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Jane’s USAF 


Previous page: USAF photo by Senior Master Sgt. Rose Reynolds 


Chapter 1 


General Instructions 1.1 

Getting Started 1.1 

Drop-Down Pilot Window 1.2 

Menu Button 1.2 

Main Menu Screen 1.3 

Show Main Menu Option 1.3 

Information Window 1.3 

Fly Now 1.4 

Links to Other Screens 1.4 

Flight Screens 1.5 

Quick Mission Editor Screen 1.5 

Mission Settings 1.6 

Revivals 1.7 

Mission Forces 1.7 

Training Screen 1.8 

Choosing a Course 1.8 

Flying a Mission 1.8 

Single Missions Screen 1.9 

Listing Available Missions 1.9 

Choosing a Mission 1.10 

Campaign Screen 1.10 

Starting or Rejoining 

a Historical Campaign 1.11 

Winning Historical 

Campaigns 1 .1 1 

Starting or Rejoining 

a Future Campaign 1.12 

Campaign Info Box 1.12 

About Mission Box 1.12 

Campaign Control Window ....1 .1 3 
Winning a Futuristic 

Campaign 1.14 


Mission Screens 1.15 

Tactical Display Screen 1 .1 5 

Before a Mission 1.1 6 

Map and Map Tools 1.16 

Briefing Window 1 .1 6 

Map Navigator Window 1.19 

Map Icon Buttons 1.19 

Flight/ Aircraft Buttons 1.20 

Record Mission Button 1.20 

In-Flight 1 .20 

Real-Time Map Display 1.20 

Visit 1.21 

Switching Aircraft/ Flights ...1.21 

Loadout Screen 1.22 

Customizing a Loadout 1.23 

Choosing a Flight 1.23 

Viewing Available 

Weapons/Equipment 1.23 

Loading and Unloading 1.24 

Debrief Screen 1.25 

Tools Screens 1 .26 

Pilot Records Screen 1.26 

Pilot Dossier 1 .26 

Changing Your Current Pilot. 1 .26 

Creating a New Pilot 1 .26 

Deleting a Pilot 1 .26 

Current Pilot Information ....1 .27 

Mission Status 1 .27 

Kill Tally, USAF Losses 1.28 

Pilot, Weapon Statistics 1.29 

Mission Statistics 1.30 

Rank 1.31 

Medals 1 .32 

Mission Recorder Screen 1.33 

Recorder Control Panel 1.33 

Playback and 

Tactical Display Tabs 1.34 

Visiting 1 .34 

Reference Screen 1.35 

Object List, Viewing Box 1.35 

Web Screen 1.36 


ikiTrnriinr 
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GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 




This chapter provides an overview of the USAF interface. This section gets 
you started and explains a few general features. The other major sections 
cover the following: 

Main Menu Screen (p. 1 .3) details all of the features of the Main Menu screen, 
including Fly Now. 

Flight Screens (p. 1.5) covers all of the screens where you can choose or cre- 
ate a mission to fly immediately. 

Mission Screens (p. 1.15) describes all of the interface screens you see after 
you have loaded a mission. 

Tools Screens (p. 1.26) talks about the Pilot Records, Mission Recorder, 
Reference and Web screens. 

For information on setting up multiplayer games, see Multiplayer, p. 5.1. 
For Preference screen options, see Appendix D: Preferences Window, p. 8.8. 

Note: Jane’s USAF® has a primarily cursor-driven interface. Unless specified other- 
wise, “click” always refers to left-clicking the mouse. 


There are two ways to begin playing Jane’s USAF, once you’ve installed the 
game. (For installation instructions, please see your Jane’s USAF Install Guide.) 

Jump directly into flight. If you want to jump directly into a random, com- 
puter-generated air-to-air battle, you will want to choose the Fly Now option. 

• Click the USAF Fly Now icon on your desktop. 

• You will begin the mission in the cockpit. (For more information on Fly 
Now, see Fly Now, p. 1.4.) 

Begin at an interface screen. If you want to begin at an interface screen, 
where you can choose missions, view your pilot records, etc. before you fly, 
you will want to choose the Jane’s USAF option. 

• Double-click the Jane’s USAFshortcut icon on your desktop to start the game. 


• Click Start on the Windows 95/98 taskbar menu and then select Programs 
> Jane’s Combat Simulations > USAF > Play USAF to start the game. 

• You can bypass the introduction by pressing any key. 

• You begin every USAF game from a Main Menu screen. You can disable the 
Main Menu by de-selecting the show main menu checkbox on that screen. If 
you do so, the opening screen defaults to the last screen you visited. 


Getting Started 


- OR - 


1 . 1 


INTERFACE 


Jane’s USAF 


Drop-Down Pilot Window 



In the top right-hand corner of each screen is a button 
for a drop-down pilot window. The name displayed 
on the button is your currently selected pilot. Click on 
the button to view this pilot’s current stats. Click 
again to close the window. 

Go to the Pilot Records screen to view more in-depth 
information about the currently selected pilot, change 
his photo, select a different saved pilot or create a new 
pilot. See Pilot Records Screen, p. 1.26. 


MCHU 


Menu Button 


At the bottom of nearly every screen is a menu button 
which gives you access to all of the interface screens. 
Click on an option to go to that screen. 

Instant Action 

Fly Now Jump straight into flight. See p. 1.4. 




Flights 

Quick Mission 

Training 
Single Mission 

Campaigns 

Multiplayer 


Create and fly a customized mission. See p. 1.5. 

Fly a training mission. See p. 1.8. 

Fly a pre-scripted, single mission, a mission you created, or 
a future campaign mission you’ve already won. See p. 1.9. 

Start or rejoin a campaign. See p. 1.10. 

Start a multiplayer game. See 5: Multiplayer, p. 5.1. 


Tools 

Pilot Records View pilot statistics and change pilots. See p. 1.26. 
Mission Recorder Review recorded missions. See p. 1.33. 

Reference Prepare with Jane’s reference information. See p. 1.35. 

Web Check out relevant web sites. See p. 1.36. 


Preferences 

Set graphics, sound, game controls, keyboard, and gameplay options. See 
Appendix D: Preferences, p.8.8, for full documentation of these features. 


Main Menu 

Return to the Main Menu. See p. 1.3. 


Quit 

Exit the game. 


1 .2 




MAIN MENU SCREEN 

From the Main Menu screen, you can access all other interface screens and 
view data for your currently selected pilot. 

To return to this menu from any other interface screen, click on the menu 
button at the bottom of the screen and choose main menu. Or, click the link 
at the top of any pre-flight screen. 




Show main 
menu option 


pilot window, 

p. 1.2 


Links to 

other 

screens, 

p. 1.4 


Link back to this screen 
(appears in all screens) 


Fly Now, 
p. 1.4 


Information 

window 




Show Main Menu Option 

When the box marked show main menu when starting usaf at the bottom of 
the Main Menu screen is checked, you will begin at the Main Menu screen. This 
happens whenever you start the game using the Jane’s USAF shortcut or 
choose Play USAF from the Windows 95/98 Start menu. If this box is 
unchecked and you enter in one of the ways listed above, you will begin the 
game where you left off. (You will always begin the game in the cockpit of a 
randomly generated mission when you click the Fly Now shortcut icon on 
your desktop.) 

Information Window 

When you run Jane’s USAF for the first time, a customized welcome message 
appears in this box in the lower center of the screen. It recommends an initial 
mission type based on the gameplay level you selected during installation. 
When you subsequently return to this screen, your current pilot’s stats 
appear in this window. 

Whenever you position the cursor over a link on the screen, information 
about that link replaces the information in this window. 


1 .3 


INTERFACE 



Jane’s USAF 


Fly Now 

The large fly now button in the center of the Main Menu screen takes you 
directly to the cockpit of one of the eight flyable aircraft, in the middle of an 
air-to-air scramble. 

To get an idea of your situation, you can of course use all of the instruments 
normally available to you in the cockpit — such as your radar, RWR, etc. For 
a brush-up on instrumentation, see the Cockpit chapter, p. 2.1-2.48. 

You can also take a look at the real-time Tactical Display screen by pressing [Esc]. 
This screen shows the movement of all friendly and enemy aircraft in each area, 
as well as relevant ground objects. You can zoom in on areas, object and 
flights, and click visit for a camera’s-eye view of some objects. See Tactical 
Display screen, p. 1 .1 5, for more details. 

Note: Fly Now missions do not count toward your currently selected pilot’s kill tally, 
statistics, score and rank (see Pilot Records Screen, p. 1.26). 


■e 


Links to Other Screens 

Move the mouse over a link to highlight it. A short description of the link 
appears in the information window in the lower center of the screen. Left- 
click on the link to go to the corresponding screen. 

The page references below indicate where to turn in this manual for more 
information on each link. 


FLIGHT 

SCREENS 


TOOL 

SCREENS 


Quick Mission 
Training 
Single Missions 
— Campaigns 
Multiplayer 
|— - Pilot Records 
Mission Recorder 
Reference 
■ Web 

Preferences 
Quit 


p. 1.5 

p. 1.8 

p. 1.9 

p. 1.10 

Multiplayer, p. 5.1 

p. 1.26 

p. 1.33 
p. 1.35 
p. 1.36 

Appendix D, p. 8.8 

Exit the game. 


1 .4 



FLIGHT SCREENS 

The flight screens allow you to choose or create a mission to load and fly. All 
are available from both the Main Mena screen and the menu button at the 
bottom of all preflight screens (see Main Mena Screen, p. 1.3 and menu 
Button, p. 1.2). Flight screens include: 


Quick Mission Editor Set basic mission parameters to create a custom 
mission that you can fly immediately. 

Training (p. 1.8) Fly a pre-scripted mission designed to teach you 

flight skills, weapons use or combat tactics. 


Single Missions (p. 1 .9) Fly a pre-scripted, single mission, a mission you creat- 
ed, or a future campaign mission you’ve already won. 


Campaigns (p. 1.10) Fly a series of related missions. 


You can also jump directly into a randomly generated air-to-air battle by click- 
ing the fly now button on the Main Menu Screen. See Fly Now, p. 1 .4. 


Quick Mission Editor Screen 


The Quick Mission Editor allows 
you to quickly design a customized 
mission. You determine what goes 
into the mission, and the computer 
places all of the objects for you. 
Quick Missions will not count 
toward your currently selected 
pilot’s kill tally, statistics, score, and 
rank (see Pilot Records Screen, p. 
1.26). 



Open a Quick Mission that you have previously created and saved 
using the Quick Mission Editor. 


Save the current Quick Mission. You can later open this mission. 
Quick Mission files are saved by default in Program Files\Jane’s 
Combat Simulations\USAF\Resource\Missions\Qme. (You can 
move these missions to any other computer, as long you copy them 
into this same directory.) Finally, you can access your Quick 
Mission by selecting My Missions from the Single Mission screen. 


Flave the computer generate Quick Mission Editor settings for you. 


Load the Quick Mission you have created. A pop-up window 
appears, tracking the progress of the load; if you wish to cancel, 
click the cancel button to go back to the Quick Mission Editor 
screen. Once the mission is loaded, you will begin it from the 
Tactical Display screen (see p. 1.15). 


Go back to the previous screen. 


4 


1 .5 


INTERFACE 


Jane’s USAF 


Mission Settings 

You will set general parameters for your mission in the 
box on the left side of the screen. Note that Quick 
Missions are modeled on USAF Red Flag missions in that 
USAF pilots fly against each other on “red” and “blue” 
sides. You always start out on the blue side, leading the 
Austin flight. 



Note: In multiplayer games, you can switch sides before you fly byjumpinginto a red 
side flight. (Click the corvette or dodge flight button at the bottom Tactical 
Display screen — see Switching Aircraft/ Flights, p. 1.21, for details.) Onceyou 
are in flight, however, you can’t switch sides. 


Mission Name Typ e in a name for the mission. This name will appear 
under My Missions in the Single Mission screen. 

For the following options, choose a setting from the pull-down menu: 

VIETNAM, IRAQ, GRAND CANYON Or GERMANY 
(determines the terrain you will fly over) 

DAWN, DAY, DUSK or NIGHT 

head-on (both sides begin the mission facing each other) 
tail-on-blue (red begins the mission on blue’s tail) 
tail-on-red (blue begins the mission on red’s tail) 

5 MILES, 10 MILES, 20 MILES, OR 30 MILES 
(Determines how far apart the red and blue forces are) 

guns only (loadouts limited to guns) 
aa (default loadout consists of air-to-air weapons) 

AG (default loadout consists of air-to-ground weapons) 
AA & AG (default loadouts consist of air-to-air and air- 
to-ground weapons) 

Note: Cuns are available in every loadout selection. Additionally, you can always use 
guns for either air-to-air or air-to-ground attacks. The options above limit only the 
missile and bomb ordnance loaded on aircraft. 

USAF A/G Target convoy, sam site, runways or none 

(Establishes a ground target for the blue side) 

Enemy SAMs 0, 1 , 2 or 3 

(Sets the number of SAM sites on the red side) 

Enemy AAAs 0, 1 , 2 or 3 

(Sets the number of AAA sites on the red side) 


Area 

Time of Day 
Starting Position 


■e 


Starting Range 


Weapons 


1 .6 


Revivals 

This sets the number of times aircraft on both the red and blue sides can 
regenerate. If you fly the blue side, the settings below apply to the red side. 
If you jump to the red side, the settings below apply to blue. 

No. of Revivals o, 1 , 2, 3, or unlimited 

Revival Delay o, 10 seconds, 20 seconds or 1 minute 

Weapon Reload current load (plane regenerates with whatever weapons 
it had left when it was destroyed) 

reload all (plane regenerates with full, original loadout) 


Mission Forces 

In the box on the right side of the screen you 
will configure the flights for the blue and red 
sides. Each side has a maximum oftwo flights 
— Austin and Buick flights are always blue and 
Corvette and Dodge are always red. 



You can set the following for each flight: 

No. of Planes Click the menu to select the number of aircraft — 0 / 1 / 

2/3/4. The Austin flight must contain at least 1 air- 
craft. All other flights have a minimum ofO. 

Aircraft F-1 6, F-1 6C, F-1 5C, F-1 5E, F-1 1 7A, F-4E, F-22A, A-1 OA, 

f-105d and mig- 16 through MIG-29. 

(Scroll down the menu to see all available options. The 
blue side can fly any player-controllable aircraft, while 
the red side can fly any aircraft.) 


Task 


CAP, CAS or STRIKE 

(See Tasking Section, p. 1 .1 8, for definitions.) 


Starting Altitude runway, 1 ooo ft. agl, 5000 ft. agl, or 1 sooo ft. agl. 


4 


1 .7 


INTERFACE 




Jane’s 


Training Screen 

Jane’s USAF has a variety of training missions covering the basics of flying, air- 
to-air combat and air-to-ground combat. Training missions count toward 
your currently selected pilot’s kill tally, statistics, score, and rank (see Pilot 

Records Screen, p. 1.26). 



Choose a 
mission 


the 
mission 


Choose a 
course 


Choose an 
aircraft 



I 


Choosing a Course 

The training series is made up of three courses: Basic, Weapons School and Red 
Flag. Click on a training course in the upper right corner of the screen to 
select it. The currently selected course is highlighted. 

basic. Covers basic flight skills — taking off, landing, refueling, and training. 

weapons school. Provides hands-on experience with various weapons sys- 
tems in different environments. These missions are based on the actual USAF 
Weapons School curriculum, and have been enhanced for this game. 

red flag. Red Flag is the Air Force’s air combat training program. These train- 
ing missions feature more advanced scenarios designed to prepare fighter pilots 
for grueling air-to-air combat. They are only available to pilots who have 
reached the rank of 1st Lieutenant. For more information on USAF’s Red Flag 
program and its history, see Background: Operation Red Arrow, p. 6.24. 

Flying a Mission 

The Missions box on the left of the Training screen lists the missions available 
in the currently selected course. Click on a mission to select it. Information 
about the mission — including the mission objective, the flights participat- 
ing in the mission and a map of the mission area — appears in the About 
Mission window in the center of the screen. 


The Planes box on the right of the screen lists the aircraft that you can fly for 
the selected mission. Click on an aircraft to select it. 


Once you have selected your mission and plane, click load to load 
the mission and display the Tactical Display Screen (see p. 1. 15). 


UldAl Go back to the previous screen. 


1 .B 




Single Missions Screen 

Single missions include: 

• Several pre-scripted single missions chat are not part of any campaign 

• Missions you have already completed in one of the futuristic campaigns 
(Operation Red Arrow and Operation Sleeping Giant) 

• Missions you’ve created and saved with the Quick Mission Editor 

( p. 1.5) or User Mission Editor (UME). (See Start > Program > User 
Mission Editor (UME) Manual.) 

Listing Available Missions 

The text options in the top right corner of the screen control which missions 
are displayed in the Missions box on the left. The currently selected option 
is highlighted in light blue. 

all. List all available single missions. (None count toward campaign out- 
comes, some count toward currently selected pilot’s record — see single 
below.) 

single. List single missions that are not part of any campaign. These are the 
only missions that count toward your currently selected pilot’s record (i.e., 
kill tally, statistics, score and rank). 

operation red arrow. As you complete missions in this campaign, they 
become available on this screen so that you can refly them. (None count 
toward campaign outcome or pilot’s record.) 

operation sleeping giant. As you complete missions in this campaign, they 
become available on this screen so that you can refly them. (None count 
toward campaign outcome or pilot’s record.) 

MY missions. List of missions you designed and saved using the Quick 
Mission Editor (see p 1.5) or User Mission Editor (see Start > Program > 
User Mission Editor (UME) Manual). None count toward pilot’s record. 


4 


Important Note: Most single missions flown from this screen do not count toward 
your currently selected pilot’s record (i.e., kill tally, statistics, score and rank). The 
exceptions are standalone single missions that are not also a part of any campaign 
(see notes above). Likewise, missions that are also part of campaigns do not count 
toward the outcome of the campaign when flown from this screen as single missions. 
Missions you Ve created with the Quick Mission Editor or User Mission Editor will not 
affect pilot statistics. 

For more information on what counts toward a pilot’s record, see Pilot Records 
Screen, p. 1.26. 


1 .3 


INTERFACE 


Jane’s USAF 


List 

available 

missions 





Choose a 
mission 


Load the 
mission 


Choosing a Mission 

Click on a mission in the Missions box on the left side of the screen to select 
it. (Use the scroll bar on the right edge to scroll the list.) The currently select- 
ed mission is yellow. Information about that mission appears in the About 
Mission box on the right. 


Load the currently selected mission. A pop-up window will show 
the progress of the load; click the cancel button on this pop-up if 
you want to stop loading and return to the Single Missions screen. 


t Go back to the previous screen. 


Note: Once you click fly at the bottom of the Tactical Display screen, you’ve begun the 
mission. If you quit without successfully completingyour mission objectives, you will have 
failed the mission. (You can refly missions as often as you like.) 

Once the mission has loaded, you will begin the mission pre-flight, at the 
Tactical Display screen (see Tactical Display Screen, p. 1.15). 

Campaign Screen 

Jane’s USAF offers four campaigns. Two historical campaigns are taken 
directly from the conflict in Vietnam and Operation Desert Storm. One 
futuristic campaign (Sleeping Giant) is a fictional conflict set in Germany. 
The other futuristic campaign (Red Arrow) consists of dogfighting with MiG 
fighters, air-to-air operations, and air-to-ground operations in the continen- 
tal US. 

In the historical campaigns you can access all missions at any time. In the 
future campaigns, you must successfully complete each mission to advance 
to the next. Campaign missions count toward your currently selected pilot’s 
kill tally, statistics, score, and rank (see Pilot Records Screen, p. 1 .26). 

For background reference information on the campaign scenarios, see the 

Background: Campaigns, pp 6.10-6.28. 


1 . 1 □ 



Starting or Rejoining a Historical Campaign 

The text options in the top right corner of the screen control which missions 
are displayed in the Missions box on the left side of the screen. The currently 
selected option is highlighted in gold. 
history Display the desert storm and Vietnam tabs. 

desert storm Display Desert Storm campaign missions in the Missions box. 
VIETNAM Display Vietnam campaign missions in the Missions box. 


Choose a - 
mission 


Click on a mission in the Missions box on the left side of the screen to select it. 
(The currently selected mission is yellow.) Information about that mission 
appears in the About Mission box on the right. All missions are available at all 
times, and you can fly missions in any order. 

Load the currently selected mission. A pop-up window will show 
the progress of the load; click the cancel button on this pop-up if 
you want to stop loading and return to the Campaigns screen. 

itUUHl Go back to the previous screen. 

You begin the mission pre-flight, at the Tactical Display screen (see p. 1.15.) 


Select 

campaign 



4 


Winning Historical Campaigns 

To win the campaign, you must successfully complete every mission in that cam- 
paign. When you do, you will be awarded the Vietnam Service Medal (for Vietnam 

campaign) and the Kuwait Liberation Medal (for Desert Storm campaign). 

• To pass a mission, you must achieve all ofyour mission objectives and either 
quit when prompted, or (if you choose to continue flying) land safely. 

• If you quit out before completing your objectives, you will fail the mission. 
This won’t affect your pilot’s score, but the mission’s status will be “Failed.” 

• You can re-fly historical campaign missions as often as you like from the 
Campaign screen. You can win the campaign by passing missions that 
you’ve previously failed. 

• Once you have passed a mission, its status will remain “Passed.” This is 
true even if you fly it later and fail it. 


1.11 


INTERFACE 



USA.F 


Starting or Rejoining a Future Campaign 

The text options in the top right corner of the screen control what is dis- 
played in the box on the left side of the screen. The currently selected option 
is highlighted in gold. 

future Display sleeping giant and red arrow tabs. 

operation Display information about the current state of the futuristic 
red arrow Grand Canyon campaign. 

operation Display information about the current state of the futuristic 

sleeping Germany campaign. 

giant 


Campaign — 
Info box 



Select 

campaign 


About 
Mission box 


In both futuristic campaigns, you must closely manage your pilots, aircraft 
and weapons. At least one time (possibly two times) during each campaign, 
you’ll need to fly weapon and supply missions (see facing page). 



Campaign Info Box 

The Campaign Info box on the left side of the screen displays information about 
the overall state of the campaign. A text box explains overall goals and sum- 
marizes the situation; use the scroll bar to the right to scroll through this text. 


.10 

03 

C 


About Mission Box 

The About Mission box displays information about 
the mission you are about to undertake, including a 
brief textual explanation ofthe situation, a list of the 
flights assigned to the mission, and a map ofthe 
overall mission area. 

tuum Go back to the previous screen. 



1.12 


Campaign Control Window 

When you start a future campaign, a small window appears onscreen. The 
Campaign Control window has four buttons that let you view information 
about your remaining aircraft and weapon resources. 



resource Open the Resource Status window. 


WEAPON 

SUPPLY 

MISSION 


Click to fly a Supply mission. Becomes available when you do 
not have enough ordnance to complete the campaign. The num- 
ber remaining is the number of Supply missions you have left. 


deploy Click to fly a Deploy mission. Becomes available when you do 
aircraft not have enough planes and pilots to complete the campaign. 

The number remaining is the number of Deploy missions you 
have left. 


4 


QUIT Quit the campaign and return to the Main Menu screen. 

CAMPAIGN 


The weapon supply mission and deploy aircraft options are only available if 
you’re running low on aircraft, pilots or weapons and can’t finish the cam- 
paign without restocking. You can fly up to two missions of each type. If either 
option is grayed-out, you’ve either used up all available missions of that type, 
or you’re not running low yet. 

Deploy Aircraft/Weapon Supply Mission 

Over the course of the campaign, your resources will dwindle as you expend 
ordnance, lose aircraft and possibly lose pilots. When your resource levels 
are too limiting, you may need to fly a Deploy Aircraft or Weapons Supply 
mission. 

You can fly each of these missions only twice. (This is true for both the futur- 
istic Sleeping Giant and Red Arrow campaigns.) 


1.13 


INTERFACE 



Jane’s USAF 


Resource Status Window 

This window charts the resources available to you at the current state of the 
campaign. Click on the tabs at the top of the window to view the current sta- 
tus of the corresponding resource(s): pilots, aircraft, ac (air-to-ground ord- 
nance) and AA (air-to-air ordnance). 



For each resource, the following is listed: 

Type. Breaks down resources by designation (i.e., AGM-65, MK-82, etc. for 

AG ordnance) 

Amount. Lists the number of this resource type currently available to you. 

The green bar beside the number illustrates the amount remaining as a per- 
centage of the amount you started with. 

Winning a Futuristic Campaign 

You will win a futuristic campaign when you have successfully completed all 

of the missions in that campaign. 

• You must successfully complete each mission to advance to next one. 

• To pass a mission, you must achieve all ofyour mission objectives and either 
quit when prompted, or (if you choose to continue flying) land safely. 

• If you quit out of a mission before completing your mission objectives, you 
will fail the mission. This won’t affect your pilot’s score, but you will have 
to refly the mission successfully before you can advance to the next one. 

• Once you’ve passed a mission, it will be available from the Single Missions 
screen. When flown as single missions, they will not count toward the out- 
come of the campaign. 


1.14 





MISSION SCREENS 


Tactical Display Screen 

The Tactical Display screen is available within every mission — both before the 
mission, when it displays your mission briefing and the target area, and dur- 
ing the mission, when it displays a real-time aerial view of mission events. All 
functionality described in this chapter is available both before and during 
flight unless otherwise indicated. 



4 


menu Click the gray menu button at the bottom of the screen to return 
to any other screen. 

(If you are in flight, you will see a prompt asking if you want to end 
the mission. Click NO if you want to continue your current mission. 
Click yes to end the mission and continue to the interface screen 
you’ve selected.) 

loadout (Not available during flight.) Click the blue loadout button to go 
to the Loadout screen. Use this screen to adjust your weapons load. 

See Loadout Screen, p. 1.22. 

visit (Not available before flight.) Click this button to jump to a close- 
up camera view of a selected object. See Visit, p. 1.21 for details. 

fly When you are ready to fly (or return to the cockpit view if you are in 

flight) click the fly button in the bottom right corner of the screen. 

back Click this button to return to the previous screen (the last one you 
visited). 


1.15 


INTERFACE 




Jane’s 


Before a Mission 

After your Quick, Single, Campaign or special Multiplayer mission has loaded, 
the Tactical Display screen displays your briefing for that mission, including a mis- 
sion area map and information about waypoints, threats and flight selection. 


Map and Map Tools 

The largest frame on the Tactical 
Display Window displays a map of the 
mission area, along with the name of 
the mission and the mission time. 

You can scroll the map using the 
scroll bars on the bottom and right 
edges of the map. You can also move 
the map with the Map Tools. 

By default these tools appear at the right of the map; however, you can click 
and drag them anywhere on the screen. 



Toggle map display. (Map is visible by default.) 


s 

H 

m 


Changes your cursor back to normal function (an arrow-shaped cursor) 
Click this icon to zoom the map out 
Click this icon to zoom the map in 

Click this icon to change the cursor to a cross hair with a box 
attached. Use the cursor to draw a box around an area of the map to 
zoom in to that area. 



m 


Click this icon to change the cursor to a hand. Use the hand cursor 
to click and drag the map, moving it around. 


■ 


Click this icon to change the cursor to a cross hair. Click on the map 
with the cross hair to center the map where you’ve clicked. 


u. 

I 


Briefing Window 

The briefing lists the mission name and type, with a brief 
description ofthe situation, weather, available intelligence, 
flight tasking, objectives, safety concerns and helpful tips. 

You will want to pay particular attention to the 
Intelligence, Flight Tasking and Mission Objectives sec- 
tions. 

Click the briefing button in the top left corner of 
the Tactical Display Screen to open a gray Briefing 
window on top ofthe map. 

• Click the print button at the bottom ofthe window to print your briefing. 

• Click the x button at the top ofthe window to close the window. 



1.16 




Intelligence Section 

This section of your briefing lists your targets and ail known threats in the 
area. (The threats listed may not be the only threats!). Light-blue, underlined 
text indicates a hotlink to additional reference windows. 

Object View windows. Pop-up Object View 
windows display a 3D model of the threat or 
target and list specifications from Jane’s 
Information Group, Ltd. 

• Use the arrow keys on the keyboard to 
rotate the model. 

• Use the scroll bar at the left edge of the window to scroll through the 
Jane’s text. 

• Click the x button at the top of the window to close it. 



4 


Target Photo windows. For some targets, a 
link to pop-up Target Photo window may be 
provided. These photos give an overall view 
of the target area with exact location coor- 
dinates. An enlarged view of the target area 
may also be provided, with structures called 
out to help you recognize you specific target 
elements once you reach the area. 

• Click-and-drag this window to resize or 
move it. 



Target View windows. These windows dis- 
play live footage of the target area (and 
therefore cannot be printed out). Use the 
buttons at the bottom of the window to 
change views. 

satellite view Switch to an overhead view 
of the target area from an 
intelligence satellite. 

zoom view Switch to a zoomed-in 

version of the above view. Rotate the view using Q and 0- 

uav view Switch to a rotating, 3D view of the target from the camera 
on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flying over the target 
area. UAVs are small, remotely controlled airplanes used for 
surveillance, target tracking and bomb damage assessment. 

• Click the x button at the top of the window to close it. 



1.17 


INTERFACE 


USA.F 



. 0 ) 

Q) 

C 


Tasking Section 

List each flight in the mission, along with the number and type of aircraft in 
each flight, and each flight’s task and targets. As in the intelligence section, 
light-blue, underlined text marks hotlinks to additional reference windows. 
A brief overview of tasks is listed below. 

CAP. (Combat Air Patrol) Fly around a specified waypoint or along a speci- 
fied path in search of aircraft threats. Often performed in support of anoth- 
er mission element that is executing a ground strike. 

CAS. (Combat Air Support) Fly to the specified target area and strike tanks, 
ground artillery, troops and other enemy ground force elements. This task is 
always performed in support of friendly ground force elements operating 
within or near the target area. 

Escort. Defend a specified friendly unit(s) from enemy attack as it travels 
through its waypoints. Escort missions are generally performed in support of 
friendly air elements that are executing the main mission objective. The 
objective of the mission is to keep the escorted aircraft out of harm’s way. 

Intercept. Neutralize an attack by enemy aircraft, such as fighters that are 
attempting to interfere with a mission, or bombers that have targeted a 
friendly ground installation. 

SEAD. (Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses) Destroy enemy AAA and SAM 
sites, and perhaps ground control radar installations to clear a path for 
another strike force. Target types include surface-to-air missile sites, anti-air- 
craft artillery batteries and any associated radar systems. 

Strike. Fly to the specified target area and strike specified targets. Targets 
might include anti-air sites, storage or production facilities, radar installa- 
tions, and other strategic structures. Sometimes strike operations are per- 
formed in support of another air element — for example, to destroy enemy 
AAA and SAM sites to clear a path for another strike force. Sometimes they 
are the mission’s main strategic objective. 

Note: In Jane’s USAF, you are responsible for completing every flight’s task (see 
Flight/ Aircraft Buttons, p. 1.20). Make sure you note which flight is responsible 
for which task — the aircraft assigned to it and their weapons loadout will probably 
be best suited to the task it has been given. For example, if two F-1 5Cs are assigned 
to fly a CAP for A- 10s on a ground strike, the slow low-flying A- 10s would have 
extreme difficulty taking over the air-to-air role and the F-1 5Cs probably wouldn’t 
have the loadout for the ground work. 

Mission Objectives 

Pay very close attention to the information listed in this section. Here you 
will be told exactly what you are responsible for in the mission. 


1.18 


Map Navigator Window 

This window displays an overview map of the mission area. The 
portion of the map currently displayed in the main window of 
the Tactical Display screen is marked by a red box. You can click 
and drag this red box inside the Map Navigator Window to con- 
trol which portion of the map is displayed in the larger window. 
Click the x button at the top of the window to close it. (You can 
also press the map navigator button to close it.) 

Click the map navigator button (second button on the left) in the 
Tactical Display screen to open and close the Map Navigator window. 



Map Icon Buttons 

The rest of the buttons to the left of the map control what mission elements 
are displayed on the map. Each button (except waypoints and intelligence) 
consists of red and blue icon buttons (that can be lit or dark) and a gray text 
button (that can be raised or depressed). 

| (red) Click the red icon buttons to display/hide only enemy objects 
of this type. 



Click the blue icon buttons to display/hide only friendly 
objects of this type. 


When the icon buttons are lit, the objects are displayed; when they are dark, 
the objects are hidden. 


Click the text buttons listed below to hide/display all objects of that type. 
When a button is depressed, the corresponding objects are displayed. When 
a button is raised, the objects are hidden. 


^ JUfMPT Q 
Q3 llHiN.fi 

& 13 



— Display/hide aircraft, including fighters I, support 
aircraft I, and helicopters I. 

— Display/hide vehicles, including tanks I, 
trucks - , and armored vehicles®. 

— Display/hide SAM sites A. 

— Display/hide AAA sites I. 

— Display/hide runways I 

Display/hide structures I and radar I. 

Display/hide SAM kill radii. These circles indicate 

the effective range of each SAM site. 

Display/hide your waypoints. 

— Superimpose a window with troop locations and 
arrows indicating troop movement over the map. 


4 


1.13 


INTERFACE 



Jane’s 


Flight/Aircraft Buttons 

The flight and aircraft buttons at the bottom of the screen allow you to cen- 
ter the map on different friendly flights or aircraft. In missions flown by more 
than one flight, you can also use these buttons to jump from flight to flight. 



Click on a flight text button (AUSTIN, buick, corvette, etc.) to take 
control of that flight. The map will re-center on the flight’s current 
location, and the flight button turns yellow. 

Click on the numbered aircraft icon buttons to re-center the map 
on that aircraft. (This does not affect which flight you are in.) The 
button for your aircraft is green, all other aircraft buttons are blue. 


Human pilots will always lead a flight of computer wingmen. Aircraft 1 is 
always the flight leader. 

Note: You cannot change flights in basic or weapons training missions. 


Record Mission Button 

Use the Record Mission feature if you’d like to record the mission you are 
about to fly and view it later in the Mission Recorder screen (see Mission 
Recorder Screen, p. 1 .33). When the red, circular button is depressed and the 
red light is illuminated, you are recording. You can stop recording at any time 
by clicking the button again. You can’t turn mission recording on/off once the 
mission has begun, however. Only in-flight actions will be recorded — your 
Tactical Display screen actions, for instance, won’t show up on the final tape. 

Toggle the mission recorder on/off 




I 


In-Flight 

You can also access the Tactical Display screen while flying by pressing (Esc]. 

• The game keeps running while you are viewing the Tactical Display screen. 

• The Loadout screen is unavailable in-flight. 

• To switch to another flight, click the center button of that flight, then click fly. 

• If you want to end the mission while in flight, press | Ctrl [ Q], You can also 
go to the Tactical Display screen, the click the menu button at the bottom 
of the screen and choose any option. 


Note: If you end a mission before you have successfully completed your mission objec- 
tives you will fail that mission. 


Real-Time Map Display 

While in-flight, the map window displays the movement of all mission ele- 
ments in real time. The map tools and map icon buttons function exactly as 
they do when you are on the ground, allowing you to move and zoom the 
map and hide or display different mission elements (see Map and Map 
Tools, p. 1.16 and Map Icon Buttons, p. 1.19). 


1 .20 





Visit 

Use the visit button to view any mission element — including ground forces, 
target structures and both enemy and friendly planes. Alternatively, double- 
click on any icon. 

To visit an object: 

• Click on an icon to select the object you want to look at. 

Click the visit button at the bottom of the screen. 

Move the mouse to rotate the view around the object. 

Zoom view in and out. 

Return to Tactical Display screen. 


0 

0/0 

[Esc] 


Switching Aircraft/Flights 

During a mission, you can use the flight and aircraft buttons at the bottom 
of the Tactical Display screen to jump into different aircraft or flights. You must 
finish the objectives for all flights, not just the one you fly initially. For this reason, you 
may want to spend time fine-tuning loadouts for each flight before you take 
off — that way, you’ll be prepared for whatever the mission holds in store. 


Press a flight button to jump to a different flight, if one is avail- 
able. You must always fly the lead aircraft (aircraft 1) unless it is 
destroyed during a mission. Then you will fly lead in the next avail- 
able aircraft (aircraft 2, then 3, then 4). 



Press an aircraft button to center the map around that aircraft. 


If your aircraft is destroyed during a mission and you are flying with at 
least one other friendly, you will automatically jump to the Tactical Display 
screen, where you can choose a new aircraft. 


• You must complete the mission objectives for all flights to win a mission. 
As soon as you successfully complete one flight’s objectives, you can con- 
tinue in either your aircraft or select another flight and take over its mis- 
sion. The mission won’t end until all flights’ mission objectives have been 
completed or all mission aircraft have been destroyed. 


Press | Shift m , 0 , 0 ), or 0 to switch to Flights 1 , 2, 3 or 4 without using 
the Tactical Display screen. The mission won’t end until all flights’ mission 
objectives have been completed or all mission aircraft have been 
destroyed. 


To manually end a mission, press | Ctrl 0 . Or, click the menu button at the 
bottom of the Tactical Display screen and choose any option. You will fail 
the mission if you end it before completing your objectives. 


4 


1 .21 


INTERFACE 


Jane’s USAF 


Loadout Screen 


Click the loadout button at the bottom of the Tactical Display screen to go to 
the Loadout screen and customize weapons load for all flights in your mission. 


Available 

weapons/ 

equipment 


Description 
of item 
currently 
under cursor 



Current mission — Hardpoint 



_ Current 
aircraft 

Maximum 

take-off 

weight 

Current 

weight 


Flight/ 

aircraft 

buttons 


default Return to the default loadout for the currently selected flight (see 

Flight/Aircraft Buttons, p. 1.20). 

save Save the current loadout to your hard drive in order to use it later. 

You may want to set up a custom loadout for use against a specif- 
ic target type, or a loadout that best utilizes your weapon delivery 
skills. Another advantage to saving custom loadouts is that it con- 
siderably speeds up the process of setting up a multiplayer game. 


Loadout files (*.ldt) are specific to the type of aircraft for which 
they were created (F-22, F-15, etc.). By default, loadouts are saved 

under Program Files\Jane’s Combat Simulations\USAF\ 
Resource\Loadouts\<name of aircraft>. (This path will be differ- 
ent if you did not install the game to the default location.) 

open Open a saved loadout. Loadouts are specific to a type of aircraft — 
the game will automatically point you to the folder in which load- 
outs for your currently selected aircraft type are stored by default. 

tactical Return to the Tactical Display screen. If you have made any changes 

display to a loadout, you will be prompted, “Use Loadout?” Click yes to 
keep the changes or NO to lose the changes. 

fly Enter flight. If you have made any changes to a loadout, you will 

be prompted, “Use Loadout?” Click yes to keep the changes or NO 
to return to the Tactical Display screen. 

back Click this button to return to the Tactical Display screen. 


1 .22 




Customizing a Loadout 


Choosing a Flight 

All aircraft in a flight carry the same weapons and equipment: when you 
reconfigure this plane’s loadout, you are reconfiguring the loadout for all 
aircraft in the currently selected flight. 

Select the flight for which you want to view a loadout. 
The currently selected flight’s button is yellow. 


4 


Viewing Available Weapons/Equipment 

The box on the left side of the screen displays all weapons available to the 
currently selected aircraft. Weapons availability is limited by the type of air- 
craft you are flying (not all weapons can be loaded on all aircraft) and in 
some missions — particularly campaign missions — the number and types of 
stores available at the current stage of battle. 

Six buttons across the top of this box control which type of stores are dis- 
played in the box: 

AA Display available air-to-air weapons (e.g., AIM-1 20) 

CP Display available unguided, general purpose bombs (e.g., Mk-82) 

lcb Display available laser-guided bombs (e.g., GBU-10) 

TV Display available TV-guided bombs (e.g., AGM-65) 

harm Display available HARM weapons (e.g., AGM-88) 

Misc Display available guidance and ECM pods and fuel tanks (e.g., ALQ-1 1 9) 

When you place your cursor over a displayed weapon or equipment pod, a 
brief description of that item appears in the text box at the lower left corner 
of the screen. 

For more information on the different weapons, see Combat: Using 
Weapons, p. 4.28. For more information on different targeting systems, see 

Combat: Targeting, p. 4.23. 


1 .23 


INTERFACE 


Jane’s 


Loading and Unloading Equipment 

The box on the right side of the screen contains a picture of the currently 
selected flight’s aircraft with all hardpoints called out. The aircraft designa- 
tion (e.g., F-1 5C, F-22) is listed at the top of the box. 

Weapons that appear inside the hardpoint boxes are currently 
loaded on the aircraft. The number ofweapons loaded onto that 
hardpoint and their total weight are listed beneath the weapon. 

Blank hardpoint boxes denote empty hardpoints. 

Tactical Considerations 

Many tactical considerations affect your loadout. You will need to review your 
briefing, determine which kinds of targets and/or threats you are likely to face, 
and load effective weapons. For ground strike missions, the level of precision 
required for the strike should also influence your weapon choice. Weather con- 
ditions may also affect your choice ofweapons — IR-seeking missiles are more 
effective at night, but TV-guided weapons may be useless. You may also need 
to load additional targeting and sensor pods to use certain types ofweapons. 

See Combat: Using Weapons, p. 4.28, for more information on weapons. 




I 


Load and Unload Equipment 

• To load, click an item in the available weapons/equipment box and drag it to 
a hardpoint. This loads the maximum number you can carry on the hardpoint. 

• You can load an item onto a hardpoint that is already loaded — the new 
item will replace the old one. 

• To unload, right-click on a hardpoint (or click on the item on the hard- 
point and drag it off). Each right-click unloads a single weapon. 

• If you have a weapon loaded onto a hardpoint, you can left-click on the 
hardpoint to add another weapon of the same kind, up to the maximum 
number that the hardpoint will hold. 

• Hardpoints are generally designed to carry certain types ofweapons or 
equipment. You won’t be able to successfully mount an item to a hard- 
point that cannot carry it. Try dragging the item to a different hardpoint. 
Usable hardpoints have yellow outlines that appear when you select a cer- 
tain weapon, while unusable hardpoints have white outlines. 

Weight and Balance 

When you are customizing a loadout, pay attention to weight and balance. 

• The current aircraft’s MaxT.O.W. (maximum takeoff weight) and Current 
Weight are listed above the aircraft. The current weight must be less than 
the maxT.O.W. weight, or the flight will never make it off the runway. 

• Ifyour load is not evenly balanced on both wings (i.e., heavier on one wing 
than the other), a red warning light appears at the top center of the screen. 
Equalize the weight by adding or removing weight from the opposite wing. 


1 .24 



Debrief Screen 

Once you have completed a mission (successfully or unsuccessfully) you will 
see the Debrief screen. The Debrief screen gives a summary and statistics for 
your performance during the mission. Click the text buttons on the left side 
of the screen to display the corresponding information on the right. 





summary. Sums up the results of the mission. 

mission log. Gives a chronological log of mission events. Events listed in 
green contributed positively (or neutrally) to the mission; events listed in red 
contributed negatively. 

kill tally. Lists all enemy aircraft, ground forces and structures killed by the 
task force, along with a tally of your personal kills. The total points for the 
task force kills are tallied on the right. 

usaf losses. For aircraft, lists total losses and number of friendly kills (i.e., 
aircraft killed by friendly fire). For ground forces and structures, lists those 
killed by friendly fire, and total losses. Points deducted for friendly losses are 
tallied on the right. 

mission statistics. Summarizesj/OMr performance in each plane that you flew 

— your total flight hours, number of kills and kill/loss ratio in those planes 

— and then list your totals in these categories. Click on the buttons beneath 
the table to view: 

performance per plane chart. Graphs the kill/loss ratio for each air- 
craft in this mission. Each bar represents a single aircraft. The height of 
the bar reflects the kill/loss ratio, which is equal to the total number of 
kills divided by the number of times that aircraft was destroyed. 

loss analysis chart. Displays a pie chart that shows the cause of your 
loss during the mission — a crash, enemy air-to-air missile, SAM, etc. 

Once you have finished viewing your stats, click replay mission to fly the mis- 
sion over or continue to return to the screen where you selected/created the 
mission ( Single , Quick Mission, etc.). 

If you recorded the mission, a recorded mission button also appears. Click 
this to go to the Mission Recorder screen and review your mission. 



1 .25 


INTERFACE 




Jane’s USAF 


TOOLS SCREENS 

Pilot Records Screen 

From the Pilot Records screen, you can view the stats of your current pilot, 
load a saved pilot and create and delete pilots. Click the text buttons in the 
box to the left of the screen to call up the corresponding window. (The cur- 
rently selected button is yellow.) 

Go back to the previous screen. 



Pilot Dossier 

The Pilot Dossier window displays basic statistics for your currently selected 
pilot. You can also use this area to change your current pilot, create new 
pilots and delete those you no longer need from this window. 



Changing Your Current Pilot 

To select a pilot, choose the pilot’s name from the drop-down menu. The 
currently selected pilot will be available to fly when you leave the Pilot Records 
screen. (He won’t appear in the drop-down pilot window until you leave this 
screen — see Drop-Down Pilot Window, p. 1.2.) 


Creating a New Pilot 

new pilot Create a new pilot. Type the pilot’s name and callsign in the 
pop-up window that appears and click OK. 


Deleting a Pilot 

remove pilot Delete currently selected pilot. 


1 .26 



Current Pilot Information 

The following statistics are displayed in the Pilot Dossier window. 

Callsign/Name. Display current pilot’s name and callsign. 

Photo. Displays a picture of your current pilot. A default photo is provided 
for you. 

import If you would like to replace the default photo with another image, 
click the import button, then locate the image on your hard drive 
and click open. The image must be in bitmap (.bmp) format. 

Rank. Shows your pilot’s current rank insignia. The current rank reflects all Single, 
Campaign and Training missions that this pilot has flown. See Rank, p. 1 .31. 

Pilot score, Number of missions flown and Total flight hours. The totals 
for your current pilot, tallied from all pre-scripted missions the pilot has 
flown (i.e., Single, Training and Campaign missions). 

Your current pilot’s performance in Quick Mission and Fly Now missions 
does not affect these statistics. The only exception occurs when you host a 
multiplayer game using this pilot in a cooperative mission (but not in any 
other type of multiplayer game). 

Mission Status 

The Mission Status window charts the 
currently selected pilot’s success and 
failure in pre-scripted missions on a 
mission-by-mission basis. Mission 
series are listed on the left; mission 
numbers are listed across the top. 

Mission 1 is the first mission in a 
series, mission 2 the second, and so 
forth. 

The series are as follows: 

• basic training, weapon school and red flag = training mission series 

• VIETNAM WAR, DESERT STORM, RED ARROW and SLEEPING GIANT = Campaign 
mission series 

• single = single missions that aren’t also part of a campaign. 

A red failed status indicates you quit the mission or lost all friendly force aircraft 
before successfully completing all ofyour mission objectives. A green passed sta- 
tus indicates you successfully completed all ofyour mission objectives. 



4 


1 .27 


INTERFACE 



Jane’s USAF 


Kill Tally 

The Kill Tally window lists the enemy 
aircraft, ground forces and struc- 
tures you have destroyed, broken 
down by object type. The kills listed 
are for all pre-scripted missions the 
current pilot has flown (i.e., Single, 

Training and Campaign missions). 

Your current pilot’s performance in 
Quick Mission and Fly Now missions 
does not affect these statistics. The 
only exception occurs when you host a multiplayer game using this pilot in a 
cooperative mission (but not in any other type of multiplayer game). 

■ (red) Represents objects destroyed by friendly forces. The desig- 

nation and number of objects are listed beneath the icon. 

total task FORCE Lists the number of aircraft, ground forces or structures 
destroyed by friendly sides. 

personal Lists the number of aircraft, ground forces or structures 

destroyed by your current pilot. 




USAF Losses 

The USAF Losses window is similar in 
format to the Kill Tally window. It lists 
the friendly aircraft, ground forces 
and structures destroyed during all 
pre-scripted missions flown by your 
current pilot (i.e., Single, Training and 
Campaign missions). 

Your current pilot’s performance in 
Quick Mission and Fly Now missions 
does not affect these statistics. The 
only exception occurs when you host a 
cooperative mission (but not in any ot 



4 + 








multiplayer game using this pilot in a 
her type of multiplayer game). 


■ (blue) 


FRIENDLY KILLS 


TOTAL LOSSES 


Represents objects destroyed by friendly forces. The desig- 
nation and number of objects are listed beneath the icon. 

Lists the number of friendly aircraft, ground forces or 
structures destroyed by other friendly forces. 

Lists the total number of friendly aircraft, ground forces 
or structures. 


1 .28 


Pilot Statistics 

The Pilot Statistics window tracks your 
pilot’s performance in different types 
of aircraft and over time. 

Charts your current pilot’s perform- 
ance in each type of aircraft, including 
his FLIGHT HOURS, the KILLS ACHIEVED and 
kill/loss ratio in that aircraft. Totals in 
the these three categories are then list- 
ed below this chart. 

Click the buttons below the chart to 
view the following graphs: 

performance per plane chart. Displays a chart listing the kill/loss ratio for 
each aircraft during the pilot’s overall career. Each bar represents a single 
aircraft. The height of the bar reflects the kill/loss ratio, which is equal to the 
total number of kills divided by the number of times you were destroyed. 

loss analysis chart. Displays a pie chart that shows the cause of your loss 
during the mission — a crash, enemy air-to-air missile, SAM, etc. 

skill level chart. View a graph of how your kill level has increased/decreased 
as you have gained additional flight hours with this pilot. (A steady climb 
would indicate that as your experience increases, so does your lethalness.) 



4 


Weapon Statistics 

The Weapons Statistics window records 
the number and types of weapons 
you’ve fired, hit percentages, kills 
achieved and weapons fired per kills. 

Click on the basic tab to see a break- 
down by class of weapon (air-to-air 
missiles, air-to-air guns, etc.). Click 
on the advanced tab to see a break- 
down by weapon designation (AIM- 
7F, MK-82, etc.). 

The following stats are listed for each 

total fired The total number of this type of weapon that your cur- 

rent pilot has released. 

hit percentage The percentage of released weapons of this type that 

hit their targets (both guided and unguided). 

total kills achieved Number of targets destroyed by weapons of this category. 

weapon fired per kill Average number of weapons in this category fired to 
make a kill. 



1 .23 


INTERFACE 




Jane’s USAF 


Mission Statistics 

The Mission Statistics window shows performance statistics broken down by 
mission category. Click on the text buttons to select a category (the current- 
ly selected button is yellow). 

all View stats for all pre-scripted missions (Training, Single 

and Campaign). 

View stats for the basic training series of Training mis- 
sions (see Training Screen, p. 1 .8). 

View stats for the weapon school series of Training mis- 
sions (see Training Screen, p. 1.8). 

red flag View stats for the Red Flag series of Training missions 

(see Training Screen, p. 1.8). 

desert storm View stats for the Desert Storm campaign series (see 

Campaigns Screen, p. 1.10). 


BASIC TRAINING 


WEAPON SCHOOL 


VIETNAM WAR 


SLEEPING GIANT 


RED ARROW 


SINGLE 


View stats for the Vietnam War campaign series (see 

Campaigns Screen, p. 1.10). 

View stats for the Sleeping Giant (Germany) campaign 
series (see Campaigns Screen, p. 1.10). 

View stats for the Red Arrow (Grand Canyon) campaign 
series (see Campaigns Screen, p. 1.10). 

View stats for the series of Single missions that are not also 
part of a campaign (see Single Missions Screen, p. 1.9). 



In each category, the following statistics are given: 

TOTAL SORTIES Number of missions in this category that your current 

flown pilot has flown 

MISSION success Percentage of these missions that were successful 
PERCENTAGE 


average mission Average time current pilot requires to successfully com- 
success time plete a mission 


minimum mission Fastest time in which pilot has successfully completed a 
success time mission 


average AA kills Average number of air-to-air kills pilot makes in a mission. 
per mission 


maximum AA kills Highest number of air-to-air kills pilot made in a mission 
per mission 


average ag kills Average number of ground objects pilot destroys in a 
per mission mission 


maximum AG kills Highest number of ground objects kills pilot destroyed in 
per mission a mission 


1 .3D 


Rank 

The Rank window provides a record of your pilot’s promotional history, list- 
ing the ranks and insignia he has earned, and the point in his career when he 
earned each rank (flight hours at promotion and mission). 


When you complete a mission, 
you receive a mission score. Once 
your pilot accumulates enough 
points, that pilot will receive a pro- 
motion. You’ll find out about any 
promotions in the Debrief Screen, 
p. 1.25. To view a pilot’s current 
rank, look at his Pilot Record, 
p. 1.26. Rank also appears in the 
upper right corner of all pre-flight 
screens. 


Ranks (in order 

received) Points 

2nd Lieutenant 

0 

1st Lieutenant 

5000 

Captain 

15,000 

Major 

25,000 

Lt. Colonel 

45,000 

Colonel 

70,000 

Brigadier General 

100,000 

Major General 

130,000 

Lt. General 

160,000 

General 

200,000 


Note: If you score enough points during a mission for a promotion, but you fail the 
mission, you won’t be promoted. You’ll get to keep your points, and the promotion 
will be awarded the next time you pass a mission. 


1 HANKS 


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FUS«T HOUR* 
AT PROMOTION 

HltSIOM 

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1 .31 



Jane’s USAF 


Medals 


See the Install Guide for more details on scoring and medals. 


When you complete cer- 
tain parts of the game 
and/or surpass a certain 
score, your pilot will 
receive a medal. You can 
view your pilot’s current 
medals (as well as all 
potential medals) in the 
Pilot Records Screen, p. 

1.26. Click on the name 
of a medal to display it. 

The medals in the game are modeled after actual US Air Force decorations. 
For the sake of preserving some element of suspense and surprise, specific 
mission and score requirements are not listed here. You can receive specific 
medals for accumulating a certain score, and campaign medals for com- 
pleting each individual game campaign. 



Mission Medals/ Patches 

Red Flag Participant Patch 

Air Force Achievement Medal 

Medal of Honor 

USAF Vietnam Service Medal 

Air Force Cross 

USAF Emirate of Kuwait Liberation Medal 

Silver Star 

Red Arrow Medal 

Distinguished Flying Cross 

Sleeping Giant Medal 

Air Medal 


• As with promotions, you won’t receive a medal in any mission that you fail. 

• You can only earn one medal of one type for a particular mission — even 
if you replay that same mission and score enough points for a second 
medal, you won’t receive one for that mission again. 

• You can receive multiple medals of the same type. 

• You can’t receive any medals while flying on the red side. 

• You don’t receive any medals for any of the training missions. 

• It is possible to be awarded both a mission medal and a campaign medal 
when completing a mission. 

• You can collect multiple medals for completing the same future campaign 
more than once. (This is only true for future campaigns.) 


1 .32 




Mission Recorder Screen 


Before beginning a mission, you 
have the option of recording it by 
clicking the Record Mission button 
on the Tactical Display screen. (See 
Tactical Display Screen, p. 1.15) 
You can load, view and save these 
recorded missions with the Mission 
Recorder screen. Missions can be 
played back in the Recorder screen, 
as well as in full-screen mode. 
Finally, you can send these missions 
to other players for viewing. 



Recorder Control Panel 

Use the Recorder Control Panel to open, save, rewind, play, pause and re- 
record recorded missions. 

a Open a recorded mission. By default, recorded missions 
(*.rec files) are saved in Program Files > Jane’s Combat 
Simulations > USAF > Resource > Recorder. Select a mis- 
sion, then click open. The last mission you recorded is called 
LastMission.rec. 


| Save a recorded mission. 



Rewind the mission. 

Increase/decrease the rewind speed by clicking on the up and 
down arrows in the window. 

Pause the playback. 


ji Playback the mission at regular (lx) speed. 

B Increase/decrease the playback speed by clicking on the up 
and down arrows in the window. 


B Record camera views during the movie. This allows you to 
switch views while watching the playback tape and save them 
into the recorded mission file. 


See a full-screen view of the mission (i.e., without menus, 
panels, etc.). Press ( Esc | to get back to the regular view. 



Jane’s USAF 


Playback and Tactical Display Tabs 

You can view either a “film” of the mission or you can 
watch the movement of mission elements on the Tactical 
Display screen. Click on the playback and tactical display 
tabs on the panel to the left of the main viewing area to 
switch back and forth. 

A list of events appears in the screen-like area beneath the 
tabs. These events are automatically marked while the 
mission recorder is active. You can click on any of these 
events to make the recorded mission jump to that point in 
the film. Click the up and down arrows to scroll through 
the list of events. 


Visiting 

You can visit any mission object during playback. 

• To visit USAF aircraft, click on the flight or aircraft button below the 
viewscreen. You can watch exactly what you did during the mission, or what 
other objects did. You can access the Tactical Display, watch other flights, 
watch the scene from the enemy’s point of view, or visit a ground target. 

• To visit other mission elements, click on the tactical display tab, then 
click on the object’s icon. Then click the visit button. 

visit Jump to a camera view of the selected object. Move 

the mouse to rotate the view. Press [+)/GD to zoom the 
view. You can visit any object in the game. 

visit player cockpit Press at any time to see the action from the point of 
view ofyour cockpit. (Since this is a recording, you will 
not be able to access any of the controls. You can only 
watch.) 

visit cockpit Press to view the action from the point of view of the 

currently selected friendly aircraft’s cockpit (not avail- 
able when any other object is selected). If you choose 
any other type of object, you’ll see an outside view. You 
can change the camera angle, but nothing else. 

Press | Esc] to get back to the mission recorder screen. 



1 .34 




Reference Screen 

The Reference section contains more detailed information about most of the 
objects in the game and their real-world counterparts. This mini-encyclope- 
dia is taken directly from the Jane’s reference books. 



Choose 


side and 
type 


Object 

list 


3D model 


Photo 


Jane’s 

entry 


4 


SIDE 


c 


Object List 

The text options in the upper left control which objects are displayed in the 
object list on the right. 

'friendly List USAF and other US military equipment. 

enemy List equipment used by opposing forces in the game. 

air List fighters, bombers, helicopters and support aircraft. 

TYPE ground List anti-air systems and vehicles. 

weapons List air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons and other 

stores information. 

Tabs on the object list break the categories down further. Click on a tab to 
view that subcategory. Click on an object name to view information about 
that object. The currently selected item is yellow. 


Viewing Box 

Information about an object is displayed in the box on the right. 

Photo. Click on the photo to enlarge it. Click OK to close the enlarged view. 

3D Model. Click on the model window to enlarge it. Click OK to close the 
enlarged view. Rotate the model with the arrow keys. Zoom in and out with 

0/B 

Jane’s Entry. Scroll the text to view the Jane’s entry for this object. 

Go back to the previous screen. 


1 .35 


INTERFACE 



Jane’s USAF 


Web Screen 

Get the latest on this and otherjane’s Combat Simulations games, and con- 
nect to related sites. You must have access to the Internet (i.e., a modem or 
LAN connection, an ISP provider, web browser, etc.) to use this feature. 
Click on the buttons and links to launch your web browser and jump to a 
site. (Jane’s USAF will continue to run in the background.) 

Note: Clicking web from the Main Menu screen or the Web screen launches your 
default browser. 








Jane’s Combat Simulations’ World War site 
USAF section of thejane’s Combat. Net site 
Links to web sites about this game 

Comparisons of your statistics and the statistics of other Jane’s 
USAF players. 


1 .36 








w 


% 


Jane’s USAF 


Previous page: Closeup on an F- 1 6C. USAF photo by Senior Airman Jeffrey Allen 


Chapter 2 



Terminology Overview ...2.2 


What are Modes? 2.2 

What is the HUD? 2.2 

What are MFDs? 2.3 

Aircraft Cockpits 2.4 

Training Missions 2.4 

Musical Cockpits 2.5 

Advanced Avionic Options 2.5 

DASH Helmet Display 2.5 

Night Vision Goggles 2.5 

Flyable Aircraft Cockpit Layouts. 2. 6 

Physical Gauges 

and Lights 2.10 

Dials and Gauges 2.10 

Lights 2.1 1 

Switches and Levers 2.1 1 

Head-Up Display 2.12 

HUD Key Commands 2.1 2 

Master Mode Settings 2.1 3 

Common HUD Information 2.14 

Navigation HUDs 2.16 

Nav HUD Information 2.1 6 

IIS HUD 2.16 

Refueling HUD 2.17 

Air-to-Air HUDs 2.18 

LCOS HUD 2.18 

EEGS HUD 2.20 

MRM HUD 2.22 

SRM HUD 2.24 

Air-to-Ground HUD Modes 2.25 

Strafe HUD 2.25 

CCIP HUD 2.26 

HARM HUD 2.27 

Laser-Guided Bomb HUD 2.27 

TV-Guided Missile HUD 2.28 


MFD Pages 2.29 

Menu Page 2.29 

NAV MFD Page 2.30 

ADI MFD Page 2.31 

Radar MFD Page 2.31 

Radar MFD Page: AA Mode ....2.32 
Common Elements: 

AA Submodes 2.32 

Long Range Search Submode2.33 

Boresight Submode 2.33 

Air Combat Submode 2.33 

Single Target Track Submode 2.34 
Track While Scan Submode ..2.35 

AA Cheat Submode 2.35 

Radar MFD Page: AG Mode ....2.36 
Common Elements: 

AG Submodes 2.36 

Map Submode 2.37 

GMT Submode 2.37 

AG Cheat Submode 2.37 

RWR MFD Page 2.38 

Tactical MFD Page 2.39 

JTIDS MFD Page 2.40 

Stores MFD Page 2.41 

FUR MFD Page 2.42 

Active vs. Passive 

LANTIRN Mode 2.42 

FLIR/LANTIRN Symbology 2.43 

TV MFD Page 2.44 

Basic TV MFD Symbology 2.44 

Additional Symbology 

for Steerable Weapons 2.45 

HARM MFD Page 2.46 

Damage MFD Page 2.47 


Cockpit View Controls...2.48 


A AAlfniT 

LuuKrl i 



In Jane’s USAF, you have the ability to pilot nine different aircraft. Most of the 
cockpits have similar cockpit elements and avionic systems, all of which are dis- 
cussed in this chapter. 


If you’re going to effectively utilize all ofyour aircraft’s avionic functions, it’s 
worth taking some time to read this chapter. There’s a lot of information 
here to absorb, but the objective is to provide you with an in-depth reference 
to each screen and mode you can access. 

Here are the major sections in this chapter, along with their page references. 
Once you’ve mastered the cockpit, you’ll probably want to read Chapter 4: 
Combat (p. 4.1 ) to learn how to use weapons. 

Aircraft Cockpits (p. 2.4). Learn what aircraft you can fly and take a look 
at their cockpit layouts. 

Physical Gauges and Lights (p. 2.10). Find out what dials, switches, but- 
tons, gauges and lights appear in each flyable aircraft. Most aircraft use the 
same instruments, although the position varies by plane. 

Head-Up Display (p. 2.12). Become familiar with the HUD, the bright dis- 
play in the middle ofyour front viewscreen. You’ll learn about its modes and 
functions when different weapons are active. 

Multi-Function Display Pages (p. 2.29). Extend your knowledge of MFDs, small 
square windows in the cockpit dash. Each displays different “pages” of information. 


4 


2 . 1 


CDCKPIT 


Jane’s USAF 


TERMINOLOGY OVERVIEW 

What are Modes? 

The term mode is used in this manual several times, and has different mean- 
ings. Simply put, a mode is simply a group of avionics displays and functions 
suited for a particular task. Several of your aircraft’s avionic systems use 
modes — the HUD, MFDs and onboard weapons and radar systems. 

Master Modes. There are three master modes. These modes simultaneous- 
ly configure your HUD mode, multi-functional display panels, radar mode 
and weapon systems for one of three basic tasks: navigation (NAV master 
mode), air-to-air combat (AA master mode)or air-to-ground weapons deliv- 
ery (AG master mode). 

The name of the current mode appears in the lower left corner of the HUD. 

(Ml Toggle avionics master mode 

(Navigation / Air-to-air / Air-to-ground) 

(N) Toggle NAV HUD 

MFD Pages (p. 2.29). Multi-function displays (MFDs) have display modes, 
but they’re usually referred to as “pages.” You have access to ten different 
MFD pages. Some activate automatically when you select certain weapons, 
while others require manual activation. You can click menu from any MFD to 
see a list of MFDs. Some MFDs have shortcut keys (listed on p. 2.29). 

Radar Modes (p. 2.31). Your onboard radar has both air-to-air and air-to- 
ground functionality, each with a number of submodes. 

(R) Toggle air-to-air / air-to-ground radar 
(0l Cycle through radar submodes 

Weapons. The term “mode” loosely applies to weapon systems as well — you 
can fire air-to-air (A/A) weapons only while in air-to-air master mode, and 
air-to-ground (A/G) weapons in air-to-ground HUD mode. 

(T) / CD Cycle through air-to-air / air-to-ground weapons 

What is the HUD? 

The Head-Up Display, or HUD, consists of computerized flight, targeting and 
weapons information that is projected onto a sheet of specially coated glass at 
the front of the cockpit. 

You switch avionics master modes by pressing (m). (This also changes your 
MFD, radar and weapon settings.) When you’re in a particular master mode, 
the information displayed on the HUD changes. 


2.2 


Below is a list of master modes and HUD submodes, along with a page ref- 
erence to help locate details about each one. For in-depth information 
about the HUD, see Head-Up Display (HUD), p. 2.1 2. 


NAV, p. 2.16 (Navigation) 

Landing, p. 2.1 6 
Refuel, p. 2.1 7 

AG, p. 2.25 (Air-to-Ground) 

CCIP, p. 2.26 (Continuously 
Calculated Impact Point) 

HARM, p. 2.27 

TV, p. 2.28 (TV-guided weapons) 


AA, p. 2.18 (Air-to-Air) 


LCOS, p. 2.18 

(Lead-Computing Optical Sight) 

EEGS, p. 2.20 

(Enhanced Envelope Gun Sight) 
MRM, p. 2.22 
(Medium-Range Missile) 

SRM, p. 2.24 (Short-Range Missile) 



m 


1617181920 


What are MFDs? 

Multi-functional displays appear on the front 
dash of the cockpit. They are small square 
display panels capable of showing various 
types of information. Data from many differ- 
ent avionic systems are fed to the MFD. 

Around the perimeter of each MFD, you’ll 
find pushbuttons that activate different func- 
tions or modes, depending on which screen 
is active. A text label beside each button 
identifies its function. (For the purposes of this manual, the pushbuttons are 
numbered and referred to as PB1, PB2, etc.) 



