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^The Databar 
Club. Join now 
and receive 8 new, 
high-quality programs 

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This magazine is only a small sample of the 
great software you get each month when 
you join the Databar Club. You will receive 
12 monthly issues, each with eight great 
programs in our comprehensive software 
series. Plus you get an attractive ring binder 
to store your programs, as well as eligibility 
to participate in exciting article and program- 
writing contests. 

The magazine you now hold is the key to 
using OSCAR, your new Bar Code Reader. It 
will show you just how easy it is to scan the 
bar code pages and unlock a whole new 
world of inexpensive and exciting software. 
In just minutes— regardless of your age or 
computer experience— you can start taking 
advantage of these easy-to-use programs. 



Databar Corporation 

Edward D. Orenstein, 

Chairman of the Board 

Leslie B. Arnold, 

President and CEO 

Stan Strong, 

Director of Software Development 
Rodney Larson, 

Director of Research and Design 

Edward J. Prokop, 

Director of Sales 

Richard D. Meiss, 

Director of Special Markets 

Vicki Schweiger, 

Director of Administration 

Dale Falk, 

President and COO, 

Falk Products Corporation 


Leslie B. Arnold 

Executive Editor 

Kim Garretson, 

Manager of 

Mary O'Harra, 

Assistant Editor 

Contributing Editors 

Dr. Patrick J. Carnes 
Healthwore ™ 

Terri A. Carnes 
Wordwore ™ 

Joseph L. Daly, J.D. 

Legal ware ™ 

Dr. Kerry Mark Joels 
Classware rM 

James R. Polzin 
Homeware ™ 

Courseware Applications, Inc. 
George Traynor, President 
Gen ware ™ 

Arthur J. Winter 
Scienceware ™ 

The Webb Company 

Don Picard, 


Gayle Bonneville, 

Managing Editor 

Jerry Johnson, 

Executive Art Director 

John Baskerville, 

Art Director 

David Steinlicht, 

Associate Artist 

Mark Simpson, 

Graphic Designer 

Barbara Lewis, 

Account Manager 

Dennis Jackson, 

Art Production Manager 

Nancy Bergstrom, 

Production Coordinator 

4 Welcome to OSCAR’s World 

7 Announcing the Databar Club 

1 2 Introducing Our Contributing 
Editors and the Databar 

1 6 Computer Gaming 

Funware ™ 

20 Climbing the Slippery 
Financial Hills 


24 To the Head of the Class 


23 To Your Health 


32 The Law and You 


36 All Around the House 


40 The World of Words 


44 The BASICs of Programming 


48 How to Use 
OSCAR Correctly 

51 OSCAR’s Match™ 


57 Financial Quiz 



75 The Law and You 


81 Triangle Solutions 



Cover photo by Bill Braly 

63 Math Challenge 1 


69 Health Assessment 

Healthware ™ 


87 Wordhabits 




93 Program in BASIC 



© 1983 by Databar Corporation. Published by The Webb Com- 
pany, 1999 Shepard Road, St. Paul, MN 551 16, for Databar Cor- 
poration, 10202 Crosstown Circle, Eden Prairie, MN 55344. 

This Publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative 
information in regard to the subjects covered. It is sold with the 
understanding that neither the Publisher nor the Authors are en- 
gaged in rendering legal, financial, health or other professional 
advice. If legal, financial, health or other professional advice is 

required, the services of a competent professional person should 
be sought. 

Paraphrased from a Declaration of Principles jointly adopted by a 
Committee of the American Bar Association and a Committee of 
Publishers and Associates. 

Reproduction in whole or in part, without written permission, is 
strictly prohibited. This magazine assumes no responsibility for the 
return of unsolicited manuscripts. 4317 







ou’ve just joined a most elite 
group. As the owner of OSCAR, 
the Optical SCAnning Reader, you’re 
now part of a revolution that puts you 
on the cutting edge of microcomputer 
technology — bar code data entry. 

With OSCAR and this magazine, 
you can, for the first time, enter soft- 
ware into a computer right off the 
printed page with simple sweeps of the 
hand. The benefits to you from this 
breakthrough are threefold: First, the 
cost of your computing plummets; sec- 
ond, the number and variety of pro- 
grams you can affordably use soars; 
and third, your computer finally 
begins to blossom into its full poten- 

Along with these benefits is a fourth 
one for the immediate future. 
OSCAR’s design is such that you’ll 
soon be seeing programs that are ever- 
increasing in sophistication and take 
less time to load into your computer 
with OSCAR. You’ll also be seeing 
accessories that allow OSCAR to work 
with new computers. The inherent 
design-for-the-future aspect of OSCAR 
will keep you on that cutting edge of 
technology for quite some time. 

Affordable Computing 

Let’s examine the first benefit — 
low-cost computing. The beauty of a 
magazine or book is its ability to 
deliver entertaining, useful words and 
pictures to you for very little money. 
That’s because putting ink on paper is 
not an expensive process. 

With bar codes, home computer 
software now can be produced as ink 
on paper, dropping the price of each 
piece of software to as little as $1.25, 
which is about the cost of a weekly 
news magazine or half the cost of a 
computer or how-to magazine. 

And you’ll soon learn that what 
you’re now holding in your hand — 
Databar Magazine — is a news maga- 
zine, a computer magazine, a how-to 
magazine and much more — it’s also a 
bundle of software, actually eight sep- 
arate packages. 

Easy-to-Receive Software 

Another beauty of the magazine is 
its ability to squeeze a lot of value into 
a little package — one small enough to 
speed through the mail and drop into 
your mailbox each month. Until 
OSCAR came along, the methods by 

Databar Magazine and 
Databar Software work 
hand-in-hand to 
entertain and inform you. 
Homeware m articles, for 
instance, give you 
comprehensive how-to 
information on family 
money matters. 
Homeware ™ software lets 
you analyze and act on 
the information for your 
own financial situation. 


which you obtained computer software 
were much more tricky and time con- 
suming, as well as more expensive. 
Even if you had the funds to regularly 
stock up on new software, the problem 
of finding the software you need or 
want in stock has often been madden- 
ing. And mail-order software buying 
has always had many drawbacks. 

Now the bother of buying software 
is wiped away by Databar Magazine. 
Not only do you have easy access to 
eight programs a month through the 
mail, you also can return to the store 
where you bought OSCAR and find a 
dozen or more new software titles each 
month, titles not available in Databar 

Easy-to-Use Software 

Not only has Databar made soft- 
ware affordable and easy to get, 
OSCAR’s parent company also has 
reinvented the way software is 
designed and sold. 

Since many computers have the 
memories to handle different facets of a 
topic, like personal finance, all at once, 
much personal finance software is 
written to use the computer’s full 
memory. But you rarely use every bit 
of this type of program at once, unless 
you plan to spend several hours with a 
program. Instead, you usually choose 
just the options in the program you’re 
most interested in at the time. 

Databar software is designed for the 
way you use software — one segment 
at a time. We’re introducing you to 
eight series of software in this issue of 
Databar Magazine. Each month you’ll 
find single installments of eight com- 
prehensive software programs in your 
issue. Pick and choose which program 
installments you want to run, when 
you want to run them. The next month 

you’ll get eight more installments. 
Databar programs allow you to switch 
to different topics in your computing 
sessions or give up the computer after 
a brief session to someone else in the 


This quick and easy approach to 
computing lets more people have more 
sessions with your computer each 
week, helping you get the full benefit 
of the computer. Using OSCAR also 
speeds the process of acclimating 
yourself and your family to the rapidly 
approaching integration of the com- 
puter into our daily activities. Practice 
the Databar way of computing, and at 
the end of a year, you’ll realize that 
you’ve explored many facets of many 
topics. You’ll also then have, in a 
three-ring binder, eight extremely 
comprehensive programs that you can 
quickly refer to, one segment at a 

Along with this friendly approach to 
computing, Databar gives you the 
opportunity to use reading to comple- 
ment and enhance your computing. In 
this magazine that is delivering your 
software, you’ll find timely, informa- 
tive and entertaining articles on the 
topics you’re computing with. The two 
work hand-in-hand. Instead of reading 
an article and putting it aside, you can 
now read the article and then delve 
into its subject with the personal 
exploration of computing. And our 
articles won’t just be computer arti- 
cles. We’ll have news features on the 
growing world of OSCAR and how-to 
articles on many topics of family inter- 
est, from managing money to building 
a deck. 


We'll showcase you and 
your family's talents in 
the Databar Club pages. 
Write articles or essays 
for the magazine and win 
prizes. Send us cartoons 
or cartoon ideas. Or write 
us with questions about 
OSCAR or about your 
home computer. Also, 
contribute to the Databar 
Program Search and see 
your programs in bar 

What About OSCAR? 

We haven’t mentioned OSCAR 
much up to this point because we 

Many Databar programs 
appeal to everybody in 
your family. Funware ™ 
games, for instance, can 
involve parents and 
children, sometimes 
competitively and 
sometimes cooperatively. 
And all games steer clear 
of violence and 


wanted to tell you about the software 
you’ll be using OSCAR with. But 
you’re probably wondering just what 
this little device you’ve purchased 
really is. 

The best way to introduce OSCAR 
is to mention the technology that 
spawned our product. You’ve seen bar 
codes in action for several years, most 
noticeably at the supermarket check- 
out counter. You may also have begun 
to notice bar codes on objects as differ- 
ent as railroad box cars, overnight 
mail envelopes, even on stickers 
applied to your suitcases on an air- 
port’s baggage carousels. Bar codes 
are popping up all over the place 
because the technology is so reliable 
and affordable for the user. 

That’s why Databar Corporation 
invented OSCAR: to give you more 
reliable and affordable software deliv- 
ery for your home computer. 
OSCAR’s advantages over your other 
options are easy to describe. Consider: 

■ Disk drives are expensive and, 
like cassette players, they rely on 
mechanical inner workings that can 
wear out or break without warning. 
OSCAR is much lower in cost and has 
no moving parts to wear out. 

■ Programs printed in letters and 
numbers in magazines take too much 
time to type into your computer. If 
you’ve ever tried typing, or keyboard- 
ing, these programs into your com- 
puter you know the time and effort 
required. Everything must be typed 
perfectly. If you have a comma out of 
place or even an extra space inserted 
anywhere, you usually must spend 
many minutes staring intently at 
every line of the program on the screen 
to spot and correct the errors. 

■ Other software typically costs 10 
to 20 times as much as Databar soft- 

ware. We’ve already mentioned how 
low in cost Databar software is, but we 
didn’t mention a fact you’re probably 
painfully aware of: Other software 
costs from $15 to more than $50 per 
program if it is on cassette tape or disk. 

What About Bar Codes? 

Bar codes have been in use in gro- 
cery stores since shortly after the Uni- 
versal Product Code (UPC) was 
adopted in 1973 in the United States. 
It is estimated that close to 5,000 


supermarkets are using bar code scan- 
ners today in the United States and 

Databar’s bar codes are not quite 
the same as other commercial bar 
codes. Our bar codes are specifically 
designed for OSCAR so you can scan 
the lines at different speeds and still 
get accurate results. 

Bar codes rely on the thickness of 
the black bars and the white spaces in 
between to carry information. 
Because computers are binary in 
nature, so are bar codes. OSCAR 
reads a given space as a 1 (black ink) or 
a 0 (white paper). A block of these 
spaces is assigned to designate a letter 
or number, and one code — such as 1- 
0-0-1-1-0 — might equal A to the com- 
puter. In addition, each line has built- 
in checks to make sure OSCAR gives 
the right code to your computer. If 
what OSCAR sent doesn’t match the 
check number, you get a friendly buzz- 
ing error message and should start 
scanning the line again. 

Let's Begin 

With this overview of OSCAR’s 
World, you’re ready to dive in and 
examine the introductory articles and 
software in this issue. Happy reading 
and bar code scanning! 

Put your computer to 
work with OSCAR for 
tasks you never imagined 
the machine was suited 
for. Many Scienceware M 
programs, for instance, 
will speed and ease your 
home improvement 
projects by calculating 
the materials needed for 
wallpapering, painting, 
building, etc. Other 
programs will help you 
choose an attorney, write 
a great love letter, set up 
a jogging schedule, and 





T his premier issue of Databar 
Magazine introduces you to quite 
a few breakthrough concepts, 
especially OSCAR and the merging of 
a magazine with home computer soft- 
ware. Now, we’ve a more familiar con- 
cept to announce: the creation of The 
Databar Club. 

Like other clubs, ours will be a 
group of friends enjoying the pursuit 
of an activity. Our activity, of course, 
is the pioneering venture in scanning 
bar code software to get the most out 
of a home computer. 

Databar’s primary purpose is to 
make sure OSCAR and Databar soft- 
ware best fit your needs. The Club 
provides the channels of communica- 
tions that let you tell us how we’re 
doing and let Databar help you get the 
maximum benefits from OSCAR. You 
and your family, as charter members 
of The Databar Club, can join in pro- 
grams and contests that will influence 
and shape the future articles and soft- 
ware you’ll find in Databar Magazine. 





F irst and foremost, The Databar 
Club is your direct link to Databar 
Corporation. If you have any com- 
ments or suggestions about OSCAR or 
Databar software, or if you’re having 
any difficulties with your OSCAR or 
your computer, Leslie Anderson, our 
Club Coordinator, wants to hear from 

Here’s how you can contact Leslie: 
If you have a tip to share with others 
about OSCAR or your computer, or if 
you want Databar’s technical experts 
to answer a question, write Leslie. 
Indicate your letter is for Ask 
OSCAR. You’ll see the first group of 
tips on page 10. 

Leslie will be asking our large staff 
of experts to help you. Our program- 
mers and other technical people have 
I spent hundreds of hours working with 
every brand of home computer, includ- 
ing yours. They know the ins and outs 
of your computer and can help you 
overcome confusion or discover new 
tricks for your computer. And, of 
course, they’ll also answer your ques- 
tions about OSCAR. 

Send your tips and questions to: 
Leslie Anderson, Ask OSCAR, Data- 
bar Magazine, 10202 Crosstown Cir- 
cle, Eden Prairie, MN 55344. 

The Databar Club will also showcase 
your family’s talents as writers, artists 
and programmers. We’re announcing 
The Databar Program Search in this 
issue. In the first monthly issue, we’ll 
tell you about how you can enter our 
contests for the best articles and 
essays, cartoons and cartoon ideas, 
and more. Start thinking now about 
sharing your creative efforts with 
Databar. Like the Databar Program 
Search, our contests can be profitable 
as well as fun. Also, as contributors to 
Databar Club activities, we’ll feature 
your family in articles and photos. 

¥ t n|| 

Club News 

T he Databar Club pages also serve 
as your monthly newsletter on 
the growing world of OSCAR. 
You’ll be reading about other publica- 
tions and software for OSCAR in the 
coming months, as well as new devel- 
opments with national organizations 
that will be expanding the use of 
OSCAR to places outside your home, 
places like schools, health organiza- 
tions, and so forth. 

These news items can give you idee 
on expanding the use of your ow 
OSCAR. For instance, you may soc 
be using OSCAR both at home and 
your local fitness center to stay on 
family fitness program. 

Other club benefits will include sp 
cial offers on Databar software, b; 
code T-shirts, OSCAR the Mom 
items and more, all for charter met 
bers only. 


In the next issue 
of Databar Magazine 

Look for these articles, programs and more: 

■ How do you teach medical self-care 
to children? We consulted Dr. Ernst 
Wynder, M.D., president of the 
American Health Foundation, and 
others to put together a comprehen- 
sive guide to setting your children on a 
health wise path at an early age. 

■ Do you feel you have writing talent, 
but face the dreaded writer’s block 
whenever you try to use that talent? A 
Wordware ™ feature article and soft- 
ware program will help you overcome 
this tricky problem. 

■ Do you like Adventure-type games? 
Caves of Mendota will provide a chal- 
lenging adventure. The F unware ™ 
article is an update on the huge strides 
computer designers are making in 
artificial intelligence. 

■ Have you had a dispute with a busi- 
ness or individual that may put you in 

small claims court? The Legalware™ 
feature article is a step-by-step 
approach to getting the most out of 
small claims court. Use the Legal- 
ware ™ software to practice how you 
would present your case. 

■ Care to feel like a big shot? Strat- 
egy™ is a Databar software program 
that simulates the fast-paced world of 
big business. You’re the president of 
your own company, competing with 
another company president to make 
the wiser decisions on expenditures 
for advertising, labor, materials and so 
forth. Strategy™ is similar to a $15 
program for the TI 99/4a called Market 
Simulation. The original concept for 
this type of simulation was developed 
at the State University of New York. 
In a feature article, we’ll see how busi- 
nesses use this and other types of com- 
puter simulations today. 

OSCAR Works 
With PCjr 

I f you’re planning to 

purchase the long-awaited 
IBM PCjr computer, get 
ready to use your OSCAR 
with the new machine. A 
cable that adapts OSCAR 
to the PCjr is available at 
the store where you 
purchased OSCAR (as of 
late spring 1984). Also, a 
special edition of Databar 
Magazine and special ver- 
sions of retail Databar 
programs will be available 
for PCjr owners. Look for 
announcements of other 
new computers that will 
use OSCAR. 

