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Qaalitf Gomiiiiters 


VOL. 1 NO. 5 - NOV/DEC 93 

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Ability to read IBM files directly into your IIGS (with special drive). 

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The Apple II Enhancement Guide: This book is packed with information to 
help you upgrade your Apple II. It covers RAM, hard dnves, accelerators, the Finder, 
and more. 

FlashBoot: What is faster than a speeding disk dnve? A RAM disk FlashBoot lets 
you automatically set up a super-fast, super-convenient RAM disk 

Clip Art: We're throwing in over 1 00 beautiful 
clip art images, perfect for desl<top publishing or 
hypermedia applications. 

Clip Sounds: Because the IIGS's sound capacity is 
so great, we're also including over 50 digitized sound 
flies. Some are classics while some are the newest on 
the market. They go great in HyperStudio and 
other sound programs, or you can have music 
playing in the background while you work. 

Icons: Over 50 fun, useful icons. 

Desk Accessories: Just to give you more to 
choose from, we're giving you several handy desk 
accessones including: Enhanced Calculator, Scrap- 
book Games, and more. 

Fonts: Using the same font for everything is very 
uncool, so our Bonus Pack includes over 30 display ar 
text fonts. 

Video: Our I -hour video takes you from installation of 
System 6 to moving through the Finder with speed and agility 







• 1 5 New Fonts 

• 45 New Digitized Sounds 

• 230 New Clip Art Images 

• Icon Editor 

• Art Gallery 

• Animated Pointer Symbols 
•Virus Detector 

• DA Word Processor 

• Sound Editor 

• Window Hider 

• Software Demos 

• Utilities 




^^ SIX PACK An incredible set of Finder Extensions including: 


Morelnfo: Displays more information about your files, 
including their actual type and auxiliary type, access infor- 
mation, and more. 

AlarmClock: Displays the time in a window or at the 
nght of the menu bar. Plus it'll alert you for important 

SuperDataPath: Remembers a default data directory 
for your programs so you don't have to change folders 
ever/ time you launch an application. 

HotKeys: Add dozens of functions to your function keys 
(on an extended keyboard) or to your numenc keypad. 

CDEV Alias: Add any frequently-used Control Panel 
function (CDEV) directly to the Apple menu. 

CPU & Memory Use: Shows visually how much of 
your computer's resources are being used at any time. 

Selectlcons: Select icons in the front window based on 
partial filename, filetype, modification date, and more! 


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Encrypt: Save your data fronn pr/ing eyes! Encr/pt cre- 
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FilePeeker: Preview the contents of graphics, text, and 
sound files — and more — without having to launch a sepa- 
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WorkSet: Rennennbers a group of files and opens thenn 
all at once, with one double-click! Open a group of Apple- 
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FileCompare: Check seemingly identical files for differ- 
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ButtonBar: Places a button bar on the desktop with 
user programable buttons. 

SizeUp: Calculates the size of the currently selected files, 
including files residing in selected folders, from within the 
Finder SizeUp also tells you the total number of files or 
folders selected. 

LaunchList: Provides a list of applications in a window 
when running the Finder The LaunchList window can be 
configured to contain any application, or all of your appli- 

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Page 28 

Page 32 

Page 41 

Sound Logic: 

A Look & Listen at the World of Apple Ilgs Sound 28 

BY NATE TROST Your Apple IIgs has a sophisticated Ensoniq Digital Oscillator Chip, giving 
it the most powerful sound-generation capabilities of any Apple II. Discover the hardware 
and software you need to take full advantage of its explosive potential. 

Holiday Shopping Guide 32 

BY DOUG CUFF We checked our list twice before bringing you this cornucopia of stocking 
stuffers. Divided into categories by price, you're sure to find something on this list which will 
bring joy to the heart of the computer nut in your life, without the heartbreak of reindeer 

Crash and Burn Part 2 34 

BY NATHANIEL SLOAN Learn to identify and recover from different kinds of crashes, lock- 
ups, and errors. Troubleshoot your hardware and software without shooting yourself in the 
foot. We untangle the often cryptic symptoms of Apple II nuclear meltdown in this second of 
two articles. 

An Interview With Mike Westerfield 48 

BY TARA DILLINGER Learn about killer whales, flying turtles, computer shrinks, Lubarsky's 
Rule of Cybernetic Entomology, and the Cortland Programmer's Workshop as our Interview 
Editor profiles a man who makes programs for people who make programs. 

Page 55 

Editorial 5 

Kansas City Heat 

Letters 11 

News 13 

Items of Interest 

Test Drives 15 

Learn To Program In C & Express 2.1 

Head Of The Class 17 

Utilizing Apple II Software In Thematic Unit 

Macro Exchange 18 

Ask Mr. Tech 19 

Questions & Answers 

AppleWorks At Large 21 

Data Basics: Part II 

Shareware Spy 25 

Right Connections 38 

MS-DOS Connections 

Art Gallery 41 

Graphics Modes & Dithering 

Print To Publish 45 

Newsletter Design Basics 

Media a la Mode 51 

Total Multimedia Control With HyperStudio 

Rumor Monger 54 

Entertain Me 55 

Rediscovering the Lost Treasures of Infocom 

Marketplace 58 

Computer Clubs 60 

II Much Fun 62 



Putting together a magazine the size of // 
Alive is a lot of work. Putting it together on 
schedule is sometimes even tougher. As I write 
this, it's early November — this issue of II Alive 
is just a little bit behind schedule. (By now, the 
magazine should already be in the mail, and at 
least a few of you should have received it 
already.) I feel like the White Rabbit from Alice 
in Wonderland, rushing about and crying, "I'm 
late! I'm late!" 

The main reason for this is, of course, Apple- 
Works 4, which itself ran about a month longer 
than we expected. Between version 3 and ver- 
sion 4, the manual gained about a hundred pages 
of new material, had revisions on nearly every 
page, and needed to be completely redesigned 
(including all new screen shots and illustrations). 

I nil W 

KansasFest in honor of Tom Weishaar. Among 
her many talents is the ability to get people to 
"open up" in a one-on-one situation. This makes 
her the perfect choice for Interview Editor. 
Tara's first interview, with The Byte Works' 
Mike Westerfield, appears in this issue. She also 
hosts an online talk show, in which she regularly 
interviews Apple II notables, in GEnie's A2 
RoundTable. Tara lives in North Carolina. 

Obviously, with our editors spread across the 
continent, coordinating an issue has the potential 
to become a real headache. It simply wouldn't 
be possible without telecommunications. Ellen, 
Doug, Tara and I all have GEnie accounts, and 
we exchange electronic mail (and other commu- 
nications) regularly. From time to time you'll 
even find all four of us in an electronic "room" 

^ A t%w% ■■▼■ 

ll\r^lJlJI I 

by Jerry Kindall, Editor 

I did most of the work on the manual and the 
other AppleWorks 4 printed materials, with able 
assistance from our art department. The refer- 
ence manual alone ended up being a whopping 
536 pages long — that's more pages than an 
entire y ear of // A // v^. 

When all the AppleWorks dust settled, the 
editorial deadline was upon us — and we hadn't 
even started yet. We had to get an issue out, 
pronto. Luckily, we had a secret weapon. Three 
of them, actually. 

The first is Ellen Konowitz Rosenberg. Ellen 
is best known for her stint editing Al-CentraVs 
paper edition. I'd been looking for someone to 
help me with editing // Alive, and Ellen was not 
only eminently qualified for the position but, 
after the demise of the paper edition of A2-Cen- 
tral, she was also available. Ellen proved invalu- 
able in putting this issue together. We split the 
editing duties on this issue so we could bring 
you II Alive on something remotely resembling a 
timely basis, but Ellen, in her Managing Editor 
role, will be doing most of the work of getting 
articles and editing them for publication in 
future issues. She'll also be doing our Shareware 
Spy column, and has arranged to make the 
shareware disks mentioned in the column avail- 
able for a nominal copying fee. Ellen lives in 

Doug Cuff, our first Contributing Editor, is a 
jack-of- all-trades. He gives the impression of 
knowing something about absolutely everything 
(as evidenced by his two articles in this issue). 
It's a trick, of course, but a clever one — Doug's 
smart enough to know what he doesn't know, 
and he not only knows how to find the answers, 
he goes the extra mile to obtain and verify his 
facts. His willingness and ability to do research 
on any subject earns him a spot as a regular con- 
tributor to this magazine. Expect to see his name 
quite a bit in these pages in the coming months. 
Doug is also the editor of GEnieLamp A2, an 
electronic publication that covers the Apple II 
Roundtable on GEnie. Doug lives in Ontario, 

And last — but hardly least — there's Tara 
Dillinger, who earned a brief mention in last 
issue's editorial for her vocal performance at 

(a Real Time Conference in GEnie-speak) just 
chatting with folks. 

I've been trying to make this clear, without 
belaboring the point, in my ongoing "Modem 
Nation'* column, but I've never really come out 
and said this plainly: if you want support for 
your Apple II, you need a modem and a sub- 
scription to GEnie or some other online service 
with major Apple II support. Your local user 
group may only have a handful of Apple II users 
left, and you already know how hard it is to find 
Apple II products in local stores. There are still 
plenty of us Apple II fanatics left, but we're 
scattered across the country. And the best way to 
get in touch with others of our own kind is via 

The Apple telecommunity is a valuable 
resource. It's not a luxury; it's not just for com- 
puter geeks. (You'd be amazed at the number of 
"just plain folks" who show up in GEnie's Chat 
Lines on a daily basis.) Keeping "plugged in" is 
a necessity for Apple II life in the '90s. Getting 
online is more affordable than ever and has been 
streamlined to the point where anyone can do it 
without having to worry about more than which 
cable gets plugged into which outlet. I used to 
say that if you weren't online, you're missing a 
lot — but sooner than you think, you'll be miss- 
ing pretty much everything. 

In addition to the new staffers, I'd like to give 
credit where due to Audrey Wolfe, who designs 
each issue of II Alive along with Carl Sperber, 
Paul Sheppard, and Marcy Schwartzberg, who 
provide illustrations and other useful tidbits. Jeff 
Hurlburt of Texas has been our Review Editor 
for the last several issues, and has continually 
provided us with in-depth assessments of new 
products. And finally, a round of applause for 
Craig Baetz, who handles the subscription list. 
And, of course, we can't forget our publisher, 
Joe Gleason, who had the idea and gave me the 
chance to make it happen. 

With this team, we're committed to bringing 
you the best Apple II coverage anywhere on the 
planet — in a timely matter. Thanks to telecom- 
munications, the white rabbit is finally back on 
schedule. ■ 


"You are a credit 
to the mail order 

— George R. James 





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AppleWorks, the way it should be. 

In 1988, AppleWorks seemed to 
30 DAY have reached its pinnacle with 
^ppp the release of version 3.0. But you 
weren't satisfied and either were 
TRIAL we. That's why Quality Comput- 
ers, and AppleWorks veterans 
Randy Brandt and Dan Verkade have developed Apple- 
Works 4.0 — the most extensive upgrade in AppleWorks 


How would you like to automate AppleWorks? You can 
with AppleWorks 4.0. That's because AppleWorks 4.0 
features dozens of built-in automatic functions that 
you can do with just a keypress. Imagine being able to 
set up and print an envelope automatically, or open a 
new data base with pre-formatted fields by pressing a 
key or two. There's lots of others just like it, and they're 
easy with AppleWorks 4.0! 


Integration, always AppleWorks' strong suit, will 
become tighter than ever with new features to allow the 
Word Processor to access data base files, the Spread- 
sheet to access other spreadsheet hies, and the Data 
Base to access word processor, data base, and spread- 
sheet files. For example, AppleWorks 4.0 will allow 
users to create a data base of names and addresses, 
then "link" the Data Base with a word processor file. 
Using the glossary function, AppleWorks 4.0 can look 
up and import an address directly into the current 
word processing document — ^without switching mod- 
ules, copying, or manually formatting. You can also 
import categories from other data bases (and cells 
from spreadsheets) and to export information to other 
data bases, providing the Data Base module with rela- 
tional capabilities. 


Making AppleWorks, an already friendly program, even 
friendlier, was something we thought about carefully. 
We had to be careful that what we were doing was 
REALLY making AppleWorks easier. We think we suc- 
ceeded. For example, AppleWorks 4.0 can 
remember what order you used for each of 
your reports and will automatically sort the 
data base for you. The Spreadsheet now fea- 
tures a pop-up list of functions so users 
don't have to remember codes when enter- 
ing formulas. Tlie Word Processor uses dis- 
tinctive symbols for formatting codes (instead 
of just carets) so boldface and underline can be 
recognized at a glance, instead of requiring the cur- 
sor to be on the formatting code to read it. The 
"Change Disk" menu allows users to display disk 
names by pressing 0A-? instead of requiring them to 
know what slot and drive their data disk is in. "Add 
Files" displays text files and automatically loads them 
as word processor files instead of requiring users to go 
to a separate "New File" menu. The Word Processor 
lets you see and edit tab rulers right in the document. 
AppleWorks 4.0 even takes away the worry of saving 
your files with its Auto-Save function. 


Other major features include built-in support for HP's 
popular Deskjet printers, faster display and finds in 
the Data Base, split screen capability in the Word 
Processor, and data math functions in the Spreadsheet. 
The Data Base will have improved import and export 




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facilities for exclianging data with other 
computers, and will feature spreadsheet- 
style formulas in calculated fields. A global 
auto-save feature, available in all Apple- 
Works modules, will protect users' work 
from power failures; and a QuickPath menu 
will let users set up a menu of their most 
frequently-used directories. 

Because AppleWorks 4.0 includes TimeOut, 
adding useful enhancements is easier than 
ever. In fact, you can even install most 
enhancements without leaving AppleWorks. 
See Pages 38 & 39 for available enhance- 


AppleWorks 4.0 will remain true to the 
AppleWorks spirit. Menus will remain easy to 
navigate; commands will continue to be 
simple-to-remember Apple-key combina- 
tions; help will still be available with a sin- 
gle keypress; all previous functions will 
remain the same. 


AppleWorks 4.0 will ship October 1, but you 
can order your copy now. While supplies 
last, you can get the video "Enhancing 
AppleWorks" FREE! 



• Three desktops allow up to 36 files 

• "Add files to Desktop" lists up to 255 files instead 
of 170 

• "Add files" automatically converts text files to 
word processor files 

• "Add to clipboard" option allows you to append 
material to the clipboard 

• Independent clipboards for Word Processor, Data- 
base, and spreadsheet modules 

• Auto-save feature saves files after a preset number 
of minutes 

• Five printers may be defined instead of three 

• Built-in support for Hewlett-Packard DeskJet print- 

• QuickPath feature allows you to choose from a 
pre-defined list of path names 

• "Change disk" menu shows volume names when 
0A-? is pressed 


• Split-screen function 

• Improved mail-merge & find options 

• Distinct symbols for formatting options (instead of 
all carets) 

• New glossary feature allows easy entry of addresses 
and other info from data bases 


• 60 categories per record instead of 30 

• 30 reports per file instead of 20 

• Selection rules can be imported from a report for- 

• Faster display on large files when selection rules 
are active 

• Lightning-fast finds in sorted categories (binar)' 

• Reports automatically sorted before printing 

• Date categories support years from 1000 AD to 
9999 AD 

• Export/import character-delimited text files for 

transfer to other programs 

• Formulas allow spreadsheet-style calculations in 
data base files 

• Categories can be imported from other data base 
and spreadsheet files and exported to other data 
base files 


• Spreadsheet formulas can refer to cells in other 

• Date math features make it easier to calculate the 
number of days between two dates 

• Tides can be defined to be printed at the top of 
each page 

• New find option allows searches for numbers and 
formulas by rows or columns 

• Pop-up list allows choosing functions from a 

• New functions include ALERT, DATE, FIND, JOIN, 


• UltraMacros run-time (playback-only) feature 
built in 

• UltraMacros programs selectable from TimeOut 


• Requires 128K RAM, He or better (lie, IIc+, IIGS). 
256k ram, enhanced He recommended (required 
for use of macro player). TimeOut Manager, Init 
Manager, and Macro player built in; 3.5" and 
5.25" disks included. 


TimeOut SuperGraph 

for the IIGS 

TimeOut FAX 

Get more from AppleWorks 4.0 
with these enhancements— and SAVE 

j> *!?*<<>. 


I lih internal 32K buffer for older model ImageWriter II's can 
sloK a 10-page text document inside the printer. No more waiting 

toi the printer to finish $24.95 

when you order it with AppleWorks 4. 

Q-RAM lie 

End disk swapping. Get more done. Load ALL of AppleWorks 4.0 into mem- 
ory with this 1 MEG memory board at a fantastic price $89.95 

when you order it with AppleWorks 4. 


A 4 MEG RAM powerhouse for your Apple IIGS that lets you 
load ALL of AppleWorks 4.0 into memory, or set up a convenient 

RAM disk $179.95 

when you order it with AppleWorks 4. 


AppleWorks 4.0 comes with dozens of one-touch functions. 

This disk is packed with even more $14.95 


Balance your checkbook, write checks, and do what other good 
checkbook programs do — all inside of AppleWorks. Tie in letters 
and spreads to the wonders of finance $29,95 

AppleWorks 4.0 TUTORIAL VIDEO 

Learn the ins and outs of AppleWorks 4.0 from the people who 
developed it $19.95 

AFTERWORK Coming Soon for AppleWorks 4.0 

AfterWork runs inside AppleWorks to give you a variety of 

attractive and fun screen savers that look great while 

preventing screen damage $24,95 

TJx Icon aboL •eiss) mMic of 
Die effects tlxit are ai mkible 


^^icrl Ask For Overnight Delivery 




izice 199O9 "^VestCode Softwai^e ha.s haid. ozie goail — to tlie best 
softivaiZ*e for your i^pple II computer. A.ncl, now for sl limited time, 
ive're offering the best prices ever on our popula.r products. 

^ Fantastic looking text on your printer. 

Pointless 2.0 All your documents will look better than ever before, without unsightly hard- 
to-read jagged text. Pointless brings TrueType font technology to your Apple IIGS, providing 
innpressive laser-sharp text on your InnageWriter, StyleWriter, -|. , - i-— -- ^ 

DeskJet, LaserJet, and other printers. Plus, text on the screen * nfi qUIGK JyTXJfWTI fOX 

will appear snnooth at even the largest sizes. Thc QUick brOWll foX 

For the Apple IIGS, System 5 or later. Reg. $69.95 
Sale ^39.95 

TypeWest An outstanding collection 
of 40 TrueType fonts for use with Point- 
ess. These professionally-designed type- 
faces are perfect for honne, school, or 
work. Don't waste your time and money 
on lesser quality fonts from other sources. 
For the Apple IIGS with Pointless. Reg. $49.95 
Sale ^29.95 

ImageWriter II printing before and after Pointless 

TypeSet The perfect companion for Pointless 
that helps you manage your TrueType fonts. 
It provides a What-You-See-ls-What-You-Get Font 
menu that displays your fonts in their own 
typefaces, font sets to work with custom 
groups of fonts, and extensive font reports. 
For the Apple IIGS with Pointless. Reg. $49.95 
Sale ^29.95 

Stretcii your disk space. >- 


HardPressed 1 .0 if you're always searching for more disk space, then you need Hard- 
Pressed — the best disk compression software for your Apple IIGS. It virtually doubles the 
space on any type of disk. Your 40 MB hard drive will be able to store 80 MB, or a 2 MB 
RAM disk can store 4 MB! hIardPressed works behind the scenes, transparently compress- 
ing your files as you save them. When you open a compressed file or launch a compressed 

application, HardPressed automatically expands it for you. 
For the Apple IIGS, System 6 or later. Reg. $69.95. AutoArk trade-up $24.95 

Sale ^39.95 

^ It's like typing 500 words per minute* 

InWords 1.1 Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software that let's you use a Quickie 
or LightningScan hand-held scanner to scan pages from books, magazines, letters, etc. into 
text that you can load and edit in your favorite applications: AppleWorks, Publishit, Bea- 
gleWrite, GraphicWriter, HyperStudio, and others. NEW version 1.1 adds improved recog- 
nition, speed, line handling and more! Why type? Get InWords instead! 
For the Apple He or Apple IIGS. Reg. $129.00 
Sale *49,95 

Ca.ll 1-800-448-4250 

Order direct from WestCode Softiva^re a.nLd! 30-da.y 3MEoii.ey-ba.clc sa.tisfa.ctioii. ^\].a.ra.x].tee. 

WestCode Software, Inc., 15050 Avenue of Science, Suite 112, San Diego, CA 92128 • (619) 487-9200 • Fax (619) 487-9255 

Limited time offer, prices subject to change. All brand and product names are trademarks of their respective companies, and you l<now who they are. © 1993 WestCode Software, Inc. 

Dqsly II Alive, 

Your article about "Super Printers" in the 
May/June issue made me want to stick up for 
my printer. It may have been "ridiculously 
overpriced," but within the past year the 
Image Writer LQ has been available from Sun 
Remarketing and other sources for around 
$300 — new! The new System 6 driver is much 
better than the one that came with System 
5.0.4, and takes full advantage of the printer's 
27 pins. 

When printing from ProDOS 8 programs 
that don't use the driver, simply use the pro- 
gram's Image Writer II setting. I've found that 
if I first print a blank sheet of paper from a 
GS/OS program (making sure I specify "Dark- 
er" under options), then print from a ProDOS 8 
program without turning the printer off in the 
meantime, print quality is significantly 
improved. Of course, text-only printouts from 
programs like AppleWorks look great! You 
can get the same speed and good-looking text 
in GS/OS programs by using the "Text Only" 
option under "Quality." 

Mark A. Lowe 
Princewick, WV 

Mark: Thanks for the tips (and the sample 
printouts). They are indeed impressive, folks — 
if you're in the market for a better 
ImageWriter, the LQ bears serious investiga- 

Dqsly II Alive, 

I have found a problem with the "Phone 
Phun" program printed in the September/Octo- 
ber issue of // Alive ("Weekend Hacker"). It 
only prints six digits in the phone number, giv- 
ing you 729 combinations instead of the 2187 
promised in the article. How can I correct this 
bug? Also, is it possible to modify the program 
to use more digits — so that the area code could 
be included? Could it be adapted for foreign 
phone numbers? 

Robert Odell 
Fajardo, PR 

Robert: If you have any zeroes or ones in 
your phone number, you will get fewer combi- 
nations, because these digits do not have let- 
ters on them. (My home phone number has 
both a zero and a one in it, so I only get 243 
combinations.) If you don't have any zeroes or 
ones in your phone number, and still don 't get 
2187 combinations, you may have mistyped a 
part of the program. The program is correct as 
printed: I checked it myself when I got your 
letter and a few others like it. 

Computers are very picky about exact lan- 

guage in programs: changing or omitting a 
single character can cause the program to do 
very strange things — if it works at all — as you 
may have discovered. If you are certain that 
you have typed the program 100% correctly, 
then I suppose a hardware malfunction is pos- 
sible, but it's far more likely that you have 
made a mistake that you didn 't catch. 

As for changing the program to accept more 
digits, we leave that, as they say, as an exer- 
cise for the reader. 

Dear II Alive, 

Please remember that not all of us use a 
IIgs! The "Weekend Hacker" column on forest 
fires did not list a version of the program for 8- 
bit machines, though it noted that it "could 
have been done." I'm including a version of 
Westerfield's program that runs under Apple- 
soft (Listing 1). It would have taken a little 
more space in the magazine, but you could 
have taken out the silly remarks. 

Robert Stong 
Chartlottesville, VA 

Robert: Thanks for the program! Actually, 
Mike Westerfield submits his columns with 
only IIgs versions of the programs. For the 
column on Chaos, we converted his programs 
to Applesoft (and made some mistakes in the 
process — see the corrections in the last issue), 
but his remarks about needing I28K arrays 
made the forest fire simulation seem like some- 
thing outside Applesoft's realm. I hadn't 
thought of using low -re solution graphics — not 

as ''pretty" as the IIgs version but it certainly 
gets the point across. Glad you tackled it! 

Dear// A //v^, 

When my subscription for inCider/A+ got 
transferred to // Alive, I never received the free 
video. Can I get a copy? 

Andrew Eisenman 
Gilbert, WV 

Andrew: Unfortunately, the free video offer 
expired a month or two before the inCider/A+ 
transfer occurred, so you're not eligible to 
receive a free copy. You can, however, pur- 
chase a copy for $7.95^ust call (800) 777- 


Test Drives: In last issue's "Test Drives," the 
retail price of Twilight II was listed as $49.95. 
The correct retail price is $39.95. In the 
July/ August issue's "Test Drives," the RAM 
requirements of ProTERM 3. 1 were listed as 1 
MB. The correct RAM requirement is 128K. 

Phone Numbers: The phone number for the 
Tri-Mike Network East listed with Joseph 
Selur's article on mobile computing is incor- 
rect. An updated phone number was not avail- 
able. The "800" phone number for Alltech 
Electronics listed in Sheane Meikle's article on 
used Apple equipment is incorrect. The correct 
number is (800) 995-7773. 

FOR J = 1 TO 3 8 


10 DIM A(l, 39,39) 

20 PRINT CHR$ (21) 

30 FOR I =1 TO 38 

A(l, 19, 19) = 1 

40 C0L0R=4: FOR I = 1 TO 3 8 

5 VTAB 22: PRINT "Time: 0" 

6 FOR N=lTO150:NB-0 

7 FOR I =: 1 TO 38: FOR J = 

8 FOR I = 1 TO 38 : FOR J - 
90 IF A(0, I-l, J) = 
100 IF A(0, I+l, J) 
110 IF A(0, I, J-1) 
120 IF A(0, I, J+1) 
130 A(l, I, J) = 0: 
150 FOR I = 1 TO 3 
160 VTAB 22: PRINT "Time: 

; A(l, I, J) 


HLIN 1,38 AT I: NEXT: C0L0R=1: PLOT 19,19 

1 TO 38: A(0,I,J) = A(1,I,J): NEXT: NEXI 

1 TO 38: IF A(0,I,J) <> 1 GOTO 140 
4 THEN IF RND (1) < T THEN A(1,I-1,J) = 1 

= 4 THEN IF RND (1) < T THEN A (1,1+1, J) = 1 

= 4 THEN IF RND (1) < T THEN A(1,I,J-1) = 1 

= 4 THEN IF RND (1) < T THEN A (1,1, J+1) = 1 
NB = 1 

8: FOR J=l TO 38: COLOR= A(1,I,J): PLOT I, J: NEXT: 











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W^ »^P '^P> W** WW. ^^ 


Got a question? These people have the 
answer. Write to them directly; enclose a Self- 
Addressed Stamped Envelope. Remember, 
these people are volunteers and are not associ- 
ated with (nor paid by) // Alive. If you would 
like to be a volunteer, send us a letter with 
your mailing address and your area of exper- 
tise, and we'll print it here. 

Apple II Programming 
(BASIC, C, Pascal— not IIGS) 

Daniel Wallace 
Mountain View, CA 94043 

Apple II Programming 

(BASIC, 65C02 assembly, UltraMacros) 

Max Vandament 

213 E. Crawford, Apt. 103 

Salina, KS 67401 

Using the Apple IIGS 

(GS/OS, incompatibilities, DAs, INITs) 

Colin Williamson 
605 Mt. Gretna Rd. 
Elizabethtown, PA 17022 

Apple II Technical Questions 
(all Apple II models) 

Andy Dreier 

507 South Calumet 

Aurora, IL 60506 

Print Shop & Companion (graphics) 

Terry Williams 

4313 E. Lowe Ave. 
Fresno, CA 93702 

Tutor Tech & Applesoft BASIC 

Gary Sonnenberg 
1608 Pleasant View Ave. 
Waukesha, Wl 53188 



With our recent takeover of the inCider/A+ circulation, our rates are changing, 
but have not been determined. 

For details about our rates, contact Matt Spatafora at 1-800-777-3642. 


Full Page 7V8"xlO'/8" 

1/2 Page Horizontal 7V8" x 5" 

1/6 Page 2'A"x5" 

1/3 Page Vertical 2V4" x lO'/s" 

Keep all live matter 3/8" from final trim, and allow 1/4" for bleeds. 


ONLY $1 PER WORD. Submissions must come type written with payment. 


Net 30 days. Amount may be paid via check, money order or credit card 


II Alive is published six times a year and is mailed to at least 40,000 each issue. 
Contact Matt Spatafora or Carl Sperber at 1-800-777-3642 for more information. 



English-to-Spanish Translators 

CCC of San Antonio, TX is pleased to 
announce the release of its two new English- 
to-Spanish translation programs — Translator 
E/S, and Spanish Grammar. Both programs are 
ProDOS-based and require either TimeOut 
Grammar (available from Quality Computers) 
or Sensible Grammar. 

Translator E/S can translate any document 
from English to Spanish. No prior knowledge 
of Spanish is required, although it may be 
helpful. Good command of the English lan- 
guage is also helpful. When Translator E/S 
stops at a word or phrase, the user is given the 
option of replacing the English word or phrase 
with its Spanish equivalent. When the user 
encounters a word or phrase that Translator 
E/S cannot translate (such as a place name), 
they can use the English-to-Spanish Pocket 
Dictionary, which comes with the program, 
and make the change manually. 

Spanish Grammar is designed to correct 
grammatical errors in a document written in 
Spanish, or one translated using Translator 
E/S. It flags erroneous or unnecessary Spanish 
phrases and poor grammatical structures. 

Used together, Translator E/S and Spanish 
Grammar can serve not only as document 
translators, but also as a linguistic tutorial. 
Users will learn Spanish as they use the pro- 

Translator E/S ($69.95) and Spanish Gram- 
mar ($59.95) are available from CCC Incorpo- 
rated, P.O. Box 681954, San Antonio, TX 
78268, (210) 344-6102. They can also be pur- 
chased together ($1 19.95). 

GS/OS Desktop Address Database 

Econ Technologies, Inc. of Oviedo, FL 
announces the addition of a new member to its 
line of software. Addressed For Success is a 
GS/OS, desktop-based database management 
package that elegantly manages large lists of 
names and address. It includes many powerful 
features and a friendly, easy-to-use interface. 

Addressed For Success lets you created 
address databases in a variety of ways. 
Addresses can be entered using the built-in 
editor, or imported directly from AppleWorks 
database files, or any ASCII text file. 

Addressed For Success allows you to easily 
print addresses, graphics, and postal barcodes 
on any kind of label or envelope. Its print pre- 
view feature lets you instantly see exactly how 
your label or envelope will look, eliminating 
guesswork. Addressed For Success has several 
features not found anywhere else, such as: 
automatic return address generation; a 65,000- 

character memory field; selection by example; 
bulk sortings; full support of the clipboard; and 
automatic PostNet barcode generation. 
Addressed For Success also comes with over 
30 pre-defined label templates supporting vir- 
tually every standard Avery label format. 

Addressed For Success is the first GS/OS 
program to come from the recent expansion of 
Econ's programming staff. It is a testament to 
the firm commitment Econ has made to bring 
useful, productivity software to the Apple IIgs. 

Addressed For Success ($49.95 SRP) 
requires an Apple IIgs with 1 MB of RAM, and 
System 6.0 or greater. It is compatible with 
The Manager (Seven Hills Software), and 
Switch It! (Procyon). Econ Technologies, Inc., 
P.O. Box 195356, Winter Springs, FL 32719, 
(407) 365-4209. 

