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The following articles are reprinted solely as items of interest for the independent evaluation by members of 
ATSU. The opinions, statements of fact, and conclusions expressed herein are not those of the Association. 



By HARRIET KING 


SEATTLE—In this West 
Coast city, tShe future is here 
—and if you don’t go crazy 
hitting your touch tone 
phone 36 times to pay a 
$15.32 bill, it works. 


This state’s largest mutual 
savings bank has gone opera¬ 
tional with a system*—com¬ 
plete with talking computer 
—that allows customers to 
pay bills by phone. No 
checks, no signatures, no 13 
cent stamps, just punch away 
at the phone and it’s done. 


“We went into electronic 
banking to compete for our 
future livelihood,” says Bruce 
Baker, senior vice president¬ 
marketing at Washington 
Mutual Savings Bank. “Com¬ 
mercial banks have been 
drawing customers from 1 
thrift institutions so we real¬ 


ized we had to offer a pay¬ 
ment service as close to a 
checking account as we 
could, legally.” 

Washington Mutual kicked 
off its Passcard Plus account, 
as it’s called, in 23 of its 33 
statewide branches in May 
and will put it in the remain¬ 
der this fall. About 1,600 con¬ 
sumers now pay $2 a month 
for the convenience of paying 
any of 1,600 merchants or 
credit card companies by 
phone. Fifteen bill transac¬ 
tions will, in postage stamp 
savings, cover the. $2 and the 
accounts also pay 5*4 per¬ 
cent interest. 

Those with dial phones at 
home or office simply call 
the bank, talk to a real live 
bank teller, give their secret 
pass-code number, tell who 
they want to pay and how 
much. 

But those with touch tone 
button phones get to leap 
into the world of “Logan’s 
Run.” 

First, the bill payer in 
Seattle punches 464 4747 (7 
digits) A soft female voice, 
the cmoputer, says “Please 
enter your account number.” 
That calls for nine more 
digits plus the 12th button 
on the touch tone phone (the 
#), the activator (you have 
now punched 17 digits). The 
computer repeats the number 
by voice, then asks for your 
secret pass code. That’s four 
more digits and the # (or 22 
digits total). The computer 
repeats it, then asks aloud 
for the payment code, a num¬ 
ber for the store to be paid. 
That’s four more digits and 
# or 27 numbers. There’s a. 
voice repeat, of course, and 
the request for the payment 
amount; say $15.32 (the as¬ 
terisk covers the decimal 
point) and adds six digits 
running the total to 33). Sign 
off is 02 plus (#) (three digits, 
or 36 for the whole bill). 

Of course, if the caller 
catches a mistake, he hits the 
asterisk, the computer can¬ 
cels the entry and asks for 
the correct information. And 
if the phoner doesn’t sign off 
(02#) he can pay as many 



The New York Times/DOui Wilson 

With the proper code, Seattle bill payers can tap their cares away. 











bills as he wants on one call. 

The bank has a story about 
one customer who /had one 
$170 bill to pay, paid, but 
then forgot to push the 02# 
signoff. The computer then 
asked for more bills and the 
customer, thinking the com¬ 
puter hadn't heard him the 
first time—or something— 
paid his $170 bill again, and 
again, and again and again— 
five times in all. It took 
a while, but with a bit of 
human intervention, all was 
straightened out. 

One of the bank’s major 
goals is to lure new custom¬ 
ers with Passcard Plus. “We 
feel that the average age of 
people who’ll use Passcard 
Plus is 35. That’s crucial be¬ 
cause currently, industry sta¬ 
tistics show that the average 
age of those who use thrift 
institutions is 55. And let’s 
face it, the elderly are literal¬ 
ly a vanishing breed so we 
need to be able to provide 
competitive advantages to 
new, younger customers,” 
says Mr. Baker. 

‘‘Older customers seem 
reluctant to change their life 
style,” he says. ‘‘They’re used 
to dealing with paper and 
getting that cancelled check. 
The young, however, are 
eager to experiment. They 
grew up with computers and 
trust them.” He anticipates 
that Passcard Plus users 
would keep $1,500 in ac¬ 


counts ‘‘but we’re discover¬ 
ing,that the average custom¬ 
er keeps $2,500 in these ac¬ 
counts,” he says. 

