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15/12/2008 Final Performance/Technical 

3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 

1/9/2007 - 3-/9/2008 


South East Coastal Ocean Observing System (SEA-COOS) 






Leath, Steve - Vice President for Research, UNC-GA 

Seim, Harvey - Professor of Marine Science, UNC-GA 






University of North Carolina General Administration, 910 Raleigh Road, Chapel Hill, 
NC 27514 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Marine Science Program, CB 1350, 

Chapel Hill, NC 27599-1350 




Technical Administrative 

Office of Naval Research Office of Naval Research 

875 North Randolph Street 100 Alabama Street, SW 

Arlington, VA 22203-1995 Suite 4R15 

Atlanta, GA 30303-3104 






The all tcchnical/performance reports, including this final report are available for public distribution 



SEACOOS functioned as a pilot regional coastal ocean observing system that has significantly advanced our national ability to 
establish operational regional observing systems around the country. The final year focused on documentation of the program's 
best practices, lessons learned and on maintaining those elements of the coastal ocean observing system (COOS) that could be 
preserved given the reduced level of funding. A special volume was published in fall 2008 that includes 9 articles by investigators 
which detail the components developed, define best practices and lessons learned. An additional 128 publications were authored by 
investigators during the lifetime of the program that describe advances in basic scientific understanding of coastal ocean processes 
and in more applied science with a focus on ecosystem functioning. A number of SEACOOS program elements have been 
transitioned to the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA); the SEACOOS data management 
program now forms the basis for the SECOORA data management system and all HF radar installations continue to operate 

ibTsubject terms 

pilot program, documentation effort, regional coastal ocean observing system 










Steve Leath and Harvey Seim 





19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 


Standard Form 29B (Rev. 8/9B| 

Prascribed by ANSI Sid. Z39 16 

Year Five of Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System (SEACOOS) 


Harvey E. Seim 

Dept, of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 
CB#3300, 340 Chapman Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 
phone: (919) 962-2083 fax:(919)962-1254 email: 

Steven Leath 

University of North Carolina General Administration 
910 Raleigh Road, Post Office Box 2688, Chapel Hill, NC 27515-2688 
phone: (919) 962-4623 fax: (919) 843-4942 email: 

Award Number: NOOO14-02-1-0972 


To significantly increase the quantity and quality of environmental information from the coastal ocean 
of the SE U.S. and make this readily available for a range of societal, scientific and educational 


Explore the components and interactions necessary to create a vital regional coastal ocean observing 
system (RCOOS) in the southeast U.S. Assist the development of the coastal component of the U.S. 
Integrated Ocean Observing System (lOOS). 


A consortium of universities with existing observing system components worked together to construct 
a functional regional coastal ocean observing system. Through practical application, best practices for 
further development of the regional (and national) COOS network were identified and documented. 


In its fifth and final year SEACOOS operated on a much reduced budget and therefore limited the 
scope of activities to documenting the regional coastal ocean observing system (RCOOS) devleopment 
and lessons learned and to maintaining a limited number of the observing system elements. 

SEACOOS sought to document the program’s experiences as a mechanism to inform future ocean 
observing efforts in the region and around the country, as strongly recommended in its external 
evaluation during the third year of the program ( and by its 
Office of Naval Research Program Manager. Eight SEACOOS investigators each received a month of 
salary support to lead summary and synthesis manuscripts on the main components of the program: the 
observing subsystem, the modeling subsystem, the information management subsvstem. and the 


extension and education subsystem. Additionally, manuscripts on an overall RCOOS design, program 
management, the high-frequency radar system and the surface wave observing subsystem were 

Draft reports for each element were prepared during summer 2007 and presented at the 10* and final 
SEACOOS open workshop 

(, which was 
held in St. Petersberg, Florida, in conjunction with the 2 "^ annual lOOS Regional Workshop. The 
workshop attracted 84 participants from around the country and from a variety of work sectors. 
SEACOOS was able to support the national meeting by providing travel funds for representatives from 
each of the 11 regional assocations around the US. In this way the SEACOOS program was able to 
share its experiences and lessons learned with similar programs from around the country. In addition 
to reviewing the documentation, workshop breakout sessions addressed information management, an 
lOOS-wide concept of operations, and supporting applications as important topics that regional ocean 
observing systems must consider as they develop into operational programs. 

Based on feedback from the workshop the manuscripts were further refined and versions were drafted 
for inclusion in a special volume of the Marine Technology Society (MTS) Journal entitled “Global 
Lessons learned from Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Systems”, published in fall 2008. Dr. Seim 
was the guest editor of the volume which includes nine contirbutions from SEACOOS investigators as 
well as articles on a national perspective on regional development, on the European Union’s regional 
ocean observing programs, and articles on the Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS) and 
on an observing efforts in the Gulf of Mexio and Lake Erie. The MTS Journal was chosen for the 
special volume because if its ability to quickly get the volume to press and therefore help ensure that 
the SEACOOS documentation effort is available to the broader community in a timely and meaningful 

In addition to these articles that focus on the development and lessons learned from the SEACOOS 
program’s regional coastal ocean observing system experience, more than 120 refereed science 
publications have been authored by SEACOOS investigators during the lifetime of the project. The 
articles, included in the publicaiton list for this report, demonstrate the remarkable breadth of activities 
undertaken by the program. They address topics of basic science, augmenting our understanding of the 
physical, chemical and biological oceanography of the SE US coastal ocean, as well as topics of more 
applied science, with an emphasis on ecosystem studies and the ways in which ocean observing 
systems can provide information critical to the understanding of ecosystem functioning. There are also 
a number of articles on extension and education that describe ways in which the information generated 
by ocean observing can be used to better inform students and the public of the functioning of the 
world’s oceans and its relevance to our daily lives. 

The other main objective of the fifth year of the program was to maintain to the extent possible the 
observing systems elements that SEACOOS had developed in the first four years of the program. 
SEACOOS began as a pilot RCOOS based on an expectation that the national program (lOOS) would 
begin in earnest in the early part of this decade, hence there was a desire to see those elements of 
SEACOOS that were viable become part of the formal SE regional component of lOOS. 

Funding in year five was restricted to maintaining existing elements, and of these funds the vast 
majority went to supporting key personnel. Priority was given to the observing and information 

management components, which each received approximately 40% of the available funding, with the 
remainder split between modeling and extension and education. Though a number of the observing 
system elements are still active today and supported by other means, the majority have been 
mothballed, awaiting a time when funding levels may permit them to be operated again. 

Unfortunately, key personnel have been lost and as time passes and funding levels remain low, more of 
them will be lost from the endeavor. 


Selected examples of achievements documented in the special volume of the MTS Journal are given 
below. For information on these and other aspects of the program, see the project website 
( ) and the publications listed below. 