10 9 


To access an MFD page, left-click the menu pushbutton in any MFD, then 
choose the pushbutton for the page you want to view. Some MFDs also have 
keyboard shortcuts; some only activate when certain weapons are active. 

PB 10 (menu) Display MFD menu (on this menu, click a pushbutton to 
open the MFD listed next to it.) 


Here is a list of MFDs and their keyboard shortcuts (if applicable), along 
with a page reference to help you locate details about each one: 


Nav ((FT), Navigation), p. 2.30 
ADI , p. 2.31 

(Altitude Direction Indicator) 

Radar ((r)), p. 2.31 

RWR ((D)), p. 2.38 
(Radar Warning Receiver) 

Tactical ((T)), p. 2.39 


JTIDS (0, in some aircraft), p. 2.40 

Stores, p. 2.41 

(Stores Management System) 

FLIR (Q]), p. 2.42 
TV, p. 2.44 
HARM, p. 2.46 
Damage ((d)), p. 2.47 


2.3 


CDCKPIT 




Jane’s USAF 


AIRCRAFT COCKPITS 


The flyable aircraft share similar cockpit instrumentation, although the posi- 
tion of the dials, switches, gauges and panels may differ. For instance, some 
cockpits have only two MFD panels, while others have three. 

The next section provides diagrams so you’ll know what’s what, and where 
it’s located in the cockpit. The lettered callouts correspond to the definitions 
on pp. 2.1 0-2.1 1 . Forjane’s specifications on each of the flyable aircraft, see 
Aircraft Specifications (p 7.1 ) or the game’s Reference screen. 


You can get instant help on any instrument in the cockpit by right-clicking on 
it while in the normal, 2D cockpit view. (This feature does not work in the 
3D, pannable cockpit view.) 


If you’re learning how to fly but could use a few avionics lessons, the game 
has a detailed set of training missions to get you familiar with the cockpit 
and its functions. You can access the training missions by selecting the 
Training screen from the Main Mena. 

The training missions are separated into three categories. Try the Basic Course 
missions first to get a feel for flight. Here’s a basic recap of the missions — see 
Interface: Training Missions, p. 1 .8, for details on specific missions. 

Basic Training (4 total). Takeoffs, landings, low-level flight and navigation, 
and air-to-air refueling. 

Weapons School (8 total). A/A and A/G weapons and radar modes, 
weapon camera views, HUD modes, bombing techniques, dogfighting, 
radar-warning receiver, SAM avoidance, guided weapons, LANTIRN, stealth 
flight, night flight, wingman communication, formations, JTIDS. 


0 View help on the instrument under the mouse cursor. 


Training Missions 



Red Flag (4 total). Combat-situation missions. 


2.4 


Musical Cockpits 

A unique aspect of Jane’s USAF is the fact that you can fly several aircraft 
within a single mission. Once you’ve met the mission objective for your 
flight, you receive a mission completed message. Then, you can continue the 
mission in your aircraft or manually open the Tactical Display screen (press 
| Esc 1 ) and select another plane in another flight. Then, click fly to enter the 
other cockpit. Alternatively, use the keyboard shortcuts to switch cockpits. 

| Esc | Toggle Tactical Display on/off. Click on an aircraft or 

flight button to select it, then click fly to resume flight in 
the new aircraft/flight. 

| Shift pH / [U Switch to Flight 1 , 2, 3 or 4 

(U/S 

See Interface: Aircraft/ Flight Buttons, p 1.20 for more details. 

Advanced Avionic Options 

DASH Helmet Display 

The Israelis recently developed a helmet- 
mounted DASH display in order to 
speed pilot response time in close-quar- 
ters combat. The DASH helmet is a com- 
bination helmet and mounted optical 
sight. Its purpose is to help you keep 
track of important HUD data when 
you’re looking in other directions. HUD 
information is projected onto the glass 
sight whenever you look away. 

All data appears in the DASH helmet display appears normally in the HUD 
and/or MFD pages. However, you see only the boxed altitude and velocity 
readings, not the ladders. 

The helmet auto-activates whenever the DASH system is available, and when 
the HUD isn’t in view — i.e., when you’re panning in the front cockpit view. 
(The DASH helmet is not available, however, in Vietnam-era aircraft.) 
It is especially effective when using SRMs. The seeker head automatically 
slaves to the DASH helmet display and tries to acquire the target in your 
DASH helmet view. 



Tar rue 

APLVL O ■MI2 12? 


4 


Night Vision Goggles 

If you’re flying at night, you have access to night vision goggles. They use light 
amplification techniques to enhance the view of the outside world. You must 
manually activate the night vision system. When it’s active, you’ll see black-and- 
green imagery through the front cockpit view and all panning camera views. 

| Ctrl Fn] Toggle night vision 


2.5 


CDCKPIT 


Jane’s USAF 


Flyable Aircraft Cockpit Layouts 

For an explanation of what these instruments do, see Physical Gauges and 
Lights, p. 2.10. 


Dials and Gauges 

A. Airspeed indicator 

B. Altitude indicator 

C. Angle-of-attacl< (AoA) indicator 
(F-1 6C only) 

D. Artificial horizon 

E. Chaff counter 

F. Flare counter 

G. Fuel level indicator 

H. RPM indicator(s) 

(twin-engined aircraft have 
left/right gauges) 

I. Temperature gauge(s) 
(twin-engined aircraft have 
left/right gauges) 

J. Variometer (rate of climb) 


Lights 

K. Air brake light 

L. Autopilot light 

M. Fire light(s) 

(twin-engined aircraft have two) 

N. Flap indicator light 

O. ECM light 

P. Gear indicator lights 

Q. Master caution light 

R/S. RWR warning lights 

(SAM and aircraft locks) 

Switches and Levers 

T. Autopilot button 

U. Fire extinguisher button 

V. Gear handle 



2.6 



2.7 


CDCKPIT 





Jane’s USAF 


Dials and Gauges 

A. Airspeed indicator 

B. Altitude indicator 

C. AoA indicator (F-1 6C only) 

D. Artificial horizon 

E. Chaff counter 

F. Flare counter 

G. Fuel level indicator 

H. RPM indicator(s) 

I. Temperature gauge(s) 

J. Variometer (rate of climb) 


Lights 

K. Air brake light 

L. Autopilot light 

M. Fire light(s) 

N. Flap indicator light 

O. ECM light 

P. Gear indicator lights 

Q. Master caution light 
R/S. RWR warning lights 

(SAM and aircraft locks) 

Switches and Levers 

T. Autopilot button 

U. Fire extinguisher button 

V. Gear handle 



2.B 






2.3 


CDCKPIT 





Jane’s USAF 


PHYSICAL GAUGES AND LIGHTS 

All aircraft maintain a set of backup gauges, in case the onboard computer 
becomes inoperable. 

Dials and Gauges 

Q Airspeed indicator. Shows how fast the aircraft is traveling in knots of indi- 
cated airspeed (See Flight: Airspeed, p. 3.2, for definitions). Each tic mark 
on the dial indicates 100 knots, and the dial ranges from 0 to 900 knots. 

Altitude indicator. Shows barometric (Above Sea Level) altitude. Note 
that this is not equivalent to radar (Above Ground Level) altitude — see 
Flight: Altitude, p. 3.4, for definitions. 

The long needle represents 1 00ft of altitude; the smaller one, 1 000ft. The 
dial has ten tic marks, each measuring 100ft of altitude. Each time the 
long needle makes a complete revolution around the dial, the smaller 
needle rotates slightly clockwise to indicate another 1 000ft of altitude. 

Q Angle-of-attacl< (AoA) indicator. (F-16C only) Shows current angle of 
attack (angle at which the wing is meeting the airflow). This gauge has a 
vertical scrolling ladder marked with tic marks in 5° increments, as well 
as a stationary, horizontal line. As your angle of attack changes, the lad- 
der scrolls up and down, and the stationary line marks your current AoA. 

Q Artificial horizon/Attitude Direction Indicator (ADI). A ball indicator that 
rolls in all directions to show where the horizon is in relation to your aircraft’s 
current pitch and bank angle. The ball is black below the horizon, and gray 
above it. The W-shaped break in the line represents your aircraft’s position. 

Chaff counter. Lists how many chaff pods you have left. 

Flare counter. Lists how many flares you have left. 

o Fuel level indicator. Displays amount of fuel remaining, in pounds. 

Q RPM indicator. Displays engine revolutions per minute — each tic mark 
on the dial represents 1 0% of maximum RPM. As RPM increases, the nee- 
dle rotates clockwise. Twin-engined aircraft have one gauge per engine. 

Q Temperature gauge. Displays current engine temperature. The gauge 
markings range from 0 to 1200°. (Twin-engined aircraft have one gauge 
per engine.) The color of the dial changes according to engine tempera- 
ture: green 400-800 ° , yellow 801-1000°, and red 1 001-1 200°. 

Temperature readings are as follows: 

400° Engine idling 800° Engine at afterburner 2 

700° Engine at full military thrust 1200° Engine on fire 

750° Engine at afterburner 1 

Q Variometer. Shows rate of climb/descent, in ft/min. This gauge consists 
of a vertically scrolling ladder with tic marks every 500ft/min and a sta- 
tionary, horizontal line indicating current rate of climb/descent. The 
reading on top of the stationary line is your current rate of climb. 


2.1 □ 


Lights 

Q Air brake light. When lit, your air brakes are open. Open your air brakes 
when landing or if you need to quickly lose speed during combat. 

Autopilot light. When lit, your autopilot system is active (in either level 
or nav mode). The current mode appears in the alphanumeric text on the 
left side of the HUD. See Flight: Autopilot, p. 3.14. 

^ Fire light. When lit, a fire in one of your engines. Twin-engined aircraft 
have a separate light for each engine. (Press (x) to use fire extinguisher.) 

Q Flap indicator light. Indicates whether your flaps are raised (up) or low- 
ered (down). Lowered flaps change the shape ofthe wing, provide added 
lift and significantly slow your aircraft down. Lower your flaps (fF|) to 
gain extra lift at low speeds. 

The light’s color represents the current state of your flaps. 
off Flaps are up 
green Flaps are down 

red or yellow Flaps are in between the up and down positions 

(J ECM light. When lit, RWR jamming is active (press QJ) to toggle jamming 
if available). 

Gear indicator lights. These three lights indicate the current position of 
your landing gear through their color. Press (G) to toggle gear up/down. 
Color represents different gear states. 

off Gear is stowed in the up position 
green Gear is down and locked 
red or yellow Gear is in between the up and locked positions 

^ Master caution light. Shows whether a main system is damaged (is “no go”). 
You can view the status of all systems in the Damage MFD ((d)), p. 2.47. 

QQ RWR warning lights. These two lamps light up when the radar warning 
receiver has detected a threat that has locked onto your aircraft, or a 
missile that has been fired at your aircraft. The SAM lock warning light (S) 
indicates a surface-to-air missile site has a lock on your aircraft. The air- 
craft lock warning light (R) indicates an air threat has a radar lock on your 
aircraft. 


4 


Switches and Levers 

Q Autopilot button. Toggles your autopilot system on/off. Press this button 
to cycle through the autopilot modes (off, nav and lvl), or press (a). 
Activating this button causes the autopilot lamp to light up. 

Q Fire extinguisher button. Releases a fire extinguisher into an engine on 
fire. Left-click on this button to activate the extinguisher, or press (x). 

© Gear handle. Lowers or stows your aircraft’s landing gear. Left-click on 
this handle to toggle your landing gear up and down. Activating this but- 
ton causes the landing gear lamp to light up. 


2.11 


COCKPIT 


Jane’s USAF 


HEAD-UP DISPLAY (HUD) 

As introduced on p. 2.2, the Head-Up Display (HUD) is a collection of infor- 
mation displayed on a glass panel in the front of your cockpit, including cur- 
rent flight data, weapon guidance aids and target information. 

The HUD can be divided into four regions — the headingscale across the top, 
the pitch ladder through the center and alphanumeric information to the left and 
right. No matter what HUD submode is active, these regions always appear. 


Heading tape area 
I ja I 

" « _Z. -t * 


Pitch ladder area- 


Left alphanumeric ■_ : 

\4 - 


■v 


Right alphanumeric 


Heading scale area. Displays the direction in which the plane is headed. In the 
center, a three-digit number indicates the exact heading. A small caret appears 
below this scale to indicate the bearing of the currently selected waypoint. 
If the waypoint is off the scale, several arrows appear and point in the direc- 
tion of the waypoint. 

Pitch ladder area. Shows information about your aircraft’s bank angle, air- 
speed, altitude, and angle of attack. Also displays weapon targeting aids. The 
contents change depending on the HUD mode and currently selected weapon. 

Left alphanumeric area. Contains important information such as thrust and 
selected weapon. The contents change depending on the HUD mode. 

Right alphanumeric area. Contains information such as waypoint data or 
target info. The contents change depending on the HUD mode. 

HUD Key Commands 

The HUD is mostly a display device — you don’t actually do much of anything 
to it. The major interactive function of the HUD is that its mode changes 
depending on what master mode is selected. When you switch master modes, 
your HUD, MFD, radar and weapons are optimized for a particular task. 

(n) Activate Navigation HUD 

The HUD information is sometimes too hard to see against different back- 
grounds. For this reason, you can adjust the color of the HUD to make it 
easier to read: 

(R) Cycle through HUD colors (greens / white / red / yellow) 


2.12 


Master Mode Settings 

The table below shows what HUD mode, radar mode, weapons setting and 
MFDs are activated in each master mode. 



NAV 

Air-to-Air 

Air-to-Ground 

Active MFDs 

Tactical 

Radar 

Radar 


Radar 

Tactical 

Tactical 


NAV 

RWR 

RWR 

FiUD mode 

NAV 

AA 

AG 

Radar mode 

air-to-air 

air-to-air 

air-to-ground 

Available 

none 

Medium-range 

General-purpose 

weapons 

(gun is active 

missiles* 

bombs* 


if gear is stowed) 


Note: If you ’re flying an F-22A, F- 11 7 A, and F-1 5C or F-1 5E, the JTIDS MFD 
replaces the Tactical Map or RWR MFD. See p. 2.40 for details on this display. 
* Active by default 


If your cockpit contains three MFDs, you see all of the MFDs listed above for 
the appropriate modes. If you have only two MFDs, you see only the first two 
MFDs listed, and if you have one MFD, you see only the first listed. 

• For details on HUD symbology, see Head-Up Display, p. 2.1 2. 

• For details on MFDs see MFD Pages, p. 2.29. 

• For details on radar modes, see Radar MFD Page, p. 2.31 and Combat: 
Using the Radar, p. 4.12. 

• For more details on using weapons, see Combat: Using Weapons, p. 4.28. 


2.13 



Jane’s USAF 


Common HUD Information 

Common HUD element callouts are numbered 1-11. Each master mode — 
Navigation, AA and AC, plus their HUD submodes — continues this numbering 
individually. (Each starts at 12 and counts upward.) 

Although the HUD has 
many modes, some infor- 
mation appears in every 
mode. Those elements are 
described here. Other ele- 
ments are specific to a par- 
ticular mode. Please see the 
appropriate HUD mode 
section to find out what 
other information appears. 

Q Current weapon/HUD mode. In AA and AG HUD modes, displays your 
currently selected weapon, number of this weapon remaining and the 
weapon’s status. (See Combat: Using Your Weapons, p. 4.28, for 
details.) In NAV HUD mode, nav appears. 

Q Gun cross. Small cross in the center of the HUD that represents where your 
gun is aimed. This displays no matter what weapon you have selected. 

Heading scale. The heading scale is essentially a compass. North is 360, 
east is 090, south is 180 and west is 270. The stationary box in the cen- 
ter of the scale gives your current heading. A caret below the scale marks 
the heading to your current waypoint 

Airspeed ladder. Displays airspeed — each tic mark on the vertical ladder 
represents 1 0 knots of airspeed. Numbers to the left ofthe tic marks indi- 
cate 1 00-knot increments. As airspeed changes, the ladder scrolls up and 
down. The stationary box centered on the scale shows current airspeed. 

Note: “T” appears next to the airspeed reading in the box in the AC HUD when true 
airspeed is shown. “C” appears in the NAV HUD modes when ground airspeed is 
shown. “I” appears in the AA HUD when indicated airspeed is shown. For definitions 
of these airspeed measurements, see Flight: Airspeed, p. 3.2. 

• In NAV mode, a sideways velocity caret scrolls up and down with the ladder and 
shows how fast you need to fly to reach the next waypoint on schedule. 

Altitude ladder. Indicates your altitude — each tic mark on the vertical lad- 
der represents 100ft of altitude, and the numbers to the right ofthe tic 
marks indicate 500ft increments. As altitude changes, the ladder scrolls up 
and down. The box in the middle ofthe scale shows your current altitude. 

• In NAV mode, a sideways altitude caret scrolls up and down with the lad- 
der and shows the planned altitude for this leg of your flight. 



2 . 1-4 


Note: “B” appears next to the altitude reading in the box in AA HUD mode, when 
barometric altitude, or altitude above sea level (ASL), is displayed. “R” appears in 
NAV and AG HUD modes, when radar altitude, or altitude above ground level 
(AGL), is displayed. For an explanation of these different altitude measurements, see 

Flight: Altitude, p. 3.4. 

Current waypoint. Shows the direction to your currently selected waypoint. 
Circles indicate ordinary waypoints — the number next to the circle is the 
number of the current waypoint (1,2, etc.). Triangles indicate target way- 
points — a “t” inside of a triangle indicates a waypoint with a mission- 
critical target you’re supposed to attack. (In NAV mode, the alphanumer- 
ic text on the right side of the HUD lists additional information about 
range and time-to-arrival — see Navigation HUDs p. 2.16). 

Q G-force reading. How many Gs your aircraft is currently pulling (positive 
or negative). See Flight: Load Factors and G-Forces, p. 3.5, for details. 

• If the autopilot system is active, the G-force reading is replaced by the 
current autopilot mode — off, level (lvl), navigation (nav) or refuel (rfl). 

Q Thrust. Your aircraft’s current throttle setting, displayed as a percentage 
of your maximum RPM (100%). You can increase and decrease thrust 
with a throttle device or by using the following key commands: 

[0l-f9l These keys control throttle. See Flight: Throttle, p. 3.9, 
for details. 

Pitch ladder. Indicates how far your aircraft’s nose is pitched up or down. 
The longest line appears when you’re flying level (i.e., at 0° of pitch). The 
lines above and below this represent 5° of pitch (above is positive, below 
is negative); the brackets at the ends of the lines point toward the horizon 
(0° pitch line). The lines are labeled numerically every 10°. 

0 Target designation (TD) box. This square box appears when you have a 
target locked. If the target is within the HUD field of view, the TD box 
surrounds it. The TD box moves to the edge of your HUD when the tar- 
get is out of HUD field of view but still in radar range. If the target falls 
out of the field of view, the lock breaks and the TD box disappears. For 
details on acquiring targets, see Combat: Targeting the Enemy, p. 4.23. 

• If you activate the easytargeting option in the Preferences window, you can 
maintains your lock on a target, even when it moves out of your view. The 
TD box also remains onscreen and floats outside the HUD in the direction 
of the target. 

• If you enable cheat radar in the Preferences window, you can maintain a 
radar lock on any threat in a 360° radius around your aircraft. 

0 Velocity vector. Indicates the direction in which your aircraft is traveling (its 
current flight path). If you make a hard maneuver (i.e., bank or climb 
sharply) your aircraft may be pointed in one direction, but moving in anoth- 
er. The velocity vector always marks the actual direction of travel, not the 
direction in which your aircraft’s nose is pointed. (The vertical line represents 
your aircraft’s tail position; the horizontal lines represent your wings.) 


2.15 


Jane’s USAF 


Navigation HUDs 

See Common HUD Information, p. 2.14, for additional HUD elements. 

Navigation mode is the mode you’ll use whenever you’re not in combat. For most 
flight in non-combat areas, put the HUD in NAV mode to aid you in moving 
between waypoints. Be sure your radar is in a mode suitable for the environment, 
either AA for air-to-air missions (default) or AG for air-to-ground missions. 

[N~| Activate Navigation HUD mode 

When the HUD is in NAV mode and you are making an approach to land, 
the Instrument Landing System (ILS) information displays on HUD. When 
you’re re-fueling in mid-air, the Refueling information appears. 

Navigation HUD Information 

© Velocity caret. Small, 
sideways triangle that 
scrolls up and down the 
Airspeed ladder and 
shows how fast you must 
fly to reach the next way- 
point by your scheduled 
time-to-arrival. 

© Altitude caret. Small, 
sideways triangle that 
scrolls up and down the 
Altitude ladder and 
shows the prescribed altitude for flying to your next waypoint. 

® © Estimated Time-to-Arrival (ETA). How long it will take to reach the cur- 
rently selected waypoint at your current airspeed. This information 
appears in the alphanumeric text on the right side of the HUD. 

• The top line lists the current waypoint and its range — “W02 27.8” indi- 
cates you’re 27.8nm away from Waypoint 2. 

• The second line indicates the time it will take for you to reach the waypoint 
in minutes and seconds. For instance, “4:0” indicates four minutes. 

Instrument Landing System HUD 


This HUD activates automatically when your landing gear is down and the 
NAV HUD is active. When you’re within lOnm of the runway, it provides 
onscreen cues to help guide you onto the runway. 



The Landing training mission is a detailed, real-time tutorial that takes you through 
the landing process. (See Training Screen, p. 1. 8.) See Flight: Landing (p. 3.19.) 
for step-by-step landing instructions. 




© 


2.1B 


© Localizer deviation bar. 

This is a vertical “l-shaped” 
line. It drifts left and right 
to indicate your aircraft’s 
approach relative to the 
center of the runway. Align 
the velocity with this line. 
(If you do this, you are fly- 
ing on the glide path — 
about 3° to 4° of pitch.) 





<D Glide slope deviation bar. This is a horizontal “l-shaped” line. It drifts up 
and down to indicate your aircraft’s altitude with respect to the runway. 
Centering this bar and the localizer bar on top of the velocity vector 
essentially forms a cross symbol centered on the velocity vector. If the 
velocity vector is above this line, you’re flying too high. 


4 


Note: Ifthe needles lines are dashed, and all cues are centered in the HUD, 
you’re not receiving ILS information. For the cues to appear, you must be 
within 1 0nm of the runway and maintain the correct descent rate. 


Refueling HUD 


The Mid-Air Refueling training mission is a detailed, real-time tutorial that takes 
you through the refueling process. (See Training Screen, p. 1. 8.) See Flight: 
Manual Mid-Air Refueling (p. 3.16) for step-by-step refueling instructions. 


Refueling information appears on the HUD when it is in NAV mode and you 
open the fuel hatch ( | Ctrl fR~| ). The Refuel HUD display is similar to the NAV 
HUD display with one addition: 

Current refuel status. Audio cues from the boom operator describe the 
current refueling stage: 

ready Hatch is open and ready for fueling 

contact Boom is connected and fuel is flowing 

full Tanks are full 

disconnect Disconnect has started. 


Note: You can refuel on autopilot by pressing (a) after you open the hatch 
(fC\r\JW)).Make sure rfl appears in the HUD. See Flight: Using Autopilot for Mid- 
Air Refueling p. 3. 1 5. 

You can also select the unlimited fuel option from the Preference window in order 
to never run out of fuel. See Appendix D: Preferences Window, p. 8.8. 


2.17 


CDCKPIT 


Jane’s USAF 


Air-to-Air (A/A) HUDs 

See Common HUD Information, p. 2.14, for additional HUD elements. 

The air-to-air HUD modes are geared toward combat situations with other 
aircraft. Four different HUD submodes are available, and the correct mode 
activates when you select a particular weapon. Two are gun modes that 
require your air-to-air radar to be active (LCOS and EEGS), and the other 
two are guided missile modes (SRM and MRM). 

(Ml Toggle avionics master mode 

(Navigation / Air-to-air/ Air-to-ground) 

(T1 Cycle through air-to-air weapons (or, press associated 
hardpoint pushbutton in Stores MFD — see p. 2.41.) 

This section discusses the symbology used in the four A/A HUD submodes. 
Please see Combat: Using Weapons (p. 4.28) for details on how to acquire 
targets and use different weapons. 

For step-by-step firing instructions, see Combat: How to Fire Guns, p. 4.37. 

Lead-Computing Optical Sight (LCOSJ HUD 

Firing guns and hitting a target at anything but point-blank range can be dif- 
ficult. However, all aircraft have a radar-aided gun sight to help you make a 
successful gun attack on a target aircraft. 

Your gun is always active. Plus, if you are in A/A master mode, the Lead- 
Computing Optical Sight (LCOS) HUD appears. This mode uses your 
onboard air-to-air radar to track and acquire targets. It automatically 
attempts to acquire any targets flying through your front view. 

This HUD displays a circular pipper symbol that drifts around in the HUD. 
When you have a target locked, the pipper’s position is constantly updated 
through calculations involving the target’s speed, range and G-force. It 
shows where you should aim in order to land a hit on a locked target. Firing 
shots in your target’s anticipated flight path is called “leading” the target. 

Move the pipper over the target. Hold fire until the target moves within gun 
range and you have a good aspect angle to the target. At about 2nm away 
from the target, a full dark arc forms around the pipper and starts decreas- 
ing in length. The shorter the arc, the closer the target. 

[Enter | Cycle through available targets 

fo] Cycle through air-to-air radar submodes (lrs / tws / acm) 
(or press PB16 on the Radar MFD in air-to-air mode — 

see Radar MFD page, p. 2.31) 

f\~| Activate Boresight radar submode (press and hold). 

(Radar locks into first target to enter your HUD view) 


2.18 



© Closure speed. How fast you’re closing in on the target (or how fast it’s 
flying away from you) in knots. The third line of alphanumeric text on the 
right side of the HUD gives the range as positive (closing in on the tar- 
get) or negative (opening up space on the target). For instance, +400 
means you’re closing in quickly on a target, while -30 means the target 
is slowly pulling away from you. 

© Reticule. Medium-sized circle drifting in the HUD. It shows where to lead 
your shots. 

© Pipper. Small, circular aiming cue that aids in firing guns at a locked tar- 
get. It is located in the center of the reticule. When you move the pip- 
per/reticule over the target and fire, you have the best chance of hitting 
the target. 

© Range arc. When the target is approximately 2nm away (the maximum 
range for most guns), a dark arc appears on top of the pipper The arc 
decreases in radius as you close in on your target. Each small tic mark 
around the reticule indicates 900 feet of distance. The size of the arc rep- 
resents target distance: 


m 



© Gun cross. Small cross in the center of the HUD that represents where your 
gun is aimed. This displays no matter what weapon you have selected. 


2.13 


CDCKPIT 


Jane’s USAF 


Enhanced Envelope Gun Sight (EEGS) HUD 

For step-by-step firing instructions, see Combat: How to Fire Guns, p. 4.37. 

Some aircraft have a secondary radar-aided gunsight called the Enhanced 
Envelope Gun Sight (EEGS). Similar to the LCOS gun sight, it places a cue 
on the HUD to help you gauge a target’s range and lead your bullets. 
However, it uses a funnel structure instead of a circular pipper, and gives you 
more information. 

| Enter | Cycle through available targets 

[Ql Cycle through air-to-air radar modes (lrs / tws / acm) 

(or press PB16 on the Radar MFD in air-to-air mode — 
see Radar MFD Page, p. 2.31) 



i.i 

i.d 


© Reticule. Medium-sized circle that drifts in the HUD and shows you 
where to lead your shots. It replaces the Target Designation box when the 
air radar is active and you’ve locked onto a target. 

The reticule in the EEGS gun sight has a function similar to the range lad- 
der in the LCOS gun sight. When the target is approximately 2nm away, 
the reticule is a full circle. Small tic marks around the reticule indicate 
300 meters of distance. As you get closer to the target, the circle turns 
into an arc that decreases in radius. The length of the arc represents tar- 
get distance (see diagram on p. 2.19). 

© Pipper. (Not shown; BATR replaces this in example diagram) Small aim- 
ing dot cue that aids in firing guns at a locked target. When you move 
the pipper over the target and fire, you have a good chance of hitting it. 

© Range arc. (Not shown; see diagram on previous page) When the target 
is approximately 2nm away (the maximum range for most guns), a dark 
arc appears on top of the pipper The arc decreases in radius as you close 
in on your target. Small tic marks around the reticule indicate 900 feet of 
distance. The size of the arc represents target distance (see diagram on 
previous page). 


2. 2D 


Q Funnel. Two lines in the shape of a funnel showing the path of your bul- 
lets. The funnel’s shape twists and changes as you and the target maneu- 
ver during a dogfight to gain a firing solution. 

The funnel represents a 35ft wingspan target at ranges between 200 
meters (the wide end ofthe funnel) and 1 nm (the narrow end of the fun- 
nel). If your target’s wings “fit” in between the funnel lines on the skinny 
end ofthe funnel, for example, he’s 250ft away. The EEGS funnel also 
shows the path your bullets follow. When you fire, the bullets start out 
in the approximate center ofthe funnel. 

The small mouth ofthe funnel shows where your bullets will be once they 
travel 1 nautical mile (which is why you should line small, long-distance 
targets up on this end ofthe funnel). The large mouth shows where your 
bullets fall after traveling 200 meters. 

• In general, line the target up inside the funnel so his wingspan touches 
both sides ofthe funnel. 

© G-force pipper (+ / -). (Not visible in this diagram) Displays an axis 
along which you should aim if the target suddenly increases or decreas- 
es its G-force. This “pipper” actually consists of a “+” and symbol. 
The “+” symbol shows where bullets will fall if the target quickly pulls 
9Gs, and the symbol shows where bullets land if the target’s G-force 
falls to 1 G. 

• If you can see your target pulling a high-G maneuver, aim the normal 
pipper slightly more toward the “+” symbol. 

• If the target looks like it’s losing Gs quickly, aim slightly toward the 
symbol. 

© Bullets at Target Range (BATR). A small circle with a dot in the middle 

showing where your bullets are once they reach the target’s range. If the 
target is at 500m, the BATR cue appears once the bullets have traveled 
500m. 


4 


2.21 


COCKPIT 


Jane’s USAF 


Medium-Range Missile (MRMJ HUD 


For step-by-step firing instructions, see Combat: How to Fire Radar-Guided 
Missiles, p. 4.41. 


The aircraft in this game can carry many types of medium-range, air-to-air mis- 
siles — USAF planes carry the AIM-7B, AIM-7F, AIM-7M and AIM-120, while 
Russian planes carry the AA-6 and AA-10. All of these missiles are radar-guided. 
Some use your aircraft’s radar to track targets until impact (SARH — semi-active 
radar homing), while others have built-in seeker heads. The HUD symbology is 
almost identical for all of the missiles; exceptions are noted below. 

[Enter | Cycle through available targets 

fo] Cycle through air-to-air radar submodes (lrs / tws / acm) 
(or press PB16 on the Radar MFD in air-to-air mode — 
see Radar MFD Page, p. 2.31) 



ASE circle and steering dot. The Allowable Steering Error circle and dot 
provide a steering reference when you are tracking your target with radar. 

The circle graphically illustrates the seeker head’s effective field of view. 
The size of the ASE circle changes as a function of target range, altitude 
and aspect angle. As you close in on your target, the ASE increases in size 
to a certain point, then may decrease depending on target aspect. A larg- 
er circle indicates a better chance of a hit. 

The solid dot indicates where the missile would impact if you fired it 
immediately. Its position is calculated using the missile’s performance 
statistics and the target’s range, aspect angle and speed. Before firing, 
maneuver to place this dot inside the ASE circle. You can fire the missile 
without doing so, but you’ll probably miss the target. 

Shoot cue. This flashing symbol appears beneath the TD box when your 
target is within weapon range and the aim dot falls inside the ASE circle. 
The shoot cue indicates that the weapon is in its dynamic launch zone 
(DLZ). 


2.22 


Dynamic Launch Zone (DLZ). A small ladder 
scale indicating your missile’s range and the 
target’s current range in relation to your 
radar’s maximum range. The vertical line rep- 
resents the radar’s range. The number above 
the line represents the currently selected radar 
range. The shorter, offset line shows the 
maximum weapon kill range for your current- 
ly selected air-to-air missile. The number and 
the small caret to the left of the line show 
the target and its closure speed. 


Current radar 
range 



Max. weapon 
kill range 


Min. weapon 
kill range 


Target caret 


When the target caret slides within the weapon’s kill range line, you can 
fire your weapon. 

Estimated Time-to-lmpact (ETI). How long it will take the missile to fly 
to the target and detonate. “2 SEC,” for instance, means it will take two 
seconds to impact. This reading appears just below the DLZ. 

$ Analog/digital target aspect angle. Cue showing 
which aspect of the target is facing you. 

The triangle rotates around the ASE circle and lets 
you know where the target is in relation to you. If 
it’s at the top of the circle, you’re facing the tar- 
get’s nose head-on (180° aspect angle). If it’s on 
the right (the 3 o’clock position), you’re facing 
the target’s left wing (90° aspect angle).. 



4 


The alphanumeric text on the right side of the HUD also indicates the tar- 
get aspect angle, but uses degrees and letters. It appears on the third line 
of text. An aspect of T indicates you’re facing your target’s tail (0°); H 
indicates you’re facing his nose (180°). An aspect of 16R indicates 
you’re facing a point between the aircraft’s nose and its right wing. 9L 
indicates you’re facing the pilot’s left wing. 

m Break X. (Not shown) A large “X” replaces the ASE and flashes when you 
are too close to fire (i.e., inside the missile’s minimum range). 


2.23 


CDCKPIT 


Jane’s 



I 


Short-Range Missile (SRMJ HUD 

For firing instructions , see Combat: How to Fire IR-Guided Missiles, p. 4.43. 

The SRM HUD mode automatically activates whenever you select a short- 
range, IR-guided missile — AA-8, AIM-9L, AIM-9M, AIM-9P or AIM-9X. 
These missiles use built-in seeker heads to detect and follow a target’s heat 
source. You need to have your air radar active in order to gain an initial lock 
on a target. After that, the IR seeker head will try to lock on to that target. 

| Enter | Cycle through available targets. 

fo] Cycle through air-to-air radar modes (lrs / tws / acm) 

(or press PB16 on the Radar MFD in air-to-air mode — 
see Radar MFD Page, p. 2.31) 

Cues that are different from those that appear in the Medium-Range Missile 
(MRM) HUD (previous page) are described here: 



SRM (IR) seeker head. Small, diamond-shaped cue representing the seek- 
er head’s boresight. It has four different acquisition modes that change: 

Caged mode is initially active. You don’t have a target locked on radar. The 
seeker head is not detecting any heat source and the seeker cue sits in the 
middle of the HUD. If a heat source (target) moves within the boresight, 
the seeker head attempts to acquire a lock on the target. 

Radar slaved mode becomes active when you have a radar-locked target, but 
the seeker can’t yet detect the heat source. The missile slaves to the radar LOS 
and tries to acquire the radar target. 

Helmet slaved mode activates when you press the boresight key ((V|). The missile 
follows your helmet view and tries to acquire the heat source you’re looking at. 

Acquisition mode activates once a heat source is detected in any of the pre- 
vious modes. The missile’s seeker head locks onto the heat source and fol- 
lows it as long as you maintain lock and keep the target within the seeker 
head’s field of view. At that point, the missile tone changes. If you switch 
radar targets at this point, the seeker returns to radar-slaved mode. 

© IR seeker circle. Large circle indicating the field of view for the missile’s 
seeker head. If a target falls within this circle and is in range, the seeker 
head tries to gain a lock on its exhaust pipes. The circle is large when you 
don’t have a target, but shrinks in size when you acquire a lock. 


2.24 


Air-to-Ground (A/G) HUDs 

See Common HUD Information, p. 2.T4, for additional HUD elements. 

The air-to-ground HUD modes are designed to help you use your gun, air- 
to-ground missiles and bombs against ground targets. Each mode corre- 
sponds to a particular type of weapon — STRF for guns, TV for TV-guided- 
missiles, and CCIP for bombs. The correct mode activates when you select a 
particular weapon. By default, the Strafe HUD appears if you don’t have any 
other AG weapons loaded. 

(Ml Toggle avionics master mode 

(Navigation / Air-to-air / Air-to-ground) 

ITI Cycle through air-to-ground weapons (or, press 
hardpoint pushbutton in Stores MFD, see p. 2.41) 


4 


Note: Though they don’t have specific HUD symbology, laser-guided bombs do display 
a special TD box on the HUD. It has small lines that show the LANTIRN’s camera 
position. See TV-Guided Missile (TV) HUD (p. 2.28) for details. 


Strafe (STRF) HUD 

For step-by-step firing instructions, see Combat: How to Fire Guns, p. 4.37. 


When the radar is in A/G mode and you have guns active, the Strafe HUD 
appears. It follows either moving ground targets you have locked (in GMT 
mode) or stationary targets (in MAP mode). Like the A/A gun LCOS gun 
sight, the Strafe HUD displays a circular pipper symbol that drifts around in the 
HUD. Position the pipper over the target. At about 2nm away from the tar- 
get, a full dark arc forms around the pipper and starts decreasing in radius. 
The shorter the arc, the closer the target (see diagram on p. 2.1 9). 

| Enter | Cycle through available targets. 

(0| Cycle through air-to-ground radar modes (map / gmt). 

(Or press PB16 on the Radar MFD in air-to-ground mode 
— see Radar MFD Page, p. 2.31.) 


Cues on the HUD in Strafe 
mode are the same as for 
the HUD in LCOS mode, 
except that closure speed 
is not reported. See p. 2.1 8 
for definitions. 



‘■1. Hfc 

r-: '.*x c e-y 




• .11 

■fl.l 


2.25 


CDCKPIT 



Jane’s USAF 



Continuously Computed Impact Point (CCIP) HUD 

For instructions on bombing, see Combat: How to Drop Unguided Bombs, p. 4.46. 


The CCIP bomb HUD is a computed, manually initiated release mode. Use 
it to deliver general-purpose (GP) and laser-guided (LGB) bombs. The com- 
puter constantly calculates the anticipated impact point and displays a pip- 
per/reticule on the HUD. You control the timing of weapon release, and you 
do not have to have target lock before you “pickle” (drop your bomb). 

■M. d rl ri i'i 


© 


W' 


Reticule. Medium-sized circle 
that drifts in the HUD and 
shows the general area where 
the bomb will hit if released 
immediately. It replaces the 
TD box when the ground 
radar is active and you’ve 
locked onto a target. Altitude 
over the target is used to 
compute bomb range and symbology. 


t"Nw> 





© Pipper. Dot centered within the reticule. It reflects the bomb’s calculated 
impact point. When you move the pipper/reticule over the target and release 
the bomb, you have the best chance of hitting the target. If you’ve selected a 
ripple setting, the pipper marks the average impact point for all weapons. 


The CCIP pipper enters one of two modes when you release the weapon, 
depending on whether the calculated impact point is in the HUD view: 


In immediate CCIP mode (default), the pipper/reticule indicates the 
bomb’s predicted impact point at that instant. It remains active when 
the calculated impact point is visible in the HUD. 

Delayed CCIP mode is used when the impact point can’t be shown on the HUD 
due to high altitude, shallow dive angle, low speed, or high angle of attack. 
(If released, the bomb’s impact point would fall outside the HUD.) Delayed 
CCIP mode solves this by displaying a delayed pipper. You still release the 
bomb when the pipper is over the target, but the drop is delayed. The delay 
is calculated by the aircraft’s computer and considers dive angle, airspeed 
and AGL altitude. More HUD symbols appear (described later). 

Press the pickle button (| Spacebar] or joystick button 2) when the reticule 
centers on the target area. (If you’ve locked a target, align the reticule with 
the TD box.) When you press the pickle button, the pipper point becomes 
the designated target and the pipper recenters on the pickle point. 


• Hold down the pickle button. The bomb fall line is initially solid, but 
flashes once you press the button. It continues flashing until the bomb 
is released. Once it quits flashing, you can release the pickle button. 

© Bomb fall line. Line connecting the pipper to the velocity vector circle. 
This line flashes once all bombs are released. If you’re in delayed CCIP 
mode, a delay indicator appears on this line. In that case, you must keep 
the pickle button depressed until all cues start flashing. 


2.2B 


© Delay indicator. Horizontal line that slides down the bomb fall line 
toward the pipper. It starts out at the far end, representing a 10-second 
or longer delay between pickle/release. As range decreases, the delay cue 
“falls” down the line toward the pipper (representing a shorter delay). 
This is a countdown cue of sorts — it starts falling at 10 seconds to 
release. Once the delay line crosses the velocity vector, your bombs drop. 

• If you’re ripple-firing, keep the pickle button depressed until all cues flash. 


HARM HUD 


For instructions on FIARMs, see Combat: How to Fire HARM Missiles, p. 4.42. 


When HARM missiles are active, the HARM 
MFD activates and a diamond-shaped seeker 
head appears on the HUD. This missile seeker 
initially drifts in the HUD, but then slaves to 
any target you left-click on in the HARM MFD. 
(Meanwhile, you can still cycle through radar 
targets and gain a new radar lock without 
affecting the HARM seeker or lock. 



Press [Spacebar | or joystick button 2 to fire a 

HARM missile once “in range” appears in the HARM MFD (see p. 2.46). 


4 


© Seeker head. Diamond showing where the seeker head is currently 
aimed. It slaves to a target you click on in the HARM MFD (see p. 2.46). 


Laser-Guided Bomb HUD 

For instructions on LCBs, see Combat: How to Drop Laser-Guided Bombs, p. 4.48. 

When you select a laser-guided bomb as 
your current AG weapon, the FLIR MFD 
displays and additional symbology 
appears on the HUD. (Some symbology 
is similar to what appears in the CCIP 
HUD — see facing page.) 

When the laser is on (press (T]), an icon 
appears on the HUD and indicates where 
the LANTIRN’s FLIR camera is currently 
looking. If you’ve left-clicked in the AG Radar MFD to designate a target 
point, it appears on the HUD as well. A FLIR image of the target area dis- 
plays in the FLIR MFD (p. 2.46), regardless of whether or not the laser is 
active. 

© Current LANTIRN position. Indicates where the FLIR camera and the laser 
designator are pointing. It slaves to the LANTIRN’s current position. 

© Current laser designation. Shows a laser spot you’ve designated in the AG 
Radar MFD. To adjust the designation, press | Ctrl | and 



2.27 


CDCKPIT 


Jane’s USAF 


TV-Guided Missile (TV) HUD 

For firing instructions , see Combat: How to Fire TV-Guided Missiles, p. 4.44. 

The TV-Guided Missile HUD assists you in launching TV-guided bombs 
(GBU-15, AGM-62) and missiles (AGM-62, AGM-65B, AGM-130) and 
image infrared MR missiles (AGM-65D). Cameras in the seeker heads of 
these weapons display a television (or MR) image in the TV Missile MFD. The 
seeker head is capable of looking 30° left and right, 15° up and 45° down. 

Some image-guided weapons are FUR missiles. For instance, Maverick (AGM- 
designated) missiles automatically home in on a high-contrast FUR image. 
GBU- and Popeye-series bombs use TV imagery and require manual steering. 

© Camera indicator diamond. 

Shows the current camera 
line of sight for the selected 
weapon. The center of the 
diamond corresponds to 
the center of the camera 
view. An image of what the 
camera sees appears in the 
TV Missile MFD. 

• Position the camera indicatordiamond over the Target Designation (TD) box. 

• For weapons requiring manual steering, press | Ctrl | and [+^[+[T[t] . This lets 
you control where the camera is looking. Try to center it over the target. 

• When you’re in the missile’s kill range, ready appears on the HUD next to 
the altimeter ladder. 

• If an area is relatively SAM-free after you’ve released a manually guided 
weapon, you can toggle to the egress waypoint, then activate autopilot 
(nav mode). This leaves you free to concentrate on steering the missile or 
bomb, and points you toward your exit waypoint. 


[ME 


-i. 




©-<*> 


E 

i 


• l <■* 


2.28 


MFD PAGES 

Multi-Function Displays (MFDs) display “pages” of information. Most cock- 
pits have two MFDs, though some have one or three. You can display differ- 
ent pages of information in any MFD. Not all MFDs appear in all aircraft. 

Pushbuttons around the perimeter of each MFD perform different functions, 
depending on the page currently displayed. Left-click on a pushbutton to use it. 
The name of the current MFD page appears in the corner near PB 16. 


Menu Page 

When you click menu (PB10) in the bottom 
left corner of any MFD screen, the Menu 
screen appears. This general screen lets you 
display a specific MFD. Left-click on the push- 
button next to an MFD name to open it. 


1617181920 



10 9 8 7 6 


Key 

PB# 

Name 

Function 

1) 

PB2 

NAV 

Displays waypoint information. 


PB3 

DAMAGE 

Displays current system status (damage/no damage). 

n/a 

PB5 

ADI 

Displays an artificial horizon and altitude reading. 

a 

PB4 

TACTICAL 

Displays map and waypoint information. 


fT| PB4 JTIDS Displays map and combined data from radar, 

RWR, JSTARS and AWACS. It shows friendly sta- 
tus, friendly and enemy radar locks, and air and 
ground targets (F-22A, F-1 1 7A, F-1 5C, F-1 5E or 
F-1 6C only) 


® 

PB1 1 

RADAR 

Displays radar picture (contact information) 
for the air-to-air and air-to-ground radars. 

a 

PB1 2 

RWR 

Displays radar warning receiver. (Available as a 
separate instrument in some aircraft.) 

n/a 

PB1 3 

STORES 

Automatically displays when in CCIP mode. 
Displays hardpoint status, available weapon 
types and counts. Also lets you select ripple-fire 
settings and bomb delivery mode. 

a 

PB1 5 

FUR 

Automatically displays LANTIRN, FUR and tar- 
geting information for IR- and laser-guided 
weapons. 

n/a 

n/a 

TV 

Automatically displays optical and target infor- 
mation necessary for firing TV-guided missiles. 

n/a 

n/a 

HARM 

Automatically displays optical and target infor- 
mation necessary for firing HARM missiles. 


2.23 




Jane’s USAF 


NAV MFD Page 

For instructions on navigating between waypoints, see Flight: Navigation, p. 3.1 1.) 

This MFD lists navigational data about the currently selected waypoint, and 
lets you switch to any other waypoint in the mission. Most of this informa- 
tion displays on the HUD when you’re in NAV mode — press (n) to access this 
mode and display the NAV MFD. 

Here, you can review the waypoints for your mission. The navigational com- 
puter constantly updates waypoint information in this MFD. You can see the 
miles and bearing measures change as you fly. The target (mission objective) 
waypoints are usually named target. For a clear view of how waypoints are 
positioned relative to each other, press | Esc | to jump to the Tactical Display 
screen (see Interface: Tactical Display Screen, p. 1.15). 

Only three waypoints display at any one time, and your current waypoint is 
always at the top and boxed. You can use the pushbuttons to scroll through 
the waypoint list. 

PB15 / PB16 Scroll forward / backward one waypoint 
[w| / | Shift [w] Alternatively, use the keyboard. 

• Ifyou’re in Autopilot NAV mode, the aircraft automatically flies toward the 
selected waypoint. (See Flight: Autopilot, p. 3.14). 

• The current waypoint heading displays as an inverted caret on the head- 
ing scale and indicates the bearing to the next waypoint. 



Waypoint number/name. List of numbered navigational waypoints. Those 
with mission-critical targets are usually labeled target. The top line is always 
the current waypoint, and its number is boxed. 

Waypoint bearing. Compass heading for the waypoint, a three-digit number 
ranging from 001 to 360. 360 indicates due north, 090 due east, 180 due 
south, and 270 due west. 

Waypoint distance. Distance in nautical miles to the currently selected waypoint. 

Estimated Time-to-Arrival (ETA). How long it will take to reach the cur- 
rently selected waypoint at your current airspeed, given in minutes and sec- 
onds. For instance, “1 2:04” indicates twelve minutes and four seconds. 



Waypoint 
number/name 


Waypoint distance 


Waypoint bearing 


ETA 


2. 3D 



ADI MFD Page 

The Attitude Director Indicator (ADI) page is an artificial horizon device to 
help the pilot fly under “black box” conditions (having to rely solely on 
instrumentation without the aid of an exterior view). It displays information 
about your airspeed, angle-of-attack, altitude, turn rate, heading, etc. 

The functionality is identical to the physical ADI, and the electronic symbol- 
ogy is identical to the navigation symbology that appears on the HUD in 
NAV mode — see p. 2.1 6 for details. 


Current 

altitude 



Current bearing 


Horizon line 


Aircraft’s current 
bank angle 


4 


Radar MFD Page 

For additional information, see Combat: Using the Radar, p. 4.12. 

The Radar MFD page displays radar contact information. When you are in 
NAV (navigation) or AA (air-to-air) master mode, your radar is in air-to-air 
mode by default, and air-to-air radar contact information is displayed in the 
Radar MFD page. When you are in AG (air-to-ground) master mode, your 
radar is in air-to-ground mode by default, and air-to-ground radar contact 
information is displayed in the Radar MFD page. 

You can also change radar modes at anytime by pressingfR). (Ifyou have radar 
lock on a target in one mode, you may lose it ifyou switch to another mode.) 

QU Toggle air-to-air / air-to-ground radar modes 
[ Shift fR~| Place radar on standby (it ceases to emit radar signals) 
This makes you “stealthier” (less visible to enemy RWRs) 
Both air-to-air and air-to-ground radar modes have different submodes. Air-to- 
air radar submodes are Long Range Search, Track While Scan, Boresight, Air 
Combat, Single-TargetTrack and AA Cheat. Air-to-Ground radar submodes are 
Ground Moving Target, Map and AG Cheat modes. 

The current submode appears in the MFD page, next to PB 16. 

[Q] Cycle through radar submodes (or click PB1 6) 

See pp. 2.32 for information on the Radar MFD page in air-to-air mode. 

See pp. 2.36 for information on the Radar MFD page in air-to ground mode. 


2.31 


CDCKPIT 




Jane’s USAF 


Radar MFD Page: Air-to-Air Mode 

Your onboard radar has six different air-to-air search submodes, some of 
which activate automatically. Each has a specific use, and some are easier to 
use than others. If you don’t want to rely on the radar for acquiring targets, 
select Air Combat Mode (ACM) and targeting occurs automatically. 

This section only describes the symbology that displays in the Radar MFD 
when air-to-air radar is active. For specific information on how to use the air- 
to-air radar to target air threats, see Combat: Using the Radar, p. 4.1 2. 

(0| Cycle through air-to-air radar submodes (lrs / tws / acm). 
(Or press PB16 on the Radar MFD.) 

Common Elements in Air-to-Air Submodes 

Each Air-to-Air submode uses the common elements listed below. 


Current range 
visible in MFD 

Grid 

Antenna 

elevation 

caret 



Horizon line 
Waypoint symbol 

Antenna azimuth caret 


Grid. Li nes on the side of the Radar MFD divide the page into a 4 x 4 grid. 
The grid increment depends on the current visible range setting. 

Current visible range. The AA Radar MFD is capable of displaying ranges 
from 5nm to 80nm (the LRS submode also has a 160nm range). 

PBs 1 5/14 Increase/decrease visible range (5 / 10/ 20/ 40/ 80nm) 

(The LRS submode extends to 1 60nm) 

Horizon line. This line simulates the horizon. When the aircraft is flying 
straight and level, the line is horizontal. The angle of the line changes when 
you bank, and it moves up and down when you change pitch. 

Antenna azimuth and elevation carets. Two carets on the left and bottom 
sides of the Radar MFD represent the radar’s current scan position. The bot- 
tom caret represents the horizontal scan (azimuth), while the left caret 
sweeps the vertical scan (elevation). 

Waypoint symbol. The small triangle indicates the position of your current 
waypoint. Steer toward the symbol to get to the next waypoint. 

Cursor. (Not shown) When you move the mouse cursor over the MFD, two 
vertical lines form a bracketed gate symbol and show your cursor position. 
You can move the cursor over a target and left-click on it to acquire a target. 


2.32 


Long Range Search (LRS) Submode 

This mode lets you acquire targets at the longest range — 80 nautical miles. 
Of all the air radar modes, LRS provides the best detection capabilities, but 
it provides no initial information about targets other than their locations. 

History. The scan refreshes the radar 
view every four seconds. By selecting a 
history setting, you can watch a target’s 
progress over time. Each target’s current 
position displays as a bright dot, along 
with up to three additional dim “history” 
dots showing its previous positions. 

Click PB1 to increase the number of pre- 
vious positions to display, and PB2 to 
decrease the number of positions. 

Boresight (BORE) Submode 

This mode is a tool you can use to automatically acquire the first target in 
your immediate vision during close-range combat (under lOnm). To use 
Boresight mode, point your HUD at the target, and press and hold (T). The 
target is automatically acquired. Release the key, and the radar enters STT 
mode. (See Single-Target Track Submode, p. 2.34.) Ifyou have not acquired 
a target, the radar reenters its previous mode. 

f\1 Activate boresight mode (press and hold). 


History blips 




|]— Increase/ 
decrease 
number of 
history 
positions 


i ■ tti til i 


* 


ID 



Air Combat (ACM) Submode 

This mode is entirely automated and best used during short-range combat. 
The radar locks onto the first target entering its scan zone and auto- 
switches to STT mode. (See Single-Target Track Submode, p. 2.34.) As soon 
as you’re in weapon range, you can fire. 

No additional symbology appears for this mode. 


2.33 


COCKPIT 




Jane’s USAF 


Single Target Track (STT) Submode 

This mode is automatically activated whenever you lock onto a target in LRS, 
TWS or ACM mode. It maintains a radar lock on a single target. STT mode 
displays the most target information of any mode, including the target’s alti- 
tude (in thousands of feet), closure speed, and range. 


Target aspect 
angle 

Target altitude 



Target velocity 

Mach speed 

Closure speed 


Target altitude/Mach speed. The target’s altitude in thousands of feet 
appears to the left of the target icon. The target’s mach speed also appears 
(right number). 

Target velocity. The target’s current airspeed, in knots. 

Target aspect angle. The angle of the target in relation to your aircraft’s 
nose, in 1 0° increments. 2L, for instance, represents 20° to the left, while 3L 
represents 30° to the right. 

Closure speed. How fast the target is flying toward or away from you. High, 
positive numbers mean you’re closing in on the target, while low, negative 
numbers mean the target is slowly pulling away. This indicator slides up and 
down the DLZ, and the closure rate appears numerically next to it. 



2.34 


Track While Scan (TWS) Submode 

This mode can track a priority target and still scan for other targets at a 
short range. It can track up to fifteen different targets simultaneously, dis- 
playing the position and direction of flight for each. Symbology is the same 
as in STT submode, with two exceptions. 


Designated 
target icon 



Undesignated 
target icon 


Undesignated target icon. These small squares represent undesignated tar- 
gets. The tail on each square represents the threat’s current direction of flight. 

Priority target icon. The first target the radar comes across in its scan is des- 
ignated as the priority target. It has a star-shaped icon around it, and it is 
brighter than other targets in the Radar MFD. The altitude, velocity, aspect 
angle and closure speed for this priority target appear at all times as long the 
target remains in the Radar MFD page. You can designate a different priority 
target by left-clicking on an undesignated target icon or pressing [Enter] to cycle 
through targets. 

0 View target altitude/mach speed 

(move mouse over threat icon in MFD) 



[U 

□ 

□ 

n 

A 

TJ 

H 


AA Cheat Submode 

This mode is active only if you turn on enable cheat radar in the Preferences 
window. Similar to the track-while-scan mode, it provides a 360° scan of the 
surrounding area. It also displays all air targets, regardless of their radar 
cross-signatures. Even stealthy F-1 1 7As appear on the Radar in this mode. 

The symbology for AA Cheat mode is identical to the TWS symbology. 


2.35 



Jane’s USAF 


Radar MFD Page: Air-to-Ground Mode 

For additional information , see Combat: Using the Radar, p. 4.12. 

The radar defaults to AG mode whenever you switch to AG master mode 
( [m] cycles through master modes) or select an AG weapon ((T|). Press (R to 
manually toggle between air-to-air and air-to-ground radar modes. 

The air-to-ground radar has three submodes — MAP, GMT and AG CHEAT. The 
current radar submode (MAP OR GMT) appears in the upper left corner of the 
Radar MFD by PB1 6. 

[Ql Cycle through air-to-ground radar submodes (map/ cmt / AG 
cheat) or press PB 16 on the Radar MFD. 

This section only describes the symbology that appears in the Radar MFD when 
air-to-ground radar is active. For specific information on how to use the air-to- 
ground radar to target ground threats, see Combat: Air-to-Ground Radar 
Submodes, p. 4.20. 



Common Elements in Air-to-Ground Submodes 

All air-to-ground modes use the same symbology, detailed below. 

Antenna azimuth caret 

| Undesignated 

target 

Mapping ^ Priority target 

— Horizon line 


range 


Grid 

Antenna 

elevation 

caret 


jJW IMilOLTrW-i 


Waypoint symbol 


Grid/map contour. The radar grid appears as a background. In Map mode, 
a terrain contour map also displays behind the grid and shows terrain features. 

Mapping range. The Radar MFD is capable of displaying ranges from lOnm to 
80nm. The current range appears on the Radar MFD. 

0/0 Increase/decrease visible range in Radar MFD (10 / 20 / 40 / 80nm) 
or PB 14/15 


Antenna azimuth and elevation carets. Two carets on the left and bottom sides 
of the Radar MFD represent the radar’s current scan position. The bottom caret 
represents the horizontal scan (azimuth), while the left caret sweeps the vertical 
scan (elevation). 

Elevation azimuth caret. The caret on the bottom of the Radar MFD in ground 
mode represent the radar’s current scan position. It represents the horizontal 
scan. 


2.3B 



Undesignated targets. These small squares represent threats detected by 
your radar. 

Priority target. When you left-click on a target, bright cross hairs appear 
over it and remain on the MFD display. You can designate a different prior- 
ity target by left-clicking on another threat icon or pressing ENTER to cycle 
through targets. 

If you’re in GMT mode and double-click on a target, it becomes a GMTT tar- 
get. This means the radar tracks its movement. A small line extending out 
from the target icon shows what direction the target is traveling. 

Horizon line. This line simulates the horizon. When the aircraft is flying 
straight and level, the line is horizontal. The angle of the line changes when 
you bank, and it moves up and down when you change pitch. 

Waypoint symbol. The small triangle indicates the position of your current 
waypoint. Steer toward the symbol to get to the next waypoint. 

Cursor. (Not shown) When you move the mouse cursor over the MFD, two 
vertical lines form a cross hair and show your cursor position. You can move 
the cursor over a target and left-click on it to acquire a target. 

Map Submode 

This mode is the default air-to-ground radar mode and the best mode for 
targeting and striking stationary objects on the ground. You can adjust the 
map range and scroll across the map by using the pushbuttons. 

No additional symbology is displayed in this mode, although a terrain map 
appears behind the grid. 

Ground Moving Target Identification (GMT) 
Submode 

This mode lets you spot moving ground targets, but not stationary ones. You 
can use it to track, acquire and attack targets on the ground or water. 

No additional symbology is displayed in this mode. 

AG Cheat Submode 

The air-to-ground radar has a cheat mode you can enable by selecting enable 
cheat radar from the Preferences Window . Instead of the usual 120° scan, it 
provides you a 360°-scan of the ground around you. 

Functionally, AG Cheat operates similarly to GMT mode. The one exception 
is that all moving targets have tails indicating their direction of movement. 
Other targets appear as small squares with a hole in the center. 

No additional symbology is displayed in this mode. 


4 


2 . 37 ’ 


CDCKPIT 


Jane’s 


Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) 

MFD Page 

For additional information , see Combat: Viewing Threats in the RWR, p. 4.25. 

The RWR is a passive radar system that detects other objects’ radar emissions. 
It is active at all times and can identify up to 10 separate threats up to 40nm 
away. It can also track radar-guided missiles launched against your aircraft. 

[U1 Display RWR MFD page 

The RWR considers air threats that have launched missiles the most impor- 
tant, following by AAA fire, then SAMs that have launched missiles. If no 
missiles are airborne, priority is assigned to the nearest enemy aircraft / AAA 
site / SAM site (in that order). When another radar has locked onto your 
plane and fired heat- or radar-guided missiles, SAM missiles or AAA gunfire, 
its threat symbol appears in the RWR. 

You receive an audio warning when a threat has locked onto your aircraft 
(one short beep) or fired a missile (siren and “Missile Launched!” message 
every five seconds). 

Note: In most aircraft, the RWR is an MFD page. Fiowever, some aircraft have a 
physical RWR in the cockpit dash. 


RWR circle 




u. 

I 


RWR circle. This circle represents detection range/area of the radar warning 
system — a 25nm radius, 360° around your aircraft. The RWR can detect 
any threats emitting active radar signals within this circle. The cross in the 
center represents your aircraft’s current position. Tic marks around the 
perimeter represent 30° increments. The top of the circle is 0°, or straight in 
front of your aircraft’s nose. 

Threat icons. Shows the target category and type. Threats are marked with 
symbols (general target category) and number codes (specific target type). See 
Combat: Viewing Threats in the RWR, p. 4.25, for a full list of threat codes. 

1C Denotes aircraft (in this case, an F-16) 

© Denotes SAM ^ Denotes boat 

□ Denotes AAA sites Denotes Gundish icon 

If a threat symbol is flashing, that threat has fired at you. 


2.38 





Tactical MFD Page 

The Tactical MFD displays a geographical map of the immediate area, with 
tactical information laid on top of it. 

fT| Display Tactical Map MFD 



Declutter toggles 

Current aircraft 
position 

Waypoints 


Map scale 


Target waypoint 
Current waypoint 


4 


Current aircraft position. The small cross with a tail in the lower third of the 
MFD represents your aircraft’s position. A circle appears around your air- 
craft and changes size depending on what map scale you have selected. 

Map scale. You can zoom the map scale in and out by pressing the push- 
buttons. Available ranges are 10/ 20 / 40 and 80nm. 

PB14 / PB15 Decrease/increase visible map range 
(or [Shift f 7| / f7|) 


SAM threats/circles. Surface-to-air missile sites show up as solid circles. A 
large circle surrounding the SAM threat icon represents the SAM’s effective 
missile range. If you’re trying to fly through a field of SAM circles, try to 
weave in between them to avoid coming into their range. 


Waypoints. Navigation waypoints appear on the map: 

Greer line Planned flight route 

Hollow green circle Normal waypoint 

Solid green circle Currently selected waypoint 

Hollow red triangle Target waypoint (with targets vital to mission success) 

Solid red triangle Current target waypoint 


Declutter toggles. You can use PB1 — PB3 to toggle various elements of this 
display on or off. This is called deduttering because it simplifies the display. 

PB1 (sam) Toggle known SAM sites, and their threat ranges. 

PB2 (wpt) Toggle waypoints 

PB3 (map) Toggle the rough topographical map 


2.33 


COCKPIT 



Jane’s USAF 


Joint Tactical Information Distribution 
System (JTIDS) MFD Page 

When you fly the F-22A, F-1 1 7A, F-1 5C, F-1 5E or F-1 6C, the Tactical Map 
MFD is replaced by the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System 
(JTIDS) MFD. It’s similar, but adds radar, RWR and AWACS/J-STARS data 
to the display. Additionally, the JTIDS is in full color. You can view the JTIDS 
in full-screen mode. 


(~Z~| Display MFD in full-screen mode (press again to return) 


When AWACS and JSTAR aircraft are in your area, additional targets appear 
on this screen. If you’re flying in formation with other flights, their targets 
also appear on your radar. 


Current target 


Air Target 



Ground target 

Toggle air targets 
Toggle ground targets 


The JTIDS symbology is similar to the Tactical MFD Page, with a few addi- 
tions and changes: 

Air targets. Aircraft appear as triangles pointing in the direction of flight. Enemies 
are red; friendlies are blue. If an aircraft is firing a missile, its icon flashes. 

PB4 (air) Toggle air targets (visible/hidden) 

Ground targets. The JTIDS shows all ground targets, not just SAMs. 
Stationary ground objects appear as squares; moving ground objects are 
squares with small lines pointing in the direction of movement. Enemies are 
red (specified enemy targets are solid red) ; friendlies are blue. If an object is 
firing a missile, its icon flashes. 

PB5 (gnd) Toggle ground targets (visible/hidden) 

If a SAM has locked onto you, a small red kill radius circle appears around 
it. If the SAM has fired a missile, its icon and kill radius start flashing. 

Current targets. If you lock onto an air or ground target, a yellow line con- 
nects your aircraft to that target, and target’s icon turns solid yellow. 

If another aircraft in your flight has a radar lock on a target, the line also 
appears, but it’s dashed. 


2. 40 



Stores Management System 
(Stores) MFD Page 

See Using Weapons, p. 4.28-4.50, to learn how to fire all types of weapons. 

When you select an air-to-ground weapon, the Stores MFD page automati- 
cally appears. 

(T) / CD Cycle through air-to-air / air-to-ground weapons 
(or, press hardpoint PBs on Stores MFD page) 



Hardpoint PB 
Current weapon 
Quantity 


flmmo/AA 
weapon count 

Interval 
Current fuel 


Hardpoint PBs. The number and name of the weapon(s) loaded on each 
hardpoint appear next to these PBs. Click on a PB to arm (select) that 
weapon. If a green “X” appears on top of a hardpoint, that weapon has mal- 
functioned and remains unavailable for the rest of the mission. 

PBs 1-3, 13-15, Click on a PB to select the weapon listed next to it. 

16, 18 and 20 

Current weapon. The hardpoint label for the currently armed (selected) 
weapon is boxed. Press (Tj or(T), or click a hardpoint PB to change weapons. 

Ammo/AA weapon count. Lists number of rounds of gun ammo (gun 240), 
short-range and medium-range missiles (4 x SRM and 2 x mrm, for instance). 

Current fuel. How many pounds of fuel remain. 

Quantity (qnt). (Bombs/rockets only) Number of weapons released in one 
salvo, initiated by a single weapon launch command. This is often called 
“ripple-firing.” This setting defaults to 2, but ranges from one to however 
many bombs are left of that type. 

PB11 /PB12 Increase / decrease the number of bombs in a salvo. 

Interval (int). (Bombs/rockets only) Delay between weapon releases during 
a ripple-fire release. Higher intervals spread your weapon impact points over 
a longer distance. 

PB4 / PB5 Increase /decrease distance between weapons released in 
a salvo, by 10-meter intervals. 

