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Full text of "Open Apple-Vol 4 No 09-OCT 1988"

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Eeieasing We power to everyone* 

OdiOta' 198ft 

ISSri 08854017 
newstand price: $2.50 
{Aotocopy chaige pa* p^^: $0.15 

Amazing Apple Stories 

/te happens all too often anymcMe, f once again find myself trapped 
ill the InfamDus Applerest time warp. I m writing this letter to you 
before the new product introductions of AppleFest, but you're reading 
it afterward, I could aslt you to pretend AppleFest liasn't happened 
yet, or I could report that Apple's supposed to have a new «c (the He 
Flus) and the real FroDOS [6 (GS/OS) up its sleeves and hope it really 
does. Or I could just ignore the hubbub in San Francisco and tell you 
some amazing Apple stories. 

For example, liave i[oa heard tbat Appie H sottmatt Aeveia^ 
man r^ixfw&a Qte 'appte If SysfeaiDM, Vfefsicm 3*1; Ipfl 14, IMi" 
the first week of September? Most of them Birew it in the round fife, 
thinking Apple had really screwed up this time, since two months pre- 
viously these same developers had received the "Apple ligs System 
Disk, Version 3.2, June 24, 1988' from Apple. Moreover, they'll be get- 
ting Version 4.0 any day now. 

But it wasn't a total fiasco—it turns out many developers missed 
the subtle difference that the disk they got in July was a "lIgs" disk, 
while the September disk was a 'II" disk. Among other goodies, the 
Septemtier cOsk has the heretofore missing version 1.5 ofl^idJOS 6 
(the July disk has version 1.6] and a new protprm selector -called 
MUnCflER, SYSTEM that has a familiar interface bllt that allows you to 
select only among System Utilities, fastCopy, Applesoft, or the 
ancient ProDOS throw-your-hands-up-and-quit routine. Otherwise, 
everything on it duplicates material on the July llgs disk, which is now 
available for dowriloading on the major online services. Your dealer 
may even have a cap^ you can coR^. If you don't 1mm it yet, however, 
wait for 4.0. 

Bob Sander-Cederlof has ceased publication of his newslett^ 
Appbt Asf^BoJ^ Uae. and spne to ivork for Applied Engineeri:^ tie 
had p^ss^ mm a noiiber # projccb ti» m m s mml^m 
basiSi IMS fe thf seii^lf l|ple 11 publicaticrtj ft pass aw?iy 
^ar— the other was /jpp/e iMr, a British publication. 

Sander-Cede riors last article was an analysis of Apple's new 
Basic.system, Version 1.2. It vividly demonstrates why his publication 
\M be missed: 

N«w Version 1.2 of BASIC.SYSTEM, by Bob Sander-Cederiof 
(Copyfight 1988 by S-C Software, reprinted vwth permission) 

When I receive a new version of something from Apple, my first 
impulse is to try to fmd out exacily what they changed. Especially, 
when for the first time in four years, they update a program so impor- 
tant as Basicsystem. And especially when there have been excellent 
articles published in the last four years clearly describing deHnite 
bugs, patches, and worli-arounds, 

I was very disappointed this morning after carefully analyzing the 
new version 1 .2 of Basic.system. I started by BLOADing (he old ver- 
sion 1,1. and copying itiaba banH.2 of my 11^. Tixa I PLOADed 
the new v&skm Li and used Qie ftoriit&^'s V<bmmmd to eompsK 
the two. There were a total of 24 bytes changed. Wkteeii were /nsrde 
the parameter block for a Qet_I^leJnfo call, so their value is irrele- 
vant. One is a byte that is never referenced in any way. Three bytes 
were changed in the title screen, so that you see '1.2' instead of 
';./■, and •COFYRIOHT APPLE 1985-87' instead of COFYRIQHT 
APPLE, 1 983-84: That leaves only seven bytes in the total update 

whose change has any significance. They have not fsied ev&i (XSof 
the many published problems in Basicsystem! 

So what did they Hx? The description sheet that came with the 
update said they were trying to fix a bug in the CATALOG command. 
A variable they call TOTEfiT, which happens to he at $dCB9'BCBA, is 
used for a counter to control the loop that displays file names and 
info. When the directory is first opened, the total number of Vies iti 
the directory i$,cpple4 into TOTSffT, The on0nal idtentian oTUie j»& 
granuner was io dear&nent TOTBtt ssiter reading eiSI^ SM^^ ^ 
ibe -^stmioiy. Wimn the counter rea^ie$ mo., MX tSif^e^^ 
flip^hed. (Muitm^ly, the program M ttot ^^CKm&itm^ edfotiter 

To make matters worse, the new code in version 1.2 does not fix 
the bug. Instead, the patch just omits testing TOTEffT altogether. 
Fiow if you have a long directory, delete most the files leaving Ju^ a 
few nie names in the first few entries, and CATALOQ it in Basicsys- 
tem, it will read all the entries anywe^. No reai problem, the disk just 
spbis^hai^an of^secoadkms^t 

The oi^inai big was nol a very setbm pm^em eSlier. it only 
failed when lite (otaf number of active files In a dtedory was a mM- 
ple of 256, which seldmn happens. In fad, it seldom happens that 
there are that many files in any one directory, because so many of 
the utilities and even AppleWorks get confused with large directories. 
The symptom you would see if you had exactly 256 files in a directo- 
ry, as I understand it, is that you would get an 'OUT OF DATA' error 
message at the end of the catalog instead of the 'numtier of bUxM' 
line. I suppose that could be unnerving, so Ua bug should be 
removed ^ possUe, 

Hie faulty decrement Gode is at the wd ofSK Read Itext Cstakjg 
Entry subroutine, at $B2iS, ml hfM Hke U^: 

3215: DEC $BCB9 
B21B: fiffi 


ammmm mmmmm mmmBx/'" 

4 .6I6 Opatr Ap^e 

Vol. 4, J^. 9 

If the initial number in BCB9 (low byte) and BCBA (liigh byte) is 
not a muUiple of 256, this code will always result in BCBA going neg- 
ative when the total value has been counted down. But if the initial 
value IS a multiple of 256, it will take an extra 256 times to count it 
down to a ne^tive value in BCBA, Jbe enctcftoop lest code is at 


B(Ua; 3PL $B07S 

The correct way to decrement tlie l6-t«t value Is Uke this: 

m $BCB9 

m .1 


,1 ISC $Bcei 

This results in both bytes being zero when it is counted a!! the way 
down. Code to test the TOTEFiT variable for zero already exists at the 
t(^ c^thetoopinB^csysttub. 

B070: m $BCB9 
B073: m $BCB£ 
BOTf m iBQU 

little te$friictHrirp oftkif c^Q wmlfi i^olt in even fewer bytes 
being required to <m Hie (ie&ement md toop cortirt)/ correctly, 
lastead, we have this strange wipe-out instead. Apple went ftiittier. 
and changed the branch at $BV76 to two liOPs, and the error branch 
following the call to Read Piext Catalog Entry to terminate the catalog 
without error. Very interesting. I wonder if they know something I 
don't? Maybe the value in the directory that we get TOTSHT from is 
sometimes incorrect? Maybe it is sometimes 0000 when there are 
re^y files? Why else nOF-out the instruction at $B076? Well, I have 
my&'yet nUiced such a problem. Have you? notice that, wltti these 
patcites. If you get a (Usk error when rea(^ s (Sfectoiy block. CATA- 
LOG will termhi^e wiUiout repmting the &ror: you Just wBl not see 
the rest of the files. 

The description also claimed to fix a problem- that caused CATA- 
LOG to prematurely terminate if a <space> was pressed after a con- 
trols. I have never noticed any such problem in the old version, and 
was unable to make it happen today. But sure eflough. It doesnt fail 
that way in the new version either. After alL they cfidn'f cbai^ any of 
that code anywayl 

Why dldnt Apple confer with Ken KasbmareK Cecil Fretwell, 
San^ f^)s$beiisk Worth, Pieter Ledmer, MmBisDoms, or others 
WhChaii/e been mmrefutly analyzing noDOS and Basicsystem over 
the last four years? 

Anyway, after a// the ai>ove is said, maybe you still wish you had 
wrsiott 1.2. If so, you can turn verman l-i into 1.2 like this: 

tmm \m si ) 

im-M (tras K ) 

22ft2:E7 (was U ) 

3A3S;EA EA ym FO 28 ) 

317C;26 (was 3A ) 

i9 fF DO {vis U U BC ID) 



Stem the Penman's Qtdde to Qea^Ve Wiitii^-Ke^iidbtg. 
and Frogrwming is one of those rare educational si^are px.W- 
that does things in the classroom with a computer that cant t)€ 
done any other way. It's the foundation for a semester-long hands-on 

course designed to improve the writing, reasoning, problem-solving, 
planning and organizing, group cooperation, and learning skills of stu- 
dents. They also pick up some Applesoft, but that's just a by-product. 

