 
instructions 

Ribbon cable 
disconnects for 
portability 


5 MB 
$2,500 


MICRO COMPUTERS OF NEW ORLEANS 4539 1 10 Metairie, La 70002 
504 885-5883 800 535 8813 


KEEP THE OSBORNE 

COOL 

WITH 

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FEATURES: 

• Adaptable To Either Osborne 

• 3.5" Fan For Quiet Cooling 

• 6 Outlets Fused 15 amp max. 

• 10 Foot Power Cord 

• Filtered With The Exclusive 
Electro-Maze® Filters 

• Low Noise 

• Switch To Turn Fan On Or Off 

• Keeps Diskettes Cool 

• 90-Day Guarantee 

• Other Products Available 

Write For Pricing Information: 

A & P Electronics 
P. O. Box 535 
Carmichael, CA 95608 
(916)483-8772 



COMPUTER STAND 

• Keeps desk clear for you and 
your work 

• Keeps the screen elevated for 
reduced glare and less eyestrain 

• Your system disks and user man- 
uals are kept within easy reach 
on a handy built-in shelf 

• Area is available under the shelf 
for computer related supplies- 
Out of the way, out of harm, 
and out of sight! 

• The best computer organizer 
made is yours for . . . 

*29.50 


PRINTER STAND 

• Allows a full four inches of paper 
to be stored under the printer 

• Built-in shelf provides space for 
manuals 

• Sturdy and rugged, the finest 
printer stand available is only . . . 

$27.50 


Durable high impact, textured 
plastic organizers are available 
in Glacier White /G^DOOIZII 
or Basic Black. / 

Please spec- 
ify color. 


DESIGNS 

LTD 


Send check or money order to: Apogee Designs, Ltd., 3100 Fallscliff Rd., Baltimore, 
MD 21211, Phone (301) 235-7523. MasterCard and Visa accepted. Add $2.00 for 
freight per unit to anywhere in the Continental U.S. 5% sales tax for Md. residents. 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 85 




ARTIC 

SUB 

WARS! 

Introductory Special! 


For only $5, you receive 6 

educational games with 
sound, and our catalog I 

All this for the price of the 
diskette! 


To order, write: 

Jones Computer Systems 
P.O. Box 15550 
Pennsacola, Florida 32504 


NEW FOR OSBORNE 1™ ! 



HARD COPY GRAPHICS 
GRAPHICS/TEXT EDITOR 
SCREEN DISPLAY FILES 

GESP-an extremely versatile, profession- 
ally written program which Interactively 
allows creation , editing , or printing 
(EPSON* mx-80 or 100) of graphics 
and text displays from a formatted 
screen. Gives a hard copy and/or disc 
file of your display or illustration. Both 
BASICcode andCOM files, plus manual 
provided $24.00 

DMP80/DMPALL - two 8080 assembly 
programs to print screen (ASCII) on 
EPSON mx-80 or 100. Uses only one 
screen line to execute. 8080 code, 
COM file and manual included....$ 15.00 

GRAFSUB- BASIC subroutine to enable 
all graphic characters to be printed on 
EPSON mx-80 or 100 from only one 
statement in main program. Source code 
and manual provided $15.00 

All THREE listed above. $35.00 

Send check or money order to: 

OZMOSIS 1266 Kerney St. 

software Santa Rosa, Ca. 

707-576-1372 95401 

•EPSON IS THE TRADEMARK OF EPSON AMERICA, INC. 


Uilcfiul. 


ST 


SuperCal-endar 

Creating a Calendar in SuperCalc 


Manny Juan 


Electronic spreadsheets are ex- 
cellent tools for financial planning 
and accounting processes but they are 
quite capable of creating other things 
too— like a calendar. After all, you 
do need dates to prepare forecasting 
models. 

In this worksheet, you only do two 
things: 1) enter the year and 2) press 
“!” (the “answer key”) and 
voila! — SuperCalc gives you a full 
calendar for that year. All the other 
cells eventually depend on the value 
of the year. The only cells that are 
constant, or fairly constant, are ob- 
viously the month names and the 
number of days in a month. 


How It Works 

The creation of this worksheet 
derives from two ideas. The first is 
the old adage “Thirty days hath 
September...” and the second 
comes from a short cut routine used 
in a mental day-calculation trick 
found in Martin Gardner’s book, 
Mathematical Carnival. According to 
this idea, the starting day of the 
months of the year follow this pattern 
in non-leap years: 

1,4, 4, 0, 2, 5, 0,3, 6, 1,4,6 
(During leap years, the pattern starts 
with “0, 3”). 

Using a convention of 0 = Sunday, 
1= Monday, etc., the pattern may be 
interpreted this way: If January 1 
falls on a Monday (1), February 1 and 


March 1 would fall on a Thursday 
(4), and April 1, on a Sunday (1). For 
any given year, the values of this list 
may be displaced by any amount 
from 1 to 6 but the pattern remains 
the same. The displacement is ac- 
tually the day of the week that 
December 31 (of the previous year) 
falls. If the offset values are then 
taken modulo 7, the resulting list 
defines the starting days of the 
months for the specific year. 

This worksheet completes a month 
according to this scheme: The for- 
mulas for the days of the first week 
determine on what day of the week 
the month begins. Then the days of 
the next three weeks are filled up by 
simple counting. The last two weeks 
of the month are handled a little dif- 
ferently because the last day of the 
month may occur in any of these 
weeks. The formulas are coded so 
that days which would compute to 
less than 1 or greater than the number 
of days in a month, using simple 
counting, will show as zeroes. 