Note: Stealth aircraft (i.e., the F-22 or F-117) keep weapons hidden in bomb bays 
to reduce the aircraft's radar signature. The bay doors on these aircraft automatical- 
ly open prior to dropping a bomb. 


i 


2.41 


COCKPIT 


USA.F 


FUR CLANTIRN) MFD Page 

See Combat: How to Drop Laser-Guided Missiles and Bombs, p. 4.48, to learn 
how to use laser-guided weapons. For more information on FUR technology, see 
Combat: Forward-Looking Infrared, p. 4. 1 0. 

The AVQ-26 LAiNTIRN pod helps you fire laser-guided bombs or HR missiles. 
It’s automatically loaded onto all aircraft except the F-4E — you must man- 
ually load a LANTIRN pod on this aircraft. 

The LANTIRN system contains an advanced Forward-Looking Infrared (FUR) 
camera, which allows you to acquire targets and navigate under varying weath- 
er and light conditions. FUR camera images are fed into the FUR MFD page. 

The LANTIRN is also used to laser designate targets and to track a laser des- 
ignation provided by another friendly aircraft or ground object. In this con- 
text, The LANTIRN has two different modes — active (laser is on and lasing a 
target) and passive (laser is off and LANTIRN is tracking another mission ele- 
ment’s laser designation). 



.10 

03 

C 


Active vs. Passive LANTIRN Mode 

The AVQ-26 LANTIRN pod is active when the laser is on. This allows you to 
laser-designate and track targets in a cone measuring 80° left and right, 60° 
up, and 134° down. You can then drop laser-guided bombs, which home on 
the laser designation. You can manually pan the camera/laser from within this 
MFD to fine-tune the designation. 

• Other aircraft in your sortie can view your designation by using the LAN- 
TIRN system in passive mode. 

• If your air-to-ground radar has locked onto a target, the LANTIRN pod auto- 
matically acquires that target. (It always acquires the current radar target.) 

• If you press | Enter | to switch radar targets while the LANTIRN is active, the 
LANTIRN automatically acquires the new target you picked. 

• Ifyour designated target moves out of range, the designation point moves 
to the edge of the MFD and remains there until you bring the target back 
into view or until the LANTIRN’s camera can no longer track the target. 

The LANTIRN is in passive mode when the laser is off. In passive mode, the 
LANTIRN pod locks onto a laser designation provided by friendly forces. 
If more than one designation exists, the pod locks onto the closest one. The 
LANTIRN can detect designations up to 25nm away. 

• If you have a radar target locked, the LANTIRN automatically acquires 
that target by default (active mode only). 

• The LANTIRN cannot lock onto high-contrast targets in passive mode. 


2.42 


FLIR/LANTIRN Symbology 


Next-zoom brackets 


Camera zoom 


Gate 



Laser spot detection 


Laser on/off 


designation dots 
Pointing Range 


NIM/Laser 


Next-zoom brackets 



Camera zoom. In active mode, you can manually pan the LANTIRN camera 
view and zoom it in and out. (Not available in passive mode.) 

PB1 4 / PB1 5 Cycle through camera zoom levels (ix / 2X / 4X / 8x) 


Next-zoom brackets. Four L-shaped brackets marking the field of view for 
the next-largest zoom level. (These do not appear at 8X zoom.) 

NIM/Laser designation dots. FLIR camera/laser position relative to its bore- 
sight (straight-ahead view). To establish a laser designation, center the NIM 
dot within the gate and on top of the contrast lock, then activate the laser. 

Gate. Center of the LANTIRN’s camera view, and the area under which the 
LANTIRN pod tries to acquire a contrast lock. 

Contrast lock. (Not shown) The LANTIRN pod constantly scans underneath 
the gate for “hot” (high-contrast) targets. When the gate moves over a hot 
object, it automatically locks onto it. The FLIR camera view centers on this 
contrast lock, which is marked by a bright white square on HUD. Panning 
the camera breaks this lock. 

Pointing range. Range to center of camera’s current view. Max range in active 
mode is the AG radar’s max range. Max range in passive mode is 25nm. 
Laser on/off. Text describing the current state of the laser. Turning the laser 
on puts you in active LANTIRN mode. Turing it off puts you in passive mode. 

QT) or PB 1 8 Toggle laser on/off 

Laser spot detection. When LANTIRN locks onto the nearest laser designa- 
tion, IN range appears here. NO RNG means you’re out of range, uncgd means 
you don’t have a valid target. 

Full-Screen View 

You can also view this MFD in full-screen mode (highly recommended). 


| Ctrl | + Pan the LANTIRN camera boresight. 

Horizon line. (Full-screen only) Current horizon position, relative to 
aircraft’s attitude. 

Current waypoint (Full-screen only) Currently selected waypoint, which 
appears as a numbered circle. 


| Ctrl | + f+jRftT+l Pan the LANTIRN camera boresight. 


ID 


[z] Display MFD in full-screen mode (press again to return) 


2.43 


CDCKPIT 



Jane’s USAF 


TV MFD Page 

For step-by-step firing instructions, see Combat: How to Fire TV-Guided Missiles, 
p. 4.44. Those instructions apply to TV Bombs as well. 

TV weapons are generally reserved for long-range, precision stand-off 
attacks. There are two types ofTV-guided weapons: fire-and forget (AGM-65 
Maverick) and steerable after launch (AGM-130, AGM-142 and GBU-15). 

You can’t access this MFD from the Menu MFD page — it automatically 
opens when you select a TV-guided missile or bomb. The TV camera’s cur- 
rent position shows up in the HUD as a diamond, and the TV MFD shows a 
close-up image of its target. 

If you are using a GPS-guided (JDAM) missile and you are flying an aircraft 
with at least 2 MFDs, the TV MFD page appears, with a FUR image from the 
missile camera. 


Basic TV MFD Symbology 


Camera zoom 



Current weapon 
Horizon line 
Cross hairs 


Current weapon. Name of the selected weapon, and the number remaining 
on the currently selected hardpoint. 

Camera zoom. You can manually zoom and pan the TV camera. If you pan 
the AGM-65 camera after launch, however, you will lose your target lock. 

PB1 4 / PB1 5 Cycle through camera zoom levels (lx / 2x / 4x / 8x) 

| Ctrl | + fT)P»pnT| Pan the TV camera 

Contrast lock. (Not shown) The TV camera scans its field of view for “hot” 
(high-contrast) targets. When the camera detects such an object, it displays 
a white rectangle in the MFD. The camera view centers on the contrast lock 
and marks the current target on the HUD with a white square. Panning the 
camera manually prior to launch breaks this lock. 

To manually slave the camera to a target, press [ Enter | to acquire a radar tar- 
get, or click on a target in the MFD. 

Cross hairs. A vertical and horizontal line with a small gap at the point of 
intersection. The gap represents the lock location. 

Horizon line. (Missile only) Current horizon position, relative to aircraft attitude. 


2.44 



Additional Symbology for Steerable Weapons 

The symbology for this mode is similar, but not identical, to TV-Guided mis- 
sile mode. The differences are noted below: 



Flight stage 


Estimated time- 
to-impact CETI) 



Flight stage. GBU-1 5s have two loft profiles after launch. The current stage, 
or profile, is represented in the MFD as transitional (tran) or terminal 
(term). Before launch, the flight stage is listed as ready (rdy). 

tran The weapon automatically enters transitional loft profile after launch. 
During this stage, it maintains speed, loses altitude and gently cor- 
rects its heading while following the TV guidance system. You can 
control the yaw of the weapon (its heading) with [Ctrl | and 0(3- You 
can control the weapon’s pitch by panning the TV camera. 

term Thirty seconds before impact, the weapon switches to terminal loft 
profile. The seeker head attempts to keep a steady bead on the target. 
You can use | Ctrl | and ppTtTT) to make minor pitch and yaw adjust- 
ments up until impact. 

• AGM-1 30s are in terminal mode from release until impact because they’re 
equipped with a jet engine. 

Estimated Time-to-lmpact (ETI). How long it will take the bomb to reach 
its target and detonate. “20 sec,” for instance, means it will take 20 seconds 
to impact. If the ETI exceeds 300 seconds, “XXX” displays instead. 

Full-Screen View 

You can also view this MFD in full-screen mode (highly recommended). With 
full-screen mode active, you can pan the camera view. 

(0/0) Zoom MFD in/out 

fzj Display MFD in full-screen mode 
(press again to restore MFD view) 

| Ctrl | + 0RftT0 Pan camera view (full-screen view mode only) 

Current waypoint (Not shown; full-screen only) Currently selected way- 
point, which appears as a numbered circle. The target waypoint has a “T” in 
the circle. 


m 


2.45 


COCKPIT 



Jane’s USAF 


HARM MFD Page 

For step-by-step firing instructions, see Combat: How to Fire Radar-Homing 
(HARM) Missiles, p. 4.42.) 

The HARM Missile MFD auto-activates when you select a HARM missile. 
This MFD page aids you in aiming the AGM-45 Shrike and the AGM-88 anti- 
radiation missiles, most often employed against SAM sites. However, HARM 
weapons can attack any radar-emitting source within 30nm and within a 
120° cone of view. These missiles are fire-and-forget, meaning you can’t 
manually guide them after launch. 

A HARM missile locks onto the first radar-using target it finds. If more than 
one target is spotted, it locks onto the nearest one. 

Note that the display is oriented straight ahead (where your aircraft’s nose 
is pointed). To see targets below you, pitch the nose down. 


Threat icon 



Target status 


Current target 



Cross hairs. A vertical and horizontal line with a small gap at the point of 
intersection. The gap represents the lock location. To place cross hairs on the 
MFD, double-left-click inside the MFD on top of the intended HARM target. 

Threat icon. Each threat has its own numerical threat icon. The icon for the 
currently locked threat is boxed. 


Threat Type 

Icon 

Threat Type 

Icon 

SA-2 

2 

Hawk 

H 

SA-3 

3 

ZSU-23X4 

A 

SA-5 

5 

Patriot 

P 

SA-6 

6 

Roland 

R 

SA-8 

8 

General AAA 

A 

SA-10 

10 




Target status. Indicates the status of the currently locked target. 

NO range Missile has a lock, but target is out of weapon’s range 

IN range Missile has a lock, and target is in range; ready to fire 


2.4B 



Damage MFD Page 

When your aircraft is hit with bullets or missiles, it takes damage. You can 
monitor the current status of your aircraft’s systems in the Damage MFD. This 
MFD lists the most important systems on the plane 
and their current status. 

When a system is damaged in combat, the master cau- 
tion lamp lights up in the cockpit. You can left-click on 
it to turn it off and automatically display this screen. 

[d] Display Damage MFD 

(or click on master caution lamp) 

In this MFD, you can left-click the pushbutton next to 
any system name to open that MFD. (See p. 2.29 fora listing of MFD names 
and page numbers for more information about a particular page.) 

In general, GO indicates an operational system, and nogo or mal indicates a mod- 
erate to severe system failure. Below are specific damage messages. 


ENG MAL 

Engine on fire (use extinguisher within 10 seconds) 

AB MAL 

Partial afterburner failure (one is operable) 

AB NOGO 

Total afterburner failure (neither is operable) 

GEAR NOGO 

Gear is stuck either up/down; belly landing possible 

GEAR MAL 

Cannot land; must eject at end of mission ((E) x 3) 

FLAP NOGO 

Flaps will not raise/lower 

ABRK NOGO 

Air brakes will not extend/ retract 

WBRK NOGO 

Wheel brakes will not engage 

FLTC NOGO 

Control surfaces inoperable; must eject ((e) x 3) 

FLTC MAL 

Ailerons, elevators or rudder damaged 

ELCT NOGO 

Instrument failure; no avionics, weapons, afterburner 

ELCT MAL 

Avionics failure; no radar, HUD, RWR, ILS, Nav info, ECMs 

RDR NOGO 

Radar inoperable 

HUD NOGO 

HUD modes inoperable; only partial HUD displays 

INS NOGO 

NAV computer inoperable; no nav data, ADI, HSI 

NVG NOGO 

NAV computer inoperable; no nav data 

RWR NOGO 

RWR inoperable; blank RWR screen 

ILS NOGO 

ILS inoperable; no landing cues 

DASH NOGO 

DASH system inoperable 

ECM NOGO 

Countermeasures inoperable; no chaff/flare 

WPNS NOGO 

All weapons inoperable 

WPNS MAL 

A/A, A/G weapons inoperable; gun is okay 

GUN NOGO 

Gun inoperable 

RFLH NOGO 

Refueling hatch inoperable; no refueling 



2.47 


Jane’s USAF 



COCKPIT VIEW CONTROLS 

All aircraft in Jane’s USAF are equipped with a useful and entertaining array 
of external camera views. The best flying in the world won’t save you if you 
lose your tally because you can’t locate your target. 

These view controls let you pan around the cockpit, or jump into an external 
view. Take some time to become familiar with these keys, as they can often 
make a remarkable difference in the outcome of a fight. 

Here are the most common views. For a complete listing, see the printed 
Reference Card. 

| FI | Cockpit/HUD View. Toggle view that displays either the physical 
cockpit or full-screen HUD view. 

|F2 | 3D, Panning Cockpit View. Pannable, 3D view of the inside of 

the cockpit. Pan around using [ Shift | and the arrow keys, or use 
the hat on your joystick. 

| F 3 | Padlock Target View. Interior cockpit view that points your 

“eyes” directly at the currently locked target. Even if the target 
isn’t in your HUD view, this view still looks in the direction of the 
target. Your “eyes” follow the current target up to 90° left/right. 

|F4 | Target View. External view of your current target. 

|F5 | Player— Threat View. External view of your aircraft that lines the 

camera up with your aircraft and the closest inbound missile. 

| F 6 | Player — Wing View. External view of your aircraft that lines the 
camera up with your wingman. Press this key multiple times to 
cycle through other aircraft in your flight. 

| F 7 | Player — Target View. External view of your aircraft that lines the 

camera up with the current target. Press again to reverse the view. 

| F 8 | Arcade View. External view of your current target that lines the 

camera up behind your aircraft in a “chase view.” 

| F 9 | Fly By View. Externa] view of your aircraft as it performs a fly-by. 

Press again to view the fly-by from a fixed point. 

| FI 0 1 Chase View. External view of your aircraft. Press this key multiple 
times to view close-ups of different parts of your aircraft. To pan 
while in this view, use the arrow keys or mouse. 

| F11 | Weapon View. External view of your missile that lines up with the 
current target 

| FI 2 1 Action View. As | F 9 | , but shows fly-bys of target aircraft. 

Pressing the key multiple times cycles through various views of 
other target aircraft in the mission. (If you see only one plane in 
this view, fly a mission with more aircraft.) 


2.4B 



Jane’s USAF 


Previous page: A KC- 1 0A boom operator’s, or “ boomer’s ”, view of a refueling F-1 1 7 A. 

USAF photo by Senior Master Sgt. Rose Reynolds 


Basic Physics 3.1 

Thrust 3.1 

Airspeed 3.2 

Drag 3.2 

Lift 3. .3 

Angle of Attack 3.3 

AoA and Airspeed 3.4 

Altitude 3.4 

Turn Performance 3.5 

Load Factors and G-Forces 3.5 

Pilot Tolerance 3.5 

Instantaneous Turn 

Capability 3.6 

Corner Speed (Vc) 3.6 

Turn Rate and Turn Radius. .3.7 
Sustained Turn Capability 3.7 


Flight Controls 3.8 

Coupled Motion 3.8 

Flight Stick — Pitch Control 3.8 

Flight Stick — Roll Control 3.8 

Rudder Pedals — Yaw Control ....3.9 
Throttle 3.9 



Basic Flight 3.10 


Taking Off 3.1 0 

Basic Take Off Sequence 3.10 

Navigation 3.1 1 

Overview of Instruments 3.1 1 

HUD in NAV Mode 3.11 

Tactical/JTIDS MFD Pages. ..3. 12 

NAV MFD Page 3.12 

Navigating Through 

Waypoints 3.1 3 

Choosing a Waypoint 3.1 3 

Steering to a Waypoint 3.1 3 

Time Compression 3.13 


Chapter 3 


Autopilot 3.14 

Using Autopilot for 

Low-Level Flight 3.14 

Using Autopilot for 

Mid-Air Refueling 3.15 

Manual Mid-Air Refueling 3.16 

Overview of Instruments 3.1 6 

Basic Mid-Air Refueling 

Sequence 3.1 7 

Using Night Vision 

Goggles (NVG) 3.18 

Landing 3.1 9 

Overview of Instruments 3.1 9 

Instrument Landing 

System (ILS) 3.1 9 

Basic Landing Sequence 3.20 

Aborting a Bad Landing 3.21 

Flight Disruptions 3.22 

Stall 3.22 

First Warning: 

Buffet and Tickle 3.22 

Second Warning: 

Stall Horn 3.22 

Recovering 3.23 

Spins 3.24 

Spin Recovery 3.24 


FLIGHT 

This chapter contains the information you need for basic flight: 



Basic Physics (p. 3.1) discusses the forces governing flight (such as thrust, lift, 
and gravity); the effects of altitude, angle-of-attack and airspeed; and G-forces. 

Flight Control (p. 3.8) provides an overview of basic aircraft control systems 
and explains how to use them. 

Basic Flight (p. 3.1 0) covers taking off (p. 3.10); navigating to waypoints (p. 
3.1 1 ); using the autopilot system for navigation, low-level flight and mid-air 
refueling (pp. 3.14-3.15); manual mid-air refueling (p. 3.16); using night 
vision goggles (p. 3.18) and landing (p. 3.19). 

Flight Disruptions (p. 3.22) describes different types of stalls and spins 
while offering advice on avoiding and recovering from them. 

BASIC PHYSICS 

Flight is the result of several forces acting upon an aircraft. The first is the 
aircraft’s weight, or the gravitational force pulling it toward the ground. The 
second is thrust, the force produced by the engines propelling the plane 
through the air. This forward movement causes air to move over the wings, 
which in turn creates a lift force which counteracts the gravitational force. 
The final force acting on an aircraft is drag, gener- 
ated as the aircraft moves through the air, push- 
ing against the aircraft in a direction opposite to 
its movement. 

Each of these component forces (weight, thrust, 
lift, and drag) has a direction and quantity. The 
overall effect of these forces, called the net or 
resultant force, determines how the aircraft flies. 

Thrust 

An aircraft’s engines generate a thrust force. As this thrust force propels the 
aircraft forward, air moves over and under the wings, generating a lift force. 
Thus, the amount of thrust the engines generate governs not only how fast 
the aircraft moves forward, but also how much lift it can generate. 

A common measure of an aircraft’s power is its thrust-to-weight ratio. This is 
the ratio between its total weight (including airframe, equipment, crew, and 
stores) and the thrust capability of its engine. A ratio greater than 1 :1 indi- 
cates an aircraft can overcome gravity in a vertical climb. 



4 


3 . 1 


FLIGHT 


Jane’s USAF 


The table below compares the flyable aircraft, their engines, and maximum 
thrust ratings. Thrust ratings listed are for dry operation (i.e., without after- 
burning) and are given in static pounds ofthrust (lb st). All statistics are cour- 
tesy ofjane’s Information Group, Ltd. See Aircraft Specifications, p. 7.1. 




ENGINES 

Thrust 

Total 


# 

Make 

Model 

(lb st) 

(lb st) 

A-10A 

2 

General Electric 

TF34-GE-1 00 

9,065 

18,130 

F-117A 

2 

General Electric 

F404-GE-F1D2 

21,600 

21,600 

MiG-29 

2 

Klimov/Sarkisov 

RD-33 

11,100 

22,200 

F-4E 

2 

General Electric 

J79-GE-1 7 

17,900 

35,800 

F-15C 

2 

Pratt & Whitney 

FI 00-PW-220 

23,700 

47,400 

F-16C 

1 

Pratt & Whitney 

FI 00-PW-229 

29,100 

29,100 



or General Electric F110-GE-129 

29,588 

29,588 

F-105D 

1 

General Electric 

J75-P-19W 

26,500 

26,500 

F-15E 

2 

Pratt & Whitney 

FI 00-PW-229 

29,100 

58,200 


Airspeed 

The pressure of air flowing around an aircraft can be used to determine its 
airspeed. As the speed of this airflow increases, so does its pressure; these 
variations in pressure are measured by a 
pitot tube mounted on the aircraft’s 
nose and used to calculate airspeed. 

However, air pressure also varies with 
altitude and wind conditions. Thus, the 
computed airspeed of an aircraft flying 
at 30,000ft above sea level (ASL) with a 
constant thrust and angle of attack 
(AoA), is much slower than the comput- 
ed airspeed for the same aircraft travelling under the same thrust and AoA 
conditions at a 5000ft ASL. 

Three types of velocities appear in the game — one for each main HUD: 
True airspeed. (AG HUD). Airspeed compared to air flowing around the aircraft. 

Indicated airspeed. (AA HUD). Airspeed corrected to account for variations 
in air density and altitude; it gives the best indication of your aircraft’s lift. 

Ground speed. (AG HUD). Airspeed relevant to the ground (measured as 
“0” if you’re going straight up or straight down). 

Drag 

Drag forces are created by the friction of air moving along the aircraft’s 
wings and buildups of pressure as air pushes against the aircraft’s surfaces. 
Drag forces cause an aircraft to resist movement in the direction of flight, 
thus reducing airspeed. 


: f Airspeed Indicator. If 

ust>: you’re using the AA 

I 4 ™: HUD, you’ll see indicated 

] airspeed. If you’re using 
the AG HUD, true airspeed is 
reported instead. The NAV 
HUD displays ground speed. 


3.2 



Induced drag is the rearward component of lift. As the wings produce more 
lift, they also produce more drag (thus a climbing aircraft requires increas- 
ing throttle to maintain a steady speed). As an aircraft approaches Mach 1 , 
more pressure is created in front of the aircraft’s wing than behind it, which 
creates a backward drag force known as wave drag. Parasitic drag includes wind 
resistance and all other types of drag not lift-induced. Different flight atti- 
tudes, speeds, and altitudes yield differing types and amount of drag. 


Lift 

Lift is produced when air rushes over an aircraft’s wing. As the wing meets 
the air, it separates at the point of impact and flows both over and under the 
exterior surfaces. Most aircraft wings are designed so the top surface is more 
curved, and thus longer, than the bottom surface. Because the air flowing 
over the wing travels farther than the air flowing under it, the airflow over the 
wing is faster. 

This faster airflow over the top surface results in a low-pressure area imme- 
diately above the wing. The pressure differential, or imbalance of pressure, 
between the air above and beneath the wing results in a net force that push- 
es upward, causing lift. 

Angle of Attack 

The amount of lift produced by the wing varies according to the angle at which 
the wing hits the air. This angle is called the angle of attack (AoA). Generally, as 
angle of attack increases, lift increases — up to a point. If the wings hit the air 
at too great an angle, the air rushing against the wing pushes the aircraft back- 
ward more than upward. This reduces lift and forward velocity, which further 
reduces lift. Continued high-angle attack flight can in this way generate a stall. 

Note: If AoA is too high, an audio tone will activate in the cockpit, warning of an 
impendingstall. See Stalls, p. 3.22, for more information. 

Angle of attack and an air- 
craft’s attitude are closely 
related, although not the 
same. An aircraft’s atti- 
tude is the pitch angle of 
its nose relative to the 
horizon. Your current AoA is not exactly the same as your pitch angle, 
because an aircraft’s wings are not always level with the fuselage and they 
may bend somewhat during flight. However, as your pitch angle increases or 
decreases, so does your AoA. 

Pitch ladder. Attitude is represented on the HUD by the 

pitch ladder — each bar indicates 5° of pitch. The ends of 
the bars point down if pitch is positive and up if pitch is neg- 
ative (see Cockpit: Pitch Ladder, p. 2.15). 


Pitch 


angle^ 


AoA 


f 


4 


3.3 


FLIGHT 


Jane’s USAF 


AoA and Airspeed 

The AoA of an aircraft’s wings greatly affects airspeed. If you’re trying to fly 
level, it’s important to remember you must accompany any change in AoA 
(i.e., any change in pitch) with a change in airspeed. At very low speeds (i.e., 
during takeoffs and landings), the relationship between pitch and airspeed 
is most pronounced. 

You can find instructions forTaking Off (p. 3.1 0) and Landing (p. 3.1 9) in the 
Basic Flight Maneuvers section later in this chapter. Those sections walk you 
through pitch and altitude adjustments during low-speed flight conditions. 


Altitude 

An aircraft gains altitude as 
a result of lift. Altitude can 
be measured in two ways: 
distance above ground level 
(AGL) and distance above sea 
level (ASL). Altitude above 
sea level (ASL) is also known 
as barometric altitude. 


■” Altitude indicator. Your altitude is 
reported on the right side of your 
HUD. If you’re using the air-to-air 
master mode, altitude is given as 
ASL. If you’re using the air-to- 
ground mode, however, altitude is report- 
ed as AGL. (See Cockpit: Altitude 
Ladder, 2.14.) 


Because engine performance decreases as the air thins, changes in your 
barometric altitude affect your aircraft’s performance capabilities. At 
25,000 feet ASL, an aircraft’s jet engines are only producing about half the 
power they can at sea level. Performance at high altitudes varies depending 
on an aircraft’s engine power and design. The A-10A, for example, was 
designed as a durable, low-level CAS aircraft. Its engines were designed for 
stability at low speeds, and high-altitude performance was sacrificed to 
achieve this. On the other hand, fighters such as the F-1 5E and MiG-29 were 
designed with high-altitude air combat performance in mind. 



The table to the right lists service ceilings 
for the eight flyable aircraft, where avail- 
able. An aircraft’s service ceiling is the ASL 
altitude at which its climb performance 
has dropped to a maximum of 

Aircraft 

Service 

Ceilinq 

F-15C 

60,000 ft 

F-16C 

50,000 ft 

lOOft/min — in other words, down to 

MiG-29 

55,775 ft 

bare minimum. 

F-22A 

50,000 ft 

Statistics are from Jane’s Information 

F-4E 

28,100 ft 

Group, Ltd., except where indicated. See 

A-10A 

44,200 ft** 

Aircraft Specifications, p. 7.1, for more 
Jane’s information on these aircraft. 

F-15E 

65,000 ft** 

F-1 05 D 

51,000 ft** 


F-117A 

45,000 ft** 


**Statistics from the USAF 
Museum’s Archives Gallery 
web site (www.wpafb.af.mil/ 
museum/research/rsrch.htm). 





3.4 


Turn Performance 

An aircraft’s maneuverability is determined by its turn performance, or its abil- 
ity to change direction during flight. A fighter does not always need to be 
powerful in order to be maneuverable. The Vietnam-era MiG-17, for exam- 
ple, was by far one of the less powerful fighters in the skies over Vietnam. 
However, its turn performance exceeded that of at least one rival, the F-4E. 
In a series of skilled maneuvers, a capable pilot might press this advantage 
into an opportunity to get on his opponent’s six. 

This section explains the physics principles behind turn performance. See 
Combat: Pursuit Curves (p. 4.58) for instruction on capitalizing on turn per- 
formance advantages and minimizing disadvantages. 


Load Factors and G-Forces 

The relationship between the forces of lift and weight can be described in terms 
of “G.” An airplane in level flight experiences 1 G of force — 1 G is equivalent to the 
gravitational force on an object at sea level. Making a turn increases the air- 
craft’s acceleration and adds G-force — this is called the load factor of the 
turn. The higher the airspeed, the greater the load factor during a turn. 
Other accelerations — such as those produced by sharp climbing maneuvers 
or increased throttle also contribute to G-forces. 


4 


G-forces can be positive or negative. Positive 
Gs during a turn push you back into the seat, 
while negative Gs exert a pulling effect. In 
high-G maneuvers, your heart must work 
harder to pump blood away from the direc- 
tion of the pull. 


r oai G indicator. Your 

L ' | .aG 

irtv current G level is 

reported on the bottom left 
of your HUD (+1.0G here). 


Pilot Tolerance 

A well-trained pilot can endure about 9-1 0 positive Gs for a limited time — 
anything beyond this can cause tunnel vision or blackout. Blood collects in 
the lower torso and the legs, denying blood to the brain. Eyesight starts to 
“gray-out,” and eventually you will black out. A similar condition called 
“red-out” occurs when the aircraft pulls too many negative Gs — blood col- 
lects in the upper regions ofthe body, and the blood vessels in the eyes swell. 
This causes your vision to go red. Usually, this starts occurring after several 
seconds of flying at -3Gs or greater. 

Both red-out and black-out effects are accurately simulated in the game — 
the screen will go red or black, and you may begin to have difficulty con- 
trolling your aircraft. 


3.5 


FLIGHT 


Instantaneous Turn Capability 

An aircraft’s instantaneous turn capability is its best turn performance at any 
given instant in time. The amount of lift an aircraft can produce relates 
directly to its instantaneous turn capability. Thus, when an aircraft’s speed 
and altitude change, its instantaneous turn performance changes as well. 

The Vn diagram below is a graphical representation of the relationship 
between airspeed and load factor. Above the OG line in the diagram, the air- 
craft is pulling positive Gs; below it, the aircraft is pulling negative Gs. The 
maximum structural G limit marks the maximum G-load the airframe can 
withstand. The speed limit (Vd) marks the aircraft’s maximum attainable 
speed. The lift limit curves indicate the speed and load factor conditions 
where the aircraft is able to maintain enough lift to maintain altitude. 

Stall speed (Vs) is the speed below which the aircraft wings cannot generate 
enough lift in level (1G) flight to keep the aircraft in the air. 



I 

jn 

03 

c 



Comer Speed (Vc) 

For any given altitude, the speed at which maximum lift occurs during a turn 
(without causing structural damage to the aircraft) is known as the comer 
speed. It is marked on the diagram above by the corner speed (V c ) line. At 
corner speed, the aircraft achieves its maximum instantaneous turn per- 
formance at a given altitude. In other words, it achieves the highest possible 
turn rate with the lowest possible turn radius. 


3.6 


Turn Rate and Turn Radius 

Turn performance is measured in terms of turn rate and turn radius. A high 
turn rate and a low turn radius yield the best turn performance. 


Turn rate is the number 
of degrees per second a 
particular aircraft can 
turn. The higher its turn 
rate, the more quickly it 
turns. As the diagram to 
the right shows, turn 
rate increases with air- 
speed until the airspeed 
reaches corner speed 
(Vc). Beyond corner 
speed, turn rate begins 
to decrease as speed 
increases. 



Turn radius is the radial 
distance an aircraft 
requires to complete a 
turn. The smaller its turn 
radius, the more tightly it 
turns. As the diagram to 
the right indicates, turn 
radius decreases shortly 
before an aircraft reaches 
its corner speed, then 
plateaus for a bit, then 
increases as the aircraft’s 
speed increases beyond 
corner speed. 



Sustained Turn Capability 

In a sustained turn, the aircraft maintains a specific turn rate and radius for 
some time. The load factor must be at least 1G in order for the aircraft to 
maintain lift and altitude. At higher load factors, turn performance 
improves, but drag increases, decreasing lift. The overall sustained turn 
capability of an aircraft depends on its thrust-to-weight ratio and its lift 
capability. 

Lower airspeeds yield optimal sustained turns — in general, the slower your 
airspeed (to a point), the more quickly you can execute a turn. This gives cre- 
dence to the old fighter pilots’ adage “Slow down and get there faster.” 


4 


3.7 


FLIGHT 


Jane’s USAF 


FLIGHT CONTROLS 

Aircraft maneuver in three dimensions: pitch, roll, and yaw. These dimensions 
are always referenced from the pilot’s point ofview, regardless ofthe aircraft’s 
orientation or flight attitude. This section describes main aircraft flight con- 
trols and explains how to use them to alter the aircraft’s flight attitude. 

Note: In Jane’s USAF, you can control flight using game controls (such as a joystick, 
throttle device and rudder pedals), the keyboard, or a combination of both. In this 
section, instructions for using game controls and the keyboard are both given. 
Keyboard commands are re-mappable, the keys listed here are default assignments. 
You can set up keyboard and game controls using the Preferences window (see 
Appendix D: Preferences Window, p. 8.8). 

Coupled Motion 

Non-coupled motion, or motion along a single axis, can be generated by a 
single flight control input — such as yawing left with the rudder. More often 
than not, you will need to coordinate input from several flight controls to get 
the aircraft to move in the direction you want to travel. Coupled motion, or 
motion occurring along more than one axis requires coordinated inputs: yaw- 
ing with the rudder and pulling the stick to pitch upward creates a banking 
turn or rolling effect, for example. 

Flight Stick — Pitch Control 

Moving the stick forward and backward moves 
the aircraft’s elevators and flaps. Flaps and ele- 
vators move up and down in tandem, changing 
the lift over both wings equally, which causes a change in the aircraft’s pitch. 
Pitch is the up and down movement ofthe aircraft’s nose. 

• Pull the stick back to lift the aircraft’s nose upward. Pitching the nose 
upward and increasing throttle generally causes an aircraft to climb. 

• Push the stick forward to drop the aircraft’s nose downward. Pitching the 
nose downward generally causes an aircraft to dive. 

ft] Pitch nose downward (T) Pitch upward 

Flight Stick — Roll Control 

Moving the stick right and left controls the 
ailerons. Ailerons, like flaps, are hinged panels on 
an aircraft’s wings. Unlike flaps, however, ailerons 
move in opposite directions of one another. The result is lift increases on one 
wing and decreases on the other. This lift differential tilts the wings and rolls 
the airplane. Roll is movement around the aircraft’s nose-to-tail axis. 

• Pull the stick to the left to drop your left wing and roll to the left. 

• Pull the stick to the right to drop your right wing and roll to the right. 

Q Roll left 0 Roll right 




3.B 


Rudder Pedals — Yaw Control 

Pushing the rudder pedals moves the aircraft’s rudder(s). 

Applying right rudder yaws the aircraft’s nose right. 

Pushing the left rudder yaws the aircraft’s nose left. Yaw 
is the right to left movement of the aircraft’s nose. 

Rudders are primarily used for lining up shots and spin 
recovery. Rudder can also induce a roll. When using rud- 
der, most aircraft will roll in the direction that rudder is 
applied. The amount of roll varies with aircraft type. 

• Push the left rudder pedal to yaw left. 

• Push the right rudder pedal to yaw right. 

Numpad [o) Apply left rudder Numpad (7) Apply right rudder 



Throttle 

The throttle controls the engine’s output. Pulling the throttle back closes the 
throttle, decreasing engine output. Rapidly closing the throttle is called cut- 
ting or chopping the throttle. Pushing the throttle forward opens the throttle 
and increases engine output. The engine’s maximum output without using 
afterburner is called full military power. 

Afterburner increases engine thrust by dumping fuel into the engine’s 
exhaust and igniting it. It provides a significant thrust increase over full mil- 
itary power, but consumes fuel four times faster than full military power. 
Afterburner provides a powerful boost, but must be reserved for critical sit- 
uations. Use it to pull out ofa stall orto catch up with (or outrun) an enemy. 

In Jane’s USAF, you can control how much fuel is being dumped into the 
afterburner. At level 2, the maximum amount of fuel is used for maximum 
boost. At level 1, less fuel is used for less ofa boost. 

• Pull back on the throttle device (or throttle wheel on joystick) to decrease thrust. 

• Pull throttle (or throttle wheel on joystick) all the way back to decrease 
thrust to idle. 

• Push forward on the throttle device (or throttle wheel on joystick) to 
increase thrust. 

• Push the throttle device (or throttle wheel on joystick) almost all the way 
forward to increase thrust to full military power. 

• Push throttle (or throttle wheel on joystick) all the way forward to ignite 
afterburner. 


m 

Set thrust to 60% 

0 

0 

Set thrust to 70% 

0 

© 

Set thrust to 90% 

© 

s 

Afterburner, level 1 (abI ) 

0 


Decrease throttle 5% 

0 


Set thrust to idle (65%) 

Set thrust to 80% 

Toggle full military power (100%) on/off 
Afterburner, level 2 (ab2) 

Increase throttle 5% 


4 


3.3 


FLIGHT 


Jane’s USAF 


BASIC FLIGHT 

This section explains the basic skills you will need to take off, steer through 
your waypoints, land, use night vision aids and refuel in mid-air. 

Note: Keyboards are re-mappable in Jane’s USAF. Key commands listed are defaults. 

Taking Off 

This section provides basic instructions for takeoff, and is designed as a ref- 
erence guide. However, learning to fly — and in particular learning to take off 
and land — requires training and practice in the cockpit. 

Takeoff Training Mission 

Check out the Takeoff exercise of the Basic Training series. The instructor will 
walk you through the takeoff, step-by-step. To access this mission, select 
training from the Main Menu screen. When the Training screen appears, 
click basic training in the upper right corner of the screen, and then click 
takeoff. Click on the plane you want to practice in, then click load. 



Basic Take Off Sequence 

1 . If you are not already on the runway, taxi out onto it. Follow the yellow 
signs pointing to the runway. 

FI] Release your wheel brakes 
m Increase throttle to 60% thrust 

Num (Ol/n Steer left/right (or use rudder pedals) 

2. Verify flaps are extended. A flaps indicator light should be lit somewhere 
on your instrument panel (placement varies by cockpit). 

FI Extend your flaps if they are not already extended. 

3. Begin takeoff run. First, make sure you get a “Clear to Hold Runway" 
message from the tower. If the runway is not clear, the tower will 
request you to "hold short" on the runway. 

[Bl Re-engage wheel brakes 
F Open throttle to afterburner 1 

(if using throttle device, push it almost all the way forward) 
F Disengage wheel brakes 

4. When you see the nose of your aircraft rise up slightly — at about 150 
knots — pull up by pressing (T) or pulling back on your joystick. 

IF Pitch nose upward (if using joystick, pull backward) 

5. When you reach an altitude of 300 AGL, retract your landing gear and 
flaps. Above Ground Level (AGL) altitude is reported on the box on the 
right side of your HUD (See HUD diagram, facing page.) 

F/Fl Retract your landing gear / flaps 


3.10 


Navigation 

This section serves as a reference guide to navigation in Jane’s USAF. It famil- 
iarizes you with the basic systems and instruments providing navigational 
information and walks you through a typical navigation sequence. 


Step Down Training Mission 

There is no substitute for practice in the cockpit — in the Step Down 
exercise of the Basic Training series, the instructor will walk you through 
the basics of navigation, using the autopilot and low-level flight. To 
access this mission, select training from the Main Menu screen. When the 
Training screen appears, click basic training in the upper right corner of 
the screen, and then click step down training. Click on the plane you 
want to practice in, then click load. 


Overview of Instruments 

Navigation information is reported on your HUD, and on the INS and the 
Tactical Map orJTIDS MFD pages. These instruments and an overview of 
their features are presented in the following sections. 

HUD in NAV Mode 

Whenever the HUD is in NAV mode, it displays symbols that guide you to 
your next waypoint. These symbols include a waypoint caret, which scrolls 
across the heading bar, indicating the heading to your waypoint, and a 
current waypoint indicator, a circle on the HUD showing where the waypoint is 
located. The target waypoint appears as a triangle with a “T” next to it. The 
aerial range to your waypoint and estimated time of arrival (ETA) are displayed in 
the lower right alphanumeric field. 

© Switch HUD to NAV mode. 

(NAV appears in the lower left corner of the HUD.) 

For more information on the HUD in NAV mode, see Cockpit: Nav HUD 
Information, p. 2.16. 


4 



3.11 


FLIGHT 


USA.F 


Tactical/JTIDS MFD Pages 

The Tactical Map page superimposes waypoint information over a scalable 
moving map of the area you are currently flying over. Waypoints are indicated 
by hollow circles; the current waypoint circle is solid. Target waypoints, i.e., way- 
points where mission objective 
targets are located, are marked 
by hollow triangles; a current 
target waypoint is solid. The 
Tactical Map can also display 
known targets, threat and SAM 
threat circles, giving you an idea 
of their position with relation to 
your flight path. 

In the F-1 1 7A, F-22A, F-1 5C, F-1 6C and F-1 5E, the Tactical Map MFD page 
is replaced by the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) 
MFD page. This system can mark the position of air and ground objects 
picked up by nearby AWACS, JSTARS or Ground Control radar systems, as 
well as any target picked up by your flight’s radar systems and your RWR. 

To open the Tactical Map or JTIDS pages: 

1. Click the menu button on the MFD to call up the MFD main menu. 

2. Click the tactical or JTIDS button on the MFD. 

- OR - 

1. Press (T). 

See Cockpit: JTIDS MFD Page, p. 2.40, or Tactical MFD Page, p 2.39. 




.10 

Q) 

C 


NAV MFD Page 

The Inertial Navigation System 
(INS) gives you data on your NAV 
MFD. It gives the current location 
and the location and direction of 
waypoints plotted along your 
route. It lists all waypoints, 
including waypoint number, name, 
aerial range to waypoint and waypoint 
heading. Click the arrow buttons 
to scroll through the list. 
Your estimated time of arrival 
(ETA) at your current waypoint is 


UVJ 



■ ; * 



i 1 


-■ 


fc - -n 

B 

0| J jrnjfu 

>*» ^ 


■j’" 

CTl l* CU 


rUW 




■ It ■ 



Waypoint 
- number/name 


-Aerial range 
to waypoint 


-Waypoint 

heading 


I 

ETA 

listed at the bottom left. 


To open the NAV MFD page: 


1. Click the menu button on the MFD to call up the MFD main menu., 
then click the NAV button. (Or, press (n).) 

For details, see Cockpit: NAV MFD Page, p. 2.30. 


3.12 






Navigating Through Waypoints 

Waypoints are a series of coordinates along your flight path that help you 
navigate from your take-off point to the target area and then back to your 
landing site. Your “current” waypoint is the waypoint you are enroute to. 


Choosing a Waypoint 

When you pass within .5 miles ofyour current waypoint, the ILS auto-selects 
your next waypoint. If the waypoint is a target waypoint, however, it won’t 
change — that way, you can fly around the target area. 

You can also manually change your current waypoint. This may be useful if 
you need to bypass a waypoint to avoid enemy fire enroute to your target 
waypoint, for example. 

fw| Cycle through waypoints in numerical order 
| Shift fw] Cycle backward through waypoints 


Steering to a Waypoint 

Normally, you will use the waypoint caret on the HUD head- 
ing tape to orient yourself toward your current waypoint. 

• Find the waypoint caret on your HUD, and steer to 
place it in the middle of the heading tape. 


- ^ - ■■ 

ni 

/ 

Waypoint caret 


• If the caret is all the way to one side of the heading tape, then the head- 
ing to your waypoint is outside the range of the bar. Steer in the direction 
of the caret until it begins to move toward the center of the tape. 


• When the caret is near the center of the bar, only make very slight steering 
adjustments to center it. It is very easy to overcompensate. 


Time Compression 

If you want to speed up flight to your next waypoint, activate time compres- 
sion. As you cycle through the settings, the current setting appears in the 
upper right corner of the screen. 

|C] Cycle through time compression (2x, 4x, lx) 

[ Ctrl fc] Reset time compression to normal 


4 


3.13 


FLIGHT 


Jane’s USAF 


Autopilot 

The autopilot system can take over navigational flight while you are doing 
other things, to assist in in-flight refueling, and to maintain current above 
ground level altitude and heading for low-level flight. 


Step Down Training Mission 

In the Step Down exercise of the Basic Training series, the instructor will 
show you how to use the autopilot for navigation and low-level flight. To 
access this mission, select training from the Main Mena screen. When the 
Training screen appears, click basic in the upper right corner of the screen, 
and then click step down training. Click on the plane you want to prac- 
tice in, then click load. 


When autopilot is engaged, the autopilot indicator light is lit (its placement 
in the cockpit varies, depending on the aircraft), and the autopilot mode is 
indicated in the left alphanumeric field on the HUD. If you roll the aircraft 
more than 1 0° or pitch more than 5° while the autopilot is engaged, it auto- 
matically disengages. 

[A] Cycle through autopilot settings (ap lvl, ap nav or ap rfl, off) 

AP LVL. Autopilot level: the AP maintains current heading and AGL altitude. 
AP nav. Autopilot navigation: the AP flies through waypoints. 

AP rfl. Autopilot refuel: if the fuel hatch is open, the ap nav automatically flies 
to the nearest refueling point. AP rfl appears on the HUD in place of AP nav. 

Using Autopilot for Low-Level Flight 

Flying at low altitudes is the best way to remain undetected. Flying below 500ft 
puts you beneath the minimum detection altitude for most ground radar sys- 
tems. Flying nap-of-the-earth (NOE), or hugging terrain contours, decreases 
your chances of being detected by airborne radar systems by making it difficult 
for them to pinpoint and track your location among the “ground clutter.” 

Low-level flight is extremely difficult for fixed-wing aircraft flying slowly. The 
autopilot in AP lvl (autopilot level) mode can be used for NOE flight. Under 500 
feet, it switches to AGL and tries to maintain altitude above ground level so that 
you won’t crash — however, it’s not foolproof. 

Use this tactic with caution, and only over ground that’s relatively flat. 

To use the autopilot for low-level flight: 

1. Orient your aircraft toward your waypoint and drop down to the 
altitude you wish to maintain. 

3. Press (a) to cycle through autopilot settings until AP lvl appears in the 
lower left corner of the HUD. 

The autopilot maintains the heading and AGL altitude. To disengage, pitch 
the aircraft upward more than 5° or press (a) to cycle through autopilot set- 
tings until they vanish from the HUD, indicating that the autopilot is off. 


3 . 1-4 


Using Autopilot for Mid-Air Refueling 

For longer missions, you may need to refuel in-flight. Manual mid-air refuel- 
ing requires precise control, patience and much practice. If you are short on 
any of these, you may want to turn control over to the autopilot. 

To refuel on autopilot: 

1. Open your refueling hatch and request a vector to the nearest tanker. 
ready will appear on the left side of the HUD, indicating the boom 
hatch is open and functional. The rest of the pilots in your flight will 
likewise prepare to refuel. 

| Ctrl fR~| Open refueling hatch and send radio request for vector to 
tanker. As flight leader, you will refuel first. 

2. The controller gives you heading and range to the nearest tanker. He or 
she updates this information until you are within 2 miles of the tanker. 
Engage the autopilot in AP rfl mode to fly to the tanker on autopilot. 

|~A] Cycle through autopilot settings until AP rfl appears in the 
lower left corner of the HUD. 

3. When you are within one mile of the tanker, its pilot radios permission 
to join. The autopilot aligns you with the tanker, connects and main- 
tains position while the fuel is transferred. 

As you are positioning, your flight will align in refuel formation on the 
tanker, with each aircraft 45° back and to the right of the one in front 
of it, maintaining a 900ft spread. (See diagram on p. 3.1 7.) 

4. After fuel is transferred, the tanker pilot radios: “Full, clear to discon- 
nect.” Reduce throttle to idle and maintain a very steady hand on the 
flight stick. If you fail to reduce throttle enough, or move the stick too 
far in any direction, you risk a hatch malfunction. 

m Reduce throttle to idle (if you are using a throttle device, pull 
it almost all the way closed) 

5. Reducing to idle thrust slows your aircraft, allowing it to drop away 
from the boom. When you are clear of the tanker, bank away to the left. 
Once you are 300ft from the tanker, its pilot radios your wingman to 
begin lining up. 

6. Remain within three miles of the tanker while the rest of your flight refuels. 
As each aircraft refuels, it returns to formation on your tail, with each 
aircraft 45° back and to the left of the one in front of it, maintaining a 
900ft spread. (See diagram on p. 3.18.) 

7. After all aircraft are clear of the tanker, fly out of the three-mile radius. 
Your flight will return to standard cruise formation. 

When you leave the radius, other aircraft in your sortie leave at the same 
time, whether or not they’ve finished refueling. If an aircraft doesn’t com- 
plete the refueling process, that plane leaves with a partially full tank. 


4 


3.15 


FLIGHT 


Jane’s USAF 


Manual Mid-Air Refueling 

You can also choose to manually execute mid-air refueling, but again this 
requires a great deal of practice. It requires you to drop behind another air- 
craft and line the end of a relatively small boom up with a hatch opening 
that you cannot see. 

The sequence below outlines the procedure — familiarize yourself with this, 
then perhaps sit through a few mid-air refuelings on autopilot to get a feel for 
how things should look, then check out the Air Refueling training mission. 


Air Refueling Mission 

Next to landing on an aircraft carrier, mid-air refueling is perhaps the 
most difficult task a military pilot is routinely asked to execute. To access 
the mid-air refueling exercise, select training from the Main Menu screen. 
When the Training screen appears, click basic in the upper right corner of 
the screen, and then click air refueling. Click on the plane you want to 
practice in, then click load. 



Overview of Instruments 

In addition to all of the flight symbology you normally use when in NAV HUD 
mode, you also need to visually monitor the following new information. 

Refuel status. Once you open your fuel hatch, the boom operator sends audio 
cues to report the status of the refueling process. 

Tanker direction system. This system consists of audio cues from the boom 
operator to direct the refueling plane into position. He’ll broadcast mes- 
sages that appear at the top of your HUD — for example, “Left” and “Up.“ 



3.1 B 


Basic Mid-Air Refueling Sequence 

Note: Steering becomes half as sensitive daring refueling to allow for a light touch. 
You’ll need to move the joystick twice as far as normal to move the aircraft. 

1. Open the refueling hatch and radio a request for a vector to the near- 
est tanker. All other aircraft in your flight do likewise, ready appears in 
the bottom left corner of the HUD. 


[ Ctrl fR~l Open refueling hatch and send radio request for vector to 
tanker As flight leader, you refuel first. 

2. The controller gives you heading and range to the nearest tanker. He or 
she updates this information until you have an air-to-air radar locked 
onto the tanker or are within 2 miles of it. 

3. When you are 1 mile from the tanker, its pilot radios: “Clear contact.” 
You have permission to begin lining up with the tanker’s tail. 

4. About 500ft from the end of the boom, you’ll get cues from the tanker. 

• If you are too far up, pitch down slightly. If too far down, pitch up. 

• If you are too far forward, close your throttle bit. If you are too far 
back, open the throttle slightly. 

[~0~l/[~9l Increase/decrease throttle by 5% 

Always make very slight adjustments. The 
“boomer” (boom operator) also gives you 
audio directions until you connect. 

While you are positioning, the rest ofyour 
flight begins to line up in refueling forma- 
tion on the tanker, with each aircraft 45° 
back and to the right of the aircraft in 
front of it, maintaining a 900ft spread. 

5. When you are in the correct position, the 
boomers radios, “Stabilize,” and you lose 
control of the aircraft. The tanker radios, 

“Connected. I’m seeing fuel flow” and begins to transfer fuel. 

6. When the your tanks are full, the tanker radios, “Full. Clear to discon- 
nect.” To regain control ofyour aircraft, reduce throttle to idle. This 
reduces your aircraft’s velocity, so it falls back away from the boom. 

PH Reduce speed to idle. 


t Step 1: 

Refuel 

formation 



4 


Caution: Keep a very steady hand on your flight stick. Any lateral or pitch movement 
at this stage may cause hatch damage or malfunction. Opening throttle more than 
1 0% while dropping back may also cause hatch damage. 


3.17 


FLIGHT 



Jane’s USAF 


7. The tanker radios “Clear to disconnect. Good luck.” 

When you are clear of the tanker, bank to the left. When you are 300ft 
from the tanker, it can refuel the next aircraft. 

8. Remain within three miles of the tanker while the rest of your flight refuels. 
As each aircraft refuels, it returns to formation on your tail. 



Step 2: 
Refuel 
formation 




8. After all aircraft are clear of the tanker, leave the three-mile radius. The 
other flights revert to standard cruise formation. Your wingman 
resumes wedge formation. 

When you leave the radius, other aircraft in your sortie leave at the same 
time, whether or not they’ve finished refueling. If an aircraft doesn’t com- 
plete the refueling process, that plane leaves with a partially full tank. 



Using Night 

Night Vision Goggles are 
optic devices which 
improve your vision in 
low-light conditions by 
intensifying light radia- 
tion. When NVG are 
enabled, the screen turns 
to green and black — the 
light bounced off of ter- 
rain and objects is inten- 
sified, and shows up as 
green images against the 
black night. 

Night Vision Goggles are only functional at night. 

| Ctrl [n] Toggle night vision goggles on/off 



Vision Goggles (NVG) 


3.18 



Landing 

This section provides an overview of the instruments you use to land and a 
basic landing sequence. We recommend you use these to familiarize yourself 
with basic landing procedures, and then fly the Landing training mission to 
get a feel for it in the cockpit. 


Landing Training Mission 

Have your instructor walk you through in the Landing exercise of the Basic 
Training series. To access this mission, select training from the Main Mena 
screen. When the Training screen appears, click basic in the upper right 
corner of the screen, and then click landing. Click on the plane you want 
to practice in, then click load. 


Overview of Instruments 

The Instrument Landing System projects onto your HUD information that 
helps you line your aircraft up with the runway. 


Instrument Landing System (ILS) 

ILS activates automatically when the HUD is in NAV mode and you lower 
your landing gear. Additional symbology appears on the HUD. 


[n] Place HUD in NAV mode (nav appears in the lower left corner) 


[g] Lower your landing gear 



Velocity 

vector 


Localizer deviation bar. This vertical “l-shaped” line drifts left and right to indi- 
cate the aircraft’s approach relative to the runway’s center. Align the velocity 
vector with this line. (Ifyou do so, you’re on the glide path — 3° to 4° of pitch.) 

Glide slope deviation bar. This is a horizontal “l-shaped” line. It drifts up and 
down to indicate your aircraft’s altitude with respect to the runway. Center 
this bar and the localizer bar on top of the velocity vector to form a cross. If 
the velocity vector is above this bar, you’re flying too high. 


Caution: If these indicators become fixed in the center of the screen and the needles 
are dashed lines, you have drifted too far outside ILS parameters to make a good 
landing. Break off your landing at this point, turn around, and re-align for another 
try. (See Aborting a Bad Landing, p. 3.2 1.) 


i 


3.13 


FLIGHT 


Jane’s USAF 


Basic Landing Sequence 

Begin aligning with your landing waypoint about 5nm out — watch the range 

to waypoint in the lower left corner of the HUD. 

1. Place HUD in NAV mode, if you haven’t already.Steer so that you center 
the waypoint caret on the heading tape — this allows you to adjust your 
heading, without banking your wings. Maintain level flight at this point. 

pvTj Place HUD in NAV mode. 

Steer slightly with the joystick to adjust heading 

2. Extend your flaps. This creates additional lift during low speed flight. 

|T| Extend flaps 

3. Reduce throttle to 70% and pitch the nose down 5° to lose airspeed 
and descend. (Place the velocity vector between the horizon line and the - 
10° line on the pitch ladder to pitch down 5°). 

FI Close throttle to 70% (or use throttle device) 

(T) Pitch nose down 5° (or use joystick) 

Note: It may seem counter-intuitive to lower the nose In order to slow down; however, as 
you lower throttle you reduce lift. Dropping the nose slightly counteracts this loss of lift. 

4. Make slight pitch and throttle adjustments. You should slow down to 
your approach speed (approximately 1 65 knots) and drop to 1 000ft of 
altitude by the time you are 2nm from your landing waypoint. Extend 
your speed brake if needed to slow down, lower the nose slightly to 
speed up. Watch your airspeed and altitude indicators. 

Steer so that the velocity vector is centered on the front of the runway. 
This will bring you into the correct position, provided you keep your air- 
speed at around 165 knots. 

|T| Lower nose slightly to speed up (or use joystick) 

Note: In general, 1 65 knots is an acceptable landing speed for any empty aircraft. If 
you’re flying a fully loaded A-10A or F-4E, however, increase airspeed to 1 80 knots. 

5. About 2nm from the runway and at about 1 ,000 feet, pitch the nose up 
to 10 degrees and lower your gear to begin your descent. ILS informa- 
tion will appear on the HUD. 

fw| Pitch nose 10° up (or use joystick) 

[g] Lower your gear 


3. 2D 



6. Once you slow your approach speed, begin using your throttle to 
adjust your altitude and your pitch to adjust speed. Steer to cen- 
ter the horizontal glide slope deviation bar and the vertical localizer 
deviation bar over the velocity vector. Make very slight steering adjust- 
ments, especially as your aircraft nears the ground. 

0/0 Pitch nose slightly up/down to vertically align the ILS localizer 
deviation bar vertically on the velocity vector 

0/0 Bank slightly right/left to horizontally align the ILS glide slope 
deviation bar on the velocity vector 

Note: Although it may seem counter-intuitive , it isn’t a good idea to yaw during the 
last phases of a landing approach. Yawing will cause the aircraft to sideslip so its nose 
will be aligned correctly, but the rest of the aircraft is not. Sideslip is not a problem 
in the air, but if you touch down, your wheels would be at an angle to the aircraft’s 
direction of motion. Unable to roll properly, the wheels would cause you to crash. 

7. Once you are aligned, level your wings and keep your heading steady. 
After your aircraft touches down, cut your throttle to slow down and 
apply your wheel brakes to stop. 

0 Reduce throttle to idle (or use throttle device) 

0 Apply/release speed brakes (press and hold) 

| Shift f1i| Open landing parachute (F-117A, F-4E, F-105D only) 

Aborting a Bad Landing 

If you’re too low, too high, too fast or too slow, you may not be able to cor- 
rect your landing in time. If this happens, abort the landing and try again: 

1. Punch your throttle to 1 00% (0). 

2. Maintain current heading. 

3. Retract your flaps (0), speed brakes((s)), and landing gear(0). 

4. Climb back to an altitude of 6,000 feet. 

5. Make a sweeping, 180° turn to the left. 

6. Fly several miles past the start of the runway (at least 5nm) 

7. Make another 180° turn to the left to realign yourself with the runway. 

8. Straighten out and line up for another approach. 




Jane’s USAF 


FLIGHT DISRUPTIONS 

While modern aircraft have become better at overcoming aerodynamic lim- 
itations, they are still not immune to flight disruptions. This section discuss- 
es the conditions under which stalls and spins occur, and how you can 
recover from them. 

Stall 

A stall occurs when AoA exceeds maximum allowable levels for the current 
airspeed and a smooth airflow over the wings is disrupted. In level flight it can 
occur if the aircraft drops below stall speed (the minimum speed required to 
produce 1 G of lift). In either case, lift evaporates and the airplane falls toward 
the earth. Knowing how to recover from a stall can be critical. 

First Warning: Buffet and Tickle 

As a stall approaches and the airflow over the wings roughens, the aircraft 
begins to vibrate, with severity increasing as the airflow worsens. The point 
where the vibrations or buffet first begins is called tickle. Pilots with a light 
touch can feel the tickle and realize they’ve reached maximum performance 
without looking at the instrumentation or actually entering a stall. 

Second Warning: Stall Horn 

If you do not take action to increase airflow, usually by relaxing G-load and 
pitching your nose down to reduce drag, the airflow disruption and buffet- 
ing worsens. If possible, increase speed by diving or afterburning. Fighter air- 
craft have a stall horn which makes a loud, distinguishable wail that warns 
of a potential stall. 

If you still take no corrective action, and a stall occurs, the aircraft begins to 
fall. If in a turn, the aircraft remains banked, but stops turning and moves in 
a straight line tangent to the original turn circle. This is referred to as depart- 
ing controlled flight, or departure. 


3.22 


Recovering 

To end the stall, airflow must be re-established over the wings, which usual- 
ly means increasing the aircraft’s speed. Engaging afterburner in high-thrust 
aircraft usually provides sufficient acceleration. Many aircraft, though, can- 
not produce enough thrust, even in afterburner, to simply blast their way out 
of a stall. 


Pointing the nose down quickly adds airspeed and helps re-establish smooth 
airflow. Of course, your airplane is dropping, so it’s critical you have enough 
altitude available. A stall at low altitude is often fatal. Also, aircraft control 
decreases as the stall worsens, since there isn’t enough airflow over the con- 
trol surfaces. If you wait too long to begin stall recovery, you may find the 
aircraft uncontrollable. In that event, you’re simply along for the ride and 
must wait until the aircraft begins to recover on its own. Again, at low alti- 
tude, you may not have enough time to wait. Keep the following guidelines 
in mind: 

• Attempt stall recovery as soon as possible. The longer you wallow uncontrolled 
in the sky, the greater the chance someone will shoot you or you will crash. 

• Always monitor airspeed and AoA instruments. Don’t let speed drop 
below stall speed or AoA exceed maximum. 

• Pay attention to stall tickle. If the aircraft tickles or buffets, a stall is imminent. 

• Take particular care to avoid stalls at low altitude. Devote special atten- 
tion to avoiding stalls near the floor. Stall recovery often requires altitude. 
If there isn’t enough room to recover, you could buy the farm. 


4 


3.23 


FLIGHT 


Jane’s USAF 


Spins 

Spins occur when one wing loses significantly more lift than the other. The 
wing drops, pulling the aircraft into a rotating, spiral dive. As long as the 
rotation continues, most control inputs are useless, and some may even 
aggravate the spin. 

Spins were deadly killers during the early days of aviation, before pioneer 
pilots discovered spin recovery procedures. Some historians estimate more 
World War I pilots died from spinning and crashing their aircraft than from 
combat with the enemy. In USAF, spins only occur if you use the rudder in 
the direction of the wing that’s dropping. 

Spin Recovery 

Once understood, spin recovery is relatively easy, but requires prompt 
action. A spin may consume several thousand feet of altitude on each revo- 
lution, and spin recovery may require several revolutions. Spins at low alti- 
tude, therefore, are extremely dangerous. 

Follow these steps if you find yourself in a spin: 

1 . Neutralize lateral stick. Using the ailerons at this point often aggravates 
the spin — center the joystick. 

2. Apply full opposite rudder. 

3. Apply forward stick. Push the stick forward to keep the nose down. 

4. Maintain the current stick and rudder positions until rotation stops. 
You will generally find yourself nose-low at low speed and presenting a 
perfect target for any nearby bandits. Gently pull out of the dive, apply 
full power, and return to normal flight. 

5. Don’t panic. If you’ve done all of the above and the aircraft is unwilling 
to recover, keep your head about you and go through the procedure 
again. You might also try increasingyourthrottle in addition to the above. 


3.24 




Jane’s 



I 


Previous page:: Art F- 1 6C dispenses flares. USAF photo by Senior Airman Jeffrey Allen. 

Chapter 4 


Mission Preparation 4.2 

Quick Cockpit Review ...4.3 

MFD Pages 4.3 

Modes 4.4 


Quick Navigation 
Review 4.5 


Detecting the Enemy 4.7 

Detection Systems 4.7 

Using the Radar 4.12 

Main Radar Controls 4.12 

Radar Submodes 4.1 2 

Air-to-Air Radar Submodes 4.13 

Common Elements 4.14 

Air Combat Submode 4.14 

Long Range Search Submode . 4.15 

Track While Scan Submode 4.1 6 

AA Cheat Submode 4.1 8 

Boresight Submode 4.1 8 

Single Target Track Submode. ..4.1 8 
Air-to-Ground Radar Submodes. 4. 20 

Common Elements 4.20 

Map Submode 4.21 

GMT Submode 4.22 

AG Cheat Submode 4.22 

Targeting 4.23 

Easy Targeting 4.23 

Targeting Aircraft 4.24 

Targeting Ground Objects 4.24 

Viewing Threats: RWR 4.25 

Viewing Threats: Tactical MFD. ..4. 26 
Viewing Targets: JTIDS MFD 4.27 

Using Weapons 4.28 

Know Your Position 4.28 

Know Your Sensors and ECMs ...4.29 

Know Your Weapons 4.30 

Useful Keys 4.30 

Overview: Air-To-Air 4.31 

Overview: Air-To-Ground 4.31 

Weapon Information Chart 4.32 

Know Your Modes 4.33 

Know Your Guidance Systems ....4.34 


SARH Weapons 4.34 

Active Radar Weapons 4.34 

Infrared-Homing Weapons 4.34 

HARM (Radar-Homing) 

Weapons 4.35 

TV -Guided Weapons 4.35 

GPS (JDAM) Weapons 4.35 

Using Guns 4.36 

Using Rockets 4.38 

Using Missiles 4.39 

Missile Parameters 4.39 

Radar-Guided 4.41 

Radar-Homing (HARM) 4.42 

IR-Guided 4.43 

TV-Guided 4.44 

Using Bombs 4.46 

Unguided 4.46 

Laser-Guided 4.48 

TV-Guided 4.49 

GPS-Guided (JDAM) 4.50 

Defenses and 

Countermeasures 4.51 

RCS Signatures 4.51 

Avoiding Detection 4.52 

Using Defensive Systems 4.53 

Combat Tactics 4.56 

Situational Awareness 4.56 

Combat Geometry 4.57 

Pursuit Curves 4.58 

Speed vs. Altitude 4.59 

Choosing Your Attack 4.60 

Air Combat Maneuvers 4.63 

Break Turn 4.63 

Barrel Roll 4.64 

Scissors 4.64 

Spiral Dive 4.66 

High-Speed Yo-Yo 4.67 

Low-Speed Yo-Yo 4.68 

Immelman 4.69 

Split-S 4.69 

Engaging Ground Targets 4.70 

Communication 4.71 

Flight Commands 4.71 

Formation Commands 4.72 


COMBAT 



Despite the technological advances of the last few decades, air combat still 
involves the same basic strategy — find the enemy before he finds you, get 
into an advantageous firing position, and stay there. Either way, it’s to your 
advantage to locate the enemy before he’s aware of your presence. 


This chapter teaches you combat theory, air maneuvers and practical com- 
bat use of avionics and weapons against enemy aircraft and ground vehicles. 


Mission Preparation (p. 4.2) goes over some basic considerations you 
should think about prior to taking off. 


Quick Cockpit Review (p. 4.3) briefly reviews the main sections of the cock- 
pit and refers you to additional information in Cockpit, p. 2.1. 


Quick Navigation Review (p. 4.5) lists some common navigational com- 
mands to help you get to your target point. 


Detecting the Enemy (p. 4.7) provides a lengthy discussion on ways to 
detect threats. It also covers in detail how to use your air-to-air and air-to- 
ground radar. 

Using the Radar (p. 4.12) teaches you the ins and outs of the air-to-air and 
air-to-ground radar. You’ll learn how to detect targets and read the Radar 
MFD page symbology. 

Targeting (p. 4.23) takes you to the next level — gaining a target lock on anoth- 
er aircraft, ground threat and mission-critical target. It also describes how to 
use your aircraft’s RWR, Tactical Map and JTIDS MFDs to track targets. 

Using Weapons (p. 4.28) details positioning techniques, sensors, weapon types 
and HUD modes related to bring weapons. Most importantly, this section gives 
step-by-step information on howto use specific weapons in the game. 

Defenses and Countermeasures (p. 4.51) elaborates on methods you can 
use to avoid being shot down. 