Students taking a course based on Shem's guide spend a semester 
writing an all-text adventure. The author of Shem's guide, Chet Day, is 
a high-school English teacher, novelist, adventure programmer and 
inhabitant of the steamy sutKUlture of computer bulletin boards, tils 
guide is based on an elective course he designed and has given each 
spring for the iast four years. 

Day says the course turns teenagers who boast they haven't fin- 
ished a book since 6th grade into avid readers who spend hours turn- 
ing Ihe pages of Interactive fiction. Among the course's benefits are 
developnjent of a students ability to read kg details aitd to think log^ 

Shem's guide outlines the coiirse week-by-week. The first week is 
spent^etting ramiliar with interactive fiction. By the be^ning of the 
second week, each student mast have'wrftten a stoiy that will form 
the basis for his or her aciventure; 

'■ During w^k two, studente design the "map" of their adventure. Dur- 
ing weeks three through five, the students write all the text that will 
make up their games. Then the students spend ten weeks Heshing all 
this onto an ^plesoft skeleton prpgram that Day provides. The final 
weeks of the course are spest 'debt^lB!|. beta-testins, and crealiitg 

tiite all Mc liest eduMlohal software, 5ftern ffic Penmdn's Guide 
comes with a student manual on disk, where it can be shortened, 
lengthened, or otherwise modified to fit the needs of individual teach- 
ers and schools. The manual includes a thorough, annotated discus- 
sion, with examples, of how to write high-qualify Interactive stories, as 
well as a complete learn-by-doing tutorUil on pTO^SHnmihg that b^m- 
ners are able to understand. 

The disk also includes a teacher's manual, the programming skele- 
ton, and a sample adventure, "A Day at the Morgue", written especially 
for 13- to 18-year-oId students. The course requires a lab of 80-col- 
uinn*capable Apple lis {one per st3.ident) mii ^pleV^rHi. The disk 
isnl copy-protected, and comes wftft an um&rictpd site license 
priced at $65 per school, Demonshation disks are available from all 
the usual online sources (on GEnie, search for uploads that include 
the keyword "Shem') or for $2 from Shem the Penman Software, 62S 
Smith Dr, Metairie, LA 70005 50M37-0343. 

fit file fpilf^veiid ttl^ eonnte^ tilat one of the 

last fiibpi fhe il^|le II woild needs is anotho- word processor. 

My p^asitlWi has been that if you own an Apple II you should own and 
know how to use AppleWorks. It will do 90 per cent of what you want 
to do. There are lots of people supporting it with books, newsletters, 
and training seminars. 

If you're one of the people who needs that final iO per cent, Ive 
said, look at the other word processors that are available and decide 
if Qbt^ning the final 10 is worth what it will cost you in dollars and in 
leaf hing tlttf. 

In a few cases, of course, it is. My wife, M emap^^ mp both 
AppleWorks and AFA Manuscript Manager, a word processor designed 
specifically for writing professional papers in the format and style 
required by the American Psychological Association. Many of you use 
StyleWare's MultiScribe or Apple's Apple Writer in addition lo (or 
instead of) AppleWorks. But in most cases, I've said, the average 
Apple II user is far better off learning how to do what he or she wants 
within AppleWorks than chasing the elusive "perfect" word processor. 

But now the Bank Street College of Education and Addison-Wesley 
have brought a new "witing environment' to the Apple U, called 
Wot^ench, that has me reiEiansidertns my position, liot to the point 
that rve actually invested the hours it would take to read the manuals 
from beginning to end and touch the far limits of the program, mind 
you, but enough that I haven't yet been able to get the manuals off 
my desk or the disk out of the 11c I use as a second computer 

Wordbench (note the small 'B', thank you?, was developed over a 
three-and-a-half-year period by a team lead by Rank Streets Franklin 
Smith. It's a lot more than a word processor. Just as AppleWorks inte- 
grates a word processor with a database and spreadsheet. Word- 
bendi integrates a word processor with a database system orientgd 
arouncl 'notes',- outlining software; a spelling checker and thesaums; a 
reference tool for creating bibliographies; a print manE(ger tiat can 
aiJtomatically create a table of contents, sophistical he^rs and 
footers, and footnotes; a 'folder' manager for file and disk formatting, 
renaming, copying, and deletion,- and an "acid-in" "brainstormer''. Addi- 
tional "add-in" products are possible, using a standard programming 
interface. IVordbenc/i supports macros ('shortcuts') and will use mem- 
ory expansion cards (recommended). 

For screen display, Wordbench uses double-high-resolution graph- 
ics, which means it displays on your saeen exactly what will be print- 
ed oil wpaperi iiieiiid^ features such as underlining, boldtee, and 

October IdSa 

superscripts. When printing, however, i£ uses your printer's standard 
text rather than graptiics-generated fonts. And although it uses the 
graphics screen and Apple-desktop-like menus, it doesn't use a 
mouse. All command and block selections are made using cursor 
keys and Return. 

W)iaJ.> so sQ'iKit^ about Wordbench is how it Tar departs from 
today's ioitme t^0lis Me s^l using many of die elements that 
define ttiose treiids, M use of the graphics scie^ and Its user inter- 
face is up-to-date and modern, yet it won't print using fancy fonts or 
graptiic-s within text. Instead of concentrating on tools for enhancing 
the look or form of the resulting document, the emphasis in Iford- 
be.nch is on tools that enhance the content of the document. The 
form vs. content opposition has always pretty much defined the differ- 
ence between Macintosh and Apple If computing, but there hasn t 
been a new Apple II product for months that focuses and delivers on 
took for enhancing content a$w^I as f^oN&eflcb do^. 

The documentation that comes with the program includes three 
boolu, a Tutorial, a Users Quide, and a Reference l^nual. The pro- 
gram requires at least 128K in a lU:, lie, or Ilgs {an IBNKsmpatibk 
version is also available). There is no copy-protection. 

The program isnt perfect, of course. It makes your disk drive 
sound like its washjng clothes when you create a new file and takes 
almost as long. Scrolling is slow and a built-in keyboard buffer means 
the SCTeen continues to scroll long after you've released the up or 
down arrow key. 

But the pro-am is new, improvements will come, and its backed 
t)y some very Wg pla^xs in ilie Apple II community. 'A Bank street 
spoliesman s3P/s, 'Waj:jt^h ewgi^elt from Bank Street's intere^ in 
developing a product that would address writing as opposed to word 

processing, Im a writer and I'm convinced this is software writers witi 
buy a computer for. The package is $ 149 and is distributed to dealers 
hfy ingtam ^mmK, Hem D. and SoftKat. 

^pleis 11»vl^tK&'§0f^G^.0oup. publishes a miserable Itttte 
vows nenilMer m di^iliapas called Apple newpoints. MM 
of the feature-length articles published in Apple viewpoints imply that 
if you don't develop software for the Macintosh you're a hairball. IBM 
itself couldn't design a better piece of propaganda to demoralize 
Apple II developers. And IBM cert^ainiy couldn't aim it at the heart of 
the Apple II developer community like Apple itself can. 

One of the few recent articles that didn't gp out of its way to insult 
^ple II developers was a piece called The Wforroat'ion-Age Economy" 
t>y .Apple's president, John Sculley, which appeared in the September 
15 i§sue. Scolley's main point is that as the world moves from an 
Industrial-age economy to an informatlon-i^e economy, schools have 
to prepare workers for a different type of job, 

"It's not that schools have to train people to do the jobs them- 
selves, what schools really have to do is train people to be trainable," 
Sculley says. "Institutions used to be measured by their ability to be 
large, self-sufficient, and stable. Today, the most successful enterpris- 
es are measured by their flexibility— their aibility to acUiist i^uickly to 
Chan ye..,' 

Among other things, Sculley seems intent on keeping Apple 
itself flexible, tie s preparing it for l:he information age by reorganiz- 
ing it every three months or so. The latest reorganization, announced 
In mid-August, divides all of Apple into four divisions. They are Apple 
Products (product marketing, worldwide manufacturing, and research 
and development), headed by Jean-Louis Qassee; Apple USA (U.S. 
sales and business marketing, information systems and technology, 
aisestner ^i^HtW, mi sisBems int^fisttjh), headed by Man 
Loren; Apple Europe, headed by Michael Spindler; and Apple Educa- 
tion & Apple Pacific, headed by Del Yocam. The symmetiy limps afitt. 
But its clearer than ever before that the future of the Apple H (at least 
for this quarter) is in the hands of Qassee and Yocam. 