How to Enter the Worksheet 

Rather than overwhelming you 
with pages and pages of “contents” 
listing from the worksheet, I am 
presenting you with a step by step 
process. I listed the contents output 
to disk and moved things around with 
WordStar so you can recreate the 
worksheet more easily. These steps 
are essentially the ones I used to 


88 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


panying chart (like ITHELP: or 
ITITOG:, for instance), then press 
RETURN. When INSTALL shows 
you what the current contents of the 
LABEL are, type the contents you 
desire (again consulting the accom- 
panying chart). If INSTALL doesn’t 
recognize a LABEL you type, make 
sure that you included the colon (:) at 
the end. If INSTALL still doesn’t 
recognize the LABEL (it won’t for a 
few of the ones we’ve included), type 
the address indicated in the chart in- 
stead. 

One problem for you newcomers is 
going to be that everything WordStar 
wants is to be entered in hexadecimal 
(base 16) arithmetic. Thus, if you 
want a left margin of 16, you’d enter 
10 (hexadecimal) instead. If you have 
problems with this, consult the chart 
that accompanied the article on Hex 
and ASCII in the third issue of this 
magazine. 

If an entry requires multiple 
characters (i.e., more than one 
number per LABEL), instead of 
entering a new label name, press 
RETURN for the second and subse- 
quent characters. INSTALL presents 
the LABEL when you do that as: 

ITHELP: +0001 

ITHELP: + 0002 

etc. 

When you’re done with your last 
entry, type 0 and press RETURN in- 
stead of typing a LABEL name. Save 
the file by replying Y to the next ques- 
tion. 

So that you can follow the whole 
operation, we’ve turned on our 
printer and copied the information 
from the screen during a sample entry 
session, as described above. 

(We had originally intended to reprint 
these addresses for the 2.26 Version 
of WordStar , as submitted by Bob 
Van Cleef of the San Diego Osborne 
User's Group. Since 3.0 was just 
released, we have incorporated Mr. 
Van Cleef’s material in this column 
and thank him for his input.) O 



telecommunications? 

use SOFTCOM® 


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Intelligent terminal mode supports 
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computer can be entered at the 
terminal or it can be sent directly 
from disk files which were prepared 
'off line'. Data received from the 
host can be saved in disk files 
and/or printed. File transfers with 
SOFTCOM® greatly reduce 
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Protocol file transfer mode supports 
transfers of text and binary files at 


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December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 87 







JOBS-IN-PROGRESS $125.00 

Lists all equipment fa a complete job, track 
when adered, P.O. numbers, when required 
at shop, when receive, when required to job. 
and when invoiced. Track shop labor. 
Engineering, Travel, Perdiem, Frieght ex- 
pense, Complete cost accounting verses 
Estimated cost. Includes simple sort routine. 
JOBS-IN-PROGRESS 
SUMMARY $25.00 

Print out compiled reports of all Jobs in Pro- 
gress, profit tracking. Jobs in Progress, profit 
tracking. Work-in-process figures, backlog, 
Estimated profit. 

BID CALCULATION $100.00 

List all items on bid including equipment 
labor, engineering, travel, perdiem, and 
freight. Change labor rates, engineering 
rates, perdiem, travel, freight, and percent- 
ages of profit on summary waksheet. Print 
out three different options for customer- 
ready quotations. Includes simple sort 
routine. 

SOUND SYSTEM 

ENGINEERING $75.00 

Calculate sound system parameters based 
on room constants. Calculates room 
volume, surface area, reverb time, EAD. 
critical distance, and much more. 

Sci Tec 

1512 Elmendorf Dr. 

Anchorage, AK 99504 
(907)333-6103 
(Dealer Inquiries Invited) 

$2.00 for postage 


COMPUTER 

AIDED 

INSTRUCTION 

for 

LEARNING 

BLACKJACK 

The Blackjack Tutor — a learning aid program is an 

extremely comprehensive learning tool unique in its 
ability to teach card counting strategies. 

If you want to learn how to correctly play blackjack and 
have fun doing it. all you need is this program and your 
Osborne. Cards (using Osborne graphics) for up to four 
players are dealt and played in a manner identical to 
casino-style play. There are 13 user-alterable rules 
which make the system able to simulate any casino in 
the world. 

Other learning aids are flash cards, counting drills, 
dealing of only problem hands, variable speed of play, 
plus others. Incorrectly played hands can be remem- 
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is also taught. 

The manual included with the software package des- 
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manual also lists rules for casinos around the world, 
rules and phone numbers for 42 Las Vegas casinos, and 
a list of 1 6 reference books describing how to win at 
blackjack. The manual is available separately for $10.00 
which can be applied to a software purchase. 

The software package consists of 1 3 files supplied on 2 
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create the calendar. 

The trick is to create one month 
first. I have written the formulas for 
one month such that almost all cell 
references are localized within the 
rectangular space occupied by the 
month. This makes it easier later to 
replicate blocks of code since Super- 
Calc will perform automatic ad- 
justments of cell references. 

First, set a format global setting of 
4 for all widths by typing this 
command: /F,G,4 

This will allow three months across to 
fit on a line printer width of 132 very 
nicely. Now enter the first five cells 
below. The cell A1 is where the 2-digit 
year will go. (The century is assumed 
to be 19. Let someone else worry 
about other centuries— I was born in 
this one.) Cell A2 determines if it is a 
leap year (value of 1) or not (zero). 
The number of day displacements 
since 1900 is put in A3 and this 
number, modulo 7 is placed into A4 
as the “base date.” The starting date 
of all months will be offset from this 
value— following the pattern des- 
cribed above. 

A1 = 82 

B1 =“ < = = Enter 2 digit year 
here and hit ! 

A2 = IF ((A1 - 4*INT(A1/4)) = 0, 

1 , 0 ) 

A3 = A1 + INT(A1/4) 

A4 = A3-7*INT(A3/7) 

At this point, we are ready to enter 
the month of January. Enter the cells 
shown below. The formula at F6 
determines the starting day of Jan- 
uary for the supplied year. (This for- 
mula is adjusted later to take care of 
leap years.) 

