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The Newsletter of The Li Association of Time-Sharing Users 
and The Association of Small Computer Users 


VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2 


MARCH/APRIL 1979 


DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING 



the birth 
of a new 
era? 


GE’s NEW 
MARKLINK SYSTEM 

Page 2 

DURANGO’S F-85, 
SMALLEST OF THE 
SMALL 

Page 7 


Enclosed For ATSU Members Who 

Subscribe to the Interactive Computing Directories: 

XI. IMPACT PRINTING TERMINALS 

XII. THERMAL PRINTING TERMINALS 


Enclosed for all ATSU and ASCU Members: 

1. President’s Report 

2. Announcement of Annual Business Meeting 

3. Proxy Voting Forms (For Regular Members) 


Interactive Computing is published every other month by the Association of Time-Sharing Users, Inc., P.O. Box 9003, Boulder, Colorado 80301. Second-class postage paid at Boulder, Colorado 80302. 
















FORUM 




GE’s New MarkLink System 


Last December, General Electric Information Services announced a new dimension in ffrno-s/»ar#/7flr, -ca///ng 'it the 
MarkLink system. The system covers new ground in a fast-developing field which combines the best features of 
both distributed data processing and conventional time-sharing. While keeping ties to a centralized computer, the 
MarkLink system offers a small computer located at the customer site to pre-process the information. 

GE’s main selling point is the integration of services which the new MarkLink system offers. All the necessary 
hardware, software, maintenance, and networking facilities can be obtained from General Electric. ™,f* the 
need to order minicomputer equipment from one supplier, get custom software from a systems h ° usa ’ ca '' up 
phone company to get data channels, and then make arrangements with a time-sharing service to gel’the sysfe 
signed on. The entire job can be handled under one roof, including installation, networking, and customer 

support. 


To market the MarkLink system (as well as conventional, Mark III f,me*/iar/ng ^ 

corporate structure. Formerly the General Electric Information Services Division thefirm has ac ^ ed 
Honeywell’s timesharing operations in the United Kingdom, Australia, and continental Europe. The combined 
enterprise is now called the GE Information Services Company. 


Elements of the MarkLink System 

MarkLink’s computing resources include three ele¬ 
ments: (1) on-site terminals and minicomputers, (2) 
data communications lines, and (3) host computers. 
This three-part package defines a computer system 
that includes both distributed processing and time¬ 
sharing. 

Basically, the system works like this: users working at 
display terminals enter information which is sent to 
one or more on-site minicomputers, the mini¬ 
computers handle initial processing tasks, and when 
necessary, communicate (automatically) through GE 
network facilities to host computer centers. These 
house the permanent information base, master 
software library, data backup, and so on. 

The minicomputers comprise the distributed pro¬ 
cessing element of the system. Through their use, 
communications to the host computer are minimized, 
thus cutting down on network communications use 
and on the cost of centralized processing. The logic 
of this approach is that it is cheaper to localize some 
processing tasks rather than send everything hun¬ 
dreds of miles away to the big CPU. While GE doesn’t 
actually build the minicomputers and terminals, it 
does place its name on the products. Texas Instru¬ 


ments makes the hardware under contract, with GE 
providing a modified operating system compatible 
with the overall approach. Up to 16 display units may 
be connected to a single minicomputer. The minis 
have their own floppy disks and, if needed, hard 
surface disk drives. 

The host computers form the time-sharing portion of 
the system. They complete any complex processing 
tasks and keep the customer’s numerous locations 
linked together in a common data environment. The 
raw power of a group of big mainframes tied together 
in a cluster provides an edge in processing and 
storing huge chunks of data, and in ensuring 
reliability of the system. These clusters are located in 
three cities: Cleveland, Ohio; Rockville, Maryland; 
and Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Through the 
network facilities, the computers can reach out to 600 
metropolitan areas in 22 countries. 

GE uses Honeywell 6088 computers at its end, but 
runs them under a special operating system. The 
approach used is called “transaction processing.” 
Using this technique, if several remote users want to 
utilize the same software package, the computer 
places a single copy of the program in its active 
memory area, rather than generating a separate copy 
for each user. Through this “shared software” 
















method, GE says it has cut terminal response times 
nearly in half. We were told that response times of 4-6 
seconds or less could be expected in most cases, in 
contrast with a lag of 8-10 seconds experienced with 
conventional time-sharing techniques. The same 
technique, we’re told, is also applied at the mini¬ 
computer. 

