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Many of you are already familiar with 
the annual conference, held during 
the third week of July in Kansas City, 
known popularly as KansasFest. Last year, the 
company that sponsored the conference was 
Tom Weishaar's Resource Central. This year. 
Resource Central is dissolving and making 
way for ICON, the International Computer 
Owner's Network, a non-profit corporation 
founded by Weishaar and dedicated to helping 
users of all computer platforms (yes, even 
Macintoshes and PCs) get more out of their 
machines. Accordingly, the official name of 
the conference has been changed to ICONfer- 
ence — the fourth name change in the confer- 
ence' s six-year history — but, of course, that 
hasn't stopped everyone from calling it 
KansasFest, despite the fact that the name 
alludes to a trade show that no longer even 
exists (AppleFest) which KansasFest never 
really resembled. Furthermore, the conference 
is held in Kansas City, Missouri, not Kansas 
City, Kansas. 

Computer owners, unlike their machines, 
simply are not strictly logical. If I didn't know 
this already, I know it now, after trying to 
explain to non-Apple people (among them my 
non-computer friends and relatives) why it's 
called "KansasFest." It just is, OK? 

During the past few years, the conference 
was held at the National Office Machines 
Dealers Association (NOMDA) conference cen- 
ter, with attendees having the option of inex- 
pensive accommodations at nearby Avila Col- 
lege (a small Catholic school). This year, the 
conference was held entirely on Avila' s cam- 
pus once again, just as it was in its early days. 
The attendees were mainly Apple II users, 
although many had augmented their Apple lis 
with Macintoshes or PCs. Laptops, such as 
PowerBooks, were particularly popular — I 
even spotted Apple II historian Steve 
Weyhrich pounding away on a Tandy 100, a 
close spiritual cousin of the Apple II. (Like the 
Apple II, the TlOO is an orphaned computer 
with a loyal and enthusiastic user base.) 

What's the attraction of KansasFest? Well, 
there are hour-long seminars on various topics, 
but mainly, it's an opportunity for nerds to 
socialize with others of their own kind. (And 
I'm using the term "nerd" here in the most 
complimentary way possible to describe some- 
one who's into computers as a lifestyle — it's a 
badge I wear with pride.) At KansasFest, 
Apple II celebrities like Roger Wagner, Mike 
Westerfield, and, of course, Tom Weishaar 
himself mingle with ordinary folks. 

The seminar topics ranged from a demon- 
stration of Windows 4 (an event which marks 
Microsoft's first participation in the confer- 
ence) to a demonstration of a full-fledged 3D 
modeling and animation program for the Apple 
IIgs (Michael Lutynski's Animasia 3-D}. More 
on the sessions later, but first, I feel the urge to 
wax nostalgic for a paragraph or four. 


Six years ago, at the first KansasFest, I was 
just one of the nerd herd. I'd written a program 

called MicroDot for Kitchen Sink Software, 
and Ross Lambert, then publisher of three fine 
Apple II programming newsletters, gave me a 
five-minute piece of his session on 8-bit devel- 
opment environments to demonstrate my pro- 
gram. I found myself sitting next to Alan Bird 
(the author of the Beagle Compiler, TimeOut, 
Program Writer, and later In Words and Point- 
less), Mike Westerfield (owner of the Byte 
Works), and Roger Wagner (who needs no 
introduction) at the front of the room. 

All these guys were idols of mine, and there 
I was sitting next to them'. Alan Bird even 
looked at my nametag and said something like, 
"Oh, you wrote that MicroDot thing." Taken 
completely by surprise, I nevertheless managed 
to stammer something incoherent but affirma- 
tive. (If he remembers me at all, he probably 
remembers me as an idiot who couldn't put 
together a simple sentence.) I was seriously 
over-prepared for my five-minute session — I'd 
made a set of computer slides and written out 
all my remarks. I managed to get through it 
without too much stress, then fell back into my 
seat and managed to avoid staring at Bird, 
Westerfield, and Wagner too much. 

Other gosh- wow highlights of that first con- 
ference include the moment when Roger Wag- 
ner told me he'd liked my presentation; sitting 
next to Mike Westerfield on the van ride from 
the airport and thinking, "What a coincidence, 
this guy sure looks a lot like Mike Wester- 
field"— I'd seen his picture in Nibble — and last 
but not least, accidentally stealing Randy 
Brandt's seat at the TimeOut programming 
session. (I was mordfied when I realized what 
I'd done. Randy and I have, of course, met 
many times since then, and I now consider him 
a friend.) 

Of course, I quickly learned that most of 
these guys were a lot like me — completely 
addicted to the Apple II, and willing to talk 
about them all day and all night, stopping 
occasionally to consume junk food and to 
recharge their batteries with a few hours of 
sleep. While some were very different from me 
in many other ways, the Apple II gave us a 
frame of reference, a set of common experi- 
ences that had shaped our lives in one way or 
another, and something to fall back on when 
conversadon failed. I met all kinds of people — 
including some people I might have run away 
from in panic if I'd encountered them on the 
street — and discovered that the Apple II was a 
powerful and liberating social force in addidon 
to being a really neat computer. 

KansasFest 1994 

Snapping back to 1994. . . At the sixth 
KansasFest, as with previous 'Fests, most atten- 
dees arrived Wednesday evening and promptly 
spent the night getdng no sleep. (Although the 
registradon form for the conference has a check- 
box to indicate whether you plan on sleeping 
during the conference — so that the organizers 
can put you in a dorm room next to others with 
similar preferences — you really should not stay 
in the Avila dorms if you want to leave Kansas- 
Fest a refreshed and alert person.) 

What's the attraction of 

KansasFest? Well^ there 

are hour-long seminars 
on various topics^ but 
mainly; it's an 
opportunity for nerds to 

socialize vuith others of 

their oinin kind. 

(And I'm using the term 

herd" here in the most 

complimentary imay 
possible to describe 

someone imho's into 

computers as a 

lifestyle— it's a badge I 
lAiear iiuith pride.) 

At KansasFest^ Apple II 

celebrities like 

Roger Wagner, Mike 

Westerfield, and, of 

course, Tom Weishaar 

himself mingle imith 
ordinary folks. 


Being, as it was, the night before the confer- 
ence actually started, it was mainly an evening 
of cruising the dorms to see who was there and 
greeting people you hadn't seen for a year (or 
had only met electronically). Ellen Rosenberg, 
former managing editor of this very publica- 
tion, stopped by my lair to say hello, as did 
contributing editor Doug Cuff, who I'd never 
met in person. 

The next morning, the conference got under 
way with a brief "welcome" speech from Tom 
Weishaar, in which he read jokes from his sub- 
scriber comment cards and generally got us 
into a festive mood. Then the sessions began. 
The sessions were held in two tracks — that is, 
two sessions were held at the same time in dif- 
ferent rooms. For the most part they were orga- 
nized so that the intended audiences for com- 
peting sessions overlapped as little as possible, 
but there were still times when I was torn 
between two equally interesting topics. An 
integral part of KansasFest, it seems, is stand- 
ing in the hallway trying to decide which ses- 
sion you want to attend, and doing so in the 
minutes before the sessions are due to start. 

I chose to attend Jim Maricondo's Internet 
presentation, which served as a decent introduc- 
tion to the Internet, and touched briefly on the 
basic facilities of the Internet — mail, news, ftp, 
gopher, telnet, and their ilk. (You'll be reading 
about those in the next issue of II Alive.) Dave 
Ciotti's soldering session, I heard, was also 
informative for budding hardware-heads. 

The Mensch Computer 

After the first hour, the two tracks of confer- 
ences merged for Dr. William Mensch' s intro- 
duction of his new machine. Mensch, as you 
may know, is the designer of the 65C02 and 
65816 microprocessors used in the Apple II 
line. (He also had a hand in the design of the 
original 6502, but the 65C02 was the first 
processor that Mensch was solely responsible 
for.) A few years ago at KansasFest, Mensch 
created quite a stir by saying that Apple was 
the main reason there weren't faster 65816 
microprocessors — if there were a demand, 
Mensch said, he'd make the chips. He also 
mentioned he was working on a 32-bit version 
of the 65816 architecture. "Am I com- 
ing on too strong?" he asked the 
room full of enthusiastic Apple II 

This year saw a toned- 
down Mensch rolling 
out a product of his 
own. His new com- 
puter, based on a chip 
called the 65265S (which 
is basically a 65816 
with built-in RAM, 
ROM, and serial ports 
on one chip), is called the 
Mensch Computer. The Mensch 
Computer features an extremely 
small CPU box with a compact yet 
full-size keyboard, a Flash RAM 
cartridge port (which will accept the 
PCMIA memory cards used by the Newton 

and many laptops), and a stand-alone 40-col- 
umn by 1 6-line LCD screen. (Hide the CPU box 
under the table and the computer looks like it's 
just the keyboard and the very thin display 
screen.) It can run on batteries. The main cir- 
cuit board is about the size of a half-sheet of 
notebook paper, and could easily be further 
condensed (there was a lot of empty space on 
the board). Since the microprocessor is at heart 
a 658 1 6, Mensch figured that a crowd of Apple 
II programmers might be a good source of 
software — much the way some IIgs program- 
mers have crossed over to Super Nintendo pro- 
gramming, since the game machine also uses a 
65816 processor. 

Unfortunately, most of the crowd seemed to 
miss the point. "Can it run Apple II software?" 
No. "Why not?" Apple didn't make the tech- 
nology available. "Well, Laser has been licens- 
ing its ROMs, have you talked to them?" Real- 

^1 i^ial^ Hie Meiisdhi 
Computer for? Mensch 
envisions it as a plat- 
form for all sorts of 
iiome applications. 
With appropriate soft- 
miare^ it iniould make a 
pretty nice Internet 
front end (the machine 
has four serial ports). 

ly, Mensch said, the purpose of his new com- 
puter is not to live its life as an Apple II 
compatible. "We want to go forward, not back 
to the past," said Jihad Jaafar, the Nigerian pro- 
grammer of most of the Mensch Computer's 
firmware. (That comment seemed to anger a 
few people, but I don't think it was meant to 
imply anything negafive about the Apple II — 
Mensch and his team merely wanted to start 
with a clean slate, and design the best computer 
for the applications they had in mind without 
being constrained by the Apple II architecture.) 
So what's the Mensch Computer for? Men- 
sch envisions it as a platform for all sorts of 
home applications. With appropriate software, 
it would make a pretty nice Internet front end 
(the machine has four serial ports). It might 
also make a good phone book or recipe data- 
base. (If you've ever seen Seven Hills' Shoe- 
box for the Apple IIgs, it's easy to imagine the 
Mensch Computer as a sort of "shoebox 
machine," an electronic household organizer 
for everything your typical family keeps in a 
shoebox in the closet.) It's small enough to 

move from room to room, or even to take on 
the road as an electronic atlas. Each member of 
the family might have their own Flash RAM 
card containing the programs they use most 
and their own personal files. 

Will people buy it? Mensch' s big thing is 
licensing. (The 65C02 processor, for example, 
is used in everything from personal organizers 
to pacemakers. While Mensch doesn't actually 
make these 65C02s, he does get a royalty for 
every unit sold, since the chip is his design.) 
Sanyo has already agreed to build Mensch 
Computers, and other companies are reportedly 
interested in licensing the technology to use in 
various home, portable, and consumer electron- 
ics applications. So while I think it's unlikely 
you'll ever go to the local Circuit City and pick 
up a Mensch Computer, you might well some- 
day buy a television, or a telephone, or a car 
that has a Mensch Computer in it (although it 
might not actually bear the Mensch name). 
Since all of these devices will use the same 
architecture, you'll be able to exchange data — 
to pull a travel guide from your interacdve TV, 
for example, store it on a Flash RAM card, and 
then use it in your car while you travel. 

It's easy to envision the advantages of a 
standard platform for such applications. Pro- 
grammers could do all their development on 
one machine, regardless of the eventual target 
audience. Peripherals and data would be inter- 
changeable. It's parficularly savvy of the com- 
ing communications boom — one of the com- 
puter's four serial ports is dedicated to con- 
necting to other computers, with another 
dedicated to a modem. 

Mensch didn't mention any specific applica- 
tions in his session, but in talking with Jaafar 
briefly at the Mini-Expo on Saturday, I could 
tell that the Mensch Computer team is excited 
about the potential of the machine. Can it be 
successful? You've all seen the ads from 
AT&T promising that "You Will" someday be 
able to do all sorts of amazing things with 
technology, but they've been purposely vague 
about what kind of hardware will be doing the 
work — mainly because they have no idea what 
the actual technology will be. A lot of other 
companies are also dreaming big dreams about 
an interconnected world where everything is 
digitally controlled. When it comes time to 
turn the marketing into reality, these compa- 
nies will look for solutions that are already 
available and just waiting to be tapped — like 
the Mensch Computer. 

While Mensch' s Western Design Center isn't 
exactly a household name, that hasn't stopped 
the 65C02 from becoming one of the most popu- 
lar embedded controllers in the world. After all, 
the people who need to know who WDC is do 
know. The rest of us don't matter. Maybe, just 
maybe, we lucky few at KansasFest witnessed 
the birth of a new platform which will help make 
the "future visions" of AT&T and others a reali- 
ty — and make them all compatible. Or maybe 
not. Time, as always, will be the judge. Develop- 
ers should be able to buy Mensch Computers by 
the fime you read this. 

(Continued on page 37) 


Dear II Alive, 

Since Applied Engineering has gone out of 
business, what happened to their stock of data 
acquisition cards? I would like to get my hands 
on some of these to experiment with some 
process control applications and experiments. 
Do you have any leads on where to find these 

David McClay 
Lucasville, OH 

David: According to our sources, Applied 
Engineering had little or no stock of its Apple 
II products remaining when they went out of 
business. Evidently the company had not actu- 
ally been manufacturing Apple II products for 
quite some time. I'm afraid we don't have any 
leads for you on the card you want. — Editor 

DewcII Alive, 

I'm having trouble getting Mike Wester- 
field's Awari simulation (March/ April 1994) to 
run under Apple Pascal 1 .2. One problem was 
at first perplexing, but I eventually figured out 
that Apple Pascal only recognizes the first 
eight letters of idendfiers — which causes prob- 
lem with the variables that begin with "com- 
puter" in Awari. Now that I've got it to com- 
pile, it just won't run. If I pick any number but 
4 for my first move I get a "value range error." 
If I do pick 4, no matter what I pick for my 
second move I always get a "value range 
error." Can anyone suggest a fix? Thanks for 
the challenge and for an interesting program ! 

Ron Gagnon 
Barton, VT 

Ron: I guess we never actually came out 
and said that Mike's articles were written to 
run under the Byte Works' languages 
(ORC A/Pascal in this case) for the IlGS — but we 
should have. ORCA/Pascal adheres to ANSI 
Pascal language standards; Apple Pascal 
adheres to UCSD standards. This means that 
there may, in fact, be very minor differences in 
the way the two compilers handle parts of the 
languages. These may be causing your prob- 
lems. At this point we can only guarantee that 
Weekend Hacker programs will run when used 
with Byte Works products — sorry. Perhaps a 
reader has succeeded in getting Awari to work 
under Apple Pascal. If so, we 'd be interested 
in seeing your version. — Editor 

Dear II Alive, 

I hope you can help me find out some infor- 
mation about a couple of peripheral cards I 

have. One is a complete mystery to me — the 
only identifying mark is the word FOIL on the 
card itself and also on a small printed circuit 
board, attached to the main card by a ribbon 
cable, which attaches to the back panel of the 
computer. On the circuit board are an RS-232 
serial port, two RCA jacks, and what looks like 
a keyboard or telephone jack. I'd like to find 
out what this board can do and whether it 
requires any special software. 

The other board is an SSM serial/parallel 
board called the AIO-II. I'm hoping to find doc- 
umentation for this card. I tried tracking down 
SSM but ran into a dead end. Any help you 
can offer with either of these cards would be 
greatly appreciated! 

Terry Canfield 
20 E. Chattaroy Rd. 
Colbert, WA 99005 

Terry: Maybe printing your address here 
will help. — Editor 

DesiY II Alive, 

I thought that with all the schools who have 
both Apple lis and IBM compatibles, my 
request would be a simple one, but I haven't 
had any luck so far. Can you help me locate a 
Windows printer driver for the Imagewriter II? 
Both Apple and Microsoft apparently thought I 
was speaking a foreign language — both com- 
panies seemed to be trying to pretend that the 
other didn't exist. 

These two computers happily share an HP 
LaserJet 4L using Vitesse's Harmonic HP on 
the IIgs. Isn't there some way to give my poor 
PC-compatible the ability to print in color on 
the Imagewriter? 

Marjorie Smelt 

701 46th St. North 

St Petersburg, FL 33713 

Marjorie: Good question! I remember 
Orange Micro used to make an add-on card 
for the Imagewriter II which made it think it 
was an IBM dot-matrix printer, and I've also 
heard that the DOS version of WordPerfect 
supports the Imagewriter. I don't know 
whether that's true of the Windows version as 
well, or whether there are other driver pack- 
ages available that enable Windows to speak 
Imagewriterian. Maybe one of our readers 
knows. Gee, this Letters column certainly 
seems to be developing a theme. . . — Editor 

Dear II Alive, 

What's this I hear about AppleWorks GS 2.0 
being canceled? I was really looking forward 

to the upgrade! Doesn't Quality Computers 
support the IIgs anymore? 

Lawrence Palmer 
Ann Arbor, MI 

Lawrence: This is a bit awkward, because, 
editorially, I usually try to run II Alive as if it 
were completely separate from Quality Com- 
puters. But I think this issue is of interest to 
enough people in the Apple II community that I 
should answer it here. 

A few months ago Quality Computers sent 
out letters to customers who had pre-ordered 
AppleWorks GS 2.0, informing them that their 
orders had been canceled and that the upgrade 
was no longer under development. The techni- 
cal problems cited in this letter were real. It 
took Jim Merritt, a former Apple programmer, 
several weeks just to get the source code for 
version LI (the current version) to compile. 
Celebrated IIgs programmer Bill Heineman 
also had a look at it (see his interview in this 
issue for his perspective) along with program- 
mers from EGO Systems, publishers of GS+ 
Magazine. Everyone who has seen the code 
agreed that it would be simpler to rewrite 
AppleWorks GSfrom scratch than to attempt to 
upgrade version 1.1 into version 2.0. 

At this point, unfortunately, financial con- 
siderations came into play. Quality Comput- 
ers estimated the potential number of sales for 
AppleWorks GS 2.0 (based on pre-release 
orders and on the sales history of products like 
AppleWorks 4), weighed it against the costs of 
rewriting the program from scratch (requiring 
several programmers and probably at least six 
months), and found that it would be difficult to 
ever make money on the project. Projects that 
don 't make money make no sense for any busi- 
ness, no matter how dedicated the company 
may be to the Apple II. 

Quality has recently been approached by 
additional developers who want to give the 
project a shot and is continuing to look for a 
way to produce some type of upgrade for 
AppleWorks GS. If anything marketable comes 
of these efforts, II Alive readers will be the first 
to know. In the meantime, Quality did not wish 
to hold orders for a product it wasn 't certain 
would ever ship. Quality will continue to sell 
and support AppleWorks GS I.I until an 
upgrade is ready, if ever. 

But there's good news on the AppleWorks 
front, as well. Quality recently began shipping 
updates for AppleWorks 4.3, and be sure to 
check out the ad for AppleWorks 5 in this 
issue. — Editor 


Alive Aclvertisiiig tiate^ 


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CROSS-WORKS 2.0 caiU exchange AppleWorks data files with the most popular MS-DOS programs: 

AppleWorks ^ Microsoft Works 
AppleWorks Word Proc. ^ WordPerfect 
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in seconds, CROSS-WORKS copies files either way 
between your Apple II and IBM PC and translates the file 
formats. Word Processor files maintain underlining, 
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versal 19,200 baud cable to connect lie (with Super 
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Voiume 2 Number 4 

A Quality Computers Publication 



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QUESTION: I'm an Applesoft BASIC pro- 
grammer, and I have a little problem with my 
Imagewriter II printer. Whenever I turn on 
printing with the PR#1 command, for some 
reason, the TRACE statement gets turned on. 

Matthew Bentz 
South Huntington, NY 

ANSWER: Your simple-sounding question 
actually goes rather deeply into the roots of the 
way Applesoft, which is in your computer's 
ROM, and ProDOS, which is loaded from disk, 

When the Apple II was first introduced, it 
didn't support disk drives, because there weren't 
any such things. The programming built into 
your Apple II (its firmware) was, to be honest, 
never designed to support a disk operating sys- 
tem. When the first disk operating system was 
released, it "hooked on" to the firmware by pre- 
tending it was a remote printer and keyboard. 
Whenever you typed a key, DOS saw it first. 
Whenever a program printed something on the 
screen, DOS saw it first. This allowed it to 
"intercept" commands before the firmware saw 
them. (For example, the LOAD command was 
originally used to read a program from cassette 
tape. DOS intercepted this command and made 
it load a program from disk, which required an 
entirely different set of instrucdons.) 

Since BASIC programs have no built-in way 
to send commands to DOS, the PRINT com- 
mand was pressed into service. Printing a Con- 
trol-D character, also known as CHR$(4), was a 
signal to DOS that a command was about to be 
printed. DOS grabbed the following command 
and, instead of printing it on the screen, exe- 
cuted it. 

When ProDOS came out, things remained 
pretty much the same, except that when work- 
ing with BASIC programs, the part of the oper- 
ating system that actually handles disk access is 
separate from the part of the operating system 
that talks to BASIC. The latter is called 
BASIC.System. BASIC.System has some other 
duties besides talking to BASIC. To perform a 
task called garbage collection (a topic which 
could have its own "Ask Mr. Tech" response) 
on a regular basis, BASIC.System makes sure 
that Applesoft's TRACE mode, which prints the 
line number of each BASIC statement as it's 
executed, is always turned on. This allows 
BASIC.System to get control every fime a new 
statement is executed to see if the garbage 
needs taken out. Normally, however, 
BASIC.System "hides" the trace informadon (so 
that even though Applesoft is actually printing 
it, it doesn't get through to your screen). 

Now we come down to the real answer — the 
rest of the stuff was just background material. 
The BASIC command PR#1 doesn't understand 
a thing about BASIC.System. Since BASIC.Sys- 
tem is attached to the computer's firmware as 
if it were a printer, using the PR#1 command 

actually disconnects BASIC.System from the 
output loop. Then BASIC.System doesn't have 
a chance to grab the TRACE information before 
it's displayed — with the end result being a 
bunch of line numbers on your printout. 

The solution is simple. Don't use PR#1 in pro- 
grams. Instead, use PRINT CHR$(4) ;"PR#1". This 
is a command to BASIC.System, and BASIC.Sys- 
tem is smart enough not to "disconnect" itself. 
When turning the printer off, use PRINT 
CHR$(4);"PR#0". Similarly, to acfivate the 80- 
column display, use PRINT CHR$(4);"PR#3". 

QUESTION: I'm an amateur computer pro- 
grammer, and I'm trying to get my first full- 
fledged game finished, but I'm having prob- 
lems with speed. Before I can translate my 
sluggish Applesoft into assembly with the IIgs 
mini-assembler, I need to know the addresses 
to call and parameters used for all the hi-res 
graphics and math routines. The most impor- 
tant routine addresses would be the ones for 
the shape table commands, such as DRAW, 
ROT, and SCALE. Nobody wants an arcade 
game that runs at '/a frames per second! Please 

Albert Hammel 
Flint, MI 

ANSWER: If your program uses simple 
graphics and is spending most of its time doing 
non-graphics housekeeping things (such as cal- 
culating where enemy spaceships are, and that 
sort of stuff), a better soludon than assembly is 
the Beagle Compiler. In less than a minute the 
Compiler will translate your BASIC program 
into a super-fast psuedo-assembly code that 
really flies. Sure beats converting your whole 
program to assembly! 