A6 = “ January 

F6 = (1 + A4) - 7* I NT((1 + A4)/7) 

G6 = 31 

A7 = “ Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu 
Fri Sat 

The following entries define the 
first week of the month. They deter- 
mine where Day 1 goes based on the 
“base date” cell in A4. After you 
have entered B8 below, it may be 


replicated into C8 through G8 by 
using this command: 

/R,B8,C8:G8,A 

The “A” option will allow you to 
select variables to adjust. When you 
are asked to adjust F6, reply “n”. 
A8G = IF (1 — F6 <1,0,1) 

B8G = IF (AND(2 - F6< 1, 
A8 < 1),0,A8 + 1) 

C8G = IF (AND(3 - F6 < 1 , B8 

<1),0,B8 + 1) 

D8G = I F( A N D(4 - F6<1,C8 
<1),0,C8 + 1) 

E8G = I F( A N D(5 - F6<1,D8 
<1),0,D8 + 1) 

F8G = I F( A N D(6 - F6< 1 ,E8 
<1),0,E8 + 1) 

G8G = I F( A N D (7 - F6<1,F8 
<1),0,F8 + 1) 

The following formulas solve the 
contents of the second week. After 
having entered B9, you may replicate 
it into C9 through G9, letting Super- 
Calc perform automatic adjustments. 


A9 

= G8 + 1 

B9 

= A9 + 1 

C9 

= B9 + 1 

D9 

= C9 + 1 

E9 

= D9 + 1 

F9 

= E9 + 1 

G9 

= F9 + 1 


After having entered the above 
row, you may now replicate it for the 
next two weeks by typing the com- 
mand: 

/R,A9:G9,A10:A1 1 
Do not use the Ask Adjust feature 
this time — just let SuperCalc perform 
all the transformations. Verify that 
the cells in these rows (10 and 11) 
match the contents below. 


A10 

— 

G9 + 1 

BIO 

= 

A10 + 1 

CIO 

= 

B10 + 1 

DIO 

— 

C10 + 1 

E10 

= 

D10 + 1 

F10 

= 

E10 + 1 

G10 

= 

F10 + 1 

All 

— 

G10 + 1 

B11 

— 

All + 1 

C11 

= 

B1 1 + 1 

Dll 

— 

C11 + 1 

Ell 

= 

Dll + 1 


90 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 



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DataBank provides a direct, documented interface with 
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T 


Calc Aids'' 

F11 = El 1 4- 1 

G11 = F11 + 1 

The next 7 formulas take care of 
the case where the last day of the 
month falls on the first day of the 
fifth week (like February in 1982). 
A12 = I F (AN D(G1 1 < G6,G1 1 

>0),G11 +1,0) 

B12 = IF(AND(A12<G6,A12 

>0),A12 + 1,0) 

You may replicate B12 into C12 
through G12 at this point, but again, 
you have to invoke the Ask Adjust 
feature. In this case, when you are 
asked to adjust G6, reply “n”. For all 


other variables, answer “y”. 

C12 = IF(AND(B12 <G6,B12 

>0),B12 + 1,0) 

D12 = IF(AND(C12<G6,C12 

>9),C12 + 1,0) 

E12 = IF(AND(D12< G6,D12 

> 0),D12 + 1,0) 

F12 = IF(AND(E12< G6,E12 

>0),E12 + 1,0) 

G12 = IF(AND(F12< G6,F12 

>0),F12 + 1,0) 

Similarly, the above row may be 
replicated into row 13 with the com- 
mand: 

/R,A12:G12,A13,A 


i: 

2: 

3! 

4! 

5! 

6! 

7! 

8! 

9! 

io: 

ill 

12 ! 

13! 

14! 

15! 

16! 

17! 

18! 

19! 

20 ! 

21 ! 

22 ! 

23! 

24! 

25! 

26! 

27! 

28! 

29! 

30! 

31! 

32! 

33! 

34! 

35! 

36! 

37 

38! 

39! 

40! 

41! 

42 ! 

43! 


! A!! B! ! Cl! D!i E! ! FI! 6!! Hi! 1!! J!! K! 

83 < s= Enter 2 digit year here and hit ! 

0 

103 

5 


Li! Hi! N! ! 0!! Pi! fi!! R! ! Si! T!} Ui! VI! N!! X!! YU Z!!AA! 


January 6 31 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

30 31 0 0 0 0 0 


April 5 30 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 


1 


10 11 12 13 14 15 16 

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 


July 5 31 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 


February 2 28 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 

27 28 0 0 0 0 0 

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 


Hay 0 31 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 


12 

19 


29 30 31 
0 0 0 


10 11 12 13 14 15 16 

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 

31 0 0 0 0 0 0 


October 6 31 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

30 31 0 0 0 0 0 


August 1 31 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 

28 29 30 31 0 0 0 

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 


November 2 30 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 


Harch 2 31 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 

13 14 15 16 17 

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 

27 28 29 30 31 0 0 

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 


June 3 30 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 

0 0 0 1 2 3 4 

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 

26 27 28 29 30 0 0 

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 


September 4 30 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 


0 0 0 0 1 2 

4 5 6 7 8 9 

11 12 13 14 15 16 

18 19 20 21 22 23 

25 26 27 28 29 30 

0 0 0 0 0 0 


1 


3 4 

10 11 


13 14 15 16 17 18 19 

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 

27 28 29 30 0 0 0 

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 


Deceaber 4 31 

Sun Hon Tue Ned Thu Fri Sat 

0 0 0 0 1 2 3 

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 


You also have to request the Ask Ad- 
just feature (as shown above) to tell 
SuperCalc to keep G6 the same in the 
replication. 