I don't know if you bave any need for any BIQ.DLMNYs around 
your pUice, but I recent^ needed one here. I had installed one of 
'Qms: m0^i^0& ^QMs in itiyW#5 enhanced lie. When she ran 
AppleWorks, AppleWorks, recognizing the card as a RAMdisk, expand- 
ed Itself into a// the remaining memory on the card. 

I figured she'd need a little free space on the StatDisk even while 
running AppleWorks (enough for the QuickSpell custom dictionary to 
expand into, if nothing else). fiy>eo-4pj>te published an Ai^ieUtoil^ 

patch previously for limiting the amount of RAM used by AppleWorks 
(August 1987, page 3,56), but unfort:unately, that patch doesn't work 
with Beagle Bros' Timeout Another possibility was to move a little 
jumper on the StatDisk itself so that AppleWorks wouldn't recognize it 
as a RAM card (but so that ll-Piuses and unenhanced lies wouWrecog- 
niiK it as a bootable disk drive), but that static miswoi^ ^ ^xpensb^e 
and 1 wanted to use it as much as possjbie. 

My solution was to write a short Applesoft program that saves a 
dummy file on the StatDisk. Then it runs an IMraMaaos task File that 
starts up AppleWorks and deletes the dummy file, thereby opening up 
some RAMdisk space. Task files are an UltaHacros extension that 
start up AppleWorks and press itis keys. My task file, which 1 called 
AW.START, presses Return a couple of times to get past the flip-disk 
and date prompts, then finds the dummy file and deletes it, then 
changes the. Current Disk Drive to the one my wife normally uses for 
saiftig tterta fitesi in the end, it stops at the main AppieWorks menu. 
Just as AppieWorifs normally does. 

This trick would be useful with any RAMdisk, so many of you mlpt 
be interestt-d in looking at these programs. To start up AppleWorks 
under this system, put the Applesoft program, BIO. DUMMY, in the 
same subdirectory with AppleWorks and UltraMaaos. set your prefi.x 
to that subdirectory, and run BlQ.pUMMY, This starts a chain reaction 
that ends up within a memory-expanded AppleWorks that hasn't over- 
taken the entire RAMdisk. 

Welt's m #pt£sOt pifipHn; 

10 REM Save =_his as 3i:;.DIi:4MY 

20 FRlm CHS.S(4);''E3AV£ Da»K,.f.330C,LS30i)0" 

38 ?mm cm (41 ; ' 

Here's the beginning of the Task File that erases the file created by 
BIQ.DUMMY. You can add other macros to it, but the part shown here 
should come right at the beginning. If you're not thoroi^ly familiar 
with UitraMactos, proceed like Biis: 

* sad a wrd pf cKS'ssot file- to the deiKep frca scratch, 
' Press open-spple-esc tc see the Tiiiisojt nem. 

' Select "Hasro Ccjpilec", "Display Current Hacro Set". 
Ttiis t,'i:i fill the word pioeessM file «tli yoar Cirrent 
Mcros . 

* Add the macro SSown Mow at t'na of tfee fil^. Oa not eater 

tiie ocatests. can, ItcweE, estei: die ctnaso^ in s vertical 
to.-jm as I've dote fiers,. ai' yau, can ester tSei.all; in saae iiSs 9S, 
is icre typica'. . Delete ara? other 3ft-, macrB jou, night Itave arid 
any ether "start". 

* Select "Macro Comptier" again and "Compile a New Set of JSacros." 

* Select "Macro Optics" and "Create f. Task File". 

fe" it jsks for a filename, sr.te: "AW.START". There's no need to 
enter the prefix of your AppieBorks subdirectcr^-Dltrafiaeies already 
fctiows mere- it IS'. 



t.iis must follow ;igr.t after "start" 


B®* dasHii*- t 


ftass oate 


Choose Othif ieCiiaties 


choose Delete files 

set up lacro for lipcomiBg FIND 


Ut cursor on DDMHSf 


select it 

delete it 


Yes, I '3! S.B,J6i 


ctoosB Chanff ca£5s!ft- BM 


select list's secoJia df&e 


back to main nena 

! sr.d of lacip 

One final warnlngt Before trj^ to start the B1Q.DUMMY chaip reac- 
tion, run Apple«forl& smd iBie "©thiej Acfi¥ilie!S^ ^Icct itawiaaKl Loca- 
tion of Your Dala Disk' to point the 'current disk' at the subdirectory 
you have AppleWorks and UltraMacros in. This is where the dummy 
file gets saved. The macro won t find it unless you set up AppleWorks 
to default to that subdirectory. As mentioned before, the end of the 
macro, as written, changes the default to the second device in Apple- 
Works' disk drive list. You can change this to whatever you' like. " 

4.^ Opm-MS^ 


CamcUom and Amp^k^iamt The Ust 

of OMiiarty updates t^aH&t ^ Ap^Woite 
Zl tMwe pubBshed /ast moatfi ^^eam (0 
bt wrong fyom be^nnlng to end. ActiottShg to 
fOtk SinoBsen at Beagle Bros, Gvfs made 
some bst-^ond changes to Apf^eWoiks 2.1 
that prevented the third-party updates the am- 
panics had prepared for ^pleWorks 2.1 fimai 
working. At the moment, h appears you need 
Applied Engneering's AW 2 Expmder v3.0. 1; 
Beagle Bros Timeout v2.l; Jem Software's 
v2. 1; and you have to st/ck mth AppleWmks 
2.0 if you want to use Myota^ Update at / / 
(as in tiovember). 

On last month's page 4.64, ! mentioned the 
programs Icooii and Soaix from So What Soft- 
ware, but neglected to include prices or a 
phone number. Icoafai: is $39.95, Sontx is 
$49.95. and So KbaTs pbOfie nufliter Is 714- 

Back in July, (page 4.45) I neglected a 
p/ione number for Innovative Systems, the 
company that's producing the floating point 
caid for Affile lis that uses tbe 68881 math 
chip. You cm teach iaaavalbie at SOl-MT- 

Af^^ Septaaber Stater Mies 
have more comply infennaSioii dlMMit Oie 
pnMems Apple had vM ta^x^ ta^Sew 
Yes's Eve. I meO^msd M^si &^ 
4A9). The pnOkm omms bM If^ metno 
ry expaim>n caris and ligs masifxy expansion 
kits. The probim ts that some of the chips 
Apple used weren't 'CAS before HAS' (so even 
App/e makea this mistahel). There were two 
types ol bad chips. One type has a 'liEC man- 
ufacturer code and, just below it, a 't/K' coun- 
ty of manufacture code. The other set has a 
TffC manufacturer code, a 'JAPAFI' country 
code just beneath it, and a four-digit date code 
to the right of 'JAFAti' followed by a T and 
xme more stuff. If you have a memory expan- 
sion card with chips //fce these soldered onto it, 
your Apple dealer will replace it free. If you 
bought an Apple memory exfiansion kit with 
chips /fte these (chips bought from Apple have 
m VI' mmked bi the lower left comer of the 
cM|p>j, your J^fple deaiei will replace them. 

(Apple's S^emba^ service notes also said 
that bes^mang this montft the Apf^e ligs will be 
sMpped nth a atw opeiafing system called 
aU9^ im ^isiltB d^4.0. Obferflg^ un^ wll 
ic^tb Jlis fi^^^ fsee Sept^nber 

tMf. S>Sf} to vse 1^ sofbumxu 
S(ihML..we»e Mtsivposed to hiow Biis.) 

Also In Augusf (page 4.50} I left a comma 
out of line 50 of the program that cheds for 
CyberAIDS. It goes between the operhquote 
and the 'A$: And on page 4.54, third column, 
second paragraph I gave two of the Manx C 

compilers the same name. Aztec C65-d is the 
correct name for the DOS 3.3 system; the Pro- 
DOS system is called Aztec C65<. 

Way back in March (page 4. 15), I dropped 
an 3' from the answer to the letter 'Overslrike 
cursor at startup'. It goes between 'Ai^WORK' 
and -.SYSTEM'. 

A represeatatiye of Orange Micro was our 
guest at a real time conference on QEnie on 
August 30: we found out the answer to the 
question asked in last month's letter, 'Orange 
Micro's Support' (page 4.58), is to get a v 1. 1 
BOM for the ImageBuffer from Orange Micro. 

AOL Sas^f VflSWmilT, one of the lea& 
eis^M am^amm and Desr^^ 
era RMiDdfafifean iQISi&sedt ja&ao efedini' 
ic pie dtibedOed lith a miess^ that $^ m 
answer to /ast month's letter UalDlsk Tech' 
(page 4.59^) was incomplete. Full inftmna:- 
lioR on UniDisk 3J5 k^em^ iS a^ a»a^sMe 
ft? the Apjae Oga f kmmiMm M^Mvaee M—* 
al. Images 142-151. 