Tying the host and minicomputer subsystems to¬ 
gether is a set of GE-owned and operated network 
lines. Here the emphasis is on the protocol used by 
the sending and receiving computers. While IBM 
3780 protocol may be used (especially if an in-house 
mainframe is connected between mini and host), a 
newer development called X.25 protocol is preferred 
for the link to the GE host computers. 

The X.25 protocol has become an international 
standard for information exchange, and it uses 
something called “packet switching” to allow several 
computer conversations on the same network line. 
(Please don’t ask us for details on this one: we can 


only tell you that, somehow, it lets several computers 
stay hooked up at once, giving each one the same 
2400 baud communications performance.) Because 
the several conversations require only one line, the 
cost of transmission is lowered. 

The unification of all the various aspects of this 
distributed processing package is perhaps the 
strongest aspect of the GE MarkLink system. GE 
provides the terminal hardware and maintenance, 
owns and services the communications lines, has 
worldwide facilities to service the multinational 
customer, and can write custom software as needed 
to support MarkLink user applications. 

Software Requirements 

The custom software aspect of GE’s operation 
deserves some discussion. Although GE has some 
5,000 regular time-sharing customers, with over 
2,000 applications programs already on file, GE 
Distributed Systems Manager Arthur Simms told us 


- 3 - 








that most MarkLink customers would desire at least 
some custom software in order to take advantage of 
MarkLink’s mix of local minicomputer and remote 
CPU. Some applications require a real-time (that is, 
continuous) connection to one of the central pro¬ 
cessing centers, while other applications would call 
up the center once an hour, once a day, or only as 
needed. The minicomputer’s capability of editing, file 
storage, retrieval, and so on, could be utilized to 
minimize network or CPU charges, and of course the 
appropriate software is needed to break the task into 
minicomputer and hostcomputertasks. The software 
could, of course, be written by the customer, 
providing such resources were available. 

According to Simms, while some custom software 
would likely be desirable, GE’s staff of programmers 
would be able to get the software running “a matter of 
months” sooner than custom software houses could 
perform the same assignment. Such a claim might be 
buttressed by the sheer size of the GE operation. 
Some 2,000 employees of GE Information Services 
Company are located stateside; another 1,000 are 
stationed in Europe and Australia. 

Cost Estimates 

The price of a MarkLink system depends, of course, 
on the number of terminals, printer, minicomputers 
and other devices involved. But aside from size, the 
customer has choices in each of three areas: terminal 
equipment, network access, and CPU access. GE 
provided us with the following sample price esti¬ 
mates: 

Terminal equipment includes the display terminals, 
the minicomputers, line printers, floppy diskette or 
hard-surface disk drives, and local memory. This 
equipment may be either leased or purchased. A 
minimum system containing the minicomputer, two 
diskette drives, one CRT terminal, and the most 
inexpensive printer would cost $800 a month in¬ 
cluding both rent and maintenance. The same 
configuration would sell for $21,260. 

A large terminal system with 16 CRT terminals, a 
minicomputer with two hard-surface disks (20 Mega¬ 


bytes total), a good-sized local memory store (352 
Kilobytes) and two high-speed printers would rent for 
$3,690 per month or sell for $93,290. 

Data transmission facilities are provided by GE on 
either a leased-line or dial-up basis. These are special 
data lines, not voice lines, and are maintained 
separately from conventional Bell System lines, since 
they are owned by GE. The prices quoted were based 
on a distance of 50 miles or less to the nearest GE 
network node, or connection point, which we were 
told existed in most major cities. With the leased line, 
for a cost of $830 a month, unlimited transmission 
would be allowed. The dial-up line option costs $25 
per hour while in use. 

According to Mr. Simms, these network prices are 
very competitive. “I would be astounded if any other 
remote computing service offered data transmission 
prices anywhere near that price,” he said. 