If your program uses complex graphics and 
the slowdown seems to be in the actual drawing 
of shapes, then converting the program to 
assembly may not help. Drawing a complex 
shape in assembly language (via the Applesoft 
DRAW routine) is not any faster than drawing 
the same shape using the Applesoft DRAW 
command because the routine being called is 
the same in both cases, and it's simply not very 
fast. There are a number of things in the Apple- 
soft routines that are, well, less than opdmal. A 
better soludon in this case is a technique known 
as bitmapped shapes or block shapes. 

You also asked about Applesoft math rou- 
tines. Those are slow, too. You may think you 
need floating-point math, but I advise you to 
think again — floating-point math is one thing 
sure to slow even assembly code to a crawl. 
The Beagle Compiler achieves much of its 
speed increase by automadcally using fast inte- 
ger math when appropriate. You should do the 
same when writing your own assembly code. 
(You should get a real assembler, such as Mer- 
lin 8/16, instead of relying on the mini-assem- 
bler. Trust me on this one.) 

Covering the whole range of high-speed 
Apple graphics techniques is a bit beyond the 
scope of Mr. Tech's usual ruminadons. I can, 
however, suggest a couple of classic books on 
the subject. One is "Apple Graphics and 
Arcade Game Design," by Jeffrey Stanton. 
Another is "Graphically Speaking: Portrait of 
the Artist as a Young Apple" by Mark Pel- 
czarski. Unfortunately, both are long out of 
print — but they're both worth hunting down, 
and both contain all the informadon you need 
to use Applesoft's built-in shape roudnes from 
assembly, as well as a wealth of more 
advanced techniques. 

QUESTION: Either there's a bug in Pro- 
DOS, or I'm doing somethign wrong. I've writ- 
ten an Applesoft program that uses a small 
machine-language program to make use of the 
ProDOS MLI call. It works fine except when 
there are two or more disks with the same name 
present. According to Beneath Apple ProDOS, 
this should return an error code (byte $00 of the 
disk name entry should be $00, and byte $01 
should be $57). But this doesn't happen! If I 
have empty drives or non-ProDOS disks pre- 
sent, the error is returned properly. I'm working 
around this problem by checking the volumes 
for duplication afterward, but I sure wish I 
didn't have to do that. Any suggesdons? 

Also, is there a good source for a list of 
Applesoft entry points that can be called from 
assembly language? I'd like to write some little 
Applesoft utilides but am not sure how to go 
about it. 

George A. Clark 
Reynoldsburg, OH 

ANSWER: Evidendy ProDOS was original- 
ly intended to be rather more strict about dupli- 
cate volume names than it is. To make things 
worse, it appears that Beneath Apple ProDOS 
was, at least in spots, compiled from pre- 
release information from Apple, or possibly 
documentation for Apple III SOS. I've never 
seen an error $57 when working with 
ProDOS — even when renaming a volume to a 
name already in use by another available disk, 
which should theoredcally generate the same 
error. ProDOS seems rather tolerant of the situ- 
adon, although GS/OS is not. I wouldn't call it 
a bug; more like a documentation error. 

My favorite source of Applesoft trivia is 
probably the disassembly of Applesoft that 
comes with the Merlin 8/16 assembler. (A pro- 
gram included with the assembler actually dis- 
assembles the version of Applesoft in your 
computer's ROMs and inserts comments and 
meaningful labels all over the place.) The 
books What's Where In The Apple, by William 
Luebbert, and All About Applesoft from CALL- 
A.P.P.L.E. are also good, but hard to find these 
days. ■ 




Quality Computers, publishers of AppleWorks 4.0, has announced a release date of October 1 for the latest incarnation of the most 
popular Apple II program in history. With over 40 new and improved features, the 5.0 upgrade is a huge step in the evolution of AppleWorks. 

A true upgrade, AppleWorks 5.0 requires version 4.0, a 3.5" disk drive, 256K of RAM (lie's must be enhanced). People who order the 
AppleWorks 5.0 upgrade will receive a set of update disks and an AppleWorks 5.0 manual addendum. 

Following is the new features list as of August 15, 1994. The final version may vary. 


Requires minimum 3.5" disk drive, 256K enhanced lie (65C02 and Mouse Text) 

Files are compatible with AppleWorks 4 

Includes AfterWork screen saver engine with sample modules 

Includes free customizer program 


Includes a full version of UltraMacros allowing you to create macros as well as play them. UltraM acres manual not included. 

New dot commands include "random" and "justify" 
Compiler now has "conditional" option 

Desktop ■■''''•• 

Built-in printer buffer allows you to work while a document prints in the background 

Automatically switches desktops when current one is full 

Set pop-up alarms for any date and time, or for daily repetition 

New "Reverse" option added to «-A option to let you invert the current order 

"Deafult sort" order can be selected for file lists 

TimeOut loads utilities only when both Apple keys are pressed for maximum speed 

Text files are loaded with margins set to "0" for maximum width 

File types can be changed 

Screen blanker delay is now reset when mouse is moved 

Word Processor 

New full-featured outliner ...^, 

Improved split screen capability with resizeable windows 

Lets you print odd or even pages 

"Print to screen" option lets you easily preview (great for mail merge) 

MouseText can be printed from WP documents 

Find/replace allows wild card pattern matching 

#-F text is preserved when switching to another document 

New option for more suggested spellings in spell checker 

Add non-printing comments to your documents 

Data Base 

1| Supports background text in SRL (single record layout) 

Displays PrintShop, hi-res, and double hi-res graphics in SRL 

New combined mode shows MRL list with SRL data updated live as you move through the list 

Categories can be hidden in SRL 

Add new records at the end of a file instead of inserting at the cursor (optional) 

Enter numbers of list item to grab it directly 

Spell out months if you want to 

Use Tab after text is entered 

New Find & Replace text feature 


Enhanced "find" function 
Dynamic @Alert function updates each recalculatiol;a 
New ©Today function updates each recalculation "'"'WKk 

@Find is now case-sensitive 
Automatically recalculates before saving (optional) 


EMskQuest, Family Tree, 
NumberbaH & Pondering Problems 


**** Excellent 

*** Very Good 

** Good 

* Fair 

1^ Poor 

Sequential Systems 


Requires Apple Has, 2 MB RAM, 

System 6.0 or later; 

hard drive and System 6.01 recommended 

Review cd by }ciT 1 lurlburt 

When a '90s software vendor talks 
about offering comprehensive base- 
ball stats back to 1871 (plus team 
pictures and "great moments" sound 
clips) or answers to 2,000 commonly asked 
health questions, or some similarly prodigious 
collection of data, it's a cinch the medium is 
CD-ROM. The why of CD-ROM is easy to 
understand. Each disc can hold more text, pic- 
ture, and sound data than 800 3.5" diskettes. 
While access to the material isn't as fast as it 
would be if the information were stored on a 
hard drive, and the medium is read-only, it's 
clear that for reference software, CD-ROM is 
the way to go. 

Indeed, there is a burgeoning library of CD- 
ROM releases that may never appear in any 
other form. History of the World from Library 
Reference is a case in point. Operating this 
software with diskettes holding the text plus 
600 pictures and 25 "you are there" sound 
clips (including the Hindenberg crash, FDR's 
Pearl Harbor speech, and many more) would 
be impossibly cumbersome. In short, a IIgs 
without a CD-ROM drive is shut out from a 
large — and growing — software resource. 

History of the World, Family Doctor, Total 
Baseball, and many more CD-ROM offerings are 
stored in a standardized format called DiscPas- 
sage. The DiscPassage software provides a user 
interface for the data on the disc, which lets a 
user access text, pictures, and sound tracks on 
CD-ROM. Typically these products carry the 

Digital Data Disc symbol and are often labeled 
"for Mac or Multimedia PC." Mac and PC ver- 
sions of the DiscPassage Software are usually 
included on-disc; however, any computer that 
can read ISO 9660 CD-ROMs can use the data- 
base if it's running suitable interface software. 

But if your IIgs has a CD-ROM drive, SCSI 
interface card, and all the standard System 6.01 
drivers, it still can't do much with those CD- 
ROMs. The basic IIos setup can only access 
data and programs on CD-ROMs designed 
specifically for the Apple II. (With the HFS and 
High Sierra File System Translators installed, 
you can also access text, GIF graphics, True- 
Type fonts, and certain other types of data 
from some Mac and PC CD-ROMs.) At present, 
though, Apple II specific CD's are very rare, 
and most Mac and PC CDs require special soft- 
ware to access them — software that, like Disc- 
Passage, is typically only provided for the Mac 
and the PC. (DiscPassage CDs sometimes have 
text files your unaided IIgs can read, but this is 
hardly satisfactory for a multimedia database!) 

While your IIgs naturally cannot run PC or 

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Mac versions of DiscPassage, it can run Disc- 
Quest! DiscQuest is a DiscPassage compafible 
"browser" for the Apple IIgs. In other words, 
since the creators of these discs didn't make an 
Apple IIgs version of their software. Sequen- 
tial Systems did it instead. One software pack- 
age, DiscQuest, lets you use dozens of Disc- 
Passage-format CD-ROMs on your IIgs. 

I tested several DiscPassage CD-ROMs on a 
486 PC and compared them to DiscQuest run- 
ning on a IIgs with a lOMhz 64K Zip GS 
accelerator. The main differences are minor: 
on the PC each disc displays a title screen 
(which DiscQuest skips). In one case, a sound 
file which played fine on the PC did not play 
under DiscQuest. (Sequential Systems says an 

update is in the works to fix this problem.) 

As might be expected, the PC version dis- 
plays graphics faster. DiscQuest must process 
each image before it's displayed to reduce the 
number of colors to a level the IIgs can handle. 
The larger the graphic and greater the number 
of colors, the bigger the PC's speed advantage. 
Based upon samplings of several CD-ROMs, 
DiscQuest often needs about fifteen seconds to 
load and display a picture that the PC displays 
three seconds. Fortunately, you can reduce the 
delay by setting the Color mode to Gray- 
scale — less colorful, but much faster. 

Since 320 x 200 is a commonly-employed PC 
graphics resolufion, many images will fit the IIgs 
screen perfectly. For larger pictures, DiscQuest 
provides smooth mouse-controlled scrolling. 
Another Preferences option. Half-size, is handy 
for prinfing, and often supplies satisfactory sin- 
gle-screen viewing of very large images. 

Both setups handled sound files well, con- 
sistendy starting playback in under four sec- 
onds. The big surprise of the face-off came 
when comparing the time required to open 
folders and display item choices — for example, 
to open Ancient Civilizations and list article 
titles. The PC routinely took 10-20 seconds, 
whereas DiscQuest seldom took even two sec- 
onds! Skipping around in folders is a routine 
part of navigating CD-ROM databases and 
should be as quick as possible. Add the conve- 
nience of DiscQuest' s mouse interface — the 
DOS version of DiscPassage accepts only key- 
board input — and there's no contest: IIgs Disc- 
Quest users enjoy a considerably more friendly 
CD-ROM environment! 

A few seconds after double-clicking the 
DiscQuest icon the name and main menu of 
the current DiscPassage-compatible CD appear 
in a scrollable Browse window. From here you 
can open folders, do searches (by word, author, 
subject, or dtle), and read articles in scrollable 
windows. Of course, you can also listen to 
soundtracks, view pictures, and obtain print- 
outs of text and pictures. 

A major benefit of having reams of text on 
the computer is that you can clip and save 
selections for use in articles, term papers, and 
other projects. DiscQuest scores a "pretty 
good" here, since you are free to edit text and 
can use Cut & Paste within whatever article 
you are viewing. The result may then be saved 



i t ^ 1 

^m, B W fi ^P 

to disk (but not, naturally, back to the CD- 
ROM). At present, however, DiscQuest does 
not maintain more than one text window, nor 
does it support loading existing text files from 
disk or opening a new (blank) text window. A 
Desk Accessory text editor such as Shad- 
ow Write or EGOed comes in handy here. 

The standard DiscQuest package includes 
your choice of one sample CD (such as Family 
Doctor or Total Baseball), fifteen pages of 
information and instructions, and two 
diskettes. One diskette lets non-hard disk users 
start DiscQuest after a bare-bones System 6.0 
boot. The other will Install DiscQuest and a 
monospace font (CoPilot.8) on a hard drive 
along with, optionally, several support files. 
The latter include HS.FST (the High Sierra File 
System Translator, required to read DiscPas- 
sage-format CDs) and drivers for popular CD- 
ROM readers, along with the Media NDA and 
Control Panel to support playing music CDs. 

If you already have a CD-ROM drive on your 
IIgs, then hard drive installation of DiscQuest 
involves nothing more than creating a new 
folder, copying the program into it, and copy- 
ing the CoPilot.8 font into your System folder. 
The other files are present in case you've pur- 
chased Sequential' s Complete System Package. 
The review package I received included Disc- 
Quest software, info sheets, and manuals; a 
NEC MultiSpin (double-speed) CD-ROM drive; 
a RamFAST SCSI interface card and SCSI cable; 
a pair of Labtec CS-150 amplified speakers; and 
four additional sample CD-ROMs. A Sequential 
representative noted that the components and 
pricing of the Complete System Package 
change occasionally, so be sure to check with 
Sequential if you're interested in a complete 
setup. (You don't need to buy the hardware or 
the CDs themselves from Sequential; in fact, I 
advise you to shop around.) 

Once upon a time there were virtually no 
CD-ROM products for the IIgs and, as a conse- 
quence, IIgs users saw no reason to invest in 
CD-ROM capability. As a result, vendors didn't 
develop for the IIgs. So nobody bought CD- 
ROM drives, so no developers made tides for 
the IIgs, and so on. DiscQuest breaks this 
cycle and, suddenly, there are stacks and stacks 
of IlGS-compatible CD-ROM goodies! (Of 
course, the publishers of these CD-ROMs still 
think they're only for the Mac and the PC.) 
What will happen next? If enough users buy 
DiscQuest, eventually vendors may start to 
release major utility, productivity, and game 
CDs just for IIgs! 

Fantasy? For now, call it a modestly upbeat 
prediction. Not too many years ago, everyone 
knew IIgs users would never buy 4MB of 
RAM, or accelerator cards, or hard drives. With 
DiscQuest providing access to the wide world 
of DiscPassage-format CDs, CD-ROM on the 
IIgs finally makes sense. Now's a good time to 
shop around, compare features, and get the 
hardware you need. Then get DiscQuest; it 
can, literally, open the door to new worlds of 
IIgs computing! 


Robert M. Merril 


Requires Apple He (enhanced), lie, IIgs, 

Reviewed by Bruce R, Baker 

A few months back, my wife was in Min- 
neapolis visiting relatives when one dis- 
tant relative stated flatly that she was not 
a relation. Well, when you're descended 
from Samuel Adams — as my wife is — 
you don't stand for such nonsense. With Fami- 
ly Tree, we were able to print out a Descendant 
Chart from a common ancestor documenting 
the relation! 

Such are the benefits of owning and using 
well thought-out genealogy software. 
Runnable from floppy disk or hard drive. Fam- 
ily Tree can print Pedigree Charts and Descen- 
dent Charts, which show relationship links, as 
well as Family Group Charts, which include 
dates. The program allows previewing each 
chart on-screen, so it's not difficult to spot mis- 
takes like duplicate entries or omissions. My 
wife and I have impressed several people with 
our printouts. 

When we took up the challenge of my 
wife's confused relative, it was with the back- 
ing of a sizable database. Naturally, the pro- 
gram doesn't gather the data for you, it just 
organizes the information in an easy-to-refer- 
ence format. I have done a lot of research in 
many areas of our families — and some of our 
ancestors had quite large families, with the 
result that our database has over entries on 
over 400 relatives. A big database, but still 
way below Family Tree's limit of 700 (and 
when you hit that limit, you can split the data- 
base in two and continue working with both 
halves of your family tree separately). Happily, 
with the program's efficient encoding, even a 
large database takes up an amazingly small 
amount of memory and disk space. 

Once you've collected a pile of personal 
data, you're sure to appreciate the way Family 
Tree's prompts and built-in "smarts" speed the 
process of building the database. For each 
named entry, you have the opportunity to enter 
birth, marriage, and death dates and places, 
along with the person's father, mother, and 
spouse. After you enter the father, the program 
searches for that name and automatically 
inserts his wife's name, if one is recorded, as 
as the mother. (You can, of course, change this 
assumption if it is incorrect.) You can also 
enter partial names and allow the program to 
prompt you with a list of possible matches. 

Naturally, you don't have to enter all per- 
sonal information, anecdotal notes, and so on 
when a name is first added. By starting with 
one person, entering his or her spouse's and 

parents' names in the proper places, and 
repeating the process for the new names, you 
can quickly build a linked group of relatives, 
then fill in the details later, as your research 
brings more information to light. Each new 
name is assigned a number, and you can recall 
that person quickly by entering his or her num- 
ber in the First Name field. 

Maybe the easiest way to describe Family 
Tree's capabilities is to note that if there's 
something you want to do with genealogical 
data, you can almost certainly do it with this 
program. For example, brothers and sisters can 
be patched in using a special Add feature. 
They can then be linked (using the name or ID 
number of parents) and their spouses can be 
added. There is also a way to show second and 
subsequent spouses and to distinguish children 
from each marriage. 

So far I've worked with just one database, 
but you can have as many as you want, includ- 
ing ones created from scratch or split off from 
other databases. You can even grab files from 
non-Apple genealogical systems by converting 
databases (or parts of databases) to a standard 
genealogical format called GEdcom. Theoreti- 
cally, any GEdcom file created with any pro- 
gram can be imported into any other program 
that can read a GEdcom database. The same 
goes for moving data to and from AppleWorks 
and importing data in the popular Personal 
Ancestry File format (like GEdcom, developed 
by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 

One fun feature is that you can enter two 
names and ask the program to tell you how 
they're related. Family Tree understands "dou- 
ble cousins," "second cousin once removed," 
and more — which is good, because I sure 
don't! (This kind of search is limited to eight 

Building a large genealogical database takes 
a while, so the fact that I'm sdll using Family 
Tree is good evidence that I like it. Still, 
there's room for improvement. One problem is 
speed. Each time you enter the name of a 
father, mother, or spouse, the program scans 
the endre database for a match or near-match. 
As a database grows to a few hundred entries, 
the delay on a 'stock' He may rise to ten sec- 
onds or more. 

A second potendal problem is that incorrect 
links may suddenly crop up in large databases. 
You can fix program-induced errors by select- 
ing Verify after doing a Save, but it's still 
annoying to encounter such glitches. For one 
thing, you may not always be sure that a 
messed-up linkage is not a user error; for 
another, doing a Save and Verify of a large 
database is fairly time-consuming. It also 
seems odd that the designer of the program 
chose to include the verification feature to 
repair files rather than finding out what was 
causing the problem in the first place and fix- 
ing it. While the bug did not have any major 
impact in my work with the program, it does, 
obviously, need to be squashed. 



m ^m ^P ^™ 
^ W w ^P 

Documentation is on-disk, which means it's 
up to you to print out the 42 pages. Complete 
with glossary and index, the manual is well 
done and nice to have, though, to the program- 
mer's credit, menu choices are so explicit that 
little explanation is necessary. Keys for special 
functions (moving the cursor and so on) are 
largely the same as those commonly employed 
in other databases and word processors. For 
instance, on a name screen, one can skip to the 
bottom field using OA-Down Arrow. In fact, 
you can expect to use the program with just 
occasional glances at the manual. 

Supplied on two 5.25" diskettes, Family 
Tree is a quality system for organizing and 
presenting genealogical data. Robert Merrill 
has a section in the Apple II Roundtable on 
GEnie where he answers questions promptly 
and takes suggestions for updates — the pro- 
gram certainly is actively supported. Whether 
you've been chosen to chart the family her- 
itage, or just want to straighten out a confused 
relative, be sure to take a look at Family Tree. 








It's not often that an educational software 
product, developed to provide practice in 
solving math equations, pushes your stu- 
dents' logical processing skills to the limit. 
Numberball does. It challenges students to 
decide for themselves the best method of com- 
pleting an equation, and, then, to manipulate 
missing elements through the Numberball 
Machine in order to satisfy that equation. 

At the bottom of the Numberball Machine, a 
math equation is presented with at least one 
missing number or math symbol. The student 
can solve the problem by adding missing ele- 
ments or change the problem to accommodate 
one or more different elements. Motivation? 
Just try manipulating the balls bearing num- 
bers and symbols through the chutes and into 
appropriate positions in the equation — at any 
level of play, it's an exciting challenge! 

Each element within the equation can be 
changed to fit the user's preferences — as long as 
the answer is correct when he or she decides the 

equation is completed. Two Fireballs are avail- 
able to eliminate unnecessary elements and 
allow for modifications when mistakes are made. 

Other options include a Time Limit and 
Level of Difficulty setting. For example. 
Beginner problems will tend to avoid multipli- 
cation and division, use smaller numbers, and 
have fewer elements. Although the User's 
Guide says differently, the program's on- 
screen calculator was available for use with 
each equation. 

Points are scored for correct equations and 
are taken away when answers are wrong. 
Higher scores are earned for completing longer 
and more difficult equations and for success 

within shorter time limits. The single highest 
score achieved on this game is retained on a 
"Top Score" screen, and the five highest scores 
of the day are shown on this screen until the 
disk is rebooted. 

Offering colorful double high-resolution dis- 
plays and decent sound effects, the program 
does, as claimed, provide entertaining pracfice 
in setting up and completing equadons. Learn- 
ing to operate the Numberball Machine will 
take a bit of practice, but, given a chance, the 
program is a delightful challenge for students 
ages 8 and up. 



If you're looking for pracfice in solving math 
word problems, why not take a trip to the 
Pond and get some help from Ferdinand 
Frog and his friends? In Pondering Problems 
(Pondering, get it?) the student is walked 
through three steps to solve each word prob- 
lem: sorting the necessary data from extraneous 
information, choosing the correct operation, 
and finding the answer. As in Numberball the 
student can acfivate an on-screen calculator. 

Pondering Problems questions are posed as 
multiple-choice, except for the final answer to 
each problem, which must be typed in. The 
student is given credit for an answer only if the 
question is answered correctly on the first try. 

If the student's second attempt at solving the 
word problem is unsuccessful, he or she is pro- 
vided assistance in finding the answer. 

After each set of three word problems, the 
program displays a graph that indicates levels 
of mastery in each problem-solving area. Via a 
Print option, you can also obtain printouts of 
individual and, sometimes, total class scores. (I 
found that the program does not always come 
up with the correct class score total.) 

Options to define specific types of problems 
and difficulty levels can be set up when the 
disk is booted and these are maintained until 
the system is rebooted or options are modified. 
Student scores are not saved (too bad); still, 
this does make it easier to use a single diskette 
to start up the program on several computers. 

Presented in double high-resolution graph- 
ics, the pond provides a colorful backdrop for 
the randomly-generated problems. However, 
each game screen always looks the same with 
repefifive feedback (animals shake their heads 
'yes' or 'no' with generic feedback at the bot- 
tom of the screen). 

Warts and all. Pondering Problems is a cute 
idea. As promised, the program does challenge 
students and assist them in implementing the 
proper steps to solve math word problems. The 
series presently includes releases for grade lev- 
els 2-5 (each sold separately). ■ 


ROBERT M, IVIERRILL: 6180 Via Real, 
Carpenteria, CA 93013-2863 

MICROGRAMS: 1404 N. Mam Street, 
Rockford, IL 61 103 800/338-4726 

Circle, Lafayette, CO 80026 800/759-4549 





Welcome back to the history of Apple II 
Operating Systems! We wrapped up the 
first part of our journey at the introduction 
of the Apple IIgs in September, 1986. In this 
second half, we'll explore how this new and 
powerful addition to the Apple II line affected 
the development of operating systems for the II. 