America Online & GEnie Support 
User Groups 

America Online' s Apple II User Group 
Leader conference is held at 10 PM Eastern on 

the last Tuesday of each month in the User 
Group forum (keyword: UGF). This confer- 
ence, specifically for user group leaders and 
SIG leaders, features ideas for getting volun- 
teers for group functions, running a BBS, 
demonstrating software, and all the other top- 
ics discussed at user group meetings. America 
Online offers discounts for user group ambas- 
sadors, and features monthly disks and 
newsletter articles for members. For more 
information, contact Linda Frechette (AFC 
Brite) on AOL. 

GEnie' s Worldwide User Group (WWUG) 
meets on the third Sunday of every month at 2 
PM Eastern. This SIG of the newly-formed 
International Computer Owners Network 
(ICON) is open to all user group members. 
Attendees will hear from program gurus, 
authors, and publishers, and will explore all 
aspects of the Apple II world through discus- 
sions, question and answer sessions, and guest 
speakers. For further information, contact 
Gena Saikin (A2.GENA) on GEnie. ■ 





Teachers P.E.T. makes your life easier by giving you 
dozens of useful, fun classroonn tools in one sinnple soft- 
ware package. You don't have to shop all over to get 
these programs — they're all right here in Teachers 
P.E.T. Imagine having dozens of powerful teaching 
tools — on your computer — ^just a keystroke away. Keep 
track of attendance, create and generate a math test, 
complete with math fonts, and more. But the best thing 
about Teachers P.E.T. is the great ideas you can come 
up with on your own. That's because Teachers P.E.T. 
doesn't limit what you can do. It lets you be your cre- 
ative best with a huge collection of fonts, clip art and 
educational games. It is everything you need — and it's 
just a keystroke away. 

3 DAY 

Powerful Teaching Tools 
At The Touch Of A Key! 

Features may vary by platform. 

-:> Gradebook Progrann 

-:" Attendance Progrann 

^:' Test Generator Progrann 

^:^ Tennplates for Seating Charts 

":> Clip Art for all curriculunns and events 

"}- Word Games 

^:^ Fannous Texts-Declaration of Independence, 
Gettysburg Address, and more 





Apple II, IIGS, IIE, lie, 
Mac LC w/IIE Emulation 

1 Year Warranty 
100% Compatible 




Super Serial Card 

100% Apple Compatible 
5 Yr. Warranty $54.95 

IIE Power Supply $55.00 
GS Power Supply $75.00 

Cables from $9.95 

GS, IIE, lie, to IMG I 


GS, IIE, lie to Modem 

Many Others 


Memory Plus Dist. Inc. 

7902 East Pierce St. 

Scottsdale, AZ 85257 


FAX (602) 968-3211 


CROSS-WORKS 2.0 can exchange AppleWorks data files with the most popular MS-DOS programs: 

AppleWorks ^ Microsoft Works 
AppleWorks Word Proc. ^ WordPerfect 
AppleWorks Spreadsheet ^ Lotus 1-2-3 
AppleWorks Data Base ^ dBase III, IV, etc. ^^ 

in seconds, CROSS-WORKS copies files either way 
between your Apple 11 and IBM PC and translates the file 
formats. Word Processor files maintain underlining, 
margins, centering, etc. Spreadsheets transfer data and 
formulas! Transfers ASCII text files, too. Includes uni- 
versal 19,200 baud cable to connect lie (with Super 
Serial Card), He, lie Plus, & IIGS to PC, XT, AT, PS/2 & 
compatibles. Also supports modem transfers. Both 
5.25" and 3.5" disks included. 



AppleWorks 3.0 

"...Look no further. Softs po ken's CROSS-WORKS carries the biggest stick in the 
file translation/ transportation business. . . Rating **** " —inCider July 1989 


$99.95 + Shipping & Handling 

30-day money back guarantee! School P.O.'s welcome. 


for free information. 


P.O. Box 18343 
Raleigh, NC27619 




Learn To Program In C 
and Express 2 . 1 





Very Good 









The Byte Works 

$50 list ($200 list in bundle with ORCA/C) 

1.25 MB Apple IIgs (Hard disk, 4MB RAM, 
System 6, ORCA/C, and Toolbox Program- 
ming in C strongly recommended) 

Reviewed by Jeff Hurlburt 

or years, C has been the primary language 
for full-featured software development — 
not just on the IIgs but on other computer 
platforms. C programming experience 
looks pretty good on a resume, too. On the 
other hand, C is not exactly easy to master — 
many folks seem to be constantly learning C 
but never doing any C programming ! 

For the numberless legions of wanna-be C 
aces, Byte Works suggests Learn to Program 
in C. Developed by Mike Westerfield, LPC (as 
it is affectionately known) is a 17-Lesson 
"how-to" course built around a 322-page loose- 
leaf manual and 'Problem Answers' diskette. 
With very few exceptions, the programs are in 
text mode and employ only standard C library 
routines, so, as Westerfield notes, you can use 
the course with any ANSI-standard C on any 
platform. Still, your best choice is ORCA/C on a 
IIgs, because some of the directions apply only 
to ORCA's Desktop environment. Lesson 17, a 
full-blown "Break Out" game, does employ 
IIgs toolbox routines. Naturally, the diskette 
material is also most accessible on a IIgs. 

Can you sit down at your computer with 
LPC, boot up ORCA/C, and actually learn the 
language? Maybe. Certainly, Westerfield' s 
easy-reading style and well-organized presenta- 
tions shorten the learning curve. From "Hello 
World" I/O through loops, math, procedures, 
data types, sorting, and more, each of the sev- 

enteen units communicates its point clearly and 
effectively. Westerfield avoids snow-job termi- 
nology, so programming novices and experts 
alike can get the most from in-depth discus- 
sions, multiple examples, problems, and "what 
happened" explanations. Listing the solutions 
to each problem listed in the manual and on 
diskette is handy because you can see what 
each does even if you decide to 'skip around' 
some exercises. Yes, LPC does cover C. 

Why, then, say that maybe one can expect to 
learn C? Why not "probably" or "almost cer- 
tainly"? Well, practically everyone who suc- 
ceeds in learning to program in a language does 
so by doing real programming. A real program 
is one that does something you want to do — 
which explains why so many skilled program- 
mers begin as hackers and game makers. 

The main reason a IIgs user would want to 
learn C is to create multi-windowed Desktop 
applications, desk accessories, music editors, 
and games that use super hi-res graphics and 
pull-down menus. One can put up with just so 
many "Hello World" text-screen exercises. The 
Byte Works C course is pretty basic and, unfor- 
tunately, pretty much lacking in the things that 
make the IIgs special. The odds are pretty good 
that impatience and boredom will produce yet 
another C dropout. 

To write real programs on a IIgs (or, for that 
matter, any other computer), you must make 
use of the machine's capabilities. LPC's major 
weakness is that it does not, from square one, 
set out to teach the IIgs user how to use 
ORCA/C 2.x to write IlGS C programs. The 
course, if you can finish it, will teach you C, but 

the fact that you learned it on a 

IIgs will be mostly incidental — 
the programs you'll know how 
to write will work on just about 
any computer with a C compiler. 

How can you get around this 
problem? A good place to start 
is the ORCA/C package itself. It 
includes a Samples diskette 
loaded with source code for 
Desktop applications, CDEVs, 
HyperStudio NBAs, and other 
real IIgs programs. There's no 
discussion of these samples, but 
the in-program comments will 

be very helpful — especially once you're past 
the novice stage. 

Shareware, too, can be a treasure trove of 
advanced programming examples. Often, the 
author of a program will send you the source 
code for a small extra fee. Softdisk G-S is 
another good resource for source code. As 
many veteran programmers already know, 
experimenting with a favorite game or utility 
may the fastest way of all to learn a new lan- 

So far, the best IlGS-specific C resource is 
Mike Westerfield' s Toolbox Programming in C 
($65). With four Problem Answer diskettes and 
a 466-page manual, it's a fine "real stuff com- 
panion for LPC. In fact, tackling C on the IIgs 
without the examples and discussions found in 
"Toolbox" would be ill-advised. 

Learn to Program in C by itself is difficult to 
rate, since it doesn't provide enough stimula- 
tion to entice people to keep going. As a kind 
of C language manual, it works very well 
indeed, thanks to its conversational style and 
abundant examples. Add ORCA/C and Toolbox 
Programming in C, and you do get a very good 
instructional package. As part of a complete 
programming course with these other materials, 
LPC is very good, and our rating assumes you 
are using LPC in this way. 

So, you want to be a C programmer, eh? 
Well, this (thack!) is ORCA/C. This (thump!) is 
Learn to Program in C. This (ka-thunk!) is 
Toolbox Programming in C. This (tap, tap) is 
your IIgs. And this (click!) is a mouse. It's 
rough out there, but it' s also loads of fun. Pick 
up your gear and get to it! 

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Seven Hills Software 

(Updates: $17.50 from 1.x; free from 2.0) 

2 MB Ilgs, hard drive, System 5.0.4 or later, 
and one 3.5" floppy drive 

Reviewed by Bill Bert 

Last year, Seven Hills took Apple IIgs pro- 
ductivity to new levels with their software 
printer spooler, Express. I wanted to do multi- 
ple printouts for our baseball team without 
tying up my IIgs for hours, so I gave the prod- 
uct a try. Release 1.1 worked as advertised, but 
left a lot to be desired; that's the bad news. The 
good news is that Express 2.0 offers lots of 
improvements, and the 2.1 release fixes a cou- 
ple of bugs and adds a few bells and whistles as 

A printer spooler allows you to work on your 
computer while files are being printed. (Macin- 
tosh users are familiar with this feature, provid- 
ed by PrintMonitor on the Mac.) When you do 
a Print with Express active, the spooler inter- 
cepts the data headed for the printer and saves it 
to a spool file on your hard drive. After the file 
has been spooled to disk, you can continue 
using the computer while Express prints the 
document in the background. Printing itself is 
no quicker — in fact, total print time will be a 
little longer — but, now, you don't have to wait 
for the printing to finish before you can get 
back to using the printer. 

The Express package includes one 3.5" disk 
and a simple but comprehensive manual. Instal- 
lation is performed with the standard Apple 
Installer, which copies the Express Control 
Panel Device (CDev) file, which takes up 52K 
of disk space, onto your hard disk and also cre- 
ates a spool folder inside your System folder. 

Besides System 5.0.4 or later and a 3.5" 
drive, a hard disk is a virtual necessity; 2 MB 
RAM is close to the minimum "real world" 
requirement (actual requirements may vary 
depending on what program you're running in 
the foreground). The foreground application 
can be any Ilos-specific program, including 
(but not limited to) AppleWorks GS, Graph- 
icWriter III, and Platinum Paint, as long as the 
program starts the Print Manager. Supported 
printers include the ImageWriter and 
ImageWriter II, the Style Writer, and any of the 
Hewlett-Packard DeskJets or LaserJets with 
Independence or Harmonic drivers. Express 
will not work with a networked printer. 

Once installed. Express works almost by 
itself. The only time you'll need to enter the 
Express control panel is to change a setting — 
say you want to print four copies of a file, or 
you want to keep the spool file for printing 
again later. Making these changes is as simple 
as opening the control panel, clicking on Spool- 
ing Options, and typing in a number or check- 
ing a box. Express remembers and uses the last 
settings you gave it. 

Since release 2.0, Express has incorporated a 
number of speed-boosting improvements. One 
lets you choose the location and name of the 
spools folder. This can come in very handy 
from an organizafional standpoint. If you have 
a set of files you are continually printing for 
your small business, create a 
BUSINESS.SPOOLS folder and save the docu- 
ment spools there. When you need a set of files 
printed, simply tell Express to use the appropri- 
ate spools folder and you can print the whole 
set at once. You don't even have to launch the 
program that created the files! Naturally, this 
feature can also be used for more mundane pur- 
poses, such as placing the spool files on a RAM 
Disk when you've booted from a floppy disk. 

A second enhancement allows user adjust- 
ment of the number of characters Express sends 
to the printer each time 
it gets control of the 
computer. Changes 
here do not affect the 
print time, but allow 
the user to reduce any 
jerky mouse move- 
ment or slow reaction. 
Seven Hills says that 
this setting can particu- 
larly help those out- 

Cool Cuii 


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C Sppahng Oplions... ") 

i timing Qplions... 3 
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CIL.Julyijri & 

Printing with Express got me back to Apple- 
Works GS twelve to fifteen minutes faster! 
(With my Zip GS turned off, the spooling or 
"wait" time doubled — still a big time savings.) 
Compared to version 1.1, the raw (non-multiple 
prints) improvement was only 5-10 percent, but 
my test file was fairly small. Seven Hills says 
that for large, more complex files the base 
speed improvement will be about 20 percent. 

Express 2.1 fixes a bug that could corrupt 
spool files in low-memory situations. I was able 
to create a situation where Express 2.0 would 
send form feeds to my printer in the middle of 
the printout — and in one case out of five, it 
would send some garbled characters, too. (With 
Express turned off, the document would print 
perfectiy.) I have not been able get version 2.1 
to do this; other testers report that the problem 
is solved for them as well. The new version 
also recognizes the special Printer57600 port 
driver (for DeskWriter printer) as a serial port 
without having to rename it. 

Twilight II fans will be glad to hear that 
Express 2.1 lets the utility use background 
blanking when printing is in progress so that an 
automatic screen blank does not stop the print- 
er. However, Seven Hills says Twilight II 
12 22 LiJ apparently does not 
honor the background 
blanking request when 
you drag the mouse 
pointer to the "blank 
now" corner. That 
action still causes 
Express to stop print- 

Express does not 
function in programs 


putting high-detail characters to high-resolution 
printers. On my ImageWriter II a change from 
the default of 1 28 to 64 produced no discernible 

I think I've gotten the most mileage out of 
the new "multiple copies" option. With version 
1.1, the only automatic way to print multiple 
copies was to type the number of copies in the 
Print dialog. This increased spooling delay 
because the older version insisted on creating a 
new spool file for each copy of the document. 
With version 2.1, Express spools the file only 
once and merely prints multiple copies. This 
saves time and disk space. 

I checked the performance of Express on my 
7 MHz Zipped IIgs by printing three "Best 
Quality" copies of a 17K AppleWorks GS cal- 
endar. The chart below shows Wait Time 
(delay before I could resume using the comput- 
er) and the time from clicking on Print until the 
documents finished printing (rounded to nearest 
5 seconds). 

Wait Total 

Time Print Time 

that do not start the Print Manager. Sometimes 
I'd like to be able to play a game while my file 
prints, but most entertainment products (and 
many other programs) do not start the Print 
Manager. Dave Hecker of Seven Hills says 
Express will never be able to print anything 
while in ProDOS 8 programs, but notes that a 
future revision may be able to print files while 
in a GS/OS program that doesn't use the Print 

In the final analysis. Express has come a 
long way since the initial release. Virtually a 
necessity if you do lots of printing. Express 2.1 
is a handy, user-friendly tool I would recom- 
mend to everyone. ■ 

Without Express 



3 copies done separately 



1 copy printed 3 times 



7Jj JiJ^Ji Jj'Jy^Jij!>]^^JJ^iJ 

The Byte Works 

4700 Irving Blvd. NW, Suite 207 
Albuquerque, NM 87114 

Seven HHIs Software 

2310 Oxford Road 
Tallahassee, FL 32304-3930 






















Utiliziiig Apple II Software 
In Thematic Unit 

bv Karen & Ron E^rry 

Most elementary schools in America 
these days have adopted the Thematic 
Unit into their curriculums. Basically, 
a thematic unit is a carefully designed 
plan to incorporate a single broad theme into 
every subject taught. Not only does this 
method teach about its particular theme but it 
also reinforces the idea of utilizing every 
research tool available to the students. Vocabu- 
lary, reading, spelling, math, science and social 
studies skills all become useful to them in real 
life situations. Recently, the fifth grade teach- 
ers at Stafford Elementary in Stafford, Virginia 
worked out a thematic unit dealing with the 
subject of oceans. A broad version of this unit 
is currently available for downloading from 
GEnie in the Education RoundTable (ERT) 
software library. The only computer usage 
mentioned in it is the general use of a word 
processor. But examining the thematic unit 
shows a number of places where various Apple 
II programs can be utilized quite successfully. 

Every thematic unit follows certain conven- 
tions, beginning with a Rationale, which states 
the purpose of the unit. This unit's purpose is 
to encourage students to investigate and 
research aspects of the ocean. This is followed 
by the Unit Plan, generally describing the time 
(3-4 weeks) and design of the unit (different 
strategies implemented to meet individual abil- 
ities, integration of all subjects, inclusion of a 
related novel to be read and a "tropical feast" 
to conclude the unit). 

Then the course Objectives are stated; in 
this case, the goal is learning about oceans by 
utilizing a variety of resources. 

After the general introduction comes the list 
of Specific Objectives, each listed under the 
categories of each general subject. For exam- 
ple, under "Math" is listed: 

• The student will record measurements of 
ocean depth. 

• The student will classify and list the order of 
sea animals according to size. 

• The student will create a Venn diagram. 

This is followed by a listing of Materials, 
which would include videos such as Voyage of 
the Mimi and Island of the Blue Dolphin; mag- 
azines such as Ranger Rick's, Naturescope and 

National Geographic; books, spelling hsts and 
the "Contracts," which we will explore in more 
detail later. A CD-ROM electronic encyclope- 
dia is also included on the list, along with other 
available software resources should be listed. 

The Evaluation methods are then described. 
The methods of evaluation are generally 
teacher observation, contract activities, and 
testing; we also include a grading guide of the 
ocean contract. There are twenty-two activities 
from the contract listed, followed by the sub- 
ject and the grading criteria. Some examples 

• Surfing Booklet (English): correct grammar 
usage, factual content 

• Seaweed Report (Science): content, chart 
and graph data 

• Oceans Chart (Math): accuracy 

• Shoehox Diorama (Science): accurate 
details, creativity 

• Scrapbook (Social Studies): variety of arti- 
cles, organization 

Next comes the part of the thematic unit that 
is actually handed out to the students. First, 
there is the Spelling Contract, which includes a 
list of ten different activities — from which the 
student can choose any five — and three weeks 
worth of spelling word lists. Grades for each 
activity are on a point scale from one to ten. A 

student needs to get at least 30 total points for 
a C, 40 for a B, and 50 for an A. Some of the 
activities include: 

• Illustrate and give clues for ten words. 

• Make a word search with fifteen of the 
words. Include the answer key. 

• Write a sentence for each of fifteen words. 

If your school has Davidson Software's 
Spell It!, the unit's lists can be entered into the 
program and points given for successfully 
maneuvering the frog through them. Also, the 
public domain program Spelling Bee, by Jim 
Weissman, M.D. (available on Phil Shapiro's 
public domain disk, Language Arts Treasures) 
is a great drill-and-practice program that 
allows you to enter customized word lists. 
Crossword and wordsearch puzzles can be put 
together by the students with the help of Mind- 
scape's Crossword Magic or Mindplay's 
Crozzzwords and Wordzzzearch programs. 

A letter to parents follows, describing the 
thematic unit and the contracts. It asks parents 
to help by taking the child to the public library 
or by coming to the school to address the class 
if they have particular knowledge or skills 
related to the unit. 

The Activities Contract includes a 
grading/point structure similar to the spelling 
contract. Some activities are mandatory (such 
as reading sections of the science textbook and 
doing the activities in it), and others are select- 
ed from a list of twenty- two assignments and 
projects. Each activity has a point value based 
on its difficulty. If you prefer, you could use 
portfolio assessment, or other, more tradition- 
al, grading techniques. 

Many of these activities' values can be 
enhanced with the use of Apple II programs. 
For example, projects such as an ocean animal 
chart or an illustrated list of edible seafood 
could be compiled using the AppleWorks Data 
Base module. If you have an Apple IIgs, 
AppleWorks GS can import graphics to illus- 
trate databases (if you have an Apple He or lie, 
students can use Berkeley SoftWorks' Geofile 
or Beagle Bros' TimeOut Paint program to 
accompfish the same thing). 

(Continued on page 43) 



The following macro was submitted by Stielby Bush, III, of Louisville, KY. Shelby writes: Some- 
times you need a clock you can read across the room. I don't have a wall clock in my office, so I 
devised this UltraMacros 4 macro set to give me one. Naturally, you must have a clock installed 
in order for the macro to function, unless you like to think it's midnight all the time. 


. SuperClock 


1 : <all><sa-a> ! 

a: <all><Y=17 : R=0 : sa-d: sa-k: begin: 

$3="" :$4="" :$5="" :$6="" :$7="" : sa-b: sa-h: rpt> ! 

// initialize strings 
// and run clock 

b:<asr><sa-E:$l=time:$8=time2 4:$9=left $8,2: 

$0 = "AM":U=val $9:if U > 11 then $0 = "PM":endif: 

$2=mid $1, 1, l:sa-g:$2=mid $l,2,l:sa-g: 

$2=mid $1,3, l:sa-g:$2=mid $l,4,l:sa-g: 

$2=mid $1,5,1: if $2 = " " then goto sa-f:endif: 

sa-g: sa-c>! 

// get current time 

// am or pm? 

// set up numbers 

// handles space 

// print time 

c:<asr><poke $llac, : insert : oa-e :x 
ifnot X = 27 : else poke $llac,27: 
launch "um4 . . system" :endif: 

peek $cOOO 

// set up esc to 
// leave clock and 
// return to normal 

.writestr 25 , 10 , $3 : . writestr 25, 11, $4: 
.writestr 25 , 12 , $5 : .writestr 25, 13, $6: 
•writestr 25 , 14 , $7+$0> ! 

// prints time 
// into box 

f:<asr><if $2 = " " then $3 = " "+$3: 
$4 = " "+$4: $5 = " "+$5: 

$6 = " "+$6:$7 = " "+$7:sa-c>! 

// handles space 

g:<asr><T = val $2: 

if $2 = ":" then sa-q:endif: 

if $2 = "0" then sa-p:endif: 

if T = 1 then sa-r:endif: 

if T = 2 then sa-s:endif: 

if T = 3' then sa-t:endif: 

if T = 4 then sa-u:endif: 

if T = 5 then sa-v:endif: 

if T = 6 then sa-w:endif: 

if T = 7 then sa-x:endif: 

if T = 8 then sa-y:endif: 

if T = 9 then sa-z:endif>! 

// routine to 

// configure numbers 

// into strings 

d:<asr>< . titlebox 15 , 5 , 50 , 11 , 3 , "AppleWorks SuperClock"> ! 

// draws box 

e:<asr: $1 = "Sunday , Monday , Tuesday , Wednesday , Thursday , Friday , Saturday" : 
X = .weekday 0,0,0 : $2 = .choose $l,x: 
$2 = $2 + ", "+ date: .writestr 255,8,$2>! 

h:<asr><if R = 1 then sa-j : endif : ifnot R = 1 then sa-i>! 

// day, date line 
// draws tick-took 

. :<asr>< .writestr Y,16," " :Y=Y+1 : .writestr Y,16,&A&: 
if Y = 65 then R = 1 : endif >! 

// subroutine for 
// forward movement 

j :<asr><. writestr Y,16," ":Y = Y - 1:. writestr Y,16,&A&: 
if Y =16 then R = 0>! 

// subroutine for 
// reverse movement 

k: <asr>< .writestr 62,23," 

p:<asr><$3 = $3 + &WVWVW & : $4 = $4 + &W 
$5 = $5 + &W W &:$6 = $6 + &W W &: 
$7 = $7 + &WVWVW &>! 

W &: 

// blank screen clock 
// (zero) 

q:<asr><$3 = $3 + " " : $4 = $4 + & [ & : : 
$5 = $5 + " ":$6 = $6 +&[ & :$7 = $7 



r:<asr><$3 = $3 + & W &:$4 = $4 + & 
$5 = $5 + & W &:$6 = $6 + & W &: 
$7 = $7 + & W &>! 

W &: 

// 1 (one) 

{Continued on page 37) 



GPESf i#Ml I downloaded some files from 
the NAUG (National AppleWorks User Group) 
BBS. Many of them had the suffix of "BXY," 
which I understand means a Shrinkit archive in 
a Binary II wrapper. However, when I attempt- 
ed to unshrink the files, the names of the files 
in the archive were blank! When I tried to 
unpack them, I got a "Bad pathname" mes- 
sage. Do you know of any way I can unshrink 
these files? 

Curtis Gilbert 
Anson, ME 

ANSWER: The current version of Shrinkit is 
3.4. Get a copy of that and your problems 
should be solved. 

©PES! i0Ms I want to do Desktop Pubhsh- 
ing on my He but am not sure what kinds of 
upgrading I need to do. I currently have a 
Monitor III, a Disk II 5.25" drive, an Apple 
DMP printer, a 512K Ram Works card, and a 
Sider II 40 MB hard drive. My lie still has the 
original 6502 (not 65C02) chip. What do I 
need to add or replace to do a credible job of 
desktop publishing? Or would I be better off 
with a different computer? 

Robert Eggers 
Sioux City, lA 

ANSWER: The only things you're going to 
absolutely need to get started are an Apple He 
Enhancement kit, which will replace the 6502 
with a 65C02 (and update three other chips as 
well). Then you'll be able to run Publish It! 4, 
which is the second thing you'll need. Your 
hard drive and expanded memory will serve 
you well. The final thing you'll probably want 
is an AppleMouse He (although Publish It! 
will work with a joystick or just the keyboard, 
you'll spend less time swearing if you spring 
for the mouse). 

OUiSf i#Ml My IIgs has been crashing a 
lot. I suspect I might be running up against the 
limits of the stock power supply, since I've 
added a fan and it didn't seem to help. Can you 
tell me if my diagnosis might be right before I 
buy a heavy-duty power supply? I have an 
Apple IIgs (ROM 01), a 4 MB RAM expansion 
card, a RamFAST/SCSI card, a Syquest 40 MB 
hard drive, an AE 3.5" drive, an Apple 5.25" 
drive, a Super Serial Card, a Zip OS accelera- 
tor, and a Quickie scanner. 

William C Roemer 
Fort Collins, CO 

ANSWER: With that list of equipment, 
power supply strain is a definite possibility. 
The problem may be compounded by the Zip 
accelerator — faster microprocessor chips tend 
to be more susceptible to heat and power sup- 
ply problems than the normal 2.8 MHz chip. 
Even if the problem goes away when you take 
out the Zip, though, that doesn't mean the Zip 
is the problem. I believe your diagnosis is 

OmSf iOMs As the secretary of the local 
Crime Watch unit, I keep the records using 
AppleWorks 2.0 on a Laser 128. I have 332 
records (one for each home served by the unit) 
in a data base file, and want to use the mail 
merge to address envelopes as explained in 
Richard Spitzer's article in a previous issue of 
// Alive, but AppleWorks tells me that the 
Desktop is full. I recall hearing about a limit of 
200 data base records on the clipboard at any 
one time, so I am wondering if I could separate 
my data base into five files, one for each dis- 
trict. This would solve the problem since my 
largest district has only 91 names. How would 
I go about doing this? 

Arthur Boehling 
Brooksville, FL 

ANSWER: The error message you're getting 
indicates that the Desktop itself is full. When 
you print the data base records to the Clip- 
board for the mail merge, AppleWorks makes 
another copy of the records. Essentially, you 
need enough memory to hold two copies of 
your data base. The 200-record limit (250, 
actually) you mention is also a factor, but I 
don't believe you're even getting that far 
because you don't have enough memory. 

As a first step, I'd suggest expanding your 
Laser's memory. Some models have built-in 
memory expansion sockets and simply need 
chips; others need a memory card. They may 
be hard to find these days now that Laser has 
stopped making their Apple II compatibles, but 
check with a mail-order retailer or two. After 
you get at least 256K of memory in the 
machine, I'd suggest upgrading to Apple- 
Works 4.0, which will eliminate the other 
problem you're going to run up against (the 
250-record limit on the clipboard). In fact, 
AppleWorks 4.0 doesn't use the clipboard at 
all during mail merge operations (the proce- 
dure has been simplified). 

If you want to stick with the hardware and 
software you have now, it's easy to create five 
different files from your single data base. First, 

make five copies of the file with different 
names (either with a copy program like Copy 
II Plus, or by saving the file under five differ- 
ent names from within AppleWorks). Then 
add each copy to the Desktop individually, sort 
it on the District category, and then simply 
delete the records you don't want (that is, all 
the records except the district you want to 
keep). Then save that file, remove it from the 
Desktop, and move on to the next one. 

OPiSf i©Ml I recently upgraded to System 
6.0.1 from System 6.0 and am pleased with the 
improvements. However, I can't figure out 
what has been done with the SynthLab disk. I 
noticed that most of the dates on the files on 
the System 6.0. 1 disk are earlier than the dates 
on the 6.0 disk! I haven't noticed any differ- 
ence in performance, but if Apple has resorted 
to removing bugs by reverting to earlier ver- 
sions, I think we can safely assume that the 
development of SynthLab has come to an end. 

Abram M. Plum 
Bloomington, IL 

ANSWER: There were no code-level 
changes in the SynthLab disk for 6.0.1. This 
means that the program itself was not changed 
and that there is no functional difference. 
However, Apple re-linked the program using 
new linker software. (Developers like to write 
large programs in small, manageable chunks. 
The linker is the tool which combines the 
chunks into one executable program.) The new 
linker made the files smaller, but did not affect 
the way the program operates. As for the 
dates — beats me. I can think of a number of 
reasons, the most plausible of which is that 
Apple had the new linker before System 6 
came out but did not release a version of 
SynthLab linked with it because it had not 
been tested enough. Or perhaps someone's 
clock was simply set wrong! 

OUiSf i#Mt When I enter the value 15 into 
the AppleWorks 2.0 spreadsheet, AppleWorks 
displays it as 16.56348. I'm not using any for- 
mulas. The same thing happens with the calcu- 
lator included with System 6 — if I enter 2 and 
just it the "=" key, the calculator says 
3.171107116. I have a ROM 01 IIgs with an 
AE RamKeeper installed. Is there something 
wrong with my computer? 

Bryan A. Johnson 
Lake Wales, FL 



^^k ^» 

^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

ANSWER: It's a distinct possibility. I've 
never seen this kind of problem, and I would 
never expect to see it on a IIgs that's function- 
ing normally. Try booting your computer with 
the Shift key held down — if AppleWorks oper- 
ates properly when Shift-booting, then you 
have some kind of software conflict. It's possi- 
ble, I guess, that the RamKeeper could cause 
the problem, but I don't see how. (You could 
always try taking it out.) Anyone else have any 


OPiS¥i©Ms When I print a text file to disk 
as ASCII, AppleWorks 3.0 splits the lines. 
What was one long line in AppleWorks 
becomes two shorter lines in the text file. I am 
designing a HyperStudio stack which reads 
certain kinds of text files and need to know 
how to fix this. How many characters are in a 
line of ASCII text? 

Michael Vinca 
Erie, PA 

ANSWER: Asking how many characters are 
in a line of ASCII text is like asking how much 
coffee is in your cup right now — it's going to 
vary. AppleWorks should print to disk the way 
you need if you select "Standard text format 
with Tabs" or "Spaces substituted for tab 
stops" when you print the text file to disk. You 
should not select "Returns after each line." ■ 










Twice winner 
"Best Apple II Software'' 

PROTERM 3.0 was the best, 

but now. . . 
PROTERM 3.1 is even better 


New 430 page manual - in depth info for 
novice and expert. Features too numerous to 
list make ProTERM the state of the art tele- 
com application for the Apple II user. 

PROTERM just has it ALL! 

PROTERM 3.1 demo disk 

and brochure sent on request. 