CPU time likewise is available in either of two plans: 
(1) in small quantities, or (2) at a fixed price. The retail 
cost, used for standard customers (some get a break 
on this price for various reasons, said Simms) is 13 
cents per Computer Resource Unit, or CRU. Storage 
is assessed at 11 to 80 cents per unit depending on 
the nature of the storage. “Of course,” joked Simms, 
“Don’t expect that any customer would get a monthly 
bill for 13 cents.” We knew he wasn’t kidding when he 
mentioned the minimum monthly price for a fixed 
allotment of processing: $15,560. Under the fixed 
allotment plan, processing up to an agreed-on limit is 
handled with a monthly fixed charge. 

Such fixed CPU charges, said Simms, appeal to large 
customers who wish to ensure that their data 
processing bills remain stable over a period of time. 
Two- to five-year agreements are possible fixing 
these charges and allowing the customer up to a 
certain amount of central processing. The minimum 
fixed amount just mentioned would be adequate for 
some order entry and inventory control applications 
of a multi-location company. 

The first company installing the MarkLink system, 
we’re told, is a national wholesaler with just these 


-A- 





MARKLINK* System Data Flow Diagram 



MARKLINK TERMINAL 



DATA TRANSMISSION 


MARKLINK CLUSTERED HOSTS 




‘Service Mark of the General Electric Company 


- 5 - 









































































order enter and inventory control applications in 
mind. They plan to install 900display terminals linked 
to 170 on-site minicomputers which in turn will talk to 
the full-size computers at GE’s computing centers. 

Competition in the Market 

GE’s Simms admitted that the MarkLink system 
would not initiate a “new era” of price competition. 
He said the primary value to the marketplace would 
be the integration of services GE could provide, with 
a single dealer handling all aspects of a distributed 
processing system. Especially considering the pre¬ 
sent fragmentation in the market for distributed 
processing systems, this seems to be a valid claim. 

Since the MarkLink system was first advertised on 
December 12, 1978, the response has been very 
favorable, according to GE’s Simms. As of late 
January, in addition to the massive account (170 
minicomputers and 900 CRTs) with which GE started 
the MarkLink development project, a chain of hotels 
has signed on for a national reservations system, a 
large company has agreed to install an order entry 
and inventory control system, and two other firms 
have signed letters of intent to join the MarkLink 
system. 

In some ways, the GE package resembles an offering 
by ADP Network Services (see box). Both companies 
have a long history of offering time-sharing services. 
Both are now offering an on-site distributed pro¬ 
cessing element to complement the massive central 
CPU systems built originally for conventional time¬ 
sharing. 

For major users of commercial time-sharing, espe¬ 
cially those with multi-site needs, these two offerings 
should be on your “must see” list of new data 
processing products. 


ADP SAYS ITS “ONSITE” 

IS STILL A UNIQUE SERVICE 

ADP Network Services, a major competitor of GE in 
the commercial time-sharing business, was first to 
offer an integrated system in which customers lease 
an on-location computer to reduce their monthly 
processing charges. The ADP OnSite service 
includes a DEC 2020 computer which accommo¬ 
dates up to 32 users. 

ADP emphasizes that with OnSite, all processing is 
done at the customer location, and all user 
programs and the data base reside in the local 
computer. They say that GE’s offering doesn’t 
accomplish this, since the MarkLink Terminal is 
only intended for temporary storage and the limited 
processing of data on its way to the big CPU 
complex at a GE processing center. 

With ADP, on the other hand, the OnSite computer 
is said to do all the work, with remote ADP time¬ 
sharing computers accessed only rarely in a typical 
application. ADP says worldwide communications 
of data are still possible, because each OnSite 
computer is linked to the ADP time-sharing net¬ 
work. But while the remote user logging on from a 
foreign city accesses the network communications 
lines, in the end his data is processed only by the 
company’s OnSite computer, and is not subject to 
CPU time charges. As each remote user logs on to 
the ADP network, he specifies a particular OnSite 
computer he will be working with. A multi-location 
application can be centered around one or more 
OnSite computers in this way. 