Beyond DOS and ProDOS 

When Apple released the IIgs, the role of the 
operating system was expanded. Unlike DOS 
3.3 and ProDOS, the scope of the IIgs operating 
system is not limited to handling files and 
access to disk drives. The IIgs operating system 
provides a standard visual user interface, mod- 
eled on the Macintosh. Apple devised a com- 
prehensive set of programs known as the Apple 
IIgs Toolbox. The primary role of the IIgs 
Toolbox is to give software developers a stan- 
dard , programmer-friendly way to create IIgs 
applications with Mac-like interfaces — win- 
dows, menus, icons — while taking advantage 
of advanced IIgs hardware features, such as the 
Ensoniq sound chip, without having to learn the 
intricacies of the hardware. 

The initial release of the IIgs operating sys- 
tem seems crude compared to System Soft- 
ware 6.0.1, but in those days it was a revela- 
tion. System Software 1 .0, the version initially 
shipped with the GS, lacked many things that 
software developers and users take for granted 
today: comprehensive networking support, 
programming tools like TextEdit and 
MidiSynth, GS/OS, even the Finder! (If you 
aren't familiar with some of the preceding ele- 
ments, don't worry; we'll look at each one of 
them as we retrace the evolution of the IIgs 
operating system.) 

Much of the IIgs Toolbox is in ROM and is 
neither loaded from disk nor particularly con- 
cerned with disk drives, so the term "disk oper- 
ating system" is a misnomer when talking 
about the IIgs operating system. The Toolbox 
and the various disk operating systems 
released for the IIgs through the years work 


hand-in-hand to provide a complete, modern 
operating system for the IIgs. Apple uses the 
term "System Software" to refer to all the 
operating system components, along with 
included utilities like Teach, the Advanced 
Disk Utilities, and Finder. The term "operating 
system" refers to the central part of the System 
Software— for example, ProDOS 16 or GS/OS, 
along with the Toolbox routines built into the 

IIGS System Software 1 .0 
(September 1986) 

While 3.5" disk drives have never been 
known as speed demons — except, perhaps, to 
users just upgrading from 5.25" drives — the 

process of booting System Software 1.0 brings 
new meaning to the word "glacial." After the 
seemingly interminable loading process was 
complete, a simple "launcher" program, in 
reality nothing more than a simple Open dialog 
allowing you to select an application, 
appeared. An Apple IIgs Finder wouldn't be 
released until System Software 3.1. Apple did 
include a Finder-like program with System 
Software 1.0, but the program, MouseDesk, 
ran under ProDOS 8 in black and white double 
hi-res graphics! 

Although IIgs System Software 1 .0 ran only 
on the IIgs, at its heart was ProDOS — the 

same ProDOS code used on the 8-bit Apple He 
and lie. Due to time constraints in the initial 
release of the IIgs, Apple engineers didn't 
have the time to write an all-new operating 
system for the machine. A 16-bit "shell" was 
wrapped around the old 8-bit code, providing 
the entry points IlGS programs would expect 
while passing off actual disk access requests to 
the 8-bit routines. (This is the main reason Sys- 
tem Software 1.0 was so slow.) This lies spe- 
cific version of ProDOS was called ProDOS 16, 
and the original ProDOS was re-christened 
ProDOS 8. 

Although much about the IIgs System Soft- 
ware has changed since release 1.0, this ver- 
sion did establish several underlying assump- 
tions which have remained unchanged ever 
since — such as the related ideas of dynamic 
memory allocation and relocatable programs. 

Run it Anytime Anywhere 

One of the major differences between the 
IIgs and its predecessors was the machine's 
ability to directly address 16 megabytes of 
memory (compared to a paltry 64K of directly- 
addressable memory for previous models). 
Early IIgs computers included 256K of built-in 
RAM, and this was later increased to 1.125 
megabytes. Total RAM expansion was limited 
to 8 megabytes, with the remaining 8 
megabytes of address space reserved for the 
Toolbox and other built-in software. Naturally, 
this dramatic increase in available memory 
meant that larger and more complicated pro- 
grams could be run (maybe even multiple pro- 
grams at once!) — and that these programs 
could use bigger and more complex documents 
and data files. 

Besides the inevitable memory requirements 
of bigger and better application programs, the 
IIgs Toolbox and other parts of the operating 
system required memory of their own. For this 
reason, one of the most important programs in 
the Toolbox is the Memory Manager. Instead 
of reserving a specific area of memory for the 
operating system, as was done with DOS 3.3 
and ProDOS, the IIgs was designed to allocate 
memory on an as-needed basis for operating 
system needs, application programs, and docu- 
ments. Each program is allocated a Memory 
Manager ID number, which it can use to identi- 
fy and request blocks of memory as required. 
The Memory Manager keeps track of free 
memory, as well as memory which contains 
data but which can be reused if memory runs 
low (called "purgeable" blocks), allowing pro- 
grams and data structures to coexist peacefully. 

This dynamic memory allocation method 
brought up a serious problem, though. The 
6502 series of microprocessors (which the 
IIgs's 65816 processor belongs to) generally 
expects programs to be written to run at a spe- 
cific memory location. If the program is moved 
from one memory location to another, it stops 
working. (It is possible to write small programs 
which run successfully when moved to another 
location, but this becomes impracdcal when the 
program becomes larger than a few hundred 

bytes.) Since the mernory manager allocates 
memory on an as-needed basis, though, there's 
no telling where an application program will 
end up when it's loaded into memory. 

The solution devised by Apple is to include 
informafion with programs that tells the operat- 
ing system how to modify the program to run at 
an arbitrary memory location. Every single 
ProDOS 16 and GS/OS program— whether an 
application, desk accessory, driver, control 
panel, or init — has this information, which is 
generated by the development tools used to 
write the program (assemblers, compilers, and 
linkers). Programs stored in this format are said 
to be in OMF (Object Module Format). The Sys- 
tem Loader, a component of the IIgs operafing 
system, requests blocks of memory from the 
Memory Manager, loads the program into that 
memory space, and uses the relocation informa- 
tion included in the OMF file to modify the pro- 
gram to run happily in its new home. While 
there have been changes to the OMF to make it 
more efficient, the concept has not changed, and 
current versions of GS/OS can load even the 
very first OMF files without difficulty. 

The initial release of 
the IIgs operating 
system seems crude 
compared to System 
Software 6.0.1, but 
in those days it was 
a revelation. 

IIGS System Software 3.1 
(September 1987) 

While Apple released several new versions 
of the IIgs operating system in 1986 and 1987, 
including 2.0 in May of 1987, System Soft- 
ware 3.1 was the first upgrade with significant 
new features. The most obvious addition was 
the initial release of the Apple IIgs Finder, 
which replaced the old Launcher and 
MouseDesk. Although the IIgs Finder looks 
now, for the most part, much like it did back 
then, the first incarnation was slower, lacked 
features like Finder extensions and keyboard 
navigation — and it even had uglier icons! It 
was, however, a enormous step forward from 
the MouseDesk program. 

System Software 3.1 also included a new 
toolset that had been intended for the initial 
release of the system software, but hadn't been 
finished on time — the Note Synthesizer. Ironi- 
cally, the developer documentation for the 
Note Synthesizer wouldn't be released until 
System Software 3.2! 

II6S System Software 3.2 
(May 1988) 

Although System Software 3.2 wasn't a 
major upgrade, it did include several new fea- 
tures. Apple enhanced the sound support in the 
IIgs Toolbox by releasing the MIDI Toolset, 
the Note Sequencer (a companion toolset for 
the Note Synthesizer), and ACE (audio com- 
pression and expansion). 

Image Writer owners had another reason to 
cheer: System Software 3.2 included a com- 
pletely new printer driver for the ImageWriter. 
With additional features and speed (under 
older System Software versions, printing times 
were just as notorious as disk loading dmes for 
their incredible length), the new driver made 
printing on the ImageWriter a much more 
pleasant experience. 

Support for AppleTalk networks was also 
enhanced; for the first time, the System Soft- 
ware could be loaded over an AppleTalk net- 
work at startup time. Other miscellaneous 
tweaks in System Software 3.2 included speed- 
ing up menu drawing, easy disabling and 
enabling of Desk Accessories and INIT files via 
the Icon Info menu option, and a better way for 
third party extensions to patch into the IlGS 
Toolbox and enhance it. 

Apple IIGS System Software 
4.0 (September 1988) 

Apple used the September 1 988 AppleFest to 
unleash one of the largest operating system 
upgrades in Apple II history — IIgs System Soft- 
ware 4.0. For the first time, ProDOS 16 was 
replaced with the new GS/OS. Rewritten from 
the ground up, GS/OS was a fully IlGS-nafive I/O 
and file handler. Unlike ProDOS 16, GS/OS was 
modular, with comprehensive support for third- 
party additions — device driver programs to 
allow use of new and different devices (disks, 
scanners, modems, printers, etc.). File System 
Translators (FSTs) to let users use disks format- 
ted for different computers, and more. While the 
first release of GS/OS had a limited number of 
drivers and FSTs, later releases built on the 
foundation provided in System Software 4.0. 

The remarkable thing about GS/OS is that it 
had no default device or file system setup. In 
other words, it only supported disk devices for 
which there were drivers, and disk formats for 
which there were FSTs. ProDOS disks were 
supported through a ProDOS FST, not as an 
integrated part of the operating system. (Apple 
also provided a FST for reading High Sierra 
format CD-ROM discs). Without the right dri- 
ver, GS/OS couldn't even use a simple 3.5" or 
5.25" disk! While this modularity added addi- 
tional complexity, it made upgrades and addi- 
tion of third-party enhancements much easier. 

Aside from GS/OS, there was little new in 
System Software 4.0 — but what else do you 
want? The IIgs Toolbox went through another 
set of revisions to fix minor bugs, but few new 
features were added. One addition to the System 
Software that did prove popular were drivers for 
Epson printers and parallel interface cards. 



IIGS System Software 5.0 
(July 1989) 

Although the introduction of GS/OS in Sys- 
tem Software 4.0 took the IIgs to a new level, 
it remained to be seen if Apple would fulfill 
the potential of the system's modular architec- 
ture. Apple answered this question decisively 
when it released System Software 5.0. 
Although 5.0 lacked any new innovations on 
the order of the GS/OS introduction, it was a 
massive upgrade in terms of enhancing exist- 
ing parts of the OS. 

One limitation of the first release of GS/OS in 
System Software 4.0 was the lack of real net- 
working support. System Software 5.0 solved 
this in several ways: providing an AppleShare 
FST (File System Translator) that provided 
direct access to file server volumes, new GS/OS 
AppleTalk drivers, and Control Panels for con- 
trolling access to network features. 

Apple also improved the device drivers sup- 
plied with GS/OS. The driver for the Apple 3.5 
drive gained a new "scatter read" feature for a 
great speed boost. A new SCSI driver system 
was also written, giving better performance 
and providing makers of SCSI peripherals an 
easier way to develop drivers to let their 
peripherals talk to the IIgs. ExpressLoad was 
another performance-improving addition to 
System Software 5.0. Using a newly optimized 
variant of OMF, ExpressLoad could load new 
applications much faster. The speed improve- 
ments in System 5 were so great that they 
prompted A2- Central to title their front-page 
story on the upgrade, "Apple Announces 
Faster IIgs." 

The Apple IIgs Toolbox also saw a wide 
variety of enhancements. Apple released two 
all-new tools with System Software 5.0: TextE- 
dit and the Resource Manager. TextEdit is a 
powerful tool that gives application program- 
mers an easy way to implement text editing and 
word processing features in their applications. 

The Resource Manager was created to help 
programmers manage program data in a more 
organized and convenient way. Most programs, 
in addition to their actual assembly code, 
include a large number of pieces of data, such 
as menu and menu item titles, window coordi- 
nates, color palettes, icons, and so forth. These 
pieces of data were given the collective name 
of "resources," and the Resource Manager 
allowed programmers to store these elements of 
their program in a separate fork of their appli- 
cation. This sped development (since the 
resources did not need to be recompiled each 
time the program's code was changed) and 
made it easy for users to change these resources 
to make programs better suit their needs. 

Other enhancements to existing elements of 
the IIgs Toolbox included pop-up menus; bet- 
ter support for simple "info" or "error" dialog 
boxes; a more robust way of tracking controls 
(such as buttons and scroll bars) in windows; 
new controls such as icon buttons; keystroke 
equivalents for controls (like the Menu Manag- 
er has for menu items); and many optimiza- 
tions in program code that made the IIgs Tool- 

box run more quickly. The end result to the 
user was that existing programs ran more 
quickly and new programs could have some 
really neat features ! 

The Finder was upgraded to run faster and 
to support AppleShare file servers. In addition. 
Finder was also changed to support files called 
File Type Descriptors — files that described 
what different types of files were. This allowed 
the Finder to be "taught" about new types of 
files, so that when you added a new application 
to your system, the Finder could identify its 
documents by name instead of merely calling 
them "documents." 

Finally, Apple included a brand new desk 
accessory, the Control Panels NDA. The Con- 
trol Panels NDA is a shell for selecting a Con- 
trol Panel — a sort of mini-application. Apple 
included a variety of Control Panels that con- 
trolled networking features, printer options, 
mouse speed, sound volume, and other config- 

uration options. Apple also published the 
details of creating new Control Panels for the 
Control Panels NDA, and third-party Control 
Panels soon began to appear. 

And the Rest is History 

Recent history, that is! Apple released 
Apple IIgs System Software 6.0 in April of 
1992 and followed up with IIgs System Soft- 
ware 6.0.1 in May of 1993. Due to the current 
nature of these versions of the system soft- 
ware, we will not touch on them as part of our 
history tour. 11 Alive and other magazines have 
published many articles touching on the new 
features available in these upgrades. 

I hope you have enjoyed your tour of Apple 
II Operating Systems. From humble begin- 
nings with a mere cassette tape to vast hard 
drives, CD-ROMs, laser printers, and networks, 
the Apple II has come a long way! ■ 

GNO/ME— Unix on the IIGS 

While there has never been a complete third-party replacennent for the IIGS Operating System, 
there has been one significant tie-in: GNO/ME, the Unix clone from Procyon, Inc. Unix was 
originally developed at AT&T in the 1970s and has since become one of the most popular 
operating systems in the world. Used heavily in scientific and educational computing, Unix is, 
from a user standpoint, a rather complex and cryptic beast. Many of its then-revolutionary con- 
cepts are incorporated in one fashion or another in the operating systems of today. 

GNO/ME provides a multitasking kernel for GS/OS. Using the included text-based shell (com- 
mand line), Apple IIGS users have full access to the multitasking features of Unix and can use 
many popular Unix utilities which have been converted to run under GNO/ME. Unfortunately, 
the multitasking capabilities of GNO/ME are limited when working with Desktop programs. 
While GNO/ME can run many programs from its shell, only one desktop program can be run- 
ning at once (although the text programs can be running in the background as the desktop 
program runs). 


June 1978 Disk II and DOSS 

July 1979 DOS 3.1 

February 1979 DOS 3.2 

July 1979 DOS 3.2.1 

August 1979 Apple Pascal 

August 1980 DOS 3.3 

January 1983 DOS 3.3 (lie version) 

January 1984 ProDOS 

September 1986 ProDOS 8 v1.2 and ProDOS 16 1.0 (Apple IIGS System Software 1.0) 

May 1987 Apple IIGS System Software 2.0 

September 1987 Apple IIGS System Software 3.1 (First IIGS Finder) 

May 1988 Apple IIGS System Software 3.2 

September 1988 Apple IIGS System Software 4,0 (First version of GS/OS) 

July 1989 Apple IIGS System Software 5.0 

December 1989 Apple IIGS System Software 5.0.2 

December 1990 Apple IIGS System Software 5.0.3 

February 1991 Apple IIGS System Software 5.0.4 

April 1992 Apple IIGS System Software 6.0 

December 1992 Apple II System Software 4.0.1 (ProDOS 8 2.0.2) 

May 1993 Apple IIGS System Software 6.0.1 



MasterWorks Part 2 : 
Mastering AppleWorks 4 

bv Beverlv Cadieux 

Beverly Cadieux writes the AppleWorks 4-related OA-Return at this menu for a whole-word search: 

newsletter, TEXAS II. This series of articles is based on 
issues of TEXAS II which ran from July 1993 through 
early 1994, and adds new material based on what 
we've learned since AppleWorks 4 was released. 

The Word Processor of AppleWorks 4 includes a split screen win- 
dow, new options for adding and saving text files, better text search- 
es, automatic data entry via Glossaries, improved mail merge, and 
an important bug fix. New open- Apple commands in the word processor 
include OA-W for windowing, OA-A to set up glossaries and mail merge, 
and OA-G to choose a glossary. 


A split screen in the word processor permits you to view one part of a 
document while working elsewhere in the same file. The OA-W com- 
mand creates a window divider about halfway down the screen, freezing 
the upper window in place, and allowing only the lower window to 
scroll. You can't jump into the upper window, or view another file; exit- 
ing the file to save, print, set tabs, create glossaries, check spelling, 
rename the file, or quit AppleWorks deactivates the window. Changes 
you make in the lower screen are reflected in the top window only after it 
is deactivated, then activated again. 

Text files now appear on the Add Files menu, and can be loaded as if 
they were Word Processor files. They may also be saved as text via the 
OA-S command if the standard setdng "Save text files as text" is set to 
"Yes," eliminating the hassle of the warning that appears when attempt- 
ing to OA-S save a file created from a text file: "A file with this same 
name already exists. As a precaution, you aren't being given the opportu- 
nity to replace it." If the loaded text file was an MS-DOS file with car- 
riage-retum/linefeed pairs, it will be saved as an MS-DOS file with CR/LF 

The word processor's OA-F and OA-R funcdons to find and replace text 
may now be optionally restricted to search for a complete word by hold- 
ing down the OA key while pressing T for Text, C for Case-sensitive text, 
or Return on the menu choice. With this option, you can, for example, 
find instances of "ad," but skip words like "glad," or "adverdse." Press 

Find? Text Page Marker Case sensitive text Options for printer 

There's great news for users with auxiliary (bank- switched) memory 
cards like Ram Works and Z-Ram: the "Delete Carriage Return" bug has 
been fixed. In AppleWorks 3.0 with this type of memory card, deleting a 
carriage return required you to go to the end of the line, and, with the cur- 
sor on the carriage return, press OA-D, Return. The problem is fixed in 
AppleWorks 4; the regular Delete key deletes a carriage return as it 

Under Standard Setdngs, "Reset files when loading" may be set to 
load with the cursor reset to line 1, column 1 (the "Home" position). 
With Reset files set to "No," the file will load with the cursor where it 
was when the file was last saved — and zoomed to show printer opdons if 
the file was zoomed when it was saved. ("Reset files when loading" also 
applies to data base and spreadsheet files.) 

You may also tell AppleWorks to show word processor tab rulers 
within the text when OA-Z (zoom) is pressed. Instead of the nondescript 

you'll see the full tab ruler — including right, left, center, and decimal 
tabs — displayed right in the document, like this: 

This way you can tell at a glance exacdy where tabs change, without 
having to move the cursor into the secdon of the document governed by 
the ruler to view tabs at the top of the screen. (Editing tabs still takes 
place at the top of the screen.) 


With AppleWorks 4, spelling dicdonaries may be located on any disk 
or directory, and can (opdonally) be auto-copied to your RAM Disk on 
startup. Beginning with AppleWorks 4.02, the dicdonary copier may be 
set to copy the TimeOut Thesaurus synonyms file to your RAM Disk as 
well. (If you do not use a RAM Disk or do not want to copy your dictio- 
naries there, you can delete the file SEG.DC from your AppleWorks disk.) 
The location of the dictionaries must be a pathname, not a device, as 
shown below: 



P P I, E W O R K S At I A 1 S i 

Disk: Ext. Disk 3.5 #1 

SPELLING CHECKER Escape: Standard Settings 

I I 

I I 

I I 

1 I 

I I 

I I 
I I 
I I 
I I 
I I 
I I 

Other Activities 

Standard Settinas 1 


1 Spell 

ina Checker | 


Standard custom dictionary 


1 2 . 

Standard spelling method 

From a list | 


Standard summary setting 



Copy dictionaries at startup 

Yes 1 


Location of dictionaries 


Type number, or use arrows, then press Return 

118K Avail. 

Some users have complained that AppleWorks 4 allows the entry of 
only 22 characters in the dictionary location pathname. There are two good 
reasons for this. The first is cosmetic — there's only room for 22 characters 
on the menu. More importantly, however, locating the dictionaries in the 
main directory of a disk greatly increases spell-checking efficiency. For the 
fastest checking of all, locate the dictionaries on your RAM Disk. 

If you really need to use a longer pathname for the dictionaries, Apple- 
Works has space available for up to 48 characters in the Environmental 
Record (SEG.ER), where your preferences and settings are stored. You'll 
have to patch SEG.ER using a block editor such as ProSel's Block War- 
den. Follow SEG.ER, locate the existing dictionary path, and edit it to 
your satisfaction, up to 48 characters. Enter the new pathname length in 
the byte just before the name, and make sure the pathname includes an 
ending slash, like this: 

/RAM/ AppleWorks /Dictionaries/ 

The next time you start AppleWorks, it will look for the spelling dic- 
tionaries in the specified directory. 

Since AppleWorks 4 shows text files in the "Add files to the Desktop" 
list, the text file CUST.DICTIONARY can show up whenever you add 
files. While it is important for spell-checking accuracy to occasionally 
edit the custom dictionary for duplicate and misspelled words, you don't 
need to see CUST.DICTIONARY on the Add Files list every time you add 
a file. Use a file type changer utility (such as FAZ II) to change the type of 
this file from TXT (text) to BIN (binary). Changing the file type of 
CUST.DICTIONARY has no effect on spell-checking, since AppleWorks 
never checks the type of this file — and words can still be added to the 
custom dictionary as spelling is analyzed. When you need to edit it 
directly, CUST.DICTIONARY may be added to the Desktop by way of 
creating a new word processor from a text (ASCII) file, which will load 
any type of file. 

Even though AppleWorks has had built in spell-checking since 1989, 
some users still prefer to use the older Beagle Bros add-on, TimeOut 
QuickSpell, for its more lenient suggested spellings. QuickSpell has 
options to skip the question about checking a word or a screen and can be 
set to ignore words containing numbers, such as 128k. It can set the dic- 
tionary location to a device instead of a path (so that you can easily use 
different dictionaries without worrying about the names of the disks), and 
store the main dictionary on one disk and the custom on another. On the 
other hand, QuickSpell has no spelling summary and doesn't allow mul- 
tiple custom dicfionaries. 

The main and custom dictionaries for TimeOut QuickSpell and Apple- 
Works 4 are interchangeable; the main dictionary on the 5.25" disk is 
smaller and contains fewer words than that on the 3.5" disk. At this time 
an official update to TimeOut QuickSpell is not available, but TEXAS II 
can provide a simple patch for those who want to use QuickSpell with 
AppleWorks 4. 


AppleWorks 4 lets you give the six word processor special codes (SC) 
unique names for each installed printer, instead of using the same names 
regardless of the selected printer. New MouseText symbols for embedded 
printer options (instead of carets) make it easy to identify these commands 
at a glance. (The Apple command, previously undefined, is used in the 
printer driver for the Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 500 to enable the high 
ASCII characters included in some of the DeskJet character sets for foreign 
accents, trademark and copyright symbols, and box edges used for forms.) 

Boldface/ text fl Print page no.> 

Underline... text ... Enter Keyboard/ 

Print Date V Print TimeV 

Mail Merge n<Category> Special Codes i-^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ '^ 

Sticky Space <Tab, Apple '^ 

Word processor markers (numbered markers from 1 to 254, set with 
OA-M) were originally intended to allow users to mark their places in a 
document. Today, many numbers have special meanings to certain Apple- 
Works add-ons. In these cases, AppleWorks may automafically include a 
brief description next to the marker as a reminder to users not to use these 
markers for their own purposes. (Examples of programs which use mark- 
ers in this way include Outiiner, TimeOut Table of Contents, Ultimate 
Fonts, and TimeOut MultiPrint. AppleWorks 4 also uses a specific marker 
number for its Word Processor Window feature in the Data Base.) 