Back to bent arrows 

I read in the September issue that you are in 
search of a way to get ttie AppleWorks word pro- 
cessor to display the MouseText bent-arrow 
character for Return instead of the fuzzy box. 
]Ve uploaded a nie called AW.LOCATlOn.BNY to 
GEnic that contains this |)alch, as well as many 
ethers. Or vou can use another of my uploads, 
SUrCKrATdl. to install tb^ patebes Into 
AppleWorks 2.0. 

John Link 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 

ffere!s the patch. You have to change three 

POKE 768,205 

BSAlfE SEG.Ml,7S00,A768,ll,BS6rel 
fiSAVE SES.!a,T;00,A7ea,U,B$7n5 

ma m.m,mii.AiiiMiW^i 

Link's files are probably availaUe.<m other 
online services by now as weB. 

Another bent arrow 

Another good place to use the MouseText 
bent arrow in AppleWorks Is In place of under- 
line cursor. It makes it much ea^ to see. To 
nutte this change do this; 
Fon m,n 

Thomas Militello 
Rancho Paios VfenJes, Calif. 

H^eVe g/Ken essentially tbb same informa- 
tion before (see 'Mnk and itsgoije', May 1987, 
page 3.S2 and t^j^flgh^ the Mnk ^eed', 
Septea^ 1967. 3M)k ^^mOBt 
new irOama^ yem tip ads h 6at ym am 
replace (he OtiSar ndtft my of the 
MouseTea cftaracteis hjr asb^ vMa& bi Ok 

Update bliKS 

I ttilnk I am going to write a book and entitte 
it 'Adventures in Upgrading". Qetting Apple- 
Works 2.1 to work with my other software has 
taken a lot of postage and aggravation. At the 
rate I am going with problems with AZn, Beagle, 
and Applied Engineering, it will probably be 
Christmas or maybe even AppleWorks-GS 
before I get v2,l installed. The only thing so far 
that has been easy about upg^ading has been 
the response tarn Qacis. 1 could not believe 
how quklt^ they pmvlcted the update. Hk^t 

parent never lesponded so well. 

Whit Crowley 
Manchester, Mo, 

Upgrades are always a hassle, especMy for 
those who are near the front of the F»t 
bfsenkaam tosldp arevlslon level ev&yoace 
bi auflBe, butfni not cooWnced evai reaf- 
ly helps. 

Don't pass go, v2.1 

I thought you might like to have the patched 
to bf/fem Qik staitup "piess^ce-bar-to^oiitiii- 
ue' and 'enter-cmrent-date' messages for the 

new AppleWorks 2.1: 


POKE HUB, 44 ; KEM bypass "press space luar" 

POKE mi6,M : m bffftss "-enter date' 

Daniel R. Creech 
•. Hannibal, no. 

Desktop expansion 

What are three economical ways of expand- 
big AppteVforhs deslslop memoty? 

T. Garner 
Coquitlam, B.C. 

fhere are only three ways. With the price of 
MM cMps, none of them seem very economi- 
cs. Thty aie "aaxr^of, 'stmlard-slot: and 

aa ^ux^ mesmtf OMA Em^^^ aOm- 
danS-alot cards are Applied En^aeobi^ iSmh 
Factor, Aps^e's Memory Expai^eai Ciiidl, aM 
Oltedi's PR cards. AppleWorks 1.3 and higher 
automatioilly recognize this type of card and 
use /( for desktop expansion. Z^amples ofamx-- 
jrfot cards are Applied Engineering's temWerfe 
and Checkmate's MultiRam. AppleWorks must 
be /ja/ched, using software provided with these 
cards, to recognize aux-slot memory. The 
patch programs, however, provide word pro- 
cessor and database expa/is/ons beyond what 
A^IeWorks itself provides for standard-slot 

lie owners have the same options as lie 
owners, tiowever, the only standard-slot type 
card avallat^ for the lie Is Apple's own. Older 
lit models require a free motherboard upgrade 
to use this card. Applied Engineering and 
Checkmate Technology both make aux-slot- 
fype cards for the lie. AEs is called Z-RAM and 
Checkmate's is MuftiRam CX. 

otams Witt 8nd that f^^Vlrxks 2.0 
aad b^r mma^^ e)^M Mo tftdr 
jwsm^Mit m maie a 

mmber t^arnifss^ A^taa a^be l%fed 
wH^ a standard-slot-type (but not an aiix«tot- 
fypel fnemoiy cant, hut Api^WortB dot 
expand into it without a apecM pattA isee 
'AppleWorks lIgs defeaisf, Dexsmfber 1987, 
page 3.86 and 'figs dekatef (fefeated*, hi Jlan- 
uafyJSflfl, p^c3.95.; 

Devict list too short 

I would like to have the AppleWorks "Disk 
drives you can use list to display the choice 
'Disk 1 (Slot 2)" for my second 3.5 drive. To 
date neither I nor my dealer nor the Washington 
Apf^ PI hot flne nor Claris technkal support 


can get it Id do this with my hardware configura- 
tion, (t doesnt matter whether I use plain vanil- 
la AppleWorks or a patched AppleWorks. It also 
doesn't matter if 1 start Appleworl^s from- my 
hard disk or 3.5 drive. 

In addition to my 20 meg Sider in slot 7 and 
two 3.5s, I have one 5.25 in slot 6 and a 1.5 
meg Ilgs internal RANdisk that shows up as slot 
5, dive 2. 

Charles 0. Ward 
Centrevllle, «a. 

onfysix^^tes in its '^^diiws yoa cart fs^ 
list. You have more than that. The six that 
show up in your list are the two volumes in slot 
7, two in slot 6 (ProDOS can! tell if you have 
one or two 5.25 drives connected, so it always 
assumes two), and two in slot 5 (3.5 and 
/HAMS). Your seventh, the 3.5 ffjaf appears to 
be connected to slot 2, won't Fit in ttie list 

One solution is to access the second 5.5 by 
name using the 'FroDOS (ffiECttH/ djdce at 
the bottom of the list. 

Another solution is to tell FroDOS you really 
only have one 5.25 drive connected. If you 
have Q/en Bredon's FtoSEL. his SCAVEf^.QE 
program will remove the phantom drive from 
the FroDOS device table. The newest version 
ofFivSELs CAT.nOCTOli also /las this ability 
from its auxiliary (CD. EXT) menu ($40, S2t 
State Rd, Princeton, m, 08540). 

If you know a little assembly language, 
another possibility is to ast a com of Af^k's 
PnOQS liedtaikK ffem M rnvhetl 

explains how to remove delves from t^be 
DOS device list 

<L>ayout, search macro 

Do you think most AppleWorks users Know 
about using open-apple-<L>ayout (o modify the 
single-record screen in the database? I've been 
using AppleWorks for almost three years and 
just stumbled upon it {it gets a mere half page 
in the old manual). At last 1 have i readaMe fot- 
mal for bibliographic entries. 

The most useful wotd-processing macro Fve 
thought of is: 


note: <S3-F> is <o5-F>t<oa-''> 

Press solid-apple-<S>earch and five charac- 
ters and the macro will Lake you to the first 
occurrence of those five charactere in Itie docu- 
ment, i find it useful when I revise long docu- 
ments on paper and then enter the changes in 
AppleWorks. You could make the string in the 
macro as long as you want; I've found five ctiar- 
acters virtually always CttotigR. Ybu can do a tof 
to malffi sure that they are enough by typing a 
string that contains the end of one word and the 
beginning of the next. The final <rtn> is neat 
since it works for both <N>o, I don't want to 
find the next occiirrence, aod <i5p!ace eai>;, as 
in Tiitrt Fcaind, prcsss Spa^e Bar to eantlBae". 

Charleston, III. 

Since almost all of the public-domain tem- 
plates I've seen have notlmg more than the 
stock two-column layout for the single-record 
screen, I', like you, suspect most people don't 
Anow they have the capability of rearranging 
the positions of the categories on that screen. 

Some of the AppleWorks enhancement pro- 
grams that add mouse support to AppleWorks 
allow you to tse tliE mouse to f^oiff tBe eafe- 

gories on Ac screen. For my time, this is the 
best use of a mouse inside AppleWorks. 

Exclaimated vertical lines, $300 

In May a Swedish Apple 11 user asked how to 
change the vertical lines in AppleWorks so they 
used the exclamation point instead of ASCII 
1 24, which isn't a vertical line in the Swedish 
character set but an o with two dots over it. 
Mere are the patches for the menu cards and 
the oa-Q menu. I wasn't able to find the needed 
locations for the Database/Spreadsheet vertical 
lines or for Tab Stops. {Tiy looking for ASCII 
12* in AppieWorhs aiKl yon'O find it appears 
hundreds of Smes.f. 