Call, write, FAX or download from 

CIS, GEnie, Delphi or the InTrec BBS, 

If you own any version 
of PROTERM, inquire 
about the 3.1 upgrade. 

InTrec Software, Inc. 

Formerly InSync Software, Inc. 
3035 E Topaz Circle • Phoenix, AZ 85028 
602/992-55 1 5 Voice • 602/992- 1 345 Tech 
602/992-9789 BBS • 602/992-0232 FAX 







Data Basics: Part II 

bv Steve IVIiller 

n Part I of this series, we walked you 
through the basics of data bases: creating 
them, entering data and then viewing the 
records you've created. This month, we'll 

take you a few powerful steps further for 

you're total data base enjoyment. 


If your data base has many categories, they 
will not all fit on the screen when you're look- 
ing at the multiple-record layout. If this is 
inconvenient, you can easily change the screen 

First, be sure you're looking at multiple- 
record layout. If not (if you're seeing just one 
record), press OA-Z. Then press OA-L (for lay- 
out). Choose the first option, "Change the 
existing record layout." A list of options will 
appear on the screen, along with a representa- 
tion of the layout at the bottom of the screen. 

To change the width of a category: Put the 
cursor on that category (using the left or right 
arrow key). Then hold the OA key down, and 
use the left or right arrow key to make the cate- 
gory wider or narrower. Don't worry if the cat- 
egory name is cut off, or if part of your data is 
cut off. All of your information will be 
retained, even if you can't see all of it in this 
particular view. 

To change the order of the categories: Put 
the cursor on the category you want to move. 
Hold the OA key down, and press either the < 
or > key. Each time you do this, the chosen 
category will move one column to the right or 
the left. 

To delete a category from view: Put the cur- 
sor on the category, and press OA-D. Although 
the category will disappear from this layout, 
your data will not be lost. It will continue to 
appear in the single-record layout. To insert a 
category which has previously been deleted 
from this layout, press OA-I. 

When you have finished adjusting your 
screen layout, press Escape. AppleWorks will 
ask whether you would like to have the cursor 
move to the right or down, when you press 
Return while working in the multiple-record 
layout. Think about what works best for you, 
make that selection and press Return. The mul- 

tiple-record layout will now reflect the changes 
you've made. When you save your data base 
(OA-S), the new layout will be saved, too. 

Adjusting the single-record layout is a little 
more compHcated but often worthwhile. To do 
this, be sure the single-record layout is on 
screen, then press OA-L. Categories can be 
moved around on the screen by putting the cur- 
sor on the first letter of the category to be 
moved and holding the OA key down while 
using the up, down, left, and right arrows to 
move the category. Blank lines can be inserted 
by moving fields (start from the bottom and 
move fields down). However, fields cannot be 
deleted from this screen. 

You might want to try highfighting the field 
names to make them stand out from the data. 
To do this, press OA-T. Personally, I don't like 
this option — I find the contrast hard on my 
eyes. You can leave it on if you like or press 
OA-T again to turn it off. To complete your new 
layout, press Escape. AppleWorks will ask 
which way you would like the cursor to move 
when you press Return: (1) in the order in 
which the categories were originally defined, or 
(2) left to right and top to bottom. Option 2 is 
almost always preferable. Remember that your 
new screen layout is not saved for the future 
until you save your file to disk (OA-S). 


The true power of a data base lies in its abil- 
ity to find records that meet specific criteria 
and to organize your records in logical ways. 
The AppleWorks data base can do both of 
these tasks very quickly and can also print out 
the necessary data in a variety of formats 
which you design. 

For example, if you had the phone numbers 
of a hundred people in a data base, you could 
instruct AppleWorks to find Lee Miller's 
record; it would do so almost instantly. You 
can search for combinations, such as people 
who have home phone numbers in the 818 area 
code and work phone numbers in the 213 area 

If you had the phone num- 

bers of a hundred people in a 

data base, you could instruct 

AppleWorks to find Lee 

Miller's record: it imould do 


SO instantly. 



S Am m M m. w W 

If you wanted to print out a list of people in 
alphabetical order, along with their home and 
work phone numbers, it'd take about five min- 
utes to set up the first time (and AppleWorks 
would remember how to print that type of list 
so you can print it out in seconds the next 
time). You could also print out a list in ZIP 
Code order. Anything that you would be able 
to find or organize manually, AppleWorks can 
do for you much faster! 

To find something specific, press OA-F. You 
can choose to search through all the categories 
in all the records, or for faster service, just one 
particular category. For example, if you were 
looking for a particular person's name, it 
would be pointless to search all categories — 
you would choose to search the Last Name cat- 
egory. Then enter what you want AppleWorks 
to search for, and press Return. Only those 
records containing the data that you requested 
will be displayed. You may make changes to 
these records, even zooming in to specific 
records using OA-Z. To return to the list of all 
records, press Escape. 

You can organize your data base based on any 
category or combination of categories. To do 
this, you should be looking at the multiple- 
record view. Then put the cursor on the category 
you want to organize, and press OA and A 
together (the "A" stands for arrange). Depending 
on what type of data you're organizing, you'll 
have the option of arranging in alphabetical, 
numeric, or chronological order. A sorted data 
base will not be saved in the sorted order unless 
you specifically save your file using OA-S. 


AppleWorks allows you to select specific 
records and to work with them exclusively for 
as long as you want. To select specific records, 
press OA-R together. You will now construct a 
specific list of criteria to be met, such as "CITY 
before Jan 1 70." Just follow the prompts listed 
on the screen. After entering your final criteri- 
on, press Return, then Escape. The full list of 
criteria will be shown at the top-left of the 
screen. You will only be able to see (and to 
update) those records that meet the listed crite- 
ria until you change the criteria or change the 
selecrion to "ALL RECORDS." You can do 
either one of these by pressing OA-R again and 
following the prompts at the bottom of the 

Even though you may be working exclu- 
sively with selected records, the records which 
do not meet your criteria have not been lost or 
thrown out. Whenever you save your file, they 
will be saved too. But you will not be able to 
see them or access them until you press OA-R 
and select "ALL RECORDS." 


You can add additional records to your data 
base at almost any time, by pressing OA and I 
(for insert) together. A blank record will 
appear. (If you're using AppleWorks 4, you 
can insert up to 250 blank records at once.) 

Apple H users! 

now, before its too late, join the 

International Computer 
Owners Netwom 

ICON is a new international user group providing continuing support to Apple II 
users. Benefits of membership include: 

• Ahs, the group's quarterly newsletter; edited by Tom Weishaar 

• System software and other goodies published by Apple computer available to U.S. members 

for just $3 per disk 

• Back issues of Resource Central disk publications available to all members worldwide for just 

$3 per disk 

• Online bulletin boards, software libraries, and conference rooms accessible with a local call 

from over 500 cities for $3 per hour 

• Discount — equal to membership fee paid — on any Resource Central publication. 

• Invitation to members-only summer conference 

ICON membership is normally $8 a year, but the first year fee will be waived if 
you join by January 31, 1994. Send your name and postal address today to: 


POBox 11250-1 
Overland Park. RS 66207 

fax: 913-469-6507 
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You can add any number of additional records, 
then press Escape. Be sure to save the file after 
making additions (OA-S). 


For a list of options and commands, press 
the OA key and ? together from almost any 
screen. As long as you've saved your previous 
work to your data disk, you can experiment 
and try different things to learn more about 
how the program works, and what it — and 
you — can do. If you make a major mistake and 
lose data, press Escape several times until you 
get back to the "Main Menu," instruct Apple- 
Works to remove the file from the Desktop 
without saving it, then retrieve the "good" file 
(which you saved earlier) from your data disk. 


You may print your data at any time by 
pressing OA-P to access the print menu. Creat- 
ing reports is an advanced topic that requires at 
least one more article to cover, but the basics 
of arranging and selecting specific records are 
the same as those covered above. Unless you 
need to print mailing labels, choose to create 
"a new tables format." By following the 
prompts on the screen, you should be able to 
create a report format and print it. 

To adjust the layout of a report format, fol- 
low the instructions for changing the multiple- 
record layout in the sidebar next to this arti- 
cle — the keys used are exactly the same. Mak- 
ing categories more narrow allows you to 
include more information on each line. 

To adjust margins, type size and other print- 
ing options, press OA-O from the report format 
screen. The most important option is CI (char- 
acters per inch). A larger number of CI allows 
you to squeeze more information on each line. 
To change this option type CI, Return, then a 
number (most often 10, 12, or 17), then 
Return. Other options, such as Double Space 
(DS, then Return) are all listed on the screen. 
After selecting your options, press Escape. 

To print a report which only includes specif- 
ic records, stay in the report format screen, and 
follow the instructions for "working with spe- 
cific records" given above — the steps are the 
same. Your report format will be saved for 
future use when you save your file to disk. 


If you're creating your very first data base, 
start out with something that' s not too complex 
or overwhelming. Keep the number of cate- 
gories manageable. Experiment with manipu- 
lating the data and printing reports. Learning to 
use the AppleWorks data base is fairly simple 
and straightforward and the results are more 
than worth the effort! ■ 




BottomLine is the easiest-to-use home financial 
program ever made. In under 10 minutes, you will be 
up and running managing all of your financial 
accounts. Features include Record Keeping, 
Reconciliation, Budgeting, Recurring Transactions, Check 
Writing and a full range of custom reports. 

BottomLine features pull down menus for mouse or keyboard 
support. A handy, full feature calculator and notepad are also 



quick^ and 

reliable! ^^ 

Finding transactions has never been easier. The program lets 
you search by check number, payee, dollar amount, and text. 
Tax related transactions can easily be flagged allowing easier 
reporting at the end of the year. 

"I like it 
better than 


Up to 800 transactions per month and an entire year can be 
contained on just one diskette. BottomLine even lets you export 
your financial information to an AppleWorks® Spreadsheet. 
This feature is compatible with any AppleWorks® program 
including the new AppleWorks 4.0. Suggested retail price: $64.95 

Requirements: Enhanced He or later; 128K or greater; 5.25" or 3.5" drive; Printer Optional (Compatible 
with most popular printers); Mouse Optional. Note: BottomLine is currently not hard disk installablle. 


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When we could no longer find reliable, affordable 
hard drives, we made our own — the Q Drive. The Q 
Drive made Apples faster and easier to use. In fact, 
it was such a success that we had to wonder why 
we'd waited so long. Now we've done it again. 

The Q-RAM GS2 is an economical way to add 4 
MEG of memory to your Apple IIGS. It's fully com- 
patible with all Apple IIGS hardware and software — 
including the IIGS RAM Disk and DMA peripherals 
like the Apple II High Speed SCSI Card. 

The 4 MEG Q-RAM GS2 is not only affordable, but 
comes with FlashBoot free! FlashBoot lets you cre- 
ate a super fast, super convenient RAM disk on 
your Apple IIGS. 

When you install the Q-RAM GS, life becomes just a 
lot easier. Programs load completely into memory 
at startup, eliminating disk swapping. Out-of-mem- 
ory error messages disappear. You'll have memory 
to spare— memory to load desk accessories, or to 
set up a convenient RAM disk. 

The Q-RAM GS2 installs easily, replacing your origi- 
nal 1 MEG. Apple memory board, or any other 
underachieving memory card you may own. But 
don't worry about getting stuck with a left over 

4 MEG Only 


board that you can't use. Ask your sales rep about a 
RAM card trade-in. It is a terrific way to recycle 
your old card and save money at the same time! 

Qf course, since you're dealing with Quality Com- 
puters, you get an unconditional 30-day money- 
back guarantee and a five-year warranty. And the 
price is the best news of all— a 4 MEG Q-RAM GS2 
costs about the same or even less than other IIGS 
memory cards in a 1 MEG configuration! 


TimeOut applications will completely load into RAM. 
That means you can concentrate on working — not 
waiting for disk drives. Plus with a huge 1 MEG 
treasure trove of RAM, you can create huge docu- 
ments, and not run into a single "Out of Memory" 

Imagine students in your school's lie lab doing 
more learning and less waiting. Imagine the joy of 
starting AppleWorks, completing a project, and 
never having to go back to the disk drive. It can 
happen with the Q-RAM lie. 

As an added bonus, when 
you buy a 4 MEG Q-RAM 
GS2, you get FlashBoot 
free. FlashBoot lets you 
quickly save and load the 
contents of a RAM Disk. 
What is a RAM Disk? Every 
Apple IIGS has a built-in 
RAM Disk capability that 
lets you reserve some of 
your computer's memory as a super- 
fast electronic disk drive. Set up your RAM Disk in 
the morning and you might not have to swap pro- 
gram disks all day! You can discover the speed and 
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er, and makes loading your RAM disk easy. 

Beef up your Apple 
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Snap the Q-RAM lie into your Apple lie, and you'll 
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The Q-RAM lie replaces your lie's 80 Column Card 
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The Q-RAM lie is 100% software compatible, and 
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1 -800-777-3642 

20200 Nine Mile Rd. • St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 • 313-774-7200 • FAX 313-774-2698 


^ Ken Franklin 's contribution to the world of 
Apple IIgs entertainment goes far beyond 
the enjoyment he 's given us with his superb 
game trilogy. He's also helping Apple II 
owners to make a valuable contribution to 
our country 's homeless population by desig- 
nating his products as ReliefWare — a 
unique offshoot of the shareware concept. 
All payments received by Franklin are 
donated, in full, to charities that support the 
homeless. What better way to enjoy your 
time off this holiday season? 

Milestones 2000 

Ken Franklin, Reliefware-$15.00 

Milestones 2000 is a car race game based on 
the card game Mille Bornes, published for 
decades by Parker Brothers. Franklin's version 
pits you against your computer, not another 

As the game begins, the computer flips an 
electronic coin to determine who goes first. 
The cards are dealt; play proceeds as you place 
the various cards on your car, or on your oppo- 
nent' s, in an attempt to reach the goal of 5000 
miles. The deck contains distance cards (which 
move your car the specified distance closer to 
the goal), problem cards (such as flat tires and 
accidents) which hinder your opponent's 
progress, fix cards (to counteract the problem 
cards), and power cards (such as "Super Dri- 
ver," which makes you immune to accidents). 

The graphics are good, the play is fast, and 
there are plenty of amusing sounds to keep you 
involved. Not only is this game great for pure 
entertainment value, but it may even be educa- 
tional for the younger set. The game involves 
luck, to be sure, but careful strategy, mentally 
adding the mileage left to checkpoints or to 
win the race, and keeping a count of the vari- 
ous cards played will definitely help your 
game. Milestones 2000 is a game that can be 
enjoyed by all family members — from two- 
year-olds sitting on a parent' s lap to teenagers 
to adults. 


to those wit 
order (in Ub l, . 
North Americajnc 
2-4 weeks f^" 

in compilinc 
shareware p 
distributed, i 



1A 3.5 GS 
1B 3.5 
1C 5.25 
1D 5.25 
1E 5.25 


2A 3.5 8$ 
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A i 



DueiTris, Spy Hunter GS, FioorTlles, Ant Wars 
SoftDAC, Magic File Cabinet 
SoltDAC. Magic File Cabinet 

. IT r\A ^. U4.^K \ 



3A 3.5 GS Pr 

38 3.5 GS B 

3C 3.5 GS B, 




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S H A R 

W r m 


^ *^°'"*'^ f<^a^^ Goal Options 


One-Arm Battle 

Ken Franklin, Reliefware-$10.00 

One-Arm Battle is a slot machine game that 
can be played by one to four players, any or all of 
which can be the computer. The object of the 
game is to be the first to win the amount of 
money you have chosen as a victory level the 
Setup Menu. You do this by rolling winning 
combinations on the six-reel slot machine on the 
screen. But wait — it's a little trickier than that! 
Each tum is influenced by one of six goals select- 
ed at the beginning of each tum. Some of the 
goals include a Sweep Bonus (a money bonus for 
rolling scoring symbols in each reel; you can stop 
at any time with no penalty if you don't make the 
sweep), an Out of Order (lose your tum) and Bop 
til You Drop (my favorite-you keep going, accu- 
mulating all the money you win until you crash). 

One-Arm Battle is another one of those fun, 
addictive games that could keep you playing 
"just one more" for hours. Like Milestones 2000, 
it can be enjoyed by parents and children togeth- 
er, by students when they're supposed to be typ- 
ing reports or by adults taking a much-needed 
break from number-cmnching. 


Ken Franklin, Reliefware, $15.00 

The last offering in Ken Franklin's pleasing 
threesome is Plunder!, another game of chance 
and adventure. It takes place in the treasure 
rooms of a dark dungeon which can hold up to 
four players. Any or all of them can be con- 

trolled by the computer. Each treasure room is 
filled with packages of various shapes, sizes 
and colors. Most of the packages contain 
money or mystery prizes, but one contains a 
bomb that will destroy everyone in the room. 

Each player has the choice of opening one 
of the packages or leaving the room to avoid 
the bomb blast. If you choose to stay by open- 
ing a package, and if it contains a treasure, the 
value of that item goes into the "treasure pot." 
(At the end of the round, the pot is divided 
equally among the survivors.) If you choose to 
leave, you get your share of the treasure at that 
moment, less a wimp penalty. When the bomb 
is found, the room explodes; all the treasure is 
lost, but the players get a new life in a new 

The game ends when one player reaches the 
goal score and becomes the leader. At this 
point, that person is locked out of the room 
while the others have one last chance of catch- 
ing up or surpassing the leader's booty. If 
someone succeeds in doing that, the last-room 
scenario starts over again until a leader pre- 
vails for a full round. 

All the Reliefware offerings contain fun 
sounds, are easy to learn, and come with com- 
plete documentation. Any one of them can pro- 
vide many hours of family (or individual) fun. 
Rumor has it that Ken Franklin has been work- 
ing on a new game called Monster Lab for 
some time now — we can 't wait to see it! ■ 

The Sensational LASERS 



Apple llc/lle 


The LASER 1 28 features full Apple II compatibility with internal disk drive, 
serial, parallel, modem & mouse ports. When you're ready to expand your 
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The LASER 128EX has all the features of the LASER 128, plus Triple 
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LASER 128 Computer with 14" RGB Color Monitor and a 300 CPS NLQ 
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• 12" Mono Monitor $129.00 

• 14" RGB Color Monitor $229.00 

• External Floppy Disk Drive 5.25 $129.00 

• Joystick (3) Button $25.00 


Ideal for the Classroom and Home 

Powerful lightweight Computer for Students & Adults ages 7 & up. 
Portable and easy to operate with 12 Color Programs built-in. 128KB 
RAM with a Full size Enhanced Keyboard. Print out directly to a Parallel 
Printer. Operates on a AC Power Pack with Battery Backup. Display on 
a Composite Monitor or TV. Programs include Word Processor, Data- 
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Cartridge is available. Weighs 4 lbs. ONE YEAR Factory Warranty. 






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The same fun-to-use educational software trusted 

by teachers for classroom instruction is now 

available for your home computer! 

©Dinosaur Dig 
Let these prehistoric creatuirs 
hght up your classroom's com] nit- 
ers and captivate your students' interest I 
Students learn about dinosaurs' siz^ 
strength and mysterious disappearar 

along with where and when they J'vecLMKr diet, their appearance 
and their various species. ^^f 4^0/l OO 


Iney & Time 
[dventures of 
Fthe LoUipop Dragon 

Arithmetic Teacher says, "Overall, 
this software is an innovative, cheer- 
ful, and positive means of learning 
arithmetic through theS^ractical concepts of money and time ..." 
Let Lillipop Dragon hA) your students make sense of hours and 
minutes, dollars and ce^b. Game activities ^n^^J^||i|H|MU3ation 
get youngsters to practi^B|^untin^c^|tf|Hpiiif**^ 
change, setting and reading^BHBBIIWalTevels of difficulty pfal- 
lenge kids as they master each skill. 

Tonk in the 
Land of Buddyj 

Lively graphics a^d^nimation help teach 
youngsters to dis^^uish shapes and patterns 
as it stresses^mnmunication, memory and 
planning, ^|ln problem-solving skills. The mul- 
tiple difficulty levels adapt Jj^^any student needs, while helping to 
promote familiarity with^lromputers , along with pre-reading visual 
discrimination and ojp^to-one correspondence skills. 


Colorful, exciting graphics 
motivate students to proceed 
through every one of MasterType's 18 
keyboarding skill levels, from letters to 
words and symbols. The on-screen 
prompts encourage students to watch the screen rather than the 
keyboard, and essential keyboarding skill. Develop individualized 
lessons, monitor students' progress in words per minute, and keep 
track of errors. 41* O /I OO 


Jumping Math Flash 

Make learning basic math facts excit- 
ing — and effective — with the fast action and 
sound options of this arcade-style mathematics 
drill program. Players navigate the little fish, 
"Jumping Math Flash," along an underwater 
course to find the solution to addition, subtrac- 
tion, multiplication and division problems. Bu 

beware! Enemies lurk in the ocean depths. You must find the 

answer before the other fish attack! 

Tuk Goes to Town 


l^KQSr Strengthen visual discrimination 
"^■^^ skills, practice spelling and build 
vocabulary with six different activities in this 
educational game. Each one offers varying diffi- 
culty levels that match or challenge a child's 
skills. Children travel to town with Tuk through 

four ever-changing scenes and have fun choosing from eight differ- 
ent vehicles for Tuk to ride on! ^ O /I OO 

All products available through 

e D u c A n u }\ . 

S C f '^ W A R fc 
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Uuality Eomuters 


n Look i Listen oi the 

Horld of Rpple llos Sound 

bij Note TrosF 

The sounds of the orchestra float 
across the room, filling it with the 
gentle strains of a symphony. Sud- 
denly, violins and oboes are inter- 
rupted by the jarring beat of a rock and roll 
soundtrack. A crowd cheers as laser blasts rock 
the building. Could this be a scene from a 
comedy sketch gone wild? No, just another 
routine workout for the Apple IIgs sound hard- 

When the Apple IIgs was first introduced in 
1986, it featured the best standard sound capa- 
bilities of any personal computer on the mar- 
ket. Although its competitors — the Macintosh, 
Atari ST and Amiga — went far beyond the 
simple boops and beeps of the original Apple 
II, none could match the IIgs. 

Even today, with a plethora of sound cards 
for MS-DOS machines on the market, the 
Apple IIgs built-in sound capabilities remain 
unmatched by most other personal computers. 
Only the very latest Atari and Macintosh com- 
puters go further than the IIgs with their built- 
in audio. Feats that require hundreds of dol- 
lars' worth of add-ons with other computers 
can be handled without breaking a sweat on 
your IIgs. With inexpensive hardware and 
software, you can push the envelope even fur- 

The Harclv\fare 

Before we discuss harnessing the audio 
horsepower of your Apple IIgs, let's take a 
peek under the hood and see exactly what 
makes the IIgs such a powerful performer. 

Apple had originally planned to include only 
simple sound functions in the IIgs — a simple 
synthesizer that would be a substantial 
improvement over the old Apple II sound 
capabilities, but nothing spectacular compared 
to what we're used to. Fortunately for us, 
someone told them about the Ensoniq 5503 
Digital Oscillator Chip. 

The Ensoniq (say "n-sonic") 5503 is the 
same chip used in Ensoniq' s Mirage sampler 
and ESQ-1 synthesizer, both professional musi- 
cal instruments sold in the '80s. The Ensoniq 
chip allows the IIgs to play as many as thirty- 
two independent sound samples simultaneous- 
ly. These samples are digital recordings of 
sounds, and can be representations of real- 
world sounds or totally artificial sounds 

designed completely inside the computer. The 
5503 's flexibility makes it perfect for use as a 
one-shot sample player (for example, playing 
back a Star Trek sample when you start up 
your computer) or as a synthesizer, building 
short samples of waves into more complex 
musical arrangements. 

The 5503 has 64K of dedicated RAM which 
holds the sound samples. This RAM is accessi- 
ble by both the IIgs microprocessor and the 
Ensoniq chip, thanks to the Sound GLU (Gen- 
eral Logic Unit) chip, and is known as the DOC 
(Digital Oscillator Chip) RAM. 

In addition to these chips, the IIgs features 
amplification circuitry that takes the output 
from the 5503 and drives the speaker and 
headphones. This circuitry was redesigned for 
the ROM 03 version of the IIgs to reduce the 
amount of noise and hiss in the outputs. 
There's also a sound connector on the IIgs 
motherboard which can be used to connect an 
external amplifier or a stereo card and to pipe 
signals into the chip for recording. 

The System Softv^fare 

All that hardware of the IIgs wouldn't make 
much noise without software to tell it what to 
do. To its credit, Apple didn't leave program- 
mers to write their own sound tools. Over the 
past seven years, Apple has developed (and 
continuously improved) several software tools 
as part of the IIgs System Software. 

The majority of these tools are part of the 
Apple IIgs Toolbox, a library of standard rou- 
tines included in ROM and on the System Disk. 
The tools provide a standard way of develop- 
ing Apple IIgs programs, and allow software 
developers to take advantage of the hardware's 
power without having to know every low-level 
detail of how the machine works. There are 
also tools for the everyday user — the Sound 
Control Panel is a prime example of this sort of 

Although the sound tools appear as anony- 
mous tool files in the TOOLS folder on the Sys- 
tem Disk, many games and applications rely 
on them. One of the first tools Apple provided 
for sound was the Sound Tool Set. The pur- 
pose of the Sound Tool Set is to give program- 
mers an easy way to play digitized sounds 
(mostly useful for sound effects, not usually 
for music) in their programs. Apple built on 

When the Apple IIgs 

was first introduced in 1986^ 

it featured the best standard 

sound capabilities of any 

personal computer on the 

market. Although its 

competitors — the Macintosh^ 

Atari ST and Amiga — 

went far beyond the simple 

boops and beeps of the 

original Apple Ily none could 

match the IIgs. 


this base with the Note Synthesizer and Note 
Sequencer, which allow developers to add real 
music to their programs. Many of the games 
and music programs released for the IIgs rely 
on these tools to do the work of playing the 
notes of the music. 

Next, Apple created the MIDI (Musical 
Instrument Digital Interface) Tool Set. MIDI is 
an industry- standard protocol for connecting 
synthesizers to each other and to computers. 
MIDI is not sound — instead, MIDI carries the 
"events" (note on, note off, etc.) which the per- 
former generates as he plays a keyboard. The 
MIDI Tool Set gave developers of music 
sequencing programs a tool to bridge the gap 
between MIDI instruments and the IIgs. 

To reduce the large amounts of memory and 
disk space required by digitized sound, Apple 
developed the ACE (Audio Compression and 
Expansion) Tool Set. With the ACE Tool Set, 
developers have an easy and standard way to 
compress large sound files. The ACE Tool Set 
even lets programmers choose the desired 
compression ratio (the more compression is 
performed, the poorer the fidelity of the sound 
when it is de-compressed). 

One of the most innovative and amazing 
IIgs sound tool sets is also, sadly, one of the 
least used. The MIDISynth Tool Set, developed 
by a programmer from Ensoniq, improves on 
the abilities of the Note Synthesizer, Note 
Sequencer and MIDI Tool Set to provide an 
incredible base for music sequencing and stun- 
ning sound synthesis. With MIDISynth, the 
computer can actually become a synthesizer, 
sequencer, and MIDI instrument in one pack- 

age. Unfortunately, to date, only a single appli- 
cation from Apple and a handful of games 
have taken advantage of MIDISynth' s power. 

In addition to all the programming tools, 
Apple has created several extensions and 
applications that give users the ability to take 
advantage of IIos sound. 

The Sound Control Panel is greatly 
improved in System Software 6.0. Previously, 
this control panel was limited to adjusting the 
pitch and volume of the standard system bonk. 
With System 6.0, the Sound Control Panel lets 
you customize your system by assigning 
sounds to various "events." Cows can moo 
when you start up your system; evil laughter 
can resound when you empty the trash in the 
Finder; Arnold Schwarzenegger can intone 
"I'll be back" when you shut down the system. 
Dozens of different events can be assigned to 
any sound file you wish! 

Another Apple program released with Sys- 
tem 6.0 is SynthLAB. SynthLAB is a music 
sequencing and playback program that uses the 
MIDISynth tool. Although simple, SynthLAB is 
a prime example of the power of MIDISynth. 
You can not only play SynthLAB songs created 
by other people, but you can also create origi- 
nal songs. If you have a MIDI-compatible 
musical keyboard, you can even compose 
songs with synthLAB from your keyboard! 

Enhancing the Hardv^rare 

Although Apple threw in the kitchen sink 
when they designed the sound hardware, third- 
party vendors still had plenty of add-on oppor- 
tunities, including the following. 

Figure 1: Apple IIgs Sound Hardvi^are Add-ons 









Applied Ingenuity 

Sound Ace 



Applied Visions 

Sound Blaster 

Applied Engineering 

Audio Animator 

Applied Engineering 


Roger Wagner 



Optional (2) 



Apple MIDI 


Apple Computer 

ECON Technologies 



Stereo Sound 

One of the major shortcomings of the Apple 
IIgs sound system is the output. The small 
speaker inside the IIgs cannot do justice to the 
Ensoniq' s sound quality. Sounds are distorted 
at high volumes, bass sounds weak, and the 
clarity leaves much to be desired. 

With a simple Y-cable, you can connect the 
headphone jack of the IIgs to a set of amplified 
speakers or to your home stereo system. How- 
ever, for a real boost in sound quality, you will 
want a stereo card. These cards not only permit 
the IIgs to be hooked up to an external amplifi- 
er, but also add support for true two-channel 
stereo sound, which many programs (including 
SynthLAB, SoundSmith, Out of This World, 
and dozens of other titles) automatically use. 
No special configuration is required once the 
sound card is installed. 

Since the introduction of the IIgs, several 
different brands of stereo sound cards have 
been sold. The SoundMeister card, from ECON 
Technologies, is the only card currently avail- 
able on the new equipment market. The others 
are all out of production, but you may be able 
to pick one up at a swap meet. 


A sound digitizer card is a useful and fun 
add-on. With a sound digitizer, you can record 
sounds on your computer from a tape, CD, TV, 
VCR, microphone, or other audio source. 

Most stereo sound cards include a digitizing 
feature — or offer it as an option. You can also 
use a slotless digitizer card like the one includ- 

1 No longer sold or actively supported, may be available used 

2 Digitizing is optional with piggyback card that plugs into SuperSonic card 

3 Included at no extra cost in the HyperStudio software package along with microphonea 




ed with HyperStudio. It won't provide stereo 
sound output, but it also won't take up a slot. 
Generally, these cards are merely pre-amps to 
boost a microphone signal to the level required 
by the Ensoniq chip, which does the actual dig- 
itizing work. (The digitizing feature on most 
stereo cards works similarly — except for the 
Audio Animator, which had its own digitizing 
hardware which was of significantly higher 
quality than the Ensoniq' s. If you're into 
recording your own sounds, see if you can pick 
up a used Audio Animator.) 

You also need software to digitize sounds. 
Most such software also has editing features 
which will allow you to cut and paste sounds 
together. If you buy a new digitizer card, it will 
come with its own software. If you purchase a 
used digitizer card and the original owner has 
lost the bundled software, you can still digitize 
by using one of several general-purpose GS 
sound programs, including U.S.E. and 
AudioZap. These programs will be discussed 
in detail in our next installment. 

Once you have the digitizer and the soft- 
ware, you're all set. There are many programs 
you can use to take advantage of all the custom 
sounds that you can record, so be sure to tune 
in next issue to learn about them. 


As we mentioned earlier, MIDI is a standard 
that allows electronic instruments to share 
music performance data with each other. Since 
only the notes are transmitted, not the actual 
sound, it's easy to edit your music when it's 
stored in MIDI form, changing the sound on 
your keyboard or synthesizer as the notes play 
until you find exactly the right sound. 