The observing subsystem of SEACOOS employed a number of different platforms and sensing 
techniques. The acquisition, testing, deployment and maintenance of a number of high-frequency radar 
installations in the SE US remains a significant accomplishment of SEACOOS (Shay et ah, 2008). 
Based on extensive deliberations within SEACOOS, we decided to assess the two differing types of 
coastal ocean current radars within the southeast that were on the commercial market. The long-range, 
SeaSondes (SS) were deployed to sense surface currents at hourly intervals and a 6 km resolution along 
the West Florida Shelf and the North Carolina Shelf. The medium and long-range Wellen Radars 
(WERA) were deployed along the Florida Straits and along the South Atlantic Bight with spatial 
resolutions of 1.2 to 3 km sampling at time scales of minutes (Figure 1). 

Figure 1. HF radar deployments (and radial coverage) with surface current vectors in April 2007 (EFS and MAB) and 
Oct 2007 (WFS) in the SEACOOS domain relative to bottom terrain (from Shay et al., 2008). 

A common theme in these deployments was to sense the Lx)op Current, Florida Current and the Gulf 
Stream which transport heat poleward as part of the gyre circulation. SEACOOS experiences with HF 
radars were generally positive as it allowed us to assess system performances of both systems under 
differing venues with large differences in the dynamic ranges and horizontal scales of surface current 
variability. Collectively, a near real-time surface velocity measurement system was developed where 
data were visualized on the SEACOOS website. The two radar groups using WERA, the first such 
deployments in the continental US, were in general pleased with the wealth of data provided by this 
system, including the possibility of near real-time directional wave capabilities. These measurements 
are not only important to modeling programs, but are needed to interpret radar-derived surface velocity 
fields and directional waves in strongly sheared ocean regimes (i.e. Florida Current). In collaboration 
with our European colleagues, more significant inroads must be made in this area of radar-derived 
directional waves as it is an exciting area of scientific and research inquiry that has operational 
potential. This remote sensing capability is a plus in regimes such as the Gulf Stream and Florida 
Current where surface buoys are difficult to deploy and maintain over long periods. 

A surface wave measurement initiative within SEACOOS led to the establishment of directional wave 
measurement stations at several new locations, evaluation of the employed systems, and the transfer of 
a number of these systems or data streams to new programs (Voulgaris et al., 2008). These data have 
been invaluable in providing nearshore wave climatologies for the deployment sites (Figure 2). 

Figure 2 . Nearshore wave climatology for two cabled ADCP stations (Folly Beach and Springmaid Pier) along the coast 
of South Carolina. Under the same wind regime^ the site at Folly Beach receives significantly more energy than the site 
on Springmaid Pier. At both sites the wave energy is directed southward^ indicating a southward dominated longshore 
sediment transport (from Voulgaris et aL, 2008) 

Furthermore, NOAA/NWS have been utilizing these data for guidance on nearshore forecasting 
activities. Expertise was established throughout the region in using ADCPs for wave measurements. A 
particular success was the creation of data display results for ADCP directional wave measurements. 

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These were widely disseminated to various partners within SEACOOS but also were shared with other 
RCOOS programs. Comparisons of ADCP- and buoy-obtained wave parameters have shown that the 
two systems are in very good agreement and different sensors can be integrated in a wave observation 

The research and development efforts in the area of using radars for estimating wave conditions with a 
high spatial resolution has established the region as the pioneer in these activities. The SEACOOS- 
sponsored radar experiment demonstrated that the WERA technology holds the promise of providing 
wave height estimates and led to identification of areas that need further research. This activity fostered 
collaboration between different institutions and has provided the basis for the development of a new 
waves program under the auspices of the Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Associations. 
Furthermore, long-range HF Radars installed on along the Georgia and South Carolina coasts (Figure 
1) are currently undergoing upgrades to provide offshore wave information. 

In addition to HF radar and wave measurement programs, SEACOOS obtained near real-time 
observations from buoys, offshore towers, pier and shore stations, and mobile platforms (ships, gliders 
and drifters) using several communications techniques. These assets more than doubled the number of 
fixed observing platforms in the SEACOOS region (Figures 3 and 4). More importantly, the 
SEACOOS observation subsystem established the first network of subsurface observing locations (of 
temperature and salinity) and shelf current observations. The program also initiated a pilot program in 
regional remote sensing that utilized established capabilities at partner institutions to deliver tailored 
satellite products in near real-time. Another unusual component of the observing system was the 
Explorer of the Seas, a Royal Caribbean Cruise Liner that has been outfitted with a variety of 
atmosphere and ocean sensors which collect observations continuously while the vessel is underway. It 
followed a weekly track through the West and East Caribbean, repeatedly crossing the Florida Straits. 
These crossings provide a measure of the transport and structure of the Florida Current, a dominant 
feature of the regional oceanography and which carries a signal of 

impacts the SE coastal ocean. sixqow - ^£^8-969 (616) 

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One of the most acknowledged accomplishments of SEACOOS was the eSHbH^imerit5fffe"296 (616) 
comprehensive, distributed, information management system (Fletcher et al?,^^)^).^^ inl5J?^o^S^S^^^ 
developing a set of standard for data transport mechanisms, vocabulary 
of the first truly regional information management system in the cgyi|t^j 3 ^et|>f 9 ^b^^Qyf 
SEACOOS are being used by others and are currently being pr®mot^:is5)(pssibi©natiOT^cstandaHk3:Ta 
Data were aggregated into a relational database and considerable effort has gone Hft5^^)f>tifIH?SfibIFSf 
its performance. Visualization has emphasized map-based products, relying on open source tools to 
create geographical information system (GIS) compatible imagery. The production of map layers that 
conform to Open Geospatial Consotrium (OGC) standards, each representing a single variable or 
stbset of observations, that can then be combined or shared has proven to be an effective way to 
p ‘omote interoperability with other organizations and was the 

tl e ability of regions around the country to aggregate their data streams■(ldi]pai>penires.f)Bg SNffibsitc 
e result). The technology has proven expandable and can now host a nulfftir of B^McfififtentfoT^) 
and supports a growing number of output data types and data feeds (Fi^tfS’5^ Th6§^!^(5€)f)S^^&^ 
•Management technology and many of its personnel now form the basis for^^e 
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Quality assurance/quality control protocols have been a primary focus of information management 
within SEACOOS during the last years of the program. Through coordination with other regional data 

Regional Observations 

Federal stations 

Observing stations 
















Figure 3 — distribution of coastal and offshore real-time in>situ observing stations in the SE coastal ocean in the fall of 
200L Not included are the many onshore meteorological stations and USGS river gauge network (from Nelson et alf 

providers and federal agency input SEACOOS developed white papers and a schema for encoding 
QA/QC information within an arbitrary data stream. Though never fully implemented during the 
lifetime of the program, the structure mocked up by SEACOOS is serving as the starting point for 
renewed interest in this topic as funded through the QARTOD to OGC (Q20) grant from the NOAA 
lOOS Program Office. 