POKE 768,33 : REM ■!' char 
B5ff/E SEG.t;lrTSOO,J$300,Ll,Bei4EOF 
BSA'/E SEG -Kl , I SDD , i5300, 11 ,3S1 4B6F 
BSK'E SEG.m,T500,AS300,i,l,B$HBBI> 
BSAVi SEG.Ml,,]S00,AS'3Qi),Ll,BSUC[;5 

ssxvi; sEG.m,isoo,?i300,:i,ssi5e36 

eSA'S t;EC. Ml, 'ISOO, 45300, U,BS158i2 

As for the space at $300, both TVmeouf and 
ly/fraMacros use parts of that page. However, 
$300-$31F is still safe from both these two add- 

Mark Munz 
Fort Lewis, Wash. 

The ASCII 124 problem was encountered in 
Greece two years ago when we were localizing 
AppleWorks. About 12, flther ASai codes also 
caused pnobleini, 1 us^ RtoS^a BLOQlliii!^ 
3Qd recomineftd the fi^l^tii^i^ ptiQif^^ 

«, llate lo^of ApiieMbits di^ 

li. faspste yourMf to s^y sleepless for a 
week or so. 

c. Scan 5EG.M0 and SEQ.Ml for the assem- 
bly commands LDA, LDX, and LDY followed by 
ASCII 124 (that's $A9 ,7C, $A2 7C, -and $A0 7C). 
Change them one-by-one and tiy AppleWorks 
every time. Hot all are meant to be changed. It 
took me a full month's worii to change all of 
AppleWbriis into Qiseek. 

riick Andritsakis 
Infostar Computer Consultants 
Rallithea, Qreece 
The tessott h&e fbr softunts attBim is to 
set up a table in your program it/iaf holds ail 
the chaiigeable characters, instead of doing an 
'imim^te' re0skT l!mii get (fee .spesEla/ char- 
m^m'kim fi&eiab/c. tocMkeis cmita simply 
mm. feraad diffljge the table. The characters 
tfti^' change ntOfn language to language are 
ASCII 35 [It), 64 {@], 91 ff), 92 (\], 95 (1). 96 (), 
123 (I), J24 (I ), 125 {]). I26H. and 127. 

(^ecft Video ROM needed 

I need to be able to operate a database in 
the Czech language, My lie has a German key- 
board and a switch that lets me flip to an Ameri- 
can keyboard. Where can 1 get a chip that would 
let me switch between German and Czech? I 
also need to find a supplier of European alpha- 
bet da&y wheels for my printer. Any ideas? 

Myron E. ScWrer 

Accwdb^ m tfUR Mher's Vadeta^^g 
the Apfie ife pow mt of print), the video 
ROa in yoat s^e lle Is an Sit 28-pin 2764 
ROM (lies isofd iHf the U.S. use a smaller, 4K 
video ROM). We know that It's technic^ly pos- 
sible to replace it with an EFROM that holds 
the German and Czech character sets, biit we 
don't know where you d gel one already made 

up. We don't know of a source for the daisy 
wheels you need, either, but will be interested 
in what our £uropeaa sirbscribeis iaiowabmit 

Old DOS, new CAT 

nna%, the CAT command comes to D0& 


9D4[-:fl) B km-M il tl?31;t(l 10 

This changes the iriT command to CAT. CAT 
does the same thing as CATAlXiQ, CATALOG 
still viodis. too. IMT doesn't. 

CMottesville, vet. 

RESUME doesn't 

A DOS 3.3 quirk I ve run into and never seen 
an explanation of Is Ihe use of RESUNC after an 
OnCRR GOTO when thene is an I/O ERROR afber 
a text file has been p^atly read, RESUME does- 
n't work—it just prints a T on the screen. If 
there are still n records in the text Tile to be 
read) you can hit Return fl times and then the 
file Is closed and the program contiiiueSb Any 

John Waters 
Tampa, ria. 

Under DOS 3.3, an I/O ERROR will turn off 
your READ and close your file. When you 
RESUME, you go back to the tfiPUT statement 
was being executed when the I/O ERROR 
occurred. Since READ is no longer active, 
itiPUT /oote fo the keyboard, rather thm the 
rile, and a question nark appears on jour 

Most programs simply declare the FAe 
unreadable at this point !f you want to be 
more sophisticated, your error handling routine 
would have to reOPEH the file and Issue anoth- 
er READ command. This, of course, would set 
the file pointer back to the beginning of the 
rile, not to the spot you were reading when the 
error occurred. You could track how many 
ctmraders have been received as a Hie is read 
and use a 6 parameter with your READ state- 
ment to go back to the exact byte that caused 
the !/0 ERROR. See July 1985. page 1.51, for 
more on the B parameter. Also see January 
1985, page 1.02, for more on OfiEJUi GOTO 
with READ. 

Assembly RUN 

I know that you can RUM an Applesoft pro- 
gram from assembly language by jumping to 
$D566 (54630). This will execute any Applesoft 
program in memory from the beginning, as if 
the RUM command was entered. I'd like to be 
able to execute a program from any line— is 
there a way to RUH a program starting from a 
specific line numtier? Perhaps a GOTO would 
be better, as the variables could be retained. 

Benjamin ISg 
Calgary, Alb. 

Make sure that Applesoft has been initial- 
ized (see August, page 4. 56) and that your pro- 
gram has been loaded, then: 

AS V'Y LDA mt Store sMT. ia 
35, 50 S,TA ^ifl 

S5 51 mm 

AC 55 tJ ^2^'-iS& 

4.70 OpeH'iijsi^ 

This is the equivalent of a QOTO $XXYY 
command, where $XXyY is a line number (in 

ProDOS zm-p&aie usage 

[ m writing a progr^nn on my He using assan- 
bly language under ProDOS, Where cat) I find a 
listing of '^m page Ict^iUo)^ used W froOOS 
so that I d(»i1: acertentaliy eiciiiljef the area 
progEan is uSii^ wfii RoDOS (or vtee-verM). 

Allan Q. Dunn 

The FwDOS Macliine Language. Interface 
uses locations $40 through $4E, but it restores 
them to their original values before a call is 
completed. This is why you never see much 
about FroDOS /.cro-page usage. The floppy dish 
driver routines inside FroDOS also use $3A 
through $3r. These are not restored and 
should be avoided if your program will support 
5.25 Itidi dfsfcs. 

Directory deletion 

When I try to delete a subdirectory from a 
FroDOS disk from Applesoft it says FILE 
LOCKED. Even if I unlock it ! have the same 

Chang Yuh Mng 

FILE LOCnED doesn't describe the actual 
problem— it was just an error message already 
built into Basic.systern. The real problem is 
that you can t delete a subdirectory from 
Applesoft unless its empty. First delete all the 
files in the subdirectory, then delete the subdi- 
rectory. The FILE LOCKED error will dfsapp^ 
along with your subdirectory. . 

Undelete problems 

Yesterday, while doing some house cleaning 
of disks to remove old files, ( inadvertently 
deleted a needed file. I tried to undelete using 
Copy li Fins, but couldn't In what way does 
Aitplefcf^ delete a flle so that (It cannot be 

Donald Bock 
tludson, Fla. 

It depends which version of FroDOS you 
were using with AppleWorks when you deleted 
the file. Files deleted while using versions of 
FroDOS prior to 1.3 cannot be recovered, 
flow's that for a good reason to update your 
dfete with a newer version ftoDOS? 

ImageWriters in the office 

Today we had a label stuck underneath the 
platen of one of our ImageWilter Its. Iffie spent 
more than an hour with screwdrivers, tweezers, 
pileis, a pencil compass, an Exacto-knife, and 
anything else we could think of tiyins to get that 
nttie sucker out of there (we have a blowtorch 
downstalis^I vas tempted, but managed to 

I even spent about half an hour trying to fig- 
ure out how to just remove the bloody platen 
from the printer, bul nothing about the tasK is 
obvious. While I sat there with sweat pouring off 
my face, one of the secretaries brought me a 
bottle of something called Dr, Scat! typewrller 
cleaner I was very skeptical, especially because 
the applicator ba!i was far too big to squeeze 
under the platen. But 1 tried it, squeezing some 
of the fluid into the crack. Then I rolled a piece 
of paper through the printer and said WOW" as 
an inch-square piece of label rolled right out 
with the paper. 