While nearly all keyboards that cost more 
than $100 have MIDI, they're not the only 
kinds of instruments that can talk MIDI. Drum 
machines and electronic drum pads, guitar syn- 
thesizers, and even wind controllers (sax or 
flute) are available with MIDI. And since MIDI 
is a standard serial data stream, computers can 
easily talk MIDI, too. 

With a program called a sequencer, the 
computer functions as a tapeless tape recorder. 
You can record your performance, then correct 
your mistakes (even auto-correcting notes 
played out of time with a feature called quan- 
tizing) and play it back. While playing back 
your first track, you can record a second 
track — in effect, playing a duet with yourself. 
Depending on the kind of keyboard or synthe- 
sizer you have, you might even be able to use a 
different sound for each part. 

When you're using a MIDI sequencer, your 
computer is generally not involved in making 
sound (unless you are using software, like 
SynthLAB, which is specifically designed to 
convert incoming MIDI messages into sound). 
MIDI therefore requires one or more external 
synthesizers, besides the computer. (Once you 
have one keyboard, you can buy additional 
"sound modules" which are basically MIDI-dri- 
ven synthesizers without keyboards. You can 
play these instruments, via MIDI, with your 
main keyboard or via computer.) 

To send and receive MIDI data, your com- 
puter needs a MIDI interface. The simplest and 
most popular such interface is the one sold by 
Apple. However, other interfaces, such as 
Opcode's Midi Translator, are compatible with 
Apple's, while being less expensive and sport- 
ing more features. These interfaces plug into 
one of your computer's serial ports. You may 
also run across some MIDI cards that go inside 
the computer, such as Passport's. The AE 
Audio Animator, in addition to its stereo and 
digitizing features, also has a MIDI interface. 

Using MIDI with the IIgs System Software 
requires a device driver. Apple includes drivers 
with System Software 6.0 for external (Apple) 
and internal (Passport) MIDI interfaces. 
Applied Engineering includes their own driver 
with the Audio Animator. The System Soft- 
ware also includes a MIDI Control Panel to let 
you configure your MIDI setup. 

A discussion of MIDI instruments is well 
beyond the scope of this article. Looking 
through a music magazine or visiting a music 
store will give you an idea of what kinds of 
instruments are available and for what price. A 
MIDI compatible keyboard alone can range 
anywhere from a couple hundred dollars — to 
tens of thousands of dollars. As is usually the 
case, you generally get what you pay for. 

Next on Stage . . . 

Next issue we'll dive into the wealth of 
sound software available for your IlGS. There 
are dozens of great public domain, freeware, 
shareware and commercial products that can 
help you have fun with the 's' in your IIgs. See 
you then! ■ 

The Sound Control Panel is 

greatly improved in System 6.0. 

Previously y this control panel 

was limited to adjusting the 

pitch and volume of the 

standard system bonk. 

With System 6.0^ the Sound 

Control Panel lets you 

customize your system by 

assigning sounds to various 




With the ravening 
hordes of holi- 
day shoppers 
w h ipp e d 
into a buy- 

it's tough 
to remain 
calm. But 
when it 
comes to shop- 
ping for the Apple 
lover in your life, you can 
keep your cool while staying warm with 11 Alive' s 
Holiday Shopping Guide. 

If you are the Apple II enthusiast in your family, 
your mission is simple. Examine the gift sugges- 
tions, circle the ones you'd like to receive — prefer- 
ably in red or a nice fluorescent pink — and, in the 
margin, jot "looks good", "wow!", or "must-have" 
(or something more subtle, along the lines of "if 
only..."). Then leave the magazine where someone 
else can find it, and let human nature take its 


fGood computer 
gifts don't have to 
be expensive. Buy 
a box of blank 
disl^s (if you can't 
find one for 
around $10, start wondering if 
you're being tai^en advantage of) and fill it shareware and 
freeware. Downloads from services such America Online, Com- 
puServe, and GEnie are relatively inexpensive, and the local 
Apple II users' group may have a library you can plunder for a 
small fee. (IIAlive's Shareware Spy (see page 25) also distrib- 
utes disks of shareware.) The fun of having 10 disks full of 
programs to explore over the holidays can hardly be topped, 
and the gift of the time you spent to find quality programs will 
be greatly appreciated. As the recipient identifies shareware 
programs he or she doesn't want to pay for, he or she can 
delete them and re-use the disks. 

There's always the alternate version 

of the same plan: Download a 

shareware program and pay for it 

in the recipient's name! Copy the 

program to a disk that will boot 

the program, and enclose a 

note that the shareware fee 

has been paid. Apple lie 

and lie owners might like Charles Hartley's typing program. 
Computer Keyboarding, which is only $10; Apple IIgs folk 
might prefer Ken Franklin's reliefvvare game Milestones 2000, 
which is only $15 — all of which goes to help the homeless. 

One of my fondest childhood holiday memo- 
ries is sprawling out on the floor with a new 
train set. The only problem was that, no mat- 
ter how large the set, there were never enough 
pieces of track to make a really interesting 
layout. (I always seemed to need 

just one more curved piece.) But for just 

$24.95, Abracadata's Design 

Your Own Railroad will 

let you design a 

wonderfully involved system on 

any Apple II with 128K. A delightfully simple program that 
very few people seem to know about... and you'll never run out 
of pieces of hi-res track. 

I use my Apple IIgs for hours at a time, and one 
of the things that bugs me is hunching down to 
get a good look at the monitor screen. If the 
Apple II lover on your gift list has the same 
problem, he or she will love the 13" monitor 
stand (part #956-272) sold by Sun Remarketing 
for just $14.00. It tilts, swivels, pivots, and fits the AppleColor 
RGB monitor perfectly! Kensington's Apple Has Anti-Glare Filter 
(a closeout item available for under $10 from mail-order retail- 
ers like Quality Computers) is another perfect monitor add-on, 
as is Crystal Clear Screen Cleaner (under $8 a bottle). 



How about a 

gift subscrip- 

iionlll Alive Jf tl llfT 

is only $19.95 

for a year (six 

issues) — 


order a subscription for a 
friend! Or why not try Share- 
ware Solutions II, the newslet- 
ter published by former 
inCider/A+ contributing edi- 
tor Joe Kohn that's been get- 
ting rave reviews with Apple II owners? It's just $25 for 12 issues. 
Perhaps a trial-size 3-nionth subscription to Softdisk, the maga- 
zine on disk for any model of the Apple II with 64K memory? It's 
just packed with programs, and costs just $19-95. There's a IIgs 
version, too, for just a few dollars more. 

f^tv>'- Let's not forget games! Big Red Computer 
Club and Quality Computers both have games 
^ that are bargain-priced simply because 
'^ they've lost the first blush of youth. Transyl- 
vania III for the IIgs for only $14.95? Dun- 
geon Master for the IIgs for $25.00? How can 
you miss at those prices? Call for a free catalog and see how 
long the game lists are! 

k k 

k k 

Resource Central has some excellent books in 
stock, many of which are difficult to find any- 
where else. Anyone who wants to learn 
machine language could hardly do better 
than to learn at the feet of the master, Roger 
Wagner (patron saint of the Apple II). For Apple He and He 
programmers, ih^vQ'^ Assembly lines: The Book; for Apple 
IIgs programmers, IIgs Machine Language for Beginners. 
You can pick up either for $19.95. 

If machine language is a littie deeper than you wanted to dig, 
how about Will Nelken's Ultra-AppleWorksF This UltraMacros 
tutorial will teach you the power of AppleWorks macros for just 


fif you know a IIgs user whose life was altered 
by the installation of Pointless, the WestCode 
TrueType font interpreter, then you can be 
^ sure that person will welcome a Pointless add- 
on this holiday. How about TypeWest, a collec- 
tion of ^0 professionally designed TrueType fonts? Or there's 
the newest addition, TypeSet, 
which will provide a What- 
Font menu (instead of all 
font names being printed on 
the screen in Shaston, each 
TrueType font will be shown 
in its own typeface), plus cre- 
ate custom sets of fonts for various applications (no more 
scrolling through long lists of fonts) , and print font reports. 
Both these program list for $49.95, but if you hustle, you may 
still find them at the sale price of $29.95. 

t Serious and even casual 
writers will benefit from 
the newest TimeOut 
AppleWorks add-on, 
TimeOut Grammar 
($49.95, Quality Computers). This gram- 
mar-checker can be made to check for 
outright errors (such as, "He won't loan 
me his disk drive," "So try and borrow it again tomorrow" — 
and if you didn't spot the errors in both those sentences, then 
you need this program) but can also make your writing clearer 
and more concise by eliminating wordy and pompous phrases. 
Now that AppleWorks has a spelling checker, a thesaurus, and 
a grammar checker, you won't have to spend your whole life 
regretting having dozed off in English class. 

jIIM II \ou leave your monitor on for a long time, 

^B^jlll and the same picture is always displayed on 

^gJV^ the screen, eventually the image will burn 

IBtp^^ iist'lf into the screen. If you didn't care about 

the potential for being labeled the most boring 

person in recorded history, you could make sure you turned off 

the monitor every time you moved away from your computer 

for a moment. Or you could get Twilight II, a screen saver for 

the IlGS, which lists for $49.95. If Twilight II doesn't detect 

some activity after a given period of time, it'll start showing 

pretty pictures — fireworks, worms, moire patterns, and 



^Vt^f^ «r4Mil«itt 

bouncing digital clocks — over as much of your screen as 
possible in an effort to ward off the dreaded phosphor burn. 
And yes, there's a snow pattern just right for the holiday season. 

€The Lost Tribe is a rare gem: an educational 
game that's actually fun to play. Amazing 
concept. Of course, it's from Lawrence Produc- 
tions, who are well-known for just the sort of 
subtle learning experiences provided by this 
game. At the start of The 
Lost Tribe, a volcano has 
erupted all over your vil- 
lage, leaving only a few sur- 
vivors. The remaining tribe 
had better move if it wants 
to stay alive, and they're 
looking to you to lead them 
to a new home. You'll need to exercise your decision-making 
and leadership skills to win through. (I guess this is the educa- 
tional part.) Lost Tribe requires a lies and prefers that its 
players be 8 years or older. The list price is $49.95. 

There may be nothing more useful tlian a system 
' 1^^'' software upgrade. But as a gift, it lacks excitement. 
^ Don't let that bother you, because Quality Com- 

^ li M puters offers four bonus packs to liven up Apple 

^ IlGS System 6.0.1 ($29-95). ^ , 

Bonus Pack 1 ($59-95) is a collection of r '^ S T ^"^ ^ , 

fonts, sounds, clip art, icons, utilities, f'^ ^ w^'^ 

and more. Bonus Pack 2 ($39-95) !f \ ^ \\ 

gives you more fonts, sounds, etc., i I 

plus a vims detector, art gallery, and \ ^^ 

more. Bonus Pack 3 ($29-95) is a \^ — — ^ - 

powerful collection of 16 System 6 utili- ^^ »► ^^ R^ V"- -^ 

ties. Bonus Pack 4 ($49.95) gives you a sound 

input card, microphone, sound editor, and sound effects disk. 

tWhen shopping for holiday gifts, I like to look 
for items that are just a little frivolous — some- 
thing that the recipient wouldn't necessarily 
think of buying for him or herself. The Byte 
Works' Talking Tools ($49.95), which allows 
IIgs desktop programs to read documents in a male or female 
voice, and also allows programmers to create programs with 
human speech in them, is perhaps not the most vital program- 
ming tool around, but it certainly is one of the most fun. 
Another good Byte Works buy is ORCA/Integer Basic, a compiler 
for the old BASIC language built into the original Apple II. In 
addition to its nostalgia value, it comes with complete source 
code so budding hackers can learn to write their own compilers. 


Probably the ultimate holiday gift this year is 

the AppleWorks 4.0 upgrade from Quality 

Computers. Upgrades from AppleWorks 3-0 

t>^ cost just $79-95 

5>-^ ($99-95 from version 

2.0 or 2.1). The new version includes 

features too numerous to mention 

here; check the in-depth coverage in p..- .--^™^. ^ 

the last couple of issues oi II Alive. All 

in all, this upgrade is a must-have. 


f^' If I didn't know that Infocom made the best 
p text adventure games in the business, I'd prob- 
j|. ably react with considerable skepticism to the 
^^ Lost Treasures of Infocom anthology for the 
IlGS (from Big Red Computer Club). Just 
$59-95 for 19 games? It sounds as though none of the games 
could possibly be worth owning, but just wait till you see. 
You're going to love Planetfall. Or how about Hitchhiker's 
Guide to the Galaxy, based on the smash sci-fi humor novels 
by Douglas Adams? No, wait, try The Lurking Horror. What? 
You've never played an adventure-type game before? Oh. Well, 
just sit down here with Moonmist. . . 

One of the most entertaining hardware add- 
ons is a video digitizer. If you have a video 
camera or camcorder, the ComputerEyes He 
($99-95 from Quality Computers) will allow 
you to create digitized single- or double-hi-res 
picliiies of anything that will sit still for about six seconds. (If 
your camcorder has a good freeze or still function, you can 
just freeze the image for the required time period.) It's a kick 
to see your own picture on your computer — nothing else 
comes close for pure fun value! 

€If you've never 
programmed your 
IIgs, maybe The 
Byte Works 3D Logo 
($59-95 introductory 
price, list $95.00) is the place to start. 
Logo is a language that works the 
way the human brain works, and it's so simple that it's regu- 
larly used in schools as an introduction to programming. 
Don't take it lightly, though; it's also a descendent of powerful 
Artificial Intelligence languages. 3D Logo comes with special 
3-D glasses that you can wear to actually see three-dimension- 
al effects right on the computer screen. For those who can't 
seem to drag their kids away from the computer, this could be 
the perfect way to spend a littie "quality time" with them this 
holiday season. 

j^^^^ Once upon a time, I'd have begun this seg- 
Ifll ^^ ment by cautioning that this utility is not for 
JS ^m, everyone — but these days, very few Apple II 
users can't find a use for Cross-Works 
($69.95), because everyone seems to have a 

friend and co-workers who use IBM-compatible computers. 

Cross-Works allows you to transfer files between an MS-DOS 

computer and an Apple II. It'll convert WordPerfect, dBase, 

and Lotus 1-2-3 files, to and from the appropriate AppleWorks 

module — and do it painlessly, providing a cable pretty much 

guaranteed to hook any IBM-compatible to any Apple II and 

program disks for both computers in both 

disk sizes. Where was this thing when my 

friend in a 

far-off land 

insisted on ^^ 

sending me ^^^ 

letters on ^ 




tlf there's one thing that an Apple II user needs 
today, it's support. The best place to get sup- 
port is from other Apple users, and the best 
place to find other Apple users is in the online 
community. To get online, all you need is a 
modem and communications software. If you can't find a 
2400-baud modem for less than $100, then you probably 
haven't actually looked yet! Quality Computers' Q-Modem 
2400 ($79-95) is pretty much ideal for someone who's just 
beginning and doesn't have cash to spare. If you have Apple- 
Works GS, its communications module is an ideal place to 
start; otherwise, freeware and shareware programs like 
Comm.System and ACT can bridge the gap until you're sure 
you want to invest in more powerful 
tions softare | 
(like ProTERM ^ 
3.1). Once you 
get online, you'll 1 
surprised at all you've 
been missing! 


Big Red Computer Club 
423 Norfolk Avenue 
Norfolk, NE 68701 

Quality Computers 
20200 Nine Mile Road 
SL Clair Shores, MI 48080 
(313) 774-7740 

Resource Central 
P.O. Box 11250 
Overland Park, 
KS 66207-1250 


15050 Avenue of Science, 

Suite 112 

San Diego, CA 92129 



4700 Irving Blvd N.W.,Ste. 207 

Albuquerque, NM 87114 


Softdisk Publishing 
PO Box 30008 
Shreveport,U 71130-0008 

Sun Remarketing 
P.O. Box 4069 
Logan, UT 84323 
(801) 755-3360 

Shareware Solutions II 
166 Alpine Street 
San Rafael, CA 94901 

^ ^ 1^ 1^ ^ r V ir ^ r 

by Nathaniel Sloan 

A crash to the monitor 

may be one of the most 

frustrating things an Apple 

user can encounter. 

Not only do you have no clue 

what happened, you 

also have no obvious way to 

resume the program. 

n the first installment of this two-part article, 
we discussed some of the error messages you 
might see as you used application programs 
from day to day. These error messages came 
from ProDOS, BASIC, and GS/OS. To conclude 
our coverage, we'll take a look at the more insidi- 
ous problems you can encounter — lockups, 
crashes, and fatal system errors. 

Dealincp V\fith Lockups 

When the computer just seems to stop 
responding, you may have encountered a lock- 
up (or freeze, or hang — the terms are equiva- 
lent). If the computer beeped just before freez- 
ing up, you may actually be experiencing a 
crash; try hitting Control-T, Return on a IIgs or 
C051, Return. 

The first thing to do when you think a pro- 
gram has locked up is to check the obvious. 
For example, if you told the program to print, 
and nothing is happening, make sure that your 
printer is properly connected and turned on. If 
all that seems to be in working order, check 
your Control Panel setdngs (if you have a IIgs) 
and the printer selection in the Control Panel 
or the program itself, restart, and try again. 

If the problem recurs, wait it out. Even if a 
program has never locked up on you before, that 
doesn't mean that it might not occasionally be 
considered normal behavior. (Applesoft pro- 
grams that run under DOS 3.3 can fall prey to a 
process called garbage collection which can 
make the computer unresponsive for minutes at 
a time — see "Ask Mr. Tech." in the July/ August 
issue.) Give it five minutes, or more. 

If the lockup happens when you are trying to 
load or save files, and you have a lies with a 
third-party 3.5" drive, try putting a formatted 
disk in your empty drives. Some third-party 
drives can "hold up" the system when GS/OS is 
scanning for a disk. 

Try pressing Escape, Control-C, Apple-Peri- 
od, and other standard "cancel" keys. Click the 
mouse repeatedly. If the program responds by 
giving you control back, then you know that 
the program was simply waiting for something 
to happen (a disk to be inserted, or whatever) 
and wasn't truly locking you out. This can 
often clue you in on what, exactly, you should 
be doing — "Oh, duh, of course it's waiting for 
me to put in the program disk." 

If the computer really is frozen, press Con- 
trol-Reset. Some software allows you to return 
to the program's main menu with this key- 
press, while other software will simply restart 
the computer (or crash or hang even worse). If 
you're still in the program after hitting Con- 
trol-Reset, though, save your files immediately 
(under a different name so that you don't erase 
your originals in case the new copies were 
somehow damaged by the malfunction) and try 
the operation again. 

If all else fails, you may be the victim of a 
System Software conflict, a hardware problem, 
or a bona fide program bug. 

Dealinci Vlfith CrasKes 

A crash to the monitor may be one of the 
most frustrating things an Apple user can 
encounter. Not only do you have no clue what 
happened, you also have no obvious way to 
resume the program. 

A well-written program, in theory, will 
never crash. However, as a fellow named Mur- 
phy proved, theory doesn't always hold in the 
real world. When you encounter a crash, make 
a note of the message printed on the screen 
(see Figure 1 for a sample) and keep it handy 
in case it becomes necessary to contact the 
publisher of the software. The information 
printed on the screen in the case of a crash to 
the monitor can help the programmers pinpoint 
the source of the problem. 

Most crashes are not recoverable. You can 
try Control-Reset; if you were running a 
BASIC program, you can also try Control-C 
followed by Return and a RUN command. In 
most cases, however, you can assume a bug in 
the program, a system software conflict, or a 
hardware problem. 

Dealincp V\fitK System 
Software Conflicts 

System software conflicts can cause all sorts 
of annoying problems, including lockups and 
crashes — especially on the Apple IIgs, which 
has literally dozens of interrelated files that 
make up the system software. If you've added 
programs like Pointless, Signature, Six Pack, 
Twilight, Kangaroo, and other desk acces- 
sories, control panels, or INITs to your startup 
disk, you have even more potential for trouble. 
If a program is incompatible with Apple's soft- 
ware, it's obvious who needs to fix the prob- 



lem, but if two non-Apple software packages 
are involved, you may see a lot of finger-point- 
ing before the real problem is identified and 

That's not to say that Apple's system soft- 
ware is without bugs. The first release of Pro- 
DOS 8 2.0, for example, had a bug which 
caused systems to crash if the user had more 
than 14 disk devices attached to the computer. 
This limit was easy to exceed if you had a hard 
drive with a RamFAST/SCSI controller, since 
both ProDOS and the RamFAST tried to remap 
hard drive volumes into unused slot/drive com- 
binations. This meant that each hard drive par- 
tition would end up in being "seen" twice. A 
moderate-sized hard drive with five partitions 
would generate ten drive entries; add a couple 
3.5" drives, a 5.25" drive, and a RAM Disk, 
and you crashed. Both Apple and the manufac- 
turers of the RamFAST/SCSI card provided a 
solution to this problem. 

More recently, a bug in the System 6 font 
manager caused a conflict with Pointless, the 
third-party software which allows Apple IIgs 
computers to use TrueType fonts. If you had a 
TrueType font but no bit-mapped (standard) 
versions of the font, the system crashed when 
you tried to use one of those fonts. An INIT to 
fix this bug was quickly released by Softdisk, 
and its functionality was later incorporated into 
a new version of Pointless. 

To see if a particular crash or lockup is the 
result of a system software conflict, try starting 
up the computer while holding down the Shift 
key. Under System 6, this causes the computer 
to skip the loading of any control panels, desk 
accessories, or INITs which normally load at 
startup. (If you use an older version of the Sys- 
tem Software, or even if you use System 6, try 
starting up your computer from a fresh copy of 
the 3.5" System Disk.) Then try to recreate the 
problem by following the same steps that 
caused it originally. If the problem does not 
recur, you have likely discovered a conflict 
with one of the desk accessories, INITs, or con- 
trol panels on your startup disk. Remove all the 
non-Apple files from the Desk. Aces, 
System.Setup, Control. Panels, and FinderEx- 
tras folders inside your System folder, then 
place the items back in one at a time (restarting 
after adding each) to see if the problem recurs. 
When the problem recurs, the conflict lies in 
the last file you added. 

Once you have pinpointed the potential con- 
flict in this way, contact the publishers of the 
software involved. It is possible — even like- 
ly — that one or the other company is already 
aware of the problem and has released a revi- 
sion that solves it. 


|5No n -IIgs App 1 e lis: ■"'*' -11111111 

E4EA4: A=4 2 X = 71 Y=AF S==D8 P^llHiii 

l^l^^.e IIgs: iSiiltiil' 

^ilimi;,: O'O' " ' '^ " BRK O' ^ "'"''■ 

i^^il|ix=0014 Y=OOAF S = I3F0 D=0800 P = 10 B=09 K=04 M=OC Q=80 L=l m=0 


If the problem continues even after booting 
with the Shift key down (or from a floppy 
disk), and the program that's crashing is rather 
old, try older versions of the system software. 
If you normally use System 6, get a System 5 
startup disk and try that. Try System 4 if the 
program doesn't work under System 5. While 
Apple tries to maintain compatibility between 
versions of the system software, software has 
to follow Apple's programming guidelines to 
guarantee full compatibility with all versions. 
Old programs written before this lesson was 
learned sometimes don't work properly with 
new system software. (A prime example of this 
problem is Paintworks Gold, which was 
released under System 4 and was later found 
incompatible with System 5. Worse, the pub- 
lisher wasn't interested in upgrading the soft- 
ware. Luckily, a one-byte patch was discov- 
ered to solve the problem.) 

Hardv\fare Problems 

As if you didn't already have enough to 
worry about, it's possible that some crashes or 
hangs may actually be the result of a hardware 
problem — especially if they occur frequently 
and in many different programs. This is not 
intended to be an in-depth discussion of hard- 
ware diagnosis and repair, but there are a few 
simple things you can check. You should 
check every other possible problem before 
assuming that you have encountered a hard- 
ware glitch, since hardware problems are, in 
fact, quite rare. 

Don't overlook the computer's built-in self 
tests (Apple-Option-Control-Reset or both- 
Apples-Control-Reset). (Some accelerators, 
such as the Zip GS, will cause the self- test to 
fail in various ways — this is normal and does 
not indicate an actual malfunction. Don't for- 
get to check the manual if you have an acceler- 
ator.) Also run any other diagnostic software 
you have on hand — for example, an accelera- 
tor diagnostic disk or memory test software 
(AppleWorks GS comes with a memory tester 
if you didn't get one with your memory card). 
This may help you pinpoint the problem with- 
out even opening your computer. If you have 
an accelerator, make sure it is set to run any 
slot with a disk interface (usually slot 5 and/or 
slot 6) at slow speed. 

Important! Before taking the top off your 
computer, make sure it's turned off (but leave 
it plugged in). Touch the computer's power 
supply frequently to drain chip-damaging static 
electricity from your body. 

First, check all the socketed chips on your 
computer's logic board. Press them down firm- 
ly with your thumb to ensure that they're seat- 

ed properly, and visually inspect them to make 
sure the pins actually go into the sockets and 
are not bent under the chips. Check your 
peripheral cards for grunge on the gold con- 
nector fingers; if you find any, clean the fingers 
by lightly rubbing them with a soft pencil eras- 
er. (Lightly! The gold is soft and can be 
removed if you rub too vigorously.) Make sure 
the cards sit snugly in their slots; they should 
not rock or wobble. Similarly, check all the 
cables connected to your computer to make 
sure none of the pins are missing or bent and 
that all are firmly connected. If you have a 
SCSI hard drive, make sure it's properly termi- 
nated. If you have more than one SCSI hard 
drive, only the last should be terminated. 

If you have a lot of cards in your computer 
(more than two), you may be running into a 
heat problem. (If your system occasionally 
gives you a Fatal Error 0911, excess heat is 
almost certainly the culprit.) Your computer's 
chips depend on being able to shed heat into 
the air inside the case. When the air becomes 
as warm as the chips, this is no longer possible, 
and the chips will begin to overheat. (A layer 
of dust in the computer also serves to keep heat 
inside chips.) The most sensitive chips seem to 
be the ADB (keyboard/mouse) chip and the 
high-speed processor chips found in accelera- 

To diagnose a heat problem, leave the top 
off your computer and run it that way for a few 
days. If the problem goes away, the problem is 
probably heat; get a fan. (If you already have a 
fan and are still having heat problems, you 
may have more serious troubles; something 
inside the computer is becoming far hotter than 
it was intended to be, or one of the chips is 
excessively sensitive to heat.) 

If you have more than four cards in your 
computer, you may be overstressing the power 
supply. An overstressed power supply creates 
a "brownout" condition inside the computer, 
and power-hungry peripheral cards may not 
function properly. Try pulling out a few cards 
for a while and see if the problems continue. If 
not, try a heavy-duty power supply. 

Some peripherals are simply incompatible 
with each other, or vv^ith certain software. As a 
last resort, contact the manufacturer of the card 
that's giving you trouble and pick their brains 
about potential problems. 

Fatal System Errors 

As we mentioned, the "fatal" in Fatal Sys- 
tem Error doesn't mean that your computer is 
about to explode. It merely means that a situa- 
tion exists that prevents the computer from 
continuing to run your program. You must 
reboot to continue using the computer. Usual- 
ly, these errors are caused by software prob- 
lems and do not indicate a hardware malfunc- 
tion. Here are a few of the more common ones: 

Can 't load/unload resource. You may have 
a damaged disk or the wrong disk is in the 
drive. Check that the proper disks are in the 
drives and try again. If that fails, boot with a 
new copy of the System Disk and re-run the 
program. If that works, the system software on 



your hard drive may be corrupted; you should 
re-install it from your master disks. (You may 
also have a system software conflict; see the 
appropriate section above.) Otherwise, you 
may have found a legitimate program bug. 

Damaged Heartbeat Queue Detected 
($0308), Damaged Queue Detected ($0681), 
Queue Handle Damaged ($0682). These errors 
usually indicate that some program is "stomp- 
ing on" memory that doesn't belong to it — 
meaning that there's a bug in the program 
that's corrupting memory. The difficulty lies in 
determining exactly which program is causing 
the problem. If you get the error seemingly 
without cause in a lot of different programs, 
then the culprit is proba- 
bly in one of your system 
software components. If 
the error happens in one 
particular program, it 
could still be a conflict 
between that program and 
something in your System 
folder, but it's more likely 
to be a bug in the applica- 
tion itself. A final possi- 
bility is that there is a 
defect in your memory 
expansion card. 

Screen Reserved 
($0410), Out of Memory 
($0201). These errors 
mean that the computer 
can't get some memory it 
needs. Often, this is a 
result of a low-memory situation. However, it 
can also mean that memory has become frag- 
mented — filled up with individual chunks of 
data with no way to join the free memory into 
one big chunk. You may be able to simply 
reboot and not see the error again; however, 
you may want to expand your memory or 
reduce the amount of memory required to boot 
your system by removing some of the INITs, 
control panels, or desk accessories in your Sys- 
tem folder, all of which eat up memory which 
could otherwise be used for applications. A 
temporary solution is to boot with the Shift key 
held down so that none of these add-on pro- 
grams are loaded. 

Parting Shot 

Most of the problems you encounter with 
your computer can be solved easily. But even 
though errors aren't difficult to deal with, it's 
better not to have them at all! Here, then, are 
some tips for error-free computing. 

Back up. Back up your hard drive, your data 
disks, and other important files. Save often as 
you work, especially before doing something 
which you have learned from experience could 
crash the computer. Crashes are only a minor 
annoyance if you don't lose anything; they 
only take on mammoth proportions when you 
lose an hour' s (or a week' s) work. 

Try to use only finished versions of pro- 
grams. If a program has a version number less 
than 1.0, or if it ends in A or B (for "alpha" 
and "beta,") the program may be a pre-release 

version. You might want to think twice before 
using it. These programs are often seriously 
buggy, which is why they weren't released. A 
similar warning applies to really old programs 
which were written before System 5 was 
released. Try to get an updated version if at all 

Use solid System Software. System 6.0.1 
fixes literally dozens of bugs in System 6. 
ProDOS 2.0.2 fixes bugs in ProDOS 2.0. The 
operating system is the foundation of every- 
thing you do on your computer; make sure it's 
stable. When a new version of the System 
Software is released (as with System 6), you 
may want to keep the old version (5.0.4 in this 
case) for a while, until 

the ''fatal'' in 

Fatal System Error 

doesn't mean that your 

computer is about to 

explode. It merely 

means that a situation 

exists that prevents 

the computer from 

continuing to run your 


you've had a chance to 
thoroughly test all your 
programs under the 
new version. 