Announcing: The Databar Program Search 

I f you’ve invested hours of blood- 
sweat-and-tears in creating your 
own programs, here’s a chance to 
profit from your efforts by sharing 
your creations with other readers 
of this magazine. The Databar Pro- 
gram Search will showcase outstand- 
ing programs from club members in 
Databar Magazine by printing the 
program in bar code for OSCAR. If 
your high-quality programs are cho- 
sen, you’ll receive $500 and be fea- 
tured with an article and photo in the 

What types of programs are we 
interested in? We will review any pro- 
gram designed for household enter- 
tainment and information. You can 
submit a program on the subjects of 

our seven topic series, or create a new 
subject for our Genware™ , or General 
Interest, series. What are some possi- 
ble topics you could use to design your 
program? You might consider family 
recreation activities such as camping 
and traveling by car. What home 
improvement tasks could be supported 
with easy Databar programs? Can you 
create fun and intriguing games for 
kids and adults? Can you teach readers 
something in an entertaining way? Put 
your imagination to work or call on 
other family members or friends to 
help you create and draft fun, useful 
programs. To get ideas for how long or 
complex to make your program, study 
the Databar software in this issue. 

To join this activity, send for our 

Program Search submission form 
(address below). Please don’t send 
programs. We’ll be asking you on the 
submission form to outline your pro- 
gram, write a short article describing 
the merits of the program and list the 
operating instructions. Here are two 
of the questions you’ll be answering on 
the submission form: 

1) What are the best qualities of 
your program? 

2) Is your program a game, tuto- 
rial, simulation, drill and practice, or a 
computer-assisted instruction? 

For a Program Search submission 
form, write: The Databar Club Pro- 
gram Search, 10202 Crosstown Circle, 
Eden Prairie, MN 55344. 


Can we help you? And can you help us? 

The Databar Club’s ASK OSCAR 
feature will try to answer any ques- 
tions you may have about OSCAR, his 
programs or even your own computer 
equipment. In the process of prepar- 
ing programs for OSCAR, we’ve 
learned quite a bit about the Commo- 
dore®, TI®, Atari®, TRS Color Com- 
puter® and many others. If we have 
any knowledge we can share with you, 
we’ll be glad to. Just ask! 

We can’t promise to print every let- 
ter we get, but we’ll answer all of 
them. Send your letters to ASK 
OSCAR, The Databar Club, 10202 
Crosstown Circle, Eden Prairie, MN 

Here are some questions we 
received recently. 

What can I do if I spill something 
on my bar code pages? — Jim C., 
West St. Paul, MN 

OSCAR says : “There is a thin coat 
of protective varnish over all the bar 
code pages, but it won’t protect the 
codes long if liquid is spilled on them. 
Dab and soak up the spill as quickly as 
you can, but DON’T RUB. If you 
smear the bar code ink, OSCAR may 
have trouble reading it. Let the paper 
dry completely, then try to read it with 
OSCAR. Even if the paper is stained, 
the bar codes may still read. If a bar 
code page is destroyed, you can buy a 
replacement copy of the program. 
Check with the store where vou 

« j 

bought OSCAR or contact Customer 
Service at Databar for help in 
replacing the program.” 

My wife complains that all the 
wires and power supply boxes 
around my desk are messy. Any 
ideas? — Alan H., Chicago, IL 

OSCAR says: “You bet! Here’s a tip 
even many pros haven’t thought of. If 
you have a desk with drawers, see if 

you can remove the back of a drawer 
and anchor power supplies, etc. , to the 
drawer bottom, running the cords to 
your hardware and power supply out 
the back. Gather all the excess cord in 
the drawer except some slack to let 
you open and close the drawer, 
securing the coiled cords with rubber 

Once I've taken the Health 
Assessment™ quiz, what do I do 
with it? — Adrienne T., Houston, 

OSCAR says: “The joy of all the 
Health-ware ™ quizzes is their what-if 
capability. After you have entered all 
the answers as honestlv as vou can and 
have the computer’s assessment of 
your health, then do it again. But this 
time, decide what bad health habit you 
have that you are most likely to be 
successful in changing, and change 
your answer. The computer will give 
you the effects of your change. You can 
use these scenarios with all OSCAR’s 
quizzes to see how specific changes will 
affect your life.” 

I just purchased OSCAR and I've 
noticed the wand reads some 
lines the first time through and 
other times it takes me several 
tries. Is something wrong? — 
Bradford €., San Diego, CA 

OSCAR says: “Probably not, but you 
have to get used to using OSCAR’s 
wand just as you would any other 
precision electronic instrument. Keep 
at it, and pretty soon you’ll know from 
experience exactly how much pressure 
to put on and how fast to move it. Here 
are two tips if you keep having trouble. 
(1) A major cause of reading problems 
is a dirty wand tip. A referral to the 
cleaning instructions in your owner’s 
manual might be helpful; (2) adjust the 
template slightly — sometimes a tiny 
blemish on the bar code will cause a 

hangup and even the smallest 
adjustment will enable OSCAR’s 
wand to read the code correctly.” 


How can I stop the listing of a 
BASIC program in my Atari 
without having to type 
something like, "List 200,300" to 
get another part of the program 
each time? — Mindy R., Wooster, 

OSCAR says: “Try pressing 
CONTROL and 1 at the same time. 
That should stop the program 
temporarily. Another CONTROL-1 
makes the listing resume.” 

I'm considering one of the new 
computers for my home, but I 
don't plan to put my current 
computer on mothballs. Can I use 
OSCAR for both? — C. Moxley, 
Phoenix, A Z 

OSCAR says: “You probably can. 
Simply return to the store where you 
bought OSCAR and inquire about a 
cable to connect OSCAR to the second 
computer. If your computer is one of 
the new-generation machines, check 
the Databar Club News pages each 
month for news of new accessories to 
adapt OSCAR to new machines, like 
the IBM PCjr.” 

Does being right- or left-landed 
affect my use of OSCAR? — Jerry 
P., Mt. Pleasant, IA 

OSCAR says: “It shouldn’t, but 
individuals vary in terms of how 
dominant their 'right-handedness’ is. 
If you are having trouble getting bar 
codes to read consistently, try this: 
Shift OSCAR’s template slightly in the 
direction opposite of your dominant 
hand, i.e., to the left if you’re 
right-handed and to the right if you’re 
left-handed. We’ve found that this 
seems to help OSCAR work more 
consistently with some people.” 


That’s right. When you join the Databar Club you get 
12 issues of Databar Magazine. ..each featuring eight 
great programs and costing you only $10.00 per 
issue. That’s an incredible savings of almost 90% 
per program over suggested retail prices. Each 
month you get ongoing Databar programs in games 
...math and science. ..reading and writing 
skills. matters... home finances... 
and learning to program in BASIC. 

Plus Databar Magazine gives you more of what you 
bought a computer for. You get informative and 
interesting articles on how to best utilize Databar 
software programs, as well as feature articles on the 
same subjects as the software. All articles stand on 
their own as useful, entertaining material your whole 
family will enjoy. And, like the articles, the accom- 
panying software is written in the kind of “plain 
language” that can make the difference between a 
program that sits on the shelf and one that finds its 
way into your everyday life. Best of all — the maga- 
zine and its software comes right to your door 
each month. 

In addition to the magazine, Databar Club charter 
members receive an attractive ring binder for their 
programs, plus eligibility for exciting article and pro- 
gram writing contests with cash prizes. 

To find out how you can take advantage of this incredible offer, turn to the last page of this magazine. Then start 
your adventure with OSCAR today! 

OF $1.25 EACH. 

DATABAR CORPORATION, 10202 Crosstown Circle, Eden Prairie, MN 55344, Phone: 612-944-5700 

Among the contributing editors 
to Databar Magazine are (left 
to right) Dr. Patrick Carnes, 

Dr. Joseph Daly, Terri Carnes, 
Dr. Kerry Mark Joels, George 
Traynor, Arthur Winter and 




he software and articles in Databar 
Magazine cover a wide variety of subjects: 
law, health, computers, games, science, 
writing, education and finance. We set out to 
gather the best information on these fields. 

The result is our panel of contributing editors. 
They’re experts in their fields, and they come 
from all over the country. With their 
knowledge, as well as their access to the other 
experts and the latest research, they’ve helped 
develop the information you’ll find in this and 
future issues of Databar Magazine. Their 
expertise will help us help you. Here’s a more 
detailed look at the panel . . . 


George Traynor 

President of Courseware 
Applications, Inc., a computer-based 
training firm he founded with 
partner Thomas Schaefges. 

Judith Lateer 

Writer and instructional materials 
developer. Writes documentation for 
computer systems and educational 
courses for computer-based 

The key to the future 
is managing 

information. And the way 
to do that is through 
computers, so you need to 
know a computer 
language. ” 

Terri Carnes 

Writer and vice-president of 
Workshop Design Associates Inc., a 
national consulting group on health 
and education issues. 

People will be able 
to learn faster with 
their computers. That’s 
exciting to me. 

Word ware ™is- going to 
make an effort to say 
‘Everyone can write.’ The 
more they write, the 
easier it is.” 

Arthur Winter 

Los Angeles, Calif.; an engineering 
consultant, teacher and holder of 
numerous patents. President of AJ 
Winter Corp. 

The Scienceware™ 
series will be of 
value to homeowners who 
don’t necessarily knoiv 
math and science, giving 
them practical 
applications of these 
topics. Math and science 
students also will enjoy 
the series.” 

Dr. Kerry Mark Joels 

Alexandria, Va.; consultant, author 
and lecturer on computers and 
aerospace technology. Former 
college instructor and contractor to 

Jo Ann Joels 

Has worked as a computer 
programmer, program analyst and 
consultant on micro-computer 
software development. Currently 
works for an educational software 
development company. 

The look in a 
Kali student’s eyes when 
he finally grasps an idea 
is something you’ll never 
forget. We hope 
Glassware ™ will produce 
many such moments in 
your home.” 


Dr. Patrick Carnes 

Internationally known behavioral 
scientist, author and lecturer. 
Director of Family Renewal Center at 
a Minneapolis hospital. Project 
consultant for U.S. Air Force Family 
Matters Office. 


What Health ware™ 
does is to make your 
home computer an 
“in-house” consultant on 
health. It’s almost like 
having a concerned health 
professional right in your 
living room. ” 

Joseph L. Daly, J.D. 

James Polzin 

President of a financial planning 
and investment management firm. 
Writer and lecturer on financial 

What we’re trying to 

do with Homeware™ 
is to make financial 
planning as simple as 
possible to allow any 
individual to develop, 
implement and monitor 
their own financial plan, 
giving people more 
control over their own 
financial health.” 

Professor of law, chairman of the 
Center for Community Legal 
Education at Hamline University, St. 
Paul, Minn., and a book and 
magazine author. Active in 
law-related community education 

If we’re going to 
continue to live in a 
free society ... we need 
to have an educated 
population — educated in 
the sense of how they can 
shape their own destiny 
through law.” 




Our prestigious group of contribut- 
ing editors is supported by a large, 
highly skilled staff of professionals at 
Databar Corporation. We thought a 
glimpse of some of these people would 
acquaint you better with the people 
behind OSCAR. 

Before going into specifics, we want 
to emphasize that the work these spe- 
cialists and others do at Databar Cor- 
poration is designed to make sure your 
OSCAR has ever-increasing uses to 
help you get the most out of your home 
computer. Also, they’re working to 
make sure Databar software provides 
the kind of useful, entertaining pro- 
grams everyone in your family is 
drawn to. All of these Databar people 
are anxious to provide programs you 
want. So let us know what you need or 
want by communicating through The 
Databar Club (see page 7). 

The Path To Databar Software 

The lively, entertaining feature 
articles you’ll read in each issue of 
Databar Magazine come directly from 
our contributing editors and their indi- 
vidual panels of experts. Much of the 
Databar software you’ll find in this 
magazine and for sale at retail stores 
also originates with our contributing 
editors. The software, however, 
doesn’t come to fruition until the soft- 
ware development wizards at Databar 
take over. Our contributing editors 
sketch out the objectives for many of 
the software programs and suggest 
some of the “how-to’s” for implement- 
ing their ideas. 

The editors’ first contact with Data- 


The technical support staff 
at Databar has devoted 
many hours to making sure 
OSCAR is reliable, 
long-lasting and easy to 

bar is with the Series Supervisors 
assigned to them. Databar Series 
Supervisors take the submitted soft- 
ware ideas, or develop their own, and 
conduct an initial research project on 
the topic. Our Series Supervisors have 
diverse backgrounds; some were 
teachers with advanced degrees in 
curriculum development before join- 
ing Databar. And our superb game 
designer and editor of the F unware™ 
articles is a professional jazz musician 
and a former state chess champion who 
does some amazing things with the 
games you’ll be seeing. 

When the Series Supervisors have 
mapped out the strategies for devel- 
oping a program, they turn the project 
over to the Databar programmers. 
Databar programmers are charged 
with the task of compressing as much 
data as possible into a program and 
adding interest to the programs with 
graphics, humor and other devices. 
Databar programmers also are 
experts at programming the various 
computers OSCAR is designed to 
work with and have developed short- 
cuts and unique techniques for the dif- 
ferent brands of computers. All share 
the trait of having extensive experi- 
ence in programming home com- 
puters. Many of them started like you, 
with the purchase of a home computer 
and a few sessions with a program- 
ming textbook. 

your home computer, our research and 
development staff are engaged in the 
development of improved versions of 
our unique bar code scanner. 

Our technical support people 
already have spent many months in 
developing and testing OSCAR, mak- 
ing it reliable, long-lasting and easy for 
everybody to use. This group also has 
devoted hundreds of hours to making 
sure OSCAR will be a reliable, low- 
cost product. 

Databar Corporation’s manufactur- 
ing is based in Montevideo, Minn., 
where a large group of skilled manu- 
facturing employees is busily building 
thousands of OSCARs to expand the 
world of bar code scanning you’re now 
a part of. 

Databar's Series Supervisors 
bring varied skills to their 
work. Their role is to re- 
search proposed software 
topics and determine how 
suitable these ideas are for 
Databar programs. 

Compiling as much useful 
information as possible into 
a program, and often 
adding a little humor, is the 
goal of the Databar pro- 

The OSCAR Side of Databar 

While our software development 
personnel are busy developing useful, 
entertaining software for OSCAR and 


“Games,” Ben Franklin once said, 
“lubricate the mind and the 
body.” Throughout the ages, 
games have entertained us and 
taught us. Whether we’re setting 
up the checkerboard or watching 
nations gather for the Olympics, 
games teach us valuable lessons: 
physical and mental skill, fair 

competition, coordination 
and teamwork. 

Good computer games 

are no different. Your 
PATnnntpr pan t>P t.hf 1 kev 

to endless challenges. And with 
OSCAR and Funware ™ 
programs, computer gaming goes 
beyond the mind-numbing 
blasting of space creatures and 
destruction of odd-looking 
characters who inhabit the world 
of video arcades. OSCAR and 
Funware ™ will introduce you to 
a new world — one filled with 
the clever tactics of ancient 
Egyptians, mathematical logic, 
intricate mazes, even secret 
codes. They will be games that 
require quick wits and logical 
thinking. Games that distinguish 
between the “button-pushers” 
and the true “gamers.” 


The Bettmann Archive 



S tep inside your neighborhood 
video arcade or watch the kids 
hunched over home arcade 
games. The fascination on the faces is 
striking. Also striking, and somewhat 
unsettling, is the fact that most of 
these children are playing destroy-or- 
be-destroyed games. The victims may 
be spaceships, energy chompers or 
gophers, but always something or 
somebody gets obliterated. 

But games can do more and be more, 
for young and old alike. Board games 
such as checkers help develop logic, 
planning skills and foresight. The pop- 
ular game Concentration helps 
develop good memory skills. Fantasy 
games exercise our imaginations. Co- 
operative, non-competitive games 
help us learn teamwork. Monopoly 
teaches advanced economic principles, 
while Scrabble sharpens language 
skills. And games are not just child’s 

play. One eminent psychologist said, 
“We don’t stop playing because we 
grow old. We grow old because we 
stop playing.” 

A Little History 

Games in one form or another have 
been around since long before 
recorded history. The earliest games 
used sticks, stones and other natural 
objects. As people learned to make and 
use different tools and objects, their 
games changed. 

One of the most significant inven- 
tions in the history of games was the 
ball. The Egyptians, Greeks, Persians 
and Romans all had games in which 
some type of ball was used. The 
Romans even had an area in their pub- 
lic baths set aside for playing ball. 

As technology changed, scores of 
new ball games emerged. No one 
knows who invented the rubber ball 

and the air-filled ball, but their impact 
on the nature of ball games certainly 
has been profound. Even in this cen- 
tury, changes in the design and compo- 
sition of footballs and golf balls have let 
players improve and refine their per- 

Playing areas also have had a tre- 
mendous impact on the development of 
games. The modern game of tennis had 
its origins in the courtyards and cas- 
tles of France, where clever courtiers 
used the castle walls as backboards 
and boundaries. 

Board and card games have origins 
stretching back thousands of years. A 
version of backgammon, for example, 
was played in Egypt about 3000 B.C. 
The Greeks and Romans invented a 
version closer to the modern game. 
And the board for backgammon was 
developed in the Mediterranean in the 
10th century, though it was not until 


1743 that Fred Hoyle first chronicled 
its rules. 

Chess probably originated in India, 
long before recorded history and found 
its way to the West about the 7th cen- 
tury. The shapes and moves of the 
original pieces reflect Indian culture: 
elephants (the bishop), chariots 
(rooks), horses (knights) and foot sol- 
diers (pawns). Countless refinements 
and rule changes have produced 
today’s game, which has existed in its 
present form for well over a century. 

Computers Enter The Game 

One version of backgammon was 
invented about 3000 B.C. Above is 
a 16th-century artist's depiction of 
the game. 