It's a good idea to get used to using only markers which will be never 
be assigned to an AppleWorks add-on product. If you are an Apple- 
Works developer and need one or more marker numbers assigned to your 
application, please ask to have them officially assigned to you by contact- 
ing Quality Computers or Randy Brandt. Users should use numbers as 
low as possible, preferably under 64. The list below represents current 
marker number assignments: 

Set a Marker 

1 through 139 


Set a Marker 


Used by Beagle Bros Tech Notes 

Set a Marker 


TimeOut MultiPrint 

Set a Marker 


Ultimate Fonts 

Set a Marker 


Reserved for Randy Brandt 

Set a Marker 


Data Base Windowing (OA-W) 

Set a Marker 

151 through 


TimeOut Table of Contents 

Set a Marker 

158 through 



Set a Marker 

192 through 




The new word processor OA-G (Glossary) command allows easy entry 
of data directiy from a data base file, or pre- written literal text (using only 
the "Prefix Text" field and not any of the other entries), at the touch of a 
key. Glossaries are defined in the Word Processor with the OA-A com- 
mand (Add Glossary /Mail Merge). Once they are defined, a menu of all 
glossaries can be displayed in the word processor by pressing OA-G. The 
glossary automatically types the data contained in the corresponding data 
base entry, along with literal text and carriage returns if you defined any. 
(You are allowed eight Glossaries, and all eight are available in any word 
processor file.) 



^ ^ fc E ^m O 

.^*. 1 fc ..^* ^m. %^ K 

If you decide to use glossaries, you may want to establish a special glos- 
sary data base to keep on the desktop at all times. The AppleWorks disk 
contains a sample glossary data base which you may modify to suit your 
needs. To delete the glossaries that come with AppleWorks 4, press OA-A, 
highlight the glossary you wish to delete, and press the Delete key. To set 
up new glossaries, press OA-A and follow the instructions in the manual. 

Glossaries may be used to enter "boilerplate" text (information that 
you use frequently in your documents) and can include printer options. In 
a glossary data base file, Open-Apple commands are designated with the 
@ sign, and if you're familiar with the chart of ASCII key equivalents and 
AppleWorks embedded commands, you'll learn the control key (^) syn- 
tax quickly: ^M is Return, ^B is boldface begin, and so on. In the exam- 
ple below, @0 means Open-Apple-0, to go into the Printer Options 
screen; "PD" is the printer option "Print Date." ^M^[ are Control-M and 
Control-[ respectively, the letter-key equivalents for Return and Escape. 

Menu title: Letterhead 

File: Glossary. ADB 

Record 1 of 4 (4 selected) 

Selection: All records 


Receivable Msg 


Msg 2 

Escape: Main Menu 

Perhaps you have overlooked this 
Please remit today. 
Please remit immediately to avoid 
The account has been placed for c 

First text line 

Second text line 

30 ©OPD"M"[, your account is 30 
60 (aOPD^M^[, your account is 60 
90 @OPD"M"[, your account is 90 
120 @OPD^M^[, your account is 120 

I I I I I 

III Esc 

1 I Rtn 

I Print Date 

OA-0 (Printer options) 

After setting up the glossary data base shown above, a glossary entry 
is established by pressing OA-A in any word processor file: 

File: Ltr. Past. Due 

Escape: Edit rules 

Menu title: Past Due 

1. Glossary file Glossary. ADB 

2 . List category Key 

3. Prefix text As<spc>of<spc>today,<spc> 

4. Receivable Msg <spc>days<spc>past<spc>due.<spc> 

5 . Msg 2 none 

6 . <undefmed> 

7 . <undefined> 

Glossary file 
List category 
Prefix text 

<ctrl-B ctrl-C>TEXAS<spc>II<ctrl-B rtn>2018<spc>Oak< 

Although it is partially unseen on the glossary edit screen, the full line 
of prefix text includes centering, boldface begin and end, and unjustify 
(end centering) commands, and creates the letterhead shown below: 

<Ctrl-B ctrl-C>TEXAS<spc>II<ctrl-B rtn>2018<spc>Oak<spc>Dew<rtn>San<spc> 
Antonio<spc>TX<spc>78232<rtn rtn ctrl-N> 

2018 Oak Dew 
San Antonio TX 78232 


AppleWorks mail merge prints multiple form letters, incorporating 
selected entries from a data base file. Mail merge in AppleWorks 4 
accesses the data base file directly, using its record selection rules, 
instead of requiring you to first copy or print to the clipboard from the 
data base. Instead, use OA-R to select the records to be merged with 
the word processor document, then move to the word processor file, 
where the OA-A command (Add Glossary/Mail Merge) has already 
activated mail merge, and print. Mail merge now includes a "don't 
reformat" option for printing forms without joining the text with the 
word processor line. Regular AppleWorks mail merge justifies, or 
joins, the line: 

The rent on your safety deposit box is due on n[Date]. Please remit 
$0 [Amount] in the enclosed envelope. 

The new, formatted mail merge uses pound signs (####) as spacers 
to allow columns to line up and forms to be filled: 

The rent on your safety deposit box is due. n [Date] ######## a [Amount] 

You do not have to choose between regular and fixed-form mail 
merge. AppleWorks recognizes the pound sign following a mail merge 
command, automatically formats the document, and may even mix the 
two forms of mail merge in a single document. 

In a word processor file, upon selecting the Key (30, 60, 90 or more 
days) with the OA-G command, the glossary automatically types the 
appropriate phrase in the word processor with the prefix text, "As of 
today, " the Print Date symbol, and the rest of the glossary text associated 
with that key's record: 

As of today, v, your account is 30 days past due. Perhaps you have... 

Which, when printed, results in: 

As of today, April 3, 1994, your account is 30 days past due.... 

You do not have to maintain a data base to use glossaries. If loading a 
glossary data base to the desktop is inconvenient, define only the "Prefix 
text" line in the glossary definition. This line allows more than the 80 
characters actually seen on the screen (about 128 characters are permit- 
ted). Since the prefix text for all glossaries is stored in AppleWorks mem- 
ory and is available at all times, no data base file is needed. 


It is a pleasant challenge to learn about each of the elements of 
AppleWorks 4, discovering how the program is constructed and how 
the parts work together to enable us to perform the tasks we require — 
and tasks we never imagined. By becoming a knowledgeable user of 
AppleWorks, you will greatly increase your effectiveness and enjoy- 
ment. Watch for in-depth explorations of the Data Base and Spread- 
sheet modules in upcoming issues! ■ 

TEXAS II Subscription Information 


6 issues, $15.00 or 6 issues + 3 disks, $39.00 

King wood Micro Software 

2018 Oak Dew 

San Antonio, TX 78232-5471 





Direct Connection 

There are three ways to connect to the Inter- 
net. The first is a direct Internet connection. 
With a direct connection, your computer 
becomes a part of the Internet itself. You 
become a site on the network, with a name and 
domain of your own. When you use FTP to 
retrieve a file, for example, the file is transmit- 
ted directly to your computer. 

In the past, a direct Internet connection (also 
known as TCP/IP) required an expensive leased 
telephone line dedicated to the connection — 
far beyond the means of individual users. Typ- 
ically, a company or some other large organi- 
zation would lease a line and thus connect their 
entire local area network to the Internet. Now 
Macs and PCs can get the same kind of con- 
nection through regular dial-up lines using pro- 
tocols called PPP (Point to Point Protocol) and 
SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol). Procyon, 
Inc. (the publishers of GNO/ME, a Unix-like 
multitasking environment for the lies) are 
working on a product which will provide this 
capability to Apple II users as well, but the 
product is not yet ready for release — and 
besides that, you'll also need Internet access 
tools such as Gopher, WAIS, Veronica, Telnet, 
and others, none of which yet exist for the IIgs. 
At this point, then, direct Internet connections 
are an option only for PC and Macintosh users. 

Diai-Up Connections 

A second type of connection is the dial-up 
connection. With a dial-up Internet connection, 
you obtain an account on a computer that's 
connected to the Internet as described above. 
You will probably be expected to pay for this 
service. (Many such systems are simply work- 
stations, minicomputers, or even fast PC clones 
with several modems attached.) This is clearly 
the easiest way for an Apple II user to get on 
the Internet. 

When you log in to your dial-up Internet 
provider, your Apple essentially becomes a ter- 
minal on their computer. (Several other users 
may be using the system in the same way at 
the same time.) What appears on your Apple's 
screen is exactly what would appear on the 
remote computer's screen if you were there 
using it. You can easily read mail and news- 
groups and generally cruise the Internet right 
from your own home; display speed is limited 
only by the connection speed. The main differ- 
ence you'll encounter is that when you transfer 
a file via FTP, the file ends up on your host's 

hard drive — not on your computer. A separate 
step is required to transfer the file from the 
host machine to your computer. 

Currently, the largest national provider of 
this type of access is probably Delphi, a com- 
mercial online service — the first such service 
to offer full Internet access. While most online 
services are offering simple e-mail and, some- 
times, Usenet gateways, Delphi offers FTP, tel- 
net. Gopher, Internet Relay Chat, and most of 
the other Internet services you'll want to 
explore. The service is menu-driven, and 
online help is available to get you through the 
tough spots. (In contrast, some dial-up Unix 
systems drop you into a Unix operating system 
prompt at logon!) If you come upon insur- 
mountable difficulties, chat lines and news- 
groups are just a menu selection away. This is 
a real boon when learning something as tricky 
as the Internet! 

To use Delphi, you'll need a modem, of 
course. The faster the better — Delphi's top 
speed is 9600 bps. (There is no surcharge for 
9600 bps access.) You'll also need a terminal 
program — one that has a good VT-100 emula- 
tion, such as ProTerm, Spectrum, or 
AnsiTerm, is a necessity. 

You can call Delphi's customer service 
number, 800-695-4005, for instructions on 
how to log on and set up an account. Delphi 
offers a five hour free trial to "surf the Inter- 
net to help you decide whether the service is 
right for you. If you keep your account, Del- 
phi's 20/20 plan gives you 20 hours of online 
time per month for $20 (there's also a $3/mo. 
Internet surcharge). Considering the other ser- 
vices Delphi offers in addition to Internet, this 
deal is unbeatable! 

Delphi is a great start for people who want 
to learn about FTP and Usenet, and it's also a 
good way of getting the Apple II FAQ, which I 
mentioned earlier, since you can get it as part 
of your five trial hours. While some may think 
that Delphi, by reason of being a commercial 
online service and not a dial-up Unix machine, 
isn't a "real" Internet connection, I submit that 
the "realness" of an Internet connection is 
based on what services you can access. By this 
measure, Delphi's Internet services are pretty 
darn real. 

Of course, if you find you need an Internet 
connection several hours a day, even Delphi 
may become prohibitively expensive. In this 
case, you can get a dial-up connection for $10 
-$50 per month (including unlimited access). 

The trick is finding one in your area — most of 
these smaller Internet access points can't be 
accessed by a nationwide network like the one 
Delphi uses, so if there isn't one nearby, you 
may be stuck with long-distance telephone 
charges. Also, you may be confronted with the 
dreaded Unix prompt; many of these providers 
don't have menus at all. 

My suggestion is to begin with a Delphi 
account. Over the span of the first month or so, 
use Delphi's reasonable rates to explore the 
Internet as you learn about it. Spend the major- 
ity of your initial time reading books, rather 
than online. Read and participate in the A2 
Usenet newsgroups to find the information for 
your next step — a local dial-up Internet con- 
nection. Obtain the Apple II FAQ to enhance 
your knowledge of the Apple II on the Internet. 
You may want keep your Delphi account even 
after you switch Internet providers, opting for 
their 10/4 plan — $10 per month for 4 hours — if 
you use minimal time. 

When you're ready, find an Internet service 
provider. A widely-distributed text file called 
PDial contains a list of such providers; it's one 
of the things you should look for while you're 
on Delphi. It, and a similar file called Nixpub, 
are available at many FTP sites — and is proba- 
bly also available in the libraries on Delphi, 
GEnie, CompuServe, AOL, and other services. 
These lists are current, but by no means com- 
prehensive. Word of mouth oftens ferrets far 
better deals than the PDial list — so be sure to 
ask others you encounter on the Internet what 
kinds of deals they're getting. Be sure to con- 
tact user groups and computer dealers (it 
doesn't have to be an Apple dealer; the Inter- 
net is blind to brand names). 

Don't forget to contact your library. Librari- 
ans often maintain an Internet account for their 
own use — and some libraries even have 
Freenets (a free public-access Internet system), 
or can tell you where to find one. And, of 
course, the hbrary is also a wonderful place to 
find more Internet books! While you're at it, 
look for an introductory book on Unix; it will 
stand you in good stead if you end up getting a 
shell account. 

Different service providers offer different 
levels of service, and may charge dramatically 
different rates. Rates were much higher in 
years past, when any kind of access was rare. 
Some companies have not been quick to fol- 
low the trend toward lower rates. You can 
expect to pay around $25 a month with most 




providers; some may have lower rates, but 
these lower rates may restrict the features you 
can use or limit you to a certain number of 
hours per month. More than $50 a month is 
Information Highway Robbery. 

Your service provider will almost certainly 
have all the Internet goodies, but it might be a 
good idea to make sure. Later in this series I'll 
explain briefly at what each cryptically-named 
Internet feature is used for. 


You may be lucky enough to live in an area 
with a Freenet (see sidebar). Freenets are com- 
munity groups organized to provide the entire 
community with free access to Internet. They 
usually include FTP, e-mail, Telnet, and Usenet 
newsgroups, although some may be limited to 
non-real-time features (e-mail and news- 
groups) if they don't have a direct Internet con- 
nection. Access time may be limited, but these 
systems are free — and you can call one today. 

Bulletin Boards 

If you're not ready to use all the features 
offered by the Internet, and don't have (or want) 
an account on a commercial network, but like 
the idea of being able to send e-mail to anyone 
with an Internet account, you may want to inves- 
tigate bulletin board systems. Many free bulletin 
board systems offer Internet e-mail, and some 
even have newsgroups, although, since such 
BBSs don't have a direct Internet connection, 
they don't usually have features like IRC or FTP. 

One such bulletin board system is ProLine. 
ProLine, which happens to run on the Apple II, 
was developed by the Morgan Davis Group, 
and is now run by dozens of system operators 
around the country. Each ProLine system for- 
wards e-mail to others, and eventually your 
message reaches a system that's actually on the 
Internet. Since ProLine BBSs mostly exchange 
information at night, it may take a day or two 
for your e-mail to get where it's going (com- 
pared to a few seconds from Delphi or another 


■ J 

\\)\- ■ 

Co i.innemeyer 

Dillon, Montana 

C 'I 

(1 ■ ■■ ■ !9) 

VO'L. . 

Western Montana College 


Conraci h'erson; Thom Gould 

fax: (41/) c-..-;/ I'-.r.K 

: 710 S. Atlantic 

votce 1-800-227-7113 Ext. 2451 or 

Dilton, MT 59725 

D^-.- '■'■^rv • n^j HF"- 



Modem: (406) 683-7680 (1200 bmd) 

D»v!(.-f- '-r-t; 

Champaign4lrbana, illlrtoJs 

Internet; 192,231.192.1 



Graduate School of Library & 

Contact Person: Frank Odaex 

- -.ity 

Medina, Ohio 

Information SCi. 

: voice; (406) 683-7338 

[' ■ 

Medina General Hospital 

Untv. of tllinois at Urbana-Champaign 

fv IH73 

1000 £ Washington Street 

426 David Kinley Hall 


P.O. Box 427 

1 407 West Gregory Drive 

Buffalo, Mew York 

Medina, OH 44258-0427 

Urbana, IL 61801 

■ Town of Tonawanda 

voice: (513) 873-4035 

Modem: (216) 723^732 

Modem: (217) 255-9000 

■ 1835 Sheridan Drive 

Internet: (not receiving telnet connec- 

Internet: ( 

■ Buffalo. NY 14223 


tions at the moment) 

Contact Person: Ann P. Bishop 

:■ Modem: (716) 645-6128 

Denver, Colorado 

Contact Person: Gary Linderv-~(Medtna 

voice: (217) 244-3299 

: Internet: 

4200 East Ninth Ave. 

Gen. Hosp) Project Director 

.■ Contact Person James Fmamore 

Campus Box C-288 

voice: (216) 726-1000 Ext. 2650 


:. voice: (716) 87 ■-^;B()f)o^t 451 

Denver, CO 80210 


Modem: (303) 270-4865 


P.O. Box 20500 



Ottawa, Ontario^ Canada 

Ei Paso. TX 79998 

Trail, British Columbia, Canada 


Computing Services 

Modem: 915-775-6600 

Schoot District #11 (Trail) 

Contact Person; Drew MIrque 

Carleton University 

Internet: rgfn.epccedu 

■ 2079 Columbia Ave, 

voice: (303) 270*4300 

Ottawa, ON CANADA K1$5B6 

Contact Person: Don Furlh 

■ Trail. BC V1R 1K7 CANADA 

Modem: (613) 780-3733 

voice: 915-775-6077 

;: Modem; (604) 368-5764 



:^ Internet: 142.2315,1 

Eriangen, Gennany 



V Contact Person- Kon McClean 

FIM Psychologic 

Contact Person; David Sutherland 

Seattle, Washington 

:: voice; (604) 36H Z2:io 

Maximiiiansplatz 3 

voice; (613) 788-2600 ext3701 

c/o CPSR/Seaitle 

Eflanger>, BY 91054 GERMANY 

P.O. 80x85481 


Modem; +49'9.13ia5>81 11 


Seattle, WA 98145-1481 

Cievelan4 Ohio 

Internet: 131188.192.11 

Providence) Rhode island 


. CWRU Community 

Contact Person: Dr. Walter F. Kugemann 

Rhode l&land Dept. of State Library Svc$. 


■. Tetecompyting Laboratory 

voice: +49-9131-85-4735 

300 Richmond Street 

Contact Person; Randy Groves 

310 Wlcl<enden Avenue 

Providence Rl 02903 

21240 NE 12th, Redmond WA Qwv-i 

Cteveland.OH 44106 


Modern- (401 ) 831-4640 

voice: (206) 865-34;>4 

Modem; (216) 368-3888 

Battle Creeks Michigan 



P,0. Box 1615 

Contact Person; Howard Boksenbaum 


Contact Person: Jeff Gumpf 

Battle CreeK, Ml 49016 

voice: 401-277-2726 

Tallahassee, Florida 

voice; (216) 368-2982 ' 

Modem: (616) 969-GLFN (4536) 

Dept. of Computer Science 

Internet: not available 

Florida State University 


Contact Person; Merritt W, Tun^anis 


Tallahassee. Ft 32306 


voice: 616-961-4166 


Modem: (904) 576-6330 or 

Columbia, Missouri 

Springfield, MIssoyrt 

(904) 488-5056 

''■ University of Mi.'^s'-rir! Columbia 


Springfield-Greene County Library 

I'Vtornot frc (144.174.128,43) 

:. Campus Compuini) 

Elyria, Ofilo 

MPO Box 760 

Contact Person. Hilbert Levitz 

'■ 200 Hinkel Building 

32320 Stony Brook Drive 

Springfield, MO 65801 

voice: (904)644-1796 

^■. Columbia, MO 61211 

Avon Lake, OH 44012 

Modem: (417) 869-6100 

Modem: (314) 884-7000 

Modem; (216) 366^9721 

Internet: 07arks.snci.iib, 

system that's directly on the Internet) — but it 
works, and nearly all ProLine sites are free. 

Many ProLines carry a few Usenet news- 
groups, and there's also a hierarchy of ProLine- 
specific newsgroups which are only distributed to 
ProLine sites. All in all, ProLine is a very interest- 
ing system, designed by an interesting man. Each 
ProLine BBS has a downloadable file listing the 
locations and telephone access numbers of all the 
other ProLine sites. Morgan Davis' BBS in San 
Diego can be reached by modem at 619/670-5379. 
(Once you get on there, of course, you can get the 
list of ProLine sites and find a closer system.) 

You may also encounter other BBSs which 
offer some form of Internet e-mail or news- 
group access. For example, if your local school 
district runs a FrEdMail site, you can send and 
receive Internet e-mail there. I've also encoun- 
tered several PC-based bulletin boards with 
newsgroups and/or e-mail. In short, it pays to 
look around — you never know what kind of 
free or cheap Internet access yoLfl find. ■ 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cincinnati Bell Direcror .■ Inc 
Room 102-2000 
201 East 4th Street 
Cincinnati, OH 45201-2301 
Modem; (513) 579-1990 
Internet: tso.ucedu 
Contact Person: IVIichael King— 
TSO System Administrator 
voice; (513) 397-1396 


Victoria, British Columbia, Canada 

Victoria Free-Net Association 

C/O Vancouver Island Advanced 

Technology Centre (VIATC) 

Suite 203-1 1 10 Government Street 

Victoria, British Columbia 


Modem- (604) 595-2300 



Contact Person; Gareth Shearman 

voice: (604) 385-4302 

Wellington, New Zealand 

Richard Naylor 

Wellington City Council 

P.O. Box 2199 

Wellington. NEW ZEALAND 

Modem: +64-4-801-3060 

Internet: kosmos.wcc.govt nz 


Contact Person: Richar'l Nay'c^ 

voice: +64-4-801 -3303 

Youngstown, Ohio 

YSIJ Computer Center 

410 Wick Avenue 

Youngstown, OH 4455.-3 

Modem: (216) 742-3072 

Internet: (192.55 234.27) 

Contact Person: Lou Ahscrujot/ 

voice: (216) 742-307r- 





1 113.' TTufii I iiiliiigtir 

Bill Heineman is a 

programmer, game 

specialist, and Apple II 

visionary who works 

for Interplay, Parsons 

Engineering (where he^s 

Manager of Software 

Development), and 

several other companies. 

He may be reached at 

Parsons Engineering, 

5101 Rimhurst Ave, 

Covina, CA 91723 

Phone: 818/966-5538. 

11 ^M'^^t In some circles, Bill, you're known 
as "Burger Bill." Where did that nickname 
come from? 

HEINEMAN: It started around 1983, when I 
was working 12-18 hour days at Interplay. I'd 
walk to work every morning and stop at a local 
burger place on the way and buy a couple of 
burgers for lunch. I virtually lived at Interplay, 
and when it was lunch time, I'd pull out the 
burgers and people would say "It's burger 
time!" That's when people started calling me 
Burger Bill. 

But the incident that cemented the name was 
the day I got to work at 6 AM and worked for 
nine hours before I got hungry enough to eat 
lunch. I pulled this burger out of my drawer 
and started munching. One of the guys I 
worked with, who was a real health food nut, 
saw me eating the burger, and all of a sudden 
his eyes bugged out as he realized that that 
burger had been in my drawer for at least 9 
hours — probably longer! He let loose this 
ungodly scream, leaped to his feet, and bolted 
out the door. A few minutes later my boss 
stormed in and demanded to know what I did 
to him. It turned out that he'd gone into the 
restroom and tossed his cookies. From that day 
forward, the nickname stuck. 

11 AUWii How did you first get started with 
computers? When did you get your first Apple n? 

HEINEIVIAN: It was really early in the Apple 
II era — I'd say late 1977 or early 1978. Two 
friends of mine both got Apple lis. I played 
around with them, trying to decide whether I 
wanted one of those or a TRS-80. Eventually I 
decided that since the Apple II had color, I'd 
go with that. So I saved up money from my 
paper route — I was 13 or 14 years old. And I 
bought a used Apple II and took it home and 
started playing around with it. About a year 
later I bought a disk drive for it. I knew imme- 

diately that I wanted to work with computers 
for the rest of my life. I didn't expect that I 
would still be working with the Apple II 16 
years later, though! 