Be aware of the limi- 
tations of programs 
that ''break rules. " 
The IlGS was not 
designed to run more 
than one program 
simultaneously; there- 
fore, there are limita- 
tions inherent in pro- 
grams like The Manag- 
er. Not to pick on The 
Manager — any pro- 
gram which changes a 
fundamental assump- 
tion about the way the 
computer operates may cause problems with 
some applications which rely on that assump- 
tion. Programs like HardPressed, Pointless 
and Kangaroo qualify for this caveat, as do 
screen-blankers and macro programs. That's 
not to say that you should not use these pro- 
grams, but you should fully understand exactly 
what they do before installing them. Try to 
avoid so-called "No-Tool" programs — they 
may not handle errors in a particularly friendly 

You might notice that we didn't mention 
viruses. That's because a virus is the last thing 
you should expect as the cause of your prob- 
lem. Your computer cannot spontaneously 
contract a virus; you must run an "infected" 
program to transfer the virus to the programs 
on your computer. You can't get viruses from 
data files, only from programs, and you can't 
get viruses just by using a modem. You cer- 
tainly can't get IBM or Macintosh viruses on 
your Apple II. There have only been a few 
Apple II viruses in the history of the computer, 
and all have been exterminated so thoroughly 
that the chance of one ever "biting" you is 
infinitesimal. In fact, I'd suggest that a hard- 
ware problem is more likely than a virus infec- 

I hope that these two articles have shed some 
light upon the often confusing world of errors 
and crashes. When you know how to handle 
problems like these, your computing experi- 
ence can be less frustrating and more fulfilling. 
A little knowledge goes a long way ! ■ 


WHEN mmm occur 


Consult the table in the previous issue for an 

explanation of the error. You may be able to 

correct the problem and continue with the 



If you arrive at the ] prompt, list the line number 
mentioned in the error message. Usually these 
are a result of typographical errors in the pro- 
gram. You may be able to fix the problem and 
RUN the program again. 

BASiCL^' ^':^- ■■- ORS 

Use the table in the previous issue to translate 
these to an equivalent ProDOS error message, 
then look up that ProDOS error. You may be 
able to correct the problem and continue with 
the program, or you may have to type RUN to 
restart the program. 


Type Control-T, Return (llgs) or C051, Return 
(lle/llc) to see if there's a crash or error mes- 
sage "hiding behind" a frozen graphics screen. 
Press Command-., Escape, Control-C, and 
other "Cancel" keys to see if the program is 
really hung or if it's waiting for you to do some- 
thing. If the is program looking for a particular 
peripheral device, check to make sure the 
device is present and turned on. 

Make a note of the message displayed on your 
screen (it can help the programmer to deter- 
mine where things went wrong). In some cases, 
pressing Control-Reset or Control-C, Return 
can recover, but not always. 

If you suspect a system software conflict is 
causing your crash or lockup, temporarily de- 
activate all INITs, control panels, and desk 
accessories by holding down Shift as you boot 
(or boot from a floppy disk). If this cures the 
problems, remove all third-party items from 
your System folder. Replace them one by one, 
rebooting each time, to determine which one is 
the culprit. Try booting an older version of the 
system software. Some old programs may not 
run with the latest version. 

Turn off the computer before opening it. Make 
sure there's no dust inside the computer. Press 
down firmly on ail the chips to make sure 
they're seated properly. Check the peripheral 
cards for dirty contacts. Run the self-test (Both- 
Appies-Control-Reset or Apple-Option-Control- 
Reset) and any other diagnostic software you 
have on hand. Try removing cards one at a 
time to pinpoint conflicts. Consider a fan and/or 
a beefed-up power supply if you have mor§ 
than 2-3 peripheral cards in the computer. 

Try to isolate the problem that caused the error. 
If it occurs in all programs, it's probably a sys- 
tem software conflict; if it occurs mainly in one 
program, it's likely to be a bug in that program. 




(Continued from page 18) 

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MS-DOS Coimections 

bv Douglas Cuff 

It happens to the best of us. At some point, 
for some reason or another, it becomes nec- 
essary to either read MS-DOS disks on our 
Apple IPs or use IBMs (or compatibles) to 
read ProDOS disks. At first glance, this may 
seem like an impossible task — but all is not 
lost! In fact, there is not one but several ways 
to transfer data from Apple disks to IBM disks 
(and back). Some of them require you to ask a 
small favor from a friend with another comput- 
er, but only the most misanthropic of computer 
hermits will view this with trepidation. 

An important thing to note before you start 
is that file transfer isn't the whole story, nor is 
it even where the story ends. File formats are 
also important. AppleWorks word processor 
files will need some massaging before Word- 
Perfect will read them and vice versa. There 
are utilities that can help you with this. If the 
data you are trying to transfer is in plain ASCII 
text files, though, you shouldn't have many 
problems. Whatever the case, always transfer a 
small file first, then check it. Once you have 
verified that a small file is okay, let the transfer 
begin in earnest! 


There are many possible approaches to 
cross-platform data transfers. The easiest — and 
most expensive — solutions are hardware emu- 
lators. For Apple II computers, a product 
called the PC Transporter (PCT), essentially an 
IBM XT on a card, allows you to attach IBM- 
style MS-DOS 5.25" disk drives to your Apple 
II in order to read and write with them. A nice 
bonus is that you can also attach your existing 
Apple 3.5 drives to your PCT and read and 
write 3.5" IBM disks. The PCT comes with 
software to copy files from ProDOS to MS-DOS 
and back. Although it has been discontinued, it 
was manufactured by Applied Engineering 
(P.O. Box 5100, Carrollton, Texas 75011 214- 
241-6060). The list price, without any extra 
disk drives, is approximately $400, but you 
should be able to pick it up for $260 via mail- 
order houses which still have them in stock. 

There is a similar "Apple Il-on-a-card" solu- 

tion in the MS-DOS world: Trackstar Plus, 
available from Diamond Computer Systems 
(532 Mercury Drive, Sunnyvale, California 
94086-4018 408-736-2000). Like the PC 
Transporter, the Trackstar is not cheap — the 
list price is $279. 

Emulators are expensive because they do 
more than transfer files — they allow you to run 
software from the "foreign" computer. The PC 
Transporter, for instance, will let you run Lotus 
1-2-3 on your Apple II! (However, compared 
to the current state of the art, a PCT is pokey 

The most elegant "cable" 
solution is a commercial 
software/hardlififare pack- 
age called Cross-Works. It 
requires almost no techni- 
cal knowledge fbeyond 
how to plug in a cable) and 
is very easy to imork iniith. 

and has poor graphics and virtually no memo- 
ry.) If price is a problem but you'd still like to 
do more than just transfer files, you might find 
a secondhand emulator for sale. You certainly 
don't need an emulator if file transfer is your 
only goal, though. 


Early Apple II disk drives could not read 
MS-DOS disks because of fundamental differ- 
ences between the way data are encoded, but 
the newer Apple SuperDrive (also known as 

the FDHD) can handle double- and high-densi- 
ty MS-DOS disks with ease. To use the Super- 
Drive on any Apple II, you need Apple's high- 
density drive card. 

If you have an Apple IIgs running System 
Software 6.0.1, you'll be glad to know that 
there's an MS-DOS FST (File System Transla- 
tor) included with it that will allow you to read 
(but not write) MS-DOS 720K and 1.44 
megabyte disks. This FST requires either an 
Apple SuperDrive or a Floptical drive attached 
to a SCSI card. 

If you have an Apple SuperDrive and high- 
density drive card connected to your Apple He 
or lie, there is also a freeware program called 
MSDOS.COPY by Hugh McKay (of Montreal, 
Quebec, Canada) that can read 720K and 1.44 
megabyte MS-DOS diskettes, provided the file 
is not more than seven directory levels deep. It 
was available well in advance of system 6.0.1 
and does not require a IlGS. MSDOS.COPY is 
available on international networks such as 
CompuServe and GEnie or from your local 
Apple users group or BBS. 

What if you want to move ProDOS files to 
MS-DOS? If you have a device capable of writ- 
ing 1 .44 megabyte ProDOS diskettes (such as a 
SuperDrive or Floptical drive), Hugh McKay 
has written a program for MS-DOS computers 
called PROCOPY, which allows MS-DOS to 
read these special diskettes. It too is available 
on CompuServe and GEnie. One version can 
be downloaded by an Apple II and will unpack 
on your SuperDrive to a MS-DOS 1.44 
megabyte diskette (quite a trick!); another ver- 
sion, a .ZIP file, is meant to be downloaded 
direcdy to an MS-DOS machine. 

There are sdll other hardware options: Con- 
version Technology Inc. (c/o Patrick L. 
McLaughlin, 516 12th Avenue, Salt Lake City, 
Utah 84103 801-364-4171) sells a card called 
the FDC-10 that allows you to connect 3.5" and 
5.25" MS-DOS disk drives to any Apple II. It 
comes with an MS-DOS kernel, similar to the 
ProDOS kernel, which allows Apple II pro- 
grammers to write their own transfer software 
(in BASIC, Pascal, etc.). The card comes in a 




standard version at $99.95. This version 
requires the drive to have a separate power 
supply. The HP (host-powered) version costs 
about $40-50 more, but can power 3.5" and 
low-power 5.25" drives. 

When I spoke with Patrick McLaughlin of 
CTI, he said that Quality Computers was con- 
sidering marketing this card, perhaps packaged 
with pre- written transfer software and drives. 
Walker Archer of Quality Computers con- 
firmed this, saying, "We had considered pro- 
ducing it, but ... in order to be a really decent 
product for the GS it would require a driver be 
written for it." He also joked that if there were 
sufficient interest, "I could be harangued into 
pursuing the project again." 

A similar card was once sold by ASKY Inc. 
(2998 Scott Boulevard, Santa Clara, California 
95054 408-727-3606). Their Envoy card 
allowed you to attach 5.25" MS-DOS disk dri- 
ves to an Apple II. The Envoy did not support 
3.5" drives. It came with software that, 
although not elegant, worked fine. It may not 
still be in production, however, as the company 
never seemed to be in their office and did not 
return my calls. Another similar card was a 
Russian product, the fabled Liberty Disk Con- 
troller (LDC). It too came with its own soft- 
ware. Although Canadian-based Micol Indus- 
tries made an attempt at distributing the Liber- 
ty card, in the West, it did not sell well and is 
so scarce today as to be almost unobtainable. 

MS-DOS users who need to read Apple II 
disks could look into the Matchpoint card from 
MicroSolutions, Inc. (132 W Lincoln High- 
way, De Kalb, Illinois 60115 815-756-3421), 
which allows you to read and write 5.25" 
Apple DOS 3.3 and ProDOS, plus SOS and 
CP/M, diskettes. Matchpoint requires an 8-bit 
slot and may require slight modification to 
your PC's disk drives. Matchpoint does not, 
however, require you to buy new drives for 
your PC. This card is still available at a price of 
$95 but the manufacturer indicated it will like- 
ly be discontinued once the current stock runs 


If you have an Apple II and a MS-DOS com- 
puter in the same room (or less than 50 feet 
apart), transferring data by cable is trivial. If 
each machine has a modem, you can connect 
the modems with a standard telephone cable — 
without involving the phone line at all — and 
treat this connection as a "cable." Once you 
connect the two modems and start telecommu- 
nications software on each end, an "ATO" 
command (ATtention, Online) should be all 
that's needed to link the two computers. Alter- 
nately, you can build or buy a cable that will 
establish a similar, but faster, connection 
(more on that below). Doing cable transfers 
this way requires a little technical knowledge 
and the patience to play around with parame- 
ters until everything works. 

The most elegant "cable" solution is a com- 

mercial software/hardware package called 
Cross-Works. It requires almost no technical 
knowledge (beyond how to plug in a cable) 
and is very easy to work with. Cross-Works 
contains program disks for both Apple II and 
MS-DOS computers, and a cable to connect the 
two machines. (The special cable has the right 
connector regardless of which kind of comput- 
ers you have — there are two connectors on the 
IBM end and three on the Apple end!) Cross- 
Works works right out of the box on the Apple 
lie and IIgs, but Apple He users will need a 
Super Serial Card or compatible interface. The 
pubhshers of Cross-Works will sell you a com- 
patible serial card, or you can shop around for 

Cross-Works will not only transfer files but 
also translate them: AppleWorks word proces- 
sor to/from WordPerfect; AppleWorks word 
processor to/from Microsoft Works; Apple- 
Works database to/from dBase; AppleWorks 
spreadsheet to/from Lotus 1-2-3. Even if you 
don't use those specific programs on the IBM, 
most IBM programs can use them. Apple II 
users will find the AppleWorks-like interface 

Cross-Works lists for approximately $100 
from SoftSpoken (P.O. Box 18343, Raleigh, 
North Carolina 27619 800-777-3642 or 91 9- 
870-5694); you may be able to find at a better 
price from mail-order houses. SoftSpoken will 
also sell you an extra-long 50-foot cable if 
your Apple II and a MS-DOS computers are 
close but not in the same room. Even if you 
use another method to transfer the files, Cross - 
Works' translation feature can still be quite 
helpful in converting your files. The file con- 
version takes place on the MS-DOS computer 
and can be run independently of the transfer 

If you eschew the easy way and decide to 
tackle the cable transfer by your wits alone, 
you'll need a null modem cable. Some Apple 
II printer cables are nearly equivalent to a null 
modem cable. One Apple lie user reported 
being able to run his ImageWriter printer cable 
directly to the MS-DOS machine's DB-25 pin 
RS-232 serial port. Once he had activated the 
Apple's printer port with "PR#1," he had the 
choice of using an MS-DOS terminal program 
or the MS-DOS COPY command to capture the 
data he "printed." Any text that appeared on 
his Apple IPs text screen was captured by the 
MS-DOS computer, including his Applesoft 
BASIC program listings! (Don't get too excit- 
ed — even though the PC's BASIC language is 
somewhat similar to Applesoft, these programs 
won't run on the MS-DOS computer without 

extensive conversion.) 

To try this, run MS-DOS telecommunications 
software and set the parameters for 9600 baud, 
7 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity. Other 
parameters may also be used; just make sure 
the parameters are set identically on both 
machines. Instruct the MS-DOS program to 
open its capture buffer before typing "PR#1" 
on the Apple II, then close the buffer and save 
it to disk when you're done. 

A second method is slightly more sophisti- 
cated. At the IBM-compatible computer's DOS 
prompt, type "MODE COMx: 9600,n,7,l,n" (x 
should be replaced with the number of the seri- 
al port). Then type "COPY COMx 
FILENAME. EXT." Begin printing from the 
Apple. Once you're finished sending text, send 
a Control-Z (CHR$(26)) from the Apple II to 
make the MS-DOS machine close the file. 

More sophisticated transfer is possible using 
communications software on both the Apple II 
and MS-DOS machines. This allows you to 
transfer files at higher speeds and to use error 
correcting protocols to ensure that no transmis- 
sion errors occur. 

Einally, it is possible to have Apple lis and 
IBM compatible machine linked together on 
the same local area network. Any competent 
piece of networking software will allow for 
transfer of files. 


If you have access to an Apple II and to a 
MS-DOS computer, even if they are more than 
50 feet apart, you can use a modem instead of 
a cable. 

Set the modem on your Apple II to answer 
the phone when it rings. This might be as sim- 
ple at typing "ATA" or "ATSO=0" while in ter- 
minal mode of your favorite telecommunica- 
tions software. Consult the manual for your 
modem and software if you are in doubt. Then 
have a friend use the modem on an MS-DOS 
machine to call your number. Again, make 
sure your baud rates, parity, and stop bits 
match. Make sure both machines are set to 
"local echo" or "half duplex" so that you can 
type messages back and forth to each other 




The Apple II's Sweet Sixteen is 
an event worth celebrating. 
And nobody's partying harder 
than the Apple II RoundTables 
(A2 and A2Pro) on GEnie. 

Where else can you find 
thousands of programs and files 
for your favorite computer, fun 

support representatives from 
dozens of Apple II companies, 
and an electronic university tha^ 
can teach anyone — ^yes, you — 
how to program? All this and 
the lowest rates of any major 
service — just $3 per hour.* 

The best support — the best 
value — and the most fun! An 
unbeatable combination you'll 
find only in GEnie 's Apple II 
RoundTables. Get your modem 
in gear and sign up today! 

The Apple II RoundTables 

stop bit, no parity, half duplex (local echo off), and 
2400 BPSor less. Then dial 1-800-638-8369 (1-800- 
387-8330 in Canada). 

When GEnie answers, type HHH immediately. At the 
"Ll#= prompt, enter XTX99017,APPLE and press Return. 
Then follow the simple on-screen instructions. Have 
your credit card or checking account number ready. 

If you encounter difficulties in the signup procedure, or 
if you would like more information about GEnie, contact 
GEnie Client Services at 1-800-638-9636, or write to 
^ille, MD 20850 U.S.A. 

while you're connected. Your modem should 
pick up the phone when it rings, and the other 
modem will try to make a connection. Once a 
connection is made, you shouldn't have any 
trouble sending or receiving files using Zmo- 
dem or another transfer protocol. 

If you don't know with an IBM, you could 
upload your files to a local BBS, or to the per- 
sonal file area or electronic mailbox of an 
account on a service such as GEnie, Com- 
puServe or America Online using one of the 
computers. Then download the files using the 
other computer. 


Strangely enough, a Macintosh makes an 
excellent peripheral for transferring files from 
Apple II to IBM format! 

If you want to transfer Apple II data to a 
MS-DOS computer, begin by making sure your 
files are on a 3.5" ProDOS disk. Take that disk 
to someone with a Mac. The Mac must be a 
model with a high-density (1.44 MB) 3.5" 
drive. Use the Apple File Exchange program 
(AFE), which comes on one of the Macintosh 
system disks, to copy the files from the Pro- 
DOS disk to the Mac's hard drive. You can 
then easily write to an MS-DOS disk using AFE. 
AFE can also be used to format ProDOS or MS- 
DOS disks. 

Some Macintosh models come with a pro- 
gram called PC Exchange which allows easy 
transfer back and forth between a Macintosh 
and a DOS computer by fooling the Mac into 
thinking that the MS-DOS disk is really a Mac- 
intosh disk. This lets you stick an MS-DOS disk 
into the drive and copy files to and from MS- 
DOS disks right from the Finder. The Macin- 
tosh LC He Card comes with a program which 
performs the same feat with ProDOS disks. 

A program which doesn't come with the 
Macintosh, but which can be useful if your Mac 
friend has it, is MacLinkPlus/PC. It contains 
over 400 format translation combinations. Like 
Cross-Works, this program translates files so 
that other programs can understand them. The 
program is designed to translate between Mac to 
MS-DOS file formats, but used in conjunction 
with AFE's translations, it may be helpful. 


Some conversion services and service 
bureaus handle Apple II disks. You may have 
a hard time finding one, though. Check your 
local Yellow Pages. If you find a service that 
does support the Apple II, be sure to get the 
word out for the benefit of others trying to 
accompfish the same thing! 


Once you have your files transferred, there 
still may be a few steps to take. If your files 
came from a BBS or other online service, you 
may have to unpack them. 

Apple II users who want to unpack MS-DOS 

.ZIP files will like Angel, by Tony Marques of 
Terrace, British Columbia, Canada. Angel 
requires at least an enhanced Apple He (that is, 
with a 65C02 processor) and 128K. Apple IIgs 
users will also be able to use PMPUnzip, a 
shareware program from Parkhurst Micro 
Products (2491 San Ramon Valley Blvd., Suite 
1-317, San Ramon, CA 94583, USA, phone 
510-837-9098). Both Angel and PMPUnzip can 
handle PKZIP 2.04 archives. 

MS-DOS users who want to unpack Shrinkit 
archives will find a MS-DOS version of 
Shrinkit available under the name NULIB. 
Beware of versions earfier than 3.24, as they 
had problems making ProDOS filenames MS- 
DOS compatible. (ProDOS permits 15-charac- 
ter filenames; MS-DOS limits you to 8 charac- 
ters for the filename and 3 for the extension, as 

It is important to know that ProDOS and MS- 
DOS treat hard returns differently. ProDOS 
requires only a carriage retum at the end of a 
line or paragraph, while MS-DOS requires a car- 
riage retum and a linefeed. If you are sending 
from ProDOS to MS-DOS, you will want to 
insert linefeeds before you send the file. If you 
are sending from MS-DOS to ProDOS, you will 
want to strip linefeeds after you send the file. 
On the Apple II side, linefeeds will show up in 
a text file as control- Js. In an AppleWorks word 
processing file, linefeeds will show up, as all 
control-characters will — as number signs (#). 

Fortunately, there are many freeware and 
shareware utilities to strip and/or insert line- 
feeds — and the Mac AFE program and PMPun- 
zip can handle this automatically. The file 
transfer protocol Zmodem also takes care of 
this transparently when transmitting text files. 
Apple II users can use Harold Portnoy's part 
freeware/part shareware program Change -A- 
File, Stowe Keller's shareware LIST, or Karl 
Bunker's freeware LINEFEED. IR; MS-DOS 
users can look to download ADDLF.EXE from 
CompuServe or CRLF.ARC from GEnie; both 
are free. 

Apple II users transferring their files to MS- 
DOS may have some disks formatted under 
Apple's DOS 3.3 (not to be confused with MS- 
DOS 3.3, which is also referred to as DOS 3.3). 
You will find it quite an easy matter to transfer 
your DOS 3.3 data to ProDOS using the System 
6 DOS 3.3 FST, Apple System Utilities, Copy 
II Plus, or the older CONVERT utility. The 
shareware program Chameleon will do all this, 
plus transfer files stored on Apple CP/M and 
Pascal disks, if you have any of those hanging 


With the introduction of System 6.0.1, the 
Apple IIgs can read disks in MS-DOS format, 
in Macintosh HFS format, and of course in 
Apple II DOS 3.3, Pascal, ProDOS and GS/OS 
format. There are a wealth of other options, 
too, bringing us one step closer to cross-plat- 
form compatibility and to being one big happy 
computer-using global family. ■ 



Distant Storm 





by Carolyn Craig 


Editor's Note: This month, we feature the art of Carolyn Craig, a 
computer art teacher in Shelbyville, Indiana. Her art was created 
with 816 Paint and Platinum Paint. Craig also included some notes 
on the technique of dithering and how it relates to the various 
graphics modes, which may be valuable to readers attempting to 
give their art more lifelike shading. 

Dithering is the placement of two solid colors in adjacent dots (pix- 
els) to fool the eye and thus create a new color which is a mixture of the 
two solid colors. Not all paint programs have this ability, but those that 
do — such as Baudville's 816 Pa/n/— permit a greater range of colors on 
the computer. 

Dithering is a concept that applies to all of the Apple's graphics 
modes: Standard Apple II high-resolution graphics support extremely 
coarse dithering. The screen contains 280 columns of dots horizontally 
and 192 lines vertically. There are two color palettes available: one con- 
sists of black, white, green, and violet; the other consists of black, 
white, orange, and blue. Due to the limitations of the high-resolution 
graphics mode, colors from one palette cannot be placed horizontally 
adjacent to colors from the other palette. However, the black and white 
colors look the same in both palettes and can be used (with some trick- 
ery and careful placement) as a transition between one palette and the 
other. Another common technique when areas of color from different 
palettes must meet is to place colors from one palette on even screen 
lines and colors from the other palette on odd screen lines. 

Double-high-resolution graphics (available on Apple He, IIgs, and lie 

with 128K memory) have double the horizontal resolution of standard 

high-res screens: 560 x 192. The color palette has sixteen solid colors: 


black, red, dark blue, violet, dark green, grey 1, medium blue, light 
blue, brown, orange, grey 2, pink, light green, yellow, aquamarine, and 
white. Unlike standard high-res, you can use any color next to any other 
color, though some jagged edges and bleeding may be apparent with 
some color combinations. By dithering these sixteen colors in various 
ways, it is possible to paint with over 4,000 "colors." 

320 mode (available on the Apple IIgs) is the best vehicle for the 
artist, as it supports sixteen different user-defined colors from a range 
of 4,096. (That is, there are 4,096 colors possible, but you can only use 
sixteen at a time. You get to choose which sixteen you want to use.) 
Most paint programs allow you to modify these sixteen colors individu- 
ally by adding or subtracting red, green, and blue (the three primary 
colors of light) as well as by specifying the hue, saturation, and intensity 
of the color. 816 Paint allows each painting to have eight different 
palettes, which can be "cycled" to produce a form of animation. The 
resolution is 320 x 200 — only a little finer than standard high resolution, 
but actually much better since you can choose your own colors. 

In 640 mode (also on the IIgs), the screen is 640 x 200. The comput- 
er maintains two separate four-color palettes for even and odd num- 
bered pixels on a line, and can dither pixels in these even/odd palettes 
to create quite fine-looking dithered colors. However, it is more difficult 
to adjust the colors because of the dithering: changing one primary 
color in the palette will affect the other colors which are created from 
this color. 640 mode was really designed for Desktop programs which 
must be able to display clear, readable text, and is not well suited to 
the artist. ■ 

Golden Eagle 



Shadow Fringe 


Caloke Industries 58 

Christella Enterprise 58 

GEnie , 


InTrec Software, Inc 20 

Memory Plus Distributors 14 

Mindscape 27 

Perfect Solutions 58 

Quality Computers CV2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 23, 24, 43, 50, 53, 59, CV3, CV4 



Resource Central 22 

Sequential Systems 36 

SoftSpoken 14 

The Byte Works 64 

USAMicro 26 

WestCode 10 

I n 

Please send me information 

from the following II Alive 


Caloke Industries 
InTrec Software, Inc. 
Perfect Solutions 
Resource Central 
The Byte Works 


Christella Enterprise GEnie 

Memory Plus Distributors Mindscape 

Quality Computers Quinsept 

Sequential Systems SoftSpoken 

USA Micro WestCode 


Address . 



Phone ( . 

Clip and mail to II Alive Reader Service • P.O. Box 349 • St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 
I I 


( Continued from page 1 7) 

Some of the activities in the thematic unit 
contract call for producing illustrated booklets 
on surfing or water skiing. These projects are 
naturals for hypermedia programs like Roger 
Wagner's HyperStudio and Apple's Hyper- 
Card IIgs, or even 8-bit programs like Tech- 
Ware's Tutor-Tech, Scholastic's Slide Shop, 
Hyperscreen, or Super Story Tree. If the stu- 
dent prefers to make a traditional booklet on 
paper, most hypermedia programs will print 
out individual screens. Broderbund's series of 
Print Shop programs can also turn out excel- 
lent title and content pages and The Learning 
Company's Children's Writing and Publishing 
Center can help the student design entire illus- 
trated booklets (it will also import Print Shop 

Apple II Hypermedia programs can be 
used — instead of boring old poster paper — to 
make a board game with an ocean theme. By 
introducing the random selection of screen 
choices from Super Story Tree, for example, 
the chance element of a spinner or dice can be 
duplicated. If a student is really up to the chal- 
lenge, he or she can write a game about oceans 
entirely in BASIC or LOGO for extra credit. 

Projects that involve creating artwork, such 
as making a map of the Pacific Ocean floor, 
drawing a Venn diagram comparing two bod- 
ies of water, or writing an illustrated poem 
about oceans, can effectively utilize software 
such as Beagle Bros' Platinum Paint, Broder- 
bund's Dazzle Draw or The Print Shop GS 
Companion's Quick Page option. 

There is even an activity which requires 
writing and tape-recording a song about a sea- 
horse. Musically-inclined students may want to 
use a program like synthLAB, The Music Studio 
or Music Construction Set to create accompa- 
niment. Any Apple II can run MECC's Show- 
time program, which has a built-in music pro- 
gram that most students find fun and easy to 

If your school has it, The Voyage of the 
Mimi is a series of video tapes and correspond- 
ing software for the Apple II that will coordi- 
nate beautifully with an Oceans unit. 

With a little bit of imagination, you can take 
whatever software is in your school library and 
integrate it into any thematic unit on any sub- 
ject. The remarkable thing about Apple II soft- 
ware is that is adaptable. There is no reason 
that a music program can't be used to teach 
Social Studies or a paint program to teach 
Math. By exploring the myriad uses of your 
software, you'll become a more well-rounded 
teacher — and, more importantly, your students 
will reap the benefits. 

Karen Evry is a fifth grade teacher in 
Stafford County, Virginia who has used Apple 
II software for years. Ron Evry develops edu- 
cational software and is the Apple II disk 
librarian for Washington Apple PI. For those 
who wish a hard copy of the thematic unit 
"Oceans", please send a long Self -Addressed 
Stamped envelope with TWO stamps on it to the 
authors at 2880 Cedar Crest Ct.,Woodbridge 
VA 22192 m 




The Q Drive forever ends tedious disk 
swapping and slow-opening programs. 
All your programs can be stored on 
your Q Drive — all you do is select one 
and open it. You will be amazed at how 
much faster your programs open, and 
how much easier it is to run them. For 
example, you can run all of Apple- 
Works, plus the dictionaries, without 
ever having to access your disk drive. 

Not only can you store programs in one 
central location, but also documents. 
With a Q Drive, you can keep your pre- 
cious work on the drive and make disk 
backups as needed. No more moun- 
tains of floppy disks to search for and 
load. You will have your work at your 
fingertips from the moment you start 
your computer. 


The Q Drive features a fast, reliable 
Quantum mechanism using the latest 
technology, including auto-parking 
heads, a voice-coil actuator, and a track 


The Q Drive's plain-English manual cov- 
ers more than installation and setup. It 
even tells you how to manage your 

mass storage effectively. From GS/OS 
and ProDOS to backups and mainte- 
nance, it's all there, including a glos- 
sary of hard drive, jargon. And no hard 
drive is easier to set up and use- 
install a card, connect two cables, and 
turn on the power. The Q Drive auto- 
matically configures itself to match 
your computer, and the latest system 
software is already installed. 


Are you interested in upgrading to 
Apple I IGS System 6 but afraid of com- 
patibility problems? Switch Hitter is 
your solution, allowing you to keep 
System 5 on your hard drive when you 
add System 6! A simple keyboard com- 
mand selects the desired System ver- 
sion at boot time. Additionally, Switch 
Hitter lets you change your IIGS's Sys- 
tem Speed and Startup Slot at boot 
time and start up a 3.5" or 5.25" disk, all 
without having to wait for your hard 
drive to boot into the Finder. 


The Q Drive comes with 15 MEG. of 
fantastic, ready-to-run software. A 
whole collection of games, utilities and 
graphic programs await you on your Q 


The Q Drive uses industry wide SCSI 
interface. Why is this important? 
Because SCSI Drives are compatible 
with both Macintosh and IBM comput- 
ers. If you change systems, you can 
take the Q Drive with you. 


The Q Drive 
comes with 
Quality Comput- 
ers' exclusive Q 
Drive Care and Feed- 
ing Video. This video 
gives your easy, step-by- 
step instructions on every- 
thing from installation to the Finder. 
You will learn how easy it is to install 
your Q Drive and SCSI card and hook 
up the cables. You will see how the Q 
Drive automatically sets itself up for an 
Apple He or IIGS. Plus, you will get an 
in-depth tutorial on using the Apple 
IIGS Finder. 

The Q Drive Care and Feeding Video is 
perfect for the new hard drive owner 
who wants to get started quickly. 

If you're not sold on a Q Drive yet, but 
want to know more, you can order the 
Care and Feeding Video separately and 
watch it in the comfort of your own 

Another way to learn more about the Q 
Drive is to ask for the Q Drive Demo 
Disl<. The Q Drive Demo Disi< runs on 
any Apple IIGS with 1.25 MEG of RAM. 
It is a self-running, animated tutorial on 
the Q Drive and how it can change your 


And remember, you're dealing with 
Quality Computers, the hard drive 
leader. The Q Drive comes with a 30- 
day money-back guarantee and a two- 
year limited warranty. If you run into a 
snag, our technical support staff is 


available for the cost of a phone call. A 
great drive and great support, at a great 
price— that's the Q Drive. Find out why 
it's the best Apple hard drive value- 
test drive one today! 