Chess is also a way to study what is 
called artificial intelligence. The game 
is complex enough to have almost an 
infinite possibility of moves. It’s 
impossible even for the largest, fastest 
computers to analyze all possible 
moves, and there isn’t enough memory 
| available to program all possible chess 
° moves into memory, so the computer 
| must imitate some of the same deci- 
I sion-making processes that humans go 
- through. Writing computer programs 
that play chess well has enabled us to 
learn more about how the human brain 

Due to the nature of computers (and 
computer programmers), computers 
played games from the start. 

Artificial and imaginary playing 
surfaces have long been a part of many 
games. Small children routinely trans- 
form their play space into fantasy 
worlds — from hospitals to space sta- 
tions. The computer opens up fantastic 
new playing surfaces. Computers can 
imitate and enhance familiar playing 
surfaces like a baseball diamond or 
checkerboard, or they can display 
amazing new “playing areas” that add 
new dimensions to the worlds on the 

Just a few years ago, the age of tech- 
nology touched backgammon when the 
world champion was beaten by a com- 
puter. But chess is probably the game 
at the focus of most serious computer 
work. Despite preliminary work 
started in the late 1940s, chess-playing 
computers weren’t available until the 
1960s. By the 1970s computer chess 

ability was becoming ever-more 

v \ 


impressive. In 1968 British master 
David Levy bet over $2,000 that no 
computer would be able to beat him 
within 10 years. Levy won the bet in 
1978, in Toronto, defeating a program 
called Chess 4.7. But Levy nearly had 
his wallet lightened by the computer’s 
skill. By move 14 of the first game, 
Chess 4.7 had him in a losing position; 
he was fortunate to end the game in a 
draw. He did lose Game 4, but won the 
match with a 3V2 — IV 2 score. He won 
his bet, but ended any notion that com- 
puters can’t beat good players. 

Today the best computer programs 
can be beaten only by the top players in 
the world. 

More Serious Games 

Games of a more serious nature, 
known as simulations, are a major 
focus of today’s computer research. 
F orecasting weather is an example of a 
simulation with far-reaching impact on 
the world. Incredible quantities of 
data must be analyzed to accurately 
predict future weather patterns. Com- 
puters are perfect for this type of 

Economic simulations also are an 
ever-more-important planning tool in 
the hands of economic planners. Econ- 
omists attempt to predict future 
trends by varying certain economic 
factors and then watching the results 


Board games date back thousands 
of years. Here, on a vase dated 
540 B.C., Achilles and Aias play a 
chess-like board game. 

;■ tSSW 

\ Jt? 


Fun vs. Violence 

T he declining participation in 
video arcade games points up 
something that many experts have 
been expecting all along: that 
games with an emphasis on violence 
not only aren’t doing anything posi- 
tive for young people, but they 
aren’t even very much fun. 

Once the novelty of zap-pow-bam 
laser fights with swarming aliens 
wore off, attendance at the video 
game parlors started declining. In 
1983, attendance was down to 
nearly half of what it was the year 
before. Authorities on child psy- 
chology have long told us that a 
game that lets children use their 
imagination and intellectual skills is 
one that they will play and keep on 
playing. And it will help develop 

their mental faculties, as well. 

That’s the basis of Databar Mag- 
azine’s F unware ™ games — com- 
petitive fun without the overt and 
implied violence that makes so 
many video games a source of worry 
to parents and educators. Games in 
Databar Magazine are designed to 
provide a maximum of fun and the 
development of mental skills. 

Take OSCAR’s Match™ , for 
example. The game puts a premium 
on the ability to retain the location 
of numbers for a short period of 
time. In the process of having a fun 
game children — and adults, too — 
can train their minds to retain infor- 
mation more effectively. To enjoy 
OSCAR’s Match™ , turn to page 51. 

in the highly-complex model the com- 
puter “builds.” 

The movie Wargames was based on 
the idea of a slightly confused Defense 
Department computer attempting to 
launch nuclear missiles while playing a 
game called, “Global Thermonuclear 
War.” While the military establish- 
ment has poo-pooed the possibility of 
such an event happening, there is no 
doubt that computer simulations play 
a big part in training military officers 
in all the services. 

If you’ve been using your computer 
to play games, you know how it can 
sharpen your wits and your hand-eye 
coordination. Computer games can be 

a healthy option for children. Most 
children’s play imitates adult activities 
— using dolls and trucks, for example. 
What better way for children to grow 
into our rapidly expanding information 
society than with computer games? 
Even the other major focus of chil- 
dren’s play — fantasy — is enhanced 
with computer games. Players can 
imagine they are space explorers, or 
even ancient knights flying through 
space or winding around a dense, dark 

Games are an excellent way to get 
acquainted with computing. With 
other types of software you’re more 
concerned about the results — the per- 

sonal facts and figures — than how the 
computer works. But games pique 
your curiosity to find out where the fun 
comes from. 

Look for games that, like OSCAR’s 
F unware™ , steer clear of destruction. 
You can be competitive, but pit your- 
self against the computer or another 
player to accomplish a goal. 

Some games, especially role-playing 
fantasy games, encourage coopera- 
tion. By taking turns with a partner in 
these games, you’ll both learn a win- 
ning solution. You’ll collect objects, 
build up points and uncover secrets 
held in the programmed fantasy 


U p until now, the trouble 
with trying to do your 
own financial planning has 
been the tedium of the 
task. You gathered a good supply 
of sharp pencils — and even more 
erasers — fired up the pocket 
calculator, stole a quick glance at 
the kids’ algebra books to refresh 
your memory about compounding 
simple interest and locked 
yourself away for a marathon 
frustration session that often 
produced more frustration than 

Homeware ™ and OSCAR are 
going to change all that. Our 
articles and software condense 
hours of laborious hand 
calculations into minutes and give 
you straight answers to the tough 
questions you’re asking about 
what the future holds in store for 
your pocketbook. 

With Homeware™ you ease 
into making your home computer 
work as a smart financial 
planner. For instance, one 
upcoming program will let you 
see in minutes the tax 
advantages an IRA (Individual 
Retirement Account) will give 

you, not some hypothetical 
family. It will even allow you — 
with just the press of a few keys 
on your home computer — to 
compare one kind of IRA with 
other kinds to find the best one 
for your family. 

Future Homeware™ programs 
will let you figure out your net 
worth easily, prepare and plan 
your income taxes, and figure out 
your return on an investment. 
Most importantly, Homeware™ 
will help take the drudgery out of 
financial planning and make it 
into a challenging and rewarding 
family project. 




T he world — especially the financial 
world — is changing so rapidly it’s 
hard to keep up with our meager 
personal chunks of the whole money 
pie. The economy spurts and sputters. 
The financial markets flood the media 
with new financial product ads. And all 
the while, we see our family’s financial 
requirements growing more complex. 

These are troubling times. Will you 
have enough money to retire in the 
style you’d like to? Is there enough in 
the bank to put your children through 
college? Would a medical emergency 
wipe you out? 

Families whose financial futures 
look rosy are those flexible enough 
today to plan their financial futures, to 
be ready to meet emergencies that 
may happen and to be prepared to take 
advantage of some exciting invest- 
ment opportunities rising to the sur- 
face in the churning economy. 

Financial planning doesn’t need to 
be tough. It’s nothing more than an 


organized, systematic approach 
to steering money matters toward 
reachable goals. And if you utilize a 
home computer program, such as 
Homeware ,™ it is also quick and sim- 

The real advantage to computer 
financial planning is that it gives a 
speedy answer to questions like, “I 
wonder what would happen if . . .” 

What happens to your tax status if 
you make gifts to your children today 
for their college educations? What’s 
your take-home pay if you earn $100 
more each month? What if your favor- 
ite stock isn’t appreciating as fast as 
the cost of living? What is your tax sit- 
uation if you sell it? What if you take 
your money out of a low-interest pass- 
book account at the bank and put it in a 
money market account? What happens 
if you become disabled? 

Your computer can answer these 
questions almost as fast as you can ask 

Financial Planning Steps 

Here is the path OSCAR and 
Homeware ™ will set you on. 

■ Discovery. You need to delve into 
the truth of your own financial situa- 
tion. Start by collecting and organizing 
your family’s financial records: check- 
book, cancelled checks, paycheck 
stubs, income tax returns (both state 
and federal), credit contracts, insur- 
ance policies and savings and invest- 
ment records, etc. You need to know 
where you are starting from if you 
want to reach the goals you set. The 
Financial Quiz ™ on page 57 will help 
you get started on this step. 

■ Exploring the future. In this step 
you will take your family’s current 
financial needs in detail and project 
them into the future. By doing this, 
you and your family will be able to 
develop realistic financial goals, as 
well as steer clear of potential prob- 
lems. Questions you’ll probe include, 
“Does our family need to establish a 
college fund? How much savings will I 
need when I retire? What happens to 
my family if I die?” 

■ Learning. There are scores of 
investments available in today’s finan- 
cial community. Knowing which will 
pay off best or quickest takes a little 
digging, because there are advantages 
and disadvantages to each. Which is 
best for you depends strictly on your 
personal situation. You’ll have to con- 
sider such questions as, “What type of 
investor am I? What type of invest- 
ments do I prefer?” Also, “How do out- 
side economic variables affect the 
investments I choose?” 

■ Tracking and Updating. When you 
set up your financial plan on your com- 
puter, Homeware ™ will help you track 
your success. As your family’s finan- 
cial needs change, you’ll be ready to 
update the plan. You’ll answer such 

questions as, “Are the investments I 
started out with paying off? Would I be 
better off selling them? How is the 
economy affecting my current invest- 
ments? Do I need to revise my goals to 
be more realistic?” 

What About the Future? 

In the next ten years or so, your 
family has the chance to get in on the 
ground floor in several areas of vital 
importance to their financial health. 

Your money is actively being sought 
by a number of large, evolving finan- 
cial institutions. As a result new types 
of investments will be popping up in 
the future. The smart investor will be 
ready to take advantage of these new 
investments as they become available. 

During the 1960s, financial markets 
grew steadily. But today, the only con- 
stant is constant change. Every day, 
by doing nothing more complicated 
than pressing a key or two on a com- 
puter, billions of dollars flow from one 
investment into another. With the 
help of computers, important invest- 
ment decisions that once required days 
of lengthy analysis are made now in 
minutes or hours. 

The fluctuating financial markets 
create profitable investment oppor- 
tunities (with a high degree of risk 


lit** U * ... • 


sometimes) for you — if you’re knowl- 
edgeable and alert. But the family that 
doesn’t budget enough time to monitor 
its investments closely risks big 
money. You can reduce the time you 
need to spend by using your computer 
to both keep track of, and predict, 
investments and savings. 

Taxes and Inflation 

You can’t pick up a newspaper today 
without reading about everybody’s 
concern over the federal deficit (the 
difference between the tax money 
Uncle Sam collects and the money he 

Federal finances exert a sharp influ- 
ence over our financial well being. Our 
tax money is helping buoy the seem- 
ingly shaky national economy. To 
reduce the deficit, the government has 
three likely options it may choose: 

■ Cut spending, tough to do when 
there’s an election at stake; our leaders 
don’t want to take funds away from 

■ Print more money. The result usu- 
ally is increasing inflation. 

■ Raise taxes, another tough action in 
an election year. 

Whatever option the government 
chooses, planning ahead for a changing 
economy is still the best advice for 
vour familv. 


New Careers 

With affordable computer tech- 
nology moving into our family rooms, 
some old ways of doing things are 
vanishing. Soon, a lot of banking will 
be done over the telephone by com- 

The computer revolution may also 
change your work situation. For one 
thing, jobs related to computers are 
burgeoning — information processing, 
computer technology and human ser- 
vices. Today, “computer literacy” is a 
major goal in many of our school sys- 
tems, and it’s fast becoming a basic 
requirement for getting a job. 

With your home computer — and 
OSCAR — you can be ready for the 
changing financial picture and make 
the right decision at the right time. 

How Good is Your Financial Health? 

A ssessing your financial health 
can be a lot like the weather, 
with everyone talking about it and 
no one doing anything constructive. 
This month’s Homeware™ program 
launches the Homeware ™ series by 
quizzing you on the state of your 
financial health. 

You may have taken such quizzes 
before, perhaps in newspapers or 
magazines. But this one is a little 
different. It not only prompts you 
for the answer, but gives the 
answer a carefully calculated 
“weighting” so that it has a realistic 

effect on the final result. 

And, instead of giving you some 
artificial mathematical score, 
OSCAR’s Homeware ™ program 
tells you bluntly what kind of shape 
you are in. In future issues of Data- 
bar Magazine , the Homeware ™ 
programs will help show you how to 
improve your personal financial pic- 

Now, to see just what kind of 
shape you are in, turn on your com- 
puter, get OSCAR ready and turn 
to page 57. 


ast year more than 
100,000 computers 
were used in 

classrooms around the country. 
By 1985 that number may rise to 
300,000, and by 1990, one out of 
every four school children will 
have access to a computer. 

The attraction, speculate 
experts, may well be that 

Head of 

the Class 

children feel they have a lot of 
control over the machine and 
therefore have control over their 
abilities to learn. Children also 
like the computer’s tireless 
patience, which lets them learn at 
their own pace, without 
frustration because other 
students are far ahead or behind. 

Classware ™ is designed to take 
advantage of that built-in affinity 
that kids have for computers and 
help them utilize your home 
computer as a learning aid. 
Classware ™ will present a 
variety of programs to help your 
child learn math, social studies 

and other topics — and do it in 
such an entertaining way that t] 
learning is fun, not frustrating. 

Databar Magazine will bring 
you different Classware ™ 
programs each month, building 
whole series of basic skills and 
other learning activities. Progra 
skill levels will range from 
pre-school to junior high school. 
High school and college students 
are more likely to be able to use 
other programs in Databar 
Magazine , such as Scienceware 1 
or Wordware. ™ In addition, oth< 
Classware ™ programs will be 
available at retail stores. We 
plan to provide a comprehensive 
curriculum covering math, readi 
science and the humanities. 

We’ve appointed an advisory 
board, educational experts who 
will oversee the development of 
educational programs and 
software. They have expertise ir 
many disciplines and elementary 
curriculum areas. New members 
will be appointed to the board as 
we grow. A monthly article will 
bring you the latest information! 
on education, not just computers! 
in education. Guest articles and I 
special features will make you a] 
better architect of your child’s I 
home education and a better I 
observer of your child’s school I 
education. I 





Imagine yourself in a classroom a 
hundred years ago: rows of wooden 
desks, a map hung at the front of the 
room above the teacher’s desk, the flag 
proudly displayed and a wood stove 
standing in the corner. Each desk has a 
slate and inkwell. The students wear 
calico and denim, and often walk miles 
every day to learn here. 

You still see a lot of denim in today’s 
classrooms, and calico is even getting 
fashionable again. Even the classroom 
looks somewhat similar — minus the 
wood-burning stove, of course. But 
instead of slates and inkwells, many of 

lotography by Steve Umland 


it The computer 
can also be a 
center of family 
learning as well 
as fun. Parents 
and children can 
utilize this highly 
machine and 
learn together.” 

today’s children have a revolutionary 
learning tool: the computer. 

The revolution doesn’t necessarily 
mean that computers are going to take 
equal importance to the time-honored 
school subjects of English, math, sci- 
ence and others. This is not the mes- 
sage you get from computer magazines 
and other media. All now say we must 
teach our children computer literacy 
along with their other subjects. 

Making Computers 

At Databar Magazine we’re going 
to sound a different message and not 
promote computer literacy. Why? 
Because we think it’s too tough a task. 
Look at how rapidly computer 
technology is moving, spawning new 
generations of almost every computer 
every few months. Even OSCAR will 
be changing in the near future, 
allowing you to update your current 
bar code scanner and software. How 
can any of us, much less our children, 
stay abreast of all new computer 
developments? We can’t, and we don’t 
think it’s that important. Instead, 
Databar is going to help you to ride 
along with the trend of computer 
technology, the making of computers 
people-literate. Our Glassware ™ 

series is going to concentrate on the 
traditional school subjects, using the 
computer only as a tool to learn those 

How Should We Think of This 
Tool Then? 

The computer can also be a center of 
family learning as well as fun. Parents 
and children can utilize this highly 
motivational machine and learn 
together. In fact, in a role-reversal 
surprising to some adults, many par- 
ents are finding their children to be 
excellent teachers on the computer. 
Since children are less embarrassed by 
mistakes and are almost totally uninti- 
midated by computers, they approach 
computers with open minds and a 
sense of adventure. The familiar image 
of the adult reading a book to the child 
in his lap is being replaced by the 
image of the warm glow of the monitor 
screen bathing the faces of two adven- 
turers in electronic learning. 

Like all learning devices, the com- 
puter is subject to misunderstanding. 
It’s not a panacea for all learning diffi- 
culties. It doesn’t replace books. It 
certainly doesn’t replace the all-impor- 
tant personal contact between student 
and teacher or child and parent. But it 
can give an edge in learning by making 
what used to be the task of learning 
into the adventure of learning. 

Educational Software 

A lot of educational software is on 
the market for almost all computers. 
But quantity is not quality. Three 
principal problems face parents in 
search of good educational software 
for their children: Poor software, high 
prices (which limit the amount of soft- 
ware you can afford) and machine 
incompatibility (which means that the 
piece of software that would be perfect 
for your kids doesn’t run on your com- 

The situation is improving, how- 
ever. Software writers are paying sig- 
nificant amounts of attention to educa- 
tional software for children. 
Educators are interested in finding 
software that is more than just elec- 
tronic worksheets and bells-and-whis- 
tles games. They want children to 
have access to learning experiences 
that stretch their creativity, insight 


and imagination, and they want their 
expensive teaching tools — the class- 
room computers — to be fully utilized. 

Software for home use need not be 
compatible with software being used 
at school — though sometimes it would 
help eliminate confusion. But the home 
software should support classroom 
efforts. A call to the teacher to check 
on what’s being used at school is a 
smart step. 

