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A QUALITY COMPUTERS PUBLICATION 

von NO. 2 -JULY/AUGUST 93 

PRICE $3.95 



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explMing 
platinum 

PAINT 



MAKING YOUR 
FIRST CALL 




REASON TO 
CELEBRATE 



Eveiything Evolves 






Including Software 



Transportation has come a long way. Every 
innovation brings new and better ways of get- 
ting from point A to point B. 

It's the same with software. Every innovation 
brings you better ways of achieving your 
desired results. 

We are about to release one of those innova- 
tions. 

It will be the most significant upgrade to 
AppleWorks — EVER. Its code name is Quadriga. 
It's the biggest upgrade in AppleWorks' long his- 
tory. And it will change the way you use your 
Apple 11. 



We are designing this new product with major 
improvements in mind — more functions, more 
built-in goodies, and more ways to add-on. 

Watch for announcements coming soon. 

COMING OCT. 1 
CALL FOR FREE INFORMATION PACK 




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Exploring Platinum Paint 26 

BY JERRY KINDALL Platinum Paint is probably the most powerful Apple IIGS paint pro- 
gram ever designed. Few of us even begin to tap the program's full potential. This article is 
your first step to becoming a true Platinum Paint power user — even is you can't draw. 

Interview With Morgan Davis 38 

BY JERRY KINDALL With a suite of high-quahty telecommunications and development tools, 
the Morgan Davis Group has been quietly building a reputation as a class act. Now you can 
meet this Apple II pioneer. 

Taking Off the Wraps 44 

BY JOSEPH SELUR Are the growth and glory days of the Apple II over? The developers of a 
major new AppleWorks upgrade are betting they aren't! 



Page 26 




Page 23 




■•■w^lS 



Page 4 1 



Editorial 6 

A New Reason to Celebrate 

Letters 11 

News 13 

Items of interest 

Test Drives 15 

ProTERM 3.1, The Secrets of Bharas 

Ask Mr. Tech 19 

Questions and answers 

Head Of The Class 21 

A "No Homework" Coupon 

AppleWorks At Large 23 

Designing Successful Databases 

Modem Nation 31 

Making Your First Call 

Rumor Monger 33 



Weekend Hacker 35 

Playing with Fire 

Print To Publish 41 

Printing with Coherent Light 

49 



Media a la Mode 

Switched-On HyperStudio 

Shareware Spy 53 

Computer Clubs 56 

Glossary 58 

Telecommunication Terminology 

Entertain Me 59 

The Wide World of Eamon 



II Much Fun 



61 



Scan Art 63 



Marketplace 66 



PUBLISHER 
Joseph Gleason 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF ART & DESIGN 

Jerry Kindall Carl Sperber, Audrey Wolfe, Paul Sheppard 



ADVERTISING SALES 
Matthew Spatafora 



REVIEW EDITOR 
Jeff Hurlburt 



"You are a credit 
to the mail order 
industry." 



-George R. James 




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I USUALLY USE THIS COLUMN AS MY 

personal soapbox for celebrating the Apple II. 
This time, though, I want to take just a couple 
of minutes to welcome those of you who have 
chosen to fill the remainder of your 
ifiCider/A+ subscriptions with II Alive. Thanks 
to your choice, // Alive is now reaching a 
whole lot more Apple II enthusiasts than it 
ever has before. 

For the past several months, the publishers 
of inCider/A+ have been trying to give that 
magazine a new focus. Rumors flew that 
inCider/A+ would actually become, or be 
replaced by, a Macintosh magazine. Those 
rumors were, in fact, what spurred us to start // 






JERRY KINDALL, EDITOR 



Alive. The rumors of the impending 
changeover, whether fact or fiction, sparked a 
public uproar which (if you believe everything 
you hear) caused IDG Communications to 
rethink its plans and continue publishing 
inCider/A+ as a split Apple II and Macintosh 
magazine. 

But IDG still intended to produce a new 
Macintosh publication, a magazine addressing 



the new Mac home and school market segment 
which came into being when Apple introduced 
the Performa line. A test issue of that new pub- 
lication, Mac Computing, hit the newsstands in 
April, and was successful enough to justify 
launching Mac Computing as a full-fledged 
magazine. The sisiff of inCider/A+ were instru- 
mental in the creation of Mac Computing, and 
are now working full-time on the new publica- 
tion. inCider/A-\- is no more. 

Although we're saddened that the Apple II 
community has lost an important information 
outlet, we're excited by the possibilities our 
deal with IDG opens up. We wish the staff of 
Mac Computing the best of luck with their new 
magazine. Meanwhile, we'll keep bringing the 
magic of Apple II computing directly to your 
mailbox, and continue striving to make II Alive 
more exciting and more informative with every 
issue. 

It's been an uphill batde at times. There was 
the initial skepticism that a magazine pub- 
lished by a mail-order retailer could be com- 
pletely unbiased or, in fact, could be any more 
than a glorified sales catalog. We decided the 
best way to dispel that notion was to simply 
begin publishing the magazine and let the arti- 
cles speak for themselves. No amount of 
rhetoric would prove the point as well as actu- 
ally delivering the goods. I took on the often- 
daunting task of making II Alive a magazine 
worthy of being taken seriously, and was given 
complete freedom to do so. 

It's worked. The most convincing evidence 
that we're being taken seriously is that IDG 
Communications chose // Alive as the succes- 
sor to inCider/A+. And in the short time we've 
been publishing // Alive, we've received liter- 
ally hundreds of letters and phone calls from 
enthusiasts who truly appreciate our efforts 
with // Alive, offering constructive suggestions 
for improving the magazine. While we don't 
have time to answer every letter, we do read 
them all. Your support and input is greatly 
appreciated. 

We have more good things planned for // 
Alive. We've added eight additional pages to 
the magazine for this issue. (We can't promise 
the extra pages with every issue, but we'll do 
our best.) We're working on newsstand distrib- 
ution for this fall, and we'll be doing a special 
mailing to former inCider/A+ readers to let 
them know that Apple II support is back. With 
these steps, we hope to bring even more Apple 
II owners out of the woodwork and into the 
active Apple II community. We're soliciting 
more advertisers (since many of you told us 
that half the fun of reading computer maga- 
zines was looking at the ads) and recruiting 
some of the best writers in the Apple II com- 
munity to write for us. 

As always, our pledge is to celebrate the 
Apple II. Now the Apple II party is bigger than 



READER SURVEY 



Halfway through our first year of publication seems like a good time to stop and ask you, our readers, exactly what you think of II Alive. And just in case you need some incentive 
(other than helping us out) to take the time and fill out this survey, you could win a free IIAIivel-SM for your trouble! 

Yes, that's right, five lucky ///1//Ve subscribers, chosen at random, will be sent fabulous ///1//Vet-shirts. These attractive high-quality tees feature the II Alive logo on the front and the 
slogan "Apple II— Sweet Sixteen" on the back. Color is orange and white printing on navy shirts. The XL size fits most normal people; we have XXLs too. To get in on the t-shirt 
giveaway, your survey must be postmarked by July 31 , 1 993. But even if you can't send in the survey by the end of July, we still want to hear from you! 

Feel free to skip any comments which don't apply to you or which you don't feel comfortable answering. Thanks for your help in improving II Alive! 



ABOUT YOU 

Type of Apple lis you own: 

Other computers you own 
or use regularly: 

How long have you been 
using Apple lis? 

Was your first computer 
an Apple II? 

What level of user would 
you consider yourself? 

Do you program? 

What computer do you 
plan to buy next? 



II 11+ He lie llc+ IIGS Mac LC w/ lie card 

Amiga Atari C64 Mac PC NeXT Unix (workstation) 

Other 



< 1 year 1-3 years 3-5 years > 5 years 

Yes No 

Beginner Intermediate Advanced Power User 

Yes No 

Apple Amiga Atari Mac PC NeXT Unix No plans 






THE COLUMNS 

The ///1//Ve columns are: Head Of The Class (educational applications of the Apple II), AppleWorks at Large (AppleWorks and AppleWorks GS), Modem Nation (telecommunica- 
tions). Weekend Hacker (programming tips). Homework (things you can do with your Apple II at home). Print To Publish (printers and desktop publishing), Media a la Mode (multi- 
media). Right Connections (networking, file exchange, and multi-platform computing), and Entertain Me (games). 

What are your favorite columns? 

What was your favorite article in this column so far? 

Which columns can you live without? 

Which columns do you not read? 



Which columns do you actually dislike or find useless?. 



What could we do to make those columns more useful to you? _ 



THE DEPARTMENTS 

The ///1//Ve departments are: Interview, Editorial, Letters, News, Test Drives, Ask Mr. Tech, Rumor Monger, Glossary, Computer Clubs, Shareware Spy, II Much Fun, and Scan Art. 

What are your favorite departments? 



Which departments can you live without? 
Which departments do you not read? 



^^ ; ^, 



Which departments do you actually dislike or find useless? . 



What could we do to make those departments more useful to you? 









READER SURVEY CONTINUED 



THE FEATURE ARTICLES 

What is your favorite feature article, so far? . 



Wtiat two ottier articles tiave you enjoyed or found tfie most useful? . 

Wtiicfi articles did you actually dislike or find useless? 

What articles would you most like to see in the future? 



GENERAL 

Is there any topic you feel that we don't cover enough? . 
Is there any topic that you feel we cover too much? 



How is the technical level of the magazine? Too basic Just right Too advanced 
Does your copy of II Alive mm in good condition and on time? 



YOUR SYSTEM 

What items do you have in your system? Hard Drive Additional RAM Accelerator 3.5" Drive 5.25" Drive Other 
What items do you plan to buy next? 



Is compatibility with other systems important to you when buying items for your Apple II? Explain . 



COMMENTS 

If you have additional comments about II Alive, please write them here, or use a separate sheet. 






Please detach and mail to: II Alive, Reader Survey, P.O. Box 349, St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 



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IIgs users can now benefit from 
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ProDOS 32iteBS 19.6 MB used 658Kfree 



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ProDOS 32 items 19.6 MB used 658K free 



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Macintosh users know from 
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The Manager IS the result of a two 
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The Manager is the perfect way to 
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More £reat ways to boost your productivity... 



System 5.0.4 
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Instead, simply select the application 
from the TransProg III menu (appears 
in all standard desktop applications) and 
the application is launched immediately. 
If you're not using The 



# Launch Other... 



& Desktop Publishing > 

& Drawing/Painting ^ 

& Misc. Applications > 

& Telecommunications V 




^ Font Factory GS 
#* NocSoundGrabber 
#- ShrinkltlIGS 



SuperConvert 



Manager, the currently- 
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automatically quit first. 
In addition to providing quick launching, options can be set 
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Suggested retail $39.95 QC's price only $27.95 



System 5.0.4 
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C Printing Options... ) 

Print mode: ffluto j 
fl Print queue: 



Express 

Stop waiting for your printer — 
use Express to quickly print your 
documents to disk, then continue 
working as your printer prints in the 
background. The longer or more 
complex the document, the more 
time you save! 

Multiple files can be spooled, 
printed more than once, and deleted 
from the spool list. You can even 
switch between programs while the 
printer is working. 

Express works with all standard 
IIgs desktop software (e.g. AppleWorks GS, GraphicWriter III). 
It requires an Apple IIgs, hard disk drive, and any direct- 
connect (non-networked) printer except the StyleWriter. 
Suggested retail $49.95 QC's price only $32.95 



Tax Info 
Letterl 
Cover sheet 
Magazine 



92 a 



<> 



^ 



m MACRO inmi 




Send us your macros! No matter how simple (or complex) they are — if they can help someone else, we want them! This issue's macros are for Ultra- 
Macros 4.2, but we're interested in macros for all macro-driven programs, including telecommunications programs! We'll give you $10 for each 
macro we publish. The macros are public-domain and can be used in your own projects without further compensation. Send your contributions to: 
II Alive Macro Exchange, PO Box 349, St. Clair Shores, MI 48080 

AyillMMSPfimEEIFOfilLAS 

This macro writes a total formula in the spreadsheet automatically. Place the cursor in the same column as the numbers you want to total, somewhere 
below the numbers, and press SA-T. The macro automatically finds the top and the bottom of the column of numbers, then returns to the original cell 
and enters the total formula. — Robert M. Rowe, San Diego, CA 

labels 

.Total.up.1.1 

\sa-T TOTAL formula 

#ssrow = Peek $AE 



start 

T:<asp Homecell = #ssrow: 

begin : up : Type = peek #worktype : 
if tjrpe < 128 then rpt : endif : 
$11 = .ceHid : 

onerr exit : 

begin : up : Tjrpe = peek #workt3npe : 

if type > 127 then rpt : 

else down : endif : 

$12 = .ceUid 

$13 = "@sum(" + $12 + "." + $11 + ")" : 

onerr off : 

R = #ssrow : Moved = Homecell - R : 

(down) Moved : 

oa-B>E<print $13 : rtn>! 



// start; we'll return here 
■// to write the formula 
// check for number 
//if not number, go again 
// first cell for formula 

//in case we encoimter the 

// top of the worksheet 

// check if number 

// if it is, go again 

// not a number, found top 

// second cell for formula 

// this is the formula 



// calc how far up we went 
// move back down that many 
// blank the cell &? print formula 



BlSimOPEADORESlG 

This macro addresses an envelope. Put the cursor on the first letter of the address line (anywhere in the word processor file) and press SA-E. The 
macro will highlight the four lines below the cursor; use the up and down arrows to adjust this selection if necessary and press Return. The highhght- 
ed address is copied to the end of the document, a new page is created containing the text of the address and proper formatting codes to put it in the 
proper place on a business envelope, and the page is printed. After that, the page is deleted. — William C. Roemer, Andover, NJ 

start 



E:<awp : 
oa-C>W<(down) 4 : 
bell : 

left input : 
rtn : display : 
oa-9 down rtn : 
first : 

oa-0>np<rtn>tm<rtn>0<rtn 
>lm<rtn>3.5<rtn : esc : 
(rtn) 9 : 
oa-P>T<(rtn) 3 : 
(up) 15 : 

oa-F>0]S[P<rtn>N<ba-Z : 
oa-1 : oa-q : go : Display 1 : 
(down) 13 : oa-left>l 



<ba-Z>:<all : 
oa-M>T< 
oa-9 : rtn : 
left>l 



// Move to eof &? delete 



// address envelope 

// Copy four lines down 

// Alert user 

// AUow adjustment of selection 

// Display off 

// Move copied lines to end 

// Move cursor to col 1 

// Format envelope 

// Move down 9 hnes 

// Print last page 

// Move up 15 lines 

// Find last page &? delete 

// Refresh screen 

// Return to Desktop 

// Zap file macro 

// Move to the clipboard 



M 




Dear II Alive, 

What happens to software that is no longer being sold or 
supported? In your first issue, a fellow mentioned Word 
Handler; I still use SuperCalc 3a and Magna Charta. There 
must be other people using orphaned software. Why not 
have a section in the magazine where people can get con- 
nected with others in the same boat? 

Thomas Bailey 
Houston, TX 



Thomas: You're right, there are a lot of people still using 
older software. We Ve received several other letters like 
yours. To answer your question, when a company goes out 
of business or stops publishing a particular software title, the 
rights to the software usually revert to the author If the soft- 
ware was programmed by a staff programmer, the copy- 
right to the program can become an asset which can be sold 
offm bankruptcy proceedings. Copyright law still holds — for 
the record, it's just as illegal to copy old, out of pnnt pro- 
grams as it IS to copy new programs that are still being pub- 
lished, even if you can't track down the owner of the copy- 
right! Old software doesn 't automatically become public- 
domam. 

As for providing a section for people who are looking for 
help with old software, that's what the Letters are for If you 
provide us with explicit permission to pnnt your full address 
and/or phone number, we'll be glad to do so, and you may 
be surprised at the number of people who contact you offer- 
ing to help. (If you don 't give us permission to pnnt your 
address or phone number, we will respect your nght topn- 
vacy.) — Editor 



Desi II Alive, ..,._„__„,,„„,,„,„,,„„,_,,,„_.„„,„,„„.„„__ 

1 subscribed to your magazine after finding out about it in 
Enhance. I used to buy inCiderlA+ every month rather than 
subscribing to it. They have been the best Apple II maga- 
zine for a long time, but they are beginning to disappoint 
me. How can you call it a magazine if it only has 48 pages? 
I was disgusted, When I got the premiere issue of II Alive, I 
wasn't really satisfied (1 still wanted more!) but it was much 
better than inCiderlA+. I hope you expand your shareware 
column; ft's the most interesting thing in the magazine. 

Richard Kuk 
Milbum, N] 

Richard: Thanks for the praise. The shareware column has 
proven to be a popular one. We certainly will be expanding 
it . We're also looking into the possibility of providing disks 
with the programs mentioned in each issue. Stay tuned. — 
Editor 



Deal II Alive, 

So far I'm very impressed with II Alive. I own a IIGS and also 
use a IIGS and a He at work, Even though I've used them for 
years, I stiU feel like a beginner at times. Your magazine is 
starting at square one, which is exactly the right place for 
me. I've found GS+ to be way over my head and I feel 
abandoned by inGider/A+. One article, m particular, I'd 
really like to see is what all the error codes mean and what 
to do when you encounter one. Also, I hope to see more ads 
from companies other than Quality Computers, 

John Hayman 
Shutesbury, MA 

John: Thanks for the comments. I'll add the error code article 
to the list — those codes can be rather perplexing even to old 
hands. We're working on getting more advertisers (and there 
are more issues involved m that task than you might think) . In 
the meantime, check out the last page of Quality Computers' 
Resource Guide for a list of some of these vendors' phone 
numbers and call them to request their latest pnces. ^Editor 



Dear II Alive, 

Back in the glory days of the computer user as hobbyist, 
every computer magazine was full of hardware projects. I 
really hope you can publish some do-it-yourself projects for 
those of us who still enjoy the smeU of solder. Perhaps you 
can seek out and reprint some of the articles that came out 
when the Apple II was still a novelty — many of them stiU are 
on-target and valuable. 

I'd also like to remind you that the fact that the Apple II is 
considered "obsolete" is partially the fault of the press. 
When the He came out, hardware and software for the II and 
11+ largely disappeared. When the IIGS made its debut, the 
He was relegated to second-class citizenship, and the II and 
11+ were almost completely forgotten. These computers stiH - 
do everything they could ever do, yet many potential read- 
ers have packed these "old, useless" computers away. 
There's a market for information here waiting to be tapped, 
and articles aimed at the II and 11+ won't be lost on He and 
IIGS users. 

Not everyone simply uses AppleWorks, Publish It!, and Print 
Shop, Let's get back some of that old spirit of exploration 
that made the Apple II great, 

. ... ,.,__„,,_^^.,^,„ Leonard Lanigan 
Browns Valley, CA 

Leonard: If people send us high-caliber hardware articles, 
we'll certainly publish them. So consider this an ofhcial call for 
smell-of-solder articles. 

The computer industry moves so quickly that most products 
are obsolete before they're introduced. Computer publica- 



Contmued on next page 
JULY/AUGUST 11 



LETTERS 

Continued from page 7 



tions are torn between keeping up with the pace of technol- 
ogy (most people do like to read about the newest develop- 
ments, even if they can 't afford them) and continuing to sup- 
port the people who don't upgrade. Unfortunately (or lucki- 
ly, depending on your viewpoint) , the pace of technology 
shows no signs of slowing down, and about all you can do is 
resign yourself to the fact that, as an investment, a computer 
is even worse than a new car You will always lose money 
when you upgrade your system, and some people just can't 
afford to upgrade. 

That doesn 't mean that older computers are useless, just that 
the things that you can do with them have already been 
explored rather exhaustively. Your suggestion about reprint- 
ing older articles is one we 're looking into. And be on the 
lookout for a feature article on the things you can still do with 
an Apple 11+. — Editor 



Dear 11 Alive, 

Thanks for pumping new life into the Apple II. I'd rather die 
than buy a Macintosh — ^the company will probably aban- 
don it when something else comes along, Is it all right if I 
laugh when the price of Apple's stock goes down? 

Dorothy VietsSchell 
Moscow, ID 



even used my personal lie and llc+ to help develop new 
systems and software, 

While I don't know of an IEEE-488 card for the Apple 11, 1 
do know that Kethley/Metrabyte/Asyst/Dac (508/880-3000) 
manufactures an IEEE-488 to RS-232 converter (Model 
500-Serial), With this device, you should be able to con- 
nect an IEEE-488 device to any Apple 11 through its serial 
port or an interface card like the Super Serial Card. 

John Graham 
Kettering, OH 

Dear 11 Alive, ' —^ 

There's plenty of techie data available about the IEEE-488 
bus. 1 suggest calling National Instruments at 800/1EEE-488 
and requesting their literature, which contains a complete 
technical description of the IEEE-488 bus. While most of 
their products are for the Macintosh, they also have a gad- 
get called the GPIB-422CT/Mac which is a serial device 
and should work with the IIGS, Black Box (412/746-5565) 
sells a similar device. Other companies who may be able 
to help include DSP Development at 800/777-5 1 5 1 and 
Ca^Wa^ Equipment at 800/234-4232, 

.,..„..,,.„.,„,„«,«,.„,,,,,=.^^^^^^^^ Robert Benson 

Toledo, OH 



Dorothy: Laugh all you want — unless you own Apple stock 
By the way, Apple appears to have learned its lesson about 
leaving its customers behind. Its next-generation computers 
(based on the PowerPC venture with IBM) will be fully Mac- 
intosh-compatible. In fact, Apple's first PowerPCs may even 
wear the Macintosh name. It's even possible that they'll use 
the PowerPC architecture to provide an upgrade path for 
Apple 11 users as well, thereby hnally making good on the 
promise of 'Apple 11 Forever " — Editor 



Dear 11 Alive, 

I was surprised to learn that Apple's StyleWriter has no 
built-in fonts, and therefore can't print AppleWorks Classic 
documents ("Super Printers," May/June 1993, page 31), 
But you didn't mention the possibility of using the printer 
with TimeOut SuperFonts, Will it work? 

Bill Neef 
Grass Lake, Ml 

BiU: No, SuperFonts doesn 't talk to the StyleWriter And if it 
did, it would only support ImageWnter quality anyway 
(SuperFonts is designed to work with 9-pin dot matrix print- 
ers). That's why we didn't mention it, m fact. — Editor 



Dear II Alive, 

Indeed, Apple lis of all flavors continue to do important 
work in laboratories. I have first-hand knowledge of four 
labs at our research institute (which is associated with a 
large private university) which still use Apple lis. In my lab 
we're currently using one II+, two lies, and two IIGSs. I've 



John & Robert: Thanks for the mfol— Editor 



Dear 11 Alive, 

Please don't perpetuate the myth of "CompuServe"! Mr. _ 
Tech's response to Chris Klemmer (May/June, page 12) 
implies that CompuServe is an elitist service, suitable only 
for those with money to bum. That's assuredly not the 
case. 

CompuServe's new rates are very competitive. Com- 
puSen^e has a basic monthly price ($8.95) which covers 
unlimited use of many general-purpose services. The pay 
areas, like MAUG®, the Micronetworked Apple User 
Group, are $8 an hour, 24 hours a day at 1200/2400 baud 
There are plenty of just plain folks on CIS, asking good 
questions and receiving friendly (not necessarily power- 
user) advice. With its quick host response and 2 4-hour- a- 
day rates, CompuServe is a fine value for Apple users. 

Emily Morgan 
San Antonio, Texas 



Emily: Thanks for setting us straight. We were, indeed, a lit- 
tle behind the times. Of course, there's still no single best 
online service for everyone — it depends on your needs. As 
we said m the last issue, all the services have their merits, 
and CompuServe is now far worthier of investigation than it 
was a few months ago. Check the News section for the com- 
plete lowdown on the recent CompuServe, America Online, 
and GEnie rate changes, and keep watching for an in-depth 
exploration of the major online services m an upcoming 
'Modem Nation" column. — Editor 



Continued on page 62 



12 



II ALIVE 




AN INTELLIGENT 
KEYBOARD FOR KIOS 

IntelUKeys, from IntelliTools, is an alterna- 
tive computer keyboard that makes using the 
computer easier than ever for children. Instead 
of dozens of tiny keys which young children 
can find overwhelming, IntelUKeys has only a 
few large keys, 
which are easy to 
see, easy to touch, 
and easy to under- 
stand. 

IntelUKeys fea- 
tures interchange- 
able keyboard over- 
lays, each of which 
is designed for a 
specific application. 
One includes only a 
set of large arrow 
keys and a few other keys which are often used 
in arrow-key-driven educational programs. 
Other overlays include alphabet, numbers, and 
basic writing. Just choose the overlay that 
matches the needs of the child and the software 
and slide it into IntelUKeys. 

Each overlay has a bar code on the back that 
IntelUKeys instandy recognizes, and the over- 
lays are kid-proof and washable. Best of all, 
IntelUKeys works with virtually any software. 
IntelUKeys is compatible with the Apple IIGS 
and He (He requires the IntelUKeys He Card). 

RAINBOW-COLORED 
COMMUNICATIONS 
AND A FASTER SPOOLER 

Seven Hills Software proudly announces its 
new graphics-based telecommunications pro- 
gram — Spectrum. Spectrum is written specifi- 
cally for the Apple IIGS and uses the standard 
IIGS Desktop Interface, so it's easy to learn 
and use. And you don't need to sacrifice speed 
or features. 

Spectrum supports baud rates from 50 to 
38,400, and includes file transfer protocols 
ranging from CompuServe B-i- to Zmodem. A 
powerful, easy to use scripting language allows 
Spectrum to be tailored specifically for individ- 
ual use. Scripts can do almost anything, from 
emulating a bulletin board to daily automatic 
logging, sending, and retrieving of mail. A rich 
text editor is built in for convenience. 

Seven Hills is also releasing a new, faster 
version of Express, the print spooling software 



for GS/OS. The new version improves speed 
for both parallel and serial printers, and you 
can "fine tune" Express to your hardware to 
get the best possible speed. A larger printing 
cache, the ability to move the spool files to 
another volume, and the ability to print muld- 
ple copies of a document round out the 
upgrade. 

The suggested retail price for Spectrum is 
$129.95. The suggested retail price for Express 
is $49.95 (upgrades from any older version are 
$12.95). For more information, write to Seven 
Hills Software, 2510 Oxford Rd., Tallahassee, 
FL 32304, or call 904/575-0566. 



BASIC PROGRAMMER'S 
WORKSHOP, PROLINE 
IMPROVEMENTS, ANO MORE 

The Morgan Davis Group announces the 
BASIC Programmer's Workshop, a software 
bundle consisting of three popular MDG prod- 
ucts at a special price. The $99 collection of 
high-powered BASIC programming tools {MD- 
BASIC, RADE, and the Object Module 
Manager) offers IIGS users substantial sav- 
ings, over $80 off the combined suggested 
retail prices of the products. 

MD-BASIC is a professional Applesoft devel- 
opment environment including a Desktop edit- 
ing environment and a "compiler" that creates 
highly optimized Applesoft code from your 
structured MD-BASIC source code. Among 
other things, MD-BASIC lifts the two-letter vari- 
able name restriction, adds named labels (no 
more line numbers!), modern constructions 
like IF-THEN-ELSE, WHILE- WEND, REPEAT- 
UNTIL, and DO-LOOP, plus C-style features 
like conditional code processing and #define 
macros. 

RADE is a full-featured diagnostic tool that 
isolates errors in Applesoft programs in real- 
time without disturbing the BASIC environ- 
ment. You can interrupt your program at any 
time to examine or change the contents of vari- 
ables, set breakpoints, step through code a line 
at a time, or review the "history buffer" that 
records your entire debugging session. 

The Object Module Manager (OMM), an 
extension manager for Applesoft program- 
mers, makes it possible to add external com- 
mands to enhance BASIC programs. Machine- 
language modules are loaded and unloaded as 
needed, using memory efficiently. They can 
also communicate with each other, making 
integration effortless and reducing duplicated 
code. 



Additionally, the Morgan Davis Group 
announced a major price decrease for the Pro- 
Eine bulletin board system. Formerly $259.95, 
the product now retails for $159.95. A minor 
upgrade is also now available, which allows 
non-U. S. sysops to accommodate the wide 
variety of address formats used world-wide. 
This upgrade, an enhanced AddUser module, 
is available at no cost to all international regis- 
tered ProLine owners. Finally, a low-cost Pro- 
Line-to-InterNet gateway, \xMDSS, allows 
direct connection of ProLine sites to most 
Unix-running Internet sites. [iMDSS costs 
$59.95 and can be mailed directly to a cus- 
tomer's electronic mailbox. 

For further information, write to the Morgan 
Davis Group at 10079 Nuerto Lane, Rancho 
San Diego, CA 91977-7132, or call 619/670- 
0563. (E-Mail: mdavis@mdg.cts.com.) 



NEW LOWER COMPUSERVE, 
AMERICA ONLINE, ANO 
GENIE RATES 

CompuServe recently revised its Standard 
Pricing Plan to bring users even better value. A 
monthly membership fee of $8.95 (waived 
during the first month) provides unlimited 
access to a wide variety of basic services at 
any time of the day. Most other areas (includ- 
ing MAUG, the Micronetworked Apple User 
Group) are available at $8.00 per hour (1200- 
2400 bps), 24 hours a day. (9600 bps is avail- 
able at $16.00 per hour.) Rates do not include 
any applicable communications (network) sur- 
charges or premium area surcharges. An Alter- 
native Pricing Plan, which bills all services by 
the hour, is also available. For more informa- 
tion, write to CompuServe at P.O. Box 20212, 
Columbus, OH 43220, or call 800/848-8199. 

America Online' s $9.95 monthly member- 
ship fee now includes five hours of usage on 
the system. Effective July 1, additional hours 
(beyond the first five) will be billed at just 
$3.50 an hour. This new rate applies to all 
America Online services — even the popular 
Internet gateway and downloading — 24 hours 
a day. For more information, write to America 
Online at 8619 Westwood Center Dr., Vienna, 
VA 22182, or call 800/827-6364. 

Beginning July 1, GEnie's $6-per-hour off- 
hours rate will drop to $3 per hour. A monthly 
membership charge of $8.95 pays for your first 
four hours. As part of this rate restructure, 
GEnie's popular Basic Services plan (which 
provided access to many general interest areas 
for just $4.95 per month) is being eliminated — 



JULY/AUGUST 



13 



NEWS 



all services will be charged at the hourly rate. 
The internet mail gateway will be available to 
all users, with no monthly fee and no addition- 
al surcharges. Remote communications and 
prime-time surcharges may apply; rates are 
slightly higher in Canada. For more informa- 
tion, write GEnie at 401 N. Washington St., 
Rockville, MD 20850 or call 1-800-638-9636. 



NEW PRODUCT WATCH 
APPLE EXPO WEST UPDATE 

AnsiTerm 2.0: SHIPPING 
(Parkhurst Micro Products) 
IIGS telecomm software w/ color ANSI 

Focus Hard Card: SHIPPING 

(Parsons Technology) 

Hard drive on a card for Apple II 

ProTERM 3.1: SHIPPING 

(InTrec Software) 
Updated version 

SoundMeister: SHIPPING 
SoundMeister Pro: SOON 
(ECON Technologies) 
Stereo & digitizing cards 



Spectrum: SOON 

(Seven Hills Software) 

IIGS telecomm software; Manager-compatible 

TurboRez: DELAYED 4 MO. 

(RezTek) 

Enhanced resolution & color for IIGS video 

Twilight II v1.1: SHIPPING 

(Digisoft Innovations) 
Screen blanker update 

UltraMacros 4.2: SHIPPING 

(Beagle Bros) 

New programming features for AppleWorks 



APPLE II AT EASE AND MORE 

Kitchen Sink Software announces System II, 
a new "desktop" program similar to Apple's Ar 
Ease for the Macintosh. Like At Ease, System 
II includes a simple program launching facility 
that makes it easy for students to find and run 
the programs they need to use. System II also 
includes a "Full Desktop" mode which allows 
users to copy files and perform other mainte- 
nance program (access to the Full Desktop is 
password-protected). With pull-down menus, 
dialog boxes, and other Mac-like features. Sys- 
tem II makes using Apple lis in the classroom 
easier than ever. Runs on any Apple II, in 



either standard hi-res or double hi-res graphics. 
Site licenses are available. System II will begin 
shipping August 1, 1993. The retail price is 
$39.95. 