We've spent the last three months gath- 
ering information and making improve- 
ments to the Q Drive that you wanted. 
The Q Drive GS is now optimized for 
performance. This makes the Q Drive 
20% faster then it was. Also, if you get 
in a bind. System 5.04, System 6 and 
our Switch hitter utility are included on 
the drive. You can restore these in only 
five minutes of work. The Q Drive lie 
software now sports a friendlier, more 
powerful interface, better software, and 
easier management. We've also added 
a sound player program that will copy 
files from an MS Dos disk to your Q 
Drive if you have the Apple 3.5" high 
density drive and controller. 



42 MEG I f «l 

127 MEG .....299.96 

170 MEG ..349,95 

240 MEG .........399.95 

SCSI card not mcludedf 

Apple II 
High Spee<i SCSI Card 


20200 Nine Mile Rd. 
St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 

Newsletter Design 

It seems that every organization in the world 
has a newsletter these days. Political and 
charitable organizations publish them. Com- 
puter user groups publish them. I've even 
seen one newsletter published by an individual 
about himself — he sends it to all his friends, 
thereby proving that there's no subject too 
small for a newsletter. Whether you're selling 
something or just on an ego trip, the fact is, 
newsletters are effective communication tools, 
and with desktop publishing, anyone can pro- 
duce one. The problem most people have is 
making one that is attractive and readable. 

In this article we'll be discussing the gener- 
alities of design. In today's world, if you use a 
computer, it seems like you're called upon to 
be an expert on everything. But, as we've seen 
all too frequently, buying a desktop pubhshing 
program doesn't make you a designer any 
more than buying a Steinway makes you a 
concert pianist. While we can't teach you 
everything you need to know in one or two 
articles, we can give you some tips which will 
shorten the learning curve and can begin to 
make a dramatic difference immediately. 

Most of my own experience is with the 
Macintosh, which is the machine of choice for 
professional designers — but people have been 
putting out newsletters since before computers 
ever existed. The visual language of page 
design is well-known and universal. It does not 
depend on technology. If you know how to 
design a page, you can whip up a good 
newsletter with a typewriter and a box of 
crayons. Any computer is a major step up from 
the old way of doing things, and for personal 
or semi-professional use, the Apple II more 
than holds its own. 


When designing your newsletter page, think 
about how you want to divide your page 
between text, graphics, and white space. Strik- 
ing a balance between these three elements, as 
well as using your pages economically, is the 
goal. I find starting with a sketch of a page 
before I lay it out on the computer is a big 

Choosing the number of columns for your 
newsletter is also very important. For an 8.5x1 1 
page, 3 columns is typical, but it's not a rule. 
Many newsletters use 1, 2, or 4 columns, and 
so can you. Mixing up the number of columns 
between pages or articles in your newsletter can 
be an effective design element when done well. 
It makes your page more interesting looking, 
and makes the division between articles plain to 
the reader (see figure 1). 

Another idea you can use is to think in terms 
of a 5- or 7-column layout. For example, 
divide your page into five "guide" columns. 
Make each of your text columns cover two 
guide columns. This will give you two text 
columns, with an extra guide column left over 
for captions, call-outs, and so forth. Use the 
extra column to "overlap" graphics with the 
text area (see figure 2). ■ 

Put only vital information into your newslet- 
ter — don't clutter it with extraneous informa- 
tion. For instance, if you are designing a 4- 
page newsletter, you don't need a table of con- 
tents. Most readers can scan 4 pages for their 
contents faster than what it would take them to 
read a table of contents. If you're not sure 
whether something belongs, cut it. 


As we discussed in the last issue, you should 
choose your fonts carefully. Beginners would 
do well to limit themselves to two or three: one 
for body text, one for headlines, and possibly 
one for special purposes (for example. Courier 
or another mono-spaced font for "screen shots" 
or simulated computer printouts). 

We'll give special dispensation for one use 
of an extra font — your newsletter' s banner. It' s 
important to have your newsletter's name 
plainly visible where everyone can see it, and 
choosing the right font here can make a 
tremendous difference in your newsletter's 
personality. If you are particularly clever, you 
might be able to use the font elsewhere in the 
newsletter (for example, for page numbers), 
providing a repeating motif which will tie the 
whole publication together. 

leaPDiiioaigLivin ii 

Message from the President 

Experience IVIy Sl(i 
Holiday to Switzerland 



■ J. l =fcJ! ! .klAVJyj !l?!.UId=l.l:fcy!ldT-ff 

fAII abduf my wife andT two 
ibeauti^iil chilili'en 

T 1 

and yoM didn't 







How now 
brown cow 


How now 
brown cow 


How now 
brown cow 



Experience My Ski 
Holiday to Switzerland 

glivin g 

The first 
thing I said 
when I saw 

the Alps 
was, "Golly!" 


TRITE is a new software database that puts worn out 
cliches just a keystroke away. With TRITE, you can bore 
the socks off your friends with tired old adages like: 

• Nothing ventured nothing gained 

• Look before you leap. 

• A stitch in time saves nine. 

• A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. 


Excessively fancy fonts should generally be 
avoided, even for banners, but neither should 
you use fonts which are too generic. Contrast 
is a good tool. For example, if your newsletter 
is entitled "VicariousLiving," you might 
design a logo hke the one in figure 3. You can 
even get away with two fonts in your banner if 
you follow the contrast rule (that is, make one 
bold and one light). The most important rule is 
to make it big and readable. Unless you have 
really good clip art (or are an artist in your own 
right) you're usually better off just working 
with text and avoiding cutesy graphics in the 

Often you'll add a tag line under the 
newsletter's title to clarify who the newsletter 
is for or what it covers. Keep it as concise as 


Leading (rhymes with "bedding") is the 
amount of space between Hues of text. The term 
comes from the early days of the printing press, 
when type was set using molds and molten lead. 
Leading that is too tight (too littie space between 
lines) will make your newsletter crowded and 
hard to read. Leading that is too loose (too much 
space between lines) can be a waste of space — 
but it can also be an effective design element 
when used properly (see figure 4). 

Leading is measured in points, like type. 
Standard leading is 20% greater than the point 
size of your type. So if you are using 10-point 
type, 12-point leading is standard. Most Apple 
II desktop publishing programs do this auto- 
matically; a few may allow you to change the 
leading if you decide you want an "airier" feel. 

Changing the leading for sidebars and call- 
outs is one of the easiest ways to differentiate 
the various types of information in your 
newsletter. For an interesting effect in sidebars, 
try extremely loose leading with an extremely 
bold font — possibly the same font you use in 
your headlines or a lighter version of the font 
(see figure 5). 


Text alignment comes in four different fla- 
vors: flush left, flush right, centered, and justi- 
fied. To keep the look of your newsletter con- 
sistent, you should use the same alignment(s) 
throughout. For instance, you may choose to 
use justified alignment for your body text, and 
flush left for headlines. But, whatever your 
choice, use them consistently throughout your 

You also need to decide what to do about 
paragraph breaks. You can indicate a new 
paragraph by indenting the first line of the 
paragraph a quarter inch or so, or by placing a 
blank line between paragraphs. Either way is 
fine, but you must choose one and stick with it 
throughout your newsletter. The indented para- 
graph style is more suited to wide columns 

than to narrow ones; the blank-line style can 
help air up a document with tight leading. 

Hanging paragraphs will help offset impor- 
tant points or hsts in your text (see figure 6). 
For example, a list of product features hidden 
in a standard paragraph isn't eye-catching. But, 
listing features using hanging paragraphs, and 
using a distinctive leader symbol such as a bul- 
let or star, gives your reader a visual clue that 
there is something you want to stand out from 
the rest of the text. Hanging paragraphs look 
best when you're using the blank-line style of 


I see many newsletters that were seemingly 
designed by agoraphobics — people who have 
an extreme and irrational fear of open spaces. 
It's as if these designers are compelled to cram 
text onto every square inch of the document. 
Remember, white space is our friend. Effective 
use of white space is inviting to the reader. It 
draws them to articles or pictures, makes the 
divisions between articles clear, and even gives 
your readers a place to hold your newsletter 
while they read it. 

Use at least a half-inch margin around the 
perimeter of your page. This gives your read- 
ers' eyes a clearly-defined border. Headers and 
footers can fall outside the margins, but the 
body of your newsletter should be locked to 
the margins and columns. The space between 
your columns should be consistent throughout 
the newsletter. Make sure it is adequate to 
make a clear division (a quarter-inch is usually 

Also use adequate white space to separate 
articles. Insufficient white space will make it 
hard for your readers to tell one article from 
another. Too much is inefficient. A quarter to a 
half-inch — depending on the size and leading 
of your headline — is about right. 


Graphics and illustrations are essential for 
an interesting and effective newsletter. Pictures 
of people, illustrations, graphs, and maps, are 
magnets that attract your readers' eyes. But 
using them effectively is as important as hav- 
ing them in the first place. Here are a few tips. 

First, don't put in a picture or illustration 
unless it provides information. It should not 
merely repeat information in the body text, but 
supplement it or enhance it in some way. In the 
same vein, make sure that each picture pro- 
vides only the information it needs to provide 
and is not cluttered with extraneous informa- 
tion. A map is a good example of this: simplify 
it to only the major streets that lead to the des- 
tination. Remember, a picture is worth a thou- 
sand words — make sure your pictures are not 
telling the world that you don't know what 
you're doing. 

Crop pictures to the center of interest. For 



m^ S^. W. m^^ m m 

example, when using a picture of a person, cut 
off everything but the person, leaving a com- 
fortable border but eliminating most of the 
background (see figure 7). Proper cropping can 
often turn boring pictures into exciting ones, 
and it almost always improves even the best 
pictures. To make a person seem larger than 
life, crop them very tightly and let the picture 
"bleed" — push it up against the very edge of 
the page, giving the impression that the page 
simply is not large enough to hold them. Final- 
ly, remember that newsletters are about people 
communicating with other people, and pictures 
of people are almost always more interesting 
than pictures of objects. 

Don't let graphics interrupt the natural flow 
of articles. If you have a three-column layout 
and are using a picture that is as wide as two 
columns, the picture should be contained with- 
in two columns, not draped across all three 
(where it will reduce the width of the leftmost 
and rightmost columns to half their normal 
width). If the picture doesn't fit across an even 
number of columns, reduce or enlarge it until it 
does. (When you have a choice, reducing is 
usually better.) 

Interesting designs can be achieved by using 
an extremely simple "icon" illustration which 
repeats in some way (or which is "ghosted" — 
drawn extremely lightly — behind the main 
body text). But don't just display a row of fish, 
make the last fish doing something — make it 
bigger, or darker, or both, to give the impres- 
sion of a progression. "Dingbat" fonts — fonts 
consisting of decorative characters, such as 
Mobile, Zapf Dingbats, and BillsDingbats — 
are simple ways to add some graphic excite- 
ment to a page. 

Callouts (short quotations from the body of 
the article) are text, but they work like graph- 
ics. They usually work best at a width of one 
column. Try using your headline font in the 
callout to unify the page design. 


Greeking — Greeking means replacing the 
actual text of a document with nonsense (the 
traditional greeking is a string of pseudo-Ladn 
which begins Lorem ipsum dolor). Try it — by 
looking at the design of the page independently 
of its contents, you can experiment with lay- 
outs more freely. A good-looking layout will 
still look good no matter what text you put into 
it, but a layout designed around a specific text 
or graphic element may not always look good 
when you change the article. Since you're pub- 
lishing a newsletter, you want the look to be 
consistent from issue to issue, which means 
coming up with a good generic layout which 
will work in a wide variety of circumstances. 
Greeking will help. 

Laser vs. Dot Matrix — If you're lucky 
enough to be designing for a laser printer, you 
can follow the guidelines above pretty much as 
I've stated them. If your final output will be to 

a dot matrix printer, your letters need to be just 
a little larger, and you need to be more "obvi- 
ous" with pictures and other graphic elements. 
Line art prints better on dot matrix printers 
than graphics with subtle grays and gradients. 
Digitized and scanned pictures (like pho- 
tographs) are usually not advisable. Try to get 
your final output on a laser printer if at all pos- 
sible. You should at least be able to print the 
file to disk in PostScript form, put it on a Mac- 
intosh disk with System 6, and take it to the 
local Kinko's where it can be downloaded and 
printed on a laser printer for a reasonable cost. 

Balancing your layout — We've already 
mentioned contrast as an important element of 
graphic design. By contrast, we mean putting 
bold fonts next to light ones, or any other such 
juxtaposition of extremes. Another important 
layout consideration which goes hand in hand 
with contrast is balance. When you use 
extremely heavy headlines, use lighter-than- 
usual body text to counterbalance it. But this 
goes further than type weight — it also applies 
to other aspects of page design. One of the 
most common tricks for creating a "dynamic" 
layout is to intentionally throw the entire page 
off-balance in some way, then introduce some 
other element, pushed off in the other direc- 
tion, which "tips" the page back into balance. 
The trick we mentioned earlier for creating 
interesting page layouts on top of 5- or 7-col- 
umn "guide pages" works with just this 
assumption. By leaving one of the guide 
columns blank of text, we push the entire page 
to one side. Then we can introduce pictures, 
call-outs, and sidebars in this area which have 
enough weight to balance the page. A photo- 
graph might cut across two of the text columns 
and the unused guide column in a 7-column 
layout (see Figure 8). 

Work in Pairs — Don't isolate your pages 
from each other. Page 2 and Page 3, for exam- 
ple, will be seen next to each other by the read- 
er of your publication. So design them in tan- 
dem. Make sure that the layout is balanced 
across both pages and that the pages don't 
"clash." If your publication is thick enough to 
need some kind of binding, be sure to leave a 
"gutter" of about a quarter inch on the inside 
edge of each page for the glue. (The inside 
edge is the right edge for even-numbered 
pages, and the left edge for odd-numbered 

Copy Successful Designs — No, we don't 
suggest you lay out your newsletter hke Time 
magazine. But you might want to start off try- 
ing to duplicate their design as a learning expe- 
rience (if nothing else, it will make you much 
more familiar with your desktop publishing 
program). Then modify a few things, one at a 
time, and see how the visual impact of the 
page changes. Fonts are a good place to start, 
but you should also experiment with the num- 
ber of columns, placement of graphics, lead- 
ing, and other factors. Sometimes bad designs 
are as just as good as a starting point — any- 
thing you do is likely to make it better, which 



|Sn aBput "my wife ahdTiwb" "j '; 
ibeauti^Ml chililreii 


gives you the freedom to explore your options 
without fear of "ruining" the design. Incorpo- 
rate the knowledge you've learned in this way 
into your own designs. 

Read — One very good newsletter for begin- 
ners and experts alike is Before & After, a bi- 
monthly publication designed and published 
by John McWade (the founder of PageLab, the 
first desktop publishing studio). The newsletter 
itself is an education in the fundamentals of 
layout, and the frequent newsletter makeovers 
alone are worth the price of admission. While 
B&A is very Macintosh-oriented (and more 
specifically focuses on Aldus software prod- 
ucts), you'll learn lots of stuff that will apply to 
any computer and any software. For more 
information B&A, write to 1830 Sierra Gardens 
Dr., Suite 30, Roseville, CA 95661. 


Even though I've seen some truly atrocious 
newsletters over the years, I'd much rather see 
bad newsletters than none at all. Computers 
bring the power of mass communication to 
your desktop. By learning to harness it more 
effectively, you can wield the power of the 
press like a pro. So get out there and pubhsh! ■ 




MIKE "-"' 

^E Byte UJorhs Inc. 

tiy Tsii^a I]lillii'ig€3E* 

Mike WesterfieM 

■ is the Presiiient of 

The Byte WorkSy Imc, 

a leading software 

compimy speeiaiizimg in 

prngrmnming took for 

II ALIVE: How did you get started in making 
programming tools? 

WESTERFIELD: My first assignment in 1977, 
right out of the Air Force Academy, was to a 
squadron that did real-time satellite communi- 
cations work. I was a physicist, but all of us 
had to write programs. The Air Force taught 
me IBM 360 mainframe assembly language, 
and I got the bug. 

In 1979, I sold my car to buy my first comput- 
er: an Apple II. I wanted to write a chess pro- 
gram, but decided to start with something sim- 
pler — an Othello program. Unfortunately, none 
of the assemblers then available for the Apple 
would handle anything as big as a 2000-line 
program, which is how big that project was 
shaping up to be, so my assembly instructor 
talked me into writing my assembler. That was 
ORCA/M, which was published in 1982 by 
Hayden Software. It was patterned after the 
IBM 360 assembler because it was the only 
assembler I knew at the time. I never did finish 
that chess program, but I'm still young! 

Apple II computers. " ^'■'^^' ^i^y '^''^ y°" ^'^"^ y°">' »*" '=»'"- 


WESTERFIELD: Basically because Hayden 
was struggling. Eventually they went out of 
business. I couldn't find any deals with other 
companies that gave me the freedom I wanted, 
so I started my own company. The Byte Works 
became a real company when I landed the con- 
tract with Apple to do APW for the Apple IIgs. 
That's when I decided to get out of the Air 

II ALIVE: What's APW? 

WESTERFIELD: APW is Apple Programmer's 
Workshop — Apple's standard programming 
environment for the Apple IIgs. It's still the 
only native Apple IIgs development system 
they ever shipped. According to Apple, the 7th 
Apple IIgs ever built — and the first one to 
leave Apple — came to us to do APW. Actually, 
at first, it was called CPW, since the IIgs's code 
name was "Cortland." 

II ALIVE: Do you still have that IIgs? 

WESTERFIELD: No. They made us give that 
one back when they did the first motherboard 
revision. I do still have some of the other pre- 
production computers, but they're of a slightly 
more recent vintage. 

II ALIVE: So what function does The Byte 
Works fill now? 

WESTERFIELD: At this point, we're the 
Apple II development software company. 
There really isn't any other company still mak- 
ing serious tools. We just released a new 3D 
version of Logo and an Apple IIgs version of 
HyperLogo. We'll continue to do development 
tools for users at various levels of expertise, 
along with instructional courses and the occa- 
sional udlity or productivity program. 

II ALIVE: Tell us a little about your products. 

WESTERFIELD: Our flagship products are the 
ORCA languages — ORCA/M, our macro assem- 
bler; ORCA/C\ and ORCA/Pascal. These lan- 
guages all work together, so you can write pro- 



grams partly in one language and partly in 
another. Usually, people use that capabihty to 
write a program in Pascal or C, then rewrite a 
few time-critical parts in assembly language. 
The other big advantage of this approach is 
that you can learn a single development envi- 
ronment, then use several languages from it 

We also have a series of courses that will teach 
you to write your own programs — Learn to 
Program Pascal, Learn to Program C, and 
Toolbox Programming in Pascal and C. 
We've introduced ORCA Integer BASIC, which 
is a sample compiler with complete source 
code, and we're about to release Modula-2. Of 
course, we've also done a number of support 
products, including ORCA/Disassembler. Final- 
ly, we've started doing some tools for other 
kinds of programming, like 3D Logo, which 
displays real 3D on a standard Apple IIgs 
(using special glasses.) 

As for who would use our products, basically 
anyone who wants to write a program or learn 
more about the way their computer works. 

II ALIVE: By the way, is it true that ORCA/M 
came from MACRO spelled backward? 

WESTERFIELD: Yup. David Eyes, the origi- 
nal product manager an Hay den, came up with 
the name. I liked it a lot, so we kept it and 
extended it to our other products. The killer 
whale is, well, a killer! 

II ALIVE: How easy is it to learn a program- 
ming language? 

WESTERFIELD: Most people can learn a 
computer language very well in 3-4 months, 
spending 5 hours or so a week at it. Obviously, 
some people pick it up faster than others. 
Learning IIgs Toolbox Programming, which is 
somewhat separate from actually learning a 
language, is about as hard as the language 
itself. Of course, you don't have to choose the 
most difficult language, and you don't even 
have to know the language all that well to do 
fun and useful things. With 3D Logo, you can 
create an animated 3D "movie" the first week- 
end you have the program. With Pascal or C, it 
may be a few weeks before you create some- 
thing you want to show someone else. 

II ALIVE: That's really not very long at all. 

WESTERFIELD: Not for what you can do 
with the knowledge. One interesting quirk, 
though, is that people seem to have the most 
trouble with the second computer language 
they learn, not the first! Go figure. I think it 
just takes a while to get used to doing some- 
thing two different ways. 

II ALIVE: Tell us a little about your newest 
product, 3D Logo. 

WESTERFIELD: 3D Logo is really a hoot. It's 
a full implementation of a traditional Logo — 
you know, the language with the turtle that 
draws lines by moving around the screen — 
adapted to the Apple IIgs environment. It's 
very compatible with other Logos, like Apple 
Logo and Teripin Logo, but we added a few 
great features. 

Let me explain turtle graphics a little first. It's 
a simple but effective graphics language. The 
original turtle was a robot built at MIT. You 
could tell the robot to move forward and back- 
ward, turn left and right, and raise and lower 
the pen so the turtle could move from one 
place to another with or without drawing a 
line. The turtle was used with kids to teach 
them programming. Turtle graphics is the 
same idea, with more commands, implemented 
on a computer. The robot has been replaced 
with a small triangle that moves around on the 
screen, but the concepts are the same. It's been 
a part of Logo almost since the beginning, 
which is why Logo is so successful with kids. 

In 3D Logo, the turtle can fly! It can ROTATE- 
OUT, ROLLLEFT, and so forth, and draw 
"lines" in 3 dimensions. That works on a nor- 
mal screen, and you get true perspective. It 
also works with 3D glasses, the ones with one 
red lens and one blue lens. Red lines don't 
show up through the red lens and blue lines 
don't show up through the blue lens. By draw- 
ing red and blue versions of each shape on the 
screen, each eye see a different view, and you 
get a true 3D effect! It's realistic enough that 
some of my younger testers actually tried to 
grab the objects! 3D Logo can also make 
movies, and can even talk for itself. 

II ALIVE: What else can Logo do? 

WESTERFIELD: WeU, Logo is also a pretty 
darn good artificial intelligence language, 
because it's based on LISP, which is probably 
the most popular artificial intelligence lan- 
guage. You can think of Logo as BASIC for 
artificial intelligence programming. 

Artificial intelligence is when the computer 
appears to "think" in a human-like fashion. 
The best-known example of AI is probably 
Eliza, the original computer shrink. Other 
applications include recognizing 3D objects 
through a video camera, sophisticated database 
search mechanisms, games which pick the best 
move from a number of choices (like a chess 

List-processing languages like Logo are pretty 
good for AI. They are also simple to use and 
learn because they're not strongly typed — you 
don't have to worry about whether a variable is 
an integer or a real or a string. 

II ALIVE: And what about HyperLogo? 

WESTERFIELD: HyperLogo is a version of 
Logo that sits inside HyperStudio. It includes 
everything that's in 3D Logo, including the 3D 
features, plus commands to control HyperStu- 
dio. For the IIgs version of HyperStudio, 
HyperLogo replaces SimpleScript. The Mac 
version of HyperStudio comes with Hyper- 
Logo built in. 

For example, you could implement Eliza as a 
HyperStudio card, and use variations on sever- 
al different cards. Or you could use Hyper- 
Logo to generate animated 3D movies for a 
chemistry stack. With some work, you could 
even create a molecule construction set with 
HyperStudio and HyperLogo! 

II ALIVE: Can the same code be used on both 
the IIgs and the Mac? 

WESTERFIELD: To some extent, yes. There 
are differences between the IIgs and Mac ver- 
sions of HyperStudio, and HyperLogo can't 
hide those. The Logo language itself, however, 
is the same language in all four of our Logo 
versions. You can develop subroutines in any 
of the Logos and use them in any other. You 
can even create a program in 3D Logo on a OS, 
then run the same program on a Mac with no 
changes! It's even possible to put a single pro- 
gram on a network and run it from both com- 

II ALIVE: How did you get hooked up with 
Roger Wagner? 

WESTERFIELD: Well, Roger publishes the 
main competitor for ORCA/M — Merlin. Merlin 
really is the king of the 8-bit assemblers, but 
we got to the Apple IIgs first because of the 
APW contract. When the Apple IIgs version of 
Merlin finally arrived, we plotted our ad cam- 
paign . . . Remember the Jaws movie poster, 
with the shark coming up under the bikini-clad 
swimmer? Well, replace the shark with a killer 
whale and the swimmer with a wizard and you 
get the general idea. The caption was going to 
be, "Welcome to the Apple IIgs, Merlin. 
We've been waiting for you!" 

II ALIVE: I don't remember seeing that! 

WESTERFIELD: Well, 4 color ads are expen- 
sive, and I didn't know Roger that well then, 
so it remained just an idea. But Roger is a pret- 
ty fun guy. When he was looking for a script- 
ing language for the Mac version of HyperStu- 
dio, he came to me, because he knew me and 
he knew that I had experience writing lan- 
guages. It always pays to keep in touch with 
your competitors — you never know when 
they'll turn into allies! 

II ALIVE: Is Logo compiled or interpreted? 

WESTERFIELD: Our Logo, like most, is inter- 
preted. That means that Logo reads your pro- 
gram, line by line, doing what the program 
says to do. A compiled language converts all 
your instructions to machine language, which 
is the language your computer really speaks at 
the lowest level, before running line one of the 
program. The advantage of interpreted lan- 
guages is that they let you play with ideas 
quickly, since you don't have to wait for a 
compiler to reconvert the program each time 
you make a small change. 

II ALIVE: Could you say that complied is like 
learning to speak French and interpreted is like 
having a translator with you? 

WESTERFIELD: In a real sense, yes. The key 
technical point is that the compiler converts the 
whole program to machine language at once, 
but the interpreter never really does. 

II ALIVE: What kind of person makes a good 

(Continued on page 64) 




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Total Multiinedia Control 
With HyperStudio 

by Vem IVIastel 

Want to perform a series of video 
actions involving single frames and 
sequences run from a single Hyper- 
Studio button? Sequences that 
allow — or require — user input? How about 
combined CD-ROM and laser disc control? 
Since I use a Pioneer Laser Disc player for pre- 
sentation work, I have often been frustrated by 
the limitations of the "Play a Video" (PAV) 
button action in HyperStudio. It lets you speci- 
fy sequences and frames, but only on a one-at- 
a-time basis. It does not allow program vari- 
ables to be used to control disc functions — all 
values are hard-coded into the PAV button 

A better way to control a laser disc player is 
to directly script all the needed control functions 
without using the HyperStudio "Play a Video" 
button action. Controlling the player yourself 
gives you more control — and more creative 
choices — than you ever thought possible. 


You'll need to connect the disc player to the 
Ilgs's modem port. Cables for doing this are 
available from most dealers which sell com- 
puter-controlled laser disc players (tell them 
you have a Macintosh if they don't know what 
you're looking for) and, of course, from Red- 
mond Cable, Quality Computers, and so on. 
The modem port should be set to 4800 baud in 
the IIgs Control Panel, with all other settings at 
their defaults. (The laser disc player defaults to 
4800 baud, although it can be set to 1200 with 
DIP switches on the player. I suggest leaving 
things at their factory settings, since it works 
fine that way.) 

If you're technically savvy and want to 
make your own cable. Table 1 shows the pins 
you need to connect. 




The Commands 

There are forty or fifty commands that the Pioneer players understand. (Other brands of players 
use different commands.) Newer Pioneer units such as the CLD-V2400 play not only video laser 
discs but also audio CDs. I will focus on the commands for video control, which are shown in 
Table 2. 


Command Name 



Disc Type 











End Value 










Scan Reverse 




Scan Forward 




Step Forward 




Step Reverse 








Video Output 




Audio Output 




Reverse Double Speed 




Reverse Quadruple 





Forward Double Speed 




Forward Quadruple 

















Stop Marker 








("Both" means that the command supports both CLV and CAV discs/ 


Laser discs come in two types: CAV and CLV. CAV stands for Constant Angular Velocity, 
which means that the discs spin at the same speed regardless of whether the player is reading 
the innermost or the outermost tracks on the disc. On CAV discs, each track contains one frame 
of video (there are 30 frames per second of video). Because of the one-to-one correspondence 
between the video frames and the tracks, each frame of video can be accessed individually. You 
can "freeze" any frame you want on the computer monitor, because the laser beam just keeps 
reading the same frame over and over. Most computer-accessible laser discs are CAV. 

CLV stands for Constant Linear Velocity. This means that the surface of the disc always 
moves past the laser at the same speed. Since the outermost edge of the disc is longer than the 
innermost track, the player slows down the disc's rotation as the laser tracks outward from the 
center of the disc. This allows more video to be stored on the outer tracks of the disc; however, 



most players don't allow you to freeze CLV 
discs because a single frame of video may be 
split across more than one track. (Some players 
have a "frame buffer" which can freeze any 
disc, but mine does not.) Most movies come in 
CLV format. 

The types of control you have over these 
two types of discs are summarized in Table 3. 





Multispeed Control (MR, MF) 
Still Control (ST) 
Step Control (SF, SR) 
Time Control (TM) 




To send commands directly to the player 
from a button, you use the PORT NBA (New 
Button Action). Create a new button and 
assign the PORT NBA to it. In the dialog which 
appears, enter three lines of text, pressing the 
Return key after each: 

"Port 1" or "Port 2" 

"Reply Yes" or "Reply No" 

The desired command string 

"Port 2" is the Apple IIgs modem port, 
which is what I use. (You can also use the 
printer port with "Port 1.") "Reply Yes" forces 
HyperStudio to wait until the player returns a 
completion status, indicating that it has suc- 
cessfully completed the requested activity. The 
command string should be the commands you 
want to send to the player. 

The laser disc responds to simple two-char- 
acter commands in ASCII (text) format. Some 
commands have parameters or operating val- 
ues; others do not. All parameters are in 
expressed in decimal format. A command line 
sent to the player can be up to twenty charac- 
ters long, and must be terminated by a Return. 

For example, the command to stop the play- 
er and eject the disc is OP. To create a button 
which ejects the disc, then, you would enter 
the following into the PORT NBA dialog: 

Port 2 

Reply Yes 


The PL (Play) command is a little tricky. 
Play will play the disc from a starting point — 
usually wherever the player happens to be at 
the instant the Play command is received, 
although you can also use the Search com- 
mand before Play to specify a starting point — 
to the specified end point. However, the player 
does not send a completion status back to the 
computer until the specified frame is reached. 
HyperStudio will therefore wait for the entire 
video segment to finish playing before it 
allows further user actions. You could use 
"Reply No" in the PORT NBA; however, this 
can result in erratic behavior in some cases, 
since HyperStudio doesn't wait to find out 

whether the command has been completed successfully before continuing. A better solution is 
to send a Clear command immediately after the Play command (place "PL CL" on the third 
line), which allows the player to accept more commands while the disc is playing and sends a 
result code back to HyperStudio immediately. 


So far, using the PORT NBA, we haven't really been able to do a whole lot that's not already 
available with the "Play a Video" action. However, using the SimpleScript language built into 
HyperStudio, you can control your laser discs in all sorts of arcane ways. 

First, you must have the PORT NBA in your stack. Create an invisible "do nothing" button 
somewhere on one of the cards in your stack — it doesn't matter which one. Leave the NBA dia- 
log empty. We'll fill it in from the script. Once you have done this, can use the PORT NBA in 
SimpleScript scripts in other buttons on other cards. If you don't have the dummy button some- 
where, your scripts will not work. 