There’s useful and educational soft- 
ware for home computers that is also 
fun to use. You’ll find some in this mag- 
azine, and much more on your com- 
puter dealer’s shelves. 

To see what sorts of computer activ- 
ities your child enjoys or prefers, why 
not sit down and play at the computer 
with him some night? You needn’t 
limit yourself to math drills, vocabu- 
lary flash cards and geometry soft- 
ware, either. There’s software avail- 
able for music, history, geography, 
science, English, art, social studies 
and many other subjects. Your com- 
puter should have a comprehensive 
software package if it is to be a really 
useful learning tool. Andall of the 
above-mentioned areas should be 
available for whatever machine you 

Cost of Programs 

How much does a program cost? On 
the average, a program will cost any- 
where from $20 to $40, available in cas- 
sette or diskette. In addition, there 
are much lower-priced — but equally 
good — bar code programs you can 
purchase for less than $10. (The pro- 
grams in Databar Magazine — which 
you will receive when you join the 
Databar Club — cost only $1.25 each!) 

The students of today have a tool 
that our early 19th century forebears 
couldn’t have imagined: a machine that 
can do more calculations in an instant 
than they could do in a week. While our 
world is far more complex than theirs, 
the computer can be a learning tool to 
smooth out that complexity and make 
easy the difficult task of learning what 
we’ve always needed to learn. 

After all, one thing hasn’t changed 
from the time Horatio Alger left school 
to seek fame and fortune: the best-pre- 
pared student will be most likely to 
find that fame and fortune. 

The Math Challenge Series 

T he Math Challenge ™ series 
has been designed to help 
build basic arithmetic skills. In this 
age of pocket calculators, many 
young people (and even some not so 
young) look at you blankly or down 
at their fingers if asked to add two 
numbers. While there is definitely a 
place in today’s education for calcu- 
lators, there is also a need for people 
to have some arithmetic facility in 
the computer most readily available 
— their minds. 

F or example, you are standing on 
the corner of 9th and Main streets. 
Someone drives up and asks how far 
to Fairfax street, which you know 
to be one block down from 23rd. 
What do you do? (1) Whip out your 
pocket calculator and quickly find 
the answer. (2) Look like you’re 
concentrating, put your hands 
behind your back and use your fin- 
gers. (3) Smile and say, “Not far. 
Keep going. You’ll find it.” If you do 
any of the above, you should sit 
down in front of your computer 
when you get home and play Math 
Challenge ™ , which you’ll find on 
page 63 of this issue. 

No single device or set of pro- 
grams is going to answer every 
question or problem, but OSCAR 
and the Math Challenge ™ series 
have been designed to make it 
easier for you to provide high- 
quality educational software for 

The Glassware ™ series will 
always be written in English, not 
computer jargon, so children and 
parents will not only know how to 
use a program, but understand how 
it works. 

To take a look at Math 
Challenge ™ , which will give your 
children, and you, practice at 
addition and subtraction, turn to 
page 63. 

utting-it-off is a health 
problem of national 
proportions. Almost 
everyone knows that 
smoking is hazardous, 
exercise is beneficial, and 
vegetables are more healthful 
than pastries. We know it, but 
most of us just don’t do anything 
about it. 

Our reasons for procrastinating 
are as complex and varied as the 
members of our society. But 
remember — it’s your family’s 
health at stake. What you need 
to get started is a regular, 
convenient and uncomplicated 
system to become health-wise. 

Your home computer, OSCAR 
and a team of health experts will 
provide just that in Healthware. ™ 
This system will provide you and 
your family with an “in-house” 

medical consultant 
and a workable, 

wellness program. Healthware ™ 
will focus on four areas of 
software development: health 
promotion, illness prevention, 
home care and family 

For example, this issue of 
Databar Magazine includes The 
Health Assessment Quiz™, a 
program that will help you 
pinpoint your current health 
status and look at the impact of 
changing some bad habits on your 
estimated life expectancy. 

Future issues will explore: 

■ Staying Well — cardiac care, 
cutting cancer risks and quitting 

■ Home Care — taking care of 
sick people in the home; first aid 
for poisons, burns, cuts and 
bodily injuries; creating your own 
pharmacy in the home; 

■ F amily Development — 
improving couples’ communication, 
and family enrichment programs. 

These articles and the 
accompanying Healthware ™ can 
help improve your life and the 
lives of those you care about most. 




Out of every 100 deaths, fewer than 
10 occur when they do because modern 
medicine doesn’t have the cure. Only 20 
are the result of biology and about 20 
are pure accident. Almost 50 — one- 
half — are caused by an individual’s 
own unhealthy behavior or lifestyle. 

If you had been born in 1900, your 
life expectancy would have been only 
47 years. For most Americans today, 
life is just getting started at that age. 
The elimination of infectious diseases 

by modern medical technology has 
given us a life expectancy upwards of 
73 years. 

That sort of progress is terrific, but 
it also puts an important burden on our 
shoulders. In 1979 the Surgeon Gen- 
eral said clearly that we — not doctors 
or hospitals — control our own health 

To minimize the risk of heart dis- 
ease, diabetes, cancer and obesity, you 
should adopt a lifestyle that includes a 


well-balanced diet and consistent, reg- 
ular exercise. In short, you can 
improve your health and increase your 
longevity by what you eat and do. 


The best kind of exercise for your 
heart and your waistline is aerobic 
exercise, such as running, biking, 
jumping rope and cross-country ski- 
ing. Aerobic exercises improve the 
body’s ability to process and distribute 
oxygen, which results in a cardiovas- 
cular fitness that can prolong life. 
Aerobic exercises are also the most 
efficient way to “burn” and keep off 
excess stored fat, which is good for 
your body as well as your self-confi- 

Hans Selye, recognized as the origi- 
nator of the current thinking about 
stress, also emphasized the need for 
exercise and fitness as a way to deal 
with the stress in our lives. 

The human body was designed to 
fight or flee when stress presented 
itself in the form of danger — a sudden 
noise, an animal at the cave entrance, 
or any of a hundred other threats to 
our forebears. Today our minds may 
be better equipped to deal with stress, 
but our bodies continue to react as 
they did thousands of years ago. 

Today’s stress is quite different — 
your boss gives you a verbal tongue- 
lashing and your body reacts as though 
a physical threat were present. But 
modern convention dictates that you 
grit your teeth and bear it instead of 
fighting or running away. 

Exercise provides a healthy outlet 
for that sort of stress. Selye said that 
to experience stress and anxiety with- 


out intense physical activity simply 
acids more stress. 

All too often, “training” is some- 
thing that high school and college ath- 
letes do only to prepare for stressful 
competitive activity. As soon as the 
athletic competition is over, so is the 
training. Yet ancient Greek and 
Roman authors wrote of “training” as 
a lifelong activity, and that’s what it 
should still be for all of us. Experts do 
not say exercise is the key to survival; 
rather, it’s the key to longevity. When 
a 70-year-old man “in training” runs 
the Boston marathon in 3.5 hours it 
underlines the fact that our bodies 
decline more from disuse than aging. 

Lifestyle Diet 

If you struggle with weight, you’re 
in big company. Blue Cross and Blue 
Shield estimate that 80 million Ameri- 
cans are overweight, with 30 million 
“obese” and another 15 million “mor- 
bidly obese.” 

Americans as a whole continue to 
eat today like their great-grandpar- 
ents did. The trouble is that meals fit 
for someone who spent the day plow- 
ing fields behind a team of horses are 
way too big for an accountant who 
plows through figures behind the key- 
board of a desk calculator. 

A recent study of a large metropoli- 
tan area found 25 percent of the men 
and 20 percent of the women were 
overweight. In the 45-65 age-group, 
the rate increased to one in three — 39 
percent of the men and 30 percent of 
the women. 

A 45-year-old male who is 10 pounds 
over his desirable weight decreases his 
life expectancy by 8 percent. Twenty 
extra pounds will shorten his lifespan 
18 percent or 13 years. 

Still more people incur health haz- 
ards as part of staying trim. They do 
not eat a well-balanced diet, the right 
foods at the right time. For example, 
skipping breakfast as a way to con- 
serve calories may result in an unpro- 
ductive morning. Coffee and donuts 
may help cope with the 11 a.m. blahs, 
but at high calorie cost, with few vita- 

The U.S. Senate Select Committee 
on Nutrition and Human Needs 
advised Americans in 1980 to increase 
consumption of fruits, vegetables and 
whole grains and decrease consump- 
tion of sugar, alcohol, saturated fats 
and sodium. They recommended four 
servings of fruit and vegetables, two 
servings of protein, one fat, four dairy 
products and four breads every day. 

According to University of Califor- 
nia researchers, eating regular break- 
fasts, combined with six other key 
health behaviors, can extend good 
health up to 30 years. 

There’s no doubt that, as Brillat- 
Savarin said, we are what we eat. And 
how long we are around has a lot to do 
with just what we eat. 



L osing weight is not nearly as big 
a problem as keeping it off. The 
statistics and diet advertising 
claims that show how much weight 
is lost in this country or in one pro- 
gram, deceptively do not reveal 
that more than 75 percent of that 
weight is gained again. 

Many experts now believe that 
the best way to keep we ight off is to 
dedicate yourself to a regular aero- 
bic exercise program. For one 
thing, you use more calories in aero- 
bic exercise. However, accord’ngto 
Covert Baily, author of Fit or Fat?, 
what is more important is that when 
you become leaner — have more 
muscle relative to fat — you become 
more efficient at burning calories 
all the time . 

What is a regular aerobic exer- 
cise program? An aerobic exercise 
raises your heart rate to 70 or 80 
percent of its capacity (called its 
“training rate”) for at least 12 
minutes. And you must repeat this 
at least four times a w^ek. Exam- 
ples of aerobic exercises include: 
jumping rope, jogging, running, 
swimming, dancing, jumping jacks, 
speed-walking, cross-country ski- 
ing and bicycle riding. 

To figure your training rate, start 
by finding your resting rate: take 
your pulse while at rest for six sec- 
onds and multiply by 10. Next sub- 
tract your age from 220. (This is the 
fastest you should train or you risk 
overexercising, because your body 
cannot process the oxygen fast 
enough.) Next take your resting 
heart rate and multiply by .65; add 
that number to your resting heart 
rate and the total will be your train- 
ing rate. This is what you should 
achieve for 12 minutes ever}' exer- 
cise session. 

For help in keeping yourself 
healthy, run the Healthware ™ pro- 
gram contained on page 69 in this 
issue of Databar Magazine. 


T he law changes swiftly. 

Each day we read about 
court decisions, 
legislative actions and 
bureaucratic regulations 
changing the laws that 
affect our daily lives, whether it 
be the penalty assessed for 
driving too fast or the votes 

needed to approve a school bond 

Knowing what the law is and 
how it works in our communities, 
at our jobs and in our homes is a 
major achievement — even for a 
lawyer. But Databar Magazine 
and Legalware™ will provide the 
information you need to be a 
more effective citizen. And 
because Legalware ™ is a 
state-of-the-art system, designed 
to respond to the needs of 
Databar readers, you will have 
an opportunity to propose topics 
for discussion here. 

For example, a current news 

item about parental liability for a 
child’s education could raise a 
number of questions in your 
home. A court ruling about a 
property-line dispute could 
involve many small businesses. 

As laws change or receive 
heightened interest because of 
current events (for example, the 
use of the insanity defense in the 
trial of John Hinckley Jr. for 
shooting President Ronald 
Reagan), Legalware ™ will 
respond in these pages. 

Already on the docket for 
future issues of Databar 
Magazine are articles and 
software on using small claims 
court, choosing an attorney, 
evaluating legal fees, and more. 
This should bring new 
understanding of the law to every 
interested citizen. As the 
American Bar Association has 
noted, the law is too important 
to be left only to lawyers. 








he law!” you say. “Who needs 
it?” The fact is that nearly 
every activity in our lives is 
governed by one law or 

When you eat breakfast at the local 
diner, both criminal laws dealing with 
theft and civil contract laws require 
that you pay for the meal you have 

Or when you mail off your income 
tax form and find out many months 
later that it never arrived, vou can be 
penalized for late filing under another 
body of laws. 

There are so many laws woven into 

tkmThere are so many laws woven into the 
fabric of our every-day existence that we 
tend not to think about them unless we’re 
about to be accused , fined or imprisoned . . . 

the fabric of our every-day existence 
that we tend not to think about them 
unless we’re about to be accused, fined 
or imprisoned, or we feel wronged 
enough to sue someone. 

Not too many years ago, the sight of 
a uniformed policeman on the corner 
stirred a rush of reassurance in most 
law-abiding citizens. They felt pro- 
tected, safe. 

Things aren’t so simple today. Often 
that same sight of a uniformed police- 
man can make us feel uneasy and vul- 
nerable because of stories we’ve read 
or heard: A neighbor is hauled off to 
jail for neglecting a parking violation, 
while a confessed murderer goes free 
on a legal technicality. 

Many Americans, unfortunately, 
believe the law is fickle, that it pro- 
tects the criminal better than the vic- 
tim, and that the best way for a law- 
abiding citizen to deal with it is to avoid 
contact with law officers, lawyers and, 
indeed, the entire legal system. 

T his misconception threatens 
what has been acknowledged 
as one of the most efficient, 
responsive legal systems in 
the world. In a democratic 
society, people who ignore the law 
deny their roles as citizens. “Our legal 
system rests so precariously on public 
confidence that the rule of law itself is 
threatened by a lack of real under- 
standing by the public,” warned Mor- 
ris Harrell, immediate past president 
of the American Bar Association 
(ABA), in a recent speech. 

Public Education Pays Off 

In his year-end report on the judi- 
ciary in 1982, Chief Justice Warren E. 
Burger of the U.S. Supreme Court 
observed that public education pays 

off. He cited a recent study that found 
juvenile delinquency dropped signifi- 
cantly, “when law-related courses are 
properly taught in schools.” Accord- 
ingly, the ABA has assigned its high- 
est priority to educating the public 
about the law and the American legal 

C onsider the very common situ- 
ation of apartment rental and 
how quickly it can dissolve 
into a problem for the courts. 
Mark, 18, just graduated from 
high school. He wants to move away 
from home to share an apartment with 
a friend. Like many of us, Mark trusts 
friendship to conquer any problems. 
But he soon finds himself tangled in 
arguments about money when his 
roommate can’t pay a share of the rent. 

To prevent a situation like this from 
ending a friendship, it pays to discuss 
the legal ramifications of the relation- 
ship first. Who signs the lease? How 
are rent payments to be made? How 
are household expenses and chores to 
be divided? Should friends be given 
keys to the premises? When such 
things are spelled out, bitter feelings 
between roommates are avoided along 
with time-consuming, dollar-costing 
trips to small claims court or to your 
friendly neighborhood attorney. 

About Contracts 

We’ve all been told to read and 
understand contracts before signing 
them, but consider this case, which 
illustrates just how important con- 
tracts can be. For the fun of it, pretend 
you’re the judge hearing this case. You 
can check your judgment at the end of 
this article where we will tell you how 
the real case was determined. 

Mary Williams, a single parent with 

seven children, bought several house- 
hold items on a special installment plan 
from the Walker-Thomas Furniture 
Company in Washington, D.C. Every 
time she made a new purchase, she 
signed a form contract stating she was 
leasing the purchased item from the 
store for a monthly rental payment. 
The contract explained that the 
Walker-Thomas Company would be 
the legal owner of all items purchased 
until the monthly payments for them 
had been paid. Thus, as long as Mary 
owed any money to the store, every- 
thing she had bought there remained 
the property of the store, no matter 
how much she had paid. If she failed to 
make monthly payments, the store 
could take back all items previously 

M ary bought a stereo 

under this plan. Before 
buying it, she owed the 
store $164 for all her ear- 
lier purchases, on which 
she had already paid $1 ,400. Soon after 
purchasing the stereo, she failed to 
make further payments and the store 
tried to take back everything else she 
had already bought. 

Understanding how to deal with 
such an every-day legal situation can 
make life a lot simpler. After all, the 
rules and regulations designed to 
maintain peaceful relationships and 
achieve values society considers 
important — landlord-tenant laws, 
consumer laws, small-business laws, 
family laws — are meant to help 
smooth the course of our daily lives. 

“The continued existence of a free 
and democratic society depends upon 
recognition of the concept that justice 
is based upon the rule of law grounded 
in respect for the dignity of the individ- 





S ome legal matters may not 
involve many of us on a day-to- 
day basis, but they are critical to 
understanding the direction of our 
society. And because the law is not 
written in stone, it is the responsi- 
bility of a well-informed public to 
change it when it’s necessary. 

One continuing legal controversy 
is the Miranda warning, the one you 
hear on Hill Street Blues and other 

television programs when law offi- 
cers tell suspects of their rights. A 
1966 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in 
Miranda vs. Arizona is the origin of 
the warning: “You have a right to 
remain silent. Any statement you 
make may be used as evidence 
against you. You have a right to 
have an attorney present at the 
questioning. If you cannot afford an 
attorney, one will be appointed for 

But must officers give the warn- 
ing at the time of arrest? No. The 
Supreme Court was careful to limit 
the requirement, stating that the 
warnings must be given only when a 
suspect is in custody and about to be 

The court further stated, how- 
ever, that any evidence obtained 
without such a warning is excluded 
from a trial. This “exclusionarv 

rule,” as it is called, is the subject of 
considerable misunderstanding. It 
means, for example, that it’s possi- 
ble that a confession, given volun- 
tarily by a suspect who has not been 
read the Miranda warning, may not 
be permitted to be used as evidence 
in court. 