I was just playing games, learning BASIC, and 
having fun until my first real programming 
experience, which involved the game Ultima I 
(of course it was just called Ultima back then, 
since there weren't any sequels yet). A lot of 
that program was written in Applesoft BASIC. 
So I started playing around with the code and 
changed it into a game I called Ultima Plus. 
Every single command was a parody of the 
way it was in the real Ultima. And I added a 
bunch of new commands and weapons, like a 
super zapper that could wipe out all your char- 
acters. I changed the text so that characters 
said sarcastic things like "What would you like 
to steal tonight?" or "How many bags of slime 
can I shove down your throat?" instead of 
"How much food do you want to buy?" I spent 
quite a bit of time with it and mastered Apple- 
soft and learned a little assembly. After that 
project was complete I knew I wanted to learn 
assembly language. 

II ALIWEi What was your first programming 

HEINEMAN: At one point I was really into 
figuring out how hardware worked. I took 
apart an Atari 2600 and figured how to pro- 
gram it, and that's how I got my first program- 
ming job with Avalon Hill. Back then Atari 
video games were the big thing, and I wrote 
Penetrator and UXB: Unexploded Bomb for 
Avalon Hill. 

11 AtiWEs Games seem to play an important 
role in your life. 

HEINEMAN: Well, in 1980-82, I was the 
World Video Game Champion and wrote arti- 
cles for the Electronic Games Magazine on 



how to beat video games. So, yes, games 
always were important to me. They just 
seemed Hke the most fun thing you could do 
with a computer. 

11 HLIWii After Avalon Hill, then what? 

HEINEMAN: I worked for Time- Warner with 
a company called Owl Electronics. We 
designed a litde cartridge which plugged into 
an Atari 2600 to let you play games over cable 
TV. It's very much like what the cable industry 
is trying to do today with Sega and Nintendo. 
But in 1983, people just stopped buying video 
games, and I was suddenly unemployed. I 
worked for Atari for a short time and got 
canned when they laid off everybody in my 

After that, an old hardware hacker friend of 
mine helped me get a job at a place called The 
Boom Corporation, which died shortly there- 
after but was reformed as Interplay. This was 
in late 1983, and I've been working for Inter- 
play ever since then. 

11 ALi¥is Interplay did a lot of Apple II 
games. Are they still doing that? 

HEINEIVIAN: Well, we've got two Apple II 
products in the wings, which I worked on, but 
unfortunately while there are plenty of compa- 
nies willing to distribute PC and Mac games, 
not many companies are interested in the 
Apple II. 

A lot of the games I port to the Apple are done 
just because I want to see an Apple II version 
of the game. But of course I can't release my 
version of the game without the permission of 
the people who own the distribution rights — 
and those people frequently want more money 
than the game is worth in the Apple II market. 
A perfect example of that is SimCity. I'm 99% 
done with a IIgs version of SimCity, but I've 
talked to Maxis and they wanted an exorbitant 
amount of money to let some other company 
distribute it. 

But the biggest headache was Ultima I for the 
IIgs. In the fall of 1992, a couple of friends 
and I ported the 1986 reissue of Ultima I, 
revamped it, and updated it for the IIgs. We 
wanted Big Red to carry it, but when I first 
started to talk to Origin, the publisher, most of 
the people I talked to didn't even know what 
an Apple II was! It's amazing how short peo- 
ple's memories are. So we went back and forth 
for a while, and just when we had the wrinkles 
ironed out and a contract ready to be signed. 
Origin was bought by Electronic Arts. The 
whole company was in chaos, and they com- 
pletely lost track of that little Apple II contract 
that was floating around. At this point I told 
Softdisk and Big Red that if they could get the 
rights to the game, they could publish it, but 
they were unsuccessful too. 

So a year later, a friend of mine at Interplay 
asked me "What are we gonna do with this 
Ultima thing?" Out of frustration, I did what I 
should have done in the first place — I called 

Richard Garriott, a.k.a. Lord British, the 
designer of Ultima. The first thing he said was 
"Oh, you have a IIgs version of Ultima I? Is it 
System 6 compatible?" He not only remem- 
bered the Apple II, but he'd kept up with it! He 
was ecstatic when I told him what I'd done, 
and ended up I getting the rights for Vitesse. It 
should be shipping by the time you read this. 

11 MLIWii Speaking of games, let's quickly 
cover all your Apple II games. What were 

HEINEMAN: For the Apple II, I did Mind- 
shadow, which was a graphic text adventure. 
Tracer Sanction, Borrowed Time and Tass 
Times in Tone Town. For Epyx, I did World 
Karate Championship. Then Bard's Tale III, 
Neuromancer, Dragon Wars, Ultima I, Mario 
Teaches Typing, and Mah Johng 2.0. 

For the IIgs, I did Tass Times in Tone Town 
and Mindshadow. For Casady and Greene I did 
Crystal Quest. And for Electronic Arts/Inter- 
play I did Bard's Tale I & II — also Battle 
Chess, Neuromancer, DragonWars and Out of 
This World. 

Oh, I forgot the ones I did for Softdisk G-S— 
Rescue Rover and a new release. Catacombs 
Abyss — a Wolfenstein J-D-like game. And 
speaking of Wolfenstein 3-D, I'm working on a 
version of that for the IIgs, along with Waste- 
land 2000 and SimCity. 

Bard's Tale III and Wasteland for the IIgs 
were finished by the time we broke away from 
Electronic Arts. Sadly, both these programs 
were canned, not just for the Apple II but for 
the Amiga, IBM and the Mac, too. 

11 MMWEt Interplay games seem to have a lot 
of detailed and subtle graphics in them. 

HEINEMAN: Todd, our art director at Inter- 
play, is the one responsible for that. That's an 
Interplay trademark, to put a lot of detail into a 
game. For example, in some of the dungeons 
in Bard's Tale II there are skulls in the walls, 
and if you stay there for a while you'll see a 
snake pop out, slither around and go back in 

11 AMVii You haven't just done games, 
though — you've also done several utilities and 
productivity programs, right? 

HEINEMAN: Yes — the best-known is proba- 
bly Harmonic, the printer driver collection 
from Vitesse. The Deliverance 1.3 upgrade, 
also for Vitesse, was another one. I did a lot of 
code for their Quickie hand-held scanner, too. 
Another package I did was ContactsGS, which 
is now being released by Joe Kohn for Share- 
ware Solutions. I also did a major amount of 
work on AppleWorks GS 2.0. 

11 AiiWii People are curious about what hap- 
pened to the AppleWorks GS 2.0 project. Since 
you mentioned it, what can you tell us about it? 

HEINEMAN: AppleWorks GS 2.0 was initiat- 
ed by Quality, who needed a project leader. Jim 

Merritt became the project leader, but he just 
didn't have the time to devote to the project 
between his day job and his family obligations. 

The source code was a nightmare. I started 
working on it independently from Jim Merritt 
in my free time. There was some duplicated 
effort, and Jim decided he didn't want to use 
my code — which was actually OK by me, 
because I was looking at the project as a learn- 
ing experience — but then he dropped out of the 
project, and I didn't have time to be a real pro- 
ject leader. Although a few people were 
approached about leading the project, no one 
really wanted to take that responsibility. I've 
heard Quality Computers is letting some other 
groups take a shot at it now. 

I still want to work on it, but my time is limit- 
ed. I'd like to re-engineer the software so that 
every part of AppleWorks GS is a separate pro- 
gram — then you could use a program like The 
Manager to run whichever modules you need- 
ed. Publish and subscribe, like Mike Wester- 
field has developed for his products, could be 
used to tie the modules together. It's doable, 
but a big job. Maybe someday. . . 

II ALIWis What other projects have you 
worked on? 

HEINEMAN: Well, there was the Apple IIgs 
clone, the Avatar. We had done a lot of work 
on that, including all the hardware design and 
the Toolbox, but we wanted it to run at a much 
higher speed than the IIgs and we couldn't get 
a commitment from a supplier to make fast 
65816 processors. You can get them now, but 
you couldn't when we first started working on 
the project. We redesigned it to use the ARM 7 
RISC processor, and planned to have a 65816 
emulation, but then Apple came out with the 
PowerMac, using a RISC chip, and we heard 
there were some people working on Apple II 
emulators for that. Between the lack of funding 
and the production cost, and the changes in the 
industry, the Avatar's market window came 
and went. 

Steve Parsons and I also designed a product 
that combined the Avatar technology with the 
Game Wizard, a Super Nintendo add-on which 
allowed people to save cartridge games to disk 
and to modify them to have extra lives, skip 
levels, and so forth. The gadget we came up 
with was a plug-in for the Super Nintendo 
which could run Apple IIgs software like 
HyperStudio, Teach, and the Finder. The Super 
NES has a 65816 processor just like the IIgs, 
but there are a lot of other hardware differ- 
ences between the two machines, and the 
design was complicated and expensive. Also, 
even though it ran IIgs software, programs had 
to be stored on IBM-style MFM disks. It didn't 
seem likely that people would spend $400 for a 
IIgs emulator on their Super Nintendo when 
they could buy a used IIgs for the same price 
or a brand new one for $599. If we could get 
the price down to $ 1 99 it might be feasible, but 
we'd need to know for sure we could sell 

(Continued on page 46) 






►Q.05 EACH OR 
^ FOR $19.9^ 


The refinements of dot chomping lead to 

t|f high scores as hungry Pac-Man avoids 

ambush by voracious goblins. When Pac-Man 

gulps an energy dot he can turn the tables and eat 

everything in sight. . . that includes yummy bonus 

nuggets, sending scores into the thousands. But 

goblins won't allow themselves to be gobbled for 

g; and soon become their old selves, fast and 

sneaky, to try to put an end to Pac-Man's three lives. |^ j 


The entire universe is your enemy as you 

struggle to rescue humanoids stranded on 

planet surface. To take them into a Warp 

you must reach the Stargate. But getting there isn't 

easy Yllecian space guppies. Dynamos, Space hums, 

Phreds, Big reds, Munchies, landers. Baiters, Pods and 

Swarmers block the way spewing death and destruc- ^,^ 

tion. Will your cloaking device r^x^^ ^^ 

protect you from the threat 

within. . . Mutant humanoids? 

R0B0TR01V: 2084 

^It's the year 2084, and 
robots are turning 
against their masters, 
ed by a genetic acci- 
dent, only you can resist their 
mutant re-programming and 
jfend humanity. Grunts close in. The 
Brains launch missiles. Tanks, Sheroids 
and Electrodes spell death. And then there's 
the Hulk-immune to your laser. Your mission is to 
rescue, evade and destroy. Good Luck. 


Applications being 
accepted for replacement gun- 
ners in high-risk job. Hostile envi- 
ronment. Road conditions nonexistent 
due to meteor and crater hazards. Small 
native population of killer plants also 
reported. Quick reflexes, marksmanship 
\\ ( J and diving skills a must. Bonuses for UFO's and 
A^X enemy tanks. Recognition for valor. Volunteers only. 


and blasting 
Pookas, and 
dropping rocks on fire-breathing Fygars; Dig Dug 
burrows his way through a maze of subterranean 
paths. Ripe fruits and veggies, loaded with points are hi: 
passion. But the evil denizens of the underground pack a 
potentially lethal wallop, and can hide behind fruits. Even 
when Dig Dug kills them they may come back as Ghosts. 


You can feel an excitement tingle up and 
down your spine when you play Donkey 
Kong at home, just like at an arcade, 
Your joystick guides Mario, the fear- 
less carpenter, up the girders and ? 
elevators as he attempts to rescue his 
sweetheart from the 
clutches of Donkey 
Kong. All the thrills of 
the arcade game. 


You've worked long and hard to make it 
this far. Now it's time for head-to-head com- 
petition in the 100 meter dash, long jump, 
javelin, 1 1 meter hurdles, hammer throw or high 
jump. You're out to beat the best times and distances 
on record. Included is a special arcade controller whi 
gives you everything you need to break the world 
record in athletic competition. 













Savage cannibals 
have kidnapped your 
traveling companion, 
you must rescue her 
before they turn her into stew! In the deep jungle for- 
est, you jump from rope to rope. Then you brave a croc- 
Jile-infested river and a landslide of huge boulders. You 
reach the cannibal's campsite just in time-your sweetie 
hangs suspended over a hot cauldron of boiling goo! 

You feel that spine-tingling exhilaration 
every time you play GALAXIAN in 
arcade. Now the same sensation is yours at 
home. Wave after wave of Drones, Emissaries 

Hornets and Commanders come 
winging in from deep space. Skillfully 
you slide your ship right and left with your 

joystick, dodging their fire and blast- - 
ing them out of the universe 



Landers, Bombers, Baiters, Pods, and 

Swarmers. The alien attack has come, and 

at the hands of crazed invaders threatens 

lumanoids. Their only hope is the spaceship, 

rmed with smart bombs and able to shift into 

sfender evens the score only to become the 

object of another foul attack: kidnapped 

■hS humanoids transformed 

into killer mutants. 

It was the love match of the century, PAC- 

MAN, star of the arcade, and his leac 

lady the unforgettable MS.PAC-MAN. Now \ 

romance continues. You guide MS. PAC-MAN 
^^ through four different mazes as she gobbles 
J^^'''""'*"**-'^^^ up dots, energy pills, fruit and pret- 

IPli her. Can she escape them? 

I ^ / 




Applications being accepted for 
replacement gunners in high-risk job. 
Hostile environment. Road conditions 
nonexistent due to meteor and crater 
hazards. Small native population of killer 
plants also reported. Wuick 
reflexes, marksmanship and 
diving skill a must. Bonuses for UFO's 
and enemy tanks. Recognition for valor. 
Volunteers only. 


In days of olde, when knights were 
bolde — they never saw anything 
like this! You don your hel- 
met, hoist your lance and 
mount your ostrich to do battle with the 
evil Buzzard Riders in deep space! 
Pterodactyls to the right of you, alien 

eggs to the left-learn to fly so you 
won't die so very far from home 


An insidious invasion of multiplying 
insects (centipedes, jumping spiders, 
poisonous scorpions, and frenzied 
fleas) pose different perils to the 
mushroom patch. You must repeat- 
edly blast enraged creepers and stub- 
■■* born obstacles or lose your enchanted 
^^^^ fungus. Remember to listen for distinc- 
tive sounds of the attacking bugs; and 
watch out for blasted centipede segments, 
^ each one grows a new head. 


You have full directional control 
through an entire landscape filled 

with hazards and targets. 
Tanks maneuver around pyra- 

to get you in their sights. 
Guided missiles hurtle toward 
you. But your vehicle handles 
like a dream on 0-gravity glide, and 
you've got plenty of ammunition 

saucer hunting. What could go wrong? 



' So the Apple II family of comput- 
ers is no longer being produced. 
So America Online is dropping 
support of its Apple II software. 
So Big Red Computer Club 
plans on closing at the end of the 
year. So what else is new? 
Shareware, freeware and public 
domain programs for the Apple 
II, that's what's new. They keep 
popping up, despite the big guys ' 
dismissal of the computer that 
runs them. Like weeds in the 
field — no, make that wildflowers 
in the field — they keep growing 
despite the odds. For Apple lies 
users this issue, we 7/ take a look 
at some new stuff requiring Sys- 
tem 6.0 from the talented Bill 
Tudor, two really neat games 
that must be booted directly from 
your floppy drive, a wormy 
game, and a mathematical 
graphics program. 

Prince Cupric II, lies 

Ed Olson, freeware 

Prince Cupric II is a cute little arcade game 
in the style of Marble Madness. Your purpose 
is to help the prince (the blue sphere) escape 
from the dungeon of the evil witch Chemilia. 
Not an easy job, considering there are five lev- 
els to the top and increasing numbers of hench- 
men (orange spheres) on your trail. The little 
chemical packets (red squares) are your ticket 
out, if only you can get them before the hench- 
men get you! Not exactly an intellectually 
stimulating game, but a fun time passer. 

Because it has its own operating system, this 
disk needs to be booted direcdy from your 3.5 
drive by typing PR#5 after running BASIC.SYS- 

TEM, or by setting your startup slot (in the 
Control Panel) to slot 5. 

Ecomaniacs, lies 

Ed Olsen, shareware, $8.00 

Ecomaniacs is an economic simulation 
game in the genre of SimCity. You must use 
your business and people skills against that of 
the computer, your only competitor in the city. 
By building stores, warehouses and factories, 
and by regulating wages of employees and 
prices of products, you have it in your power 
to thrive or to go bankrupt. Unlike Prince 
Cupric II, this is a thinking game. 

Like Prince Cupric II, this game has its own 
operating system and must be booted directly 
from the disk drive. If you don't have a hard 
drive, just stick the disk in and boot. It may run 
slowly on unaccelerated systems, so be patient 
during loading. 

MathGraphics, lies 

Dirk Froehling, shareware, $15.00 

The plot thickens! This function plotter 
saves plots as a QuickDraw II picture, allow- 
ing you to print graphs at the highest resolution 
your printer supports and to import them to 
desktop publishing programs, such as Apple- 
Works GS. Graphs can also be saved as 
pictures. This 
looks like a 
program — a 
bit over my 
head, to be 
honest. Good documentation accompanies the 
program. Requires System 6 or higher. 

Desktop Doctor, lies 

Bill Tudor, shareware, $10.00 

A Finder Extension (requires System 6.0 or 
later) whose sole purpose is to fix the Finder's 
desktop and icon files. It removes duplicate 
entries, keeps desktop databases up to date, 
and checks and fixes icon application file- 
names. Until you've had a problem with these 
files, you have no idea how useful this pro- 
gram can be. Documentation included. 

File Finder, lies 

Bill Tudor, shareware, $10.00 

File Finder is a Finder Extension (requires sys- 
tem 6 or later) that helps you find the files on 
your disks or in folders. The search can be con- 
ducted by name, partial name, creadon or modifi- 

cafion date, file type or size, embedded text, or 
any combination of the above. Once a file is 
found, you have the opfion of deleting, opening, 
peeking or opening the Finder window contain- 
ing the file. Handy, handy, handy. Docs included. 

iWlinimizer, lies 

Bill Tudor, shareware, $10.00 

This is a super useful Control Panel (CDev) 
that allows you to minimize the size of your 
open window 

I >xt ?ilc li\% NiBdiy^^ 

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frms i.Et**s sm...4 lO'Sf 





^^^^ k> 



displays. A 

must have for 


desktops! By 

clicking the 

selected key 

and the zoom 

box of the window, the whole window shrinks 

to the size of the title bar in a regularly sized 

window. It can be moved around or restored to 

original size. Documentation included. 

SiiowCiiplMDA, llGS 

Bill Tudor, freeware 

Ever get caught with the need to view the 
clipboard, only to find the Show Clipboard 
menu item missing from the application's 
menu? No more! This new desk accessory is 
always available from the Apple menu, allow- 
ing you to view the contents of your clipboard. 

Wiggle, lies 

Richard C.A. King, shareware, $5.00 

Another one of those worm-must-eat-to- 
live games with a slight twist. Instead of 
using the keyboard to change his (I say 
"his" — but actually earthworms, at least, are 
both male and female) direction, thus prevent- 
ing him from hitting the surrounding electric 
fence, you nudge the mouse. The harder the 
nudge, the more energy he loses, so reaction 
time must be quick but gentle. Fun. 

Tiie Siiareiniare Spy Library 

Programs mentioned in Shareware Spy are 
available from most online services and user 
groups. As a convenience to those without 
access to a local user group or a modem, we 
also offer the programs on disk. Send check or 
money order (in US funds) for $5 per disk to: 
Shareware Spy, PO Box 86651 1, Piano, TX 
75086-651 1. (If you live outside North Ameri- 
ca, include an additional $5 per order for airmail 
shipping.) Make checks payable to "Shareware 
Spy." Allow 2-4 weeks for delivery. 

(Continued on outside back cover) 



Gaines of Chance 

bv iWlike IMfesterf ield 

A Any one who thinks the lessons of high 
school are soon forgotten must not 
have gone to the same school I did. I 
still distincdy remember several of the 
problems we solved in probability class in the 
hallowed halls of Crawfordsville High School 
back in. . . well. Back in 1972. That's when we 
started doing practical problems — like devel- 
oping a winning strategy for roulette. 


For those of you who or experi- 

enced the joys of donatini' 

let's start with a quick less... ......> 

Vegas style. 

Roulette is a game of chance where a mar- 
ble is spun around the rim of a spinning wheel 
rotating in the direction opposite from the mar- 
ble' s spin. As friction slow^s the wheel, the 




m will 36 dollars 

(s .lir'Sl thai han- 

■■'■I. iUIll UiliU 

ilso be I red or 
bl \'ers half of the 

3^ a only pays the 

ai . , ,)u bet one dollar 

01 o dollars back. 

noK al here is called dou- 

bi uirt with a one-dollar bet. 

igs al that point arc 

two dollars back — 

\f ; one additional 

di)...... .. >v... .v.,,^, w.v,..^.>, >' iost a dollar, 

and so on the next spin \ gy dictates 

that you must bet two dollars. Assuming you 
win that time, voli get four dollars back, hav- 
ing bet a total of three dollars, so your net win- 
nings for the scries ol hcls is still one dollar. If 
you lose, you double again, betting four dol- 
lars — and keep right on doubling until you 

finally win, which, according to the laws of 
chance, will happen eventually. No matter how 
many times you lose and have to double, 
though, your net winnings are still just one dol- 
lar for the series of bets. Once you finally win, 
you drop back down to a $ 1 bet and start over. 
So far, it looks like a sure thing — if you don't 
mind winning money a dollar at a time. 
Roulette moves pretty quickly, so you might 
be able to make several dollars an hour — it 
won't make you rich, but it definitely beats los- 
ing. Oh, sure, things can get dicey. Every once 
in a while you'll find yourself betting $512 or 
more, which can be difficult to lay down on the 
table — but you do eventually win. 

Alas, as most of us who have ever gambled 
know, the only sure thing in Las Vegas is that, 
all things considered, you always lose in the 
end. In this case, the catch is that the casinos 
impose a betting limit to prevent just this strat- 
egy. While attending Comdex in Las Vegas a 
I did a little research in the casi- 
'if^ the minimum bet was $2, 
bet was $200. Once you 
1 ^ ach a table, you simply 

i Kven if you bet $200 

HI will have lost 
leeded to double 
i. You then 

at you 

1 ■' K nt 

found another catch. You 
ing no table limit, our sini[; 
assumes we have infinite wear 
likely, but if you play long em 
tually have to pony up $I,(M^ 
have a 50-50 chance oi loosii 
plus dollars, and if you do. you 

$2,097,152. Most of us have more modest lim- 
its on our Visa card. Anyway, my professor 
claimed, without proof, that on a 50-50 propo- 
sition, you were as likely to double your 
money by betting the whole wad at once as by 
playing the doubling game. 

Well, our program puts this to the test. The 
program isn't a game, but a simulation. A few 
issues ago we already looked at a simulation 
that simulated the growth of a forest fire. The 
same idea of using a random number generator 
to simulate the real world works for the 
roulette wheel, too. 


For this simulation, we'll start with $100 
and try to double our money. If we succeed, 
ending up with $200, we win the game. If we 
fail, ending up with nothing, we lose the game. 
Of course, one game doe? " e 
could, if the random n > *m * i n 
our favor, win or lose io 
matter what the odds 11 
the overall strategy ( 11 
play lots and lots of l as 
as we go. The progr. le 
job. As usual, 1 er 
the listing line-by-1 a 
moment to discuss in is 
very important for sii fi- 
bers, and just where t; g- 
ital computers are sue 

The short answer ir .-t 
random numbers at 
from a digital compui 
erator are pseiid( 
sequence of numbers 
tion. For example, the ,' / * 

I, 1, 9, 7, L 6„ 9, 3, 9, 9, 3, ' , ,, u 

ihui will lell you iIuk 

of digits, and in fuc' 

hart even been u^cd in mathcmati 

where a stream ol random di^if'i vvii*. uv^w^yi 

S I- H i [- M H h R / U C ] B E H 


If you know the trick, though, it's pretty easy 
to create the digits from scratch. They happen 
to be the 36th through 50th decimal digits of 
the number n, which any self-respecting com- 
puter could calculate. 