Forecasting the time-evolving, three-dimensional fields of the coastal ocean from the estuaries out to 
the boundaries of the EEZ was the ambitious goal of the SEACOOS modeling group. Tremendous 
progress was made towards this goal, with the three contributing groups ruxming quasi-operational 
systems near the end of the funding of the program 

Each group used a high-resolution coastal model, nested within a basin scale model to define open 





Regional Observations 

- SEACOOS partners 

Carolina programs 









Federal stations 




RADAR sites 


NDBC buoy 











“ w 


Radial coverage 


84 WV 






Figure 4 - distribution of real-time in-situ observing platforms operating in the SE coastal ocean from 2002-2007 and 
nominal coverage for surface currents from shore-based HF radar station. A number of inshore water level stations, 
onshore meteorological stations and USGS river gauge sites are not shown. 

boundary conditions, and forced with an atmospheric model and tides (Figure 6). Particularly 
challenging was the representation of the Loop Current/Florida Current/Gulf Stream in the deeper parts 
of the model domains and the depiction of the nearshore regime in the shallowest parts of the model 
domains. Skill assessment of the nested models found generally-good agreement with the existing 
sparse observational array (despite the growth of observing under SEACOOS funding), though the 
fidelity of the Gulf Stream representation in the basin scale models off the South Atlantic Bight was 
questionable and, because of a lack of observations, unverifiable. On the West Florida shelf it was 
found that a second nesting, of estuarine models within the coastal model, was a practical approach to 
representing the cross-shelf linkage from estuarine waters to the deep ocean. 

Re: NC Society of CPM 

These circulation models served as the starting point for a variety of coupled models. These included 
nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton models in the Straits of Florida (Fietcher and Mooers, 2007), red 
tide tracking (Weisberg et al., 2007), larval fish dispersion studies (Edward et al., 2007), and sediment 
transport models (Feitcher et al., 2006). These studies underscore the value of establishing a basic 
representation of the ocean circulation as an essential building block for the regional observing 

An obvious next step in development of modeling subsystems is assimilation of some of the 
observations. Some assimilation occurs as part of the basin scale modeling and hence it influences the 
nature of the nested solutions. However, as part of SEACOOS, insufficient resources were available to 
pursue a region-wide effort. Some groups have begun to implement assimilation schemes, in particular 
for the HF radar datasets, and results to date are promising (Barth et al., 2008c). 

. . . 

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Figure S-a schematic representation of the data flow in the SEACOOS information management system and the 
variety of input and output data formats that are accommodated (Fletcher et al, 2008). 

At this time none of the modeling programs have been transitioned to or supported by SECOORA due 
to budgetary constraints. A significant modeling program has been proposed for SECOORA but 
funding levels have been too low to begin implementation. 

The extension component of the Extension and Education (E&E) subsystem of SEACOOS was 
operated through the Sea Grant Extension Programs of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and 
Florida. Education activities were channeled through the three Centers for Ocean Sciences Education 
Excellence (COSEE) in the SEACOOS domain. Together these formed the E&E working group which 

7 of 7 

17/10/7nn« 4-17 PM 

undertook the daunting task of raising awareness among the public about lOOS and its potential 
benefits to society, of defining stakeholders in the region, of defining their information needs, and how 
their needs might best be addressed using information from the observing systems (Simoniello et al., 
2008). Each of these steps was a challenge but the last step, of identifying how best to address user 
information needs, was the most challenging because it was essential that the response was consistent 
with what the RCOOS could provide at its current level of maturity and that there were adequate 
resources to develop any tailored applications that might be envisioned. 

surf. vel. and SST 2004-01-10 






18 20 22 24 26 28 

Figure 6—An example of a coastal ocean model nested within a basin scale model, in this case, the west Florida Shelf 
ROMS model nested within the HYCOM North Atlantic model (Barth et al, 2008a) 

Among the forms of raising awareness of lOOS, the information kiosk proved quite popular. It was 
used in a number of venues, including the Explorer of the Seas (a commercial cruise liner), at aquaria 
and science centers, and at fishing piers. The kiosks took on a variety of forms but always included an 
interactive computer terminal that allowed the user to explore the components of observing systems 
and the many uses for the information. Some were directly connected to real-time data streams and/or 
the SEACOOS data portal, and some were designed to give users a clear notion of a particular 
instrument system (Figure 7). Most other forms of raising awareness involved presentations, at boat 
shows, on board the Explorer of the Seas, or at targeted meetings (e.g. state emergency managers), with 
the notable exception of the production of several DVDs that described the structure and challenges of 
coastal ocean observing systems. 

Figure 7 - Scaled model of SEACOOS buoy with supporting computer kiosk located at Roper Mountain Science Center, 
Greenville, SC. 

The early work of the E&E group in identifying stakeholders led to a critical early distinction between 
users who were accustomed to ingesting and using large amounts of ocean information, or superusers, 
and those users who required a more refined form of information delivery to make it meaningful to 

them. SEACOOS choose to preferentially focus on developing information streams for superusers 
because of their ability to utilize essentially raw data feeds and therefore avoid the cost associated with 
developing custom applications. This choice minimized the role for broad extension in the later years 
of the program. Providing support for US Coast Guard Search and Rescue operations and for fisheries 
managers became the targeted applications of SEACOOS, from which flowed requirements that 
impacted the objectives of the RCOOS in its later years. 

Education activities were led by the COSEE programs and followed two paths: direct teacher 
engagement in developing lesson plans that tapped directly into the SEACOOS information outlets; 
and a poster series that focused on specific topics of interest and which were supplemented by a variety 
of online activities. The lesson planning took place in each state to ensure that the curriculum met with 
state standards and resulted in a range of classroom activities related to the oceans and ocean 
observing. A total of four posters were developed, which were of high production quality and mass 
produced (5,000-10,000 copies) and were widely distributed in the southeast and to some extent across 

the country. The associated online activities on the SEACOOS website have been among the most 
popular and suggest that the poster series was an excellent mechanism to engage students of all ages. 

The program management of SEACOOS was also an important development. The partners involved in 
SEACOOS were many and from a variety of backgrounds and establishing a framework in which all 
could contribute took time (Seim et al., 2008). SEACOOS developed a formal consortium that defined 
its governance, drafted strategic and implementation plans through interactions with the partnership, 
and subjected itself to an external evaluation which helped clarify its mission. The program also 
hosted a total of ten community workshops that played a critical role in building the community of 
interest that led to the creation of SECOORA, the regional association for the SE US. SEACOOS was 
a large organization; at its height SEACOOS employed over 100 technical staff in part-time and full 
time capacities and more than 30 investigators. It trained 28 advanced degree students over the lifetime 
of the program. The single most challenging aspect of managing the program was promoting adequate 
communications. The distributed nature of the RCOOS is inherently isolating and constant attention to 
communications among all parties is vital. 


SEACOOS may be considered a pilot regional coastal ocean observing system. It tested recommended 
methods of measurement, modeling and data exchange to establish their viability in sustained operation 
and developed some new methods of its own. It also developed the operational structure and 
coordination of policies needed by the RCOOS to provide broad-based participation. The most 
significant local impact has been the leverage SEACOOS has provided for SECOORA to stand up its 
own RCOOS. A number of the program elements have been transitioned to SECOORA and many 
more are proposed to become part of SECOORA should funding levels increase. Perhaps more 
importantly, many of the developments made within SEACOOS have impacted development of 
RCOOSs around the US, and it has provided a model of collaboration for others. We are proud of the 
final special volume and its focus on best practices and lessons learned and we trust that it will help the 
US develop a robust coastal ocean observing system in a timely and efficient manner. 