A less successful fore¬ 
runner of the pay-by-phone 
service came in 1973 when 
Seattle-First National Bank 
introduced their In Touch pro¬ 
gram using touch tone 
phones as in-the-home com¬ 
puters to conduct six bank¬ 
ing services. Sea-First lured 
500 customers who paid 
$6.50 a month. Only 100 mer¬ 
chants participated. 

When the system failed a 
few months later, Washing¬ 
ton Mutual and seven other 
thrift institutions formed a 
holding company and bought 
51 percent of Telephone 
Computing Services, designer 
of the In Touch program. 
Some of the partners, includ¬ 
ing Farmers & Mechanics 
Savings Bank in Minneapolis, 
have introduced programs al¬ 
ready, similar to Passcard 
Plus. 

‘‘We didn’t want to be the 
first partner to introduce ths 
system because Sea-First had 
already failed with electronic 
banking. Failing twice in 
Seattle would have made 
other ipairkets awfully wary,” 
says Mi*, Baker. 

But the new effort has been 
very successful. We project¬ 
ed we’d have 14,000 consum¬ 
ers by the end of the first 


year. But if we continue at 
this pace, we may get up to 
20,000 users.' Our customers 
are selling us to their 
friends,” he brags. 

‘‘We determined that to be 
successful, we needed a base 
of 1,000 merchants* We now 
expect to have over 2500 by 
year end,” he says. It costs 
merchants nothing to sub¬ 
scribe. They receive one 
check for all of the business 
transacted by the bank the 
previous day, plus a comput¬ 
er print out and tapes that 
can be run through the mer¬ 
chants* computers for auto¬ 
matic posting and updating. 

‘‘We’ll be 18 months to two 
years into the program be¬ 
fore we break even. We 
didn’t get into it to be profit 
making, yet we can’t afford 
to lose money, either.” And 
the bank hopes for a 3 per¬ 
cent profit eventually. 

The biggest program was 
signing well known mer¬ 
chants. ‘‘We went for a peri* 
od of weeks withqut some 
major payees—like the Bon 
Marche which we just added 
last week. The Bon (Allied 
Stores Corporation’s regional 
chain of prestige department 
stores) waited to see if we’d 
have enough volume to make . 
it worth their while. They 
needed to be convinced—and 
were. 

‘‘Another problem 1 is that 
major City of Seattle utilities 
are undergoing complete 
changeovers in billing proce¬ 
dures so We can’t handle 
those accounts until late 
summer.” The only major re¬ 
tailer he doesn’t yet claim is 
Frederick & Nelson, a divi¬ 
sion of the Marshall Field & 
Company. “fhejrre in favor 
of it, but are waiting for the 
OK from Chicago,” says Mr. 
Baker. 

There are a few technical 
problems, but ‘‘whenever 
you’re burning in hardware, 
you have pieces that fail 
within the first two to: three 
months and that eventually 
will work forever. We expect 
to be oVer this stage soon. 
The software is becoming 
stable,” says Wayne Wallace, 
assistant vice president for 
computer operations. 

Washington Mutual says it 
spent a half million dollars 
to get the program where, it 
is” and we:re within our 
budget The majority of costs 
are for hardware and pp&r 
gramming. But costs 


Introducing 




two revolutionary 
new devices for 
payingyour bOls, 



The Washington Mutual Savings Bank in Seattle 
is advertising its computer service with photo¬ 
graphs of the two instruments needed to pay 
bills. Bills may also be paid by calling a teller 
who will make the necessary entry in computer. 


deter us—-the bank was seji? 
ous about the potential -'m 
electronic banking,” says 
Baker. 

He notes that the figure 
‘‘doesn’t show all the costs, 
however.” He figures that 
Sea-first spent a half-million 
dollars on In Touch and 
‘‘Farmers & Mechanics, too, 
spent a fair amount.” 

.Now the bank is getting 
ready to market the service. 
‘‘Later this year, we might 
begin discussions with other 
bankers and savings and loan 
officers who want to buy the 
system from us,” says Mr. 
Baker. “There’s money to be 
made there, yet if we dd it* 
we’ll lose some of our market 
advantage of having the . sys¬ 
tem exclusively. It’s *a deli¬ 
cate balance.” 

Merchants seem to * like 
Passcard Plus. “We’re 
pleased and have no major 
problems. But we see the 
possibility of a minor one 
ahead,” says Charles Robi¬ 
nette, credit manager of the 
Puget Sound Power & Light 
Company. Utility customers 
move around and each hous¬ 
ing unit has its own, perma¬ 
nent account number. We’re 
afraid customers who move 
may wind up paying into the 
wrong account. But we’ll 
work it put.. The program 
offers us a lot. We get one 
guaranteed check: that cuts 
down our bad check losses.” 