Kitchen Sink will also fix Apple mice with 
broken buttons for $29.95. (The mouse must 
be in working order except for the button.) The 
repair is wan'anted for a full year. Kitchen Sink 
is also now the publisher of OmniPrint, an 
AppleWorks enhancement which gives you 
unprecedented control of the ImageWriter II 
from inside the Word Processor. Foreign lan- 
guage characters, graphics, math symbols, 
two-column printing, and more, all at the full 
text speed of the ImageWriter II printer — no 
slowdown! OmniPrint retails for $49.95 (site 
licenses also available). 

For further information, and a free issue of 
Kitchen Sink's newsletter Creativity Update, 
write to Kitchen Sink Software at 903 Kneb- 
worth Ct., Westerville, OH 43081, or call 
800/235-5502 in the continental U.S. (call 
614/891-21 1 1 outside the continental U.S.). ■ 



II AJi 



A^^ 



GENERAL ADVERTISING RATES 

With our recent takeover of the inCider/A+ circulation, our rates are changing, but have not been determined. 
For details about our rates, contact Matt Spatafora at 1 -800-777-3642. 



MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS 

Full Page 7Vh" x 107s" 

1/2 Page Horizontal 7V8" x 5" 

1/6 Page 2'A"x5" 

1/3 Page Vertical 274" x 1078" 

Keep all live matter 3/8" from final trim, and allow 1/4" for bleeds. 

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES 

ONLY $1 PER WORD. Submissions must come type written with payment. 



TERMS 

Net 30 days. Amount may be paid via check, money order or credit card 



CIRCULATION & FREQUENCY 

II Alive is published six fimes a year and is mailed to at least 40,000 each issue. 
Contact Matt Spatafora or Carl Sperber at 1-800-777-3642 for more information. 



14 



II ALIVE 




Secrets of Bharas, ProTERM 3.1, 
OmniMac Keyboard 



bv Jeff Htfrlbwrt 



VE RATINGS 




**** 


Excellent 


*** 


Very Good 


** 


Good 


* 


Fair 


i^ 


Poor 



THE IVm OF BHARAS 

** 

Ultima-Style role-playing game 

Victory Software, $69.95 

Apple IIGS, 1 MB RAM, one 3.5" drive 




Victory's back-of-the-box blurb explains, 
"You wake up one fine morning to find your- 
self in the land of goats and honey." The good 
news is that your party of six (user-created 
Warriors, Mages, and Healers) has landed on 
Surya, the least violent of the Bharasian conti- 
nents. The bad news is that none of you have a 
stitch of armor; your best weapon is a puny 
knife; and the party is flat broke! Besides 
which, no one has the slightest notion of why 
you're here, and your food supply is running 
low too! (The "goats and honey" must be over 
on one of the other three continents.) 

Featuring a IIGS Desktop 'look', Bharas is not 



one of those sword & sorcery adventures that 
grabs you from the start. On the contrary — 
even the seasoned quester is bound to wonder 
whether Victory Software really wants them to 
play the game. Your first hurdle is the System 
5.02 boot diskette. It has a custom Start file, 
and, when you try to launch the game, it 
bombs! Victory no longer maintains a tech 
support line, so I had to figure this one out 
myself. 

If you have a hard drive, no problem. Follow 
the in-manual hard drive directions but do not 
copy Victory's Start program. Launch the 
game program from the Finder as you would 
any other program. 



If you have only floppy drives, 
just boot one of your own Sys- 
tem diskettes — I've used both 
5.04 and 6.00 versions with 
good results. Insert the program 
disk and launch Bharas from 
the Finder. From time to time, 
the game will ask for the "Bha- 
rasSystem" disk. To reduce 
swapping, copy the 

"Bharas. Image" file and 
"Datalof2" folder from the 
BharasSystem disk rename 
your boot disk "BharasSys- 
tem." (If you have or 3 or 4 
MB RAM and just one floppy drive, consider 
setting up a RAM Disk to hold the program.) 
Not a great deal of trouble, and you're over the 
first hurdle! 

Things proceed more smoothly after that. You 
visit the "Guild" (to name and design your six 
characters) and start the game without a hitch. 
To your growing delight, you discover a large 
Ultima-siyle world; attractive, smooth- 
scrolling, large-map graphics; and several vil- 
lages, towns, and palaces. Entering any of the 
latter locales produces a new, more detailed 
view revealing shops, signs, and numerous sur- 
prisingly verbose personages. 



But by now, you're beginning to wonder about 
things like the game's ultimate objective. Bha- 
ras ' 34-page manual does include all the infor- 
mation you need to play the game. It does not, 
however, provide the expected "scene-setter" 
wherein you traditionally get some idea of The 
Goal and a clue about where you should start. 
Instead, you encounter another hurdle: nine 
pages of remarkably boring, hard-to-read "His- 
tory," crammed with names and places (but no 
pictures or maps) which mean almost nothing 
to you at this point. I accepted the manual's 
recommendation and read the whole dreadful 
thing, but it turns out that one can safely skip 
all but the last page, saving the rest for future 
reference. 



^ file im £sfl^^s It^fal Ccal'it Kogic Healing Ploaers Hindmrs 




In Bharas, the only way to find out what's 
going on is to go places, explore, and talk to 
people. For example, in one village, a traveler 
may warn of dangers in "lands to the south- 
west." Someone else may describe the "evil 
ways of the Jalmuki." And in a seaside town, a 
helpful citizen will note that the only way to 
really "get anywhere and see the world" is by 
boat. (True: once you purchase a ship, your 
party can sail to outlying islands and even 
leave Surya for any of three new continents!) 
Other personages will help you locate impor- 
tant items, steer you to sages who teach 
advanced spells, and launch the party on vari- 
ous quests. Considering that you've been 



JULY/AUGUST 



15 



TEST DRIVES 



plopped without warning into a strange land of 
monsters and magic, your party faces a very 
real challenge! 

As you travel the plains, forests, and moun- 
tains of Surya, you soon discover that some 
inhabitants don't care to discuss anything. 
Roving brigands, mages, rogue warriors, and 
assorted critters simply want to plant your 
limp, lifeless bodies six feet under! Combat, 
especially for a beginning party, can easily be 
fatal. (Perhaps a bit too easily. If "getting 
established" proves overly tedious, try the 
"bonus" described in the "Checkpoint" sec- 
tion.) 

On the other hand, combat is a quick way to 
obtain weapons, armor, gold, and so forth, 
along the experience needed to advance in 
rank. Also, the battles are just plain fun! While 
Bharas does not include music, you can look 
forward to gratifying slash, bash, and bang 
sound effects along with zipping arrows, light- 
ning bolts, and fireballs. Victory's flexible, 
easy-to-manage scheme for tactical encounters 
lets you get the most from each of your charac- 
ters. Once you begin to mop up surface bad- 
dies on a regular basis, your party is ready — 
maybe — to explore the dungeons below the 
ground. These feature 3-D perspective views, 
self-mapping, and combats guaranteed to test 
your mettle to the max! 

So, just how long has it been since you've got- 
ten your teeth into a for- real major monster- 
bashing adventure? The "land of goats and 
honey" awaits; and, you won't know what 
you're missing until you reveal The Secrets of 
Bharas! 



CHECKPOINT 



A beginning party in Victory's Secrets of 
Bharas has neither armor nor gold. The 
resulting slow start is fine for non-// Alive 
types, but you deserve a break! Just use 
Block Warden or a similar disk editing utili- 
ty to read the first block of GrouplnfoData 
(in the Data2of2 folder) from your copy of 
the Lands diskette. The first two bytes are 
your party's gold. Starting with Byte $00, 
enter "DC 05" and save the changed block. 
The next time you play, your party will have 
1500 ($5DC in hex) gold! Now you can buy 
everyone minimal (cloth) armor, and still 
have enough gold left over to purchase 
weapons a notch better than knives. 



3] 



**** 

Telecommunications software 

InTrec Software, $129.95 

Enhanced He, lie, or IIGS, 1 MB RAM, 

modem, one disk drive 

Reviewed by John Edwards 




ProTERM has long been the most popular 
telecommunications program on the market. 
Not content to rest on their laurels, though, 
InTrec Software has released a new version of 
ProTERM — version 3.1. Featuring a few new 
capabilities and a new manual, the upgrade is 
more of an evolution than a revolution. 

Like its predecessor, ProTERM 3. 1 features a 
Macintosh-style user interface and supports 
(but does not require) a mouse. However, 
unlike the Macintosh (and IIGS-specific pro- 
grams), ProTERM uses the 80-column text 
screen, not the graphics screen, so the pro- 
gram's displays are rapid and clean. Keyboard 
commands allow quick navigation of the pro- 
gram's menus and dialog windows, so those 
who lack a mouse will certainly not feel at a 
disadvantage. 

The program can use all available memory 
cards for scrollback, allowing you to keep a 
record of your entire online session and review 
it at any time. Unlike other programs' "cap- 
ture" buffer, ProTERM' s scrollback is always 
active, enabling you to scroll backward in time 
to re-read something that scrolled off too fast 
the first time. {ProTERM also has a separate 
capture buffer.) A new feature in version 3.1 is 
the ability to partition your memory card so 
that ProTERM doesn't take it all, leaving some 
room for a RAM Disk or other uses. 

The ProTERM editor is as good as some stand- 
alone word processors, but its features have a 
telecommunications slant. For example, there's 
a "Quote" command that inserts greater-than 
symbols in front of a selected text block, a 
common BBS convention for quoting someone 
else's messages. Naturally, you can send text 
through the modem directly from the Pro- 
TERM editor, and ProTERM can be told to 
wait for a prompt before sending each line. 



ProTERM' s suite of telecommunications tools 
has no visible omissions. The program sup- 
ports Zmodem file transfers (including auto- 
start and resume) — plus the usual variations on 
Xmodem, Ymodem, and Kermit, and a few 
others besides. Terminal emulation is another 
ProTERM strong point — in addition to the 
usual terminals (including a recently beefed-up 
VT-100), ProTERM can emulate an IBM PC 
in ANSI display mode, and includes an emula- 
tion known as ''ProTERM special" which 
allows a remote system to make full use of the 
Apple II 80-column capabilities. There's also a 
split-screen chat mode, a vital tool for confer- 
ences and chats. There's even a complete set of 
disk tools so you can copy, delete, view, and 
rename files, all without needing to quit Pro- 
TERM. 

ProTERM also includes tools for automating 
your online activities. Three types of macros 
(all with the same syntax) are provided. One 
type (system macros) is a set of ten macros that 
are stored in ProTERM'^ dialer, a different set 
for each system you call. You activate these 
macros by holding down the Open-Apple key 
and pressing a number key. Global macros are 
available regardless of what system you're 
connected to (or even when you're offline, or 
in the editor or scrollback) and are activated by 
holding down the Solid-Apple key and press- 
ing a letter. Finally, you can write a procedure 
file, which is a very long macro procedure 
which is loaded from disk only when needed. 
While ProTERM' s macros are powerful, 
they're also easy to use, thanks to the pro- 
gram's ability to watch what you do and turn it 
into a macro for you. 

Setup and installation are, as before, a breeze. 
The first time you boot the ProTERM master 
disk, it will instruct you to make a backup 
copy as your work disk — and put you into a 
disk copy utility to do just that! After you've 
made your backup copy, configuring the pro- 
gram is as simple as selecting your modem, 
serial interface card, and printer from a list. 



VENDOR INFORMATION 

Victory Software 
P.O. Box 821381 
Houston, TX 77282 
713/493-3232 

InTrec Software 
3035 E Topaz Cir. 
Phoenix, AZ 85028 
602/992-1345 

Sun Remarketing 
P.O. Box 4059 
Logan, UT 84323-3360 
800/821-3221 



16 



II ALIVE 



TEST DRIVES 



Then you can start entering phone numbers 
into ProTERM's "phone book" (the Dial 
menu) and get online. ProTERM is friendly 
enough to use immediately; you can get into 
the more advanced features and preferences 
later. 

Seasoned ProTERM users may be asking, 
"What's new in version 3.1?" Mainly minor 
changes. For example, ProTERM's editor and 
scrollback both remember the cursor location 
between trips to those areas of the program. 
Support has been added for new modems 
which have recently appeared on the market. 
Also, ProTERM now supports an add-on pro- 
gram to allow visually impaired users to "hear" 
their online sessions (the manual is also avail- 
able in electronic form for these users). 

The new manual is quite nice, covering every 
aspect of the program and telecommunications 
in general in thorough yet readable detail. A 
"cheat sheet"- gets you going if you're an impa- 
tient type, and reference cards make it easy to 
refresh your memory about an infrequently- 
used option without having to crack open the 
manual. The package also includes advertise- 
ments and/or trial offers for CompuServe, 
Canada Remote Systems, Delphi, GEnie, and 
Dow Jones News/Retrieval. 

I made a few calls to InTrec's support BBS 
and found the service excellent. I received sim- 
ple answers to what I had thought to be rather 
complex questions. InTrec also offers support 
on the major online services and, of course, by 
voice phone. 

While telecommunicating isn't always easy, 
ProTERM makes the learning curve fun. 
Besides a modem, ProTERM 3.1 is everything 
you need, whether you're just starting out or 
have been online for years. The new version 
proves that InTrec is committed to supporting 
and improving their product. If have a modem, 
you should have ProTERM — it really is that 
simple. 



*** 

1 17-key extended ADB keyboard 

Sun Remarketing, $89 

Apple IIGS 

Reviewed by Bill Moore 



Do you have a defective IIGS keyboard? Or 
are you just yearning for something a little 
more responsive to the touch? Or do you sim- 
ply need more keys, perhaps for programming 
or macro purposes? If any of these situations 
applies to you, you may be interested in an 
extended keyboard. Not only do they have 
more keys (a full set of PC-style function and 



cursor keys, which, by the way, are compatible 
with the PC Transporter of you have one), 
they're bound to be better built than the IIGS's 
standard keyboard. 

The OmniMac extended keyboard was origi- 
nally manufactured by Northgate; however, 
Northgate has sold their remaining stock and 
the keyboard manufacturing rights to Sun 
Remarketing of Logan, Utah. Sun, in case you 
didn't know, is the Wal-Mart of the used com- 
puter world, specializing in refurbished Apple- 
brand equipment and other great, weird stuff. 

The OmniMac is, physically, huge. Its 117 key 
layout that can seem plain overwhelming if 
you're used to the IIGS's petite standard key- 
board. In addition to all the keys you'd expect 
on an extended keyboard (function keys Fl- 
F12 across the top and a cursor keypad with 
page up, page down, insert, delete, and other 
control keys), there are also twelve SF keys on 
the left of the keyboard. No, it doesn't stand 
for Science Fiction or San Francisco — these 
keys produce shifted equivalents of the regular 
F-keys. 

The OmniMac' s keys are very responsive, 
with a crisp feel that's a delight to the finger- 
tips. I won't put any secretaries out of work 
with my typing, but I do type quickly enough 
to detect a subUe tactile difference between the 
OmniMac and Apple's IIGS keyboard. I hon- 
estly think my speed has increased since I got 
the OmniMac. 

However, there are a few layout differences to 
get used to. If you're really used to the IIGS 
keyboard, you'll be incredibly frustrated until 
you retrain yourself to the new key positions. 
The most annoying, to me, is the fact that the 
Control and Caps Lock keys have been 
swapped. You have to experience the frustra- 
tion of trying to delete a line in AppleWorks 
with Control- Y, and accidentally activating all- 
caps instead, to fully appreciate it. The sup- 
posed justification for this change is that the 
Caps Lock key is back where it would be on a 
typewriter — right above the Shift key. The 
problem is, the IIGS isn't a typewriter; it's an 
Apple II, and Apple lis have had the Control 
key above the Shift key since 1977. Besides 
which, typewriters don't have Caps Lock 
keys — they have Shift Lock keys. 

Also plan on playing "hunt for the key" for a 
while if you frequently use the grave accent (') 
or tilde (~) keys. In the OmniMac' s defense, 
one important key that always seems to get 
moved on extended keyboards hasn't moved — 
Escape still sits in its proper place to the left of 
the "1" key. 

The Reset key is also in an inconvenient 
place — on the back of the keyboard next to the 
ADB port. It took me several minutes to find it 



the first time I had to do a three-finger salute. 
Not that I should have bothered; the OmniMac 
does not pass the Apple-Control-Reset 
sequence to the computer properly. (An Apple- 
Control-Reset or Option-Control-Reset 
sequence is seen by the IIGS as a simple Con- 
trol-Reset.) A few other extended keyboards 
I've tested also have this flaw, although of 
course Apple's doesn't. 

For comparison purposes, a friend loaned me 
his Apple Extended Keyboard II (also known 
as the "Saratoga" keyboard, so named because, 
like most extended keyboards, it seems about 
the same size as an aircraft carrier). The Apple 
keyboard is just a bit softer and quieter, and, to 
be honest, I did like it a little more than the 
OmniMac. However, the OmniMac does have 
more keys and costs $150 less than the Apple 
keyboard, tipping the balance back in its favor. 

What good are the extra keys? The IIGS Sys- 
tem Software does not have built-in support for 
the function or cursor keys on an extended 
keyboard, so the keys will work in some pro- 
grams and not in others. There are a number of 
INIT files available online and from user 
groups to enable the F1-F4 functions (Undo, 
Cut, Copy Paste) in IIGS Desktop programs, 
and a few other programs (including the 
EGOed NDA, ProTERM 3.1, Six Pack's 
Hot Keys, and MD-BASIC 2.0) will use them. 
Roger Wagner Publishing' s MacroMate will 
also allow you to assign keystroke sequences 
to these function keys (in combination with the 
Apple or Option key), as will Beagle Bros' 
UltraMacros 4. 

The OmniMac' s keyboard cable is several feet 
longer than the one that came with my IIGS, 
which can be handy. However, the keyboard 
included no manual — not even a simple 
instruction sheet. No big loss; what would it 
say? "1. Plug keyboard into computer. 2. Type. 
(Optional: Turn computer on.)" However, the 
keyboard does have a set of DIP switches on 
the back, and it would be nice to know whether 
the anomaly with Control-Reset was simply an 
incorrect configuration or a design flaw. 

Overall, though, I really like the OmniMac 
keyboard. Its steel base assures longevity, and 
the feel is quite nice. Only the IIGS's lack of 
support for the extra keys and the Control- 
Reset problem keep me from giving the key- 
board my highest praise. But at a price less 
than Apple's standard keyboard, the OmniMac 
is definitely the best extended keyboard value 
around. ■ 



Products for review should be sent to: 

11 Alive Test Drives 

c/o Jeff Hurlburt 

7814 Santa Elena 

Houston, TX 77061 



JULY/AUGUST 



17 



IQ-RAMS 



ADD REAL POWER TO YOUR COMPUTER! 



The only IIGS RAM card 
that gives you the power 
of a RAM disk... 



automaticattyl 

FOR VALUE AND POWER YOU 
CAN'T BEAT THE Q-RAM GS2 

When we could no longer find reliable, affordable 
hard drives, we made our own — the Q Drive. The Q 
Drive made Apples faster and easier to use. In fact, 
it was such a success that we had to wonder why 
we'd waited so long. Now we've done it again. 



The Q-RAM GS2 is an economical way to add 4 
MEG of memory to your Apple IIGS. It's fully com- 
patible with all Apple IIGS hardware and software- 
including the IIGS RAM Disk and DMA peripherals 
like the Apple II High Speed SCSI Card. 

The 4 MEG Q-RAM GS2 is not only affordable, but 
comes with FlashBoot free! FlashBoot lets you cre- 
ate a super fast, super convenient RAM disk on 
your Apple IIGS. 

When you install the Q-RAM GS, life becomes just a 
lot easier. Programs load completely into memory 
at startup, eliminating disk swapping. Out-of-mem- 
ory error messages disappear. You'll have memory 
to spare — memory to load desk accessories, or to 
set up a convenient RAM disk. 

The Q-RAM GS2 installs easily, replacing your origi- 
nal 1 MEG. Apple memory board, or any other 
underachieving memory card you may own. But 
don't worry about getting stuck with a left over 




board that you can't use. Ask your sales rep about a 
RAM card trade-in. It is a terrific way to recycle 
your old card and save money at the same time! 

Qf course, since you're dealing with Quality Com- 
puters, you get an unconditional 30-day money- 
back guarantee and a five-year warranty. And the 
price is the best news of all— a 4 MEG Q-RAM GS2 
costs about the same or even less than other IIGS 
memory cards in a 1 MEG configuration! 

FLASHBOOT FREE WITH 
Q-RAM GS2 

As an added bonus, when you 
buy a 4 MEG Q-RAM GS2, you 
get FlashBoot free. FlashBoot 
lets you quickly save and load 
the contents of a RAM Disk. 
What is a RAM Disk? Every 
Apple IIGS has a built-in RAM 
Disk capability that lets you 
reserve some of your comput- 
er's memory as a super-fast 
electronic disk drive. Set up 
your RAM Disk in the morning and you might not 
have to swap program disks all day! You can dis- 
cover the speed and convenience of a RAM Disk 
with FlashBoot. FlashBoot offers several flexible 
options to boot the RAM Disk and the other drives 
attached to your computer, and makes loading your 
RAM disk easy. 

Beef up your 
Apple lie to 1 MEG 
for only ^99^^ and 
get more from 
AppleWorks, too! 

Snap the Q-RAM lie into your Apple He, and you'll 
create a whole new computing experience. Pro- 
grams load completely. A lot less disk swapping. A 
lot more productivity. All of AppleWorks, plus your 
TimeQut applications will completely load into RAM. 



That means you can concentrate on working — not 
waiting for disk drives. Plus with a huge 1 MEG 
treasure trove of RAM, you can create huge docu- 
ments, and not run into a single "Out of Memory" 
message. 

Imagine students in your school's lie lab doing 
more learning and less waiting. Imagine the joy of 
starting AppleWorks, completing a project, and 
never having to go back to the disk drive. It can 
happen with the Q-RAM lie. 




Now imagine all of this convenience and productivity 
at a price 1/2 of what other 1 MEG cards for the lie 
cost. It's true, the new Q-RAM lie costs only 
$99.95. At this price, the savings can really add up. 
You can upgrade your He lab and save $100 per 
computer. Now you can afford more software. 

The Q-RAM He replaces your He's 80 Column Card 
or Extended 80 Column Card, and is 100% software 
compatible. The Q-RAM He comes with diagnostic 
software that test the card for peace of mind, and 
expansion software to boost the performance of 
AppleWorks. 

The Q-RAM He is 100% software compatible, and 
comes with a 5 year warranty. If you're not com- 
pletely satisfied, return it within 30 days for a full 
refund. 




1-800-777-3642 



20200 Nine Mile Rd. • St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 • 313-774-7200 • FAX 313-774-2698 




ASK 



QUESTION: I understand that compact 
discs are becoming very popular in with com- 
puters these days. I see CD players attached to 
Macintosh, IBM, and other computers all the 
time, but I've never seen a CD player on an 
Apple 11. Why not? Is there any reason why it 
won't work? 

Eric Vage 
Denville, NJ 

ANSWER: Computer compact discs are 
called CD-ROM, meaning "Compact Disc, 
Read Only Memory." What this means is that 
you can read data from a CD-ROM, but you 
can't write anything to it. CD-ROM has a vast 
capacity — about 600 megabytes, or the equiva- 
lent of 750 3.5" disks. Its storage capacity is its 
main advantage. A computer-based encyclope- 
dia would be ridiculously impractical if it came 
on 750 disks, but it's eminently useful on a 
CD-ROM. 

Of course, you need a special CD player to 
read CDs on a computer — you can't just use an 
audio CD player like you'd buy at the local 
discount electronics store. Just as a device 
which reads 3.5" disks is called a 3.5" drive, a 
device which reads CD-ROMs is called a CD- 
ROM drive. Most CD-ROM drives are SCSI 
devices, which means that (theoretically) 
they'll work on the Apple II as long as you 
have a SCSI card installed in the computer. 
(This is the same card that you use to connect a 
SCSI hard drive to the computer, and if you 
already have a SCSI hard drive, you can prob- 
ably chain the CD-ROM drive to it without 
needing another card.) Apple's CD-ROM dri- 
ves work fine on the Apple II this way, as do 
many others. Some third-party CD-ROM dri- 
ves, such as the ones made by NEC, need spe- 
cial driver software. 

Once you connect a CD-ROM drive to your 
computer, what can you do with it? There are 
very few CD-ROMs available specifically for 
the Apple II. There's an educational disc called 
YourWordBox, and for a while, there was a 
collection of Apple II shareware and freeware 
called the GEM CD. Apple's developer CD- 
ROMs also contain Apple II data, and many 
programmers buy CD-ROM drives just to 
access those discs! 

Moving past Apple Il-specific CD-ROMs, 
IIGS System 6 lets you access Macintosh CD- 
ROMs. Most Macintosh CD-ROMs contain 
Macintosh programs, which naturally won't 
work on your Apple II, but there are also Mac- 
intosh CD-ROMs which contain data files 
which are useful to Apple II owners. For 
example, there are CD-ROMs with collections 
of TrueType fonts, MacPaint clip-art, and 
sounds. With appropriate software (like Point- 



less and SuperConvert), you can use these data 
files on your Apple II. 

Many CD-ROMs are in a format called "High 
Sierra," a universal, internationally-approved 
standard that many computers — including the 
IIGS — can use. CD-ROMs in this format tend 
to contain simple data files in standard ASCII 
text, and possibly graphics in GIF format. The 
Apple II can handle either of those formats. 

While there are plenty of CD-ROMs out there 
that can be used on the Apple II, they may take 
some hunting to track down. You may not find 
them useful enough to justify the purchase of a 
CD-ROM drive. Most commercial CD-ROMs, 
unfortunately, are designed for the Macintosh 
or MS-DOS. A dedicated hacker might be able 
to design an Apple II program to access the 
data on, say, an encyclopedia disc, but much of 
the data is compressed or encrypted and 
requires specialized retrieval software. 

You may also have heard of some new CD for- 
mats being introduced recently. CD-I (Com- 
pact Disc Interactive) was developed by 
Philips. CD-I discs store graphics, sound, and 
animations, plus simple instructions to the CD- 
I player that allow the user of the disc to "par- 
ticipate" in the material. Most current CD-Is 
are games, but Todd Rundgren's new album, 
No World Order, is being released in CD-I for- 
mat to allow listeners to rearrange the music in 
new ways. You don't need a CD-ROM drive 
(or a computer) to use a CD-I; you need a CD- 
I player. 

Kodak also recently introduced Photo CD. 
When you develop a roll of film, you can have 
the developer put the pictures on Photo CD in 
addition to making a set of prints. You can 
even take the Photo CD back to the developer 
with your next roll of film to have more pic- 
tures added to it. Photo CDs can be viewed on 
your television with a Photo CD player, and 
the newer CD-ROM drives can also read them. 
This allows ordinary users to get professional- 
quahty, high-resolution computer versions of 
their images without having to buy an expen- 
sive scanner. As yet, though, there are no 
Apple II programs which can read Photo CD 
discs. 



QUESTION: I have both Sensible Speller 
and AppleWorks 3.0 (which has a built-in 
spelling checker). I only use Sensible Speller 
for doing crossword puzzles, because of its 
"wildcard" feature which let you look up 
words when you don't know all the letters, but 
it's annoying to have to keep both program's 
dictionaries on my hard drive. Can the pro- 



grams be made to use a single dictionary? 

De Wayne Buck 
Brooklyn, MI 

ANSWER: Unfortunately, the answer to 
your question is "no." The AppleWorks 
spelling checker (which is essentially the same 
as TimeOut QuickSpell) and Sensible Speller 
were written by two different programmers, 
who were free to design their programs how- 
ever they liked and did just that. The two pro- 
grams keep their dictionaries in two complete- 
ly different formats, and never the twain shall 
meet. Sorry. 



QUESTION: I have a UniDisk 3.5 which 
won't boot. I took it to my local Apple dealer, 
who charged me $50 to tell me it would cost 
nearly $300 to fix the drive's alignment — more 
than the a new or reconditioned drive would 
cost! How can I align the drive myself? I have 
nothing to lose by attempting the procedure 
since the drive is useless to me in its current 
condition. 

Edward Hoerner 
Kenner, LA 

ANSWER: Unfortunately, aligning a drive is 
a procedure which requires specialized test 
equipment. It's not just a matter of turning a 
few screws. Your dealer needs to do it, unless 
you have an oscilloscope and other expensive 
equipment in your workshop. 

However, $300 sounds a little steep for a sim- 
ple alignment. If the only problem with the 
drive is that it's not aligned properly, your 
dealer should be able to realign it for much less 
than that. If your dealer is planning to charge 
you $300, he probably intends to replace the 
drive's mechanism entirely, indicating some 
other, more major, problem with the drive. I 
highly recommend that you get a second opin- 
ion, and then, if the drive's innards do indeed 
need to be replaced, buy a reconditioned drive 
instead. 



QUESTION: I bought a Laser 128 to intro- 
duce myself to the computer world. But I've 
discovered that some programs {The New Print 
Shop, for one) won't work on the computer. 
Why not? Isn't the Laser 128 compatible with 
the Apple He? I was going to get AppleWorks, 
but I'm afraid to order anything else for fear of 
spending money on something I can't use. 
Help! 

Mary Carley 
Richland Center, WI 



JULY/AUGUST 



19 



ASK M 



TECH 



ANSWER: The Laser 128 is Apple lie com- 
patible, but as you've discovered, "compati- 
ble" isn't always what it's cracked up to be. 
Due to Apple Computer's habit of suing any- 
one who tried to make a computer that works 
like an Apple, Laser had to tread very carefully 
to ensure that their computer did not infringe 
on any Apple patents or copyrights. (Apple 
earlier won a case against Franklin on this very 
issue.) As it turns out, Apple did sue Laser, but 
Laser had covered all the bases, and the Laser 
128 was cleared. 

The Laser, then, is not an exact copy of the 
Apple. There are some minor differences in the 
way the two machines work. If a programmer 
relies on an Apple II characteristic that isn't 
part of the Laser, the resulting program can 
have difficulties. That's the case with The New 
Print Shop, which is one of the few programs 
from a major publisher to have such problems. 
(Broderbund is a well-respected software pub- 
lisher and it's a mystery that they have allowed 
this problem to continue to exist.) 

Well over 95% of Apple He programs will run 
on the Laser 128. Virtually all the popular ones 
work fine — and that includes AppleWorks. 
Nevertheless, when buying software, it's wise 
to ask the vendor to guarantee that the software 
will work on your computer and to let you 
return it if it doesn't. (Most companies will 
make such an exception to their return policy 
for incompatible software.) This applies no 
matter what computer you have, because you 
never know what might prove incompatible. 



Incidentally, the Laser 128 is not the only com- 
puter to have this problem. Genuine Apple 
computers have had it too! When the Apple He 
came out, some older Apple 11+ software 
wouldn't work (or had minor cosmetic prob- 
lems). When the lie and enhanced He came 
out, some software that worked fine on the 
unenhanced He didn't work right on the new 
machines. When the IIGS came out, it had 
problems with some He and lie software. And 
the Mac LC Apple He card also exhibits 
incompatibilities here and there. 

Apple (and Laser) do their best to make sure 
they don't "break" software when they intro- 
duce a new machine, but sometimes the 
improvements made in a new model demand 
other changes that can cause glitches with 
existing software. That's a fact of life in the 
fast-paced computer world. 



TELL MR. TECH 

MR. TECH: To get the Applied Engineering 
3.5" High-Density drive to work with IIGS 
System 6, place the AEHD driver in the Sys- 
tem 6 Drivers folder (inside the System fold- 
er). Remove the Apple 3.5 driver. Make sure 
that if you have any 800K 3.5" drives that they 
are first on the chain. The 5.25" drives, if any, 
should be last, as always. On my system, this 
allows the previously inoperable AEHD driver 
to work under System 6 (and saves me a 



$149.95 charge to modify the drive itself to 
work with System 6). 

Ira Garvin 
Oakdale, NY 

Ira: Thanks for the tip! — Mr. Tech 



MR* TECH: In the May/June issue, you 
discussed the merits of leaving the computer 
on continuously vs. turning it off between 
uses. One thing you didn't mention is dust. 
Leaving the power on causes fans (if you 
have any in the system) to continuously cir- 
culate room dust through the system. Turning 
the power off when you're not intending to 
use the machine soon does reduce the dust 
problem. 

BillNeef 
Grass Lake, MI 

Bill: Good point. A blanket of dust over chips 
is a good heat insulator, so dusty chips get 
warmer. Warm chips fail faster. Whether you 
have a fan or not, it's a good idea to periodi- 
cally clean the dust out of your machine. Use 
canned air (available at most photography 
stores) to blow the dust out — vacuum clean- 
ers can generate static charges in the air, 
which you definitely don 7 need anywhere 
near the computer's delicate chips. — Mr. 
Tech. 