Thus ADP maintains it has a complete in-house 
time-sharing system. By doing away entirely with 
the need to access an ADP headquarters CPU 
(except for data backup or in case of local 
equipment failure), ADP claims the OnSite system 
can process for $20,000 or less a work load that 
would cost $35-40,000 on a MarkLink system. 


-6- 








Durango’s F-85, Smallest of the Small 


It's only been about a year since Durango was formed, but shipments have already begun on the firm’s new F-85 
desktop computer. An all-in-one-package system aimed at small business, the F-85 consists of printer, keyboard, 
CRT display, and mini-diskette drives. Especially since Durango is now talking about adding communications 
ability to the F-85, which would allow it to be used in a distributed processing environment, we feel the system 
deserves a closer look at this time. 


The F-85’s designers quite correctly call their new 
product a desktop computer, and it does fit the 
description. By combining the components inside a 
single plastic case, Durango has put a considerable 
amount of computing power—and all the accessories 
thereto—within arm’s reach. 

In price, the F-85 comes in at the low end of the 
business application microcomputer market with a 
$13,520 bottom line. Programming is in Basic, with 
additional software modules available to meet most 
of the needs a small business would normally have in 
the way of accounting, payroll, invoicing, and so on. 

Hardware Design 

Central to the F-85’s design is a dot-matrix impact 
character printer tucked behind the keyboard. The 
Durango engineers designed this themselves in order 
to create the framework around which other compo¬ 
nents could be fitted. The printer accepts standard 
computer-width forms, and has a print element that 
works both left-to-right and right-to-left. With this 
bidirectional capability it can putout 165 characters a 
second. The nine-by-nine dot matrix can be 
squeezed by program control into a tighter pattern 
yielding 217 characters on a line, enough to place 12 
columns of figures on a single sheet. 



The F-85 comes with two mini-diskette drives, which 
may be either single- or double-sided. Either way, a 
high density format is used, providing close to a 
Megabyte between two single-sided floppies or 
about 1.9 Megabytes between a pair of dual-sided 
diskettes. The drives are made for Durango by 
Micropolis. 

Upon seeing the positioning of the printer apparatus 
and keyboard, one might gain the impression thatthe 
printer is to be used simultaneously with the 
keyboard, typewriter-fashion. But instead, the printer 
is treated as a program-controlled device, and the 
screen fulfills the function of showing previous 
operator actions and prompting further steps. 


Just in front of the printer is the keyboard, which 
includes a standard typewriter set, a 10-key numeric 
pad, a couple of columns of control keys, and a 
column of function lights at extreme left on the 
keyboard. 

To the left of the printer sits a display screen angled 
slightly toward the operator. This 9" CRT displays 24 
lines of 80 characters each. 


Durango salesmen in the Bay Area, where the initial 
marketing thrust is strongest, like to emphasize the 
system’s compactness by carrying the F-85 to the 
customer’s office for an on-the-spot demonstration. 

Software Features 

The F-85 can be user-programmed in Basic, or can be 
operated with Durango-supplied small business 












applications software. The applications software is 
available at extra cost, and is said to be provided with 
instructional materials, training, and assistance in 
converting from previous procedures to the system. 

The Basic compiler supplied as standard equipment 
includes 14-digit floating point arithmetic (for precise 
scientific or statistical calculations) and a number of 
other features, among them string and array pro¬ 
cessing. An interactive editor is also provided. 

The applications software packages available at this 
time include five different aspects of small business 
accounting. The central package is the general 
ledger software. This may be linked with accounts 
payable, accounts receivable, sales order 
processing, and payroll packages so that each 
element in the software system reports as needed to 
the general ledger, keeping the accounting system 
integrated. 

The system may be implemented either fully or in any 
combination of the packages. Durango expects many 
first-time computer customers to begin with ac¬ 
counts receivable and invoicing functions, and later 
follow up by gradually converting payroll, accounts 
payable, and general ledger to the computer system 
as it becomes a part of the business’s overall 
accounting system. Durango maintains that the 
system can be installed and integrated smoothly into 
a business acquiring computerization for the first 
time. 