An abbreviated list of programs associated with SEACOOS that receive other funding include: 
SECOORA ( ; USE COMPS (http://comps.marine.usf edu/index.html) , 
SABSOON ( , Caro-COOPS ( . 
Explorer of the Seas ( , the Southeast COSEE 
( . and the Florida COSEE ( 


Papers published or in press that acknowledge SEACOOS support (2003-2008) [137 

Alvera-Azcarate, A., A. Barth, J.M. Beckers, and R.H. Weisberg, 2007. Multivariate reconstruction of 
missing data in sea surface temperature, chlorophyll and wind satellite fields. Jour. Geophys. Res., 112, 
C03008, doi: 10.1029/2006JC003660. 

Alvera-Azcarate, A., A. Barth, and R.H. Weisberg, 2008. The surface circulation of the Caribbean Sea 
and the Gulf of Mexico as inferred from satellite altimetry. Jour. Phys. Oceanogr., in press. 

Andrefouet, S., E. J. Hochberg, C. Chevillon, F. E. Muller-Karger, J. C. Brock, and C. Hu, 2005. 
Multi-scale remote sensing of coral reefs. In: Remote Sensing of Aquatic Coastal Environments (R. L. 
Miller, C. E. Del Castillom, and B. A. McKee eds.). Springer, pp 297-315. 

Aretxabaleta, A., B. O. Blanton, H. E. Seim, F. E. Werner, J. R. Nelson, E. Chassignet, 2007. Cold 
event in the South Atlantic Bight during summer of 2003: model simulations and implications, J. 
Geophys. Res., 112, C05022, doi: 10.1029/2006JC003903. 

Aretxabaleta, A., B.O. Blanton, H.E. Seim, F.E. Werner, J.R. Nelson and E.P. Chassignet. 2007. Cold 
event in the South Atlantic Bight during summer of 2003: Model simulations and implications. J 
Geophys Res Oceans. 112: C05022, doi:10.1029/2006JC003903. 

Aretxabaleta, A., J. R. Nelson, J. O. Blanton, H. E. Seim, F. E. Werner, J. M. Bane, and R. Weisberg, 
2006. Cold event in the South Atlantic Bight during summer of 2003: Anomalous hydrographic and 
atmospheric conditions, J. Geophys. Res., Ill, C06007, doi: 10.1029/2005JC003105. 

Aretxabaleta A., 2005. Baroclinic Processes in Coastal Oceans: Observations and Modeling on 
Georges Bank and the South Atlantic Bight Continental Shelf PhD Dissertation, UNC-CH, pp. 167 

Barans, C.A., M.D. Arendt, T. Moore and D. Schmidt, 2005. Remote video revisited: A visual 
technique for conducting long-term monitoring of reef fishes on the continental shelf Marine 
Technology Society Journal 39(2): 110-118. 

Barth, A., J.-M. Beckers, A. Alvera-Azcarate, and R. H. Weisberg, 2007. Filtering inertia-gravity 
waves from the initial conditions of the linear shallow water equations. Ocean Modeling, 19, 204—218. 

Barth, A., A. Alvera-Azcarate, and R. H. Weisberg, 2008a. Benefit of nesting a regional model into a 
large-scale ocean model instead of climatology. Application to the West Florida Shelf, Cont. Shelf 
Res.,2S, 561-513. 

Barth, A., A. Alvera-Azcarate, and R.H. Weisberg, 2008b. A Nested Model Study of the Loop Current 
Generated Variability and its Impact on the West Florida Shelf, Jour. Geophys. Res., 113, C05009, 
doi: 10.1029/2007JC004492. 

Barth, A., A. Alvera-Azcarate, and R.H. Weisberg, 2008c. Assimilation of High-Frequency Radar 
Currents in a Nested Model of the West Florida Shelf, Jour. Geophys. Res., 113, C08033, 

Beal, L. M., J. M. Hummon, E. Williams, O. B. Brown, W. Baringer, and E. J. Kearns, 2008. Five 
years of Florida Current structure and transport from the Royal Caribbean Cruise Ship Explorer of the 
Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C06001, doi;10.1029/2007JC004154 

Benoit, Jeff; Lefebvre, Chantal; Hellin, Dan, Maund, Regan and Jack Thigpen. State Coastal 
Observations and Monitoring Needs: Results from a Survey to Assess Coastal Management Needs. 
Urban Harbors Institute. 2004. 

Blanton, B. O., A. Aretxabaleta, F. E. Werner and H. E. Seim, 2003. Monthly climatology of the 
Georgia Bight, Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 3264, doi:10.1029/2002JC001609. 

Blanton, B., F. Wenier, H. Seim, R. Luettich, Jr., D. Lynch, K. Smith, G. Voulgaris, F. Bingham, F. 
Way, 2004. Barotropic Tides in the South Atlantic Bight, J. Geophys. Res., 109, 

C12024, doi: 10.1029/2004JC002455. 

Blanton, B.O., 2003. Towards operational oceanography in the South Atlantic Bight. Ph.D. 
Dissertation, Univ. North Carolina. 

Brodie, R.J., R. Styles, S. Borgianini, J. Godley, and K. Butler, 2007. Larval mortality during export to 
the sea in the fiddler crab Uca minax, Marine Biology, 152:1283-1291, doi:10.1007/s00227-007-0777- 


Chassignet, E.P., H.E. Hurlburt, O.M. Smedstad, G.R. Halliwell, A.J. Wallcraft, E.J. Metzger, B.O. 
Blanton, C. Lozano, D.B. Rao, P.J. Hogan, and A. Srinivasan, 2006. Generalized vertical coordinates 
for eddy-resolving global and coastal ocean forecasts. Oceanography, 19:20-31. 

Cook, T. M., L. K. Shay, and W. Drennan, 2003. Coastal surface current response to cold front 
passage. EOS Trans of the American Geophysical Union, 84(32), Ocean Science Meeting Suppl., 
Abstract OS-51D-22, 26-30 January 2004, Portland, Oregon. 

Cook, T.M., L.K. Shay, B.K. Haus and J. Martinez, 2005. Backscatter in the Stream: Initial results 
from East Florida Shelf WERANET. Radio Oceanography Workshops, Costanoa, CA, 3-6 May 2005. 

Corlett, G. K., I. J. Barton, C. J. Donlon, M. C. Edwards, S. A. Good, L. A. Horrocks, D. T. Llewellyn- 
Jones, C. J. Merchant, P. J. Minnett, and T. J. Nightingale, 2006. The accuracy of SST retrievals from 
AATSR: An initial assessment through geophysical validation against in situ radiometers, buoys and 
other SST data sets. Advances in Space Research, 37, 764-769. 

DeVoe, M.R., E. Buckley, J. Dorton, M. Fletcher, L. Leonard, P. Lumpkin, C.M.K. Mooers, L. J. 
Pietrafesa, D. Porter, H. Seim, S. Sheldon, and Lian Xie, 2007. Regional coastal lOOS development in 
the South Atlantic Bight: emerging capabilities to address coastal natural hazards, MTS Journal, 40: 

Drennan, W. M. and L. K. Shay, 2006. On the variability of the fluxes of momentum and sensible 
heat. Bound. Layer Meteor., 119(1), 81-107. 