SIICKY K[YS 



GLENN FERRERI 
GUEST TECH 

IIGS System 6 has a feature called Sticky 
Keys, which allows handicapped users to 
type complicated key sequences (like 
Apple-Control-Escape) separately instead 
of typing them all together. But I recently 
encountered a case of really sticky keys. I 
hit the Return key and suddenly, my docu- 
ment disappeared up the screen. A glance at 
my keyboard told me the real story — after 
years of use and neglect, my Return key had 
developed a case of the stickles. Time to 
really clean up! 

A word of warning. Don't try this if you 
don't know the difference between a 
Phillips and a flatblade screwdriver. There 
will be some prying of parts, and if you 
don't know your own strength you may 
damage them. If you have artificial nails, 



you may even need to make a trip to the 
salon afterward. 

Before you start, make sure you have a pen- 
cil (or pen) and paper; a small Phillips 
screwdriver, a small flatblade screwdriver, a 
stiff artist's brush, an old toothbrush or nail- 
brush, access to a sink, and a mild detergent 
or dish soap. 

First, turn off the power to the computer 
and unplug the wires from both sides of the 
keyboard. Write down the keyboard layout 
so you'll have an easier time putting it back 
together. (If you have access to a photocopi- 
er, just photocopy the keyboard!) 

Now flip the keyboard over. On the bottom, 
above the Apple label, are three Phillips 
screws. Remove them, being careful not to 
lose the washers. The keyboard comes apart 
into three pieces: the bottom case, a small 
top case around the Reset key, and the key- 
board itself. Now you can see all the junk 
your keyboard has collected. 

Set the keyboard on a flat surface with the 
keys facing upward. Starting with the 
edges, gently pry off each of the key caps. 



You may need to use a slight side-to-side 
motion on some keys to loosen them up. 
The larger keys have C-shaped wires 
attached to them to keep them from tilting 
when you type; some of these wires will 
come off with the key caps and some will 
stay on the keyboard. With the exception of 
the Reset key, which has its wire firmly 
attached, remove the wires from the key 
caps and set them aside. 

Collect all your key caps — you should have 
8 1 of them — and put them in the sink with 
warm water and dish soap to soak. While 
they're soaking, remove any of the C- 
shaped wires still attached to the key- 
board — they should just lift out of the U- 
shaped clips. Use the artist's brush to brush 
out the dirt and lint from around the keys. 
Set the keyboard on its edge and tap it gen- 
tly to get the trapped dirt to fall off the 
board. 

Remove the divider between the main key- 
board and the numeric keypad. Turn the 
keyboard upside down. With your flatblade 
screwdriver, move one of the tabs holding 

continued on page 43 



20 



II ALIVE 



HEADOFIHiCdBS 



A ^*^No Homework'' 



Coupon 



bv ■■'Ci IVI. Garvin 



n New York State, we have one Regents 
Competency Examination in Social Studies 
that students must pass at the end of 10th 
grade, and another at the end of 1 1th grade. 
Although these are minimal competency 
examinations, they require students to do that 
which they have the most difficulty with, 
namely retention of content. In an effort to 
meet this demand, my homework assignments 
include a text reading and content-specific 
vocabulary. To drive home the importance of 
the vocabulary, there is a homework quiz the 
day each assignment is due. 

I constantly am looking for ways to get dis- 
interested students to care about their perfor- 
mance in my class enough to put forth the nec- 
essary effort to succeed. The problem remind- 
ed me of a suggestion I'd read years ago in a 
teaching journal — why not give out a valuable 
coupon (for a free 100 on a homework assign- 
ment, or 5 points extra credit) every time a stu- 
dent aces the homework quiz? Of course, 
teachers have been doing this sort of thing for 
years. The question was, would it work with 
11th graders who were reading two or more 
years behind their grade level and who have, 
for the most part, lost any motivation they ever 
had to learn? 

As I found out, it works very well. Students 
who rarely got positive reinforcement were 
overjoyed, at 16 and 17 years of age, to "get a 
coupon!" Many changed their attitude about 
Social Studies and became real achievers. 

As it turns out, a computer is a very useful 
tool for this project, because it allows you to 
make custom, yet professional-looking 
coupons. Here, then, are the two coupons that I 
designed — one for my IIGS at home (using 
AppleWorks GS 1.1) and the other for the He at 
school (using Publish It! 4). 



APPLEWORKS GS 

The first rule of desktop publishing (espe- 
cially with AppleWorks GS) is to save early 
and save often. Resist the urge to "do one more 
thing" first! Many times I've lost a lot of work 
because I was so intent on doing "one more 



A file EAt 



fcr»»f Tm font Siie Stale Color mfVilK 



D 



O 



m 



1^ 



lM 



— . - -- .— ■ . 



L«ft/ Right togins CdIu 
®0.Z5inch| Ol 

O0.5inch ®2 

0[Ml|inch 0[1] 



T«»/l«tt4Htegins 
® 0.25 inch 
O 0.5 inc h 
OfUlinch 



® 0.25 inch 
O 0.5 inc h 
OfUl inch 



C^o I «^ I 



li ii ii ii li i« ii h h ii 



lam 



Figure 1 



thing" that I hadn't saved at all when the com- 
puter crashed. I suggest saving at least every 
third step. 

We begin with a new Page Layout docu- 
ment. In the Page Setup dialog, we've selected 



"vertical condensed" printing. Now, we set up 
our guides using the Options menu. As shown 
in Figure 1, we select "Lock guides" and 
"Magnetic Guides." Once this is done, we 
choose the hollow rectangle tool and draw a 4" 





Table 1 




Square Specifications 


Height 


3.397 




Width 


2.350 




Note: Height and width are the 


same for all 


squares. 


All squares are white. 




Square 


Left Start 


Top Start 


1. 


0.500 


0.490 


2. 


0.500 


3.000 


3. 


0.500 


5.565 


4. 


0.500 


7.981 


5. 


4.104 


0.490 


6. 


4.104 


3.000 


7. 


4.104 


5.565 


8. 


4.104 


7.981 





Table 2 




Text Box Specifications 


Height 


3.344 




Width 


1.381 




Note: Height and width are the 


same for all 


text boxes. All text boxes are transparent. 


Text Box 


Left Start 


Top Start 


1. 


0.544 


1.461 


2. 


0.544 


3.969 


3. 


0.544 


6.554 


4. 


0.544 


8.972 


5. 


4.140 


1.461 


6. 


4.140 


3.969 


7. 


4.140 


6.554 


8. 


4.140 


8.972 



JULY/AUGUST 



21 



HEAD OF THE CLASS 



X 2" rectangle (using the thin Une) at the top of 
column one. 

Choose the "I-Beam" tool by clicking on the 
A in the toolbox and drag out a text box the 
same size as the rectangle. Click the I-beam in 
this text box, pull down the Text menu, and 
choose "Centered" text and 1 1/2" spacing. 
We'll adjust the spacing later, depending upon 
the font, style and size that you choose. I've 
used Greeting and Geneva, both TrueType 
fonts. (These require Pointless. Don't worry if 
you don't have the exact same font, though; 
just choose one you like.) Type the text shown 
in Figure 2. Once you are ready to type the 
word "Name," go back to the text menu and 
select "Left" justification. At this point, the 
only item left on our first coupon is the line for 
the student's name. Select the line tool (+) 
from the toolbox and draw a line from the 
word "Name" to the edge of the text box. 

Now we're ready to make the other nine 
coupons. The entire sheet will become our 
master and will be used for duplication. Press 
OA-W to fit the document into the window, 
and, using the arrow tool, "rubberband" the 
entire coupon so that all three items (box, text, 
and line) are selected. Press OA-C to copy, 
then use OA-V to paste nine of these into their 
approximate locations (see Figure 3). Finally, 
use OA-W again to return to the full size view 
and "fine tune" each coupon so that it is 1/8" 
below the one on top of it. Your master sheet 
of ten "Free Homework" coupons is done! 
Print up a sheet, copy twenty or so, and cut 
them apart on a paper cutter. 



Table 3 
Graphic Box Specifications 



Width 
Height 



2.666 
1.502 



Note: Height and width are the same for all 
graphic boxes. 



Graphic 
Box 

1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 



Left Start 

0.612 
0.612 
0.612 
0.612 
4.216 
4.216 
4.216 
4.216 



Top Start 

0.537 
3.063 
5.611 
8.036 
0.537 
3.063 
5.611 
8.036 



<i File^ Eiit >»tit*s irr«if» Twt fonl Size Stale Color 



/ 



"^ 



H 






mtm 



TH5a»]fflii9iiiTi£SyM!p 

IFREEMOIIQMMIK 
5W«TSiE)(™Cie)[T * 



fW. 



OFI 
IFREEliO 



Figure 2 



m File Eiit lstit#s ^rtRgt Itit roni Size Siale Color ftVlf 1 2:ii 



fctitifrii(PL) = 



o 



mi 



I- 

1- 

2^ 
%-i 

5-5 

1- 
t- 

n- 



TFW 




Figure 3 



PUBLISH IT! 4 

Select the square tool and draw the first 
square. It doesn't really matter what size you 
make it, since we're going to resize it anyway. 
Use the arrow tool to click the square, type 
OA-M for the object specifications dialog, and 
set the specs according to Table 1 . Be sure that 
you have selected "White" in the fill section of 
the specifications dialog. 

Choose the "T" from the toolbox and click 
and drag a text box on top of square number 
one. Once again, select the text box with the 
arrow tool, type OA-M, and enter 
the object specifications from 
Table 2. Be sure to click on the 
"Transparent" radio button as 
well. 

Now choose the I-Beam 
tool and click it in the text box you 
just created. Open the Page Justifi- 
cation dialog and click "Center", 
then pull down the Format menu 
and choose "Use page standard." 
Now choose your font. I have used 
Ravina 18 Plain. Type in the text 
of your coupon, being sure to 
select "Left justify" from the for- 
mat menu when you are ready to 
type in "Name." 

Finally, get the line tool 
and draw in the "name line." 
Again, using OA-M and Table 4, 
set the length and start point of the 
line. 

Let's create a graphics 
box and bring in some clip art. (I 
didn't do this in the AppleWorks 
GS version because I didn't have 
any appropriate clip art handy.) 
Choose the Graphic tool and drag 
out a graphic box. Click on it with 
the arrow tool, press OA-M, and 
use Table 3 to set the specifica- 




jm 



i> 



Table 4 




Line Specifications 


Width 2.260 




Note: Width Is the same for all lines 


Une Left Start 


Top Start 


1. 1.184 


2.651 


2. 1.184 


5.159 


3. 1.184 


7.725 


4. 1.184 


10.141 


5. 4.788 


2.651 


6. 4.788 


5.159 


7. 4.788 


7.725 


8. 4.788 


10.141 



tions for the box. With the graphic box still 
selected, pull down the File menu and select 
"Import a ProDOS picture." I chose the "Win 
Flag" from the Publish It! 4 Education graphic 
disk — it's in the Awards folder. 

Press OA-4 for "fit in window." Get your 
arrow tool and rubber-band the entire coupon 
(the square, text box, graphic box and line). 
Once they are all simultaneously selected, use 
OA-C and OA-V to copy and paste seven 
more coupons onto the page. With the arrow 
tool, rubber-band them one at a time and place 
them on the page in their approximate posi- 
tions. Use OA-1 to return to the full size view, 
then click on each of the elements and adjust 
them (using OA-M) to the appropriate loca- 
tions using the tables. When we make our 
adjustments, we want to work first on the 
square, then the text box, then the line, then the 
graphic box, to keep them "stacked" properly. 

Use OA-K to preview your work to see how 
your coupons will look for "for real." Finally, 
print out your master sheet, copy twenty or so, 
and cut them apart. 



CONCLUSION 

I hope you'll achieve the same educational 
success with your coupons that I've had with 
mine. I think you'll discover that they're real 
motivators! ■ 



22 



M ALIVE 




Designing 
Successml Databases 



by Sieve IVIiller 



I have three kids in school, and my wife and 
I have helped to manage a number of dif- 
ferent fund-raising drives over the years. 
AppleWorks' data base has, in each case, 
helped us to not only survive the project, but to 
make it a success. 

Our most successful fund-raiser is the 
school lunch program. Since our boys' school 
doesn't have a cafeteria, we decided to supply 
pizza to the students once a week. The lunches 
were pre-sold at the beginning of each semes- 
ter, and AppleWorks proved more than capa- 
ble of tracking the whole project. We used 
AppleWorks to generate pizza delivery sched- 
ules and to keep a running total of funds 
raised. This program was so successful that a 
second (hamburger) lunch day was later added. 
Enough money was raised in two years to buy 
an Apple II and a printer for every classroom 
in the school! 

With the AppleWorks data base, it's easy to 
customize screen layouts, search for specific 
records and groups of records, and print spe- 
cialized reports for a number of purposes. 
That's what this article is all about. We'll 
assume that you know how to create a data 
base and do basic data entry, and use this as a 
springboard to learn about some of the more 
advanced data base features. Although the pro- 
ject being discussed is specific, the same prin- 
ciples and procedures apply to any Apple- 
Works data base. 

THE PROJECT 

Our latest school fund-raising project was a 
dinner featuring entertainment by the faculty. 
We needed to keep track of pledges, checks 
received, the contributor list (to be listed in the 
program), the guest list, seating, VIPs, and 
about a dozen other minutae. We found we 
could even use AppleWorks to generate 
deposit slips. Most banks will accept comput- 
er-generated deposit slips, as long as they fol- 
low the bank's standard format. This can save 
plenty of work and eliminate mistakes — check 
with your bank for details. 




CREATING FIELDS 
AND EXTRA FIELDS 

Here are the fields I created in the data base: 



VIP 



Count 



Addendum 



Date entered 
Comment 



yes/no field; affords preferen- 
tial treatment 

always "1"; used to generate 
various counts 

to credit donations received 
after the program 
has gone to the printer 



Last Name 
First Name 
List as 

Phone 

Paid 

ABA 

Dep# 

Paid prev 

Pledged 

Tickets 
Table 



where special credit was 
requested 

amount of the check received 
the bank number from the 
check, for the deposit slip 
the deposit number, starting 
with #1 

for money received and banked 
earlier 

funds pledged but not yet 
received 

number of tickets purchased 
table assignment 



We didn't need addresses for this particular 
project, but many applications would also 
require Address, City, and ZIP Code fields. 

I also created five "spare" fields, called XI, 
X2, X3, X4, and X5. (The names are arbi- 
trary.) You probably won't think of every kind 
of information you need to gather when you're 
first creating your data base — when you start 
using it, you'll probably start wishing you'd 
included an extra field or two. But if you add 
fields, AppleWorks will erase any customized 
screen layouts and report formats you've creat- 
ed. The "spare" fields, however, can be 



JULY/AUGUST 



23 



APPLEWORKS AT LARGE 



renamed at any time and meaningfully incor- 
porated into your data base, and you won't lose 
screen layouts and report formats because 
you're not really adding anything. 

CUSTOMIZING 

THE DATA ENTRY SCREEN 

You could start entering data into your new 
data base immediately, but you'll find life 
much easier if you first customize the data 
entry screen. Arrange the fields on the screen 
to create a visually pleasing, easy-to-use lay- 
out. You can do this at any time, starting from 
a single-record screen (the one that says 

"Record of " on the third line) and 

pressing OA-L. (If you're not on a single- 
record screen, you're on a multiple-record 
screen. Press OA-Z to go back and forth.) 

To move a category on the screen, place the 
cursor on the first letter of the category name, 
hold down the OA key, and press an appropri- 
ate arrow key. Related fields should be 
grouped together, with a blank line separating 
them from other groups of fields. Although 
you can't insert a blank line, you can create 
one by moving items down. You can also 
place short data items on a line together. 
You'll find this operation immeasurably sim- 
pler with mouse control if you have Ultra- 
Macros. 

After you've created a customized screen, 
try pressing OA-T to highlight the field names. 
This visually separates them from the actual 
entries. I don't care for this option, because I 
find that the contrast is hard on my eyes, but 
you may find it helps. Press OA-T again to 
turn it off. 

To save your entry screen, press Escape. 
AppleWorks will ask you which way you 
would like the cursor to move when you press 
Return: in the order in which the categories 
were originally defined; or left to right, top to 
bottom. Unless you are a masochist, you'll 
want the latter option. (If you are a masochist, 
AppleWorks' flexibiUty will accomodate you.) 



SETTING STANDARD VALUES 

Don't start entering data yet, because it's 
quite likely that some of your fields will need 
the same entry in most or all of the records 
(today's date, for example). To set standard 
values, press OA-V. Then enter those values 
which you'll need for the current session. The 
Count field should be set to 1, and never 
changed. (We'll use this field later with group 
totals when we just want to know how many 
records conform to a particular rule.) 

The current date should be entered, and if 
you're going to be creating a bank deposit slip, 
set Dep# to 1. The date, deposit number, and 
any other standard values should be checked 
and updated at the start of every session. After 



entering the standard values, press ESC. 

A word of warning: If you go to the Set 
Standard Values screen in the middle of enter- 
ing data in a record, AppleWorks may lose 
some of the data in that record. If you use OA- 
V after making entries, go back to the last 
record you were working on and make sure 
that the entries or changes are still there. It's 
another good argument for only updating the 
standard values only at the start of each ses- 
sion. 



ENTERING DATA 

Now, you're finally ready to enter informa- 
tion into your data base. Be consistent, and 
you'll save editing time (and confusion) later. 
Items like "VIP," which are essentially "yes or 
no" categories, can be treated in a number of 
ways. You could enter an "X" when the cate- 
gory is true and leave it blank when it's not, or 
enter a "Y" or "N" for yes and no, or even use 
"0" and "1." Just be consistent. Using a num- 
ber is my favorite way to go, because it makes 
it easy to generate a count when you need one. 



DEPOSIT SLIPS 

Let's say that you've entered a bunch of 
checks, and you're ready to make a bank 
deposit. First, save your file (OA-S). Next, 
press OA-P to get to the Report Menu, and 
choose option 2, Create a new "tables" format" 

Any fields which are not needed for this 
report can be deleted by putting the cursor on 
them and pressing OA-D. (This does not per- 
manently delete the category from the data 
base; it only keeps it from being printed on the 
report.) If you accidentally delete a category 
you need, you can bring it back by pressing 
OA-I for Insert. To move a field to a different 
position, place the cursor on the field, hold 
down the OA key, and use the < or > key to 
swap it with the field immediately to the left or 
right. To change the width of a field, again 
hold down the OA key and press the left or 
right arrow key. 

Of course you'll want a total amount for the 
deposit. Put the cursor on the field to be 
totalled — Paid — and press OA-T. You'll see a 
lot of 9's, but these are just place-holders to 
show you what the column of figures will look 
like. Be sure you make it wide enough for your 
eventual total — your entries may all be in the 
hundreds, but your total might be in the tens of 
thousands. And be sure the ABA field is at 
least eight spaces wide — the size of these num- 
bers varies considerably. 

The bank will want to know how many 
checks are in your deposit. To generate this 
figure, total the "count" column, just like you 
did with the "Paid" column, using OA-T. 

Now enter a heading for your report. To do 
this, press OA-N. Unless you want to change 



the name of the report, press RETURN, and 
the cursor will move to a blank line just above 
the report format. You can enter your account 
information here. 



RECORD SELECTION RULES 

You may not want every record printed on 
this report. For example, people who have 
made pledges but have not yet paid them 
should not be listed. To narrow down the 
group of records which will be included, press 
OA-R. 

The record selection feature is sophisticated, 
but easy to use. In this case, we want records 
which are part of deposit slip number 1 . Move 
the cursor to "Dep#" and press Return, then 
choose "EQUALS," press Return, type "1", 
and press Return again. The word "and" will 
be highlighted, but since we don't need any 
further narrowing of the selection, you can 
press Escape to complete the process. (This is 
one of the very few situations where using the 
Escape key completes a process, rather than 
canceling it! Actually, what you are canceling 
is the continuation of the rule, which can be 
made much longer by adding the "and" and 
"or" options.) The rules which you have creat- 
ed will appear at the top of the screen, and will 
remain part of this report format until you 
change them by pressing OA-R again. 

There are a couple more things you can do 
to make your report format a litde more read- 
able. First, change the left margin (which 
defaults to zero) to one inch. Press OA-0 (for 
options). All of the available options will be 
listed at the top of the screen. Left Margin is 
LM, just like in the word processor, so type 
LM, then Return, then 1, then Return, then 
Escape. You might also want to double-space 
the report by entering DS while you're at the 
Options Menu. 

If you want to arrange your report in some 
way, do it now. For example, you might want 
to alphabetize the contributors by last name, or 
group the checks in ascending order by 
amount. Whatever you choose, place the cur- 
sor on the column to be arranged, and press 
OA-A, then choose from the available options, 
such as ascending or descending order. 

A reminder: Arranging the data base's 
records from this or any other screen, re- 
arranges the entire file — even the records 
which are not part of a particular report. The 
newly-arranged order of the records will only 
be saved if you save the file to disk. The 
records will not be arranged automatically 
each time you print a report, even if you 
arranged them when you printed it before, and 
new records are not automatically added in 
sequence. So it pays to use OA-A just before 
you print any report. 

At this point, you're probably ready to print 
the report. Press OA-P and choose your print- 



24 



M ALIVE 



APPLEWORKS AT LARGE 



er. You may want to print to the screen first to 
see what it will look like. AppleWorks lets you 
enter a date to be printed on the report. Actual- 
ly, you can type almost anything you want 
there, like "First Draft," or "Prepared by Joe," 
although the number of characters you can 
type is limited. Press Return, and you're on 
your way to printing a deposit slip. 



OTHER HANDY REPORT OPTIONS 

Grouping: The AppleWorks data base 
allows you to group similar items together in a 
report. For example, suppose you wanted a 
report listing how many people are seated at 
each table. Take a look at Figure 6. This 
report will print a list of only those contribu- 
tors who have ordered tickets, because of the 
Record Selection (OA-R), in which I've cho- 
sen "Tickets is greater than 0" as my rule. I 
arranged the data base by table number and 
turned on group totals for the Tickets field. The 
number of tickets assigned to each table will 
be subtotaled, and a grand total will also be 
printed at the bottom of the report. 

A little explanation is in order. To group 
similar items together (almost always for the 
purpose of counting something), put the cursor 
on the column to be grouped, and press OA-G. 
AppleWorks will ask you if you want to "Print 
group totals only," to which you would say 
Yes if you only needed totals, but not individ- 
ual names. If will also offer you the opportu- 
nity to "Go to a new page after each total?," 
which would be handy if you needed the seat- 
ing list for each table printed on a separate 
page. 

The key to making a group report work is 
that the item to be grouped must be arranged in 
some meaningful way. If you do not arrange 
the field, either alphabetically or numerically, 
the report will be meaningless. It's a good 
idea to print the report to the screen first, to 
avoid wasting valuable paper on useless out- 
put. Remember, arrangement of records is not 
done automatically when a report is printed. 

Addition: An AppleWorks data base report 
can also do some limited arithmetic on your 
data, including addition, subtraction, multipli- 
cation, and division. To use this feature, create 
what's called a "calculated column" in your 
report format. In my case, the charity event, I 
needed to know the total of money pledged, 
money received, and money collected earlier. 
Take a look at Figure 8, and be sure to look at 
the bottom line. 

To create a calculated column, put the cur- 
sor where you want the new column to appear, 
and press OA-K. First you name the column, 
then create the arithmetic formula for it. Use * 
for multiplication, and / for division. Calcula- 
tions are done from left to right, and must be 
based on columns to the left of the calculated 
column. Parentheses are permitted, but be sure 



check the results of anything complex to make 
sure that AppleWorks is doing the math the 
way you want it done. A calculated column 
can be edited by using OA-K once again, and 
you can also use group totals on it. You can 
define as many calculated columns as you 
need. 



MAKING IT FIT 

If your report consists of a lot of fields (i.e., 
columns), and some of them are fairly wide, 
the report will probably not fit horizontally on 
the page without some fiddling. To remedy 
this, go to the Options screen (OA-O), and 
choose a narrower font. The default is 10 char- 
acters-per-inch (CPI); try 12, 17, or even 20. If 
you have entered a left margin greater than 
zero, change it back to zero. You may also 
want to abbreviate your field names, by going 
back to the main body of the data base; press- 
ing OA-N, Return, and Return; and editing any 
field name which is wider than the data con- 
tained in the field. Press Escape to exit the 
process. 

AppleWorks has plenty of printer options 
listed right there on the Print Format screen. I 
suggest you experiment with all of them, 
because they're all useful in one situation or 
another. 



BACK IT UP 

Compiling a data base is a lot of work, and 
losing it — for any reason — is no fun. Be sure 
to make a backup copy of your entire data base 
file on a separate disk. It's a good idea to date 
your backups so you can go back and see what 
your data base looked like at a specific point in 
time, if this should become necessary. Just 
change the data base's name slightly before 
saving it to the backup disk. For example, you 
might name it "Dinner Mar 12" if that's the 
date on which you're backing it up. To change 
the file name, press OA-N. Databases can take 
up a significant amount of disk space, so it 
may be necessary to delete older versions of 
the file from time to time to make room for the 
new backup, or to use multiple backup disks. 
Just make sure you always know version of the 
file is the most current! 



CONCLUSION 

AppleWorks' data base has plenty of power- 
ful features, some of which may seem obscure 
if you don't understand what they do. In reali- 
ty, these features are designed to make your 
work easier. With a better understanding of 
AppleWorks' data base, you're well on your 
way to organizing your home, your life, and 
the whole world. ■ 



APPLEWORKS 
DATA BASE TERMS: 

OA: The Open-Apple key, also known as 
the Command key on some Apple II mod- 
els. 

SA: The Solid-Apple key, also known as the 
Option key on some Apple II models. 

Record: All the data that goes together 
about one person or thing. For example, in 
a customer address data base, each cus- 
tomer would have one record. 

Field: The individual categories that make 
up every record: name, address, phone 
number, and so forth. 

Sort: To arrange a data base based on the 
value of one or more fields (for example, 
alphabetically by last name). 

Group totals: Used on a sorted data base 
to generate subtotals of records belonging 
to particular groups. For example, if you 
arrange a seating data base by table num- 
ber, and each record has a field containing 
the number of tickets purchased by each 
guest, you can use the Group Total feature 
to count the number of people sitting at 
each table. 

Count field: A count field should always 
contain the value 1. It can be used with the 
Group Total feature to count how many 
records are in each group (as opposed to 
counting some other value, like the number 
of tickets that guest has purchased). 

Calculated column: A field which isn't a 
part of the actual data base but is calculat- 
ed for report printing from the values of 
other fields. An example Is a dollar total of 
the amount pledged and the amount actual- 
ly paid. You can use totals and group totals 
on calculated fields as well. 

Tables format: A report which lists one 
record on each line, with the fields 
arranged in columns. Labels format, in 
contrast, allows you to use more than one 
line for a record. 

Standard values: The default value for 
each of the fields in your data base. If you 
have fields which always (or almost 
always) contain the same value, Apple- 
Works can fill them In for you automatical- 
ly. 



JULY/AUGUST 



25 



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latinum Paint is probably the most 

Ji M powerful Apple IIGS paint program 
i^i ever designed. Few of us even 
begin to tap the program's full 
potential. This article is your first 
step to becoming a true Platinum Paint power 
user — even if you can't draw! 

Tv\fo-Fistecl Paintincp 

When you start up Platinum Paint, it dis- 
plays its tool palette, its menu bar, and a blank, 
untitled document. This is a pretty "user- 
friendly" way to lay out the screen, but it's def- 
initely not the most efficient, since painting on 
the whole document requires lots of screen 
scrolling. A faster way to work is to hide the 
tool palette and use the info bar instead. 

To do this, first press OA-Space. This 
"explodes" your paint document to full-screen. 
Now press OA-Escape to turn off the menu bar 
(don't worry, it's easy to get back). Finally, 
press the letter "I" to activate the Info Bar. The 
Info Bar appears at the top of the screen, dis- 
playing the icon of the tool you're using along 
with the current background, border, and fill 
colors. The Info Bar can also display the coor- 
dinates of the Platinum Paint cursor — press 
the "#" key (Shift-3) to turn this feature on and 
off. 

When painting in this configuration, you'll 
be using both hands. Assuming you're right- 
handed, you'll paint (move the mouse) with 
your right hand, and change tools and issue 
commands (using the keyboard) with your left 
hand. (If you're left-handed, this arrangement 
will obviously be reversed.) This is what we 



mean by "two-fisted painting." Staring at a 
wide-open, palette-less Platinum Paint screen 
may throw you into a state of confusion at first, 
but you'll soon find it second nature. 

The Info Bar contains pull-down menus for 
tools and colors. Just click and hold the mouse 
button while pointing at the tool icon on the 
info bar for tools, or while pointing at the 
appropriate color (background, border, or fill) 
in the color sample "swatch." To access Plat- 
inum Paint's other commands, simply press 
OA-Escape to turn the menu bar back on, 
select the desired command, then press OA- 
Escape again. You can think of OA-Escape as 
a toggle between the info bar and the menu 
bar. 

Since the scroll bars aren't available in full 




screen mode, you'll need to use the Hand to 
paint other parts of your document. But since 
you can see more of your document at once, 
you probably won't need to scroll as often. Just 
press H to activate the Hand (or select it from 
the tool menu on the Info Bar). 

Platinum Paint has keyboard equivalents for 



every tool and command, and once you master 
them, your painting speed will increase by a 
factor of ten. But you don't have to learn them 
all, and you certainly don't need to learn them 
all at once. Consult the "Key Command Refer- 
ence" in the back of your Platinum Paint man- 
ual and begin by learning the keys for the tools 
themselves. 

Notice that some keys represent the tool's 
name (E for Eraser, H for Hand, F for Fill), 
others represent the way the tool icon looks (/ 
for line, A for text, ! for dropper), and others 
represent what the tool does (U for curve — the 
letter "U" is curved, . for pencil — the pencil 
draws a one-dot-wide line on the screen). Also 
notice that the six shape tools (box, oval, etc.) 
use the Shift key to select filled-in versions of 
the shape and unshifted keys to select empty 
(hollow) shapes. 

If you're familiar with other IIGS applica- 
tions, you already know the standard key 
equivalents for New (OA-N), Open (OA-0), 
Close (OA-W), Save (OA-S), Quit (OA-Q), 
Undo (OA-Z), Cut (OA-X), Copy (OA-C), and 
Paste (OA-V). When you're working with 
multiple documents, you'll quickly get used to 
using OA-1 through OA-4 to choose the 
desired picture. 

Other key commands you'll want to memo- 
rize right away include OA-F for Fatbits, OA- 
A for text attributes, and OA-D for Dither 
Lock (if you work in 640 mode). Also check 
out the keys which call up frequently-used 
dialogs; these can save you trips to the menu 
bar. Particularly useful are OA-; (select brush), 
OA-E (edit palette), OA-% (edit patterns), and 



JULY/AUGUST 



27 



Shift-F (Fill/Range dialog). 

Some of those keys may be a bit of a stretch 
one-handed if your hands are small; the Easy 
Access program, included with System 6, pro- 
vides a "Sticky Keys" capability which may 
help. (The "Sticky Keys" feature is also built 
into all ROM 03 IIGSs.) Press the Shift key five 
times to activate Sticky Keys. Thereafter, all 
the modifier keys (Shift, Control, Option, and 
OA) "latch" on, so you can type 0A-; as OA 
followed by ";" instead of having to hit both 
keys together. 

Use the keyboard when it saves you time. If 
you don't use a particular tool very frequendy, 
you won't remember its key, and it'd take 
more time to look it up than to simply select 
the desired function from the menu. On the 
other hand, if you find yourself using a particu- 
lar function frequently, look up its key equiva- 
lent in the manual or on the menu and make a 
mental note of it. After a while, you'll natural- 
ly learn the key equivalents of the functions 
you use the most. 

V\forkinc| V\fith 
Scanned Imacpes 

If you have a scanner or video digitizer, you 
may have tried to colorize your grayscale 



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images using Platinum Paint's "Wash" brush 
method and been somewhat disappointed with 
the results. Since a Platinum Paint document 
can only have sixteen colors, and since you 
started out with sixteen shades of gray in the 
scanned image, you had to throw away some 
of those shades of gray before you could begin 
to colorize the image. (Instructions for doing 
this can be found in the Platinum Paint 2.0 
manual on page 23.) This procedure, however, 
can reduce the detail of the image and result in 
some "posterization." 