“It’s an easy system. The 
accounting is very accurate. 
Because they give us comput¬ 
er tapes, posting takes no 
time at all,” says John Walga- 
mott, assistant credit man¬ 
ager at Nordstrom,, a Seattle 
area department store chain. 

Mr. Walgamott says he 
personally intends to open a 
Passbook Plus account. “I’ve 
been watching one of my 
friends who makes a ?ame 
of timing his bill payments 
so he can get the maximum 
interest possible. I’m ready 
to do the same .for toy own 
bill; I’ll make every change 
in my personal accounting 
system I can to maximize 
every penny. It’s the way to 
run. any good business;” 


Copyright 1976 by The New York Times Company. Reprinted by permission 













1/S Sanaa Replates 370 $ 

Other Users Convince Firm to Get 470 


By Toni Wiseman 

Of the CW Staff 

BETHESDA, Md. — An in-depth survey 
of all current installations convinced man¬ 
agement at Scientific Time Sharing Corp. 
that an Amdahl Corp. machine was the 
way to go, even without any benchmark¬ 
ing on the firm’s part. 

“Our personnel visited every Amdahl 
installation in the U.S. and spoke with a 
Canadian site to confirm with other users 
what improvements they are seeing,” ac¬ 
cording to Daniel Dyer, president of the 
time-sharing firm. 

“Our findings confirmed what Amdahl 
told us we could expect,” Dyer said. “In 
fact, some of the universities which were 
running APL reported they were some¬ 
times getting slightly better performances 
with APL than they were with other 
work.” 

Consequently, Scientific Time Sharing 
installed a 4M-byte Amdahl 470V/6, re¬ 
placing two IBM 370/155s which had 
been handling its APL services. 

Dyer would not estimate the maximum 
number of users the system can handle; 


that figure depends largely on the nature 
of the work the customers are running, he 
said, and “the emphasis should be on 
balancing response time with the number 
of users to get as many users as possible 
at a response time that’s acceptable.” 

He did, however, estimate the 470 is 
about eight times faster than a 155. 

As a result, the service firm has adjusted 
its user pricing by a factor of 7.43 to 1, 
relative to what it was charging for the 
155, he said. 

Scientific Time Sharing experienced no 
problems in installation or conversion, he 
said. The order was placed on a Monday 
and the machine was running the follow¬ 
ing Sunday, Dyer said. 

Two Software Changes 

Only two software changes were neces¬ 
sary. First, the firm wanted to go to a 
higher resolution timer because the 470 
was so much faster, so software was 
written to support *hat change. 

Secondly, it moved up from OS Release 
21.7 to Release 21.8 to use some correc¬ 
tions made in multiple console support, 


Dyer indicated. 

Scientific Time Sharing is experiencing 
better than 99% uptime, Dyer said, and 
has experienced only one hard failure to 
date. “And Amdahl had it fixed within 
half an hour,” he added. 

Two engineering changes have been nec¬ 
essary, he noted, “but in both cases the 
problems were very minor and Amdahl 
responded very promptly.” 

One problem concerns the CPU timer’s 
failure to turn off when the machine is in 
log-out mode, according to Robert Smith, 
director of systems. 

“This means we end up with some 
excess CPU time when it’s going through 
machine check processing. But it doesn’t 
happen very often so it isn’t a serious 
problem,” Smith said. 

Amdahl has delivered a software en¬ 
hancement, to reduce the frequency of 
the problem and is working on a hard¬ 
ware enhancement which should be ready 
in a few weeks, he added, noting that 
Amdahl had indicated this feature would 
become standard on all 470s. 


Reprinted by permission. Computer World, July 26, 1976, Copyright 1976. 


D P services industry 
protests 'reform' bill 


MONTVALE, NJ — Computer industry 
efforts to defeat the Consumer Communi¬ 
cations Reform Act of 1976 increased 
this month as the Association of Data 
Processing Service Organizations (Adapso) 
began contacting members of Congress to 
enlist their support. Adapso represents 
software, data center, facility management 
and time-sharing companies. 

“This legislation, if enacted, would 
pose adverse consequences for users of re¬ 
mote access data processing and time¬ 
sharing services,” says Jerome L. Dreyer, 
Adapso executive vice president. 