Combat Tactics (p. 4.56) illustrates offensive and defensive aerial maneuvers 
you can use against air threats, and describes how to attack ground targets. 

Communication (p. 4.71 ) lists key commands you can use to send messages 
to your wingmen, other flights in your sortie, and AWACS, J-STARS and 
tankers in the area. 


4 


A. 1 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


MISSION PREPARATION 

A great deal of your mission success depends on how prepared you are 
before you go into battle. You should become very familiar with your mission 
objectives, the objectives of other wings in your flight, and any expected 
resistance you might encounter along the way. Find out how far you must 
travel, and calculate how much fuel you’ll need to return home. Gear your 
initial aircraft loadout toward your intended target(s), but don’t be caught 
off-guard — for instance, if you’re attacking ground targets, carry an air-to- 
air missile or two for any unexpected air enemies. If you’re on a combat air 
patrol, take an air-to-ground weapon for any interesting ground targets pre- 
senting themselves. 

In the Loadout screen before each mission, you can switch out weapons 
which appear by default on each aircraft’s hardpoints. Some weapons are 
heavier than others, and you must keep the total aircraft weight underneath 
its maximum T.O.W. (takeoff weight). Also, when you’re loading weapons, 
pay attention to the sensor system each uses. Look for IR, Laser, etc. below 
each weapon icon on the Available Weapons/ Equipment panel of the Loadout 
screen. 

See the Weapon Information Chart, p. 4.32, for weapon and sensor types. 

In most missions, you fly more than one type of aircraft in a single mission. 
In addition, once you’ve completed your flight’s objectives, you can jump 
into the lead aircraft in any other flight in the sortie by opening the Tactical 
Display screen (press [Esc| ). So, it’s obviously to your advantage to examine 
the objectives for each flight and adjust the loadouts as you deem necessary. 

In any event, keep the following items in mind when you’re preparing for a 
mission: 

• What is your objective? 

• Are there any special parameters for the mission (i.e., objects you must 
not hit)? 

• What resistance can you expect? 

• Will you have enough fuel for the mission? Enough for unexpected air 
encounters? 

• Do all flights have a good mix of weapons to cover most situations? 


4.2 


QUICK COCKPIT REVIEW 

You should read Chapter 2: Cockpit thoroughly before reading this chapter. 
Combat requires knowledge of cockpit systems. But, in case you don’t have 
the time or inclination, here’s a quick overview of the cockpit. 


MFD Pages 

See Cockpit: MFD Pages, p. 2.29. 

Multi-Function Displays, known as MFDs, display “pages” of information. 
Most cockpits have two MFDs, though a select few have three. You can dis- 
play many different pages of information in any of the MFD screens. 


Every MFD is surrounded by gray, interac- 
tive pushbuttons. You press these buttons 
to change settings or display various data. 
Throughout this manual, these buttons are 
referred to as PB1, PB2, etc. The button 
numbering is illustrated in the picture to 
the right. 


1617181920 



10 9 8 7 6 


Whenever you click menu (PB1 0) in the bottom left corner of any MFD, this 
Menu MFD page displays in the MFD. This page displays the entire array of 
MFD pages you can activate. Left-click on the pushbutton (PB) next to any 
of the following names to open that page. 


System 

MFD Page 

Menu PB 

Key 

Inertial Navigation System 

NAV 

PB2 

(ED 

Damage System 

DAMAGE 

PB3 


Tactical Map/JTIDS 

tactical/jtids 

PB4 

a 

ADI 

ADI 

PB5 

-na- 

Radar 

RADAR 

PB1 1 

m 

Radar Warning Receiver * 

RWR 

PB1 2 

a 

Stores Management System 

STORES 

PB1 3 

-na- 

* If RWR is not currently d 

isplayed. 




4 


4.3 


COMBAT 



Jane’s USAF 


Modes 


See Cockpit: What Are Modes?, p. 2.2. 

Most of the aircraft systems in Jane’s USAF use modes — the HUD, the radar, 
MFDs and weapon systems. A mode is simply a set of functions. 



Master Modes 

See Cockpit: Head-Up Display, p. 2.12, and Using Weapons, p. 4.28. 

There are three master modes: NAV (navigation), AA (air-to-air) and AG (air-to- 
ground). When you select a master mode, the information displayed in your 
HUD and MFDs change, and your radar mode and currently selected weapon 
may change. 

[M) Toggle avionics master mode (Navigation / Air-to-air / Air-to-ground) 
The chart below lists default settings for each master mode. Under certain 
conditions, such as when you have your gear down or a certain weapon select- 
ed, information is added to your HUD, and the pages in your MFDs change, 
as indicated below. (The default mode for the radar is listed in parentheses.) 


NAV Master Mode 
Condition 

HUD 

MFD 1 

MFD 2 

MFD 3 

Default 

NAV 

Tactical 3 

Radar (AA) 

NAV 

Gear down 

ILS 

Tactical 3 

Radar (AA) 

NAV 

Refueling hatch open 

Refuel 

Tactical 3 

Radar (AA) 

NAV 

AA Master Mode 

Condition 

HUD 

MFD 1 

MFD 2 

MFD 3 

Default, Gun selected 1 

LCOS 

Radar (AA) 

Tactical 3 

RWR 

Default, Gun selected 2 

EEGS 

Radar (AA) 

Tactical 3 

RWR 

MRM missile selected 

MRM 

Radar (AA) 

Tactical 3 

RWR 

SRM missile selected 

SRM 

Radar (AA) 

Tactical 3 

RWR 

AG Master Mode 

Condition 

HUD 

MFD 1 

MFD 2 

MFD 3 

Default, Gun selected 

AG 

Stores 

Radar (AG) 

Tactical 3 

GP bombs selected 

CCIP 

Stores 

Radar (AG) 

Tactical 3 

LGB bomb selected 

CCIP 

Stores 

FUR 

Tactical 3 

TV/JDAM weapon selected 

TV 

Stores 

TV 

Tactical 3 

HARM missile selected 

HARM 

Stores 

HARM 

Tactical 3 

1 In A-1 OA, F-1 OSD, F-4E, F-1 1 7A and MiG-29. 2 

In F-1 SC/E, F-16C 

and F-22A. 


3 In F-1 6C, F-1 5C/E, F-1 1 7A and F-22A, the JTIDS page replaces the Tactical page. 


■ 4.4 


Multi-Function Displays 

See Cockpit: MFD Pages, p. 2.29. 


MFDs have many different pages you can access by using the menu push- 
button and choosing the appropriate pushbutton for a particular page. 

menu Display MFD menu (or click PB 1 0 on any MFD) 

Here is a list of MFD pages and their general functions: 

nav Displays waypoint information. 

damage Displays current system status (go/no go/mal) 

radar Displays contact info for air-to-air and air-to-ground radars. 

rwr Displays threats transmitting active radar signals. 

(In some aircraft, this is also available as a separate instrument.) 

stores Displays hardpoint status, available weapon types and counts. 
Also lets you select ripple-fire settings. 

ADI Displays an artificial horizon and altitude reading. 

tactical Displays map and waypoint information. 

jtids Displays map and combined data from radar, RWR, JSTARS and 
AWACS. It shows friendly status, friendly and enemy radar locks, 
and air and ground targets. 

fur Displays FLIR and targeting info for laser-guided weapons. 

harm Displays optical and target info needed to fire HARM missiles. 

TV Displays optical and target info needed to fire TV-guided missiles. 

Weapons 

You can fire air-to-air weapons when in AA master mode, and air-to-ground 
weapons when in AG master mode. When you select a weapon, additional 
symbology you need to fire or drop it is added to your HUD, and your MFD 
pages may change. 

Q] / CD Cycle through air-to-air/air-to-ground weapons 

See Using Guns (p. 4.36), Using Rockets (p. 4.38), Using Missiles (p. 4.39) 
and Using Bombs (p. 4.46). 

Radar 

The radar has both A/A and A/G modes. Under each of these modes are sever- 
al submodes with specific applications Some A/A submodes are better at long- 
range searches, while some are best at short-range searches. In A/G mode, the 
radar has separate submodes for detecting stationary and moving targets. 

(fO Toggle between A/A and A/G radar modes 

fo) Cycle through radar submodes 
| Shift fR] Toggle radar between standby (not emitting) and on 


Jane’s USAF 


QUICK NAVIGATION REVIEW 

To learn about navigation in detail, see Flight: Navigation, p. 3.1 1. 

For Tactical MFD symbology, see Cockpit: Tactical MFD Page, p. 2.39. 


Before you can engage in combat, you need to arrive at the specified target 
area. Several navigation utilities in the game help you fly from one waypoint 
to another. All aircraft have a NAV mode for the HUD, and a Tactical MFD. 

Below are some basic navigation keys: 

[N] Place HUD in NAV mode 

fw] Select next waypoint 

| Shift [w] Select previous waypoint 

• The waypoint caret appears on the heading scale in all HUD modes. The 
range to the next waypoint, however, only displays in NAV HUD mode. 

• Ifyou’d rather not navigate manually at all, you can always use the game’s 
autopilot system. 

[a] x 2 Autopilot to the next waypoint (see Flight: Autopilot, p. 3.1 4) 


HUD in NAV Mode 


■e 


See Cockpit: Navigation HUDs, p. 


2.16 




Fly at the airspeed 
marked by the 
velocity caret in 
order to reach 
your waypoint on 
schedule. 

Current waypoint 
marker 



Waypoint number/range 

lists the next waypoint and 
range to it in nautical miles 


Keep this waypoint caret 
center of heading tape to 
steer to current waypoint. 


The altitude caret 

marks the recommended 
altitude for flying to your 
current waypoint. 

Time-to-arrival 

at current waypoint. 


Tactical MFD Page See Cockpit: Ta ct ical MFD Page ■ P- 2-39 



Click PBs 14 and 15 
to scale map. 


Hollow triangles mark 

target waypoints. 


A solid circle or 
triangle marks your 

current waypoint. 


- Click PBs 1-3 to toggle 
symbology on/off. 

Current aircraft position 

Hollow circles mark way- 
points 


4.6 






DETECTING THE ENEMY 

Over the past few decades, advances in detection technology have spawned 
an entirely new type of air-to-air combat. Radar and infrared guidance sys- 
tems, nighttime visual enhancers and stealth technology have extended the 
combat range to several miles. Fighters no longer had to see one another to 
engage in battle. Long-range detection became an advantage for attacking 
for air- and ground-based targets. 

Several air-to-air fighters were designed specifically for BVR (beyond visual 
range) battles and not equipped with even the smallest of guns. This was a 
definite disadvantage in the Vietnam War, however, against the fast-turning 
Soviet MiG fighters. Based on hindsight, almost all air-to-air fighters devel- 
oped after the war were fitted with dependable, short-range guns. Today, 
most combat takes places with missiles at long range, although close-in dog- 
fighting is still a common occurrence. 

Detection Systems 

First and foremost in combat, you need to preserve the element of surprise 
and detect your unsuspecting enemies before they spot you. In air battles, 
gaining even a hundred feet of altitude advantage against your opponent can 
give you a speed boost when you need it most. Coming in on your enemy’s 
six gives you a significant upper hand during your initial attack. 

If you can’t make it to the target area undetected — perhaps the length of 
your mission requires you to fly at a higher altitude to conserve fuel — your 
next best strategy is taking out the air opposition with a single pass, before 
they have a chance to lure you into a dogfight. Doing this requires great skill. 

New detection methods allow for more stealthy air-to-ground attacks 
against strategic targets, such as airfields and communications centers. You 
have several methods of detection at your disposal, depending on which air- 
craft you’re flying. The oldest and sometimes most useful device is your eye- 
balls. Modern detection methods include active radar, passive radar (RWR), 
and infrared (FUR) detection systems, discussed in the following sections. 


Jane’s USAF 


Natural Eyesight 

• Use your eyes for air (or ground) targets within visual range. 

• The Numpad keys are very useful visual aids during combat. Use the 
“check six” key (Numpad [2)) liberally to keep an eye on your rear. 

• At night, you can use night-vision goggles to enhance your natural vision 
(press [Ctrl fN) . They amplify the available light source. 

Don’t discount the advantage of having 20/20 or better vision during com- 
bat. You can always rely on eyesight, often referred to as the “Mark I eyeball” 
detection method. With a keen eye, for instance, you may be able to pick up 
enemies above while you’re cruising safely along in low-level flight and trying 
to avoid radar detection. 

Another instance in which eyesight can be particularly useful is during close- 
range air combat. At ranges of less than a couple of miles, you probably 
already know an enemy is around. Your missile guidance systems won’t work 
at that distance, so guns are the normal modus operandus. An onboard 
lead-computing gunsight system (in some fighters) can help you get a good 
bead on your enemy, but in many cases, you have to rely on your instinct for 
a quick snap shot or close-range missile shot. 

You’ll find several of the game’s camera views useful during combat. You can 
“open up” your view by removing the HUD, follow your target, track an 
incoming missile, and more. (See Cockpit: Cockpit View Controls, p. 2.48, 
or the printed Reference Card for a complete list of views.) 

Cockpit/HUD View. Toggle view that displays either the physical 
cockpit or full-screen HUD view. 

Padlock Target View. Interior cockpit view that points your “eyes” 
directly at the currently locked target. Even if the target isn’t in your 
HUD view, this view still looks in the direction of the target. 

Target View. External view of your current target. 

Player-Threat View. External view of your aircraft that lines the 
camera up with your aircraft and the closest inbound missile. 

Player — Wingman View. External view of your aircraft that lines 
the camera up with your wingman. Press this key multiple times to 
cycle through other aircraft in your flight. 

Arcade View. External view of your current target that lines the 
camera up behind your aircraft in a “chase view.” 

Player — Target View. External view of your aircraft that lines the cam- 
era up with the current radar target. Press again to reverse the view. 

Chase View. External view of your aircraft. Press multiple times to view 
close-ups of parts of your aircraft. Press ( Shift | FI 0 1 to switch to an exter- 
nal orbit view. To pan this view, use Numpad | '2T4T6~I~8~1 or the mouse. 

Weapon View. External view of your missile that lines up with the 
current target. 


e 


(EE 

(EE 

(EE 

(EE 

EE 

(EE 

EE 

EE 

EE 


A.B 


Active Radar 

• Use active radar to find air targets when you’re using radar-guided weapons. 

• Be aware that if your radar is on, air- or ground-based enemies can detect 
your radar signals and find you. 

Active radar sends out pulses or waves of electromagnetic energy. This energy 
“bounces” off objects it hits, and some waves are reflected back. Your 
onboard computer examines how strong the reflected waves are, what fre- 
quency shift occurred, and how long the waves took to return. With this 
information, the computer can determine the approximate distance, alti- 
tude, direction and speed of the object. (See Using the Radar, p. 4.12.) 

While active radar is a primary detection method, it can also be used to guide 
certain weapons — the AIM-7F, AIM-7B, and AIM-120. Its function as a 
weapon guidance tool is covered in Know Your Guidance Systems, p. 4.34. 

(ED Toggle air-to-air/air-to-ground radar modes 

fo] Cycle through radar submodes (air-to-air — lrs / tws / ACM or 
air-to-ground — map / gmt) (Or click PB16 on the Radar MFD) 

| Shift fR] Toggle radar standby 

(<]/[>] Increase/decrease visible range in Radar MFD 
(or click PBs 1 4 and 15). 

Passive Radar ( RWR ) 

• Use passive radar to detect air or ground targets emitting radar. 

• You can use your RWR to detect targets up to 50nm away. 

Passive radar systems receive radar waves or pulses instead of broadcasting 
them. They can detect ships, other aircraft, ground vehicles and radar sta- 
tions emitting radar energy. Although it’s primarily a defensive device, you 
can use the RWR to stealthily detect your enemies. Instead of flashing your 
active radar for a quick peek at your surroundings, look at your RWR. 

Information received by your passive radar gets sent to your RWR MFD, a 
pop-up window that displays in your front cockpit view when RWR is active. 
You can lock onto targets in the window once you’ve detected them and met 
the requirements for the currently selected weapon (for instance, range). Your 
RWR can also warn you about incoming, radar-guided missiles from other 
aircraft or surface-to-air missile sites. See Cockpit: Radar Warning Receiver 
(RWR) MFD Page, p. 2 .38, for a complete discussion of RWR symbology. 

(Uj Toggle RWR MFD 


4 


• 4.3 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Forward-Looking Infrared (FUR) 

• Use FUR to detect targets out of visual range when you’re using IR 
weapons against ground targets. 

• All aircraft in the game are automatically outfitted with an internal FUR 
system. You don’t need to load special pods in order to use this detection 
method. The exception is the F-4E — in this aircraft, you must load the 
AVQ-26 LANTIRN pod to have FUR capabilities. 

Forward-looking infrared devices paint rough pictures of objects based on 
their heat emissions. IR sensors, housed in a Low-Altitude Navigation and 
Targeting Infrared for Night (LANTIRN) pod, search for specific heat fre- 
quencies. An onboard computer translates the heat readings into pictures 
and displays them in the FLIR MFD Page. 

More similar to a RWR than an active radar, FLIR simply picks up energy 
instead of emitting it. In this respect, using it doesn’t entail much risk. Your 
enemies cannot detect you when FLIR is active — activating FLIR doesn’t 
send out any energy. Instead, it looks for objects “hotter” than their sur- 
roundings. For this reason, FLIR is especially helpful at night against low-fly- 
ing or grounded objects. 

The FLIR pod is used in conjunction with IR-guided missiles. It allows target 
acquisition (in ACTIVE mode) and laser guidance (in PASSIVE mode). The 
pod itself has three main sections. The FLIR head provides a green-and-black 
infrared MFD image. A laser indicator sends out a laser beam to designate 
targets for laser-guided bombs, and a laser receiver detects laser designa- 
tions from other sources. 

One real drawback to FLIR technology is the fact that it operates at limited 
range. If the weather is foggy or cloudy, it becomes less effective. But since 
FLIR can detect both air and ground targets, it is somewhat more versatile 
than active radar. IR guidance technology also helps guide several types of 
weapons — for instance, AA-8, AIM-9L and AIM-9M air-to-air missiles and 
laser-guided GBU-series bombs. The FLIR’s function as a weapon guidance 
system is covered in Know Your Guidance Systems, p. 4.34. 

|~i~l Display FLIR MFD information 


< 4.10 


J-STARS/AWACS/EWR 

AWACs, J-STARS and EWRs can give you information on radar targets from 
other aircraft without using your aircraft’s radar to scan for them. They detect 
targets with their powerful radar and then broadcast messages about targets 
in your area. These cues also display in text form at the top of the screen. 

• An AWACS controller always identifies itself with a callsign, which is dif- 
ferent for each campaign. 

Buckeye Desert Storm, Red Flag and Training missions 

Big-Bird Future and Domestic missions 

Red Crown Vietnam (ship-based; located in Hai-Phong Bay) 

• When you fly the F-22A, F-1 1 7A, F-1 5C, F-1 5E or F-1 6C, the Tactical MFD is 
replaced by the Joint Target Information Distribution System (JTIDS) MFD, 
which displays additional radar, RWR and AWACS/J-STARS contact data. 

In modern warfare, communication has become an integral part of target 
detection and tracking. Two types of aircraft were developed for this purpose: 
the AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System) and the J-STARS (Joint 
Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System). AWACS aircraft report air tar- 
gets, whileJ-STARS pass along information about ground threats. These high- 
flying aircraft do nothing but find enemies and hand off target information to 
flights in the area or to ground commanders. This system allows attacking air- 
craft to get accurate position and altitude information about targets without 
exposing themselves via their own onboard radar systems. 

In addition, Early Warning Radar (EWR) sites were used in Vietnam to trans- 
mit intelligence from ground controllers to overflying aircraft. 

Friend or Foe? 

• IFF is automatically active and cannot be deactivated. 

• Friendly aircraft have an “X” in the target designation box when targeted. 

• If your AA radar is on and you enable object id on td box, all targeted air- 
craft are identified by name in the HUD above the target designation box. 
(See Preference window under gameplay > others.) 

• Other aircraft send radio messages to alert you to enemy aircraft. 

• Press [ F 4 | to view a closeup of your current radar target. 

Before you fire on a target, always verify it’s an enemy instead of a friendly. 
The importance of target identification has increased with BVR combat and 
the increasing use of coalition-type forces in worldwide hotspots. All aircraft 
in this game are equipped with Identification Friend-or-Foe (IFF) equipment, 
or interrogation transponders. Friendly aircraft automatically emit a specif- 
ic beacon or code when targeted by a fellow aircraft. The pilot’s IFF box 
“answers” the aggressor’s box, and his transponder returns a “friendly” mes- 
sage when queried (or “squawked”) by another allied aircraft. Onscreen, this 
places an “X” in the target designation box for a friendly target. 


4 


4.11 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


USING THE RADAR 

Since the radar is vital to your survival in the air, it is imperative you become 
familiar with its different modes and comfortable managing it during com- 
bat. The following sections describe each radar mode in detail. 

You can activate radar functions with the mouse or keyboard, or assign func- 
tions to your programmable joystick. Most players use the keyboard for the 
cockpit systems and the joystick for flight control, but you should find the 
setup that works for you. 

Main Radar Controls 

The following are the main radar functions, organized by how you might use 
them while acquiring, targeting, and attacking an enemy. 

(D Toggle air-to-air/air-to-ground radar 
fQ] Cycle through radar submodes: 

Air-to-air radar — lrs / tws / ACM 
Air-to-ground radar — map / GMT 
[Enter] Select target/next target 
[ Bksp 1 Release current target and start scanning 

0/a Increase/decrease visible range in Radar MFD 
(or click PBs 1 4 and 15). 

When you press | Enter | , the radar chooses the next highest priority contact and 
designates it as the priority target. In LRS, ACM, and Boresight modes (air-to- 
air modes), the radar automatically switches into Single Target Tracking (STT) 
submode when you lock onto a target. 



Radar Submodes 


The correct radar submode is not automatically activated when you select a 
particular weapon. You must manually toggle the correct mode with [r] 
and/or (o). Each radar submode is discussed fully later in this section. 


Flight Only 


Condition 

Radar Mode 

Takeoff <& Landing 

LRS 

Cruise Flight 

LRS 

Air-to-Ground Combat 

Condition 

Radar Mode + 

AG (Dumb Bombs) 

MAP or GMT 

AG (Laser-Guided) 

MAP or GMT 

AG (Gun) 

MAP or GMT 

AG (TV Missiles) 

MAP or GMT 

AG (HARM Missiles) 

MAP or GMT 


Air-to-Air Combat 
Condition Radar M ode 

AA (Long Range) LRS or TWS* 

AA (Short Range) ACM or BORE* 

AA (Gun) ACM or BORE* 

* Single-Target Tracking (STT) sub- 
mode activates automatically when you 
acquire a target using one of the other 
two methods listed. 

+ Map mode detects stationary targets, 
while Ground-Moving Target mode 
detects moving targets. 


4.12 


Air-to-Air Radar Submodes 

All aircraft in the game are equipped with a radar system that has several air- 
to-air radar submodes. By default, the air-to-air radar is active when you 
take off, and it’s in LRS submode. 

The current radar submode (stby, lrs, tws, ACM, stt, BORE or AA cheat) 
appears in the upper left corner of the Radar MFD. 

An air-to-air radar lock won’t break, even if you switch submodes while you 
have a locked target. The only exception is when the new submode has a 
smaller range than the initial one — in the new submode, the radar can’t see 
the target because it’s out of range. 

fo) Cycle through radar submodes (air-to-air — lrs / tws / ACM or 
air-to-ground — map / gmt) (or click PB1 6 on the Radar MFD) 

Off. The radar is not active (i.e., the aircraft’s engines are off). 

Standby (stby). The radar is powered, but not transmitting anything. 

| Shift fR) Toggle radar standby 

Long-Range Search (lrs). Long Range Search submode facilitates the detection 
of enemy targets before they discover you. Use it when you are flying in what 
seem to be clear skies. It has the longest range, but shows the least information. 

Track-While Scan (tws). To track and prioritize targets, switch to Track 
While Scan. This submode has a shorter range than LRS and can track a tar- 
get while still scanning other targets. 

Air Combat (acm). In Air Combat submode, the radar fully automates the 
selection of targets so you can concentrate on aiming and firing weapons. It 
has the shortest range, however. 

Boresight (bore). A short-range submode, BORE mode can get you a fast 
lock on a target if it is within the HUD frame. The radar rapidly targets and 
acquires any object within ten nautical miles if it is visible inside the HUD 
frame. It’s useful in close-range dogfights when you can’t find the enemy.The 
player must not have a target currently selected to use this. Press (§jy to 
break lock, then use Boresight (press |T1). 

Single Target Track (stt). A sub-mode of LRS, boresight, and ACM modes, 
Single Target Track helps to acquire and hold onto a feisty enemy. When you 
have acquired a single enemy on radar, it shifts to this mode automatically. 
This mode is essential for semi-active radar missiles. It gives the most target 
information available. 

aa cheat. The game has a cheat mode you can enable by selecting enable 
cheat radar from the Preferences menu. In this mode, you have access to a 
continuous, 360° scan of the airspace around you. 



£ 

n 

□ 

> 

H 


4.13 


Jane’s 


Common Elements in Air-to-Air Submodes 

Each air-to-air radar submode uses the elements listed below. 



Current range 


Waypoint symbol 


Antenna elevation 
caret 


Horizon line 

Antenna 
caret 


Current visible range. The AA Radar MFD is capable of displaying ranges 
from 5nm to 80nm (the LRS submode extends to 160nm in some aircraft). 

0/0 Increase/decrease visible range in Radar MFD 
or PB 14/15 (5 / 10 / 20 / 40/ 80nm — 160 in some aircraft/LRS only) 

Horizon line. This line shows the horizon. When you fly level, it’s horizontal. 
The angle changes as you bank and moves up/down as pitch changes. 

Antenna azimuth and elevation carets. The caret on the left of the Radar 
MFD represents the radar’s current vertical scan position (elevation). The 
caret on the bottom represents current horizontal scan position (azimuth). 

Waypoint symbol. The small triangle indicates the position of your current waypoint. 

Cursor. (Not shown) When you move the mouse cursor over the MFD, two lines 
form a bracket. Move this cursor over a target and left-click to acquire it. 



I 


Air Combat (ACM) Sub mode 


Max range 

1 Onm 

Altitude parameters 

>30m AGL 

Azimuth scan 

±60° 

Airspeed parameters 

>0 knots 

Elevation scan 

±60° 

# of Targets tracked 

15 


ACM submode is an entirely automatic target acquisition submode. It’s best 
applied in short-range combat — this lets your onboard computer handle all 
radar and targeting functions and leaves you free to fight. 

In this submode, the radar locks onto the first target entering its scan zone and 
auto-switches to STT submode. (See Single-Target Track Submode, p. 4.18.) 
As soon as you’re in weapon range, you can fire. 

Although this submode is more automated than the others, you can still 
control some of its functions. If you release a target with [ Bksp | , the radar 
reverts back to ACM submode, acquires a new target, and resume STT sub- 
mode. If it can’t find another target, the radar stays in ACM mode. 

| Bksp | Release current target / acquire new target (automatically 
activates STT mode once a new target is acquired) 


4.14 


Long Range Search ( LRS ) Submode 


Max range 

80nm 

Altitude parameters 

>30m AGL 

Azimuth scan 

±60° 

Airspeed parameters 

>0 knots 

Elevation scan 

±60° 

# of Targets tracked 

15 


LRS submode lets you acquire targets at the longest range — 80 nautical 
miles. By identifying a target early, you have the maximum amount oftime to 
identify the target and prepare for combat against identified bandits. The 
available ranges (in nautical miles) are 5/10/ 20/ 40 / 80. 

Of all the air radar submodes, LRS provides the best detection capabilities, 
but it provides no initial information about targets other than their loca- 
tions. You can’t tell, for instance, a target’s closure speed. 

Once the radar picks up a target in LRS submode, the target appears on the 
Radar MFD as a dot. The brightest dots represent the most recently detect- 
ed targets, while the dimmer one represent older targets. 


You can lock onto the target two different ways, and you can release a locked 
target and continue scanning in LRS submode: 

[Enter] Acquire nearest target 

0 Left-click on a target in the Radar MFD to acquire it 
(Does not work if you’re playing in full-screen mode) 

[ Bksp | Release current target 

• Once you’ve locked onto a target, the radar mode switches from LRS to 

STT. See Single-Target Track Submode (p. 4.18) for details. 

• If you think there are additional targets in the area, you can resume scan- 
ning in LRS mode orTWS mode to acquire them. 


4 


Additional Symbology 

History. The scan refreshes the radar 
view every four seconds. By selecting 
a history setting, you can watch a tar- 
get’s progress over time. Each target 
displays its current position (a bright 
dot), along with up to three addition- 
al dim “history” dots showing its pre- 
vious positions. 



Older position 

Number of 

positions 

displayed 

Newer position 


PBs 1/2 Increase/decrease the number of positions displayed 
(hi, H2, H3, h4) per contact. 


4.15 


COMBAT 



IL 

I 

jo 

Q) 

C 

J§ 


Track While Scan (TWS) Submode 


Max range 

40nm 

Altitude parameters 

>30m AGL 

Azimuth scan 

±60° 

Airspeed parameters 

>0 knots 

Elevation scan 

±60° 

# of Targets tracked 

15 


In Track While Scan submode, the radar performs multiple detections of tar- 
gets to calculate their vectors within the radar’s field of view. The radar can 
track up to fifteen different targets simultaneously, displaying the position 
and direction of flight for all targets. Because of its greater precision, TWS 
has a shorter range than either the LRS or STT mode. The available ranges 
(in nautical miles) are 10 / 20 / 40. 

The first target the radar scans is designated as a priority target. This target is 
scanned more thoroughly than the other undesignated targets in view, and 
it’s scanned similarly to an STT target. This means you can view more infor- 
mation about this target than the other targets on your MFD. (See Single- 
Target Track Submode, p. 4.18). 

You can designate a different priority target by left-clicking on any of the tar- 
gets in the Radar MFD. To lock onto a priority target, left-click on it again. 

0 Select priority target(or, if the target is already a priority tar- 
get, lock onto the target) 

0x2 Lock onto a priority target (activates STT radar mode) 

[Enter] Let computer designate priority target / select next target 
0 View target range/radar history (move mouse over target) 

• When you fire a semi-active radar missile (such as the AIM-7), the radar 
switches to STT submode for that particular target. 

• This mode gives you the most information about all targets at once, and 
lots of information about your priority target. 


4.1B 



Additional Symbology 

Undesignated target icon. These small squares represent undesignated tar- 
gets. The tail on each square represents the threat’s current direction of flight. 

Priority target icon. The first target the radar comes across in its scan is des- 
ignated as the priority target. It has a star-shaped icon around it, and it is 
brighter than other targets in the Radar MFD. The altitude, velocity, aspect 
angle and closure speed for this priority target appear at all times as long the 
target remains in the Radar MFD page. You can designate a different priority 
target by left-clicking on an undesignated target icon or pressing | Enter] to cycle 
through targets. 

Target altitude/Mach speed. (Not shown; see Single-Target Track Submode, 

p. 4.1 9) The target’s altitude in thousands of feet appears to the left of the 
target icon.). The target’s mach speed also appears (right number). This 
symbology only appears when you move the cursor over target. 

Target velocity. The target’s current airspeed, in knots. 

Target aspect angle. The angle of the target’s nose in relation to your air- 
craft’s nose, in 1 0° increments. 7R, for instance, represents 70° to the right. 


Closure speed. How fast the target is flying toward or away from you. High, 
positive numbers mean you’re closing in on the target, while low, negative 
numbers mean the target is slowly pulling away. This indicator slides up and 
down the DLZ, and the closure rate appears numerically next to it. 


Dynamic Launch Zone (DLZ). A small ladder 
scale indicating your missile’s range and the 
target’s current range in relation to your 
radar’s maximum range. The thick lines show 
the minimum and maximum weapon kill range 
for your currently selected air-to-air missile. 
The number and the small caret to the left of 
the line shows the target and its closure speed. 


~ Maximum 
weapon kill 
range 

Target caret 




a— Minimum weapon 
kill range 


When the target caret slides within the weapon’s kill range line, you can fire 
your weapon. 


4 


4.17 


COMBAT 




Jane’s USAF 


AA Cheat Submode 


Max Range 80nm 

Azimuth scan ±360° 

Elevation scan ±360° 


Altitude parameters None 

Airspeed parameters None 

# of Targets tracked All visible 


If you have enable cheat radar activated in the Options menu, the radar 
enters AA cheat submode. This mode operates similarly to TWS submode, 
with a couple of exceptions. First, the radar has a 360° view. Secondly, the 
radar does not automatically switch to STT submode when you fire a medi- 
um-range missile at a locked priority target. 

The symbology for AA Cheat mode is identical to the TWS symbology. 


Boresight (BORE) Submode 


Range 1 0 n m 

Azimuth scan +/-60° 

Elevation scan +/-60° 


Altitude parameters >30m AGL 
Airspeed parameters >0 knots 
# of Targets tracked 1 


During dogfights, you may want to get a fast lock on a target directly in front 
ofyou. Boresight (BORE) submode is useful in this situation because it auto- 
matically acquires the first target in your immediate visual field of view. 

Boresight submode has a very narrow and short scanning range. It locks 
onto the first target to come into your front view. 

To use Boresight submode, point your HUD at the target, and press and hold \]. 
The target is automatically acquired. Release the key, and the radar enters STT 
submode. (See Single-Target Tracking (STT) Submode, facing page ) If you 
have not acquired a target, releasing the key returns the radar to the previous 
mode. 

[T1 Activate boresight mode (press and hold) 


4.18 



Single Target Track (STT) Submode 


Range 80 nm 

Azimuth scan +/-60° 

Elevation scan +/-60° 


Altitude parameters >30m AGL 
Airspeed parameters >0 knots 
# of Targets tracked 1 


Single Target Track (STT) submode helps you maintain a radar lock on a sin- 
gle target. The radar tracks the target as long as you keep it within the 
azimuth and elevation scan ranges. The radar view refreshes itself several 
times each second, and adjusts the range setting according to how far away 
the target is. If the target is close enough to be tracked with the next-small- 
est range setting, that setting is chosen. 

You can’t actually select STT submode from the MFD or menus — instead, it 
activates automatically when you acquire and lock onto a single target in 
LRS,TWS, BORE or ACM submodes. 

In STT submode, only one target appears on the screen at a time. Radar data is 
fed directly to your currently selected weapon system and to the gun reticule cal- 
culator. You can see a lot of information about your target on the MFD, includ- 
ing the target’s altitude (in thousands of feet), closure rate, and speed. 

[Enter] Switch to next target 

| Bksp | Release current target (also switches radar to LRS submode) 

• TWS gives the most information for target tracking and missile launches. 

• For short-range targets, STT submode focuses the radar on a single target 
so you can launch missiles against it. At the shortest ranges, use STT to 
make the kill, or switch to BORE submode for targets you are trying to 
keep in front of your plane. 

Additional Symbology 


4 


Target aspect 
angle 

Target altitude 



Target velocity 
Target mach speed 

Closure speed 


Target altitude/mach #. The target’s altitude in thousands offeet appears to 
the left of the target icon.). The target’s mach speed also appears (right num- 
ber). This symbology only appears when you move the cursor over target. 

See Track While Scan (TWS) Submode, p. 4.1 6, for definitions of the other 
symbology. 


4.19 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


AS r-to- Ground Radar Submodes 

Your aircraft’s radar has several air-to-ground radar submodes. The current sub- 
mode (STBY, MAP OR GMT) appears in the upper left corner of the Radar MFD. 

Off. The radar is not active (i.e., the aircraft’s engines are off). 

Standby (stby). The radar is powered, but not emitting anything. 

Map (map). Map submode scans the terrain and displays the radar image of it 
on the MFD. Large or radar-reflective objects appear as dots on the map display. 

Ground-Moving Target Identification (gmt). When objects move on the 
ground, you can track their progress when the radar is in GMT submode. 
It’s good for distinguishing moving targets from stationary ones. 

AG Cheat. The game has a cheat mode you can enable by selecting enable 
cheat radar from the Preferences window. In this mode, you have access to a 
continuous, 360° scan of the ground around you. 

Common Elements in Air-to-Ground Submodes 

All air-to-ground modes use the same map elements, which are detailed below. 




Undesignated target 
Current visible rang 

Antenna position 
marker 

Antenna 
elevation caret 


Priority target 

Waypoint symbol 
Horizon line 


Grid 


Grid/map contour. The radar grid appears as a background in all AG radar 
modes, but doesn’t represent anything other than a 4 x 4 division of space. 
In Map mode, a terrain contour map also displays behind the grid and 
shows terrain features. 

Current visible range. The Radar MFD is capable of displaying ranges from 5nm 
to 40nm (80 in some aircraft). The current range appears on the Radar MFD. 

PBs 14/15 Decrease / increase visible range (s / 10/ 20/40 nm) 

(80nm in some aircraft) 

Antenna elevation/azimuth caret. The caret on the bottom of the Radar 
MFD represents the radar’s current horizontal scan (azimuth) position. The 
caret on the left represents vertical scan (elevation) position. 

Undesignated targets. Small squares represent threats detected by the radar. 


4. 2D 



Priority target. When you left-click on a target, a bright cross hair appears 
over it and remains on the MFD display. You can designate a different prior- 
ity target by left-clicking on another threat icon or pressing | Enter] to cycle 
through targets. 

If you’re in GMT submode and double-click on a target, it becomes a GMTT 
target, and the radar tracks its movement. 

Horizon line. This line simulates the horizon. When the aircraft is flying 
straight and level, the line is horizontal. The angle of the line changes when 
you bank, and it moves up and down when you change pitch. 

Waypoint symbol. The small triangle indicates the position of your current 
waypoint. Steer toward the symbol to get to the next waypoint. 

Cursor. (Not Shown) When you move the mouse cursor over the MFD, two 
vertical lines form a cross hair and show your cursor position. Move the cur- 
sor over a target and left-click to it. Left-click anywhere on the MFD to des- 
ignate a target for bombs and laser-guided weapons. 


Map Submode 

Range 80nm Azimuth scan ±120° 



MAP submode is most suitable for striking stationary objects on the ground. 
In this submode, the radar scans the terrain below and displays contours 
onto the Radar MFD screen, regardless of weather and visibility conditions. 
The available ranges (in nautical miles) are 5 / 10 / 20 / 40nm. (The range 
in some aircraft extends to 80nm.) 

Large objects, such as control towers and vehicles, appear in MAP mode as solid 
blips. These objects can be targeted and designated for the weapons system. 

By using the pushbuttons, you can adjust the range of the ground radar. 
Finally, you can designate a priority target in the Radar MFD by left-clicking 
on it, or by pressing [Enter) to select the next closest target. When you acquire 
a target, a priority target icon appears on the Radar MFD screen, and a tar- 
get designation box surrounds the target in the HUD. 

[Enter] Switch to next target 

0 Alternatively, left-click on the target in the Radar MFD to 
acquire it. 

[ Bksp 1 Release current target 

(automatically switches radar to LRS mode) 

(<] / 0 Decrease/increase map range 

(or click PBs 1 4 and 1 5 on the Radar MFD) 


4.21 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Ground Moving Target (GMT) Submode 

Range 80nm Azimuth scan ±20° 


While Map submode can detect either stationary or moving targets, GMT 
submode can only spot moving targets. You use GMT submode to track, 
acquire and attack targets on the ground or water. It’s primarily useful 
against tanks, convoys, ships, and other moving targets. 

Targets appear on the Radar MFD as blips. Once a target is detected, you 
can press [ Enter] or left-click on it to designate it as a ground-moving target 
track (GMTT) target. This locks onto the target so you can use your air-to- 
ground weapons against it. 


When you activate GMT mode, the radar begins scanning the area for mov- 
ing targets. You can adjust the radar range. The available ranges (in nautical 
miles) are 5 / 10 / 20 / 40nm. (The F-15E’s range extends to 80nm.) 


| Enter | 
0 

I Bksp | 

0/0 

or PB 14/15 


Switch to next target 

Alternatively, left-click on the target in the Radar MFD to 
acquire it. 

Release current target 

Increase/decrease visible range in Radar MFD 
(5/ 10 / 20 / 40/ 80nm) 


AG Cheat Submode 



Range 80nm Azimuth scan ±360° 

The air-to-ground radar has a cheat mode you can enable by selecting enable 
cheat radar from the Preferences menu. Instead of the usual 120° scan, it 
provides a 360° scan of the ground around you. You can detect targets in 
front of you, to either side of you, below you and behind you. 

Functionally, the radar operates similarly in AG Cheat mode and GMT 
mode. The one exception is all moving targets have tails indicating their 
direction of movement. Other targets appear as small squares with a hole in 
the center. 


4.22 


TARGETING 

Targeting involves many complex systems, but it’s not really difficult. In basic 
terms, you just need to activate the correct master mode (AA for air targets, 
or AG for ground targets) and select a radar submode (the default mode 
usually works just fine). Then, it’s just a matter of pressing | Enter] or letting 
the radar auto-acquire targets for you. 


To find the currently selected target, look for a green Target Designation box 
in the HUD. (It appears around the currently selected target.) Make sure the 
target isn’t friendly (i.e., there’s no “X” in the TD box). Then, activate the 
correct weapon, move in range, and fire. That’s it. 


© 

| Enter | / [ Ctrl | Enter | 

I ED 
ED 

Epx2 


Toggle avionics master mode 
(Navigation / Air-to-air / Air-to-ground) 

Select next/previous radar target 

View currently selected target 

Activate LOS view from your aircraft to your target 

Activate LOS view from your target to your aircraft 


This section discusses basic methods for targeting both aircraft and ground 
objects. For more details, read over Using the Radar, p. 4.12, and the “how 
to use” instructions for each weapon type. The acquisition and lock require- 
ments differ slightly between weapon types and radar modes. 


Easy Targeting 

If you don’t really want to target objects manually, the game has a few 
options to help make it easier. 

Enable Cheat Radar. From the Preferences window, you can select a cheat 
mode that gives you a continuous, 360° scan of the airspace or terrain 
around you. 

Air Combat Mode (air-to-air only). This air-to-air radar mode automatically 
acquires targets for you as soon as they fly into your radar’s scan view. 

Easy Targeting. Also from the Preferences window, you can select the easytar- 
geting. This displays the TD box outside of the HUD and let you maintain 
that target lock even if the radar target is out of view. 


4 


Note: You can press | Alt f Tj to display colored squares in the HUD that represent 
nearby friendly and enemy aircraft. Red boxes denote enemies, while blue ones denote 
friendlies. Small pointers indicate the aircraft’s direction of flight. 


4.23 


COMBAT 


Jane’s 


Targeting Aircraft 

You use your air-to-air radar to detect and target airborne enemies. Keep in 
mind, however, that you’re vulnerable and very visible to enemy RWRs when- 
ever the radar is active. 

Follow these steps to target an aircraft using your radar: 

1. Turn on your radar if it is not active (press [r]). 

2. Switch to AA radar mode if not in it already (press (JR)). 

3. Select a radar search submode (press (Q)). See p. 4.1 3 for details on the 
submodes. 

4. Lock onto the target: 

• For the LRS and TWS submodes, press | Enter] , joystick button 3, or left- 
click on the target in the Radar MFD. 

• In ACM submode, the radar automatically locks onto the first target it finds. 

• For BORE mode, press |T] to lock on a target in the boresight field ofview. 

5. The radar search mode automatically switches to STT if you designate 
a priority target. 

6. To release a target, press [ Bksp | or put your radar on standby by pressing 




I 


Targeting Ground Objects 

Use the air-to-ground radar to find ground-based enemies. As with the air- 
to-air radar, activating your radar makes you visible to enemy RWRs. 

Follow these steps to target a stationary ground object using your radar: 

1. Turn on your radar if it is not active (press (r)). 

2. Switch to AG radar mode if not in it already (press fR~|j. 

3. Select Map submode (press (Q) or click PB1 6). 

4. Press | Enter | or joystick button 3 to lock onto the target. Or, left-click on 
a target in the Radar MFD. 

• The target you lock onto becomes the priority target and has a set of 
bright cross hairs on top of it. 

• A green target designation box appears in the HUD whenever the target 
is in your field ofview. 

• If you can see the object on your radar, you’re close enough to lock onto it. 

• You can also left-click on a ground target in the Radar MFD to desig- 
nate it as a primary target. 

5. To release a target, press [ Bksp | or put your radar on standby by pressing 

fShiftfRl- 

• If you’re using the LANTIRN pod in active mode, its FUR camera can 
automatically lock onto targets it detects in its field of view. See 

Cockpit: FLIR MFD Page, p. 2.42, for details. 


■ 4 . 2-4 


Follow these steps to target a moving ground object using your radar. 

1. Turn on your radar if it is not active (press [r]). 

2. Switch to AG radar mode if not in it already (press [r]). 

3. Select GMT submode (press (O) or click PB1 6). 

• Press [Enter | or joystick button 3 to lock onto the target. Or, left-click on 
a target in the Radar MFD. 

• The target you lock onto becomes the ground-moving tracked target 
(GMTT) and has a set of bright cross hairs on top of it. 

• A target acquisition box appears in the HUD when the target is in view. 
5. To release a target, press [ Bksp ] or put your radar on standby by pressing 

fShiftfR]. 

• Again, the LANTIRN pod can detect and acquire targets when in active 
mode. See Cockpit: FLIR MFD Page, p. 2.42, for details. 


Viewing Threats in the RWR 

The radar warning receiver (RWR) in your aircraft detects anything trans- 
mitting active radar signals within its range. It gives you a full 360° view in 
an approximately 20nm circle around your aircraft. Any threats inside this 
radius display on the RWR. Most aircraft have an RWR MFD. However, 
some aircraft have a physical RWR instrument on the cockpit dash. 

Part of the RWR’s job is to classify threats. Each threat has a specific icon 
that displays inside the RWR circle: 

^ Air threat © SAM threat O Anti-aircraft artillery 

4^ Boat Gundish 


4 


GROUND 

Threat 

Code 

AIR 

Threat 

Code 

Threat 

Code 

SA-2 

2 

MiG-21 

21 

F-1 17 

17 

SA-3 

3 

MiG-23 

23 

A-1 0 

A1 

SA-5 

5 

MiG-25 

25 

F-1 11 

11 

SA-6 

6 

MiG-29 

29 

F-4 

4 

SA-8 

8 

SU-22 

22 

F-1 5 

15 

SA-10 

10 

SU-24 

24 

F-1 6 

16 

Hawk 

H 

Su-35 

35 

F-22 

F2 

ZSU-23X4 

A 

Mirage F-1 

M 



General AAA 

A 

F-105 

05 




A blinking icon indicates the threat has launched a missile. 

Threat codes give more specific information about the type of threat. 


4.25 


COMBAT 



IL 

I 

jo 

Q) 

C 


Viewing Threats in the Tactical MFD 

The Tactical MFD shows you a general geographical outline of an area, with 
additional information about ground targets overlaid on top of it. The back- 
ground map scrolls and displays new terrain as you fly over it. You can zoom 
this map in and out using the pushbuttons. The tactical map also shows 
SAM threats and kill radii, and waypoint information 

Your aircraft’s nose is always at the bottom of the screen and pointing 
upward. As you turn, so does the map. 


Map scale 

Target waypoint 
Current waypoint 


Symbology 

Current aircraft position. The small cross with a tail in the lower third of the 
MFD represents your aircraft’s position. A circle appears around your air- 
craft and changes size, depending on what map scale you have selected. 

Map scale. You can zoom the map scale in and out by pressing the push- 
buttons (PB14 to decrease the map range, PB15 to increase it). Available 
ranges are 10 / 20 / 40 and 80nm. 

SAM threats/circles. Surface-to-air missile sites show up as solid circles. A 
large circle surrounding the SAM threat icon represents the SAM’s effective 
missile range. If you’re trying to fly through a field of SAM circles, try to 
weave in between them to avoid coming into their range. 



Declutter toggles 

Current aircraft position 
Waypoints 


Waypoints. All visible navigation waypoints appear on the map, but have 
different symbols: 


Green line 
Hollow green circle 
Solid green circle 
Hollow red triangle 
Solid red triangle 


Planned flight route 
Normal waypoint 
Currently selected waypoint 

Target waypoint (with targets vital to mission success) 
Current target waypoint 


Declutter toggles. You can use PB1 — PB3 to toggle various elements ofthis 
display on or off. This is called decluttering because it simplifies the display. 
You can remove SAM sites (PB1 ), waypoint information (PB2), and the map 
image (PB3). 


4.2B 



Viewing Targets in the JTIDS MFD 

In the F-22A, F-117A, and F-15C and F-15E the Joint Tactical Information 
Distribution System, or JTIDS, replaces the Tactical MFD. The JTIDS gives you 
a general geographical outline of the terrain, but includes a lot more data from 
other systems, such as radar, RWR, and AWACS or other flights. 

The JTIDS is a large, full-color MFD showing several categories of informa- 
tion. You can toggle the categories on/off by pressing the appropriate push- 
button. Friendly objects are blue icons, while enemy objects are red icons. In 
most respects, this display is very similar to the Tactical MFD. 

By clicking in the middle of this MFD, you can make it full-screen. Click on it 
again or press (z] to restore it to MFD size. 



Current target 
Air target 


Ground target 


Toggle air targets 
Toggle ground targets 


Additional Symbology 

The JTIDS uses similar symbology to the Tactical Map Display, with a few exceptions: 

Air targets. You can toggle air targets on/off with PB4. Friendly aircraft are 
blue, and enemy aircraft are red. Locked targets show up as green circles, 
and are surrounded by a Target Designation (TD) box. 

Friendly aircraft appear as blue triangles pointing in the direction of flight. 
Enemy aircraft show up as red triangles. If the enemy is firing a missile, its 
icon flashes. 

Ground targets. TheJTIDS shows all ground targets, not just SAMs. You can 
toggle ground targets on/off with PB5. Any threat appearing on your RWR 
also shows up here. Friendly, stationary ground objects appear as blue 
squares. Friendly, moving ground objects are also blue squares, but they 
have a “tail” pointing in the direction of movement. Enemy ground object 
icons are similar, but they’re red. If the enemy is firing a missile, its icon 
flashes. Specified enemy targets show up as solid green squares. 

If a SAM has locked onto you, a small red circle appears around it. Ifthe SAM 
has fired a missile, the circle and the SAM’s kill radius circle start flashing. 

Current targets. If you lock onto an air or ground target, a yellow line 
appears. It connects your aircraft to the target, and turns the target ‘s icon 
solid yellow. If another aircraft in your flight has a radar lock on a target, the 
line also appears, but it’s dashed. 


■ 4 . 27 ’ 


Jane’s USAF 


USING WEAPONS 

When selecting weapons, you must first and foremost consider what type of 
target you’re going after, and where you are in your mission. As a general 
rule, you shouldn’t expend any ammo or munitions you need to attack your 
mission target. (Once you’ve successfully completed the mission, however, 
it’s fine to hit a few wayward targets on the way home.) 

You should always try to select your weapons before you approach the tar- 
get area — sometimes, even a few seconds saved can afford you a great 
advantage. A weapon is automatically armed once you select it, and the cor- 
rect HUD mode is activated. 

Weapons with built-in sensors are “fire-and-forget,” meaning you don’t have 
to keep the target in view after firing. You can tell which sensor system a 
weapon uses in the Loadout screen. The name of the missile or bomb sensor 
appears in the weapon description box at the top of the screen. When you 
move the mouse cursor over a weapon, a general description of that weapon 
appears in this box. 

The following sections discuss factors to consider when you’re maneuvering 
into position and describe how to release each weapon type. For a tactical 
discussion on combat maneuvers, see Combat Tactics, p. 4.56. 

Know Your Position 

Before using guns, missiles, rockets or bombs, you need to position your air- 
craft so you can take the best shot possible. Many times, you only have a few 
seconds to take an opportune shot. You’ll find that during combat, you spend 
a great deal of time trying to get yourself into an advantageous firing position. 

When firing guns and missiles against an air target, you want to keep the 
aspect angle between you and your target small. In other words, you want to 
have a good, straight shot at a threat. 

In an ideal situation, you should be right behind your target — he can’t fire 
on you when you’re tailing him. If you’re attacking a ground target, where 
you drop an air-to-ground missile or bomb depends on your speed, altitude, 
range and weapon type. 

This chapter’s section on Combat Tactics, p. 4.56, describes some basic 
moves you can use to gain an advantageous firing position. 


4.28 


Know Your Sensors and ECMs 

All aircraft come pre-loaded with standard electronic countermeasures 
(ECMs) and built-in sensors. These accessories help you navigate, acquire 
targets, and defend yourself against missile attacks. 

Chaff and Flares 

Countermeasures are a valuable line of defense against surface-to-air mis- 
siles and enemy interceptors. They can help you escape a long-range engage- 
ment without a dogfight, plow through SAMs flanking a vital enemy target, 
or ward off undetected IR missiles if it does get down and dirty. 

Chaff and flare dispensers are automatically loaded onto your aircraft prior 
to each mission and cannot be removed. The actual number of chaff and 
flare units varies with the type of aircraft you’re flying, and totals appear in 
the Loadout screen (see Interface: Loadout Screen, p. 1.22). 


AN/AAQ-13 

This is the navigation pod of the Low-Altitude Targeting and Navigation 
Infra-Red (LANTIRN) system. It gives certain aircraft (the F-16C, F-15E, F- 
1 1 7A, and A-10A) nighttime and low-altitude flight capabilities. You must 
have this pod loaded if you want to: 

• Use the terrain-following radar 

• Use the NAVFLIR (navigation FLIR) 


4 


AN/AAQ-14 

This sensor pod is the targeting pod of the LANTIRN system. It gives you 
superior nighttime targeting and guidance capabilities. You must have this 
pod loaded if you want to: 

• Use the targeting IR camera to view IR video of your targets 

• Use laser-guided weapons (i.e., GBU bombs) 

• Use automatic weapon cueing for AGM-65s or GBU-1 5s 


AN/AXQ-14 

The AN/AXQ-14 datalink pod is automatically loaded on your aircraft. It allows 
you to guide a GBU-1 5 after launch via TV imagery and remote steering. 


AN/ALQ-131 

This jamming device tries to fool enemy radar systems by sending out large 
amounts of microwaves. The object of jamming is to disguise the size and 
location of your aircraft. 


• 4.23 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Know Your Weapons 

Here’s a brief overview of weapon categories. For additional information, see 
other sections of this manual. 

• Interface: Loadout Screen (p. 1.22) talks about loading specific types of 
weapons and aircraft loading. 

• See the Weapon Information Chart, p. 4.32, to reference HUD and MFD 
mode information. 

• Cockpit: Head-Up Display (p. 2.12) and the weapon MFD pages (begin- 
ning on p. 2.29) describe specific symbology for each weapon type. 

• See Know Your Guidance Systems, p. 4.34, for details about different 
guidance methods. 

• See Using Weapons, p. 4.28, to learn how to use specific types of 
weapons. 

Rockets. Folding Fin Aerial Rockets (FFARs) are unguided weapons requir- 
ing visual targeting and good aim. Because they tend to be incendiary (fire- 
spawning), you can use them at close range if you’re not concerned about 
collateral damage to other vehicles or structures. 

Missiles. You have a wide variety of missiles at your disposal — short-range, 
long-range, air-to-air, air-to-ground, radar-guided, IR-guided and TV-guid- 
ed. Missiles are best applied against targets from 3 to 80km away. Certain 
missile types use built-in guidance systems, while others require you to load 
a sensor pod. Additionally, you can’t fire the missile until you’ve activated 
the correct systems and modes. 

Bombs. The two garden varieties of bombs are guided and unguided. 
Unguided bombs are cheap, plentiful and highly effective over a wide area, 
such as an airfield. TV- and laser-guided bombs are best dropped on strate- 
gic targets essential to the success of the mission. For instance, you’d prob- 
ably want to use a guided bomb to hit a communications bunker or air 
defense radars, but not a column oftanks. Guided bombs require some sort 
of onboard guidance system. 

Useful Keys 

Here are some useful keys for activating various weapon functions: 
n~l Cycle through air-to-air weapons 
ITI Cycle through air-to-ground weapons 
[ F11 | Display missile chase view 

[Ml Cycle through avionics master modes — navigation, air-to-air 
and air-to-ground. Each master mode selects the correct 
radar type, weapon type and HUD mode. 


4. 3D 


Overview: Air-To-Air Weapons 

Gun Designations: GAU-, GsH 

Missile Designations: AA-, AIM- 

Sensor Systems: IR, FLIR, SARH, Active Radar 

Guns used to be the only weapon available during an air battle, and dog- 
fighting used to be a test of a pilot’s visual acuity. In modern air combat, 
however, the majority of battles are fought without opponents ever coming 
within visual range of one another. 

While guns remain useful at extremely close ranges, air-to-air missiles extend 
air combat by miles. Long-range, air-intercept missiles can effectively target 
threats as far as 80 miles; short-range air-to-air missiles can be fired from 
near point-blank range or from up to 25 nautical miles away. 

With the exception of mounted guns, air-to-air weapons are guided by either 
the aircraft’s sensors or an independent “seeker” head. But although these 
advancements make them effective weapons, striking targets with air-to-air 
missiles still demands good piloting skills and selective firing. 

Overview: Air-To-Ground Weapons 

Missile Designations: AGM-, HARM 
Bomb Designations: GBU-, MK-, CBU- 
Rocket Designations: LAU- 

Sensor Systems: IR, FLIR, HARM, Laser, Active Radar 

Air-to-ground weapons include missiles, rockets, bombs and mounted guns. 
They come in two basic varieties — unguided and guided. Unguided weapons 
(such as “iron” bombs) fall along a predictable trajectory. Guided weapons, 
such as Maverick missiles and laser-guided bombs, use the aircraft’s seeker 
or a built-in seeker to steer toward a target after launch. 

Some air-to-ground missiles, such as the IR-homing AGM-65 Maverick or 
the active radar-guided AGM-88 HARM, are long-range, “standoff” 
weapons. Once fired, these weapons do not require guidance from the 
launching aircraft. As such, they are “fire-and forget” weapons — you can 
launch them and immediately turn toward a new target. During flight, they 
have the ability to modify their flight path. 

Air-to-ground weapons employ the same guidance systems as air-to-air 
weapons, although some have other sensor types built into the seeker head. 
The sensor on a HARM weapon homes in on targets emitting radar, while the 
sensor on a laser weapon homes in on targets pinpointed by a laser beam. 


4 


4.31 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Weapon Information Chart 

Weapon. Designation and name of the weapon as they appear on the 
Weapon Inventory screen. 

MFD Name. Abbreviation used for the weapon on the Radar MFD pages. 
Guidance. Sensor used to guide the weapon to target. Laser- and datalink- 
guided weapons and SARH use launching aircraft’s sensor; all other entries 
refer to the seeker mounted on the nose of the weapon itself. 

Weapon Type. What the weapon is designed to do. (Preferred targets are 
footnoted when they are not obvious.) 



Name 

MFD Name 

Guidance 

Weapon Type 

M61A1 Vulcan 

M61A1 

Unguided 

20mm cannon 1 

GAU-8 Avenger 

GAU-8 

Unguided 

30mm cannon 1 

AIM-7F Sparrow 

AIM7F 

SARH 

Medium range anti-air 

AIM-7B Sparrow 

AIM7B 

SARH 

Medium-range anti-air 

AIM-9D Sidewinder 

AIM9D 

IR 

Short-range anti-air 

AIM-9M Sidewinder 

AIM9M 

IR 

Short-range anti-air 

AIM-9X Sidewinder 

AIM9X 

IR 

Short-range, anti-air 

AIM-1 20AAMRAAM AIM120A 

Radar 

Medium-range anti-air 

AGM-45 Shrike 

AGM45 

Passive Radar 

Stand-off precision attack 

AGM-62 Walleye 

AGM62 

TV 

Stand-off precision attack 

AGM-65B Maverick 

AGM65B 

MR 

Stand-off precision attack 2 

AGM-65D Maverick 

AGM65D 

MR 

Stand-off precision attack 3 

AGM-88 HARM 

AGM 88 

Passive radar 

Stand-off precision attack 3 

AGM-130 

AGM 130 

TV OR HR 

Stand-off precision attack 

AGM- 1 42 Popeye 

AGM142 

TV 

Stand-off precision attack 

CBU-52 

CBUS2 

Unguided 

Anti-person nel/-materiel 

CBU-58 

CBUS8 

Unguided 

Anti-person nel/-materiel 

CBU-87 

CBU87 

Unguided 

Anti-person nel/-materiel 

CBU-89 

CBU89 

Unguided 

Anti-armor 

CBU-93 

CBU93 

Unguided 

Anti-armor 

GBU-10 Paveway 1 

GBU10 

Laser 

Precision attack 

GBU-12D Paveway II 

GBU12D 

Laser 

Precision attack 

GBU-1 5 

GBU15 

TV/Datalink 

Stand-off precision attack 

GBU-24 Paveway III 

GBU24 

Laser 

Precision attack 

GBU-27 Paveway III 

GBU27 

Laser 

Precision attack 

GBU-30 JDAM 

GBU30 

TV 

Precision attack 

Mk 82 

MK82 

Unguided 

Gen. purpose ground attack 

Mk 84 

MK84 

Unguided 

Gen. purpose ground attack 

Napalm 

NAPALM 

Unguided 

Incendiary ground attack 


Aircraft, soft ground targets. 2 Armored vehicles. 3 Hardened targets. 


4.32 


Know Your Modes 

All weapons automatically activate a specific HUD and set of MFDs. 
Symbology for all HUDs and MFDs is detailed in Chapter 2: Cockpit. For 
information on radar modes, see Using the Radar , p. 4.12. 


HUD Mode Summary 

Here is a summary of combat-related HUD modes. For full descriptions, see 

Chapter 2: Cockpit. 


Air to Air modes 

• AA LCOS Mode. Used for firing the internal gun at air targets. 

• AA EEGS Mode. Used for firing the internal gun at air targets. 

• MRM Mode. Used for firing medium-range missiles. 

• SRM Mode. Used for firing short-range missiles. 


Air-to-Ground Modes 

• CCIP Mode. Used to release rockets general-purpose and laser-guided bombs. 

• HARM Mode. Used to fire HARM missiles (anti-SAM weapons) 


• STRF Mode. Used for firing the 

• TV Mode. Used to launch TV-gu 

The chart below gives information 
associated with each weapon type. 

internal gun at ground targets. 

ided missiles at ground targets. 

about which HUD and MFD modes are 

Air-to-Air 
Weapon Selected 

HUD 1 

MFD 1 

MFD 2 

MFD 3 

MRM missile 

AA (MRM) 

AA Radar 2 

Tactical/JTIDS 3 RWR 

SRM missile 

AA (SRM) 

AA Radar 

Tactical/JTIDS 3 RWR 

A/ A gun/ LCOS sight 

AA (LCOS) 

AA Radar 

Tactical/JTIDS 3 RWR 

A/A gun/EEGS sight 3 

AA (EEGS) 

AA Radar 

Tactical/JTIDS 3 RWR 

Air-to-Ground 





Weapon Selected 

HUD 1 

MFD 1 

MFD 2 

MFD 3 

GP bomb 

AG (CCIP) 

AG radar 

Stores 

Tactical/JTIDS 3 

LGB bomb 

AG (CCIP) 

AG radar 

FLIR 

Tactical /JTIDS 3 

TV-guided missile 

AG (TV) 

AG radar 5 

TV 

Tactical /JTIDS 3 

HARM missile 

AG (HARM) 

AG radar 

HARM 

Tactical /JTIDS 3 

GPS (JDAM) missile 

AG (TV) 

AG radar 

TV 

JTIDS 3 


1 The HUD mode is listed first, with the submode in parentheses. 

2 Does not appear in the A-1 OA or F-1 1 7A when you select an MRM missile. 

3 The A-1 OA, F-1 05D, F-4E, F-1 1 7A, and MiG-29 are not equipped with an EEGS gunsight. 

4 In the F-22A, F-1 1 7A, F-1 5C, F-1 5E and F-1 6C, the JTIDS MFD replaces theTactical MFD. 
In the F-4E, the TV MFD displays instead. 


4 


4.33 


COMBAT 



Jane’s USAF 


Know Your Guidance Systems 

The simplest of weapons are unguided, such as Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets 
(FFARs) and iron bombs. Newer weapons — whether they’re air-to-air mis- 
siles or air-to-ground missiles and bombs — are guided and use radar, laser 
or infrared tracking to acquire a target. Each guidance system has its own 
method of acquiring and locking a target. Some weapons are “fire-and-forget” 
and have guidance systems built into their seeker head. Others require you to 
keep the target in view until weapon impact. 

Although effective, guided weapons are not the “one-shot, one-kill” devices 
they are often perceived to be. Used improperly, they can perform dismally. 

Semi-Active Radar Homing Weapons (SARHs) 

Semi-Active Radar Homing weapons (SARHs) use the aircraft’s onboard 
radar system both to acquire and track a target. No special sensor is 
required, but this air-to-air missile doesn’t have built-in radar. You must keep 
the target locked on radar so the missile can maneuver toward it. If the tar- 
geting aircraft breaks its lock — even momentarily — the missile may miss. 

SARH missiles can be launched at medium range (usually 1 5-20nm) but per- 
form poorly at short range. They also don’t work well when fired from above 
the target, as radar reflected from the ground confuses the missile. The most 
well-known SARH missile — the AIM-7 Sparrow — is notoriously inaccurate. 

Active Radar Weapons 

Active radar weapons (like the AIM-1 20) use the aircraft’s normal radar sys- 
tem to acquire a target. Upon launch, the missile’s guidance system receives 
coordinates from the aircraft’s weapon system. The weapon flies to the des- 
ignated point and activates its own seeker head, which it then uses to home 
in on the target. Since the weapon guides itself, the launching aircraft can 
break away from battle anytime after firing. For this reason, active radar 
arms are known as “fire-and-forget” weapons. 

Infrared-Homing Weapons 

Infrared (“heat-seeking”) missiles use internal sensors to detect and track 
heat-emitting objects, such as an airplane’s engine exhaust pipe. Compared 
to radar-guided weapons, infrared-homing missiles have short range — point- 
blank to 8nm for air-to-air heat-seekers. Once launched, these “fire-and-for- 
get” weapons guide themselves to the target. 

The “lock status” of an IR-guided air-to-air missile appears on the HUD — a 
floating circle represents the missile seeker. An IR-homing missile locks onto 
your current radar target if it’s in missile range. Otherwise, it looks for the first 
“hot” target to come into view of its missile seeker head. To launch the missile, 
all you need to do is keep your aircraft’s nose pointed toward the target, and fire. 