Actually, depending on your needs and the 
source of the image, you may not need to 
reduce the number of grays in the scanned 
image at all. The Quickie hand-held scanner 
outputs only eleven shades of gray (thirteen 
with the version 3.0 software), leaving five (or 
three) "spare" colors you can redefine and use 
elsewhere in the image. To find these colors, 
call up the Palette dialog (OA-E), then hold 
down the Option key while you point at each 
color in the document's palette. Those which 
don't cause part of the image to flash are not 
used in the document and can be reused for 
other purposes. (Be sure to check the entire 
image before deciding that a color isn't used.) 

If you need more colors, or if you're starting 
with an image that really does use 16 shades of 



gray, try Seven Hills Software's SuperConvert. 
Among the hundreds of graphics conversions it 
does, SuperConvert can change a sixteen-color 
image to use only nine or fourteen colors, leav- 
ing seven or two colors for your own use. Dur- 
ing a remap operation. Platinum Paint merely 
"throws away" the deleted colors and 
"repaints" the pixels in the closest remaining 
color. But SuperConvert will dither the image 
so that adjacent pairs of pixels yield approxi- 
mately the same level of gray. The end result is 
reduced-palette grayscale images that look 
almost as good as the original 16-gray image. 
If you need lots of spare colors, SuperConvert 
can even reduce the picture to a dithered black 
and white image — rather severe, but occasion- 
ally useful, especiafly as a special effect. 

Here's the procedure. First, load the original 
image into SuperConvert. Then select "Remap 
Image" from the True Color Image menu. The 
image remapping dialog will appear. Under 
Graphic Mode, make sure that "320 x 200, 16 
colors" is selected. Under Palette To Use, click 
the "Get other" button and select either "Cal- 
culate 14," "Calculate 9," or "Black and white 
only," depending on the number of colors you 
need to have available. Under Rendering Algo- 
rithm, choose "Error Diffusion" if that option 
is available; otherwise, choose "Pattern 
Dither." Finally, click "Normal Remap" to 
begin the remapping process. 

If you plan to use one or two spot colors (for 
text or highlights) in the grayscale image, con- 
vert the picture to 14 grays. If you plan to actu- 
ally colorize parts of the image, convert it to 
nine grays. The seven "left over" colors can be 
used to create one, two, or even three ranges of 
colors appropriate for a wash. 

Home On The Rancpe 

We've mentioned ranges in connection with 
the Wash feature, but since ranges are one of 
the most useful yet least understood features of 
Platinum Paint, we thought we'd step back 
and take a more generic look at them. 

A range is a subset of the document 
palette — a sub-palette. For example, if you had 
three shades of red in a document and wanted 
to create a gradient fill using these three colors, 
you would put those three colors into a range. 
Platinum Paint documents can contain four 
ranges at once; however, once you have laid 
down some paint involving the colors in a 
range (for example, using the "Wash" brush 
method or creating a gradient fill), that paint is 
there permanently. Changing the range after 
performing one of these operations won't 
change what you already painted. The only 
exception to this rule is Platinum Paint's color 
cycling animation feature, which we won't dis- 
cuss here. 

To create a range, you tell Platinum Paint 
which colors from the main palette you want to 
use in the sub-palette. This is done from the 
Fill/Range dialog (Shift-F). Select the range 
you want to edit with the radio buttons at the 
top of the dialog. Click the Clear button to 
erase any colors that may already be in the 
range (assuming they're colors you don't want 



anymore), then simply click the colors you 
want to place in the range. Platinum Paint 
copies the colors from the main palette (the top 
color bar) to the range (the bottom color bar). 
You may find the "Sort" button useful; it 
arranges the range in order from darkest to 
lightest. You can also arrange the range manu- 
ally by dragging colors around within the bot- 
tom color bar, and remove colors from the 
range by dragging them off the bar. (See page 
76 of the Platinum Paint 2.0 manual for more 
information on the other options in the 
Fill/Range dialog.) 

Platinum Paint is quite happy to let you put 
the colors into a range in any order, and you 
can even put the same color into more than one 
range, or into a single range more than once. 
The latter approach is useful for making one 
color wider than the others in a gradient fill, or 
for creating a gradient that goes from one 
color, to a second, and then back to the first. 
However, for the task at hand (colorizing a 
grayscale image using the "Wash" brush 
method), the range should go from darker col- 
ors to lighter colors. 

So, with this information at hand, we decide 
to colorize one of our gray-scale scans. We've 
already run it through SuperConvert, so we 
know it has only nine gray levels, leaving us 
seven colors. We decide to break these seven 
colors into three ranges, one (brown) with 
three colors and the other two (pink and light 
green) with two colors. (We'll be using them 
basically as "spot" or highlight colors, leaving 
the overall image gray. In this case, we'll color 
in the hair, eyes, and mouth of a hypothetical 
scan of the author.) 

We'll use a trick to add another color to 
these ranges. Since any really dark color looks 
black, we won't bother creating dark shades of 
any of these colors. Instead, using the Palette 
dialog (OA-E) we'll create a medium-dark 
value of each color, then create additional col- 
ors with increasing brightness. When we create 




our range, we'll start with the black we already 
have in the palette, thereby "stretching" the 
colors in each of our ranges by one. 

The "Wash" brush mode works by taking 
the color of each pixel the brush passes over, 
ignoring the color information (retaining only 
the brightness), and choosing a color from the 
current range that has approximately the same 
brightness, in effect replacing one color with 
another without affecting the underlying 
image. Simply select the appropriate range 
(from the Range/Fill dialog or from the tool 
palette), then the paintbrush tool, then begin 



28 



II ALIVE 



painting. You can also wash an area by select- 
ing it with the marquee or lasso tools and 
selecting "Wash" from the Color Effects sub- 
menu of the Edit menu. 

You can make your washes look more real- 
istic by varying the hue of the colors in the 
range slightly. After washing the colors over 
the desired areas of the picture, go into the 
Palette dialog and tweak those colors, making 
darker colors more intense (increasing their 
saturation) or giving one of the colors a slight- 
ly "off (warmer or cooler) hue. Light colors 
used for highlights should tend toward white 
regardless of their original color. There's also 
no reason why all the colors in a range should 
be simply different shades of one color; try 
using completely different colors for psyche- 
delic effects! 

Don't underestimate the artistic impact of 
colorizing the grays by adjusting the palette 
after you're all done — drop one unit of red 
from each of the gray shades for an aqua cast, 
drop a unit of green for a magenta cast, or drop 
a unit of blue for a yellow cast. Or drop a unit 
from red and green for a blue cast, a unit from 
red and blue for a green cast, or a unit from 
blue and green for a pink (almost sepia) cast. 

With a little experimentation, you'll discov- 
er exactly your own personal tricks to give 
your image a real personality instead of look- 
ing like just another colorized scan. 

Painting in 640 iViode 

As you may be aware, the Apple IIGS has 
two "super high resolution" graphics modes, 
referred to as "320 mode" and "640 mode." 
(Although the IIGS hardware permits you to 
mix the two modes on the same screen, Plat- 
inum Paint doesn't support this capability — 
your entire document is either a 320-mode 
document or a 640-mode document.) 640 
mode is the mode that AppleWorks GS, the 
Finder, HyperCard, and other Desktop pro- 
grams run in. In fact, one of the main reasons 
you'd want to create a 640-mode picture is for 
use in HyperCard or HyperStudio (the latter 
also accepts 320-mode graphics, but prefers 
640 mode for best results). 

Platinum Paint starts up in 320 mode, so 
this mode may be more familiar to you. In 320 
mode, you have sixteen colors in your palette. 
Each of these sixteen colors may be assigned 
any of the 4,096 colors the IIGS can display. In 
other words, the IIGS can display 4,096 dis- 
tinct colors, but you can use only sixteen of 
these colors in a Platinum Paint document. 
Any of the 1 6 colors you have chosen can be 
used anywhere in the document. 

640 mode doubles the horizontal resolution 
by splitting each 320-mode pixel in half. Since 
there are twice the usual number of pixels, you 
might expect that a 640-mode document 
requires twice the amount of memory as a 320- 
mode document.But while 640 mode has twice 
the number of pixels, it has half the color 
depth — it supports only four colors, instead of 
sixteen. Thus, 640 mode has the reputation of 
being "less colorful" than 320 mode. 

But all is not quite as it seems. Due to the 



way the Apple's video circuitry works (com- 
bined with some characteristics of video moni- 
tors and the human optical system), the 640 
mode also supports "dithered" colors. That is, 
two different-colored pixels right next to each 
other will seem to "blend." A red pixel next to 
a blue pixel, for example, will appear to be 
magenta or purple. Since there are four colors, 
there are 4 x 4 (or 1 6) possible color combina- 
tions. So, while you can only direcdy specify 
four colors, the IIGS creates additional colors, 
which are dependent on the original colors, via 
this dithering scheme — for a total of sixteen. 
(A discussion of dithering as it relates to the 
palette is on pages 92-93 of the v2.0 manual.) 

Remember that computer colors (including 
Platinum Paint's) are additive, like light — not 
subtractive like paints. Putting a red pixel next 
to a green one will yield a yellow color, not a 
muddy brown as it would if you were mixing 
pigments. 

To further complicate things, 640 mode 
actually uses two separate "mini-palettes" of 
four colors, one for even pixels and one for 
odd pixels. The result is that if you have a 
color — say, red — in the even mini-palette but 
not in the odd mini-palette, you can't draw a 
true red on the screen. It will necessarily be 
dithered with some color from the odd palette. 
If there's not a color close to red (or a shade of 



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gray) in the odd palette, you may not even see 
a color that looks even a little like a true red in 
the main palette. 

Because the dithered colors are mixes of 
two other colors instead of being pure colors, 
they usually don't look as "clean" as the pure 
colors. For example, if you have a purple that's 
a dithered mixture of red and blue, single- 
pixel-wide vertical lines will come out either 
red or blue — you must paint two pixels wide to 
get the purple. Similarly, the edges of shapes 
you draw may display a red or blue fringe. 

There's a partial remedy for this. Decide 
what the most single most important color in 
your document is, and set up that color in both 
the even and odd palettes. This will allow you 
to use that color on any pixel in the document, 
even or odd, and will give you a "pure" ver- 
sion of the color in the main palette (since the 
color is present in both the even and odd 
palettes). While it does reduce the number of 
colors in the overall palette (since you now 
have dithered versions of the two identical col- 
ors with both black and white), it can greatly 
improve the picture's appearance. 

For example, suppose you decide that blue 
is the most important color in your image. 



Leaving black and white alone (since you'll 
need them for shading), enter the Palette dialog 
(OA-E) and copy the blue color to the yellow 
square (click the yellow square, then the 
"Copy" button, then the blue square). Now 
check the dithered palette — you now have not 
only a true shade of blue, which looks just like 
the one you created in the mini-palette, but 
also dark (mixed with black) and light (mixed 
with white) shades of this blue. Of course, you 
also have mixtures of green with blue (aqua- 
marine), red with blue (magenta), and red with 
green (yellow), along with light and dark 
shades of red and green, plus a couple of grays. 
All in all a much more useful selection of col- 
ors for actually creating art than what we start- 
ed with. 

If you're feeling adventurous, try changing 
one of the blue squares to a darker shade — say 
half its current value. While the two shades of 
blue dithered together are no longer a "true" 
color, they're close enough for most purposes, 
and you now have two additional shades of 
blue generated by dithering black and white 
with this darker blue hue. 

While you can change the black and white 
squares to different colors. Platinum Paint 
automatically changes those two colors in both 
the even and odd mini-palettes at once. It 
works that way primarily for the benefit of dis- 
playing text, which is usually black on white 
and therefore requires black and white in both 
mini-palettes to avoid weird color fringing. In 
most cases, you'll want to leave black and 
white alone, since the shades created by mix- 
ing them with the other colors in the palette are 
useful. 

Platinum Paint's Dither Lock feature (OA- 
D) is useful for making sure that your dithered 
colors always turn out right. When Dither 
Lock is on. Platinum Paint forces the tools to 
always draw lines that are a multiple of two 
pixels wide. While this eliminates the fringing 
effect we mentioned earlier, it also reduces 
your document's horizontal resolution to an 
effective 320 pixels. Thus, when painting in 
black, white, or your "pure color," you should 
turn Dither Lock off to use the mode's full res- 
olution. Turn Dither Lock on when painting 
with a dithered color, or when using the Fatbits 
or Fill tools. (When Dither Lock is off, the Fill 
tool will see any color with white in it as hav- 
ing lots of holes in it and will fill right 
"through" a line or an area drawn in such a 
color.) 

In Conclusion 

This article doesn't have a real end — it's 
only the beginning of what you can do with 
Platinum Paint. Send us your Platinum Paint 
creations (or even those created with other 
paint programs) on a disk — starting with the 
next issue, we'll run an "Art Gallery" featuring 
your best Apple II art! ■ 



JULY/AUGUST 



29 



I 




Link you to the world! 



FlilfON-lli! 

With a Q-Modem 2400, you can 
access bulletin boards and computers 
close to home, across the country, and 
around the world. You'll find airline 
schedules, business news, free soft- 
ware, gardening tips, technical help, 
plus everything in between! Name any 
topic — ^you can find it on-line. 



IT'SCOMPATieiE! 

The Q-Modem 2400 is Hayes compat- 
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computer. It is compatible with 
industry-standard, intelligent "AT" 
commands and all commonly used 
protocols (including Bell 1 03/21 2A, 
CCIT V.22, and CITT v.22bis). Since 
the Q-Modem 2400 operates 




asynchrof 



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cate at whatever rate you need to. 
All these features let you use the 
Q-Modem 2400 to connect with most 
modems being used today. 



['SIASYffllE! 



The Q-Modem 2400 is very easy to 
use. It features autoanswer (sif** 



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las a programmable- volume 
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Drogress. Storing phone num- * 
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You also get: 

• Compatibility with U.S. ancll 
international protocols. 

• Nonvolatile memory to stor6i| 
your configurations andl_ 
frequently ca led numbers 

• Auto-Answer AutoDial (toneii 
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• Two phone jacks for telephone Tme ^ 
and phone F 

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All you'll need to use a Q-Moder|^^s| 
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and cable | 

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because it easily works B _ 
personal computers or mainframes. 
*" trminal emulations include VT52, 



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plus the If 

and Kermit prot6cofs| 

for CompuServe, (j 

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Manufacturer: Quality Computers 
(Shipping Wt: 2) 



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■ MitfEemputers' 



20200 Nine Mile Rd. 
St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 



1*800-777-3642 




Making Your First Call 



by Jerry Kindall 



Okay, now you have a modem and 
telecommunications software. You've 
got it all hooked up, you've configured 
the software and the serial card or port, 
and you've snagged the number of a BBS you 
can call. It's just about time for your first 
onhne session. Before we get to that, though, 
there are a few other knowledge nuggets we 
should impart. Remember, it's better to be 
forewarned than four-armed. Or something 
like that. 

LOCALLY SPEAKING 

The first piece of the puzzle is your telecom- 
munications software, also known as terminal 
software, telecomm software, or simply comm 
software. Your telecommunications software's 
main job is displaying the information that 
arrives at the computer's serial port on the 
screen and sending whatever you type back out 
through the serial port. A program which per- 
forms only this task is called a dumb terminal, 
because it provides only the bare minimum 
functionality. (There's actually a dumb termi- 
nal program built into the firmware of the lie, 
the IIGS, and the Super Serial card, which 
technically will allow you to get online even if 
you don't have telecommunications software, 
although it isn't very much fun.) 

Your telecommunications software, like any 
computer program, has its own set of com- 
mands and options. Most telecomm programs 
use the Open- Apple key in conjunction with a 
letter or a number to activate the program's 
various features (some also permit the use of a 
mouse, if you have one). This scheme allows 
the program to distinguish between commands 
you are issuing to the telecomm software itself 
and keystrokes that should be sent to your 
modem. 

For now, you can ignore virtually all your 
telcomm software's features except for the 
ones which allow you to set the serial port's 
communication parameters (baud rate, data 
bits, parity, stop bits, etc.), along with the soft- 
ware's "dial a phone number" and "hang up 
the phone" features. Most telecomm software 



has a "phone book" feature which keeps track 
of the phone number and serial parameters of 
each BBS you call. 

You may be worried about baud rate, parity, 
data bits, duplex, and other arcana. All you 
really need to know, however, is the baud rate 
of the modem you're calling and the magic 
incantation 8-N-l. Set your telecomm pro- 
gram's baud rate to the highest baud rate that 
your modem and the modem you are calling 
have in common. For example, if you have a 
2400 BPS modem but are calling a 1200 BPS 
modem, you'll connect at 1200 baud. 

8-N-l means 8 data bits, no parity, and one 
stop bit. Those are the most common data bit, 
parity, and stop bit settings in the world of 
telecommunications, and not coincidentally, 
they're also the default settings for these para- 
meters in most telecomm programs. For 
99.44% of your calls you won't need to worry 
about parity, data bits, or stop bits, and when 
you do encounter a BBS which requires differ- 
ent settings, the proper settings will be made 
abundantly clear — for example, 7-E-l, which 



means seven data bits, even parity, and one 
stop bit. 

Duplex is equally simple. About 90% of the 
systems you will call require full duplex. (The 
major exception to this rule is the GEnie infor- 
mation service.) Therefore, when you're not 
sure what duplex to use, simply use full 
duplex — 90% of the time you'll be right. If, 
when you get online, the keys you press are 
not visible on your screen, switch to half 
duplex. Some programs offer one or more 
additional duplex modes, but you'll probably 
never use them. (Full duplex is also sometimes 
called "host echo" or "local echo off." Half 
duplex is sometimes called "local echo" or 
"local echo on" — local means your computer. 
The computer you're calling is known as the 
remote machine, or the host.) 

The final item which may cause you some 
consternation is which terminal emulation you 
should use. For now, select "None" or "Tele- 
type" or "TTY." This tells your telecommuni- 
cations software to simply put everything that 
comes in over the modem onto the screen. 



Enter A System: 

System Name: Pro-Quality 

System Number: 1-313-774-2652 

Baud Rate: 2400 Comiect Time: 45 

Save System As: QUALITY 



Edit System Farms: 

Name: Pro-Quality 
Number: 1-313-774-2652 
Baud Rate: 2400 
Break Time: 50/100 
Emulate: No Emulation 
Delete Key: Emulate 
Connect Time: 45 



Data Format: 8N1 Duplex: Full 

Flow Off: Flow On: 

Answerback: 

Backspace: Emulate Status Bar: Yes 

Filename: PTD. QUALITY 



Note: You only need to enter the system name (Pro-Quality) and phone number in 
the original Enter A System dialog. ProTERM's defaults (shown above) are OK for 
calling the Pro-Quality BBS. Simply click the Save button to accept them. 



Figure 1 



JULY/AUGUST 



31 



MODEM NATION 

























Pro-Quality Road Map 




MAIN MENU 


1 on r 


\ti 


Log Um 


















1 




1 










1 




1 






Conference 




Data Library 




E-Mail 




Preferences 




Utilities 






1 




1 




1 




1 




1 






List Conferences 
: Join Conferertce 
Unjoin Conference 
Conference info 
Status tnfor 




Information Desk 
Open Catalog 
Cfieci^ Out 
Donate 




Read Mail 
Send Mail 
Write to Sysop 
l^lember Directory 
Network Directory 
Internet Tutorial 




Environment 
Password Change 








Download File 
Upload File 
Expert Command 












Figure 2 













without interpreting any of the data as com- 
mands. While terminal emulations have their 
uses, we'll leave a complete discussion of their 
applications for another day. See Figure 1 for a 
sample of how the ProTERM 3.0 dialer entry 
for calling the Quality Computers BBS looks. 



GENERAL HAYES 

In between your computer and the computer 
you're calling are two modems. You don't 
have any control over the other computer's 
modem, but you do have quite a bit of control 
over your own. As we mentioned in the last 
installment of this column, Hayes-compatible 
modems speak a language in which every 
word begins with the letters AT, short for 
"attention." (Talking to a modem is very much 
like talking to someone with a very short atten- 
tion span, who won't pay attention to anything 
you say unless you preface every sentence 
with "Achtung, baby!") 

Usually, your telecommunications software 
will take care of talking Hayesian to your 
modem. However, it's smart to learn a little 
Hayesian yourself so you understand what's 
going on. The most frequently used modem 
command is, without a doubt, ATD. The "AT" 
is of course for "attention," and the D means 
"dial." Follow this with a phone number and a 
press of the Return key, and your modem will 
dial the specified number and wait for a 
modem to answer. You can put a P between 
ATD and the number to force pulse (rotary) 
dialing, or T to force Touch Tone® dialing) 

If a connection is successfully negotiated, 
you'll get a CONNECT message followed by 
the baud rate of the connection, as in CON- 
NECT 2400. (CONNECT by itself means 300 
baud — a message you're not too likely to see 
these days.) If the line is busy, you'll get a 
BUSY message. If your modem doesn't detect 
another modem within thirty seconds, you'll 
get a NO CARRIER message. 

How do you send such a command to your 
modem? Simply put your communications 
software into a state where everything you type 
is sent directly to the modem. Some telecomm 
software is always in this state; others, like 
ProTERM, require you to specifically instruct 
the program to make this connection. To enter 
the direct mode with ProTERM, press Option-T 



or Solid-Apple-T. 
Then, assuming your 
modem isn't already 
online with another 
modem, just type the 
command and press 
Return. In case you 
hadn't guessed, this is 
exactly what your 
communications soft- 
ware does for you 
when you tell it to dial 
a number. 

Once you have 
-"connected with anoth- 
er modem, your modem stops listening to com- 
mands entirely and begins passing everything 
you type through the phone line. This presents 
a small dilemma: how do you send your 
modem a command when you're online? (Why 
would you want to? To tell the modem to hang 
up, for one thing!) The answer is to make sure 
you've waited at least a second since you've 
last typed something, type three plus signs 
(-I-++) very quickly, then wait another second. 
Your modem says OK and is ready to accept a 
command, but is still connected to the other 
modem. 

The command to hang up your modem is 
ATH (Attention, Hang up). If you type ATH 
and press Return, you'll end the connection 
with the other modem. This is considered 
rather rude, generally, and is only used when 
you can't end the call cleanly using the BBS's 
"Hang Up" command. If you decide, after hit- 
ting +-I-I-, that you want to stay online, enter 
ATO (Attention, Online) and press Return, and 
you will be returned to your connection, 
already in progress. (The three plus signs you 
hit, by the way, do get transmitted through the 
phone line, and may show up on your screen 
when you go back online.) 

When your modem is ready to receive com- 
mands, it is said to be in the "command state." 
When your modem is connected to another 
modem and is transmitting everything you 
send it, it is said to be in the "online state." 
You use ATD or ATO to go from the command 
state to the online state, and you use -i~i~i- to go 
from the online state to the command state. 

While modern telecommunications software 
virtually eliminates the need to memorize 
Hayes commands, a basic knowledge of how 
your modem works leads to a greater under- 
standing of what is going on "behind the 
scenes" when you're online, and that will help 
you immeasurably in the long run. Your 
modem probably came with a reference manu- 
al which explains all the AT commands in 
great detail; it makes great light reading for 
those summer beach outings. (Admittedly, my 
idea of light reading is a little bizarre.) When 
you come across something you don't under- 
stand, just skip it for now, and just try to get a 
feel for the ways in which your modem can be 
configured and operated via AT commands. 



REMOTE CONTROL 

Okay, you've configured your communica- 
tions software, set up an entry in its phone 
book for the BBS you're going to dial (or 
steeled yourself to enter an ATD command if 
necessary). You've mind-melded with your 
modem. You are now ready to go online — 
more than that, you're psyched. 

While your communications software and 
your modem are pretty easy to get your mind 
around, BBS software can be considerably 
more difficult. The reason is simple. You're 
probably always going to be using the same 
telecomm software and modem, but you may 
find yourself dealing with different BBS soft- 
ware every time you call a new system. And 
sysops are extremely fond of modifying their 
systems, so even if a new BBS is running soft- 
ware you've used before, that's no guarantee 
you'll find the landscape at all familiar. 

Nevertheless, there are some things you can 
expect when calling a BBS for the first time. 
After the CONNECT message, you'll probably 
see a message announcing the name of the BBS 
along with some brief instrucUons for logging 
on. Read these instructions carefully. Usually 
they will tell you what a new user of the BBS, 
like you, needs to do to get an account on the 
system — normally typing "new" or "register" 
at the User ID prompt. 

When you request a new account, the sys- 
tem will proceed to ask you for your name, 
along with (usually) your address and phone 
number. Don't worry; the sysop will keep this 
information private. The informafion is needed 
to ensure that you are applying for an account 
for legitimate reasons. (Sysops are occasional- 
ly plagued with annoying, abusive, and some- 
times downright evil people, and he naturally 
wants to keep them off the system.) Some 
BBSs will also ask you what kind of computer 
you use, how old you are (to determine 
whether to allow you into any adult areas on 
the system), how wide and tall your screen is 
(answer 80 and 23, respectively), and a few 
other questions. 

You may also be asked to choose an alias. 
Some sysops prefer that callers use their real 
names; others allow users to use an assumed 
name. I was well known as "Pink Freud" on 
several Columbus, Ohio BBSs for a while. 
Unless you like confusion, choose one alias 
and stick with it. You'll also need a pass- 
word — choose one that's easy to remember, 
but not easy to guess, and try to use a different 
one for each BBS you call. (That seems like a 
pain now, but most telecomm programs can 
automate your login, so you won't need to 
worry yourself with mundane concerns like 
passwords.) If someone else finds out your 
password, they can log on and read your pri- 
vate mail, and, worse, make you seem to say 
all sorts of embarrassing things. So keep your 
passwords secret. 

continued on page 62 



32 



II ALIVE 




Keeping our ear to the wall (and 
keeping afresh supply of batteries for 
our hearing aid on hand)y we print 
only the freshest gossip. If there's not 
enough gossip, we make some up! As 
alwaySy the Rumormonger reserves 
the right to be dead wrong. Like Sci- 
entology y this column is for entertain- 
ment purposes only. If you take it 
seriously, you deserve the spectre of 
L. Ron Hubbard that haunts you! 



ASTRONOMY DOMINE 

Robert Gage of Alamagordo, NM called to 
let us know we'd made a mistake in our last 
Rumormonger column when we said that "The 
Rumormonger reserves the right to be dead 
wrong, like those 900 astronomy numbers." 
Gage is an amateur astronomer and rightly 
pointed out that we should have said "astrolo- 
gy" (which, in fact, we did in the first issue). 
Astronomy is a science; astrology is not. How- 
ever, what Gage didn't know is that the 
Rumormonger had made a $20 bet with a co- 
worker that nobody ever reads those little 
introductory things we put with all our 
columns, and had sneaked in the "astronomy" 
reference to prove the point. Looks like the 
Rumormonger was "dead wrong" — and is out 
twenty bucks. 

SYSTEM 6.01 ON THE WAY 

According to our Radio Shack Executive 
Decision Maker (see previous issue), IIGS 
System 6.01 should be released late this fall, 
give or take a few months. System 6.01 will 
contain keyboard navigation for the Finder, an 
MS-DOS read-only File System Translator, 
and a driver for the new Apple II Ethernet 
card. Don't get too excited about the MS-DOS; 
you'll need special disk drives (either a high- 
density drive connected to an Apple FDHD 
Controller or a "floptical" drive connected to a 
SCSI card) to read MS-DOS disks. Standard 
Apple 3.5 drives are physically incapable of 
reading the MEM encoding of MS-DOS. One 
also hopes that a driver for the Style Writer II is 
forthcoming, but our sources haven't said any- 
thing about it. There will also be a host of bug 
fixes. There are only two major bugs that 
directly affect the user in the current System 
6 — one in the Eind Eile NDA and one in the 
Shutdown sound event; the rest will affect 
mainly programmers. 

This may be the last System Software 
update to be released for the IIGS, although 
rumors of a version 6. 1 are also making them- 
selves heard. How many companies would 
continue releasing new System Software for a 
machine they recently discontinued? Eor this, 
at least, Apple deserves some credit. 

APPLE TECH SUPPORT 

Apple is considering an Apple II repair cen- 
ter, much like their current PowerBook repair 
center, for mail-in service of Apple II comput- 
ers and peripherals. They already have techni- 
cal support via telephone for all of their prod- 
ucts, including the Apple II. When the Rumor- 
monger called and told them my dealer didn't 
even know there was an Apple II without the 
word Mac in it, they were glad to help, and 
their answer was even correct! If you have a 



question about an Apple product, call 1-800- 
SOS-APPLE. 

A VERITABLE RENAISSANCE 

La Puente, CA is shaking and quaking with 
rumors of a new combination Deliverance/- 
Renaissance program. Combining the pro- 
grams will allow Renaissance to run integrity 
checks and perform any necessary repairs 
before attempting to optimize your drive. 
(Corrupted directories and other "soft errors" 
can really mess up an optimizer.) Furthermore, 
the new version will be faster and will allow 
you to interrupt the optimization process and 
continue it later. Vitesse has hired a new pro- 
grammer to accelerate the release of the better, 
stronger, and faster program. Look for it some- 
time before 1994. 

CV TECH MOVES ON 

CV Technologies (manufacturer of the 
RamFAST/SCSI card and the GS Memory 
card) is no longer offering technical support on 
their Apple II products. Their tech support 
phone number is connected to an answering 
machine which tells callers to contact their 
dealer for technical support. They will still 
repair Apple II products, but if you send it in 
when nothing's wrong with the card, you'll be 
charged a $25 bench fee. So what are they 
doing now? Evidently working on peripherals 
for MS-DOS machines. 

APPLE EXPO 

Apple Expo West was a humble success, 
with the emphasis on "humble." While there 
were plenty of Apple II exhibitors, attendance 
was a little thin ("over 5,000," according to 
Event Specialists, but most exhibitors were 
expecting closer to 15,000). Some attendees 
told the Rumormonger that downtown San 
Francisco was a bad place to have such an 
Expo these days for various reasons — another 
Bay Area site may have been better. A radio 
report we overheard warning people to "stay 
away from Downtown" on Sunday (a parade 
was scheduled) may have also dampened the 
proceedings. Apple had planned to have a 
booth but did not, though several Apple 
employees did show upon their own time. 

Apple Expo East returns to Boston's Park 
Plaza Castle on October 1 for another three- 
day run. (This is the site of the very first 
AppleFest all those years ago.) Traditionally, 
Boston shows have had fewer exhibitors than 
San Francisco shows, but have drawn more 
attendees. While there will be no Apple Expo 
Central in Kansas City this summer, there's 
talk of an Apple Expo in Austin, TX sometime 
in the future. ■ 



JULY/AUGUST 



33 



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WEEKEND HACKER 



Playing With Fire 



bv iVIike V\festerffielcl 




In the summer of 1988, Yellowstone 
National Park burned. This wasn't your aver- 
age forest fire, a few dozen of which spring up 
throughout the American West every year — 
this was the forest fire equivalent of a big Cali- 
fornia earthquake. 

Forest fires have, in recent years, been 
fought aggressively and largely successfully. 
But forest fires do a lot of useful things, like 
clearing brush and promoting some kinds or 
growth, and the fires had a lot of work to catch 
up on. Realizing this, the powers-that-be 
decided to let naturally occurring fires burn 
naturally, as long as they didn't endanger cer- 
tain things. So when Yellowstone finally 
burned, it was quite a blaze. 

I remember watching the TV news reports, 
listening to the inevitable fruitcakes on either 
end of the issue. "Never put out a fire," some 
harped, while others thought it was a travesty 
to allow one tree to burn, not realizing that 
some of those trees literally can't get started 
without a fire to open the pine cones or clear 
an open space. I guess any issue draws its 
share of fanatics. 

The interesting arguments came from the 
middle, though, just like they usually do. Some 
of these people pointed out that fires as big as 
the Yellowstone fire, while uncommon, do 
occur naturally. These folks even pointed to 
strong evidence that Yellowstone had actually 
seen several fires as big as the 1988 fire, some 
relatively recently. 



HOW FIRES BURN 

TV news channels get criticized a lot for try- 
ing to simplify every issue to sound bites, but I 
saw something that really impressed me in a 
TV report on the Yellowstone blaze. 