Dumas, C.F. and John C. Whitehead. The Potential Economic Benefits of Integrated and Sustainable 
Ocean Observation Systems: The Southeast Atlantic Region. 

Department of Economics and Finance, University of North Carolina at Wilmington. September, 


Edwards, K.P., J.A. Hare and F.E. Werner, 2008. Dispersal of black sea bass {Centropristis striata) 
larvae on the southeast U.S. continental shelf: results of a coupled vertical larval behavior- 3D 
circulation model. Fisheries Oceanography, 17:299-315. 

Edwards, K.E., J.A. Hare, F.E. Werner and H. Seim, 2008. Using 2-dimensional dispersal kernels to 
identify the dominant influences on larval dispaersal along continental shelves. Marine Ecology 
Progress Series, 352, 77-87. 

Edwards, K.P., J.A. Hare, F.E. Werner and B.O. Blanton, 2006. Lagrangian circulation on the 
Southeast U.S. Continental Shelf: implications for larval dispersal and retention. Cont. Shelf. Res. 26, 

Edwards, K.P., F.E. Werner and B.O. Blanton, 2006. Comparison of observed and modeled drifters in 
coastal regions: an improvement through adjustments for observed drifter slip and errors in wind fields. 
J. Amos. Ocean. Tech. 23, 1614-1620. 

Edwards, K.P., 2006. Towards defining larval dispersal and population connectivity on the South East 
U.S. Continental Shelf PhD Dissertation, UNC - Chapel Hill, 130 pp. 

Edwards, C.R. and H.E. Seim, 2008. EOF analysis as a method to separate barotropic and baroclinic 
velocity structure in shallow water. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 25, 808-821. 

Edwards, C.R., and H.E. Seim, 2008. Sea breeze/land breeze near the resonant critical latitude in the 
Georgia Bight, J. Geophys. Res., submitted. 

Edwards, C.R., and H.E. Seim, 2009. Coastal ocean response to near-resonant sea breeze/land breeze in the 
Georgia Bight: structure and variability, in prep for J. Physical Oceanogr. 

Edwards, C.R., and H.E. Seim, 2009. Coastal ocean response to near-resonant sea breeze/land breeze in the 
Georgia Bight: stratification and shear, in prep for J. Physical Oceanogr. 

Fiechter, J., K.L. Steffen, C.N.K. Mooers, and B. K. Haus, 2006. Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport 
in a Southeast Florida Tidal Inlet. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science, 70, pp. 297-306. 

Fiechter, J. and C. N. K. Mooers, 2007. Primary Production Associated with the Florida Current along the 
East Florida Shelf: Weekly to Seasonal Variability from Mesoscale-Resolution Biophysical Simulations. 
Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 112, Cl 2002, doi:10.1029/2006JC003576, pp 1 -21. 

Fiechter, J., B.K. Haus, N. Melo, and C.N.K. Mooers, 2008. Physical Processes Impacting Coral Larvae 
Transport and Reef Comiectivity in the Upper Florida Keys. Continental Shelf Research, (in press) 

Fiechter, J. and C.N.K. Mooers, 2003. Simulation of Frontal Eddies on the East Florida Shelf; 

Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (22), 2151,doi:10.1029/2003GL018307. 

Fletcher, M., D. Porter, J. Cothran, H. Seim. 2006. Information management in the Southeast Atlantic Coastal 
Ocean Observing System: A regional approach. Proceedings of “Oceans 2006 MTS/IEEE”, Boston, MA, 
September 18-21, 2006 

Fletcher, M., J. Cleary, J. Cothran, and D. Porter. Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observation 
System (SEACOOS) Information Management: Evolution of a Distributed Community System. MTS 
Journal, 42(3), 

Griffin, D. W., C. A. Kellogg, V. H. Garrison, J. T. Lisle, T. C. Borden, E. A. Shinn, Atmospheric 
microbiology in the northern Caribbean during African dust events, Aerobiologia, Volume 19, 

Numbers 3-4, September 2003, pp. 143-157(15) 

Haus, B. K., 2007. Surface current effects on fetch limited growth of wave energy. J. Geophys. Res., 
112, Doi:10.1029/2006JC003924, l-15pp. 

Haus, B.K., R. Ramos, H. C. Graber, L. K. Shay, and Z. Hallock , 2006. Remote observation of the 
shoaling of surface waves propagating into an estuarine outflow. IEEE Journal of Ocean. Eng. 31(4), 

Haus, B. K., H.C. Graber, L.K. Shay and T.M. Cook, 2003. Alongshclf variability of a coastal 
buoyancy current during the relaxation of downwelling favorable winds. J. of Coast. Res., 19 (2), 409- 

Haus, B.K., R. Ramos, T.M. Cook, L.K. Shay, P.A. Work, G. Voulgaris, Lucy R. Wyatt, and J. 
Martinez-Pedraja, 2006. HF Radar wave measurement over a high current shear region in the Florida 
Straits. Ocean Sciences Meeting. Honolulu, Hawaii February 20-24, 2006. 

Hallock, Z.R., P. Pistek, J.L. Miller, L.K. Shay and H.T. Perkins, 2003. A description of tides near the 
Chesapeake Bay entrance using in situ data with an adjoint model. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C8), 20-1-9 
(DOI 10.1029/20015C001128) 

He, R., R.H. Weisberg, H. Zhang, F. Muller-Karger, and R.W. Helber, 2003. A cloud-free, satellite- 
derived, sea surface temperature analysis for the West Florida Shelf, 

Geophys. Res. Letts., 30, doi:10.1029/2003GL017673. 

He, R., Y. Liu, and R.H. Weisberg, 2004. Coastal ocean wind fields gauged against the performance of 
a coastal ocean circulation model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, 

L14303, 10.1029/2003GL019261. 

Helzel, T., D. Savidge, R. Styles, T. McKisseck, H. Bull, M. Kniephoff, S. Rehder, 2006. First results 
from long range WERA sites. Sixth International Workshop on Radiowave Oceanography, Hamburg, 9 


Hu, C., J.R. Nelson, E. Johns, Z. Chen, R.H. Weisberg, and F. Muller-Karger, 2005. Mississippi water 
in the Florida Straits and in the Gulf Stream off the coast of Georgia in summer 2004. Geophys. Res. 
Lett., 32 L14606, doi:10.1029/2005GL022942 

Hu, C., F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K. L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C. Heil. Red tide 
detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data; A regional example in SW Florida coastal 
waters. Remote Sens. Environ., 97:311-321. 

Hu, C., Z. Chen, T. D. Clayton, P. Swarzenski, J. C. Brock, and F. E. Muller-Karger, 2004. Assessment 
of estuarine water-quality indicators using MODIS medium-resolution bands: Initial results from 
Tampa Bay, Florida. Remote Sens. Environ. 93:423-441. 