Target lock is also communicated through sound. For air-to-air heat-seekers 
(such as the AIM-9 series), missile lock is indicated through an audible 
“growling” sound. The louder the growl, the better the lock. 


- 4 . 3-4 


HARM (Radar-Seeking) Weapons 

The AGM-88 HARM and AGM-45 Shrike missiles are High-Speed, Anti- 
Radiation Missiles that lock onto targets emitting radar transmissions. The 
HARM seeker is built into the missile’s nose and requires no onboard guid- 
ance. HARMs are highly effective against radar vehicles, radar-equipped 
SAMs and ground-based radar installations. A threat’s only defense against 
such a missile is to turn off the radar altogether. 

The HARM is a “fire-and-forget” missile. However, if a HARM is launched 
and the target turns off its radar, the missile continues to the target’s last 
known location and detonates. 


Television-Guided (TV) Weapons 

TV-guided missiles rely on television imagery to track a target. Each missile 
seeker head contains a tiny, built-in television camera transmitting electro- 
optical images to the aircraft’s onboard system. TV missiles are equipped 
with a black/green camera. Two types exist — the self-guiding, contrast hom- 
ing missile (such as the Maverick series of missiles) and the GBU-series and 
Popeye manually steered missiles. 

As soon as the weapon is armed, the protective dome is removed from the 
seeker head and imagery from the camera appears in the cockpit’s TV MFD. 
To designate a target, you center the cross hairs in the MFD over the target 
and fire. Guidance is accomplished by steering the missile remotely. 

TV-guided missiles are effective weapon against both soft and hard targets, 
but are susceptible to fog and other inclement weather conditions. 

Global-Positioning System (JDAM ) Weapons 

The most sophisticated self-guiding missile type in existence is the GPS-guid- 
ed missile. The Global Positioning System itself is a complex system using 
satellite data to determine geographical positioning. GPS gives highly accu- 
rate information on an object’s position and velocity on the Earth’s surface 
and provides worldwide, real-time coverage. In the field of weapons, it pro- 
vides pinpoint accuracy. 

GPS-guided weapons, also referred to as JDAMs, or Joint Direct Attack 
Munition weapons, are a fairly recent development. These weapons are pre- 
programmed with the target’s GPS coordinates before each mission. GPS 
missiles (such as the AGM-86B/C) are powered by a turbofan jet engine, 
which propels the missile at subsonic speeds toward the target coordinates. 
Using GPS data, the missile flies complicated routes using a terrain contour- 
matching guidance system. GPS-guided bombs (such as the GBU-30) use 
the same principle, but are dropped from higher altitudes and carry more 
payload. 

Due to their small size and low-altitude flight capability, GPS weapons are 
difficult for enemies to detect on radar. 


4 


4.35 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Using Guns 

See pp. 2 . 7 8-2.20 for symbology for the gun HUDs (LCOS and EEGS). 

Although missiles are the weapon of choice during most fights, guns remain an 
essential element ofaircombat. You don’t have to have radar, IR or HARM sen- 
sors active to use them, although your radar can help you aim at your target. 

Guns have large ammo stores, and are generally most effective only at short 
range (0-2nm). A single burst of gunfire generally won’t kill an aircraft, but 
it may eliminate a ground target. In general, reserve your guns for close-in 
combat or low-altitude strafing runs. 

Firing at moving air targets is considerably more difficult. An important 
aspect of using guns in air combat is calculating how far you need to “lead” 
the target. The enemy is constantly moving, so you must predict where he’s 
going to be when the bullets reach their mark. You must take into account 
your enemy’s speed and current position and guess how much “lead” in 
needed to hit him. When your radar is off, you must lead your shots in front 
of the target to hit it. 

When your radar is in air-to-air mode, the LCOS (Lead-Computing Optical 
Gunsight) displays a pipper on the HUD to help you lead targets. In the 
F-15C/E, F-22A and F-16C, the Enhanced Envelope Gun Sight (EEGS) 
replaces the LCOS. Symbology is similar for both sights. Use of the sights is 
optional — you can always fire guns using | Tab| . Both of the following sights 
are AA HUDs that auto-activate when you select your gun. 

LCOS GUNSIGHT 



Reticule 



Range arc 



. ■■ 

CE riLia EE'i 


4.3B 


How to Fire Guns 

Follow these steps to fire your onboard gun using the pipper gunsight: 

1 . Select your guns (press (T) to cycle through air-to-air weapons). 

2. Turn on your radar if its not active (press (r)). 

3. Press | Enter | to lock onto a target you have within visual range. 

4. Center the gun reticule in the HUD over your target. 

The pipper dot inside shows where you should aim to make the target 
fly into your bullets. Your aircraft’s computer calculates the relative 
speed and distance of your target and makes adjustments to the pipper 
accordingly. 

A thick line around the perimeter of the reticule measures range from 
your current position to the target. A shorter arc indicates a better 
chance of hitting the target, and a longer arc means you have less 
chance of hitting the target. A full circle indicates a range of about 2nm. 

5. Place the gun cross in the center of the pipper, just in front of the target. 

6. Follow the target and wait until the arc is small. 

7. Fire (press | Tab ] or your joystick trigger). 

Note: You can also press ( Tab ) at any time to fire your guns, even if another weapon 
is currently active. This is true for both types of gun sights. 

Follow these steps to fire your onboard gun using the funnel gunsight: 

1 . Select your guns (press (T) to cycle through air-to-air weapons). 

2. Turn on your radar if its not active (press [r]). 

The EEGS funnel gunsight appears. The two edges of the funnel repre- 
sent a target with a wingspan of approximately 35ft at different ranges. 
The wide end of the funnel represents a range of 200 meters, while the 
narrow end represents 1 nm. To effectively use this sight, you maneuver 
so the aircraft moves into view between the funnel edges. When you fire 
the gun, bullets appear to travel down the center of the funnel. 

3. Once you have a target within visual range, maneuver so the target falls 
between the two sides of the funnel. Try to “fit” the aircraft wingtips 
between the two sides ofthe funnel. Ifyou can do this, the target is in range. 

Remember, if the aircraft wingspan is as wide as the wide end ofthe 
funnel, it’s only about 200 feet away. If the wingspan is only as wide as 
the narrow end ofthe funnel, the target is Inm away. It can also fall 
anywhere in between the two ends ofthe funnel. 

4. Once you have the target in your funnel and it’s in range, fire (press 
| Spacebar | or your joystick trigger). 


4 


■ 4 . 37 ’ 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Using Rockets 

See p. 2.26 for symbology — rockets use the same CCIP symbology as unguided bombs. 


Rockets are unguided weapons you fire through the use of an LAU-61 launch- 
er. You can ripple-fire rockets (launch more than one at a time) or fire them 
singly. The launcher consists of a cylindrical housing with launch tubes for 1 9 
Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets (FFARs). Rockets can be used as an air-to-air 
weapon, though they’re generally better-suited for broad use against ground 

targets. Incendiary 




Delay indicator 


Bomb fall line 


Reticule 


Pipper 



rockets 


espe- 


P ■ A 

cially useful for 

ffefe 4 

igniting fires in 

gTjTp 

ammo bunkers and 

4 

other soft targets. 

■ T %'**■' 


3j 

Velocity vector 


How to Fire Rockets 

1 . Select your rockets (press (T to cycle through air-to-ground weapons). 

• When you choose rockets, the HUD automatically enters AG mode and 
displays CCIP information. This is the same information used to drop 
unguided bombs. 

2. Bring the ground target into your front viewscreen. 

3. Maneuver so the CCIP pipper overlays the Target Designation box 
around the current target in your HUD. 

4. Maneuver to position the pipper and reticule over the target. 

5. Lower your altitude (unless area is heavily defended) and point the air- 
craft’s nose toward the target. 

6. Slightly pitch the plane down so you enter a gentle dive toward the target. 

7. Watch the bomb fall line (the line connecting the pipper/reticule to the 
velocity vector circle). As you get closer to the target, a small horizontal 
line (delay indicator) “slides” down this line toward the pipper. 

8. When the horizontal has almost reached the pipper, fire the rocket(s) 
(press | Spacebar | or joystick button 2). 

• When you have the pipper and reticule directly over the target when you 
fire rockets, you have the best chance of hitting the target. 

• If the target is moving, lead it slightly to ensure a hit. 


4.38 


Using Missiles 

Missiles are a fighter’s best offense — they’re maneuverable, deadly and pos- 
sess “smart” guidance systems. Guided missiles use a seeker to track targets 
after launch. The radar, IR or laser seeker identifies the target position and 
feeds course corrections to the canards (small “wings” on the aft end of the 
missile). This in-flight maneuverability has given missiles a reputation of 
being able to take out targets over 100 miles away. 


Missile Parameters 

Before firing a missile, make sure you consider the following parameters. 


Range 

Long-range missiles can be fired from as far as 150nm away, while medium or 
short-range ones have a maximum launch distance around 25nm. As a general 
rule, however, hit probability increases as the distance to the target decreases. 

Most missiles also have minimum launch ranges (usually about 1.5nm) to 
ensure the launcher doesn’t inadvertently harm himself. The missile requires 
room to get up to speed, and the seeker needs a good lock on the target 
before it starts maneuvering. Since the probability of a direct hit on a 
maneuvering target is unlikely, missiles are designed to cause damage over a 
large radius. Some missiles release a giant, expanding ring of iron bars, while 
others release hundreds of small metal fragments. The larger the area cov- 
ered by the warhead, the greater the probability of a kill. 

Launch Parameters 

In general, you want to launch within the missile’s optimal launch parame- 
ters. The main factor is range. If you’re too close, too far away, or have the 
wrong target aspect angle (for IR missiles), the missile won’t launch. 

Watch the Dynamic Launch Zone (DLZ) ladder on the right side of the HUD. 
This is a small ladder scale indicating your missile’s range and the target’s 
current range in relation to your radar’s maximum range (see Medium- 
Range Missile (MRM) HUD, p. 2.22). 

When the target caret on the DLZ slides within the weapon’s kill range line, 
you can fire. 

Missile Maneuverability 

Although canards and guidance systems make the missile a fairly maneuver- 
able, long-range weapon, their maximum effect only occurs during the first 
10 seconds of flight. This happens because missile engines do not burn for 
the entire missile flight. The motor engages after launch, rapidly accelerating 
the missile to top speed using thrust. During this stage, the missile is highly 
maneuverable. However, once the engine runs out of fuel (5-10 seconds 
after launch), the missile glides the rest of the way to the target, losing speed 
as it glides. As speed decays, so does maneuverability. 


4 


A. 33 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


G-Load Limit 

The rail or hardpoint on which the missile is mounted has a maximum G- 
load limit. When the aircraft turns, climbs or dives suddenly, the rail and 
missile are stressed because of the incurred G-force. If the G-force is too 
strong, the missile can’t launch properly. 

Most missiles can be fired during turns, as long as you have a good target 
aspect angle. If the force is above the launch maximum (different for all mis- 
siles), you’ll lose all lock indicators in your HUD. In general, the missile must 
pull at least 7 times the G-load as the target in order to follow it. If the target 
is pulling 8G, the missile needs to pull as much as 56G. 

Keep this in mind when firing a missile after you enter a turn. A hard maneu- 
ver bringing you right onto a bandit’s six does little good if you can’t fire the 
missile because you’re pulling too many Gs. 

Aspect Angle 

Target aspect angle plays a large role in missile effectiveness. This refers to 
the angle between your nose and the targeted aircraft. Low-aspect shots 
(fired from directly behind or in front of the target) have a greater chance of 
success than those from high-aspect (fired at the target’s side). A good 
aspect is integral to a missile’s success. 

Target aspect also affects missile range. If the target is moving toward the 
launching aircraft, the missile has less distance to travel. The missile can 
therefore be fired sooner because the target “flies into” it. This effectively 
extends the missile’s maximum range. Conversely, if the target is moving 
away from the missile, the missile’s effective range is reduced. It must be 
fired at close range to ensure it has enough energy to travel the additional 
distance covered by the target after the missile launches. 


e 


< 4.4 □ 


How to Fire Radar-Guided Missiles 

Air-to-air missiles: AA-10 

Air intercept missiles: AIM-9D, AIM-7F, AIM-120 


See Cockpit: Medium-Range Missile (MRM) HUD , p. 2.22. 



Follow these steps to fire a radar-guided missile: 

1 . Select AA master mode ((m) cycles through avionics master modes). 

2. Select an MRM missile as your current weapon. (See list above, 
fP cycles through air-to-air weapons.) 

3. Turn on your radar if its not active (press fR]). 

4. Long-Range Search (LRS) radar submode is active by default. If you want 
a different submode, press (o). (See Air-to-Air Radar Submodes, p. 4.13.) 

5. Once threat icons appear in your Radar MFD or you can see threats, 
press | Enter) to lock onto a target. (Some radar submodes automatical- 
ly lock onto the first target scanned.) 

• A TD box marks the locked target on the FIUD. A diamond-shaped icon 
marks the locked target on the Radar MFD. 

6. Move within missile range (20nm for medium-to-long range missiles). 
You’ll know you’re in range when the caret on the DLZ moves between 
the minimum and maximum range. If an “X” appears in the ASE circle, 
you’re too close to fire. 

7. Maneuver so the steering dot falls inside the ASE circle. 

• A triangular shoot cue appears beneath the TD box when your target is 
within weapon range. 

8. Fire (press [Spacebar! or button 2 on your joystick). 

• Active radar missiles, such as the AIM-1 20, are “fire-and-forget” weapons. 
You don’t have to keep the target in sight — as long as the missile main- 
tains an LOS to the target, it guides itself. 

• Semi-Active Radar-Homing (SARH) missiles, such as the AIM-7B/F/M, 
rely on your aircraft’s radar for continued guidance after launch. For 
these missiles, you must keep your radar lock on the target until the 
missile impacts. (However, you don’t have to keep it in your HUD view.) 

• The larger the ASE circle, the better your chance of a hit. 



£ 

□ 

□ 

> 

H 


4.41 


Jane’s USAF 


How to Fire Radar-Homing Missiles ( HARMs ) 


Air-to-ground missiles: 

AGM-45B, AGM-88 


See Cockpit: HARM MFD Page, p. 2.46, 
and Cockpit: HARM HUD, p. 2.27. 


Follow these steps to fire a HARM: 



-Target 

status 

Threat 

icon 

Current 

target 


1 . Select AG master mode ((m) cycles through avionics master modes). 

2. Select a HARM missile as your current weapon. (See list above; 
IT1 cycles through air-to-ground weapons.) 

• The HARM MFD automatically displays when a HARM missile is selected. 

3. (Optional) Turn on your radar if its not active (press fR~l). 

4. The HARM missile automatically locks onto whatever target you cur- 
rently have locked on radar. If more than one target is spotted, it locks 
onto the nearest one. 


The current HARM target (which can be different than your radar tar- 
get if you cycle through targets or left-click on a target in the HARM 
MFD) appears as a diamond in the HUD. 


• A diamond-shaped TD box marks the locked target on the HUD. 



• You can switch HARM targets. Press | Enter | or 
left-click on a threat in the HARM MFD. 

• Your AG radar shows the currently locked 
(priority) target as a bright target icon in the 
Radar MFD with cross hairs on top of it. 

Steer toward the target to bring it into view. 

• Each type of ground threat has a specific 
icon (shown in chart to the right). The icon 
for the currently locked threat is boxed. 

5. Move within the HARM missile’s range 
(30nm). You’ll know you’re in range when 
IN range appears in the HARM MFD. 

NO range Missile has a lock, but target is 
out of weapon’s range 

IN range Missile has a lock, and target is in range; ready to fire 


Threat Type 

Icon 

SA-2 

2 

SA-3 

3 

SA-S 

5 

SA-6 

6 

SA-8 

8 

SA-10 

10 

Hawk 

H 

ZSU-23X4 

G 

Roland 

R 

General AAA 

A 


6. Fire (press | Spacebar | or button 2 on your joystick). After launch, the 
HARM missile guides itself to the target by homing in on radar emis- 
sions coming from the target. 


4.42 


How to Fire IR-Guided Missiles 

Air-to-air missiles: AA-2D, AA-8, AA-1 1 

Air intercept missiles: AIM-9D, AIM-9M, AIM-9L 


For SRM symbology, Short Range Missile (SRM) HUD, p . 2.24. 


Follow these steps to fire an infrared-guided missile: 

1 . Select AA master mode ((m) cycles through avionics master modes). 

2. Select a SRM missile as your current weapon. (See list above, (T) cycles 
through air-to-air weapons.) 

3. Turn on your radar if its not active (press [r]). 



IR seeker 
field-of-view 
(with locked target) 


Target aspect 
angle cue 


Steering dot 
DLZ 
TD box 
Shoot cue 


4. To acquire a target, look for a threat icon on your radar and lock onto 
it (press [ Enter | ). Then, move within missile range (6nm for SRMs). 

• An IR missile automatically acquires a target you have locked on radar. 
When launched, it will track that threat. 

• The large circle represents the IR missile’s seeker head. It’s large when no 
target is locked, but shrinks in size when you acquire a lock. 

• You do not have to gain a radar lock on a target to fire an IR missile. If 
you don’t designate a radar target, the missile locks onto the first tar- 
get that enters its seeker head view. However, you must be close enough 
to the target so the missile can acquire its own lock. 

• You’ll know you’re in range when you hear the missile tone changes. You 
can also watch the DLZ ladder on the right side of the HUD (see p. 2.23 
for details on the DLZ). 

4. Watch the TD box. When you’re within launch parameters, a small tri- 
angular shoot cue appears beneath the TD box. 

5. Fire (press [ Spacebar | or button 2 on your joystick). 

• All IR-guided missiles track “hot” objects. You don’t need to keep an IR- 
guided missile in view after you fire it. 


4 


4.43 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


How to Fire TV-Guided Missiles 

Air-to-ground missiles: AGM-62, AGM-65B, AGM-65D, AGM-130 



See Cockpit-.TV-Guided Missile (TV) HUD, p. 2.28, and Cockpit: TV MFD 

Page, p. 2.44. 

Follow these steps to fire a TV-guided missile: 

1 . Select AG master mode ((m) cycles through avionics master modes). 

2. Select a TV-guided missile as your current weapon. (See list above, 
IT! cycles through air-to-ground weapons.) 

• The TV MFD automatically displays when a TV missile is selected. 

3. Turn on your radar if its not active (press fR]). 

4. Look for a threat icon on your radar and acquire a lock on it ( press | Enter | ). 

• The TV MFD automatically slaves to the current radar target. If you don’t 
have a target selected, the missile camera points at the horizon. 
For AGM-65D missiles, however, the LANTIRN pod constantly scans 
underneath the gate for “hot” (high-contrast) targets. When the gate 
moves over a hot object, it automatically locks onto it. The FUR cam- 
era view centers on this contrast lock, which is marked by a bright white 
square on HUD. Panning the camera breaks this lock. 

• In the TV MFD, a television image displays of the contrast-locked target 
with a cross hair over it. 



Camera zoom 


Cross hairs 


Current weapon 
Horizon line 
ETI 


Press [z] to remove the cockpit and toggle a full-screen view of the MFD 
missile information. Press it again to return to HUD view. It’s a good 
idea to engage level autopilot (press (a) once) before you do this. 

You can pan the camera by pressing | Ctrl | and f+jF»fTlTl (as described 
below). Press PB1 4 or PB1 5 to zoom in/out. 


Note: The AGM-62 and AGM-130 (and the GBU-1 5, a TV-guided bomb) can be 
panned after launch. The AGM-65 can only be panned before launch. 

For all TV-guided weapons — panning the camera while you have a radar lock on a tar- 
get breaks that radar lock. 


4.44 




Camera indicator 




4. Move within the TV-missile’s range (approx. 1 2nm). You’ll know you’re 
in range when the small caret on the DLZ ladder falls within your 
weapon’s kill zone. (See p. 2.23 for details on the Dynamic Launch 
Zone indicator.) 

• You can view the current target in the TV MFD. Wait to fire, however, 
until you can plainly make out your target. (Press PB14 or PB1 5 to cycle 
through the camera’s zoom levels.) 

• To maintain a radar lock, you must keep the target within sight of the 
seeker head: 30° left or right, 15° up and 45° down of the camera’s 
nose. If you move the camera, it breaks the lock. After launch, howev- 
er, the camera is pointed toward the target, and you can fly your air- 
craft in any direction. 

• If you see “no source” in the TV MFD, you’re out ofTV missiles. 

5. Press [Spacebar! or joystick button 2 to release the weapon. 

• After release, the Maverick is self-guiding. You don’t need to keep flying 
toward its target, or keep the target in view. 

• You can manually steer an AGM-62 or AGM-1 30 to its target after launch. 
Press and hold [ Ctrl | and then use TFTtlTl - Press PB14 or PB15 to 
zoom in/out. 

It often helps to place your aircraft in lvl autopilot mode first. 


4 


Note: The GBU-1 5 series ofTV-guided bombs can also be steered to some extent after 
launch ( they are un-powered weapons, so steering changes can only be slight). See How 

to Drop TV-Guided Bombs, p. 4.49 and Cockpit: TV MFD Page, p. 2.44. 


4.45 


COMBAT 



Jane’s USAF 


Using Bombs 

Bombs are short-range weapons relying on gravity for “propulsion.” Most 
are fitted with short fins or canards to help keep the bomb aligned nosefirst. 

Conventional bombs have a range of only 1 to 2 nautical miles, have no sup- 
portive guidance systems, and have non-adjustable tail fins. More modern 
versions have seekers and aircraft guidance systems that make small card 
adjustments during glide flight — still, their range is no greater than that of 
iron bombs. 

Dropping bombs in not an easy task — you must figure the correct drop 
point based on a combination of altitude, airspeed and pitch ofthe aircraft. 
The higher you are when you drop the bomb, the further the bomb can trav- 
el (in ground miles). This is true because the bomb travels both down and 
forward when dropped — the longer it’s in the air, the longer range it has. 

Accurately dropping a bomb takes a lot of guesswork and can often be dan- 
gerous because ofthe close range required. Generally, a bomb has a range 
of about 1 nm per every 1 000 feet of aircraft altitude. (But, if dropped from 
too far away, the bomb may miss altogether.) 


How to Drop Unguided Bombs 

General-purpose bombs: MK-82, MK-83, MK-84 

Cluster bombs: CBU-24, CBU-52, CBU-58, CBU-87, CBU-89, MK-20 

See Continuously Calculated Impact Point (CCIP) HUD, p. 2.26. 

Follow these steps to drop an unguided bomb: 

1 . Select AG master mode ((m) cycles through avionics master modes). 

2. Select an unguided bomb as your current weapon. (See list above, 
IT! cycles through air-to-ground weapons.) 

3. Attain the appropriate altitude. This varies according to air defense in 
the area — fly at 5000ft for lightly guarded areas, 1 0,000ft or higher for 
defended areas). 

4. Fly within several miles ofthe intended target (approximately Inm for 
each 1 000ft of altitude). 

5. Bring the ground target into view. 

6. Maneuver to place the CCIP pipper over the TD box around the current 
target in your HUD. 

7. Watch the HUD — it automatically enters AG mode and displays CCIP 
information when you select an unguided bomb as the current weapon. 

• Try using the full-screen view ( [FI | ) when dropping bombs in CCIP mode. 

9. Maneuver so that the circle onscreen (pipper/reticule) is over the target. 


4.4 6 



**-.** *1 * •- 

T + 


1 1 . Watch the bomb fall line (the line connecting the pipper/reticule to the 
velocity vector circle). As you get closer to the target, a small horizontal 
line (delay indicator) “slides” down this line toward the pipper. 

12. When the horizontal has almost reached the pipper, release the bomb 
(press | Spacebar | or joystick button 2). 

• When you have the pipper and reticule directly over the target when you 
release the bomb, you have the best chance of hitting the target. 

• If you selected a ripple setting in the Stores MFD, the pipper marks the 
middle of all of the weapons’ impact points. 

• Practice dropping unguided bombs, in Weapon School (see p. 1.8). 

• If you elected to ripple-fire your weapons, all of the cues flash as soon 
as the first bomb drops, and continue until the last weapon releases. 

Delayed CCIP delivery 

If the bomb’s impact point can’t be shown on the HUD due to high altitude, 
shallow dive angle, low speed, or high angle of attack, the HUD switches to 
delayed CCIP mode. In this mode, you still release the bomb when the pipper is 
over the target, but the drop is delayed. The HUD displays a delay indicator 
on the bomb fall line. 

1 . When you press the pickle button, keep it depressed. The delay indicator 
is on the bomb fall line, but the bomb doesn’t release. 

2. As range to target decreases and the 
bomb is within 10 seconds of releasing, 
the line starts sliding down the bomb fall 
line. Once the delay line crosses the veloc- 


3. Once the bomb fall line quits flashing, 
release the pickle button. 


ity vector, your bombs drop. 



fall line 


4.47 


Jane’s USAF 


How to Drop Laser-Guided Bombs 

Laser-guided bombs: GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-24 
See FUR MFD, p. 2.42. 

Laser on/off 

Next-zoom brackets 
NIM dot 

Pointing range 



Camera zoom 
Next-zoom brackets 


Gates 



Follow these steps to drop a laser-guided bomb: 

1 . Select AG master mode ((m) cycles through avionics master modes). 

2. Select a laser-guided bomb as your current weapon. (See list above, 
IT! cycles through air-to-ground weapons.) 

• The FUR MFD automatically appears when you select a laser-guided weapon. 

4. Attain the appropriate altitude. This varies according to air defense in 
the area — but 1 5,000ft or higher is good for defended areas. 

5. Turn on your radar if it’s not active (press fR~|). 

6. Fly within 1 5 miles of the intended target. 

7. Lock onto a target. To cycle through available targets, press (Enter). 
To cycle through contrast targets in FLIR (LANTIRN) MFD, press 
| Ctrl | Enter | . 


The LANTIRN pod is automatically loaded for all aircraft carrying laser- 
guided bombs except for the F-4E. For this aircraft, you need to load the 
LANTIRN pod in order to use Paveway laser-guided bombs. 



This HUD icon indicates where the FLIR camera and the laser designator 
are currently pointed. 


9. Toggle the laser on (press (T) or click PB1 8). 

10. Initiate a gentle dive or level bomb approach directly toward your target. 

1 1 . Watch the FLIR MFD — keep the bright green dot within the gates — this 
keeps the target in the bomb’s view. 


• To adjust the dot’s position, you can slightly steer the laser designator 
by pressing (Ctrl] and 0300- 


4.48 



1 2. Fly Co the target and drop the bomb (press | Spacebar | or joystick button 2). 

• The CCIP reticule on the HUD should be overtheTD box when you release. 

• For the laser-guided bomb to maintain a lock, the target must stay with- 
in ±80° left and right and ±60° up and down of the camera’s center. 

• The FUR image can be zoomed to 2X, 4X and 8X magnifications. (Press 
PB14 and PB 15 to increase and decrease the zoom level.) 

• You can instruct one of your wingmen to laser-designate a target that 
you’ve spotted on your radar. Press | Enter | to cycle through to the target 
you want to hit, then press [Alt |~L~| or [ Alt | Shift pT| to have your wingman 
designate that target. You won’t be able to control the LANTIRN’s FUR 
camera, however, since it’s on another aircraft. 


How to Drop TV-Guided Bombs 

TV-guided bombs: GBU-15 

You drop a TV-guided bomb just as you do as TV-guided missile. See How 

to Fire TV-Guided Missiles, p. 4.44. 

See TV MFD Page, p. 2 44, for more details. 

• The GBU-15 automatically enters transitional (trans) launch profile after 
launch. 


• You can correct the yaw of the weapon (i.e., its heading) somewhat by 
pressing | Ctrl ] and 

• Twenty seconds before impact, the weapon enters terminal (term) loft profile. 
You can still make pitch and yaw adjustments until impact. 

• The TV image can be zoomed to 2X, 4X and 8X magnifications. (Press 
PB14 and PB 1 5 to increase and decrease the zoom level.) 



Camera 


Cross hair 


Current weapon 
Flight stage 
Horizon line 


Estimated time to 
impact (ETI) 


4 


4.49 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


How to Drop GPS-Guided (JDAM) Bombs 

GPS-guided bombs: GBU-30 



Follow these steps to drop a GPS-guided bomb: 

1. Prior to flight, note the target waypoint at which you must drop the 
GBU-30. A GPS-guided bomb is preprogrammed to hit at a certain set 
of coordinates. If you drop it over the correct target waypoint, it can 
make slight corrections in-flight so that it detonates at the pre-specified 
coordinates. 

2. As you approach this waypoint during flight, select the GBU-30 as your 
current weapon. (Press (T) to cycle through air-to-ground weapons.) 

3. Attain the appropriate altitude. This varies according to air defense in 
the area — but 1 5,000ft or higher is good for defended areas. 

4. Turn on your radar if it’s not active (press [r]). 

5. Activate air-to-ground radar mode (press (r) to toggle between air-to- 
air/air-to-ground radar). 

6. Fly within 1 5 miles of the intended target. 

7. Gently nose down and fly toward the target specified in your briefing. 

8. Place the reticule/pipper on the HUD over the triangle representing 
your current target waypoint. 

9. Drop the bomb (press [Spacebar ! or joystick button 2). 


4.5D 


DEFENSES AND 
COUNTERMEASURES 

Attacking the enemy is only half the job — surviving the mission is the other 
half. Your aircraft carries various defensive systems called countermeasures, 
designed to protect you and your aircraft. They may be electronic (jamming) 
or physical (chaff and flares). 


Radar Cross-Section (RCS) 
Signatures 

Before you can effectively evade missiles, you need to understand how they 
track your aircraft. Every aircraft has a set of “signatures” that give away your 
presence to radar and infrared sensors. This radar or infrared signature rep- 
resents your aircraft’s radar cross-section, which indicates how “big” your 
aircraft is on enemy radars. 

Your aircraft’s configuration can modify signature values. For example, using 
afterburners creates hot exhaust ports and increases your IR signature to 
200%, making you twice as detectable as normal. Carrying external stores 
increases your radar signature by 33%, making you one-third more detectable 
than a “clean” aircraft. Likewise, lowering your landing gear increases radar 
signature by 25%. 

Radar jamming with electronic countermeasures (ECM) reduces the chances 
of being tracked by radar sources, but drastically increases your chances of 
being detected by an enemy RWR because of the added emissions (see How 
Jamming Works, p. 4.53). This should be your first defense against enemy 
radar systems. 

Pointing your aircraft toward a sensor also greatly reduces the signature. 
This is because the radar cross-section of your aircraft (amount of surface 
area visible to radar) appears smaller when it’s viewed from the front. 
Conversely, a full side or top-down view gives a large cross-section. 

Note: To help reduce your aircraft's radar signature in the game, place your radar on 
standby by pressing | Shift fR] , It won’t emit radar, and you’ll be less detectable. 


i 


■ 4.51 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Avoiding Detection 

Half of any battle is arriving at the target area unspotted. The ingress phase of 
a mission is often the phase in which you are most vulnerable. You are heavily 
loaded with both weapons and fuel, so it is harder for you to maneuver. 

Stay High During Cruise Flight 

The higher you are, the more advantage you have against another enemy air- 
craft. You consume less fuel at higher altitudes as well since the air is thin- 
ner. Enemy aircraft also have a harder time spotting you against the sun dur- 
ing daytime missions. 

Stay Low During Ground Missions 

In aircraft such as the F-1 5E, flying at extremely low altitudes is the best way 
to remain hidden. Flying below 500ft puts you below the minimum detec- 
tion altitude for most ground radar systems. Flying nap-of-the-earth (NOE), 
or hugging terrain contours, decreases the chance you’ll be detected by air- 
craft by making it difficult for radar to pinpoint and track your location 
among the “ground clutter.” 

If you’re flying NOE, make sure you’re seeing an above ground level (AGL) 
altitude measurement, and not above sea level (ASL). The altitude mode 
changes when you change master modes. If you’re in AG mode, you should 
be fine. 

Use Your Radar Sparingly 

Because most enemy aircraft and many ground objects are equipped with 
radar-warning receivers (RWRs), they’re able to detect your radar emissions. 
When you are using your radar, you become instantly more visible to enemy 
ground and aircraft detection systems. While their radar systems normally 
rely on their own emissions bouncing off your aircraft in order to locate you, 
if your own radar is active you are broadcasting emissions for them. Limiting 
radar emission by not leaving your radar active all of the time can help you 
remain undetected. 

Your radar continues to emit, even when both the A/A and A/G Radar pages 
are not visible. To prevent your radar from emitting, you must manually dis- 
able it by pressing [ Shift ( r] . 


4.52 


Using Defensive Systems 

Missiles may be highly maneuverable but they have their limits. Your best 
defense is to remain outside the enemy missile’s range. Failing that, using 
ECM at moderate to long ranges may confuse enemy radarscopes and pre- 
vent enemies from firing at you. ECM measure have no effect against heat- 
seeking missiles and have unpredictable results against radar-homing mis- 
siles fired at close range. Under these conditions, you must rely on maneu- 
vering and chaff or flares to defeat the missile. 


Initiate Jamming 

You can equip your aircraft with an AN/ALQ-131 jamming device in the 
Loadout screen (p. 1.22). By default, your radar warning receiver (RWR) 
remains active at all times. Jamming isn’t available on aircraft that do not 
have an RWR. Since RWRs also detect jamming signals, never use jamming 
when you still have the element of surprise. Once you’re spotted, use it freely. 
|U| Display RWR MFD (not available in all aircraft) 

|~J~] Activate jamming 

How Jamming Works 

Electronic Countermeasures, or ECMs, try to deceive enemy radar by emitting 
large amounts of electromagnetic energy in the form of microwaves. Jammers 
have several different operating modes, including noise, pulse, continuous- 
wave, transponder and repeater. Part of the radar warning receiver’s job is to 
direct the intensity, frequency and direction of the jamming transmission. 

These jamming signals reflect false radar returns to the radar source. The 
radarscope at the point of origination sees both the real radar return, and 
also the “fake” ones generated by the jammers. The idea is to either make 
large targets look small, or make small targets look large. Even though the 
radar can determine the presence of an aircraft and its direction, the false 
reflections distort the aircraft’s true location. Jamming announces your pres- 
ence to the enemy, but it hides your exact position from them. Jamming in 
USAF aircraft is accomplished via the ALQ-131 jamming device. 


4 


Warning Tones 

The radar warning receiver detects incoming radar emissions and warns you 
when you’re being tracked by a guided missile. Two audible tones support 
the RWR: one for locks, and another for incoming missiles. The first tone is 
a short blip (called the “New Guy” tone). It sounds when a new threat locks 
onto your aircraft. The second tone is the missile launch tone, which sounds 
when any type of missile is launched at your aircraft. 


4.53 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Chaff 

With careful use, chaff attracts inbound missiles away from your aircraft. To 
use chaff, activate your radar-warning receiver. Whenever enemy fires a mis- 
sile at you, the RWR will sound an incoming missile tone. This indicates you 
need to drop chaff. 

( Ins | Drop single chaff pod 

How Chaff Works 

The oldest trick in the book for confusing radar threats is the chaff dispenser, 
which releases a cloud of small, metallic strips. Chaff distorts incoming 
radar beams and often attracts missiles seeking out the targeted craft. It is 
compacted in small cartridges call pods, which are released at the command 
of a button. The filaments or strips inside each pod are made of Mylar film 
or fine glass fibers covered with metallic particles of aluminum or zinc. Cut 
to match the wavelength of the expected radar emitter (or a multiple of it), 
they act as two-ended rods (dipoles) and efficiently deflect radiation. 

Radar beams operate on different frequencies, a characteristic that has 
spawned the development of a “smart” chaff system which can interface 
with a fighter’s sensors. The onboard computer relays wavelength informa- 
tion to the dispenser. The dispenser then cuts the chaff filaments to an 
appropriate length (usually from 1/4-inch to 1-inch long) to best reflect the 
frequency of the currently tracking radar beam. Hopefully, the material 
reflects more radar energy than your aircraft, thus providing a “brighter” 
target for the missile’s seeker. 

Flares 

Flares are designed to lure heat-guided (IR) missiles away from your air- 
craft’s hot engines and toward the hotter flare. If your aircraft is equipped 
with a radar-warning receiver (RWR), a tone will sound when a missile is 
launched against your aircraft. 

|U| Display Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) MFD page 

| Del | Drop single flare 

How Flares Work 

While chaff cartridges are released to attract radar-seeking missiles, flares 
are fired to decoy infrared homing missiles. Heat-sensitive missiles head for 
the hottest spot in the vicinity, namely an aircraft’s exhaust pipes and 
engines. Flares take advantage of this trait by exploding into hot, bright fire- 
balls designed to create an intense burst of heat between the missile and the 
plane. This sometimes diverts infrared missiles away from the airplane. If the 
burst is correctly positioned and timed, the missile turns toward the flare 
and misses its target. 


4.54 


Beating Radar-Guided Missiles 

Your RWR sounds a tone to indicate that a missile is tracking you. With a 

combination of chaff and quick maneuvering, you can shake the missile: 

1 . If the missile is still far away, turn so the missile is approaching your air- 
craft from the side. This forces the missile to continually turn to track 
you and burns up its fuel supply. (At close-range, you probably can’t 
avoid being hit.) 

2. Keep the missile off your wing using low-C turns (turns under 2-3G). 

3. When the missile closes within 10,000 feet, execute a maximum-G 
break turn toward the missile. At the same time, rapidly release 3 or 4 
chaff pods (press | Ins three or four times). Ideally, the missile momen- 
tarily targets the chaff cloud as your turn moves you outside the mis- 
sile’s field of view. 


4. Use alternate views (such as the | F 5 | window) to watch the missile’s 
smoke trail. When the missile loses its lock, it stops pointing at you. If 
it doesn’t seem to be following you, you’ve fooled it. If you can’t tell, lis- 
ten for your warning horn. It sounds at a fast pace as long as the mis- 
sile is tracking you. 

Beating Heat-Seeking Missiles 

The same procedure for radar-guided missiles holds true for heat-seeking 
missiles, except you fire off flares (press [Del | three or four times) instead of 
chaff cartridges. 

Heat-seeking missiles work best if they have an unobstructed view of your 
aircraft’s exhaust port. When you execute a break turn, you move out ofview 
and hide your exhaust pipe from the missile’s seeker. Shutting off your after- 
burners and dropping flares is the most effective way to shake a heat missile. 
With any luck, flares may lead the IR missile away from your aircraft. 


4 


Jinking 

When you’ve got a bandit on your tail or at very close range, he’ll likely use 
both missiles and guns. Use the previous tactics to distract the missiles, and 
jinking to evade guns. 

“Jinking” refers to making numerous, erratic flight movements. They key to 
evading enemy gunfire is being quick and unpredictable. Since bullets are 
unguided, your enemy has to guess where your aircraft will be at any given 
time after he fires. For this reason, unpredictably changing course is your 
best defense. 


4.55 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


COMBAT TACTICS 

Situational Awareness 

In the middle of a fight, you must constantly remain aware of what’s going 
on around you. The radar controller constantly updates you on incoming 
contacts with bearing and range information. He may also give you short 
target descriptions such as heading, identification, and ROE. 



Visual Cues 

You’ve got many views to help you keep apprised of the battle situation. The 
function key views ( |F3 1 through |F12] ) can help you determine the direction 
of a long-range target or examine the destruction you’ve left behind. For 
visual-range combat, you can also use the view keys on the Numpad to keep 
track of your enemy. 


Here are a few of the most important view keys. For a complete list, see the 
printed Reference Card or see Cockpit: Cockpit View Controls, p. 2.48. 


| F 3 | Padlock Target View. Interior cockpit view that points your “eyes” 
directly at the currently locked target. Even if the target isn’t in your 
HUD view, this view still looks in the direction of the target. 

|F4 | Target View. External view of your current target. 

|F5 | Player-Threat View. External view of your aircraft that lines the 

camera up with your aircraft and the closest inbound missile. If no 
missiles are present, it chooses the closest threat instead. 

Pressing | F 5 | twice padlocks the view to the threat. 

| F 7 | Player — Target View. External view of your aircraft that lines the 
camera up with the current target. Press again to reverse the view. 


| F 8 | Arcade View. External view “chase view” that displays HUD and MFDs. 

| F11 | Missile — Target View. External view of your missile as it approach- 
es the target. 


NUMPAD SNAP VIEWS 


Pitch 

^ view 30° 

'°y upward j> 
On , 




& 


"® [s] df 

90° left [ 4 ] Qfj (jf) 90° right 


□ GO® 


I*. 

180 
5 behind 




you 

| straight ahead 


\ 


4.5B 



Combat Geometry 

Geometry plays a large role in air combat. To develop a complete under- 
standing of air combat, you need to know a few geometrical concepts: angle- 
off-tail, aspect angle, closure speed, turn rate/ radius and corner speed. All describe 
the differences in position, speed and flight path between your aircraft and 
an air target. 


Aspect Angle 

Angle-Off-Tail (AoT) is the angle between your flight path and the flight path 
of your opponent. If your AoT is low, your flight path is nearly parallel to 
your opponent’s. If it is high, your flight path is nearly perpendicular to the 
opponent’s. 

At low AoT, you are either headed directly at an opponent’s tail, it is head- 
ed directly at your tail or you are facing each other head-on. In each case, 
your weapons and/or his weapons have a direct line of fire. Almost all 
weapons perform better when fired at low AoT. 

As AoT increases, your opponent flies more perpendicularly to your flight 
path. Your missiles have to turn more to track their target, and you must 
“lead” the target more when you’re using guns. 

During a sustained engagement, your goal is to reduce AoT as much as pos- 
sible before firing. This usually involves turning to align your flight path with 
that of the target. 

Cone of Vulnerability 

When you’re within range of an enemy’s weapons, you’re inside the cone of 
vulnerability. If an attacker has closed to 1500 meters (about 4500ft), you’re 
vulnerable to his gunfire at any AoT less than 45°. As he moves closer in range, 
the cone of vulnerability narrows (because the missiles can’t maneuver as 
sharply in short range, and you fall within his lethal cone of fire at any AoT less 
than 30°. You can use break turns to keep outside the cone of vulnerability. 

Closure Rate/Speed 

Closure describes your aircraft’s speed relative to the speed of your target. A 
positive closure means the target is approaching you; a negative closure means 
it is moving away. The larger the number, the faster the range is changing. A 
closure of -700 knots means the target is moving away from you very quickly 
while a closure of +70 knots means the target is moving toward you slowly. 

Closure also impacts weapon performance. At a high positive closure rate, 
the range to the target is rapidly decreasing. A missile doesn’t have as far to 
fly, since the target reduces range by flying into the missile. As a result, you 
can sometimes fire a missile at an approaching target outside your missile 
range — the target will fly into range in time for the missile to track it. If the 
closure rate is high and negative, the target is moving away and the missile 
must fly farther to overtake it. 


4 


4.57 


COMBAT 


USA.F 


Pursuit Curves 

In close-range fighting, your primary aim is to gain a better aspect angle 
(firing position) than your opponent. Once you have this advantage, you can 
tail the enemy using three types of pursuit — lead, lag and pure. Depending 
on the situation, you may find all three necessary. 


Lead Pursuit 

To initiate lead pursuit, bank your aircraft so your nose is headed for a point 
just ahead of your opponent’s nose. (Keep in mind tighter turns bleed off 
kinetic energy — continually turning causes you to lose speed.) 

As its name implies, lead pursuit refers to predicting the flight path of a tar- 
get. You guess where the threat will be in the immediate future, and then 
point your nose at that predicted position. By redirecting your flight path so 
it crosses the target’s flight path, you stand a better chance of striking the 
enemy with your weapons. Of course, the trick is to accurately predict where 
your opponent is going to go. 

If you’re in the aircraft with the smaller turn radius, lead pursuit tactics can 
give you a continuing advantage. By making sharper turns than your oppo- 
nent, you cut across his flight path. This, in turn, reduces your target aspect 
angle, brings you closer to your opponent, and increases your closure rate. 

A danger of lead pursuit is that it can cause the target to disappear beneath 
your aircraft’s nose. If the target makes this erratic maneuver, you may not 
see it. Keep your turns small but persistent and you’ll keep the target in sight. 



Lag Pursuit 

To execute lag pursuit, pull back on the stick until the target aircraft is posi- 
tioned just above the flight path indicator in your HUD. Then, ease up slight- 
ly on the stick to maintain the enemy’s position in your HUD. 

Lag pursuit is the exact opposite of lead pursuit. Instead of making a tight 
turn in the direction your opponent is headed, you use a “softer” turn with 
a larger radius to follow a point just behind the tail of the enemy aircraft. 


.10 

03 

C 


Pure Pursuit 

Pure pursuit is a direct chase — simply point your aircraft directly at the tar- 
get and follow its maneuvers as closely as possible. Pure pursuit is most use- 
ful when firing weapons at close range, where you can place your sight 
directly over the target and fire. 


4.58 


Speed vs. Altitude 

The energy elements of speed and altitude are the core components of aerial 
combat. Altitude is a measurement of the aircraft’s potential energy, which can 
be converted to speed by diving. Speed is a measure of an aircraft’s kinetic 
energy, which can be turned into altitude by climbing. Think of kinetic energy 
as energy in motion, and potential energy as energy in reserve. 

At any given instant, an aircraft possesses both a certain amount of kinetic energy 
(speed) and a certain amount of potential energy (altitude). This energy trans- 
lates directly into maneuverability. Air Combat Maneuvering, or ACM, is a game 
of managing energy to maximize maneuverability and defeat the enemy. Finding 
the balance between speed and altitude requires skill and timing. 

Several in-flight controls adjust speed and altitude: 

fsj Your air brakes can slow you down if you’re approaching a target 
too quickly. This helps prevent overshooting. 

m , f8~l Afterburners can be a lifesaver during escape maneuvers, for 

increasing airspeed or altitude. However, your fuel consumption 
and heat signature more than double during the burn. 

|T| Flaps provide extra lift during low-speed turns (under 300 knots). 

Exchanging Energy 

Potential and kinetic energy are exchangeable. An aircraft at high altitude 
and low speed has lots of potential energy, but little kinetic energy. By div- 
ing, the aircraft can convert its altitude into speed and increase its kinetic 
energy. Similarly, the aircraft can convert some kinetic energy back to poten- 
tial energy by climbing. The aircraft slows down, but its altitude increases. 

A cardinal rule of air combat is that an aircraft with energy has maneuvering 
options, while an aircraft without energy becomes a target. Maneuvering uses 
energy, and every unnecessary maneuver you make “burns” kinetic energy. 
When it’s gone, you can’t easily get it back. 

Because you want maximum maneuverability from your aircraft at all times, 
you must ration your energy use, always maintaining a sufficient supply for 
whatever maneuver you might execute. For example, don’t go into a high-G 
turn if you can accomplish the same task with a lower-G turn. Before 
expending energy, determine whether what you get in return (such as a shot 
opportunity) is worth the loss of energy. 

You can take one of two approaches when you find yourself in a combat sit- 
uation — you can choose the energy fight or the turn fight. Which one you 
choose depends on your skill and your aircraft’s capabilities. 



£ 

n 

□ 

> 

H 


4.59 


Jane’s USAF 


Choosing Your Attack 

Unarguably, the first few seconds of a fight are the most important and can 
often determine the outcome. Most dogfights last less than one minute, 
meaning whoever gains the initial advantage usually wins. Every fight is dif- 
ferent, and an aircraft designed for turn fighting may find itself better suited 
for an energy flight. How do you decide which to use? 

First, estimate your turn performance versus your opponent’s. Maintaining 
your corner speed (the optimal balance between turn rate and airspeed) 
means nothing if the bandit can out-maneuver your best turn. 

Second, estimate your energy status. If you enter a fight 200 or 300 knots 
above your corner speed, don’t waste all your energy and decelerate to 
achieve your aircraft’s corner speed. Instead, initiate an energy fight and make 
use of your power. A well-flown energy fight is difficult to beat, as proven in 
Vietnam by F-4 pilots flying against MiG-1 7 and MiG-21 opponents. 

The Energy Fight 

In an energy fight, you take advantage of your aircraft’s superior speed and 
avoid unnecessary turning. Ideally, you want to start the fight in an advan- 
tageous position, such as directly behind the bandit in his 6 o’clock low 
blind spot. Most of the time, however, that’s not an option. You must rely 
on your energy advantage and skills to overcome your adversary. 

Initiating the Energy Fight 

When you choose the energy fight, you basically concede turn performance 
to the enemy and rely instead on speed. You must keep your airspeed 
extremely high, minimizing the distance between you and your enemy’s air- 
craft as you make a series of head-on attacks. The idea is to strike, then out- 
run your opponent’s weapon range (not too difficult if the bandit has only 
guns or heat-seeking missiles). 

While the bandit busily executes a high-G turn to enter the fight, you (as the 
energy fighter) zoom away in a spiraling dive or climb. Eventually, you can 
execute a wide turn (to conserve airspeed) and make another offensive pass. 

If you execute the initial turn correctly, you’ll remain outside your enemy’s 
weapon envelope (range at which his weapons are effective) for nearly the 
entire fight. You choose when and where to engage, always bringing the fight 
on your terms. Thanks to your speed surplus, you can enter and exit the fight 
almost at will. 

The energy fight requires discipline, though. One speed-bleeding turn, and 
you immediately lose your advantage. 


• 4.60 


The Turning Fight 

Your second choice in combat is to enter a maneuvering fight and rely on your 
turn performance to win the day. The idea behind a turning fight is to reduce 
the amount of room in which the enemy can make a turn. You accomplish 
this during the merge (head-on pass) by minimizing lateral separation, or the 
horizontal distance separating your aircraft from your enemy’s. 

The merge, or meeting the bandit had on, generally leads to one of two types 
of turning fights: one-circle or two-circle. You should choose a two-circle 
fight when you’re flying a more maneuverable aircraft than your enemy. Use 
a one-circle fight if you have all-aspect missiles (or if you believe the enemy 
doesn’t have them). 

Two-Circle Fights 

Two circle fights, also called nose-to- 
tail fights, commence when you and 
your enemy meet head-on. After you 
pass each other (known as the merge), 
you both loop around in opposite 
directions, trying to get on each 
other’s tail. The distance between your 
flight path is turning room that both 
of you use. In other words, the turn 
radii of your aircraft overlap. 

Two-circle fights rely more on turn 
rate than turn radius. You create only 
enough lateral separation at the 
merge point to allow for your full turn 
radius, and then rely on a superior 
turn rate to bring your nose back to bear on the threat. Two-circle fights 
keep your target in view at all times and tend to increase the lateral separa- 
tion between the two aircraft. 

In two-circle fights, always attempt to minimize lateral separation. If the 
enemy aircraft has substantially worse turn performance than you, don’t give 
him any extra room to work with — keep lateral separation to the bare min- 
imum you require for your turn. 

Conversely, if the bandit has significantly better turn performance than your 
aircraft, deny him the chance to use it by closing in at maximum speed with 
as little lateral separation as possible. 



4.61 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


One-Circle Fights 


One-circle fights commence when both you and your opponent happen to 
loop in the same direction (instead of the opposite direction, as in two-cir- 
cle fights). One of you sacrifices lateral separation, relying instead on turn 
radius to out-maneuver the enemy. In general, only use the one-circle fight 
when you have a significant turn radius advantage over the bandit. 

The one-circle fight tends to keep you and your target closer together than 
the two-circle fight. If you choose to turn away from your opponent, you’ll 
momentarily lose sight of him as he crosses your tail. In fighters with poor 
rearward visibility, this loss of visual contact can be devastating. Since tak- 
ing the one-circle approach surrenders the lateral separation to the bandit, 
you should minimize lateral separation during your next head-on approach. 


Timing the initial turn in a head-on approach is critical to maintaining the 
advantage during a fight. Turning too soon pulls you across the bandit’s 
nose, which not only gives him a snapshot opportunity, but also puts you on 
the defensive. Turning too late, on the other hand, puts you out of position 
and allows the bandit to gain a better target aspect angle on you. 


A perfectly timed turn denies the bandit any advantage while maximizing your 
own performance. However, while the initial turn is important, you may soon 
find yourself in a twisting, turning fight. When this happens, you need to apply 
additional air combat skills and maneuvers (discussed in the next section). 






The Initial Turn 



4.62 


Air Combat Maneuvers 

In the world of combat, getting into position for a good shot is often called 
“achieving a firing solution.” It can happen in half a second, or it may take sev- 
eral minutes. The manner in which you attain this position differs from conflict 
to conflict, so it’s imperative you develop a good reserve of combat maneuvers. 

The following section examines various air-to-air maneuvers and describes 
how to use them to your advantage during combat. 


Break Turn 

• Use the break turn to evade enemy fire. 
Follow with a turn in the opposite direction. 

• Initiate a break turn by banking (pull the joy- 
stick toward you and to one side). 



The break turn is the most basic combat 
maneuver, for it rapidly increases the Angle- 
off-Tail (angle between you and your 
enemy’s flight path) when a bandit is prepar- 
ing to shoot you. It is a high-G maneuver, 
which takes advantage of a maximum 
instantaneous turn rate and forces your 
attacker to take a high-aspect angle shot. 


You can make a tight, instantaneous break turn (in which you lose speed, 
but gain a maximum AoT — Angle off Tail), or you can make a sustained 
break turn (in which you conserve speed, but forfeit several degrees of AoT). 
Making a hard break turn bleeds airspeed, which in turn, can cause your 
enemy to overshoot. Generally, the closer you think the enemy is to firing, 
the harder you should turn. 


Once you move through the break turn, immediately follow it with another 
maneuver. Sustaining a break turn too long is dangerous — it makes you a wide- 
open, predictable target. As a rule, your next maneuver should further remove 
your from the bandit’s weapon envelope. Try an immediate scissors turn in the 
opposite direction. Your opponent will be going too fast to lead your turn, and 
you may be able to maneuver into a more advantageous position. 


4 


4.63 


COMBAT 


Jane’s 


Barrel Roll 

• Use this as an offensive maneuver to bleed off airspeed when if you’re clos- 
ing too fast during an attack. 

• Use this as an defensive maneuver to force your attacker to overshoot. 

Offensively, use the barrel roll if you’re overtaking an enemy too quickly. 
Defensively, use the barrel roll to force your attacker to overshoot and pass 
you. Initiate a barrel roll by rolling slightly and applying pitch. Keep the nose 
pitched to spiral around the axis of your flight path. The barrel derives its 
name from the flight path the aircraft performs, circumscribing the shape of 
a barrel as the aircraft rolls around a central axis. It is an energy manage- 
ment maneuver with both offensive and defensive potential. 



Offensive Barrel Rolls 

If you find yourself traveling too fast, you may both overshoot your foe and 
fly directly into his gun envelope. This happens because your closure rate is 
too high, and you overtake your target. The barrel roll provides an effective 
solution by wasting speed. 

If you can’t bleed enough speed with a barrel roll, pull back harder on the 
stick and execute a roll opposite the direction of your current turn. The 
increase in pitch reduces airspeed, and the rollout turns you away from the 
target and keeps you from overshooting. As you complete the roll, you’ll be 
back on your original course, but at a slower airspeed. 



I 


Defensive Barrel Rolls 

Defensively, the barrel roll can be used to force a quickly approaching 
attacker to overshoot. It can also maintain enough angle-off-tail to put you 
out of his lethal cone of fire. Defensive barrel rolls must be carefully timed, 
however. Initiate the roll too soon, and the bandit follows you through it. 
Start too late, and the bandit has several shot opportunities before you 
begin the turn. Perfect timing requires you to both surprise the enemy and 
deny him sufficient reaction time. 


Scissors 

• Don’t intentionally initiate this maneuver — you lose both speed and altitude. 

Scissoring occurs when an attacker overshoots, and the target reacts by mak- 
ing a reverse turn too early (before the attacker crosses his weapon envelope). 
Never purposefully enter a scissors fight — it bleeds off speed and altitude. To 
break a stalemate, roll 180 ° during one of the passes. 

Scissoring refers to a series of reversing break turns in which two aircraft turn 
back and forth toward each other, each trying to force the other out in front. 


A. BA 


This usually begins when the attacker starts a late, high-speed yo-yo (see 
p. 4.67) or barrel roll and realizes he’s going to overshoot his target. The 
defender, predicting the overshoot, reverses his turn. Although this is the 
right solution, he turns toward the attacker too soon, resulting in a fairly 
neutral pass and initiating scissors. 



Scissor moves reduce the forward velocity vector, or the fighter’s speed along 
the axis of its flight path. The aircraft turns across the flight path at varying 
speeds, reducing its average forward speed with every turn. 

If you’re an attacker, the only way you can get into a scissors duel is by start- 
ing a maneuver too late and overshooting. If you’re on the defensive, you 
correctly predicted his overshoot, but reacted too quickly and compound 
the attacker’s error. 

Once in a scissors, there’s nothing to do but keep turning into the bandit. 
This bleeds off both speed and kinetic energy. The “winner” of a scissors 
match is usually whoever can conserve enough energy to force his opponent 
out front and bring the aircraft’s nose around for a shot. More often than 
not, scissoring ends when on aircraft loses so much speed that it stalls out 
and plummets. If the other aircraft has any energy left, it can roll, dive and 
take a shot before the falling aircraft can recover. 


4 


Vertical Rolling Scissors 

Alternatively, two pilots about to engage may begin a series of barrel rolls 
instead of break turns. The resulting vertical rolling scissors is a speed-reduc- 
ing maneuver as well, draining kinetic energy during the series of climbs, 
reverse turns and overshoots. Each time the aircraft cross paths, they risk 
both collision and gunfire. Allowing too much lateral separation (passing 
too far apart) affords your opponent a shot opportunity, while passing too 
close may result in a crash. 

In a guns-only environment, you may be able to escape scissors by executing 
a split-S immediately after crossing your opponent’s tail. Then, by rapidly 
increasing your speed, you can outrun his guns. 

Don’t try this if your enemy has IR missiles — the split-S invites a heat seek- 
er up your exhaust pipe. If you can’t get outside the bandit’s weapon range, 
then you have to win the scissors fight. If you can’t win the fight by out-turn- 
ing the bandit, you’re as good as dead. 


4.65 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Spiral Dive 

• Use spiral dives as a last resort, and only if your aircraft has the superior 
turn radius. 

• Fall into a steep dive, then make a hard-G turn. Throttle back midway 
through the turn and invert. Pull the nose up hard to maneuver onto the 
enemy’s tail. 

If you use every maneuver imaginable and still can’t shake an opponent 
despite a better turn radius, try a spiral dive. You carry out this maneuver by 
leading your opponent into a steep dive as soon as he moves to one side of 
your tail and falls into an overshoot position. He won’t have a direct line of 
fire at you at that instant, but you can’t dive for long without him re-achiev- 
ing a firing solution. 

End the dive quickly by taking advantage of your aircraft’s superior turn 
radius and pulling hard pitch (but not so hard that you sacrifice maneuver- 
ability). As you come out of the turn, reduce throttle, invert with a 180° roll, 
and pull up sharply again. Your attacker probably won’t notice you’ve 
slowed down and he’ll be forced out in front of you. 




4.BB 


High-Speed Yo-Yo 

• Use the high-speed yo-yo to 
reduce AoT and bring a target 
into your firing cone. 

Perform by relaxing a turn, then 
pulling up into a sharp climb, 

Invert, then apply pitch to slide 
back down onto the threat’s tail at 
a smaller AoT. 

The high-speed yo-yo is a basic 
component of offensive air combat 
and reduces AoT at the cost of 
increasing the distance between you and your target. The yo-yo begins dur- 
ing a turning fight when you have assumed an aggressive position behind the 
bandit, but are stuck in lag pursuit and unable to bring your nose to bear. In 
this case, you can use gravity to your advantage. 

Roll out slightly when your enemy initiates a break turn (maintaining lag pur- 
suit), then pull the nose up. At the apex of the climb, invert and roll back 
down onto your target’s six o’clock position. You’ll be further away from 
him, but in a better firing position. 

Don’t make the yo-yo too extreme. Once you commit to a large one, you’ll 
be unable to respond to any sudden changes the bandit may make. Patiently 
work small yo-yos by bringing the nose just above the horizon and chipping 
away at your AoT problem. This moves you into the target’s cone of vulner- 
ability without pulling high-C loads. 

Rollaway 

A variation of the high-speed yo-yo, the rollaway involves rolling away from 
the target’s turn as you invert. By diving and reversing direction with a 1 80° 
turn, you can drop in behind the defender’s tail as he ends his break turn. 



4 


4.B7 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Low-Speed Yo-Yo 

• Use the low-speed yo-yo when 
you have a good firing angle but 
need to bring the target in range. 

This maneuver decreases range at 
the cost of increasing AoT. 

• Execute by diving inside of a tar- 
get’s turn and gaining airspeed. 

Then, pitch up and slide onto his 
tail once more. 

The low yo-yo is the logical opposite of the high yo-yo, and achieves the 
exact opposite effect. While the purpose of the high yo-yo is to decrease AoT 
(at the cost of increasing range), the low yo-yo is intended to decrease range 
(at the cost of increasing AoT). 

Use the low-speed yo-yo when you have a good shot opportunity, but you’re 
still outside your weapon’s maximum range. This often occurs in chases 
where the bandit has superior speed and is trying to run home in level flight. 
You’re chasing him, but he remains just outside your weapons’ effective 
envelope. 

To get closer to your target, lower your nose below the horizon and dive. This 
increases speed, but almost always forces you into lag pursuit and increases 
AoT. A low yo-yo, therefore, almost always requires an immediate high yo- 
yo to correct the angle problem generated by the increase in speed. 

Be careful not to dive too steeply during this maneuver — you may be unable 
to bring your nose to bear on the target if it ends up too far above you. 

, Countering a Low-Speed Yo-Yo 

If you anticipate your attacker’s low-speed yo-yo, try making a half-roll 
toward the end of your break turn, then roll out of the turn instead of car- 
rying through with the original break turn. By rolling in the opposite direc- 
tion, you face your attacker’ nose as he emerges from his dive. This brings 
the fight back to a merge pass. 



4.BS 


Immelman 

• Use this maneuver to increase altitude and 
reverse direction. 

The Immelman is neither an offensive nor defen- 
sive procedure. Instead, it is a high-thrust maneu- 
ver that changes your bearing and increases your 
altitude. By pitching the nose up and climbing, 
you can execute one-half of a loop. To terminate 
the maneuver, invert and execute a roll. (The 
amount of roll applied determines your new direc- 
tion of flight, as indicated in the diagram.) This 
leaves you flying in a different direction, but at a 
higher altitude. Once your wings are level, perform 
a half-roll again to reassume a vertical position. 

The Immelman is most useful for aircraft with low 
thrust capabilities. Modern high-thrust jets can 
broaden this maneuver by making a vertical climb, 
then using an aileron roll to complete the half loop. 

Split-S 

• Use the Split-S to increase airspeed 
or bleed off altitude. 

A Split-S maneuver is a diving half loop 
useful when you want to disengage a 
threat. It requires a lot of vertical air- 
space, so make sure you’re at least sev- 
eral thousand feet above the ground 
before trying it. 

During a turn, invert by rolling, then 
immediately pull back on the stick to go 
into a dive. Your aircraft rapidly acceler- 
ates and gains airspeed. Pull back on 
the stick until the aircraft levels out — 
you are no longer inverted, and flying at 
a higher airspeed and lower altitude. 

The split-S has the advantage of pro- 
viding a quick burst of speed. Additionally, rolling while inverted adds the 
aircraft’s lift vector to gravity, thus increasing the force of acceleration and 
adding speed. On the down side, however, this increased speed increases the 
vertical turning radius, making it hard to pull the nose up into level flight. 
Starting a split-S from low altitude, or maintaining too much speed during 
the dive, can prevent the aircraft from pulling out of the dive. 

The split-S makes a great escape maneuver in a guns-only environment 
because the rapid speed gain moves you out of gun range. It’s usually inef- 
fective against missiles, though, since they have significantly longer ranges. 




4 


4.B9 


COMBAT 


USA.F 


Engaging Ground Targets 

Since ground targets aren’t very maneuverable, few actual “combat tactics” 
exist. The general tactics — surprise and dealing with anti-air defenses — are 
discussed below. 


Surprise 

In an attack fighter, try flying in low (500ft above the ground or less), under 
the enemy’s radar. Ground-based radar systems can detect your aircraft at 
high altitudes, but not close to the ground. If you approach undetected from 
an unexpected direction, the air-defenses may be unprepared. It takes time 
for them to turn and engage, giving you an opportunity to deliver ordnance 
and escape. 

Radar waves are like light; they cannot penetrate solid objects like hills and 
buildings. Try flying at low altitudes between hills or behind clusters of build- 
ings to hide from energy radar. As an added measure, leave your radar in 
standby mode as you approach an enemy position. Use it only in short 
bursts to identify target coordinates — this reduces your chances of being 
detected by their RWR. 



.10 

03 

C 


Dealing with Anti-Air Defenses 

Try to stay outside of enemy defense envelopes. If the target is heavily 
defended with radar-guided SAMs, approach at low altitude; such SAMs 
often have trouble engaging low-altitude targets. If the primary defense is 
automatic anti-aircraft artillery (AAA), fly above 10,000ft. 

Similarly, try using long-range weapons like AGM-88s orTV guided missiles. 
These keep you safely outside the enemy’s defenses. Obviously, standoff 
weapons won’t always be available or suitable for a given mission, but 
always consider using them. 

AAA Weaknesses 

AAA is deadly against low-altitude targets but does have limitations. While 
modern AAA uses radar to calculate lead requirements, older AAA systems 
must eyeball you in their sights and therefore, must lead you. If you 
approach them from any direction other than head on, you’re almost guar- 
anteed they’ll miss. Furthermore, the faster you fly and the more you jink, the 
harder it is for AAA to calculate lead. Keep in mind, however, that the mili- 
tary doctrines of some countries favor indiscriminate barrage attacks, in 
which no attempt is made to target the aircraft, but as much anti-aircraft 
fire as can be mustered is pumped in the aircraft’s flight path. There is no 
avoiding a barrage, except to fly above it and take your chances with SAMs. 


■4.7D 


COMMUNICATION 

You always fly in a group called a flight, which consists of yourself and up to 
three wingmen. This arrangement gives both of you mutual support. 
Constant communication with your wingmen and other flights in your sor- 
tie is a must. You don’t necessarily control your wingmen, although you can 
issue certain commands to them and other flights in your sortie. 

Typically, you fly with at least on other flight and sometimes up to three 
flights. If you’re flying with all computer friendlies, you are the flight leader. 
You’ve also got the ability to configure loadouts for all aircraft in each flight 
prior to takeoff in the Tactical Display screen — see p. 1.15 for details. 