A13 = IF(AND(G12< G6,G12 >0), 

G12 + 1,0) 

B13 = IF(AND(A13< G6, A13>0), 

A13 + 1,0) 

C13 = IF(AND(B13< G6,B13 >0), 

B13 + 1,0) 

D13 = IF(AND(C13 < G6,C13 >0), 

C13 + 1,0) 

E13 = IF(AND(D13 < G6,D13 >0), 

D13 + 1,0) 

F13 = IF(AND(E13< G6,E13 >0), 

E13 + 1,0) 

G13 = IF(AND(F13< G6,F13 >0), 

F13 + 1,0) 

Now type these two commands to 
create the next two months in the 
quarter. Don’t worry about the uni- 
que values (like name of month, etc.) 
yet. 

/R,A6:G13,K6, 

/R,A6:G13,U6, 

Are you ready for the rest of the 
year? Enter these next commands to 
create the second, third and fourth 
quarters. 

/R,A6:AA13,A16, 

/R,A6:AA13,A26, 

/R,A6:AA13,A36, 

The Finishing Touches 

Using the “=ceU” command, go 
to the cells listed below and enter all 
the contents shown. The cells cor- 
responding to A6, F6, and G6 all con- 
tain values related to January. You 
may want to set the global option to 
“M” at this point to get ready for the 
manual calculation mode. 


A6 

K6 

U6 

A16 

K16 

U16 

A26 

K26 

U26 

A36 

K36 

U36 


; January 
February 
March 
April 
May 
1 June 
July 
1 August 
1 September 
October 
November 
December 


92 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


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94 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


Be especially careful in entering the 
following formulas. The best way to 
do it is to go to the specified cell, in- 
voke the Edit command by typing 
“/E” and make your changes to the 
model formula replicated from Jan- 
uary. Note that the integers follow 
the pattern described earlier in this 
article. The extra terms in the for- 
mulas for January and February take 
care of leap years. 

F6 = (1-A2 + A4)-7*INT)) 

((1 - A2 + A4)/7) 

P6 = (4 — A2 + A4) - 7* I NT 
((4 - A2 + A4)/7) 

Z6 = (4 + A4) — 7*INT((4 + A4) 

m 

FI 6 = (0 + A4) -7*1 NT((0 + A4) 

17 ) 

PI 6 = (2 + A4) — 7*INT((2 + A4) 

17 ) 

Z16 = (5 + A4) — 7* INT((5 + A4) 

17 ) 

F26 = (0 + A4) — 7* INT((0 + A4) 

17 ) 

P26 = (3 + A4) — 7* INT((3 + A4) 

17 ) 

Z26 = (6 + A4)-7*INT((6 + A4) 

17 ) 

F36 = (1 + A4) - 7INT«1 + A4) 

. 17 ) 

P36 = (4 + A4) - 7* INT((4 + A4) 

17 ) 

Z36 = (6 + A4) - 7*INT((6 + A4) 

17 ) 


G6 = 31 

Q6 = 28 + A2 

AA6 = 31 

G16 = 30 

Q16 = 31 

AA16 = 30 

G26 = 31 

Q26 = 31 

AA26 = 30 

G36 = 31 

Q36 = 30 

AA36 = 31 

If you had entered all values cor- 
rectly you should now have a working 
calendar. Go to cell A1 and enter the 
year of your choice. Then press “!”. 

Now, doesn’t that deserve a “!”? 

a 


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Money Order to: B.L. & W. - PO Box 381 076, Memphis, TN 381 38 - 901 -754-4465 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 93 


OSBORNE I™-**-MX-80 
PARALLEL 
PRINTER CABLES 
$35 

Connects Osborne 1 

IEEE Port to MX~80/Centronics 

type parallel printers. 

Order part no. 0-1 — $35 

— FREE SHIPPING 
— 10 DAY FREE TRIAL 
—CUSTOM LINKS AVAILABLE 

Visa & Mastercard 
Texas residents add 5% tax. 

C.O.D. add $2. 


AUSTIN COMPUTER 
TECHNOLOGIES 


Dept. O, P.O. Box 26595 
Austin, TX 78755 
(512) 835-6136 


HOME MANAGEMENT 
SOFTWARE 

written exclusively for the 

. OSBORNE 1™ 

• ELECTRONIC CHECKBOOK* 21.95 

Is your checkbook out of control? Never get it to 
reconcile with the bank? Not only will you have 
control of it tiut it will balance! Program is a true 
checkbook database which will store, modify, 
retrieve, sort, report, and display information on over 
1300 transactions per single density disk. 

• HOME INVENTORY MANAGER* 21.95 

How much money do you have tied up in home 
furnishings and goods? What are these items and 
where are they? Program is a must for any home or 
office that needs to maintain an accurate inventory 
of furnishings or goods. Program allows sorting by 
room or by item. Current value of items in home or of 
a room can be displayed. 

• PERSONAL FINANCIAL 

STATEMENT + 16.95 

Did you know that banks usually require a Financial 
Statement on loans of $5,000 or greater. This 
program will figure your net worth and display it in a 
highly organized format using the power of 
SuperCalc™. very easy to use and modify according 
to your needs. A must for any investor! 

• PERSONAL BALANCE SHEET + 16.95 

Where is your money going? What are your fixed, 
variable & discretionary expenses? What part of my 
budget can I exercise control? This program allows 
you to maintain a detailed balance sheet of your 
home or business transactions. 

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY PRICES 

Buy any TWO or MORE, deduct 20% from total price! 
OR 

Buy ALL four for $49.95. Save over 1/3 off total! 
Check, Money Order, or C.O.D. (add $3 for C.O.D.) 

accepted. (Texas residents add 5% tax) 

Full documentation provided with information on 
how to modify programs! 

(*) Written for MBASIC®/( + ) Written for SUPERCALC 

Bringing the Leading Edge to your Home 
HORIZON SOFTWARE 
442 Scotty, San Antonio, TX 78227 


u/k 


OWSr— 


Software update 
pac available 


Table 1 lists the current revision 
numbers for all the software 
packages that Osborne currently is 
shipping (“currently” means 18 Oc- 
tober 1982, the date this is written). 