Here's a simple SimpleScript script (got that?) which performs a slide show, using still 
images from a laser disc and background music from an audio CD in a CD-ROM drive. You 
can't do this all with one button with the "Play a Video" button action — you'd need several 
"timed" buttons and a great deal of forethought. But it's very easy if you control the player 

REM Define port number and Reply status for PORT NBA 
PORTSTR = "Port 2" & CR & "Reply Yes" & CR 

REM Cue the laser disc player to the start of Chapter 6 

REM Play track 2 of music disc 

REM Step forward one frame every 3 seconds, ten frames total 

FOR X=l to 10 




REM Cue the disc player to the start of Chapter 1 

REM turn off the video output of the disc player 

REM stop the audio CD 



PORTSTR is a variable defined at the beginning of the script to hold the desired port number, 
a carriage return, the reply status (Yes), and another carriage return. When we actually use the 
PORT NBA, as seen in the next line down, we use this variable (along with the desired com- 
mand and another carriage return). This way, we don't have to keep typing "Port 2" & CR & 
"Reply Yes" & CR over and over again. It also becomes very simple to change the script to use 
the printer port instead of the modem port — just change "Port 2" to "Port 1" at the beginning of 
the script. No other changes will be needed! 

The MINISCRIPT NBA is used, in this script, to allow you to use old-style XCMDs (the pre- 
cursor of NBAs) in the script. The CDPLAY XCMD is found in the XCMD Library Volume 1, 
from Roger Wagner Publishing. The XCMD must be in the same directory (folder) as the stack 
that uses it, and the CD-ROM driver must be installed on your hard drive or system disk. (This 
driver comes with the System Software and can be installed using the Apple Installer.) 


More examples of this kind of control can be found in the scripts in the Multimedia Con- 
troller stack included with HyperStudio. In addition, I have some scripts and example stacks of 
my own creation which won't fit in this article. I'll send interested readers a 3.5" disk with the 
examples for free — just send me a blank disk and a mailer with appropriate return postage (or, 
if you don't have disks or mailers handy, just send me $5). 

Vem Mastel 

1051 E. Interstate A 

Bismarck, ND 58501 



Laser Disc CoinnnancI Summary 

Eject (OP) 

Stops the player (if it is running) and opens the dtso tray. 

Start (SA) 

Closes the ^ ^ ^ ~ 

when the p. ,^. .. 


Play (PL) 

iisc will play from beginning to end, not returning a completion status 

Puts the player into freeze-frame irode (CAV discs only). 
Pause (PA) 

PaUSer ^^/^ rvlo\/r\f qpH KIoioUo '1 ,.- - l\/ 


ne:^\i^jc^r P\c,pa,p\f 

-Ir. With CAV 
the com- 

Scan Forward (NF) or Reverse (NR) 

Moves forward or backward about 300 frames (10 seconds). Can be used only when the player 
is in Still or PIlay modes. 

Step Forward (SF) or Reverse (SR) 

When in Still mode, moves forward or backward one frame (CAV discs only). 

Counter Display (DS) 

Turns the on-screen frame/chaptei display on c off. 1 DS to turn on, DS to turn off. 

Video Display (VD) 

Turns the video display of the player on or off. 1 VD to \j- n cr ^ VD lo Ujrn off. 

Audio (AD) 

Tells the player which cfiaii! lels (ii any) u... ., , , AD for left channel 

(channel 1), 2 AD for right channel (channel 2), and 3 AD for ste h channels). 

Forward Multispeed (MF) 

Plays the disc forward at specified speed. Examole; MF 120 SP CL plays the disc forward at 
double speed. (See Speed, below, foi' Ih^ ngs,) 

Reverse Multispeed (MR) 

Plays the disc backward at spec ' --^ — — > c..^^^\^. K/in ^or^ oo r-\ ^[^yg ^^^ ^jjg^ backwards 
at double speed. (See Speed, b 

Speed (SP) 

Sets the pk^ - ■■ — - - --::-■ -,..,-■,. ^ ■ -,:.. 

Available sp , ■ • , ^ .; . : ^ ■ ^ . : . : u ■ . •, 

one-quarter of 60); douhle-speed is 120 SP (since 120 is double 60). 

Clear (CL) 

Begins i^iavh^^L. ,.,,:-,.■. .,;..■■ 

mally i 

Play mode. ((JAV discs ^- :/.„ 

access modu. Usuaiiv uscv.. .,. 
jter 6). (CAV discs with chapter encoding only.) 

^ilor^top! K\/ N/IF/K/IR pt tho qmooH cnpoH oaloofoH h\/ QP h\r 

vv), as in CH 6 SE (which moves to 

.... access mode. Usually used with -oarc.n (below), as in PR SE (which moves to 
)). (CAV discs only.) 

Everiione laves 
yetiing Ouoliiii 


Your kid 

Your kid's teacher 

Your user group buddies 

Available in any 


Call 1-800-777-3642 



Keeping our head in the clouds and our feet on ike ground, we print only the freshest gossip, if there \s not emmgh gossip, we make some up! 
This column is provided for entertainment value only, nmch like Star Trek: Deep Spuee Nine (exeepi thai DS9 has better speeial effects). 


In the last issue of U Alive, we mentioned the 
new X Drive, announced by Econ Technology. 
As it turns out, the X Drive will not be headed 
for your Christmas stocking. Econ has decided 
to get out of the hardware business and concen- 
trate on software. The SoundMeister Pro will 
also go unreleased. While the loss of Econ's 
hardware solutions (especially the SoundMeis- 
ter Pro) weighs heavily on the RumorMonger' s 
otherwise Grinch-like heart, it's good to know 
that the next versions of Universe Master and 
AutoArk, and their new progrmn Addressed for 
Success, will be released that much more 
quickly. Addressed for Success isn't just anoth- 
er "contacts" data base program — it will sport, 
among its other features, the ability to include 
Postal Bar Codes on labels to speed your mail- 
ings through the Post Office. It's the best deliv- 
ery I can find for twenty-nine cents — the only 
better deal is e-mail. 


John Sculley has resigned his post as Chair- 
man of Apple's Board of Directors and is no 
longer employed by Apple. Robert Puette, the 
United States Division Manager, has resigned 
as well. Apple claims that the resignations 
were just part of their restructuring process, but 
former Executive Vice President Albert Ein- 
stat, who resigned last month, has filed a law- 
suit against Apple charging that he and Sculley 
were forced out by the new CEO, Michael 

So what's happening to Dear John? He's the 
new CEO of Spectrum Information Technolo- 
gies. (Bet Seven Hills Software likes that 
name.) Spectrum produces wireless data com- 
munication products that connect modems to 
cellular phones. If you're considering a New- 
ton, you may hear from them. Just imagine the 
next corporate statement from Sculley: "We 
will continue to support the fax machine as 
long as demand continues ..." 


Apple reported that while it has enjoyed the 
highest quarterly sales level ever, its net profits 
are less than three percent of last year's fig- 
ures. This has sent Apple stock into a bit of a 
slump. The company is seen by Wall Street as 
a bad investment at the moment, with the 
recent staff changes — and even an auction to 
liquidate discontinued models — interpreted as 
last-ditch efforts to keep the company solvent. 
Not all the news, however, is bad. With the 
development of new technologies like Newton 

Intelligence and the forthcoming PowerPC, 
Apple is poised for survival and even growth. 

The PowerPC is a fast processor chip devel- 
oped jointly by Apple, Motorola, and IBM, and 
will power the next generation of Apple and 
IBM personal computers. Even though the 
PowerPC is not compatible with the 680x0 
microprocessor used in the Mac, it's so fast 
that even running a software-based Mac emu- 
lator, the chip is about the same speed as 
today's Quadras. Native PowerPC programs 
could be more than twice as fast as equivalent 
Mac programs. And that's only the first 
PowerPC chip — faster ones will follow. If it'll 
run a Mac software emulator at Quadra speeds, 
can you imagine how fast an Apple II (or bet- 
ter yet, a IIgs) emulator would be? No word 
from Apple on whether it intends to develop 
such an emulator, but at least one third party is 
investigating the possibility. 

The RumorMonger offers the humble opin- 
ion that it would be a great idea to give IIgs 
users a true upgrade path instead of making 
them buy not only a new computer but new 
software as well. It will probably never hap- 
pen, but it's a nice thought, isn't it? 


The Apple He "special" is conspicuously 
absent from the latest Apple Catalog. So I 
donned my deerstalker cap, grabbed my pipe, 
and went on a fact-finding mission. I found out 
that while the Apple Catalog is published by 
Apple Computer, the catalog does not carry 
every single Apple product. Low sales were to 
blame for the removal of the Apple He from 
the catalog, although the computer is still 
available through educational dealers. Of 
course, if you saw the price of a complete He 
system in the last catalog (nearly $1400), you 
know why sales were low. You can get a used 
Apple He in the same configuration for under 
$500 in the used or reconditioned market. Add 
another $125 or so for 1-year AppleCare cov- 
erage, and you've got the equivalent of a 
brand-new machine. What a deal — especially 
considering that nobody is developing viruses 
for the Apple II anymore! 


Owners of the SupraFaxModem v32bis (and 
the equivalent Quality Computers Q Eax 
Modem) can get a new ROM upgrade. You can 
install it yourself if you've ever put chips into 
your computer. To find out how much the 
upgrade will cost, you need to find out the cur- 
rent ROM version of your modem. Get into ter- 
minal mode with your telecommunications 

software (that's Option-T or Solid- Apple-T for 
ProTERM 3.x users) and type ATI3 followed by 
Return. The modem will respond with its ROM 
version You will also need the serial number 
(on the bottom of the modem). For some 
modems, the upgrade is $20.00. For the Q Fax 
Modem or older Supras, the upgrade is free. 
Call Supra at 1-800-727-3658 for the upgrade 
or to find out if your modem qualifies for a 


Speaking of modems, InTrec, publisher of 
the best telecom software for any computer (in 
my humble opinion) is now in the early testing 
stages of ProTERM for the Macintosh. The fea- 
tures are not final at this point, but according to 
sources at InTrec, ProTERM Mac will have the 
same basic features of ProTERM for the Apple 
II while taking advantage of the Mac's extra 
capabilities. After ProTERM Mac is released, 
InTrec is planning an MS-DOS version as well. 
The Apple II will not be forgotten, though — 
expect features implemented in the Mac and 
MS-DOS versions to "trickle down" to the 
Apple version. GEnie, America Online, and the 
Internet all have lively discussions about possi- 
ble features for the next Apple version. (Fax 
support is not a likely feature at this time, our 
sources say.) 

InTrec advises ProTERM Apple users who 
buy a Macintosh or MS-DOS clone to hang on 
to their ProTERM package. There will be an 
upgrade from the Apple II to Mac or MS-DOS 
versions, but you'll need your original disk to 
get it. Hats off to InTrec for allowing cross- 
platform upgrades. If the software won't work 
on your new machine, at least you'll get a dis- 
count on the new program. 


While playing with the glasses that came 
with 3D Logo for IIgs, I had a strange idea. 
The glasses, as you may know, have one red 
lens and one blue lens. Blue parts of the screen 
appear as black through the red lens and vice 
versa, which allows the computer to draw sep- 
arate images for each eye and produce a three- 
dimensional image. 

What would happen, I wondered, if I adjusted 
the convergence of my IIgs monitor so that the 
red and blue beams did not meet in precisely the 
same spot, and then set the text color to purple 
in the IIgs Control Panel? Would I then have 
AppleWorks 4.0 3D with text floating over the 
keyboard? Is this what they meant by 3D 
spreadsheets? Kids, don't try this at home. ■ 



Rediscovering the 

Lost Treasures of Itifocom 

bv Douglas Cvfff 

®Vitt upon 91 tinttt t^txt m^ a tompanp talktr 
Snfotom. Snfotom pubfei^etr outsitantring computer abtitnturts( for peo- 
ple UjI^o lifeetr to reab-anb tijinfe-anb makt pitturti^ in tijeir Ijcabsi 
in^tmh of siettling for tJ)t comparatititlp poor res^olution of t)^t iipple 
//'jg i^igli-resiolution srapljit^ moht, ^ablp, u^ more anb more game 
makers^ put pitturesi on tlje s^treen, scales; of Snfotom'si text-onlp games? 
j^lumpeb. Slarmeb, Snfotom 
experimenteb toitf) 
on-s?treen map- 
ping anb trieb 
to biPersiifp, 
releasiing a 
boarb game anb 
sieberal grapjiitsi- 
Ijeatjp "Snfotomix." M 
bibn't Inork. Snfotom hi^- 
appeareb from tfje com- 
puter gaming lanbs^tape. 


There our story might have ended. But it 
didn't, and still hasn't. Infocom was acquired 
by Activision — and now, Activision has 
released The Lost Treasures of Infocom — 20 
text- adventure classics in one bargain-priced 
package! Big Red Computer Club gets the 
credit for dickering with Activision and doing 
the software design for the IIgs version of Lost 
Treasures. The package contains a program 
disk, three disks of game data files, a manual, a 
hint book, a shrink-wrapped packet of maps, 
and a IIgs reference card. 

You get the three original Zorks, plus six- 
teen more games which span the realms of 
mystery, fantasy, and science fiction. 
"Hmmmm," you say, "that's nineteen. The box 
says there are twenty. What happened?" Well, 
Zork Zero is omitted because it has graphic 
puzzles that require a game interpreter Big Red 
couldn't license. Big Red promises to send 
customers a free update if they ever succeed in 
getting this interpreter. 

If all this talk of interpreters and data files 
confuses you, you should know that Infocom 
games have two parts. The interpreter is the 
program that reads the data files and handles 
your commands. Infocom wrote one interpreter 
for each computer their games could run on. 
The data files contained all the information that 
made each game unique. This scheme allowed 
Infocom to bring out versions of its games for 
all computers very quickly, and also reduced 
the process of creating an adventure game 
from a daunting programming task to more 
manageable proportions, thus allowing the 
input of creative non-programmers like Dou- 
glas Adams (author of the Hitchhiker's Guide 
to the Galaxy books). 

Infocom never had a IIos- specific version of 
its interpreter, so Big Red took on the task. 
While they only needed to program one IIgs 
interpreter to allow the play of all nineteen 
games, they ended up making two. Both were 
written in ORCA/C by Mike Howard and John 
Wrenholt, and both allow you to save and 
restore as many games as you have disk space 
for and to print a transcript of your game. 

The first, or "Standard," interpreter is a IIgs 
Desktop program. You can play games in any 
font style and size installed in your System 
folder. The program sports an 8K scrollback 
buffer, which lets you review a few screens' 
worth of recent game activity simply by click- 
ing the familiar scroll bars. This "history 
buffer" is saved with your status when you 
type "SAVE." The Standard interpreter, how- 
ever, has two drawbacks: first, if you don't 
have an accelerator, it's a little on the slow 
side; and second, it won't play two of the 
games on the disk — Hitchhiker's Guide to the 
Galaxy and Beyond Zork. 

The second, or "Advanced," interpreter is a 
much faster program which can play all nine- 
teen games, but does not allow you to change 
the font or review your previous moves. (You 
do have a choice of black text on white or vice 
versa, and there's also on-screen mapping in 

Beyond Zork.) The Advanced interpreter also 
doesn't support the mouse, and it does not rec- 
ognize the IIgs's numeric keypad (particularly 
annoying at the start of The Lurking Horror). 
One nice feature found only in the Advanced 
interpreter is the "switch game" option — if you 
get stuck in Zork I and want to try Planetfall 
for a while, you can do so without having to 
quit and reload the interpreter. 

The package's bargain price means that the 
collection omits the nifty "extras" that gave 
Infocom games so much of their personality — 
artifacts such as "Don't Panic" buttons. Moon- 
mist iron-ons, Stationfall shoulder patches, and 
Zorkmid coins. The documentation also lacks 
color, and you have to settle for reproductions 
of all the little bits of printed material, like 
cards and newspapers. 

Documentation is particularly important to 
Lost Treasures because, in its later years, Info- 
com abandoned traditional copy-protection 
schemes and provided crucial game elements 
in the packaging itself. The theory was that 
software pirates would copy only the disks — 
not the letters, tickets, badges, and so on. For 
instance, I once ran across a frustrated pirate 
who wanted to know what you had to do with 
the circus ticket in Ballyhoo to get through the 
turnstile. (The game taunts you a little, saying 
that you have to follow the instructions printed 
on the reverse of the ticket.) 

ll ':Ie E:it ^gn:^ S^!jle S.Zi; Scngtr; 


*:zi'A-M *o '-he artirls. Duncan^hi :» :-ilt f -s Viin Haze on aKdH, t^asuse 
"is fns'is r;t:'",uf5"i5 s"sn:e? fi lahnrrt' :f 2''' cubicles, U'^os*iII :f 
:!v:li<.hp:','clls rr^as located near "is ::5tl».Es*'e:h. 

im :^U^Qbably rs^^^^t %Yi s^ls o^^t^f? <ntef$sti^^#f^?Lf , places. 
^M t^i^s ^ kskis^ t^«B up in ihe encycloped:a. 

I >r*®l ^^t jeearr 

Itee's long «'£'>e-up in lhBt-^%&s^ss*fti^ ^^?vd fs^De called Jeear^ 
mi^ E-S^ead pes',:lence and f,erof k*-oss tm? ^■s^ j ^I? t^s^bsned^^si' 
iti-:'; ai-sS r'^lHLsatis 5t::^f: *in, fs-enashe^is :'epatis^ Ms final 
:;s:.;t «s "as i.T;':$Qned :n ';he nnt iiti't :.' «:'ld, "is jailon nam?^ 
fu"*uif5?--='a';i(jns*,ha"»h:^ pxiletirt -:t is :f-i:-«-t 

The 270-page manual included with Lost 
Treasures aims to duplicate all critical packag- 
ing elements. Most of these materials are 
reproduced faithfully, but a few pieces seem to 
be missing. There's no denying that omitting 
Tamara's letter, while admittedly not crucial to 
solving the game, subtracts from the atmos- 
phere of Moonmist. An abbreviated newspaper 
in Witness removes the challenge of sifting out 
the key information. As for the Ballyhoo ticket, 
the printing process failed to reproduce the 
fight blue "M" (for "male") punch-out option, 
which may cause some confusion. 

The parser, of course, is the crown jewel of 
every Infocom adventure. To talk to these 
games, you can type in real Engfish sentences 
OFFER IT TO THE WITCH. Infocom' s pro- 
gramming imps worked long and hard on the 
game's parser so you can have fun playing the 
game, instead of wasting dme figuring out the 
exact word the program wants. Even so, the 
original releases included Recognized Verbs 
lists and usage examples for each game. 

Presumably to save space, the fist of verbs 

you can use is not reproduced game-by-game 
in Lost Treasures. Instead, there's a list of 
commands that apply to all the games at the 
very front of the manual. Some special terms 
(like "OOPS") are mentioned in the coverage 
of games where they are usable; still, way too 
much is left to be discovered by the player. For 
instance, it is helpful to know that BURN, FOL- 
LOW, LOWER, SLIDE, and TIE work in Sorcer- 
er. Ballyhoo players who do not somehow 
guess that SIDEWALL is a valid "verb" will 
experience unnecessary frustration. The origi- 
nal Hitchhiker's' is made easier by the hint in 
the manual that WHO AM I? is a valid question 
to ask the game. As for casting spells, don't 
look here to find out that one must first MEMO- 
RIZE, then CAST! 

The most serious documentation error is 
omission of the final page of the Ballyhoo sou- 
venir circus program. In the original Infocom 
release, this back cover presents an advertise- 
ment from WPDL 1170 AM, "America's fore- 
most classical AM radio station." Without this 
clue and the information to act upon , you may 
find it all but impossible to finish the game 
without resorting to the hints book. Happily, as 
a // Alive reader, you now know that the ad 
advises you to ". . . tune in to music that 
soothes the savage beast!" 

Infocom' s original hint books were pub- 
lished as "InvisiClues," which used a special 
pen to make the invisible clues "appear." This 
made it remarkably easy to get just the help 
you need without your wandering eyes glimps- 
ing another clue you didn't want. The Lost 
Treasures hint book does not use this (admit- 
tedly expensive) method. Instead, it relies upon 
a largely successful page design: the questions 
to which you might be seeking answers are 
printed in large, bold type and the answers in 
smaller, plain type. The method works, most- 
ly — it takes surprisingly litde discipline to cast 
your eyes over the questions quickly and avoid 
answers you don't want — but there are a few 
Haws. On page 178, for instance, the hint 
"Map carefully" is printed in boldface! Three 
fines above that, so is the final "hint" (an out- 
right answer, actually) to a puzzle. 

If you have a hard drive, starting Lost Trea- 
sures is as simple as copying the interpreters 
and data files to a folder on your hard drive 
and double-clicking an icon. Otherwise, you 
can boot your 3.5" System Disk and launch an 
interpreter from the Program diskette. To start 
an adventure, you just select its title from a 
pull-down menu. The selected game's data is 
completely loaded into memory (greatly 
speeding play compared to the old floppy- 
based versions!) and the adventure begins. 

As enjoyable as these games are, and as 
grateful as I am to Big Red for producing an 
Apple IIgs version of this anthology, I feel that 
the packaging lets the games down. Except for 
the documentation, I'd recommend The Lost 
Treasures of Infocom unhesitatingly. Fortunate- 
ly, these classics earn high marks anyway, even 
with the flaws, and the price can't be beat. 




Infocom text adventures are great fun, and 
there aren't any complete dogs in this package. 
The best games for beginners are The Lurking 
Horror, Planetfall, and Moonmist. The games 
I would recommend for experts only are Dead- 
line, Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, and 
Suspended. Mini-reviews with difficulty rat- 
ings follow. 


Zork I (The Great Underground Empire) 

Where it all began. The first of three parts of 
an underground treasure-hunt, all of which 
originally were once a single game called Dun- 
geon. Still a good game, though many of the 
puzzles now seem arbitrary. (Intermediate) 

Zork II (The Wizard of Frobozz) The treasure 
hunt continues, but this time you have to con- 
tend with the Wizard of Frobozz, who makes it 
much more fun. Very good, with more logical 
puzzles than in Zork I. (Advanced 

Zork III (The Dungeon Master) It's no longer a 
treasure hunt and the puzzles are harder to 
solve. The game seems barren to start with, 
and the scoring may confuse some players. 

Enchanter Good intro to a new "Zorkian 
Realms" trilogy stressing puzzles and magic. 
You've been chosen to defeat the evil Krill 
because your magic powers are so weak that 
you won't be considered a threat. Unfortunate- 
ly, this also means that your days are probably 
numbered . . . (Intermediate) 

Sorcerer In this sequel to Enchanter, your 
magic powers have grown — a fact which 
comes in handy as you attempt to rescue Bel- 
boz and defeat a demon. Long-playing, with 
more and trickier puzzles, it ranks among the 
best from Infocom. (Advanced) 

Spellbreaker The third in the Enchanter series 
challenges you to save Magic itself. Tough, 
because spells are unreliable; but some nifty 
White Cubes are a big help. Beware of wasting 
your Time Stop scroll. (Expert) 

Beyond Zork A good sequel to Spellbreaker 
which challenges you to restore Magic by find- 
ing the Coconut of Quendor. Your character 
has D&D-style attributes and must fight as 
well as solve puzzles. (Advanced) 


Deadline You have 12 hours to solve a locked- 
room murder (or is it?) mystery. When ques- 
tioning characters, you're very aware of talk- 
ing to a parser. Fairly good, with slow progress 
but a satisfying solution. (Expert) 

Witness Freeman Linder asks you to visit him 
about being blackmailed, but you fail to pre- 
vent his murder. This is a fair 1930's Philip 
Marlowe-style case. (Intermediate) 

Suspect You're a reporter covering a Hal- 
lowe'en party. When the hostess is discovered 
dead, you're the prime suspect and must clear 
yourself before the police arrive. The socialites 
are fun to interact with, and the mystery keeps 
you involved. (Advanced) 

Ballyhoo The daughter of the circus owner has 
been kidnapped and it's up to you to save her. 
Just a fair mystery/puzzle-busting challenge 
with too many unconvincing solutions. (Inter- 

Moonmist A friend has called you to Tresyl- 
lian Castle on Cornwall's coast to deal with an 
unfriendly ghost. You can play as either a man 
or a woman, and the game has four variations. 
Look for enticing Nancy Drew- style adventur- 
ing; very good for newcomers. (Introductory) 


Starcross As an asteroid miner in the 22nd 
century, you discover an abandoned spaceship 
from another culture. I've never finished this 
one, but it looks like a fair adventure. (Expert) 

Suspended (A Cryogenic Nightmare) Only a 
fair game, but a breathtaking concept: you've 
been cryogenically preserved {xQ^d frozen) and 
are awakened when something goes wrong on 
your spaceship. You must use six specialized 
robots to discover and fix the trouble. The 
parser is more difficult to get used to than 
usual. (Expert) 

Planetfall Infocom' s remaining science fiction 
titles all have Steve Meretzky's light touch. 
This one features Floyd, a robot child, who is 
the most charming creature I've encountered in 
interactive fiction. When your spaceship has an 
accident, you manage to make it to a deserted 
scientific complex and. . . (Intermediate) 

Stationfall The sequel to Planetfall lands you 
and Floyd at an abandoned space station which 
is more fun than ever to explore. But then 
Floyd begins acting strangely! (Intermediate) 

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy Min- 
utes after heartless city workers destroy your 
house, even more heartless aliens destroy the 
Earth. In this hilarious scenario, you escape 
and end up playing many roles. Not much to 
map, but a good adventure with tough puzzles. 
(Intermediate to Advanced) 


Infidel Your character is something of a 
scoundrel who has come to the deserts of 
Egypt in hopes of looting an undiscovered 
pyramid. Look forward to a good challenge 
and several clever puzzles. (Advanced) 

The Lurking Horror An aU-nighter to finish a 
term paper turns nasty when the computer 
mysteriously swallows your only copy. Good, 
with lots to explore in the thinly-fictionalized 
MIT setting. Readers of Steven Levy's Hackers 
will find the game has a special attraction. 
(Intermediate) ■ 


When the MS-DOS and Macintosh ver- 
sions of The Lost Treasures of Infocom 
became available, programmer T. A. Phelps 
was champing at the bit for an Apple II ver- 
sion. He knew the game data files were 
interchangeable, so he set about getting an 
interpreter. Phelps succeeded, which turns 
out to be especially good news for He and 
lie users who want to access the LT collec- 
tion. The Phelps package is freeware called 

Even after buying Lost Treasures, you're 
in for quite a challenge. Your first assign- 
ment is to find a Version B interpreter on an 
old Infocom game disk — try a 1984 release, 
like Sorcerer — and move it to a ProDOS 
diskette. This is not exactly for the non-tech- 
nical but, for legal reasons, is necessary 
(Phelps cannot distribute the interpreter 
because Activision owns the rights). I fol- 
lowed the instructions supplied in the Info- 
comPro documentation, but on the first test 
my copy crashed! Using a disk editor, I 
found that the first two bytes had been 
zeroed! Changing them to "D8 A9" fixed the 

The last step is to move the Lost Trea- 
sures adventure data files to lie diskettes 
and change the filetype and auxtype for 
each to $06/$0000 using a program like 
FAZ II. You should be able to play all of the 
games except Zork Zero, Beyond Zork and 
Hitctihiiker's Guide. (Also, though you can 
finish Lurking Horror, it may crash a few 
times along the way.) A nice plus is that the 
old 8-game limit on saves is gone. You can 
have as many saved games as your disk 
can hold. 

Even better, transfers can go both ways. 
IIgs Lost Treasures owners can move data 
files from DOS 3.3 versions of games like 
Hollywood Hijinx and Leather Goddesses of 
Phobos and play them like other Lost Trea- 
sures scenarios using the Big Red inter- 
preters! (You must change the file type to 
$F5 and auxtype to $8003.) InfocomPro is 
available on GEnie's A2 RoundTable (down- 
load INFOCOMPRO. BXY) and from other 




1 .25 MB Apple IIgs, System 5.0 or later, one 

3.5" drive 


Distributed exclusively by: 


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20200 Nine Mile Rd. St. Clair Shores, MI 48080 

To get more information about the Apple User Group nearest yo 

If you want your 

computer club to be 

mentioned in II Alive, 

send a letter deswibing 

your club to: 

Quality Computers 

c/o Bob DeMaggio 

P.O. Box 349 

St. Clair Shores, MI 48080 


Anctiorage Apple Users Group 
P.O. Box 110753 
Anctiorage.AK 9951 1-0753 
Contact: Timothy Odel 1 373-7459 

Apple Mousse User Group 

P.O. Box 80176 

Fairbanks, AK 99708 

Contact: Jesse Atencio (907) 456-1 333 

$15 per year 


Tucson Apple Core 
P.O. 80x43176 
: Tucson, AZ 85733-3176 
Contact: Clay Evitts (602) 296-5491 days 
$20 per year 
BBS: (602) 882-2945- 


Apple Tree of the Ozarks 
HC62BOX540 : 
Flippen.AR 76234 
$20 per yr; $15 initiation 


Apple Corps of San Diego 
P.Q.::Box 87964 
SamOiego.CA 92138^7964 
Contact: Tom Kasner (619) 693-0331 

Appleholics Anonymous Apple It User Group 
3875 Telegraph Rd. Suite A202 
Ventura, CA 93003 

Contact: Tony Pizza (805) 482-3453 /, 
$12 per year ■,::■"' ' '" 

Applejacks of Inland Empire 
Contact: Larry (909) 864-2309 
BBS: (909) 369-6637 

Apple Sac 

P.a Box 254645 

Sacramento, CA 95825 

Contact: Heidi Bylsma::(916) 486-8326 

Hm $30, Renewal $25- 

BBS; Future Vision (Metal) 481-1096 

Fresno Apple II Computer Users Group 
P:C}: Box 1682 ' 
:,Ctbvis;CA 93613 

GravenStein Apple iIGS Users Group 
P.O. Box 964 

Petaluma.CA 94953-0964 
$25 per year per family 
BBS: (707) 585-0865 

Newton's Fruit Users Group 
1 4639 Cashew St. ^•■•^^^ 
:::Hespe!ia,G A 92345-2702 
:aBS:: (61 9) 956-2631 

Orange Apple Computer Club 
25422 Trabuco Rd., BIdg 105, Ste-25t 
El Toro,CA 92630 ^^ 

Original Apple Corps 
P.O. Box 90065 
Los Angeles, CA 90009 
Contact: Fred Duffy (310) 475-8400 
■BBS: (310) 454-4660 (; 

Peninsula Apple User Group 

Redwood City, CA 

Contact: Roger Lakner 367-8657 

P.I.E. (Programming & Interfacing 

Enthusiasts, Inc.) 


Santa Clara, CA 95055 - 

BBS: (408) 733-46701 

Tri-City Apple User Group - 
P.O. Box 93123 
Pasadena, CA 91109 
$20 per year 
BBS: (818) 288-5640 

Tri Valley Apple II User Group (TVAIIUG) 
: P.O. Box 2096 
Dublin, CA 94568 
Contact: Jerry Carleton (510) 828-0959 

Valley Apple Computer Club 

12978 Crowley St 


Contact: William Trent (818) 988-1752 


BBS: (818) 782-6471 . 


Computer C.A.C.H.E. (Colorado Apple & 
Compatable Home Enthusiasts) 
P.O: Box 37313 : 

Denver, CO 80237-7313 
$18 per year : 
BBS: (303) 280-9453 

Denver Apple Pi 
: P.O. Box 280668 
•Lakewoo^GO 80228-0668 

$18 pluf$7 new membilapplication fee 

BBS: (303)421-8605 "": 


Applellst Computer Club 
P:0? Box 6053 — 

P.O. Box 200 

Greens Farms, CT 06436 ^ 
Contact: Joan Hoffman (203)^259-8513: 
■■$20 per year family .merribership i. 