During flight, you’ll hear radio broadcasts from other aircraft in your sortie, 
as well as from AWACS, J-STARS and EWR (early warning radar) com- 
manders. 


Flight Commands 

You can issue the following commands to all wingmen in your flight, or to 

Flight 2 or Flights 3/4 (if they’re in the mission). Commands that start out 

with “Tell your flight...” send messages to your wingmen. 

• To issue commands to Flight 2, press [ Shift | in addition to the key combi- 
nation listed. (In other words, | Shift | Alt fs] tells Flight 2 to sort its targets.) 

• To issue commands to Flights 3 and 4, press | Ctrl | in addition to the key 
combination listed. ( | Ctrl [Alt fs) sends the sort command to both flights.) 

• The “Lase target” command is specific to Flight 2. To issue it to Flight 3, 
press | Shift | Alt fL~| . For Flight 4, press | Ctrl [Alt [~L~| . 

[Alt fs) Sort targets. Tell your flight to sort targets in a flight 
containing a target you’ve locked onto. 

[ Alt [w] Engage the other one. Tell your flight to engage the same type 
of target you’ve locked onto (air or ground). If it’s an aircraft, 
your wingmen will lock onto targets in that particular flight. 

[ Alt 1~P~| Protect me. Tell your flight to attack your most threatening 
air target. 

[Alt I'll Bug out. Tell your flight to return to base. 

[Alt fiHl Anchor. Tell your flight to hold its current position. 

[Alt I'd] Drop tanks. Tell your flight to jettison all air-to-ground 
weapons and external fuel tanks. 

[Alt |~Fl Go to refuel. Tell your flight to refuel from a nearby tanker. 

[Alt |~R~| Report status. Tell your flight to report current status. 

[Alt |~L~| Lase my target. Tell Flight 2 to laser-designate a target for 
you to attack. 


4 


■ 4.71 


COMBAT 


Jane’s USAF 


Formation Commands 


You can instruct your flight to assume certain formations. The diagrams 
below show the basic design of each formation. 

[Alt PI Go echelon. Tell your flight to assume Echelon formation. 

[Alt |~2~) Go wedge. Tell your flight to assume Wedge Formation. 

[Alt |~3~) Go trail. Tell your flight to assume Trail Formation. 

[Alt |~4~1 Go line. Tell your flight to assume Line Formation. 

[ Alt fc] Close formation. Tell your flight to close up the current for- 
mation (move closer together). 

[Alt fv~l Spread formation. Tell your flight to switch to spread the 
current formation (move wider apart). 



LINE FORMATION 


TRAIL 

FORMATION 



ECHELON 

FORMATION 




4 ? 

Hr 




WEDGE 

FORMATION 



4.72 





Jane’s USAF 


Previous page: F- 1 5s streak overhead. USAF photo. 



Using the 

Multiplayer Screen 5.2 

Choose a Callsign 5.3 

Choose Connection Type . . .5.3 
Choose to Host a Game . . .5.4 
Choose to Join a Game . . . .5.5 
Choose to Join a Game by IP 5.5 

Communicating with 
Other Players 5.6 

How to Chat 5.6 

Preset Chat Messages 5.7 


Chapter 5 

Multiplayer Missions 5.8 


Setting Mission Options . . .5.8 

Special 5.8 

Single 5.8 

History/Future 5.8 

Quick Mission Editor 5.8 

All-Out War 5.9 

Dying/Rejoining 

Combat 5.10 

Ending the Game 5.10 

Multiplayer Scoring 5.10 


MULT! PLAYER 



In Jane’s USAF, you and your friends can fly in the same flight, as allied 
squadrons, or against each other via LAN or Internet connection. Jane’s 
USAF supports multiplayer play via TCP/IP (Internet connection) or IPX/SPX 
(local area network). Modem-to-modem play is not supported. (You can, 
however, use a modem to connect to your Internet Service Provider for 
TCP/IP games.) Each player who wishes to join a multiplayer game must 
have an individual game CD. 


Any mission you can fly as a single-player mission can also be flown as a multi- 
player mission. Some missions have also been included specifically for use in mul- 
tiplayer sessions. In addition, you can create missions with the Quick Mission 
Editor (see p. 1 .15). 


The rest of this section details how to set up various types of multiplayer 
games for up to 1 6 players, as well as how to use the game’s in-flight com- 
munication. You’ll also find information on how multiplayer games differ 
from normal single-player games. Finally, if you don’t want to bother with 
setting up your connection, you can learn how to use the Jane’s Online 
Internet matchmaking service to find other players. 


• Network Connection. The game can automatically open your connection 
software if you’re not already connected to the network or Internet. 
Minimize the game or press | Alt | Tab | to switch applications, then connect 
to your Internet provider. Once connected, return to the game by clicking 
its name in the Windows taskbar. 

• Jane’s Online. You can play multiplayer Jane’s USAF online by loading the 
Jane’s Combat web site at www.janes.ea.com, and then visiting the online 
gaming area. You can access this from the Web screen within the game. 

• To play in the same game, all players must be using the same connection 
protocol and the same release or patched version of the game. 

• All players must have the game CD in their CD-ROM drive. 


4 


5 . 1 


MULTIPLAYER 


Jane’s 


USING THE MULTIPLAYER SCREEN 


When you select multiplayer from the Main Menu screen, the Multiplayer 
Connection screen automatically appears. From here, you can choose to be a 
host (master player who creates and runs the game) or a joiner (a player who 
joins someone else’s game). In general, the player with the fastest computer 
should host the game. This makes the game run faster for everyone involved. 



Connection type. The game automatically detects all of your possible con- 
nection methods and displays them in this list on the left side of the screen. 


Note: Only protocols and connection methods currently installed on your computer 
appear here. Internet games, for instance, require TCP/IP to be active in your 
Network control panel. 



I 


Available sessions. Once you select a connection type (modem, TCP/IP, or 
IPX / SPX), a list of available games appears in the center of the screen. The 
right side of the screen displays the callsigns of all players in the selected ses- 
sion. All players who want to play in the same multiplayer session must select 
the same protocol to be added to this list. 


Callsign. Left-clicking this button displays a pop-up window. By default, your 
callsign is whatever name you typed in when you installed the game. Here, 
you can type in a different callsign to use for this multiplayer game session. 


host Choose to host a new game other players can join. 

join Choose to join a game someone else creates on your LAN. 

join BY IP Choose to join a game someone else creates on a different 
LAN/subnet. (You must supply the host’s remote IP address 
to connect.) 

start (Host only) Start the game once all players have joined. 

quit session Leave the current multiplayer game session. Clicking this button 
displays a dialog box — select yes to quit, NO to close the box. 

The quit session button appears in every pre-flight multiplayer screen. 


5.2 



1. Choose a Callsign (Optional) 

When you install the game, you’re prompted to enter a callsign. For multiplayer 
game sessions, however, you have the option of using a different callsign. 

1 . Left-click callsign. A pop-up window appears. 

2. Type in your pilot’s callsign (up to 20 characters long). 

3. Click OK to proceed, or cancel to close the window. 

• You can change your callsign until you join a game (joiner player) or 
until another player joins a game you’ve created (host player). 


2. Choose a Connection Type 

1 . Left-click on a connection type listed in the left-hand column. The types 
you see differ, depending on which protocols you have installed. 

To host a game, see p. 5.4. 

To join an existing network game, see p. 5.5. 

To join a remote network game, see p. 5.5. 

• TCP/IP games require the TCP/IP protocol, and IPX/SPX games require 
the IPX/SPX protocol. You can add these protocols by choosing Start > 
Settings > Control Panel and then double-clicking the Network control 
panel. Click the following buttons in order — add > protocol > 
Microsoft protocol desired, and then select tcp/ip or ipx/spx. 

• TCP/IP requires a valid Internet Protocol (IP) address. You must also 
have a connection to the Internet, either through a modem, cable 
modem, ISDN or ADSL line, or local area network. 

• IPX/SPX requires an active connection to your local area network. 

• You must use TCP/IP to connect to a different subnet/ LAN than the one 
to which your computer is connected. In addition, you must know the 
remote system’s IP address in advance. 


4 


5.3 


MULTIPLAYER 


USA.F 



JO 

Q) 

C 


3a. Choose to Host a Game 

1 . Left-click host. A pop-up window appears. 

2. Type in a name for this multiplayer game (up to 20 characters long). 

3. Click OK to proceed, or cancel to close the window. 

• Once you click OK, your session displays in the Multiplayer screen. The 
name of the session, number of players who have joined and their call- 
signs, and the session status appear. 


OPEN (Listed in green) Host has created a new game in the 

lobby, but hasn’t clicked start. Other players can 
join this session. 

waiting TO JOIN (Listed in green) Players can join this session. 


closed (Listed in red) Host has created a session (any game 

type other than All Out War), and has clicked start 
to begin the session. No additional players can join 
a closed session. 


FULL 


(Listed in red) This gaming session is full (1 6 players 
are already attached to this game). 


4. Wait for all players to join. 

5. Once you have the desired number of players (at least two, but up to 
1 6), left-click start to proceed. 


• At this point, all of your pre-flight selections (i.e., mission parameters 
you choose) become visible to all joined players. 


A chat window appears onscreen. You can minimize this window by 
clicking or move it elsewhere on the screen by left-clicking-and- 
dragging it. Later, you can maximize the window to use it. (See How to 
Chat, p. 5.6, for details on how to chat.) 


• You can start the game anytime after only one player has joined, or wait 
until more players join. 


6. Select a mission type from the upper right-hand corner of the screen. 


You can choose any mission type that appears in the game normally, 
plus a set of special missions (available through the Special tab) created 
specifically for multiplayer combat. 


As the host, you now get to choose the mission parameters. These vary 
according to which type of game you chose in the previous step. Joiner 
players can see the options you select, but they cannot change them. 
See Setting Mission Options, p. 5.8, for details. 


5.4 


3b. Choose to Join a Game 

1 . Left-click on the name of the session you want to join. 

2. ClickjoiN. 

3. As soon as the host player clicks start, the Multiplayer Mission screen 
appears. There, the host selects the type of mission for this session. 

• A chat window appears onscreen. You can minimize this window by click- 
ing the ” in the corner of the window. You can move it elsewhere on the 
screen by left-clicking-and-dragging it. Later, you can maximize the win- 
dow to use it. (See How to Chat, p. 5.6, for details on how to chat.) 

• You do not need to know your machine’s IP (network) address to play 
with someone else on your local area network. 

• If the maximum number of players have already joined the session, 
“This session is closed” appears onscreen. 

• “This session is closed” appears onscreen if (a) the maximum number 
of players have joined the game session, or (b) the host has created a 
game that isn’t All Out War, and has clicked start. 


3c. Choose to Join a Game by IP 

1 . Left-click on the name of the session you want to join. 

2. Click JOIN BY IP. 

3. Type in the remote IP address for the machine you want to connect to. 
This number takes the form of XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX and is unique for each 
machine on a network. 



4. Press OK. 

• As soon as the host player clicks start, the Multiplayer Mission screen 
appears. There, the host selects the type of mission for this session. 

• If the maximum number of players have already joined the session, 
“This session is closed” appears onscreen. 

• A chat window appears onscreen. You can minimize this window by 
clicking ” in the corner of the window. You can move it elsewhere on 
the screen by left-clicking-and-dragging it. Later, you can maximize the 
window to use it. (See How to Chat, p. 5.6, for details on how to chat.) 

• You can use the join by ip option to connect to a multiplayer session on 
a remote network. Use this connection method if you don’t see any 
TCP/IP or IPX/SPX games listed in the Multiplayer screen, or it you want 
to connect to a computer on a different subnet (local area network 
broadcast domain). In both cases, you must supply the IP address of 
the remote computer. 

• If you still can’t seem to connect, make sure neither you nor your fellow 
pilots are behind firewalls. For LAN security reasons, the game can’t 
operate through a firewall. 


5.5 


MULTIPLAYER 


Jane’s USAF 


COMMUNICATING 
WITH OTHER PLAYERS 

As soon as one or more players join a hosted 
game, the participants can communicate via 
the Chat window. Once you host or join a 
game, the Chat window appears on top of the 
Multiplayer Connection screen. It remains visible 
until the mission begins. You can minimize 
this window by clicking in the corner of 
the window. You can also move it elsewhere on the screen by left-clicking- 
and-dragging it. Maximize the window to use it again. 

Before flight: Prior to takeoff, the Chat window shows which actions play- 
ers are performing. (For instance, if you select an aircraft type in the All-Out 
War screen, everyone else is informed through the Chat window — “I chose 
an aircraft” appears next to your callsign.) 

During flight: Once you’re airborne, you can chat with other players, including 
the game’s host. You can send messages to all players, friendly or enemy play- 
ers, or to a specific player. All chat messages display at the top of the HUD. 

Some messages are sent automatically, both before and after flight. 
Different conditions generate these messages — for example, whenever a 
player joins or leaves a session, clicks fly, rejoins a battle after dying, loads 
a mission, or selects an aircraft. Other messages are constructed by individ- 
ual players and sent to various recipients. 



■e 


How to Chat 

You use the same keystrokes for chatting both before and during flight. 

[t] Initiate chat message to all players 
[Alt ftj Initiate chat message to friendly players 
| Shift pT] Initiate chat message to enemy players 

[t] Initiate chat message to locked target 

(available only if you have a target locked) 

□ and ft]/|Tl Alternatively, you can cycle through message recipients by ini- 
tiating chat normally (press (rj) and then using the arrow keys 
to switch channels. The order is: all players / all friendlies / 
ALL ENEMIES / TARGET. 

[Enter] Send chat message 
| Esc 1 Abort message and terminate chat mode 

• Each chat message can be up to 48 characters long. 

• As soon as the sender selects a recipient, the name of the channel displays 
onscreen (i.e., “>send to friends:”). 


5.6 




Preset Chat Messages 

You can send preset messages to the currently selected recipient(s). First, 
select a chat recipient (described in the previous section). Then, press the 
appropriate function key. Whenever you send a preset chat message, an 
associated radio broadcast plays in all receiving aircraft. 


Key Function 

Radio Broadcast 

(ED 

Send positive confirmation 

“Roger.” 

(ED 

Send negative confirmation 

“Negative.” 

(ED 

Ask for help 

“I’m in trouble ... help me out!” 

(ED 

Attack this target 

“Take the <MiG 21 > number <1>.” 
(automatically inserts bracketed 
target information) 

(ED 

Tell recipient to join formation 

“Follow me.” 

(ED 

Issue missile warning 

“Break! Missile!” 

(ED 

Tell recipient to quit the fight 

“We’re bugging out!” 

(ED 

Ask for cover support 

“Watch my back!” 

ED 

Offer cover support 

“Attack, I’ll cover!” 

(ED 

Warn about friendly fire 

“Stop shooting! I’m on your side!” 

ED 

Send depressing message 

“I’d better be grounded.” 

ED 

Send teaser message 

“How does it feel to eat lead?” 


Note: The game’s voice recognition feature does not work with multiplayer chat. It is 
only used to give commands to your aircraft. See Preferences Window, p. 8. 1. 


i 


5.7 


MULTIPLAYER 



MULTIPLAYER MISSIONS 

Setting Mission Options (Host Only) 

The options you can change vary according to the mission type. This section 
lists bulleted items you can alter in each game type. For a complete descrip- 
tion of how to use each screen and learn what the options mean, refer to 

Interface (p. 1.1 ). 

• Joiner players can’t ever select their own loadouts. The host player deter- 
mines the loadouts for all aircraft. 

• Joiner players can’t control what mission will be flown in a multiplayer ses- 
sion. The host selects the mission or mission type. 

• Anyone can quit a multiplayer session at any time by pressing quit. 

Special 

These six missions are specific to multiplayer combat. Players divide into 
force teams and fly missions specially designed for multiplayer play. 

• Aircraft types are fixed, but the host can select specific weapons for each 
aircraft in each flight. 

• You can’t score points during Special missions. 

Single 

See Interface: Single Missions Screen, p. 1.9, for details on Single Missions. 

• Aircraft types are fixed, but the host can select specific weapons for each 
aircraft in each flight. 

• You score normally during multiplayer Single missions. (Points you accu- 
mulate are added to the currently selected pilot’s score.) 

History/Future 

See Interface: Campaign Screen, p. 1.10, for details on Historical and Future 
campaign missions. 

• Aircraft types are fixed, but the host can select specific weapons for each 
aircraft in each flight. 

• You score points normally during these missions. (Points you accumulate 
are added to the currently selected pilot’s score.) 

Quick Mission Editor 

See Interface: Quick Mission Editor Screen, p. 1.5, for details on options 
you can select in the Quick Mission Editor screen. 

• You can’t score points while flying missions created in the User Mission 
Editor or Quick Mission Editor. 


All-Out War 

All-Out War is a multiplayer-specific game that pits all players against one 
another. The goal is to shoot down all other aircraft as many times as pos- 
sible, and the person with the most kills at the end of the mission wins. 



During flight, each player’s callsign and current score appears in the upper 
right corner of the screen. The first number represents the number of oppos- 
ing aircraft that player has downed, while the second one represents the 
number of times that player has been killed. 

• All players get to select their own aircraft — the F-105D, F-4E, A-10A, 
F-15C, F-15E, F-16C, F-117A, F-22A, or MiG-29. 

• All weapons are automatically configured for air-to-air combat. 

• As long as 16 players aren’t already flying, you can join an All-Out War 
game even after it’s started. 

• The starting altitude for each aircraft is 15,000ft. All aircraft initially face 
a common, central waypoint. 

• You can’t score points during All-Out War missions. 

• The host can select general loadouts (AA, AG or both) for all players. 

• The host can set the following game parameters. 

Weapons. (Host only) Type of weapons to be loaded onto each aircraft 
(MISSILES AND GUNS / GUNS ONLY). 

Area. (Host only) Terrain over which the mission occurs 
(GRAND CANYON / GERMANY / VIETNAM / IRAQ). 

Revival Delay. (Host only) How long players must wait before rejoining combat 
(IMMEDIATE / 10 SECONDS / 20 SECONDS / 1 MINUTE). 

Weapon Reload. (Host only) What weapons regenerate when a player 
rejoins combat (current load / reload all). Choosing current load causes 
the aircraft to regenerate with whatever weapons it had when it was 
destroyed. Choosing reload all completely restocks the aircraft’s stores. 

Aircraft. Type of aircraft (chosen by each player). 


4 


5.3 


MULTIPLAYER 



USA.F 


Dying/Rejoining Combat 

If the mission supports revival and the host player has selected a number 
higher than “1,” you can rejoin a fight if you die. After you crash or are shot 
down, a pop-up window displays with the following options: 

yes Rejoin the flight in the same aircraft with the same loadout. 

NO Close the window and return to the Multiplayer Connection screen. 
(If you are the host player, this ends the session for all players.) 

• When you rejoin a fight, your aircraft is always placed 1 Onm further away 
than where you were killed. 



Ending the Game 

To leave a multiplayer game session prematurely, press | Ctrl fo] . This displays 
a pop-window with the following options: 

debrief Display the Debrief Screen (p. 1.25). 

(Joiner) Player leaves the game and views the Debrief screen, 
but no one else is affected. 

(Host) The game ends for everyone, and all players see the 
Debrief screen. 

continue Close the window and resume the mission. 

quit session End the mission and terminate the multiplayer session. 

(Joiner) No debrief information displays, and the player returns 
to the Multiplayer Connection screen. No one else is affected. 
(Host) The game ends for for everyone, and all players return 
to the Multiplayer Connection screen). 

This window pops up automatically once the mission objectives have been 
met. Only the Host player has the ability to end the mission for all players 
before success criteria have been met. If a player or side meets the victory 
conditions for the session, this popup window appears for all players. As 
long as the host player chooses continue to keep playing, other players can 
choose continue and keep playing after the mission is won. 


. 0 ) 

03 

C 


Multiplayer Scoring 

Scoring in multiplayer game sessions is similar to scoring in normal single- 
player games. However, you can’t accumulate points in all types of games. 
(For information on scoring and promotions, see Interface: Rank, p. 1.31, 
or the printed Install Guide.) 

• You score points normally in Future, Single, and Historical multiplayer 
game sessions. (These points are added to the currently selected pilot’s 
score at the end of the mission.) 

• You can’t score points in certain types of missions — Fly Now, Special, 
Quick Mission Editor, or All-Out War. 


5.1 □ 





Jane’s USAF 


Previous page: An A-10A takes off. USAF photo by Senior Airman Stan Parker. 


Chapter 6 



History of the 

US Air Force 6.1 

Early Combat Aircraft 6.1 

WWI and Military Aviation. . 6. 2 

US Military Aircraft in 
World War I 6.2 

Creation of an 

Independent Air Force 6.3 

World War II 

Developments 6.4 

Post-World War II 6.5 

Multiple Combat 
Commands 6.5 

Air Force Research 6.6 

The Air Force in Asia 6.7 

Post- Vietnam 6.7 

Commitment to Research ..6.8 
Personnel Developments ....6.8 

The Modern Air Force 6.9 


Campaign Backgrounds 6.10 


Vietnam 6.1 0 

South Vietnam 6.10 

Before the Gulf 

ofTonkin Incident 6.10 

Air Support 6.1 1 

Vietnamization 6.12 

North Vietnam 6.12 

Rolling Thunder 6.1 2 

Operation Linebacker 6.15 

Rescue Operations 6.1 6 

Desert Storm 6.1 8 

History 6.1 8 

Operation Desert Shield .6.1 8 
Operation Desert Storm .6.1 9 

An End to War 6.1 9 

USAF Auxiliary Support 6.20 

USAF Command 

and Control 6.20 

USAF Intelligence Systems ..6.20 
Aircraft in the Persian Gulf.6.21 

Support Aircraft 6.21 

Special 

Operations Aircraft 6.22 

Combat Aircraft 6.22 

Operation Red Arrow 6.24 

The Need for Advanced 

Combat Training 6.24 

Red Flag Today 6.25 

Operation Sleeping Giant 6.26 


BACKGROUND INFORMATIO 


HISTORY OF THE US AIR FORCE 

Note: This article was originally published by the United States Air Force and titled 
“Evolution of the Department of the Air Force. ” It can be found in the subject list at 
www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil. Section titles have been inserted for clarity. 


The Department of the Air 
Force, an agency of the 
Department of Defense, was 
established on September 18, 
1 947, pursuant to provisions of 
the National Security Act of the 
previousjuly 26. On September 
26, 1947, by order of the 
Secretary of Defense, personnel 
of the Army Air Forces (AAF) 
were transferred from the 
Department of the Army (for- 
merly the War Department) to 
the Department of the Air 
Force and established as the 
United States Air Force (USAF). 
As this history shows, the Air 
Force can claim lineal antecedents 
long predating the 1947 act. 


Chronol ogy o f the USAF 


Aeronautical Division , 
US Signal Corps 

Aviation Section , 

US Signal Corps 

Division of Military 
Aeronautics 

Air Service 

Air Corps* 

Army Air Forces 

United States Air Force 


Aug. 1 907-July 1914 
July 1914-May 1918 
May 1918 

May 191 8-July 1926 
July 1926-Sept. 1947 
June 1941 -Sept. 1947 
Sept. 1 947 


* The Air Corps became a subordinate ele- 
ment of the Army Air Forces on 20June 1 941 , 
and it continued to exist as a combat arm of 
the Army until 1947. 


Early Combat Aircraft 

The USAF had its roots in a turn-of-the century effort at technology assess- 
ment. In January 1905, the War Department took up consideration of an 
offer it had received from two inventors in Dayton, Ohio, to provide the gov- 
ernment with a heavier-than-air flying machine. The fact that many still 
doubted the claim ofWilbur and Orville Wright to have invented a workable 
airplane is part of the history of aviation. But the Board of Ordnance and 
Fortifications, which examined the Wrights’ proposal, had other facts to 
consider as well. Outside the realm of science fiction, the role in warfare of 
airships, gliders, and airplanes was by no means clear. Only balloons had 
proven value of any sort. The French revolutionaries had used a balloon at 
the battle of Fleurus in 1794. In the American Civil War, balloons had seen 
service, and the job of procuring and operating them had duly passed to the 
Signal Corps. Only in 1892, however, did the Signal Corps organize a per- 
manent balloon section, and this unit’s service in the war with Spain in 1 898 
was undistinguished. In 1898, the Signal Corps contracted with Samuel P. 
Langley for an airplane, but tests ended with a spectacular dive into the 
Potomac River on December 8, 1903, nine days before the Wright brothers 


ri 


m 

> 

n 

A 

n 

u 

□ 

c 

z 

□ 


6 . 1 


USA.F 


flew. The War Department, still smarting from that episode in 1 905, turned 
down the new offer. 

But the progress of aviation, the issuance of a patent to the Wrights in 1 906, 
and the interest of President Theodore Roosevelt brought the matter up 
again. In 1907, the Aeronautical Division of the Signal Corps was estab- 
lished to develop all forms of flying. In 1908, the corps ordered a dirigible 
balloon of the Zeppelin type then in use in Germany and contracted with the 
Wrights for an airplane. Despite a crash that destroyed the first model, the 
Wright plane was delivered in 1 909. The inventors then began to teach a few 
enthusiastic young officers to fly. 


World War I and Military Aviation 

The progress of American aviation was slow in the early years. Congress 
voted the first appropriation for military aviation in 1911. The Navy was 
starting its own program at about the same time. Soon after, the aviators 
rejected a proposal to separate their service from the Signal Corps. A 
makeshift squadron had an unlucky time with General John J. Pershing on 
the Mexican border in 1916. What really proved the importance of military 
aviation was its role in Europe during World War I. There balloons used for 
artillery spotting and airplanes for reconnaissance over enemy lines made a 
decisive contribution. Dirigible airships and airplanes proved effective at 
bombing. Every army sought control of the air, and great battles between the 
“knights of the air” became the stuff of romance. Yet at the same time a seri- 
ous doctrine of air warfare was beginning to emerge. The commanders 
began to distinguish, for example, between “strategic” air operations, deep 
in an enemy’s territory, directed at his vital war-making industries and civil- 
ian morale, and “tactical” operations against his ground forces. 



.10 

Q) 

C 


US Military Aircraft in World War / 

At the time of America’s declaration of war against Germany on April 6, 
1917, the Aviation Section was marginal at best. Its 1 ,200 officers and men 
had no knowledge of the air war in Europe. Its 250 airplanes and 5 balloons 
could not have survived long in combat. The nation’s aircraft manufacturers 
had up to that time produced 1,000 planes. Yet, when France asked the 
United States to provide an air force of 4,500 airplanes and 50,000 men, 
there was no hesitation. With more enthusiasm than wisdom, Secretary of 
War Newton D. Baker asked for and received $ 640 million from Congress 
for aviation. The result was a fiasco. By the spring of 1 91 8, it was clear that 
the Signal Corps had failed. The War Department then set up an Air Service 
consisting of two agencies: one under a civilian to deal with the manufac- 
turers and one under a military officer to train and organize units. This 
setup, begun in April and May, was consolidated in August, when President 
Woodrow Wilson appointed John D. Ryan, Second Assistant Secretary of 
War, as aviation “czar” to straighten out the mess. 

In the end the only American achievement in the field of aircraft production 


6.2 


was the Liberty engine. Of the 740 U. S. aircraft at the front in France at the 
time of the Armistice on November 11, 1918, almost all were European-made. 
Still, the Air Service of General Pershing American Expeditionary Forces, organ- 
ized by Major General Mason M. Patrick and Brigadier General William (Billy) 
Mitchell, had distinguished itself in action against the Germans. 

Creation of an Independent Air Force 

As a result of the important role air power had played in the war, a move- 
ment developed during the 1920s and 1930s to create an independent air 
force. The model for this was Great Britain, which, early in 1918, had com- 
bined its Army and Navy air arms into the Royal Air Force (RAF) under an 
Air Ministry. But the U. S. Army’s leaders saw the airplane primarily as a 
weapon for supporting the infantry and gave the Air Service a status com- 
parable to that of the field artillery or the engineers, responsible for procur- 
ing aircraft and training flying units. Local commanders, none of them avia- 
tors, ran the air forces assigned to them. A series of boards and commissions 
studied and restudied the question of air organization, with no result other 
than the name change to Air Corps in 1 926. 

Nevertheless, just as in the RAF, the formulation of theories of strategic bomb- 
ing gave new impetus to the argu- 
ment for an independent air force. 

Strategic or long-range bombard- 
ment was intended to destroy an 
enemy nation’s industry and war- 
making potential, and only an inde- 
pendent service would have a free 
hand to do so. Amid intense contro- 
versy, Billy Mitchell came to espouse 
these views and, in 1 925, went to the 
point of “martyrdom” before a 
court-martial to publicize his posi- 
tion. But despite what it perceived as 
“obstruction” from the War Depart- 
ment, much of which was attributa- 
ble to a shortage of funds, the Air 
Corps made great strides during the 1930s. A doctrine emerged that stressed 
precision bombing of industrial targets by heavily armed long-range aircraft. A 
big step was taken in 1935 with the creation of a combat air force, com- 
manded by an aviator and answering to the Chief of Staff of the Army. Called 
the “GHQ Air Force” because it would be under the General Headquarters in 
time of war, this command took combat air units out ofthe hands of the local 
commanders in the continental United States. Nonetheless, the GHQ Air 
Force remained small when compared to air forces in Europe. The Air Corps 
could only buy a few ofthe new four-engined B-1 7 Flying Fortresses, designed 
for strategic bombing, and in 1 938, there were only thirteen on hand. 



Painting Army Air insignia on the fuselage of a 
B-25 bomber at North American Aviation plant 
in Inglewood , G4 ( ca. 1 942 ). 

NARA photo NLR-PH0C06657(25 ) 


6.3 


BACKGROUND 


Jane’s USAF 


World War 1 1 Developments 

World War II was the true age of liberation for American air power. Reports 
from Europe in 1939 and 1940 proved the dominant role of the airplane in 
modern war. On June 20, 1 941, Major General Henry H. Arnold, then chief 
of the Air Corps, assumed the title of chief of Army Air Forces and was given 
command of the Air Force Combat Command, as the GHQ Air Force had 
been renamed. (Arnold’s title was changed to “Commanding General, Army 
Air Forces” in March 1 942, when he became co-equal with the commanders 
of Army Ground Forces and Services of Supply.) The AAF was directly under 
the orders of the Chief of Staff of the Army, General George C. Marshall. 
Arnold and Marshall agreed that the AAF would enjoy autonomy within the 
War Department until the end of the war, when the air arm would become 
a fully independent service. Soon 
after the Japanese attack on Pearl 
Harbor on December 7, 1941, 

Arnold gained another victory. In 
staff talks with the Americans, the 
British always included represen- 
tatives of the RAF as well as the 
Army and Navy, so the United 
States had to include an air repre- 
sentative of its own. Arnold, 
although technically Marshall’s 
subordinate, became an equal 
with him on the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff, the body that served as the 
focal point of American strategic 
planning during the war. 

In its expansion during World War II, the AAF became the world’s most 
powerful air force. From the Air Corps of 1 939, with 20,000 men and 2,400 
planes, to the nearly autonomous AAF of 1 944, with almost 2.4 million per- 
sonnel and 80,000 aircraft, was a remarkable expansion. Robert A. Lovett, 
the Assistant Secretary of War for Air, together with Arnold, presided over an 
increase greater than for either the ground Army or the Navy, while at the 
same time dispatching combat air forces to the battlefronts. Air Combat 
Command was discontinued, and four air forces were created in the conti- 
nental United States. In the end, twelve more air forces went overseas and 
served against the Germans and Japanese. 

As Arnold’s staff saw it, the first priority in the war was to launch a strategic 
bombing offensive in support of the RAF against Germany. The Eighth Air 
Force, sent to England in 1942, took on that job. After a slow and often 
costly effort to bring the necessary strength to bear, joined in 1944 by the 
Fifteenth Air Force stationed in Italy, the Eighth finally began to get results. 
By the end of the war, the German economy had been pounded to rubble. 
Meanwhile, tactical air forces supported the ground forces in the 
Mediterranean and European theaters, where the enemy found allied air 



US Army Air Force gunner fires a machine gun in 
a World War II aerial battle with German planes 
over Europe (circa 1942). 

NARA photo NLR-PHOCO-65639)31) 


6.4 




supremacy a constant frustration. In the war againstjapan, General Douglas 
MacArthur made his advance along New Guinea by leap-frogging his air 
forces forward, using amphibious forces to open up new bases. The AAF 
also assisted Admiral Chester Nimitz’s carriers in their island-hopping across 
the Central Pacific and supported Allied forces in Burma and China. Arnold 
directly controlled the Twentieth Air Force, equipped with the new long- 
range B-29 Superfortresses used for bombing Japan’s home islands, first 
from China and then from the Marianas. Devastated by fire-raids, Japan was 
so weakened by August of 1945 that Arnold believed neither the atomic 
bomb nor the planned invasion would be necessary to win the war. The fact 
that AAF B-29s dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 
nevertheless, demonstrated what air power could do in the future. The U. S. 
Strategic Bombing Survey provided ammunition for the leaders ofthe AAF in 
the postwar debates over armed forces unification and national strategy. 


Post- World War II 

After World War II, independence 
for the Air Force was virtually 
inevitable. The War Department 
favored unification ofthe Army and 
Navy, with co-equal land, sea, and 
air services under a single head. The 
Navy opposed this plan and forced 
adoption of a compromise in the 
National Security Act of 1947. This 
law created the Department of the 
Air Force and gave a Secretary of 
Defense limited authority over the 
services. By the time the law went through the night as maintenance men of the 
into effect in September, the Air 49th Fighter Bomber Wing in Korea, test fire a 
Force was beginning to rebuild after ^HcF-84 " Thunderjet " (August 1952). 
the postwar demobilization. Its lead- NARA photo NWDNS-342-AF-81 859AC 
ers had defined a goal of establish- 
ing 70 combat groups with 400,000 men and 8,000 planes. Stringent post- 
war budgets delayed the program in spite of concerns ofthe growing threat 
from the Soviet Union. As the United States came to rely upon a strategy of 
deterrence, the Air Force gave highest priority to its long-range atomic bomb- 
ing force, using air refueling to lengthen its reach. Acrimonious disputes with 
the Navy resulted, focusing on the roles ofthe services in modern warfare, 
until the large budget increases after 1950. 

Multiple Combat Commands 

In 1946, the AAF had created three major combat commands in the United 
States: the Strategic Air Command (SAC), the Tactical Air Command (TAC), 
and the Air Defense Command (ADC). The Strategic Air Command now 
became the centerpiece of Air Force planning. Yet, surprisingly, the first 
important intervention ofthe Air Force in the Cold War was by the Military 



Leaving a fiery trail , .50 caliber bullets streak 


i 


6.5 


BACKGROUND 




USA.F 



.10 

Q) 

C 


Air Transport Service (MATS) 
during the Berlin Airlift of 
1948-1949. Still, SAC’s role 
remained predominant, 
especially during the service 
of Curtis E. LeMay as its 
commander (1948-1957). 
Rising to a level of peacetime 
readiness unprecedented in 
American history, SAC was 
not dethroned even during 
the fighting in Korea (1950- 
1 953). Tactical forces were 
built up to take part in the 
fighting in support of the 
United Nations forces, and 
SAC even sent B-29 bombers. The American air forces achieved control of the 
air and poured bombs onto the Communist supply lines. But the increased 
budget for the Air Force also went to build up tactical forces in Europe and 
for a worldwide strategic striking force. After the Soviets detonated an atom- 
ic bomb in 1949, a new emphasis on air defense brought the ADC into the 
picture, but the TAC remained slighted throughout the 1 950s, even with the 
development of tactical nuclear weapons. 

The 1950s also witnessed the centralization of the Department of Defense. 
In 1949 the Secretary of Defense gained greater authority over the services, 
and the service secretaries ceased to be members of the National Security 
Council. By 1958, this process had reached the pointthat, not only the com- 
mands overseas, but even SAC and ADC were under the overall control of 
thejoint Chiefs of Staff. Nevertheless, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force had 
great influence as a member of thejoint Chiefs, and the Air Force kept direct 
responsibility to “organize, train and equip” combat air forces. 

Air Force Research 

Under the influence of such farsighted officials as Trevor Gardner (at one 
time Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development) and 
Major General Bernard A. Schriever, who founded what was to evolve into 
the Space and Missile Systems Center, the Air Force developed ballistic mis- 
siles during the 1950s. SAC began to supplement its great armada of 
bombers with missiles in 1959. By the end of the 1960s, over a thousand 
intercontinental ballistic missiles were in place, while the long-range bomber 
force had been cut back. The Air Force thus had two elements of the “Triad” 
of strategic weapons (bombers and land-based missiles), while the Navy had 
the third (submarine-launched missiles). Also in the 1960s, as a result of 
Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara’s emphasis on “flexible response” 
in the strategy of deterrence, the TAC enjoyed something of a revival. Thus, 
even before large-scale intervention in Southeast Asia, the Air Force’s con- 
ventional capabilities were increasing. 



Aircrew of a 5th AF B-26 Invader preparing for a night 
mission over enemy territory in Korea (June 1951). 

NARA photo NWDNS-342-AF-80250AC 


6.6 



Besides ballistic missiles, the Air Force became involved with earth satellites 
during the 1950s. In 1961 the service began supporting an independent, 
highly secret agency, the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), that han- 
dled intelligence satellites. The head of this office was placed in the office of 
the Secretary ofthe Air Force, and the NRO was staffed largely with Air Force 
people. The existence of this office was only disclosed in the 1 990’s. 


The Air Force in Asia 

As part ofthe American effort to assist the government of South Vietnam in 
counterinsurgency operations during the early 1960s, the Air Force sent 
advisers to the Vietnamese Air Force. During 1 964 and 1 965 the commitment 
was increased, and combat units went into action. In South Vietnam, tactical 
forces, with the assistance of B-52 bombers from SAC, supported U. S. and 
Vietnamese ground forces. Tactical forces in Vietnam and Thailand took part 
in strikes at crucial targets in North Vietnam and along supply trails in south- 
ern Laos. There were also strikes in support ofthe counterinsurgency opera- 
tions ofthe Laotian government. Operations over Cambodia were in support 
ofthe war in South Vietnam. SAC provided tanker aircraft for refueling. Yet 
this, the first war fought under the 1958 reorganization act, was conducted 
without a single Air Force agency controlling all air operations in Southeast 
Asia. Most operations were controlled by the theater commanders. 

As the war went on into the climactic bombings of 1972, the Air Force strug- 
gled to remain ready in other areas. SAC had to divert much of its bomber and 
tanker forces to Southeast Asia, and tactical forces in Europe were affected as 
well. With the end ofthe fighting, contending with stringent budgets, the Air 
Force turned to the job of upgrading the strategic deterrent force and main- 
taining readiness in Europe. In the meantime, the strategy of deterrence had 
evolved to the doctrine of mutually assured destruction, enshrined in the 
strategic arms limitation agreement with the Soviet Union in 1 972. The declin- 
ing emphasis on defensive forces affected the Air Defense Command, now 
renamed the Aerospace Defense Command, which was abolished in 1980. 



Post-Vietnam 

Despite the cutbacks after the war in Southeast Asia, the Air Force focused 
on heightened combat readiness. The Military Airlift Command (formerly 
MATS) gave military and humanitarian support for the nation’s global com- 
mitments, as in the support to Israel in the Middle East war of 1973. 
Increases in appropriations, begun under the administration of President 
Jimmy Carter, produced a major buildup under his successor, Ronald W. 
Reagan. The peak was reached in the period of 1985-1986, when the Air 
Force attained annual spending levels of $ 97 billion and a strength of over 
600,000. Force deployments in support of operations in Grenada (1983), 
against Libya (1986), and in Panama (1989) reflected a growing capacity for 
quick response to local crises. At the same time, arms control negotiations 
with the Soviet Union began, slowly, to bear fruit. 


B.V 


BACKGROUND 


Jane’s 


Commitment to Research 

Since the days of the Army Air Service, the air arm has relied primarily on pri- 
vate industry for the manufacture of airplanes. The continuing search for 
balance between the required quantities and the most modern equipment 
has also usually involved a commitment to preserving a strong industrial 
base. One of Arnold’s personal legacies was a commitment to research and 
development. The results appeared in the 1 990s in such applications of low- 
observables (“Stealth”) technology as the B-2 bomber and the F-1 1 7 fight- 
er-bomber. The C-17 transport represented state-of-the art design as well. 
The development of the F-22 fighter continued a commitment to air superi- 
ority, while unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) suggested new directions. 



I 


Personnel Developments 

Because of the highly complex modern weapon systems the Air Force has 
sought to use, the demand for skilled personnel has always been high. The 
need applied both to flying crew, especially pilots, and ground maintenance 
technicians. During the periods of the draft, in both world wars and from 
1 948 to 1 973, the air arm was able to attract volunteers, emphasizing pro- 
grams for recruiting and keeping people for training in innumerable skills. 
The Air Force Academy (founded in 1955 and soon located outside 
Colorado Springs) and higher service schools at the Air University, Maxwell 
Air Force Base, Alabama, developed the leadership cadres of the service. 
Recruiting and retaining able pilots was a perennial cycle of ups and downs, 
with budget pressures affecting student intake, as well as pay and benefits, 
the burden of global deployments, and competition with the airlines. 



When President Flarry S Truman in 1948 directed an end to racial discrimina- 
tion in the armed forces, the Air Force was positioned to be a pioneer in inte- 
gration. African-American combat air units served with distinction in the 
Second World War, but segregation had proved unworkable. 
Although the upheavals of 
the 1960s did lead to trou- 
ble in the Air Force — most 
notably in race riots at Travis 
Air Force Base, California, in 
1971 — on the whole, inte- 
gration proved a success. In 
1 997 some fifteen percent of 
the active duty force was 
black, while other ethnic 
minorities were also strongly 
represented. A number of 
African-Americans had also 
risen to high rank, although 
the percentage of blacks in 
the officer corps was still 
below ten in 1 997. 


Crew chief of the African-American 1 5th AF closes the 
canopy of a P-5 1 Mustang as the pilot prepares to take off 
from their World War II operations base in Italy. 

NARA photo NWDMS-208-AA-46BB-6 


6.B 



The end of Selective Service in 1973 ushered 
in a new era in personnel policy for the 
armed forces. The All-Volunteer Force was 
going to have to recruit women more ener- 
getically and would probably need to place 
more reliance on reserve forces. The 
Women’s Army Corps (WAC) had assigned 
units to the AAF in the 1940s, and in 1948 
the Women in the Air Force (WAF) was 
formed. The new approach did away with 
the WAF organization in order to integrate 
women more fully into the service. By the 
1990s, female personnel were serving in vir- 
tually every specialty, including bomber 
pilots and missile crews. Over one sixth of 
the active force were women in 1 997. At the 
same time, the Total Force concept matured 
as the means to integrate the Air National 
Guard and the Air Force Reserve more close- 
ly with the active force. 



A Women 's Air Force service pilot 
looks around before taking off from 
an air base in Harlingen , TX 
(ca. 1930-1975). 

NARA photo NWDNS-342-AF- 
77472AC 


The Modern Air Force 

Up until 1 989, the Air Force’s existence as an independent service had coin- 
cided with the Cold War. Now, facing a new strategic challenge, the U. S. 
could cut back the nuclear forces on strategic alert as a result of arms con- 
trol. But the final collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 simply eliminated the 
artificial order that had been imposed on a disorderly world, and local enmi- 
ties became increasingly violent. The most spectacularly successful interven- 
tion by the U. S. Air Force in these outbursts was in the Persian Gulf in 1 991 . 
Supporting a coalition designed to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait in January, 
the Air Force led the way in a six-week campaign that was a triumph in the 
application of air power. 

The post-Cold War drawdown of forces reduced the Air Force budget to $73 
billion in 1997, with a strength of 380,000. In 1992 the service acknowl- 
edged the new global reality with a reorganization in which the main flying 
forces in the continental U. S. were put into two major commands: Air 
Combat Command and Air Mobility Command. Later interventions in such 
places as Bosnia still demonstrated the effective combination of high tech- 
nology with skill and determination to apply force in difficult situations. In 
particular, the application of space technology in these conflicts gave the 
Space Command (first created in 1982) a pioneering role as the Air Force 
looked to the twenty-first century. And at the same time, Air Mobility 
Command’s airlift force continued to be an essential instrument of national 
policy all over the world. Still, by the late 1990s, the Air Force, like all the 
armed services, was facing extreme pressure to meet global commitments 
with declining resources. 


i 


s.a 


BACKGROUND 


Jane’s USAF 


CAMPAIGN BACKGROUNDS 

The following information provides additional background information for 
each of the campaigns in Jane’s USAF. The sections on the Vietnam and 
Desert Storm historical campaigns chronicle the US Air Force’s involvement 
in those operations. The section on the Operation Red Arrow campaign 
explains the history and purpose of the USAF Red Flag training program 
based at Nellis AFB. This campaign simulates the type of exercises conduct- 
ed in Red Flag, having pilots-in-training defend against a fictional attack on 
the continental United States. Finally, the final section sets up a fictional 
background “history” for the Operation Sleeping Giant campaign, based in 
Germany. Events in this history that take place before 1 999 are real, and the 
articles from Jane’s Information Group describing them are also real. 
Naturally, articles dated later than 1999 are fictional. 

Vietnam 

USAF involvement in the Vietnam conflict began as early as 1961, when the 
US began sending Army and Air Force personnel to South Vietnam as train- 
ers and advisors. By 1 968, over 54,434 USAF personnel and 737 planes were 
conducting operations from bases in South Vietnam and Thailand. 
Throughout the war, air support operations took place within South 
Vietnam, while the USAF alternated between bombing campaigns and 
reconnaissance missions over North Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. 

South Vietnam 

American forces initially arrived in South Vietnam to shore up domestic mili- 
tia and defense forces, in the hopes of thwarting an aggressive takeover by a 
Vietnamese nationalist communist party, the Viet Cong, which controlled 
the government in North Vietnam under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh. By 
the mid-1960s, the US was conducting air and ground attacks against Viet 
Cong forces that continued to infiltrate South Vietnam. 

Before the Gulf of Tonkin Incident 

From 1961-1964, US airmen in South Vietnam were not authorized to engage 
in combat with the Viet Cong. Their mission was to train and equip South 
Vietnamese forces to engage the North Vietnamese without US assistance. 
Once training was complete, US officials planned to withdraw all forces from 
the area. USAF personnel also flew reconnaissance missions over South 
Vietnam and Laos during this period to monitor arms, personnel and equip- 
ment movement along the Ho Chi Minh Trail through the Laotian mountains. 
Although North Vietnamese forces had not yet overtly targeted American troops, 
since both South Vietnamese and American personnel conducted operations in 
American aircraft, danger to US airmen was significant. As a result of American 
casualties, US rules of engagement were eventually relaxed to permit personnel 
to engage in defensive combat under very limited conditions. However, the role 
of US forces in Vietnam was still limited to training and reconnaissance. 


6.10 


On 2 August 1964, the Viet Cong conducted its first overtly hostile action 
against the United States, when three North Vietnamese torpedo boats 
began attacks on the USS Maddox, and later the USS C. Turner Jay, which were 
both stationed in the Gulf of Tonkin. In response to this aggression, the 
United States Congress passed the GulfofTonkin Resolution (H.J. Congress 
RES 1 145), giving the President authority to use any measures — up to and 
including armed force — to assist the South Vietnamese. 


Air Support 

By 1965, Washington officials were 
no longer anticipating the withdrawal 
of American forces from Vietnam. The 
South Vietnamese forces were losing 
ground against the Viet Cong and 
attacks against US forces were 
increasing. Additional US troops and 
equipment were sent to South 
Vietnam, and in March 1965, the 
USAF began “Rolling Thunder” oper- 
ations against North Vietnam. 

Concerted air to ground defense 
against Viet Cong troops within South 
Vietnam also began toward the end of 
1 965, as the Viet Cong began mount- 
ing large-scale attacks on US and 
South Vietnamese positions. 

US strength in South Vietnam had reached 486,000 troops in 1967, backed 
by additional forces from South Korea, Australia and New Zealand. The US 
and its foreign allies focused on combating the North Vietnamese forces 
within South Vietnam, freeing the South Vietnamese troops to work on end- 
ing native support for the Viet Cong in the countryside. North Vietnamese 
successes diminished for a time, but the Viet Cong began building forces in 
Cambodia and Laos for a renewed offensive. TheTet Offensive began in late 
January with an attack on a US Marine base at Khe Sanh. A few days later, 
the Viet Cong followed with a series of simultaneous attacks on numerous 
airfields and installations throughout the country. During this offensive, the 
Viet Cong attacked South Vietnamese cities for the first time, where the vio- 
lence and bloodshed were readily visible to American reporters and TV news 
crews. As the images from the Tet Offensive were relayed back home, 
American support for the war began eroding quickly. Once more, US offi- 
cials began planning to turn responsibility for the war over to the South 
Vietnamese and withdraw. In the meantime, they sent more personnel to 
Vietnam to speed up this process of “Vietnamization.” 



Napalm bombs explode on Viet Cong structures 
south of Saigon, ca. 1965. 

NARA photo NWDNS-342-C-K20652 


i 


6.11 


BACKGROUND 


Jane’s USAF 


Vietnamization 

President Nixon further accelerated Vietnamization as he took office in 
January 1969. The first US troops left in July, and by the end of the year 
69,000 had been withdrawn. By 1970, the first USAF units were withdrawn 
as the VNAF (Vietnamese National Air Force) capabilities were expanded. 
Still, the USAF flew over 48,000 sorties, striking against North Vietnamese 
forces that had infiltrated South Vietnam. USAF forces had been reduced to 
about half of their highest personnel strength by the end of 1971, and the 
VNAF had taken over 70% of all air combat operations within the country. 

In March 1972 North Vietnam began a large-scale invasion of South 
Vietnam and by June occupied much of the country. Nixon retaliated with 
Operations Linebacker and Linebacker II, intense bombing campaigns 
against North Vietnam and the aerial mining of its harbors. On 29 
December 1972, North Vietnamese officials agreed to begin negotiating a 
cease-fire, which was completed on 23 January 1 973. By March, the last US 
military personnel had been withdrawn from South Vietnam. 


North Vietnam 



Rolling Thunder 

Rolling Thunder was a systematic bombing attack on North Vietnam, con- 
ducted from USAF bases in Thailand and South Vietnam from 1965 to 1968. 
The operation called for initial attacks to be conducted in the area just north 
of the DMZ (demilitarized zone) that had been established when French 
forces withdrew from the country under the Geneva Agreements of 1 954. The 
USAF would then gradually begin shifting its target areas northward, hoping 
to pressure North Vietnamese leaders into agreeing to attempt diplomatic 
peace negotiations. 



Flying under radar control with a B-66 
Destroyer, F- 7 05 Thunderchief pilots 
bomb a target through low clouds over 
the southern panhandle of North 
Vietnam (14 July 1966). 


NARA photo NW DNS-3 06-MVP- 15(14) 


Early Phases 

From the beginning, strict rules of engage- 
ment governed the bombing attacks. 
Keeping civilian casualties to a minimum 
was of primary concern, and officials in 
Washington limited what could be target- 
ed, where it could be targeted and even 
how the bombing runs could be conduct- 
ed in some instances. The air-to-surface 
weapons available for Rolling Thunder 
were not accurate enough for precision 
strikes in urban areas, and bombing tac- 
tics were often altered to minimize civilian 
casualties. Such alterations often reduced 
the USAF’s ability to hit its targets — 
for example, pilots were required to fly 
bombing runs perpendicularly against 


B.12 


bridge targets in order to avoid hitting civilian settlements on either bank, 
but traditional bombing runs down the center ofthe bridge would have been 
far more effective. In addition, the North Vietnamese soon recognized and 
began to exploit the United States’ unwillingness to risk civilian casualties by 
moving weapons and equipment shipments in small, hard-to-target ship- 
ments, which were then scattered about settled areas for storage. 

Finally, the threat of Chinese or Russian entry into the war also limited US 
operations in North Vietnam. Strikes were prohibited in a 30-mile buffer 
zone along China’s border. The docks at Haiphong harbor, through which 
most arms entered the country, were off-limits because ofthe foreign ships 
docking there. Within North Vietnam, certain targets where Russian agents 
might be working were also off-limits. Of particular threat to the USAF were 
the Soviet-built SAM sites under construction all over the target area — 
allegedly under the supervision of Soviet advisors, and therefore off-limits. 
However, on 23 July 1965 the US lost a plane to one of these Soviet-built 
SAM sites, followed by another plane a month later. These losses prompted 
the US to initiate a series of special missions, code-named “Iron Hand,” 
which specifically targeted the SAMs. Only those near Haiphong harbor and 
Hanoi remained off-limits. 


Diplomatic Stalemates and MiG Encounters 

In May of 1 965, President Johnson called the first of several ceasefires in an 
attempt to persuade Viet Cong officials to negotiate a diplomatic peace. The 
May ceasefire lasted only six days. Several months later, on Christmas Eve of 
1965, President Johnson again called a halt to Rolling Thunder operations 
— this time for about a month, during which it became apparent that the 


Viet Cong had no intention of negotiating and 
were using the time to rebuild and resupply. On 
30 January 1966, the USAF resumed Rolling 
Thunder operations with renewed force and 
began to push northward toward Hanoi. 


In September 1966, as they approached the 
city, USAF forces encountered their first MiG 
over North Vietnam. By 1967 Washington was 
approving targets ever closer to Hanoi, pressur- 
ing the Viet Cong to field almost 1 00 MiG inter- 
ceptors. As US Air Force and Navy losses to air- 
to-air attacks began to mount, Washington 
allowed attacks on four of five MiG airfields in 
North Vietnam. By the end of 1967, combined Firing his 20mm cannon at point- 
US forces had downed 75 MiGs in air-to-air blank range, an F-1 05 pilot hits a 
combat, with a loss of only 25 of their own air- MiG’s left wing. His F-1 05 passed 
craft. Hanoi’s industrial base was also targeted 1 5-20 feet below the flaming 
— including major power plants and railyards, 

some of which had been previously off-limits NARA^photo NWDNS-342-C- 
due to restrictions against urban operations. 



ri 


m 


B.13 


BACKGROUND 



USAF 


An Uneasy Ceasefire 

As the North Vietnamese seemed more willing to negotiate, in March 1968 
President Johnson limited Rolling Thunder bombing operations to an area 
just north of the DMZ. Peace talks began in Paris, but as Hanoi officials 
negotiated, thousands of North Vietnamese troops continued pouring into 
South Vietnam. The US redoubled its efforts just north of the DMZ, but 
refrained from venturing further north. With Viet Cong assurances that the 
incursions into South Vietnam would halt, President Johnson called an end 
to all air, naval and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam, bringing 
Rolling Thunder to a permanent end in October 1 968. 

However, President Johnson’s agreement authorized unarmed American air- 
craft to continue flights over North Vietnam for reconnaissance purposes. 
When several of these aircraft were attacked, President Nixon authorized 
retaliatory strikes, but limited targets to air defense sites. In 1971 the US 
stepped up these retaliatory strikes, expanding the target list to include Viet 
Cong road construction through the DMZ and oil storage sites south of 
Hanoi. By the end of that year, the North Vietnamese Air Force was able to 
field 250 MiGs, which posed a serious threat to US strike fighters. In 
response, Washington authorized the USAF and USN to bomb three airfields 
in southern North Vietnam in early November. 



.10 

Q) 

C 


The “Thud” 

In the first four years of the Rolling Thunder operations, the F-105D 
Thunder Chief, affectionately nicknamed the “Thud,” flew over 75% of the 
air strikes over North Vietnam. (The immense B-52 Stratofortress strikes 
widely portrayed in media images of the Vietnam conflict were more repre- 
sentative of later Linebacker Operations.) Designed as a supersonic long- 


range nuclear bomber, the F-105 
could carry a weapons payload of 
over 12,000lbs. For typical ground 
strike missions in North Vietnam, it 
generally carried eight 7501b bombs. 

Although primarily a ground attack 
aircraft, the F-105 proved quite 
capable of handling itself in an air 
battle. F-105s aircrews downed 27.5 
MiGs during their service in 
Southeast Asia (one kill was shared 
with an F-4D Phantom). 

The last F-105D was withdrawn 
from service in the USAF in 1980. 



F- 1 05 Thunderchiefs, enroute to a bombing 
mission in Vietnam , refuel in mid-mission from 
a KC-1 35 Stratotanker (ca. 1966). 

NARA photo NWDNS-306-MVP- 14(28) 


B.14 



Operation Linebacker 

In direct response to the Viet Cong invasion of South Vietnam in the spring 
of 1972, President Nixon broke off peace talks then underway and author- 
ized the US Armed Forces to resume aerial bombardment of North Vietnam 
through Operation Linebacker. For the first time, US aircraft also mined the 
Bay of Haiphong and other waterways that had been used throughout the 
war to ship arms and equipment into the country. 

When North Vietnamese officials asked to renew peace talks in October, the 
US again halted the bombardment. However, as two months passed with- 
out resolution to the negotiations, President Nixon ordered the commence- 
ment of Linebacker II. On 18 December 1972, the US began its heaviest 
bombardment of the war. For eleven days, B-52s pounded power plants, 
broadcast stations, ports, railways, airfields, and military sites in and 
around Hanoi and Haiphong by day and night. Support fighters saw some 
of the most intense air combat of the war, mostly against the newer MiG- 
215. On 29 December 1 972, North Vietnamese agreed to renew negotiations 
and the bombardment was again limited to the area just north of the DMZ. 
By 15 January 1973 the US had ceased all bombing in North Vietnam, and 
a peace agreement was signed a few days later. 


F-4E Phantom II 

The first F-4E squadron reached USAF bases 
in Thailand at the end of 1968. Following 
the invasion of South Vietnam in the spring 
of 1972, six more squadrons were deployed 
to Southeast Asia to take part in Operation 
Linebacker. F-4E Phantom I Is were generally 
considered ground attack fighters and were 
used to support bombing missions in a 
Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) 
role. (Later F-4G “Wild Weasels” would in 
fact be customized for the SEAD role.) They 
also prepared target areas for incoming 
bombers by dropping loads of chaff in order 
to confuse enemy radar, and they carried out 
some Linebacker strikes against ground tar- 
gets that were too well-protected for B-52 
bombers to reach. However, they were also 
used in an escort role to counter enemy MiG 
threats over North Vietnam. 

In this last role, F-4 pilots found themselves at a decided performance dis- 
advantage — North Vietnamese MiG-1 7s and MiG-21 s could out-maneuver 
the F-4 in a subsonic turning fight. However, the F-4E carried longer-range 
weapons, and it had been assumed that the new long-range missiles would 
virtually eliminate the dogfight — indeed, early models of the F-4 had no 
internal cannon, partly because there was no place for it in the original nose 
design and partly because it was considered unnecessary. 



F-4 pilots attend intelligence briefing 
at Cam Ranh Bay AB in South 
Vietnam (December 1968). 

NARA photo NWDNS-342-C- 
KE36967 



m 


B.15 


BACKGROUND 



Jane’s USAF 



In practice, though, once the long-range missile opportunity was lost, so was 
the F-4E’s advantage. Unfortunately, these early “high-tech” long-range 
AIM-7s were notoriously less reliable and more susceptible to malfunctions 
and countermeasures than the short-range IR-guided missiles and air-to-air 
guns of the era. In fact, missile fire-to-hit ratios were low and extended MiG 
encounters generally came down to a close-in dogfight. In addition, MiGs 
developed tactics to render the American missile advantage moot, favoring 
surprise hit-and-run attacks from the rear, which gave their rear-aspect mis- 
siles their best targets. In all, F- 
4E aircrews reported 21 MiG 
kills, included 10 by AIM-7s, 5 
by gunfire, 4 byAIM-9s and the 
remaining 2 by a combination 
of weapons or maneuvering. 

The F-4E’s demonstrated ver- 
satility kept it in production for 
twelve years. More F-4Es were 
built than any other variant. It 
was later replaced by the F-15 
Eagle lineage. 

Rescue Operations 

The USAF Air Rescue Service (ARS) was established in 
1946 for rescue coverage in the continental United 
States. Although Emergency Rescue Service helicopter 
units had existed during WWII, the ARS marked the 
beginning of a force specially trained to develop and 
execute of search and rescue tactics. In 1966, the ARS 
was redesignated Aerospace Rescue and Recovery 
Service (ARRS) to reflect its rescue support role for the 
US space program. 

During the Vietnam Conflict, the 
ARRS rescued 4,120 people, with 
2,780 rescued under combat condi- 
tions. A typical rescue unit consist- 
ed of a HH-43 Huskie rescue and 
fire suppression helicopter, accom- 
panied by several A-1E Skyraiders 
assisting with the search and sup- 
pressing enemy ground fire during 
pickup. Forward Air Controllers 
(FACs) in 0-1 and 0-2 helicopters 
frequently conducted the search leg 
of rescue operations: locating 

downed crewmen, marking their 
location with smoke bombs, calling 



US Army soldier directs a helicopter recovering 
injured in South Vietnam (Oct. 1966). 

NARA photo NWDNS-342-AF- 1 00573 USAF 




USAF photo 


B.1B 


in the rescue flight and directing the Skyraiders in ground suppression once 
the rescue crew arrived. By the end of the war, the arrival of OV-IO Broncos 
equipped with PAVENAIL night observation equipment greatly expanded res- 
cue operations at night and in bad weather. 

A- IE Skyraider 

The Skyraider was modified in 1963 for service in Vietnam. Able to fly for 
long periods at low altitudes, this slow-flying single-prop aircraft was ideal- 
ly suited to search and rescue operations. It was able to absorb heavy ground 
fire and carry heavy bomb loads, and therefore also well-suited to a close air 
support (CAS) role. In rescue operations, it generally flew escort for rescue 
helicopters to neutralize ground fire during the pickup. A-1 Es were replaced 
by A-7D Corsair II close air support jets toward the end of the conflict. 


HH-43 Huskie 

Originally designed for base crash and fire rescue, the HH-43 was initially lim- 
ited by its combat radius of only 75 miles. Additional fuel drums strapped 
into the cabin were set up to extend this range, and before newer, longer- 
range helicopter models were available to the AARS, HH-43s occasionally 
flew rescue missions deep into North Vietnam. HH-43s could be airborne 

within one minute, carry- 
ing two rescue crewmen 
trained for emergency res- 
cue and fire suppression. 
In the event of a fire at the 
crash site, crewmen used 
foam from a fire suppres- 
sion kit attached beneath 
the helicopter and down- 
wash from the helicopter’s 
rotor blades to clear a path 
for survivors to escape to a 
place where they could be 
safely picked up. 


Except from USAF search and res- 
cue log, dated 23 March, 1966. 

“ Sandy ” is the radio callsign for 
an A-1 E, the “Jolly Green Giants ” 
are HH-3s and “Crown 23” is a 
HC- 130P tanker orbiting at high- 
er altitudes as an airborne com- 
mand post. 

NARA document 

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B.17 


BACKGROUND 



Jane’s 


Desert Storm 


History 

The Persian Gulf conflict originated in early August of 1990, following a 
series of unsuccessful talks between Iraq and Kuwait regarding oil pricing. 
On 2 August 1990, Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi leader, decided to invade 
Kuwait to commandeer its vast fields of petroleum. Iraqi troops stormed the 
border, and in a matter of hours, the tiny, defenseless country of Kuwait fell 
under Hussein’s control. 

Following this invasion, Iraq gained power over nearly a quarter of the 
world’s rough oil reserves. Saudi Arabia’s leaders became worried — with 
due cause — that their country might be next on Iraq’s list of likely targets. 
Saudi leaders expressed great concern over this invasion and issued a des- 
perate plea for help. The US answered this call for assistance and immedi- 
ately stepped in to protect its ally. 


Operation Desert Shield 

Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait led to an immediate American economic 
embargo against Iraq, soon reiterated by the United Nations Security 
Council. Iraq was ordered to vacate Kuwait, but the embargoes and threats 
elicited no immediate response. Several days later, on 7 August 1990, then- 
President George Bush authorized a counteraction called Operation Desert 
Shield. The goal ofthis operation was to force the Iraqi troops out of Kuwait 
and push them back into their home country. To emphasize its commitment 
to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait, the UN issued a 15 January 1991 dead- 
line for withdrawal. 



I 


The Headquarters U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) directed the coali- 
tion of allied UN forces. Led by Army General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, 
CENTCOM’s function was to manage the deployment of troops into the 
Persian Gulf. Although Saudi Arabia was the primary country under allied 
protection, other small Arab countries in the region were under a security 
watch as well. 

While CENTCOM managed the troop deployments, air operations fell under 
the jurisdiction of Air Force Lt. Gen. Charles Horner. As the supreme air com- 
mander, Lt. Gen. Horner created the Headquarters Central Command Air 
Forces. Located in Saudi Arabia, this forward air base became the pivot point 
for all air actions. US Air Force and National Guard reservists were activated 
and brought into the region to handle tactical fighter and supply needs, 
including airlifts, tanker duty and supply drops. In a 30-day period, 25 fight- 
er squadrons were sent to Riyadh, far outnumbering Iraq’s meager air forces. 

By Christmas, Saddam Hussein was still refusing to cooperate with the UN 
Security Council. With the 1 5 January deadline looming dangerously close, the 
Council continued to try to resolve the situation without the use of military 
force. On the 15th, however, Iraq continued to maintain its staunch silence. 


6.1 B 


True to form, Iraqi president Saddam Hussein continued to ignore the 
Council’s eleventh-hour request. UN forces responded with the first retalia- 
tory strikes early in the morning of the 17th, and Operation Desert Shield 
became Operation Desert Storm. 


Operation Desert Storm 

In the early morning hours of 1 7 January 1991, Apache Longbow helicopters 
knocked out radar installations across the Iraqi border, effectively clearing a 
corridor for coalition aircraft and virtually blinding Baghdad. Military tar- 
gets for the massive first strike 
included surgical hits on com- 
mand centers, radar sites and 
airport facilities. Over 1000 
sorties and 10 days and 
nights later, the coalition’s 
constant barrage of fire had 
accomplished most of its mil- 
itary objectives. For all intents 
and purposes, Iraq was crip- 
pled — its weapon develop- 
ment programs, air force, sur- 
face-to-air missile sites and 
internal command structures 
had been destroyed. 

Downtown Baghdad: Initial Targets 
Jan. 1991 ; from Decisive Force by 
Richard G. Davis , US. Air Force, 1996 

Available from the online map collection 
of the Perry Castaneda Library, University 
of Texas, atwww.lib.utexas.edu/ 

Libs/ PCL / Map_collection. 