By the time you read this in early 
December, the Update-PAC should 
be available from your local dealer. 
Included in the Update-PAC are: 

SuperCalc 1.12 

WordStar 3.0 

MailMerge 3.0 

CBASIC 2.07 

new AUTOSTs and new HELP 

The price for this update is $75, and 
includes documentation on the dif- 
ferences. 

Under the Approved Software pro- 
gram, a bulletin telling you how to 
modify your copy of Disk Doctor is 
available to registered owners of 
serial numbers 1-1500 of Disk Doc- 
tor. This bulletin was mailed to all 
registered Disk Doctor owners in ear- 
ly November. The problem with Disk 
Doctor is deemed minor, only affec- 
ting users who are trying to restore 
track 0 on a diskette, and the change 
can be performed by any reasonably 
competent computer user. 

Also in early November, owners of 
of Spellguard received a letter from 
Osborne describing how to send in 
their diskettes for replacement. This 
is not an upgrade as described in the 
last issue of this magazine, i.e., there 


is no charge for the diskette swap. 

The problem exhibited by 
Spellguard can be seen in one of two 
ways: either the MAINTAIN file 
refuses to function because it thinks 
Spellguard has errors, or, under 
unusal circumstances, you may make 
a modification to the dictionary that 
Spellguard never stores. The problem 
turns out to be related to the early im- 
plementations of CP/M that 
Osborne shipped, not Spellguard’s 
problem, thus Osborne will pay for 
the update. All Spellguards pur- 
chased before September 1st, 1982, 
should be sent back for correction. 

If you own a copy of Spellguard 
purchased before October, 1982, and 
did not receive a letter from us in 
November, check with your local 
dealer for details. 

As We Go To Press: 

Micro Pro International informed us, 
just as we went to press, that Word- 
Star 3.4 is to become available soon. 
Accordingly, we have temporarily 
postponed the availability of Soft- 
ware Upgrade package so we can pro- 
vide version 3.4 instead of the an- 
ticipated 3.0 version. Most of the in- 
ternal address' and modification 
notes we publish in this issue (The 
Processed Word) should remain the 
same with 3.4: others will be pub- 
lished later. We will announce the 
availability of the 3.4 version in the 
earliest possible issue. — th 


96 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


WIZARD ©f ©sZ™ 

a division of Contact Enterprises 


New Releases in Stock 
and Immediately Available 

Write for free data sheet 
on any item listed 



‘Software and Accessories for Osborne™Computers is our only business’ 


PUNK & RCPMLINK — now on one disk. 

Transmit complete file to bulletin board in seconds with user friendly 
PUNK. Saves files to buffer and writes to drive A or B. RCPMLINK 
enables fast, accurate block transfer of files between remote CP/M 
systems (or other Osborne 1 Computers) List $50.00 

OSBOARD 1 — for graphics. 

Create bar graphs, data entry forms, game layouts, logos, etc. and save 
to disk. Routines to convert OSBOARD 1 output files to formats com- 
patible with BASIC, CBASIC or Assembly language. Can be used to print 
hard copy on many dot matrix printers. Much more List $50.00 

WIZDEX — generates index for Wordstar. 

Generate an alphabetically sorted index for a text file. WIZDEX sorts 
words and phrases and attaches them to end of file. Can be updated 
when file is edited List $50.00 


GAMES DISK 4 — Graphics at play. 

2DMAZE, 3DMAZE, BOUNCE and LANDER (by Mirashanta). Pro- 
grammed in CBASIC. Games are in two levels, simple then advanced. All 
include extensive graphics List $50.00 

GAME DISK 1, GAME DISK 2, GAME DISK 3. 

GDI: Othello, Castle, Wahoo. GD2: Chess, Oracle, Startrek. GD3: 
Bomber, Lunar, Maze, Backgammon. Simple to operate; beginner to 
expert List $50.00 each 

NEW PRODUCT 

SIGNALMAN MARK V MODEM 

At last! A small, light, compact direct connect modem for Osborne 1. 
Just plug it in and communicate through any modular telephone. Com- 
plete with cables and 9-pin Osborne wired connector. Uses 9v internal 
battery; 9v dc adapter is available. List $129.00 


TM 

Write or Call WIZARD OF OsZ Your Source for Osborne Software 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 

P.O. Box 964 Chatsworth, California 91311 Telephone (213) 709-6969 

Add $2.50 for shipping and handling. In California, add 6 V 2 % sales tax 


MicroVentures software... 

When you want your computer 

to do the work. 



MicroBookkeeper. A money- 
management system for non- 
accountants. Features... 

Monthly, Quarterly and Yearly 
tracking of income and expenses. 
—Chart of Accounts 
—Credit Cards 
—Vendors 

— Checking Accounts 
all defined by you, the user and 
managed by the computer. 

Post-dating of regular payments, so 
they are automatically paid when due. 
Automatic analysis of expenses 
by percentages. 

Complete check register management. 
Tax time help, through recording of all 
transactions in tax-relevant 
categories. 

MicroMailer. A complete mailing 
list management system. 

Features... 

Unlimited storage of names and 
addresses, each with up to seven 
identifiers for categorizing mailings. 
Complete sort capability: sort by zip, 
last name, city or any combination. 
Automatic checking for duplicate 
addresses. 

Compatible with WordStar™ to create 
Mail Merge™ data files. 

Any size labels, up to five 
columns across. 

Easy, direct editing capability. 


MicroLibrarian. For ready access 
to a personal /professional 
library. Features... 

Unlimited storage of articles or 
publications, each with up to seven 
keywords and an abstract. 

Retrieval of publications by topic(s), 
title or author. 