1 don t even know where to get the stuff, but 

it's probably available in office supply stores. I 
am thoroughly Impressed with it. I gave the 
whole platen and print head, a good cleaning, 
too, md the stuff did a marvelous Job (it's unbe- 
lievable how filthy a year-old printer can be). 1 
really don t know if this brand of cleaner is the 
best, but I certainly know that it works. 

flere's a handy AppleWorks tip I've never 
seen in print before^ in ourtrffrce we do ^ lot of 
stuff on single-«heet paper, though we don't 
have a cut sheet feeder- It's easy enough to roil 
the continuous paperback and flip the sln§te< 
sheet latch— the problem was that AppleWorks 
was conf^red for continuous paper and would 
expect the next sheet to be there when it waS' 
n't. First 1 tried to teach our secretanes to use 
Appleworks's open-apple-<0>ptlon Pause Each 
Page feature to solve this, but they often forgot 
to include that code when printing on single 

So 1 configured AppleWorks for two printers. 
The specification.^ for the two printer are iden- 
tical except that one stops at the end of each 
page. I named them 'ImageWritcr 11" and "Image 
Pause", Our secretaries have a much easier time 
rememberirvg to pick the proper printer than 
they did remembering to use Pause Each Page. 

Dean Esmay 
Flossmoor, 111. 

You coubi probably even name Ute [sinters 
'(mtSnuoas paper' and 'single sheets'. Those 
make sen^ble answers to the question 'Wh&e 
do you wmt ia pritA the fiieT 

You hintat anotiier aseful tip here, tuat-doa't 
adually say it—when switching between contin- 
uous paper and single sheets on an ImageWrlt- 
er llj you don't have to completely remove the 
continuous paper from the printer. When you 
flip the single-sheet switch, it disconnects the 
pinfeed tractors, so you can leave coiUinuous 
paper threaded' ets long as lt!s clear of Use plat- 
en area. 

Print downhill no more 

I read with interest last month's letter called 
"Printing downhill" (page 4.59). My Epson MX-80 
used to print with a downward drift in double- 
strike mode when each character was being 
underlined separately. A magnifying glass 
revealed the reason: Prior to the second pass 
for printing each underlined character, the 
paper would advance a fi^ccton of a dot and the 
second strfke would fill in white spare tietween 
verElcal dot.s .\ fraction of a dot is not much, 
but when il nap pens (or very many characters, 
it Is decidedly ijotiosabie. 

The answer is to use the Epson's underlining 
feature, not Apple Writer's. The paper still 
advances lor overstrike but only once for the 
entire line rather than once for each diaracter 

Robert H, floldsworHi 
Wilbraham, Mass. 

To use the Epson's underlining feature from 
within Apple Vliitar. enter control-V, the 
Epson's underline'On code, and another con- 
tfol'V. Use the same sequence to turn it off. 
The control-V allows you to enter control codes 
into your lexL Badi when / used Ajviv Vriter 
all the time ! had some '^ossary keys' or 
macros set op to enter alt Oie codest all I had 
to remember was which macro tamed under- 
line on and which turned it off. 

To avoid having underlines sticMng out past 
the left margin when a line breaks while under- 
line is on. you also need to use the printer's 

left margin command and leave Apple 
a/iitets left margin set to zero. 

I looked in our nugrammeis' Bandbook 
of Computer Printer Commaads for the 
Epson underline on and off codes. It doesn't 
show any for the MX~80, which could be a sig- 
nificant limilalian of this technique for some 
Epson owners. For other Epson printers, 
tndudif^ the Spson FX that started aU this, 
underline on Is "ESC-V {the hyphen is pMof 
the cxmmand) and underline off fs '£SC-0'. 
The left mar^ command is r.::iC L n', where 
V fei/iie width of the left margin in characters. 
(The widtli in inches depends on what charac- 
teFsetyouare using.) 

Mini-8 iMdgeWffter dealers 

A cable is almost always a cable when refer- 
ring to the Mini-Din-8 ("ligs modem cables, 
cont", September 1980, page 4.56). But if you 
use a switch box to run more than one 
printer/computer combinatian you will gel into 
trouble if you use all standard mini-8 cables. 
Whether you have one computer and several 
printers or one printer and several computers, 
the cable from the box to the single device can- 
not be a normal mini-8, il must be a special 
straight-through caWe. If not, the cohibination 
will not work. 

Image Writer lis can be verj' crabby about 
paper. The symptoms described in "Chronic 
printer problems" (page 4,59) and earlier letters 
can be a result of paper that is too thin or too 
thick. Too thin paper doesn't push well, espe- 
cially when the humidity is high. Extra thick 
paper also can be too hard to push through the 
printer. It s also possible that the paper is hitting 
the bail and binding when the printing begins. 

ImageWriter ll p^r drive motors can Eail 
and sdU work sorts, ktnda. This Mm is charac- 
terized by a horrible grinding noise when the 
paper should be advanced, but will not be cm- 
sistent. Sometimes the paper will feed, some 
times not. The fix is to replace the motor, 

Incidentally, Im an Apple dealer and I dis- 
agree with a statement in the letter "Repair 
Restraint" ipage 4.62). Apple does not specifi- 
cally require a dealer to use Apple parts for the 
repair of Apple computers. Most of the parts 
simply aren't available anywhere else. The 
prices aren't cheap, but weve found Apple to 
be a fast and fair supplier of service parts, I 
wish 1 CO Liid say that about most of the electron- 
ics companies we deal with. 

Power supplies and TTL logic chips are the 
most . notable items that are available from 
sources other than Apple. We have tested and 
sold non-Apple power supplies for the ll-Plus 
and He. Our experience is that yes, they are 
cheaper, bi^ they also have a shorter life span, 
We have sSso had a defect rate approaching 25 
per cent. 

'^tjf IttOe .component-l^ m03e h dohe 
anymore on logic boaKfe, so we cfflisume few 
TTL ICS these (fays. Apple doesnl care where 
we obtadn Qiese parts. 

Vern Mastel 
Bismarck, rt.D. 

/ added an automatic printer switch to our 
collection of equipment this month and the 
cable connections made me crazy. The switch 
connects four computers to one printer. The 
computers are a lie, .lie, lIgs, and Mac SE, so 
thefe's quitg: a amiMiit^itm oifcmtt&Sors. The 

October 1988 

Qpm-Ap^ 4.71 

printefs an ImageWritei II. The printer switch I 
used li^ standard fiS-232 25im cmnecliois. 

It tmk fore ver to wire up atf We m^^ As 
^firedct my carefully thouQht-iSM ^ai^ fot 
M- cafifes, airfiig wiring diagrams §tM n WM- 

uasolcfeii^ cai^ mUi tbe me iiaurs of me 
momir^ before I got things gang, 

"Hie printer switch I used automatically 
detects when any of the computers starts to 
print something and connects it to the printer. 
While that computer has the line, the printer 
appears "not selected" to the other three com- 
puters, so if you try to use one of them to print 
something it will politely 'hang' until the first 
computer is rinislied. Another feature of the 
box is that it has lights that Itash constantly, 
whicti is much more impressive to friends and 
neighbors than any other equipment i have. 

The company / t)ought the switch from said 
it wouldnt work with an Apple I! (they wanted 
me to buy a twice-as-expensive unit wfth a 
memory buffer), so I'm not going to mmti- 
mend them. It you know of anyone wko jpro- 
dm& st switfat HHe tttis with mtiiS cmoBcim 
and d&^hi tSS^ams, M Ske to know 
atxiul it 

Printing double-wid^ 

What are the conM cocle$ ta get dn 
Im^gelliftiter II to print 4 and 6 characters per 

Gen Clogan 
Monticelio, Hi 

To get cftaractera this big you have to use 
the imageWritefs codes for double-wide char- 
acters. You cant actuaily get 4 cliaracters-per- 
Inch. But you can get 4.5 by setting the 
ImageWriter for 9 cpi and double-wide. 6 cpi is 
the ImageWritei's 12 cp/and doubl^wide, 

10 DKER$(4) : ESC5=CHRS(iJ( 

20 PRISI Df;"P3n" : m printer on 

1 ^1 K;»g":| ! mi I ^i- 
15 'mHM f ; HEM fliSle-vfide 
50 ?BDI? "This is 4.5 chars/inch." 

60 PRINT E$;"E'; ; REM 12 cpi (e-itej 
7C PRINT "This is 6 chars/ineh." 

11 HOI can? (151 i ! BOr aKito^ite :o!f 
S3 2SniJ„"Tli:5 is 12 dm&f-Mn,' 

35 miM 3|;'PRrC" 

SCSI numbers don't add 

Iji the Ju^ issue on page 4.46 you say that 
Hp to seven SCSI devices may be connected to 
one SCSI card. I purchased a CT-20 hard drive 
from Chinook Technology, but the User Manual 
indicated only two de\^ces could be connected. 
Which is correct? 