The average citizen finds it baf- 
fling that a confession to a crime 
may not always be used to prove the 
suspect guilty. Because laws 
change with society’s needs, these 
rules relating to evidence in crimi- 
nal cases may change, too. The 
court was to consider cases last fall 
dealing with the constitutionality of 
the exclusionary rule. If there has 
been a change, look to Legalware ™ 
to update you in future issues of 
Databar Magazine. This issue’s 
Legalware ™ software begins on 
page 75. 

ual and his capacity, through reason, 
for enlightened self-government,” 
savs the American Bar Association’s 
Code of Professional Responsibility . 

So if you're tempted to say, “The law 
— who needs it?” you might want to 
think again. Your lack of understand- 
ing could be part of the problem. 

The Decision 

As for Mary Williams’ situation, 


could the store really claim all of the 
items she had purchased? Was its spe- 
cial installment contract fair? Did it 
violate any laws regulating contracts? 
A Washington, D.C., court held that 
such a contract was “unconscionable.” 
The court said: 

“Ordinarily, one who signs an agree- 
ment without full knowledge of its 

terms might be held to assume the risk 
that he has entered a one-sided bar- 
gain. But when a party of little bar- 
gaining power, and hence little real 
choice, signs a commercially unreason- 
able contract with little or no knowl- 
edge of its terms, it is hardly likely that 
his consent, or even an objective mani- 
festation of his consent, was ever 
given to all the terms. In such a case 
the usual rule that the terms of the 
agreement are not to be questioned 
should be abandoned and the court 
should consider whether the terms of 
the contract are so unfair that enforce- 
ment should be withheld.” 

Although the store was attempting 
to use a legal tool — a contract — to 
protect its own interests, the court 
upheld Mary’s individual rights. 


ow can math and 
science, the topics of Databar’s 
Scienceware ™ series, help you 
around the house? Plan a 
triangular deck like the one these 
homeowners built, and 
Scienceware™ will help you 
estimate the materials and 
calculate the angles to cut (See 
Triangles and Your Time, page 





r 1 


















Scienceware ™ articles will 
work for your family even if 
you’re not a home-improvement 
enthusiast. If there are math and 
science students in the household, 
they’ll find another, more 
practical slant on the topic they 
study in textbooks. If you are a 
hobbyist in photography, 
electronics, golf or almost any 
other recreational field, you’ll 
find Scienceware ™ makes it 
easier to have fun. 

Best of all, OSCAR’s 
Scienceware ™ programs are 
designed for non-math people. If 
your palms sweat at the thought 
of fractions, trying to hold your 
own in a discussion of R factors, 
or figuring out escape velocities, 
OSCAR and Scienceware ™ are 
made for you. Students and 
parents alike will find this series 
a useful learning tool. 

OSCAR won’t transform you 
into a science whiz kid. If you 
hate math, Scienceware ™ is not 
going to have you champing at 
the bit to tackle calculus. What 
you can get is hands-on 
experience with math and science 
concepts in an unhurried and 
comfortable atmosphere. The 
programs offer the opportunity to 
get back in touch with some of 

the math skills that you may 
have forgotten through lack 
of use. 

Most important, the 
Scienceware ™ programs 
concentrate on practical 
applications for math and science. 
Numbers may bore you to death, 
but those figures come alive 
when they tell you something 
about your daily life. 

Take hobbies, for instance. Golf 
enthusiasts will be able to figure 
out their handicaps with 
Scienceware ™ programs. You can 
find out how much money you 
will save with energy-saving 
products such as window quilts, 
electronic igniters and 
fuel-efficient appliances. Besides 
hobbies and mathematics, 
Scienceware ™ programs will also 
include information that can be 
used for do-it-yourself 
home-improvement projects. It’s 
one more way you can put 
OSCAR to use in your own 
home. As with all the 
Scienceware™ , the 
home-improvement series will not 

Scienceware ™ programs 
will concentrate on do-it- 
yourself home improve- 
ment projects and hob- 
bies, such as electronics 
and photography. 




G eorge Gobel once complained, 
“Have you ever felt like the 
whole world’s a tuxedo and 
you’re a pair of brown shoes?” For the 
millions of people with a weak founda- 
tion in science and math, the feeling is 

We’ve become a high-tech society 
where sophisticated computer and 

require expertise in the field to 
apply the information. 

Time is a critical factor in 
taking on home projects. Some 
take a weekend and others take 
large blocks of time that you’d 
rather spend in other ways. So 
our programs will indicate how 
much time you can expect to 
spend on various projects. We’ll 
show you how to figure the 
amount of materials needed. 

Our programs will be useful 
and informative for the whole 
family — students, 
experimenters and hobbyists, as 
well as the non-technical person. 


high-tech space-age technology affects 
just about every area of our lives. And 
that’s what Science ware™ is all about 
— articles and software programs that 
apply the principles of math and sci- 
ence to everyday problems. 

The Way Math is Taught 

A hundred years ago, even basic 
school subjects were not essential for 
employment or enjoyment of life. The 
early part of this century produced 
many business and industrial mag- 
nates who had less than grammar 
school educations. But today our 
society has become so complex that 
individuals with deficiencies in math 
and science feel outclassed and out-of- 
step much of the time. 

Jere Confrey, director of Mount 
Holyoke College’s SummerMath pro- 

gram for math-anxious high school 
girls, believes that a lot of problems 
stem from the way math is learned. 
“Many students approach mathemat- 
ics by memorizing instead of by trying 
to understand,” says Confrey. “If you 
rely on straight memorization of for- 
mulas, you have only one route to the 
answer. As soon as you run into a non- 
routine problem, you’re lost.” 

SummerMath concentrates on 
teaching students problem-solving 
techniques, persistence and flexibility 
in the student’s approach to math. 
Computers are used to eliminate some 
of the situations that foster math anx- 
iety in traditional classroom settings. 
“One of the things we think creates 
problems for students,” says Confrey, 
“is their perception that math classes 
are very evaluative and very public.” 

Triangles and Your Time 

T riangles and time would seem to 
have little relationship, other 
than being'fairly close to each other 
in a dictionary. But they do. Those 
triangles you may have disliked so 
much in high school geometry and 
trig are very much a part of your 
daily life, and knowing more about 
them can save you effort, money 
and time. 

For example, finding out the 
height of a wall or the total area to 
be painted can be very important to 
calculating the amount of materials 
needed to complete a building 
project. And that’s where the abil- 
ity to “solve” a triangle can make 
life easier. Suppose you want to 
paint your house or wallpaper a 
room. Measuring a squared-off area 
to determine the amount of materi- 
als to purchase is a fairly simple 
task. But what about gabled areas? 
This month’s Scienceware ™ pro- 
gram will show you how to calculate 
the answer fast. 

Lumber is expensive these days, 
and knowing exactly how much you 

need for a building project can save 
dollars. As with painting, it’s easy 
to calculate the amount of lumber 
needed to finish off a porch or add a 
deck if they are rectangular. But if 
they are not, solving that triangle 
again can pinpoint just how much 
material you’ll need. 

The ability to solve a triangle is as 
functional in the kitchen as in the 
work shop. Celebrate a special 
occasion with a Star Cake. Bake a 
layer cake. Use one layer for the 
body of the star. Cut the second 
layer into five equal triangles to 
form the points around the body. 
You can use this issue’s Science- 
ware ™ program to find out exactly 
the size triangles you need. 

One way to measure the distance 
to a far-away mountaintop is to 
sight in on a given point on the 
mountain from two locations, care- 
fully measuring the angles and the 
distance between two sighting 
points. Turn to page 81, and this 
issue’s Scienceware ™ feature will 
tell you just how to do that. 

Everyone knows when you get the 
wrong answer. 

Furthermore, learning at your own 
rate is out of the question in most class- 
rooms. Curriculum schedules are set 
up in advance and march right along, 
regardless of who gets trampled or 
bored. The end result can often be 
“math anxiety.” 

Math Anxiety 

Math anxiety is a term used to 
describe the irrational fear of mathe- 
matics, says Joan Claesgens, director 
of the Math Anxiety Program at the 
University of Minnesota. “Anxiety 
results in avoidance, and avoidance 
results in reduced ability to perform. 
It’s a spiraling effect.” 

For many, the spiraling effect 
begins in grade school and can stem 
from many causes. Since each succeed- 
ing math unit in school tends to build 
on skills learned in the previous one, a 
prolonged absence from class or a 
move to a new school can begin the 
cycle. Some children learn at a slower 
rate and fall behind as new skills are 
being introduced. Others get lost in 
the shuffle during the move to New 
Math and back to regular math again. 

Without a solid foundation, confi- 
dence erodes and soon the math-anx- 
ious student concludes, “I’m dumb and 
I’ll never be able to learn this.” By the 
time these people reach high school 
and college, this “mathophobia” has 
closed the door on many options for 
them, most significantly a chance at 
well-paying jobs in science, engi- 
neering and technology. 

Whales Being Done? 

More and more clinics, seminars and 
short courses are being developed to 
help the math-anxious person. Since 
1976, the University of Minnesota has 
offered a Math Anxiety Program that 
includes diagnostic clinics, support 
groups, tutoring and special classes to 
develop math skills ranging from sim- 
ple arithmetic to analytical geometry. 
According to Claesgens, over 4,000 
people have taken advantage of the 
program over the last seven years. 

The designers of Scienceware ™ 
believe that there is no reason to have 
the “math and science blues” when you 
have a friend like OSCAR. 


ust try to imagine a 
world without words. 
Photographs, paintings, 
international symbols, 
smoke signals, gestures 
and musical and scientific 
notations would be our 
means of communication. 
But unspoken and unwritten 
communications simply can’t take 
the place of a few well-chosen 

Command of the language is 
becoming increasingly critical, 
particularly in today’s 
competitive job market. 

But just pick up a newspaper 
and you’re likely to read about 
the battered English language. 
We all need help with words, and 
at Databar we have the one word 
that can help increase your 
wordpower: OSCAR. OSCAR’s 
Wordware ™ series will help you 
read more efficiently, check your 

writing for clarity, answer 
questions about the fine points of 
grammar before you embarrass 
yourself in a memo to the boss, 
practice frequently 
mispelled/misspelled (choose one) 
words, and organize your 
thoughts in a logical manner 
before committing them to paper 
or a word processor. OSCAR will 
help you write better business 
letters, resumes, even better love 

OSCAR is going to change the 
way you write, talk and read. 
Take our word for it. 


J ust how powerful are words? 
They’ve toppled governments, 
caused the strong to cry and 
inspired the weak to amazing feats. 
They’ve started and stopped wars, 
helped give women the vote and cata- 
pulted formerly obscure people into 

There’s nothing easier than the 
phrase “I Love You” to express the 
deepest emotion one person can have 
c for another. And “Ya know?” or “And 
I then he goes ...” repeated by a teen- 
« ager can drive the most patient parent 
| to absolute insanity, 
f Words make you laugh: “Did you 
| hear the one about . . . ?” 

Words make you cringe: “Him and 

me, we done it. Ain’t that right?” 
Words sell: “BUY!” 

Words confound: “The systematized 
digital optional reciprocal integrated 

Words simplify: “Push here.” 
Words commit: “I do.” 

Words finalize: “The End.” 

And best of all, words provide lots of 
options: “Well, maybe.” 

But for all the importance of words, 
reading and writing are in a sorry 
state. Just take a quick look at some of 
the facts: 

Only one-fifth of high school gradu- 
ates can write a persuasive essay. 
Thirteen percent of all 17-year-olds in 
this country are functionally illiterate. 



Coining Attractions 

And trouble with words doesn’t stop 
with younger people. On college cam- 
puses, nearly 40 percent of the stu- 
dents are older than age 25. A large 
share are hoping to learn new skills for 
today’s job market. But many of them 
have voiced concern over their reading 
and writing skills, feeling these skills 
affect their ability to compete with the 
younger students. 

A growing number of corporations 
across the country are hiring consul- 
tants to teach their executives how to 
write clearly and concisely. That’s 
because a well-written memo, sales 
report or marketing projection gets 
the results the writer intended. A 
poorly written one can cause confu- 
sion, at best, and serious errors, at 

Insurance companies, and even the 
federal government, have taken steps 
to rewrite complicated policies into 
simple, understandable English. 

5 omeone once said (or, more likely, 
wrote), “Writing is easy; all you do is 
sit staring at a blank sheet of paper 
until the drops of blood form on your 

But OSCAR’s Wordware™ and your 
home computer can take the drudgery 
out of word work by helping you with 
both writing and reading. 

Whether you want to write better at 
work, increase your chances of success 
in school, or just because you love 
words, Wordware ™ can help. The 
series has four parts: Wordwrite,™ 
Wordread , ™ Wordpower™ and Word- 
fun . ™ Each part will be covered with 
both articles and software (a word just 
recently added to most dictionaries). 
This issue’s article and program exam- 
ine bad reading and writing habits. 
One key to the Wordware ™ series is 
its skill-building for word processing. 
If you’re not currently doing word pro- 
cessing on your computer, you likely 
soon will be. Wordware™ gets you 
ready for electronic writing. 

Here’s a quick look at how future 
segments will help you. 


Maybe that title should be “Right 
Words” because these programs will 
help you make your words active. And 
with Wordwrite ,™ you’ll get compu- 
terized tips on editing your own writ- 
ing as well as that of other writers. 

If you want to know how under- 
standable your writing is, there’ll be 
programs to analyze its readability, 
assist with the proper use of nouns and 
verbs, and help edit sentences to 
decrease wordiness and increase vari- 
ety. Wordwrite™ will help end the 
clutter that turns simple and clear 


writing into gobbledygook. You also 
get help with that old bugaboo, punc- 

One way OSCAR and your com- 
puter will help is by answering ques- 
tions. For instance, what makes cer- 
tain reading material difficult? At 
what reading level are best-selling 
books written? How many words per 
sentence do successful writers use? 
What do you need to do to make your 
writing more interesting? 
Wordwrite ™ will tell you. 


The better you read, the better you 
write. And the better you write, the 
better you read. Wordread ™ will help 
you read faster, comprehend more and 
retain the information longer. 

Reading skill often depends on what 
is being read. A novel is read in a man- 
ner quite different from the latest per- 
sonnel department rules and regula- 
tions. Wordread™ will enhance all of 
your reading: business, professional, 
school and personal. 


Everyone agrees that the secret to 
learning is to make the subject matter 
enjoyable. If you can make it fun, all 
the better. Wordfun™ is a fun way to 
build your vocabulary, improve your 
spelling and correct improper usage. 

There will be vocabulary teasers: 

What is the correct definition of 
putative? ( a) supposed (b) doubtful ( c) 
concerned with punishment ( d) unde- 

Or, for “closet misspellers,” here’s 
an example from another Wordfun™ 

e Though it's sometimes spelled 
‘ undoubtably ’ and pronounced ‘ un - 
dowt-ab-lee / the correct spelling is 
‘ undoubtedly ’ and it's pronounced 
‘ un-dow-ted-lee.' 

Ten Ways To Unblock Your Writ- 
ing. Unblocking your creativity is 
often just finding out what stands in its 
way and getting rid of it. 

How To Organize. Lack of organiza- 
tion is often a bigger enemy of good 
writing than anything else. Saying the 
right things won’t help if your presen- 
tation is so disorganized that no one 
will read it. 

Wordpower™ will also help you 
sharpen your business-writing skills 
with programs to write a resume or a 
letter of application for the new job 
you want. And, after you get the job, 
Wordpower™ can help you write read- 
able letters and executive summaries 
to keep your employer smiling. 

And just in case you believe you’ve 
mastered every other kind of writing, 
there’s not a writer alive who can’t use 

Wordfun' s™ section on spelling mis- 
takes will also be helpful, and you can 
pit yourself against OSCAR in a 
speedy game of Hangperson. 

If you’re a crossword puzzle fan, 
you’ll enjoy the annual Crossword 
Vocabulary Review. 


What do you do when the pressure 
of an overdue paper, report or letter 
to your Mom starts to get you down? 
Do you stare at that blank sheet of 
paper for hours? Do you procrastinate 
until you just absolutely have to get it 
written and then spend half the night 
writing it? Do you hire a free-lance 
writer? Wordpower™ will help unblock 
your ideas by helping you generate 
creative options for your writing 

To further tap the potential of your 
home computer and to help you write 
better, OSCAR will give you: 

Writer’s Anxiety Quiz, to help you 
find out just what creates anxiety 
when you try to write and tell you how 
to overcome it. 

more ideas for writing love letters. 

Word Processing 

Whether you’ll be using a word pro- 
cessor for love letters or business 
memos in the future, Wordware™ will 
design specific programs to put you in 
touch with the writing keyboard. 

(Oh, and by the way, the definition 
of putative is (a) supposed, reputed. 
It’s used this way: “His/her putative 
ancestor was a Duke/Duchess.”) 

Beginning on page 87, you and 
OSCAR can get on the road to better 
reading and writing habits with Word- 
ware™ programs. 



f the fingernail-sized 
microchip is the heart of the 
microcomputer revolution, 
programming is its soul. 
Without instructions, a 
computer is a dumb beast, unable 
to perform the simplest tasks. 
These instructions are called 
programs, and the process of 
writing them, programming. 

You may have wanted to try 
programming, but were scared 
off because it sounded too 
complicated, too “mathematical.” 

Perhaps you have even tried to 
learn the BASIC language by 
reading the manual that came 
with your computer, but gave u] 
in frustration. But now Databar 
offers Genware ™ , special 
software programs that will help 
you learn to write programs in 
BASIC, using your computer 
itself as a guide and teacher. 