The Durango Background 

For such a new computer company, Durango offers 
some impressive credentials. Its president, George 
Comstock, and two other executives came over from 
Diablo Systems, the now-Xerox subsidiary that 
Comstock started in the sixties. Diablo, of course, is a 
leading producer of daisy-wheel character printers, 
and the individual records of Comstock, Waggoner, 
and John Scandalios, Durango’s marketing vice- 
president, in the Diablo success story do lend 
credibility to their quest for a position in the desktop 
computer field. 


Durango was formed about a year ago when 
Comstock apparently became stifled in the Xerox 
bureaucracy and distressed at the setback in his own 
fortunes that resulted from the fall of Xerox stock in 
price from $170 a share when Diablo was merged into 
it to $40 a share. The starting three captured $1.5 
million in front money from two venture capital 
groups and began work on the system design, later 
snaring an addition $2.5 million backing in the first 
year. 

Some sixty employees now work for them. Despite 
the fact that few systems have been installed yet 
(most of them in the Bay Area where Durango 
maintains a direct sales force), Comstock is pre¬ 
dicting that 1000 units will go out the door in 1979. 


Looking Ahead 



point, so untried, evaluation of the system’s operation 
cannot really be made at this point. The design 
approach seems sound, and the firm’s engineering 
department talks about adding communications 
capabilities (including RS-232 and IBM 2780/3780 
simulation) that will make it applicable to big 
business as well as small. Those enhancements are 
scheduled for this spring. Beyond that, the company 
is considering a built-in modem for the machine, the 
possibility of controlling additional display screens 
from the basic unit (minicomputer fashion) and even 
adding a hard disk capability. These last three seem 
at least six months or more away, and though touted 
in company literature as if here today, are still, as 
Waggoner put it, “under evaluation.” 

Like many other small computer companies, 
Durango isn’t afraid to claim tomorrow as already its 
own, advertising features that are not yet imple¬ 
mented. This practice is so widespread, however, that 
one can hardly single out one firm for joining in. It 
could be they’ll succeed in stuffing all that techno¬ 
logy in there. If they do, the F-85, driving a hard disk 
and four CRTs and communicating by modem, will 
be as saucy a competitor as any desktop computer 
system the industry is likely to come up with. At least 
until next year. 







CORRECTION 

In our last issue, the chart on page 9 in the article by 
RDC contained several errors. First of all, the scale at 
the bottom was shown incorrectly; and secondly, the 
bar for UCS should have indicated 52%. Below is the 
entire chart the way it should have appeared, and we 
apologize for any confusion the errors might have 
caused. HS 




TOTAL COSTS 

NEW PRODUCT PLANNING PROBLEM 
Vnftc.zndja.QZ ofa Highzit Vzndoft 



ATSU’S CORPORATE ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 

ADP Network Services 

American Terminal Leasing 

Avco Computer Services 

Boeing Computer Services Company 

CallData Systems 

Citibank - Interactive Computing Center 
Corporate Time-Sharing Services, Inc. 

Datanetwork, Honeywell, Inc. 

Data Resources, Inc. 

G.E. Information Services Company 
Informatics - Data Services Div. 

Insco Systems Corporation 
I. P. Sharp Associates, Ltd. 

Litton Computer Services 
Metrocom Inc. 

Minicomputer Modeling, Inc. 

National Computer Network 
On-Line Systems, Inc. 

Quantum Science Corporation 
R.A.I.R., Inc.* 

Rapidata, Inc. 

Scientific Time-Sharing Corporation 

SDC Search Service 

Sun Information Services 

Telenet Communications Corporation 

Tentime Company 

Time-Sharing Resources, Inc. 

Trendata 

United Computing Systems 

University Computing Company 

Vocal Interface 

Warner Computer Systems 

Western Union - Data Services Company 

Zeta Research 


*New Member 


BENCHMARK PROPOSALS BEING CONSIDERED 
BY THE ASSOCIATION 

Attention consultants: The Association is seeking 
proposals for independent benchmarks to be run on a 
variety of medium-size computer systems. If your 
firm has tackled projects like this before and would 
like to be considered, contact the Association 
immediately. Tel. (303) 499-1722. 