Hartford. User Group Exchat^ge (:H::U^G.E): 
. P.O..:B0)(^^38OO2t-"'^--' 
East Hartford, CT (56138-0027 ::::,-»■ 
Contact: Edward Spostto (203) 635-0557:>: 
124 ■ 
BBS:: Bit Bucket f03)25:7-95:88i^ { 

SMALL User%roup- : 


f^lainvilie,CT 06062-2608 ; 
■ Contacf: Linda Frechette (203) 747-2036 


Delaware Valley m 
Apple IIGS Computer Club 
P,G, Box 5956 - 
Wilmington, DEI 9808-0956 ■ 

Apple Computer Enjoyment Society (A.C.E.S.) 
P.O. Box 291557"'^" '-^^^^ 
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33329-1557 
1-800-924-4709 & (305) 584-5923 
$30 1st year; $25 renewal 

Fort Lauderdale Chapter (A.C.E.S.) 

see above 

BBS: (305) 431-5189 

South Broward Chapter (A.C.E.S.) 

see^^ above ' 

BBS: (305) 431-5189 

West Palm Beach Chapter (A.C.E.S.) . 

see above 

BBS: (407) 483-8426 

Apple Tree of Central Florida 
2810 Nela Ave. 
Orlando, FL 32809 
$35 annually 
■aiS: 366-01 56/ 

Spring Hill Apple Computer Enthusiasts (SPACE) 

11418 Long Hill Court 

Spring Hill, FL 34609 



Sun Coast AppleJree 
P.O. Box 7488 
Clearwater, FL 34618 
$25 per year 
BBS: (813) 347-5104 

SWACKS Apple Computer Club 
c/o L.E. McLaughlin 
384 Lancaster Ave. 
, Port Charlotte, FL 33952 
$20 per year;^^$12Tor Newsletter'only 


ComputerUser Group (Any Type) 
RockmartGA30i53 / 

■ Contact: Donald Sulfivan 
(404)684-5909;:; -'^^^ 
$15 per year ' 


Hawaii Macintosh & Apple Users' Society 
P.O. Box 29554 : 

Honolulu, HI 96820-1954^^- ■-■^^^^ 
Contact: Eugene Villaluz (808) 735-3750: ; 
$24 per year : 


Apple Boise User Group (ABUG) ;;: 

934 River Park Lane 

Bofse, ID 83706 

Contact: George Nummy (208) 344-9506 

$12 per year 


Apple free Computer Club 
:: P.O. Box 823 
::Homewood,IL 60430-0823 
Contact; Mary Ann Trzyna 
,(8:15)469-1961 ;:::;: 
: $28 farnlly:,: $14. auxiliary per year 
BBS: (7Qp97-6942 

: Aurora Area Appte Gore 

■ P:0: Box 28ii ::::■- 

: Gonfact; GeorgeMurphy (708) 357-0759 
::$2Q' : 

DAUG (Dupage Apple Users Group) 
P.O. Box 294 

■ Downers Grove, I L 6051 5 

.Northern Illinois Computer Society 
P.O. Box 547 ; 
Arlington Heights, IL 60006 
New $30, Renewal $24, ■ 
includes entire family 
: BBS: (312)' 351 -4374 

Northshore Apple Users Group 
: c/0:Babette Simon 
■■533TCarot ■ 

Skokie,IL 60077 

Contact: Babette Simon. (708) 967-7483 
- Faply $20 per year > 


Apple Piakers 
Indiariapoli, IN 46220 -: 
Contact: Steve McGuirk 257-3366 ; 
New $25, $30per family per yr;^ 
Renewal $20 ::::>^ 

Apple Users Grt)up of :Michiana: ^ 
■P.O. Box 11 398 ::: . 
South Bend, IN::46634-1 398 :■; 
$15 per year 

Fort Wayne . 

■ Apple Compufer Users-Group- ' 
R.O. Box 10004 
Ft. Wayne, IN 46850-0004 

Northwest Indiana Apple Users Group 
7526 Independence SL 
Merritlville, IN::46410 : : 
Contact: Nate Gaglilardi 762-6818; 
$14peryr :- 


Applebyter Computer Club 
P.O. Box 2092 
Davenport, lA 52809 
Contact: Shawn Beattie 
BBS: 788-0314 

Green Apple User Group 

P.O. Box 171 

Waterloo, lA 50701 

Contact: Virgil Berg (319) 232-1842 

$15 per year 

Metro Apple Computer Hobbyists 
P.O. Box 176 
Crescent, IAS1526-01:76 

Roland Story Apple User's Group 

P.O. Box 407 

Roland, IA::50236-0407 

Contact: Dave Graham (515) 388-4700 

$10 per year 


Apple Bits Users Group (ABUG) 
P.O. Box 368 

Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 . 

Contact: Sandy Brockman 


$30 first year' $25 renewal 

Apple Tree User Group, Inc; 
306 West 5th Street 
- Earned, KS 67550 
ContacL Shane Blanchett 
$15 Initiation Fee; $20 Individual, $25 Family / 

■ Parsons Apple Users Group 
P.O. Box 1081 
Parsons, KS 67357 

Plane Apple User's Group 

P.O. Box 47396 

Wichita, KS 67201 

Contact: Duston James (316) 685-21 74: 

Steve Specht (31 6) 265-5539; 

$24:peryr.' - 

OMEGA PRO (31,6) 721-7735 

Topeka Area Apple Group 

541 9 SW 28th St 

Topeka, KS 66614-1713 
::Gontact:,RonHurd-:(91 3) 272-5033 
^^$15 family 


Louisville Computer Society 

P.O. Box 90,21 

Louisville, KY 40209-9021 


Northwoods IIGS User Group 
P.O. Box 550 
Milford, ME 04461-0550 
$15 per year . . 


Maryland Apple -Corp. : 

Contact: Dave Smythe (410)882-9234 

Washington Apple Pi, Ltd. 

7910 Woodmont Ave., Suite 910 
;:Bethesda, MD20814 
/; (301) 654-8060 


Cape Cod Apple Users Group 

.P.O.Box 48 

South Dennis, MA 02660 

Contact Ron Church (508) 540-2517 



Apple P.I.E. 
P.O. Box 5055 
Warren, Ml 48090-5055 

Apples for the Teachers 

161 Cass Ave. 

Mt Clemens, Ml 48043 

Contact: Jim Wenzloff (313) 469-7206 

Tlint Apple Club 
P.O. Box 460 
Flint Mt 48501 
BBS: (313) 230-7754 

(5rand Rapids Apple II Users Group 

P.O. Box 1811 

Grand Rapids, Ml 49501 

Lansing Users Group 
P.O. Box 27144 
Lansing, Ml 48909-7144 



groups specializing in a certain subject, or tiow to start a new group, call Apple Computer 1 -800-538-9696, ext. 500. or write to: Ttie Apple User Group Connection • Apple Computer, Inc. • 20525 Mariani Ave., M/S 36AA • Cupertino, CA 95014 

Mictiigan Apple Computer User Group 

P.O. Box 567 

Warren, Ml 48090-0567 

$25 to start, $20 renewal per year 

Midland Apple Club . 
1710 West St. Andrews 
Midland, Ml 48640 


Lake Superior Apple Users Group 


Contact; Don Jacobson (218) 723-4349 

Minnesota Apple Computer Users Group 

P.O. Box 796 

Hopkins, MN 55343 

Contact: Rand Sibet (612) 566-8571 

$25 per year, $15 student 


American Public Domain Club 
5821 Kerth Rd. 
St. Louis, MC 63128 
Contact: Michael Young 

Apple Squires of the Ozarks 
P.O. Box 3986 

Springfield, MO 65808-3986 
Contact: Doug Kahler 833-4362 
$15 initiation fee; $20 individual, 

Monsanto Apple Users Group 

2 Pem Road 

SI Louis, MO 631 46-5407 

Contact: John B. Wilson (314) 694-2447 

(Leave voice mail) 

GEnie E-Mail Address: JBWILSON 

$10/yr-Monthly Newsletter 


Billings Apple Users Group 
P.O. Box 23005 
Billings, MT 59104-3005 
Students $15, Individual $20, 
Family $25, Corp $50 
BBS: 256-3454 


5509 South 31st, #8 
Lincoln, NE 68516 
$10 per year 


Southern Nevada Apple Family User Group 

P.O. Box 12715 

Las Vegas, NV 891 12-1 71 5 

Contact: George Lewis (702) 364-9093 

BBS: Apples Only (702) 646-7007 


Bergen Aople Special Interest Club (B.A.s.i.c.) 
The BASIC FACTS; 26-31 A Warren Rd. 
Fair Lawn, NJ 07410 
Contact: Nancy Alexander 652-5632 
$15 per year 
. SSA-BBS: 472-8312 

North Jersey Mac Apple User Group 
P.O. Box 215 (WOB) 
West Orange, NJ 07052-0215 
Contact: Pete Crosta (201) 667-6369 
$25 per year 

Ocean County Apple Users Group 

25 Long Road 

Freehold, NJ 07728 

Contact: MattWeiss (908) 431-2339 

$15 per year 

Ocean/Monmouth Apple Users Group 

55 Meadowbrook Road 

Brick, NJ 08723-7848 

Contact: Bill Scratchley (908) 920-3833 

$15 per year 

Princeton Apple II Users Group 
100 Sixth Ave. 
Trenton, NJ 08619-3223 

South Jersey Apple User's Group 
P.O. Box 4273 
Cherry Hill, NJ 080034273 
Contact: Jack Bullion 767-4913 
$20 singte/tamily, $10 student 


Applequerque Computer Club 
P.O. Box 35508 
Albuquerque, NM 87176-5508 


BAUG (Big Apple Users Group) 

P.O. Box 1822 

Old Chelsea Station 

New York, NY 101 13-0945 


CRAB-Apple (County of Rockland Apple Branch) 

P.O. Box 268 

W.Nyack, NY 10994-0268 

$10 per year, 

free 1/2 yr membership for new members 

GAB'er(Guilderland Apple Byters) 

Roger C. Mazula, Editor 

28 Hay Path 

WatervlieL NY 12189 

ContacL John Buckley (518) 371-3624 

$10 per year, $5 initiation fee 

BBS: Pro Vanilla (51 8) 462-5953 

MixedBumt Hills Apple Group 

171 Birch Lane 

Scotia, NY 12302 

$8 per year 

BBS: Plain Vanilla 462-5953 

Putnam Valley 

Educators Apple Users Group 
142 Peekskill Hollow Rd. 
Putnam Valley, NY 10579 
Contact: Frank Reale (914) 528-8101 


Carolina Apple Core 

P.O. Box 31424 

Raleigh, NO 27622 


CAC 783-9010; NtEHS 541-0041 

Charlotte Apple Computer Club 
P.O. Box 221 91 3 
Charlotte, NO 28222 
BBS: 563-6233 

Eamon Adventurer's Guild 

7625 Hawkhaven Dr. 

Clemmons, NO 27012 

Contact: Tom Zuchowski (919) 766-7490 

$7 per year 


Triad Apple Core 

c/o GTCC Small Business ASST. Center 
2007 Yancyville St:, Suite 220 
Greensboro, NO 27405 


Apple-Dayton, Inc. 
P.O. Box 3240 
Dayton, OH 45401-3240 

Apple GS Columbus 
P.O. Box 27072 
: Columbus, OH 43227-0072 
Contact: John Ledford (614) 855-0937 
BBS: (614) 475-9791 

AppleSiders of Cincinnati 

P.O. Box 14277 

Cincinnati, OH 45250-0277 

ContacL Ralph Kitts (513) 829-1161 

$25 per year 

BBS: (606) 572-5375 or (606) 572-5685 

COACH (Central Ohio Apple Computer Hobbyists) 

P.O. Box 09028 

Bexley, OH 43209 

Contact: Mike Goodrich (614) 866-4860 

BBS: (614) 262-4946 

NEO Apple Corps 
c/o Nancy Abbott 
Hinckley, OH 44233 



907 River Road #289 

Eugene, OR 97404 

Contact; Larry Badten 895-2605 


Portland Apple II User Group 
P.O. Box 1608 

Beaverton, OR 97075-1608:: 
$20 1st Yr; $15 thereafter ■ 

Willamette Apple Connection 

P.O. Box 7252 

Salem, OR 97303-0053 


WAC BBS (503) 363-0861 


Apple Butler Users Group 
P.O. Box 39 Meridian Station 
Butler, PA 16001-0039 
$20 Single, $25 family 

Columbia Apple Pi 
c/o L.A. Winski, M.D. ■ 
P.O. Box 710 
Millville, PA 17846 

Delaware Valley Apple Branch 
132 Eaton Dr. 
Wayne, PA 19087 
Contact: Sam Lieberman 

Erie Apple Crunchers, Inc. 

P.O. Box 1575 

Erie, PA 16507 

$5 Initiation fee: $25 per yr ^ 

E.A:C. Express (814) 838-8510 

Hershey Apple Core 

P.O. Box 634 

Hershey, PA 17033 

HAC Hotline; (717) 531-1300 

The Library BBS: (717)566.1699 

■ Keystone Apple Core 
C/dWilliamC. MillervPresident 
1:789 Braggtown Road 
East Berlin, PA 17316 
$10 annually 


Rhode Island Apple Group 
P.O. Box 4726 
Rumford.RI 02916-4726 
$10 initiation; $20 annual dues 


CSRA Apple Users Group 
: 1342 Moultrie Drive 
Aiken, SO 29803 
$15 year 


AppleCore of Memphis 
P.O. Box 241 002 
Memphis, TN 38124-1002 
$20 per year 

Music City Apple Core 

c/o Gerald Dooley 

1085 Woodcock Hollow Road 

Kingston Springs, TN 37082 

Contact: Gerald Dooley 952-2367; George 

Emge 833-1508; Everett Hertenstein 262-4778 


Apple Valley Computer Club 

Tony Rodriguez, Pres. 5900 N. 28th Lane 

McAtlen,TX 78504 

Contact: Tony Rodriguez 682-9625 


Coastal Bend Users Graup (CBUG) 
P.O. Box 8391 

Corpus Chrlsti,TX 78468-8391 
$12 per year per household 
STIX (512) 992-4855 

San Antonio Appleseed 

P.O. Box 290028 

San Antonio, TX 78280-1428 

New Membership $15, Renewal $10 

Tarrant Apple Group (TAG) 

912 West Broadway Ave. 

FortWorth.TX 76104 

ContacL Bob Baggott (81 7) 332-3341 

$15 per year 


Northern Virginia Apple Users Group 
P.O. Box 8211 
Falls Church, VA 22041 
PRO-NOVA BBS; (703) 671-0416 

TideWater AppleWorms 

P.O. Box 68097 

Virginia Beach, VA 23455 

Contact: Kevin Mitchell (804) 468-9914 


Apple Users Group of Charleston 
2105 Weberwood Drive 
South Charleston, WV 25303 
Contact: John Howell 343-6422, or 
Chas. Szasz 965-6965 

Club Apple User Graup 
125 North Pinch Rd. 
Elkview, WV 25071 


Milwaukee Apple Users Symposium ' 
9818 W. Sheridan Ave. 
Milwaukee, Wl 53225 
Contact; Helmut Wittbecker 

Racine Area Users Group 
P.O; Box 085152 
Racine, Wl 53408 

Wisconsin Apple Users Club, Inc. 
P:0. Box 20998 
Milwaukee, Wl 53220-0998 
ContacL Bruce Kosbab (414) 771-6086 


Apple Users Society of Melbourne 

(A.U,S.O.M.) Inc. 

P.O. Box 1071 Narre Warren MDA 

Narre Warren, VIC 3805 

Ph: (613) 796-7553 

Tazmanian Apple User Group 

P.O. Box 188 

N. Hubart, Tasmania 7002 AUSTRALIA 

10021 485200 

ContacL Jim Eraser 


Apples B.C. Computing Society 
P.O. Box 80569 
Bumaby, B.C. V5H 3X9 
$35 per year, $30 renewal 

Kelowna Apple Users Group 
1622 West KelownaRd. 
Kelowna, B.C., Canada V1Z3B7 
Contact: Robert Ashton 
(604) 769-3140 6 to 9 pm 
$2 per month 

Apple SAUCE 

Box 480 RPO, University 

Saskatoon, Sask., Canada S7N 4J8 

Contact: Brock Chatson (306) 374-0095 

$20 per year 

BBS: SAUCE (306) 955-8828 

Winnipeg Apple Users' Group 
P.O. Box 1798 

Winnip'^^ Mi^ ^or^ opi 

ConLi !' 15 

$20 1., , , Muitiontee 

Applebox BBS 224-0683 


Cambridge Apple User Group 
22 High Street 
Cambridge CB41NG 
England (U.K.) 
Contact: Ian Archibald 

The British lies Club 

41 High Street 

Great Shelford 

Cambridge CB25EH 

England (U.K.) 

Contact: Peter Stark 

(Produces bimonthly "members' disks) 


GS Club, 

6, impasse La Croix-Pommier, 
94120 Fontenay-sous-Bois. 
Telephone: (1) 
AppleLink: GS.CLUB 


Kaiserslautem Apple Users Group 
PSC1 Box 8851 
APOAE 09012 

Ramstein Apple Club 
APOAE 09012 

Rhein-Neckar Apple Users Graup (RNAUG) 

P.O. Box 525, 

APO New York, NY 09063 

Contact; James Clark 



Apple II Survivor Club Italy 
Vis Dal Fabbra 4 
37122 Verona Italy 
Contact; Manuel Turtula 



The Lost & Never Found 

by John David SMIey 

This essay was lost. Too bad, too, because 
it was pretty good. Why, right about in 
the middle I was really cooking with this 
funny story about a computer malfunc- 
tion, when suddenly . . . 

What's that you say? How can this essay be 
lost when you are reading it right now? Well, 
my gentle friends, you are not reading the 
essay I started to write. What you are reading 
the essay I wrote after I wrote the essay you 
will never read. Got that stored in your tempo- 
rary RAM? 

No? OK. A little prerequisite information, then. 

You see, I'd been commissioned to write this 
article — well not this article, but an article — 
which was to be published in this magazine, 
probably right here in this very space. A comput- 
er science student friend of mine had suggested 
the idea. Then I had discussed the concept with a 
few other people, mulled it over in my mind, and 
finally sat down to write the article. 

Since it was to be a simple short, funny article, 
I figured I could do it in one evening. I booted 
up my word processor and put in my data disk, 
dove into insert mode, and started to cook. I 
chugged RC Cola and crunched salty pret- 
zels — I'm not a purist — and knocked out the 
first draft in a couple of hours. Then I reviewed 
the article in edit mode, and was about to print 
it out, when suddenly. . . 

Only God and Steve Wozniak know what hap- 
pened next. 

All I know is that somewhere between my 
"save" command and my "print" command, 
the orders got confused and this terrifically 
funny little essay (or rather, that terrifically 
funny httle essay) became only a fuzzy memo- 
ry in the mind of an RC-Cola'd-out writer. 

I tried to call it back, but it didn't answer. I 
struck every key code in the manual, plus a 
few I made up. Nothing. Then, I tried every- 
thing I had already done all over again, then 
once more for good luck. But there was no 
good luck to be had. 

It was gone . . . gone . . . gone forever. 

The next day, I ran into my computer science 
student friend who had suggested the idea for 
the article and poured out my sad story to him. 

It was then that I learned that stories of lost 
data are like tales of trips to the hospital. No 
matter how heart-wrenching your story may 
be, the person you're telling it to can go you 
one sadder. 

My friend told me about his final exam pro- 
gram that he saved but couldn't recall. Like a 
bride in a bathroom, it was there, but he 
couldn't get it out. 

Then, from his friends, I heard more horror 
stories — lost forecasts, vanished mailing lists, 
and gone-forever financial analysis. Where did 
they go, we all wondered? Would we ever see 
or hear from them again? Would we meet 
them in heaven with the angels? Or, in the case 
of the financial analysis, would we meet them 
in the other place? 

It was during one of these discussions of spiri- 
tual electronics that a young man told me 
about the Lost and Never Found. 

"The what?" I asked. 

"The Lost and Never Found," he repeated. 
"It's a place where lost data is turned in and 
reclaimed. It's a free service. All you have to 
do is identify your data and take it home." 

"No kidding!" I exclaimed. "Well, lead on, my 
friend! Where do I find this place?" 

"At city hall. It's in the basement." 

Yes, of course I was skeptical. But I had noth- 
ing to lose — having already lost it — so I hus- 
tled to the mall and asked an attendant at the 
information booth, who pointed to a tattered 
cardboard sign on which was drawn a hand 
with an extended index finger pointing down- 

Next to the hand were the words "Lost & 
Never Found." 

At the bottom of the basement corridor was a 
large open window with a counter below it. A 
sign above the window confirmed that this 
was, in fact, the Lost and Never Found. In the 
cavernous cluttered room behind the opened 
window was a portly older gentleman in a 
white shirt. His sleeves were rolled up and his 
necktie was loosened at the collar. A half- 
smoked cigar dangled in the corner of his 

"Lookin' for somethin' or leavin' it behind?" 
he asked, without looking up from the boxes 
he was rearranging on the floor. 

"I'm looking," I said, "for an essay I wrote last 
night. I lost it right before I was going to print 
it out. I'm not sure exactly what happened. All 
I know is ... " 

"How long was it?" 

"Huh? Oh, about five pages, double-spaced." 

"Bytes. I need bytes. Don't catalog lost data 
according to pages. You gotta give me bytes." 

"Oh sure. I keep forgetting. Ah. . . I guess 
about three thousand. That's about right. 
About 3K." 

"Regular chip off the old motherboard, huh? 
Well, we'll see what we can do," he said, kick- 
ing one of the boxes aside and finally coming 
over to the window. "Now, you say you lost 
this last night?" 

"Yes, about ten, ten-thirty." 

"Hmmm. I got a few essays turned in here dur- 
ing my shift. Could you describe it?" 

"It's funny." 

"Hey, aren't they all? Especially the ones that 
tell you how easy it is to make your dot-matrix 
printer spit out a black-and-white likeness of 
the Playmate of the Month. They never tell ya 
she always comes out lookin' like Mickey 
Mouse. Har. Har." 

(That's how he laughed, really!) 

"Well, fortunately, that's not it. And if it were, 
I don't think I'd be bothering to look for it," I 
said. "Mine is just an innocent, funny essay 
about computer malfunction." 

The portly old gentleman scratched the stubble 
of beard on his chin in an imitation of thought, 
then waved his hand at me. 

"Come on in," he said as he opened the half- 
door next to the window counter. "We'll have 
a look around." 

The room looked like a blind man's attic. 
Everything was non-arranged according to 
how much it would contribute to the chaos. 




"Need a left glove?" asked the old portly gen- 
tleman, as he kicked another brown box out of 
his path. 

"No thanks." 

"We got tons of 'em. Left gloves, disposable 
pens and cigarette lighters, umbrellas, and 
wrinkled raincoats. Everybody loses 'em." 

"Just my story," I said. "That's all I lost." 

"The funny one. Right?" 

"As rain." 

"Well," he said, "if it's here, we'll find it." 

There, behind a box marked "Left Gloves, 
March to April 1984," was an enormous old 
green monitor. The portly gentle older man 
cleared some debris off the keyboard and boot- 
ed the machine. Within moments, he began 
calling up all sorts of seemingly unrelated data. 

"Need a tax return?" he asked as a spreadsheet 
appeared on his screen. "Looks like a healthy 
refund on this one." 

"Then it couldn't be mine." 

"Just think, this poor schmuck is trying to 
explain to the auditors how his return got lost 
inside his computer. Har. Har." 

"Did you see my story yet?" 

"The funny one?" 


"Gonna have to go some to be as funny as this 
tax return." 

"Har. Har," I said. 

We kept on looking together. Articles, games, 
tests, graphic designs, tutorial programs, and 
even dot-matrix configurations of Mickey 
Mouse that were labeled Playmate of the 
Month flashed and rolled before our blinking 

We found pirated copies of programs and we 
saw programs elementary school kids had 
made up that solved nothing and then got lost. 
We found form letters and we saw pie charts 
with whole slices missing. We found home 
programs that had disappeared in a flash and 
left their users in open-mouthed shock. 

They were all here. All the horror stories I had 
heard had been true. I saw my friend's final 
exam. I found the lost forecasts, the vanished 
mailing lists and the gone-forever financial 
analysis. They were all here ... all except. . . 

Beep. Off. I stared at my reflection in the 
sullen green monitor, ASCII characters dancing 
before my eyes in the sudden darkness. 

"Sorry," said the gentle old portly man, who 
for the first time removed the half-smoked 
cigar from the comer of his mouth and made a 
sucking smacking sound with his tongue and 
teeth. "Guess it's still out there somewhere." 

I nodded, 

I thanked him for his time and he 

"Just doin' my job, young fella," he said. 
"Don't despair. Maybe it will turn up yet. 
Sometimes folks find data lying around, 
remove a few bits of information they can use 
themselves, and turn the rest in — anonymous- 
ly, of course. No. You never can tell about lost 
information. They say a computer is alike a 
brain, you know. I believe that, really do. And 
brains forget things just like the computer loses 
things. But did ya ever notice how old people, 
especially, will be able to remember the tiniest 
detail of somethin' happened to them when 
they was kids? I mean, somethin' that they 
thought they forgot! Well, just you wait. When 
your computer gets of an age, it will start 
remembering again, and I bet your funny story 
will show up one day just as clear as the day 
you wrote it." 

I smiled and shook hands with him as he 
opened the half-door to let me out. And for a 
moment, just for a moment, I actually believed 
what he said. It occurred to me that I had com- 
pletely lost my mind. Perhaps I should ask the 
portly older gentleman if he knew where it 
was, I thought. 

I never did find my funny story about comput- 
er malfunction. So I wrote this one instead. As 
a matter of fact, I wrote it that same evening 
upon my return from the Lost and Never 
Found. I mulled it over while I drove home 
and had practically written it in my mind by 
the time I pulled into the garage, turned off the 
ignition, grabbed my briefcase off the seat and 
realized ... I had lost my left glove. ■ 




(Continued from page 49) 

WESTERFIELD: The single most important 
quality in a good programmer — and maybe the 
only important one — is that the person really 
has to like programming. Without that, it's just 
a boring job. With that quality, you can literal- 
ly do anything, although it may take some peo- 
ple longer than others. It helps for some kinds 
of programming to have a good background in 
math. But depending on the kind of program- 
ming you want to do, it can be just as useful to 
have a good background in art, literature, sci- 
ence, history, or just about anything else. 

In the old days, there were programmers, the 
people who warmed pizzas on the monitors at 
midnight to get good computer time, and users, 
the people who ran programs other people 
wrote. That's no longer true. HyperStudio is 
one example of a programming environment 
that you can use without doing traditional pro- 
gramming (although traditional programming 
is available through HyperLogo if you want it). 
C and Pascal put traditional programming 
within the reach of anyone who has a few 
hours a week to invest. Anyone who wants to 
create programs can do it, now. Anyone. All 
you need is the desire. 

II ALIVE: What type of programs should a 
beginner start with? And what language is 

WESTERFIELD: Write what you want to use. 
It's a lot more fun that way. That's not the best 
way to design a commercial product, but it's 
the best way to get started in programming, 
and the best way to keep yourself interested. 

The best language really depends on your 
goals. If you're doing multimedia, the learning 
curve is fairly shallow. HyperStudio and 
HyperCard are great places to start. If you 
want to do graphics or artificial intelligence, 
Logo is a good place to get going. If you want 
to write fast, efficient programs that do more 
than present information, you probably want to 
learn C or Pascal. For high-quality animation, 
the kind you see in arcade games, you need to 
learn assembly language. That's tough, but the 
things you can do once you know assembly are 
astounding. So the first step is to decide what 
you want to do, then pick the tool that will let 
you create your program as quickly and easily 
as possible. 

II ALIVE: What are the most common pitfalls 
programmers fall into? 

WESTERFIELD: The path is littered with pit- 
falls! The first thing a programmer must learn 
is humility. The machine just doesn't make 
mistakes, unless it's malfunctioning, and the 
software doesn't make them nearly as often as 

we want to think. People make mistakes. Pro- 
grammers always has to remember Lubarsky's 
Rule of Cybernetic Entomology: "There's 
always one more bug." 

The other biggie is that the program has to be 
written for the customer, not the customer bent 
to the program. That's the toughest for most 
people. If you are writing the program for 
yourself, fine — but, if you're writing for oth- 
ers, you have to listen very carefully to what 
they want. The customer isn't always right, or 
even rational. But you have make sure that if 
you do something besides exactly what the 
customer wants, it's for a darn good reason! 
The customer should never have to learn to 
work a different way just to use your program. 

II ALIVE: Wefi, Mike any parting words? 

WESTERFIELD: I have a request. I collect old 
computer punch cards, especially ones with 
interesting logos. I'm always looking for some 
generous soul to send the card he's been using 
for a bookmark since 1978. Used or unused; it 
doesn't matter! ■ 

Logo Just Got Better! 

Imagine 3D cubes, octagons and 
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File Edit Movie Windows 

Text 2 

?RIGHT 30 
?REPEfiT 18 
Draw :C303H8 

Here's the chemistry molecule that turned hard 
core programmers at KansasFest into believers 
in the power and simplicity of 3D Logo. Just 
one line of code turned this molecule Into a 
movie that rotated in real time. 

^E Byte LUor^is Inc. 




Our logos come with everything you need — a 
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We pick up where other languages 
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|M^ (ji7/y>4'ri^^ 

The Rumors 

The Apple II is dead. The Apple 
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The Facts 

Hundreds of new software titles 
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AppleWorks is the biggest 
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The Apple II can do everything 
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II Alive covers the world of the 
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WQ^ Update 

Quality Computers • 20200 Nine Mile Rd. • St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 • (800) 777-3642 

Dear Friends, 

1993 was another terrific year for Quality Computers and the Apple 11 community. With the introduction 
of II Alive, the release of AppleWorks 4.0, and lies System 6.0.1, there's still plenty happening for the 
Apple II. 

We started II Alive to support the Apple 11 community while strengthening our focus in multi-platform 
educational technology. Enhance is still being sent to educators across the country, and we're introduc- 
ing a new Enhance Plus program which will provide educators with other valuable services along with 
their subscription. Our educational sales are up 300% — yet we haven't abandoned the Apple II. Our 
Apple II sales are holding steady, and our customers continue to compliment us on our outstanding ser- 
vice and support. 

It's largely been your word-of-mouth advertising which has allowed Quality Computers to continue to 
grow. So here's some more news for the grapevine. We have great plans for 1994. Since we're now the 
publisher of AppleWorks OS, we're scheduling an upgrade for that program by Spring. We're also cur- 
rently investigating the possibility of creating a true no-compromise Apple II emulator for the upcoming 
PowerPC-based computers from Apple, so you can run your Apple II software on the next generation of 

On a more personal note, I've become more and more aware recently of the responsibility all of us have 
for protecting and preserving our planet. That's why, in 1993, we stopped using styrofoam packing 
peanuts and plastic shrink wrap, and it's why, in 1994, we're spinning off a new company — Environmen- 
tal Living — to provide healthy, environmentally sound solutions for your home and your family. 

If you don't already have a hard drive for your computer, now may be the right time! With a blow-out 
special price on the Q Drive, you can now own a hard drive for 7e55than a second 3.5" floppy drive! It's 
just $179.95 for the 42 MB drive (requires SCSI interface card, sold separately). What a holiday gift! 

Again — thanks for a wonderful year. See you in 1994! 

Joseph P. Gleason 


Quality Computers 

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St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 


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Quality Computers 
20200 E. Nine Mile Rd. 
St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080