Genware ™ is written for peopj 
without previous experience in j 
computer programming. Each ! 
topic, starting with the first 
monthly issue, will be taken one 
step at a time, with many 
examples used to make 
everything perfectly clear. jj 

Learning to program, howevei 
is a “hands-on” job. You cannot! 
expect to learn to program by | 
simply reading. You must 
practice. Trying to memorize thl 
syntax and vocabulary of BASK 
without typing it in is not only If 
inefficient, but frustrating. 1 

Moreover, as you will see, ! 

programming is much more thai 
writing some BASIC statement: 
it involves planning ahead, I 
understanding of what you are J 


trying to do and some patience to 
solve some problems in ingenious 

One comfort: you don’t have to 
be a genius or have an aptitude 
for mathematics to be a good 
programmer. All you need is the 
willingness to learn to think in a 
logical, orderly manner. 

By the third lesson in the 
Genware ™ series, you will be 
writing your own programs with 
ease. And by the time you 
complete the series, you will be 
an accomplished programmer, 
able to easily write programs to 
help you handle everyday affairs 
around your house. 

Call Home... 


You don’t have to know how to pro- 
gram a computer to use one. But 
learning how to program will provide 
insight that lets you take full advan- 
tage of the investment you’ve made in 
your home computer. 

All computers, from large, multi- 
million-dollar giant “mainframes” to 
small hand-held portables, require a 
set of specific instructions, called pro- 

These instructions may be written 
in one of many programming lan- 
guages. You may have heard of some 
of them — Fortran, COBOL and Ada, 
for example. Each language has a spe- 
cific purpose: Fortran is primarily for 
scientific purposes, COBOL is used by 
businesses and Ada is used by the 
Department of Defense. 

We will deal with the most popular 
and useful of all computer languages 
for non-specialists, BASIC. Once you 
learn its English-like commands, you 
will be able to write programs yourself 
and make the computer “march to 
your drummer.” 

The BASIC Language 

BASIC was developed at Dart- 
mouth College by John Kemeny and 
Thomas Kurtz, who realized there was 
a need for a computer language that 
could be used by people with widely 
diverse backgrounds. BASIC is an 
acronym for Beginners All-Purpose 
Symbolic Instruction Code. The sim- 
ple design and structure of the lan- 


guage makes it easy for people with no 
previous experience to learn to pro- 
gram quickly and easily. BASIC is 
now available on almost every micro- 
computer system and is one of the 
most popular languages in use; there 
are more programs written in BASIC 
for home computers than in any other 

Data processing professionals once 
looked at BASIC as an “amateur” lan- 
guage. But many professional pro- 
grammers now use modern versions of 
BASIC daily; it is a common language 
for business applications, even on 
larger computers. 

Why Programming? 

Why do we need a programming lan- 
guage or, for that matter, a program? 
The answer to these questions lies in 
the inherent structure of the com- 

The central processing unit, or 
CPU, is the workhorse of the com- 
puter system. All of the work, such as 
addition and subtraction, is done in the 

The CPU is capable of “understand- 
ing” only about 100 instructions of the 
simplest kind, such as, “Add this num- 
ber to that number,” or “Tell me if this 
number is equal to that number.” 

Everything a computer does, no 
matter how complex, is done with 
these simple instructions. For exam- 
ple, to add two numbers in memory 
would take three instructions on most 

1. get the first number from the 
memory unit; 

2. add the second number from 
memory to it; and 

3. store the result in memory. 

BASIC reduces this to a very simple 



What is a Program? 

Programming is just a fancy name 
for “giving directions”, like the writ- 

ten directions you might give col- 
leagues at work so they can find your 
house for a party, or the instructions 
for assembling a new bicycle tell you 
how to put it together. All programs, 
whether written for computers or peo- 
ple, have the same basic ingredients: 

■ An author or programmer; 

■ Data or information; 

■ Decision points or “branches” (“If 
you see a large red barn, you’ve gone 
too far, so turn back.”) 

■ Iterations (Repetitions, such as 
“When you’ve finished with assembly 
'A’ on your new bicycle, complete 
assemblies ‘B’ through ‘E’ in the same 

■ Outputs (Results, such as a finished 
bicycle or friends arriving on time.) 

Problem Solving 

Programming is a way of writing 
instructions needed to solve a particu- 
lar problem. Note that we said “write 
the instructions.” No computer lan- 
guage will “solve” a problem. That’s 
your job. A programmer must deter- 
mine the problem to be solved, design 
a solution plan and only then write the 
actual program. 

The major aspect of programming is 
the design of the solution plan , some- 
times called problem solving. One mis- 
take many how-to-learn-B ASIC books 
make is trying to teach typing in code 
first instead of teaching how a program 
should flow. For most programs, the 
amount of time spent on the solution 
plan will be much greater than the 
amount of time spent writing the 
BASIC statements. 

It is relatively easy to write the nec- 
essary BASIC statements once the 
solution plan has been developed. 
Planning the solution, however, is a 
skill that most people must develop 
with practice. 

Genware ™’ s step-by-step programs 
will provide what you need to know 
about programming — it’s up to you to 
provide the practice. 




Has in Store 

A t the end of the 12-month course 
you should be able to: 

■ Determine the problem to be solved 
and break it down into its component 

■ Identify the input needed to solve 
the problem; 

■ Name and document the variables 

■ Select the operations to be per- 

■ Use iteration and selection tech- 
niques in your solution; 

■ Write valid BASIC statements to 
implement that solution; 

■ Determine what output the program 
is to produce and plan its format; 

■ Check your solution for validity. 

Confused? Don’t worry if some of 
these terms are unfamiliar; all will be 
explained during your Genware ™ 
course with the help of OSCAR and 
Genware ™ programs. Each issue of 
Databar Magazine will focus on a par- 
ticular area of problem solving or the 
BASIC language. 

Each lesson will be in two parts: the 
lesson for the month and a program 
highlighting some aspect of that les- 
son. Sometimes we’ll leave a program 
uncompleted, and you will have to fin- 
ish it . . . and run it on your com- 

You will also need the manuals that 
came with your computer. They will 
give you specific instructions for 
entering, editing and saving programs 
on your particular brand and model of 
computer. You may also need them to 
check some details of BASIC syntax; 
different microcomputers use differ- 
ent dialects of BASIC. In Databar 
Magazine we will stick to a common 
version of BASIC to reduce problems 
caused by differing versions of the lan- 

■ Introduction to Programming and 
Problem-Solving Techniques. You will 
be introduced to the special terminol- 
ogy and some basic programming con- 

■ Entering and Editing a Program. 
The fundamentals of entering a simple 
program into your computer. You will 

enter and run a program during this 

■ Variables in BASIC. Learn what 
variables are and how to use them. 

■ Problem-Solving Principles. Find 
out how to break a problem into parts 
and create a diagram, or flowchart, of 
your solution. 

■ Arithmetic Expressions. How to 
write arithmetic expressions in 
BASIC and use special functions. 

■ Output in BASIC. Make your pro- 
gram produce the output you need and 
format that output on the screen to 
make it easy to read. 

■ Input in BASIC. Make your pro- 
grams “user friendly” by asking for 
input from the user. 

■ Logical Expressions. The special 
kinds of decisions you can make in a 
program and how to write them in 

■ Simple Selection Statements. Make 
your program choose between alterna- 

■ Simple Loops in BASIC. Learn to 
make your program repeat instruc- 
tions as many times as specified. 

■ READ and DATA Statements. 
Make a table of information for your 
program and use the information in the 

■ Practice Problems. This last lesson 
will focus on practice problems using 
features learned in the previous les- 


While it is tempting to enter the first 
thing that comes to mind, it’s much 
easier to concentrate on the problem 
and compose a solution plan on paper 
before typing it into the computer. In 
time you will be able to write your pro- 
grams directly on the computer, 
though we recommend that you write 
them on paper for the first few 

What You Need To Know 

What do we expect you to know 
before learning how to program? You 
do not have to be a math whiz. All 
you’ll need is a knowledge of ordinary, 
everyday arithmetic, such as addition 
and subtraction. You don’t need to be a 
genius either. Almost anyone willing 
to practice can learn to program a com- 

Once you get over the first feelings 
of intimidation, working with a com- 
puter will be fun. The computer will 
respond quickly to your inputs, and if 
you make a mistake, it will tell you. 
Don’t let it bother you; the computer is 
only a tool, and you are always in con- 
trol, even if it doesn’t always seem that 
way. After all, you don’t give up ham- 
mering just because you hit yourself 
on the thumb once. 

Now, for a look at two BASIC pro- 
grams, turn to page 93. 



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P lug OSCAR into your computer, following 
the instructions in your User’s Manual. 
Carefully remove the cover page and program 
pages of a program from the magazine and place 
them on a flat, clean, dry surface. Test OSCAR 
by lifting the wand. OSCAR should generate an 
“Enter Next Line” prompt — a high-pitched 
beep. Replace the wand. 

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I (1*11 II » MIMMI «| »a>l II l> II* MM It IIMMHttlMItmiHhMIlrf tMIUI >1 * 

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mm kin* m «immhi m 

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mm tan a a n 1 1 MtuHimM*,* mn mnan * < 

«nMi-H9i«<wi*ii : : m utii asm mmimmm *t» a i aa»ima«iafWiHHi«ii« i 
■■ *»« W*anMM*BI*«t>li4l 

***** KlimtiaWMIMI MIIIIIIKIi: 11-KBHItt.lMIIIBasH « iM«IH*l»imilliei4U| 
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■mm ■ i ut imiii t «mm aMMMtm H<tn ii iMMMiMMi ttwiacim 

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rnmmm weh »i»i,iwiii*i a »«i# « mm» tt hium twa ittm HRwi»«:tiim» m 
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P osition the plastic template over “Program 
Page 1,” lining up the template’s corner 
boxes with the corner boxes printed on the pro- 
gram page. There should be an equal amount of ! 
white paper showing through the template J 
grooves at each end of the bar code lines. Turn on I 
your computer, remove OSCAR’s wand to turn Ji 
on OSCAR again. Wait for the “Enter Next j 
Line” prompt. 


The OSCAR User’s Manual 
provides detailed instructions on 
how to use OSCAR with different 
brands of home computers. You’ll 
need to study the 

User’s Manual to learn all the 
procedures for using OSCAR. The 
abbreviated instructions on these pages 
give you a beginning look at how easy 
OSCAR is to use. 

I i i i£ 

I iff;;. 



?JiS :!jj 

Y ; ‘ ^ ‘ 

I 'hH a 


t:H? .','5 » 

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'ftijJi'; t 
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m if; 

P lace the tip of OSCAR’s wand in the left side 
of the template’s top groove. The notches on 
the wand’s bottom should interlock with the 
template’s ridges. Wait for another “Enter Next 
Line” prompt and smoothly glide the wand 
across the first line. If you hear a buzzing noise, 
slide the wand back to the start of the line and 
begin again. Don’t get frustrated with the buzz- 
ing. It takes practice to scan smoothly. 

L isten for an “End-of-Line” prompt, a higher 
beep, when the wand reaches the end of the 
line; OSCAR has read the line successfully. 
Leave the wand in place and enter the com- 
mands for your computer listed in OSCAR’s 
User’s Manual and on the next page. Again, 
because OSCAR is a precise electronic instru- 
ment, you shouldn’t try these steps without first 
reading your User’s Manual. 


Commands to Get Started 

Study your User’s Manual for how to use these commands in loading a Databar program into your 
computer with OSCAR. 

Texas Instruments 99/4a 

Press any key 
Press 1 

Type OLD CS1 
Press ENTER 
Press ENTER 
Press ENTER 

Commodore PET 

Type LOAD; and press RETURN 


Type ENTER "C and press RETURN 
Press RETURN again 

Commodore 64/VIC 20 TRS-80 Color Computer 

Type LOAD" ",1,1 ; and press RETURN Type CLOAD and press RETURN 

» i' -SfiifCiWif -I i'Jh'$S!W 
'tl% CT. S 'Cfc 

f-k 1 

i*r vimi 
^ r*tn m; mt jhJ 

- M ‘ im-i* r.iiM 
■ :,!<*»• iJp 

r* •:? 

M ove the tip of OSCAR’s wand straight 
down into the second groove and scan the 
second bar code line right to left. Continue mov- 
ing down the page, scanning each line in the 
direction opposite the last line, but always start- 
ing at the end of the line that doesn’t have a thick 
black bar. Wait for an “Enter Next Line” 
prompt after each “End-of-Line” prompt before 
scanning a line. Sometimes the “Enter Next 
Line” prompt may be delayed several seconds. 

W hen you’ve finished scanning the first pro- 
gram page, turn the page over to “Pro- 
gram Page 2” and repeat the same process 
(without stopping to enter anything after the 
first line). At the end of this page, move the tem- 
plate to page 3 (and to Page 4 if included), and 
finish entering the program. Don’t delay in mov- 
ing from page to page because some computers 
have time limits for loading programs. 







J T. 1 . 99/4A 



Find the pairs of numbers hidden 
behind the computer's doors. 


OSCAR's Match, a game similar to Concentration®, 
requires a sharp memory to pair the hidden numbers in the 
fewest possible turns. Everybody — kids and adults — can 

play, either solo or with 1 to 3 others. 

Four skill levels give 
you 6 to 24 doors to match. 

39895 25002 


























How often have you forgotten the 
punchline to a great joke you’ve just 
heard? Or worse, a joke you’ve already 
started telling someone? 

How long can you remember a 
phone number you’ve just looked up? 
Long enough to walk across the room 
and dial it? Yet, you may not have 
trouble getting other numbers out of 
your head — much longer numbers 
like your Social Security number. 

To researchers, human memory is 
still an enigma, but they have learned 
enough about memory to discover it 
works in different ways. They think 
there are two kinds of memory: short- 
term and long-term. Short-term mem- 
ory holds detailed information that is 
only temporarily useful — phone num- 
bers we look up, the location of our car 
in the parking lot or the time our flight 
leaves, for example. Since there’s no 
reason to remember every little detail 
of daily life, our minds transfer only 
limited information out of short-term 
memory into long-term memory. 

What Is OSCAR'S Match™? 

The idea of OSCAR's Match™ is to 
match up two numbers hidden at ran- 
dom on the screen. The successful 
player is the one who can best remem- 
ber where the numbers are hidden. 

Each box on the screen has an iden- 
tifying letter, and hidden behind each 
box is a number. That same number 
will be behind some other box, too. 
Turn over any two boxes on the 
screen. If the numbers match, you 

score a point. If they don’t match, the 
boxes snap shut, and you’ll have to try 
to remember what numbers were in 
these two locations (and the others 
you’ve seen) until your next turn. The 
game ends when all numbers have 
been matched. The player with the 
most matches is the winner. 

You also can play OSCAR ’s Match ™ 
by yourself. Try to complete the game 
in the fewest possible turns. 

Techniques to Play the Game 

Here are two techniques for improv- 
ing short-term memory to try, pattern 
rehearsal and association: 

In the first, memorize numbers that 
are in a pattern, such as the four cor- 
ners. Also, look for odd or even num- 
bers in a row, or remember several 
numbers as one large number. For 
example, if you’ve seen 4, 7 and 6 in a 
row, remembering the number 476 
may be easier than trying to remem- 
ber the three separate digits. 

In association, link numbers and 
their letters with easily remembered 
words and symbols. For example, A-l 
is a steak sauce; B-12 is a vitamin; C3 is 
part of a Star Wars character’s name; 
B4 sounds like the word before. 

OSCAR's Memory Practice 

Here’s a little practice exercise for 
playing OSCAR's Match ™ . Read the 
paragraph below once through, trying 
to lock the important facts into your 
short-term memory. Then answer the 
the 10 questions right away, jotting 
the answers on a piece of paper. Don’t 
look back at the paragraph while 
you’re answering the questions. 

Bob and Betty went to Brian’s 
house last Thursday to play chess. 
Bob watched while the other two 
played. After only 5 moves, Brian’s 
dog Checkers knocked the pieces all 
over the kitchen floor. Betty was 
angry because she was two pieces 
ahead. Later, all three friends went 
to Bob’s house, which was six blocks 

away. Bob’s dad, Chuck, was in the 
den reading a book on baseball, 
while their cat Charly slept by the 
four glasses on the brown table. 
Ben, Chuck’s other son, was play- 
ing checkers with his sister Beth. 
Ben just turned 11 and Beth is 2 
years older, which makes her the 
same age as Brian. 

1 . Name the three people who were 
first mentioned. 

2. Where was the chess game 

3 . Who was ahead when the chess 
game was knocked over? 

4 . How old is Beth? 

5 . How many glasses are on the 
brown table? 

6 . What’s the name of the dog? 

7 . What day is it? 

8 . How many people have names that , 
start with B? 

9 . What was Chuck doing? 

1 0. How many blocks is it between 
the two houses mentioned? 

(Check answers below.) 

Program Instructions 

■ Load OSCAR's Match ™ into your com- 
puter with OSCAR. Then type “RUN.” (Refer 
to your Users Manual if you have difficulties.) 

■ Press 1, 2, 3 or 4 to indicate the number of 

■ Select a skill level — 1 is the easiest, 4 the 

■ For each turn, type one of the letters 
appearing on a box. Examine the number hidden 
behind the box and choose a second box. If the 
number hidden behind the second box matches 
the first, you get a point and another turn. 

■ You keep your turn as long as you keep get- 
ting points. One wrong guess, though, and it’s 
the next player’s turn. The asterisk above the 
scoreboard indicates whose turn it is. 

■ When OSCAR's Match ™ is over, the com- 
puter will ask if you want to play again. Press 
“Y” (Yes), or “N” (No). 