- 9 - 













ATSU and ASCII Chapters, Local Contacts and Special Interest Contacts 


ARKANSAS 

Gene Dugger 

Searcy — ASCU Local Contact 
Harding College 

(501) 268-6161 

CALIFORNIA 

Richard Dumas 

Mountain View — ATSU Local Contact 
Commodity Research Institute 
(415) 941-4646 

Gary Galan 

Newport Beach — ATSU Local Contact 
Commercial Bankers Life Insurance 
(714) 833-8450 

Frederick Gallegos 

Los Angeles — ATSU Local Contact 

U S. Gen’l Accounting Office 

(213)688-3809 

Don Hatch 

San Diego — ASCU Local Contact 
Christian Mgmt. Consulting Services 
(714) 293-3200 

Jim Rigby 

Brea — ASCU Local Contact 
Rodgers & Rigby, CPA’s 
(714) 990-3613 

Frank Slaton 

San Bernardino — ATSU Local Contact 
California State College 
(714) 887-7293 

CONNECTICUT 

Frank Chew 

Greenwich — ATSU Local Contact 
Amax, Inc. 

(203) 622-2824 

Charles J. Clock, Jr. 

Special Interest Contact for 
Educational Applications 
West Hartford Public Schools 
(203) 236-6081 

FLORIDA 

William A. Rousseau 

Pompano Beach — ATSU Local Contact 

Alpine Engineered Products, Inc. 

(305) 781-3333 

J. L. VanGoethem 

Miami — ASCU Local Contact 

Ryder System, Inc. 

(305) 593-3726 

HAWAII 

Richard Riehle 

Honolulu — ASCU Local Contact 
The Printout 
(808) 536-6532 

IDAHO 

Rick Simon 

Boise — ATSU Local Contact 
Morrison-Knudsen Company 
(208) 345-5000 

ILLINOIS 

★ Leon Stevens 

Chicago - ATSU Chapter President 
Standard Oil Company 
(312) 856-6689 

John A. Koziol 

Chicago — ATSU & ASCU Local Contact 
Continental Materials Corp. 

(312) 565-0100 

IOWA 

James E. Lewis 

Marshalltown — ASCU Local Contact 
Iowa Valley Comm. College District 
(515) 752-4643 

KENTUCKY 

Clyde Jenkins 

Special Interest Contact for APL 
Humana Inc. 

(502) 589-3790 

LOUISIANA 

W. D. Landry 

Abbeville — ASCU Local Contact 
Coastal Chemical Co., Inc. 

(504) 893-3862 


* ATSU and ASCU 


MARYLAND 

R. G. Korbeck 

Baltimore — ATSU Local Contact 
Baltimore Gas and Electric Company 
(301) 234-6687 

MASSACHUSETTS 

★ Stuart Lipoff 

Boston — ATSU Local Contact and 
Special Interest Contact for 
Software Standards 
Arthur D. Little, Inc. 

(617) 864-5770 

METRO WASHINGTON, DC. 

Frank E. Rockwell 

Glen Dale — ATSU Local Contact 

Astro Data Systems 

(301) 982-5996 

A. Steven Wolf 
DC — ATSU Local Contact 
U.S. General Accounting Office 
(202) 655-4000 

MICHIGAN 

J. Ben Friberg 

Grand Rapids — ATSU Local Contact 
Rapidstan Inc. 

(616) 451-6682 

Tom Hunt 

Cadillac — ATSU Local Contact 
Kysor Industrial Corp. 

(616) 775-4646 

★ Larry Leslie 

Special Interest Contact for 
Time-Sharing Administrators 
Upjohn Company 
(616) 323-4000 

MINNESOTA 

L. R. Bakewell 

St. Paul — ASCU Local Contact 
Real Estate Dynamics, Inc. 

(612) 698-8891 

MISSOURI 

Dann E. Kroeger 

Kansas City — ASCU Local Contact 
Townsend Communications, Inc. 

(816) 454-9660 

NEW JERSEY 

Jim Fitzpatrick 
Special Interest Contact for 
Data Base Applications 
American Broadcasting Corp. 