An End to War 

The degradation of order in Iraq continued to worsen through February 
1991. By the end of the month, Saddam Hussein’s hungry, distraught Iraqi 
soldiers began fleeing en masse. A number of Iraqi pilots flew their aircraft 
into Iran and promptly surrendered. On 27 February 1991, Iraq’s military 
forces were nearly non-existent, and the Kuwaiti leaders were reinstated. 

The coalition halted its air attacks in late February. However, the war did not 
officially end until 11 April 1991, when Saddam Hussein finally signed UN 
Security Council Resolution #678. 

Kuwait’s liberation was not all victory and glory, however. Before departing, 
Iraqi soldiers had set fire to dozens of oil fields. Millions of barrels of petro- 
leum burned day and night, churning up a smoky haze that would take 
weeks to dispel. The fires were eventually contained, but the damage to the 
environment was already done. 


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i 


B.i a 


BACKGROUND 


Jane’s USAF 


USAF Auxiliary Support 

Throughout the duration of Operation Desert Shield/Storm, over 55,000 Air 
Force personnel were moved into the Gulf region in active duty. Thousands 
of other Air Force personnel helped maintain operations with secondary 
support in the form of supplies, equipment, communications, strategic plan- 
ning and medical help. 

Civil engineers shouldered most ofthe early work in Operation Desert Shield. 
They erected over 5,000 tents, constructed a small city of buildings and 
poured more than 1.5 million square feet of concrete and asphalt to create 
a fully functional airport. 

Fifteen independent air-transportable hospitals with 750 beds each were 
deployed, along with a larger contingency hospital. To further cover any med- 
ical needs, four Air Force contingency hospitals were set up in Europe and 
over 20 casualty reception hospitals in the United States. Finally, over 5,200 
medical personnel traveled into the immediate region to support these hos- 
pitals. Although casualties were relatively light compared to Vietnam and 
other past conflicts, nearly 50,000 patients were treated by the war’s end. 

USAF Command and Control 

Operation Desert Storm was a proving ground for many new command and 
information assets. The advent of high-end radar, stealth technology and 
powerful intelligence resources helped identify strategic targets and verify 
combat results. 

One ofthe most important developments was the implementation ofthe 
Global Positioning System used for navigation. Orbiting satellites communi- 
cating with ground-based transmitters could accurately pinpoint locations 
on the Earth’s surface within several meters. This system was operational 20 
out of 24 hours each day and provided accurate data for navigators and 
pilots trying to locate targets. 

Similarly, the Defense Satellite Communications System used satellites to 
ensure secure voice and data communication transmissions between over 
100 ground-based terminals. This allowed field commanders to send and 
obtain information more quickly than in any other war. 

A smaller but no less important asset, the Defense Meteorological Support 
system figured heavily into Desert Storm’s success — for early 1 991 brought 
the worst weather in 14 years to the Gulf region. 

USAF Intelligence Systems 

In previous wars, planning a mission could take several days. The primary 
reason for the delay was the transmission of information between all 
involved parties. In Desert Storm, however, the Mission Support System 
allowed Air Force pilots to share integrated mission planning support. 
Groundwork plans for a mission could be laid out in a few hours instead of 


6.20 


a few days. The system provided commanders and pilots with vital data, 
including charts, maps and target and threat information. This system 
emerged as a reliable command and control tool for CENTCOM. 

Digital faxes were also an integral part of planning and accomplishing mis- 
sions. With a tactical digital facsimile, high-resolution pictures and data 
could be transmitted to all friendly crews and commanders in the battlefield. 

In actual combat, the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) was 
probably the most important intelligence tool. Employed on two E-8 test air- 
craft, the J-STARS (Joint USAF-Grumman Surveillance Target Attack Radar 
System) had the ability to locate and track everything that moved on the ground. 
Alternating days of duty, the E-8 J-STARS collected information about Scud tar- 
gets, convoys, trucks, SAM sites and artillery sites. This experiment proved high- 
ly useful, since the information could then be handed off to other aircraft or to 
the troops below. J-STARS capabilities were available nearly 80% of the time, 
keeping most of Iraq well lit under the watchful eye of coalition radar. 


Aircraft in the Persian Gulf 

The combined firepower that the coalition unleashed during Operation 
Desert Storm was tremendous. The Air Force alone dropped 90% of all pre- 
cision-guided weapons and knocked out 36 fixed-wing aircraft and helicop- 
ters. From the opening day of the war until the cease-fire, the USAF flew 59% 
of all missions, provided half of the aircraft for all missions combined, and 
suffered an attrition rate of 37%. The mission capable rate, at 92%, was 
quite remarkable. 

Combined, Air Force Support aircraft, special operations aircraft and com- 
bat aircraft accounted for half of the aircraft in all coalition missions. Due 
to advances in stealth technology and weapon systems, many enemy aircraft 
and tactical targets were destroyed, but few coalition aircraft were lost. 

The next sections discuss various Air Force aircraft and their contribution to 
the war effort. (For additional information on aircraft, please see Aircraft 
Specifications, p. 7.1.) 

Support Aircraft 

The tactical deployment of aircraft into the Persian Gulf was larger than any 
deployment since World War II. The Air Force moved in nearly half a million 
troops and over half a million tons of cargo. US Air Force C-5 and C-1 41 air- 
craft carried most of the cargo; commercial aircraft transported most troops 
and the rest of the cargo. Almost all C-5s and C-141s in service were 
assigned to Desert Shield/Storm, though a few handled missions elsewhere 
in the world. The commercial aircraft were brought into duty as part of the 
Civil Reserve Air Fleet, an airlift arm ofthe Department of Defense. In its first 
“tour of duty,” the civilian-run CRAF contributed 95 passenger and 63 cargo 
aircraft to military operations in the Gulf. 

Nearly 150 C-1 30s were also deployed to support Operation Desert 
Shield/Storm and amassed nearly 50,000 sorties during the course ofthe war. 


i 


6.21 


BACKGROUND 


Jane’s 


Their primary duties were to 
haul troops and supplies to 
forward air bases, while also 
providing logistical support 
and medical evacuation. 

Over 250 KC-135 and near- 
ly 50 KC-10 aircraft flew 
into the Persian Gulf to pro- 
vide refueling points for air- 
craft in all service branches. 

Together, they refueled KG 1 35 refuels F-1 6 formation. USAF photo 

fighters, bombers, AWACS 
and J-STARS. 




I 


Special Operations Aircraft 

Air Force Special Operations Command 
units involved in Desert Storm flew a vast 
array of crucial missions. These aircraft sor- 
ties had a variety of mission objectives, 
including infiltrating enemy lines, perform- 
ing direct assault actions, rescuing downed 
pilots, dropping bombs and accomplishing 
counter-terrorist missions. 

Many special operations aircraft consist- 
ed of AC/EC/MC/HC-130 Aircraft and 
MH-53J Pave Low helicopters. These aircraft flew over 830 missions in sup- 
port of CENTCOM and provided valuable intelligence information. Some, 
such as the MH-53J Pave Low and AH-64 Apache Longbow, also played a 
vital role during the opening hours of the war. 

Combat Aircraft 

When the conflict in the Persian Gulf began, coalition airforces faced 750 Iraqi 
combat aircraft and 200 support aircraft, not to mention Scud surface-to-sur- 
face missiles, air defenses and chemical/biological weapons. The Iraqi air force 
had 24 operational airbases, all fortified with hardened aircraft shelters. It 
didn’t take long, however, for the coalition forces to destroy the Iraqi air force. 

Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm employed dozens of types of air- 
craft. Numerous combat fighters and bombers saw action in the region, 
including the F-1 5E Strike Eagle, the F-l 5C/D Eagle, the A-1 0 Thunderbolt 
II, the F-1 17 Nighthawk, the B-52 Stratofortress, the F-1 1 1F Aardvark, the 
EF-1 IIS Raven, the F-4G Wild Weasel and the F-1 6 Fighting Falcon. 

The F-15C/D was the most successful air-to-air killer in the Gulf. It was 
involved in over 5,900 sorties and was solely responsible for taking down 
every Iraqi fixed-wing aircraft lost in the conflict. Meanwhile, the F-15E was 
used primarily to root out Scud missile sites and hardened targets at night. 



MH-53J USAF photo by Senior 

Airman Richard M. Heileman 


B.22 



The Strike Eagle was responsible for successful hits on a number of Iraqi 
armor columns and command and control centers. The most successful air- 
to-ground combat aircraft was undeniably the A-1 OA Thunderbolt II. While fly- 
ing only 30% of the Air Force’s missions, the A-10A destroyed half of all con- 
firmed Iraqi equipment losses 
and fired off nearly all of the 
Air Force’s guided Maverick 
missiles. A versatile and 
maneuverable aircraft, the 
A-10A flew over 8,000 sorties 
and established itself as a day- 
time Scud hunter. A-1 OA fires a AGM-65 Maverick. USAF photo 



Strategic targets close to the heart of Iraq were the responsibility of the 
USAF’s stealth fighter, the F-117 Nighthawk. Silently flying over 1,250 sor- 
ties and bypassing Baghdad’s air defense systems, F- 1 17s took advantage of 
their stealthy approach and destroyed valuable communication and military 
sites with minimal collateral damage. 

The trusty B-52 Stratofortress reestablished itself as a hefty tool of destruc- 
tion during the Gulf War. B-52s flew over 1,600 missions and released 
72,000 weapons against large targets — airports, industrial plants, and stor- 
age facilities. The hits were more accurate than in past conflicts, probably 
due to an increased ability to locate the correct target. These bombers 
dropped nearly half of the Air Force’s bombs over the course of the war. 

Using its Forward-Looking Infrared Radar (FUR) and laser designation abil- 
ities, the F-1 1 1F Aardvark was a prime candidate to take out many target 
types. Many chemical, biological and nuclear sites fell victim to F-1 1 1 Fs, as 

did airfields, bunkers, comm sites and 
air defense systems. Despite facing a 
number of dangerous targets, only 
one F-1 1 1 F was damaged. 

Though they played a smaller role, EF- 
1 1 1 A Ravens were a crucial part of the 
coalition’s success in Operation Desert 
Storm. By employing radar jamming, 
they were able to temporarily blind Iraqi 
air defense sites long enough for other Air Force fighters to move in for the kill. 
One such fighter was the F-4G Wild Weasel, which carried high-speed anti-radar 
(FIARM) missiles that could easily knock out an active radar site. In fact, the F- 
4Gs were so successful that in many cases, the Iraqis did not dare risk to turn on 
their radar for more than a few seconds at a time. 

Finally, the F-1 6 Fighting Falcon was one of the Air Force’s most versatile air- 
craft. Numbering just under 250, they flew an impressive 13,450 sorties — 
more than any other USAF aircraft. Many of these missions concentrated 
attacks on Scud missile launchers, though military production and support 
facilities were hit as well. 



EF- 11 1 A Raven USAF photo by Master 

Sgt. Dave Nolan 


i 


B.23 


BACKGROUND 




USA.F 


Operation Red Arrow 

The Operation Red Arrow campaign and the Red Flag training missions are 
based on the USAF’s advanced combat training program, known as Red 
Flag. Red Flag exercises are designed to take the skills that pilots and aircrew 
learn in basic and weapon training and apply them to combat situations in 
which information must be shared and maneuvers coordinated among all 
elements of a team, and split-second decisions must be accurately made 
amidst the confusion of battle. The need for this type of field training, in 
addition to advanced weapon training, became apparent during the conflict 
in Vietnam. 



The Need for Advanced Combat Training 

It was an easy assumption to make: as air-to-air missile technology became 
more and more sophisticated, aerial offensive/defensive maneuvers would 
quickly become obsolete. Prior to the conflict in Vietnam, most imagined 
that in the future of air combat, a pilot would spot his opponent from a dis- 
tance, lock on, launch missiles, and continue with the mission unimpeded as 
the bandit fireballed to the ground. Classic dogfighting training was de- 
emphasized in favor of weapons training — prior to the Vietnam conflict, 
only the US Navy’s F-8 Crusader pilots had received any advanced combat 
maneuver training. In fact, the assumption that missile warfare had replaced 
the up-close gun battle was so great, that the early model F-4s flown over 
Vietnam even lacked internal guns. 

Flowever, the long-range AIM-7 Sparrows of the Vietnam era were often 
unreliable and ineffective. And since the rules of engagement at the time 
required a visual ID, pilots were forced to further decrease missile effective- 
ness by firing at shorter ranges than those for which the missiles had been 
designed. Once they lost the missile advantage, US pilots found themselves 
engaged in close aerial combat with guns and short-range, rear-aspect mis- 
siles. Since the North Vietnamese MiGs could for the most part meet or 
exceed American aircraft performance in close maneuvers, air battles often 
came down to skill alone. 


JO 

Q) 

C 


The overall air-to-air exchange ratio in Vietnam was low — 2.5 enemy pilots 
downed for every American pilot, compared to 8 to 1 during WWII and 14 to 
1 over Korea. It became obvious that those F-8 squadrons that had received 
advanced air combat training significantly outperformed squadrons that had 
not. The importance of advanced air combat training hit home, and both the 
USAF and USN established programs designed to train pilots to effectively 
use their high-tech weapons and weapons training in simulated battlefield sit- 
uations. The Air Force’s premier combat training program, Red Flag, began 
in 1975 and was designed by the late Col. Richard “Moody” Suter. 


B.24 


Red Flag Today 

In Red Flag missions, pilots-in-training are part of the “Blue” forces. They are 
sent out on combat maneuvers against mock airfields, missile sites and 
other common targets. More experienced personnel make up the opposition 
“Red” forces; they are tasked with simulating enemy air force maneuvers and 
anti-air doctrine. Red ground forces man anti-aircraft artillery and SAM 
sites, providing pilots the opportunity to learn how to avoid being shot 
down while successfully completing a mission. In addition, Blue force pilots 
face heavy opposition from the Red Air Force — expert pilots who have been 
trained to use F-16C aircraft to simulate the tactics and techniques new 
pilots will most likely have to defend against. 

An important element of the overarching Red Flag training procedure is the 
Measurement and Debriefing System. Through this system, each pilot’s mis- 
sion is monitored and later reconstructed, allowing instructors to pinpoint 
mistakes and suggest alternatives. 

Currently more than a thousand pilots go through each intensive two-week 
Red Flag training session. Most are American, although other NATO allies 
are also included. The primary “base of operations” is 1 2,000 miles of desert 
near Nellis AFB, just outside Las Vegas, Nevada. 

As the motto goes, Red Flag is where “the Air Force’s Best Get Better.” 



Two F-16Cs painted and piloted as “ MiG ” aircraft of the Red 
Air Force during Red Flag training exercises over Nellis AFB. 

USAF photo by Senior Airman Brett Snow 


B.25 


BACKGROUND 


Jane’s USAF 


Operation Sleeping Giant 

Jane’s Defence Weekly 

07 October 1995 Volume 024 / Issue 014/ Page 3 

NATO Acts on CFE Complaint 

NATO has moved to counter Russia’s proposal that it be allowed to keep 
higher levels of equipment in its northern and southern flanks than mandat- 
ed in the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty. 

A new plan, tabled at the CFE’s Joint Consultative Group (JCG) in Vienna, 
includes “no numerical change in the flank numerical limits”, said John 
Flolum, head of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Russia 
“would still have to make substantial reductions,” noting that Moscow has 
already destroyed more than 10,000 pieces of treaty-limited equipment. 

The proposal would essentially “remove rearward” political subdivisions in 
both the flanks that do not directly adjoin sensitive borders with Norway 
and Turkey. The effect is that the overall numerical limits of allowed equip- 
ment in the flanks would not change. However, the land mass in which they 
would be allowed would be smaller. This would result in Russia redistribut- 
ing its treaty-limited equipment in the areas that concern it the most. 

Russia’s complaint is that the 1 990 CFE treaty limits punish it unfairly since 
the treaty was negotiated with the Soviet Union. Since then, Russia has 
sought amendments to the treaty changing its allowable limits of conven- 
tional weapons in both its northern and southern flank regions. Warfare in 
Chechnya and unrest in the Caucasus have also increased Russian interest in 
changing the treaty. 

As a trade-off for these NATO changes Russia would have to agree to addi- 
tional exchanges of information, inspections, and “additional equipment 
restraints in certain areas”, says Holum. These efforts would provide addi- 
tional security reassurances to Norway and Turkey. 

NATO believes its new plan could be approved by the JCG without amend- 
ing the treaty, as the original maps that spelled out the flanks and subdivi- 
sions were not formally part of the treaty. 

Jane’s Intelligence Review — Pointer 

01 October 1998 Volume 005 / Issue 010/ Page 7 

Discontent Grows in Russia 

Labour unrest in Russia continues to grow. According to the then Russian 
Deputy Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov, the government will withhold cash 
from coal-mining industries in any region where unpaid miners were block- 
ing the rail lines. In addition, he stated that the government will disregard 
any demands from miners who resorted to unlawful forms of protest, such 
as blocking the railways. Despite these statements, the leader of the political 


6.26 


arm of Russia’s Federation of Independent Trade-Unions threatened to 
launch a nationwide strike in protest over unpaid wages and a government- 
austerity plan drawn up as a condition of a bail-out by the International 
Monetary Fund. Union leaders will meet in September to convince its mem- 
bers to begin an indefinite strike on 7 October. 

However, there are some small signs of improvement in the labour situation. 
Miners on the island of Sakhalin called a halt to a two-week blockade of the 
main regional power plant. This improvement may be short-lived; local gov- 
ernment employees (such as teachers and doctors) who are also demanding 
their wages will join the miners in again blockading the power station if the 
government cannot find a way to pay backwages. 

In other areas of the country, labour unrest has spread to other sectors of 
the work force. For instance, in Vladivostok, ambulance crews were on strike 
for the third day as Pointer went to press, in protest of the fact that they have 
not been paid for the last four months. Currently, only four ambulance 
teams are working in Vladivostok, a city of 650,000 people, and they will 
only respond to calls in which a life-saving procedure must be performed. 


Frontline: Eastern Europe 

07 February 2000 Volume 27 / Issue 005 / Page 35 


Military Behind Damidov — People Next? 

Although immense civil discontent over Russia’s recurrent economic crises 
and ever-expanding organized crime webs had analysts in the West predict- 
ing an imminent Russian coup for years, all were caught offguard when the 
coup actually occurred. The leader of the coup, former Russian Air Force 
Commander Sergey Damidov, was by no means unknown in the West, but 
his intention to mount a large-scale coup against the democratic Russian 
leadership was an extremely well-kept secret. 

In retrospect, it appears that Damidov had been quietly planning the coup 
for years, taking steps and making deals necessary to guarantee his success 
without suggesting to anyone other than a few trusted advisors that he was 
planning a coup. Certainly his rank in the military, itself one of the hardest- 
hit sectors of the Russian economy, guaranteed him a hierarchical network 
of supporters — and perhaps the only such network well-armed enough to 
thwart mafia opposition to January’s coup. Since the coup, Damidov has 
made efforts to reward the military for this support, delivering at least some 
of the back payment owed soldiers and promising a renewed Russia rebuilt 
on a strong military base. 

Although Damidov has made similar pledges of security and prosperity to 
the general populace, it remains to be seen how stable his base of support 
outside the military will remain. 


i 


B.27 


BACKGROUND 


Jane’s 


Frontline: Eastern Europe 

1 8 May 2000 Volume 27 / Issue 1 8 / Page 1 7 

Damidov Initiates Reforms 

Sergey Damidov’s New Communist Party (NCP), created shortly after he took 
control of the Russian central government on 5 January 2000, appears to be 
modeled very closely on some of the more repressive regimes of its forerunner. 
Within a few months of its creation, it revived the Stalinist Five-Year Plan, calling 
for increased military and infrastructure spending, to be funded by decreases in 
other government spending. In support of the program, Damidov has promised 
Russians that although short-term sacrifi ces may be great — cutting already min- 
imal social services down to nearly nothing — in the long-term, a military build- 
up will create jobs and stabilize wages. And unlike the late democratic regime, 
Damidov has announced that the NCP will guarantee all workers jobs. He prom- 
ises that if they work together through these lean years to rebuild Russia, then 
Russia will be in a position to re-institute health care, education, retirement pen- 
sions, and other social support systems once guaranteed all Russians. 

Due to recent limitations on the press, it is difficult to ascertain exactly what 
the average citizen thinks ofthe NCP regime. Official NCP press releases and 
broadcasts quote Russian relief that the country is finally united behind a 
common project, and cite the discipline and goals ofthe Five-Year Plan as 
reassuring. And indeed, after nearly a decade of plummeting wages and van- 
ishing services with no goal in sight, this might certainly be the case. 



I 


Frontline: Western Europe 

21 June 2004 Volume 27 / Issue 23 / Page 2 

NATO Rushes to Counter Invasion 

Caught offguard by Russia’s 6June invasion of Poland, the Czech Republic and 
Germany, NATO hurriedly prepares its counteroffensive. Although Russia 
appears to have temporarily halted its advancement into western Germany, the 
situation there remains extremely tense. As native German forces struggle to 
gear up to full combat readiness arms, equipment and troops from NATO allies 
pour into German bases. Although Germany has no shortage of personnel, this 
lightning buildup of force has stretched supplies to the limit, and NATO sup- 
port of the ground force 
has focused on meeting 
the most immediate logis- 
tical demands of equip- 
ment and weaponry. 

Meanwhile, the US Air 
Force has deployed 
squadrons to airbases in 
West Germany to provide 
air support for the ground 
force buildup and offset USAF aircraft fly by a castle near Spanghelm AFB in Germany. 
further Russian expansion. USAF photo by Senior Master Sg. Rose Reynolds 



6 . 28 



Jane’s USAF 


Previous page: Two F-1 5 Es in formation with a MiG-29. USAF photo. 



Chapter 7 


Definitions 7.1 

Flyable Aircraft 7.3 

Fairchild Republic 
A-10 Thunderbolt II 

“Warthog” 7.3 

F-1 05D/F Thunderchief . . . . 7.6 
Lockheed F-117A 

Nighthawk 7.8 

McDonnell Douglas 

F-15C/D Eagle 7.10 

McDonnell Douglas 

F-15E Eagle 7.12 


Lockheed Martin 
(General Dynamics) 

F-1 6 Fighting Falcon . . . . 7.14 
Lockheed/ Boeing 

F-22 Raptor 7.20 

McDonnell Douglas 

Phantom II F-4E 7.24 

Mikoyan MiG-29 

“Fulcrum” 7.28 


HIPOPHET cncnc 
fliTfwflfirl vTEww 

The descriptions and specifications in this section were taken from the 
Military Aircraft — Fixed Wing section of the 1997 and later editions of Jane’s 
All The World’s Aircraft. Due to space constraints, the descriptions and/or sta- 
tistics have been abridged. All British spellings have been preserved. 



DEFINITIONS 

The following statistical information is provided for each plane, if available: 

Approach speed. Maximum speed at which the airplane can land without 
crashing (in knots). 

Combat radius. Distance an aircraft can fly from base with enough fuel 
remaining to return (in nautical miles). 

G limit. Structural limit of G-force the aircraft can withstand (in units of G). 

Height. Measured from ground to highest point on tailplane or fuselage (in 
meters). 

Hover ceiling. (For helicopters) The maximum height (in meters) at which a 
hover can be maintained. 

Internal weapons load. Maximum weight of ordnance carried inside air- 
craft’s weapons bay (in kilograms). 

Length. Measured from nose to tail at longest point on fuselage (in meters). 

Max dive speed. Maximum speed safely attained during a downward dive. 
(Additional airspeed may cause structural damage.) 

Max external fuel capacity. Weight of fuel held by external tanks attached to 
hardpoints (in kilograms). 

Max internal fuel capacity. Weight of fuel held by internal fuel tanks (in kilograms). 

Max landing weight. Limit at which aircraft can make a safe landing (in kilograms). 

Max level speed. Maximum speed achieved by the aircraft’s power plant 
alone (i.e., not accelerated by diving, etc.); varies by altitude (in knots). 

Max payload. In military aircraft, loosely used to mean total load (weight) 
carried of weapons, cargo, or other mission equipment (in kilograms). 

Max power loading. Aircraft weight divided by total propulsive power or 
thrust at takeoff (in kilograms per kilo Newton). 

Max rate of climb at S/L. Maximum rate of climb attainable at sea-level (in 
meters per minute). 

Max weapons load. Maximum weight of ordnance loaded after aircraft is 
loaded with full internal fuel and avionic equipment (in kilograms). 



" 7. 1 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


Jane’s 



I 


Max wing loading. Aircraft weight divided by wing area (in kilograms per 
meter squared). 

Never exceed speed (V NE ). Aerodynamic or structural velocity limit (in knots). 

Normal max operating speed. Normal speed beyond which the aircraft is 
not flown (in knots). 

Normal/Max takeoff weights. Limit to which an aircraft can be loaded and 
still take off (in kilograms). 

Operational weight empty. Aircraft weight including weight of all necessary 
avionic equipment (in kilograms). 

Range, hi-low-hi and hi-hi-hi. The distance an aircraft can fly under speci- 
fied conditions (in nautical miles). Hi-hi-hi and hi-low-hi refer to different 
types of runs: hi-low-hi means an aircraft approaches the target at a high 
altitude, sweeps low, and then returns to base at high altitude; on a hi-hi-hi 
run the aircraft maintains a constant high altitude. 

Service ceiling. The height equivalent to the air density at which the maxi- 
mum attainable rate of climb (lOOft/min) occurs (in meters). 

Stall speed. Speed at which aircraft’s wings no longer generate enough lift 
to keep the plane in the air (in knots). 

Takeoff/landing run. Distance necessary for aircraft to take off or land safe- 
ly (in meters). 

Takeoff speed at normal combat weight. Initial speed necessary to lift air- 
craft off the ground (in knots). 

Weight empty. Weight of aircraft without crew, fuel, cargo, and ordnance 
(in kilograms). 

Wheel track. Distance between mainwheels, measured from centre of each 
wheel (in meters). 

Wheelbase. Minimum distance from centre of nosewheel ortailwheel to line 
joining mainwheels (in meters). 

Wing area, gross. Total projected area of clean wing (no flaps, slats, etc.) 
including all control surfaces and area of fuselage bounded by leading- and 
trailing-edges projected to centreline (in meters squared). 

Wing aspect ratio. Measure of wing slenderness as seen in cross-sectional 
view; square of the wingspan divided by the gross area (as a ratio). 

Wing span. Distance between wingtips (in meters). 


7. 2 


FLYABLE AIRCRAFT 


Fairchild Republic 
A- 10 Thunderbolt II “ Warthog ” 

Type 

Single-seat close support 
aircraft. 

Programme 

Fairchild Republic and 
Northrop each built two 
prototypes for evaluation 
under the US Air Force’s 
A-X programme, initiated 
in 1967, for a close sup- 
port aircraft. The first 
Fairchild Republic proto- 
type (71-1 369), designated YA-1 OA, flew for the first time 1 0 May 1 972. It 
was announced 1 8 January 1 973, that Fairchild was the winner of the com- 
petitive evaluation of the prototypes, and received a contract for six A-10A 
DT and E aircraft, the first of which flew 1 5 February 1 975. 

The first flight by a production A-1 OA Thunderbolt II (75-00258) was made 
21 October 1975. Purchase of a total of 739 aircraft was planned (includ- 
ing the six DT and E aircraft), but funding was terminated in 1983 after a 
total of 71 3 production A-1 Os had been ordered. Delivery was completed 20 
March 1984. There were still 327 aircraft in service with the USAF, USAF 
Reserve, and ANG in early 1994. The Thunderbolt II was used during the 
Gulf War of 1 991 . 




Export versions of the A-10 were available as single-seat night attack and 
two-seat combat-ready trainer aircraft. Night capability is provided by the 
addition of a Westinghouse WX-50 radar, Texas Instruments AAR-42 FLIR, 
Litton LN-39 inertial navigation system, Floneywell APN-194 radar altimeter, 
AiResearch digital air data computer, Ferranti 105 laser rangefinder, and 
Kaiser head-up display. 

It is expected that night/adverse weather capability can be improved with the 
addition ofa LANTIRN (low-altitude navigation targeting infrared for night) 
fire control pod. 

The first combat-ready A-1 OA wing was the 345th Tactical Fighter Wing, based 
at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, to which deliveries began in March 1977. 


Design Features 

Cantilever low-wing monoplane, with wide chord, deep aerofoil section (NACA 
6716 on centre-section and at start of outer panel, NACA 6713 at tip) to pro- 
vide low wing loading. Incidence -1 °. Dihedral 7° on outer panels. 


7.3 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 



Jane’s 


Flying Controls 

Wide span ailerons made up of dual upper and lower surfaces separate to 
serve as airbrakes. Flaps, airbrakes and ailerons actuated hydraulically. 
Ailerons pilot-controlled by servo tab during manual reversion. Small lead- 
ing-edge slat inboard of each mainwheel fairing. Redundant and armour- 
protected flight control system. Interchangeable elevators, each with an elec- 
trically operated trim tab. Rudders and elevators actuated hydraulically. 

Structure 

Aluminum alloy three-spar structure, consisting of one-piece constant-chord 
centre-section and tapered outer panels with integrally stiffened skins and 
drooped (cambered) wingtips. Outer panel leading-edges and core of trail- 
ing-edges are of honeycomb sandwich. 

Landing Gear 

Menasco retractable tricycle type with single wheel on each unit. All units 
retract forward, and have provision for emergency gravity extension. 
Interchangeable mainwheel units retract into non-structural pod fairings 
attached to the lower surface of the wings. 


Power Plant 

Two General Electric TF34-GE-1 00 high bypass ratio turbofan engines, each 
rated at 40.3kN, enclosed in separate pods, each pylon-mounted to the 
upper rear fuselage at a point approximately midway between the wing trail- 
ing-edges and the tailplane leading-edges. Fuel is contained in two tear- 
resistant and self-sealing cells in the fuselage, and two smaller, adjacent inte- 
gral cells in the wing centre-section. Maximum internal fuel capacity 4853kg. 



I 


Accommodation 

Single-seat enclosed cockpit, well forward of wings, with large transparent 
bubble canopy to provide all-round vision. Bulletproof windscreen. Canopy 
is hinged at rear and opens upward. Douglas ejection seat operable at 
speeds of 450 knots down to zero speed at zero height. Entire cockpit struc- 
ture is protected by an armoured ‘bathtub’ structure of titanium, capable of 
withstanding projectiles up to 23mm calibre. 


Armament 

General Electric GAU-8/A Avenger 30mm seven-barrel cannon, mounted in 
nose with 2° depression and offset slightly to port so that as the barrels 
rotate the firing barrel is always on the aircraft’s centreline. Gun and han- 
dling system for the linkless ammunitions are mechanically synchronised and 
driven by two motors fed from the aircraft’s hydraulic system. The single 
drum magazine has a capacity of 1 350 rounds, and has a dual firing rate of 
either 2100 or 4200 rds/min. Four stores pylons under each wing (one 
inboard and three outboard of each mainwheel fairing), and three under 
fuselage, for max external load of 7.257kg. External load with full internal 


~7. A 


fuel is 5482kg. The centreline pylon and the two flanking fuselage pylons 
cannot be occupied simultaneously. The centreline pylon has a capacity of 
2268kg; the two fuselage outer pylons and two centre-section underwing 
pylons 1 587kg each; the two innermost outerwing pylons 1 1 34kg each; and 
the four outermost wing pylons 453kg each. These allow carriage of a wide 
range of stores, including 28,226kg Mk 82 LDGP general purpose bombs; 
eight BLU-1 or BLU-27/B Rockeye II cluster bombs, 16 CBU-52/71, 10 
AGM-65A Maverick missiles; Mk 82 and Mk 84 laser-guided bombs; Mk 84 
electro-optically guided bombs; two SUU-23 pods; chaff or other jammer 
pods; or up to three drop tanks. 


Specifications 

Dimensions (External) Performance 1 


Wing span 

17.53m 

Never exceed speed 

450 knots 

Wing aspect ratio 

6.54 

Max combat speed 


Length 

16.26m 

atS/L, ‘clean’ 

390 knots 

Height 

4.47m 

at 1525m, with 385 knots 

six Mk 82 bombs 

Tailplane span 

5.74m 

Cruising speed. 


Weights and Loadings 

atS/L 

300 knots 

Weight, 

empty 


at 1525m 

342 knots 

9183kg 

Stabilised 45 ° 

260 knots 

equipped, “clean” 

10,600kg 

dive speed 2 


Operating weight, 

10,710kg 

Max rate of climb 3 . 

1 828m/min 

empty 

Max takeoff weight 

21,500kg 

Mission radius, 
CAS and escort 4 

250nm 

Max wing load 

449.88kg/m 2 

Reconnaissance 
Deep strike 

400nm 

540nm 

Thrust/weight ratio 

0.6 

Takeoff distance 



at max takeoff weight 1372m 

at forward airstrip weight 426m 

Landing distance 

at Max takeoff weight 762m 

at forward airstrip weight 382m 



1 At max takeoff weight except where indicated. 

2 Below 2440m, AUW of 5,932kg. 

3 At sea level, for basic design weight. 

4 2h loiter, 20 min reserves 


7.5 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


USAF 


F-105D/F 
Thunderchief 

Type 

Single-seat close-support aircraft 
(F-105D). 

Two-seat dual-purpose trainer/tac- 
tical fighter (F-105F) 

Programme 

The F-105 was developed to meet USAF requirements for a supersonic single- 
seat fighter-bomber able to deliver nuclear weapons and heavier loads of con- 
ventional bombs and rockets, at very high speeds and over long ranges. Design 
work began in 1954. The first of these two Y F-105A prototypes began in 
1 954. The first of these flew on 22 October 1 955, followed by 75 F-1 05Bs, 
3J F-105Bs and later production versions as follows. 



NARA photo NWDNS-342-C-K2 1362 



jo 

Q) 

c 


Variants 

YF-105A. The first of two Y F-105As exceeded Mach 1 during its initial test 
flight on October 22, 1 955, powered by a Pratt & WhitneyJ57 turbojet engine. 

F-1 05B. Single-seat day fighter-bomber with Pratt &WhitneyJ75-P-3 or -5 tur- 
bojet engine (6,810kg st dry, approx 1 1,350kg with afterburner). Introduced 
swept-forward air intakes. The first example of this developed version flew on 
May 26, 1956, and was delivered to the USAF Flight Test Centre shortly after- 
wards. The first production aircraft was delivered to USAF Tactical Air 
Command on May 27, 1958. The 335th Tactical Fighter Squadron, Fourth 
Tactical Fighter Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida, was first squadron to be equipped 
with F-105B. Production was completed in 1959 in favor of F-105B. 
Production was completed in 1 959 in favor of F-1 05D after 75 had been built. 

JF-105B. Three aircraft of initial test batch of 1 5 were started as R F-105B’s 
with cameras in nose. When this role was dropped, they were redesignated J 
F-1 05 B special tests. The first of them flew for the first time on July 1 8, 1957. 

F-105D. Single-seat all-weather fighter-bomber with Pratt & Whitney J75-P- 
19W turbojet, NASARR monopulse radar system and Doppler for night or 
bad weather operation. NASAAR provides all radar functions for both low 
and high level missions — air search, automatic tracking, ground mapping 
and terrain avoidance. First F-105D flew on June, 9, 1959, and deliveries to 
the 4th Tactical Wing began in May 1 960. Over 600 built. Max takeoff weight 
23,832kg. Max level speed Mach 1 .1 1 at sea level, Mach 2.1 above 1 1 ,000m. 

F-105F. Two-seat multi-purpose trainer/tactical fighter version of F-105D. 
Only major design changes are in an increase in the length of the fuselage 
and a proportionate increase in the height of the tail fin. Unspecified num- 
ber ordered for USAF in Autumn of 1962, in lieu of equal, number of 
F-1 05Ds, for service with all F-1 05D units. First F-1 05F flew for the first time 
on June 11,1 963. (The following descriptions apply to the F-1 05F.) 


7.6 



Landing Gear 

Hydraulically-retractable tricycle type, with single wheel on each unit. Main 
units retract inward into thickened area of wing-roots created by main air 
intake ducts. Nose-wheel retracts forward. 


Power Plant 

One Pratt & Whitney J75-P-1 9W turbojet engine (12,030kg st with water 
injection and afterburning). Fuel in three flexible tanks in fuselage forward, 
main, and aft) with total capacity of 2,91 25 litres and one 1 ,477 litre bomb- 
bay tank. 

Equipment 

General Electric FC-5 flight-control system connects with AN/APN-131 
Doppler for automatic navigation. AN/ARC 70 UHF radio. AN/ASG-19 
“Thunderstick” integrated armament control system consisting of NASAAR 
radar, General Electric automatic lead computing sight, toss-bomb computer, 
and associated equipment. 

Armament 

Fixed armament consists of one General Electric M-61 20mm Vulcan auto- 
matic multi-barrel gun with 1,029 rounds. Typical alternative loads are (1) 
650 gal centre-line tank, 450 gal tank on one inner wing pylon, nuclear store 
on the other pylon; (2) 650 gal centre-line tank and four GAM-83B Bullpup 
nuclear missiles; (3) 450 gal tanks on centre and inner wing pylons, nuclear 
weapon in bomb-bay; (4) 650 gal centre-line tank, two 3,0001b bombs on 
inner wing pylons; (5) 650 gal centre-line tank, two 450 gal tanks on inner 
wing pylons, four Sidewinder missiles on outer-wing pylons; (6) Three rock- 
et packs on centre-line, two on each outer pylon; or (7) Nine BLU-1/B fire- 
bombs or MLU-10/B mines in similar arrangement to rocket packs, or six- 
teen leaflet bombs, 7501b bombs, or MG-1 toxic bombs. 

Specifications 


Dimensions (External] (F-105F) 


Wing span 

10.65m 

Length 

21.06m 

Height (over tail) 

6.1 5m 

Areas (F-105F] 


Wing area, gross 

35.77m 2 

Rudder 

1.06m 2 

Weights and Loading 

Weight empty 

12,879kg 

Max takeoff weight 

24,495kg 


Performance (F-105F] 

Max level speed 

at 11,600m Mach 2.25 

atS/L Mach 1.25 

Max cruising speed Mach 0.95 
Stall speed 1 55 knots 

Rate of climb at S/L 9,750m/min 
Range with max fuel 3,330km 



7.7 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


USA.F 


Lockheed 
F-117A 
Nighthawk 

Type 

Precision attack aircraft with 
stealth elements, optimised 
for radar energy dispersion 
and low IR emission. 

USAF photo by Technical Sgt. Jack Braden 

Programme 

Production complete; details of development and early service appeared in the 
1993-94 and earlier Jane’s. Navalised F-117N proposal described separately. 

Design Features 

Multi-faceted airframe designed to reflect radar energy away from originating 
transmitter, particularly downward-looking AEW aircraft; vortexes from 
many sharp edges, including leading-edge of wing, designed to form coordi- 
nated lifting airflow pattern; wings have 67° 30' sweepback, much greater 
than needed for subsonic performance, with aerofoil formed by two flat 
planes underneath and three on upper surface; forward underwing surface 
blends with forward fuselage; all doors and access panels have serrated edges 
to suppress radar reflection; internal weapons bay 4.7m long and 1 ,75m wide 
divided longitudinally by two lengthwise doors hinged on centreline; boom 
refuelling receptacle on port side of top plate, aft of cockpit. Frontal radar 
cross-section estimated as 0.01m 2 . 




Landing Gear 

Tricycle type by Menasco, with single wheels all retracting forward. Loral 
brakes (steel originally, being replaced by carbon/carbon), wheels (F-15E 
size) and anti-skid system. Goodyear tyres. All doors have serrated edges to 
suppress radar reflections. Emergency arrester hook with explosively jetti- 
soned cover; Pioneer Aerospace braking parachute (black). 


. 0 ) 

03 

C 


Power Plant 

Two 48.0I<N (10,8001b st) class General Electric F404-GE-F1D2 non-aug- 
mented turbofans. Rectangular overwing air intakes with 2.5 x 1.5 cm heat- 
ed grid for anti-icing and low observability. Auxiliary air intake doors in hor- 
izontal surface immediately to the rear. Part of cold air ingested bypasses 
engine and is mixed with exhaust gases for cooling. Narrow-slot ‘platypus’ 
exhausts, designed by Astech/MCI, in rear fuselage, 1.65m long and 0.10m 
high, with extended lower lip, surrounded by heat tiles of type used on Space 
Shuttle and with 1 1 vertical, internal guide vanes. Sundstrand air turbine 
starter. In-flight refuelling receptacle in decking aft of cockpit, illuminated 
for night refuelling by lamp at apex of cockpit. Optional drop tank on inter- 
nal weapons pylon. 


V.B 



Accommodation 

Pilot only; McDonnell Douglas ACES II zero/zero ejection seat. Five 
Sierracin/Sylmar Corporation individually framed flat-plate windows, 
including single-piece windscreen. Transparencies gold-coated for radar dis- 
sipation. Canopy hinged to open upward and backward. 

Systems 

AiResearch environmental control, auxiliary power and emergency power systems. 


Avionics 


Forward-looking infrared (FUR) sensor, with dual fields of view, in recessed 
emplacement, covered by fine mesh screen, below windscreen. Retractable 
downward-looking DLIR and laser designator beneath forward fuselage to 
starboard of nosewheel bay; FUR and DLIR by Texas Instruments (to be 
replaced by improved equipment during third-phase retrofit in 1 994). HUD 
based on Kaiser AN/AVQ-28; large head-down display for FUR imagery 
flanked by two multi-function CRTs. Retractable radio antennae beneath 
fuselage, ahead of port main landing gear, and on spine. Honeywell radar 
altimeter, Honeywell SPN-GEANS INS (replaced by Honeywell H-423/E ring 
laser gyro from August 1991; Rockwell Collins GPS to be added); IBM AP- 
102 mission computer (replacing original three Delco M362F computers); 
GEC-Marconi flight control computer/navigation interface and autopilot 
computer (NIAC) system; SLI Avionic Systems Corporation expanded data 
transfer system and AHRS. Harris Corporation digital moving map added as 
retrofit with full-colour MFDs. 



Armament 

Full range of USAF tactical fighter ordnance, principally two 20001b bombs: 
BLU-109B low-level laser-guided or GBU-1 0/GBU-27 laser-guided glide 
weapons; alternatively, AGM-65 Maverick or AGM-88 HARM ASMs. 
Provision for AIM-9 Sidewinder (against AWACS aircraft). Internal carriage 
on two extendible beams in weapon bay. (Only missiles with seeker heads 
extended below aircraft prior to launch; bombs released from within 
weapons bay.) 


Specifications 

Dimensions (External) Performance' 


Wing span 

13.20m 

Max level speed 

561 knots 

Length 

20.08m 

Max operating speed Mach 0.9 

Height 

3.78m 

*Takeoff speed 

1 65 knots 



at normal combat 

weight 

Weights and Loadings 

Weight empty 

13,381kg 

* Landing speed 

1 50 knots 

(estimated) 

Mission radius 2 

570nm 

Max weapons load 

2268kg 

G limit 

+6 

(internal) 


Max level speed 

561 knots 

Max takeoff weight 

23,814kg 



1 An asterisk (*) indicates statistics not confirmed by the US Air Force. 

2 Unrefuelled, 2268kg weapon load 


7.3 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


Jane’s USAF 


Boeing [McDonnell Douglas) F-15C/D Eagle 

Typ e 

Twin-turbofan air superiority 
fighter; secondary attack role. 

Programme 

First flight of Y F-15 27 July 
1972; first F-15C (78-468) 26 
February 1979; first F-15D 19 
June 1979; P&W FI 00-PW-220 
standard since 1985; last of 
894 F-15A/B/C/Ds delivered 3 
November 1 989; production restarted during 1 991 to produce five for Israel and 
12 for Saudi Arabia; production now concentrated on F-15E. 

Design Features 

NACA 64A aerofoil section with conical camber on leading-edge; sweepback 
38° 42' at quarter-chord; thickness/chord ratio 6.6% at root, 3% at tip; 
anhedral 1 °; incidence 0°. Twin fins positioned to receive vortex off wing and 
maintain directional stability at high angles of attack. Straight two-dimen- 
sional external compression engine air inlet each side of fuselage. Air inlet 
controllers by Hamilton Standard. Air inlet actuators by National Water Lift. 

Structure 

Wing based on torque box with integrally machine skins and ribs of light alloy 
and titanium; aluminum honeycomb wingtips, flaps and ailerons; airbrake 
panel oftitanium, aluminum honeycomb and graphite/epoxy composites skin. 

Landing Gear 

Hydraulically retractable tricycle type, with single wheel on each unit. All units 
retract forward. Cleveland nose and main units, each incorporating an oleo- 
pneumatic shock absorber. Nosewheel and tyre by Goodyear, size 22 x 
6.6-10, pressure 17.93 bars. Mainwheels by Bendix, with Goodyear tyres size 
34.5 x 9.75-1 8, pressure 23.44 bars. Bendix carbon heat-sink brakes. Hydro- 
Aire wheel braking skid control system. 

Power Plant 

Two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220 turbofans, each rated at 105.7kN with 
afterburning for take-off. Internal fuel in eight Goodyear fuselage tanks, 
total capacity 7836 litres. Simmonds fuel gauge system. Optional conformal 
fuel tanks attached to side of engine air intakes, beneath wing, each con- 
taining 2839 litres. Provision for up to three additional 2309 litre external 
fuel tanks. Max total internal and external fuel capacity 20,441 litres . 

Accommodation 

Pilot only, on McDonnell Douglas ACES II ejection seat. Stretched acrylic canopy 
and windscreen. Windscreen anti-icing valve by Dynasciences Corporation. 

Avionics 

General Electric automatic analogue flight control system standard. Hughes 
Aircraft AN/APG-63 X-band pulse Doppler radar (upgraded to AN/APG-70 



USAF photo by Senior Airman Greg Davis 


7.1 □ 


under MSIP), equipped since 1980 with a Hughes Aircraft programmable sig- 
nal processor, provides long-range detection and tracking of small high-speed 
targets operating at all altitudes to treetop level, and feeds accurate tracking 
information to the IBM CP-1075 96K (24K on early F-15C/Ds) central com- 
puter to ensure effective launch of the aircraft’s missiles or the firing of its inter- 
nal gun. For close-in dogfights, the radar acquires the target automatically and 
the steering/weapon system information is displayed on a McDonnell Douglas 
Electronics AN/AVQ-20 head-up display. A Teledyne Electronics AN/APX-101 
IFF transponder informs ground stations and other suitably equipped aircraft 
that the F-1 5 is friendly. It also supplies data on the F-1 5’s range, azimuth, alti- 
tude and identification to air traffic controllers. A Hazeltine AN/APX-76 IFF 
interrogator informs the pilot if an aircraft seen visually or on radar is friendly. 
A Litton reply evaluator for the IFF system operates with the AN/APX-76. A 
Honeywell vertical situation display set, using a cathode ray tube to present 
radar, electro-optical identification and attitude director indicator formats to 
the pilot, permits inputs received from the aircraft’s sensors and the central 
computer to be visible to the pilot under any light conditions. 


Armament 

Provision for carriage and launch of a variety of air-to-air weapons over short 
and medium ranges, including four AIM-9L/M Sidewinders, four AIM-7F/M 
Sparrows or eight AIM-120 AMRAAM, and a 20mm M61A1 six-barrel gun 
with 940 rounds of ammunition. General Electric lead-computing gyro. A 
Dynamic Controls Corporation armament control system keeps the pilot 
informed of weapons status and provides for their management. Three air- 
to-surface weapon stations (five if configured with conformal fuel tanks) 
allow for the carriage of up to 10,705kg of bombs, rockets or additional 
ECM equipment. AN/AWG-20 armament control system. 


Specifications 


Dimensions External 


Wing span 

13.05m 

Wing aspect ratio 

3.01 

Length 

19.43m 

Height 

5.63m 

Tailplane span 

8.61 m 

Weights and Loadings 

Weight empty ' 

12,973kg 

Max fuel loads 


internal 

6103kg 

2 CFTs 

4422.5kg 

3 auxiliary tanks 

5395.5kg 

in ternal + external 

15,921kg 

Max takeoff weight 

30,845 kg 

(with cn~s) 


Max wing loading 

546.1 kg/m 2 

Max power loading 

147.87 kg/kN 


Performance 


Max level speed 

>Mach 2.5 

Service ceiling 

18,300m 

Ferry range 

with external 

>2500nm 

tanks, no CFTs 

with CFTs 

31 OOnm 

G limit 

+9/-3 

Max level speed 

800 knots 

Service ceiling 

18,300m 

Takeoff run 

274m 

Landing run 

1067m 

Max endurance 


with in-flight refuelling 1 5h 
un refuel led, with CFTs 5h 15 min 



1 No fuel, ammunition, pylons, or external stores. 


7.11 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


Jane’s USAF 


Boeing (McDonnell 
Douglas ) 

F-15E Eagle 

Type 

Two-seat, dual role attack/air 
superiority fighter. 


Programme 



Demonstration of industry-funded USAF photo by Master Sgt. Joe Cupido 
Strike Eagle prototype (71-0291) 

modified from F-1 5B, including accurate blind weapons delivery, completed 
at Edwards AFB and Eglin AFB during 1982; product improvements tested 
in Strike Eagle, an F-15C and an F-15D between November 1982 and April 
1983, including first take-off at 34019kg, 3175kg more than F-15C with 
conformal tanks; new weight included conformal tanks, three other external 
tanks and eight 5001b Mk 82 bombs; 1 6 different stores configurations test- 
ed, including 20001b Mk 84 bombs, and BDU-38 and CBU-58 weapons 
delivered visually and by radar; full programme go-ahead announced 24 
February 1 984; first flight of first production F-1 5E (86-01 83) 1 1 December 
1986; first delivery to Luke AFB, Arizona, 12 April 1988; first delivery 29 
December 1 988 to 4th Wing at Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina. 


Design Features 

NACA 64A aerofoil section with conical camber on leading-edge; sweepback 
38° 42' at quarter-chord; thickness/chord ratio 6.6% at root, 3% at tip; 
anhedral 1°; incidence 0°. Twin fins positioned to receive vortex off wing 
and maintain directional stability at high angles of attack. Straight two- 
dimensional external compression engine air inlet each side of fuselage. Air 
inlet controllers by Hamilton Standard. Air inlet actuators by National 
Water Lift, system capable of automatic coupled terrain following. 

Landing Gear 

Hydraulically retractable tricycle type, with single wheel on each unit. All 
units retract forward. 

Power Plant 

Initially, two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220 turbofans, each rated for take- 
off at 104.3kN, installed, with afterburning. Later aircraft have option of 
Pratt & Whitney FI 00-PW-229s or General Electric F1 1 0-GE-1 29s. USAF air- 
craft 135 onwards (90-0233), built from August 1991, have 129.4kN Pratt 
& Whitney FI 00-PW-229s, which also ordered for Saudi F-1 5S. Internal fuel 
in foam-filled structural wing tanks and six Goodyear fuselage tanks, total 
capacity 7643 litres. 


7.12 


Accommodation 

Two crew, pilot and weapon systems officer, in tandem on McDonnell 
Douglas ACES II zero/zero ejection seats. Single-piece, upward-hinged, bird- 
resistant canopy. 


Avionics 

As F-1 5C/D, except triple redundant Lear Astronics digital flight control sys- 
tem with automatic terrain following standard. Hughes Aircraft AN/APG-70 
l-band pulse Doppler radar provides full F-1 5C air-to-air capability plus high 
resolution synthetic aperture radar for air-to-ground; terrain-following capa- 
bility provided by Martin Marietta AN/AAQ-13 LANTIRN navigation pod, 
and FUR imagery displayed on Kaiser ID-2394/A wide field of view HUD; 
moving map display by Bendix/King RP-341 /A remote map reader; IBM CP- 
1075C very high speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) central computer intro- 
duced in 1992, replacing CP-1075. 


Armament 

20mm M61A1 six-barrel gun in starboard wing-root, with 512 rds. General 
Electric lead computing gyro. Provision on underwing (one per wing) and 
centreline pylons for air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons and external fuel 
tanks. Wing pylons use standard rail and launchers for AIM-9 Sidewinder and 
AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles; AIM-7 Sparrow and AIM-120 
AMRAAM can be carried on ejection launchers on the fuselage or on tangen- 
tial stores carriers on CFTs. Edo BRU-46/A and BRU-47/A adapters through- 
out, plus two LAU-106A/As each side of lower fuselage. F-15E can carry a 
wide variety and quantity of guided and unguided air-to-ground weapons. 



Specifications 

Dimensions (External) 


Wing span 13.05m 

Wing aspect ratio 3.01 
Length 19.43 m 

Height 5.63m 


Weights An d Loadin gs 1 

Operating weight, 
empty 1 

Max weapon load 
Max takeoff weight 
Max wing load 


14,515kg 

11,113kg 

36,741kg 

650.50kg/m 2 


Areas 

Wing area, gross 56.5m 2 


Performance 

Max level speed 
at height 

Max combat radius 
Max range 
Max level speed 


Mach 2.5 

685nm 
2400nm 
1 434 knots 


1 F100-PW-220 engines 

3 No fuel, ammunition, pylons or external stores 


7.13 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


Jane’s 



I 


Lockheed Martin ( General Dynamics) 

F-16 Fighting Falcon 

Type 

Single- and two-seat mul- 
tirole fighter. 

Programme 

Emerged from Y F-16 of 
US Air Force Lightweight 
Fighter prototype pro- 
gramme 1972 (details 
under General Dynamics 
in 1977-78 and 1978-79 
Jane’s); first flight of pro- 
totype Y F-16 (72-01567) 2 February 1974; first flight of second prototype 
(72-01568) 9 May 1974; selected for full-scale development 13 January 
1 975; day fighter requirement extended to add air-to-ground capability with 
radar and all-weather navigation; production of six single-seat F-16As and 
two two-seat F-16Bs began July 1975; first flight of full-scale development 
aircraft 8 December 1 976; first flight of F-1 6B 8 August 1 977. Fleet of 3,300 
F-16s achieved 5 millionth flying hour late in 1993 and 3,500th aircraft 
delivered 27 April 1995. Backlog of over 400 aircraft in 1996, plus antici- 
pated orders for further 500 F-1 6s, expected to maintain production line in 
operation until 2005-10. F-16 air combat score was 69 for no losses, with 
three air forces, by mid-1 996. 

Under original procurement plan, final 12 F-1 6s for USAF ordered in FY94, 
but anticipated shortfall in fighter assets resulted in USAF considering plan to 
purchase 1 20 F-1 6C/Ds by 2010; initial batch of six included in FY96 budget, 
and similar quantity in FY97 requests, with further contracts expected. 

Variants 

F-16A. Fi rst production version for air-to-air and air-to-ground missions; 
production for USAF completed March 1985, but still available for other 
customers; international sales continue; powered since late 1988 (Block 
150CU) by P&W F100-PW-220 turbofan; Westinghouse AN/APG-66 range 
and angle track radar; first flight of first aircraft (78-0001) 7 August 1978; 
entered service with 388th TFW at Hill AFB, Utah, 6 January 1979; combat 
ready October 1 980, when named Fighting Falcon; most now serving ANG 
and AFRES; power plants being upgraded to FI 00-PW-220E, between 1991 
and 1996. In 1 994, first AFRES F-1 6A/Bs gained BASE Terprom (terrain pro- 
file matching) software for ground collision avoidance. Also produced in 
Europe. Built in Blocks 01, 05, 10 and 15, of which Blocks 01 and 05 retro- 
fitted to Block 10 standard 1982-84; Block 15 retrofitted to OCU standard 
from late 1987. First G F-16A ground trainers relegated to instructional use 
at 82nd Training Wing, Sheppard AFB, by 1 993. 



USAF photo by Senior Airman Gary Guese 


7 . 1-4 


F-16B. Standard tandem two-seat version of F-16A; fully operational both 
cockpits; fuselage length unaltered; reduced fuel. 

F-16C/D. Single-seat and two-seat USAF Multinational Staged 
Improvement Programme (MSIP) aircraft respectively, implemented 
February 1 980. MSIP expands growth capability to allow for ground attack 
and beyond-visual-range missiles, and all-weather, night and day missions; 
Stage I applied to Block 15 F-16A/Bs delivered from November 1981 included 
wiring and structural changes to accommodate new systems; Stage II applied 
to Block 25 F-1 6C/Ds from July 1 984 includes core avionics, cockpit and air- 
frame changes. Stage III includes installation of systems as they become 
available, beginning 1 987 and extending up to Block 50/52, including select- 
ed retrofits back to Block 25. Changes include Westinghouse AN/APG-68 
multimode radar with improved range, resolution, more operating modes 
and better ECCM than AN/APG-66; advanced cockpit with upgraded inter- 
faces and upfront controls, GEC-Marconi wide-angle HUD, two multifunc- 
tion displays, Fairchild mission data transfer equipment and radar altimeter; 
expanded base of fin giving space for proposed later fitment of AN/ALQ-1 65 
Airborne Self-Protection Jamming system (since cancelled); increased elec- 
trical power and cooling capacity; structural provision for increased take-off 
weight and manoeuvring limits; and MIL- STD-1 760 weapons interface for 
use of smart weapons such as AIM-1 20A AMRAAM and AGM-65D IR 
Maverick. First AIM-120 operational launch (by any aircraft), 27 December 
1992 F-16D (90-0778) of 33rd FS/363rd FW destroyed Iraqi MiG-25. 

Common engine bay introduced at Block 30/32 (deliveries from July 1 986) 
to allow fitting of either P&W FI 00-PW-220 (Block 32) or GE F1 1 0-GE-1 00 
(Block 30) Alternate Fighter Engine. Other changes include computer mem- 
ory expansion and seal-bonded fuselage fuel tanks. First USAF wing to use 
F-1 6C/Ds with F1 1 0 engines was 86th TFW at Ramstein AB, Germany, from 
October 1986. Additions in 1987 included full Level IV multitarget compat- 
ibility with AMRAAM (as Block 30B), voice message unit, Shrike anti-radia- 
tion missiles (from August), crash survivable flight data recorder and mod- 
ular common inlet duct allowing full thrust from F1 1 0 at low airspeeds. 

Design Festures (refers mainly to Block 40 F-16C/D) 

Cropped delta wings blended with fuselage, with highly swept vortex control 
strakes along fuselage forebody and joining wings to increase lift and 
improve directional stability at high angles of attack; wing section NACA 
64A-204; leading-edge sweepback 40°; relaxed stability (rearward CG) to 
increase manoeuvrability; deep wing-roots increase rigidity, save 113kg 
structure weight and increase fuel volume; fixed geometry engine intake; 
pilot’s ejection seat inclined 30° rearwards; single-piece birdproof forward 
canopy section; two ventral fins below wing trailing-edge. Baseline F-1 6 air- 
frame life planned as 8,000 hours with average usage of 55.5% in air com- 
bat training, 20% ground attack and 24.5% general flying; structural 
strengthening programme for pre-Block 50 aircraft required during 1990s. 



7.15 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


USAF 


Landing Gear 

Menasco hydraulically retractable type, nose unit retracting rearward and 
main units forward into fuselage. Nosewheel is located aft of intake to 
reduce the risk of foreign objects being thrown into the engine during ground 
operation, and rotates 90° during retraction to lie horizontally under engine 
air intake duct. Oleo-pneumatic struts in all units. 

Power Plant 

One 1 31 ,6kN (29,5881b st) General Electric F110-GE-129, or one 129.4kN 
Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 afterburning turbofan as alternative stan- 
dard. These Increased Performance Engines (IPE) installed from late 1991 in 
Block 50 and Block 52 aircraft. Immediately prior standard was 128.9kN 
F1 1 0-GE-1 00 or 105.7kN F100-PW-220 in Blocks 40/42. Of 1,416 F-16Cs 
and F-1 6Ds ordered by USAF, 555 with FI 00 and 861 with F1 10. IPE vari- 
ants have half share each in FY92 procurement of 48 F-1 6s for USAF, fol- 
lowing eight reliability trial installations including six Block 30 aircraft which 
flew 2,400 hours between December 1990 and September 1992. FI 00s of 
ANG and AFRES F-16A/Bs upgraded to -220E standard from late 1991. 



Accommodation 

Pilot only in F-16C, in pressurised and air conditioned cockpit. McDonnell 
Douglas ACES II zero/zero ejection seat. Bubble canopy made of polycar- 
bonate advanced plastics material. Inside of USAF F-16C/D canopy (and 
most Belgian, Danish, Netherlands and Norwegian F-16A/Bs) coated with 
gold film to dissipate radar energy. In conjunction with radar-absorbing 
materials in air intake, this reduces frontal radar signature by 40%. To enable 
the pilot to sustain high G forces, and for pilot comfort, the seat is inclined 
30° aft and the heel line is raised. In normal operation the canopy is pivot- 
ed upward and aft by electrical power; the pilot is also able to unlatch the 
canopy manually and open it with a back-up handcrank. Emergency jettison 
is provided by explosive unlatching devices and two rockets. A limited dis- 
placement, force-sensing control stick is provided on the right-hand console, 
with a suitable armrest, to provide precise control inputs during combat 
manoeuvres. 


.10 

Q) 

C 


The F-1 6D has two cockpits in tandem, equipped with all controls, displays, 
instruments, avionics and life support systems required to perform both 
training and combat missions. The layout of the F-16D second station is 
similar to the F-16C, and is fully systems-operational. A single-enclosure 
polycarbonate transparency, made in two pieces and spliced aft of the for- 
ward seat with a metal bow frame and lateral support member, provides 
outstanding view from both cockpits. 


7.1 B 


Avionics 

Comms. Magnavox AN/ARC-164 UHF transceiver (AN/URC-126 Have 
Quick IIA in Block 50/52); provision for Magnavox KY-58 secure voice sys- 
tem; Collins AN/ARC-1 86 VHFAM/FM transceiver (AN/ARC-205 Have Sync 
Group A in Block 50/52), ARC-190 HF radio, government furnished 
AN/AIC-18/25 intercom and SCI advanced interference blanker, Teledyne 
Electronics AN/APX-101 IFF transponder with government furnished IFF 
control, government furnished National Security Agency KIT-1 A/TSEC cryp- 
tographic equipment. 

Radar. Westinghouse AN/APG-68(V) pulse Doppler range and angle track 
radar, with planar array in nose. Provides air-to-air modes for range-while- 
search, uplook search, velocity search, air combat, track-while-scan (1 0 tar- 
gets), raid cluster resolution, single target track and (later) high PRF track to 
provide target illumination for AIM-7 missiles, plus air-to-surface modes for 
ground-mapping, Doppler beam-sharpening, ground moving target, sea tar- 
get, fixed target track, target freeze after pop-up, beacon, and air-to-ground 
ranging. Proposed upgrade under study by Westinghouse and Lockheed 
Martin could provide full night/all-weather interdiction/close air support 
capability. Improved radar, currently designated as APG-68(I), will have syn- 
thetic aperture radar (SAR) mapping and terrain following (TF) modes and 
be integrated with a combined FLIR/laser designator, thus eliminating need 
for external targeting and navigation pods. 

Flight. Litton LN-39 standard inertial navigation system (ring laser Litton 
LN-93 or Honeywell H-423in Block 50/52 and current FMS F-16A/BLN-93 
for Egypt, Indonesia, Israel, South Korea, Pakistan, Portugal and Taiwan, 
plus Netherlands retrofit and Greek second batch); Collins AN/ARN-108 
ILS, Collins AN/ARN-1 1 8 TACAN, Rockwell GPS, Honeywell central air data 
computer, General Dynamics enhanced stores management computer, 
Gould AN/APN-232 radar altimeter. BASETerprom digital terrain system to 
be installed in all new USAF F-16s, USAF reserve F-16s and 301 European 
aircraft destined for MLU in first instance, but could be offered to FMS cus- 
tomers from 1996 on Block 20 F-16A/B aircraft. Optional equipment 
includes Collins VIR-130 VOR/ILS. 

Instrumentation. GEC-Marconi wide-angle holographic electronic HUD 
with raster video capability (for LANTIRN) and integrated keyboard; data 
entry/cockpit interface and dedicated fault display by Litton Canada and 
Lockheed Martin; Astronautics cockpit/TV set. 

Mission. Honeywell multifunction displays. Lockheed Martin LANTIRN 
package comprises AN/AAQ-13 (navigation) and AN/AAQ-14 (targeting) 
pods. Turkish aircraft (150+ to be modified by 1996) to share 60 LANTIRN 
pod systems; LANTIRN also purchased by Greece and South Korea and 
required for second Thailand batch. Enhanced capability LANTIRN incor- 
porating second-generation FLIR tested by F-16 at Eglin AFB, early 1993. 
Sharpshooter pod (down-rated export version ofAAQ-14 LANTIRN target- 
ing system) acquired by Bahrain and Israel, but latter to get indigenous 
Rafael Litening IR targeting and navigation pod as replacement (initial fund- 



7.17 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


Jane’s USAF 


ing already undertaken, with first delivery expected 1996). Pakistan F-16s 
carry Thomson-CSF Atlis laser designator pods. Singapore announced inten- 
tion to purchase Lockheed Martin Sharpshooter in late 1995. Texas 
Instruments AN/ASQ-213 HARM Targeting System (HTS) pod carried by 
Block 50/52D aircraft. 

Self-defence. Dalmo Victor AN/ALR-69 radar warning system replaced in 
USAF Block 50/52 by Loral AN/ALR-56M advanced RWR, which also 
ordered for USAF Block 40/42 retrofit and (first export) Korean Block 52s. 
Provision for Westinghouse AN/ALQ-131 or Raytheon AN/ALQ-1 84 jam- 
ming pods. AN/ALQ-131 supplied to Bahrain, Egypt, Netherlands and 
Pakistan. Taiwan to get 80 Raytheon AN/ALQ-1 84 (first export order and 
first foreign use). Israeli Air Force F-16s extensively modified with locally 
designed and manufactured equipment, as well as optional US equipment 
to tailor them to the IAF defence role. This includes Elisra SPS 3000 self-pro- 
tection jamming equipment in enlarged spines ofF-16D-30s and Elta EL/L- 
8240 ECM in third batch of F-16C/Ds, replacing Loral AN/ALQ-1 78(V)1 
Rapport ECM in Israeli F-16As. Belgian F-16s have Dassault Electronique 
Carapace passive ECM system in fin-root housing on 100 aircraft (with 
some reserve systems) from April 1995 (to be used in conjunction with active 
AN/ALQ-131 jamming pods to be obtained from surplus US stocks). 