Passage would have four major results, 
he says, listing them as (1) elimination of 
competition between telephone common 
carriers, (2) regulatory control over com¬ 


puter, station and terminal equipment, 

(3) provision by statute that the Federal 
Communications Commission must accept 
AT&T’s incremental cost methodology as 
appropriate in all cases, and (4) antitrust 
immunity for acquisitions by telephone 
companies. 

Adapso maintains the legislation would 
lead to increased computer systems costs 
resulting from the need to reconfigure ex i 
is ting computer networks. These costs, 
Dreyer says, would be passed along to users 
of the services. 

Relegation of jurisdiction over station 
and terminal equipment to state regulatory 
commissions would eliminate any possibil¬ 
ity of uniform nationwide technical stan¬ 
dards for multi-state networks, he adds. 


At the minimum, the viability of exist¬ 
ing multi-state networks is threatened, he 
says, while at the worst, the continued 
existence of such networks is endangered. 

And returning effective control of the 
domestic telecommunications industry 
to the telephone company would reduce 
the incentive for technological innovation, 
he adds. 

Adapso doesn’t dispute the position 
that every American should have basic tele¬ 
phone service at reasonable rates, but it 
does dispute placing regulation in state 
hands, maintaining that such fragmented 
control would result in higher operating 
costs. 

Reprinted by permission. 
Minicomputer News, 

July 29, 1976, 

Copyright 1976. 





Derision Made on Three Criteria 

NCSS Puts Amdahl 470 on 
IBM 370-Based Network 


By Toni Wiseman 
Of the CW Staff 

STAMFORD, Conn. — There were three 
primary criteria which proved positive 
and encouraged National CSS, Inc. 
(NCSS) to add an Amdahl Corp. 470V/6 
to its network - price/performance, diag¬ 
nostic abilities and ease of installation. 

At the time the decision was made to 
acquire a new computer, NCSS East 
Coast data center had an IBM 370/158 
and a 370/168, and it was running out of 
capacity faster than expected because of 
an extremely good business year, accord¬ 
ing to Michael S. Field, vice-president of 
data systems for NCSS. 

Its options were to add another 
370/158 or to upgrade the 370/158 it 
had to either a 370/168 or an Amdahl 
system, he said. 

“We’d been looking at Amdahl for 
about 12 months. We’d done some bench¬ 
marks in its Sunnyvale center and had 
some conversations with [the University 
of] Michigan and spoken to others about 
their experience, primarily Mass. Mutual 
Life Insurance Co.,” Field said. 

“As a result of our findings it seemed 
like [the acquisition of the Amdahl ma¬ 
chine] was a reasonable business decision 
for us to make in terms of the kinds of 
improvement we expected to see within 
the 1.5 to 1.6 range, or 50% to 60% more 
throughput,” he said. 

NCSS has its own operating system, 
VP/CSS,-which is of the same parentage 
as VM, Field said. It consists of two 
parts — the virtual control program or VP 
and its conversational software system or 
CSS. 

VP is a Virtual machine’ control pro¬ 
gram that shares the resources of the 
hardware system among the tasks running 
on the system, which may involve time¬ 
sharing information, retrieval, batch proc¬ 
essing, and other operating systems or 
remote batch. 


Ran Benchmarks 

At Sunnyvale, NCSS ran benchmarks 
where it “fired up more and more users 
to see how the system handled itself and 
measured its throughput,” Field said. 

Since the only machine available for 
tests was a 2M-byte system, it was forced 
to run a number of tests, extrapolate the 
results and project what the results would 
be with a full configuration. 

“We’re looking at a 6M-byte system 
when fully configured,” Field said. 
“That’s what we feel is a good balance for 
our operating system, between the mem¬ 
ory size and the CPU power.” 

NCSS can run up to 250 users simul¬ 
taneously on its 370/168. Based on the 
benchmarks, it feels the Amdahl machine 
should accommodate “50% as many as 
the 168, conservatively in the 350-plus 
area,” he said. 

Remarking on the three primary cri¬ 
teria which led to the selection of the 
470V/6, Field said NCSS expected to 
achieve somewhere approaching a 2:1 ratio 
in terms of price/performance over the 
370/168, where the cost of the Amdahl 
system was approximately 20% less than 
the 168, and the projected performance 
was 60% more. 