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1 OF 4 




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PROGRAM NO. 09930003 



3 OF 1 





A OF A c 



PROGRAM NO- 09930003 




*> T.l. 99/4A 









OSCAR checks the pulse 
of your pocketbook. 


Are your family's funds slipping away? OSCAR rates you 
on how you're currently handling financial matters. Use 
the quiz for clues to how you can improve your money 

management skills. 









As a departure from the normal way 
of using Databar software, tempo- 
rarily skip the article that follows. Go 
right to the Program Instructions 
after reading this paragraph and load 
the program into your computer. Why 
are we asking you to do this? We want 
you to use your current knowledge in 
answering the quick quiz. Answer it 
honestly and then read the article, 
where we tell you about the process 
you’ve just gone through and suggest 
some other ways to use the program. 

What Just Happened? 

By running the Financial Quiz ™ 
program, you’ve just glimpsed at 
many of the vital concepts in smart 
home money management. You’ve had 
to make quick decisions on whether 
you’re currently practicing the con- 
cepts or not. The importance of this 
first exposure to the program is your 
introduction to the two-tier structure 
of money management. On one level 
are the hypothetical financial plan- 
ning principles; one example would 
be: reduce tax burden. On the second 
level are the practical applications of 
those principles, or modern manage- 
ment techniques; examples of tech- 
niques to reduce tax burden are: 
investing in tax shelters or using an 
IRA account. Poor money manage- 
ment often involves using a technique 
without considering the principles. 

Here are the concepts presented in 
the Financial Quiz ™ . 

Financial Plan. If your financial 
plan is in your head, it doesn’t count. 
Although planning is not a time-con- 
suming task, it is one that demands a 
written record, either on paper or the 

Household Budget. Like a financial 
plan, a household budget is a task that 
teaches discipline in money manage- 
ment. A household budget will help 
you see what areas you’re spending too 

much money on, letting you reset 
priorities and, if you need help, find 
better ways of making sure the books 
balance each month. 

Current Net Worth. Calculating 
your net worth is a relatively simple 
task that should be done on paper or 
the computer. The most logical time to 
revise your net worth is when you are 
doing the other two discipline tasks 

Money Market Accounts. This is a 
Modern Management Technique 
essential to today’s financial climate. 
The Money Market Account has 
become a basic investment, offered by 
banks, brokerage houses and mutual 
fund companies, because it has the 
liquidity and safety of a savings 
account, yet carries a higher rate of 
return than traditional savings pro- 

Life Insurance. The principle 
behind the technique of insuring your 
family is basic protection against the 
unknown. Many families underesti- 
mate the coverage they need. Also, 
many families fail to find the most 
cost-efficient coverage. Future 
Homeware ™ programs will help you 
evaluate your life-insurance needs. 

IRA’s. Two principles boost the 
importance of this relatively new man- 
agement technique: preparing for 
retirement and deferring and reducing 

Disability Insurance. Like life 
insurance, the principle behind this 
technique is preparing for the 
unknown. A disabling accident can be 
as devastating to a family’s finances as 
a death in the family. This technique is 
the one that can protect you and fam- 
ily members. Of course, most of us 
are covered under our employer’s dis- 
ability plans, but unfortunately, the 
coverage isn’t enough to take care of us 
should we be disabled for life. Y ou may 
want to consider an individual policy. 

Monthly Savings Program. To put 
it simply, it’s tough to increase your 

net worth without putting aside a set 
amount of funds each month for the 
future. Just as important is where you 
invest these funds. 

Current Will. This is another tech- 
nique of the principle of planning for 
the unknown. Other principles 
involved include establishing guard- 
ians for children and reducing estate 

Setting aside time each week. 

Finally, we ask the crucial question: 
Are you including money management 
in your busy schedule? 

What Now? 

It’s time to play “what if’ with the 
Financial Quiz™. Run the program 
again and begin changing answers to 
indicate which steps you may take in 
the future. See how these changes 
affect the outcome of the program. 
One excellent way to begin teaching 
children about money is to ask them to 
run the quiz. 

Program Instructions 

■ Load the program into your computer with 
OSCAR. Then type “RUN.” (Refer to your 
User’s Manual if you have difficulties.) 

■ Answer each question with a “Y” (yes) or a 
“N” (no). 

■ Press any key to find out your basic finan- 
cial planning savvy when the computer says, 

■ Press any key again to get the verdict on 
your modern money management techniques. 

■ Press any key again for an evaluation of 
your general financial health. 

■ Decide whether you want to retake the 
quiz. See how changing one answer can change 
your rating. To continue, push “Y;” otherwise, 
push “N.” 

This publication is designed to provide accu- 
rate and authoritative information in regard to 
the subject covered. It is sold with the under- 
standing that neither the publisher or the author 
is engaged in rendering financial or other profes- 
sional advice. If financial or other professional 
advice is required, the services of a competent 
professional person should be sought. ^ 
(Paraphrased from a Declaration of Principles 
jointly adopted by a Committee of the American 
Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers 
and Associates.) 





PROGRAM NO- 09960003 





PROGRAM NO. 09960003 




** T.l. 99/4A 

W A 


Pit your mathematical skills agaiast 
the computer or a friend. 

Math Challenge 1 — a game for kids in grades one to four 
— flashes addition and subtraction problems in three skill 
levels on the computer. The first one to answer gets the 

points — if the answer's right. 

Competitive fun and learning. 


39895 15002 






Even though computers and calcula- 
tors today do much of the math we 
used to do ourselves, we still need to do 
numbers in our heads. The skill of 
figuring simple math problems with- 
out pencil, paper or keyboard is impor- 
tant to doing well in school and out of 

Of course, even when we’re using 
paper or a calculator to do math, figur- 
ing in our heads is essential to speed- 
ing the process. For instance, you 
have a list of more than 100 single-digit 
numbers to add up with a calculator. 
To do the task quickly, you can scan 
the list, adding groups together and 
entering the totals in the calculator. If 
you spot two 4s and two 6s in a row, 
you can add these to 20 in your head 
and then enter a 20 in the calculator. 

To Parents: 

Math Challenge i ™, the first activ- 
ity in the Classware ™ series, is a fast- 
moving fun numbers game. Because of 
its three skill levels (single, sin- 
gle/double and double/double digit 
problems), children can use this pro- 
gram for developing their skills as the 
new skills are introduced in school. 
Playing alone or against each other, 
children will learn to quickly add and 
subtract in their heads at level one, 
then progress to more difficult prob- 
lems in levels two and three. Play 
Math Challenge 1 ™ with your kids and 
you’ll develop some mental nimble- 
ness, too. 

Since the problems that the players 
are asked to solve in Math Challenge 
1 IM change at random, you can set up 
the program as a 10- or 15-minute daily 
drill without boring your child with 
repetition. Of course, you may need to 
first explain the addition and subtrac- 
tion tables he or she will need to know. 
You may also need to introduce the 
concept of places — 10s, 100s — and of 

carrying numbers for the upper skill 

Use Math Challenge 1 ™ for children 
6 or older — old enough to grasp the 
concepts of addition and subtraction 
and their practical uses. After your 
child gains confidence in math skills 
using level one, encourage him or her 
to master the problems offered in the 
next two levels. 

To use Math Challenge 1 ™ as a 
game for two youngsters, let your 
child invite a friend over to play, and 
subtly supervise the game to make 
sure the kids are playing it correctly 
and learning from it. Throughout the 
game, encourage both players, giving 
them learning tips as they play. Chil- 
dren learn better when you make 
learning fun for them. 

To enhance the skill-building in 
math that Math Challenge 7™ pro- 
vides, look for other opportunities to 
test your child in a fun manner. When 
you’re in the car with the youngster, 
ask him or her to quickly add the sums 
of numbers on road signs or billboards. 
At the breakfast table, ask your child 
to add the numbers on the nutrition 
charts on cereal packages. In the gro- 
cery store aisle, ask the youngster to 
total two product prices or subtract 
two to find the savings. 

To Math Challenge 1 ™ Players: 

Get ready to see how well you can 
add and subtract. Decide which player 
is number 1 and which player is 0. If 
you are Player 1, you will hold your fin- 
ger above the 1 key, near enough so 
you can push it quickly when you know 
the answer. Player 0 will push the 0 
key when he knows the answer. 
Whenever a new problem appears on 
the screen, the first player to push his 
key gets to tell the computer the 
answer. A correct answer wins a 
player two points: 

Don’t be too quick to answer! Make 
sure you know the right answer before 
pressing your key, then wait for the 

computer to ask for the answer before 
typing it in. Y ou may need to use pencil 
and paper to solve Level Three prob- 
lems before answering the problems 
on the computer. A wrong answer 
counts against you and adds another 
point to your opponent’s score. 

If you are playing alone, using Math 
Challenge i™ as a drill, you can use 
either the 1 or 0 key — but don’t use 

There are 10 problems in each 
round. You choose the number of 
rounds for a game. The computer will 
tell you when each round ends, and you 
have the choice of continuing to pile up 
the score with a new round, starting a 
new game, proceeding to the next skill 
level, or ending the game. If you want 
to change the kind of problems you’re 
doing — from addition to subtraction, ^ 
for instance — you must start a new 
game and make a new selection. 

The computer will keep score for 
you, by the way. You don’t have to do 
it in your head. 

Program Instructions 

■ Load the program into your computer with 
OSCAR. Then type “RUN.” (Refer to your 
User’s Manual if you have difficulties.) 

■ Choose the kind of problem you want to 
solve — addition, subtraction or a mixture of 
both kinds. Then select the skill level — single 
digit, single/double digit or double/double digit 
problems. The game begins automatically. 

■ Quickly press your key when you think you 
know the answer to the first problem. The first 
player to press the key gets to play. 

■ Type in your answer when the screen says, 
“ANSWER NOW!” Do it without delay to win 
two points, for if you wait too long the computer 
awards your opponent a free point. Watch care- 
fully! The computer will not accept your answer 
before it asks for it, even if you type the right 

■ Type “Y” (yes) at the end of each round to 
continue the game and keep the score mounting. 
Type “N” (no) to halt the game. 



PROGRAM NOo 09920003 





2 OP 4 


PROGRAM NO. 09920003 





S TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 99/i|A program no. 09920003 




J T.l. 99/4A 


W A 


0991 0003 



How are your current health 
practices affecting your life expectancy? 

Answer the crucial questions for building a healthy life- 
style. Can you and your family add to your life 
expectancies with new health habits? 










How we live almost always deter- 
mines how long we live. A mountain of 
statistics bears that out. 

According to the statisticians, the 
average length of life today is 73 years. 
Compare this to only 47 years, the 
average at the turn of this century. 
We’ve added 26 years to the average 
since 1900 by arresting many infec- 
tious or acute diseases like polio, 
smallpox and tetanus, and by other 

Will we add another 26 years to the 
average by 2060? Researchers think 
not. Even though there are chronic 
diseases like cancer and heart disease 
that may be less and less prevalent in 
the future, the impact of this on the 
average length of life for all of us prob- 
ably will not be dramatic. Why? 
Because the nature of the human body 
is such that our cells will only regen- 
erate so many times, and we are 
approaching the maximum fixed aver- 
age length of life now. 

So how do we alter our own course to 
insure we get the maximum length of 
life our bodies will give us? The obvi- 
ous answer is to alter the way we live. 
Consider this: One recent study indi- 
cates that 78 percent of the nation’s 
hospital patients could have stayed 
home if they’d followed better health 
practices. Another study, this one in 
Massachusetts, indicates that 43 per- 
cent of us eat too much, 33 percent still 
smoke, 28 percent don’t exercise at all, 
and 12 percent misuse alcohol. 

With this Health Assessment ™ you 
can evaluate your own health behavior 
and how it affects your potential for 
long life. 

Health Assessment ™ is based on a 
1973 study by Nedra Belloc and her 
colleagues at the Human Population 
Laboratory of the California State 
Department of Public Health. Belloc 
and colleagues identified seven health 
habits that influence our chances of liv- 
ing a long, healthy life. They included: 

sleeping seven to eight hours a night; 
eating a full breakfast each day; limit- 
ing between-meal eating; maintaining 
ideal weight; scheduling regular exer- 
cise periods each week; limiting alco- 
hol consumption to two drinks a day; 
and not smoking. 

Health Assessment™ lets you make 
use of one of the strongest features of 
your home computer — the ability to 

Desirable Weights 

(Medium Frame) 

Desirable weights for men 25 
years of age and over* 

Height with shoes on (1-inch heels) 




















































































Desirable weights for women 25 
years of age and over* 

Height with shoes on (2-inch heels) 




















































































*Weight in pounds (in indoor clothing) 

play “what if’ games. Once you’ve run 
the program, run the questions again 
and change one of your health habits to 
see how this affects your life span. 

Here are the habits that may have 
the greatest impact on your results. 

Smoking : In our quiz, answer yes to 
the question, “Do you smoke?” if you 
smoke one or more cigarettes a day. 

Exercise : In our quiz, we consider 
“regular exercise” to be activities you 
engage in several times a week. 

Sleeping : In the Belloc study, men 
who slept eight hours a night did bet- 
ter than those sleeping less. Women 
who slept seven hours a night did best, 
but sleeping a little less wasn’t as bad 
for women as for men. 

Program Instructions 

■ Load the program into your computer with 
OSCAR. Then type “RUN.” (Refer to your 
User’s Manual if you have difficulties.) 

■ Indicate your sex by entering “M” or “F”. 

■ Answer questions by pressing “Y” (yes) or 
“N” (no). 

■ Use the accompanying tables when the com- 
puter asks about your weight. 

■ Run the program again after the computer 
has figured out how much your lifestyle has 
stretched (or shrunk) your life expectancy. Sim- 
ply change one answer to see how any single fac- 
tor can affect you. 

Databar Magazine wishes to thank Nedra 
Belloc, The Journal of Preventive Medicine and 
Academic Press, Inc., for their support in pre- 
paring Health Assessment ™ . Our thanks also to 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. for the use of its 
weight tables. 

This publication is designed to provide accurate 
and authoritative information on the subject 
covered. It is sold with the understanding that 
neither the publisher nor the author is engaged 
in rendering health, medical or other profes- 
sional advice. If health, medical or other profes- 
sional advice is required, the services of a com- 
petent professional person should be sought. 
(Paraphrased from a Declaration of Principles 
jointly adopted by a Committee of the American 
Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers 
and Associates.) 

5 TEXAS INSTRUMENTS »/«a program no. 09910003 



2 OF A ^ 


PROGRAM NO. 09910003 



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PROGRAM NO- 09910003 


L E 


T. 1 . 99/4A 

G A L W A R E 



A look off how laws 
affect your daily activities. 

What kinds of law come into play when you drive to work 
or school and park your car? OSCAR has a quick quiz to 
help you examine these activities and others to find out. 


39895 75002 






Rule by a written set of laws, agreed 
to by those governed, has always been 
one of the things that distinguishes 
civilized people from contemporary 

Chief Justice Oliver Wendell 
Holmes likened our body of laws to “a 
magic mirror, wherein we see 
reflected not only our own lives but the 
lives of all men that have been.” 

In America, the law pervades our 
lives — we are born, educated, mated 
and put to rest according to laws. Yet 
most of us know so little about the law. 
Our “legal training” usually comes 
from Perry Mason television reruns 
and the newspapers’ crime-and-pun- 
ishment beat. 

Nevertheless, we must know some- 
thing about the law, just to survive. As 
one legal expert said, “Law is the one 
subject that interacts in everyone’s 
life, every day of life, and even after 

Legalware M and the Law 

Legal ware ™ is designed to provide 
the needed practical information about 
the law and how to use it. Legalware ™ 
programs let you briefly examine spe- 
cific areas of the law. The quick and 
easy activities of the programs will 
help you develop your understanding 
of the law and your skills in dealing 
with it every day. Further, Legal - 
ware ™ may challenge your attitudes 
and feelings about the law. 

For example, one case study that 
will appear in Legalware ™ will explain 
how a confession to a crime may, in 
some cases, be ignored by the court, 
thus letting a defendant go free even 
though he has admitted guilt. Legal- 
ware ™ will provide challenging infor- 
mation and exercises on topics such as 
this so you can become informed 
enough to participate in your govern- 
ment and understand the meanings of 
justice and equality. 

How Laws Affect You 

For this first installment of the 
Legalware ™ series, called The Law 
and You , let’s examine the differ- 
ences between criminal law and civil 

Generally, criminal law regulates 
the conduct of an individual and pro- 
vides punishment for non-confor- 
mance. That punishment can be a fine, 
jail or both. In a criminal complaint, it 
will always be “The People (or The 
State) versus (somebody),” which 
means the state or federal government 
is the complainant, or as lawyers say, 
the prosecutor. 

In civil law, it’s almost always 
“(Somebody) versus (Somebody 
Else).” That is, civil law deals with 
relationships among individuals. As 
used here, individuals can be com- 
panies or even governmental bodies. 

Generally, civil laws either can com- 
pensate individuals for harm from 
others or protect from harm. Compen- 
sations from civil law cases are called 
damages. Civil law cases that protect 
result in orders, either an order to do 
something or an order that forbids 
something. For example, the civil law 
of contracts may order a person to fol- 
low through on an agreement. In addi- 
tion, some contract laws may order the 
person to pay damages. It’s also 
important to know that no one can be 
sent to jail for a violation of civil law. 

Sometimes a situation can involve 
both criminal and civil law. In a fraud 
case, for example, you can sue the per- 
petrator to recover any money you’ve 
lost (civil law), and you can file a com- 
plaint with the appropriate authorities 
to have them take action against the 
person (criminal law). For example, a 
person who drives a car while under 
the influence of alcohol can face both a 
criminal consequence (loss of liberty 
and a fine) and a civil consequence 
(damages) for the injuries to person 
and property that may have occurred. 