Automatic generation of keyword 
lists, so you always know what topics 
you have in your library. 

Complete sort capability. 

WordStar and Mail Merge are trademarks of MicroPro Int 



software'training-consulting 
P.O. Box 2602/ Lo Jolla CA 92038-2802 
(619) 453-7120 


For your manual and diskette for 
MicroMailer, MicroBookkeeper or 
MicroLibrarian, send $89.95 to 
MicroVentures, P.O. Box 2802, La 
Jolla, CA 92038-2802. (California 
residents add $5.39 sales tax.) Send 
money order or check payable to 
MicroVentures or use Mastercharge 
or Visa. 

Not sure? For more information, 
write for a free brochure. For a 
demonstration disk and the manual, 
use Mastercharge or Visa or send 
check or money order for $30.00. 
(California residents add $1.80 sales 
tax.) The $30.00 is not refundable but 
is creditable towards eventual 
purchase. 

Specify Osborne format. 

Dealer inquiries invited. 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 95 


Advertisers’ Index 



The next issue of The Portable Companion focuses on the ever 
pertinent world of word processing. We’ll be looking at how to tie 
in with the typesetter, a note-keeping system for inventive writers 
and lots of tips on how to simplify your overall idea processing 
techniques. We’ll take a philosophical look at composing via 
computer and spell out a few short cuts for the academic user. 

Puzzler will return with a fresh new slant and some long 
awaited answers. 

Tune in next time for all the details. 


Disclaimer Osborne Computer Corporation does not en- 
dorse products that are advertised in this publication, nor 
are the claims in the advertisements checked for 
misrepresentations or misleading information. All 
specifications listed for advertised products are those of 
the advertiser, not of Osborne Computer Corporation. As 
always, be careful when deciding which items you want to 
purchase. 


If you encounter problems with a product, first attempt to 
resolve the dispute with the supplier. If you continue to have 
problems, please WRITE to us, describing in full what has 
happened and what attempts you've made to resolve the 
problem. While we can’t promise that we'll settle the matter 
for you, we do regard the advertising in this publication as a 
service to our readers, and therefore, we do closely monitor 
complaints and criticisms concerning our advertisers. 


ADI 56 

Advent 94 

Agtronics Associates 22 

A&P Electronics 85 

Apogie Designs Ltd 85 

Application Engineering 20 

Austin Computer 96 

B.L.&W 93 

Burns Industrial 75 

Business Master 57 

Business Micro 87 

Alan Chao - Modular Tax 13 

Cl Software 93 

Compuline 59 

Computer Accessories 56 

Computer Cannery 65 

ComputerWorkshop 25 

Comsol 22 

Contact Enterprises 95 

Cornerstone II 

CPM/83 15 

Creative Computer Products 21 

Data Access 89 

Data Source 24 

Data Terminals & Communications 81 

Desert Computer Products 67 

Digital Marketing 5 

Dipco 61 

Disco tech 14 

Discount Software 78 

Dynacomp 91 

Easy View 80 

800 Software 69,71 

Engineering Software 18 

Escape Engineering 10 

Escon 26 

Everett Associates 7 

F.O.G 96 

F.Y.I IBC 

Gamma Research 82 

John Gaudio Company 66 

Hawkeye Grafix 28 

Horizon Software % 

Integrated Systems 14 

Intelligent Statements 9, 62 

Iron wood Company 84 

JMM Enterprises BC 

Jones Computer Systems 88 

JRT Systems 79 

Keller Consulting 20 

Leading Edge IFC 

Learning Shack 23 

Herbert Lewis 18 

Lieder & Company 28 

Marathon Cpmputer Systems 10 

Media Mix (Applied Technology) 22 

Micro Art Programmer 77 

Microcomputer New Orleans 85 

Microhouse 27 

Micro Ventures 95 

Orthocode 75 

Olive Branch 98 

Osborne Computer Corporation 63, 99 , 100 

Osborne/McGraw-Hill 86 

Ozmosis Coating 88 

The Portable Companion 55 

Portable Software 6 

Pro-Micro 58 

Relational Systems 70 

The Research Associates 78 

Robonics 12 

Rocky Mountain Data 94 

Rocky Mountain Software 60 

Rothwood Products 58 

Scientific Technologies 90 

Selectone 17 

SGW Enterprises 2 

The Software Store 87 

Software Toolworks 77 

Sorcim 29 

Strobe 16 

Sudden Products 26 

Swan 73 

Taurus Software 1 

Til 72 

TNW Corporation 19 

Trantor Systems 8 

West Michigan Connection 84 

Wholesale Suppliers 7 

Xanadu Engineering 90 



Now you can turn your Olivetti Praxis-30 
or -35 daisy wheel typewriter into a letter 
quality printer. The OLIVE-1 provides 
your Praxis with a microprocessor- 
based. serial communications interface 
(RS-232C) compatible with most 
computers. It features a wide range of 
options and supports all typewriter 


FEATURES 

• Hardware Handshake 

• Software Protocols 
(ETX/ACK or XON/XOFF) 

• Selectable Baud Bates (110. 300. 1200) 

• 165 Character Butler (‘ull line at 15 cpi) 

• Printing Pitch Selection (10. 12 4 15 cpi) 

• Keyboard I 4 II Selection 

• Control over Praxis buzzer 

• RS-232C Configuration Options 
(TXD/RXD crossing; Carrier Delect Assert, 
Handshake via CTS or DTFt) 

• Paper-Out Indicator LED 

• Reset & Resume-Print Switches 

• Printing Speed: Approx. 12 cps 


functions, including the entire printable 
character set (KBI & KBII). Complete 
with interconnect/installation instructions 
and user guide. Wall socket plug-in 
power supply (9VDC/500mA) optional. 
Also available: OLIVE-80, a fully 
integrated Praxis-30 plus OLIVE-1 
typewriter/ printer package for under 
$750.00. 