“Even if we were being optimistic and 
2:1 is better than we’re going to get, even 
approaching that number is attractive to 
us,” he said. 

The 470V/6 costs in excess of $4.25 
million, of which approximately 75% will 
be on a long-term debt basis and the 
balance paid from general funds. 

Field also praised Amdahl’s diagnostic 
abilities which, he said, were necessary 
for their time-sharing applications. 

In addition, the Amdahl machine was 
slated for installation in a new facility. 

“It would have been quite expensive in 
terms of fitting it up for cool water for 
the 168,” he said, “but the Amdahl is air 


cooled and doesn’t need it.” 

“It’s also a more easily maneuverable 
and installable machine. The thing was 
installed in 12 hours compared with one 
to two weeks for a 168,” he said. 

“We didn’t speak to anyone who had 
any reservations about their [Amdahl] 
system,” Field said. 

“I think Michigan did have a couple of 
problems right at the beginning, a channel 
problem which bugged them for a while. 
But that was the only negative comment 
we heard, and people at Michigan spoke 
about it in a positive way because they 
were impressed by the way Amdahl 
handled it,” he said. 

NCSS took the 470V/6 for an accep¬ 
tance test in May and “submitted it to as 
many different loads and as heavy a load 
as we possibly could to exercise it both 
from the performance and reliability 
standpoints, just to see if it met our 
expectations,” Field said. 

The results were so satisfactory NCSS 
moved up the date for putting its cus¬ 
tomers on the system from June 15 to 
June 1. 

“For the first two weeks we-didn’t see 
one hardware hit during prime time, 
which was remarkable for a new 
machine,” Field said, “and since that 
time we’ve had maybe one or two hits, 
but nothing dramatic.” 

NCSS is not worried about Amdahl’s 
viability as a hardware manufacturer, al¬ 
though it was an important consideration 
at one time, Field said. 

In addition, NCSS, as well as others, 
have a backup agreement with the Fujitsu 
organization, in the event Amdahl itself 
could not provide maintenance services, 
he noted. 


Reprinted by permission. Computer World, July 5, 1976, Copyright 1976 





For small businesses 


Time-sharing service 
offers 'flat rate' DP 


WELLESLEY, MA - “Flat rate” data 
processing is one time-sharing service’s 
answer to the inroads being made into its 
business by small in-house systems. For 
a packaged price of $800/month, Keydata 
will provide time-sharing services as a “lov 
cost, risk free alternative to the minicom¬ 
puter.” 

Designed to appeal to small distributior 
and manufacturing companies in the 
$750,000 to $5 million sales range, the 
System 800 service provides billing, inven¬ 
tory control, accounts receivable and 
sales analysis plus monthly and quarter¬ 
ly management reports. 

“We believe System 800 offers small 
business organizations a revolutionary 
new way to computerize their operations 
at minimum cost and with guaranteed re¬ 
sults,” says L. Edwin Donegan, president 
of Keydata, the oldest commercial time¬ 
sharing service. 


Small businesses with little, or no, 
computer experience “are being inundated 
by sales presentations from people try¬ 
ing to convince them to install in-house 
minicomputer systems,” Donegan says. 

But “the businessmen who rim these com¬ 
panies generally lack the experience to 
undertake the risks involved in hardware 
selection, software creation, and the day- 
to-day operation of even the smallest mini¬ 
computer system. 

“Yet these risks are more significant 
to them than to larger companies, since 
computer failures can literally put a small 
company out of business,” Donegan adds. 

Keydata’s new service is based on the 
KRU (Kevdata Resource Unit), a com¬ 
bination of four resource factors, includ¬ 
ing the number of customer invoices, the 
average number of invoice lines, the num¬ 
ber of customer records, and the number 
of item records. For $800, a customer is 


allowed up to 175,000 KRUs/month. 
Companies whose requirements exceed 
this amount can use the service by paying 
$4.75/month for each 1,000 additional 
KRUs. 

Service features include the installa¬ 
tion and maintenance of a terminal in the 
customer’s office, computer access 14 
hours a day during the week and 10 hours 
on Saturday, six monthly management 
reports and two quarterly reports. An ini¬ 
tial charge of $2^500 covers training of 
customer personnel and conversion of the 
customer’s data to the Keydata system. 