Armament 

General Electric M61A1 20mm multibarrel cannon in the port side 
wing/body fairing, equipped with a General Electric ammunition handling 
system and an enhanced envelope gunsight (part ofthe head-up display sys- 
tem) and 51 1 rounds of ammunition. There is a mounting for an air-to-air 
missile at each wingtip, one underfuselage centreline hardpoint, and six 
underwing hardpoints for additional stores. For manoeuvring flight at 5.5 G 
the underfuselage station is stressed for a load of up to 1,000kg, the two 
inboard underwing stations for 2,041 kg each, the two centre underwing sta- 
tions for 1,587kg each, the two outboard underwing stations for 318kg 
each, and the two wingtip stations for 193kg each. For manoeuvring flight 
at 9 G the underfuselage station is stressed for a load of up to 544kg, the 
two inboard underwing stations for 1 ,1 34kg each, the two centre underwing 
stations for 907kg each, the two outboard underwing stations for 204kg 
each, and the two wingtip stations for 1 93kg each. There are mounting pro- 
visions on each side ofthe inlet shoulder for the specific carriage of sensor 
pods (electro-optical, FLIR and so on); each of these stations is stressed for 
408kg at 5.5G, and 250kg at 9G. 

Typical stores loads can include two wingtip-mounted AIM-9L/M/P 
Sidewinders, with up to four more on the outer underwing stations; Rafael 
Python 3 on Israeli F-16s from early 1991; centreline GPU-5/A 30mm can- 
non; drop tanks on the inboard underwing and underfuselage stations; a 
Lockheed Martin Pave Penny laser spot tracker pod along the starboard side 
ofthe nacelle; and bombs, air-to-surface missiles or flare pods on the four 
inner underwing stations. Stores can be launched from Aircraft Hydro- 


7.18 


Forming MAU-12C/A bomb ejector racks, Hughes LAU-88 launchers, or 
Orgen triple or multiple ejector racks. Non-jettisonable centreline GPU-5/A 
30mm gun pods on dedicated USAF ground-attack F-16As. Weapons 
launched successfully from F-1 6s, in addition to Sidewinders and AIM-1 20A 
AMRAAM, include radar-guided Sparrow and Sky Flash air-to-air missiles, 
British Aerospace ASRAAM and French Magic 2 infra-red homing air-to-air 
missiles, AGM-65A/B/D/G Maverick air-to-surface missiles, HARM and 
Shrike anti-radiation missiles. Harpoon anti-ship missiles (clearance trials 
1 993-94), and, in Royal Norwegian Air Force service, the Penguin Mk 3 anti- 
ship missile. Israeli TAAS STAR-1 anti-radiation weapon has also begun car- 
riage trials on F-16D, although full-scale development is dependent upon 
receipt of a firm order. 


Specifications 

Dimensions External (F-16C, D) 


Wing span 

over missile launchers 9.45m 


over missiles 
Wing aspect ratio 
Length 
Height 

Performance 


10.00m 

3.2 

15.03m 

5.09m 


Max level speed 
at 12,200m 
Service ceiling 
Ferry range, 
with drop tanks 
Symmetrical C limit 
with full internal fuel 
Max level speed 1321 knots 


Areas (F-16C, D) 


Wing area, gross 27.87m 2 

Weights and Loa dings 


Weight empty 
F-16C 

FI 00-PW-220 
FI 10-CE-100 
F-16D 


8,273kg 

8,627kg 


> Mach 2.0 

FI 00-PW-220 

8,494kg 

FI 10-CE-100 

8,853kg 

> 15,240m 

Max internal fuel 

3,104kg 

F-16C 

> 2,1 OOnm 

F-16D 

2,567kg 


Max takeoff weight 

19,187kg 




7.19 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


USAF 


Lockheed/Boeing F-22 Raptor 



jo 

Q) 

C 


Type 

US Air Force next-genera- 
tion tactical fighter, for- 
merly known as Advanced 
Tactical Fighter (ATF) 
programme. 

Programme 

US Air Force ATF require- 
ment for 750 (now 442) 

McDonnell Douglas F-15 
Eagle replacements incor- 
porating low observables technology and supercruise (supersonic cruise 
without afterburning); parallel assessment of two new power plants; request 
for information issued 1 981 ; concept definition studies awarded September 
1983 to Boeing, General Dynamics, Grumman, McDonnell Douglas, 
Northrop and Rockwell; requests for proposals issued September 1 985; sub- 
missions received by 28 July 1986; USAF selection announced 31 October 
1986 of demonstration/validation phase contractors Lockheed Y F-22 and 
Northrop Y F-23 (see 1 991 -92 Jane’s); each produced two prototypes and 
ground-based avionics testbed; first flights of all four prototypes 1990. 
Competing engine demonstration/validation programmes launched 
September 1983; ground testing began 1986-87; flight-capable Pratt & 
Whitney Y F1 1 9s and General Electric Y FI 20s ordered early 1 988; all four 
aircraft/engine combinations flown. 

Lockheed teamed with General Dynamics (Fort Worth) and Boeing Military 
Airplanes to produce two Y F-22 prototypes, civil registrations N22YF (with 
GE Y FI 20) and N22VX (P&W Y F1 1 9); USAF serial numbers 87-0700 and 87- 
0701 assigned, but only 87-0701 applied during second phase of testing, 
from late 1991. N22YF rolled out at Palmdale 29 August 1990; first 
flight/ferry to Edwards AFB 29 September 1 990; first air refuelling (11th sor- 
tie) 26 October 1990; thrust vectoring in flight 15 November 1990; anti-spin 
parachute for high angle of attack tests on 34th to 43rd sorties; flight testing 
temporarily suspended 28 December 1990; 43 sorties/52 hours 48 minutes. 
N22YX first flight Palmdale-Edwards 30 October 1 990; AIM-9M Sidewinder 
(28 November 1990) and AIM-1 20A AMRAAM (20 December 1990) launch 
demonstrations; achieved Mach 1.8 on 26 December 1990; temporarily 
grounded after 31 sorties/38 hours 48 minutes, 28 December 1990. Flight 
test demonstrations included 100 deg/sec roll rate at 120 knots (222km/h) 
and supercruise flight in excess of Mach 1.58 without afterburner. 

Second (F1 1 9-powered) Y F-22 taken by road to Palmdale mid-1 991 ; fitted 
with strain gauges; began further 100 hour test programme 30 October 
1991; gathered data on aerodynamic loads, flight control aerodynamic 
effects, vibration/acoustic fatigue and maximum coefficient of lift; flown by 



USAF photo by Technical Sgt. Lono Kollers 


7.2 □ 



651 1th Test Squadron (F-22 Combined Test Force) of 6510th Test Wing at 
Edwards AFB; non-fatal crash landing at Edwards 25 April 1992, following 
pilot-induced oscillations; total 100 hours 24 minutes in 70 flights since 
October 1 990; non-flyable, but repaired for use as antenna testbed at Rome 
Air Development Centre, Griffiss AFB, New York. 

Fabrication of first component for first EMD aircraft (c/n 4001) began 8 
December 1993 at Boeing’s facility in Kent, Washington; assembly of forward 
fuselage launched at Marietta on 2 November 1 995 with start of work on nose 
landing gear well; assembly work also begun at Fort Worth Summer 1 995 with 
mating of three assemblies that comprise the mid-fuselage of first EMD air- 
craft taking place in Spring 1 996, followed by road transfer of entire section to 
Marietta in August 1 996 for start of final assembly process; first flight planned 
May 1997; low-rate production decision in August 1998; first production 
delivery August 2000; high-rate production decision due March 2002. 


Design Features 

Low observables configuration and construction; stealth/agility trade-off 
decided by design team; target thrust/weight ratio 1.4 (achieved ratio 1.2 at 
takeoff weight); greatly improved reliability and maintainability for high sor- 
tie-generation rates, including under 20 minute combat turnround time; 
enhanced survivability through ‘first-look, first-shot, first-kill’ capability; 
short takeoff and landing distances; supersonic cruise and maneuvering 
(supercruise) in region of Mach 1.5 without afterburning; internal weapons 
storage and generous internal fuel; conformal sensors. 

Highly integrated avionics for single pilot operation and rapid reaction. 
Radar, RWR and comms/ident managed by single system presenting relevant 
data only, and with emissions controlled (passive to fully active) in stages, 
according to tactical situation. Common integrated processor (CIP) handles 
all avionics functions, including self-protection and radio, and automatically 
reconfigures to compensate for faults and failures. F-22 has two CIPs, with 
space for third, linked by 400 Mbits/s fibre optic network (see Avionics). 

Wing and horizontal tail leading-edge sweep 42° (both 48° on Y F-22); trail- 
ing-edge 17° forward, increased to 42° outboard of ailerons (straight trail- 
ing-edge on Y F-22); all-moving five-edged horizontal tail (four-edged ele- 
ments on Y F-22). Vertical tail surfaces (22% larger on Y F-22) canted out- 
wards at 28°; leading- and trailing-edge sweep 22.9°; biconvex aerofoil. F- 
22’s wing and stabilator areas same as Y F-22, despite reprofiling. F-22 wing 
taper ratio 0.169; leading-edge anhedral 3.25°; root twist 0.5°; tip twist - 
3.1 °; thickness/chord ratio 5.92 at root, 4.29 at tip; custom-designed aero- 
foil. Horizontal tails have no dihedral or twist. 



Sidewinder AAMs stored internally in sides of intake ducts, with AMRAAMs, 
Sidewinders or GBU-32 JDAM 1000 precision-guided munitions in ventral 
weapons bay. Diamond-shaped cheek air intakes with highly contoured air 
ducts; intakes approximately 0.46m farther forward on Y F-22; single-axis 
thrust vectoring included on PW119, but most specified performance 
achievable without. 




AIRCRAFT SPECS 


Jane’s USAF 


Additional production F-22 changes from Y F-22 include decreased wingroot 
thickness, modified camber and twist (increasing anhedral); all 48° plan 
angles changed to 42°; blunter nose; wheelbase reduced by approximately 
0.46m; wheel track reduced by same; revised undercarriage legs and doors; 
constant chord ailerons; reprofiled cockpit canopy; dorsal airbrake deleted. 

Landing Gear 

Menasco retractable tricycle type, stressed for no-flare landings of up to 
3.05m/s. Nosewheel tyre 23.5 x 7.5-1 0; mainwheel tyres 37x1 1.5-1 8. 

Power Plant 

Two 155kN class Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 advanced technology 
reheated engines reportedly developed from FI 00 turbofan. Two-dimen- 
sional convergent/divergent exhaust nozzles with thrust vectoring for 
enhanced performance and maneuverability. 

Accommodation 

Pilot only, on zero/zero modified ACES II ejection seat and wearing tactical 
life support system with improved g-suits, pressure breathing and arm 
restraint. Pilot’s view over nose is -1 5°. 

Systems 

Include Normalair-Garrett OBOGS, AlliedSignal APU and Smiths 270 V DC 
electrical distribution system. 

Avionics 

Final integration, as well as integration of entire suite with non-avionics sys- 
tems, undertaken at F-22 Avionics Integration Laboratory, Seattle, 
Washington; airborne integration supported by Boeing 757 flying testbed; 
high-fidelity Full Mission Simulation (FMS) for integrated system Pilot- 
Vehicle Interface (PVI) evaluations, avionics development and mission effec- 
tiveness assessment. 

Comms. TRW communications/navigation/identification system, including 
Mk 12 IFF. 

Radar. Westinghouse/Texas Instruments AN/APG-77 electronically scanned 
radar (air-to-air and navigation). 

Flight. TRW communications/navigation/identification subsystem; Litton 
inertial reference system. 

Instrumentation. Fused situational awareness information is displayed to 
pilot via four Sanders/Kaiser colour liquid crystal multifunction displays 
(MFD); MFD bezel buttons provide pilot format control. 




Mission. Hughes common integrated processor (CIP); CIP also contains 
mission software that uses tailorable mission planning data for sensor emit- 
ter management and multisensor fusion; mission-specific information deliv- 
ered to system through Fairchild data transfer equipment that also contains 
mass storage for default data and air vehicle operational flight programme; 
stores management system. General purpose processing capacity of CIP is 
rated at more than 700 million instructions per second (Mips) with growth 
to 2,000 Mips; signal processing capacity greater than 20 billion operations 
per second (Bops) with expansion capability to 50 Bops; CIP contains more 
than 300 Mbytes of memory with growth potential to 650 Mbytes. Intra- 
flight data link automatically shares tactical information between two or 
more F-22s. Airframe contains provisions for IRST and side-mounted 
phased-array radar. 

Self-defence. Sanders/General Electric AN/ALR-94 electronic warfare (RF 
warning and countermeasures) subsystem. 


Armament 

Internal long-barrel M61A2 20mm cannon with hinged muzzle cover and 
480-round magazine capacity (production F-22). Three internal bays (see 
Design Features) for AIM-9 Sidewinder (one in each side bay) and/or four 
AIM-1 20A or six AIM-120C AMRAAM AAMs and/or GBU-32 JDAM 1000 
PGMs on hydraulic weapon racks in main weapons bay. Four underwing 
stores stations at 31 7mm and 442mm from centreline of fuselage capable of 
carrying 2,268kg each. 



Specifications 


Dimensions External 

Weights and Loadings’ 

Wing span 


Weight empty 

YF-22 

13.11m 

YF-22 > 13,608kg 

F-22 

13.56m 

F-22, target 14,365kg 

Length 

YF-22 

19.56m 

Max takeoff weight 

F-22 almost 27,21 6kg 

F-22 

18.92m 

Performance' 

FI eight 


Max level speed at 9,1 50m 
Supercruise Mach 1.58 

YF-22 

5.41m 

with afterburning Mach 1.7 

F-22 

5.05m 

Service ceiling 1 5,240m 

Areas 


G limit +7.9 

Performance 2 

Wing area, gross 

78.0m 2 


G limit +9 

Max takeoff weight 27216kg 

Max level speed 1 044 knots 


atS/L 800kts 


1 YF-22 demonstated 


2 Estimated 


7.23 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


Jane’s 


McDonnell Douglas Phantom II F-4E 


Twin-engine, two-seat, all- 
weather fighter aircraft. 

Programme 

The Phantom II was developed 
initially as a twin-engine two- 
seat long-range all-weather 
attack fighter for service with 
the US Navy. A letter of intent 
to order two prototypes was 
issued 18 October 1954, at 
which time the aircraft was designated AH-1. The designation was changed 
to F4H-1 26 May 1955, with change of mission to missile fighter, and the 
prototype X F4H-1 flew for the first time 27 May 1 958. The first production 
Phantom II was delivered to US Navy Squadron V F-1 01 in December 1 960. 
Trials in a ground attack role led to USAF orders, and the basic USN and 
USAF versions became the F-4B and F-4C respectively. 



USAF photo 




I 


Variants 

F-4C (formerly F-110A). Version ofF-4B for USAF, with J79-GE-1 5 turbojet 
engines, cartridge starting, wider tread low-pressure tyres size 30-1 1 .5, larg- 
er brakes, Litton type LN-12A/B (ASN-48) inertial navigation system, APQ- 
1 00 radar, APQ-1 00 PPI scope, LADD timer, Lear Siegler AJB-7 bombing sys- 
tem, GAM-83 controls, dual controls and boom flight refuelling instead of 
drogue (receptacle in top of fuselage, aft of cockpit). Folding wings and 
arrester gear retained. For close support and attack duties with Tactical Air 
Command, PACAF and USAFE, and with the Air National Guard (ANG) 
from January 1972. Sufficient F-4Cs were modified to equip two squadrons 
for a defence suppression role under the USAF’s Wild Weasel programme. 
These aircraft carry ECM warning sensors, jamming pods, chaff dispensers 
and anti-radiation missiles. First F-4C flew 27 May 1963; 36 supplied to 
Spanish Air Force. The last of 583 was delivered to TAC 4 May 1966. 
Replaced in production by F-4D. 

F-4E. Multirole fighter for air superiority, close support and interdiction missions 
with USAF. Has internally mounted M-61A1 multibarrel gun, improved 
(AN/APQ-120) fire-control system and J79-GE-17 turbojet engines (each 
79.6kN; 17,9001b st). Additional fuselage fuel cell. First production F-4E deliv- 
ered to USAF 3 October 1967. Supplied to the Israeli Air Force, Hellenic Air 
Force, Turkish Air Force, Republic of Korea Air Force and Islamic Republic of Iran 
Air Force. All F-4Es fitted retrospectively with leading-edge maneuvering slats. 

In early 1973 F-4Es began to be fitted with Northrop’s Target Identification 
System Electro-Optical (TISEO). Essentially a vidicon TV camera with a 
zoom lens, it aids positive visual identification of airborne or ground targets 
at long range. The ASX-1 TISEO is mounted in a cylindrical housing on the 
leading-edge of the port wing of the F-4E. 


7.24 


F-4G. Development of F-4B for US Navy, with AN/ASW-21 datalink com- 
munications equipment, first flown 20 March 1 963. In service over Vietnam 
with Squadron V F-213 from USS Kitty Hawk spring 1966. Only 12 built 
included in the total number of F-4B built. No longer in service. 

F-4G (Wild Weasel). The USAF’s Wild Weasel programme concerns primari- 
ly suppression of hostile weapon radar guidance systems. The provision of air- 
borne equipment able to fulfill such a role, and modification of the necessary 
aircraft to create an effective force for deployment against such targets, had 
first priority in tactical air force planning spring 1975. The requirement for 
such a weapon system had been appreciated by Tactical Air Command as early 
as 1968, and feasibility studies were initiated September that year, following 
which, eight sets of equipment were acquired for development, qualification 
testing and flight testing in two F-4D aircraft. The F-4E however, was eventu- 
ally chosen as the best aircraft on which to install the required equipment. 
Modifications include the addition of a torpedo-shaped fairing to the top of 
the tailfin to carry APR-38 antennae, with other APR-38 antennae installed on 
the side of the fin and along the upper surface of the fuselage. Other modifi- 
cations include changes to the LCOSS amplifier in the upper equipment bay, 
APR-38 CIS installation in the aft cockpit, APR-38 CIS installation in the for- 
ward cockpit, removal of the M-61 A1 gun system to allow sufficient room for 
installation of APR-38 subsystems (receiver, HAWC, CIS), and the provision of 
suitable cockpit displays. The changes give the F-4G Wild Weasel the capabil- 
ity to detect, identify and locate hostile electromagnetic emitters, and to 
deploy against them suitable weapons for their suppression or destruction. 
Such aircraft can operate independently in a hunter-killer role. 

The USAF sought funding in FY76 for the advanced Wild Weasel concept for 
provision of an expanded memory of the airborne processor and extended 
low-frequency emission coverage. The programme provided for the first F-4G 
operational kit installation spring 1976 and the second autumn that year, fol- 
lowed by 15 installations in 1977, 60 in 1978 and 39 in 1979, to provide a 
force of 1 1 6 aircraft. USAF F-4G Wild Weasel were withdrawn by May 1 996. 

Design Features (F-4E) 

Cantilever low-wing monoplane. Wing section NACA 0006.4-64 (mod) at 
root, NACA 0004-64 (mod) at wing fold line, NACA 0003-64 (mod) at tip. 
Average thickness/chord ratio 5.1%. Incidence 1 °. Dihedral, inner panels 0°, 
outer panels 12°. Sweepback 45° on leading-edges. Outer panels have 
extended chord and dihedral of 12°. 

Flying Controls 

Trailing-edge is a one-piece aluminum honeycomb structure. Flaps and 
ailerons of all-metal construction, with aluminum honeycomb trailing- 
edges. Inset ailerons limited to down movement only, the “up” function 
being supplied by hydraulically operated spoilers on upper surface of each 
wing. Ailerons and spoilers fully powered by two independent hydraulic sys- 
tems. Hydraulically operated trailing-edge maneuvering slats. Hydraulically 
operated airbrake under each wing aft of wheel well. Outer panels fold 
upward for stowage. Rudder interconnected with ailerons at low speeds. 



7.25 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


Jane’s USAF 


Structure 

Centre-section and centre wings form one-piece structure from wing fold to 
wing fold. Portion that passes through fuselage comprises a torsion box 
between the front and main spars (at 15% and 40% chord) and is sealed to 
form two integral fuel tanks. Spars are machined from large forgings. Centre 
wings also have forged rear spar. Centreline rib, wing-fold ribs, two interme- 
diate ribs forward of main spar and two aft of main spar are also made from 
forgings. Wing skins machined from aluminum panels 0.635m thick, with 
integral stiffening. The fuselage is an all-metal semi-monocoque structure. 
Forward fuselage built in port and starboard halves, so that most internal 
wiring and finishing can be done before assembly. Keel and rear sections 
make use of steel and titanium. Double-wall construction under fuel tanks 
and for lower section of rear fuselage, with ram-air cooling. The tail unit is a 
cantilever all-metal structure, with 23° of anhedral on one-piece all-moving 
tailplane which has slotted leading-edges. Ribs and stringers of tailplane are 
of steel, skin titanium and trailing-edge of steel honeycomb. 

Landing Gear 

Hydraulically retractable tricycle type, mainwheels retracting inward into 
wings, nose unit rearward. Single wheel on each main unit, with tyres size 30- 
11.5 Type VIII; twin wheels on nose unit, which is steerable and self-centring 
and can be lengthened pneumatically to increase the aircraft’s angle of attack 
for take-off. Brake-chute housed in fuselage tailcone. Mk II anti-skid system. 

Power Plant 

Two General Electric J79-GE-1 7A turbojet engines (each rated 79.6kN with 
afterburning). Variable area inlet ducts monitored by air data computer. 
Integral fuel tankage in wings, between front and main spars, and in seven 
fuselage tanks, with total capacity of 7,022 litres. Provision for one 2,270 
litre external tank under fuselage and two 1,400 litre underwing tanks. 
Equipment for probe-and-drogue and “buddy tank” flight refuelling, with 
retractable probe in starboard side of fuselage. Oil capacity 39 litres. 

Accommodation 

Crew of two in tandem on Martin-Baker Mk H7 ejection seats, under indi- 
vidual rearward-hinged canopies. Optional dual controls. 

Systems 

Three independent hydraulic systems, each of 207 bars. Pneumatic system 
for canopy operation, nosewheel strut extension and ram-air turbine exten- 
sion. Primary electrical source is AC generator. No battery. 

Electronics And Equipment 

CPK-92A/A24G-34 central air data computer; AN/ASQ-19(B) com-nav- 
ident; MS25447/MS25448 counting accelerometer; AN/APN-155 radar 
altimeter; AN/AJB-7 all-altitude bomb system; AN/ASN-46A navigational 
computer; AN/ASN-63 INS; AN/ASQ-91 (MOD) weapons release system, 
AN/ASG-26 (MOD) lead computing optical sight; AN/APR-36, -37 RHAWS; 


7.26 


AN/ASA-32 AFCS; AN/APQ-120 fire-control system radar; AN/ARW-77 
AGM-1 2 control system; TD-709/AJB-7 sequential timer; ID-1 755A standby 
attitude reference system; and KB-25A gunsight camera. 


Armament 

Four Falcon, Sparrow, Sidewinder, Shrike or Walleye missiles, or two Bui I pup 
missiles, on four semi-submerged mountings under fuselage and four under- 
wing mountings. Provision for carrying alternative loads of up to 7,250kg of 
nuclear or conventional bombs and stores on seven attachments under 
wings and fuselage. Stores which can be carried include B-28, -43, -57, -61 
nuclear bombs; M117, M118, M129, MC-1, Mk 36, Mk81, Mk 82, Mk 83 
and Ml< 84 bombs; MLU-1 0 land mine; BLU-1 , -27, -52 and -76 fire bombs; 
cluster bombs; practice bombs; flares; rocket packs; ECM pods; gun pods; 
spray tanks; tow targets’ Pave Knife pod; and AAVSIV camera pod. One 
M61 A-1 nose-mounted gun. Iranian Air Force test-fired Chinese C-801 anti- 
ship cruise missiles in June 1997. 


Specifications 

Dimensions External Performance 1 (contQ 


Wing span 

11.77m 

Max rate climb 

2847m/min 

Length 

19.200m 

atS/L 



C 

2,621m 

Height 

5.020m 

E 

1,881m 

Weights and Loadings 

at S/L one engine 

out 

Weight empty 

13,757kg 

C 

E 

1,591m 

1,067m 

Weight empty, 
basic mission 

14,448kg 

Service ceiling 




C 

10,620m 

Takeoff weight 


E 

8,565m 

combat 

18,818kg 

Service ceiling, one engine oat 

design 

26,308kg 

C 

9,340m 

Max takeoff weight 

28,030kg 

E 

6,490m 

Max landing weight 

20,865kg 

Takeoff ran 


Max wing loading 

569.2 kg/m 2 

C 

1,064m 

1,338m 

Max power loading 

176.1 kg/kN 


Landing run 

1122.0m 

Performance 1 




Max level speed 

> Mach 2.0 

Area intercept 

683nm 

(with external stores) 

Defensive counter- 

air 429nm 

Average speed 


Interdiction 

61 8nm 

C 

506 knots 

Ferry range 

1 ,71 8nm 

E 

496 knots 



Stall speed, approach power w/BLC 



C 

151 knots 



E 

1 58.6 knots 



1 C at 25,397 kg, E at 28,030 kg 



7.27 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


USA.F 


Mikoyan 

MiG -29 “ Fulcrum ” 

Type 

All-weather single-seat counter-air 
fighter with attack capability, and 
two-seat combat trainer. 


Programme detai ' from USAF 

Technical assignment (operational requirement) issued 1972, to replace 
MiG-21, MiG-23, Su-15 and Su-17; initial order placed simultaneously; 
detail design began 1 974; first of 14 prototypes built for factory and State 
testing flew 6 October 1977; photographed by US satellite, Ramenskoye 
flight test centre, November 1977 and given interim Western designation 
‘Ram-L’; second prototype flew June 1978; second and fourth prototypes 
lost through engine failures; after major design changes (see previous edi- 
tions ofjane’s) production began 1 982, deliveries to Frontal Aviation 1 984; 
operational early 1985; first detailed Western study possible after visit of 
demonstration team to Finlandjuly 1986; production of basic MiG-29 com- 
bat aircraft by Moscow Aircraft Production Group (MAPO), and of MiG- 
29UB combat trainers at Nizhny Novgorod, for CIS air forces completed, 
but manufacture for export continues. 




. 0 ) 

03 

C 


Design Features 

All-swept low-wing configuration, with wide ogival wing leading-edge root 
extensions (LERX), lift-generating fuselage, twin tail fins carried on booms 
outboard of widely spaced engines with wedge intakes; doors in intakes, 
actuated by extension and compression of nosewheel leg, prevent ingestion 
of foreign objects during take-off and landing; gap between roof of each 
intake and skin of wingroot extension for boundary layer bleed; fire control 
and mission computers link radar with laser rangefinder and infrared 
search/track sensor, in conjunction with helmet-mounted target designator; 
radar able to track 10 targets simultaneously; targets can be approached 
and engaged without emission of detectable radar or radio signals; sus- 
tained turn rate much improved over earlier Soviet fighters; thrust/weight 
ratio better than one; allowable angles of attack at least 70% higher than 
previous fighters; difficult to get into stable flat spin, reluctant to enter nor- 
mal spin, recovers as soon as controls released; wing leading-edge sweep- 
back 73° 30' on LERX, 42° on outer panels; anhedral approx 2°; tail fins 
canted outward 6°; leading-edge sweep 47° 50' on fins, approx 50° on hor- 
izontal surfaces. Design flying life 2500 h. 


7.28 


Structure 

Approx 7% of airframe, by weight, of composites; remainder metal, includ- 
ing aluminum-lithium alloys; trailing-edge wing flaps, ailerons and vertical 
tail surfaces of carbonfibre honeycomb; approx 65% of horizontal tail sur- 
faces aluminum alloy, remainder carbonfibre; semi-monocoque all-metal 
fuselage, sharply tapered and downswept aft of flat-sided cockpit area, with 
ogival dielectric nosecone; small vortex generator each side of nose helps to 
overcome early tendency to aileron reversal at angles of attack above 25°; 
tail surfaces carried on slim booms alongside engine nacelles. 


Landing Gear 

Retractable tricycle type, made by Hydromash, with single wheel on each 
main unit and twin nosewheels. Mainwheels retract forward into wingroots, 
turning through 90° to lie flat above leg; nosewheels, on trailing-link oleo, 
retract rearward between engine air intakes. Hydraulic retraction and exten- 
sion, with mechanical emergency release. Nosewheels steerable +/-8° for 
taxiing, takeoff and landings, +/-30° for slow speed manoeuvring in con- 
fined areas (selector in cockpit). 

Power Plant 

Two Klimov/Sarkisov RD-33 turbofans, each 49.4kN dry and 54.9-81. 4kN with 
afterburning. Engine ducts canted at approx 9°, with wedge intakes, sweptback 
at approx 35°, under wingroot leading-edge extensions. Multi-segment ramp 
system, including top-hinged forward door (containing a large number of small 
holes) inside each intake that closes the duct while aircraft is taking off or land- 
ing, to prevent ingestion of foreign objects, ice or snow. Air is fed to each engine 
through louvres in top of wingroot leading-edge extension and perforations in 
duct closure door. Basic ‘Fulcrum-A’ has four integral fuel tanks in inboard por- 
tion of each wing and in fuselage between wings; total capacity 4365 litres. 



Accommodation 

Pilot only, on 10° inclined K-36DM zero/zero ejection seat, under rearward 
hinged transparent blister canopy in high-set cockpit. Sharply inclined one- 
piece curved windscreen. Three internal mirrors provide rearward view. 


Avionics 

RP-29 (N019 Sapfir-29) coherent pulse Doppler lookdown/shootdown 
engagement radar (NATO ‘Slot Back’; search range 54nm, tracking range 
38nm), target tracking limits 60° up, 38° down, 67° each side, collimated 
with laser rangefinder; infrared search/track sensor (fighter detection range 
8nm) forward of windscreen (protected by removable fairing on non-opera- 
tional flights); R-862 com radio; ARK-19 DF; inertial navigation system; SRO- 
2 (NATO ‘Odd Rods’) IFF transponder and SRZ-15 interrogator; Sirena-3 
360° radar warning system, with sensors on wingroot extensions, wingtips 
and port fin. Two SO-69 ECM antennae under conformal dielectric fairings 
in leading-edge of each wingroot extension; head-up display; and helmet- 
mounted target designation system for off-axis aiming of air-to-air missiles. 


7.29 


AIRCRAFT SPECS 


Jane’s USAF 


Armament 

Six close-range R-60MK (NATO AA-8 ‘Aphid’) infrared air-to-air missiles, or 
four R-60MK and two medium-range radar guided R-27R1 (AA-10A 
‘Alamo-A’), on three pylons under each wing; alternative air combat 
weapons include R-73E (AA-11 ‘Archer’) close-range infrared missiles. Able 
to carry FAB-250 bombs, KMGU-2 submunitions dispensers, 3B-500 
napalm tanks, and 80mm, 130mm and 240mm rockets in attack role. One 
30mm GSh-301 gun in port wingroot leading-edge extension, with 150 rds. 



Specifications 

Dimensions (External) 


Wing span 

11.36m 

Wing aspect ratio 

3.5 

Length overall 


inch noseprobe 

17.32m 

excl. noseprobe 

16.28m 

Height 

4.73m 

Tailplane span 

7.78 m 

Weights and Loadings 

Operating weight. 

10,900kg 

empty 


Max weapon load 

3000kg 

Max fuel load 

640 kg 

Normal takeoff 

15,240kg 

weight (interceptor) 

Max takeoff weight 

18,500kg 

Max wing loading 

486.8 kg/m 2 

Max power loading 

113.6 kg/l<N 


Performance 


Max level speed 

at height 

Mach 2.3 

atS/L 

Mach 1 .06 

Max rate of climb 

1 9,800m/mi 

atS/L 

Service ceiling 

17,000m 

Range 

max internal fuel 

81 Onm 

with underbelly 

1 1 33nm 

auxiliary tank 
G limit 

> Mach 0.85 

+7 

< Mach 0.85 

+9 

Takeoff run 

250m 

Landing run 

600m 


7.30 






Jane’s USAF 



Appendix A 

Acronyms 

and Abbreviations 8.1 

Appendix B 

Glossary of Terms 8.3 

Appendix C 

Credits 8.6 


Chapter 3 


Appendix D 

Preferences Window 8.8 

Graphics Panel 8.9 

Sound Panel 8.1 1 

Game Controls Panel . . . .8.1 1 

Keyboard Panel 8.12 

Gameplay Panel 8.13 


APPENDICES 

APPENDIX A: ACRONYMS 
AND ABBREVIATIONS 



A/A 

Air-to-Air 

AAA 

Anti-Aircraft Artillery 

AB 

Afterburner Capability; 
also Air Base 

ACM 

Air Combat Maneuvers 

ACQ 

Acquisition 

ADC 

Air Data Computer 

ADI 

Attitude Director Indicator 

A/G 

Air-to-Ground 

AGL 

Above Ground Level 

AGM 

Air to Ground Missile 

ALT 

Altitude 

AMRAAM 

Advanced Medium-Range 
Air-to-Air Missile 

AoA 

Angle of Attack 

ASL 

Above Sea Level 

AWACS 

Airborne Warning And 
Control System 

APC 

Armored Personnel Carrier 

AZ 

Azimuth 

BARO 

Barometric 

BFM 

Basic Flight Maneuvers 

BARCAP 

Barrier Combat Air Patrol 

BRAA 

Bearing Range and Altitude 
(In AWACS messages) 

BRG 

Bearing 

BVR 

Beyond Visual Range 

CAP 

Combat Air Patrol 

CAS 

Close Air Support 

CAVU 

Clear and Visibility Unlimited 
(In weather section in briefs) 

CBU 

Cluster Bomb Unit 


CCIP 

Continuously Computed 
Impact Point 

CDES 

Continuous Designation 

CFT 

Conformal Fuel Tank 

COMM 

Communication 

DLZ 

Dynamic Launch Zone 

DMZ 

Demilitarized Zone 

ECM 

Electronic Countermeasures 

EEGS 

Enhanced Envelope 
Gun Sight 

EWR 

Early Warning Radar 

FAC 

Forward Air Controller 

FLIR 

Forward-Looking Infrared 

FOV 

Field ofView 

G 

Gravity Force 

GBU 

Guided Bomb Unit (also 
known as a smart bomb) 

HARM 

High-speed Anti-Radiation 
Missile 

HSI 

Horizontal Situation 
Indicator 

HOTAS 

Hands on Throttle and Stick 

HUD 

Head-Up Display 

Hz 

Hertz, cycles per second 

HVAA 

High Value Airborne Asset 

IFF 

Identification Friend or Foe 

ILS 

Instrument Landing System 

INS 

Inertial Navigation System 

IR 

Infrared 

JTIDS 

Joint Tactical Information 
Distribution System 

JSTARS 

Joint Surveillance Target 
Attack Radar System 


DO 



B. 1 


APPENDICES 


Jane’s USAF 


l<TAS 

True Airspeed in Knots 

LANTIRN 

Low Altitude Navigation 
and Targeting, Infrared, 
for Night 

LCB 

Laser-Guided Bomb 

LOS 

Line of Sight 

MFD 

Multi-Function Display 

MRM 

Medium Range Missile 

NOE 

Nap-of-Earth 

NM 

Nautical Mile 

RCS 

Radar Cross Section 

ROE 

Rules of Engagement 

RWR 

Radar Warning Receiver 

RWS 

Range While Search 

SAM 

Surface-to-Air Missile 

SARH 

Semi-Active Radar Homing 

SEAD 

Suppression of 
Enemy Air Defense 


SMS 

Stored Management System 

SRM 

Short Range Missile 

STT 

Single Target Track 

TACAN 

Tactical Aid to Navigation 

TAS 

True Airspeed 

TCN 

TACAN 

TOF 

Time of Flight 

TOT 

Time on Target 

TWS 

Track While Scan 

VI D 

Visual Identification 

VSI 

Vertical Speed Indicator 

WEZ 

Weapon Employment 
Zone or DLZ (delivery 
zone — also known as the 
weapon envelope) 

WSO 

Weapons Systems Officer 



B.2 


APPENDIX B: 
GLOSSARY OF TERMS 


Additional definitions can be found in Aircraft: Definitions } p. 7. 1. 


Active. A radar missile currently using a 
self-guidance system to locate its target. 

Airfoil. Curved wing or blade surface 
designed to produce lift when air passes 
over it. 

Airframe. Basic construction of the aircraft 
(doors, landing gear, seats, cabin, etc.). 

Angels. Altitude in thousands of feet. 
“Angels ten” indicates altitude 10,000ft. 

Angle of Attack (AoA). Aerodynamic 
angle formed between the chord of an air- 
foil and the direction of the relative wind. 

Aspect Angle. Angle from which a target 
is viewed — the number multiplied by 1 0. 
“9R” means a view of the target’s right 
wing from a 90° angle. 

Attitude. Pitch angle of the aircraft’s 
nose, relative to the horizon. 

Attitude Director Indicator. Shows atti- 
tude of airplane relative to horizon. 

Azimuth. Indicates a position on a hori- 
zontal plane surrounding your aircraft. 

Bandit. Confirmed enemy aircraft. 

Barometric Altitude. Altitude above sea 
level, calculated from air pressure data. 

Barrage Fire. Anti-aircraft fire that 
“floods” an area with ammunition rather 
than trying to specifically target and hit 
an aircraft. 

Bent. An informative call indicating the 
identified equipment is inoperative. 

Bingo. When your aircraft has just 
enough fuel to get back to base and land. 

Blind. An informative call indicating loss 
of visual contact with friendly aircraft. 

Bogey. Unidentified aircraft (radar or 
visual contact). 

Bogey Dope. A request for target infor- 
mation from GCI/AWACS 


Boomer. Boom operator of an mid-air 
refueling tanker (such as a KC-135). 

Bracket. Fighter element attack geometry 
which places aircraft on opposing sides 
of the target either laterally or vertically. 

Break (Up/ Down/ Right/ Left). A direc- 
tive call to perform an immediate maxi- 
mum performance defensive turn in the 
direction indicated. 

Buddy Spike (position/azimuth/alti- 
tude). An informative call indicating 
reception of friendly Al RWR. 

Bullseye. Code word for a specific refer- 
ence point from which the position of 
target aircraft are determined. 

Captured. Condition of a target that has 
been locked onto by the laser tracker. 

Chaff. Strips of metal film released to con- 
fuse and decoy radar-guided weapons. 

Chord. Imaginary line that passes 
through the leading and trailing edges of 
an airfoil. See “Angle of Attack.” 

Closing. Range to the bandit/bogey/tar- 
get is decreasing. 

Contact. Radar lock on target. 

Closure. Relative velocity of one aircraft; 
in relation to another. 

Corner Speed/ Velocity. Minimum air- 
speed at which the maximum allowable 
aircraft G is generated, i.e., speed at 
which an aircraft can turn the sharpest, 
given current altitude and attitude. 

Designate. Use of aircraft systems to 
identify a ground objective/aircraft as a 
target for weapons employment. 

Drag. Force that counteracts an object 
in motion through the air, such as air 
resistance. 


00 



B.3 


APPENDICES 


Jane’s 


Echelon. A call conveying groups/con- 
tacts/formation with wingmen placed 
45° behind the leader’s wingline. 

Egress. Outbound (exit) portion of an 
A/G attack profile. 

Element. A flight of two aircraft. 


Jink. Sharp turns in order to avoid gun fire. 

Knot. Measure of speed equal to one nau- 
tical mile per hour. (See Nautical Mile.) 

Lag Pursuit. Refers to pointing an air- 
craft’s nose just behind an enemy’s 
flight path during a turn. 



I 


Fox 1. Radio call for short range radar 
missile launch. 

Fox 2. Radio call for IR missile launch. 

Fox 3. Radio call for AIM-1 20 AMRAAM 
missile launch. 

Flare. Pyrotechnic device dispensed to 
defeat IR missiles. 

Frag. Fragmentary range and duration 
of a weapon. 

Furball. Turning fight with many aircraft. 
Guns. Air-to-air or air-to-surface gunshot. 
Heater. A slang term for an IR missile. 

Hot (Air-to-Air). 1. An informative GCI 
call — the target is heading toward your 
fighter; 2. Intercept geometry that posi- 
tions your fighter in front of an enemy 
target; 3. Leg of a CAP flight that is 
heading toward the anticipated threats. 

Hot (Air-to-Ground). The use of ordnance 
is authorized, anticipated, or completed. 

Hung. An A/A or A/G weapon has been 
electronically launched/released, but 
ordnance remains on hardpoint. 

Indicated Airspeed. The speed you 
would be traveling (given engine per- 
formance) at sea level in still air. An air- 
craft flying at the same true airspeed will 
show different indicated airspeeds at 
different altitudes and under different 
wind conditions. 

Ingress. Inbound (entry) portion of an 
A/G attack profile. 

Interleaved. Radar search mode alternat- 
ing medium and high PRF waveforms. 

Initial Point. The location at which air- 
craft turn to directly approach a target — 
the waypoint just prior to a target point. 

Jammer. Electronic countermeasure 
that emits microwaves to distort/con- 
fuse enemy radarscopes. 


Lead Pursuit. Refers to pointing an air- 
craft’s nose just ahead of an enemy’s 
flight path during a turn. 

Line. A call conveying groups/contacts/ 
formation with wingmen placed off of 
the leader’s right wing (3 o’clock posi- 
tion) or left wing (9 o’clock position). 

Mach. Speed of sound at sea level 
(760ft/s) used to measure rapid flight 
(Mach 1, Mach 2, etc.). 

Mach Ratio. Ratio of an aircraft’s speed to 
the speed of sound at the same altitude. 

Magnum. Radio call for AGM-65 
Maverick launch. 

Mark-20. Canister bomb containing 
bomblets; used against armored targets. 

Mark-82. 5001b general-purpose bomb. 
Mark-84. 20001b general-purpose bomb. 

Maverick. Nickname for the AGM-65 
TV-guided missile. 

MiG. Common nickname for the Soviet 
designed fighter aircraft. 

Mil Power. Maximum aircraft power, 
not using afterburner. 

Mud Spike. An enemy ground radar 
warning on the RWR. 

No Joy. No visual contact has been 
made with the enemy. 

Nautical Mile. Aeronautical measure- 
ment of distance equal to 6,076ft. 

Ordnance. Military weapons — includ- 
ing expendable armament, such as mis- 
siles and ammunition. 

Padlocked. An informative call indicat- 
ing the aircrew cannot take their eyes off 
the target without a significant risk of 
losing tally (lock). 

Patch Map. Radar image used in targeting. 
Pickle. To press weapon release button. 


B.A 


Pipper. Visual aiming designator that 
appears on the HUD. 

Point of Impact. Point along the leading 
edge of an airfoil where the air separates 
and flows over the top and bottom of 
the airfoil. 

Radar Altitude. Altitude above ground 
level (AGL), in feet, calculated from ter- 
rain-following radar returns. 

Radar Signature. Measure of an air- 
craft’s visibility to radar; also called its 
radar cross section (RCS). 

Rockeye. See Mark-20. 

Roland. (French) Surface-to-Air missile; 
effective at low altitudes. 

SAM ring. A circle designating the outer 
range of a SAM’s threat to overhead aircraft. 

Sanitize. A directive call to clear an 
assigned area with the radar searching 
for additional threats. 

Scissors. Defensive maneuvering utiliz- 
ing a succession of turn reversals 
attempting to achieve an offensive pos- 
ture following an attacker’s overshoot. 

Scramble. Launch the aircraft as soon 
as possible. 

Scud. Tactical surface-to-surface ballis- 
tic missile, medium-range, modified 
and used by Iraq. 

Semi-Active. A missile/bomb guidance 
system in which the missile receiver 
homes in on radiation/ reflection from 
the target that has been scanned by a 
source other than the missile itself. For 
example, another aircraft can bounce 
radar off the target, and help the missile 
home in on the target. 

Sequence Points. A set of geographical 
points to be overflown, including steer 
points, initial points, and target points. 
Also known as waypoints. 

Sideslip. Tendency of an aircraft to 
“slide” through a turn due to its forward 
motion. The nose is pointed slightly side- 
ways relative to the direction of flight. 

Sidewinder. An AIM-9 IR missile 

Sparrow. An AIM-7 semi-active radar 
missile. 


Spike. Enemy air intercept radar warn- 
ing on the RWR. 

Stall. “Loss of lift” that occurs when the 
angle of attack is too steep or airspeed is 
too low for the airfoil to provide any lift. 
During a stall, the normally streamlined 
flow of air over the airfoil is disrupted. 

Straight Flush. Acquisition radar unit 
for SA-6 Surface-to-Air missiles. 

Sweep. Patrol in enemy territory, intended 
to search and destroy enemy aircraft. 

Tally. An informative call conveying 
visual contact with the bandit, the 
opposite of “No Joy.” 

Tankplink. Attack armored vehicles 
using laser-guided bombs. 

Target Point. A steer point at which a 
pilot releases weapons. 

Trailer. The last aircraft in a formation. 

Trail. A call the conveys groups/con- 
tacts/formation with wingmen flying 
behind the leader (6 o’clock position). 

Triple-A. Unguided, ground-to-air gun- 
fire (1 2.7— 1 00mm). 

True Airspeed. Velocity relative to the 
ground, taking into account additions 
and subtractions to your indicated air- 
speed due to altitude, temperature, wind 
direction and speed, side slippage, etc. 

Turn Rate. Degrees/second an aircraft can 
turn. The higher the rate, the faster the turn. 

Turn Radius. Radial distance required 
to complete a turn. The smaller the 
radius, the tighter the turn. 

Weapon Envelope. Effective area of 
attack for a weapon. Enemies in this 
envelope are vulnerable to weapon’s fire. 

Wedge. A call conveying groups/con- 
tacts/formation with wingmen flying 45 
degrees off the leader’s wing, with wing- 
men on either side of the leader. 

Wilco. Will comply. 

Wild Weasel. Aircraft (F-4Gs in Gulf 
War) that take out SAM sites in prepa- 
ration for strike attacks. 


B.5 


Jane’s USAF 


APPENDIX C: CREDITS 

Pixel Multimedia Team 



Creative Director: Ramy Weitz 

Game Design: Aviv Yam-Shahor, Anat 

Executive Producer: Yael Amir 

Rabinovich 

Producer: Sharon Rozenman 

Art Director: Oren Gal 

Technical Directors: Tal Raviv (Exec.), 
Gary Kshepitski, Ady Shimony 


Engineering 


Simulation: Moshe Hasson, Itai Gal, Liran 
Antebi, Shai Almog 

Graphic Engine: Alon Nahary (lead), 
Zachi Ekhous, Pavel Gurvich, Aviv Avron 

Flight Models: Benny Kritzer (lead), 
Edi Wasserman 

Streaming Engine: Oded Itzhak 
Camera: Oren Fridler 

Multiplayer: Shirly Leshed, Dov Shuman 

Mission Editor: Gary Kshepitski (lead), 
Gur Halfon, Nir Arbel 
Installer: Keren Ribon 

GUI: Mark Lipsman (lead), Alex Kavushansky, 
Maxim Fudim, Oleg Pekar, Igor Backman 

A/I: Itai Erner 

Mission Design 


Designers: Aviv Yam-Shahor, Uzi Ronen, Ronen 
Barel,Tsachi Galanos, Ariel Hasson, Tomer Harel, 
Tamir Goren, Amir Harel, Micha Amieai 

Research: Roy Sovran 

Production 


Production Manager: Yaely Weitz 

Terrain Production: Keren Gilboa, Elada Menasherov, 

Art Studio Production Manager: Maya Shtarker 

Yarden Tadmor, Shira Derman, Gonen Lifshitz 

3D Design: Guy Baruch, Idan Nizan, Yaniv 
Goldmark, Sharon Amit Rosental, Oren 
Nahum, Michael Grosberg 

Sound Effects: Ishai Adar 

Testing : Gali Wenderow (lead), Eytan Levy, 
Shemer Choresh, Zvika Ekhous, Izik Bachar, 

2D Cockpits Design: Danny Hecht 

Lior Azi, Izik Bachar, Hadar Yosha, Doodi 
Magar, Asaf Ben-Oved, Shlomi Gabai, Alex 
Bolvachen, Alex Grey 

3D Cockpits: Hili Mohr 

Graphic Artists: Gilat Lerer, Michael Applebaum 
USAF Consultant: Col. Ret. Richard Hardy 

Opening Movie 

Technical Support: Jacob Gelman, Iris Kratenstein 

Producer: Lea Berkovich 

Sound Effects: Jungle Sound 

Art Director: Oren Gal 

Intro Theme: Rob Lihani (Digital Ranch, Inc.) 

Special Effects Editor: Ran Jurgenson 

Image Providers: U. S. Air Force, Defense Visual 
Information Center 

Terrain Data 


8 meter data: ©1999 CNES, Licensed by SPOT 
Image Corp., Reston, VA. 

Maps: Charts ONC F-02, TPC F-02A/B, ONC 
G-04, TPC G-04B, ONC G-1 8, TPC G-1 8B/C, 

AVHRR 1km data and Final Color Processing: The 

Living Earth, Inc. - livingearth.com 

ONC G-1 9, TPC G-1 9 A/D, ONC H-22, TPC 
H-22A/B, ONCJ-IO, ONCJ-1 1, TPCJ-1 1A/D, 
ONC K-09, ONC K-10, TPC K-10A/B/D 
products of the National Imagery and 
Mapping Agency. ©Crown Copyright/MOD. 
Maps ONC E-02, TPC E-02C, ONC H-05, 
TPC H-05B, ONC H-06, TPC H-06A repro- 
duced with permission of the Controller of 
Her Britannic Majesty’s Stationary Office 

TM Data available from U.S. Geological Survey, 
EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, SD 

Satellite Image Processing and Data Fusion: 

ImageLinks, a division of AGIS, Inc. 
www.imagelinks.com 

Special Thanks 


Dana Roche, Aya Gal, Aline Roman, Micha Amitai, Tamir Hativa, Yaron Refaely, Yacov Zarif, Aviva 
Goldstein, Dudu Zerah, Avi Horowitz, Tal Ben-David Yaron Dotan, Gal & Shai Weitz, Jacob Yosha 


B.6 


Electronic Arts — Redwood Shores (EARS] 


Exec, in Charge of Production: Scott Higgins 

Assistant Producer: Chris Bennett 

Producer: Steve Matulac 

Technical Director: Craig Suko 

Associate Producer: Phil Engstrom 

Art Director: Joel Symmes 

EARS Media Lab 


Dir. Audio/Media Production: Murray Allen 
Audio Technical Director: Rob Hubbard 

Audio Narration Editing: David Whittaker, Ken Felton 
Audio Effects Editing: Charles Stockley 

Video Processing: Eric Kornblum 

Music 


Composer: Don Veca 

Prdn. & Performance: Don Veca 

Video And Media Production 


Media Content Manager: David Luoto 

Jane’s Cinematic: Joel Symmes, Vince Arroyo 

Video Post-Production Studio: Digital Ranch Inc. 

Original Jane’s Cinematic: Paul Stankiewicz 

Video Producer: Rob Lihani (Digital Ranch Inc.) 

Image Providers: U.S. Air Force, Defense Visual 

Opening Movie Producer: Lea Berkovich 

Voiceover Actors: Roger Jackson, Jarion Monroe, 
Alex Pels, Stephan Stanton, Mark Stendar 

Information Center 

Consultation: Bob Lechy (Jane’s Information 
Group), Eric Johnson (physics modeling) 

Translations 


Localization Manager: Atsuko Matsu moto 

Production Specialist: Barry Feather, John 

Project Manager: Emily Bromley 

Pemberton 

German Translator: Frank Dietz 


Testing 


Testing Manager: Kurt Hsu 

Testers: Edward OTey, Ilia Brouk, Jeremy Fritz, 

Testing Lead: Rob Walker (lead), Greg Garman 
(backup lead) 

Roy Gatchalian, Chris Visaya, Sean Cosgrave, 
Anthony Ma, Rev. Shawn Latimer, James 
Grandt, Brian Brown, Robert Guzman, Saysana 
Saycocie, James Use 


CAT-LAB (Compatibility and Testing Lab] 

Dave Koerner (Lead), Mike Elliott, Jay Miller 


CQC (Customer Quality Control) 

CQC Manager: Joel Knutson CQC Testers: Jacob Fernandez, Dave Knudson, 

CQC Lead: Benjamin Crick Shane Fer S uson ’ Darryl Jenkins, Andrew Young, 

Micah Pritchard 

CQC for Documentation: Jacob Fernandez, 

Dave Knudson 


Marketing 


Documentation 


Product Marketing Manager: Patrick O’Loughlin 
Marketing Assistant: David Bonacci 
Media Relations: Kristen McEntire, Scott Hansen 
Documentation Editor: Ede Clarke 
Package Design : Bozell Worldwide, Inc. 

Special Thanks 


Manual Writing and Layout: Incan Monkey 
God Studios (Austin, TX) 

Lead Writers/Graphic Designers: Jennifer 

Spohrer, Tuesday Frase 

Additional Writing: Bill Hiles 


Scott Cronce, David Mosher, Paul Grace, Ed Gwynn, Deborah Chiao (Jane’s Information Group) 



B.V 


APPENDICES 


USA.F 


APPENDIX D: 

PREFERENCES WINDOW 

You adjust game preferences with the Preference window. You can open this 

window in one of three ways: 

• To open the Preferences window from the Main Menu screen, click the 
preferences button in the lower right corner. 

• To open the Preferences window from any other interface screen, click on 
the menu button at the bottom and choose preferences. 

• Press | Ctrl fo] to open the On the Fly menu. Then, left-click the preferences 
button to open the Preferences window during flight. 



Click ■ 
tabs to 
select 
them 


Click a radio 
button to 
select an 
option 


Click-and- 
drag slider 
bars 


■e 


jo 

Q) 

C 


Click the tabs to select one of the following panels: 
graphics Set graphics preferences. 

sound Set sound preferences. 

came controls Choose the game controls you want to use for flight and 
calibrate your joysticks. 

keyboard Remap keyboard and customize voice commands. 

gameplay Adjust gameplay options and difficulty levels. 

Click the buttons below to reset to default settings or to close the window. 
Gameplay settings are set according to the gameplay level you select when 
installing the game. The default graphics settings are determined by your 
specific platform (type of system). 

default Reset the current tab to its default settings. 

OK Close the Preferences window, accepting all changes. 

cancel Close the Preferences window without accepting any changes. 


B.B 


Graphics Panel 

The graphics level option appears at the top of the Graphics panel, followed 

by five radio buttons — low, medium, high, extra and custom. 

Click low, medium or high to set your overall graphics settings. These settings turn 

various graphic settings on or off, and reset graphic detail levels accordingly. 

low Minimize graphic detail and maximize game performance. 

medium Set medium graphic detail (may slow down game performance on 
a lower-end system). 

high Maximize graphic detail (may slow down game performance on 
lower-end systems). 

extra Select settings specific to an Intel Pentium™ III. This option is grayed 
out unless you’ve installed the game on an Intel Pentium III 
computer. 

custom Set individual graphics settings. See Customizing Graphics 
Settings, below. 


Customizing Graphics Settings 

Choose custom as your graphics level (see above). Then, click the tabs 
along the left side of the Graphics panel to customize different options. 

Display Tab 

Set resolutions for in-flight screens. Lower resolutions speed up game per- 
formance, while higher resolutions slow down game performance. 

display resolution. The available resolutions differ, depending on which 
graphic card you’ve selected. Choose a resolution for interface screens (i.e., 
all non-cockpit screens) from the pull-down menu — for example, 
800x600x1 6 or 1 1 52x864x1 6.* 

* The xl 6 refers to 1 6-bit color. Some cards may support 32-bit color. 

Terrain Tab 

Set terrain detail levels. Lower levels speed up game performance; higher lev- 
els slow down game performance. 

• Click-and-drag the slider bars to raise and lower levels — the longer the 
orange bar, the higher the level. 

terrain texture quality. Determines the sharpness and detail of the terrain 
texture — i.e., the grass, dirt, gravel, etc. effects. 

terrain complexity. Determines the complexity of the actual terrain features 
— for example, whether a rocky hill is simple and smooth, or jagged and 
rough. The highest setting is enabled for an Intel Pentium™ III processor. 

terrain multitexture. When checked, applies extra texture details to terrain 
to give you a better sense of high-speed flight. (Some cards may not support 
this feature.) 


00 



B.S 


APPENDICES 


Jane’s USAF 


Objects Tab 

• Click-and-drag the slider bars to raise and lower levels — the longer the 
orange bar, the higher the level. Lower levels speed up game performance; 
higher levels slow down game performance. 

• Click to place or remove a check mark in the boxes. Checking items 
increases detail but slows down game performance; unchecking items 
decreases detail but speeds up game performance. 

object detail. Controls how detailed objects are. The highest setting is 
enabled for an Intel Pentium III processor. 

cultural objects density. Controls how many non-mission element objects 
populate the mission world. The highest setting is enabled for an Intel 
Pentium III processor. 

external loadout. When checked, all aircraft’s external stores are visible 
(i.e., missiles, bombs, fuel tanks, etc. loaded on external hardpoints). 

objects mip-map. When checked, object resolution and detail decreases as 
the object gets further away. This speeds up game performance without 
noticeably detracting from your perception of detail. It mimics the way your 
eyes work — you see less detail as objects get further away. 

Effects Tab 

This panel toggles different graphical effects on and off. In general, the more 
effects you turn on, the greater the realism in the mission world, but the 
slower the game performance. Some effects also impact visibility during a 
mission. For this reason, you may want to turn them on or off. 

• Slider bars and check boxes work as described under Objects Tab, above. 

effect level. Changes the extent of graphics effects — for example, raising 
this setting extends lighting effects toward terrain and objects that are fur- 
ther away. The highest setting is enabled for an Intel Pentium III processor. 

3d cloud level. Controls the level of cloud detail. When the setting is high, 
clouds are more three-dimensional. The highest setting is enabled for an 
Intel Pentium III processor. 

seiadows. When checked, shadows become visible. 

environment illumination. When checked, lighting effects (such as muzzle 
flashes and explosions) cast light on nearby terrain features. 

object illumination. When checked, lighting effects (such as muzzle flashes 
and explosions) cast shadows on nearby objects. 

specular highlight. When checked, objects shine when lit. 

biliniar filtering. When checked, the computer samples only two points 
when creating color averages, and objects and terrain are a bit blotchy. 

triliniar filtering. When checked, the display changes smoothly between 
texture qualities, producing cleaner objects and terrain and better blending. 
Some cards may not support triliniar filtering. 


B.1 □ 


Sound Panel 

Use the sound panel to set volumes for background music and ambient 
sounds. 

• Click-and-drag the slider bars to raise and lower volume levels — the 
longer the orange bar, the higher the level. 

master volume slider. Controls volume for all music and sounds in the 
game. To mute all sound, click the mute box to place a check mark in it. 
Uncheck the mute box to un-mute sound. 

background music volume. Controls volume for the background music. 

engine volume. Controls volume of your aircraft’s engine. 

sound effects volume. Controls volume of other game sound effects, such 
as avionics returns, missile flight and explosions. 

speech volume. Controls volume of in-flight communications. 


Game Controls Panel 

Use the game controls panel to choose flight control devices. (On interface 
screens, you will always use the keyboard and/or mouse.) See Flight: Flight 
Controls, p. 3.8, for more information on controlling flight. 


Flight Controls 

Set your flight control device (i.e., the equivalent to a pilot’s flight stick, 
which gives pitch and roll inputs) to either joystick or keyboard. 

• You can only use the joystick option if you have a joystick set up and cal- 
ibrated under Windows 95/98®. 

• The default flight control key commands are (T), (T), 0, and p| . 


Rudder 

Choose your rudder device, either pedals, joystick or keyboard. 

• You can only use the pedals/joystick option if you have rudder pedals or a 
joystick feature that supports rudder control (such as Microsoft’s® Sidewinder 
Pro™). See your Reference Card for more details. You must set up and cali- 
brate this device under Windows 95/98 before the game can recognize it. 

• The default rudder key commands are Numpad Qj] and Numpad |T] . 

Throttle 

Choose your throttle device, either joystick throttle or keyboard. 

• You can only use the joystick throttle option if you have a separate throt- 
tle device, or a throttle wheel or slider on your joystick. You must set up and 
calibrate this device under Windows 95/98 before the game can recognize it. 

• The default throttle key commands are Qj) - f~9~| . 



8.11 


APPENDICES 


Jane’s USAF 


Calibrate Joystick 

Click this button to open the Windows 95/98 Game Controllers calibration win- 
dow. (Jane’s USAF remains active in the background.) 

Follow these steps to calibrate your joystick through this window: 

1. Double-click on your joystick in the list of Game Controllers. 

2. Click on the Settings tab in the window that appears. 

• If the joystick has a rudder device (or rudder pedals attached to it), click 
to place a check mark in the box under Rudder. 

3. Click the Calibrate button. 

• Follow the directions onscreen to move through the calibration wizard. 
Click next to move forward a step and back to move backward a step. 

4. Click on the Test tab. 

• Move your joystick around in circles to make sure it moves all the way 
to each edge of the white Axes box. 

• Click each button on your joystick to test it. 

5. Once you’re satisfied with the calibration, click Apply, then click OK. 
Otherwise, repeat Step 2 to re-calibrate. 

6. Click the Jane’s USAF button on the Windows taskbar at the bottom of 
the Windows 95/98 screen to return to the game. 

Note: Joysticks vary greatly — please refer to the manufacturer’s documentation if 
you are having difficulty setting it up and calibrating it in Windows 95/98. 

Force Feedback Effects 

This option is available only if you’re using a force feedback joystick you set up 
and calibrated through Windows 95/98. These joysticks have small motors 
that duplicate forces a pilot feels when banking, pulling up, etc. 

• Click on the radio dot next to force feedback effects to select this option. 

Set Dead Band 

A joystick’s dead band is the percentage of distance between the joystick’s cen- 
tered position and its outer range of motion, where it doesn’t recognize inputs. 
If you know this percentage, click-and-drag the slider bar to that amount. 

You can use this option in addition to (or in place of) the calibrate joystick 

button. See Calibrate Joystick, above. 

Keyboard Panel 

Use the Keyboard panel to remap keyboard commands and joystick buttons, 
or to change voice commands. 

Note: Microsoft’s Speech Recognition Engine must be installed and active in order for 
you to use voice commands. When installing the game, you’ll be asked if you want to use 
voice commands. Please see the printed Install Guide fora list of voice commands. 


8.12 


Changing a Keyboard Assignment 

1 . Click once on the command to highlight it. 

2. Press the new key. 

• If this key is currently assigned to another command, a dialogue box 
appears, asking if you want to use the new key setting. 

• Click NO to lose the new key setting or click yes to confirm the new key 
setting. (The two keys switch definitions.) 

• There is no way to delete a key assignment (unless you press the default 
button, which changes all assignments to their defaults). To change a 
key assignment, follow Steps 1-2 above. 

Changing a Joystick Button Assignment 

1. Click once on the command to highlight it. 

2. Press the new joystick button. 

• If that joystick button is currently assigned to another command, the 
old assignment is deleted and the joystick button is re-assigned to the 
new command. 


Changing a Voice Command 

1. Double-click on the voice command to highlight it. 

2. Type a new command in the window that appears. You may divide the 
speech command into two phrases — Phrase 1 and Phrase 2. We rec- 
ommend using two separate phrases when you have many similar voice 
commands. This makes the recognition engine more accurate. 

• Click cancel to close the window without saving the new voice command 
or click OK to close the window and save the new voice command. 


Gameplay Panel 

Use the Gameplay panel to change the difficulty level of the game. The 
gameplay level option appears at the top of the Gameplay panel and is fol- 
lowed by five radio buttons: cheat, easy, normal, realistic and custom. 


• cheat Set player skill requirements and enemy Al to their lowest levels, 

and activate cheats. When you select cheat options, points are 
deducted from your score accordingly. 

• easy Set player skill requirements and enemy Al to their lowest levels, 

but do not activate cheats. 


• normal Set player skill requirements and enemy Al to medium levels. 

• realistic Set player skill requirements and enemy Al to their highest levels. 

Choose this for maximum realism. 


• custom Set individual gameplay settings yourself. See Customizing 
Gameplay Settings, on the following page. 



8.13 


APPENDICES 


Jane’s USAF 


Customizing Gameplay Settings 

Click on the tabs to view different categories, then click on the radio buttons 
or check boxes next to options to select/deselect them. A dot or check mark 
appears by options that are selected. 

Player Skills Tab 

NO blackouts. Prevent the screen from turning red or black when you exceed G- 
levels, or G-force readings higher than what a normal pilot can tolerate. 
easy landings. Make landings easier. (This allows you to fly in at slightly 
higher speeds, a less than optimum angle, etc., and still land safely). 
easy aiming. Enlarge the air-to-air missile envelope. You do not have to be in 
the weapon’s exact kill zone for the missile to hit. 

easy targeting. Maintain your lock on a target when it moves out of your view. 
basic flight model. Switch to an easier flight model (i.e., it’s very hard to 
enter a stall or spin). 

Enemy Level Tab 

rookie Al. Set enemy Al to its lowest level — enemies are more likely to miss 
you, wait until you are well within range before firing, etc. 

Normal ai. Set enemy Al to an average level. 

expert Al. Set enemy Al to its highest level — enemies are more likely to hit 
you, target you at longer ranges and continue to press attack, attempt more 
risky maneuvers, etc. 

Cheats Tab 

invulnerable. You cannot be killed. 

NO crashes. You cannot collide with anything (objects in midair, terrain fea- 
tures, the ground, etc.) 

NO malfunctions. Your aircraft does not incur damage. You can die once you 

have been hit enough times (or when you crash); however, none of your systems 

suffer the normal malfunctions caused by damage up until the point that you die. 

unlimited ammo. You never run out of ammunition. 

unlimited fuel. Your aircraft’s fuel supply never runs out. 

enable cheat radar. You can use the AA and AG radar cheat submodes (the 

aircraft’s radar displays threats in a 360° area around your aircraft). 

Others Tab 

full waypoint name ON terrain. Display waypoint name next to its icon on HUD. 
object id on td box. Display a targeted object’s type beneath the TD box 
(for example “MiG-29”). In multiplayer games, a callsign also displays if a 
player is the target. 

menu tool tips. Display small pop-up definitions that appear when you 
move the mouse over an interactive screen element. 

realistic head movement restriction. You can only pan the 3D cockpit view (the 
| F 2 ] view) as far as you can turn your head (approximately 150° left and right). 


B. 1 4