Jahnke, R.A., J.R. Nelson, M.E. Richards, C.Y. Robertson, A.M.F. Rao, and D.B. Jahnke. 2008. 
Benthic primary productivity on the Georgia midcontinental shelf: Benthic flux measurements and 
high-resolution, continuous in situ PAR records. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 113, 
C08022, doi: 10.1029/2008JC004745. 

Lekien, F., C. Coulliette, A.J. Mariano, E.H. Ryan, L.K. Shay, G. Haller and J. Madsen, 2005. 
Pollution release tied to invariant manifolds: A case study along the coast of Florida. Elsevier Science 
Physica D, 210, 1-20. 

Liu, Y. and R.H. Weisberg, 2005. Momentum balance diagnoses for the west Florida Shelf Cont. 

Shelf Res., 25, 2054-2074. 

Liu, Y., R. H. Weisberg, and L. K. Shay, 2007. Characteristic current patterns on the west Florida shelf 
from an adjoint, self organizing map analysis of HF radar and ADCP data. J. Atmos. Oceanogr. Tech. , 
24, 702-712. 

Liu, Y. and R.H. Weisberg, 2005. Patterns of ocean current variability on the West Florida Shelf using 
the self-organizing map . J. Geophys. Res., 110, C6, C06003 

Liu, Y., R.H. Weisberg, R. He, 2006. Sea surface temperature patterns on the WestFlorida Shelf using 
growing hierarchical self-organizing maps. J. Atm. Ocean. Tech., 23, 2, 325-338. 

Liu, Y, R.H. Weisberg, and C.N.K. Mooers, 2006. Performance evaluation of the self organizing map 
for feature extraction. J. Geophys. Res., Ill, C05018, doi;10.1029/2005jc003117. 

Liu, Y., and R.H. Weisberg, 2007. Ocean currents and sea surface heights estimated across the West 
Florida Shelf, 7. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 1697-1713. 

Liu, Y., R.H. Weisberg, and L.K. Shay, 2007. Current patterns on the West Florida Shelf from joint 
Self-Organizing Map analyses of HF radar and ADCP Data, J. Atmos. Oceanic TechnoL, 24, 702-712. 

Lynch, D., K. Smith, B. Blanton, F. Werner and R. Luettich, 2004. Forecasting the Coastal Ocean: 
Resolution, Tide, and Operational Data in the South Atlantic Bight. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technology, 

21(7); 1074-1085. 

Marmorino, G.W., C.Y. Shen, T. E. Evans, G. J. Lindemann and L.K. Shay. 2004. Use of velocity 
projection to estimate sea state anomaly from HF-radar current measurements. Cont. Shelf Res. 24, 

Martinez-Pedraja, J., L.K. Shay, T.M. Cook, B.K. Haus, 2004. Very high frequency radar 
measurements of surface currents along the inshore boundary of the Florida Current during NRL2001: 
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, RSMAS 2004-03, 32 pp. 

Mayer, D.A., J.I. Virmani, and R.H. Weisberg, 2007. Velocity comparisons from upward and 
downward acoustic Doppler current profilers on the West Florida Shelf, J. Atm. Ocean Tech., 24, 1950- 

Minnett, P. J., K. A. Maillet, J. A. Hanafm and B. J. Osborne. 2005. Infrared interferometric 
measurements of the near surface air temperature over the oceans. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic 
Technology. 22, 7, 1016-1029. 

Mooers, C. N. K., C.S. Meinen, M.O. Baringer, I. Bang, R. Rhodes, C.N. Barron, and F. Bub, 2005. 
Cross Validating Ocean Prediction and Monitoring Systems. EOS (Transactions of the American 
Geophysical Union). 86(29) pp. 269-273. [published, refereed] 

Mooers, C.N.K. and J. Fiechter, 2005. Numerical Simulations ofMesoscale Variability in the Straits of 
Florida. Ocean Dynamics. Doi: 10.1007/sl0236-005-0019-0. 

Mooers, C. N. K. and I. Bang, 2005. An Assessment of a Nowcast/Forecast System for the Straits of 
Florida/Florida Current Regime. J. Ocean University of China (English edition). 

Muller-Karger, F. E., C. Hu, S. Andrefouet, and R. Varela, 2005. The color of the coastal ocean and 
applications in the solution of research and management problems In: Remote Sensing of Aquatic 
Coastal Environments (R. L. Miller, C. E. Del Castillo, and B. A. McKee eds.). Springer, pp 101-127. 

Nelson, J.R. and C. Simoniello. 2008. Building on the SEACOOS experience: Recommendations 
from the final SEACOOS workshop. Marine Technology Society Journal, 42(3), 81-85. 

Nelson, J.R. and R.H. Weisberg. 2008. In situ observations and satellite remote sensing in 
SEACOOS: Program development and lessons learned. Marine Technology Society Journal 42(3), 

Noyes, E. J., P. J. Minnett, J. J. Remedies, G. K. Corlett, S. A. Good, and D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, 2006. 
The Accuracy of the AATSR Sea Surface Temperatures in the Caribbean . Remote Sensing of 
Environment, 101, 38-51. 

Olascoaga, 1.1. Rypina, M. . G. Brown, F. J. Beron-Vera, H. Kocak, L. E. Brand, G. Halliwell, and L. 
K. Shay, 2006. Persistent transport barrier on the West Florida Shelf, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L22603, 

Olsen, A.; Trinanes, J.; Wanninkhof, R., 2004. Sea-air flux of C02 in the Caribbean Sea estimated using 
situ and remote sensing data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 89, 309-325. 

Parks, A.B., L.K. Shay, W.E. Johns, T.M. Cook, B.K. Haus, J. Martinez-Pedraja, 2006: Observing 
eddy activity using Wellen Radars and a moored acoustic Doppler current profiler in the Florida 
Straits. Ocean Sciences Meeting. Honolulu, Hawaii February 20-24, 2006. 

Parks, A.B., L.K. Shay, W.E. Johns, K. W. Gurgel, and J. Martinez-Pedraja, 2008. Observing eddy 
activity using Wellen Radars and a moored acoustic Doppler current profiler in the Florida Straits. 
Journal of Geophysical Res., (Accepted subject to Revision) 

Peters, H., L.K. Shay, A.J. Mariano and T.M. Cook. 2002. Current variability on a narrow shelf with 
large ambient vorticity. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C8), 2-1-15, 2001JC000813. 

Redfem, J.V., M.C. Ferguson, E.A. Becker, K.D. Hyrenbach, C. Good, J. Barlow, K. Kaschner, M.F. 
Baumgartner, K.A. Forney, L.T. Ballance, P. Fauchald, P. Halpin, T. Hamazaki, A.J. Pershing, S.S. 

Qian, A. Read, S.B. Reilly, L. Torres and F. Werner, 2006. Techniques for Cetacean-Habitat Modeling: 
A Review. Marine Ecological Progress Series, 310:271-295. 

Rocken, Christian, James Johnson, Teresa Van Hove, Tetsuya Iwabuchi, 2005. Atmospheric Water 
Vapor and Geoid Measurements in the Open Ocean with GPS, Geophysical Research Letters (GL) 
paper 10.1029/2005GL022573. 