(201) 488-2345 

Robert J. Loring 

Haddonfield — ASCU Local Contact 
Cardiac Long-Term Monitoring SVC 
(609) 795-2220 

★ Bennett Meyer 

Special Interest Contact for 
Data Security 
Singer-Kearfott 
(201) 256-4000 

Samuel A. Scharff 

Englewood — ASCU Local Contact 

Consulting Engineer 

(201) 569-8332 

NEW YORK 

Dr. Dina Bedi 

Special Interest Contact for 
Educational Applications 
Baruch College 
(212) 725-3196 

Terri Gendron 

Briarcliff Manor — ATSU Local Contact 
Phillips Laboratories 
(914) 762-0300 

Samuel Leonard 

Elmira — ATSU Local Contact 

Thatcher Glass Mfg. Co. 

(607) 737-3459 

Philip N. Sussman 

New York City — ATSU Local Contact 
International Paper Company 
(212) 490-5827 


Council Members. 


NEW YORK CITY CHAPTER 
Executive Board: 

Aram Bedrosian 
TWA 

Bion Bierer 
Bristol Myers 
Victor Bittman 

Chase Manhattan 
Charles Browning 
Phelps Dodge 
Dennis Callahan 

Goldman Sachs & Co. 

Chester Frankfeldt 
Continental Group 
Carl Heimowitz 

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 
Alan Kornbluth 

American Express 
Susan McCain 

Morgan Guaranty 
Indira Singh 

Salomon Brothers 
Philip Sussman 

International Paper Co. 

OHIO 

Dennis Bender 

Cincinnati — ATSU Local Contact 
Procter & Gamble 
(513) 562-2469 

Ed Casper 

Cleveland — ATSU Chapter President 
Diamond Shamrock Corp. 

(216) 694-3366 

* Howard Tureff 

Cleveland — ATSU Local Contact 
Diamond Shamrock Corp. 

(216) 694-5963 

ONTARIO 

* David Wilson 

Toronto — ATSU Local Contact 
P S. Ross & Partners 
(416) 363-8281 

OREGON 

Paul Gehlar 

Salem — ASCU Local Contact 
Oregon Fruit Products Co. 

(503) 581-6211 


PENNSYLVANIA 

★ Dale Hummer 

Pittsburgh — ATSU Local Contact 
Westinghouse Electric Corp. 

(412) 256-4889 

D. T. Wu 

Philadelphia — ATSU Local Contact 
DuPont De Nemours & Co. 

(215) 339-6307 

TEXAS 

Ralph N. Bussard 

Houston — ATSU & ASCU Local Contact 
Price Waterhouse & Company 
(713) 654-4100 

VIRGINIA 

W. W. McChesney 

Alexandria — ASCU Local Contact 

Country Legend Stores, Inc. 

(703) 370-9850 

WISCONSIN 

Anil K. Bhala 

Green Bay — ASCU Local Contact 
L. D. Schreiber Cheese Co. 

(414) 437-7601 

Jack Kochie 

Racine — ASCU Local Contact 
Medical Engineering 
(414) 639-7205 

David J. Ritter 

LaCrosse — ASCU Local Contact 
LaCrosse Garment Mfg. Co. 

(608) 785-1400 

John J. Stewart 

Wausau — ASCU Local Contact 
Van Ert Electric Co., Inc. 

(715) 845-4308 

Paul Thoppil 

Milwaukee — ATSU Local Contact 
RTE Corporation 
(414) 547-1251 


LOCAL CONTACTS WANTED 

Become an ATSU or ASCU Local Contact for your area. Your name 
and telephone number will be listed on this page in each issue of 
Interactive Computing, enabling other members to contact you 
with their questions. Only users, not suppliers, are eligible to apply 
by writing to the Association. 



Published jointly by the Association of Time-Sharing Users and 
the Association of Small Computer Users. ©Copyright 1979, P.O: 
Box 9003, Boulder, Colorado 80301. Telephone (303) 499-1722. 


HilSel Segal * 

President, 
Publications Editor 


Leon Stevens * 

Vice President 


Earl Carroll 

Treasurer 


Martin Neville 

Secretary 


ATSU is an independent non-profit association providing a forum 
for the discussion of remote computing topics. ASCU, organized 
as a sister association to ATSU, is also independent and non-profit 
and is devoted to serving the informational needs of small 
computer users.