Most pictures of forest fires show walls of 
fire sweeping through the forest or dense 
smoke rolling across the landscape. I've seen 
charred stretches from small forest fires from 
up close, too, and the blackened remains are 
pretty awe-inspiring. This particular picture, 
though, sprang from the arguments about how 



bad the fire really was. It was a map of the 
burned area, showing what had really burned. I 
expected big, solid swaths of scorched earth. 
Instead, I saw a delicate lacework of unbumed 
areas peppered through the burned area. 

I was surprised by that image, but I was 
even more surprised when I saw the same sort 
of thing in a book — especially since the book 
was The Mathematical Tourist. Here I was, 
innocently reading about cellular automata, 
when I stumbled across a small picture of a 
forest fire. It turns out that a very simple com- 
puter simulation shows the same lacework pat- 
tern of a real forest fire. 



THE FOREST FIRE SIMULATION 

Imagine the world as a giant checkerboard. 
Each square is filled with trees, brush, and per- 
haps a squirrel or two. Then a fire starts in one 
of the squares. How does it spread? 

One simple way to model the fire is to pick a 
probability, say .51, that the fire will bum the 
square to the north. You do the same thing 
with the squares to the east, south and west. 
We'll assume for now that the fire will bum for 
one unit of time, whatever that happens to be. 
Once a square is burned, it can't bum again, 
and only a buming square can ignite another 
square. We'll also ignore the fact that a real 
forest fire can leap from place to place via 
burning debris carried aloft by the thermals 
from the fire. We'll sweep all the streams, 
hills, wind and variafion in the kinds of growth 
under the mg for now, too. Our forest is a very 
simple one, with no messy outside influences. 
It's an idealized, laboratory version of a forest. 

I used the 320 mode screen from the 
Apple IIGS to show my simuladon, so I picked 
a forest size of 320 x 200 squares. That tumed 
out to work pretty well, although the arrays 
used in the program are rather large. The simu- 
lation starts with all of the squares green with 
forest growth, except for the central square, 
which is red with fire. On each iteration, the 
program starts by making a copy of the array, 
then sweeps through the copy looking for 



JULY/AUGUST 



35 



WEEKEND HACKE 



burning cells. When it finds one, it looks at the 
cell to the top, left, right and bottom of the 
burning cell. If any of them have not been 
burned, a random number between 0.0 and 1 .0 
is generated, and if the result is less than a con- 
stant called spread, the cell is lit on fire. The 
last step is to change the cell that was burning 
to gray, and record it as scorched earth, so it 
won't bum again. You can see the program in 
Listing 1. 

Pick values for the random number seed and 
for spread, then run the program, and you get a 
very good simulation of a forest fire. If the 
value for spread is high, pretty much every- 
thing burns, and you get a classic "wall of 
fire." If spread is too low, the fire goes out 
quickly. In one of those surprising quirks of 
mathematics, the critical probability seems to 
be 0.5 — anything less, and the fire generally 
goes out, while anything higher generally cre- 
ates a fire that spreads indefinitely. 

Figure 1 shows a pretty dense fire. I used 
ORCA/Pascal 2.0, a probability of 0.55, and a 
random number seed of $A5C3. You see the 
fire after 140 iterations. It's still burning very 
nicely, and looks like it will keep on burning 
until it runs out of forest. 

But look in the middle. Even in this dense 
fire, there are patches of unburned forest all 
over the place. Those areas aren't going to 
burn, either — they are surrounded by a natural 
buffer of burned ground that keeps the fire at 
bay. In a real forest, these areas will be a major 
source of seeds for regrowth. 

Drop the probability to 0.50, and use the 
same seed, and you get Figure 2. This fire was 
still burning after 1 50 iterations, but it moved a 
lot slower, and only a few sites are burning 
actively. 

The pictures are interesting, and maybe even 
pretty in an abstract way. Running the program 
gives you a whole different view, though. You 
can see the actual dynamics of the fire, which 
are even more interesting than the result 
depicted here. 

Those classic walls of fire really do sweep 
across the landscape, even in this simple simu- 
lation. When you run the program, you'll see 
lines of four or five cells suddenly light afire, 
and sweep across several cells before the wall 
breaks up into smaller fires. Imagine being on 
the ground in front of a wall of fire like that! 

I also watched relatively small pockets of 
fire surround a large area of forest, with only a 
cell or two inside the pocket left burning. 
Then, completely surrounded, the entire region 
would would catch fire, devastating anything 
trapped in the pocket. It reminded me of stories 
I've heard of trapped firefighters struggling to 
find a safe area until they could be rescued. 



FIGURE 1 



FIGURE 2 




LISTING 1 

{$keep 'ff } 
{$optimize 1} 
{$memorymodel 1} 

program ForestFire (input, output); 

uses Common, QuickDrawII ; 

label 1; 

const 

screenWidth = 32 0; 
screenHeight = 200; 
iterations = 150; 

livingColor = 10; 
burningColor = 7; 
deadColor = 1; 

spread = 0.54; 

type 

states = (living, dead, burning); 



cell, lastCell: packed array [1 .. screenWidth, 1 .. screenHeight ] of states; 
allDead: boolean; 
time: .. iterations; 

procedure Plot (x, y: integer; c: states); 

{ plot a colored point } 

begin 
case c of 

living: SetSolidPenPat (livingColor) ; 

burning: SetSolidPenPat (burningColor) ; 

dead: SetSolidPenPat (deadColor) ; 

end; {case} 
MoveTo ( X , y ) ; 
LineTo (x, y) ; 
end ; 

procedure Setup; 

{ set up the initial forest } 

var 

X, y: integer; 
r: rect; 

begin 

for X := 1 to screenWidth do 

for y : = 1 to screenHeight do 
cell[x, y] := living; 
GetPortRect (r) ; 
SetSolidPenPat (livingColor) ; 
PaintRect (r) ; 
end; 

procedure StartFire; 

{ start the fire } 



X, y: integer; 
begin 



36 



II ALIVE 



WEEKEND HACKER 



ACCURACY VS. USEFULNESS 

OK, so it's a pretty picture. But I ignored all 
sorts of things. The simulation doesn't deal 
with wind, temperature drops at night, fire- 
fighters, streams, hills . . . what good can it be? 

But stop and think about how scientists real- 
ly work. Biologists, in particular, work very 
hard to find ways to take a complicated system 
and find out what the effect of one factor is. 
We've done that. We've shown that the deli- 
cate lacework of burned and unbumed areas in 



a real forest fire doesn't depend on wind, rain, 
streams, firefighters, or anything else. Simple 
chance explains it all. 

Of course, that doesn't mean that all of these 
other things aren't important, but this simple 
model can be beefed up. Make the probability 
of lighting a cell to the right higher, and the 
probability of lighting one to the left lower, 
and you have wind. Let the fire bum longer in 
a particular cell, and lower the probability that 
it will light an adjacent cell, and you have 
smoldering fire. In fact, all of the factors we 



X : = screenWidth div 2 ; 
y := screenHeight div 2 ; 
cell[x, y] := burning; 
Plot(x, y, burning); 
allDead :^ false; 

Seed($5AC3) ; 
end; 

procedure Burn; 

{ burn for one unit of time } 

var 



X, y: 


integer; 


begin 




allDead 


= true; 


lastCell 


:= cell; 


for X := 


2 to screenWidth-1 do 


for y 


:= 2 to screenHeight-1 do 


if 


lastCell [x, y] >= burning then begin 




allDead := false; 




if lastCell [x, y-1] = living then 




if abs (Random) < spread then begin 




cell[x, y-1] := burning; 




Plot (x, y-1, burning); 




end; {if} 




if lastCell [x+1, y] = living then 




if abs (Random) < spread then begin 




cell [x+1, y] := burning; 




Plot(x+l, y, burning); 




end; {if} 




if lastCell [x, y+1] = living then 




if abs (Random) < spread then begin 




cell[x, y+1] := burning; 




Plot(x, y+1, burning); 




end; {if} 




if lastCell [x-1, y] = living then 




if abs (Random) < spread then begin 




cell [x-1, y] := burning; 




Plot (x-1, y, burning); 




end; {if} 




cell[x, y] := dead; 




Plot (x, y, dead) ; 




end; {if} 


end; 




begin 




Startgraph(320) ; 


PenNormal; 


Setup; 




StartFire; 


for time 


:= 1 to iterations do begin 


MoveTodO, 10); 


write! 


.n('Time ', time:l, ' '); 


Burn; 




if allDead then 


goto 1; 


end; 





1: 

MoveTodO, 20); 

writeln( 'Press RETURN to exit. 

readln; 

EndGraph ; 
end. 



ignored could be put back into the simulation. 
The result would be a system almost as com- 
plex as the real forest, though, and you would 
never know what the effect of one factor is on 
the whole system. 

Sure, you can't use something like this to 
plan a specific campaign against a forest fire. 
But there's a lot to be learned even from this 
simple simulation. Or you can just make pretty 
pictures. That's fun, too. 



USING OTHER LANGUAGES 

The program in Listing 1 runs under 
ORCA/Pascal 2.0 on an Apple IIGS. The pro- 
gram uses two arrays, and each array gobbles 
up 128,000 bytes of memory. You could move 
this program to other computers, even to an 8- 
bit Apple II, but converting the program won't 
be as simple as typing it in. 

If you're going to work with a computer 
with less memory, start by combining the two 
arrays into a single array. You'll need more 
states, but it will work. Instead of just living, 
dead, and burning, you'll need something like 
wasLiving, wasDead, wasBuming, nowLiving, 
nowDead and nowBuming. Each cell will have 
to do double-duty, holding both the original 
state at the start of the iteration and the new 
state that you are working on. Another tactic is 
to actually read the color of a point on the 
screen to get the original state. In any case, it 
will take a little work, and run slower, but you 
can cram this simulation into a lot less space if 
you need to. 



FOR MORE INFORMATION... 

This simulation comes from a field of math- 
ematics called cellular automata. It's an amaz- 
ingly diverse field, and it's also an area where 
computers can be used by amateurs to play 
with and even solve some very interesting 
problems. It's tempting to think that this simu- 
lation is somehow unique, and that you'll 
never run across cellular automation again, but 
you probably already have. John Conway's 
classic game of Life — those little spots that 
spread across your computer screen — is the 
most famous example of cellular automation in 
personal computing circles. But once you start 
digging, there are plenty more. 

If you'd like to learn more about this simu- 
lation. Life, or any of their interesting cousins, 
I'd suggest starting with the book I found this 
simulation in. It's The Mathematical Tourist: 
Snapshots of Modern Mathematics, Ivars 
Peterson, W. H. Freeman and Company, 1988. 
One chapter is devoted to forest fire simula- 
tions, and gives even more references if you 
find something specific you're interested in. ■ 



JULY/AUGUST 



37 



AN 

INTERVIEW 

MORGAN 
DAVIS 




Morgan Davis Group 



You can't compare the Apple 
II to past computers to gauge 
its direction because there ^s 
never been mtything like the 
Apple II before. No mMcMne 
has lasted this long. The 
Apple II has em active group 
of hobbyists and small devel- 
opers to keep the iiiMovatioms 
comings yet there ^s still a 
commercial market 



With a suite of high-quality telecommunica- 
tions and development tools, the Morgan 
Davis Group has been quietly building a repu- 
tation as a class act. If the name Morgan 
Davis isn't exactly a household word yet, it's 
probably because of the company 's "niche " 
approach to product development and its 
reliance on word of mouth and direct mail to 
promote its wares. Yet the company continues 
to prosper, and its customers hold Davis' 
name synonymous with support. 

II ALIVE: How did you get involved with 
computers in general and the Apple II in par- 
ticular? 

DAVIS: I was introduced to the Apple 11+ in 
1982. A senior in high school, not very math- 
minded, I really didn't think I would get along 
with computers. After playing a few adventure 
games and fiddling with BASIC, however, I 
was hooked. I spent the next year saving 
money from odd jobs. By the time I had 
enough to get my own computer, Apple had 
released the Apple He, and I bought one. 

Throughout my years in college, it was a strug- 
gle to concentrate on my school work. I was 
torn between finishing inane COBOL and Pas- 
cal assignments, and working on my own 



by^ J^rry KjixxdaXI 



Apple II projects, which were typically more 
complex, not to mention more interesting, than 
what we were doing in class. 

Meanwhile, I had a job with a local computer 
book publisher, CompuSoft. My job was to 
research the BASIC for various personal com- 
puters and rewrite a manuscript about learning 
BASIC for that particular computer. I got 
exposed to plenty of computers, and I was one 
of the first to get my hands on the original 
Macintosh in 1984, at a time when they were 
very difficult to find because of demand. That 
was the best experience I could ask for. 

I decided not to return to SDSU for what 
would have been my final year. Instead, I 
went to work for Optimum Management Sys- 
tems for my first real programming job. Our 
$6,000 product ran on an Apple He and had the 
potential to be a fixture in every McDonald's 
in the world. Plans were made to tailor the 
software for other major chain stores, like 7- 
1 1 . But I wasn't savvy in the ways of big busi- 
ness, and the head of our company wasn't 
either. A year or two later, the company fold- 
ed. 

A friend who'd worked with me at OMS and I 
started a little company producing shareware. 



38 



II ALIVE 



a revolutionary concept at the time. We named 
the company Living Legends Software. The 
name was a kind of joke. We were hoping to 
make a living; we'd settle for becoming leg- 
endary later. The most successful titles, it 
turned out, were my ModemWorks and Pro- 
Line products. 

I spent the next few years moonlighting for 
various companies such as United Software 
Industries and FTL Games. I also co-authored 
two books on programming the Apple IIGS 
toolbox for Compute! Publications, an astro- 
nomical project that took a year and a half and 
weighed in at over 1,000 pages. 

In 1988, my lifelong dream to work for Beagle 
Bros came true. The company had embarked 
on an extremely ambitious Macintosh product, 
code-named Cheetah, to dethrone Microsoft 
Works. The Cheetah team consisted of Bea- 
gle's Apple II programmers, none of whom 
had even worked on a Macintosh, let alone 
programmed one. Yet we forged ahead in 
hopes of completing the Works-killQr within 
the projected eight-month development time. 
It's a long, sad, tortuous story that, as we all 
know, doesn't have a happy ending. I was one 
of the last Cheetah team members left when I 
was cut in 1990. 

II ALIVE: How long has MDG been in oper- 
ation? What made you decide it was time to 
start your own business? Who, exactly, 
besides yourself, comprises the "group" of the 
company's name? 

DAVIS: Interest in Living Legends Software 
was plumetting, and I needed my own platform 
from which to better support and market my 
ModemWorks and ProLine packc.ges. So I 
started MDG on Valentine's Day, 1989. The 
"group" initially was my wife. Dawn, and I, 
but today it's really just me, myself, and I. 
MDG has a couple of products that we publish 
for other programmers, though, so there is a 
group of sorts behind the name. 

After Beagle Bros, I decided to really get seri- 
ous and make MDG my focus of attention. 
Dawn and I decided to give it a try for a few 
months to see if it would keep us alive. If it 
did, great. If not, I'd look for work elsewhere. 
It hasn't been easy, but we made it work. 

II ALIVE: Your best-known product is Pro- 
Line, a BBS which recently received high 
marks both in this publication and in 
inCider/A-h. Can you tell us a little about the 
evolution and current capabilities of ProLinel 

DAVIS: I began work on ProLine in 1984 
because there weren't any BBS packages that 
supported the modem I had, the Novation 
Apple Cat II. ProLine was patterned after 
Online, a BBS written by Bill Blue for South- 
western Data Systems (today known as Roger 
Wagner Publishing). Bill also wrote the origi- 
nal ASCII Express terminal program. It was 



called ProLine because it was essentially an 
Online-like BBS that ran under ProDOS. 

After a year of fiddling, ProLine looked noth- 
ing like Online and had assumed its current 
UNIX-like design. It enjoyed rudimentary net- 
working with a UNIX computer run by Bill 
Blue. ProLine, known today for its Internet 
networking, was, in fact the first microcomput- 
er BBS ever to actually connect to a UNIX 
computer. Now ProLine BBSs connect to a 
vast information network that spans the world, 
making it perhaps the single most valuable 
software product you can run on an Apple He 
or IIGS. 

II ALIVE: ProLine is written largely in 
Applesoft BASIC, and most of your develop- 
ment utilides are designed to extend the capa- 
bilities of Applesoft or make Applesoft devel- 
opment easier. A lot of programmers look 
down their noses at Applesoft, and at BASIC 
in general — what are they not seeing? 

DAVIS: Applesoft was a respectable lan- 
guage when I started ProLine. The alterna- 
tives at the time were 6502 assembly language 
or Apple's UCSD Pascal. Pascal was never 
accepted as a standard working environment, 
and 6502 involved gruelling work to create 
even the most minor features, and also made 
end-user customization impractical. 

The fact that I've virtually built a company on 
an Applesoft-based product is a statement on 
Applesoft's viability. Like any programming 
language, what you produce with it decides 
whether or not it is viable. 

Applesoft is not respected today simply 
because of the innovations we've seen in pro- 
gramming languages. It's not so much what 
programmers don't see in Applesoft, it's more 
like what they see in other languages that they 
don't see in Applesoft. Ten years ago, there 
wasn't much of a choice. Today, if you have a 
IIGS, you have a number of languages to 
choose from. 

II ALIVE: I understand that ProLine has 
grown so large that many of the programming 
tools published by MDG were created specifi- 
cally to help you cope with the continued 
development of ProLinel 

DAVIS: Yes, MD-BASIC (our structured 
Applesoft source code translator), Modem- 
Works (our communications toolbox), and 
RADE (the Real-time Applesoft Debugging 
Environment) all were created to help with 
ProLine. Like all of our products, they filled a 
personal need which later evolved into profes- 
sional, commercial software. All of our prod- 
ucts began as real, useful solutions — not 
something dreamed up in a boardroom to gen- 
erate profit. 

II ALIVE: Plenty of larger companies have 
abandoned the Apple II because they thought 



there was no longer money to be made in the 
market. Why is MDG still developing Apple 
II products when so many other companies 
have stopped? 

DAVIS: I'm hopelessly addicted to the 
Apple II. But I'm open minded enough to 
have an interest and appreciation for other 
machines, too. As long as I can support my 
family by selling Apple II software, I'll keep 
doing it. 

What differentiates MDG from larger corpora- 
tions is that I'm doing what I do because, first, 

I enjoy it, and second, it's sustenance. Big 
companies do what they do because of their 
need to expand, to grow. Enjoyment and sus- 
tenance are not in the MBA vocabulary. 

Also, the people who use Apple II computers 
are just plain friendly, and I enjoy supplying 
them with products and service that makes 
using their computers fun, exciting, and pro- 
ductive. 

II ALIVE: What other programs does MDG 
produce? 

DAVIS: Our Object Module Manager 
(OMM) makes it easy to add new commands 
to Applesoft. It also lets you manage multiple 
modules in memory, and the modules can inte- 
grate and communicate with each other. I also 
developed VirusMD, a fast, reliable virus scan- 
ning and repair utility for the entire Apple II 
series. 

II ALIVE: Do you have any products for 
non- Apple II machines? 

DAVIS: We have a few products for Macin- 
tosh and UNIX computers, too. MiniScreen 
effectively reduces the size of a big monitor to 
mimic a Mac with a smaller monitor. Power- 
less, a shutdown scheduling utility, lets you 
schedule your Mac to turn itself (and its moni- 
tor) off at a particular time. Our [iMDSS gate- 
way software allows Unix machines to become 
hosts for personal computers, like the Apple II 
running ProLine, in order to exchange e-mail 
and Internet news groups. 

I still feel like I'm cutting my teeth on the 
Mac, so I'm intentionally focusing on small 
projects. That was Beagle's big mistake. 
They should have been trying to create Utility 
C/ry-sized programs for the Mac. 

II ALIVE: Do you have any new products in 
the works? 

DAVIS: We just recently released MD- 
BASIC 2.0 for the IIGS, a project that con- 
sumed about nine months of my time, a couple 
of months ago. I don't have any new Apple II 
projects going right now. There will be an 
upgrade for both ProLine and ModemWorks 
later this year, with a number of enhancements 
that I'm not prepared to announce at this time. 



JULY/AUGUST 



39 



II ALIVE: What is your impression of the 
state of the Apple II market right now? 

DAVIS: It's in a state of suspended anima- 
tion — Uke a coma. It's neither dead nor ahve, 
yet it exists. It's been hke this for the last four 
years or so. Really, that's neither bad nor good. 
The view of the Apple II market held by some 
medium-to-large companies is rather dismal, 
because it doesn't compare to the wildly lucra- 
tive Mac and PC markets. My perspective is 
more optimistic, because I still derive pleasure 
and sustenance from developing Apple II soft- 
ware. 

The future is tough to predict. You can't com- 
pare the Apple II to past computers to gauge its 
direction because there's never been anything 
like the Apple II before. No machine has lasted 
this long. The Apple II has an active group of 
hobbyists and small developers to keep the 
innovations coming, yet there's still a commer- 
cial market. 

II ALIVE: A lot of your products seem to be 
aimed at a very small audience. In fact, a tradi- 
tional publisher might say that the market 
you're selling to simply doesn't exist. What 
makes these products profitable for MDG? Is it 
difficult to market these products? How do you 
let the people who might be interested in such 
products know about them? 

DAVIS: It exists, all right. I'm realistic about 
our resources and what we can do with them. It 



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would be foolish for MDG to attempt a mass- 
market product like a word processor. Not only 
is there the cost in bringing one to market, you 
also have the competition with other companies 
which are already well-entrenched. MDG has 
adopted a sharpshooter's approach. Instead of 
hitting a broad target with a shotgun, we service 
many vertical niche markets with unique, pro- 
fessional solutions that satisfy a precise need. 

Our flagship product is a telecommunication 
product, so what better marketing tools than a 
modem and accounts on information services? 
Or access to the Internet? My presence online 
keeps me in touch with our customers, which is 
more important now than ever before. It's inex- 
pensive, highly responsive to customer needs, 
and very successful. Our service is as much a 
part of the total product as the software. I'm 
proud to say that we have a lot of very happy 
and satisfied customers. 

More traditional marketing approaches are 
required as we add other types of products to 
our lineup. We've started Groupnews, a 
newsletter we publish year-round to reach cus- 
tomers who aren't online. We've had a good 
relationship with the Apple II press and feed our 
contacts with new product announcements for 
coverage in magazines. 

II ALIVE: When you look back at MDG's 
history, are there any moments that stand out as 
being the most difficult? What accomplishment 
or moment are you most proud of? Would you 



change anything? 

DAVIS: Since I have so many hats to wear, 
scheduling my time is a major exercise in self- 
management. It's frustrating to decide where I 
need to invest my energies. The software 
development part of the business is my favorite 
part, but I can't do that all the time! 

Before MDG, the thing that bothered me most 
was having to go from one company to another 
after they fell apart. When Beagle collapsed, it 
affected me so deeply that I vowed to never put 
myself in the hands of anyone who has such 
complete control over my future. I've turned 
down a number of job offers, some even from 
Apple, for this very reason. 

If I could change anything, I would have started 
MDG much earlier, when I was in a better 
financial position to risk it. I often wonder 
where I would be today had I started MDG five 
years earlier, when the Apple II market was still 
bustling. 

What am I proud of? I always draw a blank on 
that question. I've already mentioned the sup- 
port, but really there's nothing in MDG that I 
regard with total satisfaction, because I keep 
thinking of the stuff that still needs to be done 
or that could be improved. I say to myself, 
"When I finish this next product, then I'll have 
something to relish." But when that time 
comes, there's always another milestone to be 
reached. ■ 



APPLEWORKS ^ IBM 



CROSS-WORKS 2.0 can exchange AppleWorks data files with the most popular MS-DOS programs: 

AppleWorks ^ Microsoft Works 
AppleWorks Word Proc. ^ WordPerfect 
AppleWorks Spreadsheet ^ Lotus 1-2-3 
AppleWorks Data Base ^ dBase III, IV, etc. 

in seconds, CROSS-WORKS copies files either way between 
your Apple II and IBM PC and translates the file formats. 
Word Processor files maintain underlining, margins, cen- 
tering, etc. Spreadsheets transfer data and formulas! 
Transfers ASCII text files, too. Includes universal 19,200 
baud cable to connect He (with Super Serial Card), He, 
He Plus, & IIGS to PC, XT, AT, PS/2 & compatibles. Also 
supports modem transfers. Both 5.25" and 3.5" disks 
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Printiiig with 
Coherent Light 



by Bill Carver 



When someone starts talking about 
"the ultimate printer," laser printers 
always come to mind. Traditionally, 
these printers have been out of the 
financial reach of most home users, but recent 
price reductions and technological improve- 
ments have made laser printers more attractive 
in the Apple II market. 

The main advantages of laser printers are 
high resolution and speed. But with inkjets on 
the scene, laser printers are no longer alone in 
their resolution advantage, and that leaves 
speed as the laser printer's primary advantage. 
Is it worth several hundred dollars for faster 
printouts? We'll present the facts and leave the 
decision to you. 



HOW A LASER PRINTER WORKS 

Laser printers use xerographic technology — 
the same technology used in most photo- 
copiers. The process, surprisingly, relies large- 
ly on static electricity to do its job. The print 
drum is given an overall negative charge by a 
"corona wire." Using a system of lenses and 
mirrors, a laser beam is directed across the 
drum, creating positively-charged regions. 
These regions pick up negatively-charged 
toner, a mixture of carbon black and small 
plastic particles. The drum then comes in con- 
tact with the paper, which has been given a 
stronger positive charge than the drum, and the 
toner is transferred to the paper. Finally, the 
paper is pressed between heated pressure 
rollers, which melt the plastic in the toner and 
fuse it permanently to the page. 

Most of the printing elements are inside the 
toner cartridge — the part of the laser printer 
which you replace when the print starts to get 
light. Only the laser (and its associated mirrors 
and lenses) and the paper rollers are outside the 
cartridge. Since most of the print elements are 
replaced with the toner cartridge, you don't 
have to worry as much about parts breaking 
down. For all of the seemingly complex theory 
behind the scenes, modern laser printers are 
actually rather simple and reliable. 




POSTSCRIPT. I LOVE YOU 

Laser printers come in two main flavors: 
Postscript and non-Postscript. (There are vari- 
ous types of non-Postscript laser printers, but 
we'll save those for later.) As a rule. Postscript 
printers are $200-$500 more expensive than 



non-Postscript printers. What's the difference? 
Laser printers are, in essence, smart printers. 
They have their own microprocessors, their 
own memory, and sometimes their own hard 
drives. Postscript is a programming language 
that is specifically designed for creating print- 



JULY/AUGUST 



41 



PRINT TO PUBLISH 



ed output on a laser printer. When you print a 
document on a Postscript laser printer, the 
computer first converts your document to a 
Postscript program. This program is down- 
loaded to the laser printer and executed by the 
printer's microprocessor, resulting in a printed 
page. You can also write your own Postscript 
programs if you care to — laser printer guru 
Don Lancaster is very fond of this approach, 
and still uses Apple Writer on an Apple He to 
do the job — but most people prefer to design 
their documents using a word processor or 
page layout program and let the computer do 
the dirty work. 

Postscript supports font scaling, which 
means that when you're printing with Post- 
script fonts, you can print at virtually any type 
size and the resulting text will be smooth. (See 
"Font Frenzy" in the March/April issue for 
more details on the advantages of scalable 
fonts.) Graphics can be made equally scalable 
if they're created as objects using a draw pro- 
gram. (Paint programs create bitmap images, 
which cannot be enlarged smoothly; draw pro- 
grams create complicated designs built from 
simple shapes, such as boxes, circles, lines, 
and curves.) 

Furthermore, Postscript printers are all com- 
patible. The same Postscript file that can be 
printed on a 300-DPI LaserWriter can be print- 
ed on an Linotype imagesetter with four times 
the laser printer's resolution and it will look 
essentially the same. (Better, of course, 
because of the imagesetter's higher resolution, 
but the document will remain unchanged.) 

The final Postscript advantage, of course, is 
speed. The computer can send a page to the 
printer and let the printer's microprocessor 
deal with it, freeing the computer for other 
tasks. You can also upgrade a Postscript laser 
printer to make it faster — the Xante Accel-A- 
Writer board increases the speed of an Apple 
LaserWriter II while doubling its resolution. 

I mentioned above that there are also non- 
Postscript laser printers. Some of Apple's laser 
printers don't contain a Postscript brain, but 
instead rely on your main computer to do the 
work of converting your document to a laser- 
printable form. These printers are known as 
QuickDraw printers, because that's the graphic 
"language" the computer uses internally. 

Hewlett-Packard laser printers also have 
their own page-description language, though 
it's not as popular (or as powerful) as Post- 
script. (HP printers can also include Postscript, 
or have it added as a separate cartridge.) These 
printers, too, demand that your computer do 
most of the work before anything can be print- 
ed. However, they're ideal for printing text — 
like a regular line printer — and are very quick 
in that application. Several other manufactur- 
ers also make HP-compatible laser printers. 



THE POSTSCRIPT ADVANTAGE? 

It might seem that Postscript laser printers 



have so many advantages over other laser 
printers that you should go ahead and drop the 
extra bucks for a Postscript printer. Not so fast. 
While Postscript is a fine thing to have in a 
heavy-duty desktop publishing studio, its 
power may be wasted when the printer is con- 
nected to your trusty Apple II. The reason is 
the frankly lousy support Apple's printer dri- 
vers give Postscript printers. 

Drivers, as you may recall, are the System 
Software's way of interfacing between appli- 
cation programs like AppleWorks GS and the 
printer itself. When you print an AppleWorks 
GS document to a Postscript laser printer, 
Apple's LaserWriter driver, included with the 
System Software, does the job of translating 
the document into Postscript. And this driver is 
the weak link. 

The biggest problem is that the driver 
doesn't automatically download fonts to the 
printer. (The printer contains several built-in 
fonts, including the well-known Times, Hel- 
vetica, and Courier.) On the Mac, if you print a 
document that contains a font that's not in the 
printer, the driver looks for a Postscript version 
of the font in your System Folder and down- 
loads it to the printer automatically. (If a Post- 
script version is not found, the Mac looks for a 
TrueType version and, finally, downloads a 
bitmap version if nothing else is available.) 

The IIGS driver does not do this. It only 
uses the printer's built-in fonts, period. Fur- 
thermore, the IIGS driver does not know which 
screen fonts correspond to which Postscript 
fonts, so even if you download fonts to the 
printer's hard drive using a Macintosh utility, 
the IIGS still won't use them. Instead, the IIGS 
downloads a bitmap version of the font (at 
standard ImageWriter resolution) or simply 
tells the printer to use the default font, Courier. 
As you can imagine, this leaves you staring at 
your printouts saying, "How much did I pay 
for this printer again?" 

Another blow is the fact that the IIGS Sys- 
tem Software, at least, requires you to connect 
your Postscript laser printer to an AppleTalk 
network. (Publish It! will talk to a laser printer 
directly through the serial port, though it's the 
only program we know of that will do so.) This 
can be a bit of an inconvenience if you just 
want to put a laser printer on your system — 
especially to ROM 01 owners, who will need 
to take up two slots for the AppleTalk 
firmware. 

The System Software does have a nice fea- 
ture called an ImageWriter emulator which 
allows 8-bit programs to print to a laser printer 
on a network as if it were an ImageWriter. 
This means that a Postscript laser printer is at 
least compatible with older existing software, 
although it won't give you significandy better 
print quality than an ImageWriter. But for 
IIGS-specific programs, a Postscript laser 
printer is almost a complete waste of time — 
unless, of course, you plan to use the printer on 
a Macintosh, too. 

QuickDraw laser printers (basically any 



laser printer made by Apple that doesn't have 
Postscript) are not supported on the Apple 
IIGS by any drivers that we know of, either 
from Apple or a third party. So scratch them 
off the list. 

Hewlett-Packard and HP-compatible laser 
printers are the only viable choice. These print- 
ers can be connected to the Apple II using 
basically the same interfacing and software we 
discussed in the previous installment of this 
column for HP Inkjet printers (a serial or paral- 
lel card — parallel preferred on the IIGS — 
along with Harmonie and Pointless for IIGS 
programs and SuperPatch if you use Apple- 
Works). 

However, with the HP-compatible laser 
printers, we're back to relying on the computer 
to do the imaging. This means that the higher 
speed of the laser printer will be bottlenecked 
by the speed at which the computer can pre- 
pare the data and pump it to the printer. Accel- 
erators, buffers, and parallel cards can help 
alleviate this problem, but it still narrows the 
speed margin between Inkjet and laser printers 
considerably. You may find that an Inkjet 
printer meets your needs better. 