“In addition to being less costly than 
any minicomputer system currently avail¬ 
able, the Keydata System 800 also offers 
more sophisticated management informa¬ 
tion than is generally available with even 
the larger minisystems,” Donegan says. 
Keydata’s office is at 20 William St., 02181 


Cassette drive added to portable terminal 


OAKLAND, CA - Micon Industries has 
added a cassette drive to its Pocketerm 
portable terminal so that the battery- 
powered unit can collect up to 40,000 
characters off-line for later transmission 
via its built-in acoustic coupler. Called 
Cassetterm, the new terminal also includes 
an alphanumeric keyboard and a 32-char¬ 
acter LED display, all packaged in a four- 
pound unit not much bigger than a tele¬ 
phone. 

After data is collected on the small 
cassette, the user can either transmit the 
data via telephone to a central computer 
at 300 baud or mail the cassette to the 
central site. “Information can be gathered 
anywhere because the Cassetterm is bat- 



Portable Cassetterm 


tery powered, and it can be immediately 
sight verified on the display," says Wil¬ 
liam E. Northfield, Micon president. 

Cassetterm is priced at SI ,495, with 
quantity discounts available, from Micon 
Industries, 252 Oak St., 94607. 


Reprinted by permission. Minicomputer News, July 15, 1976, Copyright 1976 




TheTrouble With Minis 

by Philip H. Dorn, Contributing Editor 


The trouble with minicomputers is 
that; they refuse to stay mini, they 
grow just the way any computer 
grows. What begins as a very small, 
special purpose system somehow is 
transformed across time into a me¬ 
dium sized, general purpose system. 
After the prime motivating applica¬ 
tion is completed, somebody gets a 
bright idea to add more applications 
and the charge toward upgrading be¬ 
gins. A few cases in point: 

Case 1 

A major university once bought a 
minicomputer to do some very spe¬ 
cial research in structural analysis. A 
16K system with no peripherals ex¬ 
cept a graphics console, it was oper¬ 
ated by the professor for 2 to 3 hours 
a day. Five years pass. The profes¬ 
sor’s students are imaginative. The 
machine now has 32K of memory, a 


things started again. 

Case 2 

A financial institution carefully 
specified a mini to be used for data 
collection. The system was small, 
0.5mb of disc and 32K of memory. 
Two years later, the system had 
grown to 128K of memory, 5m b of 
disc, a larger model processor and a 
300 1pm printer. Why? Because 
someone thought that as long as the 
data was collected, it ought to be 
edited. And, since the data was now 
clean, why not do a little processing 
to save time on the big system? The 
net result is that the system now op¬ 
erates almost around the clock and 
serves as a mini data center with op¬ 
erators and support personnel. 

Case3 

Another financial institution had 


wide variety of applications, and ap¬ 
parently have a long and useful life. 
It is a great testimonial to the hard¬ 
ware designers and software devel¬ 
opers,, 

But we are compelled to wonder 
about the management in these or¬ 
ganizations. Have they lost control of 
the computing operation? What is the 
bottom line effect of the central facil¬ 
ity having to support a multitude of 
smaller installations and bail them out 
when they are in trouble? Are these 
new applications that just appear be¬ 
ing documented and supported the 
way that they would have been if 
centrally implemented? What is the 
effect on local management when 
they have to run a computing center 
in addition to performing the jobs for 
which they were originally hired? 

There are no fixed answers to any 
of these questions; doubtless the fi- 



card reader, printer, tapes, and even a 
small disc. The applications now in¬ 
clude literature search, project man¬ 
agement, and even student sched¬ 
uling. The departmental secretary 
can’t run the system anymore; it is 
too complicated. Whenever it crash¬ 
es, a professional from the computer 
center has to amble across campus, 
diagnose the difficulties, and get 


their 4K, tty-oriented mini grow in 
seven years to 32K with card reader, 
disc, and other peripherals. Formerly 
used for statistical analysis, it now is 
a real-time system. Acquired for one 
application, it now supports many. 

Now there is nothing wrong with 
any of this; it proves that mini¬ 
computers are flexible, are compar¬ 
atively easy to program, support a 


nancial details must be developed for 
each unique case. But the message 
should be clear. If you are going to 
install a mini, you had better know 
what problem you are trying to solve 
and how to bound the installation. If 
you ignore the mini after it is in¬ 
stalled, it will grow and a whole new 
set of managerial problems will ap¬ 
pear. # 


Reprinted with permission of Datamation, Copyright 1976 
by Technical Publishing Company, Greenwich CT 06830.