Pseudo-random number generators like the 
one built into ORCA/Pascal do the same sort of 
thing. The numbers they spit out seem random, 
but, in fact, they are based on a mathematical 
formula. If you know the formula and the start- 
ing point, it's easy to recreate the sequence of 
"random" numbers. The trick is to choose a 
formula in which the numbers are distributed 
fairly evenly throughout the allowable values. 
In other words, if your generator produces 
numbers from to 9, no digit should be gener- 
ated more frequently than any other digit. 

The first problem with computerized ran- 
dom number generators is that they repeat. If 
you start with an integer data type and use 
some mathematical formula to create another 
integer from the starting value, feeding each 
output back as the next input, it's easy to see 
that after at most 65536 numbers the sequence 
will repeat, since there are only 65536 bit pat- 
terns you can form with an integer (which is 
defined as 16 bits in most languages). There 
isn't much point in simulating several hundred 
thousand spins of a roulette wheel with a ran- 
dom number generator that will repeat after a 
few tens of thousands of numbers! 

Fortunately, ORCA/Pascal doesn't have this 
problem. The random number generator used 
in the ORCA languages works with a 16-byte 
(128-bit) number, so in theory, it can generate 
as many as 3e38 (that's 3 followed by 38 
zeroes) different numbers before it repeats. In 
practice, the actual number of values will be a 
lot smaller, but we don't need anywhere near 
that many numbers. 

Another problem that crops up with random 
number generators, especially when they are 
used in games, is getting a starting number for 
our formula. In ORCA/Pascal, you supply the 
starting number with the Seed procedure. For 
our simulation, you could just pick some num- 
ber — the last four digits of your phone number, 
for example — and the random number genera- 
tor would produce an acceptably unpredictable 
series of numbers. Of course, you'd get the 
same sequence of numbers each time you ran 
the program, but that's not a big deal for this 
particular simulation. For a game, though, it's 
critical to start with a different seed each time 
you use a random number generator, and even 
in a simulation it's a nice touch. Listing 1 solves 
the problem with the Randomize procedure, 
which grabs a starting value from the Apple lies 
clock — a number which will never be exactly 
the same each time the program is run. 

The last problem we have to deal with is that, 
if we don't use them carefully, we can turn a 
series of random values into a series of not-so- 
random roulette wheel results. The obvious way 
to convert an integer into a value from to 37 (0 
and 37 represent the and 00 on the roulette 
wheel) is to use the mod operator, like this: 


program Wheel (output) ; 

uses Common, MscToolSet; 


numberOfGames = 1000; 

g: 1 . .numberOfGames ; 
wins: integer; 

{number of games to play} 

{loop variable} 
{number of 'wins'} 

procedure PlayGame; 

{ Play one game } 

{ } 

{ Notes: If the player wins, the global variable 'wins' is } 

{ incremented. } 


startingPot = 100; 

bet: 1 . .maxint; 
money : . . maxint ; 
win: boolean; 

function Spin: integer; 

{starting money} 

{current bet} 

{current amount of money} 

{did we win?} 

{ Return the results of one spin of the roulette wheel } 

{ } 

{ Returns: to 36; has twice the probability of any } 

{ other number. } 

{preliminary result} 

s: integer; 

begin {Spin} 

s := Randomlnteger; 
if s < then 

s : = - s ; 

until s < 32756; 

s : = s mod 3 8 ; 

if s = 37 then 
s := 0; 

Spin : = s ; 

end; {Spin} 

begin {PlayGame} 
money := startingPot; 

while (money <> 0) and (money < 2*startingPot) do begin 
bet := 1; 
win := false; 

while (bet <= money) and (not win) do begin 
win := Odd ( Spin) ; 
if win then 

money : = money + bet 

money := money - bet; 
writeln( 'money = ', money: 1, '; bet = ', bet:l, '; win 


win) ; } 

bet := bet*2; 
end; {bet} 
end; {while} 

if money <> then 

wins : = wins + 1 ; 
end ; {Pi ayGame } 

procedure Randomize; 

{ Initializes the ORCA/Pascal random number generator based } 
{ on the time of day. 



WEilCiilD HACKi 

roulette := Randomlnteger mod 38; 

This takes the remainder of the number 
after dividing it by 38 — which will always 
yield a result between and 37. Hey, it 
works! The problem is that it isn't truly ran- 
dom unless you need to generate random 
numbers between and 63, or and 255, or 
zero and one less than any number that's 
divides evenly into 65,536. To see why, let's 
try a smaller range of numbers. Let's assume 
we're generating random numbers with a 20- 
sided game die, then using the mod operator 
to reduce the range to 1-6, like a normal die. 
Table 1 shows what happens. Along the top, 
you see the result of 1-6. Under each number 
is a column of numbers from the 20 sided 
game die that result in that number when the 
numbers from the 20-sided die are 
"remapped" to a 6-sided die. To get the final 
number, look up the value in the table and 
read off the result from the first row. 

6 Sided result 1 2 3 4 5 6 

20 sided value 1 2 3 4 5 6 

7 8 9 10 11 12 

13 14 15 16 17 18 

19 20 

Mapping a 20 Sided Die to a 6 Sided Die 

Look at the probability of getting each num- 
ber. For the first number, there are four ways to 
get the result: 1,7, 13 and 19 on the 20 sided 
die all get treated as a 1. That's a probability of 
4/20, or 0.200. The same thing happens for a 
result of 2. From 3 to 6, though, there are only 
3 ways to get the answer, so the probability of 
ending up with 3, 4, 5 or 6 is 3/20, or 0.150. 
That may not seem like much of a problem, 
but would you bet $1,048,576 with even 
slightly loaded dice? 

The easy way to handle this problem is to 
throw away the values 1 9 and 20. If they come 
up, just roll again. That's effectively what the 
simulation in Listing 1 does with all of the 
gyrations in the subroutine Spin. 


I ran the program 10 times, and recorded 
and tallied the results. With the doubling 
strategy, I won 3160 times out of 10,000 
tries, or about 32% of the time! How disap- 
pointing. The chances of winning a single 
spin at the roulette wheel betting on even or 
odd is 18/38, a little over 47%. This means 
that out of 100 $1 bets, you will lose $1 53 
times, and win $1 47 times — in all, losing a 
little under $6 for every $100 you spend. 
Doubling your bets, on the other hand, means 
you lose $34 for every $100 you spend. 
Obviously, if you just enjoy the activity of 
gambling and don't want to spend too much 
money, it's better to keep your bets to $1 
rather than doubling. 

asciiTime: packed array [1..20] of char; {system clock time} 

begin {Randomize} 

ReadASCIITime (©asciiTime) ; 

Seed( (ord(asciiTime[16] ) « 8) | ord(asciiTime [17] ) ) ; 

end ; { Randomi z e } 

begin {Wheel} 
wins : = ; 

for g : = 1 to numberOf Games do 

writeln('You won ', wins:l, ' of ' , numberOf Games : 1, 

' games (', round(wins /numberOf Games*100 . 0) : 1, '%).'), 
end. {Wheel} 

The reason you can never come out ahead 
lies in the house numbers, and 00. These 
numbers come up nearly 5.25% of the time, 
and you always lose when they do. When the 
house numbers are taken out of the simulation, 
evening the odds, the doubling strategy won 
5,020 times out of 10,000— just about exactly 
50%. Which means my professor was right: on 
a 50-50 proposition, the doubling strategy is 
about as effective as just betting everything all 
at once. When the odds are skewed — like in a 
roulette game with and 00 included, where 
the odds of winning an even/odd bet are less 
than 50% — the doubling strategy is consider- 
ably worse, because you are exposed to the 
5.25% odds that the house will win many more 
times instead of just once. 

So, if you wander through a casino in Las 
Vegas and are tempted to try doubling your 
money at the roulette wheel, your best bet is 
to bet it all at once! Your odds of doubling 
your money that way are 47%, while playing 
the doubling game used in the simulation 
gives much lower odds of success — just 

Better yet, leave the money in your pocket. 
47% odds of winning don't represent anything 
resembling a safe bet. Over time, the only one 
who truly wins is the house. 


Lest you think that there are no practical 
applications to this sort of simulation, you 
should know that the same ideas you see here 
can answer all sorts of every day questions. 
Heck, we already learned something I didn't 
know before I wrote the program; namely, the 
best strategy for doubling your money at a 
roulette wheel. I would have thought the dou- 
bling scheme would work just as well as bet- 
ting everything at once. 

Another simulation with some practical 
merit is one I wrote to simulate the popular 
Pyramid card game. (If you've never seen it, 
check with any shareware library for a copy of 
the game. It's available on almost any plat- 
form.) After losing that game lots of times, I 
decided to find out just what my chances of 

winning the card game really were. After find- 
ing out with a simulation, I quit playing. Now I 
waste my time playing Mines instead. 

You can simulate all sorts of other things, 
too. The same ideas were put to use by Barbara 
Allred to simulate the spread of the AIDS virus. 
Traffic planners use these ideas to simulate 
traffic flow as they try out new highway 
designs. The list goes on and on. 


The key to good simulations is careful use 
of the random number generator. If you're 
going to do a lot of simulations, be sure to read 
about how they work and how to test them, 
especially if you are going to be using another 
computer or language and don't know how 
good its random number generator is. A good 
place to start is Algorithms, Robert Sedgewick, 
Addison-Wesley, 1983. Sedgewick doesn't get 
too deep, but gives a good overview and some 
practical, simple tests for randomness. If you 
want to pull out the really big guns, refer to 
The Art of Computer Programming, 2nd edi- 
tion. Volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms, 
Donald E. Knuth, Addison-Wesley, 1981. 
Knuth beats the subject to death in 177 pages 
of heavy-duty mathematics. 

As for simulations themselves, they're 
everywhere. Once you start looking around, 
you'll find one for almost any subject. I've 
even found them in textbooks on quantum 
mechanics, of all places. Once you understand 
the ideas, though, it's pretty easy — and fun — 
to just write your own. 


So did I walk past that roulette wheel with- 
out trying for some practical experience? Of 
course I did. I'm crazy, not stupid. The best 
case — $6 lost for every $100 spent — is still a 
loss, and I don't enjoy gambling enough to 
give the casino that much for the privilege. 
(Understanding how some of the games work, 
and how they're all designed to favor the 
house, takes much of the enjoyment out of the 
activity.) All of my gambling is done by run- 
ning my small business. The only people who 
gamble more than entrepreneurs are farmers, ■ 



America Online 
Dumps Apple II Users 

Users of America Online have noticed over 
the last few months a marked increase in prob- 
lems with the system, mostly related to perfor- 
mance. While most such problems have been 
due to AOL's recent explosive growth, oth- 
ers — such as the profusion of new areas which 
cannot be accessed by the Apple II version of 
the software — are not. With new versions of 
the Mac and Windows versions of AOL on the 
way, this situation will probably only get 
worse. Luckily, though, AOL has come up with 
a solution: get rid of the Apple II users. 

In a letter sent to users of its Apple II soft- 
ware early in August, America Online presi- 
dent Steve Case explained that the service now 
finds it "commercially impossible" to properly 
maintain the Apple II product. On November 
1, 1994, everyone who is still using only the 
Apple II version of the AOL software will have 
their accounts deactivated. (You can have your 
account transferred to the Mac or the Windows 
version of the software if you like.) 

Case's letter cites a lack of "technical sup- 
port from the industry" as the primary reason 
for the decline in service and for this decision. 
With so many developers leaving the Apple II, 
says Case, the company was not able to add 
new services, fix existing problems, or prevent 
new problems. I guess they didn't look too 
hard for such developers, because available for 
download right under Case's nose is a share- 
ware program called Online Enhancer, which 
fixes many bugs and adds new features to the 
IIgs version of the AOL software. The develop- 
ers of this product reportedly received no sup- 
port from AOL staff in creating the product. 
Draw your own conclusion about the sincerity 
of Case's "dear Apple owner" letter. 

But Apple II owners are not alone. The 
users of the Deskmate version of AOL are also 
getting the heave-ho. (Deskmate was a soft- 
ware product bundled with Tandy personal 
computers for several years which included, 
among other things, an AOL account.) The 
Deskmate users got a letter almost identical to 
the ones sent to Apple II owners, with "Tandy" 
replacing "Apple II." The first sentence of the 
letter even refers to AOL Deskmate users as 
being "the foundation upon which the entire 
America Online service has been built" — the 
same praise doled out to Apple II users. 

Interestingly, yet another letter recently 
posted by AOL refers to Macintosh users as the 
foundation of the service. I think they're a little 
confused. Or maybe it's just that on America 
Online, you'll always be the first one there, but 
you'll never be the last to leave. 

Other Online Services Ouick to 
Take Up Apple II Slack 

GEnie and Delphi are both rushing forward 
to fill the vacuum in Apple II online support 
caused by America Online' s decision to cease 
support of their Apple II product. GEnie is 
offering former AOL subscribers a $50 credit 

to sign up. This $50 is not "seventeen free non- 
prime hours" but a $50 credit which can be 
used for any service GEnie offers — including 
daytime access (which carries a surcharge), 
high-end services like NewsStand and Official 
Airline Guide, or even GEnie merchandise 
such as jackets, none of which are charged as 
"non-prime hours." This is by far the best offer 
GEnie has ever made to Apple II users. 

SyndiComm, the independent contractor 
which runs the Apple II areas on GEnie, also 
reports that special pricing is available on 
Spectrum, ProTERM, and Talk Is Cheap for 
AOL users, some of whom may not have a 
good general-purpose telecommunications pro- 
gram. A new version of CoPilot (the IIgs 
offline reader) has also been released, follow- 
ing close on the heels of a new version of GEM 
(the 8-bit Apple II offline reader) a couple 
months ago. SyndiComm also reports that it is 
working on an AOL-like "front end" (for navi- 
gating GEnie in real time) for the IIgs, which it 
hopes to release by late 1994 or early 1995. 

For more details on these offers, write to 
A2.HELP on GEnie. AOL users can use the Inter- 
net gateway to e-mail 
(as can anyone with Internet access) — or see 
GEnie' s ad in this issue for signup instrucUons. 

Delphi is still an excellent value in the 
Apple II arena, offering a low rate of $20 per 
month for up to 20 hours of access with the 
20/20 Plan (additional hours are $1.86), or, for 
infrequent users, up to four hours per month 
for $10 on the 10/4 Plan (additional hours are 
$2.56). It offers 9600 BPS access with no sur- 
charge through its Boston dial-up and is 
expected to offer nationwide 9600 BPS access 
soon. For an additional $3 per month, Delphi 
also offers Internet e-mail, newsgroups, IRC, 
telnet, gopher, and other Internet services. 
Your first five hours are free — just dial 1-800- 
695-4002 with your modem to sign up. At the 
Username prompt, enter JOINDELPHI. At the 
Password prompt, enter APPLEIISIG. 

Quickie C, Quickie Do 

The long-awaited Quickie C (the C stands 
for color) hand-held scanner should finally be 
shipping by the time you read this. Vitesse has 
been waiting for a part needed for the kit, but 
it's finally ready. Unlike other hand-held color 
scanners, the Quickie C makes you scan the 
document in three passes with a different color 
overlay each time. A special tray is provided to 
allow the three passes to line up perfectly. This 
three-pass approach means that color scanning 
is slower than with other color hand scanners 
(bad) but the scanner is less expensive (good) 
and the Quickie C kit can be used as a retrofit 
by current Quickie owners as well (very good). 
The software is rumored to allow the creation 
of 4, 16, 256, and 3200-color images. Watch 
for a review soon. 

Vitesse is also releasing the IIgs version of 
the classic fantasy adventure role-playing 
game. Ultima I, mentioned by Bill Heineman 
in his interview this issue. While it has the fla- 

vor and plot of the original. Ultima I for the 
IIgs also includes enhanced IIgs music, sound, 
and graphics — and it operates under GS/OS. 
It's $39.95, plus $5 shipping directly from 
Vitesse. If you've never played before, now is 
the time to experience the world of Ultima — 
and if you're already a fan, you'll be thrilled 
with this new version. 

The Big Red Machine 

It's old news by now that the Big Red Com- 
puter Club is planning to close at the end of the 
year. But all may not be lost. Your Rumormon- 
ger recently heard through the grapevine that 
John Wrenholt, the founder and owner of Big 
Red, merely wants to retire. Initial attempts to 
find someone to take the reins of the club evi- 
dently failed, causing John to decide to close it 
down. But after the announcement in Big Red's 
newsletter, Scarlett, a number of people have 
expressed interest in keeping the organization 
going. It's not over yet. One frequently-men- 
tioned name is Joe Kohn, who worked with 
Wrenholt and Big Red for many years before 
starting Shareware Solutions II. Let's hope 
someone works something out. 

Seven Wonders of the Hills 

According to the rumor mill. Seven Hills has 
a new version of GraphicWriter III in the 
works. This new version will finally do away 
with the goofy font menu that supported only a 
limited number of fonts and sizes. The new ver- 
sion will also support object-oriented graphics, 
so graphics created in draw programs can be 
scaled and rotated without loss of resolution. 
And, of course, a number of bugs will be 
squashed. Seven Hills has not yet announced a 
release date for this product, but we've heard 
Christmas mentioned as a target date. 

We also hear that the popular telecommuni- 
cations program Spectrum is also getting a 
revamp. Among other things, scripts will run 
more than twice as fast as the current version, 
and many bugs will be fixed. There will sup- 
posedly be one real knock-your-socks-off fea- 
ture, but we can't tell you what it is because 
we don't know what it is. Whatever it is, it'd 
have to be big, since Spectrum already has 
basically every feature known to man. As with 
the GraphicWriter upgrade, no release date is 

Byte Works Bytes Back 

New versions of The Byte Works' ORCA/M, 
ORG A/Pascal, and ORCA/C were all announced 
in July. Registered owners of version 2.x of 
any of these programs can download the 
update for free from GEnie (send e-mail to 
BYTEWORKS for access to the private library). 
Or the update can also be ordered directly from 
The Byte Works for $7. The $7 is waived if 
you buy any other Byte Works product at the 
same time — and coincidentally. Byte Works 
has a new spreadsheet out (Quick Click Calc) 
that everyone should buy anyway, so you 
essentially get the upgrade for free. ■ 



Apples in the Wings 

bv D.C. Mlarriett 

Apple lis have been a part of 
clubs and community organiza- 
tions ever since they were intro- 
duced. Apples have been used to 
write newsletters^ keep member- 
ship lists, and balance budgets in 
everything from sewing circles to 
the Chamber of Commerce. But 
when I joined our local amateur 
theater group several years ago, I 
discovered that the Apple 11 has 
an especially useful role to play in 
community theater. 


The first job I was given when I joined the 
local drama club was properties master. We were 
doing a play that involved a large number of 
props, some carried on by members of the cast, 
others that had to be carried on or cleared by the 
backstage crew. That job required organization, 
so naturally, I created an AppleWorks database to 
help me. When creating any database, the key is 
to ensure that you have enough fields. The data- 
base I created had the following fields: 




Placed by: 


Removed by: 


This database told me at a glance whether I 
had taken care of every property under my 

The first field identified each and every prop 
that we used in the play. Since many of our 
props were borrowed from club members, the 
second field identified the owner, so that all of 
the props could be returned to their rightful 
owners once the show was over. The third field 
told me where each prop was to be kept prior 
to its arrival on stage. Most of the props were 
kept on tables in either the left or right wing of 
the stage. However, a few were kept in the 
dressing room, and some were kept in the 
pockets of costumes, or in other props (for 
example, in a suitcase or a purse), and this field 
was useful in 
keeping track of 
those props. 

The fourth 
field indicated 
which member ol 
the cast or crew was 
assigned to take the 
prop onto the stage. 
The fifth field told 
when the prop was to 
go on stage. If it was car- 
ried on by a cast member 
during the play, that field told me 
in which Act and Scene the prop 
was to make its appearance. If the 
prop was taken on by a member of 
the crew during a blackout, then the 
field indicated during which break 
the prop was to be moved onto the 
stage. Similarly, the next two fields 
told me when the prop was to be 
removed from the stage, and by 

Using the Records Selection feature 
of AppleWorks, I was able to print a 
report for each member of the cast and 
crew, listing the properties for which they 
were responsible. For example, if I wanted a 
list of the props that Chris was responsible for, 
I would type OA-P to move to the print func- 
tions of my database. I would then create a 
report with all of the fields except "Owner". I 
would then type OA-R. At the prompt, I would 
indicate that I only wanted those entries where 

"Placed by" contains "Chris" or "Removed by" 
contains "Chris". I would then name the report 
"Chris" and print it. For the stage manager, I 
prepared a list of where all of the props were 
supposed to be at the start of the play, and a list 
of which props were needed for each scene. 
Armed with these lists, I was quickly able to 
determine that each property was in the right 
place at the right time. 


It was when I started designing sets that my 
Apple really came into its own. I discovered 
that Abracadata's Design Your Own Home: 
Interiors software is perfect for designing 
sets. The program allows the set designer to 
play with various possible arrangements of 
the set pieces. The key feature of the pro- 
gram is that it allows for both top and 
side views. That means that, with the 
touch of a button, the set designer can see 
what the audience would see! 
You begin a stage plan by drawing the 
flats that you plan to build, using the pro- 
gram's "Room Plan" mode. Draw the walls 
with upstage at the top 
of the drawing, and 
downstage at the bottom. 
The drawing mode 
includes a measurement 
at the bottom of the 
scene, so you can draw to 
scale. You then move to 
"Furniture Plan" mode. 
Design Your Own Home: 
Interiors allows you to add 
doors, windows, closets, and 
even pictures to the walls. You 
then place the furniture you want 
on the set, using the program's own 
library of set pieces. When you think you 
have the set you want, you can change the 
view to "front", and see the set that the audi- 
ence will see. Design Your Own Home saves 
plans in standard hi-res format, so you can use 
other Apple drawing or painting programs to 
touch up your plans. 



O D 1 

There are two limitations to Design Your 
Own Home: Interiors as a tool for designing 
sets. One is that the program expects that you 
are dealing with a standard, level room. If you 
want to design a set with raised platforms, you 
will have to add them later, using another 
drawing program. Secondly, the "room size" is 
limited to 23' X 16'. However, this limitation 
is easily overcome by splitting a larger set into 
two plans. Simply designate the plans 
"Stage.R" and "Stage.L". The two plans can be 
printed together using the program's own print 
mode, by rotating the plans 90° and printing 
one right after the other. Alternatively, the two 
halves can be joined together in a single dou- 
ble hi-res picture using a program like Beagle 
Bros TimeOut Paint. 


Like most amateur theater groups, ours likes 
to keep a video record of all of our produc- 
tions. Once again, an Apple can help by creat- 
ing opening titles and closing credits for the 
video. I like to give the names of the actors in 
the opening credits, and give a complete list of 
the backstage crew at the end of the video. One 
of the advantages that Apples have over other 
computers is that they can be connected direct- 
ly to a VCR, without special cards or adapters. 
That makes it easy to use your Apple to add 
attractive titles to any videotape. Broderbund's 

VCR Companion is a product designed specifi- 
cally for that task. 

VCR Companion works much like Print 
Shop: you choose borders, fonts, and graphics 
from a menu, and then put everything together. 
It also allows you to incorporate animations 
and pictures. The text can be static, or can 
scroll across the screen, either horizontally or 
vertically. This feature allows you in include 
long lists in your credits, without having to 
worry about running out of space on the 
screen. You can therefore give due credit to 
every member of your cast and crew, even for 
a large production. VCR Companion also has a 
variety of transitions and special effects, so 
you can really become creative. 

VCR Companion comes with a library of bor- 
ders, background pictures, fonts and anima- 
tions. It also has utilities that allow you to con- 
vert any double hi-res picture for use as a back- 
ground. If you also happen to own 
Broderbund's Animate, you can create your 
own animations for use with the program. For a 
recent production of The Merry Widow, I drew 
a ballroom with Dazzle Draw, and created an 
animation of a waltzing couple with Animate. 
The couple waltzed through the ballroom as the 
names of the actors scrolled past them ! 