Hewlett-Packard's "resolution enhance- 
ment" feature can, however, make your print- 
outs look better than they might have on an 
Inkjet printer, so for the combination of 
increased speed and slighdy better resolution, 
you may elect to connect a Hewlett-Packard 
LaserJet (or compatible) printer to your IIGS. 



THE RIGHT PRINTER 

There is, of course, no "right printer" for 
everyone. If you print a lot of mailing labels, a 
pin-feed dot-matrix printer is probably the 
most cost-effective solution both in terms of 
initial outlay and operating costs. A multi-user 
network featuring both Macintosh and Apple II 
machines may choose a Postscript laser printer. 
A heavy-duty desktop publishing studio, like 
the one we have here at // Alive, may choose 
something like the LaserMaster Unity 
1200XL, a top-of-the-line laser printer with 
1200 DPI resolution, Hewlett-Packard and 
Postscript support, 20 MB RAM, and a quick 
RISC processor. The trick is in evaluating your 
needs and your budget and choosing a printer 
you can afford that does most of the things you 
want it to do. 

In the next installment of this series we'll 
start taking a look at what you can do to make 
your documents look better right at the 
source — before they even reach the printer. 
After all, as they say: Garbage in, garbage out. 



42 



II ALIVE 



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continued from page 20 

the divider in place while pulling the 

divider off the front. 

Take the divider and the top and bottom 
cases to the sink and toss them in. Wash 
the key caps, cases and divider using the 
toothbrush or nailbrush. Rinse them thor- 
oughly, then let them dry face up. (The 
back of the key caps are a great place for 
water to collect.) When they're dry, 
you're ready to reassemble the keyboard. 

Get your C-shaped wires. There are three 
sizes: one long one for the spacebar, five 
medium-size ones for the Shift, Return, 
Enter, and Zero keys, and two small ones 
for the Control and Apple keys. Attach the 
wires to the key caps; they just slide into 
two small slots on the underside of the 
key cap. Press those key caps back into 
place, making sure that both of the U- 
shaped clamps on the keyboard grab the 
C-shaped wire. You may need to use your 
flatblade screwdriver to help. Test the 
keys; they should move freely and return 
to a full upright position. If not, pull off 
the cap and try again. Replace the Reset 
key following the same procedure. 

Now put the rest of the key caps back on. 
Don't force them; they go on much more 
easily than they come off, and only fit two 
ways — right side up and upside down. 
They won't fit sideways. The number 
keys on the keypad don't have punctua- 
tion marks on them. The letter "I" doesn't 
have a serif, while the 1 key does. Exam- 
ine the curvature of the key caps; this 
should help you tell the difference 
between the left and right arrow keys from 
the up and down arrow keys. 

Now put the divider back into the key- 
board; it just snaps into place and only fits 
one way. Put the keyboard back into the 
bottom case, front edge first, making sure 
that the four tabs along the front edge of 
the keyboard fit into the slots in the case. 
The back edge of the keyboard should fit 
snugly when it is lowered into the case. 
Replace the top case over the Reset key. 

While holding everything together, turn 
the keyboard over and replace the three 
Phillips screws. Don't forget the wash- 
ers — they distribute the pressure of the 
screws and prevent the case from crack- 
ing. 

Congratulations! Your keyboard should 
look, feel, and work like new. Turn on the 
power and test it out! 



JULY/AUGUST 



43 




B y 



JOSEPH 



[ I y 11 



0ppleWorks owns the Apple II 
integrated software market — so 
much so that no publisher 
would be so foolish as to intro- 
duce a new integrated package 
that competes head-to-head with 
it. AppleWorks 3.0, commis- 
sioned in 1988 by Claris and 
programmed by Beagle Bros 
associates Alan Bird, Randy 
Brandt, and Rob Renstrom seemed to be the 
ultimate incarnation of AppleWorks — literally. 
After all, the 3.0 upgrade had added every 
major new feature AppleWorks users had been 
clamoring for. At the time, it seemed impossi- 
ble to add any more new features because 
everything, including the kitchen sink, had 
already been added! 

But times change. Not only were bugs found 
in AppleWorks 3.0, but users of the program, 
always pushing the envelope, continued to 
demand improvements. Brandt and others con- 
tinued to innovate new AppleWorks add-ons, 
most of which were published by Beagle Bros 
or Brandt's own company, JEM Software. 
Inevitably, Brandt began to have ideas about 
what he could do if he could just get Claris to 
let him at AppleWorks one more time. Visions 
of AppleWorks 4.0 danced in his head, but 
without the resources of a major backer, it 
remained a dream. 

After developing a new version of Ultra- 
Macros and moving it back under the Beagle 



Appleifc yeterao Raodf Ifandt 

is spearlieaig the most 

extensive AppleWofks upgrade 

ever The release of this product, 

code named Quadriga, is 

scheduled for this fall. 



Bros umbrella, Brandt approached the new 
owner of Beagle Bros' Apple II division. Qual- 
ity Computers president Joe Gleason, with his 
ideas for AppleWorks 4.0. Since every new 
product needs a cool code name, Brandt coined 
the working title "Quadriga." (A quadriga is a 
four-horse Roman chariot of the style seen in 
Ben Hur.) Gleason immediately grasped the 
project's potential to revitalize the Apple II 
market. After much discussion about the exact 
feature set of the upgrade, Brandt and Gleason 
agreed the time was right for action, and pro- 
gramming work began. 

What about Claris? "We've decided to pub- 



lish Quadriga as an independent upgrade, with- 
out Claris support," says Gleason. "Obviously, 
we can't call it AppleWorks 4.0. We're still 
playing with alternative names. But there's 
definitely no legal conflict in publishing a mas- 
sive enhancement disk — like a TimeOut appli- 
cation on steroids — which adds tons of new 
features to a customer's existing AppleWorks 
3.0 disk. It will literally be like getting a whole 
new program from a user standpoint." 

That includes not just new software, but also 
a new manual and a videotape demonstrating 
Quadriga's new features. "A videotape is the 
next best thing to having an expert right beside 
you," says Gleason, who opened QVISION, 
Quality's video production facility, specifically 
for projects like this one. 

The new features themselves are so numer- 
ous that it takes a separate sidebar to hold them 
all (see "Quadriga Specifications.") And that's 
not the complete list. New features are being 
added almost daily — sometimes being 
removed just as quickly if they don't work out. 
While the exact feature set is currently in a 
state of flux — Brandt expects to "freeze" the 
program's new features at the end of June and 
start concentrating on fixing bugs reported by 
testers — upgraders can expect not just the 
kitchen sink this time, but several other house- 
hold plumbing fixtures as well. 

If Quadriga can be described in one word, 
that word would probably be "bigger." The 
program features three Desktops, allowing a 



JULY/AUGUST 



45 



total of 36 files to be loaded at once (compared 
to twelve with AppleWorks 3.0' s single Desk- 
top). Five printers can be defined (increased 
from three). The Data Base supports 60 cate- 
gories instead of 30, and 30 reports instead of 
20. The Spreadsheet has more formulas. And 
that just scratches the surface. 

Yet Quadriga will remain true to the Apple- 
works spirit conceived by the program's origi- 
nal author, Robert Lissner. Menus will remain 
easy to navigate; commands will continue to 
be simple-to-remember Apple-key combina- 
tions; help will still be available with a single 
keypress. Integration, always the program's 
strong suit, will become tighter than ever with 
new features to allow the word processor to 
access data base files, the spreadsheet to access 
other spreadsheet files, and the data base to 
access word processor, data base, and spread- 
sheet files. 

For example, Quadriga will allow users to 
create a data base of names and addresses, then 
"link" the data base with a word processor file. 
Using the glossary function. Quadriga can look 
up and import an address directly into the cur- 
rent word processing document. While Apple- 
Works 3.0 can do this now, after a fashion, it 
requires actually switching to the data base and 
copying the desired record to the clipboard, 
then reformatting the text in the word proces- 
sor. With Quadriga, the step of switching to 
the data base is unnecessary (since the Word 
Processor can access it directly), and a user- 
specified template determines how the incom- 
ing information should be formatted. Similar 
enhancements allow the data base to import 
categories from other data bases (and cells 
from spreadsheets) and to export information 
to other data bases, 
providing the data base 
module with relational 
capabilities. Spread- 
sheets can refer to cells 
in other spreadsheets. 

Increasing the pro- 
gram's friendliness is 
also a prime concern — 
one requiring careful 
thinking to make sure 
each change really 
makes the already- 
friendly program easier 
to use. "Some of the 
things we're doing are 
things that should have 
been part of Apple- 
Works from the very 
beginning," says 
Brandt. "For example, 
ever since the first ver- 
sion of AppleWorks, you've had to remember 
to sort your data base before printing a report. 
If you don't, your group totals can come out 
wrong. Now the program can remember what 
order you used for each of your reports and 
will automatically sort the data base for you. 



fof example, doadfipa 

ysefs to create a data base o( 
flames and addresses, tlien "link" 

the data base wi a word 
processor file. 



It's the way people expect it to work, and now 
it works that way." 

That's only one way that Quadriga will 
improve Appleworks' ease of use. The Spread- 
sheet, for example, now features a pop-up list 
of functions so users 
don't have to remem- 
ber arcane codes like 
"@SUM" when enter- 
ing formulas. The 
Word Processor uses 
distinctive symbols for 
formatting codes 
(instead of just carets) 
so boldface and under- 
line can be recognized 
at a glance, instead of 
requiring the cursor to 
be on the formatting 
code to read it. The 
"Change Disk" menu 
allows users to display 
disk names by pressing 
OA-? instead of requir- 
ing them to know what 
slot and drive their data 
disk is in. "Add Files" 

displays text files and automatically loads them 
as word processor files instead of requiring 
users to go to a separate "New File" menu. The 
Word Processor lets you see and edit tab rulers 
right in the document. "More 'what-you-see- 
is-what-you-get' is a big priority," states 
Brandt. 

Other major features planned for the Quadri- 
ga upgrade include built-in support for 
Hewlett-Packard's popular Deskjet printers, 
faster display and finds in the data base, split- 
screen capability in the 
word processor, and 
date math functions in 
the spreadsheet. The 
data base will have 
improved import and 
export facilities for 
exchanging data with 
other computers, and 
will feature spread- 
sheet-style formulas in 
calculated fields. A 
global auto-save fea- 
ture, available in all 
AppleWorks modules, 
will protect users' work 
from power failures; 
and a QuickPath menu 
will let users set up a 
menu of their most fre- 
quently-used directo- 
ries. 
While AppleWorks power users may recog- 
nize some of these features from various exist- 
ing AppleWorks enhancements — Total Con- 
trol, Triple Desktop, and CelLink, to name just 
a few — Brandt stresses that all of the features 
gleaned from such programs have been signifi- 




e program is also more 
expandable tban ever. Alan Bird's 
TimeOnt and Brandt's Init Manag- 
er are integral parts ot Quadriga, 
making installing new patches 
and accessories easier than ever. 




cantly improved for Quadriga. ''Total Control 
has an import feature for the data base, but it 
doesn't has an export feature for posting 
results back to other files. That's new. And the 
three Desktops in Quadriga are significantly 
more integrated than 
Triple Desktop. With 
Quadriga, the three 
Desktops are really 
more like three file 
folders on a single 
Desktop — the relational 
features work between 
two files, even if 
they're on different 
Desktops. Even if you 
already have every 
AppleWorks enhance- 
ment under the sun, 
Quadriga has new fea- 
tures you will appreci- 
ate." 

The program is 
also more expandable 
than ever. Alan Bird's 
TimeOut and Brandt's 
Init Manager are inte- 
gral parts of Quadriga, making installing new 
patches and accessories easier than ever. In 
fact, there's a new option in the "Other Activi- 
ties" menu which will allow users to install 
most such enhancements without even leaving 
AppleWorks. Quadriga also includes a play- 
back-only version of Brandt's UltraMacros, 
allowing everyone to use pre-programmed 
macro sets. Such sets will be available direcdy 
from the TimeOut menu. "You'll still need 
UltraMacros to record and compile your own 
macros, though," Brandt notes. 

This expandability throws the door wide 
open for third-party AppleWorks enhance- 
ments. To write TimeOut applications or 
AppleWorks Inits, programmers must use 
assembly language. But with UltraMacros, 
developers (and users, too) can, in a fraction of 
the time required for assembly programming, 
create all kinds of applications that use Apple- 
Works as a platform to do their work. That's 
always been possible, but in the past, develop- 
ers had to license a run-time version of Ultra- 
Macros (or assume their users would have 
their own copy). Now, with Quadriga, every 
AppleWorks user can run third-party Ultra- 
Macros programs (also known as TAPL — 
short for "The AppleWorks Programming Lan- 
guage' ' — programs) . 

Only two programmers are involved in the 
Quadriga project — Brandt himself and his 
longtime associate Dan Verkade, author of 
TimeOut ReportWriter and TimeOut Gram- 
mar. After his work on AppleWorks 3.0 and 
enhancements such as Outliner, Total Control, 
and UltraMacros 4, Brandt feels comfortable 
tackling the project with a minimal team. "It's 
a big project," admits Brandt, "and I think of 
something new I want to add every day. But 



46 



II ALIVE 



Dan and I have been working with Apple- 
Works for so long we can practically recite the 
source code. I've had plenty of time to think 
about the features I wanted to add and how 
they could be added. I think the biggest prob- 
lem is going to be resisting the temptation to 
keep adding more features at the last minute!" 

The "small team" concept is nothing new — 
AppleWorks 3.0 was completed with only 
three programmers, and the original Apple- 
Works was programmed primarily by one per- 
son. "The more people you have working on a 
project, the more effort it takes just to keep 
things organized," explains Brandt. "Nobody 
knows what anyone else is doing, everything 
has to be approved from the top, and there's no 
potential for brainstorming. Everything takes 
forever." Gleason concurs, and adds, "Randy's 
one of the best. I'd rather have two experts — 
like him and Dan — working on the project 
than a team of twenty programmers who were 
only moderately familiar with AppleWorks." 

Support of Quadriga will be handled by 
Quality Computers, which is in the process of 
expanding its technical support department in 
anticipation of the upgrade's release. "One of 
the things that really bothered me about Apple- 
Works 3.0," says Brandt, "is that it never really 
got the support it deserved. There are well- 
documented bugs in that program even after all 
this time. It's inevitable that in a project of that 
size, some bugs will slip through the testing 
procedures, but they should have been fixed as 
soon as they were discovered." Brandt has 
beefed up the Quadriga testing team to help 
prevent a recurrence of this problem, and 
intends to keep on top of anomalies reported in 
the release version. "That was never possible 
with AppleWorks 3.0. Once we'd delivered the 
product, that was that. Our contract with Claris 
was over. Mark Munz, who wasn't even 
directly involved with the project, felt so badly 
about it that he talked Beagle Bros into releas- 
ing a free patch disk to fix some of the prob- 
lems, although it wasn't really Beagle's 
responsibility to fix them." That won't be nec- 
essary with Quadriga, Brandt says — users can 
count on regular updates to fix any unexpected 
problems they discover. 

Asked about the possibility of upgrades past 
Quadriga, Gleason was optimisUc. "If Quadri- 
ga is a hit, I can definitely see another such 
upgrade at some time in the future." Brandt 
agrees. "I'm open to the possibility. I've 
already got a list of AppleWorks 5.0 ideas, so I 
hope we have a good response to this project 
so I can justify another upgrade down the road. 
But for now, I'm concentradng on Quadriga." 

Gleason and Brandt promise an October 1 
release. "We're on track," says Brandt, who is 
confident that the deadline is well within the 
reach of the Quadriga team. Gleason agrees. 
"Quadriga will set the new standard for Apple 
II integrated software and will bring Apple- 
Works solidly into the '90s." ■ 



QUADRIGHPECIFICATIONS 



"Solid Feature" list— other features subject to change 
Compiled by Randy Brandt, May, 1993 

System Compatible with 128K RAM 6502-based lie or better (He, llc+, IIGS) 

256K RAM and 65C02 recommended (required for use of macro player) 
TimeOut, Init Manager, and UltraMacros player built in 
3.5" and 5.25" versions 

Desktop Three desktops allow loading up to 36 files 

"Add files to Desktop" lists up to 255 files instead of 170 

"Add files" lists text files and automatically converts them to word 

processor files 
"Add to clipboard" option allows you to append material to the clipboard 
Independent clipboards for Word Processor, Database, and Spreadsheet 

modules 
Disk and file copying included in Other Activities 
Auto-save feature saves files after a preset number of minutes 
Five printers may be defined instead of three 
Support for Hewlett-Packard DeskJet printers built-in 
QuickPath feature allows you to choose from a pre-defined list of path- 
names 
"Change disk" menu shows volume names when 0A-? is pressed 

Data Base 60 categories per record instead of 30 

30 reports per file instead of 20 
Selection rules can be imported from a report format 
Faster display on large files when selection rules are active 
Lightning-fast finds in sorted categories (binary search) 
Reports automatically sorted before printing 
Date categories support years from 1000 AD to 9999 AD 
Export/import character-delimited text files for transfer to other pro- 
grams 
Formulas allow spreadsheet-style calculations in data base files 
Categories can be imported from other data base and spreadsheet files 
and exported to other data base files 

Word Processor Split-screen lets you view one part of a file while working elsewhere 
Improved mail-merge & find options 
Distinct symbols for formatting options (instead of all carets) 
New glossary feature allows easy entry of addresses and other info from 
data bases 

Spreadsheet Spreadsheet formulas can refer to cells in other spreadsheets 

Date math features make it easier to calculate the number of days 

between two dates 
Titles can be defined to be printed at the top of each page 
New find option allows searches for numbers and formulas by rows or 

columns 
Pop-up list allows choosing functions from a menu 
New functions include ALERT, DATE, FIND, JOIN, LC, LEN, MID, TEXT, 

UC, VAL 

UltraMacros UltraMacros run-time (playback-only) features built in 
UltraMacros programs selectable from TimeOut menu 
Full-featured Checkbook application included as sample program 



JULY/AUGUST 



47 












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Switched-On HyperStudio 



Bv Bill Lymn 




ost of us take our computers for grant- 
ed. We've become adept at using the 
mouse and we've mastered the art of 
typing. Few of us really stop to think 
how complex these skills really are — so try 
these simple experiments. Close both of your 
hands into tight fists with your thumbs on the 
inside and type your name. Next, using only 
the side of your head, use the mouse to pull 
down a menu in the menu bar. Finally, launch 
a program by puffing your cheeks. 

You've just experienced a litde of the frus- 
tration that people with severe physical disabil- 
ities face in controlling a computer. The key- 
board and mouse are virtually useless if you 
lack the motor control and coordination neces- 
sary to operate them. Fortunately, the benefits 
of computers for people with physical disabili- 
ties were recognized more than a decade ago. 
Today, a number of adaptive peripheral 
devices exist to provide computer access for 
individuals with severe physical limitations. 
One of the simplest and least expensive of 
these devices is the switch interface. 

Switches are available in a wide variety of 
shapes and sizes. In the field of assistive tech- 
nology, switches play an important role in pro- 
viding an interface between someone with 
severely limited motor skills and the devices 
that individual wishes to control, including a 
computer. 

Regardless of how little controlled move- 
ment an individual exhibits, it's likely that a 
switch can be fabricated to provide control of 
the computer. Switches can be mounted at any 
angle so that a variety of body parts and move- 
ments can be used to operate them. Other 
switches can be operated by sipping or puffing 
on a small plastic tube. Still others can be oper- 
ated by raising an eyebrow, blinking an eye, or 
flexing a muscle. Any of these types of switch- 
es can be used to control specialized software. 



THE SWITCH INTERFACE 

The Apple II Switch Interface is available 
from Don Johnston Developmental Equip- 
ment, Inc. and many other companies which 



specialize in adaptive computer access. The 
device is also very simple to make yourself, if 
you're handy with a soldering iron. Here are 
the parts you'll need. 

Radio Shack 
Qty. Description Catalog No. 

1 DB-9 cable with male connectors 

2 1/8" temaleopen-trameheadptione jacks 274-251 
1 470 otim resistor 271-019 
1 Plastic box w/aluminum cover 270-230 
1 Strips of SuperLock fasteners 64-2336 

Tools required include a soldering iron and 
solder, wire cutters, Phillips screwdriver, 
masking tape, drill with 1/4" bit, and a continu- 
ity tester or ohmmeter. 

Start with the standard DB-9 cable. You can 
purchase one at your local electronics or com- 
puter supply outlet (ask for a CGA monitor 
cable) or cannibalize the cord from an old joy- 
stick. Make sure the 9-pin connector is of the 
male type, with pins rather than sockets. Cut 
the cable 12" from the connector end and strip 
the insulation back about 4" to expose the nine 
individual wires inside. You'll need to strip 
1/2" of insulation from each of the nine wires 
as well. Use a continuity tester or ohmmeter to 
locate the wires that connect to pins 1 , 2, 3 and 
7. Use small pieces of tape to label these wires 
for later reference, and clip off the five remain- 
ing wires. Save one of these spare wires; we'll 
need it later in the project. The prepared cable 
should look like the one in Figure 1, with a 
DB-9 male connector at one end and the four 
labeled wires at the other. 

FIGURE 1 




MALE DB-9 CONNECTOR 

Note locations of pins 1,2,3, and 7 



Drill a 1/4" hole into one end of the plastic 
box and pass the end of the cable through the 
hole from the outside. Tie a knot in the cable 



about 1 " from the end of the insulation to pre- 
vent the cable from pulling out of the box. 
Connect the spare piece of wire between com- 
mon terminals on each of the 1/8" phone jacks 
and connect the appropriate wires from the 
cable to the two jacks, following figure 2. 
Make sure to connect the 470-ohm resistor 
between the phone jack and wire 3, as indicat- 
ed. Solder all connections and trim away 
excess wire strands. 

FIGURE 2 




Drill two 1/4" holes into the top of the plas- 
tic box and mount the 1/8" phone jacks. Add 
the aluminum cover to the plastic box and 
secure it with the four screws. Secure the box 
to the side of your computer using strips of 
SuperLock fasteners. Plug the 9-pin connector 
into the joystick port on the back of your IIGS. 

The switch interface will accommodate any 
two single-throw switches with 1/8" phone 
plugs — generally regarded as the standard type 
of connector for this application. Switches with 
larger or smaller plugs, or different connector 
types, will require an adapter to match them to 
the 1/8" phone jacks. Plug adapters can be 
found at most electronics supply outlets, 
including the ubiquitous Radio Shack. 



SWITCH-DRIVEN SOFTWARE 

Over the past decade, an impressive collec- 
tion of specialized software has been devel- 
oped around the Apple II Switch Interface. In 
addition, multimedia programs like HyperStu- 
dio and HyperCard GS have made it possible 
for non-programmers to construct software 



JULY/AUGUST 



49 



MEDIA A LA MODE 



FIGURE 3 



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that is not only switch-accessible, but custom- 
tailored to the needs of individual users. Let's 
look at one of these products, HyperStudio, 
and see how easy it is to design and create a 
switch-accessible program. 

Sequential linear scanning is a skill that 
involves visual tracking, visual recognition and 
switch activation. It is just one of the many 
skills that children with severe physical dis- 
abilities must master to benefit from assistive 
technology. Training in linear scanning can be 
paired with an activity like picture matching. 
Our sample stack will demonstrate how it 
works. 

We'll assume that you're familiar with the 
basic operation of HyperStudio 3. 1 and that 
you've had an opportunity to create at least 
one stack before now. If you haven't, try work- 
ing your way through the tutorial that comes 
with HyperStudio, then meet us back here. 

The basic idea for this stack is to have one 
picture on the top half of each card and three 
pictures in a row on the bottom half of each 
card. The goal of the activity will be to match 
one of the pictures at the bottom of the screen 
with the picture at the top. The switch user 
must watch the scanning indicator (a black 
square) move from one choice to another, in 
sequence, and activate the switch when the 
correct picture is highlighted. 



CREATING THE STACK 

Launch HyperStudio and select "New 
Stack" from the File menu. Select "Prefer- 
ences" from the Apple menu and make sure 
that "Advanced user", "Add new cards to 
group," and "Show card position in menu bar" 
are checked. All other options should be 
unchecked. Draw a background similar to the 
one in Figure 3, with one frame on the top half 
of the card and three frames lined up on the 
bottom half of the card. This will be the com- 
mon background for each of the cards in this 
activity. 

You'll need at least a dozen pieces of clip 
art small enough to fit into the background 
frames. Clip art suitable for this stack can be 
found on most commercial information ser- 
vices, such as America Online, CompuServe, 
and GEnie. In addition, your local user group 
may have a library of clip art, and clip art is 
also available from a number of commercial 
sources. 

Create graphic objects with your clip art and 
place a target graphic in the top frame. Place a 
duplicate of the target graphic in one of the 
bottom frames and two different graphics in 
the two remaining frames. Your first card 
should look like Figure 4. 

Select "New Card" from the Edit menu. The 
new card will appear with the background 
frames already drawn. Make more graphic 
objects and place them into the frames as you 
did on the first card. Pick a different target 
graphic and make sure the matching graphic is 



placed in a different position in the row of bot- 
tom frames. Add two different graphics to the 
remaining frames. Continue creating new cards 
and adding graphic objects to them in this 
manner until you have at least ten such cards 
completed. 

Move to the first card. Create an invisible 
button, name it "Correct," and size it to fit over 
the graphic in the bottom row that matches the 
target picture at the top of the card. Add a 
"praise" sound to the button that will let the 
user know that the correct answer has been 
chosen (for example, "Great!", "You did it!", 
"All right!", etc.). Set the transition to "Next 
Card" and select a transition method (a simple 
dissolve will do). Copy the button to each of 
the remaining cards in the stack and move it so 
it's over the matching picture on each card. 

Now let's test our work so far. Move to the 
first card and click the matching graphic at the 
bottom of the screen. You should hear the 
"praise" sound, and the next card should 
appear. Continue clicking the matching graph- 
ics to make sure each of the buttons works 
properly. 

Move to the first card again, create another 
invisible button, name it "Incorrect," and size 
it to fit over one of the non-matching graphics 
in the bottom row. Add a "warning" sound to 
tell the user of the incorrect response (for 
example, "Whoops! Try again."). Click on 
"Scripting language ..." to bring up the Sim- 
pleScript editor, shown in Figure 5, and enter 
the following line: 

Go to button "Scanit" 

Select "Save & quit editor" from the File 
menu. Do not add a transition to this button. 
Copy and paste this button over each of the 
non-matching graphics in the bottom row of 
each card. Now each card contains three invisi- 
ble buttons: the "Correct" button covering the 
matching graphic, and two "Incorrect" buttons 
covering the non-matching graphics. Try click- 
ing on the non-matching pictures on each card 
to make sure the warning sounds play. 



THE SCAN NBA 

At this stage, the stack is mouse-driven, and 
anyone who is physically capable of using the 
mouse can run the activity. Since the point of 
the activity is to teach sequential scanning 
skills, we'll need to provide access to the card 
buttons through the switch interface. This 
requires the Scan NBA (New Button Action) 
from Roger Wagner Publishing. The Scan 
NBA will highlight each button on a card, in 
sequence, for a specified period of time. A but- 
ton may be activated by pressing the remote 
switch while the desired button is highlighted. 

Move to the first card once again and create 
another invisible button. Name this button 
"Scanit" (leave out the quotes), click on "Fea- 
tures ..." to display the Item Features window, 
and click in the "Group Item" box before 



50 



M ALIVE 



MEDIA A LA MODE 



clicking "OK." Make this button fairly small 
and move it to the upper left corner of the card, 
then select "New Button Actions ..." from the 
Button Actions window. Click on "Disk 
Library..." in the NBA window, insert the 
disk containing the Scan NBA and select it in 
the NBA file dialog window. Click on "Use 
this NBA. . . " to attach the NBA to the stack. 
The only parameter required for the Scan NBA 
is the number of ticks (sixtieths of a second) to 
wait before moving to the next button. Delete 
the contents of the text field and enter "60" 
(without the quotes), as shown in Figure 6. 
This will give the switch user one second in 
which to select each button before the next 
button is selected. Click "OK" to finish adding 
the NBA. When the Button Actions window 
reappears, click on "Activate after delay" with 
a delay time of seconds. Click "Done" to 
complete the button. Save your stack before 
you test the scanning function. 

Select "Preferences" from the Apple menu 
and click in the box next to "Auto activate but- 
tons on." Click "OK" to return to your stack. 
When the scanning begins, you may notice that 
the sequence is incorrect — the highlight may 
be jumping around instead of moving sequen- 
tially from left to right. This happens because 
the Scan NBA highlights buttons according to 
the order in which they were added to the card. 
The last button added to the card will be the 
first one highlighted, while the first button 
added will be the last one highlighted. The 
Scan NBA will not affect grouped buttons, 
auto-activating buttons, or buttons that contain 
the Scan NBA. This is why our auto-activating 
button in the upper left comer of the card is not 
part of the scanning sequence — that button 
meets all three of those criteria! 

To correct the button sequence in our stack, 
first select "Preferences" from the Apple menu 
and click next to "Auto activate buttons on" so 
the check mark disappears. Click "OK" to 
return to the stack. Select the button tool from 
the Tools menu and click on the third button in 
the bottom row to select it. Select "Cut button" 
(Apple-x) from the Edit menu. The button 
should disappear. Now select "Paste button" 
(Apple-v) from the Edit menu. The button 
should reappear in precisely the same position. 
Repeat this procedure of cutting and pasting 
for the remaining two buttons in the reverse 
order of the desired scanning sequence (right 
to left in this case). Reset the auto-activate but- 
tons to "on" in the "Preferences" window. 
Now our three buttons should scan in sequence 
from left to right. You may need to repeat this 
procedure on each of the remaining cards. 

If you have an Apple II Switch Interface, 
plug it into the joystick port and plug a remote 
switch into one of the phone jacks. If you do 
not have a switch interface, you can test your 
stack by pressing the Option or Apple keys. 
Watch the scanning highlight, and press the 
switch when the highlight reaches the match- 
ing picture. You should hear the "praise" 
sound and go to the next card. If you select one 



of the incorrect responses, you should hear the 
"warning" sound and the scanning will resume 
on the same card. When you reach the last 
card, a correct response will bring you back to 
the beginning. To end the activity, press the 
Escape key until the scanning stops. Now you 
can select "Quit HyperStudio" (Apple-Q) from 
the File menu or select "Home" from the Move 
menu. 

The scanning speed can be adjusted to suit 
individual switch users by editing the group 
button named "Scanlt." Press Escape to kill the 
scanning, select the button tool from the Tools 
menu, hold the Apple key down and double 
click the "Scanlt" button. This will bring up 
the Button Actions menu. Now click twice in 
the box next to "New Button Actions..." to 
bring up the NBA window. Delete the old 
value and enter a new value. Remember, 60 is 
equal to 1 second. The scanning speed may be 
varied from impossibly fast (try a value of 1 or 
2!) to incredibly slow (several minutes, if nec- 
essary). 

The Scan NBA can be used to create new 
stacks like our Scan & Match activity or it can 
be used to adapt existing stacks for switch 
input. Virtually any button that an able-bodied 
user can click on can be made switch-accessi- 
ble using Scan NBA. 

Today, the main focus of adaptive computer 
use is to make "off the shelf software accessi- 
ble to people who have a disabilities of all 
types. But designing simple switch accessible 



stacks using HyperStudio and the Scan NBA 
can provide a valuable and inexpensive intro- 
duction to the computer for kids who have 
severe physical limitations. More importantly, 
these first successful experiences in the use of 
adaptive computer technology can make the 
path to independent living an easier one for 
kids who will likely rely on technology 
throughout their adult lives. 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 

The Scan NBA is available for downloading 
from most commercial information services, 
including America Online, GEnie and Com- 
puServe. It is also available from Roger Wagn- 
er Publishing, Inc., 1050 Pioneer Way, Suite P, 
El Cajon, CA 92020 and from Bill Lynn 
through Simtech Publicafions. 

The sea life clip art used in the sample scan- 
ning stack was designed by Mary Ann Trzyna, 
208 denshire Drive, Frankfort, IL 60423. 

Simtech Publications has a line of switch 
accessible shareware disks created by the 
author. Write to Bill Lynn, Simtech Publica- 
tions, 587 Northfield Rd., Northfield, CT 
06778 for a current product list. 