Gary Mertl 
Brookfield, Wise. 

SCSI allows for seven devices per SCSI 
Cto'n. Current versions of FroDOS, however^ 
otity allow two devices per slot. This is where 
tltt cm fusion corses from, I &ipect futupe vi- 
sions of FroBOS will Jeap Ovef the two-devices- 
per-slot limitation. 

Another view on cheap drives 

In your reply to "fetlifcWng hard disks- 
(cont)' in the August issue (page 4.53) you say 
ISM-t^ drives aren't reaDy cheaper in the long 
run and that all the letters you've received 
about the Periin Megaboard have been negative. 

I have found neither to be true. 

f poich^sed a M^abqard aboitf a? jear ago 
^ have Jteit veiy sa&iedi I am ffift a Tan- 
im TN-705 drive thit robMiied Siiiplus for 
^200. Jt is an AT-daSs drivie tW: Kfmste (IBM) 
m ^ nt^d^ytes, has an average access Bme of 
45 iTiiliiseiConds (fast), and has aatiE>-pari<L Wfth a 
case and power supply available for as little as 
$50 (I paid $75 for extra current capacity) and 
with the Megaboard (which includes all cables 
and software) for $195.00, ! was online for 
under $475.00. 

The only drawtwck to the Megaboard is that 
its hardware is set up for drives with 4, 6., or 8 
heads. As about 00 per cent of the drives avail- 
able fall into one of these categories, it's usually 
not a problem. The TM-703, however, Jias 5 
heads. This means that 1 can only access about 
25 megabytes on my drive. Due to its speed 
and other features^ 1 firtd that liniMioh accept- 

The Megaboard allows partitions for D05 3.5, 
FroDOS, CP/M. and Pascal. I find the system 
quite fast and flexible. If I had it to do over 
1 wpuld still have purchased tjie Megar 

heads MHJuld mm been.bdfetei. 

I feel r mu&. correct your other Itnpie^n, 
sd^tfe^. \n addition to severai Apples, I also own 
m IBN clpDe. I added a 52 megabyte hard drive 
to It also. The drive was purchased for 15!^ 
and included a controller card and caiiies. 
That's all you need, r!o upgrades to (he power 
supply or operating system were needed, con- 
trary to your statement. IBM power supplies 
include connectors for four drives, hard or flop- 
py. MS-DOS (2,0 or higher), which is Included in 
most system purchases, is fully capable of 
accessing hard drives without modification. My 
IBM drive is an admittedly slow 65 millisecond 
model, but It has worted fine for alXHit two 

I find each machine has its own set of advan- 
tages and disadvantages and that one of each is 
tiie brat to go, 

John I. Alexander 
fPO San Pramfeco 

I ret^ewed tfte m^or eomptaint letter we've 
received atmut the ^fegaboa^£f and have to 
admit it contains a lot more smolte than fire. In 
addition to requiring an even number of heads, 
the other big complaint is that on a llgs the 
Megaboard has to go into slot 6, which makes 
it difficult 10 move files from 5.25 floppies lo 
the hard disk. There are also some limitations 
to the DOS 3.3 partition, which has a ma,\i- 
mum size of 38 I40ti volumes per drive. 400ti 
DOS 3.3 volumes are not supported. There 
was also a problem with the conHguration soft- 
ware, which couldn't deal with drives larger 
than about 43 meg, but that bug has been 
fixed. The software now wottts wrt/i drii^es up 
to 64 megs in size. 

As for tiie IBN drives, we priced all the vari- 
ms items you need separately. If you are able 
to bay tiKtn fit a bundle or get them when you 
buy jfioar system, as you did, the prices get bet- 
ter. We've always agreed that IRM-type rfnVes 
are ctieiap& Ojan Apple drives; our point Is 
sAnpfy that the real price diffei&jce is less 
than the perceived difference— users Who . put 
together a hard drive system usir^ IBHiype 
drives vill save money, but usaSly not as 
mtKii as K WMtd at first appew. 

French accents 

Using an Apple llgs and ImageWriter II, I have 
been unable to access Trench vowels with cir- 
cumflexes (the vowel with a caret above it). All 
other accented vowels are available in the 
rrench character set on the ImageWriter, and 
via the confrol panel on the llgs, but not with 
any software I've yet tried (AppleWorks, Word 
Perfect QS, MulliScribe). 1 know its accessible 
in Htord Perfect for IBM, ftm do Apple users 

Dorothy Hesbitt 

WinnetKa, ni, 

lefs start with the AppleWorks example. Go 
into the 'Options' selection in the llgs Control 
Panel and set the screen display to french. You 
may also be interested in setting the keyboard 
layout to French, which is a separate selection, 
fiow AppleWorks will display the built-in French 
characters, which, as you point out, do not 
include cixumflexed vowels. 

To get this much to print on your printer, 
you have to tell the ImageWriter you want to 
print in Frericti. You can do that 'pennanenUy' 
by setting the dip switches conectly, or with an 
AppleWaiis piititW setup (see 'Danish to aO' In 
our Juiy l^m^ 4.47:. for more kinma- 

tfi fi^anc*, / suspm We ImageWriter adds 
the circumfIeK by backspacing over the vowel 
and printing it separately. There is no way to 
duplicate tids an tfte llgs text screen aud it is a 
feature that the U.S. version of AppJelVorks 
doesn't support. I'll rely on our flench sub- 
scribers to fiil us in on how this works with the 
French version of AppleWorks. 

With a program like l9ultiSctibe you are not 
limited lo the llgs text screen or the 
ImageWriters built-in fonts. What you need is 
simply a font that contains all the French char- 
acters. I'm not sure whether there's a French 
font in the public domain, but if there is I'm 
sure we have it available tor downloading on 
QCn/e. There may be prMems with display of 
even special fonts, however, as described in 
the next two letters. 

To summaffee, / don't know very much 
atmut this, bs* i jknow we have subscribers in 
Europe who are voy familiar with the issues 
and vih&A M. us hmto pnxeed. 

More tilmrnSm^xtim tongue 

duc^^ fOl^ ^Ip0 te^ me see and 

print all characters of arty font, lifDm *00 to $rr, 
including accented letters, symbols, and ding 
bats. But all other ProDOS 16 applicaUoBls lit; 
me see and print only from $20 to $7E. 

Is it possible to use all characters with Multi- 
Scribe, Draw Hus, Graphic Writer, or Paint- 
Works? And why don't these applications obey 
the "Display Language" and "Keyboard Layout" 
options of the llgs Control Panel? 

1 also tried to read, with NultiScribe 3,0, an 
ASCII file with accented characters taken from a 
Mac, but MultiScribe resolutely refused. 

Luigi Bruno 
Rome, Italy 

There 1$ one aspect of some llgs software 
that 1 have not seen mentioned in any article I 
have read. In Hactetosh software It is possible 
to generate extra characteis by holding down 
the option imey when ^ng, 'Hiis is not possible 
in all llgs software^for example, it doesnl work 
in MultiScribe QS tat least up to 3.01c), but it 
does in Tc^jDiaw. ThesK two programs are firom 

4.73 Opea-Appte 

the same <xnipaii|^ 

Vise and {@ r<mts liie S'tiii: ASCII. Tfimpil 
citaiacl»9 |VB 1(mr ASpf and iN tsGBii ciiaitac' 
la$ M are aiea^te conet^end Isf 'UgAi 
ASCir. These extra chaiadm ine most easily 
seoi iisii^ /ftx^Pod^ 

I asked StyltWare about this nearly a year 
ago and Iheir response was 'the lack of ability 
to access the high ASCII set is a limitation of 
the operating system of the Apple llgs. In Top- 
Draw it was possible to overcome this limitation 
wilhout corrupting the system files, but we have 
yet to find a way io do this in MultiScribe.' I also 
tried asking Apple Australia about this but dtd 
not get anywhere. 