Other Rules 

Aside from formal laws adopted by 
governments, there are other rules we 
must live by — rules laid down by par- 
ents, employers, regulatory bodies 
and the like. Not real “laws,” but just 
as important. 

Try The Law and You to deter- 
mine whether you understand the dif- 
ferences and to look at some of the 
kinds of laws that have an impact on 
your home, your family and all your 
daily activities. 

Program Instructions 

■ Load the program into your computer with 
OSCAR. Then type “RUN.” (Refer to your 
User’s Manual if you have difficulties.) 

■ Type your name, hit RETURN or ENTER. 

■ Read the first daily activity and the law 

t/ «/ 

involved, and decide what kind of law it is. If 
you’re right, a second law for the activity will 
appear. Again, choose the proper law. If you are 
incorrect with any choice, the computer will tell 
you to TRY AGAIN. 

■ After the final question, type “Y” (yes) if 
you want to review the activities and laws once 
more, “N” (no) if you don’t. 

This publication is designed to provide accu- 
rate and authoritative information in regard to 
the subject covered. It is sold with the under- 
standing that neither the publisher nor the 
author is engaged in rendering legal or other 
professional advice. If legal or other professional 
advice is required, the services of a competent 
professional person should be sought. 
(Paraphrased from a Declaration of Principles 
jointly adopted by a Committee of the American 
Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers 
and Associates.) 





PROGRAM NO- 09980003 



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PROGRAM NO- 09980003 


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* T.l. 99/4A 09940003 



OSCAR makes math friendly 
for your practical applications. 

How much lumber or paint should you buy for a triangular 
deck or the gable of your house? How can you calculate 
the distance to a faraway object? OSCAR and Triangle 

Solutions quickly find the 
f answers for you. 


39895 35002 







Triangles have been important to 
the understanding of science and 
mathematics for many centuries. Trig- 
onometry is the study of the sides and 
angles formed by triangles. Most of 
our modern machines and buildings 
could not be built without the ability 
trigonometry gives us to “solve trian- 

But, as you may remember from 
your high school trigonometry class, 
figuring out how long the side of a 
triangle is from just two of the angles 
plus one of the other sides can be a 
painstaking, error-prone calculation. 
Not with Scienceware’s ™ exercise in 
Triangle Solutions™ . The program 
gives you instant answers to triangle 
problems that took earlier mathemati- 
cians hours to solve. But while 19th- 
century scholars may have taken joy in 
solving triangles, is the skill ever of 
any use to you? Read on. 

Building a Deck 

■ Let’s say you want to build a 
triangular outdoor deck. Y ou’ll need to 
know the square footage so you can fig- 
ure out how much lumber to buy and 
the angles of the sides to tell you how 
to cut the lumber. With Triangle Solu- 
tions ™ , all you do is measure the three 
sides on your plan, press option Num- 
ber 1 , and you’ll have your answer in 

Measuring Distance 

■ While checking some potential 
real estate for your vacation home, you 
decide to determine how far it is to a 
distant mountain top from building 
lots. There is a quick way to find out 
with a protractor and your car. Find a 
road that runs straight along the 
mountains. Stop your car, and fix on a 
distinguishing outcropping on the top 
of the mountain. Draw a line in the dirt 
that points to it and another that paral- 
lels the road. Measure the angle ot the 
two lines with the protractor. Then 
drive a few miles, carefully measuring 
the distance on your odometer. Stop 
vour car at some point. Take another 
sighting of the same outcropping, 
draw two lines in the dirt again, and 
measure the angle in the same way. 
With this data, you can use Triangle 
Solutions ™ when you return home to 
closely estimate how far away the 
mountains are. 

A few other examples of applica- 
tions where you can use Triangle 
Solutions ™ include: 1) calculating the 
paint needed for a gable; 2) estimating 
the length of a guy wire on a TV 
antenna tower; 3) measuring the dis- 
tance across a ravine or river you can’t 
easily cross. 

Remember that to solve triangles 
you need three pieces of information, 
as did the ancients: 

1) Side-side-side; 

2) Side-angle-side, or: 

3) Angle-side-angle. 

Be sure to enter all your figures in 

the same unit of measurement: all feet, 
all yards and so on. Use decimals 
instead of mixing feet and inches — 
12.5 feet, for example, instead of 12 
feet, 6 inches, or 12Vz feet. Do not use 
more than four digits in a number. 
Accuracy is to the second decimal. 

Types of Triangles 



Isosceles Triangle: Having two 

equal sides. 

Right Triangle: Contains an angle 
of 90 degrees. 

Obtuse Triangle: Contains an angle 
larger than 90 degrees. 

Scalene Triangle: Having three 

unequal sides. 


Program Instructions 

■ Load the program into your computer 
with OSCAR. Then type “RUN.” (Refer to your 
User’s Manual if you have difficulties.) 

■ Pick the option that applies to the informa- 
tion you have available. You do not need to press 

■ Enter your information as the computer 
asks for it. After you enter each figure, hit 

■ When the computer fills in the missing sides 
or angles, press any key and the program will 
give you the area of the triangle. 

■ Hit “Y” (yes) to figure another triangle. 


1 OF A " 




4 OF 'I 

W O R 

D W A R E 



9 T.l. 99/4A 



1 ) 


3 ) 



Are your reading and writing habits keeping up 
with the demands of our high-information society? 

Word Habits is a fast and friendly quiz on how well you 
now read important reports and articles, and how well you 
write memos, assignments and letters. Use the answers to 

boost your reading and writing skills. 



39895 45002 






Words are wonderful — if you know 
how to use them. 

Developed over centuries into the 
English language of today, words are 
the symbols we use to share our ideas 
with each other. 

English is a grand language, broad 
and versatile enough for anyone’s 
needs. Elegant and expressive, for the 
poet. Pragmatic and precise for the 
scientist or the accountant. Vivid 
enough to put you in a far-away land 
while sitting in your living room. Sim- 
ple and sincere, for friends. 

But as useful as English is, language 
is in danger; it’s under attack daily. 
The major enemies of English are 
those who misuse words. Does that 
include you? 

The Wordhabits ™ Quiz program will 
start you on the path toward improv- 
ing the way you communicate with 
others and toward upgrading your 
reading skills, as well. 

How Do Bad Habits Start? 

Most of us are reared with the lan- 
guage, barely conscious of words while 
we learn them. In school we were sup- 
posed to learn the good word habits. 
But bad word habits often shove aside 
the good. How? Copying others is the 
primary culprit. Once one lazy word 
user influences a younger word user, 
the trail of word abuse is set ablaze. 

Because bad habits tend to drive out 
the good, according to reading expert 
Myron Q. Herrick, much of the lan- 
guage’s usefulness is lost to many of 
us. Few read at more than one-tenth 
the speed they’re capable of. Speech 
and writing often are garbled in every 
facet of life, school, work and play. 

Word Habits and Reading 

Good word habits are useful for 
everyone. If you understand the lan- 
guage, you’ll enjoy reading more — 
whether it’s for profit or pleasure. 

You’ll know that a poem is a poem 
because the words make images flow 
gracefully through your mind. 

And from reading flows writing and 
the spoken word. If you can talk to 
people clearly, you can persuade them 
to do what you want them to do. 

Advice to Get Started 

Our Wordhabits ™ quiz is designed 
to help you pinpoint some weaknesses 
in your current word habits. How do 
you cure those weaknesses? That’s 
what we’ll be helping you with in 
future W ordware ™ programs. But to 
get you started, we polled some writ- 
ing experts to give you tips to think 
about. Use these ideas and the Word- 
habits ™ quiz to start making some pos- 
itive changes. 

Stop Overusing Words 

Carla Bender, corporate communi- 
cations consultant, cautions writers to 
watch out for the “the-and-it” trap. 

“Reread your writing after every 
draft, looking for the word ‘it’ and for 
sentences beginning with ‘The,.’ ’’ Ms. 
Bender says. “The word ‘it’ is so vague 
that often you can’t tell what the word 
refers to. I tell writers they should be 
able to eliminate the word in almost 
every case and improve their writing 
in the process. Another trap is starting 
sentences with ‘The.’ Reread your 
writing and you may discover three or 
more sentences in a row beginning 
with ‘The.’ ” 

Practice Writing 

An exercise in good writing is to try 
to copy the style of the short news fea- 
tures found in the front sections of 
many magazines. Ann Arnott, the 
originator of the “Mostly Money” col- 
umn in Redbook Magazine , says the 
two- or three-paragraph news feature 
is one of the hardest types of writing 
because you must boil down the 
essence of a 700- to 1,200-word press 
release into less than 200 words. 

Be Less Formal 

John Neville, a professional busi- 
ness communicator, says business 
writing often suffers because the 
writer tries to be too formal. 

“Too many writers use long convo- 
luted sentences with lots of parenthet- 
ical expressions, trying to sound 
authoritative,” Neville says. “I tell 
writers to use short sentences in 
almost a staccato fashion, keeping the 
language varied. And I see no harm in 
making business writing less formal by 
asking for reader involvement. ‘Pic- 
ture if you will . . .’ is an excellent 
phrase to start a sentence.” 

What to Look Up to? 

What kinds of writing do other writ- 
ers admire? David Stevens, senior edi- ^ 
tor of a leading men’s magazine, says, ^ 
“Read the Paul Stuart menswear ads 
in The New Yorker magazine. The 
relaxed style of easy familiarity with 
men’s fashions in the writing immedi- 
ately improves your own feel for 

Better Homes and Gardens maga- 
zine editors suggest new staff writers 
read the book, The Letters of E.B. 
White. And advertising agencies often 
suggest new copywriters read the 
L.L. Bean catalog. For the rules of 
writing, most magazines and many 
journalism schools suggest The Ele- 
ments of Style by Strunk and White. 

Program Instructions 

■ Load the program into your computer with 
OSCAR. Then type “RUN.” (Refer to your 
User’s Manual if you have difficulties.) 

■ Read each question carefully and answer 
“Y” (yes) or “N” (no). Be honest. 

■ Try the quiz again after your evaluation. 
Change one answer and see if it improves your 
score. If it does, you’ve learned a good word 

■ Hit “Y” if you want to try another round. 
Otherwise, type “N.” 





1 OF 




PROGRAM NO. 09950003 








PROGRAM NO- 09950003 






_ FOR 
• T. 1 . 99/4A 


0997001 1 



Let OSCAR ease the chore of 
learning to program. 



OSCAR is a super programming tutor. By hitting only a 
few keys, you run two simple BASIC programs — 


(a multiplication game). Then see in 
detail how the programs were created. 

39895 65002 



G E A 



On the following bar code pages are 
two exercises that reveal the types of 
programs you’ll soon be able to write 
using OSCAR and the Genware series. 
The first program is a simple multipli- 
cation game. The second program cal- 
culates a car’s gas mileage. 

We’ve done all the writing of these 
programs to let you examine how they 
are constructed. All you have to do is 
scan the programs into your computer 
with OSCAR and run them. When you 
see how they run, then you’ll switch 
the program to the lines of code that 
make up the program in order to see 
what a BASIC program looks like. 
Soon you’ll be writing your own pro- 
grams in the code you study here. 

OSCAR's Drill™ 

The first program, OSCAR's 
Drill™, is a simple multiplication 
game, the type you would write if your 
child needs practice with multiplica- 
tion. OSCAR's Drill ™ presents num- 
bers between 0 and 10 for a player to 
multiply and asks the player to type in 
the correct answer. A player starts 
with 20 points. If an answer is correct, 
the player gets 5 additional points. If 
wrong, the player loses 2 points. One 
game has only four problems, but you 
can keep playing as long as you like. 

After You've Played the Game 

Now you’ll want to examine the 
BASIC language lines that make up 
the program. See the Program 
Instructions for how to do this. You’ll 
look at the program line by line in sec- 
tions. Program lines start at 50 and go 
up in intervals of 10. Lines 50 to 250, 
therefore, refer to a program’s first 15 
lines. You use line numbers in BASIC 
programs to tell the computer the 
order in which to execute the state- 

Miles Per Gallon™ 

Your second program, Miles Per 

Gallon™ , is an example of how some- 
one might use a computer for calculat- 
ing a car’s gas mileage for a trip to 
Phoenix. The program takes the mile- 
age readings from the car’s odometer 
each time the driver fills the tank with 
fuel, and then keeps a running tally of 
the fuel economy the car has attained 
from fill to fill. 

Miles Per Gallon™ is a completed 
program that doesn’t require your 
input. But study closely the BASIC 
language code that makes up the pro- 
gram. The program is a bit more com- 
plicated than OSCAR's Drill™ , so it 
has more “REM” lines. Again, look at 
the program line-by-line to get clues 
on how programs are written. You’ll 
want to refer to “The BASICs of Pro- 
gramming” article (page 44) to help 
you understand some of the other basic 
elements of these two programs. 

What Types of Statements? 

Here are the various types of state- 
ments you’ll be examining in the pro- 
gram listings for OSCAR's Drill™ and 
Miles Per Gallon ™ : 

DATA: Used in a program, it lists 
information that will be assigned to the 
variables in the READ statement. 

FOR-NEXT: Used to cause a loop , 
or repetitions, of part of a program. 
For example, after the command FOR 
I = 1 to 10, the program runs, executing 
all statements, until it hits a line that 
says NEXT I. Then it goes back to the 
line beginning FOR again for nine rep- 

GOTO: Tells the program to jump to 
the line named. 

IF-THEN: A programming state- 
ment in which an action is taken when a 
condition is true. For example, the 
statement, “IF A = B THEN 220” tells 
the computer to determine if A equals 
B, and if so, to go to line 220 in the pro- 

INPUT: Stops program and 
requests information from the person 
running the program; it then assigns 

that information to a variable. For 
example, if you enter 8 in answer to 
INPUT S, the program assigns a value 
of 8 to the variable S. 

LET: Tells the computer that what- 
ever follows is true. For example, 
LET C = 1 means C is equal to 1. 

PRINT: Instructions to the com- 
puter telling it to put a statement on 
the monitor. 

READ: Assigns information to vari- 
ables from DATA statement. 

REM: A note to people reading a 
program listing. 

Program Instructions 

■ Load OSCAR's Drill ™ into your computer 
with OSCAR. Then type “RUN.” (Refer to your 
User’s Manual if you have difficulties.) 

■ A multiplication problem will appear. Type 
your answer to the multiplication problem and 
press RETURN or ENTER. (Do not type a let- 
ter or press RETURN or ENTER without first 
pressing a number; the program will end and you 
will have to type “RUN” to play again.) 

■ At the end of the game type “Y” (yes) if you 
want to play again or “N” (no) if you don’t, and 
press RETURN or ENTER. 

■ If you’ve pressed “N,” type List 50-130 (50, 
130 for Atari) and press RETURN or ENTER 
to see the first nine lines of the program. After 
studying these lines list the next section in the 
same way following this chart: 




1 40-220 








■ Follow the same instructions for Miles Per 
Gallon ™ using this chart: 

M. P. G. 














r i 

1 OF 2 " 





GENWARE™ 1 OP 2 " 



PROGRAM NO- 09970007 



2 OF 2 “ 




Want to get the most fun and enjoyment 
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With a one-year membership you’ll receive 
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Send me 12 issues of DATABAR, The Monthly Bar Code Software 
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Address Apt. 

City State Zip 

OSCAR Serial No. Computer Model 

Payment enclosed ( ) Please bill me in full for $120 ( ) Please bill me in four quarterly 
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American Express □ Visa □ MasterCard □ Carte Blanche □ Diners Club □ 

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Address Apt. 

City State Zip 

OSCAR Serial No. Computer Model 

Payment enclosed ( ) Please bill me in full for $240 ( ) Please bill me in eight quarterly 
installments, $35 each ( ) Please charge to my credit card ( ) 

American Express □ Visa □ MasterCard □ Carte Blanche □ Diners Club □ 

Card No. Expiration date 

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(Required for credit card orders) 

TWO -YEARS -24 issues -$240 

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Computer Model 

Please send invoice to: 


Address Apt. 

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Payment enclosed ( ) Please bill me in full for $240 ( ) Please bill me in eight quarterly 
installments, $35 each ( ) Please charge to my credit card ( ) 

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Card No. . Expiration date 

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The Monthly Bar Code 
Software Magazine 
Box 1912 
Marion, OH 43306 






The Monthly Bar Code 
Software Magazine 
Box 1912 
Marion, OH 43306 







The Monthly Bar Code 
Software Magazine 
Box 1912 
Marion, OH 43306 


Each month, we’ll deliver right to your door, the exciting Databar 
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DATABAR CORPORATION, 10202 Crosstown Circle, Eden Prairie, MN 55344, Phone: 612-944-5700 



Expert Typist with Keyboard vs. Eight-year-old with OSCAR 

"Task: Enter a two-page BASIC program with 
the use of the keyboard. 

*Task: Enter the same program in bar code 
format with the use of OSCAR. 

*Prior Computer Experience: Degree in 
Computer Programming. 

"Prior c om p U ter Experience: 


"Prior Typing Experience: Professional 
typist with 100 wpm capability and two hours 
practice on this computer. 

"Prior OSCAR Experience: A short practice 

"Results: Typist finishes in 39 minutes and 
28 seconds with a number of errors and a 
headache, taking another 30 minutes and 
15 seconds for debugging. 

"Results: Eight-year-old finishes in 8 minutes 
and 17 seconds with no errors and plenty of 
time to blow bubbles. 


DATABAR CORPORATION, 10202 Crosstown Circle, Eden Prairie, MN 55344, Phone: 612-944-5700 

- |