The Apple II Switch Interface and a variety 
of adaptive switches are available from Don 
Johnston Developmental Equipment, Inc., 
1000 N. Rand Rd., Bldg. 1 15, Wauconda, IL 
60084-0639. ■ 




"THAT'S JUST A SCREEN SAVER, YOU STUPID CAT!" 



JULY/AUGUST 51 




@ Drive 




PERFECT FOR APPLE lie 
AND IIGS COMPUTERS 

The Q Drive forever ends tedious disk 
swapping and slow-opening pro- 
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grams open, and how much easier it 
is to run them. For example, you can 
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tionaries, without ever having to 
access your disk drive. 

Not only can you store programs in 
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USES THE LATEST 
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The Q Drive features a fast, reliable 
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EASIEST TO USE 

The Q Drive's plain-English manual 
covers more than installation and 




setup. It even tells you how to man- 
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From GS/OS and ProDOS to backups 
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LETS YOU SWITCH 
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Are you interested in upgrading to 
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SHAREWARE SPY 



Proboot 

by Eric Shepherd 
Shareware; $15 

Proboot is a utility written especially for 
IIGS users with hard drives. It allows you to 
boot another disk device without a trip to the 
Control Panel. (Normally, when you want to 
boot from your 3.5" drive, you would need to 
change the startup slot to 5 first. If you wanted 
to boot a 5.25" disk, you'd change the startup 
slot to 6.) Proboot can even boot a device that 
is "switched out." For instance, on my system, 
slot 6 is set to "Your card" so my system won't 
go on a grinding journey every time the system 
needs a disk, but Proboot still lets me boot it 
with a single keypress. If you have a PC trans- 
porter, Proboot can even boot from its drives 
as well. 

SANE Fix 

by Seven Hills Software 
Freeware 

The Apple IIGS' SANE (Standard Apple 
Numerics Environment) toolkit has a bug in it 
that's been plaguing IIGS users for, literally, 
years, and now there's a fix. The bug is most 
evident when you start a new AppleWorks GS 
spreadsheet right after using a ProDOS 8 pro- 
gram — AppleWorks GS locks up or crashes. 
(A few other programs also exhibit similar 
problems, but they're more obscure.) It's par- 
ticularly obnoxious if you boot into an 8-bit 
program, like EasyDrive or even Switch Hitter, 
since there's no way to avoid going to ProDOS 
8 in such cases. This small INIT, dropped into 
the System. Setup folder on your hard drive or 
AppleWorks GS boot disk, solves the problem 
once and for all. 

Quadronome 

by Pangea Software 
Freeware 

Quadronome is an addicting 3D racquetball 
type arcade game for your IIGS. At the begin- 
ning of the game, each player starts with 21 
Quads. Each time a player misses the ball, he 
loses a Quad. The player to run out of Quads 
first loses. When in one player mode, the ball 
will be lost when you miss, and the next ball is 
served by clicking the mouse. In two player 
mode, the ball will continue to bounce even 
when a player misses the ball, but he will still 
lose a Quad. 

Although this game has been kicking around 
for a long time, it's still one of my favorites — 
and well worth the download time. Be on the 
lookout for other games by the Pangea folks 



(aka Greenstone & Triplett); most of them are 
free, and just as good. 

ShadowWrite 

by Bright Software U.S.A. 
Freeware 

ShadowWrite is yet another "word proces- 
sor" New Desk Accessory in a long line of 
such NDAs. What's the difference? Shad- 
owWrite lets you work with up to 8 Teach, text 
or SRC ("source") documents at the same time 
within any Desktop application. In the Finder, 
you can open ShadowWrite by double-clicking 
the documents. It even automatically opens 
and prints documents if you select "Print" from 
the File menu instead of double-clicking. I had 
trouble printing multiple documents this way, 
though. 

The basic editing tools are all there in Shad- 
owWrite, including a full ruler with centering, 
left, right, and full justification. Naturally, it 
works fine with Pointless and TrueType fonts. 
ShadowWrite is small and pops up quickly, 
and the price is certainly right. I can't imagine 
anyone not finding this one useful. 

SoniqTracker 

by Tim Meekins 
Freeware 

SoniqTracker is a program that plays Amiga 
MOD files on the IIGS— with flair. (MOD 
files contain sampled sounds and a sound all in 
one bundle, or "module.") It works in stereo, if 
you have a stereo card, and features a graphic 
player with your choice of dancing lights or an 
oscilloscope. The program even has an alarm 
clock mode — I've been waking up to Reggae 
for at least a week! 

Bowl GS 

by Terry Burdett 
Freeware 

Bowl GS is one-player bowling game for 
your Apple IIGS. Bowling is reduced to a 
point-and-click interface. I found the ball real- 
ly liked to head toward the gutter — much like 
real bowling at my skill level. The game also 
makes an attempt at sound, although it would 
have been better if the sounds had been record- 
ed at a bowling alley. Hitting the pins remind- 
ed me more of a pin dropping than bowling 
pins flying around. The game also makes you 
enter your initials via the mouse (much like an 
arcade game) despite the fact that the IIGS has 
a fully functional keyboard attached. It's not 
bad for the first try, especially if you really like 
to bowl, but it could use some improvement. 



Bulla ^ 

byFTA 
Freeware 

This previously-unreleased Free Tools 
Association disk contains numerous examples 
of graphics and sound from the late and 
lamented masters of IIGS bare-metal program- 
ming. Although the FTA never seemed to fin- 
ish anything useful (even a complete, function- 
al game), they inspired many young program- 
mers and proved that the IIGS could hold its 
own against the Amiga, which inspired FTA- 
like groups to write cool-looking "demos" long 
before the FTA came into being. This disk 
doesn't contain anything earth-shattering, 
although it's nice to look at, and the semi-com- 
plete "Scrolling Bulla Game" (a game some- 
what like Super Mario World) has potential, if 
someone finishes it. 

Bille Art 

by Brutal Deluxe 
Freeware 

This FTA-style demo disk contains a half- 
finished game and a couple of pictures of 
skimpily clad (and unclad) ladies. Brutal 
Deluxe is a French programming group hoping 
to follow in the footsteps of the FTA. The 
graphics are top-notch and from that stand- 
point, they seem to have succeeded. They also 
have a sense of humor, as shown by the 
"exploding thermometer" used in the "Slowly- 
Boot" load routine, and by the bizarre way in 
which you must boot the disk — when the 
"Unable to load ProDOS" message appears, 
you must press the Clear key to complete the 
loading process. (Must be an IQ test to make 
sure you can read instructions.) There's also a 
segment which seems to be either praising or 
poking fun at Brainstorm Software, the French 
programmers of The Manager, though the text 
is in French so we can't tell for sure. Check it 
out for yourself — if you liked the FTA stuff, 
you'll probably enjoy this as well. ■ 



WHERE 10 EIND II 



If you have a modem, check your local 
bulletin boards and the national services 
like America Online, CompuServe, and 
GEnie. Your local user group may also 
have some of these programs — check our 
Computer Clubs fisting in this issue. Many 
of these programs are also available from 
national user groups like the Big Red 
Computer Club (402/379-4680) 



JULY/AUGUST 




Teleconmimiication 
Terminology 



Address: How you can be reached on a partic- 
ular system — usually your user ID, but some 
systems (such as GEnie) use an e-mail address 
that is different from your user ID. If you're on 
a network, your user ID will often be followed 
by site and domain names (for example, 
"jerry@pro-quality.cts.com") so that the mail 
can reach you from other systems on the same 
network. 

AT: Two letters that tell your Hayes-compati- 
ble modem that a command is coming. Every 
command begins with "AT," meaning "atten- 
tion." Common commands include ATD 
(dial), ATH (hang up), ATO (resume online 
connection), and ATZ (initialize modem). 

Baud: The transmission rate of a modem in 
"symbols per second," also used as a noun 
meaning a symbol sent over a telephone line. 
"Baud" is different from "bits per second" or 
BPS. A 2400 BPS modem operates at 600 
baud, but sends four bits per baud for a total of 
1200 BPS. 

BBS: A computer system dedicated to answer- 
ing calls from other modem users. On BBSs 
you'll find discussions on every imaginable 
topic, hundreds of files and programs for your 
computer, and lots of other fun things. Best of 
all, most BBSs are run by private citizens and 
are free. 

Commercial Service: A nationwide (or world- 
wide) pay-as-you-use-it service run for profit. 
Popular commercial services include America 
Online, CompuServe, Delphi, and GEnie, 
although there are dozens of more specialized 
services. Many of these services are worth- 
while due to their global scope. 

Data Bits: How many bits are to be transmitted 
in each byte of data. Usually, this number will 
be 8, but some systems require 7 data bits. Sys- 
tems which use 7 data bits are usually limited 
to text communications and require special 
protocols (such as Kermit) to transfer 8-bit 
binary data. 



Data Compression: A modem feature which 
allows you to transmit data at an effectively 
higher speed than normally possible. All the 
redundancy is removed from the data stream 
(English text and many other types of data are 
highly redundant) before transmission. 
Modems with this feature are advertised as 
being "MNP 5" or "v.42bis" compatible. It is 
also possible to use a separate data compres- 
sion program — such as Shrinkit — to compress 
files before sending them even if you don't 
have a modem with this feature. 

Duplex: Full duplex means that the remote 
computer (the system you're connected to) 
"echoes back" each character you type to dis- 
play it on your screen. (In other words, when- 
ever you press a key, it is sent over the phone 
line and back before it appears on your screen.) 
Half duplex means that your computer displays 
your typing on the screen as soon as you press 
a key. Most connections use full duplex. 

E-Mail: Electronic mail — private messages 
which can only be read by the intended recipi- 
ent, as opposed to publicly posted messages. 

Emoticon: (From "emotion" and "icon.") A 
small symbol or sequence of symbols that you 
can type on your keyboard to convey an emo- 
tion. Since messages posted on a BBS do not 
carry facial expressions or tone of voice, you 
may need to use these symbols to make sure a 
reader knows how the message was intended 
and does not take it the wrong way. The most 
common emoticon is the smiley :-), which 
looks like a "smiley face" if you rotate your 
head ninety degrees counterclockwise. 

Escape Sequence: The "-h-h-i-" code used to 
return to the command state from the online 
state. The escape sequence actually includes 
the guard time — a mandatory one-second 
delay before and after the "+-i~i-" code to pre- 
vent the modem from going into the command 
state when transmitting a file which contains 
these codes. 

FIDONet: A group of independent BBSs, 



mostly run on MS-DOS machines, which can 
exchange mail and bulletin boards (known as 
"echoes"). Somewhat like Internet, but using 
different software and protocols. 

GIF: Graphics Interchange Format, invented by 
CompuServe. A GIF file can be viewed on any 
computer with appropriate software. For some 
reason, it's pronounced "Jif," like the peanut 
butter. You'll find plenty of interesting GIF 
files online. 

Handshaking: A protocol that allows two 
devices to agree on something or to control 
each other. For example, when you connect to 
another modem, a standard handshaking 
sequence occurs to allow the modems to deter- 
mine the highest transmission rate they have in 
common. Handshaking is a generic concept 
and has many applications in the world of 
telecommunications. 

Hardware Handshaking: A technique which 
allows a v.42bis or MNP 5 modem to tell the 
computer to stop sending data for a second. 
Since different kinds of data compress at dif- 
ferent ratios, the modem can't always send 
data at its maximum effective speed, and so the 
computer isn't guaranteed that a 2400 BPS 
v.42bis connection can always handle 9600 
BPS. Yet, to take advantage of the compres- 
sion at all, the computer must talk to the 
modem at 9600 BPS, otherwise the data would 
not arrive fast enough at the modem and defeat 
the purpose of the data compression. With 
hardware handshaking, the modem can tell the 
computer to stop sending data so quickly when 
the data isn't very compressible. 

Hayes: A prominent manufacturer of modems. 
Most current modems are compatible with 
Hayes' standards. 

HST: A High Speed Transfer modem, sold by 
US Robotics (USR), with a capability of 9600 
BPS. These modems were very popular before 
the advent of v. 32 and v.32bis because of their 
low cost compared to other 9600 BPS 
modems. They were not, however, true 9600 



54 



II ALIVE 



BPS modems; actually, they transmitted data 
at 9600 BPS in only one direction (the other 
direction was a 300 BPS connection). The 
modem automatically switched between 9600 
and 300 BPS depending on which modem was 
sending more data — a clever and effective 
scheme at the time, but unnecessary now. 

Internet: An informal network of independent 
but cooperating computer systems that 
exchange mail and bulletin board messages 
(called "newsgroups"). Most of these systems 
run the Unix operating system. Actually, there 
are several networks (including Bitnet and 
Usenet) which are connected in such ways — 
the term "Internet" refers to the largest con- 
glomeration, or to all of it, or to any such net- 
work, depending on who you ask. To get on 
the Internet, you just call any system which 
participates — there are thousands, many of 
which are public-access. 

Kermit: A file transfer protocol designed for 
use with certain types of computers which can- 
not support Xmodem or other protocols. If you 
attend a university, your school's mainframe 
may only talk Kermit. It's slow compared to 
every other protocol but sometimes may be the 
only protocol available. 

MNP: The Microcom Networking Protocol, 
created to make modems more reliable and 
faster. MNP offers several "levels," the most 
important of which are MNP 4, which guaran- 
tees that line noise won't garble your data, and 
MNP 5, which can double your modem's 
effective speed through data compression. 

Modem: A device for translating digital sig- 
nals (computer data) into analog signals 
(sound) and back. Short for modulator/demod- 
ulator. 

Negotiation: The process whereby two 
modems determine the maximum BPS rate 
they have in common and which, if any, levels 
of MNP or V.42 they support. 

Password: A secret word that only you know. 
When logging into your BBS, you give your 
password to prove that you are who you say 
you are. This prevents others from pretending 
to be you and leaving offensive messages 
under your name. Naturally, a password should 
be easy to remember but hard to guess, and 
should be guarded carefully and changed 
often. 

Parity: An error-checking bit sent with each 
byte. For example, "even parity" means that an 
extra bit is added to each byte to make the 
number of "one" bits in the byte even. This 
allows the receiving modem to detect possible 
transmission errors or line noise. Most connec- 
tions, however, use no parity; today, error 
checking is performed by protocols like MNP. 

Protocol: A standard way of doing something, 
or a "language" that allows two devices to talk 



to each other. For example, to transfer a file 
from one computer to another, you might use 
the Xmodem file transfer protocol. To connect 
a computer to a modem with data compression, 
you must use a hardware handshaking cable — 
the signals that the modem uses to control the 
flow of data are also a protocol. The idea of a 
protocol is a generic concept with many appli- 
cations in the world of telecommunications. 

RS-232: A standard serial protocol which 
allows virtually any computer to speak to any 
serial-controllable device. Most modems are 
RS-232 compatible. 

Shrinkit: An Apple II program designed to 
remove redundant data from files, making 
them smaller so they take less time to transmit 
via modem. On the receiving end, you must 
unshrink the file before you can use it. Similar 
utilities are available on nearly all comput- 
ers — popular ones include ZIP, ARC, ZOO, 
LHA, and Stufflt. 

Sysop: Pronounced "SISS-op," stands for 
"system operator" — the person who owns or 
operates a BBS. On some BBSs, you will see 
the term "sysadmin" instead, for "system 
administrator." 

Teletype: An actual teletype is an old type of 
terminal with a printer and a keyboard, used to 
communicate with mainframes over the phone 
line. Today, "teletype" refers to your commu- 
nication program's simplest terminal emula- 
tion — in which each character that arrives 
through the modem is placed on the screen, 
without special interpretation. 

Terminal Emulation: A feature of most 
telecomm software which enables your Apple 
to respond as if it were a specific brand of ter- 
minal (for example, DEC VT-100). With ter- 
minal emulation, the remote computer can 
clear your screen, print at specific locafions on 
the screen, and even activate your printer. 

Terminal Program: A program designed to 
turn your Apple II into a terminal. (Once upon 
a dme there were devices with keyboards and 
screens — but no computer inside — designed 
specifically to communicate with other com- 
puters via modem. These devices were called 
terminals.) You need a terminal program to 
communicate with another computer via 
modem. 

User ID: A code which uniquely identifies you 
on a BBS. Some use your name; others use an 
account name (usually an abbreviation of your 
name — if your name were Robert Hughes, 
your account name might be "rhughes" on an 
Internet system); still others use a user ID 
number (CompuServe is notorious for its 
lengthy user numbers). Each user on a BBS 
must have a different user ID. You enter your 
user ID and password at logon to tell the sys- 
tem who you are, so it can retrieve your private 
mail and other information unique to you. 



V.32: An internationally-approved standard for 
9600 BPS transmission. Before v.32, different 
manufacturers had their own (incompatible) 
standards, ensuring that Hayes 9600 BPS 
modems couldn't talk to USR 9600 BPS 
modems at 9600 BPS (they could still talk at 
2400 BPS). 

v.32bis: An internationally-approved standard 
for 14,400 BPS transmission; an enhancement 
of v.32. 

v.42: An internationally-approved error-cor- 
rection standard. It offers the same functionali- 
ty as (and is compatible with) MNP 4, ensur- 
ing that static on the phone line will not cor- 
rupt data transmissions. 

v.42bis: An internationally-approved data- 
compression standard. While v.42bis is back- 
ward-compatible with MNP 5, it can compress 
data up to twice as efficiently as MNP 5 (effec- 
tively quadrupling your modem's speed). It 
also has the "smarts" to avoid compressing 
files which are already compressed, whereas 
MNP 5 can actually reduce your effective 
speed when sending pre-compressed data such 
as Shrinkit files. 

Xmodem: Although it contains the word 
"modem," Xmodem is not a kind of modem. 
It's a protocol for transferring files from one 
computer to another. The sending computer 
sends a piece of the file (a "packet" or "block") 
along with a special code called a checksum, 
which enables the receiving computer to make 
sure it was received correctly. Then the receiv- 
ing computer either acknowledges the packet 
(telling the sender to send the next packet) or 
declines it (indicating that there was a trans- 
mission error and that the sender should try 
again). Simple, but slow compared to newer 
protocols. Xmodem has several variants, 
including ProDOS Xmodem, Xmodem CRC, 
Windowed Xmodem, and Xmodem 1 K. 

Ymodem: A packet-based protocol like Xmo- 
dem, Ymodem increases the file transfer speed 
(using larger packets), improves reliability 
(using a more complex check code called 
CRC), and provides batch capabilities (the 
name of each file is sent with the file so the 
receiver doesn't have to type filenames, and 
more than one file can be sent at a time). One 
variant is called Ymodem-G or Streaming 
Ymodem. 

Zmodem: A "streaming" modern protocol 
which sends data almost continuously. Instead 
of waiting for an acknowledgement after each 
packet, Zmodem simply sends the next, assum- 
ing that each packet was received correctly 
unless the receiver specifically says otherwise. 
Zmodem also has the batch features of Ymo- 
dem, and can automatically tell the receiving 
computer to begin the transfer without user 
intervention. This is the preferred protocol 
today. ■ 



JULY/AUGUST 



55 




To get more information about tiie Apple User Group nearest y( 




If you want your 

computer club to be 

mentioned in II Alive, 

send a letter describing 

your club to: 

Quality Computers 

c/o Bob DeMaggio 

P.O. Box 665 

St. Clair Shores, MI 48080 



ALASKA 

Anctiorage Apple Users Group 
P.O. Box 110753 
Anctiorage, AK 99511-0753 
Contact: Timothy Odell 373-7459 

Apple Mousse User Group 

P.O. Box 80176 

Fairbanks, AK 99708 

Contact: Jesse Atencio (907) 456-1333 

$15 per year 

ARIZONA 

Tuscon Apple Core 

P.O. Box 43176 

Tuscon, AZ 85733-3176 

Contact: Clay Evitts (602) 296-5491 days 

$20 per year 

BBS: (602) 882-2945 

ARKANSAS 

Apple Tree of ttie Ozarks 
HC 62 Box 540 
Flippen, AR 76234 
$20 per yr; $15 initiation 

CALIFORNIA 

Apple Corps of San Diego 

P.O. Box 87964 

San Diego, CA 921 38-7964 

Contact: Tom Kasner (619) 693-0331 

Appletiolics Anonymous 

Apple II User Group 

3875 Telegraph Rd. Suite A202 

Ventura, CA 93003 

Contact: Tony Pizza (805) 482-3453 

$12 per year 

Applejacks of Inland Empire 
Contact: Larry (909) 864-2309 
BBS: (909) 369-6637 

Fresno Apple II Computer Users Group 

P.O. Box 1682 

Clovis,CA93613 

GravenStein Apple IIGS Users Group 

P.O. Box 964 

Petaluma, CA 94953-0964 

$25 per year per family 

BBS: (707) 585-0865 

Newton's Fruit Users Group 
14639 Cashew St. 
Hesperia,CA 92345-2702 
BBS: (619) 956-2631 

Orange Apple Computer Club 
25422 TrabucoRd.,Bldg 105, Ste-251 
El Toro,CA 92630 
(714)770-1865 
$25 per yr 

Original Apple Corps 

P.O. Box 90065 

Los Angeles, CA 90009 

Contact: Fred Duffy (310) 475-8400 

BBS: (310) 454-4660 

Peninsula Apple User Group 

Redwood City, CA 

Contact: Roger Lakner 367-8657 

Tri-City Apple User Group 

P.O. Box 93123 

Pasadena, C A 91 109 

(213)258-0281 

$20 per year 

BBS: (818) 288-5640 

Tri Valley Apple II User Group (TVAIIUG) 

P.O. Box 2096 

Dublin, CA 94568 

Contact: Jerry Carleton (510) 828-0959 



Valley Apple Computer Club 

12978 Crowley St. 

Arleta CA91331 

Contact: William Trent (81 8) 988-1 752 

$24 

BBS: (818) 782-6471 

COLORADO 

Computer C.A.C.H.E. (Colorado Apple & 

Compatable Home Enthusiasts) 

P.O. Box 37313 

Denver, CO 80237-7313 

$18 per year 

BBS: (303) 745-4960 

Denver Apple Pi 

P.O. Box 280668 

Lakewood, CO 80228-0668 

$18 plus $7 new member application fee 

BBS: (303) 421-8605 

CONNECTICUT 

Applelist Computer Club 
P.O. Box 6053 
Hamden,CT06517 

Appleshare 

P.O. Box 200 

Greens Farms, CT 06436 

Contact: Joan Hoffman (203) 259-8513 

$20 per year family membership 

Hartford User Group Exchange (H.U.G.E.) 

P.O. Box 380027 

East Hartford, CT 06138-0027 

Contact: Edward Sposito (203) 635-0557 

$24 

BBS: Bit Bucket (203) 257-9588 

DELAWARE 

Delaware Valley 

Apple IIGS Computer Club 

P.O. Box 5956 

Wilmington, DE 19808-0956 

Contact: Curt Wilson (215) 473-6199 

$20 

FLORIDA 

Apple Computer Enjoyment Society 

(A.C.E.S.) 

P.O. Box 291557 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 33329-1557 

$30 1st year; $20 renewal 

Fort Lauderdale Chapter (A.C.E.S.) 

see above 

BBS: (305) 431 -51 89 

M.A.U.G. Chapter (A.C.E.S.) 

see above 

BBS: (305) 621 -4350 

North Dade Chapter (A.C.E.S.) 

see above 

BBS: (305) 431-5189 

South Broward Chapter (A.C.E.S.) 

see above 

BBS: (305) 431-5189 

West Palm Beach Chapter (A.C.E.S.) 

see above 

BBS: (407) 483-8426 

Apple Tree of Central Florida 
2810 Nela Ave. 
Orlando, FL 32809 
$35 annually 
BBS: 366-0156 

Spring Hill Apple Computer Enthusiasts 

(SPACE) 

11418 Long Hill Court 

Spring Hill, FL 34609 

$20 

(904) 686-7069 



SunCoast Apple Tree 
P.O. Box 7488 
Clearwater, FL 3461 8 
$25 per year 
BBS: (813) 347-5104 

SWACKS Apple Computer Club 

c/o L.E. McLaughlin 

384 Lancaster Ave, 

Port Charlotte, FL 33952 

$20 per year; $12 for Newsletter only 

GEORGIA 

Computer User Group (Any Type) 
IIOPeachtreeRd. 
Rockmart,GA 30153 
Contact: Donald Sullivan 
(404)684-5909 
$15 per year 

HAWAII 

Hawaii Macintosh & Apple Users' Society 

P.O. Box 29554 

Honolulu, HI 96820-1954 

Contact: Eugene Villaluz (808) 735-3750 

$24 per year 

ILLINOIS 

Apple Tree Computer Club 

P.O. Box 823 

Homewood, IL 60430-0823 

Contact: Mary Ann Trzyna 

(815)469-1961 

$28 family, $14 auxiliary per year 

BBS: (708) 597-6942 

Aurora Area Apple Core 

P.O. Box 2901 

Aurora, IL 60507-2901 

Contact: George Murphy (708) 357-0759 

$20 

Northern Illinois Computer Society 

P.O. Box 547 

Arlington Heights, IL 60006 

New $30, Renewal $24, 

includes entire family 

BBS: (312) 351-4374 

Northshore Apple Users Group 

c/o Babette Simon 

5331 Carol 

Skokie.lL 60077 

Contact: Babette Simon (708) 967-7483 

Family $20 per year 

INDIANA 

Apple Pickers 

P.O. Box 20136 

Indianapolis, IN 46220 

Contact: Steve McGuirk 257-3366 

New $25, $30 per family per yr; 

Renewal $20 

BBS: 897-1989 

Apple Users Group of Michiana 
P.O. Box 11398 
South Bend, IN 46634-1398 
$15 per year 

Fort Wayne 

Apple Computer Users' Group 

P.O. Box 10004 

Ft. Wayne, IN 46850-0004 

$15peryr 

Northwest Indiana Apple Users Group 

7526 Independence St. 

Merrillville, IN 46410 

Contact: Nate Gaglilardi 762-6818 

$14peryr 

IOWA 

Applebyter Computer Club 
P.O. Box 2092 
Davenport, lA 52809 
Contact: Shawn Beattie 
BBS: 788-0314 



Roland Story Apple User's Group 

P.O. Box 407 

Roland, lA 50236-0407 

Contact: Dave Graham (515) 388-4700 

$10 per year 

KANSAS 

Apple Bits Users Group (ABUG) 

P.O. Box 368 

Shawnee Mission, KS 66201 

Contact: Sandy Brockman 

(816)523-1007 

$30 first year; $25 renewal 

Apple Tree User Group, Inc. 
306 West 5th Street 
Lamed, KS 67550 
Contact: Shane Blanchett 
$15 Initiation Fee; $20 Individual, 
$25 Family 

Parsons Apple Users Group 
P.O. Box 1081 
Parsons, KS 67357 

Plane Apple User's Group 

P.O. Box 47396 

Wichita, KS 67201 

Contact: Jay Herder (316) 733-2574 

$24 per yr 

OMEGA PRO (316) 721-7735 

Topeka Area Apple Group 
541 9 SW 28th St 
Topeka, KS 66614-1713 
Contact: Ron Hurd (913) 272-5033 
$15 family 

KENTUCKY 

Louisville Computer Society 
P.O. Box 9021 
Louisville. KY 40209-9021 
$26 

MAINE 

Northwoods IIGS User Group 
P.O. Box 550 
Milford, ME 04461-0550 
$15 per year 

MARYLAND 

Maryland Apple Corp. 

Contact: Dave Smythe (410) 882-9234 

Washington Apple Pi, Ltd. 
7910 Woodmont Ave., Suite 910 
Bethesda, MD 20814 
(301)654-8060 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Cape Cod Apple Users Group 

P.O. Box 48 

South Dennis, MA 02660 

Contact: Ron Church (508) 540-251 7 

$20 per yr 

MICHIGAN 

Apple P.I.E. 
P.O. Box 5055 
Warren, Ml 48090-5055 
$25/yr 

Apples for the Teachers 

161 Cass Ave. 

Mt, Clemens, Ml 48043 

Contact: Jim Wenzloff (313) 469-7206 

Flint Apple Club 
P.O. Box 460 
Flint Ml 48501 
$20 per year 
BBS: (313) 230-7754 

Grand Rapids Apple II Users Group 

P.O. Box 1811 

Grand Rapids, Ml 49501 



56 



II ALIVE 



groups specializing in a certain subject, or how to start a new group, call Apple Computer 1-800-538-9696, ext. 500. or write to: Ttie Apple User Group Connection • Apple Computer, Inc. • 20525 Mariani Ave., M/S 36AA • Cupertino, CA 95014 



Lansing Users Group 
P.O. Box 27144 
Lansing, Ml 48909-7144 



Michigan Apple Computer User Group 

P.O. Box 567 

Warren, Ml 48090-0567 

$25 to start, $20 renewal per year 

Midland Apple Club 
1710 West St. Andrews 
Midland, Ml 48640 

MrNNESOTA 

Lake Superior Apple Users Group 

Duluth, MN 

Contact; Don Jacobson (218) 723-4349 

Minnesota Apple Computer Users Group 

P.O. Box 796 

Hopkins, MN 55343 

Contact; Rand Sibet (612) 566-8571 

$25 per year, $15 student 

MISSOURI 

American Public Domain Club 
5821 Kerth Rd. 
St Louis, MO 63128 
Contact; Mictiael Young 
$12 

Apple Squires of the Ozarks 
P.O. Box 3986 
Ozark, MO 65808-3986 
Contact; Doug Kahler 833-4362 
$15 initiation fee; $20 individual, 
$25 family 

MONTANA 

Billings Apple Users Group 
P.O. Box 23005 
Billings, MT 59104-3005 
Students $15, Individual $20, 
Family $25, Corp $50 
BBS; 256-3454 

NEBRASKA 

Apple-Link 
5509 South 31st, #8 
Lincoln, NE 68516 
$10 per year 

NEVADA 

Southern Nevada Apple 

Family User Group 

P.O. Box 12715 

Las Vegas, NV 89112-1715 

Contact; George Lewis (702) 364-9093 

BBS; Apples Only (702) 646-7007 

NEW JERSEY 

Bergen Apple Special Interest Club 

(B.A.S.I.C.) 

The BASIC FACTS; 26-31 A Warren Rd. 

Fair Lawn, NJ 07410 

Contact; Nancy Alexander 652-5632 

$15 per year 

SSA-BBS; 472-8312 

North Jersey Mac Apple User Group 
P.O. Box 215 (WOB) 
West Orange, NJ 07052-0215 
Contact; Pete Crosta (201) 667-6369 
$25 per year 

Ocean County Apple Users Group 

25 Long Road 

Freehold, NJ 07728 

Contact; Matt Weiss (908) 431-2339 

$15 per year 

Ocean/Monmouth Apple Users Group 

55 Meadowbrook Road 

Brick, NJ 08723-7848 

Contact; Bill Scratchley (908) 920-3833 

$15 per year 



Princeton Apple II Users Group 
100 Sixth Ave. 
Trenton, NJ 08619-3223 
$12/yr 

South Jersey Apple User's Group 
P.O. Box 4273 
Cherry Hill, NJ 08003-4273 
ContacL Jack Bullion 767-4913 
$20 single/family, $10 student 
SJAUGAPPLELINE 424-1382 

NEW MEXICO 

Applequerque Computer Club 
P.O. Box 35508 
Albuquerque, NM 87176-5508 

NEW YORK 

CRAB-Apple 

(County of Rockland Apple Branch) 

P.O. Box 268 

W.Nyack, NY 10994-0268 

$1 per year, free 1/2 yr membership for 

new members 

Guilderland Apple Byters 

George Johnsen, Editor 

RD2Box1 

Altamont, NY 12009 

Contact; Karen Andersen 371-3115 

$10 per year, $5 initiation fee 

BBS; Plain Vanilla (518) 462-5953 

Mixed Burnt Hills Apple Group 

171 Birch Lane 

Scotia, NY 12302 

$8 per year 

BBS; Plain Vanilla 462-5953 

Putnam Valley 

Educators Apple Users Group 
142 Peekskill Hollow Rd. 
Putnam Valley, NY 10579 
Contact; Frank Reale (914) 528-8101 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Carolina Apple Core 

P.O. Box 31424 

Raleigh, NC 27622 

$18/yr 

CAC 783-9010; NIEHS 541-0041 

Charlotte Apple Computer Club 
P.O. Box 221913 
Charlotte, NC 28222 
BBS; 563-6233 

Eamon Adventurer's Guild 

7625 Hawkhaven Dr. 

Clemmons,NC 27012 

Contact; Tom Zuchowski (919) 766-7490 

$7 per year 

T.ZUCHOWSKI on GEnie 

Triad Apple Core 

c/o GTCC Small Business ASST. Center 
2007 Yancyville St., Suite 220 
Greensboro, NC 27405 

OHIO 

Apple-Dayton, Inc. 
P.O. Box 3240 
Dayton, OH 45401-3240 
$25/year 

Apple GS Columbus 
P.O. Box 27072 
Columbus, OH 43227-0072 
Contact; John Ledford (614) 855-0937 
BBS; (614) 475-9791 

COACH 

(Central Ohio Apple Computer Hobbyists) 

P.O. Box 09028 

Bexley, OH 43209 

Contact; Mike Goodrich (614) 866-4860 

BBS; (614) 262-4946 



NEC Apple Corps 
c/o Nancy Abbott 
1935MattinglyRd. 
Hinckley, OH 44233 

OREGON 

Appleeugene 

907 River Road #289 

Eugene, OR 97404 

Contact; Larry Badten 895-2605 

$15peryr 

Portland Apple II User Group 
P.O. Box 1608 
Beaverton, OR 97075-1608 
$20 1 St Yr; $15 thereafter 

Willamette Apple Connection 

P.O. Box 7252 

Salem, OR 97303-0053 

$15peryr 

WAC BBS (503) 363-0861 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Apple Butler Users Group 
P.O. Box 39 Meridian Station 
Butler, PA 16001-0039 
$20 Single, $25 family 

Columbia Apple Pi 
c/oL.A.Winski,M.D. 
P.O. Box 710 
Millville, PA 17846 
$6 per yr 

Delaware Valley Apple Branch 
132 Eaton Dr. 
Wayne, PA 19087 
Contact; Sam Lieberman 

Erie Apple Crunchers, Inc. 