Tito® 

olive branch 


26291 Production Ave., Ste. 205 
Hayward. CA 94545, USA 
(415) 887-5633 


98 THE PORTABLE COMPANION December 1982/January 1983 


Name 

Table 1 

Current Software Revision Numbers 

Number Notes 

System Software: 

System ROM 

1.4 

Differences between 1.3 and 1.4 concern double density; if you 

CP/M 

2.2 

buy double density you’ll get ROM 1 .4. 

SuperCalc 

1.05 

Version 1.12 available to current owners through Update PAC. 

WordStar 

2.26 

Version 3.05 available to current owners through Update PAC. 

MailMerge 

2.26 

Version 3.0 available to current owners through Update PAC. 

C BASIC 

2.06 

Version 2.07 available to current owners through Update PAC. 

MBASIC 

5.21 


Approved Software: 

BASCOM 

5.30 


DataStar 

1.101 

Release 1.4 to be made in early 1983. 

dBASE II 

2.3B 

Release 2.3 IB to be made in early 1983. Includes ZIP. 

Documate/Plus 

1.30 


Disk Doctor 

1.40 

Modification bulletin available upon request. 

Enumerator 

1.01 


Footnote 

2.20 


Forth 

2.00 

Release 3.0 to be made late 1982. 

Grammatik 

1.82 


Mailman 

2.00 


Micro Link 

2.3 

Micro Link II is only available from Digital Marketing. 

Milestone 

1.09 


Money Maestro 

1.64 


Math* 

3.043 


MuMath 

2.14 


Datebook 

1.00 


Spellguard 

2.00 

Corrected version now available 

SuperSort 

1.5 

Release 1.6 to be available in early 1983. 


The First Osborne Group (F O G) has been formed as a Users’ Group for persons using or interested in Osborne Computers 
and the CP/M Disk Operating System with related Software. Membership is available to any interested party whether or not they 
currently own an Osborne Computer. FOG, the FOGHORN, and the diskette library are all supported by volunteer 
contributions of time, money, and software from all active FOG members. Guests are welcome at our meetings at any time (as 
long as they do not participate in Piracy or copying of Proprietary software ), but dues of $24.00/yr in U.S. or $30.00/yr elsewhere 
are required in order to receive the FOGHORN, have access to the diskette Librarv, or derive other available benefits. 

Sx r— CUT HERE 

First Osborne Group (FOG) Membership Application Form 


NAME:. 


ADDRESS: . 
CITY: 


0-1 Owner? 
Modem? 
INTERESTS: . 


Yes 

□ 

□ 


No Maybe 

□ □ 

□ □ 


STATE: . 


ZIP: 


COUNTRY: . 


PHONES: 


Send the completed application and your payment to: First Osborne Group (F O G), P. O. BOX 11683-A, Palo Alto, CA 94306 


December 1982/January 1983 THE PORTABLE COMPANION 97 



The following is a list of remote CP/M (RCP/M) bulletin board systems (24hr). 
For a complete list of bulletin board systems see Microcomputing, July 1982. 


RCP/M RBBS San Diego, CA 

(714) 273-4354 

RCP/M CBBS Pasadena, CA 

(213) 799-1632 

RCP/M RBBS MUG, Mission, KS 

(913) 362-9583 

RCP/M RBBS Hyde Park, IL 

(312) 955-4493 

RCP/M Logan Square, Chicago, IL 

(312) 252-2136 

RCP/M RBBS Allentown, PA 

(215) 398-3937 

RCP/M Beaverton, OR 

(503) 641-7276 

RCP/M MCBBSTCBBS Dearborn, Ml 

(313) 846-6127 

RCP/M Flanders, NY 

(201)584-9227 

RCP/M RBBS Rochester, NY 

(716) 223-1100 

RCP/M Mississauga, Ontario, CANADA 

(416) 826-5394 

RCP/M CBBS CP/M Net Simi Valley, CA 

(805) 527-9321 

RCP/M McLean, VA 

(703) 524-2549 

RCP/M RBBS Southfield, Ml 

(313) 559-5326 

RCP/M CBBS Columbus, OH 

(614) 272-2227 

RCP/M RBBS Arvada Elect., Co. Springs, CO. 

(303) 634-1158 

OXGATE, Mountain View, CA 

(415) 964-4097 

OXGATE, Milpitas, CA 

(408) 263-2588 


*Not a 24 hour system; 7-1 1 pm weekdays, 24 hr weekends. 


System Checker™ 

A very simple verification program 
which allows the Osborne owner to 
have confidence in operation of his 
computer. A comprehensive series of 
tests analyze memory, disk drives, 
visual display, CPU and printer, each 
test shows an easy to understand 
pass/fail response. A manual helps 
the user to understand what each op- 
tion tests, and what the responses 
mean in easy-to-understand terms 
with no computer jargon. (Supersoft 

TM'j 

SuperSort™ 

Allows the Osborne user to perform 
sorting, merging, and record-selection 
functions on data files. SuperSort is 
compatible with BASIC, Fortran, Cobol 
and assembler applications programs, 
and can also be used with mail lists 
maintained with Mailman™ and Word- 
Star. Sorts up to 32 files into a single 
output file, automatically using exter- 
nal merge as necessary, depending 
upon the amount of data and memory 
available. (MicroPro™) 


Grammatik™ 

Grammatik provides the Osborne user 
with a unique program that analyzes 
written styles at both the word and the 
sentence level. This document- 
checking system checks for two 
sources of potential problems; style 
and typographical errors. Style 
analysis includes checks for specific 
phrases commonly recognized as be- 
ing poor or wordy usage, as well as 
compiling statistics about word and 
sentence length. Typographical 
checking detects a number or errors 
such as: double words, capitalization 
at the beginning of sentences, and in- 
consistent and punctuation marks. 
(Aspen Software Company™) 