If you don't want to purchase a program 
specifically for making credits, you can create 
respectable credits with almost any graphics or 
hypermedia program. All it takes is a litde cre- 

ativity. If your graphics program happens to 
have a slide show feature, so much the better. 
Dazzle Draw comes with an excellent slide 
show package, which includes a variety of 
transitions. With a bit of ingenuity, you can 
make attractive titles, and even create simple 
animations. All you have to do is connect your 
computer to the RCA plug on your VCR, and 
whatever you have on your screen can be 
recorded on tape. 


Of course, there are many more ways that 
your Apple II can help put a production on 
stage, from making posters and programs to 
keeping phone lists for the cast and crew. From 
the first auditions to closing night, the Apple II 
is a performer that's welcome in any commu- 
nity theater. ■ 



Claris Corporation 

P,0. Box 58168, Santa Clara. CA, 95052-8168 

Design You Own Home, Interiors 

Abracadata, Ltd. 

P.O. Box 2440, Eugene, OR, 97402 

Animate, Dazzle Draw, and VCR Companion 

Broderbund Software, Inc. 
P.O.Box612,Novato,CA/ ^1 


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of custom reports. 

BottomLine features pull down menus for mouse or key- 
board support. A handy, full feature calculator and 
notepad are also included. 

Finding transactions has never been easier. The program 
lets you search by check number, payee, dollar amount, 
and text. Tax related transactions can easily be flagged 
allowing easier reporting at the end of the year. 

'Simple^ quick^ and reliable! ^^ 
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up to 800 transactions per month and an entire year can 
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you export your financial information to an 
AppleWorks® Spreadsheet. This feature is compatible 
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AppleWorks 4.0. Suggested retail price: $64.95 

Requirements: Enhanced He or later; 128K or greater; 5.25" or 3.5" drive; 
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Games Modems Play 

bv Erik Engbrecht 

► This article is not intended as a primer on 
modem use. It is intended to introduce you 
to the concept of online gaming and give 
you some idea of what's out there, but will 
not attempt to teach you the fundamentals of 
using modems to telecommunicate. Past 
articles in the Modem Nation series are 
good introductions to telecommunications. 

You've probably heard a lot about the use- 
ful things modem can bring you: techni- 
cal support for your computer system, 
huge libraries of free software, electronic 
mail. These things are all wonderful, but they 
don't exactly make most of us jump up and 
down. (If they make you jump up and down, 
perhaps you should seek professional help 
before it's too late.) But there's one aspect of 
telecommunications that almost everyone who 
talks about the subject leaves out: online games! 
If you're interested in computer games, you're 
missing an enormous amount of computer fun if 
you don't own a modem. On-line games often 
offer game play you can't get anywhere else, 
especially in the area of multi-player games. 

It's been said in this column that the impor- 
tant thing about modems is not that they con- 
nect computers together, but that they connect 
people together. If you think playing games 
against the computer is fun, wait until you meet 
your first human opponent via the computer! 


To explore the world of on-line gaming, the 
first thing you need is a modem and telecommu- 
nications software. Any modem will do, 
although 9600 bps is quickly becoming the mini- 
mum acceptable speed. More importantly, you 
should look for modem software with what is 
known as ANSI-BBS emulation, sometimes 
called just ANSI. Not all on-line games require 
ANSI-BBS emulation, but many (especially those 
run on PC-based BBSs) do, and other games sup- 
port it as an option that improves play. 

If you use an 8-bit Apple II, investigate Pro- 
TERM, published by Intrec Software. It sup- 
ports a rudimentary (but usable) black-and- 
white ANSI emulation that works well enough 

for most games. (Modem MGR, from MGR 
Software, also reportedly has added ANSI in a 
recent upgrade, although we haven't tested this 
program.) If you own a IIgs, get a IlGS-specific 
telecommunications package, such as Spec- 
trum from Seven Hills, ANSITerm from 
Parkhurst Micro Products, or even SnowTerm, 
a shareware program by John Snow. IlGS-spe- 
cific modem software that does ANSI-BBS sup- 

IVs been said in this column 
that the important thing about 
modems is not that they connect 
computers together^ but that they 
connect people together. If you 
think playing games against the 
computer is fun, wait until you 
meet your first human opponent 
via the computer! 

ports color, unlike the 8-bit software, and a 
proper ANSI character set. (ProTERM translates 
the ANSI character set to the Apple's Mouse- 
Text characters, which is the best you can real- 
istically expect on older Apples; the IIgs pro- 
grams use super hi-res graphics to support 
more ANSI features.) 

The next thing you need is an account on a 
system with online games. You have your 
choice: easy to find, but expensive — or cheap, 
but harder to find and access. 


The easiest way, with the least hassle, is to 
subscribe to a major online service such as 
GEnie, CompuServe, or Delphi. Such services 
feature many excellent games which Apple II 
users can play. These games can be incredibly 
extensive; you might literally be playing on- 

line interactive adventures with dozens or even 
hundreds of other players at the same time. A 
game like Dragon's Gate or Gemstone is a 
role-playing game where you can "design" 
your own character and go off in search of 
adventure, either on your own, or by meeting 
with other players who are online at they same 
time as you and forming teams with them. 
Your team will meet other teams, and can 
either fight them or join up with them! 

Or you can play political games like Federa- 
tion, where you fight interstellar battles and 
take part in political intrigue between the stars, 
with many other players in the same game at 
the same time. There are even graphically- 
based games like RSCards, where you can find 
opponents to play things like Poker, Chess, or 
Backgammon against. Besides all those, the 
Chat areas on these systems often host games 
(including trivia and word-based games). It can 
all be very exciting. And, because the national 
services have thousands of phone lines, getting 
through to them is almost never a problem. 

The down side is cost; all of the national 
systems cost more than almost any local BBS. 
For example, GEnie charges $3.00/hour, which 
works out to five cents a minute for that system 
(CompuServe and AOL cost more, Delphi less). 
This isn't incredibly expensive, but when you 
realize that you certainly won't finish a game 
like Gemstone in one session, the price jumps 
up. Even a "short" game session may be a half 
hour or more, and you may want to play fre- 
quently to avoid being left behind by other 
players, so you can see how you may need to 
watch your pennies. 


The harder, but cheaper, way to find games 
is to locate a local Bulletin Board System 
(BBS) that has games you'd like to play. You 
may be surprised at how many BBSs there are 
in your area, and it's likely that at least some 
of them will offer games. Local BBSs have the 
advantage of being cheap; some of them 
charge fees, but even these are usually much 
cheaper than the major online services, and 
many local systems are completely free. The 



flw^ ^^^ ^^ ^S sWm 

only problem is finding local systems and find- 
ing out which ones offer what. 

The best way I can think of is to check to 
see if your local High School or library has a 
BBS; many schools and libraries have such 
systems. Then, set up an account on one of 
those systems, and ask the system operator 
(sysop) for the numbers of other local systems. 
If you do not have any luck that way, you 
might want to just ask around among high 
school kids in the area (like me), as they often 
know about stuff like that. 

Once you find a board, you have to set up an 
account on it. We've covered this before — set- 
ting up the account is easy, but getting on can 
be hard. Local BBS systems are usually limited 
in the number of incoming phone lines they 
can support (some have just one line), so if too 
many people are trying to get on at once, you 
may get a lot of busy signals when calling 
them. (The more lines a system supports, the 
more interesting the games will generally be — 
you can still play some multi-player games on 
single-line boards, but players have to take 
turns, making one move on each call.) Less 
popular systems will be easier to get on, but 
might not have the variety of games or players 
you're looking for. Still, a system which is not 
mega-popular may be a very good place to 
start; the fewer people playing, the less confus- 
ing things are. 

The more popular BBSs will be harder to log 
onto, but, generally, this is because they're 
simply better. The more popular a system 
becomes, the more the system operator is able 
to add. The best boards have fast computers, 
friendly sysops, better games, more phone 
lines (but never, it seems, enough), and so on. 
Some of these systems may even charge a 
monthly or annual fee of some sort. Once you 
set your sights on one of these harder-to-access 
systems, just use the condnuous redial feature 
of your modem software (all good modem pro- 
grams have this option now) and just keep 
redialing until you get through. 

After you set up your account, you will have 
to wait until the sysop validates you to begin 
playing. Depending on the sysop, this can take 
anywhere from a couple of minutes to a couple 
of days. Some BBSs have callback verification, 
where the sysop will call you back to verify 
that you are who you say you are. (This is usu- 
ally done on systems that charge a fee, but sys- 
tem operators who have had problems with 
hackers may also do this.) Sysops of popular 
boards sometimes limit the amount of time you 
can access the BBS per day, and attempt to 
make sure people don't sign up for multiple 
accounts to get more time to play games. 

I recommend that you abide by the rules of 
the sysop whose board you are using. Don't try 
to circumvent a time limit by creating false 
accounts. Instead, if you don't like a rule, ask 
the sysop if there's some way the rule could be 
changed or an exception made (for example, 
some sysops of free boards will gladly increase 
your daily limit if you make a donation to the 

BBS). If you can't five by the rules, find anoth- 
er board with less restrictive rules (you might 
have to pay for it, though). When you bend the 
rules, you not only run the risk of being kicked 
off the system you're calling (and being black- 
listed — sysops do talk to each other), you 
make the game harder for honest people to 


Once you have full access to a system with 
games, you can start to play. But first, you 
must find out where the games are on the sys- 
tem. On some systems this can be as challeng- 
ing as some of the games themselves! How 
you access games will vary wildly from sys- 
tem to system, but most BBSs have an option 
on the main menu that takes you to a separate 
games menu. Usually this menu item is obvi- 
ous — something like "Games" or "Online 

The more popular BBSs will be 
harder to log onto^ huty general- 
ly ^ this is because they^re simply 
better The more p^^ 
tern becomes, the more the sys- 
tem operator is able to add. 

Games." Other systems use the term "doors" 
or "door games." Occasionally specific games, 
especially popular ones such "The Complex 
11" or "Adventure," might be found right on 
the main menu. 

Still, you might have some hunting to do; 
local BBS systems are incredibly diverse. One 
BBS I used to play games on had a theme 
based on Star Trek: The Next Generation. To 
get to its games, you had to go into the 
"holodeck simulator." When all else fails, ask 
the sysop. 

After getting into the games section of a sys- 
tem, you may be overwhelmed by the number 
of choices. A good game to start with is Trade 
Wars 2002. Loosely based on the television 
series Star Trek, the basic play of the game is 
easy, but over time you will find it rich and 
complex. Most of the time you're trading (if 
you are a good guy) or stealing (if you are a 
bad guy). This can get really boring, but stick 
with it. As soon as you have a good ship with a 
large arsenal and go to war, you'll see that it 
was all worth it. One thing you have to remem- 
ber is that Trade Wars is a team game, and so 
you will need to find people to start a corpora- 
tion with. 

The enjoyment you'll get from a game like 
Trade Wars is very dependent on the other 
people playing. The goal is to develop planets 
and build the strongest corporation possible. 

Play conservatively, leave aliens alone unless 
you are bad and need experience, or good and 
need alignment to get a commission. It takes a 
lot of dedication to become powerful. Trade 
Wars takes twenty to forty-five minutes a day 
to play. 


As I said, there are a number of games out 
there — so attempting to list them all would be 
futile, especially since new ones are being cre- 
ated every day. (There's even one game which 
lets the players design the game as they go 
along!) Still, some games have proven them- 
selves "classics" through their staying power. 

Barren Realms Elite, Solar Realms Elite, 
and the Alpha Colony series are all conquest- 
type games. You purchase industrial regions to 
produce weaponry, agricultural regions to pro- 
duce food, and various other types of regions 
to make money. It takes ten to fifteen minutes 
per day playing time. 

Red Dragon is a D&D style game. It is pretty 
easy, and depends a lot on luck. There is some 
strategy involved, but nowhere near as much 
as the other games of this type. If you want 
something easy to play that's fun and doesn't 
take much time, try Red Dragon. It takes ten to 
fifteen minutes per day. 

The Pit is one of the few real-time action 
games. For this game, ANSI is essential, but 
color is not required. You play a gladiator- type 
character. You fight computer opponents and 
other human players. This game takes as much 
time as you want it to take, but the more time 
you put into it the better it gets... though it can 
be very frustrating at dmes. 

Land of Devastation is a very good game. 
ANSI is essential for this one, too. You are a 
soldier, reclaiming the nuclear wasteland that 
used to be the United States. It is a futuristic 
role-playing game in which you move around 
on a map and fight mutant monsters. There's 
no set amount of playing time, you just play 
until you get tired. 


You will encounter many, many other 
games as you explore the various BBSs in your 
area. There are so many different games that 
you could easily amuse yourself for years just 
on your local BBSs. On the whole, the fun of 
online games surpasses that of regular comput- 
er games, because online games allow you to 
play against actual human opponents. Don't 
worry about finishing an entire game in one 
session; the long, involved games save your 
game statistics from session to session, so you 
can play a little every day, slowly improving 
and also seeing how others have been doing 
while you were offline. The fact that others can 
play while you go about your real life puts an 
interesting twist on things that you just can't 
get from sticking a disk in your drive and boot- 
ing up the same old games you've played day 
after day all by yourself! ■ 



A Tale of One City 

(Continued from page 8) 

What about that 32-bit version of the 
65816? Mensch has the design partially com- 
pleted, but until he has a customer who is actu- 
ally interested in using the chip, it's going to 
stay that way. He mentioned that the only rea- 
son the chip exists even to that extent is that 
one of his licensees wanted, for competitive 
reasons, to be able to list a 32-bit processor in 
their product line. (Nobody has yet tried to 
order it.) In the embedded controller market, 
though, hardly anyone is using 32-bit technolo- 
gy — plain old 8-bit is by far the most popular. 

Mac Attack 

After lunch, the conference tracks split up 
again, with two sessions again running simul- 
taneously. (We later discovered that the reason 
they'd been split in the morning, rejoined 
briefly for Mensch' s session, then split again 
was that Randy Brandt was to have given the 
keynote address that morning, but Brandt had a 
last-minute situation that prevented him from 
arriving until later Thursday. Thus, his keynote 
had simply been swapped with the two ses- 
sions originally planned for Friday morning.) 

While two members of the Western Design 
team demonstrated development tools for the 
Mensch Computer, I checked out the preview 
of Macintosh System 7.5 hosted by Mike 
Pruneau, a marketing representative from 
Apple's Kansas City office. Since this isn't a 
Macintosh magazine, I will refrain from telhng 
you everything there is to know about System 
7.5. The main new hot features are QuickDraw 
GX (a new graphics and printing architecture) 
and Apple Guide (an interactive help system 
that can actually show you what you're sup- 
posed to do). Apple has also bundled other 
components, previously available as part of 
System 7 Pro or as third-party extensions, into 
System 7.5. If you want to read more about it, 
go pick up Macworld or MacUser. Both of 
these magazines have recently featured in- 
depth explorations of the next Macintosh Sys- 
tem release. 

A couple of System 7.5 's new features did, 
however, bring a few chuckles to the lips of 
the Apple II afficionados in attendance. Sys- 
tem 7.5 now features a thermometer that fills in 
as the machine starts up — just like the IIgs. 
("Took them long enough," a wag put in, 
prompting a wave of laughter.) The new Mac 
Find File desk accessory is also reminiscent of 
the IIgs Find File NDA. Pruneau laughed along 
with the audience — after all, he was able to 
look out across the crowd of Apple II nuts and 
see several PowerBook screens sticking up! 
It's been clear for years that Apple considered 
the Macintosh its future direction, and, for the 
most part, Apple II users have accepted that 
and no longer take it personally. 

The code name displayed on the startup 
screen of the demo version of System 7.5 was 
"Capone." The notorious gangster Al Capone 
was also known as "the King of Chicago." 
And, by a strange coincidence, Microsoft Win- 

dows 4's code name is "Chicago." It was a 
clever but subtle bit of code-name one-upman- 
ship which, while largely unnoticed, was 
appreciated by those who caught it. 


After the Macintosh System 7.5 demonstra- 
tion, I decided to see what was up with Anima- 
sia 3-D, the near-legendary IIos 3-D animation 
program that Michael Lutynski has been work- 
ing on for four years. (The competing session 
was a demonstration of Procyon's GNO/ME 
Unix-like operating system for the IIgs, curi- 
ously led not by Procyon's Jawaid Bazyar — 
who was in attendance — by by DigiSoft Inno- 
vations' Jim Maricondo.) 

Animasia long ago passed the stage where it 
could be considered a mere "product" and 
became a true labor of love. After all, in 
today's IIgs market Lutynski is going to have 
difficulty selling enough copies of the $99 pro- 
gram to recoup four years of work. Most peo- 
ple don't have as much persistence as he does. 
I hope the Apple II market supports him buy 
buying lots of copies of Animasia (hint, hint). 

Having worked with the Lightwave 3-D soft- 
ware for the Video Toaster, I really appreciat- 
ed Animasia' s intuitive approach to modeling. 
Instead of creating objects in one application, 
then arranging the objects in another, as most 
3-D programs require, Animasia lets you edit 
your objects right in the scene where they'll 
appear. The modeling tools are additive: that 
is, if you create a cube, then select a face of 
that cube and invoke the "cone" tool, a pyra- 
mid (a square cone) will jut out from the face 
of the cube. You can repeat this process ad 
infinitum to create really bizarre shapes. Other 
interesting tools include the one-click "dough- 
nut" and "spiral" tools, along with a nifty tool 
that lets you extrude a shape along a path. 
Other aspects of the user interface, such as the 
way groups of objects are handled, convinced 
me that Animasia was probably the most user- 
friendly 3-D program I'd ever seen. 

Due to the graphic limitations of the IIgs, 
the program's output basically consists of flat, 
colored polygons with a fixed palette. (The 
limited number of colors occasionally caused 
surface shadings to change abrupdy as lighting 
shifted during the course of an animation.) 
Animations are rendered to a PaintWorks file 
using the IIgs "fill mode," which makes for 
compact animation files and smooth, flicker- 
free playback. Rendering can take anywhere 
from several seconds to several minutes per 
frame, depending on the number of polygons 
on the screen. The program uses optimized 
integer math rather than floating-point, but a 
10 MHz or faster accelerator is recommended 

Lutynski mentioned that he'd designed the 
user interface and the actual "gearwork" of the 
program to be completely separate entities. 
This will make porting the software to another 
platform simple — just write a new user inter- 
face, and re-compile the "3-D engine" (it's 
written mostly in C) for the new machine. 

That's a good thing — Mac and Windows 3-D 
programs are all excessively complex (and 
expensive) for dabblers who just want to get 
their feet wet in 3-D animation. There's a defi- 
nite market there, and I think that's where 
Lutynski will see his real payback. But we 
Apple IIgs users have the distinction of getting 
it first! The renderer, by the way, computes 
colors to 40 bits, which is more than enough 
for photo-realistic rendering on computers with 
24-bit color. 

The program lacks a few features (such as 
texture mapping and ray tracing) that more 
sophisticated 3-D programs have. But then, it 
doesn't cost $800, either, and besides, the IIgs 
simply doesn't have the resolution or color 
palette to handle such detail, nor the CPU 
horsepower to render such complex images in 
any reasonable amount of time. Let's face it, 
nobody's going to create the next Babylon 5 
using Animasia on a IIgs — but it's a heck of a 
lot of fun, and an inexpensive way to learn 
about 3-D animation. 

Lutyinski reported that he was planning to 
write the manual in August and start shipping 
the program in September. Later in the session 
he mentioned that he wanted to optimize the 
program's code before shipping it to improve 
the speed. Frankly, unless he's a really fast 
writer or plans on including only skimpy docu- 
mentation (which would be a shame — the pro- 
gram definitely needs a manual which will 
explain 3-D animation to complete novices), I 
think he's being overly optimistic. But, after a 
four- year wait, it looks like the IIgs world will 
finally have a solid, usable 3-D animation tool, 
I'd guess by the end of 1994. Keep your eyes 
open for more information. 

And, at one meal in the Avila cafeteria, I 
overheard Lutynski and Roger Wagner dis- 
cussing the potential of incorporating Anima- 
sia 3-D animations into HyperStudio. This is 
where deals are made, folks. 

Thursday's Sessions 

After the Animasia presentation, I went 
back to the other conference room to watch 
Apple Rep Mike Pruneau put the PowerMac 
through its paces. We have a PowerMac 6100 
here at Quality, but I'd never seen an official 
Apple demo. As it turned out, most of the 
things Pruneau showed I'd already seen — such 
as the PlainTalk speech synthesis technology, 
the graphing calculator, and the Kai's Power 
Tools demo of real-time 3-D shading. I hadn 't 
seen Adobe Photoshop 3.0 (code name: Tiger 
Mountain) running at blazing native speed on a 
PowerMac — but now I have. Wow. As I 
reported in this space not too long ago, the 
PowerPC chip has the sheer speed to do all 
sorts of things previously considered "impossi- 
ble" for desktop computers. I came away 
impressed anew. (Meanwhile, Erick Wagner's 
conference in the other room, on interfacing 
outside devices to the Apple II, was also a 
good one, I heard.) 

(Continued on page 40) 









Anchorage Apple Users Group 


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MilwaukeCiil2ii9il:i li^ I 
Contact; Bruce Kosbab(414) 771-6086 


Apple Users Society ot Melbourne (A.U.S.O.M.) 
P.O. Box 1071 Narre Warren MDA 
Narre Warren, VIC 3805 
Ph: (613) 796-7553 








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A Tale of One City 

(Continued from page 37) 

The day's final sessions were Joe Kohn's 
"Looking Good In Print" and Greg Nelson's 
"Multimedia Authoring with CD-ROM." I 
already had a pretty good idea how to look 
good in print, I wasn't particularly interested in 
designing CD-ROMs, and most importandy of 
all, the previous night's lack of sleep was 
beginning to catch up with me. I went back to 
the dorms and caught an hour and a half worth 
of sleep before heading to that evening's 
celebrity roast. That was the plan, anyway. 

The Night Life 

Unfortunately I not only slept through the 
evening's buffet but also missed the beginning 
of the roast of Mike Westerfield, owner of the 
Byteworks and creator of the ORCA series of 
development tools. If the first half was as good 
as the second half, he was roasted quite thor- 
oughly. To my stomach, however, the most 
important thing was Roger Wagner's 
announcement that he'd be buying pizza for all 
comers at midnight. 

The dorms shortly became the focal point of 
activity. Each floor of the dorm had about 
twenty rooms and a central commons area. The 
second annual KansasFest "Bite the Bag" con- 
test was held — since it's been held two years 

in a row, I guess that makes it an official tradi- 
tion. ("Bite the Bag" is a party game in which 
players take turns trying to pick up a paper 
grocery bag from the floor with their teeth. The 
catch is, only one part of the player's body 
may touch the ground during the "bite." When 
everyone in a round has succeeded or failed, a 
strip is torn off the top of the bag and another 
round begins. This game of balance and coor- 
dination becomes increasingly interesting as 
the late hour begins to take its toll.) Roger 
Wagner was this year's champion, his form 
demonstrating that he'd obviously spent many 
hours practicing. Eventually the pizza arrived, 
marking the end of the festivities. 

All too soon, though, I found myself too 
tired to stand up. I somehow found my way 
back to my room and collapsed. And a few 
minutes later, it seemed, I awoke to find the 
sun rising on a Kansas City Friday morning. 

A Good Friday 

Friday's breakfast was rather more sparsely 
attended than Thursday's — just another sign 
(as if we needed one) that people were desper- 
ate for sleep. The day's sessions began with 
Randy Brandt's keynote address, tided "Con- 
fessions of a Primordial Programmer," a nos- 
talgia speech recounting Brandt's past, the 
golden days of Beagle Bros, and the joys of 
working with Claris on AppleWorks 3.0. His 

narrative was engrossing — but there's so much 
history in Brandt's experiences with the Apple 
II that the retelling took nearly the entire hour, 
leaving him barely enough time to announce 
AppleWorks 5, let alone demonstrate it. 