Sanay, R., A. Yankovsky and G. Voulgaris, 2008. Inner shelf circulation patterns and nearshore flow 
reversal under downwelling and stratified conditions off a curved coastline.. Journal of Geophysical 
Research, 113, C0850. 

Seim, H., B. Bacon, C. Barans, M. Fletcher, K. Gates, R. Jahnke, E. Kearns, R. Lea, M. Luther, C. 
Mooers, J. Nelson, D. Porter, L.K. Shay, M. Spranger, J. Thigpen, R. Weisberg, F. Werner. 2003: 
SEA-COOS - A Model for a Multi-State, Multi-Institutional Regional Observation System, MTS 
Journal, 37(3), 92-101. 

Seim, H.E., M. Fletcher, C.N.K. Mooers, J.R. Nelson, L. Spence, R.H. Weisberg. F.E. Werner, S. 

Smith. 2008. SEACOOS Program Management. Marine Technology Society Journal, 42(3): 17-27. 

Seim, H.E., M. Fletcher, C.N.K Mooers, J. Nelson, R.H. Weisberg, and C. Werner, 2008. Towards a 
Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System: an initial design for the Southeast Coastal Ocean 
Observing Journa/ of Marine Systems doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.12.016 

Seim, H., F. Werner, M. Fletcher, J. Nelson, R. Jahnke, C. Mooers, L. Shay, R. Weisberg, M. Luther. 
2002. SEA-COOS: Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System. Proceedings of the Oceans 
2002 Conference, Oct. 29-31, 2002. Biloxi, MS. 

Seim, H.E., F.W. Werner, J.R. Nelson, L. Spence, M. Fletcher, C.N.K. Mooers, R.H. Weisberg. 2006. 
Progress of SEACOOS as a prototype U.S. regional coastal ocean observing system. Proceedings of 
US/EU-Baltic International Symposium May 23-25, 2006 Klapeda, Lithuania. 

Seim, H.E., L. Leonard, D.Savidge, and M. Fletcher. Observing system depiction of circulation on the 
SE coastal ocean. Submitted to Proceedings of US/EU-Baltic International Symposium May 27-29, 
2008 Tallinn, Estonia. 

Seim, H. E. and C. N. K. Mooers, 2008. Prologue to SEACOOS. MTS Journal, 42(3), 14-16. 

Seim, H.E., J. O. Blanton and S.E. Elston, 2008. The affect of secondary circulation on the salt 
distribution in a sinuous coastal plan estuary: Satilla River, GA, USA. Continental Shelf Research, 

Seim,. H.E., C.N.K. Mooers, J.R. Nelson, R.H. Weisberg and M. Flectcher, 2008. Towards a regional 
coastal ocean observing system design for the southeast coastal ocean observing regional association. 
Journal of Marine Systems, in press. 

Seim, H. E. and C. R. Edwards, 2007. Comparison of buoy-mounted and bottom-moored acoustic 
doppler current profiler performance at Gray's Reef, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 
24, 270-284. 

Seim, H.E., J. O. Blanton and S. Elston, 2006. Tidal circulation and energy dissipation in a shallow, 
sinuous estuary. Ocean Dynamics, 56, 360-375, doi:10.1007/sl0236-006-0078-x 

Shay, L.K., H.E. Seim, D. Savidge, R. Styles and R.H. Weisberg. 2008. High Frequency Radar 
Observing Systems in SEACOOS. Marine Technology Society Journal, 42(3): 55-67. 

Shay, L. K., J. Martinez-Pedraja, T. M. Cook, B. K. Haus, and R. H. Weisberg, 2007. High frequency 
radar surface current mapping using WERA. J. Atmos. Oceanogr. Tech. 24(3), 484-503. 

Shay, L. K., A. B. Parks, B. K. Haus, J. Martinez-Pedraja, W. E. Jolms, K-W Gurgel, and T. M. Cook, 
2007. Resolving coastal ocean eddy activity in surface velocity signatures from Wellen Radars and 
Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Oceans 07, 18-21 June 2007, Abeerden, Scotland. 

Shay, L.K., T.M. Cook, B.K. Haus, J. Martinez-Pedraja, H. Peters, W.E. Johns, G. Klaus-Wemer, 
2006. Real-time surface velocity mapping using Wellen Radars in the Florida Straits. Ocean Sciences 
Meeting. Honolulu, Hawaii February 20-24, 2006. 

Shay, L.K., T. Cook, B.K. Haus, J. Martinez and R. Weisberg, 2005. High frequency radar mapping of 
surface currents using WERA. Radio Oceanography Workshop, Costanoa, CA, 3-6 May 2005. 

Shay, L.K., T. M. Cook, B.K. Haus, K.-W. Gurgel, H. Peters, J. Martinez, T. Helzel, W.E. Johns, 2005. 
Real-time surface velocity mapping using Wellen radars in the Florida Straits. The Oceanography 
Society (TOS)-IntT Ocean Research Conference, Paris, France, June 3-11, 2005, (abstract/poster) 

Shay, L.K., T.M. Cook, H. Peters, AJ. Mariano, P.E. An, A. Soloviev, R. Weisberg, and M. Luther, 
2002. Very high frequency radar mapping of surface currents. IEEE J. of Ocean Engineer., 27, 155- 

Shay, L.K., T.M. Cook, and P.E. An. 2003. Submesoscale coastal ocean flows detected by very high 
frequency radar and autonomous underwater vehicles. J. Atmos. Oceanogr. Tech., 20,1583-1600. 

Shay, L.K., T.M. Cook, B.K. Haus, H.C. Graber, J. Martinez, and Z. Hallock, 2002. Observed surface 
currents during the Chesapeake Bay Outflow Plume Experiments. In f International Radar 
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Shay, L.K., T.M. Cook, and P.E. An, 2003. Submesoscale flows detected by very high frequency 
radar and autonomous underwater vehicles. In E‘ International Radar Oceanography Workshop. 
Timberline, OR, ONR, 129-136. 

Shay, L.K., J. Martinez-Pedrala, T.M. Cook, B.K. Haus, and R.H. Weisberg, 2007. High-frequency 
radar mapping of surface currents using WERA. J. Atmos, and 
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Simoniello, C., L. Spence and J. Thigpen. Supporting and extending the SEACOOS Program: The 
Extension and Education Work Group MTS Journal, 42(3), 35-40. 

Spence, L.L., B.A. Schaeffer, C. Thomas, T. Kirby Hathaway, and M. Olsen. 2005. Coastal Ocean 
Observing Technology Transfer to Educators. Marine Technology Society Journal. 

Spranger, M., J. Thigpen, and R. Bacon, 2005. Developing Education and Outreach Programs in 
Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Systems, Marine Technology Society Journal, 

Styles, R. and C. Teague, 2007. Evaluation of a UHF Radar Surface Current Mapping System in an 
Intertidal Salt Marsh, J. Atmos, and Oceanic Tech.-O, 24, 2120-2127. 

Styles, R., 2006. Application of a bottom boundary layer model in contrasting wave and current 
environments; Grays Harbor, Washington,/. Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 132, 5, 
doi; 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X, 379-387. 