Its possible to oveii;ome this problem, but 
its tedious. First you need to create a file that 
has the 128 low-ASCII characters in it. Do this 
with MultiScribe or whatever. Next, use a zap 
program to change each character to its high- 
ASCII equivalent. Once you have a file liKe this 
(you could also use a program that will deal 
with high-ASCII characters, like TopDrai*; to cre- 
ate it) you can use copy and paste via the clip- 
bowi to put the special characters into your 

Cm anciUier subject, in lefoence to "Spealong 
In tonpes* in your August issue, you didn't 
mention Pe<^'s Power System software, i 
havent used Qiiis sQibraie or seen any reviews, 
but I have Hit £aflowb^ Morinali0ii am their 

toctares, tic^ meat, m&am, mmm^ 

77, mi BASKi eauqfleis smm^ik&iA, m m^l 
as a separ^e assemttet Caich of the fivie is 
available in cither an "Apple II 6502" version or 
a "Apple 11^' 658 1 6 version. All of the compil- 
ers use SANE numerics ajrd can 'access FroDOS 
files , althou^ the compilers don t appear to be 


©Copyright 1988 by 
Tom Weishaar 

t-slp rom 

Tom Mmderpool 
Dennis Ooffls 

Sally Dtvyer 

Host rights rescved Al pwgwns ptiriisM in Cpa-Afple ais duM: 
dmun and ray te copied and dsfrtbuled vemt chaige. Apple mt- groj-ji 
aniJs^|[icanlotli«s may obtain permlssiofi id repnrrt jrfic/es Irom (o jme 
Dy specific wtenieqinsl 

(jfo^ffie IBS teen puUisted momhly since j^-' i^ i I9as. vwjrU-wKle 
H/as 1(1 U.S. Mgrs; limit deMiy iidudeci it no addKnal cliarge); $28 (or 1 
year, tst lor 2 VMK t7B Ibr 3 ywit M b«k IMS ae niirently avacUfe tar 

imea end «rili its Jinuav Itwai Imtox fertapitBr volunB a <itMBi «# 
n a m mi 4 M am ifora» ix Id; 

P.O. Box 11250 
Overland Parte, KBMa$ 66ilir iL£U. 

l^mUgilt *■ avakyf on M tor t)aiMf! nMjte usee ham 
Sixfch Enwprtses. 1%. to 7980. Hgullcil Ibwnsn 

ar« tncoursged id mam Mdi'ijp aithM cotiis or eaiy-io-iead eifaiget! 
copies lor yojr qw u$e wttNiul dorje. Ybu mair also copy OfBt^pfkis' 
dislifliulior to oWera. The deiribution lee is 15 cenis per page per copy rts- 

WURMin AMD LUnnOM OF UABiimr. I Hiirriinl Iha mcsl g^e 
InlQimation In Ofa-Uffit » useful and correct allioui^ dnni aid ms- 
laliK ate inefadad Ifoin time Is ttne. usually uninlenficn^. Unsatslied 
subsoeers miy cancel lhair subealpllan al any line aid receive a U\ 
'elunc al itiar lad uteoiprnn paynunt Tlie unHad portion of iny pail 
subscripiim all be refufvj«d even Ki saiisfred subscrlbeis upn laiuest. 
PUflLCATlON'S PURCHASE PRICE. In no cas« sf sil i or my conlributcirs 
be iiaWe lor any incidenal or consequenSal damsses. nor Idi ANY ilam- 
ages in excess ol me lees paid by asuMddber. 

PtMeillnlll*U.S,A, mJt&mi 

PiooOS-trased. The brochant Q)e tigs 
Inq^me^yiajioiis u^ltee esttendedi^neMny. sHpr 
todbwcTtwilne&and ftKN 
Pascal. A vsri%df unifies areap^Nbt^ 
I was faterested licmise:-! «oidd $Ke a fOR> 
UAH-??* bat am Mil undedded. I would piefer 
a cott^iiterthat tarii under AM 

StepKoi tlatiter 
Oahl^h, Vic. 

If tiodsePodge can display all 256 charac- 
ters, it would seem other programs should be 
able to. We'll see what we can find out. 

four compilers and an assembler times two 
versions (Apple H and j4pp/e llgs) makes ten 
sepanate packages from Pecan Software. Each 
package sells for $100. Wc havent seen any of 
these products either. (Pecan Software Sir's- 
terns, 1410 mh St, Brooklyn, FiX 11218 7I& 
85 1-5100 or 800-657-3226.) 

Watch those controls 

After we upgiaded the RO^ on luy father's 
llgs. trying to turn on the 80<olumn text scneen 
from Applesoft Willi PRINT CHRK4)j*P!»3- yield- 
ed a no DEVICC COPinECTCD error. PR#3 in 

immediate mode did the same. It turned out to 
be a control panel protJlem— slot J was config- 
ured for Your Card. 

Gark Hugh Stiles 
QraiKt Rapids, Hich. 

CDA/NDA lesson 

I have downloaded some Classic Desk Acces- 
sories from CiCnie, but I haveni seen tiow to 
install them or how to access them. Could you 
M la the details? 

John Christensen 
Indian Head, Md. 

$e$^ m:<^mi& come in tm> M''f^ '(^'^ 
sk', or CDA, and 'aeyt^ or WA. Tbe^ m asefet 
aity on the llgsi eatllet Apf^is can t use ^nt. 

Take your CIJA. and MDA fOes and copy thein 
to^mrPioDOS 16 System Disk (thetSsk^ 
boot from). They must go in the 
SYSTEM/DESK.ACCS folder (subdirectory). 

When you next boot that system disk, the 
desk accessftles will be automatk^ly 

To use the classic ones, press open- 
apple/control/escape, just like you were going 
to use she control panel. You will see a list of 
the CDAs 3nd you can choose which ones you 
want to run. You can access this menu from 
anv hind of software, including newer FroDOS 
16. older FroDOS 8, and DOS 3.3 packages 
(unless ihe program turns off ^interrupts', in 
which case the menu isnt accessible). 

To use new desk accessories, you must be 

a /VoQOS 16 fmi^m, siech as ftixkr. 
foS^at ffie smaB app/e h Uteifj^er-ieft comer 
of Ore screen and press on Oit fbouse btoton. 
Ammi ¥0<ttep tkm ^imMes Oie fiPAs 
on Ibe iMtjimbooted 6m. 

There sax SmUs to how nmy desk aaxs- 
soifes yoii can have access to at one tbne. 
However, those limits have been puaOimd by 
programs such as Two Apples and fkiaSer 
CDA, mentioned here in Jufy fDe^ accessory 
limits, page 4.43). 

Beagle Compiler and slot 2 

Since the time 1 wrote the "llgs is slot poor" 
letter thai you published in the September issue 
(page 4.62), Alan Bird has modified the Beagle 
Compiler such that AFPl£MEM.SYSTEM now rec- 
ognizes a memoiy card tn slot 2. 

Elliot Ufson 
YwKers, ff-Y. 

The bias potential 

1 request that my subscription be cancelled 
inie(K^att£ly and that you refund the papa^ 
ment amount on my subscription. While ) <fc>nt 
owe you a reason, I wilt volunteer one. While i 
cannot be ImowtedsealJle as you o^ ytwr staff 
aixsot the bottom me in nAat it costs to run 
such a newsletter as yam, I bmssm 
painfully aware In Rcoit moilttis of tiie M in 
«mpha^ on stddtee tetlUtqof IsoeAcs. Wh«fl t 
received Hits month's Issue smd saw the atteo- 
tlon given to the pitching of memory cards, i 
decided it was time to part company. 

I suppon Consumer Reports Magazine for the 
same rea.son I've supported you in the past. I 
believe there is a place for newsletters and 
magazines oi small, select audiences that do 
tlot accepl .idvertising and do not sell the prod- 
"Ucts they are talking about. You ve crossed the 
line. And lost a subsailter, 

Kate Kelbaugh 

/ dont think it'sfsirto compare Opa-Ap^ 
to Coasamer Sepotta. CofHBBcr Bepmts is 

a massinaiketp^acatlOB Omtist&ilotm^ 
times larger than ovur ntw^eUer, or^te mi- 
vices, and book and product sales eoro^nied. 
n solicits, receives, and depends on tax- 
deductible donations for its existence. 

But !m sorry if I created the impression 
somewhere along the line that Open-Apple 
would be designed on the Consumer Reports 
model. Consumer Keport» is not just a differ- 
ent animal from what we're trying to do here., 
it's a different species. 

Open-Apple is a 'high-lech/high-touch' 
Information Age enterprise. What we do for a 
living, at Us most essential level, is bring peo- 
ple with a common interest together so they 
can help each other accomplish their goals. 
This is easy to see even in the Cirtech case, 
where were giving U.S. Apple II users the 
opportunity to obtain high-quality pfoducts 
made by European Apple II users. 

On the other hand, I recognize that selling 
both products and infomation i^ut products 
QKM^ m &^t!^ li^vaie. rm acttetyanm 
tbat m have to iiandfe it caiefu^. If we mee' 
Stat to M oar mmaktlxr daOier than om tM' 
aSog) Fecmunend htdt we s^, r^har tlm 
whats worth rooHtimen^rg, Well dfMie the 
value of our Aifoffliatfon. I dont want or intend 
to do f/iat and I appreciate people like you 
mal^ewryefftxrttokeepme hmest.