Money Maestro™ 

Money Maestro is designed to provide 
financial recordkeeping, tax reporting 
and budgeting for professionals, 
clubs, families and very small 
businesses. Those who recognize the 
benefits of accurate records, but 
don’t require full-blown double-entry 
accounting systems, will find Money 
Maestro to be the fast, simple and 
complete money management 
package they seek. (Innosys, Inc.™) 


Microsoft® Basic Compiler 

Allows Osborne users to compile their 
MBasic interpretive programs into 
true Z80 machine code. The Basic 
Compiler provides you with three 
major benefits: 1) increased speed of 
execution for most programs; 2) 
decreased program size for extremely 
large programs, and 3) source code 
security. When you distribute a com- 
piled program, you distribute optim- 
ized machine code, not source code. 
Consequently, you distribute your pro- 
gram in very compact form and pro- 
tect your source program from 
unauthorized alteration. The package 
also included a relocatable Z80/8080 
assembler for use under CP/M. 
(Microsoft™) 

Mailman™ 

Mailman creates and manages your 
mailing list. Formatted screen entry 
with eight different selecting criteria 
gives the Osborne user ease of ac- 
cess and entry, along with discrete 
listing capabilities. In addition, the pro- 
gram automatically sorts data by zip 
code and name. Mailman is designed 
to work with WordStar and 
MailMerge® . (Standard 
Microsystems™) 

BSTAM™ 

BSTAM is a telecommunications pro- 
gram that allows the Osborne user to 
send and receive any CP/M file with 
complete error checking. The BSTAM 
documentation gives the user a com- 
prehensive overview of types of chan- 
nels, modes of transmission, sending 
and receiving any CP/M file. A copy of 
BSTAM is required on both systems in- 
volved in the communication. 

(Byrom SoftwareTM) 


Spellguard™ 

Spellguard is a computer program 
that helps the user to eliminate spell- 
ing and typographical errors in written 
materials prepared with WordStar. 

Two dictionaries are supplied with 
Spellguard: the first consists of 20,000 
of the most frequently used words in 
the English language and the second 
contains 10,000 words and can be 
easily expanded to include technical 
vocabulary and/or foreign languages. 
(Sorcim™) 

muMATH-80™ 

muMATH-80 is a fully interactive Sym- 
bolic Math System that efficiently and 
accurately performs true algebraic 
and analytic operations. muMATH can 
evaluate and simplify expressions 
containing variables that have not 
been assigned numeric values. The 
muSIMP-80™ programming language 
is provided with this package to ex- 
tend muMATH or to implement other 
Artifical Intelligence applications. 
Flowever, most Osborne users will 
find muMATFi sufficiently powerful to 
handle the majority of their 
mathmatical problems. The Soft 
Warehouse™) 


Math*™ 

This program interacts with WordStar 
to add basic math capability to your 
Osborne computer. Math* performs 
addition, subtraction, multiplication 
and division. Within your WordStar 
document, Math* allows you to per- 
form math functions in either rows 
or columns. (Force Two®) 

These software packages are 
now available at your local 
authorized Osborne dealer. 


Real Estate Investor Calc-aid™ 

A SuperCalc™ overlay designed for 
both the real estate professional and 
the potential home-buyer or seller. Us- 
ing SuperCalc’s “What-if” capabi- 
lities, comparative analysis of the 
complex factors involved with real 
estate investment can be performed 
swiftly Models are supplied for in- 
dividual residence or income property 
analysis. (SimpleSoft™) 


Documate/Plus™ 

This is an indexing program that 
works with WordStar to create an 
automatic text index or table of con- 
tents. Documate/Plus supports up to 8 
levels of sub-indexing, and you can 
choose to index either words or phrases. 
(The Orthocode Corporation™) 










■sn 


. 


Osborne: 






These RS232C Serial Cables are 
especially designed to interface the 
Osborne computer system to the 
various serial devices used in the 
computer industry. 


The Centronics printer 
cable allows the use of the 
IEEE-488 port as a centron- 
ics conformal interface for 
printers. This cable is 5' 
long and avoids the need for 
a serial to parallel inter- 
face in the printer. 





A coaxial type video cable is 
required for the high data rates 
transmitted by the Osborne. This 
quality cable enhances the display. 


The EXMON n is a combination 
package and includes the EXMOIV 
and a UHF modulator. This allow* 
the use of television sets as moni 
tors without “hard wire” connec- 
tions to the television set 



Padded carrying case to protect and ease 
handling and carrying. 



JMM Enterprises manufactures and dis- 
tributes quality interface products for the 
Osborne. We provide Monitors, Printers, 
and STROBE™ Plotters. An EXMON 
adapter is also available for your 
HP-85. 






m, inc. 


Information Filing 

Just Took a Super step Into 

The Future — Superfile^^ / 

Superfile And Your Osborne Will Increase Your Productivity. 


Super file is an easy to learn, easy to use 
system that lets you file, cross index, and 
retrieve text entries. No programming 
needed. No retyping of your present entries. 
Superfile can organize your: 

• customer and client information 

• sales leads 

• correspondence 

• library and journal abstracts 

• personnel records 

• mailing lists 

• card files 

• And much, much more! 

Only $ 195 (including manual with many 
examples, and DEMO data base). Try 
Superfile at our risk for 30 days. If 
Superfile doesn't do the job you want it to, 
return it for a full refund. Call toll free to 
order your copy of Superfile today. 

Superfile trademark of FY1, Inc. 

OSBORNE Trademark of Osborne Computer Corporation 



1 '800-53 1-5033 MC/VISA 
(512) 346-0133 in Texas 
or write: 

FYI, INC. 

P.O. Box 10998 #615 
Austin, Texas 78766 

Please add $10 outside of the U.S., Canada, 
and Mexico.