AppleWorks 5 is the ultimate AppleWorks 
power-user upgrade. It will require a 3.5" drive 
and at least 256K RAM. While the final feature 
set hasn't been nailed down just yet, I did see 
Brandt demonstrating a much better version of 
the word processor's split-screen feature, and a 
database feature which allows a MouseText 
background to be designed for the data entry 
screen. The price for the upgrade hasn't been 
set as of this writing — AppleWorks 4 owners 
will probably receive an upgrade notice early 
in the fall. 


Invades KansasFest 

After Brandt's speech, the conference once 
again split into two tracks. // Alive contributor 
Nathaniel Sloan talked about telecommunica- 
tions scripting, but I'd wager most attendees 
opted for the sneak preview of Microsoft Win- 
dows 4.0, code-name Chicago. "Know your 
enemy" was justification enough for me. This 
session, hosted by Pat Wilson of Microsoft's 
St. Louis office, was to have required the sign- 
ing of a non-disclosure agreement by atten- 

( Continued on page 43) 



Apple II Peripherals - Upgra 
School & University P.O.s Accepted! 

DES - Repair Service - Parts 
- School Qty. Discounts Available* 

RAM Chips 

Apple / /e or ][+ 4164 /4116..50<; 
Expanding your... Apple Ilgs Memory 
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41256 $1.25 

Expanding Your GS Juice+, S&S MCS 
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41024 (1 Meg) $3.00 

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Bank of 8 $32.00 

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1 Meg SIMM $24.00 

Motherboards/Service Pa. 

7/g or //c M/B W/Exch $S^).00 

//e or //c Motherboeird $12^^.iH) 

Ilgs M/B Exch $149. ROM3..$199.00 

//e Keyboard Exch $45.00 

//e, //c , / Ilgs Case $25./. -$35.00 

lies Battery (ROM 03) $4.95 

//c+ Parts available Call 

Power Supplies 

Il+y/e Exch/NoExch. $35/$45.0() 

ligs Exch / New $59 /$79.00 

//e High Power add $10.00 

,//c Replacement Ext P/S $29.00 

//c External Poorer Supply ...$39.00 

liSR 1200 Modem (Nl-VV) SlsMK) 

Hayes SM1200 (Relurb) $29.00 

2400 Hyundai External $49.00 

Omron 2400/Fax/MNP5 with 
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14.4 Ext (Omron) v.32bis $99.00 

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Image Writer I ''^^'i 
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Zip Chip 8 Mhz (//e, //c) $139.00 

'^Mper Serial Card $52.00 

-II 32K Buffer $30.00 

:^in 5.25" Disk Cont $39.00 

".25" Disk Cont $45.00 

olumn Card $45.00 

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DuoDisk Replacement Cable...$19.00 

19 Pin Drive Converter $14.00 

IIgs,e,c to ImageWriter I/II $7.95 

Laser 128 Paraflel Cable ?il4.9n 

//c Serial ~> Parallel Converter ..$35.00 

Fullnet Connector $14.95 

Switch Boxes $19.00 - $29.00 

ADB Replacement cable $6.95 

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External Apple 3.5" Drive • Keyboard 


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ROM 342-0303 or 0304 S 19.00 

ROM 322-0134 or 0135 $9.00 

ROM 342-0133 or 0265 S9.00 

Keyboard ROM 342-0132 $9.00 

HAL 342-0170 SI5.00 

KYBD Encoder A^'3h00PRO.S29.0() 

6502 $3.00 

65C02 S7.00 

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lOU/VlMU 344-0021/001 1 ..S19.00 

ROM 344-0272 $9.00 

ROM (3.5" Drix-c) 344-0033 ...$29.00 

TMGorCI U $15.00 

6551 $3.00 

IWM 344-0041 $24.00 

Ilgs Rekited 

65C816(Dip) SIO.OO 

VGC 344S0046-C (Up^rdde) .b29.00 

344-0077-B (ROM 01)' $39.00 

Other lies Chips Available 
11+ Related' 

ROM Set (CO-1'8) $29.00 

Other ll+Chips..$3.00 to $7.00Call 


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RAM //c with 1024K (//c or //c+) .» .,.b 12^^.01) 

bit Mouse card $49.00 ....with mouse $65.00 

SuperCOMM $54.0(1,. SisperC OMM /c.$45.00 

DiscQuGst: CD ROM for your Ilgs: 
Sequential Systems CD ROM Software 

DiscQuest (Incl. Family Doctor) $79.00 

DiscQuest & CD 150 $265.00 

DiscQuest , CD 150 & RAMFast $395.00 

Apple CD-ROM 150 Internal %\^^) m 

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Call for other drive sizes! 

ProAPP He External 20 Meg. Limited Supply 

Requires Unidisk ROM....' $259.00 

C a li 1 e s & C a s e s 

25/2-^ 25/50 or 50/50 SC^Sl Cable $^).^-)5 

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SCSI C asc & 1 VS lor 3.5" or 5.25" I II I ....$15.00 

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Extended 80 Column Card $19.00 

Super Expander //c (Older //c 's, 1024K) $1 19.00 

Digit/ing software 

Instanny 'grab's 

from any \ide(^ 
source. Upgrades 

available. Call . 

VisionPlusEnhanced Hgs $179.00 


1 [( s Compatible RGB Monitor $129.00 

AppleColor RGB, IlGS (Refurb) $169.00 

AppleColor RGB IIgs (New) $225.00 

Apple Monitor M, /// (Refurb).. $49.00/.. $35.00 

Apple Monitor //c (Refurb) 

Apple Color 100 RGB 

Apple Color Composite (Kelurb) .SL^''' / Sh^'O.Oi) 

lie RGB Monitor (CGA Conversion) $129.00 

//c RGB Converter Box (Uses CGA) $39.00 

Composite Green (Refurb) $20.00 

9" Composite Cjreen ''^o\' mt)n]tor $35.0(1 

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Apple DuoDisk 5.25" (Refurb) $159.00 

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AppleDisk 3.5" (Refurb) S105.00 

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^l|ipleWorks* 4.0 

More power, more speed, easier to use! 

If you haven't upgraded to AppleWorks 4.0 it's not too late! Upgrade to 
AppleWorks 4.0 from any Word Processing program for only ^99^*^! 


In 1988, AppleWorks seemed to have reached its pinnacle 
with the release of version 3-0. But you weren't satisfied 
and either were we. That's why Quality Computers, and 
AppleWorks veterans Randy Brandt and Dan Verkade have 
developed AppleWorks 4.0 — the most extensive upgrade in 
AppleWorks history. 


How would you like to automate AppleWorks? You can 
with AppleWorks 4.0. That's because AppleWorks 4.0 fea- 
tures dozens of built-in automatic functions that you can 
do with just a keypress. Imagine being able to set up and 
print an envelope automatically, or open a new data base 
with pre-formatted fields by pressing a key. There's lots of 
others just like it, and they're easy with AppleWorks 4.0! 


Integration, always AppleWorks' strong suit, will 
become tighter than ever with new features to allow the 

Word Processor to access data base files, the 
Spreadsheet to access other spreadsheet files, 
and the Data Base to access word processor, 
data base, and spreadsheet files. For example, 
AppleWorks 4.0 will allow users to create a 
data base of names and addresses, then 
"link" the Data Base with a word processor 
file. Using the glossary funcfion, Apple- 
Works 4.0 can look up and import an 
address directly into the current word 
processing document — ^without switch- 
ng modules, copying, or manually 
formatting. You can also import cate- 
gories from other data bases (and 
cells from spreadsheets) and to 
export informafion to other data 
bases, providing the Data Base 
module with relational capabili- 


Making AppleWorks, an 
already friendly program, even friend- 
lier, was something we thought about carefully. 
We had to be careful that what we were doing was REALLY 
making AppleWorks easier. We think we succeeded. For 
example, AppleWorks 4.0 can remember what order you 
used for each of your reports and will automatically sort 
the data base for you. The Spreadsheet now features a pop- 
up list of functions so users don't have to remember codes 
when entering formulas. The Word Processor uses distinc- 
tive symbols for formatting codes (instead of just carets) so 
boldface and underline can be recognized at a glance, 
instead of requiring the cursor to be on the formatting 
code to read it. The "Change Disk" menu allows users to 
display disk names by pressing 0A-? instead of requiring 
them to know what slot and drive their data disk is in, "Add 
Files" displays text files and automatically loads them as 
word processor files instead of requiring users to go to a 
separate "New File" menu. The Word Processor lets you see 
and edit tab rulers right in the document. AppleWorks 4.0 
even takes away the worry of saving your files with its Auto- 
Save function. 


Other major features include built-in support for HP's 
popular Deskjet printers, faster display and finds in the 
Data Base, split screen capability in the Word Processor, 
and data math functions in the Spreadsheet. The Data 
Base will have improved import and export facilities for 
exchanging data with other computers, and will feature 
spreadsheet-style formulas in calculated fields. A global 
auto-save feature, available in all AppleWorks modules, 
will protect users' work from power failures; and a Quick- 
Path menu will let users set up a menu of their most fre- 
quently-used directories. 

Because AppleWorks 4.0 includes TimeOut, adding 
useful enhancements is easier than ever. In fact, you can 
even install most enhancements without leaving Apple- 


AppleWorks 4.0 will remain true to the AppleWorks spirit. 
Menus will remain easy to navigate; commands will continue to 
be simple-to-remember Apple-key combinations; help will still be 
available with a single keypress; all previous functions will remain 
the same. 



from version 3 5.25" M ^r 

from version 3 3-5" 79-95 

Competitive Upgrade 5.25" 99-95 

Competitive Upgrade 3-5" 99-95 

10-Pack 499-95 

50 User Site License 19-00/CPU 


Consumer 169-95 

10-Pack 949-95 

3.0 Network version 1,089-95 

50 User Site License 39-00/CPU 

Call for Site Licenses over 50 Users 


AppleWorks is a registered trade- 
mark of Apple Computer, Inc, 
licensed to Quality Computers 

Uiialitf Comuters 


School P.O/s by 
phone, fax or mail 

A Tale of One City 

(Continued from page40) 

dees — but Wilson held up the business section 
of that day's Kansas City Star, which featured 
a front-page story on Windows 4, and 
explained, "When I saw this I decided not to 
bother with the non-disclosure agreements." 

Windows 4 is probably the most important 
product in Microsoft's history. Freed of the 
legal constraints that kept them from directly 
copying Apple's design in the past, the 
Microsoft engineers were finally able to design 
the Windows they wanted without having to 
worry about whether it looked "too much" like 
the Macintosh. The result, predictably, does 
look a lot like a Macintosh (or a IIgs) — but in 
my opinion the resemblance is only skin deep. 
Windows 4 and the Apple Desktop are only 
similar enough to confuse people who have to 
use both on a regular basis. It's different 
enough from Windows 3 that those users, too, 
will have to relearn the way they use their 
computers. So no matter whether you're com- 
ing from the Mac or Windows 3, Windows 4 
will take some getting used to. I suspect that, 
Microsoft being Microsoft, this won't delay 
the acceptance of Windows 4 very long. After 
all, what else is there? 

Most of the things Windows 4 does are 
things the Mac and the IIgs have been doing 
along. The much-vaunted Task Bar, which dis- 
plays all running programs at the bottom of the 

screen, along with a pop-up menu for access- 
ing applications and accessories, is basically 
just a combination of the Apple menu and the 
application menu. (Not necessarily inferior or 
superior — just an interesting alternative.) Win- 
dows 4 will automatically recognize new 
peripherals and load the appropriate drivers, a 
feature Microsoft calls "Plug and Play." It's a 
big deal to PC users, but the hullaboo is a mys- 
tery to Apple II and Mac users, who have been 
enjoying pretty much similar convenience for 
the past sixteen years. Windows' File Manager 
and Program Manager have been combined 
into a single Finder-like program. File sharing 
is built in (a feature that previously required 
running Windows for Workgroups). 

All this isn't to imply that Windows 4 is 
completely derivative of Apple's efforts. There 
are a few features I saw in Windows 4 that I 
think Apple could learn a lesson or two from. 
First is the "briefcase," a feature which allows 
people to copy files from desktop PCs to their 
laptops for a trip, then automatically put the 
revised files in their proper places when they 
return. It's a part of the operating system 
now — and a feature that Apple, with all its 
emphasis on connectivity, seems to have 
missed. Second is the "Network Neighbor- 
hood," a special icon on the Windows desktop 
which, when opened, shows all the network 
servers you can connect to — a vast improve- 
ment over the Mac's aging Chooser or GS/OS's 
AppleShare control panel. Apple should, and 

probably will, be taking a very close look at 
Windows 4 and adapting these and other fea- 
tures to future versions of its user interface. 

But the feature I liked most is one we'll like- 
ly never see in an Apple product — because it 
requires a second mouse button, and Apple has 
always contended that a one-button mouse is 
"less confusing." In Windows 4, clicking the 
right mouse button displays a shortcut menu 
which offers only the opfions you can do to the 
object you're pointing at. If you're in Excel (a 
Windows spreadsheet program) and pointing 
at a worksheet cell, the right mouse button dis- 
plays a menu of the things you can do to cells. 
(You can still do it the old fashioned way — 
click the left mouse button to select the cell, 
then use the menu bar — but this way is obvi- 
ously much faster because it eliminates all the 
extraneous choices that don't have anything to 
do with cells.) If you point at a program on the 
Task Bar and click the right mouse button, you 
get a choice of the things you can do with pro- 
grams — you can even quit a program this way 
without bringing it to the foreground. If you 
drag an icon with the right mouse button, a 
menu pops up asking whether you want to 
copy the file, move it, or make an alias of it. 
It's almost like having someone looking over 
your shoulder constantly offering you only the 
relevant choices. Apple should look into find- 
ing some way to add this kind of intelligence 
to its own system software. 

(Continued on page 44) 

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A Tale of One City 

(Continued from page43) 

Most of the attendees left from the 
Microsoft session thinking that Microsoft was 
playing catch-up with the Mac (true) but that 
they hadn't yet come close (debatable). I think 
Microsoft has done an excellent job of bring- 
ing most of the functionality of Macintosh Sys- 
tem 7 to the PC-compatible world. There are a 
few rough edges, but there were also a few 
rough edges in the initial release of System 7. 
The trouble is that Apple has leapfrogged 
Microsoft with System 7.5 — with new tech- 
nologies like QuickDraw GX and Apple Guide, 
the built-in help system. By the time Microsoft 
comes out with the Windows NT equivalent of 
Windows 4, Apple will have System 8 and 
Open Doc. Still, while it's obvious Microsoft 
has learned a lot from Apple, it's also clear that 
Microsoft has a few tricks of its own. Competi- 
tion of this sort almost always results in better 
products — and that will benefit both Apple 
Desktop and Windows users. 

Time Flies 

V\fiien You're Having Fun 

After lunch, I decided I needed some more 
sleep, so I went back to the dorm and napped 
through the following two sessions. On one 
track we had two separate sessions on 
Microsoft Office for Windows, and on the 
other track was Roger Wagner's "HyperStudio 
as a Development Environment," followed by 
Mike Westerfield's demonstration of the Byte- 
works' new IIgs spreadsheet. Quick Click Calc 
(which included a disclosure of the program- 
ming details of Westerfield's lies implementa- 
tion of a "publish and subscribe" feature). 
While Roger Wagner is always interesting, 
I've seen him show HyperStudio plenty of 
times before. 

I had a glimpse of Westerfield's spreadsheet 
later in the conference, and it looks like a great 
product. It's got a very friendly user interface, 
and also has a few unique capabilities (for 
example, the program understands letter 
grades, so teachers can easily average an A and 
a C and get a B, without having to use percent- 
ages). The graphing capabilities look complete, 
and then there's the publish and subscribe fea- 
ture. What this means is that one spreadsheet 
can subscribe to another, and when the original 
spreadsheet is changed, the subscribing spread- 
sheet is updated to reflect the changes. If 
you're looking for a spreadsheet with a little 
more oomph (and a tad more stability) than the 
one in AppleWorks GS, Quick Click Calc is 
worth a look. Westerfield also told me that he 
plans to release other productivity titles under 
the "Quick Click" name. 

While Bill Lynn demonstrated "Way Cool 
and Cheap Macintosh Utilities," former 
inCider/A+ columnist Joe Kohn, now the pub- 
lisher of Shareware Solutions II and self- 
described "Apple II Cheerleader," hosted a ses- 
sion on the Internet which was a logical follow- 
up to Jim Maricondo's introductory session the 
previous day. He began by stating that "all the 

things Jim showed you are obsolete" thanks to 
a new Internet feature called the World Wide 
Web. The World Wide Web is a hypermedia 
system somewhat like HyperStudio (actually, 
since it's largely textual, it's more like 
Nexus) — except that where these programs link 
information that's all stored on one computer, 
the information referenced in a single Web doc- 
ument can be stored all over the world, in wide- 
ly separated computer systems. 

The Web can transmit graphics and sound as 
well as text. Apple II users will use a front end 
called Lynx, running on their dial-up system, 
to access the Web; there's also a full multime- 
dia front end called Mosaic which runs on 
Macs, PCs, and Unix machines. The real power 
of the Web is that anyone can set up their own 
home page, reflecting their interests and per- 
sonality. The last few months have seen an 
explosion in new Web material. The Kremlin 
even has a multimedia tour you can take via 
the Web. There's little doubt that this is, 
indeed, the future of the information highway. 

The final sessions of KansasFest were Mike 
Westerfield's demonstration of 3D Logo, and 
GS-i-'s Joe Wankerl's session on Newton pro- 
gramming. I'd seen 3D Logo earlier, so I opted 
for the Newton session, even though I don't 
own a Newton. To program a Newton you 
need a Newton MessagePad (of course), a 
Macintosh, and an $800 Newton Development 
Kit. You design your programs on the Mac, 
then download them to the Newton for testing. 
And "design" really is the correct word, 
because Newton programming is completely 
object-oriented and graphical in nature — you 
can create a simple "Hello World" program 
without writing a single line of NewtonScript 
code. I already considered the Newton a nifty 
gadget, but I found it even more nifty when I 
got some idea of how it works internally. It 
really is a revolutionary software architecture. 
It blows my mind that Apple spent so much 
time and effort developing the operating sys- 
tem of a $600 executive toy. Even if the Mes- 
sagePad proves itself a flop, the technology 
inside it will probably live on in other Apple 
products. It's that cool. 

The wrap-up of Friday wouldn't be com- 
plete without a description of the Nerf War 
held that night. Mike Westerfield caught wind 
of rumors that several attendees were planning 
a sneak Nerf attack on the rest of us — and so 
led an expedition of four, including yours 
truly, to the nearby Wal-Mart HyperMart to 
gather ammunition for defense. The war was 
bigger than anyone would have suspected. 
During the course of the war there were three 
or four additional trips made to the HyperMart 
to stock up on Nerf missiles, balls, guns, and 
other weaponry. Unfortunately, I missed most 
of the fun. You see, the Nerf Warriors went to 
see a movie, which left the rest of us sitting 
around in the dorms waiting for everyone to 
come back. I was planning to start the long 
drive home the next day — and so by the time 
the wars began, I was asleep. But at least I had 
a five-piece semi-automadc foam dart bow and 
arrow set. 

Thank God It's Saturday 

Saturday found only a few of us alert 
enough to make breakfast in the Avila cafete- 
ria. The Mini-Expo, with small exhibits from a 
number of companies, began at 10 AM. Tom 
Weishaar and company had brought several 
tables full of leftover goodies from Resource 
Central — classic software, old reference manu- 
als, and so on. Other exhibitors included West- 
ern Design Center (I got to play with a Mensch 
Computer, and managed to lock it up within 
ten seconds by attempting to run the built-in 
Forth language — which wasn't installed in the 
machine yet), the Byteworks, Roger Wagner 
Publishing, and Sequential Systems. 

One highlight of the Expo was seeing the 
new issue of PowerGS, a freeware disk maga- 
zine put together by Auri Rahimzadeh. The 
youthful Rahimzadeh frequendy comes off as 
overzealous online, but when I saw the maga- 
zine, I was impressed. The graphics are uni- 
formly excellent, and there's a lot of interest- 
ing and useful material for Apple lies owners. 
The articles seemed reasonably well-written. 
The first two issues had some rough edges, but 
the third one is a pleasure. Check it out if you 
have a IIgs — it's available for download from 
most online services. 

Finally, though, it was time to say goodbye 
to all my old and new friends, pack up my car, 
and head out. I ended up stopping for the night 
in Greenville, Illinois at a small motel called 
the Two Acres. It had a Magic Fingers mas- 
sage unit on the bed — a true find! (Of course I 
tried it. And of course it didn't work.) 

I think I enjoyed this sixth KansasFest more 
than any previous, except for the first. The last 
few years, I've been a session leader, and mak- 
ing sure I was prepared to present my material 
had preoccupied me. This year, I was free to 
enjoy the conference without any pressure. 
With products like Quick Click Calc and Ani- 
masia being produced, I left feeling good about 
the Apple II — and excited anew about the new 
technology represented by the PowerPC, Sys- 
tem 7.5, Windows 4, and the Mensch Comput- 
er. I'm looking forward to going next year! ■ 

What Mistakes? 

Fate is apparently conspiring to keep Joe 
Kolnn's name in these pages. Last issue we 
ran a correction due to tlie fact tinat we 
omitted the address for susbcribing to 
Kohn's publication, Shareware Solutions II. 
Unfortunately, that correction contained an 
error. Any letters you may have sent to Joe 
at 155 Alpine Street probably have been 
making some long, strange trips. The cor- 
rect address is: 

Joe Kohn 

Shareware Solutions II 

166 Alpine Street 

San Rafael, C A 94901-1008 



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(Continued from page 25) 

10,000 units to do that. 

11 ALIWis There was some talk about you 
doing a 486 PC emulation card for the IIgs. 
What happened with that? 

Hillliiyil^t All of our energy and time went 
into the Avatar. We could still do the 486 card, 
if there was a demand — it's a trivial project as 
far as the hardware. The software is where the 
main time would need to be spent. The price 
we were considering was $500, so if there are 
people who are willing to spend that amount 
for a 1 megabyte 486/33 — or a 66 for a litde 
more money — expandable to 16 MB, we might 
be persuaded to build them. You'd also need a 
SuperVGA monitor for your GS, which would 
drive up the price. I don't know if people will 
spend that much to put a PC into their IIgs. 

11 AtlWls Tell us about the Focus HardCard. 
What is it? 

HlliilMIUi: It's a hard drive on an interface 
card that plugs into a slot on the lies or the He. 
They range in size from 40 to 500 megabytes. 
Since it's all on one interface card, there are no 
wires to hook up, nothing else to install. Plus 
it's an IDE drive, which is the PC standard for 
hard drives — the volume of IDE drives keeps 
the cost low. Parsons Technology sells them. 

11 AU¥ii In closing, people usually assume 
that anyone who is doing well or seems to be 
creative or literate has gone to college. But you 
didn't, did you? 

HimiiUlis Not only did I not go to college, 
but I didn't actually graduate from high school. 
The school was bad — gangs, drugs, violence — 
so I took the California equivalency test and 
got out of there. 

Sometimes a college education can be a nega- 
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with games. You have to be able to think cre- 
atively, but the way they teach programming in 
college is more of a "follow this recipe" 
approach. The student can make the mistake of 
thinking that what they learned in school is the 
only solution, and stop thinking on their own. 
Sometimes we get job applicants at Interplay 
with a Master's or even just a Bachelor's in 
computer science, and they can't answer the 
simplest technical questions. They know how 
to write a program in C but they don't know 
how the machine works. One tipoff that some- 
one went to college is when they tell you to buy 
a faster computer if a program doesn't run fast 
enough. That attitude just doesn't work in the 
game industry — the program has to run on a 
386 or an unaccelerated Apple lies. The origi- 
nal Atari video games and even the original 
Nintendo weren't exactly speed demons. When 
you do a game, you have to write good code, 
and you have to understand and exploit the 
machine's capabilities to the fullest. Writing 
games separates those who really understand 
the art of programming those who don't. ■ 


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