P.O. Box 1575 

Erie, PA 16507 

$5 Initiation fee; $25 per yr 

E.A.C. Express (814) 838-8510 

Hershey Apple Core 

P.O. Box 634 

Hershey, PA 17033 

HAC Hotline; (717) 531-1300 

The Library BBS; (717) 566-1699 

RHODE ISLAND 

Rhode Island Apple Group 
P.O. Box 4726 
Rumford.RI 02916-4726 
$10 initiation; $20 annual dues 

TENNESSEE 

AppleCore of Memphis 
P.O. Box 241002 
Memphis, TN 38124-1002 
$20 per year 

Music City Apple Core 

c/o Gerald Dooley 

1085 Woodcock Hollow Road 

Kingston Springs, TN 37082 

Contact; Gerald Dooley 952-2367; George 

Emge 833-1508; 

Everett Hertenstein 262-4778 

TEXAS 

Apple Valley Computer Club 

Tony Rodriguez, Pres. 5900 N. 28th Lane 

McAllen, TX 78504 

Contact; Tony Rodriguez 682-9625 

$10/yr 

Coastal Bend Users Group (CBUG) 
P.O. Box 8391 

Corpus Christi, TX 78468-8391 
$12 per year per household 
STIX (512) 992-4855 , 



San Antonio Appleseed 

P.O. Box 290028 

San Antonio, TX 78280-1428 

New Membership $15, Renewal $10 

Tarrant Apple Group (TAG) 

912 West Broadway Ave. 

Fort Worth, TX 76104 

Contact; Bob Baggott (817) 332-3341 

$15 per year 

VIRGINIA 

Northern Virginia Apple Users Group 
P.O. Box 8211 
Falls Church, VA 22041 
PRO-NOVA BBS; (703) 671-0416 

Tidewater AppleWorms 

P.O. Box 68097 

Virginia Beach, VA 23455 

Contact: Kevin Mitchell (804) 468-9914 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Apple Users Group of Charleston 

2105WeberwoodDrive 

South Charleston, WV 25303 

Contact; John Howell 343-6422, or Chas. 

Szasz 965-6965 

$10peryr 

Club Apple User Group 
125 North Pinch Rd. 
Elkview.WV 25071 
$10 

WISCONSIN 

Milwaukee Apple Users Symposium 
9818 W.Sheridan Ave. 
Milwaukee, Wl 53225 
Contact: Helmut Wittbecker 

Wisconsin Apple Users Club, Inc. 
P.O. Box 20998 
Milwaukee, Wl 53220-0998 
Contact; Bruce Kosbab (414) 771-6086 

CANADA 

Kelowna Apple Users Group 
1622 West KelownaRd. 
Kelowna, B.C., Canada V1Z3B7 
Contact: Robert Ashton 
(604) 769-3140 6 to 9 pm 
$2 per month 

Winnipeg Apple Users' Group 
P.O. Box 1798 
Winnipeg, MB R3C 3R1 
Contact; Don Soutter 256-0095 
$20 indiv, $25 family; 
$5 initiation fee 
Applebox BBS; 224-0683 

GERMANY 

Kaiserslautern Apple Users Group 
PSC1 Box 8851 
APOAE09012 

Ramstein Apple Club 
PSC2BOX18 
APOAE 09012 

Rhein-Neckar Apple Users Group (RNAUG) 

P.O. Box 525, 

APO New York, NY 09063 

Contact: James Clark 

$10/yr 

ITALY 

Apple II Survivor Club Italy 
Vis Dal Fabbro 4 
37122 Verona Italy 
Contact: Manuel Turtula 



JULY/AUGUST 



57 



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: I I 



777-3642 



20200 Nine Mile Rd. St. Clair Shores, MI 48080 




ENTERTfflN ME 



The Wide World 
of Eamon 



by Tom Xif choiiirski 



A HISTORY OF EAMON 

Crowther and Woods' original Adventure, a 
text-only game program originally written for 
the DEC PDP-10 in the 1970s, has been widely 
imitated. Microsoft released a version of 
Adventure for the Apple II in 1979, and many 
similar games followed from Scott Adams, 
Infocom, and other publishers. (See "Classic 
Adventuring" in the last issue of // Alive.) In 
the early 1980s, Don Brown, spurred by the 
success of these games and intrigued by the 
possibility of creating his own, developed the 
Eamon adventure system. Now ordinary 
Applesoft BASIC programmers could make 
their own adventure games, using the Eamon 
software Brown had developed as a building 
block. 

The Eamon system was immediately and 
enthusiastically embraced by a small band of 
players in the Des Moines area, where Brown 
lived. But Brown himself soon moved on to 
commercial programming, creating the 
SwordThrust adventure series. John Nelson, 
another Des Moines resident, saved Eamon 
from oblivion, founding the National Eamon 
User's Club and bringing the program through 
five major revisions. 

While Nelson later moved on to the IBM PC, 
the Eamon Adventurer's Guild, which was the 
eventual replacement for the National Eamon 
User's Club, is still going strong today — as is 
Eamon itself. Eamon version 7.0 incorporates 
new commands, an improved player interface, 
and assembly-language additions for enhanced 
performance. Today, there are over 220 Eamon 
adventures available that run under DOS 3.3 
(requiring a 5.25" disk drive to run). The best 
100-odd Eamons have been converted to Pro- 
DOS, and nearly 40 of the very best were fur- 
ther modernized, converting them to 80-col- 
umn display and adding upper and lower case 
text. 



INSIDE EAMON GAMING 

Eamon is not a role-playing system, like 
Wizardry or Might and Magic. There are no 



experience points to earn, 
no levels to attain. There 
are no special abilities 
bestowed by race or 
good/evil alignment. 
There are also no graph- 
ics — the player reads 
descriptions of what he 
"sees" and types com- 
mands in response; 
descriptions of the results 
are printed on the screen. 

Armed combat is a sta- 
ple of such adventuring. 
Often there are puzzles to 
be solved. Many Eamons 
are simple "kill & loot" scenarios ("Monty 
Haul" adventures, in gaming parlance), with 
the simple goal of killing everything in sight 
and hauling out every treasure that isn't nailed 
down. More complex Eamons may feature a 
quest or even several nested quests to fulfill. 
The very best Eamons are intricate, with per- 
haps hundreds of rooms, scores of special 
effects, and dozens of complex puzzles to 
solve. 

The Eamon gaming system consists of a 
central program that tracks four specific types 
of data: Rooms, Artifacts, Monsters, and 
Effects. Rooms make up the map of the dun- 
geon; each room includes a description and a 
list of exits, and may contain hints about hid- 
den artifacts or doors. Artifacts include every 
inanimate item in the dungeon: weapons, trea- 
sures, doors, containers, potions, and more. 
Monsters include every animate denizen of the 
dungeon: friends, companions, dragons, trolls, 
shopkeepers, etc. Effects are used for special 
events that are specific to a particular Eamon 
game. 

There are five different types of weapons: 
clubs, axes, bows, spears, and swords. The 
player's character gains weapon expertise as 
he uses a weapon type, raising his ability to 
make effective "hits" in battle. Basic Eamon is 
not very magical. There are four basic spells: 
Heal heals the player's injuries; Blast makes an 
attack on an enemy; Speed doubles the play- 




er's agility; and Power has unpredictable 
effects. Some advanced Eamons include many 
more spells and weapons, but they are pro- 
grammed by the adventure's author and are 
unique to that adventure. 

Your character has three primary attributes. 
Hardiness is the character's strength and resis- 
tance to injury. The greater this number, the 
more loot can be carried and the more combat 
hits can be taken. Agility direcdy affects fight- 
ing ability. The higher this number, the better 
the character stands to do in combat. And 
Charisma affects a neutral monster' s likelihood 
of becoming friendly. Characters with high 
Charisma tend to pick up more companions, a 
big plus in combat. 



PLAYING EAMON 

Eamon adventures are begun from the 
Eamon.Master disk or folder. Here is located 
the Eamon Main Hall, where your character 
"sleeps" between forays. While in the Main 
Hall, your character can buy and sell weapons 
and armor, learn magic spells, visit the bank, 
and take advanced training in weapons and 
magic. All adventures are launched from the 
Main Hall, and all adventures return here when 
completed. 

Once into the game, navigation is simple. 
NORTH exits the present room, traveling north. 



JULY/AUGUST 



59 



ENTERTAIN ME 




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Similar commands exist for the other direc- 
tions, including up and down. LOOK redisplays 
the room description and may discover hidden 
exits or artifacts. EXAMINE will print the 
description of an object (e.g., EXAMINE BOX). 
This command will also reveal certain types of 
artifacts hidden in the room. 

GET and DROP are used for inventory man- 
agement. Your character can pick up objects 
that might be useful on your quest, and drop 
items when the load gets too heavy. 

READY is used to prepare a weapon for 
combat (e.g., READY SWORD). If you are car- 
rying more than one weapon, this is how you 
specify which weapon to attack with. To 
attack, simply use the ATTACK verb (e.g., 
ATTACK TROLL). If you mistakenly attack a 
friendly character, you can also HEAL them. 

You can also use longer, more complex 
commands, such as GIVE SWORD TO TROLL 
and PUT SWORD IN BOX. More recent 
Eamons permit the player to truncate the com- 
mands — for example, "AT UG" for "ATTACK 
UGLY TROLL". (The two words "Ugly Troll" 
are considered to be a single noun by the 
Eamon interpreter.) Usually, the command's 
object can be truncated from either end; eg: 
"AT UG" or "AT LL" for "ATTACK UGLY 
TROLL". The truncation feature was added 
haphazardly over time, but the new version 7.0 
incorporates uniform abbreviation syntax for 
all commands. 



WHERE DO 

EAMONS COME FROM? 

The Eamon gaming system is written in 
Applesoft, so anyone can write their own 
Eamon adventures. The quality of Eamon 
adventures, being directly dependent on the 
abilities and perseverance of each adventure's 



author, varies widely; some really stink, while 
others rival anything Infocom ever did. Don't 
worry, though — the ProDOS list consists of the 
best 100 Eamons from the DOS 3.3 list. If 
you're just looking to play, you can't go wrong 
with any of those. 

With the exception of "Redemption" (the 
Eamon adventure published in Softdisk 137), 
every single Eamon adventure is in the public 
domain. Eamons can be obtained from nearly 
every vendor of public-domain Apple software 
and most user groups. The ProDOS Eamons 
are also readily available on the commercial 
on-line services — the Eamon Adventurer's 
Guild uploads them directly to GEnie, and pro- 
vides them to others for uploading to Com- 
puServe, America Online, and Delphi. They 
eventually make their way to many other bul- 
letin board systems and Internet file servers. 

Most Eamons were written by experienced 
Eamon players for advanced characters. There 
is no particular adventure you should start 
with, and you can play them in any order. For 
most enjoyment, though, you would do well to 
use the character editor on the Eamon. Master 
disk to set these player attributes: Hardiness, 
Agility, and Charisma = 22; all weapon abili- 
ties = 50; chain or plate armor and shield; 
Shield Expertise = 25; all spell abilities = 100; 
one 3D8 weapon. This will enable you to at 



least survive in the more difficult Eamons. 

Since the development tools for designing 
Eamon adventures are readily available, so the 
real answer to "Where do Eamons come from" 
is "You." Those who have designed their own 
adventures know that the real allure of Eamon 
is designing and writing them. Getting to actu- 
ally play the game is just gravy. Eamon 
authors commonly agree that they have never 
done anything with a computer that was as sat- 
isfying as writing their Eamon adventures. 

Eamon adventures typically take 30 minutes 
to 2 hours to play, and cost about a dollar or 
two to purchase or download. That's a great 
value for any kind of entertainment these days. 
And if you get involved in writing your own 
Eamon adventure, you'll undoubtedly spend 
dozens or even hundreds of hours on it. Now 
there's a real entertainment bargain! 

For more information sources of Eamon 
adventures, send a long (business) Self 
Addressed Stamped Envelope to: Eamon 
Adventurer's Guild, 7625 Hawkhaven Dr., 
Clemmons, NC 27012-9408 

The EAG is a non-profit organization and 
does not sell Eamon adventures. Instead, you'll 
get an up-to-date list of Eamon sources, a com- 
plete list of Eamon adventures complete with 
notes and ratings on a 1-10 scale, and informa- 
tion about the club and newsletter. ■ 



TOP 20 EAMON ADVENTURES 




As determined by the Eamon Adventurer's 


> Guild 


Eamon No. Title 


EAG Rating 


N/A 
124 


Redemption (Softdisk 137) 


9.5 


Assault on Doini Keep 


9.2 


114 


Thror's Ring 


9.0 


78 
194 


The Prince's Tavern 


9.0 


Attack ot the Kretons 


y.o 


120 


Orb of My Life 


9.0 


204 


Sanctuary 


9.0 


161 


Operation Endgame 


8.9 


150 


Walled City of Darkness 


8.8 


147 


The Dark Brotherhood 


8.7 


129 


Return to Moria 


8.6 


166 


Storm Breaker 


8.5 


145 


Buccaneer! 


8.3 


108 


The Mines of Moria 


8.2 


148 


Journey to Jotunheim 


8.2 


121 


Wrenhold's Secret Vigil 


8.2 


169 
91 


The Black Phoenix 


8.1 


FutureQuest II 


8.0 


117 
118 


Dungeon of Doom 


8.0 


Pittfall 


8.0 



60 



II ALIVE 
























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Answers on pag 


e62 


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CROSSWORD PUZZLER 

ACROSS 

1 Scheme used in 640 mode to create 16 
colors 

4 All responses must be in the form of a 
question 

6 Keyboard repair may require a trip here if 
you have long nails 

9 Helps motiviate students to achieve 

1 Compact Disc— Read-Only Memory 

1 1 Teletype 

12 Makes HyperStudio stacks switch-acces- 
sible ( NBA) 

13 AppleWorks data base module can easily 
accomodate these folks 

16 Platinum Paint sub-palette, or popular 
location for home 

20 Modem manufacturer that set the stan- 
dard 

22 The main way people with severe disabili- 
ties control computers 

25 Todd 

27 A hypermedia document or LIFO data 
structure 

29 Apple II program designed to remove 
redundant data from files 

30 Horseless carriage 

DOWN 

2 Adventure game development system 

3 Highly-rated BBS software from Morgan 
Davis 

5 1988 saw a massive fire in this national 
park 

7 Code name for independent AppleWorks 
upgrade 

8 Universal printer programming language 

1 4 How we find out about our readers 

15 Interface between application programs 
and printers 

17 Not a major part of most Eamon adven- 
tures 

18 Ted Turner would like this Platinum Paint 
feature 

19 We never, ever make these — oh, no 

21 Quadriga instigator and head program- 
mer 

23 Coherent light 

24 A good place to read your modem's refer- 
ence manual 

26 Quadrupeds populating Bharas 

28 John Conway's classic cellular automa- 
tion game 



JULY/AUGUST 



61 



II MUCH FUN 



The pseudonymous Mr. Tech cautions us not 
to anthropomorphize our computers. "The 
letters, numerals, and punctuation that form 
the verbal communications of any particular 
program," he flatly states in the March/ April 
1993 issue of // Alive, "are nothing more 
than strings of numbers arranged in a pattern 
by the computer." 

I'm not about to tangle with technological 
truth. But the world reveals its mysteries in 
different ways to different folks. Common 



and predictable as using a toaster, most of us 
would be doing something else with our 
time. 

In accepting the myth of technological 
sophistication, we fall victims to our own 
vanity. In reality, we're merely a later incar- 
nation of the first motorists, who planned 
each drive for the adventure it truly was and 
counted on changing a tire every seventy- 
five miles or so. The behavior of the 
"flivver" was heavily dependent on the care 



Silicon Soul 

a counterpoint by Jeffrey Frankel 



experience lends itself to any number of ana- 
lytical perspectives, each of which may be 
legitimate in its own right. Truth is not only 
where one finds it, as the saying goes; it also 
depends on where one looks for it. The rela- 
tionship between computer and user is far 
more complex than a stream of binary digits 
can encode. 

What reader of this column has not glazed 
his eyeballs staring at a monitor for hours on 
end, oblivious to the passage of time and just 
about everything else, trying to get some 
program to work the way it's supposed to? 
Personal computers are notorious for bedev- 
iling their owners, and in fact, the challenge 
of bending the machine's will to your own 
represents much of the computer's allure. 
Let's face it: if using a computer was as easy 



and nurture bestowed upon it by its owner. 

My IIGS is no less quirky in its own 
endearing way. Not all supposedly identical 
machines behave alike. I recently tore my 
hair out trying to figure out why the Ram- 
FAST/SCSI card I purchased worked fine in 
every ROM 03 IIGS I put it in— except, of 
course, my own. After that hurdle was finally 
overcome, I attempted to donate my old hard 
drive and interface card to the local elemen- 
tary school. This time, the weirdness 
recurred in reverse: the hardware would not 
function in any of the four ROM 03 IIGS 
computers I installed it in. I finally found a 
home for the drive on a neighboring school's 
IIGS, but never did find out exactly why the 
first four wouldn't accept it. 

Swapping peripherals wasn't meant to be 



as complex as an organ transplant. You 
shouldn't need to worry about "donor rejec- 
tion." Of course, the technician's response to 
inexplicable hardware incompatibility is to 
replace the motherboard. But if my IIGS is 
pining for its old hard drive, why should I 
lobotomize the machine to solve the prob- 
lem? 

One friend of mine has a particularly 
symbiotic relationship with her IIGS. As she 
works at her computer, she talks to it. When 
describing its recalcitrance to me, she casts 
reproving glances over her shoulder at the 
machine, as if to shame it into proper behav- 
ior. Every so often she flits a hand over the 
monitor the way a mother pats a child on the 
head. An avid card-game player, she has 
only one complaint about her IIGS: "It 
cheats at solitaire." 

The two of them, woman and machine, 
form a remarkable dyad. Seeing them togeth- 
er, one realizes that there is lots more to the 
"human interface" than even Apple has cap- 
tured in its Desktop user interface. Although 
the cynics among you may regard all this as 
meaningless right-brain baloney, I beg to dif- 
fer. My friend's unique relationship with her 
machine helps her use it more effectively — 
and that's what really matters. 

I don't talk to my computer except to 
swear at it, and I'd no more caress its moni- 
tor than pat my toaster. But each of us works 
out these complexities in our own way, and I 
bumble my way through them as best I can. 
And if I anthropomorphize my computer 
along the way, what deity have I sinned 
against? C'mon, Mr. Tech — stop and smell 
the silicon. If you look in the right places, 
you too may find that your computer has a 
soul. ■ 



Making Your First Call 

continued from page 32 

When you're through with the registration 
process, the BBS will remind you of your 
account ID and password and suggest that you 
write them down. Do so. The next time you 
call, you will need to enter this information to 
log in. At this point, the registration period is 
over. 

Some BBSs will end the call now and 
instruct you to wait for "validation" (or to call 
back in a couple of days). Many sysops actual- 
ly attempt to contact you at the phone number 
you supplied and verify that you were at least 
honest. Others will simply look over your 
information and, if it looks OK, grant you 
access to the system. 

Some systems completely bar you from log- 
ging in until you're validated. Some let you 
log in but only give you a limited amount of 
time to look around, and some block your 
access to the more interesting features of the 
system until you're validated. Still others skip 
the validation process and allow you immedi- 



ate access to everything. Rest assured, though, 
that eventually you'll have full user access to 
the BBS. 

While it's beyond the scope of this article to 
discuss in detail everything you can do on a 
BBS, here are a couple of hints. First, read the 
help screens — most BBSs use the "?" key or 
the "H" key to access help functions. Form a 
mental image of the BBS's layout (draw a map 
on paper if you need to — see Figure 2.) Read 
messages for a while before posting any; this 
will ensure that you've latched onto the stream 
of conversation and can make an intelligent 
contribution. Don't type in all caps (that's 
reserved for emphasis and will make you 
appear to be shouting). Break your messages 
into easily digestible paragraphs. Attack ideas, 
not people. Don't encourage troublemakers. 
And most importantly, don't be afraid to ask 
questions — most sysops (and users) are very 
patient and will give you any help you need. 

Join us in the next installment when we'll 
take a closer look at the layouts of two popular 
BBS programs, to help you find your way 
around them better. ■ 











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II ALIVE 




SCAN A 



Expand your clip art library on us! 
These images are for you to scan and use on anything you want. 






JULY/AUGUST 63 




For ihe Apple II & IIGS 



$ 



1 "I" each 
any 3 for 






APPLE II GAME SPECIALS 



Renegade #35235 

Super Sunday #50237 

Guderian #50338 

Tsushima #50238 

Beast War #50239 

Shootout At O.K. Galaxy #50240 

Empire Overmind #50241 

Dr. Ruth Game Of Good Sex #50243 

Voyager #50242 

Controller #50244 

Free Trader #502- 

Scimmars #502^ 

T.A.C #51 

Mission On Thunderhead #. 

Conflict 2500 

Planet Miners ^^^p3 

Lords Of Karma .^^35254 

Mines Of Titan ii^tf^^^^^ 

Shogun JH|B5257 

States & Traits .^BiS35258 

Body Transparent yP--€ .#35259 

Remember M-M #35263 




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Million^^ #352:SQ 

Sumr^^^^^ii^,.. #3527T 

Championship WSling #35273 

Caped Crusader #35274 

..#35275 





lardyll #35277 

ird Sharks #35277 

il Of Fortune II #35*^9 

pnworld ...#3^40 

Deathlord .#35281 

Comics (3-Di$k Set) ...#35282 

Acewriterll ,,.#35283 

Data Perfect #35284 

Money Tool #35287 

Beyond Zork ....#35255 

Mixed Up Mother Goose #35289 

Conflict In Vietnam #50142 

Silent Service #50060 

SargonlH #50117 

Home Video Producer #50114 



AME SPECIALS 



Revolution '76 ^. #50225 

Designasaraus...^^ #50226 

WarlocL. #50010 

Dark^slle #50227 

3^hree Stooges #50228 

Mixed Up Mother Goose #50229 

Rastan #50007 

Music Studio #50231 

Mini Putt #50006 

Bubble Ghost #50005 

Jack Nicklaus Courses Vol. 1 #50090 

Jack Nicklaus Courses Vol. 3 #50092 

Blackjack Academy #50232 

Jam Session #50042 

Qix #50230 

Mean 18 #50124 

Transylvania 3 #50015 

Sen/e and Volley #50003 

Task Force #50234 

Great Western Shootout #50233 



1«a!9e-777-3642 

20200 Nine ^^^ e Rd. St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 



WHAT 



MISTAKES? 



WHAT A HACK: There are not one, but two, errors in not one, but both of the Applesoft 
BASIC listings presented with Mike Westerfield's Weekend Hacker column on chaos 
(March/ April 1993, page 39). The most obvious blunder is the fact that Listing 1 has two line 
50s! We distinctly remember finding and correcting all the errors before going to press, but for 
some reason the corrected versions did not make it into the magazine. (For the record, the 
Applesoft versions were prepared by the // Alive staff, translated from the ORCA/Pascal ver- 
sions, and are not Mike Westerfield's work.) Here are the corrected lisUngs: 



LISTING 1 



10 
20 
30 



S = 
F - 
R = 
40 X = 
50 FOR 



1: 

100: 
2.5 
0.5 
I = 



REM Same as "start" in Pascal version 
REM Same as "finish" 



1 TO F 

5 5 IF I < S THEN GOTO 100 

60 : : Y = INT (X * 10000 +0.5) 

7 : : PRINT SPC(2) ; 

80 :: PRINT CHR$(48 * (Y<1)); 

90 :: PRINT LEFT$(STR$(X + .000001), 6 - (Y<1)), 
100 ::X=R*X* (1-X) 
110 NEXT I 



120 
130 



PRINT 
END 



LISTING 2 



10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 

210 

220 



0. 
4. 
1. 
0. 
0: 
50 



REM Same as "left" in 
REM Same as "right" 
REM Same as "top" 
REM Same as "bottom" 
VI = 0: H2 = 279: V2 
REM Same as "dump" 



= C 



LF 

RT 

TP 

BT 

HI 

DM 

PL = 50: REM Same as "plot" 

HGR: HOME: VTAB 22: HCOLOR 

FOR H = HI TO H2 

X = 0.5 

R = RT - (H2 

FOR I = 1 TO 

: : X = R * X 

NEXT I 

FOR I = 1 TO 
X = R * X 
V = INT 
HPLOT H 

NEXT I 
NEXT H 

INPUT "Press Return to exit 
TEXT : END 



Pascal version 



159: C 



H) 



(RT 



LF) / (H2 



HI) 



DM 



1 



(1 



X) 



PL 



( (TP 
V 



(1 - X) 
X) * 



(V2 - VI) / (TP 



";X$ 



.5) 



If you have already typed in and saved the old listings, the lines that changed are Lines 50, 55 
and 90 in Listing 1, and Lines 50 and 200 in Listing 2. Re-type those lines from the new list- 
ings and you should be all set (barring any typos in the rest of the program). Thanks to Phil 
Pontious of Worthington, Ohio for alerting us to the problem, and our apologies to those who 
were unable to get the programs to work. 



DESKJET PATCH: Bill Carver's Print to Publish column on Super Printers (May/June 1993, 
page 31) erroneously states that SuperPatch will allow AppleWorks to print fully-justified pro- 
portional text on the Hewlett-Packard DeskJet. It does not. Thanks to Marvin Delplane of Day- 
ton, OH (and several others) for catching us on this one. 



REVIEWER REVIEWED: In our announcement of our new review editor, Jeff Hurlburt, {Info, 
May/June 1993, page 6) we stated that Hurlburt published his own newsletter. In reality, "The 
Product Monitor" is the name of Computist's review column, not Hurlburt' s own publication. 



LETTERS 

(Continued from page 6) 

Dear II Alive, 

In looking through your magazine, I don't 
see many articles that pertain to the lie. What 
can I do vvith my lie with I megabyte RAM, 
besides AppleWorks? 

Albert Finley 
Baltimore, MD 

Albert: We didn't exactly make it clear, but 
most olthe time, when we say 'He, " we mean 
'He or later. "So when we say that an article 
or a piece ol software is for the He, we really 
mean that it is for the He, He, IIc+, and IIGS 
(since all those later machines are compatible 
with the He). If we 're talking about an interface 
card that goes into a slot, you know we really 
mean He, but mostly we really mean all 8-bit 
Apples. The only exception is m the reviews, 
where we will explicitly spell out which com- 
puters each product can be used with. There 
are several programs which will take advan- 
tage of your He's expanded memory , too — all 
the ones which use He extended memory will 
work, including Publish It! 4 and ProTERM 3. 
Another reader asked a similar question 
about the Laser 128, and the answer is exactly 
the same, except that the Laser does have a 
He-compatible expansion slot which the He 
lacks. ■ 




SUBSCRIPTION EXPIRATION: The expi- 
ration date on your mailing label indicates 
the last issue you will receive. If you are 
one of our charter subscribers (who began 
receiving II Alive with the the March/ April 
1993 issue), your mailing label will read 
JAN 94, indicating that the January/Febru- 
ary 1994 issue is your last. To continue 
receiving // Alive uninterrupted, renew 
your subscription before the date on your 
mailing label. 

DAMAGED ISSUES: If you receive a dam- 
aged issue of // Alive, we will provide you 
with a replacement copy at no charge. 
Simply call (800) 777-3642 (or contact us 
by any of the other ways listed in our mast- 
head) and let us know about the problem. 

THE VIDEO IS HERE: If you subscribed to 
II Alive during or before June 1993 and 
didn't receive your free "Apple II Review" 
video, rest assured that it's on the way. At 
press time, we didn't know whether we'd 
be mailing the video and the magazine in 
the same package. If you have not received 
your video by July 3 1 , please contact us. If 
you subscribed after June 1 , or are a con- 
verted inCider/A-i- subscriber, you may get 
the video for $7.95. 



JULY/AUGUST 



65 



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4 Classified Ads 

Become a part of // Alive 
today! Place your classified 
ad here and reach over 
65,000 subscribers. 

Contact: 

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Quality Computers 

20200 St. Clair Shores, MI 48080 

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Perfect Solutions 



Computer w/Amber w/Color 

LASER 128 289 414 488 

LASER 128EX 359 484 558 

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Repair ^^^^^^ Leiser monitor stand... 25 

Centers ^^^^^ Zoom 2400 Modem 79 

Education Laser 1 28 Expansion Cap 25 

Dealer Laser PC^: IBM. 199 Mac. .219 

PC4 to Apple II: "Bridge It" for AppleWorks 3.0 35 

Hard Drive w/card - Laser 128, He: 20/40 meg. .289/339 
Mouse: for lie w/card .89. for Laser 128. lie. c+. .70 

Safeskin Keyboard Protector for Laser 128 20 

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II ALIVE 




TimeOut 
Grammar 





Remember when spelling checkers were considered inconvenient? 
Well . . they were inconvenient. But now all word processors have 
built-in spell checking, and everyone uses them. It's the same 
with grammar checkers. Until now. New TimeOut Grammar 
adds built-in grammar checking to your AppleWorks 3.0 word 
processing. With TimeOut Grammar, you have the power to 
guard your writing against embarrassing errors. No matter what 
you write, from a high-school paper to an annual report, TimeOut 
Grammar will make it stronger, clearer and more concise. 

TimeOut Grammar Now shipping $49^^ 

suggested retail $79.95 

Save up to 55% on TimeOut programs! 
Any 3 for $79'' • Any 4 for $99'' 

77iis IS a limited time offer and does not include TimeOut Grammar 

TimeOut SuperFonts 

Now you can print out your AppleWorks 
files with fancy fonts and graphics. Super- 
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Works. SuperFonts even adds some new 
commands, like right justify and absolute 
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TimeOut Graph 

Organize your 
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choose the type of 
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it appears instant- 
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TimeOut Thesaurus 

Choose any word in the word processor and 
select Thesaurus from the TimeOut menu. 
You'll see a list of words with similar mean- 
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Choose the new word you want and The- 
saurus does the rest. $32.95 




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Print your spreadsheets and data base files 
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can print all or part of your file in a wide 
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TimeOut SuperForms 42.95 

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20200 Nine Mile Rd. • P.O. Box 665 

St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 

Phone: 313-774-7200 • Fax 313-774-2698 

Orders 1-800-777-3642 
Support 313-774-7740 



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Platinum Paint 2.0 is the powerful, award-winning 
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•Junior Version — makes Platinum Paint easier for kids. 



Platinum Paint has always been the premier IIgs paint program. Now it's even better. 




QCs Price (Retail pnce '99^') '59^' 

Upgrade for registered users ^30^ 

Alphabet Coloring Disk ^19^^ 





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20200 Nine Mile Rd. • St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080 
313-774-7200 • Fax 313-774-2698 

1 -800-777-3642 





BULK RATE 
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20200 E. Nine Mile Rd. 
St. Clair Shores, Ml 48080