Styles, R., 2006. Evaluation of a LISST in a stratified fluid. Marine Geology, 111, 151-162. 

Szczodrak, M., P. J. Minnett, N. R. Nalli, and W. F. Feltz, 2008. Profiling the Lower Troposphere Over 
the Ocean With Infrared Hyperspectral Measurements of the Marine-Atmosphere Emitted Radiance 
Interferometer. Journal of Oceanic and Atmospheric Technology, Accepted. 

Teague, C. C., D. E. Barrick, P. Lilleboe, and R. Styles, 2006. UHF RiverSonde Operation in a Tidal 
Marsh, in Proceedings of the 2006 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Denver, 
IEEE, 3665-3667. 

Thigpen, J. Improving Outreach and Education Efforts for an Ocean Observing System., North 
Carolina Sea Grant. Proceedings: Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks Workshop, 4-8 
January 2004, San Juan, Puerto Rico 

Torres, R. and R. Styles, 2007. Effects of topography on salt marsh currents, J. Geophys. Res., 112, 
FO2023, doi:10.1029/2006JF000508. 

Traynum, S. and R. Styles, 2008. Exchange flow between two estuaries connected by a shallow tidal 
channel. J. Coast. Res., (In press). 

Traynum, S. and R. Styles, 2007. Flow, stress and sediment resuspension in a shallow tidal channel. 
Estuaries and Coasts, 30, 94-101. 

Urban Harbors Institute. State Coastal Observations and Monitoring Needs: Results of a Survey to 
Assess Coastal Management Needs. Prepared for The Coastal States Organization and The SEACOOS 
Outreach and Education Workgroup. University of Massachusetts Boston In cooperation with 
University of New Hampshire Survey Center. June 2004. 

Venezia, W. et. al., SFOMC: 2003. A successful Navy and academic partnership providing sustained 
ocean observation capabilities in Florida Straits. Marine Tech. 5'oc. Journa/, 37(3), 81-91. 

Virmani, J.I. and R.H. Weisberg, 2005. Relative humidity over the west Florida 
continental shelf Mon. Weather Rev., 133, 1671-1686. 

Virmani, J. I., and R. H. Weisberg, 2006. The 2005 hurricane season: An echo of the past or a 
harbinger of the future?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L05707, doi:10.1029/2005GL025517. 

Voulgaris, G., B.K. Haus, P. Work, L.K. Shay, H.E. Seim, R.H. Weisberg, and J.R. Nelson. 2008. 
Waves Initiative within SEACOOS. Marine Technology Society Journal, 42(3): 68-80. 

Voulgaris. G. and J.P. Morin, 2008. A Long-Term Real Time Sea Bed Morphology Evolution System 
in the South Atlantic Bight. Proceedings of the lEEE/OES/CMTC Ninth Working Conference on 
Current Measurement Technology, 2008 IEEE: 71:79. 

Wanninkhof, R., A. Olsen, and J. Trinanes, 2007. Air-Sea CO 2 Fluxes in the Caribbean Sea from 2002- 
2004, Journal of Marine Systems, in press. 

Wargo, C. A. and R. Styles, 2007. Along channel flow and sediment dynamics at North Inlet, South 
Carolina. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 71, 669-682. 

Weisberg, R.H. and L. Zheng, 2003. How estuaries work: a Charlotte Harbor example, 

J. Mar. Res., 61, 635-657. 

Weisberg, R.H., R. He, Y. Liu, J.I. Virmani, 2005. West Florida shelf circulation on synoptic, 
seasonal, and in ter-annual time scales, in Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico, W. Sturges and A. Lugo- 
Femandez, eds., AGU monograph series. Geophysical Monograph 161, 325-347. 

Weisberg, R.H. and L. Zheng, 2006. Circulation of Tampa Bay driven by buoyancy, tides, and winds, 
as simulated using a finite volume coastal ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., Ill, C01005, 
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Weisberg, R.H. and L. Zheng, 2006. A simulation of the hurricane Charley storm surge and its breach 
of North Captiva Island, Florida Scientist, 69, 152-165. 

Weisberg, R.H. and L. Zheng, 2006. Hurricane storm surge simulations for Tampa Bay. Estuaries and 
Coasts, 29, 899-913 

Weisberg, R.H., A. Barth, A. Alvera-Azcarate, and L. Zheng, 2008. A coordinated coastal ocean 
observing and modeling system for the West Florida Shelf, Harmful 
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Weisberg, R.H., R. He, G. Kirkpatrick, F. Muller-Karger, and J.J. Walsh, 2004. Coastal ocean 
circulation influences on remotely sensed optical properties: A west Florida shelf case study. 
Oceanography, 17, 68-75. 

Werner, F.E., A. Aretxabaleta and K. Pehrson-Edwards, 2004. Modeling marine ecosystems and their 
environmental forcing. In: Marine Ecosystems and Climate Variation, edited by Stenseth, Ottersen, 
Hurrell and Belgrano. UK: Oxford Univ Press, pp. 33-46. 

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in Georgia and South Carolina. Proc. 2006 Symposium of the American Academy of Underwater 
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Students supported by SEACOOS (28 total) 





Karen Edwards 




Alfredo Aretxabaleta 




Brian Blanton 




Catherine Edwards 




Mike Muglia 




Tony Whipple 




Celeste Mitchell 




Kylie Parrota 




Steven Traynum 




Dara Cadden 




Joseph Jurrisa 




Chanda Cooper 




Sean Kilgallin 




Sage Lichtenwalner 




Ruoying He 




Jyotika Virmani 




Yonggang Liu 




Ruoying He 




Jyotika Virmani 




Yonggang Liu 




Alex Barth 




Aida Alvera Azcarate 




Jerome Fliechter 




Xinglong Wu 




Brad Parks 




Mei Wang 




Destiny Smith 




Janine Turbe 




Drew Morris 




Garin Freitas 




Silvia Matt 




SEACOOS Grand Total Expenditures 
Office of Naval Research - N00014-02-1-0972 

Partner Institutions 


NC State University 
SC Dept, of Natural Resources 
Skidway Institute of Oceanography 
SC Sea Grant Consortium 
University of Florida 
University of Georgia 
University of Miami 

University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 
University of South Florida 
University of South Carolina 

University of North Carolina General Administrations 

Total Expenditures 

Fund Source 



SC Sea Grant Consortium 
Total Fund Source 

$ 64,251.52 

$ 242,054.77 

$ 232,031.68 

$ 3,313,372.92 

$ 353,311.87 

$ 571,451.41 

$ 203,822.26 

$ 4,409,281.58 

$ 4,679,590.26 

$ 4,341,482.35 

$ 2,227,064.34 

$ 285,981.04 

$ 20,923,696.00 

$ 20,851,900.00 

$ 31,883.00 


$ 20,923,696.00 


UNC-GA - Archiving and website migration support for UNC-CH 

SCSG - Extension and Education workgroup expansion from UFL 

UNC-CH - total expenditures include OASIS and project management support 

UM - total expenditures include SEACOOS PI conference support 

SCSG - total expenditures include SEACOOS/SECOORA conference(s) support